MU0010 – Set I

Q1. What are the advantages of manpower planning? ANS: Manpower planning ensures optimum use of available human resources. 1. It is useful both for organization and nation. 2. It generates facilities to educate people in the organization. 3. It brings about fast economic developments. 4. It boosts the geographical mobility of labor. 5. It provides smooth working even after expansion of the organization. 6. It opens possibility for workers for future promotions, thus providing incentive. 7. It creates healthy atmosphere of encouragement and motivation in the organization. 8. Training becomes effective. 9. It provides help for career development of the employees. Manpower planning is a process of generating a plan, showing the demand for staffing over a period of time, based on assumptions bout productivity and costs associated with the employee. The supply of the resources available with in the hospital and the short falls, that may have to be supplemented from out side, are also estimated. Q2. Explain any three demand forecasting techniques. ANS: Demand Forecasting Techniques Forecasting is an expensive way to help a company plan and prepare for the future years. Forecasting is not fortune telling; it is but an educated guess of how much manpower will be required and utilized by a firm or organization. It is a tool used to help in budgeting and allocating finances or hiring employees as perfectly as possible. One of the important features of forecasting is the quality of manpower resources (knowledge, skill, values and competency, capacity etc) as well as the quantity of manpower resources. There is no right way of forecasting, but there are many different types of forecasting methods. Each one is specifically planned and designed to help different retail organization and it is up to each of them to choose the model which is best and most appropriate for them. Manpower planning is done based on the manpower forecasts. The common manpower forecasting techniques are: (1) Expert Forecasts This is a group forecasting method in which experts present their independently developed forecasts to the group. However, the experts do not meet each other. The group keeps refining their forecasts

This is called as the Delphi technique. but iteration is again likely to be present. Sometimes the objective is to understand and explain what is going on. Then modeling is the key. The logical order in which to tackle these three goals depends on the key objective. In this method managers estimate future manpower requirements based on their experience and judgment. the future forecast is made. You may model to get forecasts. The trend equation is: Y^ = a + b X + E Y^ = Estimated value of Y a = Constant or Intercept b = slope of trend line X = independent variable E = Error term Explained variation – means the extent to which the independent variable explains the relative change in the dependent variable. Then the trend analysis would forecast a requirement of 13 secretaries for the following year. Past data is used to make future predictions. . Often modeling and forecasting proceed in an iterative way and there is no „logical order‟ in the broader sense. Then the order is forecasting. The time series analysis has three goals: (i) Forecasting (also called predicting). The idea of deciding the order is to ensure that one task leads to another and /or justifies the other tasks. dividing points equally on both sides. (ii) Modeling (iii) Characterization. modeling and characterization. Based on the past forecast. which enable better control. using the trend equation called “Predictive analysis”. if an organization had 12 secretaries in the firm and this number were increasing by 1 secretary every year for the last 4 years. we find „Line of Best Fit‟ and then it is projected in a scatter diagram. For example. That is one additional secretary for the year. Based on trend equation.until a group consensus is reached. Higher the explained variation. Sometimes the objective is getting better forecasts. (2) Trend Analysis This technique requires studying the past data of an organization. utilization and requirement actually experienced in the business. lower the error value leading to accurate forecast. Known or Independent variables are used for predicting unknown or dependent variables. though out-of-sample forecasting may be used to test any model.

g. of employees required for doing the job.: secretaries. the trend analysis forecasting method often fails. This depends on the nature of the work load in a branch. But for extraordinary circumstances either good or bad for the organization.g. This then enables deciding the no. The drawback is that you follow practices that you followed in the past. It is calculated in two ways.R2 = Unexplained Variation Trend Analysis – Line of Best Fit This process may be followed at the organization level as a whole or for parts of the organization based on department. finance. · Work-Load Analysis · Work-Force Analysis i) Work-Load Analysis One more method of forecasting is by evaluating the work load in a department or job role. administration & human resources. (3) Work Study Technique It is a technique that can be used when it is possible to apply work measurements to know how long operations should take and the amount of labor required.R2 = Explained Variation 1. location etc. Doing this at a granular with assumptions being documented and shared with the approving authority increases the forecast accuracy. of employees who are enabling the employees involved in directly revenue earning jobs. Also this may build in turn the organization teeth to tail ratio unfavorable for making profits or enhancing profits.: production employees. E. . If the organization is experiencing the same rate of growth then this may work. or a division in a firm or organization. E. of employees who are directly into revenue earning jobs. Tail is the no. operations employees and sales staff. department. Teeth are the no.

