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Soil mechanics laboratory manual
Most of the test procedures collected in this manual were specially prepared for the geotechnical laboratory of DGM in Thimphu, Bhutan The test procedures are based on BS standards and some ASTM standards. However, in various cases the test procedure was adapted to the type of equipment available in the laboratory. This means that often a realistic compromise had to be found between strict requirements and practical possibilities.
Warning: Whenever tests have to be performed following a prescribed standard, always consult that standard before testing. Version February 2004 W. Verwaal
References Head, K.H. (1982): Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing. Vol. 1, Pentech Press, London, Plymouth. Head, K.H. (1982): Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing. Vol. 2, Pentech press. London, Plymouth. Bowels J.E. (1978): Engineering properties of soils and their measure mends, second edition. McGrawHill books company. Whitlow, R. (1983): Basic soil mechanics, Construction Press, London and New York. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, volume 04.08 : Soil and Rock (I) Published by ASTM in 2000 BS 5930:1999 British Standard Institution BS 1377:1990 British Standard Institution, part 1-8 Some Internet pages. .
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM, Thimphu Bhutan
Soil mechanics laboratory manual
1.1 CLASSIFICATION OF SOIL BS 5930:1999 SECTION 6 ........................................................................ 4 2.1 SIMPLE DRY SIEVING BS 1377: PART 2:1990. .................................................................................. 10 2.2 WET SIEVING - FINE SOILS BS1377: PART 2:1990. ......................................................................... 14 2.3 HYDROMETER TEST BS 1377: PART 2:1990 ..................................................................................... 18 THE ATTERBERG LIMITS ............................................................................................................................ 23 3.1 LIQUID LIMIT WITH CASAGRANDE CUP. BS 1377: PART 2:1990 AND ASTM, 1995. D4318 ... 24 3.2 LIQUID LIMIT USING THE CONE PENETROMETER BS 1377: PART 2:1990 .............................. 27 3.3 PLASTIC LIMIT BS 1377: PART 2:1990................................................................................................ 30 4.1 DENSITY BS 1377: PART 2:1990 ............................................................................................................ 32 4.2 NATURAL MOISTURE CONTENT BS 1377:PART 2,1990 ................................................................ 34 5.1 PARTICLE DENSITY BS 1377: PART 2 1990 ....................................................................................... 35 5.1 VANE TEST BS 1377: PART 7 1990........................................................................................................ 38 5.2 TRIAXIAL TEST BS 1377: PART 8 1990 ............................................................................................... 40 5.3 DIRECT SHEAR TEST BS 1377: PART 7 1990 ..................................................................................... 46 6.1 CONSOLIDATION TEST BS 1377: PART 5: 1990................................................................................ 51 7.1 PROCTOR TEST BS 1377: PART 4: 1990.............................................................................................. 56 7.2 CALIFORNIAN BEARING RATIO TEST BS 1377: PART 4:1990..................................................... 61 PERMEABILITY TESTS.................................................................................................................................. 66 8.1 CONSTANT HEAD TEST BS 1377: PART 5: 1990 ............................................................................... 67 8.2 FALLING HEAD PERMEABILITY TESTS. ........................................................................................... 73 9.1 POCKET PENETROMETER, HEAVY DUTY PENETROMETER ..................................................... 75 9.2 HAND VANE TESTER PILCON ............................................................................................................... 76
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM, Thimphu Bhutan
There are many different classification systems. The system needs to be comprehensive. while still being reasonable. 1. the general relationship is shown in fig. (determined on the part smaller than 425µm).1. The 35% boundary between fine and course is approximate. Procedure This classification can be separated in different parts. Do they weight more than the rest of the soil? Yes: are most particles >200mm? Yes No No: Does the soil stick together when wet: No: are most particles >2mm Yes No Yes: Does soil: Display low plasticity. The change in volume of a saturated cohesive soil is approximately proportional to a change in moisture content. systematic and concise. Classification of fine grained soils (soils that stick together when wet) Since the plasticity of fine-grained soils has an important effect on such engineering properties as strength and compressibility. Dilatancy.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 4 1. The system we will use is the British soil classification with some adding’s from the ISO 14688.1 Laboratory classification of soil BS 5930:1999 section 6 Introduction It is necessary to provide a classification of types of soil for the purpose of describing the various materials encountered in site exploration. semi-plastic solid. Disintegrate in water and Dry quickly Yes No ORGANIC SOIL. Thimphu Bhutan .2 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Four consistency states may be defined for cohesive soils: solid. have it organic odour? Yes Next: Is the soil of low density? Yes Next: Remove all cobbles and boulders (>63mm). silky touch. First there is a preliminary classification to determine whether the soil was laid down by natural processes No MADE GROUND Yes NATURAL SOIL Next: Does the natural soil comprise organic materials. Due to engineering behaviour it’s sometimes necessary to determine de plasticity of soil with a fine-course boundary below 35% fines. During the second part of the classification you have to determine the complete grading curve for coarse-grained soil and the Atterberg limits for fine-grained soils. plastic consistency is used as a basis for their classification. plastic and liquid. VOLCANIC SOIL BOULDERS COBBELS GRAVEL SAND SILT CLAY Classification in practice The primary classification of natural soil can be done by a wet sieving procedure on a 63 µm sieve if more then 35% of the material is passing you are dealing with a fine grained soil if less than 35 % of the sample is passing you are dealing with a course grained soil. The consistency of a soil is its physical state characteristic at given moisture content.
1. This also applies if the plastic limit is equal to or greater than the liquid limit. If it is not possible to perform the plastic limit test. and is termed the plasticity index (PI).2 Consistency relationships. and vertical divisions (of percentage liquid limit) define five degrees of plasticity: C = clay M = Silt for organic soil add O to symbol Fig 1. which represent respectively the upper and lower bounds of the plastic state. the soil is reported as nonplastic (NP).1. The relationship between the plasticity index and the liquid limit is used in the British Soil Classification System to establish the subgroups of fine-grained soil. The transition from one state to the next in fact is gradual. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. The A-line provides an arbitrary division between silts and clays. PL = the plastic limit: the moisture content at which the soil ceases to be plastic and becomes a semi-plastic SL = the shrinkage limit: the moisture content at which drying-shrinkage at constant stress ceases. fig. Thimphu Bhutan . however. The two most important of these are the liquid and plastic limits.3 Plasticity chart for classification of fine soils.1. it is convenient to define arbitrary limits corresponding to a change over moisture content: LL = the liquid limit: the moisture content at which the soil ceases to be liquid and becomes plastic. the range of the plastic state is given by their difference. PI = LL-PL This value is reported to the nearest whole number. Which can occur in some soils with high mica content.1.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 5 Fig 1.3 shows the plasticity chart used for this purpose.
having co-ordinates given by the soils plasticity index and liquid limit.4 sub-group symbols in British Soil Classification system. Classification of coarse grained soils For the classification of coarse-grained soils it is necessary to make a particle-size analysis.or with the Cassagrande cup (part 3.70% Very high plasticity: LL = 70% . Fine grained Clay Silt Colloids Fine Medium Coarse Coarse grained Sand Fine Medium Coarse Gravel Fine Medium Coarse Stone Cobbles Boulder 1 2 6 20 60 µm 200 600 2 6 20 60 200 mm Fig 1.1 of this handbook).14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 6 Low plasticity: LL <35% Intermediate plasticity: LL = 35% .5 shows the British Standard range of particle sizes.90% Extremely high plasticity: LL> 90% A given soil may be located in its correct sub-group zone by plotting a point. The liquid limit is determined with the cone penetrometer method (part 3.50% High plasticity: LL = 50% .3 of this handbook). or by wet sieving (part 2. The sub-group symbols are given in Table 1.4 Fine-grained soils F = FINES (undifferentiated) M = SILT C = CLAY L = low plasticity I = intermediate plasticity H = high plasticity V = very high plasticity E = extremely high plasticity Organic soils Pt = peat O = organic Table 1.5 British Standard range of particle sizes Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.2 of this handbook).2 of this handbook).1. The plastic limit is determined with the "rolling" method (part 3. It can be done by dry sieving (part 2.1 of this handbook). Determining the weight percentages falling within bands of size represented carries out the particle size analysis of a soil by these divisions and sub-divisions. Figure 1.1.1. Thimphu Bhutan .1.
14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 7 The grading curve is a graphical representation of the particle-size distribution and is therefore useful in itself as a means of describing the soil. BOULDERS-COBBELS Main name Over 50% of material is very course (>60mm) BOULDERS COBBLES Mixtures of boulders or cobbles and finer material Term Composition BOULDERS (or COBBLES) with a little finer material up to 5% finer material BOULDERS (or COBBLES) with some finer material 5% to 20% finer material BOULDERS (or COBBLES) with much finer material 20% to 50% finer material FINER MATERIAL with many boulders (or cobbles) 50% to 20% boulders (or cobbles) FINER MATERIAL with some boulders (or cobbles) 20% to 5% boulders (or cobbles) FINER MATERIAL with occasional boulders (or cobbles) up to 5% boulders (or cobbles) The description of the finer material (FINER MATERIAL) is made accordance the standard SAND and GRAVEL Term Slightly sandy or gravelly Sandy or gravely Very sandy or gravelly Principal soil type SAND Or GRAVEL SAND and GRAVEL Approximate proportion of secondary constitution up to 5% 5% to 20% over 20% about equal proportions Estimated boulder or cobble content of very course fraction Over 50% is of boulder size (> 200mm) Over 50% is of cobble size (200 mm to 60 mm) Mixtures of sand and/or gravel with silt or clay Term Slightly clayey or silty and/or sandy or gravelly Clayey or silty and/or sandy or gravelly Principal soil type SAND And/or GRAVEL >20% A Approximate proportion of secondary constitution Coarse soil Coarse and/or fine soil >5% 5% to 20%A Very clayey or silty and/or sandy or gravelly Very sandy or gravelly >65%B Sandy and/or gravelly 35% to 65% Slightly sandy and/or gravelly <35% A or described as fine soil depending on assessed engineering behaviour. Thimphu Bhutan . From the grading curve we can provide a descriptive term for the type of soil (SOIL NAME). B or described as coarse soil depending on assessed engineering behaviour Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.
1. d10 Cu = D 60 D10 Coefficient of gradation (curvature) Cc = Cu < 3 indicate a uniform soil. Uniformity coefficient.7): Fig 1.0.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 8 A further quantitative analysis of grading curves may be carried out using certain geometric values known as grading characteristics.1. First of all.1. three points are located on the grading curve to give the following characteristic sizes (fig.5 and 2.1 indicate a possible gap-graded soil. (D 30 )2 D60 * D10 Most well graded soils will have grading curves that are mainly flat or slightly concave. giving values of Cc between 0. D1 0 = maximum size of the smallest 10% of the sample D30 = maximum size of the smallest 30% of the sample D60 = maximum size of the smallest 60% of the sample From these characteristic sizes. Cu > 5 indicate a well-graded soil. Thimphu Bhutan . Cc <0.7 Grading characteristic. the following grading characteristics are defined: Effective size. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.
London clay Not all characteristics are necessarily applicable in every case. firm. mottling grading or consistency e.6 typical particle size distribution curves BS description system A recommended protocol for describing a soil deposit uses nine characteristics. soft.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 9 Fig 1. gravelly-.g. with-fines. SILT.g. as appropriate soil class (BSCS) designation (for roads & airfields) e.g. (upper case letters) plus silty-. these should be written in the following order: compactness e.g. slightly cemented bedding structure e. Oxford clay. SW = well-graded sand geological stratigraphic name (when known) e. homogeneous or stratified. dense. loose. dip. orientation discontinuities spacing of beds.1. GRAVEL. etc. joints. Flood plain alluvium (ii) Dense fissured unweathered greyish-blue firm CLAY. well-graded. CLAY. Example: (i) Loose homogeneous reddish-yellow poorly-graded medium SAND (SP).g. fissures weathered state degree of weathering colour main body colour. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. poorly-graded. Thimphu Bhutan .g. SAND. hard SOIL NAME e.
Maximum size of material present in substantial proportion retained on BS sieve (mm) Pass 2 mm or smaller 6. The procedure is then referred to as "composite sieving". the whole specimen is allowed to cool. The appropriate minimum quantity of material depends upon the maximum size of particles present.1 Simple dry sieving BS 1377: Part 2:1990.1-1 Minimum quantities for particle size test. If in doubt about the validity of the dry-sieving method. soils containing negligible amounts of particles of silt or clay size.1% or less of its total mass (M1). Sample preparation The specimen to be used for the test is obtained from the original sample by riffling. Scope of the test Dry sieving is the simplest of all methods of particle size analysis. preferably overnight. Minimum mass of sample to be taken for sieving 100g 200g 500g 1kg 2kg 6kg 15kg 35kg 50kg 70kg 150kg 500kg 1000kg Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Thimphu Bhutan . the initial size of the sample required may be such that riffling is necessary at some stage to reduce the sample to a manageable size for fine sieving.2-1 .5 50 63 75 100 150 200 Table 2. in an oven maintained at 105-110 °C.The specimen is placed on a tray and is allowed to dry. or by subdivision using the cone-and-quarter method.After drying to constant weight. If particles of medium gravel size or larger are present in significant amounts. and is weighted to an accuracy within 0.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 10 2. This means that it is applicable only to clean granular materials. . According to the British Standard dry sieving may be carried out only on materials for which this procedure gives the same results as the wet sieving procedure. and is indicated in Table 2.3 10 14 20 28 37. the wet-sieving procedure should be followed instead. which usually implies clean sandy or gravely soils that is.
