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A Seminar SUBMITTED TO THE INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN DEPARTMENT OF FIBRES AND TEXTILE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Prof. Shukla BY Adwait Mahesh Deshpande FINAL YEAR B. TECH- SEMESTER VII INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, Deemed to be University MATUNGA, MUMBAI- 400 019 SUBMITTED on 15th October 2010
Adwait Mahesh Deshpande
A Brief History Of Indigo Dyeing
Physical and Chemical properties
Synthesis Of the Indigo Dye
Dyeing Procedures for Polyester and Cotton
Adwait Mahesh Deshpande
1. A Brief History of Indigo Dyeing
Indigo plants originate from different parts of the world and produce a colorfast, deep blue dye. The plant was first domesticated in India during the Indus Valley period between the fourth and the second millennium b.c. Many varieties of the indigo plant exist throughout the world. One species originates from east and southern Africa, another from tropical America. Indigofera tinctoria, believed to be native to Asia and now widely distributed and naturalized all over the tropics. I.tinctoria is the species that was first domesticated in India and predominantly cultivated over the centuries for commerce. The name ³indigo´ is derived from the Greek for ³of India´ and refers to the Indian subcontinent.
Indigo was mentioned in manuscripts dating as far back as the fourth century b.c. The historical record of indigo is patchy, but references were made by Marco Polo who saw indigo during a visit to the southern tip of India in 1298. Around this time, Arab traders had introduced indigo to the Mediterranean region, where it became available in small quantities. The cultivation of indigo on a large scale started in the sixteenth century in India, particularly in the north.
During the Middle Ages indigo moved like other valuable articles of trade through established caravan routes, primarily overland from India through Baghdad into Europe. By the sixteenth century the Portuguese, and later the Dutch, had established trade routes by sea to India, making indigo much more accessible to the average European. By 1516, the Portuguese were importing large quantities of indigo (along with spices and other valuable goods from eastern ports) by ship into Europe.
Indigo Arrives in Europe by Sea Trade
Soon after its appearance in European ports, the trade of indigo was inhibited by powerful guilds in many European countries. Until indigo, the primary European source for dye was
Woad had been cultivated extensively in France. since it was a better dye producing deeper. Germany and England since the Roman Empire. Producing indigo was labor intensive and. Until this time. the French joined the fray with the establishment of indigo plantations on the eastern part of modern day Haiti in 1697. only possible through a system of slavery. indigo was moving into Europe from east (Portuguese. However. a large population. more colorfast blues. and English) and west (Spanish). The British first established indigo plantations in its West Indian territories (Jamaica). Nevertheless. it is said that a planter in South Carolina could fill his bags with indigo and ride to Charleston to buy a slave with the contents. first setting up plantations in the mid-1500s along the Pacific coast of Central America. was plunged into abject poverty. most notably in South Carolina. The price of indigo also fluctuated drastically. When the German woad industry eventually collapsed. The British soon joined the Spanish and French. Spain began cultivating indigo in its new world colonies. At this time. Bengal in northeastern India became the world¶s main 4 Indigo Dyeing . who resented the monopoly on the dye held by Indian traders and merchants. whose livelihood depended on woad. Britain pressed for a return to India as a source. Soon after the establishment of Portuguese trade routes. India was the main supply of indigo for the British.´ Back to India Soon after the loss of the American colonies and the drying up of French supplies of indigo. Indigo Plantations in the West Indies and South Carolina By the late 1600s indigo was marketed legally in most European countries. By the close of the seventeenth century. Dutch. indigo dyestuff could be exchanged for slaves. who were already cultivating indigo on plantations in the new world. European woad-growers and merchants saw indigo as serious competition. ³exchanging indigo pound for pound of negro weighed naked. The British faced difficulties ensuring a regular supply of indigo and controlling quality. bans did not stop the flow indigo into Europe. as a new source for the dye. in the West Indies and American colonies. In the nineteenth century. they sought to control production. this time. Contemporary accounts indicate that when prices were high.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande the indigenous woad plant. and then in its colonies in North America.
Indians were generally forced to cultivate indigo on their best land and faced exploitation and cruel maltreatment by British planters. after the first quarter of the nineteenth century. Sailors of the time frequently used the fabric 5 Indigo Dyeing . Throughout the century natural indigo was far more valuable than any other dyestuff and Bengal¶s indigo production far outweighed that of the rest of the world. by now in great demand to supply the textile industries of the Industrial Revolution and to dye many European service uniforms. But. in the 16th century. known as dungaree. For the earlier part of the nineteenth century it may be fair to say that the industry created gainful employment for Indians.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande source of indigo. Denim and the Invention of Synthetic Indigo The earliest known pre-cursor for jeans is the Indian export of a thick cotton cloth dyed in indigo.
