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Mahabharata 08- Santi Parva I

Mahabharata 08- Santi Parva I

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Translated into English prose from the original Sanskrit text.









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say uato me ? * Draupadi. holy one. Literally. By th one becomes pure again. Accepting the worship suited to that period (of regenerate order.SECTION I (Rajadharmanusasana Parva) ( beings. and Vidura. The great Bishis then took their seats on costly carpets. and Dhritarashtra. "Yudhishthira by me through my reliance on the might of ! sitting my covetousness I have caused this dreadful carnage of kinsmen caused the death of the dear son of Subhadra. Then Narada.'Indeed. and of the sons of heart. Till tbep oe can performing perform Ml*. and Devasthana. continued to dwell there (on the banks of the sacred stream). outside the Kuru Yudhishthira the just had performed the water-rites. thou hast escaped with life from this dreadful battle Observant as thou art of the duties of a Kshatriya. came to' behold the Kuru king. and the great Bishi Devala. After king Many members of the and accomplished in the Vedas leading lived of domesticity or belonging to the Snataka class. Having bowed down unto Narayana. is always in said. Those high-souled ones. mutt the word Jaya be uttered. shalt thou not gratify thy friends. and Nara the foremost of male and unto the goddess Saraswati. They were all accompanied by best of their pupils.* which extended for a month. To . in due time. Among them were the Island-born (Vyasa) and Narada. and Kanwa.. appears to me in ^be light of a defeat What* will Subhadra of Vrishni's race. other city.. ) Vaiaampayana said. and through the strength of Bhima and Arjuna This heavy grief. "Having offered oblations of water unto all their friends and kinsmen. son of Pandu ? Having slain all thy foes. after having accosted the Bishis with the Island-born for their first. and all the Bharata ladies. saying. grief doth not afflict thee king?^ ! J mourning and impurity) that was offered them. they sat in due order around the king Thousands of Brahmanas offered consolation and comfort to that of still ? the whole Earth hath been subjugated Krishna's arms. I hope. as they came were duly worshipped (by Yudhishthira).Through the might of thy arms and the grace of Madhava the whole Earth. many high-souled sages crowned with ascetic success and many foremost of regenerate Rhhis came there to see the monarch. . through the grace of the Brahmanas. addressed Yudhishthira the son of Dharma. dost thou not rejoice. period of impurity Sraddha the period of impurity. viz. hath been righteously won by thee By good luck.. O Having obtained this prosperity.. Yudhishthira. The period of mourning is the according to the Hindu scriptures.. the sons of Pandu. The bigh-souled sons of Pandu desired to pass the period of mourning. rite. that through ! Having 1 this victory. however. . that sister-in-law of mine. possessed of wisdom king kings residing on the sacred banks of the Bhagirathi with heart exceedingly agitated by grief.

for the object of gratifying the owner. and his leave. Indeed. thy foe. Yakshas. armed with bow and sword. and the Rakshasas. ! Rama received him kindly and said. obtained weapon. he informed the Brahmana of it. without willing it. will cut off thy head. as also of withdrawing it. the GandhharOne day he roved on the sea coast by the side of vas. Kama. the Homa cow of a certain utterer of Brahma who daily per- formed his Agnihotra rite. O wretch. he acquired all the weapons duly. do ! whatever tbou down his Thus addressed by the Brahmana. and gods. who has duly observed I all should be acquainted with the Brahma When Drona had answered no other practised austere penances. thou deservest to be killed ! Let the fruit of this act be thine. this thy ! ! holy one. Knowing that he had perpetrated that act from inadvertence. Brahmana. This procured honour for him. the Forgive the act said these words! O thou of wicked conduct. told him. O thou of est. repeatedly said. putting forth his prowess. from from his knowledge of the wickedness of partiality for Phalguna. wandered While thus employed. once more answered him. regard me as masters of the science one accomplished in weapons !" Thus addressed by him. he inadvertently slew. thyself being stupefied the while Leave me. he bent his head unto him and said. or a Kshatriya that vows. and became a great favourite of the gods. Kama. Drona. that asylum. With this knowledge race of Bhrigu's ! about his birth and family. even so will thy foe cut off thy ! ! head while thou shalt be heedless Though cursed. Thou art While residing on the at which Kama became highly glad. alone. Kama still sought to gratify that foremost of Brahmanas by offering him kine and wealth and ! gema. All the worlds will not succeed in falsifying the words spoken by me Go hence or remain. welcome Mahandra mountains that resembled heaven itself. having worshipped him. reflecting on likest t that matter. Kama met andcnixed with many Gandharvas. returned timidly to Rama." . I am a Brahmana Approaching Rama. the Earth shall swallow the wheel of thy car And while the wheel of thy car shall thus wicked soul ! and for ! be swallowed up by the Earth. I have killed cow without willing it Filled with wrath. O vile man As thou bast heedlessly slain this my cow. Residing there. through thy grace. O Partha. whom thou always challengwhose sake thou strivest so much every day.4 MAHABHABATA all ! with its Arjuna pupils is weapons may. and proceeded thus. None but a Brahmana. Kama. Surya's son. Indeed. has without delay to Rama then residing on the Mahendra mountains. hanging head from oheerlessness. for I desire to fight Without doubt. the affection thou beareut to everyone of thy I pray that all to thy own son equal to what thou bearest mantras and the power of ! Kama. however. rebuking him. While fighting him. The latter.

Through his curse I fell down on the Earth in the form of a worm In anger thy ancestors said unto me.. and staying on the clouds. Then in the welkin was seen a ! great energy. and the services he did unto his preceptor. saying. I was of the same age with Bhrigu I ravished the dearly-loved spouse of that sage. O wretch. the son of Surya. he devoted himself with great ardour to the science of weapons. suffered it to the pain was intolerable. began to pierce Bharata. the worm gave up its it had drawn. fche mighty-armed^son of Jamadagni into hell? said unto him. and endued with worderful prowess. the latter ! have been made impure What is this that tbou art doing ! Tell me. Through fear of became unable to either throw away or ( awaking ) his preceptor. slept soundly. was covered with were pointed Called by the name of Alarka. I adore thee. with fear As soon as in Rama cast his eyes on limbs were then shrunk it. thou hast rescued me from this bell! Blessed be thou. Who ! art thou? And why also didst thou fall Tell me ! all this He answered. saying..'-Then Kama informed him of that worm's bite. Subsisting on urine and phlegm. O sire. was very painful and which subsisted on phlegm and fat and of That blood-drinking it. tbou shalt lead a life of hell [ ] I then beseeched him. Formerly I was a great Asura of the name of Dansa. and continued to hold Bhrigu's son on his lap. do its pleasure. In the Krita period. worm. casting off all fear. what is the truth of this matter . bristles that its had eight all feet and very keen teeth. O best of ascetics. O and blood. (viz. his affection (for him). capable of assuming any form at will. I of great energy. with due forms.His object fulfilled. with joined hands. Kama began to pass his days happily in Bhrigu's retreat. melting that blood which wonderful. placing his head on his preceptor whose flesh bite Kama's lap. While was thus sleeping (with head) on his lap. When at Kama's blood touched the body awoke and said these words in fear. dark in hue. . All this seemed Rakshasa of terrible form. and needles.. lest his preceptor should awake. Though his limb was bored through by that worm. Brahmana. unto his penance-observing disciple. while roving with Kama in the vicinity of his retreat. the Rakshasa.SECTION 111 Narada said. [When. approached the presence Kama. will this curse end? ! ! . One day Bama of great intelligence. his selfrestraint. a frightful worm. the tired son of Jamadagni. thou hast done me good Possessed of life-breaths. Kama kill that animal. Having acquired a knowledge of that weapon. Kama bore it with Though heroic patience. approaching Kama's thigh. was well pleased with the might of Kama's arms. ). Kama). penances. felt himself very weak inconsequence of the fasts he had undergone. last of Bama Alas. everything about the Brahma weapon with the mantras for withdrawing it. "That tiger of Bhrigu's race. addressed Rama. Observant of ascetic Rama cheerfully communicated. of a red neck. From affection begotten by confidence. It Rama saw like ( that worm which resembled it a hog in shape. without quivering in the least and without manifesting any sign of pain.

saying. * O Literally. . T."This weapon shall not dwell with thee up to thy last moments. no Brabmana could endure such agony ! ! Thy !.6 MAHABHABA^A [this curse shall end through Rama . Hearing that diverse kings had assembled tkere. dwell in thee when thou shalt be engaged with a warrior equal to thyself f behaviour as thou I ! Go hence.. ! company O Duryomonarch. Duryodhana also. without fear be cursed.. Arriving then before Duryodhana. full of opulence. in this that a reverend preceptor in the Vedas and other branches knowledge is one's father ! It was for this that I introduced myself to thee as a person of thy bling of own race L. this Brahma weapon shall not dwell in thy remembrance !* Since thou art not a Brahmana. said Thus asked. smiling though filled with wrath. a race that these words. thou mayst t be master of it I. patience is like that of a Kshatriya fearing to Tell me the truth. the great Asura. began to pass his days in great joy.'Having thus obtained weapons from him of Bhrigu's Kama dbana. rescued from that sinful life Then Rama wrathfully addresshis head unto Rama.". the ruler of the country of the Kalingas. Thus addressed by Rama. bending one of unoleansed soul ! O ! ed Kama. this is no place for a person of such false On Earth. .Bbrigu replied unto me. saying. diverse rulers. having duly taken his leave. O wretch. up to the time of thy death...T... The meaning is this :. accompanied by Kama.. said. .. when thy death becomes nigh.. truly this Brahma weapon shall not. answered. Kama came away. prostrated with joined hands upon Earth. he informed him.. went away. Thou shalt forget it or it shall not appear at thy bidding.. O fool.Since thou avarice of weapons.. The city. "shall not appear to thee by inward light.. therefore... has sprung from the intermixture of Brahmanas with Kshatriyas People ! call me Kama the son of Radha ! thou of Bhrigu's race. however. was known by the name of Rajapura. from Bhrigu's race. know me for a Suta.! have 111 mastered all weapons! SECTION IV "Narada race. saying. and seeking to gratify him... behaved here with falsehood. on his golden car. that foremost one hast.Unto the cheerless and trem- Kama. had obtained such a course of life like It was for this that I of my r*ce !] righteous one. by thee. thou of Bhrigu's race.. no Kshatriya will be thy equal in battle !. Kama. I have been Having said these words. There were amongst them Sisupala and Jarasandha andBhishmaka best of kings. in the bull of Bharata's race Once on a time. Hundreds of rulers thither for repaired obtaining the hand of the maiden. be gratified with my is There no doubt of poor self that has acted from the desire of obtaining weapons. though at other times. many of kings repaired to a Self-choice at the capital of Chitrangada. O Bharata. choice. When the festivities commenced in that Self- came thither for the hand of the maiden. proceeded thither...

'Hearing viz. t eunuchs. he commanded the maiden to stop.. and saying. Amongst them some were heard ). maiden entered the arena. A great uproar then took place among the kings. bringing with him the maiden to the city called away. the ruler of king Jarasandha. and relying upon Bhishma and Drona.. mleccha tribes. some rushed bow in hand. Whilst being informed of the names of the kings ( as she made that maiden of the fairest complexion passed by the son of ). some were on the point of shooting their shafts. became bowless. Dhritarashtra ( as she had passed others before him ). challenged him to a single combat. many others who and many preceptors ( in arm ) of the dwelt from the East and the Nerth.. and his fingers cased in leathern fences. battle with cheerless hearts. and and Asoka and Satadhan- wan and the heroic ruler of the Bhojas. . the fierce might.. that foremost of all smiters..Go away.. of the fame of Kama's might. said.( These were the sounds that Filled with wrath. After all those kings had taken their seats. Possessed afflicted of great lightness of all. each with a single arrow. abducted her with force. Duryodhana also came with a joyous heart... accompanied by her nurse and a guard of in the countries of the South. they were like tigers of of the splendour of pure gold. clad in mail. of steady prowess. Both conversant with celestial weapons. Duryodhana. They then themselves took up the reins He of their steeds.SANTI PARVA and Vakra. O Bharata.Put on your Let the cars be made ready !. and some pursued them. All of them were adorned with golden Angadas and possessed Of effulgent bodies. . Armed with sword. they began. Besides these. could not tolerate that rejection of himself. and Kapotaroman and Nila add Rukmi Sringa 7 who was ruler of the kingdom of females.. While engaged with him in mortal combat with bare in their arrows . O Bharata. . Kama. hands. however. and many rulers came there. after elephant. possessed of might as they were. taking up that maiden on his car. them all quished deprived many kings of their drivers. At last were exhausted and bows and swords were broken and they both became earless. king Duryodhana. Intoxicated with the pride of energy. a fierce battle took place between them when which they struck each other with diverse kinds of arms.turned away from the Protected by Karna.. armed with darts and maces. showering their arrows upon them like masses of clouds pouring rain upon As they thus pursued them. go away. riding on his car. and thus vanthose lords of Earth." SECTION V "Narada the Magadhas. . Kama. Kama felled their bows and a couple of hills. that foremost of all wielders of weapons. they pursued Kama and Duryodhana.. of Kuru's race. proceeded along Duryodhana's rear. to fight with bare arms. arrows on the ground. all of whom were 1 coats of mail actuated by the desire for fight. Disher round regarding all the kings.

he was slain by Arjuna in Vasudeva's presence. with tearful eyes and heart agitated by grief..8 MAHABHABATA arms. the celestial Rishi Narada became silent. of the celestial and Indra and Yama weapons obtained by Arjuna from Rudra and Kuvera and Drona and the illustrious and Varuna Kripa. feelhimself very much pained. I myself gave up the attempt. Deprived of his ear-rings and divested of his natural armour. him his (natural) coat of thy good. Before this.. said these words :-*'In consequence of thyself having concealed thy counsels. of the boon granted to Kunti and the on him by Indra.. The royal sage Yudhishthira. he became resolved upon wrecking his enmity on thee.. Kama was about to sever the two portions of his antagonist's body that had been united together by Jara. . saying. agreeably to Kama. from desire of good."Having said these words. In consequence of a Brahmana's curse. it behoveth thee not to give thou of great wisdom. The king ( of Magadha ) then. but from that time the grinder of hostile forces began to rule over Champa also. sighing like a snake and shedding copious tears. he has fallen in battle. of his depreciation by Bhishma as only half a oar-warrior. The god Surya also. of Vasudeva's the curse of the illustrious illusion practised t policy. herself filled with grief and almost deprived of her senses by sorrow. the Lord of the mail and ear-rings. Beholding that hero cheerless and unmanned by sorrow. thou " shouldst not grieve for that tiger among men !' I SECTION VI Vaisampayana said. should say unto one. and I listen to I tried in past times to apprise Kama of his brotherwith thee. O foremost of all righteous persons. of all foes. as thou knowest of his ! Thus for Kama became famous on Earth for the valour celestials begged of arms.! am gratified ! From the wishes of Duryodhana. cast off all desire of hostility and addressed ing friendship he then gave unto that tiger among men and subjugator Kama the town Malini. stupefied by celestial illusion. (viz. lastly. Thus addressed by his mother. Kama) had been king of the Angas only. the wielder of Gandiva succeeded in slaying Vikartana's son Kama Even thus had thy brother been of effulgence like that of Surya himself ! cursed and beguiled by many As. king Yudhishthira.. at the tale of Rathas and Atirathas of the destruction of his energy caused by Salya (with his keen speeches). this . became plunged in meditation. As he was bent upon doing injuries unto you I all. Kunti. ship did the same. All that a well-wishing friend.. When. filled with grief. kill this grief of thine. he gave away those precious possessions. addressed him in these sweet words of grave import and well suited to the occasion : way to sorrow thus mighty-armed Yudhishthira. however. was said unto Kama by that god in a dream and once more in my presence Neither by affliction nor by reasons could Surya or what I say 1 ! myself succeed in pacifying him or inducing him to unite himself with thee Succumbing to the influence of Time. and. as also of Rama.

began "The righteous-souled Yudhishthira. having fallen in battle. fie on might on wrath. gone to heaven. Similarly.. Shall these come out of the womb safely all ? Shall these * The Kurus. while we have become divested of all the objects of life. it shall be thrown aside They that have been slain should not have ! ! ! been slain for the sake of even the whole Earth or mountains ! of gold. his sons and grandsons and kinsmen and friends. by fasts and sacrifices and vows and sacred rites and auspicious ceremonies mothers conceive. and overtaken us speech on ! fie Fie on the usages of Kshatriyas. having slain. such lords of ! Earth as deserved not to be slain by us. and self-restraint. saying. Arjuna. we are bearing the weight of Like a existence. for what fruits of righteousness can be ours when we have been guilty of self-slaughter ?* and valour. saying. then. have while grief has become our lot. they always ask themtion. and purity. T. through covetousness and folly of pride and from desire of enjoying the sweets of sovereignty. became filled recollecting 1 I Afflicted with sorrow. deprived of friends and reft of the very objects of life ! pack of dogs fighting one another for a piece of meat. They then hold the foetus for ten months. with renunciation and humility. ourselves. cursed all the women of the world. and abstention from injury. all of them." SECTION VII agitated heart Vaisampayana said. Passing their time in misery and in expecatation of fruit. have repaired to the regions of Yama Practising asceticism and Brahmacharyya and truth and renunciaFilled with ! the horses and kine in this world wish for sons endued with every kind of prosperity. the righteous king. a great disaster has That piece of meat is no longer dear to us On the other overtaken us hand. resembling a fire covered with smoke.SANTI PAKVA 9 great affliction has overtaken rue !' Possessed of great energy. the Kurus consequence of having exterminated our kinsmen have gained in prosperity. became penetrated with despair. which are all practised by forest-recluses Pull and arrogance. then. sires selves in anxiety. our foes. we had led a life of medicancy in the cities of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas. in sorrow. then this miserable end would not have been ours in ! Our foes. and truthfulness all occasions. however. or all envy and a hankering for all and influenced by wrath and pleasure. such grief hath been ours that one cannot gladden us by giving us the sovereignty of even the three worlds Alas. since through these such a calamity hath Blessed are forgiveness. 'If. the with anxiety and grief. he addressed Arjuna. and burning with sorrow. . Sighing repeatedly. Henceforth no woman shall succeed in keeping a secret The king. themselves to the high way of Death. intelligent king. have fallen into this Beholding those kinsmen of ours that were bent on acquiring tho plight of I ! sovereignty of the world slain on the field of battle. for the sake of the Earth. with an to grieve for that mighty car-warrior O Kama. betaking earthly objects.

Dhritarashtra tolerated the evil. youthful in ! ! and wealth 1* They were always expected to reap the fruits of their might filled with envy and a hankering after earthly objects. they have repaired to Yama's abode have been slain just at that time when their parents mother. actually used 1 fame of a sinful heart. be slain and having oast this couple into burning grief. Yudhishthira says here is this all the warriors that have I What been slain in this battle have perished. Although we We have never offended him. nor could they enjoy women and music. For this. however. T. by that act of his. O their sires and the gods. Suvala's son informed They could not. Without doubt. by disregarding Vidura and the high-souled son of Ganga. is really ascribable to the sons of Dhritarashtra. however. entirely governed by his passions. he was addicted to deception. yet he always behaved falsely towards us ! not gained our object. is The Bombay reading Jayaphalam Janmaphalam. since their sons. having caused his uterine brothers to self. have been slain. policy his son pursued. to suppose that men of wrath who have done such wicked deeds should obtain * Sanjata Valaratnesu is the true reading. The Bengal reading T. indeed. nor have they vanquished us. enjoy their costly treasury and vast territories. they have not attained to heaven . those kings Alas. obtain all as the cause of the destruction that regions of bliss 1{ We are regarded has overtaken the world.10 MAHABHAKATA Shall they grow in might and be objects of regard on Shall they be able to give us happiness in this and the other birth ? live after Earth? world ? years and resplendent with those expectations of theirs. pale and emaciated. however. Always cherishing malice. Without having enjoyed the them fruitless. and in conse- quence of his neglect in restraining his wicked and covetous son. therefore. t : such regions of bliss hereafter. nor have they gained theirs. Duryodhana became colourless. rendered ear-rings. they could not obtain happiness and peace. They did not listen to the counsels of ministers and friends and men learned in the scriptures. . indeed. from desire of battle. The Dhartarashtras could not enjoy this Earth. Suyodhana. the king has met with destruction like my poor Without doubt. heaven has been theirs. We have not vanquished them. correct. and without having paid off the debts they owed to pleasure Alas. The fault. then the slayers too would obtain heaven. they could not ingly I tbink that they of victory If enjoy at any time or any place the fruits the Panchalas and the Kurus that have fallen ( in this battle ) have among been lost. gems and well-filled Burning with the hate they bore us. Beholding our aggrandisement. have been abandoned by of this world. if. otherwise he that has slain would. T. As a father full of affection for his son. It is impossible. the scriptural ordinance having said so. king Dhritarashtra of this. Duryodhana's heart was always set upon guile. and were exceedbe expected to subject to anger and joy. hath fallen off from his blazing Burning with the hate he bore to us Duryodhana was What other kinsman of high birth could use always such language towards kinsmen as he. is not unmeaning.

! ! govern this Earth. by repentance. O Dhananjaya. he that has practised renunciation is believed to be incapable of committing sins anew."Like grieve to see this great : agitation of thy heart. as explained by Nilakantha. since having achieved such There can be no doubt that atmanas in this verse. Having said these words. go to the woods. and which has been O best of Kuru's race. and obtaining the right road. said these words of I . Gita. freed from grief. a perpetrated sin is expiated by is stupefying me auspicious acts. and possessed of energy. I have no need for divested of all ifcs thorns kingdom or just for pleasure stopped. The Srutis declare death. that extermina- own energy p was our evil star. disregarding all the pairs of opposites. it cannot refer to Vayam. T. refers to Duryodhana. slain.T. king Yudhishthira the His younger brother Arjuna then addressed him in the !' SECTION VIII Arjuna a person unwilling to forgive an insult. betraying grqat fierceness and licking the corners of bis mouth. birth and death are Abandoning the whole of my kingdom. by alms giving. we having installed that wicked-souled prince of sinful deeds. smiling the while of : Vaisampayana said. like suns burning everything around them with their That wicked-souled wight. that embodiment of hostility. for Duryodhana's acts alone. p. But grief O Dhananjaya. by tor of his race.'Oh. the Srutis declare it and I myself have seen it with my eyes. in fche presence of Krishna ? been lost for eternity. through which. following words. scorcher of foes. &c. keen speech and prowess. I shall. with your leave. I shall go to the woods. ! committed brought about. that person that he that practises renunciation escapes from birth and of fixed soul attains to Brah- ma. Comp. escaping from the ties of the things Do thou world. therefore. Of all these. how distressing! grave import. I have gious merit of taciturnity. how painful. by constant meditation on the scriptures. Alas. as the Srutis declare. adopting the vow and walking in the way pointed out by knowledge If O slayer of foes. is obliged to grieve today ! foes have been slain. our wrath has been pacified. ! penances. and without affection for anything sin. t Pairs of opposites. Being a genetive singular. ! Our heroic His possessions and kingdom are gone Having slain them. and the of this Earth. I We have committed sin. . by sojourn to tirtJias after renunciation of everything.PABVA li We also have. therefore. joy and gref. in the sovereignty. this race of ours has been exterminated Having slain those whom we should never have have incurred the censures of the world. on which peace has been restored. King Dhritarashtra. that one who is wedded to this Earth can never obtain every kind of reliDesirous of obtaining the things of this Earth. through Duryodhana's fault. by publishing it wildly. ante. such as heat and cold.

cannot. is accused 1 ' falsely. as also he that is ! I do not see the difference between a fallen acts flow from man and of a poor man! wealth All kinds of meritorious like a the possession great mountain. Thou knowest this well That. therefore. are all dried up that has wealth has is friends. by any act of I Divested of prosperity and without his. king. wrath. like If a person who hath no wealth failure. One who robs another of wealth. wishest thou from folly to live in the woods after abandoning everything of virtue and profit ? ( If thou prosperity. and having acquired the sovereignty observance of the duties of thy own order. suffers himself to be divested shallow streams in the summer season. cried poverty is for recluses Making no provision for the morrow is a practice that suits Rishis. of From wealth king I ! spring all religious acts. desires to achieve a particular pur- of wealth. O king From wealth one acquires family honour.12 a MAHABHABATA ! superhuman feat. and sense of dignity. slay of the Earth ? He that would live by mendicancy. nor the next. a man cannot find the The acts of a person who. Poverty poor is a state of sinfulness. behoveth thee not to applaud king. however. learning. one's religious merit increases. He that has wealth has kinsmen. all plea- very means like sustaining his life Without wealth. dishonest ! men will destroy sacri- many wicked acts in a state ! King Nahusha. robs him of his religion as well/ Who amongst would forgive an act of spoilation that is practised us. what will the world say all of thee ? Why dost thou of say that abandoning the good things of the Earth. tbou art bent upon forsaking this great prosperity of the Earth Having slain thy foes. thou livest in the observance a mendicant. all these proceed from wealth. O best of men The man that hath no ! ! pose. He that has wealth is regarded as a true man He that has wealth regarded as a learned man. on us ? It is seen that a poor man. divested of reffc of resources. It poverty. he meets with Wealth brings about accessions wealth ^Because wealth enables gion. sures. and heaven itself. in the world. enjoy the good tbings of Earth he can never win fame on Earth or acquire sons and animals. in thy absence. its T. resources. pleasures. possessed of of little intelligence. which has been won through why sbouldst thou abandon everything through fickleness of heart ? Where on Earth hath a eunuch or a person of procrastination ever acquired all the kings sovereignty ? Why then didst thou. joy. elephants capturing (wild) elephants. kingdom. insensate witb rage. therefore! The man that is fallen. He that is without wealth hath neither this world. which has That sin will certainly pollute thee of fie I been called the religion of royalty depends entirely on wealth. having done on that state and said that poverty. grieveth. From wealth. Eeligious acts. king. He wealth. even when he stands near. courage. possessor to practise the rites of reli- . thou wilt lead a life vulgar person ? Thou art born in this race of kings Having won by conquest the whole Earth. woods ). abandoning this swelling of the wretched mode of life led by If. and mendicancy like a ! retirest into the fices.

and carefully performing sacrifices with the wealth thus The gods. sacrifice. This Earth formerly belonged g Dilipa. - If frame of mind. The eternal precepts of the Vedas also sanction it I m *qre -rn. The learned have laid it down that kings should live. of universal requiring libations of all kinds of flesh. Mahadeva | The wealth that kings take from others becomes the and assist at other's sacrifioes. We never see wealth that has been earned thout doing some injury to others. with profuse presents of every kind requiring a vast heap of the Earth's produce. is ( Its fruits are never destroyed. and look at the conduct of the gods and the Danama. they call that wealth theirs.-these are our ' I T ! ' ' Eternal the auspicious path. laid down this conclusion. what fault can there be in such quarrels? Tbe gods thou seest. from a mountain. the very gods have won their prosperity through interneerne quarrels. for thy sake tread along the path thou recommendest if thou s kest me what pattis in such a concentrate tby thou listenest .SANTI PABVA 13 succeeds not in performing religious acts. O king. Nahusha. will kings practise virtue on this Earth ? Learned men the Vedas. poured all creatures as sacrificial libations and then his own great sacrifice self. become all cleansed and sanctified by beholding the ablutions at the end of the sacrifice. Like water 'ing on every direction from a swollen ocean. act in this way. This is Abandoning ft> king to ' SECTION IX 1 m ttention and my words . for these latter spring from wealth. It is even thus that kings conquer Having conquered. therefore.! Those subjects whose kipg performs a horse-sacrifice with >fuse presents. Wh. heaven. through internecine . She now belongs A great sacrifice. have.equ. * of their prosperity. is truly lean and he whose limbs alone are so Judge truly. like river. seekin* to wealth.on! fii Ar^ na ? thy mind and hearing on thy inner soul. teach.n. trod by the I shall righteous not. awaits thee It tfaou ifiCe kiDg then th6 SinS f thi8 kin ^om shall all bethi U be thine "T. just as sons peak of he wealth of their sires as their own. O king. Amvarisha.red have obtained footing in quarrel. that wealth runs on every direction from the treasuries of kings. The royal sages that have to heaven have declared this to be the duty of kings.. principal himself. they will meet with thy approl Abandoning all worldly pleasures. duties. reciting every day the three Vedas. He that is lean in respect of (his possession of) steeds and tine and servants and guests. I shall betake myself to that path which i. do the gods ever wish for mything elae than the slaughter of their kinsmen ( the Asuras ) ? If the appropriation of wealth belonging to others be not regarded as righteous ow. O monarch. and Mandbatri. While ' Said r?ralmie 1 .

I shall not do cheerful birds and excellent recluses of creature. while living in contentassume the outward in grief or joy. nor shall I my Kestraining always be of cheerWithout asking anybody about the way. ing and prevailing over every couple of opposites. and heat. Without doing the least injury to the four kinds of movable and immovable creatures. in this way of the austere regulations of a forest taciturnity. I shall not look behind. I shall behave equally towards all creatures whether mindful of their duties or following only the dicatates of the senses. Taking the tree for a living person. Divesting myself : and wrath. Or. . desire to ask me. as also hunger and thirst and toil. I shall live casting equally. and performing ablutions at morn and eve. wind. I shall the fragrance of flower-burthened trees and creepers. frown at anybody. t There is a class of recluses who support life by gathering the fallen fruits of trees. Charming to the heart and the ear. casting off all things dear or hateful. I shall thin myself by reduced diet. I shall live. they walk under its shade and beg of it its fruits. hope and affiction. Enduring cold. I shall live upon ripe and unripe fruits and gratify the Pitris and the deities with Observing offerings of wild fruits and spring water and grateful hymns. and turning my gaze inwards. I shall emaciate my body by penances as laid down in the on the fire at ordinance. alone and observing my body. T. there is little chance my guest . I shall not wrong the denizens of even the wronging men of the world. route that I may happen to meet with. Without conversing with anybody. ! ment and deriving happiness from my own soul. Regardless of whither I of desire is may proceed. and see diverse enjoy kinds of charming products that grow in the forest. living on fruits and roots Pouring libations ! due hours.: Leading a retired life and devoting myself to contemplation. any one. T. I shall sustenance by begging each day of only one tree. Abandoning the pleasures and observances of men of the world.. unasked by thee.f Smearing my body with ashes. I shall wander in the forest. Those fruits that fall down on such occasion* ara regarded as the alms granted by the tree to its mendicant I will The sense that when of woods. I shall yet. or lying at the foot of trees. and covering myself with skins. with the animals that have their home there. I shall tell tbee tell thee of it. with calmly awaiting the dissolution of the vow my pass my days. proceeding along any ful face. I shall derive my life.14 MAfiABfiABA^A ! If thou dost not auspioioua that one should tread alone. I shall off all the things of the world form of a blind and deaf idiot. I shall also see many the forest. I shall daily listen to the clear strains of animals residing in the woods. bear matted looks on my bead. Without indulg- and regarding censure and applause. what need be said then of those that dwell in villages the slightest injury to any and towns ? . without taking note of the country or the point of the compass to which or towards which I I shall not jeer at all senses. living head shaved clean. I shall may go. engaged in performing the austerest of penances. and availing of the shelter of abandoned houses. I shall go on.

A certain class of men. I shall give up all desires and restraining purify the soul of all impurities. creatures come into this wheel of life that is conti- nually turning like the wheel of a car. manifest any liking for life or dislike for death. decrepitude. depend upon one's past acts. go on. by birth.| Even thus. the only acts I shall perform will be to open and shut my eyes and take as much food and drink as will wish evil to the life.* I shall not thiuk of will somehow be accomplished. and always the functions of the senses. ! Though desire. casting off their weakened bodies.. from ignorance. when husking rods will be kept aside. Then again. and kinsmen. or five houses at the most. I shall live free as the wind. and will have taken their food. which is and which is afflicted really a fleeting illusion although it looks eternal. He. and even thus. all bound to them in relations of cause and effect. those pairs of opposites that stand in the first house (to which I in even a small measure be not obtainable may go ). affections. therefore. by going to other houses. I shall not one or good to the other. maintain their wives. however. they for T. they meet with their fellow-creatures. If I fail to procure it by shall proceed to seven houses in succession and fill my of When the smoke houses will cease.! When the period of their life runs out.SANTI PAKVA 15 Nature always walks ahead . when mendicants and guests for the inmates cease to will my wander. I shall earn great ascetic merit. Without ever being attached to action. Freed from all attachments and tearing Living in such freeoff all bonds and ties. committed great sins both auspicious and inauspicious acts here. children. . When. barely keep up dom from I have. everlasting contentment will be mine. their hearth-fires having all been extinguished. death. Discarding all those acts conducive to prosperity that one can do in life. is sure to obtain happiness. casting off pride of soul and body. whom he acts do not take the consequences i. T. coming thither.. three. for none but the actor is burdened with the consequences of his acts. I shall behave neither round of mendicancy and solicit I shall wander ever the I shall not like one that is fond of life nor like one that is about to die. I shall get it I even such a round. of bis acts. If one strikes off one arm of mine and another smears the other arm with sandal-paste. the Earth. they may be causes of effects to be manifested in the next life. as agents of happiness or the reverse. Wives. the acts of a previous life. for their acts also are supposed to affect the next life of him to man depend upon whom I they belong. the very gods fall down from T. they take upon themselves all the effects of their sinful acts. and pain. endued with actions. hence. who abandons the worldly course of life. They are effects of pre-existing causes. disease. again. doing childran. after breaking the bonds of desire. I shall select a moment alms at two.e. craving. food and drink If pure food in the way of such a life. * I follow Nilakantha's gloss in rendering the f All the possessisons of a second line. Preserving equability in success and failure. and kinsmen.

by betaking myself frame that is subject to birth. race. gift. who having obtained food. Or.T. We have become objects of censure. who having obtained a woman reciprocating his of a passion. in * consequence of thyself being our eldest brother ! We are possessed Bhagtna is explained by Nilakantha as swargaiswaryyena. O Bharata. If censuring the Bhimasena bull of Bharata's duties of kings thou wouldst lead a life of idleness. acting in this way. this mobile and immobile world our object of enjoyment for the person that is strong. Wise men acquainted with Kshatriya duties have declared that they who stand in the way of the person taking the sovereignty of the Earth. or of a person under the influence of desire. Or. Having slain them. place (for to that fearless path of life. refuses to take it. ing on these circumstances. that of a foolish and unintelligent reciter of the Veda in the truth. attained it. Or. and unchangeable Having Always (conducting myself) with such wisdom and myself) ) often slay a king through 1 disease. Guilty of that fault. it is like that person who having slain all his foes. at last falls by his own hand. then. terminate this physical 1 ' some contrivance. MAHABHAKATA of eminence who. it is like that of a person afflicted with hunger. heaven and great Rishis from their respective positions of causes ( and effects ) would wish to have that is acquainted with truths even heavenly prosperity ?* Insignificant kings. we would then have never taken up arms We would then have lived by mendicancy and slain a single creature This terrible battle between the rulers of till the destruction of this body the Earth would also have never taken place The learned have said this all ! ! ! that is we see is food for the strong. said. like consequence of his repeated recitation of those scriptures.If. her. death. should be slain. righteously govern this by us. Or. because. we follow thee that art of feeble understand- ing. having performed diverse known by the means of acts relating to the diverse means of king-craft ( conciliation. I shall. and pain. eternal. O thou of Kuru's race. Reflectthis nectar of wisdom hath come to me. I desire to get a permanent. has become blind to 'Thy understanding. those that stood as enemies of our kingdom have all been slain Earth Yudhishtbira. &c. . refuses to meet with king. SECTION X king. it is like that of a person who having set out on long way comes back in despair without having reached his destination. This our act ( in refusing the kingdom ) is like that of person who having dug a well stops in his work before obtaining water and comes up ! smutted with mire. this our act is like that of a person who having climbed up a tall tree and taken honey therefrom meets with death before tasting it. Indeed. decrepitude. this destruction of the Dhartarashtras was perfectly uncalled for ! Are forgiveness and compassion and pity and abstention from injury not to be found in anybody walking along the path of Kshatriya duties ? If we knew that this was thy intention.

the i discourse between certain ascetics and Sakra. . when not say that in respect of the acquisition ! our objects hag been laid we are entirely powerless ? Reflect on tbig that I say down that.SA. one should betake him- The man reft of action can never obtain success. only It in ! times by kings overcome with decrepitude or defeated by foes wisdom. by the hypooritial externals of a life of RenunciaThat man only is capable of leading a solitary life of happiness in tion. king. that have promulgated duties ? Indeed. anybody were to obtain success from Denunciation. O bull of Bharata's race The senses that which sure. . then all aquatic creatures would obtain it. but really falls away from his duty. has ordained for the Kshatriyae cannot be deserving of T. always aloof from a life of worldiness and are all Brahmacharins. then why should not the Ordainer be censured ?* It is only those persons that are reft of Supreme prosperity and wealth and that are infidels in faith. then mountains and trees These latter are always seen to lead lives of would surely obtain it are not bereft of prowess cannot attain life. If they that fill only their own stomachs could attain to success. however. who can support himself by his own exertions. employed in acts proper to self to action.' " SECTION XI "Arjuna said. and that have refuge in them. to the practices of that order. again. * 'In this connection an old history is cited. He is. Kshatriya's adoption of it is never proper He who is competent to support life by prowess. this precept of the Vedas (about the propriety of a a life of Renunciation) as the truth. If. entirely helpleee people see us so. viz. therefore. that as the Ordainer cannot be censured.BVA of 17 mighty arms we ar* accomplished in knowledge and endued with Yet we are obedient to the words of a eunuch as if we were great energy. that are devoted virtue. In reality. They do not injure any one.. Men of by a Kshatriya ) involves even the loss of How can those that have sprung from that order. On the other hand. the world moves on.NTI PA. even so those Kshatriyas that heaven by leading only a forest by other ways. its nature 1 Therefore. for a Kshatriya to do so. with every creature on it their own selves. He that is reft of action can never have success. If it be the truth that a person's success depends upon his own lot in life and not upon that of others. then (as a person born in the Kshatriya order) thou shouldet betake thyself to action. Yet. they that are of clear sight think that the of distress. censure those adoption of life ( that course of if those duties be censurable. of ! We why would they are the refuge of all helpless persons. They are. for these have none else to support save Behold. As the deer and boars and birds (though they lead a forest life) cannot attain to heaven. to They should acquire I religious merit Renunciation. therefore. (a life of) Eenunciation should be adopted. woods who is unable to support sons and grandsons and the deities and the he Rishis and guests and Pitris. does not live. do not applaud Renunciation as the duty of a Kshatriya.

* of a Sacrifice is a forest remnants Such an act lives of such men are worthy of highly meritorious. we desire also to obey thy commands. is t the highest act in life and the most meritorious that man can do. said. Tell us. Brahmanas. all We shall listen 1 to thy words. those Regarding that to youths^ as Brahmacharin^ having abundant resources became desirous of living that Indra became abandoned their brothers and sires. is the success that he gets here. the absence of sandhi in the proper form itArsha. T. . the Rishis said. obtains success consi stent with the nature of that particular deity t The seasons measured * The meaning is that they who perform sacrifice and partake of the sacrificial food after offering it unto gods and guests. came to the woods of be virtue. there- fore. Of words. live upon such remnants Ye are stationed with mire and very impure Ye are not persons subsisting upon the Ye are wicked we I ! I 1 remnants blessed of Sacrifice 1 "The Rishis ! said. the success one attains here and hereafter is after the fcind of that deity. Sacrifice. acquire such religious merit that the like of it cannot be acquired by other men. for the known to thee O thou I righteous soul. Having attained the object Hearing these words. Living upon The bird then said. then I shall tell faith by arraying youryou words that are true ''The Rishis different paths are said. devoted to every praise. If you do not refuse me your selves against your better selves. if one firmly regards himself to be Siva. Instruct us now "The bird Among quadrupeds the cow i is the foremost. saying. Of metals. Literally rendered. firmly regarding it to be a deity of a particular kind. in this world. how could I find the acts (of persons in quest of heaven) become successful through mantras ? He who. the holy compassionate towards them. These Vedic rites are his heaven. what is for our good I We great faith "The bird and beneficial 1 said. gold is the foremost. for leading abandoning their understanding. As the Srutis declare. without the homes.ig MAHABHARATA certain well-born A Brahmana youth life. "According to the manner in which the person of firm conviction approaches the Soul. The iti after vadi is really cti. It so happened the form of a golden bird. mantras and of bipeds. If it were life. Assuming done by persons that eat the Sakra addressed them. These mantras regulate all the rites of a Brahmana's beginning with those appertaining to birth and the period after it. those men. the line becomes. of O sire. for do not applaud you offals. path. and ending with those appertaining to death and the crematorium. of little hirsute honours of manhood. otherwise. Lo. 1 O regard this our course of life to be highly Thy words inspire us with bird. That which is the most difficult of acts that men can achieve. adores his soul. and foremost of sacrifices. virtue obtain the highest end remnants of Sacrifices this bird applauds those that subsist upon the is 1 ! He I informs us of it.-T. are the foremost. The of life.

monarch.. The domestic mode of life is very superior and sacred and is called the field (for the cultivation) of success. I. fortnights of the winter solstice. and heaven ! To live.e. therefore. rule the wide world. that is now destitute of foes ! The brevity of such passages is the chief obstacle to their clear comprehension. is of domesticity! Without doubt. By what path do those men go that censure wealth. go to Steller regions which are equal to that of Brahma. attain to ends that are } exceedingly difficult of attainment. calling to thy aid that eternal wisdom. with their own faith exceedingly strengthened. howto be obtained by leading a life of domesticity. T. ' ! Free from pride. and betook themselves to thou that are conversant with rightea life of domesticity. T.* These three kinds of success. t i. without attaining to the companionship of the gods and Pitris. penances are the things and are the root of all creatures. attain to lunar regions. 'Those ascetics then. these are called the austerest of penances. that practise excellent great respect in vows and are truthful in speech. saying. They are called eaters of the remnants of feasts who eat after having served guests and gods and Rishis and kins* men. therefore. hearing these words that were beneficial and fraught with righteousness. * . the Moon. There is nothing init. animals. they attain to paths disapproved of nce in the mantras which says. in accordance with ordiance Therefore. those persons that are observant of their own duties. viz. depending upon action are desired by every creature. What is meant by it is that those who die during the lighted fortnights of the summer Those that die during the dark solistice attain to solar regions of bliss. and the gratification of the Pitris. the study of the Vedas. those achievers of the most difficult feats attain to heaven and live for unending time in the regions of Sakra "Arjuna continued. They that eat the remnants of feasts after duly apportioning the food morning and evening among kinsmen. the paths of the Rishis. ye should perform such sacrifices and such penances in the shape of gifts The due performance of these eternal duties. ousness. upon which depends of the duties of all everything. Fortunately the allusions are very plain. become objects of the world. they incur sin. Therefore. These last have to return after passing their alloted periods of enjoyment and happiness.SANTI PAKVA 1$ by half the months lead to the Sun. And since those men of little understanding live by abandoning the eternal paths of the gods. such exceedingly difficult penances. abandoned the religion of Eenunoiathion. and the paths of Brahma. and without obtaining Brahma. I will give by the SrutisJ There is an ordinaperform the sacrifice reprethee the happiness represen- sented by gifts of valuable things ted by sons.. the worship of the gods. Therefore. as also regardful is ! said to be the highest asceticism of the ascetics. there- action? Of little understanding and deprived of fore. or the Stars. Asceticism. Ye ! sacrificer. tell you to bear the very heavy services unto the preceptors burthen foremost ever. by performing the highest glory and power. While those that are freed from attachments. have obtained The gods. whatever the time of their Death. they eink in the scale of being and become worm e and vermine.

and seeks to restrain the functions of his senses. attains. king. The first word is compounded of an and astika. regarded as the true Kenouncer (a life of ! He. to the highest region of heaven by the way of the deities J This (domestic mode of life again) has been said by all persons acquainted with Vedic truths to be superior to all his acts.f Know them for downright atheists that reject the declarations of the Vedas (which inculcate action). who roves over the world (in his mendicant rounds) who has the foot of a tree for his shelter. it required the three others to disregarding wrath and be placed on the other for balancing * it. that the Pitris. Beholding the result of this exatui- t J The sense is that the gods themselves have become so by action. looked at the king. t the strict observance of the Vedio rites. T. are. again. by following their declarations in O Bharata. thai) when domesticity was placed on one soale. That man who is homeless. Renouncer of his own self. Dava-yana is the Tana or way along which the deities have gone. is a renouncer in the always employs obervance of the vow of mendicancy . For a Kehatriya. because he dries up his very body by denying himself food. Partha. . The wise have said. that renouncer of his own self. The person that all is learned in the Vedas. monarch. that the person who in sacrifices gives away his righteously acquired wealth unto those Brahmanas that are well conversant with the Vedas. Vaisampayana said. Therefore. O king. jumps to ing monarch. joy. disregard- domesticity that is) the source of much happiness. king. and restrains bis soul. and especially deceitfulnese. a renounoer in the observance of the vow of mendicancy. without reigning. 'Hearing these words in speech and broad-chest. T. is a the next mode of life. engaged in aotion. however. T. observing the ordinances support (by rain) the (of the Creator as declared in the Vedas). temperate foes. with face whose colour then resembled possessed foremost of all righteous persons.SfeOTION XII chastiser of of Arjuna. he would then be equally Binn|j ing. for himself. T. besieging his brother's heart ( with reason ). $ That Brahmana who. is. 'The very gods had established their fires in the region called VisaWia-yupa. Such a person also is not a true Kenouncer. never cooks is.^T The four different modes of life were at one time weighed in the balance. that gods themselves depend upon the lives of even all fruits of action !* The disbelievers. who. viz. live quietly in the kingdom governed by gome brother of his. the (other) modes of life I Knowing this. that these words. Nakula of mighty arms and that of of great wisdom. therefore. Know. T. "Nakula said.|| ronouncer labouring under the quality of darkness. suoh a mode of life would be sinful. king. and spoke copper. IT Nilakantha thinks that the object o this verge is to show that even such a life properly appertains to a Brahmana and not to a Kshatriya. his time in the study of the Vedao. if Yudhishthira would. T. who observes the all vow of taciturnity.

! ! perform those other king. who woods. on the other hand. other kinds of Sacrifice sire. that mode of said to be exceedingly difficult and unattainable. purity. without hope of reaping their fruits. and seeing further. which one is free to do all The sinless Lord acts. truth. i. and Like Sakra. O always bear abundant monarch.! The renouncer that rigidly adheres to this mode of life. were created as ingredients of sacrifice.e. Acts done from a T.. in ruin either here or hereafter. The very gods. thou art only displaying thy want of faith monarch. the chief of the celestials. simplicity. under the hypocritical garb of righteousness. has not to encounter of all creatures. do not perform sacrifices. and not A person. has become equal to Brahma. spirit of renunciation.SANTI PAKVA 2i Bharata. gods. and Profit. are acts intended for Pitris. who : in consequence of his treading along such a way which consists in the oonoentrntion of the mind. it bull of Bharata's race. monarch. covet the companionship of a regenerate person like this. of righte- ous soul. that became the way of the great Rishis and the refuge of all persons conversant with the ways of the world. self-restraint.. and sacrifices that are praised by the I * Acts done from vanity. Pleasure. For one in the observance of domesticity the per- formance with impediments. and animals that are clean. of sacrifice is fraught monarch.-!. Those acts that are done from vanity Those acts. By refusing to spend in Sacrifice the diverse kinds of wealth that thou hast taken from I have never seen. therefore. a king in the observance of a life of domesticity renouncing his wealth in any other way except in the Rajasuya. Amongst Rishis.e. is a real thinking that man of clouded understanding who goes to the Renouncer.e tl Eeligion. spirit of renunciation. in the observance of the domestic mode of life. For this. abandoning home and its surroundings. i. again. alone contained both heaven and pleasure. guests. perseverance. eternal sin. with the prideful consciousness of one being himself the actor and the arranger of everything. . i. that are done from a fruits. Partha. possessed of wealth and corn and animals. fails to forget his desires (even while living in the woods). T The threefold aims. these are always regarded as virtues recommended by the Rishis. it is said. are said to be unproductive of fruit. In domesticity. and righteousness. there are some that regard the study of the Vedas to be a sacrifice and some that regard contemplation to ba a great sacrifice which they perform in their minds. earn. therefore. Tranquillity. O monarch. is bound by the grim King of death with to be his his deadly fetters round the neck.* sacrifices. who. In this mode of life alone. through Brabmanas That whose heedlessness the subjects are plunged by robbers. that domesticity nation by soales. are the threefold aims to be attained. the Atwamedha. He. Those life has been persons. O thy foes. created creatures with the intention that they would adore him by sacrifices with profuse presents. and clarified butter. Creepers and trees and deciduous herbs. fortitude. duty and abandoning all desire for fruit. who betakes to this mode of life.

thou betakest thyself to a wandering life. of success casting off even mental attachments. is Death's not mine ). such Kalis of the kingly order! kinsmen. be the portion of our The word mama (mine). let Earth. and and who kine. the mind. king.22 MAEABfiARATA to govern. villages. for having in a trice slain in battle his foes that Swelled with prosperity. without giving away steeds. conversant with the Vedas. T. while everything proceeding from an opposite frame of mind leads to Brahma or immortality. we towards retire into the woods with hearts not harbouring friendly feeling monarch. without bathing in sacred waters. i. 1 Thou from both worlds and have to take thy birth in order/" A person becomes a true renouncer by casting off the Pisacha home every internal and external attachment. If. monarch. shalt then fall off these ordinances in which there are no impediments. O king. bliss ! Woe is their portion sacrifices hereafter and not and the rites in without performing great honour of thy deceased ancestors. does not fall this or the other world. thou shalt then meet with destruction like a small cloud separated from a mass and dashed by the winds If. thou canst. and if. is eternal Brdhma. 'By casting is off all external objects only. of the kingly order that do not practise charity and give Those members protection (to others). O Partha.\ Brahma and death. The first is explained as appertaining to or encased in Sarira. doubtful. f Let that religious merit and that By happiness which are his Btill who has cast off external objects but 1 whose mind internally covets them. entering invisibly * Antarala is thus explained by Nilakantha. go to regions higher " It behoves thee not. consisting ( while the opposite word na-mama two letters. off from duties respected by the ancients and practised by the best of men. 1 that religious merit and that happiness which are his who governs the off all internal attachments also. t Sariram is contra-distinguished from Valiyam. T. . than heaven Partha. like Sakra slaying the forces of the Daityas of Kshatriya duties subjugated the and having made presents unto persons world by the thy prowess. Observant of the duties of one's own order. that would grieve. and elephants adorned with trappings. who is there. consisting of three of letters. having oast friends self . one does not attain to success. T. J What Sahadeva wishes to say is that everything that proceeds from selfishness is productive of death. and houses. unto Brahmanas. incur sin. be the portion of our foes On the other hand. and fields. does not offer protection to those whom he is called upon of Kali. and not simply by abandoning A Brahmana that lives in the observance of for dwelling in the woods. lord. even we shall be.. Bharata. is said to be the very embodiment and female slaves.e. TheBurdwan translators have quietly dropped it. and populous regions. to indulge in grief !' ? Having in the observance aid of ! SECTION XIII "Sabadeva the attainment said.

for thee. and noble descent. own thou art selves escape from the great fear (of destruction). gladden these thy brothers. O Partha. driving away all doubts about the immortality of the eoul. creatures. if Vrittam be read for BJiutam the sense T. If. lives within the jaws of Death. this that utterances in sorrow of a woe-stricken person I has been uttered by me. monarch. she was always treated especially with affection and indulgence by the king. the soul and the body of a being are born or destroyed together. 'When Kunti's son king Yudhishthira the just speechless after listening to his brothers who were telling these truths of the Vedas. cause all 38 Bharata. . king. called Soul. then the (prescribed in the scriptures) of rites and acts would be futile. destroying the bodies of creatures one cannot be guilty of slaughter. that resemble infuriate elephants (in prowess). and thou art my senior and preceptor! It behoveth thee. to forgive these incoherent True or false. would remain unaltered. without doubfi. manifesself. then by creatures to act.P. on the other hand. with proper words. that lady of large hips. desired his attention in shooting and sweet words and said as follows. the hearts and the outward forms of be but manifestations of thy own They that look upon Behold. but whose attachment to things of the Earth has not ceased. ''Draupadi said. that I entertain I" SECTION XIV Vaisampayana remained said. Therefore. The life of that king is certainly fruitless acquired the entire Earth with her mobile and immobile enjoy her. are crying and dry! ing their palates like chatakas but thou dost not gladden them monarch. -'These thy brothers. lord of Earth has been uttered from a due regard } best of Bharatas. didst thou say unto these thy brothers then residing with thee. viz. such a one. king.3ANTI PABVA into every eoul. Draupadi. said these words unto that bull so among herd many lions and tigers. be not ever subject to destruction. Conversant with duties and of a elephants. I all creatures to all creatures as their sire. observant of them in practice. of large eyes and great beauty..* Ihou art my my protector. therefore. and suffering ! Why. tation of In the second line. does not who having Bharata. that is If this being. K. these heroes that have always drunk of the cup of misery by the side of the Dwaita lake. As regards the man again who lives in the forest upon wild fruits and roots. while living * The msaning entirely depends upon the word Swabhavam. so that when the body is destroyed the soul also is destroyed. that foremost of women. thou art my brother. Singha has translated this verse wrongly. casting her eyes on her lord. of kings seated in the midst of his brothers that resembled and like the leader of an elephantine herd in the midst her husbands but Ever expectant of loving regards from all from Yudhishthira. the way man of intelligence righteous of should adept that path which has been trodden by the old and older times.

O hero.* protected by Drona and Kama and Aswatthaman and Kripa. O tiger among men Thou hadst even penetrated the ocean and swayed with might other regions.24 MAE A BHARATA afld of victory." T. too. dost thou depress our hearts words unto thy brothers then. T. abounding with ruler of men. that other region great Meru that other region called ! The region called Bhadraswa.. that thou hast acquired the Earth gift. having thyself said these happiness hero. The Burdwan translators have mistranslated the expression. O tiger among men. O hero. constitute the wicked. as usual. quietly it. (2) that depending on good counsels. will then end in foremost of all practicers of virtue.! the region called Jambu. has been hero It is for this that I ask thee to enjoy (Formerly). cherishing the honest. O Bharata. from cold wind and aun even these words. study of I battle. I with elephants and horse and cars. ye chastisers of foes. Singha has. and the very islands begirt by the J ! sea and containing many populous provinces is ed such immeasurable feats. . these Friendship best of kings the duties of a Brahmana and not of a king. abounding the enemy. charity. Bushing to battle we will slay Duryodhana and enjoy the Earth that Depriving great car-warriors of their is capable of granting every wish ? and strewing the field of battle with the cars and slaying huge elephants. ye will perform great sacrifices of diverse kinds with presents in profusion from desire ! All these sufferings. these are the highest duties of kings ! He ! is said to be conversant with duties in whom are forgiveness and wrath. swayed with might. A Kshatriya 1 10 without the rod of a kin-g that is of without the rod chastisement can never enjoy the Earth. ready to burst upon thee with all its might. A eunuch can never have now ? A children even as there can be no fish in a mire ( destitute of water ) Kahatriya without the rod of chastisement can never shine. Bharata. giving and taking.P. how it that thy eoul is not gratified ? Seeing these brothers of thine before thee. swayed with Thou hadst also. Meru and equal called Sakadwipa on the east of the king. populous districts might defeated and slain by thee. bodies of car-warriors and horsemen and heroes. A eunuch can never enjoy wealth. achievhaving obtained ( through them ) the ! adorations of the Brahmanae. why. thou hadst. strong with three kinds of strength. or and fearlessness. "crushed with the rod of chastisement. O monarch. and (3) that depending on the perseverance and the courage of the men themselves. vie. -these heroes swell* are three kinds of angas referred to. terrors It was not by study. due to a life of exile in the woods. The subjects of chastisement can never have happiness ! the Vedas. ! the Earth ! ! Kraunchadwipa situate on the west of the great unto Jambu-dwipa itself Thou hadst swayed with might. and Having. penances. O puissant one. and never retreating from Restraining for all creatures. (1) -The dropped t Literally. on the and equal to Krauncha-dwipa itself north of the great Meru and equal to Sakadwipa was also swayed by thee. and chastisement and reward That force of or mendicancy. while K. as explained by Nilakantha the strength that depends on the master.

viz. thou art inviting thy purpose) Thou shinest now. The rod of ! are both protected by the rod of chastisement. "Arjuna Said. numbering five. I am the worst of nose. have all to follow him in madness. Knowing this. Having slain many thousands of kings possessed of active prowess. tent to scorch your enemies What need I say my happiness would even then have been very great celestials ! All of I ! I then. have immured thee with all unbelievers (in a prison) and taken upon themselves the government of the Earth That person who from dullness of 1 ! intellect acts in this way never succeeds in winning prosperity. she said. 1 SECTION XV Vaisampayana said. that through thy folly thou art about to make that feat futile They whose eldest brother becomes mad. It protects also. even as those two best of kings. are my husbands ? (and look after me) like the five senses inspiring the physical frame The words of my who 1 fore-sight. I see. why dost thou not address them in delightful words ? All of you are like All of you are compeyou are capable of resisting foes If only one of you had become my husband. king. the rod of king Righteousness and Profit. all the Pandavas are about to become mad. The man that treads along the path of madness should be subjected to medical treatment by the aid of incense and collyrium. become cheerless! Make gifts of wealth and clothes and other Fight thy foes " best of kings !' enjoyment unto tbe Brahmanas.. 'The chastisement protects For this. tiger among men. of drugs applied through the best of the Bharatas. these thy brothers were in their senses. when mother-in-law all of you. Yudhishthira will ever keep you in happiness. all brother of unfading glory. regarded 1 former days Protecting thy subjects the goddess Earth with her mountains and forests and righteously. The rod of chastisement is awake when all subjects For this. Through thy madnsss. "Hearing these words of Yajnasena's daughter. chastisement is identified with the triple objects of life. monarch. king. Corn and wealth ment to be Eighteousness itself. they would then If. monarch. all my sex.SANTI PAKVA 25 ing with might and resembling bulls or infuriate elephants (in prowess). the wise have characterised the rod of chastiseelse is asleep. cannot be untrue possessed Addressing me. and of other medicines. did in 1 islands. Arjuna once more spoke. showing proper regard for his mighty-armed eldest man armed with the rod of chastisement governs and protects them. Mandhatri and Amvarisha. adversity and danger to come upon thee monarch. abandoning the whole Earth. govern by all the lords of Earth. sacrifices Do ! objects of Adore the gods in diverse not. since ! I desire to live on even though I am bereaved of my children Thou shouldst not disregard the words spoken by me and by ! these brothers of thine that are endeavouring thus (to dissuade thee from Indeed. thou that . is of great knowledge and great princess of excellent lady 1 Panchala.

the Saddhyas. are restrained by only next world. without achieving the most difficult feats. Another class of 1 the rod of chastisement did not protect people. take up the'rod One class of sinful men desist from sin through fear course of the world ! of the rod of chastisement in the king's hands. are all slaughters. service being his duty.86 MAHABHABATA of chastisement and observe the art possessed of learning. Only a few men that are noble of disposition * Censure is the only punishment for a Brabmana offender. He that is without fear never giveth away. There is practically no punishment for a Sudra. T. and without slaying creatures like a fisherman (slaying fish).* For keeping men awake (to while for king. Indra himself. t A fisherman who would not slay fish would go without food. again. have their duties ) and for the protection of property. Agni. Sudras there is no punishment. For all T. but not to Brahman or Dhatri or Pushan at any time. Thither stands in an attitude of readiness ( to grapple with every offender ) and the king is of righteous vision. by the imposition of fines and forfeitures of property. by the wise because it restrains the ungovernable The chastisement of Brahmanas should be by word of mouth . hard work may be imposed upon him. by giving of life of them only that much of food as would suffice for the support Vaisyas. Another class desist from and yet another from fear of the similar acts through fear of Yama's rod. A Vaisya should be punished by forfeiture of possessions. persons desist from sinful acts through fear king. Without piercing the vitals of others. Kala and Mrityu and Vayu and Kuvera and Surya. . the Maruts. their prowess. of Kshatriyas. the recluse in the forest and the in their respective ways through fear of religious mendicant. and the Yiswedevas. never performs a sacrifice. Rudra. ordinances. in this world. legislation). Skanda. The rod of chastisement (danda) has been so named If and punishes the wicked. The man that is without any fear never desires to adhere to any engagement or compact. The Brahmacharin and the house-holder. all people O Bharata. whose course is such. are all slaughtererers. . Varuna. became the great Indra. chastisement alone. the subjects never forget themselves. they would have sunk in the darkness of hell. but care should be taken to give him food sufficient for maintaining life. of dark complexion and red eyes. by the slaughter of Vritra. all these walk without any fear. no person can obtain great prosperity. where Chastisement. for being unable to possess wealth. Those amongst the godg that are given to slaughtering others are adored much more by men. the Vasus. Sakra. under the name of chastisement (or punitive been established in the world. Humbled by bend to those gods. He that is king. no man has been able to achieve fame in this world or acquire wealth or subjecs. dispossession of wealth cannot be a punishment in his case . A Kshatriya may be punished by taking away all his property.! Without slaughter. everything of society. There is a class of persons who is dependent on the rod of chastisement the rod of chastisement from devouring one another. the imposition of labour on him cannot be a punishment. that. Thus.

soon become disposed to observe rules and restrictions t this world is kept straight by chastisement.BANM PABVA adore in all 27 their acts those among the gods that are equally disposed creatures and that are self-restrained and peaceful. Others seen to be so stupefied as to adopt the domestic mode of life once more. when extinguished. Like fishes in the water. Chastisement Every one in was ordained by the Creator himself the happiness of all modest. never great king. The very ascetics cannot support their lives without In water. may be seen. that chastisement. upholds creatures. properly applied the very fires. therefore. things again are devoured by the Destroyer when he comes ! is food for living creatures. man becomes disposed to observe rules and restraints. the stronger upon the weaker. This is due to the fear of force or chastiseagain. then the whole world would have been enveloped in utter merly spoken by Brahman himself. A person and righteous is scarce. in fright. It behoveth tbee. If there were no chastisement in the world distinguishing the good from the bad. The stupefied at it. cutting off trees and killing birds and animals. I have no doubt If in this that the acts of creatures become crowned with when the policy of chastisement is properly applied. to by birth ! Foolish (Kshatriyas) alone. I do not behold the creature in this world that supports life without doing any act towards all of injury toothers. on earth. that are atheists and scoffers of the Vedas. It is not true that one does not slaughter them. perform sacrifices and at last attain to heaven. Yielding to the fear of chastisenaturally pure ment. With the falling refuge in the woods. The mongoose devours mice . Animals live upon animals. all O son of Kunti. ! darkness and all things would have been confounded. the cat devours the mongoose . for the four orders.. of the eyelids alone. dog devours the cat Behold. stronger animals prey on the weaker. afflicted by chastisement. uprooting herbs. those men may be villages and towns repair to the woods. success only chastisement were abolished from the world. then ravens and beasts of all prey would have eaten up * other animals and men and the clarified butter The sense is that if in supporting life one kills these creatures. who (in the observance of domesticity) tilling the soil. the the dog again is devoured by the spotted leopard. There are men who subduing wrath and pride betake themselves to ascetic courses of life and leaving Arrived there. t Ehogya is explained by Nilakantha as Palanaya (maryyadaya). of This has is been ordained by the gods. they are destroyed. all This mobile and immobile universe . If for protecting Religion and Profit. take killing creatures. creatures would soon be destroyed. when blown ment. Even they that are breakers of rules. there are innumerable creatures. This truth was forviz. What higher duty is there than supporting one's life ?* There are many creatures that are so minute that their existence can only be inferred. . T. he does not in any way commit sin. become that which thou restraining wrath and joy. art man knowledge. and for making them righteous and chastisement could not inspire fear. blaze up Behold. and fruits.

righteously.. no deception. the importance of chastisement Duties have been declared for only the maintenance of the relations of the world. abstention from injury and injury prompted I by righteous motives. Our duty now is to abanMen that don grief. say Upon chastisement rests the Thither where desire. T. and maidens also marry. therefore. and chastised. from righteous motives than not to injure from fear of sin. through fear of chastisement by the king. D3 fchou. to whatever mode of life chastisement he might belong. They are then made to bear weights. that is superior by which righteousbe acquired. that wealth again is dependent on chastisement. The crow also would take away the first heaven that men that rod were not kept uplifted. if chastisement did not uphold scriptures). that chastisement the root of every thing. it is better to injure. T. For that slaughter there is merit. therefore. acd no foe-destroying wickedness. without practising free love. are dependent on wealth . . nor horses. Righteously or unkingdom hath now become ours. If people could never duly perform did not uphold and protect. then ravage and confusion would have set in on every side. says Arjuna. even if yoked ther camels. and cheerfully acquire virtue. Upon chastisement depend is all creatures.28 MAHABHAEATA intended for sacrifices. and the idea of property would have disappeared. only through fear of chastisement. the dog will lick the sacrificial butter. society. this ! wear excellent clothes.* If chastisement did not uphold cow. in all acts. without doubt. chastisement is well applied. if (sacrificial) offering. The learned. to be more general. it at least is plain that the fear of being regarded a dunce and a fool and incurring the ridicule or displeasure of the tutor and class-mates. induces one to acquire knowledge. and no maiden would and protect. and no one would have succeeded tect. something of both is seen. would observe the duties of that mode as declared (in the in acquiring knowledge. Bight or wrong. If the rod of chastisement be not uplifted.! Neinor mules. All our acts. t If this does not come up to the grossness of the doctrine spare the rod and ruin the child. If chastisement did not uphold and protect. for if not slaughtered. would. If chastisement did not uphold and protect. drag cars and carriages. nor oxen. and upon it rests this world also. I The illustration used by the commentator is that it is better to kill the tiger that has invaded the fold than remain quiet for fear of injuring that beast of prey and commit sin. enjoy it and perform sacrifices are fortunate. and all barriers would have been swept away. eat good food. annual sacrifices with large presents. therefore. no sin. then milked a milch nobody would have studied the Vedas. At any rate. ness Of these two. their horns again are cut off. Subjecting animals to castration. or Yama in the next world. nor asses. is to be seen. In this * The meaning seems to be that the milch cow suffers herself to be milked. living with their dear wives ( and children ). Behold.! There is no act that is wholly meritorious. the beast will slaughter the kine before the spectator's eyes and the latter would incur sin by passively witnessing the sight. nobody would have have married. nor may any that is wholly wicked. and prothereto. are tethered. no one. There are two things here. T. viz.

and heat is checked by cold. reapeth woe from woe and suffereth double woe.SANTI PARVA world that 2$ is unsubstantial and rotten with abuses and rendered painful. thou that art conversant with all branches of of to be clouded. Similarly physical diseases spring from mental ones. indicate. ! Listen to viz. but. 1 People capable " the truth regard this transformation to be death. and darkness are the three * Otherwise named Phlegm. bile. the wrath of the advanc- The inner is soul of of every incapable of being slain. a creature acquires new forms. for it is provokes the wrath of the slayer. passion. following the rules and analogies cited above Perform sacrifices. protect thy friends subjects. There are two kinds of diseases. we cannot do it I will not say anything I duties ! There is ! ! 1 will not say anything /Even this is what I had wished! Impelled. Goodness. Let no cheerlessness be thine. slain When the soul ? how then can one be by another As house. SECTION XVI Vaisampayana said. creature slain. I will puissant one ruler of men. however. everything is endangered. ruler of men the stupefaction of thy Through ! ! faculties. "After the conclusion Bhimasena of great wrath and energy. is advancing against him. like a coward 7 the world are known to thee There is ! nothing belonging either to the future or the present that is also unknown to thee. give alms. He that indulgeth in regrets on account of past physical or mental woes. all his patience. and wind. son of ! foes ! He that does it. and weak ! How is it that thou that art the ruler and ourselves are being made cheerless of the world. said monarch. Bharata. are incapable being person enters a new Abandoning forms that a of seeing worn out. If one of of the body. sufferest thy understanding The cheerlessness.* Their existhe three prevails over the rest. Without doubt. in consequence righteous and unrighteous paths of knowledge. protect thy ! and practise righteousness Slay thy foes. Each springs from the other. monarch. do thou practise the ancient customs of men. with all of Arjuna's speech.. does not incur the slightest sin foe He that takes up a weapon and slays an armed ing foe that does not incur the sin of killing a foetus. T. heat. . When such is the case. mustering these words unto his eldest brother Thou art. monarch. remedies have been laid down. even so a creature enters successive bodies. conversant We always wish to nothing unknown to thee imitate thy conduct. by great grief I am constrained to say something Listen to these words of mine. Cold is checked by heat. the reasons in favour of your assuming sovereignty. alas. physical and mental. and wind. 1 I Kunti. Cold. is the truth. mental diseases spring I me with undivided attention This from physical ones. tence in these three are the attributes harmony is the sign of health. None of them can be seen existing independently. and while slaying king.

Thou. Another. wishes to recollect his past bliss. fight that battle this very day.. however. bull cf Bharata's race. ! thou shalt have to fight these very foes again !} Therefore. If thou givest up thy assuming another body. the attainment of rity . and the distress suffered at the hands of the Sindhu king ? Why hast thou forgotten the skins. like that which thou is hast fought with Bhishma and Drona I now before thee. hence. for it is the soul which is his foe and with which he is Such conquest and identibattling. remedies sign of (mental) health. as also our living in the great forests ? Why kick received by the princess Draupadi from in Kichaka while we were living concealment ? A fierce battle.* Thou. Qantavyam is explained by Nilakantha as connected with paramavyaktarupasya. conquer. O chastiser of foes. what will be thy condition ? On The sense is that thou wert ever superior to joy and grief and never sufferedst thyself to be elated with joy or depressed with grief. living in the present suffering of woe. of the means of effecting thy salvation by sacrifice and gifts and other acts of piety. those insulters of thy thou hast acted very properly. Or. MAHABHABATA The existence of these three in harmony is the If one of these prevails over the rest. Grief is checked by joy. and aided by thy own acts. viz. that battle is now before thee in (however) with thy mind alone which there is no need of arrows. thou shalt have to be re-born and to renew this mental battle with thy doubts. One. and joy is checked by grief. therefore. It seems that Destiny is allpowerful. this would mean that Yudhishthira should identify himself with his own soul. i. fication implies the cessation of the battle and. wife. how is it that it does not behove thee to recollect the sight thou sawest before.. if it be thy nature.e. before the assembly ?t Why does it not behove thee to recollect our expulsion from the ( Kuru ) city and our exile ( into the woods ) dressed in deerhast thou forgotten the woes inflicted by Jatasura. while in her season. and I am not sure that I have understood it correctly. why dost thou not then recollect the insult to our wife ? The recollection of this insult will fill thee with wrath and convince thee that in slaying thy foes. and identify thyself with. then. wishes to recollect his past woes. conquer and identify with thy mind's foe ! If thou canst not win that battle. . to be fought. have been prescribed. use thy memory for becoming sad during times of bliss. but which will have to be fought with thy mind alone life-breaths before conquering in this battle. According to Nilakantba. Indeed. the battle with Chitrasena. t The argument seems to be this : if it is thy nature to call back thy woes even when happiness is before thee. the scantily-clad Krishna dragged. in consequence of which thou art thus afflicted. T. T. of relatives and kinsmen. T. this means that thou shouldst go to. viz. the mind of course. living in the present enjoyment of this. ehouldst not. or glad during times of woe.30 attributes of the mind. * I The meaning is that in consequence of thy abandonment of prospeand kingdom and. T.. of friends. therefore. wert never sad in grief or glad in bliss. This is a difficult verse. tranquillity. disregarding the concerns of thy body. the param or foe of that which )f unmanifest form.

We are thy servants. the absence of tranquillity. T. Other animals destitute of If kings. The poor beast is very often followed. from thy great burthens. thou covest sovereignty Freed from desire. the sinful Duryodhana hath been slain with all his followers. When the tiger goes on a fishing expedition. and sometimes by bands of fishermen I have seen large fishes with the claw-marks of the tiger on them exposed for sale in a village market. to earthly goods. extinguish with little food the fire in thy stomach when it appears. fed with fuel. course of life ? One's desires. . be filled in course of one's so fed. son of Pritha. it is whole when Eire.* Perform with due rites and profuse presents the horse-sacrifice. will have but one stomach Why dost thou then applaud this ! I these sins. as also Vasudeva of great 1 " energy I SECTION XVII "Yudhishthira affected by said.. Draupadi had kept her locks dishevelled since the day they had been seized by Dussasana. follow thou the course adopted by thy sire before thee and govern properly thy kingdom. what it usually does is to catch large from shallow streams and throw them landwards far from the nshes^ water s edge. therefore. prevailing overjoy and grief and attaining to tranquillity. blazeth forth when not extinguished. slaughters many animals. or in many months. He that is bereft of wisdom seeks much food for his stomach. that which is for thy permanent good will then be won by thee Thou applaudest desires and enjoyments and prosperity. that have renounced all enjoyments and reduced ! their bodies by penances. accepting earthly possessions. are incapable Desire. indeed.e.SANTI PARVA 31 the other hand. thou hast been restored to the normal condition. vanity. By good luck. they can never have contentment. and adopt Renunciation. by the smaller carnivorous animals. those looks were bound up as before. The Earth being conquered. gratification. Conquer thy stomach first. t The Bengal tiger acts as a fisher to both animals and men. After the slaughter of the Kurus. unperceived. strive thou to be happy That peerless monarch who will govern this unbounded Earth. by winning ifc. Bhima. and ascertaining the right and the wrong paths of creatures. incapable life.t ! * The condition of Draupadi's lock. and ! anxiety. (Thou shalt then be able to conquer the Earth). practise Renunciation. however. king. might. however. 'Discontent heedless attachment folly. attain to regions of beatitude. Free thyself. i. cannot. monarch. thou sbalt have attained the great end of life ^Applying thy intellect to this. for filling one stomach of his. Behold the loss of understanding that is noticeable in them strength and moved by covetousness live upon the tiger's prey. T. The tiger. thou too hast attained to the condition of Draupadi's locks. They. The desire for them exists in thee. . which is of of being filled in a day. The acquisition and preservation of kingdom is attended with both righteousness and unrighteousness. Do thou. or resorted to their normal condition. By good O ! luck. bull of Bharata's race.

(That verse runs thus :) My treasures are If again the whole of Mithila were burnt immense.T. or use two stones only or their teeth alone for husking their grain. amongst these two. To accept wealth and not use it. consists in The path of the Pitris means the course of Vedic rites by which one attains to bliss hereafter.however. casting off their bodies.e. When to one seeth creatures of infinite diversity to be all one and the same and cannot escape long therefore. (of old) by Janaka who was freed from the of opposites. and that have He who. the great Rishis. yet I have nothing of mine will be burnt As a person on the and reduced to ashes. to be really unattached t The art not liberated from desire. attained to a state of Brahma. (for us). grievest for enjoyments. therefore. Such penances. cease thou to act and the and cease to bear attachment to them.. or live upon water only or air alone. so he that has got up of knowledge. . They that have given up however. that are of cleansed souls. falso speech. Thou.. T. As already said by Yudhishthira. Depending. them. while they that are for They By penances. really seeth The faculty called underis said to have eyes and understanding. known paths study the Vedas). that is of foolish understanding. succeeds in obtaining great honours. been styled as bonds. the path that perform sacrifices go by the P*>*-path. I There are two wellthis mayst of the Pitris and the path of the gods. are impossible for them as as they are in the midst of luxuries. upon that which is of his life and not the former. does not see this. t * Thou professing one's self while enjoying wealth and power. plain below. such Renunciation is impracticable. thou succeed in liberating thyself from false speech. Mention made of a verse sung ! 1 hill-top looketh down upon men on the on the top of the mansion that do not call for grief.32 MAHABHARATA As a matter of fact . words of persons that are learned.* That king who rules wide unbounded Earth. i e. t I The sense seems to be that unless kings perform such penances they hell. Liberated from (of bonds and action). the hypocritical profession of Eenunciation in the midst of luxuries. by salvation. by Brahmacharyya. proceeded Worldly enjoyments have to regions that are above the power of Death. succeed in conquering hell. is (viz. in this instance. i. nothing those two sins. viz.! Discarding desire and enjoyment. however. T. They have also been called Action. so called because of the knowledge and comprehension it gives standing is He who is acquainted with the of unknown and incomprehensible things. and that person who regards gold and pebbles the latter is said to have attained the object equally.. however. seeth people grieving for things He. T. one attains to the highest end. they who subsist on leaves of trees. casting his eyes on visible things. is impracticable. go by the god-path. The path of the gods means the abandonment of religious rites for contemplation and pious conduct. liberated from desire and enjoyments. eternal refuge of joy both here and hereafter. hope with respect to thy wishes desire and enjoyment have never to grieve. and observant of pairs the religion of Moksha.

t i. the root of sin and injury. abanfraught with reason doning thy kingdom full of wealth and corn ? A handful of fallen off barley cannot be proper for thee Thy resolution tallies not with thy acts. free from of latter. king. viz. after saying these wordi. I T.e. gods. grain king. everything rests on the (cultivated) understanding !' " SECTION XVIII Vaisampayana said. and burning with sorrow and grief. the unification of infinite variety and its identification with the Supreme Soul is attainment of Brahma. Sacrifices. 'thy resolution is of one 1 T. Arjuna. Approaching her lord at a time when no one was with him. The fact is. installed in the observance of the vow of mendicancy. or they who are bereft of have attained Brahma* understanding. while thy acts are of . vanity every kind. once more addressed his eldest Bharata. that has attained to Brahma ceases to regard himself as separate from the rest of the universe. O brother. I kind. His dear spouse beheld him deprived of wealth.. or they who are without penances. and prepared to subsist upon a handful of barley fallen off from the stalk (and to be got by picking the grains from crevices in the field). therefore. had resolved to lead mendicancy. abandoned by all these. a handful of With this handful of barley. Casting off wealth and children and wives and precious possessions of various kinds and the established path for acquiring religious merit and fire itself. One. T. king. is bootless Alas. and not they who are without knowledge. guest and Pitris.SANTI PARVA be but diversified emanations from the 88 same essence. one is then said to Those who reach this high state of culture attain to that supreme and blissful end. "When Yudhishthira. another kind Literally. or they who are of little and narrow souls. fearlessly and in wrath.J since abandonding thy large kingdom thou covetest. about the discourse between the ruler of the Videhas and his queen. to her lord when the a life of ! a life of wandering mendicancy. That history has reference to the words which the grief-stricken spouse of the ruler of the Videhas had said 'People recite this old history. afflicted by that speech of the king. Rishis and Pitris ? This thy labour. Selfishness. endued with great strength of mind. disappears from him. saying. thouleadest : ! ! abandoning his kingdom. told him these words Why hast thou adopted a life of mendicancy. the supporter of thousands of 1 Brahmanas versed three Vedas and of many more besides How canst thou desire to beg of them thy own food today ? Abandoning thy blazing prosperity. therefore.. the queen. having cast off all action 1 Thou in the wert. before this. Indeed. resolved to abstain from inflicting any kind of injury on others. shalt thou succeed in gratifying thy guests. gods. became silent.f king Janaka shaved his head (and assumed the garb of a mendicant). thou cas* This truth has been expressed in various forms of language in various passages of the Mahabharata.

t A wedded wife is the companion of one's religious acts. and granting its shelter unto all ). another always makes gifts. then who am I to thee. wait upon thee. or If a gift be one who always accepts If this * Paratantreshu is explained by Nilakantha as "dependent on destiny. acts improperly. abandon action. thou hast neither wedded wife ?t Why. One always accepts gifts made by others . a handful of barley becomes an object of attachment with thee. then why dost thou abandon the former If. T. abstaining ornaments and robes of diverse kinds ? Having and garlands and perfumes as it were. art. King Hence. thou canst act up to thy reaction of abandoning everything.^he Janaka's abandonment. What need be said of thyself that art so powerHow couldst thy heart be set on that mode of life which recomless ?J mends an earthen pot. indeed. all merit. and which forces one to abandon his very clothes and which permits the acceptance of only a handful of barley after abandonment of everything ? If. then that person stands alone in the midst of the world. mighty tree worthy of adoration ( thou wait upon and worship others ? If even an elephant desists how canst from all work. is inconsistent with bhat parfeot Denunciation or withdrawal of self within self. He might continue to enjoy his possessions without being at all attached to or affected by Thou shouldst not. If thou beest inclined to grace. indeed. { : act up to his resolution of complete renunciation of everything. regarded superior ? Who. made to indeed. rule and whant can be thy grace to me ! If. and nobody is his. The more obvious meaning however.w teat thy MAHABHARATA his food)! Thy mother hath today eyes around like a dog (for and thy spouse. widow! These helpless Kshatriyas. thy original resolution ( of abandoning ! everything) falls to the ground again. Thou knowest iha difference between the two. since thou wishest to live. of wife and kingdom. again. and a triple-headed stick. a been made sonless by thee. after having abandoned wandering mendicancy. the princess of Kosala. dost thou lead a life of having cast off thy from all actions. The meaning seems to be this if a person can truly ." means the fate that connects one's present life with the acts of a former one. to what regions on actions ?* Sinful as thou vation is doubtful and creatures are dependent this world nor the other. the explanation is not incorrect. O king. can neither be pleased nor displeased with anyone. But he and indigent who imitates those men by abandoning palatial mansions and beds and ! vehicles and robes and ornaments. especially when salhopes of theirs. again. placing their hopes expectant cf fruit and religious on thee! By killing those shalt thou go." T. therefore. and he is nobody's. of these two shouldst be gifts. alas. ! They that are desirous of happiness but are very poor then this Earth and abandoned by friends may adopt Renunciation. having been a been. therefore. is "dependent on action. who art thou to me. carnivorous creatures coming in packs and innumerable worms would eat it up. then. thou sayest that kingdom and a handful of barley are the same to thee. T. a large and sacred lake unto all creatures.

. by doing this. king. They who. even beggar can never be silenced till he receives a donative. having broken all his bonds. Janaka should resume his kingdom and practise charity otherwise. the ascertainment of duty) had become stupefied. acquire and enjoy fame and power. the king does not give (food) where will the pious that are desirous of salvation go ?f They that have food are house(in their fied houses) holders. t Therefore. Without having cast off wrath and other faults. or skins or brown robes! Who is there that is more virtuous than he who maintains his sacred fire. T. of bliss of control. naked orolad in rags. Even he. T. (viz. to be efficacious. the adoption of only the brown robe. king. for his having only a life of One is not to be called a mendicant renounced his possessions. therefore. are truly pious matted locks or clean-shaved heads. rule even a kingdom without I Such a man might forfeiting his title to be regarded a mendicant. the food that is given by a charitable person is the sure support of the pious. There- the giver of food the giver of of life. their usual occupations. fore. though attached in outward show. have this only for their object in life. life. are really persons of little understanding. If. do thou win regions the acquisition of sustenance) king. 'King Janaka is regarded to have been a truthknowing person in this world. is Life flows from food. adopt a life of mendicancy by taking up the triple-headed crutch and the brown robe. casting off the three Vedas. in this matter. is regarded to be emancipate Having shaved their heads clean and adopted the brown robe. and children. keeping thy passions under hereafter by supporting them that (viz. and who practises charity day and night ?' "Arjuna continued.. men may be seen to betake themselves to a life of mendiI wandering cancy.SANTI PARVA 35 to one that is possessed of pride. is due to the desire of earning the means of sustenance Those persons of clean-shaved heads that 1 have set up the banner of virtue. never dies till it has consumed all that has been thrown into BO a it. or for his having only adopted dependence on eleemosynary charity. Therefore. T. for he might rule without attachment. that lead a domestic mode persons from whom they come.. though bound by various ties and though ever on the lookout for bootless wealth. Mendicants are supported by them. that gift becomes bootless like the claributter that is poured upon a forest-conflagration. such a man. In this world. Do not yield to stupefaction f amongst men Even thus the duties of Domesticity are observed by persons practising * Such libations. know. standing aloof from the world. Coming out from among those mendicants depend upon those very Those self -rest rained men. religious mendicants would be undone.} Unattached at heart. who performs sacrifices with presents of animals and Dakshina. and regarding friend and foe equally. ought to be poured upon fires Dronprlv kindled with mantras. He who renounces the possessions and pleasures of the world in a sincere frame of mind is to be regarded a true mendicant. O king.* Asa fire.

respect of diverse the subtilties connected with those subjects. that is in art conversant only with the Mantras. luminous paths) to the regions reserved for praotisers of Renunciation.36 MAHABHABATA By abstaining from injuries of all charity. This. and lastly by cherishing superiors and persons of such regions of bliss as we like. that is. renunciation. all duties worlds in Arjuna connected with battle and in therefore. O Dhananjaya. those that inculcate action and those that "Yudhishthira said. and the third is superior to the second. I will convince thee light. There is no one equal to thee in the three ! skill in kinds of acts. to me. by worshipping and by truthfulness of speech. have studied the subject in brief and detail Thou knowest not the conclusions arrived at by those that Even this is the conclusion ! men whose understanding are bent on achieving salvation. and knowledge of Brahma.. that are impenetrable by others. and dwelling in the woods. Thou mayst.e. and easting off that darkness which is born of folly. wrath. 1 Thou art unable to understand If thou wert really acquainted with truly the sense of the scriptures duty. but thou hast never waited ! upon the aged. of intelligent viz. is duly known Thou weapons and observant of the practices of heroes. viz.. that amongst ascetic penances. lunar . by observing the duly gratifying gods. It behoveth thee not. their conclusions are based upon reasons. that have many eternal regions for them. 'I am precepts inculcate renouncement of action. by restraining desire for worldly possessions.' Brahmanas. and all creatures. by casting off desire and age. however. however. O son of Kunti I am.. by being engaged in protecting excellent duty of charity. have the merit of penances. that there is nothing superior to of it.. All appear to thee in that men possessed of tranquillity of soul. kinds. however. has been gratified fit ! with thee. That. for that. By we shall succeed in attaining all creatures. guests. through penances and study of the Vedas. by The path that Hei to the south and that leads to regions of light (. The scriptures are confounding and The truth. subtilties. that thou thinkest. proceeded to heaven. proceed northward ( i. the second is superior to the first. having no enemies. speak of and proper. scriptures that lead to the attainment of both kinds. The Rishis also. so that wealth may not again that are righteous are seen to bejdevoted to ascetic penances and the study of the Vedas. to doubt my intelligence Thou art conversant with the science of battle.. however. induced by of religion. have. is an error. SECTION XIX conversant with both the Vedas and the In the Vedas there are of Brahma. Pious men. Others wealth. viz. fraternal affection.. we shall certainly attain to desirable regions " of bliss. then thou couldst have understood that words such as these ought not to have been addressed to me by even one possessed of the clearest with the truths insight into the meaning of the scriptures and acquainted which thou hast said unto me.

in consequence of the strength of their convictions of a previous life. persons subject to birth and death. disbelieving in its unity. is indescribable. t The soul. words. to Soul. which says that it is distinguished by the attributes of desire.!. and will. They are.. and the cognitive faculties. often led away to this and to that in 1 the belief that the object of their search exists in this and that. reflecting on the scriptures from desire of finding what is unreal. The reason of this round or continual journey is Avidya or illusion.!. were of this opinion. Bharata There are some fools who. Having mustered. t Dridhapurve .! Having made the Soul advance towards itself which is the spring of every kind of blessedness. Some there are who. Suduravartah means difficult of being made to understand. and the soul becomes displayed in its true nature. however. able of being and inexpressible by (of re-births) among the creatures of the Earth. the Vedas. Those wicked men. aversion. regard the that dwells in this physical frame consisting of the five elements. travel all over the Earth. When there is such a path that is trod by the righteous and that is attainable by Knowledge. who ? else which we do not understand succeed in understanding that Indeed. and having cast off all kinds of action. ? calamity Arjuna. like men failing to find solid timber in an uprooted banana plant. though possessed of great learning. is explained by Nilkantha as persons endued with strong convictions of a past life . and deprecating the true doctrine about emancipation. viz. entres other bodies on the dissolution of those previously occupied.e. It is not easy to explain it (to thee) Those that are learned live. one may become perfectly independent and happy. i. "When freed from this Avidya. however. be possessed of the attributes of desire and aversion (and others). which persons desirous of salvation have before their eyes. It is very difficult to make them accept this truth about final emancipation. pleasure and pain. action ceases. That end.. that absence of true knowledge inconsequence of which men engage themselves in action. * in a Hetumantah Panditah means learned in the science of reosaning . exceedingly subtile. Partha. deny the existence of the Soul. (as those men cannot understand will Eefers to the well-known definition of the soul or mind in the Naya philosophy.* Incapseen by the eye.SANTI PABVA regions). Bharata. it revolves in a round having restrained all desires of the mind. they miss the real. nevertheless revolves round among creatures. however. keeping before it that which is the root of action. the Aranyakas. men that were always engaged in gifts and sacrifice and action. dost thou applaud wealth which is full of every kind Men of olden times that were conversant with the scriptures. making speeches in assemblies. Yoga is the best means for attaining to it. and the other scriptures. though really bereft of attributes. are reserved ft These are attained by for men devoted to action. which consists in the absence of all attributes. accomplished ! in the science of argumentation. of why.

. wealth. and some in that represented by knowledge. ! it behoves thee not. said these words. because that sin proceeds from killing one's own eelf. therefore.f The exercise of the duty of charity deserving from the undeserving is not easy. Four modes without cause the Earth. possessed of eloquence. "Devasthana superior to wealth. Indra. He who.. unto the king. and He created man also for taking care of that wealth and for performing Sacrifice. by the performance of diverse sacrifices with profuse gifts of valuof it one's wealth ables. tainted by his own understanding. acquaintance truth obtain Brahma by asceticism and intelligence. explained by Nilakantha as meaning something that is regarded as dear as self. everything should be applied to Sacri- The sense of wealth. t The last line of 8 and the atmanam is .e. Such a person incurs the sin of killing a foetus. one after another At present thou shouldAmongst st. .38 MAHABHABATA ferue the meaning of the scriptures). For this reason after discriminating the the whole follow from should be applied to sacrifice. Therefore. T. ! of Do thou. he shineth in heaven. Vaisampayana said. The supreme Ordainer created wealth for Sacrifice. Improper use of wealth is. regarded as killing one's own self. some are engaged in the sacrifice represented by Vedic ! study. ! wealth him that seeks for it. SECTION XX "After Yudhishthira had stopped. Having got their ohiefship by that means. the great ascetic Devasthana. and great happiness by Renunciation. T. king. similarly they cannot succeed in know- and that have deep ing those wise and pious persons that are truly great son of Kunti. fraught with reason. Pleasure would as a natural consequence. duly pass through them. however. -i c Therefore. Nilakantha. by interpreting Dhanahetu as sacrifices which have wealth for the means of their accomplishment. Possessed of abundant energy. meaning directly. The thou must know that the very ascetics also are addicted to action are said to preach that he who does not seek for VaiJchanasas. life Ajatasatru. i. it is that instead of performing sacrifices after acquisition better not to perform sacrifices if they cannot be performed is without wealth. of course. O Bharata. said. doth not know that he incurs the sin of killing a fretus.. giveth away wealth to an undeserving person without giving it to the deserving. Men collect together diverse is superior to things (for the performance of sacrifices) simply because of the (Vedic) ordinance.* I think that he who would follow that precept would incur many faults. men acquainted with with the scriptures. ! is nothing Listen to me with undivided attention Having won her. surpassed all the gods. thou hast righteously won king.. to abandon her are indicated in theVedas. would come to this first line of 9 are to be taken together . perform great sacrifices with profuse presects the very Rishis. I shall 'Phalguna has told thee that there discourse to thee on that subject.

offspring) of speech. shines in resplendence. became the first of gods. self-restraint. in all itself. The fruits won by a person correspond with his practices. when one conquers frightened one's desire behold one's soul. earned great merit and great happiness. nothing higher than contentment. they ponding fruits. then the natural resplendence of his soul soon manifests When one does not fear any creature. . truthfulness (of passion. the son of Avikshit. the learned is is consists in not injuring any creature worthy that that religion which of the approbation of the of righteous.f Some others. the highest. by the profusion of his wealth. Some are for passing their days in retirement. asked by Indra. therefore exhorted to take the sovereignty. . delivered unto him. Thus. son of Kunti. he nevertheless vanquished Sakra For this reason everything should be fey his wealth. righteously exercised and without attachment. justice. patience. In the great sacrifice he performed. is the practice these the best of all reli- gions as said * by the self -create Manu himself. Literally this means that "it is not that others do not (praise) ekam or " contemplation i. all the vessels were of gold. Abstention from injury. then is one said to word and thought. comupon one's own wives. Observing all this. Renunciation. Contentment stands as one draws away all his desires like a tortoise drawing his limbs. . t Nailcam na chapare is explained by Nilakantha thus. after slaying. viz. The Srutis declare that he who frightens others is frightened himwhile he who frightens not. live in silent meditation. is not himself frightened. son of Kunti. . highest bliss. O Bharata !* Some praise Peacefulness. accep- Some. King Marutta. and aversion. applied to Sacrifice. . having performed sacrifices. having poured his the saorifioe called Sana. Though a man. self . in nobody and cherishes no desire. the discourse that Vrihaspati.SANTI PARVA flees. Thou hast heard that the own self as a libation in great king Harishchandra.. seeks to injure corres- Awaken thyself by this consideration. Some praise gifts praise Sacrifice others. and Sree herself came in person. T. will crown him with bliss hereafter." 1 SECTION XXI "Devasthana said.. T. Therefore. for sovereignty. procreation amiability. vanquished Sakra himself. contentment is the pati said. whatever religion is followed by obtain creatures. indeed. VrihasContentment is the highest heaven. Yudhishthira is. some praise Exertion some there are that praise Contemplation and some praise both Peacefulness and Exerfcion. When one. 39 Clad in deer-skins. one is said to attain to Brahma. modesty. the chief of the gods. the high-souled Mahadeva. abandoning everything. Some praise sovereignty and the cherishing of subjects. the conclusion of tance.e. and surpassing all creatures in the universe and prevailing over them by means of that achievement. 'In this connection is cited an old history. nor any creature is There is When atone. some there are that praise contemplation or meditation. cutting and piercing (foes).

"After this. many and its pursuit is attended with exceedingly difficult to obtain. and having conquered all thy foes. that which is not. Even this is down the Penances and Renunciation are the duties of Brahthe ordinance (affecting the two orders) about the declared in the ordinance that lays next world. conforming in everything is sure to obtain excellent fruits in to the well-known duties of kings. who. nor Sacrifice. has been ordained observance for Kshatriyas aots 1 Thou art acquainted with I all duties and thou art of a wise king. For this the Rudras with the Vasus and the scorcher of foes." SECTION XXII Vaisampayana eldest brother of said. skilled in righteous soul. perish by weapons on oven a Brahmana. Indeed. the field of battle. is not censurable. equally regarding restraining the remains of sacrificial feasts. and it has been laid down. death in battle is laid down for Kshatriyas. why dost thou burn in grief? It is so king. Arjuna once more addressed his unfading glory. O king. and subsisting upon the righteous. chief of the Bharatas. who at last transmits his crown to his son and betakes him- according live on the products of the wilderness and act self to the woods. death in than the performance of diverse sacrifices. having by the practice of Kshatriya duties obtained sovereignty : that is so very difficult of acquisition. to the ordinances of the Vedas after having cast that Kshatriya who conducts himself thus. that they should. manas. attain high end. viz. that are engaged in ruling their subjects with and fighting for the sake of kine and Brahmanas. king Yudhishthira of cheerless heart. that lives in the of Kshatriya duties. all ! O bull of Bharata's race Thou art Thou canst distinguish what is right in this world from what is . converth care do thou observe this religion duties. this religion. of which thou both this world and the next. The duties of Kshatriyas are exceedingly fierce and are always connected with the use of weapons. duties of Kshatriyas. speakest. sprung nor dependence on the wealth of others. there to off all idleness. of royal ganfe with the truths that which is dear and his soul at all times. and the Saddhyas and hosts of kings adopt Adityas. They is ascetic penances. thou that art conversant with every kind of and said these words duty.. That final emancipation. they attain to heaven through those acts of theirs. that are possessed of the quality of compassion and are righteousness freed from desire and wrath. nor Penances. takes sovereignty upon himself. Neither Renunciation. Practising without heedlessness the duties inculcated by hereafter to a that religion. that adopt such duties and practise charity and impediments. pussiant one. as regards for battle is regarded more meritorious them Kshatriyas. The life when of the time comes.40 MAHABHABATA 1 That Kshatriya. for Kshatriyas also have from Brahman. who who ie engaged in restraining the wicked and cherishing to tread in the path of virtue and who himself treads obliges his subjects in that path. ruler of men.

