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Engine Friction

Engine Friction

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Published by: PRASAD326 on Feb 04, 2009
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10/26/2011

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ENGINE FRICTION AND LUBRICATION Friction generally refers to forces acting between the surfaces in relative motion . In engines ,firctional losses are mainly due to the SLIDING as well as ROTATING PARTS . Normally, engine friction(fp) is the difference between indicated power (ip)and the break power ,bp [fp=ip-bp] Frictional losses is due to the following mechanical losses •Direct frictional losses •pumping losses •power loss due to dirve the component to change and scavenge •power loss to drive other auxiliary components A good engine design should not allow the total frictional losses to be more than 30% of the energy input in receprocating in engines .It should should be the aim of a good designer to reduse friction and wear of the parts subjected to relative motion .This is achived by PROPER LUBRICATION. VARIOUS LOSSES ASSOCIATED WITH FRICTION: •DIRECT FRICTIONAL LOSSES: It is the power absorbed due to the relative motion of differnt bearing surfaces such as pistion rings ,main bearings camshaft baerings etc , since, there are a number of moving parts ,the frictional losses are comparitively higher in reciprocating engines. • PUMPING LOSSES In the case of a FOUR-STROKE engine, a considerable amount of energy is spent during intake and exhaust processes. the pumping loss is the net power spent by the engine(piston) on the working medium (gases) during intake and exhaust strokes. In case of 2-stroke engines this is negligible since the incoming fresh mixture is used to scavenge the exhaust gases. •Power loss to drive components to change and scavenge. •Power loss to drive the auxiliaries. MECHANICAL FRICTION: Friction loss comes into picture in the bearing sinfase of the engine components due to their relative motion mechanical friction may be further classified into six types: 1. Fluid film or hydrodynamic friction 2. Partial-film friction 3. Rolling friction 4. Dry friction 5. Journal bearing friction 6. Friction due to piston motion FACTORS AFFECTING MECHANICAL FRICTION: 1.Engine design: various design parameters: a. Stroke bore ratio •Effect of engine size •Piston rings •Copres

•Journal bearings 2. Engine speed 3. Engine load 4.Cooling water temp 5. Oil viscocity

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