nTgZrsruDY 'A,ruar








-,'., /2







America need not fear for the future so long as her young men and women are arrminded. Civil Air Patrol Cadets, and others like them, will assure for this country a place of leadership in aviation. Among you are those who will design, build and lly bigger, faster, and more powedul airylanes than we know now. \ But a man must walk be{ore he can run, and he must work hard and long belore he can fly. Those o{ you who want to become flyeIS must begin now to learn the Iundamentals of youl chosen profession. !i Your CAPC trainine program, for which this manual is a guide and aid, has been careiully planned to give you a solid foundation oI aviation knowledge. This will be of decided advantage in flying training. It is important to your {uture in an aviation-conscious world. \ Flying demands a lot oI you in retum for the thrill and satisfaction it provides. You must study hard, be patient, and be thorough. Be grcedy to leam everything you can about aviation. Your goal is well worth the eflort.


tlt tHts

ta l{uat








2- l
3 -l

to 2-22
to 3-2O



4 -l

lo 4 - 8

5 -l


5- 32 6- 24

6 -l 7 -1


lo 7 -20 lo 8- | 4 lo 9- 24




8 -|


9 -l


H o w r o F | N D yo u R wa y tN T HE sKy

!o - t r o r o -28


In ihis rectlon ol your mdnuol you ond your lriends will trnd rhc onsverr ro mony quostlon! oboui Civil Alr Pdrrol Cdderi. * You wtll le(rf'| how your own pdrti.ulor orgdnlzoiion. wh.t unll of CAPC ls run, ond how it ffrs inro ?he notiotol You will dis.over the lype of In.tru.tori tou ore to hove ond

they will teoch you, You wlll reod wlth pride ol ih€ Civil Air P.trolri i5 being done {or .odets by the €lvll Air Pctrol can redd here how it

record, ond leorn wh.r Le.gue. * lhore

frlend3 of your3 who ore nor yel .odet!

rhey moy quollfy for membership in CAPC dnd ledrn of the odvontoges oFeri.

By lefilng them reod the on3wsr! ro lhelr queriei qbour CAPC you introduce them ro your mcnudl dnd lhe fo!.lncrlng lr .onroln!. srore of

wlllrh6reby ovlatlon fo.ri

i l t t Hr s sEctto f,...

The CAP Cqdof6 ond You
Your Stolur dr o Civil Air Potrol Codet-Uniform ond ln3ignio-Trodition3

CAPC Orgcnlzotlon
How rhe Cod.tr Are Orgdnized cnd ted-The Notionol Conhond-Stote ond LocotUnirt

lhe Clvil Air Potrol
Whe. dnd Why lt Wo3 Orgonired-CAP'S History-lb Relotionship the Army Air torce' to

The Clvll Alr Pohol leogee
How ond Why li Wos Formed-How lr Functionr-lts Notionol Commi*eelv{ehbert


for GAPG

Age, C;rizenrhip, PhFicol ond S.holortic Requiremenh Appliconb-Spo.sorrhip Nece$oryfor Membersof Air Corps Enlbtedieierye Are Elisible

Purpore of ihe Ccdet Progrqm
Cur€nr Aini of CAPC-How the Progrom\vill Hetp You

Yosr InSlrualort
Who They Are*Typicol Bockgroundt-Whot lheir Instruction Meonsio You-lmporronce of Absorbing Fvndomenrols-HowYou Con Help the Initructorond Your'elf

Your Job In CAPC
Whot You Muil Leorn obout CAPC-Why ll PoF to Know ll

lhe Monuol
Why h Wc' Written-By Whom lt Wos Written-ltr Yolre to You


lnd you ...
You ar€ now a junior member of the Civil Air Patfol. That, in turn, is an auxiliary o{ the United States Army Ai Forces.It has been so nahed by the War Departmenl. When you'rc engaged in cadet activities, you wear a regulatioD Anny unilorm with special CAPC insignia. These insignia in€lude shoulder and cap emblems and an oblons pocket patch. The shoulder emblem is the regular red, white, and blue CAP emblem with the word "Cadet" embroidered beneath t}le btue ffeld. If you're in the Ail Corps Enlist€d Reseroe you may wear your silver wings over th€ left breast pocket of your unifor.m. or as a pocket patch. Behind your unifom are soldierly traditions that go back to the beeinning of history- Behind it, in particular, are the traditions of the U. S. A.my, never defeated in a war, and of the AAF, th€ mightiest air force in the world. CAPCOrsonizotion Your CAPC unit will be a squadron, a flight, or a sectioD. Cadetswho show qualities of leadershipwilt command it. The harder you work, the more likely you are to succeedin qualifying lor these r€sponsibilities. Cadet leaders are non-cornmissioned ofrcers in CAPC, and it is their impo{ani iask to make your unit function smoothly. Cadet non-comsare under the direction of CAP ofrcers, who report in turn to hisher CAP units. That sequence called a chain o{ is command.You should learn the CAP chain of com-


mand and the nam€s oI ib omceis up to that oI the comhander of you! state wing. A national comand directs the CAPC and CAp. Its headquartersin New York is staffed by omcers who hold comissions in the AAF. Therc 6 a wDs commnd in each of the 48 statescomposedentirety of civilian volunteers.The wine comander and his stalToI CAP ofrcers direct alt subodinate units in a Units arc usually squadrons,with 60 to 200 members, or flights of 10 to 60 members. The smallest CAP units are called sectionsand serve as palts of largei o4anizations. In heavily poputated states, made up of 3 or more squadronsare eroup commands sometimesorganizedto relieve wing commandersof too much administ€tive work.

own equipment. This assistance was valued so highly that the Civil Air Patrol was made an auxiliary of th€ Army Air rorces in Ap t 1943. The expansion of the AAF has made it no longer necessary for CAP to op€rate the coastat parol, the border patrol, and other services which the corDtry so urgentty needed before ft was tully prepared for war. However, CAP pilots arc still assisting the AAF on such missions as aerial targer rowing and tracking flights to help tmin anti-aircraft guners and searchlight crews. Civil Air Patol units stand ready rhroughout the United States to fly in search of lost Army ptanes and on relief missions in time of flood and disaster. They also help Fovide lorcst fire patrol, fast shipment of blood plasma, and many other imporant flying With this flying backg$und, CA? is a logical organization to conduct the preflight traiDing pmgram tor young Ame cans of your age. the Civil Air pdrot Loogue Groups of leading citizens rh.oushout the couniry have organized the Civil Air parol League. Its members have in enthusjasm lor avrauon, ereat hopes for its future, and, in particular, a belief in the value of early aviation iraining. Many of them have volunteered to devote time and effor b making the CAP cadei iraiDing program an outsranding At the head of the League are 2 committees. One decides what the organization's national policies witl be. The ot}Ier, an executive comDittee, guides and assists cadet training activities of Civil Air patrol. and administers fuDds provided for rhat purpose. In addiiion, it is expected that there will be an executive committee in each srare. Iis,purpose will be to work with both the state's CAP organization and the national body in carryiDg outapploved policies. Influential, air-minded citizens o{ ciries, towns, and communities may form local comittees to devetop and euide CAPC fiights and squadrons. These commitiees willbe responsible {or raising a.d using funds for this puryose in their commun ies, accordine to approved state and national policies. Men and women who have volunteered for rhese commtttee posts were not chosen simply because ihey are members of CAP. Their wo!-k cannorbe measured alone by their contribution to warlime flying. They work, too, for better civilian and commerciat aviation with the coming of peace.

The Civil Air Potrol The Civit Air Patrol, your unit's parent organization, has a sho{ but proud and colortul historv. Oreanized a veek before Pearl Harbor, CAP was set up to mobilize civilian airmen and planes {or volunteer wartime duties. War came so swiJtly that CAp Fomptly had a big job on its hands. Civilian pilots went to work immediarety flying rescue, search, antisubmarine, coqrier and manv other rypesof missions r"lieve pr.s"ure on rhe to AAF. This was done on iheir own iime and in their


F0R 0uALlFrcATt0r{s CAtlETS CAP
.i .. i . . qrrl lvho is 15 to 18 years old may apply : ::.":::r! a s a C i \i l Ai r Pa tro l C a d c i . Cadets musr . . - : : . - r : : . ,f rh e U n i te d Sta tc s .n a ti v e b o rD or natur . : - : : : ea s t l 0 l c a .s . H o $ e v e r, w a i l e rs may be :.::.: : : a p p l j c a n ts fro h a l l j c d n a ti o ns s' ho ha!e :: 'i S cj|zens less than 10 vears.

Cadcts must meet physical standards similar t. those rcquired by the Aimy {or flying. I{ you are untaniliar with the lat1er, tum to thc section ca1led Your Body in Flisht. Thcy are descdbed in considoable detail there. Cadets must also mcct thc fouoNing heisht and !'eight reqLliremeDts:

l5 l0 11

l|T l|TIO



57 58 17


15 l8 to
l: :i:-:. rs a rLnit of the High School Viclory Corps ::. .r_!. ichool ilhich a candidate {or CAPC . .:r: ::i rLrsl b. a meDrber ol its Air SeNice Divil . rr o F ,o ,,, a ,F d p r. It l .rL i no ' " : ' : Ci: ps m h i s h i s h s c h o o l . h e h u st sho$ evr ... : : : r c g ra .i e si n l i s s i u d i e s ,i n c l u d i ng physi cs, : : _: : . . r : : i e --o n e l ft. i n o rd e r to a p p l ] for C A P C . l: : . : i r : t ta k .D th e s e s u b j c c ts a l re a dy. hc must : :. i i,,r,-::.a.: hust b. sponsored by a CAP senior fl:,,r tenilles rliat he is of good chamctcr and -i:


qualilied lor mcmbership. The applicani must also subi ni t hi s parents' consent vi th an opt ion as t o whether ornothe \iiU bc permitted to fl] as a passenger.ltrhile passport photos arc requifed {of idcniifica, tioh, thc applicant does noi havc to fumish fingerprints or a birth ceriificate. All mehbers of the Air Corps Enlisted Reserve arc eligible {or CAPC membership and lfajDing \rhilc rh.) aqar ther_ ca l . t" .' cri \. d-r). Ho \ , \ F . p: rrust submit parenis' consent and lasspoft as nr lhc cascs of other applicanis pholnr

Purpo5e of the Coder progron The present purpose of the CAPC program is to extend pre-aviation training to young men and woren o l h i e h s . hooLage w h o a re p l a n n i n g o n p u rsuing aviation caieels o{ one kind or another. In carrying oui ihis pur?ose, CAPC aims to give you rock-bottom knowledge upon which you may buitd more specialized learning. Naturally, your courses in CAPC will be invaluable should it be necessary, or should you decide, to €nter military aviation training- If thai rs ure case, CAPC will have supplied you alrcady wilh a comFehensive eroundwork of air knowtedge which will always be useful. However, in joiDing CAPC therc is no piedge of military service. You may resign at Yosr In.rru.rois Local people will teach you. Most of then are members oI CAP, well qualified to Cive instruction in rhe various phases o{ the coure. Remember mese men and women are donating their time and serying at thet own expense to give you this hetp for your Your drillmaster may be a veteran of rhe last war, too old for service now but eager to pass on hrs knowledge to those who may have ro go. l|our instructors in flying subjects will be skiiled civitian pilots or perhaps former military pilots with plenty o{ flying houls behind them. You Nill leam Morse code from a local radio expert, ffrsi aid fron a competcnt medical or Red Cross instruclor. As long as you plan a car€er in aviation you witl have to know many fundamental facts abour fljsht_ H orv mu ch you lear n wr ll be e n r' re t5 .y o u r re :p o n s i -

bility. Instructors selected Ior you ae eamest in their desirc to give you a good start on your road to success in aviation. But they camot do rhe whote job. They \ritl need your hetp. CAPC does not intend to reach you ali here is to know about subiects covered in this rmnuat. It attempts only to give you basic knowledge required to make you receptive to hieher aviation education. If CAPC does this, then it has lulfilted its .!ssro!. Your Job in CAPC Your membe$hip in CAPC wilt be very much like membership in a military outfit. For rnar reason, learn as much about your organization as you possibly can. It will be useful if you become a member oI the armed forces. Learn your own job 6rst, rhen learn the jobs of other cadets in your outfit. The more you knorv about the othe! fellow's iob, tle easier it is ro cooperate. In eirher military or civitian life, teamlvork rs always necessary for the smooth functioning oI any The Monuol This manual has b€en prepar€d for you as an aid in fitting you for a place in aviation. It is designed to present material in a simple and €asilt. understand_ able manner. trach secrion was $ritten by an experr in his field after collaboration Nith many othe. experts on the same subjecr. If it does not seem ro go far enough, rcmember i1s purpose. That purpos€ is to sive you a {oundation for more advanced knoNledge and a clear picture of aeronautical fundamentals. CAPC will be the coach but you must carry the ball. Don't drop it!


I * -a-

A s o l d l e r' i l l te l i n o t m c rk e dl y dl fi erenr trom your5. B ut.erroi n thi ngs ore demonded or expeded mllltdry iervl.e ol him which dre forelgn ro clylllon woyi, ll you enler

h will be of concideroble odvontoge

ro you fo be fomilior wirh

those thlngi from the srorr. * The idlure. tor Instonce. How do you do it properly? dttenllon? o ticld,lurn When do you sdlure" dnd whon? Whdt i3 the rlght woy lo stond ot Whotr3 on Arri.le ot Wsr? How do you morch o squod of men o.ro5i ir oround, ond mor.h ir bd.k ogoin? Whot dre you supposed ro do enlers d room where you sre worklng? * You hqve ro leorn

when on olfi.er

the olphobet be{ore you .dn spell, dnd know how ro ipell before you .an recd. You musr be fomili.r wirh simple orithmeti. in ord€r to noke chlngc. Ahd d

.l v l l i d n mu s r l e o rn .e rto l n c o n b e c o me a .o p o b l e

e l emenl ol rul es dnd.ui tom.

of l he A rmy before he

n e mber of i t. *

In thi s re.ri on you w l l l fi nd ol mosr every ond Intelllg€nrly Inro lhe Army or

fa.r you need lo know In order ro tlt qul.kly Air For.es. Leqh

them, dnd you'll have a heod rtort on the boy. who weren't

lu.ky enough ro be glven thli opporrunlry.


llr T H r S S E C ttOl t. . .
How the Army lr Put Togeth€r
Ground Forcer,Air Fo.c.s, ServiceForc8-Misii@i of vorjous cround cnd Service Forces_MLsion OFicer3 ond commi33ioned of Air For.er-Buildins froh o Squod ro on Ahy-Non-comhiis;oned Ofricer.-How o ComponyFunctioN-Chief Sedionsof cenerotsrqF

Teomwork In the Toughest Gome of All
lhporto.ce of Teomwort-How ro Sqture-Whom ro Soture-When ro Soture_When Nor ro sotute_ Reportinsio Your Cohmondi.g Ofiicer-Your A irude Towords your Unifoh


How lhe AAF 15Bullt
Orgoniuotion of o Squodron,ihe Bdsi. Unir-Voriou Kinds of SquodroB_Buitdinq froh o Sq,rodrd ro dn Air Forcc-U.S. Air For.$-6 AAf Commdndr-Divbion, of H.odquo.t.B

Keep iluln, Chuml
The Morher Who Tolked Too A{rich-Four Woy3 oI Ctostifying t{itirory Dduncnt3

The Army's Lqw
How Army Expecir You to Behove_Three Typer of Courr-t{drriot_The Arricte, of Wor

Pqper Work
Sfote Your Subied-Morsins-"Subiar" ond .'To" Lines_Numberinsond Indenrinsporoqroph,_ Signoture-How to Fold Letter-Deroils of on Indorsemenr

Chief Arri5tont3 to the CO
lhe G-Srofi, A-Srqfi, ond S-Stofi-The Comhondins Ofiicer-Duries of S-1, S_2,S,3, S_4

How to Influeh.e Soldierr
Nopoleon's8oo3t-l.eodert Leoh by Erperience-Hetpfut Rutes Fo ow in LeqdingAny c.oup of A en ro


to lDl
Re+ -'.Fo Out'-.,Fo

"Att€ntioh"-"At Eo3e"-"Reif"-"porode

In"-How ro Drers o tine_Two Portsof Morr Militory Conmo.ds-How ro cive o Commqnd_.'RighiFo.e"_ left Fo.e"_..Abour toc6"-Proper Woy ro Morch-,'Hotr,'-Den;ifions of Arinement, Cotumn, Fite.Ronk,Iniervo,,

Dlitonce,Poce,Piece,Guid.-"Cotumn Righr"-,,CotumnLeft"-Morchhs by the Rishrond Lefl Flonk-|{orching ro the Reor

On Guord
Purpo3e ond Moke-up oI on Interior cuord-Speciot ond ceneror Orders_The I I G.enerot Order,_ How to Slnmon Help. Sound Alorms-Proper Woy ro Cho enge_Ofiicer of rhe Doy_Sergeo.r or the Guord-Corpordl of the Guord-cuord lviounr

On Dlrploy
Conpony or Squodron lNpedion-Four porrr of o Review_Rerrear porode






Think of the Arny of the Uniled Staies, prima.ily, as havihg three knrds of soldiers: those who fight on the sround, those ivho fisht in the air. and those whose job ii. is to supply thc othcrs with everylhing thet need to ffght.

The Army S€rvice Forces includ. such typical units as the Corps of Engineers, Signal Corps, Chemical War{are Service, Quartermaste. Corps, Transportation Corps, Mcdical Corps, ahd Ordnance.

attak i s 1< lcumF ro gnps wi, h r he € \ enemy and capture or destroy him; in defense, to hold its position and hurl back attacks.


mLs,on in Th" Infantry'sprincipai

ffi p<
The Arny Ground Forces, as they are called officially. include as basic alms the Infantry, Calalry, Field Aftillery and Coast Artillery. The Army Air l'orc€s have as thcir combai arm. the Air Corps. It is the mission oI the Air Corps i.o strike at the eneml in the skies and from the skies. To accc,mplish this mission, the Air Corps depends not only on those who fly but also on thosc many more $ho kccp the planes in shape to fly.

Cavalry conducts reconnaissance, requiring great mobility. Once horse now almost all mechanized.

Fi€ld Artillery suppolts other ground units, either in atlack or defense, by pouring heavy shell fire upon enehy troops, guns, , anr! corrmunication facilities.

Coast Artillery provides huge lirepower which can be directed at surIt uses both fixed and mobile guns.

The Corps of Ensineers buildsstructures to assist olhe. arms'and des insiallations ot use to the enehy. Thc Signal Corps provides communications by messehaer, wire, radio, cari reruprgeon, and ol her neans.


The Chenical Warfare S€rvic€ supplies and uses gas, smoke and infurnishes defenseasainst their use.


a n d _ h o u s e s th e Arre n c a n ,,.@. \ oo rp r Jn y s ner e r n t he s u .td .


corps reeds, euarr€rmast€r ,rt hes, c t or

V rrdi ri i g

rhe Medicar corpsrooks arterthe
heal th of troops w hi l e they,re in and w heh l bpy go i nto .ombar.

The Transportation Corps moves supplies and troops by boat or rail.
Its problems are hard and numerous

The mission of the Air Forcea is three-told: to drive ofi enemy oircrdfr, to support otf('cks by our gwn ground ond novol forces, ond lo corry ou, independent ottocks on the enemy,s militory ond <ivil estoblishmenrs.
Our Army wouldn't be worth much if it simply contained 7,000,000 more individuals. They have to b€ or grouped into teams to be efiective. There are teams of many sizes.The smaltesris a squad. There arc usually 8 to 12 men in it, though there can be as many as 16. Most soldiers learn the facts of Army life in a squad, ddtting under a corBut General George C. Marshall, our Chief of
into platoons, commeded by second lieurenanm. ,\ second lieutenant is rhe towest ranking commrs_ sioned offic€r. Thrce or more plaroons are joined to form a company, usuatly headed by a captain. Four coDpanies, as a rule, are combined to crea.e a Dar_ tarion. A battalion leader normally has the rank of major. Two or more battalions are ieamed together to form a regiment, under the comnand of a cotonel. Resiments, in tum, are buiit inro divisions, divisions into corps, and both corps and divisions are tinked to make armies, Sometimes. a super-team made up of a group of armies is formed under one commander. These laiger component parts of amries are ted by geneml officers, r:ugine tuom b gadier-generals to lieuteDant-genelals. As small militaiy units are merged in bisser ones, a chain of command is formed. This insures that every leader from squad sergeant to Chief of Stafi is under the direct orders of the next hisher coni_ mandel Even the Chief of Stafi is responsible to the Secretary of War and the Prcsident. For some time non-commission€d omcers \{,ill pro_ vide your most dircct contact with higher aurnorrry. They include corporals, sergeants, stalI sergeants, technical sergeants, ffrsr seqeants and masrcr serCeants. You will be able to telt them apart by the chevron" on the:r sl eevFs. Omcers w ear rhei r i nsj sn , a of rank on their shoulders. You'Il find that what ihe Infantry cat)s a company is known as a flight in the Air Forces. In the Artiltery, it becomes a battery; in the Cavalry, a troop_ Atso, in both the Air Forces and Cavahy, a squadron is the equivalent of the Infantry's battalion. However. despite the differences in names, the relative sizes o{ these units remain roughly the same.

Staff, can't plan victorious campaigns in tenns of squads.He and his principal associates work out the movementsof whole armies and ai! forces,and leave to subordinat€omcerc,all the way do\rn the line, the way in which the smaller teams shall be handted. These lesser units, however, hust be larger than squsds.Tter€ has to be teamwork on a huse scate. So. in the lnfantry.2 to 4.quads at a trmeare burlr




t r \t tt I



ff ft .

f fft

f fff

2-4 The commandei of a company is responsiblefor everything ii doesor {ails to do. He must seethatyou and every other soldier in it arc properly trained, and at the sametime fed, clothed,and shelteied.He must Cuard your health and, for morale's sake, must see that you are well ente ained. Natumlly, he can't handte all these mattels alone. Accordinely, he asks the rcgimental commander to appoint non-commissioned officeN to assist him. In a eompanyheadqua$erstheprincipal non-coms, as they arc called, are the first sergeant, the mess seqeant, and the supply serseant. The first sergeant has a job very nuch like that oI a chief clerk in a civilian ofrce. He takes car€ of all the administrative details of the company and publishes the company comnander's ord€rs. The mess sergeant with his cooks obtains and prepares the Iood you eai. The supply sergeant issues clothing and equipment to you and exchanges when it's woln out or damaged. it Other non'comssupenise d ll and work detaits.The companyis carefully o.ganizedto leave as n,any Den as possiblefree for the primary job of 6ghtine. The men who make the principal decisionsabout how our highty military {orces are going to be used to win the war fo1n a c€nelal Staff. They work unde! the direction of ceneral Marshatl and his Deputy ChieL They are in charseof Opedtions Division, which plans how the war is to be fought; Personnel Division (c-l), which provides all the men necessaryto fiIl the €nks of the Army; Military tntelligence Division (c-2); Organizaiion and Trainins Division (G-3), which gets the soldiersready to fight; and Supply Division (c-4), which gives them everything to fight with.

There'sonly one right wdy ro repor ro your .omtr|ondingofficor.

Reipocrronl. Don'r be overowed by ir.

Ihe messsorgesnt derermines

The supply sorgeontissuosyour .lorhins dnd equipmenr-frequenrly,oll ot once.