Do not. "Vyasa said. guests. and thereby free thyself from thy fever. though a Brahmana. They are not unknown to O . the chiefship of the gods. O ruler of men. forgiveness. therefore. Thou hast earned great ascetic merit. Do thou then support all these.SANTI PARVA wrong! 41 Casting off this cheerlessness by repentance. depends on the duties of domesticity. It behoveth thee. king. as declared by the scriptures. living in solitude. sanctified by weapons and agreeably to the ordinances of the Kshatriya religion. the duties of domesticity) life of retirement in the woods. are adorable and worthy of praise. The heart of a Kshatriya especially is hard as thunder. O bull among what is Kshatriyas. I Brahmanas shall now tell thee the duties of Kshatriyas. O monarch. ! A depend ( for their sustenance ) upon the person leading a life of domesticity. all O ! O of men. as we have heard. mendicancy. to bear like an ox the burthen of thy ancestral king. and servants.. O Partha. content- ment. is incapable of !' SECTION XXIII Vaisampayana said. Birds and animals and various other creatures. and battled with his sinful kins-folk for eight hundred and ten times. O monarch. O amiable Yudhishthira. "Thus addressed by Arjuna of curly hair. are true. lord of Earth ruler Pilris. has not been laid down for thee ! The gods. the Kuru king born of Kunti remained speechless. The highest religion. is mode of life A life of Do thou of being mode of life then. The words of Arjuna. That which has happened have attained to the was ordained being resisted to ' happen. Through them he obtained. O tiger among kings. conquer thy O ruler of men. dom 1 Penances. address thyself with a strong will to action. learning. He. soul. be striven after by to the best of their ability for the attainment of success. grieve thus for past ! They that have been slain highest end. Those acts of his. Thou art acquainted with all duties Do ( ! thou then duly practise the duties prescribed for thee (viz. are supported by men leading domestic lives. perform sacrifices with profuse presents even as Indra did. sacrifices. the most difficult of all the four modes of life. therefore. and be engaged in the performance of sacrifices and the practice of charity Indra himself. and knowledge (of Brahma). Then the island-born Vyasa ) said these words. Thou hast a good knowledge of all the Vedas. that belongs to that domesticity is practise that superior (to all others). casting off the duties of domesticity. contemplation. ! became a Kshatriya in his acts. which is difficult practised by persons of unrestrained sense. Having by the exercise of Kshatriya duties vanquished thy foes and acquired empire without a thorn in its side. keeping the senses under control. therefore. Destiny. should. Do thou.

saying. only by wielding the rod of chastisement. do thou upon me. There were two brothers. well performed wealth. the absence of contentment with present pros peri ty. viz. While still employed in the act of eating. goodness of practice knowledge of the Vedas. Once on a time Likhita came to the residence of his brother Sankha. the Earth Kshatriyas and contribute greatly to their success. Situate by the bank of the stream called Vahuda. both of those residences were adorned with trees that were always burthened with flowers and fruits. world and the next. fierceness. however. protection of subjects. verse. obtained the highest success. secure for them both this son of Kunti. Sankha addressed his brother. like Daksha himself. Arrived at the asylum of his brother.. and gifts to deserving persons. the principal ones for Vrihaspati.I have taken them even from this retreat. Beholding him eating. Sankha came back to his retreat. these. of rigid vows. Hearing from his for a thief Knowing me soon inflict ! 1 Literally. acquisition of king. and acquired by persons of the royal order. I have committed the offence of appropriating what was not given to me ! ! ! and observing the duty of thy order. of^that king !' "Vyasa said. of all kinds of penances. O king.' 'O holy one. Amongst these. Lik'uita plucked many ripe fruits. 'In this connection is cited this old history. sang this ing a mouse. Obtaining them the regenerate Likhita began to eat them without any qualms of conscience. ( O best of kings. Sankha had gone out of his asylum on no fixed purpose. at the command of his brother. Those duties that I have mentioned are. Like a snake devouris Brahmana that is devours a king that exceedingly attached to a life inclined to peace and a of domesticity ! It is h?ard again that the royal sage Sudyumna. by what acts did Sudyumna. exertion. proceeded to king Sudyumna. in this connection. wielding the rod of chastisement has been said a Kshatriya. Filled with great rage. Thou hast committed theft by thyself taking these fruits Go and approaching the king confess to him what thou hast done Tell him. Likhita smilingly replied. obtain the highest success ? I desire to hear the history Yudhishthira said. At that time. conduct. MAHABHARATA ! learning. the son of Prachetas. Sankha and Likhita. that lord of Earth. ambition.T . O ruler of men. Whence have these fruits been obtained and for what reason art thou eating them ? Approaching his elder brother and saluting him. 1 wielding 'the rod of punishment*. saying. and upon strength depends Strength must always reside in chastisement. The two brothers had two separate dwellings both of which were beautiful. Sankha said unto him. the punishment of a thief ) Thus addressed. O O to be the foremost. the highly blessed Likhita of rigid vows. as heard by us.42 thee Sacrifice.

Do thou promise first that thou wilt achieve it It ! Tell me. Meeting with him. O foremost of ! ment. Sankha said unto him. to accomplish that promise O bull among men. I ate some fruits that had not been given me by my elder brother Do thou. Rishis and the Pitris. O } ! ! ! ! ! ! sons conversant with duties Thy virtue. punish me for it without delay Sudyumna answered. however. I should not have acted otherwise. the regenerate sage Likhita. That king. ! Vyasa continued. Purified in respect of thy act. that regenerate sage said unto Sudyumna. became eminent by this act and obtained the highest success like the lord Dakha himself! Even this is the duty of Kshatriyas. resembling two lotuses. after hearing me. two hands. O thou of high vows. viz. as also thyself. when. with duties. Upon this. with oblations of water.-If the king be regarded as competent to wield the rod of chastisement. had suffered a shock. Likhita. why didst thou not purify me at first. said-It behoveth thee now to pardon this wretch wight that hath been duly punished (for what he did) Sankha said. O best of regenerate ones. Filled with wonder he came back to his brother and showed him the two hands. the ruling of subjects. such was the energy of thy penances ? Sankha said. whereupon the latter. nor hast thou injured me. bearing the Returning to his brother Sankha. the reason of thy coming! Regard it as already accomplished Thus questioned. O monarch. Any other. as equally competent to pardon. 'Thus honoured by the high-souled king. and never again set thy heart on sin Hearing these words of Sankha. saying.SANTI PABVA ^g gate-keepers that Likhita had come. king Sudyumna. along with the Pitris ! ' however. O bull among Brabmanas. in great affection. monarch. did not solicit him for any other favour. I am not angry with thee.. consider thyself as pardoned Tell me now what other wishes thou hast I shall certainly accomplish those commands of ! ! will then ! ! ! thine ' ! "Vyasa continued. All this has been accomplished by me through my penances Do not be surprised at it Providence hath been the instrument here Likhita answered. went away. I am not thy chastiser The ruler ( who has punished thee ) has been himself purified. the king addressed that foremost of all persons conversant cilors. Then that ruler of Earth caused the two hands of the high- souled Likhita to be cut off. Likhita performed his ablutions in the sacred stream and set about for commencing the water-rite. appeared at the extremeties of his stumps. punish- all per- thou of great splendour. O reverend one. I have rescued thee from that plight Proceed without delay to the river Vahuda and gratify duly. with his counadvanced (for receiving the sage ). ! behove thee. he should be regarded. the gods. would be regarded as a wrong path for 11 O . O eldest son of Pandu.

O fices of Saravamedha and Aswamedha. doth not protect his kingdom. realising his tribute of a sixth. perform the sacricome afterwards) Thou shalt then attain. O Bharata. thou shalt. That king who. cause a king 1 That king by their counsels to betake to a career of war and victory. towards all his subjects. practise all the other modes of life ( that mayest then. T. men and O Listen to it. therefore. never incurs sin. taketh a fourth part of the sins of his 2 Listen also to that by which a king may not swerve from kingdom. acquire great fame ! There is a saying. virtue. Some explained as a robber or one texts read nareswarah. O Yudhishthira the chief of the Bharatas. who forcibly takes other The sense would remain T.44 MAHABHAKATA Do not set thy heart them. O son of Pritha. obtain wishes of theirs that they cherished while dwelling in the woods! those Rule thou the Earth. for by acting according to thou shalt not swerve from virtue Those men only. is the duty of kings and not the shaving of this of the bead: " SECTION XXIV Vaisampayana said. O monarch. incurs no sin. guided by considerations of place and time and moved by an understanding dependent on the scriptures. who. ! ! it. for some time Having tiger earned and enjoyed religious merit and wealth and pleasure O Bharata. to the Pitris. for some time with thy brothers. if a king. from the debt thou owest to the woods Thou that may beg of thee. monarch. to the highest end herefter Installing thy brothers also in among men ! ! ! ! great sacrifices O with plentiful presents (to the Brahmanas). unaltered. . retire into Be freed first. like (another) Yayati the son of Before now misery was yours while ye dwelt in the woods Nahusha brothers of thine. thou mayst then. Adadana people's property. "Once more the great sage Krishna-Dwaipayana said these words unto Ajatasatru the son of Kunti. whose practices resemble those of robbers. Do thou. O Yudhishthira. listen to the beneficial words the rod of chastisement. By transgressing the scriptures (one incurs sin). O tiger among best of the Kurus king. ! in the observance of ascetic penances ! ! That misery is ended. and to the gods persons O son of Kunti. son of Pandu. O king. on grief ! O best of all persons conversant thy brother ! Wielding with duty. guided by an understanding based upon the scriptures and disregarding lust and wrath. like a father. afflicted by destiny. O king. pardons even a number of robbers. That king who. 2 Manu also mentions a sixth of the produee as the king's share. behaves impartially. 1 O thou of is great splendour. O son of Kuru's race. while by obeying them one may live fearlessly. ! O Enjoy happiness. 'Let these let these great car-warriors of abundant energy of mind.

they that called a trespass. Vedic texts and rites. viz. they that are possessed of great learning should alone be employed. Shafts constituted the smaller ladle and the sword the larger one. boldly with them. He must not suffer sin to be perpetrated in his kingdom but should cause virtue to be practised. I shall recite to thee. who after having slain a large number of his foes in battle. viz. vigorous lion among kings.his subjects. Having achieved all that should be done for keeping foes under check and adopted all those foremost of means by which men may be protected. who is full of vanity. achieved the object of his life and is now enjoying great bliss in heaven. that 1 Santyakatatma is explained by Nilakantha as without pride or . Brahmanas conversant with and men of wealth. Mangled by robbers with weapons. the story of what happened to an ancient king of the name of Hayagriva.SANTI PARVA fails to 45 accomplish an act which he should. the story. sin would not touch the among kings. and blood was the clarified butter that he poured. Our tasks fail or succeed through destiny. waste away from want of protection and are afflicted by the gods and ground down by robbers. should especially be protected. gods.. 1 Having obtain- completion of the griva. ever attentive to his (kingly) duties. monarch. whose are possessed of learning. Hayabecame freed from sin and is now sporting in the regions of the Having protected his kingdom with policy and intelligence the high-souled Hayagriva of resigned self and great strength of mind and accustomed to the performance of sacrifices filled all the worlds with his fame and is now sporting in the region of the gods. those that are respectable in their practices. In determining suits and accomplishing religious acts. they that are virtuous in their acts.. the high-souled Hayagriva. be applied. The bow was his ( sacrificial ) stake and the bow-string was the cord for tying the victims. If exertion. Having poured upon that sacrificial fire his foes as libations and then his own life-breaths at the sacrifice. If the subjects of a king. however. O O doing act with heartiness. in passions are ungovernable. The car was the altar and the wrath he felt in battle was the fire. There is no sin. That king who does not protect . the sin of all this stains the king himself. and casting off his life in battle. and the four foremost of steeds yoked unto his vehicle were the four Horn's. after full deliberation! and consultation with men capable of offering good advice. O and slain while without a follower by his side. who is stained with haughtiness and malice. incurs sin and earns the reproach of tyranny. Hayagriva acquired great fame from the battles he fought and is now enjoying great fighting bliss in heaven. O Yudhishthira. such failure would not be By force and policy should the king put down his foes. Brave men. A prudent king will never repose his confidence upon one individual however accomplished. Yudhishthira. of the heroic Hayagriva of unstained deeds. O son of Pandu. was himself defeated tiger king.

. The Supreme Ordainer has it Man acquires everything through Time. T. For and high-souled Hayagriva is sporting in the region of Possessed of learning. I fail to attain peace. deserving worthy as it is of every applause. having reserved for heroes. Yudhishthira the son of Kunti saluted Vyasa and made the following answer. O sage 1 !' Vaisampayana continued.46 MAHABHABATA ed the merit dependent on the performance of sacrifices as also every kind of merit that is connected with human affairs. Having studied the Vedas well and the other scriptures also. said unto Yudhishthira (the following words). having ruled his kingdom properly and caused all the four orders to adhere to their respective duties.. actuated by the gods. and full of gratitude. practising renunciation. 1 "baying Yoga is explained as vigour in action. Hearing the lamentations of these women who have lost their heroic husbands and children. "Vyasa by sacrifices said. this poignant grief (consequent upon the loss of my kinsmen) is eating away its core. that king. man can acquire anything by his own acts or No man can give anything to a fellow man. Having won many battles and cherished his drunk the Soma juice in sacrifices and gratified the foremost of Brahmanas with presents and judiciously wielded the rod of chastisement over those placed under his sway and at last cast off His life was his life in battle. -'No and worship. On the other hand.. the high-souled Hayagriva is sporting in joy the regions of the gods. . left this world of men and won the regions that are reserved for the this the virtuous 1 intelligent and the wise and those that are of approved usages and behaviour and prepared to cast off their lives in battle. faith. nyasa as the abandonment of pride. Learned and honest men applaud it. that high-souled monarch of virtuous deeds be- came crowned with * success/ SECTION XXV Vaisampayana said. possessed of great wisdom and intimately acquainted with the Vedas.. "Hearing the words of the Island-born Rishi and seeing Dhananjaya angry. the virtuous Vyasa persons conversant with Yoga.. he wielded the rod of chastisement and ruled the Earth with vigour and without pride.". that foremost of all "Thus addressed. "This earthly sovereignty and the diverse enjoymenrs (appertaining thereto) fail to give any joy to my heart. of every praise.T. that king is living happily in heaven. resigned self. "Yudhishthira said. Having won heaven and acquired the regions subjects. having performed diverse acts. The Bengal translators have wrongly rendered oast off his life.

cannot acquire Sometimes an ignorant fool may succeed in by Time trees in the forest become decked with flowers. nor incantaIn times. The truth is that the birth and destruction of all creatures have been ordained to happen in consequence of their very nature. the currents of rivers do not become Birds and snakes and deer and elephants and other animals for it never become excited when the Time for it does not come. Some.SANTI PARVA made the course of 47 Time the means of acquisition. no one slain. These every day affect the ignorant only. T. suffer destruction. the Sun does not appear above the horizon. If the Time for it does not come. one cries out. no one is born and no one dies. Alas. of prosperity. Some one thinks men slay ( their fellow-men ). By Time nights become dark or lighted. properly applied. Really. those very things. rise and ebb. and the rainy season come. . by their death. again. slay some men. when the Time for it does not come. O Yudhishthira. trees do not bear flowers and fruits. does he repair to the Asta hills. does not come. the infant does not acquire power of speech. by king Senajita in grief. indulge in grief ! are subject to grief ? ? Why do you is ! Behold. In this connection is instanced the old story recited. if or study of the scriptures. the language of the world. but not him that 1 is wise. escaped from all grief. however. do not suffer themselves to be deluded. The wise. By Time the Moon becomes full. me There are thousands of causes for sorrow. however. with its high billows. kinds . seeing this. and summer. and hundreds of causes for is ! ! ! grieve for them that increased by indulgence as fear not mine Nothing is this Earth joy. women do not conceive. If the Time does not come. The irresistible course of Time affects all mortals. Time is the efficacious means for the accomplishment of all acts. Upon the loss of one's wealth or the death of one's wife or son or sire. tions. like and dwelling upon I The slayers. If the Time does not come. This O by others. yield any fruits. a foolish person. If the Time for it does not come. what grief that sorrow always enhances it. slays is and no one is Another thinks men do not slay. saying. If the Time for it does not come. If the Time fierce. become efficacious and bear success. the Moon does not wax not wane. grief This body even is by yielding to the things of this Earth belong as much to others as to is mine Or. men. It is with Time that the seed sown puts forth its sprouts. If the Time does not come. nor. any earthly possession. By mere intelligence Time be unfavorable. It is with Time that winter. By Time the winds blow violently by Time the clouds become raincharged by Time tanks become adorned with lotuses of different : . are slain king. Why do you. nor drugs. one does not acquire youth. All earthly things. nor the ocean. neither science. If the Time for it does not come. And that have. During times of adversity. winning wealth. ripened by Time.

is applauded by the inhabitants of city and the country and by his counselors and this reason the wise man . for that. He. who is whose and why so and for what. even after his death. and for affecting living appearing as bliss or woe revolve (as if in a wheel ) creatures. He who is grieved at other people's There is no end of grief. It is for this that sorrow only is felt. that occupy an intermediate place suffer misery. To be engaged in battle has been joy nor be depressed with said to be the Sacrifice for a king a due observance of the science of chastisement is his Yoga and the gift of wealth in sacrifices in the form of DaksMna is his Renunciation. friends. cast off. sorrow springs from that from the affliction called affliction called desire. and sometimes proceeds from sorrow itself. and they that are however. and casting off his body at last in fight. This O Yudhishthirai is what Senajit of great wisdom said. become objects of affection or aversion. thou shalt then know Be it They that are highly stupid masters of their souls enjoy happiness here. that desires eternal happiness must abandon both. By governing the kingdom with intelligence and policy. By winning battles. Having studied all the Vedas and the other scriptures duly.48 MAHABEARATA These. sports in the region of the gods. Happiness and misery. whatever comes should be borne with an unaffected heart. Murcchitah is explained by Nilakantha as T. All these should be regarded as acts that sanctify him." 1 The Bombay text makes this verse consist of 3 lines. There is only sorrow in this world but no happiness. drinking the Soma juice. When upon the expiration of happiness. from doing what is agreeable to your wives and children. with duties. and grief arises griefs can never be happy. O amiable one. having protected the kingdom properly. Indeed. They. Sorrow One does not always suffer sorrow or always enjoy happiness. is Varddhitah. if thou abstainest. casting off pride. protecting his kingdom. The first line ommitted in the Bengal texts. and happiness upon the expiration of sorrow. and happiness after sorrow. sorrow. from happiness itself. gain and loss. and having caused all the four orders to adhere to their respective duties. in their turn. after death. Happi- ness always ends in sorrow. in course of Time. that from which one experiences sorrow sorrow must arise or that heart-burning which root of his anxiety. performing sacrifices. advancing his subjects. and looking at everything and all persons with kindness and impartiality. prosperity and adversity. one should. a king becomes sanctified and finally sports in heaven. and happiness springs comes after happiness. wait upon all creatures. . that person who was conversant with what is good or bad in this world. a high-souled king. death and life. therefore. and with happiness and misery. wielding judiciously the rod of chastisement. . be it agreeable or disagreeable. He is the best of kings whose conduct. 1 is nurtured by sorrow or that which is the happiness or sorrow. a king enjoys happiness in heaven. For of tranquil soul should neither be elated with sorrow. like a (snake-bit) limb of one's body. in even a slight measure.

They.SECTION XXVI thira said unto est. and that the neither have heaven. the restraint of passion that study of the Vedas. all our acts depend upon those that are devoted to the We know this to be the opinion of the acquisition of true knowledge. persons . Unto the Yogin who has controlled wrath and joy. then is one said to have attained to the state of Brahma. thou shouldst always regard those Rishis thatare devoted to the study of the Vedas and those that are devot- ed to the pursuit of true knowledge as persons that are truly virtuous O son of Pandu. There is nothing higher than contentment. nor happiness. the Prishnis. From contentment springs great happiness. O Dhananjaya. thehigh-souled YudhishThou thinkArjuna these words fraught with reason : O Partha. however. is not true. is acts. however. and withdrawn himself from all attachments. man can ! poor of his wishes nothing wealth. his limbs. so difficult. By performing those viz. it is then that that pious man of irradiated soul becomes fit for attaining to that salvation which consists in the annihilation of separate existence. have. "In this connection.-*!. Many persons are seen that is that there superior to have been crowned with success through Sacrifice study. one goes to heaven by the I southern path of the Sun (Dakshinayana). contentment is his high praise and success. who always observe the practices of the Rishis by betaking themselves to Brahmacharyya and who become acquainted with all duties. thought. Those eternal and bright regions to which that path leads belong to men of Yoga. have all gone to heaven through Bharata. when one is not feared by anything. Sacrifices. ! O O the merit of Vedic study. Of these two. Thou shalt see. Listening to that discourse one may succeed in withdrawing all his desires like a tortoise drawing in all one cherishes no fear of anything. What is said here of is that our conduct (acts) should be framed according to the opinion possessed of such knowledge. in the Many sages are seen :by devotion to shape of Vedic penances to have acquired eternal regions ( of bliss ). the StJcatas. the Arunas. In this connection is cited the discourse by Yayati of old.. puissant one and the Ketavas. When one does not bear sinfully towards any creature. When one has controlled his pride and folly. ! 1 The Ajas. in act. told thec that those very regions belong to persons that are observant of (Vedic) acts. O Dhananjaya. Vaikhanasas. or wordi one is then said to have attained to Brahma. is 1 True knowledge knowledge of Brahma. when one bears no When hate. battle. that the northern path ( Uttarayana ) is travelled by those that are devoted to Yoga penances. the northern path is much applauded by those conversant with the Puranas. that are indicated in the Vedas. when one cherishes no desire. Vaisampayana said. Thou shouldst knowthat one acquires heaven through con- tentment. nor the acquisition This. are regarded by the gods as Bra/unarms. O Dhananjaya. before this.

good conduct and some as a means for the acquisition of for him. can to those religious acts that are be happy by the acquisition of wealth. virtue ). unconscious all the while of the sin of Brahmanicide that he incurs by his acts. and that. What use is there in amassing wealth when such proper objects exist in which to spend it ? Those persons of little understanding that give away (wealth) unto men that have swerved from the duties of their order. tempted by even a little wealth. one burns with of it to one's servants. It behoveth thee also to see this wealth finds it very difficult to abandon that which should by every means be abandoned. with grief. The Creator then confers wealth upon mortals for the sake of Sacrifices. grief if one has to give a portion that is. commits acts of aggression towards others. such a person can become happy in all respects by supporting life upon what little he may obtain as alms. For this. verses relating In this connection certain to Sacrifices are recited by persons conversant with ancient scriptures. One should spend (in gift) what one has acquired. one does not part with one's wealth. that has no wealth. however. which is equal to what one would feel if one is actually robbed by depredators. A poor man will act better by not performing sacrifices at all than by performing them with wealth acquired by the usual means. Obtaining wealth which is so difficult of acquisition. It is said that wealth can never be acquired without injuring others. desire virtue ( . A person of narrow heart. It is not proper that it should be spent for the gratification of desire of enjoyment.50 MAHABHABATA now to Listen say it me with ! concentrated attention. never becomes the subject of censure. O son of Pritha. One should perform Sacrifices with it and give it away with a trustful heart. without doubt. deserving and refrain from giving unto the deserving is due to inabiFor lity to discriminate between the deserving and the undeserving. . setting at naught the fear of repentance. when earned. These are the two faults connected with wealth even when acquired. We have seen it He that desires with our own eyes. this reason the practice of even the virtue of charity is difficult. as I . is nobody's on Earth. of such desire would be better There are many faults attached to wealth and consequently 1 performed with wealth. Withdrawn from all attachments.' 1 What the poet says here is this it is better not to wish for or covet wealth as a means for the performance of sacrifices than to covet 44 for performing sacrifices. O son of Kunti. thou that art It is for this that the wise think the foremost of all wealthy persons that wealth. however. unto thee wealth. : . No one. obloquy becomes one's share* One. have to subsist hereafter That men give unto the unfor a hundred years on ordure and dirt. 1 Some One may desire wealth some. Good deeds are very rare in those that amass riches. viz. it brings numerous troubles. and not waste or spend it in gratifying one's desire of enjoyment.. If on the other hand.-^T. gift to an undeserving person and abstaining to give unto him that is " ! deserving.however. The abandonment. all wealth should be applied to Sacrifices. Wealth was created by the Creator for the sake of and man was created by him for protecting that wealth and performing Sacrifices. Sacrifices. Know this.

Ugrayudha. alas.SECTION XXVII "Yudhishthira said. he who had burnt by the energy of his weapons that irresistible and foremost of kings. viz. I behaved even thus towards my preceptor in battle. of the royal Dhrishtaketu. alas. throwing off the garb of truth (which I was believed to wear). for the sake of sovereignty that Our preceptor. at that moment when I beheld the grandsire stretched on the Earth and coverHe who had proed with blood. viz. in fact.slaying the prince with his shafts. 'In consequence of the fall of Abhimanyu of tender years. of brides. assailed by Sikhandin and trembling and reeling in consein sport. had. and of diverse other kings hailing from diverse regions. of the sons of Draupadi. ! when. exceedingly covetous of kinghim falsely towards dom. that ! quence of Partha's shafts that resembled thunder-bolts in energy. and a slayer of my reverend seniors. on a single car. of Dhrishtadyumna. of king Drupada. that refrained from . I behaved Sinful that I am. I regions shall an elephant of that name had been slain* To what go (hereafter). for I said unto him that Aswatthaman had been killed me of all others. Alas.. whether limbs Expecting truth from me. That scion of Kuru's race who with bow and shaft in hand had contended in fierce battle for many days with Rama himself of Bhrigu's line on the field by Kuru. challenged to battle the assembled Kshatriyas of the world. our grandsire. and a perfect fool. sanctified for the sake alas. that son of Ganga. was approached by me and addressed falsely in adored by of ! burning all my The preceptor said unto me Tell me truly. such ! magnanimous warrior was slain by Arjuna ! O best of sages. a violent fever afflicted my heart and reared us when we were children. the great bowman Drona. at Baranashi. who.. exterminater of my ! I am own race! inordinately covetous of kingdom and He upon whose breast and limbs am I an used Ganga's son has been slain by me in battle through lust of sovereignty When I beheld that lion among men. having perpetrated such infamous deeds? . O king. that am a slayer ! reverend seniors. grief does not forsake my wretched self that am a slater of kinsmen to roll Indeed. he was caused to be tected slain by my sinful self that am covetous of kingdom. of Virata. when I beheld his tall form pierced all over with blazing arrows and himself When become weak like an aged lion. would last but a few days all the kings. that hero. that full well that hero a still Knowing hero has been caused by me to be slain in battle Sikhandin the prince of Panchala was his destroyer. my heart was deeply pained I beheld that afflicter of hostile cars reel like a mountain summit and ! fall down strengthless on the terrace of his own vehicle with his face turned towards the east. my senses were stupefied. in battle. of Vasusena conversant with every duty. the Brahmana asked my son liveth still respect of his son ! ! The memory of that act of mine is ! By silently uttering the word elephant.

Dissolution. spoke as follows. Since. Idleness. and labour with skill. Prosperity. I shall cast off this body of mine ! fied Vaisampayana continued. been able Sinful as I ! am. first telling him. I must do so in order that I Praya vow ! ! may not be reborn I shall forego all any of other orders of beings food and drink. T. O puissant one display at first a union ( of diverse materials and forces). ends in life happiness. "Restraining Pritha's son who. all creatures that are born Destiny. though temporarily painful. and without moving from this place. also for Draupadi who lotus-eyed Krishna in the face ! I grieve the Earth bereft of her five mountains ! bereft of her five sons like is I ! am a great offender. Success springs from " king. since then. was protected by Drona himself to look Arjuna or the I have not. I pray you with humishall dry up my life-breaths that are so dear and go withersoever you please ! Let lity. that I must undergo such a severe penanoe in order not be born as an inferior animal but may The . 'It ! ! ends in death. nor foes competent to inflict misery. and all things that rise must fall down. Vyasa. Bombay reading. uttered such words. All this is such poignant grief Without doubt. stupeby sorrow on account of his kinsmen. to avoid Work. T. Thou art not competent. overtakes them at the end. thou hast been created by the Maker to engage thyself in Work. O 1 Th6 meaning is that in my next life I may succeed in taking birth among men. All things massed together are sure to crumble away. and a destroyer of the Earth Without rising from this seat that I now occupy. 2 The first line of 30 is incorrectly read in the Bengal teits. Union ends in dissolution. and Fame dwell in labour and skill but not in idleness. is the right one. O monarch. grant me permission in this 1 in I ! every one grant me permission. 2 Friends are not competent to bestow happiness. however. I am like one guilty of infanticide. This can not be M !' behoveth thee not.52 I MAHABfiAfiADA caused also my eldest brother Kama to be slain. a great sinner. which I have adopted. I will weaken my body Know me who am the slayer of (by starvation) and meet with death has sat down here in the observance of the my preceptor as one that An exterminater of my race. that hero Through covetousness I caused Abhimanyu of to penetrate into the array that who resembled a lion born in the hills. Modesty.' Work. Like bubbles in water they rise and disappear. O son of Kunti. Similarly wisdom does not bring wealth nor does wealth bring happiness. ends in misery. though temporarily agreeable. Affluence. Contentment. O great ascetic. to indulge in I shall repeat what I have once said. that best of ascetics. and Vyasa said. that terrible warrior who never retreated from battle ! Who is there more sinful than I ? tender years.

I can do whatever I like / I am of high birth I am not an ordinary viz. The causes of all mental sorrow are two. i. O king. the presence coveted never come. 'Asma joys and griefs attach I ancestors.e. viz. short Death. by the exercise of his ing intelligence. the king a deer with then punishes that wicked wight. 'Janaka said. man / His mind becomes soaked with such triple vanity. Vaisampayana said. are even such. spring from such causes. Be it happiness or be it woe as also those arising sorrow that comes upon creatures. of wolves. burning with sorrow on account the slaughter of his kinsmen. among men. laudable. not even the subjugator of the whole Earth girt by the sea. Without attaining to a hundred years (the usual period of human life). overtake They can never be avoided. (In times of prosperity) one thinks in this strain. Decrepitude and enjoyments. but instead of obtaining what he covets or strives for. Like a hunter piercing his shafts. 2 Man . devour all creatures. that transgressor of law and rule. themselves to it. who. stronger weak. 'In is this connection the is cited the old story. How should a man desirous of his own good behave upon occasions of the accession and the destruction of both kinsmen and wealth ? 1 Immediately after the formation of a man's body.SECTION XXVIII "Vyasa then dispelled the grief of the eldest son of Pandu. O tiger filled known by ! name of Asma's discourse. one in early or middle or old age.. it should be enjoyed or borne with- no method of escape from them. with sorrow and grief. while those ( sources of bliss ) that are 2 The absence of what is agreeable. Carefully observthe behaviour of all creatures. a king should. he regards the appropriawhat belongs to others as even. Addicted to all earthly enjoyments.. Although there is a possibility of either of the two overtaking the person. Listen to O ''* Yudhishthira Janaka the ruler of the Videhas. decay and death become his portion on Earth. O king.. out elation or depression. delusion of the mind and the accession of diverse kinds of No third cause exists. that robber of other people's possessions. yet whichever actually overtakes him quickly robs him of his reason like the wind driving away gatheriug clouds. Vyasa said. distress. like a pair or tall. tion of Impoverished in course of time. such men scarcely live beyond twenty or thirty years. T. that it. There is T. had resolved to cast off his life-breaths. questioned a wise Brahmana of the name of Asma for the resolution of his doubts. No man can escape decrepitude and death. he begins to waste the wealth hoarded by his said. apply remedies for alleviating the great sorrows of his subjects. All these from attachment to earthly 1 that overtake man. covets freedom from decay and immortality. 1 Even such. The evils of life.

health. lose all and become indigent. alThe affluent again Destiny. follow Destiny. In this world. is the course of The indigent. who makes them and who supports them? Cold. No other cause can be traced. it is very common that persons in affluent circumstances have no appetite. fever. brawls. whatever sins the man of wicked soul. Wonderful water. one sprung from a noble line perishes soon like an insect. even so creatures come together and are again ( when the time comes ) separated. weapons. and falls from high places. while years. space. with the happiness and the misery of mankind. for a hundred One born in an ignoble race may have a very long life. beauty. borne down by decrepitude. whether coveted or otherwise. hunger. possessed of even extensive know- ledge of the scriptures are seen to be addicted to them. night. and the accessions of and touch spring naturally. Physicians even get ill. wine. It is seen in this world that somebody. overtake a man down by the weight of calamity. come one after another in consequence of Time's course. the birth of creatures and their death. and heat. such as mother and father and son and . Seats and beds and vehicles. are all won through Destiny. dice. good and evil. Objects. the luminous bodies ( in the firmament ). The course of High-birth. is not borne death. suffers diverse ills. sun. commits. prosperity. As two logs of wood on the great ocean. happiness and misery arise from what has been pre-ordained. It is even so. the wise. In this world a thousand kinds of relationship are contracted. Hunting. fire. are seen to be childless. The strong become weak. women. though they may not desire it. Even as scent. nor incantations. Impelled by destiny. rivers. The evils poison. while they that are indigent can digest chips of wood. and objects of enjoyment. O bull among men. and caused by disease. Many persons. having sinned. day. Air. can rescue the man assailed by decrepitude or overtaken floating by death. bliss and woe. have many children. enjoyment of prosperity Time is very wonderful. are all pre-ordained. Neither medicines. Time acts equally towards those are in affluent circumstances and that ) enjoy the pleasures of song and dance in the company of women and those helpless men that ( men that live upon the food that others supply. They that are in the loss. colour. moon. fire. come upon creatures in consequence of Time's course. saying I am the doer* he regards to be all for his good. and mountains. ever approach living creatures according to Time's course.& gain and MAHABHAKATA of what is disagreeable. these are censured by poor drags on his existence. according to the under which he is born. discontented with his condition. while another. Similarly. come together and are again ( when the time comes ) separated. prosperity and drink and 1 food. however. and rain. taste. Destiny without sinning. It is seen that somebody in the enjoyment of wealth perishes in youth while some one that is .

these of Medicine. tude like trees broken of ascetic merit. nor months. the next world that is unseen. the judiciously pursue virtue. down by elephants. Man.* inevitable Whether the body springs from the creature or the creature springs from the body. How then can be it had with any one else ? Where. 2 This inevitable and broad path is the path of Life. This is maintained by many. however. and the companionship of those that are dear friend is is transitory. Similarly. One cannot obtain such companionship with one's own body. nor days. no one understands that the world is sinking on the ocean of Time that is so very possessed of Pitris deep and that is infested by those huge crocodiles called decrepitude and death Many physicians may be seen afflicted with all the members of their families. and pleasure. or the creature exists independent This is much disputed by Hindu philosophers. and sacrifices. whose existence is so transitory. forced. The union with brother. practise all religious duties. that have once passed. is As regards course of Time. T. practising charity. ! succeed not in transcending death. T. whether he will or not. O sinless one No person ! 1 Literally. T. are seen to be broken down by decrepi' nents. perform sacrifices. In reality. O king. I ? Where am for 1 ? Where I shall 1 go ? Who am Hou. one's union. 3 The first line of this verse refers to the disputed question of whether the body exists independent of life. What is said here is that every creature is subject to birth. although they have carefully studied the science 1 Taking bitters and diverse kinds of oily drugs. come I here IWhat and whom grieve ? Reflecting on these questions one obtains tranquillity. persons possessed devoted frequently and death. succeed not in escaping decrepitude all creatures that have taken birth. whose are they and whose are we ? No one can become any one's own. like ocean in transcending its contiMen well-versed in Chemistry. . in panionship with any one. an inn. nor nights. Life and its environments are constantly revolving like a wheel. the science of Life. notwithstanding chemical compounds applied judiciously. as if with corporeal eyes. however. profit. Alas. mother. body may be dissolved. Without disregardOne ing the scriptures. Our union here with wives and kinsfolk and well-wishers is like that of travellers at a road-side inn. neither years. performing to study of the Vedas. and of knowledge behold. nor fortnights. The gross of the body. is thy sire today and where thy grandsire ? Thou beholdst them not today and they do not behold thee. nor can any one become anybody else's own. father.wife. to come upon this and broad path that has to be trodden by every creature. like that of travellers in Men knowledge should perform the rites laid down in respect of and the gods. but the linga sarira (composed of the subtilest elements) exists as a cause for the unborn Soul. do ever return. one desirous of knowledge should have faith. with wives and other friends is 8 Oue can not obtain a lasting comlike that of travellers in an inn.

and do not disregard my words " ?' Enjoy her. and his own soul. the mighty-armed Saurin began to speak.^ That king bent upon the practice of virtue who strives judiciously for acquiring Heaven and Earth and who takes of earthly goods just what is ordained ( as the king's share ) in the scriptures. Comfort him. The scriptures. gladdening (the hearts of all who listened to him). should pay court to heaven. ing with grief on O Madhava ! danger It account of his (slaughtered) kinsfolk. Yudhishthira Dharma. "Arjuna said. indulge in such They who have been slain in this battle O tiger fallen Those Kshatriyas. O son of Kunti. Kesava could not by any means be disregarded by Yudhishthira. are ! i. Dharma's son.e. one should practise the vow of thee in the exercise of Kshatriya duties. shone brightly like a full-blown lotus at sunrise. "Do not. to dispel his grief P " ! Once more. are the eyes I O king. and men Performing sacrifices and engaged in procreating ( children ). mobile and immobile The ruler of the Videhas. the lotus-eyed Govinda of unfading glory turned his face towards the king. after having first observed the vow of Brahmacharyya. frame thy conduct according to the scriptures first Brahmacharya and then beget children and then perform sacrifices. became freed from grief. Vaisampayana continued.56 MAHABEARATA hell. wins a reputation that spreads over all the worlds and among all creatures. All of them were on no account be got back in this great battle. seek to obtain and enjoy them. Pandu's son Arjuna addressed Krishna and spoke as follows. The Earth has been won by ! ! With a pure heart. O mighty-armed one. viz. of clear understanding. still remaining speechless. His face. Taking up the king's hand adorned with sandal-paste and looking like a column of marble. one who hath wisdom for his eyes. "Vasudeva will said. is burn.. viz. Pay court . This scorcher of foes. ! grief that emaciates thy body among men. t 1 Param here is explained by Nilakantha as Paramatma. casting off all anxiety of heart. O king. O thou of unThou art equal to Sakra fading glory. O Janarddana. can see either heaven or of the virtuous. that have even like objects that one acquires in one's dreams and that vanish when one awakes. for paying off the debt one owes to the Pitris. this world. the gods. all of us have fallen into great behoveth thee. SECTION XXIX the son of Vaisampayana said. "Thus addressed by the high-souled Arjuna. cast off thy griefs and rise up himself. Suffer thy soul to be gladdened.. "That foremost of kings. From his earliest years Govinda was dearer to Yudhishthira than Arjuna himself. having heard these words full of reason. T. adorned with teeth and eyes that were very beautiful. however. and taking Asma's leave proceeded towards his abode.

officiate at Marutta' s sacrifice. In that sacrifice of Marutta. that king vanquished him in battle. 8 . O king. myself. When even that king. who was that there the son of Avikshit. abate thy sorrow We hear. all of them have attained to that blissful end which is obtainable by heroes. from desire of doing good unto Indra. knowledge. possessed of courage. All of them. Subject to happiness and all creatures. acceded to the king's request. the Maruts drank Soma. thyself Listen to me as I recite the die. It behoveth thee not to grieve for them after hearing ! of those high-souled lords of Earth. hear me as I recite their stories to thee in detail By listening to the charming and delightful history of those kings of ancient times. Maghavat showered gold for one whole year upon his kingdom. sanctified by weapons. No one amongst them was slain with wounds on the back or while flying away. perfectly conversant with the Vedas and their branches. Thereupon Samvarta. cast off thy grief ! Listening ! O. of ancient days. malignant stars may be propitiated and the period of one's life be increased. Obtaining that king for her lord. the younger brother of Vrihaspati. In this connection is cited the old discourse of Narada was deeply afflicted with grief on (Narada said). was a king Even he fell of the name of a prey to death. that departed this from world. having contended with heroes in great battle and having cast off their life-breaths then. fice. During his rule. Challenging Sakra. without being tilled had refused to O In the sacrifice of that king. O who transcended thee in religious merit. shall have to and misery. There was another king of the name death. do not grieve for thy son Srinjaya. the Viswedevas sat as courtiers. ! to the story of those high-souled lords of Earth.BANTI PARVA heroes and ornaments of battle. Marutta The gods with Indra and Varuna and Vrihaspati at their head came to the sacri1 called Viswasrij. the a prey 1 We hear. fell a prey for ciation. is one in which the performer parts with all his wealth. What cause then is there for sorrow Hear me with concentratgreat blessedness of ( some ) ancient king before Srinjaya latter when the account of the death of his son. the Gandharvas. and was adorned with diverse kinds of ornaments. I of that even he fell Suhotra the son of Atithi. to death. O Srinjaya. and who was purer than thy son. renunand affluence. performed by that high-souled monarch. The learned Vrihaspati. the Maruts acted as distributors (of food and presents) and the high-souled Saddhyas were also present. This sacrifice T. ! ! ed attention ! Thou shalt then. have. It behoveth thee not to grieve for them Devoted to the duties of Kshatriyas. O Srinjaya. 67 They were vanquished while rushing with faces towards their foes. The sacrificial presents the king made surpassed (in value) those ever made by the gods. O Srinjaya. and men. During best of monarchs. the chief of the gods. the Earth yielded crops the rule of that king. proceeded to heaven.

that gave or will give away much wealth as was given away by the king of the Angas in the seven performed. the presents he made far surpassed those ever made by the gods. Suhotra performed a sacrifice at Kurujangala and gave it away unto the Brahmanas. renunciation. during the sway of that king. this Vrihadratha even. the Qandharvas. each of which was characterised by the conse3 When. No other so man was born. the Ukthya. alligators. that this king performed of old. for the adorable Indra. the Vajapeya. do not grieve for thy son (that is dead). O Srinjaya. A hundred thousand prey to death. In the sacrifices. Collecting that vast wealth of gold that covered the Earth. that Vrihadratha the king of way to grief. 3 These seven sacrifices . O Srinjaya. That king swayed the whole Earth as one sways the leathern shield in to death. O Srinjaya. Nilakantha explains. Thy son never performed a sacrifice and never made gifts.58 MAHABHABATA 1 Earth became in reality (and not in name only as before) Vdsumati. adorned with golden orna- ments. and who was purer than thy son. and the Aptoryama. he gave away as sacrificial presents. fell a prey to death. which. crabs. bore golden tortoises. he gave away as presents in a sacrifice he performed. the Shodashi. knowledge. the Bombay bhava. the Atiratra. O king. and porpoises. Atithi's son became filled with wonder. While the king of Anga performed his sacrifice by the hill called Vishnupada. O monarch. He gave away a hundred thousand maidens also. Beholding those golden fishes and sharks and tortoises in hundreds and thousands. What that king. who transcended thee in the four attributes of religious merit. means chetanavan 2 The Bengal reading chainam T. king Sivi caused the whole Earth to resound with the rattle of his 1 Vasumati means possessed of wealth (from Vasu and the suffix mat). . A hundred thousand elephants also of the best breed. fell a steeds. Riding on a single car that proved victorious in every battle. T. fell a prey and who was purer than thy grieve for thy son that is dead. fell a prey to death. The Burdwan Pundits have committed a ridiculous blunder in rendering this verse. were the Agnishtoma the Atyagnishtoma. or will ever be born. sharks. The rivers. another sacrifice performed by him. pacify thy mind and do not give 2 We hear also. who in the four attributes sacrifices he cration of the Soma. and affluence. that Sivi the son of Usinara. the Angas. A adorned with golden chains. Indra became intoxicated with the Soma he drank. Knowing this. do not We his hand. had showered these upon teem.T. numbering by hundreds. was thy superior son. and the Brahmanas with the presents they received. with thousands of kine accompanying them. he gave away as presents in hundred millions also of bulls. in the first line of 31 is better than reading chetya. O Srinjaya. Each of these required the consecration of the Soma. and men. hear also.

fearless. free. Bharata himself was born in Kanwa's retreat. No one amongst the kings of the Earth can imitate the great deeds of Bharata. even as no man cm. governing his kingdom always acted like his The clouds. his subjects as if they were the sons of his In his dominions there were no widows and none that was helpless. food was always abundant in his kingdom. O Srinjaya. when Sivi. in days of old. that hero O Srin- possessed of prowess equal to that of Indra himself. all Contented. and fourteen on the banks of Ganga. ?. fell a ptey to death. the son of Dushmanta and Sakuntala. Rama father Dasaratha. both domestic and wild. bore. grieve for thy son who never performed any sacrifice nor O Srinjaya.SANTI PAKVA 59 wheels and subjugated all monarchs. in a sacrifice. The Creator himself thought that no one amongst the kings of the past or the future had or would have the ability to bear the burthen. No death occurred by drowning or by fire. immediately after her birth. O Srinjaya. the son of Dasaratha. Indeed. who was Do not. fell a prey to death." The custom is well-known that none but kings could cause umbrellas to be held over their heads. all the kine and horses he had. were all tha people when Rama governed the kingdom. who was far superior to made any gift. The trees always bore flowers and fruits and were subject to no accidents. crowned with fruition in respect of the objects of their desire. do not grieve for thy son that is dead ! We hear. far superior to thee in the four attributes and who was purer than thy son. thee in the four attributes and who was purer than thy son. T. all During the period of men were whole and all men attained the fruition of The very women did not quarrel with one another. Erecting numerous sacrificial altars. Indeed. 2 Kanwa had brought up who had been Menaka. jaya. what their wishes. 1 Usinara's son Sivi gave away. devoted to virtue. 4 . and every man was blessed with a thousand children. Devoting that the high-souled Bharata also. who had a vast and well-filled treasury. soar into the welkin. and wedded to the vow of truth. Every man lived for a thousand years. 1 The expression used is "he caused one umbrella only to be set up. there was no fear in his kingdom of any disease. by her mother. that king of great energy. He always cherished own loins. performed (in this order ) a thousand Horse-sacrifices and a hundred Rajasuyas. by the might of his arms. As long as Rama governed it. fell a prey to death. O Srinjaya. that Rama also. need then be said of the men During his rule his subjects were always Rama's sway. he gave away innumerable horses and untold 2 When even he. therefore. three hundred horses unto the gods on the banks of the Yamuna. yielding showers seasonably. do not grieve for thy son that is dead ! We hear. caused the in crops to grow abundantly. fell a prey to death. that foremost of kings. in his retreat Bharata's mother Sakuntala deserted. twenty on the banks of the Saraswati. -T. During the period of his rule. who was wealth unto the sage Kanwa. that Usinara's son Sivi.

60 MAHABEABATA filling a Every cow yielded milk drona to the brim. When he. the stake : ( set up for slaughtering the 1 Jaruthyan is explained by Nilakantha as Stutyan. T. because Ganga is supposed to have one stream in pj u 7 en. that prey to death. King Bhagiratha. In one of his sacrifices. abounding with wealth. and behind each steed a thousand kine. and from this incident she 2 The triple-coursed Ganga had agreed to be came to be called Urvasi. Ganga is nothing else than the melted form of Vishnu. Each of those maidens sat upon a car and unto each car were attached. he looked like down to his knees and of handsome face. neans one who sits on the lap. The Brahmanas love the high-souled Dwilipa We O to recite his innumerable deeds. Bhagiratha resolved to rescue their spirits by calling down Ganga from heaven and causing her sacred waters to roll over the spot where their ashes lay. that monarch ever engagthe daughter ed in the performance of sacrifices with presents in profusion unto the of Paka and the chief of the gods. Ascending upon the throne of Ayodyha.four steeds. do not grieve for thy son that is dead Srinjaya. intoxicated with the Soma he had drunk. vanquished. In each sacrifice performed by him. Brahmanas. unto the Brahmanas. his With arms stretching shoulders were like those of a lion and the might of his arms great. of a dark comthe leader of an elephantine herd. (The river-Goddess) Ganga. who transcended thee in respect of the four principal attributes and who was purer than thy son. the four principal attributes and O Srinjaya. Having dwelt. With each car were a hundred elephants. Behind each elephant were a thousand steeds. The ancestors of Bhagiratha having perished through Kapila's curse. In one of his great sacrifices that king. 2 The legend about the bringing down of Ganga is very beautiful. Srinjaya. gave away the entire Earth. named (from before) Bhagirathi. also fell a prey to death. in and ten years in the woods. with heart fully assenting. to death. the observance 1 Rama performed ten Horse-sacrifices of great splendour and to them the freest access was given to all. fell a hear. 3 When he. 3 Triple-coursed. Indra. Possessed of youth. He succeeded in carryUrvasi literally ing out his resolution after conquering many difficulties. of Bhagiratha 'of Ikshaku's race. all of the foremost breed and decked with chains of gold. do not grieve for thy son. T. the chief priest received as sacrificial fee a thousand elephants made of gold. and a third in the nether recions. many thousands of Asuras. he ruled for ten thousand and of severe penances. fell a prey hear. . O Srinjaya. in one of the sacrifices he performed. for four purer than thy son. the adorable chastiser ! ten hundred years. and behind each cow a thousand goats and sheep. with red eyes. For a time she dwelt in the pot (Kamandalu) of Brahman. plexion. gave away a million of maidens adorned with ornaments of gold. sat upon the lap of this king dwelling near ( her stream ). one on Earth. who was who transcended thee in We O by putting forth the might of his arms. In one of the sacrifices of that king. T. It may also mean Triguna-dak&hinan. that king Bhagiratha also died.

the twang of bows. Discharging the duties assigned to them. king Mandhatri conquered the three worlds.P. I think. 1 Those men proceeded to heaven that succeeded in obtaining a sight even of the high-souled king Dwilipa who was ever truthful in speech and whose bow could bear a hundred foes equal in energy to a hundred Anantas. used to seek the protection of that king. six thousand Gods and Qandharvas danced in joy. T. O Sanjaya. the voice of Vedic recitations. Mandhatri was born in the stomach of the highsouled Yuvanaswa. is that such was the profusion of Dwilipa's wealth that no care was taken for keeping gold-decked elephants within guarded enclosures. O Srinjaya. Asita. No other monarch could imitate this achievement of king Dwilipa. began to yield a milk. The whole Earth in one day came under the sway of that high-souled and virtuous who resembled Indra himself for prowess in and brave king battle. "Me he shall suck"1. Gaya. called differ- The Burdwan translators take Aeita and Gaya as one person Asitangaya. the chief of the deities came to call the child by the name of Mandhatri. saying. Possessed of great prosperity. in their midst played on his Vina the seven notes according to the rules that regulate their combinations. and cries of Let given. lying on the lap of his sire. able of bearing a hundred Anantas. fell a prey to death.* When Yuvanaswa's son fought in battle Indra's finger. the jet of finger of Sucking hundred days. we have heard. 2 These three sounds never ceased in Dwilipa's abode.SANTI PABVA 61 victims) was made of gold and looked exceedingly beautiful. Of nnnrRo. the gods having Sakra for their chief.h are xwrnnc. fell a prey to death. Sprung from a quantity of clarified butter that had been sanctified by mantra* (and that had by mistake been quaffed by his sire instead of his sire's spouse). He shall obtain suck even from me From this circumstance.. 2 Satadhanwan is explained by Nilakantha as one whose bow is capT. intoxicated and adorned with housings of gold. it be When he. used to lie down on the roads. Such was the character of Viswavasu's music that every creature (wherever he might be) thought that the great Qandharva was playing to him alone. hot. . In twelve days he looked like one of twelve years. do not grieve for thy son that is dead. Upon that golden stake possessed of great effulgence and decked with a ring. and K. and Viswavasu himself. grew up (into a stout youth) in a 1 The sense. the Beholding that child of celestial beauty Gods asked one another. The elephants of that king. He vanquished king Angara. From whom Then Indra approached him.* From shall this child obtain suck? ! the nourishment of that high-souled child of Indra. who transcended thee in the four princi- pal attributes and who was purer than thy son. 3 Literally. Maruta. The deities named Maruts extracted that child from his sire's stomach through one of its sides. and Vrihadratha the king of the Angas. T. placed in his Yuvanaswa. viz. Singha takes Anga and Vrihadratha to be two 4 ent nflVRnno. Yuvanaswa's son Mandhatri also. he mouth.

We hear. do not grieve for thy son that dead. Those that remained after gratifying the Brahmanas When he. When he. the Gods thought that the firmament was breaking with the twang of his bow. What it meant here is that Yayati. took up and hurled a piece of wood forward. Having performed unto the Brahmanas Horse-sacrifices and a hundred Rajasuyas. he gave many Rofiita fishes. Indeed. in one of his sacrifices. pressly mentions this verse 92.62 MAHABHARATA with Angara. O a prey to death. do not grieve for thy son that is dead. T. 1 Srinjaya. that Yayati the son of Nahusha also fell a prey to death. Having subjugated the whole he journeyed through it. who far sur- 1 The first line of it. altar. 3 Those hundreds upon hundreds and thousands upon thousands of kings (that had at the command of Amvarisha waited at his sacrifices upon the Brahmanas that came there) became (through Amvarisha' s merits) crowned with the fruits of the Horse-sacrifice. vi3i/tii ISMI . O were divided amongst themselves by the other classes. that Amvarisha also. Those fishes were each ten Yojanas in length and one in breadth. At last discarding his other sons headed by Yadu and Drahyu. butes who transcended thee in respect of the four and who was purer than thy son. having erected an altar. the son of Nabhaga. he reached the very shores of the world with its seas. Nilakantha exYet the Burdwan translators have made a mess of 2 Samyapat is explained as hurling a heavy piece of wood. he gratified the foremost of Brahmanas with three mountains of gold. assigned to the Brahmanas.d men possessed of RlnrtVio mo rl o a. for waiting upon them. fell a prey to is principal attrideath. like be achieved in the future. O Sanjaya. 9^ is evidently connected with 91. he instailed (his youngest son) Puru on his throne and then entered the woods accompanied by fell his wife. Dakshinah TT "P may mean is explained by Nilatantba as liberal-minded men. thee in the four principal attributes and who far surpassed who was purer than thy son. a million of kings who had themselves performed thousands of Men of piety praised Amvarisha the son of Nabhaga. fell a We hear. and upon the place where it fell. 3 It 4. T. sacrificial altars the intervals sea as he proceeded performing his way). Srinjaya. decking it with successive between which were measured by throws of a heavy piece of wood. 2 great sacrifices (on those altars along a thousand sacrifices Having performed and a hundred Vajapeyas. When he. and followed their lord by the Southern path (to 4 regions of brightness and bliss). ed by his subjects as the embodiment of virtue. Nahusha's son Yayati divided the whole Earth (among his children). that such feats had never been achieved before nor would their saying sacrifices each. liO. The whole Earth from where the Sun rises to where he sets is said to be the field of Mandhatri. T. O Srinjaya. Having slain many Daityas and Danavas duly arrayed in battle. That protector (of the world) and foremost of kings was regardThat monarch. O Srinjaya. erected another In this way he proceeded till he reached the very sea-shore. prey to death.

saying.. in the river Ganga. 1 There is a slight difference of reading in the first half of the second Nilakantha explains it with his usual ingenuity. that Sankriti's son Rantideva also fell a prey to death. When O Srinjaya. the son of Amurtharayas. the son of Chitraratha. This countless wealth. do not grieve for them were excellent bowmen. and the women with gratified the gods accomplishment of all their wishes. seems to be preferable. fell a prey to death. Sasavindu gave away. O Srinjaya. fell a ! 1 in It hath Truth. of Amurtharayas. The boons solicited by Gaya Let my wealth be inexhaustible even if I give ceaselessly were Let my regard for virtue exist for ever! Let my heart ever take pleasure thy child that is dead. (Pleased with such devotion) Agni desired to give him boons. having solicited them. fell and a million of sons. gave away as many he. unto the Brahmanas. The Bengal reading. O Srinjaya. the the That bull among men Pitris Brahmanas with wealth. do not grieve for thy son that is dead.SANTI PARVA 63 passed thee in the four principal attributes and who was purer than thy son. that Sasavindu also. With each of those elephants were a hundred cars. and each princess brought a hundred elephants. For a hundred years. O Srinjaya. the with Som0. the Bengal reading which I have adopted. and with each cow were a hundred sheep and goats. been ! On days of the new moon. on those of sacrifice. and gave it away as the sacrificial fee. O Srinjaya. them used to wear golden armour and all of Each of those princes married a hundred princesses. fell a prey to death. king Gaya caused a golden ground to be made. and on every fourth month. That foremost of men. that king subsisted upon the remains of sacrificial food. O eater of sacrificial libations heard by us that king Gaya obtained all those wishes from Agni. Gaya. O king. Having undergone the austerest of penances and adored him with great reverence. We hear. With each We hear. All of That high-souled king had a hundred thousand wives. for a thousand years. all of good breed and all decked with trappings of gold. in a Horse-sacrifice. who far surpassed thee in the four principal attributes and who was purer than thy son. With each car were a hundred steeds. In his great Horse-sacrifice. do not grieve for thy child that is dead ! We hear. the full moon. fell a prey to death. a prey to death. For all that. When he. measuring a hundred cubits in length and fifty in breadth. the son prey to death. Gaya repeatedly performed the HorseRising ( at the completion of every sacrifice ) he gave away a hundred thousand kine and hundreds of mules ( unto the Brahmanas ) during this period. that Gaya also. Let not my faith Let us have abundant food and abundant guests sustain any diminution. steed were a hundred kine. O monarch. who far surpassed thee in the four and who was purer than thy son. and let us not have to ask anything of any principal attributes ' ! line. is disapproved by him. vi*. T . with me. kine as there are sand grains. through thy grace. with Swadha. he obtained these boons from Sakra.

twenty thousand and one gifts were all hundred kine had to be slaughtered. produced a mighty and celebrated river which to this day is known by the name of Charmanwati. the Brahmanas divided those gifts among themselves. who far surpassed thee in the four principal attributes valuable objects. Yet even on such occasions. pans and plates and cups. On those night during which the guests used to live in Rantideva's abode. the son of Vena. that the high-souled thy son that is dead. however. viz. the Brahmanas (withUnto thee I give a hundred hundred nishkas what was offered ) made a noise ( expressive of refusal ). his At and who was purer than thy for thy son that is dead. There is abundant soup. and for this. O Srinjaya. used to proclaim ( amongst those that sat down to supper ). out accepting the When. all the jugs and pots. like myriads upon myriads of stars waiting upon the Moon in the cloudless firmament of autumn. all And because it was thought that he would advance mankind. decked in ear-rings. vows and great fame. for that reason. ! he. who far surpassed thee in the four and who was purer than thy for son. of their own accord. Through anger that king causad the Earth to be excavated whereupon she came to have the ocean on her bosom.64 MAHABHABATA The animals. 'there T. the ocean has come to be called Sagara after his name. O Srinjaya. do not grieve that king Prithu also. When he. was but one umbrella opened on the Earth in his time/ . called Prithu (the advancer). the king would say I give a thousand nishkas \ ! I and wild. the cooks. slaughtered in his the high-souled Rantideva of rigid accepted. O Srinjaya. were of gold. and diverse other kinds of whole of this Earth. for that reason. O Srinjaya. installed Rishis. take as much as ye wish but of flesh we have not as much today as on former occasions When . and of superhuman prowess. And because also he protected people from injuries (Kshata). The great gether in the great forest. fell principal attributes a prey to death. Sixty thousand sons used to walk We behind him. King Rantideva used to make gifts unto the Brahmanas When the king said Unto thee I give a in an extensive enclosure. fella prey to death. All the vessels and plates. he was. called 1 Literally. His sway extended over the He gratified the gods by performing a thousand gave away unto deserving Brahmanas palatial mansions with columns of gold and (other parts) made entirely of that precious metal. both domestic person! sacrifice. a tiger among men. containing costly beds and bevies of beautiful ladies with eyes resembling petals of the lotus. do not grieve hear. fell a prey to death. The secretions that flowed from the skins of the animals (slaughtered in his sacrifices). him son. the palace. 1 Horse-sacrifices. We hear. He was of Ikshaku's race. assembling toin the sovereignty of the Earth. he was. used to come to him. Sagara also fell a prey to death.. in Rantideva's for holding food and other articles. He command.

All men were hale and all their wishes used to be crowned with fruition. during his sway. every leaf that the trees had bore honey and every cow yielded a jugful of milk. in fields or in ( sheltered ) houses. O great sage. to a person on the point of attending. Beholding Prithu the son of the creatures of the Earth exclaimed. meaning T. . dost thou reflect in seems. be inclined sight. Upon what. whom Parvata gave thee and who has been bereft of life Of the splendour of gold. The Earth. been BO used for the sake of rhythm. When The Prithu desired to go over the sea. of excellent import and perfumed like a freed from grief at thy I very sight ! Like one never satiated with ! O thou of true not satiated with thy words drinking nectar. this discourse upon the conduct of high-souled royal sages of meritorious deeds and great fame. King Prithu. 2 Literally. has not been a fruitless rhapsody ! ! thine. one whose excreta are gold. T. the correct form being nalwa. 'How did the son of Srinjaya become SuvarnasKtMvin ? 2 Why also did Parvata give Srinjaya that child ? And why did he die ? When the lives of all men in those days extended for a thousand years. fell a prey to death. to this discourse of garland of flowers. king. O Srinjaya. rivers also never swelled up when he had to cross them but re- mained perfectly calm. that thou hearest not these words of mine thou hast not heard them. as they pleased. "Srinjaya said. each measuring three nalwas 1 When he. Srinjaya. like medicine or diet. do not grieve for is dead. named Suvarnashthivin. death. all (protector from injuries). that can certainly dispel grief Thy disI have been course. if thou. was he in name only Suvarnashtfuvin ? How also did he come to be so ? I desire to know all this 1! Nilakantha supposes that it has 1 The word in the original is nala. It who far surpassed thee in the four principal attributes and who was purer than thy thy son that silence ? If son. then that son. the waters became solidified. They had no fear of any kind. that child shall have a thousand years ! ! SECTION XXX "Yudhishthira said. I am O Narada. have been lov- We ingly attached to him ! From ). yielded crops without being tilled. in one of his grand Horse-sacrifices. a distance of four hundred cubits. through that am O grace of thine. . (in this life) is sure to be revived and to mingle once more with me !- "Narada said. then this discourse of mine has been a O O ! fruitless rhapsody. this ment ( to him of all creatures circumstance of the loving attachhe came to be called a Raja ( one that can inspire attachment). The standard on his car moved freely everywhere ( without being obstructed by any impediment ). why did Srinjaya's son die in infancy ? Or. I will give back to thee that son of thine. They used to live. gave away unto the Brahmanas one and twenty mountains of gold. to show thy grace towards this person lord.BANTI PARVA 65 Vena. burning on account of the death of his son.



"Krishna said,

! will recite

to thee,


king, the facts as they

happened. There are two RisHis, the foremost ones in the world, named Narada and Parvata, Narada is the maternal uncle and Parvata is his With cheerful hearts, the uncle Narada and the nephew sister's son. Parvata had, in days of old, O king, left heaven for a pleasant ramble on Earth for tasting clarified butter and rice. Both of them, possessed of great ascetic merit, wandered over the Earth, subsisting on food taken by human beings. Filled with joy and entertaining great affection for each other, they entered into a compact that, whatever wish, good or bad, would be entertained by one should be disclosed to the other, but on the event of one of them acting otherwise, he should be subject to the other's curse. Agreeing to that understanding, those two
great Rishis, adored of all the worlds, repaired to king Srinjaya, the son two, for thy good, shall dwell with of Sitya and said unto him, thee for a few days.

We O lord of Earth,
So be

do thou attend to


our wants




king, saying


himself to attend upon


After a while, one day, the king, filled with joy, introduced to those illustrious ascetics his daughter of the fairest complexion, sayThis my daughter will wait upon you both. Bright as the filaments ing,
of the lotus, she

beautiful and of faultless limbs, accomplished and

is called Sukumari by name, Very well, said upon which the king directed his daughter, tellling O child, attend upon these two Brahmanas as thou wouldst upon her, The virtuous princess, saying, So be it began the gods or thy sire to attend upon them in obedience to her father's behest. Her dutiful services and her unrivalled beauty very soon inspired Narada with a tender flame towards her. That tender sentiment began to grow in the heart of the illustrious saint like the moon gradually waxing on the accession of the lighted fortnight. The virtuous Narada, however, overwhelmed by shame, could not disclose that burning attachment to his sister's son, the high-souled Parvata. By his ascetic power, as also by

of sweet manners,


the Rishis in reply,



Parvata understood

resolved to curse the love-afflicted Narada.




Inflamed with rage, the latter thereupon And he said, Having of a compact with me that, whatever wish, good or

bad, would be cherished by either of us should be disclosed to the other, thou hast violated it ! These were thy own words, O Brahmana ! It

for this that I shall curse thee i Thou didst not tell me before that thy heart has been pierced by the charms of the maiden Sukumari ! It Thou art a Brahmacharin. Thou art is for this that I shall curse thee !


preceptor. Thou art an ascetic and a Brahmana. Yet hast thou Filled with rage I broken the compact thou hadst made with me

shall, for this,

This Sukumari shall, curse even thee Listen to me without doubt, become thy wife From the time of thy marriage, however. O puissant one, both she and all men shall behold thee an ape, for thy true features having disappeared, an ape shalt thou appear



linto all


Hearing these words of


the uncle Narada,


wrath, cursed his nephew Parvata in return, say ing, Alt hough thou hast ascetic merit and Brahmacharyya and truth and self-restraint, and although thou art ever devoted to virtue, thou shalt not yet succeed
in proceeding to heaven ! Filled with rage and desire of vengeance, they thus cursed and flamed against each other like a couple of infuriate elephants. From that time the high-souled Parvata began to wander

over the Earth, respected as he deserved, O Bharata, for his own energy. Narada then, that foremost of Brahmanas, obtained according to due

hand of Srinjaya's daughter, the faultless Sukumari. The however, beheld Narada exactly as the curse had said. Indeed, princess, just after the last of the wedding mantras had been recited, Sukumari beheld the celestial RisHi to have a face like that of an ape. She, howrites the

ever, did not on that account, disregard her lord. On the other hand, she dedicated her love to him. Indeed, the princess, chaste as she was, devoted herself entirely to her lord and did not in her heart even desire

any one else among the gods, Muni's, and Yakshas for a husband. One day, as the illustrious Parvata, in course of his wanderings, entered a
solitary forest, he beheld



Saluting him, Parvata said,

puissant one, to go to the cheerless Parvata kneeling before him with joined Seeing hands, Narada, himself more cheerless, said unto him, Thou hadst curst

Show thy grace unto me by permitting me,




Be thou an ape I After thou hadst said so unto me, first, saying, cursed thee from anger, saying, From this day thou shalt not dwell in heaven I It was not well of thee, since thou art like a son unto me !
saints then freed each other

The two



mutual curses. Behold-

ing her husband possessed of celestial form and blazing with beauty, Sukumari fled from him, taking him to be somebody other than her lord, Seeing the beautiful princess flying away from her lord, Parvata

addressed her, saying, This one is even thy husband Do not entertain This one is the illustrious and pussiant Rishi Narada, that any scruple
! I

He is thy lord, of one soul with thee foremost of virtuous persons Assured in diverse ways by the high-souled Do not have any doubt Parvata and informed also of the curse on her lord, the princess regain,
! ! !

ed her equanimity.

Then Parvata proceeded


heaven and Narada to


"Vasudeva continued, The illustrious Rishi Narada, who was best of men, asked by thee, himself an actor in this matter, is here. he will tell thee everything that happened/



Vaisampayana said, "The royal son of Pandu then addressed 'O holy one, I desire to hear of the birth of the child whose excreta were gold/ Thus addressed by king Yudhishthira thfe to him all that had occurred in just, the sage Narada began to narrate
Narada, saying,
connection~with that child of golden excreta,







O thou


mighty arms, as Kesava

here hath said

Asked by thee

I shall

recite the portion that re-

Myself, and my sister's son, the great ascetic on one occasion) unto Srinjaya that foremost of all ( victorious kings, for dwelling with him. Honoured by him with due rites, and with every wish of ours gratified, we took up our residence After the season of rains had gone, and when the time in his abode. for our own departure, Parvata said unto me these words of grave came import suitable to the hour. We have, O Brahmana, dwelt in the abode of this king for some time, highly honoured by him. Think of what

mains of


Parvata, came









blessed aspect, saying,




monarch, addressed Parvata of becomes thee, and, O thou of

great power,

all this

depends upon thyself

Through thy boons

let the

king be
est, let

of us


Or, if thou chooshim be crowned with success through the ascetic merits of both After this, Parvata having called king Srinjaya, that foremost

made happy and

him obtain

his wishes

of victorious persons, said
tions given to us with

unto him these words,

O bull

of Kuru's race,

We have been exceedingly gratified, O king, with thy hospitable attenWith our permission, O foreevery sincerity most of men, think of the boon thou shouldst solicit Let the boon, however, be such that it may not imply enmity to the gods or destruc1 tion to men I Accept then, O king, a boon, for thou deservest one as



gratified with me,



Hearing these words, Srinjaya replied, If ye have been my object then has been gained, fot that of itself has greatest gain and that is regarded by me as the fruition of all







king, the fruition of that wish

said so, Parvata again said, Solicit, which thou art cherishing in thy heart

for a long time

Srinjaya answered, I desire a son that shall be heroic and possessed of great energy, firm in his vows and of long life, highly blessed and possessed of splendour equal to that of the Chief himself of the deities ! At this, Parvata said.This thy desire shall be fulfilled !

thy wish for such a son over the Chief of the gods Thy son shall be known by the name of Suvarnashthivin. He shall be possessed of splendour like that of the Chief of the gods but take care to protect him

Thy child, however,

shall not be long-lived, for

for prevailing


always from that deity IHearing these words of the high-souled Parvata, Srinjaya began to beseech that saint for ordaining otherwise, saying, Let my son be long-lived. O Muni, through thy ascetic merit !
Parvata, however, said nothing, through partiality for Indra. Behold
ing the king very cheerless,

thy distress), Do not grieve,



unto him, Think of me, O king, (in promise to come when thought of by thee of Earth lord I will give thee back thy beloved






1 The first line of 12 is misunderstood by the Burdwan translators. There can be no doubt, however, that Nilakantha, -whom I follow, i





even if he be dead, in his living form Having said so unto that monarch, both of us left his presence for coming to where we wished, and Srinjaya returned to his abode as he pleased. After some time had elapsed, the royal sage Srinjaya had born unto him a son of great prowess and blazing forth with energy. The child grew up like a large
lotus in a lake,

and became Suvarnashthivin

extraordinary fact, over the world. The Chief of the gods also came to
result of Parvata's boon.

O best

of the

in reality as in name. This soon became widely known Kurus,



as the

Fearing humiliation (at the hands of the child when he would grow up), the slayer of Vala and Vritra began to watch for the laches of the prince. He commanded his celestial weapon Thun-

der, standing before



embodied shape, saying,




one, and assuming the form of a tiger slay this prince
up, this child
of Srinjaya



may, by his achievements, humiliate me, O Thus addressed by Sakra, the celestial as Parvata said Thunder,

weapon Thunder, that, subjugator of hostile towns, began from that day to continually watch for the laches of the prince. Srinjaya, meanwhile, having obtained that child whose splendour resembled that of Indra himself, became filled with joy. The king, accompanied by his
wives, and the other ladies of his household, took up his residence in 1 One day, on the shores of the Bhagirathi, the the midst of a forest,
boy, accompanied by his nurse, ran hither and thither in play,


only five years of age, his prowess, even then, resembled that of a mighty elephant. While thus employed, the child met a powerful tiger

came upon him


as he

was being crushed by the tiger and soon
this sight the

The infant prince trembled violently fell down lifeless on the


nurse uttered loud cries of



the prince, the tiger, through Indra's powers of delusion, vanished there and then. Hearing the voice of the crying nurse, the king, in great anxiety, ran to the spot. He beheld his son there, his blood quaffed off,

on the ground like the moon dropped from the firmament. Taking up on his lap the boy covered with blood, the king, with heart stricken by grief, began to lament piteously. The royal ladies then, afflicted with grief and crying, quickly ran to the spot where
and lying

king Srinjaya was.

In that situation the king thought of

me with


centrated attention.

Knowing that

the king was thinking of



appeared before him, him all those stones,
recited to thee.


Stricken with grief as the king was, I recited to monarch, that hero of Yadu's race has already

brought Srinjaya's child back to life, with Indra's permission. That which is ordained must occur. It is impossible that it should be otherwise. After this, prince Suvarnashthivin of great fame

and energy began to delight the hearts of his parents Of great prowess, he ascended the throne of his father after the latter had repaired to

The Burdwan

translators have misunderstood this verse.




heaven, and ruled for a period of one thousand and one hundred years. He worshipped the gods in many great sacrifices characterised by profuse presents. Possessed of great splendour, he gratified the gods and

Having procreated many sons, all of whom by multiplied the race, he went the way of all nature, O king,

their issues





O foremost of kings, dispel

this grief


in thy heart,

even as Kesava has counselled thee, as also Vyasa of austere penances. Rise up, O king, and bear the burthen of this thy ancestral kingdom, and perform high and great sacrifices so that thou mayst obtain (hereafter)

whatever regions may be desired by thee



Vaisampayana said, 'Unto king Yudhishthira who still remained speechless and plunged in grief, the Island-born Vyasa, that great asceconversant with the truths of religion, spoke again. "Vyasa said, *O thou of eyes like lotus petals, the protection of subjects is the duty of kings. Those men that are always observant of

king, walk powerful. Do thoui therefore, With Brahmanas, penances are a duty. in the steps of thy ancestors This is the eternal ordinance of the Vedas. Penances, therefore, bull

duty regard duty to be




of Bharata's race, constitute the eternal duty of Brahmanas.

O A Kshatriya

the protector of all persons in respect of their duties. 1 That man who, addicted to earthly possessions, transgresses wholesome restraints,

that offender against social harmony, should be chastised with a strong

That insensate person who seeks to transgress authority, be he an attendant, a son, or even a saint, indeed, all men of such sinful nature, should by every means be chastised or even killed. That king

who conducts himself otherwise incurs sin. He who does not protect morality when it is being disregarded is himself a trespasser against morality. The Kauravas were trespassers again morality. They have, with their followers, been slain by thee. Thou hast been observant of the duties of thy own order. Why then, O son of Pandu, dost thou indulge in such grief ? The king should slay those that deserve death, make gifts to persons deserving of charity, and protect his subjects
according to the ordinance/




do not doubt the words that

O thou of great ascetic
and duty

from thy Everything appertaining to morafall


O foremost of all persons conversant I have, however, for the sake of kingdom, with morality and duty caused many persons to be slain Those deeds, O Brahmana, are burnwell


to thee,


ing and consuming





1 A Kshatriya should protect a Brahmana in respect of bis penances and a Vaisya in respect of the duties of his order. Whatever impediments a Brahmana or a Vaisya might encounter in the discharge of his duties,




the doer


*O Bharata, is the Supreme Being the doer, or is everything the result of Chance in the world, or

we enjoy or suffer, the results of (previous) action ? Bharata, does all acts, good or bad, being urged thereto by the Supreme Being, then the fruits of those acts should attach to the
are the fruits that



Supreme Being

person cuts down, with an axe, a tree in forest, it is the person that incurs the sin and not the axe by any means. Or, if it be said that, the axe being only the material cause, th consehimself.
If a

quence of the act (of cutting) should attach to the animate agent (and not to the inanimate tool), then the sin may be said to belong to the person that has made the axe. This, however, can scarcely be true. If
this be not reasonable,

O son

of Kunti, that

consequence' of an
shouldst throw

act done

by another, then, guided by

one man should incur the this, thou

1 upon the Supreme Being. If, again, man be himself the agent of all his acts virtuous and sinful, then Supreme Director there is none, and, therefore, whatever thou hast No one, O king, can done cannot bring evil consequences on thee. ever turn away from that which is destined. If, again, Destiny be the result of the acts of former lives, then no sin can attach to one in this life even as the sin of cutting down a tree cannot touch the maker of If thou thinkest it is Chance only that acts in the world, the axe.* then such an act of destruction could never happen nor will ever 4 happen. If it is necessary to ascertain what is good and what is evil in



the world, attend to the scriptures. In those scriptures it has been laid down that kings should stand with the rod of chastisement uplifted in
their hands.

Bharata, that acts, good and bad, are contihere as a wheel, and men obtain the fruits of those nually revolving One sinfnl act proceeds from another. acts, good or bad, that they do.




thy heart upon grief.



among kings, avoid all evil acts and do not thus set Thou shouldst adhere, O Bharata, to the duties, of thy own order. This self-destruction, O king, reproachable,


does not look well in thee
for (evil) acts.




have been ordained




alive can perform them, but he that dies fails

in their performance.


O king,

without laying down thy

perform those expiatory acts. If thou dost not " mayst have to repent in the next world/

perform them thou

1 i.e., thou shouldst think that the consequences of all acts must attach to the Supreme Being himself, he being the urger of us all. T. 2 Na Para &o., i.e there is no Supreme Being and no next world. T. 3 No one being free in this life, all one's acts being the result of previous acts, there can be no responsibility for the acts of this life. T. 4 The manner in which this great battle has been brought about shows evidence of design and not mere Chance. Nilakantha reads hatam which is evidently wrong. There can be no doubt that the correct reading T. is hatham.


io,isobsdt gniaH



"Yudhishthira said, 'Sons and grandsons and brothers and sires and fathers-in-law and preceptors and maternal uncles and grandsires,


high-souled Kshatriyas,
sister's sons,


relatives (by

marriage), friends,


men coming from

and kinsmen, O'grandsire, and many foremost diverse countries, have fallen All these, O grand!

sire, have been caused to be slain by myself alone, from desire of kingdom Having caused so many heroic kings who were always devoted to righteousness and all of whom had quaffed Soma in sacrifices, what Thinking that this Earth has been end shall I attain, O great ascetic bereft of many lions among kings, all of whom were in the enjoyment

burn continually to this day Having witnessed this slaughter of kinsmen and millions of other men, I burn with grief, O grandsire Oh, what will be the plight of those foremost of ladies who have been deprived of sons, of husbands, and of brothers Reproaching the Pandavas and the Vrishnis as cruel murderers, those ladies, with emaciated features and plunged in grief, will throw themselves Not beholding their sires and brothers and husbands on the Earth and sons, those ladies, through affliction, casting off their life-breaths, I have no will go to the abode of Yama, O foremost of Brahmanas
of great prosperity, I





The course of morality is very subtile. It is plain that doubt of this we shall ba stained with the guilt of slaughtering women for this Having slain our kinsmen and friends and thereby committed an inexpiable sin, we shall have to fall into hell with heads downwards O best our limbs with the austerest of of men, we shall, therefore, waste Tell rne, O grandsire, to what mode of life I should betake penances




myself then


Vaisampayana continued,- "Hearing these words of Yudhishthira, the Island born Rishi, having reflected keenly for some time, addressed the son of Pandu as follows. "Vyasa said, 'Remembering the duties of a Kshatriya, O king, do All those Kshatriyas, O bull among Kshatriyas, not give way to grief




of great prosperity

the observance of their proper duties In the pursuit and of great fame on Earth, those foremost of men,


whom were

of Time.

nor the twins.
to the great

have perished through the influence hast not been their slayer, nor this Bhim, nor Arjuna, It is Time that took awaw their life-breaths according
liable to death,


law of change. Time hath neither mother, nor father, nor anybody for whom he is disposed to show any favour. He is the witness of the acts of all creatures. By him have they been taken away.
This battle,


was only an occasion ordained by creatures to be slain through the instrumentality of causes

O bull of Bharata's race,

1 Nilakantha explains this in a different way. He thinks that the eiDression Kritantavidhi-sanjuktah means, 'through their own faults.' T.

creatures. This

its irresietibla

the manner in which
(in his


puts forth





action and

dealings with creatures) is dependent upon the the witness of all actions good and bad. It is Time

that brings about the fruits, fraught with bliss or woe, of our actions. Think, mighty-armed one, of the acts of those Kshatriyas that have

Those acts were the causes of their destruction and it is in consequence of them that they have perished. Think also of thy own acts consisting of observances of vows with restrained soul. And think also how thou hast been forced by the Supreme Ordainer to do such an act (as As a weapon made by a smith the slaughter of so many human beings)
1 !

is handling it, and moves as he moves it, similarly this universe, controlled by actions done in Time, moves as those actions move it. Seeing that the births and

or carpenter is

under the control


the person that



creatures take place without any (assignable) cause and in pergrief

and joy are perfectly needless. Although this entanglement of thy heart is a mere delusion, still, if it pleasest thee, king, perform expiatory rites (for washing thyself free of thy so-called It is heard, O Partha, that the gods and the Asuras fought against sin). The Asuras were the elder, and the gods the younger, other. each
of prosperity, fierce was the battle fought between lasted for two and thirty thousand years. Making the them. The fight Earth one vast expanse of blood, the gods slew the Daityas and gained



Having obtained possession of the Earth, a (large) Brahmanas, conversant with the Vedas, armed themselves, for giving them help in the fight. stupefied with pride, with the Danavas known by the name of Salavrika and numbered eight and They were were slain by the gods. Thoee eighty thousand. All of them, however,
possession of heaven.



wicked-souled persons who desire the extinction of virtue and who set sinfulness agoing deserve to be slain even as the furious Daityas were slain

by slaying a single individual a family may be saved, or, may be saved, such an if by slaying a single family the whole kingdom Sin, of slaughter will not be a transgression. king, sometimes act the form of virtue, and virtue sometimes assumes the form of assumes
by the gods.

They, however, that are learned, know which is which. Therefore, son of Pandu, for thou art well versed in the scriptures. console thyself,

O Bharata, only followed the path formerly trodden by the bull of Pandu's race very gods. Men like yourselves never go to hell, scorcher of foes He Comfort these thy brothers and all thy friends,

deliberately engages himself in sinful acts, and committing sinful acts feels no shame but continues the same as before, is called (in the scripThere is no expiation for him and his sins know no tures) a great sinner. art born in a noble race. Forced by the faults of others, diminution. Thou


thou hast most unwillingly done this, and having done this thou repentest The Horse-sacrifice, that grand rite, has been indicated as an expiaof it. Make preparations for that sacrifice, monarch, and thou tion for thee

shalt be freed from thy sins.


divine ohastiser of Paka, having van-

. is shining in beauty. and having behaved deceitfully. one who weds a younger sister before the elder sister has been wedded. Women are fond of pleasure this means they will cast off their ( proper for us to grieve for those high-souled Kshatriyas.f one who slays his preceptor or one who slays an animal wilfully. possessed of heaven. I. with thy friends to their kingdom. one who slays any one of the regenerate classes. The lord of Sachi is adored in the heavens by the Apsaras. through thy prowess. one who takes many lives. in a sinful family. Sakra. O bull of thy order that have fallen in battle ). adore the gods Having comforted the whole empire in this way.* sacrifices. one who sells flesh. and done those that have been have been interdicted. All the kings with kindness towards even the children in the womb. make thy subjects glad and happy. . not in a sacrifice. thou shalt be able to obtain happiness in the other world 1" SECTION XXXIV* & XXXV "Yudhishthira liable to said. of a Vedas. elder sister after having one a who *. one who has abandoned his (sacred) fire. sorrows and become happy. 'After doing ? what acts does a for being freed perform expiation from sin ? Tell said. The performer hundred T. one whose younger brother weds first. and having obtained many regions of bliss and great happiness and prosperity. they have perished in the observance of the duties of their own order. have been vanquished by thee. It is not in a Horse-sacrifice of those that have no sons.. Thou hast discharged the duties of a Kshatriya and obtained the Earth without a thorn in it. install their brothers. one born t T. or grandsons on their thrones. sells a knowledge of the woman. a man beeomes liable to perform expiation. one who speaks ill of others. Through Bharata. as the victorious Indra did in days of old.74 MAHABHABATA quished his foes with the assistance of the Maruts.0. and illuminating all the quarters with his splendour. surrounded by the Maruts. one who has a rotten nail or black teeth. one who has been guilty of the slaughter of a Brahmana. And what are those acts man become which he must do me this. charges his pupils a fee for teaching * T. The Bi&his and the other gods all Thou hast got the Earth through thy worship him with reverence. sons. Bharata. one who weds "Vyasa 'Having omitted to do those acts that wedded. sinless one. gradually performed a hundred sacrifices and became Satakratu* Freed from sin. Observe thy own duties.e. Install on their thrones the daughters and power. them the scriptures. one who weds an before his elder brother is weded a younger one. for then. who rises from bed after the sun has risen" or goes to bed while the sun is setting. Proceeding king. one who does not impart a knowledge thereof to a person thatis worthy of it. grandsire 1" ordained. O son of Kunti. one who imparts a knowledge of the Vedas to a person unworthy of it. T. Stupefied by the power of the destroyer. and rule the Earth. Behaving prowess. The person in the observance of the Brahmacharyya vow. one who falls away from a vow.

one who sets
aofcs in


fire to a dwelling house, one opposition to his preceptor, and one



are guilty of sins requiring

who lives by deceit, one who who has violated a compact, I shall now mention other expiation.

acts that


world and the Vedas.
rejection of one's

should not do, viz., acts that are interdicted by both the Listen to me with concentrated attention The

creed, the practice of other people's creed, assisting at the sacrifice or the religious rites of one that is not worthy of such


assistance, eating of food
protection, neglect in



forbidden, deserting one that craves

maintaining servants and dependants, selling salt and treacle (and similar other substances), killing of birds and animals, refusal, though competent, to procreate upon a soliciting woman, omission to present the daily gifts ( of handfuls of grass to kine and the like ),

omission to present the dakshina, humiliating a Brahmana. these all have been pronounced by persons conversant with duty to be acts that no one should do. The son that quarrels with the father, the person that violates the bed of his preceptor, one that neglects to produce offspring in

wedded wife,

are all sinful,


among men


I have



ed to thee, in brief as also in detail, those acts and omissions by which

man becomes liable to perform expiation. Listen now to the circumstances under which men, by even committing these acts, do not become stained with sin. If a Brahmana well acquainted with the Vedas takes up
arms and rushes against thee in battle for killing thee, thou mayst proceed against him for taking his life. By such an act the slayer does not become guilty of the slaughter of a Brahmana.* There is a mantra in the Vedas, son of Kunti, that lays this down. I declare unto thee only those prac-


that are sanctioned by the authority of the Vedas.

One who


away from his own duties and that advances, in hand, with intent to slaughter, does not truly become the weapon slayer of a Brahmana. In such a case it is the wrath of the slayer that

Brahmana that has

proceeds against the wrath of the slain. A person by drinking alcoholic stimulants in ignorance or upon the advice of a virtuous physician when his
life is

at peril,



his case.

eating of

should have the regenerating ceremonies performed once All that I have told thee, O son of Kunti, about the interdicted food, may be cleansed by such expiatory rites. Con-

nection with the preceptor's wife at the preceptor's command does not stain the pupil. The sage Uddalaka caused his son Swetaketu to be

begotten by a disciple. A person by committing theft for the sake of his preceptor in a season of distress is not stained with sin. One, however, that takes to thieving for procuring enjoyments for himself becomes

not stained by stealing from other than Brahmanas (in a and for the sake of one's preceptor ). Only one that season steals under such circumstances without himself appropriating any portion thereof is untouched by sin. A falsehood may be spoken for saving one's



of distress



or that of another, or for the sake of one's preceptor, or for gratiis



Jighansi and

iat, i.e.,


proceed with intention to


fying a

is nofc

or for


broken by having wet dreams.

bringing about a marriage. One's vow of BrahmaIn such cases the expiation




consists in the pouring of libations of clarified butter on the If the elder brother be fallen or has renounced the world, the

younger brother does not incur sin by marrying. Solicited by a woman, connection with her is not destructive of virtue. One should not slay or cause to be slain an animal except in a sacrifice. Animals have become

for sacrifice)

the Creator himself in the ordinance laid

through the kindness manifested towards them by down by him. By making a gift

in ignorance fco an undeserving Brahmana one does not incur sin. The omission (through ignorance) to behave with liberality towards a deserving person does not lead to sin. By casting off an adulterous wife one does not incur sin. By such treatment the woman herself may be purged while the husband may avoid sin. One who knows the true use of the


By dismissing a servant who juice, does not incur sin by selling it.* incompetent to render service one is not touched by sin. I have now said unto thee those acts by doing which one does not incur sin. I shall
to thee of expiation in detail.'

now speak

Bharata, a "Vyasa said, 'By penances, religious rites, and gifts, man may wash off his sins if he does not commit them again. By subsisting upon only one meal a day. and that procured by mendicancy, by doing
alibis acts himself (without relying on the aid of a servant), by making his round of mendicancy with a human skull in one hand and a khattanga
in another, by becoming a

by casting

off all

exertion, malice, by sleeping on the bare ground, by publishing his

Brahmacharin and always ready


offence to the world, by doing all this for full twelve years, a person can

cleanse himself from the sin of having slain a Brahmana. By perishing upon the weapon of a person living by the use of arms, of one's own will and upon the advice of persons learned in the scriptures, or by throwing
one's self down, for three times, with head

downwards, upon a blazing fire, hundred Yojanas all the while reciting the Vedas, or by or by walking a giving away one's whole property to a Brahmana conversant with the Vedas, or at least so much as would secure to him a competence for life, or a house properly furnished, and by protecting kine and Brahmanas, one


be cleansed of the sin of having slain a





the scantiest diet every day for a space of six years, a person may be cleansed of that sin.f By observing a harder vow with regard to food one * I.e., one who knows that the Soma is used in sacrifices for gratifythe gods. T. ing t The rule laid down is that he should eat in the morning for the first three days, in the evening for the second three days, eat nothing but what is got without soliciting, for the next three days, and fast altogether for the three days that follow. This is called Krischara-bhojana. Observing this rule for six years, one may be cleansed of the sin of slaying a Brabmana.-T

may may
be cleansed in three years,*




upon one meal

month, one

be oleansed in course of only a year. By observing, again, an absolute There is no doubt fast, one may be oleansed within a very short time.
again that one

oleansed by a Horse-sacrifice.


that have been guilty

having slain a Brahmana and that have succeeded in taking the final bath at the completion of the Horse-sacrifice, become cleansed of all their



an injunction

of great

authority in the Sntti*.

One, again,

Brahmana, by slaying becomes cleansed of the sin of having slain a Brahmana. By giving away a hundred thousand kine unto persons deserving of gifts, one becomes


his life in a battle undertaken for the sake of a

the sin of having slain a


as also, indeed, of



away five and twenty thousand kine of the kapila and while all of them have calved, becomes cleansed of all his sins. species One who, at the point of death, gives away a thousand kine with calves
One that
unto poor but deserving persons, becomes freed from sin. That man, king, who gives away a hundred steeds of the Kamvoja breed unto Brahmanas of regulated behaviour, becomes freed from sin. That man,
If a


having given


gives unto even one person all that he asks for, and who, does not speak of his act to any one, becomes freed from

person who has once taken alcohol drinks (as expiation) hot he sanctifies himself both here and hereafter. By falling from the liquor, summit of a mountain or entering a blazing fire, or by going on an everlasting journey after renouncing the world, one is freed from all sins. By

performing the sacrifice laid down by Vrihaspati, a Brahmana who drinks alcoholic liquors may succeed in attaining to the region of Brahman. This
has been said by
alcoholic liquor,



If a

person, after
a gift of land,

himself from


becomes humble and makes ever afterwards, he becomes

having drunk and abstains


and cleansed.


person that has violated his preceptor's bed, should lie down on a sheet of iron having heated it, and having cut off the emblem of his sex should
leave the world for a
life in

the woods, with eyes always turned upwards.

By casting Women, by



body, one becomes cleansed of




leading a regulated life for one year, become oleansed of all their sins. The person who observes a very rigid vow, or gives away the whole of his wealth, or perishes in a battle fought for the sake of his


becomes cleansed

of all his sins.

One who uses falsehood


one's preceptor or acts in opposition to him, becomes cleansed of that sin by doing something agreeable to one's preceptor. One who has fallen off

from the vow

wearing the hide down in the case
guilty of vows for a year.

Brahmacharyya) may become cleansed of that sin by cow for six months and observing the penances laid One who has been of the slaughter of a Brahmana. adultery, or of theft, may become cleansed by observing rigid

of a


one steals another's property, one should, by

The harder

rule referred to

eating in the morning for seven days


in the evening for the next seven days ; eating what is got without soliand fasting altogether for the next seven. citing, for the next seven days ;



every means in his power, return feo that other property of the value of what has been stolen. One may then be oleansed of the sin (of theft). The

younger brother who has married before the marriage of the elder brother, as also the elder brother whose younger brother has married before him, becomes cleansed by observing a rigid vow, with collected soul, for twelve nights. The younger brother, however, should wed again for rescuing
his deceased ancestors. Upon such second wedding, the first wife becomes cleansed and her husband himself would not incur sin by taking her. Men

conversant with the scriptures declare that women may be oleansed of even the greatest sins by observing the vow of chaturmasya, all the while

upon scanty and cleansing food.

Persons conversant with the

scriptures do not take into account the sins that

women may commit


their sins (of this description), they are cleansed by their menstrual course like a metallic plate that is scoured with ashes. Plates (made of the alloy of brass and copper) stained by a Sudra eating off


same metal that has been smelt by a cow, or stained by a Brahmana's Gandusha, may be cleansed by means of the ten purifying substances.* It has been laid down that a Brahmana should acquire and

or a vessel of the

For a person of the kingly order it has acquire and practise a measure of virtue less a fourth part. So, a Vaisya should acquire a measure less (than a Kshaby triya's) by a fourth and a Sudra less ( than a Vaisya's ) by a fourth. The
practise the full


of virtue.

been laid

down that he should

heaviness or lightness

of sins (for


of expiation) of

each of the four
slain a bird or

orders, should be determined

upon this principle.


an animal, or cut down living trees, a person should publish his sin and fast for three nights. By having intercourse with one with whom intercourse is prohibited, the expiation for one is wandering in wet clothes and sleeping on a bed of ashes. These, king, are the expiations for sinful
acts, according to



precedent and reason and sciptures and the ordinances A Brahmana may be cleansed of all sins by reciting

the Gayatri in a sacred place,

the while Jiving upon frugal fare, casting

malice, abandoning wrath and hate,

abstaining from speech with all. shelter of the sky and should


unmoved by praise and blame, and should during the day time be under down at night even at such a place.

Thrice during the day, and thrice during the night, he should also plunge with his clothes into a stream or lake for performing his ablutions. Observate of rigid vows, he should abstain from speech with women, Sudras, and
fallen persons.

A Brahmana by observing such regulations may be cleansunconsciously committed by him. A person obtains in the other world the fruits, well or ill, of his acts here'whioh are all witnessed by the elements. Be it virtue or be it vice, according to the true measure
ed of
all sins

that one acquires of either, one enjoys or suffers the consequences (even here). By knowledge, by penances, and by righteous acts, therefore, one enhances his weal (even here). One, therefore, may similarly enhance his

These are the


acids and

products of the cow, besides earth, water, ashes,




misery by committing unrighteous acts. One should, therefore, always achieve acts that are righteous and abstain altogether from those that are
unrighteous, I have
are called


indicated what the expiations are of the sins that

have been mentioned.


expiation for every sin except those that

Mahapatakas (highly heinous). As regards sins in respect of unclean food and the like, and improper speeches, &c., they are of two classes, viz., those committed consciously and those that are committed unconsciously. All sins that are committed consciously are grave, while those that are committed unconsciously are trivial or light. There is
Indeed sin is capable of being washed away by the ordinances spoken of. Those ordinances, however, (observance have been laid down only for believers (in God) and those that have faith. They are not for atheists or those that have no faith, or those in whom
expiation for both.

pride and malice predominate.-





among men,



desirous of weal both here and hereafter, should, foremost of virtuous men, have recourse to righteous behaviour, to (the counsels of) men that
are righteous, and to the
fore, for

duties that have been ordained for him. Therethe reasons already advanced (by me), thou, O king, shalt be cleansed of all thy sins for thou hast slain thy foes in the discharge of thy duties as a king and for the protection of thy life-breaths and thy inheritance. Or,

notwithstanding this, thou still regardest thyself to be sinful, Do not cast away thy life in consequence of such grief perform expiation that is not becoming a wise man 1*
I '

Vaisampayana continued, "Thus addressed by the holy Rishi, king Yudhishthira the just, having reflected for a short while, said these words unto the sage."

"Yudhishthira said, 'Tell me, O grandfather, what food is clean and what unclean, what gift is praiseworthy, and who should be considered deserving and who undeserving (of gifts) 1'

"Vyasa said, 'In this connection is cited the old account of a discourse between the ascetics and that lord of creation, viz., Manu. In the Erita age, an assembly of Rishis, of rigid vows, having approached the great and puissant lord of creation, Manu, while seated at his ease, soli-

him to discourse on duties, saying, What food should be taken, who be regarded a deserving person (for gifts), what gifts should be made, how should a person study, and what penances should one perform and O how, and what acts should be done and what acts should not be done about these IThus addressed by them, lord of creation, tell us everything
is to

the divine and

self -born


said unto them,

Listen to


as I expound

the duties in brief and in detail In regions which have not been interdictof self, ed, silent recitation (of sacred mantras, homa), fasts, knowledge sacred rivers, regions inhabited by men devoted to these pious acts, these

have been laid


aa acts and objects

that are cleansing.




mountains also are cleansing, as also the eating of gold and bathing in waters into which have been dipped gems and precious stones.* Sojourn these also, without doubt to holy places, and eating of sanctified butter cleanse a man. No man would ever be called wise if he indulged speedily in his pride. If he wishes to be long-lived, he should for three nightsd rink



as an expiation for having indulged in his pride


Eefusal to

appropriate what is not given, gift, study (of scriptures), penance, abstention from injury, truth, freedom from wrath, and worship of the gods in these are the characteristics of virtue. That again which is sacrifices, virtue may, according to time and place, be sin. Thus appropriation (of what belongs to others), untruth, and injury and killing, may, under With respect to persons capable special circumstances, become virtue.* From the of judging, acts are of two kinds, viz., virtuous and sinful. and the Vedio points of view again., virtue and sin are good or bad worldly
(according to their consequences). and sin ( i.e., everything a man

From the Vedic point of view, virtue may do or not do), would be classed

under action and inaction.


abstention from Vedic rites and

adoption of a life of contemplation) leads to emancipation (from rebirth) ; while the consequences of acion (i.e., practice of Vedic rites are repeated death and rebirth. From the worldly point of view, acts that are evil lead
to evil

consequences that are good. From the view, therefore, virtue and sin are to be distinguished by worldly point the good and the evil character of their consequences.! Acts that are (apparently) evil, when undertaken from considerations connected with

and those that are good


the gods, the scriptures,

life itself,

ed, produce consequences that are good.J the expectation, however doubtful, that

and the means by which life is sustainWhen an act is undertaken from
it will produce mischief (to some done whose consequence is visibly down. When an act is done from

one) in

the future, or

when an


mischievous, expiation has been laid wrath or clouded judgment, then expiation should be performed by giving pain to the body, guided by precedent, by scriptures, and by reason.
is done for pleasing or displeasing the mind, the sin therefrom may be cleansed by sanctified food and recitation of arising mantras. The king who lays aside (in a particular case) the rod of chastise ment, should fast for one night. The priest who (in a particular case)


anything, again,

abstains from advising the king to


punishment, should fast

for three


first line of 7 is

kantha accepts

I think,

read differently in the Bombay edition. Nilahowever, that the Bengal reading is better for

T. its intelligibility. t Appropriation

<&c., as in the case of the king imposing fines on offenders and appropriating them to the uses of the state. Untruth, as that of the loyal servant or follower for protecting the life of his master. Killing, as that of an offender by the king, or in the exercise of the right

of self-defence.



These two verses, as they stand in the original, are exceedingly I have been obliged to interpolate largely for making the English

version intelligible. To avoid the look of pedantry, all the interpolations have not been enclosed within parantheses, T.

nighfcs as


The person who, from grief, attempts to commit means of weapons, should fast for three nights. There is no expiation for them that oast off the duties and practices of their order and class, country, and family, and that abandon their very creed. When an occasion for doubt respecting what should be done arises, that should be
suicide by

an expiation.

regarded as the injunction of the scriptures which ten persons versed in Vedic scriptures or three of those that frequently recite them made

The bull, earth, little ants, worms generated in dirt, and poison, should not be eaten by Brahmanas. They should not also eat fishes that hi73 no goaleg, and four-footed aquatic animals like frogs and others, except

the tortoise.

