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Soil mechanics laboratory manual
Most of the test procedures collected in this manual were specially prepared for the geotechnical laboratory of DGM in Thimphu, Bhutan The test procedures are based on BS standards and some ASTM standards. However, in various cases the test procedure was adapted to the type of equipment available in the laboratory. This means that often a realistic compromise had to be found between strict requirements and practical possibilities.
Warning: Whenever tests have to be performed following a prescribed standard, always consult that standard before testing. Version February 2004 W. Verwaal
References Head, K.H. (1982): Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing. Vol. 1, Pentech Press, London, Plymouth. Head, K.H. (1982): Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing. Vol. 2, Pentech press. London, Plymouth. Bowels J.E. (1978): Engineering properties of soils and their measure mends, second edition. McGrawHill books company. Whitlow, R. (1983): Basic soil mechanics, Construction Press, London and New York. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, volume 04.08 : Soil and Rock (I) Published by ASTM in 2000 BS 5930:1999 British Standard Institution BS 1377:1990 British Standard Institution, part 1-8 Some Internet pages. .
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM, Thimphu Bhutan
Soil mechanics laboratory manual
1.1 CLASSIFICATION OF SOIL BS 5930:1999 SECTION 6 ........................................................................ 4 2.1 SIMPLE DRY SIEVING BS 1377: PART 2:1990. .................................................................................. 10 2.2 WET SIEVING - FINE SOILS BS1377: PART 2:1990. ......................................................................... 14 2.3 HYDROMETER TEST BS 1377: PART 2:1990 ..................................................................................... 18 THE ATTERBERG LIMITS ............................................................................................................................ 23 3.1 LIQUID LIMIT WITH CASAGRANDE CUP. BS 1377: PART 2:1990 AND ASTM, 1995. D4318 ... 24 3.2 LIQUID LIMIT USING THE CONE PENETROMETER BS 1377: PART 2:1990 .............................. 27 3.3 PLASTIC LIMIT BS 1377: PART 2:1990................................................................................................ 30 4.1 DENSITY BS 1377: PART 2:1990 ............................................................................................................ 32 4.2 NATURAL MOISTURE CONTENT BS 1377:PART 2,1990 ................................................................ 34 5.1 PARTICLE DENSITY BS 1377: PART 2 1990 ....................................................................................... 35 5.1 VANE TEST BS 1377: PART 7 1990........................................................................................................ 38 5.2 TRIAXIAL TEST BS 1377: PART 8 1990 ............................................................................................... 40 5.3 DIRECT SHEAR TEST BS 1377: PART 7 1990 ..................................................................................... 46 6.1 CONSOLIDATION TEST BS 1377: PART 5: 1990................................................................................ 51 7.1 PROCTOR TEST BS 1377: PART 4: 1990.............................................................................................. 56 7.2 CALIFORNIAN BEARING RATIO TEST BS 1377: PART 4:1990..................................................... 61 PERMEABILITY TESTS.................................................................................................................................. 66 8.1 CONSTANT HEAD TEST BS 1377: PART 5: 1990 ............................................................................... 67 8.2 FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY TESTS. ........................................................................................... 73 9.1 POCKET PENETROMETER, HEAVY DUTY PENETROMETER ..................................................... 75 9.2 HAND VANE TESTER PILCON ............................................................................................................... 76
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM, Thimphu Bhutan
Disintegrate in water and Dry quickly Yes No ORGANIC SOIL. Classification of fine grained soils (soils that stick together when wet) Since the plasticity of fine-grained soils has an important effect on such engineering properties as strength and compressibility. Dilatancy.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 4 1. plastic and liquid. silky touch. have it organic odour? Yes Next: Is the soil of low density? Yes Next: Remove all cobbles and boulders (>63mm). First there is a preliminary classification to determine whether the soil was laid down by natural processes No MADE GROUND Yes NATURAL SOIL Next: Does the natural soil comprise organic materials. the general relationship is shown in fig. 1. plastic consistency is used as a basis for their classification. Procedure This classification can be separated in different parts. The 35% boundary between fine and course is approximate. semi-plastic solid. The consistency of a soil is its physical state characteristic at given moisture content. VOLCANIC SOIL BOULDERS COBBELS GRAVEL SAND SILT CLAY Classification in practice The primary classification of natural soil can be done by a wet sieving procedure on a 63 µm sieve if more then 35% of the material is passing you are dealing with a fine grained soil if less than 35 % of the sample is passing you are dealing with a course grained soil. (determined on the part smaller than 425µm). The change in volume of a saturated cohesive soil is approximately proportional to a change in moisture content.1 Laboratory classification of soil BS 5930:1999 section 6 Introduction It is necessary to provide a classification of types of soil for the purpose of describing the various materials encountered in site exploration. There are many different classification systems. Do they weight more than the rest of the soil? Yes: are most particles >200mm? Yes No No: Does the soil stick together when wet: No: are most particles >2mm Yes No Yes: Does soil: Display low plasticity. Four consistency states may be defined for cohesive soils: solid. while still being reasonable. The system needs to be comprehensive. During the second part of the classification you have to determine the complete grading curve for coarse-grained soil and the Atterberg limits for fine-grained soils. Due to engineering behaviour it’s sometimes necessary to determine de plasticity of soil with a fine-course boundary below 35% fines.2 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. systematic and concise.1. The system we will use is the British soil classification with some adding’s from the ISO 14688. Thimphu Bhutan .
1. Which can occur in some soils with high mica content. If it is not possible to perform the plastic limit test. the soil is reported as nonplastic (NP). it is convenient to define arbitrary limits corresponding to a change over moisture content: LL = the liquid limit: the moisture content at which the soil ceases to be liquid and becomes plastic.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 5 Fig 1. fig. PL = the plastic limit: the moisture content at which the soil ceases to be plastic and becomes a semi-plastic SL = the shrinkage limit: the moisture content at which drying-shrinkage at constant stress ceases.1. The A-line provides an arbitrary division between silts and clays.3 Plasticity chart for classification of fine soils. PI = LL-PL This value is reported to the nearest whole number. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. and vertical divisions (of percentage liquid limit) define five degrees of plasticity: C = clay M = Silt for organic soil add O to symbol Fig 1. The two most important of these are the liquid and plastic limits.3 shows the plasticity chart used for this purpose.1. the range of the plastic state is given by their difference. which represent respectively the upper and lower bounds of the plastic state. This also applies if the plastic limit is equal to or greater than the liquid limit. The transition from one state to the next in fact is gradual. and is termed the plasticity index (PI). however. Thimphu Bhutan . The relationship between the plasticity index and the liquid limit is used in the British Soil Classification System to establish the subgroups of fine-grained soil.2 Consistency relationships.1.
1.1 of this handbook).or with the Cassagrande cup (part 3.1.2 of this handbook). having co-ordinates given by the soils plasticity index and liquid limit.5 British Standard range of particle sizes Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.4 Fine-grained soils F = FINES (undifferentiated) M = SILT C = CLAY L = low plasticity I = intermediate plasticity H = high plasticity V = very high plasticity E = extremely high plasticity Organic soils Pt = peat O = organic Table 1.4 sub-group symbols in British Soil Classification system.5 shows the British Standard range of particle sizes.3 of this handbook). Classification of coarse grained soils For the classification of coarse-grained soils it is necessary to make a particle-size analysis. The plastic limit is determined with the "rolling" method (part 3.50% High plasticity: LL = 50% .1. Determining the weight percentages falling within bands of size represented carries out the particle size analysis of a soil by these divisions and sub-divisions. It can be done by dry sieving (part 2.1 of this handbook). The liquid limit is determined with the cone penetrometer method (part 3.70% Very high plasticity: LL = 70% .1.90% Extremely high plasticity: LL> 90% A given soil may be located in its correct sub-group zone by plotting a point.2 of this handbook). Thimphu Bhutan . Fine grained Clay Silt Colloids Fine Medium Coarse Coarse grained Sand Fine Medium Coarse Gravel Fine Medium Coarse Stone Cobbles Boulder 1 2 6 20 60 µm 200 600 2 6 20 60 200 mm Fig 1. or by wet sieving (part 2. The sub-group symbols are given in Table 1. Figure 1.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 6 Low plasticity: LL <35% Intermediate plasticity: LL = 35% .
BOULDERS-COBBELS Main name Over 50% of material is very course (>60mm) BOULDERS COBBLES Mixtures of boulders or cobbles and finer material Term Composition BOULDERS (or COBBLES) with a little finer material up to 5% finer material BOULDERS (or COBBLES) with some finer material 5% to 20% finer material BOULDERS (or COBBLES) with much finer material 20% to 50% finer material FINER MATERIAL with many boulders (or cobbles) 50% to 20% boulders (or cobbles) FINER MATERIAL with some boulders (or cobbles) 20% to 5% boulders (or cobbles) FINER MATERIAL with occasional boulders (or cobbles) up to 5% boulders (or cobbles) The description of the finer material (FINER MATERIAL) is made accordance the standard SAND and GRAVEL Term Slightly sandy or gravelly Sandy or gravely Very sandy or gravelly Principal soil type SAND Or GRAVEL SAND and GRAVEL Approximate proportion of secondary constitution up to 5% 5% to 20% over 20% about equal proportions Estimated boulder or cobble content of very course fraction Over 50% is of boulder size (> 200mm) Over 50% is of cobble size (200 mm to 60 mm) Mixtures of sand and/or gravel with silt or clay Term Slightly clayey or silty and/or sandy or gravelly Clayey or silty and/or sandy or gravelly Principal soil type SAND And/or GRAVEL >20% A Approximate proportion of secondary constitution Coarse soil Coarse and/or fine soil >5% 5% to 20%A Very clayey or silty and/or sandy or gravelly Very sandy or gravelly >65%B Sandy and/or gravelly 35% to 65% Slightly sandy and/or gravelly <35% A or described as fine soil depending on assessed engineering behaviour. Thimphu Bhutan . B or described as coarse soil depending on assessed engineering behaviour Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 7 The grading curve is a graphical representation of the particle-size distribution and is therefore useful in itself as a means of describing the soil. From the grading curve we can provide a descriptive term for the type of soil (SOIL NAME).
giving values of Cc between 0. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.1 indicate a possible gap-graded soil.0.7): Fig 1. First of all.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 8 A further quantitative analysis of grading curves may be carried out using certain geometric values known as grading characteristics. 1. the following grading characteristics are defined: Effective size. three points are located on the grading curve to give the following characteristic sizes (fig.7 Grading characteristic. (D 30 )2 D60 * D10 Most well graded soils will have grading curves that are mainly flat or slightly concave. Cu > 5 indicate a well-graded soil. D1 0 = maximum size of the smallest 10% of the sample D30 = maximum size of the smallest 30% of the sample D60 = maximum size of the smallest 60% of the sample From these characteristic sizes.1. Thimphu Bhutan . Uniformity coefficient. Cc <0.1. d10 Cu = D 60 D10 Coefficient of gradation (curvature) Cc = Cu < 3 indicate a uniform soil.5 and 2.
1. gravelly-. GRAVEL. dense. SAND. dip. etc.g.g.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 9 Fig 1. fissures weathered state degree of weathering colour main body colour.6 typical particle size distribution curves BS description system A recommended protocol for describing a soil deposit uses nine characteristics. firm. poorly-graded. CLAY. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Flood plain alluvium (ii) Dense fissured unweathered greyish-blue firm CLAY. (upper case letters) plus silty-. joints. mottling grading or consistency e. these should be written in the following order: compactness e. SILT. with-fines. as appropriate soil class (BSCS) designation (for roads & airfields) e. hard SOIL NAME e. SW = well-graded sand geological stratigraphic name (when known) e.g. well-graded. soft.g. slightly cemented bedding structure e. Oxford clay.g. loose. homogeneous or stratified. London clay Not all characteristics are necessarily applicable in every case. orientation discontinuities spacing of beds. Example: (i) Loose homogeneous reddish-yellow poorly-graded medium SAND (SP).g. Thimphu Bhutan .
. Sample preparation The specimen to be used for the test is obtained from the original sample by riffling.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 10 2. According to the British Standard dry sieving may be carried out only on materials for which this procedure gives the same results as the wet sieving procedure. preferably overnight.1 Simple dry sieving BS 1377: Part 2:1990.After drying to constant weight. the whole specimen is allowed to cool. Thimphu Bhutan .5 50 63 75 100 150 200 Table 2. Minimum mass of sample to be taken for sieving 100g 200g 500g 1kg 2kg 6kg 15kg 35kg 50kg 70kg 150kg 500kg 1000kg Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.1-1 Minimum quantities for particle size test.The specimen is placed on a tray and is allowed to dry. or by subdivision using the cone-and-quarter method. the initial size of the sample required may be such that riffling is necessary at some stage to reduce the sample to a manageable size for fine sieving. Scope of the test Dry sieving is the simplest of all methods of particle size analysis.1% or less of its total mass (M1). The appropriate minimum quantity of material depends upon the maximum size of particles present. The procedure is then referred to as "composite sieving". If in doubt about the validity of the dry-sieving method. which usually implies clean sandy or gravely soils that is. and is weighted to an accuracy within 0. soils containing negligible amounts of particles of silt or clay size. If particles of medium gravel size or larger are present in significant amounts. This means that it is applicable only to clean granular materials. the wet-sieving procedure should be followed instead.2-1 . Maximum size of material present in substantial proportion retained on BS sieve (mm) Pass 2 mm or smaller 6. and is indicated in Table 2. in an oven maintained at 105-110 °C.3 10 14 20 28 37.