I{ you've ever been on an athletic team, you know this: when you're trying to win a game you use the plays carefully worked out in practice. And you do your part as well and as earnestly as possible. Suppose a football eame.Wlen the quarterback it's ca s signals, you don't suddenly decide to try out an idea of your own. Swiftly, vith scarely a thought {or the w€1I-ddlled details, you cany out the orde$ his signals represent. Perhaps they mean you've got to batter your bones against a bruiser on the other team while Johmy Jones makes an end run aDd sets all the dlory. \tre[, you take it {or gnnted that what matteN is the team, not you or Johmy. Perhaps you thhk the qua$erback is wrong to try that padicular play. But you don't stand up and start arguing with him about it. You r€ly on his judcment md cheerfully obey his signals. It's the same way in the Army, except that every contest is {or k€€ps. If, in battle, you fail to carry o'.rt a play which your team has practiced, not only may the game be lost, but your li{e with it and t}e lives of the other boys in you! outfit. That is why discipline is so important to the Amy. It's not a system o{ punishments and penalties and annoying restrictions. 11 is teamwork at its best. It has been proved over and over again in war{are that without discipline no body o{ tmops in the world can hold its own asainst a well-directed, well-disciplined enemy. That is one reason the AlJny places so nuch emphasis on drill. On the drill ffeld, a soldier learns to obey orde$ instinctively. On the battlefield, even at the most cdtical moment, t}Iat training will Dot lail him. Coutesy is a vital p;t of military disciptine. I/s a sign that you are alelt, obeying the rul€s, aware of your obligations, prcud of your unifom, Foud of the job you're doine as a sot&er, conscious the fact that of you'rc a very necessary player on the Army team no matter what you gEde, and that you respect your Wlen you salute an officer correctly and snappily, looking him staight in the eye as you do so, it's as if you were saying,"How do you do, SiI? You're looking at a first-rate soldierl" And you may be certain

You lnurl know nol only how lo solule, but whom ond when.

that is exactly t}le impressionhe gets. Salute by raising your right hand smaltly uniil the tip oI the {oreffng€I touches the lower part oI your cap or a spot just above your dght eye. Hold your fingersand thumb tiehtly toeether,keepingthe palm of the hand flat. Your upper arm will be parallel to the ground, yoru lower ann inclined at 45 degrees. Turn your head and eyes to face the person you'rc saluting. So long as you remain a private or a noncommissioned officer,you ivill salute omcerstust and your salute uniil they have returned it. hold Salute all officers,wonen as well as men. Pay the same respect to soldiers you recogDize as beine officersof the armies of our AlliesSalute, at a halt or a walk, when you are near enoueh {or an officer to see you, yet not so close to him that he won't have time to retum your salute be{ore you've passed each other. Never salute on the run. If you are part of a group outdoors which is not in a military formation, all of you will come to attention at th€ command oi the soldier who first seesan officer approaching. Each one of you will then salut€. If you are noi iD formation, saluie when the flag passes is being passedby you. Face the music and or salute when you hear "The Star Spangled Banner" or one of these bugle catls: "To the Colo$," "Escort of the Colors," or "Retreat." Sometim€s,instead of saluting, it is proper simply to srandal attenliorl. You do lhis when yoJ are indoors and an omcer enters the room. The ffrst man to see him wiU shout "Attention." The rcst of you will spring to your feet and take o1i your hats or caps,if you have them on. You will also stand at attention without saluting when you meet an officer on a staircase!or if he stops to speak to you while

At other times you neither salute nor stand at aitention when an ofrcer approaches. Thai is when you're taking part in an athletic game, when you are part oI a work detail, when you arc eatine a meal, or if you happen to be canying bundles in both hands. Never salute indoors, except when reportins io an omcer. If he is in an ofrce, knock before entedng and remove your hat. w}|en told to enter, march briskly to a spot about 2 paces from his desk, salute smartly, and announce yourself. The way to do this depeDds on why you're there. If he sent for you, the proper declaiation is, "Sir, Private So-and-so rcports as ordered." If he is your commanding omcer and you have properly sought permission to see him by ffrst obtaining the First SergeaDt's apprcval, you will say, "Sir, Private So-

and-so has ihe First Sergeant'spermission to speak to the Company Commander." He rvill immediately put you at easeand the rest of the conveBation will be caried on just like any oth€r. However, when you leavejcome to attention again, face about, and march out of the omce iD a soldierly Rememberthat your saluie is the key to your charAn American coionelwho rose{ron the ranks once said that the day he became a member of the United States Army he vas so proud that he wore his private's unlfoh as i{ it had a general's siars on the shoulders.That is the kind of spi t every soldier should have. Civil Air Patrol Cadets,however, nust curb their impatience for that day to come. Don'1 try 10 pass youGelf of as a regular Army rnan.



To build :n air force, you start q'ith a planc and a combat crcw. In battle plans, ho$eve!, the smallest unit considered is a flight, lhich usually contains 3 planes. Two or mole flights make up a squadron. Just as the company is the smallest part of the Army Cround Forces able to function by itself, regulating the duties of its members,feeding lhem, issuingthem clothing and equipment,and taking care of their health, so the squadron is the basic unit of the Army Air Forces. If you become a member of the AAI, you will undoubledly work and live with a squad.on. The squadron contains soldiers wiri mary diflerent dunes. Th$e is an administrative s€ction, & tech. nical Bection,and a light section. iD the first ar€ the men who do the pap€r work, keep records, handle correspondence, and those who prcvide food and transpotation. Engin€ering,supply, communication, photography, and rcpairs are provided by the techDical section of the squadron. The flight section, as you would €xpect, flies and maintains the squadron's planes. Therc are additional soldieis assigned or bained by other ams and services. lhey handle such typical duties as maintaining the squadrm's weapons and pmwiding chemical wa.fare equipment. There are all kinds of squadrons: frghter; lisht, medium,and heavy bombardm€ntiobscrvation;communicatioDj weather; photographicmappingi photographic reconnaissance;depot repat and supply; troop carrier; transport, and so fo{h.

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lmpoitqnt os lhey ore, squqdrons olone ore not big or gtnong enough to hqve nore thon o lemporory efiect upon the enemy. lhere must be inuch bigger qeriol teqms. Accordingl, 2 or more rquqdron3 ore combined to lonn groups. pdirs of group3 moke up wings. Wing3,in lurn, {o}rn.ohrhondr, ond cornmqndsore linked to build on oi. force.

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I'he United States has many air forces, at horne and ahoad. Only the first 4 arc in the 48 states. Among those operating outside of this couhtry, the sth, ?th, 10th, 11th, 13th, 14th, and 20th air forces have distinsuished themselvesin Pacfic areas or in Asia. The 8th, gth, 12th, and lsth have loushr for us in the skies over Europe. Ihe 6th has delended the Panama Canal and its approaches. there are also 6 cornmands in the Armv Air Forces: AAF Personnel Diskibutjon. ffui"i"g, Troop Carrier, AiI Transpor, Air Technical SeNice. and_Ploving Cround. Their names are lareety setfexptanatory. In addition, ther€ is an AAF Tactical Center at Orlando. Ftorida. The Tactical Center provides the tast dress re_ heaNal for air war. It is one of the most important fa"rors in Lhe 6nat rrainins .t ou, ui. !ro,^a ".a crews ed the testing of equipment which will be used oversetr. The men live, work, and ffeht as they will abroad. Fiehrer, bomber. andparrotmr.sron. ar" carried out from a dozen airdromes in aD actual theater oI operations about as large as Sicity. In_ structoN and advise$ are experienced officers: manv of them have returned rhere from combar.Thc Tac'tical Center not only tmins men in tactics devised in theatels of war{are but devetops other banle tech_ niques and procedures. The AAF Personnel Dist bution Cobmand ar_ ranges new assignments and sometim€s additional training of a difierent type fo! Air Forces peEonnel Ietulning ftom the ]var fronts. In th€ oryanization o{ the AAF, these air forces, cornmands, and cente$ are on the same levet of authority. Above them all is the Commanding ceneral, I{enry H. ("Hap,,) Arnold, and the nembers oI the Air Stafi. I'here is a Chief of t,he Air Stafi, 4 Deputy Chiefs, and 6 Assistut Chiefs. The latter head the 6 principal divisions of AAF Headquarren in Washington: Personnel; Intelligenee; Tmining; Materiel and Service; Plans; and Operations, Crmmitments, and Requir€ments. Other offices of Headquaners iDctude those of the Air Inspector, Air Surgeon, Air Judge Advocate, and the Ofrce of Flying Saf€ty. The mission of the latter is to increase the combat srrenglh of the Aimy Air Forces by reducing losses of men and airciaft in accidents. Plans, policies, and Fograms lor the air {orces and commandsare made at Headquarers. It is the nissiqn of those units to put rhe plans inro efiect, with the advice of Headquaters offices. Mission is a military word which means th€ iob lhal has to be done.Wh"""r"t yo, *t'.' y", fin """ our vast ahed forces,resolve to put your heart aDd soul into accomplishingevery mission givea you.




-..1 +++++++*


They iell the stoly of a soldie. who died because he wrote too much in a letter home, and because his mother talked about it in the villaee srocery. The boy had proudly confided that he was one of a small sroup chosen to Cuard some secret war mate als on theft way to SaD Francisco. He even told his mother what tihe the train was to leave. She excitedly boasted about it to the family grocer. and was overheard by an agent o{ the enemy. He swiftly aranged with othei saboteurs to wreck the train) and in the ibte accident which followed, her son was killed. Too often, the tlaeic rcsults of such thoughtlessness arcn't felt by the peNons who ar€ to blame. Usually, it is somebody eise's son who is blown up or shot or dro$'ned because o{ careless talk. If you enter the Army you'll want io tell your family and friends all about the things you see and hear and do, and they'll be eager to listen. They may not understand why you jusi can't tell them. Because they are honest and patriotic they tlink your informaiion is safe with them. The sad tluth is that it isn't. Sooner or later, even the best intentions won't Fevent a thoughtless remark or the exchanee oI a few conffdences which don't seem impoltant to people who are not in miliiary seNice. They'd be shocked if they knew how important seemingly commonplace matters may be to the Japs and Germans. Just because a gun or a plane seems ordinary to youj you may think everybody knows about it. Usually they don't, for very Sodd ieasons. S o r.mernber: don\ tal k about mi hra r y equipment, tiansfers of troops, airylane accidents, where you imagine you're going to be sent, or any other details of your life as a soldier which can Fossibly be of value to our enemies. te

Srre probobfy nevet rcalized fiow it ,roppered.


g), wilfuny disobeying a supelior officer (Article 64), stdking or otherwis€ acting in an i$ubordinat€ manner towards a non-commissioned oflicer (Article 65), beins absentwithout leave (Article 61), deserh ing (Article 58), and, most serious o{ all, aiding the enemy (Articte 81), There arc othels, but these are the p ncipal on€s. For minor acts ot disobedience, there is one Aiicle of \ryar, the 104th, which gives you commanding omcer the dght to innict upon you whar is caled company punishment, Ether than resorting to trial by corEt-martial. the penslty may simply b€ a rcprimand, but it can include t€mporary loss of plivileges, extla fatigue duty, or even had labor for as much as a week. The ffist known Articles of War wer€ written while Oliver Cromwell was ruling Ensland. They were caued "Laws and Ordinances of Warre," and were published in 1642.Late!, some of them were included in the English Mutiny Acts and Articles of War establishedby th€ King. On July 30, 1775, when an Ameican Congess drcw up a code of behavior for the tust national army, it copied lib€Ially from those sources. The next year, it enlarged upon thmOur present Articles oI War date largely from 1806. Revisions in 1916, 1920, snd 192? mostly aftected court-inartial Dmcedures.

When a person eat€rs the Ahy, his conduct is naturally checkedon morc closely than it is in civilian life. As a membe! of a potential ffghting team, certain aliscipline has to be demanded oI him to which he is not now accustomed. Hovrever, in lhe main, the Army asks only that you b€have youNelf according to tlle rules oI the society in which you Just as you llow can expect to be punished by the law if you steal, smash public property, have a fight in the street, or kiU someone, so can you expect punishment if you do any of these things in the Army. In civilian life, such an act would lead to your arlest by a policeman and trial before a judse or jurv. In the Army, th€ lesuli would be v€ry huch the same, except thst the cop would be in klaki and eventually you would be tded by a militaiy court. Courtsmartial, tley are called, and there are 3 kinds: summary, sDecisl, and general, depending on the seriousness of lhe oFeise. A general court-matial is rhe highest of the thlee. You arc already lamiliar with 2 kiDds oI laws: civil and crimiDal.lhe Army has a third set: the Arlicles of War, There sre 121 of th€m and they govem the life of every soldier from private to general. They state some of his rights as well as all the things he must not do. You can read them in th€ "Manual for Couits-Martial, U. S, Army," but most oI them you don't need to know, Simply behave yoursell as you nomally do and you needn't give a thought to the Articles o{ lltar. However, there is a code of militaiy coDduct {'hich must be obeyed as well as tlrc more familiar rules of behavior. Accordingly, there are Articles of V/ar which provide punishment for such misdeeds as giving a false age or false name when enlisting (Article

hand malgin. Immediately below it, type your grade and branch o{ the seivice. but not in capitals. wrii.e your name in ink over the typed signatur€. Number your paees, whenever there are more than one, a hau-inch from the bottom of each. You will then fold your letler in 3 equal parts, in such a mmer that the top third is open to vie$' and the bottom third is iight beneath it, Iace up. YouI commandine oflicei will udoubtedly leply by indorsement. This is a way of answedng letters which is peculia! to the Arhy. It there is room lcft on the page on which you have w tten your request, hc will besin the indorsement rieht there, one-half inch below the last typcwritten line of ihe basic letler. In the center of the page he will type "1st Ind." Then, over at the l€ft hand marsin, \rhich remains 1ya inches. he will typc his addrcss and thc date. They will be abbreviated as much as possible and will be printed 1 line below the wods "lst Ind." Two lines below he will type 'Tor." This time it will noi be capitalizcd. Your name and address will follow the $'ord "To." The body of ihe indorsement will be written in the sahe fortu as i.he leiter to which il repljes. There can be any numbcr of indorscmcnts to a basic letier, provided they all are on the samc subject. The) will be typed on successive pages and attached to the odeinal communication. Remember this: Don't $rite unnecessarr- lettcrs. Transact your military busincss in person or by loca1 telcphone call whenever possible.

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Military leitets aren't like any you ever vrote. They 'never start with "Dear So-and-so" or end with "Sincerely youN." Likc any business lctter, they should be typed. Unlike business letters, thcy first state what they'rc all aboutSupposing, a{ter you have been in the Army awhile, ii seenE necessary {or you to leave 'your post for a {ew days to take care ol urgent family or business matters. You are told to stat€ your request in Nriting to your com1nanding officer. After typing your address and the date at the upper risht ot the page, I lincs belo$ the lelterhead and thrcc-quarters of an inch from rhe cdge oI the paper, lou will drop dorvn 4 rnore hres and typc: "SUBJECT: Requesi for Emergency Furlough." Ihe word 'Subject must bc capiialized and beein 111 inches frorn ihe Ieft edee of thc shcct. The subjcct should ale'ays be slated in 10 sords or less. (Never try to talk about trvo subjects in one military letter. Writc a second letter on the other maiNor', drop down 2 more lines and type: "TO: Commandine Officer. Blank Company, Blank Battalion. Fort Blank, Blank Stale." Note that no Nord is abbreviated. Ii you knoN your commandmg oftic-"r's Danle, use it in lull with his proper rank. The $'ord "TO" musi be capitalized and pui right under "Subject." Next, drop doivn 3 morc lines and start thc body If rou \\rite more ihan one paragraph. every one musi. be numbered. Ii must also be ibdenied so that its fr$t lcttcr rvill be directly under thc il6t leticr ot your "subject" and "to'lincs. Thc paragraphs will be single-spacecl rvitli double spaces between them. Each is to express a single ihought onlt'. At thc conclusion of the lciter, drop dolvn 5 lines and iypc your full name in caps, ovei by the eht-



AsstsTAl{Ts CO T(lTHE cHttF

You are already Iamiliar with the odd symbols s'hi.h indicate the 4 plincipal parts of the U. S. Army's GeDeral Siafi, c-1, c-2, c-3, and G 4. You learned in ihe pages describins Army organization that, simply staied, ihey stand for: Personnel, Intelligence, OperatioDs ed Training, and Supplyln ihe Army Air Forces, the Commanding cenerai's s1aff has similar sections but they ale labeled; A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4. In the units belos. air lorces and commands (lower echelons, they are usually called) these sahe stafi {unctions undergo another change oI 1itle. In Lings, groups, and squadrons they are ca lled: S - 1, S - 2 , S -3 , S " 1 . If you become a member of the Army Aft Foices, you probably will leam how a siafi operates by \latching it work in a squadron. In the fi$t p1ace,you know t]lat the Comhanding Omcer of any unit is held solely responsible for everything $'hich takes place within it and what it does in baitle. You also know that he can't possibly direct and supervise all these activities himself. Thcrefore, he has to have a stafi of skilled advisers. Thetu job is to relieve him Df detail work. provide him with all necessary information upon which to base his decisions, and then see that his decisions and orders are properly carded out. The Executive Omcer of the squadron is its second jn connand, but it is the adjutant rvho represents S-1. He's the officc manager, so to speak. He handles all corrcspondence except that $'hich pertalns to operation missions. He kecps up and has charge of the records of all pcrsonnel and prepares rcports on strength, casualties, and other such returns. The Intellig€nce Offcer (S'2) must work closely s'ith the Operations Officer (S-3) . He satheis aI1 the information, conffdential and otherwise, necessary to cany out operation and training missions. He super\'$es the preparation and use o{ codcs {or safeauarding inrportani messaees, and is responsibte lor the protection of classifled inforhation. When a mis, sion is completed, he questions all oe\\, menDers about whai they saw and posts his findings on \'hai is called a situation map. He is responsible tor finding and setting rid o{ any members of the squadron who are disloyal. Th€ Operations Ofiic€r (S-3) is the Commandins Officei's assistant in charee of training the squadrcn and dirccting its gights. He assigns the missions and sives inslruciions on how to fulfill thcm. He keeps a file of all official instructions on opcrating abd flying airciaft. He checks and sisns the bo.ks in rvhich pilots keep accounts of their flights, ntaintains records of his uhit's flying i.ime, and dererrnines iveather con ditjons in areas where his mcn are operattue. He also keeps records of forced landinss and crashcs. and makes sunmaries {roh time to tiine ot the total hours flown by his unii.on various typcs of hissiohs. In CAP i.ralning squadrcns without active mNsrons, rhF S -3 i Incrj nn i , p, -formrd b) rha,tri rhi n - O t i. er The Supply Officer (S-4) is rcsponsible lor obrain ing. sto ng and djstributing suppties. incluctine aircraft. He also is required io supcrvise the haintenance of equipmert and salvage operations. He has charee of the squadron's funds. acquires whaiever real estate and facilities are needed. and procurcs and improvcs airplane bases. These are the principal staff oflicers of a squadron. In addition, there afe usually a Communications O{f.er and a M, di , al OFi ..er.U ndpr.nl bi ' cor dr r : uns. there mieht very well be an Armament Omcer, a Phoioefaphic .Offlccr, a Mcss Omcer, and so {r,rlh.

2-14 factory situations with good grace. Don't crab. Be ..ourrteous. Your men will follow your example, and admi.e you for it. Be decent, You've got to prove you are morally fitted to lead. If you &ink too rnuch, live loosely, gamble ext€nsively, iun up debts, you'[ lose the Esp€ct of those under your command as well as B€ careful of your sp€ech. A good cuss word now and then to eliewe your feelings in a teDs€ situation wi]l b€ understood and actepted as nstural by you men. Never swear at them, however. It is particularly humiliating becau* they cannot retaliak. B€ calm and seu.controlled, €specially when tbings go wrong. If your men see that you neither look no! act worried, even when you have Cood rcason to, they will gain courageand energy. B€ far-sight€d. Anticipate diJffculties and plan in advance how you will act, what decisions you vrill make wh€n they aise. Be sludious. Never lose a chance to leam em+ thing more about your job. Don't try to blu-fi. Your men will find you out quickly. They don't €xp€ct you to know ever'.thing but they righttully exp€ct you to be honest with them. Be generous with praise when it is deseNed. A good officer will be strict but just. If a soldier desewes punishmeDt,give it to him, but rnake sure it is not petty or too severc. Be comiderate. Find out everything you can about your men-thei names, expeiience, backerounds. They'lI be grateful lor your personal interest and lespond to it by becoming more zealous. Just be carcful that this sympathetic interest do€sn't become undue familiarity, which would breed lax discipline. Tell your nen as much as possible about military jobs the out6t has to do and, in general, how you expect them to be doDe. American soldieN resent being kept in the dark about matt€rs which rightIully concern them. A capableofficer will not lean on his non-comsin making d€cisions but, iI he is wise, he will conJer frcqu€ntly with them. He will listen to their sugg€stions and use them iI they are good. He will not try to do their work, but wil rc]y on them to carry out his orders. He will let them decide how they'!€ goilg to do it.

Napoleon used to boast thst evely private soldier in his Guard caried a marshal'sbaton in his knapsack. I'lxat was his way of saying that he {elt each on€ of th€m was not only eagd but able to lead a whole amy il he had the chsnce. the litde emperor, whatever \,/e think of his purpose, was a great military leader. He knew how to inspire his men. No ofrcer staits out as a skilled leader. I{e has to lean by ex1rerience, generally by being a non-commissioned officer first. For both enlisted men and officers, however, therc arc certain principles of leadership which have elways ploved successful. Someone has said that ploper cohduct on the part of an officer can be summecl up this way: Be stict, be just, be cheeiful. But tlele is much mor€ to it than that. B€ loyal. II you act or speak disloyaly towards your $pedols, your men in tuln will feel you pmb-. ably are not loyal to lbem, either. llley u,in think there is no point in trying to be lo'.al to youBe checrful. Make e point of sccepting unsatis-


\bu I hear "lDR" mentioned a thousand times if you i€cone a soldier. Those initials stand for In{antry Dn]1 Regulations, ihe rules by which a civilian is Dde over into a smoothly functionine member oI a ailitary team. Naturally, they are of primary imiD the Army. lortace Here, you will find only a part of IDR. But ii's the pait. Lealn what's printed on these few :rdamental and your training as a soldier will be made !€ses The tust thing lo remember is that you must obey !:err command {'iih snap and precision. ,\! the command, "AtteDtion," stand stmisht, brine :. cur heels together with a click, and be quiet. Kecp . :ur shouldem back, chest arched, eyes flont, arms a: lour sides, toes pointed outward at an angle oi
.:-," /5 , l ^ d " ."" D^ n ' r h F cr i$

I\len the command, "At Ease," is given, relax ;,:. r talk. Keep your right foot in place. \aen you are commanded to "Rest," rclax =li. if Iou like, but keep one foot in place. -\i rhe oder, "Pamde Rest," move your left i: rches to the leIt, clasp your hands behind

but and foot you

\ lher ] ou a " e to l o ro F a l I O, r, l e a v e yoJr p^si ::r: iD line but siay nea.by. You \rill not leave the r::11 area util given the order, "Dismissed." -{t the command, "Fall In," hury ba.k to the spoi I r: left in the forhation and stahd at attention.

