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Executive Summary Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented. Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker one reason why motivation is a difficult task is that the workforce is changing. Employees join organizations with different needs and expectations. Their values, beliefs, background, lifestyles, perceptions and attitudes are different. Not many organizations have understood these and not many HR experts are clear about the ways of motivating such diverse workforce. Now days employees have been hired, trained and remunerated they need to be motivated for better performance. Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set or forces that cause people to behave certain ways. People are motivated rewards something they can relate to and something they can believe in. Times have changed People wants more. Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. It is the responsibility of managers to make employees look for better ways of doing their jobs. Individuals differ not only in their ability to do but also in their will to do, or motivation Managers who are successful in motivating employees are often providing an environment in which appropriate goals are available for needs satisfaction. Retaining and motivating workers requires special attention and the responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of HR as well as managers and supervisors at all level. They have to create a work environment where people enjoy what they do, feel like they have a purpose and have pride in the mission of the organization. It requires more time, more skill, and managers who care about people. It takes true leadership. By giving employees special tasks, you make them feel more important. When your employees feel like they are being trusted with added responsibilities, they are motivated to work even harder so they won’t let the company down. Motivation is essential for any company because employee is Asset of company. Motivation is important for the growth of employees as well as growth of the organization.
Introduction In the organizational setting the word “Motivation” is used to describe the drive that impels an
individual to work. A truly motivated person is one who “wants” to work .Both employees and employers are interested in understanding motivation if employees know what strengthens and what weakens their motivation, they can often perform more effectively to find more satisfaction in their job. Employers want to know what motivates their employees so that they can get them to work harder. When people speak of motivation or ask about the motives of person, they are really asking “Why” the person acts, or why the person acts the way he does .The concept of motivation implies that people choose the path of action they follow. When behavioral scientists use the word motivation, they think of its something steaming from within the person technically, the term motivation has its origin in the Latin word “mover” which means “to move”. Thus the word motivation stands for movement. One can get a donkey to move by using a carrot or a stick; with people one can use incentives, or threats or reprimands. However, these only have a limited effect. These work for a while and then need to be repeated, increased or reinforced to secure further movement. If a manager truly understands his subordinate’s motivation, he can channel their “inner state” towards command goals, i.e., goals, shared by both the individual and the organization. It is a well known fact that human being have great potential but they do not use it fully , when motivation is absent .Motivation factor are those which make people give more than a fair day’s work and that is usually only about sixty-five percent of a person’s capacity .Obviously , every manager should be releasing hundred percent of an individual’s to maximize performance for achieving organizational goals and at the same to enable the individual to develop his potential and gain satisfaction. Thus every manager should have both interest and concern about how to enable people to perform task willingly and to the best of their ability. At one time, employees were considered just another input into the production of goods and services. What perhaps changed this way of thinking about employees was research, referred to as the Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932 (Dickson, 1973). This study found employees are not motivated solely by money and employee behavior is linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973). The Hawthorne Studies began the human relations approach to management, whereby the needs and motivation of employees become the primary focus of managers (Bedeian, 1993). Motivation Theories Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne Study results (Terpstra, 1979). Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's two- factor theory, Vroom's expectancy theory, Adams' equity theory, and Skinner's reinforcement theory. According to Maslow, employees have five levels of needs (Maslow, 1943): physiological, safety, social, ego, and self- actualizing. Maslow argued that lower level needs had to be satisfied before the next higher level need would motivate employees. Herzberg's work categorized motivation into two factors: motivators and hygienes (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Motivator or intrinsic factors, such as achievement and recognition, produce job satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as pay and job security, produce job dissatisfaction. Vroom's theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance
will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Rewards may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated. Adams' theory states that employees strive for equity between themselves and other workers. Equity is achieved when the ratio of employee outcomes over inputs is equal to other employee outcomes over inputs (Adams, 1965). Skinner's theory simply states those employees' behaviors that lead to positive outcomes will be repeated and behaviors that lead to negative outcomes will not be repeated (Skinner, 1953). Managers should positively reinforce employee behaviors that lead to positive outcomes. Managers should negatively reinforce employee behavior that leads to negative outcomes. WHAT IS MOTIVATION? A basic principle is that the performance of an individual depends on his or her ability backed by motivation. Stated algebraically the principle is: Performance =f (ability × motivation) Ability refers to the skill and competence of the person to complete a given task. However, ability alone is not enough. The person’s desire to accomplish the task is also necessary. Organizations become successful when employees have abilities and desire to accomplish given task. Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. 6 Reassess needs deficiencies 5 Receives either rewards or punishment 4 Performs 3 Engages in goal directed behavior 2 Searches for ways to satisfy needs 1 Identifies needs
1991). DEFINITIONS Some definitions on motivation: …how behavior gets started is energized.g.An employee’s goal are often driving forces and accomplishing those goals can significantly reduce needs. research suggests that as employees' income increases.” …motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates behavior or a drive that aimed at a goal or an incentive” Obviously. Of all the functions a manager performs. Also. physiological (e. (step1) Motivation process begins with the individual’s needs. These needs may be psychological (e. 1994). interesting work becomes more of a motivator. (step6) They reassess their needs. is directed. The Role of Motivation: Why do we need motivated employees? The answer is survival (Smith. and what kind of subjective reaction is present in the organism while all this is going on’ jones. (step2) Motivation is goal directed. Motivated employees help organizations survive. (step3) A goal is a specific result that the individual wants to achieve . Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. as employees get older. in part. This is due.g. (step5) Once the employee have received either rewards or punishments. internal or external to the individual that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. To be effective. is stopped. For example. to the fact that what motivates employees changes constantly (Bowen & Radhakrishna. motivating employees is arguably the most complex. (step4) Promotions and raises are two of the ways that organizations seek to maintain desirable behavior. air or foods) or social (e.. 1987). Motivated employees are more productive. They are signals to employees that their needs for advancement and recognition and their behaviors are appropriate. the first definition covers all stages shown in the motivation model. the needs for friendship). the needs for recognition).g.. …the term motivation refers to a process governing choices made by person or lower organisms among alternative forms of voluntary activity” …motivation is the result of process. Needs are telt deprivations which the individual experiences at a given time and act as energizers. is sustained.. . money becomes less of a motivator (Kovach. 1955). the needs for water.Framework of motivation Framework of motivation The framework comprises six steps. managers need to understand what motivates employees within the context of the roles they perform.
An appreciation of the nature of motivation is highly useful manager.a multitude of factors in the organizational milieu . and is affected by . The secret behind the success of ISRO has been its employees who are both capable of using and are willing to use the advanced technology to reach the goals. This is true whether we are talking about a top manager spending extra time on data gathering and analysis for a report or a clerk taking extra care when filing important document. as technology increases in complexity. A motivated employee generally is more quality oriented. and dedicated work by literally thousands in ISRO. spontantaneous. yet insufficient. Highly motivated worker are more productive than apathetic worker . Why increasing attention is paid towards motivation can be found in the present and future technology required for production. Every organization requires human resources in addition to financial and physical resources for it to function . vehicles of effective and efficient operation . With this feat. researchers and practicing manager’s motivation. machines tend to become necessary. This statement can apply to corporate strategists and to production workers.complex project management.an understanding of the topic of motivation is thus essential in order to comprehend more fully the effects of variations in other reaction as they relate to the performance. The polar Satellite Launch Vehicle’s (PSLV) lift-off has been the result of 12 years of developmental work.The high productivity of Japanese worker and the fever worker are needed to produce an automobile in Japan than elsewhere is well known. It is the responsibility of managers to make employees look for better ways of doing their jobs. 3. launch its own satellites. and innovative behavior at work.Three behavioral dimensions of HR are significant to organizations (i) people must be attracted not only to join the organizations but also to remain it (ii) people must perform he tasks for which they are hired and must do so in a dependable manner and (iii) people must go beyond this dependable role per performance and engage in some form of creative. more importantly. smoothening the manufacture of components and subsystem . 6. 4. transfer of technology to the private industry. 5.IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION: Probably. Motivated employees are always looking for better ways to do a job. no concept of HRM receives as much attention of academicians. and so forth . The increased attention towards motivation is justified by several reasons 1. satisfaction.Consider the example of the highly technology-based space programmed in our country. 2. Motivation as a concept represents a highly complex phenomenon that affects. Industry other national laboratories and research institutes. Purpose . India has joined the exclusive club of half a dozen nations that can build and.
The need means some internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. firms constantly experiment with next motivational programmed and practice. at any given time. perceptions and attitudes are different. desire. strategies. (f) tactful discipline. Specifically. and to determine its form. Not many organizations have understood these and not many HR experts are clear about the ways of motivating such diverse workforce. (h) promotions and growth in the organization. An employee. (e) good working conditions.The purpose of this study was to describe the importance of certain factors in motivating employees at the Piketon Research and Extension Center and Enterprise Center. will satisfied the needs and lead to the . Employees who put in extra hours at work to fulfill their needs or accomplishment may find that these extra hours conflict directly with needs for affiliation and their desire to be with their families However.” While general motivation is concerned with effort towards any goal. Their values. Such strategies may have some effects (both positive and negative) but fail to make and individual overreach him or her Third. but not seen. the study sought to describe the ranked importance of the following ten motivating factors: (a) job security. motives can only be inferred. Motivating employees is also more challenging at a time when firms have dramatically changed the jobs that employees perform. define it as follows: “Work motivation is a set of energetic force that originate both within as well as beyond and individuals being. and jetusoned large numbers of employees in the name of right-sizing or down-sizing .performance strategies almost giving up motivational efforts. The dynamic nature of needs offend poses challenge to any manager in motivating his or her subordinate.These actions have considerably damaged the level of trust and commitment necessary for employee to put in efforts above minimum requirements some organization have resorted to hire and fire and pay – for. intensity. (i) feeling of being in on things. As a result. A secondary purpose of the study was to compare the results of this study with the study results from other populations. there is no shortage of models. reduced layers of hierarchy. the task is more daunting One reason why motivation is a difficult task is that the workforce is changing. and expectations. beliefs. to initiate work – related behavior. And unsatisfied need creates tension that stimulates drives within the individual. Employees join organizations with different needs and expectations. (c) personal loyalty to employees. (b) sympathetic help with personal problems. and tactics for motivating employees. Work Motivation Craig Pinder “echoing the basic definition of motivation. background. MOTIVATIONAL CHALLENGES The framework of motivation indicates that motivation is a simple process. But in reality . if attend. (d) interesting work. direction. Stephen Robbins narrow the focus to organizational goals in order to reflect singular interest in work related behavior the effort element is a measure of intensity. This drives general a search behavior to find particular goals. (g) good wages. lifestyles. and (j) full appreciation of work done. has a various needs. and duration.
Mechanism of Motivation Needs Drives Goal Deprivation Deprivation Reduction With of Drives Direction Thus. sometimes they are not. Thus. Eating food. Although psychological may be based on a deficiency. It is anything that wills that will alleviate a need and reduce a drive. water and friends are the incentive are the goals in this example Conceptual clarification: (motives. and the need for friend becomes a drives affiliation. and relationship between needs. Physiological or psychological drives are action – oriented and provide energizing thrust towards reaching an incentive or goals. They are at the very heart of the motivational process. the key to understanding motivation lies in the meaning of. attaining a goal will tend to restore physiological or psychological balance and will reduce or cut off the drive.reduction of tension Mechanism of motivation Motivation is the process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activate behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. Psychological needs can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction. The following diagram depicts the motivation process. drives and goals. For instant. In order to steer the energies of the employees . · Needs: Needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance For example: A need exists when cells in the body are deprived of food and water or when the personality is deprived of other people who serve friends or companions. a drive is a psychological state which moves an individuals satisfying a needs · Goals: At the end of the motivational cycle is the goal or incentive. The needs for food and water are translated into hunger and thrust drives. and individuals with a strong need to get ahead may have a history of consistent success · Drives: “Drives (Or motives) are set up to alleviate needs. drinking water and obtaining friends will tend to restore the balance and reduce the corresponding drives food. Thus. motivation and motivating) The terms motives. motivation and motivating which are derived from the Latin word ‘Mover’ (to move) are important concept which have distinct connotation.
Behavior by ensuring that a channel to direct the motive of the individuals become available and accessible to the individual. Motivation: while motives are energizers of action. affiliation. status. the level of motivation of employee is judged by his actual work behavior Motivating: Motivating it is the term that implies that one person induces another to engage in action or work. and keep it under control. Additionally.They may be divided into affiliative and egoistic motives. Common primary motives include hunger. and affection are examples of general motives. autonomy. prestige or esteem fall under egoistic motives.that is the needs that are less strong and somewhat dormant and harness them in a manner that would be functional for the organization.It studies the individual’s socio-psychological motives at great length in order to be successful in understanding why man behaves the way he does. security. achievement. Thus motives can be thought of as drives that energize people to action. achievement. thirst. activates (Or moves) and directs (or channels) the behavior of individuals towards certain goals the strong motives or needs are fulfill. Secondary motives are products of learning. motivation is the actual action that is work behavior itself. Sociopsychological motives include acquisitiveness. Psychology motives is concerned with understanding an individual’s through his motives . are largely vary from culture to culture .towards organizational goals accomplishment. Thus. managers are also responsible for awakening or activating latent motives in individuals. his level of motivation may be consider as low. Classification of Motives: Primary motives are unlearned and physiologically based. Managers play a significant role in channeling the strong motive in a direction that he satisfying to both the organization and the employees. it is essential to grasp the meaning and significance of this concept and also to learn how to apply them intelligently Motives: Motive is defined as a inner state that energizes. Competence. security and status are major motivating forces in human behavior at work. when a employee work hard.The general motives are also unlearned but are not physiologically based. Egoistic motives relate to a position over people rather than with people. The needs for power. the individual is propelled into action. unlike physiological motives. avoidance of pain. Behavioral science especially industrial. Socio-psychological motives. Affiliative motives deal with belongingness.These motives originate from the training which he acquires from different social organizations to which he belongs. In order to minimize the restlessness. Socio-psychological motives are neither inborn to him nor are they related directly to his survival . friendship or affection with people. Thus motive induce individual to channel their behavior towards such type of actions as would reduce their state of restlessness are inner disequilibrium. manipulation. activity. . curiosity. sex and maternal concern . sleep. For instance. affiliation. Power. status.
people often do things without being aware of the basic motive or motives involved. Thus. Giving ‘good’ reasons rather than ‘real’ reasons for behavior is known as rationalization Ex. identification. In fact. it is difficult to predict behavior Motivation and Behavior: Systematic understanding of human behavior essentially involves the ability to determine the ‘why’ of past behavior but also to predict. power and nurturance. and they change activities accordingly. motivational analysis if behavior is difficult. and even control the activities that an individual may . predict. Whether motives are consciously present or are unconscious. and compensation are a few forms of behavior in which the real motive is unknown to the individual. Different motives may sometimes result in one form of behavior. Human behavior is multi-motivational.that means the behavior of an individual is generally motivated by a desire to attain some goal. The complexity of motivation: Human motivation is highly complex. aggression. the individual may face conflict some of the time . Since it is difficult to know all there is to be known about the various motives that operate both within the individual and from outside. they change activities. The converse is also true. There are various difficulties in inferring motives from behavior as we have seen thus far: · Similar motives may be manifested through different behaviors · Different motives may be expressed through similar behavior · Motives may appear in disguised form · Any single act of behavior may express several motives · Expression of motives differ from culture to culture and from person to person within a culture · Motives vary in strength not only from one individual to another but within the same individual at different times. many of them act upon the individual simultaneously . and several times the individual himself is unaware of his motives. The specific goal is not always consciously known by the individual . Sublimation. It is important for a manager to understand. To complicate matters further.individuals are not always aware of everything they want .dependence. Therefore.As a result. Another fact is that the same motive may give rise to various motives may lead to the same type of behavior in different individuals.An employee who wants to tell the boss off but also wants to keep his job is in conflict. The basic unit of behavior is an ‘activity’. projection. all behavior is a series of activities . Behavior is basically goal-oriented . and even to control as far as possible future behavior. there can be several other ways of behaving to achieve these one and all these different forms of behavior may lead to the same amount of success by achieving the same end. “Why did I do that?” or “Why did I fail to do that?” the reason for behavior is not always apparent to the conscious mind . An employer who must decide whether to sell an oversupply of a commodity at a loss or hold it a little long.individual have preference for certain activities. Several motives are simultaneously at work when the individual behaves.Sometimes an individual may wonder. is likewise in conflict. to change.
A B C .Goals are something referred to as ‘hoped for’ rewards towards which motives are directed Psychologists use the term ‘incentives’ for these goals. MOTIVES GOALS · Motive Strength: We have seen that motives or needs are the reason underlying behavior. All these needs compete for their behavior.Motives are the ‘why’s of behavior . These needs have different strengths. motives or needs are the mainsprings of action. drives.they arouse and maintain activity and determine a general direction of the behavior of an individual.motives and needs-we refer something within an individual that prompts that person to action. manager must know which motives or needs of people evoke a certain action at a particular time. or motivation. or impulses within the individual . When we use these two terms interchangeably. Motives are sometimes defined as needs.Individuals differ not only in their ability to do but also in their will to do. · Motives: Every individual carries a set of inner motivations and drives that influence the way he behaves much more radically than he realizes . · Goals: Goals are outside an individual .perform at a given moment. To predict the behavior. Every individual has several needs. In essence. Incentives include tangible financial rewards such as increased pay and also the ↓managers who are successful in motivating employees are often providing an environment in which appropriate goals are available for needs satisfaction. wants. The need with the greatest strength at a particular moment leads to activities.
While a reduction in need strength sometimes follows. it does not always occur initially. Blocking need Satisfaction: The satisfaction of a need may be blocked . where some degree of success and goal attainment is finally perceived . · Changes in motive strength: A motive tends to decrease in strength if it is either satisfied or blocked from satisfaction.Perhaps the individual may make some attempts in direction 1 before going to 2. High Strength Motive Attempted Behavior 2 Attempted Behavior Success Blockage Behaviour Continued Coping behavior when blockage occurs in attempting to accomplish a particular goal Initially . This is an attempt to overcome the obstacle by trial-and-error problem solving .it is this need that determines behavior. .The person may try a variety of behavior to find out one that will accomplish the goal or will reduce tension created by blockage. Satisfied needs decrease in strength and normally do not motivated individuals to seek goals to satisfy them.and same in the direction 2 before moving in direction 3. there may be tendency for the person to engage in “coping behavior”.D E N Motive strength Motive B is the highest strength need and therefore .this coping behavior may be quite rational . as shown in the following figure.
BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION: Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod) is yet another technique of influencing behavior of people in organizations.The purpose of the baseline measurement is to provide objective –frequency data on critical behavior. Measurement of the behaviors: After the behaviors have been identified.Skinner to provide managers with powerful and proven means for changing employee behavior. Identify Performance Related Behavior Events Measure Baseline the Frequency of Response Identify Existing Behavioral Contingencies Through Functional Analysis Develop Intervention Strategy Apply Appropriate Strategy Measure: Chart the Frequency of Responses after Intervention Problem Solved? Maintain Desirable Behavior Evaluate for Performance Improvement 1 2 3 4B 4A 4C 4D 5 Yes No . The steps in OB Mod are given below: Identification of Critical Behavior: The first step is to identify the critical behaviors that make a significant impact on the employee’s job performance these are those 5 to10 percent of the behaviors that may account for up 70 to 80 percent of each employee’s performance. A baseline frequency is obtained by determining the number of determining the number of times that the identified behavior occurs under present conditions . they are measured. OB Mod is uses the reinforcement principle of B.F .
Evaluation to Ensure Performance Improvement: In order to determine whether an OB Mod programmed has achieved its desire results. in order to change the behavior of his\her subordinates. Negative reinforcement is used as possible.This process of analyzing the antecedent cues and the consequences if behavior is referred to as functional analysis in OB Mod.the results which accrue to the person as a result of engaging in the behavior . contingent upon subordinates engaging in the desirable critical behaviors. The results of such evaluation can be used both to determine whether the programmed should be continued or not. Functional analysis of absenteeism behavior ABC Antecedent Cues Behaviors Consequences illness\accident Getting up late Discipline programmed Hangover Sleeping in Verbal reprimands Lack of transportation staying home written reprimands -Traffic Drinking Pay docks No day. .Steps in OB Mod Functional analysis of behavior: The goal of a mod programmed is to increase the likelihood that people will.care facilities Fishing\hunting Lay-offs Family problems working at home Dismissals Company policies Visiting Social consequences from coworkers Group\person norms caring for sick child Escape from and avoidance Of working nothing Seniority / age Awareness\observation Self any consequence Development of intervention Strategy: The term intervention refers to actions will be taken by the manager or organization in order to increase the frequency of desirable critical behaviors and to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviors this is the critical step. The emphasis here is on the identifying rewards that can serve as positive reinforcements and establishing methods of providing these reinforces. A typical functional analysis of absenteeism behavior is given in Table. engage in behavior which are critical to the successful performance of their jobs. These involves analyzing (1) The antecedent cues the factors which seem to instigate the behavior. in fact. in the process. and (2) the consequences. since it is here that the manager uses the results of the three step to design and implement techniques. and to ‘fine tune’ the interventions to increase their value and their ability to increase effective performances. it is necessary to evaluate the effects of the programmed in a systematic and objective fashion. Positive reinforcement is employed to increase the likelihood of a desirable behavior.