Sieves are nested together with the largest aperture sieve at the top. The masses retained (Ms1. which is then fitted with the lid. is depending on the used sieves and the particle size of the sample. The complete range of sieves specified by the British Standard is given in Table 2. Aperture size full set Construction A Perforated 75 mm Steel plated 63 (Square holes) 50 37. and the sieves are securely fastened down in the machine. but the sieves used should adequately cover the range of aperture sizes for each particular soil. Some shakers have a built-in timing device which can be pre-set to switch off the motor automatically after the desired period. Any particles lodged in the apertures of the sieve should be carefully removed with a sieve brush.18 600 µm 425 300 212 150 63 Lid and receiver + 19 sieves Table 2.The dried soil sample is placed in the topmost sieve and is shaken long enough that all particles smaller than each aperture size can pass through.3 5 Woven wire 3.Weighing.) are recorded against the sieve Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. the dried soil is placed in the top sieve. Ms2. and a receiving pan under the smallest aperture sieve at the bottom. The sieves to be used are selected to suit the size of sample and type of material.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 11 Execution of the test Selection of sieves. The material retained on each sieve is transferred to a weighed container. . These particles are added to those retained on the sieve.1-2 metric sieves Standard set B + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 13 sieves + + 7 sieves + + + + Short set C + Suitable sieve diameters 450mm 300mm 200mm + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + (+) + + + (+) + + + + + + (+) + + Test procedure . See table 2.5 28 20 14 10 6. the sieve being first placed upside-down on a tray or a clean sheet of paper. to prevent escape of dust.1-2 It is not necessary to use all sieves for every test. and should fit snugly one inside the other.35 2 1. . . Sieve frames must not be out of true. For classification purposes we can use a short set.The maximum mass of sample. Weighing of each size fraction should be to an accuracy of at least 0. which can be sieved in one cycle. etc.Agitation in the shaker should be for a minimum period of 10 min.1% of the total initial test sample mass. This can be achieved most conveniently by using a mechanical sieve shaker. .1-3.The whole nest of sieves with receiving pan is placed in the shaker. Thimphu Bhutan .
0 Calculations The mass retained on the first sieve is denoted as Ms1. The calculated mass passing the last sieve should be equal. Maximum mass 300 mm diameter sieves (kg) 4. Pp passing the last sieve is Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.5 2.18 100 75 600µm 425 75 300 50 212 50 150 40 63 25 Table 2.5 28 20 14 10 6.75 0.5 2.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 12 aperture size on the particle size test work sheet. to the mass collected in the receiving pan.35 300 2 200 1. M 1 − (Ms1 + Ms 2 ) ∗ 100 % M1 The percentage passing any subsequent sieve can be written as P= M1 − ∑ M ∗ 100 % M1 Where ∑M denotes the sum of the masses retained on all sieves down to and including the one in question: ∑M = Ms1+Ms2+Ms3+ etc.3 5 3. The mass (Mp) passing the 63µmm sieve is also measured and recorded.Ms1.0 0.5 200 mm Sieve diameter sieves Aperture (g) 50 mm 37. 450mm diameter sieves (kg) 10 8 6 4 3 2 1. the percentage of fines. The percentage passing the first sieve is given by P1 = M1 − Ms1 ∗ 100 % M1 The mass passing the second sieve = M1 – Ms1 – Ms2.5 1. The mass passing the first sieve = M1.0 1. The percentage passing the second sieve is given by P2 = And so on.1-3 maximum mass to be retained on each test sieve at the completion of sieving.5 1.5 3. Thimphu Bhutan . or very nearly equal. If this is denoted by Mp.
the grading curve. should be reported. Any material removed before sieving. such as vegetation or an isolated cobble. Thimphu Bhutan . and modified as necessary as a result of the additional information revealed by the test result. This should be the description of the sample before testing. Test 7(B). Tabulated data showing the percentage each sieve are sometimes required instead of.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 13 Pp = Mp * 100 % M1 Reporting In addition to the particle size curve and the usual sample identification data. the sheet should include the visual description of the sample. The method of test is reported as dry sieving in accordance with BS 1377:1975. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. or in addition to.
2 Wet sieving . even in small quantities. and is weighted to an accuracy within 0. but the sieves used should adequately cover the range of aperture sizes for each particular soil. Thimphu Bhutan . it is necessary to carry out a wet sieving procedure in order to measure the proportion of fine material present. Even when dry. For classification purposes we can use a short set. fine particles of silt and clay can adhere to sand-size particles and cannot be separated by dry sieving.2. Maximum size of material present in substantial proportion retained on BS sieve (mm) Pass 2 mm or smaller 6.3 10 14 20 28 37. The appropriate minimum quantity of material depends upon the maximum size of particles present. or if there is evidence of particles sticking together. so that clay and silt will not adhere to larger particles. preferably overnight. The dried representative sample is spread out on a tray and covered with water containing 2g/litre of sodium hexametaphosphate.fine soils BS1377: Part 2:1990. This disperses the clay fraction. in an oven maintained at 105-110 °C After drying to constant weight. and is indicated in Table 2.5 50 63 75 100 150 200 Table 2.2 It is not necessary to use all sieves for every test. Scope of the test If a soil contains silt or clay. The procedure is described in detail below for non-cohesive soils containing little or no gravel.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 14 2.2-1 Minimum quantities for particle size test.1% or less of its total mass (M1). or by subdivision using the cone-and-quarter method.2. If clay is present. The complete range of sieves specified by the British Standard is given in Table 2. Minimum mass of sample to be taken for sieving 100g 200g 500g 1kg 2kg 6kg 15kg 35kg 50kg 70kg 150kg 500kg 1000kg Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.The specimen is placed on a tray and is allowed to dry. the whole specimen is allowed to cool. even if prolonged.The specimen to be used for the test is obtained from the original sample by rifling. Sample Preparation . Washing is the only practicable means of ensuring complete separation of fines for a reliable assessment of their percentage. Execution of the test . The soil is allowed to stand for at least an hour.Selection of sieves. the material should be immersed in a dispersant solution before washing. .1 Page. and is stirred frequently. or both.
if necessary. The 2 mm sieve is nested in the 63mm sieve. but individual particles must not be broken down. The material retained on the 20 mm sieve. During this operation the sieve must not be allowed to become overloaded with soil or to overflow with water. with a portion being taken at a time. If this is likely to be exceeded.35 2 1.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 15 Aperture size full set Construction A Perforated 75 mm Steel plated 63 (square holes) 50 37. the material should be sieved in two or more portions.Sieving coarse material The sample is sieved on a large-diameter 20 mm sieve.2-3 ).18 600 µm 425 300 212 150 63 lid and receiver 19 sieves Table 2. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Table 2. The soil is placed a little at a time on the 2 mm sieve. An additional intermediate sieve may be included to protect the 2mm and 63mm sieve from overloading if the soil contains a high proportion of coarse or medium sand. Thimphu Bhutan . . is then oven dried and weighed (M2). Warning: The sink used for this operation should be fitted with a silt trap. The mass of soil retained on the 63mm should not exceed 150 g at any one time. but the lid and receiver are not used.2-3 gives the recommended maximum quantities that may be retained on each sieve. after drying. If M2 is much more then 2 kg the sample is subdivided to give a convenient mass M3 for the remainder of the sieving operation.Wash. and washed over a sink with a jet or spray of clean water.5 28 20 14 10 6. The fraction passing the 20 mm sieve. including "brushings" from larger particles. is then sieved on appropriate larger aperture sieves and the amount retained on each is weighed.3 5 Woven wire 3. so as not to overload the sieve (see Table 2. When the material on the 2 mm sieve has been washed free of fines. Particles retained are brushed to remove finer material which may be adhering to them.2-2 metrics sieves Standard set B + + + + + + + + + + + Short set C + + + + + + + + + 13 sieves + + 7 sieves Suitable sieve diameters 450mm 300mm 200mm + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + (+) + + + (+) + + + + + + (+) + + + + + . washing on the 63mm sieve is continued until the wastewater is seen to run clear. The silt and clay passing the 63 mm sieve is allowed to run to waste.
(Me) If riffling is not necessary.35 300 2 200 1.5 200 mm diameter sieves (g) - Drying The whole of the material retained on each sieve is allowed to drain. to 0.5 2. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.5 3. These are placed in an oven to dry at 105-110 °C.3 mm sieve is small. Weigh this fraction (M6 ) and then sieve on the appropriate sieves down to and including the 63 µm test sieve. (M6 ) is the same as (M5 ). Sieving The dry soil is passed through a nest of the complete range of sieves to cover the sizes of particles present.5 1.18 100 75 600µm 425 75 300 50 212 50 150 40 63 25 Table 2. and any fines passing the 63 µm test sieve. i.1 % of its total mass.1% (M4).1 % of its total mass. This operation may be carried out by hand or preferably on a sieve shaker.e. If the fraction passing the 6.0 1. - 450mm diameter sieves (kg) 10 8 6 4 3 2 1. Thimphu Bhutan . Weigh the amounts retained on each sieve. preferably overnight.0 Maximum mass 300 mm diameter sieves (kg) 4. If the fraction passing the 6.5 1.3 mm sieve. and any fines passing the 63 µm test sieve (Mf).5 2. Weigh the amounts retained on each sieve.2-3 maximum mass to be retained on each test sieve at the completion of sieving. and is carefully transferred to trays or evaporating dishes. the sample may be sieved by dry sieving on the appropriate sieves down to and including the 63 µm test sieve. each to an accuracy of 0. down to the 6. the whole of the dried material is put together and weighed to an accuracy of 0. Weighing After cooling. substantially greater than 150 g. exactly as in the dry sieving procedure. Weighing The portion retained on each sieve is weighed. not more than 150 g.5 28 20 14 10 6.0 0.1%.3 mm sieve is large i.75 0. it should be accurately weighed (M5 ) and then subdivided to give a sample of 100-150 g.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 16 Sieve Aperture 50 mm 37.3 5 3.e. Weigh the amount retained on each sieve to 0.
Any material removed before sieving. then calculate this mass as a percentage of M1 ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ M 5 ⎞⎛ M 2 ⎟⎜ M 6 ⎟⎜ M 3 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎞⎛ 100 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ M ⎟ ⎠⎝ 1 ⎠ For example: Percentage retained on 300 µm sieve = M(300 µm) ⎜ ⎜ - Calculate the cumulatieve percentage by mass of the sample passing each of the sieves from the general relationship: (% passing this sieve) = (% passing previous sieve)-(% retained on this sieve) Calculate the fraction passing the 63 µm test sieve by difference. To this is added the mass of any fine material (Mf) passing the 63 µm test sieve when dry sieved. the grading curve. Percentage passing 63 µm sieve = ⎨ Reporting In addition to the particle size curve and the usual sample identification data.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 17 Calculations Calculation for the particles larger than 20mm in size. then calculate this mass as a percentage of M1 M3 ⎛ M 2 ⎞⎛ 100 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎝ M 3 ⎠⎝ M1 ⎠ For example: Percentage retained on 10 mm sieve = M(10 mm) ⎜ ⎜ - Calculate the corrected mass of material retained on each of the sieves finer than the 6. and modified as necessary as a result of the additional information revealed by the test result. or in addition to. Thimphu Bhutan . This should be the description of the sample before testing. Tabulated data showing the percentage each sieve are sometimes required instead of. the sheet should include the visual description of the sample. such as vegetation or an isolated cobble. ⎧ ⎪ (M 3 − M 4 ) + M f M3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎫⎛ M 2 ⎬⎜ ⎜ ⎭⎝ M 1 ⎞ ⎟ 100 ⎟ ⎠ Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. calculate the proportion by mass of material retained on each of the coarse series of sieves as a percentage of M1 For example: Percentage retained on 28 mm sieve = ⎨ - ⎧ M (28mm) ⎫ ⎬100 M1 ⎭ ⎩ Calculate the corrected mass of material retained on each of the sieves between 20 mm and 6. should be reported.3 mm sieve by multiplying by ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ M5 ⎝ M6 ⎞⎛ M 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ M ⎠⎝ 3 ⎞ ⎟ . The mass of fines lost by washing is equal to (M3-M4).3 mm by multiplying by M2 .
3 Hydrometer test BS 1377: part 2:1990 Scope of the test The hydrometer analysis is a widely used method to obtain the distribution of particle sizes in the silt range (63-2 µm). the diameter of the sphere. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. it should be handled with care.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 18 2. and of the viscosity of the fluid as expressed by the Stokes’ law. The hydrometer analysis utilises the relationship among the velocity of fall of spheres in a fluid. 63 µm.01 g drying oven. keep it as straight as possible. corresponding to the level of the upper rim of the meniscus. with rubber stops thermometer high speed stirrer sieves 200 mm diameter. steel rule four evaporating dishes 1000 ml beaker two measuring cylinder. When moving it in and out of a cylinder. 2 mm and a receiver balance readable to 0. and the percentage of clay minerals < 2µm. Meniscus correction − Insert the hydrometer is a 1 L cylinder containing about 800 ml water.028 would be a hydrometer reading of Rh’ = 28. Thimphu Bhutan . For example. Hold it on the bulb when moving it horizontal. This is done by subtracting 1 from the density and moving the decimal point three places to the right. the bulb is very heavy and the glass could break. 105-110 °C stopwatch readable to 1 s. Never hold it horizontal while holding it on one side. − By placing the eye slightly below the plane of surface of the liquid and then raising it slowly until the surface seen as an ellipse becomes a straight line. determine the point where the plane intersects the hydrometer scale. 600 µm. NOTE: The hydrometer is a very fragile device. a density of 1. 400 mm long standard dispersant solution: that is 33 g sodium hexametaphosphate and 7 g of sodium carbonate in distilled water to make 1 litre solution Calibrations and corrections of hydrometer readings Each density reading taken on the hydrometer must first be expressed as a hydrometer reading. 100 ml and 50 ml wash bottle and distilled water constant-temperature bath glass rod: 12 mm diameter. the specific weights of the sphere and of the fluid. Apparatus used − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − soil hydrometer two 1000 ml glass measuring cylinders. Rh’. a small angle could break it. 212 µm. The test is usually not performed if less than 10% of the material passes the 63 µm sieve.