Weighing. etc. This can be achieved most conveniently by using a mechanical sieve shaker. Sieves are nested together with the largest aperture sieve at the top. See table 2. For classification purposes we can use a short set.1-2 metric sieves Standard set B + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 13 sieves + + 7 sieves + + + + Short set C + Suitable sieve diameters 450mm 300mm 200mm + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + (+) + + + (+) + + + + + + (+) + + Test procedure . These particles are added to those retained on the sieve. is depending on the used sieves and the particle size of the sample. . but the sieves used should adequately cover the range of aperture sizes for each particular soil. The material retained on each sieve is transferred to a weighed container. .1-2 It is not necessary to use all sieves for every test. Any particles lodged in the apertures of the sieve should be carefully removed with a sieve brush. Some shakers have a built-in timing device which can be pre-set to switch off the motor automatically after the desired period.) are recorded against the sieve Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Ms2.The dried soil sample is placed in the topmost sieve and is shaken long enough that all particles smaller than each aperture size can pass through.The whole nest of sieves with receiving pan is placed in the shaker. The complete range of sieves specified by the British Standard is given in Table 2. which can be sieved in one cycle. .14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 11 Execution of the test Selection of sieves.3 5 Woven wire 3.1-3. the dried soil is placed in the top sieve.The maximum mass of sample. Weighing of each size fraction should be to an accuracy of at least 0. Sieve frames must not be out of true. The sieves to be used are selected to suit the size of sample and type of material.1% of the total initial test sample mass. The masses retained (Ms1. .18 600 µm 425 300 212 150 63 Lid and receiver + 19 sieves Table 2. which is then fitted with the lid. to prevent escape of dust. and the sieves are securely fastened down in the machine.35 2 1. the sieve being first placed upside-down on a tray or a clean sheet of paper. and should fit snugly one inside the other. Aperture size full set Construction A Perforated 75 mm Steel plated 63 (Square holes) 50 37. Thimphu Bhutan .Agitation in the shaker should be for a minimum period of 10 min.5 28 20 14 10 6. and a receiving pan under the smallest aperture sieve at the bottom.
5 1.1-3 maximum mass to be retained on each test sieve at the completion of sieving. the percentage of fines. Pp passing the last sieve is Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. 450mm diameter sieves (kg) 10 8 6 4 3 2 1.5 2.75 0. The calculated mass passing the last sieve should be equal. Thimphu Bhutan .5 3.5 2.Ms1.0 1. The mass passing the first sieve = M1. The percentage passing the first sieve is given by P1 = M1 − Ms1 ∗ 100 % M1 The mass passing the second sieve = M1 – Ms1 – Ms2. Maximum mass 300 mm diameter sieves (kg) 4. or very nearly equal.5 1.18 100 75 600µm 425 75 300 50 212 50 150 40 63 25 Table 2. M 1 − (Ms1 + Ms 2 ) ∗ 100 % M1 The percentage passing any subsequent sieve can be written as P= M1 − ∑ M ∗ 100 % M1 Where ∑M denotes the sum of the masses retained on all sieves down to and including the one in question: ∑M = Ms1+Ms2+Ms3+ etc.0 Calculations The mass retained on the first sieve is denoted as Ms1.3 5 3.35 300 2 200 1. to the mass collected in the receiving pan.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 12 aperture size on the particle size test work sheet. The mass (Mp) passing the 63µmm sieve is also measured and recorded. If this is denoted by Mp. The percentage passing the second sieve is given by P2 = And so on.0 0.5 200 mm Sieve diameter sieves Aperture (g) 50 mm 37.5 28 20 14 10 6.
the grading curve. Thimphu Bhutan .14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 13 Pp = Mp * 100 % M1 Reporting In addition to the particle size curve and the usual sample identification data. Test 7(B). This should be the description of the sample before testing. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. The method of test is reported as dry sieving in accordance with BS 1377:1975. Tabulated data showing the percentage each sieve are sometimes required instead of. Any material removed before sieving. or in addition to. such as vegetation or an isolated cobble. and modified as necessary as a result of the additional information revealed by the test result. the sheet should include the visual description of the sample. should be reported.
and is stirred frequently. and is weighted to an accuracy within 0. Maximum size of material present in substantial proportion retained on BS sieve (mm) Pass 2 mm or smaller 6. The soil is allowed to stand for at least an hour. the material should be immersed in a dispersant solution before washing. fine particles of silt and clay can adhere to sand-size particles and cannot be separated by dry sieving.1% or less of its total mass (M1). Even when dry. This disperses the clay fraction.The specimen to be used for the test is obtained from the original sample by rifling.2. For classification purposes we can use a short set. and is indicated in Table 2. The dried representative sample is spread out on a tray and covered with water containing 2g/litre of sodium hexametaphosphate. preferably overnight. Execution of the test . but the sieves used should adequately cover the range of aperture sizes for each particular soil. Thimphu Bhutan .2 Wet sieving .2 It is not necessary to use all sieves for every test. Scope of the test If a soil contains silt or clay. the whole specimen is allowed to cool. The appropriate minimum quantity of material depends upon the maximum size of particles present.2-1 Minimum quantities for particle size test.2. . The complete range of sieves specified by the British Standard is given in Table 2. even if prolonged.5 50 63 75 100 150 200 Table 2.The specimen is placed on a tray and is allowed to dry. even in small quantities. it is necessary to carry out a wet sieving procedure in order to measure the proportion of fine material present. Minimum mass of sample to be taken for sieving 100g 200g 500g 1kg 2kg 6kg 15kg 35kg 50kg 70kg 150kg 500kg 1000kg Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. so that clay and silt will not adhere to larger particles.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 14 2. or if there is evidence of particles sticking together.fine soils BS1377: Part 2:1990. Washing is the only practicable means of ensuring complete separation of fines for a reliable assessment of their percentage. in an oven maintained at 105-110 °C After drying to constant weight.1 Page.3 10 14 20 28 37. If clay is present. or by subdivision using the cone-and-quarter method. or both. Sample Preparation .Selection of sieves. The procedure is described in detail below for non-cohesive soils containing little or no gravel.
5 28 20 14 10 6.2-2 metrics sieves Standard set B + + + + + + + + + + + Short set C + + + + + + + + + 13 sieves + + 7 sieves Suitable sieve diameters 450mm 300mm 200mm + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + (+) + + + (+) + + + + + + (+) + + + + + . The material retained on the 20 mm sieve. the material should be sieved in two or more portions. but individual particles must not be broken down.18 600 µm 425 300 212 150 63 lid and receiver 19 sieves Table 2. Table 2. Particles retained are brushed to remove finer material which may be adhering to them. The mass of soil retained on the 63mm should not exceed 150 g at any one time. The fraction passing the 20 mm sieve.Wash. but the lid and receiver are not used. is then oven dried and weighed (M2). . washing on the 63mm sieve is continued until the wastewater is seen to run clear.Sieving coarse material The sample is sieved on a large-diameter 20 mm sieve. after drying. Warning: The sink used for this operation should be fitted with a silt trap. so as not to overload the sieve (see Table 2. If this is likely to be exceeded. Thimphu Bhutan . is then sieved on appropriate larger aperture sieves and the amount retained on each is weighed. An additional intermediate sieve may be included to protect the 2mm and 63mm sieve from overloading if the soil contains a high proportion of coarse or medium sand. including "brushings" from larger particles. and washed over a sink with a jet or spray of clean water. The silt and clay passing the 63 mm sieve is allowed to run to waste.2-3 ).3 5 Woven wire 3.2-3 gives the recommended maximum quantities that may be retained on each sieve. The 2 mm sieve is nested in the 63mm sieve. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. When the material on the 2 mm sieve has been washed free of fines. with a portion being taken at a time. if necessary. The soil is placed a little at a time on the 2 mm sieve.35 2 1.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 15 Aperture size full set Construction A Perforated 75 mm Steel plated 63 (square holes) 50 37. If M2 is much more then 2 kg the sample is subdivided to give a convenient mass M3 for the remainder of the sieving operation. During this operation the sieve must not be allowed to become overloaded with soil or to overflow with water.
- 450mm diameter sieves (kg) 10 8 6 4 3 2 1.5 1.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 16 Sieve Aperture 50 mm 37.e. to 0. it should be accurately weighed (M5 ) and then subdivided to give a sample of 100-150 g.3 mm sieve is large i. substantially greater than 150 g. (M6 ) is the same as (M5 ).1 % of its total mass. These are placed in an oven to dry at 105-110 °C.75 0.5 2. Weighing After cooling.e.2-3 maximum mass to be retained on each test sieve at the completion of sieving. Weigh the amounts retained on each sieve.0 1. i. Weigh the amount retained on each sieve to 0. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Sieving The dry soil is passed through a nest of the complete range of sieves to cover the sizes of particles present.35 300 2 200 1.1 % of its total mass.5 3. Thimphu Bhutan . down to the 6.5 2. and any fines passing the 63 µm test sieve.5 200 mm diameter sieves (g) - Drying The whole of the material retained on each sieve is allowed to drain.5 28 20 14 10 6. If the fraction passing the 6. not more than 150 g. Weighing The portion retained on each sieve is weighed. the whole of the dried material is put together and weighed to an accuracy of 0. and any fines passing the 63 µm test sieve (Mf).5 1. and is carefully transferred to trays or evaporating dishes. each to an accuracy of 0.3 mm sieve. preferably overnight. This operation may be carried out by hand or preferably on a sieve shaker. (Me) If riffling is not necessary.18 100 75 600µm 425 75 300 50 212 50 150 40 63 25 Table 2. the sample may be sieved by dry sieving on the appropriate sieves down to and including the 63 µm test sieve.0 0.3 mm sieve is small.1%. If the fraction passing the 6.1% (M4). Weigh this fraction (M6 ) and then sieve on the appropriate sieves down to and including the 63 µm test sieve. exactly as in the dry sieving procedure.0 Maximum mass 300 mm diameter sieves (kg) 4.3 5 3. Weigh the amounts retained on each sieve.
such as vegetation or an isolated cobble. then calculate this mass as a percentage of M1 M3 ⎛ M 2 ⎞⎛ 100 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟⎜ ⎝ M 3 ⎠⎝ M1 ⎠ For example: Percentage retained on 10 mm sieve = M(10 mm) ⎜ ⎜ - Calculate the corrected mass of material retained on each of the sieves finer than the 6. should be reported. and modified as necessary as a result of the additional information revealed by the test result. or in addition to. the grading curve. Thimphu Bhutan .3 mm by multiplying by M2 . calculate the proportion by mass of material retained on each of the coarse series of sieves as a percentage of M1 For example: Percentage retained on 28 mm sieve = ⎨ - ⎧ M (28mm) ⎫ ⎬100 M1 ⎭ ⎩ Calculate the corrected mass of material retained on each of the sieves between 20 mm and 6. To this is added the mass of any fine material (Mf) passing the 63 µm test sieve when dry sieved. Tabulated data showing the percentage each sieve are sometimes required instead of. Any material removed before sieving. ⎧ ⎪ (M 3 − M 4 ) + M f M3 ⎪ ⎩ ⎫⎛ M 2 ⎬⎜ ⎜ ⎭⎝ M 1 ⎞ ⎟ 100 ⎟ ⎠ Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.3 mm sieve by multiplying by ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ M5 ⎝ M6 ⎞⎛ M 2 ⎟⎜ ⎟⎜ M ⎠⎝ 3 ⎞ ⎟ . Percentage passing 63 µm sieve = ⎨ Reporting In addition to the particle size curve and the usual sample identification data.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 17 Calculations Calculation for the particles larger than 20mm in size. This should be the description of the sample before testing. The mass of fines lost by washing is equal to (M3-M4). the sheet should include the visual description of the sample. then calculate this mass as a percentage of M1 ⎟ ⎠ ⎛ M 5 ⎞⎛ M 2 ⎟⎜ M 6 ⎟⎜ M 3 ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎞⎛ 100 ⎞ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎟⎜ M ⎟ ⎠⎝ 1 ⎠ For example: Percentage retained on 300 µm sieve = M(300 µm) ⎜ ⎜ - Calculate the cumulatieve percentage by mass of the sample passing each of the sieves from the general relationship: (% passing this sieve) = (% passing previous sieve)-(% retained on this sieve) Calculate the fraction passing the 63 µm test sieve by difference.
a density of 1. Thimphu Bhutan . Meniscus correction − Insert the hydrometer is a 1 L cylinder containing about 800 ml water.3 Hydrometer test BS 1377: part 2:1990 Scope of the test The hydrometer analysis is a widely used method to obtain the distribution of particle sizes in the silt range (63-2 µm). The hydrometer analysis utilises the relationship among the velocity of fall of spheres in a fluid. 600 µm. The test is usually not performed if less than 10% of the material passes the 63 µm sieve. − By placing the eye slightly below the plane of surface of the liquid and then raising it slowly until the surface seen as an ellipse becomes a straight line.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 18 2. When moving it in and out of a cylinder. and the percentage of clay minerals < 2µm.028 would be a hydrometer reading of Rh’ = 28. Hold it on the bulb when moving it horizontal. it should be handled with care. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. and of the viscosity of the fluid as expressed by the Stokes’ law. 2 mm and a receiver balance readable to 0. 100 ml and 50 ml wash bottle and distilled water constant-temperature bath glass rod: 12 mm diameter. the specific weights of the sphere and of the fluid. a small angle could break it. steel rule four evaporating dishes 1000 ml beaker two measuring cylinder. determine the point where the plane intersects the hydrometer scale. 212 µm. with rubber stops thermometer high speed stirrer sieves 200 mm diameter. keep it as straight as possible. 400 mm long standard dispersant solution: that is 33 g sodium hexametaphosphate and 7 g of sodium carbonate in distilled water to make 1 litre solution Calibrations and corrections of hydrometer readings Each density reading taken on the hydrometer must first be expressed as a hydrometer reading. corresponding to the level of the upper rim of the meniscus. Never hold it horizontal while holding it on one side. This is done by subtracting 1 from the density and moving the decimal point three places to the right. the diameter of the sphere. NOTE: The hydrometer is a very fragile device. Apparatus used − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − − soil hydrometer two 1000 ml glass measuring cylinders. Rh’.01 g drying oven. For example. 63 µm. 105-110 °C stopwatch readable to 1 s. the bulb is very heavy and the glass could break.
Thimphu Bhutan . Cm.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 19 − − By placing the eye slightly above the plane of surface of the liquid. Record the difference between the two readings as the meniscus correction. hydrometer L = distance between the 100 ml and the 1000 ml scale markings of the sedimentation cylinder Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. hydrometer Vh = volume of hydrometer bulb = 70 ml for B. determine the point where the plane intersects the hydrometer scale.S. corresponding to each of the major calibration marks. Rh = Rh’ + Cm Scale calibration of hydrometer Calculate the effective depth.S. HR (mm). Rh from the equation: V ⎞ ⎛ H R = H + 12 ⎜ h − h L ⎟ 900 ⎠ ⎝ where: H = length from the neck of the bulb to graduation Rh h = length of the bulb = 159 mm for B.