When soldiers are ordered to fall in they next are generally given the conmand, "Dress dght, dress-" At this order, each man except the one at the left end oI the line stretches out his 1e{t arm until his fingers touch the rieht shoulder of the soldier at his le{t. At the same time he tums his head hau deht and glances down ihe line in that direclion, moving until he is exactly in line with the man at his right. The soldier at the right end o{ the line natumlly does not tum his head to the right; the others are aligning themselves on him. As soon as the leader is satislied with the straishtness of ihe line, he commands, "Ready, {ront." At this order, each nan drops his left arm to his side and tums his head and eyes to the front. Most military commands are in 2 parts. That is done in order to warn you of what is coming before you are actually told to do it. Take, lor examplc, the comrnand, "By the ight flank, march." The fi$t palt, "By the right flank," prepares everyone in the squad {or what he is about to do. That's why it is called the prepamlory command. It is spoken loudly cnoueh to be heard by everyone in the squad, and in risins tones, which capture more attention. Thcn, an.r a b-rer pausF ' rl ended ro gir c ct "r y soldier a chance to think how he's eoine to execute the movement, comes ihe order, "March." This is cal l ed rhe command ol e\€cul i on. Il r s gi\ "n "\ plosively. For that reason it sometimes sounds like "March" and sometimes like a bark or somebodv squad knows beins stransled. BLrt a ncll-drilled




o|lt Dtltl




what's coming and at th€ sound, however sarbled, every man snappily tuns to the ght. A[ commandsof execution are barked out. "Attention," Ior instance,isn't forceful enoughlvhen it is pronounced"At-ten-shun." Drill sergeants invariably make it sound like "Ten-hut" and th€ "hut" makes a noise like t}Ie crack of a whip. Such commands causetroops 1ohop ro ob€y: lhal s why they are Eiven that way. Sloppy, lazy orders result-in indifierent One of the purposesof drill is to enable a leader to nove troops trom on" place to anotber in an orderly fashion. Befo.e they sta{ malching, however, it frequently is desinble to face them in another direction. Therc are 3 principal commands used. When you are given the command,"Right Face," turn squarely to the ght on your right heel and the ball of your left foot. Then bring your left foot into position beside your right. At the command, "Left Face," reve$e the above piocedure, using your left heel and the ball of your dght fooi. When you hear the order, "About Face," place your dght foot about 6 inches behind you teft and tuh around on the ball of your ght foot and the

heel of your left. As soon as his squad is {aced the dght way, the leader presumably will want to move it. "Forward, march," is the comDand. When you hear "March," or "Harch," as it will probably sound to you, step out Fomptly, left foot first. Never forget that it is the left foot which moves first. American soldiers are fortunate in being able to march in a natural way. You've seen the "goosesteps" and other peculiar and exaggerated gaits of {orcien armies in the movies. We, on the other hand, simpiy walk in a businesslike manner, at a cadence which insures precision but neither tires t}|e marcheis nor becomes monotonous. When he wants to stop his squad, the leader cries "Squad, halt." At this order, you take one more step and plant both feet firmly in that spot. There are words the Army always uses to desc be ce ain fomlations of troops and parts of {ormations. They are woids unJamiliar to a civilian but essential for him to know when he becomes a soldier. One is alinem€nt. When you and other soldiem are in alinement you are in a straight line, either abreast of each other or behind one another. A column is a formatlon of troops in which the

2-17 the othe! troops which 'way to go and how fast. Ce ain essential comhands are used to direct the movements of both a ffte and a column of soldiers. They are: " C ol unm ri ght (or l eftj , march : By r he ,'To the rear, cht (or left) flanl<, march"; and Ifthe fonnation is a file, at the command, "Column dght, march," always given as each man's right foot stiikes tI€ ground, the tust soldier in line takes one more step and tums iight on the ball of his ieli foot. He then steps ofl in the new direction with his right foot. Each soldier behind him does the same thine as soon as he has marched to the exactspot where the At the comand, "Column left, march," atways given as the leIt foot stikes the eround, the leadine soldier of a ff1e takes another step, turm left on the ball of his dght foot, and steps off in the new direction with his left.


men march behind one another. There wilt be at least 2 mws of them and may be as many as 4. A file is a column coDsisting only 1 row of hoops. of A rank is a line of men side by side. Int€rval is the spacebetween you and ihe soldier standing besideyou. "Normal interval" is one am's length; "close interval" is about 4 inches. You will often hear the cornmand, "Get your pioper interval." Distarce is the spac€ between you and the {ellow in front of you. This is norma.lly about 40 inches,a spacejust a little lareer than the length of an arm stetched out straight beforc you. There are 3 other terms you'll hear constantly. One is pace.That meansa step of 30 inches.Another is pi€ce.I'hat's what the Army catls a rifle. A third is guide, A euide is the omcer, non-comissioned officer, or private who is placed at the head of a column or file and who, by his own marchins, shows

corurN l.ft


When a ffl€ is ordercd to march by the fight flank, at the command, "March," given on the right foot, every man in the frle takes one step forward, turns right on the ball of his left foot and steps out in that diection with his Iieht foot. Each uses the opposite foot but follows a similar procedureat the comand, "By the left flank, march." When ordered to march to the rear. each man obeys the command simultaneously. It is always Civen as the right {oot sirikes the grcund. At the command,"March," every soldier plants his left foot forward md turns about on the balls of both feet. He then steps off in t}le new direction with his left. If trcops are marching in column formations, they do flanking movements and march to the rear exactly as descdb€d above. However, a somewhat difiercnt procedule is executed at the command, "Column ight (or left), march." In a column, there are 2, 3, or 4 fites abreast.Since,


thercforc, there are always at least 2 men at th€ head of th€ colurnn, it is necessary that both oI them do something simultaneously when they hear the comI{ the order is given to march to the right, the soldier at right end oI the tust flank tuns in that dircction iust as if he were at the head of a single 6le. there is one exception. After his first full st€p to the dght he takes half steps until the men who werc at his left have once more causht up with him. The other soldier or soldieis in his rank take hau tums to the dght rDtil they are eoine in the same direction he is. They then align th€msetves with him by taking half steps or full steps until they are abreast. They must always keep in time, however. In your AImy training you will be taught other ways in which these units and larger ones ean be moved about, but these arc fundamentat. Learn them thoroughly and the rest will be easy.


of tlis post and all l. ro t"L" property in view. GovemmeDt "r,."g. 2. To walk my p6t in a military ner, keeping always on the alert'1Eand observing everythiDg thai tlkes place within lighi oi hearing. 3. ro report all violations I m iDstructed to €Dfo.e. ot ordeB


all calls from posts hore 4. ro distatrt "ep".t the guarilhouse than Ey from 5. To qult my post onty when properly E. To receive, obey, and pass oD to the sotinel who lelievs me aI ordeE from the commditrg ofrcer, ofncer of the day, and o6cers and non-commi$ioned ofrceB ol ihe suard only. 7. ro t tt l" no one except in liDe of 8. 'To give the alarm in case of ffre or

One of the most important jobs you'll be siven to do in th€ Army is that of being a sentinel You will then be part oI an interior guard, th€ body o{ amed mldiers which provides secu ty for any camp, whether it is a permMent posl or a temporary eslab' lishment of tents. The interior euard protects costlv and vital Gowernment property, keeps order, :nd sees 10 it that police rules are obeyed. The guard must be on duty 24 hours a dav. Since that is much too long a time for a s€ntinel to calrv a rifl€ and stay ale , the guard is usually divided into 3 sections, cafled reliefs. Think of tlem d shifts Each one seNes for 2 hours at a time until a[ have guarded the camp for a total of 8 hours apiece.While one shift is walking post, the other two are sleeping or restiJlg, thouch thev are always on call. Since emergencies sometimes arise which require seve.al guards to be in one place at the same time, there have to be €xtra sentinels available. Otherwise, if thos€ on regrdar duty were to be called from their posts part of the camp would be left unprot*ted Therefore, every intefor guetd is composed of th€ main reliefs and e leseive. Each senlinel in the respective reliefs is Eiven a particular pait of the (::np to patrol. That is called his post, and is numbercd. lle is also given orders peculiar to that psrt of the camp. they are called sp€cial orders. There are other oders which apply to each and every sentinel on duty. These are general order+ md there ar€ 11 of them. In the Army, you are lequired to know them by hea , since they are the sentry's code of behavior. You will be wis€

L To call the corporar of the guaid in dy csse not covered by instructions. a omcels and ell colors 10. ro *r"t" ed standardsnot cased. watahful at night, ll. ro t" the time Dd duridg ""p."i"ttv fo. challengih€ to chalenge all persons on or n€ar my posi abd to alov no one to pas without


2-20 to learn them befoie you enter military selvice. I{ a sentinel at Post No. 3 desires io call the corporal of the suard and is justifred in doine so, according to Genenl Order No. 9, he cries out, "Corporal of the guard, No. 3." The call will be repeated by every sentinel vho heals it, between No. 3 and the euardhouse. In case ffre has broken out near him, he calls, "Fire, No. 31" If disorder is occurine and he thinks coqsiderable help is needed, he calls out, "The guard, No. 3l" I{ the danger is very eieat, he will tue his weapon into the air S times before calling. WheD a sentinel is required to challenee someone, he should do so about 30 steps away, holdins his weapon across his chest with both hands, in the socalled port position. He calls out sharyly: "Haltl Who is there?" The person challenged will identify himseu as "Friend," "Soldier of the post," "Omcer of the Day," or {hatever he is- The sentinel theD commands, "Ad\-ance, Friend (Otrcer of the Day, etc.), to be iecosnizedl" He will halt him again when he is near enough to be seen clearly, yet notso near that he could, if hostile, overyower the sentinel. If he now recosnizes the person challenged, the sentinel says, "Advance, Friend (Office. of the Day, eic.)!" He continues to hold his weapon at ihe port position, however, unless the pe$on challenged is an officer. In that case, as soon as he recognizes him, the s€ntinel gives him the rifl€ salute. The soldier who is rcsponsible to the cohmanding officer o{ a camp for the proper perlormance of duty by ihe interior guard is called the Omcer of the Day. Though he sometimes has an assistant called the Commander of the Guard, he usually rcviews, inspects, and commands the Cuard himseu His principal helpeN are the Sereeant of the Guard and the corpomls of the euard. Generally, there is also at least 1 busler. The Sergeant of t}le Guard forms the cuard \,"henever a formation is necessary. He makes sure the corporals know their duties and are peforming them properly. A corporal of the suard has diiect charye of each of the 3 reliefs- He must knorv every sentinel and where he is to stand guard. He must march his relie{ to and tuom its posts, and be ihorouehly familiar with the special orde$ of each A guard always forms under arms and is inspected to make cerlain every man's piece is in pioper condifon and his appearance creditable. The forming of a new guard als'ays involves a certain amount o{ ceremoDy. It is called Cuard mounline. and may be iormal or in{ormal. The procedure of formal erard mount, as you would expect, is the more elaborate, involving a parade and band music. Informal guard mount takes place without either.


2-21 A review has 4 parts: {orming the troops,presenring them to the reviewing ofrcer, inspecriDgthem, and paladine them. It nomally is hetd on the largest parade ground available. Flags indicare where the troopsare to line up and the route they arc to march. The r€vi€wing omcer's position, oppositethe center of the line o{ troops, is also marked by a flag. When a rcview is h€ld at nebeat, which is rhe end of ihe soldier'swork day, as soon as the rrcops have marchedto their marked positionsand arc presentine arDs, their commander orders the bugles to sound "Retreat." Imnediately afterwads, the bmd ptays "The Sta! SpaneledBanner." On an AImy post, the evening gun is fired at the last note o{ the bugle call. Then the post flag is slorvly lowered white the National Anthem is being played. The troops aie next brought to order arms, and the ce.emonyproceeds with the reviewing officerand his stafi and orderlies moving to designared positions At this, the comander of troops brings them to attention and hasthempresent arms.Ifthe revrewng omce. or visitins dignitary is of sumcient rank or importanc€ to me t them, the band sounds the

(R t EWS EV AND TTVsPEC rro^r5)
-{ lot of the pleasure and satis{action of inranhy driu con6 from seeing your outfit and youisetf, as a pa$ oi rt. lose awkwardness and ragged timing and .€come ahost as precise as a machine. With this .iaig€ there comes a greater desire on the part of each soldier to look his best wh€never he 6 on me ir,ll field. He spends more time shinins his shoes, b:lshirs his ctothes, and potishine his brass buuons. I{e my even practice the manual of arms in front ..i s ba..acks mates and invite thetu criticism of his Re$narly, just to keep him a little bit more on his :*-. urere rs a company or Bquadron inspeclion, The :rop are assembled, iequired to open ranks, and :;c€N then pass up and down the straight tines :a;jns a personal check of the men's clotliDg and =e pi<es they are carrying. Inspections of this i:--a:led nature usually take ptace before o! arrer Parades and reviews are the hieh spots of this F:.L.€ o{ a soldier's training. If you eet a kick out of s*g in a snappy squad on the drill fietd, little s.:rer-= of pride will really run u! and down your sp=e $hen lou march in your frrst review.

Therc is a regular table of honors. It includes the ffring o{ gun salutes, the ptaying of rumes by the drums, flourjshes by the bugtes, and ,The Star Spangled Banner" or a march by the band. The pe$on naturally entitled to the greatest nonors $ the Presidentof t}le United States.He medts a satute oI 21 suns, 4 rufles and flourishes, and the playing of th€ National Anthem. The table of honors ends with vice consuls, who merit ontt 5 guns and no At the conclusion of this part of the review, ttre toops arc again hought to orde. arms. Then, accompanied by band music, the reviewing ofrcer and his party move forward to the commande! of troops. The larter lead" fiam around rhe soldiers rn an rn_ .pection.Thi. may take any torm fie reviewing officerdesiresbut is never the detailedtype of inspection previously described. As the reviewing officer approacheseach unit of the trcops, its commander gives the oder, ,,Eyes, dght." At this, th€ men smarly turn their headshatf dght and follow the passage of the rcviewing officer with their eyesand headsuntil he is directly in front of them. At this point they remain iD the normat position of attention. Wlen the rcviewing party has retuned to its o ginal place, the command€r oI troops commands, "Passin review." Then beginsthe most dramatic par

2-22 of the ceremony. Unit aftd unit moves otr to its ght, marches to the end of the Iield, turns, crosses it, turns again, and moves towards the oppositeend of the parade ground past the reviewing officer. As each company apprcaches the point immedi ately in {ront of hih, its commaDdersalutes or prcsents his saber while giving the order, "Eyes right." At this, the guidon bearer in {ront of each uit dips his guidon in a prescribed salute. Every mm in the company, except those at t}le risht end of each fank, simultaneouslytums his head to the dght until given the comand, "Fmnt."
As soon a-s he himself passed in review, the commanding ofrcer of the troops left his place at the head oI the column md spent the rest of the ceremony beside the reviewing otrcer. After the troops have marched by, he salutes that individual and rcjoins In addition to honoring dignitaries, reviews of this sort are held when soldiers or flags arc dccorated. At some posts, a Retreat Paradc is held at least once a week. This is nearly as imprcssive as the ceremonial review except that the reviewing officer inthat case does not inspect or pss around the toops.


..oo*tt ' ..",,*,*uorr,".. llooti

To shoot or not ro shoot: th.t's

the de.lsiori every .omb.r

pitol ond every gunner

h.s ro moke for himselt in o splir iecondr'When or 6 m i l e s . ml n u te , y o u h o v e no rl m+ You husr re.ognize whelher ir in3rsn

o ptone i5 rocing rowdrds you or 5

trsure out w herher tl t5 o fri end or foe. lrom rhorough trdining enrered rhis wor,

y. You nu3r know insrin.rtvety * when our.ounrry

to hold your fire or ler irt6or.

miirokes in re.osnltion

were roqnumerous *irh

tor hedtrh ond Gomforr. Over In the of ou, p-4O s

Po.lfi. oreo, while our .onrdd

rhe enemy woi irttt new, nony

were misroken for Zero5 ond'shot down by orher Americon tighrers, But coreful study ot outstcnding fedtur6i of rhe rwo pldne5 soon remedted ihor siruolton. * Now woy ro prevent rhis ktnd ot misroke ts lo demond rhe Y ou.on begi n rtghr now ro o.hi eve rhot

we fully reoliue thot the lnly

hlghe s r p ro l i .l e n € y i n d frc ro fi .e .ogni ri on.

degre e o f s k i l l . In th l . s e .ti o n of your monu.t you w ttt be.ome ocquoi nted w i rh ; more thon o rcore,.f outitondlng Ameri.on oirplones. Buitd from rhts e6senriol begin n i n g u n ri l y o u b e c o me .o m pl erety fomi ttor w i rh. ever be.ome .,rienber n ttory oi rcrofr. Ihen tf you

of the Air forces/ rhere witt never be o quecrion of your o r foe-l n rhe oi r.

r e. og n i z i n g .t' p l o n e -fri e n d

tlt THts sECttot{...

Re€ognizing Airplone by lt3 Overoll AppeoroEe-How on io A<hieveSpeed in Recosnirion_three Stogesof Leorningto ldentily Plo.es lBtonrly o.d P6iriyety-HinB Hetpfutro Speedy Recogniiion: PrincipolDifierehce3 between tdnd ond Seo Ploner; Numb.r of E|gines; pdirion of Whgs_WEFT Systemof CheckinsOur.fondins feorurB-lnf,orrofte ot Klb*i.g How Wins, t@k from Any Angte in fc.tdse_Vorieries of Toik -How on Ef,sine'rType Afie.rr lrr Appcoro.Ee-Vo.iorid3

Best W.yr

lo Practice Recognition

The 3-View Silhooene-ltokini the

of Phorogrophi_Whdr you Con Leorn from Modet3_ ^lott Worning: Eewore of Folte lhpre$io.t!-Whot Sittogrophs Are-Skekh Boo&r_Molins o Set of

Sllhouefiet Che.kPoinr3. FoduolHighlishrs, Vicwrot P-38(tishtihgl-p-39 hir.cob,o)_p-40 {Wod,owk)_ ond (Thunderbolr}-P-51 P-{Z lMuions}-a-20 (Hovoc)-p-61 (8tockwidow)_B-2,t (rib.rdror)_B-25 ll,{ir.hell)-8-26 (Moroud€r)-B-17{FlrinqForrrd3}-B-29 (S',perforrrc$)-C-46 {commondo)_ (skytroin)-C-54(Skydo'rer)-L-,1 (cro33hopperl-ss2C(He divorl-F4F (witd.or)_F4u C-47 (co6oi.)-F6F lHellcot)-SBD (A-24)(Dounfle.3l-PBY (Corolino)-pBM lMor;ner)-pB2y(coronooo/


Designoflons of U,3. Aircroft

How Almy Air.rqfr Are Delignoted-Toble of Leiter Symbots Voriour Typ6 ond Cto$ificoroi3_ for How Novy Aircroft Are D$ignoted-Toble ot Lefler Synboh tdenrifyingTypee

Key to Sillogrophson Poge 3-19-Key to Sitlogrophs Throughour t^onuol


H o* c an y ou )e a rn know instantly that a Boting outline in the is a P-38 or a C-1? Well, look at it to \-atch autos racing by on highway at 60 ites an

know it positively. Re.ognirionMu.t Be Speed comes ftom
familiar with it,

hour. drd you stop to
car to know what it was? Did plaess of analysis to decide that i a Ford or a Prerce-Affow? O{ c recoanition was instinctive. You had seen a long

absotutely sure of yourself . If you're only partly
ve to guess. The result is hesi-

, and you know what that means Your in combatl
has charactedstics that make it a per-

tiEes in the past that you knew evely featurc of it at rhe quickest possible elance. TraGIat€ this into ter:rns of aircraft, and you can .€e that the most importanl thing about recognizitrg a plane is 10 be complelely familiar with it. Then tou don't have to analyze it feature by Ieature. Your ey€ takes in allthe necessary details at a glance. You recognize the aircraft instantly by its ov€rall

sonality.Learn all you can about the difierent plan€s. Get to know them as well as you know the dilTercnt automobilesyou see on the street.
Practical results are the 6nal test. Try your skill on every actual ai.plane you see in the air. Testyourself and your {riends on every reproduction of one, in the newspape$, magazines, or newsreels. Make your slogan: Eyes Alofl!

3-2 Your Progrels in R€cognition As a student, you will pass through several interesting stages of instruction. Soak up all the information you can. It will pay off handsome dividends in your future flyine career. 1. The first thing io do is to team the language of flyers. W}rat are the parts of the plane? Where are they? What arc their technicalnames?What do they do? When you have the ansvels, you know the important details about plaDes in genelal. 2. With this knowledge well stowed away, you now learn the shapesof individual aircraft. Analysis by parts is still h;ndy. But more and more yuu see that each plane has an overall appeamnce,and less and lessdo you analyzeit bit by bit. 3. Now you are completely familiar with the diJferent planes. At this poiDt, the whole businessof recognition begins to appear pretty easy. You are concerned with th€ whole plane, and study parts only in their ielation to iLs overall appearance. You are now eniedng the expert class. You can always improve on your recognition. Strive for ereater speed,greater accumcy. Study the new planes.New designsare always coming in. cet to know them-plactic-e on them. Make this your slandard of perfcclionr "l shall learn ro recognize aircraft at the greatest possible range in the qurcxesr Number of Ensinos Here is a good aid to recognition,quick to spot. How many engines does the plane have? Single €ngine planes are usually 6ght€rs, dive-bombe$, or light attack ships.Twin engine planes, though sometimes fighte$ like the P-38, arc generally transports or medium bombers. Four-engine ships are heavy bombers and huse transports.

There is another €asy general way to classiJyplanes for sFotting. Look for.the parasol wing, the high wing, the middl€ lving, or the low wing position. Associateits wing position with each plane's personality.

Your Re.ognirionT€.hnique Any system you work out for recoenizingplanes is 6ne, so long as it pays off. But here are a few good hints on how 10 spot planes quickly: Learn fight away to ditrerentiate between land and sea nodels. Th€ land plan€ has wheels, which are rctncted in flight (except in the case of a few planes, when they are plainly visible in the air). The s€aplane either has pontoons, which are too bulky to b€ retacted and stick out below the fuselase, or a large, hul-bottomed fuselage.ff it has the latter, it is of the flying boat design.A few seaplanes are amphibious: They have both pontoons and wheels, so that they can Iet down on sea or land.


Leorning rhe Individucl Plane Once you have learned eeneral characteristics,get right down to the businessof knowing the details of individual planes. At this point, make some sot of oderly ptan to check over the outstandingfeatues of a plane.That's the advantageof using the so-calledWEFT Systemchecking, in order, by Wing, Engine, Fuselage,Tail. Always rcmember, however, that this WEFT plan is only to help you analyze the planes. The firm

3- 3 foundation of kno ledee il provides flnal goal of spotting planes in the overall appearance. '

Thc fuselage may look like anything hom a cigar to a bauel. Fiehters, as a class, have a slim. shot fuselage in contrast to the massive, bulky {usclaee of r\F bomb" rs. S rl ki ng ou, j r fronr nf r l- p ! vr nB. r s the fuselage nose, which often has chamcteristic Some planes, likc thc P-38 and P 61, have twin booms joined by a common hodzontal stabilizer. Oun blisters on top, undeneaih, or on the sides are also handy rccognition features.


Officially, the plan shape of the wine is the uay it looks to you when the plane is directly overhead. B ur by le" r ng y o u " .p l t a r e v p ry o p p u rl u r' l y.8el ro know the way the wing looks no matt€r what angle the plane is coming fromKnow the position of the wings. Notice the way they are attached to the fuselage. Do they extend siraisht ourwad, or upward at a slight dihedral, or do ihey have some ulusual aBpearance? Look tor any " m all p. u u l i rri ri e c a rd .ro rp Ih n m a sa\ rn ]our

Toi l Single engine planes gcnerally have singlc fin and rudder. So do most multiengine airra{t, but some of them have tvin fins aitached near the ends of the horizontal stabilizer. There is a {eaiute you can spot in a flash. The shape of the horizonial stabilizer varies just as the wing plan docs, and it's a wise student who studies his silhouettes and photosmphs {or this fcarure. The same eoes for the rudder and especially {or the 6n. In fact, the tail assembly as a whole is so important that it otten provides the chie{ clue to absolute recognition o{ a planel

E ns ine3 You have already learned to check the number of cngincs on a plane. Now look {or rhe dilTerence in type of ensine. Is it air-cooled rudial or is it liquidcooled inline? Notice how the radial type has a round, snub, broad surface. Conirast that with the pur nl. d. . r r c am l i n e d a p p p a r" n c eo l th c i n l i r" " n8' nF See how the en8ine is slung in difierent positions on difiercnt plancs sometimes undeislung. sometiDes cenlered, som€times ovetslung.


f>l wil


uniil you can spot every distinguishing featurc. Be an expertl Concentmte on the pictures that show planes at a distanc€.

luustntions of active Army and Navy combat planes appear iD the following pages. Study these photogaphs and silhouettes carelully and you'll be well on your way td being an expet observer of U. S. Mak€ good friends with the silhouettes. They're mighty imporlmt to know. In fact, silhouerrcs are r he fo u n d a r ion o{ all r ec o g n i l i o n rra i n i n e . The "3-view" silhouette gives the head-on aspect, plan, and side view. It shows every importanr rccognition feature of a plane, just as an architect's drawine gives the essentials oI a buitding. Take a look at the silhouettes of trvo planes and notice now snarp the contrast is, how easily you can tetl the difiercnce

Spend all th€ time you can wilh airplane models. Try your hand at making them. Some o{ the 6nest cohbat pilots we have were the fellows who were buildins md flying models when they were in histi Study the photographs. These are ctoser to the way the planes actually look in flighr. co over them Study every model you can tay your han& on. Notice the proportions. Check through your knowledge for every outstanding detail.