S. Rh from the equation: V ⎞ ⎛ H R = H + 12 ⎜ h − h L ⎟ 900 ⎠ ⎝ where: H = length from the neck of the bulb to graduation Rh h = length of the bulb = 159 mm for B.S. hydrometer L = distance between the 100 ml and the 1000 ml scale markings of the sedimentation cylinder Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. hydrometer Vh = volume of hydrometer bulb = 70 ml for B. Thimphu Bhutan . determine the point where the plane intersects the hydrometer scale. Rh = Rh’ + Cm Scale calibration of hydrometer Calculate the effective depth.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 19 − − By placing the eye slightly above the plane of surface of the liquid. Record the difference between the two readings as the meniscus correction. Cm. HR (mm). corresponding to each of the major calibration marks.
we can calculate for each reading Rh the corresponding Hr.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 20 Example: Rh N= d1= d2= d3= d4= d5= d6= d7= length mm 16 19 38.78 199. either on a low-heat hot plate or on a low gas flame. Frothing over must be avoided.9286x + 199.78 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 h Vh L 159 72 318 mm ml mm Plot the relation between Hr and Rh as a smooth curve.71 R2 = 0. and the oxidation process may take 2 or 3 days. Amount of dry sample − for sandy soil 100 gram − for clayey soil 50 gram Weigh the soil to 0.28 140.78 219. With this relation.5%) we have to remove this as follows: Add 150 ml of hydrogen peroxide and stir gently for a few minutes with a glass rod Cover with a cover glass and allow to stand overnight Next morning heat the flask and stir gently.78 159. add more hydrogen peroxide in increments of about 100 ml until the oxidation process is complete. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.5 74 93 113 133 153 Hr mm 101.5 58 77 97 117 137 H mm 35 54. scale calibration hydrometer 250 200 150 Hr 100 50 0 -10 0 10 Rh 20 30 calibration Linear (calibration) y = -3.9999 Sample preparation − − − − − − − − Dry the sample in an oven at 60-65°C. Very organic soils may require several additions of hydrogen peroxide. If necessary.01 gram Place the soil in a 1000 ml beaker If the sample contains organic matter (>0.78 121. Agitate frequently by stirring or by shaking with a rotary motion.78 179. and determine the relation. Thimphu Bhutan .
the stop-watch is started (zero time). 2 . − Transfer the material retained on the 63 µm sieve to an evaporating dish and dry it in the oven at 105 to 110 °C. Insert the hydrometer slowly about 15s before a reading is due. or to rotate. Executing the test Dispersion − Add 100 ml of the standard dispersing solution to the soil. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. provided that the actual time of each reading is recorded. − Use a suitable form to record your observations. − Place a second cylinder containing 100 ml of the dispersant solution and distilled water to exactly 1 L. − Transfer the suspension to the 63 µm sieve placed on a receiver. If the temperature varies more than 1 °C another reading to determine Ro should be taken. Ro. this will be the sedimentation cylinder. − Place the sedimentation cylinder in the constant-temperature bath. weight after pre-treatment. − Shake the mixture thoroughly until all the soil is in suspension.01 g. 600 µm. − Transfer the suspension in the receiver into a 1000 ml sedimentation cylinder. Thimphu Bhutan . 24 hours and twice during the following day. 1 . 2 . in the constant-temperature bath: this is for calibration readings of the dispersant solution and for storage of the hydrometer between the readings. − Remove the rubber bung and insert the hydrometer steadily and allow it to float freely. − The hydrometer is removed slowly. − Insert the hydrometer for further readings at the following times from zero: 8 . − Insert a rubber stop in the sedimentation cylinder or close it off by hand and shake the cylinder vigorously to obtain a uniform suspension. However a quick rotational twist with the fingers on the top of the hydrometer will dislodge any air bubbles which may adhere to the side. sieve this material on the 2mm. 212 µm and 63 µm. It is not essential to keep rigidly these times. and is then stood in the constant temperature bath. − Readings of the hydrometer are taken at the top of the meniscus level at the following times from zero: 0. It must not be allowed to bulb up and down.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 21 − − − − As soon as frothing has stopped. 30 min. Take the weight mp. − Insert and withdraw the hydrometer very carefully to avoid disturbing the suspension unnecessarily. − Add any material passing the 63 µm sieve to the sedimentation cylinder. the volume of liquid is reduced to about 50 ml by boiling which decomposes any excess hydrogen peroxide Transfer the contents of the conical flask to a funnel with a Whatman No 50 filter paper.8. Without delay as soon as it is in the upright position. 4 minutes. and wash thoroughly with distilled water Transfer the residue from the filter paper to container using a fine jet of distilled water from a wash bottle and dry the sample at 60-65°C. − Dry and weigh the material retained on each sieve to 0. set on 25 °C. − Observe and record the top of the meniscus reading.5 . − Observe and record the temperature of the bath after every recording. The cylinder is inverted for a few seconds. − Allow the cylinders to stand in the bath until they have reached the bath temperature (about 1 hour). − Wash the soil in the sieve with a maximum of 500 ml distilled water. Stir if necessary with a glass rod so that all material goes into suspension. Sedimentation − Fill the sedimentation cylinder to the 1 L graduation mark with distilled water. − When cooled. and placed in the separate cylinder of distilled water in the constant temperature bath. rinsed in distilled water. − Transfer the soil with some distilled water to the cup of the high-speed stirrer and stir for about 1 hour.
8909 30 0. the sieve curve Temperature Dynamic viscosity.3. K.7865 5 1. η (mPas) (°C) 0 1.3. of particles smaller than the corresponding equivalent particle diameter .2 Sedimentation − Calculate the effective depth Hr − Calculate the equivalent particle diameter D (mm). the method of pre-treatment 5.6540 Table 2. ⎟ s ⎝ ⎠ ρs = particle density (Mg/m3) Reporting The report shall affirm that the test was carried out in accordance with BS 1377: Part 2: 1990 and shall include the following information: 1.3037 15 1. Rd.Ro' Where: Ro' = hydrometer reading at the upper rim of the meniscus in the dispersant solution Calculate the percentage by mass.5138 10 1.1369 20 1. from the equation Rd = Rh' . the method of test used 2.7982 40 0.005531 ( ρ s − 1) t Where: η = dynamic viscosity of water at the test temperature (mPa. where m = mass of dry soil used (g) or mp = mass of soil after pre-treatment. D (mm). from the equation: − ⎛ 100ρ s ⎞ K=⎜ ⎜ m(ρ − 1) ⎟R d .1 Hr = effective depth (mm) ρs = particle density (Mg/m3) t = elapsed time (min) − Calculate the modified hydrometer reading. the results of the sieve analysis 4.1 viscosity of water Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 22 Calculation Dispersion − Calculate the mass percentages according to the wet sieving procedure in paragraph 2. the results of the sedimentation analysis 3.s).0019 25 0. Thimphu Bhutan . table 2. from the equation − η *Hr D = 0 .
The classification of soils is not the only application of the Atterberg limits. The concept is based on the fact that the consistency depends largely on its water content. 1995. Thimphu Bhutan . They define the boundaries between four stages of a soil. D 4318 Casagrande cup. The consistency limits have been used all over the world for many years and a lot of empirical relationships have been developed.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 23 The Atterberg limits The Atterberg limits are the so-called consistency limits. among other parameters. There are four test devices for determination of the liquid limit. These devices are: Casagrande cup. according to the British standard: BS 1377: Part 2:1990 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. the plastic limit (Wp) and the shrinkage limit (Ws). the undrained shear strength. expressed in Cu . according to the American standard: ASTM. Determining the Atterberg limits is a very useful method to classify cohesive soils. The Atterberg limits comprise the liquid limit (WL). based on the consistency limits (See chapter 1-1). according to the British standard: BS 1377: Part 2:1990 Fall cone. There is also a good correlation with the strength of cohesive soils. Most of the Soil Classification Systems for engineering purpose is.
kneading. before adding another increment of water. Apparatus used Casagrande cup. weighing about 250 g. Thoroughly mixes each increment of water with the soil as previously described. Mass balance accurate to 0. Flat glass plate about 500mm square. 3. Thimphu Bhutan . and chopping with a spatula. The water content at this boundary is arbitrarily defined as the water content at which two halves of a soil cake will flow together for a distance of 12-mm along the bottom of the groove separating the two halves. Because of this difference. BS 1377: Part 2:1990 (ASTM D4318) Scope of the test The liquid limit of soil is the water content. Mixing can also be done on a glass plate in the case care shut be taken to keep the hole sample at the same moister content.1 Liquid limit with Casagrande cup. is the difference in base plate of the Casagrande cup.40 (425-µm) sieve obtained in accordance with the used standard in a porcelain evaporating dish (about 114-mm in diameter) and thoroughly mix with 15 to 20 ml of distilled water by alternately and repeatedly stirring. the American standard a harder ebonite one. the results of the British method are generally higher.01g Drying oven Glass cup or tin dishes Spatulas Fig. according the ASTM or BS standard.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 24 3. when the cup is dropped 25 times for a distance of 1 cm at the rate of 2 drops/s. Squeeze it Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. The British standard defines a relative soft rubber base. expressed as a percentage of the weight of the oven dried soil. at the boundary between the liquid and the plastic state. Make further additions of water in increments of 1 to 3 ml. from the thoroughly mixed portion of the material passing the No.1 Casagrande apparatus Sample preparation Place the soil sample. Note: The difference between the American and British Standard.1. Test procedure When sufficient water has been thoroughly mixed with the soil to produce a consistency that will require 30 to 35 lift and drops of the Casagrande cup to cause closure of the groove Place a portion of the mixture in the cup above the spot where the cup Pests on the base.
1-2.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 25 down and spread it in the position shown in fig. The test should always proceed from the dryer to the wetter condition of the soil. Wash and dry the cup and grooving tool. Remove a slice of soil approximately the width of the spatula. with as few strokes of the spatula as possible. Record the loss in mass due to drying as the mass of water. until the two halves of the soil cake come in contact at the bottom of the groove along a distance of about 12 mm.1. from front to back or from back to front counting as one stroke. Transfer the soil remaining in the cup to the evaporating dish.2 Casagrande cup Lift and drop the cup by turning the crank at the rate of 2 revolutions per second. Make the strokes with as few strikes as possible. The object of this procedure is to obtain samples of such consistency that the number of drops required closing the groove Will be above and below 25. Calculation Calculate the water content Wn of the soil. and reattach the cup to the carriage in preparation for the next trial. Thimphu Bhutan . to which sufficient water has been added to bring the soil to a more fluid condition. and place it in a suitable container (for example a matched watch glass). Weigh and record the mass. Record this mass. as follows: Wn = mass of water ∗ 100 mass of ovendried soil Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. shall be permitted. To avoid tearing of the sides of the groove or slipping of the soil cake on the cup. Each stroke should penetrate a little deeper until the last stroke from the back to front scrapes the bottom of the cup clean. Record the numbers of drops required to close the groove along a distance of about 12-mm. 3. clean groove of the proper dimensions will be formed. Oven-dry the soil in the container to constant mass at 110 °C and reweigh as soon as it has cooled but before hydroscopic moisture can be absorbed. The number of drops should be less than 35 and exceed 15. Divide the soil by firm strokes of the grooving tool along the diameter through the centreline of the cam follower so that a sharp. Preserve after completion of the test the test sample if the plastic limit and plasticity index test has to be determined from the soil sample. up to six strokes. Return the excess soil to the evaporating dish. care being taken to prevent the entrapment of air bubbles within the Mass. 3. With the spatula (having a blade about 76-mm in length and 19mm in width) level the soil and at the same time trim it to a depth of 1 cm at the point of maximum thickness. expressed as a percentage of the weight of the oven-dried soil. Fig. Repeat the foregoing operations for at least two additional trials with the soil collected in the evaporating dish. extending from edge to edge of the soil cake in right angles to the groove and including that portion of the groove in which the soil flowed together.
3 Reporting -Report the liquid limit as the water content corresponding to the intersection of the flow curve with the 25-drop ordinate as the liquid limit of the soil.1. -The percentage material passes the 425 mµ sieve. 3.3 Fig. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.1. -Treatment of the soil. Thimphu Bhutan . The "flow curve" is a straight line drawn as nearly as possible through the three or more plotted points. See fig.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 26 Preparation of the flow curve. Plot a "flow curve" representing the relationship between water content and corresponding number of drops of the cup on a semilogarithmic graph with the water content as abscissa on the arithmetical scale. and the numbers of drops as ordinate on the logarithmic scale. 3. if it was sieved. Round off this number to the nearest whole value.
Cone penetrometer with standard cone of mass 80 gr.2 Liquid limit using the cone penetrometer BS 1377: Part 2:1990 Scope of the test With this test. Apparatus used .Flat glass plate about 500mm square. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.3. sees fig 3. At the liquid limit the cone penetration is 20 mm.drying oven .2 spatulas .mass balance accurate to 0. . one can obtain the liquid limit.2.e. With many clay soils it is practicable and shall be permissible to remove by hand any coarse particles present.01 g - Fig.2. i. together with particle size analysis. It is based on the measurement of penetration into the soil of a standardised cone of specified mass.1 cone penetrometer Sample preparation Wherever possible the test shall be carried out on soil in its natural state. Thimphu Bhutan . particles retained on a 425µm test sieve. This value is often used in classification systems. Otherwise these particles shall removed by wet sieving.1 . but in most cases up to a liquid limit of 100 these differences will not be significant.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 27 3.wash bottle . Note: The results obtained with the cone penetrometer may be differ slightly from those with the Casagrande apparatus.sample cup of diameter 55 mm and 40 mm deep .
Lift out the cone and clear it carefully. and provided the overall Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.01 g (M6) -Place the sample in a container under just enough distilled water to submerge it. the curing period may be omitted. dry it at 105 °C and weigh it to an accuracy of within 0. the Average value is recorded. For soil of low clay content. -Collect the material retained on the 425 µm sieve. Wn (in %) -Weight the remainder of the sample to an accuracy of within 0. of the initial sample from the equation: Md = ⎜⎜⎜ 100 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎟M 6 ⎟ ⎜ 100 + Wn ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎜ Where Wn is the moisture content (in %) M6 is the mass of particles retained on 425 µm sieve (in g). -Collect the fines in a receiver or large container if necessary. If the second penetration is between 0. -After a suitable interval pour off any clear water above the suspension. -Take a representative sample and determine its moisture content. and the moister content is measured. it should be approximately 15 mm for the first test. If the second cone penetration differs from the first by less than o. Add a little more wet soil to the cup and take a second reading. to form a plastic material Place the paste into an airtight container. and leave it standing for a curing period of 24 hour. Some soils (heavy clays) up to 40 min. -Sieve the slurry through the 425 µm sieve with the minimum amount of distilled water until the water passing is virtually clear. a third test is carried out. fill the sample cup with the soil and trim off excess material with the spatula to form a smooth even surface being careful not to trap any air bubbles bring the point of the cone to the surface of the sample lower the dial gauge pointer to the top of the cone and set the gauge on zero release the cone pressing the release button for 5 seconds lower the pointer to the new position of the cone Take a reading to the nearest 0. Pa = ⎜⎜⎜ Md − M 7 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎟100% ⎜ Md ⎟⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎜ Where M7 is the dry mass of particles passing the 425 µm sieve (in g) Execution of the test Thoroughly mix the sample on the glass plate using two spatulas.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 28 Sieve procedure -Take a sample of the soil of sufficient size to give a test specimen weighing at least 300 g. which passes the 425 µm test sieve. Md (in g). or overnight.5 mm. and let it dry (warm air) until it forms a stiff paste. Remove the soil from the container and remix with the spatulas for at least 10 min.01 g (M7). Thimphu Bhutan .5 and 1 mm different from the first.1 mm. Calculation: From the sieved soil calculate the dry mass. -Stir the mixture until it forms a slurry. such as very silty soils. and if necessary add distilled water. and let the fine particles settle. to allow water to permeate through the soil mass.