Water-fowls called Bhasas, ducks, Suparnas, Chakravakas, hawks, owls, as also all fourfooted animals that are carnivorous and that have sharp and long teeth, and birds, and animals having two teeth and those having four teeth, as
diving ducks, cranes, crows, shags, vultures,

also the milk of the sheep, the she-ass, the she-camel, thenewly-calved


woman and deer, should not be taken by a Brahmana. Besides this, the food that has been offered to the man, that which has been cooked by a woman who has recently brought forth a child, and food cooked by an unknown person, should not be eaten. The milk also of a cow that has recently
calved should not be taken. If a

Brahmana takes food that has been cooked


a Kshatriya,


diminishes his energy


a Sudra, by a goldsmith or a

dims his Brahmanic lustre


he takes the food provided by if he takes the food provided

woman who

lessens the period of his

has neither husband nor children, it The food provided by an usurer is equivalent

to dirt, while that provided by a to semen.



by prostitution



by persons that tolerate the uncbastity of their wives, and by persons that are ruled by their spouses, is forbidden. The food provided by a person selected (for receiving gifts) at a certain stage of a sacrifice, by one who does not enjoy his wealth or make any one who sells Soma, or one who is a shoe-maker, gifts, that provided by
also provided

The food

by an unchaste woman, by a washerman, by a physician, by persons serving as watchmen, by a multitude of persons, by one who is pointed at by a whole village, by one deriving his support from keep of dancing girls,
are wedded, by professional by persons wedding before their elder brothers and bards, and by those that are gamblers, the food also which panegyrists is brought with the left hand or which is stale, the food which is mixed with alcohol, the food a portion of which has been already tasted, and the








feast, should not

be taken (by a

Brahmana). if they have
barley and of

in sugared milk, should not be taken. The powder of fried lost their relish, other kinds of fried grain, mixed with curds, if become stale

Cakes sugarcanes, potherbs, and

rice boiled

with age, should not be taken. Eice boiled in sugared milk, food mixed with the tila seed, meat, and cakes, that have not been dedicated to the
* There were, as now, persons with whom the reading or recitation the scriptures was a profession. The functions of these men were not T. unlike those of the rhapsodists of ancient Greece.


gods, should not

be taken by


leading a domestic


of life,



gratified the gods, Rishis, guests, Pitris,

and the household

deities, a

Brabmana leading

domestic mode

of life

should then take his

A householder by

living thus in his

the Bhikshu order that has renounced the world.

our, living with his wives in domesticity, one should make a gift for the sake of acquiring

own house becomes like a person A man of such behaviearns great religious merit. No

censure and the


or unto




fame, or from fear (of virtuous man would not

unto persons living by singing and dancing or unto those that are professional jesters, or unto a person that is intoxicated, or unto one that is insane, or unto a thief, or unto a slanderer, or unto an idiot, or



unto one that is pale of hue, or unto one that is defective of a limb, or unto a dwarf, or unto a wicked person, or unto one born in a low and wicked family, or unto one that has not been sanctified by the observance No gift should be made to a Brahmana destitute of knowledge of vows.

the Vedas.

Gifts should be

made unto him

only that


a Srotriya.*

and an improper acceptance produce evil consequences unto both the giver and the acceptor. As a person who seeks to cross the ocean with the aid of a rock or a mass of catechu sinks along with his

An improper

support, even so the giver and the acceptor (in such a case) both sink together. Asa fire that is covered with wet fuel does not blaze forth,

even so the acceptor of a gift who is bereft of penances and study and piety cannot confer any benefit (upon the giver). As water in a (human skull and milk in a bag made of dog-skin become unclean in consequence of the
uncleanliness of the vessels in which they are kept, even so the Vedas b3come fruitless in a person who is not of good behaviour. One may give from compassion unto a low Brahmana who is without mantras and vows, who is ignorant of the scriptures and who harbours envy. One may, from

compassion, give unto a person that is poor or afflicted or ill. But he should not give unto such a person in the belief that he would derive any
(spiritual) benefit

from it or that he would earn any religious merit by it. There is no doubt that a gift made to a Brahmana bereft of the Vedas becomes perfectly fruitless in consequence of the fault of the recipient. As

an elephant made of wood or an antelope made of leather, even so is a Brahmana that has not studied the Vedas. All the three have nothing but names. t As a eunuch is unproductive with women, as a cow is unproductive

with a cow, as a bird lives in vain that


featherless, even





without mantras.

As grain without
ashes, even

kernel, as a


water, as




a gift to

Brahmana void

of learning.

An unlearned Brahmana
goes for nothing.

the destroyer of the food that
to such a person

an enemy (to all) presented to the gods and Pitris. A




therefore, like unto a


one possessed

of a


of the


With very



slight verbal alterations, this verse, as also the first half next, like many others, occurs in Alanu, Vide Manu, Ch II v


other people's wealth). then ask Bhishma. Although childless. that old grandsire of the Kurus ! Conversant with all duties and possessed of universal knowledge.. the high-souled son of Kunti. said the following words unto Satyavati's son Vyasa. Although born among human beings. that son of Bhagirathi will remove all the doubts in thy heart on the difficult subject of duties. he acquired a knowledge of the duties of kings. The practice of virtue and the discharge duties are always inconsistent with each other. that foremost of all persons conversant with the Vedas. Narada. knowledge of all the Vedas and their branches. O mighty-arme<3 Vaisampayana continued. viz. that mighty-armed one acquired a Usanas and that regenerate one Having practised rigid vows. f rom Vasishtha and from Cbyavana of Bhrigu's. said. This high discourse should be " ed to by all. O foremost of Brahmanas. my mind is constantly stupefied 1" "Then. That goddess. splendour. Vyasa. viz.. SECTION XXXVIII "Yudhishthira detail said. with his physical eyes all the gods with Indra at their head. He learnt the duties in full of the Yatis from the lips of Markandeya. one. of fills me with joy. of all the to hear. Having gratified with his dutiful services the celestial Rishis having He saw Yrihaspati at their bead. The bull among men obtained all weapons Sanatkumara of blazing Sakra. Regenerate ttisbis of great merit were always his courtiers. yet be has many regions of bliss hereafter as heard by us. treating (at the same time) of fasts and capable of exciting four orders I desire also I great curiosity. of what the duties I '0 holy and great ascetic. Always thinking kingly ol how one may 11 reconcile the two. of great wisdom. thou wiehest to hear of duties and morality in full. I desire to hear in kings are and what the duties. There is nothing among objects that should be known that is unknown to him. what behaviour should be adopted in seasons of distress.race. Conversant with all duties and acquainted with all the subtile truths of morality. Thus addressed by him. O monarch. casting his eyes upon that ancient and all-knowing person.SANTI PARVA robber (of 88 of bliss hereaffcer. . O king. in full. bis death under his own control. with who is the preceptor o the celestials know. even he will discourse Go unto him before he abandons his lifeto thee upon duty and morality from Rama and itself is still ! breaths. O bull of Bharata's race. the genius of the celestial river of three courses brought him forth. all that listen1 was said (by Manu on that occasion). He can never succeed in acquiring regions I have now told thee in brief. with its interpretations. well conversant with the truths of mental and spiritual science. Yudhiehthira. That foremost one among the Kurus obtained a knowledge also of that science. If. that fir&t. In olden days he studied under the eldest-born son of the Grandsire himself. and how I may subThis discourse jugate the world by treading along the path of morality on expiation.of eloquent men. viz..

and the people belonging to all the four orders of thy kingdom is of to- agreeable these high-souled Brahmanas.. Yudhishthira of great fame. by the Island-born (Vyasa). "Thus addressed by Krishna. beseeched by Krishna himself. 'It behoveth thee not to show such pertinacity in Do that. placing Dhritarashtra at the head of the train. 'Having caused a great and horrid slaughter of kinsmen. Adored by panegyrists and bards. to be slain by aid of deceit. Surof them like the moon by the stars. by Jishnu. for fanning the king. asking him (about duties and morality) ?' ' how shall I approach him for "Vaisampayana continued. the high- souled king (Yudhishthira) of eyes like lotus petals. rose from his seat for the good of the whole world. the mighty-armed and high-souled chief of Yadu's race once more addressed. and with all anxiety. O king. and unto decked with ornaments. That white umbrella held upon the car looked beautiful like a star-decked white cloud in the firmament. Kurujangala. Brahmanas. do selves that are thy well-wishers. viz. with the science that treats of the interpretation of those declarations. O king. . The two heroic sons of Madri. best of kings. conversant with He every duty. Kunti's son Yudhishthira. His brother Bhima of terrible prowess took the reins. and what is beneficial to the world/ " Vaisampayana continued.that foremost of kings (in the following words). which the holy Vyasa has said! The grief. Nakula and Sahadeva. the son of landu mind and resolved upon what he should next do. The unslain remnant of the assembled kings. Eiding upon oanther white car unto which were yoked steeds fleet as thought. and at the request of ourscorcher of foes. stand before thee beseechingly like persons beseeching the deity of the clouds at the close of summer. "Moved by the desire of benefiting all the four orders. that men usually hear and obtained peace of rounded by all all that deserve to be heard. Arjuna held over his head a white umbrella of great effulgence. I have become an offender against all and a destroyer of the Earth! Having caused that Bhishma himself. that warrior who always fought fairly. and of Draupadi.84 MAHABHABATA "Yndhishthira said. The tiger among men. in obedience also to the command of thy reverend senior Vyasa of immeasurable energy. by these and many others. mighty-armed one. and these thy brothers of great energy. slayer of foes. took up two yak-tails white as the rays of the moon and adorned with gems. viz. set out for entering the city. and which which were yoked sixteen white bullocks possessed of had been sanctified with Vedic mantras. "Vasudeva said. by Devasthana. Desirous of entering the city. looked like the five elements (that enter into the composition of every body). the king. cast off his grief and Fully conversant with the declarations of the Srutis. having ascended the car. are here ! For the sake of doing what what is agreeable to us. then ascended a new and white oar covered with blankets and deer- auspicious marks. Yuyutsti. the king mounted upon that car like Soma riding upon his own ambrosial vehicle. offered worship unto the gods and thousands of Brahmanas.. The five brothers skins.

O By good luck. Arjuna. of king became so beautiful that its like had never been on Earth. The streets of the city were perfumed with incense. with Satyaki. Bharata. thou hast recovered thy kingdom through slayer of foes praises. entered the city through Pandu. the city and its streets were adorned with gay citizens (all of whom had come out for honouring the king). seemed to shake. New metallic jars. and of the two sons blessed princess of Panohala. thou hast vanquished thy enemies. household. O lady the ladies praised the princess Krishna. O ! . that waitest by the side of the (seven) Bishis these foremost of men even like Gautami by the side of In this strain. The palace was overlaid with powdered perfumes and flowers and fragrant plants. uttered speeches foremost of kings. In consequence of those monarch. and hung over with garlands and wreaths. approaching the palace. praise art thou. Accompanied by his friends. adored with sweet speeches. mighty-armed one. the head of the train. at O Bharata. During the progress of Pritha's son. the king proceeded towards the The progress. Behind followed a large number of cars and elephants decked with ornaments. well-adorned gate. followed the Kurus. the busy hum of innumerable voices was heard there. followed the eldest son of Pandu behind. full of water to the brim. the city with such behaviour as befitted him. vehicle borne accompanied by Gandhari. with every ornament. as also Kunti and Krishna. with their weight. The large mansions that stood on the street-sides. with crowd swelling at each moment looked beautiful like the ocean swelling at the rise of the moon.SANTI PABVA 85 king. The eldest uncle of Pritha's son. With soft and modest voices they uttered the praises of Yudhishthira. upon a The other ladies of the Kuru proceeded on excellent vehicles. 'Worthy of all of Madri. By good luck. Teeming with healthy and cheerful men. The well-adorned squares and streets. proceeded on the shoulders of men. of Bhima and And they said. and bevies of beautiful maidens of the city called after the elephant. Yudhishthira. His praises chanted all by sweet-voiced panegyrists and bards. The spot through which the king passed had been decked with festoons of flowers and innumerable banners. fairest complexion stood of the son its at particular spots. and foot-soldiers and steeds. decked with every ornament and full of ladies. Upon his own brilliant car of gold unto which were yoked Saivya and Sugriva. "At the time the Parthas entered the city." SECTION XXXIX Vaisampayana said. headed by Vidura. and the shouts became filled with a loud uproar. Having passed through the streets adorned Yudhishthira then entered the beautiful palace (of the Kurus) and the provinces. and their speeches with one another. were kept at the door of every house. The people belonging to the city that were agreeable to his ears. ! O Bharata. !' Thy acts and vows have borne their fruit. of joy (uttered by the men). Krishna. thousands upon thousands of the citizens came out to behold the eight.

Then. that of swans. Stung by that speech. it is proper for thee to oast away thy life!' Hearing these words of that wicked Rak&hasa. gratified "Yudhishthira with me ! ' 'I bow down to ye and beseech said. And all of them. with a tuft of hair on his head. son of Kunti. O king. and with the triple staff in his hand. of approached the household gods and worshipped them with gems and scents and floral wreaths. gems. and gold in profusion. He was a friend of Duryodhana and stood there in the garb of a religious mendicant. 'All these Brahmanas. delightful O peal of drums and the little blare of conchs. he stood proudly and fearlessly in the midst of all those Brahmanas that bad come there for pronouncing benedictions (upon the king). 1 Fie on thee ! Thou art a wicked king ! Thou art a slayer of What shalt thou gain. and then descended the blessed Yudhishthira apartments. silent. numbering by thousands. the triumph.86 virtue ani prowess years. with diverse other articles that each desired. the king like the spotless moon in the midst of the stars. foremost of kings. The king heard that sound uttered by those learned Brahmanas and that was as loud and clear as the sound of a bevy ear. Then loud shouts olThis Bharata. He listened also to the speeches. Sweet to the is a blessed day arose. and without consulted those Brahmanas. by having thus exterkinsmen minated thy race ? Having slain also thy superiors and preceptor. a those persons well conversant with the Vedas. making me their spokesman. sacred sound was highly gratifying to the friends and wellwishers (of the Pandavas). That wicked wight. and sweets. and kine and robes. ! MAHABHABATA Be. entered the like palaxje that resembled the mansion Entering the from his car. the king. Possessed of great fame and prosperity. filling the entire welkin. with king Yudhishmonarch. who had disguised himself as a Brahmana. and all of whom were devoted to penances and vows. and accepting the benedictions uttered by the Brahmanas from every side. addressed the king. the king came out once more and beheld a articles in their number of Brahmanas waiting with auspicious pronouncing benedictions on him). indicative of A while after Rakshasa of the name of when the Brahmanas had become Charvaka. the Brahmanas there became deeply agitated. be I shall soon lay down my * life* 1* Pratyasanna-vyasaninam is explained by Nilakantha as 'I stand . Accomlooked beautiful panied by his priest Dhaumya and his eldest uncle. Indra himself. With a rosary. became speechless from anxiety and shame. said these words unto the king. fraught with melodious words of and grave import. desirous of evil unto the bigh-souled Pandavas. having "Charvaka said. graced with victory and the blessings of his people. our monarch for a hundred Indra protecting the deniand protect thy subjects virtuously zens of heaven !' Thus adored at the palace-gate with blessed speeches. they made a loud uproar. the son of Kunti cheerfully worshipped. with due rites. Surrounded of uttering benedictions on him. those Brahmanas with ( gifts of ) hands (for by those Brahmanas desirous monarch. arose. thira. king. It doth not behove ye to cry fie on me ! ye humbly. are saying.

Stung by the wrong he will inflict upon them. The Lord of the universe gave that high boon of immunity from fear at the hands of all creatures. said. in the Krita age. Consumed by the energy of those utterers of Brahma. Those high-souled persons. then penetrated the disguise of the speaker by means of their spiritual sight. saying. like a tree with all its sprouts blasted by the thunder of Inara. king. uttered the sound Hun. O sire. performed austere penanBrahman repeatedly solicited him to ask for for many years in Vadari. the friend of Duryoohana Having put on the garb ! 'These are not our words of mendicant. Among men. Brahmanas are always objects of worship saying. will in wrath censure him. ed. and are exceedingly easy to gratify. he offended the Brahmanas. conversant with the Vedas. of immunity every being in the universe. he will be the friend of this wight. They are gods on Earth. at which he will meet with destrucnear these distressed brothers of mine' (for whose sake only I am for accepting sovereignty). approached The eternal and unchangeable god answered them. Bharata. with me. they censured the sinrage. whose might consists in speech. monarch !' Prosperity to thee.SANTI PABVA Vaisampayana continued. king. assembling Brahman. ful Rakshasa and slew him there (with that very sound). the Duly worshippking with their Brahmanas went away. subject to the only limitation that he should be careful of how Rakshasa of at the hands mighty Rakshasa the gods. There will be a king of the name of Duryodhana. I the means by which the death of this Rakshasa have already arranged may soon be brought about. felt great happiness. together.' T. he seeks the good of his friend Duryodhana We have not. This is certainly very fanciful. The royal son of Pandu also. for compassing their foe's destruction. And they said. the sinful and of fierce deeds and great prowess began to give pain to might of the Rakshasa. The plain meaning life. persecuted by the . having gladdened benedictions. "Then Devaki's son Janarddana of universal knowledge addressed king Yudhishthira who stood there with his brothers. with all the" his friends. 87 those "Then ! all Brahmanap. insensate with Cleansed of all sins. Bound by affection towards him. the Brahmanas. -'These Brahmanas then. Having obtained that boon. said anything of the kind Let Let prosperity attend upon thee with this anxiety of thine be dispelled a religious 1 I I thy brothers " !' Vaisampayana continued. mighty-armed one. loudly. Formerly. having poison in their speech. the Rakshasa will insult the Brahmanas. with understandings rendered clear by penances. is. At last the boons. thou of righteous soul. a Rakshasa of the ces name of Charvaka. O Bharata. Charvaka fell down dead. 'I am about to lay down my The gods. 'This is the Rakshasa Charvaka." SECTION XL Vaisampayana said. from fear solicited the boon. 'In this world.

T. and . O king. Vaisampayana of said. earth. The righteous-souled king. those two chastisers of foes. Udumvara is the Ficus glomerata. and Palasa. all sat down where king Dhritarashtra had taken his seat. duties now " protect thy subjects.. and fried paddy. and worship the Brahmanas !' ! ! SECTION XLI "The royal son of Kunti. to be seated upon a handsome seat. Satyaki and Vasudeva. decked with gold. T. headed by the priest. There were golden jars full to the brim (with water). at to rule. and honey and clarified butter and made of Udumvara. poured the water of contained upon the head of that lord The royal sage Dhritaof Kunti. thus bathed with the sanctified Yudhishthira the son The priest of the Kauravas. came to see king Yudhishthira. seated there. and blazing and made of gold. bringing with them diverse kinds of auspicious articles. deprived of life Bharata's race. Then all the subjects. Then earth. and gold. with face eastwards. also did the same at the request of Krishna. with Krishna the daughter of Drupada. with face directed towards him. an altar gradually inclining the request of Krishna. viz. and cow's milk. and all things in profusion that were necessary for the performance of the coronation rite. have all gone to heaven let no grief be thine. pour libations of clarified butter (upon the sacrificial fire) with proper Then he of Dasarha's race. On another seat. t * . constructed. freed from grief and took his seat. Earth. with firm feet and covered with tiger-skin and blazing with effulgence. viz. have all perished Those bulls among Kshattriyas. rashtra and all the subjects The son of Pandu then. called Sarvatobhadra.* and Vidura. O foremost of kings. with his brothers. Placing the king in their midst. and Kusa grass. Pippala. beautiful effulgence of fire. Causing the high-souled Yudhishthira then.f (sacrificial) laddies wood of Then the ing priest Dhaumya. O bull of the Brahmanas. lies there. Slay thy foes. in the observance of Kshattriya duties. curse ! Do thou attend to thy those high-souled heroes. Yuyutsu and Sanjaya and Gandhari of great fame. Swastikas. and (sacrificial) fuel consisting of the Sami. gold. and conchs adorned with gold. and flowers. silver. Pippala is the Piper longum Palasa is the Butea frondosa. give way to grief The kinsmen. and Dhaumya. on his two sides sat Bhima and Arjuna upon two beautiful seats adorned with gems. were brought there.88 tion ! MAHABEARATA of I Even that Rakshasa Charvaka. (that were placed before him). Upon a white throne of ivory. and many kinds of gems. Sudharman.. accordtowards the east and the north. began to mantras. and those made of copper and silver and earth. vessels full of diverse articles. slain by the Do not. and the Kuru king Dhritarashtra. took up the it sanctified conch. Sami is the Accaoia suma . thou of unfading glory. sat. each separately on separate seats that blazed with the made gold. touched the beautiful white flowers. on excellent seat the fever of his heart. rising from his seat. sat Pritha with Sahadeva and Nakula. and gems.

and defence of the kingdom by seeking alliances and building forts. I live for him alone. with done Bharata!' his friends. as also my friends. wished him prosperity and victory. let me then request you all to show the same behaviour towards DhritaHe is the lord of the world. king.SANTI PARVA 89 water of fche conoh. however. uttered his praises. true or false. war. the wielder of Gandiva. of his subjects. And he cheerfully appointed Vidura of great intelligence for assisting him with his deliberations and of the state. Then Pafiavas and Anakas and drums were beat. of rashtra as ye used to show before Having slaughtered is to always serve him all my kinsmen. place. 'O Yudhishthira of mighty son of Pandu. If ye. O thou 1 prowess thyself. O Bharata. T. attend without delay to those acts that should next be Thus adored by those pious men. and By good king. And king Yudhishthira appointed of the army. whose merits. . the Brahmanas. He gave a thousand nishkas unto the Brahmanas that uttered (especial) benedictions on him. the king honoured his subjects in return. halting. by good luck. think that I should be an object of favour with you and them. are all well. are thus recited by such foremost of Brahmanas assembled Without doubt. dc. 'Having heard those words. for giving them food and pay and for keeping the register of the forces. looked exceedingly beautiful. always render your obedience to him and what is agreeable to him ! ! My great duty every respect with watchfulness. and with voice melodious like that of swans. King Yudhishthira the just duly accepted the gifts made unto him by the subjects. and Bhimasena. freely describe us to be possessed If ye desire to do what is agreeable to is our father and god. belongs yourselves. became installed on the throne of a large kingdom. and of myself bear these words of mine in your minds The to him. foes 1 SECTION XLII Vaisampayana and ing said. as general Sanjaya And the king appointed Nakula director and supervisor of the finances. in sooth. All of them had studied the Vedas and were endued with wisdom and good behaviour. we are all objects of favour with ye since ye so together words : ! of such attributes King Dhritarashtra. Gratified (with gifts). so destructive of heroes thou. me. Having dismissed the king then told them to go ! ! citizens and the people of the provinces. ! luck. victory has been thine By good arms.* And he appointed for overlooking the sixfold requirements of mature years and possessed of every accomplishment. Ye should always whithersoever they liked. sowing dissensions. saying. splendour. supervising other affairs for * These are peace. the delighter of the Kurus appointed his brother Bhimasena as Yuvaraja. Always giving away presents in profusion in all his sacrifices. in ! The whole world. king Yudhishthira the just. thou hast recovered thy position through luck. suitable to time king Yudhishthira answered them in the follow- 'Great must be the sons of Pandu. having slain your of great ! Do and escaped with life from his battle. marching. with the Pandavas. and the two sons of Madri.

of his sons and many of great fame. Brahmanas with of of each of these. the king gratified wealth and gems and kine and the good. king Yudhishthira began to enjoy great happiness. Sraddha in the rites to be "After this. gave much wealth for the sake of Drona and the high-souled Karna. of Dhrishtadyumna and Abhimanyu. and much beautiful and costly gems (unto the Brahmanas). caused houses to be founded for the distribution of world. . O monarch. extended his favours to the destitute and the blind and the helpless by giving them food. of for the distribution of water. The puissant king. and unto all the superior Kauravas and unto all the officers. for the king thought. He showed due honour. and of Virata. and places in their been deprived of their heroic husbands and sons.. after taking the king's permission. with great compassion. excellent food. And the king also. in consequence of the food. * For less. for the good of the souls of all his friends. to attend daily to the Brahmanas and all rites in honour of the gods and other acts of a religious kind. Full of kindness. the foremost of priests." battle. manded Vidura and the Dhritarashtra wishes citizens ! the rigbteous-souled king Yudhishthira. Freed from foes and having conquered the whole Earth. unto Dhritarashtra. clothes and shelter. said. as before. and Gandhari. And the king cheerfully employed others in other acts according as he deemed viz.90 MAHABHAKATA for resisting Phalguna hostile forces and chastising the wicked. accompanied by Draupadi. gave away. And he appointed Dhaumya. that he should under all circumstances be protected by that brother of his. 'You should always with alacrity and attention do everything that my royal father Whatever also should be done in respect of the the provinces should be accomplished by you " in your respective departments. if he had acted otherwise. of the Rakshasa Ghatotkacha the sou of Hidimva. of For the sake gifts of thousands clothes. That slayer of hostile heroes. Thus paying off the debt he owed to them and avoiding the chance of censure in the world. saying. he would have been called thank- T. the Kuru king honoured and protected all those ladies also who had. in the next had fallen in the battle without rite for The king performed the Sraddha those kings also who every one leaving kinsmen or friends behind. king Yudhishthira of magnanimous performed of every one of his kinsmen King Dhritarashtra also good wealth. And he appointed Sahadeva to always remain by his side.' of and the residents SECTION XLIII Vaisarnpayana soul caused the slain in battle. Yudhishthira. and of Drupada and the five sons of Draupadi. and his other well-wishers that had served him loyally. and kine. ever devoted to virtue. for the other world. comhigh-souled Yuyutsu. them fit. and Vidura.* the king became happy and continued to protect his subjects virtuously. and tanks to be excavated names.

O Krishna. Thyself unfading. thou art the Being that pervadest every form in the universe Thou art the foremost of all things. T. taken thy birth seven times in the art I Krishna. ! ! ! * is The literal meaning all 'One that pervades t I. thou art (the sage) Kapila. and thou art called Vrishadarbha and Vrishakapi thou art without attributes. Treta and Dwapara. thou art sprung Thou art the Creator.. thou art Virat. after the ceremony of installation had been over. and thou art Guha (the celestial generalissimo).e. Aditi's self as born in different shapes at different times. or. Thou art the and thou art of irresistible ! thou art fierce. thou art Hari. of Thou ! I ! Thou art the Thou art Emperor. and thou hast Garuda also as thy device hostile hosts. thou art Krishna. I repeatedly to thee. thou art Fire. . descending from heaven Brahmana mixture. thou art exsistence in every form. ship. without form. and thou art those that have sprung from interThou walkest on high. as said in Thou thou that lookest birth in the womb thou art the three Yugas the lord of our senses ! !J All of Aditi. forms in the Universe. Renunciation and LordT. and thou art the foremost of all beings the Puranas. ! bow O chastiser of foes ! called the ! ! 1 Vishnu. thou art Jishnu. and Prosperity and Fame. thou causest thy foes to fade and waste. thou Vaikuntha. thou art hast. It was The learned say that Thou art thy achievements are sacred womb of Prishni !f ! Thou art the great ! Lord worshipped I in sacrifices ! ! Thou swan Thou art three-eyed Sambhu known as Vibhu and Damodara Thou art the One. through thy policy and might and intelligence and prowess. prowess thou art the generalissimo in battle.SECTION thira of great Vaisampayana said. Virat T. saying. addressed the lotus-eyed Krishna of Dasarha's race. -"Having got back the kingdom. thou art the giver of food. and thou art Swarat and thou art the cause whence the Universe has Chief of the celestials. art great Thou art the Ocean. thou hast the bull for the device on thy Thou art the grinder of banner. tiger among the Yadus. Aditi and of of Purusha. \ Yugas the three pairs such as Virtue and Knowledge. pure blood. 'Through thy grace.' T. I have got back this ancestral kingdom of mine thou of eyes like lotus I Thou hast been One only Being Thou hast been said to be the refuge of all The regenerate ones adore thee under innumerable worshippers names !* Salutations to thee. as applied to the Supreme Being. thou art the Truth. king Yudhishwisdom and purity. and thou art fire thou art the sire of the celestial physicians. thou hast three humps thou hast three abodes. Thou art Almighty. thou art the Sun. joining his hands together. may mean either the three ages Krita. though art called the great ! Thou art great Boar. thou art the mountains. and thou takest human forms on Earth. and Swarat is one superior to a Virat. O Creator of the Universe Thou art the soul of the Universe and the Universe hath sprung from thee Thou art leaves. is one superior to an Emperor.

who. then addressed his ing brothers Bhima of terrible prowess and Arjuna and the twins. and it is thou whom the Vedas thou art puissant thou art Thou art the great receptacle of waters. saying. deluded the A sura Vali into giving away unto him three worlds which he forthwith restored to Indra. that was adorned with many excellent buildings and rooms. the mighty-armed Vrikodara like Maghavat entering his own beautiful fane. at the command of the king. and thou art decked with floral wreaths the most subtile. meet me again in yourselves the morning. and thou art Vabhru Thou art exceedingly tawny in hue. t The son of Uttanpada. thou Thou art the constellation Punarvasu art Nahusha. discus. and thou art called Yajnasena Thou art Sikhandin. commanded by 'Your bodies have. in the great battle. Through my fault. thou art extended in the firmament ! ! the sacrifice known by the name I of Uktha. The palace of Durmarshana was even superior to that of Dussasana. thou describe drum ( that sends forth its sound on every side is light Thou art the lotus of Prosperity. the lotus-eyed Krishna became pleased. and thou knowest the abodes of all ! Thou art called Hiranyagarva. and sword Yudhishthira the just in the midst of the court. thou art Thou art the cause whence all this hath sprung. T. and that Yudhishthira assigned to him with the approval of Dhritarashtra. After this. ! .92 MAHABHAKATA I and thou art the Dwarf. ! art the sacred refuge. thou art Sushena. thou art the sacred mantras swadha and swaha. been mangled with diverse kinds of weapons by the foe. . ye have suffered the miseries of an exile in the forests like vulgar men ! ! In delight After resting happy ease enjoy this victory (that ye have won) and regaining the full use of your faculties. grief and anger have scorched your hearts. thou art the ) ! The track of thy carthou art the cloud callwheels Thou art affluent. and thou art Kesava In the beginning it is thou that Greatest the universe its dissolution Creator of the universe Salutations This universe is under thy control. blazing with beauty. ! O the eldest son of Pandu with many agreeable speeches. That foremost one of the Yadavas then began to gladden to thee. the monarch. ye bulls of Bharata's race. obtained the palace of Dussasana which was not inferior to Duryodhana's and which consisted of many excellent structures and was adorned with a gate-way of gold. thou art Brahman. Comforthis brothers. and which abounded with wealth and was full of attendants of both sexes. returned to their respective homes. that adorned with gems of diverse kinds. -"The king dismissed all his subjects.* Thou art Sacrifice embodied. Yudhishthira. assuming the form of a dwarf. who in the Krita age had adorned Vishnu at a very early age and obtained the most valuable boons. thou art Dhruvaj thou art Garuda. ! ! ! 1 Thus hymned by king wilder of Sarfiga. ed Pushkara. * Vishnu." SECTION XLV Vaisampayana said. Ye are greatly fatigued. entered the palace of Duryodhana. and in The mighty-armed Arjuna also. that teemed with servants male and female.

best of monarchs. Kunti's son Yudhishthira Having obtained his kingdom. restored peace to his kingdom. Awaking in the morning with wellbefore. what the Pandavas. Feasting on the viands and drinks (that had been kept ready for them). the king. The appointed (eldest) son of Pandu gave unto a thousand high-souled Brahmanas of the Snataka order a thousand Nishkas each. "Listen to me. the king behaved in the way one should towards one's preceptor. paid due honour unto Yuyutsu and Dhritarashtra. ! monarch. in this way. headed by Vasudeva. king Yudhishthira continued to pass his days happily. Sahadeva became delighted as the Lord of treasures upon obtaining Kailasa. including the citizens. . proceeded to the abodes they had owned Like a tiger entering his cave in the hills. as I narrate in detail." SECTION XLVI Janamejaya said. of Gandhari. by fulfilling their wishes. that tiger among men. of food and drink and robes of diverse kinds and beds and seats. Having gratified everybody. the supreme master of the three worlds Rishi. each of the four orders of men to their respective duties. to tell next done by Yudhishthira the mighty-armed son of Dharma after he had regained his kingdom It behoveth thee to tell me also. and Sadharman and Dhaumya. monarch. with eyes like lotus-petals. including persons that were undeserving and those that held heterodox views. The king gave it unto Sahadeva who was ever employed in doing what was agreeable to him. King Yudhisbfchira gladly gave it to Nakula who deserved it best and who had been emaciated (with the miseries of a life) in the great forest.. then proceeded with joined hands to the presence of the :: Sudharman was the priest of ? priest of theKurus. "It behoveth thee. Unto his priest Dhaumya he gave kine in thousands and much wealth and gold and silver and robes of diverse kinds.* viz. beautiful It abounded with beds and women. O what the heroic Hrishikesa. O learned Brahmana.SANtI PABVA 93 Looking like the mansion of Kuvera himself. king. Having Kripa. The foremost of palaces belonging to Durmukha was exceedingly beautiful and adorned with gold. possessed of fame. Placing great his kingdom at the disposal of Dhritarashtra. the king continued to honour Vidura That foremost of charitable men gratified all persons with gifts greatly. Observant of vows. Saurin. ! me what was did after this !" Vaisampayana said. Yuyutsu and Vidura and Sanjaya. He then gratified the servants that were dependant on him and the guests that came to him. Towards O sinless one. the princes passed the night happily. to have from before an abode in the Kuru T. who was the capital the Pandavas. accompanied by Satyaki. they presented themselves before king Yudhishthira. pleased hearts. and of Vidura. Yudhishthira. How came Dhaumya. did after this monarch. it was adorned with gold and every kind of gem. Obtaining it. O bull of Bharata's race. entered the palace of Arjuna.

. state. as an wooden post or a stone ? O illustrious God.94 MAHABHABATA high-souled Vasudeva. Thou thy body art as immobile now. have been concentered within thy understanding. king Yudhiahthira addressed him sweetly and smilingly. The fourth state. Buddhiie the Understanding or the cognative faculties of the Kantian school. Attired in yellow robes of silk and decked with celestial ornaments. when the soul. 'O foremost of intelligent men. SECTION XLVII "Yudhishthira said. is it all right with thy understanding ? got back our kingdom and the whole Earth has come under our control. i. His bosom adorned with the Kaustubha gem. | Mind. The Bombay reading of the second line is It is Gunadevah Kshetrajne <&c. Thy mind and understanding are both still. T. abstracted within itself. through thy grace. his person blazed with splen- dour like. dream. seated on a large sofa adorned with gold and gems. indeed. if it is no secret of thine. O refuge of the three worlds and. dispel. O thou divine lord. Thy delighted senses thou has concentrated within thy mind ! Both speech and mind. is said to be fixed upon the Supreme Being or some single object. that thou art rapt in meditation ! is this. of unfading glory. saying. are all of three steps I* great fame and have not that chastiser of Through thy grace have we won victory and obtained Unto fallen away from the duties of our order !' Yudhishthira the just who addressed him foes. adopted !f my mind has been filled with wonder The five act within the body have been controlled by thee into stillness. Approaching the high-souled one who was Vishnu himself in incarnate form. He beheld Krishna. having.e.. Q Govinda. thou of immeasurable O great refuge of the universe. All thy senses. he looked like the Udaya mountain that decked the rising Sun. as Savdadiguna-bhajodevah. my doubt for I beg of thee and solicit it as a favour Thou art the Creator and thou * This is an allusion to Krishna's having covered the three worlds with three of his steps for deluding the Asura Vali and depriving him of universal sovereignty. thou art as still as the flame of a lamp burning in a place where there is no wind. So beautiful did he look that there is no simile in the three worlds. O Madhava. 'How wonderful prowess. have been withdrawn into thy soul !{ The hair on stands erect. Thou art as immobile as a mass of rock If I ! am fit to hear the cause. O God. is it all right with the three worlds ? When bull thou hast. and sound sleep. waking. t There are three states of consciousness in the case of ordinary men. the senses. viz. Nilakantha correctly explains it T. T. as used generally in Hindu philosophy. for he in that strain the divine was then rapt in meditation.. hast thou passed the night happily ? O thou thy faculties in their full vigour ? O foremost We have of intelligent persons. realisable by Yogins alone. king Krishna said not a word. 1 O god. is called Turiya. viz. life-breaths that thyself (from the world). correct. is the seat of the senses and the feelings.. It is the state of perfect unconsciousness of this world. of the hue of a blue cloud. a jewel set on gold. withdrawn the fourth. among men.

is arrows. son.SANTI PABVA art 95 1 the Destroyer art ! Thou art destructible and thou art indestructible I Thou without beginning and thou art without end Thou art the tiret O foremost of righteous persons. O son of the four Vedas with all their branches. it Thou. tears.. I was thinking of that foremost of who is persons conversant with morality and duty. 'That tiger among men. who knows the Past. answered Janarddana. the Earth. viz. Bhishma of terrible 1 submissively approaching Ganga's prowess.' Hearing these beneficial words of high from Vasudeva. I centered my mind upon him. enquire of respect of morality. I had heard of the high blessedness. and about the duties in full of kings! When Bhishma. said these words with a soft smile.. the illustrious younger brother of Vasava. tell me the foremost of Beings and the I solicit thy favour. the Future. who is now go out. O bull of Bharata's After that tiger race. Hence my mind also was concentrated on him. ascendson of Pritha. O (in lord Earth. and am thy devoted cause of this (Yoga) abstruction I I worshipper. and the senses to their usual sphere. in consequence ed to heaven. about the four modes of life. O of his own achievements. and bow to thee. is who all the favourite disciple of Rama the son of Jamadagni. was thinking of It was for this that I had him whom Ganga conceived and brought forth according to ordinary human laws and whom Vasishtha took as a pupil. is perfectly true I have not the slightest Indeed. bending my head !' Thus addressed. O slayer of foes. arfc the Creator of all the There cannot. and the Present. question him about what thou of mayst desire to learn branches of knowledge tion). Madhava. saying. and the receptacle of the sciences. among kings night ! shall have. understanding. be fche ! . as also doubt regarding it the greatness. about the eminence of Bhishma. recalling his mind. of him. the righteous Yudhishthira. Therefore. of Pandu. "Vasudeva lying on a bed said. he sought my refuge (by thinking of me). of the illustrious Bhishma from high-souled Brahmanas I I discoursing upon worlds. that foremost one of Kuru's race. of Aly mind was concentrated upon him the twang of whose bowstring and the sound of whose palms Indra himself was unable to bear. viz. Bhishma. I was thinking of him who having vanquished in a trice all the assembled kings (at the Self-choice of princesses for the marriage of the daughters of the king of Kasi) abducted the three of his brother Vichitraviryya I was thinking ! and twenty days with Kama himself of Bhrigu's race and whom Rama was unable to overcome Collecting all his senses and concentrating his mind by the aid of his understand- him who fought continually for three ! ing. will disappear from the world. him about the four pleasure and salva- about the sacrifices and the rites laid down for the four orders. and who is now like unto a fire that is about to thinking of me. profit. delighter of the Yadavas. It is for this that I urge thee (to go to him now). will look like a moonless O Yudhishtbira. therefore. I was thinking of that hero of mighty energy and great intelligence who possesses a knowledge of all the celestial weapons as also I was thinking of him. with voice choked in import 'What thou hast said. every kind of knowledge will disappear with him.

by Kausika. Daruka yoked Krishna's car. by the high-souled Paila. passing the solsticial Bhishma cast off his body on a bed of arrows. and the great sage Trinavindu. saying. and moon-gems and sun-gems.' Hearing the words of Satyaki. adorned with gold. with joined hands. commanded Daruka. that hero. by Kasyapa and Pulastya and Kratu and Daksha Jaimini. caused his soul (as connected with and independent of the body) to enter his soul (in its independent and absolute state). Bhishma will leave (this world) for those regions of bliss that he has won. by Maitreya of great intelligence. That foremost of vehicles. by Maudgalya and Eama of Vrigu's race. blazed forth in great beauty like Surya himself with his innumerable rays. Gods. saying. tiger among kings. tiger among the Kurus.. then we head! When the divine Surya shall have turned towards the north. Surrounded by Vyasa conversant with the Vedas. cast off his ! point. yoked unto it. furnished with wheels covered with gold. Daruka. 'Let Krishna's car be made ready. O king. 'Listen. That descendant of Kuru's race. his body pierced with innumerable arrows. by the celestial Rishi Narada. formed Krishna of the fact." SECTION XLVIII Janamejaya said. in trappings of gold. by Sanatkumara and Kapila and Valmiki and Tumvuru and Kuru. by Harita and Lomasa and Atri's son of great intelligence. Bhishma. by Sandilya. O Madhava. Surrounded by foremost of Brahmanas. by Pippalada and Vayu and Samvarta and Pulaha and Katha. Bhishma will then to have a sight of thee sayest ! ! obtain a sight tible and indestructible receptacle of of thee that art the ! first of Indeed. inHaving yoked it. with pure heart and concentrated attention. therefore. by Asita and Vasistha and the high-souled and Parasara. beautiful as the morning sun. by Devarata. of thee that art destructhou it is that art the vast Brahma ' !' Vaisampayana continued. viz. as to how. by Devasthana.96 slightest doubt in MAHABHABATA what fchou If thy heart be inclined to show unto Bhishina with thyself at our shall go grace. my of king Yudhishaddressed Satyaki who was sitting car be yoked !' At this. by Vrihaspati and Sukra and the great sage Chyavana. "How did the grandsire of the Bbaratas. thira the just. possessed of effulgence. entered in his northerly course. the slayer 'Let of Madhu beside him. decked with a profusion of emeralds. by Marichi and Angiras and Kasmya and Gautama and the sage . by many Asmakasumantu. had those foremost of steeds. fleet as thought. who lay body and what kind of Yoga did he adopt ?" Vaisampayana said. Sugriva and Saivya and the other two. with concentrated attention. set in the middle with divers other kinds of jewels. Satyaki quickly left "Hearing these words Kesava's presence and going out. deserves (If thou grantest my prayer). the high-souled As soon as the Sun. fleet as speedily the wind. equipt with a beautiful standard topped by Garuda. lord. O mighty-armed one. and gay with numerous banners.

Stretched on his bed of arrows. the Anuvaks. from desire of hymning thy praises Thou art pure and purity's self Thou tranecendeBt Thou art what people say to be THAT. i. the Supreme Lord If Having the universe for thy work and the universe for thy limbs. word. the Danavas. all things that have attributes reside in thee. divinity.e. that foremost of eloquent men. the Siddhas. grossest of the gross. and thousand faces of great splendour. the great Nagas. viz. . in brief and in detail. that foremost of and Dhaumra and Brabmanas and the great that gage Markandeya. thousand crowns. the praise of the slayer hymned bis Bhishma. by Bhashkari and Purana and Krishna and Suta. thought of With a cheerful and strong voice he of Madhu. alone knows thee thee ! ! Through Narayana.SANTI PABVA Galva. in the sense that no attributes with which we are familiar can be affirmed of him. attributes. this universe consisting of mind and matter resides in thy eternal and allenter thee pervading soul like a line of flowers strung together in a strong thread. the gods. Thou art called Hari. the Rishis. thousand eyes. T. With joined hands. and Thou art the highest of the celestial Rishis know a little of thee 1 the high and knowest no deterioration The gods. * In the Samans also. with the navel. O foremost of Beings. Thou Thou art called Narayana. Like gems strung together in a thread. the the Pannagas. T. the Kuru hero looked like the Moon in the midst of the planets and the stars. "Bhishma said. do not know who thou art and Gandharvas. that master of Yoga. and the refuge of the universe I the subtile. whose declarations are always true. and Upanishads... because as the swan is supposed to transcend all winged creatures in the transcends all creatures in the range of its flight. Krishna lotus in in mind. thus praised Vasudeva. thousand feet. '0 Krishna. called Vishnu and Jishnu. Thou art the Supreme Lord. so the Supreme Being He is called That. that tiger blessed among men. All the worlds and all created things live in thee. viz. "Thou universe. and thou art regarded as the Supreme Being of Nishads. thousand arms. swan. that puissant one. that lord of the universe. by 97 Dhaumya and Vibhanda and Mandavya Krishna-nubhautika. and act. the Yakshas. as in the Vedic formula of praise. Bhishma of highly virtuous soul. The divine Creator. and whence art thou ! ! (when the dissolution comes). The Supreme Being is called here and elsewhere Hansa. all 1 1 ! With my whole heart I seek thy refuge. Thou art the Neither the gods nor the Rishis know highest of the high and Brahma." It is Brahma only that has no t Created things have attributes. cribed in words. be thou pleased with these words which I utter. with pure heart and joined hands. O universal Soul and Lord of all creatures !* Thou art without beginning and without end.. called Narayana or Hari. "Thou art inconceivable and incapable of being desart That" meaning. the the highest of the high heavy. by Uluka. of a thousand heads. the heaviest of the art the In the Vaks. subtilest of ! irresistible force. surrounded by these and many other highly- sages of great souls and possessed of faith and self-restraint and tranquillity of mind. foremost of virtuous persons.

Thou Thou art eternal. and Consciousness. and the Sacrifices. middle. T. art called Thou art without birth and death. while on occasions of universal dissolution ! thou art spoken adore thee ! of as Sankarsana. Thou art That which is beyond iMind and Matter. the Siddhas. with concentrated souls. T. Like swans and ducks swimming on the water. Thou art the great panacea for all sorrow. Sankarshana. Thou art Brahma. Thou art Truth. Thou art displayed in only the understandings (of all creatures). god. in the sense that penances performed are never lost. Thou art without beginning..98 MAHABHABATA thou art regarded as Truth's self 1* Thou art of quadruple soul. Performed by creatures. penances constituting thy essence. and Aniruddha. Thou art the Lord of those that are bound to thee in faith. thou hast been born of Vasudeva for the protection of Brahma on Enrth. thou art adored (by the Penances are ever faithful) under four excellent. the Asuras. Thou art the Thou !J art omniscient. The names under which the Supreme Being is adored by the faithful are Vaaudeva. . always adore thee. The gods. i. the Anuvaks are Vedas which are called Brabmanas-. and end. O puissant one. Thou art invisible and beyond ken. The Vedas declare thee to the Lord of everything existing in the be the Creator of the universe and * The Vaks are the mantras those portions of the . the Nisbads are those portions of the Vedic ritual which lead to an acquaintance with the gods. Jiva. Thou by other creatures for gratifying thee ). devout worshippers. Brahma. the Gandharvas. the Brahmanas. Thou art of uniuniverse. that art the pure Soul. I place In the Puranas thou hast been spoken as Purusha myself in thy hands (all-pervading spirit). in the without them. beholds thee. Thou art One and uadefceriorating. and secret names !f present in tbee 1 Performed ( penances versal art live in thy form. high. art self-create. thou hast yet been born in Thou hast thy passions under complete control.' In ancient India. O Govinda. Neither the gods nor the Rishis know thee ! ! innumerable forms. Thou art beyond the in his own soul and casting ken of ! the senses and the understanding. the Rishis. Thou art Divine. they live in thy limbs. Thou transcendest Surya in glory. These they called Arani. O lord of all creatures. and the great Uragas. Thou art called the sheath within which the O giver of every wish universe lies. Brahma on Earth is explained by Nilakantha to mean the Vedas. All created things live in thee. thou art said to be Brahma. the Rishis living in the woods got their fire by rubbing two sticks together. Thou Hari and Narayana. Mind.e. Adorable thou art. with mind withdrawn form everything else off all desires. Thy faithfully performing the rites laid down in the scriptures. The Upanishads are those portions which treat exclusively of the knowledge of the Soul. f Quadruple soul. tion. Thou the creator of everything in the universe generating a blazing fire. Like a couple of sticks the divine Devaki and For this eternal salva- the devout worshipper. four sense that thou art never I Penances are ever present in thee. T. all the worlds that we see float in thee. knowledge. and therefore I Though One. Pradyumna. sacrifice to thee. art the Universal Soul. On occasions of the commencement of the Yugas.

and art the soul of the Vedas. Though One. The t seven woofs are the sevan mantras (Cchandas) predominating in the Vedic hymns. that sacrifice as an act of grace to the sacrificers. &c. The Supreme Being appeared in T. are the creators of the universe performed a extending for a thousand years. Thou all thick darkness. Salutations to thee in that form which an object of knowledge If In the grand Ukthya sacrifice. Parivapa. One Being of transcandent effulgence dwelling on the other Knowing thee one ceases to have any fear of is side of death. T. The Richs. Thy name is Yajus. a character or letter j here. Thou Salutations to thee. are thy joints. vowels (in compounding H Sandhis are those changes of contiguous two words) that are required by the rules of euphony. Thou art the great swan Salutations to thee in thy form of a swan with wings of gold. that is in twelve forms. Thou knowest called the highest. The five libations are Dhana. The Vedic metres are thy tions to thee in thy form of Sacrifice ! limbs. The Sandhis The consonants and the vowels are thy ornaments. The great sacrifice called Rathantara is thy voice expressive of gratificaThou art the Salutations to thee in thy form of sacred hymns tion. Salutations to thee to thee in in Thou sleepest in Yoga on thy snakeprowess decked sofa constituted by the thousand hoods (of the Naga). S9 Thou arb fche Supreme protector of the universe. Salutations to thee in thy form of of as Soma spoken the chief of gods in art the the regenerate ones and that gratifies with nectar the the lighted fortnight and the Pitris in the dark fortnight. The sacrifices laid down in the three Vedas are thy three heads. thou hadst raised the submerged Earth for the benefit of the three worlds. the Brahmanas adore thee as the great Rich. word made up of characters or letters. Roots with all kinds of affixes and suffixes are Assuming the form of a boar thy form as the Word I1F whose limbs were constituted by Sacrifice. Thou art the slayer of Asuras.--T. Karambha. Thou art the five kinds of sanctified libations (used in sacrifices). the Samans are thy abode. the Yojus. Akshara is literally T. I bow to thee not in any of those forms ordinarily adored but in that form of pure light which Yogins only can beT. and water. In the great fire-sacrifice. I Rishi that thousand hadst appeared years performed by the creators of the universe. f Thou art pure Knowledge and residest beyond the darkness of in which thou art ignorance.SANTI PABVA universe.* Salutations to thee that art the soul of the Sun. Thou art the seven woofs used in the Vedas. whom tha Vedas sing. such as Gayatri. Salutations The Vedas have declared thea to be the divine word. they sing thee as the chief Adhyaryu (priest). Salutations thy form of infinite ! These are the twelve Adityas or chief gods. Saluta- Libations are poured on the Eoma J Thou fire in accompaniment with the seventeen monosyllabic sounds. sacrifice * The Prajapatis who . no deterioration and thou art that which of the is Thou art Aditi brought complexion thee forth of gold. Thou art that Purusha Salutations to thee art the soul of the Homa. in the great sacrifice extending for a I thy limbs. hold by spiritual sight.

and sound sleep. Called Kshetrajna. In the case. They further speak of thee as possessed of sixteen attributes and representing the number seventeen. t The sixteen. Intelligence or mind is one of his forms. Yogins of restrained senses ! behold thee as Peaceful Sannyasins. of those that have betaken themselves to a life of renunciation the great endeavour is to exhaust this residuum. again. | In cases of those that are reborn. eternal light. with- drawn into their own selves. Kshetra is budhi or intelligence. The four oceans are in thy stomach. Salutations to thee in thy form as a Thou hast thousand heads. The great Rishis seek thy unmanifest self within the manifest. * . T. citement. actuated by desire of diverse fruits worship thee with diverse rites. Salutations to thee in thy form of From thee have all things Creed creatures having physical frames conSalutations to thee in thy form of Ex! Kshetra 1* Thou always conscious and present as existing in the three in self. dream. sprung a lotus. thou sleepest on the waters in the form of fierceness ! form of a child. is thus the embodiment of the number seventeen. Yoga-sleep ! The clouds are in the hair of thy head. and with the means by which the senses may be controllMen practising diverse ed. with those means by which emancipation may be obtained. there is always a residuum of sin and merit for which they have. The Supreme Being is called Kshetrajna because he knows every mind. thou assumest the form of a fire with blazing flames and consumest all creatures. Salutations to thee in thy Having consumed ail creatures and making the universe one vast expanse of water. ! The manifest is the body.attributes are the eleven senses and the five elements Added to this is Infinity. Salutations to thee in thy Yoga form freed from fear of rebirth in consequence of the destruction of all their sins and merits. Salutations to thee in thy form of emancipation !| At the end of a thousand Yugas. i. at the universal dissolution. thy form as Number. Thou Thou hast subjugated the four kinds of desire Salutations to thee in thy form of that are as vast as the four oceans. to suffer and enjoy. thou sittest in Kshetra. according to the Sankhya doctrine. i. The in their subtile forms called Mahabhutas. Salutations to thee in thy form of Truth creeds. the Sankhyas still describe thee states of wakefulness.e. Supreme Being. All things. soul.. in their earthly life. T. T.. SalutaBirth and the change represented by tions to thee in thy form as water ! death spring from thee. restraining breath. obtain thee. The Eis his seek thy unmanifest self within the body. in their own hearts. of is Salutations to thee in thy form as Maya (illusion) ! From the navel that lotus lotus art ! the Self-born of eyes like lotus leaves. The rivers are in the several joints of thy limbs. Salutations to thy form as cause Thou sleepest dissolve away in thee. It is form of thou that excitest all taining the principle of desire. Salutations to thy form as conceived by the Sankhyas If Casting off sleep.100 fco MAfiABHARATA thee in fchy ! Thou buildest the bridge for the good (to form of sleep cross the sea of life) with Truth. On established this universe.e. of immeasurable Thou pervadest everything. Thy form as conceived by the Sankhyas. ! Salutations to thee in thy sprung. however.

nor the Danavas. to effect their deliverance or emancipation from rebirth. The heavens to thee in thy form of caste are the crown of thy head. Thou out origin.* life Assuming also the form of Agni within the stomach.e. Salutations to Thou art superior to Time. ever ready to accomplish acts that are righteous. nor the Gandharvas. with teeth and claws for thy weapons. drink. 1 I. thou digestest that their existence. people approach fchee by '1 by body is knowledge! Salutations to thee in thy form of Knowledge ance of the creation. Thou art occupied in day time also. ! Men of form as Universe to thee by the Vaiseshika theory. Salutations Fire constitute thy mouth. which the Yogins propose to themselves is to tear those bonds rising * licked.. Salutations to thee in the form of digesting heat ! Assuming the form of half-man and half-lion. thou art the origin of the universe. superior to all the attractions of the flesh T. Thou art. Salutations to thee in thy form of Protector Assuming the forms of food. stupefiest all creatures by the bonds of affection and love for the continuof ! Salutations to thee in thy form of stupefaction. ! ! art superior to Sacrifice. Kshattriyas are thy two arms. Salutations to thee in thy form of swelling might Neither the gods. with tawny eyes and tawny manes. ! Thyself withSalutations to thee in thy the world. The Sun is thy eye. again. nor the Daityas. ! breaths that act within every body and cause every living creaThou appearest in ture to move. stomach and thighs and Sudras live in thy feet. Salutations to thee in thy trampled virtue form of Cruelty Dividing thyself into five portions thou hast become the hadst. are thy mouth. in battle. that which is sucked. which is called Vaikuntha In wrath thou ! ! exterminated thrice seven times the Kshattriyas who had and authority under their feet. Thou fchee in thy form as the (three) worlds form of Time ! Brahmanas Vaisyas are thy . regard thee as the Protector of the world. The great end f All creatures are stupefied by love and affection. that which is chewed. Salutations to thee in thy form of (universal) observer There is no act which thou canst not do. according to the attributes ascribed art higher than the highest. food. The Earth is thy feet. and fuel.! Eegarding that knowledge which is conversant with the five elements to be the true Self-knowledge (for which yogins strive). T. the form. thou hadst taken the life of the chief of the Asuras. The sky is thy navel. Salutations to thee in thy form of Work. Salutations to thy form of exceeding subtility Assuming the ! ! form the handsome. and Salutations to thee in thy art the cause of bobh creation and dissolution.SANTI PARVA 101 not in the night.. thou increasest the humours and the life-breaths of crea- tures and upholdest ! Salutations to thee in thy form of For supporting the life-breaths thou eatest the four kinds of food. Thou observest the good and the bad actions (of all). know thee truly. Salutations to thy form of Might Thou region. . that which is and that which is drunk. and puissant Ananta in the nether thou upholdest the world. Salutations to thee in thy form of air five vital ! every Yuga in the form called month and season and half-year and year. The points of the compass are thy ears. viz. illustrious.

art Thou art the Creator and the Destroyer of all creatures. Salutations to thee that dispellest the fear of hell. The man. they fchat in the night. of immeasurable. to thee that are things) ! Salutations to thee that ! above the three worlds (elements that constitute all three worlds. . and thou art high-souled. without wrath. thee that art with thy prowess thou hast filled the three art Eternal and thou pervadest every thing in the universe : ! attired in yellow robes of the of bend the head unto thee. to thee that art the soul of the universe. Thou form vastness. without enmity. thou art the Destroyer. that art a boat unto them that are plunged amid the eddies of * t I. have Krishna for their body. Everything is from ! Thou Thyself art Everything. a long stomach. to thee Vishnu. to hath sprung the universe. Brahmacharin. The man colour of the Atasi flower. Thy body is always besmeared with ashes. and Thou. however. art the Creator.T. Present. eternal origin of all the worlds divine Lord. Salutations to thee in thy form of Rudra The half-moon forms the ornament of thy forehead. Salutations to thee in thy form of Peace Everything is in thee.f Even one Krishna. behold truly thy Thou hast filled heaven with thy eternal form (as manifest in thy works) cible I ! head. They are freed from all feats that worship thee. without affection. shutting up the fluid. and prowess is thy vital Thou art the lord of all creatures. Salutations to thee in thy form as Everything thee.e. Salutations to thee in thy being beyond all measures Thou hadst assumed the form of a recluse with matted ! locks on head. the trident. and having thy begging bowl Salutations to thee in thy form of Brahma* Thou bearest for thy quiver. however. to thee that art the dissolution of all things. Linum usitatissiimm. T. are devoted to every thing. Thou hast snakes for the holy thread circling thy neck. staff in hand. and thou art invinHrishikesa. Those people (after death) enter Krishna's self even as libations of clarified butter sanctified with mantras enter the blazing O fire.102 MAHABHARATA Thy understanding and eyes art infinite. and the Future! lean. and thy emblem is always turned upwards. Salutations to thy form of Fierceness. Thou art armed with Pinaka and trident. thou art the lord of the celestials. O Govinda of unfading prowess. Everywhere art thou.. seven paths of the Wind whose energy is immeasurable. that bows to Krishna They that have Krishna for their vow. and Earth with thy feet worlds. is equal to the completion of ten that has performed ten Horse-sacrifices is not freed from the obligation of rebirth. O Vishnu. Salutations to thee. tbou hast three eyes. to thee that art Salutations to thee that art all the directions. Thou art the soul of phallic I all creatures. All. may be said think of Krishna to escapes rebirth. Thou standest. five beyond the art the Thou O and thou art the one receptacle of All. ! Thou art always the Salutations to thee whose work thee from is whom the universe. the Sun is thy eye. art all ! ! cannot behold that heavenly form in which thou art displayed in the Past. Thou The directions are thy arms. Horse-sacrifices. and upon rising from sleep.

O Janarddana. "Having uttered these words. and the Future. O God.. thou art the origin of Knowledge and Thyself without origin. Sanjaya of the Suta caste. those utterers of Brahma (that sat around him). t Samsara ments. fraught with his praise. O god. while those bulls among men. Samsara may mean the repeated deaths and births to which the unemancipated soul is subject.SANTI PABVA the ocean represented 1 103 art the Brahmana's self. to Salutations to thee. Thus art thou praised devoted to thee. Kesava and Satyaki proceeded on one car. with voices choked in tears. to thee that art kine. as everything is my sins be destroyed of full of ! Vishnu. Those foremost of Brahmanas uttered the praises of Krishna also. Penances are devoted to Narayana. fully listened tc the speeches.. besides being the means that alleviate sorrow and grief. to thee that art ! Krishna and Govinda stock of The two syllables Hari constitute the pecuniary those that sojourn through the wilderness of life and the medicine that effectually cures all worldly predilections. causing the Earth to tremble with the That foremost of men. is the world or worldly life characterised by diverse attachReflection on Hari frees one from those attachments. When Bhishma became silent. Learning by his Yoga prowess of the devotion of Bhishma. each of which looked like a town. viz. said. cheerrattle of their car-wheels. proceeded on their respective cars. Madhava. the Present.* As Truth is full of Vishnu. so let my soul I seek thy protection and am ! happy end. Learning (by his Toga powers) of the davotion of Bhishma towards farm. be. viz. Everything is always Narayana !' Vaisampayana continued. Kripa and Yuyutsu. Madhava. Bhimasena and the twins rode on a third . with mind concentrated upon Krishna. suddenly rose from his seat and ascended on his car. gratified with The Vedas ara devoted to Narayana. and that scorcher of foes. O thou of eyes like lotus petals. Contemplation of the divine Being may prevent such repeated T. desirous obtaining a ! me me in ! the Sacrifice constituted by Speech (alone). adored that high-souled chief of the Kurus in excellent words. and went away. with gladdened heart. Or. thus worshipped by Penances. The slayer of Kesi. that by worldly life thee that art the benefactor of Brahmanas and the benefactor of the universe. O best of gods. viz. . births and deaths by leading to emancipation. otherwise called Hari. that first of Beings. as he proceeded. (entering his body) bestowed upon him heavenly knowledge compassing the Past. The gods are devoted ' to Narayana. 'Salutations to Krishna !' and bowed unto him. On another proceeded those two illustrious princes. Yudhisbthira and Dhananjaya. and then continued in soft voices to commend Bhishma repeatedly. viz. do thou think of what will be for my good Vishnu. saluted the people that waited (along the streets) with joined hands and bent heads.. as the universe is full of be full of Vishnu and Vishnu. that were uttered by the Brahmanas.. that fore- most of Beings. Bhishma. x^nd all of them proceeded.

Jadu had a son named . full said. are seen the five lakes of Rama It was oblations of Kshattriya blood unto the manes of his ancestors ! 1 the puissant Rama. remove this doubt of mine. The Earth. foremost of eloquent men. and the four Pandavas. car-warriors quickly proceeded. as to how incomparable prowess everything that the Earth had become filled with SECTION L "Vasudeva said.'Listen. the vast plain looked like the drinking garden of the Destroyer himself used and abandoned recently. the highest brother of Gada then 1 ' Vaisampayana happened. bannered hero knowledge is from thee. O Partha. how was the Kshattriya order revived. the mighty-armed Kesava. O bull among old. nated by the illustrious and high-souled Rama. riding on those all those persons cars looking like fortified cities and decked with standards and banners. to the story of Rama's energy and powers and birth as heard by me from great Rishis discoursing upon the subject. the Yadus. and human heads and skulls lay stretched over it like Variegated with thousands of funeral pyres and teeming with heaps of armour and weapons. and said. "The puissant of narrated unto Yudhishthira detail. in Kshattriyas.SECTION XLIX "Then Hrishikesa and king Yudhishtbira. ! younger brother elder of Vasudeva. 'I have great doubts in what thou sayest about Rama's having thrice seven times exterminated the Kshattriyas in days of When the very Kshattriya seed was burnt by Rama. spoke unto Yudhishthira about the prowess of Jamadagni's son. "Vaisampayana speedily proceeded to Kurukshetra with the aid of their fleet steeds. While proceeding. at a disThere Rama offered tance. O thou of immeasurable bull of the Yadus. 'Yonder. headed by Kripa. O birdYadus ! Krishna. having freed the Earth of Kshattriya for thrice seven times. the high-souled descendant of Bhrigu. O tiger among the O thou of Vrishni's race. For what reason was the Kshattriya order thus exterminated in days of yore by Rama. viewing the field of battle haunted by crowds of spirits and thronged with Bakshasas. O son of Kunti. It abounded also with many a hill formed of the bodies and bones of elephants and steeds. was strewn with the corpses of Kshattriyas. was the Kshattriya order extermiprowess ? How. that delighter of all the Yadavas. Listen to the story of how millions of Kshattriyas were slain by Jamadagni's son and how those that sprung again in the diverse royal races in Bharata were again slaughtered. The mighty conch-shells. They descended on that field which was covered with hair and marrow and bones and where millions of high-souled Kshattriyas had cast away their bodies. gave up his task/ hither that "Yudhishthira said. and how did it again grow? In frightful car-encounters millions of Kshattriyas were slain.

this portion of the food will give thee a son of great wisdom. quence. an embodiment of tranquillity. 106 a Rajas had of a son named Valakaswa. I . resolved upon ces. however. The great lord eyed of the three worlds. viz. holy one. king. Beholding Brahmana child lying within that tiger among the Bhrigus said unto his wife of celestial : beauty these words lady. king Gadhi. Beholding him engaged austerest of penances and competent to beget a son. that which had been intended will not happen. then became Kusika's son known by the name of Gadhi. of the name of Satyavafci. arrived with his queen at the retreat of king. represented the words of her son of Kunti. Richika of Bhrigu's the sanctified food should be taken by thee. The qneen-mother. a descendant lighter of giving unto Gadhi (her sire) a son. Thy mother will obtain a Brahmana child while thou wilt obtain a son that will become a Kshattriya 1 Thus addressed by her lord. a pilgrimage holy waters. of blessed the substitution of the sanctified morsels. viz. the chastiser of Paka. the Into the sanctified food intended for thee had been placed the seed of supreme and universal Brahma. Upon this. of the substitution of the two portions. Gadhi had a daughter. The puissant Gadhi gave her (for wife) in the of Bhrigu. and herself took from ignorance the portion intended for the latter.SANTI PABVA Rajas. Satyavati. gave the portion lord unto her mother. Kusika underwent the austerest of penances from desire of attaining the chief of the three worlds for a son. Resembling the thousand-eyed Indra on Earth. Thou shalt obtain a wretch among Brahmanas (or thy son) blessed lady. Invincible by Kshattriyas on Earth. to speak such words unto me. while into that intended for thy mother had been placed the sum total of Kshattriya energy... he will be the slayer of the foremost of Kshattriyas. taking the two portions of the sanctified food. O dethe Kurus. the blessed Richika of Bhrigu's race. in "Riohika said. cheerfully and in great haste. blessed lady. intended for herself unto her daughter. setting his heart on penanAbout this time. and the foremost of Brahmanas. endued with ascetic penances. Her lord of Bhrigu's race. He cookad the sacrificial food consisting of milk and rice for named Kusika unto Richika. became highly gratified with her for the purity of her behaviour. her body blazing with lustre. Having said these words unto his wife. the highly blessed Satyavati prostrated herself and placing her head at his feet trembling said. this (other) portion ! Calling his wife. O monarch. in Thou hast been deceived by thy mother. proceeded to the woods. of This portion A son will be born of her that will by thy mother blaze with energy and be a bull among Kshatftriyas. This was not intended by me. to the Satyavati. race said. Thy brother son will again (born of thy mother) will be a Brahmana devoted to ascetic penances. upon this. the Kshattriyas. It behoveth thee not. conceived a child exterminator her of of terrible form intended to become the womb. In conseblessed lady. King Valakaswa bad son righteous behaviour. and As regards thee. the thousandPurandara himself inspired the king (with his force). Thy consequence become a person of cruel deeds and vindictive heart. Richika.

but. Inconsequence of unrivalled axe of fiery splendour and irresistible sharpness. tion. Jamadagni of. Like unto a blazing fire. Jamadagni begot a son of fierce deeds. his retreat Possessed Apava. that son mastered the sciences. Through the prowess of that foremost of men. create other worlds. what need then be said of a child the substitution of the sanctified morsels O ? sage. Having gratified Mabadeva on the mountains of Gandhamadana. there It will be. and possessed of a thousand Arjuna of the arms through the grace of (the great Rishi) Dattatreya. viz. his shafts.. that son was Rama. solicited by the thirsty thousand-armed monarch of great Springing from the point of energy. of the high-souled Apava. endued with great energy. Kartaviryya of great energy. ! foremost of ascetics. even in jest. seeing consumed . Kusika's son Gadbi begot a son named Viswamitra. the whole Earth with her mountains and seven islands. caused by the wind to blaze forth with energy consumed the son of Kunti. the god of fire. If thou wishest. mighty-armed king.sacrifice. became a very powerful emperor and (at On a last) gave away the Earth unto the Brahmanas in a horse. by the might of his own arms. a son that shall be righteous and devoted to peace "Richika said. he became that unrivalled on Earth. "Then Satyavati brought forth a son in Bhrigu's race who was devoted to penances and characterised by tranquil pursuits. O amiable one fire ? All the descendants of thy father will be tained it all by my penances.. amiable one. as thou sayest ! "Vasudeva continued. Meanwhile the mighty son of Kartaviryya. puissant one. Possessed of every attribute of a hSrahmana. especially the Kshattriya order and ruler of the Haihayas. the god of fire burnt mountains and great forests. possessed of great god of fire. god. to give 1 me behoveth thee. that ocean of penances.. is no dhtinc- between a son and a grandson. lady.106 respect of fchee in 1 MAHABHABATA A son of of fierce deeds has been conceived by thee simply 1 consequence "Satyavati replied saying. the prowess gave alms unto that deity. viz. What blessed Never was falsehood spoken by me before. highly virtuous in behaviour. viz. the exterminator of the Kshattriyas. need then be said of (such a solemn occasion as) preparing sanctified food with the aid of Vedic formulae after igniting a I have ascerIt was ordained of yore by Destiny. ! possessed of Brahmanic virtues. having subjugated in battle. "Satyavati said. O uninhabited but delightful retreat of great energy. Assisted by the king of the Haihayas. the god of fire. I conceive. be begged weapons of that great axe of fierce energy in his hands. Richika (thus) begat Jamadagni. that son (though born in the Kshattriya order) was equal to a Brahmana. certain occasion. burnt villages and towns and kingdoms and hamlets of cowherds. The foremost of men. It thou canst Q puissant one. including the science of arms. the fairest complexion.- let our grandson be such. let me have thou of a son of tranquil pursuits "Richika said.regulated vows. desirous of consuming '(what was offered).

at the completion of a horse-sacrifice. possessed of great Filled then with ascetic merit. ! the bodies Kshattriya children of premature birth. For this reason a dispute took place between the high-souled Jamadagni (and the Haihayas). bull of Bharata' s became the indirect cause of his death. head of the Rishi from off his trunk while the celebrated Eama was out for fetching sacred fuel and grass. Having made the Earth of times.. succeeded destitute of Kshattriyas for thrice seven wrath). Q monarch. O king. cursed that monarch in wrath. he retired into the woods. were not those righteous men. the descendent of Bhrigu. began to cast imputaO Rama. that were spared by Rama. Then that tiger among the Bhrigus. Kshattriyas. felled with the points of their lances. think of that curse denounced on him by that higb-souled Rishi. Rama slaughtered them. saying. in consequence of that curse. thou Since. flaihayas in rage. without excepting these my specious woods. repairing together to the retreat of the king. once more took descendant of Bhrigu. I Rama ( of Bbrigu's race ) will lop off thy The mighty Arjuna. multiplied (in time) and became mighty monarcbs on Earth. however. forth his prowess. As soon as KsbaSome Ksbattriya ttriya children were born. ever regardful of Brahmanas and disposed to grant Bharata. not sparing the Indeed. the puissant Afterwards. seized and brought away the calf of Jamndagni's homa cow. however. therefore. The princes. the son off loppad the arms of of Jamadagni. the puissant Bhargava. who were assembled at a sacrifice at the Yayati's fall. Rama. Then the foolish sons of Arjuna. had imputations cast upon him (of cowardice). bodies. saying. gave . Arjuna. monarch. when some thousands of years had passed away. filled with wrath. Rama vowed to free the Earth of Kshattriyas and took up arms. hearing up arms and once more strewed the Earth with hundreds of Ksbattriya ! Those Kshattriyas. Thine is an empty boast among people Rama Through fear of of ! ! Kshattriya heroes thou hast betaken thyself to the mountains The these words of Paravasu. he quickly the Earth of all compassion. Kshattriyas by birth ? Thou art not of true vows. hast burnt them. race. Possessed of great energy. and brought back. of possessed all the sons and grandsons of Kartaviryya. time Pratarddana and others. his sire's calf Arjuna which was wandering within the inner enclosures of the king's palace. the high-souled Jamadagni. Rama in public. made the Earth miry reft with blood. counting by hundreds. Inflamed with wrath at the death of his father and inspired with vengeance.8ANTI PARVA J07 by the powerful Kshattriya. Tbe grandson of Viswamitra and son of Raivya. The puissant Kama. named Paravasu. however. the Earth became once more strewn with king very children. did not protection (unto all class). Rama once more slaughtered them quickly. putting Slaughtering thousands of king. tions on viz. of great prowess. without the knowledge of Kartaviryya the ruler of the Haihayas. speedily slaughtered great energy. in protecting their children (from Rama's ladies. always haughty and cruel. and charitable and brave. always devoted to peace. who was wrathful by nature. His (thousand) arms powerful sons.

Another. the Earth quickly sank to the lowest depths. Kshattriyas of great energy whom 'The sage Kasyapa then. viz. Though born in one of the regenerate orders. entered the great forest. acting most wilfully. speedily make such arrangements that I may "Vasudeva continued. been of named Sarvakarman (servant of all work). pointing with his hand that held the sacrificial ladle. Maruts for my sake by Rama of great prowess. installed . and since the great Rishi held her on his lap (urn) therefore is the Earth known by the name of Urvi. O sage. O great sage. "The Earth said. with the wives of Brahmanas. has been brought up in the forest great kine. Their sires and grandsires have been slain in energy. yet like a Sudra he does everything for that Rishi and has. It is my see that their funeral rites are should be protected by my duly performed. If they protect me I shall then stay unmoved. and oppressed by the wicked in consequence of that disorder. a region called Surparaka. The goddess Earth. and made a Kasyapa also. When anarchy sets in on Earth. the royal order protect me. to do not desire that I sage. of away the Earth remnant still the Kshattriyas. on his other shore. to At these words. present rulers. has been protected. They were born in the race Let them. puissant one. Equal unto the lord of they have been brought up by Ocean. Many Ksbattriyas belonging to the race of Marutta have been protected. having accepted the Earth in gift. that blessed prince has been protected by wolves and the mountains of Griddhrakuta. Pradarddana's son. O great sage.108 MAHABHABATA as scrificial present unto Kasyapa.. Beholding the Earth sinking from fear. began to unite themselves. O regenerate one. seeking out those the goddess had indicated. viz. repair to behoveth thee not. There is another person of 1 Puru's race. said these words.. Sivi's son energy. some foremost of Kshattriyas concealed by me among women. monarch. Viduratha's son. the weak are oppressed by the strong. named sage. O Rama. viz. and no man is master of his property. was concealed and protected on the banks His name is of Ganga by the Vrihadratha. There are. therefore. Let might. Dadhivahana's grandson and ! Diviratha's son sage Gautama. Unprotected duly by Kshattriyas observant of virtue. protect me of Haihayas.. who has been brought bears in the Rikshavat mountains. through compassion. These children of the Kshattriya order have been heard of as existing in different places. gratified Kasyapa and begged of him a king. Bharata's race. They are living among artisans and goldsmiths. I duty. Kasyapa of For preserving the king. the shores the southern ocean ! It ! present of it unto the Brahmanas. the son of up among Saudasa. Possessed of great energy and adorned with numerous blessed qualities. of great among Vatsa that one of Let him. by Parasara of immeasurable energy and ever engaged in sacrifices. exist (as before). Then Sudras bull of and Vaisyas. Do thou. protect me has been brought up among calves in a cowpen. the own high-souled Kasyapa held her on his lap-. for protection's sake. Ocean suddenly dominion reside within (what is) my created for Jamadagni's son. Gopati by name.

SANTI PABVA them duly are 109 as kings ( for protecting her ). hearing of those feats of Bama.. the righteous Santanu. "King Yudhishthira. praise is this world of men Bama. eloquent men. very gods regarding the origin Possessed of great knowledge. alighted from their vehicles and collecting their restless minds and concentrating all their senses. Kesava with a rather cheerless heart addressed him as follows. those two illustrious persons. being situate on the banks of the river Oghavati. pain cannot king. the points of the compass like the divine SECTION LI Vaisampayana said. Beholding Ganga's son of great ascetic merit. those foremost of men. took their seats. the death. troubled with the fear of brought up) by kine. the Yadu and Kuru princes. was like that of Sakra himself! The scions of Kshattriyas. (inserted) Surely. Govinda and Satyaki and the others approached the son of Ganga. Ocean. Krishna and Dharma's royal was again After this discourse son. and the others headed by Saradwat. Those Kshattriyas races that extant are the progeny of those princes. surrounding him. thy limbs are not tortured by the pain arising from the wounds by shafts ? From mental grief also the body becomes weak. was accomplished by a Brahmana !' was ended. happened in days of yore even thus. who in wrath had freed the Earth of Kshattriyas. The Kuru hero was surrounded by many ascetics like he of a hundred sacrifices by the deities of heaven. approached the great Rishis. the . were concealed (and bears and apes leopards. the prowess of the high-souled Bama. They then beheld Bhishma stretched on his arrowy bed and resembling in splendour the evening Sun covered with his own rays. Seeing Bhishma looking like a fire about to die out. O son of Pandu. hope ? I hope thy understanding. thou of Vrishni's race. That which thou hast questioned me. became filled with wonder and said unto Janarddana. so righteous. 'Are thy perceptions now as clear as before is ? I foremost of not clouded I myself have not that merit in puissant hero. to instruct the and dissolution of living creatures ! belonging to the Past. and the four Pandavas. Beholding him from a distance. depends on thy own will The minutest pin consequence of which thou hast obtained this boon within the body produces pain. Krishna of Unfading glory and Yudhishthira proceeded thither where the puissant son of Ganga lay on his bed of arrows. In consequence of the boon granted to thee by thy sire. What need then be said. Worthy of every and fortunate are they that reside in it where 1 a feat. viz. the high-souled Yadava hero proceeded all quickly on that car. illumining Surya himself. The spot on which he lay was highly sacred." now foremost Vaisampayana continued.' Conversing thus with Yudbishthira that of righteous persons. that. Saluting those foremost of Rishis headed by Vyasa. everything O Bharata. of hundreds of arrows that have pierced thee ? ! 1 be said to afflict thee ! Thou art competent. O "Kesava said.

prince of men. O best of persons. that thou art celebrated all creatures. By thy virtues. and to the protection of persons soliciting protection. do thou. for thou art an ocean of virtue and duty ! While living enjoyment of swelling sovereignty. The duties that have been laid down for those sprung from an thee 1 intermixture the four orders and those laid down for particular countries and tribes and families. All ! The subjects of histories and the the scriptures treating of duty and bull among men. the gods. so pure in behaviour. Gandharvas. thou one possessed of such attributes as thee for ! ! surpasaest the gods themselves in respect ascetic power thou canst create a universe tures. to the Vedas. to gifts. and that was so harmless to all creatures.' 1' ! . men on Earth. we have never seen nor heard of any O thou of the royal order. is well known to thee The dissolution of created beings and the reward of righteousness. among even the very gods Among thy prowess. thou art always spoken of by the Brahmanas as the ninth of the Vasus. to the the science of arms. as also those eternal duties that are laid of down in Yoga and Sankhya philosophy. by his ascetic power. are known to all these. to to truth. however. Asuras Yakshas. I beheld thee forgo female intercourse though sound of limbs and perfectly hale and though surrounded Except Santanu's son Bhishma of great energy by female companions devoted to righteousness. the duties too the four orders and those duties that are not inconsistent with their declared practices. possessed of heroism and havirg and firmly virtue for the only object of his pursuit. O foremost of men. son of Ganga. are well known to thee. are Puranas are all all well known to thee known to thee. to penances. on a single car. With the aid of thy intelligence. thou t I 1 foremost of beings. still have such a complete mastery over death (as to keep it thus at bay). so self-restrained. and Rakshasas O mighty-armed Bhishma. O thou of great wisdom. thou hast surpassed them all and art equal unto Vasava himself I know. of of By thy mobile and immobile creaevery attribute! What need then be said of of of thy having acquired many blessed regions by means the eldeet son slaughter of of the four orders about the four modes of virtues ? Dispel now the grief of burning with sorrow on account of the his kinsmen. in Bharata. and that art ! Without doubt. Save thee. drive the sorrow felt by the son of Pandu Persons possessed of so great and such varied knowledge live only for comforting men whose minds have been stupefied. other person that can remove the doubts that may arise in respet of those subjects of knowledge that are studied in the world. We have never heard of anybody else that was so devoted performance of sacrifices. is indicated in the four branches of knowledge. All the duties that have been declared in respect thy foremost is of Pandu who life are well known to thee ! Everything again that the four Hotras. along with their interpretations. and the Present. though lying on a bed of arrows and on the point of death. and so bent upon the good of was also so great a car-warrior as thee competent to subjugate.110 MAHABHABAtA 1 Future. and those declared by the Vedas and by men of of wisdom. we have never heard of any ether in the I person in the three worlds that could. there is no practice dwell in thy mind.

art incapable of Creator and thou art the Destroyer. and that am desirous of obtaining a blissful end ! bull among men. Those regions. that all ! ! these persons. "Bhishma said. wilt leave this world for that. foremost of I men. "Vasudeva said. T also behold thy eternal form. assembled together. Thou art the Hrishikssa. O divine Krishna 1 Thou art the origin and thou art the dissolution of all the worlds. Thou art above Salutations to thee that art the three worlds and that art the end of all lord of Yogins. of one Casting off thy body. all endued with forms of fiery splen! I of Kuru's race. O best of gods. for my humble self. raising his head a little. Bhishma. that seek thy protection. shalt go to those regions whence no man of knowledge ever returns When thou. great. . thou art competent to behold me. Thou standest shutting up the seven paths of the Wind possessed of immeasurable energy. Think of that. or unto a devotee that is not sincere. riding on their cars. T. discourses on duty and morality I * I. are waiting for thee invisibly till the moment of the sun's entering on northerly course Subject to universal time. art the refuge of everything. those words which that thou hast said regarding me have enabled me to behold thy divine attributes as manifest in the three worlds. have approached thee for listening to Do thou then speak words of truth. thy person. that Thou art devoted to me and art always obseris not of restrained soul. Bhishma. O prince. O foremost of kings. Thou. 'Salutations to thee. or unto one. and the Earth by thy feet. Thou art being vanquished by any one Salutathe soul of the universe and the universe hath sprung from thee ! I tions to thee ! Thou the five elements. salutations to thee again above the three worlds. O Bhishma. said these words with joined hands.e. when the divine Surya turns to his northerly. O hero. display myself unto one that is not devoted te me. O foremost of beings.SANTI PABVA 111 Vaisampayana said. that am devoted to thee. will expire with tbee It is for this. to this Earth all Knowledge. seem to us to be like a cloud charged with flashing of lightning. foremost of righteousness. Bbishma. O thou of lotus eyes. One that goes thither is not subject to rebirth. O Bharata. thou shalt then. course. for this. The firmament The points of the is occupied by thy head.) Govinda. Through thy own penances. compass are thy two arms. attired in yellow thy prowess robes that resemble the hue of the Atasi flower. (In consequence of that kindness. I ! vant and ever observant Of a pure heart. The universe is thy handwork. 'Since.. art created things. and Sakra constitutes thou of unfading gloy. "Hearing those words of Vasudeva of great intelligence. thou. I which would be good. those deities and the Vasus. are ready for thee whence there is no return 1* Six and fifty days. still remain for thee to live dour. O king. thou art always self-restrained penances and gifts. obtain the blessed reward of thy acts Behold. thy devotion to me is have displayed my celestial form to thee very 1 do not. and the Sun is thy eye.

'The words spoken by thee are worthy of thee that art the foremost one of Kuru's race. unto Yudhishthira who is firm in truth but whose learning has been clouded by grief on account-of the slaughter of bis kinsmen. I of of O thou by thee master have been filled unfading glory. when thou. and stupefaction thou of unfading glory Thy perceptions son of Ganga. art subjects) like a disciple in present. thyself speak for the good of king Yudhishthira the Just. ! J * The Vedas constitute the speech about morality occurs in them. therefore. hearing the words spoken But what words (of instruction). is exceedingly the pain of arrow-wounds. Through thy energy. when especially all the speech have been dealt with in thy speech ?* Whatever in subjects world should be done or is done. "Hearing these words of Krishna fraught with morality and profit. with joy of ! speech. "Bhishma Siva. receive. this boon that I grant thee. How then can I venture to speak ? O enhancer of (the glory of) Dasarha's race. in unwillingness) ! ! ! I cannot any speaking in thy presence. proceeds from thy intelligent self. be gratistrength is fie 1 with me (for my Pardon me mighty-armed one. '0 master of all the worlds. I will not say anything The very master of speech (Vrihaspati). My underagitated by standing is not clear. O Bhishma. nor the sky from the Earth I I only barely alive Do thou. The very vitals of my body are burning. and thee that art possessed of great Eegarding what hast thou patience and conversant with every subject said unto me about tha pain of thy arrow-wounds. My life-breaths are hastening to leave me. either O god That person who is competent to discourse on the subject of heaven in the presence of Ihe chief of the gods himself is competent to ! discourse on the interpretation of morality and pleasure and profit and My mind. I am so afflicted. I am ! ! the eternal creator of the universe. My limbs are weak. T. will be overcome by hesitation longer distinguish the points of the compass. Q Govinda. mighty-armed one. Narayana.112 MAHABHABATA fraught with morality and profit and Yoga. can I say in thy presence. quickly dispel that grief " of his !' SECTION LII Vaisampayana said. overcome thee. Everything . and do thou. slayer of Madhu. My understanding is clouded. for thou art the ordainer of all the ordinances How. by these shafts resembling poison or fire that I have not power to utter anything! My salvation in thy presence! abandoning me. slayer of Madhu. O Krishna. thee that art of great soul. can one like me speak the presence of the preceptor ? (on such "Vasudeva said. thee that art endued with great energy. of the Supreme Being. From weakness my utterance is becoming indistinct. by this. ! puissant one. Santanu's son Bhishma answered him in the following words. said. from my grace Discomfort and burning and pain and hunger and thirst shall not.

'We will return tomorrow. accompanied by many decked with golden Kuvaras. or profit. thou wilt think O tiger among kings. all created ' things that thou mayst endeavour to recollect !' Vaisampayana continued. "Then those great Rishis. those sages. one in the van and the other in the rear of those princes. succeed in beholding the four orders of created Endued with the eye of knowledge. Upon this. bowed in reverence to those sages." Literally. saluted Janarddana and Bhishma and king Yudhish- pass became clear and quiet. like a fire at Kesava. evil kind were seen there. Nothing of evil and no portent of any An auspicious. obtaining celestial vision. and Sanjaya. A celestial shower of flowers belonging to every season fell on that spot where he of Vrishni's race. with Ganga's son and the son of Pandu were. thou wilt. with Vyasa amongst them.* Thy understandinge fche qualities fail fchee Thy mind. Devoted to the practice of righteousness. once more inspiring with moisture. and infuriate elephants looking like mountains and steeds fleet as Garudas. ascended their handsome cars.' After this. Kesava and the Pandavas. be! ! hold. freed from of passion and darkness. the Yajus. "Everything thou knowest shall appear to thee by inward T. will always be subject to the quality of goodness. began to blow. morality. entering the (Kuru) city whose splendour resembled that of the city of Indra itself. the tribes of Celestial instruments of every kind played in the welkin and Apsaras began to sing. thus worshipped by Kesava and others. Thy understanding will penetrate whatever subject connected with duty. The scene of resembled the two currents it the great river Narmada at the point where it. the divine peace. the terrestrial herbs and plants whose juice had been sucked up by the Sun. shall not 118 sinless ! one. . and pure breeze. Surya of a thousand rays was seen to descend to the west. bearing every kind of fragrance. proceeded to their respective mansions like tired lions seeking their caves. Bhishma. saluting Bhishma and circumambulating him. and foot-soldiers armed with bows and wea- other cars pons. proceeded in two divisions. and the Samans." * light. and the sons of Pandu. All the points of the comall the animals and birds began to rove in the extremity of a great forest. by his own force. saying. and Saradwat's son Kripa. adored Krishna with hymns from the Richs. shall be unclouded. the divine Gladdening that Chandramas rose before it in the firmament. and Soon after. pleasant. is divided by the Bikshavat mountains standing across great host. things Bhishma. Then that bull of Yadu's race and the sons of Pandu. like fishes in a limpid stream. rising ap. like the moon emerged from the clouds. Ihe great Rishis then. thou upon of immeasurable prowess.SANTI PABVA and memory. thou wilt. and Satyaki. That army. speedily proceeded to their respective abodes. moving with great speed. Those heroes then proceeded. thira.

Saluting one another from their cars and each enquiring of the other whether the night had been passed happily by him. that lord of all creatures and creator of the universe. proceeding quickly to the Pandu. " stop to-day. and Bhima and Arjuna. then proceeded towards Krishna's abode. Krishna of great intelligence.' From this Let the guards. Panavas. son of Kunti. "Yudhishthira said. Awaking when on the eternal Brahma. and the twins. descendant of and repairing to Yudhisbthira's is abode. and the and musical instruments. Conch-shells and drums were blown and beat by thousands. he caused them Touching next diverse kinds of auspicious a clear mirror. made ready.SECTION Vaisampayana said. and kindling a fire poured libations of clarified butter upon it.. he meditated Fixing Then a batch of well-trained and sweet-voiced his senses. stands ready. day Ganga's son will speak of Vaisampayana continued. should not be vaxed. therefore. Giving away a thousand kine unto a thousand Brahmanas Then he of all of whom were fully conversant to utter benedictions upon him. In the palace of king Yudhishthira also sweet voices were heard. that foremost "Hearing these words of of the king. keeping time by clapping of hands. without stopping . for Janarddana will ! go to see Ganga's son It O righteous king of great splendour. ell retiring to big bed. conversant LIIT "The half a slayer of Madhu. 'The foremost of cars. persons. belonging to great intelligence. '0 Phalguna of unrivalled splendour. said unto him. royal At these words of son of Vasudeva for thee ! Krishna. he is I waiting behoveth thee now to do what should be done next addressed. of cars be Thus let my foremost the soldiers. ascertain whether that king of great energy dressed for visiting Bhishma. Sini. happily. accompanied by the grandson of Sini. That foremost of righteous Bhishma. things that are great mysteries. and vocalists began to sing. Krishna addressed Satyaki. O Dhananjaya. King Yudhishthira. Joining his hands. viz. 1 in of with the four Vedas. those bulls among men proceeded. articles and beholding himself 'Go. therefore. wish that there should be a miscellaneous gathering (in Bhisbma's presence). Others. with hymns and the Puranas. began to utter the Vasudeva. king. I do not. began to recite sweet hymns. mounted on his car. and bamboo flutes. Kunti's men (went out and coming back) represented unto him that his best of cars stood harnessed for him. The delightful sound of Vinas. Satyaki. The spacious mansion of Krishna. slept to usher in the day. in consequence thereof. the mighty-armed hero of unfading glory silently racited his secret mantras. son Dhananjaya. saying. the five resembling the five elements. persons. Yama was wanting he addressed himself for contemplation. praises of was heard. uttering auspicious wishes. While the high-souled Pandavas were coming. sound of songs too Dasarha's race performed his ablutions. Dharma's son Yudhishthira answered as follows. seamed to laugh with music. We should not be accompanied (today) by but we shall proceed ourselves.

Endued with great strength and great speed. meeting of heroes after the slaughter of all the troops 1" of Bhishma "When Bhishma that chief of the Kurus. and Arjuna and the twins also came there. viz. devouring the very skies. one another. what converse ensued in that sitting around him. alighting from their vehicles. said. of the kings. the princes proceeded to that spot where the Bhishma on his bed of arrows was lying. surrounded by those puissant great Rishis. after abandoning hii body he will obtain high regions of bliss. Valahaka and Meghapushpa and Saivya and Sugriva were urged by Daruka. of us all first Thou. the grandsire can thing. therefore. without delay. Jhen Narada of godlike features reflecting for a short while. the king timidly cast his eyes on the mighty-armed hero lying on his bed of arrows like the Sun himself dropped from the firmament. Those high-souled persons. Surrounded by them. lay on a heroe's bed with the sons of Pandu great sage. else than Devaki's son that addressing Hrishikesa. indenting the Earth with their hoofs. The unslain remnant of the (assembled) kings with Yudhishthira at their head. of righteous soul and great energy. Do you all. speak ! . came to that spot. firmly adhering to truth and with passions under complete control. approached Ganga's son like Vasaya proceeding towards Brahman. approaching the grandsire of the Bharatas who looked like the Sun himself r dropped from the firmament. Solicit him. addressed all the Pandavas and the unslain remnant think. indulged in lamentations for him.i tell me. to clear the doubts that exist in your minds I' Thus addressed by Narada. do thou. king. solicit to discourse to you. "There is no one foremost one of Yadu's race. those princes approached Bhishma. king Yudhishthira. like Brahman himself in the midst of the gods. (on subject of 'The time. art the foremost and thou art conversant with every duty and practice !" Thus O slayer of Madhu. but unable to ask him any- Then Yudhishthira the son of Pandu. looked at question ! therefore. proceeded.. the son of Santanu and Ganga." SECTION LIV Janamejaya said. therefore. Overcome wifch fear. Traversing the of Kuru. I morality and has come for you to like the Sun that is on the about to expire religion). named Devavrata or unfading glory. Old in years. Then Govinda and Yudhishthira and Bhima and the wielder of Gandiva and the twins sacred field and Satyaki. lay many Rishis and Siddhas. on his bed arrows. He is acquainted with the varied duties of the four orders. viz. urged by him. saluted the tiishis by raising their right hands. like the moon in the midst of the stars. king. and Dhritarashtra and Krishna and Bhima Vaisampayana of said. The animals. oars whose rattle resembled Kriebna's steeds. "When that tiger among men. sire. headed by Narada..BANTI PARVA on those foremost of 116 the roar of the clouds. they flew onwards. for Ganga's son is point of setting ! question Bhishma off He him all is about to cast his life-breaths. saying.

Janarddana. all those All the duties declared of unfading glory. all that is past. who will wonder if I the full measure of fame ?* I have. with the duties whatever time be said. * Do thou is. I behold as clearly as a in the Vedas. am acquainted also. proceed from me. O Bhishma. resolved to ! were described as one possessed enhance thy of great splendour It is for this. I behold clearly. The unslain remnant of the (assembled) kings are sitting around thee. by inward light ? no longer agitated ?' I Does thy knowledge hope thy heart no longer 'Burning. in The duties that have consequence of the boon thou hast granted to me been declared by persons of learning and righteous behaviour.116 MAHABHARATA addressed by the son of Pandu. however. Who on Earth will wonder if the Moon be said to be of cool rays of ? Similarly. have all left me in and pain. best of kings. Through thy favour. approaching the unconquerable Bhishma. I O Bharata ! Thou art old of in years The sense who have scarcely add to my fame already the full measure by doing or saying anything. I feel as if I have become a young man again. that relate to king-craft Whatever should ! Kesava. ? passed the night Has thy understanding become unclouded is O sinless one. I have imparted to thee celestial understanding so that thy fame maybe enhanced on Earth As long as a man's fame lasts in the world. upon all holy one. "Know. with the duties and ! down in the Vedantas. dwell in my remembrance. thy wilt say unto the 1 inquiring son of Pandu. illness. as just inspired fame. good or bad. I Janarddana Through thy grace. speak unto them. thou of Kuru's race. so long will thy fame travel with undiminished lustre through all the worlds Whatever. spoke unto him as follows. Bhishma. dost thou not thyself discourse to Pandu's son that is good ? this ? Tell me quickly. exhaustion. a single day said. Everything relating again to the four modes I 1 and among particular tribes of life has come at back to my recollection. thou practices prevailing in particular countries and families. 'Hast thou. What explanation Madhava !' hast thou to give in respect of "Vasudeva said. thou of Vrishni's race.. stupefaction. Janarddana. T. fatigue. thou 1 the Earth will last. I have become competent to discourse on what is beneficial (for the world) would say. will obtain hereafter the reward of every meritorious act For this reason. I have acquired an auspicious understanding Strengthened by meditation on thee. desirous of listening to thy discourses on morality ! I and duty. shine in thee feels pain and thy mind . ! Bhishma all that is future. "Vasudeva happily ? said. so long are his achievements said to live. the illustrious Kesava of unfading glory. lord of Earth. thou of incomparable splendour. through thy grace. however. I am conversant also. that I am the root of fame and of everything that leads to good. O Bhishma. fame can . that I have thee with great intelligence As long. will be regarded on Earth to be as authoritative as the declarations of the Vedas That person who will conduct himself ! here according to the authority of thy declarations. fruit placed in laid my and hands all ! that is present. All things. ! ! Why.

