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Published by: Jackeline on Dec 07, 2012
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Jackeline Ruiz Period 4 November 9, 2012 Ionic v.

Covalent Bonding Lab Investigation Introduction: Most atoms are never found by themselves; instead they are bonded to other atoms through an ionic or covalent bond because the atoms need to form an octet to become stable. Covalent compounds bond when a non-metal shares valence electrons with another non-metal. Covalent bonds share the valence electrons to form a full octet. A covalent bond has a weak structure because they’re negative therefore has a low melting point. Ionic bonds are metals that transferred their valence electron to non-metals. The metal is the transferor of its valence electrons to the non-metals because a non-metal has high electronegativity. These bonds have a high melting point because it has a crystal lattice structure therefore has a strong bond. The hypotheses I created was that the ionic compounds are those with low melting points and do conduct electricity. The covalent compounds are solutions with high melting points and do not conduct electricity. The reason for this experiment is to distinguish the different bonds that occur with different materials. Hypotheses: Table 1: The expected results of testing five different chemicals. Chemical Hypothesis 1: Hypothesis 2: High Hypothesis 3: Will Formula Ionic or or Low Melting it conduct Covalent? Point? electricity? Distilled (pure) H2O Ionic Low Melting No Water Sodium chloride NaCl Ionic Low Melting Yes Sucrose (sugar) C12H22O11 Covalent High Melting No Dextrose C6H12O6 Covalent High Melting No Sodium sulfate NaSO4 Ionic Low Melting Yes Compounds to be Tested Procedures: Part I. Melting Point and Strength of Bonds 1. Aluminum foil was shaped into a square.


2. The square of foil was placed on a tray on a ring stand with a Bunsen burner beneath it 3. Observations were to be carefully recorded. 4. The square of foil then cooled down and was ready to be rinsed off. Part II. Electrical Conductivity 1. The dried compound was tested for conductivity. Observations were recorded. 2. Drops of distilled water were dropped into the compound to dissolve it. 3. The solution was tested for conductivity. Observations were recorded. 4. The conductivity tester was washed carefully after every use to avoid contamination. 5. All steps were repeated for every five compounds. Results: Table 2: The results of testing five different chemicals Name/Chemical Part I: Melting Point Part II: Conduct Final Conclusion: Formula (1—5; High, Med. or Electricity (Yes/No) Ionic or Covalent Low?) Bonds? Dry Dissolved 1. Distilled (pure) 1= lowest: (already N/A No Covalent Water/ H2O melted) 2. Sodium Chloride/ High No Yes Ionic NaCl 3. Sucrose (sugar)/ Low No No Covalent C12H22O11 4. Dextrose/ C6H12O6 Med No No Covalent 5. Sodium sulfate/ High No Yes Ionic NaSO4 Conclusion: After this laboratory, it was concluded that sodium chloride and sodium sulfate were ionic compounds versus sucrose and dextrose were covalent compounds. All of the initial hypotheses were incorrect. From the results, the ionic compounds were those that conducted electricity in water and had a high melting point. However, the covalent compounds didn’t conduct electricity when dissolved in water and had a low melting point. The ionic bonds form a


crystal lattice structure. The ionics are formed from metal cations (+) and non-metals anions (-) so when they dissolve in water electricity can flow through the solution. Additionally, ionic bonds are very strong since they have a high electrostatic attraction between the cations and anions. Covalent bonds form a molecule structure. The covalent compounds don’t conduct electricity because they do not form ions, which cause them to be insulators and not conduct electricity when dissolved in water. Furthermore, covalent bonds have a weak bond because the atoms have no electrostatic attraction. That is how the observer was able to distinguish the different bonds with different solutions in the experiments.


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