BASF called its new product ³indigo pure. For the past century. Synthetic indigo was first produced for commercial use in 1897. The situation of the peasants of India got even worse with the chemical replication of indigo from the late 19th century onwards.´ Soon other European companies. almost all indigo used in denim manufacturing has been man-made. including dyeworks in France and Switzerland. when the German chemical company BASF (Badische Anilin und Soda Fabrik) introduced the dye based on the findings of the Berlin chemist Adolf von Baeyer. extraction. and natural indigo entered its final irreversible decline on the international market. began producing their own synthetic indigo.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande to make clothing. The pressures on the ³planters´ (British estate owners) to make a profit and survive in these circumstances increased the pressure on those involved in indigo cultivation. 6 Indigo Dyeing . and processing.
dilute acids. Intra. Indigo is practically insoluble in water. This is explicable in terms of the special arrangement of the atoms in the basic chromophore and the high polarizability of the charge distribution.and intermolecular hydrogen bonding are the explanation for indigo¶s extremely low solubility and high melting point. X-ray analysis and IR studies demonstrate the existence of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in the solid state. and in 1883 he revealed the structural formula to Heinrich Caro. It exists as blue-violet needles or prisms with a pronounced coppery luster. high-boiling solvents such as aniline. The melting point is 390. phthalic anhydride. Some polar solvents destroy indigo when it is dissolved in them at the boil.3-dihydro-3.oxo-2Hindol-2-ylidene)-1. nitrobenzene. Physical and Chemical properties The first laboratory synthesis of indigo was achieved by Adolf von Baeyer in 1878. the absorption maximum in a polar solvent such as dimethyl sulfoxide being 620 nm.2 -biindolinylidene.392°C.3. which is strongly influenced by the ability of the molecule to form hydrogen bonds. The very long-wave IR absorption of the carbonyl band at 1626 cm can be regarded as characteristic of the 7 Indigo Dyeing . The dye is positively solvatochromic. at that time head of the research laboratories at BASF.2-dihydro-3H-indol-3-one or 2. Characteristic of indigo is the unusually deep shade compared with other conjugated systems of similar size.3 -dione. that is. It sublimes above 170°C as a red-violet vapor that condenses on cooling to form dark violet needles. also known as indigotin. phenol.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande 2. 12 nm higher than in a nonpolar solvent such as carbon tetrachloride. 2. is 2-(1.1 Physical Properties The systematic name of indigo. but slightly soluble in polar. and dilute alkalis. and dimethyl sulfoxide.
the carbonyl band of dehydroindigo is situated at 1724 cm. which can be converted by acids to so-called indigo white. and hydrogen.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande indigo structure. However. Bond orders and charge densities in the indigo molecule have been calculated and compared with the results of X-ray analysis. 2. hydroxyacetone. or by electrochemical means. it can be successfully sulfonated in concentrated sulfuric acid to give the tetrasulfonic acid.2 Chemical Properties Indigo is very stable to light and heat. These studies confirm the structural formula and answer questions about the basic chromophore of the dye. and halogenated in nitrobenzene to introduce up to six halogen atoms. In an alkaline medium. Indigo is readily reduced by various reducing agents such as zinc dust. Indigo (1) 8 Indigo Dyeing . a salt (for example the sodium salt) of leuco indigo is produced. sodium dithionite. The molecule does not readily undergo electrophilic or nucleophilic substitution. By comparison.
a precursor of the dye. making it possible for indigo to be used in dyeing. Indigo can be synthesized from D-glucose by genetically modified strains of coli bacteria. rubbing. The difference in shade between dyeing on the two fiber types is also due to the different bonding mechanisms.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande The yellow-brown soluble vat form of indigo has affinity for animal and vegetable fibers. indigo was produced from plant material containing low concentrations of indican. forming isatin. Oxidation and reduction of the indigo system are accompanied by corresponding changes in the spectroscopic properties. 3.1 Chemical Synthesis 9 Indigo Dyeing . Oxidation with permanganate or chromate splits the molecule. it forms blue indigo again. Upon oxidation with air. whereas on the polypeptide fibers of wool or silk the bonding is more salt like. 3. Oxidation of the indigo dye molecule results in formation of dehydroindigo. fixed on the fiber. presumably by a process that resembles biosynthesis in plants. The dye tends to adhere mainly to the surface of cotton fibers. and washing are poorer on cotton than on wool. This explains the fact that the fastness to light. Synthesis For thousands of years. Indican is split by enzymes and converted to indigo by oxidation.