Let the son of Pandu. the eternal duties (of men). Thou hast always worshipped the Rishis and the gods. overcome with great shame and fearful of (thy) curse.' "Vasudeva said. Like a sire unto his sons do thou. put questions to me. who is ever devoted to truth. questioned by thy sons and grandsons. in men of great celebrity. Thou of kiugg and with every other science duty. The sages have declared this to be a duty. put questions to me. forgiveness.SANTI PABVA and of fchy 117 behaviour is art well conversant with the duties consistent with the ordinances of the Srutis. put questions to me. 'I shall discourse on the subject of duty My speech and mind have become steady. to forgiveness. his worship. and who always makes gifts unto the righteous. who is ever engaged in sacrifices and study of the Vedas and the practice of morality and duty. having caused of a great slaughter. of thy very sciences All ever noticed the slightest transgression in thee from the kings know thee to be conversant with all the morality and duty. those that were devoted to him. Govinda. therefore. Brahmacharya. ventures not to approach thee from fear those that deserved Having pierced with shafts (thy) curse. the delighter of I Bhishma). bull among the ' Bharatas. self-restraint. among all persons of righteous behaviour. question me all the Kurus. who is mysteries. righteousmental vigour and energy. if thou dost nofe speak on such subjects. upon whose birth all the Vrishnis were Let the son of Pandu. Let the righteous-souled son of Pandu. discourse unto them of high morality. ! Kurus Yudhishthira question me about morality and duty. peacefulness. said. who would never commit a sin influenced by desire of pleasure or profit or from fear put questions to me. do thou. king. in whom are truth and charity and penances. to knowledge and to guests. 'King YudhishthSra the just. That has heard all ever peaceful and who lord of Earth. who has no equal with joy. who always by his good offices honours his relatives and guests and servants and others that are dependent on him. that royal gratified and shall speak of all duties. especially when solicited by the righteous. monarch. put questions to me. put questions to me filled ! ! are intelligence. No one has birth. Let the son of Pandu. through thy grace. Let the son of Pandu. the "Endued with great energy. ness. discourse upon them on the subject !' SECTION LV Vaisarnpayana said. It is obligatory on thee to discourse on these subjects in detail unto persons desirous of listening to discourses on morality and duty. and among among Let the son of Pandu. about learnTherefore. I shall then be much Let the son of Pandu. Let the son of Pandu. should discourse on the same. those were his relatives and kinsmen and that were his preceptors. those that . sage of virtuous and great soul. pussiant one. and fearlessness. cleverness. does not venture to approach thee. whom heroism. thou wilt incur sin ! ed one. since thou art the eternal soul of every being Let the righteous-souled (viz . A learned person. put questions to me.

child. This is their declared That Kshafctriya. king. As the reins are in respect of the steed or the iron hook in respect of the elephant. I also think that the burden of those duties is exceedingly onerous. As the Sun. therefore. Ask me. rising. Profit. and saluted Bhishma. since has said that a righteous battle (in the case of a Kshattriya) leads A to both heaven and fame on Earth. should always fight in battle. so the duty away that their bodies. . even so the science of kingly duties constitutes the reins for checking the world.- 'the eternal bridge of virtue. without any anxiety. dispels inauspicious darkness. in battle A Kshattriya Kshattriyas is to should slay men and grandsires and brothers and preceptors and relatives and kinsmay engage with him in unjust battle. Do thou. that foremost of bow- men. best of the Kurus ! SECTION LVI Vaisampayana said. "Persons conversant with duty and morality say that kingly duties constitute the highest science of duty. 1 " Vaisampayana continued. Bhishma asked Yudhishthira to take his seat. addressed Yudhishthira. That Kshattriya is said to be acquainted with his duty who slays in battle the person that from is said to be acquainted with his duty they happen to be sinful and covetousness disregards the eternal barriers of virtue. is said to duty.* That Kshattriya be acquainted with duty who in battle makes the Earth a lake of blood. and penances. he ventures not to approach "Bhishma cast sires said. with great humility. who slays in battle his very preceptors if covetous and disregardful of restraints and vows. approached the Kuru hero and stood in his sight. Kesava. when challenged. having the hair of slain warriors for the grass and straw floating on it.' 'Do not " fear. and taken the permission of all the seniors assembled there. O lead to emancipation are equally dependent on them. discourse on those duties grandsire. study. so this science destroys every kind of evil consequence in respect of the world. O * Literally. and Pleasure are dependent on kingly duties. He seized the feet of Bhishma who in return gladdened him with affectionate words. Therefore. "Yudhishthira said. Yudhishthira began to put questions unto Bhishma.118 those that were worthy thee !' MAHABHARATA of his highest regard. saying. disorder would set in on Earth and everything will become confused. "After Bhisbma had spoken thus. Dharma's son Yudhishthira.!. Manu Kshattriya. 'As the duty of the Brahmanas of ! consists of the practice of charity. Then Ganga's son. Krishna. do thou speak in detail ! on the duties is the refuge of the thou of Kuru's race. Morality. It is also clear that the practices that of kings ! The science of kingly duties whole world of life. and having elephants for its rocks. "Having bowed unto Hrisliikesa. If one becomes stupefied in respect of the duties observed by royal sages. and standards for the trees on its banks. Smelling his head.

that is self-restrained. The king that is possessed much and good behavioar. and unto the Brahmanas. ascertainment of the weaknesses of foes. hath sprung from water. I regard exertion to is be superior. for son. * In the sense of being liberal.* never loses prosperity. of us expect the highest knowledge from thee 'Bowing unto Dharma who is Supreme. unto in full. but coming into con- two Slokas. the Kshattriya always bear them in mind. obtains prosperity. off his debt to duty objects cherished by kings. with the whole range of kingly duties described with concentrated attention. that is of handsome features and not too enquiring. . T. and keeping his own counsels. and receives the respect of his subjets. there is nothing that so of them as Truth. By adminisof his tering justice. and can exert their force on every other thing. In the Kuru's race. without promptitude of exertion mere destiny never accomplishes the you mayst desire to know. beings thou of Kuru's race. mild. Fire from the Brahmana. do thou observe both kinds his subjects then become troubled.. Similarly. the Odelighterof the Kurus. do thou. the success of kings as Truth. and iron from stone. on the eternal duties (of men) Yudhishthira. Do commenced ends disastrously. I shall discourse Hear from me. if Therefore. for thou. discourse on kingly duties in the first chief of the Bharatas. is viz. fire. everybody disregards him. king of kings. Yudhishthira.. The king who is devoted to Truth finds king. by attending to these three. pleasing (his subjects). concealment own weaknesses. is the foremost of punished by thee. from desire of the deities and the Brahmanas. are equal (in their operation). Kshattriya. for my sake. "Bhisbma is said. thou shouldst always exert with promptitude. viz. On the other hand.) tact with their respective progenitors.. Vasudeva regards thee as the all intelligent !' persons Therefore. as regards kings. for the Brahmana. If the king becomes he becomes fierce.SANTI PARVA 119 grandsire. exertion and destiny. for thou same act with redoubled attention. This There is nothing which contributes so much to is the high duty of kings. the Brahmanas should never be of behaviour. their force becomes neutralised. the king pays and morality. and other duties that first foremost one of place. The high-souled Manu. hath sung Earth. every accomplishment inspires confidence in humble. always bearing himself agreeably to the ordinance. saouldst then exert thyself in the is their great wealth. that has his passions under control. Truth happiness bofch here and hereafter. iron. conversant with duties first of all I O scorcher ! of foes. as also by the observance of conduct that is straightforward. son of Pandu. the king should. As regards Rishis also. Krishna who Bralima ! accurate details. The three (viz. O foremost of liberal men. thou shouldst In respect of thy duties. and righteous. By worshipping perpetuater of Kuru's race. These two. wait with humility upon the gods and the Brabmanas. for destiny not is ascertained from the results of what if indulge in grief what begun with exertion. into what is A king should not too minutely enquire done with the things belonging to him. art the foremost of all persons instance. on the king. Of them.

Thou must not. Those persons that show respect towards the Brahmanas should king. sang two Slokas in days of old. of citadel. Vyasanas. is needed is that thou shouldst not be attached to them. He that is king who attached to those practices is prevailed over by every one. that desire to have such honour however much they may be impediments by the might of son. No corporal chastisement is laid down for them. What.120 MAHABHARATA iron strikes stone. Even when deserving of punishment. therefore. king If the king happens to be always forgiving. for the the assailant justifies the wrath of the chastiser. . There is no treasure more valuable to kings than that which consists in the selection and assemblage of servants. should ever be repressed be a very master of the Vedas if he rushes to battle with an uplifted weapon. If a Brahmana becomes guilty of Brahmanibed of his cide. The king who is of righteous soul and truthful speech succeeds in gratifying his subjects. tiger among kings. thy arms. that upholds righteousness when it is trespassed against. that which consists (the ready service and the love of the) subjects is the most impregnable. a is reft of fierceness. enmity towards Brahmana. indeed Among the six among every kind of kinds of citadels indicated in the scriptures. however. mindful of his duties. or Kshattriya cherishes When so. The Kshattriya. When this is Brahmanas are worthy of worship. neither cold nor so hot as to produce perspiration. The cherishes no love for his people inspires the latter with anxiety. the Brahmanas should be protected. even as the driver who sits on the head of the elephant he guides. the lowest of as I recite it that 1 persons prevails over him. Subject to these restrictions. should chastise a Brahmana that may Kshattriya. Hear it. But they. and by the canons of the scriptures should he always be fierce. The great Rishi Usanas. son always behave with forgiveness towards everybody. or fche of causing miscarriage. The righteous Listen to them. for however. his be favoured by thee (with offices in the state). they should then be exiled beyond wrath of thy dominions. It is not necessary that thou shouldst. Nor the vernal sun. by that act. tiger monarch. He should be like the king should study friends and foes. the king who is possessed of wisdom should always show compassion towards the four orders of his subjects. or of treason against punishment should be banishment from thy dominions. the king that is mild is regarde i as the worst of his kind like an elephant In the scriptures composed by Vrihaspati. or of violating the preceptor or other revered senior. By the direct evidence of the senses. king. show them compassion. thou shouldst. Duly They worshipped. (you will see that) the among kings. O monarch. does not. If they become offenders. never indulge in them. they uphold the Vedas and the Sacrifices. these three soon become weak. The king. or fire battles with water. Therefore. O thou of great thou shouldst avoid all those evil practices that are called liberality. to the three worlds. that are foremost among the Brahmanas are gods on Earth. with concentrated attention. by conjecture. conversant with duties. by comparisons. king. should not always be mild. Sloka was in days of old applicable to the present matter. become a sinner.

SANTI PABVA 121 The king should always bear himself towards his subjects as a mother towards the child of her womb. The king that is possessed of fortitude and Pandu. do not show the least anxiety. They even seek to predominate over the king. O tiger among kings. son abandon fortitude. thou shouldst not indulge in jests with thy servants If the tiger among kings. be not forthcoming. and expectorate in the very presence of their master. themselves (towards their subjects). They disclose the secret counsels of their master This and bruit his evil acts.' * Literally. disregarding him. dependents begin to disregard him. the reason why this becomes desirable. On the other hand. should kings conduct king that is righteous. bath. or unguents. in his very presence. or the necessaries of his king's commands. and divulge the master's They ask for things that should not be asked for. without doubt. 'worthy of being used by the king/ T. The foremost one of Kuru's race. listen to the faults of such conduct. If the king becomes mild and disposed to jest. obstruct the their business of the state. If Without the least anxiety they set at naught the the king's jewels. Thou shouldst not ever. is who known to inflict chastisement on wrong-doers. or food. Hear. secrets. O Yudhiebthira. falsifications and forgeries. assembled in This is beyond thy power! court. They forget their own position and most truly transcend that of the foremost ! O of speakers. disregarding those objects that are moat cherished by her. and they do not fear If the king becomes mild and disposed to jest. . even so. and always give the sport people to understand that the king is very intimate with them and loves them dearly. wrath and seek to outshine the master. laugh . They go to the length of displaying master. seeks the good of her child alone. They do not take what rightfully belongs to them.* His counsellors. palace and dress in shameless as to indulge in eructations and the like. for the Bake of doing that which would benefit his people. openly indulge in such speeches as They cause the state to rot with abuses by They make love with the female guards of the the same style as their master. his servants. nor are they gladdened if favours be bestowed upon them. ride on steeds and elephants and cars as good as the king's. without being content with what has been assigned to them. If the king becomes angry. should always beis have of in such a manner as to avoid what dear to him. As the mother. these and many other evils spring from " it. Ordered to do a thing. though they may express joy for other reasons. and accepting bribes and practising deceit. they appropriate what belongs to the king. They become so to even speak of him with levity before others. has no cause of fear. and take the food that is intended for the master. master mingles too freely with them. they hesitate. They wish to with the king as with a bird tied with a string. O monarch. they is a wicked attempt. the servants.

'the hrahmana that would not leave his home. king he transgresses all restraints. These gix are peace (with a foe that is stronger). is destiID this connection. According to the eternal provision. O monarch. Kings the four orders in the discharge of their duties. truthful in speech.. army. hethifc acts inimically towards thy kingdom consisting of seven limbs. therefore. said. friends. He should in time give what should be given. monarch. counsellors. Asamanjas. (viz. and wage war with them (according to the ordinance) peace should with whom war should be waged. tiger among kings. and all his conclusions should be comformable to the scriptures. viz. No greater evil can befall the king than the disclosure of bis counsels. rebuked The Rishi Uddalaka cast off his favourite son Swataketu (afterwards) of rigid penances. he would never fall away from prosperity. If the king becomes possessed of prowess. t The seven limbs are the king. With soul cleansed of vices. great intelligence. beboveth thee. His sire. should. The king should not covet the wealth of others. agreeably to Vrihaspati's opinion. treasury. The king should not repose confidence (on others than his should protect OWQ He servants). if and the children of the citizens in the Sarayu. It is the eternal duty of kings to prevent a confusion of duties in respect of the different orders. by his own intelligence. as I recite it to tbee I Like a snake swallowing up mice. O Yudbisbthira. He ehould also always pursue morality and profit and pleasure and salvation (judiciously).* to It i bear this always in thy heart be made. the holy Usanas has sung a Sloka. Sagara. T.. Make peace with those foes whom an ancient Sloka sung by king Marutta. like a woman. the Earth swallows up these two.' The verse has baen quoted in this very Parvan previously. and pleasure). the king should be able to govern his wrath. the king that is averse to battle and the Brahmana that is exceedingly attached to wives and children. there is punishment for even the preceptor if he becomes haughty and disregardful of what should be done and should be slain t There is what should of vahu's son.SECTION LVII "Bhishma for action. profit. look after the merits and defects of the six essential requisites of sovereignty. The king should always conceal his counsels in respect of these three. \ and forts. Be he thy preceptor or be he thy friend. and forgiving in temper. observance of truth. The happiness of their subjects. used to drown not. because the latter used to invite Brahoaanas with deceptive promises of entertainment. is not worthy of praise who.! * The king who is observant of Literally. T. him and sent him to exile. exiled his own eldest son Asamanjas. Listen to it with attention. O king. should always be ready That king tute of exertion. nor should he repose full confidence (on even his servants). O king. about the duty of kings. war (with one of . "The king. from desire of doing good to the citizens. and sincerity of behaviour are the eternal duty of kings. morality. territory.

That crooked and covetous king who suspects every body and who taxes his subjects heavily. incapable of being deceived by and connected with families that are well-behaved. by Nilakantha as 'incapable of being over1 reached. If overcome. duties. who is of righteous behaviour and who is ever engaged in attracting the hearts of his people. He should have his soul should dress himself with splendour. Taking the wealth of those that are not righteous he should give it unto them that are righteous. He should never covet what belongs to others. before or behind. There should be no between him and them as regards objects of enjoyment. and who wean like applause. The only distinction should consist in his umbrella and his power of passing orders. always observant of their with all and stead-fast like mountains. well-behaved. healthy. The king should administer Kuvera. sweet speech. he then becomes an object of confidence unto all like the Himavat mountains (unto hafch all creatures). That king. who is prompt in action. He should firmly follow the behaviour of the righteous and. in one's own fort). He should make He should also be of good gifts in season and be regular in his meals. conversant with what is good and what is bad for each of the four orders of his subjects. The king desirous of obtaining prosperity should always bind skilful in smiting. and sowing dissenhalting. if he succeeds in keeping his passions under control. sions (among the chief officers of the enemy). who of liberality. Possessed sour) countenance. difference His conduct towards them. equal strength). T. and judicious in sets clever spies for ascertaining secrets and seeks to pleasure. The king who behaves in this way never comes to grief. is soon deprived of life by his own servants and relatives. deserves away 123 the pursuit of morality. He who is is the best ready to possessed who has agreeable features. marching (to invade weak. He to his service men foes. He should never take wealth from those that are righteous. if be is not addicted to evil practices and not severe in his punishments. The king should himself be He should practise liberality. that are brave. seeking protection (if T. of kings is who wisdom. he could speak with a smiling (and not with a He should always wait upon those that are old in years and repress procrastination. should be the same. who is not vindictive. who is not wrathful by disposi- the dominions of one who is weaker). behaviour. devoted. thab justice like of Yama and amass wealth of his He should also be observant the merits and defects own acquisitions have not been of and losses and of his own dominions. the officers of his enemies by presents of wealth. by foes. observe that behaviour carefully. therefore. honest. under control. conversant the sciences. he soon regains his position. who is take advantage of the laches of foes. He should feed those fed. who is high-minded. profit. never inclined to insult others. . who has his wrath under control. however. possessing a knowledge of the world and its affairs. never unmindful of the future state of existence. never sinks when attacked by foes. and enquire after those that have been fed. respectable.8ANTI PABVA the laches of his foes. If the king is not wrathful.* well-born. * Asambhayan is explained.

. whose subjects have not to hide their wealth and are conversant with what is good and what is bad for them. He. Yudhishthira. that is desirous of going to the woods. a priest that has not studied the is scriptures. who is devoted to the scriptures and the good of his people. accomplished and unaccomplished. (of subjects). T. . sang these two verses respecting the duties of kings. and then earn wealth. a preceptor that does not speak. who is not given and who vigouroasly proseoutes to completion all works commenced by him. Bharata. MAHABHARATA who is to engaged in sacrifices and other religious acts. what would become of his wife and acquisitions ? Eegarding those that are desirous of kingdom. Similarly the barber's duties require If without being present there he likes to his presence within the village. a king that does not grant protection. 'Protection of the subject. who treads in the path of the righteous.be employed. and Manu the son of Prachetas. is a king whose subjects are engaged in their respective duties and do not fear to cast off their bodies when duty calls for it . attention. That king earns eternal merit in whose no wickedness and dissimulation and deception and envy. whose spies and dominions there is counsels and acts. and who is liberal. Listen to them with These six persons should be avoided like a leaky boat on the sea. are all of peaceful behaviour. docile.f ' SECTION LVIII "Bhishma said. Then should he select a wife. a wife that utters a ' what cow-herd that likes to rove within the village. One should first select a king (in whose dominions to live). king grants to his subjects upholds the world. These two verses are often quoted in conversation by both the learned and unlearned equally. indeed. wander in the woods. is the very cheese of kingly duties. he should never . in the narrative called Bamacharita. and inclined to liberality. If without manifesting any inclination for going to the fields he likes to loiter within the village he should not be employed. * In the sense that grief. the divine Bharadwaja. protected duly. unknown to of The following verse was sung in days of old by Usanas Bhrigu's race. and the sage Gaurasiras. If there be no king. all devoted to without royal protection. He is the best of kings in whose dominions men live He is the best of kings fearlessly like sons in the house of their sire. That king truly deserves to rule who honours knowledge. whose people. unwilling to be engaged in disputes.124 tion. there is no other eternal duty more obligatory than the protection The protection the the son of Prachetas. That king deserves to rule. of kingly duties. viz. obedient. t The duties of the cow-herd should lead him to the fields. on the subject. for it may then be presumed that he is wanting in that skill which experience and habit bring. the world soon comes to T. The divine Kavi (Usanas) of large eyes and austere penances. the thousand-eyed Indra. boasting.* Manu. tractable. and a barber disagreeable. The divine Vrihaspati does cot applaud any other duty (so much as this one). remain his enemies.

the realisation of taxes with considerateness. of speech. similar intents for and a particle from within a of of poison. even if possessed of strength. coveted by all like meat. should not is The king accomplishing particular objects. A king. steadiness in the transaction of business. producing discord and disunion among the ememy by fair or unfair means. absence of blind confidence on the guards of the city. companionship with persons of intelligence. granting employment and protection to the storing of what should be stored. filling the treasury. supervision over the subjects. personal observation comforting the enemy with assurances. giving them dues without haughtiness. the selection of honest men (for the dis- charge of administrative functions). A king who is mild cannot obtain superior rank. Persons of crooked minds cannot bear the burden of extensive empire. never JKeadiness disregarding an enemy. and cleverness (in the transaction of business). should act righteously for keeping his people under subjection. should. was obtained self Listen to the verses sung by him. the repair of buildings that are old or on the point of falling away. can afflict the whole country of even a powerful and prosperous king. producing disloyalty among the citizens of a hostile town. in respect thou of eyes like lotus leaves and of the ! hue of copper. can never be protected by labour. therefore. seeking the good of the people. the city. With only one kind of force. skill. * Eloquent Brahmanas learned in the scriptures are heroes Great Kshatriya kings are heroes of exertion. O Yudhisbthira. that is destitute of exertion. strictly of watching the servants and of servants. by exertion By . disregard a foe however weak. The secret speeches of a king. bereft A spark of fire can produce a conflagration can kill. and casting off those that are wicked. . heroism. never abandoning the honest. have composed treatises on the duties of them praise the duty of protection. even if always overcome by foes like a snake that is The king. This has been said by Vrihaspati. persons of respectable birth. persons. exertion the amrita by exertion Indra him- obtained sovereignty in heaven and on Earth. the amassing of troops for obtaining victory. should be concealed by putting on an appearance of candour. foremost of virtuous of kings.SANTI PABVA Br. O Yudhishthira. The hero of exertion is superior to the heroes of speech. truth. The heroes of speech gratify and worship the heroes of exertion. the crooked purposes in his heart. officers of steadily observing the dictates of policy. candour an<3 simplicity. always gratifying the soldiery. T. distrust the state. All of of 136 Brahma.ahma and utterers kings. never taking anything (from the subject) capriciously and without cause. for exertion in kings is the root of kingly duties. readiness for action. carefully looking after the friends and allies living in the midst of the enemy's country. the Asuras were slain . the acquisition of which depends upon A kingdom. and the wrong acts he does or intends to He do. listen to the of Those means consist their just means by which protection may be secured the employment of spies and servants. an enemy poison fort. the infliction of corporal punishments and fines regulated by observance of the occasion.* possessed of intelligence.

joy. Yudhisbthira the just possessed of great energy. Having offered oblations of water unto their ancestors and silently recited the sacred mantras and done other auspicious acts. what more you wish to the duties of kings. resembling others in birth and death. "The illustrious Vyasa and Devasthana and Aswa. subject like otb'ers to the having understanding and senses same kinds of joy and grief. mouth. ! hands and arms and neck like others. those scorchers of foes entered the city called after the elephant. said these words with joined bands. the king. cheerfully ascended their cars. fcr today. that is scorcher of foes Possessed Bharata. in fact. endued with back.126 MAHABHABATA always conduct himself with both candour and crookednesss. gently touch'0 grandsire. with a cheerless heart and eyes bathed in tears. filled with 'Excellent flowers. and with faces resembling full-blown and hymned the praises of that tiger among men.. he earns great merit. and having performed the evening prayer with due rites. said. is about to set 1 I Then Kesava and Kripa and Yudhishthira and others. similar to others in respect of all attributes of humanity. 'Whence arose the word Rajan (King). on Earth ? Tell me this. possessed of life-breaths and bodies like other men. If in protecting his subjects a king falls into danger. govern the rest of the world numbering many men that one possessed Whence is it man of great intelligence and the wide world teeming with rules of br7e and energetic and high-born men good behaviour ? Why do alj . the all the Rtshis. viz. that chief of ! f l . Then Yudhishthira. I shall to-morrow enquire after ed Bhishma's feet and said. I have now told fchee a portion only of best of the Kurus. saluting the Brahmanas (assembled there) and circumambulating the son of the great river. the sun. bravery ? for what reason does one man. having vital fluids and bones and marrow and flesh and blood similar to those of the rest of the world. Saluting in return. Proceeding to the field of Kuru and approaching the sinless Bhishma. and Vasadeva and Kripa and Satyaki and Sanjaya. of "Yudhishthira said. and blessed by them Then king princes took their seats around Bbishma. used. know I" Vaisampayana continued. having those points about sucked the moisture of all terrestrial objects. viz Bhisbma Excellent that foremost of virtuous persons. the Pandavas and the Yadavas set out ( for the spot where Bhiahma lay ) on their cars resembling fortified towns. and stomach similar to those of the rest of the world. they enquired of that foremost of car-warriors if he had passed the night happily. which I have my doubts. like those of others. Even such should be the conduct of kings." SECTION LIX Vaisampayana said. Kuru's race. inhailingand exhaling breaths like others. "Kising from their beds the next day and performing the morning rites laid down in the scriptures. All of them observant of excellent vows then bathed in the current of the Drishadwati. Tell me. having worshipped Bhishma duly.

* He treated of a fourth subject Men. Profit. therefore are sjud to pour upwards and the gods pour down wards. pour rain on the Earth whence men derive their sustenance. came to be clouded. with joined hands. the eternal Vedas have been afflicted in the world of men by covetous- possessed by fear. 'With concentrated attention. the gods were lost. may Thus addressed. When they became subject to lust. so that the universe. of the cessation of all pious rites among men. Unrestrained sexual indulgence set in. soon soiled them. Through ! loss of the Lord. T the gods. the gods. O chief of the Bbaratas ! they did not possess. listen to it in detail as to how kings.BAHTI PARVA men seek to -obtain hie favour ? Why is it that if one man becomes delighted. As they thus lived. they sought the protection of Brahmana. objects which Men this began to utter what they chose. they lost all consideration of what should be done and what should not. feed The latter. discourse to me there cannot but be a grave reason for all this since on this fully king. and if that one man is troubled the whole world becomes troubled ? I desire to hear this in O foremost of speakers. tiger among men. in the Krita age sovereignty first began. the whole world becomes delighted. Once subject to wrath. the perceptions of men. the Self-born and divine Lord not meet with destruction wards. god. we are about to descend fco the level of human beings of the Men used to pour libations upwards while we used to pour rain down! O Supreme In consequence. think of that which would benefit us. they found the task (after some time) to be painful. When confusion set in amongst men. no chastisement.* ! what will do good to all Ye foremost The Grandsire then composed by his own intelligence a treatise consisting of a hundred thousand chapters. Error then began to assail their hearts. At tiger among there was no sovereignty. Which the Selfit were treated the subject of Virtue. three worlds. to protect one another righteously. righteousness also has been lost For this. of gods. ness and error ! For this. righteously protecting one another. and no chastiser. it. and thence their virtue began to decline* When their perceptions were dimmed and when men became subj ot to error. fed by those libations. afflicted with grief. another acquisition) got passion. prince. let I shall think of ! your fears be dispelled ! born designated as the triple aggregate. In and Pleasure. Do thou then. All disiinctions between food that is clean and unclean and between virtue and vice disappeared. named wrath. no king. is seen that the whole world bows down to one man as to a god detail. said unto him. O Grandsire. great distress will be our lot. the Vedas disappeared. another passion called lust (of hold of them. said unto them. O Lord Vedas. we have been struck with fear. O bull of Bharata's race I I 1 "Bhishma first said. all of them became And because men sought to obtain covetous. created by thy power. Upon the disappearance of the Vedas. by pouring libations of clarified butter on sacrificial fires. O Bharata. Overcome with fear. . however. Having gratified the divine Grandsire of the uniO verse. Having All men used become subject to error. righteousness was When both the Vedas and righteousness were lost. Men.

All these depend upon Chastisement. and good. these are the eight instruments. the details of the aggregate of three. &c. viz. were indicated. the means of inspiring the reading and Nilakantha's explanation. Cars.. and incantations. to the attributes aggregate in respect of emancipation viz. as dependant on stars and planets. Growth. &o. of envoys and agents of ot^er kinds. and that obtained by deceitful ways. and good. down in the three Vedas. the indications of princes.. of Goodness.* Another viz.. horses. was treated hearts of men. trade.. The diverse characteristics of roads (to be taken. knowledge. calamitous visitations (such as earthquakes). and Darkness. that won by wealth. protection of self. T. viz. . agricultre. and manoeuvres in war. place. viz. The subjects also of behaviour towards counsellors. The four kinds of time for making journeys. and guides taken from the country which is the seat of war. and Destruction. as also the eight kinds of secret chastiseeight ment. conciliation. (viz. Were described in detail. son of Pandu. fomenting discord. of attributes. allies.) were also treated in it. were described in detail. and treasury. and the acts necessary for the support of life.!. the diverse kinds of battle array.. and gifts of wealth. The kinds of open chastisement. good offices. and causes. The religious rites laid acts. and aggregate of six consisting of the the very extensive branch of learning called punitive legislation. and chastisement. middling. the practice Passion. of open chastisement or forces The use and administration of movable and immovable were also mentioned in respect of the three kinds of things.. of the wealth of traders and merchants Growth in respect of the penances of ascetics . were dealt with in detail. Deliberation of all kinds. the three errors of deliberation. t I adopt the Bombay * Conservation in respect . strategies. and paid attendants ( ot armies). O king. superintendence of the construction of oars and other utensils of war and use. skilful methods of warfare and retreat. Chastisements of two kinds viz.the other world ). counsellors. poison wearing apparel. and another. the treaties of of the success or failure of counsels. Conservation. overtwere treated in it. were treated in it.f Another triple aggregate connected with Chastisement. and neutrals. means. counsels for producing disunion. of secret agents possessed of diverse means. Enemies. O bull of Bharata's race. fort. of duty without hope of blisa or reward in this or. these also were described. time. and Destruction in respect of thieves and Wicked men. planetary conjunctions foreboding evil. the results kinds of victory. the diverse means for protecting and improving men. bad. cars. that secured righteously. middling. elephants. of spies. in it.. elephants. of the aggregate of five (viz. O Kauravya. and alliances. the attributes of the soil ( on which to encamp). bad. and foot-soldiers. with toleration as the fifth. and steeds. army. the disorders of troops and how to get rid of them.. three kinds. ( a fourth viz. ). knowledge of weapons and their proper keep.). crews. made through fear.. food. impressed labourers. acting openly. The three kinds viz. kingdom.128 called MAHABHABATA The triple Emancipation with opposite meaning and attributis. were laid down in it.. were fully treated therein. open and secret. gifts.

animals. attention to the adornment of .. and the best means of manufacturing them. Devastation of the enemy's territories. honouring learned. by honouring those among the enemy's subjects that are well disposed towards the invader. gifts of wealth in season. and gold) and the means of acquiring them (for one's own the foe). times of distress and danger. born of wrath. born of wrath. knowledge of the rules in respect of gifts and religious rites such as homa. attributes of kings. and sexual indulgence. the chastisement and destruction of those that are strong. were all described. and by inspiring the enemy with confidence. for acquiring objects of desire. were mentioned by the Selfgambling. The characteristics and uses of Panavas. of vices The four kinds these are the six kinds of faults mentioned. of conches. by producing alarms. lands. female slaves. the fed. Anakas. the destruction and removal of landmarks and other indications. hunting. attacks upon foes. chief of the Kurus. and fire-raisers and poisoners and forgers down crops and by producing disunion among the chief officers of hostile armies. diseases.SANTI PARVA 129 army with joy and confidence. the methods of sounding alarms and notifying orders. the six kinds articles (viz. inspiring the enemy with fear by display of standards. and for dispelling danger and distress. fierceness. Kudeness of speech. by cutting plants. and those born of lust. in all of ten kinds. born in that work. supervision of agriculture and other useful operations. the methods of making presents and of storing requisite things. suicide. the methods of extending the kingdom. the waste. suspicion against every one. were mentioned in that which the learned say are born of lust. the sources of the aggregate of three and its merits and faults. shooting and throwing and hurling of weapons. drinking. pacification of newly self) and of destroying them (for injuring the good. The fierce vices. growth. robes. the diverse methods of afflicting the enemy's kingdom by means of robbers and fierce wild-tribes. that have also been Diverse kinds of machines and their actions have been des- cribed there. and drums. wrestling. the touch of auspicious articles. the means of winning over persons residing in the enemy's territory. avoidance of heedlessness. siege of forts. and harmony requisites of sovereignty. the exact administration of justice. Yudhishthira. by destroying the efficiency of the enemy's ele- phants. the improving of objects already acquired. viz. the cutting down of large trees ( for depriving the enemy and the enemy's subjects of their refreshing shade ). cultivating friendship with the acquired territories. the means for accomplishing them. feeding the unfed and supervision over those that have been freedom from the vices called Vyasanas. gifts to deserving persons of what has thus been improved. treatise. of the seven essential capacity for (projected) works. the extermination of the wicked. robes and attire (of troops). and frustrating one's own objects. gems. the diverse kinds of evil intents. severity of chastisement. the the qualifications of military officers. infliction of pain oa the body. knowledge of guiding foot-soldiers in battle. the storage of necessaries. were all treated in that work.. the acquisition of objects unattained. the behaviour of dependents. expenditure of wealth for pious purposes.

consisting of ten thousand lessons. pf course. the counsels that a king who lives of a dozen of kings. After the divine and multiform Siva of large eyes. the divine Lord cheerfully said unto the deities having Indra for For the good of the world and for establishing their head. source of In view. was * The Burdwan Pundits have generally been very careless in translating the Santi Parvam. by might be prevented from deviating from the path of honesty. the verb ni being used first in the passive and then in the active voice. the protection of subjects and the means of in the midst extending the kingdom. the constant supervision of the behaviour of men. i. Ail those means. Their version is replete with errors in almost every page. chastisement leads or governs everything. And because men are led (to the acquisition of the objects of their existence) by chastisement. this science will operate among men. should pursue in respect of the four kinds of foes. first studied and mastered it. Virtue. in other words. and the various means for producing and applying illusions. T. and improvements the body. observance of acts done on occasions of festivity and gatherings and those done within the household. were all duly treated in that work. tribes. the this. called Vaisalakasha. however. chief source of the revenue. were of acquisition. piety of behaviour. The first of the verse merely explains the etymology of the word Dandaniti. or. the divine Siva abridged that science of grave import compiled by Brahman. and Pleasure). of all blessings. Pleasure.* Containing the essence of all the attributes of the aggregate of six. sweetness of speech. the two and seventy acts laid down in medical works about the protection. truthfulness of speech. Having composed that highly beneficial treatise. Virtue. tiger among kings. the methods by which stagnant water is rendered foul. the four kinds of allies. P. K. the manner of MAHABHABATA preparing and using food. line . The diverse means of the desire for diverse kinds of wealth. Dealing rewards and punishments. The idam refers to the world. and Salvation have all been treated in it. the attainment of prosperity by following in one path. and Emancipation. the immunity of Brahmanas from punishment.e. Profit. I have composed ! Assisted by chastisethis science representing the very cheese of speech ment. Virtue. giver of profuse the methods of agriculture and other operations that form the presents. were also described in it. this science will always be much regarded by all high-souled persons. these words : which men righteousness and the triple aggregate (viz. Profit.. the open and secret acts persons in all places of meeting. were all described in it. therefore will this science be known in the three worlds as Dandaniti (science of chastise- ment). exercise. anl families.130 the body. and. the gradual decrease of the period of life of human beings. gives the correct sense of this verse. honours paid to dependents in consideration of kinship and merit. and Pleasure.. the social of reasonable infliction of punishment. the lord of Uma. this science will protect the world. Singh's version of the i is better. and the four kinds of neutrals. and the practices of particular countries. The abridgment. Profit. They have rendered verse 78 in a most ridiculous way. laid down in it. men in general.

those Rishis pierced the right thigh of Vena. All the ordinances of the science of chastisement. it Afterwards the puissant the work into a treatise intelligence. and arrows. and well-versed in the science of wea- The pons. said unto him. Indicate. daughter born of bis celebrated over the three worlds. a son The creatures.. a slave of wrath and malice." T. Thereupon. Mleccbas. viz. had The Rishis. of great celebrity. inclined to a life of renunciation. He too renounced pleasure and enjoyment. I have attained an understanding that is very keen and that is observant of righteousness. (in their embodied forms) came to that best of men. those wicked tribes that have the hills and the forests for their abode. named Sunita and married to Ativala and gave birth to a son named Vena. gods ! rest of Paadu. well versed of his sire. Mrityu. came out a short-limbed person on Earth. with blood-red eyes and black hair. of Kardama also practised severe austerities. Tell me in detail what I shall do with it That useful task which you will be pleased to indicate. however. begot a son named a Obtaining extensive empire after the demise he became a slave of his passions. by his it Vahudantaka. begot Ananga named Ananga. that preceptor of Yoga. reflecting a little. (sit) Those utterers of Brahma said unto him. Uttering mantras the while. by a fiat of his will. The gods then. Thence a person who was a second Indra in form. Kardama. from that thigh. pious in behaviour. Vena. The highly blessed son Virajas. She was O king. science of chastisement.SANTI PARVA 131 then received by Indra devoted to Brahman and endued with great ascetic merit. resembling a charred brand.. residing on the Vindhya mountains. thus. Clad in mail. Literally. I Thus addressed. named Virajas. abridge that science. for benefiting the world. and fully Ananga became a protector of creatures. 'rose above the five' in the sense of having renounced the The Burdwan Pundits erroneously render it "died. created. with joined bands. The divine Indra also abridged it into a treatise consisting of five thousand lessons and called Vrihaspati. armed sprang with scimitars. he was fully acquainted with the Vedas and their branches. bows. The son of Vena then. His mind. reduced it further into a work of a thousand lessons. Vishnu. that one among mortals who deserves to have superiority over the The divine and puissant Narayana.. Nishida here 1 From him have sprung of the Nishadas. great Rishis did consisting of three thousand lessons and called Varhaspatya. .* Krittimat had a son lord named Kardama. mind. Virajas had a son named Krittimat. said unto those great Rishis. the gods that were shall accomplish without hesitation ! ! * world. In view of the period of men's lives and the general decrease (of every thing). those utters of Brahma. slew him with Kusa blades (as their weapon) inspired with mantras. conversant with the Ativala. as also those hundreds called and thousands others. king. Kavi of immeasurable wisdom. did not desire sovereignty on Earth. viz. further abridged Next. great Kishis then pierced the right arm of Vena. a son born of his energy. viz. became unrighteous in his conduct towards all creatures. in policy. approaching that lord of creatures.

The great and illustrious Rishi Garga became his astrologer. and pleasure. Then Vishnu. Those bulls ! among men. that vast receptacle of Brahma. lord of rivers. as all MAHABHABATA also the Rishis. Grati- fied. It was Prithu who made the terrestrial surface In every Manwantara. A little before.* Vena's son removed the rocks and rocky masses lying all around. Prithu. level. O Yudhishthira. profit. viz. in her (as the king of the world). The great Meru. among men that Prithu is the eighth the two persons named Suta and Magadha They became his bards and panegyrists.132 present there. that mountain of gold. ing Cast off at a distance lust and wrath and covetousness and honour. and the deities of Indra. and deed. started into life as soon as Vena's son thought At that time there was neither decrepitude. became his priest. shall ever be worshipped of Brahma then said unto him. nor disease (on Earth). O monarch. Those utters the highly blessed Brahmanas. that deviates from the path of Do thou also swear that thou wouldst. and. whoever he may be. the Earth becomes uneven. O son of Panda. . by me. elephants. embodied form. and that thou wouldst never act with caprice are exempt O puissant one. borne on the shoulders of human beings. in thought. by Pandu. Co thou 1 fearlessly accomplish those tasks in which righteousness ever resides Disregardwhat is dear and what not so. look upon all creatures with an equal eye. word. possessed of great prowess. always observing the dictates of righteousness. and the Brahmanas. and the Rishis. of O them. the king of mountains. know that Brahmanas from chastisement. Vena's protect the world from an intermixture of castes son replied unto the deities headed by theRisbis. The Valakhilyas became his counsellors. We have heard that the surface of the Earth had before been very uneven. nor son of calamity. gave unto him heaps of that precious metal. The divine Kuvera. not unequal to a geolo- gical age. gave him wealth enough for gratifying the needs that of religion. and Sakra. By this means the hills and mountains became enlarged. had come into existence. and men. do thou punish with thy own hands the man. Do thou always maintain the religion inculcated on Earth by the Vedas further swear that thou wouldst fearlessly maintain the duties laid down duty I ! in the Vedas with the aid of the I science of chastisement. nobody had any fear from reptiles and thieves or from any * A Manwantara T. and pledge further that thou wouldst Thus addressed. Steeds. is a very long period of time. millions. saying. with a tribute of gems and jewels. the royal son of Vena. said unto him. bestowed upon him inexhaustible wealth. with the horn of his bow. that lord of Yakshas and Rakshasas. and unto Magadha the country since known as Magadha. Ocean. and Himavat.. nor famine. came to him. cars. gave unto Suta the land lying on the sea-coast. This high declaration of the Srutis is current from Vishnu. In consequence of the protection afforded by that king. and the Regents of the world. assembled together for crowning Prithu The Earth herself. Let it be so 1 Then Sukra. and the Saraswats his companions.

thy kingdom should always be protected by the aid chastisement Thou shouldst also. He thinks that the meaning is "The king becomes obedient to that person who beholds his . he earned the name of Kshattriya. in Verse 146 has been worngly rendered in K.. the people. obstructed anywhere. all When regard righteousness as the foremost of all things That high-souled king caused all creatures to and because he gratified . numbered among king. though he belongs to the same world and is possessed of similar limbs. telling him. Nilakantha rightly supposes that Karyyam is understood after Mahikshitah. A person upon the exhaustion of his merit. IT Nilakantha explains this verse erroneously. she (during his region) became celebrated came to be called many as Priihivi* The eternal Vishnu himself. He drew from the Earth. Dharma. themselves. thee The divine Vishnu entered the I that monarch the entire universe offered human of gods. save the divinity of the monarch ? At that time a golden lotus was born from Vishnu's brow. king. P. and his standard was never solidified. T. It is for everybody acts in obedience to one. wealthy. regard him as handsome. the Bombay edition.SANTI PABVA other source.e. were established in sovereignty. comes down from heaven to Earth. t J "Numbered among human gods. this reason that Established by the gods. What of a king should be regulated by his the opportunities and means that may offer by other cause is there in consequence of which the multi- The conduct tude live in obedience to one. and highly blessed. Good acts. shall transcend in Bharata. however. and Rakshasas." i. and takes birth as a king conversant with the science of chastisement. Dharma begot Artha. divine worship unto Prithu.t the science of For this reason. king. as a milcher from a cow. confirmed his power. therefore. She became the spouse of Dharma of great intelligence. viz.. own intelligence. T. by careful observaconsequence of his penances. therefore. Upon Sree. He who once beheld Prithu's amiable face became obedient to him. It is the multitude obey his words of command. son of Pandu. And because he also healed the wounds of Brahmanas. and Nagas. And because the Earth for the practice of virtue. He becomes possessed of great intelligence and obtains superiority over others. 1 tion made through the movements of it. The goddess Sree was born of that lotus. The correct reading is charanishpanda as given T.J thy spies. is not kriya as explained by Nilakantha but opportunities and means. Singha's version. lead to good. Such a person becomes endued with greatness and is really a portion of Vishnu on Earth. Karana. of king. All the three. the waters used to be The mountains gave him way. no one transcends him. IT * Thenceforth he began to In consequence of T. and Artha and Sree. lead to the good (of the monarch). among kings. therefore. and it is for this that the world cannot for this that command him. was he called Rajan (king). and other creatures. In both the vernacular versions the second line of 130 has been rendered wrongly. protect All it in such a way that no one may be able to injure as also good acts. The two lines are quite unconnected with each other. 183 he proceeded to the sea. seven and ten kinds of crops for the food of Yakshas. No body one.

&c. C grandsire ! "Bhishma who is Brahma said. priests. in respect of all creatures. Knowledge. kinds of distress and danger ? From what evils should the king guard himsorts of treasuries. and what the special duties of each order ? What mode of What duties are especially called life should be adopted by which order ? of kings ? By what means does a kingdom grow. . 'What are the general duties of the four orders of men.. Nyaya were from injury treated in as also penances. while the services nent and constant. saying." It should be borne in mind that Bhishma is answering Yudhishthira's query as to why the whole world adores one man. self firmly ? Tell me all this. purity of conduct. MAHABHA&AfA the practice of morality and jusfc behaviour became so visible on Earth. It is through that reason that the Earth became over- spread with virtue. and what are bull of those means by which the king himself gcows ? How also. falsehood. the characteristics of the four orders of men. T. counsellors. and compassion towards all creatures. the great Kishis. the origin of "Thus. forts. \ ed here). justice. I have now told thee everything about the greatness of kings. * is bow down to Dharrna who is great. abstention truth. there are on the Grandsire. Yudhishtbira. and should a king avoid ?* Whom should the king trust in what preceptors. the four kinds of Homa. were all included in that Histories and the Vedas and the science of it. "After this. and the four branches o learning.134 the might of his sceptre. the planets and stars and asterisms. and with joined hands and concentrated attention. The suppression of I The difference between a Ritivija and a Pitrohita of engaged on special occasions. discourse ? SECTION LX Vaisampayana said. the learned in it. and high morality. truthfulness of speech. What other chief of the Bharatas. allies. One of the reasons is a mysterious influence which induces every man who beholds the amiable face of the king to render him homage.0 treatise of son of Pandu. saluted his grandsire. purity of behaviour. forgiveness. I have begun to say that there is no difference bttween a god and a king. gifts. There is no doubt in this monarch. do the citizens and the servants of the king grow ? What the duties punishments. the son of Ganga. were all treated of in that work (of the Grandsire). the histories of all past events. all Earth. is that the former the latter are perma- . avoidance of quarrel. Worship of persons old in years. simplicity.-* T. Bharata's race. I shall wrath. Yudhishthira. face to be amiable. once more asked him. readiness for exertion. begetting children upon one's own wedded wives. viz. were very fully described Since that time. &c. upon which I shall next have to subject is there. Whatever objects or things.. the holy waters. the duties in respect of the four modes of life. and to Krishna Having bowed down also unto the Brahmanas (assemblediscourse on duties that are eternal.

O king. tell these nine duties belong to the four Those duties. Bharata. By his study of the Vedas all the pious acts (laid down for the Brahmana) are accomplished. Viz. children and should also practise charity Whether he does the study of friend of all or does not achieve anything else. a king should cause all of them to do everything according to the dictates of righteousness. (are also their other duties). he cannot extend his kingdom and acquire t For. Gifts. a king who desires to sacrifices. and who gain victories in battle. having created bestowed their care upon the Vaisya. and acquire wealth by fair means. all their acts are accomplished. and patience in undergoing austerities. what the eternal duties of the Vaisya are. become foremost of those that acquire many blessed regions hereafter by their merit. however. and to kings. to now of thee Self-restraint. without doing any improper act. wealth comes to a Brahmana possessed of knowledge. If while engaged in the observance of own duties. should give but not beg. he regarded to accomplish all religious acts of and is called a Kshattriya and now tell thee. Always exerting in battle. A Vaisya should make gifts. Therefore. he should put Those among Kshattriya rulers who perform prowess great sacrifices. bring prosperity acquire religious merit should engage in battle. wealth to give away and meet the expenses of sacrifices. Anything else that he will improper for him.* There is no higher duty for him than the suppression of robbers. he becomes (by that) known as a Brahmana or the creatures. I shall tell thee what the unwounded from battle. has been declared be the duty Brahmanas. With proper the foremost men. T. I shall attention he should also protect and rear all (domestic) animals as a sire do will be regarded as protecting his sons. perform sacrifices. I which belong exclusively to Brahmanas. great happiness. protecting the (domestic) animals he would obtain the (domestic) animals. Upon the Brahmana and the Ksha- By ttriya he * conferred (the care of) all creatures. I shall also tell thee. if he devotes himself to the Vedas. without battle. f Establishing all his subjects in the observance of their respective duties. Study of the Vedas. Whether ha does or does not do any other act. should never teach (the Vedas) but study (them with a He should protect the people. study. sacrifices but not officiate He Brahmana forth his preceptor). This has been declared to be the conduct of a wretched Kshattriya. he should then marry and seek his peaceful to beget and perform sacrifices.. robbers and wicked people. A Kshattriya. T. study the Vedas. Yudhishthira. It has baen declared by the wise that wealth thus obtained should be enjoyed by distributing it (among deserving persons and relatives).SANTI PABVA and maintenance orders (equally). is if only he protects his subjects. king. By practising these two. Persons conversant with the old scriptures himself for the destruction of do not applaud that Kshattriya who returns unwounded from battle. returning . should as a priest in the sacrifices of himself perform other's. what the duties are of a Kshattriya. who are possessed of a knowledge of the Vedas. The Creator. I shall first 136 all of dependents.

a Sudra. The weak and the old amongst them should be maintained. If a Vaisya desires to tend cattle. hence. These are the latter's lawful acquisitions. he should with excessive zeal be supported by the servant. shoes.' surplus left after supporting his own relations. also. lest. There can be little doubt that they are wrong. A Vaisya should never desire that he should not tend cattle. Unto the sonless Sudra his master should offer the funeral cake. It is said that other orders. For this. profession he should follow and the I shall now tell thee the weans by which he may earn his liveli- Sudras should certainly be maintained by the (three) umbrellas.! or The Sudra should never abandon degree of the distress into which the his master. however. the latter should assign him proper work. wealth. he makes the numbers of the three superior classes obedient to him. turbans. the service of the three other classes is the duty of the Sudra.' T. should be given away by the regenerate classes unto the Sudra. may earn wealth. Atirekena evidently means 'with excessive zeal. he may take a single pair as such fee. siuadha or any other Vedic mantra. By such service of the other three. A Sudra cannot have any wealth that lawfully to his master. Worn out with morality say that if the Sudra approaches any one belonging to the three regenerate orders from desire of doitig menial service. what the duties of employed in that task. by his their order of seniority. The Creator intended the Sudra to become the servant of the other three orders. no one else should be if Bharata. a Sudra may obtain a great happiness. By this he would incur sin. Sacrifice has been laid down has been ordained for the Sudra Bharata ! A Sudra. but he should take a sixteenth the trade be in hoofs. and if he keeps (for others) a hundred kine. seventh part of the profits (as his share).138 Vaisya's profession If is MAHABHABATA and how he is to earn the means of his sustenance. he may take the milk of one cow as his remuneration .* Torn clothes which are no fans. beds and seats.' Nilakantha explains 'with greater zeal than that which is shown in supporting his own It cannot mean. he may take a seventh part of the yield. Sudra are. The Hindu Upanaha had wooden soles. Whatever he possesses belongs as a duty of the three other orders. as K. P. A seventh also is his share in the profits arising from the trade in horns. With the king's permission. f The Burdwan Pundits understand this verse to mean that the Sudra should offer the funeral cake unto his sonless master and support masters if old and weak. longer fit for wear. for performing religious acts. Men conversant hood. T. He should wait upon the three other classes according to A Sudra should never amass wealth. he keeps (for-others) six kine. I should tell thee. is not competent to utter swaJia and For this reason. Sinha puts it. and should be given to the Sudra servants. however. a turban or pagree. he may take a If he trades with other's wealth. J It is own. latter whatever the nature may fall. T. This should be his annual remuneration. I he engages in cultivation with seeds supplied by others. 'with the relations. The word Ousira is applied to both beds and seats. | it as . without * A Beshtana is literally a clobh tied round (the head) . If the master Suara his loses his wealth. the Sudra.

The t is conversant with Richs Yajus. the Sudra should not give any other Dakshina in any sacrifice of his.* Ifc has been heard by us that in laid in vows down sacrifices called Paijavana gave a Dakshina (in one of his hundred thousand Purnapatras. IT Mental sacrifice. * A Paka-yajana planet t This ordinance lays down that the Dakshina should be a hundred thousand animals such as kine or horses. For this reason the Sudra earns the merit of the sacrifices performT. Devotion Then again Brahmanas are forehigh most of gods unto their respective Sudra attendants. is laid down for all the orders. Sacrifices are performed by the body. conversant with the Vedas is himself a god. The resolve must be followed by actual gifts. is as much laid down for the Sudra as for the three other classes. should be worshipped as a god. O Bharata It is not true that the gods and ! Brahmana. four orders. this reason. and the laid down in the Vedas.SANTI PARVA observing the 137 minor fco the Vedas. It should consist of 256 handfuls. and by the mind. The Brahmanas Whatever they would say would be for thy are the gods of the very gods. These two orders. should worship the gode in Paka-yajnas. can utter mantras and perform mental sacrifices. ed by their Brahmana masters and progenitors. who other (superior) persons do not manifest a desire to share the offerings in such sacrifices of even the Sudra. and a hundred thousand Purnapatras were substituted for kine or horses of that number. by devotion to the members of the three other I Hence classes. hence. that ordinance (without its mantras) was followed. They must employ Brahmanas in their sacrifices. O sire. T. cleanses Therefore. O Bharatas. . or worship offered to the inferior deities called Viswadevas. Of days of of of old a Sudra the a name sacrifices) consisting of all is a sacrifices. has Prajapati for his god. Kshattriyas. The Kehattriya and the Vaisya cannot perform sacrifices by means of their bodies. The gift called Purna-patra is declared be the Dakshiua of such sacrifices. The Brahmana can perform sacrifices by all the three. though incompetent to read the Vedas and utter Vedic mantras. In the case of this particular Sudra. devotion deifcy. The holy sacrifice in his case is the mental sacrifice. The members of the three other classes have all sprung from the Brahmanas. A Purnapatra is literally a large dish or basket full of rice. Indra. however. has Prajapati for his god whom he can worship with rites other than those The Brahmanas have Agni for their god. The Sudra. for obtaining the fruition of various wishes. T. The IF The Brahmana Sudra. all great good. a Sudra. the sacrifice that || is a minor sacrifice. the Sudra. The obligation kinds of sacrifices naturally appertain to all the is not one whose discharge is optional. It has been laid down to be the foremost. according to the ordinance called Aindragni^ Sacrifice ( as has been already said ). may earn the merit of sacrifices though he is not competent to utter mantras. who is without Richs and always Yajus and Samans. such as the propitiation of a foreboding evil. Upadravah means a servant or attendant. Beyond a Purnapatra. They worship the gods in sacrifices. The Sudra alone cannot employ his body or utter mantras in sacrifices. A mental sacrifice is a resolve to give away || in honour of the gods or unto the gods without the aid of the Vedic ritual.-T. J all sacrificers. For. and Samans. by words. T.

all the duties of the mode called for the Sudras also. For this reason all the four orders are holy. Therefore.J In this connection. Originally appear that amongst Saman was one . With regard to homas again. T. performed T. who is acquainted with them all.T. aided by devotion which " is sacred. endued with scriptural and fruits again are multifarious. a rule. They have all sprung from Brahmanas. with cleansed soul and senses under restraint. is still inferior. The fires. poureth libations on the ( sacrificial ) fire according to the ordinance. . Before Vaikhanasa Munis or after sunrise a person of subdued senses. Without doubt they are right.e. king. O thou of mention the names of the four 1 and the duties in respect of each The four modes Garhastya of great merit. it has been said that every one. or the worst of sinners. having first carefully * i. who was created first. persons conversant with ancient histories cite a verse. There is nothing in the three worlds equal to sacrifice. The Rishis applaud such a man. '0 mighty-armed one. Yajus was one. This then is the conclusion that all the orders should always and by every means in their power perform sacrifices. should perform sacrifices.' SECTION LXI "Bhishma modes ara of life said. Undergoing the purificatory rite in respect of bearing matted locks. listen baffled. houses of I Though originally one. as I prowess incapable of being now to me. the Vedas have become diverse. through the intermediate classes. a sinner. is competent to perform sacrifices. and Rich was one. of Their rites devotion who. as sacrificial fire of are procured from the the Sudra is called Vitana. not true that they that belong to that order do not subsequence all of the orders men in respect of the Brahmana was their creation) it will created first. with heart free from malice. after having gone through the rite of Vanaprastha. That person who desires to perform a sacrifice is regarded as righteous even if he happens to be a thief. while that which is called a&kanna the last ( is but foremost in point of merit ).* The Brabmana is the The fire called Vitana. Sacrifices are multifarious. Similarly from the Brahmana. It is perform the sacrifices of the other orders. That Brabmana possessed learning. to the best of his power and according as he pleases. regeneration and performed for some time the rites in respect of the sacred fire and studied the Vedas. and Brahmacharyya which is adopted by Brahmanas. with heart filled with devotion. all the rest have sprung. In ascertaining (the priority or foremost of gpds. one should.138 consists in devotion is laid MAHABHABATA down for all the classes.. Bhaikshya. Devotion is a mighty agent. that variety which is called skanna is the initial one. All the orders bear towards one another the relation 01 consanguinity. though from Vaisyas and inspired with mantras. t All sacrificial Vaisyas.! The procured Brahmana is the performer of the sacrifices of the three other orders. sung in praise of sacrifice by the on the occasion of performing a sacrifice of theirs.

He should also be always devoted to the performance great of the Vedic rites. morality and profit. A learned Brahmana. * Literally. discharges ail its duties. without desire. him of for eternity like menials ever on the alert to execute the commands their master. home. that is desirous practise and perform them. and bis charity should to the Brabmanas. Sleeping his wanderings ) where evening overtakes is mode him. He should beget and enjoy pleasures and comforts. O king. mode after having gone through the at that place ( the course of competent to adopt the Bhaikshya called Brahmacharyya. should be of a tranquil heart. destitute of cruelty. grateful. He should be satisfied with his owu wedded wife and should never approach her except in her season. abstemious in diet. and study of the Vedas. Indeed. Having studied the scriptures called drawn up his vital fluid and having retired from all Aranyakas. after studying the Vedas. proceed. to the woods for adoption Vanaprastha. O king. always engaged the duly goes through this mode of life and properly performance obtains blessed rewards in heaven. without desire of bettering his situation. with or of 139 without his wife. without dislike to anything. The person of life should. regarding creatures equally. subsisting given to contemplation. and face on all sides. . having worldly affairs. and forgiving. Listen to me as I repeat it. mild. That Brahmana who. tractable and attentive in making offerings to the gods and the Pitris. the to absorption of learning. Yudhishthira. silently reciting the mantras obtained fiom worshipping all the deities. He should observe the ordinances of He should be the scriptures. should The Brahmana. Upon his death.SANTI PARVA Grarhastya. form the duties of those that in lead this high of mode of life. not be confined to any one sect. By truth. of grave import and endued with high ascetic merit. eternal Soul it is of emancipation. dutifully waiting upon and serving his preceptor with hie preceptor. the rewards desired by him become deathless. head. these wait upon sacrifices. without a on whatever food is obtained (in charity). In this connection. The great Rishis have said that support simplicity. 'with eyes. leading the Garhastya mode all Brahmana possessed accomplish children the religious acfes laid down for him. without enjoyments. with the senses all under control. in well known.* Always attending his to the Vedas. worship of guests. the virtuous recluse may then attain to an absorption with the mode called the that have first knowing no decay. He should always be hospitable He should be without pride. should not be cunning and deceitful. one should enjoy diverse kinds of happiness both here and hereafter. and enjoyment of one's own wedded wives. the illustrious and Rishis cite a verse sung by Narayana himself. practis- ing self-restraint. attains with the eternal Soul that knows no decay. These are the indications of Mnnis drawn up their vital fluid. With careful attention he should accomplish all the duties of this mode of life that is applauded by ascetics and that is extremely difficult to go through ( without transgressions).' T. He davoted to the gods. by adopting this mode of life. acquisition of of sons and wives.

productive of happiness in the future.140 MAHABHAKATA own body smeared with clay and filth. which is fraught with such high merit. place. t Men. reply to Brahmana who hell in is addicted to the practices of Kshattriyas and Vaisyas and world. to be equal with the exertion of kingly power. cannot be thy present query.* Those amongst the good acts of a man's past life that exert the greatest influence on the next.. The referred to in the kingly order. free agents .!' " The sense seems to be that influenced by past acts every one acts subsequent lives. and agreeable !' "Bhishma said. in his duties. however. however. 'Tell us those duties in respect of persons like ourselves which are auspicious. T. are applied. lead a living being to every direction. all. or the pursuits of agriculture. good. T. have been laid best down for the Brahrnana. should always pay attention to the instructions he has received. Men. &c. 'The four modes of life. all engaged in pursuits that are improper for him. puissant one.) who is not restless. If he is a hunter in this life. heart is pure and who is who performs all has his passions under control. regard the study of the Vedas. Sudras. duties laid down for a Brahmacharin ' !' SECTION LXII "Yudhishthira approved by said. the next to the Brahmana who is That Brahmana who. has inexhaustible regions of bliss in the other world. king. and doing good even unto his enemies. The world is set agoing by Time. bad. for all of them have been duly Jaid down for such Kshattriyas as are not disinclined to pitilessness. leading to heaven and especially fit for Those. the four modes of life. Unengaged in the six kinds of work (such as officiating in the sacrifices of others). incurs censure in this world as a person of wicked soul and goes to Those names which are applied among men to slaves and dogs and wolves and (other) beasts. have not always balances of good acts to their credit. have already been declared. son of Pandu. with senses under control. and indifferent. Those propensities. it is because the influence of many cruel acts of a past life pursues him even in this. however. the new acts they do determine the character of their next lives. the person leading the Brahmacharyya mode of life should always observe rigid vows and. these. are liable to be exhausted. entirely influenced by Time. dutifully waiting upon his preceptor and always bowing unto him. whose ever engaged in penances. are always engaged in those acts to which their propensities lead. and hunting. contemplation. Man does all his acts. is duly engaged in the six-fold acts (of regulating the breath. of the Bharatas ! Many acts. again. he should live. and means and motives. trade. Every one derives bis own nature from the nature of bis acts in respect of their circumstances. and never engaged with attachment to any kind of acts. pleasant. The other three orders do not adopt them. who has no desire of who bettering his prospects. Thou shouldst. Eefleoting on the Vedas and discharging all the duties ( in respect of contemplation and overt acts ). therefore. They are. and who is charitable. never showing favour or disfavour to sire. therefore. benevolent. in * . king. are the any one. Its operations are settled by the course of Time.

has compassion laid for all creatures and patience to bear everything. therefore. trade.. and lost. seek the assistance. Vishnu. For a Sudra in his who is desirous bearing (such scriptures as are not forbidden * t i. be- come 11 'Listen now. These should be known by the Ksbattriya who desires the members of the three (other) orders (in his kingdom) to strictly in the four adhere to the respective duties of of those modes. grace to them. a vile in his duties and whose behaviour becomes wicked. yet I . the declarations of the Vedas. is applauded. modes ed. all the duties in respect of the several modes of life. all the four were has drunk the down by Brahman for him. the merit arising from the duties laH down for the four orders. Although adopt Nilakanfha's explanation of Siisrushu here. is truly a Brahmaua and not he that is sinful in cruelty. wealth obtained by agriculture. and all other religious acts of men. I T. Men desirous of acquiring virtue. confer no merit (on the giver). The conduct or a dancer or a village servant or does other improper acts. of Sudras and Vaisyas and Kshattriyas.* Whatever presents oE food dedicated to the gods and the Pitris are made unto Brahmanas that have transgressed all restraints or become impure in king. of life and purity and simplicity have been laid Besides these. Whether he recites the Vedas or not. be discarded on occas'ons of worshipping the Gods. companionship with any but bis wedded wives. If. If Vishnu be not pleased. if he does such improper acts. O son of Pandu. He that is self*restrainSoma in sacrifices. agriculture. That wretched Brahmana who falls away from king. self-restraint down as the duties of a Brahmana. Such Brahmanas become equal to Sudras. king. who becomes Sudra. For this reason. to those duties that should be observed modes of life.SECTION LXIII 'Drawing fche bowstring. should duly perform the six Vedic acts. destruction of foes. the members of these as to be able to assist others (three) orders do not adopt peaceful duties (so son of Pandu. his position acts. he becomes equal to a Sudra and on occasions of feeding he should be assigned a place amongst Sudras. tending cattle. and serving others for wealth.e. leading a domestic mode of life. has no desire of bettering by acquisition of wealth. free from and forgiving. never extends bis in the acquisition of virtue). kinds of crooked behaviour. the happiness of all men in heaven. is frank and simple. sustenance derived from trade. O Brahmana who weds a Sudra woman. The retirement of a said. An intelligent Brahmana. duly discharged all the duties of A Brahmana should avoid service the king. "Bhishina Brahmana of all into the woods. becomes a Sudra. mild. king. all kinds of sacrifices. monarch. after having the domestic mode of life.f who has their services as priests should not be taken. becomes. case). and should behaviour or addicted to wicked pursuits and cruel acts or fallen away from their legitimate duties. O king. is of good behaviour. these are improper for a Brahinana. and usury.

may mode of life. a Vaisya of venerable years. * The king is entitled to a sixth of the merits acauired bv hie . is open to all ! the four orders. Men conversant with the scriptures say that the duties of the other three orders afford small relief or protection. may. king. and by that means he is sure to obtain sacrifices (ascetic) may A Kshattriya. the highest duties The whole world is subject the might of their arms. with the king's permission. having performed the Rajasuya. having attentively worshipped the gods by performing and the Rishis by studying the Vedas. as elsewhere. All the duties. having the Pitris by performing with due rites the sacrifices laid down worshipped some Kshattriya for honouring them. even so all fcbe duties of the other orders. Having studied the Vedas duly and sinless one. sacrifice. the horse fices. and Sudras). O foremost of speakers. and produce the Kshattriya have kingly duties for their foremost.* If the science duties of afford great relief small rewards. All duties think that word m#y be taken here. The learned have said that the and produce great rewards. T. Inasmuch. who in old age desires another mode of life. and other great sacri- having invited learned Brahmanas for reciting the scriptures and made presents unto them according to their desires. all the modes of life have been laid down excepting the observance necessary Vaisya. Kshattriyas. and Renunciation has has been said to be an eternal virtue and the foremost of all. king. of for him). who has begotten a son. Every kind of Renunciation occurs in kingly duties. to have been used in the sense of one doing (menial) service. of the three other orders. however. king..112 MAHABHAKATA accomplished his duties. the Kshattriya. for leading the life of a Rishi. A life of mendicancy is not obligatory upon the three orders (viz. he may adopt the life of mendicancy by begging what would barely support his life. the Bhikshu mode of life has been laid Having discharged the duties of his order. are dependent (for their observance) upon the duties of the Kshattriya. Vaisyas. sake of enjoying the pleasures of the world. are engulfed. The Vedas have declared this. and performed other acts of a like nature. universal peacefulness and self-restraint (which are not For a Sudra practising all these duties as also for a down. having placed on his throne the son of his loins or of good birth for the protection of his subjects. Know that as the footprint B of all other animals are engulfed in those of the elephant. O monarch. principal and subordinate. to Amongst men. having obtained victories small or great in battle. between whom and the superior orders there is not much difference in consequence of the purity of bis conduct. having begotten children the treatises on the duties of kings. this mode of life. therefore. the Bhikshu mode of life . having quaffed the Soma and ruled over and protected all his subjects righteously. but he should never do so for the adopt success. giver of profuse presents as they can adopt it if they choose. Having left the domestic mode of life. are those which are practised by Kshattriyas. All the orders are protected by them. under every circumstance. and having also served betake himself to another the king. and a Kshattriya. in those of the Kshattriya. adopt it by leaving that one which immediately precedes it.

evident in respect of their results. productive of great happiness. chief of disturbed. All these acts. therefore. nature again. The total merit.* their eternal faith to sometimes offended Led by many (false) systems. and the customs relating to the conduct of included in kingly duties. Indeed.of respect of renunciation are seen in kingly all kinds are connected with them if them. the merit of every kind of Renunciation belongs to him in that way. the Aswins. against the duties the Saddhyas. Others who pin their against. had. become the means of initiation and all so all destroying the virtue and the religious acts of the slaughterers even other duties.. occur in Kshattriya duties. for and men. find thing themselves at last landed and confounded on faiths whose ultimate ends are unknown. laid down for the several modes of life. full of anxiety.. have before this been said to be all included within those of that eaored Brahmanas and mode of life (called Garhastya). T. are all observant of Kshattriya duties. are all 'The duties in respect of all the four modes of life. for resolving their doubts about the science of chastisement. * whether kingly i. life. the conclusions arrived at by men.f weighed each each of the modes Those deities. the Viwas. is many outlets. and the Siddbas. the divine and puissant Vishnu of great prowess. if deprived of the protection given by kingly duties. The duties of men are not obvious. how all many brave kings viz. 1 ' SECTION LXIV "Bhishma those of yatis. If the functions of royalty are all creatures are overtaken by evil. t Probably. The duties imposed upon Kshattriyas whole world. the Maruts. liable become to attack and destruction. All kiuds . viz. as also of have retired from the world. of after having of life. all the duties in all the modes of duties . waited of their acts in days of old upon Narayana. of As animals. in the sense of there being exceptions and limitations in T. free from deceit. is very Besides. They have. arising great. Pandu. occur in them . these ancient duties belonging the Kshattriyas be abandoned. with I all good actions. scriptures also that inculcate the duties of men become lost. said. I shall now recite to thee a history fraught with the conclusions of both from Kenunciation.SANTI PABVA of 143 All those if chastisement disappears. the Bharatas. all kinds of learning kind of worldly behaviour enter into . and beneficial to the As the duties of the three orders. have told thee. the whole world. slaughtered by the vulgar. created in days of old by the first of gods. t Those kings. disregard the practices laid down them. the Vedas will disappear. the Vasus. of the king. for ascertaining T.. mindful of the declarations of the scriptures enforced by examples. of those that are plain. are subject to kingly duties. without really knowing anyabout the truths of duties (as declared in the scriptures). Yudhishthira. respect to them. in days of old. O monarch. repaired to that lord of creatures. the Budras. become lost. O son of men in general. even so.e. duties are superior to those .

that were created afterwards. however. t 'spread confusion on Earth. foremost mode duties. duties first They that are not kings. can obtain a sight of that god of universal form "Indra in ! grant thee what other objects may most of mortals Thy soul abides on peace ! be in thy heart. spread my fame. -^--T. know how to discharge those duties. viz. prastha mode are exhaustible. after such comparison. highly regarded by all By the high duties of a Kshattriya. forcibly suppressed and destroyed his foes and thereby afforded relief to the gods and the Rishis of immeasurable are said foes of inconceivable energy had not slain all his the Asuras. to resolve their doubts. through those I do not. however. and the duties that first flowed from the Supreme deity. and high faith. the foremost in the world. Other duties flowed afterwards the other duties. I head for gratifying thee. and I have also. T. MAHABHARATA the Danavas had multiplied and barriers and distinctions^ the powerful Slandhatri. desire to see the first of gods. and (Brahman) the Creator among of the worlds and Kshattriya duties. are distinguished above them. however observant they may the original god. For this reason Kshattriya duties to be the foremost of all. Kingly flowed from from his body. If that first and energy. nor of inconceivable energy.. The high discourse took place between that lion among kings and that illustrious god in the kings swept away all monarch. devotion. Vishnu. The Supreme Lord. I wish to earn religious merit. said. I have earned many regions of exercising inexhaustible merit in the other world. viz. with those of the Vana- be of their duties. If the divine Vishnu t The sense seems to be that having failed. Narayana. heroism thou hast thy senses under control. for thou art the fore. Infinite were of life. thus seeking to behold that Ancient and First of gods. and end. performed a great sacrifice from desire of beholding the puissant Narayana. ! For the sake also of thee whatsoever boons thy intelligence. O In days of old when That ruler of the Earth. Accompanied by many good he offered his adorations to that puissant deity. Neither myself.. middle. and thou art possessed of Thou seekest unflinchingly to do what is agreeable to the gods. } i. touching Vishnu of great effulgence. that god of gods. they waited upon Vishnu. fchou art devoted to righteous- ness . by acting according to Kshattriya duties. foremost of virtuous persons. In days of old.e. however. In that sacrifice he worshipped with humility the great Vishnu. O divine Lord I bend my Without I Casting (earthly) desires. may be desired by thee I I shall grant "Mandhatri doubt. In them are included all other duties. . bacame king. What is your object. then the Brahmanas. cannot easily attain the highest rewards of duty. off all said. and infinite illusions ? I shall Brahman himself. The fruits of all those Kingly duties. would all have been destroyed. and to lead the ! of life.144 morality and profit. king Mandhatri. assuming the form of Indra. form of Indra. showed himself unto him. that have flowed from the first of gods 1 "Indra said. without beginning. that path of the good.

having duly waited upon their preceptors and acquired great learning. he should be thoroughly impartial. Persons that do not regard wholesome restraints and that are governed by lust and wrath.8ANTI PARVA foremost of gods had not. O king. For causing all the orders to be observant of their respective duties. then all the duties of the four orders and all the duties in respect of the four modes oi life would all have been destroyed in consequence of the destruction of Brahmanas. In adjucating upon ordinary questions of (between his subjects). rescuing them from danger. Kshattriya duties are the foremost of first in the world. these to be the foremost of his duties. do not commit overt acts of sin from fear of kings. Abandonment (gift) is Of all kinds of abandonsaid by the sages to be the foremost of virtues. and which are the foremost of all duties. a disregard for begging. in consequence of the same influence. desirous acquiring religious merit. like thee. which include in their exercise all other duties. should. engaged in battle with one another. compassion for all creatures. The king. all creatures live happily in the world. If those duties are not ruin. possessed of such energy. at last cast off their bodies. latter. should regard viz. It was by the exercise of Kshattriya duties that they were revived. they had to eternal emancipation. means and text has The Bengal reading satwatah seems satwatah>T. Eor this reason Kshattriya duties are regarded to be righteous. all these occur among Kshattriya duties practised by kings. all duties. by putting forth his prowess. Without doubt. 14 so high-souled and so employed in seeking the good all of the world. affairs of the world. the duties of Brahmanas in respect of attaining to Brahma The life kingly duties. Those eternal duties. is the foremost. in performing all their duties. and protection of subjects. Others that are docile and of righteous behaviour succeed. fertilizing it. ever observant of Kshattriya duties. should lead a life of domesticity which is always meritorious. The Bombay . Thou hast seen with thy own eyes how the rulers of the Earth. should be observed by persons that are. after having gone through the Brahmacharyya mode. for the diverse contrivances and to be an error. Themselves eternal. again. tion reclaiming the land for cultiva- performance of great sacrifices for cleansing himself. protection of men. subjugated the Earth with all her Asuras. creatures would be overtaken by properly discharged. that of the body in battle. relieving the distressed and the oppressed. protected by kings exercising Kahattriya duties like children protected by their parents. for the right protection they afford to * all. of The Kshattriya. regarded as the embrace the protection of every creature. which are. are all protected by on this account.* In every Yuga. possessed of compassion for all creatures. are regarded as the foremost. The eternal duties (of men) had all suffered destruction. however. Casting away These. in battle. Kshattriya duties.. knowledge of the first set in. SECTION LXV 'Indra said. and ment.

the duties of heroes. the Tusharas. All the robber and recluses living in the woods. the Andhras. should. which include all other duties within their scope. in the Vedas.* Those men who disregard all wholesome restraints and who are too much attached to the pursuit of worldly objects are said the exercise They are compelled to act with justice by Those duties. If not engaged in his proper acts. therefore. are the foremost of all.146 MAHABHABATA the prowess and exertion ( with which they seek the accomplishment of their objects ). . the Paundras. he should be punished The duties of the four modes of life and the ritual prescribed like a Sudra. the Palhavas. is like Dharma's That Brahmana who is employed in acts that are not laid down for self. The duties and rites inculcated in the Vedas should also be followed by them. are said to be the foremost. For these reasons They are. (and dedicate them to service). he should not be trusted. The other orders are able to observe their respective duties in consequence of kingly duties. before everything else be observed to be of the nature of brutes. and those mode of life that have been laid down for Brahmanas. His religious merit grows in consequence of his acts. should ever be followed by a he has no other duties. suppression of wrath. For this reason the former are said to be dependent upon the latter in respect of the merit they produce. as I also. If a Brahmana acts otherwise. Abstention from injury. that reside in the dominions of (Arya) kings? What are those duties again to the observance of which kings like ourselves should force those tribes that subsist by robbery ? I desire to hear all this 1 O illustrious god. supporting Brahmanas and kinsmen by giving universal is explained by Nijakantba to mean Kshatlriya dharmena. him. a Kshattriya should nofc make any arrangement for sustenance. Even these are the duties of Kshattriyas. the Ramathas. king. the Kamvojas. Kshattriyas should take care of them so that their observance may be improved. What duties should be performed by the Yavanas. of instruct I me I chief of all the deities. and the Sudras. tribes should also serve their kings. their preceptors and other seniors. the Barbaras. the Gandharas. Brahmana. These are the duties that appertain to the several orders. the Savaras. Know that For a Brahmana acting otherwise. the the Kankas. Kshatfcriya duties. kingly duties and no others. deserves no respect. give away beds and make other seasonable presents unto Brahmanas. truth.-T. the Chinas. Madrakas. the Vaisyas. "Indra All the robber tribes should serve their mothers and fathers. by every Brahmana. the Sakas. dig wells. the Kiratas. of kingly duties. give water to thirsty travellers. thou art the friend us Kshattriyas said. They should perform sacrifices in honour of the Pitris. the several castes that have sprung up from Brahmanas and Kshattriyas. the Pulindas. That course of conduct which has been prescribed for Brahmanas who follow the three Vedas. are said to be the foremost of all. indeed. believe. and they that are heroes ! are foremost in practising them "Mandhatri said. A Brahmana.

sinless one. intended the rule men of duties. The very gods do not disregard a virtuous king who is truly an eternal god. and libations. making presents to Brahmanas at sacrifices of every kind. were laid and wealth. The gifts. less one. aided by bis understanding. sinless repaired to his eternal abode of inexhaustible felicity. having created the universe. cleansed soul and learning is there that would disregard the Like blind men lost on the way. seen living in disguise In the world of men. purity. peacefulneeg. Disregarding the Puranas and the high truths of religion. that thou art quite which the com- . The divine Lord Kshattriya respect to of all creatures. will deviate into wrong paths. These and similar duties. the divine and puissant Narayana in the form of Indra. and innumerable Bhikshus will appear with sectyrial marks of different kinds. maintenance of wives and children. all creatures became exceedingly of kings. one. down ! for all others should be done by persons O king "Mandhatri of life. then religion. watches the course of the duties performed by men. such wicked men may be among all the four orders and in all the four modes of kingly "Indra said. a confusion will set in. should be practised by every person of this class who desires his own prosSuch a person should also perform all kinds of Paka-yajnas with costly presents of food one. urged by lust and wrath. O sinless down laid in olden days for persons of this class. of the man that disregards the king who is superior to every one. become fruitless. duties as "Bhisbma continued. what man Kshattriya of ? practised by the good had such a course way in days of old. consequence the tyranny After the expiry of this the Krita age. creatures acting and abstain- ing unrighteously adhere to that circle petent to do this " !' meet with destruction. becomes firmly established. men. O (of duties) that was first ! tiger among men. are duties that perity. When sinful men are restrained (from wicked acts) by high-souled persons with the aid of the science of chastisement. accompanied by the Maruts. such supervision rest Kshattriya duties ! Upon 'Having said these words. and offerings to the Fitris. regarding the different modes of life. and which is the source of everything good. in Upon the disappearance of duties and afflicted. which is superior to everything and eternal.SANTI PARVA 14? them their dues. regarding their inclinations and disinclinations in I respect and worship that person who. of the sin- science of chastisement. When. said. do thou and to set agoing ancients had recourse I know. All these acts of also which have been the robber class.

f That king who is who makes gifts to deserving persons on proper possessed knowledge. are foremost son of Kunti. ordinance. T_ now to those duties about which Bhishma having acquired omniscience here. the merit (that a king acquires) in consequence of the duties practised by others leading other modes of life. to the best of his power. "Bhishma said. who rules with the aid of the science of Yudhishthira. for taking * Nilakantha thinks that this verse to mean Lingantargatam means omniscient. and services rendered to one's own teacher. who daily makes offerings unto the Pitris. attains. that belong to persons practising the duties of the four t modes foremost of men. and who looks equally on all creatures. attains to the object of the Garhastya mode of life. O tiger among men. attains to the object of the same mode of life. occasions. viz. T. attach. In consequence of the creatures. O son of Kunti.SECTION LXVI "Yudhishthira said. f That nhiflftf. attains. his kinsmen and relatives and friends. attains to the object of the Vanaprashtha mode of life. and who has tranquillity of soul. who conducts himself in all things according to the injunctions of the scriptures.* ^Ailthejnerits. of 'Thou hasfe human life. who knows how to favour and punish. and large offerings unto all living creatures including men. Do thou discourse on them in detail Yudhishthira of mighty-arms. Bhaikshya mode of life. That king. and accordingly attains to the object of the Sannyasa mode Study of the Vedas every day. 'Listen it He is thou askest my omniscient self. who rescues from distress. That king. to the object of the f artha. That king. what thou askest. That king who silently recites his mantras every day and who always worship the gods according to the of life. That king who on every occasion honours those that are foremost among men and those that tha Bhaikshya mode of life. who grinds the kingdoms of others attains to the object of the same mode of protection of all for life. protecting the righteous. lead to the attainment of the object of Brahmacharyya. The interpretation seems to be . all the duties that are practised in this world by the righteous are known to thee as they are foremost of virtuous persons. mode tiger among men. listen now to me about known to me. forgiveness. of life. chastisement. attains to the object of the Vanaprastha of life. and worship of preceptors. O among Yatis. !' I desire to know more of spoken to me about the four modes them. in Rr/xfotw/r. refers to very far-f etched. A king who is not governed by lust and hate. a king earns the merit of as many sacrifices as the number of creatures protected. Vanaprashtha mode of life. to the object of the Garhastya That king who engages in battle with the resolve of protecting his kingdom or meeting with death. That king who always worships those that are deserving of worship by attains to the object of of the giving them their due.' through Krishna's boon. to righteous kings. to the object of Yudhishthira. completely attains.. as also of the proper protection of his own king- dom. son of Kunti.

O tiger among men. of all the modes of life. and treating them with food. is said. O tiger among men. O Yudhishthira. 149 That king who gives unto persons leading a Vanapraetha and unto Brahmanas versed in the three Vedas. by observing the duties of his country and those of his family. The conclusions in respect of ife is superior to all the other * I. and those old men that deserve honour. O Yudhishthira. become equally sinless one.8ANTI PABVA mode mode of life. attains to the object of the Yanaprastha mode of life. who while king. Bharata. Kuru's race. wanting. rlnfina T . The king obtains a share of the the merits of all the modes of life. all who affords relief to all That king. are the domestic duties of a king and these constitute his best penances. That king. the race or family which deserves Yudhishthira.. such a man acquires the merits of all the modes of life. which we have adopted. son of Kunti. proper seasons bestows upon righteous persons affluence or gifts of value. That king cwho duly adheres the Creator. Inviting to this home. do not protect the then take the sins of the righteous people within their dominions. O son of Kunti. Yudhishthira.' 'Keeps his eye on the duties of all men/ i. attains to the object of the Garhastya creatures mobile and immobile. O tiger among men. earns the merits. The learned say modes of life. who shows compassion to the young and the old. persons that have betaken themselves to that Vanaprastba and other modes of life. in whom no virtue is down by That king. Garhastya mode of life. is said Vanaprastha and all the office or rank which deserves honour.* A king. That king who at merits earned under his protection by righteous people in his dominions. constitute the domestic ) acquired a knowledge of duties of a king. protection.e. and fear still keeps his eye on the duties of all menj overcome with danger earns the merits of all the modes of life. On the other hand.e. O perpetuater oppressed people that seek his of life.l__ j:>Un^ A nt fU A . favors and inflicting punishments upon the wives and brothers elder and younger and upon their sons and grandsons. under every circumsof life tance. Those men also. O son of Kunti. T. a king. and honours them as they mode of life. who assist kings (in protecting their subjects). they latter (of omission and commission). if kings. That king who displays compassion towards all creatures and abstains entirely from cruelty. attains to the objects of every of mode of life. honour. fo live in all by the learned to be a person in the observance of the the other modes of life. attains to the object of the Garhastya mode That king Bestowing who protects deserve. That king. acquires. to a share of the merits earned by others (in consequence of that that the Garhastya. protection). t Dasadharmagatam is explained by Nilakantha as 'overcome with fear &c. By honouring those that are righteous and deserving of worship and protecting those that have (by their penances attains to the object of the self. attains to the objects of all the modes of life. protects all men in i. entitled.. that foremost of men. to the duties laid life. That king who duly honours the modes of life. obtains the blessed merits of all the modes of son of Kunti.

without being taken as used for intelligence. J ness cannot dwell. the worst it is in which anarchy prevails becomes weak In kingdoms torn by anarchy. O eldest son of Pandu. engaged discharging the duty of protection. righteous- possible of states.^ Becoming cheerful by meditation and by restraining and other passions of the heart. the diverse duties of thou adhere to kingly duties that are eternal and that have been practised by great men since days of old. after. Anidram is explained by Nilakantha as a prevails. may be taken to mean 'the quality of goodness' as well. 1 me now. tiger four among men. MAHABHARATA It is certainly sacred. succeeds in obtaining great merit. t In this and the preceding verse. When the principle of desire in his heart is withdrawn from every earthly object. the By exercising the duty of protection only. kingdom where anarchy T. with kingly duties as his boat passed of great speed. therefore. A person who is desirous of prosperity should worship the king as he should worship Indra himself. as also all other men. No one should dwell in kingdoms torn by anarchy. having the scriptures for its tackle and intelligence for the strength of its helms- by the power of righteousness. An anarchy is The Srutis declare that in crowning a king. thou. nyastadandah would T. sleeplessness being its certain indication. Satwa. Do have now described. 'The ( election and ) coronation of a king is the first duty of a kingdom. crowned ( in the person of the king ). O tiger among men. grandsire. is Indra that The inhabitants devour one another. Do Yudhishthira. In this state he soon man. 11 earned by 'I men. a king. J T. thou mayst then. Agni does nofc convey (to the gods) the libations that are poured upon'him in kingdoms * If this verse has a reference to kings.* A king can easily cross the ocean of the world. what are the principal duties of a kingdom. Bharata. 'Thou hast said what the duties are Tell of the four modes of life and of the four orders. who never does any harm and has his wrath under control. . A kingdom and is soon afflicted by robbers. and kept afloat attains to desire in Brahma.150 are very clear. he is then regarded as one resting on his understanding alone. "Bhishma said. That man who regards all creatures to be like his own self. is king earns merit that is a hundred times greater than what recluses in their asylums within the wood. urged on by the breeze of gifts. exert thyself carefully in protecting Brahmanas of pious deeds and devoted to the study of the Vedas. obtains great happiness both here and heretiger among men. If thou ernployest thyself with concentrated attention to the duty of protecting ( thy subjects ). obtain the merits " modes of life and of all the four orders of men !' of all the SECTION LXVII "Yudhishthira said. mean one who punishes without wrath. O son of Pandu.

He again. he may exterminate all. the people should go forward and receive the invader with respect. I fear all sinful acts. For these reasons the gods there were no king on Earth for wielding the rod of chastisement. There is no evil greater than anarchy. everything will on the other hand. men should bend before those that are powerful. hero. For these men desirous of prosperity should (elect and) crown some person as their king. saying. Appoint some one as our king I us shall worship him and he shall protect us Thus solicited. lord. he wishes for a king. the Grandsire asked Manu. he be engaged. Manu. The wealth of one is snatched away by two.' said. ! 1 metals and a tenth part desirous of wedding. has not to suffer any torture (at the hands of the gardener). therefore.SANTI PARVA 151 where anarchy prevails. Guided by these instances. from desire of annexing them to his dominions. If If. has not any torture whatever. "Manu behaviour. "The inhabitants of the Earth then said unto Do not fear The sins that men commit will touch those only that commit them (without staining thee in the least) For the increase of thy treasury. met with destruc- the water. us that men. snatched away by slave. did not assent to the proposal. howIt is ever. The wood that bends easily does nor be heated. however. evident. assembling together. they made such a compact and lived for some time. he who seduces or abducts other people's wives or robs the wealth that belongs to others. The man that bends his to suffer require to reasons. The tree that bends easily. That cow which cannot be easily milked has to suffer much torture. It one another like stronger fishes devouring the weaker ones hath been heard by us that a few amongst them then. the strong the weak after the manner of fishes in the water. difficult. we will give thee a fiftieth part of our animals and precious him. the sinful man derives great pleasure by robbing the wealth of other people. give . in days of old. Some conduct would be consistent with wise counsels. be right. when the question down comes up. Without a king. made certain compacts. ! divine All of we are going to destruction. many acting together. enjoy their where anarchy prevails cannot During times of anarchy. devouring in would then have preyed on It hath been heard by anarchy. He who becomes harsh in speech. head to a powerful person really bends his head to Indra. For inspiring confidence among all classes of the people. saying. in consequence of tion. especially among men who To govern a kingdom is exceedingly are always false and deceitful in their "Bhishma continued. the powerful invader be inclined to equity. that cow which is capable of being easily milked. Assembling after some time they proceeded in affliction to the Grandsire. that in times of anarchy the very wicked even cannot be happy. should be cast off by us. On the other hand. When. If who is not a slave is made a created kings for protecting the people. If a powerful king approaches kingdoms weakened by anarchy. Women. are forcibly abducted. his (ill-got) wealth is snatched by others. That of those two is live in countries They who wealth and wives. of our grain ! When our maidens also will become o! we shall. or violent in temper.

and with passions become irresistible. and all utensils for use and show. He under control. thou wilt be our king and protect us happily A forth part of like Kuvera protecting the Yakshas and the Rakshasas thee the most beautiful ones become the foremost of the use ! 1 the merit which under thy protection will be thine that merit so easily obtained by thee. of all in Those amongst men who will weapons and in riding animals and other vehicles. Looked upon by others he should look at them mildly. possessed of great energy. like the gods eyeing the might of Indra. go out for winning victories. all his subjects become unhappy. and drinks. he should address others sweatly. he seemed then to blaze with prowess. like a rain-charged cloud (in its mission of beneficence). Addressed sweetly by others. and mansions. proceeded. those men on Earth who desire prosperity 1 first elect and crown a king for the protection of all Like disciples humbling themselves in the presence of the preceptors or the gods in the presence of Indra. shall proceed behind thee like the deities behind Indra With thy strength enhanced in this way. Grateful (to those that serve him). Beholding the might of Manu. and becoming invincible and possessed of great prowess. should be assigned to the king. Crush the pride of foes and let righteousness always triumph ( in the world ) ! Thus addressed by those inhabitants of the Earth. firmly devoted (to those that deserve his respect).162 MAHABHABATA among them. he should give unto others their due. accompanied by a large force. sweetly. O Yudhishthira. and seats. Manu then made his round through the world. checking everywhere all acts of wickedness and setting all men to their respective "Thus. and beds. Manu. while one If disregarded by his own is of regard with overridden by the king be overridden by his foes. should duties. and handsomely/" . Strengthened by O king. the inhabitants of the Earth became inspired with fear and set their hearts upon their respective duties. all men should humble themselves before the king. One foes. By such means the king will succeed in discharging his duties of protection (the better) and should speak with smiles. that is honoured by his own people becomes an object that is his foes also. Of high descent. do thou protect us. and viands. umbrellas and vehicles and outward ornaments. like He of a hundred sacrifices protecting the deities Like the will earn ! men ! Sun scorching everything with bis rays. Therefore.

by checking Achieving all disregard for wholesome restraints and all kinds of lust. seen to have their root in the king. As. In the absence of protection by the king. and if the latter refuse to surrender them with ease. the strong would forcibly appropriate the possessions of the weak. . food. enquired of the virtuous Vrihaspati about the ordinances in wisdom. humilities and having circumambulated the great sage and bowed unto him duly. with reference to any would be able to say This is mine. all creatures become unable to one another and sink in utter darkness if the sun and the moon do see not rise. is a god ?' "Bhishma said. O thou It is It is of great wis- through fear of the king that the king only that men do not devour one another. O king. may be 'Vrihaspati said. their Nobody then. 'Why. like a herd of cattle without the herdsman to look after them. he shines in glory. There was a king of Kosala. have the Brahmanas said that the king. On a certain occasion he questioned the great sage Vrihaspati of much Conversant with the requirements of humility. of the discourse of Vrihaspati unto Vasumanas. ' 'Vasumanas said.SECTION LXVIII "Yudhishthira said. robes and ornaments and precious stones and other kinds of property very lives would be taken. named Vasumanas. article in his possession. king Vasuever devoted to the welfare of all. the king did not protect. O bull of Bharata's race. respect of a kingdom. belonging to others.Ruin would overtake everything if the king did not exercise the duty of proWicked men would forcibly appropriate the vehicles and tection. Wwves. sons. O dom. possessed of great intelligence. brings peace on Earth. would not then exist. In the absence of royal protection men would disregard . by adoring whom do they succeed in obtaining eternal happiness ? Thus questioned by the Kosala king of immeasurable energy. diverse kinds of weapons would fall upon those that are righteous in their practices. The duties of all men. Vrihaspati of great wisdom discoursed unto him coolly about the respect that should be paid to kings. meet with destruction if they have no king to protect them. ? By what means do creatures grow and by what are they destroyed thou of great wisdom. and unrighteousness would be if adopted by all. O Bharata. as rishas in shallow water and birds in a spot safe from danger this. 'In this connection is cited the old story. and other kinds of property. that ruler of men. dart and rove as they please (for a time) and repeatedly attack and grind one another with force and then even so men sink in utter darkness and meet with certain destruction. through due observance of duties. having observed the proper manas. If the king did not exercise the duty of protection. moved by the desire of securing the happiness of men.

without seeking to right themselves by force.their very mothers and fathers if aged. because they can invoke the king to punish the offenders. inspired according to the ordinances would occur if the king did not exercise the duty of protection. if the king did not exercise the duty of protection. 1 The sense seems to be that men patiently bear the injuries inflicted upon them by others. and the very idea of property would disappear. an intermixture of castes would take place and famine would ravago the kingdom. r even injure ! all restrictions about marriage and intercourse (due to consanguinity . . would meet with destruction in no time. . . In the absence of royal protection. and men living by rearing kine would meet with destruction. and everybody. and all wholesome barriers would be swept away. T. The very bulls would not cover cows and milk-jars would not be churned. If the king did not protect. all In the absence of royal with fear and anxiety and becoming senseless and uttering cries of woe. In the absence of royal protection. If the king did not protect. far less actual assaults. men would snatch other people's wealth from their very hands. 1 If the duty of protection. . confinepersons possessed ment. the person guilty of Brahmani5 cide would enjoy perfect immunity. quence again of royal protection. if the . duly completed with presents according to the ordinance. Sacrifices. would no longer be performed no marriage would take place society itself would cease to exist. and other kinds of relationship) would cease all affairs relating to morality would sink agriculture and trade would fall into confusion and be lost and the three Vedas would disappear. would seek safety in flight. and persecution. and every part of the country would be overrun by robbers. If there were no kings. immediate vengeance for even the slightest injuries would by the universal practice. inspired with fear. Nobody would hear the evil speeches of others. No sacrifices extending for a year and completed with presents things. the slayer of a person guilty of the slaughter of a Brahmana would not obtain any reward on the other hand. In the absence of royal protection. the if king exercises the king did not righteously protect the earth. protection. all and guests and seniors preceptors of wealth would have to encounter death. everything would be exterminated prematurely. Men become righteous and without injuring serve one another because the king exercises the duty of protection. women decked with ornament may fearlessly wander everywhere without male relatives to attend upon them. their very If the king did not protect. men can everywhere sleep fearlessly and at their ease without shutting their houses and doors with bolts and bars. In the absence of royal protection Brahmanas would never study the four Vedas or undergo austerities or be cleansed by knowledge and rigid vows. and everybody would fall into terrible hell. In conse. all kinds of injustice would set in. king did not exercise the duty of protection.

who is happy. becoming hereafter. . he is then said to assume the form he destroys in wrath hundreds of wicked men with their sons. The world depends upon agriculture and trade and is protected by the Vedas.SANTI PABVA In consequence of royal protection the 155 of the members three orders are enabled perform high to the acquisition of learning with attention. because whenever a conflagration.- T. by acting against the king.T. indeed. attains to blessedness 2 The Wind there is IB said to be the charioteer of Fire. is for the general good. the king. aid of a mighty force. should ever spread evil reports about the king. When he gratifies When with profuse gifts of wealth to those that have rendered him valuable services. it.. blazing forth (among articles that are inflammable). 3 The wrath of the king. if whom anything to the person that incurs should be avoided from a distance1 !. and Yama. When does what of Aditya. The king assumes five different forms according to five different He becomes Agni. leaves not may leave a remnant. No man. and snatches away the wealth and precious stones of those that have offended him. deceived by falsehood. Aditya. Fire. no one should covet the possessions of the king. and relatives. O king. Who is there that will not worship him in whose existence the people exist and in whose destruction the people are destroyed ? duly protected by the king exercising his principal duty. the Wind. conquers both this and the other world. when hebestowsprosperity upon some and takes it away from others. 3 !. can ever make himself ness. That person who does what who agreeable and beneficial to the king and bears (a share of) the burden of kingly duties that strike every is caste with fear. who desires the acquisition of virtue. however. he is then said to assume the form of Agni. When he restrains the wicked by inflicting upon them severe punishments and favours the righteous by bestowing rewards upon them.. Vaisravana. he is then. having the wind for his urger. he is then said to assume the form of Yama.. 1 That man who even thinks of doing an injury to the king. No one should disregard the king by taking him for a man. without doubt meets with grief here and goes to hell hereafter. 3 Whatever belongs to the king One should turn away from what foremost and happy here. aids in extending it. All these again are sacrifices to and devote themselves Since the taking a heavy load upon himself. for he is really a high divinity in human form. it is for this that the people are able to live in happiness. grandsons. he is then said to assume the form of the Destroyer. When he observes through his spies the acts of all persons and occasions. Mrityu. burns with his fierce energy the sinful offenders before him. protects his subjects with the king. T. No person who is possessed of clevercapable of work. appearing. and who is free from malice. even or one he happens to be the king's son or brother or companion the king regards as his second self. said to assume the form of Kuvera on Earth..