The organization leaders get involved to ensure that the demand forecasts are realistic and there is a reasonable buffer built in. Q4. Also the forecasting person. The sourcing strategy must accomplish a proper balance between business drivers such as cost. The success of sourcing alternatives depends on the strategic alignment of sourcing internally. quality of services. Calls receivable per hour are plotted. Then the no. Distinguish between internal and external sources of recruitment. Also the service level is considered. labor turnover and idle time on the basis of past experience is made. ii) Work-Force Analysis In workforce analysis a sufficient margin for absenteeism. As we all know that a business organization with high overheads cannot sustain losses for more than a certain number of weeks or months depending on the business. in such cases the service level may be taken as 100%.   Internal Sourcing External Sourcing Proficient planning and execution of these “multi-sourcing” strategies requires efficient control and change management. Based on all the above inputs the workload evaluation technique allows forecasting manpower demand. The client understands the cost involved and is willing to pay for a higher service level. so as to be able to sustain any deviations without a severe compromise in profitability or credibility with the client. Sourcing the candidate from within the organization is known as internal source ofrecruitment and sourcing candidates from other sources is known as external source of recruitment. However. Some clients do not want to keep their customers on hold for more than 1 minute. Q3. needs to be able to keep in mind any seasonal variations and special events that are likely to occur for the predicted period. Organizations should focus on aligning these solutions with short-term and long-term business goal. Describe the major approaches of talent development. transformation. Ans: Many organizations use a combination of both internal and external sourcing alternatives to deliver business support services. Internal Sourcing . This allows for completing the total job at hand undertaken by an organization despite the challenges of labor turnover or absenteeism. of employees required to service those number of calls is calculated.Example: In BPOs. If 2 lakh calls are received in a month. Staffing is decided to ensure per hour manpower adequacy to support the service level required by the client. then it puts the business under loss. The entire organizations future depends on this. as well as the strategic and planned initiatives across their business units. Therefore the workforce analysis has to be done with caution and by an experienced person with data validated for the past periods. The organization needs to make reasonable prediction of labor turnover or absenteeism. Demand forecasting is a very responsible job. 1. This would mean many people go jobless if the company happens to shut down. This could mean the profits of the company reducing or the company experiencing a loss. if the actual labor turnover or absenteeism exceeds the predicted value. if an agent can handle 18 calls in a day of about 25 minute duration. business agility and control. then the workload is evaluated on a per day basis. This requires for staffing additionally such that the customers are not on hold for more than 1 minute.

The past performance track record of the employee is known. Retired Employees Sometimes organizations prefer to re-employ their retired employees due their immense experience and knowledge and lack of suitably skilled and efficient candidate matching their requirement for the job opening. . Advantages of Internal Sourcing · · · · · · · The advantages of internal sourcing are: Reduces cost of recruitment. induction and orientation.When you hire staff or contract staff who is working or was working with your organization earlier. Lack of new ideas and approaches from outside the business. then it is called as internal sourcing. Disadvantages of Internal Sourcing · · · · Limits the options for selection. May discourage the candidates not appointed. then it is called as external recruitment. The time to transfer to the new role may be shorter. organizations consider transferring surplus employees to meet the shortage of staff in the other branch rather than sourcing externally. Temporary Staff Many organizations appoint temporary staff for short projects. Reduces cost of training. Transfers In case of excess hiring or businesses slowing due to various reasons in one branch of an organization and shortage of employees in another branch. At the end of such projects organization often try to retain efficient resources by deploying them to available positions in other roles. Stability of employment can be ensured for the candidate. Creates another vacancy by moving the candidate from current job. Examples are: Advertisements in Media Advertisements of the job openings in newspaper and journals magazines are generally used as a source of external recruitment. External Sourcing When you hire staff or contract staff who has never worked with your organization earlier. An internal source is considered for: Promotions Availability of competent resources within the organization are given first preference and considered for filling the vacancies at higher levels by way of promotions. 2. Motivates employees and provides experienced competent people for the job role.