First total synthesis of Indigo Another synthetic route proposed by von Baeyer began with o-nitrocinnamic acid and led to o-nitrophenylpropiolic acid. when von Baeyer succeeded in deriving isatin from phenylacetic acid. For a few years o-nitrophenylpropiolic acid was sold commercially as ³little indigo´. o-nitrophenyllactic acid ketone. splits off acetic acid and water and dimerizes to form indigo. He obtained isatin by oxidizing indigo. The product. which could be converted to indigo directly on the textile fiber with mild reducing agents under alkaline conditions. 10 Indigo Dyeing . von Baeyer in 1870 by treating isatin with phosphorus trichloride and phosphorus in acetyl chloride.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande Synthetic indigo was made by A. The first complete synthesis of indigo was achieved in 1878. Von Baeyer also synthesized indigo by a fascinatingly simple reaction between onitrobenzaldehyde and acetone in alkaline solution.
fusing this in potassium hydroxide to convert it to indoxylate (di-salt). a breakthrough to a cost-effective industrial synthesis was not possible. After the ring-closure reaction. such as aniline. Oxidation of the monosalt of indoxylate takes place in air at 80. The mother 11 Indigo Dyeing . and finally hydrolyzing and oxidizing the indoxylate to indigo. produced yields of up to 90% at reaction temperatures of around 220°C. washed with water. the yield (10% of theoretical) was too low for large-scale production. Hoechst and BASF launched this process on an industrial scale. Indigo is isolated from the indigo suspension by cake filtration. the yellow indoxylate present as the di-Na/K salt in the alkaline melt is hydrolyzed with water. Since the high reaction temperature (300° C) needed caused partial decomposition. Pfleger of Degussa in 1901.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande Hoechst and BASF tried to develop the von Baeyer processes industrially. and anthranilic acid. It involved reating aniline with chloroacetic acid to form N-phenylglycine salt.90° C. Heumann I Process In 1890 Karl Heumann published a synthetic method based on aniline. Small amounts of byproducts. Only the stoichiometric addition of sodium amide discovered by J. are also produced. However. Nmethylaniline. and further processed into the various commercial forms of indigo or vat indigo. The nitration step was in each case insufficiently selective and therefore expensive. A suspension of blue indigo results in an aqueous alkaline medium. as a highly effective condensing agent for the indoxylate melt.
N-Phenylglycine in the form of an alkali metal salt is the starting material for the Heumann I synthesis. N-phenylglycine-o-carboxylic acid.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande liquor from the filtration step can be regenerated and reused in the manufacturing process as an anhydrous alkaline melt. prepared from anthranilic acid and chloroacetic acid. Heumann PG salt synthesis Heumann II Process In the Heumann II process. 12 Indigo Dyeing . is added in the form of the alkali metal salt to a KOH/NaOH melt at 200°C to produce indoxylcarboxylic acid salt. After hydrolysis and decarboxylation. the product is oxidized in air to yield indigo. starting from anthranilic acid.
even without the use of sodium amide. In dyehouses this is done mostly by reducing it with sodium dithionite in the presence of alkali. This method was employed by BASF from 1897 onwards to produce and market the first synthetic indigo on an industrial scale. also from an ecological viewpoint.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande On account of the carboxyl group in the ortho position. BASF Indigo Vat 60% Grains is produced by evaporating to dryness an aqueous leuco indigo solution in the presence of molasses. The resulting dye. Isolation of indigo from the suspension is carried out as in the Heumann I synthesis by filtration. such as zinc dust and iron(II) sulfate. The idea of liberating the dyer from the burden of vatting the dye and of integrating this reduction step into the synthesis process is not new. and drying. Indigo is insoluble in aqueous alkaline media and to be useful in dyeing it must be converted into soluble leuco indigo. However. For example. Various forms of leuco indigo are available today. washing. This makes it possible to attain yields of between 70 and 90 %. 13 Indigo Dyeing . ring closure occurs more readily than in the case of N-phenylglycine salt. reduction with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel or palladium is preferable. The molasses stabilizes the leuco indigo against oxidation. indigo can be vatted with reducing agents that were commonly used in the past.