The king should entertain the man who is loyal. lord of Earth. loyal. possessed of self-control. viz. That best of monarchs. giver of happiness. virtuous. who desires his wholesome restraints.* SECTION LXIX "Yudhishthira king to discharge ? said. On the other hand. should always be attached to the king. in his acts. obtains an eternal abodi in heaven. wivi How and sons. the heroic Vasumanas. brave. with attention to the diverse those acts which the king or one that is in th< position of a king should first do. Knowledge makes men proud. he is Those men. the foremost of all. The king should duly honour the minister who is grateful. who is possessed oi under control. thus instructed by Vrihaspati the son of Angiras. endued with wisdom. he is their great refuge . who has his soul he master of his passions.foes ? The conquesl the aggregate of five. The king their glory is : the heart of his people . of self-restraint. and having adored the gods by great sacrifices. the king. magnanimous and competent to accomplish tasks without the assistant of others. possessed of mastery over his senses. The man who is afflicted by the king can never obtain happiness. bega] " thenceforth to protect his subjects. the man who is favoured by the king becomes happy. viz. and observant ol the dictates of policy. king that has succeeded in subduing his senses is competent t< . A person by appropriating what belongs to the king speedily meets with destruction like a deer upon touching poison. How should a king who has not beei to "Bhishma O able to conquer his of these. possessor of prosperity. virtuous.156 MAHABHABATA belongs to the king as he would from death itself.. large-hearted. his own servants. healer of injuries. Having governed the Earth with the aid of the qualitiei and he is their highest happiness. who are attached to the king. The king should first subdue himsell and then seek to subdue his foes. rule] of Kosala. Who adored by such terms as delighter of the people. monarch. grateful. and protector of men own prosperity. is regarded as the conquest of self. who observes ? all That man.. and who is clever (in the transaction of intelligence business). and friendship. They that appropriate wealth belonging to the king sink senseless into a deep hell of eternal gloom is there that will not worship the king who is and infamy. succeed in conquering both this and th< other world. who is and memory. The own self be able to conquer his . The king makes men humble. O Bharata said. What other special duties remain for th< should he protect his kingdom and how sul due his foes ? How should he employ his spies ? How should he inspin confidence in the four orders of his subjects. earning great glory. therefore. ?' duties of kings. The man of intelligence should protect as his own what belongs to the king. O monarch. truth. 'Listen.

and pleasure gardens. A king should have nothing to do with that person who can neither benefit nor injure him. possessed of greater prowess. and concourses of people. should place bodies of foot-soldiers in his forts. if any advantage is to be derived from it. . in places where he holds his own court. in shops possessed of intelligence foes. or one weaker for the protection of his ever live in subjection to another A king should not for own capital.' T. and in the houses of the citizens. in meetings and conclaves of the learned. in his pleasure gardens and parks. as also in places where he himself ! goes. 'without friends'. and resolved upon this. He should also.SAJSTI resist PABVA J57 his foes. the king should make peace with those that are possessed of stronger ! When every accomplishment. by a survey of his own. like idiots or like those that are blind and deaf. the king may derive much benefit. than himself. should. spies among beggars. capable of great exertion. at the head of a large force. These should all be persons who have been thoroughly examined (in respect of their tiger ability). and in dominions of the chiefs under him. and who are able to endure hunger and spies upon attention. in the country. continue to rule his own. parks. should afflict the kingdom of the stronger one by means of weapons. O he should then. The king bull of O Bharata's race. His spies should be so employed that they may not know one another. Engage in protecting his kingdom with righteousness. and Vyasaktam is 'engaged with another. having 1 first made arrangements fire and application of poison. He all frontiers. at war 1 Kalya means able or strong. his own strength. cheerfully and with courage give the order to march. or with one who cannot rescue himself from distress. virtuous. and within his own should employ as spies men looking palace. As regards military operations a king who is confident of. the king finds himself threatened with danger and about to be overtaken by ruin. If ! may thus ascertain the spies despatched by his Pandu that is these be known. 2 Tatparah is explained. delighter of the O Kurus. know the spies of his foes by himself setting and places of amusement. T. without proclaiming his destination against one destitute of allies and friends or already at war with another and (therefore) heedless (of danger from other quarters). by Nilakantha as Karshanaparah. even when he knows that he is not weak. son of When the king. he should slay all offenders whom he had overlooked before and all such persons as are pointed at by the people. in public places. the king should set his his counselors and friends and sons. He should also cause dissensions allies'. and honest.Though weak. anakrandam is 'without anantaram inaang. O among men He who are thirst. he should seek to afflict 2 He the stronger. towns. in his city and the With proper provinces. finds himself weak. consulting with his counselors make peace with a foe The king that is wise should speedily make peace with a foe. all possessed of wisdom.

For hearing the complaints and answers of disputants in judicial suits. O incomes of his subjects as tribute for meeting the expenses of protecting them. the king should always appoint persons possessed of wisdom and a knowledge of the affairs of the world. The acquisition of dominion should be made by the three well-known means (of conciliation. he should cause the inhabitants of the open country to take refuge in such forts as are well-protected. cause whole villages to be removed. the former. and elephant corps. if necessary. engaged in penances. transplanting all the inhabitants to minor towns or the outskirts of great cities. and. should take a sixth of the forcibly take and disunion. He should set the inhabitants of the woods on the high roads. own children. delighter of the Kurus. Assembling his friends for consultation. If the king foils to administer justice. The king that is possessed of wisdom should be gratified with those acquisitions that amongst and servants. cause them to be poisoned. he should own troops. Repeatedly assuring his wealthy subjects and the principal officers of the army. He should himself withdraw all stores of grain (from the open country into his forts). and disunion). The king should be conversant with the Vedas and their branches. ferries. he by a stronger should seek refuge in a intelligence. and trustworthy men over his mines. out. In determining their disputes. gift. salt. the scriptures. of intelligence should are made by means of conciliation. The king who always wields with the rod of chastisement earns great merit. He should bale out the waters of all the tanks in his dominions. possessed of wisdom. much or little (as the case in from the ten kinds of offenders mentioned require). fort. possessed of a king be afflicted he should devise means for waging on war with the assailant. set honest upon a proper administration of justice. He should set men for destroying the crops on the fields of the enemy (by producing disunion among the enemy's subjects). how- A ever. without doubt. Disregarding the in he should. of his Failing to do this. for the may his subjects as his king should. if in a king. view of . If can neither have heaven nor fame. or. If that becomes impossible. The proper propriety regulation of chastisement is the high duty of kings and deserves great applause. for the state really rests The king should grain. All these qualities should permanently reside one. He should also away wealth. he should not show compassion. he should devise proper means. He should destroy all destroy those crops by means the bridges over the rivers in his kingdom. if incapable of baling them duty of protecting his both present and future circumstances.168 MAHABHABATA his counsellers Vrihaspati has said that a king always avoid war for acquisition of possessed territory. The king. gift. and devoted to the performance of sacrifices. Adopting the policy of conciliation and of producing dissensions. charitable. seek the protection of the ruler of another kingdom who may happen friends. he should destroy them completely by fire. look upon protection of his subjects.

and charcoal and munja grass. 2 Chaitya trees are those that are regarded holy and unto which worship is offeree! by the people. . No fire should be ignited during the day. should be so ordered that their sites may not be known to others. A king who is afflicted by a hostile army should gather wealth. arsenals. Fires kept within the houses of the inhabitants should be well covered. in assemblies. driving pointed stakes at their bottom and filling them with crocodiles and sharks. he should. withdraw (into a place of safety) all the stores of grass and straw. the greater gates. grass He supply of water to the garrison. T. evil will follow. and clarified butter. T. He should order all food to be cooked at night. and store oil and fat and honey. the keeping of streets Depots (of diverse camps and quarters for soldiers. 4eaves. arrows. O Yudhishthira. trenches. stations for horses and elephants. except for the daily homa. He trees to be lopped off. the king should set competent spies. and others. and if it is the summer month. are eighteen in number. houses and gardens for retirement and pleasure. of air. He should raise outer ramparts round his forts. in tirthas. The small 3 Nilakantha thinks that ucchata means breath or air. weapons of every kind such as darts. Particular care should be taken of the fires in smitheries and lying-in rooms. poisoned arrows. He should cause the branches of all the larger touch the very leaves of those called Chaitya. He should destroy all the smaller forts in his should also cut down all the smaller trees excepting those He 2 that are called Chaitya. fuel. and carefully make arrangements for their defence like that of 3 In all his gates he should plant destructive engines. necessaries). are directed to be kept for the admission &o. should store wood for fuel and dig and repair wells foi He should cause all houses made of and straw to be plastered over with mud. and places for the distriwide roads to be constructed eunuch. swords. from fear of fire. scribes and draftsmen. The king should store such 1 I follow Nilakantha in reading this verse. During such times. lunatics. to be opened at proper stations. for if bution of water. and order shops. and fill his trenches with water. doors. should.it should be proclaimed that condign punishment will overtake the person who ignites fires by the day time. and in the houses of the 4 The king should cause citizens. such as the council-room. grass. but he should not should keep small openings in his walls for making sallies from his fort. 1 kingdom. T. of the town.SANTI PABVA to be the foe of his foe 169 his foe and who may be competent to deal with on the field of battle. lances. and medicines of all kinds. with enclosures in them. encampments of soldiers. all beggars. O foremost of men. and bypaths. For the effectual protection of the city. be driven out they are permitted to remain. He should plant on the ramparts (of his forts) Salaghnis and other weapons. In places of public resort. 4 The tirthas T. he thinks. and mimes.

and the great blessedness of the science of chastisement. and Pleasure. They are decrease. a king succeeds in ruling the Earth for ever. be they his servants or counselors or citizens or neighbouring monarchs. MAHABEARATA He should especially keep ready drugs of every kind. as I describe. O Bharata.' "Bhishma said. These should be pursued judiciously. to what has been called the aggregate of six. marching to battle. 'There is the science of chastisement. Listen. Listen to me as I recite them. his friends. The high aggregate of three consists of Virtue. i. that a king 1 A pays off his debt when he discomfits his foe or slays him outright. forces people to virtuous acts. What are penances to that king. These He are ruling in paace after concluding a treaty (with the foe). Listen now with attention to what has been called the triple aggregate. a king attains to great in heaven. tha four kinds of physicians. By the aid of virtue. maintenance of what is. O tiger among men. it the four orders attend to their 1 Pays off his debt. 2 The ablative has here the sense of "towards-" T. his counsellers. O Yudhishthira. O grandsire.160 articles. O son of Devaki. Earth. the triple aggregate. should with care protect his kingdom which consists of these seven limbs. preparedness for war with readiness and alliance with others. It has wealth and other proportionate gifts been laid down in the scriptures. his treasury. his provinces. foe with fear. what advantage is derived by one of these from the others.. 2 When Duly administered. Listen to me. should reward those that have aided in After any task of the king has been accomplished. . and growth. there is the king. king should take care of seven things. Tell me. concentration of forces for inspiring the for p?ace. in sacred words of grave import. athletes. and his capital. Angirasa's son Vrihaspati himself has sung two Blessed be thou. roots and fruits. Profit. The king should lose no time in bringing under his control such persons as may happen to inspire him with fear. They are his own self. succeeds in winning the sovereignty of the whole Earth. producing disunion among the foe. and the high aggregate of three. Having discharged his duties and having protected the having also protected his cities. Touching verses. O delighter of the Kurus. O king. his machinery for awarding punishments. That king. and what need happiness has he of sacrifices who protects his people properly ? Such a king should be regarded as one conversant with every virtue !' "Yudhishthira said. he its accomplishment with and thankful speeches.-T.e. and persons capable of assuming diverse disguises. it behoveth thee to hear this all them. who is conversant with the aggregate of six. actors and dancers. He should decorate his capital and gladden all his subjects. The science of chastisement forces all men to the obser- vance of the duties of their respective orders. matter. discharges his obligations to the subjects. and there are the subjects.

The hearts of the men belonging to all the four orders do not take any pleasure in unrighteousness. When the king rules with a the king that complete and strict reliance on the science of chastisement. fruits. plants Earth yields crops but waits for tillage. know that men become truly happy such times ! makes the age. and roots. according to their respective duties. Barks. T. The voice. acquiring the objects All the become productive of merit. yields crops by half. If the would mean "the age called Krita that comes . Krita age. truth is that the king makes the age. Wives do not become widows. oppresses his subjects by that sets in is called Kali. and minds of Diseases disappear and all men all men become clear and cheerful. Nothing but Know these to be the characteristics. the age totally." to be sreshtham and not sriMavn. When of all the orders. All the seasons become delightful and free from evil. exists. Nothing of unrighteousness exists then.SANTI PARVA respective duties. and Brahmanas The correct reading seems it latter reading be perferred. leaving out the other half. when the people become freed from all fear. or. and the three higher all when orders endeavour. and no person becomes a miser. and herbs and plants grow in luxuriance. called Dwapara. by adopting lives of and preserve those already Men fail to acquire the objects they desire of the four orders takes place. The earth yields crops without being tilled. and minds of men lose vigour. The voice. Intermixture All the seasons cease to be delightful and become fruits* to produce fraught with evil. when peace and happiness are made to flow from the science of chastisement. the fore1 Righteousness sets in most of ages called Krita is then said to set in. become Vedic rites vigorous and abundant. become long-lived. it is The is a question about which thou shouldst not entertain any doubt. pronunciation. The Earth requires tillage and the king. The herbs and The grow (depending upon tillage). unrighteousness becomes full and nothing of righteousness is seen. The hearts of men. A train of such observance (of the great science) by three-fourths. it is the age that makes the king. 1 mendicancy. A moiety of unrighteousness follows in the train of such observance of the great science by half. 161 wholesome barriers are maintained. Vedic rites fail acquired. to maintain Whether harmony. all men succeed in they desire and preserving those that have been acquired. righteousness thira. abandoning the great science evil means of diverse kinds. fall away from their respective duties. When the king observes the great science then the age that sets in is by only a half. No unrighteousness is seen. During the age called Kali. in Time's course. Without doubt. pronunciation. leaves. O Yudhish! of the Krita age When the king relies upon only three of the four parts of the science of chastisement leaving out a fourth. the age fourth part of unrighteousness follows in the called Treta sets in. live Sudraslive by serving others.

protects all men like the mother and the father protecting their Know. The king should observe his duties without wrath and malice. "Bhishma but should not make gifts to have prowess without cruelty. that the very lives of creatures depend upon it. thou will surely difficult of acquisition. A virtuous person. If he causes the Krita age. He should He should make alliance. the Kshatriya possessed of of his merits. AH kinds of moisture also fail. sin. should never employ persons not devoted to him as his spies and . protect thy subjects righteously. Keeping the great science in his view. he rots in hell for innumerable years. both here and hereafter. he attains to everlasting heaven.162 MAHABHAEATA Disease appear. with the ! aid of that great science By protecting a conduct. can certainly acquire great merit. and crops fail. for sinking in the sins of his subjects. by attending to those qualities. 'By adopting that conduct. the king incurs a heavy load of Stained by wickedness. those that are wicked. The king is the creator of the Krita age. when the king does not. He should have faith. The highest merit a king can acquire is acquaintance children. He should pursue pleasure without attachments. He should not abandon kindness. and which truly upholds the world and sets it agoing. The king is the cause of the fourth age (called Kali). which is the groundwork of all wholesome distinctions. and be brave without brag. and men die prematurely. learning should strive protect those that to acquire those objects which he have been already acquired. The science all desires and of chastise- ment. he acquires heaven for a period that is limited. can a king succeed in easily acquiring. O bull among men. They are connected with thirty-six others. with the science of chastisement and administering it properly. he incurs great sin and infamy himself. fore. O thou that art conversant with every kind of behaviour. He should. ThereO thou of Kuru's race. Wives become widows. and many cruel men are seen. The clouds do not pour seasonably. persons that are unobserving. objects productive of happiness in the end ? "There are these thirty-six virtues (which a king should observe). and of the Dwapara. which establishes men in the observance of their respective duties. avoiding He He should not act with hostility towards friends. He should be liberal said. If he causes the Dwapara. utter what is agreeable. if pioperly administered. with proper attention to the great science protect the subjects. If he causes the Treta age. of the Treta." thy subjects and adopting such attain to such blessedness in heaven as is SECTION LXX "Yudhishthira said. with cheerfulness. He should acquire wealth without persecution and cruelty. he attains to blessedness in heaven according to the measure By causing the Kali age.

those eternal duties in brief. He should wait (upon his seniors) with humility. possessed of great intelligence. Having slain he should never indulge in sorrow. Thou shouldst worship those Brahmanas that are devoted to their duties." SECTION LXXI "Yudhishthira said. He should not cherish malice* He should protect his wedded wives. He He should. and serve his preceptors and seniors with sincerity. "Hearing these words of Santanu's son. He should never inflict punishment without careful enquiry. for if I were to mention them in detail. ves all these virtues that I The That king who obserhave mentioned. he should not abandon him. He should be mild. He should not indulge much in female companionship. O grandsire. disclose his purposes before persons that are wicked. in what way should and so as not the king protect his subjects so as to be able to avoid grief to offend against righteousness ?' "Bhishma said. Conduct thyself thus his foe if while ruling thy kingdom king that behaves otherwise incurs great danger. He should repose confidence on others but never on those that have injured him. possessed of learning. but never to those that have offended. never. regular in worshipping the gods. thou shouldst rise up sacrifices. and endued with other accomplishments. He should seek prosperity. He should comfort men and never send them away with empty speeches.' Vaisampayana continued. and employ them in tjfficiating in thy With thy priest accompanying thee. I would never attain to their end. "Tell me. He should be pure and should not always be melted by compassion. but never do anything that brings infamy. docile in receiving instructions.SANTI PABVA secret agents. but should never do so when there is no occasion. He should never disclose his counsels. when they come to thy abode. He should never employ or take the assistance of persons that are wicked. should speak of the merits of others but never his own. should worship the gods without pride. Having favoured a person. . He should take wealth from his subjects but never from those that are good. O king. He should without pride pay regards to those that deserve them. 163 He should never accomplish his objects by persecution. He should display wrath. king Yudhishthira. 'I shall recite. He should take food that is wholesome and never that which lis otherwise. He should never strike in ignorance. then worshipped his gcandsire and from that time began to rule according to that teaching. and protected by Bhima and others. observant of high vows. He should give away. reaps many blessings on tj thouwishest to have prosperity! Earth and great rewards in heaven. but not to persons that are covetous. He should be clever in business but should He always wait for the proper time.

The Earth. the king cow with who rules from it.' T. vested with authority in matters of Profit always oppress the people by diverse contrivances productive of mischief. with heedfulness. thou shouldst (by presents) cause those Brahmanas to utter benedictions on thee for the success of thy and wisdom and intelligence. if as his tribute. wi<h the scriptures. kingdom by the aid of proper means. only of the means As a person desirous of milk of a cow. The meaning . I e. who is vigilant. a king. Men become deeply Realising this just tribute devoted to that king who discharges the duty of protection propeily. thou shouldst adopt truth and avoid lust and wrath. yields crops and gold these are the true sources of the royal revenue. With a sixth part upon fair calculation. is said to wrong his own self.164 MAHABflABATA whan they approach. never succeeds in acquiring merit and wealth. Stained with lust and wrath and unskilled in the transaction of purposes. Never fails to acquire virtue and ultimately sacrifices Profit as well. treats a milch Similarly. and who is free from lust and hate. t may succeed in always obtaining much well protected by the king. Never thy treasury by acting unrighteously or from covetousncss. He who it. The wealth again that he acquires both religious 2 That (by such means) is seem to be lavished on unworthy objects. That king who does not act in accordance with the scriptures That king who is mindful fails to earn wealth and religions merit. tenderness always obtains milk from udders his never obtains any by cutting off the kingdom afflicted by improper means. T. 1 and forfeitures levied upon offenders. Endued with sincerity. desire to fill of acquiring wealth. Thou shouldst always employ in all thy acts those that are free from covetousness and possessed of intelligence. who is endued with liberality. That foolish king who pursues Profit without driving away lust and wrath. avaricious king who through folly oppresses his subjects by levying taxes not sanctioned by the scriptures. he may succeed in acquiring wealth. and foolish in matters connected with employ those that are covetous Pleasure and Profit. upon merchants and traders granted to them. with fines the imposts. is that if a king attends only to the acquisition of wealth. O Bharata. 3 Literally. of the yield of the soil business foolish persons. act in such a way that his perly subjects may not feel the pressure of want. T. according to in return for the protection treasury. 'never flourishes. Doing these acts of piety and discharging other acts that are for thy own good. 1 2 fruit aid of judicious O Yudhishthira. and do every other act that is necessary. a king should fill his and governing the kingdom prothe king should. but he will never succeed in earning religious merit. similarly a 3 never yields any profit to the king. wealth. and touch and worship their feet. reaps much By protecting a kingdom properly and ruling it by the means. who is steady in the observance of righteousness.

thou mayst acquire such regions hereafter as are most difficult of acquisition. the king displays compassion towards them- The it) sin a protect his subjects his sufferings (for from fear in hell king incurs by neglecting for a single day to is such that he does not attain to end of till after a thousand years. O son of Kunti. O king. O son of Pandu. engaged in protecting all creatures. to her child. even when thou art in great distress. the Brahmacharyya.8ANTI PABVA (to the ruler 166 and the ruled) even like a gratified mother yielding milk Imitate the example. fame that is everlasting. The flowerman. O person. Thou shalt. on the other hand. and burns them for producing his stock-in-trade. Protect thy subjects righteously. Thou shouldst give them wealth to the best of thy power and as they deserve. Becoming such and discharging the duty of 1 If in protection. O delighter of the Kurus. observe with great care this duty (of protection). and gathers only their produce. . high. thou mayst refill it by taking wealth from all except Brahmanas. of the flowerman and not of the charcoal-maker. do thou protect thy subjects. when. therefore. impossible to be acquired by persons that are not kings. upon seeing Brahmanas possessed of wealth. Let not thy heart be moved. and protect them. Do ! of their wishes 1 The charcoal-maker uproots trees and plants. for highest ing no regret or pain will then be thine. thou hast obtained A thou protect thy subjects righteously. Do thou. Gratify Indra with offerings of Soma and thy friends and well-wishers with the objects a kingdom. Possessed of intelligence. attacking an enemy's kingdom thy treasury becomes exhausted. The merit a king earns by protecting his subjects righteously for a single day is such that he enjoys its reward in heaven for ten thousand years. Adopting such virtuous behaviour. Thou shalt then obtain the reward of righteousness and no grief and pain will be thine. are soon acquired by a king by only protecting his subjects righteously. and no other. since compassion to all creatures and protect- them from injury has been said to be the highest merit. and pure. Protection of the subject is the duty of the king. and the Vanaprastha modes of life. can succeed in earning such reward of virtue. who is a king. Merit like this is son of Pandu. obtain great prosperity in heaven. I need not speak then of what thou shouldst do when thou art in affluence. comforting them on all occasions. By conducting thyself in this way. waters his trees and plants. Thou mayst then obtain. Persons conversant with duties regard that to be the highest merit of the king. thou mayst be able to enjoy the Earth for ever. All those regions that are acquired by persons leading duly the Garhastya.

The well-born Brahmana. As long T. In this connection is cited the old story about the discourse between Pururavas the son of Aila and Matariswan.. who would protect the good and punish the wicked. accepts his younger brother for him. What he gives away is his own. As a woman.* . for ruling the Earth and wielding the rod of chastisement and protecting all creatures. The Brahmana points out to the king the duties the latter is to observe. viz. 'That person. his duty being the keep of the Vedas and the other scrip1 tures. the Kshattriya. the Sudra. it was ordained by Brahman that the Sudra should serve the three orders as a menial. He is the first-born and the foremost. By means of sound counsels he causes the king to earn prosperity. these three orders. O this Earth righteously belong Does it god of Winds to whom does belong to the Brahmana or to the Kshattriya " The god of Wind said. that is satisfied with the duties of his order and not covetous of wealth. This is the first rule. being created from the feet (of Brahman). in his consequence of the refusal of the Brahmana. O king. unto him that is possessed of learning and virtuous conduct. The Vaisya was created for supporting the two other orders and himself by cultivation and trade. of distress.SECTION LXXti "Bhishma said. for her lord. The place he inhabits in his own. and finally. Then. has sprung from the mouth of Brahman. Originally created thus. the Kshattriya was created. then give unto the Brahmana all the land thou mayst is succeed in conquering. possessed of wisdom and humility guides the king in every matter by his own great intelligence. this. has accepted his next-born. What the Brahmana eats own. O best of kings. Whence has the Brahmana sprung and whence the three other orders ? For what reason also has the Brahmana become the foremost ? It behoveth thee to tell me all this ! 'Matariswan answered. as 1 Dharmakoaha literally means the depositary of all duties. If thou seekest to discharge the duties of thy order and wishest to obtain the highest place in heaven. howviz. For waiting upon O ruler of men. that is conversant with duties and observant of penances. "Pururavas said. ? Tell me ! truly. ever. The Brahmana. and the Vaisya from his two thighs. The Kshattriya has sprung from his two arms. belongs to the Brahmana in Persons conversant with morality say is Everything that exists in the universe consequence of his birth and precedence. the second order. * t " 'Pururavas said. there an exception to this. a fourth order.. In times. viz. sprung into life. even so the Earth. in the absence of her husband. He deserve the veneration of all the (other) orders. should be appointed as his priest by the king. the Brahmana takes birth on Earth as the lord of all creatures.

destruction would overtake the people. In this connection is cited the old story about the discourse between Aila's son and KasYudhishthira. Both the priest and the king should have such qualities as are worthy of regard and should be observant of vows and penances. and Rakshasas. the Pitris and the children. gods. The king sustains and supports everything. Uragas. In consequence of such friendship between Brahmana and Kshattriya. so long is he honoured and so long does he enjoy fame. " 'Aila's son said. his subjects. with an eye to both religious merit and profit whose considerations are often very intricate. the Pitris subsist on the offer- made in sacrifices. every which The upon ings obtains a fourth part of those righteous acts properly protected by him. The king. finds no pleasure in all these things. The king sacrifices for their support. That and cool breezes. taste. antithetical . They would then succeed in supporting and agrandising 1 It is laid the subjects and the deities. become virtuous in their behaviour. The king is Dharma. and freed from therefpre. If they do not regard each other.SANTI PARYA a wise king. enjoy prosperity in every direction. The Brahmana and the Kshattriya are said to be the progenitors of all men. relying upon him. The gods and king. and scent. In from the shade of trees. has a share in the merit that the king acquires. Indra. is 167 and bereft of pride. Sacrifice. The heart of man may find pleasure in sound. gift There is no is valuable in the three worlds as the of life. The king The king is Yama. SECTION LXXIII "Bhishma said. yapa. however. from fire. warm clothes. the season of cool water. men. all his subjects. When the O Brahmana forsakes the Kshattriya or the Kshattriya forsakes the Brahmana. who is inspired with fear. without delay. men desire comfort however. touch. The king assumes different forms. Those kings that have priests possessed of virtuous souls and conversant with policy. In the season of winter they derive comand the sun. Gandharvvs. depends upon the king. The man. should be possessed of similar hearts and should be each down that they other's friends. all depend fear. 1 who amongst them should be which it is Children is a pleonasm for subjects. Listen to it. and that are themselves possessed of such attributes. fort summer. The priest of the king. Pitris. When the king behaves himself thus. vision. perform in his kingdom. suggested by the word Pirtit to T. appoint a priest possessed of learning and intimate acquaintance with the Vedas and the (other) scriptures. should. attentive to their duties. person gift so who dispells the fears of men obtains great merit. the subjects become happy. desirous of listening to the instructions of the Brahmana. In a country destitute of a there can be no sacri6ce. observant of the duties of his order.

nor does the deity of the clouds do so by pouring rain. Rudra has been said to be like atmospheric visitations and his form is like that of the wind-gods. showers gold and honey.168 MAHABHARATA whom do the other orders rely and main- regarded superior and upon tain themselves ? "Kasyapa said. The Wind does it is On the other hand. and no sacrifices are performed there. Kshattriya are connected with each other naturally. Brahmanas become impure in blood and assume the nature of robbers. He destroys the bodies themselves in which he dwells as also the bodies of others. on all not. it is not protected. on the other hand. When Brahmanas fall away from the Vedas and (in the absence of a Kshattriya ruler) seek protection from the scriptures. person succeeds in his task even as a small boat floating on the bosom of the their friendship. When each helps the other. When a sinful wretch having slain a woman or a Brahmana does not incur obloquy in assemblies of fellowmen and has not to stand in fear of the king. visibly destroy men occasions. . of old. takes The four orders of men become confounded and destruction overIf the Brahmana who is like a tree is protected. by blowing. nor their children. breaks. In their houses wealth does not increase. Whence does Rudra spring ? What also is his form! Creatures are seen to be destroyed by creatures. the god Rudra appears in the kingdom. both attain to great prosperity. it then all. Ruin overtakes the kingdom of the Kshattriya when the Brahmana and Kshattriya contend with each other. the honest and the wicked alike (without making any 'Aila said. If. 1 all. In consequence of the sins per- petrated by sinful men. existing from days No sea. Kasyapa Whence does the god Rudra spring ? ! 1 Tell me all this. Their children do not become good and do not study the Those Kshattriyas that abandon scriptures and perform sacrifices. and all good men regard the ruler to be a Mlechha. the sinful by their sins bring upon them that god of vengeance. He then destroys distinction). Rudra exists in the hearts of men. Their pots (of milk) are not churned. Robbers infest that kingdom in which confusion prevails. O 'Kasyapa said. then danger threatens the Kshattriya ruler. Indeed. The children do not study the Vedas in kingdoms where Brahmanas abandon Kshattriyas. Their oxen do not thrive. and each protects the other. it then showers tears and sin. a confusion sets desirous of crossing the ocean of life over everything. The Kshattriya is the cause of the Brahmana's growth and the Brahmana is the cause of the Kshattri- The Brahmana and the ya's If growth. slain seen among men that they lose their senses and are through lust and malice. 1 'Aila said. then Indra does not pour rain seasonably and diverse kinds of calamities ceaselessly afflict the kingdom.

in consequence of the sins perpetrated by the sinful. between Brahmanas and Kshattriyas. however. unbearable griefs afflict the people. is consumed by fire in consequence of such co-existence. one becomes pure and stainless. and then cause his own coronation. By avoiding all connection with the sinful. 'Aila said. In consequence. Darkness and ceaseless pain are there. if mixed with wood that is dry. hereafter. all The ordinances declare that the Brahmana acquainted with the that the Brahmana was created first. Men Brahmana is also. powerful. The sun warms the honest and the wicked. The wind blows equally for them. This has been laid down is in the ordinance. O so. In consequence of a disunion are likened to the navel of ambrosia. worthy of the and the worship of all creatures. Sinking in infamy. If chastisement touches all. Brahmanas should. decrepitude. why should 1 they obtain from wicked acts 1 ? 'Kasyapa said. the sinless are overtaken by chastisement. and the the Creator. Those regions also great felicity The meritorious peison enjoys Death. all things that are good in this world are vested in him. bestow upon the Brahmana whatever is best and distinguished above others. should never mingle with the 11 sinful. indeed. for such precedence. is the course of this world. In the other world. there great differences of condition between the person that acts righteously and him that acts sinfully. A king should first install the priest in his office. without any distinction. the honest and the 'Aila said. however. ' ' . do acts that are good ? Indeed. The rightful owner of all the best things that have flowed from the foremost of creatures. The Earth holds them equally ! the honest and the wicked.Similarly.SANTI PABVA 1 169 'Kasyapa said. why wicked alike. therefore. this deity stupefies the senses of some one and then that stupefaction touches all. should men. Fire. are not there. respect should. blazing forth in one house. be especially and always worshipped by kings. of their being mixed with the sinful.The Brahmana contributes to the aggrandisement of the Kshatriya. 1 Water ! cleanses said. there. Knowing this. according to the dictates of the scriptures. and it is full of sorrow. therefore. burneth a whole quarter or an entire village. wz.. The regions that meritorious men acquire are full of honey fire and possessed of the splendour of gold or of a upon which clarified butter has been poured. the Kshatriya to the aggrandisement of the Brahmana. The region for the sinful is hell. 'Kasyapa It is not prince is Such. the man of sinful deeds indulges in regret there for many years. however. in that case. This sinless. Wood that is wet. a king should appoint a (Brahmana) priest possessed of experience and wide knowledge. A king. and sorrow. In consequence of the Vedas say precedence of his birth. the honest and the wicked alike.

repaired to the lord of Alaka for testing his gated strength. That kingdom enjoys true felicity where the invisible fears of the subjects are dispelled by the Brahmana and king all visible fears are dispelled by the king with the might of his arms. they would never be able to uphold the world. They have a common origin. ascertained the true course upon which Muchukunda was bent. underwent very severe penances and. said unto the Lord of treasures these words fraught with reason and justice. The power of penances and mantras was bestowed upon Brahmanas the might of arm and of weapons was bestowed upon Kshattriyas. Know this. they approached In truth. Nor do I ever. without being ordered by the (Self-create) bestow priest. At these words of Muchukunda. King Vaisravana created (by ascetic power) a large force of These grinded the forces led by Muchukunda. 'It is said that the preservation and growth of the kingdom rest upon the king. O chastiser of foes. sovereignty upon any one. Vaisraj weal and woe. behoves thee to display it. seeing the king fearless in the observance of Kshattriya duties. The preservation and growth of the king rests upon the king's priest. O king. became filled with surprise. aided by ! ! ! !' 4 vana. King Muchukunda. O lord of Alaka. Many kings of old. When king Vaisravana's troops were being slaughtered. without being ordered. If they apply their forces separately. O king Do thou rule then the whole Earth without bounds Thus addressed. Muchukunda. of them were weapons and all of them were possessed might. "The Lord of treasures than thou All of art. Regarding me as the grantor of me for offering worship. The Self-born Brahman created the Brahmana and the Kshattriya. I am acting in that way. he showed himself unto Muchukunda and said these words. king Muchukunda saying. I do not.. Vaisravana said unto Muchukunda and his I never. is In this connection cited the old narrative of the discourse between King Muchukunda. Why dost thou. desire to enjoy sovereignty obtained replied. rebuke me then ? Thus addressed. I desire to enjoy sovereignty obtained by the might as gift from thee of my own arms "Bhishma continued. if thou hast might of arms. take it away from any one. causing those Rakshasas to be slain. kings should protect their subjects. having subjuthe whole Earth. Rakshasas. king to Muchukunda. Thereupon that foremost of righteous persons. viz. the slaughter of his army. Beholding Muchukunda and Vaisravana. Vasishtha. it Why dost thou act so proudly. Brahmana might ? Enraged at these words. had never approached skilled in me thus. Aggrandised by both kinds of might. said. more powerful aided by their priests. without pride and fear. devoted to Kshattriya .SECTION LXXIV "Bhishma said. began rebuke his own learned priest (Vasishtha).

Earth and achieving great fame. with lustful soul and ever seeking the gratification of his desires never succeeds in protecting his subjects. Bharata. or. that conduct by which a king succeeds in aggrandising his subjects city in the other world. with wealth obtained from his dependents. and should be devoted to the duty of protecting his subjects. Everything is protected by protecting the Brahmana's wealth. by gifts. the king becomes crowned with scccess* seek the protection of a competent king like creatures seeking cruel relief from the clouds or birds seeking refuge in a large tree. in case of inability. All the orders should protect the wealth of a Brahmana even as they should the Brahmana's boy or life. Whatever sacrifices. he should then compensate the injured from his own treasury. If the king regards it. succeeds in subjugating the whole arms.8ANTI PABVA duties. which may thus be secured. by pouring libations." SECTION LXXV "Yudhishthira said. with the rod of chastisehis ment uplifted in his hands. and some say the full measure. If the king fails to restore to a subject the wealth that has been stolen away by thieves. of Some say that the king earns a moiety. earns a fourth part of the merit that his subjects earn under his protection. He should exterminate robbers everywhere The king. O in his kingdom and never pardon any one from caprice. O grandsire. The king acquires a fourth part of also the sin that his subjects commit in consequence of any distress in the kingdom arising from the king's neglect in dis- charging the duty of protection. The person that offends against Brahmanas should be exiled from the kingdom. Through the grace of the Brahmana. whatever sin is caused by his becoming cruel and untruthful in speech. Unto foes the king should always be like Death. Between them they are the rightful owners of every thing in the universe. righteousness becomes regarded everywhere. Men A and covetous king. he should honour all righteous persons by standing up when they come and by making gifts unto them. 171 own continued to rule the entire Earth obtained by the might of his That virtuous king who rules his kingdom. ! acts and things are liked by the king are liked by his subjects. Listen now to the means by which the king may be cleansed of such sins. aided by and yielding precedence to the Brahmana. and by worshipping the gods. Righteously protecting all his subjects. The Brahmana should every day perform his religious rites and the Kshattriya should always be armed with weapons. 1 . 'The king should be liberal and should perform O Bharata He should be observant of vows and penances.- Tell me.' and earning regions of feli- "Bhishma said. By only protecting his subjects the king acquires a fourth part of the merit that his subjects acquire by study.

properly trained. or be he a Brahmacharin. by inoffensiveness alone. might. Even a horse. however. Thou wilt not. do not regard thee much. Kings should never adopt that conduct which thou desirest to adopt. what the nature of thy heart is. fail O son of Kunti. Kunti always solicited for thee htgh-mindedness and liberality. Follow the conduct of thy sire and grandsire. Thy heart is inclined to mildness. and some by sweet words. should seek to subdue some by gifts. some by force. "Bhishma said. retire then by which no merit can be acquired into the woods from desire of earning merit. and subduing my senses. When dom. The offerings with Swaha and Swadha Sraddhas and sacrifices are always asked from children by the Pi'tris Whether gifts and study and sacrifices and the prodeities. impelled by thy own intelligence and wisdom. 'I do not. or be he a king. and thou art virtuous and full of mercy. for the seems to me that no merit is attached to it. be he a man virtuously following the domestic mode of life. is not consistent with those blessings which thy sire Pandu or thy mother Kunti used to solicit for thee. for total abstention a high-born and righteous person the king then succeeds in obtaining succeeds in obtaining affluence. A virtuous king. and how inoffensive is thy disposition. Never be touched by such anxiety (after doing thy duty). There is no one more virtuous than he upon whom high- . No an ascetic subsisting upon fruits and roots. I desire may acquire from it. By becoming so. It that sovereignty bestows or sovereignty itself for need for sovereignty I shall. therefore. succeed in ruling thy kingdom. a burden (What need then be said of thee that art a human being ?) One incurs no censure if only his acts and words be proper. desire the happiness its own seeks. thou wouldst not succeed in earning that merit of righteousness which arises from protecting subjects. having obtained a kingprosperity in all his affairs- from acts is very sinful. without falling down. Thou art without energy. therefore. thou art compassionate. and never adopt such inoffensiveness of conduct. of subjects be meritorious or sinful. Laying aside the rod of chastisement. The fame. O Yudhishthira. however. fora moment. succeeds in bearing. Thy sire always solicited for thee courage. No person. It is better to do an act which small merit than to totally abstain from is good and in which there is all acts.172 MAHABHAKATA "Yudhishthira said. for success is said to depend upon acts (and words). and truth. People. I shall go to the woods which are sacred and seek to acquire the merit of righteousness by becoming ! sake of the merit one it. The behaviour thou wishest to adopt. has ever succeeded in conducting himself without tripping. thou hast been born to tection in and the practise and perform them. is never tarnished of men that even in bearing the burdens which are if placed on them and unto which they are yoked in life. and thou art exceedingly righteous. 'I know.

capable of smiting. and the Samans. counsellers. that are possessed of learning and beneficent features. affectionate towards all. O protect the good and slay the wicked all the most worthy of heaven is very true. Those. equal to the very gods. derive their support from thee. O king. O O 1 Mahapathika is believed to mean a person making a voyage by the sea or the ocean. amongst Brahmanas some are said. .BANTI PABVA 17$ born and learned persons rely from fear of losing their means of sustenance and depending upon whom they live in contentment. They that are conversant who are devoted to the king. are conductive to heaven them ? Tell What is the nature of the great felicity that is derived from What also is the high prosperity that may be obtained thence ? me all this. he is I tell thee Let thy friends. equal to Kshattriyas. and upon all creatures witli Brahma. without pay into the public service those Brahmanas that are not possessed ofVediclore and that have not their own fires to worship.' "Yudhishthira said. and equitable. acquire heaven. They amongst them that ride king. The literal meaning seems to be 'a person making a long T. for a moment. are. and just. Tell me the difference between these two classes !' "Yudhishthira in "Bhishma said. horses or elephants or cars or become foot-soldiers. they that perform worship for others for a fee. wedded to evil practices. king. 'That man from whom a person afflicted with ? !' fear obtains relief even amogst us. Men seek the protection of that person who ' is dignified. amongst them that are not well-born and not devoted to the O duties of their order.' Q A Ritivij is a priest employed on a special occasion. are said to be equal to with the Ricfis. 'Those Brahmanas. A Piirohita is one who always acts as a priest. compassionate. They that are employed in courts of justice for summoning people. these five. while others are engaged engaged in other duties. become. and are. Purofiitas. he may realise trito Vaisyasequal become. Be thou cheerfully the foremost one of Kuru's race. like all creatures from the deity of the clouds and like birds from a large tree with delicious ! fruits. fices of that become Ritwijas. besides. however. with senses under control. together with honest men. are virtuous king should realise tribute from and impress like Sudras. coura- geous. This that king of the Kurus. 'What acts. practices of their order. or distant voyage. O sire. and that look an equal eye. A Vaisyas and Sudras. if thou knowest "Bhishma said. they that perform the sacria whole village. the Yajws. 1 They amongst them are regarded as Chundalas among Brahmanas. and messengers. If the king's treasury is not full. the duties proper to their order. 2 envoys. T. they that officiate in sacrifices on behalf of and they that make voyages on the ocean.' SECTION LXXVI 'O grandsire.

was forcibly seized on a certain occasion by a Rakshasa. It is the king that becomes sinful In consequence of such a circumstance. The king "Bhishma should not spare those Brahmanas that are not observant of their duties The righteous say that this is the ancient custom of kings. in whose dominion a Brahmana becomes a thief. 'Of whose wealth. ? O bull of conduct !' Bharata's race. In this connection is cited the old narrative of the speech made by the king of the Kaikeyas unto a Rakshasa while the latter was about to abduct him away. me on this. Of rigid vows and possessed of Vedic lore. those Brahmanas also that have fallen away from their legitimate duties. O monarch. as also of those the wealth Brahmanas that are not observant of their proper duties. nor any person of wicked behaviour. is regarded to be the author of that misdeed. There is one in no one who has not his sacred fire or who does not perform sacrifices. nor any one that drinks alcohol. the king of the Kaikeyas. There is no thief in my territories. In realising tribute. while living in the woods. a thief. also should the the king regarded to be the lord ? And what king adopt Discourse to said. however. is O monarch. kings regard worthy of reproach. it is O ' all his kinsmen. themselves to be monarch. through want of sustenance. O on that account. If.Hi MAHABHABATA bute from these. How then hast thou been able to possess my soul ? In my dominions . All righteous kings. he should punish and separate them from their superiors. There is no my dominions who has not his sacred fire or who does not perform sacrifices.' SECTION LXXVII "Yudhishthira is said. How then hast thou been able to possess my heart ? There is no Brahmana in my dominions who is not possessed of learning or who is not observant of vows or who has not drunk Soma. O grandsire 'The Vedas declare that the king is the lord of that belongs to all persons except Brahmanas. the king. should exclude those Brahmanas that are (for their conduct) equal to the gods or Brahma. The king should never be indifferent towards those Brahmanas ing to that are not observant of their duties. he dees not abstain from thefts provision scorcher of foes. the duty of the king to provide for his support. in whose territories a Brahmana becomes regarded by the learned to be the author of that misdeed. The Vedas say that the king is the lord of the wealth belong- He can take the wealth of all the orders except Brahmanas. That king. For the sake of making his people virtuous. be banished from the kingdom with he should then. a thief. conversant with the Vedas declare that if a Brahmana versed in Persons the Vedas and observant of vows becomes. after has been made for his support. That king. therefore. "The king said. provide Brahmanas with the means of support.

by I supplying them with to possess How then hast thou been never an exterminater of the special able my customs of families and of countries existing duly from days of oldHow then hast thou been able to possess my heart ? The ascetics in my kingdom are protected and worshipped. the all ill. cattle-keeping. never fly from in How They protect the Brahmanas and then hast thou been able to possess my soul ? are all The Vaisyas my dominion observant of the duties of their order. I keep myself awake (for watching and protecting). They never beg but give. No in my dominions studies the Vedas who is not observant of vows.How then hast thou been able to possess my heart ? No one in my kingdom who is not a Brahmacharin begs his food. the learned the whole or the old or those that are engaged in penances. All of them are observant of those six acts. and by truth and the protection of Brahmanas. How then hast thou been able to possess my soul ? The Brahmanas in my kingdom teach. and receive gifts. How then hast thou been able to possess my heart ? My priest possesses knowledge of duties. They never teach but study. versant with fullest all self. How then hast thou been able to possess my soul ? The Kshattriyas in my kingdom are all devoted to the duties of their order. By gifts I desire to acquire knowledge. How They give to guests what is their due. officiate at the sacrifices of others. I heart. With simplicity and without deceit they derive their sustenance from agriculture. and trade. They are always honoured their necessaries. attached to their relatives then hast thou been able ro possess and the old. he has the power over my kingdom. officiate at others' sacrifices. am and entertained with food. and pure. How then hast thou been and able to possess my heart ? The Sudras in my kingdom. and no one who leads the Bhikshu mode a Ritwij How No one who is not pours libations (of clarified butter) upon the sacrificial firethen hast thou been able to possess my soul ? I never disregard of life desires to be a Bra/imacharm. By service I attach myself to my preceptors. I never sport or recreate alone. battle. humbly and duly serve and wait upon the other three orders without entertaining any malice towards them. they are mild. He is given to penances. When population sleeps. Worshipped and provided for. They are all heedful observant of religious rites and excellent vows. The Brahmanas in my kingdom are all devoted to the performance of the duties of their order. and self-restrained.! desire to attain regions of blessedness in heaven. . and is conPosssessed of great intelligence.SANTI PABVA 176 one no sacrifice has been performed without completing it by Dakshina. my heart and women ? support the helpless (without guardians). give. I never go to other people's wives. and truthful in speech. observant of the duties of their order. and perform sacrifices but never study. the weak. and are conversant with truth and virtue. How then hast thou been able to possess my heart ? I never eat without feeding others from my dishes. and truthful in speech. and kinsmen. sacrifice.

Those kings that give the lead to Brahmanas and whose might depends upon that of ths Brahmanas. O bull of Bharata's race. I O have nothing to fear from Rakshasas. what articles may he sell betakes "Yudhishthira without losing his prospect of heaven ?' Bhishma said. A Brahmana. protect the who protect kine and Brahmanas and all their subjects. he 'If a Brahmana. 'Thou shouldst. however. that does not bear the scar of a I always fight for the sake of righteousness. even two ringers' breadth. if. no Have no fear of Riikshasas wicked Brahmanas. of There is no space in my I have no fear of Rakshasas. they will protect thee in return. Brahmanas. O king of the Kaikeyas. 'Wines. no Brahmana that officiates in the sacrifices of people for whom he should never officiate. able to possess How then hast thou been me ? Since thou art observant of the duties under all circumstances. of course. and much less from sinful persons. 'It has been said that in seasons of distress a Brahmana may support himself by the practice Kshattriya duties. kine and Brahmanas and perform sacrifices. and no perpetrator of sinful deeds. at any time. would surely descend upon kings of righteous behavior For the sake of righteousness. and whose subjects discharge the duties of hospitality. by selling these. a Brahmana should avoid. honey.176 I MAHABHARATA \ In my kingdom there are no widows. meat.' "Bhishma said. therefore. he is incompetent for Kshattriya duties. O Yudhishthira. I leave thee They. those Brahmanas that are not observant of the duties of their order should be chastised and separated (into a distinct class) from their superiors. always succeeds in acquiring heaven !' "Bhishma continued. said. king of the Kaikeyas. O king. Their blessings. go back to thy Blessed be thou. bulls. incurs the . When a Brahmana and falls into distress. no thief. would sink into A Brahmana. A king ' who conducts himself in this way towards the people of his city and the provinces. no deceitful person. Can he. salt. abode "The Rakshasa ! said. support himself by the practice of the duties laid down for the Vaisyas 4 ?' loses his means of support betake himself to the practices may certainly of a Vaisya and derive his support by agriculture and keeping cattle. and cooked food. under * 4 all circumstances. no Brahmana that has fallen away from his duties. How hast thou beeu able to possess my heart ? The people of my kingdom always invoke blessings upon me in order that I may always be able to protect weapon-wound. sesamum seeds. obtains prosperity here and residence in heaven with Indra-' SECTION LXXVIII " Yudhishthira said. Protected by thee. himself to the duties of a Vaisya. body. therefore. by selling a goat. animals having manes. hell.

. all the orders. They that are good do not applaud the purchase of uncooked food by giving cooked food in exchange. by Brahmacharyya. and by self-restraint. By so doing they incur no sin.SANTI PABVA sin of selling 177 by selling a sheep. on such occasions. of persons conducting I give thee this. Those amongst them that are endued with Vedic strength. the Vedas "Bhishma them. all the orders headed by the Brahmanas should. Listen. such as paddy or uncooked rice. Without doubt. seeks the re-establishment of all restraints. is sinful. by ^ "Bhishma said. take up arms against the king. O Yudhishthira. is Fire has Ama raw food. breaking through all around. crowned with victory. the orders then betake themselves to their respective duties. then. -'If all the Kshattriyas become hostile towards the Brahmanas. the king. however. O 1 will eat this cooked food of thine. may be given for procuring cooked food. therefore. the sin of selling Sacrifice and the Soma juice. applied with or without the aid of deceit.Uncooked food. spread devastation arms. Give me themselves according to approved usages such agreement is righteous. Brahmanas are said to be the refuge wise king seeks the of the king while his power suffers decay. of the people in detail !' ? Resolve this doubt of king. by weapons. seek their own good.' "Yudhishthira said. I shall speak to thee of the eternal practice. I We raw things (that we give in exchange). If the Kshattriya misconduct himself. &c. the by (physical) Kshattriyas should be subjugated. this is these ! ! righteous. other thing in return this Exchange by To take things by force. . all power by means of the power of the Brahmanas. 'By gifts. _by penances. In a compact of this kind there is no sin. j < the gods strengthening Indra contribute (by Vedic rites) to enhance the strength of the king. These. or fruits. the power of the king decreases By what means should the king then become the protector and refuge mine.-T. the sin of selling the god of the sun by selling cooked foodi the sin of selling land and by selling a cow. Even such is the course of the usage followed by the Rishis and others. the orders !' When " robbers. existing from days of old. the sin of selling the by selling a horse. and might. themselves will subjugate especially towards Brahmanas. O Yudhishthira may take up Yudhishthira said. 'When. giving up their respective duties. by^aajcrifice^Jij^eicefulness. however. . god of water . like A enhancement of his When peace. should rise up on every side and O speaking to me . of course. 'By penances. O sire. who then will protect the Brahmanas and their Vedas? What then should be the duty of the Brahmanas and who will be their refuge ?' said. Thou mayst cook Bharata the god of fire . should not be sold (by a Brahmana). 1 The Kshattriyas have sprung from the Brahmanas.

The friends of humanity. for protecting all fear of selves. People say that there is no higher duty than casting off life under such circumstances. some powerful person 1 The allusion is to such men as Utanka and Parasara. does not incur sin. for protecting himself. succeed in winning high regions of bliss hereafter. that have performed the austerest of penances. when Kshattriya energy becomes weak. the Kshattriya. sprung from water the Kshafctriya from the Brahmana and iron from stone. their force becomes neutralised. cast off their bodies into blazing fires. . or the Kshattriya becomes hostile to the Brahmana. were none-the-less entitled to heaven. When iron strikes stone. Such is the power of place and time (in determining the character of acts of cruelty. T. Let us attain to that region which is intended for them. and iron. invading the kingdoms of their foes and slaying thousands of men and animals. and unrighteousness becomes righteousness. MAHABHABATA . according to place and time. The energy of fire. howsoever great and irresistible. of Kshattriyas nas. 1 The by doing even sinful acts.. and Kshattriyas become incompetent. after fasting.Thus. then the strength of each of those three becomes destroyed. dy doing even have attained to high heaven. O Yudhishthira. for compelling the other orders to themselves to their duties. But when these come into contact with the sources of their origin. Righteous Kshattriyas. moved by righteous indignation and possessed of great strength of mind. have attained to blessed ends. and their own those persons. Brahmana. who although they performed such cruel acts as the snake-sacrifice and the Eakshasa So Kshattriya kings. casting off death. become quelled as soon as they are directed against the Brahma- Brahmanas becomes mild. inter-mixture of the orders begins to take place in consequence of con4 fusion. by sacrifice. by taking up arms on these three occasions.178 . the Brahmanas. by taking up arms for the three orders. are irresistible. Righteousness becomes unrighteousness. viz. and that have. are nevertheless regarded to be righteous and ultimately go to heaven. they that engage in battle then. does not incur sin. when all men misbehave themselves towards When the energy of the the Brahmanas. I bow to them and blessed be they that thus lay down their lives in seeking to chastise the enemies of Brahmanas. the energy and might. morality. human acts). The Brahmana. All persons should take up arms for the sake of Brahmanas. and for chastising robbers !' betake If when robbers raise their heads and an "Yudhishthira said. become cleansed of their sins. As persons final come cleansed sacrifice of all their sins by undergoing the bath on a horse- even so they that die at the edge of weapons while fighting wicked people. Manu himself has be- said that those heroes repair to the region of Brahman. or fire battles with water. Those brave persons that fight for Brahmanas attain to those felicitous region in heaven that are reserved for persons that have always studied the Vedas with attention.

as a person without wealth. What use is there of bulls that would not bear burthens. envy and possessed AbhibJiavet of knowledge. when the Kshattri- member of any other on a raftless current. 'What. and harmles to all creatures. should always be simple and sincere. or of kine that would not yield milk. or one that is a eunuch.' . modest. or a means of crossorder.SANTl PAKVA 179 other than a Kshattriya seeks to subdue those robbers for the sake of best of kings. devoid of 1 Kshatrarthe. if that powerful person protecting the people. he that becomes ing where means there are none. means 'subdues. and cast equal eyes on all. and of cruelty. deserves to be lovingly worshipped by all as if he were a near kinsman. one who is not a Kshattriya. prosperity of the king. relying upon whom helpless men. !' O king Tell me all this. O grandsire. O thou of Kuru's race. and if he succeeds in protecting the people by righteously wielding the rod of chastisement is he justified in doing what he does or ? from accomplishing that duty It is he restrained by the ordinances seems that other. what not competent to grant protection ? As need is an elephant made of wood. that dispels the fears of others. and truthful in speech. and endued with the three excellent qualities. O king. charitable. live happily. 'Be he a Sudra or be he the way. certainly deserves respect in every a raft yas prove so wretched. One that is destitute of vanity.That person. i. or of a wife is that is barren ? Similarly. 'It is laid down from those Brahmanas that are conversant with the Chhandas the Samans. always deserves respect.e. They should also be friendly agreeable towards one another. indeed.' SECTION LXXIX "Yudhishthira said. 1 O happens to be a Brahmana or a Vaisya or a Sudra. void of Vedic lore and a king incapable of granting Both of them are like a cloud that does not pour rain. The person. or a field that is sterile.' "Bhishma said. deserves for protecting the subjects. truthful. should be the acts and as ? what the behaviour of persons employed priests in our sacrifices ? What sort of persons should they be. self-restrained. peaceful in temper. observant of vows.. is ' That person who always protects the good and restrains the wicked deserves to become a king and to govern the world. or a deer made of leather. and all the rites inculcated in the Srutis. even so is there for a king that a Brahmana that protection. Anya means some T. and contented possessed of intelligence. oppressed and made miserable by robbers. without lust and malice. and that including they should be able to perform all such religious acts as lead to the priests that they should be They should be devotedly loyal and utter speeches in addressing kings. should take up weapons. O fore- most of speakers "Bhishma elligible as said. They should be devoid They should never be usurers.

A sacrifice without Dakshina The efficacy. 'There are Vedic texts about the gift of Dakshina in sacrifices. grain of barley for a piece of cloth . 2 The falsehood consists in finding substitutes for the Dakshina actually laid down.180 MAHABHABATA Brahman himself. prince. There is a declaration in the Vedas that penances are higher than sacrifices. viz-. again. I. compassion. everyone belonging to the three orders should perform is sacrifices. must be of good character. can devotion do when the sacrificer is stained by false-hood But what 2 ?' "Bhishma said. 3 The fact is that although the sacrificer may not be able to give the Dakthina actually laid down in the Vedas. This audition has been heard by us that the sacrifice which high-souled Brahmanas perform by wealth earned by excessive physical labour. Purnapatra O sire. equal to that of any Dakshina however rich. becomes the extending the cause of sacrifices. &c. That command is blind to 1 The audition occurs in the Vedas the competence to the sacrificer. settled that Soma is as the king himself to Yet they desire to sell it for the sake of performing the Brahmanas. I shall now speak to thee of penances. T. is not productive of great merit. in consequence of the that so much should be given. to give the prescribed Dakshina. that a sacrifice performed with the proceeds of the sale of Soma serves to extend sacrifices. however. Persons with such qualities. a T. of a single can never lead to salvation. for who can make up his mind to part with all his wealth for completing a sacrifice ? T. They are morsels of cooked food for a living cow. Dakshina constitutes one of the limbs of sacrifice and con duces to the nourishment of the Vedas. such a sacrifraught with merit. of . that a person should. which lays the seat of down This ordinance (about the gift of Z)aJcshma)has not proceeded from motives connected with the distribution of wealth.e. a person. "No man acquires blessedness or merit by disregarding the Vedas or by deceit or falsehood. with devotion. are the best of priests and deserve every respect. the sacrificer is directed to give away all he has. however. a copper coin for gold . There is no ordinance. O learned Abstention from injury. 4 means fice is such a sacrifice. these are regarded as penances by the wise 1 Idam sastram Pratidhanam na is thus explained by Nilakantha. instead of producing no merit. The command of the ordinance. yet by giving its substitute he does not lose any merit. Therefore. Rishis of righteous behaviour have declared. O sire. T. provision in cases of incapacity. agreeably to the dictates 3 The Vedas have of morality. truthfulness of speech. for a single Purnapatra (256 handfuls of rice) is as efficacious if given away with devotion. In cases of incapacity. listen to me ! benevolence. 4 These three. though they never wish to sell it for gaining a livelihood. sacrifices. perform a sacrifice. In other words. a sacrifice and Soma.' "Yudhishthira said. Never think that it is otherwise. as the richest Dakshina. is terrible. A person that is of bad character is neither for this nor for the other world. This direction or command is certainly terrible..

and violation of all wholesome son of Pritha. What then need be said of the king (who has to govern a kingdom) ? What should be the behaviour and what the acts of the king's minister ? Upon whom should the king repose confidence and upon whom he should not. A wicked man assumes the heedless is always overpowered by garb of honesty. the heart is their clarified butter and high knowledge constitutes their 1 All kinds of crookedness mean death. Such a person adopts that side on which righteousness is.SANTI PARVA 181 and not the emaciation of the bod}'. is fifth in the enumeration of the king's friends. Kings desirous of success are obliged to adopt both kinds of paths. A man cannot always be of the same mind. however. therefore. of a king he should accomplish in his own complete reliance (on his ministers) is destructive of presence. he is said to live by both the sufferance of the trusted person. the second and the third are superior. the king should never disclose such pur- poses of his as would not enlist his sympathy. A morality and profit. With respect to such a person. while the first and the fourth should ever be regarded with suspicion. and accordingly acts righteously. A foe may become a friend and a friend may become a foe. Kusa blades for sprinkliDg clarified . This eternal rule of policy. One incurs danger by truthfulness. righteous and unrighteous. O 1 A Pavitra is made by butter upon the sacrificial fire. Trustfulness is premature death. those that pour ten libations upon the For them that perform the sacrifice of rity are called Brahma. ' ' The rhapsodies of system-builders cannot affect this SECTION LXXX "Yudhishthira said. For this reason every one should sire. disobedience to the dictates of the scriptures. They are he that has the same object. . and he that is honest becomes otherwise. O monarch. the Yoga they endeavour to effect with Brahma is their ladle. and he that has been won over (by gifts and kindness). be trusted as also mistrusted. Disregard of the Vedas. O grandsire. he that is related by birth. a couple of T. If one trusts another completely. he should always regard with suspicion all the four. This constitutes the subject of knowledge. Listen. A want of trust again in respect of all is worse than death. O to what has been laid fire down by at ten times of the day. 'The most trifling act. he that is devoted. of those acts which the king should do in person. Who is there that would trust him completely ? others. penance. who would serve one and not both sides. Of the four kinds of friends.' "Bhishma said. A the person of righteous soul. The king should never king that is act heedlessly in the matter of watching his friends. A All the chief acts. cannot be accomplished by any man if unaided. 'Kings. have four kinds of friends. restraints. In view. and all kinds of sincePavttra. are productive of self-destruction.

A kinsman can never bear a kinsman's prosperity even as a feudatory chief cannot bear to see the prosperity of his overlord. mistrust that person who The wise declare such a A would be brought about by thy fall. and who. liberality. cannot be such a friend. and the true state of all thy affairs religious or most secret counsels in the transaction of business. A who is naturally averse from cruelty. be he thy priest or preceptor or honoured friend should always receive thy worship if he accepts the office of thy counSuch a person may be informed of thy seller and resides in thy abode. if set to one task. they discharge all duties connected with profit. holding consultations with one another when necessary. That person who achieves celebrity. liberality. should be kept in view. and good birth. and who is possessed of wise and weighty speech. who is clever in the transaction of business. pertaining to matters of profit. They. who are liberal and who never indulge in brag. One person should be appointed to one task. seeks to rescue thee from harm. who are brave and respectfeels jealous of others that are able able. Honoured by thee and wealth. disagree with one another. who never does any who never abandons righteousness from lust or fear or evil act. Appointed to offices connected with profit and other important matters they always bring about great prosperity. Thou shouldst fear thy kinsmen as thou shouldst death itself. benevolence. in even thy religious rites. upon person to be one's enemy. fall He whose person possessed of beauty. on the other hand. That person who is possessed of intelligence and memory. they would act for thy good and be of great help to thee. It is always seen that several persons. who observes all restraints. who is clever on thee. excellent voice. None but a kinsman can feel joy at the destruction of a kinsman adorned with sincerity. These may not tolerate each other. and learned and full of resources. winnest aggrandisement for thyself. One who. . should be trusted by thee completely even as thou shouldst trust thy Thou shouldst.182 MAHABHABATA One should always one's desire. fear when calamity overtakes thee and with joy when prosperity shines friends of the king. obtain one's wealth. whether regarded or disregardwho never ed is never dissatisfied. mildness. should be appointed as ministers gratified with for supervising all thy affairs. furnishes the indications of one of the best would. Persons possessed of good birth and good behaviour. Such a one should be regarded as thy best friend. person whose joy knows no bounds upon beholding the aggrandisement of the king and who feels miserable upon seeing the king's decay. would seek to rescue thee from harm's way in every other business. Thou mayst confide in him as in thy own sire. and not two or three. Moved by a feeling of healthy rivalry. covetousness or wrath. who never and competent. that wish one harm are one's That friend is said to be like thy own self who is inspired with foes. should be thy foremost of ministers. aggrandise him as thou sire. fair complexion. indulges in wrath. to the best of thy power.

One should. overridden by foes. even so my grinded by my kinsmen with their cruel speeches. He on whose resides in . conduct one's self and foes may be won ?' "Bhishma said. O celestial Rishi. O Narada. upon kinsman is persecuted by even his the persecuted regards the injury to be In kinsmen. it seems that they have neither faults honour and worship his able offices without injuring A person who needfully conducts himself in this way finds very foes disarmed of hostility and converted into friends. nor a learned friend of fickle soul. succeeds ' in winning everlasting fame-' SECTION LXXXI "Yudhishthira kinsmen and 'If one does not succeed in winning over one's said. to know one's Relying on thy friendship for me. and truthfulness of speech. then. cannot be happy. No men can be more contemptible than they A person that has no kinsmen is easily that arc destitute of kinsmen. for kinsmen can never bear to see a kinsman afflicted by other people. and do them agreethem at any time. every inflicted kinsman himself. they that are intended for be- coming friends become one. Neither an illiterate and foolish foes. Might heart is Sankarshana mildness in Gada and as regards Pradyumna. 'In this connection is cited the old history of a discourse between Vasudeva and the celestial sage Narada.Indeed. I shall say O sage O thou that canst go to heaven at thy something to thee. Reflecting upon their nature. They. that have no kinsmen. both merit and demerit may be marked. Mistrusting them at one should behave towards them as if he trusted them completely heart. Kinsmen constitute the refuge of one that is afflicted by other men. A kinsmen in words and acts. deserves. 1 . those cruel speeches burn my heart every day. relatives (by this course). always and faults. I give them half of what I have. In kinsmen. friends. and daring courage and constant preseverance. there are both merits of When a person destitute of kinsmen never shows favours to any one nor humbles himself to any one. one should speak to another if one be convinced of the intellisecret counsels! I never behave with slavish gence of that other obsequiousness towards my kinsmen by flattering speeches about their prosperity. his and bears himself thus towards friends and foes. On a certain occasion Vasudeva said. How should so that the hearts of both friends friend. O Narada Many others among the Andhakas and the Vrishnis are possessed of great prosperity and might. and forgive their evil speeches. he surpasses even myself in beauty of person. . therefore. for this reason. Asa ! fire-stick is grinded by a person desirous of obtaining fire.SANTI PABVA 183 modesty. again. pleasure. therefore. (Although I have all these on my side) yet I am helpless. One who always conducts himself in this way amid kinsmen and relatives nor merits.

loved Krishna. T. It behoveth victory to both. The kingdom cannot be taken back from Babhru and Ugrasena (unto whom it has been given). viz. other. and honour to whom honour is due.Dissuaded (in turns) by both (viz. is What mild. brought calamity over thy head. and have taken up his side either for the sake of wealth. O Krishna. Valadeva and others of the Bhoja race are partisans of Akrura. even as one cannot swallow again the food that he has vomited himself. take intestine it producing dissensions. from one's own acts or from the acts of others. painful and yet not to is . it will do so after much trouble great and after the accomplishment of the most difficult feats. them) from fear O Krishna.) I do thing. back (from Thyself. of cannot. or mere caprice. and mollify their hearts and minds and slanderous tongues. sincerity.. or moved by words or by hate. and which must use for correcting the tongues of " my kinsmen 'The giving of food to the best of thy power. O Narada. can be more painful for a person than not side either of them. afflicted by of both myself and my kinsthee to tell me that which is for the good mother of men ! '"Narada said. thou hast.. still O sage. alone turn away the wrath of kinsmen about the utter cruel speeches. I am thus. Ahuka always advised Krishna to shun Akrura. achieves everyAhuka and Akrura. and Akrura always advised him to shun Ahuka. these constitute a weapon that is not made of steel. invoking both. Sharpening and resharpening that weapon correct the tongues of thy kinsmen ! " 'Vasudeva said. None who is not a great man with cleansed soul and possessed of accomplishments and friends can bear a heavy burthen. on the other hand. Supposing the endeavour succeeds. that is very mild and yet capable of piercing all hearts.184 side they MAHABHABATA do not range themselves meets with destruction. forgiveness. As regards thyself. With soft words 'Narada said. on whose side they do range themselves. What to have both Ahuka and Akrura on his side ? What. are of two kinds. by thy own act. ill dispense with either. even total weapon that is not made of steel. is that weapon. A slaughter and destruction. Though possessed of men who should be your friends. Use then a a great loss of wealth will ensue. 1 Take up this great weight (of The fact is that Ahuka and Akrura were bitterly opposed to each Both of them. which which pierces all hearts. Calamities. however. external and internal.The calamity that has now overtaken thee is an internal one and is born of thy own acts. mildness. can be 1 more painful for one than not to have both of them on his side 7 I am like the two brothers gambling against each other. ? which is not I made of steel. however. thou hast given away wealth obtained by thee to another. perhaps. He. Thou canst not take back that wealth. They arise. O thou of Vrishni's race. in particular. Krishna valued the friendship What of both and could he says here is that to have them both have them both is equally painful. again.

the past. From disunion destruction will spring and overtake all the Bhojas and the Vrishnis Thou. They who plunder the together for opposing the person who seeks royal treasury combine protect it. restraint of the senses. Relying on thee. There is nothing policy and the arc of war. to slay such informants. the Andhakas. he is sure to be ruined. The ministers guilty of peculation seek. Thou knowest the past. with a crow kept within a came cage in his hand. Nothing but intelligence and forgiveness. art the foremost one among them. O advance the interests of the king should always be protected the king. Do thou. all O art the lord of Madhava. are present in a person of wisdom. All oxen can bear heavy burthens on a level road. Advancing one's own race is always praiseworthy and glorious and conducive to long life. and the the corvine science ! /Proclaiming this in the kingdom. It hath been heard by us that once on a time the to sage Kalakavrikshiya of all the officers throne of the kingdom of Kosala. came to see the kingfuture . and liberality. O Krishna. to the second means. began to observe the misdeeds of all the officers large of the king. have told thee constitutes the first Bharata. also an old story is cited of what the sage Kalakavrikshiya had said unto the king of Kosala. thou shouldst grant him an audience in private and protect him also from the (impeached) minister. with his crow. If a person. Study ye king's dominions. 'This that by Listen now. always pray for thy advancement. accompanied by a number of men. the Bhojas. Yudhishthira. the present. Do thou act in such a manner that the Bhojas and the Vrishnis may not meet with destruction. the sage. and the Vrishnis. are all dependent on thee even as all the worlds and all the regents of those worlds. the Kukuras. The crows tell me the present. That man who I O comes to thee for telling thee of the damage done to thy treasury when its resources are being embezzled by a minister. seeks to said. The stronger ones only among them can bear such burthens on a difficult road. act in such a way that destruction may not over- take thy kinsmen. Thou creatures. and having learnt that all the officers appointed by the king were guilty of malversation. mighty-armed O one ! The Risfiis. and art the foremost one the future. repeatedly travelled through every part of that And he spoke unto all the men and said. and if the In this connection latter be left unprotected. O lord ! unknown to thee in respect of The Yadavas. they expect to live in happiness ! SECTION LXXXII "Bhishma means. Having ascertained all the affairs in respect of that kingdom. to O Bharata. Thou among ' ' all the Yadavas. the sage. ! O Kesava.SANTI PABVA 185 governing the Vrishnis) and bear it on thy shoulders. Kshemadarsin who had ascended the Desirous of examining the conduct of Kshemadarsin. the sage. that is paid or unpaid.

! Why bear anything thou wilt say. I seek thy protection wealth of all If I receive thy command I can master of the lives and Grieved on account of thee whom I then say what is for thy good regard as a friend have come to thee. since I am not blind to what is for my good ? I grant thee permission.186 MAUAJBHAJtlATA rigid I know everything (about thy the presence of the king. impelled by devotion and wrath. he said unto the king. saying. Kings as also The lot and wretched. bene6cial should I not perity and aggrandisement. Ascertaining the merits and faults of thy servants. again. Indeed. He who of those that serve the have many friends to fear all of many enemies. the regenerate RisM. at night. while the sage slept. O regenerate one Tell me what thou ! pleasest. His heedlessness may move the king himself. one should sit in e presence of the king as he should in the presence of a blazing fire. My crow tells me this. as also the dangers thou incurrest at their hands. O king. impelled by my devotion. They that serve kings have them. all the officers of the king. at his crow that the minister had done such a misdeed in such a and that such and such persons know that he had plundered the place. for representing everything to thee ! The teachers (of mankind) have of old declared what the curses are. My crow never says anything that is false IThus accused and injured by the sage. king to wrath. king kings is is of those that serve others. and such wrath may bring down destruction (on the servant). adding. A haV . he said unto his kingdom) /Arrived minister adorned with the insignia of his office that he had been inform- Of vows. O thou of Kuru's race. I have come to thee. O Brahman " ! 'The sage said. said to has any connection with very painful have connection with snakes of virulent poison. (united together and) pierced his crow. Carefully learning how to behave himself. they have fear from the person serving the king cannot (with be guilty of heedlessness ki doing the king's work. impelled by my devotion and Thou art being robbed of ready to serve thee with my whole heart thy wealth. Every moment. have come hither for awakening thee whom I regard a friend A who is alive to his own interests and desirous of his own prosfriend consideration for the robbers. for doing what is The king replied unto him. Admit or prove the falsehood royal treasury The sage then proclaimed the names of of the accusation quickly other officers who had similarly been guilty of embezzlement. repairing to Kshemadarsin in the morning said unto him. I ! should forgive a friend that intrudes himself forcibly. O Thou art all powerful and thou art the king. I have come to thee for disclosing it without showing any ed by ! ! ! ! ! ! Like a driver that urges a good steed. impunity) a servant who desires to win prosperity should never display heedlessness in the discharge of his duties. O monarch. Beholding his crow pierced with a shaft within the cage. I shall certainly obey the instructions thou wilt give me.

for one to stay in this kingdom long. They do not desire the good of thy subjects. or passing through the labyrynth of kingly affairs. This crow of mine. king. I have incurred their hostility. a person of unrighteous deeds should be slain but never one who is righteous in his acts. Indeed. I have seen this. Thou art not loved by those (that have slain this bird). of The learned say that a region inaccessible in consequence gloom can be passed through with the aid of a light. do not succeed in consequenceof unforeseen circumstances. or to wait in attitudes of disrespect or to walk disdainfully or display insolent gestures and disrespectful motions of the limbs. with the assistance of that bird. O lord. is unfordable can be crossed by means of a boat. I have passed through thy dominions like unto a Himalayan valley. O king. O king.SANTI PABVA Prepared to lay down of life itself 187 at every all moment. fore. while one of unrighteous deeds incurs no danger. with eyes whose vision has been improved by penances. With the assistance of this single crow I have crossed this king- abounding with alligators and sharks and crocodiles and whales. exist for penetrating Thy kingdom is like an inaccessible forest enveloped with gloom. Ascertain who are thy friends and who thy foes. yet crow. and therefore. however. If he becomes enraged he can king attentively. Do everything thyself without surrendering thy intelligence to others. I cannot. O Yama. was said by shall now (acting which would enhance thy prospe- their intelligence Friends like ourselves can give unto friends like thee the aid of in seasons of peril. thereHere a person of righteous deeds meets with death. How then can I ? Good and evil are regarded here in the same light. Thou (that art the lord of it) canst not trust it. O king. therefore. and have. Boats . for the king is consume to the very roots like a blazing fire. I according to these precepts) do that rity. Residence here cannot. They who are on thy establishment are all peculators. has been slain for doing thy business. or to sit cheerlessly or in irreverent postures. like unto a snake of virulent poison. however. one should serve the powerful and master of the lives and the wealth all. This. A man of sense should leave this country soon. impenetrable and inaccessible in consequence of trunks of (fallen) trees and scattered rocks and thorny shrubs and lions and tigers and other of thine that is dom like a river beasts of prey. Their plans. those persons of deceitful intentions have shot this shaft at my desire. of the name of Sita. he can shower prosperity like a god. Through fear of those men. and a river that No means. be safe. despatched the bird to Yama's abode. however. Its truth is seen in the affairs of the world. It is not proper. Conspiring with those servants that have constant access to thee they covet the kingdom after thee by compassing thy destruction. He should always fear to indulge in evil speeches before the king. According to the requirements of justice. blame thee for this. If the king becomes gratified. I have no worldly I shall leave this kingdom for some other asylum. There is a river. O king.

however. resemble those grassy parasites of which I speak. and always worship thee palace. O king. thee) the faults of thy servants. O have come to thee Like food to a hungry person. therefore. I am engaged in only marking their faults.As one should fear a wounded snake. and whether he For the object of ascertaining all these points. O king. best of kings. consumes the lordly tree against thee. Thy ministers. art like a pit. always kill a snake outright and burn it in fire if they ever take it. seems to have been cast around it.ays treat thee with respect Brahmana I shall and honour. thou I dislike hast become dear to me. But conspiring plants first. Thy nature now resembles that of dishonest men and not that of the good.. that the rod of chastisement is wielded properly and that everything is done well in my kingdom. O king. Do thou check and correct them. Prove faults then and strike them one after 1 The belief is still current that a wounded snake is certain to seek vengeance even if the person that has wounded it places miles of distance between himself and the reptile. or like attractive food containing poison. This thy kingdom is like that river. thy ministers. even like a person living in a room with a snake within it or like the lover of a heroe's wife. and jackals. ! ! my O thou thyself do what should be done next unto those persons (of whom thou hast spoken) ! Do thou see. and at last covering the tree itself overshadow A forest conflagration sets in. resemblest. Reside in alw. They have been nourished by thee. .188 sink in MAHABHARAtA An all-destructive net like the fall that awaits it. My object is to ascertain I am in thy the behaviour of the king who is my fellow-lodger. a abounding with snakes of virulent poison. They have found fault with me because I seek thy good. offence of theirs Shutting thy eyes in the first instance to this the slaughter of the crow ). Reflecting 11 will dislike thee shall not dwell with me. do thou weaken their them one by one. O holy one. and catching those grassy it completely. Concealing (from abode in constant living dread of danger. with them. deriving their sustenance from a mighty tree. river full of sweet water but exceedingly difficult of access. I wish to know whether the king has loves his subjects. every one 1 should fear a foe of wicked heart ! I "The king They that said. The people of this country. Do upon everything. do thou guide me ! in such a way that I may obtain prosperity The sage said. whether his servants loved by them. Thou Thou canes. T. I his passions are obedient to him. vultures. as a person whose thirst has been slaked dislikes drink. I do not cherish any hostile intentions towards them. Thou art collectors of honey. whether he is under control. Grassy parasites.I have no doubt that there is no other cause for that hostility of theirs to me. ( viz. swell into luxuriant growth. they are destroying thy prosperity. Thou art like a with steep banks overgrown with Kariras and thorny swan in the midst of dogs.

I When many advise thee to proceed with such caution. They that are always by thy side. naturally compassionate and unwilling to to any one.' SECTION LXXXIII ''Yudhishthira said. and courage to say what is proper. by acting together soften the very points of thorns. Thou hast obtained a kingdom without trouble. and endued with perseverance in all acts. and dignity of behaviour. that are born in thy kingdom. and the counsellors of a king 'Such persons as are possessed of modesty. the king of Kosala subjugated the whole Earth and acquired sage Kalakavrikshiya worshipped the gods in great fame. who. "Bhishma great courage. When king.SANTI PABVA another. adhere to truth. the ministers of war. well-pleased should. the sage Kalakavrikshiya) as his Purohita. that have wisdom. 189 persons become guilty of the same offence. I speak of myself. give pain I even as we wish the good of ourselves. of shouldst thou be guilty of heedless- ness ? this. king Kosala took a minister from the Kshattriya order. As regards our- Brahmanas. always exerts his powers to the utmost on thy behalf. O of the legislators. Having listened to his beneficial counsels. possessed of great learning. treated with honour by thee. devoted to thee. O Bharata ! One who is of high descent. truth.. Thou hast ministers in thy kingdom. O king are ! we thy friend. of O son of Kunti. act against thee and) disclose thy secret counsels. great learning. After But why. and appointed that bull among Brahmanas (vis. T. selves. They that are of high birth. that are possessed of said. be desired with thee. and that are. illness or death. grandsire. should be thy legislators. sincerity. that are of the regenerate caste. the courtiers. I overtook kingdom during the region of thy it off). I always regarded me lovingly as his friend. by thee for becoming thy ministers war at all seasons of distress. the O king. After these changes had been effected. abandoning every other From my affection for thee I say this unto thee so that thou mayst not again commit the fault (of reposing confidence on undeserving persons). selfrestraint. The many grand sacrifices performed for the king. should be entertained by thee as a courtier. the generalisimos. and who will never abandon thee in weal or woe. should be employed as officers of 1 I follow Nilakantha in his explanation of the words used in this verse. distress am I am known Thy this sire as the sage Kalakavrikshiyasire. O performed many penances (for driving business. Reflect upon everything connected with its weal and woe. the king of Kosala conquered the whole Earth and ' conducted himself in every respect as the sage directed. they can. 'What should be f| ! the characteristics.Lest thy ministers (being suspected. We desire thy good as also the good of others. besides. beauty of form and features. .

purity of blood. They.e. should always be made shares of thy They and good behaviour. that are destitute of cruelty. being corrupted. 1 They that are of good birth and good behaviour.190 MAHABHABAtA thy army. They that have been won over with gifts know what of wealth. . would court thee. are. succeeds in disarming his very foes of their hostility and converting them into friends. should be employed by thee as thy counselled High descent. These are regarded as marks of superiority. as long as their hands cruel and shameless. that has a sense of dignity. as long as they are paid and have in their hands what has been given to them. that the requirements are of place and time. possessed of learning. should be appointed as ministers by the king in all his affairs. forgiveness.. Oson of Pritha marks of superiority and goodness.e. incapable of unstained by adultery and similar vices. shows these virtues in his conduct. who ar sire. viz. that all persons possessed of ability. and adorned with humility. should always be compelled by happiness. that one person transcends the many in consequence of the possession of many accomplish- two sides should ments. belonging to good families. and that has been tried in every situation. will always be attentive to thy affairs and will never abandon thee. A king that has his soul under restraint. A king desirous of prosperity and of shining in the midst of his contemporaries. prowess. born in his 2 I. that always seek the good of their master in all acts. T. that never abandons righteousness from lust or fear or wrath or covetousness. He. abandon the many. regardful receptions. and that is desirous of prosperity. that is truthful in speech and forgiving in temper.. then thou shouldst. that are not observant of restraints. possessed of learn- thee to observe of all wholesome restraints. would O that can read all signs and gestures. should have for ministers persons connected with his trusted own kingdom. that are of wicked souls. When. however. honours. 1 I. and that have fallen away from good practices. A wise man who conducts himself 2 in this way. that is adorn- ed with humility. and truthful in speech. on the other hand. gratefulness. should carefully examine the merits and demerits of his ministers. and means of procuring felicity. and who on that account may be regarded by thee as persons inclined to benefit thee in all thy affairs. thou shouldst not abandon the many for adopting the side of one. and observance of wholesome restraints. Persons of low descent and covetous dispositions. ing that are unchangeable in conduct. and truth. When the question is which be adopted. that has his soul under control. that are disrespectable. that never indulges in feelings rivalry with persons possessed of no merit. again. devotion to pursuits that honours of bring fame. and purity of soul. for that one. remain wet. possessed of high birth. sprung from sires and grandsires that held similar offices. large-hearted. cleverness. T. that is possessed of wisdom. observant of excellent vows. The friends. well tested. bravery.

should be employed by the king as in all his ministers affairs of the kingdom. that are of high birth. always errs. and conversant with means. even of A even if wicked heart and possessed of no learning may set his hand to work but he fails to ascertain what the results will be of his work. again. entrails through the holes in its body with the aid of the should be consulted by the king in all his affairs. One who is bereft of energy and who has been abandoned by friends can never work with perseverance. that can read signs. Such a man. even if possessed of great learning. in all acts requiring dexterity and foresight. should be known as an enemy. and restore him to power again. and who are free from deceit. amongst them.SANTI PABVA 191 king should employ five such persons to look after his affairs as are possessed of intelligence unstained by pride. infirm purposes. fails in almost every business. The king should never consult with him. that person who is a sharer with the king of his weal and woe. that are conversant with the requirements of place and time. even if he be devoted to his master and possessed of A wisdom and adorned with numerous virtues. Giving way to wrath. that are of resources under difficulties. therefore.Such a wicked minister. loyalty. man is may ruin his master. who is unfriendly. however. Similarly. energy. who subdues his wrath from desire of doing good to his master. That one. a master may one day pull down a servant from his office or reprove him. None but a servant devoted to the master can bear and forgive such treatment. that are wise in speech. One who is allied with foes and who does not regard the interests of the king's subjects. A minister possessed of little learning. who indulges in brag. a disposition that is good. profit. who is of virtue. who Men full are capable of bearing burthens. never disclose his counsels to a minister that is not devoted to him. person who is of crooked heart. cannot long act with success. who is not pure. should never be consulted by the king. should not be consulted by the king. like a fire consuming a tree by entering wind. that are possessed of heroism. and courage. that are free from cruelty. firmness. like a blind man without a guide. He should. forgiveness. Ministers also become sometimes highly offended with their royal masters. becomes incompetent in choosing proper courses of action. combining with the other ministers of the king. and covetous. who pays court to the king's enemies. who is stained with pride. its possessed of intelligence and learning. A person. who are of mature years. a person of low descent. A king should never repose trust on a minister that is not devoted to him. and that desire the good of their masters. if employed. patience. in harsh words. even if blessed with high birth and attentive to and pleasure. One who is a stranger. from rage. purity. One who is possessed of no learning. even if he be devoted to the king and possessed of great learning. that are truthful. may be honoured by the king and gratified with assignment of the means of . whose merits and faults have been well tested. wrathful.

One who is contented and honoured. Their number also should not be less than three. On the other hand. 1 of themselves. who is acquainted with the dispositions of his friends and foes. who is born within the kingdom. by the king that is desirous of ruling according to the dictates of the science of chastisement. T. Therefore. of the Ministers should be employed in observing the laches of their masters. and who is a hereditary servant of the speech king. and vanity and envy. and its growth proceeds from the same source.192 MAHABHABATA never consult him in sustenance. The kingdom has its root in the counsels of policy that flow from ministers. monarch. subduing pride and wrath. One who is endued with knowledge and wisdom. intellistill be consulted by the king. who is pure and gence. Those ministers of a kingdom that succeed in concealing their counsels are said to be possessed of wisdom. even thus. deserves to be consulted. Ministers should act in such a way that the enemies of their master may not be able to detect his laches. deserves to be consulted by the king. . who is competent to fight and conversant with the rules of policy. and the limbs its of his subjects and officers. not A person possessed of wisdom. deserves to be consulted by the king. In no case it should be less than three. withdrawing them within its king. righteous in all his acts. One upon whom the inhabitants of O both the capital and the provinces repose confidence for his righteous conduct. A person whose sire was unjustly banished by royal edict should not be consulted by the king even if the king may have subsequently bestowed honours upon him and assigned to him the means of sustenance. but the king should his affairs. when their laches become visible. They should. should be honoured by the king and made his ministers. who hates wickedness and wicked men. ministers should protect their own counsels. A well-wisher whose property was once confiscated for a slight transgression. One who is truthful in and modest and mild. men possessed the dispositions of all of such qualities. If masters and ministers follow each other for deriving support from each other. even if he be possessed of every accomplishment should. subjects. and its strength is said to lie in counsels of policy. One who is comis is who who is petent to win over all men by conciliation should be consulted. Like the tortoise protecting its limbs by shell. A kingdom is said to have roots in spies and secret agents. truthful and dignified. and of the foes of their master. they may then both become happy. who is such a friend of the king as to be his second self. deserves to be consulted by the king. and learning. deserves to be consulted. and who courageous. king should A 1 Tryavarah IB explained by Nilakantha as "not less than three. conversant with policy and the requirements of time. Counsels constitute the armour of a they should then be assailed. conceal their own laches." The number laid down generally is five. men conversant with and desirous of achieving high acts.

which gives happiness to all. A person of good acts and good. above or below. 'Sakra said. That person who. Abstention from agreeable speeches makes him so. no one who is lame or blind. without attachment. Repairing. Having settled counsels in this way. at the spot where the king holds his consultations. O regenerate one. no one who is an idiot. no hump-backed persons. repair to his preceptor for informing him of those opinions and his own. Sweetness of speech never fails of purpose. for such subsequent deliberation. by accomplishing which with care. no woman. if not made with agreeable speeches. the one thing. and no eunuch. 'In this connection. with collected mind. or in transverse directions. and pleasure. Getting up on a boat. If even the possessions of men.' ' tions at the proper time. upon beholding others.SANTI PARVA also 193 the five consult with such ministers as are free from kinds of deceit. profit. with him. has no equal. becomes an object of hatred with all creatures. he king should. avoiding faults of speech SECTION LXXXIV "Bhishma tk said. the old account of a conversation between Vrihaspati and Sakra is cited. the different opinions t amongst them whom he has consulted. like rice without curry. the king should then. Ascertaining well. practise this virtue !'" ' . or repairing to an open space destitute of grass or grassy bushes and whence the surrounding land may be clearly seen. they should then be reduced to practice. O Sakra. What is that one act. O Sakra. Do thon also. that is desirous of even inflicting chastisement should utter sweet words. at the same time it never pains any heart. in the first instance. By practising it. O Yudhishthira. therefore. addresses them first and does so with smiles succeeds in making every one gratified with him. do not delight the recipients. for then they will be able to win over all the subjects- There should be DO dwarfs. the king should. Sakra began to act according to those instructions. His preceptor should be a Brahmana well of the three versed in all matters of virtue. ask his opinion. the king should hold consultaand gestures. A king. The person who does not speak a word and whose face is always furrowed with frowns. " 'Bhishma continued. a person O Sakra. to him. thing by practising Agreeableness of speech. such sweetness of behaviour succeeds in reconciling the robbed. O son of Kunti. carry it out into They that are conversant with the conclusions of the science of consultation say that kings should always hold consultation in this way. no one of an emaciated constitution. a person may become the object of regard with all creatures and acquire great celebrity ? ' 'Vrihaspati said. be taken away with sweet speeches. and sweet speeches. When a decision is arrived at after deliberation practice. for subsequent deliberation. is the one regard which may become an This object of is with all creatures and acquire great celebrity. Nothing should move there before or behind. agreeable. Even gifts. 'Thus addressed by his priest. while. one may always obtain the love of all creatures.

by conducting himself righteously. If a king governs his subjects with unfear takes possession of his heart and the door of heaven righteousness. both here and hereafter. ba met with even upon careful search.SECTION LXXXV "Yudhishthira said. wrecked on the is closed against him. of his subjects. O bull among men. free from covetousness. belonging to the Sanataka order. be found to exist in any "Yudhishthira ? Asked by me.) is very difficult to however. all of whom should be possessed of wealth. years of age. great blessedness and eternal consequence of obtain fame ?' "Bhishma duty of said. all of whom should be possessed of physical strength and capable of wielding weapons. tell thee what ministers should be appointed by thee. and eight Kshattriyas. should be thy ministers.' 'With whom should the king behave in what thou of great wisdom. To be brief. O The person is very rare those good qualities. competent to readily decide in the midst of disputants urging different courses of action. free from envy. possessed of a of the Puranas called Vyasanas. all I shall. dispute. and of pure behaviour. 'A protecting his subjects earns said. the results of such deliberation. it is my belief. for the information He should then publish in his kingdom. ! O single individual. 'O foremost of kings. king of cleansed soul and attentive to the merit and fame. spoil If the administration of justice be thus injured. the presence of is endued with great intelligence. what in is that method it. possessed of a sense of dignity. A kingdom. cannot. and inspire thy people with fear as little birds at the sight of the hawk. shouldst never confiscate what is deposited with thee or appro- two persons may the administration of justice. has its root in . and one and twenty Vaisyas. impartial. humble. and frcm the seven dreadful vices Suti caste. Thy kingdom will then melt away like Conduct such as this priate as thine the thing about whose ownership would a boat sea. and one man of the and the eight cardiknowledge Every one of them should be fifty nal virtues. possessed of a sense of dignity. conduct like art so as thou sayest. adopting such a conduct. every one of whom should be humble and of pure conduct and devoted to his daily duties. it behoveth thee to tell way me everything duly Those virtues of which thou hast already spoken with respect to a person. watch over thy people. kinds of of. and three Sudras. It is Thou even who possessed of all this (viz-. sin will afflict thee. and afflict thy kingdom as well. The king should consult with those eight ministers and hold the lead among them. the virtues spoken learned in the Vedas. Thou Thou shouldst always. by which a king ruling his subjects may.' "Bhishma Yudhishthira ! said. conversant with the Srutis and the Smria's. Four Brahmanas.

or king's son. t An envoy should he should be high-born. should not be punished for the fault of another. incurs no sin by the act. They that are wealthy should be punished with fines and confiscations they that are poor. and pure in should also conduct. clever. with loss of Those that are of very wicked conduct should be chastised by liberty. modest. of a good family. cold. Those helpless men who are oppressed by the powerful and who indulge on that account in piteous and copious lamentations. He who seeks to compass the death of the king should be punished with death to be effected by diverse means. The aid-de-camp of the king that protects his person should be endued with similar qualities. king should never slay an envoy under any circumstances. He should. good men with agreeable speeches and gifts of wealth. be intelligent. he earns merit that is eternal. act unjustly. who inflicts and conformably to the dictates of the science of punishments duly chastisement. In cases of dispute between two parties the decision should be based upon the evidence of witnesses. If possessed of these qualities. The officer also that guards his capital or citadel should possess the same accomplishments. and endued with a good memory. sweet-speeched. That foolish king who inflicts punishments capriciously. faithful in delivering the message with which he is charged. Reflecting well upon the (criminal) code. The king should cherish all . That king obseran envoy that faithfully utters slays vant of Kshattriya practices the message with which he is charged. That king who A slays ministers. On the other hand. 196 That minister. moved by self-interest. possess these seven accomplishments. justice. If one of the disputants has no witnesses and is The king helpless. courage. of the king's forces should be possessed of similar He should also be conversant with the different kinds of battle array and with the uses of engines and weapons. further. possessed of The commander accomplishments. The king's minister should be conversant with the conclusions of the scriptures and competent in directing wars and 'making treaties. and capable of keeping secrets. should cause chastisement to be meted out to offenders according to the measure of their offences. and . The same should be the punishment of one who becomes guilty of arson or theft or such co-habitation with women A king. and wind. O monarch. earns infamy here and sinks into hell hereafter. the king with even corporal inflictions. have their protector in the king. the king should give the case his best consideration. He be of high birth endued with strength cf mind. who having accepted the charge of affairs. eloquent. He should be able to bear exposure to rain. causes the manes of his deceased an envoy sinks into hell with all his who ancestors to be stained with the sin of killing a foetus. One as may lead to a confusion of castes. heat. all sink in hell along with the king himself.SANTI PARVA righteousness. occupying the seat of and those officers who acts unrighteously. viz. a person should be convicted or acquitted. he should be regarded worthy.

referring to the defences of citadels. where provisions of every kind have been well stored. 'What should he the kind of city within which the king should himself dwell ? Should he select one already made or should he cause one to be especially constructed ? Tell me this O grandsire !' 4 Bharata. which echoes with the cliant of Vedic hymns* where festivities and rejoicings frequently take place. however. Refusal to trust any one has been said to be one of the highest mysteries of king-craft. a king should ed with respect to the city in which. Having listened to me. should reside in that city which is defended by a citadel which contains an abundant stock of rice and weapons. trust O monarch. . whose population is virtuous in conduct and clever in business and consists of strong and energetic men and animals. O sinless one. himself on even his own son is not declared to thee what ' to be approved have now. He any one. the army thoroughly loyal to him. which is protected with impenetrable walls and a trench. and where the deities Water-citadels are those that are surrounded on all sides by a river Earth-citadels are those that are built. which teems with elephants and steeds and cars. earth-citadels. T. Those six varie- ties are water-citadels. on plains. It is "Bhishma O O therefore. Hamanoitadels are unfortified cities properly protected by guards and a loyal population. The reposing of. watchful of the laches of foes. fortified with high walls and encircled with trenches all around. I of confidence should not. citadels. should be able to lull his foes into a sense of security. 1 The king. where the houses are all spacious. and the defences that should be adoptconduct that should be followed son of Kunti. which is inhabited by men possessed of learning and versed in the mechanical arts.' SECTION LXXXVI "Yudhishthira said. said. where no danger exists. hill-citadels. which blazes with beauty and resounds with music and songs. discourse to thee on the subject. the conclusions of the scriptures are. Keeping his eye on the six different kinds of the king should build his cities containing every kind of affluence and every other article of use in abundance. and forest-citadels. tively as directed. 1 or rivera. with his ministers and mud-citadels. human-citadels. to enquire about the proper. where peace prevails. where the residents number among them many brave and wealthy individuals. which is adorned with many open squares and rows of shops. or fcha sea. where the behaviour of all persons is righteous.196 MAHABHARATA The king. thou especially shouldst make the arrangements required and conduct thyself attenreside ! I shall.

fat. and strenghthen his counsels (with wisdom). shafts. and establishing courts enhancing the number of justice. The king should always honour the ascetics and make unto them gifts. honey. He should check all s. weapons. bamboos. He should protect his anything that may obstruct or thwart righteousHe should always maintain and protect the helpless. These afford refreshing shade to sunburnt travellers. increasing his foices. horns. the ness. never doing and vessels and food. of all his measures. medicines. by means of the outward behaviour and the state of mind of the inhabitants spies. as also all men possessed of wisdom and intelligence and self-restraint and cleverness andcourageand learnpriests. flax. . T. Whatever the 1 oifcadels Nilakantha says that this has reference to the second variety mentioned in the previous verse. should also increase his stores of rice and other grain. he should honour them with gifts of beds and seats and food. the unrighteous. honouring those that are loyal to him and punishing those that are hostile. iron. with attentive care. and should always behave with humility in their presence. and the agencies for inflicting chastisements. persons skilled in architecture. masterless. leather catgut (for bow-strings). he should adopt those measures that may be required The king should himself supervise his spies and counsels. the king should ascertain all the acts and intentions of his foes. at proper seasons of cloths subjects. astronomers and astrologers. chaff. resinous exhudations. He should then. inform the ascetics (within his dominions) of the state of his own self. timber. and neutrals. the king should be employed of his treasury. ard mighty bowmen. enhance his stores He of fuel. etc. and physicians. and strings and cords made of munja grass and other plants and creepers. his friends. friends. devise his own measures. honour and attention preceptors (of different sciences). acting with resolution.The king should always adore the gods in sacrifices and make gifts without giving pain to anybody. and of the kingdom. Ritwijas. and capable of close application The king should honour the righteous and chastise He should. T. He should also increase the number of tanks and wells containing large quantities of He should entertain with water. with heedfulness. further. 2 ing and high-birth to all kinds of work.SANTI PARVA are always worshipped.When he sees ascetics of high birth and great learning that have abandoned all earthly objects. of 2 Such as banian. and women that are widows. abuses and evils in both his cities and province in collecting He provisions of every kind and in filling his arsenals should be employed with care. peepul. marrow. The king should. orders to their respective duties- and energy of mind. He should. oils charcoal. canes. bones. in filling 1 197 Residing there. of his city and provinces. Upon these everything may be said to depend. his treasury. With spies constituting his sight. and ghee. and should protect all juicy trees. set the several Ascertaining properly. and the old. rice.

said. there should be one officer (having the villages).198 MAHABHABATA ascetic. should be appointed men each of whom should have a thousand villages under his control. it 'How. He should not. The king should place his wealth in charge of an ascetic and should take wisdom from him. he should select one for friendship. O be protected bull of Bharata's race !' said.' lest upon them. paying tribute to him. &c. Tell me all "Bhishma shall tell thee be protected./ . I how a kingdom may be consolidated. again. Similarly. Above the latter should be . depositaries of the king's wealth. desire to know this. taining the lord of 1 'Take Every headman should contribute his share for mainten villages. in his turn. and how also it may A headman should be selected for each village. Engaged in penances and of rigid vows they would if cala- mity overtakes the king and if he solicits protection. consult with them. The is He latter. should report the same to the officer (who above him charge of twenty villages. tome with concentrated attention. he should confide in an The very robbers repose confidence upon persons of that character.. however. He should behave towards the ascetics dwelling in the kingdoms of foes and in the forests in the same way as towards those that reside in his own kingdom. The village headman should have control over all the produce and the possessions and is) in of the village. to the officer (who is above him and is) should report everything in charge of ten villages. always wait From among those upon them or worship them on all occasions1 residing in his own kingdom. SECTION LXXXVII "Yudhishthira ed. of twenty appointed persons under each of whom should be a century of villages and above the last kind of officers. He should select a third from among those residing in the forests. The latter. ? I may a kingdom be consolidat- and how should this. should the conduct of all the persons within his dominion to the officer report (who is above him and is) in charge of a hundred villages. grant him what wants. and a fourth from among those dwelling in the kingdoms He should show hospitality towards and bestow honours upon them and assign them the means of sustenance. O king. nature of the distress into which he may fall. and the latter should do the same for i. suspecting them to be T. he should select another from among those that reside in the kingdom of his foe. Over two such superintendents control. Over 'Listen ten villages (or ten headmen) there should be one superintendent. 'Should not always wait robbers should kill them.e. The headman should ascertain all the characteristics of every person in the village and the faults also that need correction. wisdom. I have now told thee in brief the indications of the city 1 * 1 e in which the king should reside. therefore.

the food and dress. the king should levy taxes on them. and whom are regarded to be possessed by the devil. within the control of the lord of a thousand That high officer.BANTI PABVA 199 supporting the lord of twenty villages. and all who are full of deceit. the king should levy taxes upon the artisans in respect of the arts they follow. sufficient cause. with wrathfulness. The king should not. after reflection. all who rob all of the wealth of other people. No tax should be levied without ascertaining the outturn and the sary to proJuce 1 it. In every town. capable maintaining one at ease. and the stocks and profits. T. The king. The king. the state of the roads. O Yudhishthira. all men of wicked deeds. The lord of a hundred villages should receive every honour from the king and should have for his support a large village. however. therefore. Such a village. may take high taxes. Such high officers should protect the people from all persons of murderous disposition. levy taxes in such way that he and the person who labours to produce the article taxed may both share the value. Taking note of the sales and the purchases. % Some virtuous minister. there should be an officer for attending to every matter relating to his jurisdiction. Such an officer should ascertain the conduct of those under him through his spies. but he should never levy such taxes as would emasculate his people. . the lord of a thousand villages. Ascertaining on all occasions the extent of the manufactures. should be. He should enjoy the grain and gold and other possessions derivable from it. in taxing the out-turns of work. O chief of the Bharatas. and the state of the arts. should have a minor town for his support. A king who is possessed of sound intelligence should milk his kingdom after the analogy of ( men of 1 The sense seems to bo that if a sufficient margin of profit. by acting in this way he may succeed in winning his own popularity. be not left. Like some planet of dreadful form moving above all the asterisms below. populous and teeming with wealth. the receipts and expenses of those that are engaged in them. Whence can a king who becomes an object of hatred have prosperity ? Such a king can never acquire what is for his good. by his thirst. He should always avoid those acts in consequence of which he may become an object of hatred to his people. viz. destroy foundations as also those of others. villages. a amount of labour that has been neceswould work or seek for outturns without Nobody The king should. He should perform all the duties of its wars and other internal affairs pertaining to it. so assigned to a lord of a hundred villages. of those that are engaged in trade. again. one would refrain absolutely from work. again. should leave such a margin of profit to the producers. should exercise supervision affairs over the administration and mutual relations of those officers. the officer (with plenary powers) mentioned last should move and act above all the officers subordinate to him. Indeed. The subjects hate that king who earns a notoriety for voraciousness of appetite (in the matter of taxes and imposts).

the calf becomes lean and fails to do much service to the owner. Here. on occasions of their soverewant. becoming sharers of the king's weal and woe. O Bbarata. the king should. the king should repair to the chief centres of his kingdom one after another and endeavour to He should say unto them. sweet. If. In seasons of calamity. whether they depend upon him immediately or mediately. show them compassion to the best of his power. calainspire his paople with fright. bear such burthens. wealth should not be so dear to A king conversant with the considerations relating to Time you should. like a bamboo that has flowered. us. with such agreeable. they will even slay all your relatives You certainly desire wealth for the beginning with your very spouses sake of your children and wives. like strong bulls.200 MAHABHARATA the matter of) calves. O Yudhishthira. for meeting with destruction themselves. feel exceedingly gratified with him. Pointing out to them the necessity of repairing his fortifications and of defraying the expenses of his establishment and other heads. In view of this great calamity fraught with dreadful danger. Similarly. inspiring them with the fear of mity threatens ! of the foe ! ! ign's 1 The sense is that the subjects then. T. I will give you what I now take. The subjects. while that which is his treasury becomes his bed chamber. the cow be milked too much. . it and bears heavy burthens. upon what is easily obtained. will not give back what they (if unopposed) will take from you by force. if the kingdom be drained much. of collecting wealth. having risen up and combined with a large number of robbers. A great danger has arisen inconsequence of the acts There is every reason. Does not the king then obtain wealth sfficient for enabling him to cope 1 The entire kingdom. desire to put our kingdom into difficulties. On the other hand. Thinking. however. If the inhabitants of the cities and the provinces be poor. I am glad at your prosperity. When the danger passes away. however. becomes to him with his wants 7 his treasury. and complimentary words. succeeds in earning many grand results. in the first instance. the king should protect the people of his villages and make them happy. I solicit your wealth for devising the means of your protection. to hope that the danger will pass away. the subjects fail to achieve any act that is great. hasten to place their resources at his disposal. I shall take from you what I do not wish to give pain to it may be within your power to give me. That king who protects his kingdom himself and shows favour to his subjects) in the matter of taxes and imposts) and supports himself acting in grows strong. on the other hand. send his agents and collect imposts from his people. and I beseech you as I would my own children. any one. If the calf be permitted to suck. Our foes. (if unopposed). In seasons of distress. for the enemy. in that case. you should. Chastising all robbers that infest the outskirts. Many foes of mine. will very soon meet with destruction. in that case.

and develop its trade. It is always easy to behave with goodness towards the Vaisyas. should always act in such a way towards the Vaisyas that their productive powers may be enhanced. improve its agriculture. than the adoption of such behaviour towards the ' Vaisyas of the realm. they become lost to him. touching them with her teeth but never piercing them therewith.' SECTION LXXXVIII "Yudhishthira said.e. ness. The king should He (in the matter of taxes) act like the leech drawing blood mildly. O son of Pritha. he should at last put the reins on them. The king should. should always gratify them. what the burthens is taken assumes a fair proportion. and abandoning his dominions remove themselves to the woods. he desires for more !' "Bhishma said. without injuring the source. 1 I. like a bee gathering 1 honey from plants. He should behave like a mouse which though possessed of sharp and pointed teeth still cuts the feet of sleeping animals in such a manner that they do not at all become conscious of it. . notwithstanding his great wealth. and always do what is agreeable to them. Acting with care and mildIf the reins are thus put. adopt all such secure their good as also his own. The Vaisyas increase the strength of a kingdom. and impressing 201 them with the necessity that exists for protecting them and enabling them to ensure the means of living in peace. The king. desirous of earning religious merit. He should act like the keeper of a cow who draws milk from her without boring her udders and without starving the calf. O Bharata. A little by little should be taken from a growing subject and by this means should should milk A king kingdom he be shorn. therefore. should always conciliate and protect the Vaisyas. "A king. the king should levy imposts upon the Vaisyas of his realm. therefore. Acting with needfulness and leniency. The king. There is nothing productive of greater good to a kingdom. O Yudhishthira. towards his subjects like a tigress in the matter should conduct himself of carrying her cubs. in his dominions. He measures as would in his estimation his should. Tell me.A wise king. of his The demand should then be increased gradually till The king should enhance subjects gradually like a person gradually increasing the burthens of a young bullock. adopt measures for inspiring them with a sense of security and for ensuring them in the enjoyment of what they possess.. If the king disregards the Vaisyas. T. how should the king behave if. O grandsire. he should levy mild imposts upon them.8ANTI PABVA foreign invasion. behave with leniency towards them. should devote himself to the good of his subjects and protect them according to considerations of place and time and to the best of his intelligence and power.

