the end of the course the students will be able to: define sports management. identify the objectives of sports management. recognize the importance of having knowledge in sports management. participate actively in the discussion of the lesson.

CONCEPT OF SPORTS MANAGEMENT Sports management is the application of management science to the creation and development of sporting events. In recent years, sports management has emerged as a field of education and vocation concerning the business aspects of sports. It has become a degree program that many consider to be the ultimate way to enjoy their career. The success or failure of any sports program depends on how it is planned, executed, evaluated, and corrected. No program can be assured of success in all places at all times even when executed by the three Ms such as materials resources, manpower and method used. The intervening variables and the internal as well as the external factors greatly influence the result of the program. This chapter will be the discussion of the organization and management of sports, which will include the planning of school intramurals and actual implementation of the management of sports. WHAT IS SPORT MANAGEMENT? Sport management is an integral part of our culture and is a significant part of the leisure services sector. Sport management can be defined as “any combination of skills related to planning, organizing, controlling, budgeting, leading and evaluating within the context of an organization, whose primary product is related to sport and/or physical activity”. Sport is organized, promoted and managed by a broad spectrum of formal organizations including not-for-profit community-based voluntary associations, provincial and national organizations as well as the private and commercial (for-profit) sectors. Volunteers are an essential part of the sport delivery system and fulfil many roles (e.g., board/committee positions, coaching, officials).

Sports management is simply defined as “any combination of skills related to planning, organizing, controlling, budgeting, leading and evaluating within the context of an organization, whose primary product is related to sport and/or physical activity”. OBJECTIVES OF SPORTS MANAGEMENT • • To imbibe in the hearts and minds of the students that sport is a potent factor in making a person mentally alert, physically healthy and emotionally stable. A sport is also a very important social asset. To create awareness among teachers, coaches, trainers, and sports officials that impressive sports management brings about success that has tremendous impact on the students. Athletes’ interest, involvement and performance, as well as adult managers and officials. To further elevate the status of sports in the region and in the country and to contribute to the realization of the national objective.

INTRAMURAL PROGRAM This is a phase of the school physical education program which belong to extra-class or recreational program. Every one is encouraged playing to the best of their abilities and making an effort to win within the spirit of the rules. Win-at-all cost attitudes are inappropriate and strongly discouraged in Intramural Sports. Participants are expected to behave in a courteous and responsible manner on victory and defeat. The value of Intramural sports comes from playing, not winning. Sports activities can teach a lot about life, such as setting goals, teamwork and cooperation; but these positive values can only be learned when the sport is enjoyable and played fairly. The foundation of the intramural competition will be based on the fair play principles of integrity, fairness and respect. Specifically, these principles are: • Respect the rules; • Respect the officials and their decisions; • Respect your opponent; • Maintain your self-control at all times. PURPOSE OF INTRAMURAL • • To provide a safe, enjoyable environment for students of any skill level to participate in a variety of recreational activities; To provide exercise, recreation, and fun to participants in a relaxed and structured environment;

To encourage physical fitness by offering quality sports and recreational activities in order to promote healthy lifestyles, personal health fitness, and sportsmanship. Activities that are offered are based on student interests and the facilities that are available for use; To provide opportunities to students compete against other students.

HOW TO ORGANIZE AND MANAGE SPORTS ACTIVITIES A well planned program should necessitate effective procedures for its management. Whether it is basketball, volleyball, softball, sepak takraw or any individual or dual sports, the following ways could be considered: 1. Organizing Units for Competition In organizing teams for competition varies among schools depending on the suitability to the local situation. 2. Types of Competitions or Tournament There are numerous ways where a team or individual can compete with one another. Scheduling of games is needed in order to determine the team to compete in the elimination round up to the championship round. BYE is needed is in case the participating team is odd number. A “bye” is assigned to one or more teams who do not play during the first round, so it is a rest for the team. To determine the number of byes is to subtract the number of teams from the next power of 2. An example is shown in figure 2. The following are ways to be considered in the selection of the type of elimination or tournament: a. Type of activity b. Number of competitors c. Venue d. Time SINGLE ELIMINATION This type of elimination may be used when time is limited. It is the easiest to organize and the quickest way to declare a winner. N – 1 is the formula to determine the number of games to be played.
A 1 E B C C D 5 W5 CHAMPION W1 3 W3

W4 D 2 F W2 4

DOUBLE ELIMINATION This type of tournament elimination requires the team to have two defeats before being eliminated. The losers in all rounds continue to play a losers’ tournament. Losers in the championship bracket drops down and play the winner in the loser’s bracket. Thius type al;lows every team to play two games regardless of whether he plays in the winners’ bracket or in losers’ bracket. 2(N-1) is the formula to determine the number of games to be played. ROUNDS ROBIN Round robin is a type of tournament which generally used for team competition. It is the most popular tournament elimination because it provides an opportunity for each team to play other teams in competition. The winner is determined by the number of wins made in the round. This type of tournament elimination is not advisable for more than eight teams because of the great deal of time involved. N(N-1)/2 is the formula used in determining the number of games to be played.

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