such as bran or starch. and alkaline additives (potash.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande with an indigo content of 60 %. is a specialty product that. mainly finds application in the production of indigo dyeings for commercial art purposes. corresponding to the lowest polluting potential.8% of the glucoside indican. 3. 14 Indigo Dyeing . Indigo¶s classification in Germany¶s official list of water-polluting substances is WGK 1. a 20% and. or ammonia). Enzymatic splitting of indican into indoxyl and glucose is carried out in a fermentation vat containing a carbohydrate-based material. Furthermore. and Chinese indigo (Polygonium tinctorium). These plants all contain up to 0. Environmental Aspects On account of its low solubility. as new market standard. woad ( Isatis tinctoria ). lime. However. the liquid dye allows dyehouses to dispense with much of the sodium dithionite and alkali needed for dyeing with indigo granules. Thus. indigo is degraded to only a very small extent in biological wastewater clarification plants. In addition to simple metering. the resin like residues produced by the reduction with hydrosulfite do not occur.2 Biotechnological Synthesis In General Suitable plants for producing indigo are the indigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria ). because it is so easy to use. A strain of bacteria capable of degrading indigo was discovered by the Hong Kong Institute of Biotechnology. The latter is still grown on the island of Shikoku in Japan and is used for blue dyeing. over 90% is adsorbed onto activated sludge and is thus eliminated from the wastewater. Liquid commercial forms of leuco indigo are becoming increasingly significant. a 40% solution of an alkali metal salt of leuco indigo are available.
the biotransformation is carried out in a two-phase system. The insoluble dye is isolated by precipitation and air drying. is in the aqueous 15 Indigo Dyeing . The critical quantity is the indole concentration. the biotransformation is carried out in a homogeneous aqueous system. The development of a fermentation process involving genetically modified strains of coli bacteria capable of forming usable amounts of indigo from D-glucose represented a new. The biomass. In the first. Apparently the substrate specificity of this enzyme is not very pronounced. Microbiological Synthesis In the 1980s. which under alkaline conditions is soluble in water. by oxidation in the air. The resulting indoxyl. since too high an indole concentration causes the biomass to die off . The textile is impregnated with the fermenting mash and then . is discharged from the fermentation vat and oxidized to indigo by operation.blued. which is formed on the plant by microorganisms. so that besides naphthalene. Pure indigo dye was not extracted from woad because of its low content of indican. The bacteria use the enzyme naphthalene dioxygenase to oxidize indole to indoxyl. containing the catalyst. In the second. Biotransformation of Indoles It was reported in the technical literature as early as 1956 that bacteria are able to convert indole to indigo. it also accepts indole as a substrate. biosynthetic route to indigo.2-dihydroxynaphthalene. The fermentation mix can also be used directly for dyeing.-D-glucosidase. This type of dyeing was carried out with woad (Isatis tinctoria ). which is oxidized to 1. indigo was successfully produced by microbiological techniques in the USA.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande The enzyme responsible for cleaving indican is indoxyl. Two process variants for carrying out this biotransformation are described.
In both process variants. The essential stages of the multistep route used by nature to synthesize aromatic amino acids were elucidated in the 1950s by studies on mutant bacteria (e. The first aromatic compound in the reaction chain is anthranilic acid: Bioindigo -Shikimic acid path (simplified). the indoxyl formed is spontaneously oxidized to indigo by atmospheric oxygen. while the substrate is supplied in an organic solvent. The crucial biosynthetic step is the conversion of indole-3-glycerine phosphate to L-tryptophan by the enzyme tryptophan synthase. Although indole does not occur as an intermediate in bacterial metabolism.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande phase. 16 Indigo Dyeing . Aerobacter and Escherichia coli): the cyclization of D-glucose to 5-dehydroquinic acid and the formation of shikimic acid. Bacterial De-Novo Synthesis The basic idea behind this variant is to use the synthetic potential of bacteria to produce the indole precursor.g. Preparation of indigo by bacterial de novo synthesis. it appears as an enzyme-linked intermediate in the biocatalytic transformation of D-glucose to L-tryptophan.
2. Alternative disposal methods. coli is simultaneously implanted with the coding for naphthalene dioxygenase from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande Biotechnological techniques allow the genetic coding for the enzyme tryptophan synthase in E. the modified microorganism can convert the liberated indole directly to cis-indole-2. If E. coli to be modified in such a way as to liberate the originally enzyme-linked intermediate indole. Application as a fertilizer is not yet a ready option.3-dihydrodiol. such as an efficient clarification plant or incineration. which splits off water and is oxidized to indigo. 3. vat indigo 40% (20 %) solution 17 Indigo Dyeing . vat indigo 60% 2. are associated with additional costs. because of the possible liberation of genetically modified microorganisms. Indigoid Dyes A problem in the biotechnological synthesis of indigo is the disposal of the large amounts of biomass produced. Commercial grades: The following commercial forms of indigo are available worldwide: In non reduced form as 1. indigo granules indigo powder indigo paste (alkaline) In reduced form as 1.