78 179.01 gram Place the soil in a 1000 ml beaker If the sample contains organic matter (>0.78 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 h Vh L 159 72 318 mm ml mm Plot the relation between Hr and Rh as a smooth curve. and the oxidation process may take 2 or 3 days. scale calibration hydrometer 250 200 150 Hr 100 50 0 -10 0 10 Rh 20 30 calibration Linear (calibration) y = -3. add more hydrogen peroxide in increments of about 100 ml until the oxidation process is complete.5 58 77 97 117 137 H mm 35 54. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Amount of dry sample − for sandy soil 100 gram − for clayey soil 50 gram Weigh the soil to 0. Thimphu Bhutan .9999 Sample preparation − − − − − − − − Dry the sample in an oven at 60-65°C.71 R2 = 0.78 199. Agitate frequently by stirring or by shaking with a rotary motion. With this relation. and determine the relation. we can calculate for each reading Rh the corresponding Hr.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 20 Example: Rh N= d1= d2= d3= d4= d5= d6= d7= length mm 16 19 38.28 140. Frothing over must be avoided.78 159.9286x + 199.5 74 93 113 133 153 Hr mm 101. either on a low-heat hot plate or on a low gas flame. Very organic soils may require several additions of hydrogen peroxide.5%) we have to remove this as follows: Add 150 ml of hydrogen peroxide and stir gently for a few minutes with a glass rod Cover with a cover glass and allow to stand overnight Next morning heat the flask and stir gently. If necessary.78 121.78 219.
4 minutes. and wash thoroughly with distilled water Transfer the residue from the filter paper to container using a fine jet of distilled water from a wash bottle and dry the sample at 60-65°C. Ro. provided that the actual time of each reading is recorded. 2 . The cylinder is inverted for a few seconds. It must not be allowed to bulb up and down. − Shake the mixture thoroughly until all the soil is in suspension. and is then stood in the constant temperature bath. Stir if necessary with a glass rod so that all material goes into suspension. 600 µm. If the temperature varies more than 1 °C another reading to determine Ro should be taken. rinsed in distilled water. − Dry and weigh the material retained on each sieve to 0. − The hydrometer is removed slowly.8. − Observe and record the temperature of the bath after every recording. Without delay as soon as it is in the upright position. in the constant-temperature bath: this is for calibration readings of the dispersant solution and for storage of the hydrometer between the readings. − Transfer the suspension to the 63 µm sieve placed on a receiver. − Add any material passing the 63 µm sieve to the sedimentation cylinder. and placed in the separate cylinder of distilled water in the constant temperature bath. the stop-watch is started (zero time). − Allow the cylinders to stand in the bath until they have reached the bath temperature (about 1 hour). − Place the sedimentation cylinder in the constant-temperature bath. 30 min. or to rotate. 212 µm and 63 µm. Thimphu Bhutan . − Insert the hydrometer for further readings at the following times from zero: 8 . − Use a suitable form to record your observations. − Place a second cylinder containing 100 ml of the dispersant solution and distilled water to exactly 1 L. − Insert and withdraw the hydrometer very carefully to avoid disturbing the suspension unnecessarily. weight after pre-treatment. set on 25 °C. 2 . − When cooled. − Transfer the suspension in the receiver into a 1000 ml sedimentation cylinder. − Wash the soil in the sieve with a maximum of 500 ml distilled water. − Remove the rubber bung and insert the hydrometer steadily and allow it to float freely. 1 . sieve this material on the 2mm. Sedimentation − Fill the sedimentation cylinder to the 1 L graduation mark with distilled water. − Transfer the material retained on the 63 µm sieve to an evaporating dish and dry it in the oven at 105 to 110 °C. Insert the hydrometer slowly about 15s before a reading is due. Executing the test Dispersion − Add 100 ml of the standard dispersing solution to the soil. − Transfer the soil with some distilled water to the cup of the high-speed stirrer and stir for about 1 hour. − Readings of the hydrometer are taken at the top of the meniscus level at the following times from zero: 0. Take the weight mp. the volume of liquid is reduced to about 50 ml by boiling which decomposes any excess hydrogen peroxide Transfer the contents of the conical flask to a funnel with a Whatman No 50 filter paper.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 21 − − − − As soon as frothing has stopped. − Observe and record the top of the meniscus reading. 24 hours and twice during the following day. this will be the sedimentation cylinder.01 g. − Insert a rubber stop in the sedimentation cylinder or close it off by hand and shake the cylinder vigorously to obtain a uniform suspension. It is not essential to keep rigidly these times. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. However a quick rotational twist with the fingers on the top of the hydrometer will dislodge any air bubbles which may adhere to the side.5 .
7982 40 0. Rd.3.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 22 Calculation Dispersion − Calculate the mass percentages according to the wet sieving procedure in paragraph 2. D (mm). from the equation: − ⎛ 100ρ s ⎞ K=⎜ ⎜ m(ρ − 1) ⎟R d . ⎟ s ⎝ ⎠ ρs = particle density (Mg/m3) Reporting The report shall affirm that the test was carried out in accordance with BS 1377: Part 2: 1990 and shall include the following information: 1. table 2. the sieve curve Temperature Dynamic viscosity.3037 15 1.s).2 Sedimentation − Calculate the effective depth Hr − Calculate the equivalent particle diameter D (mm).1 Hr = effective depth (mm) ρs = particle density (Mg/m3) t = elapsed time (min) − Calculate the modified hydrometer reading. the results of the sieve analysis 4. K. from the equation Rd = Rh' .1 viscosity of water Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. of particles smaller than the corresponding equivalent particle diameter . the results of the sedimentation analysis 3.Ro' Where: Ro' = hydrometer reading at the upper rim of the meniscus in the dispersant solution Calculate the percentage by mass. Thimphu Bhutan .3. the method of test used 2. η (mPas) (°C) 0 1.005531 ( ρ s − 1) t Where: η = dynamic viscosity of water at the test temperature (mPa.8909 30 0.5138 10 1. the method of pre-treatment 5. where m = mass of dry soil used (g) or mp = mass of soil after pre-treatment.7865 5 1.6540 Table 2.1369 20 1.0019 25 0. from the equation − η *Hr D = 0 .
Thimphu Bhutan . the plastic limit (Wp) and the shrinkage limit (Ws). There is also a good correlation with the strength of cohesive soils. according to the American standard: ASTM. 1995. Most of the Soil Classification Systems for engineering purpose is. These devices are: Casagrande cup. according to the British standard: BS 1377: Part 2:1990 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. The consistency limits have been used all over the world for many years and a lot of empirical relationships have been developed. among other parameters. The Atterberg limits comprise the liquid limit (WL). Determining the Atterberg limits is a very useful method to classify cohesive soils. based on the consistency limits (See chapter 1-1). There are four test devices for determination of the liquid limit. They define the boundaries between four stages of a soil. according to the British standard: BS 1377: Part 2:1990 Fall cone. expressed in Cu . The concept is based on the fact that the consistency depends largely on its water content. the undrained shear strength.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 23 The Atterberg limits The Atterberg limits are the so-called consistency limits. The classification of soils is not the only application of the Atterberg limits. D 4318 Casagrande cup.
Note: The difference between the American and British Standard. is the difference in base plate of the Casagrande cup. expressed as a percentage of the weight of the oven dried soil. the American standard a harder ebonite one. according the ASTM or BS standard. and chopping with a spatula. 3. the results of the British method are generally higher. Thoroughly mixes each increment of water with the soil as previously described. The water content at this boundary is arbitrarily defined as the water content at which two halves of a soil cake will flow together for a distance of 12-mm along the bottom of the groove separating the two halves. Flat glass plate about 500mm square. The British standard defines a relative soft rubber base. kneading. Test procedure When sufficient water has been thoroughly mixed with the soil to produce a consistency that will require 30 to 35 lift and drops of the Casagrande cup to cause closure of the groove Place a portion of the mixture in the cup above the spot where the cup Pests on the base.01g Drying oven Glass cup or tin dishes Spatulas Fig.1 Liquid limit with Casagrande cup. before adding another increment of water. BS 1377: Part 2:1990 (ASTM D4318) Scope of the test The liquid limit of soil is the water content. Mixing can also be done on a glass plate in the case care shut be taken to keep the hole sample at the same moister content.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 24 3.1. Make further additions of water in increments of 1 to 3 ml. weighing about 250 g. when the cup is dropped 25 times for a distance of 1 cm at the rate of 2 drops/s. Thimphu Bhutan . Because of this difference.40 (425-µm) sieve obtained in accordance with the used standard in a porcelain evaporating dish (about 114-mm in diameter) and thoroughly mix with 15 to 20 ml of distilled water by alternately and repeatedly stirring. Mass balance accurate to 0. Apparatus used Casagrande cup. Squeeze it Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.1 Casagrande apparatus Sample preparation Place the soil sample. from the thoroughly mixed portion of the material passing the No. at the boundary between the liquid and the plastic state.
and place it in a suitable container (for example a matched watch glass). Preserve after completion of the test the test sample if the plastic limit and plasticity index test has to be determined from the soil sample. from front to back or from back to front counting as one stroke. until the two halves of the soil cake come in contact at the bottom of the groove along a distance of about 12 mm. To avoid tearing of the sides of the groove or slipping of the soil cake on the cup. The number of drops should be less than 35 and exceed 15. clean groove of the proper dimensions will be formed.1-2. care being taken to prevent the entrapment of air bubbles within the Mass. Each stroke should penetrate a little deeper until the last stroke from the back to front scrapes the bottom of the cup clean. as follows: Wn = mass of water ∗ 100 mass of ovendried soil Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Record the loss in mass due to drying as the mass of water. Record the numbers of drops required to close the groove along a distance of about 12-mm.2 Casagrande cup Lift and drop the cup by turning the crank at the rate of 2 revolutions per second. Wash and dry the cup and grooving tool. shall be permitted. Record this mass. Weigh and record the mass. The test should always proceed from the dryer to the wetter condition of the soil. Repeat the foregoing operations for at least two additional trials with the soil collected in the evaporating dish.1.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 25 down and spread it in the position shown in fig. expressed as a percentage of the weight of the oven-dried soil. 3. extending from edge to edge of the soil cake in right angles to the groove and including that portion of the groove in which the soil flowed together. Transfer the soil remaining in the cup to the evaporating dish. and reattach the cup to the carriage in preparation for the next trial. Remove a slice of soil approximately the width of the spatula. 3. Thimphu Bhutan . Calculation Calculate the water content Wn of the soil. up to six strokes. The object of this procedure is to obtain samples of such consistency that the number of drops required closing the groove Will be above and below 25. Make the strokes with as few strikes as possible. Oven-dry the soil in the container to constant mass at 110 °C and reweigh as soon as it has cooled but before hydroscopic moisture can be absorbed. Return the excess soil to the evaporating dish. with as few strokes of the spatula as possible. to which sufficient water has been added to bring the soil to a more fluid condition. With the spatula (having a blade about 76-mm in length and 19mm in width) level the soil and at the same time trim it to a depth of 1 cm at the point of maximum thickness. Fig. Divide the soil by firm strokes of the grooving tool along the diameter through the centreline of the cam follower so that a sharp.
-The percentage material passes the 425 mµ sieve. 3. -Treatment of the soil. Round off this number to the nearest whole value. See fig.3 Reporting -Report the liquid limit as the water content corresponding to the intersection of the flow curve with the 25-drop ordinate as the liquid limit of the soil. and the numbers of drops as ordinate on the logarithmic scale. 3. The "flow curve" is a straight line drawn as nearly as possible through the three or more plotted points.3 Fig.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 26 Preparation of the flow curve. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.1. if it was sieved. Thimphu Bhutan .1. Plot a "flow curve" representing the relationship between water content and corresponding number of drops of the cup on a semilogarithmic graph with the water content as abscissa on the arithmetical scale.
Apparatus used .01 g - Fig.1 . but in most cases up to a liquid limit of 100 these differences will not be significant. It is based on the measurement of penetration into the soil of a standardised cone of specified mass.3.2. This value is often used in classification systems. . Note: The results obtained with the cone penetrometer may be differ slightly from those with the Casagrande apparatus. At the liquid limit the cone penetration is 20 mm. i. one can obtain the liquid limit.wash bottle .2.drying oven .Cone penetrometer with standard cone of mass 80 gr. Otherwise these particles shall removed by wet sieving.sample cup of diameter 55 mm and 40 mm deep . particles retained on a 425µm test sieve.Flat glass plate about 500mm square.mass balance accurate to 0. sees fig 3. together with particle size analysis.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 27 3. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Thimphu Bhutan .2 Liquid limit using the cone penetrometer BS 1377: Part 2:1990 Scope of the test With this test.e.1 cone penetrometer Sample preparation Wherever possible the test shall be carried out on soil in its natural state. With many clay soils it is practicable and shall be permissible to remove by hand any coarse particles present.2 spatulas .
-Stir the mixture until it forms a slurry. Add a little more wet soil to the cup and take a second reading.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 28 Sieve procedure -Take a sample of the soil of sufficient size to give a test specimen weighing at least 300 g. or overnight. Md (in g).5 mm. and let the fine particles settle. a third test is carried out. to form a plastic material Place the paste into an airtight container. Remove the soil from the container and remix with the spatulas for at least 10 min. Wn (in %) -Weight the remainder of the sample to an accuracy of within 0.01 g (M6) -Place the sample in a container under just enough distilled water to submerge it. If the second penetration is between 0. Thimphu Bhutan . fill the sample cup with the soil and trim off excess material with the spatula to form a smooth even surface being careful not to trap any air bubbles bring the point of the cone to the surface of the sample lower the dial gauge pointer to the top of the cone and set the gauge on zero release the cone pressing the release button for 5 seconds lower the pointer to the new position of the cone Take a reading to the nearest 0. of the initial sample from the equation: Md = ⎜⎜⎜ 100 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎟M 6 ⎟ ⎜ 100 + Wn ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎜ Where Wn is the moisture content (in %) M6 is the mass of particles retained on 425 µm sieve (in g).5 and 1 mm different from the first. such as very silty soils. it should be approximately 15 mm for the first test. to allow water to permeate through the soil mass. -After a suitable interval pour off any clear water above the suspension. -Collect the material retained on the 425 µm sieve. the Average value is recorded. the curing period may be omitted. and the moister content is measured. and provided the overall Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.01 g (M7).1 mm. and let it dry (warm air) until it forms a stiff paste. Some soils (heavy clays) up to 40 min. Pa = ⎜⎜⎜ Md − M 7 ⎞⎟⎟ ⎟100% ⎜ Md ⎟⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎛ ⎜ Where M7 is the dry mass of particles passing the 425 µm sieve (in g) Execution of the test Thoroughly mix the sample on the glass plate using two spatulas. dry it at 105 °C and weigh it to an accuracy of within 0. -Sieve the slurry through the 425 µm sieve with the minimum amount of distilled water until the water passing is virtually clear. -Collect the fines in a receiver or large container if necessary. and leave it standing for a curing period of 24 hour. and if necessary add distilled water. -Take a representative sample and determine its moisture content. For soil of low clay content. Calculation: From the sieved soil calculate the dry mass. If the second cone penetration differs from the first by less than o. which passes the 425 µm test sieve. Lift out the cone and clear it carefully.