Always bear in mind that the actual spotting of aircraft consists o{ recognizine a distant movine object in the sky that is constantly changing appearance. \ryatch out for thisl Practic€ vith models and with model shadol,\'s thrown on a screen. Kdep them moving and notice the changes. One of the most disturbing factors in recognition is t he f ac t t ha t p e rs p e c ti v e g i v e s )o u fa l " e i mpressions. Here's an example: The Army's chie{ transport, the C-47, has wings with a marked dihedral. It has a very pronounced taper on the leading edge and a straight tmiling edgq In plan vi€w, this wing is one o{ the chief recocnition points o{ the plane. Sketch 'am ond Know '€m

However, when you see the C-47 froft below coming at you, peNpective caus€s wing to appear the swept forwad. The leading edce seems almosf straight, rvhile the taper se€msto be on th€ trailing edee.Thus the plan form of the wing is just revelsed.

Every time you study a plane, try sketching it on pap€r. You don't have to be an artist. Just draw as well as you can. The important thing is to get the main featurcs dolvn on palier. You'll remember them a lot better that way.

Rem e n b e l:

whcn.o6n h€row rrom
you, Wh.n lo b.

(froni .r r.or), d wins with o mdrk.d dih.dEl ro b. b.nl rowod.

5*h fron obov., il .e.nr .w.pr owdy fr.n y.u.

Build yourself a set of flash cads. Get pocket size cards and paste a photo of a plane on each one. Cut the pictures out of papers,magazines, booklets. (Bul please don't cut up this manual.) Test yourself for speed and acculacy, challenee the stud€nts around you. Make a war game out of it, and see if you can't

:'(t:-9_ (D:

H i sh l i g hl5 l'hc P 38 lias specd, rarge, aDd excclte,)t high attl hr.l e p e r ior r ll, r c c . , { bo v c a l l . j t rs a v c rs a ri l e p l a he. I D l h c Aleuljr ns . ir ) r hc S.u th p a c i n c . i rl E L rfo p e . n d a lri Norlh Afi.i.a, il has bccn used bolh as a !,w and i ,i i . 4, , : , . , . , ' d, . . .. tr..r.." ." .,.... ',-l pl a n e (r n lr f t c r . ' r s . . d e s j s .a te d a s F _ ] a n d L j ). l'hr facl that jls prols rotar., ir opp()sitc (rf.ctoDs, lh u s b | l a Dc ir ig t or qLr c .c n h .n fc s i rs ma D e L i v .ra h ' i h .. \ f ll l i i t: l. \ in lr il Lolr j s , th c L i g h n i i n g i s o n e o r u re ersrcsl p ianes t o r ec ( ) s D i z c .

n..ene p,oi6.h beyond r: pir6r's booms v .twin rin5 v rcit pt.n. exrends beY.ndtin ruddeE CflECIv, r-i..'si"e.

H ig h l i g h t s T h i s a i rp laDc , . , he of t h e ,n o s t s ra c c fL rli n !,c a u !) . t d .. ,,, , , , , r . " 1: _ ,." r' .,.,.. rh .,....^ f.r ried bl any airyhnc of similrr tyfe. The p-3r lus bcon uscd elTecrivri| for llfound stra6Ds, and as a 1d v a l ti tude light er I lc a r), d e l e n s i v e a rm o r p ro tc c rs liic p i l o t aganls l gr oun c l fi re w h c n o p c E rj rj g a t l o !, alti l u d e s. T he e, ) s inc is p l a c c c L h i d s h i p i r rn c ru s e a lagc belu ihc pilot s co.kpit, tlie propclter being (lfiven bJ a 10-foor sliail.







H i shl i ghrs Tliis is oDe of 1.hebesl known and mosi. wldely used ,{Drerican lishle.s. E:rrlier modcls, callcd "Tomahnwks aDd "Kiityharvks" by the British, were used u Lib]'a. on thc RussiaD front, and by the "Flyins Tisers' jD China. r'he Warhawk is thc nrst Amoican airyla.c lo be cquipped with the lamous Merlin cnsinc. Tliis figliter has excellent aimor. high dlving spccd, good maneulerabllity, and hcavl' hitting po$er. AlthoLrsh |hc P-40 is not at its best in higher aliilLrdcs, it is onc of thc most versatile ol plancs.


.' b * * i.s- r , r ' diheddr r r i- r . n. ds t i. i D m p i Pronin.n,l.ndhs E.or knu.kla: i co.kpirrcns inrcru3.lcao

P'4l "Ihundeftoti"

H i shl i ghts The P-1? is oDe ol the larscst and fastesi single enslhe lishlers Ict built. Its Neight of ovef ; tons, with uearly a ton of guns and arnr,unition. is greatcr thln that of many coNnercial tfansports of a lew I'ears ag.. Desisned in 19.11. this is the hiehesl horscpower shglc cnguic fighter yet produced lor the Army Air Forccs. Use ol a ,t-bladc propcller reduces thc sizc ol ih-" pr()pcllcr afc, while still coping with rhe engine s greai poltcr output. This ajrplane Nas designed lof llehtine at lieh altiiudes.

Cll[Cl(/ n"di.r..gi.. j ov.r-.fidp.d.owt-plop hlb cbow..nL. V shbby vinq virh tull dihodral/ tfii.t fu..t..., wirh .h.ri rids. doYn ,opins 5..1

==.e:9ff -----a-

H ish l i g h ls The Musta.S was dcvelopecl quietly and attracted little public notice until ihe British used it ih the dramatic Comnando raid on Dicppe. Sihce thcn it has been used extcnsively on fighter svceps over Europe, on rcconnaissance misslons, on all kinds ol 1or-levcl straling and altack jobs. It is exceptionally tast. One P-5l crossed the U. S. in 6y, hours. An our standins virtue is its speed near the grouDd. A bomber version liited with dive brakes, the A-36. is now in service {or Sround ail suppori.

Clit0l( a/ r-ri.a.'!r'., wbh rone p6inr.dnoF y' sqoo'npr or yins .nd .r.6ilir.r V ldll ruddr with.qu.BttF v rcns Edidrorund* lual.!., ch.l.o.kFll

Hi sh l i g h t s This airplane is un.luestionably one of thc bcst in its class. Desisbed as a {ast da!.bomber, it is also used us a fuhter. The night ffShter version ivith sc,lid nose is called the P-?0, while the Bfitish know thc A-20 as ihe "Boston" when uscd as a bomber and as ihc "Havoc" u'hen used lor ground attack. The U. S. Navy designation is BD. The A-20 is nuch used in laqe scale daJ'light fishtcr and bomber ss'eeps over France and was so used in North Africa Because of its high performaDce, strlkihe power and Daneuver:rbility, losses havc bccn relatively smal1.

"r.,*" A'20

C H E C K r r* i .-.gi ,* ,."
proi.d w.I beyond f.iri.s.dse I ro., rhin no.e 1 tus.t.se rur..d up roword r.or i v.ry rofi rudd.r

"rmr P'61 widow"

H i ghl i ghl . The P-61 is thc 6$t American airylane to bc designed and built specilically iof nieht 6ghting. With twin fuselaee and tsin tail, it tooks somewhat like an overstulTed P-:18. Because il is a deadly plane and has bcen painted shiny black from the time lhe liNt modcl rollcd oJTthe assembly line, it was early nicknamcd thc "Black Widow." It has two 2000 Hp engines with 4 bladed propellem. It has efiective speed aDd climb cluracteristics, lone range, heavy frre power and ammcni, and is highly maneuverable

y' Cll[Cl(w E"..etlonqllyr".s io'. y' rwi...sin.. v t..r ol .6w n...ll..rr.hd. b.yond innd wins V

"[iberolor" B-24

H i shl i ghl s This long range bomber is used in all theaters by the tsliiish abd ihe U. S. Army Air Forces. It has high speed, porvcrful armameDt and is extremely maneuverablc lor ils size. A1l of these factors reduce ihe number ol fighter cralt needed to protect it. The B2.1s high perforrnance results in part from its clean design and usc ot the thin "Davis" wing which haterially ieduces drag. Thc rnilitary transport version. callcd thc C-87, has a norl-transpalcnt nosei and a cabin under the s'ing in place ol the bomb bay.


n. r.* -a rt-gr... I Lc ne, r . * , r dp. r . ow' . E t CH E CK ' 1 D..p, bulkyrB.|.g. 1 lwln nB, l.rg..id rcund.d

""nnr'" B'25
lal --ffi-E-t(O--

B i sh l i g hr s The B-25 lvas named for the late Gcn. "Bi11y', Mitch- . ell- It has gained considetablc pubhriiy as the result o{ t}e bombing raid on Tokyo in April 19.12. is It in use on nearly all oI the Allied I,ar fronts and perfo rn e d s " ll I or r h, B fl r,-l - :n rh F rr A r.i (d n c arrpaigns. The Mitehell was thc firsr ro use 75 hm cannon, and has proven itsel{ hishly eI}ec|n.c ror lree-top or mast-hish bombing.
CH EC K i r*i. -ai"r..gr i !n.nd.d no.dr.t i roir, dorar, ond v.ntrdtrun.r

H i g h l i sht s No Axis airylane ;f the sa,ne class Dratches thc 8-26 fot spced, ranse, or bohb-cauying capaciry. In the Battle of Midway, i1 was used as a torpedo bo'nber. This was the 6rst time that land,based torpedo bohbcrs of the U. S. Arhy had been put in action. Over North Africa and Europe, i.hc Mamuder has proven itself a hard-hitting bombcrThe design for this airylane I'as conpietely new, owing little to any previous conception. The earlier models hrd a wing span of 65 {eet.

8'26 ""o,.,a,,"

C H EC K 1' r".s, .rg--.h"p.d ru.roso \ rwin.isi..., rlrins ,4 cr$od of r.adins.dr. q h ,noD., i wnE.nd hit phn.3in tdne h.! DcrkeJ dit.drcl ! High r.!.d.d ruddr i R..r r$.tqs..n& ii r.i.r b.yond rcil

B'17"ornn rorrress"
A -----oE.rgE-o--

H i shl i ghrs The B-1? was th. first Iong range Ame can bomber. It Nas designed for high allitude, daytime precision boDrbing. InteDded primarily lor ]ons flighis over the Pacilic. sreat fucl (apacity rather than tremendous bomb load rvas emphasized in the orisinal dcsisn. But the B-1? has been used as a hcavy carier o{ bombs io be unloadcd on Europe. In addition, it hns done elicctivc work in raids at shorter rangc. It is a hcavily-arDored, rvell-gurned ship. The latest models have a chin turret lo p.olect vhat was formerly a vulnerablc spot on ihc plane.

C HECK i r.* e .gi. *

r r onedk . d. ohi. , wr h, un


H i shl i ghts Fimt Amedcan airplane of the new Very Heavy BoDlber class, the B-29 $-as also the first to sirike at thc Japanese homeland frcm land bases. Possessing great rangej heavy frre power, and uDusual bomb cauying capacity, the B 29 in its earliest attacks flew out ln lorce from bases in westem China and stiuck telting blows at targets ranging from Fonnosa to Manchukuo. This giant bombing plane has four 18ci l i i d-r. 2200 H p ensi nes. D e..pi F a ma\ im Jm seieht of 120,000 ]bs., it flies faster than 300 mph.

Cllt0l( / r..ol. rrk s-!7 wiir l.n! n6. a/ Idll y' P.inr.d, pG n. n.3-17'. V Fwrqdill.nsin6 n!d.!.{dr on inbad.rsinc ....r1* y' NoEowwins

".o"onro" C'46

High l i g h i s The larscst t$'in engmed military cargo plane iD the lvorld, the Commando is somelimes called thc "!'1ying [Iha]e'or the "Troopship of thc SkJ." Originally clesigned as a 3tj passenser coDniercial airLiner, il lrequenlly cardes such matcrials as lrucks.liglit 6cld artillcry or "Jeeps." Adapted for troop carryina in 19:11,it transports a larltc number of fu1lr'ecruipprd troops. Thc Cohmando's engincs arc larser .rnd nore power{ul than those in use on coinm-"rcial airlincs. and in size thjs airplane drva s commcfcial cralt.

CH ECK i r-i^

p.oiedins er r.ruod w - a i 't . . g i n Bn o '. \ h i s h r o u n d f f n ! w i n s3 d,

H ish l i g h t3 This tmop aDd cargo transport is rhe military v.6ion oi ihe DC-3, one of the bcst known and nrost widely uscd Anicrican codneicial planes. It has done masnificent seNice in cvcr) quarler of the slobe. It is uscd as a standar.l transport (dcsignatcd PS-8'1) ol lhe RussiaD Air Force. This plane is either a C-47 ("Skytra ih" ) or a C- 53 (" Sk y tro o p c r" ), d c p e n d i n g on rvhether it is arran8ed to carl cargo or paratroopers. The name "Skytrajn" comes froh use olthis transport as a troop carrier and as a glider tug.


C H E C K .' r* h


Hish lir, slrh ,onq errension

"rn''u,," C'54


fi i 9hl i 9h15 This tro.p and careo carrier is thc largest opcrational nrilitary transport in the Uniled States today. Its commercial designation was DC-4. the proiotlpc oI u4iich nas sold to Japan. The current military version djficrs in many ways. hovever, fron the plane {h .l rhF Jrp3r , -, ,.rrr" l r' , d. W h,.' a troop l.ransport. thc Sk]master can cany more than .l0 fulll equipped soldiers.

-arr*gr. d.a ripr i rons, .n.qlor rus.l.s. i Lo nsno re I lollt in

CHEC( r r.*

H i ghl i ghts

L'4 "c,orrhooo.,"

The miliiary version oI thc widely used Piper Cub, this iis hp- L-4 caries peronnel, drops messages and supplies, and spots targets tor fleld artillery units. The L-4 madc military headlines s'hen it landed Gcn. llark Clark in the Main Streel oI Naples, in front of the post ofice. An ambLrlancc vcrsion of the L-4 lands closc io the battletuont. Its shorl take-oll allows the evacualion of urseni casualijes. Thc Grasshopper is tirtally unafmcd. Ncvcrtheiess, it has an unusual front line sa{ctrr rccord, achieved by flyins los' so its camouflaee blends \!ith the tcram-

CH ECK i Hish * i's

i s quo, . { ineeds s '

ri.kinE 6ur lik. d6E'r.n6ur

"Herdiver" S82C


Hi g h l i g ht s One of ihc largest operational single eneine . irp la ncs, thc Helldiver carrics torpedoes. depth charlles, or large bohbs. It operates eii"her from canie$ or lron land bascs. It is taster, and probably carries largcr bomb loads than thc cerman 'Stuka.'Sonrc models of tiis alrplanc appear wilh lwiD floats. From all n1, dicalions, the SB2C is one of the x'orld's dcadlicst

C H E C K i R " di .r sr" ., *
di hedl o| \]5tr oi 9hi Idodi nE.d


Hi sh l i g h t s This 6ghter, callcd the "Mar1lct" by the British, can be based cither on .arriers or on land. It is an excel lent airplane and was prcbably the best caui.r based f i-h t' r n I r r r lo s . . v ..a u ,t rh " r. " o mrr s " newer, hea\-ier, and lnster Corsair which is now gradually replacins it. The Wildcat has shoM alt! 1.udcpedonnancc approachine that;f the Zero- The Madnes uscd this plane on Wakc Island. Lt. ComDrandef O'Hare $,'asflyhg one when he shot do\m 5 Japs during a sinslc opemtion.

"***'" F4F
A --.-_-@-_-

CHECK r n"ar"r*e;.
roob i 5quorr wins riF o.d

".0,,,n" F4U

---=6*-H i ghl i ght5 This is one ol th. fastest ship-bom. fighters in opcration loday. Th-" lnrgc nl\'crted gult $ih!.t i.as desisned to giv-" added clcarance ftr'the lons prope cr liladcs requfi'd to absorb the output of the F4Us 2000 hp. ehsinc. The lovef a;ng positbn o{ gull dcsign also increases lhc air cushioD ellcct b.tNeen dei:k and plane dLrdng landine.

C H E CK . R. dh, *s r* , b
sr foru*d, \ sEo [.o .kp ir , o m i&h ip s ru*rcse rip Prciedins ! r u dd.r


H i shl i ghts One of lhc lci! aifplaDes dcsigncd and pu1 into opcraiion since the rvar bcgan. the Hellc!i has been called the "ansNcr to a iighier pilot's pral,er." Its pernrlnaDcc i-c sir!i]..r ih i.any rcspecls ro that of ihe Corsair. It is lafgcr than the \(rildcat and its landing geaf rctracts nilo the \\'ihg.


CH E CK 1 R" di. r *g ,."

\ ' hcr P


(A'24)"Dounrr.,, SBD

Hi g h l i g h t s This cxeellcnt dile borrber is one of tile l{rngest liv-".i of a tl co m bai.air c lali l i h a s s e e n ,,,u .h a c l l ,)b l fo n, ca rrj e $ of t hc U. S . N a !) i n l h c I' a c i l i c . n o ra b l r' xl the Coral Sca Baittc an.l at MrcLNar. LoDs coDS ered to be the linest canier-based dive h.,i,oe|n 'nc v o rl d , i t is no\ \ ' er c e l l e d i n s o n e rc s p c c l s l )v t hc more reccntly dcrclopcd Hclldivcr. As thc ]\ 2.1.the Dauntlcss is ihe tust .Li!e bonlber \lhich the U. S Army u s ed in quaniil y l o s u p p o fl "g fo u D d t.o o p s It ca fri e s a 1. 000lb. bo ,,,b i n a c ra d l c u D d e r c -a n l er section, and thcre arc bomb racks under rvmg rros.




Hi g h l i g hr s A "C a t" s pot led lhe C e rh ra n b a l tl e s h i p ' Bi s n ,a fck" a l i e f l h e s ink ing ol t hc Bri ti s h b a ttl e s h i p " H o o d .' Its capacit]'to stal'long hours in the air makes this alrplane ideally suited lo.lohs suL-spottins and convo!., euaf.lins palrols. In thc Alcuiians and Solonons. the PBY is rcported to luve been used as a iorpedo bpmber, carrying 2 torpcdocs undcr the lvin!1. -\lternalivcll, ii can cauy eight 325 lb. deplh charees or t\!o 2.000-Ib. bombs uDder the rving The Calalina is built undef license in Russirl with somc modification. The Russian dcsignation lor it is GST.


by trur3 i wihsfip n.oh, r€trcd.bb 1 rwo hrse blirr.r i xish r.il I P..uli.r 3h.p. o

"".,,..," PB[Y|

H i shl i ghts Thc Mariner is an extreDlely serviceable lone-range flying boat. It gives excellcni results over rough seas and undcr otherwise strenuous opcrating condrirr$. This airplane lvas tust desished. built, and floiln in niiniature. It caDied 2 ioryedoes or equil,atent weighl in bombs under thc lvirtgs inboard of the ensnrcs On the PBM 3. flxed rvng floats liave rep)accd the retractable iloais of thc 2 previous model-c. At present, some Marjnels arc being used for over-warer iransporr. The latcst model. PBM-3C (not shown here), has 3 power-driven turrcts.

CH EC X .r r*r. wirh 3h.rp d.p.r

-sr"* unde iiJ.

i Hish ,,e!fl'. wins! i Tw,i trn3, i lwo tm.ll poiio.nr

PB2Y "".**"
.-"L=:rr-Je-. 2!

H i ghl i ghts The "Coronado" is a scaplane of afeat size, pos,er, and range. The Navy uses it principaliy as a patrol bomber. In man! instances. hoNcver. ii. has bccn converted Ior transporl purposes. In ihe latter case, it is called the PBzY 3R. The transport version has gun positions removcd and lusel:ge faircd ih The wingtip floais are retractablc. The "Coronado's" t$'in ffns and rudders arc practically identical s,ith those of the Army's B-24.

C H ECK 1 Fo -..er.* r Winriip fl.rh r , D. . p hur wir hp, oninenl 11..E., round.dirwih olibo.d rudd!6


LetterDe atio n s0 f u. Aircraf sign s. t

Amy aircraft aie desiehated as {ollows: one or tso leltets denote the class of aircnft; a number indicates the modeli and a lctter shows the modification of the model. For example. the desienation B 1?F means thc airplane is a bomber (8.), that it is the 17th bomber modcl accepted by the Anny, and thar it is the 6th modification of the B 17 model- Urrlike Navy aircra{t designations, the Amy gives no information as to the identity o{ the manu{ac|urer. OA ....A m phibion Rec on n o i s rd n c (P h o ro g rc p h i c ) e (L i s h t)

Navy aircraft, airships, and gliders are designated as {oUows: one or hvo Ietters show the class of aircraft; a nuhber indicates the model; a letter ihdi cates the manufacturer; and a Dumber design:ies the modification .,t thc mode1. For exanpte, ihc fi6t patrol bodbing plane to be produced hy Consolidated Aircra{i was the PBY-1. Thp nodj fi c!l i uns ro rhi . r:" pl rne serF P B Y - ". PBY-3, etc. The second patrol bombing plane was the PB2Y-1 and successive modifications sere luxF bered in order. The prcfix letter "X" is used for cxpedmental aircraft and gliders.

F ......A r m y

A ......B ohbor dm enr

H ......A l nbul on< e B ..... .B ombi ng

B . . - . ; . Bombordmenr (Medium ond Heovy) P ......F ight er L ......Liois on O .....-Ob 5er v olion AT .....Tr oinins BT .....T r c inir s ( A dvo n .e d ) ( lds i c )

F ......Fi shti ng O ......Obsorvoti on

5 ... . . .S couri ng T ......Torpedo OS .....Observcl i on-S couri ns N . .....Irdi ni ng R ......Tronsporr G ......Tronsport J ......l j ti l i l y B T .....B ombi ng Torpedo (muhi -€nei ne) { si ngl e ensi ne)

PT .... - T r dinins ( P r imo ry ) C ......Tr ons polr ( Co rs o o n d P o rs o n n e l ) U C .....U r ilit y r r dns p o rt (l e s srh o .9 p l o c e s or 1,400 lbs. ot .orso) c G .....G lider ( T r oop ) TG .....G lider O Q ....Tor s el ( I r oini n g ) ( A er io l ) C Q . .. . T s r s et ( Conrro l ) PQ . .. . . T or get { A er io l ) Clos5ificorions ore p.ofixed os fcllows: R .. ....Res r r i. r ed ( P l o u e sn o l o n g e r c o n s i d o re d firsr lina oircrofr) X ... .. , E x per im ent o l Y ......ser ui. e Z ......Obs oler e T es r

P B .. . ..P otrol B ombi ng S B . .. ..S .ouri ns-B ombi ng JR .....U ti hry-Tronsporr L......Gl i der zN .....A i rshi p (non-ri si d)

SO . . . . . s.ou|ing-Observolion 9N . .. ..S cour Troi ni ns TB -....Torpedo-E ombi ng

t >4y

f J\*\





\xt'* {

2l 22 23

Horc are iuustmtions of planes itr flisht knorvn as sillosraphs. They dupiicate as n.arl! as pos si bl e l he w ay ai r$aft l ook und.r actual obser!atron.ondi ti ons. In ni ost di sl anl !i e$\,)l ai rcratt. for cxample. details of construdtion disappear and the plane appears to the cJ"c ns a dark gr.y silhoucttc. The silloaraphs depicl lhis coDditton iD piint. Thc detail has been rrr)oved. EnsiDe. Da.elles, tunets and othcr fcaiurfs rrc seen only in relief against the gray sky. Try bard to recognize these plancs. In that Nar', r' rr srl l turl d al l ]bi i r) a rd r,' ri l l ,- , ' t r rrlual flight at extrcnic .angc. Check your results sith the ideDtilical!)d key b.l ow .If you arc srong i n your recogni tron.turn t() the descupti on of the pl ane j n qucsti on. and sre N hcre \.ou hade your mi stakc.