Societies and behavior modification In his novel Walden tow B. China appears to be using behavior modification principles on a grand scale for population control. men remain with their immediate families after marriage. GOAL SETTING: Goal setting is one of the most effective and widely practiced techniques of motivation.a negative reinforcement strategy. in party. the advantages of creating a positive environment and reinforcing desirable behavior are recognized. praise. of grave abuses among them. reduce labor costs. forced abortions and infanticides of the female offspring.f. and recognition get old after a while? Will employees begin to see these as ways for management to increase productivity without providing commensurate increase in their pay? There is no easy answer to questions such as these. Michigan Bell.Between the mid-1960 and the mid-1970. china halved its birth rate. Bearing two babies was strengthened because by doing so. B. Several to communes have taken their inspiration from Walden Two. There is evidence.Goodrich Chemicals. however. F. Male are valued. Is it a technique for manipulating people? Does it because it decreases an employee’s freedom? If so. Chinese leaders are conceived that a rapid population growth will obstruct economic development. and increase profit. Despite the positive result that OB has demonstrated. Standard Oil. Initially. increase attendance. continuing to contribute financial support and care for elderly parents.OB Mod in Practice OB Mod has been used by a number of organizations to reduce costs. in keeping with long established customs. Families that used contraction after their first child received positive reinforcement-annual bonuses as well as housing. couples having a third baby except as the result of a multiple birth at the second confinement paid fines. and nonviolence. it has no counter adverse criticism. is such an action on the part of manager unethical? And do non-monetary reinforcement like feedback. Goals are the . Emery Air freight. improve productivity. as well as a common desire to construct behaviorist theories are no longer central to the operation of Twin Oaks. Skinner described an idea human community also known as Walden tow he envisioned a return to a simple culture of towns and villages that conducted their affairs face –to– face Skinners society rejected punishment and coercion as ways to motivate good behavior and relied on positive reinforcement in stead according Skinner the proper behavioral technology would make it easy to raise citizens who were brave creative happy candid affectionate humane and conscientious. because. One each such is Twin Oaks founded in share a common belief in co-operation. improve safety. schooling and employment priorities . equality. The organizations which benefited include General Electric. couples avoided fines. and so on –all in the US. increase satisfaction.
If people do not have confidence in themselves. performance tends to increase. motivation and performance will be enhanced. Goal setting is the process of motivating employees by establishing performance goals. If others (concerned) do not accept the goals. First. To the extent that individuals fall short of the goal. Similarly. The technique emphasizes that with clear goals. their effort and performance will decrease. In contrast. Acceptance of the goal and commitment towards its achievement will have effect on employee behavior and satisfaction. if they conclude that they can reach the goal. Goal Directly Goal Acceptance Organizational Support Intrinsic Rewards Goal-Directed Effort . individual can focus on developing effective strategies for attaining it. the existence of a goal clarifies what level of performance is required. A student does not do well in an examination if he or she does not keep a target in mind target may be a first class or securing distinction. the theory calls attention to the important role of self-efficacy – individuals’ beliefs about their ability to perform at given levels. Second. organizational support towards goal attainment supported by individual abilities and traits leads to goal realization. they feel competent and successful. Specific goals lead to higher output than do vague goals such as “Do your best”. its effect on the behavior of the person will be minimal.immediate or ultimate objectives that employees are trying to accomplish from their work efforts in organizations. Goals need to fulfill certain requisites if they were to impact employees. when individuals succeed in reaching a goal. Finally. Why goals motivate employees? There are at least five reasons which explain the correlation between goals and motivation. they lead employees to compare their present performance with the goal. Fourth. Once this level is established. they feel dissatisfied and work harder to attain it –as long as they believe that is possible for them to do so. Third. goal setting theory indicates that goals will guide behavior only when they accepted by the self and by others. An individual may not rise in personal life if he or she does not have clear career goals. influence satisfaction. performance of an employee will not increase similarly. It does not mean that performance of an individual is nil in the absence of a goal. That goal motivates any individual is an established fact. such feelings are desirable and can serve as a strong incentive to extra effort. performance. which in turn. As result of performance. if the goal is not acceptable to the self. a person receives various intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. One requirement is that goals must be specific. We tend to relax and siacken our efforts if we are not clear about what we want to achieve.
2. neither goal setting not any other technique can be used to correct every problem. To academics it means the degree to which members of work organization are able to satisfy important personal needs through their experiences in the organization. minimize risk of illness and occupational diseases and special measures for protection of women and children. use of multiple skills. and a supervisor who treats him\her with dignity. Goal setting can improve performance. such as application of the principles of natural justice and . adequacy to the extent to which the income from a full-time work meets the needs of the socially determined standard of living. including reasonable hours of work and rest pauses. workers’ role in the total work process and his\her appreciation of the outcome of his\her own efforts and self-regulation.Goal Specificity Goal Commitment Performance Individual Abilities & Traits Extrinsic Rewards Satisfaction Goal setting requisites Goal setting is a very powerful technique of motivation when used correctly. QUALITY OF WORK LIFE The term ‘quality of work life’ (QWL) has different connotations to different person. and opportunity for advancement and self-improvement. nature of supervision. However. 5. carefully monitored and actively supported by managers. There are many factors which can contribute to QWL. 3. such as work autonomy. to a worker in an assembly line.Safety and healthy working condition. They are: 1.Opportunity to use and develop creativity. physical working conditions that ensure safety.Respect for the individual’s personal rights. safe working conditions.Adequate and fair compensation. creative tasks and a successful career. For example. 4.Security and growth opportunity. it may just mean a fair day’s pay. it may mean opportunities for advancement. including factors like security of employment. To a young new entrant.
and managers who care about people.Work and family life. 6. acceptance of the right to free speech. One of the most important factors is how employees "feel" about the company. It is worth noting that often the conditions that contribute to motivation [equitable salaries financial incentives. and constantly changing.order needs and motivating them.00 for each year employed. diverse. Managers can improve their leadership position and motivate individuals within their organizations by following the five-step PRIDE model: Provide a positive working environment Recognize. feel like they have a purpose and have pride in the mission of the organization. This builds a stronger team and improves both communication and retention . every Friday employees rotate jobs. overtime requirement.Take for example Rodger McAlister who owns a construction equipment dealership in Kentucky. It takes true leadership. and so forth. They have to create a work environment where people enjoy what they do. It requires more time.000 upon retirement. Motivated workers are more committed to the job and to the customer. including transfers. etc] will also contribute to QWL some of these activities [like job enrichment] might contribute indirectly to QWL by tapping the worker’s higher . His employees and service technicians share a profit-sharing plan that possibly means $700. The person in the parts department becomes a service technician and visa versa. more skill. other activities may contribute directly to QWL providing for a safer workplace. The typical employer/employee relationship of old has been turned upside down. Management’s new challenge is to transform a high-turnover culture to a high-retention culture. less discrimination on the job. His turnover is almost nonexistent. schedule of hours of work. The combination of almost limitless job opportunities and less reward for employee loyalty has created an environment where the business needs its employees more than the employees need the business. travel requirement. Reward and Reinforce the Right Behavior Involve everyone Develop their skills and potential Evaluate and improve continuously STEP 1--PROVIDE A POSITIVE WORKING ENVIRONMENT You don’t have to be the highest paying employer to provide a positive and attractive work environment. Twice a year employee’s children receive a $50 savings bond when they bring in their "all A’s" report card. demotivating workplaces force workers to vote with their feet. and so fourth. Every year employees celebrate their work anniversary with a cake and receive $100. The Five-Step PRIDE Model Today’s workplace is different. effective employee selection. On the other hand. To minimize the we-they syndrome. and right to personal privacy in respect of the worker’s off the job behavior.equity. Still. Retaining and motivating workers requires special attention and the responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of HR as well as managers and supervisors at all levels.
mention a particular situation or activity." Peer recognition allows employees to reward each other for doing a good job. Listen to their ideas and suggestions. which builds stronger customer loyalty.Here are some tips for setting up your own processes to help develop the potential of your employees: Explain the "big picture" for the company and how this influences their employment and growth. Therefore. Tex.. workers may value each other’s opinion more than their supervisor’s. has a unique way of making its employees feel valued and involved. It works because employees themselves know whom works hard and deserves recognition. the employees are in the best position to catch people doing the right things. Involve the employee in the decision-making process whenever possible. (Peer pressure) Managers can’t be everywhere all the time. STEP 3--INVOLVE EVERYONE Studies show that having workers involved at all levels has a major impact on improving morale and motivation. The second aspect of this science is management must create consequences for the behavior important for business success. People have a basic human need to feel appreciated and recognition programs help meet that need. Also. To solve the problem. Everyone is an equal. which frees management for other tasks. This involvement program goes beyond just photographs. Challenge them with lots of responsibility. posters. taught the same courses to the other 6.000 employees. Be specific. When former Intel executive David House became CEO of Bay Networks. Straight Talk. Make sure they understand the company’s expectations. One wall in the company has the photographs of all employees who have been with the company more than five years. STEP 4--DEVELOP WORKER'S SKILLS AND POTENTIAL Well-trained employees are more capable and willing to assume greater control and ownership over their jobs. Provide feedback on the employee’s performance. Maybe that’s why TD Industries was listed last year by Fortune magazine as one of the Top 100 Best Companies. They need less supervision. His personal example had a major impact on the entire company. he realized the troubled computer manufacturer’s problems involved some basic fundamentals. Offer on-site classes where employees can learn new skills or improve upon old ones. Managing for Results. He personally taught the courses to Bay’s 120 highestranking executives who. slogans. and HR policies. but a critical element in the management toolkit. Pay for employees to attend workshops and seminars.One of the easiest and most effective recognition programs is "peer recognition. TD Industries in Dallas. All this leads to better management-employee relationships. and Effective Meetings. he created four courses to teach the practices that he’d set in place at Intel: Decision-Making.STEP 2--RECOGNIZE. . Employees are more capable of taking care of customers. REWARD AND REINFORCE THE RIGHT BEHAVIOR Reward and recognition is not just a nice thing to do. There are no reserved parking spaces for executives. Give them room to do the job without unnecessary restrictions. in turn. Everyone uses the same bathrooms and the same water fountains.
It won’t be found with gimmicks or within the latest management fad. and reduced traffic congestion around work sites. turnover and motivation of the workforce. The true competitive advantage is found within the hearts and minds of motivated people proudly working together and led by people driven by a higher purpose. Option might include . Of these. Similarly. The key of MBO is that it is a participative process.Drucker in 1954. The idea of flexible benefit operates on the following lines. A junior worker perceives an inequity or an injustice when he\she is paid less than his\her senior though. 4\3 arrangement is highly popular. In terms of motivational theories. They to accept the decisions as their own and feel personally responsible for implementing them. It appeals to an individual’s growth needs (ERG theory) or desire for autonomy (motivation hygiene theory). and the sevenday. The primary purpose of evaluation is to measure progress and determine what needs improving. This. both attend to the same work. all with the aim of lengthening the leisure between work periods. OTHERS Other motivational techniques used in organizations to influence employee performance include management by objective (MBO) flexible working hour’s two-tier pay system flexible benefit and the like. has often been pointed out as one of the techniques of motivation. Flexible benefits allow employee to pick and choose from a menu from benefit packages that is individually tailored to his or her own needs and situations. but in a negative way. the three-day. flextime corresponds to the diverse needs of the workforce. It will reduce a new recruit to stick to the same organization. 70-hour week with seven day off (7\7). The two-tier system corresponds to the equity theory. it is claimed. a worker in a factory with 15 to 20 years of experience is put on a higher scale than a beginner. A junior lecturer in a university is paid less than a senior-grade lecturer. A system of flexible working hours. usually based on some percentage of his her salary. Propounded by peter F. results in an increased turnover rate among those newly hired. The two-tier pay system is said to place a premium on experience and loyalty. lessening of hostility towards management. Continuous evaluation includes. They include reduced absenteeism. Most common are the four-day. 40hour week with three day off (4\3). The Two-tier pay system provides for offering significantly lower wage rates to newly hired employees than those already employed in the same job. 36-hour week with four days off (3\4).Businesses continue to search for the competitive advantage. but is not limited to. elimination of tardiness. and then a price tag is put on each benefit. actively involving managers and subordinates at every organizational level. morale. increased productivity. reduced overtime expense.STEP 5--EVALUATE AND IMPROVE CONTINUOUSLY Continuous evaluation and never ending improvement is the final step of the PRIDE system. Various work weeks are being used. MBO has motivational potentials because the participants become ego-involved in decisions they have made. MBO refers to a formal set of procedures that begins with goal setting and contributes through performance review. also called flextime. the measurement of attitudes. The benefits claim for flexitime is numerous. An organization sets up a flexible spending account for each employee. to suit the convenience of individual employees. The two-tier pay system is seen everywhere in organizations. It includes the identification of problem areas needing improvement and the design and implementation of an improvement plan.
aggression is considered as only one possible reaction. Frustration is a common event in the daily lives of employees. college tuition reimbursement plans. life insurance. When a person is frustrated.inexpensive medical plus high deductibles. The motivational cycle begins with a need followed by a response directed toward a goal object. The barrier may be either overt (outward. it was thought that a person will react by physically or symbolically attacking the barrier. goal-directed drive faces a barrier and frustration results due to blocking of goal attainment. or physical) or covert (inward. vacation options. On becoming frustrated. and extended vacation time. In the above figure. extended disability. Motivation and frustration: The basic process of motivation as defined earlier involves a smooth progression of the need-drive-goal motivational cycle. psychologists like Dollard ** and others felt that frustration always leads to the defense mechanism of aggression. Traditionally. hearing. dental and eye coverage. Drive (Deprivation With Direction) B Goal (Reduction of the drive) Barrier 1. Overt . The two most popular and time-tested methods of employee motivation are participative management and employee communication. a variety of savings and pension plans. The strength of frustration in a situation is related to the magnitude of the need which is being thwarted. More recently. Employees then select benefit options until they have spent the amount in their respective accounts. In order to analyze specific aspects of on-the –job behavioral reaction to know some behavioral reactions to frustration that may occur in the formal organization. Consistent with the expectancy theory thesis that organizational rewards should be linked to each individual employee’s goals. when this goal directed drive is blocked before reaching a desired goal. withdrawal. fixation and compromise. Responses to frustration are now viewed as defense mechanisms falling into four broad categories: aggression. defense mechanisms get triggered in him. or mental-sociopsychological). expensive medical plus low or no deductibles. frustration result. flexible benefits individualize rewards by allowing each employee to choose the compensation package that best satisfies his\her current needs.
· Compromise : It usually involves substituting a new goal \ Sublimation. ranting attacks or physical injury. or conflict is experienced either physically or psychologically. malfunctioning. · Fixation : Maintaining a persistent non-adjustive reaction even though all the cues indicate the behavior is not an appropriate response to the problem. or bodily symptoms of disability. anxiety. In indirect compensation the individual puts in hard efforts to make-up for a weakness in one area by becoming outstanding or excelling in some either area. sensory. · Withdrawal \ Flight : Leaving the field in which frustration. . person or group that is acting as the barrier. · Conversion : Emotional conflicts are expressed in muscular. unreasonable stubbornness. Individual tries to injure or hurt the object. Behavior is repeated over and without accomplishing anything for instance. or pain. Covert Needs (Deprivation) Frustration Defense Mechanisms Blocking of Goal-attainment: Frustration · Aggression : Aggression is a reaction to a situation wherein one’s motives are blocked causing one to turn against others or oneself in verbal. · Compensation : Individual devotes himself to a pursuit with increased vigor to make up for same feeling of real or imagined inadequacy.2.
The individual may attempt to daydream that his goals (for instance. ideas. An individual rationalizes when he gives a good reason rather than a true reason for his behavior. In such situations. work off his feelings by chopping wood. kick the cat. beat his children. The motive to avoid criticism and disapproval is quite strong in many individuals when they rationalize and invent reasons. It serves many useful functions because it tends to strengthen aspirations during a period when goals might otherwise disappear. The individual tries to reduce frustration by imagining the satisfaction which he cannot otherwise attain. For instance. have been accomplished. Individual anger is directed inwards. · Rationalization : The basic psychological process involves justifying inconsistent or undesirable behavior. the worker’s future prospects in the organizations and his fate are in the hands of the boss. It is interesting to observe when an employee tries to explain why he made a mistake or why he was late to work. · Fantasy : Day dreaming or other forms of imaginative activity provide an escape from reality and imagined satisfaction. · Displacement : It is also known as transferred aggression. It simply means making excuses. a worker feels hurt and gets angry when his boss insults him in front of some co-workers. Beliefs. Temporary escape from reality by day dreaming is apparently a universal characteristic.This is sometimes also known as introverted aggression and it is usually indicated by depression. without having done anything they have to face the consequences of what happened in the organization !) …. “or . This form occurs when the obstacle is unknown or when the obstacle is known but it is unwise to show direct aggression.” …(poor fellows. However. more constructively. However. or engaging in violet exercises or horseplay of an aggressive nature”. promotion) which are otherwise impossible to achieve in real life. by cursing and swearing. Basic psychological process is redirecting pent-up emotions towards persons. they may look for a scapegoat as a target for their hostility. A typical example is seen when a disgruntled employee continually picks on a week colleague and makes him suffer for the frustration factory atmosphere. and motivations by providing acceptable explanations for them. When people cannot attack the cause of their frustration directly. His sense of failure results in self-punishment. statement. . there is danger when the individual relies too heavily upon fantasy and becomes inactive. or objects other than the primary source of the emotion.” the resentful worker may pick a quarrel with his wife. self-accusation and low energy. lack of initiative.
not me “ ` · Repression : The basic psychological process involves completely excluding from consciousness impulses. individual may engage in behaviours such as crying. · Regression : Regression is essentially not acting one’s own age. an individual who has acquired a reputation as abrasive may behave cordially to minimize his anxieties arising from past abrasive activities. The individual does not have to be troubled about a weakness that everyone else has. The individual wants to become like someone else and thus. if he can project that weakness on to other people.· Projection : Individual protects himself from awareness of his own undesirable traits or unacceptable feelings by attributing them to others. Individual tends to attribute one’s own shortcomings to others so as to cover up his own weakness. closely associates with his attitudes and actions identification is modeling oneself after another person imitating his or her characteristics. · Negativism : Active or passive resistance operating unconsciously. for instance. So the individual projects: “it’s you. . attitudes and other allied qualities. he does not have worry about it in himself. weeping. It involves efforts to repress threatening information and keep it in the unconscious. The example of repression is the behavior of a subordinate who “forgets” to tell his boss something which was embarrassing to him. or even pomposity of their senior boss who may be highly successful.tantrums whenever they are under stress. annoyed or frustrated. making psychological adaptations unpleasant situation. values. sulking or throwing temper. Repression is a form of forgetting an unhappy incident involving emotions and thereby avoiding all mentions or thought of it. experiences and feelings which are psychologically disturbing because they arouse a sense of guilt or shame or anxiety. Urge not acceptable to consciousness are repressed and in their stead opposite attitudes or modes of behavior are expressed with considerable force. For instance the junior executives take on the vocabulary. · Identification : Individual may react to the characteristics and achievements of another person as if they were his own. It is not simply copying another individual. It relates to incorporation of another individual’s thinking and behavior in one’s own thinking and behavior. less mature level of adjustment and behave in childish way when exposed to frustrating situation. · Reaction formation : Individual acts contrary to his real feelings and emphasizes it with force Thus. style and mannerisms. Individual returns to an earlier. · Negative adaptation : Accepting things as they are.
