PETROLEUM ENGINEERING 661

Lesson 2

 Drilling Systems

 Drilling Rigs

 Drilling a Well

 Definitions
Slide 2 of 49
Homework
Read ADE to p. 37 (all of Ch. 1)

Learn the Definitions in Lesson 2B

ADE # 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.6
 due Monday, September 8, 2003
Slide 3 of 49
 Drilling Team
 Drilling Rigs
 Rig Power System
 Hoisting System
 Circulating System . . .
Rotary Drilling
CHAPTER 1 (ADE)
Slide 4 of 49
 The Rotary System
 The Well Control System
 Well-Monitoring System
 Special Marine Equipment
 Drilling Cost Analysis

 Examples
Rotary Drilling - cont’d
Slide 5 of 49
Slide 6 of 49
Slide 7 of 49
Slide 8 of 49
Composite Rig Count
Baker Hughes Rig Count
500
700
900
1100
1300
1500
1700
1900
2100
2300
2500
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Month
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

M
o
n
t
h
l
y

R
i
g
s

D
r
i
l
l
i
n
g
2004 U.S.
2004 World
2003 U.S.
2003 World
2002 U.S.
2002 World
2001 U.S.
2001 World
2000 U.S.
2000 World
Slide 9 of 49
Noble
Drilling’s
Cecil
Forbes

A Jack-
Up Rig
Slide 10 of 49
Sonat’s
George
Washington
A Semi-
Submersible
Rig
Slide 11 of 49
Zapata’s
Trader

A
Drillship
Slide 12 of 49
Slide 13 of 49
TENSION LEG PLATFORM
Slide 14 of 49
Shell’s
Bullwinkle

World’s tallest
offshore
structure

1,353’ water
depth

Production
began in 1989
45,000 b/d
80MM scf/d
Slide 15 of 49
Fig. 1.4

The
rotary
drilling
process
Slide 16 of 49
Fig. 1.5

Classification of
rotary drilling rigs
Slide 17 of 49
Fig. 1.13
Engine
power
output
P = F
.
V
Power = Force * Velocity
Slide 18 of 49
TABLE 1.1 - HEATING VALUE
OF VARIOUS FUELS
Fuel
Type
Density
(lbm/gal)
Heating Value
(Btu/lbm)
diesel
gasoline
butane
methane
7.2
6.6
4.7
---
19,000
20,000
21,000
24,000
Slide 19 of 49
Example 1.1. A diesel engine gives an output
torque of 1,740 ft-lbf at an engine speed of 1,200
rpm. If the fuel consumption rate was 31.5 gal/hr,
what is the output power and overall efficiency of
the engine?


Solution: The angular velocity, e , is given by

e = 2t (1,200) = 7,539.8 rad/min.)

The power output can be computed using Eq.1.1



( )
hp 5 . 397
/hp lbf/min - ft 33,000
lbf/min - ft (1,740) 7,539.8
T P = = =e
Slide 20 of 49
Since the fuel type is diesel, the density is 7.2
lbm/gal and the heating value H is 19,000
Btu/lbm (Table 1.1). Thus, the fuel consumption
rate w
f
is:




w
f
= 3.78 lbm/min.

The total heat energy consumed by the engine is
given by Eq. 1.2:

|
.
|

\
|
=
minutes 60
hour 1
lbm/gal) (7.2 gal/hr 31.5 w
f
Slide 21 of 49
Q
i
= w
f
H



Thus, the overall efficiency of the engine at 1,200
rpm given by Eq. 1.3 is



( ) ( )
lbf/min/hp - ft 33,000
lbf/Btu - ft 779 lbm 19,000Btu/ lbm/min 3.78
=
i
Q
Efficiency = (Power Out / Power in)
23.4% or 0.234
1695.4
397.5
= = =
i
t
Q
P
E
Slide 22 of 49
Drilling a Well
 Steps in Drilling a Well
 Duties of Drilling Engineer
 Making a Connection
 Making a Trip
 Rig Selection Criteria
 Derrick Loading
 Definitions (Lesson 2B) (separate)
 Copies of ADE # 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3
Slide 23 of 49
Steps to Drill A Gas/Oil Well
1. Complete or obtain seismic, log,
scouting information or other data.
2. Lease the land or obtain concession.
3. Calculate reserves or estimate from best
data available.
4. If reserve estimates show payout,
proceed with well.
5. Obtain permits from conservation/
national authority.
Slide 24 of 49
Steps to Drill a Well - cont’d
6. Prepare drilling and completion
program.
7. Ask for bids on footage, day work, or
combination from selected drilling
contractors based on drilling program.
8. If necessary, modify program to fit
selected contractor equipment.
Slide 25 of 49
Steps to Drill a Well - cont’d
9. Construct road, location/platforms and
other marine equipment necessary for
access to site.
10. Gather all personnel concerned for
meeting prior to commencing drilling
(pre-spud meeting)
11. If necessary, further modify program.
12. Drill well.