tasks and responsibilities. train. Data Banks Organizations collect CVs of candidates from different sources likeemployment exchange. What are the advantages of carrying out Human Resource Accounting? ANS: The benefits of Human Resource Accounting. Therefore external recruitment is done. Also it brings in a freshness of thought and perspective. In order to assist employees in helping an organisation to reach its strategic business goals. Consultants They identify candidates matching the job profile and charge a fee for providing candidates till you find the right candidate who accepts the offer. When the business grows and if the business is manpower intensive. It is in fact difficult to imagine how an organisation could effectively hire. They bring the culture of performance and meritocracy. appraise. and screen and shortlist the candidates. compensate or use its human resources without the kinds of information derived from job analysis" The importance of human resources within an organization is becoming increasingly understood in today's rapidly changing and uncertain business environment . it is better to hire someone externally than to wait for people in your own organization with 4 years experience to gain 11 more years of experience. This helps in proper interpretation of Return on Capital Employed. effective human resource managers often gather job related information in a job analysis and job description. If the job role requires tremendous experience (e. which is vital to creating or re-designing jobs which provide employees with a high level of job satisfaction . The adoption of the system of HRA discloses the value of human resources. 15 years). The basic human resource activity of gathering detailed information about a particular job's duties. training institutes etc.Campus Selections in Institutions Various colleges and institutions are a good source of recruiting well qualified executives. then additional resources are required. Such information would give a long term perspective of the business performance which would be more reliable than the Return on Capital Employed under the conventional system of accounting. Capable people from the world‟s best organizations bring best practices with them. 1.g. medical staff etc. Q5. This is the only way to scale up the business. engineers. can help organisations achieve strategic goals more efficiently and effectively by avoiding both duplication and overlapping of work in jobs. . External recruitment has many advantages. Employee Referrals Organizations encourage internal employees by providing benefits for referring friends and relatives for some position in their organization.

Aravind. transfer versus retention retrenchment or relieving versus retention. The HR Manager decided to conduct an exit interview with Mr. Thus. would boost the morale. This affected his performance and also left him dissatisfied. Mr. giving rise to increased productivity. What questions do you think that the HR manager would want to ask Mr. employees) improves managerial decision-making specially institutions like direct recruitment versus promotions. creating in their mind a sense of belonging towards the organization and would act as a great incentive. Recently two fellow team members were shifted to another team and their work was handed over to him. The maintenance of detailed record relating to internal human resources(i. 4. Aravind works at K&D Company. because. the fact that a monetary value is attached to human resources and that human talents devotion and skill considered as valuable assets and allotted a place in the financial statements of the organization. and proper understanding of the evil effects of avoidable labor unrest / disputes on the quality of internal human resources.Aravind? . the use of HRA will definitely improve the quality of management. efficient allocation of resources in the economy . layoffs and day-to-day maltreatment by supervisors and other superiors in the administrative hierarchy. Q6. loyalty and initiative of the employees.efficiency in the use of human resources. pave the way for increasingly productivity of human resources.e. Finally. demotions.2. 3. he forwarded his resignation letter to the HR Department. The system of HRA would no doubt. utility of cost reduction programs in view of its possible impact on human relations and impact of budgetary control on human relations and organizational behavior. The adoption of the system of HRA serves social purposes by identification of human resources as a valuable asset which will help prevention of misuse and under use due to thoughtless or rather reckless transfers.

Features of Intrapreneurship Entrepreneurship involves innovation. Discuss intrapreneurship in detail. an organisation can get following benefits:  Reduced hiring costs – As lesser number for employees will be hired by using consultants and more number of students will be hired from the training academy. which profits the organisation he/she is employed with. Intrapreneurship may include corporate venturing. An entrepreneur will be able to look at things in novel ways. In 1992. Also. only the selected candidates are paid at the end of the training. The academy always has excess people than what the organisation requires.MU0010 – Set II Q1. Reduced training period – Train to Hire process completely concentrates on training the new candidates. the ability to take risk and demonstrate creativity.    1. Improved bench strength – The organisation has ready replacements available in case of employee turnover or any additional manpower required for expansion. The American Heritage Dictionary acknowledged the popular use of a new word. What benefits does an organization get out by setting up an academy? By setting up an academy. Reduced training cost – During the training period the candidates are not paid salary. This gives the organisation the flexibility to backfill at short notice and expands the business in the shortest possible time. It is in the interest of an . As a large chunk of the training is conducted by the academy. An intrapreneur thinks like an entrepreneur looking out for opportunities. so the cost of salaries paid during the training period is saved. Intrapreneurship is the practice of entrepreneurship by employees with an organisation. it is referred to as intrapreneurship. He will have the capacity to take calculated risk and to accept failure as a learning point. the organisation generates revenue on every candidate trained. When entrepreneurship describes activities within affirm or a large organisation. Intrapreneurship is today a tool used by corporate to harness the true potential of their high performers which integrates risk-taking and innovation approaches apart from reward and motivational techniques which were usually thought as only possible by entrepreneurs. Intrapreneurship is a novel way of making organisations more profitable where imaginative employees entertain entrepreneurial thoughts. Their go-live time is the shortest. the training period of the company reduces substantially. the hiring cost is reduced. to mean “A person with a large organisation who takes direct responsibility for turning an idea into a profitable finished product trough assertive risk-taking and innovation”. intrapreneur. when large entities spin-off organisation.