Just like the fox who convinced himself that he never wanted the grapes at all since they were ‘sour’. just like the fox who tries in vain to reach the bunch of grapes. Individuals who learn to fear situations where they will fail or be ridiculed are particularly apt to adjust by using the mechanism of insulation.· Resignation \ apathy \ Boredom : It is a type of frustration where is one gives-up. and frustrated self-esteem in work situation lead to nervous tension. Sour grapism is that reaction where by highly desirable but unattainable goals or objectives are considered undesirable. · Insulation : The individual tries to protect himself emotionally by keeping distance from others. “I never did want to have this promotion since it involved transfer to a remote place”. This phenomenon is common characteristic of people in dull and boring of routine jobs. The pent up continuing frustrations produce people who are difficult to get along with. He insulates himself. there are some people for whom lack of frustration is the most frustration situation of all. It occurs after prolonged frustration when individual loses hope of accomplishing his goal in a particular situation and withdrawn from reality and the source of frustration. · Devaluation : Since one of the common causes of self rejection is unfavorable social judgments. gets detected. withholding any sense of emotional or personal involvement. This can be done either by minimizing the importance of judgment or by trying to prove to oneself and others that those who made the adverse evaluation were not competent to pass judgment or were prejudiced. However. aloof and isolated. To . The sour grapes mechanism comes into existence when the individual wants to hide sense of failure. frustrated friendliness. Frustrated ambitions. · Sour Grapism : “The fox and grapes” fable is a classic example of reaction to frustration. or who are centers of poor morale in industry. Actually. He may appear self-sufficient but he maintains this behaviour as a protection rather than because he enjoy it. Importance of frustration in Industry: The concept of frustration is extremely important in a work situation. Resignation or apathy essentially involves breaking psychological contact with the environment. uninvolved. this individual also tries in vain to get the promotion. One way to defend one’s ego against such judgments is to devalue their source. the individual also tries to deceive oneself by saying.
“Scott suggests that human organism needs stimulation and variety in the environment. they’ll often approach their work with a sense of belonging. They actually look forward to meeting these obstacles. Encourage Creative Thinking Successful companies promote an environment in which creative thinking by the employees is allowed. I usually tell them the successful tactics that I used while making sales but I also add that there’s no one correct way. This will give you insights into how to deal with them in certain situations. rewarding your employees for achieving their goals goes a long way toward creating a consistently motivated workforce. monthly. Plus. spread specific assignments around . Start off by learning about your employees’ personal lives. It goes to the credit of HRM that it has several readymade techniques and programmed that can be used by the manager. quality of worklife. if not encouraged. of course. job enrichment and job rotation. is not enough to motivate employees at work situations. the challenge of finding a way to deal effectively with whatever barriers confront them as they strive for a particular goal is what provides the “spice” to their job.” which get every employee on the same page. behavior modification. that sense is all it takes to get that individual to finish a given task. goal setting. empowerment.them. without this motivation will suffer and frustration may result. goals are set on a weekly. Everyone has a unique personality that might translate into an effective method of making sales. Your relationship with your workers should seem like one between partners as opposed to one between employee and boss. Also. Often. If you’ve been successful in explaining your company’s overall objectives in detail. EASY WAYS TO MOTIVATE YOUR EMPLOYEES Set Goals It’s important to help your employees set goals for themselves. Frequently. An HR manager must know the specific ways which could help him\her motivate his\her motivate his\her subordinates. In the case of the sales force that I help manage. To the extent. The more important among them. and if they did not occur they would probably find their work very drab and dull. Many companies use “performance management systems. The challenge of figuring out an effective method on their own can be liberating and much more fulfilling. If they understand the relationship between their specific job and the company’s success. Devise a System of Teamwork and Trust Employees are never going to produce the way you expect them to if they think you don’t care about them. though useful. quarterly. Knowledge about theories of motivation. or even yearly basis. employees will often come up with their own creative strategies for achieving these goals. In this Activation theory. they may actually tend to reduce the overall frustration experienced. regardless of his or her position. namely. then. And. that barriers and obstacles to goals provide variety and stimulation to the employee. These can include both long-term and short-term goals and they can be both work-related and personal in nature. rewards. employees are more apt to listen to future advice if you let them figure out that you are right on their own.
By giving employees special tasks. When your employees feel like they are being trusted with added responsibilities. competence and behaviors. Little talks like these allow the employee to see you as a regular person. but a few minutes here and there throughout the day can work wonders.Advancement . It’s not necessary to talk to them all day long. Membership and Seniority-based Rewards Benefit an employee receives depends on the firm which he or she joins. REWARDS People join organizations expecting rewards. Firms distribute money and other benefit in exchange for the employee’s availability. An MBA taking up a job in Wipro or Infosys gets more benefits than boy or girl who joins a state government undertaking. they are motivated to work even harder so they won’t let the company down. In the same firm. job status. a senior employee receives more benefits than employee . they are more likely to listen to you when you need them to get something done. you make them feel more important. I’ve found that one of the most effective methods of doing this is simply engaging my sales reps in conversations about topics that we both find interesting. pay raises. Foster an Environment of Fun Studies have shown that employees are more dependable and productive when they think their workplace is a fun place to come to every day. retirement benefits and perquisites depend on seniority of an employee.among your workers. Membership& Seniority Task Performance Job Status Competency Organizational Rewards Types of organizational rewards . The following diagram identifies four types of rewards: membership and seniority. and when your employees like you as a person. competency and performance.
Firms that do not use job evaluation system still reward job status based on pay survey information about the labor market. Job-based rewards are criticized by man. have more responsibility and have difficult working conditions would have more value and consequently would be placed in higher pay grades. In the skill based pay employees are paid on the basis of number of jobs they are capable of discharging. Just because an employee holds a high priced job. High status job holders are also rewarded with more perquisites. Competency-based Rewards Increasingly organizations are linking rewards to competencies of employees.There are advantages and limitations associated with membership and seniority based reward . employees tend to exaggerate their job descriptions and job specifications to garner higher grading for their job through job evaluation systems. to ensure that employees feel their pay is fair when compared to how much other jobs in the firm are paid. Pay survey helps maintain external equity. ensure that employees feel their pay is fair when compared to how much people I other firms are paid. Higher grades confer higher rewards on the jobs. such benefit fails to motivate achievers to perform better. Employees are expected to have several competencies and these competencies are evaluated by observing specific behavior patterns. Job Status-based Rewards Every firm rewards employees for the status of the jobs they are holding firms use job evaluation system which helps establish differentials in status of jobs. Another problem with is that they discourage poor performers form leaving the film voluntarily because alternative jobs are simply not available to them.Membership based reward attract job applicants but the problem is such reward may not directly motivate job performance . or on the depth of their knowledge. Jobs that require more skill and effort.Seniority based rewards tend to reduce turnover but may fail to motivate achievers to perform better. The purpose of this system is to motivate employees to acquire additional skills so that . A supervisor will receive higher rewards than purchasing assistant as the job of the former enjoys better status than the latter. he or she is rewarded better. Competencies are reflected through skills. that is. Job evaluation system try to maintain internal equity. that is. Further. For one thing. It has more value to the organization (calculated by job evaluation system or pay survey) and therefore employees in that job receive more status-based rewards in the organization. Status differentials are used as the basis for establishing salary / wage differentials. Where rewards are linked to competencies what emerges is the skill-based pay. Job-based rewards also motivate employees to compete for positions higher up the organizational hierarchy. knowledge and traits that lead to desirable behaviors. not with standing the level of performance attained by the individual. One advantage of status-based pay is that it helps maintain feelings of equity.
Some teams are rewarded with special bonuses or gifts if they collectively achieve specific goals. but the most common among them are: Organizational rewards → Profit sharing Stock options Team rewards → Gain sharing Special bonuses Individual rewards → Piece rate Commission Merit pay Bonuses Profit sharing is an organizational performance-based reward. A gain sharing plan is a type of team reward that motivates team members to reduce costs and increase labor efficiency in their work process.they become more useful to the organization. Competency-based rewards have merits. Europe and Asia are paying their employees more for performance than ever before. Performance-based Rewards The trend that is emerging recently is to link pay to performance rather than to seniority or membership. however. Employees can handle any job with felicity. For instance.America. They are also expensive. Japan. Typically. skill-based pay rewards skills. Rather than paying for jobs. Customer needs are met more quickly. 24 per cent awarded pay increases on the basis of performance than seniority. In profit sharing. employees find it easier to discover ways to improve the work process as they learn more skills and tasks in the process. product or service quality tends to improve because employees who have work experiences in several jobs are more likely to know where problems originate. Employees stock potion schemes (ESOPS) confer ownership of the firm on employees. result in pay disparities which may demotivate employees. Gain sharing plans use a predetermined formula and calculated cost savings and pay bonus to all team members. Team rewards are common where firms rely in teams to get work done. Moreover. They have been praised for developing a better-skilled and flexible workforce. in a recent survey of 210 large firms in Tokyo. Firms in N. Performance-based rewards are many. underlying the principle that employees are hired for their skills and not just to hold jobs. Designated employees are allowed to share in the profit earned by a company. Individual rewards are quite common in organizations. ESPOS encourage employees to buy shares of the company and rew3ard them through divided and market appreciation of the shares. the company shatters the cost savings with employees. The most common is the piece rate which links . Skills-based rewards.
Are rewards. This is gradually replaced by retainable bonuses for accomplishing specific tasks or for achieving certain goals. money is the vehicle by which employee can buy numerous need satisfying goods and services they desire. unless it is voluntary or “play” involves a contract between two parties “guaranteed” by the payment of money. Consistent with the expectancy theory. money acts as punctuation in one’s life. therefore. Third. Second. Employee Expects Pay Performance Job evaluated Employee Consider equity of performance pay Employee sets new expectations Employee Performance Job Evaluated Feedback to employee Based on previous expectations Pay and performance-relationship Sixth.pay to the units produced by an employee. if pay is contingent upon performance. it will encourage workers to high levels of effort. Work. Fifth. money is one of the hygiene factors. does money motivate employees? The answer is ‘yes’ and ‘no’. Merit pay is based on the individual’s performance. as a medium of exchange. Money is understood to be powerful motivator for more than one reason. particularly monetary rewards. money will motivate to the extent that it is seen as being able to satisfy an individual’s personal goals and is perceived as being dependent upon performance criteria. It is an attention-getting and effect-producing mechanism Money has. In the former. tremendous importance in influencing employee behavior. Seventh. reinforcement and expectancy theories attest to the value of money as a motivator. money is . reality motivators? Put in another way. and improving maintenance factors is the first step in effort directed towards motivation. Although these bonuses are often determined from team or organizational performance. Commissions are paid to sales people on the actual sales shown by them. they may also result from satisfactory completion of individual goals. In the first place. money is fundamental for completion of task. money also performs the function of a “score card” by which employees assess the value that the organization place on their services and by which employees can compare their “values” to others. Fourth. The employee takes pay as the reward for his or her work’ and the employer views it as the price for using the services of the employee.
Your employees' natural motivation relies on the fact that all people have human desires for affiliation. Third. · Underutilize the capability of your employees. In these days of unionization. All you need to do is to utilize their natural ability. Finally. They prefer. The following is a list of ten motivation zapping organizational behaviors that will demotivate your employees. money is not important to all people. Fourth. participation in decision of behavioral scientists to money as a motivator is understandable for at least six reasons. a challenging job and the like are nebulous. The first step in utilizing your employees' natural abilities is to eliminate your organization's negative practices that zap away their natural motivation. other techniques such as challenging jobs. In addition. It is relaxing to receive sufficient money to clear the outstanding bills and past debts which have been causing tension. they have desires for ownership. pay raises do not depend on performance. . · Plan unproductive meetings for employees to attend. for money to motivate the difference in pay increase between a high performer and an average performer must be significant. · Create an atmosphere full of company politics. financial incentives discourage risk-taking propensity of people. for example. This is not possible. Whenever people are encouraged to think about what they will get for performing a task. · Promote internal competition between employees. instead. management must have the discretion to reward high performers with more money. and the coast of living indexation. Other factors like satisfaction. responsibility.easily vulnerable for manipulation. · Treat employees unfairly. Second. they become less inclined to take risk or explore possibilities. · Tolerate poor performance so your high performing employees feel taken advantage of. The second step your organization can take is to develop true motivators which can spark all your employees into being motivated. The conclusion is that money can motivate some people under some conditions. Payments and the plans with which they are linked are manipulatable. protective legislation. thanks to strong unionization. Money has little impact on such people. · Create a lot of unnecessary rules for employees to follow. and for control and power over their work. relationships among employees are often ruptured because of the scramble for monetary rewards. Finally. you will tap into your employees' natural motivation. and meaning in their work. achievement. competence. money can actually decrease an employee's motivation and performance. people fail to see a direct linkage between monetary and performance. are intrinsically motivated. · Develop unclear expectations regarding your employees' performance. Fifth. · Withhold information critical for employees to perform their work. High achievers. · Provide criticism instead of constructive feedback. In practice it rarely is. But behavioral scientists think otherwise. That's right! No money. which you can do without spending a time. First. Motivating Employees without Money The employees who work for your company are naturally motivated. Put it another way money cannot motivate all people under all circumstances. seniority based promotion. money will be a powerful motivator for a person who is tense and anxious about lack of money. Many worries and concerns are financially based. By decreasing negative zapping demotivators and by adding true motivators. Studies too attest to the same assertion. In fact. recognition. They downgrade money as a motivator. goals.
some useful generic guidelines apply to most situations. · Develop goals and challenges for all employees. implement these true motivators without spending money. Whilst your survey will be unique to your company. Work to change your organization to decrease the demotivators and thereby increase your employees’ natural ability to self motivates themselves. · Tolerate learning errors by avoiding harsh criticism. · Promote social interaction and teamwork between employees. · Encourage responsibility and leadership opportunities within your company. focus on how you can make some changes within your organization. Remember. · Develop measurement that shows performance increase. · If your employees do routine work add some fun and variety to their routine. Although not exhaustive. don't work to change one individual at a time. the process of involving and consulting with staff is hugely beneficial and motivational in its own right. (see the 'Hawthorne Effect'). Aside from the information that questionnaires reveal. · Desire for activity · Desire for ownership · Desire for power · Desire for affiliation · Desire for competence · Desire for achievement · Desire for recognition · Desire for meaning That's it! Remember. Instead of focusing on money. · Provide lots of encouragement. your staff issues. By eliminating demotivators and adding in no cost motivators you are tapping into your employees' natural human desires to perform at their maximum level of motivation and productivity. the following ten points may help you cover the relevant subject areas and help towards establishing facts rather than making assumptions about motivation when designing your own questionnaires on employee motivation. your industry and culture. · Provide employees with input and choice in how they do their work.The following are examples of true motivators that will help your employees tap into their natural ability to be motivated. · Promote job ownership. Employee motivation Principles of improving employee motivation and empowerment Employee motivation questionnaires or surveys Staff surveys are usually very helpful in establishing whether staff in your company is motivated and therefore performing to best effect. The following are the human desires that you are tapping into. · Make appreciation part of your repertoire. Ten tips for questionnaires on employee motivation .
Collect information from employees about their fears. treat them with respect and honesty. What are the patterns of motivation in your company? Who is most motivated and why? What lessons can you learn from patches of high and low motivation in your company? 7. 4. How do employees feel about the company? Do they feel safe. 3. status. 2. public recognition. perfectionism. You may find employees are highly motivated but about the "wrong" priorities. Are there any recent changes in the company that might have affected motivation? If your company has made redundancies. 6. loyal. 8. 9. Even if they are unfounded. dispensable and invisible? Ask them what would improve their loyalty and commitment. Ask questions to establish how clear they are about your company's principles. More than monetary rewards. Secondly this needs to be compared with how individuals actually spend their time. Include questions to elicit what really motivates employees.1.. Find out what the disparity is between the employees image of the company from the outside and from the inside. Actually we are motivated by a whole range of factors. If you do not mirror this image within your company in the way you treat employees you may notice motivation problems. 'the forward thinking technology company' or the 'family hotel chain'. How involved are employees in company development? Do they feel listened to and heard? Are they consulted? And. The company can eliminate practices that zap motivation.. Empowerment is what young job aspirants are looking for in organizations. priorities and mission. Are they motivated by financial rewards. EMPOWERMENT Empowerment is one of concepts discussed much in HRM. valued and taken care of? Or do they feel taken advantage of. if they are consulted. Do employees feel empowered? Do your employees feel they have job descriptions that give them some autonomy and allow them to find their own solutions or are they given a list of tasks to perform and simply told what to do? 5. Is the company's internal image consistent with its external one? Your company may present itself to the world as the 'caring airline'. job security. and their expectations set. including learning about their values. Your employees would have been influenced. imposed a recruitment freeze or lost a number of key people this will have an effect on motivation. to this image when they joined your company. thoughts and concerns relating to these events. the company needs to establish how it wants individuals to spend their time based on what is most valuable. are their opinions taken seriously? Are there regular opportunities for them to give feedback? 10. fear.efficacy among organizational members through the identification of conditions that . What really motivates your staff? It is often assumed that all people are motivated by the same things. it is the feeling that employee ‘owns’ the job that motivates him or her nowadays. competition. Empowerment may be understood as ‘’a process of enhancing feelings of self . results. Are employee goals and company goals aligned? First. What is the 'primary aim' of your company? Your employees may be more motivated if they understand the primary aim of your business. What obstacles stop employees performing to best effect? Questionnaires on employee motivation should include questions about what employees are tolerating in their work and home lives. praise and acknowledgment.
Individuals high in self-efficacy tend to be confident and self-assured and feel they are likely to be successful in whatever Endeavour’s they undertake. Use of participative management implementing merit-Pay systems and job enrichment are example of possible empowerment practices. Identifying conditions of Of powerlessness Implement empowerment strategies techniques Remove condition of powerlessness provide self-efficacy information Feeling of empowerment generated . low task variety and unrealistic performance goals. Self-efficacy describes a belief in one’s effectiveness. One is simply to remove the conditions identified in the first stage as contributing to powerlessness.This is because increasing self-efficacy straightens effort –performance expectancies. is to provide self-efficacy information to subordinate. They aspire to do better job because they get personally rewarded for doing job. Diagnosis being completed as suggested above. The first stage involves identifying . Individuals high in self-efficacy information to subordinates. Self-efficacy describes a belief in one’s effectiveness. and more important. the next stage is to introduce empowerment strategies and techniques. and authoritarian styles of leadership. the enhanced empowerment feelings from stage four are translated into performance in the fifth and final stage. centralized resources. These behavioral consequences of empowerment include increased activity directed towards task accomplishment.The conditions existing in the organizations that lead to feelings of powerlessness on the part of organizational members. low incentive value rewards. Empowerment consist five stages. These conditions manifest through poor communication. Finally. Receiving such information result in feeling of empowerment in the fourth stage . The second. The use of the programmes (stated above) is designed to accomplish two objectives in the third stage.foster powerlessness and through their removal by both formal organizational practices and informal techniques of providing efficacy information “Empower employees are energetic and passionate.