Nobody should ask anything of any one when there is no distress. and other persons all who are sources of disorders to the state. Conciliating those that are foremost. verse 1 The Bengal reading Bombay . He (as already part of their sins as he does a fourth part of their merits. They are such as impoverish every speak What wicked act is there that a person governed by passion I would not do ? A person governed by passion indulges in stimulants and meat. The king should never impose taxes unseasonably and on persons unable to bear them. nor robbers. he should. and appropriates the wives and the wealth of other people. public women. Since the king shares the sins of his subjects like their merits. Such of the first line of this verse is vicious. He should impose them gradually and with and then enjoy in happiness what he will and according to due forms. make gifts unto them from compassion but not from fear. of methods only makes them furious. The king should. Producing disunion (through the agency of their leaders) among the common people who are to bear the burthens. adequate measures should be employed for making them obedient. restrain those ( from sin) earns consequence a fourth part of the sins of subjects of his that are sinful. gamblers and keepers of this kind. One who conciliation. the world would doubtless come to an end. all men were to live by asking or begging and abstain from work. trivances that I declare They are not reckoned as methods fraught with deceit. actors. Residing within the realm. Manu himself 1 If in days of old has laid down this injunction in respect of all men. These conunto thee are legitimate means of king-craft. the common people should be reduced to obedience. pimps. observant of righteousness. loans. This is the declaration of the Srutis. and taxes. the king should himself come forward to conciliate them succeed in drawing from them.202 MAHABEABATA they would not become untractable. and injure the better classes of the subjects. Indeed. The king earns that neglects to restrain said) a fourth them becomes himself of sinful. Mere entreaties to reduce them to subjection would not do. O monarch. The king alone is competent to restrain and check. Let there be no beggars in thy kingdom. and sets a bad example (for imitation by others). therefore. gaming houses. They that do not live upon alms may beg in seasons of distress. It is the robbers (and not virtuous men) that give unto beggars. in proper season seeks to govern steeds by improper Drinking-shops. That king who does not restrain his subjects ( in committed by his people the absence of royal protection ). The commentator explains that this has reference to alms. should these afflict be checked. It is impossible to behave equally towards all men. Both the Bengali translators have made nonsense of this and the following T. The reading kinclwdanapadi (for Kasyanchidpadi) is the correct one. which one- The following faults should be checked.

He 1 that is wise. ! O monarch. . a wealthy person is the foremost of men. with affection and respect.e. The meaning. the king should repair to an assembly of Brahmanas and say O Such a Brahmana is leaving the kingdom. 3 I. trade and other acts of a similar nature. or engaged in penances.T get their fill. Without doubt. becomes inspired with a sense of insecurity (in consequence of thieves and tyrannical officers. however. before the Brahmanas T. In every kingdom. after supporting the the support of other people. cattle-rearing. treasury and forces !" SECTION LXXXIX "Bhishma said. or gifted with intelligence. want of support. The idea. and abstention Thou shouldst thus wield the rod of chastisement. 1 that it of course. 2 Angais literally apart. religion. advance the interests of the people say unto them. O do them good. 'T. interests of others and 203 men reside in thy not such as exterminate others. Kakud is the hemp of the bull. assists in protecting (his fellow subjects). The king should always honour those subjects of his that are rich and should Do ye. or wealthy or influential. but king.. and from injury enhance thy treasury and support thy friends and consolidate thy king- dom thus. rearing of cattle. the subjects Those officers. practising the qualities of truthfulness and sincerity and supported by thy friends. desires to 3 If Brahmana. Agriculture. If he does not still abstain (from leaving the kingdom). In whom shall my people Earmabhedatah is explained differently by Nilakantha. The Fruits and roots constitute the property of sages have declared this to be an ordinance of The surplus. do thou love all creatures. Let such dominions as advance the. abandon a kingdom for obtaining livelihood (elsewhere). should be caused to be carried on by many persons on the principle of division of labour. Thou shouldst then appoint others so that these will take only what is due. the means of sustenance. or trade. Nobody a Brahmanas. with me. should go to should take anything by doing an afflicted for injury to the Brahmanas. or courageous. the monarch. sincerity. or righteous. as a consequence. or truthful in speech.. is that the wealthy form an estate in the realm. the Brahmanas. should. absence of wrath. that take from more than what is due should be punished. 1 If a person engaged in agriculture. they that are wealthy constitute an estate in the 2 realm. is that the man of wealth occupies a very superior position.8ANTI PABVA givers are not real benefactors of men. "For these reasons. incurs infamy. and display the qualities of truth. assign unto him king. 'Let not such trees as yield edible fruits be cut down in thy dominions. He thinks means 'lest those acts suffer injury. the king.

T. people say that that only should be assigned to a Brahma-na which would be just sufficient for maintaining him. literally. Protecting his own self first from every one. 5 yunjita. O A king should protect those that deserve prodelighter of the Kurus The king who does this is the best of rulers. Agriculture. O son of Kunti. further. Those kings that tection. enemies of society for Some T.P. When. the king should ask forgiveness and. In rendering the second line. and fight battles with courage. do thou always cherish thy people. and. and guide. do not accept that opinion. and trade. and Ihunjita . Men of knowledge have said that everything has these. 4 The word used and order. is Dasyus. the king should say unto him. protect thy subjects. teacher. I. texts read Yoddhyavyam for Boddhyavyam. . The eatat of the first line has been supplied in the translation. -T. viz. 5 Protecting others from thy own. such means should be assigned to him. The Burdwan version. its root in are his of What The king should always reflect upon laches. however. what are the sources his weakness. he does not an authority for guiding them 7 give up his intention of leaving. Subdue thy foes. do not exercise the duty of protection live a vain life. knowledge of the Vedas. that obstruct the should still 3 A as study of the Vedas and the cause of Vedic practices. the second half should come first. On the other hand. provide all men with the means of living. Indeed. assign him the means of maintenance. of course. self. the king should protect the Earth. The king should further say unto him. and thy own from thy own. and what are the sources of his 1 The Brahmanas are authorities for guiding other men. as usual. robbers . the people lose in him a friend. here. I think that if a Brahmana seeks to leave a kingdom for the king's neglect in providing him with means of support. worship the deities in sacrifices. Sing's also is incomplete and inaccurate. to what evil habits he is addicted. If that does not suffice. a particular Brahmana leaves the kingdom. he be requested to stay and supplied with even those means. 2 The king should dissuade in the manner indicated in verse 4. T.204 MAHABHARATA find 1 If after this. as also others from others. They. 4 It is for the extermination of these that Brahman created Kshattriyas. O Yudhishthira. For the benefit of all his subjects the king should always seek to ascertain the acts and ! thoughts of all. therefore. are to be regarded enemies of society.. and thy own from others. Forget the past This. and says anything. provide them with the means of obtaining heaven. if he intends to take that step for procuring the means of luxury. is erroneous K. O then Brahmana. therefore. is the eternal 2 way of royal duty. and for that reason he should set spies and secret agents. however. and if the person intending to leave refers to the king's previous neglect. T. 3 The original is elliptical in construction. cattle-rearing.

. 'Creatures that are mobile devour things that animals again that have teeth devour those that have said. and those that are thy ministers. can succeed in earning the friends. T.8ANTI PABVA faults. of all persons in the world. Singha has erroneously rendered the second line. Nagas. wrathful snakes of virulent poison devour smaller ones of also. ces. birds. they fall upon him like vultures (on kingdom who purarticles at prices high and low (for sale). O king. T. thou shouldsfe care for such opinion.. O Yudhishthira. and animals.e. kingdom. Take care. 205 The king should cause secret and trusted agents to wander through the kingdom for ascertaining whether his conduct as displayed on the previous day has or has not met with the approbation of the people. All persons have O Bharata "Yudhishthira said. O son of Pandu !' rulers. king. he should ascertain whether his conduct is or is not generally praised. agriculturists in thy kingdom leave it through oppression they. without being angry with those that censure or blame thee. O Yudhishthira 1 I No !' man. Indeed.e. O are the means of governing a again discourse to kingdom and protecting its thee on the subject. O sire. is or is not acceptable to the people of the provinare in earning a good name virtuous and possessed of and whether he has or has not succeeded in kingdom. they who have to undergo such privations in carrying on their T. and those that do not reside in thy kingdom. and who in course of chase their journeys have to sleep or take rest in forests and inaccessible 2 be not afflicted by the imposition of heavy taxes. own species. among human being who is strong. These. support the other residents also of the 3 The gifts made by thee in this world support the gods. 'Among persons all of whom are equal in might of arms and accomplishments. good opinion and neutrals. or. Taranti also may give the same meaning. those that never retreat from battle. wisdom. foes. useful occupation should not be taxed heavily. 2 I. ' I shall 1 I. K. Pitris. 3 The correct reading is bharanti. and whence does that one succeed in ruling over them ?' "Bhishma are immobile . The If the king. who carrion). no teeth their . whence does one acquire superiority over all the rest.P. that the traders in thy j bear the burthens of the king. preys upon those that are weak. should always be heedful of his subjects as also of his foes. he becomes heedless. Rakshasas. Bharata. Let not the regions. (Upon this principle.. men. those that are dependent on thee. they that praise or blame thee should never be objects of disregard with his Amongst those that thee. as well as those that are independent of party.

therefore. recite to thee everything that Utatthya. discoursed cheerfully (on former occasion) unto Yuvanaswa's son Mandhatri. animals and fields observe high vows. O "Bhishma said.i goes to heaven. When sinfulness is not restrained. Know is. That king who is endued with a righteous soul and with every kind of grace If a king fails to chastise unis said to bean embodiment of virtue. that foremost of all persons conversant with the Vedas. is a Vrishala. Yudhishthira. or spread out sacrifices. That king.Raj'an . if he acts unrighteously. . He in whom righteousness shines (raj a te) is a . the Rishis made the king. He who weakens Vrisha is known by the name of Vrishala. 3 This verse gives the etimology of the words Raj an and Vrishala. That king. or is not'restrained.e. Righteousness. The deities receive no worship. T of t . shines. 2 Bhishma says that this discourse is very old. Vide next verse. Probably this verse has reference to the writer's idea of the motives that impelled the Rishis of Brahmavarta whon they devised for their Indian colony the kingly form government. he attains to the position of a god. indeed. is called a Vrishala. and he in whom righteousness. that superior being. O Mandhatri On the the king acts righteously. "Utatthya said. All creatures the king upon righteousness. One becomes a king for acting in the interests of righteousness and not for conducting himself capriciously. 1 I. when sinfulness is not restrained.. T. when sinfulness The regenerate classes do not study the Vedas. say and houses. men. righteous behaviour comes to an end and unrighteous increases greatly.SECTION XC persons conversant with the Vedas. T. and guests no hospitality. When sinfulness is not restrained. who upholds righteousness. The efforts of men who are observant of their own duties are always crowned with success. the gods desert his mansion and he incurs obloquy amortg righteousness. is truly a king. again in whom there is no righteousness. O king. he sinks into hell. viz Utatthya of Angirasa's race. men cannot own and enjoy their own wives and prevails tures.* other hand. no rest one can. rests upon the king. intending that he should be the embodiment 2 He is called Rajan in whom righteousness of righteousness on Earth. according to the rights of property as laid down in the scripThis thing is mine and this is not mine. For this reason all men seek to obey the dictates of righteousness which are productive of prosperity. the Pitris no offerings in Sraddhas. Vrisha. When sinfulness in the world. had said unto that king. I shall now. in its turn.* viz. the protector of the world. when sinfulness is not restrained. called Vri$ha disappears.The minds of men. Casting their eyes on both the worlds. The divine Dharma (Righteousness) has another name. That foremost of all . If this. become weak and confounded like those of persons wounded with weapons.

therefore. and decay with its decay. created Dharma for the advancement and growth of (Brahman) eousness is called tion of wealth (Dhana). If. observe thou the dictates of righteousness. Thou shouldst never have intercourse with unknown women. of For this reason. that conduce to the prosperity of kings. who suffers himself to be conquered by him. the king brings danger on himself. ! righteousness begat a son This Pride. Many thou.. and forbear to pay court to all of them when united. therefore. therefore. Keep from the company of ministers whom thou hast once punished and especially of women. again. called a king. is the results of malice and Be thou awakened. *In consequence of malice towards the Virochana. and avoid reptiles. becomes a slave. Righteousness. Disregarding lust and wrath. has spring from the Brahmana. He who succeeds in conquering king Do him O ! becomes He. righteousness is the foremost. king. thou wishest for an eternal life (of felicity). For this reason. royal sages also have suffered destruction on his account. O Mandhatri. or those of thy self aloof equivocal sex. O king. live as a king should that does not indulge in Abstain from companionthese two. him that is a scoffer of religion. Dharma has been said to be the foremost That foremost of men who rules his subjects righteously is O tiger of all things. deities. have declared that Dliarma The Self-born restrains and set bounds to all evil acts of men.SANTI PABVA 207 A king should. should never be permitted to decay. By neglecting to gratify the wishes of Brahmanas. O Mandhatri. gratify with humility the wishes of Brahmanas. advance the cause of Righteousness. This. Dharma for benefiting his subjects* For this reason among kings. awaken. so that the goddess of The Srutis delare that Unmay not in wrath desert thee prosperity pride. he fails to obtain any accession of friends while his foes Brahmanas from his folly. him that is the dictates ship with him that is insensate. him that is heedless (of of honesty). Dharma. creatures. the Brahmana should always be worshipped. in many O puissant one. many among the gods and the Asuras to ruin. Right- Dharma because it aids the acquisition and preservaThe sages. All creatures grow in the growth of righteousness. Vali indulged vain regrets. the goddess of prosperity who had formerly dwelt with him became enraged and deserted the Asuras Vali the son of springing increase in number. Deserting the Asura she repaired to Indra the chief of the Beholding the goddess living with Purandara. In consequence of such neglect. or those that are lewd. the faults of stinginess and vanity and boastfulness ancRrrath. Among all things. led O named Pride upon the goddess of prosperity. O chief of Bharata's race. O Mandhatri. Pride and Unrighteousness a king. or those that are the wives of . Thou shouldst. as also from mountains and uneven lands and inaccessible fastness and elephants and horses and (noxious) Thou shouldst also give up wandering in the night. viz. a king should act according to the dictates also. ! intoxicated (with pride). on the other hand.

or those that are unmarried virgins. Ominous stars arise and awful comets appear on such occasions. a confusion of castes follows. If the deity of the clouds pours rain seasonably and the kings acts virtuously. The virginity of maidens is defloured. If a king acts heedlessly. and many acting in concert rob the two. on the other hand. having fallen away from the proper duties of his order. is truly to be compared . penances.. Drought and flood and pestilence afflict the people.. and idiots. mantras. . for the benefit of his subjects. abandoning SECTION XCI "Utatthya said. righteously. the king should take particular care to act families. and persons of neutral sex. duties in The address Bharatarshabha is misplaced. the age that sets in is Krita . and disappears when its proper season comes.' ' when the king. he acts sinfully. indicating destruction of If the king does not take their appearance. Dwapara. That Kshattriya who knows how to correct the faults of behaviour of the other orders and to agriculture to science of chastisement to the Kshattriya wash them clean to be their king. all become confused and weakened when the king becomes heedless.208 MAHABHABATA other men. causing confusion of castes. measures for his own safety and does not protect his subjects. Unrighteousness increases. all become The king is the creator of all lost when the king becomes heedless. Menial service attaches to the Sudra the Vaisya the and Brahmacharyya. and all O bull of Bharata's race. Treta. the prosperity that ensues maintain the subjects in felicity. The sense of the verse is that it is the king who causes the age. the Vedas and the respect of the four modes of life. When the king does not restrain vice. if. like a washerman. the three Vedas. is really their father and deserve The respective ages called Krita. Cold sets in during the summer months. That person among Brahmanas or Kshattriyas or Vaisyas who. the kingdom. &o. begin to take birth in even respectable Therefore. 1 who is . Kali 9-ge to set in &c. he causes the T. . It is the king who 1 constitutes the age. acts heedlessly. a a great evil becomes the consequence. and truth. The three kinds of Fire. righteousness. and children destitute of limbs or possessed of thick tongues. attach. Such a state of things is said to arise from the king's faults. has become a Sudra. and sinful Rakshasas. That washerman who does not know how to wash away the filth of cloth without taking away its dye. seeing that it is Uttatha speakiril>and Mandhatri who is listening. Kali. make Diverse* other portents. All rights of property come to an end among men. the latter first meet with destruction and then destruction seizes the king himself Two persons combining together snatch the wealth of one. for if he acts righteously. are dependent on the conduct of the The four orders. to such a washerman. king. and sacrifices with Dakshina. is very unskilful in his profession. . to the Brahmana.

It is said. while he that is sinful is regarded as the destroyer. O Mandhatri. That king who is of righteous soul is regarded as the creator. When the officers of the king extort lust or avarice. a great being. Weakness is. a great destruction then is sure to overtake the king. such mendicancy brings destruction upon the king. who has been humiliated or struck. sons. for milk. first starting into life. Do not. Do not. and the king is their destroyer. Its power. Numerous creatures then come and seek its shelter 1 He who protects Weakness wins heaven. by unjust means or acting from from persons piteously soliciting for mercy. it is seen in his son or in his son's son. by mendicancy. the great rod of divine chastisement falls (upon the king). as always subject to humiliation. it 2 The keeper of a cow has to wait. into (hostile) contact with the weak. while in enjoyment of Power. take wealth from those that are Weak. grief. 27 . fails. of the Muni. ! If a person. kinsmen. The king's wives. Weakness. the king is then said to bring about a state of un- mixed evil upon his kingdom. do not burn thee with thy kinsmen. that the eyes of the ! Weak tears shed not seen in the perpetrator himself. Thou shouldst regard Take care that the eyes of the the come weak Weak In a race scorched by the eyes of Such eyes burn the race to its very roots. no children take birth. indeed. while shrieking for assistance. If. T. therefore. for everything depends upon it. divine chastisement overtakes the king and brings about his destruction. the king becomes unrighteous. and friends. When all the officers of the king posted in the provinces unite together and act with injustice. that the Creator created Power (represented by the king) for the object of protecting Weakness. Elephants and steeds and kine and camels and mules and asses and other animals all lose their vigour when the king becomes unrighteous. grows into large A proportions. till it is calved. therefore. all become unhappy and indulge in grief when the king becomes heedless. for that Power which is scorched by Weakness becomes totally exterminated. Like a cow a 2 If the fruit sinful act perpetrated does not produce immediate fruits. 1 All creatures worship the king. or daughter's son. while he who persecutes goes to hell. the weak. mighty tree. and of the snake of virulent as poison. thus. therefore. sire.SANTI PAKVA 209 creatures. so to say. to obtain a protector. T. come into (hostile) contact with the weak Weakness is more powerful than even the greatest Power. When all is subjects of a king (are obliged by distress to) live like Brahmanas. Do not. is a great thing. O The eyes monarch. should be regarded unbearable. wealth. When a weak person fails to find a rescuer. All creatures are the children of the king. is such that it can lead to heaven and hell every one with whom it may come into contact. all creatures come to of the weak. Take care that O do not burn thee like a blazing fire The by weeping men afflicted with falsehood slay the children and animals of those that have uttered those falsehoods.

T. Wiping the tears of the distressed. and inspiring them with joy. always making gifts of land. The maintenance of those that are weak by sharing with them the things he has. T. and thereby increasing their strength. constitute the duty of the king. the helpless. abandon righteousness and act unrighteously. those become homeless. extermination of robbers. that T. constitute the duty of the king. Adoring the deities. When the king causes chastisement to overtake dom who all wicked people. Protecting all men by words. is an accusative plural. By subduing 1 he succeeds in acquiring great affluence. constitutes the duty of the king. That king who duly honours all good acts and good speeches succeeds in earning great merit. with a devoted heart. if the king be overtaken by destrucdo not escape. his kingthrives in prosperity. and subduing lust and envy. are said to constitute the great duty of a king. constitute the duty of the king.210 MAHABHARATA it is When. 3 Some texts read Saranikan. . The king is Yama himself. constitute the duty of the king. When. He is. Protection of the kingdom. Aggrandising friends. Never to forgive a person however dear. Nil&kantha thinks. When sinful men whose acts are known are allowed to move among the righteous (without being punished for 2 their misdeeds). paying proper honours to the ministers. cut it that had recourse to for shelter all down or consumed in a conflagration. his officers and voyages. Such a ruler enjoys the wide Earth for ever. Kali then overtakes the rulers of those realms. The enjoyment of good things after sharing them with others. and supporting dependents. however. constitute 3 the duty of the king. constitute the duty of the king. body. entertaining guests. the latter reaps an accession of affluence. the king becomes overtaken by misery. as he would protect his own children. residents of a rites. Cheerfully observing the obligations of truth. By tion. and the old. the residents. weakening foes. meaning traders that make journeys The sen. and never depriving one of the honours to which he is entitled. and deeds. and conquering in battle. constitute the duty of the king. moved by ignorance. the god (incarnate) unto his senses all that are righte- ous. and never forgiving his son himself (if he has offended). I suppose. Map 2 Rajnah. constitute the great duty of the king. Protecting those that solicit shelter. on the other hand. 1 When the acts of righteousness kingdom perform and all religious and applaud the good qualities of the king. if he has committed an offence by act or word. That king who favours those that deserve favours and chastises those that deserve chastise- ment earns great merit both here and hereafter. in sacrifices completed by presents. O Mandhatri. The kingdom of that king certainly thrives pays proper honours to his ministers and employs them in measures of policy and in battles. and subjugation of persons intoxicated with strength. and honouring the good.se is.

Do thou his laches. Virtue is the foremost. Yama governs all creatures without observing The king should imitate him in his behaviour by restraining all his subjects duly.e.. Aided by ministers of handsome features and good birth. and possessed of great learning. and Varuna. and observe all and he should himself assail This is the way in which Vasava. and who is not versed in the great science. and the love of all creatures. destroys his own roots. and the great royal sages have acted. which. The king should never be may not be able to detect them when theirs are visible. is incompetent to bear the burthen cf sovereignty. Do thou. therefore. O heedless in looking after hisownlaches. the meaning depends upon bharati. Conducting thyself thus. make gifts. As regards the second line. Thou shouldst. cultivate forgiveness. sweet words. should be regarded as Righteousness which is regarded as such by him. adopt this 1 The king is God (incarnate) unto all righteous men." i. and who is conver- sant with the science of chastisement. be heedless to these qualities and not. distinctions. He. without being heedless.SANTI PAKVA not subduing 1 211 and priests them he incurs sin. devoted to their master. thou shouldst examine the hearts and acts of all men including the very ascetics in the forests. is a not clever. "becomes destructive to others. foes Yama. a king may win great prosperity. because they expect everything from him. That will aid thee in observing thy own duties. never succeeds in protecting his very heavy burthen to bear. Thou shouldst also ascertain the strength and weakness of all right and wrong. thou wilt be able to learn the duties of all orders of men. A king who is Sovereignty. by gifts. may . they can abandon (for the sake of the honour thou mayst give them) their very wives and sons. O great king. ''obtains affluence or prosperity. Amogst these three objects. O sire. By attaching good men to himself (by doing good offices unto them). who is without energy and intelligence. If men be treated with honour. Paying proper honours unto Ritu/ijas and preceptors. can protect a kingdom. The meaning then would be "becomes as a fire. Virtue. and doing good offices unto them constitute the duty of the king. men and learn to distinguish between wards all Thou shouldst conduct thyself with propriety tocreatures. clever in business. That. viz. and Pleasure. as the commentator explains means. whether when thou art in thy country or when thou repairest to other realms. Do heedfulness and purity of behaviour. O bull among men. probably. on the other hand."!. the same conduct. and utter agreeable and sweet words. For Fatukah some texts read Pavakah. He that is of virtuous soul obtains great happiness both here and hereafter. or. as also after those of his foes. Profit. subjects. patience.. Only that king who is possessed of wisdom and courage. intelligence. He should act in such a way that his acts. Mandhatri. The king is said to resemble the Thousandeyed (Indra) in every respect. Thou shouldst maintain the residents of thy city and the provinces in happiness.

behave ? this. soon falls away from Righteousness and loses both Righteousness and Profit. possessed of great energy. bull of Bharata's race. a destroyer of righteousness with king all his and deserves to be slain by his subjects family. and became the Do thou O king. who is desirous of prosperity. act righteously Mandhatri. Indeed. of great energy. ask thee O foremost of "Bhishma men ! Answer me. 'How should a righteous king.. That incompetent to discharge the duties of state-craft. There is nothing superior to Righteousness. king Vasumanas. That king who acts according to the counsels of a vicious and sinful minister becomes righteous.Those kings that are observant of righteousThat king who regards ness. O one. O praises. who is free That king.212 MAEABHARATA behaviour which was followed by those royal sages. obtain an abode heaven !' SECTION XCII "Yudhishthira said. adopt this heavenly road. Do thou soon. Upon these depends the conduct of . the Rishis. 'In this connection cited the old story of what Vamadeva gifted with great intelligence and acquainted with the true import of everything sang in ancient times. succeed in conquering the whole Earth. i and the Qandharvas. Do thou act righteously. blazes forth with righteousness. saying. in Thou ' wilt then. and who acts according to the counsels of those that are That king who disregards Righteousness and desires to act with brute force. lord of the wide Earth. sole like Mandhatri. He should never consider himself to have a sufficiency of Virtue. I who is desirous of adhering to a course of righteousness. on the other hand. son of Nahusha. as to the conduct to be observed by me so that I may not fall away from the duties prescribed for me Unto him of a golden our. intelligence. wealth. viz. and friends. words fraught with righteousness and of holy grave import. unhesitatingly did as he was also. soon meets with destruction even if he happens to be ruler of the whole is who Earth. said as follows ''Vamadeva said. he very soon meets with destruction. enjoyments. and who is gifted with intelligence. thrives in affluence like the ocean swelling with the waters discharged into it by a hundred streams. The gods. who has his senses under control. possessed of knowledge and fortitude and purity of behaviof high ascetic merit. from malice. asked the great Rishi Vamadeva Instruct me. O Bharata. who is governed by caprice in all his acts. sing the both here and hereafter. that : Vamadeva. the Pirn's. like Yayati. Once upon a time. in ! complexion and seated at his ease foremost of ascetics. Righteousness to be the most efficacious means for accomplishing his objects. O Grandsire is !' said. and who indulges in brag. directed. Thus addressed by Utatthya. of that king whose conduct is righte- ous ! "Bhishma continued. after ruling the Earth.

and subjects. That Kshattriya who does not follow the conduct observed from days of old by other Kshattriyas conquered or unconquered. very soon meets with destruction. Others. The king should display his power. That king. and who seeks to acquire wealth by means that caprice suggests. them that deserve it. who his subjects If the king gives proper honour to and recognises the value of sweet speeches by himself uttering them on all occasions. Having seized in battle a royal foe that did some good to the conqueror on a former occasion. who listens to the here. of a king who falls away from 1 his duties. afflicts affection. I Burdwan version is correct. T. 218 By listening to these counsels. and do what is necessary in seasons of danger. never succeeds in enjoying happiness long. that king who seeks the acquisition of virtue and wealth by such means. desires to illustrate the force of righteous conduct. a king obtains fame. prosperity. When the king. and who in all his acquisi- guided by considerations of virtue. on the other hand. The conduct of a king who is observant of his proper duties. and who begins all his measures after reflecting upon their objects. as if these had fallen upon themselves. P. That rash king who. brings destruction disregarding the injunctions laid down in the scriptures. supervises the affairs of his tions is ' ' who kingdom himself. is said to fall away from Kshattriya duties. achievements. That king who has no instructor in the ways of righteousness and who never asks others for counsels. actuated by malice. who is powerful. If thou dost disservice to any person. The think. however. his subjects then dispel the calamities that overtake him. Singha. succeed in enjoying happi- ness for a long time. when the turn comes. SECTION XCIII 'Vamadeva continued. The speaker.SANTI PARVA the world. is said to fall away from Kshattriya duties. is accepted by men in general as a model for imitation. Covered with infamy obtaining great prosperity. that king who does not. again. Such a ruler becomes the beloved of all creatures and never falls away from prosperity. acts unrighteously towards the weak. instructions of his preceptors in matters connected with virtue. and who is rash in his acts. soon meets with destruction. The conduct. Devoted to virtue. he sinks into hell hereafter. imitate that wretch who sets sin agoing. succeeds in That king who is illiberal. 1 K. pay him honours. thou shouldst. makes gifts. and without by undue chastisements. Such imitation of the man ungoverned by restraints soon upon the kingdom. live cheerfully. is not tolerated by his very kinsfolk. That king who is not gifted with intelligence fails to see his own faults. . translates this verse erroneously. in this verse. they who take their birth in his race imitate the same conduct. acts with high-handedness in his kingdom.

Never indulge in grief when thy pecuniary resources are exhausted. the king becomes divested of prosperity by appointing to important offices men that are fools and slaves of their senses. if hedoes what is agreeable. that are devotedly loyal and of pure behaviour. that are covetous and of disrespectable conduct. battle. who. protecting his own self . should devoted to virtue. Thou shouldst never abandon righteousness from lust or wrath or malice. Such a addicted to drink. should assail a neighbour who is weaker than himself but never one that is stronger. Do not give way to exclusive joy when anything agreeable occurs. consultations on questions of policy. That king who . should be appointed by the king in the affairs of his kingdom. in moments of heedlessness. administration of justice. and that are possessed of ability. deceitful and hypocritical. That king. that are and ignorant. king succeeds also in obtaining greatness. king is A who adhering to righteousness. and keeping the subjects in happiness. having acquired the sovereignty of protect his subjects righteously and slaughter foes in battle. the Earth by prowess. That king who always does what is agreeable by virtue of his disposition achieves speeches. that are low-minded. Such king when injured falls upon the injurer like the hawk swooping down upon A king whose power has been its prey. watch the conduct and acts of other kings. these five acts constribute to enlarge the dominions of a king. Nothing here is durable. who by the possession of such qualifications pleases the king and who is never heedless in taking care of the interests of his master. One who is not loved becomes an object of love. by secret agents that are devoted to him. should always. A king should. On the other hand. success in The king all his measures and is never shorn of prosperity. Never be in a hurry to do anything. and women. Never indulge in malice. consolidated and who is confident of his own strength. cherish that devoted servant who abstains from doing what is injurious to his master and who always does what is for his good. and always remember the duty of doing good to thy subjects. one should not comfort himself with the thought that he (the injurer) lives at a great distance from the injured. That person. By such means can he obtain superiority. should protect his subjects righteously. For this reason. nor suffer thyself to be overwhelmed with sorrow when anything disagreeable occurs. Everything belonging to this world is destined to destruction.214 MAHABHARATA do him service. feels the satisfaction of finding his subjects growing in prosperity. wicked-souled. that are malicious. He should appoint in all great affairs persons that have subjugated their senses. Having injured a powerful king. first protects others that deserve protection. The defence of forts. gambling. By such means is a foe won over. and hunting. the king. Do not give harsh Do not utter undignified answers when questioned by anybody. with heedfulness. Untruthful speeches should be avoided. Thou shouldst do good to others without being solicited.

and who does not always follow the conduct of high and noble persons conquered or unconquered. for in moments of faults. and who amongst always be ascertained by thee. said that a person engaged in ruling men should slay even foes that arc contemptible.e. Do not. from women in especial. abandoning his chief minister?.. a king may govern the Earth for ever. That king. and should take particular care while ascending mountains or entering inaccessible regions such as forests and woody 1 Teshu. By always attending to these. Who amongst the dependent king is truly devoted to thee. therefore. He is obeyed in the world who. should guard himself against poisonous reptiles and the arts of women. the king should always. should trust them that are weak. with heedfulness. to supervise all these matters at his ministers. Thou shouldst not be grieved self. is said to live on the very verge of destruction. of low persons. should them has if heedlessness the weak may assail the powerful like a flock of vultures seizing their prey. unto the ministers already spoken of. abandoning his own opinions. however. anything disagreeable. who. a king succeeds in times. who shares all objects of enjoyment with others. accepts them. nor rejoice exceedingly Thou shouldst always set thyself to the accomplishment of good acts. From ministers that have once been chastised. does not love and honour those amongst his kinsmen that are possessed of good qualities. 1 The people make such a person their king who is liberal. yielding to the influence of wrath and malice. at the occurrence of at anything agreeable. That king who does not tolerate the counsels of a well-wisher inconsequence of their opposition to his own views. 2 The sense ^alleys. 2 That king who. for one man Making over such supervision to protecting his kingdom. from mountains and inaccessible regions. soon falls into distress. place thy confidence upon such men. T. Nahusha's son Yayati. even he be powerful. succeeds in enjoying fame for ever. The king. and who is loyal to thee from fear. That king of infirm soul. of the passage is that the king should not ride vicious elephants and horses. who is possessed of a mild disposition. i. who listens with is said unto him in opposition to his views. protect his own inattention to what makes favourites and never succeeds in compassing the (intended) ends of his measures. is said to fall away from the duties of Kshattriyas. who is of pure behaviour. in declaring the mysteries of king-craft. having listened to counsels of wisdom. T. A man of sinful soul seeks to injure his master even if the latter be sweet-speeched and possessed of every accomplish- ment. .8ANTI PARVA takes proper care of these It is impossible. and who will never abandon his subjects. all is 215 regarded to be the best of kings. Thou shouldst never impose taxes unseasonably. from elephants and horses and reptiles. who attaches to himself accomplished persons by doing good to them even though he may not like them at heart.

A king whose resources are increasing. seek to acquire the latter's power is and who is careful in protecting his own self. who knows to kill his own wrath. finds no enemies. 'The king. Without doubt. I am your king ! I shall always protect you ! Give me . can with even a small force. Victories achieved by battles are not spoken of highly. If the king does not always attend to the task of slaying his foes. following these counsels. entering the dominions of the king he would subjugate. on the other hand. victory 'If how a Kshattriya desires to subjugate another should the former act in the matter of that ? Questioned by me. That king who. succeeds in earning advancement. who is compassionate unto all creatures. shalt succeed in conquering both the worlds/ continued. When the king thinks that his should then. aided by his territories and wealth. shears his own self like a person cutting down a forest with an axe. and competent to deceive foes. again. and who That king whose soldiery are contented. "Bhishma Vasumans did as ' SECTION XCV "Yudhisthira saidi Kshattriya in battle. and possessed of wealth and grain. thyself also. ' 'Thus addressed by Vamadeva. is said to be confirmed. he intelligence. have compassion for all creatures. by the wise. he would never do any act that is disapproved by good men. subjugate the whole EarthThe power of that king whose subjects. whose subjects are loyal has a large number of officers. enjoy the fruits of victory. king he was directed. abound with wealth. That king who behaves deceitfully towards his own people that have not been guilty of any fault. do thou answer it f 'Bhishma said. has never to incur the reproach of others and indulge in regrets.SECTION XCIV 'Vamadeva said. The king should win victories without battles. monarch. 41 O not proper that a king whose power has not been consolidated should seek to make such acquisitions. gratified (with pay and prize). He would. is said to be confirmed. having accomplished all his duties. becomes happy in the approbation of his own conscience. whether belonging to the cities or the provinces. always engage himself in such acts as would lead to his own benefit and that of others. That king. If the king be possessed of wisdom. the latter do not diminish. who never loses any time by pro- greater than that of a foe. with or without an army at his back. When the sovereign's own power has not been confirmed. That king who observes such conduct towards men succeeds in subjugating both the worlds and crastination. It is make new and contented. should say unto all the people. The power of that king whose dominions are wide and he should not seek to acquisitions.

When an antagonist has fallen into distress. without not be yielding to wrath or desiring to slay. 28 . and making too much of the enemy-' "Yudhishthira said.P. slain. there need not be any fighting. The Burdwan version. and abandon the 2 If the enemy comes clad opponent when the latter becomes disabled. resisted enemy fights aided by deceit. he should not be struck nor should one that has been frightened. which I adopt. he should be means. . or one that is sonless .SANTI PABVA ! 217 If the people accept him the just tribute or encounter me in battle for their king. fight for putting down T. correct. the translation follows inverses. "One should not fight a Kshattriya in battle unless he would run thus on armour. substantially 3 The distress referred to here is of being unhorsed or deprived of car : I put 1 or of weapons. T. These quished. if brought to the victor's quarters. after challenging in these has : words K. observant as they are of practices not laid down for them. a car-warrior. man should broken or one has been cut or one that has lost his vehicle. If. O Kshattriya king conduct himself in fight Kshattriya king I grandsire. One should not on horse-back proceed against car-warrior should proceed against a car-warrior. A weak or wounded . (his wounds should be attended to and) when . 2 The Bengal reading of this verse. The Bengal reading is more consistent with what If the Bombay reading be adopted. a righteous warrior falls into distress. Manu down that kings should fight 1 The sense is that although with those only that are of the kingly order. A wounded opponent should either be sent to his own home. challenge him to battle. ing a Kshattriya unclad in mail. how should that who advances against another "Bhishma said. as usual. in mail. backed by an army. on the other hand. One should fight righteously. he fights fairly. 'A Kshattriya must not put on armour for fightOne should fight one. 3 Neither poisoned nor barbed arrows should be used. without being Kshattriyas by birth. People of the other orders do take up arms (for resisting the invader) if they behold the Kshattriya unarmed for fight. &o. backed by an army. is better than the Bombay reading. or. nor one that has been van- with fair A . be sought to be restrained by every means. he sbould be met with the If. or one whose weapon has been that has fallen into distress or one whose bow-string cured he should be set at liberty. is wrong. may those that so arm themselves against the Kings. 1 'Tell me. they show signs of hostility. they should then. incapable of protecting himself. yet when the Kshattriyas do not arm themselves for resisting an invader. for I am shooting at thee T. one should. the other orders. are the weapons of the wicked. One should fight with one. it This is laid is the eternal duty. If the enemy advances his opponent also should put on mail. When in consequence of a quarrel between righteous kings. should have his wounds attended to by skilful surgeons. Singha's rendering is 'Shoot. If the aid of deceit.

whose duty it is to fight righteously. gains a new lease of life. The of manner .218 MAEABHARATA fairly. such a person is said to slay his own self. or joining his hands. That overwhelms A consuming sinful person. by living for a year in 1 If a king succeeds the house of his victor. the commentator. becomes wedded to sin. wins a victory by unrighteous means. What king is there that would rejoice after obtaining victory by unfair means ? A victory stained by un- righteousness is uncertain and never leads to heaven. beholding surface. Regarding the last half of the second line. weakens both the king and the Earth. Such a victory. has said that battles should be fought those that The righteous should always act righteously towards are righteous. Such is the practice of those that are wicked. himself. or who begs for quarter. bull of Bharata's race. the perpetrator after his roots and branches. perpetrated sin does not immediately produce Like its a cow. Thinking that virtue has no efficacy. he disappears its very roots. he should keep her for a year and ask her whether she would wed him 1 I. therefore. the sinner dissociates himself entirely from virtue. Like unto a large leathern bag purled up with wind. If a hostile king be vanquished by the troops of the invader. Even he that is wicked should be subdued by fair means. even if such subjugation would make him the sovereign of the whole Earth. the vanquished foe. 1 do not follow Nilakantha in his interpretation. The king should. Though enmeshed in the noose of Varuna. he becomes sinful. rejoices greatly. On the other hand. seek both victory and the enhancement of his resources. acquiring wealth by sinful means. Soon. by righteous like a tree on the river-side washed away with ' means. If a Kshattriya. T.' SECTION XCVI "Bhishma said. or who am thine. gaining advancement by sinful ways. Of deceitful conduct. Disbelieving in virtue. Then him resemble an earthen pot broken on a stony people. saying has laid aside his weapon. *A king should never desire to subjugate the Earth by unrighteous means. But the sinner. speak of him as he deserves. may simply be seized but never slain. therefore. expand it after the original is very elliptical. the latter should not himself fight his vanquished foe. in bringing by force a maiden from the house of his vanquished foe. however. he jeers at men of righteous behaviour. sin fruits. A warrior whose armour has fallen 1 off. It is better to lay down life itself in the observance of righteousness than to win victory by sinful means. the son of the Self-born (Brahman). he should bring him to his palace and pursuade him for a whole year to say I am thy slave ! Whether he says or does not say this. he still regards himself immortal. he at last meets with destruction. O king. They should adhere to righteousness without destroying it.

took all their wealth. he would become a wretch of his ordera addition to this. including their very grain and medicinal herbs. 2 That king whose dominions are extensive and full of wealth. but left their land untouched.PARYA or any 219 one else. O monarch. in fair fight is meritorious. such slaughter being sinful. The king should never appropriate the wealth confiscated from thieves and others awaiting execution. however. is This verse also 2 The sense seems 3 This verse before. . This is a good policy for the king to adopt. Discontented men. King Pratarddana. whose subjects are loyal. enemy. if struck mortally. fearlessly goes between two contending armies. she should then be sent back. It was by such behaviour that Indra got the sovereignty of the world. his very If a king possessed of little 3 resources be gratified therewith. life may pass away. For. A king desirous of obtaining victory should never follow such conduct. to be that in fighting with the aid of deceit the enemy should not be slain outright. subjugating his foes in great battle. be conciliated with soothing speeches and gifts. He would break an eternal rule that would slay or wound a Brahmana. whose servants and officers are all contented. is not intelligible. If Brahmana. ceptors and others about him that are well-versed in all scriptures and deserving of honours are all duly respected. If she does not agree. He should behave similarly in respect of all other kinds of wealth (such as slave) that are acquired by force. The bulls taken from the enemy should be set to agricultural work or returned to the king. they victor's) foes and wait for the accession of calamities (in order that they may then make head against the victor). without delay. nor does it seem to be connected with what goes T. in times of danger. It is by this behaviour that earthly kings succeed in obtaining the status of Indra. Slaying an enemy. The kine taken from the enemy by force should be given away to the Brahmanas so that they may drink the milk of those animals. What gain can transgresses all a Kshattriya barriers does not deserve to be reckoned as be greater than victory won righteously ? The excitable classes (of a kingdom recently conquered) should. is said That king whose Ritwijas and priests and preto have his roots firm. that Kshattriya who destroys righteousness and wholesome and should be driven from society. 1 exceedingly elliptical in the original. he would regard life alone to be much. both should immediately abstain from fight. T. T. 1 It is is One that laid down that a king should fight one that is a not a king should never strike one that is a king. Nor should he be wounded mortally. An enemy should not be deceived by unfair means. If any KshatIn triya breaks that rule. men be sought to be governed with would then leave the kingdom and side with (the impolicy. is said to be conversant with the ways of the world. these watching for the calamities of the king. If instead of doing this. desirous of peace. promptly side with the latter's foe's.

and their food. therefore. and of food. cherishing the good. they destroy their sins. instead of destroying the blades of paddy. The word means "vast multitudes. causes the growth and advancement of those that remain. T. slaughter. O Yudhishthira. by thus adoring the deities by means of a union of all sacrifices whose Dakshina is the dispelling of every body's fear. however. after subjugating his foes. That king who desires his own prosperity should seek for conquests by the aid of every kind of excellence but never with that of deceit or with pride. however. and I approve of it wholly. The behaviour.Pratarddana took what is proper to be taken and hence he incurred no sin. unto me felicity ? that desire to In marching or in battle.He who protects people from plunder. O bull of Bharata's race. of life.King Divodasa. more sinful than those of the Kshattriyas 2 By what acts then does the king win regions of large multitudes. Such extensive destruction. The reclaimer of a weeds. and affliction. excepting the wealth of learned Brahmanas and ascetics. 1 of his conquests. the king slays know !' "Bhishma cleansed. 2 Nilakantha takes Mahajanam to mean the Vaisya traders that accompany all forces. field. comes to be regarded as the giver of wealth. Following him. King Nabhaga (after his conquests) gave away whole kingdoms with their rulers as sacrificial presents unto the Brahmanas. of all the righteous kings of old. There can be little doubt. in consequence of thus protecting their lives from robbers. that this is erroneous.' ' SECTION XCVII "Yudhishthira said. was excellent. however. 3 The protection of subjects is likened here to the performance of a . gifts. lost all the merit of his conquests. sacrifices.220 MAHABHABATA King Divodasa. and their merit increases in order that they may be able to do good to all creatures.. but after victory they advance and aggrandise alL By the power of gifts. makes them grow more vigorously." Why should Yudhishthira refer to the slaughter of only the Vaisyas in the midst of troops as his reason for supposing Kshattriya practices to be sinful ? Apayana means "flight. tell me this. the vernacular translators take that word in the same sense. -'There are no practices. their clarified butter (intended for For this reason he was deprived of the merit libations). said. O learned one. They that wield weapons. however. and penances. 'By chastising the wicked. ! O king. takes up both paddy-blades and His action. for reclaiming it. brought away the very remnants of their sacrificial fires. kings desirous of victory afflict many creatures. The king." I prefer to read Avayana meaning 'march/ T. destroy that deserve destruction. by sacrifices and by attaching and kings become pure and It is true. enjoys every kind of 3 felicity here and attains to a residence in Indra's heaven hereafter- many 1 The meaning is that king. by taking what he should not have taken.

Persons conversant with the scriptures say that the pains a Kshattriya persons.. the hero rushes against crowds of foes.e. By acting otherwise they cannot free themselves from fear. saying. Coveting the condition tortures) those that are hale. sacrifice is the dispelling of everybody's fear. ! In disease. fights his foes in battles that have arisen for the sake of Brahmanas and lays down his life. Those amongst the Kshattriyas that would be guilty killing animals. He. those heroes. is who inspired with dastardly fear. should be slain with sticks of stones or rolled in a mat of dry grass for being burnt to death. stay in the rear. having dignity and pride.ber of shafts with his the number of granting every wish. He who desires to save his own life-breaths by deserting his comrades. soliciting life from heroes that have rushed to battle. 1 of such conduct should be killed after the manner of Death on a bed of repose. at home is not praise-worthy. such a man (amidst that is repeatedly desires for death itself. present in that not at the weapon's edge. the very gods do not see any one on Earth that is superior to him. they do what difference between its is proper and just. Persons acquainted with the scriptures do not applaud the death which a Kshattriya encounters with unwounded body. going out. shoots them fearlessly at his foes. In such a enemies. Righteous If of battle. man plunges his relatives into grief. final 1 he sacrifice that has the merit of all sacrifices. They are heroes. There is great men apparently equal. equal to the nurn. The death of a Kshattriya. Any unheroic act of theirs cry. is sinful and inglorious. but otherwise. comes to be regarded as the embodiment of a sacrifice with illimitable presents. him of all his sins along with the very pain that he feels on the occasion. adopting the road to heaven. against armed ranks of foes. always respect those defenders. seeks safety in flight. those timid persons. One a hero. Indeed. without permitting the beseechers to incur the dangers keep them in the rear by themselves facing those dangers fear. 1 i. however. great and defend them at that time of becomes their merit- If. with his quivers full of shafts. T. Some rush to battle. inspired with fear. is sinful for a Kshattriya. O sire. after ejecting phlegm and urine and uttering piteous cries. ! one may be heard to a What sorrow How painful I must be his great sinner ! With the sick of face emaciated and stench issuing from his body and clothes. deserting his comrades in danger. even as men solicit rain from the clouds. eternal suffers in battle operate as penances for enhancing his merit. Let not such wretches among men be born in thy The very gods with Indra at their head send calamities unto race them that desert their comrades in battle and come with unwounded ! limbs. If a king. again.8ANTI PARVA 981 That king who. T. . amid terrible din. is case. which he pierces the bodies of and capable The blood that flows from his body cleanses of regions that he enjoys. appreciating that deed of bravery.

I won many This Sudeva. and he sojourned through regions that were still higher. 'In this connection. the high-souled Amvarisha. the Rishis tures. was formerly the generalissimo of my forces. Wherever the hero encountered death in the midst of foes without displaying ignoble fear or cheerlessness. having studied with due observances the Vedas and the scriptures on kingly having gratified guests with food and drink. utter recklessness of life itself. addressed Vasava. observing how Beholding the prosperity of his general Sudeva. having cast my eyes fearlessly upon hostile troops. and the gods with many excellent and high sacrifices. Tell me. seated on a very every beautiful car. at the van of battle. "Amvarisha bounded by the practised all said. offerings in Sraddhas. Nabhaga. Amvarisha. and sojourning (in that vehicle) up and up towards still the company own The generalissimo in those celestial regions in higher regions. has he succeeded victories in battle.222 MAHABHAKATA Surrounded by kinsmen and does not deserve such an inglorious death. the Pitris with with attentive study of the scriptures and with initiation (under proper forms into the mysteries of religion). seas. acquisition. he was a warrior of tranquil soul. having duly observed Kshattriya duties according to the injunctions of the scripduties. showing in The hero. a hero fights f tiriously and does not feel the wounds inflicted on his limbs by Encountering death in battle. by not and contending by every means in his power. he has " succeeded in earning regions hereafter of eternal bliss. having repaired to heaven that is so difficult of of Indra. obtains the his back in fight companionship of Indra. slaughtering his foes in battle. he earns that high merit fraught with fame and respect of the world which belongs to his or her and foes. what regions are earned by unreturning heroes by encountering death in battle !' "Bhishma the son of said. O Yudhishthira. however. ultimately obtains a residence in Indra's heaven. beheld his king saw his puissant general blazing with kind of energy. It is true.' SECTION XCVIII "Yudhishthira said. Moved by desire of enjoyment and filled with rage. filled with surprise. For what reason. endued with celestial form. O grand-sire. Having duly governed the whole Earth having from desire of earning religious merit to the four orders as declared by the scriptures. a Kshattriya should die at the edge of keen weapons. is cited the old story of the discourse between Amvarisha and Indra. having practised with rigid austerity all the duties of the Brahmacharyya mode. O chief of the deities. O Vasava ! in transcending me ? He never worshipped the gods in high and great . having waited with dutiful those duties that are common obedience upon my preceptors and other reverend seniors. in the following words.

iron.SANTI PABVA sacrifices. and capable of cutting sacrifice. 2 with keen points and the bodies of foes. constitutes the final libation. by acting in 11 * this way. constitute its Sadasyas. that are heard in the front ranks of the array. Straight. impelled from well-stretched off the elephant's The trunk. The crowd of elephant and steeds and men equipt with shields are regarded to consti tute the Syenachit fire of that sacrifice. 1 Ajya is any liquid substance. the great sacrifice of Indeed. Cut. Pierce. sharp. 2 Sphis is the wooden stick with which lines are drawn on the sacriplatform. 'Elephants constitute the Ritwijas of that sacrifice. becomes installed in that sacrifice. and well-tempered. has he The same becomes the case that engages in fight. O sire. blazing. also winged left of the liquid offering in this sacrifice and libations. 223 He never gratified presents) according to the ordinance. capable of piercing bows. for the hero who performs that sacrifice. made of hard consequence of the fury of the attack. constitute its profuse wealth procured from the respectable people by agreement in respect The blood that runs over the field in of the amount and period. Sheathed in scabbards made of tiger-skin and equipt with handle made of ivory. generally of course clarified butter. constitute its large double-mouthed ladles. The flesh of foes constitutes its libations. and such other sounds. and steeds are its Addhyayyus. Regarding this Sudeva. of lances remnants and spears. Jackals and vultures and ravens. and well-tempered arrows. then. after thousands The headless trunks that rise have been slaughtered constitute the octagonal up made of Khadira wood. battle had often been spread out by him. 1 and blood is its liquid offering. the Brahmanas (by frequent and costly For what reason. fioial . as These drink the remnants shafts. T. Heaps sharp. fchat is poured upon the sacrificial fire. in the Homa of this sacrifice. O performer of a hundred " sacrifices ! 'Indra said. constitute the Samans sung by its The front ranks of the enemy's Vedic chanters in the abode of Yamaarray constitute the vessel for the keep of its libations. constitute the ladles of the sacrificer. the sword forms the Sphis of this strokes inflicted with blazing and keen lances and darts all and swords and axes. of swords and darts and eat the of its axes. fraught with great merit and capable of granting every wish. comes to be regarded as the performer of the ! sacrifice of battle Amvarisha said. succeeded in transcending me ? "Indra said. it is a settled conclusion that such a person. stake. are regarded Tell me this. T. What constitute the libations in that sacri? fice ? What constitute its liquid offerings its Ritwijas 1 What all is its Dakshinal Who. Every warrior accoutred with every other man in armour. by advancing against foes in battle array. again.

When the property of a Brahmana is being taken away. swords and shields for floating its rafts. powerful warrior who. he who casts off his body that is so dear for protecting that property. for he goes thither as cheerfully as he does to such a mansion. That warrior. That hero whose altar (in such is strewn over with the (severed) heads of foes. certainly succeeds in attaining a high end. he performs his sacrifice. priests that have charge of the celestial fires. obtains regions of felicity like mine. penetrates into the midst of the enemy's ranks without waiting for any assistance. O king. with its the slaps of palms forming the Trisaman Udgatri. succeeds in winning regions of felicity like mine. earns those regions of felicity that are mine. That warrior who in battle causes a river of blood to flow. on the other hand. vultures and Kankas and ravens for the rafts that float upon it. the crowds of steeds and elephants and cars for its bridges. difficult of be- ing crossed by even those that are possessed of courage and power and which inspires all timid men with dread. for the Vashats. and of elephants. acquire the merit of a sacrifice with infinite presents. standards and banners for its bushes of cane. are sake of his master. That all regions of felicity. The kettle-drums. That warrior who. for his Sadasyas who takes the combatants his north as his Agnistanding to his south dd/iras. turning away from the fight in fear. and tortoises. that warrior who causes such a river. Agniddhras are those T. its having kettle-drums for its frogs sands. constitute Ida mantras. with swords cased in blue scabbards and severed arms resembling heavy bludgeons. succeeds in winning and those to 1 The open space lying between two hosts drawn up for fight constitutes the altar of such a sacrificer. is slain by foes. whose blood drenches the sacrificial altar already strewn with hair and flesh and bones. There is no doubt in this. succeeds in winning regions of felicity like mine. said chambers of vessel warrior who regards the van of the hostile army as the who looks upon the van of his own army as the for the keep of sacrificial offerings. aided by the recollection of the Vedas. terrible He who and difficult to cross.224: MAHABHABATA shrieks that elephants utter The its when urged on with hooks. That inglorious warrior who. displays prowess at the van of the array and shows not his back through fear. by that act of self-devotion. of steeds. That hero who. swords and scimitars for its larger vessels. the bodies of slain elephants for its boats and huge alligators. does. sinks into hell. and who looks upon the hostile forces as his wedded wife. and the three Vedas are his three sacrificial fires. . is said to complete the sacrifice a sacrifice) by performing the final ablutions. blood and flesh for its its the hair of slain warriors for weeds and moss. the bones of heroes for mire. Upon that altar. having slain the commander of the hostile 1 The van of the hostile army is the plaoe of his wives. strews the altar of the sacrifice constituted by battle. resolved upon obtaining victory. The sages have that that his wives.

showed both heaven and hell all his unto his own warriors. Vala. 1 To take up a straw and hold unconditional surrender. nor one that says am thine- Having slain in battle Jambha. it They would have to rot Resolved upon casting lips is between the an indication of 29 . succeeds in winning regions of felicity like mine. grieves for him.' ing of them. numbering by thousands. Virochana. are the regions of fly hell. nor one that holds a straw in his lips . 'Hearing these words of Sakra and approvAmvarisha comprehended how warriors succeed (by battle as their means) in compassing success for themselves (in respect of winning regions of beatitude in heaven). intended for those that away from battle ! there for eternity in everlasting ingloriousness. acquires by that act the merit of penances and of righteousness. Listen to me. Viprachitti. if A nobody drink. He addressed them. Men do not desire to Listen to heaven and earns the respect of its dedicate (for his salvation) food and as I Nor do they bathe (after receiving the intelligence). these are ! the regions. troops (on the eve of fight). after installation in the sacrifice of battle. the high-souled king of Mithila.SANTI PABVA army. thira as I conversant with the truth of everything. That Kshattriya who duly observes his duty in battle. I myself have become the chief of the celestials. endued with great splendour. for those that fight fearlessly Full of Qandharva girls. comes to be regarded as possessed of the prowess of Vishnu himself and the intelligence of Vrihaspati. Satamaya. Janaka. mounts the vehicle of his fallen antagonist. king "Bhishma continued. Samvara of innumerable illusions. Vritra. as also Prahladha. store for me enumerate the felicity that is in such a person. four modes of that is life. nor go into mourning for him. Behold. all these sons ofDitiand Danu. That warrior who can or his son or some other commander of the hostile army respected leader. saying. The ruler of Mithila. viz. on the other side. goes to denizens. T. The aged and . the irresistible Namuchi. Janaka. 'In this connection is cited the old story of the battle between Pratarddana and the ruler of Mithila. those regions are eternal and capable of granting every wish ! There. Paka. O Yudhishgladdened recite the story. the preceptor of the seize alive the celestials. go out with great speed (for receiving the spirit of the slain hero) coveting him for their lord. SECTION XCIX "Bhishma said. One should never grieves for a hero slain in battle. Foremost of Apsaras. Indeed. such conduct on his part conforms with the eternal path of duty* Such a man obtains the merits is of all the . slain hero. the children should not be slain flying I nor one a woman 1 nor one that away .

The car- O of towns. the warriors of Mithila. Behind the last should be placed his array vanquishing his foes. They that are of firm souls should take their stand in the van of battle. and all things depend upon the hero. their hands stay before those that are possessed of courage- This world rests on the arms of heroes like a son He. like the victors. that is a hero deserves respect under every circumstance. warriors should be placed in the midst of elephants. assail their pursuers. The onset is irresistible of persons that rally after the rout and that t despairing of safety. . He should not cause his troops to pursue too much the routed foe. .226 MAHABHAEATA lives. much the routed foe. thou shouldst not cause thy troops to pursue too Warriors of courage do not wish to strike them that run away with speed. Things that are immobile are devoured by those that are mobile. The victor should protect the land newly conquered (from acts 'of aggression). in respect of heroes. the array of battle should always be thus formed. in That king who forms manner always succeeds fairly. Like Makaras agitating the ocean. they should gladden those (amongst them) that are cheerless. They that . are afflicted with fear bend their heads and joining on those of his sire. creatures that are toothless are devoured by those that have teeth water is drunk by the thirsty cowards are devoured by heroes. similar backs and stomachs and arms and legs. their happy door of heaven hostile Thus addressed by subjugater king. O Yudhishthira. O king. There is nothing The hero protects and higher in the three worlds than heroism. That is another reason why the routed foe should not be pursued hotly. Cowards sustain defeat though they have. Therefore. they agitate the ranks of the foe. therefore. heroes desire to win blessedness in heaven by fighting the foot-soldiers in this all accoutred in mail. Behind the carwarriors should stand the horsemen. For this reason. gladdening their rulers. Filled with wrath. away your very inglorious their hell ! do ye conquer your foes ! Do not fall into The laying down of life (in battle) ! constitutes. Assuring one another. cherishes all. vanquished their foes in battle.

by the aid Leathern armour for protecting of deceit. That time of the year. coats of mail. and promoting the brave. by Reasoning some. &c. by the application of means and contrivances.straight and crooked. as indicated in the scriptures. dc. sharp and red. call of injure a king by producing disunion (among his ministers or troops or allies or subjects). he should not. Robbers. 1 I shall presently tell thee what the means and contrivances. apply that wisdom which is crooked (for injuring others). Troops should. should be within all acts. For resisting and restraining them. . are intended for the protection of Righteousness) become possible in consequence of these four causes. what Bhishma says is that battles (which. That road which has abundance do not understand how this is an answer to Yudhishthira's Nilakantba thinks that Truth. in the above. conversant with deceit. lead their troops to battle even by offending slightly against the rules of righteousness f said. should be manufactured and stored in abundance. by good behaviour and some. which I understand means Reasoning (or Conclusion). and spears and shields. and keen-pointed weapons all be properly whetted. are. productive of immediate fruit. be moved at that time. all kinds of armour yellow yak-tails. O Bharata. means encouraging the soldiers. however. be overtaken by distress.SECTION C me. king. 1 I question. thorns. and lances and scimitars of great sharpness and battle-axes. The same material for bovine bulls. that Upapatli. Means and contrivances consist in puniphing desertion and cowardliness. indicates a disregard for life. therefore. of course. made of iron. The weapons should the bodies of elephants. troops should immediately be set in motion (without waiting for such a neither very cold favourable time). It is proper to set the troops in motion in the month The crops ripen about that time and water of Chaitra or Agrahayana. He may use Enemies frequently it for resisting the dangers that any overtake him. I shall tell thee what the contrivances are. speaking sweetly to them. O bull of "Bhishma said. . counteract those enemies. the king. how kings desirous of Bharata's race. banners and standards of diverse hues. according to him. These (two) are the best occasions for the motion of troops with a view to subjugate foes. and well-tempered weapons. : . T. means the ordinances in respect of Kshattriya duties . transgressing all wholesome bounds. Good behaviour. If the enemy. however. The soldiers should be inspired with courage and resolution. swords. grandsire. is nor very hot. Though acquainted with it. If Nilakantha be right. for those ordinances lead to no other conclusion. "Yudhishthira 'Tell O victory should. may. very often become destroyers of property and religious merit. does not also become scarce. 'Some say that Righteousness is made stable by Truth some. of the armour bones. . Listen to me as I speak of those means for the success of Both kinds of wisdom.

Having attended to these points (about the characters of the different kinds of forces and the manner of marching. As regards forts. should be adopted (in moving the troops). planting the foot-soldiers in a posi- near the woods tion of safety. be marched through woody regions. In pitching the camp. is well An army. O Bharata.228 of MAHABHABATA it. is A region overgrown with large trees and topes of cane bushes. the sun. Mariohi. viz. like animals. a large infantry force. a region lying is regarded as much better than one under the open sky men conversant with war and possessed of military accomplishments. The troops should be placed in such a position that the called 2 should blow and shine from wind. and not abounding with bricks and stone. That king. sets out under a proper constellation and on an auspicious lunation. therefore. and leading them). and collision with the foe as soon as he comes. Atri. that which has walls and a trench full of water on every side and only one possessed of entrance. Pitching the camp at such a place. Men con- versant with war approve of a region that is not miry. region that is overgrown with bushes and large A A trees and that is under water inaccessible is fitted for elephant. In respect of invading foes. again. The regions lying near the road (on both its sides) should previously be well ascertained through spies water and grass along which is level and easy of The skill and having an intimate knowledge of the woods. one may vanquish even foes that are irresistible. which has fitted for the operations of infantry. not watery. Pulaha. must not. O Yudhishthira.T. as well fitted for the field that is free from mire and holes is fitted operations of cavalry. in which footsoldiers and elephants predominate becomes effective in the rainy season. T. endued with strength and high birth. the troops should fight taking up their stand like hills. as also a mountainous or woody tract. An army in which cars is regarded very strong. always succeeds in 1 The seven stars of this constellation are supposed to be the seven great Rishis. Angira. Pulastya. resistance may be offered from within it. march. By this means. In the van should be placed a division of brave men. Kratu. quartering. and Vasishtha. not uneven. are the means for warding off danger and distress. who having attended to all these considerations. and the planet Sukra behind them. troops Kings desirous of victory should. is worthy of praise. by The camp should be pitched for the troops not far from such a wood. Keeping the constellation Ursa Major 1 behind them. As means for ensuing victory the wind is superior to the Sun.warriors. . that and horsemen predominate is regarded to be very effective in a clear (unrainy) day. the king should turn his attention to the characteristics of place and time. adopt good roads for marching their troops. that has many spots. 2 Venus. for car-warriors. and the Sun is superior to Sukra. An army.

the chief of a thousand. No one should slay those that are asleep or thirsty or fatigued. or those whose accoutre ments have fallen away. or captive by the foe. That heedful hero again (amongst them) who is the chief of a hundred soldiers should be made that are chiefs of such servants. . or one that is walking (unprepared) one engaged in drinking or eating. or for procuring forage or fodder. or one that has begun any task without having been 2 able to complete it. or rally thy retreating troops. I think. The Yadava hero Akrura avoided challenges to battle by beginning a sacriSee Harivansa. they are certain to slay the enemy in fight. or one that is staying trustfully. T. The consequence of flying away from battle are loss of wealth. Know T. &c. and seats equal to thy own. or one that goes out of the camp tion 1 . or one that is skilled in some especial art (as mining. T. than that of death itself. proceed cheerfully. and never to desert one another Let those that are inspired with fear stay here Let those also stay here that would cause their chiefs to be slain by ! ! themselves neglecting to act heroically in the press of battle Let such men come as would never break away from battle or cause their own comrades to be slain Protecting their ownselves as also their ! ! comrades. or those that wait at the gates of the king or of his ministers. for one that along a road. Those amongst such that are chiefs of ten soldiers should be made chiefs of a hundred. or one that has been wounded mortally. fice. coming to battle tranish the fame of a person. suffers himself to be taken as a weapons. They simply swell the tale of human beings on earth. in pursuit of the flying combatants. the sections on the Samantaka stone. they should be addressed. When enemies. their praises recited the while by bards. 2 Probably. they are neither here nor hereafter. Disagreeable and cutting speeches have to be heard by that man who flies away from his battle. and reproach. one that has begun a sacrifice extending for a long period. that victory 1 Like Bhurisravas on the field of Kurukshetra. the misery the latter feels is more poignant.SANTI PAKVA 329 obtaining victory by properly leading his troops. or those that do menial services (unto the chiefs of the army). however. or those Those amongst thy warriors that break the rank of foes. Let us swear to conquer. saying. or one that is in grief. should have their pay doubled and should be honoured by thee with food. drink. or one that has set his heart on final emancipais flying away. For true manhood. Victorious foes. death. or one that is mad. infamy. or one that has been exceedingly weakened by his wounds. or one that is insane.). 3 A form of expression meaning shameless. 3 who ! among men. or men who set up camps or are camp- followers. Collecting together the principal warriors. O sire. Let such evil consequences always overtake the Those that fly away from battle are wretches warriors of our foes throws away all who who loses his lips and teeth.

the array withdrawn) for at least When a small force is engaged with a large one." 1 This refers to death and physical pain. the soldiers should be so drawn up as to form a wedge-like appearance with a narrow bead. This should be the arrangement made for assailing the foe. regardless of life itself. and should blow and make diverse kinds and beat Krakachas. they should be drawn close together for the fight. 3 ! ! friends have arrived in ! Fearlessly strike at your foes IThose that are advance of the rest should utter loud shouts of noises. 3 If the troops are few. heroes should courageously rush against the enemy's ranks. These weaker combatants should be placed on the field (without being showing the number of the army (to the foe). attain a blessed end in heaven Having taken such an oath. the close array may be extended wide. That is regarded as the highest misery by cowards is cheerfully borne 1 Resolved upon acquiring heaven. They would protect their comrades behind them. .e. drums. At times. When a small number of troops is to fight with a great many. The enemy has broken The Those amongst them that are endued with strength enemy has broken should resist the enemy.-T 2 Skandha. means SamuJia here. as explained by Nilakantba. fight.. and prepared to throw away life itself. ! In the space intervening should be placed other classes of combatants. be comforted and encouraged. Fresh called Suchimukha should be formed. loudly saying unto their comrades. cymbals. In the van should be placed a division of men armed with swords and shields. and determined to conquer or die. cow-horns.230 is MAHABHARATA which the root of religious merit and of every kind of happiness. the leader of the former may shake hands with his men and utter loud cries to the effect. In the rear should be placed the car-division. Nilakantha thinks. we should by those that are heroes. 3 I. if their leader wishes. Those amongst the army that would be regarded as foremost for strength and courage. The others should stand behind them. T. T. Those combatants in the army that are veterans should fight in the van. with care. They that are inspired with fear should. should be placed in the van. and kettle-drums.

disposition that is mild. The Southerners skilled in fighting sword in hand. become endued with great speed and restlessness and almost invincible in battle. They that have voices and eyes like those of the lion or the tiger. or eyes that are green. They that have bodies curved like that of the cat. adopting those "Bhishma weapons and vehicles. the Kamvojas. 1 They all heroes capable of grinding hostile that have a voice like deer. and wrathful. engage in battle. that have eyes indicative of gravity.SECTION "Yudhishthira said. They that have a voice deep as that of the clouds. Brave soldiers. CI what form. They whose voice resembles that of bells. and how armed should the combatants be in for battle ? may be competent said. as . means 'snake. are and can shoot or hurl their weapons to a great possessed of great speed distance. are excitable. wicked. or eyes that fight all foes. that take delight in affrays of every kind. that have wrathful faces or have hooked noses and tongues. seem to shoot out. and broad chests. or eyes like those of the mungoose. they that have a gait like that of the lion and the tiger. Their armies are capable of vanquishing all forces. used here. are ranks. that become angry upon hearing the enemy's drum or trumpet.The Easterners are skilled in righting and are conversant with all the ways of unfair fight. and speed and voice like the horses. They are brave and endued with great strength. are all brave and capable of casting away their lives in battle. and eyes like those of the leopard or the bull. of accoutred. Listen to me as I describe their indications. and make 1 Kulinja has many meaning. It is well known that persons skilled in all kinds of from the backs of elephants possessed of great strength and great courage are born in almost every country. Nilakanfcha thinks that the word. The Gandharas. of what behaviour. They that have crooked eyes and broad foreheads and cheek-bones not covered with flesh and arms strong as thunder-bolts and fingers bearing circular marks. and thin hair and thin skin. are possessed of great activity. they that like those of the iguana. The Usinaras are possessed of great strength and weapons. and they that have eyes like those of the pigeon or the snake. they that have faces darkened with frowns.'It is proper that those weapons and vehicles should be adopted (by particular bodies of combatants) with which they have become familiar by use. how order that they 'Of what disposition. The Yavanas. Some that are possessed of eyes closed faces like those of camels. the Sindhus. and the Sauviras fight best with their nails and lances. and those that dwell around Matura are well skilled in fighting with bare arms. are competent to They that of well-knit and handsome and symmetrical frames.' T.

. the son of Vinata. that have elevated shoulders and broad necks. They that have greenish hair ending in curls. that have round heads.232 that is MAHABHABATA lean and arteries and nerves that are visible. persons of learning. rush with great speed when the collision of battle takes place. Resembling infuriate elephants. the (future) success of an army ? I desire O to know them !" "Bhishma said. large mouths. and that ive in the reckless of their lives and never fly away Such troops should always be placed in the van. Of wicked behaviour and outlandish manners. perform recitation of mantras. goda. O bull of Bharata's race. 1 That army in which the 1 The object of these two verses is to indicate that a learned astrologer and a learned priest are certain means for procuring victories by warding off all calamities caused by unpropitious fate and the wrath of the T. cheeks. They always slay their foes in fight and suffer themselves to be slain without retreating. beholding everything with the eye of heavenly knowledge. If treated with mildness. diverse auspicious acts and expiatory rites including homa and the silent and thus allay all evils. that are wicked in behaviour and ful 1 of terrible outlying districts. faces like those of cats. guided by of haughtiness. they regard from battle. CII bull of Bharata's race. that rush to battle. are all countenances. 'I shall tell thee. that have flanks. all the well-known indications of the (future) success of an army. that have fearful visages and fat calves. they become irresistible. shrill voice and wrathful temper. that are its din. that are fiery like (Vasudeva's horse) Sugriva or like the offspring of Garuda. they always exhibit wrath against their sovereign. soft speeches as indications of defeat. and faces fat and full of flesh." SECTION "Yudhishthira said. When the gods become angry and men are urged by fate. of 'What are the Well-known indications.

Victory in battle. upwards The libations poured thereon emit an agreeable fragrance. They whose array quence with splendour and becomes terrible to look at in consesheen of their weapons. that is regarded as an indication of future success. The combatants become filled with alacrity. If these birds. that one acquired by battle is kinds of forces. If thy endeavours after peace fail. These have been said to be the indications of future success. is dependent on caprice When a large army breaks and the troops begin to fly away. The conches and drums. Rainbows appear in the sky. without adequate even they that are brave and skilled in fight. the right of the warriors while auspicious cries. however. thou shouldst. always succeed in vanquishing their foescombatants of a host be of pure behaviour and modest deportment and attend to one another in loving kindness. O Bharata. of a person engaged in battle and on the right of him who is about to engage in it. it seems. is regarded auspicious. machines. The crow on the left. the light going and the smokeless flames slightly bending towards the south. is sure to win a decided victory. O Bharata.. and ravens and vultures as well. become cheerful. If the left of those that deer and other quadrupeds be seen behind or to have already set out for battle or of those that If they appear to about to engage in slaughter. they make their appearance in the van of such persons. These have Their (sacrificial) been said to be the indications of future success. The jackals become auspicious to them. large Some have broken. A army. consisting of even brave soldiers. and standards complexion of the faces of the vigorous men that If the it. blown and beat. and these are regarded blazes forth of the all the able-bodied combatants as indications of future success. it indicates non-fulfilment of the objects in view. first behave peacefully. send forth loud and deep peals. that is regarded as an indication of success. When these show such regard to the army. ting of the four Even after enlisting a large army consis- Yudhishthira. that is regarded as the root of success. fires blaze up with a pure splendour. The clouds cast their shadows upon them and at times the sun shines upon them. and if the combatants become inspired with gratitude as also of the radiant stand within and patience. For this. O very inferior. high success is sure to be won by it. If agreeable sounds and orders and sensations of touch prevail. The impetuosity a mighty current of water or of a frightened herd of deer. armour. Appearing at the back. they are regarded auspicious. they indicate disaster and defeat. while its appearance in the front forebodes danger. is like a large herd of Ruru 30 . viz. If. The victory. The wind blows favourably from behind such troops. of the flight resembles that of exceedingly difficult to check their flight. cause. then mayst thou engage in battle. swans and cranes and Satapatras and Chashas utter are about to set out.BANTI PABVA 233 troops and the animals are all undepressed and cheerful. other break. it is or destiny.

it is very desirable that peace should then be made with that king who happens to be more powerful than the foe (sought to be crushed). 3 The entire country. they did not suspect the viciousness of the text. vanquish foes much superior to them in number. of high descent and enjoying the esteem of those that know them. the limbs of those that go to join it. t . If the invader does not proceed pain. vijayasya can T. he can never succeed in completely crushing his foe. care should be taken for hemming him in from all in sides. times even five. the way. battle. The Bengal reading jangha is evidently incorrect. and making gifts should first be tried . Fear is very contageous. T. it is said. T. It never comes Listen now. It curious to see how the Burdwan Pundits have misunderstood the simple verse. perspire profusely. The collision of bat tie is not desirable as long as it can be avoided. to the uses of forgiveness The fame of a king who displays forgiveness after conquest spreads more widely. The very foes of a person that is of a forgiving disposition trust him even when he becomes guilty of a grave and of severity. 1 MAHABHABATA Sometimes again it may be seen that even fifty men. 4 Le. scarcely be understood in such a sense. to those that are bad. The fact is. T. the rest follows it. therefore. Forgiveness always comes to those that are good. fear paralyses as also of him that is is conquering. Sucb politic measures succeed in bringing about peace. sending at the same time an invading force.Having produced disunion. and yijayatya as vijigishamafiatya. becomes agitated and afflicted mobile immobile and population. apply the arts of mixing them with measures of severity. 1 If a single deer whole herd follows it. particularly of Asiatic hosts.234 deer. a (hostile) force. Secret agents should be sent for producing disunion amongst the allies of the foe. or six. At the very sight of the timid. is 2 I have endeavoured to give the very construction of the original. the king should try conciliation. or seven men. the without knowing the cause. O Partha. The simile is peculiarly appropriate in the case of large armies. resolute one another. (that the seat of war). The very marrow of embodied creatures scorched with the heat of weapons. on all occasions. Unless it be an instance of a cruce. O king. A king conciliation. should come after these. of producing disunion. The Burdwan translators ha 76 attempted the impossible feat of finding sense by adhering to the incorrect reading. languishes with with all its should. If a single division takes to flight. The policy of conciliation. upon what would it fall ? 2 Having blazing bolt of heaven they ascertained that a battle is raging. succeed in grinding enemies numerically much superior. they always show a disposition to come to terms. even as at the sight of the ask -OH. 3 Samiti is explained by Nilakantha to mean battle. In dealing with the foe. or making an armed demonstration. The Bombay reading is sangha. When people 4 are afflicted by foes. cheerful and prepared to lay down their and relying upon Somelives. resolute and standing close together. takes fright and runs in a particular direction.

the king. utter sweet words like a destroying him. O Bharata. the king should address the survivors saying. also. On the other hand. therefore. practice both severity and mildness. very soon assumes former state. foe first. therefore. and and having smitten. beloved of ruler. all A king that fearless all circumstances.Do thou. by abandoning deceitfulness. Having vanquished an army. should even weep. trust such a Winning their trust. have ! wish they (that are slain) were all alive do not deserve such death They were all good men and true. becomes the creatures. has surely done that which is not agreenot obeyed directions ! my I ! ! able to me ! Having uttered such speeches before the survivors foe. he becomes disregarded by all. for- made straight its without the application of heat in the first instance. Before smiting. Such men. he succeeds in enjoying the Earth as he pleases. show them while smiting. however. sire subduing and checking a son. he becomes mild. they say that a foe should be subdued and checked. If. applaud Nor do they regard this as an indication of a good king. All creatures. this. behave and virtuous. Persons skilled in the scriptures do not. compassion and let them understand that thou art grieving and weeping for them. 236 a if Samvara has said that having afflicted giveness should be shown afterwards. on the other hand. .SANTI PABVA transgression. O Yudhishthira. fora wooden pole. I am not at all glad that so many have been slain by my troops | Alas. For soothing the wounded troops slayers for their sufferings at the hand of the foe. O Bharata. seek to obtain the trust of all creatures. he becomes an object of hatred with all creatures. without wrath and without If. is under with conciliation. indeed. the latter. They from battle. He should also seek to protect his ' subjects from all fears if he seek to enjoy the Earth/ . are rare He that and unretreating has slain such a hero in battle. The king should. desirous of attaching them to himself. though repeatedly dissuaded by me. seizing their hands affectionately. the of the king should in secret honour those amongst his own vanquished that have bravely slain the foe. a king becomes severe. The king should thus.

victory may be won by either side. and endued with great intelligence. the chief of the celestials. One should always speak sweet words unto one's foes and never do anything that is disagreeable. He should conceal these within his Without trusting one's foe in reality. one should not sleep at ease. As a fowler. foe on wrath his One should never wish to subdue his foes by Excited with wrath and bereft of forgiveness. and saluting him. O Purandara. In what way should I behave so that this blazing prosperity that I have won and that scorches all my enemies. By employing trusted agents of his own. On the other hand. Having lulled a foe into security. 'In this connection is cited. answered Indra in the following words. Vasava. a foe that is disregarded and neglected. Having overcome one's foes. desert me? Thus addressed. may not Profit. one should When victory may be won by arms should be avoided. possessed of a knowledge of kingly duties. said these words. How. boys only seek One that desires the destruction of a foe should not put that guard. 1 'Vrihaspati said.SECTION ''Yudhishthira said. Having consulted with his ministers and with intelligent persons conversant with policy. One should abstain from fruitless acts of hostility as also from insolence of speech. without exterminating them ? In a collision between two armies. one should reduce him into subjection and gain one's object. quarrel. Ascertaining the put out making its appearance again. the old narrative of the discourse between Vrihaspati Once on a time. O Yudhishthira. CIII O grandsire. O regenerate one. joining his hands. 'Tell me. being his foes under subjection and then slay them if he likes. A foe that is wicked raises his head again like a fire carelessly of fear or joy. behave towards him as if one trusted him completely. especially when the latter makes a false step. even so should a king. Vrihaspati. should I behave towards my foes ? How should I subdue them by means of contrivances.. such a foe would also render the other's forces inefficient by producing disunion. being all along unsubdued at heart. viz. captures and brings them under his power. approached Vrihaspati. " 'Indra said. either side. is how behave towards foe that one that has many allies is mild. a hostile collision of . quarrel. and Indra. smites the disregards at the proper season. that slayer of hostile heroes. carefully uttering cries similar to those of the birds he wishes to seize or kill. towards one that and a large force !' should a king fierce. skilled in Virtue t and Pleasure. one should never exhibit one's own bosom. and towards "Bhishma said.

He should never. T. 2 Nor should he cause wounds by wordy darts and shafts. should be the it slip. he should strike at him. the gods. 1 237 a king should in secret should corrupt the forces ascertaining everything by positive proof. That was an impolitic Germany also. in the heart and never forgotten. Nor should he. it can never be had again by the person Acting according to the opinions of the wise. expecting the opportunity. without letting gods.SANTI PABVA beginning. perhaps. one passes away. he should wait. ruin a foolish ruler That king who can conquer these four faults and counteract the deceitful contrivances of his enemies. and the deceitful contrivances well applied (by his foes). using the arts of He producing disunion. T. making gifts. If the opportunity comes. endeavour to throw the burden one another's shoulders and even give publicity to upon that object which should be kept secret. A king should never live in companionship with his foes. . A king should never slay a large number of the troops of his foe. T. The French had taken Alsace and Lorraine. when 1 I. when the opportunity is at hand. Indeed. of his foe. without ! O doubt. 3 Giving is up lust continually watch and wrath and pride. he might come would not expect him so that down upon in his foe at a time when the latter the least. then only should the king consult with many. with respect to the man who those that are his waits for it. When only one minister ( without needing any help) is competent to accomplish a secret object (of the king). cherish feelings of hostility towards them. O chief of the conduct of a king desirous of slaying his foes towards foes. of the if consulted. ascertaining everything regarding him. If consultation with one be not proper. by taking back those provinces after they had been completely Frenchified. seek to accomplish his objects. persecute his foe.e. His own mildness. the middle. step. The king should never do such an injury to his foe as would rankle in the latter' s heart. A king should wait long and then slay his foes. divine chastisement should be invoked upon them . acting with heedfulness. When foes Many ministers. for the laches of his foes. the king should consult with that one minister only in respect of such object. If an opportunity.. when the desirous of acting. a king should only break the strength of his foe.. his inactivity and heedlessness. in smiting them all. ruin him outright. and the end of his foes. opportunity not favourable. 2 Such injuries rankle 3 I. Such. task are unseen. although he should certainly do that which would make his victory decisive. though.e. succeeds. the chief of severity of his punishments. has committed the same mistake. and applying poison. the king should.

If he becomes fierce. as also those of conciliation. even if competent for it. by persons of a restless disposition. he should seek to compass the victor's destruction when the tribute. again. By applying the arts of conciliation. or or production of disunion. horse. T. O one by one. A victorious king. he inspires people with dread. In the case. for they that are vanquished best of deities. do not be fierce. i. when they are near. more difficult of accomplishment than the acquisition of prosperity.) the victor may behave peacefully towards them. however. By prostrating one's self.e. Never attack nfony foes at the same time. When the time for each particular means comes. and traders following the camp. should be moved. should not begin crush all (his foes) at once. and after drabbet understood. O O ruler of the immortals. There is nothing. 3 The sixfold forces are foot. consisting of four kinds of forces. the king should employ his for bringing destruction upon priest to perform the rites of the Afharyan them. when they are at a distance. the MAHABHARATA 1 army. that At times. T. Kings should. An intelligent king. the king should even particular means should be applied- prostrate himself before a powerful foe. When foes are not seen. The king should first use the arts of producing disunion. The weaker ruler should.. If a king becomes mild. . he is disregarded.2 gift. Purandara. But be both fierce and mild ! As a rapid current ceaselessly eats away the high bank and causes large landslips. Therefore. 2 Nipunam is pettum sense. that is always remain wakeful. cars. It is again desirable that acting heedfully himself. one should humble one's self before a more powerful king. ascertain their friends and foes. again. One should (when the occasion for such acts comes) never do anything that may arouse the suspicions of one's powerful foe. i. The very existence of persons of restless disposition is fraught with danger. under such circumstances.. should not trust his vanquished foes. of foes being seen. therefore. treasury.238 seen. he should move his troops without depending upon Aiharvan rites. carefully avoid every act that may awaken suspicion. elephants.e. with close attention. As regards the remnant. even so heedlessness and error cause a kingdom to be ruined. When a king happens to have a large army 3 consisting of sixfold forces 1 Brahma-dandah is the chastisement through the gods. latter becomes heedless. Do not. by gift of by uttering sweet words. The Burdwan version of 35 and 36 is uttered non- T. they should be grinded (being few in number. is explained by Nilakantha as Kusalam-. be mild.

The king.BANTI PABVA 239 and teeming with horse. they should be avoided. apply diverse kinds of deception. and proclaiming that they are all wicked men that have suffered for their own misdeeds. poisoning of wells and tanks. through other persons conversant with the scrip- tures. . chastisement by secret means is the policy that should be adopted. tion. the adoption of a policy of conciliation (towards him) is not worthy of approbation. Making gifts of wealth unto them in private. ordinances of the sacred books. LOBS of crops. should be avoided. on such occasions] is obliged also to take particular care of the seven branches of administraAs these are all unpleasant. and shakes his head. diverse contrivances for setting his foes against one another. for loss of crops. and engines. in respect of the and suspicion seven branches of administration. in their own they should. adorned with every accomplishment. and devise proper measures of policy in their own and dominions. without. bites his lips. all devoted to him. 'Indra said. then should he openly smite the foe without hesitation. cars. T. On the other hand. tions acquainted with the and possessed of learning cause incanta- and ' foe-killing rites to be performed. on such occasions. seize and appropriate the best things that are there. pursuing their foes and entering their obtainable cities towers. when he thinks himself superior to his foe in many respects upon a fair comparison. plishments of others. the cities and provinces of their foes. tell me how am I to A wicked person faults of others at their back. He should also. through trusted agents. however. of a wicked person know who is wicked 'Vrihaspati said. are the inevitable consequences of expeditions. who is is he who proclaims the inspired with envy at the accom- who remains silent when the merits of other are proclaimed in his presence. O doings of his foes in their cities and proslayer of Vala and Vritra. however. At the same time. 1 The king should. nor repeated expedition. ascertain the vinces. foot. O best of regenerate ones. &o. Nor should mildness of behaviour be adopted towards such foes. kings should send their agents to cities. Such a person always mixes in society and speaks 2 I adopt Nilakantha's explanation of this verse. and confiscating their possessions publicly. feeling a reluctance to join in the people chorus. If the foe be strong. Kings. Mere silence on such occasions is no indication of wickedness. injuring them materially. What ? ! are the indications. and different kinds of hypocritical behaviour. and A wicked person. Questioned by me. elephants. at such times breaths heavily.

O foremost of deities. Sorrowing on occasions of sorrow.240 irrelevantly.e. what the gods ! down in the scriptures. O ruler of the concealed. obeyed these instructions and reduced all his enemies to ' subjection P i 3 for I. starts what he has in view is the proclaiming of the faults topic in which he alone is interested and not his hearers. Purandara. Keep in thy heart these sayings. All is not right today as on other days. An opposite behaviour furnishes the indications of an enemy. of other people. and finds fault with the food placed before him. His disposition shows itself in the circumstances connected with his sitting. employed in subduing them. ' ! his foes. acted strictly according to Bent upon victory. saying. The wicked man eats by himself (and not with others on the same board). . I indications of a wicked person are. such subjects for conversation as do not arise naturally. O ruler of the celestials 'Having heard these words of Vrihaspati. that slayer of foes. when the opportunity came. and rejoicing on occasions of joyi are the indications of a friend. Having listened to the truths laid them duly. 1 MAHABHABATA Such a man whom he never does what he promises. lying.. The disposition of wicked men can never be have now told thee. follow "Bhishma continued. of the person to When the eye of the person assured is on him. a T. when the eye has given the assurance is not upon him. and riding. the wicked man does not even allude to the subject.

"The sage said. said. thou shalt be freed from unrighteousness. 3 I.. What wealth but who has. when prince Kshemadarsin had become weak in strength and fallen into great distress. O this.SECTION CIV "Yudhishthira by his ness ?' own control. I 'In this connection. T. Whatever knows 1 In the Bengal texts there is an error of reading. viz. 3 I am divested of prosperity and have fallen into a miserable and joyless plight for ! ! Instruct me. The man of wisdom Thy belief is right. Possessed of knowledge as thou art. and earning the wealth of knowledge. repeats the error. 2 The Bengal texts. the story of Kshemadarsin is shall narrate that story to thee. O Brahmana. thieving and robbery. prince of Kosala. T. Whatever has taken place and whatever will may take place are all unreal. thing that I regardest as existing are in reality non-existent. All this that 1 see have /Know. should a person like me who deserves repeated efforts. Listen to it. the sage is unstable. while K. conduct himself for acquiring happisaid. avoids it. in their vernacular version. tell me this ! One like thee that is conversant with morality and full of greatfulness afflicted by disease either mental or physical ! is the refuge of a person Man should cast off his desires. When thou wilt know this which should be known by all. O Yudhishthira It has been heard by us that in days of old. The Burdwan Pundits repeat the. he succeeds in obtaining felicity. after dom. already understood it. I cannot yet cast off the hope of recovering it. As regards ourselves we are unable to abandon that wealth which is even no longer existent. myself as also everythat those things which thou prince. error T. thou shouldst act as thou thinkest. officers. of course. P. king said. Thou hast. however. what happiness I may yet strive Thus addressed by the intelligent Kalakavrikshiya of great splendour made the following answer.. "Bhishma often recited. though dispossesed of my kingdom. They that can abandon vast wealth achieve a very difficult feat. All that. Satru for Yatra in the first line of verse 3. 'How should a righteous king. Singha avoids it. it seems.P. viz. he repaired to the sage Kalakavrikshiya and saluting him humbly.. K. ! 11 The do. Saktincha is evidently a misreading for Sokancha. The Burdwan version. in the second line of verse 7. O Brahmana. Singha. and accordingly is never pained whatever the distress that overwhelm him.e. by abandoning joy and sorrow. who is opposed whose treasury and army are no longer under his and who has no wealth. vanishes like a dream.* I grieve for them that adhere to worldly happiness as dependent on wealth. 1 said unto him these words. as a matter of course. contain an error. By acting in that way. acceptance of refuge with others. and other acts of meanness of a similar kind ? O best of men. . failed to recover his kingexcepting suicide.

