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Gambaran Umum Common Rail System

Lokasi Part
Fuel pipe to injector

Front Engine
Injector

Fuel pipe to Rail

Supply pump SCV Fuel temperature

Rail Pressure sensor Pressure limiter

Fuel System
Diagram Konstruksi Supply Pump

Fuel System
Konstruksi Supply Pump
SCV Plunger

Pump body Ring cam

Feed pump Fuel temperature sensor

Regulating valve Drive shaft Plunger Filter

Fuel System
Fuel flow dalam supply pump

The fuel that is draw from the fuel tank passes through the route in the supply pump as illustrated, and is fed into the rail

Fuel System
Fuel pump (DENSO type HP3)
The eccentric camshaft is attached to the camshaft. The eccentric cam is connected to the ring cam
camshaft Plunger A Ring cam Eccentric Cam Ring cam

Feed pump The plunger and the suction valve are attached to the ring cam. The feed pump is connected to the rear of the come shaft

Plunger B 5

Fuel System
Konstruksi
Plunger

Eccentric Cam Ring cam

camshaft

Fuel System
Operation

Movie

Fuel System
Konstruksi Feed Pump
The trochoid type feed pump, which is integrated in the supply pump, draws fuel from the fuel tank and feeds it to the driven by the drive shaft Quantity decrease Outer rotor Inner rotor

Quantity decrease (fuel discharge

Intake port Discharge port Quantity increase Quantity increase (Fuel intake)

Fuel System
Suction Control Valve

Fuel System
In case of short time ON duty
Plunger Maximum intake quantity Feed pump

Short time ON duty

Large valve opening

Large valve open Movie 10

Fuel System
In case of long time ON duty
Plunger Minimum intake quantity Feed pump

Long time ON duty

Small valve opening

Small valve opening 11

Fuel System
Injector Structure and System
An injector consists of a nozzle, command piston,

command chamber, and solenoid valve that controls


the ON/OFF of the outflow orifice. The command piston moves vertically in accordance with the fuel pressure in the command chamber. As the nozzle is integrated with the command piston, the orifice of the injector opens and closes with the vertical movement of the command piston.

Movie

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Fuel System
Injector Structure and System

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Fuel System
Injector Operation
Hydraulic pressure

OFF
Hydraulic pressure

ON
Electro magnetic valve

Spring force

Spring force 20 to 180MPa

20 to 180MPa

Orifice

Orifice

Nozzle Movie Fuel injection 14

Fuel System
Fuel injection control
1. Fuel injection amount control

Basically, the fuel injection amount is calculated in accordance with the accelerator position and the engine speed.
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Fuel System
Fuel injection control
2. Fuel injection timing control

Basically, the fuel injection timing is calculated in accordance with the engine speed and the target injection amount.
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Fuel System
Fuel injection control
2. Fuel injection timing control Multiple stage injection control Engine-ECU injects fuel before and

after the main injection to suit the


driving conditions. The injection that takes place before the main injection is called pre-injection,

which is provided primarily for


reducing combustion noise and NOx. The injection that takes place after the main injection is called

after-injection, which is provided


primarily for activating the catalyst.

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Fuel System
Fuel injection control
2. Fuel injection timing control EX.) Multiple stage injection control for 4M41 DID

Pre Injection
Opening of Injection face

Main Injection Pilot Injection

Post Injection

After Injection

Time
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Fuel System
Fuel injection control
3. Fuel pressure control
System Configuration Diagram

Engine-ECU maintains a high fuel pressure by controlling the rail pressure in accordance with the signals input from various sensors. Accordingly, the injection of fuel at a high pressure improves combustion and reduces the amount of discharge of the particulate matter.
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Fuel System
Fuel injection control
4. Idle speed control
System Configuration Diagram

Engine-ECU compares the target idle speed with the actual idle speed, and controls the fuel injection amount so that the actual idle speed will attain the target idle speed (feedback control). Furthermore, the following compensations are added to control the engine at a stable idle speed.
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Fuel System
Fuel injection control
5. Throttle valve control
System Configuration Diagram

When engine is running When engine is stopped When a problem develops

Engine-ECU actuates the throttle valve control servo to fully open the throttle valve. In a driving range in which the exhaust gas recirculation control is being effected, the throttle valve closes to create a vacuum in the inlet manifold. Engine-ECU actuates the throttle valve control servo to fully close the throttle valve for 3 seconds. This cuts off the flow of intake air and prevents the engine from run on (dieseling). If the engine-ECU detects a serious problem, it immediately closes the throttle valve fully to stop the engine. 21

Fuel System
Sensor

Crank angle sensor

Cam position sensor (5 teeth) 22

(56 teeth)

Fuel System
Fuel filter

High cleaning efficiency filter

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Fuel System
Fuel tank

Mounted on the front of the rear axle to reduce the shock during impact Materials without lead and hexavalent chromium have been employed for the fuel tank with attention to environmental issues. A fuel cut valve, which prevents fuel leakage when the vehicle banks or rolls over, has been located inside the fuel tank for fewer openings and hose bonding points 24 on the fuel tank top surface.