KEY rg


SrtlO G


k:---r. P-3t
2. Pg2Y 3. P-u|o 4, SID (A-2,t) 5. P-39 6. PAm
9. P{l

to. 3a2c
19. F25 20. 954 21,}26 22. C4 2?. A-21 24. Uf


Th e b e rr o i rp l a n e i n rh e w o rl d i s onl y os good oi rhe mon w ho fl l ei l t. H l s stren gt h, sp e e d , p o w e r, d n d e n d u .o n .e must be.ommensurdre w i rh thot ol hi 5.hi p. H e musr b e o b l e to tl y .t h i g h o l ri tu der for l ong hours. H e musl be cbl e l o stond l he onri-aircrofi tire ond trequent dogtighri. He'll be lnore

gruelling lrroin ot prolonged l l k e l y to .o me

3 a fe l y th ro u gh o.rosh l ondl ng or ro i urvi ve d seri ous di ci denr i f (nee-bends Jnd pushups rnoy seem unl l kel y ro

h l i p h y s i c o l s ro mi n d i s g re o r.*

p ro d u .e th e s e n e .e s s o ry re sul l i . B ut they ond other (oreful l y i el e.red phy6l .ol e x e rc l i e i d re re s p o n i i b l e t o o l orge degree for rhe l uperb.ondi ri on n y e rs ro d o y . T h e l r s te n g th ened blc.klng ot A meri c.n

cbdoml nol mui .l es i ncreoi e rhei r obl l l ty to ovo ld to the tllcue!

our. Their rroined heorls supply more blood ond oxysen

t h c n d o u n l ro l n e d h e o rl i , w hen they.re there is o lower pcrcentcae sen3lble, well-pldnned

s' rbi e.red ro physi c.l stress or w hen In o

of oxygen In rhe olr. * Regular p.rtlclpotlon

progrom of physi.ol educorion i! one of rhe hosl imporiont

woys to achieve such flrness. The collsthenl.s? .ombot gome3, .orrles, 6nd group gomes de..rlbed or iuggested in the following plges will help improve your

s rre n Eth c n d e n d u ro n c e .




Folr Groupsof Exercises Which ShouldBe Includedin Every RequtorPhysicol TroiningProgromSuggestedVoriotions-When to Toke Physicol Troinins-Who BenefihoI PlonnedExercite o Do thhediorety Afterwords-

Whdt Worfr-Up Exercises Are-Descriptions of 5 SussesredCotitthenica: High jumperr Squor The Bender,Situps;BonkTwisir 8-Counl P!5h!p3.

Duol Exer.ises ond Combqf Gomes
Descriplions Stroddle Pullupsr of: Foll ond Roll-Vdlue of Cohbor come3-Descriptions of: Hond Wrestling; Indion WresrlingrRoosterFisht-Why Wrenling k Voluoble.

For Men: Arm Cory; Fnemon'!Corry; CrossCoryr Sinsle ShoolderCory-For 3.Mon Lifr; Coryins Vicrim by Exrrehiries. cnls:2-Mqn Cotry;

Swimming qnd Runnlngi Group Gomes
Kindr of Ruhning Physicol o Troinins Prosrom ShouldInclude-Seven Obie.rives ro Mosler Swinming-Volue of Group Athleti6-Eight Sussesredcroup cones.


You should devote an hour a day to physical trainirg, which should include 4 sroups ot exerciiesl 1. Calisthenics. 2. Dual Exercises, including Combat Games and Carries. 3. Swimmine and Running. 4. Recreational Athletics and Group Gmes. Devbte hau of the physical taining peliod to vigolous group athletics, and on altemate days, to swillming or running. By varying the exercis€s from day to day, you will find them interesting as well as valuable. II possible, take your physical training at least 2 hours after a meal and at lest 30 minutes before your next meal. Dont ddnk warer during or immediately after exercise. Remove most of your clothins drDins exercjse and add dothing afterwads. If possible.ole a shower immedialely. Physical fitness is as important for girls and women, if they de to take an active ed useful part in aviation activities, as it is for boys and men. Planned exercise wi imprcve their muscular tone and posturc, increase their rcsjstance, improve their stamina, rclieve te.sion, and improve thel coordination Women will teach the physical haining Fogram for girls md it will not be as strcnuous as the boys' proCram. Some of the exercises Ior boys, howev€r, can be used to equal advantage by girls.


pre..de.oli.rhenics Thos. wotm-up cxer.i.e. .onrist.l roiring simpl. wcrD-!p erer.i.4.hould ins lo.r; dnd h.nd in9 ihe hecd f.rwd rd, rhe qrm. forword, .id€wdrd, .n.l overhsd; b.nd irs foNcrd c.d touGh bockword, ond rid€ ro .id., Then do rh. lollowing Gcti.rheni.. energeri.dlty. In.recie dqily the nunb.r ol rim.. you do .c.h .n.. You will fird de..riPrion. of oddiriondl .oliith6ni.i, which ndy h. inrh€ F mphlot " Phy.i.o I Condniorins &ied on Wcr DeForrn.nr Trcini ng Cir.ular8Z." u..d.!dllernorer,

\ ?/4 7it4


This is a warm-up exercise, which involves the entire body and develops coordination. Siart with {eet sprcad about 12 inches, knees slightly bent, arms raised backward, body beDt slightly forward at the waist.Do the exercise at a fairly slow count(cadence)

and in 4 movements: a. Swins- arms forward and jump upward. b. Swins ams backwed and jump upward. c. Swinc anns forward over head vigorously and Ieap upward at Ieast 12 inches. d. Swing arms backwad and jttmp upwad.


2. .>r44f


This is an excellent exercise for the legs, thighs, and lrubk muscles. Siart wiih feet slighdy separated and thrust position. Do the following 4 movemoderate cadence:

r a. Do a {u1l squat and thrust arms {orwa}d, with nngers extended, palms down, trunl< €rect b. Retum to original position. c. Bend fomard sharply. Touch toes, keeping d. Return to starting position.


3. slluld
This exercise strengthens the muscles of the abdomen, thighs, and hips, and stletches the calf muscles.Begin by lying flat on your back, feet apart, arms extended overhead. In slow cadence,do t}Ie exercisein 4 movements:

a. Sitting up, thrust arms forward and touch toes, keeping knees straight. b. Lie back to odginal position. c. Raise legs, swinsing them back overhead, and touch toes to ground, keeping knees stlaight. d. Lo$"r legs siowly to starting position.


t. &a"cb ?a'Cat
This exercise strengthens the hip nuscles and the oblique muscles of the abdomen. Lie flat on your bacL, arms extended sideward, palms down, legs raised to a fight angle, with knees straight,'feet together. Do the exercise in 4 movements in slow a. Lower legs to the left. Twisting body and keeping knees straight, touch ground wilh feet. b. Return to siarting position. ght. Twisting body and c. Lower legs to the keeping knees stlaight, touch eround with feet. d. Return to starting position.

s. €r4ll- &udl


This is an excellent exercise for the muscleso{ tle arms, shoulders,trunk, and legs.It is pe ormed in 8 movements, in moderate cadence.Besinning {rom the posiiion of attention: a. Bend sharyly at the kne€s and sliehtly at the hips and place the hands in {ront of the feei in squat b. Thrust fect and legs backwardsto a front leaning position, with the body stiaight from shoulders to feet, weight suppo{ed on hands and toes.

c. d. e. f. g. h.

Touch chestto emund, keeping body stifi. Retum to tuont leaning position. Touch chestto ercund again,keepingbody stifi. Return io {roni leaning position. Retum to squatiing position. Retum to position of attention




r Saaddle ?4//2p.
Thjs exercis€ strensthens the arm ind shoulder musclcs.In the starting position,one man lies flat on his back, with arms stretched upwad (palms facine away fmm him). Another stands astride his shoulde$ and erasps his outsfetched arms. Do the exercise in 2 movements,in moderate cadence: a. Keeping body stlaieht lrom shouldeis to heels,

and supporting weight on heels, the percon lying down pulls himself up m high as possible, keeping his nngers hooked into the palms and fineers oI the penon staDdingover him. (Note: it is important to have your frneernails t mmed close for th$ exercNe to prevenr currrng your partner'"fingcrs.) b. He ther slowly lowers himself to the Crcund, keeping his body staight- After several pulups,

z. /a//

aad. RaA

This exercise is of great practical impoftance to all flyers, because it shows the b€st way to land after a pdachute escape. This exercise should be performed on soft tur{ or mats lor safety. The 2 men face eacll other, with hands ioined and arms cro$ed. The bottom man places his left les forwad and bends his

knees. .The top man places his left foot on the left thish of the bottom man and steps up, placing his right foot on tha right shoulder of the bottom man and his left foot o! the left shoulder.The bottom man rcleases hmds and placeshis hands behind the knees of the top han. The top man balmces himself in this position.At a signal,he leansforward and falls, landing or the balls of his feet, with his legs together and slishtly flexed at the knees, and continues forward and sidewad into a tumbline ro1l. You shouldpractice elementaltumbling beforeyou







Fotrh. followins .x.rcir.. cnd for Codbot Gom$ cnd Corrie.. divid. up inro pciG, choo.ing d pdrtn.r obour yoor .iic cd w.isht. Th..e conb.rr orc vdludbl. ir dev€loping rh. obility to re.d in.tcntly with d mdrinun ot...rgy for th. purpo.e of ov.rcoming cn .ppon.trt.

t Za'cd ?4"444t",t
Opponents {ace each othes clasp ght hands, and place their right feet together, outsides touchins. At a signal, each attempts by pultins, pushing, by sid€ward movement, or othet maneuvedng, to force opponent to both feet from odginal position. Change hands (and {eet) after each bout.

s, ?ao.te, 7.?/f
Hop on left fooX, with arms folded across the chest. Use the rieht shoulder and sht side of chest to butt opponeDt. The object is to make opponent lose his balance and fall, or to unJold his arms. or to touch his free foot to the ground.

z. ?r4ta"t. 7//4<14*4g
Contestants lie flat on backs alongside each other, with heads in opposite dir€ctions. Link dght elbows. At a sisnal, mise fight leg far enough to engage leg of opponent. Do this 3 times rhythmically. On the third time, attempt to rcll opponent over backward. After 3 bouts, chanse sides and use left arm and leg.

+ Z/ae.odarg
This is one of the most vatuable lorms of exercise for combative activity. It develops all t]e muscles of the body.


FOt MlN. Th. ldpo.ron.. ot m..r.rin! rh.....rr.r .onnor b. .x.ii.r.l.d. In oddnion ro rh..r..Gtn rhd fi.y F.vtd., th. .orl.. wlll .@bl. you ro pqtdn Inpcn .t E.G!. totl.nd ro lEnlPcn r.urd.d cr lnconr.icu. D.ronl

r. z'u &aa+
One, standing and facing Two's side, bentls his knes, leans forward arrd places one arm behind Two's liack and one arm under Two's knees. One st aightens up, lifting Two from the ground. T\^,o plac€s his arms around One's shoulder and clasos hands.One then runs forward 30 to 60 paces.

t. (ho44 (hrut
One, standing sideways in front of Two, leans forward. Two bends forward until he is lying acloss the middle of One's back. One then places one arm around Two's knees and one alm arcund Two,s shotrlders and sbaightens up, lifting Two frcm the ground. One then runs forwad 30 to 60 paces

z. /acaaa'o


One, standins sideways in front of Two, bends his knees, leans forward, and places one arm through Two's ootch. Two leans forward until he lies across One's shoulders. One siraightens up, lifring Two ofr the ground. One, using the hand of the am through Two's ootch, grasps the w st ot Two's arm that is hangiDg over his shoul<ler. In this position, One rtrns forward 30 t 60 paces.

.. Sd,th Sf44U€n eb4nt
One, standing iD front oI and lacing Two, assumes a semi-squatting position. Two leans forward until he lies acrcss One's lelt shoulder. One clasps his ams around T\ro's legs and shaightens up, lifting Two fmm the ground. In this position, One runs forwad 30 0o60 paces.


FOR GltLS. the lollowihg <orrier dre bener iuired for girt, rhon .re rh e l-mo n.d ri.. whi. h or € r eG . m m . nd€df or m e . , y o u s h o s l d r h o r o u g h t y master theie ..rries nor only for their €x.r.ire w.tue bui for rne woluoble erperion.. vfiiGh rh€y provide for first-.id .nd r6s.ue work,

t, ?aa -%tae €aaaq
The 2 bearers kneel at either side of victim and, with one hand, grasp each other's shoulders around the tictim's back. With the other hand the bearers grasp each other's wrists under victim's thighs. Pushing up \!ith their le8s, they then rise slowly from the grcund and caDy victim 30 to 60 paces.

3. eaa.ql6g ?k

Two bearers kneel at head and foot of victim. Bearcr at the head places her ems under the victim's until shc can clasp haDds aiound victim's chest. Bearer at the feet places her hands under victim's knees. At a sienal, bearers dse together by pushing up NitI their legs and carfy the victim 30 to 60 paces.


6t t*tzewlt<:ez

2. 74ue -7/4'4 Z4l
The I bearer kneel on one knee oD the same side of the lictnr, who is flat on her back. The bearer at rne shoulders puts one arm under victim's head, neck, and shoulders and ihe other ar.n under upper part of ractih's back. The second bearer places one ar:n Dder victih's back and the orher under victim's thighs. The third bearer places one arm under vic-

tim's knees and the other uder her less just above thc ankles. At a signal, all 3 bearers lift together and pl acq v;a1;r on rhei r knces Then thp bpar er s r ise togethcr and cany victim in hodzontal pos[ion {or 30 i o 60 pace, bJ $al krng forw ard i n .te p.


These activities are among the best of all cond ioning exe.cises, and are as valuable to girls as they are to h1en. Include some running in the physical tuaining program at least every other day. This may inctude dashes, rclays, cmss counrry, or obstacte course Swimming is paricularly valuable to all flyerc because of the baini.g it gives them for meermg emersercies, such as bailing out over warer and dilching. In practicing swimmine, you should master 1. Stay afloat. 2. Swim unde. water. 3. Swim long distances without exhaustion. 4 . E n t.r rh e w ater feet fi E t w i rhout submergi ng. 5. Be at home in the water fully clothed. 6. UDdress in deep water. 7. ReDder assistance to anorher person in the water. Fo. this purpose you should learn and use the Red Cross Iif e-saving merhods.

/2 ^/) q/2or4n Uataa / t / fJ:":"it':tl".j,'ru'T-.,il:.H:*",:H":;
"ecleation._ These games may include voley_balt, dodgelal, basketball, softbalt, touch {ootball, soccer, .p + d b !l l . a nd human rug-of-rar. E vcry C A p cadel s h .u rd te a rn ro i n ar l easi 2 of rhe.r spori " . " xcel

Milirqry .ompolsns (ommunl.otlons.

have fdlled, snd o wor .ould be losr, beGouse of Inodequcre orgonlzed ond operoted .ommunl.arlons iysrem is rhe

A properly

ner v e c e n l e r o f o n y .o mmc n d . Today i t provi des our ml ghry .rmed forc6s w i rh cl l s ee l n s e y e s , In .re d l b l y d c u i e eo13, !nd o vol .e w hi .h w i l t c.rry ony desl ' ed di sr6nce. t he m i l i r!ry o i rm o n l s h e l p l e ss w l l hout i t. A nd ci vi l l cn Oyers shoul d become fomi l i or wlrh whorever commu.ic.tior {!ciliries cre ar theit dirlosat, Communt.orions

in. r e o s e b o l h l h e c o n v e n l e n (e ond 3o{ety of rhei r fl l ghri , * thl s secri on of your monudl wlll c€quaint you with qll rhe prlncipol neons of communl.otlon used in militory operqrions. lr will Introdu.e you to lhe lnternotlonal Morse

Code cnd show you wdys In which, by diligenr practice, you con r eo d i l y l e o rn ro s e n d o h d re c ei ve mei soges i n i t. In rhe tol l ow l ng poges you ot3o wlll learn how lo use the rcdiotelephone most efie.tlvely.

| 1{ t H ts sECrlo il . . .

€, lhe Eyer, Eqri, ond Voice of lhe Commqnder
lmpodonceof Communi.otiont-Vivid Exomplei of Their Use in Typicot Mission_Typesof Wire Communicolion-Rodio Ures-Types oI Visuot Communicorion_Wheh Used_Why ond When Sound Communicotion Used-The M$soge Center-Me$enger ir Cohmunicotion -The Pigeon

Internotionol Morse Code
Loymen'sldeo of Code-Nor Difiicolt to L.orn-Why Code i3 Slperior ro Voice_p.oper Srepr to Toke in Leo.ningit-How to PrinrWhor you Heor. ond Use of Key-How ro Moke your Own Boz,er_The Dir Chorocier5E.l, S, H-lmportonce of Sound-Review oI Dir Choro.re6. Le5son One: Correcl Adi6lmsi LesronTwo: teornine To Spo<.-Ihe Doh Chorocre6 T, M, O-Exercise in Words

ContoininsAll ChorocteGLeohed-Chorocters A, N, D, U-ftercites. Le$on Three, SoundingLetleB ond How to Procti.e-Accuro.y t ore tmporrontThon Speed-Chorocters W, G. V.8-Word ond Senre'EeErer<be-Cho.ocreB of Simitor Sound.


Lelron Four:Chqrocteri R, K, F, L-Exerciret in Word3 ond S€nteft$. Leson Five:letter Groop Exercic-ChorocteB J, P, X, Z-Word ond Senrene Ererckes.

L6ton Sir: Correcting 8od Hobitr-Erercise in Proper formdrion oI LeheB_Chorode6 C, Y, Q-Word ond S.ntenceExercirer.

Le$on Seven:Exerciiesin S€ndingo.d Re.eiving-Procticing Nomerok. tesson Eight: Review-Ererci5ei Combining Alphobet ond Numerok-Punctuorion Mork-Exercires In Thei. Ure.

Lesron Nine: When ond How ro U5eSlinter Signor5.

Rodlolelephore Procedure
Need For Rodio Dkcipline-Advonroses of Rodioielesroph-Other Types of Rodio Communicolion-Howlo folk-Explonotion of Phonetic Alphobet-Exompte Of lrs U3e-Numerolr-How io Store Army Time-Coll Signs-Porrs of Me$oqe-sompte Me$o9e-Proper Woy to Repeot Poft of Mestoges-Rodio Lqnsuoge-Trdnsmi ing To Stotions in Groups-Checking Sisnot Slrength-Two-Stotioi Ner-Sdmple Conveudtion-Four-Stotion Net-Conkol Tower Procedure-Somple


:rhe vital necessity of communications not only. in the .{ir Forces but in all iypes oI military operations is visidly illusirated in the following incident: A small Signal Cor?s detachment palt of the Allied invasion force which landedat Palermo, Sicily, at the start of the Italian campaien-soon found itseu deep in enemy teritory, isolated from {riendly forces. It occupied the crest o{ a hill comanding an unobstructed view, thoueh its piesencercmainedunknown to Genm and Italian Iorces. Lorvering his birloculars, an otrcer issued an order to an aide. That night, shortly a{ter dusk, a runner slipped from the d€tachment's hiding place on the hill. He carried a coded messaee which reported the mobilization of an enemy tank {orce, apparently {or a couter-otrensive. The messenger had only l chance in 10 of completing his mission. If he got throueh, ,\tlied artillery md planes would concentrate on the reported position within 12 hours. The omcer sent his message by runner because other means of communication were not feasible. Radio would sive away his position. Visual signals Nould ofier the same disadvantage even iI they could be seen ovei the mountainous telrain. PigeuN were At an Allied airbase in Noith Aftica, meantime, a medium bomber wamed up for takeoF. Crew members rvere in place, safety harnesses fastened. The pilot spoke into a microphone. He asked the contot to$er for lakeofi instructions, then taxied onto the .un\ray in response to a green light sienal. Instructroc Eere given by Edio, and the craft roared do\r,n the mway. It circled the 6eld once, and headed out o\ er t ie blue Me d i te rra n e a n .Irs mi s ro n wassi rafi ng -ils destination, Sicily. The piane cme in low and fast over Palemo and headed for enemy tenitory, gunners ale{ for the frst sign of the enemy. The first burst was directed at a column windins thrcugh a shallow ravine which skirted a hill. The line o{ nen broke as .50 calihe machine gu bullets kicked up dust along the enemy rcute. The ship climbed out of the valley ;s the

enemy column passed beneathits belly. It circled the hill for another run. The copilot and gunners scannedthe g.een terrain

be1ow. Suddeniy a flash of suntieht from the hi caught the copilot's etc. He .equested t|c pxor ro circle the spot. Now, men we.c seen scurrying aboui a cleared place in thc trees Dcar the top of the hill. A panel revealiDs the eround unil. s ident y was hastily sprcad on the ground. "Thel rc Yahks, all rish1.,, thc copiloi reported. "Circlc again, Joe let's see I'hat the!. l,ant.,, A second panel appcared as thc plaDe passe.t o,cr the clcaring a third tirDe. Consulrins a charr, the copilot interprcted the sihelc panet aloud: "Reconnoiier 2; miles in thc direction ro be nldicaled by the next displny.', An alorv appeared on the eround on thc {ourrh l\rn, and the pilot dippccl his \\ings 1(] notify rhe signal uhit beloiv thai ]rc had reccired thL, n,essa8e. 'Ihc planc then headed in rhe difcction indicated by The piloi liftcd his ship s Dosc to sain airitude for a better view of thc enemy tcrritory. The copilot




sishted thc lirst of the tanks shorrly rttcr thet teft the hill. Then his tranlcd eye picked up ue camou_ ilaged vchicles in heavier coDccntration. "Boy. thosc Jerrics are realty gcrtin' ready for The copilot ro$' askcd the navignror for thcir posi tion, and started io jot d.,*,n a nessage Completing i1, hc consulted a code referencc. and frote rhc mes_ sagc, this time in codc. He ihcn placed it in a special drop rncssage container. Thc plane headed back tox,ard Patermo, an.l$.ithin hinutes was over {riendi} troops. Spottins an,\rnef icaD unit belov, the copilot inserred a carrridae in the Very pistol. clamped it to thc liring tube and pullcd the trisgef. A flarc sprourcd fro,n the fusclaee, notitybs men bclow to be on ttie lookou1. The rnes sage containef archcd earth!,ard Ttie pilot circlcd once to Dakc sure rhe container had bcfn rerncverl and. satis\'ing bimsell of this. hcaded again over th. Mcditerranean The suD had disappcared ud dark_

llid-\rat' bet\Leen Sicil] and the.AfricrD coNst the rrg hl ! ! nor s pu ttc rc d a n d d i e d . T h e p i l o l ,,,ani puIa l. d t hr c ont r o l s a n d g o t th e c ra i l b a c k o n an even keel. B ul t he alti me te r s h o w e d th c p l a n c rvas,r,srrrB lhc pilol or de re d h i s ta d i o o p e ra to r l o ro porl the !mcrgcnc]'i givih8 the plane's positkD. Hc lh.n told crov urubers to gathcr emergencv equipriedt, includnrg radio. flarcs and Very pistol. The radn) \!as tl le k ind whic h c o u l d b e o p e ra tc d b ! h a n d Ir,rD thc r:f t il lh. plan e w a s fo fc c d to l a n d o n th c $.rter. The Vefl pi\t{,1 \1,uld hclp at[act pnssins L.icnd]] E ac h c r c \ n rc mb c r a c k n o $ l e d g c d thc ordcr th r ough t ho pla n c s i n te rp h o n c s rs tc n r. l ' hc rrdi o opemlof l.pp.d out the niessagc. Slrugg)ir),t t., DriinlaiD altitude, the pil()1 u1r'ked th c ( lc r d c ns jDe s N i tc h { rc q u e n tl y . Su d d c n l\' i t l ook h o ld. s pull. r f d, th e n p i c k e d u p . a rd $ a s s o ,,n w (,rk, i ng s nloolhly as a i n . P i l o t a n d c o p i l o t s .n m{ thoi f

it ,r..