Allow teams to form. Empowerment needs to be implemented with caution. It is particularly important for newly empowered employees. When they feel responsible. Empowerment demands team formation. Demonstrate this tolerance through deeds and words. When employees look for secured but not challenging jobs. Empowered employees know that know that their jobs belong to them.Performance feedback is always important. employees feel more responsible. 4. job structure and reward systems. Given a say on how things are done.Have tolerance for mistakes committed by subordinates.Share information with subordinates. 2. Employees need to be informed about the business and demonstrate how their work fits in. But a few months down the line one of his team members started to struggle. get more done and enjoy the work more. Teams. ABB. Tata information Systems too have their own empowered teams. empowerment sounds hollow.a short case study . One of the most important measures of job satisfaction is whether employees find meaning in their work-if they know what they are working towards and understand how their work affects other employees and the organization as a whole. Teams are the best vehicles to empowerment. Empowerment occurs when power of decision –making and authority to share resources go to employees who then experiences a sense of ownership and control over jobs. are called self-directed or simply empowered teams. Empowerment has no appeal to such subordinates. Where employees suffer from inflated egos and are highly self-centered. people he'd worked with in the past who had shown commitment. Jo was putting in the hours but . 3. Feedback enhances learning and can provide needed assurance that the job is being mastered. leadership. thus formed.Delegate responsibility and along with it authority. Information sharing is another building block of empowerment. The following tips may be useful in empowering employees: 1.Empowerment result in performance Empowerment is facilitated by a combination of factors including values. empowerment does not work. Wipro Corporation has nearly 30 such teams and Titan. Many employees entertain the feeling that they are subjected to be led and not to led.000 tones per annum polyester filament yarn plant of Reliance at Hazira went on stream within 14 months mainly because its technical teams were empowered to make critical decisions at the worksite. Empowered employees need sufficient information to get full perspective. role with that of ‘partner’ role. Employee motivation principles .sound familiar? When Michael started his own consultancy he employed top people. The 60. flair and loyalty and who seemed to share his values. 5. they show more initiative in their work.
or he offers it a treat as an inducement. No matter how experienced a leader you are. chances are at times you have struggled to motivate certain individuals.without enthusiasm. He told her that he was sure she was up to the job but he really needed her to bring in the new business or they would all be out on their ear. most motivation strategies are 'push' or 'pull' based. campaigns. Frederick Herzberg. motivation must come from within each person. You've outlined the big vision again in the hope of inspiring them. Other people are at the receiving end of KITA motivation strategies that (obviously) aren't working on them. He showed her the books to illustrate his point. and/or helping others to do the same. The granddaddy of motivation theory. fear. but struggle to extend this state of mind to the people they manage. When the master wants his dog to move he either gives it a nudge from behind. In this paper Blaire identifies some common assumptions about motivation and presents some new paradigms that can help motivate more effectively. He again ran through her job description and the procedures she was expected to follow. Wouldn't it be better if the dog wanted to move by itself? Transferring this principle back in to the workplace. And sometimes it works. complicated systems to check people follow a procedure) or by offering choc drops (bonuses. After an initial burst of energy. You've sat down one-to-one with the individual concerned and explained the situation. and enabling them to achieve their full potential . conferences. she was unfocused and not bringing in enough new business. 10 management motivation examples to illustrate that there are better ways to motivate employees Blaire Palmer's experience has enabled her to work with a wide range of individuals and groups from a variety of backgrounds. You've tried every trick in the book. in which case it is not so much motivated by wanting to move as by wanting choc drops! KITA does the job (though arguably not sustainable) but it's hard work. tough targets. They are about keeping people moving either with a kick from behind (threats. And there have been casualties. etc). But a month later nothing had changed. initiatives. He used the analogy of a dog. Ultimately. Ultimately if someone can't get the job done they have to go. Some of these people are highly motivated themselves. You've dangled a carrot in front of them: "If you make your targets you'll get a great bonus". Without new business he would lose the company and that would mean her job. She was doing her best but she'd try harder. Sometimes they fake it for a few months but it's not sustainable. These people know they 'should' be more engaged with their work. in which case the dog moves because it doesn't have much choice.themselves. Jo told Michael that she understood. You've given them the bottom line: "Either you pull your finger out or your job is on the line". No leader is ever the single and continuing . It means every time you want the dog to move you have to kick it (metaphorically). called traditional motivation strategies 'KITA' (something similar to Kick In The Pants). more of a joyful and rewarding activity. By adding these coaching tools and motivation principles to your capabilities you should find the job of leading those around you. But not every time. Instead of spending all your time and energy pushing and cajoling (in the belief that your people's motivation must come from you) you will be able to focus on leading your team. Her confidence was dropping. grand presentations of the vision. Jo was back to her old ways. Michael explained to Jo the seriousness of the situation.
enjoying a challenge. 'achieving work-life balance'. Acknowledgment was a prime motivator for Marie so to help her consider some other options.'no-one is like me' Since the 1980's. Marie began to see that perhaps her team were indeed motivated .to encourage positive visualisation . In this way. In the first few weeks of her coaching she would say. she was helped to brainstorm what else might motivate people in their work. inspiration. was being coached. Every day she pushed herself to succeed and was rewarded with recognition from her peers. associate professor at Stanford University carried out research that found most people believe that others are motivated by 'extrinsic rewards'. If the leader can tap into and support the team members' own motivations then the leader begins to help people to realize their full potential. and virtually all sensible research ever since). and in this respect we are mostly all the same. which I would urge you to see for what they are. and negative references. like a desire to learn new skills or to contribute to an organization. and example will at times motivate followers. achievement. and recognition will all come quite naturally to the person. and to help them find their own way forward by making best use of their own strengths and abilities. rather than 'intrinsic motivators'. One great pitfall is to try to motivate others by focusing on what motivates you. 'financial rewards' and 'the adrenaline rush of working to tight deadlines'. they make the mistake of assuming that their people are somehow different. we assume others are motivated mainly by financial rewards. In life it's so important always to try to accentuate the positive . development. Instead people were starting to become resentful towards Marie's approach. But it wasn't working. Motivation example 1 .it was simply that the team members were motivated in a different ways to her own. don't normally represent a great platform for learning and development. Marie. Numerous surveys show that most people are motivated by intrinsic factors.'everyone is like me' One of the most common assumptions we make is that the individuals who work for us are motivated by the same factors as us. Marie's list grew: 'learning new skills'. and focus on the the positives in each of these examples. Motivation example 2 . Despite this. silly daft old ways that fail. such as pay or job security. "If only people realized how important it was to put in 110% and how good it felt to get the acknowledgment. But she was unable to get the same standard of work from her team members. support. and that money is central to their motivation.source of motivation for a person. Perhaps you are motivated by loyalty to the company. . see the negatives for what they are. How not to do things.so. 'creativity'. then they would start to feel more motivated". 'accomplishing a goal as part of a team'. the leader's greatest role in motivating is to recognize people for who they are. and it is these things which are the true fuels of personal motivation. While the leader's encouragement. Chip Heath. There are very many. a director in her company. proving yourself to others or making money. By necessity these case studies initially include some negative references and examples. while many leaders recognize that their own motivation is driven by factors that have nothing to do with money. She was a perfectionist. research has shown that although we know that we are motivated by meaningful and satisfying work (which is supported by Herzberg's timeless theory on the subject.
we are all the same. charismatic. Instead he listened to the challenges facing the people he called and asked them what kind of solution they were looking for.'some people can't be motivated' While it's true that not everyone has the same motivational triggers. his sales figures went through the roof. nearly everyone listens: certain politicians. James was encouraged to look at how he could use his sensitivity to make more sales and beat his teammates. and are the high-profile. but in so far as we are all motivated by 'intrinsic' factors. people we regard as high achievers. He made no attempt to 'sell'. the belief that some people cannot be motivated is what can lead to the unedifying 'pep-talk and sack them' cycle favored by many X-Theory managers. Each of us has qualities that can be adapted to a leadership role and/or to achieve great success. we are more likely to get others behind us and to succeed if we tap in to our natural. But do you need to be like this to motivate and lead? Certainly not. A character like James is also typically able to establish highly reliable and dependable processes for self-management. You may not agree with what they say. Instead of acting the way we think others expect us to. but when all this fails to make an impact the manager simply sighs and hands the troublesome employee the termination letter. The leader has a responsibility to facilitate this process. Motivation example 4 . or their monthly bonus. this inevitably produces a faulty and unsustainable motivational approach. When he began to work according to his natural strengths. James was a relatively successful salesman but he was never at the top of his team's league table.If leaders assume that their team members only care about their pay packet. as already shown. Fundamentally these people are great sales-people. he based his initial approach on building rapport and asking questions. This is not true. authentic style of leadership and making things happen. entertainers. Leaders must recognize that people are different only in so far as the different particular 'intrinsic' factor(s) which motivate each person. Frank. Many people make the mistake of thinking that the only people who can lead others to success and achieve true excellence. to take over some extra . The reality is that motivating some individuals does involve an investment of time. He reworked his sales pitch and instead of focusing his approach on the product. You probably know people a little like this too. business leaders. Bob was asked by the site director.'people don't listen to me' When some people talk. In coaching sessions he would wonder whether he would ever be as good as his more flamboyant and aggressive colleagues. reminding them that they are 'all in this together' or that they are 'working for the greater good' or that the management has 'complete faith in you'. Motivation example 3 . a tone of voice and a confidence that is unmistakable. and for organizing activities and resources. When his manager left the company. all of which are attributes that are extremely useful and valued in modern business. but they have a presence. or their car. When he had earned their trust and established what they needed he would then describe his product. They can make an unmitigated disaster sound like an unqualified victory. James saw himself as a sensitive person and was concerned that he was too sensitive for the job. Typically managers use conventional methods to inspire their teams. 'alpha-male/female' types.
'but I am listening' We are always told how valuable listening is as a leadership tool and encouraged to do more of it.'if they leave I've failed' What happens if. Now the two were able to look at the real situation. Frank arranged for the two of them to meet to discuss a way forward. Bob was dedicated to doing a good job. is generally a better first step than 'seeking to be understood'. and he felt resentful that his extra responsibility hadn't come with extra pay. Bob enjoyed his social life. As well as administrative work he would be more involved in people management and report directly to Frank. This is certainly important. we listen really hard. It's easier to help someone when you see things from their point of view. While there is no guarantee that this approach will always work. Having set aside his assumptions about Bob and armed with a more complete picture from Bob's point of view. so promotion meant little to him. he didn't trust the new administrator brought in to lighten his workload. Listening is about understanding how the other person feels . as Stephen Covey's 'Seven Habits of Highly Effective People' puts it. thinking about last night's big game and planning your weekend certainly stop you from hearing what is being said. This is not to say that 'the employee is always right'. To Bob it might look as if Frank took no direct interest except when he found fault. Frank saw this as a promotion for Bob and assumed that he would be flattered and take to his new role with gusto. He realized two weeks of every month were effectively 'down-time' for Bob. trying to catch every detail of what is being said and maybe follow up with a question to show that we caught everything. when we remember. so that you can actually hear. Often when an employee tells us why they are lacking motivation we are busy internally making notes about what is wrong with what they are saying. 'seeking to understand'. Bob admits to Frank that he doesn't see his future with that company? What if he says the main reason he is demotivated is that he isn't really suited to the company culture. Really listening properly means shutting off the voice in your head that is already planning your counterargument. . but was not particularly ambitious. understand and interpret what you are being told. but only when you can really understand the other person's perception of the situation are you be able to help them develop a strategy that works for them. and that he (Frank) had complete belief in Bob to be able to handle this new challenge. He felt he had too much to do. but was no longer able to leave the office at 5pm. Checking your email. This is pre-judging. Frank was a good manager and told Bob that he simply had to be a little more organized. at their meeting. See the principles of empathy.responsibility. But Bob remained sullen. Instead Bob did little but complain. followed by two weeks where he was overloaded with work. and to find a workable way forward. But there is another important aspect to listening and that is: Listening without Judgment. So. Finally. Motivation example 5 . Then Frank looked at how Bob might perceive him as his boss. Motivation example 6 . Frank looked at the situation Bob was in to see if there was anything bringing out the worst in him. It is not listening properly. So Frank took a different approach: He tried to see the situation from Bob's point of view. He realized Bob probably thought Frank's hands-off management style meant he didn't care. Bob was also expected to work more closely now with a colleague with whom he clashed.beyond merely the words that they say.
industry.'the same factors that demotivate. responsibility. Effort should be focused on helping people to align company goals with individual aspirations. Motivation and goals cannot be imposed from outside by a boss . Motivation example 7 . The conventional solution to dissatisfaction over pay levels would be to increase pay in the belief that people would then work harder and be more motivated. and external opportunities and rewards. Look at Adam's Equity Theory to help understand the complexity of personal motivation and goals alignment. True leaders care about the other person's interests . Herzberg's findings about human motivation have been tested and proven time and gain. tells us that the factors that demotivate do not necessarily motivate when reversed. salary and company policy. His theory. motivation example 8 . and others like it. motivate' When asked what brought about lack of motivation at work. the majority of people in research carried out by Herzberg blamed 'hygiene factors' such as working conditions. You succeed as a leader by helping and enabling people to reach their potential and to achieve fulfillment. and are unable to sustain good performance. Helping them identify and find a more fitting role elsewhere not only benefits you and them . having identified what sort of work and environment would suit them better. However. stressed. whereas in the present environment the same person doesn't fit. the main factors that characterized extreme satisfaction at work are: achievement. Katherine Benziger's methodologies are rooted in this philosophy: Employees who 'falsify type' (i.'people will rise to tough challenges' Many managers hope to motivate by setting their people challenging targets. let them go. 'the opportunity to grow and advance' and 'greater responsibility'. this research shows that whilst increasing wages. don't force them to stay out of loyalty. A successful outcome for an individual and for a company may be that a demotivated person. behave unnaturally in order to satisfy external rather than internal motives and drivers) are unhappy. improving job security and positive working relationships have a marginal impact. Help people to enrich their work and you will truly motivate.. In a different culture. Sometimes the person and the company are simply unsuited.and would be happier elsewhere? Has Frank failed? Not necessarily.not just your own interests and the interests of your organization. advancement and growth. So it follows that leaders who focus on these aspects .are the true leaders. leaves to find their ideal job elsewhere. Sometimes 'success' doesn't look the way we expect it to. 'recognition'.people's true motivational needs and values . mindful of internal needs.e. role or team that individual would be energized and dedicated.it also enables you to find a replacement who is really suited and dedicated to the job.motivation and goals must be determined from within the person. It's becoming more widely accepted that the right and sustainable approach is to help individual employees to tap in to their true motivators and understand their core values. If their needs and abilities could be of far greater value elsewhere. interesting work. They believe that raising the bar higher and higher is what motivates. When asked what motivated them they gave answers such as 'the sense of achievement'. recognition. Her boss habitually set her increasingly . Tracey was an effective and conscientious account manager.
But this is the KITA style of motivation. don't complain about it again. you might wonder where you would find the time to motivate people using these approaches. This investment of time means you will eventually have less to do. When Tracey handed in her latest monthly report. traveled extensively overseas. They may wonder why you have suddenly taken such an interest in them. and modern experience. So. Herzberg was not alone in identifying that leaders need invest in the development of their teams. and also of their own successors. They may feel you are giving them too much responsibility or be concerned that changes in the way they work may lead to job losses. sustainable motivation. Encourage and help people to grow and develop. Engaging fully with your staff. Job enlargement is different to Job enhancement. understanding their wants.which she had in bucket-loads . He was relying on her sense of duty . People are naturally skeptical of unconventional motivational approaches.'I tried it and it didn't work' When you try new things . Achievement for achievement's sake is no basis for motivation . Instead of constantly urging your people along and having to solve all the problems yourself. especially which affect relationships and feelings . However. Change can be a little unsettling at first. So is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. desires and values. Herzberg's research shows that improving the 'meaningfulness' of a job (see also motivation example 7) has the motivational impact.tough objectives. and performance improvement is inevitable. But consider the advantages.a person's quality of life must benefit too.it is normal for things initially to get a little worse. 'You see? It's worth all the hard work. Motivation example 10 . you'll be the leader of a group performing at a higher level of ability and productivity. her boss said. Douglas McGregor's X-Y Theory is pretty central to all this too. commitment and focus is in the beginning more time consuming than 'KITA' methods. not simply increasing the amount of pressure or volume of the tasks.to get the job done. Its leverage or 'motivation' is simply a lack of choice. since KITA methods require far less thought.new motivational ideas. It is true that this style of leadership.'this type of motivation takes too much time' If you've absorbed the ideas above. giving you the chance to step back from fire-fighting and to consider the bigger picture. Herzberg's research is among other evidence. that after an initial drop in performance. But keep the faith. It doesn't really acknowledge a dedication to the job or a sense of pride. and had not had a single weekend break. from . Sometimes Tracey would mention to her boss that the effort was taking its toll on her health and happiness. getting to know them as individuals and developing strategies that achieve a continuous release of energy is more intensive and takes time to work. in achieving her targets last month Tracey worked several eighteen-hour days. Motivation example 9 . which Tracey generally achieved. this is bound to be. Supporting and coaching people through this stage of early doubt is vital. See also the principles of the Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum. people quickly adjust and respond to more progressive management and motivational attitudes.' Her boss's belief was that Tracey would get a sense of satisfaction from completing an almost impossible workload.
to be positively led and developed. And see also Bruce Tuckman's 'Forming. without much interruption. Storming. It is the primary institution through which the employee satisfies his or her diverse needs. job enrichment has now become a popular concept. and realizes potentialities through work. Performing' model.the individual growth perspective. and the individuals within them. Hersey's and Blanchard's Situation Leadership® model also illustrates clearly how important team development is for leaders and organizations. day after day. seems to be the only thing that people can do eight hours or more. social. plying and sex. All the other activities one enjoys. in general. These features are described as follows and illustrated. To be specific. People. Naturally. planning and controlling powers. or it gives the job holder more decision-making. In fact. Job Enrichment First coined by Herzberg in his famous research on motivators and maintenance factors. and creative. such as eating. political and cultural. no matter how much one enjoys these. A mature team should be virtually self-managing. leaving you free to concentrate on all the job-enhancing strategic aspects that you yourself need in order to keep motivated and developing.Direct feedback: Employees should be able to get immediate knowledge of the results they are achieving. challenging. He or she earns a living from the job. It simply means adding a few more motivators to a job to make it more rewarding. Job enrichment and rotation are but example in that direction. a job is enriched when the nature of the job is exciting. job has become a serious subject for social scientists and practicing managers. JOB ENLARGEMENT. are easily suitable. Norming. spend a considerable amount of time working. ENRICHMENT AND ROTATION Job is a significant aspect in one’s life. . an enriched job has eight characteristics. we philosophy upon work and treat it as worship. Work is also a primary means of achieving goals-economic. According to Herzberg. It has become an issue for many workers because it is losing its intrinsic value. Some workers express dissatisfaction with their jobs. and this dissatisfaction seems to have an adverse effect on motivation and quality of life general. socialize in work organizations. In our society. 1. All of these renowned theories clearly demonstrate the need for teams. Attempts have been made to use jobs for motivating employees in organizations. The evaluation of performance can be built into a job (as in an electronic spell-checker. Your responsibility as leader is to develop your team so that it can take on more and more of your own responsibility.
such as a quality controller visiting supplier’s place. 5. 3. 7. The only regular work the employee does on every working day is to sign the attendance register at 10 a. The usefulness if job enrichment in motivating employees is well-known to everyone. whose number unfortunately is considerable.Unique Experience: An enriched job has some unique qualities or features. An assistant who clips relevant newspaper articles for his\her boss is. and satisfaction after job enrichment.indicating the presence or absence of errors) or provided by supervisor. For example. job enrichment is a valuable motivational technique. a study of AT&T with clerical and other company employees showed a positive improvement in job performance.Personal Accountability: An enriched job holds the incumbent responsible for the results. Deciding when to tackle which assignment is an example of self-scheduling. 2.Scheduling Own Work: Freedom to schedule one’s own work contributes to enrichment.m. He or she. naturally. such as a quality assurance handling a customer’s complaints about the quality of the company product. The client can be from outside the firm (such as a mechanic dealing with car owner) or from inside (such as a computer operator running a job for another department). Being a direct outgrowth of herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation.Direct Communication Authority: An enriched job allows the worker to communicate directly with people who use his\her output. 8. he\she must have the authority to order supplies necessary for completing his\her job. A few studies conducted in the US demonstrated the usefulness of job enrichment as a motivator. He or she receives praise for good work and blame for poor work. Employees who perform creative work have a greater opportunity to schedule their assignments than employees performing routine jobs. 6. plans to take voluntary retirement. A laboratory technician in the health department of a stategovernment enterprise experiences frustration after 20 years of working in the same capacity. The frustration of such employees. The incumbent hardly finds the job interesting.Clint Relationship: An employee who serves a client or a customer directly has an enriched job.New learning: An enriched job allows its incumbent to feel that he\she is growing mentally.Control Over Resources: One approach to job enrichment is for each employee to have control over his\her resources and expenses. For example. specially to people working in government establishments. doing an enriched job. Some cautions about job Enrichment . can be enriching the jobs. 4.
if we take extreme case of a worker who is motivated by a lack of responsibility. For workers. many firms report an increased productivity that job enrichment is supposed to produce. as workers become accustomed to the new work systems. 6. After this initial drop.Job Enrichment Assumes that Workers want More Responsibility: Clearly. . developing attribute. and company policies.Enriching Jobs may Create a ‘Snowball’ Effect: Given that organizations have a fixed amount of authority to distribute among its member. This not only present system design problems (for example. the worker could be transferred to another job which has a higher level of work (promotion). it is not unusual for organizations to experience a drop in productivity. therefore. job enrichment proposes that jobs with little responsibility should be improved to provide a greater responsibility for the incumbent. rewriting job descriptions) but it can also present a practical barrier since labour unions may resist a scheme that eliminates jobs. who for a variety of reasons. 5. wages. If this occurs. the management may erroneously conclude that the programme is not working. there is ample evidence to suggest that personal capacity is a dynamic. Even though the job is changed to utilize this capacity. job enrichment will have little or no effect. one can easily be misled by its possibilities. 4.‘Enriched’ is a Relative Team: As a general rule. 3. 1. However. are satisfied with their current level of responsibility. job enrichment cause more problems that it may cure. Job enrichment is not a substitute for good supervisory practices. as a method of increasing worker motivation. if other environmental factors in the organization are not adequate.Job Enrichment may have Negative Short-term Effects: For a short time after an increase I the job responsibility.Job Enrichment is a Static Process: People become bored in their jobs because their capacity to make decisions is not fully utilized. If an evaluation of a job-enrichment programme is made too early.Since job enrichment has been so well-published in recent years. that after a period of time (the exact amount varies from person to person) the worker will outgrow the enriched job. we must remember that describing a job as one with ‘little responsibility’ carries an implicit assumption about the person occupying that role. then job enrichment for this person would be disaster. If jobs cannot be changed over time to use this capacity. While the job may appear to be boring to the observer. additional enrichment will be required to fully utilize the individual’s increased capacity. the person actually performing the job may find it quite challenging. however. 2. It is likely.Job Enrichment is not a substitute for good Management: Regardless of how enriched jobs might be in an organization. Although job enrichment can cause increased employee motivation there are some other factors that should be considered. enriching one person’s job means taking authority away from another (most likely the manager).
job enlargement preceded job enrichment. On the other hand. 8. The initiation of a job-enrichment programme must take this factor into account. Job enlargement attempts to add somewhat similar tasks to the job so that it will have more variety and more interesting. any change is resisted and this applies to job enrichment jobs through increasing the level of responsibility will result in an increased motivation. but recent research indicted that participation can have a positive effect. Figure shows the distinction between job enrichment and job enlargement. this is a factor that the management must consider in the participation process.Change is Difficult to Implement: As is too well-known. and changing transmission fluid.Participation can Affect the Enrichment Process: Herzberg originally recommended that workers should not be involved in the enrichment process. Job Enlargement Job enlargement refers to the expansion of the number of different tasks performed by an employee in a single job. Historically too. employees are not likely to be elated at the announcement of a job-enrichment programme. an auto mechanic switches from only changing oil to changing oil. No doubt. In other words.7. An enlarged job can motivate an individual for five reasons: Job Enrichment Job Enrichment and Enlargement Routine Job Job Enlargement . For example. our knowledge about change processes tells us that this type of change is one of the most difficult things to implement in a work situation. greasing. His logic was that workers are often conditioned to see their jobs in terms of ‘Hygiene’ factors and are unable to respond to the job content.