Fuel System
Learning
Vehicle with common rail DI-D need to be applied small quantity learning (S,Q.L.) at the end of line (E.O.L) check S.Q.L start and S.G.L end by MIL status as follow. Procedure for Small quantity learning

Precondition
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Vehicle speed : 0km/h Accelerator pedal: Fully close Power steering : not operated Electric load : Off Water temp. : 80 deg. or higher AT oil temp. : 60 deg.or higher Oil temperature: 30 deg. or higher Shift position: N or P A/C : Off Idle condition: stable

When injector is changed or correction has to be applied to ECU for all cylinder before automatic learning mode

S.Q.L start
MIL: Blink

S.Q.L complete
MIL: Off

Idling

S.Q.L NG

After I/G Off to ON When injector is changed

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Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
After fuel-related parts are replaced, the common rail engine must register their

identification codes with the engine-ECU and execute learning.


Registration and learning item Injector replacement Operation type Supply pump replacement Engine-ECU replacement

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Injector identification
Small injection quantity learning (SQL) Supply pump correction learning

Applicable
Applicable ---

----Applicable

Applicable
Applicable ---

Note : When the engine-ECU is replaced, collect in advance the injector identification code from the current engine-ECU. Doing it makes registration easy.
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Fuel System
1. Common rail relative parts supply unit
Supply unit Common rail Assy Components Fuel pressure sensor Fuel pressure limiter Common rail Suction control valve Fuel temperature sensor Supply pump caution Replace common rail assy when changing parts After replacement

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Supply pump Assy

Replace supply pump assy when changing parts Pay attention to the discharge because of injector drive voltage 85V ---------------------

Initialize learned value by MUT-III

Injector ---------------------

Register after erasing correction value by MUT-III Register the injector correction value, supply pump learned value by MUT-III 27

Engine-ECU ----------------------

Fuel System
2. Caution and method of Injector correction(1/2)
1) There are correction value, QR code and 15 bite of hexadecimal numeral (30 digits) which is written on the top surface of injector

Register the this hexadecimal numeral by using key board or touch panel of MUT-III to engine-ECU

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Fuel System
2. Caution and method of Injector correction(2/2)
2) Make sure the replace injector cylinder No. (because it can not detect cylinder No. mis-registration) 3) Small size of letter is used for hexadecimal numeral 4) Register the all injector corrected value when you replace ECU (engine warning lamp turn ON if there is no/partial value registered in ECU)

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Fuel System
3. Diagnosis function
Increase diagnosis items (CDI: Approx.100 items , IDI:Approx.30items) Ex) New diagnosis items
Diagnosis items Diagnosis code P0638 Failure parts Remarks

Abnormal of intake valve seized Abnormal of DC motor excessive current flow Failure of NE/G phase unmatched

ETV

Failure of ETV motor (judge of valve seized) Failure of ETV motor (excessive current) Cam position sensor and crank angle sensor output waveform unmatched

P2118

ETV

P0016

Crank angle sensor Cam position sensor

Injector function (non injection)


Fuel leakage

P0301 to P0304
P0093

ECU

Poor increasing angular speed by combustion


Suction control valve duty amount too big against requirement

Fuel pipe

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Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
1. Injector identification code registration procedure
Purpose : Because individual injectors have different injection characteristics, the engine-ECU corrects injection time for each cylinder to improve injection accuracy. For this reason, when the injector or engine-ECU is replaced, injector correction data must be registered afterwards in the engine-ECU using the MUT-III. Correction data is converted into an identification code consisting of 30 alphanumeric characters and printed on the injector connector.

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Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
1. Injector identification code registration procedure

Select the write mode from the menu, enter the identification Code printed on the injector, and execute writing. 32

Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
1. Injector identification code registration procedure
A. Injector ID code writing (Exchanging engine-ECU)
1) Before replace the current engine-ECU, connect the MUT-III. 2) Select Special Function from the function menu of MUT-III. 3) Select INJ. ID Writing (Exchanging ECU) menu. 4) Select Injector ID Read & Save menu.

