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DEFINITIONS • DENIM : A Firm 2/1 or 3/1 cotton twill-weave fabric with dyed blue warp and raw white weft. ( similar to yarn dyed fabric ) • Warp is dyed with indigo dyes . concentrations. • Various dyeing methods. the reactions and oxidation time influences the effect and characteristics of the finishes . recipes.
Basic Process line Stone washed Desized Fabric is converted into garments Sized Indigo-dye warp and raw white weft Woven in a 2/1 or 3/1 twill weave .
Garment process DENIM PROCSSING DRY PROCESS WET PROCESS Scraping Sand blasting KMnO4 Spray Acid wash .
Dry process • Sand blasting : to produce localized abrasion • Scraping : manual scraping using sand paper or grinding machine as per design • KMnO4 Spraying : an alternative blasting technique • Acid wash : use of thremocol ball and bleach in a single belly machine .
• Bleaching : a process intended to decolorize indigo by using bleach liquor (NaOCl) • Softener wash : to improve the hand feel of the garment by cationic or silicone softener .Denim Wet processing • Desizing : a process intended to remove size finish constituents from fabric before enzyme wash or bleaching • Abrasion : a process which facilitates the indigo dye to be removed from the surface of the cotton fibre .
Chemicals and their uses • Non ionic wetting agent : to increase the absorbency of the garments • Lubricating agent : to avoid streak formation • Amylase : an enzyme used to break down insoluble starch to soluble glucose ( 90 % of sizing material contains insoluble starch ) • Pumice stone : used during denim washing to get the grain effect ( replaced by enzyme to large extent ) .
Continued … • Anti back staining agent : to avoid re deposition of the indigo dyes on the fabric surface • Cellulase : an enzyme used to weaken the cotton fiber and hence increase abrasion • NaOCl : Sodium hypochlorite used to lighten the shade of indigo • Laccase : enzyme used to decolorize indigo ( by converting indigo into colorless compound called Isatin ) • Softeners : to improve hand feel and protect the denim from Ozone .
Benefits of using enzymes • • • • • • • Maximized fabric strength retention Stone free processing Fast processing Improved wash look No or less Garment damage No machine damage Easy handling and cost effective .
5 to 1 gpl ) Amylase ( 0.Desizing • • • • MRL pH Temp Time : 1: 5 to 1 : 10 : 5 to 6.5 : 60 Deg C : 20 min • Chemicals ad dosage : • • • • non ionic wetting agent ( 1 gpl ) Lubricating agent ( 0.5 to 1 gpl ) ( enzyme for breaking down starch into soluble glucose ) .5 gpl ) Anti back staining agent ( 0.
5 : 55 Deg C : 20 to 45 min • Chemicals : • Anti back staining agent ( 0.5 to 1 gpl )( enzyme for weakening cotton fiber by converting the cellulase into glucose ) .5 gpl to 1 gpl ) • Cellulase( 0.Abrasion • • • • MRL pH Temp Time : 1: 5 to 1 : 10 : 6.
Bleaching • • • • MRL pH Temp Time : 1: 5 to 1 : 10 : neutral : Room Temp : depends on the shade • Chemicals : • NaOCl .
Bio bleach • • • • MLR pH Temp Time :1:5 to 1:10 : 4 to 5.5 : 60 to 70 Deg C :15 to 20 min • Chemical used : – Laccase :1 gpl to 2 gpl .
Special finishes • • • • • • • Pigment spray Direct and reactive dye tinting Transfer printing Rubber feel Indigo retention Permanent crease Raw ( or undesized ) look .