Variety of Tasks (Focus on Breadth) Fig. it is difficult to count the number of finished performance cycles. productivity may fall during the introduction of a new system. Increasing the number of tasks to be performed can reduce the level of boredom. jobs are enlarged so that one worker completes a whole unit of work. 5. enlarged tasks. without meaningful and points.Task Variety Highly fragmented jobs requiring a limited number of unchanging responses tend to be extremely monotonous. create tasks that are challenging but attainable. Enlarged jobs with optimal levels of complexity.Ability Utilization: Workers derive greater satisfaction from jobs that best utilize their physical and mental skills and abilities. if they can vary the rhythm and work at their own pace. and can be particularly motivated if it tied to evaluation and organizational rewards. redesigning a new2 system and training employees to adjust to it. Moreover. on the other hand. As a result. 4. 3.Meaningful Work Modules Frequently. This tends to increase satisfaction by allowing workers to appreciate their contribution to the entire project or product. certain disadvantages cannot be ignored. or a major portion of it. 2. Enlarged jobs allow for more meaningful feedback. the management must be careful not to enlarge jobs too much. Workers may require additional training for their new. the feedback tends to be meaningless. Finally. Shows a Difference between job enrichment and job enlargement 1. Besides if the job-enlargement programme involves breaking up of the existing production line of work system. However.Performance Feedback: Workers performing narrow jobs with short performance cycles repeat the same set of motions endlessly. First training costs tend to rise.Worker-paced Control: Job-enlargement schemes often move a worker from a machine-paced production line to a job in which. Although the benefits of job enlargement are several. the cost can be substantial. even after enlargement. many jobs . Enlarged jobs tend to fulfill this condition. Even if they are counted. Another drawback is that unions often argue for increased pay because of the increased work load. because jobs that require more skills and abilities than the worker possesses lead to frustration and present obstacles to task accomplishments.
No money. In addition. it can demotivate intelligent and ambitious trainees who seek specific responsibilities. infrequent delegation of authority. work is disrupted as rotated employees take time to adjust to a new set-up.may still be routine and boring. money can actually decrease an employee's motivation and performance. You can't motivate people anymore than you can empower them.especially among new managers and supervisors. they have desires for ownership. The first step in utilizing your employees' natural abilities is to eliminate your organization's negative practices that zap away their natural motivation. achievement.But there are several ways that management unwittingly demotivates employees and diminishes. Many companies treat employees as disposable. When an activity is no longer challenging. That's right. you can set up an environment where they best motivate and empower themselves. adapting to changes. and a lack of a credible vision contribute to employees' frustration."I can motivate people" Not really -. Employee Understanding Motivation The employees who work for your company are naturally motivated. All you need to do is to utilize their natural ability. Myth #1 -. Employees with a wider range of skills give the management more flexibility in scheduling work. The second step your organization can take is to develop true motivators. However. if not outright destroys."Money is a good motivator" . 2. and filling vacancies. recognition. Other benefits are also available. Training costs are increased. insufficient training. you will tap into your employees' natural motivation. and meaning in their work. and for control and power over their work. it's important first to clear up these common myths. Before looking at what management can do to support the motivation of employees. 1. several myths persist -. which can spark all your employees into being motivated. The key knows how to set up the environment for each of your employees. endless paperwork. that has similar skills requirement. Employees have to motivate and empower themselves. Despite the important of the topic. Your employees' natural motivation relies on the fact that all people have human desires for affiliation.they have to motivate themselves. their enthusiasm. Job Rotation This involves shifting an employee from one job to another. Myth #2 -. Management inadvertently makes it difficult for employees to do their jobs. At the first sign of business difficulty. Job rotation has drawbacks. the employee would be rotated to another job. Excessive levels of required approvals. By decreasing negative zapping demotivators and by adding true motivators. competence. failure to communicate. It reduces boredom and disinterest through diversifying the employees. at the same level. which you can do without spending a dime. and almost two-thirds say management is much more likely to criticize them for poor performance than praise them for good work. employees-who are usually routinely referred to as "our greatest asset"-become expendable?Employees generally receive inadequate recognition and reward: About half of the workers in our surveys report receiving little or no credit. In fact. Clearing Up Common Myths about Employee Motivation The topic of motivating employees is extremely important to managers and supervisors. activities.
The key to helping to motivate your employees is to understand what motivates them. Whatever steps you take to support the motivation of your . time with family. If the goals of the organization are not aligned with the goals of employees. 5. if you're doing a good job of taking care of yourself and your own job. a nice office and job security can help people from becoming less motivated. etc. So what motivates you? Consider. That's why a lot of yelling from the boss won't seem to "light a spark under employees" for a very long time."I know what motivates me. Different people are motivated by different things. Not true. it's critical that managers and supervisors know what they want from their employees. employees can be all fired up about their work and be working very hard. However.Myth #3 --"Fear is a damn good motivator" Fear is a great motivator -. so I know what motivates my employees"Not really. A key goal is to understand the motivations of each of your employees. for example. These preferences should be worded in terms of goals for the organization. but they usually don't help people to become more motivated. service. Myth #5 -. Again. then the organization is not any better off than if the employees were sitting on their hands -."I can't comprehend employee motivation -. a job well done. it seems like everyone else does. (Goals should be worded to be "SMARTER". you'll have much clearer perspective on how others are doing in theirs. If you're enthusiastic about your job. Certain things like money. 6. I may be greatly motivated by earning time away from my job to spend more time my family. If you are very stressed out.) Basics about Employee Motivation (Including Steps You Can Take) Basic Principles to Remember 1. Increased job satisfaction does not necessarily mean increased job performance. (More about these steps is provided later on in this article. 4. How is your job configured to support your own motivations? What can you do to better motivate yourself? 2. Whatever steps you take to support the motivation of your employees (various steps are suggested below). it's much easier for others to be. Motivating employees starts with motivating yourself It's amazing how. then employees aren't effectively working toward the mission of the organization.for a very short time. learning. People are not motivated by the same things. ensure that employees have strong input to identifying their goals and that these goals are aligned with goals of the organization. There are some very basic steps you can take that will go a long way toward supporting your employees to motivate themselves toward increased performance in their jobs. Always work to align goals of the organization with goals of employeesas mentioned above. 3. too. a key goal is to understand what motivates each of your employees. if you hate your job. Enthusiasm is contagious.maybe worse off! Therefore.it's a science"Nah. Key to supporting the motivation of your employees is understanding what motivates each of them each person is motivated by different things. Myth #6 -."Increased job satisfaction means increased job performance"Research shows this isn't necessarily true at all.Not really. it seems like everyone else is. too. Myth #4 -. Identifying the goals for the organization is usually done during strategic planning. too. 3. A great place to start learning about motivation is to start understanding your own motivations. Also. if the results of their work don't contribute to the goals of the organization. You might be motivated much more by recognition of a job well done. recognition.
Briefly write down the motivational factors that sustain you and what you can do to sustain them this little bit of "motivation planning" can give you strong perspective on how to think about supporting the motivations of your employees. etc. Then meet with each of your employees to discuss what they think are the most important motivational factors to them. This can sound manipulative -. Lastly. Fill out the list yourself for each of your employees and then have each of your employees fill out the list for them. employee performance systems. 4. Compare your answers to theirs. Recognize that supporting employee motivation is a process.) 4. their favorite foods. for example. For example. organizational policies and procedures. Have one-on-one meetings with each employee Employees are motivated more by your care and concern for them than by your attention to them. as do people. then you'll be much more fulfilled and motivated yourself. (NOTE: This may seem like a "soft. touchy-feely exercise" to you. policies and procedures)-don't just count on good intentions don’t just count on cultivating strong interpersonal relationships with employees to help motivate them. even if you sincerely want to get to know ..apply what you're reading herethis maxim is true when reading any management publication. etc. Steps You Can Take The following specific steps can help you go a long way toward supporting your employees to motivate themselves in your organization. during times of stress. Learn to become more comfortable with them. Make of list of three to five things that motivate each of your employeesRead the checklist of possible motivators. Get to know your employees. You might find more means to provide recognition. Instead. 3. If it does. Do more than read this article -. listening to them and observing them. The nature of these relationships can change greatly. Recognize the differences between your impressions of what you think are important to them and what they think is important to them. it is an ongoing process to sustain an environment where each employee can strongly motivate themselves. Support employee motivation by using organizational systems (for example. If you look at sustaining employee motivation as an ongoing process. Much of what's important in management is based very much on "soft. Also. use reliable and comprehensive systems in the workplace to help motivate employees. However. their families. 1.employees. 5. take some time alone to write down how you will modify your approaches with each employee to ensure their motivational factors are being met. 5. 2. You might develop a personnel policy that rewards employees with more family time. not a taskOrganizations change all the time. Indeed. Work with each employee to ensure their motivational factors are taken into consideration in your reward systems For example. You can find this out by asking them. establish compensation systems. etc.and it will be if not done sincerely. to support employee motivation. if that is important to them. establishing various systems and structures helps ensure clear understanding and equitable treatment of employees. names of their children. their jobs might be redesigned to be more fulfilling. touchy-feely exercises". then talk to a peer or your boss about it. they should first include finding out what it is that really motivates each of your employees. The place to start is to recognize their importance.
as well. extending of capabilities. 11. This realization often requires clear communication about organizational goals. you leave it up to your employees to decide how they will carry out the tasks. You can get in a great deal of trouble (legally. Clearly convey how employee results contribute to organizational resultsEmployees often feel strong fulfillment from realizing that they're actually making a difference. Skills in delegation can free up a great deal of time for managers and supervisors. measurable. ongoing attention and feedback about measures toward the goals. measures to indicate if the goals are being met or not. 9. Reward it soon after you see it this helps to reinforce the notion that you highly prefer the behaviors that you're currently seeing from your employees. acceptable. New managers and supervisors are often focused on a getting "a lot done". Celebrate achievements this critical step is often forgotten. 6. timely. Implement at least the basic principles of performance management Good performance management includes identifying goals. Let employees hear from their customers (internal or external) Let employees hear customers proclaim the benefits of the efforts of the employee . Reward it when you see it A critical lesson for new managers and supervisors is to learn to focus on employee behaviors. However. and corrective actions to redirect activities back toward achieving the goals when necessary. For example. 12. employees become frustrated. 13. employee progress toward those goals and celebration when the goals are met. Performance management can focus on organizations. if the employee is working to keep internal computer systems running for other employees (internal customers) in the organization. Often. 8. morally and interpersonally) for focusing only on how you feel about your employees rather than on what you're seeing with your eyeballs. . Cultivate strong skills in delegation Delegation includes conveying responsibility and authority to your employees so they can carry out certain tasks. processes in the organization and employees. the shorter the time between an employee's action and your reward for the action. This usually means identifying and solving problems. then have other employees express their gratitude to the employee.each of your employees. realistic. 7. Experienced managers come to understand that acknowledging and celebrating a solution to a problem can be every bit as important as the solution itself. skeptical and even cynical about efforts in the organization. 10. Performance in the workplace should be based on behaviors toward goals. it may not happen unless you intentionally set aside time to be with each of them. not on popularity of employees. not on employee personalities. the clearer it is to the employee that you highly prefer that action. groups. It also allows employees to take a stronger role in their jobs. and rewarding to those involved. If an employee is providing a product or service to external customers. Establish goals that are SMARTER SMARTER goals are: specific. Without ongoing acknowledgement of success. then bring in a customer to express their appreciation to the employee. which usually means more fulfillment and motivation in their jobs.
Then talk to someone else who is appropriate to hear about your distaste for the employee. Such tokens of appreciation will go far in motivating employees.Managers and supervisors are people. having a team of motivated. less creative. Tell them about the history of the business and your vision for the future. Once in a while you have put work aside and do something nice for the people who work for you. 8. It often helps a great deal just to talk out loud about how you feel and get someone else's opinion about the situation. either with something small like a gift certificate or something more substantial such as a performance-based bonus or salary increase. large or small. however. Employees will feel you are investing in them.Honor your promises. etc. as well as how you can help them feel part of the team. their job performance suffers -they become less productive. Here are 10 useful pointers on getting your employees enthused. admit to yourself that you don't like the employee. Encourage them to attend adult education classes paid for by the company. Give out “Employee of the Month” awards. Work with each of them to develop a career growth plan that takes into consideration both their current skills and future goals.Put people on the right path. productive. When people lose their motivation. Treat the office to a pizza lunch or take everyone to the movies. make sure he or she receives a thorough welcome orientation. your spouse. 5. Offer people incentives to perform well. It’s important to build a solid foundation for your employees so they feel invested in the company. look like an uncle you don't like. and ready to give their all: 1. Don’t play favorites with your staff. 2.Educate the masses. Admit to yourself (and to an appropriate someone else) if you don't like an employee -. Keep office doors open and let folks know they can always approach you with questions or concerns. if you continue to focus on what you see about employee performance. 4. Promote an office atmosphere that makes all employees feel worthwhile and important. A happy office is a productive office.Acknowledge contributions. Reward employees with an unexpected day off or by closing the office early on a random Friday afternoon. When any new employee starts. 6. less of an asset to the company.14.Don’t forget the fun. If employees become excited about what’s down the road.Create a positive environment. Indicate to the appropriate person that you want to explore what it is that you don't like about the employee and would like to come to a clearer perception of how you can accomplish a positive working relationship with the employee. As noted above. a peer. 7. In this case.Provide incentives. That someone could. hard-working employees is crucial to your business success. and this will translate into an improved job performance. Getting people to give their all requires following through on promises. Ten Tips on Improving Employee Motivation No matter the size of your company. for example. If you tell an employee that he or she will be considered for a bonus if numbers improve or productivity .Build a foundation. your boss. Be generous with praise. Most employees are looking for advancement opportunities within their own company. they will become more engaged in their present work. It's not unusual to just not like someone who works for you. for example. You can make a huge difference in employee morale simply by taking the time to recognize each employee’s contributions and accomplishments. 3. Ask them about their expectations and career goals. Allow them to attend workshops and seminars related to the industry. Help employees improve their professional skills by providing on-the-job training or in-house career development. you'll go a long way toward ensuring that your treatment of employees remains fair and equitable.
minor changes in word selection and instructions were made to the questionnaire. (b) good wages. Assign individuals with tasks you know they will enjoy or will be particularly good at. An employee who is successful at one thing will have the self-confidence to tackle other projects with renewed energy and excitement. 1991. The number three ranked . The questionnaire asked participants to rank the importance of ten factors that motivated them in doing their work: 1=most important . (f) promotions and growth in the organization. Match tasks to talents. The number two ranked motivator. Bring in professionals to provide one-on-one counseling. 10. Failure to follow through on promises will result in a loss of trust -. is a physiological factor.increases. and soil and water resources. 9. 1990. is a self-actualizing factor. . Help employees reach the next level professionally by providing on-site coaching. (i) tactful discipline. Methodology The research design for this study employed a descriptive survey method.Provide career coaching. From a review of literature. (c) full appreciation of work done. (d) job security. The centers are in Piketon. Results and Discussion The ranked order of motivating factors were: (a) interesting work. good wages. As a result of the pilot test. Harpaz. small business development. which can help people learn how to overcome personal or professional obstacles on their career paths. 1987). you’d better put your money where your mouth is. forestry. Ohio. (g) feeling of being in on things. but the trust of every employee that hears the story. and women's business development. Questionnaires were filled out by participants and returned to an intra-departmental mailbox. Data was collected through use of a written questionnaire hand-delivered to participants. Face and content validity for the instrument were established using two administrative and professional employees at The Ohio State University. The target population of this study included employees at the Piketon Research and Extension Center and Enterprise Center (centers). The mission of the Piketon Research and Extension Center is to conduct research and educational programs designed to enhance economic development in southern Ohio. community economic development. 10=least important. horticulture. The number one ranked motivator. The instrument was pilot tested with three similarly situated employees within the university. and (j) sympathetic help with personal problems. The sample size included all 25 employees of the target population. You can improve employee motivation by improving employee confidence. (e) good working conditions. Kovach. The mission of the Enterprise Center is to facilitate individual and community leader awareness and provide assistance in preparing and accessing economic opportunities in southern Ohio. The Enterprise Center has three programs: alternatives in agriculture. (h) personal loyalty to employees.not only that person’s trust. interesting work. a survey questionnaire was developed to collect data for the study (Bowen & Radhakrishna. A comparison of these results to Maslow's need-hierarchy theory provides some interesting insight into employee motivation. . The Piketon Research and Extension Center has five programs: aquaculture. Twenty-three of the 25 employees participated in the survey for a participation rate of 92%.
The employee realizes that the more research he/she does regarding funding sources and the more proposals he/she writes. Further. Therefore. The number four ranked motivator. The absence of motivators does not lead to dissatisfaction. if managers wish to address the most important motivational factor of Centers' employees. employees who feel their work is not being appreciated may work less or undervalue the work of other employees. in part. good wages is a hygiene factor. Paying centers' employee’s lower wages (hygiene) than what they believe to be fair may lead to job dissatisfaction. increased pay would suffice. as being too low relative to another employee. employees who are successful in securing funds will be given more opportunities to explore their own research and extension interests (interesting work). job security. If an employee at the centers feels that there is a lack of appreciation for work done. but do not lead to satisfaction. the greater the likelihood he/she will receive external funding. This final example compares the two highest motivational factors to Herzberg's two-factor theory. The highest ranked motivator. they stated that to the degree that hygienes are absent from a job. The following example compares the third highest ranked motivational factor (full appreciation of work done) to Adams's equity theory. employees will be motivated when they are doing . the employee sees a direct relationship between performances (obtaining external funds) and rewards (independent research and Extension projects). Because the state legislature has not increased appropriations to the centers for the next two years (funds for independent research and extension projects will be scaled back). If managers wished to address the second most important motivational factor of centers' employees. interesting work. Further. motivation will occur. the lack of interesting work (motivator) for the centers' employees would not lead to dissatisfaction. Herzberg. Assume that a Centers employee just attended a staff meeting where he/she learned a major emphasis would be placed on seeking additional external program funds.productive to organizational goals and objectives. is an esteem factor. Conversely. social. In our example. safety. interesting work. The employee will be motivated if he/she is successful in obtaining external funds and given the opportunity to conduct independent research and extension projects. is a motivator factor. The second ranked motivator. Further. hygienes prevent dissatisfaction. motivation will be diminished if the employee is successful in obtaining external funds and the director denies the request to conduct independent research and Extension projects. When present. dissatisfaction will occur. because of the opportunity to conduct independent research and extension projects. some of which may be counter. inequity may exist. the range of motivational factors is mixed in this study. Maslow's conclusions that lower level motivational factors must be met before ascending to the next level were not confirmed by this study. & Snyderman (1959) stated that to the degree that motivators are present in a job. physiological. according to Maslow (1943). full appreciation of work done. Mausner.motivator. Employees who do not secure additional funds will be required to work on research and extension programs identified by the director. the employee went to work for the centers. On the other hand. and esteem factors must first be satisfied. The following example compares the highest ranked motivational factor (interesting work) to Vroom's expectancy theory. if all the employees at the centers feel that there is a lack of appreciation for work done. For instance. Adams (1965) stated employees will attempt to restore equity through various means. good pay. is a safety factor. Additionally. Contrary to what Maslow's theory suggests. an inequity may exist and the employee will be dis-motivated.