One must be careful not to add too much water at one time. Fig 3. if it was sieved. This is done at least three more times to get a range (min.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 29 - range does not exceed 1mm. The liquid limit is defined as that moisture content where the cone penetrates 20 mm into the sample.B. Reporting -The liquid limit is expressed to the nearest whole number. -The percentage material passes the 425 mµ sieve.2. the average of the three penetrations is recorded and the moisture content is measured. Thimphu Bhutan . the soil is removed from the cup and remixed.2. If the overall range exceed 1mm. take a sample of approximately 10 gram from the cup and determine its moisture content To the remainder of the material add some distilled water and repeat the above procedure.2.2 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. 4) of penetration values from about 15mm to 25 mm. Calculation The moisture contents determined are plotted against the respective penetration depth. both on a linear scale. N. 3. -Treatment of the soil. See fig. and the test is repeated. This value is interpolated from a graph.
Weigh the container and soil as soon as possible.Mould the soil between the fingers again to dry it further. We only use material passing the 425 µm sieve.glass plate .Mould the ball between the fingers and roll between the palms of the hands so that the warmth of the hands slowly dries it. By "crumbling" is meant shearing both longitudinally and transversally as it is rolled. Apparatus .3 mm diameter metal rod . Using a steady pressure. Sample preparation ca.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 30 3. and not due to mechanical breakdown caused by excessive pressure.spatulas . using the finger and thumb of each hand.drying oven . gather the crumbled threads and place them into a weighed moisture content container. The metal rod serves as a reference for gauging this diameter. but this should not be done. using a second moisture content container. The pressure should reduce the diameter of the thread from 6 mm to about 3 mm after between five and ten back-and-forth movements of the hand. Form it into a thread and roll out again as before. roll the thread between the fingers of one hand and the surface of the glass plate. Further divide each into four equal parts. When slight cracks begin to appear on the surface. cool and weigh dry.The first crumbling point is the plastic limit. It may be possible to gather the pieces together after crumbling. It is the empirical established moisture content at which soil becomes to dry to be plastic. . do not reduce pressure as the thread diameter approaches 3 mm.3 Plastic limit BS 1377: Part 2:1990 Scope of the test The plastic limit is often used together with the liquid limit to determine the plasticity index which when plotted against the liquid limit on the plasticity chart provides a means of classifying cohesive soils. Execution of the test.mass balance accurate to 0. but keep each set of four parts together. Repeat this procedure until the thread crumbles when it has been rolled to 3-mm diameter. or oblique rolling or detachment of an excessive length beyond the width of the hand. to form a plastic ball.Repeat stages on the other set of four portions of the soil. divide the ball into two portions each of about 10 g. Some heavy clay may need more than this because this type of soil tends to become harder near the plastic limit. . . It is important to maintain a uniform rolling pressure throughout. . and place in the same container. The sample may be a disturbed sample. . .01 gram. to reform a thread and to continue rolling under pressure.As soon as the crumbling stage is reached. dry in the oven overnight.One of the parts if formed into a thread about 6 mm diameter. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.Thoroughly knead the sample and if necessary mix with the distilled water for 10 min. The thread must be intact and homogeneous. as in the standard moisture content procedure.Repeat for the other three pieces of soil. Crumbling must be the result of the decreasing moisture content only. . . Thimphu Bhutan . 20 gram of material is needed.
Take the average of the two results. Reference Head K. or rolling of the soil is not possible. the test should be repeated. -The treatment of the soil. Remarks From some soils the plastic limit cannot be determined. London Plymouth. Vol 1. Thimphu Bhutan . Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Crumbling occurs before you reach 3mm.H. (1982): Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing.Pentach Press. -The percentage of material passes the 425mµ sieve if it was sieved. Reporting -The average moisture content referred to above is expressed to the nearest whole numbers and reported as the plastic limit. If they differ by more than 0.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 31 Calculations Calculate the moisture content of the soil in each of the two containers.5% moisture content.
ρd. In the third the volume is measured by displacement of water. from the equation: ρd = 100 ρ 100 + W Express the density and dry density of the soil specimen to the nearest 0. which is numerically the same as g/cm3. The dry density. V of the specimen. The first applies to soils that can be formed into a regular geometric shape.01g cutting and trimming tools Paraffin Linear measurement method This method is suitable for the determination of the density of a sample of cohesive soil of regular shape.1 Density BS 1377: Part 2:1990 Scope of the test The bulk density of a soil.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 32 4. In the second the volume of the specimen is determined by weighing it submerged in water.01 Mg/m3 Remark: In practice we often use a (density) cutting ring to prepare a cylindrical sample with a fixed volume Immersion in water method This method determine the bulk density and dry density of samples of natural or compacted soil by measuring its mass in air and its apparent mass when suspended in water. is the mass per unit volume of the soil deposit including any water it contains. Three methods are specified. The sample is mostly extruded from a sample tube but can also be shaped in a cube or rectangular block from a undisturbed soil sample The specimen volume is calculated from the average value of several calliper readings (3 at least) for each dimension of the sample Weight the trimmed specimen to an accuracy of 0. of the soil is known.1 % (m) Calculate the volume. is the mass of dry soil contained in a unit volume. W (in %). Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Thimphu Bhutan . Both are expressed in Mg/m3. calculate the dry density of the specimen. Calculations The bulk density can be calculated: m ρ= V If the moisture content.1mm balance with accuracy of 0. the volume of which can be calculated from linear measurements. ρ. Apparatus used: calliper with accuracy of 0. ρd (in Mg/m3).
g. from the equation: ⎛ Mw . Mw is the mass of specimen and wax coating (in g). Ms is the mass of the soil specimen (in g) Water displacement method This method used the water displacement and mass of a specimen. until a specimen is produced measuring at least 100 mm in each dimension. block or other).Mg ⎞ ⎛ M w . and date of sampling. Allow the waxed specimen to cool and weigh to the nearest 1 g (Mw) Measure the apparent mass of the specimen while suspended in water to the nearest 1 g (Mg) Calculations Calculate the volume of the specimen. By taking the weight of the water coming out. to calculate the bulk density and dry density. depth below terrain (in case of a borehole) Type of sample (core. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. from the equation: ρ= Ms Vs Where. e. sample dimensions The sample transport and storage conditions The density should be reported to the nearest 0. Weigh the specimen to the nearest 1 g (Ms) Fill al l the surface air voids of the specimen with a material that is insoluble in water. Thimphu Bhutan .Mf ⎞ Vs = ⎜ ⎜ ρwater ⎟ − ⎜ ρρ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ Where. plasticine or putty and weigh to the nearest 1 g (Mf) Coat the specimens completely by dipping in molten paraffin wax. ρρ is the density of paraffin wax (in g/cm3) Calculate the bulk density of the specimen. sample number. ρ (in Mg/m3). Vs (in cm3). Reporting The report shall include the following information: Data on the sample Project name.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 33 - Trim the soil sample. the volume can be calculated.01 Mg/m3 The report should specify the type of test. The sample is prepared like the water immersion method and put in a water container with siphon outlet. location. Mg is the apparent mass of specimen and wax coating when suspended in water (in g) Mf is the mass of specimen after making up surface voids with filler (in g).
sample container (watch glasses or tins) oven (24 hr at 105°C ±5°C) dessicator Sample preparation The quantity of the soil sample required for an accurate measurement of the natural water content is dependent upon the particle size of the sample. storage.coarse grained material use 3000 g Execution of the test weigh the sample container to 0. accuracy M1 add the material to be tested and weigh again M2 place container with sample in the oven for 24 hours at a controlled temperature of 105 °C cool the sample in the dessicator weigh the oven dry and cooled sample M3 Calculations Moisture content W = mass of water M2 .1%.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 34 4.Project name. .Data on the sample . Thimphu Bhutan .The water content should be reported to the nearest 0. with the following calculation: Dry density = mass insitu ∗ 100 100 + W Reporting .1990 Scope of the test The objective of the test is to determine the water content of a soil sample as it was sampled in the field or at the moment of testing for the accurate determination of in-situ water content. transporting and handling precautions should be such that the water content remains within 1% of the in-situ value. the sampling. density.M3 = ∗ 100% dry mass of sample M3 .M1 With help of the moisture content W. or other). depth below terrain (in case of bore hole) . location. block. sample number. . particle size.01 gr.2 Natural Moisture Content BS 1377:part 2.The sample transport and storage conditions .medium grained material use 300 g . natural moister content . date of sampling. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. sample dimensions. disturbed.fine grained material use 30 g .Type of sample (core. we can calculate the dry density. Apparatus used - balance accurate to 0.01 gr.lithology.
. add more liquid to fill the bottle and replace the stopper. Weigh the bottle with stopper.Wash the density bottles. dry. Leave the bottle for at least 1 hour under vacuum until no further loss of air is apparent .Vacuum system . wipe it dry and weigh it to the nearest 0. Insert the stopper and immerse the bottle up to the neck in the constant-temperature bath. Replace the lid of the desiccator and repeat the vacuum procedure as specified before .A desiccator containing anhydrous silica gel. .14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 35 4.This procedure is repeated until no more air is evolved from the soil. Execution of the test . . Place the bottle.2 0C .If there is an apparent decrease in the volume of the liquid. The specimens shall be oven dried at 105°C to 110°C and stored in an airtight container.Remove the bottle from the bath and wipe it dry. Weigh the bottle. remove the stopper. Stir the soil in the bottle. .A wash bottle containing air-free distilled water . Leave the bottle in the bath for at least 1 hour so that the bottle attains the temperature of the bath.Remove the density bottle from the desiccator and add more air-free water until full. .Clean out each bottle. each between 5g and 10g shall be obtained by riffling.A rod small enough to go through the neck of the density bottle.A small riffle-box Sample preparation At least two specimens. Thimphu Bhutan .1990 Scope of the test The objective of the test is to determine the density of the soil particles finer than 2mm. insert the stopper and immerse in the constant temperature bath as before.001g (m2) .Oven (24 hr at 105°C ±5°C) .Take the bottle out of the bath.Balance accurate to 0.001 gr. If necessary fill the bottle as specified before.001g (m3) . soil and water to 0. cool and weigh to the nearest 0.A constant temperature water bath in the range from 20-300C ± 0.001g (m1)..001g (m4) Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Apparatus used .Add enough air-free distilled water to cover the soil in the bottle. without stopper in the vacuum desiccator. Before removing the stirring rod wash off any soil particles with a few drops of air-free water.3a: Particle density small pyknometer method BS 1377:part 2. Return the bottle to the bath and again allow the contents to attain the constant temperature.Transfer the soil specimen to the density bottle.A vacuum desiccator .Two 50mL density bottles (pyknometers) with stoppers . with stopper to the nearest 0. fill it completely withy de-aerated water.Release the vacuum and remove the desiccator lid. . . Reduce the pressure gradually to about 25kPa. .
a glass vessel of nominal 1L capacity designed for a screw-top lid. Coarse particles should be broken down. Execution of the test .A thermometer range 0°C to 50°C readable to 1°C . .Balance accurate to 0.5kg. each of about 400g shall be obtained by riffling.A pyknometer.Fit the screw cap assembly and tighten so that the reverence marks coincide.Clean and dry the pyknometer and weigh to the nearest 0.Oven (24 hr at 105°C ±5°C) Sample preparation Take a sample of about 1. Apparatus used . fitted the following a corrosion-resistant screw ring a conical cap of corrosion-resistant metal with a cone-angle of 75 o to 78o and with a hole 6 ± 0.A glass about 300mm long and 6mm diameter. . while holding one finger over the Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.1990 Scope of the test The objective of the test is to determine the density of non-cohesive soil containing particles finer than 20mm. The specimens shall be oven dried at 105°C to 110°C and stored in an airtight container.5 gr.With the screw top removed transfer the soil specimen into the bottle. Coarse particles should be broken down. Reporting The method of test used The average value of the particle density of the soil specimen to the nearest 0. Weigh the bottle.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 36 Calculations Particle density = Where ρs = m 2 -m1 (m 4 -m1 )-(m3 -m 2 ) M1 = mass of density bottle M2 = mass of bottle and dry soil M3 = mass of bottle and soil and liquid M4 = mass of bottle and liquid If the result of the two samples differs more than 0. Fill the pyknometer with water. . . or by rolling it on the bench.3b Particle density large pyknometer method BS 1377:part 2.5mm diameter at its apex . with screwtop assemble to the nearest 0.Agitate by shaking the pyknometer. . Thimphu Bhutan . At least two specimens.5g (m2) .5g (m1).Add water at a temperature of within ± 2°C of the average room temperature to about half fill the pyknometer.01 Mg/m3 4. Stir the mixture thoroughly with the glass rod to remove air trapped in the soil.03Mg/m3 the test shall be repeated.
Top up the pyknometer with water so that the water surface is flush with the hole in the conical cap. Dry the pyknometer on the outside and weigh to the nearest 0.5Mg/m3 the test shall be repeated.05 Mg/m3 repeat the test.5g (m3) Empty the pyknometer.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 37 - hole in the conical top. wash it thoroughly and fill it completely with water at room temperature. Reporting The method of test used The average value of the particle density of the soil specimen to the nearest 0. Allow air to escape froth to disperse. If the results differ more than 0. Dry the pyknometer on the outside and weigh the whole to the nearest 0. Leave the pyknometer standing for at least 24h at room temperature constant to within 2°C. Calculations Particle density = Where ρs = m 2 -m1 (m 4 -m1 )-(m3 -m 2 ) M1 = mass of pyknometer M2 = mass of pyknometer and dry soil M3 = mass of pyknometer and soil and liquid M4 = mass of pyknometer and liquid If the result of the two samples differs more than 0.5g (m4) Repeat the test using the second sample.5Mg/m3 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Thimphu Bhutan .
record the reading of the maximum pointer as the peek value.a choice of spring is made dependent upon the stiffness of the ground : weak ground: spring 2kg.Lower the vane gradually without disturbing the soil sample so that the top of the vane is at least 10mm below the surface of the sample.Record the reading of the maximum pointer as the remoulded value Repeat the test at least twice. The undrained shear strength of soft to firm cohesive soils can be determined without the sample being disturbed by preparation. Alternatively we can clamp a sample container with an undisturbed sample on the base plate of the vane equipment the sample shut be of sufficient dimensions such that the shearing force applied by the vane is not hampered or influenced by forces originating from the extremities of the sample. . Three tests on one sample material should be sufficient if the results are reasonably constant.5mm with a length of about 75mm. Warning: If the (strain)angle indicator rotate for more then 180 degrees stop the test and repeat with a stiffer spring.After stopping rotation wait for a few seconds and slowly apply torque as been done for the peek strength . Place the trimmed sample centrally into the sample container belonging to the equipment. which can be carried out both in the field and in the laboratory. 5.clamp the sample container in the clamping attachment or in a other way vertically below the vane shaft .1-1) Peek value .operate the torque applicator handle with a rate of 1 revolution per second or used the motorized drive unit until the maximum shear resistance of the soil is reached.measure the dimensions of the vane .cm . Thimphu Bhutan .1 Vane test BS 1377: Part 7 1990 Scope of the test The vane test is a test.note the reading on the circular graduated scale . . to remould the soil. Execution of the test (for numbers see fig. Fill the annular space between the wall of the container and the sample with molten wax. At this point failure occurs and the torque decrease but the maximum pointer remains in the position indicated the maximum angular deflection of the spring. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. This method may be used when the sample is too sensitive or soft to enable a compression test.1-1 Sample preparation An undisturbed sample should be cut and trimmed to a diameter of 37. Remoulded value . .bring the maximum pointer in contact with the (strain)angle indicator .cm firm ground: spring 8kg.after reading of the (strain)angle indicator rotate the vane rapidly two complete revolutions. . Apparatus used -Laboratory vane test apparatus see fig 5.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 38 5.