'a. &



rel i ef. One of them rol d th. ra(l i o opcfal o r t o canccl the di sl ress,nessagc. The dark outlurc of the c0ast Do$ lo.nrled ahe.d. Thi rl s mi nutes 1al er. . l i shl srgnal l roDi t he ho, ne ficlcl conlrol to$er guide(l th!'m in. ''Got )our message, shourcd the operalbls ofllccr, as the cfew sleppcd from thc plnhe. Ir ivas picked hefe llcssagc center up at Bizc.tc and iclcl]p.d ,{messen8er stepped l (,fw rfd. srl uted, and ad' ' Y ou re w anted at Int.l l i s.' r1cc.si r.' The oc\r liled into the S-2 headquarters. An oflicer nr shirt sleeves greeted th.' pil()ll ''Nice Nork. Joe Iour n)essago {ol through oka!. A rl i l l e\-s al readr-$orki D s,D cD r. and $e\ e just senr ou1 a squadrob 10 hcl p sofl eD ' em up G ood thins rou spotted lhosc tank\ probably savcd thc ' ' C n.l i ror t1.t L.l " r.S . . th..- S r: Cor l - gr y': oD the hi l l ," Joe broke i D .


Now thqt you've followed q typicql misrion, let,s excmini: the different meqns of comrnunicqtions more closely.


Pdmary m€ans of conveying messages between points on the ground, its chief instrumeDts are: Telephon€-PerDits woice tmnsmission quickly, and targe volune of traffic. Telegraph-Assures gr€ater secrccy, and is not affected by weather conditions. Teletyp€-Assuressecrecy,speed, accuracy, handtes Iarge volume of traffic, and requires no skitled

This is th€ prlmary meaDsof communicating between aircraft in flight, within aircra{t (by interphone), and between aircraft and the sround.

Auxiliary means of cornmunicating, supplementing wire and mdio, are dependent upon characier of warfare, proximity of enemy, chamcter o{ tenain. and weather. Used when other means fait, usualy as emergency means, thei p ncipal implements are: Panels, sisnal lamps (flashing airplane lichtsl flags, pyrot€chnics, hand signals, airplane maneuverc, and

This neans of communication is used pdmadty for alarms, attlacting attention, and for transmission of short plearlaneed messages and oldeE. It should be used whenever such use is economical of time. persorurel, or equipment, and only when making of sound will not discloseprcsenceof roops to enemy. The chief instuments of sound communicarion are: Whistles, bueies, smali ams, artilleiy, motors of airplanes in flight, horns. sirens, and nttles.

ai each headThis is t}le agency of the comander quarters or command post delegated to receive, transmit and deliver aU messagesexcepi those sent direct to the addressee, those handled by civil or military postal service, or those sent by local or special messenger. Its purpose is to speed transmission and receipt of authentic messages.

This means of communication uses people to cary They are: orders and messages. RUNNERS Employed when other meansare not {easible,when {or other distancesare short, or route is impassable

MOUNTED MESSENGERS {biq.le, molorcy(le, horse) when enemy situation and condition of Emptoyed

MOTORMEsSENGERS Normally employedbetveen headquafiersseparated by not morc than 4 hor.m' motor time, when mail senice will not suffice. AIRPIANE MESSENGER Used when other means will not sumce. Imporiani messaees often tiansmitied between widelv sepaare mted units or between alied armies by this means use the drop messageto relav Airylane messengers in{ormation to ground units when other means are not available or secrecy is necessary Thev emplov the pick-up message to receive information irom grcund units when other means are not feasible.

This hardy and dependablebird is used in emergency when othet meansof communicationfail.

As a student, you must have coDffdence in your abi l i ry. and bc determi nFd ro fo ow i nsLrucrl ons. Thus you will avoid Iearning certain bad opemting habits which orherwise would reraid yuur prosress. RemeDber that code is not dimcutt, if you follow a iew simple ru1es. The 6rst step is ro memorize tte signats. It is im_ portant that you learn the sound of each signal correctly at the beginning. Insread o{ visuatizing the "dot" and "dash." try to think of them by the sound "dit" fo. "dot,,, You vill need to concenrare especia y hard while ]eaming the sisnals. With repetition, you wilt soon recognize the sound without thinkins roo much about it. Learn a few signals at a time, leah them thoroughly, and teain them by thetu sound. Regule pnctice will train your mind and ear ro rccognize the sound in much the same way you now instatly associate meanings with the sound of spoken *'ords. You can practice the signats which follow either by repeariDe the code to yourseH or by wbistling it. It is impo ant that you w te down everything you hear ed recognize_Listening without recoding w hat you hear accompi i .hFsl i Ie. It you mi ss some_ thing, leave it out and wr e what you recognize. There ae mary available sho -wave broadcasrs which will help give you practice.

The avemee lalnan associates Morse Code with dingy railway stations and sinking. ships. He probably recognizes the now familiar 3 dots aDd a dash represenling the "V" in ,,V for Vicrory.', Doubttess he also knows that 3 dots, 3 dashes and 3 dors signify S.O.S. in any language. Aside from that, the dot ed dash language to him is little more than gibberish w h icl, .a n b e m as t er ed only a rte r )p a rs o f s ru d y . To acquire great speed at code, considerable practice is necessary. It is not hard to be moderatety {ast at it. However, we will attempt herc only to give you a knowledge of code and sufficient speed .o permrr you to send and rcceive. Code plays an important part in many operatioN, and may prcvent disaster in emergencies not oriy in the air but on land or at s€a. It may seem unnec€ssary ro you to leam Intemadonar Mofte Code since you can tradsmit and receive mes-qges by voice. Code, however, is huch sup€rior !o .adio teiephone for 3 rcasons: 1. lyhen you use secret code, you can keep the lra.smissions unintelligible to anyone who does not 1ale iacilities for decoding. 2. Duing periods o{ poor receiving cond ions such s those caused by static, ignition noises, {ading sig_ rals. etc., code is still rcadable after phone transmrs_ 3. The ranse is greater when using code and the s:r oi equipment is considerably tess.

.. rrh


..)t , )Jrr*



PRI I {T I I { G
A uniforn merhod of puting on pcper whot you h.or is sss€nrict.When you receive .ode prinr ecch lefi€r, following lh€ mlthod illu3irct€d bolow:








V t











L0|€ rhlr rhe zero hcs c diogondl line runn:ng rhroush it to distinguishit from th. O.


We hcve divided the mqteriql which follows into lessong. Lccrn eoch lesson thoroughly before proceeding to lhe next.

You can receive ooly as wett as the pe$on sending can transmit. H€nce, good sending is just as iDportant as good }eceiving. It is important, therefore, to begin youl sending Factice in a coEect manner. &d habits acquired now will stick wirh you later. You must adjust the key properly and space the contacts correctly belore iou begiD to transmit. The spdng tension (co ed spring) on any key must be adapled to the individual. The spring adjusonr scew coDtrols this tension. If you have trcubte in fominc dits and dahs, change the spdng tensior until you arc able to seDd both elements €asity and colrectly.

Your elbow (not foream) rests on rhe table. There is space under your forearm and wrist. your ffngers are .uNed and flexible, not stmight and stitr. The ffnger ends of your first and second fingers rest on

top of the button near the back edge. Yoru thumb is on the edge of the button, rcsting very lightly against it but not graspirg it. Although it is possible to practice the characters

5-9 without uing a sending key, it is necessary that you have accessto oDe sooner oi tater. You will have this opportunity in the class rcom. In case you want to practice sendiig at home, the simple diagran below will show you how to rie up your own buzzer. Now with your fingeIs, wdst, and arm in the posi tion described, press the key by a straight downward motioD of the forean. Your elbow stays in place. YorD Mist acts as a hinge. Your fingers are flexed; do Dot let them be stifi. When the key has made contact. release the button and let the spring bdng th€ key back to the up position. Do not allow your fngels to act independently. They mercly take palt in the coodinated actions of your forcarm, wrist, and hand. Most of the work is done+y the lareer muscles of the forearm and upper arm. Contiauous ind€pendent use of the ffngers in sendine will cause your hand. to becone tired and cramped. When you'rc sure the key is adjusted properly, your {oreard is moving straieht up and down, your wrist is loose and operating like a hinge, and your fingers are flexible. begin your tusl le"son.


2 O ANC 5 PO$flON



tEss0N E 01{
We'll consider the dit chalactels (letters) tust. They are E, I, S, and H. Make the dit by closins and opening the key quickly. The sound produced is the letter E. Remember, the sound is the character. Memorize the sound, not dits and dahs. Now make a stridg oI E's, altowing the same spaee between them as fotlows:

dir dir dir dir dir dir dii dir EEEE EEEE
R€p€at this procedure urtil you've firmly ffxed the sound dit in your mind. Keep it sho , and watch your spacing, makirxg it uniform.

The I is formed by 2 dits in quick succession.Key the lett€r so that it sounds like ditdit, not dit dit, which would indicate 2 E's. Repeat the folowing as you practiced the E.

dirdir dirdir dirdir dirdir dirdir dirdir



Listen to the chaEcter as you sound it, and rcmem-

The cbancter S is next in the dit sedes-3 dirs in a row. It's ditditdit, not dit dit dit. PEctice rhis tike the others, remembering to space.

dirdirdir dirdirdii dirdirdir 5S5

5-t I

If you have difficulty {orming this letter, or any of the prcvious characteri, say it aloud to youlselJ. The H consists of 4 dits in quick succession, which you can say ]ike this: &tdit&tdit. Be sure to key them evenly, smootbly. Now pnctice transnitting the H like this:

dirdirdirdif difdiidhdit dirdirdirdir H HH

Review all the dit characteF you have covercd before you unde*ake the word exercises. Be carc{ul to concenhate on one lette! at a time. Do not skip about too much before you are well acquahted vrith each. Plactice these until you can recogDize each one without having to hesitate to fuule it out. When confident ihat you know them, begin sending words made up of the lette$ you have leamed. Keep the E)ac€ between lett€N the same in each word. Key the individual letters lust as you &d before. Now try ihe lonowillg exercises, striving for smootbness and unifom characters:


dirdifdifdir dir



dirdirdirdirdirdir dirdirdir

s h e

dirdirdir dirdirditdir dir

s e s

dirdirdir dit dir


rEss0t{ TtY0
spocing In the 6rst lesson, you learned the imponance o{ forrrins chalacte$ acculately. You also saw the necessity: Ior proper and uni{om spacing. Proper spacine is absolutely necessary iJ you are to develop a good sending tut. A9 you begin to plactice additional chalacteE, maintain €ven spacing at all times until you know the alphab€t. UniJorm keying develops Foper timing. You must know how loDg to pause between the characterc of a t'ord, and between words in a sentence.This is oot difrcult to learn, and Foper spacing lgill become more clear as you progress. Here is a simple suggestion to help you leain ploper spacingl The space between any two chalactels, such as E and I, equals 3 units. A dit is 1 unil a dah 3 unib. I'hercfore the space b€t$'een E and I, or any chaEcters, will equd the time rcquired to send 1 dah or 3 dfis. the Wace between words is 5 to ? units, or dits.


lte s€cond goup of characters you will learn are the dah fett€rs, T, M, ad O. Begin with a string of fs, ke€ping lhe spacing equal between then;

doh dqh doh doh doh . dqh doh TTTI TI T
R€peat u.Dtil you are familiar with the souad oI the chmcter T-



Ihe lf, cnsists of 2 dabs in quick succession {,ith no space between lhus M is dahdah, not dah dah. The dabs are the same leagth; do not accent either one. llljs is true with aU cLracters of ary combination. Now re!€at the fofbwing exercise, as you did with tbe T:

dohdoh dohdoh dohdqh dohdqh ttY l M

nre lettrr O consists of 3 dals-dahdahdah. Keep tbeo uniforn, witb no space b€rweeE. Howeve;, dont loryet to spac€ between lette$. Rep€at the following exercis€ as bdore:

dqhdohdqh dqhdqhdoh dqhdohdqh






Now by the following exercise, watching construction of the letters, the spacing between them, and the spacing between words:

Tom Motlo To Mol Tot Otto

dqh dqhdohdqh dohdoh dqhdqh dqhdqhdqh doh dqh dqhdqhdoh dqh dohdqhdqh dohdqh dohdohdoh dqh doh dqhdqhdqh dqh dohdqhdqh doh dqh dqhdqhdoh
divide the time wit! him fqr sending and rcceiving. You should both iGist on proper construcnon and spacing, obgerying all prewious suggestions

Using all the lette$ which you have now learned, make other wods of them. Send them over and over for practice. II you are pncticing with someone,

EXERCIsE TWO is it to he oh so his .rie hit see she lee sii tom tot tee sit fime set mel miss home some hose mess lhose moose sheel meeis shims messes
(Don'rr]y ro l.crn rhe period now. lr will.ome ldrer.)

Try these: Shemissesthe home. He met lvlisi smith. Thetot shot moose.


Ilre A is nade up of a dit atrd a dah, witlt ao space betwe€n the 2 €lements. Thus A is ditdah_ Make it smoothly. Keep the lehgth of both the dit and dah collecq not too long for the dit or too short for the dah. Fo[ow the procedure you've leamed for speed and spacing.

dirdqh dirdoh dirdoh dirdqh dirdqh AAAAA

T}re btter N is dahdit. Practice a few as you did with

dqhdir dqhdir dohdir dohdir dohdir NN NNN

The D is dahditdi! without spacing. Key it smoothty, so rhat there is no pause between the elemen.s.

dqhdirdir dohdirdir dohdirdir dohdirdir DDDD

The U is ditditdah.

dirdirdqh dirdirdqh dirdidqh dirdirdqh UUUU

Don't undertake this €xerciseuntil you have learned the previous lesson thorougNy. The fiIst word i" ,'not.,,Transmit it like this dohdir dohdohdqh


PFctice the fouowing words, observing unilorm spacnrg:

nol dot

mcrn men misl 3hul union

di m
mql shoe moqn house

lo hod done dusl shoes

qnd nul moin mon mouSe

due hot dies note sound

the hut moon
sleqm sodq

3qt 3ee


unil moose


If you have leamed the above well, begin practicing sentences. Here's an example:

The mqn hqs shoeson. doh ditditdird dir dohdqh ditdoh dqhdir dirdirdirdir difdqh dirdirdir ditdirdit dirdidirdir dohdqhdoh dit dirdirdit dqhdqhdqh dqhdir

Try fhese: It is o dude home. The man died in the hot sieqm. The mousedid not meqn in lhe house, The dust qnd misf dim the moon qs o mot.


LLI II ybu are visualizing dits and dahs instead of learning to rccognize characters by souDd, something is wmns, and you musl co$ect it before you proceed. Use every spare moment to sound difiercnt lette$, as you see th€m in newspape$, on sign boads, in letters, wherever you may be. Say them aloud if possible, otherwise in a whisper. Hundrcds have used this Factice to increase their sound proficiency, and it is efiective. Regular practice is important provided you develop corect habits. It is more important to practice regularly than ior lonc periods. You will accomplish much more in 15 minut€s o{ concentmted practice each evening than in 2 houis' practice once a week. Accuncy is morc important than speed. Dotr't become discouraeed if you fail to gain speed. this vqilt be attained later through Factice and familiarization. Eventually you will be able to r€coenize wods and phmses by sound, much as a child rccosnizes the x'ords "mother" and "father."

The chaiacter W is formed with a dit and 2 dahs in quick sueession. Pr:actice as before:

ditdqhdoh dirdohdqh ditdqhddh


The c is dahdahdit, exactly the reverse of W.

dqh&hdit dohdqhdit dqhdqhdir G GG

llle letter V aloud belorc tedng. Now ditditd daL

is ditditditdah-3 dits and 1 dah. Say it you key it, srnoothly and wtthout stutimitate the vocaf sor:nd on the kev. Practice as beforc.

ditditdirdoh dirdirdirdoh dirdirdirdoh




Ibe B is dahditditdit. between characte$.

Keep your spaciry uniform

dqhdirdirdil dohdirdirdir dohdirdirdir B


Practice the following words, obseNing spacing.Don't artempt to gain speedyet, bur seek acculacy.

b"9 edge voin vocuum

wo9 bug wesl bqse

visit vogue bqton weeds

bqsin gun dug bqste


beqd woste good von

wqgon both

vqt weqn

When you have mastered these words, practice the foUowing sentences:

A wogon vqn moves on, A womon hos lhe gun now. h is q bod thing to wqste good shoes. The gown hqs beqds on it qnd is in vogue. A visit to fhe dentisl in time sqves tseih. He wqnls lo bqthe now so get out with hoste.

You rnay expedence difrculty at first in distinguishine betwe€n celtain charactels similar to othels. These may be the so-caled opposites, such as W and G, B Dd V, and A and N, or they may be l€tters l*e S and H. I{ you find that you have this trouble, especiatly D receiving pmctice, make up a number of words in which they both appear. Have someone send them to you over and over again until you can identiiy each
cn om no mo du to ud or gw bd vE db by vu

character by its sound. Constant practice will overcome this difrculty. Continue this exercise until you can both send and rcceive such characters at slow speed, and without hesitation. Slow speed is not more than 5 words p€r minute. You are sending at that late if, in the fo owine exercise, you send the group fton "an" ttrcugh "tm' in l minule.
vb uv .i nt i! rln vt rh tv h. ow is ei wc


rEss0N UR FO
If you have caretully folowed instructions, developed good habits and are thoroughly familiar with the sounds oI all chamctels covered so far, you have taLen a big step in learning the code ploperly. The remaining chalacte$ should be less difficult. Practice now as you have in previous lessons.

dirdchdir ditdqhdir diidohdir dirdqhdii RR RR

R€peat K seve&l times vocally b€forc you begin keying it. This will help you to keep it smooth.

dohdirdoh dqhdirdoh dohdirdoh KKK
Now Factice thes€ two chrFacters together.

dirdqhdir dohdirdoh ditdohdir dqhdirdoh dirdohdir RKRKR

Ihe F is &tditdahdit. Sound it vocaly before you k€y it Keep it smooth. nren key it.

diidirdohdir dirdirdohdir dirdirdqhdir





AiLdjrdjt dr^dn^d.lL L',d.A diL ddla.Xdit/.i}




The L is ditdahditdit. Pnctice vocaly first as you did with F, then key it.

ditdohdifdir dirdohdifdir dirdohdirdir diidqhdirdir
Now practice F snd L together:

dirdirdohd dirdqhdirdir dirdirdqhdir dirdohdirdir FTFt

Pnctice the following worils: if si'l of lill cre vole orher rook lcof fun four lnow bofne leh roof folr f6el .1..


woft war

rook trom


lousht€r thr.!

l€ngth word b6tor. qll


long .r?o? eftort llrt lslr volu.

nror€ lettor nqke dule

fore3r .eek fole

urge run roke

PEctice these sentences alter you have learned the wods thorougtily: All of us mcke enors. Hir wite ir cn invdlid. Ihe.or tilled rhe rdbbir. B€surolo 3oundrhe l.lt.r3. li take! time to run down lhcr!.


tEss0 FIVE r{
Concentate on the Jollowing letter eroups and words, sounding and keying each group sev€rat times before passing to the next: sh nc tr abd owk tr. du wsvbn tm o|n fu rl rl in mo ei uf ow df gwo gw om uvw cdn if uv odu frs bvud kr lhi if sh bd er ud ruv .ou on rnd sw ubd n rk in.
6i it go ve

tmo €is nl@ auf lfu drb dub ilh

obd nr

tkg nos

wogon fros

rook verb

notion left duke elf hditen

bovine ho3h sovernor roke rheir been blddder lefr lodf rh.n dshr rrov. kind $ries kitter dcub hou!. |no3r

dubbed mitker 3irike

otorm bant


lhe J is ditdahdahdah. Practice it as before; ffrst vocally, then with the key.

ditdqhdohdoh dirdohdohdqh J J

The p is ditdahdahdit. tlactice it vocally, ffIst. Avoid ey paue that might make it sound tike ditdah dahdit or ditdahdah dit. Now key it:

dirdqhdohdir dirdohdohdif PP

PL A N E 5


TH E S E ?



The X is dahditditdah. Make it smoothly so that the sound produced is not identified as na or ru, or a similar combination. If you construcr a telter incor_ rectly to begin with and do not eonecr th€ mistake, you have acquircd a bad habit, difficult to break.

dqhdirditdqh dohdirdirdoh


The Z is dahdahditdit. Use the same care in keyins the Z as you did with the others. Unless you do, you wi be makins se, rd, or mi.

dqhdohdirdir dqhdqhdirdit


Practice the following words, a few at a time uDtil you have mastered them: iob pix r.ro palr iarz rcx opon enrc nop sox i€ posr iohn pill ie$ie roxo. rop 'ioin 6xped tcmp power pper iomes oxe n.p zip wi xz ps lp wp sz dx ip,m rp pt iw mi wi wc lu eo td pl no go xp eg df orh di xd rx pi zd ru zg

Jelsi. Jdlner wds an expsrt shor. Therippei lncp foil. ro work. John hos d iob in o iozz b.nd. The power of rhe pre:s wc; upheld. S.fery i3the responribilityof cll.


You should now realize the imporlance of prop€r construction and spacing of lette$ and words. If you have develooed anv bad habits which tend to contuse certain lette$, attempt to corect them belore you proceed.The records from which you are learning to receive code are colrect; use them as a guide.

In this exercise pay particular attention to prcper formation of the letters and spacing between lette$ and words. Take turns sendine and rcceivins the folIt is impodant leaned sht. that the sound of alf sign]s be

Memorize the sound, not the dits and dahs, keeping the sound of the letters in mind at atl iimes. Extra moments spent ir d ling with letters that give trcuble are worthwhlle. Making up words that hawe letters of similar sound in them is one of the best folms oi drill.

The C is dahditdaldit. and by key.

Practice sending it, vocally

dohdirdohdir dqhdirdqhdir


The Y is dahditdahdah.Practice as before.

dqhdirdqhdqh dqhdirdohdoh



The Q is dahdahditdab. Do not make it ma or gt, or tk.

dqhdqhdirdqh dqhdqhdirdqh




quick .he.t qu6ll fddory yellow young .tique prccri.e quc.t o.cui qu.o, que.rion ,uch como yo.hr c.tery quorry

spoce quor

color t.quen..

the checkwosfo; o y.llowyo€ht ofquestiondbteowno,ship. lh.r.w6r c quorry locor€dnearrho o..upi.o zone. YoungQueenMory qui.lly quslili€d ca dn durhoriry. Iw€nly mcyorr d.r€rminedrh! .onn6dionsnec.ssory. Conningtower. or. the ncin exit on .ubmoriner.

mo tl gt nm tw qrg no lky lon nrn tr n|ny twy nt6 tot ntt Io cq_ yq nnr tot irc tc6

to. .yo rwo lfq cnn yrw gcy gtq vby qmo gym ywo sic nc .udy .gwc qco

hy 'noq lem met 6no fly rhyq mac udq lfy.

cnc qmr ykr ihe gyw ynd

nny ckr q.y uvq kqr db.


dqby wyqb wqEc yq(K isgy hock fqly

yet flcy .otiify quay quiclly .enror dif,iculr pro.6ed rickai dnnoying rwotold non3.n5e nit€

.ondole shipwreck y$terdoy ny€r mere' cinemo rra6c lru.e moiden rroln

rhay ronsrrila m.d. twice kept teript

sick coming running


manner moyor omployer


Faithful, rcgular pr:ctice with th€ prccedins exercises should have done much to help you become Foficient at making the sounds of the entirc alphabet in code. From this point, make every efiort to p€dect you sending. Remember: Practice daily, even if you can devote only 15 minutes to rI.