The maximum wavelength of polyester fabrics dyed with indigo is clearly different from that of cotton fabrics. The dyeing temperature is effective. which coordinate the rate of sodium hydrosulfite and sodium hydroxide. The rub fastness of polyester dyed with indigo is superior to that of cotton. 1g/L sodium hydroxide. After dyeing.88 g/L sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Cotton fabrics are put into the reduced indigo solution where the bath ratio is 50:1 and the dye concentration is 0.2 % owf.5±1. It seems that the role of nonionic reduced indigo formation is important in this dyeing method.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande 4. Dyeing polyester fabrics with indigo dyes is successful under certain conditions. After dyeing. the reduced indigo in the cotton is air oxidized at room temperature for over 10 minutes. and well-dyed polyester fabrics are obtained at 120°C. Dyeing Procedures for Polyester and Cotton Laboratory Scale dyeing The typical dyeing procedure for polyester is 8g/L sodium hydrosulfite. and 1 % owf indigo at 120°C for 30 minutes. When the sodium hydrosulfite concentration is 8 g/L. The cotton fabrics were dyed at 50°C for 30 minutes. The indigo dye is reduced in aqueous solutions of 4 g/L sodium hydrosulfite (Na2S2O4). and 30 g/L sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) at 50°C.05± 0. the optimum dyeing concentration of sodium hydroxide is 0. the reduced indigo in the polyester fabrics is air-oxidized at 100°C for over 10 minutes. 2.0 g/L in the dye bath solution at 120°C. 18 Indigo Dyeing . then washed with an aqueous solution of 5 g/L anionic soaping agent at 80°C for 10 minutes. Polyester has a richer blue color than cotton when they are both dyed with the indigo.
1987 to obtain a higher productivity and savings in dyeing or to achieve the required darker shades (hard rock washing. Indigo one sheet dye slashing 3. soft denim. Indigo double sheet dyeing 4. The following table gives you a comparison of the possible processing stages such as: 1. stone wash denim. The final finishing methods have influence on fabric construction and dyeing methods. or softness of the yarn for final finishing.chain-beamer · Sizing 19 Indigo Dyeing . Dye 1 for 6 (continuous dye slashing) Dye 1for 6 with dyemer (continuous mercerization dyeing and sizing). we also must take into consideration that a certain appearance of the garments is only achieved after a certain washing method.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande Industrial Scale Dyeing Now processing and dyeing methods for indigo warps were introduced from 1978. For the five major Indigo dyeing methods for the basic denim. soft denim). stone washing. hard rock washing). Indigo rope dyeing process 2. super blue denim. use of certain sizing agents (soft denim) or irregular appearance in warp or weft direction by using a yarn with slubs and neps (antic denim). (Chemical washing. super blue. CONVENTIONAL CLASSICAL CONTINUOUS INDIGO ROPE DYEING The classical rope dyeing system is very labour intensive and consists of:- · Ball warping · Indigo dyeing · Rebeaming on long. 5.
Having passed the dyeing and oxidation rage the ropes are guided through 2 or 3 washing boxes to wash off excessive loss pigments in the last box softener are added to ease the opening of the ropes. The requires No.180 seconds are required for the oxidation of the Indigo dyestuff to ensure that also ends in the centre of the rope are equally dyed. impurities which could influence the fastness for the dye. A lease is inserted at the start and end of the rope.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande Yarn from the ring spinning machine is wound on automatic winding machines on to a suitable package either cylindrical or 5057 cone. To dye with indigo. In order to guarantee even yarn tension through rebeaming on to a back beam ready for sizing 20 Indigo Dyeing . The comparatively long immersion and oxidation time requires a comparatively expensive equipment of machinery. Please note that squeezing pressure is important 5 tons as fastness of colour and shade depends on even squeezing pressure. In order to obtain the required deep shade of blue colour the ropes are 5 ± 6 times immersed in a sequence of dye boxes with an oxidation range then so called skying after each dye box. Prior to dyeing. They are dried in series of cans. the ropes are boiled out and treated with caustic-soda and wetting agent to remove from the cotton oil. These coilers are placed behind the long chain beamer where the Rebeaming and opening of the ropes takes place.000 meters. The facilitate Rebeaming every 1000 meters an additional lease is inserted. The winders are directly linked to the ring spinning frames and the cops joint by splicing. Usually 18 ± 24 ropes are simultaneously process on the rope dyeing machine. To dye in rope 30 ± 60 seconds immersion (20 meters yarn) and 60 . length of ball approx. The rope is guided similar as a cross wound package and wound into a ball. The dried ropes which contain 380 ± 420 ends are then deposited into large coilers Rebeaming with 300 ± 380 ends per rope is easer. of ends (usually 380 ± 420 ends) are assembled into a rope. the ropes are immersed into the dye-bath. OE yarns are directly creeled up on the Ball warper. These ends are wound onto a core. (Indigo belongs to the group of the vat dyes which is watersoluble in eeduced solution and becomes an insoluble pigment when oxidized. 12 ± 15.