If one result differs appreciably from the others (more then 20%) it should be discarded. τv in kPa τv = M * 1000 K M= measured torque in N.1 Laboratory vane apparatus used at DGM Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Multiply the outcome by the spring factor (is indicated on the spring) and dived the outcome by 180 this give the torque in kgf. Calculate the vane shear strength of the soil. Thimphu Bhutan .mm K = constant which depends on the dimensions of the vane. 5. Average the values obtaining for the different test.mm. ⎛H D⎞ K = πD 2 ⎜ + ⎟ ⎝ 2 6⎠ D = vane diameter (mm) H = vane height (mm) Reporting -The average undisturbed and remoulded shear strengths in KPa -The highest and lowest measured values -Type of testing machine -Size of the vane -Indicate the horizon at with the test was executed Fig.1.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 39 Calculation Calculate the difference between the initial reading and the reading at the peek and remoulded value This difference gives the angle of torque of the spring.cm recalculate this value in N.
Overview test set-up The triaxial test set up maintenance the following apparatus (fig 5.1) 123456789- Triaxial test frame Pressure controller Control panel Triaxial cell Load ring Strain transducer Pressure transducer Volume change apparatus Bladders controls.01mm.1 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. 25 mm 0.2. Strain transducer max. Fig. with the possibility of measuring pore pressure and volume change. under a constant confining pressure. Thimphu Bhutan . air regulator controls.2. controls controls. by increasing the axial strain.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 40 5. controls controls air-water cylinder. The test maybe performed consolidated or unconsolidated under drained or undrained conditions. 5.2 Shear strength with Triaxial test BS 1377: part 8 1990 Scope of the test: The measurement of the effective shear strength parameters for cylindrical specimens of saturated soil which have been subjected to isotropic consolidation and then sheared in compression. Pore pressure transmitter.
Soil mechanics laboratory manual
Description of test
The sample is enclosed in a thin rubber membrane, which is sealed against the pedestal and the top cap on the sample by rubber O-rings. The sample is placed on the base plate of a triaxial cell. The removable cap of the cell is placed over the sample and the total triaxial cell is placed in the triaxial frame. The cell can be filled with (de-aired) water, and with the air regulator we can established the desired cell pressure (σ3). A piston, movable with little friction through a bush in the top cap of the triaxial cell, rest on the top cap of the sample. The upper end of the piston touches a dynamometer, consisting of a metal ring and a dial gauge, which measures the decrease in vertical diameter when a force is applied to the ring. The force is found by multiplying the dial gauge reading by a calibration constant. (See calibration chart) The triaxial frame has a stepper motor and screw jack assembly, which can provide a constant platen speed. This causes a compression of both dynamometer and sample. The rate at which the sample is compressed is depending on the kind test (CU, UU, or CD), and type of material to be tested. A dial gauge just below the dynamometer measures the settlement of the sample. With a pressure transducer, the pore pressure can be measured. And with the automatic volume change apparatus, we can measure the amount of water going in or out the sample. During the practical we will execute an unconsolidated undrained test (UU), this is a normally not much performed test. (No effective stresses are measured)
Sample preparation Specimens shall have a height equal to about twice the diameter, with plane ends normal to the axis. The diameter is normally between 35 and 100 mm. Undisturbed specimens shall be prepared with the minimum change of the soil structure and moisture content. The method of preparation shall depend on whether the sample received in the laboratory is contained in a tube of the same internal diameter as the specimen to be tested, or in a tube of larger diameter, or as a block sample. Preparing the sample from a block sample. Cut out an approximately rectangular prism of soil slightly larger than the final dimensions of the specimen. Make the ends of the prism plane and parallel. Put the prism in a soil lathe (fig 5.2.2) and cut off the excess soil in thin layers. Rotate the specimen between each cut until a cylindrical specimen is produced. Take care to avoid disturbance due to torsion effects. Remove the sample from the soil lathe. Cut to the required length and make the ends plane and normal to the specimen axis to within ½ °. A handy way to establish this is by putting the sample in a catch tube, and cutting away the surplus. With the aid of the levelling ring (fig.5.2.4), smooth the ends of the sample by placing the ring on the end of the catch tube and giving the ring a few turns. Do this to both ends of the sample and make sure that the sample does not slide up and down in the catch tube.
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM, Thimphu Bhutan
Soil mechanics laboratory manual
Fig. 5.2.2, Soil lathe
Preparing the sample from sample tube. (See fig. 5.2.3)
Push the sample tube into the block sample; be sure the sample is long enough. Place the sample tube in the extruder Put on the inner side off catch tube mineral oil or silicone crease 1 = Extruder 2 = Sample tube 3 = Catch tube
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM, Thimphu Bhutan
Soil mechanics laboratory manual
Fasten the catch tube with the fastening fork to the outside of the extruder By turning the screw of the extruder, press the sample out of the sample tube into the catch tube. Separate the sample in the catch tube from the remainder in the sample tube with help of a thread saw With the aid of the levelling ring (fig.5.2.4), smooth the ends of the sample. Placing the ring on the end of the catch tube and giving the ring a few turns Do this to both ends of the sample and make sure that the sample does not slide up and down in the catch tube.
1= Catch tube 2= Sample trimmer 3= Porous discs 4= Specimen
Fig 5.2.4, Catch tube and sample trimmer. Take the weight from sample with catch tube, by subtracting the weight of the catch tube we can calculate the bulk density (fill in your test form). Place footcap and topcap on the ends of the sample. Remove the sample carefully out the catch tube Measure the height and diameter of the sample. (Fill in your test form).
The procedure describes the test set up for an unconsolidated undrained test In order to obtain a reasonable assessment of the C and φ values, three experiments should be done on three different undisturbed samples of the same soil at three different cell pressures. Place the sample with the foot piece and cap on the base of the pressure cell Place a membrane inside the membrane application tube and fold the ends over the outside of the tube, to fit the membrane snugly against the inside wall of the tube wall suck on the hose to create a vacuum between tube and membrane Slide the membrane application carefully over the sample (see fig. 5.2-4)
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM, Thimphu Bhutan
Bring down the base plate from the triaxial machine Open the air vent and drain the water out the cell Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. until the piston is into contact with the dynamometer (no vertical pressure is exerted on the sample) Open the air vent on the cap off the cell and fill the cell with de-aired water Close the vent tightly Build up the desired pressure in the cell with the air regulator cell pressure and control panel (see the operation instruction of these apparatus) Bring the strain gauge in contact with the datum bar on the top of the cell and adjust to read zero Adjust the dynamometer to read zero Select the machine speed. Thimphu Bhutan .5. with help from the air regulator cell pressure. Start the test and note values of the dial gauge from the dynamometer at certain strain intervals see test form Continue the test until a constant reading is obtained on the dynamometer or at 20% strain Stop the test and remove the pressure from the cell.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 44 1 = Membrane application 2 = Sucking tube 3 = Membrane 4 = Base pedestal of the pressure cell 5 = Pressure cap Fig.2-4 Remove the suction (vacuum) between the tube and membrane Roll the membrane ends off of the application tube onto the footpiece and cap Seal the membrane to the base pedestal using two rubber O-rings Remove air pockets from between the membrane and the specimen by light stroking upwards Seal the membrane to the pressure cap with two rubber O rings Roll the extra membrane back over the rubber ring Place the cap of the pressure cell over the sample and onto the base plate and fasten it securely with the tie rods Press the piston carefully onto the cap making sure that the piston falls into the circular hole in the sample cap Bring the load plate from the triaxial frame up (see the operation instructions from the triaxial Apparatus).
4 1. we can calculated the deviator stress (σ1σ3)m (in kPa). given by σ1=(σ1-σ3) + σ3 σ3 is the cell pressure (kPa) Graphically plot the values σ1 and σ3 on the horizontal axis.4 0.0 kN compression.2 1. Thimphu Bhutan .8 1. Temperature at calibration 20 ° C ring serial number 00010105 Gauge reading 0. dial gauge reading times calibration factor (note: the dial gauge reading is already corrected for the applied cell pressure (σ3) and friction from the piston). this area will change during the compression stage so we need to make a correction: The corrected area is given for each strain reading on the test form.6 0.6 1. Draw the Mohrs circles and measures the values for the internal angle off friction (φ) and cohesion (c). given by P/As ∗ 1000 in kPa P = is the axial force in N.0 1.001 mm 245 481 725 965 1214 1459 1705 1955 2201 2449 Load kN 0. where Calibration chart for load measuring ring 2.0 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. As = area cross section of the specimen.8 2.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 45 - Remove the sample from the cell and sketch the failure pattern Determine water content Reporting After executed at least 3 test with different cell pressure (σ3).2 0. Graphically plot the values of deviator stress against the displacement (in percentage) Calculated the major principal stress σ1 (in kPa).
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 46 5. Fig 5. slopes. friction angle and cohesion of soils for stability analysis of foundation.2. Thimphu Bhutan . Because of the length of the beam the applied weight has to multiply with a factor 11. 5. The soil sample confined inside the upper and lower rigid boxes is subjected to the normal load N. The principle of the direct shear test is illustrated in Fig.3-1 1-Frame EL 28-007 2-Thyristor controlled drive unit 3-Gear box 4-Load ring 5-Weight hanger 6-Lever arm (beam) with counter balance 7-Displacement transducer 8-Loading yoke During the practical we will execute the unconsolidated undrained test! Description of test The direct shear test is used to determine the shear strength of soils on predetermined failure surfaces.3.3 Direct shear test BS 1377: part 7 1990 Scope of the test The direct shear test is used to measure shear strength. The test may take place under drained. undrained or consolidated-undrained conditions. This load is applied by the yoke which is placed on the loading cap and by putting weight on the hanger the specimen is loaded axially. and retaining walls.
The soil shear strength is the shear stress τ that causes the soil to slip on surface CD. It can be defined by Mohr-Coulomb theory: τ = C + σ tan φ Where c is the cohesion and φ is the friction angle. the shear stress τ acting on surface CD is equal to T/A. Sample preparation Specimens of either cohesive or non-cohesive soil may be tested in the shear box. the stress path during direct shear cannot be represented. the Mohr circle can be drawn at failure. The sample shall not contain a significant amount of material passing a 63 µm test sieve. assuming that the failure plane is horizontal and the stress state is uniform. However. and the normal stress σ is equal to N/A. to avoid segregation of fine particles. The size of the largest particle shall not exceed one-tenth of the height of the specimen.Push the sample cutter in the soil sample. Loss or gain of moisture by the sample shall be avoided at all stages of preparation.Place the lower porous plate. . Normally three similar specimens are prepared.Determine the weight of the sample cutter . 10∗10∗2 cm (other sizes are possible).1 g. Therefore. or damp and needs to be tamped. If A is the area of surface CD.3.2 The shear force T shears the sample.Place the bottom plate.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 47 Fig 5. but are undetermined on other surfaces. The procedure depends on whether the soil is dry and can be poured. this force is applied by the motorised drive unit and measured with help of the load ring. . Preparation procedures depend on the type of soil. Thimphu Bhutan . . and calculate the initial mass (Mo ) of the specimen. the stress state is not completely defined: τ and σ are only measured on the horizontal surface. Preparation of specimen of cohesion less soil. During the test. . for testing under three different normal pressures Preparation of specimen of undisturbed cohesive soil.Weight the specimen in the cutter to 0. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. or saturated. . trim it with the wire saw and spatula.Push the specimen out of the cutter and into the shear box keeping its upper face horizontal. until it is bedded on to the lower porous plate. and is therefore referred to as sand.
. dry and weight it. (with help of the wooden push block) .Porous drainage plate .Place the bottom plate. .Determine the combined thickness of plates to be used for the test (tp).1 g.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 48 Dry sand: . .Place the lower grooved plate. Execution of the test Place the shear box in the sleigh. .Boil the sand in water for 10 minutes .3.Determine the depth from the top surface of the upper half to the top of the base plate (h1). at right angles to shear motion) . at right angles to shear motion) .Place the upper porous plate.Prepare a quantity of soil somewhat larger than required and determined its mass to 0. . Thimphu Bhutan .Place the lower porous plate. .Bottom plate . .Place the bottom plate.Fill the shear box from the bottom up with: (see fig 5. .Measure the distance from the top of the shearbox to the surface of the porous plate (h2). (h2).Place the grooved plate.Porous drainage plate .Place the saturated sand into the shearbox and compact it by vibration to achieve the desired density. Saturated sand: . . .Weight the total of the unused soil.Place the upper grooved plate firmly on the specimen. . Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.Prepare a quantity of soil somewhat larger than required and determined its mass to 0.3) . . .1 g.Sample.Grooved plate (grooves down. and determine the dry mass of the specimen (mo) by difference. Collect all surplus sand.Determine the combined thickness of plates to be used for the test (tp).Grooved plate (grooves up.Place or pour the sand directly into the assembled shear box until the appropriate thickness. .Level the surface . In the case of drained experiments use the grooved plates with the holes. . .Measure the distance from the top of the shearbox to the surface of the grooved plate. and determined the initial mass of the specimen (mo).Place the upper grooved plate firmly on the specimen.B.Top plate with ball bearing N.Determine the depth from the top surface of the upper half to the top of the base plate (h1). . .
