Zaman Kegemilangan Islam Abbasiyah

Latarbelakang Pemerintahan Islam Terdiri dari 3 zaman yang besar – Khalifah ArRashidun (Kurun 7 Masehi), Ummayad Dynasty (Kurun 7/8 Masehi) dan Abbasiyah Dynasty (Kurun 8 dan 9 Masehi). Pemerintahan bermula dari golongan politik yang berbeza. Pusat pemerintahan juga berbeza – Kota Madinah, Damascus dan Baghdad.

Salah silah Keturunan Pemerintahan
Qusay Abdul Manaf

Abd Al-Syam Umaiyah Abu Al-As Al-Hakkam Affan

Hasyim Abdul Mutalib

Harb Abu Talib Abdullah Al-Abbas Abu Suffian Muawiyah Abdullah Ali Uthman Yazid Muhammad (SAW) Ali

Hamzah

Marwan

Khalifah Mahsyur di Zaman Abbasiyah
Khalifah Abu Jaafar Al-Mansur (754 – 775 M) Khalifah Harun Al-Rasyid (786 – 809 M) Khalifah Al-Makmun (809 – 813M)

Perkembangan Intelek
Berkembang pesat di zaman Pemerintahan Al-Makmun
Kemajuan berterusan dari Pemerintahan sebelumnya Pemerintah berilmu dan faham dalam ilmu Islam, bahasa, sastera Menggalakkan usaha-usaha penyelidikan Mengasaskan Pusat Intelek “Darul Hikmah” Pembinaan kilang kertas giatkan usaha penulisan Memberi hadiah istimewa sebagai insentif Negara Aman

Tokoh-tokoh Islam
Pakar Penterjemah Bahasa – Yahya AlBatiq, Yuhanna Ibn Musawaih, Hunain Ibn Ishak. Pakar Perubatan dan falsafah- Al-Kindi Pakar perubatan – Yuhanna Ibn Musawaih, Hunain Ibn Ishak Pakar matematik dan astronomi – AlAsturlabi, Al-Khawarizmi, Al-Battani Pakar Sains – Jabir Hayyah Al-Fazi (Kitab Al-Tajmin, Al-Zibad, Al-Sharqi)

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Pakar Matematiks dan Sains
Muhamad ibn Musa AlKhawarizmi
Pengasas Ilmu Algebra berdasarkan Kitab yang ditulisnya, Kitab Al-Jabr wal-Muqabala. Terma Algorithm juga di ambil dari nama Al-Khawarizmi. Memperkenalkan sistem number Arab dan juga sistem number Hindu-Arab. Pakar Geography dalam menentukan keluasan sebenar Laut Mediterranean.

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Algebra dan Algorithm
Algebra
“His systematic and logical approach to solving linear and quadratic equations gave shape to the discipline of algebra”
where a ≠ 0. (If a = 0, the equation becomes a linear equation.)

Algorithm
an algorithm is a sequence of finite instructions, often used for calculation and data processing.

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Pakar Sains
Abū Alī al-Hasan ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Haytham (Ibnu AlHaytham)
Pengasas Ilmu Optik dalam buku yang dikarangnya “Book of Optic”.
“The most important development of the scientific method was the use of experiments to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally empirical orientation, which began among Muslim scientists. Ibn al-Haytham is also regarded as the father of optics, especially for his empirical proof of the intromission theory of light.”

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Pakar Perubatan
Abū ‘Alī al-Husayn ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā Balkhi‘ (Ibnu Sina)
Kurun ke-9 Masehi, Baghdad mempunyai 800 doktors.
“great discoveries in the understanding of anatomy and diseases were made. The clinical distinction between measles and smallpox was discovered during this time.”

Pengarang buku , The Canon of Medicine and The Book of Healing menjadi satu Ensaiklopedia Perubatan semasa.

Pakar Astronomi
Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī alBattānī
Memperdalami ilmu peredaran Bumi. “One of his best-known achievements in astronomy was the determination of the solar year as being 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds.” He also calculated the values for the precession of the equinoxes (54.5" per year, or 1° in 66 years) and the inclination of Earth's axis (23° 35'). Memperkenalkan konsep Trigonometry, tan a = sin a / cos a.

Pakar Kimia
Abu Musa Jābir ibn Hayyān
Pengasas Ilmu Kimia “A number of chemical processes such as distillation techniques and the production of alcohol were developed in the Muslim world and then spread to Europe.” Motto, "is that you should perform practical work and conduct experiments, for he who performs not practical work nor makes experiments will never attain the least degree of mastery."[

Kegunaan Kimia
Made improvement of many manufacturing processes, such as making steel and other metals, preventing rust, engraving gold, dyeing and waterproofing cloth, tanning leather, and the chemical analysis of pigments and other substances. developed the use of manganese dioxide in glassmaking, to counteract the green tinge produced by iron — a process that is still used today. He noted that boiling wine released a flammable vapor, thus paving the way for the discovery of ethanol (alcohol) by Al-Kindi and Al-Razi. invented a kind of paper that resisted fire, and an ink that could be read at night. He invented an additive which, when applied to an iron surface, inhabited rust and when applied to a textile, would make it water repellent.

Akhir Kata
Cendikiawan Islam lebih terkehadapan dari yang lain Khazanah Islam amat banyak Buat yang terbaik untuk kegunaan orang ramai.

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