# 1 Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics 1.

1 Understanding Physics  explain what physics is  recognize the physics in everyday objects and natural phenomena [……/13 x 100 = ………..]

1. A phenomenon is an ……………… that can be perceived by our……………. 2. In physics, we study …………………. ……………………, such as the eruption of volcano, rain fall, formation of rainbow and the ………………. of matter, such as length, temperature and volume. 3. There are many fields of study in physics, including ………., ………….., ……, ……….., ………, ………………, ………………., …………………….. and ………………. …………………. 1.2 Understanding Base Quantities and Derived Quantities [……/70x100=………..]  explain what base quantities and derived quantities are  list base quantities and their units  list some derived quantities and their units.  express quantities using prefixes.  express quantities using scientific notation  express derived quantities as well as their units in terms of base quantities and base units.  solve problems involving conversion of units 1. A physical quantity is a ………………… ………………..that can be……………… 2. Base quantities are ……………. ………………. that cannot be defined in terms of other …….. …………….. There are ……… base quantities:………….., …………., …………., ……………… and ………………….. Physical Quantity Base Quantity Quantity Symbol Length Mass Time Electric Current Temperature Table 1 3. Derived quantities are…………. ……………. consisting of combinations of ………… ……………..., by …………………, ………………, or both operations. Base S.I. Unit S.I. Unit Unit symbol …etre …ilo…ram …econd …mpere …elvin

2 4. Derived quantities as well as their units are expressed in terms of base quantities and base S.I. units as follows: Given that l : length, m : mass, t : time, I : electric current, T : temperature. Derived quantities Expressed in base quantities Derived units (symbol) Area (A) Volume (V) Density (ρ) Speed (v) Work or Energy (W or E)

Power (P)

Velocity (v)

v=

l t

Acceleration (a)

v-u t u = initial velocity v = final velocity t = time taken a= F = ma m = mass a = acceleration

m s = m s −1 (read as metre per second) ms −1 Unit a = s = m s −2 (read as metre per second per second) Unit v = Unit F = kg x m s −2 = kg m s −2 =N (read as newton)

Force (F)

3 Impulse (Ft) Ft = change of momentum = mv – mu m = mass u = initial velocity v = final velocity p = mv m = mass v = velocity F A F = force A = area P= Q mθ Q = heat energy m = mass θ = change in temperature c= Unit Ft = kg x m s −1 = kg m s −1 =Ns (read as newton second) Unit p = kg x ms −1 = kg m s −1 =Ns (read as newton second) N m2 = N m −2 = Pa (read as pascal) J Unit c = kg oC Unit P = = J kg −1 0C −1 J = kgK = J kg −1 K −1 (read as joule per kilogram per kelvin) 1 Unit f = s = s −1 = Hz (read as hertz) Unit Q = A s =C (read as coulomb) V Unit R = A = V A −1 =Ω (read as ohm) Table 2

Momentum (p)

Pressure (P)

Specific heat capacity (c)

Frequency (f)

1 T T = period of swing; unit: second (s) f= Q = It I = electric current t = time V R= I V = voltage; unit: volt (V) I = electric current

Electrical charges (Q) Resistance (R)

4

5. Prefixes are used to express some physical quantities that are either very big or very small. Prefix Tera Giga Mega kilo Desi centi mili mikro nano piko Table 3 6. Standard form or scientific notation: A x 10n where 1≤ A < 10, n is an integer (integer positive or negative) Physical Quantity Mass of earth Diameter of an oil molecule Speed or light in the vacuum Radius of earth Mass of hydrogen atom Time of a day Temperature of the centre of the earth Size of a flu virus Value 6 020 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg 0. 000 000 000 74 m 299 792 458 m s-1 6 370 000 m 0. 000 021 kg 86 400 s 6 000 000 K 0.000 000 2 m Standard form or Scientific notation Symbol Value

5 Table 4

1.3 Understanding Scalar and Vector Quantities  define scalar and vector quantities  give examples of scalar and vector quantities.

[……./34x100 = ……..]

1. Scalar quantities are quantities that have ………………. but no …………….. 2. Vector quantities are quantities that have both ………………… and …………………. Scalar Quantities Vector Quantities

3. Example : Distance(s) • Total ………. of the………………………. • ………….. quantity Speed • Rate of …………… of …………………. • Speed = • • • ………….. quantity Velocity Rate of ………… of ………………….. Velocity = • Displacement(s) Distance between …….. …………… measured along a specific direction

…………… quantity

…………………. quantity

6

4.

Annie the ant is traveling down the road to buy an umbrella for these rainy days. She walks from her nest, A to B, B to C in 10 minutes’ time as shown in the picture below: (a) What is the distance she traveled? (b) What is her displacement from A? (c) What is her speed? (d) What is her velocity? U A 4m
Annie the ant

Solution: (a) Distance traveled = = = …………….