(b) full appreciation of work done. but was ranked second in this research and by Kovach (1987). 1990). Motivating Extension employees requires both managers and employees working together (Buford. Extension employees must be willing to let managers know what motivates them. train. In this study and the two cited above. The strategy for motivating centers' employees depends on which motivation theories are used as a reference point. interesting work and employee pay appear to be important links to higher motivation of centers' employees. The key to motivating centers' employees is to know what motivates them and designing a motivation program based on those needs. and non-monetary compensation should be considered. The discrepancies in these research findings supports the idea that what motivates employees differs given the context in which the employee works. If Hertzberg's theory is followed. Options such as job enlargement. The other part is how these rankings compare with related research. (b) good wages. employ. A study of industrial employees. about the ranked importance of motivational factors as related to motivational theory. Implications for Centers and Extension The ranked importance of motivational factors of employees at the centers provides useful information for the centers' director and employees. however. yielded the following ranked order of motivational factors: (a) interesting work. conducted by Harpaz (1990). management should begin by focusing on areas where there may be perceived inequities (pay and full appreciation of work done) before focusing on interesting work and job security. job enrichment. 1993). management should begin by focusing on pay and job security (hygiene factors) before focusing on interesting work and full appreciation of work done (motivator factors). Full appreciation of work done was not ranked as one of the most important motivational factors by Harpaz (1990). is that employees rank interesting work as the most important motivational factor. Job enrichment can used to make work more interesting and increase pay by adding higher level responsibilities to a job and providing monetary compensation (raise or stipend) to employees for accepting this responsibility. yielded the following ranked order of motivational factors: (a) interesting work. The effectiveness of Extension is dependent upon the motivation of its employees (Chesney. but was ranked second in this research and by Harpaz (1990). Knowing what motivates employees and incorporating this knowledge into the reward system will help Extension identify. Regardless of which theory is followed. interesting work ranked as the most important motivational factor. The discussion above. Knowing how to use this information in motivating centers' employees is complex. and retain a productive workforce. Pay was not ranked as one of the most important motivational factors by Kovach (1987). monetary. The results presented in this paper also have implications for the entire Cooperative Extension Sysyem. 1990. If Adams' equity theory is followed. 1992. management should begin by focusing on rewarding (pay and interesting work) employee effort in achieving organizational goals and objectives. internal and external stipends. Another study of employees.interesting work and but will not necessarily be motivated by higher pay. and (c) job security. and (c) feeling of being in on things. If Vroom's theory is followed. What is clear. and managers . Buford. promotions. Smith. These are just two examples of an infinite number of methods to increase motivation of employees at the centers. is only part of the picture. Job enlargement can be used (by managers) to make work more interesting (for employees) by increasing the number and variety of activities performed. conducted by Kovach (1987). recruit.
Place employee development at the top of your list for employee motivation and the benefits your small business will exceed your expectations. Listen to what is important to your employees. Growth: A workplace full of opportunities for employees to grow and expand their knowledge is a motivating company. Make certain all staff members have a chance to experience your services and/or products. What is effective is tapping into the two forms of employee motivation. Extrinsic Employee Motivation: This force of motivation comes from the external and relies on recognition and rewards. intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Passion: Hire Right. If your company requires a market researcher. Recognition: Ensure recognition is timely. Survey results. are useful in helping Extension managers determine what motivates employees (Bowen & Radhakrishna. In any market and economy. employees will not be motivated. Three Ways to Ignite Intrinsic Employee Motivation Purpose: How does your company change the lives of others? Focus on creating a small business culture with a strong mission statement. Most small business miss the two-sides of motivation when designing employee motivation programs. Being awarded for a major client sale at the end of the quarter may be fine but provide some immediate recognition after the deal. Successful business owners accept responsibility for the atmosphere of the workplace. small business has the greatest opportunity to create a caring. People want to be part of something bigger. If properly designed reward systems are not implemented. This is the form of motivation you have within yourself that comes from a passion or interest in doing a job well done. 1991). however. Ignite the Two Fires of Employee Motivation Driving your small business to higher levels of performance and profits requires two types of employee motivation. Belief: Help your employees believe in what your company sells. . Before you can build motivation within your company. Intrinsic Employee Motivation: The word intrinsic means within or internal. It is important not only to attract talent to your firm but to also keep the talent. Using "command & control" style management is not effective in creating a motivating workplace.must be willing to design reward systems that motivate employees. Match job descriptions to candidates' passions. Three Ways to Ignite Extrinsic Employee Motivation Rewards: Customize your rewards. Benefits of High Employee Motivation creates a workplace and culture of high achievers Improved business and staff productivity Reduced employee turnover. hire someone who has a passion for research. like those presented here. Take the time to ignite both forms of motivation and watch your staff performance grow by leaps and bounds. motivating environment. The job will provide all the intrinsic employee motivation for passion-centered staff members. you must understand employee motivation. Family time off or tickets to a major sports event may be more meaningful. Money is not everything. The workplace environment can be shaped to create a motivating workforce.
Everyone introduce himself or herself to the new person. Question: Do you say “we have so much work to do. One company of 20 people scheduled a half-hour before the close of the day for a “cookies and drinks” event. put out some candy. Are Your Employees Having Fun Yet? Are you having fun as a manager or is it a lot of work? Is your team enjoying themselves? How often do you hear laughter flowing through the workspace? We get so busy doing the work that we forget how important it is to enjoy the people we work with. Once you grasp this concept than you can move towards taking action to building a caring and employee motivating business.what a great way to introduce this person to the team. you can always find a goody to share. Start small and build your “fun” muscles. You’re the manager…you set the tone of a working environment…will there be fun or not? Fun energizes your team. New hire gathering. ·Schedule spontaneously a “random acts of kindness” day where everyone has to do one kind thing to someone that day without them knowing…bring in lunch.Decrease in sick days and absenteeism. They had a potluck luncheon where everyone brought in a special ethnic dish to share with others. would the work really suffer? I don’t think so! It’s all a matter of “priority” that fun is for you and your team. Bring in bagel and muffins in the morning. sharing with the new person one fun fact about themselves. Yet.bring in a balloon or whatever fun idea you have to recognize a person’s birthday. Fun comes in different formats: planned fun events such as company picnics.. come together over some goodies to celebrate a great day. Employee motivation is the responsibility of your company. Lots of laughter going on here and the new person felt it…. Whatever your budget. One company had employees from different countries. Both kinds of fun build employees productivity. Have someone organize a Friday night after work gathering Birthday fun….” If you were to create a 10-minute fun experience for the staff. you need to know that happy employees are productive and definitely more loyal to you and the company. that it is impossible to fit in a fun event during the day. Creating a fun workplace and thought this would be great material in your own brainstorming: Here are some zany ways to celebrate: Christmas in July Un birthday Parties Bad Hair Day PJ Day Come Dressed as Your Favorite Holiday Day . Then there is the spontaneous fun experience…the manager brings in bagels and muffins…just because. pop some popcorn or pizza for lunch. Food is always a great way to bring people together. Or have a birthday card passed around for everyone to sign and then give it to the “birthday” person. the new person also had to offer one fun fact about them. though the “every day type of fun “adds more value to the overall happiness of your employees. Employees will never have the same level of commitment and motivation as the owner of a small business. By the way. Everyone is there to do a job and that’s fairly obvious to most people. Here are some fun ideas that you can bring back to your team:Create “fun specialists” that generate fun ideas…you can have an opinion here. holiday parties or special launch events. or as the day closes. as their manager.
and expectations of people we hire or employ. personalities. supervisors. and capabilities. In actual fact. and acknowledge their contribution to the business success.Elvis Day Polka Dot Day Dress Your Boss Day Foreign Language Day (speak only in a foreign language or with a fake accent) Crazy Hat Day Clash Day. Though each person has specific needs. shelter. people's basic needs are the same. Dress up or Down Day. clothing and other basics to survive Safety Needs A safe and non-threatening work environment. but also for temporary and contracted workers. acknowledgment. reaching the heights of one's gifts and talents. analyzing and planning an adequate response to employees' motivations deserves first place in the order of business. safe equipment and installations Social Needs Contact and friendship with fellow-workers. aspirations. social activities and opportunities Ego Recognition. as illustrated by Abraham Maslow in the following model: Self-Actualization Ego Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Maslow explains the Hierarchy of Needs as applied to workers roughly as follows: Physiological Needs Basic physical needs: the ability to acquire food. List yourself here to be advised when the book will be ready for sale. This is what they are. Backwards Day. Have fun today! Understanding Employee Drives and Motivations . job security. at varying degrees of intensity. Mismatched Sock Day. characteristics. trainers. It is as important to research and study the needs. and aim at responding to and satisfying those. let us shift our approach from grouping people under the generic category of "employee" to individual human beings and term them as "hired workers" or "working partners".The First Step Towards Motivation at Work Soon to be completed and published: A practical step-by-step guide on the subject for managers. as it is with regard to customers. drives. rewards Self-Actualization Realizing one's dreams and potential. Movie Theme Day (pick a favorite). and human resources directors. drives. However large or small a company or business is. Before going any further. considering the role each "employee" plays in a company's success. it is employees at all levels that can make or break it. Tie Day. drives. We must acknowledge them as human beings with individual needs. . This holds true not only for the people we hire on a regular basis.
Clear and organized work procedures 7. Be able to advance in life and career-wise 8. An atmosphere of teamwork and cooperation 11. Have opportunities for self-development 9. Job security (to the degree possible) 5. A safe work environment 9. Medical coverage and other benefits 10. a particular job. the employer not only tries to satisfy these basic needs. Inner drives 2. or other activity (such as travel or recreation). same as in his/her dealings with customers. A person's inner drives push and propel him/her towards an employer.It is only when these needs are met that workers are morally. Earn wages that will enable them to pay for basic necessities and additional luxuries such as the purchase of a home. or travel 2. career. and even physically ready to satisfy the needs of the employer and the customers. but to exceed them taking into consideration additional extraordinary needs individual workers have. knowledge. line of study. Have medical and other insurance coverage 4. Reward and recognition programs 13. It is these drives that Maslow delineates in his hierarchy of needs. Assistance to workers for their special needs (such as child care arrangements. Demonstrate and use special gifts and abilities 11. use as guidelines in our efforts to help employees feel motivated. Outer (external) motivators. Realize their ideal(s). transportation. Win recognition 6. Save for and enjoy old age security benefits 3. just and fair work environment 8. Be acknowledged and rewarded for special efforts and contributions 7. flexible work schedules) 4. Incentive programs . A stable. Acquire friends at work 5. Most workers need to: 1. Social activities 12. Employment 2. emotionally. and know-how 10. Adequate pay 3. The outer (external) motivators are the mirror image the employer or outside world offers in response to the inner drives. Worker motivation must also be viewed from two perspectives: 1. Clear company policies 6. Improve their skills. and which we must understand and internalize. The employer responds to those needs by offering and providing: 1. In order to attract the "cream of the crop" of available workers.
overtime. adult workers have expectations from their employer .they expect: · A knowledgeable. leading to exhaustion. or weekends · Heavy financial responsibilities which he/she can meet only by working at two jobs. An employee may have: · Family responsibilities and be unable to work shifts.14.they care to know to whom they entrust their fate. Training and development programs 17. In addition to needs and drives. and deficient work performance · A desperate financial need for additional overtime and weekend remuneration · Premature expectations of swift promotions. Business owners and managers are under constant scrutiny by the people they hire. Once they feel confident that the employer and their place of work is what they wished for . Plans for the future 24. They consider their work as a major factor that shapes their lives and the lives of those dear to them. for which company policies should be planned accordingly: · If the company is in a remote location. Open lines of communication (formal and informal) 15. Some other needs the employer can expect. Hence the scrutiny. Company/ business information 19. Future expectations 23. Information on the market situation and industry 22. and security. procedures. expert employer · Clear and fair policies. Guidance and mentoring. Opportunities for promotion 18. Adult workers care beyond the salary . "sick leave". Sharing of company goals and objectives 21. experienced. and employment practices · Business integrity · Clear job descriptions · Two-way communications · Effective management and supervision · Positive discipline · Good company repute · Good customer relations · Company survival · Opportunities for personal growth · Company growth · A share in the company's success. Information on customer feedback 20. reputation. It is important that the employer discover other extraordinary needs applicants have before hiring them and know beforehand whether he/she can satisfy those needs or not. Systematic feedback 16. all employees will have a need for more social activities · Many single people look for dates and spouses at work · Some women may not be ready to work late shifts unless the employer provides transportation back home · Some workers may have a problem with drug or alcohol abuse.
training and development that will lead to an environment of openness. then most motivational ideas and activities will have a reduced level of success. teamwork. Motivational and inspirational experiences improve employees' attitudes. employee relations. Motivational theory Employee motivation theory –team building activities. Motivational receptiveness and potential in everyone changes from day to day. Good leadership demands good people-motivation skills and the use of inspirational techniques. from inspirational quotes and poems.it is up to the employer to develop a good system of company communications. team building games and activities. cooperation. activities and building blocks. expectations and aspirations are unexpressed . Motivational methods and theory . The batter the alignment and personal association with organizational aims. inspirational quotes. People are motivated towards something they can relate to and something they can believe in. as ice-breakers.assuming people and organization are aligned Motivational and inspirational quotes. You should view the following motivational methods and ideas as structure. workshops. The following is a cohesive alignment of people’s needs values with the aims and purpose of the organization. which in themselves can often be helpful for staff motivation too. Motivation is a complex area. Motivational methods of any sort will not work if people and organization are not aligned. to team building games and activities. the better the platform for motivation. posters. purpose and values between staff. Get the alignment and values right. People want more. from situation to situation. meetings and events. warm-ups and exercises for conferences. motivational speakers and stories. all develop employee motivation for sales and business staff in all kinds of organizations. Where the people find it difficult to align and associate with the organizational aims.and expected. poems. Most of these needs. It’s different for reach person. Motivational methods are wide-ranging. See the personality materials for useful explanation about different motivational needs. workshops. and motivation that will benefit all the parties involved. to be used when you have a solid foundation in place. and the power of positive experience Alignment of aims. Times have changed. See the . and motivational methods work better. teams and organization is the most fundamental aspects of motivation. confidence and performance. they are ready to contribute above and beyond "the call of duty".
positive images in quotes and stories. which encourages self-motivation. structure and logic. essential for broadening people's horizons. team-working. Ice-breakers and warm-ups for motivation When a group or team of people assembles for a conference. Mutual respect grows. Mankind has evolved partly because of this awareness to potential threats and fear of the unknown. Powerful positive imagery stimulates visualization in the conscious and sub-conscious brain. in ways that are often not possible in their usual work context. such as self-motivation. stories and poems all help motivation too. Motivation is an essential part of life coaching processes and techniques too. Using games and activities like juggling helps to unleash right-side brain skills. which all tend to use the right-side of the brain. theory. activities like juggling develop motivation. build understanding. rules. especially when bosses and superiors take part in the same teams as their junior staff. for example. Games and team building activities relax people. Inspirational references. and more explained below. All of these ideas. Experiencing these positive feelings is vital for the conscious and sub-conscious visualization of success and achievement. learning and personal development. developmental behavior. contribute to improving motivation. See the stress theory section for examples. Also. rather than spending the morning still wondering what everyone else is thinking. confidence and belief. despite people's normal aversion to the practice (see the role playing games and activities tips to see how to manage role-playing activities successfully). they feel uncomfortable in the new strange situation.motivation principles and template for staff motivation questionnaires and surveys. team workshops and brainstorming. stories. etc. People playing games or competing in teams learn about each other. whatever it is. regardless of context. there is always a feeling of uncertainty and discomfort. Inspirational quotes. This is why fire-walking and outward-bound activities have such powerful motivational effect. achievement. so that they can fully concentrate on the main purpose of the day. Even if people know each other. The use of role playing games and role play exercises is an especially effective motivational and visualization technique. setting new personal standards and goals. People become motivated to achieve and do better when they have experienced the feelings of success and achievement. because it is different. empathy and creativity. or training course. increase motivation and improve performance: How games and other inspirational references and activities help motivation and motivational training Work and business-based training commonly concentrates on process. initiative. quotations. confidence. which also helps cohesiveness and 'can-do' culture. all help to strengthen relationships. Here is the theory of how team building games. Playing games enables people to experience winning and achieving in a way that their normal work might not. Activities and . inspiration and performance. People often enjoy events which include new non-work activities.see McGregor's XY Theory for example. modern successful organizations rely just as heavily on their people having well-developed 'soft' skills and attributes.found in the right-side of the brain. Motivated people perform better . and increasing motivation. raising their sights. motivational speakers. they communicate better and see each other in a new light. quotes and examples also help the life coaching process. using activities and references that take people out of their normal work environment creates new opportunities for them to experience winning. For more information about brain type and bias see the Benziger theory section. However. all of which tend to develop and use the left-side of the brain. See the Johari Window theory for example. because these activities necessarily draw on a person's intuitive. spatial and 'feeling' capabilities .. inspirational posters.
people work and learn in different ways. and then to be understood. Motivational coaching and training motivation Learning to juggle or some other new activity demonstrates how we learn. divisions..games are great levelers . staff or employees to new experiences opens their minds to new avenues of personal development. Master juggler Enrich Rastelli practiced all the daylight hours juggling ten balls. Improving empathy and communications for motivation "Seek first to understand. Team activities and games promote communications and better mutual understanding . Juggling and playing spontaneous or creative games definitely promote development and awareness in the right-side of the brain. which we use when we communicate and understand others. Teams unite and work together when they identify a common purpose . providing clear instructions. The lessons never finish. or a game of rounder on the park. Taking part in new games and activities outside of the work situation illustrates people's different strengths and working style preferences. and emphasizes the opportunity for continuous learning that is available to us all. Building confidence for motivation Learning something new and completely different liberates the mind. territories and hierarchies .it's just a start . Continual development and motivation Learning and taking part in a completely new activity or game like juggling demonstrates that earning is ongoing.they break down the barriers. Breaking new tasks down into stages. see the Kolb learning style model and Benziger thinking styles model for examples. Games and activities provide a perfect vehicle for explaining the training and development process ('train the trainer' for example) to managers. Juggling the basic 'three ball cascade' pattern doesn't end there . misunderstandings. Personal motivation styles and learning motivation Everyone is different.. Conventional classroom training or distance learning do nothing to address this vital area. and therefore help develop rapport and relationships. time and space to make mistakes.. insecurities. Empathy and intuitive skills are right-side brain. Competition in teams or groups creates teams and ignites team effort. practice. Get a group of people in a room having fun with juggling balls or spinning plates and barriers are immediately removed. whether juggling is the vehicle or some other team-building idea. all the essential training and coaching techniques can be shown. Motivation and creativity . where previously people 'can't see the wood for the trees'. Facing a challenge. Introducing people. Also. prejudices.whether the aim is the tallest tower made out of newspapers.you begin to build teams. See the Seven Habits Of Highly Effective People summary and review.essential for good organizational performance (see the Johari Window model and theory). Motivational team building When you break down barriers. demonstration. Mutual respect develops when people see skills and attributes in others that they didn't know existed." (Steven Covey). and how to coach others. team leaders and trainers. and the learning is clearer and more memorable because it is taken out of the work context.as with all learning and development. unless people decide to stop learning. doing it one stage at a time.. meeting it and mastering it helps build confidence. To communicate we must understand the other person.
so if your intentions are right you will not go far wrong. participation.see the problem-solving and decision-making section. innovate. contribution. Physical activity also provides significant stress relief. collective problem-solving. The key words are the ones which say thanks and well done for doing a great job. Successful organizations have staff that initiate. without being told. People always appreciate sincere thanks. Saying thanks is best said naturally and from the heart. development and motivation. See details on the stress section. which is good for general health and for an energetic approach to work. and effort. Physical activity is motivational Team building activities like juggling. the equivalent of pumping over 20 kilos. Team building games and activities are motivational Learning new things . participative right-side-brain activity-based approach.and organizations need their staff and employees to have these abilities. create. quality. Saying thanks is hugely motivational Saying thanks and giving praise are the most commonly overlooked and under-estimated ways of motivating people. and also great for achieving team consensus. Using mind and body together in a completely new way encourages pro-active thought and lateral thinking. and to support the delegation and team development process (see the Tannenbaum and Schmidt Continuum for example). and they appreciate being valued as an individual even more. Learning to juggle or taking part in new challenging stimulating activities uses the intuitive brain to solve the problem. A minute of juggling three balls is 200 throws. When you look someone in the eye and thank them sincerely it means a lot. or outdoor games. Workshops are good vehicles for team building games and activities. And it's so easy. get the body moving. See the brainstorming process. and develops creative and initiative capabilities. whatever. all manner of left-side-brain conventional training and business skills can be integrated within an innovative. the same part that's vital for creatively solving work problems.Creativity and initiative are crucial capabilities for modern organizational effectiveness. especially where the words recognize each person's own special ability. and find new ways to do things better. which opens people's minds. promote teamworking and unleash creativity. take the time to find out a special thing that each person has done . Juggling and other games activities dispel the notion that actions must be according to convention and that response can only be to stimulus. People who can solve problems creatively can make decisions . See particularly the 'Hellespont Swim' case study and exercise. to increase interest. involvement. In front of other people even more so. When you next have the chance to thank your team or an individual team-member. Combine all three and it's even more effective for team building. Taking part in workshops and brainstorming sessions are empowering activities. retention and motivation. which integrates well with team building activities and workshops. If you think about it. developing new direction and strategy. Motivation for problem-solving and decision-making Problem-solving is integral to decision-making . and stress management is part of every organization's duty of care towards its employees. Physical activity energizes people and reduces stress and tension. See also the workshops process and ideas.even simple skills like plate-spinning . Team building workshops are empowering and motivational See the section on workshops. construction exercises.help to build confidence. People concentrate and work better when they have had some light exercise and physical stimulus.