The size pick up varies between 8 ± 10%. We must however consider that the squeezing effect is lower and therefore the danger streakiness and shade variation from centre to out side is also higher. Broken ends which very really happen process of the rope are repaired at this process stage. 21 Indigo Dyeing .000 meters. Consequently it would be better to deduce the warping width rather to 140 cm instead of using warper beams with 160 ± 180 cm warping width.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande the ropes are guided over a tension device which is placed approx. This system allows the installation of less expensive dye rage and less additional preparatory machinery. The back beam contains similar to rope 380 ± 420 ends but distributed evenly over the width of 140 or 160 cm between the flanges so the end lay parallel to each other. no softener are used in the last wash box. fluff. Depending on the final finishing process (washed denim) with no filler also CMC gives excellent performance in weaving. Initially these machines were supplied without yarn stop motion but are available now a days on special request. In Europe mainly modified starches with binders are used. The so prepared beck beams are now sized in a sizing machine preferably with 2 size boxes. 3 ± tail ends and yarn remnants can cause inferior performance in weaving. 10 ± 15 seconds and time for oxidation 30 ± 60 second. in 10 -11 meters distance from the long chain beamer. weak. thick places) was not kept at a very high level was that ends sown in the dyeing range could cause major colour variation through machine stops. whilst in USA certain low % of PVA is applied sin combination with starches by some companies. similar to the rope dyeing system the full No of ends are pretreated (washed) dyed in 4 dye boxes and oxidized. One of the disadvantages in previous year when warp preparation (knots. This is of major importance as lost ends. CONTINUOUS SLASHER DYEING Contrary to the Indigo rope dyeing system. for the continuous slasher dyeing and sizing back beams are used. sized and dried simultaneously. dried. The immersion time in the dye boxes is approx. That means that the total No of ends required for a weavers beam are dyed. The final result is a weaver¶s beam. warp length 12 ± 15.
Loop dye system 1 for 6 Similar to the sheet dyeing systems 10 ± 16 warper¶s beams with the total number of ends required for the weaver beams are used. The yarn sheet is guided to the soaking bath through a feed-in system with tension compensation rollers. that means 8000 ± 8200 end are dyed. These beams are transported with the aid of air cushions to the sizing machine. Condensation and concentration of ends at one spot show compared to single sheet dyeing no colour strips formation. Godau date back as 1976. dried and the full length of the warper¶s beam 12. an even squeezing over the whole width is achieved. 22 Indigo Dyeing . Immersion time and oxidation time is the same as with continuous slasher dyeing. and the yarn sheet sized in double size boxes. As you can see from the slide the back beams are inside the yarn sheet passes through the dye box as often as necessary to obtain the required deepness of shade.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande DOUBLE SHEET CONTINUOUS DYEING Patents applied for double shade dyeing by E.000 ± 15. With double sheet dyeing the linear warp thread density is doubled. The soaking bath has the task to prepare the yarn for the following dyeing operation. The production out put of the dyeing is increased by 75%. The yarn sheet after having been immersed into a single indigo dye bath runs into a long loop where oxidation takes place. Unfortunately the double sheet dyeing machine as well as the rope dyeing range cannot be linked with a sizing machine which must be regarded as an advantage as the processes of dyeing and sizing must be carried out separately. Therefore: Squeezing effect is increased. The warper¶s beams are placed in a moveable warp creel which can be loaded whilst one set is in rotation. oxidized. With the system dyeing sizing is done in 2 operations. The main reason for dyeing of 2 sheets simultaneously is achieved a more even dyed sheet. Dyeing of 3 layers of yarn simultaneously is possible but very difficult to control the beaming on 3 big warp batches. streakiness or shading in the finished fabric.000 meters flange diameter.
In addition to width is controlled by guides to ensure even distribution of the yarn layer over the whole width of the dyed sheet. count No 7. 5 (tex 78) or 50. This means that depending on the count normally one cyl-spool is used in warping to fill a warper¶s beam. dried up to 25 ± 30% final moisture content prior being immersed into size boxes. No 5.800 meters of yarn. All accumulators placed between washing boxes and drying cans guarantees a continuous production of the dye range when a weaver beam has to be exchanged at the head stock. The molecules are controlled DC drive to maintain warp tensions. Temperatures are automatically controlled as well as the PH value in the dye box. All rollers are contact with the dyed sheet are fluted.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande One of the advantages is: Ideal utilization of Hydrosulphite is through squeezing 4 ± 6 layers simultaneously and oxidation of yarn in a comparatively long oxidation loop. The creels can be loaded with back beam with 1200 mm diameter which allows to warp approx. they keep the sheet in position and reduce deposit of dye and build-up of other deposit (fluff). No 10 (tex 60) 23 Indigo Dyeing . 35 m/min. After the oxidation the yarn sheet is guided through 2 washing boxes into a yarn accumulator and finally on to a series of drying cans. The automatic control unit of the PH value supplies automatically hydrosulfite and caustic soda to stabilize the present value from the start to end of a dye set. dried and wound onto a weavers beam. 5 (tex 107) and 42 m/min.000 m count No 10 (tex 60). WARPING SPEED PRODUCTION Speed varies between 1000 m/min. 36.