Caution If the injector ID code is not registered, the engine warning lamp goes on and diagnosis code No. P1626 is logged. 33

Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
1. Injector identification code registration procedure

A. Injector ID code writing (Exchanging engine-ECU) 5) The injector ID code from the current engine -ECU is displayed. 6) 7) Click the Check from task bar. The injector ID code is saved to MUT-III from the current engine-ECU. 8) Replace the new engine-ECU.

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Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
1. Injector identification code registration procedure

A. Injector ID code writing (Exchanging engine-ECU)

9)

Select Saved Injector ID Writing menu.

10)

Select the injector ID code from the current


engine-ECU, click the Check from task bar.

11)

The injector ID code from the current engine -ECU is written to the new engine-ECU.

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Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
1. Injector identification code registration procedure
A. Injector ID code writing (Exchanging engine-ECU) 12) 13) For other way, select All Injector ID Writing menu. Input the each injection ID code by keyboard.

14)

Make sure that the engine warning lamp that


is on changes to blinking, indicating the registration is complete.

15)

Execute small injection quantity learning.

Small Injection Quantity Learning Procedure

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Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
1. Injector identification code registration procedure

B. Injector ID code writing (Exchanging injector) 1) Select Special Function from the function menu of MUT-III. 2) Select INJ. ID Writing (Exchanging INJ) menu. 3) Select number of replaced Injector ID writing menu or All Injector ID Writing menu. 4) Input the each injection ID code by keyboard.

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Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
2. Small Injection Quantity Learning procedure

Purpose : To keep emission and noise level at adequate levels, the engine-ECU must learn Injector fuel injection in idle mode.

During learning, the engine-ECU calculates actual injection from each cylinder based on changes in engine speeds and corrects pilot injection control. It then keeps records of this amount of correction as a learned value.
For this reason, after the engine-ECU or injector is replaced, learning must be executed using the MUT-III.

Caution
If small injection quantity learning has not been executed, the engine warning lamp blinks.
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Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
2. Small injector quantity learning procedure
- Engine coolant temperature : 80 90C - AT temperature : 60C or higher - Lamps, A/C condenser fan and accessories : OFF - Transmission : Neutral - Power steering : Static state

1)

Put the vehicle in the left-hand idling stable condition. Select Special Function from the function menu. Select Learning menu.

2)

3)

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Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
2. Small injector quantity learning procedure
4) 5) Select Small Injection qt. Learning item. Click the Check from task bar.

Caution
If the vehicle conditions go out of the learning conditions during idling, learning is interrupted. To re-execute learning, the ignition switch must Once be turned off.

6)

Continue idling for about 3 minutes before learning is completed.

7)

Confirm that the engine warning lamp is off. If it still blinks, re-execute learning. 40

Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
3. Supply Pump Correction Learning procedure
Purpose : To engine-ECU learns the relation between the suction control valve (linear Solenoid valve) of the supply pump drive current and the fuel injection volume. The learning value is calculated from the suction control valve drive current and the rail pressure sensor output voltage. When the supply pump is replaced, therefore, this learning must be executed. Re-learning is executed when the engine is idling after the learning value in the engine-ECU Has been reset by the MUT-III. Suction Control Valve (SCV)

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Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
3. Supply Pump Correction Learning procedure

- Accelerator pedal : OFF - Engine coolant temperature : 60C or higher - Fuel temperature : 30C or higher

1)

Select Initialization from the function menu. Select item No. 21 Supply pump exchange service.

2)

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Fuel System
Common rail engine learning function
3. Supply Pump Correction Learning procedure

3) 4)

Click the Check. After initializing, run the engine at idle in the left-hand conditions.

5)

Confirm that the item No.65 High pressure pump learned status on MUT-III Service Data is 2. FF : Initial Condition 0 1 2 : Non-learning statue : Temporary learning completed statue : Learning Completed statue 43

Service Detail
Initialization setting value for Supply pump.
supply pump EEPROM discharge characteristic data Initialization setting value

Replace

New data of Supply Pump

Setelah mengganti komponen harus dilakukan setting initialisasi dengan kondisi IG switch OFF
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Service Detail
Bagaimana mengganti Common Rail ? Common Rail tidak dapat dibongkar menjadi komponen yang terpisah ( harus diganti secara assy )

Pressure Sensor

Tidak dapat dibongkar ! Pressure Limiter

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Service Detail
Bagaimana cara memasukan QR code untuk injector baru.Saat mengganti Injector atau ECU , harus memasukan kembali QR Code dari Injector . ganti Injector QR code baru New data Engine ECU