Something we loved doing two years ago may now give us displeasure.what you really want out of your career. Are you happy with your path? Could you have done things better? What might you have done differently? What can you do differently in the future? 3. not something to be dreaded or put off.that you feel most strongly about. 2. Once you've mapped your past. take the time to reflect on your course -. Career planning should be a rewarding and positive experience. And it's never too soon or too late to start your career planning. Map Your Path Since Last Career Planning One of your first activities whenever you take on career planning is spending time mapping out your job and career path since the last time you did any sort of career planning. understanding their needs. 2. Make Career Planning an Annual Event Many of us have physicals.and you'll be better prepared for the many uncertainties and difficulties that lie ahead in all of our jobs and career.especially given the data that the average worker will change careers (not jobs) multiple times over his or her lifetime. but rather an activity that should be liberating and fulfilling.and then left behind as we move forward in our jobs and careers. While you should not dwell on your past. thoughts and plans.will help you plan for the future. providing goals to achieve in your current career or plans for beginning a transition to a new high school or college -. Here.and schedule a retreat for yourself. career planning is an activity that is best done on a regular basis -. Intrapreneurship is a significant method for companies to reinvent themselves and improve performance. Career planning is not a hard activity. Intrapreneurship and employee engagement The highest form of employee engagement is possibly intrapreneurship. and do a myriad of other things on an annual basis. Try to block out all distractions so that you have the time to truly focus on your career -.more often if you feel the need or if you're planning a major career change -.organisation to encourage intrapreneurs. Career planning is not an activity that should be done once -. so why not career planning? Find a day or weekend once a year -. List the tips for successful career planning. as do our likes and dislikes. Reflect on Your Likes and Dislikes. visit the eye doctor and dentist. Needs and Wants Change is a factor of life. By making career planning an annual event. then. taking the time to review and reflect on the path -. 1. Rather. Then use this list to examine your current job and . So always take time to reflect on the things in your life --not just in your job -.whether straight and narrow or one filled with any curves and dead-ends -.and note why it looks the way it does. Make a twocolumn list of your major likes and dislikes. allowing employees to practice intrapreneurship and create wealth for themselves and the organisation. you will feel more secure in your career choice and direction -. are 10 tips to help you achieve successful career planning. Organisations can benefit from engaged employees. out of your life. everybody changes. by listening to them.