Doing this.thanks RVP) "A dream is just a dream." (Harvey Mackay . speeches and training courses. These quotes all make effective motivational posters. founder member and information minister of the Black Panthers. saying. Inspirational examples motivate people in the same way that the simple 'power of positive thinking'. individually and in teams. Inspirational quotes stimulate images and feelings in the brain . Motivational posters showing inspirational quotes or poems can be effective for staff and employee motivation. relating to different situations and roles. stories and poems provide a very effective method for inspiring and motivating people through visualization. thanks for quote M Kincaid. etc. and amusing maxims and sayings are motivational when used in team building sessions. Here are a few motivational quotes.1960. leadership. Motivational quotes . A goal is a dream with a plan and a deadline. Rudyard Kipling's famous inspirational poem.quotes. and in establishing organizational values." (President Harry S Truman) "In the midst of winter. German writer.and make a point of mentioning these things." (Booker T Washington. When using quote for motivation it's important to choose material that's relevant and appropriate. imagination and association. American Educator and African-American spokesman. begin it.thanks Yvonne Bent) "A dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant may see farther than the giant himself. and can help to build confidence and belief." (Albert Camus. Give your dreams all you've got and you'll be amazed at the energy that comes out of you. Visualization is a powerful motivational tool . French author & philosopher) "If you're not part of the solution you must be part of the problem." (William James. Boldness has genius. Powerful positive imagery found in motivational quotations and poems is genuinely motivational for people. 1842-1910 . There are more quotations about inspiration and achievement on the quotes section. and 'If'." (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.using inspirational quotations and sayings is motivational Inspirational quotations. and 'accentuate the positive' techniques do people imagine and visualize themselves behaving in the way described in the quotation.or dream you can. power and magic in it. and for biography correction M Yates and A Chatterjee) "Most people never run far enough on their first wind to find out they've got a second. for example.both consciously and unconsciously. 1856-1915. story or poem. 1913 ." (the commonly paraphrased version of the original quote: "What we're saying today is that you're either part of the solution. in a speech in 1968 . See the stories section. 1749-1832 . Inspirational quotes contribute to motivation because they provide examples and role models. achievement. and prompt visualization.thanks Jean Stevens) "Whatever you can do . or you're part of the problem" by Eldridge Cleaver 1935-98. the praise tends to carry even greater meaning and motivational effect. American Philosopher. I finally learned that within me there lay an invincible summer.thanks Brad Hanson) "I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles overcome while trying to succeed." (Albert Einstein) "It is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit." (Didacus Stella. conferences. . management. American political activist group. and are excellent materials for motivational speakers: Motivational quotes "We cannot solve our problems with the same level of thinking that created them.
The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena. ." (Theodore Roosevelt.) Motivation of sales people commonly focuses on sales results. or worse still. whose face is marred with the sweat and dust and blood. There's far less competition. but nobody can actually 'do' a result. and focus on offering these opportunities . who errs and comes up short again and again." (WE Henley." from The Twilight of the Idols. how charged with punishments the scroll. . Instead think about what really motivates and excites people. the customer relationship is undermined or ruined). Motivational ideas for sales managers for sales teams (These principles are applicable to all job roles subject to the notes at the end of this item. For my unconquerable soul.any fool can do that. if he fails. the great devotions and spends himself in a worthy cause and who. 1935. Black as the pit from pole to pole. . at least fails while daring greatly so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat. from 'Twelve against the Gods') "Out of the night that covers me." (Attributed to Friedrich Nietzsche. who strives valiantly. What matters in achieving results is people's attitude and activity and the areas of opportunity on which the attitude and activity is directed. makes me stronger. I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul. I thank whatever gods may be. probably based on his words: "Out of life's school of war: What does not destroy me. who knows the great enthusiasms. The really important thing is to profit from your mistakes. I blame softly." (Lauren Appley) "It's not the critic who counts.) "I praise loudly. not the one who points out how the strong man stumbled or how the doer of deeds might have done them better.) "What does not kill us makes us stronger. 1856-1950. and people who get the credit. directed on higher-yield strategic opportunities. not organizing things. 1729-1796. from 'Invictus') "Management means helping people to get the best out of themselves. Try." (Dwight Morrow." (George Bernard Shaw. if you can. and carry out more productive and efficient activity.) "The world is divided into people who do things. However the tendency remains for sales managers." (William Bolitho. What sales people can do is to adopt a positive and creative attitude. and damages the long-term (when as a result of supplier-driven sales pressure. 1899) "A life spent in making mistakes is not only more honorable but more useful than a life spent doing nothing.and." (Sir Isaac Newton. abridged on the edge of an English £2 coin) "If I have seen further it is by standing on the shoulders of giants. By doing these things sales people and sales teams will improve their results. I have not winced nor cried aloud: Under the bludgeoning of chance my head is bloody but unbowed .circa AD60 . or to 'increase sales'. which might work in the short-term but is extremely unhelpful in the medium-term (when business brought forward leaves gaps in the next months' forecasts). 1849-1903. 1676. 23 April 1923.) "The most important thing in life is not to capitalise on your successes . It matters not how strait the gait.) . sales supervisors and team leaders (typically under pressure from above from executives who should know better) to simply direct people to 'meet the target'. In the fell clutch of circumstance. at best knows the triumph of high achievement and who at worst. as a matter of interest. to pressurize customers into accelerating decision-making." (Catherine the Great. . to belong to the first class.
to sales people and sales teams, on an ongoing basis. Don't wait until you find yourself 25% behind target with only half of the year remaining, and with targets set to increase as well in the final quarter. People will not generally and sustainable improve their performance, or attitude when they are shouted at or given a kick up the backside. People will on the other hand generally improve their performance if empowered to develop their own strategic capability and responsibility within the organization. Herzberg, Adams, Handy, Maslow, McGregor, and every other management and motivation expert confirmed all this long ago. Sales teams generally comprise people who seek greater responsibility. They also seek recognition, achievement, self-development and advancement. So if we know these things does it not make good sense to offer these opportunities to them, because we know that doing so will have a motivational effect on them, and also encourage them to work on opportunities that are likely to produce increasing returns on their efforts? Of course. So do it. If you are managing a sales team try (gently and progressively) exploring with the team how they'd like to develop their experience, responsibilities, roles, status, value, contribution, within the business. Include yourself in this. Usually far more ideas and activity come from focusing on how the people would like to develop their roles and value (in terms of the scale and sophistication of the business that they are responsible for), rather than confining sales people to a role that is imposed on them and which is unlikely to offer sustainable interest and stimulation. All businesses have many opportunities for new strategic growth available. Yours will be no different. Most employees are capable of working at a far higher strategic level, developing ever greater returns on their own efforts. Performance improvement is generally found through enabling people and teams to discover and refine more productive and strategic opportunities, which will lead to more productive and motivating activities. For example: reactive sales people are generally able to be proactive account mangers; account managers are generally able to be major accounts developers; major accounts developers are generally able to be national accounts managers; national accounts mangers are generally able to be strategic partner and channel developers; strategic partner and channel managers are generally able to be new business sector/service developers, and so on... Again include yourself in this. If necessary (depending on your organizational culture and policies seek approval from your own management/executives for you to embark on this sort of exploration of strategic growth. (If you are unable to gain approval there are many other organizations out there who need people to manage sales teams in this way....) Obviously part of the approach (and your agreement with your people - the 'psychological contract') necessarily includes maintaining and meeting existing basic business performance target levels. This is especially so since strategic growth takes time, and your business still needs the normal day-to-day business handled properly. But people can generally do this, ie., maintain and grow day-to-day performance while additionally developing new higher-level strategic areas, because genuinely motivated people are capable of dramatic achievements. The motivation and capacity to do will come quite naturally from the new responsibility and empowerment to operate at a higher level. N.B. The principles described above generally apply to most other job roles. People are motivated by
growth and extra responsibility, while at the same time the organization benefits from having its people focus on higher strategic aims and activities. Be aware however that people in different roles will be motivated by different things, and particularly will require different types of support and guidelines when being encouraged to work at a higher strategic level. For example, engineers require more detail and clarification of expectations and process than sales people typically do; administrators are likely to require more reassurance and support in approaching change than sales people typically do. For sure your should encourage and enable people to develop their roles, but make sure you give appropriate explanation, management and support for the types of people concerned. Case studies Severn Trent Water chooses Capital Bonds to ‘Say Thanks’ to employees Background Severn Trent Water serves over 8 million people in the heart of the UK, supplying nearly 2 billion liters of drinking water a day in Europe. Since privatization in 1989, Severn Trent Water has invested nearly £5 billion in improving the quality of its service to customers. As a company, they wanted to enhance the quality of their service to employees by improving employee satisfaction and motivation. ObjectivesSevern Trent Water required an employee motivation and incentive scheme that empowered managers at a local level to recognize individuals for their exceptional contribution to the company, which directly or indirectly related to improving customer service. It was essential that the provider that undertook the administration of the scheme did so in a cost effective manner as the business operates in a tight regulatory environment. It was also important that rewards offered would appeal to all across the wide spectrum of business processes. SolutionSevern Trent Water turned to Capital Incentives and Motivation to implement a cheque book based reward and recognition incentive scheme called ‘Saying Thanks’. To launch the campaign, each Business Manager was given a ‘Saying Thanks’ branded cheque book with a range of serial numbered cheques ranging from £25 - £250 with a covering letter and instructions confirming their reward & recognition budget. The cheques are presented with a personal letter of thanks at the discretion of the Business Manager, to employees who have provided an exceptional contribution. The recipients simply return the cheque to Capital Incentives in a pre-paid envelope, specifying their choice of voucher from a selection on the rear of the cheque. RewardsSevern Trent Water chose Capital Bond vouchers to provide recipients with unlimited choice as they can be spent at over 140 famous high street stores from fashion and accessories, home and DIY, leisure and travel to food and drink. To complement the Capital Bond voucher and ensure the employees have maximum choice, vouchers from Argos, Kingfisher, Leisure Vouchers, M&S, Next, Toys R Us and WH Smith were also recommended. ‘Saying Thanks Awards’ are distributed to the recipient in a ‘Saying Thanks’ personalized voucher wallet, accompanied by a letter of Congratulations. Capital Incentives & Motivation also manages the administration of the scheme including the implementation of comprehensive audit procedures for every cheque received the processing of cheques and the distribution of vouchers; this is supported by provision of detailed management information. ResultsThe scheme proves to be an ongoing success according to the Pay & Benefits Manager,: "The 'Saying Thanks' scheme has helped develop the manager and employee relationship as there is a
significant 'feel good factor' due to the fact the award is a personal one made by the manager. The scheme has definitely been one of the factors in helping the company improve its customer service levels reported to the industry regulator. The overall company perception has also dramatically improved through the introduction of the scheme. “Employees’ achievements are now recognized upstream in the management hierarchy and as a result this has increased job satisfaction and increased motivation". The employees were also impressed with the scheme as one recipient comments - “I always really appreciate receiving a 'Saying Thanks' award. It's nice to be recognized for doing a bit extra and the Capital Bonds are useful as they can be spent in so many different ways."
Business Case Studies Royal Bank of Scotland what is motivation?
Motivating through Total Reward
What is motivation? For many years, management theorists have tried to understand what makes some people work harder than others. Some of the motivation factors identified by theorists can be seen at work in RBS. Early theorists on staff motivation always looked at factors outside the individual. Taylor and the 'piece rate' Frederick W. Taylor (1911) was the creator of 'scientific management'. He felt that every job was measurable and each element of a job could be timed. All managers had to do was pay for every item the workers produced and they would work harder to get more money. This led to a long established pay scheme called the 'piece rate', where workers received a fixed amount for every unit of output. Schemes like this are usually associated with manufacturing industries and are not appropriate for a complex service-led organization like RBS. Herzberg and 'two-factor' theory Another theorist, Frederick Herzberg (1959), carried out a large-scale survey into motivation in American industry. The results of his survey led him to develop a 'two-factor' theory of motivation. Firstly, he established that if an employee's basic needs (such as a suitable working environment and a basic rate of pay) were not met, then this creates a source of dissatisfaction. Herzberg termed these 'hygiene factors'. On the other hand, the presence of less tangible factors, such as the provision of challenging work and recognition for doing well, can create or increase work motivation. Herzberg termed these 'motivators'. RBS has put in place several of Herzberg's 'motivators': · employees get recognition for good work · they have a collective sense of achievement when the whole business does well · they gain extra responsibility and advancement through regular performance reviews
RBS creates the opportunity for its community of employees worldwide to share in its common goals and vision for the group. Furthermore. promotion opportunities and the chance to develop a lifelong career with the Group. people had to feel safe in their environment. neither employees nor employers seem to take for granted that a person will stay with the same firm until retirement. the company rewards them. Yet. Through this RBS employees can improve their self-esteem. The next level – 'esteem' . which is why we have chosen to do a case study at Auditing Company X to see how they work with employee retention. This means we work hard in order to be as good as we possibly can be. It does this by rewarding the people who contribute to its success through their commitment and hard work. including specific courses within au-diting/accounting.In our conducted case study. We have compared the findings to our chosen theory. Maslow (1943) on staff motivation is also evident at RBS. Elina Armanto. Next. keeping employees for longer periods is an imp-ortant challenge for firms. One industry where retention is interesting is the auditing industry in Sweden. Social needs refer to the fact that we want to feel part of something we share in.refers to our need to feel valued. The RBS mindset is that employees can 'make it happen' for themselves. motivation and performance. Abstract: Today. Firstly. Auditing. we have been able to conclude that the firm’s retention practices are to a great extend in line with the theoretical framework. warmth and bodily functions. at Auditing Company X. Due to these statements the challenge of retaining and motivating valuable em-ployees is crucial for the auditing firms. It provides opportunities for all employees through promotion or training and then recognizes their achievements.  Keywords: Retention. this because certain requirements are needed to become an auditor. These four categories are initially based on Leigh Branham?s book: ?Keeping the people who keep you in business: 24 ways to hang on to your most valuable talent? (Bran-ham. promotion opportunities and the chance to develop a lifelong career with the Group. food. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs The theory of Abraham H. At the very top of Maslow's hierarchy is our human need for 'self actualization'. which consist of four categories: the hiring process. How Auditing Company X Works with Retaining Valuable Employees : Swedish Case study University essay from Högskolan i Jönköping/IHH. RBS meets this by offering recognition. EMM (Entrepreneurskap. Maja Cassel. Maslow's higher levels of need are less obvious and less easy to describe but of great importance.· when RBS people do well in their work. in-ternal labor market and career. There are some areas that need further attention from . Basic physical needs were things like shelter. According to Maslow. 2001). the person needs practical experience for a specific period of time. RBS provides these basic needs wherever it creates jobs. RBS provides 'self actualization' by offering recognition. the employee needs to have a Swedish university degree. Marknadsföring. the most basic needs on this hierarchy had to be satisfied before workers could look to the next level. Management) Author: Josip Bogic. that what we do matters. and finally culture and leader-ship. Maslow referred to a 'Hierarchy of Needs' which is usually drawn as a pyramid.
feedback.Retention Management University essay from Göteborgs universitet/Företagsekonomiska institutionen Author: Lisa Hedberg. Abstract: Introduction: Companies today are forced to function in a world full of change and complexity. financial as well as nonfinancial remuneration and research done in later years regarding participation. employee turnover. Both appreciations from the closest manager as well as the company management influences employee job satisfaction in a positive way. remuneration and elements towards job satisfaction University essay from Växjö universitet/Ekonomihögskolan Author: Sanna Paulsson. and when asking how the remuneration system should be designed. feedback. fairness. recruitment. management. Abstract: Background: retention management is a highly topical subject and an important dilemma . responsibility. remuneration and elements like participation. Even though there are some parts to work on the most important aspects of retention. Linda Lindgren. leadership. fairness. insurance and finance companies.  Keywords: retention. Research told us that leadership. Auditing Company X seems to have incorporated this into their practices successfully. Conclusion: The result shows that regarding leadership the respondents prefer leadership based on relations were they feel appreciation. responsibility. More money was the most common reason for wanting to change jobs. feedback. fairness. employee. and how they consider and react to the chosen areas. autonomy. development and work-atmosphere in the Swedish financial Sector. development and work-atmosphere is important for job satisfaction and retention. Method: We wanted to investigate how employee of the Swedish financial sector prefers to be retained. motivation. and it is more important than ever to have the right employees in order to survive the surrounding competition. retention management. autonomy. development and workatmosphere must be taken in consideration to satisfy since they seem to increase employees? Willingness to stay in the company. But also non financial factors such as participation. such as having a holistic and long-term orientation. responsibility. The survey has a quantitative approach with a web based questionnaire and includes 129 respondents from banks. The theoretical framework includes leadership and leadership style. It is a fact that a too high turnover rate affects companies in a negative way and retention strategies should therefore be high on the agenda. What leaders can do to keep their key employees . Retention: An explanatory study of Swedish employees in the financial sector regarding leadership style. base pay with additional bonus and benefits were preferred. autonomy. When looking at this problem area we found that there may be actions and tools that companies could use to come to terms with this problem. feedback. responsibility. motivation. Object: The main objective is to increase the understanding regarding employee’s retention in relation to leadership style. Maria Helnius. communication. development and work-atmosphere connected to retention. fairness. key organizational members. remuneration. such as an individua-lized reward system and communication between managers and employees. leadership style. remuneration and elements such as participation. autonomy.the company. reward. [2007-09-03T08:22:31Z] Keywords: leadership.