B

3m

C

(b) Displacement of the object from A = 5 m towards the direction of AC tan θ = =
∴θ

= …………. o

∴ The displacement of the ant is ………….. in the direction of ……………… from …... (c) Speed =

=

(d) Velocity =

7

=………………………… towards the direction of ………..
1.4 Measuring Instruments

[……/89x100=…..]

    

Measure physical quantities using appropriate instruments Explain accuracy and consistency Explain sensitivity Explain types of experimental error Use appropriate techniques to reduce errors

Accuracy, Consistency and Sensitivity in measurement & Errors Definitions: 1. Consistency in measurements refers to ……… …………….. …………. there is among the measurements made when a quantity is measured ……………… ………………….. 2. Accuracy of a measurement is …………… …………….. the measurement made is to the …………….. ………………… of the quantity. 3. Sensitivity of an instrument is its …………. to detect a ………… …………… in the quantity to be measured in a ……….. ………….. of ………. 4. Figure 1.4.1 shows the result for four shooters A, B, C and D in a tournament. Every shooter shot five times. : Shooter A B C D Figure 1 Table 1 5. Error is ……………. caused by measuring ……………… or the …………….. or the …………. ……………. of the surroundings. 6. Two main types of errors : ………………. …………. and ………………… …………. Table 2 Consistency Accuracy

8 Parallax errors Definition: A parallax error is an………… in reading an instrument because the observer’s eyes and pointer are not ………………………………………….. to the plane of the scale. Concept & Explanation: 1. Figure 2, 3 and 4 show the correct positioning of the observer’s eyes to avoid parallax errors.

2. (a)

How to avoid parallax error? position of eyes must be………………………………………with the scale of the reading to be Systematic Error  Caused by: i. Error in instruments ii. Error in calibration  Example i. ……………….  ………….. be reduced or overcome  Way of correction i. Take the error into account taken.  Random Error Caused by: i. Surroundings factors, such as temperature and wind ii. Carelessness of the observer Example i. ………………….. ii. Error in ………………. …………. be reduced Ways of correction i. Take several readings and calculate the average value.

 

(b)

When taking reading from an ammeter, we must make sure that the eyes are exactly in front of the pointer, so that the………………… of the pointer in the mirror is ……………. …………………. the pointer. In other words, the reflection of the pointer on the mirror could not be seen by the observer, then it is free from………………… ……………..

9

Measuring Instruments & Accuracy Measuring Instruments: Physical Quantity Length Current Mass Temperature Time Voltage Measuring Instruments

Table 3 (A) Instruments measuring length 1. Metre Rule Ruler A

Ruler A Sensitivity Accuracy Length of wire
4 5

Ruler B

0

1

2

3

wire
0 1 2 3 4 5

Ruler B

10 Figure 5 2. Vernier Calipers The same wire is measured by a vernier caliper. The reading is as follows:
5

4

Figure 6 3.

Sensitivity Accuracy Length of wire 5
10

0

Micrometer Screw Gauge The diameter of the wire is measured by a micrometer screw gauge. The reading is as follows:
0 5 25

Sensitivity Accuracy Diameter of wire

Figure 7

20

Vernier Calipers 1) How to read from a vernier caliper? Figure 8 shows the use of a vernier caliper to measure the size of the inner diameter of a beaker. Inner diameter = main scale reading + vernier scale reading = 3.2 + 0.04 = 3.24 cm Negative zero error ure Fig 10

Figure 8 Positive zero error

Negative zero error = - ( 0.1 – 0.08 ) cm = - 0.02 cm All measurements taken with this vernier calipers must be corrected by subtracting - 0.08 cm, which is adding 0.08 cm to the readings

Figure 9

11 Positive zero error = + 0.08 cm All measurements taken with this vernier calipers must be corrected by subtracting 0.08 cm from the readings. Eample Example

(i)

Figure 11

(ii)

(i)

Figure 12

(ii)

Zero error = + 0.04 cm Vernier caliper reading = 0.4 + 0.01 = 0.41 cm Corrected reading = vernier caliper reading – zero error = 0.41 – 0.04 = 0.37 cm

Zero error = -(0.1 – 0.07) cm = - 0.03 cm Vernier caliper reading = 3.6 + 0.02 = 3.62 cm Corrected reading = vernier caliper reading – zero error = 3.62 – (-0.03) = 3.62 + 0.03 = 3.65 cm

Exercise: 1 Write down the readings shown by the following (a) 7

8

0
(b)
4 A B 5

5

10

P 0

5

Q 10

(c)

6

7

0 5 10

12 (d)
0 1

0 5 10

2. (a) The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper when the jaws are closed.
0 1

0

5

10

Zero error = ………… (b) The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier calliper when there are 40 pieces of cardboard between the jaws.
5 6

0

5

10

= ……………………

Corrected reading = ……………………… = ……………………………

Micrometer Screw Gauge 1. How to read from a micrometer screw gauge?