one job-seeker who was trying to accomplish career planning found herself stuck because she identified herself as a reporter. meeting goals and deadlines. having information about career trends is vital to long-term career planning success. interviewing. 6. but his love was not only useful for building your resume. Are you looking to make a difference in the world? To be famous? To become financially independent? To effect change? Take the time to understand the motives that drive your sense of success and happiness. For example. The great painter Paul Gauguin was a successful business person who painted on the side. take the time to really think about what it is you want or need from your work. editing. However. Review Career and Job Trends Everyone makes his or her own job and career opportunities. juggling multiple tasks. Every job requires a certain set of skills.or next year. Sometimes reviewing your past accomplishments will reveal forgotten successes. now is the time to begin examining new jobs and new careers. and managing time and information-. especially in the career fields that most interest you. Besides knowledge of these trends. your unique . Making note of your past accomplishments --keeping a record of them -. but it's not.such as writing. Look Beyond Your Current Job for Transferable Skills Some workers get so wrapped up in their job titles that they don't see any other career possibilities for themselves. investigating. so that even if your career is shrinking. Think you can't make a hobby into a career? People do it all the time. if you have excellent skills and know how to market yourself. however. then you know you are still on the right path. Many times your hobbies and leisurely pursuits can give you great insight into future career paths. 4. But once she looked beyond her job title. It may sound a bit odd. to examine non-work activities when doing career planning. 5. He was good at business. one or more which may trigger researching and planning a career shift so that you can be in a job that allows you to accomplish the types of things that make you most happy and proud.skills that could easily be applied to a wide variety of jobs in many different careers. she could see that she had this strong collection of transferable skills -. It's important to see where job growth is expected. 7. Examine Your Pastimes and Hobbies Career planning provides a great time to also examine the activities you like doing when you're not working. A career path that is expanding today could easily shrink tomorrow -. you should be able to find a new job. if your job activities fall mostly in the dislike column. and it's much better to categorize yourself interns of these skill sets than be so myopic as to focus just on job titles. the other advantage of conducting this research is the power it gives you to adjust and strengthen your position. researching. If your job and career still fall mostly in the like path. Make Note of Your Past Accomplishments Most people don't keep a very good record of work accomplishments and then struggle with creating a powerful resume when it's time to search for a new job. from your career. It actually wasn't until he was encouraged by an artist he admired to continue painting that he finally took a serious look at his hobby and decided he should change careers. Finally. it's also useful for career planning.

The 5 steps in the manpower planning process are: • • • • • Evaluate present manpower inventory Manpower forecasting Develop a manpower sourcing plan or retrenchment plan Manpower allocation Building requisite competencies 1.selling proposition. The comparisons will then indicate what steps should be taken to achieve a balance. Set Career and Job Goals Develop a roadmap for your job and career success. Research Further Career/Job Advancement Opportunities One of the really fun outcomes of career planning is picturing yourself in the future. The outcome of this planning is a well 'thought out' and logical manpower demand plan for varying dates in the future which can then be compared with the crude manpower supply schedules. Can you be even more successful through goal-setting? Most research says yes. but information really does lead to power and success. Evaluate Present Manpower Inventory . 10. Explore New Education/Training Opportunities It's somewhat of a cliché. Can you be successful in your career without setting goals? Of course. Look within your company. and education that make you better than all others in your career. One of the keys to job and career success is having a unique set of accomplishments. Once you initiate this process. A major component of career planning is setting short-term (in the coming year) and long-term (beyond a year) career and job goals.and then find a way achieve them. another component of career planning becomes reviewing and adjusting those goals as your career plans progress or change – and developing new goals once you accomplish your previous goals. part of career planning is going beyond passive acceptance of training opportunities to finding new ones that will help enhance or further your career. Q2. Take the time to contemplate what types of educational experiences will help you achieve your career goals. Appropriate steps are then taken to bring demand and supply into balance. skills. as well as online distance learning programs. Where will you be in a year? In five years? A key component to developing multiple scenarios of that future is researching career paths. your professional association. Never pass up chances to learn and grow more as a person and as a worker. your local universities and community colleges. 8. 9. to find potential career-enhancing opportunities-. What are the steps involved in manpower planning? ANS: Five Steps in Manpower Planning Manpower planning requires that an estimate of the present and future needs of the organization should be compared with the available manpower and future predicted manpower.