3. If the overall range exceed 1mm. the soil is removed from the cup and remixed. Calculation The moisture contents determined are plotted against the respective penetration depth. -Treatment of the soil. N.2. One must be careful not to add too much water at one time. Thimphu Bhutan . This is done at least three more times to get a range (min.2.B.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 29 - range does not exceed 1mm. and the test is repeated. This value is interpolated from a graph. if it was sieved. both on a linear scale.2. the average of the three penetrations is recorded and the moisture content is measured. take a sample of approximately 10 gram from the cup and determine its moisture content To the remainder of the material add some distilled water and repeat the above procedure. -The percentage material passes the 425 mµ sieve. The liquid limit is defined as that moisture content where the cone penetrates 20 mm into the sample.2 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. See fig. Fig 3. Reporting -The liquid limit is expressed to the nearest whole number. 4) of penetration values from about 15mm to 25 mm.
By "crumbling" is meant shearing both longitudinally and transversally as it is rolled. .14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 30 3. It is important to maintain a uniform rolling pressure throughout. to form a plastic ball. cool and weigh dry. . and not due to mechanical breakdown caused by excessive pressure. using a second moisture content container. .Mould the soil between the fingers again to dry it further. Form it into a thread and roll out again as before. When slight cracks begin to appear on the surface. or oblique rolling or detachment of an excessive length beyond the width of the hand.Mould the ball between the fingers and roll between the palms of the hands so that the warmth of the hands slowly dries it. The pressure should reduce the diameter of the thread from 6 mm to about 3 mm after between five and ten back-and-forth movements of the hand. as in the standard moisture content procedure. gather the crumbled threads and place them into a weighed moisture content container. but this should not be done. The metal rod serves as a reference for gauging this diameter. dry in the oven overnight. Execution of the test. Repeat this procedure until the thread crumbles when it has been rolled to 3-mm diameter. and place in the same container. Using a steady pressure. divide the ball into two portions each of about 10 g. . Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.3 Plastic limit BS 1377: Part 2:1990 Scope of the test The plastic limit is often used together with the liquid limit to determine the plasticity index which when plotted against the liquid limit on the plasticity chart provides a means of classifying cohesive soils.Thoroughly knead the sample and if necessary mix with the distilled water for 10 min.glass plate .As soon as the crumbling stage is reached. It may be possible to gather the pieces together after crumbling. The sample may be a disturbed sample.One of the parts if formed into a thread about 6 mm diameter. .The first crumbling point is the plastic limit. Sample preparation ca. using the finger and thumb of each hand.drying oven .mass balance accurate to 0.spatulas . but keep each set of four parts together. 20 gram of material is needed. . Weigh the container and soil as soon as possible. Crumbling must be the result of the decreasing moisture content only. Further divide each into four equal parts. Apparatus .Repeat for the other three pieces of soil. It is the empirical established moisture content at which soil becomes to dry to be plastic. The thread must be intact and homogeneous.01 gram. do not reduce pressure as the thread diameter approaches 3 mm. .Repeat stages on the other set of four portions of the soil. Some heavy clay may need more than this because this type of soil tends to become harder near the plastic limit. to reform a thread and to continue rolling under pressure.3 mm diameter metal rod . roll the thread between the fingers of one hand and the surface of the glass plate. . Thimphu Bhutan . We only use material passing the 425 µm sieve.
Take the average of the two results. If they differ by more than 0. Thimphu Bhutan . -The percentage of material passes the 425mµ sieve if it was sieved.Pentach Press. Vol 1. the test should be repeated. (1982): Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 31 Calculations Calculate the moisture content of the soil in each of the two containers. -The treatment of the soil. or rolling of the soil is not possible.H. Remarks From some soils the plastic limit cannot be determined. Reference Head K. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Crumbling occurs before you reach 3mm. London Plymouth.5% moisture content. Reporting -The average moisture content referred to above is expressed to the nearest whole numbers and reported as the plastic limit.
ρd. The first applies to soils that can be formed into a regular geometric shape.01g cutting and trimming tools Paraffin Linear measurement method This method is suitable for the determination of the density of a sample of cohesive soil of regular shape. W (in %).01 Mg/m3 Remark: In practice we often use a (density) cutting ring to prepare a cylindrical sample with a fixed volume Immersion in water method This method determine the bulk density and dry density of samples of natural or compacted soil by measuring its mass in air and its apparent mass when suspended in water. V of the specimen. ρd (in Mg/m3). Apparatus used: calliper with accuracy of 0. The dry density. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 32 4. The sample is mostly extruded from a sample tube but can also be shaped in a cube or rectangular block from a undisturbed soil sample The specimen volume is calculated from the average value of several calliper readings (3 at least) for each dimension of the sample Weight the trimmed specimen to an accuracy of 0. Both are expressed in Mg/m3. which is numerically the same as g/cm3. of the soil is known. Thimphu Bhutan .1mm balance with accuracy of 0. ρ. is the mass of dry soil contained in a unit volume. Three methods are specified.1 Density BS 1377: Part 2:1990 Scope of the test The bulk density of a soil. In the second the volume of the specimen is determined by weighing it submerged in water. In the third the volume is measured by displacement of water.1 % (m) Calculate the volume. Calculations The bulk density can be calculated: m ρ= V If the moisture content. calculate the dry density of the specimen. is the mass per unit volume of the soil deposit including any water it contains. the volume of which can be calculated from linear measurements. from the equation: ρd = 100 ρ 100 + W Express the density and dry density of the soil specimen to the nearest 0.
to calculate the bulk density and dry density. ρ (in Mg/m3). ρρ is the density of paraffin wax (in g/cm3) Calculate the bulk density of the specimen. location. until a specimen is produced measuring at least 100 mm in each dimension. Reporting The report shall include the following information: Data on the sample Project name. sample dimensions The sample transport and storage conditions The density should be reported to the nearest 0. Allow the waxed specimen to cool and weigh to the nearest 1 g (Mw) Measure the apparent mass of the specimen while suspended in water to the nearest 1 g (Mg) Calculations Calculate the volume of the specimen. sample number. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Ms is the mass of the soil specimen (in g) Water displacement method This method used the water displacement and mass of a specimen. from the equation: ⎛ Mw . block or other). By taking the weight of the water coming out. Weigh the specimen to the nearest 1 g (Ms) Fill al l the surface air voids of the specimen with a material that is insoluble in water. Thimphu Bhutan . Mg is the apparent mass of specimen and wax coating when suspended in water (in g) Mf is the mass of specimen after making up surface voids with filler (in g). and date of sampling.Mg ⎞ ⎛ M w . Vs (in cm3).g.Mf ⎞ Vs = ⎜ ⎜ ρwater ⎟ − ⎜ ρρ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Where. from the equation: ρ= Ms Vs Where. depth below terrain (in case of a borehole) Type of sample (core.01 Mg/m3 The report should specify the type of test. Mw is the mass of specimen and wax coating (in g).14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 33 - Trim the soil sample. plasticine or putty and weigh to the nearest 1 g (Mf) Coat the specimens completely by dipping in molten paraffin wax. The sample is prepared like the water immersion method and put in a water container with siphon outlet. the volume can be calculated. e.
The water content should be reported to the nearest 0.Type of sample (core. . transporting and handling precautions should be such that the water content remains within 1% of the in-situ value. accuracy M1 add the material to be tested and weigh again M2 place container with sample in the oven for 24 hours at a controlled temperature of 105 °C cool the sample in the dessicator weigh the oven dry and cooled sample M3 Calculations Moisture content W = mass of water M2 . natural moister content . .Project name. density. particle size.lithology. with the following calculation: Dry density = mass insitu ∗ 100 100 + W Reporting . Apparatus used - balance accurate to 0. block. disturbed. Thimphu Bhutan . sample dimensions.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 34 4. storage.M3 = ∗ 100% dry mass of sample M3 .01 gr.coarse grained material use 3000 g Execution of the test weigh the sample container to 0.The sample transport and storage conditions .1%. sample number. depth below terrain (in case of bore hole) . or other). sample container (watch glasses or tins) oven (24 hr at 105°C ±5°C) dessicator Sample preparation The quantity of the soil sample required for an accurate measurement of the natural water content is dependent upon the particle size of the sample.Data on the sample .medium grained material use 300 g .fine grained material use 30 g . Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. we can calculate the dry density.M1 With help of the moisture content W.01 gr. location. date of sampling.2 Natural Moisture Content BS 1377:part 2. the sampling.1990 Scope of the test The objective of the test is to determine the water content of a soil sample as it was sampled in the field or at the moment of testing for the accurate determination of in-situ water content.
Stir the soil in the bottle. Leave the bottle in the bath for at least 1 hour so that the bottle attains the temperature of the bath.A wash bottle containing air-free distilled water . add more liquid to fill the bottle and replace the stopper.001g (m2) . Apparatus used .A rod small enough to go through the neck of the density bottle. .A desiccator containing anhydrous silica gel. .3a: Particle density small pyknometer method BS 1377:part 2.A constant temperature water bath in the range from 20-300C ± 0. Leave the bottle for at least 1 hour under vacuum until no further loss of air is apparent . Thimphu Bhutan .This procedure is repeated until no more air is evolved from the soil. Execution of the test .14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 35 4. The specimens shall be oven dried at 105°C to 110°C and stored in an airtight container.A small riffle-box Sample preparation At least two specimens. .Remove the density bottle from the desiccator and add more air-free water until full. Place the bottle.Two 50mL density bottles (pyknometers) with stoppers . Weigh the bottle with stopper. Return the bottle to the bath and again allow the contents to attain the constant temperature.Release the vacuum and remove the desiccator lid. without stopper in the vacuum desiccator. .Clean out each bottle. with stopper to the nearest 0.Add enough air-free distilled water to cover the soil in the bottle.Remove the bottle from the bath and wipe it dry.If there is an apparent decrease in the volume of the liquid.001g (m3) .2 0C .001g (m1).A vacuum desiccator .1990 Scope of the test The objective of the test is to determine the density of the soil particles finer than 2mm. soil and water to 0. . Reduce the pressure gradually to about 25kPa. cool and weigh to the nearest 0. dry.Vacuum system .Take the bottle out of the bath. .Balance accurate to 0. . Replace the lid of the desiccator and repeat the vacuum procedure as specified before .Wash the density bottles. insert the stopper and immerse in the constant temperature bath as before.. Weigh the bottle. . each between 5g and 10g shall be obtained by riffling. Before removing the stirring rod wash off any soil particles with a few drops of air-free water. fill it completely withy de-aerated water.Oven (24 hr at 105°C ±5°C) . remove the stopper.Transfer the soil specimen to the density bottle.001g (m4) Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. wipe it dry and weigh it to the nearest 0. Insert the stopper and immerse the bottle up to the neck in the constant-temperature bath.001 gr. If necessary fill the bottle as specified before.
5g (m2) . The specimens shall be oven dried at 105°C to 110°C and stored in an airtight container.Add water at a temperature of within ± 2°C of the average room temperature to about half fill the pyknometer. .3b Particle density large pyknometer method BS 1377:part 2. Coarse particles should be broken down.03Mg/m3 the test shall be repeated.Balance accurate to 0.A thermometer range 0°C to 50°C readable to 1°C . Execution of the test .Agitate by shaking the pyknometer. each of about 400g shall be obtained by riffling.Clean and dry the pyknometer and weigh to the nearest 0. Coarse particles should be broken down.With the screw top removed transfer the soil specimen into the bottle. Weigh the bottle.A glass about 300mm long and 6mm diameter. a glass vessel of nominal 1L capacity designed for a screw-top lid. fitted the following a corrosion-resistant screw ring a conical cap of corrosion-resistant metal with a cone-angle of 75 o to 78o and with a hole 6 ± 0.5 gr.1990 Scope of the test The objective of the test is to determine the density of non-cohesive soil containing particles finer than 20mm. . Stir the mixture thoroughly with the glass rod to remove air trapped in the soil.Fit the screw cap assembly and tighten so that the reverence marks coincide.5mm diameter at its apex . while holding one finger over the Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.5g (m1).14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 36 Calculations Particle density = Where ρs = m 2 -m1 (m 4 -m1 )-(m3 -m 2 ) M1 = mass of density bottle M2 = mass of bottle and dry soil M3 = mass of bottle and soil and liquid M4 = mass of bottle and liquid If the result of the two samples differs more than 0.5kg. Thimphu Bhutan . Reporting The method of test used The average value of the particle density of the soil specimen to the nearest 0. Apparatus used .01 Mg/m3 4. with screwtop assemble to the nearest 0. . . Fill the pyknometer with water.A pyknometer. At least two specimens. or by rolling it on the bench.Oven (24 hr at 105°C ±5°C) Sample preparation Take a sample of about 1. .