Slide 26 of 49
Steps to Drill a Well - cont’d
13. Move off contractor if workover unit is
to complete the well.
14. Complete well.
15. Install surface facilities.
16. Analysis of operations with concerned
personnel.
Slide 27 of 49

Drilling Operations
Field Engineers, Drilling Foremen

A. Well planning prior to SPUD
B. Monitor drilling operations
C. After drilling, review drilling results and
recommend future improvements
- prepare report.
D. General duties.
What are the well requirements?
Objectives, safety, cost
Slide 28 of 49
Making
a
Connection
Making
a
Trip
Slide 29 of 49
Making a mouse hole connection
Slide 30 of 49
Making a mouse hole connection - cont’d
Single
Added.
Ready to
Drill
Moving Kelly
to Single in
Mousehole
Stabbing
the Pipe
Slide 31 of 49
Use
Elevators
for
tripping
Making a trip
Put Kelly in
Rathole
Why
trip?
Slide 32 of 49
Making a trip - cont’d
Tripping
one stand
at a time

60-90 ft
Slide 33 of 49
Criteria for determining
depth limitation
 Derrick
 Drawworks
 Mud Pumps
 Drillstring
 Mud System
 Blowout Preventer
 Power Plant
Slide 34 of 49
T W
• FIG 1-1 Simple Pulley System
T


W
T = W

Derrick Load = L
D
= 2W
(assumes no friction in sheave)
Slide 35 of 49
W = 4 T T = W/4
L
D
= 6 T = 6 W/4
W
n
2 n
L
D
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
Assuming no friction
• FIG 1-2 Block and Tackle System
Why n + 2?
n = number
of lines,
Crown block
To Travelling
block
W = weight
(hook load)
L
D
= load
on derrick
Slide 36 of 49
Example 1.1
(no friction)
The total weight of 9,000 ft of 9 5/8-inch
casing for a deep well is determined to be
400,000 lbs. Since this will be the heaviest
casing string run, the maximum mast load
must be calculated. Assuming that 10
lines run between the crown and the
traveling blocks and neglecting buoyancy
effects, calculate the maximum load.
Slide 37 of 49
Solution:
The tension, T, will be distributed equally
between the 10 lines. Therefore,
T = 400,000/10 = 40,000 lbf
The tension in the fast line and dead line
will also be 40,000 lbf, so the total load is
40,000 X 12 = 480,000 lbf
Slide 38 of 49
Solution, cont.
Example 1.1 demonstrates two additional
points.

1. The marginal decrease in mast load
decreases with additional lines.

2. The total mast load is always
greater than the load being lifted.
Slide 39 of 49
A Rotary Rig
Hoisting System
Slide 40 of 49
Projection of
Drilling Lines
on Rig Floor
TOTAL
E = efficiency = P
h
/P
i
= W/(n F
f
) or F
f
= W/(nE)… (1.7)
Slide 41 of 49
Load on Derrick
(considering friction in sheaves)
Derrick Load = Hook Load
+ Fast Line Load
+ Dead Line Load

F
d
= W + F
f
+ F
s

(
F W
W
En
W
n
E En
En
W
d
= + +
+ +
|
\

|
.
| =
1
E = overall efficiency: E = e
n
e.g., if individual sheave efficiency = 0.98 and n = 8, then E = 0.851
Slide 42 of 49
Example 1.2
A rig must hoist a load of 300,000 lbf. The
drawworks can provide an input power to the
block and tackle system as high as 500 hp.
Eight lines are strung between the crown block
and traveling block. Calculate
1. The static tension in the fast line
when upward motion is impending,
2. the maximum hook horsepower
available,
Slide 43 of 49
Example 1.2, cont.
3. the maximum hoisting speed,
4. the actual derrick load,
5. the maximum equivalent derrick load,
and,
6. the derrick efficiency factor.

Assume that the rig floor is arranged as
shown in Fig. 1.17.
Slide 44 of 49
Solution
1. The power efficiency for n = 8 is given
as 0.841 in Table 1.2. The tension in the
fast line is given by Eq. 1.7.


lb
n E
W
F 590 , 44
8 * 841 . 0
000 , 300
= = =
( alternatively, E = 0.98
8
= 0.851 )
Slide 45 of 49
Solution
2. The maximum hook horsepower
available is

P
h
= E-p
i
= 0.841(500) = 420.5 hp.
---
Slide 46 of 49
Solution
3. The maximum hoisting speed is given by

v
P
W
b
h
=
=
|
\

|
.
|

hp
ft - lbf / min
hp
300,000 lbf
= 46.3 ft / min
420 5
33 000
.
,
Slide 47 of 49
Solution to 3., cont.
To pull a 90-ft stand would require


t
90
1 9
ft
46.3 ft / min
. min.
Slide 48 of 49
Solution
4. The actual derrick load is given by
Eq.1.8b:
F
E En
En
W
d
=
+ +
|
\

|
.
|
|
\

|
.
|
1
=
1+0.841+0.841(8)
0.841(8)
(300,000)
= 382,090 lbf.
Slide 49 of 49
Solution
5. The maximum equivalent load is given
by Eq.1.9:
lbf F
W
n
n
F
de
de
000 , 450
000 , 300 *
8
4 8 4
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
Slide 50 of 49
Solution
6. The derrick efficiency factor is:
000 , 450
090 , 382
F
F
E
de
d
d
= =
84.9% or 849 . 0 E
d
=

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