The final report will consolidate and state the required manpower versus the available manpower in terms of the quantitative analysis. Manpower retention would mean taking necessary steps to ensure that the organization provides a conducive-atmosphere to the employees to perform and keeps each employee engaged. transfers and job-rotations. selection. This is accumulated across the organization at different levels and departments. 3. This provides the present manpower inventory. Thecommon manpower forecasting techniques are: (i) Expert Forecasts: This includes formal expert surveys. (ii) Trend Analysis: Manpower needs can be seen through the past practice of the firm or organization keeping the principle year as a basis and a central tendency of measure (iii) Work Load Evaluation: This depends on the nature of the work load in a branch. hiring temporary staff and outsourcing. (v) Other Methods: A few mathematical models with the help of computers are also used to forecast manpower needs. asking people to leave the organization by providing the requisite severance allowance. or a division in a firm or organization. To evaluate the present manpower status a department by department analysis and a job-role by job-role analysis is conducted to arrive at the required manpower versus the available manpower. allotments have to be made for getting the total manpower requirements. 2. 4. The report on the qualitative front may rarely have a 100% match between required competencies versus available competencies. informal decisions and the Delphi technique.It is very important to evaluate the present manpower status before making a forecast for future manpower planning. placement. The sourcing plan includes recruitment. 5. It is harder to retrench manpower. allowing employees to go on a sabbatical and finally out-placing employees in other organizations to reduce the manpower. Building Requisite Competencies Once the future manpower forecasts are compared to the current inventory. There may be excess or deficit or in extremely few cases just the right number quantitatively. The retrenchment plan involves sending show-cause notices to bottom performers called bottom scraping. A . Manpower Forecasting Manpower planning is done based on the manpower forecasts. there may be some gaps in competencies amongst the available internal resources for them to qualify for the future manpower forecasts. Enhancing manpower utilization requires managing the dynamics of leadership and motivation. Another analysis on the qualitative side conducted similarly shows the competencies required versus competencies available for each of the job roles. In such cases organizations may choose to develop resources through training programs. Develop a Manpower Sourcing Plan or Retrenchment Plan Once the current inventory is compared with the future manpower forecasts then the manpower sourcing or retrenchment plan is drawn. The need for retrenchment could also be minimized by very objectively approving any additional manpower. Manpower Allocation & Retention Manpower allocation helps in managing the impact of deficits and excess in manpower supply through promotions. (iv) Work Force Evaluation: As production and the time duration are to be kept in mind. department.

are evaluated and ascertained. The other advantage of an interview is the employer can sell his organization and the job to the candidate during the course of the interview. skill and capability of the employee. Training programs may be designed to train existing resources on the latest improvements and advancements in technology or the related business subject. the applicants are finally interviewed by the departmental heads and the HR function. These interviews are generally informal and unstructured and are conducted even before the candidates fill in the application blanks. Formal & structured Interview 2. There are several types of interviews these are described below. talent.  Preliminary Interview Preliminary interview are brief . just to gain employment. Some candidates may provide false information in their applications. including line managers in the organization. ANS: INTERVIEWS An interview helps in assessing the applicant‟s profile and comparing it with the job profile for suitability. Panel Interview 6. skills. Stress Interview 4.  Selection Interview: A selection or core interview is normally the interaction between the job applicant and the line manager or experts. first round interviews that aim to eliminate the applicants who are obviously unqualified for the job.Unstructured Interview 3. when the applicant‟s job knowledge. The Selection Interview can be of the following types: 1. . Q3. etc. In-depth Interview  Decision Making Interview: After the applicant‟s knowledge in the core areas of the job is evaluated by experts. Group Interview method 5. Additional training programs may be designed when organizations are diversifying or calendar is designed to ensure competencies of existing staff are enhanced to meet the future manpower forecasts. Training is provided to improve the knowledge. Describe the different types of selection interviews.

Employees are in search of jobs which pay well.Q4. The employers need to reduce their bureaucratic procedures in order for the employees to receive the best available benefits without any difficulty. which may attract their current employees. Unsatisfactory performance appraisals is also one of the reasons for employees leaving a company. Due to no potential opportunity for advancements or promotions. What are the major causes of employee turnover? ANS: Employee Turnover Causes Salary Scale This is the most common cause of the turnover rate being so high. Advancements and Promotion Policies This is the prime reason why many mid-level executives leave the company. There are many employees who are not aware of the benefits that are provided to them in their compensation package. If the companies which they are working in don't offer good salaries. This is the most common reason why they jump from company to company in just a few months. Employees prefer to work in an environment which is suitable for them. the employers should make it a point to offer salaries that would be competitive enough to retain and attract well-qualified and talented personnel. Benefits Employees always flock to companies who offer more benefits. Working Procedures The companies should analyze and alter their work procedures and policies in a way which would enable employees to use their full potential and even gain significant work experience. The companies need to evaluate and modify their promotion policies in a fair way which would enable promotions for candidates only on the basis of employee performance. they may work in the same organization for several years. they tend to hunt for jobs that pay them considerably well. There are many cases where employees have left the company due to no projects or assignments which do not . they prefer other companies which may provide them with higher posts and increased compensation packages. If they find an appropriate work environment in a specific company. They should make a note of what all benefits other organizations are providing. In order to resolve this problem. Working Environment This is also one of the main causes for employee turnover.

