• It is therefore important to choose the right excavation method together with the right equipment to keep the project on schedule. immediate mobilization takes place once the contract has been awarded and often there are penalties involved if the original schedule does not keep. . and the schedules are almost always tight. • Usually. • Project duration varies from one month to several years.Introduction • All construction Projects are time limited.

formation and mineral composition Minerals: A mineral may be defined as an inorganic substance that has consistent physical properties and a fixed chemical composition. . both must be taken into account when planning rock excavation.Material Properties Geological classification of rocks: Geological and mechanical properties of rock are interrelated. from designing underground openings and quarries to estimating drilling and blasting performance. Rock characteristics are determined primarily by origin.

Extractability 8. Coefficients of friction 6. Fracture toughness 5. Hardness 4. Strength 2. Mechanical rock properties may be grouped as follows: 1. Abrasivity . Crushability and millability 7. Deformability 3. sedimentary and metamorphic rocks.Material Properties Rocks: There are as we know igneous.

The 3 most widely used geotechnical classification systems for ground support are • Rock Quality Designation (RQD-Index) • Rock Mass Rating System (RMR-Value) • Rock Mass Quality (Q System) . it is necessary to classify and quantify their effect on the rock excavation process.Material Properties Classification of Rock Mass Properties: To utilize the mapping of rock mass discontinuities.

Principles of Rock Excavation Technologies .

Loading and Hauling 9. Rock blasting . Cutters. 3. Crushed Zone 2. Crack formation. Cutting 8. crushers and pulverizers 7.Hydraulic Hammers 6. DTH Drilling 4.1.Rotary percussive drilling 5. Drilling: a) Percussion drilling b) Hydraulic drilling c) Pneumatic drilling 3. Mechanics of Rock Bearing: Rock breakage by percussive drilling can be divided into four phases: 1. Chipping 2. Crushing Operation 10. 4. Crack propagation.

Comparison between Hydraulic drilling and Pneumatic drilling .

Dimensional Stone quarrying .

• • • • • Extraction and Cutting of Hard Rock Blasting Wedging Slot Drilling Jet burning Diamond wire saw .

blasting .

Water Well drilling .

Rotary Drilling 4.Methods 1. Boring 3. Cable tool drilling 2. Reverse circulation mud drilling . Direct circulation mud drilling 7. Air drilling 5. DTH Drilling 6.

Exploration drilling .

Methods: • • • • • Diamond coring Dual-tube reverse circulation drilling Cable tool drilling Hollow-stem auger drilling Rotary air and mud drilling .

Project Planning and Implementation .

1. PROJECT COSTS 2. TAMROCK PROJECT STUDIES • Excavation Process recommendations • Equipment selection • Performance and cost studies • Surface drilling capacity 3. SERVICE SUPPORT • Training • Periodic maintenance • Spare parts logistics • Service facilities & tools • Supervision .