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Calculate Calculate the initial moisture content. (see fig 5. every 30 seconds) until a constant value is obtained for the load-measuring device.3 Apply the normal force by placing the load hanger on the ball bearing. For an undisturbed sample. for an undrained test a rate to approximately 1mm/min. σn = F/A (in kPa) F = mass on the hanger (or equivalent mass if a Lever-arm is used. should be fast enough to approach the undrained condition. Install the measuring devices to obtain the vertical and horizontal displacement. ρd (in Mg/m3). Wo (in %). for sand the effect of the displacement rate on the friction angle is generally negligible within the range 3 to 0. (see fig 5. Apply the normal force by placing the load hanger on the ball bearing. and take the initial reading. Adjust the position of the box such that it is in contact with the screw applying the shearing force and the arm of the top half of the shear box is in contact with the load-measuring device.1) Start the motor and record the readings on the measuring devices at regular intervals (for example. from the equation ρd = Md ∗ 1000 AH o A is the plan area of the specimen (in mm2) Ho is the initial height of the specimen.3-1) Select the shearing speed. from the equation Wo = Mo . Calculate the normal stress at the moment of the maximum shear stress. The force is applied by placing the slotted weights on the bottom of the hanger. Shear stress against the normal stress. Thimphu Bhutan . For greater normal forces the slotted weights may be hung from the lever arm.3. For greater normal forces the slotted weights can put on the hanger from the lever arm.Md ∗ 100 Md Mo is the initial mass of the specimen (in g).14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 49 Fig 5. τ = P/A × 1000 (in kPa) P = Shear force (in N) A = Is the initial plan area of the specimen (in mm2) Plot the displacement against the shear stress and determine the maximum shear stress. For cohesive material the shearing speed depends of the type of test.3. for sand a rate of 1 mm/min. Md is the final dry mass of the specimen. The force is applied by placing the slotted weights on the bottom of the hanger.) Determine the C and φ values by plotting the max.1 mm/min. Calculate the initial dry density. Determine the shear force by correlating the load ring displacement with the force using the calibration chart. (Ho= h1-h2-tp). (Failure points). Ho is equal to the height of the cutter. Calculate the shear stress.
8 1546. Thimphu Bhutan .5 Typical values of effective cohesion intercept C′ and effective friction angle φ′ for various fine-grained soils (drained test).4 2.0 4.6 0.6 Load kN 0.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 50 Calibration chart for load measuring ring 4.9 8-20 7.8 φ′ (deg) 28 31-35 24 20 24 25.2 512.4 2068. Undrained shear strength of clays Consistency description Very soft Soft Soft to firm Firm Firm to stiff Stiff Very stiff or hard Undrained shear strength (kN/m²) < 20 20 – 40 40 – 50 50 – 75 75 – 100 100 – 150 > 150 water Content (%) 53 20 31 30-38 48 Plasticity index PI ( %) 27 2-14 24 52 23 32 67 C′ (kPa) 4.6 2.2 1.0 2.2 2332.5 kN compression.4 12 8.001mm 387.6 1283.6 4.2 3.4 2929.0 1804.8 15 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.2 770. Case record Kimola Canal Trondheim embankment Slope failure in variegated clay shale London clay failures Field test in Oslo clay Kaolin Seven Sisters Dikes Table 1.2 2596. Temperature at calibration 20 ° C Ring serial number 1155-7-13080 Gauge reading 0.2 1029.8 13.8 1.8 3.
Fig 6. When fine grained soils are subjected to changes in load due to construction. Thimphu Bhutan .14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 51 6. The properties that characterise the amplitude and rate of deformation are determined in the consolidation test. but also continues for very long time periods which may last several years. After the excess pore pressure has completely dissipated. which are functions of time and excess pore pressure. their deformation takes place not only at the time of the load application. The long-term settlement of fine grained soil layers is primarily controlled by consolidation. fine-grained soils can also deform due to their viscous nature.1-1 12345678- Consolidation frame Consolidation cell Displacement transducer Loading yoke Counter balance weight Beam Beam support jack Weight hanger Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.1 Consolidation test BS 1377: Part 5: 1990 Scope of the test: Consolidation can be defined as the plastic deformation or void-ratio reduction of a soil mass. a physical process in which the interstitial water that is under excess pressure slowly diffuses through the compressible matrix of soil particles.
Thimphu Bhutan . The method of preparation shall depend on whether the sample received in the laboratory is contained in a tube of the same internal diameter as the specimen to be tested. until the top surface projects a few millimetres above the top of the ring Cut of the soil projecting above and below the ring with the wire saw (see fig.1 mm Weigh the ring to an accuracy of 0. or as a block sample. Because of the length of the beam the applied weight has to multiply with a factor. The height of the ring shall be not less than 18 mm and not greater than 0.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 52 Description of test A prepared soil specimen is put in a consolidation cell (fig 6. from which you will prepare a specimen with help from the cutting ring. (Depending to which hole of the beam the hanger is connected) The stress is held constant until the primary consolidation has ceased. This can take a few hours to a few weeks. 6. resulting in a decrease in height which can be measured with the displacement transducer at suitable intervals.1. During this process water drains out of the specimen. Sample preparation The inside diameter of the cutting ring shall be not less than 50 mm and not greater than 105 mm. The loading yoke is placed on the loading cap and by putting weight on the hanger the specimen is loaded axially. depending of the load and sample material. which is mounted on the cell platform from the consolidation frame. with an accuracy of 0. or in a tube of larger diameter.2) and flat ten both sides carefully with the spatula Remove soil particles sticking to the outer side of the ring Weigh the specimen with ring Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. For the practical you will get a clay block sample. Undisturbed specimens shall be prepared with the minimum change of the soil structure and moisture content.2 Measure the diameter and height of the cutting ring.1. to minimise side friction Place the sample on a glass plate Push the cutting ring into the sample cutting away surplus soil from the outside of the ring as the sample enters it.4 times the internal diameter. Fig 6.1-2).1 gram Lubricate the inner face of the ring lightly with silicon grease.
place the consolidation cell centrally on the frame platform Adjust the counterbalanced loading beam so that when the loading yoke just make contact with the loading cap the beam is slightly above horizontal position Raise the beam a little more above horizontal position and hold it there with the support jack Swing the loading yoke vertical above the loading cap and slowly lower it Adjust the supports jack so that the bull just touches the seating.1-3 With the loading Yoke swung forward and resting on the beam. 694 kPa.Put the cutting ring with specimen centrally in to the cell with its cutting edge uppermost. Normal procedure is to double the stress at each stage.30.1-4): Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.Place the bottom porous disc on the cell base . 0.50 s 1.6. 0.Fix the ring retainer around the ring.8. so that it is securely held.15.Place the loading cap centrally on top Clamping screws Loading cap Upper porous disc Cell body Ring retainer Under porous disc Cutting ring Cell base O-ring Fig.4. and tighten the clamping screws .Place the cell body on the cell base .30 min. (take away the seating load) Start Winclips program.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 53 Test procedure Assembly of the consolidation cell . 6.Place the upper porous disc . the following periods of elapsed time from zero are convenient. The applied stress range will therefore be 174.20. the test has to be done for tree load increments starting with a load giving a stress of 174 kPa on the sample.2. Thimphu Bhutan .24 hours -Plot the readings of the dial gauge or the settlement against time to a logarithmic scale (See fig.1 mm) Add water to the cell Measure with suitable intervals the vertical displacement. . Add a small weight to the hanger (the seating pressure on the specimen shall not exceed 2 kPa) Bring the displacement transducer in contact with the loading yoke and set it zero. If not otherwise indicated by the laboratory assistant.8.40. 347.4.10. (trigger on the vertical displacement transducer.2. 1. Add the first load to the hanger to give the required pressure of 174 kPa.
as in figure 6. After completion the last load increment takes out the consolidation ring Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 54 Fig.1-4. Thimphu Bhutan . it indicates that the primary consolidation phase is complete and that the next load increment may be applied. When it has been established the loading stage may be terminated: Applied the second load on hanger. If the dial reading versus log-time shows a flattening out from the steep part of the curve to a straight line which is less steeply inclined. the decision must be taken whether or not to apply the next load increment.6. If the straight line representing secondary compression has not yet been established. to give the required new stress (347 kPa) The procedure has to be carried out at the same way as done for the first load increment. Repeat this procedure for a third load increment. the load should be left unchanged for another 24 hours.1-4 After 24 hours.
Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. to determine the coefficient of consolidation Cv for each increment of loading. any soil adhering to them should be scraped off and returned to the sample Wipe the outside of the ring dry and weight the sample with the ring Place sample with ring in the oven for 24 h. Calculate the dry density (if no material has been lost during the test). expressed in minutes. 2 H1= Height of specimen at start of a loading increment H2= Height of the specimen at the end of that increment t50 = time for 50 % consolidation. Their intersection gives the compression corresponding to theoretical 100 % primary compression. on the laboratory curve and obtain its time. Take the dry weight. and laying off an equal distance above the upper point.e. t50 (in min). The principle of the method is illustrated in fig 6. at the point of inflexion.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 55 - Remove the porous discs carefully. locate the 50 % primary compression point. Reporting Calculate the bulk mass density and moisture content before and after the test. From the zero and 100% points. i. d50. and the secondary compression portion. Repeat this operation using two other pairs of points having times in the same ratio. Locate the corrected zero point by marking off the difference in ordinates between any two points on the initial (convex-upwards) portion of the curve having times in the ratio 1:4. Thimphu Bhutan .026 H 2 t 50 Expressed in m2/year With: H = H1 + H 2 were. Calculate the coefficient of consolidation with the following equation: Cv = 0. denoted by d100 .1-4. Plot the settlement versus log-time curve. and take the average as the corrected zero compression point (d o Draw and extend the tangents to the two linear portions of the laboratory curve. and analysis has to be made following Casagrandes method. to calculate the moisture content and dry-weight.
Three types of compaction test are described. with one bevelled edge.5 kg.Balance readable to 5 g.A cylindrical mould with an internal diameter 105mm and an internal effective height of 115. one size of mould should be used consistensily.A steel straightedge. . internal volume is used for soil in which all particles pass a 20 mm test sieve. in the CBR mould (See chapter 7.1. which can be achieved.5 kg rammer. uniformly graded and coarse clean sands. If there is a limited amount of particles up to 37.1. Thimphu Bhutan . which controls the height of drop to 450 mm . depends on the degree of compaction applied and on the amount of water present in the soil. using a 2. The dry density. each with procedural variations related to the nature of the soil: 1-Light manual compaction test. . usually by mechanical means.20 mm and 37. For these soils the test description for determination of maximum and minimum dry densities for granular soils would be more appropriate. 3-Compaction with a vibration hammer. thereby increasing the dry density of the soil.2. about 300 mm long and 3 mm thick.Metal rammer: Light test: 50 mm diameter face. weight of 2. Note: For highly permeable soils such as clean gravel’s. .2 . Detachable base plate and removable extension collar figure 7. the results of the laboratory compaction test may provide only a poor guide for specifications on field compaction The laboratory test might indicate meaningless values of moisture content in these free-draining materials and the maximum dry density is often lower than the state of compaction which can be readily obtained in the field.1 Proctor test BS 1377:Part 4: 1990 Determination of dry density/moisture content relationship Scope of the test Compaction of soil is the process by which the solid particles are packed more closely together. sliding freely in a tube. For a given degree of compaction of a given cohesive soil there is an optimum moisture content at which the dry density obtained reaches a maximum value.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 56 7. For a series of tests on a particular soil. sliding freely in a tube which controls the height of drop to 300 mm figure 7. using a 4. .5 mm size.1. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. . min 5 litres.2) Apparatus used . Specifications for compaction by rammer in the CBR mould are based on the same compactive effort per unit volume of soil as in the 1L compaction mould.Jacking apparatus for extracting the compacted material from the mould.CBR mould. For cohesion less soils an optimum moisture content might be difficult to define.5 mm British Standard sieves. For both these tests a compaction mould of 1 L. .Watertight containers or strong polythene bags .5mm. equivalent tests are carried out in the larger CBR mould.A drying oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 105 C to 110 C.Mixer.5 kg. 2-Heavy manual compaction test. Heavy test: 50 mm diameter face. weight of 4.5 kg rammer. as described in chapter 7.
2 Ordinary test rammer The quantity of soil required.1. a suitable amount of water should be added Light test: Sandy + gravely soils: 4-6% (200-300 ml water on 5 kg of soil) Cohesive soils: 8-10 % below the plastic limit Heavy test: Sandy + gravely soils: 3-5% (150-250 ml water on 5 kg of soil) Cohesive soils: 15 % below the plastic limit . . 7. Thimphu Bhutan . .Particles larger than 20 mm should be removed by sieving with the 20 mm and 37.1. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. and the minimum mass of soil required can be determined. Determine the approximate percentage by mass of particles in the soil sample passing the 20 mm and 37. B = Soil particles susceptible to crushing.1 British standard compaction mould Sample preparation Fig 7. For soils not susceptible to crushing.Original bulk sample. .On the basis of these percentage the soil can be assigned to one of the grading zones (1) to (5) in table1. one sample only is required for test and it can be used several times.The amount of material retaining on the sieves has to be weighed and as a percentage from the total mass calculated.Thorough mixing in of the water is essential. Depending on the soil type.5 mm test sieves.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 57 Fig.5 mm BS sieve. is air dried and weighed = w1 . Table 1 Grading Minimum zone Percentage passing test sieve 20 mm % 1 100 2 95 3 70 4 70 5 70 x Less than 70 Minimum Mass of prepared soil required A kg 6 6 15 15 15 Test not applicable Type of mould used B kg 15 15 40 40 40 1L CBR 37.5 mm % 100 100 100 95 90 Less than 90 A = Soil particles not susceptible to crushing. depend on the size of the largest particles present and if the particles are susceptible to crushing during compaction.