Be thou of such a frame of mind. Acquisitions that are future should be regarded by one as not one's own. cease thou to grieve in Art thou not superior to those men. cease to be. Things that are. without doubt. One should not. and thou wilt underMyself. Grief has no power to restore them. like thee. thy grandsire ? Thou seest them not to-day. is thy sire to-day. and exertion. .. Be thou prince of Kosala. and where fore. however. cen- 1 I. in intelligence Many persons who are equal or superior to thee not.e. I regard the kingdom which I had with all its appendages to have been won by me without any exertion. should also be regarded by one as not one's own. or at least equal to this way them in intelligence and exertion ? " 'The king said. All powerful Time. Even if divested of prosperity. Acquisitions that have disappeared. do not grieve for it but O seek to preserve a pure disposition. without doubt. why dost thou grieve for them ? Reflect with the aid of thy intelligence. He will then succeed in practising charity. he should think that his wealth has been given to him for the sake of friends and relatives and others. though deprived of wealth. and whatever was earned and acquired by those that succeeded them.242 things had MAHABHABATA been earned and acquired by those that came before. have all perished. are not his that means seek to 1 should be regarded as all powerful. indulge in grief. Such a habit of looking at things is an attribute of the good. O king. when deprived of former prosperity. O king. nor do they see thee now! Reflecting on thy own instability. with whatever thou succeedest in windelighted. Destiny should then endeavour to think his possessions. Therefore. ! by Time as by I a stream. of my kingdom having been swept away quence. of a foolish Only an unfortunate man who is understanding. thyself. T. however. Indeed. he own and by do good to himself. O regenerate one. They are They do not indulge in grief like thee. in respect of every affair that may engage thy attention Desiring to obtain only that which is obtainable and not that which is unobtainable. If a man cannot have the heart to give up his vast possessions. shall. will again be (no Things more). thereWhere. are not only alive but are neVer ruling kingdoms. has swept it away. They that think in this strain are said to be possessed of wisdom. are no more. Reflecting on this. ) ! is that I am obliged to support upon whatever obtain ( by charity "The sage said. The consethat I see. thy stand that verily thou shalt cease to be friends. who is there that will yield to grief ? that were. O prince of Kosala. everything will cease to be. do thou enjoy thy 1 present passessions and never grieve for that which is absent. all die within the next hundred years. and thy foes. ning with ease. Moved by the knowledge of what is true (in life) one should never grieve for either the past or the future. Those men that are now of twenty or thirty ! years of age will.

that are unstable. These renounce every kind of worldly happiness from desire of winning Some persons lay down life itself. are also seen to renounce it. This The correct reading. by the desire any use if dissociated from wealth. as of malice For this reason. and sometimes wealth renounces man. such blessed with prosperity.SANTl PABVA 213 sures the supreme Ordainer. 1 Prosperity leaves possessed of righteous behaviour and wisdom and conversant with the duties of Yoga renounce prosperity and sons and grandsons of their own accord. T. Some Some it. Kusalah as nirmatsarah and anyatra as Satrau. and that are dependent on others ? Thou desirest to enquire after that particular frame of mind (which would enable thee to enjoy felicity notwithstanding the to loss of renounce all those objects of desire thy possessions). art not stained by suffer more misery still. dependent as it is J Thou upon ceaseless action and effort. ! Behold their foolishness ! When life is so short and uncertain. vested in others. however undeserving. lose their wealth in the pursuit of wealth. and upon union when separation is its end ? Sometimes man renounces wealth. 2 1 Nilakantha explains T. Behold their pitiable condition been proportionate to his desires. all desire of wealth. If. set their eyes on wealth heart upon hoarding when destruction is its end. is erroneous. moved felicity in the other world. and. Why dost thou then grieve so piteously. that would sethis upon life when death is its end. these ! Who is there men. Thou however. Such a person regards others. they that are possessed and vanity and filled with a sense of their own importance. men divested of prosperity. The advice I give thee is Objects that should be avoided ! appear in the guise of those that should be striven for. while those that should be striven for appear in the guise of objects that should be avoided. I What man possessed of knowledge is there that would do not follow him. Endure the prosperity of others although thou art thyself vices. These do not think that life has of acquiring wealth. loses that wealth which had been earned with difficulty and which had superior to again. overcome by the inactivity Some persons of righteous of despair. sadhanena cha. seemest to be possessed of wisdom. such a prince of Kosala. think that there is O he then. moved by ignorance. desiring things that should not be desired. The Bengal texts read Vidhitsa dhanameva cha. O king. They that is are possessed of dexterity succeed in enjoying that prosperity which the person that hates others. infinite happiness. Others pursue it regard wealth as the root of eagerly. as given in the Bombay text. gives up souls and high birth betake themselves to the acquisition of virtue. without being contented with his present possessions. therefore nothing In his eager desire for the acquisition of wealth. Othersi regarding earthly Men wealth to be exceedingly unstable and unattainable. a person person loses all other objects of life. is evidently Vidhitsa- . delighted with wealth. Both the Bengali versions are incorrect.

such in ! becomes turbid. If thou canst follow that line of policy and seek to exert thyself. tell me. Listen attentively to all that I If thou canst act according to those counsels. and thou wilt understand that the calamities which overtake men are all due to the conduct of men themselves! Do thou. these become weak and productive of evil there many intervals of time and place. A large lake Similarly. thy kingdom and kingly great prosperity! If thou likest it. It is not fit that such a man should adopt a deceitful life of mendicancy. Behold. with thy intelligence. for good or evil. when disturbed it tranquillity of itself.244 feel MAHABHARATA grieved at the loss of wealth ? There are many other persons in world that lose wealth and friends. thou thinkest that thou hast any prowess line of policy shall discourse to thee about that thy kingdom. O king. A person of such mildness of disposition. Tell me. all alone past nor can foresee the future. O holy one. a course is open to thee ? I ' Dost thou hope to reap any benefit by * depending upon destiny SECTION CV "The sage said. say unto thee in detail ! which thou mayst adopt for recovering power and thou mayst yet obtain vast wealth. becomes tranquil of has fallen into such a plight as thine himself. with large-tusked elephants for companions. and when thou art without ministers and counselors. if mind and speech! is no man who can keep himself free from temptation of external objects by which he As no one can form an adequate idea of the is always surrounded. for then I shall speak to thee of that policy "The king said. Let this my I am willing to hear and act according meeting with thee today be fruitful of consequences (to myself) ! ! . O king. resumes man of wisdom. well-restrained soul. still. and contented with the produce of the wilderness. the therefore. (as a remedy). Do thou repair to the great forest and lead a life of happiness there. and He that cheerfully leads such filled with compassion for all creatures. never indulges in grief and never becomes restless from desire of acquiring or fear of losing anything of small value. indeed. restraining speech and soul. never indulges in grief for union and separation. a life in the forest. with no human being by his side. a when such matters. I O Kshatriya. thou canst still recover thy prosperity. I see that a person that may live happily even thus When thy prosperity is almost impossible to recover. what thou wishest to say. is said to act after the its manner of the wise. and observant of Brahmacharyya vows. on the other hand. restrain thy senses and For. a person like thee who is possessed of such wisdom and such prowess. a life that is sinfuland wicked and cruel and worthy of only a wretch among men. and settled conclusions. If. to thy counsels. there being and subsisting upon fruits and roots.

and make like wolves. Honoured by Janaka possessed thou shalt certainly become the right arm of that ruler and prosperity. humbling desire 246 and wrath and joy joining thy thyself and hands. behave. and free from the seven courage and perseverance. Following the behaviour that is approved by the wise. the treasury of thy foe is likely to be exhausted. will do good to thee in return (by performing penances and Vedic rites). and the crow. breaking of person 1 Thou shalt then cause thy foe thy foe. every one of them. or if indifference is to be shown self. Firmly devoted will certainly give thee great wealth. one that is desirous of acting according to good policy. the king of Videha good and pure deeds. all of very and houses. Do thou serve Janaka the ruler of Mithila. the deer. do thou enjoy every kind of pleasure in the dominions of thy foe. always performing to truth. If this can be brought about. By in heaven. The sense seems to be that by causing thy . Renouncing pride and and fear. received those presents through thy hands). with apparent friendship. The treasury is the root of felicity in heaven and victory on Earth.SANTI PABVA "The sage said. and and fruits. under control. wait upon thy very foes. Without doubt. making peace with the foes a vilwa with a vilwa. may be reduced to subjection. enemies. break them all like a thy foes and. pure of restrained soul and having his senses A person principal faults. become the right As a consequence thou shalt then succeed in obtaining many allies possessed of in behaviour. and birds and animals of diverse species.!. do of this. destroy the latter's power. towards thy Cause them to undertake achievements that are mighty and accomplish. costly kinds. setting them against Or. by adhering to his duties. one another. Having then mustered a large force and enjoy the confidence thou cause disunion among held consultations with good ministers. See also that they engage in hostilities with powerful enemies. If the treasury of thy foes be exhausted (by either righteous or unrighteous deeds). so that thy foe may be ruined of himjuices and perfumes 2 If one's foe be thus managed. O prince of Kosala. towards him. Thou shalt then arm of that king and obtain the trust of all persons. foe to be attached to these things. (having gifts. 1 It is in consequence of their treasuries that T. beds and seats and vehicles. do thou. succeeds in raising himself and of intelligence and gladdening others. a person of righteous deeds obtains a high such deeds men succeed in earning regions of the most felicity end. and devour thy enemy drain thy enemy's treasury. 2 The Vilwa is the fruit of the Mgle marmelos. of all. difficult to Advising thy enemy to perform sacrifices do thou gratify the Brahmanas. Drawing their attention to pleasant gardens and costly beds and seats. as are not easily attainable. thy foe will soon be ruined. to to be attached to such good things beautiful women and cloths. by offering such objects of enjoyment. and imitating the conduct of the dog. should never suffer that foe to know it at all. The latter.

and of artificial salts. An intelligent person can thus destroy the population of a hostile kingdom with poison. . Without doubt. I desire to live in this world ! ing these that thou speakest indicate thee to be possessed of righteous feelings Indeed. Othou of great experience! 1 I shall strive for the good of you both.. to support life do not desire wealth. eternal and incapable of breach. thou art ! ways that thou pointest out do not become thee " The sage said. which is to be earned by unrighteous means. 1 I. the man who relies too much on acts appertaining to the worship of the gods soon meets with destruction. Who is there that would not like shall to have a minister like thee that art born of noble race. destroy the elephants and steeds and men (of thy enemy's dominions). every respect. inviting the ruler of for the ruler of Videhas. Cause thy enemy to perform the great sacrifice called and divest him by that means of all his possessions. O Brahmana. ' * SECTION CVI I do not desire. The enemy will then desire to adopt re- nunciation and retire into the woods. for thyself and him. to be brought about between thee and that king. viz. ! to me ! Indeed. of such means as would benefit me in 11 'The king said. after T. Thou mayst then inform thy enemy of the fact that the best men in his kingdom are being oppressed (with exactions for refilling the exhausted treasury). O Kshattriya. all connected with fraud.. Do not applaud Exertion in the presence of thy foe. and indicate some eminent ascetic conversant with the duties of yoga (who will wean thy foe from all earthly possessions). though divested of kingdom and plunged into great misery. The treasury. firmly adhering to truth. however great. then. solicitous of salvation. I cause a union. will come to out doubt. should by evety means be drained. 'The sage. righteous in disposition and understanding. with the aid of drugs Thou shalt prepared by boiling highly efficacious herbs and plants. Through Viswajit this thy object will be fulfilled.246 foes enjoy MAHABHAKATA such happiness. thou still desirest to live adopting a behaviour that is righteous! The ruler of the Videhas. and that art well versed in the art of government and of conciliating all persons ? I say this because. I by deceit or fraud. by practising only such acts as are not harmful in their I am incapable of adoptconsequences. he will do what I will urge to do ! my abode soon. With- 'Bhishma continued. These and many other well-devised schemes are available. that art possessed of great learning. At the very outset of our present discourse I excepted these means. that abstainest from all acts of unrighteousness and cruelty. therefore. this.e. These words. By the adoption of only such means as would not lead to censure. these instructions O Kshattriya. but speak highly of Destiny.

and trusting each other. One may see victory and defeat in his own case. He has been examined by me in every way. giving up covetousness that is improper. is certainly advantageous for both of us. thou wilt go to my abode as a victor l ! O ! Brahmana. he will do what as a Kshattriya he and grandsires he duty to fight him. I In observance of Kshattriya duties as also with the aid of best of kings. Victory sire. Without engaging in battle. if after the manner of his sires for conquering thee. O Without cherishing been conquered by thee with thy good qualities thou remainest by my side). causing the prince of Kosala to enter his 1 Jitavat is explained by Nilakantha as praptajaya. however. saying. it will be thy under thee from desire of benefiting thyself. do not disregard thee. however. The high-souled person is of royal descent. replied unto him. Remembering this. ! as a minister possessed of such attributes. Thou art of great learning and great wisdom. The minister should be courageous as also possessed of great intelligence. birth. proand honouring that bull among Brahmanas who deserved perly saluting every honour. . Defeat also is not certain. O king. peace should be articles of made with an enemy by giving him food and other enjoyment. is not certain. live thou with me as a victor ! Honoured duly by me. I do not see any fault in him. This one who always keeps righteousness in view has been a valuable acquisition.SANTI PARVA the Videhas. fights Indeed. Do thou repose confidence on him as on his A king who is without a (competent) minister cannot govern kingdom even for three days. That which thou hast said from desire of benefiting Such a course of conduct us. he engages in battle with thee. and I honour thy prowess. policy. addressing the prince of Kosala. said these ruler of selves in course ! words. Behold. I have. observant as thou art of the Kshattriya duty of conquering antagonists. king Janaka. It behoveth thee not to abandon the duties of thy order from lust or desire of battle.T. By these two qualities one may conquer both the worlds. at my command. I have no hesitation in saying this is highly beneficial (to us). do thou. live thou with any sense of humiliation (if ! me 1 I honour thy intelligence. 24* is of royal the surface of This personage is as pure as mirror or the disc of the autumnal moon. employ him should do. to exterminate a foe are of their efforts ! They that seek sometimes exterminated them- Thus addressed. If If treated by thee with honour. Let there be friendship between him and thee. said these words unto him His soul I know his very heart. these two qualities are Righteous kings have no such refuge necessary for ruling a kingdom myself. have conquered the world. He walketh along the path of the righteous. he will reduce all thy foes to subjection. The ruler of the Videhas. The Videha then. Cast thy eyes on righteousness. Both the kings then worshipped that king. proceeded to the capital of Mithila. saying that I have conquered thee I On the other hand.

moved by avarice. O king. the aristocracy resent it and seek to pull down the king. Thou hast discoursed on all these subjects. how may they succeed It in subjugating their foes and acquiring friends. the means of distinguishing the wicked. the means of filling them. O scorcher of foes also. SECTION CVII scorcher of foes. the means of livelihood. with their results. Thou hast discoursed also on the duties of kings. By employing spies. Eich intent upon weakening and wasting the other. are the causes that ! Tell me 1 I produce enmity.248 MAHABHABATA who deserved every honour. . the subject of their "Yudhishthira said. the behaviour of those that are good* the attributes of those that are equal. I desire to hear all this in detail. honoured him. of Brahmanas and Kshattriyas and Vaisyas and Sudras. and the manner in which the weak should be protected and cherished. There can be no doubt that throughout this lesson the word has been employed to denote the aristocracy of wealth and blood that surround a throne. those that are inferior. 'Between the aristocracy on the one side and the kings on the other.. the measures. the king. and the topic of conquest and victory- Thou hast spoken also of the characteristics of ministers. the general conduct.) yields to avarice. seems to me that disunion alone can bring about their destruction. and 1 The word is Gana. laying down instructions that are plain according to what has been inculcated in sacred treatise. the qualities of armies. 2 If the king. 'Thou hast. O treasuries. and which a king desirous of advancement should adopt towards the masses. King Janaka also bestowed upon his guest his own daughter and diverse kinds of gems and jewels. they both meet with destruction. the means by which they may out with the king be prevented from falling "Bhishma said. with offerings of abode. wrath takes possession of the other (the aristocracy). I think it is always difficult to keep counsels secret when many are concerned. O Bharata. water to wash his feet. 2 One of these parties (viz. to listen to the behaviour that one should observe towards 1 I the multitude of courageous men that assemble round a king desire to hear how these may grow. avarice and wrath. I desire now. and the marks those that are superior. honey and curds and the usual articles. in O Bharata. contrivances of policy. the characteristics of the sixfold limbs of a kingdom. T. O gent men. how they may be attached to the I king. taxes them heavily. described the course of duties. As a consequence. that lead to the advancement of the subjects. Thou hast spoken also of the behaviour that should be adopted by kings foremost of intellidesirous of conquering their foes. This (the establishment of peace) is the high duty of kings victory and defeat are both uncertain !' ' . It literally means an assemblage. O monarch. T.

other courses of action should be followed. T. that are the leaders of the aristocracy crusher of foes. they fall an easy again the aristocracy of a kingdom be disunited amongst themselves. They can (by their establish righteous courses of conduct. own 1 I. advance in prosperity.SANTI PABVA 249 physical force. Those amongst and of humility. and by behaving kindly topersons whose pride has been quelled by knowledge. thereshould be honoured by the The affairs of the kingdom. and acting from with the enemies of their ruler. Disunited. Indeed. chastisement. Possessed of wealth and resources. become dissociated from the king the latter seeks to take too king. having the if characteristics of a compact body. however. with the king. Wrath (on the part of their treasuries. and secret agents should be placed. If united in purpose. fall O chief of the Bharatas. The king should not. O king. they may earn acquisitions of value by means of their strength and prowess. When. each according to his perity dwindles away resources. O Bharata. The aristocracy of a kingdom. prey to foes. all of them can be happy. and adopting the arts of conciliation. with them only. If the members of the aristocracy quarrel with one another and act. the aristocracy becomes separated and disunited and destitute of leaders. The nobles. upon them. without combination.e. as also to the matter of aristocracy. acting in concert with the leaders. speedily cause the aristocracy to side with the king's enemies. the aristocracy advance in prosperity. oppression. should do what is for the good of the whole order. and disunion. should always they be united together. the aristocracy rescue the ignorant scriptures masses from every kind of distress and danger. Consulations should be held with only those that are the leaders of the aristocracy. the aristocracy advance in prosthe perity. waste. persecution. side them become dissatis6ed. all By restraining their sons and 1 them their duties. By showing proper reverence for them that are possessed of wisdom and courage and perseverance and that display steady prowess in all kinds of work. they meet with destruction. If Dissociated from the fear. The king. 2 terror. They. of knowledge of and all arts and sciences. depend to a great extent king. act in concert. 2 Probably. O thou of mighty arms.. gifts. therefore. they advance in prosperity. 32 . the king). and applying other methods for producing weakness. tha parties assail each other. learned men T. Men of knowledge applaud those nobles that art united with one another in bonds of love. many outsiders seek their alliance. consult with every member of the aristocracy. and executions. when they If are thus united. and fear. By always attending to the duties brothers and teaching wards of setting spies filling and devising means of the policy. O away from the king and fore. all of much from them. By behaving proexample) perly. their prosdiverse kinds of evil occur. rupture.

the DaksMna fire and is said to be the Qarhapatya fire ! .250 MAHABHABATA it of learning and wisdom should tread down a happens. according to duties most important among all duties.' 1 SECTION Bharata. cease It is O to speak with one another. O king. Behave properly towards these & mess of the last two verses. The man who attends to that duty here. father. are those that most deserve to be practised ? What acts. however. They are the three sacred fires. For this reason. "One should not follow that course of duty which they do not indicate. that arise from out- side are of little consequence. It is Pradhanaccha for pradanaocha. if the seniors of a race look on with indifference. 'The worship of mother. 1 The Burdwan Pundits make there is 2 Literally. king. Fears. Singh. This is an not by courage. an incorrect reading in the Bengal texts. O many branches. one may cross this world. They are the three Vedas. It is only by disunion and gifts that it can be reduced to subjugation. T. These three fires are. That again is duty which they command. nor by intelligence. Ihe Burdwan version repeats the error. may cut roots in a single day. are the be it consistent with righteousness or inconsistent with it.P. It has also. nor by wealth. K. but his version is rather incomplete. that arise Protect thyself. influenced by wrath or folly or covetousness arising from their very natures. from from within. By serving the mother in the same way. The father the mother. one may attain to is that fire regions of felicity in the next. 'The path of duty is long. thee. combination has been said to be the great indication of defeat. Worshipped with respect by thee. and preceptor is most important according to me. The first kind of fear. whatever they will command thee. If thou attendest with heedfulness to these three fires. By serving the preceptor with regularity one may obtain the region of Brahma.* They are the three worlds. quarrels break out amongst the members. What." . Persons that are equal to one another in thy family and blood. This is settled. . of course. They are the three modes of life. that done. should be done unhesitatingly. Without doubt. In 31. however. according to thee. succeeds in acquiring great fame and many regions of felicity. One should never do what they which they command should always be forbid. CVIII "Yudhishthira said. By serving the father with regularity. Such quarrels bring about the destruction of a race and produce disunion them that are possessed dispute as soon as among all fears the (entire order of the) nobles. avoids it. nor by beauty. by the practice of which I may earn the highest merit both here and hereafter ?' "Bhishma said. the most eminent. thou wilt succeed in conquering the three worlds. refuge of the aristocracy. Indeed. of oourse. that enemies succeed in destroying the aristocracy. O Yudhishthira the preceptor upon which libations are poured.

should never do anything that latter. The father and the mother. therefore. O Bharata. The father. is superior to ten Upadhyayas. There is father and the mother. Such a man never earns any good in the next world. should never be slain. one does not incur sin.SANTI PAHYA 251 Bharata. All that I have given away in honour of those three has become three is merit. thou mayst obtain fame. In my opinion. That is an act of high acting in that way. thou shalt then obtain great fame in the three three. and giving knowledge which is immortal. By not punishing a father and a mother. With him who 1 Pratyasannah is explained by Nilakantha in a different way. such reverend persons. should worship and adore his preceptors and cheerfully divide with them every object of enjoyment. The life. Such a man. honours these He. only create the on the other hand. The disciple. that one obtains from one's preceptor. great will be thy merit and reward Never transgress them in any act. That life is subject to no decay and is immortal. or perhaps. The gods and the do not withhold their favours from such persons as strive to cherish even their sinful fathers with reverence. The mother. in importan! no one that deserves such reverence as the mother. One LJpadhyaya is again superior to ten Acharyyas. The latter should. deserve punishment). worlds. the whole world. He. He who favours a person Rishis by imparting to him true instruction. is superior to ten fathers. would injure the They that do not reverence their preceptors after receiving instruction from them by obeying them dutifully in thought and deed. He who always disregards these three seniors never obtains fame either here or hereafter. It is in conse- quence of that merit that even now. There is no sinner in this world like them. his interpretation far-fetched. and regions of felicity hereafter. and blessed be thou. should be regarded as both a father and mother. The body. By they eat. by communicating the Vedas. is worthy of greater reverence than the father or even the mother. who disregards these three. the preceptor. however. therefore. is heavenly. again. do not stain the king. again. the three worlds are clearly before my eyes One Acharyya is superior to ten Brahmanas learned in the Vedas. show their preceptors commensurate reverence. fails to obtain any merit from any of his acts. incur the sin of killing a foetus. He who honoured in all the worlds. O scorcher of foes. O best of kings. nor eat anything I O that is better than what One should always merit. Never eat before they eat. by enjoying impunity. (even if they of one's being. however much they may offend. Never impute any fault to them. . is J think. T. O Yudhishthira. serve them with humility. honour. a hundred-fold or a thousand-fold of its actual measure. The father and the mother are authors ce. acquires merit neither in this world nor in the next. Indeed. in greatful recognition of what the instructor has done. that wishes to earn that high merit which has existed from ancient days. on the other hand. 1 Preceptors always show great affection for their disciples.

T. They that injure in thought and deed their preceptors.262 pleases his father MAHABHABATA gratifies is pleased Prajapati himself. reverence towards his preceptors. again. TJaere sire's loins preceptor. 1 Even a person that is disrespectable. Oking. . covering the worlds. No act of theirs should be found fault with. and on what occasions should he tell an un- "Bhishma said. a person adopt that is firm in Truth and falseme Which of these two. hood exist. possessed as ! thou art of learning. generally all I have now told thee that a person should do in this world. The preceptor should never be disregarded by the disciple. I shall now. ? O to virtue tell all O bull Bharata. the mother. and the gods. me this. who. viz. does not support them in his turn. That son of and the mother's womb. There where falsehood would assume the aspect of truth.0. Besides those duties is nothing productive of greater " have told thee their essence. Therefore. That person is said to be conversant with duties who can distinguish truth from falsehood. ever succeed in cleansing themselves. should virtue ? What again is truth ? What is questioned by falsehood ? What. is eternal virtue ? On what occasions should the truth. even falsehood should be said. . there felicity. he who injures a friend. that is of uncleansed soul.' that I have indicated. Thinking of all duties. O Bharata. he who is ungrateful. truth should not be said. the preceptor is worthy of the highest in any manner Neither the mother nor the father deserves such regard as the preceptor. should a person act who of Bharata's race. The father. and untruth becomes as righteous as truth. say unto thee that which is not generally known to men. I SECTION CIX "Yudhishthira desires to adhere said. who knows when truth becomes as harmful as untruth. That ignorant person incurs sin who says truth which is dissociated from righteousness.. incur the sin of killing a the is no sinner in the world equal to them. incurs the sin of killing a foetus. The gods and the great Rishis are pleased with him that behaves with greater reverence than either the father or the mother. should never be insulted. If reverence. are all pleased. the very RisKis. There is nothing higher than truth. We have never heard that these four. There is no sinner in the world like unto him. being brought up by them and when he comes to age. and he who slays a foetus. 'To tell the truth is consistent with righteousness. He who pleases his the Earth herself. and 1 1. He who pleases his preceptor mother gratifies Brahma by his act. a person truth ?' tell again. or fathers. There. or mothers. For this reason. and the preceptor. together with the Pirn's. he who slays a woman. where truth would assume the aspect of falsehood. 'How. the preceptor is worthy of preceptors are worshipped.

3 The allusion is to the story of an owl going to heaven for having. broken a thousand eggs laid by a she-serpent of deadly poison. There is no connection between the first and the second lines of T. Therefore. One should not. that is Righteousness which prevents injury to asked is me a difficult one. has not been laid down in the Srwtis. give away his wealth to sinWealth given to sinful men afflicts even the giver. T. make his the witnesses would debtor pay off the loan by rendering bodily all be liars. what has been inculcated in I the Srutis. fore. one should remain silent. (by doing a sinful act an unrighteous deed) obtained great merit. the examples and practices of the good ought to be the guides of men. There- Righteousness which is Some say that Righteousness consists in capable of upholding all creatures. viz. It is not easy to indicate No one in discoursing creatures. what is true. Hence Vasishtha was obliged to add that where these are silent. on the cion. summoned by the creditor for establishing the truth of the contract. that is Righteousness (Dharma) is so called because it upholds all In fact. other hand. creatures. Everything. by pointing out the 2 Alludes to ante. 3 The question thou hast very cruel. make enquiries (for facilitating the act of plunder). ness. The Eishi. The Burdwan Pundits have made nonsense of the first line of verse 8. one succeeds in escaping. . this verse.P. Singha has rendered it correctly.SANTI PABVA that is 263 in earning great merit as the hunter Valaka by slaying the blind beast (that threatened to destroy all crea1 How extraordinary it is that a person of foolish understanding. is difficult to say is. again. they did not say 1 Vide ante what should Kama Parvan. tures) though desirous of acquiring merit (by austere penances) still committed a An owl again. since it it. "That which is laid down in the Srutis and Smritis is Dharma. desirous of obtaining the wealth of some one. on the banks of the Ganges. one may sin. Sometimes men (robbers). may succeed ! what righteousness upon righteousit accurately. place Kama with his beaks. if. The defect of this definition is that the Srutis and the Smritit do not include every duty. one's silence at a time when one must speak rouses suspiit would be better on such an occasion to say what is untrue than one can escape from it without incurring sinful men by even a (false) oath. If a ful men.. K. Therefore. Others do not agree to this. If One should never answer such enquiries. T. If take creditor desires to service. silence. This is a settled conclusion. would not censure them that 4 say so. can indicate Righteousness was declared (by Brahman) for the advancement and growth of all creatures. where certain innocent persons had concealed themselves while flying from a company of robbers. by maintaining If. Parvan. T. That is a settled duty. &o. all creatures are upheld by Righteousness. that Righteousness was declared for restraining creatures from injuring one another. which leads to advancement and growth is righteousness. 4 This refers to the well-known definition of Dharma ascribed to Yachishtha. incurred the sin of murder. even if one be able.

they whose behaviour all restrained by salutary restrictions. is They that never practise deceit. in what way can these difficulties. or on occasions of marriage. K. they are even like evil genii. meaning 1' the appropriator be.' SECTION CX "Yudhishthira said. succeed in overcoming all means and almost continually. Such men should never be tolerthem. 1 The construction T. his vows. behave towards another as that other behaves in that matter. commit even suicide which is exceedingly pitiable. an untruth. Singba leaves it out. while one * honest should be treated with honesty. Among This is thy sinful men there is no one to whom thou canst say. they take rebirth as crows and vultures* One should. one overcome all those difficulties !' "Bhishma said. Having promised to pay. at risk. like the crow and the vulture. Yah samayam cbikrshet tat kurvit. forbear from their companionship. They should be regarded to have consequence of their sins. One an untruth. does not commit a sin by saying that untruth be said to save the wealth and prosperity life is of others or for the religious purposes. fallen thingW L world in URie should eat with down higher than wealth. always wishes to betake himself to the practilife. dependent on deceit for their living. it is the dead that is slain. If a person without fulfilling a appropriator righteous engagement acts with impropriety. After the dissolution of their (human) bodies. one to fu!611 his promise. . with restrained souls. fallen away from the condition of humanity and shut out from the grace of the gods. 'Those members of O grandsire. one may say that seeks for virtue. Such a sinful wretch living by deceit ces oM^rfls for supporting Blain by every means. Their settled convictions are that there is Let thy heart turn to it nothing in this world that is equal to wealth. and they that control 2 worldly quietly let The Burdwan translator has made a mess of verse 21. Such sinful men think that there is nothose of his 1 A deceitful own having adopted such behavaway from all duties and abandoning for shoulj ated. he should certainly be becomes bound afflicted with the rod of chastisement iour. 'Creatures are seen to be afflicted by diverse the regenerate class that duly practise.254 MAHABHARATA When if be said. The fact is. person. the duties that have been laid down in the scriptures for the several modes of life. is elliptical. Upon failure. Tell me. 2 Such sinners He who that is practises deceit should be resisted with deceit. He who vows to destroy those persons of lost senses should keep are. Swakaryastu is Sivakari astu. If their wealth be lost. The person that would slay such a creature would incur no sin. He who kills him kills one that has been already killed by his own acts. in any matter. falling order. Indeed.P. If slain. they ! those duty. Without sacrifices and without penances as they are. let the selfbe forcibly enslaved.

succeed in overcoming all difficitlties. they that that do not. that listen to the doctrines of all creeds. and that are exemplars for all creatures to imitate succeed in overcoming all difficulties They whose acts never deceive. they that abstain from sleeping during the day. They that own wrath and pacify the wrath of others. succeed in all difficulties. succeed in overcoming all difficulties. that give honours unto others. and that abstain from all kinds of ignoble behaviour. succeed in overcoming all difficulties- when addressed all in evil coming guests. that are possessed of high souls. They that bow to all the gods. and that are cleansed by learning. word. They that do not commit any kind of sin in thought. and that never .SANTI PARVA desires. desirous of victory by fair means. levy oppressive taxes. succeed in overcoming all difficultiesThose Brahmanas that never study the Vedas at hours not intended for study. and that are endued with tranquil souls. they that look upon all creatures as their own self. succeed in overcoming all difficulties. are honest and attentive to their Agni-hotras. succeed in overcoming all difficulties. casting away succeed engage in battle. they that never injure any creature. They that are possessed of courage and that. succeed in restrain their overcoming all difficulties. from desire of offspring. succeed in overThey of whom no creature stands in feai and coming all difficulties those that do not fear any creature themselves. they that are constantly engaged in the study of the Vedas. being conversant with dutiesi adopt that behaviour towards parents which they should. and deed. They that go to their own wedded wives in season without seeking the companionship of other women. and those that protect their own dominions. they that do not injure others when themselves injured they that give but do not take. They that have checked all the qualities that appertain to Passion and Darkness. in wealth is always well spent. They that always give hospitable shelter to they that do not indulge in malice. and proper vows. succeed in overcoming all difficulties. Those bulls among men that are good. Those persons who. that have faith. and whose all fear of death. succeed in overdifficulties. Those Brahmanans that betake themselves to a life of celebacy and Brahmacharyya. They that perform Sraddhas on the proper lunar days. overcoming all difficulties. Vedic knowledge. succeed in overcoming all difficulties. and that practise the qualities that are called Good. They that always speak truth in this world even when life is at stake. succeed in overcoming all difficulties. and that penances with devotion. that bow down unto those that deserve their worship. succeed in overcoming all difficulties. with pure minds. that perform penances. They that do not speak language. that are never inspired with grief at the sight of other people's prosperity. succeed in 256 overcoming all difficulties. succeed in overcoming all difficulties. They that do not desire honour for them- overcoming selves. whose words are always agreeable. Those kings under the influence of passion and covetousness.

256 MAHABHARATA They get angry with any creature. that seek the companionship women the sake only of offspring and that open their lips for only speaking what is true. succeed in overcoming all difficulties. that recite others. from their birth. told thee all those acts by which men may overcome all difficulties both here and hereafter !' and that speak I all difficulties. and truthful in speech. he was reborn as a jackal. They of that eat for for only supporting life. of eyes red as the lotus. endued with mighty arms. that abstain. of inconceivable soul Krishna who is ever engaged in doing what is This of all beings covers all ! king. is this Krishna who of is our well-wisher. succeed in all difficulties. he . Narayana ! unfading glory. discourse between a 'In this connection jackal. succeed in overcoming all difficulties. tiger and a Listen to O Yudhishthira I In ancient times. in Many persons here that are not really of as men of tranquil souls. O sinless one. from honey and meat and intoxi- cating drinks. brother. That jackal dwelt in a vast crematorium and liked to dwell there. At the appointed time he took food which consisted of fruit that had dropped from the trees. friend. foremost of all beings. How. that irresistible one. human prosperity. sire. He the worlds like a leathern case. that origin and destruction of the universe. as also to thee. endeavoured to make him alter his resolve by addressing him in the of his life. there was a king named Paurika. Remembering his former became filled with grief and abstained from meat even when brought before him by others. There tranquil souls appear are again others that are really of tranquil souls but that appear to be otherwise. They that read them to of them unto Brahmanas. these verses about the overcoming of difficulties. ' SECTION CXI "Yudhishthira said. shall we succeed in knowing these people ?' outward form O "Bhishma said. That worst of beings was exceedingly cruel and took a delight in injuring others. This Krishna here. that Supreme Lord of all creatures. in a city called Purika. clad in yellow robes. They that worship with devotion the god Narayana. the foremost the puissant Lord. And he became compassionate unto all creatures. that abode of eternal felicity I O They that with devotion seek overcoming the refuge of this Narayana. called also Hari. Unable to endure the purity of his behaviour. and firm in the observance of austere vows. succeed in overcoming all difficulties. On the expiry of the period of his In fact. he never wished to change it for a finer locality. stained by the evil acts life he obtained an undesirable end. at his own pleasure. succeed in overcoming all difficulties. the other members of his species. and relative. succeed in overcoming have now. full of affluence. He is He is Govinda. is that agreeable and beneficial to Jishnu. is recited the old story of the it. And as it was his birth place.

will that pious gift produce no merit? Moved by the desire of getting what is agreeable. and characterised as it is by such censurable loss of virtue occasioned by A tiger. slays a behaviour. however. these words of thine with jackal said. Stupefied by folly ye do not see the three faults that are in the end. If ! We inform thee beforehand of king of beasts. It is also worthy of thee reference to myself are such as befit thee 1 humility. one gives away a cow while one is not in the observance of any particular mode of life. I do not like to adopt the life led by you. in every race. the jackal replied unto them. " The O There may be pious persons. Although is this crematorium. as explained by the commentator. If one. thou desirest yet Is to live in such purity of beha- not this a perversity of understanding on thy part. thou wilt be benefited and reap advantages for thyself Honouring these words of that high-souled lord of all animals. while in the observance of a particular mode of life. righteous personage. O ! ! not suit thy taste fierce disposition. will not the sin of Brahmanicide attach to him? If. and accordingly. we are known to be of a thoubehavest with mildness. offered him such respectful worship as was suited to his own self and then expressed a wish for appointing him his minister. 1 ^ desire to my habitation behave in such a way that my fame may spread. since thou art by nature an eater of carrion ? Be thou our like All of us Eat that which ought always to be thy food. ye are engaged in only filling your stomachs.SANTI PABVA following words fraught terrible 267 with humility : Though residing in this crematorium. celebrated for prowess. 2 Yatram means. therefore. T. the duties of government. that is no reason I should act like a low person. why 1 The meaning is that though born in a low race. ! abandoning such purity of conduct Hearing these words of theirs. It is conduct that determines the race and not the race that determines conduct. yet listen to my vpws in respect of One's the cause of one's acts/ The mode of life to which one may betake is not the cause of one's religious acts. said these words fraught with this. will give thee food. with rapt attention. 2 ! As regards ourselves. taking the ! jackal for a learned person of pure behaviour. in these sweet words fraught with reason and inculcating harmlessness to all My ! : birth has been low. hanging down his head a little. abandoning whatever may /' The tiger said. the jackal. I know what thou art the duties of government with myself Do thou attend to Enjoy whatever articles may be desired by thee. own self is Brahmana. that determines the race. 33 . The Burdwan version of this line is simply T. discontentment and temptation happened to overhear this conversation. on the other hand. viour. fraught as it is with evil both here and hereafter. ridiculous. I It is conduct.

as ed by thee. Those. Simple food and drink obtained without effort. and endued with great mental vigour. or with a wicked minister that I Thou shouldst. satisfied with a little. even if that other happens to be possessed of splendour. widely differ from each other. desirous of crowning thee with victory. I live according to my pleasure in the woods. I am incapable of showing severity to even sinners. thy ! they happen to be of wicked conduct. that are independent of one another. they will produce disunion between thee and me. desirous of superiority as they are they will then impute diverse If I do. Meeting with thee alone and in secret I shall interfered with by thee. as I am perfectly preceptors or parents contented with my present position. unstained by covetousness. that reside in the woods pass their days. free from deceit. have never served another. supporting life few only amongst those that serve kings are justly punished for their offences.I am 1 have capacity for great exertion. I do not covet luxurious enjoyments or the happiness My conduct. All who live by the side of kings have to endure great pain in consequence object of I I am am adorned with every successful in acts. I am. contentedly in the woods. however. an end to the very life those amongst thy ministers that are highly blessed one. I I am never enjoyment. say what is for thy good. I never act of evil speeches against themselves. Those words that I shall speak for thy good should be listened to and regardof beasts. O king of beasts. Reflecting upon these two. may not agree with that of that arises from them. thou appointest me. O king ( thy minister. In all matters connected with thy kinsmen. is O hero. regard devoted to thee. Having consulted with me thou shalt not punish thy other ministers . I do not look at small things. fruitlessly. I am of cleansed soul. again. possessed of wisdom ever engaged in thy good. besides. If notwithstanding all this. that are conversant with policy. however. thou shalt not ask me what is for thy good or what is otherwise. suffer death under false accusations. possessed of great strength. The fear that arises summoned by the king is unknown in the heart of a person who is to persons passing their days upon fruits and roots. and luxurious food procured with fear. kinds of faults to me. I am highly blessed. Dependence upon another. I wish to make a compact with thee in respect of the behaviour thou shouldst always adopt towards me. unskilled in serving. even as thou regardest But. is not desirable thy old servants. I do not desire to change it for anything else. on the look out for putting. If or praiseworthy. in the obser- vance of vows.258 MAHABHABATA that thou shouldst seek for ministers of pure behaviour and conversant with duties and worldly affairs ! Thou canst not maintain thy greatness without a pious minister. The provision which thou wilt I shall make for me shall not be never consult with thy other ministers. A large number of them. I am of great foresight. A I am of opinion that there is happiness where there is no anxiety. fearlessly and without anxiety.

But though he knew everylarge bribes even thing. on a garb of virtue. ! ! He is righteous in speech but his real disposiwretch in reality. in were offered to allure his heart. they began to tempt him with sweet speeches. took away the well-dressed meat that was intended for and much desired by the king of beasts. saying. The jackal knew who had stolen the meat and who had conspired to do it. he saw not the meat that was to have been kept ready for his dinner. Desirous of advancement and prosperity. The jackal is ever ready to take away from all of us the means of sustenance Having represented this they once more spoke of the Such then jackal's act of robbing the king of his food. $59 dependents ! Yielding to rage them shalt not punish my followers and Thus addressed by the jackal. to eat. being ruled by the jackal. he has disguised himself by putting tion is sinful. Those wicked persons at first strove to gratify and win him over with friendly behaviour and make him tolerate the Despoilers of other people's the enjoyment of their perquisites.SANTt PABVA afterwards. Beholding former ministers addressed the king. the jackal showed no signs of yielding to those temptations. A Having said thou disbelievest this. What is there that he would not venture to do ? He is is his act giving way to his wrath. Then some amongst them. For serving his own ends he had practised austerities in the matter of diet and of vows. The Let it be so then accepted the ministership of the tiger. saying. feeling hungry. but thou shalt not. of the king. the tiger his learned him that was so for Hearing of this injudicious act on the part became filled with rage. monarch. saying. however. the king of beasts answer! and showed him every honour. we will give thee ocular proof caused that meat to be discovered by entering this. property. friendship. the opportunity. making a compact amongst themselves for effecting his destruction. the old servants ed him. Beholding the jackal jackal treated with respect and honoured in all his acts. mistrust O me without came cause !'- "Bhishma continued. of the jackal. conspiring together. And they said. the king. The king then ordered. the jackali had been stolen away by proud of his own wisdom. his He had made a compact with the king at the time of Thou desirest my accepting the ministership. and placed it secretly in the house of the jackal. they immediately the jackal's abode. His behaviour is really sinful. Indeed. the ordered his minister to be slain. 'When the king of beasts. began ceaselessly to display their hatred towards him. diverse abuses that existed in the taste. not as thou hadst heard. they were unable to appropriate anything belonging to others. Possessed of great wisdom. Let the thief be found out ! His deceitful ministers represented unto him that the meat kept minister. Indeed. he tolerated it for a particular object. Ascertaining that the meat was brought back from If ! the jackal's house and hearing all those representations of his old . they had long lived Now.

however. O son. the jackal even given to him. would falsely accuse an innocent person even if the latter happens to be possessed of If the virtues and intelligence of Vrihaspati himself. In consequence of that act. examine which is The the sky has no base and there is seems to be like the actual spark of fire.260 MAHABHABATA Heating servants. and the deceitful. there in respect of even such things as person ascertains everything after scrunever called upon to indulge in any kind of regret afteris not at all difficult. soon meets with destruction in consequence of the wicked ministers that lead him to that conviction 1 easily. saluted the king of beasts and solicited his permission for throwing away his life by observing the The . for scrutiny are addressed to the eye. is no fire in the fire-fly. he was acquitted and honoured by his master. They that are rapacious hate them that are pure. The poor hate the rich. in persons possessed of power. great fame among all neighbouring chiefs. who was conversant with the science of policy. be supported. The idle hate the active. Wicked individuals impute faults to even an honest person. a righteous agent out of that phalanx of his foes. however. saying. fire-fly The firmament seems to be like the solid base of a vessel. therefore. discovered everyin which that false accusation had baen made. The unlearned hate the learned. The jackal. The king who regards a really innocent person falsely accused by his enemies to be guilty. however. Thou hadst made the jackal thy first minister. neutrals. thou hadst earned to death. The venerable dame said. It Forgiveness. With respect to even an ascetic living in the woods and employed in his own (harmless) are raised three parties. therefore. remember. stepping thing about the manner jackal's innocence being made manifest. Many amongst the learned. burning with grief. he is wards. son. viz. The ugly hate the beautiful. You see. the unlearned. Let this fact be Wicked persons sometimes on the semblance of the good. Let the jackal be slain ! these words of the tiger. the rapacious. Let him. for a master to put his servant If a necessity. the king ordered. of the jackal. his mother came to that spot for awakening son's O good sense with beneficial counsels. ous hate the righteous. Faults are ascribed to even a person of pure soul engaged in penances. and they that are good sometimes put wear the semblance of the wicked. tiny. It is. Diverse kinds of aspect are noticewell considered (in finding out the thief). necessary to which. The king of beasts affectionately embraced him again and again. thou shouldst not accept this accusation fraught with deceit. is always praiseworthy and productive of renown. The unrighteacts. friends. meat had really been stolen from thy house refuses to take any meat that in is thy absence. therefore. moved by envy and rivalry. and fees. Enemies desirous of a quarrel cannot endure the elevation of an enemy brought about by his high feats. jackal is A good minister cannot be obtained thy well-wisher. The After the tiger's mother had concluded her speech. able in creatures.. In reality.

This is Very far- fetched. they leave their masters and become effective instruments in the hands of foes. Violating the compact then made (between us) thou hast insulted me. that I ! the wrath of their master). become anxious and disbe filled Such a state of things has many faults. always wait for calamities to overtake their masters. T.e. or degraded from the honours that were theirs.SANTl PARVA 261 Praya vow. contented. How wilt thou trust ? me again ? How shall I (on my part) continue to dwell with thee Thinking me to be competent thou and having examined me thou hadst placed me in office. that are proud and desirous of achieving and that burn with great feats but deprived of the means of earning wealth. I shall with alarm and anxiety. motives are very rare. afterwards describe the same person as wicked. Only one in a 1 Nilakantha explains aparasadhanah as aparasa adhanah i. it is difficult to separate the two that are united. Thyself suspicious and myself in alarm. Service proceeds from the motive of doing good to the master as also one's own All acts are undertaken from selfish motives. without rasa or affection and without dhana or wealth. The tiger. grief or rage in consequence of any injury done to them. our enemies will be on the look out for opportunities for injuring us. I towards me have afterwards been insulted by thee Thy behaviour is calculated to make me an enemy of thine It is not ! ! should any longer dwell with thee Servants that are discontented. sought to dissuade him from the accomplishment of his wishes. 1 I have been insulted by thee and pulled down from my place..The wise do not that situation happy in which there ishonour first and dishonour regard afterwards. If persons reunited after separation approach one another again. that have been weakened. as indeed. No servant is to be seen who is moved (in what he does) by only the desire of benefiting his master. The master agitated with affection. or alarmed. bowed down to him and in a voice choked with tears said these words Honoured by jackal. I who have thus been disregarded by thee cannot any longer enjoy thy confidence. beholding his : thee first. tookest me. their behaviour cannot be affectionate. that have been driven from their offices. Unselfish acts or self. . casting upon the virtuous jackal his eyes expanded with affection and honouring him with reverential worship. that have suffered confiscation. Deceiv ed. one should not. or deceived (in respect of their employers). when I shall see thee withdraw thy confidence from me. if desirous of maintaining one's consistency. or have been ruined by their enemies (through proper. It is difficult to reunite the two that have been separated. Those kings whose hearts are restless and unquiet cannot acquire a true knowledge of men. that are rapaciousi or enraged. If one speaks of a certain person before others as possessed of righteous behaviour. On my part. as a consequence. therefore. that have brought destitution upon themselves. Thy subjects will.

Without listening to the entreaties king of beasts. comes of itself. the animal was engaged in picking his food without any labour. Meanwhile it began to pour in torrents. placing his head and a portion of the neck within the cave of a mountain. that camel practised very severe austerities of his penances. desired him boons. the intelligent jackal cast off his praya and proceeded to heaven (as the reward of " Earth)/ body by sitting bis good deeds on SECTION CX1I Yudhishthira said. 1 O bull of T. said. Listen to that history Yudhishthira There was. had recollection of all the acts of his former life. deluging the whole Earth. a great storm arose. returned to his own forest. A jackal. and what are those acts by doing which a king may become happy ? Tell 14 me this in detail. 'Having said these conciliatory words fraught with virtue. 'What acts should be done by a king. did not tired as he was. and having gratified the king. drenched by the rain and shivering with cold. idle. and profit. with his wife. became Indeed. from the day of obtaining the boon. One day. the puissant in the forest. the jackal. the jackal of the in retired to the forest. 'The camel food that Let my neck. and! 1 *3 greatness. Living as he did upon meat. so that. Observing the most happy ! A O ! rigid vows'. pleasure. and exceedingly hungry and stupefied by fate. become long may be able to seize any ! may lie high-souled giver of boons said. Brahman became to grant The Grandsire. The foolish animal. dragged himself with difficulty towards that very cave and entered it quickly for shelter. while extending his long neck of a hundred Yojanas. O through thy grace.262 MAHABfiAKATA hundred can be found who is either able or fearless. having obtained the boon. even at the end of even a hundred Yojanas The Let it be so! The camel then. from that day go out for grazing. as also their fall. Bharata's race. therefore. O thou 'I that art the foremost of all persons acquaint- ed with duties T said. seeing the camel's is that Perhaps the sense men of vigorous understanding think all states to be equal. resolved to wait till the storm would be over. "Bhishma continued. O puissant lord. "Bhishma shall tell thee what thou wishest to know ! Listen to the settled truth about what should be done in this world by a king and what those acts are by doing which a king may become king should not behave after the manner disclosed in the high history of a camel of which we have heard. I holy one. Towards the conclusion gratified with him. all proceed from weakness of understanding. in the Krita age* a huge camel who then. The camel. the wretch. The prosperity of men. . Prosperity and adversity.

came had ceased. I "The Ocean Ye Rivers. when he perceived that his neck was being eaten. ! The canes that grow on your banks are of mean stems and destitute of strength. But as he moved losing their it hold of it. began to eat as much of it as he could. asked all the Rivers for resolving this doubt that had arisen in his mind. while those done by carrying loads are the lowest. O thou that possessed art possessed of prowess like that of Indra himself. Manu middling. do everything in the world himself has said that victory depends upon intelligence. Ye do not. ! also. possessed of allies. up and down. see that all of full currents. do thou act in this world. eternal Ocean. to hear what the motive is that inspires all of you Indeed. Tell me O bull of Bharata's race. his kingdom endures. of such aids succeeds in ruling the entire Earth. Behold. wash them down through contempt. If the king is clever in the transaction of business and restrains his senses. having (thus) slain out of the cave after the storm and shower life.SANTI PARVA 263 neck. without continued to eat it away. why is it that canes. that are. however. All acts that are accomplished with the aid of intelligence are regarded as the foremost. succeed in achieving all their objects. have same to thee ' Exercising thy intelligence. In this world. they who listen to wise counsels that are not generally known. what a great evil followed in the train of idleness ! As regards thyself. therefore. that lord of Rivers. avoiding idleness and restraining thy senses. conversant with the ordinances laid down with sight directed to the scriptures. how a king. O Yudhishthira. without the usual aids. O sinless one. Thus did that foolish camel meet with his death. uprooted from the banks where they refuse to I Do you . the jackal and his wife. those achieved with the aid of arms are with proper means. behave himself towards a powerful foe !* "Bhishma said. tearing them off with their roots and branches. Manu himself has said that it is with the aid of the intelligence that an ambitious person succeeds in achieving victories. 'In this connection is discourse between the Ocean and the Rivers. ever bring tome a cane said. or are they of any use to you ? I desire.* you. strove in sorrow to shorten it. O king 1' SECTION CXIII "Yudhishthira said. with your bring away trees of large trunks. Within a short time then. that refuge of the foes of the celestials. having obtained a kingdom that is so precious a possession. those achieved with the aid of feet are inferior. are not washed down by any of you. the camel was deprived of The jackal and eaten the camel. this has been said A by wise said the men of ancient times ! in the scriptures I. and that act after person proper scrutiny. The camel. cited the old story of the In days of old.

is to wait for the time when the foe becomes weak. 'How. in these words of grave import. and. Ttees stand in one and the same place and are unyielding in respect of the spot where they stand. . It is docile and obedient. It is yielding. when he sees his enemy to be more powerful than himself. After the current has passed away. therefore. after all.26 1 MAHABHABATA Thus addressed. only a Tittibha 3 One who yields to hate is said to live in uttering dissonant cries. Wilson with the Parra Jacana. trees. competent to man of wisdom who acts after ascertaining fully the strength and energy. the cane leave the former posture. addressed by me in such words amid such an assembly of men ! and to 1 The true policy. and creepers that bend and rise resumes its before the force of wind and water. has never to suffer discomfiture. 3 A bird that is identified by Dr. the River Ganga replied unto Ocean. In consequence of this disposition of theirs to resist our currents. in such a case. of himself and his intelligent man. that all. come with us. should a learned man adorned with modesty behave. T. An is ' an indication of wisdom-' SECTION CXIV "Yudhishthira said. Canes. 'Listen. O chastiser of foes. how the subject has been treated of (in the scriptures). "Bhishma continued. That person who does not is yield to the power of a foe that kill. If a person. therefore. how a person of good soul should endure in this world the abusive speeches of persons of little intelligence. however. An intelligent man should dis- regard an abusive language who resembles. bends to it. when assailed with harsh speeches in the midst of assemblies by an ignorant person swelling witn conceit? 2 "Bhishma said. Those plants. A fool may often be heard to say Such a respectable man was vain. do not yield to wrath. The others do not act in that way. fraught with reason. grow? lord of all Rivers. The cane knows the virtues of Time and opportunity. That and weakness.. the demerit of all his away (the merit of) all the good deeds that have The endurer. they are obliged to place of their growth. without having to stiff. when abused by another. The cane. it stands where it grows. 2 Mriduttikshnena is better than Mridutikshnena. act differently. communicates own bad acts to the person who under the influence of wrath indulges in abuse. should adopt the behaviour of the cane. the might foe. beholding the advancing current. O Bharata. he is then sure to take been done by the abuser. O lord of Earth. have never to suffer discomfiture ' (by being taken up by the roots). without being For these reasons. acceptable to " 'Ganga said. imprison or has advanced in might and that 1 That soon meets with destruction. T. therefore.

and who is regarddoing own prosperity.8ANTI PARVA 265 even boast of that wicked act. should unhesitatingly avoid a person of such sinful heart who deserves to be avoided by all honest men. who is what is injurious to others. speaks ill of one when one's eye is not upon him. Indeed. If an honest man wishes to exchange words with such wretches when they seek to humiliate him. The man of wisdom should endure everything that such a person of little intelligence may What can a vulgar fellow do by either his praise or blame ? He say. is really like a dog. T. he should be In India. loses that without delay the fruits of all his libations on fire and of the gifts he may make unto even a hundred persons. T. .P. He would add. perhaps. as he would avoid the flesh of the dog. Such a person loses all his regions in heaven and the fruits of any knowledge and virtue that he may have. Singha has rendered it correctly. the commonest. then. A man of wisdom. The man of sense who seeks to counteract such a back-biter ever engaged in an occupation congenial to himself. finds himself in the painful condition man who is ever engaged of a stupid ass sunk in a heap of ashes. Such a ! wretch among men should carefully be disregarded. this verse. That man who speak of one's merits when one's eye is upon him and who speaks ill of one when one's eye is withdrawn from him. 'Go thou to Yama's house !' is What Bhishma says is that as these words are uttered in vain. 1 and women 3 A dog is an unclean animal in Hindu estimation.As a fact. 1 quarrel.? The man who. Fie on that has betaken himself to the path of the foolish who all always engaged in less of his wholesome restraints and modesty. wight of sinful conduct who does not scruple to utter anything or do anything. or a fierce dog. even so the verbal accusations of wicked men prove perfectly abortive. or an ill of in speaking A infuriate elephant sinful wretch who has fallen away from roaring in madness. the man remained silent as if dead with shame Even thus does a shameless man boast of an act about which no one should boast. others should be avoided like a furious wolf. these words are as effective as those uttered by fools invoking death upon them with whom they That man simply proclaims his bastardy who indulges in such conduct and words. T. he is even lijte a peacock that dances while showing such a part of his body as should be ever concealed from 2 A person of pure conduct should never even speak with the view. their words would have been regarded to be of some value. That wicked-souled wretch who proclaims the faults of a high-souled person. really publishes (by that act) his own evil nature even as a snake displays his hood (when interfered with by others). 2 The Burdwan Pundits haye totally misunderstood the first line of K. therefore. Abused by me. like a crow that caws uselessly in the woods. form of verbal abuse among ignorant men 'Do thou meet with death/ or. however. If those who others by only their words could establish those accusations by accuse is even such means.

led away by his affections and predilections. or frighten another by showing or grinding his teeth. and who pays court to wicked men in consequence of being enthralled by his senses. I have one great doubt that perplexes me O king. Kshatri (Vidura) ! also. Such a king never succeeds in obtaining those objects the accomplishment of which depends upon his one's having a number of good servants about him. further ! That which beneficial to a good in respect of food and drink and as regards also the body. however. that which is desire. surhas ! rounded by friends. that which is productive of the happiness of the royal line. It behoveth thee that art equal to Vrihaspati himself in intelligence to discourse to me upon these duties of kings which are difficult to be ascertained and Thou. O tiger among men. becomes devoted to evil associates. are How should a king who topics upon which I wish thee to discourse been placed on the throne and who continues to occupy it. O thou that art possessed of Thou great wisdom. and servants. That man who endures the reproaches and slanders of wicked-souled wights uttered in assemblies. Hearing instructions from thee that are productive of good to our race and kingdom. however. finds all servants of good birth and blood disaffected towards him. may strike another with his palms. I shall be able to pass my days in happiness like a person What classes of gratified with having quaffed the deathless Amrita servants are to be regarded as inferior and what as possessed of every accomplishment? Aided by what class of servants or by servants of I what kind If of birth. All persons. gratify his people. resolve it Thou art an advancer of our family. 'O grandsire. art ever thereby remove my doubts in accomplishing the good of our race. always gives us valuable instruction. or who reads frequently these instructions. of high birth covet the acquisition of sovereignty !' . Thou shouldst. or throw dust or chaff at A another. ministers. ! ! hast discoursed to us upon is the slanderous speeches uttered by wickedI souled wretches of bad conduct.266 : MAHABHARATA ! A Do not suffer thyself to be afflicted counselled in these words a low person is always disapprovwordy encounter between a high and slanderous wretch. is All this well known. For this reason thou engaged always discoursest to us on the duties of king-craft. That king who. to question thee kingdom. is it advisable to discharge the duties of ruling ? the king choose to act alone and without servants." SECTION CXV "Yudhishthira said. he can never succeed in protecting his people. when ed by persons of tranquil intelligence. that which is productive of good and advancement in the future and the present. enraged. possessed of great wisdom. never suffers any pain occasioned by speech.

who can provide for future events and contingencies. succeeds inenjoying the happiness that attachesto sovereignty. in giving advice to their master. 'In this connection is cited the following history That history is regarded as a high precedent amongst good and wisemen. That king whose servants are all possessed of knowledge and wisdom. That king whose all well born. succeeds in earning the merit that attaches to sovereignty. and uncovetous servants always bent upon gathering. and who attends to the aggregate of " six. That king whose servants share with him his griefs and joys. who are possessed of wisdom and goodness.SANTI PABVA 267 "Bhishma said. and path of the righteousness. That king in whose city justice is administered properly with the trustworthy finances. and all of whom are subjects are always cheerful. devoted. That king who attaches by kindness. who have a good who are engaged virtues of time. That history has connection with the present topic. and with his senses under control. said. who have a knowledge of the relations of things. retain it. Observant also of stringent regulations and self-restraint. succeeds in earning the merit that attaches to sovereignty/ his subjects to himself SECTION CXVI "Bhishma of olden times. and who are of high birth and tranquil disposition. he cannot succeed in accomplishing any object. incapable of being weaned away from him by means of bribes and other influences ). and who never grieve for what is enjoying the happiness that attaches to sovereignty. such administration leading to the well known results of the plaintiff or the defendant if his case is untrue. In a certain large forest uninhabited by human beings. of tranquil and pure soul. who always direct their attention the accomplishment of their master's objects. I heard it in the hermitage of Rama the son of Jamadagni. . and in which fining criminal laws are administered even after the manner of Sankha and result of Likhita. there lived an ascetic upon fruits and roots observing rigid vows. and high-minded. succeeds in to always do what is agreeable to him. who knowledge of the past. ministers are ( enjoying the happiness connected with sovereignty. O Bharata. recited by many foremost of Rishis. who are all devoted to the good of their master. who always live with him. Even if he succeeds in gaining any object. succeeds in enjoying faithful. succeeds in kingdom. He is the best of kings all the sources of whose income are managed and supervised by contended and men well acquainted with the means of increasing the That king succeeds in obtaining affluence and great merit whose repositaries and barns are supervised by incorruptible. The king. who is conversant with the duties of kings. The king whose who always tread in the the happiness attached to sovereignty. he cannot (if alone). cannot alone rule his Without servants to aid him. trustworthy.

do thou act in such a way that animal may be dispelled through thy grace O thou of mighty arms. he adopted a life of goodness towards all creatures. became exceedingly attached to him in consequence of the affection with which he was treated. seeing before him an animal of his own species. without doubt thou art possessed of omniscience! Acquainted with the thoughts of all creatures. and was tranquil and of inoffensive aspect* leopard of great strength came there. Weak and emaciated with fasts. Possessed of the six attributes and capable of reading the voices of all animals. subsisting upon blood. and lashing his tail furiously. Meanwhile. With stripes on his body and with large teeth. Thou shalt have no fear of death from leopards said. animal. the sage said the following ! unto them. immediately forsook all feelings of animosity towards it. Possessed of great intelligence. Licking the corners of his mouth with the tongue. the fierce animal looked like a second his. in fear of his life. the (transformed) leopard sought . and of heart cleansed by fasts. the leopard. thenceforth he began to live in that forest fearlessly. the dog. He was devoted to the sage and exceedingly attached to him. the goodness of his behaviour having been known to all the creatures that lived in that forest. Listen O great sage. bears. and eagerly desirous of drinking blood. One day a the feet of that high-souled Rishi as the latter sat. any longer O son At these words. Licking the corners of mouth with the tongue. the dog. lived there permanently. ! addressed the Muni in these words. hungry and thirsty. O king. Sometime after. all of them behaved towards him like disciples and slaves and always did unto him what was agreeable. this leopard is a foe of the dogs! all my fears from this ! words. used to come to the Rishi and address him the usual questions of polite enquiry. and water. he subsisted upon fruits and roots Lying at with a heart like that of a human being. that tiger began to approach towards the animal that had been transformed into a leopard. they used to approach him with affection. Beholding the hungry tiger of terrible teeth approach that forest. Beholding that fierce beast coming. Let thy natural form disappear and be thou a leopard.268 MAHABHAEATA always attentive to Vedic recitations. O monarch It wishes to slay me O holy one. subsisting upon blood. Coming to him they addressed the usual enquiOne domestic ries. and then went away to their respective quarters. leopards. with wide open jaws. infuriate elephants of huge size. Yama. rhinoceroses. never leaving the Muni at any time. the leopard came there. desirous of seizing the dog as his prey. as he sat on his seat. the dog was transformed into a leopard with skin bright as gold. however. Of a cruel disposition and always filled with delight at the prospect of prey. there "The sage ! ! came into the hermitage a fierce and hungry tiger with open mouth. the sage felt that the dog ha4 ample cause for fear. and other animals of fierce aspect. Fierce lions and tigers. Indeed.

his Seeing this. possessed of great strength inspiring all creatures with for the fright. the Rishi's elephant. Sarabha before him to be fiercer and more power- quickly fled away. Sometime after one day. having signs of the lotus on his body. The dog transformed into a tiger. the tiger. elephant was cheerfully striding along the vicinity of the hermitage. the animal tusks and a voice deep as that of the clouds. dived delightfully into lakes overgrown with lotuses and wandered by their banks indented with rabit holes. himself. became The Rishi's lion began to dwell in that hermitage within the Through fear of that animal. with rent cheeks.. Indeed.' SECTION CXVII "Bhishma said. the sage trans- formed ful. The sage. subsisting upon the ' other animals of the forest. O monarch. the terrified. began to tremble and sought the protection of the sage. forthwith transformed his leopard into a tiger powerful for all foes. from fear of life. wild lion seeing a stronger beast of his own species before him. A considerable time elapsed in this way. had long Beholding that infuriate elephant. approaching towards him. On the other hand. sought the protection of the Rishi. The wild Sarabha. the transformed tiger lived. and with broad frontal globes. who showed living great affection for the leopard in consequence of the latter's in the same place with him. slept at his ease. Of huge stature. the other animals no longer ventured to approach the hermitage. lion into a Rishi's beholding the Sarabha of great strength. from that time. having in course of time been transformed into a powerful tiger subsisting upon flesh and blood. Indeed. viz. came to that spot. agitated with fear. a Sarabha. forest. Having been thus transformed . The dog. an infuriate elephant came there. O king. gratified the flesh of slain beasts. The sage thereupon transformed that prince of elephants As the wild lion was an animal of the same species with into a lion. Indeed. freckled with the dust of lotus filaments. That best of sages thereupon transformed the tiger into an elephant. became terrifieck The Rishi's elephant then. abstained from his former food which had consisted of fruits and roots. a slayer of all animals. The real elephant. One day as with he lay on the yard of the hermitage. having eight legs and eyes on the forehead. Beholding the lion coming. they all seemed to be inspired with fear about the safety of their lives. looking like a risen cloud. proud of his strength. like a true king of beasts. from that forest. the Rishi s lion no longer feared him. The tiger seeing a beast of his own species did him no injury. there came before him unto that spot a maned lion born in a mountain cave and day as the One accustomed to slay elephants. seeing an individual of his own species.SANTI PABVA the Rishi's protection for saving his life. he came to that very hermitage object of slaying the Rishi's lion. huge as a mass of clouds.

energy. An intelligent king should. birth. he can never be happy. general disposition. Possessed of great wisdom. thou shalt return to thy own ! ! ! After this. in consequence of the Rishi s curse. "The leopard ! sage said. the man of high birth. sincerity. drove the sinful creature from his hermitage." species ! SECTION CXVIII "Bhishma said. would not injure his master. by ascetic power. each fit for the office assigned to him. even if ruined undeservedly. . An individual. upon injuring his master. 1 The antithesis consists. One day that fruits and roots upon which he had formerly lived. king should never take a minister without first having examined him. the sage. T. he should be forgiving and selfpossessed of high birth and strength he should be free restrained. once more assumed. O sinful wretch. even if persecuted without any fault by his royal master. strength. eagerly thirsting for blood. that is of low birth. appoint servants. the dog became very cheerless. . would become the foe of even a kind master if only a few words of censure be addressed to him. person of high birth. O dog. The man. having ascertained the intentions of the beast. thou desirest any of those species to slay me who have done thee no injury. that mean and foolish animal and be a dog again of wicked soul. he no longer affected his food. The latter. Their fear and the desire of all saving their lives led them to fly away from that forest ! Filled with the delight. guided by this precedent. to Since. the Sarabha continued every day to slay animals for Transformed into a carnivorous beast. compassion. that is mean and of low birth. the animal lived happily by the side of his transformer.. however. If a king gathers round him persons of low birth. is this. ungrateful beast who had first been a dog but who was now transformed into a Sarabha. 'Having once more assumed his proper form. having first ascertained their qualifications in respect of truthfulness and purity. dignity. knowledge of the scriptures. his own proper form of a dog. conduct. All the animals then that dwelt in the vicinity became inspired with the fear of that Sarabha. thou wert first transformed ! into a a tiger From a leopard thou wert then made a tiger From thou wert next transformed into an elephant with the temporal juice trickling down thy cheeks ! Thy next transformation was into a lion From a mighty lion thou wert then transformed into a Sarabha Filled with affection for thee. selfA restraint. wished to slay the sage. and forgiveness. as pointed out by Nilakantha.270 MAHABHARATA into a Sarabha by the sage. and have all his senses under control A A . reproving him. The Rishi. however. and exercise proper supervision over them. in consequence of the respectability of his blood. saw it all by his spiritual knowledge. becomes an enemy of the 1 minister should be latter if only he is reproached in words. however. transformed into a Sarabha. it was I that transformed thee into these diverse shapes! Thou didst not. belong by birth. addressed him in these words. having obtained even great affluence from his connection with some honest man. viz. never sets his heart. and dost not.

capable of leading men. free from the fault of egoism. forgiving even unto enemies. practising charity personally. confident of powers. respectful in his behaviour towards all his seniors. His face should always be cheerful. and capable of adapting his measures to the requirement of place and time. self-restrained. T. 1 Nilakantha He should always be attentive to the wants of his explains that na nirddandvah means na nithpari- grahah. a thorough master of the art of war and peace. he should always attract men to himself by doing good to them.SANTI PARVA from the vice of rapacity. He should love those that are devoted to him. who is conversant with the scriptures. A king. rich. patient. Indeed. desiring the good of his master. delight- ed with the prosperity of his master and friends. That king who succeeds in obtain- such a minister can never be humiliated or overpowered by any one. severe who is possessed of the He should be patient. possessed of ministers that always seek his good. faithful in the discharge of his own duties. skilled in his own the art of training elephants. ready to listen to to instruct the instructions and counsels of those that are competent and give counsel. pure in conduct. modest in what address. never without a 1 wife. possessed of ingenuity. free from pride. again. competent to inspire the forces of his master with cheerfulness and joy. contented with 271 his just acquisitions. . always attentive to his duties. intelligent. surrounded by righteous friends. when the occasion requires acquainted with the efficacy of exertion. Avoiding idleness. who is ing always engaged in protecting his subjects. possessed of accomplishments. acquainted with kinds of battle-array for piercing and breaking the enemy's ranks. possessed of a knowledge of the scriptures. of a retentive memory. sweet speech. always doing of is right. of righteous conduct. He should always reward his ministers when they achieve anything signal. ready what is just. possessed of faith. capable of reading signs and gestures. always heedful. capable to do of judging correctly amid different or opposite courses of action suggested to him. conversant with the requirements of place and time. of a sweet temper. obtains the love of forgiving. and undisposed to do anything with haste. active. well-versed in policy. clever in the transaction of business. beloved by both the citizens and the inhabiall tants of the provinces. brave. energetic in action. and all. always sweet- speeched. acquainted with all requirements in respect of march. ever employed in attaching men to himself or his master by doing good offices to them. who regards righteousness to be superior to everything. following virtues. his kingdom gradually spreads over the Earth like the light of the moon. ready to extend the hand of succour to persons plunged in distress. conversant with the king's requirements in respect of the great aggregate of three. it. possessed of agreeable features. of agreeable features.

lying aside the rod of chastisement. . search for good warriors (to enlist army) that should all be possessed of the necessary qualifications. grateful. A king that desires his own advancement should never disregard his army. A king who has succeeded in allies. said. That king who confers on his servants offices for which each is fit. whose army consists of foot-soldiers conversant with the treatises on religion and duty. O Bharata. A Sarabha should occupy the position of a Sarabha a ion should swell with the might of a lion a tiger should be placed in the position of a tiger and a leopard should be placed as a leopard. he becomes intoxicated with pride. 'That king who. attaching all men unto himself. That foolish king who. to enjoy the happiness attaching to sovereignty. That king whose soldiers are brave in battle. be appointed to offices If thou wishest to achieve success thou for which each is fit. and should be conversant in all matters connected with spies for his eyes. Servants should. transgressing precedent. king that desires to possess accomplished servants should never . Earth. in consequence of such merit. . appoints servants to offices for A which they are not fit. fails to gratify his people. be magna- nimous. He should. Ministers should be appointed to offices for which they are fit and should possess such qualifications as are needed for their respective occupations. That king who is always employed in attaching all for aiding himself who is ready for exertion. may. guided by the lesson to be drawn the story of the dog. it Without with propriety. which is fit for Appointments on unfit persons are not at all approved. If a dog be placed above that ituation I A him. whose elephant-warriors are fearless. . who is rich in friends and becomes the foremost of rulers. whose carof fighting and well-versed in warriojs are skilled in their own mode and in wielding other weapons. besides. is possessed of these hundred quali- fications earns the love of The king should in his also. monarch. shouldst never appoint servants in situations higher than what they deserve. and versed in the scriptures. he should wield He should make all men about him act righteously. he should virtue and wealth. him in protecting his kingdom. according to the ordinance. succeeds in subjugating shooting arrows the whole Earth. A king that all. appoints his servants to offices for which succeeds in enjoying the happiness that is attached to dog should not. with the aid of even a thousand horsemen of courage. succeed in conquering the whole men to . 11 ' SECTION CXIX "Bhishma from each is fit.272 servants arid never give MAHABHARATA way to wrath. be placed in a position sovereignty above that for which he is fit. Having his always supervise the concerns of subjects. with honours. O Every ruler should strive to be such. succeeds.

Let is thy servants. of a lion. It desirable that they should be skilful in the management of steeds. Let thy treasuries. That lion. may ministers men is high birth. with great care. should be the lion should always make a companion intimate associates of the king. tranquil in disposition. indeed. be always attentive to their duties. high-minded. who. Thou hast. spoken in detail of those duties as approved by the wise. kings should never entertain destitute of learning and sincerity and a servant that wisdom and great wealth. that one way may O bull of Bharata's race. learned. possessed of high birth. O Bharata. O ruler of a king succeed in subjugating the whole Earth if he has for men. Indeed. look after their treasuries. never succeeds in consequence of such in accomplishing those duties. 1 Kings should always speak in soothing terms unto those servants that are always engaged in doing good to their masters. adorned with diverse other gifts of nature. in malice and envy. destitute of behaviour. Even thus. skilled in battle. ready the performance of their duties. discoursed upon the many duties of king-craft that were observed and laid down in days of old by persons of ancient times conversant with kingly duties. What further dost thou wish to hear ?' ! ! ' "Yudhishthira said. that are low-minded. Do thou.' T. O possessed of courage. one A earns the advantages that belong to a lion. be filled with corn.. pure in transaction of business. or give us an abridgment of thy elaborate discourses. 'proceed like understanding arrows. and that are not of high birth.' 2 I. wisdom. pure in mind. And let their keep be entrusted to barns. that are without wisdom. brave. however. kings have their roots in their should always seek to swell his treasury. and are never the objects of calumny in respect of the offices they hold. Do thou seek to increase thy wealth and corn. his dogs only for his associates. . that are not masters of their senses. speak of them in such a succeed in retaining them in memory !' 8 T. deserve to be Persons that are possessed of humility. These men that are devoted to the services of their master are never stopped by any impediments. Men that are honest. and clever in the appointed as ministers. SECTION CXX Thou hast. 'speak in brief of them. 1 Literally. A O honest servants. has a pack of all companionship.e. attend to the wants of thy kinsmen and friends Seek thou the good of Be thou surrounded with friends and relatives By citing the precedent of the dog I have instructed thee thy city about the duties thou shouldst adopt towards thy subjects. great learning. O ! delighter of the Kurus. however.SANTI PARVA 273 appoint persons that are destitute of intelligence. If one that is not a lion becomes the companion of a lion. and foremost of royal masters. Kings should always. king king. while engaged in discharging the duties of a lion.

The for his object. how his the duty of protection to be exercised. always have the rod of chastisement uplifted in his hands. crookedness. Listen now to me. .. truth. cause the crops of his enemies to be crushed his own subjects towards . 4 by seeking the shelter of unknown shades and by ambuscades and 1 I. even so the king should take care as to how taxes shouldbe laid upon T. counsels. as the commentator explains.e.e. A king conversant with duties should assume of diverse hues.274 MAHABHARATA "Bhishrna said. T. 1 A Dumb like the peacock in sweet.. crush those that are their partizans. success He crowned with rivers ascetic even should seek the refuge of Brahmanas as men seek the refuge of lordly generated by the rain-water collected within mountain lakes. With thorough impartiality. protection of all creatures the Kshattriya. subjects that are unable to bear them. march against foes when his own wings have become strong and observe all the sources of his own weakness. keenness.e.. as the oommentator explains. like men taking care of breaks in embankments through which the waters of large tanks may rush and flood their fields and houses. 1 Burdwan version is right. He should proclaim the faults of his foes . T. are the qualities that should be present in him. autumn. of good features and well versed in He should always be heedful in respect of those gates through which dangers may come and overtake him. many forms even as the peacock puts forth plumes Keenness. He should He should be speak little. asravat is explained as rasamprasravat. . he should conceal his and the little he speaks should be the scriptures. He should always act heedf ully (in the matter of levying his taxes) after examining the incomes and expenses of his subjects. by tampering with the governors of the citadels and the garrisons of his foes. 'should assume the qualities (such as keenness. and sincerity. Singha's version of the last line of 8 is erroneous. 4 I. 2 I. by the tread of his cavalry. He should destroy those foremost of monarchs that swell with might and stand with uplifted heads like mountains. That king who desires to amass wealth should act like religious hypo2 The king should crites in the matter of keeping a coronal lock. necessary K. I think Vrihadvriksham may be taken as a full-grown palmyra (1) tree. when he punishes and harmlesBness when he shows favour. is The is regarded as the as to highest duty of O king.. The sense is that as men always draw the juice from a full-grown tree and not from a young one. He must assume that particular hue or form which is beneficial in view of king who can the particular object which he seeks to accomplish. &o. like men repairing to a 3 He should act equitably full-grown palmyra for drawing its juice.P. forms succeeds in accomplishing even the most subtile assume diverse objects. T. he should practise the qualities of goodness if he is to earn felicity. and collect wealth from outside like a person plucking flowers from the woods. 3 Vrihadvrikshamivasravat is explained by Nilakantha as Vrihantak Vrikshah Yatra .

but tunity occurs. The king should also like the peacock do what is good to him. of his own or of others. he should settle what he is to do. should uphold justice. he should enjoy. . according with their intended The king should do good to all persons without transgressing That king stands immovable as a hill He is mine. Like the peacock in the season he should enter his nightly quarters alone and unseen. and destroy their force and drive them away from home. as are free from rapacity. He should not put off his mail. by exercising own intelligence. and avoid the nets spread out for him by the spies and secret agents of his foes. tion. he should inspire confidence in the hearts of his enemies. the dictates of righteousness. one can settle his courses of action. By judging of different courses of action in his his should. ence between persons that are liked and those that are disliked by him. possessed of learning and self-restraint . Indeed. and angry foes extirpate them when opporLike the peacocks the king should kill his powerful of crooked policy. and glean wisdom from everywhere as they collect An wise and peacock-like king should insects even from the forest. He should himself protect his own self. the king. A wise man who is possessed of intelligence like Vrihaspati. By practising the arts of conciliation. The king should appoint in all his offices such men as are conversant with the characteristics of particular families. Having set himself to the task whom everybody regards of adjudicating between litigants. A accomplish all objects. In this consists the usefulness of the scriptures. thus rule his kingdom and adopt a policy which is beneficial to him. arrive at conclusions. if he incurs obloquy. A Beholding his servants employed in acts for which each is fit. according to the means king conversant with the ways of laid should always employ in his acts such men as are mild acquiring wealth in disposition. of the masses of the people. By exercising his own intelligence. good acts are of middle age as have no faults as are devoted to as are never heedless. as are mild in speech as . he should be possessed of wisdom and should be able to do what should be done . as are firm in virtue and . stretched to proper tension. A person of wisdom and deep intelligence does not stand in need of counsels or instruction. within his inner apartments. and avoid what should not. He should also win over the affections of the spies of his enemies. the king should act in conformity with all of them like the strings of a musical instrument. without making any differnotes. He should display his own strength. own mind he The king should be well-versed in the arts of conciliatory policy. 27 of rains. and of different countries . possessed of wisdom and courage and great strength. in down the scriptures. By consulting with others he should either abandon or confirm such resoluAided by that intelligence which is sharpened by the scriptures. . after the manner of the peacock. soon king should regains his disposition like heated iron dipped in water. the companionship of his wives.SANTI PABVA sudden attacks. as are .

obstruct the acquisition of religious merit fore. A foe. income. that which remains should be spent upon acquisition of religious merit and the gratification of the desire That king who is acquainted with duties and who is possessed of intelligence would never waste what has been stored. savings. having ascertained the course of actions and their final objects and instructed in all the king should accomplish them needfully his spies.276 MAHABHARATA always prepared to uphold the interests of both virtue and profit. therefore. examine his own self he should never repose for pleasure. and attention to the requirements of time to the and place. and administration. whether he happens to be a child. his acts himself. cleverness. a king by him is . That king those said to be conversant with the duties of king-craft his officers and subjects publicly that deserve chastisement. who supervises all . a young an aged one. guided by malice. foe. succeeds in slaying a person who is heedless. Blazing intelligence he has a foe. the king should milk his kingdom He every day. succeeds in obtaining great income and expenditure with wealth from the Earth. or A insignificant foe. Like the Sun shedding his rays below. A little fire. In this way. The king who never matters by gives way to wrath and joy without sufficient cause. therefore. self-restraint. even when he hears that his income and expenditure are great. and who evil. the king should always look after his kingdom upon everything himself. and who looks after his his own is eyes. health. by exercising his own intelligence. . after surveying his expenditure. strong or weak. the king should draw wealth gradually from his kingdom for storing it. may very soon destroy the fame of a king. Having kept apart a sufficient portion. The king should take wealth from his subjects at the proper time. when he becomes powerful. Like an intellimilking his cow every day. should not disregard the smaller items. As the bee collects honey from flowers gradually. bravery. patience. man should never proclaim what he does. by intelligence may power that is . Steadness. Theremind should never be heedless when If a king possessed of intelligence desire for affluence and he should. The king should never disregard any wealth for its littleness. For this reason the king should seek the aid of an intelligent minister. he should never disregard foes for their powerlessness he should. may exterminate a king. that of regulated and deprive him of even his energy. confidence upon persons destitute of intelligence. who is conversant with the requirements of time is the foremost of all rulers. seed may blaze forth into a conflagration. victory. A king. weakens even a mighty person . who protects his own self. and aided by his intelligence he should supervise all his spies protects his kingdom from every and gent officers. who rewards who chastises (for any good they do). make either peace or war. A single may produce a thousand trees. . A king. fed with clarified butter. intelligence. he may live in cheerfulness. small or be it these eight qualities lead increase of wealth be it much. An man.

therefore. vast wealth.e. In covetous men every sons kind of fault may be seen. That king who disregards the happiness that is derivable from policy and seeks for that which chance may bring. should never disregard the body. and the affluence of others. he meets with extinction like a lightning that blazes forth only for a second. penances. precepts of the science of king-carft without depending upon chance. . by properly attendregions of bliss hereafter. attends to these. is the residence of many intelligent creatures of great energy. A ruler possessed of wisdom should That trustful and high-born king who seeks instruction from learned and virtuous Brahmanas and who is protected by his ministers. therefore. should never take a covetous man for his minister or officer. I all his tributary chiefs under proper control. that king who is vain and covetous. the and daughters. should be regarded as the foremost of all things. 3 Verses 49 and 50 have been rendered wrongly by the Burdwan Pundits. of Sakra. 2 Whether it belongs to himself or to any other person. becomes destitute of wealth. of Vishnu. succeeds in keeping 3 O prince of men. if he likes. 277 growing be protected a growing foe is weakened by the aid of intelligence therefore. aided by thy intelligence. Exertion. in ing to the requirements of war and peace. everything. as it occurs in embodied creatures. every act that is undertaken conformably to the . is governed by intelligence fiash of The human body Exertion. with the aid of even a small force. succeeds in ruling the whole Earth. Attend to them. becomes covetous in the matter of enjoying happiEvery one. and of other beings. of Saraswati. may. never succeeds enjoying the happiness that attaches to sovereignty or in winning 4 A king that is heedful.SANTI PABVA . T. He that is A A never satiated with appropriating other people's wealth. can be earned by exertion. If a person. who wishes to be surrounded by train of self-seeking flatterers. That king who. man of knowledge. in obedience to his preceptor. T. frustrate all the endeavours and objects of his enemies. 1 I. dictates of intelligence is deserving of praise. A king (in the absence of covetous A proper agents) should despatch even a low person for ascertaining the disposition and acts of his foes.If a king continually oppresses his people. For these reasons. succeeds in slaying even T. therefore. destitute of virtue and pleasure (which are objects attainable by wealth) covetous is man seeks to appropriate the wealth. king possessed of patience and without any fault. he becomes ness. Learning. however. obtain the fruition of all his wishes. 4 The sense seems to be that a king should always be guided by the T. indeed. have briefly discoursed to thee of all the duties laid down in the scriptures. the enjoyments. 2 covetous man should be subjugated by constant gifts. The king. therefore.. 1 never A succeeds in winning even the smallest benefit. the king should act with mildness in taking wealth from his subjects. however. That king.

to know ? truly who Chastisement ? ? he ?* ? What is his form Whence ? ? is his origin ? What is his disposition What are his features What his splendour? creatures so needfully protecting this universe of all things ? How does he remain wakeful among living Who is he that remains eternally wakeful. hence that through which all kinds of misappropriation are stopped. It is a name applied to Law and adminis tration of justice. O bull Of what kind is Of what is he made is of Bharata's race. and men. One that sees faults in faultless persons never succeeds in winning prosperity and fame. T. He is sometimes called Vyavahara. nished by different kinds of acts and measures. T. suffer It is 2 extinction for this Chastisement has come to be called by that name reason that the name Vyavahara becomes applicable to ( it. O descendent of Kuru. or living beings in this world including beasts and birds. In order that "Bhishma said. and as great merit may be acquired by properly discharging kingly duties. he who . When two friends engage in accomplishing one and the same act. O puissant one. It seems. including gods. which is possessed of great energy and which is present everywhere. that Chastisement. Asuras. the duties of kings. may be seen to depend upon Chastisement. and ready The king should discover those means which are furfor exertion. now desire. worshipped for intelligence and good conduct. 1 I. Who is he that is known to be the foremost What course is ?' is that high personage called Chastisement? that upon which Chastisement depends? And what is his Who. by such conduct. one may. is the foremost of all beings among either gods and that Chastisement occupies a high position and Rishis and high-souled Pitris and Yakshas and Rakshasas and Pisachas and Sadhyas. Thou mayst then easily obtain the reward of virtue. Chastisement is that by which rightdepend eousness is kept up. In earns religious merit is sure to obtain such regions .278 MAHABHABATA such foes as are eminent for wealth. He should never depend upon destiny. indeed. Set thy heart upon the duty of protecting men. is 'Listen. brave in battle. possessed of accomplishments. Thou hast said that the entire universe. mobile and immobile. also is and why he called I the righteousness of a king that is needfully awake may not ). All the regions of felicity hereafter are depen' dent upon merit !' SECTION CXXI "Yudhishthira discourse upon 'O grandsire. 2 Vyavaharaia vi and avahara. a wise man always applauds him among the two Do thou practise that takes upon himself the heavier share of the work. From what thou hast said it seems is for everything the lord of everything depends upon Chastisement. whoChastisement That upon whom all things Vyavahara is called Chastisement. these duties of kings that I have told thee. I is.e. thou hast now finished thy said. win much felicity hereafter..

the Eternal. peace and self-restraint. uttered in days of old by Manu. Chastisement Irresistible. . the eldest Manu. virtue and vice. These words that I have said were. gives very fanciful explanations touching every one of these peculiarities of form. irresistible deity assumes such a fierce shape. And because these words were spoken first. He is the puissant Narayana. Vritti. therefore he is called Mahapurusha. His complexion equipt with four His ears are pointed like shafts and his hair stands upright. ment first. the thick and short club. moves on Earth. the Parent of prosperity. Lakshmi. O king. the bow. Mantra. the heavy bludgeon. which Chastisement bears. night and day. vis. therefore Chastisement has come to be called by the name of Vyavahara. the mace. the form of the sword. viz* Sword. has four arms and eight legs and many eyes. in a long note. declared first of this truth. Chastisement is a great god. pleasure and pain. piercing and cutting and afflictIndeed. the arrow. Chastisement ing and lopping off and dividing and striking and slaying and rushing These. season and month. the t kind of weapon that exists on Earth. and the great Benefactor Chastisement is the holy Vishnu. God. the trident. He has matted locks and two 1 tongues. strength and weakness. Punisher. the individual first without affections. The object of the poet is simply to create a form that is frightful. the battle-axe. fear and fearlessness. In form he looks like a blazing fire. the First-born. the mallet. and hour. fortuneand misfortune. The aggregate of three always rests on well-applied Chastisement. Saraswati. of righteousness. Assuming again That is dark like that of the petals of the blue lotus. the Scriptures. And since it is by Chastisement that they the misappropriation of other people's possessions is stopped. His face has the hue of copper. by protects the rod of Chastisement. joy and anger.. and Mother of the uni- Chastisement thus has many forms. Avenger. I cannot reject the obvious meaning of the word. righteousness and unrighteousness. the dart. He the loved and the odious equally. the noose. salvation and condemnation. Fury. 1 The commentator. He understands Mrigaraja to mean the black antelope. therefore. the Undecaying. the Ever-agoing.SANTI PABVA olden days Manu. Righteousness. destiny and exertion. needfulness and haedlessness. is said to be the embodiimpartially wielding all who creatures. Sabre. and in fact of every moves in the world. Checker. the Foremost of Legislators. the lance. Brahmana. They represent the high words of Brahman. O Yudhishthira. the individual whose course is irresistible. Blessings and curse. Judge. merit and demerit. His wife Morality is also known by the names of Brahmana's Daughter. the Soul of Rudra. injury and abstention from injury. are known as the first words. 279 all O king. Victory. desire and aversion. And because he always assumes a terrible form. the discus. the rapier. T. are some of the names against its victims. penances and sacrifice and rigid abstiverse. He is teeth. and he is clad in a lion's skin.

them food would fail). God. strength and weakness. the middle. living creatures do not slay one another.280 MAHABHABATA all nence. agreement and that which should not be done. he remains awake. to Endued with the Vedas. enhance the might of their ruler. gratified. that which should be done acquisition. Protecting men. modesty. insanity. death acquisition Yudhishthira. 1 These are Righteousness. disbelief. Chastisement has again these other eight names. Power. Heart.). ministers of great wealth. falsehood. Through fear of Chastisement. quickly sets the world on the path of righteous- Dependent upon truth. Chastisement assumes the form of a Kshattriya among men. fierceness. elephantwarriors cavalry. shame and shamelessness. Life. acts. energy of mind. should be sought for by the king. Of the army equipt in mail and with other accoutrements. The subjects. respect. patience. decay and stability. and the Living creature. the different kinds of forces(such as strength of body. learning. impotence. O Yudhishthira. Castisement. O king. It is for this that Chastisement is regarded as the foremost refuge of all.. horses. creature. pride. Law. &c. impressed labourers (for following the camp and doing other work). viz. officers. profit. and the other force (viz. foot-soldiers. O king. Indra gives the form of rain. Those eight objects are elephants. charity. Sacrifices gratify the commend the denizens of the Earth to Indra. defeat. the Lord of all creatures. that which depends cars. loss. mildness. energy. prosperity and adversity. always heedful and never decaying of all creatures The creatures derive their support and growth. eloquence. For benefiting the denizens of the Earth. truth. righteousness and unrighteousness. righteousness. and surgeons constitute the limbs. boats. the beginning. and Living . deities. Man. From food Chastisement (in the form of the Kshattriya ruler) remains wakeful amongst them. ness. policy. Chastisement. fitness of time and unfitness of time. the Soul of all things. and the end. Chastisement in this world multiform. Chastisement is exceedingly Chastisement had not existed. O Yudhishthira. If success. increase of population. all creatures would have all these. and nonand disagreement. humility. impolicy. O ! grinded one another. upon a well-filled treasury. arrogance. &c. and cattle such as sheep. always protected by Chastisement. without which crops and vegetation life depends upon food. wisdom. God gave both affluence and the rod of chastisement to the king who a is possessed of strength (in the form of military forces) five Noblity of blood. knowledge. For serving this object. trade. disrespect. foremost of Brahmanas became attached From the Vedas The deities. car-warriors. the result of murderous acts. God. righteousness exists in the Brahmanas. powerlessness and power. T.).. insolence. belief. keenness of understanding. 1 below. malice and good will. poison and healthy food. are forms of Hence. being (in the sacrifices flow. with the eight objects mentioned and who is combination of ingredients. infantry.

. soulamong kings. or is not opposed to the spirit of the ecclesiastical law as laid down in the Vedas. 2 In the verse 52 Bhishma says that the first kind of Vyavahara or Law. treasury. Kshattriya. Brahman himself. There is. as also by the name of Evidence. i. with great care. a (third) kind of Vyavahara which is connected with 1 That Vyavafaiitly do ns but which is consists with the scriptures. 'characterised by a belief in either of two litigant parties. i. astrologers. These are the precepts or injunctions laid down in those sacred books for of human duty. That Vyavahara which has been indicated to have the Vedas for its soul is Morality or duty. Three kinds of Vyavahara or Law are here spoken of. performers of propitiatory and rites. as above. O tiger. Then follows restoration decided.e. The the ordinary Law. It is also productive of good unto persons believing in duty and morality. There is nothing more worthy of respect by kings thau Chastisement by which the ways of Rihgteousness are pointed out. composed of seven attributes and eight limbs. the ordinary civil and criminal law of a realm. been said to be characterised by a belief in either of two litigant parties. constitute the body. is instituted. T. sent Chastisement for the use of the This eternal universe is impartial Chastisement's self. kind of Vyavahara or Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Vedas. (Even the British courts of aw uphold Kulachara. men of cleansed soulds have 2 The spoken of that Vyavahara as they have done of ordinary law. Chastisement (in the form of an army) is the author of a kingdom. based upon vedic precepts. In either case. yet it has been said to That which has been called Vyavahara have is its soul in really Vyavahara. of a kingdom. Principally characterised by a belief Vyavahara is seen to be productive of There is another kind of Vyavahara which has the Veda for its good. and all other requisites. that hara which has. The second or punishment. it is a form of Chastisement. should be known by us as inhering in the king. interpreting it very strictly. according to which the disputes of litigants are t It is quaintly described It includes both civil and criminal law. for the protection of the world and for establishing the duties of different individuals. the name must call for Evidence and decide king or those that act in the king's the matter by believing either of the two parties.e. in either of the two parties. 1 hara is first is The nearest approach in English to what is meant here by VyavaLaw. It is also said to have the Veda for its cause. sent down (or created) Chastisement There is another kind of Vyavahara arising out of the disputee of litigants which ! also has sprung from Brahman. allies. Where Kulachara is not inconsistent or in open variance of the established civil or criminal Law. Chastisement is another powerful limb of a kingdom.) What Bhishma says here is that even Kulachara should not be regarded as inconsistent with the scriptures (Vedas and Smritis). grain. must be regarded . Although Chastisement is seen to be regulated by Evidence.SANTI PARVA 281 Atharvan Beggars.' When a suit. God himself has. it is upheld. principal judges. civil or criminal. here as Vattripratyayalakshana. It should be also known by the name of Chastisement. is the particular customs of families or races. The third kind of Vyavahara or Law regulating every part It is also called Uulachara.

monarch. He repaired to the spot called Munjaprishtha held in high esteem by the There. After this. This last it was which in the beginning had been Grandsire Brahman. that crusher of foes. acquired and. Vasuhoma. That king was always engaged in acts of piety. near Pitris and the celestial Rishis. Vyavahara which is characterised by a belief in either of this reason human He has is Neither mother. and accompanied by his spouse he always practised the most rigid penances. which is a favourite together. the spot. 1 Jataharamadisat may also mean 'ordered the removal of his matted in other words. 'In this connection is cited the old story that There was among the Angas a king of great splendour.' as resting on the king. That which is the Veda morality duty. and of every other thing. It Yudhishthira roots in the Veda. sitting under the shade of a well-known banian. One day. O haunt of Rudra.' T. on that peak of Himavat. Brahmrn is which has been said to be is the Creator of the entire universe with the gods and Asura and Rakshasas and Hence that two litigant parties has also flowed from him. That is Chastisement has been seen by us to be O ! Vyavahara is verily the Veda.282 third kind of MAHABHARATA Vyavahara is also a preceptor of men. king who rules agreeably to his duty/ ' beings and snakes. King Vasuhoma. Mandhatri. of prosperity. unpunishable with that : SECTION CXXII "Bhishma said. the golden mountains of Meru. as a celestial residing in that spot. (the great Brahmana here) Rama. many pious attributes Brahmanas. . that Lord of all creatures. of austere penances. locks. of humility. nor wife. king Mandhatri of great soul.. of verse 54 is that Manu and others. called follows. that holiness. nor priest. T. and enquired of him about the well-being or otherwise of his kingdom consisting of seven limbs. in speaking of Morality and duty have said that it is as binding as the ordinary law that is administered by kings. That which has Truth for its soul end it is productive eternal Vyavahara. a king incurs no sin by administering it and by inflicting chastisement in its administration. having gained the esteem of the Rishi in viz. beholding king the latter in an attitude Vasuhoma Vasuhoma offered unto his guest water to wash his feet. and the Arghya consisting of the usual articles. came to Vasuhoma on Arrived there. had tied his matted locks 1 From that time. The purportl in brief. 'had a shame. That which is morality and duty is the path of Righteousness. nor brother. For laid down the following in respect of Vyavahara nor father. Vasuhoma addressed his royal guest who faithfully his mountain retreat. came to be regarded friend of Sakra. came to be called Munjaprishtha by Rishis of rigid vows. and it has also its It upholds the three worlds. stood before But as this kind of law has the Veda for its soul and has originally flowed from Brahman.

Mandhatri.. he became a lord of creatures.* all the worlds. Men ceased to distinguish between what drink was allowable and what drink was otherwise. is implied. O delighter of the Kurus. is that inasmuch as the Grandsire. between clean and unclean food ceased. in the sacrifice of the highof that sacrifice. to 2 The sense . There was no longer any distinction between what should be done and what should not. saying. the Grandsire of viz. that foremost of deities. Generally. having worshipped the divine and eternal Vishnu. shall I do for thee ? Thus addressed. All creatures began to rob. the doctrines laid I down by Usanas also are known end ? to thee desire to know what ? is What was awake before Chastisement the origin of Chastisement. The strong began to slay the weak. The Grandsire then. who was the governor of the universe. the word means any weapon. 2 Chastisement having disappeared. Nobody cherished the slightest consideration for his neighbour. answered Vasuhoma of great wisdom seated at his ease. O Kesava. the foetus fell of foes. studied all the doctrines of Vrihaspati O ! best of men. and was created for maintaining the due government of all creatures ! It hath been heard by us that once upon a time. O king. yet it is Vishnu and not Mahadeva. addressed that great boon-giving god. O king. O king. O Upon the commencement king. that T. and snatching meat from one another. For this reason he conceived in his brain and held the foetus there for many long After a thousand years had passed away. Ochastiser from Brahman was called by the name of great powers. the divine Brahman. ' 'Mandhatri ! said. Chastisement disappeared in consequence of form that the Grandsire was then obliged to assume. There were no restrains in the matter of the union All idea of property ceased. as to how Chastisement. -T. In that act. O the visible best of kings. that best of kings. All creatures began to of the sexes. to show mercy on the present occasion Let it be so ordained Thus by thee that the confusion that has occurred may disappear addressed. in the following words. a great confusion set in among all creatures. from his head.6. What also is said to be its ? How came Chastisement to depend upon the Kshattriya ! Tell thou of great wisdom 1 to give thee the tutorial fee me all this. years. again. What. that upholder of the world. 1 1. arose. The divine being. highly gratified. is mentioned. O I come to thee as a disciple ready I 1 'Vasuhoma said. It behoveth thee. Possessed of That Kshupa became the souled Grandsire. The soul of righteousness. Thou hast. desiring to perform a sacrifice. failed to find a priest possessed of qualifications like himself. the great god sneezed. saying. All distinction. of Brahman. assumed the mild and peaceful aspect of a sacrificer. Chastisement which had dwelt in his furious form could no longer exist. armed with an enormous ! ! acknowledge thee as a tutor. T. that thus took birth Kshupa.SANTl PARVA 283 followed the practices of the righteous men of old. Listen. priest. it is eternal. injure one another. 3 Though Sula.

