1. What type of processes and/or chemical change is observed in A, B, C, D, and E?

The reaction that took place in part A was a single replacement reaction because Cu displaced H in HNO. The reaction that took place in part B was a double replacement reaction. The blue cupric nitrate solution, reacted with sodium hydroxide to produce a blue precipitate of cupric hydroxide. The reaction that took place in part C was a decomposition reaction. The blue cupric hydroxide solid, ,was decomposed with heating into the black cupric oxide solid. The reaction that took place in part D was a double replacement reaction because Cu displaced H, and SO displaced O. The reaction that took place in part E was a single replacement reaction. The zinc replaced the copper in cupric sulfate, forming zinc sulfate and solid copper. 2. Why must zinc be added very gradually to the solution on procedure E? Adding zinc to copper(II) sulfate will result in a displacement reaction that will create the copper metal to a solid precipitate. This reaction is quite exothermic, meaning it will give off a lot of heat - enough to make it too hot to hold the reaction beaker in bare hands, hence the reason why zinc must be added very gradually to the solution. Another reason is that, by adding the zinc slowly, you increase the surface area of the zinc in contact with the Copper(II) sulfate solution. 3. What is the purpose of the test using ammonia solution? The purpose of the test using ammonia solution is to confirm that the zinc was completely mixed with the copper(II). Testing for completeness is important because if you add a few drops of the solution to some ammonia and it turns blue, it means that there is still copper present. If you continue the experiment and the reaction is not yet complete, you will not end up with 100% copper recovery. 4. Why must HCl be added to the solid after the reaction with zinc dust is completed? HCl must be added in order to remove the excess zinc. HCl will react with the zinc, since it is more reactive than copper, and produce a soluble zinc salt which can then be rinsed away. 5. Why is it not advisable to dry the copper directly over a Bunsen burner flame?

It is not advisable to dry the copper directly over a burner because when copper is heated in presence of oxygen or air, it forms oxides of copper which impures the pure copper. 6. Calculate the percentage recovery in the experiment. Does your result refute the law of conservation of matter? Explain. The Law of Conservation of matter states that matter can't be created nor destroyed. It can only be transformed. Our result in this experiment does not refute the law of conservation of matter because even though the copper turned into different compounds, the reactions that occurred during the changes merely involved the rearrangement of atoms. the rearrangement of atoms. This means that an element may go through several reactions until it is transformed back into its original state without the loss of any mass.

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