Calculations Particle density = Where ρs = m 2 -m1 (m 4 -m1 )-(m3 -m 2 ) M1 = mass of pyknometer M2 = mass of pyknometer and dry soil M3 = mass of pyknometer and soil and liquid M4 = mass of pyknometer and liquid If the result of the two samples differs more than 0.5Mg/m3 the test shall be repeated. Thimphu Bhutan . Dry the pyknometer on the outside and weigh the whole to the nearest 0. wash it thoroughly and fill it completely with water at room temperature. Leave the pyknometer standing for at least 24h at room temperature constant to within 2°C. If the results differ more than 0.05 Mg/m3 repeat the test.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 37 - hole in the conical top. Allow air to escape froth to disperse.5g (m3) Empty the pyknometer. Dry the pyknometer on the outside and weigh to the nearest 0.5g (m4) Repeat the test using the second sample. Top up the pyknometer with water so that the water surface is flush with the hole in the conical cap. Reporting The method of test used The average value of the particle density of the soil specimen to the nearest 0.5Mg/m3 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.
bring the maximum pointer in contact with the (strain)angle indicator .after reading of the (strain)angle indicator rotate the vane rapidly two complete revolutions. to remould the soil.cm .1 Vane test BS 1377: Part 7 1990 Scope of the test The vane test is a test. Fill the annular space between the wall of the container and the sample with molten wax. Thimphu Bhutan .Lower the vane gradually without disturbing the soil sample so that the top of the vane is at least 10mm below the surface of the sample.record the reading of the maximum pointer as the peek value.1-1) Peek value . Warning: If the (strain)angle indicator rotate for more then 180 degrees stop the test and repeat with a stiffer spring. The undrained shear strength of soft to firm cohesive soils can be determined without the sample being disturbed by preparation. .1-1 Sample preparation An undisturbed sample should be cut and trimmed to a diameter of 37. Three tests on one sample material should be sufficient if the results are reasonably constant. 5.a choice of spring is made dependent upon the stiffness of the ground : weak ground: spring 2kg.5mm with a length of about 75mm. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.note the reading on the circular graduated scale .14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 38 5.Record the reading of the maximum pointer as the remoulded value Repeat the test at least twice.clamp the sample container in the clamping attachment or in a other way vertically below the vane shaft . . Place the trimmed sample centrally into the sample container belonging to the equipment. At this point failure occurs and the torque decrease but the maximum pointer remains in the position indicated the maximum angular deflection of the spring. which can be carried out both in the field and in the laboratory. .measure the dimensions of the vane . This method may be used when the sample is too sensitive or soft to enable a compression test. Execution of the test (for numbers see fig. Apparatus used -Laboratory vane test apparatus see fig 5.After stopping rotation wait for a few seconds and slowly apply torque as been done for the peek strength . .operate the torque applicator handle with a rate of 1 revolution per second or used the motorized drive unit until the maximum shear resistance of the soil is reached.cm firm ground: spring 8kg. Remoulded value . Alternatively we can clamp a sample container with an undisturbed sample on the base plate of the vane equipment the sample shut be of sufficient dimensions such that the shearing force applied by the vane is not hampered or influenced by forces originating from the extremities of the sample.
cm recalculate this value in N. τv in kPa τv = M * 1000 K M= measured torque in N.mm.mm K = constant which depends on the dimensions of the vane.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 39 Calculation Calculate the difference between the initial reading and the reading at the peek and remoulded value This difference gives the angle of torque of the spring. If one result differs appreciably from the others (more then 20%) it should be discarded.1 Laboratory vane apparatus used at DGM Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.1. Calculate the vane shear strength of the soil. Multiply the outcome by the spring factor (is indicated on the spring) and dived the outcome by 180 this give the torque in kgf. Thimphu Bhutan . ⎛H D⎞ K = πD 2 ⎜ + ⎟ ⎝ 2 6⎠ D = vane diameter (mm) H = vane height (mm) Reporting -The average undisturbed and remoulded shear strengths in KPa -The highest and lowest measured values -Type of testing machine -Size of the vane -Indicate the horizon at with the test was executed Fig. Average the values obtaining for the different test. 5.
1) 123456789- Triaxial test frame Pressure controller Control panel Triaxial cell Load ring Strain transducer Pressure transducer Volume change apparatus Bladders controls. controls controls air-water cylinder. with the possibility of measuring pore pressure and volume change. controls controls. Strain transducer max.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 40 5. air regulator controls. under a constant confining pressure. Thimphu Bhutan .2 Shear strength with Triaxial test BS 1377: part 8 1990 Scope of the test: The measurement of the effective shear strength parameters for cylindrical specimens of saturated soil which have been subjected to isotropic consolidation and then sheared in compression.2.2. 25 mm 0.1 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Pore pressure transmitter. The test maybe performed consolidated or unconsolidated under drained or undrained conditions. by increasing the axial strain.01mm. Fig. Overview test set-up The triaxial test set up maintenance the following apparatus (fig 5. 5.
Soil mechanics laboratory manual
Description of test
The sample is enclosed in a thin rubber membrane, which is sealed against the pedestal and the top cap on the sample by rubber O-rings. The sample is placed on the base plate of a triaxial cell. The removable cap of the cell is placed over the sample and the total triaxial cell is placed in the triaxial frame. The cell can be filled with (de-aired) water, and with the air regulator we can established the desired cell pressure (σ3). A piston, movable with little friction through a bush in the top cap of the triaxial cell, rest on the top cap of the sample. The upper end of the piston touches a dynamometer, consisting of a metal ring and a dial gauge, which measures the decrease in vertical diameter when a force is applied to the ring. The force is found by multiplying the dial gauge reading by a calibration constant. (See calibration chart) The triaxial frame has a stepper motor and screw jack assembly, which can provide a constant platen speed. This causes a compression of both dynamometer and sample. The rate at which the sample is compressed is depending on the kind test (CU, UU, or CD), and type of material to be tested. A dial gauge just below the dynamometer measures the settlement of the sample. With a pressure transducer, the pore pressure can be measured. And with the automatic volume change apparatus, we can measure the amount of water going in or out the sample. During the practical we will execute an unconsolidated undrained test (UU), this is a normally not much performed test. (No effective stresses are measured)
Sample preparation Specimens shall have a height equal to about twice the diameter, with plane ends normal to the axis. The diameter is normally between 35 and 100 mm. Undisturbed specimens shall be prepared with the minimum change of the soil structure and moisture content. The method of preparation shall depend on whether the sample received in the laboratory is contained in a tube of the same internal diameter as the specimen to be tested, or in a tube of larger diameter, or as a block sample. Preparing the sample from a block sample. Cut out an approximately rectangular prism of soil slightly larger than the final dimensions of the specimen. Make the ends of the prism plane and parallel. Put the prism in a soil lathe (fig 5.2.2) and cut off the excess soil in thin layers. Rotate the specimen between each cut until a cylindrical specimen is produced. Take care to avoid disturbance due to torsion effects. Remove the sample from the soil lathe. Cut to the required length and make the ends plane and normal to the specimen axis to within ½ °. A handy way to establish this is by putting the sample in a catch tube, and cutting away the surplus. With the aid of the levelling ring (fig.5.2.4), smooth the ends of the sample by placing the ring on the end of the catch tube and giving the ring a few turns. Do this to both ends of the sample and make sure that the sample does not slide up and down in the catch tube.
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM, Thimphu Bhutan
Soil mechanics laboratory manual
Fig. 5.2.2, Soil lathe
Preparing the sample from sample tube. (See fig. 5.2.3)
Push the sample tube into the block sample; be sure the sample is long enough. Place the sample tube in the extruder Put on the inner side off catch tube mineral oil or silicone crease 1 = Extruder 2 = Sample tube 3 = Catch tube
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM, Thimphu Bhutan
Soil mechanics laboratory manual
Fasten the catch tube with the fastening fork to the outside of the extruder By turning the screw of the extruder, press the sample out of the sample tube into the catch tube. Separate the sample in the catch tube from the remainder in the sample tube with help of a thread saw With the aid of the levelling ring (fig.5.2.4), smooth the ends of the sample. Placing the ring on the end of the catch tube and giving the ring a few turns Do this to both ends of the sample and make sure that the sample does not slide up and down in the catch tube.
1= Catch tube 2= Sample trimmer 3= Porous discs 4= Specimen
Fig 5.2.4, Catch tube and sample trimmer. Take the weight from sample with catch tube, by subtracting the weight of the catch tube we can calculate the bulk density (fill in your test form). Place footcap and topcap on the ends of the sample. Remove the sample carefully out the catch tube Measure the height and diameter of the sample. (Fill in your test form).
The procedure describes the test set up for an unconsolidated undrained test In order to obtain a reasonable assessment of the C and φ values, three experiments should be done on three different undisturbed samples of the same soil at three different cell pressures. Place the sample with the foot piece and cap on the base of the pressure cell Place a membrane inside the membrane application tube and fold the ends over the outside of the tube, to fit the membrane snugly against the inside wall of the tube wall suck on the hose to create a vacuum between tube and membrane Slide the membrane application carefully over the sample (see fig. 5.2-4)
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM, Thimphu Bhutan
Bring down the base plate from the triaxial machine Open the air vent and drain the water out the cell Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 44 1 = Membrane application 2 = Sucking tube 3 = Membrane 4 = Base pedestal of the pressure cell 5 = Pressure cap Fig. with help from the air regulator cell pressure.5. Start the test and note values of the dial gauge from the dynamometer at certain strain intervals see test form Continue the test until a constant reading is obtained on the dynamometer or at 20% strain Stop the test and remove the pressure from the cell. Thimphu Bhutan . until the piston is into contact with the dynamometer (no vertical pressure is exerted on the sample) Open the air vent on the cap off the cell and fill the cell with de-aired water Close the vent tightly Build up the desired pressure in the cell with the air regulator cell pressure and control panel (see the operation instruction of these apparatus) Bring the strain gauge in contact with the datum bar on the top of the cell and adjust to read zero Adjust the dynamometer to read zero Select the machine speed.2-4 Remove the suction (vacuum) between the tube and membrane Roll the membrane ends off of the application tube onto the footpiece and cap Seal the membrane to the base pedestal using two rubber O-rings Remove air pockets from between the membrane and the specimen by light stroking upwards Seal the membrane to the pressure cap with two rubber O rings Roll the extra membrane back over the rubber ring Place the cap of the pressure cell over the sample and onto the base plate and fasten it securely with the tie rods Press the piston carefully onto the cap making sure that the piston falls into the circular hole in the sample cap Bring the load plate from the triaxial frame up (see the operation instructions from the triaxial Apparatus).
6 1.0 1.2 0. Thimphu Bhutan . dial gauge reading times calibration factor (note: the dial gauge reading is already corrected for the applied cell pressure (σ3) and friction from the piston).8 2. given by P/As ∗ 1000 in kPa P = is the axial force in N.6 0. As = area cross section of the specimen. given by σ1=(σ1-σ3) + σ3 σ3 is the cell pressure (kPa) Graphically plot the values σ1 and σ3 on the horizontal axis.8 1.0 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 45 - Remove the sample from the cell and sketch the failure pattern Determine water content Reporting After executed at least 3 test with different cell pressure (σ3). where Calibration chart for load measuring ring 2. we can calculated the deviator stress (σ1σ3)m (in kPa).4 1.0 kN compression.2 1.4 0. Temperature at calibration 20 ° C ring serial number 00010105 Gauge reading 0.001 mm 245 481 725 965 1214 1459 1705 1955 2201 2449 Load kN 0. this area will change during the compression stage so we need to make a correction: The corrected area is given for each strain reading on the test form. Graphically plot the values of deviator stress against the displacement (in percentage) Calculated the major principal stress σ1 (in kPa). Draw the Mohrs circles and measures the values for the internal angle off friction (φ) and cohesion (c).
3. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.3 Direct shear test BS 1377: part 7 1990 Scope of the test The direct shear test is used to measure shear strength. Fig 5.3-1 1-Frame EL 28-007 2-Thyristor controlled drive unit 3-Gear box 4-Load ring 5-Weight hanger 6-Lever arm (beam) with counter balance 7-Displacement transducer 8-Loading yoke During the practical we will execute the unconsolidated undrained test! Description of test The direct shear test is used to determine the shear strength of soils on predetermined failure surfaces. The soil sample confined inside the upper and lower rigid boxes is subjected to the normal load N. The principle of the direct shear test is illustrated in Fig. friction angle and cohesion of soils for stability analysis of foundation. 5. Thimphu Bhutan . Because of the length of the beam the applied weight has to multiply with a factor 11. and retaining walls.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 46 5. This load is applied by the yoke which is placed on the loading cap and by putting weight on the hanger the specimen is loaded axially. slopes.2. The test may take place under drained. undrained or consolidated-undrained conditions.
the shear stress τ acting on surface CD is equal to T/A.Push the sample cutter in the soil sample. Preparation of specimen of cohesion less soil. The sample shall not contain a significant amount of material passing a 63 µm test sieve. However. assuming that the failure plane is horizontal and the stress state is uniform.Place the bottom plate.3. . Therefore. It can be defined by Mohr-Coulomb theory: τ = C + σ tan φ Where c is the cohesion and φ is the friction angle. trim it with the wire saw and spatula.Weight the specimen in the cutter to 0. Preparation procedures depend on the type of soil. until it is bedded on to the lower porous plate. 10∗10∗2 cm (other sizes are possible). Sample preparation Specimens of either cohesive or non-cohesive soil may be tested in the shear box. . The size of the largest particle shall not exceed one-tenth of the height of the specimen.Place the lower porous plate. Thimphu Bhutan .Push the specimen out of the cutter and into the shear box keeping its upper face horizontal. If A is the area of surface CD. . this force is applied by the motorised drive unit and measured with help of the load ring. to avoid segregation of fine particles.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 47 Fig 5. but are undetermined on other surfaces. and calculate the initial mass (Mo ) of the specimen.1 g. During the test. and the normal stress σ is equal to N/A. or saturated.2 The shear force T shears the sample. The soil shear strength is the shear stress τ that causes the soil to slip on surface CD.Determine the weight of the sample cutter . The procedure depends on whether the soil is dry and can be poured. for testing under three different normal pressures Preparation of specimen of undisturbed cohesive soil. and is therefore referred to as sand. the Mohr circle can be drawn at failure. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Normally three similar specimens are prepared. the stress state is not completely defined: τ and σ are only measured on the horizontal surface. Loss or gain of moisture by the sample shall be avoided at all stages of preparation. . or damp and needs to be tamped. the stress path during direct shear cannot be represented. .
. . .Bottom plate . In the case of drained experiments use the grooved plates with the holes.Determine the combined thickness of plates to be used for the test (tp). .Fill the shear box from the bottom up with: (see fig 5.Grooved plate (grooves down.Sample. . and determine the dry mass of the specimen (mo) by difference.Place the saturated sand into the shearbox and compact it by vibration to achieve the desired density.Weight the total of the unused soil. . Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Saturated sand: . .Place the bottom plate.Prepare a quantity of soil somewhat larger than required and determined its mass to 0.Place the grooved plate. .Level the surface . Execution of the test Place the shear box in the sleigh.Measure the distance from the top of the shearbox to the surface of the porous plate (h2).Porous drainage plate .Place the bottom plate.1 g.Porous drainage plate .Measure the distance from the top of the shearbox to the surface of the grooved plate.Place the lower porous plate. dry and weight it. and determined the initial mass of the specimen (mo).Place the upper grooved plate firmly on the specimen.Place the upper porous plate. . at right angles to shear motion) .Grooved plate (grooves up. (h2). .Place the lower grooved plate.Determine the depth from the top surface of the upper half to the top of the base plate (h1).Boil the sand in water for 10 minutes . . .Determine the combined thickness of plates to be used for the test (tp). .Place the upper grooved plate firmly on the specimen. Thimphu Bhutan .Prepare a quantity of soil somewhat larger than required and determined its mass to 0.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 48 Dry sand: . .3. (with help of the wooden push block) .Top plate with ball bearing N. . .B. .Determine the depth from the top surface of the upper half to the top of the base plate (h1). . Collect all surplus sand.Place or pour the sand directly into the assembled shear box until the appropriate thickness. at right angles to shear motion) .1 g.3) .