Take tums sending and receiving the foUowing {'ords, smootNy and accurately: on or o.y oll oie will ir or d5 of by we who whol th.n| son 30 h. roy ar gof do b 90 too govc should tny rhe ou. rdke

hos but rcro oft.n b.g

hod b.

cnd tog whst tho.€

vc?y ore lhis bud v.?. wog

mon moy out rcid ofi.? t nd p.r.


soon time dus

righr rhe bol.

ron| mu3t .om.

rhat *or

lhen 6ds.. n..d

bood elsc run -rok! Gll tirld bdll b€gin oftend gem p.d deol rir.d volua zlppor drzl. tru.o pldy .dnnot lihit pono loid how look pill with tu.| mok. fd|. rur lcfr ox. roil .:r'! vcls poo.


daloy you into gre{i cp. ie€k

twenry club rodoy crir shell efiort for8t rcke yellow gcno woge iazr g.t rir€d .rror iclnor firm

dobbed nut. 3!x tokc idpcn

verb i.ll nor ierr .ory

their rrov6 woson top wonl de.l qui.k lhem rroy qudn wirh dumb

.om€ .ode

queen ure moss did duo tllf

buner n6nc .xt?d boy


BeJore beginning tle pactice of numerals, spend some time sounding and keying a series of dits and dahs, keeping thern uniform and properly spaced. This witl hetp you to construct the combinations, and you will not be making a number of letters tuom a gmup of sound units intended for a numenl. First, make dits-at least 100 of them-with just a Itttle space. lryatch your timing so that they sound as if they were being made by a machine. lllen gradually shorten the space, or pause, b€tween dits until pracl.ically no space exisls. Make them in groups of 25, slowly at tust, speedi:rg up as you progress. Repeat tle same pmcedurc with dahs. Taking 2 numerals at a tine, use the same tactics as described Feviously, watching your spacing particularly. Learn the sound; forget the appearance.

IIUMBER is ai,aoraoraoraor. I l{UMBtRI is aoraouoraor
As sooDas you've,earned to distinguish exercise: ""::"T:::t"::i.wing 999999999 r9 1919 19 19 t9 19 19 19 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 91 191 191 191 191 191 191 191 191 191 919 919 919 919 919 919 919 919 919

r rrrl 1111

IIUMBER iS ai'anaouoraor. 2 llUMBtR I is aonaoraona
As soor as you've leaned th€se, pmctice as in the p.evious lesson: 2 22222222 888888888 ?3 2 J282a2a2a282A 2a 82 82 82 82 82 a2 82 a2 a2




282 2a2 2a2 282 2a2 2a2

828 828 828 828 828 828 828 828 828

IIUMBTR S dirdirdirdohdoh. 3 NUMBER 7
3 333 33333 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 373 373 373 3?3 373 373 3?3 373 373

is dohdohditdirdi

777777777 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 73 737 737 737 737 737 737 737 737 't37

lIUMBER S airairdirdiraoh. ]{UMBER is aora',anan. 4 6

666666666 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 646 646 646 646 646 646 646 646 646

444444444 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 46 4M 4M 4M 464 464 4M 464 4U

ilUMBERis anananaoan.ER0 5 Z
555555555 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 505 505 505 505 505 505 505 505 505

is dohdohdqhdqhdqh.

000000000 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 05 050 050 050 050 050 050 050 050 050

E X E RCI S E F I V E 16 [ sH v4 3V 27 28 5tH 7t S 5M3 7MS Or8 lfr4 HEs t98 7.X 143 2tO 865 431 Xt7 37a 982 tol t4r7 tZLs a7.f,' 1176 4315 2135 4632 to6l 6459,1 01342 52964 A.'4l3 aO36 7849 3129 3142 At24 19735 59302 t2438 04t73 29473 89541 l03ll


It is a mistake to assume that it is easier to send good code than to receive. Anyone cm manipulat€ the key a{ter a fashion, but it takes faithful pnctice to learn to send sood, readable code.You must make chalacteN correctly and spaces must be unifon if the rcceiver is to get them coraectly. You have pmcticed tmnsmitting by key, and rcceiving either dircctly irom the key or from recordings. Even without these,however,it is possibleto attain a certain de$ee of proficiency. You can repeat characte$ verbally, ard where you hav€ a Facticing partne. you can rcceive while he tmnsmits in this Although such pnctice is valuable to.you as a student, sooner or later it is necessary{or you to obtain actual practice on a key.






r M OO* N D B 6 i c r *r t MGO 'i l z 3 a 6 7 a 9




'The nuheral zero is printed O to distinguish it ftod lhe ffom letter O; rhe nmeml 1 is pinted I to distinguisl ihe print€d i, and Z is I 10 distingxish it tuom th€ nmetal 2,

Now, you must add a lew punctuation marks to yotr code vocabulary. The following are in coImoD use and you should l€arn them well. Sound them over as you did the characte$: (.) ditdahditdahditdah The pe od (,) dahdahditditdahdah The coma (?) ditditdaldahditdit The question mark The ftaction bar (/) dahdjtditdahdit Sepantion sign ditdahditditdah Note: The tuaction bar is tansmitted between the numerator and denomiDator of a fraction. Example: 21h. The separation sign is transmitted between a whole nmber and a fraction and indicates that a {raction is about to be s€nt. Example; The mixed nunber 24% is transmitted: ditditdaldahdah ditdahditditdah ditditditditdah ditdahdahdahdal dahditditdahdit ditditdahdahdah ditdah&tdah&tdah Erercisei Practice the following sentences, transmitting punctuation ma*s: Who is it? Maps, documents, photographs, and zebras are available. We have 361, dozen messasebtanks on hand. He commands& army of 2,500,000 men.

Turn back to the fiIst code lesson given you in this manual. Using the key, start with the first lessonand pactice sending. Follow the instructions given for every charactet and continue this pmctic€ through all lessons to the present one. Be sure to follow iGtructions in the illustation in Lesson One on adjusiment and pmper position of the hand on the key. EXERCISET When you have mastered each character so that you can send it evenly and with correct riming.concentrate fie lollowingexercise: on

rEss0l{ 1{t1{E
Pilors forced down at sea today cany flashlights and metal mirors as part of their n€cessar.yequipment. The reason precious space is taken up with such items is that pilots considersignal equipment almost as impoiant as water in thei! battle to live. Without means of communication,their chance of The mirrors are used when the sun is shining to sig.€l Fossible rescue aircmft and boats.

The fluhlights can be used at night to transmit the always familiar S.O.S. Sienal Dits in the batde of Italy penetrated deep into enemy terdtory early in the campaign, discovercd an ambush, and sienalled Allied artillerv. As a rcsult, the enemy was beaten back and an otherwise tngic defeat was Fobably avoided. In many such instances, blink€r signals are the only possible or saJe means of communication. You have teamed the code. The illustmtion in Lesson One shows you how the blinker op€rates. If possible,Iig up a blinker, and practice sending.You will operate the key in the sane way, but you natumlly must do it at a considerably slower rate.



You probably have taken for sranted the ease and clarity with which your favorite €dio announcer talks. Yet his cgsual tone and clear enunciation are not eDtirely luck. They are tle result oI considerable study, not only by him, but by radio and sound enginee.s. Thus, when he stands in front of the microphone, the odds are in his favor. The pilot or Iadio operator of an airplan€ is not e fortunate. He speaks from t}le noisy cockpit of a plane, not a soundproofstudio. The person listening to him probably experiencesthe same difficulty. If static, either man-mad€ or atmospheric,is present, the pmblem is furth€r complicated.Try listening to your radio vihile Dad is using his el€ctric razor add you'll understandhow dimcult it is to hear Because tmnsmission and reception of verbal messg€s are usually pelormed under such conditions, a uniform radiotelephone procedue is esential. You have already learned the meanins of mililary discipline. Radio discipline is another type of military discipline, and is iust as important as close order &ill or saluting. You must catry on radiotelephone conversation,or tnnsmission, in a businessJikemanner. That means you will r€frain from making personal remarks, or sivins your listener the details on the blonde you had a date with last night. Remember, while you indulge in aimless chatter, you may b€ interfering with the tmnsmission oI an impo ant messagewhich iDvolves the safety of othels. Radio is the principal means of communication between aircraft in flight, among passengers by inte.phone within an airplane, and for air-ground com-

Radio sets lall into 2 seneral classes those iDstaled in aircEft, Md those installed in Erou;d stations. TlaDsmittels are capable of operating either as .adiotelesraph or radiotelephone. Radioteleeraph has the advantag€ of: Grcater dislance. Ability to compensad for intedercnce. Gleater secrecy. The range of radio communication is dependent upon t}Ie power of the transmitter, the ftequency used, the time of day or night, and upon the noise level at the rcceiving station. Radio commu.ication is not sec.et. Therefore clyptograins are usd extensively in the bansmission oI messagesby ndiotelegraph and Ediotelephone. It is easy to lo@te Isdio transmitters by use of diretion-nndine equipment. It is important, therefore, to make tranmi.ssioDs as brief as possible, and as infrequent as possible. Other typ€s of radio communication include: Instrument landing systems, radio ranges, radio broadcast stations, Iadio compass and direction find€rs, radio marker beacons and lescue boat iBtalla-

How to lolk Don't use a normal tone when speaking into the microphone. Hold the mike direcdy in front of and as close ro your mouth as you can, and raise you voice as much as possible without straining o! distorting it. Speak distinctly, and don't allow your voice to trail ofi at the ends of words and sentences.Remembe! you are competing with outside noises.


Newspaper rcporters apply the pfincipl€ oI the phonetic hlphabet frequently when telephoning stories to thei! cily desk!. paflicularly when givilg plope} names. You may have resorted to the same tactics wheb talking over the telephone. Suppose you are telling someone on the other end of the line how to spell yorrl name, Stewens. You might say S as in sap, T aF in take, E as in Eden, V as in Volsa, E as in Eden, N as in name, S as in sap. The Army Air Forces use this sane method in radiotel€phone procedure, except that now you have a standad phonetic alphabet which is unde$tood unive$auy, rather than one of your own invention. Learn the foUowins AImy Air Forces alphab€t. When it is n€cessary for you to identifu any tetter of the alphab€t, this alphabet is to b€ usea:

Lett6. A B c D E F c H I J X t

Spol€n A3 Able Bok.r Chorlle Dog Eory Fox C€orgo, How ltem Jis King lov.

Lerror ,ri

SpokonA! Mile
Ndn Oboo

P a R 5 U V W X Y Z

P.ror Oueen Roger Sugor Unde Vi.ror Williom X.r.y Yoke Zobft

Code wods such as Lruow wilt be spoken as ,,Love Uncle X-ray Oboe Wiltiam.,' Difrcult wods such as "catenary', will be spoken and spelled. Example: "Catenary-I spe[-Chartie Able Tare Easy Nan Abte Roger yoke-{arenary.,,

When you tansmit umlrol O I 2 3 4 ffgures by radiotelephoFe, pronounce them as Iollows: 5p6k6n As Nunrlrct SpotenA. Ze-ro 5 Fi-ytv Wun 6 Sb( loo 7 Sev-cn Thuh-roa' 8 Ar. Fo-wor 9 Ni_ner

Transmit numb€$ as numerdls or digits, except in the casg of aa even hunilred or ihousanil whea the wold "hundred" o. "thousand" is used: SF;k.n A. t[4 Fo-rver fo-wer 80 Ate ze-!o 136 Wun thih-ree six Fi-yiv hun-&ed 500 L47A Wun fo-wer sev-en ate 7000 Sev-en thow-zand 16000 Wun six thow-z:nd

Goll Slgn,
Cdl signs identily either tbe tdnsmitte! or Eceiving station. Airplane c€.ll signs consist of ntmrh€rs, letters, wods, or combiqations of them. Exampler "itrmy six too ze-ro," "fiaco wurx ate wun fo-wer thuh-re€," Contlol tower call signs colltsin the name of the ailpoit fo[owed by the word "tower." Example: ''SacrameDto Tower," "Scott Towe}." nadio radge ca[ signs coisist oI the naine of the A':ttry field, civil airport, or other pldce at {'hich they arc locsted, fo owed by ttre word "radio." Examples: "Chanute Radio," "Mobile Radio."

Twenty-Four Hour Clock '
Always state Army tlne in 4 fiCules, using the 2ahour cloct. This is done to elimi.aie the possibility of erlor and to.rnake it unnecessary to use a-m. and p.m. Ibe ffrst 2 aumemls state the hour, the last 2, the minutes.

Portr of I||€$oge
The }adiotelephone message has 3 part-lhe cal! the text, srd the ending. A call w r fo[ow this Call sign of receiving statioll. Connecting ph,r'ase. Ca[ sign o{ the ba$mitting statiod.

EXAflPIE Coll: Army six too thuh-ree ze-& This is Chanute Radio. R.ply: Chimute R'dio Example: tim. 0000 (midnight) 0920 (9:20 AM) 1200 (noon) 1647 (4r4? PM) Army six too thuh-ree ze.ro. Spok.n Ar Ze-rc ze-ro Ze-ro ni-ner too ze-ro Wun too ze-ro ze.m Wun six fo-wer sev-eD The text of the message may consist ot plaid Ia[; guage, code words or groups, or figures. Every transmission wiU end with the wods "over" o! "out." This procedure is explained rnore tully tmder the suLheading Radio Language.




TH E ' E ?



Call Text Endins Catl Text Ending "Shamrock flom Domino." "Wlere are planes?" "Over." "Domino tuom Sharnrock." "Plan€s are at base." "Out."

It is impmcticable to decide on precise 1|rordilrg for all procedure phrases which you might ne€d to llansmit messages. You'[ use a lew which have been adopted, when applicable. Be sue to use them onlr to exprcss the meanings indicated here. Other wods which you might substitute may have an enttuely difierent operational meaning. If you make a mistake, co$ect it before contiruing. State th€ word "co$ection," then proceed with the corect veNion.

Nashville Tower tiaDsmits: "Stinson wun too thuh-ree fo-wer this is Nashville 'lwhat is your position?--over." Stinson 1234 traismits: "Nashville Tower this is Stinson wun too tbul-ree "Ni-nei miles south at ate hun-dred {ver " Nashville Tower bansmit^s: "Stinson wun too thuh-rce fo-wer, this is Nashville Tower-cleared to land-trafrc north-runway thuh-


Received youl messag€. Let me know that you have received and unde$tood my


WiIl comply. (Use Wilco to indicate that you will carry out oders or insiructions.) Transmitting operator expects reply. End of communication. I must pause for a {ew secI must pause longer thai a

Over Out IMait

If you miss words or are doubtful that you heard conectly, request the transmitting opeEtor to 'rsay again." He wil repeat the section you missed,preceding the repeat by saying "I say agaid." In requesting repeats, always specify the portion you ne€d, indicating with the remark "alt before," "all aIter,,, or "word aJter." The tEnsmitting station will always repeat the words you used to id€ntiJy the portions How do you hearme? Speak slower Say again I say again Message you for
Send your message

(As wods indicate.)
(As wods indicate.)

R€peat. I wjll repeat. I wish to tnnsmit a message I am ready for you to transSeparate this t€xt ftom rcst

WXIIF hansmitsi "KXYZ this is WXBF-Roseville squadron has sighted Meckaee near top of mountain wun fi-yiv miles nortlwest of Placervilte-over. " KXYZ tmnsmitr: "WXBF this is KXYZ-say again all after mountainWXBF traMits: "This is WXBF-I say again-mountain miles northwest of Placerville-over. " KXYZ tradsmits: "This is KxYz-roger{ut."


s T A T t 0 rt G R 0 u P s tl {s
Sevenl stations often work in a group, or on the s€me frequency. When transmittine in groups o{ this tLpe, repeat the can sign of the rcceiving station at the end of the message.A station in the goup which does not hear the ffist call and tunes in late will then know for whom the messageis intended.

wun 6-yiv

5-3t Stations working in groups should answer in the alphabeticaland numerical order of thei! call sieDs. The alphabetical statioN should answer tust when both opemte on the samenet. Signql Slrength You $ill a.qume rhat t}e person reca;ring your transmission can h€ar you satisfactorily unless he notilies you otherwise. When making orieinal contact, you may ask, "How do you hear me?" His responseshould be, accordingio reception,"Weak but readable," "Strong but distoiied," etc. Two-Stqlion Net "X-ray Yoke Zebra proc""d ro Shansrita I spell sucar how able Nan ceorce Roser iiem love abletoo thuh-iee fr-yiv nrner hours time AB1 transmits: "This is wu roger-out." AB2 tmnsmits: "Too say again-all after word proceed over." "Too and thuh-ree-I say asarn.words rwice proc"Fd Io Sharsr'la proceedro Shanerrta I spetl susar how able Nan ceo€e Roser item love able-I spell sugar how abte Nan ceorye Roser item love able-too thuh-ree fi-yiv ni,ne} houN too thuh ree ff-yiv ni ner hours-time time wun sev-en AB2 tansmits: "Too-roger-out." AB3 transmits: "Thuh-ree-roger-out." Later AB2 wishesto have the receipt of ihis messaee AB2 tmnsmits: "Able William Mike, this is Too-ve fy messagetime wun sev-enze-ro AWM repeats message,and AB2, acknowledgine, "Too-roge!-out." AwM iishp. ro correcr rransmirmpssage, "X-ray Yoke Zebra message time wun ze-io corection word afier Shangri-la too too fi-yiv ni-ner-I say again-too too fr-yiv ni-ner-.acknowl, Each subordinatestation sendsin turn: "This is (481, AB2, AB3) roeer-out." AB2 trusDits: "This is Able Baker Too-send your message-over." AB3 transmitsi "This is Abl€ Baker Thuh-ree-send your message-

Assume that stationsAWM and JFC are engagcdin 2 r'ay communication. JFC i.ransmits: (Establishine communication) "Able William Mike, t}lis is Jig Fox Charlie-How do you fiear me?-over." "Jis Fox Charlie, this is Able William Mike-OkayJFC transmits: "Able wiiliam Mike-message {or you over." "Send your messaee-over." JFC t.ansmits: "Proceed to Shancri-la I spell-sucar how able Nm Georye Roger item love ablc too thuh-ree 6-yiv niner hours time Nun six ze-ro ze-ro correction wun 6-yiv ze-ro ze-ro iead back all a{ter iime

"Time wun 6-yiv ze-ro JFC transmits: "That is coFect out." Four-Slqlion Net

AssLmc thal ihe lollowing si.aiionson a 4-way net are in communication: AWM net contrc1station (contrr,lling station). AB1 subordinatestation. AB2 subordinatestatlon. At}3 subordinale sr€rion. XYZ net calt (collective call for all 4 stations). Example: AWM has a message lor all stations on AWM tlansmits: "X-my Yoke Zebra, this is Able William Mike messagefor you-over." "This is Able Baker Wun-send your message over."

Every pilot either departing from or ariving at a field must contact the control tower before takeotr or landine. The tower opemtor uses either radiotelephoneor lieht signalsio transmit iakeoff and landing irlstructions. He usuauy notiffes the pilot o{: (1) wind direction and velocity, (2) runway and field conditions,

5-32 (3) special inslructions conceming local conditions, (1) taxi clcarance, (5) lakeoli clcarance, (6) altil.udc o f lie l d , a n d ( ?) c or r ec t t i mc (i f ti rD e i s .e q u c s tc d ).

Suppose you are iD the cockpit of a P-38 at the National Airport in Washington, prepaline to take o{T for New York. Your conversation with me rower would run something like this: You: "Washington Tower, ihis is Army fo-wer fi-yiv ni ner ze-ro over."

Towcr: "Army lo-wcr 1i-yiv hiner ze-.o this is Washington Tower over." You: "Taxi clearancc ovcr." Tower: "Wind east twelve E wun too lield is soft use easFwest ruDway heavyconstruclion in progress southeast of lield iaxi to wesl end of easfwest runYou: "Wilco out." (Upon departurc, you will remain tuned to to$'er frequency for at least 5 minutes unless cleared to another ftequency by the tower.) Assume you are now 10 miles solrth of Lacuardia Field, New York, and wish to laDd there. Youi message would run like this: You: "LaGuardia Tower, this is Army fo-wei fi-yiv nincr ze-ro-over." Tower: "Army fo-wer fi-yiv ni-ner ze-ro, this is LaGuardia Tower-over." You: "Ten miles south of fietd at too thou-zand feet contact landing at Lacuardia over." Tower: "Roger-out." You: (Arrivine at fleld) "Lacuardia Tower, this is Army {o-wer n-yiv ni-ner ze-ro-landing instiuctions Tower: "Army fo-$er fi-yiv niner ze-ro, this is LaGuardia . Towe!- wiDd south-west fifteen SW wun ri-yiv-Taylorftaft six ff-yiv now approaching field to land-field is soft-use the norrhcast-southwest runway you are second to tandYour "Roger-out." Tower: "Army fo-wer fi,yiv ni-ner ze-ro, this is LaGuardia Tower you are cleared to land over." You: "Wilcrout."

sllde, ond lo "HoqdSes rhe p ed the olrplcn
he to oll oI thetn ln 3ludy of lhe


d rhe
r lhc

Ir norhlng myrrerlour In lh
rhe derolled plan o{ dn o fly, ot whot dlrtp.sd

I gr'.rLp

ofi tbdground, how much so you wonr ro./3k hlm abour lt. + He knowr whor rhe

hc hot

cd wlll do

rhsr€ ors l.wr ond prlnctpl't of nlshl ond d In rhlr .e.llon lt derlgned to expldln some ol th.
the tcl.nc! ot .vlollon k bulh.

lsauaalon thot

r l f t H rs sEC ttolr ...

Theory of Fllghr
Why Lift ls So-Colled-How tilr 15Produced:Derign of rhe Wing. EFectof Atovins tr Througha,r. lmportonceof Air's Weight ond Volqne-Why Speed t5 N.G33ory ro Lih_Retorion of Angje of Atlock to Lifr-tlow l l,ch lift on Ai.Plone Needi-Whor The 4 Forc6 oI Flisht Drog ts_Deod D.og ond Urefut Dros_

be Sioble dnd Coitrollobl._Whor InherentStobitiry tr_Verricot ond Ho.izontdl ^lud SrobilizeE ohd whot They Do-lh. Axi3 oI Yo*-The Ati' of piich_The Axi3 of Ro _Fun.tion of Control Surfoces-How Ailero6 Work-lvhor rhe RudderDoee_How rhe EtevoroEWork_Wny Pres3ure lv{url8e Coord'noted-whoi TrimTob. Are ond How They Work Why Ploner

Slruclure of Aiicr.ft
Under the Skinof o Fu3elose Two Kind' of Coniru.rion-The 3 podi of o wins_Two Type, of Wins Con+ru.tion:The Spor Wins, The Bro.ed Strei'ed-SkinWins-Shocts Which Londinsceor Mu3t Stond-How Tricy.le Londi.g ceor Work!-The Convenridot 3-poinr Londinoceor

Purpose, Principle, ond Det.riprionof MognericCompd3s-Two Kindsof ComposrEroB-Difieren.e BetweenVoriorion ond De$otion-Whot Couser Flighl Ero6 in Compos-pvrpoie, principte,ohd Descriplio.of Altineter-lorometric ond Temperorure EroB in Attimerer_prenighrChcck_purpo,e, Principle. ond Errorrof AiEpeed Indicoror-Preflishr Che.k-purpore, principte, ond prenightChe.k of Role-of.Clinb Indicoto.