Re - Input
ganti ECU

semua 4 Injectors
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Service Detail
Bagaimana memasukan QR code pada Injector Saat mengganti Injector mengganti Injector Data saving Input new data ECU Replacement Input saved data Saved data Saat mengganti ECU Save data to MUT 3 Tester

Input QR code

Setting

Delete Code DTC P0201 Delete Code DTC P0604

Register Completed

Register Completed

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Small injection Quantity Learning Procedure


PRASYARAT : - Engine coolant temperature : 80C atau lebih tinggi - AT temperature : 60C atau lebih tinggi - Lamps, A/C condenser fan and accessories : OFF

- Transmission : Neutral
- Power steering : tidak dioperasikan
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Injector ID Procedure
Penggantian Injector

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Injector ID Procedure
Penggantian ECU

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Supply Pump Initialization Procedure


PRASYARAT : - Engine coolant temperature : 60C atau lebih tinggi - Fuel temperature : 30C atau lebih tinggi - Accelerator pedal : OFF

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Service Detail
Part-part yang tidak dapat digunakan lagi (Red Color) Injector Injector Seal

O-Ring

Washer
Gasket O-Ring

Cylinder head cover

Fuel return pipe

Supply pump
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Service Detail
Mengganti Rail baru
Mengganti pipa baru saat part-part berikut diganti Discharge pipe

Part-part yang diganti

Mengganti pipa baru

*Injector *Rail *Supply pump *Rail

Discharge pipe Inlet pipe

Inlet pipe
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COMMON RAIL SYSTEMS

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Service Detail
Procedure for fuel line replacement should be operated with attention to the cautionary statement. The contents of CAUTION is the same as L200 4D56s. (see below)

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Service Detail
Memeriksa kebocoran (Fuel System)
1. IG switch OFF No leakage 2. Engine Start No leakage 3. Ganti pipa pengembalian dan start Engine (tidak bisa hidup) No leakage ( From return pipe) 4. Gunakan MUT-III memeriksa kebocoran dengan actuator test No leakage

Normal Fuel System


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Service Detail
Memeriksa getaran Engine Gunakan MUT-III untuk memeriksa getaran Engine
Active Test Injector Cut Injector Cut Injector Cut Injector Cut

#1 #2 #3 #4

High voltage

Jangan melepas connector injector


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Service Detail
Penggantian Fuel Filter
Fuel filter Warning switch To supply pump From Fuel tank

Hand pump

Fuel filter case (Aluminum)

Filter

Filter
Water level warning switch
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Service Detail
Fuel Filter Structure Hand pump Fuel filter Warning switch To Supply pump

From Fuel Tank

Filter

Fuel filter case (Aluminum)

Water level warning switch


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Service Detail
Fuel Filter Warning Lamp
Fuel filter warning switch Tersumbatnya Fuel filter akan dideteksi dengan Fuel filter warning switch

Fuel Filter warning lamp

tersumbat Combination meter. Fuel Filter

Saat Fuel filter terdapat beberapa masalah maka Fuel warning lamp akan menyala
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Service Detail
Fuel Filter Warning Lamp Diagram Combination meter Engine Speed sensor Fuel filter warning switch ECU Combination meter To Supply pump Filter Filter Water level warning switch
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Fuel Filter warning lamp

Service Detail
Fuel Filter Warning Lamp Status Fuel Filter / Water level warning lamp .

Warning
Water level warning

Status

Step

1
Flashing

Fuel Filter warning Showing

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Service Detail
Fuel Filter Warning Lamp Diagram Ketika Fuel filter warning lamp menyala, berarti perlu untuk mengganti filter dan reset warning lamp

Mengganti filter

Buka Fuel tank cap.

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Service Detail
Fuel Filter Warning Lamp Diagram

lepas Inlet hose

Melepas Filter
lepas Outlet hose Fuel level

lepas Connector Drain plug Drain water


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Service Detail
Fuel Filter Warning Lamp Diagram

Memasang kembali Fuel filter

Install the fuel tank cap. Install Inlet and Outlet hose.
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Service Detail
Fuel Filter Warning Lamp Diagram

Install fuel filter / Reset warning lamp

Reset warning lamp


Within 3 60 sec.

3 sec.

IG ON Connect the connector

OFF

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Service Detail
Fuel Filter Warning Lamp Diagram

Install fuel filter /Reset warning lamp


Keluarkan udara dari Fuel system. Hand pump

Finish

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