For an undisturbed sample.) Determine the C and φ values by plotting the max.1 mm/min. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. for an undrained test a rate to approximately 1mm/min. Determine the shear force by correlating the load ring displacement with the force using the calibration chart. Wo (in %). For cohesive material the shearing speed depends of the type of test. σn = F/A (in kPa) F = mass on the hanger (or equivalent mass if a Lever-arm is used. Install the measuring devices to obtain the vertical and horizontal displacement. Calculate the initial dry density.1) Start the motor and record the readings on the measuring devices at regular intervals (for example. For greater normal forces the slotted weights can put on the hanger from the lever arm.Md ∗ 100 Md Mo is the initial mass of the specimen (in g). for sand a rate of 1 mm/min. Calculate the normal stress at the moment of the maximum shear stress. Ho is equal to the height of the cutter. (Ho= h1-h2-tp). Md is the final dry mass of the specimen. Adjust the position of the box such that it is in contact with the screw applying the shearing force and the arm of the top half of the shear box is in contact with the load-measuring device. ρd (in Mg/m3). Shear stress against the normal stress. (see fig 5.3-1) Select the shearing speed. The force is applied by placing the slotted weights on the bottom of the hanger.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 49 Fig 5. from the equation Wo = Mo . from the equation ρd = Md ∗ 1000 AH o A is the plan area of the specimen (in mm2) Ho is the initial height of the specimen. Apply the normal force by placing the load hanger on the ball bearing. Calculate the shear stress. and take the initial reading. for sand the effect of the displacement rate on the friction angle is generally negligible within the range 3 to 0. For greater normal forces the slotted weights may be hung from the lever arm.3. every 30 seconds) until a constant value is obtained for the load-measuring device.3. (Failure points). τ = P/A × 1000 (in kPa) P = Shear force (in N) A = Is the initial plan area of the specimen (in mm2) Plot the displacement against the shear stress and determine the maximum shear stress. The force is applied by placing the slotted weights on the bottom of the hanger. (see fig 5. Calculate Calculate the initial moisture content. Thimphu Bhutan . should be fast enough to approach the undrained condition.3 Apply the normal force by placing the load hanger on the ball bearing.
6 4.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 50 Calibration chart for load measuring ring 4.6 0.2 1.5 Typical values of effective cohesion intercept C′ and effective friction angle φ′ for various fine-grained soils (drained test).001mm 387.8 1546.2 1029.6 Load kN 0.8 15 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.2 770. Case record Kimola Canal Trondheim embankment Slope failure in variegated clay shale London clay failures Field test in Oslo clay Kaolin Seven Sisters Dikes Table 1.8 φ′ (deg) 28 31-35 24 20 24 25.9 8-20 7.2 2332. Undrained shear strength of clays Consistency description Very soft Soft Soft to firm Firm Firm to stiff Stiff Very stiff or hard Undrained shear strength (kN/m²) < 20 20 – 40 40 – 50 50 – 75 75 – 100 100 – 150 > 150 water Content (%) 53 20 31 30-38 48 Plasticity index PI ( %) 27 2-14 24 52 23 32 67 C′ (kPa) 4.4 2.4 12 8.8 3.2 512.8 1.4 2929. Thimphu Bhutan . Temperature at calibration 20 ° C Ring serial number 1155-7-13080 Gauge reading 0.0 2.6 2.6 1283.0 1804.8 13.2 3.0 4.4 2068.5 kN compression.2 2596.
1-1 12345678- Consolidation frame Consolidation cell Displacement transducer Loading yoke Counter balance weight Beam Beam support jack Weight hanger Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. The properties that characterise the amplitude and rate of deformation are determined in the consolidation test. but also continues for very long time periods which may last several years.1 Consolidation test BS 1377: Part 5: 1990 Scope of the test: Consolidation can be defined as the plastic deformation or void-ratio reduction of a soil mass. which are functions of time and excess pore pressure.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 51 6. a physical process in which the interstitial water that is under excess pressure slowly diffuses through the compressible matrix of soil particles. The long-term settlement of fine grained soil layers is primarily controlled by consolidation. After the excess pore pressure has completely dissipated. fine-grained soils can also deform due to their viscous nature. Thimphu Bhutan . Fig 6. their deformation takes place not only at the time of the load application. When fine grained soils are subjected to changes in load due to construction.
Because of the length of the beam the applied weight has to multiply with a factor. resulting in a decrease in height which can be measured with the displacement transducer at suitable intervals. This can take a few hours to a few weeks.4 times the internal diameter.1-2). Thimphu Bhutan . The height of the ring shall be not less than 18 mm and not greater than 0. or in a tube of larger diameter. to minimise side friction Place the sample on a glass plate Push the cutting ring into the sample cutting away surplus soil from the outside of the ring as the sample enters it. until the top surface projects a few millimetres above the top of the ring Cut of the soil projecting above and below the ring with the wire saw (see fig. depending of the load and sample material. Sample preparation The inside diameter of the cutting ring shall be not less than 50 mm and not greater than 105 mm. Undisturbed specimens shall be prepared with the minimum change of the soil structure and moisture content. 6. For the practical you will get a clay block sample. The method of preparation shall depend on whether the sample received in the laboratory is contained in a tube of the same internal diameter as the specimen to be tested. Fig 6. During this process water drains out of the specimen. which is mounted on the cell platform from the consolidation frame.1 gram Lubricate the inner face of the ring lightly with silicon grease.2) and flat ten both sides carefully with the spatula Remove soil particles sticking to the outer side of the ring Weigh the specimen with ring Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. with an accuracy of 0.1 mm Weigh the ring to an accuracy of 0. (Depending to which hole of the beam the hanger is connected) The stress is held constant until the primary consolidation has ceased. or as a block sample.1.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 52 Description of test A prepared soil specimen is put in a consolidation cell (fig 6.1. from which you will prepare a specimen with help from the cutting ring.2 Measure the diameter and height of the cutting ring. The loading yoke is placed on the loading cap and by putting weight on the hanger the specimen is loaded axially.
40. Add the first load to the hanger to give the required pressure of 174 kPa.50 s 1.Place the bottom porous disc on the cell base .4. 0.8. .1-4): Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. (trigger on the vertical displacement transducer.15. so that it is securely held. If not otherwise indicated by the laboratory assistant. Normal procedure is to double the stress at each stage.24 hours -Plot the readings of the dial gauge or the settlement against time to a logarithmic scale (See fig.1-3 With the loading Yoke swung forward and resting on the beam. (take away the seating load) Start Winclips program.4.2.Place the upper porous disc .Fix the ring retainer around the ring.10. Thimphu Bhutan .20.6. Add a small weight to the hanger (the seating pressure on the specimen shall not exceed 2 kPa) Bring the displacement transducer in contact with the loading yoke and set it zero. 6. The applied stress range will therefore be 174.30 min.Place the loading cap centrally on top Clamping screws Loading cap Upper porous disc Cell body Ring retainer Under porous disc Cutting ring Cell base O-ring Fig. and tighten the clamping screws . 694 kPa. the test has to be done for tree load increments starting with a load giving a stress of 174 kPa on the sample.Put the cutting ring with specimen centrally in to the cell with its cutting edge uppermost. the following periods of elapsed time from zero are convenient. place the consolidation cell centrally on the frame platform Adjust the counterbalanced loading beam so that when the loading yoke just make contact with the loading cap the beam is slightly above horizontal position Raise the beam a little more above horizontal position and hold it there with the support jack Swing the loading yoke vertical above the loading cap and slowly lower it Adjust the supports jack so that the bull just touches the seating.8.Place the cell body on the cell base .14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 53 Test procedure Assembly of the consolidation cell .2. 0.1 mm) Add water to the cell Measure with suitable intervals the vertical displacement. 1. 347.30.
the load should be left unchanged for another 24 hours. When it has been established the loading stage may be terminated: Applied the second load on hanger. as in figure 6. Thimphu Bhutan . If the dial reading versus log-time shows a flattening out from the steep part of the curve to a straight line which is less steeply inclined. After completion the last load increment takes out the consolidation ring Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. the decision must be taken whether or not to apply the next load increment.1-4. it indicates that the primary consolidation phase is complete and that the next load increment may be applied. Repeat this procedure for a third load increment.1-4 After 24 hours.6.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 54 Fig. to give the required new stress (347 kPa) The procedure has to be carried out at the same way as done for the first load increment. If the straight line representing secondary compression has not yet been established.
on the laboratory curve and obtain its time. Calculate the coefficient of consolidation with the following equation: Cv = 0. any soil adhering to them should be scraped off and returned to the sample Wipe the outside of the ring dry and weight the sample with the ring Place sample with ring in the oven for 24 h. and the secondary compression portion. Plot the settlement versus log-time curve. expressed in minutes. Take the dry weight. at the point of inflexion. Their intersection gives the compression corresponding to theoretical 100 % primary compression.e. Reporting Calculate the bulk mass density and moisture content before and after the test. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. and analysis has to be made following Casagrandes method. locate the 50 % primary compression point. denoted by d100 . d50. Thimphu Bhutan . to calculate the moisture content and dry-weight. Repeat this operation using two other pairs of points having times in the same ratio.026 H 2 t 50 Expressed in m2/year With: H = H1 + H 2 were.1-4. and take the average as the corrected zero compression point (d o Draw and extend the tangents to the two linear portions of the laboratory curve. to determine the coefficient of consolidation Cv for each increment of loading. i.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 55 - Remove the porous discs carefully. 2 H1= Height of specimen at start of a loading increment H2= Height of the specimen at the end of that increment t50 = time for 50 % consolidation. and laying off an equal distance above the upper point. From the zero and 100% points. Locate the corrected zero point by marking off the difference in ordinates between any two points on the initial (convex-upwards) portion of the curve having times in the ratio 1:4. Calculate the dry density (if no material has been lost during the test). t50 (in min). The principle of the method is illustrated in fig 6.
20 mm and 37. For these soils the test description for determination of maximum and minimum dry densities for granular soils would be more appropriate. which controls the height of drop to 450 mm . thereby increasing the dry density of the soil.CBR mould. For a given degree of compaction of a given cohesive soil there is an optimum moisture content at which the dry density obtained reaches a maximum value.A drying oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 105 C to 110 C.Jacking apparatus for extracting the compacted material from the mould. using a 4. Thimphu Bhutan .A steel straightedge. . If there is a limited amount of particles up to 37. weight of 2. .1 Proctor test BS 1377:Part 4: 1990 Determination of dry density/moisture content relationship Scope of the test Compaction of soil is the process by which the solid particles are packed more closely together. Three types of compaction test are described. using a 2. min 5 litres. For a series of tests on a particular soil.Metal rammer: Light test: 50 mm diameter face. about 300 mm long and 3 mm thick.5 mm size. Specifications for compaction by rammer in the CBR mould are based on the same compactive effort per unit volume of soil as in the 1L compaction mould. Note: For highly permeable soils such as clean gravel’s.2 . sliding freely in a tube which controls the height of drop to 300 mm figure 7. .1.5 kg rammer. weight of 4.1.2) Apparatus used . Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. For both these tests a compaction mould of 1 L.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 56 7. . usually by mechanical means.A cylindrical mould with an internal diameter 105mm and an internal effective height of 115.Mixer. internal volume is used for soil in which all particles pass a 20 mm test sieve. For cohesion less soils an optimum moisture content might be difficult to define. each with procedural variations related to the nature of the soil: 1-Light manual compaction test. as described in chapter 7. uniformly graded and coarse clean sands. 2-Heavy manual compaction test. depends on the degree of compaction applied and on the amount of water present in the soil. in the CBR mould (See chapter 7.Balance readable to 5 g. with one bevelled edge.Watertight containers or strong polythene bags . .5mm. the results of the laboratory compaction test may provide only a poor guide for specifications on field compaction The laboratory test might indicate meaningless values of moisture content in these free-draining materials and the maximum dry density is often lower than the state of compaction which can be readily obtained in the field.5 mm British Standard sieves.5 kg rammer.5 kg.1. Heavy test: 50 mm diameter face. which can be achieved. equivalent tests are carried out in the larger CBR mould. The dry density. .5 kg. sliding freely in a tube. 3-Compaction with a vibration hammer. Detachable base plate and removable extension collar figure 7.2. one size of mould should be used consistensily.
Original bulk sample. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.On the basis of these percentage the soil can be assigned to one of the grading zones (1) to (5) in table1.5 mm % 100 100 100 95 90 Less than 90 A = Soil particles not susceptible to crushing. and the minimum mass of soil required can be determined. For soils not susceptible to crushing.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 57 Fig.2 Ordinary test rammer The quantity of soil required. one sample only is required for test and it can be used several times.Thorough mixing in of the water is essential.Particles larger than 20 mm should be removed by sieving with the 20 mm and 37.5 mm test sieves. Determine the approximate percentage by mass of particles in the soil sample passing the 20 mm and 37. Table 1 Grading Minimum zone Percentage passing test sieve 20 mm % 1 100 2 95 3 70 4 70 5 70 x Less than 70 Minimum Mass of prepared soil required A kg 6 6 15 15 15 Test not applicable Type of mould used B kg 15 15 40 40 40 1L CBR 37. depend on the size of the largest particles present and if the particles are susceptible to crushing during compaction. Thimphu Bhutan .The amount of material retaining on the sieves has to be weighed and as a percentage from the total mass calculated. Depending on the soil type. . B = Soil particles susceptible to crushing.1. 7. . a suitable amount of water should be added Light test: Sandy + gravely soils: 4-6% (200-300 ml water on 5 kg of soil) Cohesive soils: 8-10 % below the plastic limit Heavy test: Sandy + gravely soils: 3-5% (150-250 ml water on 5 kg of soil) Cohesive soils: 15 % below the plastic limit . .1 British standard compaction mould Sample preparation Fig 7. is air dried and weighed = w1 .1.5 mm BS sieve.
approximately as follows: -Sandy+ gravely soils 1-2% (50-100 ml of water to 5 kg of soil). -Cohesive soils: 2.3 between the successive blows.4) Remove the extension collar carefully and cut away the excess soil and level off the top of the mould. according to fig. 7. approximately equal.3 After this. should be filled up with fine material. Now the moisture content has to be measured by taking three representative samples. Mix in the water thoroughly for each increment of water added. Fig. Now the soil should be compacted by 27 blows for the 1 L mould and 62 blows for the CBR mould. Thimphu Bhutan . the rammer should be moved. third layer. Using the 1L or CBR mould. With this. 7.1.2) fig 7. Add an increment of water.(see fig 7. Repeat the compaction part so that at least 5 compactions are made. Of course.1. the blows are uniformly distributed over the whole area. place a quantity of moist soil in the mould that when compacted it occupies a little over one-third of the height of the mould body for the “ordinary” test and one-fifth for the “heavy” test Place the guide tube gently on the soil and hold it vertically. First 4 blows according to the pattern of fig. fourth and fifth layer. 7. the range of moisture contents should be such that the optimum moisture content is within that range.3 Sequence of blows -Weigh the soil + mould (m2).1. Place a second. The compacted surface in the extension collar should be about 6 mm above the level of the mould body. Heavy test. resulting from removed stones.4% (100-200 ml of water to 5 kg of soil).1.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 58 Execution of the test - - Weigh the mould = m1 Connect the extension collar to the mould Add loose soil to the mould. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Repeat with: Ordinary test. Any small cavities. Break up the sample on a tray.4 Fit the mould on to the extruder and jack out the soil.1. third. -if necessary execute the CBR test (chapter 7. Break up what is left over from the compacted sample and mix it with the remainder of the prepared sample. layer of soil in the mould and compact it with 27 or 62 blows in the same way as described above.