For organizations to keep its key employees their number one priority should be to look at their management. which has 195. Employees were able to keep the shares or cash them in. Research method: The study is a qualitative.many organizations might face in the future. from 188p to 258p when the scheme matured. has becoming a key in why people stay and what usually drives them away from a company. Staff can join Tesco's profit-share scheme after two years' service. The research is based on the leaders in the Finnish case company Tradeka. Eleven qualitative interviews were conducted at Tradeka?s financial department. The leader’s relation to the employees plays a central role in retaining employees.000 of its workers after holding £38 million-worth of shares on their behalf for three years in its profit-share scheme. and also the interest in how retention management works in practice. The concept of retention management can both have a narrow. When retention is a core value. The number of shares allocated to each employee depends on the number of hours they work each week. The purpose is to compare the qualitative study. We believe that the leader plays a key role in employee retention and retention management. The background of the thesis present a few articles that discuss issues that makes it important for the organization. Tesco's share price had risen by more than 30 per cent. The intention of investigating and using the Finnish company Tradeka Limited as a case company. . and a broader significance.case study . How can the provision of key human resources develop a long-term relationship that makes top employees stay in the company? The study aims to establish the procedure leaders apply to retain employees. The leader has become the main factor in what motivates people’s decision to stay or leave. because people leave managers and not companies.000 staff. and the leaders. and the company. Tesco. if not facing it already. as well as a theoretical study where empirical findings and theories has been compared. communicator. and that their presence count. when the shares were placed in trust for the employees. because employees need to feel involvement. with findings from the thesis theoretical framework. employees. to work hard with retention management. Since 1999. In 2002. and talent finder. Motivation in practice . good things happen for customers. is to make the information from the theories more valid. talent developer and coach. Tesco paid out £50 million to just over 100. distributed more than £200 million through sharesave and bonus schemes. esteem builder. Both parts of its significance are generally included in this thesis. Result: Leaders and their skill in creating a culture of retention. as the leader plays a key role in retention management is: trust builder. During 2002. Characteristics in a leader that are of importance. both with supervisors and employees to get a broader view at the phenomenon retention management.sharesave schemes Profit-share and sharesave schemes have provided good returns for the staff of retailers and other large groups. Following key questions are intended to be answered: What are the consequences between leaders actions and employees retention? Which is the leader’s role when it comes to retaining employees? Purpose statement: The purpose of the thesis is to investigate and analyze how company leaders today can retain their key employees. made at the case company.
the rates were 3.36. Mich. he says. He knew it was impossible to replace his people with just anybody off the street. if these employees had saved the same £10 per month into a savings account paying the building society average of 4." Most large companies operate share-save schemes for their staff. and 60 payments into the five and seven-year schemes. At the end of the period. Jackson of San Rafael. but companies have the right to discount the market price by up to 20 per cent which Tesco did. if the current market price has dipped below the price at outset. "I didn't have anything . "I could pick somebody off the street to do your job. a return of almost three times what they put in. Calif. the employee has the right to choose whether to buy the shares at the predetermined option price with the savings they have made." It took a long time to repair the damage. This price is often the market price at outset. Their savings are left in the deposit account for an extra two years under the seven-year scheme." the boss declared. Those who had saved the maximum £250 per month saw an investment over five years turn into a maturity value of £49.35 each. each would have £695. telling them how good they were and how proud he was of them. Staff makes 36 payments into the three-year scheme. instead." Jackson recalls.99 per cent for five-year schemes. "You clerks are a dime a dozen.. 1988 by Sharon Nelton Motivating For Success Long ago. when he worked for someone else.In February 2002.motivating employees . company called Stamp-Rite. while savers in the five-year scheme could buy at 83p per share.07 per cent for seven-year schemes. "but they didn't know that. free of tax. Wendell W. Savers who had started the scheme three years before could buy Tesco shares at the 1998 option price of £1. By contrast. which can run for three.8 per cent gross per year. Contributions are paid into a bank or building society account nominated by the employer and interest is paid at a rate set universally by the Treasury.includes related article on demotivators Nation's Business. His immediate supervisor refused without offering a reason. Then his own boss walked in and undid Jackson's pep talk. H. spent 15 or 20 minutes one day buoying up a group of employees. The most recent three and five-year schemes to be offered to Tesco staff in October 2001 attracted more than 63. The shares they bought at these prices were actually worth about £2.C. said: "The popularity of SAYE has increased dramatically in 21 years as staff recognise the value of the benefit.000 applications. March. five or seven years with an option to buy shares in the company at a price determined at the outset. This year. When he was an employee of a Lansing.96 before tax after five years. to take the savings in cash. Under government rules. Savers who put away as little as £10 per month saw the value of their investment soar from £600 to £1. 3. Parsons remembers being told he couldn't take time off to travel with his wife to her grandfather's funeral in Delaware. ATerry Leahy. and 4. employees can save between £5 and £250 per month into a scheme. or." "Everybody was crushed.953 once the savings had been used to buy shares at the end of the five-year term.. This equates to over one in four staff . two Save As You Earn share schemes matured and released £116 million to 37.67 per cent gross per annum for three-year schemes.more than 66 times the 1981 figure when 942 employees signed up for the scheme.000.000 staff who had been saving into the schemes for either three or five years. Motivating for success . chief executive of Tesco.
" says Jackson. What often seem to be timeworn techniques take on a new life and usefulness when looked at as these managers see them. "it's because they've had a set of experiences that have alienated them from work. and people want to feel involved or related or cared about by other people. and a specialist in human motivation. they are in command. Though decades have passed." says Deci. Calif." The memories include good ones. Empathy governs the way he treats his 25 employees. no formula that can be applied easily and left to operate on its own. however. however. I remember what it was like being in the steel department and in the label department. The $1. But many psychologists. a company with $10 million in annual sales and over 50 employees. a place where motivated people can flourish. creating winners out of their employees so that their companies can thrive. Treat people the way you want to be treated. people want to feel free or autonomous or responsible for them. Be honest. "I think by nature people are interested in doing well. in 1964. In practice. N. and what they learned so long ago has helped them unlock the secret to keeping their own employees motivated--in effect. in being effective workers and effective achievers. in Malibu. Parsons worked his way through Michigan State University while employed at Stamp-Rite. in Rochester. "The fact is. business experts and business people dispute the notion that employees are unmotivated." Some experts even contend that the manager's job is not to motivate employees at all. we hire only motivated people. It's not uncommon to hear business owners and managers complain that employees just don't want to work or that they have poor attitudes. ulcerating career. because "I remember what it was like being the engraver. you can't do it. "What we need to do ." says Edward L.5 million-a-year firm makes rubber stamps and identification products such as nameplates. and now he owns the company. it was just this guy who was telling me. In cases where people don't want to work hard.Y. Be fair. and show that caring by treating each employee as an individual. Parsons says. "It's so simple. they say. Jackson and other managers who succeed in motivating their workers demonstrate that applying that simple rule requires hard work. he says. a professor of organization theory at Pepperdine University. It's the job of the boss to create a workplace that "nurtures high motivation.. And laziness and lack of commitment mean low productivity and a lower bottom line." If their motivation wanes. like the manager who made it a point to leave the front office every day and find out how Parsons was.'" says Parsons. "Leaders who wish to believe that they must continuously scurry about motivating everyone are destined to a fatiguing. "People want to feel effective. who started Jackson's Hardware. Only then will the employee care enough about the company to give his or her best all the time. Now. made a lasting impact on him. The person at the top has to care--genuinely care--about employees. it's because the leader dampens their spirit. name tags and signs. Wright suggests.earthshaking that had to be done." says Robert Grandford Wright. That someone cared enough to make sure he was doing O. he maintains." he says. There is no one-minute motivator. both Jackson and Parsons still feel the sting of these incidents.K. 'No. Deci. professor of psychology at the University of Rochester.
a mail-order office supply business in Lincolnshire.” La Mell says with a smile. “It’s also the other departments you deal with. you’d rather have staff give you an idea than not give you one. spends his time among a staff that loves him. he hosts a staff recognition dinner every year in which he gives out awards based on years of service." What is "motivation" anyway? "Motivation is excitement about work. creating the right corporate climate is what keeps employees at their peaks. Motivate Your Employees Creating a dedicated and motivated workplace isn't just about giving raises. Scarborough and Thomas W. Leaders such as La Mell demonstrate that money is far from the only means of motivating your . a nonprofit organization based in Arlington Heights.” Realizing that it was difficult to recognize his employees’ exceptional efforts off-site.” La Mell says." In his view. Though he jokes that he’s sometimes too open with his staff. coowner with his two brothers of Quill Corporation. Carl La Mell. La Mell believes that listening to the advice of employees and acting on it is one of the best ways to keep a staff motivated. Ill. Illinois that specializes in helping children with developmental disabilities. There are also holiday parties where employees can win prizes. “You have to respect everyone’s job in your organization.” It’s easy to see that La Mell puts his own advice into constant practice. You could even tell them. each department puts on a skit and the best skit wins a small award like a free pizza. Zimmerer say in Effective Small Business Management (Merrill Publishing Company. And it starts even before they are hired. 'Gee.”In addition. "when employees (and owners and managers) are excited about their work. they say.” La Mell says. he takes the time to talk to each person he passes. “I deleted it. La Mell has also added financial incentives for performing well as determined by a performance-based measurement system." Norman M. “If you create an environment in which you can’t come up with an idea. you stifle people. La Mell began giving customer service awards to employees who went above and beyond their job description.” La Mell says. Columbus. ‘You’re off the wall’ and they’ll laugh if you do it with respect and in the right way. there is a good likelihood that high performance will follow. Last year. “I thought the notification e-mail was spam. an organization that honors small-to-midsize business leaders who inspire intensely dedicated workforces. "It has to be a way of life. others come from the staff themselves. Learn how the best employers bring the best out of their employees. It doesn’t matter if the idea’s off the wall. Ohio)." "Motivation is not a sign on the wall that says.'" says Harvey L. they nominated him for the Best Boss Award given out every year by Winning Workplaces. let's get motivated. La Mell’s humble manner had actually prevented him from learning that he had even made the finalists.is structure the workplace in such a way that people can feel these things when they're doing their jobs. As he makes his way through the Clear brook offices. When a spokesman from Winning Workplaces called to inform him that he had won along with 17 others. “Even if an idea is bad. While motivation does not guarantee high performance. At the dinner. Some nominations come from the families they serve.”La Mell’s advice for small business owners seeking to keep their own employees motivated is simple: “I think it comes down to one word—respect. Miller. the president of Clearbrook. “One of the things that I think is missing in other places is the idea that customer service isn’t just about the customer.
Supervisors themselves fear for their jobs and their future. to gain some sort of solid footing in the new environment. They conduct searches on the internet. In fact. employees' strongest drive also became one for survival. They do not trust the .” A Supervisor's Dilemma: How to Motivate Employees in Today's Economy Supervisors at all levels and in different types of organizations find it harder than ever to create a loyal and motivated work team. Unfortunately. They try to instill enthusiasm among employees and are taken aback when their best performers suddenly leave or behave like the rest. organizations and businesses themselves in a constant struggle for survival. In this dogfight for survival in an uncertain future. he believes that giving raises is one of the least effective methods. They join newsgroups to either "listen in" anonymously. La Mell believes that a properly motivated workplace must begin with an enthusiastic and motivated employer “It starts at the top. written for different economic and market situations. In today's shifting economy. supervisors are quite often undermined by their own assistants who have an eye on their position. And gone are the days when employees were content with an average wage. The problem is further compounded by the fact that. mergers. They become avid readers of books and articles on the subject of employee motivation. Supervisors are left to fend on their own. employers do not offer supervisors the specialized support and training they need. Employers and supervisors must understand this scenario before attempting to regain employees' trust. ask questions. Reality has created a new set of rules. or discover the magic key. It is supervisors who are sandwiched in between. Gone are the days when organizations were content with average employees who were rewarded with lifetime job security as a reward for expected performance levels and good attendance. Above all. They too are victim of the market realities which bring frequent company acquisitions. They cannot do so without their employees' cooperation. many supervisors attained their position based on yardsticks other than proven leadership skills: technical know-how and past experiences unrelated to similar crisis situations. In the course of their search. and deliver a crew of first-class performers. The pressure is great. then people will follow your lead. restructuring and downsizing of operations. often sacrificing jobs and employees along the way. Assistants too are driven by a fierce survival instinct and are not ready to wait for their careers to take its natural course. “If you show respect and keep an open environment. dedication and "love for the job". Yet. they must prove their worth and succeed in achieving company goals. enabling them to satisfy basic personal needs.” he says. Trust and loyalty towards employer evaporated into thin air and have been replaced by economic interests. They must ignore their own fears and feelings of insecurity. doubts about the employer's agenda. They try to understand and internalize motivational theories. in their quest to cut down on expenses. this is a secret they must keep to themselves. Yet. As a result. They are judged by results and results depend on their capacity to lead a dedicated crew of flawless performers. Their drive to succeed becomes one for survival. they cast aside any awareness or insight they may have had about the root of the problem and the reasons which led to employees' mistrust and changed behavior.employees. who will perform according to management and customers' high expectations.
William Ouchi's Theory Z. Though expressed from different perspectives.Job security. extend to them respect and acknowledgment. rewards SELF-ACTUALIZATION . or trying to run the show on their own. clothing and other basics to survive SAFETY NEEDS . Most of their efforts are focused on economic issues. All the theories make sense. With the emergence of technology. and reward them for their contribution . Left to their own resources. job security. share goals with them. get well organized in management. and his encouragement to manage through democratic involvement rather than unilateral authority. Ego.Realizing one's dreams and potential. Motivational theories that can assist in understanding the issues To help guide supervisors in their search for solutions for employee motivation. job positions are being merged and eliminated by the day. acknowledgment. starting with the basic essentials: PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS .future. Frederick Herzberg's two-dimensional theory. interpersonal relations. They are too quick to condemn and replace. safe equipment and installations SOCIAL NEEDS . Unless supervisors get backing and commitment from upper management to deal with employees' fear and loss of trust. here are brief descriptions of the motivational theories worth studying: Abraham Maslow's theory of Motivation based on Needs: Self-Actualization. while the motivational factors (achievement. know your employees well. They also fail to see the value of the rank-and-file without whom the war cannot be won. the work itself. all they can hope to accomplish is crisis management. responsibility and advancement) do in effect cause increased job motivation. Business owners and upper management often forget this heavy burden the supervisor carries. discover their assets and resourcefulness. social activities and opportunities EGO .Recognition. Safety Needs. Most supervisors face the dilemma of having to choose between appealing to management for the help and guidance they urgently need. we can translate it as follows. They fail to see that supervisors are the unit leaders they send to the battlefield to win the war. recognition. distinguishing between "Hygiene Factors" and "Motivational Factors". whereby he links employee motivation to the way managers express themselves through attitude.A safe and non-threatening work environment. reaching the heights of one's gifts and talents. behaviour and organizational policies. They seem oblivious to what is happening in the minds and hearts of their people. they carry the same underlying message: Clarify objectives. based on the model of Japanese management and the theory that workers want to have a close. there is little they can do. Ouchi's motivational theory is also built around people's individual value and the role they have in determining the organization's success. basic physical needs: the ability to acquire food. Social Needs. at the risk of losing their standing or position within the organization. working conditions and salary) as those elements of the work environment which do not by themselves cause motivation but whose absence lead to job dissatisfaction.Contact and friendship with fellow-workers. He explains the hygiene factors (company policy. cooperative and participative working relationship with the people they work for. Physiological Needs As applied to the workplace. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y. supervision. use these democratically to accomplish your goals. shelter.
He has the challenge of turning the situation around on his own. even if not articulated. They can draw a plan on how management goals and employee goals can meet half-way or. they must distance themselves from their own personal interests and study the situation objectively. inviting their input. upper management's motives and strategies. However. an investment in time. If they feel comfortable approaching upper management. is to adopt a problemsolving approach. It motivates him towards successful accomplishment. They care for the company's success. the new skills he acquires.in achieving these goals. Driven by the survival instinct. The supervisor grows and becomes a better leader through the problem-solving process. the supervisor is left to his own resources. The work must be thorough. it would be wise for the supervisor to examine the changes he himself is going through. It sounds logical and simple. this success must not be at the sacrifice of their own well-being and security but must be interwoven with their personal and professional goals. Instead of wasting energy on frustration. merge. inviting them to solve it as a team. Growth through problem-solving The best supervisors can do when embarking on such a project on their own. adequate preparation. The supervisor will discover that employees give their best when treated as intelligent adults and are invited to participate in policies and decisions which affect their lives and the business itself. he would be surprised to witness in them a change of attitude and eagerness to display their knowledge and capability. They make suggestions for business growth. supervisors must remember that the uppermost thought and question of any party to a proposed solution is "What's in it for me?". If not. and costs involved. In the course of their problem-solving. and motivated to find solutions. in the best of situations. The supervisor discovers a wealth of resources among his . will it create this excitement and selfless drive for successful achievement regardless of the existing work environment? Will their thoughts and efforts be directed towards constructive solutions rather than defensive and disruptive action? The supervisor can test this notion by sharing with employees a work performance problem. employees' creativity now comes into play. At this stage. his thoughts and emotions towards employees and the organization. The proposal they submit must answer this all-important question. performance. Employees often come up with solutions which escape management. Can the same learning process be applied to employees? If the supervisor presents them with a problem to solve. but also leads to a win/win situation between management and employees. untapped markets. they can try doing it on their own with ’learning’ attitude. To the extent possible. needs and expectations. and unexplored opportunities such as possible new products and services. but requires the commitment of upper management. organization. In a situation where upper management is not too ready to invest along those lines. With a clear objective. effort and money for actual application. they can ask for outside coaching assistance. and systematic implementation. If the discussion is held in a cooperative fashion. supervisors are well advised to study and write down all the pros and cons. employee morale. they can use their time to study and analyze the organization. Bearing in mind that action plans by themselves do not appeal to upper management unless translated into the costs involved. he not only comes out the winner.
His reasoning is that through this investment companies will gain efficient. When presenting a winning idea to management. loyal contractors. They should also realize that company secrets are hard to keep. recommending that employers train employees in business management and entrepreneurship. To maintain this trust. The approach is a caring one. If convinced of the need to care for employees' future. Through this example. mediators. Instead of letting fears and doubts pervade the workplace. the supervisor will find the solution which will best fit the organization and its . Upper management realizes the value of their employees. He can make sure the employees in question are acknowledged and rewarded. In his book Job Shift . it will also help them establish their own independent businesses to provide contracting services to the organization for which they worked. being replaced by temporary team projects and task forces with specific mandates.employees. facilitators. Before embarking on such a course. it works out for the best interests of all parties. is fast disappearing. He says that the traditional concept of "job". He can suggest developing the idea further with the involvement of those who offered it. However. Should they lose their job. He advocates cross-training and advises employers to work together with labor unions to create a multi-skilled work force who can dynamically respond to company and market needs. and investment in. he turns into a leader. and so should upper management. supervisors and managers must discover the specific qualifications and shortcomings of all employees. Employees now realize that they themselves can do something to help secure their place of employment. From supervisor. future scenarios will ingrain unshakable trust and loyalty towards the company. Shortcomings can be remedied. as related to a specific position within a company. William Bridges explains the employment and training needs of the new economy. They now expect him to influence upper management. He gains their involvement and commitment. The entire philosophy here is to share and help each other's survival and growth. Supervisors must realize this.How to Prosper in a Workplace without Jobs. management's stance may change to one of sharing and joint problem-solving. managers and supervisors can share future planning with employees and help prepare them for opportunities and different scenarios. this philosophy has its merits and can inspire the supervisor in his quest for solutions within the present work environment. the supervisor acknowledges input and gives credit where due. as expected in a family setting. In the process he also succeeds in regaining their trust. This concern for. Organizations may not be ready yet for such a heavy commitment in employee training and a sharing of responsibility for the future. coaches. the people who perform the actual work come across situations which trigger thoughts for improvement. which may translate into increased profits for the company. William Bridges goes even further. Their understanding of business principles will help them contribute effectively to the company's success. or may perform best when given clear directives and placed in "active" roles. In the long run. Whatever their level of education. he makes sure to single out the employee or group of employees who suggested it. attuned to the needs of the company. Some of them may be born leaders. This results in high employee motivation and even leads to additional input by others. The busy grapevine keeps even the lowest ranking employee informed of higher-up decisions and plans.
however. Whatever may be the arguments. Conclusion Motivation is an important concept that has been receiving considerable attention from academicians. Motivation is essential for any company because employee is Asset of company. The word motivation stands for movement. researchers and practicing HR managers. and performance-satisfaction. They are quality oriented. the supervisor succeeds in motivating his employees even when the organization is not yet ready to face work force realities. motivation comprises important elements such as the need or content. In its essence. is a motivator according to need-based and process theories of motivation. social comparison of rewards reinforcement. Being an outgrowth of Herzberg’s.people. Every manager should have both interest and concern about how to enable people to perform task willingly and to the best of their ability. For example. One such technique is reward. The increasing attention paid towards motivation is justified because of several reasons. Task variety helps motivate job holders. They need to have certain techniques that help them change the behavior of employees. This concern for. By creating a "caring" and participative environment. They are more productive. Several approaches to motivation are available. job enrichment is considered to be a powerful motivator. He will succeed in influencing management thinking one step at a time. skinner to give the management a powerful technique to change employee behavior. future scenarios will ingrain unshakable trust and loyalty towards the company. Recommendation Motivation is essential for each and every organization because its helps in avoiding the frustration and it also create the healthy work environment. Employees will sense this and will acknowledge him as leader. Employee motivation is closely related to the quality and style of leadership. He will find his motivational problems resolved. Motivation is important for the growth of employees as well as growth of the . goal-directed behavior. Reward. . particularly money. Any technology needs motivated employees to adopt it successfully. The makes the job interesting and rewarding. This reduces boredom and disinterest. The Human Relations Movement posits that social contacts will motivate workers. money is not important as a motivator. two factor theory of motivation. Early theories are too simplistic in their approach towards motivation. An enriched job has added responsibilities. search and choice of strategies. and investment in. it can be stated that money can influence some people in certain circumstance.F. advocates of scientific Management believe that money is the motivating factor. OB Mod uses the reinforcement principle of B. Mere knowledge about the theories of motivation will not help manager their subordinates. Several reputed organizations in a America have used OB Mod programmes successfully to achieve positive results. Job rotation involves shifting an incumbent from one job to another. For the behavioral scientists. Job enlargement refers to adding a few more task elements horizontally. Motivated employees come out with new ways of doing jobs.
com mbafin. Presentations.blogspot. has a various needs. but not seen. Motivated employees help organizations survive. desire. managers need to understand what motivates employees within the context of the roles they perform. Motivated employees are more productive. The dynamic nature of needs offend poses challenge to any manager in motivating his or her subordinate. Project Reports visit – a2zmba. at any given time. Employees who put in extra hours at work to fulfill their needs or accomplishment may find that these extra hours conflict directly with needs for affiliation and their desire to be with their families.organization. and expectations.blogspot. For more Notes.com hrmba.com . Motives can only be inferred. An employee. To be effective.blogspot.