All manpower planning is done basis a certain productivity level considered as a benchmark. there are many more causes. additional resources need to be hired proportionately. employee egos and attitudes. . they resist accepting any additional workload and resist even deployment of new technology. Employees would certainly leave if they don't get experience and are just placed on the 'bench'. Once the analysis is done. job stress.require their full potential. Over a period of time. the criticality of the job may change and new technological innovations may make the job far easier to accomplish. Modern Manpower Control and Review Processes · Any increase in manpower is to be approved by the top most levels of the management today. This has lead to errors creeping in the manpower planning exercise. such as lack of employee motivation. During man power planning. etc. increased degree of absenteeism leads to the partial failure of the manpower planning exercise. the number of resources required for a job is decided based on the total work load. What are the major hindrances that one encounters while carrying out manpower planning? ANS: The major obstacles in manpower planning are as follows: Non Optimal Utilization of Manpower The biggest obstacle for manpower planning is the fact that organizations cannot optimally use their manpower once manpower planning begins. However when the same employees are asked to step up the productivity. it is decided that one person can only handle a certain portion of the workload and hence for any additional workload. Lack of Employable Labor People are not employable. · Manpower budgets created on the basis of manpower planning act as control mechanisms to keep the manpower cost and headcount under certain defined limits. the total workload may change. These are some of the principal causes of employee turnover which can surely be avoided by the organizations after taking some necessary steps to better their in-house services towards employees. work pressure. The slow pace of acquiring business required competencies by people at large also result in low employee productivity. hence making it hard for the management to maximize the use of their manpower. This makes the organizational processes ineffective or inefficient and hence the organization as a whole become ineffective or inefficient and loses out to competition which may be able to remain lean in terms of number of resources and highly effective and efficient. the process to be followed and the criticality of the job. If the plan stated that 4 employees are required to manage the total workload. Q5. partiality and favoritism. Absenteeism Every organization has witnessed an increase in absenteeism. However. poor employee management. the processes may change. And low productivity has negative implications for manpower planning.

retraining and redeployment of talent. i. But a rough guide of employee productivity used today is: Employee Productivity = Total Production / Total no. i. To eliminate employee dissatisfaction and to ensure better utilization of resources a study of the reasons causing the dissatisfaction level is required. In some organization even the existing technologies available for manpower planning are not optimally used. Example: 5 products are sold during the day/ 8 hours of effort put in during the day. Manpower planning involves developing skills and competencies of existing employees to meet market demands which can change with time.17 products per day. It decided to lower the level of hiring and spend additional time on training candidates.e. Non availability and non utilization of the data are also reasons for complicating the situation. Q6. It needed to engage external organizations to evaluate the voice and accent capability or the potential of the candidate in order to validate its own findings with that of an independent agency.. Manpower planning also requires having a contingent plan in place in case of any eventuality (talent shortage).e. · The rate of manpower turnover. As an HR Manager. Out of every 100 candidates interviewed only 10 of them are employable. · Overtime is paid to employees due to real shortage of manpower. the sales productivity of the employee is 5 products per day. In a dynamic business scenario. the sales productivity of each employee is 4. the process of manpower planning is much more complicated than it seems. inefficient management or improper utilization of manpower. of employees · Example: 50 products are sold during the day/12 employees were responsible for selling 50 products during the day. Example: Business Scenario for Obstacles in Manpower Planning (Lack of employable labor) The entire BPO industry is suffering with this scenario of lack of employable labor. Many organizations either do not have data or are overwhelmed with data. how would you prepare an induction programme for her? . The current pace at which business is done today is very fast. It also needs to budget for providing new joiners with relocation allowance. exit interviews and absenteeism are sources of measuring dissatisfaction level of manpower. It‟s a known fact in the BPO industry. Ms. Manpower planning requires a study of the overtime statistics. Majority of them are unemployable by the BPO industry. It is integral to recruiting. It has to make provision for some joining bonuses as well when the hiring by all companies was at its peak. retaining.. so that no potential candidate was rejected and no candidate who was not trainable was hired. travel to other states. manpower planning is critical to organizational growth and stability.· Usually the productivity of any organization is calculated using the formula: Productivity = Output / Input. This also creates obstacles in manpower planning. The manpower planning exercise requires BPO companies to budget for travel to the interiors of the state. Lalita Singh has joined Triumphant India Private Limited. Linked to business needs of the organization.

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