W. which is the optimum moisture content for this degree of compaction. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.1. Draw a curve of best fit to the plotted points and identify the position of the maximum on this curve. against the corresponding moisture content. Calculate the average moisture content. W %. Read off the maximum dry density and the corresponding moisture content. Calculate the corresponding dry density: ρd = 100 ρ 100 + W Mg/m3 Where ρd = the dry density (Mg/m3) W = the moisture content (%) Plot each dry density. ρ: Bulk density ρ = m2-m1 V Mg/m3 Where m1 = mass of mould and base plate m2 = mass of soil and mould and base plate V = volume of the mould.5 graph of dry density-moisture content Calculations Calculate the Bulk density.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 59 Fig 7. Thimphu Bhutan . for each compacted specimen.
10 % for the purpose of this plot. 5. Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing: Vol.1.H. London. Thimphu Bhutan . 5 %. Reporting Description of the soil The maximum dry density for the stated degree of compaction is reported to the nearest 0. and 10% air voids may be plotted on the same graph.5kg rammer method British Standard 4. Head (1982). W = the moisture content (%) An example of such a graph is given by fig. The optimum moisture content is reported as follows: Below 5%: to the nearest 0. BS 1377:Part 4: 1990 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. 2.5. - Remarks It is possible to combine this test with the CBR test References: - K.2% From 5% to 10%: to the nearest 0. Pentech Press.5kg rammer method Whether the test was carried out on a single sample or on separate batches.5% Exceeding 10%: to the nearest 1% The percentage of stones retained on the 20mm sieve is reported to the nearest 1%. 7. British Standard 2.001 Mg/m3. These curves are calculated with the following equation: ρd = Va 100 W 1 + ρ s 100 ρ w 1− where ρd = the dry density (Mg/m3) ρs = the particle density (Mg/m3) ρw = the density of water (Mg/m3) Va = the volume of air voids in the soil. Which procedure was followed. expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the soil (equal to 0%.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 60 The curve for 0.
The displacement-measuring device must have a range of 25 mm and scale units of 0. or CBR-test.2 Californian bearing ratio test BS 1377:Part 4: 1990 Scope of the test This method covers the laboratory determination of the California Bearing Ration (CBR) of a compacted or undisturbed sample of soil. A seating load of 50N has to be applied.01 mm. Watertight containers or strong polythene bags A drying oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 105 C to 110 C. with a constant penetration rate of 1 mm/min. CBR mould. is an empirical test. Mixer. expressed as a percentage. 20 mm and 37. The Californian Bearing Ratio test.1 General arrangement for CBR test Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. capable of weighing up to 25 kg readable to 5 g. The load-measuring device depends on the CBR-value. about 300 mm long and 3 mm thick. min 5 litres Fig 7. fittings and tools. a load ring with a range of 0-10Kn is needed. as described in chapter 7.5 mm British Standard sieves. Apparatus used - Motor-drive compression machine. A steel straightedge. is defined as the California Bearing Ratio (CBR). which is used as an important criterion in pavement design. The principle is to determine the relation between force and penetration when a cylindrical plunger with a standard cross-section area is made to penetrate the soil at a given rate. the bearing value of highway sub-bases and sub-grades. A standardised CBR mould. with one bevelled edge. a load ring with a range of 0-50KN is needed.2. At certain values of penetration the ratio of the applied force to a standard force. can be estimated.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 61 7. With a CBR value above 30%.2 Balance. With a CBR value up to 30%. With this test. A seating load of 250N has to be applied. Thimphu Bhutan .
When the density or air voids content of a compacted sample is specified the exact amount of soil required for the test can be calculated as follows. moisture content on dry density) have to be known. expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the soil (equal to 0%. After bringing the sample to the required moisture content the soil shall be thoroughly mixed and shall normally be sealed and stored for at least 24 h before starting compaction. The mass of soil required for the test shall be calculated or estimated. the dry density ρd (Mg/m3). In the other methods. Six methods are described in the British Standard for the preparation of disturbed samples for the CBR test. the soil conditions (Bulk density. If the soil contains particles larger than 20 mm. corresponding to an air voids content of Va (%) is given by the equation: Vm (100 + W ) ρ d 100% 100 ρd = Va 100 W 1 + ρ s 100 ρ w 1− where ρd = the dry density (Mg/m3) ρs = the particle density (Mg/m3) ρw = the density of water (Mg/m3) Va = the volume of air voids in the soil. 10 % for the purpose of this plot). is used. Thimphu Bhutan . The initial mass shall be measured so that the mass used for the test sample can be determined after compaction by difference. 5 %. W = the moisture content (%) Compactive effort specification: About 6 kg of soil shall be prepared for each sample to be tested. The CBR test shall be carried out on material passing the 20 mm test sieve. as a check.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 62 Sample Preparation. Dry density specification. The moisture content of the soil shall be chosen to represent the design conditions for which the test results are required. If this fraction is more than 25 % the test is not applicable.2-1 gives an overview from the sample preparation methods for the CBR test. Table 7. In methods 1 and 2 static compaction is used to achieve a specified density. either to achieve a specified density in method 3 and 4 or to provide a specified compactive effort Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. the test material must be sieved with the BS 20 mm sieve. the mass of soil M1 (g). or by vibrating hammer. required to just fill the CBR mould of volume (cm3) is given by the equation: M1 = Where W = the moisture content of the soil (%) ρd = the specified dry density (Mg/m3) Vm = volume of the mould (m3) Air voids specification. dynamic compaction by hand or mechanical rammer. Where a range of moisture contents is to be investigated. water shall be added or removed from the natural soil. To make comparison possible.
- The load-measuring device is connected to the compression machine.2-2 Compaction in CBR mould equivalent to BS compaction mould Execution of the test. table 7. Ensure that the blows are evenly distributed over the surface Table 7. Each surcharge ring Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Mass (kg) 2.2-1 The sample has to be divided in equal parts of weights according to the number of layers mentioned in table 7.0 lb * Downward force (kgf) to be applied. The cylindrical plunger. is connected to the load-measuring device.2-2 gives the details of the compaction.5 4.2-2. This is because the compaction takes place in stages.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 63 in methods 5 and 6. Thimphu Bhutan .5 4. depending on the required way of compaction. Dropping a certain weight several times. from a certain height performs the compaction. diameter 49. The mould with the sample and the surcharge weights is placed in the machine.5 mm and cross-sectional area of 1935 mm2 and a length of 250 mm.5 lb Rammer drop (mm) 300 450 450 (vibration) 12 in 18 in No.5 30-40* 5. of layers 3 5 5 3 3 5 Blows per layers 62 62 30 (60 s) 61 61 56 56 Type of compaction BS ‘ordinary’ (BS 1377) BS ‘heavy’ (BS 1377) Intermediate Vibrating hammer ASTM ‘Standard’ Modified AASHO 10. in order to get an optimal compaction. Table 7.
undisturbed etc. . Calculation - The data.The same calculation is done for 5 mm penetration.5 and 5 mm penetration.Table with all readings. the machine can be stopped.5 mm penetration from test × 100% load at 2. test2 .5 mm penetration. .Load penetration diagram. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.2.The highest of the two is then the CBR-value. the moisture content has to be determined.2.The load-penetration curve is normally convex upwards.Data on the sample. if necessary with construction of the direction. . Thimphu Bhutan .5 mm penetration from standard . Reporting .Description of the testing machine and stress rate used. Adjust the displacement-measuring device to read zero. After 7. Switch to motor drive and start the loading. test 1 .R. weathering grade. . .and displacement measuring devices.2.5 and 5. The plunger must be seated on top of the specimen and must be able to move freely from the surcharge weight.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 64 - of 2 kg is equivalent to about 70-mm thickness of superimposed construction.-value. Correction .25 mm displacement.Data and testing procedure. obtained with the test.0 mm penetration has to be read from this diagram. starting with zero at this new point. . The CBR-value is then: CBR = load at 2. with a loading rate of 1 mm/min. . The same has to be done from the diagram of the standard CBR test. particle size distribution.2 for the standard load for 2.This cutting point must then be taken as the new origin point and a new penetration scale. The load at 2. moisture content and natural moisture content.If not. with a CBR value of 100%. . After removing the sample from the mould.Type of load. . .Way of compaction used.From the inflection point. Figure 7.Type of sample.C. have to be plotted in a load penetration diagram. a correction has to be applied: figure 7.2. The seating load has to be applied by weight.B. . disturbed. the tangent has to be drawn until it cuts the horizontal axis. see figure7. must be added. Reading of the load-measuring device has to be taken with every 0.2.Lithology.
no correction required Test 2. correction required Test 3.2 Tree types of load penetration curve from CBR tests: Test 1.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 65 Fig 7.H. the CBR-test is combined with the proctor test.2. Thimphu Bhutan .K. correction as (B) may not be valid. Remarks Usually. References . Head (1982). Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing: Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.
from gravel’s and sands to clays. are required. such as sands. which enables water to pass through them. Clays are not completely impermeable. In general the voids are interconnected. The method used for measuring permeability depends upon the characteristics of the material. and therefore the level falls during the test. Falling head test. The degree of permeability is determined by applying a hydraulic difference across a sample of soil.for soils of intermediate and low permeability.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 66 Permeability tests Introduction The permeability of a soil is a measure of its capacity to allow the flow of a fluid (a liquid or a gas in general water) through it. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. These procedures are useful either when it is not practicable to make a direct measurement. Permeability tests on natural disturbed soil are probably carried out more frequently in-situ than in the laboratory. even though clay can be ten million times less permeable than sand. which passes through the sample. such as silts and clays. The constant head test is a permeability test in which water is made to flow through a soil sample under a constant difference in head or hydraulic gradient. are governed by the same physical laws. which is fully saturated and measuring the consequent rate of flow of water. The falling head test is a permeability test in which the piezometer tube used for measuring the head also provides the water. although they may appear to be so if the rate of low through them is not greater than the rate of evaporation loss. The principle is that soil consists of solid particles with voids between them. There are two types of laboratory tests for the direct measurement of the permeability of soils: Constant head test-for soils of high permeability. together with a properly conducted particle size analysis. but field inspection and testing is beyond the scope of this laboratory guide. The "coefficient of permeability" in expressed in terms of a velocity. Thimphu Bhutan . The difference between the permeability characteristics of extreme types of soil is merely one of degree. The flow of water through soils of all types. For the indirect assessment of permeability careful inspection of the soil. or as a check on direct measured values. Permeability can also be derived from data obtained during an oedometer test.
5mm . Thimphu Bhutan . Fundamental Test Conditions The following ideal test conditions are prerequisites for the laminar flow of water through granular soils under constant head conditions. 3.A calibrated thermometer reading to 0.Internal calliper.1 Constant head test BS 1377 part 5 Permeability of granular soils.A large plastic funnel .Permeameter cell conform the standard . . Continuity of flow with no soil volume change during a test.A flat-ended tamping rod long enough to reach to the bottom of the permeameter and about 10mm diameter. The material should be well graded between those limits.Two discs of wire gauze or porous material fitting inside the cell .5 oC .Filter material of a suitable grading for placing adjacent to the perforated plates at each end of the permeameter. or when used as bases courses under pavements.A discharge reservoir with overflow to maintain a constant level. Sample preparation Sample . Direct proportionality of velocity of flow with hydraulic gradients below certain values. this procedure is limited to disturbed granular soils containing not more than 10% soil passing the 63-um sieve.A scoop small enough to fit inside the permeameter .14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 67 8. .A stopwatch readable to 1 s. 4. The filter material grading limits should lie between four times the 15% passing size and four times the 85% passing size of the test sample. . 2.A supply of clean de-aerated water to the constant head reservoir .1 consist of: .A balance readable to 1 g.Measuring cylinders of 100 mL. Flow with the soil voids saturated with water and no bubbles in the soil voids. and 1000mL capacity .A steel rule graduated to 0. The grading of the filter material depends on the particle size distribution of the test sample. The procedure is to establish representative values of the coefficient of permeability of granular soils that may occur in natural deposits as placed in embankments. Scope of the test This method covers the determination of the coefficient of permeability by a constant head method for the laminar flow of water through granular soils. .1. 500mL. In order to limit consolidation influences during testing. containing less than 10% of the material passing the 63µm sieve and equal to an amount sufficient to satisfy the requirements prescribed in (2) and Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.A vertical adjustable reservoir tank capable of maintaining a constant –head of water supply . at which turbulent flow starts.A scoop for placing soil in the funnel . Apparatus used Permeameter set-up fig 8. 1. Flow in the steady state with no changes in hydraulic gradient.A representative sample of air-dried granular soils. .A set of manometer tubes connected to the cell with flexible tubes including a (pinch) valve .
