Environmental En Dep.-Hydraulics ng.

erses@sakarya.edu.tr (Tel: 0 264 295 5465) Sakarya Üniversitesi, Mühendislik Fakültesi, Çevre Mühendisliği Bölümü, Esentepe Kampüsü, 54187 SAKARYA

To learn principles of fluid flow
Environmental En Dep.-Hydraulics ng.



02. Environmental En Dep.-Hydraulics ng.18. Conservation of Energy 2 Conservation of Energy 3. Conservation of Mass 2.2010 Fluid Dynamics  or Hydrodynamics The study of the behavior of water in motion Environmental En Dep. Fluid dynamics are subject to certain fundemantal  laws/principles of physics 1. (V*A)in=(V*A)out 2 .-Hydraulics ng. Conservation of Momentum Conservation of Mass (Continuity) At any given location (assuming incompresible fluid) : Flow In= Flow Out Qin=Qout Since Q = (Velocity) (Cross-Section Area of Flow) = VA Where V = average (mean) velocity across the profile.

  If it takes 50 s(second) to fill the  bucket with water.  and (b) average  velocity of water at the nozzle  exist. Find the  diameter of pipe Continuity EXAMPLE 2: A Garden hose  Environmental En Dep. 3 .02. determine (a)  the volume flow rate of water  h l fl f through the hose. attached with nozzle is used to fill  a 37.-Hydraulics ng. EXAMPLE 1: 356 m3/hour water flow through  a pipe at a velocity of 1.18.8 cm at the nozzle exit.854 L(liter) bucket.2010 Continuity Environmental En Dep.-Hydraulics ng.4 m/s. The inner  diameter of the hose is 2 cm and it  reduces 0.

This means that velocity head can be converted into gravity head and/or pressure head (or vice-versa).02.15 m pipe.-Hydraulics ng.3m pipe to 0. 4 . calculate the average velocities in the two pipes. Bernoulli's equation states that the total head h along a streamline (parameterized by x) remains constant.2010 Continuity Environmental En Dep. EXAMPLE 3: When 1800 liters per minute flow throuhg a 0 3m pipe which later reduces a 0. Conservation of Energy Environmental En Dep. No energy is lost in such a flow. such that the total head h stays constant.18.-Hydraulics ng.

18.02.-Hydraulics ng.2010 Graphical Representation of Bernoulli’s Equation Energy Line (EL) and Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL) Environmental En Dep. V1 P V P  1  z1  2  2  z2 2g  2g  Pressure energy Kinetic energy (velocity head) Potential energy (elevation) 2 2 5 .-Hydraulics ng. (EL) Velocity head (HGL) 3 2 1 Elevation head Pressure head Piezometric head = (HGL) p  z Bernoulli's Equation Environmental En Dep. incompressible flow moving from Point 1 to Point 2 along a pipe are d f l described b d by Bernoulli's equation. • Consider an inviscid.

02. z is the pipe elevation above some datum.-Hydraulics ng. V1 P V P  1  z1  2  2  z 2  h f 2g  2g  p is the pressure. g is the gravity acceleration constant. Head loss term 2 2 6 .18. V is the average fluid velocity.-Hydraulics ng. hf z1 z2 Bernoulli's Equation with Head Loss Term Environmental En Dep.2010 Bernoulli's Equation with Head Loss Environmental En Dep.

2010 A Siphon Environmental En Dep.18. and is now opened and water flows out from the smooth and rounded outlet.  Determine the maximum water velocity at the outlet. A siphon is a bent or curved tube that carries fluid from a container at a high elevation to another container at a lower elevation.-Hydraulics ng.-Hydraulics ng. Bernoulli Equation EXAMPLE 1: A large tank  p p open to the atmosphere is  filled with water to a height of 5 m from the outlet tap as  indicated in figure. Environmental En Dep. 7 .02. A tap  near the bottom of the tank  is now opened.

EXAMPLE 3: A 1000m long pipe is 30 m higher at  the entrance point and 10 m higher at the exist 10 m higher at the point than the reference level. The water elevation at the entrance is 12 m above the pipe.-Hydraulics ng.45 m when it i l l i th b ttl i 0 45 h it is  full.02. The pipe diameter is constant.  Neglect frictional lossses. needs of an office are met by large water bottles One end of a 6 mm bottles. 8 . The velocity in the pipe is  8 m/s.6 m below the bottom of the bottle.   0. The pressure at the exit point is the atmospheric pressure. Calculate the energy loss due to the flow in the pipe.-Hydraulics ng. One of a 6 mm  diameter plastic hose is inserted into the bottle placed on a high stand while the other end with an on /off valve is maintained 0.6 m Bernoulli Equation Environmental En Dep.2010 Bernoulli Equation EXAMPLE 2: The drinking water Environmental En Dep.45 m 0. determine how long it will take at  the minumum to fill on 240 mL glass when the bottle is first opened. If the water level in the bottle is 0.5 m 0.18.

The Law of Conservation of Momentum: The time rate of change in momentum (defined as the mass rate of flow ρAV multiplied by the velocity V) along the path of flow will result in a force called the impulse force. Find flow and presure at point 2.  p p ) and possible z‐component).40 m. y‐component.5 m and from point 2  to 3 is 2.02. i.-Hydraulics ng.-Hydraulics ng. the force equation may act in more than one direction (x‐component. This is a vector relationship. Net force on a fluid caused by the change in momentum : F = M(V2 ‐ V1)    =    ρQ(V2 ‐ V1) Where F = net force M= mass flow rate = ρQ V=velocity Q=flow rate ρ = density 9 .. EXAMPLE 4: A 50 mm diameter siphon as shown in figure is discharging in figure is discharging water from a reservoir a reservoir losses from point 1 to 2 is 1.18. Conservation of Momentum Environmental En Dep.2010 Bernoulli Equation Environmental En Dep.e.

 Compute of force acting on the elbow that results from change of momentum of the flow. SUMMARY Environmental En Dep.7 kg/m3 and elbow is  opened to atmosphere at the end. EXAMPLE 1: A 90⁰ elbow in a 200 mm pipeline carries 56 5 l/s of water Compute the magnitude 56.02.-Hydraulics ng. 10 .2010 Momentum Conservation Environmental En Dep. Pressure of inlet: 34.-Hydraulics ng.18.5 l/s of water.

02. • Conservation of Mass: (V*A)in=(V*A)out Conservation of Mass: (V A) =(V A) 2 2 • Conservation of Energy:  V1  P1  z1  V2  P2  z2 2g  2g  • Conservation of Momentum: F = M(V2 ‐ V1)    =    ρQ(V2 ‐ V1) 11 .2010 SUMMARY Environmental En Dep.-Hydraulics ng.18.

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