4) Remove the extension collar carefully and cut away the excess soil and level off the top of the mould. Mix in the water thoroughly for each increment of water added.1.1. according to fig.3 Sequence of blows -Weigh the soil + mould (m2).3 between the successive blows. should be filled up with fine material. Heavy test. third layer. First 4 blows according to the pattern of fig. Break up the sample on a tray. Repeat with: Ordinary test. the blows are uniformly distributed over the whole area. Now the soil should be compacted by 27 blows for the 1 L mould and 62 blows for the CBR mould.2) fig 7. fourth and fifth layer.1. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.(see fig 7.4% (100-200 ml of water to 5 kg of soil). Fig.1. Any small cavities. the rammer should be moved. resulting from removed stones. Repeat the compaction part so that at least 5 compactions are made. 7. Of course.4 Fit the mould on to the extruder and jack out the soil. The compacted surface in the extension collar should be about 6 mm above the level of the mould body. third. the range of moisture contents should be such that the optimum moisture content is within that range. 7. With this. -Cohesive soils: 2.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 58 Execution of the test - - Weigh the mould = m1 Connect the extension collar to the mould Add loose soil to the mould.3 After this. -if necessary execute the CBR test (chapter 7. Now the moisture content has to be measured by taking three representative samples. Place a second. 7. approximately equal. Break up what is left over from the compacted sample and mix it with the remainder of the prepared sample. Thimphu Bhutan . place a quantity of moist soil in the mould that when compacted it occupies a little over one-third of the height of the mould body for the “ordinary” test and one-fifth for the “heavy” test Place the guide tube gently on the soil and hold it vertically.1. Add an increment of water. approximately as follows: -Sandy+ gravely soils 1-2% (50-100 ml of water to 5 kg of soil). Using the 1L or CBR mould. layer of soil in the mould and compact it with 27 or 62 blows in the same way as described above.
Draw a curve of best fit to the plotted points and identify the position of the maximum on this curve. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Calculate the average moisture content. for each compacted specimen. W.1. Read off the maximum dry density and the corresponding moisture content. which is the optimum moisture content for this degree of compaction. Thimphu Bhutan . W %.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 59 Fig 7.5 graph of dry density-moisture content Calculations Calculate the Bulk density. against the corresponding moisture content. ρ: Bulk density ρ = m2-m1 V Mg/m3 Where m1 = mass of mould and base plate m2 = mass of soil and mould and base plate V = volume of the mould. Calculate the corresponding dry density: ρd = 100 ρ 100 + W Mg/m3 Where ρd = the dry density (Mg/m3) W = the moisture content (%) Plot each dry density.
H. These curves are calculated with the following equation: ρd = Va 100 W 1 + ρ s 100 ρ w 1− where ρd = the dry density (Mg/m3) ρs = the particle density (Mg/m3) ρw = the density of water (Mg/m3) Va = the volume of air voids in the soil. 5 %. W = the moisture content (%) An example of such a graph is given by fig. BS 1377:Part 4: 1990 Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.2% From 5% to 10%: to the nearest 0. British Standard 2.5kg rammer method Whether the test was carried out on a single sample or on separate batches. 10 % for the purpose of this plot.1.5% Exceeding 10%: to the nearest 1% The percentage of stones retained on the 20mm sieve is reported to the nearest 1%.5kg rammer method British Standard 4. The optimum moisture content is reported as follows: Below 5%: to the nearest 0. Pentech Press. - Remarks It is possible to combine this test with the CBR test References: - K. Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing: Vol.5. 7. London. Reporting Description of the soil The maximum dry density for the stated degree of compaction is reported to the nearest 0. Which procedure was followed. and 10% air voids may be plotted on the same graph. 5. Thimphu Bhutan . expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the soil (equal to 0%.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 60 The curve for 0.001 Mg/m3. 2. Head (1982).
with a constant penetration rate of 1 mm/min. With a CBR value above 30%. a load ring with a range of 0-10Kn is needed.01 mm. is an empirical test. Thimphu Bhutan . The displacement-measuring device must have a range of 25 mm and scale units of 0. fittings and tools. min 5 litres Fig 7.1 General arrangement for CBR test Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. The principle is to determine the relation between force and penetration when a cylindrical plunger with a standard cross-section area is made to penetrate the soil at a given rate. Mixer.2 Balance. A seating load of 250N has to be applied. A steel straightedge. expressed as a percentage. with one bevelled edge. With a CBR value up to 30%. can be estimated.5 mm British Standard sieves.2. or CBR-test. about 300 mm long and 3 mm thick. which is used as an important criterion in pavement design.2 Californian bearing ratio test BS 1377:Part 4: 1990 Scope of the test This method covers the laboratory determination of the California Bearing Ration (CBR) of a compacted or undisturbed sample of soil. is defined as the California Bearing Ratio (CBR). Apparatus used - Motor-drive compression machine. A standardised CBR mould.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 61 7. the bearing value of highway sub-bases and sub-grades. The Californian Bearing Ratio test. The load-measuring device depends on the CBR-value. a load ring with a range of 0-50KN is needed. At certain values of penetration the ratio of the applied force to a standard force. A seating load of 50N has to be applied. Watertight containers or strong polythene bags A drying oven capable of maintaining a temperature of 105 C to 110 C. 20 mm and 37. as described in chapter 7. capable of weighing up to 25 kg readable to 5 g. With this test. CBR mould.
the soil conditions (Bulk density. The moisture content of the soil shall be chosen to represent the design conditions for which the test results are required. After bringing the sample to the required moisture content the soil shall be thoroughly mixed and shall normally be sealed and stored for at least 24 h before starting compaction. Where a range of moisture contents is to be investigated. the test material must be sieved with the BS 20 mm sieve. expressed as a percentage of the total volume of the soil (equal to 0%. If this fraction is more than 25 % the test is not applicable.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 62 Sample Preparation. The mass of soil required for the test shall be calculated or estimated. the dry density ρd (Mg/m3). 10 % for the purpose of this plot). water shall be added or removed from the natural soil. Dry density specification. 5 %. When the density or air voids content of a compacted sample is specified the exact amount of soil required for the test can be calculated as follows. either to achieve a specified density in method 3 and 4 or to provide a specified compactive effort Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Table 7. the mass of soil M1 (g). If the soil contains particles larger than 20 mm. dynamic compaction by hand or mechanical rammer. In methods 1 and 2 static compaction is used to achieve a specified density. required to just fill the CBR mould of volume (cm3) is given by the equation: M1 = Where W = the moisture content of the soil (%) ρd = the specified dry density (Mg/m3) Vm = volume of the mould (m3) Air voids specification. Six methods are described in the British Standard for the preparation of disturbed samples for the CBR test. The initial mass shall be measured so that the mass used for the test sample can be determined after compaction by difference.2-1 gives an overview from the sample preparation methods for the CBR test. In the other methods. or by vibrating hammer. To make comparison possible. Thimphu Bhutan . is used. moisture content on dry density) have to be known. W = the moisture content (%) Compactive effort specification: About 6 kg of soil shall be prepared for each sample to be tested. corresponding to an air voids content of Va (%) is given by the equation: Vm (100 + W ) ρ d 100% 100 ρd = Va 100 W 1 + ρ s 100 ρ w 1− where ρd = the dry density (Mg/m3) ρs = the particle density (Mg/m3) ρw = the density of water (Mg/m3) Va = the volume of air voids in the soil. as a check. The CBR test shall be carried out on material passing the 20 mm test sieve.
in order to get an optimal compaction. table 7. is connected to the load-measuring device. The mould with the sample and the surcharge weights is placed in the machine.5 4. Dropping a certain weight several times.5 30-40* 5.2-2. diameter 49. from a certain height performs the compaction. Ensure that the blows are evenly distributed over the surface Table 7.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 63 in methods 5 and 6.2-1 The sample has to be divided in equal parts of weights according to the number of layers mentioned in table 7. Mass (kg) 2. Each surcharge ring Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Thimphu Bhutan .2-2 gives the details of the compaction. of layers 3 5 5 3 3 5 Blows per layers 62 62 30 (60 s) 61 61 56 56 Type of compaction BS ‘ordinary’ (BS 1377) BS ‘heavy’ (BS 1377) Intermediate Vibrating hammer ASTM ‘Standard’ Modified AASHO 10. depending on the required way of compaction.2-2 Compaction in CBR mould equivalent to BS compaction mould Execution of the test.5 lb Rammer drop (mm) 300 450 450 (vibration) 12 in 18 in No. - The load-measuring device is connected to the compression machine.5 mm and cross-sectional area of 1935 mm2 and a length of 250 mm. This is because the compaction takes place in stages.0 lb * Downward force (kgf) to be applied.5 4. The cylindrical plunger. Table 7.
The highest of the two is then the CBR-value.2. After removing the sample from the mould. see figure7. obtained with the test. After 7. moisture content and natural moisture content.This cutting point must then be taken as the new origin point and a new penetration scale.5 and 5. . .-value. . Switch to motor drive and start the loading. . if necessary with construction of the direction.5 and 5 mm penetration. The plunger must be seated on top of the specimen and must be able to move freely from the surcharge weight.5 mm penetration from test × 100% load at 2.2. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Adjust the displacement-measuring device to read zero. .Way of compaction used.B.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 64 - of 2 kg is equivalent to about 70-mm thickness of superimposed construction. .Table with all readings. have to be plotted in a load penetration diagram.Type of sample. test2 . Reading of the load-measuring device has to be taken with every 0.Data on the sample.R.2.The load-penetration curve is normally convex upwards. with a loading rate of 1 mm/min. .Load penetration diagram.25 mm displacement. The load at 2. undisturbed etc.From the inflection point. test 1 . The CBR-value is then: CBR = load at 2.Description of the testing machine and stress rate used. .Data and testing procedure. starting with zero at this new point. The seating load has to be applied by weight.5 mm penetration from standard .5 mm penetration. Figure 7. The same has to be done from the diagram of the standard CBR test. the moisture content has to be determined.2.Lithology.C.2. Correction . particle size distribution. . weathering grade.If not.0 mm penetration has to be read from this diagram. the machine can be stopped.The same calculation is done for 5 mm penetration. the tangent has to be drawn until it cuts the horizontal axis. a correction has to be applied: figure 7. with a CBR value of 100%. must be added. . Thimphu Bhutan .and displacement measuring devices.2 for the standard load for 2.Type of load. Calculation - The data. . Reporting . disturbed.
2. Thimphu Bhutan .2 Tree types of load penetration curve from CBR tests: Test 1. Remarks Usually.K. Manual of Soil Laboratory Testing: Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. no correction required Test 2. correction required Test 3. correction as (B) may not be valid.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 65 Fig 7. References .H. the CBR-test is combined with the proctor test. Head (1982).
Thimphu Bhutan . These procedures are useful either when it is not practicable to make a direct measurement. The falling head test is a permeability test in which the piezometer tube used for measuring the head also provides the water. Permeability can also be derived from data obtained during an oedometer test.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 66 Permeability tests Introduction The permeability of a soil is a measure of its capacity to allow the flow of a fluid (a liquid or a gas in general water) through it. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. but field inspection and testing is beyond the scope of this laboratory guide. The method used for measuring permeability depends upon the characteristics of the material. which passes through the sample. Permeability tests on natural disturbed soil are probably carried out more frequently in-situ than in the laboratory. together with a properly conducted particle size analysis. The constant head test is a permeability test in which water is made to flow through a soil sample under a constant difference in head or hydraulic gradient. In general the voids are interconnected. The "coefficient of permeability" in expressed in terms of a velocity. although they may appear to be so if the rate of low through them is not greater than the rate of evaporation loss. even though clay can be ten million times less permeable than sand. The principle is that soil consists of solid particles with voids between them. which enables water to pass through them. For the indirect assessment of permeability careful inspection of the soil. such as sands.for soils of intermediate and low permeability. The degree of permeability is determined by applying a hydraulic difference across a sample of soil. which is fully saturated and measuring the consequent rate of flow of water. are governed by the same physical laws. and therefore the level falls during the test. The flow of water through soils of all types. Clays are not completely impermeable. from gravel’s and sands to clays. such as silts and clays. The difference between the permeability characteristics of extreme types of soil is merely one of degree. or as a check on direct measured values. There are two types of laboratory tests for the direct measurement of the permeability of soils: Constant head test-for soils of high permeability. are required. Falling head test.
A flat-ended tamping rod long enough to reach to the bottom of the permeameter and about 10mm diameter. Scope of the test This method covers the determination of the coefficient of permeability by a constant head method for the laminar flow of water through granular soils.A calibrated thermometer reading to 0.A stopwatch readable to 1 s. and 1000mL capacity . Direct proportionality of velocity of flow with hydraulic gradients below certain values. The procedure is to establish representative values of the coefficient of permeability of granular soils that may occur in natural deposits as placed in embankments.A large plastic funnel . Sample preparation Sample . . 500mL. Continuity of flow with no soil volume change during a test. this procedure is limited to disturbed granular soils containing not more than 10% soil passing the 63-um sieve. or when used as bases courses under pavements.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 67 8.Two discs of wire gauze or porous material fitting inside the cell . Thimphu Bhutan .A vertical adjustable reservoir tank capable of maintaining a constant –head of water supply . 2. Flow with the soil voids saturated with water and no bubbles in the soil voids. .Permeameter cell conform the standard . containing less than 10% of the material passing the 63µm sieve and equal to an amount sufficient to satisfy the requirements prescribed in (2) and Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.Filter material of a suitable grading for placing adjacent to the perforated plates at each end of the permeameter.5mm . .Internal calliper.1 consist of: .Measuring cylinders of 100 mL. . . Flow in the steady state with no changes in hydraulic gradient. The filter material grading limits should lie between four times the 15% passing size and four times the 85% passing size of the test sample.A supply of clean de-aerated water to the constant head reservoir .5 oC . 4. Fundamental Test Conditions The following ideal test conditions are prerequisites for the laminar flow of water through granular soils under constant head conditions.A scoop for placing soil in the funnel .A set of manometer tubes connected to the cell with flexible tubes including a (pinch) valve . 3.A balance readable to 1 g.A discharge reservoir with overflow to maintain a constant level.1 Constant head test BS 1377 part 5 Permeability of granular soils. at which turbulent flow starts. 1.A steel rule graduated to 0. In order to limit consolidation influences during testing. Apparatus used Permeameter set-up fig 8.A representative sample of air-dried granular soils.1.A scoop small enough to fit inside the permeameter . The material should be well graded between those limits. The grading of the filter material depends on the particle size distribution of the test sample.
From the material from which the oversize has been removed. Take a small portion of the selected sample for moister content and particle density determinations. A sieve analysis shall be made on a representative of the complete soil. select by the method of quartering. prior to the permeability test.1. a sample for testing equal to an amount approximately twice that for filling the permeameter chamber. 8.1 Constant head test Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 68 - (3) below. The percentage of the oversize material shall be recorded. shall be selected by the method of quartering. Thimphu Bhutan . All particles larger than one-twelfth of the diameter of the permeameter cell shall be removed. Weight the remainder of the prepared sample to 1g (m1) Fig.