921 = 0.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande MACHINE STOPS DURING SIZING For 36800 m.921 mm = 0.dyeing systems can be compared. for instance 500 kg the squeezing effect of the mentioned 4. We can see that similar squeezing effect can be achieved with the loop dyeing system 1 for 6 (75%) as with rope dyeing 70 ± 110%.15-20 kg per set. 29125 Nm 10 = 3. quicker and proper oxidation and better colour fastness. A higher squeezing effect is achieved due to the over laying of the watp ends this also gives more side to side squeezing. 80% squeezing effect. The linear density in the nip is calculated in the same manner as for sizing.1622 Q= F x D As already mentioned previously the warp density has an influence on colour fastness. Double dyeing with 2 layers width with 150 cm gives approx. whilst single sheet slasher dyeing varies depending on count between 100 ± 130%. 24 Indigo Dyeing . The high squeezing effect results also in better. WASTE OF MATERIAL Approximately . It must be mentioned that recommended dip and oxidation times on warp dyeing ranges are of little use if not the squeezing effect is taken into consideration. Under a given squeeze pressure. therefore reduce strips formation. TIME REQUIRED FOR CHANGE OF SET 2 hours Linear warp densities in the squeeze. 4 recorded on expansion comb. Q= linear thread density F= ends in cm -1 D= diameter of yarn D= 0.
the yarn sheet is immersed into the dye box and the same process as with the loop dye method is repeated. therefore less chemicals in use at same time. In order to achieving ring dyeing. For impregnation padder for hot caustic solution is placed after the heating system. black shades or other shades needed by fashion. Mercerizing is very costly. Hydroxyacetone has been specially treated with high frequency. The yarn is guided over could cylinders and with an adjustable roller the tension of the yarn sheet can be adjusted according to the required tension prior to the scouring in 2 more boxes. no separate feeding of chemicals is necessary. Dye liquor is use in 1500 1 instead of 6-4500 1.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande As only one short indigo dye bath is deeded only one feeding tanks. In some cases. DYEMER The dyemer range is integrated. A mercerizing prevents penetration of dye stuff into the inner code it is suitable for this purpose to obtain an optical blue effect and superior colour fastness and behavior in washing. LOOP DYE 1 FOR 6 COMBINED WITH DYEMER The demand for dark shades specially dark marine blue for super blue denims also led to new ideas in indigo dyeing ranges have been increased between 8-15 dye boxes with corresponding oxidation ranges. After having passed this. · Lower power consumption. therefore new ways is continuous mercerizing and indigo dyeing was found. 25 Indigo Dyeing . mercerized yarn has also been used. other indanthrene dye stuff can be directly added into the indigo dye bath (indanthrene yellow or orange). · Fine counts can be dyed as well · For dark shades. Besides achieving a darker shaded with the desire greenish touch it is very suitable for biological treatment.
this means that after the first dyeing/squeezing the yarn has to remain exposed in the air for about 60 seconds before being dipped again in the second dyeing vat and so on for all the following dyeing. a steamer and a special double circuit system for bath circulation system. every phase included the impregnation of the yarn with the Leuco solution. That means the total saving of yarn with Rapidsky is 24 x 8 = 216 meters. Oxidation The oxidation is very important in the dyeing process. According to the practical experience the average time for a perfect oxidation is about 60 seconds. enabling separation of vats and that allows the maximum flexibility in use. But Indigoflow with their special device ³Rapidsky´ only eight meters per dye vat of yarn remain in the Rapidsky device.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande INDIGO ROPE DYEING SLASHER (INDIGOFLOW) DYEING Indigoflow We can explain the indigo flow dyeing tech as. The dyeing mean time can be calculated in about 30/35 meters of yarn per minutes therefore keeping as base the machine with eight dye vats. In addition to the classical indigo blue it thus possible to dye 26 Indigo Dyeing . FLEXIBILITY IN USE The high degree of evolution that can be reached by completing the basic machine with the mercerizing and an intermediate drying can group. after squeezing a pressure a passage in air to allow the Leuco to oxidation and to become blue and therefore insoluble. in ALKALINE bath and at temperature relatively low to oxidation it follows. The total yarn in the oxidized can be calculated as m 35 x 8 = 280 meters. the purpose of the oxidation is to get the permanent dye on the yarn and to eliminate the insolubility of the dye stuff in the water.
