# Introduction to Series-Parallel DC Circuits

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Series-parallel circuit

A network or circuit that contains components that are connected in both series and parallel.

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Series-parallel resistive circuits

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Tracking current through a series-parallel circuit

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen

Allen . Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.Total resistance in a seriesparallel circuit Step 1: Determine the equivalent resistance of all branch series-connected resistors. Step 3: Determine the equivalent resistance of the remaining series-connected resistors. Step 2: Determine the equivalent resistance of all parallel-connected combinations.

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.Calculating total resistance Find the equivalent resistance for R5 and R6. Allen .

Find the equivalent resistance for R4 and R5-6. Allen . Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

and R4-5-6. Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. R3.Find the equivalent resistance for R2. Allen .

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.Find RT. Allen .

Voltage division in a seriesparallel circuit Find: V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen .

Find R 3-4 and R 5-6-7. Allen . R3-4 = R3 + R4 = 2kohm R5-6-7 = 1kohm/3 = 333 ohm Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

R2-3-4 = R2 × R3-4/(R2 + R3-4) = 1k × 2k/(1k + 2k) = 667ohm Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen .Find R2-3-4.

Allen .Find RT. V1. V5-6-7. V2-3-4. RT = 1k +667ohm +333ohm = 2kohm V1 = R1/RT × VT = 1k/2k × 12V = 6V V2-3-4 = R2-3-4/RT × 12V = 667/2k × 12V = 4V V5-6-7 = R5-6-7/RT × 12V = 333/2k × 12V = 2V Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

Allen . Summary Find: V1 = 6V V2 = 4V V3 = 2V V4 = 2V V5 = 2V V6 = 2V V7 = 2V Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.Voltage division in a seriesparallel circuit.

Allen .Branch current in a seriesparallel circuit Find: I1 I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7 Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

Find total current Since RT = 2kohm. Allen . I1 = 6mA. IT = VT/RT = 12V/2kohm = 6mA. Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

Allen . I3. I4 I2 = R2-3-4/R2 × IT = 667ohm/1k × 6mA = 4 mA I3 = I4 = R2-3-4/R3-4 × IT = 667ohm/2kohm × 6mA = 2mA Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.Find I2.

I6. Allen .Find I5. I7 I5 = R5-6-7/R5 × IT = 330ohm/1kohm × 6mA = 2mA I6 = R5-6-7/R6 × IT = 330ohm/1kohm × 6mA = 2mA I7 = R5-6-7/R7 × IT = 330ohm/1kohm × 6mA = 2mA Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

Branch current in a seriesparallel circuit: Summary Find: I1 = 6mA I2 = 4mA I3 = 2mA I4 = 2mA I5 = 2mA I6 = 2mA I7 = 2mA Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen .

Allen .Power in a series-parallel circuit PT = P1 + P2 + P3 + … Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

Allen . Step 5: Determine the total and individual power dissipated by the circuit. Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Step 4: Determine the value of current through each parallel resistor in every parallel combination.Five-step procedure for seriesparallel circuit analysis Step 1: Determine the total resistance. Step 3: Determine the voltage across each series resistor and each parallel combination of resistors. Step 2: Determine the total current.

The Wheatstone bridge Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen .

Balanced Wheatstone bridge Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen .

Unbalanced Wheatstone bridge When the voltmeter in a bridge circuit does not read zero. Allen . Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. the bridge is unbalanced.

This will balance the bridge and the value of the variable resistor will equal the value of the unknown resistor. Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen .Determining an unknown resistor using a bridge circuit Using a bridge circuit with a variable resistor. force the voltmeter to read zero.

This R-2R circuit is used in digital-to-analog converters. Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen .R-2R ladder circuits R-2R A network or circuit composed of a sequence of L networks connected in tandem.

Simplification of R–2R ladder circuit Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen .

Allen No current flow Current Current Current .Troubleshooting series-parallel circuits An open in a series component An open in a parallel component A short in a series component A short in a parallel component Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

Theorems for DC circuits Superposition Theorem Thevenin’s Theorem Norton’s Theorem Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen .

Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Current Source – The circuit or device that supplies current to a load circuit. Allen .Voltage and current sources Voltage Source – The circuit or device that supplies voltage to a load circuit.

the current at any point is equal to the algebraic sum of the individual source currents produced by each source acting separately.Superposition Theorem In a network or circuit containing two or more voltage sources. Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen .

Allen .Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

Allen .Thevenin’s Theorem Any network of voltage sources and resistors can be replaced by a single equivalent voltage source (VTH) in series with a single equivalent resistance (RTH). Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

Measure the voltage at the output. This is the RTH. Allen .To Thevenize a circuit Identify the circuit to be Thevenized. Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. measure the resistance at the output. Remove the sources and replace them with a short. This is the VTH.

Allen .Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit for: Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

Thevenin equivalent circuit Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. Allen .

Allen .Find VTH. VTH = 1.33V Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

Allen .Find RTH. RTH = 2kohm Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

in parallel with a single equivalent resistance. Allen . RN.Norton’s Theorem Any network of voltage sources and resistors can be replaced by a single equivalent current source. IN. Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

Measure the the short circuit amperes.To find the equivalent Norton circuit Identify the circuit for a Norton equivalent circuit. Replace the sources with shorts and measure the resistance at the output. Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B. This is RN. Allen . This is IN.

Allen .Find the Norton equivalent circuit for: Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

Allen .Norton equivalent circuit Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

Find IN. Allen . IN = -2.333mA Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.

RN = 2. Allen .0kohm Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.Find RN.

Allen .End of Introduction to Series-Parallel DC Circuits Online Resource for ETCH 213 Faculty: B.