Record the height of the test sample. Saturation .(investigation piping effects).14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 69 Preparation of the specimens . Distances between manometer outlets X1. which shall be maintained at about 15mm above the surface of the placed material by admitting moor water through the base valve. The water in all tubes shall reach the level of the reservoir surface. each with a thickness of about ½ the diameter. The cell is now ready for test under the normal conditions of downward flow. 7. to the top of the cell and connect the de-aerated water supply to the base. for unit Weight determinations.8.Place the graded filter material on top of the disc to a depth of at least 50mm . which is then closed.Release the piston in the top plate and withdraw it to its fullest extent. Hold the piston down firmly and tighten the locking collar in this position. The final height:diameter ratio of the test sample shall be not less than 2:1. Measure the length of the sample again. Placing and compaction shall be done by one of the following methods.Make the following initial measurements: (see fig. A. Open the manometer tube valves and ensure that no air is trapped in the flexible tubing. 5.Dry the soil left over and determines the mass to the nearest 1g (m2). raising the funnel so that the end of the tubing is just at the water surface. . so that the dry mass of the soil used in the test sample can be obtained by difference m1. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. L (in mm) 4. Avoid segregation. of the permeameter. and close the connections to the manometer tubes 2. to the permeameter cell body. Continue until the cell is filled to the required level. . Open the top connection and the air bleed to atmosphere. 3. Allow de-aerated water to enter the cell and slowly percolate upwards through the sample until it emerges first from the air bleed. tamp or vibrate the material during placement.Place the prepared soil into the permeameter in such a way as to give a homogeneous deposit at the required density or voids ratio.Fill the permeameter cell with water and saturate the sample as follows. . without entrapping air. . Connect the control valve on the base of the permeameter to the de-aerated water supply. L in mm as an average of three measurements . X2. and then from the top connection.m2. D. Thimphu Bhutan . If a test with upward flow is required. This will result in a saturated sample in a loose condition. Set the inlet reservoir at a level a little above the top of the permeameter cell and open the supply valve. .1. Support the funnel so that the tubing reaches to about 15mm above. Connect the control valve on the base of the cell to the de-aerated water supply and allow de-aerated water to enter the cell to a height of about 15mm above the porous disc.Record the weight of the remaining air-dried sample. Release the soil and water mixture into the cell. . and record the average measurement. . If higher density is required.Place the upper wire gauze or porous disc on top of the prepared sample. and connect the control valve at the base to the discharge reservoir.Lower the piston carefully and bed the perforated plate on the filter material. fit the control valve connected to the discharge reservoir. W1. B.Place the graded filter material in the bottom of the cell to a depth of about 50mm and place a wire gauze or porous disc on top.Fit the top plate . Hand tamping: Place the soil sample in at least four uniform layers. Placing under water: Thoroughly mix the prepared soil with de-aerated water and place the mixture in a suitable funnel fitted with a bung and length of flexible tubing. .Assemble the base plate. Tamp each layer with a controlled number of standard blows with the tamping rod. Close the control valve. (if the sample is placed under water start with step 4) 1. with perforated base.1) Inside diameter. 6. Connect the de-aerated water supply to the permeameter top connection.
If the levels indicate a significant nonuniformity of the hydraulic gradient remove and replace the sample.2 Test procedure. . . . . . . Thimphu Bhutan . Allow the water levels in the manometer tubes to become stable before starting measurements.Adjust the height of the inlet reservoir to a suitable level.Place a measuring cylinder of suitable capacity under the outlet from the discharge reservoir and simultaneously start the timer . .2.If needed the hydraulic gradient can be increased by increasing the height of the inlet reservoir. in mL/s during the period of each observation.Record the levels of water in the manometer tubes.Measure the quantity of water collected in the cylinder during a given interval of time.Repeat the measurement at least four times. t where: q = the rate flow in mL/s Q1 = is the volume of water (mL) collected from the outlet reservoir during the time interval t t = time interval in s Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Calculations Calculate the rate of flow q1 and q2 etc.1.Open the control valve at the base to produce flow through the sample. Often a hydraulic gradient of 0.1.2 is suitable. q1 = Q1 etc. downward flow fig 8. Alternatively record the time required to fill the cylinder up to a given volume.Record the temperature of the water in the discharge reservoir.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 70 fig 8.
1. Thimphu Bhutan . I.5 1. Draw the straight line of best fit through the plotted points and determine its slope ∆q ∆i When a range of hydraulic gradients is used the coefficient of permeability of the sample may be calculated from the equation: ⎛ ∆q ⎞ ⎛ Rt ⎞ k =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ∆i ⎠ ⎝ A ⎠ Calculate the dry mass and of the initial sample Calculate the dry density ρd with the volume measurements of the sample in the permeameter cell If we know the particle density ρ s we can also calculate the void ratio. e = ρs −1 ρd Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. Table 8.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 71 Calculate the hydraulic gradient. A = the area of cross section of the sample in mm2. between the uppermost and lowest manometer: i= h y where I = the hydraulic gradient h = the difference between the two manometer levels in mm y = the height difference between the corresponding manometer connections on the cell Calculate the coefficient of permeability.885 0.8 If a test have been carried out on different hydraulic gradients.3 1.15 1 0. k in m/s. for one set of readings: ⎛ q ⎞⎛ R ⎞ k = ⎜ ⎟⎜ t ⎟ ⎝ i ⎠⎝ A ⎠ where = the coefficient of permeability in m/s = the rate flow in mL/s = the hydraulic gradient = the temperature correction factor for the viscosity of water.1: temperature conversion table Laboratory temperature. plot the calculated values of rate of flow. derived from table 8.1 to standardize the permeability to 20 oC. q against hydraulic gradient. i. T in oC 5 10 15 20 25 30 k q i Rt Correction factor Rt 1.1.
The method of placing and compacting the test sample. .The coefficient of permeability for other conditions. . Thimphu Bhutan .A plot of coefficient of permeability. . if relevant . k in m/s.Information on the method used including the standard followed. for laminar flow corrected to 20 o C. k on log scale against density or voids ratio if appropriate.The proportion and size of oversize material removed before preparing the test sample.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 72 Reporting results .The dimensions of the permeameter .The dry density and if required the voids ratio .The coefficient of permeability.The particle size distribution curve. . to two significant figures. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. .
i. Test procedure. m1. The sample may be prepared in the usual manner with its axis vertical. Measure the mean internal diameter. E. 15. Close valve A if the water reaches level 2 and stop the vacuum pump. Several standpipes of different diameters are normally available from which can be selected the diameter most suitable for the type of material being tested. Use some of the soil trimmings for determining the moisture content of the sample. Close the cell. or with its axis horizontal (or parallel to bedding) for measurement of horizontal permeability (or permeability parallel to bedding). Open the valve of the in 10 mentioned tube and open valve B. 13. 4 or 5 depending on the expected permeability of the sample. The block sample should be firmly supported on a flat surface. Preparation of sample. It is essential to ensure that the sample is a tight fit in the cellbody. Preparation of apparatus.2 Falling Head Permeability Tests. D and E as long as necessary to fill respectively the tubes 3.1 g.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 73 8. or with plasticine. but the sides around the sampling location should not be laterally restrained. Open valve A and start the vacuum pump (50 cm Hg) Due to this vacuum the test sample will become saturated with water from the bottom to the top. 7. and that there are no cavities around the perimeter through which water could pass. Choose for the permeability measurement tube 3. a. Gaps or cavities should be well packed with the fine matrix portion of the soil. Close valve F. B. a relatively short sample is connected to a standpipe. Weigh the sample in the cell to the nearest 0. Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. the water level in the 10 mentioned tube y2. m2. A cylindrical test specimen may be obtained from a block sample of soft or fairly firm clay by pushing a U-100 cutting shoe. C.Measure after a certain time interval. for measurement of vertical permeability. Open respectively valves C. The procedure described below follows generally accepted practice.5 mm. or by ASTM Standards. silts clay. for a distance of about 90 mm. See that the cell body is clean and dry. If the areas of cross-section. Measure the start level in the tube y1. Control that valves A. 4 and 5. Scope The falling head permeability test is used for measuring the permeability of soils of intermediate and low permeability (less than 0. t. and F are closed. Repeat this several times until you measure a constant value. to the nearest 0. of the three manometer tubes are not known.e. D. flowing through the sample. Open valve B and F and when the water has reached level 1 close valve B. Fill the cylinder with de-aired water.Measure the water level in the cylinder hO.1 g. and weigh to the nearest 0. Permeability of fine soils. which has a sharp cutting edge. Place the permeameter cell containing the sample in the cylinder (see figure).0001 m/s). Note: This test is not covered by British Standards. D. which provides both the head of water and the means of measuring the quantity of water. they should be determined. Before withdrawing the tube it should be rotated one complete turn to shear off the soil at the end. Thimphu Bhutan . The tube should be pushed in squarely with a steady pressure. Fill the cylinder up to level 6 with water.
Head. Volume 2: Permeability Shear Strength and Compressibility Tests. Thimphu Bhutan .2. fig 8.1.H. Pentech Press London. By: K. t = measured time interval (s). h2 = end level manometer tube =y1-hO (m).14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 74 Close all the valves. L = length of sample (m). A = cross section area of sample in permeameter cell (mm2).00001 ⎝ h2 ⎠ Kt = A∗t Where: (m/s) Kt = permeability (m/s) a = cross section area of used manometer tube (mm2). h1 = start level manometer tube = y1 . The permeability of the sample is calculated by: ⎛ h1 ⎞ 3. Calculation. Plymouth.1 permeameter test falling head Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. If necessary the permeability can be expressed as the permeability at 20 °C by multiplying it by a factor obtained from the temperature conversion table 8.1.84 ∗ a ∗ L ∗ log⎜ ⎟ ∗ 0.hO (m). References: Manual of Soil laboratory Testing. Remarks Permeability can also be derived from data obtained during an oedometer test.
When pushing the instrument into the ground. The values read on the scale must be divided by 2. Warning The readings obtained from the pocket penetrometer do not replace laboratory test results due mainly to the fact that a small area penetration test is inherently liable to give misleading results. determining the approximate unconfined compressive strength and the estimation of the undrained shear strength.1 Pocket penetrometer. This reduce mistaken and uncertainties typical of shallow measurements which are often affected by remoulding.98mm has a area twice the standard point. (with the heavy duty penetrometer up to the narrowing) The penetrometer is now extracted from the soil and the equivalent unconfined compressive strength can be read from the scale in MPa. The heave duty penetrometer has 3 interchangeable points. and a scale.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 75 9.5MPa. The values read on the scale must be multiplied by 2. a drag unit. Heavy duty pocket penetrometer Scope of the test The pocket penetrometer is intended for in situ soil investigation at the surface. For the standard point (6. The readings on the penetrometer are given for this point the range is up to 1MPa. A drag unit is taken along during this operation. Smooth the surface of the area to be tested. is fully extended to the "0" position. In theory. The standard point has a diameter of 6. and the scale readings on the penetrometer penetrometer correspond to unconfined compressive strength. the pin encounters a force of the ground. The pocket penetrometer should be regarded as a simple tool to aid the engineer in exploration and in checking and comparing similar types of soil. The heavy duty penetrometer has a special designed penetration rod which allows relatively deep penetration of the soil (up to 6cm). Be sure that the sliding indicator not slides back if the penetrometer is extracted from the soil.1. The instrument should not be used for obtaining foundation design data.35mm. Apparatus The pocket penetrometer is composed of a steel tube. the undrained shear strength of purely cohesive materials can be obtained by dividing the UCS reading by two. which shows on the scale the maximum that has been encountered. Report your values in kPa Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. The smallest point has a section half of that of the standard. Calculation and interpretation of the test results The calibration of the instrument is based on many tests on clays ranging from soft to very hard. It is a lightweight and easily transportable device for classifying cohesive soils in terms of consistency. Thimphu Bhutan . Range up to 0. a flat-tipped measuring pin.89mm diameter) readings divided by 2 For the smallest point (4. These tests were run concurrently with unconfined Figure 0. This force compresses the spring. 6 mm) is level with the surface. Range up to 2MPa Test procedure Before using the penetrometer ensure that the sliding indicator. drying etc.55mm diameter) readings multiplied by 2.35mm diameter)r readings as indicated on the scale For the largest point (8. of the surface. The largest point. a spring. The penetrometer is placed perpendicularly on the soil surface and pressure is exerted until the calibration mark (approx.1: Pocket compression tests on the same series of samples. diameter 8.
Remove the plastic cover .When the pointer needle is not increasing anymore (stays on the same reading) or the pointer even falls back.: Do not touch or in any way disturb the position of the pointer needle until the reading is taken. Apparatus The measuring part of the instrument is a spiral-spring. Thimphu Bhutan . When the Body is turned. which makes it possible to measure shear strength of 0 to 28 and .Write down the reading together with position of hole and depth.Note the reading on the graduated scale.After use always put back the plastic cover over de body.: Do not allow the body to spring back. . N. N. .B. The accuracy of the instrument should be within 10% of the reading. Special procedure Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM.Make sure that the pointer needle is set to the zero reading.B. Two sizes of four-bladed vanes are used: 19mm (readings on the outer-scale) and a 33mm (readings on the inner-scale).2 Pocket Hand vane tester Scope of the test The vane is used to measure the in-situ undrained shear strength in clays. Note: When coupling and uncoupling vanes and rods always use both spanners to avoid straining the spring which could ruin the accuracy of this calibrated instrument .B. which is necessary to turn the vane. N.Holding the body firmly.When the reading is taken pull the vane up. By means of a graduated scale on the dial plate the shear strength of the clay is obtained.Turn body clockwise with a constant speed equivalent to one complete revolution in a minute.Connect required vane to the inspection vane instrument. 0 to 120 kPa Test procedure .: Do not twist inspection vane during penetration. allow it to return to zero-position.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 76 9. . . The size of this displacement depends on the torque. . .Push vane into the ground to a depth of about 70-80mm with as little sideways movement as possible. . failure and maximum shear strength is obtained in the clay at the vane. . It is primarily intended for use in trenches and excavation at a depth not influenced by drying and excavation procedure. the spring deforms and the Dog plate and the Bogy of the instrument get a mutual angular displacement. The range of the instrument is form 0 to 120kPa when two different sizes of vanes are used.
Calculations With the 19mm vane we read from the outer scale directly the undrained shear strength in kPa With the 33mm vane we read from the inner scale directly the undrained shear strength in kPa Report your value as the undrained shear strength determined with the hand vane. Thimphu Bhutan . Geotechnical Laboratory of DGM. the friction between the clay and the extension rods can be appreciable preferable we take the measurements in a borehole.14/06/2005 Soil mechanics laboratory manual 77 When measuring the shear strength at greater depths we can ad extension rods.
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