) and lastly of grief and joy. created his ownself into the form of Chastisement From that form. O king. Yama the son of Vivaswat was made Kuvera was made the lord of treasures and of all the Rakshasas. The rod viz. unto Vishnu. Kumara or Skanda. The Rishis gave it unto the Regents of the world.1 Vishnu gave it to Angiras and Angiras. as the lords or rulers of their respective classes.It is intended for restraining the wicked. that lord of lords. and The Srutis declare that the supreme acts. Yama. Kshupa then made it over to it Manu the son of Surya. the goddess Saraswati created Danda-niti (Science of Chastisement) which very soon became celebrated over the world. T. as also Verse 36.. armed with Sula is the chief god t of the Rudras. made it over to Indra and Marichi. the lord of the Brahmanas. Meru was made the king of the mountains. foremost one of all . having again reflected for sometime. Ansumat was made the lord of all herbs. having Righteousness for its legs. Mahadeva. possessing the seeds of both destruction and growth. all Bhcigu gave that rod intended for the protection of righteousness unto the Risfiis. Mahadeva. gave unto his sons for the sake of true righteousness and wealth. and Jatavedas was made the chief of the Vasus. Time. and the Regents made it over again to Kshupa. of twelve arms. and not for filling the king's treasury. It thousand eyes the ruler of the lord of the Pitris. and Fire was appointed as the lord of all things possessed of energy. viz. Upon the completion of that sacrifice according to due rites. and Ocean was made the lord of the rivers. was made the chief of all the spirits and ghostly beings (that wait upon Mahadeva). It is very probable that there have been interpolations in the passage. after doing proper reverence made over Chastisement.. The deity of Sraddhas (viz. ..MAHAB-EABATA having reflected long. Verse 34 is probably an interpolation. The puissant Isana the high-souled and eternal Mahadeva. Vasishtha was made of three eyes. guided by righteousness and not by caprice. that foremost of ascetics..Surya was made the lord of all luminous bodies. of chastisement was given to Brahmana's son Kshupa. The maiming of one's body or the infliction of death 1 The whole account contains more than one inconsistency. diseases. After this the great god armed with the enormous Sula. was made the lord of the Rudras. The puissant Varuna was installed into the sovereignty of the waters and the Asuras. was made the sovereign of all creatures as also of the four portions of Death (viz. weapons. Chastise- ment should be inflicted with discrimination. Death was made the lord of life and all living things. The commentator is silent. I think the inconsistencies are incapable of being explained. of subsequent birth. that protector of Righteousness. appointed a of a few among the gods was then that he made the divine Indra the deities. Fines and forfeitures are intended for striking alarm. that lord of all creatures and the virtuous persons. and the puissant and foremost of deities. Marichi gave it to Bhrigu. Manu). and Chandramas was made the king of Stars and constellations.

after these. Bhava. viz** Brahman after the Grandsire. the Vedas after the the luminous bodies Vedas. is always awake. the Viswedevas . the Kshattriyas arc after . in the beginning. the puissant form of Vishnu with equine head after him. Agni of blazing flames . viz.. told thee everything as to who is Chastisement is. righteously protecting all creatures. the divine Soma after Soma. Rudra. very doubtful if they have really any meaning. . after him. among " that restrainer of the universe which is governed by righteousness !' sure to obtain the fruition of O bull 1 I. Vasuho ma. Varuna after Varuna. After the Brahmanas. employ. the mountains after the mountains. Possessed of splendour resembling that of the Grandsire 2 himself. remains awake. Chastisement. I have now. Sankara. ed in the act of protection fices for . and the end. protecting all creatures. consisting kept awake by the Khattriyas. the goddess Niriti in . 2 I have not the faintest idea of 43 and 51. what is is intended by these verses. of mobile and immobile creatures. is Creatures are kept awake in this world. He is called by Bharata. Chastisement keeps together and upholds everything. know that the Brahmanas are awake. in the hands of successive holders. hurling from tops of mountains. eternal universe. after Energy. . men. the planets and heaven after these. all kinds of juices and their . Thus Chastisement * awke in the bnginning. the middle. Prajapati after Prajapati. viz. Energy is awake. . A virtuous king should rule properly. the deities who are all eternal after the deities. Self-denial or discipline. It T. after him. The infliction of physical pain by diverse means. . after Righteousnessthe son of Brahman. should not proceed from similar causes. viz.. . and Chastisement is awake among them. Kaparddin. supporting the gods and used as food and medicines) after the herbs. and the end. attributes after Niriti.SANTI PAKVA 286 should not proceed from trivial causes. . . the god of gods. the divine and blessed Mahadeva after Mahadeva.. T. them. the divine Indra is awake ( with the rod of chastisement . Surya's son Menu gave the rod of chastisement (to his sons) for the protection of the world. the eternal Law after Law. . Righte- 1 ousness whose essence consists of restraint. the middle. the puissant and blessed Mahadeva. the almighty and eternal Grandsire. .e. ) . Sthanu and also keeps the lord of Uma. is who listens to this teaching listened to it conducts himself according to all his wishes. . At the top of the scale. is O these names also.. and banishment also. the great Rishis after the RisMs. The always awake. The master of all the worlds. Nilakantha is silent. the lord of all creatures. and having tenure. guided That person by Chastisement of its ! "Bhishma continued. Time. the herbs (offered in sacri.

T. Wealth. 2 There are three qualities or attributes that characterise human Vide the later sections of the acts.. 1 The commentator illustrates this by the action of a various husband seeking congress with his wedded wife in the proper season. the settled concluon the subject of Virtue. Things possessing the attribute of Goodness only are worthy of pursuit. and Pleasure.SECTION sions "Yudhishthira said. of and Wealth 2 for the acquisition Virtue. All exist their entirety. said to be when sought Virtue. for gratifying the desire of enjoyment. Wealth... they are said to be sought. undertaken and completed with even the aid of intelligence may or may not lead to the expected results. Pleasure is only the gratification of the senses. i. It is said is that Virtue is sought for the protection of the body. Kama for the last. 3 I. Wealth. Wealth. Wealth. for the sake of All the three have. however.e. cause. is towards emancipation. Goodness. therefore. and Pleasure Depending upon which of these does the course of life proceed ? What are the ! respective roots of Virtue. for the sake of When Knowledge of Self. If virtue. wealth or profit in the form of a son is also acquired. Wealth of fruit in . the quality of Passion. may be seen to co-exist in a state of 1 Wealth has its root in union in respect of time. Virtue. One should seek them when they are of such a character. and action. are not very high objects of pursuit. one should seek virtue for only compassing purity of soul order that one may spend it in acts undertaken without desire and Pleasure for only supporting the body. T. hearts to achieve Virtue. viz. and heaven such other rewards. . One should not cast them off even mentally. 'I wish. Pleasure. and Pleasure objects. Such Virtue and Wealth and Pleasure. then those three viz. again. 8 proximate. are remote because the rewards themselves are remote. Entire is abstraction from all objects Emancipation. Virtue is not always the root of Wealth. All the three Willis concerned with objects. Wealth. Bhagavadgita. one should abandon freed one's self by ascetic penances. and lastly. and Darkness.. Upon these then does the agregate of three depend. T. for other things than Virtue lead to Wealth (such as service. "Bhishma said. threfore. to hear. and Pleasure ? ? What are again of the results of those three They are sometimes seen to mingle with one another. Wealth and Pleasure. Passion. O sire. 4 Dharmadinkamanaishthikan. There is religious merit in the performance of the rites known by the name of Garbha* dhan-j there is pleasure in the act itself. having Dharma for the hence Virtue. and sometimes to one another f exist separately and idependently 'When men in this world endeavour with good Wealth with the aid of Virtue.e. and Pleasure are to be abandoned.. Would that 4 them when one has ! The aim of the triple aggregate man could obtain it One's acts. in is said to be the fruit of again have their root in Will. T. first and .

highest aim of Virtue and Wealth. they are productive of is great results. Thou shouldst accomplish all those high duties which thy seniors and preceptors would indicate. Thou art sure to obtain great blessings through the grace of thy seniors and preceptors * ' A * . destruction of his intelligence. can those is again a is man impelled by ignorance. He should be devoted to righteousness. saluted One day. Without doubt. the risk of destruction itself. life of infamy. having the Rishi Kamanda as he was seated at his ease asked him the following questions. If a king. forced by lust and folly. a dullard whose understanding has been debased by ignorance.) is 287 There is again a contrary opinion (for some say that earned through chance or birth or like causes). He should say unto all I am yours. If the king does not restrain those wicked men of sinful conduct. He should respect the Brahmanas and do good offices unto them. Virtues the drose of Wealth consists in dross consists in the desire of reward hoarding that it . The destruction of intelligence is followed by heedlessness that is at once destructive of both Virtue and Wealth. by what acts. reaps as the consequence of such conduct the acting righteously. he has to drag on a miserable existence. and ultimately infamy and insult. and proclaim thel virtues of even his foes. Wealth acquired has been productive of evil. never succeeds in acquiring the . all good subjects then live in fear of him like the inmate of a room within which a snake has concealed itself. however. In some instances. commits sin for which he afterwards repents.. As regards this topic. &c. Brahmanas and all pious persons As a consequence the king incurs great also act in the same way. He should gratify all persons by speeches or good acts. Banishing all wicked subjects from himself and his kingdom. He should make alliance (of marriage) with high families. If took place in days of old between O Rishi. does what be destroyed? sinful in the belief sins that he into vi how shall the king put stop to that sin come vogue among men ? 'Kamanda said. abandoning Virtue and Wealth pursues only Pleasure. The subjects do not follow such a king. Other things again than Wealth (such as fasts and vows) have lead to the acquisition Wealth of Virtue. In this connection cited the narrative of the discourse Kamandaka and Angaristha. That man who. Men learned in the scriptures have indicated the following means for checking sin. From such heedlessness proceed dire atheism and systematic wickedness of conduct. therefore. By pursuing such conduct he may soon cleanse himself of his sins and win the high regard of all. when purged of these impurities. Overtaken by danger. viz.SANTI PABVA agriculture. The king should always devote himself to the study of the three Vedas. he should seek the companionship of virtuous men. is equal to death. He should perform ablutions and recite sacred mantras and thus pass his time happily. king Angaristha. waited for the opportunity. He should wait upon high-minded Brahmanas adorned with the virtue of forgiveness. by conduct such as this all his sins will be destroyed. Emancipation.

in course of three and Nabhaga. thou too hast obtained great affluence. T. Pisitaudanam is food mixed with pounded meat Kabab. I the reasons they appear shall then endeavour to instruct thee subjugator If after ascertaining ! O of hostile towns. *' I am burning with ! 'Dhritarashtra said. in course of seven. All . by behaviour alone. had asked his father Dhritarashtra the same question. Janamejaya. Thou eatest the richest food. . vfc. while what he had seen to the latter. in detail. 1 Steeds of the best kind bear thee.. great doubts with be capable of being understood by us. Why dost thou grieve. Ten thousands of high-souled Snataka ! Brahmanas his steeds of (daily eat at Yudhishthira's palace off plates of gold Be- holding his excellent mansion adorned with excellent flowers and fruits. respect to this object of their praise. If the topic O foremost of men. is that behaviour acquired. O sire. O foremost of virtuous men. addressing his son and Kama. I desire to hear everything about the way in which virtuous behaviour can be acquiredHow indeed. a kind of Pilau. O Bharata his ! Listen to what transpired on that seen that grand mansion of thine and Having that high prosperity of sitting before father. spake of which thou wert master. of his mistakes at the grand mansion. what have been said to be the !' characteristics of that behaviour 'Formerly. however. Thou coverest thy limbs with the best robes. O Bharata! I desire to hear it Tell me also. There is nothing impossible of attainment by persons of virtuous behaviour. the a prosperity that resembles the high affluence of Vais- grief. conquer the three worlds. O Bharate thou wishest.SECTION CXXIV "Yudhishthira said. 11 'Dhritarashtra said. endeavour to be of virtuous behaviour ravana himself. O consequence occasion. All thy brother are ever obedient to thee. to win prosperity like that of Yudhishthira or that which is even superior to it. . O foremost of speakers. do thou Without doubt. AH persons on Earth. indeed. Duryodhana. the kinds. Tittiri and the Kalmasha breeds. Mandhatri conquered the whole world in course of only one night. Duryodhana while at sight of that well-known prosperity belonging to burning with grief thee and thy brothers at Indraprastha and for the jeers he received in "Bhishma said. replied unto him as follows. as also all thy friends and relatives. O son. I have. Why then hast thou become pale and emaciated? " 'Duryodhana said. sons of Pandu. his robes of diverse beholding that high prosperity of my enemies. applaud virtuous behaviour. If ! one may. then. 1 or perhaps. O son I desire to ! hear the cause to be adequate. Dhritarashtra. Having heard the words of Duryodhana. giver of honours.

I desire thee to tell me what is the source of felicity Thus addressed. his merit of chief of the celestials addressed the great preceptor. There is something. Possessed of great wisdom. O righteous . has better knowledge Bhargava said. ! ! ! of good ! At this answer. assumed the form of a Brahmana. Obtaining the permission of the high-souled Bhargava. observed towards r Prahlada the conduct which a The Brahmana duly disciple should observe towards his preceptor. The chastiser of Paka. saying. however. how that behaviour may be acquired. with joined hands. Vrihaspati said unto him that Knowledge (leading to emancipation) is the ! source of the highest felicity. obtained from him with a gratified heart. Saying Prahlada became delighted with that he availed of a favourable So be it ! of knowledge. the performer of a hundred sacrifices once more asked the sage as to whether there was anything higher (as the means for the acquisition of The omniscient felicity) than what the sage had already told him. once more asked him as to whether there was any thing higher than that1 * Vrihaspati said. and I I desire to hear what conPrahlada answered the Brahmana. Vrihaspati indicated Knowledge to be the source of supreme felicity. that is still The ! high-souled Bhargava (Usanas) will instruct thee better. in consequence of which the Earth was won so speedily (by the kings named by thee) 'Dhritarashtra said. therefore. In this connection. and enquire of him. by the behaviour. I desire to hear. It was formerly recited by Narada on the subject t ! 1 In days of yore. approached Vrihaspati. O chief of the Possessed of great ascetic merit and endued with great celestials the chief of the celestials then repaired to Bhargava and splendour. I desire to said. saying. higher. O Bharata. Brahmana listen to thy instructions about what course of conduct is productive repairing to Prahlada. Indra became highly delighted. viz. asked him. O son. the following old narrative is cited. when thou mayst have leisure. the Daitya Prahlada. saying. a knowledge of what was for his great good. Many a time the Brahmana enquired. and began with his whole heart to do what Prahlada desired. blessed be thou. I have no time. O chastiser of foes. O chief duces to felicity of regenerate ones. saying. the of virtuous behaviour. Indra. being wholly occupied in the task I cannnot. Indeed. possessed of great intelligence. snatched from the high-souled Indra his sovereignty and reduced the three worlds to subjection. The high-souled Prahlada Learning this. by what means hast thou been opportunity for imparting to the Brahmana the truths able to win the sovereignty of the three worlds ? Tell me. Repair to him. For this reason the Earth came to them of their own accordi won over by their virtues! 'Duryodhana said. that behaviour. instruct thee The of ruling the three worlds O king. Sakra then.SANTI PABVA 289 these kings were possessed of compassion and of virtuous behaviour. king utterer of Brahma.


what those means are!



monarch, answered the

question the Brahmana " Prahlada said,

regenerate one, feel any pride in consequence of my being a king, nor do I cherish any hostile feelings On the other hand, I accept and follow the towards the Brahmanas

do not,


counsels of policy

based upon the teachings of they say unto me what they wish to Sukra. In complete say, and restrain me from courses that are unrighteous or improper. I am ever obedient to the teachings of Sukra. I wait upon and serve the

they declare unto


Brahmanas and my seniors. I bear no malice. I am of righteous soul. lam self-restrained, and all my senses are I have conquered wrath. under my control. These regenerate ones that are my instructors pour beneficial instructions upon me like bees dropping honey into the cells of their comb. I taste the nectar dropped by those learned men, and


Moon among

the constellations








nectar on Earth, even this

listening to

the teachings of

Sukra from the

lips of

the clearest eye, Brahmanas and

acting according to them. In these consists the good of a man I Thus Served dutifully by him, said Prahlada unto that utterer of Brahma.
the chief of the Daityas once

consequence of thy dutiful Ask of me the boon thou desirest, blessed be behaviour towards me The Brahmana thou, for verily I shall grant thee what thou wilt ask
! !

am exceedingly

more said, with thee

O foremost

of regenerate ones,

answered the chief of the Daityas saying, Very well. I will obey thee! Prahlada, gratified with him, said, Take what thou wishest

*_^The Brahmana said, If, the king, thou hast been gratified with me and if thou wishast to do what is agreeable to me, I desire then Even this is the boon that I solicit 2 At to acquire thy behaviour



though delighted, Prahlada became filled with a great fear. Indeed, when this boon was indicated by the Brahmana, the Daitya chief thought the solicitor could not be a person of ordinary energy. Wondering much, Prahlada at last said, Let it be so Having, howthis,

became filled with grief. The Brahmana, having received the boon, went away, but Prahlada, O king, became penetrated by a deep anxiety and knew not what to do. While the Daitya chief sat brooding over the matter, a flame of light issued out of his body. It had a shadowy form of great splendour and huge proportions. Prahlada asked the form, saying, Who art thou ? The form answered, saying, I am the embodiment of thy Behaviour.
ever, granted the boon, the Daitya chief

Cast off by thee

going away. I shall henceforth, king, dwell in that faultless and foremost of Brahmanas who had become thy devoted



1 Vagagravidyanam is explained by Nilakantha to mean persons whose learning is at the end of their tongues and not buried in books ; henoe, persons of sharp memory. T. 2 The asker wishes to rol Prahlada of his conduct. T.



form disappeared and soon After the disappearance of that form, body another of similar shape issued out of Prahlada's body. The Daitya Who art thou ? The form answered, saychief addressed it, saying, Know me, O Prahlada, for the embodiment of Righteousness. I ing,


said these words, the
of Sakra.

after entered the

there where that foremost of Brahmanas is, for, O chief of the Upon the disappearDaityas, I reside there where Behaviour dwells O monarch, blazing with ance of Righteousness, a third form, splendour, issued out of the body of the high-souled Prahlada. Asked
shall go

by Prahlada




answered, saying, shall leave thee, following the way of Righteousness J^After Truth had left Prahlada, following in the wake of Righteousness, another

he was, that form possessed of great effulgence I Know, O chief of the Daityas, that I am Truth

great person issued out of Prahlada's body.

mighty being answered,



Asked by the Daitya king, the embodiment of Good deeds
where Truth lives



O Prahlada,



live there



one had left Prahlada, another being came out, uttering loud and deep Addressed by Prahlada, he answered, Know that I am Might. cries. I dwell there where Good deeds are Having said these words, Might whither Good deeds had gone. After this, a went away to that place goddess of great effulgence issued out of Prahlada's body. The Daitya chief asked her and she answered him saying that she was the embodiment of Prosperity, adding, I dwelt in thee, O hero, O thou of

prowess incapable of being baffled


Cast off by thee,

I shall

follow in

of Might. The high-souled Prahlada, penetrated with great once more asked the goddess, saying, Where dost thou go, O goddess, O thou that dwellest amid lotuses ? Thou art ever devoted to Who is that foretruth, O goddess, and thou art the first of deities




most of Brahmanas (who was


disciple) ?


desire to

know the

The goddess of Prosperity said, Devoted Brahmacharyya, that Brahmana who was instructed by


to the



thee was Sakra.

puissant one, he robbed thee of that sovereignty which thou hadst righteous one, it was by thy behaviour that over the three worlds.



thou hadst reduced the three worlds to subjection. chief of the celestials robbed thee of thy behaviour




Truth and Good deeds and Might and myself, O all have our root verily in Behaviour "Bhishma continued, 'Having said these words, the goddess of DuryoProsperity went away, as also all the rest, O Yudhishthira O delighter dhana, once more addressing his father, said these words

Righteousness and thou of great wisdom,

of the Kurus, I wish to

means by which


know the truth about Behaviour may be acquired





Those means were indicated by the highsouled Prahlada while discoursing unto Indra. Listen, however, O
'Dhritarashtra said,

ruler of men, as to

Behaviour may be acquired. Abstention from injury, by act. thought, and word, in respect of all creatures, of praise. compassion, and gift, constitute behaviour that is worthy


in brief

That act or exertion by which others are not benefited, or that act in consequence of which one has to feel shame, should never be done. That act, on the other hand, should be done in consequence of which one may win praise in society. O best of the Kurus, I have now told If O king, persons of wicked thee in brief as to what Behaviour is win prosperity, they do not enjoy it long, O son, and behaviour do ever

are seen to be exterminated by the root


"'Dhritarashtra continued, Knowing all this truly, do thou, O be of good behaviour, if thou desirest to obtain prosperity greater son, than that of Yudhishthira I "Bhishma continued, 'Even this was what king Dhritarashtra


of Kunti,

his son. Do thou act according to these instructions, and thou wilt then surely obtain their fruit !'





'Thou hast


O grandsire,

that behaviour




requisites for a



Whence, however, does Hope

arise ?

This great doubt has taken possession of me what it is There is no other person than thee. O subjugator of hostile my O grandsire, I had great hope in respect towns, who can remove it a battle was about to ensue ( in consequence of Suyodhana that when In of his own obstinacy), he would, O lord, do what was proper





man hope




that hope


destroyed, great



grief that succeeds, and which, without doubt, is equal to almost death Fool that I am, Dhritarashtra's wicked-souled son, Duryodhana, itself.


Behold, O king, the foolishness destroyed the hope I had cherished my mind I think that hope is vaster than a mountain with all its

trees! Or, perhaps,

it is

vaster than the firmament


Or, perhaps,

Hope, O chief of the Kurus, is exceedingly difficult of being understood and equally difficult of being subdued. Beholding this last attribute of Hope, I ask, what else is so
it is

O king,



unconquerable as

this ?

"Bhishma said, 1 shall narrate to thee, O Yudhishthira, in this connection, the discourse between Sumitra and Rishabha that took A royal sage of the Haihaya race, place in olden times. Listen to it

Sumitra by name, went out ahunting.

He pursued


deer, having

pierced it with a straight shaft. Possessed of great strength, the deer ran ahead, with the arrow sticking to him. The king was possessed of
great strength,

and accordingly pursued with great speed his arge

prey. The animal, endued with fleetness, quickly cleared a low ground and then a level plain. The king, young, active, and strong, and armed



with bow and sword and cased in mail, still pursued it. Unaccompanied by anybody, in chasing the animal through the forest the king crossed many rivers and streams and lakes and copses. Endued with great
speed, the animal, at its will, showing itself now and then to the king, ran on with great speed. Pierced with many shafts by the king, that

monarch, as if in sport, repeatedly lessonand the pursuer. Repeatedly putting forth its speed and traversing one forest after another, it now and then showed itself to the king at a near point. At last that crusher of foes, taking a very superior shaft, sharp, terrible, and capable of penetrating
denizen of the wilderness,
ed the distance between


The animal then, of into the very vitals, fixed it on his bowstring. huge proportions, as if laughing at the pursuer's efforts suddenly distanced him by reaching a point full four miles ahead of the range of the shaft. That arrow of blazing splendour accordingly fell on the

The deer entered

a large forest

but the king




the chase.

The king, having entered that large forest, came said, an asylum of ascetics. Fatigued with the toil he had undergone, upon he sat himself down for rest. Beholding him armed with bow, worn out with toil, and hungry, the ascetics approached him and honoured
due form. Accepting the honours offered by the Rishis, the king enquired of them about the progress and advancement of their penances. Duly answered the enquiries of the king, those Rishis endued with wealth of asceticism asked that tiger among rulers about the



reason that led his steps to that retreat. And they said, Blessed be thou, in pursuit of what delightful object hast thou, king, come to


this asylum, walking on foot and armed with sword and bow and wish to hear whence thou art coming, O giver of honours arrows ? Thus Tell us also in what race thou art born and what thy name




O bull among men, the king proceeded to duly give unto all Brahmanas an account of himself, O Bharata, saying,! am those born in the race of the Haihayas- By name I am called Sumitra, and I chase herds of deer, slaying them in thouI am the son of Mitra. sands with my arrows. Accompanied by a large force and my ministers and the ladies of my household, I came out on a hunting expedition.

pierced a deer with an arrow, but the animal with the shaft sticking to his body ran with great speed. In chasing it I have, without a set

purpose, arrived at this forest and find myself in your presence, shorn of splendour, toil-worn, and with hope disappointed. What can be more pitiable than this, viz., that I have arrived at this asylum, spent

with fatigue, shorn of the



royalty, and disappointed





not at


sorry, ye ascetics, at



now shorn



my being now at a distance from my capital. however, a poignant grief in consequence of my hope having The prince of mountains, viz., Himavat, and that been disappointed vast receptacle of waters, viz., the ocean, cannot, for its vastness,
the signs of royalty or at
I feel,

measure the extent

of the firmament.


ascetics, similarly, I also can-

not discern the limit of hope.


that are endued with wealth of

penances are omniscient



nothing unknown to you




highly blessed



therefore, solicit


for resolving



Hope as cherished by man, and the wide firmament, which of these two appears vaster to you ? I desire to hear in detail what is so unconqueraIf the topic be one upon which it is not improper for ye able to hope.
to discourse, then
I do not wish, without delay ye foremost of regenerate ones, to hear anything from you that may be If again the discourse be a mystery improper to discourse upon








would not wish you to speak. If the question asked by me be a worthy topic of discourse, I would then wish to hear the cause in detail. Devoted to penances as ye are, do ye all instruct me on the subject !'
injurious to your penances,

"Bhishma said, Then that best of Rishis, viz., the regenerate Rishava, sitting in the midst of all those Rishis, smiled a little and said these words Formerly, O tiger among kings, while sojourning among I arrived, O lord, at the beautiful asylum of Nara and sacred places,


There lies the delightful spot called Vadri, and there also that lake in the firmament (whence (he sacred Ganga takes her

There the sage Aswasiras, O king, (always) reads the eternal Vedas. Having performed my ablutions in that lake and offered with due rites oblations of water unto the Pirn's and the dogs, I entered the asylum. Within that retreat the Rishis Nara and Narayana always 2 Not far from that spot I repaired pass their time in true pleasure.

to another retreat for taking

up my abode.

While seated there



held a very


and emaciated

clad in rags and skins, approach-

ing towards me. Possessed of the wealth of penances, he was named Tanu. Compared, O mighty-armed one, with other men, his height seemed to be eight times greater. As regards his leanness, O royal His body, O king, sage, I can say that I have never beheld its like. was as thin as one's little finger. His neck and arms and legs and hair were all of extraordinary aspect. His head was proportionate to his body, and his ears and eyes also were the same. His speech, O best of Beholding that kings, and his movements were exceedingly feeble.
T. 1 This lake is at a great height on the Himalayas. 2 The spirits of those two immortal sages are supposed to dwell for T. ever, in that retreat, in the enjoyment of true happiness.



exceedingly emaciated Brahmana I became very cheerless and frightened. Saluting his feet, I stood before him with joined hands. Having

informed him of

my name and

family, and having told him also the





O bull

among men,

slowly sat myself

down on


seat that was indicated by him. Then, O monarch, that foremost of virtuous men, viz., Tanu, began to discourse in the midst of the RisKis dwelling in that asylum upon topics connected with Righteousness and While engaged in discourse, a king, possessed of eyes like lotus Profit. and accompanied by his forces and the ladies of his household, petals came to that spot on a car drawn by fleet steeds. The name of that king was Viradyumna. Of handsome features, he was possessed of great fame. His son's name was Bhuridyumna. The child had been missing, and the sire, exceedingly cheerless, came there in course of his I shall find wanderings amid the forest in pursuit of the missing one find my son here I shall Dragged on by hope in this my son here way, the king wandered through that forest in those days. Addressing Without doubt that highly virtuous son the emaciated Rishi he said mine is exceedingly difficult to be traced by me. Alas he was my of Though incapable only child. He is lost and can nowhere be found of being found out, my hope, however, of finding him is very great
! !


being constantly disappointed), I am on the point of death Hearing these words of the king, that verily foremost of Munis, viz., the holy Tanu, remained for a short while with
Filled with that hope (which

him buried

head hanging down and himself buried in contemplation. Beholding in contemplation, the king became exceedingly cheerless. In great grief he began to say slowly and softly, What, O celestial Rishi, is unconquerable and what is greater than hope? O holy one, tell





may hear


without impropriety


The Muni said, A holy and great Rishi had been insulted by son. He had done it through ill-luck, moved by his foolish underThe



had asked thy son for


golden jar and vegetable


son contemptuously

refused to gratify the ascetic.


treated by thy son, the great sage became disappointed ! Thus addressed, the king worshipped that ascetic who was worshipped by all the


Of virtuous



as thou,

O best


Viradyumna sat there, spent with men, now art. The great Rishi, in return,


the king according to the rites observed by the dwellers of the forests water to wash his feet and the usual ingredients that make up the

Arghya. Then all the Rishis, O tiger among kings, sat there, surrounding that bull among men like the stars of the constellation of Ursa Major surrounding the Pole star. And they asked the unvanquished king as to the cause of his arrival at that asylum,


'The king said, I am a king called by the name of Viradyumna. My fame has spread in all directions. My son Bhuridyumna
hath been
lost. It is in


quest of him that


have come

to this forest.


foremost of

Brahmanas, that child was


only son and, ye sinless ones,




very tender years


cannot, however, be found here.


wandering everywhere for finding him out " 'Rishava continued, After the king had said these words, the ascetic Tanu hung down his head. He remained perfectly silent, without uttering a single word in answer. In former days that Brahmana

had not been much honoured by the king. In disappointment, O monarch, he had for that reason practised austere penances for a long time, resolving in his mind that he should never accept anything in

from either kings or members


any other order.
of foolish


he said to
I shall



agitates every



Even such had been his determinadrive away hope from my mind tion. Viradyumna once more questioned that foremost of ascetics in these words The king said, What is the measure of the thinness of ? What on Earth is exceedingly difficult of acquisition ? Tell me Hope this, O holy one, for thou art well conversant with morality and profit 'Rishava continued, Himself recellecting all the past incidents (about his own disregard at the hands of the king) and calling them back to the recollection of the king also, that holy Brahmana of emaciated body addressed the king and said the following words 'The sage said, There is nothing, O king, that equal Hope in slenderness. I had solicited many kings and found that nothing is so difficult of acquisition as an image that Hope sets before the mind









king said,

At thy words,







slender and what


understand also how


acquisition are the images set by Hope before the mind. I regard these words of thine as utterances of Sruti. thou of great wisdom, one


doubt, however, has arisen in




behoveth thee,

O sage,


in detail



that ask thee



slender than thy
of sages, the






holy one,

of course,

O best

topic be one

which may be discoursed upon without impropriety

The emaciated sage
meet with.

ingly difficult to

Something rarer



contented applicant is exceedthere is none such in the world. Perhaps, is the person that never disregards an


that rests upon such persons as do not, after passing their promises, do good to others according to the best of their

The hope

powers and according as the applicants deserve,
1 I.e.,

slender than even





while things unconnected with


are the





1 The hope that rests upon an ungrateful man, or upon one body. that is cruel, or one that is idle, or one that injures others, is slenderer


than even
son, of



The hope cherished by


sire that

has but one

once more seeing that son after he has been

lost or missed,

slenderer than even
bringing forth sons,
slenderer than even



The hope that old women entertain king, and that is cherished by rich men,


my body. The hope that springs up in the hearts grown up maidens of marriage when they hear any body only talk of
their presence,


Hearing these monarch, king Viradyumna, and the ladies of his household, prostrated themselves before that bull among Brahmanas and touched

slenderer than even





his feet

with their bent heads.
king said,


beg thy grace,




thou hast

O holy one I wish to meet O best of Brahmanas is very true!
! !


no doubt of the truth of thy utterances

'Rishabha continued,

The holy Tanu,

that foremost of virtuous

persons, smiling, caused, by means of his learning and his penances the king's son to be brought to that spot. Having caused the prince to be
3 That forebrought thither, the sage rebuked the king (his father). most of virtuous persons then displayed himself to be the god of righteousness. Indeed, having displayed his own wonderful and celestial form, he entered an adjacent forest, with heart freed from wrath and

the desire of revenge.



all this,

O king,




off thy hope, that


and heard the words I even slenderer (than any of

O monarch, by the highSumitra speedily cast off the hope that was in souled Rishabha, king his heart and which was slenderer (than any of the kinds of hope indicated by the emaciated Rishi). Do thou also, O son of Kunti, hearing these words of mine, be calm and collected like Himavat. Overcome 4 with distress thou hast questioned me and heard my answer. Having heard it, O monarch, it behoves thee to dispel these regrets of thine !"

those which the sage indicated) "Bhishma continued, Thus addressed,

1 The sense is that such persons should always be distrusted, Yet there are men who hope for good from them. Such hope, the sage says, is slenderer than his slender body. 2 The word maya repeated in verses 14 to 18 is explained by Nilakantha as having the sense of mattali. The meaning, of course, is very Yet the Burdwan translator has strangely misunderstood it. K.P. plain. an accurate version. T. Singha, of course, gives T. 3 For the king's disregard of the sage in former days.
distress* which slaughter in battle. T.






the thought



I am never !' satiated with drink- ing the nectar of thy discourse upon morality connection is "Bhishma owned a said. having many enemies. and who disregards the when his counsels are all divulged. Yama. should be the conduct of a king the affairs of whose kingdom are ill-regulated.SECTION CXXIX "Yudhishthira said. and destitute of troops. and when though weak he is at war with a stronger ruler ? What. indeed. 41 'Gotama said. speedily saluted with joined hands in an attentive attitude (waiting for his commands). indeed. 'In this cited the old narrative of the discourse between Gotama and the illustrious Yama. repaired to that great sage of cleansed soul while he was engaged in the severest austerities. to bring about peace and cause disunion among his foes ? Should he seek the acquisition of wealth by evil means. who is unable. when he assails requirements of place and time. and practising purity and penances. beholding that bull among Brahmanas. For sixty thousands years that sage underwent ascetic austerities in that asylum. 'What course of conduct should be adopted by a king shorn of friends. ! when he does not see his way clearly another kingdom. the Regent of the world. O Bharata What. when he is engaged in grinding a hostile kingdom. 'Like one that drinks nectar lam never satiated with listening to thee as thou speakest! As a person possessing a knowledge of self is never satiated with meditation. in consequence of his oppressions. O grandsire. regions (of felicity) of wonderful aspect. One should also perform Horse-sacrifices with presents in profusion unto the Brahmanas. By doing what acts does one liberate one's self from the debt one owes to one's mother and father ? How also does one succeed in winning regions of pure attaintment ? 11 bliss that are so difficult of 'Yama said. O tiger among men. understanding that Gotama it of rigid penances. before him. One day. should be his conduct when he is surrounded by wicked ministers. even so I am never satiated with hearing thee discourse once more upon morality ! Do ! thou. Gotama wide retreat on the Paripatra hills. one should ceaselessly worship one's mother and father. Yama beheld the great ascetic sage. Listen to me as to how many years he dwelt in that abode. The royal Dharma. Devoting one's self to the duty of truth. possessed of an exhausted treasury. therefore. or should he lay down his life without seeking wealth ?' . The regenerate was Yama who had come.' ' By such acts one wins many SECTION CXXX "Yudhishthira said. duly saluted him (in return) and addressing him asked what he was to him and sat do for him.

this is not a subject upon which one can or should discourse before miscellaneuos audiences. The kind of scriptures or science which one always studies gives him the kind of knowledge which it is capable of giving. If the treasury be filled by oppression. with a pure heart. O Bharata. therefore the practices in seasons of distress are sometimes regarded as not inconsistent with morality. fraught with great merit. 4 show com- This is eternal duty. person. bull of Bharata's race. one's duties are of a different kind. again. becomes the source to of great felicity. Listen. by in the way of the acquisition of wealth). O Yudhishthira. the king should. however.e. are of opinion that 1 I.. when the time for it comes. thou hast. through the aid of knowledge. By acting with intelligence the king may or may not succeed 3 Aided by thy own intelligence do thou think in acquiring wealth. For men that are able and competent. T. how- ever. The king should. by ingenious contrivances a king may succeed in filling his treasury. asked 1 me a question relating to a mystery (in connection with duties). to the means. exertions. it. when the season of distress is over. T. The learned.SANTI PABVA "Bhishma said. Without being questioned. acquiring only religious merit. passion to his people. 5 I. 299 'Conversant as thou art with duties. fill his trea- sury (by any means) like to one creating water in a wilderness which is without water. Without wealth a king may (by penances and the like) acquire religious merit. Such Knowledge verily becomes agreeable to him. however. One understands scriptures. 8 these instructions. forces are decreased. Life. acquire power by the aid of only religious merit. . O bull of Bharata's race. 2 I. under ordinary situations of circumstances. 1 could not venture to discourse upon this duty Morality is very ! subtile.. therefore. however. For the sake of true morality. I would not call those means righteous. T. or his best ingenuity and calculations may fail. Agreeably to this code of quasi-morality practised by the ancients. what answer should be given to thy question on this head.. by the aid of the By remembering what one has heard and by some one in some place may become a righteous practising good acts. is much more important than religious merit.. 3 I.e. 5 the duties are of one kind. leads to barrenness of invention in respect of means.e. never succeeds in obtaining just and proper means for sustenance and since he cannot. ContriIgnorance vanceof means. Through the decrease of the treasury. by even his best . In seasons of distress.e. (And as life cannot be supported without wealth. Even this is the conclusion of all intelligent men who have thought upon the subject. T.. T. conduct like this brings the king to the texts of verge of destruction. listen the king's Without entertaining any scruples and any malice. no such merit should be sought which stands A king that is weak.e. by which kings may conduct themselves (during seasons of distress). 4 I.

so that these may not refrain discontented with him. what doubt is there in respect of Kshattriyas ? This is. viz. when ordinary practices cannot be followed. in consequence of the weakness of his treasury and army. tion. Kshattriya destroyed. The profession ordained for a Kshattriya is the acquisition of wealth by battle and victory. 1 Even in these have been declared to be his duties. This is the settled not sink despondency. His sole concern at such a time should be to save himself. He should those practices lead to sinfulness. what should he not take excepting what belongs to ascetics and what is owned by Brahmanas ? Even as a Brahmana in a season of distress may officiate at the sacrifice he should never officiate (at other and ordinary times) and eat forbidden food. a When Kshattria are rich. he should not. Without sinking into despondency and yielding to destrucmay (by force) take what he can from persons that Know that the Kshattriya is the protector and the destroyer 1 I. 2 He should not seek to rescue the merit of others or of himself.300 MAHABHABATA of distress is over. The person who should never beg of a member of supports himself at ordinary times by He following the practices primarily laid for him.e.. settled. There is this Sruti. should have proficiency in respect of Similarly. T. he should perform expiations and do good to them whom he has injured. He conclusion. He should should not (in times of distress) seek to rescue (from the peril of destruction) the merit of others or of himself. neither a life of mendicancy nor the profession of a Vaisya or that of a Sudra has been laid down. a by even unjust and improper means. in other words. For a Kshattriya that has.. as regards the Kshattriya. In a season of distress. When a Kshattriya's means of support are gone. that is. that it is settled that Brahmanas. at such times. so there is no doubt that a Kshattriya of a person for (in whom may take wealth from every one except ascetics and Brahmanas. For one afflicted (by an enemy and seeking the means of escape) what can be an improper outlet ? For a person immured distress) (within a dungeon and seeking escape) what can be an improper path? When a person becomes afflicted. become exceedingly humiliated. refrain from any act that may injure his own merit or that of others . since might of arms is his great possession. should (at such a time) conduct that his merit may not be destroyed. he escapes by even an improper outlet. . indeed. his proficiency 2 duties. The very seen. his life. his own order. i. T. may it is live Brahmanas. what should the Kshattriya do ? After the season He himself in such a also way a act in such way that he may not have to succumb to his enemies.e. who are conversant with duties. On the other hand. he should rescue his own self. may in seasons of distress support himself by following the practices laid down in the alternative. should consist in exertion. do the same when their means of living are the Brahmanas (at such times) conduct themselves thus. he may disregard all considerations about the religious merits of others and of himself.

How then can the army be kept without oppression ? The king. foes 1 Sankhalikhitam T. again. The treasury can never be filled without oppressing others. his army. His army is the root of all his religious merits. Fie on the life of that man who from want of means goes to a foreign country for a living. His army. an intelligent king should settle his course (at such times). the treasury exists for the army. This is a truth cited from the treatise of Samvara well-known for his great powers of illusion. can support life without injuring O other creatures. in falling down. therefore. has its roots in his treasury. I shall here cite an example illustrating the true ways of morality. For performing sacrifices many improper acts are done. The king. his friends and allies and other necessary institutions and the chiefs existing in his kingdom. 8 Guided by such considerations. All those institutions that are kept up for working destruction and misery exist for the sake of collecting wealth.. a Kshattriya in distress should take (by force) what he can. If (at such times) such improper practices be not adopted. incurs no fault by oppressing his subjects for filling the treasury. . The king and the kingdom should always mutually protect each other. This is an eternal duty. even so policy and chastisement exist for the treasury. A large tree is cut down for making of it a sacrificial stake. 2 Literally. relying upon destiny. king. in seasons of distress. the the his machinery for chastising the wicked. even so should kingdom protect the king when he sinks into distress.e. The king's roots are his treasury and army. In cutting it. These also. by spending all kingdom when it sinks into distress. Ordainer. As the king protects. again. deducting them from one's very food. of the forest is 1 The very ascetic leading a solitary life in the depths no exception- A Kshattriya should not live. his possessions. that which is written on the forehead by the T. T. other than those which are proper are followed (in seasons of distress). other trees that stand in its way have also to be cut down.SANTI PARVA of the 30l people. As animals and other things are necessary for sacrifices. Men conversant with duty say that one must keep one's seeds. O chief of the Kurus. No person in this world. sacrifices." and the criminal courts. Fie on the life of that king whose kingdom languishes. and policy and treasury and army all the three exist for vanquishing and protecting or enlarging the kingdom. and as animals. His religious merits. should never give up 2 his treasury. 3 The army "cause to be removed. and purity of the heart are all for final emancipation. who is desirous of ruling. especially he. are the root of his subjects. as sacrifices are for purifying the heart. For this reason a king incurs no fault by doing improper acts (when the object is to fill For the sake of wealth practices his treasury in a season of distress). Therefore. i. evil is certain to result. even at the extremity of distress. with a view to (ultimately) protect the people.

that is so meritorious for a king as the It is sinful for a king to oppress his subjects with heavy impositions at ordinary times. indeed. as also Truth and religious merit. such. obtain the next world. however. The demerit that attaches done in a season of distress is not equal to that which attaches The acquisition of to the same act if done at other times. some who have it a liking for some acquire that has well-filled treasury succeeds in accomplishing everything. viz. should be filled treasury. 'If the invading enemy be of pure heart and if he be conversant with both morality and profit. every one contends with This shall be mine. besides this. O Bharata wealth and its abandonment cannot both be possibly seen in the same to an act ! person. is obliged to stand in the face of foes. make peace with the invader and bring about the restoration of those portions of the kingdom that have already been conquered. and whose heart has been agitated by some strong enemy ?" "Bhishma said. whose ministers are disunited or bought over by his enemies. that does not engage in battle from for the lives of his friends. O scorcher of foes. penances acquire wealth by penances. never by unrighteous by the aid of righteousness and is The practices. his By treasury a king may earn religious merit. while he that has wealth become powerful. a well-filled treasury ! Even so they that stand in the way must have to be slain. and that cannot keep his counsels secret ? What. however.^ this and the other. saying.* ' SECTION CXXXI (Apaddharmanusasana Parva) "Yudhishthira that is said. In a season. with no loss of time. With respect seen in this world. O king I I do not see a rich is to every wealth that else. again. that is always under the influence anxiety of fear. Wealth for the performance of of making sacrifices should be acquired by every means. it is quite different. weak and and appropriated by should that king do whose cities and kingdom have been partitioned foes. who is incapable (through such poverty) of honouring his friends and attaching them to himself.302 kill MAHABHAKATA others standing on the spot. the invader be . A person without wealth is more dead than alive. can be had. A man of wealth may acquire everything. This shall be mine This ! nothing. possession of a kingdom. every one is man in the forest. whose army has dwindled away. gratify his desire for pleasure. a king of the kind you who have indicated should. A person without wealth is said to be weak. by the aid of their intelligence and cleverness. who is divested of wealth. 'What. should be done by a king procrastinating. of Some acquire wealth by gifts and sacridistress. A king fices . that as pass for righteous in times of distress. and this also. If. I do not see how else success can be had By wealth. both the worlds.

and devoted to his good. possessions for escaping from hope for similar acquisitions in is fice his conversant with morality which is a more valuable there that would sacri- passion for them (by incurring the risk of his own arrest in delivering As long as it is in his power. the the aid of knowledge. rule) disappear. Desirous of maintaining his rule. By laying down one's life in battle. the ould make peace with him. If he succeed in slaying (his enemies)! he is sure to enjoy the Earth. he should not show any com- possession.' when . who from unable to desert his sons and grandsons. monarch. may take what is not freely given by the that are good. Everything in this Nothing here is for them chat are wicked. He should by such means. cleansed by the possession of knowledge and might and of righteous conduct at other times. one obtains the companionship of Indra himself. for encountering escape can be had by the abandonment of his them).ire. If he can save his life he i strong and sinful and seek to obtain victory by unrighteous means. he should then put forth his valour. making himself an instrument of acquisition. is time sets affection the hands of robbers. he should never surrender his own self to the enemy. he should lay down his life and ascend to heaven A king can conquer the whole Earth with the help of even a small force if that force be loyal. subsist ?' "Bhishma said. 1 "Yudhishthira said. indeed. What man own self. without driving his subjects to indignation 'and rebellion.-'A king. under such circumstances. when. life said. SECTION CXXXII ''Yudhishthira and beneficial to the world. what should the king then do ?' when^his "Bhishma said. He who. is said to be conversant with the morality of adversity.. saying. takes wealth from the' wicked and gives it unto them that are good. too. seek to cause the foe to withdraw from his kingdom or fight ing bravely.-'When practices fraught with high morality all (t. the king. when his treasury is exhausted. those that appertain to righteous the means and resources for the support of when fall into in. .SANTI PARVA 30g then abandon his very capital and danger. that danger from which treasury and army ? A king should protect the ladies of his household H these fall into the hands of the enemy. and counsels are divulged. acts censuris ! mine owner. should (if his enemy be righteous) seek to make peace with him. cheerful. If the invader be unwilling to make peace. such a calamitous by what means should a Brahmana. If slain in battle he is sure to ascend to heaven.^'When such a time live by sets in. Brahmana should world is for them O This That wise man who.fe.-'When his own are dissatisfied with him he is oppressed by invaders. by abandoning a portion of his territories. If the enemy be unrighteous. the king should all his may i. Ograndsire.

wicked men.. The king should never. while levying such contributions. An ordinary king. are of a different opinion. By whom are honoured and held in high esteem. Slander should never be spoken. put their necks to the yoke and drag the cart willingly. Ritwijas. should b^ practised by a king (at such times). accuse one another. this is the eternal eye are to be viewed). viz. on the other hand. persons residing in villages and towns. Indeed. the king should would do something more. always live by the aid of prowess. however. actuated by jealousy and wrath. They that are endued with might. whose unfriendliness T. that exist (for seasons of distress) kind. If spoken. A king. that while following those scriptures. They ably in such seasons. Others who approve of the conduct of Sankha towards his brother Likhita on the occasion of the latter's approa1 The commentator explains of uexfcs. They pursued 2 do not advance such an opinion through either malice or covetousness of righteousness. that is endned with intellia time. seen that many When slanderous converse goes on. It is an indication of depravity. O king. and Purohitas and preceptors and Brahmanas. and. all not oppress. do not hold this opinion. who speak of the virtues of others in assemblies of the good. however. honour or punish anybody. permit a king to fill his treasury by levying heavy contributions on both his own subjects and those of hostile kingdoms. They. are as sincere as the former in . As a pair of sweet-tempered bulls governable and well-broken and used to bear burthens. gence. Compare the conduct of Warren Hastings in exacting a heavy tribute. at such A king. at their words. acts in this way. One should (by which practices in seasons of distress this is to be judged whether a king is be guided by this authority. laid down for seasons of distress. This is the eternal usage. The ordinary scripwithout exceptions of any tures. does not really who always support themselves by putting forth their might never like other method of living. one should close one's ears or leave Slanderous converse is the characteristics of the place outright. any kind. even so should the king bear his burthens (in seasons of distress). however. deserve to be censured. it should never be heard. number Others say that a king (at such times) should consuch a way that he may succeed in gaining a large Some regard ancient usage as the highest indication Others. intelligence.304 MAHABHABATA O any Yudhishthira. when his own treasury was empty. is endued with 1 At such times. therefore. Bhishma says. of By oppressing them. from Cheyt Sing. The ordinary it in the following way. he incurs reproach regarded as an authority in the world. to It is be called good or wicked. they that are in favour of the conduct by Sankha towards Likhita. are good men. duct himself in of allies. and refrains from molesting the good. latter class of persons. without exceptions priating The a few fruits belonging to the former. This that I tell thee is even at such times. takes care to levy them upon those that are wicked and punishable among his own subjects and among the subjects of other kingdoms. this is morality. for the British power was a matter of notoriety. 2 The sense seems to be that there are persons who hold that priests and Brahmanas should never be punished or taxed. and sin.

d not be exposed to the view. a middle course. a king How can a weak who kL hi f """^ ^ Jfigg ^ by ad*.. as very shou. and even sought to be increased T? " The treasury cannot be filled PfaCtice byC acting wit a"d nor by (acting with) u^ heartless rue. .s his fe min .lf useless f" cure).ne forn. aa approved and .L. Jf pting ' M has no affluence concea. should be carefully protected (by P "tt in g a .8ANTI PABVA Examples are seen of go5 even great R/^/ of wi The king who SECTION CXXXIII For these reasons the treasury mus be fi 1^ .

thinking that he is more powerful than they. battle. the king should always estais. though his heart is agitated by secret fears. the last line a king destitute of compassion. But he should not still live in the midst a king obtain happiness of ministers and officers who have like robbers broken through all restraints. he takes to them as if nothing has happened. It is again certain that those robbers wive's kings who strive (by making peace) to inspire confidence upon themselves in the hearts of the robbers. They. of soldiers for the blish rules in respect of people. O Bharata.e. 3 They should be sought to be brought under the king's sway. How. ( The very robbers dread 3 Their wives and children ought to be saved. observing other virtues. Rules even very trivial matters are hailed with delight by the There are men who think that this world is nothing and the is a myth. away from ravishment is flying of wives. Like dogs they him. necessary that they should not be exterminated outright. ingratitude. The king in it is and oats. future also and restraints for gladdening the hearts of his people. He should rather break at an unfavourable opportunity than bend before any one. and should always abstain from them. yield them have always T. should not be destroyed.* 1 I. commit depredations in may be regarded as harm- The lives of thousands of creatures are protected in consequence of robbers observing such restraints. all people become The very robbers who know not what compassion filled with alarm. after watching all their ins exterminating them. Those kings that do not exterminate them outright have no fear of extermination to themselves. dread such a king. . If the robbers of the forest. and though they wait only for an opportunity to slay him. 2 Grammatically. &c. depriving a person of the whole of his property. and adulterous congress with other people's these are regarded as wicked acts among even robbers. O Bharata If the king transgresses all wholesome restraints. greatness. plundering the Slaying an enemy who property of a Brahmana. violation of maidens. He that is an atheist of this type. succeed. in dealing with robbers. should never behave with cruelty towards them. may mean. and their habitations and wearing apparel and domestic utensils. continued occupation of villages and towns as their lawful lords.' T. while respect only of property. 2 For this reason. should never be trusted. -T. He should liness. that do exterminate " that act. Even the robbers of the forest may furnish a large number ! accomplishment of the fiercest of deeds. can such The king should always exert for acquiring ? 1 Exertion is mannever bend down in humility.. however. He should rather repair to the forest and live there with the wild animals. For this reason. those depredations less.306 MAHABHARATA become the king has formerly quarrelled filled witn grief at the sight once more take service under of his new affluence. to live in fear in consequence of with ease..

Professors of scriptures have said with respect to the expiation of sinfulness that one should (if stained with sinfulness) study the three Vedas. one is pierced repeatedly by the wordy darts of others and one has to burn with grief on that account. Righteof the two depends for its support upon is the weaker dependent on them that are powerful even as pleasure is dependent upon them that are given to enjoyment. Men feel alarmed at his conduct even as they Righteousness is are alarmed at the appearance of an wolf. little. Nobody in righteousness and unrighteousness. the two be compared. wait upon and worship the Brahmanas. Everything is pure with them that are powerful. constitute his obvious duties. A little (of anything in the If a strong man or does anything (for censuring or checking nobody. proclaim the praises of others while confessing one's own worthlessness. then rescue men from great perils. 2 The sense seems That to be that a poor man can have the remnant earthly things. and acts. A away from a life of humi- liation and reproach is like death itself. powerful is master everything. He that 1 powerful obtains intelligent advisers. even so is all and the reverse. words. for a Kshattriya scriptures "Bhishma of intelligence and knowledge. One fallen state of affluence leads a life of humiliation and sorrow. by subtile discussions on duty and unseen consequences in possessed respect of a future world.SECTION CXXXIV 'In this connection. whether they are of righteousness fruits of wolf's or not. T. recite mantras. they can 2 dirty remnant of a feast.e. gratify all men by looks. says him). upon seeing certain foot-prints on the ground. He should not. As it is useless to argue. abstain from accomplishing those two duties. motion). however. Righteousness rests upon Power as all immobile things upon the Earth. perform the 1 I.' T. world) is regarded as the does even many bad acts. (the earning of) religious merit and (the acquisition of) wealth. however. is like only a little of all of a strong man's .. It is from Power that Righteousness springs. cast off all meanness. There is nothing that powerful men cannot do. by committing evil acts can never escape. Power will appear to be superior to Righteousness. If righteousness and Power be associated with Truth. persons acquainted with the said. The learned have said that when in consequence of one's sinful conduct one is cast off by friends and companions. A powerless man. even so Righteousness depends upon Power. As smoke depends upon the wind (for its eousness which a tree. through fear. discussion upon the nature this world ever sees the A Kshattriya. Wealth leads to the possession of an army.. dinnner. marry in high families. therefore. He that is without wealth that is He truly fallen. 'he that has wealth and forces. of is is should seek the acquisition of power. declare this text in respect of duty. If. d?.

to accept gifts from him because of the profession he followed. possessed of intelligence and courage. he used to repair their abodes before dawn and and fruits 1 leave flesh at their doors. conversant with the scriptures. and his weapons were strong. to accept gifts character. destitute of cruelty. him as their leader. and abstain from seek the refuge of speaking much.308 MAHABHARATA usual water-rites. he protected the ascetics in the observance of their practices. Acquainted as he was with the habits of all animals. There was a robber of the name of Kayavya. he still succeeded in winning felicity in heaven. assume a mildness of behaviour. and perform austere penances. Kayavya "Bhishma said. he roved over the acquainted mountains. The robbers said. -'In this in this was a practiser of Kshattriya duties. Thou hast Thou art acquainted with the requirements wisdom and courage. ' SECTION CXXXV robber who having connection is cited the old story of a world been observant of restraints did not meet with destruction in the next. one may soon become by men. . and worshipping his seniors and preceptors with reverence. Killing the deer. With honey and flesh and roots and other kinds of excellent food. he often took flesh to them. Well with the requirements of time and place. Indeed. Indeed. By conducting and regain the regard of the world. from fear of others. He was well conversant with all the practices of as also of all animals living in the forest. destiof all tute of compassion desired to elect in their conduct restraints. one wins great respect in this world and great rewards in the next. born of a Kshattriya father and a Nishada mother. one who has committed many evil at the reproaches uttered acts. and enjoys diverse kinds of happiness here by following such conduct and cleansed of all his sins 1 by sharing his wealth with others. and deaf parents in the forest every day. Thy firmness also is ! great in everything thou undertakest 1 It is Be thou our foremost of leaders. He showed great respect for those Brahmanas that had retired from the world for taking up their residence in the woods. Morning and evening he used to excite the wrath of the deer by chasing them. As regards those that were unwilling. Capable of smiting. Alone. he hospitably entertained all persons deserving of honour and did them many good offices. should do all this. One day many thousands and regardless of robbers. of place and time. He worshipped his old. Though a robber. from persons of questionable always reproachful T. blind. devoted to the Brahmanas. his arrows never missed their aim. the Nishadas he could vanquish many hundreds of troops. without being angry one's self in this way. Brahmanas and Kshattriyas.

Kshattriya should take the wealth of such persons as never perform . viz. Such a man will have of the forest. or one that is a child. they obtained great prosperity. O Bharata of this narrative ! wicked men. from any earthly creature. not intended for self-aggrandisement. would soon win salvation although leading ' a plundering life ! 'Those robbers. Residing here. He will have no fear from no fear from any creature. By behaving himself in such a way. Truth should never be sacrificed. Those robbers again that would conduct themselves by conforming to these restraints of the scriptures. he will be able to live " there with the security of a king. the Pitris. it is said. the method by which a should fill his treasury. Never kill ye a woman. He who incurs the wrath of the Brahmanas. very soon come to be regarded as vermin in a dead body. you should worship them. By desisting from sin. the "Bhishma continued. himself meets with destruction like darkness at sunrise.SANTI PARVA respected by us all ! 309 I We will ! do as thou wilt direct Protect us duly. by thus doing good to the honest and by thus restraining the robbers from bad practices. persons acquainted with the scriptures of king olden days cite the following verses sung by Brahman himself. They who seek to aggrandise their fortunes by afflicting kingdoms in unscrupulous ways.. ye shall acquire the fruits of your valour. The marriages of men should never be obstructed. obeyed all Kayavya. ascetic nor should women be seized or brought away with force None of you should ever slay a woman amongst all creatures. even as a father or ' mother 'Kayavya said. It is They who oppress the god deserve death. or one that from fear keeps away from the fight. thus addressed. or one that is an One that abstains from fight should never be slain. He who speaks ill of the Brahmanas and wishes for their destruction. No injury should be inflicted on those houses in which the deities. The wealth of persons who are given to the performance of sacrifices. Brahmanas deserve to be exempted by you in your plundering excursions. The rod of chastisement is intended for the wicked. fails to find a rescuer in the three worlds. as A also the wealth dedicated to the deities. Amongst creatures. of commands Kayavya won great success (in the next world) He who always thinks of Kayavya will not have any fear from the denizens in fact. Let Brahmanas be always blessed and you should always fight for their good. 'In this connection. he for whose disI ! comfiture they wish. should never be taken. Troops shall be sent agains those that will refuse to give us our dues. and guests are worshipped. By giving away even your all.' SECTION CXXXVI "Bhishma said. If such a man goes to the forest.

The third was procrastinating. even so sacri2 As flies and gnats and ants are fice springs from no adequate cause. As some ants are seen to grow from no adequate cause. of mind. O king. the Pitn's. The procrastination. simile consists in the fact that ants (probably white ants) are seen to gather and multiply from no ostensible cause. even so should all persons who are averse to the performance of sacrifices should be similarly driven off from the kingdom. Another was possessed of great presence of mind.' SECTION CXXXVII "Bhishma and one possessed viz.310 religious rites MAHABHABATA and sacrifices and as are on that account regarded to be equal to robbers. and as gradually as vegetable products are seen to grow. A virtuous ruler. All the creatures that inhabit the Earth and all the enjoyments that appertain to sovereignty. In this connection. Amongst those three. One day certain fishermen coming to that lake 1 The king should T. the more they are reflected upon and discussed. if pounded between two stones. belong to the Kshattriyas. Tearing up such c^epers and plants as are not of any use. is lost. 2 The sense seems to be that sacrifice proceeds more from an internal sum of money lying in the treasury. feed the gods. desire than from a large . and men. cherish the good. should extend his conquests in the next world according to the measure of his power. In a lake that was not very deep and which abounded with fishes. listen said. hoard that wealth in his treasury. with libations of clarified butter. one that provides for the future. All the wealth of the Earth belongs to the Kshattriya and not to any person else. one had much forethought and always liked to provide for what was coming.. He should not. 'These two. similarly. even so questions of morality. T. money comes gradually for accomplishing it. becomes finer and finer. should take away such wealth. driven off from the bodies of kine and other domestic cattle (at the time of milking them). however.Men conversant with duty have said that his wealth is useless who does not. He who makes himself an instrument of acquisition and taking away wealth from the wicked gives them to those that are good A king is said to be conversant with the whole science of morality. by punishing the wicked. there lived three Sakula fishes that were friends and constant companions. however. That wealth the Kshattriya should use for keeping up his army and for the performance of sacrifice. men burn them for cook1 ing such vegetables as serve for food. This is consistent with morality. If the desire The force of the exists. of presence man of attentively to the following excellent story of a procrastinating person in the matter of settling his course of action. become finer and ' finer. always enjoy happiness. O Bharata. As the dust that lies on the Earth. By that wealth a large number of good people can be gratified.

he that has much forethought and he that has presence of mind. said. A great danger is about to overtake all the aquatic creatures living in this lake. the six seasons. seeing that all the water had been baled out. This is my deliberate opinion ! ! ! the other fish. He. and as they began to catch the the procrastinating Sakula the fishermen began to tie to a long was caught with many others. succeed in obtaining happiness. who had been procrastinating. unable to escape. fish. I never his fail to provide for it according to policy of great . day. lake. in who regarding himself clever does not seek his own proper time. It is well said.SANTI PARVA 311 began to bale out its waters to a lower ground through diverse outlets. Just at that time the Sakula noted for presence of mind. shut in the fishes that remained by diverse means. so the Sakula who was noted of those that for presence of company had been them. The divisions of the Earth are called place. The fishermen believed that all the fishes attached to the string had been caught. however. As regards the success of any object or purpose. Then however. and. therefore. quickly escaped. that remained. however. One. he agitate the little water fish. viz. addressing his two companions on that occasion of danger. it is achieved or not achieved according to the manner in which the mind is set to think of it. night. the 6sh that had much foresight. who was noted for presence of mind. leaving the string. never incurs serious danger.. That fish. Diverse are the divisions of time. Hearing the answers forethought and considerable set out by a current and reached another deep intelligence immediately The fishermen. year. "'Thus every one meets with destruction. crastinating companion and said. . foolish and senseless and without intelligence as he was. Then they began to of two companions. for mind thrust himself into the and remained quietly among he thought that he should do it to give the tied appearance of being caught. Hence these two only. that is procrastinating meets with destruction. There is. have been declared by the Rishis to be the foremost of men in all treatises in on morality and profit and those dealing with emancipation. Time cannot be seen. Kalpa. When string the fishes they had caught. like the procrastinating who from want of intelligence cannot divine the hour of dangeragain. Beholding the water of the lake gradually decreasing. month. the person of forethought and the person of presence of mind. Lava. fortnight.. biting the string. incurs great danger like the Sakula who had good presence of mind. They then removed them to a water for washing them. addressed his proWhen the time for anything comes. met piece of deep with death. Let us speedily go ! to some other place before He that resists future evil by the aid our path becomes obstructed Let my counsels prevail of good policy. Muhurta. That one amongst the three Let us all leave this place with you who was procrastinating then answered. such as Kashtha. no need of such haste. That man. These two. Kala. viz.

of foes. about the manner in which a king should conduct himself when he is assailed by many foes. make friends with men of intelligence and . The course of human actions. O bull of Bharata's times make friends and foes ! race. may not be even when surrounded by many foes. as well as that O which can meet present emergencies. should the king then do should he he be strong. a large number of foes. it is necessary that paying heed to the requirements of time and place.312 MAHABHARATA avails of proper however. succeed in holding up his head when he is challenged on all sides by many powerful kings leagued together ? How does a king at such How should he. O chief stupefied It behoveth thee to discourse to me on this of Kuru's race I desire ! ! to hear everything. O A and a friend also becomes a foe. this question is certainly worthy Its answer is fraught with great happiness. conversant with the scriptures and well versed with morality and profit. one should either trust one's foes or make war. O grandsire. Listen to me. When a king falls into distress. succeeds time and place succeed in winning results better than the mere man of foresight and the man of presence ' of mind-' SECTION CXXXVIII bull . weak and alone. As regards. this I if he is to obtain happiness ? With whom ? make war and with whom should he make peace Even how should he behave in the midst of foes O scorcher to be the highest of all questions connected with regard ! There are few men for listening to the answer of this question and none to answer it save Santanu's son Bhishma firmly wedded to truth and having all his sense under conO thou that art highly blessed reflect upon it and discourse to trol the discharge of kingly duties. behave at such a time towards both friends and foes ? When what if those that have indications of friends really become his foes. One should. comfortable to what has been laid down in the scriptures. I desire. said "Yudhishthira said. that that intelligence which provides against the future. provoked by his past acts. How may a king. always Those again that act with due regard to in achieving much. even exerting one's self to one's best. what should be done and what should not. while procrastination brings about destruction. ! me on 1 it ! of thee son. to hear of that superior intelligence aided by which a king. foe becomes a friend I declare to thee. I ask thee this. that does everything after reflection and scrutiny. as Bhishma said. range themselves against him and seek to vanquish him. 'Thou hast. through the combination of circumstances.of Bharata's race. O ! Bharata.-^'O Yudhishthira. becomes very uncertain. is everywhere superior. one that means for the accomplishment of one's objects. therefore. all the duties generally known that should be practised in seasons of distress.

never succeeds in winning any gain or acquiring any of those fruits for which others endeavour. with head upraised. wisdom. of the name of Harita. Every evening after sunset he spread his traps. daily devouring Sometime after. in a moment of heedlessess. Having become an object of sight with both the mungoose and the owl. licking the corners of his mouth with his tongue. on every side. began to think in this strain. In this connection is cited the old story of mouse at the foot. While trustfully roving through the forest little seach of food.' "There was a large banian in the midst oTH "Bhishma continued. having made a the shade it A hole there with a hundred outlets. Getting upon the trap. the little animal began to eat the flesh. when there is fear danger. lived at the foot of that tree. for as he suddenly cast his eyes he saw a terrible foe of his arrived at that spot. the mouse after a while saw the meat (that the Chandala had spread there as lure). it dawn every night. how should one act that wishes for one's good ? Encom- . Allured to that spot by the scent of the mouse. the discourse between a cat and a afforded was very refreshing. a Chandala came into the forest and built a hut for himself. then sitting on the branch of the banian. was caught in the snare. Laughing mentally. On the branches of the tree there lived a a cat. in great happiness. Covered with many kinds of creepers. It stood in the midst of the mouse of great forest. O thou of great wisdom. he did not mark his own danger. He again who make peace with foes and quarrels with even friends after a full consideration of circumstances. when his foe the cat who was at all times an enemy of the mouse species was thus caught in the net. the mouse Palita came out of his hole and began spot at the of day. Living in underground holes. when. succeeds in obtaining great fruits. it was the It had a large trunk from which resost of diverse kinds of birds. That foolish man who never makes peace with foes. spreading his nets made of leathern strings he went back to his hut. when death itself is staring me in the face. Indeed. his enemy entangled helplessly in the net. an extensive forest. the animal came there with great speed for devouring his prey. and happily passing the night in sleep. in At such a season of great great alarm. numerous branches extended in all directions. one's life-breaths cannot otherwise be saved. One should make peace with even one's foes. The mouse beheld at the same time another foe living in the holds of trees. he even got upon Intent on eating the flesh. That foe was none else than a restless mungoose of coppery eyes. and animals of diverse species lived on it. O Bharata.SANTI PARVA 318 knowledge that desire one's welfare. Delightful to look at. the mouse. of the name of Lomasa. its body resembled the flower of a reed. And he stood on his haunches. It was anight-wandering owl of the name of Chandraka of sharp beaks. Diverse kinds of animals fell into his traps happened that one day the cat. of a banian. returned to the large number of birds. named fPalita. And so to in rove about fearlessly.

again. however. Professors of the science of policy say that even this should be the conduct of one who having fallen into distress seeks the safety of his life. vfe. that If I remain on this trap. saying. shall As regards cat. It is better to have a learned person for an enemy than a fool my life now rests entirely in the hands now address the cat on the subject of his of my enemy the own liberation. O cat Art thou alive ? I wish thee to live I desire the good of us ! ! both ! O amiable one. thou hast no cause for fear. A person when afflicted by a stronger one should make peace with even an into which he has fallen is very great. I do not behold any other refuge than this cat. Taking the aid of the science of policy. the owl will surely seize me. he also is certain life. strive my best to save my life. Sought to be made a prey by three foes. conversant with the science of Profit and well acquainted with occasions when war should be declared and peace made. he may make peace with me. Perhaps. the mouse. The cat is my great foe. is my life safe There that wretched owl with restless glances and horrid cries is eyeing me from the branch .. thou dost not slay me! There is an excellent expedient in this case. let me counsel the cat for his good. gently addressed the cat. is He Let me try whether I can succeed in making this foolish creature understand his own interests. indeed. But he is in distress. the mouse. and by which you may obtain your escape and I may obtain great benefit. the mungoose will surely seize and devour me. escape from all the three. By reflecting earnestly I have hit sake and for my sake. how should I now act for saving my life ? I should now seek the protection of one of those foes. so that I may. without every side adequate precautions. enemy. as they do not attack me. Only so long. seeing fear in every direction. upon that expedint for thy There are the ! mungoose and the owl. filled with alarm for his safety. with my intelligence. for it will benefit both of us. aided by proper means and intelligence. however. that a person of our intelli- gence should lose his wits. it would not be wrong to Even thus did that take the cat for an intelligent and learned foe surrounded by foes. Having reflected in mouse.814 MAHABHARATA passed on all sides by danger. both waiting with evil intent. The service that I can do him is very great. if. for a friend. cat succeeds in disentangling himself from the net. myself. /Warding off even innumerable dangers by hundreds of means. the cat. at the present moment. one should always save one's Danger. A person possessed of intelligence and wisdom and conversant with the science of policy never sinks. ! If I to devour me ! It is not proper. encompasses me on were to descend from this trap on the ground. I ! this strain. Having fallen into such distress. I shall. pursue his reflections. O cat. an enemy. at this moment. however great and terrible the danger that threatens him.^! address thee in friendship. made a high resolution. which suggests itself to me. therefore. Thou shah live in happiness! I shall rescue thee. but the distress At present. If.

that the mouse said. and possessed of eloquence. It is seen A of that the man takes the piece of wood also takes the man the other side. praised the words of the speaker and the cat said these words honoured him by gentle words in return. the mouse Palita waited in expectation of an answer. Like this. let our love for each other increase. if thou abstain from killing me Thou hast lived on this tree and I have lived at its Both of us have dwelt here for many long years. . reflecting upon his own state. By taking only seven steps in a walk together. gently eyeing with thee. the mouse. O puissant one ! If thou rescuest me. if distress without delay ! I will Let there be a compact between us do that which is opportune and necessary for still the accomplishment of our business. O amiable one ! Blessed be thou that wishest me delighted Do that. I wish that thou shouldst live. He upon whom nobody places his trust. Friendship. and let there be union amongst us both. I will rescue thee. our compactt to wood happiness to both of us. shall cut the net for serving thee.j Without my ! the net. and thou also wishest that I should live. thy service devoted to thee will go for nothing. without hesitation. the cat. Both of them are unhappy. said these words of grave import and high wisdom : hast spoken most magnanimously. and thou also wilt rescue me Having said these words that were beneficial to also will bring ! both of them. are never applauded by the wise. the mouse Palita. O cat. 11 'Hearing these well-chosen words. ! I place myself in thy hands ! I am I I shall wait upon and serve thee like a disciple I A seek thy protection and shall always obey thy behests 1 Thus addressed. is exceedingly frightened by it. they become friends in no time. in greater ! I am certainly in great distress. Possessed of sharp foreteeth and having eyes that resembled the stones called lapis lazuli. shall act towards thee as a friend. thou wilt not succeed in tearing however. Thou needst have no held.SANTI PARVA of thit treel I 316 the good. two such men become friends. known to thee. For this reason. I. fraught with reason and highly acceptable.. which thou thinkest to be of to live ! beneficial consequences possible. Men of wisdom never applaud the endeavour to do an act when its opportunity has passed away. answered as follows: lam called jLomasa. and he who never trusts another. ! Thou art. I am my friend. man crosses a deep and large river by a piece of wood. Know that this is the proper time for such an understanding amongst us. Endued with great intelligence. fear now. judgment and forethought. All this is foot. T. viz. thou art seven-paced. and the piece to the other side. that were fraught with reason and on that account highly acceptable. as regards 1 Possessed of wisdom as thou art. the cat. the mouse's foe possessed of in reply. addressing in return the cat who was completely under his control. It could scarcely be unexpected from one like thee ! Listen to me as I disclose the expedient Thou 1 The meaning is that as regards good men.

one. Possessed of learning. trustfully crouched beneath his enemy's body. ! ! quickly friend dear to me as life time. the cat. through thy grace Whatever it is in my power to do I have almost got back my life for thee now. cast his eyes upon Palita and applaud him with exclamations of welcome. a O O friend Liberated from this danger. Let there be peace between us. began. though near. Having applauded Palita. Lomasa. \After this. I will crouch myself Do exceedingly frightened at the mungoose Protect not I am competent to rescue thee benefiting ! 1 ! for that wretch too wishes I to seize me for his cut the noose that entangles thee. How is it. waiting for the proper time to finish his work. and thus assured by the cat. the mungoose and the owl both became hopeless of seizing thsir prey. ' and went away to their respective abodes. tell me and I shall do it. the mungoose and the owl both left that spot does those services for the sake of services received. beholding the cat and the mouse make that convenant for accomplishing their mutual ends. ! A person by doing even abundant services in return never becomes equal to the person that did him good in the first instance. filled with delight. do thou cut these strings quickly : f The hunter will soon come here ! Thus addressed by the cat who had . reflected for a moment.316 I MAHABHARATA hit have upon I ! for am beneath thy body. indeed. howmotive "Bhishma continued. The former ever. O amiable one. the cat wishing to expedite him in the task. that thou dost not proceed with haste said in thy work ? Dost thou disregard me now. disposed to friend IHearing friendliness. both Harita and Chandraka became alarmed and filled with wonder. 'The mouse. O amiable relatives. to cut strings of the noose slowly. I shall both of us. O these judicious words fraught with reason. Kill me thou save me me also from the owl. Distressed by the strings that entangled him. having thyself succeeded in thy object ? O slayer of foes. with all my friends and do all that may be agreeable and beneficial to thee. should be held to have acted without any such The latter. Come to me Blessed be thou. the cat became impatient upon seeing the mouse slowly cutting away the noose. Clever in seizing their prey. and gladly ! said without losing any thou of great wisdom. prey. Indeed. as he lay under the body of the cat. Beholding the mouse employed so slowly in the work. the mouse Palita. Indeed. the mouse trustfully laid himself thus under the breast of the cat as if it were the lap of his father or mother. freed from this distresst I shall certainly seek to gladden thee. Both of them had strength and intelligence. thou art. having thus made the cat understand his own interests. conversant with the requirements.of time and place. I shall. swear by Truth. and worship and honour thee on every occasion in return for thy services. seeing that close intimacy between the mouse and the cat. the mungoose and the owl felt themselves unable to wean the mouse and the cat from that compact. Beholding him thus ensconced within the body of the cat.

O cat. should be maintainwith great caution like the hand (of the snake-charmer) from the ed The person that does not protect himself after aving snake's fangs made a covenant with a stronger individual. Indeed. who shall enter my ing the had quickly and properly done his own part of the covenant. I shall have to stand in great fear of thee Therefore. do thou wait for the of time. O thou of great wisdom. That improper time. to me as I tell thee That friendship in which there up without fear. O Lomasa. I shall cut the at that moment of fear to both of us Freed then. thou wilt the tree. I beg thy forgiveness. . I rescued these from a great danger with considerable promptness. Be gratified After the cat had said these words. addressmouse who was not expeditious in discharging his part. I have. Hindu scriptures. wilt fly away in hole and thou wilt get upon the tree! Thus addressed by the mouse in words that were beneficial to him. that the consequence of this act of thine will surely be to lesson the duration of thy own life 1 I have ever. We are it ! ! proper hunter strings ascend not be impatient. Alas honest persons never do the business of their friends in this way. possessed of with me intelligence and wisdoni-and knowledge of the scriptures. do thou exert a little so that good may be done to both of us If. possessed of intelligence and eloquence. said these If I ! excellent words unto in furtherance of him . on the other hand. Nobody is nobody's friend nobody is nobody's well-wisher persons become friends or foes only from motive of interest. the cat. unconsciously done thee any wrong. they do it otherwise Thou shouldst do what is for my good with greater expedition. O friend When I shall seethe time.8ANTI PABVA 317 become impatient. T. O amiable one to possess much wisdom ExpediDrive all thy fears! We know the requirements tion is not necessary : ! 1 not wasting time When an act is begun at an never becomes profitable when accomplished. . and impatient of saving his life. thou shouldst not bear it in remembrance. approach towards this spot armed with weapons. always produces splendid fruits. finds that covenant to be ! fear and which cannot be kept I productive of injury instead of benefit. which is begun at the proper time. act. and sin and wickedness always shorten in the This is laid down almost everywhere ifc. before this. ! what is is consistent with my own objects however. the mouse possessed of intelligence said tl. the cat. the mouse. At that time thou wilt not think of anything else save Do ! ! the safety of thy fear. Listen. said. I life. If thou be freed at an improper time. O wicked wight. 1 Virtue prolongs life. on the ! other hand. know. Interest enlists interest even as tame elephants catch . And when thou. Filled ! with delight while doing it. heard what thou hast said thy own object.ese beneficial words fraught with his own good unto the cat who did not seem Wait in silence. replied unto the mouse in the following words. remembering our former hostility thou art only suffering the time to slip away.

all acts should be so free. all the friends I have. Of a large ingly filthy. ! me like a father ! I my honoured swear by my life that Be thou counseller and do thou thou hast no fear from In intelligence thou art Usanas himself. thou hope thou dost not suspect me of any evil and thou hast done me a great service. will honour and worship thee I myself too shall worship thee with all thy friends and kinsmen. Only one remains to be cut While the mouse and the also with haste. afflicted by the fear of the hunter. seeing everything. penetrated the heart of gradually wore away. from the presence of a terrible foe. O Lomasa cat were thus talking with each other. the cat from the branches of that tree addressed the mouse Palita then staying within the hole. the Chandala. took up His hopes frus- bull of Bharata's race. and said. the grim-looking man appeared on the Beholding the individual who resembled a messenger of Yama. trated. Freed from the noose. Liberated from that great peril. freed from that situation of danger and fled and entered his hole. again. he that forgets regarded a wicked person and never succeeds in obtaining friends at times of danger and need. By the power of thy . Without having conversed with me. fierce. all the strings of this net I will cut that have been cut by me. honoured and served by thee to the best of thy power. O and having obtained back his life which is so very valuable. Be comforted. and exceedears were very long. After.318 MAHABHARATA wild individuals of their species. tree. Palita also. done that something may remain to be done. With grateful ! person is the lord of both there that will not worship the giver of his life ? Be thou Be thou the disposer of all my my body and home ! wealth and possessions rule us. When at last morning came. Armed with weapons and mouth of dogs. For this reason. whose name was the cat. Penetrated with fright. His hair was A black and twany. the cat became filled with fear. I intent ? I am certainly grateful the sweetness of friendrhip ? Having made friends. fly away for thy life without ever thinking of seizing me. his His hips were very large and his aspect was very that extendeded from ear to ear. appeared on the scene. cut the remaining string that held fast the cat. both in serious danger. the night ! ! great fear. the cat ran with speed and got upon the banian. is thee to enjoy the company of my poor self who has become thy friend Like disciples worshipping their preceptor. he addressed What shalt thou do now ? The mouse very quickly Palita and said. the Ckandala returned to his abode. Parigha. quickly Lomasa meanwhile had climbed the high his net. O friend. he also quickly left that spot-j Indeed. The hunter. however. Having inspired me with trustfulness and having given me my life. why dost thou not approach me at a time when friends should enjoy hast suddenly run away. an act has been accom* plished. accompanied by a pack scene. all my relatives and kinsmen. the doer is scarcely regarded. Behold. When I shall set thee thou wilt. His visage was frightful. It behoveth them afterwards. I have been.

is The danger that arises from blind reposing of confidence such that it the person that reposes such confidence). nor should heart one trust too much a person deserving of trust.e. if excasted for irreligious practices. One becomes dear from an adequate cause. are cuts the very roots (of father. the reasons that I am very dear to thee that exist on my side. the sister's son. The son.SANTI PARVA 319 understanding thou has conquered us. the mother. all that thou hast said. ascertain that a net had been spread here. Friendship becomes changed into enemity in the course of time. Friends assume the guise of foes. thou hast given us our life Addressed in such soothing words by the cat. the maternal uncle. There is no such thing in exisIt is tence as a friend. j Friends should be well examined. ! Thou tellest me in sweet words Hear me. A foe also becomes a friend. ! ! Thou couldst not. conversant with all that is productive of the ! highest good. happiness of their own selves. One should not repose trust upon a person undeserving of trust. finds his life to be unsafe. disregarding all considerations of policy. however. Possessed of the strength of policy. Listen now : O as I say what appears to me. There is no condition son lives and thinks them indangered to live. self Lomasa. He who reposes blind trust on friends and always behaves with mistrust towards foes without paying any regard to considerations of policy. takes that that deserves permanently the name either of friendship or hostility. comes to be regarded as a person whose understanding has been unhinged. fails to A protect his own self. his escape is very difficult who immediately after he is freed from danger seeks the means of his enemy's Thou earnest down from the tree-top to this very spot.. How can he protect others ? Such a per- son. He who. force of circumstances that creates friends and He who regards his own interests ensured as long as another per- when that other person will cease other person for a friend and considers him so as long as those interests of his are not clashed against. ruins all his acts. from levity of understanding. replied in these sweet words that were beneficiat to himI have heard. sets his upon an affectionate union with either friends or foes. of interest B )th friends and foes arise from considerations and gain. O friend. foes. People take care all O thou that Behold the efficacy of self-interest art possessed of great wisdom. without doubt. other relatives and kinsmen. the mouse. the guided by considerations of interest and profit. also should be well studied. . Father and 1 mother may be seen to discard the dear son if fallen. a task When to understand compacts of friendship are formed. like this is Foes regarded by even the learned as a difficult one depending upon acute intelligence. There is no such thing as a foe. person. it is difficult for the parties whether the other parties are really moved by lust and wrath. Self-interest is very powerful. One 1 I. possessed of levity of understanding. In this world. and foes assume the guise of friends.

The affection between us arose from a sufficient cause. That reason. understand their interests. depend upon interest. I am thy food. O amiable one ourselves the object thou hast. The old state of enemity that is natural has comeback. I ask. Having been rescued thou applaudest me so that thou mayst succeed in net. Times spoils reasons. as is sometimes becomes seen. This very day thou wert my foe. that affection between us has come to an end. besides thy desire of making me thy prey Thou shouldst know that lam own own not forgetful of this. tell me. such a thing and wife having quarrelled reunite is not to be seen in persons unconnected with one another. . that friendship also has passed away. Thoroughly conversant as I am with the dictates of policy thit have been thus laid down. again. uterine brothers or husband together from a natural affection. reason of this affection that thou showest for Guided. This very This very day thou hast once more become my enemy. the net that is spread for me ? Through thy power I was freed from a great danger. The me now is ill-timed. The world rests upon the example of the wise. The friendship between two uterine brothers. thou wert art powerful. a person becomes dear for the purpose he serves. has passed ! it. from adequate reason. One never is moved by the desire of gain (in becomes dear to another (without cause). I war that are themselves very ustable. This whole world of creatures some form or other). If. Thou seekest thy however. On the other hand.320 MAHABHARATA a foe from an adequate cause. Thou art the eater. interests. however. so in What is that reason. There is no need of uniting again in friendly intercourse. Thou hast now no need for me except to make me your food. by my own interests. The object I had has also been accomplished. I do not know any kind of affection between any persons that does not rest upon some motive of self-interest. day. the love between husband and wife.been accomplished. Generally. dependant upon time. for thy sake. Each of us has served the other. strong. That state of things has passed away. Through my power thou hast been freed away. Behold the levity of the considerations that move There was friendship between us as long as there was living creatures reason for its existence. I am weak. Without foe. nature my from a similar danger. One becomes dear for one's third becomes liberality. Another becomes dear for his sweet words. That cause exists no longer. Others. possessed of wisdom. The circumstances under which peace is to be made or war declared are changed as quickly as the clouds change their form. why shall I enter today. A consequence of his religious acts. myself am firm in peace and Thou my friends. Thou art by From circumstances thou becomest my friend. Thou art There cannot be a friendly union between us when we are situated so unequally. from the I understand thy wisdom. for which I have become ? so dear to thee. Thou shouldst not address such words to a person possessed of learning and to understand his competent own interests.

thou said that there is cause for a breach between thee and me. Seeing me with thee. If doth 4. and wealth. blushing shame. as I have already Indeed. offices. tell me then thee what is there that should do for thee. cease in thy If thou thinkest that I have done thee a service attempts. I am will incapable of acceeding to this proposal. why not thy dear spouse and thy loving children cheerfully eat me up ? I shall not. They that are weak always know him for a foe who is possessed of greater strength. Having recourse to that wisdom which arises from a study of the scriptures.SANTI PARVA easily 321 me. Truly I in my estimation that thou art devoted to my good. the cat. I shall not mingle with thee. therefore. indeed. ! trustfully or heedlessly. Thou feelest now the pangs of hunger. O friend. and jewels. Thou seekest still friendly union with me and art wishest to treat me with affection and do me services. and kingdom. If thou own I interests (of the kind indicated). O Lomasa follow then the dictates of friendship when I may happen to rove pangs of hunger. firm its in the truths of steadiness ! 'Thus rebuked soundly by the mouse Palita. one's own self Persons who are mindful of said. Guided by the science of profit. If a person lives hat he may have to give unto foes for not desirable to give up life like one's wealth. I know that thou art hungry. I know also . If. shall certainly give For protecting one's own self one should everything except my give up one's very children. Thou wert entangled in the net for the sake of food. unite with thee in friendship. the scriptures. Thou making food of seeking for thy prey. addressed the mouse and said the following words. with 11 'Lomasa said. swear by thee that to injure a friend is I know thy wisdom. never incur danger as the consequence of their acts. thou seekest verily to eat me up today. and that I then. I know that this is thy hour for taking food. giving up one's wives and wealth. the affluence It is protecting one's own self. Even that will be gratitude in thee A residence near a person possessed of strength and power is never applauded Even if the danger that existed be regarded to have passed away. I ! should always stand in fear of one dost not seek thy more powerful than I myself. that is on the look out for a prey ? Be happy I am filled with alarm even if I behold thee from a distance. should always be protected by. The reason no longer exists for such a union.1 very censurable. Thou hast sons and wives. never loses " Their understanding. is What is person there possessed of of a foe that is any wisdom that will place himself under the power in not distinguished for righteousness. One should sacrifice one's all for he can recover protecting his all life. will presently leave thee. life. with thy eyes directed towards me. protecting their own selves and who do all their acts after a proper consideration and survey. Thou has been freed from it. thou dost not forget my good think of what will be beneficial to me and be comfortable.

power. one like myself should always guard one's life from persons like thee. especiFor these reasons. the highest truth of all all treatises is on policy is Mistrust. and by considerations of policy. again. hastily leaving the branch of the tree. possessed of wisdom. it behoveth thee not to cherish Thus addressed by the cat. lam very grateful for services received. O good friend. One possessed of intelligence and learning should make peace 1 The correct reading is Jatakilwishat*T* . I can. the mouse Palita also. again. frightened at the mention of the hunter. should one repose blind confidence upon a person deserving of trust. Having thus displayed his power greatest good. mistrust of persons productive of the be. I am. Do thou also protect thy own life from the Chandala whose rage has been excited 1 While the mouse thus spake. A weak person having made a compact with a stronger one when both are threatened by foes. succeeded in baffling many powerful foes.' "Bhishma continued. In brief.322 MAHABHARATA good friend. when there is not are possessed of leirning and ! ! ! ! under the power of a foe. it behoveth ally devoted to thee. . acquainted with duties. himself repose confidence in foes. ! O thee to reunite thyself with me. if they mistrust their never succeed in getting them under strong. the mouse any suspicion in respect of me reflecting a little. the latter.Even thus the mouse Palita. However weak people may if foes. One's possessions and children and everything are so long valuable as One Nor should never trust a person who does not deserve to be trusted. For this reason. not behove thee. however. am commanded by thee. of the Having gained his object. though weak and alone. one is alive. should ( when that common danger passes away ) conduct himself needfully sufficient reason. however. One should always endeavour to inspire others with confidence in himself. ran away with great speed. by such eulogiums or by gifts of great wealth. said these words of grave import to unto the former. Thou art exceedingly good I have heard all that thou hast said and It am glad to hear thee For all that. entered another hole. I cannot trust thee is impossible for thee. to induce me to unite with thee again. that they who are possessed of wisdom never place themselves. I am an appreciater of other people's merits. If I with all my kinsmen and relatives. even I of understanding. the weaker two parties should not again repose confidence on the stronger. I am. O friend. I am devoted to the service of friends./ O cat. however. conversant with the truths of scripture and possessed of wisdom. the cat. One should not. For these reasons one should. I tell thee. They that trust in persons of such wisdom see ample reason for placing their mental disposition as ourselves. to take me for what I am not I cherish a great friendship for thee in consequence of thy having granted me my life. lay down my very life. protect his own self. O thou that art acquainted with the truths of morality. under all circumstances.

Prudence requires that one should fear as long as the cause of fear is not at hand. Even thus should one conduct himself. O monarch. Making peace. be fearless. and when mistrusting (others) One should not. Indeed. The mouse and the cat owed their escape to their reliance upon each other's services. one should wage war with even a friend. thou shouldst not is becomes unable to ward sense.SANTt PAHVA with a 323 powerful foe. them has to over-reach the other. In such a case he that possessed of wisdom succeeds by the power of his understanding in over-reaching the other. one should. one should put forth one's courage. before the cause of fear has actually come. at a time of common danger. when filled with fear. Having listened to it. with all his senses about him and without heedfulness. therefore. is that such a man. and bearing the truths of scripture in mind. thou shouldst act with proper consideration in the matter of uniting thyself with the foe (when the common danger has passed away). that powerful. cause of fear actually presents itself. When two persons it is who were once engaged certain that each of is in hostilities in his make heart peace with each other. or tripping. one is never filled with fear when that the fear. in view of even the gravest acts. From that cherishes fear moved by seem to seeks the counsel of wise and experienced men. act . in fear one should seem to be fearless. to be over-reached by the wise. of course. the old story (of the mouse and the cat). Thus have I recited to thee. one should make peace with an enemy and when the time comes. act like a person in fear. Oking. and while really mistrusting others one should seem to be trustful. is never ruined. do thou act duly in the midst of thy friends O Deriving from that story a high understanding. however. a consciousness of his weakness. such counsel should never be given to any one. If one acts like a man in fear before the cause of fear is at hand. and learning the difference between friend and foe and the proper time for war and peace. having gained thy object. Such fear and heedfulness like a person in fear before the lead to keenness of understanding. T. that cause has actually presented itsajlf. He. I have thus pointed out to thee the course of Kshattriya duties at great length. on the other hand. off his dangers and calamities. When. One who acts with such needfulness never trips. 1 The . very great fear is seen to arise. with one and kinsmen. one should. however. thou wilt discover means of escape when overwhelmed with danger. One should. in consequence of his heedlessness. as they have said that are conversant with the considerations of peace (and war). that. Listen now it to me in brief. of a person who 1 Never always acts with fearlessness. always For these reasons. It is necessary. when in fear. should seem to be trustful. Knowing this. who is destitute of wisdom suffers himself. When the time comes for it. behave towards others with falsehood. Yudhishthira. and make peace with foes. The person cherish /ear cause is actually present.

O ! O Thou wilt then. a king should always conduct himself in the midst of his " foes/ SECTION CXXXIX "Yudhishthira said. used every day to go to the shores of the ocean and bring a by his queen a son. Pujani could mimic the cries of all animals. There was a bird named Pujani who lived for along time with king Brahmadatta in the inner apartments of his palace at Kampilya. this history couched in excellent words and capable of sharpening the intelligence. puissant one do thee good. and moved by childish One of those fruits she impulse. One day the infant prince. My mind has become confused.324 trust the foe again. |Like the bird Jivajivaka. With eyes directed to this history of peace and war between the mouse and the cat. O mighty one. 'Listen. without trusting others. Getting from the nurse's arms. saw the little offspring of Pujani. Therefore. At length. They If worshipped. and capable of increasing strength and energy. king. thou shouldst always worship them. viz. duly obtain kingdom. great danger arises to kings. . can a this I king. O king. do thou win prosperity by once more protecting thy subjects O son of Pandu. the child ran towards the bird. and Pleasure). offspring of great splendour. While living there. O what have heard thee say on the subject of mistrust !' "Bhishma said. The infant prince derived great strength from the fruit of Pujani's giving that he ate. Every day she brought them and every day she disposed of them in the same way. The fruits she brought were sweet. to what happened at the abode of Brahmadatta. began to play with raising the bird it. Profit. that But how would the king maintain it ? From trust. O king.* the conversation between Pujani and king Brahmadatta. O king ! of three (viz. while borne on the arms of his nurse. who was grateful for the shelter of the king's roof. They are teachers of duty and morality. relishing the sport highly. MAflABBARATA This path of policy is consistent with the aggregate Guided by this Virtue. as nectar. she had great knowledge and was conversant with every truth.. they are sure to are always grateful. at doubt of mine. couple of fruits for the nourishment of her infant prince. fame. down. she brought forth an At the very same time the king also got Pujani. himself if he were not to trust anybody hast said. achievements and progeny in their proper order. own young one and the gave to her own child and the other she gave to the prince. thou But how. Though a bird by birth. which was of the same age with himself in his hands. Thou hast laid no trust should be placed upon foes. great good. O monarch. Sruti. always seek the companionship of Brahmanas in all Brahmanas constitute the great source of benefit both in thy acts ! ! this world and the next. conquer his foes? Kindly remove grandsire. O king.

said these words unto Pujani. nobody should live with a Kshagrief. Pujani. continue O " 'Pujani said. on the other hand. returning ground. If the who avenge consequence of a sinful act be not seen in the perpetrator himself. for this act of hostility. Amongst men that have injured one another. to dwell here. they that are possessed of learning never app- laud his conduct. wept bitterly and said. I shall certainly take due vengeance. One who is not much trust . The very sons and grandsons of persons that have injured each other meet with destruction (in consequence of the quarrel descending like an inheritance). once more said. In consequence again of such destruction of their offspring. with tears gushing down her cheeks. Pujani. Beholding her son deprived of life. and that was dependent on him for protection Having said these words unto herself. accustomed to the palace. perpetrated deliberaact of vengeance. an injury. least- should too deserving of trust should not be trusted nor be placed upon a person deserving of trust. they lose the next world also.SANTl PABVA the prince pressed out its 325 and then came back to his nurse. * 'Brahmadatta it said. that object has been served. and deriving some comfort from that A sinful act. The fool that injurer to leave his old place. beheld her young one lying on the fruits. The account has been squared. Under such circumstances it is always better for the One should never place one's trust upon the soothing assurances received from an injured party. If a person having once injured another continues to reside with that other. Pujani. who had been out in her search after the him ! When When they have any object to serve. trusts such assurances soon meets with destruction. sons! Brahmadatta. never lose their merit by such conduct. and heart burning with Alas. Even after doing an injury they always seek to soothe and assure the injured for nothing. with her talons. beholding his son blinded by Pujani daughter's and regarding the act to have been a proper vengeance for what his O son had done. Do not leave thy present abode. assails the doer without any loss of time. The Kshattriyas do evil unto all. and ungrateful betrayer of confidence. He has been life of one that was born on the same day with him and that was being reared with him in the same place. An injury was done by us to thee. king. The danger that arises from blind confidence brings about a destruction that . On the other hand. they cast off the instrument. killed by the prince. that used to eat with him. mistrust would be productive of happiOne that has betrayed confidence should never be trusted in the ness. Thou hast avenged by doing an injury in return. They should never be trusted. ttriya or make friends with him or take delight in any intercourse with young life The dam. in his sons or son's sons or they would certainly be seen. O king. Animosity is not quickly cooled. They. pierced the eyes of the prince. upon this cruel guilty of a triple sin in taking the ! tely. they behave with courtesy.

1 upon such a union. own self it Amongst persons One's that enjoys or suffers that have injured one not advisable there should be (real) peace. I should. thinking In this world. leave this place without any hesitation. The mind of a person who has once injured another. 'Brahmadatta said. therefore. No fresh injury also has followed in such cases. especially when displayed by those that are strong. is The companion requires is have his palms he to remain one's happiness or misery.326 is MAHABHABATA self. as also mutual trust. to The a foe. the avenger his account by such conduct. has at last arisen. Indeed. The father and the mother are only the foremost of friends. For this reason it is (insincere) conciliation like (wild) elephants through a (tame) she elephant. Mutual animosity. Such conduct. it is the injured person worshipping him with gifts and honours. They who cannot be reduced to subjection by the application of even force and sharp weapons. has been seen to cool. as in the case of the Chandala and the dog. can be conquered by confidence. however. No friendship can once more be cemented between person that has injured and him that has inflicted an injury in return The hearts of both cannot forget what has happened. seeds. however. Therefore. In spite of any subjequent honour that he might obtain from his enemy. The wife is complete. if he sees another. Indeed. Amongst persons that have injured one another. " 'Pujani said. all along honoured by thee A cause the that place ! of enmity. Animosity (springing from mutual injuries) can never die. One who does an injury in return for an is never regarded as offending. that animosity co-residence blunts the keenness of animosity. The son is only one's seed. O. It is necessary that a union should take place between an injurer and the avenger of that injury. The person injured should never trust his foes. an affection arises naturally between them. always fills weak with alarm. continue to squares reside here without leaving this place 1 "Pujani a said. O Pujani. should never repose confidence on others. I have been soothed with assurances of good will men frequently meet with destruction in consequence of (misplaced) ! necessary that we should no longer meet each other. A person possessed of intelligence should leave where he first meets with honour in order to meet only with dishonour and injury next. The reason no longer exists for which I lived here. merely brother oiled if a vessel for is drawing the friend or so. 'Brahmadatta said. he should behave in this way. One should seek to inspire others with confidence in one's One. I have dwelt in thy abode for a long time. becomes naturally filled with mistrust. 'From the fact of two persons residing together. even if one inflicts upon the other deadly injury. " injury received 'Brahmadatta said. .

It is Time that does every act. no further confidence should be reposed upon him. The the result of an injury once inflicted. Feelings of animosity lie hid like fire in wood. gifts of wealth. the fire of animosity can never be extinguished by conciliation. or by ignited. For this reason I dwelt in thy abode. by display of prowess. openly or by covert means. and at present I cannot trust thee "Brahmadatta said. however. 2 The sense seems to be that the act which has led to the hostility should be calmly considered by the enemy before he gives way to wrath. be the cause of all acts. If Time. -T. 3