MERCERIZED PROCESS Mercerizing group consisting of soda process vat with circulation pump and filter. the new indigo supper blue the per-dyed indigo. relatives and pigments dyes. and from this by means of an overflow system with special conveyors/mixers. ACCUMULATORS This system have to Gravity accumulators for automatic storage of the dye yarn when the slasher machines stops for beam change complete with finned stainless steel rollers for synchronization and safety devices. automatic feeding and electronic yarn tension regulation devices. Dye bath circulation vat. automatic level adjustment. Hydrosulphite and soda.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande the modern mercerized to dye the modern mercerized indigo blue and black. THE CIRCULATION SYSTEM This system has a ingenious and perfect dye bath circulation system. indanthrene. the dye bath is sent from the circulation vat to the first dyeing vat. mercerized warp makes it possible to obtain a better texture handle and look as well as particular chromatic effect on the ready made cloth. Through a variable flow pump. to the next vat and so on until it falls back into the circulation vat. naphtholes. as well as the large range of colour denim with sulphurs. 27 Indigo Dyeing . timing cans neutralize and washing vats with 10 tons squeezing foulards. stainless steel made. complete with interchangeable bucket filters. direct. This system is very simple and dose not required maintenance. temperature control and dosing of colours. where it is filtered its temperature is adjusted and colour Hydrosulphite and soda are automatically added. MERCERIZATION Mercerization causes morphological and mechanical changes in the yarn thus increasing its resistance and dye affinity (dye stuff) saving.
will tend to pass through the machine. if they do occur. Morrison¶s color kitchen for caustic. fabric luster and strength as well as popular faction effects. These would include sulfur. over dye and fashion colours. thus being accessible and easy to handle. In order to eliminate the cleaning operations and to help the colour oxidation this system has special fining on the surface on the rollers of the oxidizers and accumulators. Hydrosulphite and indigo are supplied with filters and stand by pumps to allow 28 Indigo Dyeing . Ropes are braided from let-off creels to provide continuous operation. to avoid the yarn breaking and tangling and to reduce the bath quantity. High production and/or deep fashion blue ay require more sections. Optional mercerizing section adds a caustic box plus skying rolls to provide proper reaction time before washing. Ropes are stronger and less subjective to broken ends that.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. Basic range consists of eight box/sky sections. Dyestuff preparation circulation and custom designed chemical and system allow full flexibility for variation dyestuff application. Reduced capacity dye vat with semicircular bottoms and with only 2-3 large diameter immersed rollers. 3. reactive and vat dyes. Rope dyeing is economical and well suited for processing chambers. 4. Multiple dips of indigo and proper oxidation time and in the skying section achieve depth of shade. Squeezing foulards with special rollers enabling a uniform squeeze effect over the entire width under all pressure conditions. Compactness. Standards pretreatment consists of counter flow scour/boxes. 2. dark shades. Therefore there is no yarn waste from beam set splicing stops or shade tailing from dye class changes. This adds important properties such as improved dye affinity.
Any type of denim can be produced. Coilers lay the individual ropes into drums in a pattern to facilitate the subsequent rebeaming operation. We get it for a price of $ 2.5 lits. including ball warping. SLASHER DYEING VS ROPE DYEING Slasher Dyeing Rope Dyeing Requires lesser floor Space Is a continuous process or beam process Floor space required more than indigo flow It is not a continuous process. The dye bath has three rollers. Only classic denim can be produced. The dye bath have five rollers of the same size. The capacityof dye stuff is 2. The 350 plus ends per rope are blended during the rebeaming (post dye) stage. Yarn count allowed ± 1-30 counts Flexibility offered for different shades of dyeing. (one is bigger than the other two) The dye baths are in customized shapes. After dyeing the ropes enter multiple wash boxes for rinsing and chemical application. and then further randomized when the twelve beams set are sized prior to weaving virtually guaranteeing side/side colour uniformity. Large diameter feed and return lines assure content level in the each dye box.85 per metre in the international market. Rebeaming critical. 29 Indigo Dyeing . Cheaper than the rope dyeing technology Yarn count allowed ± 1-16 counts Only blue and black colours can be dyed onto the fabric. Mercerizing difficult due to rebeaming More man power required for ball warping and rebeaming The mercerizing process is easy and simple Less man power required The capacity of one dye Dye bath is 100 litres to save the expensive indigo dye stuff.Adwait Mahesh Deshpande uninterrupted operation. Ropes are than carefully dried to 6% moisture or steam heated drying cylinders.
Adwait Mahesh Deshpande 30 Indigo Dyeing .
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