Take a small portion of the selected sample for moister content and particle density determinations. From the material from which the oversize has been removed. A sieve analysis shall be made on a representative of the complete soil.1.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 68 - (3) below. The percentage of the oversize material shall be recorded. a sample for testing equal to an amount approximately twice that for filling the permeameter chamber. 8. select by the method of quartering.1 Constant head test Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. shall be selected by the method of quartering. Weight the remainder of the prepared sample to 1g (m1) Fig. Thimphu Bhutan . prior to the permeability test. All particles larger than one-twelfth of the diameter of the permeameter cell shall be removed.
without entrapping air. 5. The final height:diameter ratio of the test sample shall be not less than 2:1. Placing and compaction shall be done by one of the following methods. Distances between manometer outlets X1. and connect the control valve at the base to the discharge reservoir.8.1) Inside diameter. which is then closed. If a test with upward flow is required.m2. The cell is now ready for test under the normal conditions of downward flow. Continue until the cell is filled to the required level. 7. 6.Fill the permeameter cell with water and saturate the sample as follows. If higher density is required. Hand tamping: Place the soil sample in at least four uniform layers. . L (in mm) 4. each with a thickness of about ½ the diameter. (if the sample is placed under water start with step 4) 1. to the permeameter cell body. .Release the piston in the top plate and withdraw it to its fullest extent.Assemble the base plate. raising the funnel so that the end of the tubing is just at the water surface. . X2.(investigation piping effects). L in mm as an average of three measurements . .Place the prepared soil into the permeameter in such a way as to give a homogeneous deposit at the required density or voids ratio.1. W1. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.Place the graded filter material in the bottom of the cell to a depth of about 50mm and place a wire gauze or porous disc on top.Record the height of the test sample.Lower the piston carefully and bed the perforated plate on the filter material. tamp or vibrate the material during placement. to the top of the cell and connect the de-aerated water supply to the base. . Tamp each layer with a controlled number of standard blows with the tamping rod. B. which shall be maintained at about 15mm above the surface of the placed material by admitting moor water through the base valve.Make the following initial measurements: (see fig. . The water in all tubes shall reach the level of the reservoir surface.Dry the soil left over and determines the mass to the nearest 1g (m2). so that the dry mass of the soil used in the test sample can be obtained by difference m1. and then from the top connection. Set the inlet reservoir at a level a little above the top of the permeameter cell and open the supply valve. Avoid segregation.Place the graded filter material on top of the disc to a depth of at least 50mm . and record the average measurement. This will result in a saturated sample in a loose condition. and close the connections to the manometer tubes 2. Connect the control valve on the base of the cell to the de-aerated water supply and allow de-aerated water to enter the cell to a height of about 15mm above the porous disc. Placing under water: Thoroughly mix the prepared soil with de-aerated water and place the mixture in a suitable funnel fitted with a bung and length of flexible tubing. Release the soil and water mixture into the cell. of the permeameter. Connect the control valve on the base of the permeameter to the de-aerated water supply. Hold the piston down firmly and tighten the locking collar in this position. fit the control valve connected to the discharge reservoir. Allow de-aerated water to enter the cell and slowly percolate upwards through the sample until it emerges first from the air bleed. Thimphu Bhutan .14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 69 Preparation of the specimens . for unit Weight determinations.Place the upper wire gauze or porous disc on top of the prepared sample. D.Fit the top plate . . . Support the funnel so that the tubing reaches to about 15mm above. A. with perforated base. Measure the length of the sample again.Record the weight of the remaining air-dried sample. Close the control valve. 3. Open the top connection and the air bleed to atmosphere. Saturation . Connect the de-aerated water supply to the permeameter top connection. Open the manometer tube valves and ensure that no air is trapped in the flexible tubing.
Place a measuring cylinder of suitable capacity under the outlet from the discharge reservoir and simultaneously start the timer . .2 Test procedure. q1 = Q1 etc. . t where: q = the rate flow in mL/s Q1 = is the volume of water (mL) collected from the outlet reservoir during the time interval t t = time interval in s Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.If needed the hydraulic gradient can be increased by increasing the height of the inlet reservoir. Allow the water levels in the manometer tubes to become stable before starting measurements.Open the control valve at the base to produce flow through the sample. . .Adjust the height of the inlet reservoir to a suitable level. If the levels indicate a significant nonuniformity of the hydraulic gradient remove and replace the sample. Alternatively record the time required to fill the cylinder up to a given volume. downward flow fig 8. Often a hydraulic gradient of 0.1. Thimphu Bhutan .Measure the quantity of water collected in the cylinder during a given interval of time.1. .Repeat the measurement at least four times. . .14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 70 fig 8.Record the temperature of the water in the discharge reservoir. Calculations Calculate the rate of flow q1 and q2 etc.Record the levels of water in the manometer tubes. in mL/s during the period of each observation.2 is suitable.2.
3 1.5 1.885 0.1. for one set of readings: ⎛ q ⎞⎛ R ⎞ k = ⎜ ⎟⎜ t ⎟ ⎝ i ⎠⎝ A ⎠ where = the coefficient of permeability in m/s = the rate flow in mL/s = the hydraulic gradient = the temperature correction factor for the viscosity of water. i.1.8 If a test have been carried out on different hydraulic gradients. e = ρs −1 ρd Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. between the uppermost and lowest manometer: i= h y where I = the hydraulic gradient h = the difference between the two manometer levels in mm y = the height difference between the corresponding manometer connections on the cell Calculate the coefficient of permeability.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 71 Calculate the hydraulic gradient. k in m/s.1 to standardize the permeability to 20 oC. T in oC 5 10 15 20 25 30 k q i Rt Correction factor Rt 1. derived from table 8.1: temperature conversion table Laboratory temperature. A = the area of cross section of the sample in mm2. Table 8. Thimphu Bhutan .15 1 0. I. plot the calculated values of rate of flow. q against hydraulic gradient. Draw the straight line of best fit through the plotted points and determine its slope ∆q ∆i When a range of hydraulic gradients is used the coefficient of permeability of the sample may be calculated from the equation: ⎛ ∆q ⎞ ⎛ Rt ⎞ k =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ∆i ⎠ ⎝ A ⎠ Calculate the dry mass and of the initial sample Calculate the dry density ρd with the volume measurements of the sample in the permeameter cell If we know the particle density ρ s we can also calculate the void ratio.
The dimensions of the permeameter . .A plot of coefficient of permeability.The dry density and if required the voids ratio . Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. k on log scale against density or voids ratio if appropriate. if relevant .The coefficient of permeability for other conditions.The particle size distribution curve. .The coefficient of permeability.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 72 Reporting results . to two significant figures.Information on the method used including the standard followed. . for laminar flow corrected to 20 o C. . . Thimphu Bhutan .The method of placing and compacting the test sample. k in m/s.The proportion and size of oversize material removed before preparing the test sample.
D and E as long as necessary to fill respectively the tubes 3. 15. the water level in the 10 mentioned tube y2. C. Gaps or cavities should be well packed with the fine matrix portion of the soil. but the sides around the sampling location should not be laterally restrained. A cylindrical test specimen may be obtained from a block sample of soft or fairly firm clay by pushing a U-100 cutting shoe. for a distance of about 90 mm. Open the valve of the in 10 mentioned tube and open valve B. Close valve F.1 g.e. Measure the mean internal diameter. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. and F are closed. Permeability of fine soils.Measure the water level in the cylinder hO. Place the permeameter cell containing the sample in the cylinder (see figure). Fill the cylinder with de-aired water. Test procedure.5 mm. which has a sharp cutting edge.Measure after a certain time interval. or with plasticine. E. and weigh to the nearest 0. Open valve A and start the vacuum pump (50 cm Hg) Due to this vacuum the test sample will become saturated with water from the bottom to the top. Preparation of apparatus. See that the cell body is clean and dry. m2. D.0001 m/s). for measurement of vertical permeability. Before withdrawing the tube it should be rotated one complete turn to shear off the soil at the end. silts clay. 13. Several standpipes of different diameters are normally available from which can be selected the diameter most suitable for the type of material being tested. or with its axis horizontal (or parallel to bedding) for measurement of horizontal permeability (or permeability parallel to bedding). m1. Weigh the sample in the cell to the nearest 0.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 73 8. Fill the cylinder up to level 6 with water. Preparation of sample. Control that valves A. and that there are no cavities around the perimeter through which water could pass. Use some of the soil trimmings for determining the moisture content of the sample. Thimphu Bhutan . of the three manometer tubes are not known. If the areas of cross-section. to the nearest 0. 4 and 5.2 Falling Head Permeability Tests. Repeat this several times until you measure a constant value. 4 or 5 depending on the expected permeability of the sample. It is essential to ensure that the sample is a tight fit in the cellbody. The tube should be pushed in squarely with a steady pressure. i. Open respectively valves C. Note: This test is not covered by British Standards. Open valve B and F and when the water has reached level 1 close valve B. D. or by ASTM Standards. Close valve A if the water reaches level 2 and stop the vacuum pump. a relatively short sample is connected to a standpipe. The sample may be prepared in the usual manner with its axis vertical. they should be determined. Scope The falling head permeability test is used for measuring the permeability of soils of intermediate and low permeability (less than 0. flowing through the sample. which provides both the head of water and the means of measuring the quantity of water.1 g. Measure the start level in the tube y1. Close the cell. 7. B. The procedure described below follows generally accepted practice. Choose for the permeability measurement tube 3. t. The block sample should be firmly supported on a flat surface. a.
Volume 2: Permeability Shear Strength and Compressibility Tests.hO (m).84 ∗ a ∗ L ∗ log⎜ ⎟ ∗ 0. By: K. References: Manual of Soil laboratory Testing. Calculation.1.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 74 Close all the valves. fig 8.2. If necessary the permeability can be expressed as the permeability at 20 °C by multiplying it by a factor obtained from the temperature conversion table 8.1 permeameter test falling head Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.1. Pentech Press London. t = measured time interval (s). A = cross section area of sample in permeameter cell (mm2). h1 = start level manometer tube = y1 . L = length of sample (m). Thimphu Bhutan . Head. The permeability of the sample is calculated by: ⎛ h1 ⎞ 3. Plymouth. h2 = end level manometer tube =y1-hO (m). Remarks Permeability can also be derived from data obtained during an oedometer test.00001 ⎝ h2 ⎠ Kt = A∗t Where: (m/s) Kt = permeability (m/s) a = cross section area of used manometer tube (mm2).H.
98mm has a area twice the standard point. These tests were run concurrently with unconfined Figure 0. The instrument should not be used for obtaining foundation design data. Be sure that the sliding indicator not slides back if the penetrometer is extracted from the soil. Range up to 0. The values read on the scale must be multiplied by 2. The pocket penetrometer should be regarded as a simple tool to aid the engineer in exploration and in checking and comparing similar types of soil.1: Pocket compression tests on the same series of samples. The largest point. a spring. The standard point has a diameter of 6. drying etc. The heave duty penetrometer has 3 interchangeable points.89mm diameter) readings divided by 2 For the smallest point (4. Calculation and interpretation of the test results The calibration of the instrument is based on many tests on clays ranging from soft to very hard. determining the approximate unconfined compressive strength and the estimation of the undrained shear strength. This force compresses the spring. This reduce mistaken and uncertainties typical of shallow measurements which are often affected by remoulding. For the standard point (6. the pin encounters a force of the ground. 6 mm) is level with the surface. which shows on the scale the maximum that has been encountered. of the surface.1 Pocket penetrometer. Smooth the surface of the area to be tested. The penetrometer is placed perpendicularly on the soil surface and pressure is exerted until the calibration mark (approx. the undrained shear strength of purely cohesive materials can be obtained by dividing the UCS reading by two. Range up to 2MPa Test procedure Before using the penetrometer ensure that the sliding indicator.5MPa. The values read on the scale must be divided by 2. The heavy duty penetrometer has a special designed penetration rod which allows relatively deep penetration of the soil (up to 6cm). When pushing the instrument into the ground. a drag unit. Report your values in kPa Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.35mm. (with the heavy duty penetrometer up to the narrowing) The penetrometer is now extracted from the soil and the equivalent unconfined compressive strength can be read from the scale in MPa. The readings on the penetrometer are given for this point the range is up to 1MPa. Heavy duty pocket penetrometer Scope of the test The pocket penetrometer is intended for in situ soil investigation at the surface.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 75 9. A drag unit is taken along during this operation. Thimphu Bhutan . a flat-tipped measuring pin. and a scale. The smallest point has a section half of that of the standard.1. diameter 8. is fully extended to the "0" position. and the scale readings on the penetrometer penetrometer correspond to unconfined compressive strength.55mm diameter) readings multiplied by 2. Warning The readings obtained from the pocket penetrometer do not replace laboratory test results due mainly to the fact that a small area penetration test is inherently liable to give misleading results. It is a lightweight and easily transportable device for classifying cohesive soils in terms of consistency. In theory.35mm diameter)r readings as indicated on the scale For the largest point (8. Apparatus The pocket penetrometer is composed of a steel tube.
N. The accuracy of the instrument should be within 10% of the reading.When the reading is taken pull the vane up. It is primarily intended for use in trenches and excavation at a depth not influenced by drying and excavation procedure.B.Note the reading on the graduated scale. which is necessary to turn the vane.2 Pocket Hand vane tester Scope of the test The vane is used to measure the in-situ undrained shear strength in clays. The range of the instrument is form 0 to 120kPa when two different sizes of vanes are used. Apparatus The measuring part of the instrument is a spiral-spring.Holding the body firmly.B. allow it to return to zero-position. When the Body is turned. N. By means of a graduated scale on the dial plate the shear strength of the clay is obtained.Connect required vane to the inspection vane instrument. Special procedure Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.Push vane into the ground to a depth of about 70-80mm with as little sideways movement as possible. .Turn body clockwise with a constant speed equivalent to one complete revolution in a minute. Note: When coupling and uncoupling vanes and rods always use both spanners to avoid straining the spring which could ruin the accuracy of this calibrated instrument . .B.When the pointer needle is not increasing anymore (stays on the same reading) or the pointer even falls back. . N. which makes it possible to measure shear strength of 0 to 28 and . . . . 0 to 120 kPa Test procedure .Make sure that the pointer needle is set to the zero reading. .Remove the plastic cover . Thimphu Bhutan .After use always put back the plastic cover over de body. failure and maximum shear strength is obtained in the clay at the vane.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 76 9.: Do not twist inspection vane during penetration. .: Do not touch or in any way disturb the position of the pointer needle until the reading is taken. the spring deforms and the Dog plate and the Bogy of the instrument get a mutual angular displacement.: Do not allow the body to spring back.Write down the reading together with position of hole and depth. The size of this displacement depends on the torque. Two sizes of four-bladed vanes are used: 19mm (readings on the outer-scale) and a 33mm (readings on the inner-scale).
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Calculations With the 19mm vane we read from the outer scale directly the undrained shear strength in kPa With the 33mm vane we read from the inner scale directly the undrained shear strength in kPa Report your value as the undrained shear strength determined with the hand vane.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 77 When measuring the shear strength at greater depths we can ad extension rods. Thimphu Bhutan . the friction between the clay and the extension rods can be appreciable preferable we take the measurements in a borehole.
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