13

Figure 13

Figure 13 shows the use of a micrometer screw gauge to measure the size of a spherical object. Main scale reading = 5.5 mm Thimble scale reading = 12 x 0.01 = 0.12 mm Final reading = 5.5 + 0.12 = 5.62 mm

2. Positive zero error and negative zero error

14 Positive zero error Negative zero error

Figure 14

Figure 15

Positive zero error = + 0.04 mm All measurements taken with this micrometer screw gauge must be corrected by subtracting 0.04 mm from the readings Example

Negative zero error = - 0.04 mm All measurements taken with this micrometer screw gauge must be corrected by subtracting 0.04 mm, which is adding 0.04 mm from the readings Example

Figure 16

Figure 17

Zero error = + 0.01 mm micrometer screw gauge reading = 2.5 + 0.35 = 2.85 mm Corrected reading = micrometer screw gauge reading – zero error = 2.85 – 0.01 = 2.84 mm

Zero error = - 0.03 mm micrometer screw gauge reading = 6.0 + 0.08 = 6.08 mm Corrected reading = micrometer screw gauge reading – zero error = 6.08 – (-0.03) = 6.08 + 0.03 = 6.11 mm

Exercise: 1. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges.

15 (a)
0 5 30
5 1 0 15

(b)
4 5 4 0

25

0

10 5

2. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

0

0 45

0

5 0

Zero error = ……….. mm

Zero error = …......….. mm

(b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges. 20

0

5 0

0

5

15 Zero error = ………… Reading shown = ………………….. =…………………… Corrected reading =……………….. = ……………….

(B) Instrument Measuring Current : Ammeter

16

Ammeter ranged ……………………. Sensitivity =………………. Accuracy =……………….

Figure 18

Doubled ranged ammeter Upper scale ranged ……………………… Sensitivity =……………; accuracy =…………….. Lower scale ranged………………………… Sensitivity =…………… accuracy =……………… Reading =………………….. Figure 19

Miliamm eter……… …………… …….. Sensitivity =……………… Accuracy = ……………… Reading =………………..

Figure 20

17

(C) Instrument Measuring Temperature :Thermometer Figure 21 Accuracy = ………….. (D) Instrument Measuring Time

Mechanical Stopwatch Accuracy =………….. Reading =……………

Figure 22: Mechanical stopwatch

Digital Stopwatch Accuracy =……………… Reading = ………………..

Figure 23: Digital stopwatch

18 1.5 Scientific Investigation  Identify variables in a given situation  Identify a queation suitable for scientific investigation  Form a hypothesis  Design and carry out a simple experiment to test the hypothesis  Record and present data in a suitable form  Interpret data to draw a conclusion  Write a report of the investigation […../24x100=…….]

Clone of SPM Try Exam of the Perak State year 2003: Paper 3 / Section B/ Question 2 Notes: MV -manipulated variable; RV-responding variable; C- constant

Keywords to indicate RV is time of making a complete swing

Keywords to indicate C is mass

Keywords to indicate MV is length

Two twin brothers, Micheal and Jackson, of the same size, are swinging happily on the swings at a playground as shown in the figure above. However, the ropes that is holding the swing where Micheal is sitting is longer than Jackson’s. And, Micheal notices that his swing is swinging slower than his brother, Jackson. Using this information; (a) make a suitable inference, [1 mark] (b) state one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated, [1 mark] (c) describe how you would design an experiment to test your hypothesis using a bob, strings and other apparatus. In your description, state clearly the following: (i) aim of the experiment (ii) variables in the experiment (iii) list of apparatus and materials (iv) arrangement of the apparatus (v) the procedure of the experiment, which includes the method of controlling the manipulated variable and the method of measuring the responding variable. (vi) the way you would tabulate the data (vii) the way you would analyze the data [10 marks]
Keywords to indicate the must-useapparatus and hinting on the Pendulum experiment

19 Answer: (a) Inference: …………………. influences …………………………………. (b) Hypothesis: When the ………………… increases, the …………………………… increases. (c) Marks 1st mark Aim 1 To investigate the relationship between …………………..

/ / / / /

and ………………………. 2nd mark
2

MV: C

RV:

3rd mark
3

4th mark
4

5th mark
5

List of apparatus & ………………, ............., bob, string, retort stand and clamp, materials split cork. Arrangement of apparatus

6th mark

/

6

Method to control MV

Measure …………………… by using a ………………….. (Notes: Active or passive sentences are acceptable. Must have a value + measuring instrument) Measure ………………………….. by using a…………………… Calculate period of a swing, T as follows: ……………….. : Repeat the experiment with l = ………………………..using the same ……………… 10th mark / : Analyze data Plot graph ………..against …………… …… …….
10

7th mark

/

7

Method to control RV

8th mark

Repetition

/

8

9th mark

/

9

: Tabulate data

………… …