Monl SrruSgleto Gel Power Enolgh to Fly-The ,l Srrokesof o 4-Cycte Engine-Whoi Hoppe$ !n the Corburetor-lsnition Sy3tefr-Preiight /vtogneroCheck-Liquid.Cooted Engine_Air-Cooted Engine-ln-Line Engine-V-Type En9in.-Opposed or Ftor-TypeEngine-RodiotEngine_purpore ond Deicriptionof o Propellcr-How PropellerPirchAfiecrs Airptone in Flighr-Whor o Connont-Speed Propellerk-E To.hofrerer,Oit Temperoturecovge-Minidun 9ine Inrirunent5. EnginepreffightCheck


You know that a balloon goes up in the air because it is filled with a sas that is lishter than air. The force that li{ts the balloon is buoyancy, and $e call an airship that is lifted by such Deans a light€rth an- air s hip. We are not conc€rned in this study with lighterthan-air $aft, but we cal it to your attention to besin the discussion of lift. Anything that goes up into the atmosphere off the earth Dust have some force to lift it oF 1be eround. Even the ljghlest airplane is a relatively hcavy thing, and larse bombers wFigh manl tons. Belore an airplane can fly it must be lifted ofi lhe ground, and onc€ it is in th€ air it must be kept there by some force. That force is called, Iosically enoush, liftHow 13 Lift Produ.od? There are three steps in the explanaiion of how lift 1. A \I'ine is so designed that when 2. A force moves i1 ar the dght speed and in the right directioD through thc air, 3. The ai so acts upon it that we get lift. Let us take each oI these steps and explain them.

FfRST STEP: ?/pDeois' tk%,,s "/

If you have eve. built a flying model airplane, you remember the shape o{ the wing. It is rounded at the froDt, wlich is called the leadinla edg€ of the wing. It is sharp at the back, or trailing edge of the wine. The upper su ace is curved; the bottom is almost a stlaight line. It is thick and stubby near

6-2 the leading edse and thin and tapered near the trailing edge.You will soon lean why it's shap€dthat way. Take that db and study it, for itrreFesents the crcss section of almost any ahplane wing. Wing sections of vadous airplanes difier slightly in detail, bul rhe principle is rhe same in alL airplane wings.

a,o SEC0ND ST[P: E//&t at?ltouttt Aatfta,rc %a2 "k ?Onafi tip Aaz
U we move the wins through the air at a rclatively high speed with the blunt end (leadins edge) {orward the foUowing thiacs happen: The blunt and thick leading edse pushes air out o{ the way. Part of the air so displaced flows over the wing; part o{ it flows under the wine mpidly (the speed is imporiant). the layers of air, after going over and under the wing, ioin again behind the trailing edge. But the important thing is that th€ air that fowed over the wing had to go farther than the air that went under the wing. In going farther it stretched out, so to speal<,and became thimer. Loosely speaking, it forrned a partial vacuum at the top of the wing dd exeted force while the alr at the bottom of the wing cornpressed slightly and exerted a cedain force tbere. The sum of these two forcesrepresenlslift becau"e-


TH STEP: a'a,444 uq4ir IRD 762

add uo(t*ro

W1]en air mov€s, its weight and the speed (velocity) with which it moves exert energy and do work- The same is true of anything which moves through or against air. The design of the wing and the speed with which it is moved through the air give us liJt.

We mentioned in Step Two that we must move a wing "at a relatively high speed through the air" to make it work. Whai happens when we move it slowly ? Suppose you take a board and move it edgevays through the watei, holding it at a slight angle to the diretion in which you are pushing it. If you push it rapidly you will see that the water rushes out of the way of t}le leadine edge, leavins a hole (or vacuum) at the top oI the board. This water doesn't join the. water {rom the bottom of the boad until the boa.d is well past.

6-3 Push it stowly, however, and the water swils and burbles in on top of the boad. That is what happens, approximately, to the air that your wing displaces. The low pressure area above the wing is spoiled iI the wine mov€s too slowly; the air swirls and bubles into the partial vacurm. The heavier an alplane is in relation to its total wing swface, the higher speed it requires to develop liJt enouch to get ofi the gmund.

There is another thing that afiects the amount of lift you get {rom a {ing and that is th€ angle at which you direct it into the air. In the example above we said we would move it stlaight ahead. We get some lift that way, but we can get more lift if we tip the tuont edge up and attack the air at a higher angl€ of attack, The winc now displaces more air (that is, it makes the air over the wing travel farther) and, up to a point, Cives us more lift. When w€ get past a certain point, however, we are pushing so much ail out of the way that our airplane slows down. The air swirls and bwbles into the low presswe area on top of the $'ing. IMe have increased the dras too much. (We'[ explain that lat€r.) Accordingly, we lose lift and approach a stall.

The amount ol lift, then, is determined by (1) the design of the wing, (2) the speed of the airylane, and (3) the angte of attack. Now is it necessary or desirabte to get as much lift as we can? Or is therc a point at which we don't need any more? Think it over a minute. Just how rauch liJt does an airylane need? The answer to that is, how much does your airylane weigh? You need enough lift to overcome t}le force of gavity. . To ctimb you need more lift than the force gravity is exelting. As lone as you have more lilt than weight, you airplane will continue to climb. However, when you wish to fly straisht and level, at a constant altitude, lift and gravity must exactly balance each other. If lift is greater, you will climb; if gravity is great-er,you will descend-

Jo you can see the designer of an ai.plane must igue his lift in relation to the goss weight of his inished airplane and the total load it is to carly. We told you thst to produce liJt you have to move I wing thmugh the air at relatively hieh speed.In lying model airplanes that you may have built, you roduced the movement thrcugh the air by means rf a propeller and strands of rubber. By winding the ubber strands you made the propeller rotate with )noueh speed to pull the model forwad. rrhen it ;ot up enoush speed it took oft the $ound and Reu'. The force pulling the airplane throush the air we :11 thrust{ow tr,lu.hThr'rrr Do.t on Airplcn. Need? that is u important question. You must know the Inswer to it before you can figure how powerful a )owerplant you need.That is, how much ho^s€pow€r rour engine has to develop to do the work that you vant it to do. Let's se€just what that work amounts

through the air, some of your thrust turns to lift.) You know it takes more power to start an automobile and speedit up than it does to keep it going once you have sta$ed ii. That's why you have low and intermediategearsin a car. It takes more power to ctmb a hill in a car than it does to speedover a level highlvay. So in an airplane it takes more thrust to take ofi and climb than to maintain straight and level flieht at a constant airspeed and a coGtant altitude. But once you are in straight and level flight, and you want to fly at a constant speed and a constant altitude: Thrusl must equal drag, just as lift must equal gnvity. So let's find out what drag is. Try to stand up in a high wind and you will realize how much iorce moving air exerts agaiDst you. body. When an airplane moves rapidly through the air, it has lhe same efiect as if tbe air weie llowins at that spe€d agai$t the airylane. It t€nds to hold the air-

1. You have to have thrust enough to overcome the resistance (dng) that is built up as you move 'll rour aLplane through the air. 2. I'hen you have to have enough additional thrust :o start your airplane, build up speed, take otr, and timb. (It is impodant to remembe! that, because what of Eppens when your wing moves more lapidly

plane back, or lower its speed. All that force that the air exerls against the airplane is called drag. Some drag is useful. Some of it we would like to get dd of-it is merely dead drag. D6cd Drcg dnd str€omlinirg Anything on an airplan€ that has a surlace exposed to the air gives th€ ail something to push against and ihercforc crcates drag. Aftplane desisners, oI

6- 5 course, hav. studied the efiect of wind on various shapes and forms and have discolered those forms whlch o{ter the least resistrnce to rhe air. We call such shapes streamlined, and as tar as possible cle4.thing on ar airplane is stlemliDed. In thai way we reduce dead drag. Us ef ul Dr ds But $a'can never eet rid o{ all drag. for soDe of it is usctul. The ihrust tliat sc usc to pull ihe NDg throush the air so as to producc lilt creatcs us c f ul dr as . It i s o n c .,l th e fo rc e s n e cessarl ' to ltight. So, no mattcr hor. lvcll we sireamlire lhe desish oi an airylane we always havc io ha!c lhrust 1. If we havc morc ihrust thaD drag we begin to a.celerare (eo iastcr). 2. If we have more drae than thust we begin to decel erate (cosl ow er). 3- If we have exacily the same thrust as we have drae, we keep a coDsiant speed at a constant altitude. rl -.-. c.a,l ' rion i, in Y ou hrr- " rp" rr" nccl automobilc.Thtust in a cai is thc force ihat the ensine exerts io drive the car lorward. Drag is ihe t.iciioD and wind resislance of thc car. You step on thc sas to speed up that is, increase the thrust until it is greater thaD the drag. Your car goes Iaster. I{ you take }ou foot off the gas, }'ou slox down becausc Iour thrust is less than your drag. WheD you lvant io cruise along ai lhe sahe speed on a lerel highway, you hold a constanl lhrottle settnlg lhat gives you an exact balance betNccD your thrust and ]our drae.

I n t h e f l i g h t o f o n y o i rp l o n e , then, we hove these four for ces ol wor k ! L i f r , w e i g h r, th ru st o n d d ro g .



B, fu re rn r r r plar , ( an b F d a .j e r p d In f). ' l m L " bc so built as to balance the torces applied upon it in flight. In other words. it rust bc slable, aDd ii" musi be controllable. It musi tend to fl)' strajght and lcvcl, without rcquirjng the pikn 10 keep it on an even keel by ruin force. At the s{nc iinie, il nust be so built that lhe pilot may movc it lcft o. rishi, up or down, or from one side io the other at 1vil]. I nhe re n t S iobilit y In building modcl plancs you have discovefed that belore they will fly they must bc balanccd- Thc disiribulioh of Ncight is importantA planc that is tail-heavy or nose-healy or onewing-heavf is badly balanccd. The center of gravity (as it is callcd) must bc fisured so that it js very near to the center of lift.

That is the IiBt consideraiion tor inherent stalility (which merely means buili.-in stability). The second ihinlt that niust bc built in is some control that will keep the airplaDe ftyins slfaisht and If you lake a shcci ot papcr and skirrl it through the ai., it will fly in an euatic and uDpredictable way, but it *'on't go slraight. Il y.u l{)ld it inlo lr drrl shape, it lvil1do betier. bu1 il $,ill still lwist and luln and ro11 erraiically. It has only a littlc rnhercnt stabiliiy. A carefully buih model airylane, ho$'ever, flics straight and level uDless and until it Cels blown about The stabilizcrs you build into a modcl airplane are ihc samc in principlc as those built into any airplane.


Th. vlrticcl srobilire. is a ffxed airloil ir the tail \\'hich stands vertically. It holds the airplane from
r ,'-,.d l.ft r^; l r ir hr



The Axer of Rordrion You can s€ethat an airplane can tum in three planes, wh€reasm auto, for exaDple, tuns only in one, left or right. Think of an airplane as having three axes Tak€ a piece of cedboard and cut it into a rough airylaneshape. Then follow rhis explanation: (1) Tum to the left or ght around the vertical axis. That is caled the axis of yaw. That is the axis you can tuIn an auto in. (2) Put the nose dorc and the tail up, or the nose up and the tail down. That is called rotation about the axis ol pitch. By controlling that rotation you put an airplane in the proper position to climb or dive. (3) Now roll the left wins down and the rishr wins up, or the other way around, and you have rotation about the axis of roll.

lho ho.ironrol ilcbilizer is like a small wing built horizontally into the tail. It holds the airylane from nosing up and down. There is still another way an airplane can moveit can roll, wing do$m or up. The wings are so constructed and so placed on th€ ai.plane that they tend to keep the airplane stable in tlat direction.



ea'&ra/ Sto4a4z4
To contrcl the flight path of the airylane around its tbr:eeaxes-the axis of.pitch, the axis of rcll, and the axls of yaw-movable control su acesare used.

Movement around the axis oI yaw js conholed by the rudder, which answers to pressurc or the.udde!

pedals. When pressure is applied to the right rudder p€dai, the no6e of the airplane moves to the lieht. When pressureis appliedro the tefr rudder;dat. the nos€ of the airylare moves to the left.


Movement aound the axis of pitch is contiolled by lhe elelators. The elevators answer to {orward €nd

on backward pressures the stick. when forwa.d stick pressure is applied, ihe nose of the,airplane is lowered. W]ren backward pressure is applied, the nose o{ the airplane is raised.






Movement around the axis of roll is controlled by tle ailerons, which answer to sideivays pressures applied to t}Ie contlol stick. Pressure applied to the stick toward the leIt depressesthe leftwing. Pressuie

on the stick toward the iight depressesthe rightwing. The ailerons are so linked together by control cables that when one aileron is down. ihe opposite aileron is always up. In other words. pressure on the control s forces one w i ng dow n and Ihe oppo. ir e wr ng up at the same time, and thus eovems the movehent of the airylane around the axis o{ roll.








6-t o

eooda,a&o*al ea&dl
Contml prcssures are seldom used separately. The simplest meeuver needs cootdination oI all three pressu.es.A simple turn to the Ieft requires coordinated prcssures on ailero.s, rudder, and elevator.

Even though an airplane has inherent stabili6', it does not always tend to fly straislt and levet. You remember we told you that the weight of the load and how it is placed in an airplane aftects its stability. Vadous speeds also afiect its flight charactedstics. If you use up the fuel fmm one wing tank before you use it ftom another, your plane wants to rc[ toward the tuIl tank. AI of these va.iatio.s require a pilot to exert prcssure on the contrcls to co$ect for them. Whil€ climbins or while Cliding, it is necessary constantly to exelt prcssurc to keep the airplane in the attitude you want. Such constant control pressure is tiring in a small plane; it is exhausting in a medium-size plane; it is impossible for any length o{ time in a heavy plane. So airplanes are coNtructed with trim tabs, as they arc called. ltrese are really nothins but small, hinged, conhol surfaces on the main contol surfaces. You can move them up and down by means of a erank or .eel in the cockpit. An ingenioussyst€mof control. wires lifts them up or drops them as you will. By using theD you can balance the forces on the controls so that the airplane wiu fly straight and level with your hands ofi the controls. Or you ean set the tabs so that the airplane will maintain a climbing attitude or a Cliding attitude. One of the most interesting things about triln tabs is that they actualy work like cortrcl surfaces o{ contols. That is, if the rudder tab is set toveard the fight it pushes the rudder to the left. and thus mak€s the airplane yaw to the left.

'or.u ".n


6-t I

AftcraJt are built oI the shonsest, lidt€st matedals that can be procured. Beforc special-sbenstl, light weight metals w€re developed, planes were constructed of wood and fabric. On some small airplanes, these materials are sti used in wing construction. But metal is better than wood because it is shonger and does not deteriorate as fast. It is more resistant to fire, and it does not change its shape and size under prcssure or changes oI weather. FutelcAe

called ribs. When the lengthwise strins€rs and the cross-section ribs ar€ joined toeether, you have the skeleton oI the fuselage. Tlfs construction provides only a {airly rigid frame. I{owever, when the metal skin is fastened over these stdnsels and bs with hundreds of small dvets the luselaee becomes risid and strong. This is the modern or stressed-skin method of fusetage construction. In older aiIclaft and in some lisht atplanes today, a slighdy ditrerent lus€Iage consbuction is used.

The body o{ the airplane we call the fuselage. It is like the body of an automobile because it houses the cargo, passenge$, and crcw. But there is no heavy chassis in an anphne. Instead, the sbength is built into the entire stucture. The l€ngthwise memb€rs arc ca[ed stringen. The crcss-section members arc

Instead of many shingeIs oI light weight, a smaller number oI heavier members are used. they are called longerons. The cross members, or ribs, are also fewer and much heavier. This framework, strong within ilself, is covered with fabric, which is then painted with a special Feparation called dope. Dope shrinlrs the fabdc, drawing it taut over the framework so that it adds some sbength to the whole

' r\ i|: € r)ri 1 i f '\ \ irr! ril) \ ! ,,'q '.rir.rr r.,irfi !rt1"n. l' I I qr \ ) : r s "r r ( lijir e' Tl , i ' s , 11, ! , r , ll r r i( 1al PliLnl_r lht r r L r rr,rlor , re l f t ,aI r! ' , lr' fl\ ilt ' ' rt ,, i\ir, ri rr! $ ir r g r s : r s - t r ln' ' i 1, )' l -r (,, e , 1 p , r;r,,rl,1,n ,lt i( r r lc r t ' r ' 1lr ' \ L"r r)r s u : L ,r1l!rlr L ir i li.1 n.,'ri t h\ ' r L' ii lLlJ jLr ( l r lr ! ' L l . { L : t h.f1 r . r , ir "ir l) ar I ( ' i t li' ,,i ' , n 11L J 1 rr. ur 1 r r lL. r r r r r ' I h. f . 11 ,, a rf .n , i . , i r ] dr , : lir 1 .r., i.r. -r rr , . ( l I lrt r,, . L re ll, I I ' l hc 2 lhe i l l lF 'l rcre rre , rlr 1r rr L i| 1r'lr r ' t r ii: '1 rr ' r r r r it r Lr ' ' i

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b- 12


Ti,ef. are three paris of thc rving: 1. The {.nig tip. 2 Thc NinC seciiolr. 3. The center scction. T h e se i h f ec s c c t ions a re s o ,n c tj n i c s b u L :t s .!a f at el ! p a rti c ular l] in , no d c rn a l l me ra l t,h n e i i h f,: :r n. ncd to get Ler r y hc n t h c w mg j s a ' s c rl n rl . l i r iip is u su rl l y t hc por t ion be l o rd rl ,c a i l e ro n T h rrn 3 ...tn!r is thc portnD belween thc wolg riir .rrl rl:il :- -rr.r sccti oD.t he c c ni. r s c c ti o n i s o l 1 -.Lp a rl .r rh f :::ain body ol thc airplaD-" rvhere rhe ruL,:' ar-:: st ere d to t hc { us elage. Wing C o n str uc t ion ' l hrre a re o n l) t wo m ain t tp e s o f { i n g .!,,s rrJ .1 :!n 1. The spar wihg. 2. The braccd strcssed-skrr tlng.

The :pa. l i ri g has hearl spars c\ten.l i ng 1bc 1.:grh ri r. 1hr-,:.pars. $hei h.r l hct are t Lcans ri rr.i -.-| ]r:rf!i l . r:rr! i hc l oad. Tre brrc.rl s:r.r:s.rl skLn { D rC i s,n!de D uch l i ti e l hi ,,,o(rrn :1r--fd skD r fl rscl asc. S mal l er sccri oDs ..f. fi r.i :.1 i .)qfri r.r E a.h ' ,i :\i s. i e.ri , rj i s cross bra.ed. i i kc a sec ri .ri ,,i l .:i ::i l .r.r brj .l s.. Then thc sl i ore sed.s .r .tfl :,rLs. :i 1ff l h.r' are j (,i n.d. (rD sre.l : of l i l hl bL[ rl rl ng mctal rhst arc l etd .r:f l i re :.I: rrgl d sl .ucture. F.,.,,i i u.h.,,..i fLLcl i od se ge1 a srrong se,ri ri gi d sr.Lrfture 11r, i LrLl l has ru-e gi vc i o i t rhan l hc spa! :r " . \. " . ,, 1 Ir ab:.rbr rh. vi ol ent shodi s that pl aD esi n J!,f1r.1. fi i nhr ar. s.Ieri n.s srLbj ecl ecl l t i s some\\hat l i kc to. thr sprLngs on |our aui.trrobile.





Before you can fly an airplane you must be ablc to taxi and take oF. Then you must tand it again and taxi along the $ound to its parking place. Even in normal operations, the landins sear has to withstand great loads and the landing shock. It is designedto stand theseheavy loads.It is not, however, made to stand heavy side loads. That is why pilots arc taught t}le impodance oI landing with a straight landins track. Even a slight amount of drift durine a landing places great side loads on the landins gea!. Tri.ycle Londins Geri There are only two t}?es of landing gear: 1. The modern tricycle cear. 2. The conv€ntional 3-point landing gear. has ereat advantage over The modern tricycle gea.r gear because onc€ the airthe old or conventional plane is on the glound it tracks straight and true.

It consists of two main landing wheels and a nose $heel that operates on a {ull-swiveling caster. The airplare is always landed on the rnain wheets. You use the nose wheel only for ground operation.After landing, and as you slorq down, the plane settles gentb on the nose wheel. That's because the main tanding wheels are behinil the cent$ o{ gravity. The conventional landinc gear is still the most cornmonly us€d. It consists of two main landing wh€els, placed in tuont of the center of gavity, and a vh€el at the tail. When such a plane lands, it settles with its tail down, since there is more weight behind the landing wh€els than th€re is in front of them. The pilot then has some control in turning lefi or iight on the sound because the tait wheel is usually steerable. It is hooked up to the rudder pedals in such a way that as you press the right pedal the plan€ turns to the right, and vice versa.




As you study you lrill leam about many insuumenB. Later. iI you t ke flying training and begin you progress though Primary, Basic and Advanced schools, you wiU undeNtand just what one Aviation Cadet meant when asked by his inst uctor what he thought of the iNtrument panel of a fighter airplane. "It looks, sir," he said, "like the Grand Canyon fuU of alarm clocks." ,Vlagneri.Compas3 All a plane instruments ar€ important. But remember this: The magnetic compassis th€ mosl imporlant instrurnenl in th€ cockpit, You will learn more about it in the section called How to Find Your l{av in the Sky. Purpose: To indicate the heading or direction in which the airplane is flying. Principle: The earth acts as a huge magnet. TlIe

north magnetic pole is near the geognphical (true) Nodh Pole and the south magnetic pole is near rrle geographic South Pole. A freety suspended bar magnet will swiDg until one end points to the magnetic north pole. That is the principle o{ rhe magnetic compass, the direction-indicating instrument in your

D€€cription: An airplane's rna8inetic cohpass coDsists of a metal bowl filled with a liquid. Restins on a pivot inside this bowl, free to rotate, is a saucerlike dome. It carries a set of rnagDetized needles and a circular scale indicating North, South, East, and West. AII other directioDs of the 360. are marked with lines at 5' int€Nals. Tlle magnetic needles within the dome alvrays seek to line up in the NorthSouth dircction. When the plane tums, the dome stays in the same N-S direction, and the plane head-

6-t5 inc can be read against a Iine tbrough a window.

Compdaa Errora The compass is an accurat€ and depen<l,able tutrument in dle. han& of the pilot or navigator vho knows hore io use it. But it is subj€€t to t$/o t]?es 1. Inherent errors. 2. night erlols. Inherent errors must always be colsidered wbethe! you are usbg a compasslor a hike thrcugh the woo&, on a boat at s€a, o! in an airplane. They have nothing to do with flying itsef. Vari4lio[ is caused by the Iact tbat the earth's Eagnetic poles do not coincide with the geoEraphic poles. The amount of variation is the difielence in angle between the directions of true north and magnetic north.

rcts so placed in the €ompass case as to couDteract the efrect of tbe shay magnetism in the ai4lane. It is seldom possible, howeve!, to eliminate deviation completeb. TIre amou of deviatioo the pilot has to reckon with in dgud.ng hea&ngs is stat€d on the compass cerd installed on the instlument panel. This card is 6tled in eft€t tb€ compas has been iDstalled and swug to find its deviation enor:s. All the compass erlols we have discussed bave Note b€en irherent erroE of all magtretic compass€s. tlEt yariation is a Foperty of a location while deviation is a property oI the airplane. Fllghr Ertor. In an airplane there are other compass errors loown as dight errors. Tlre lines of magFetic force of the eafih are vertical at tlle poles and horizontal at the equator. Thus, at the equalor, a compass {rorks best.

u. 5.aoftaas val|Al|oN Aemnautical charts sho{' the smount of vadation for every section over which you may fly. llle lines of equal magnetic variations are call€d tuogonic lin€s. Devialion is caus€d by neaiby iDagneuc sources in the plane, such as the Foximity of itoa parts and the electric current in the ladio o! electrical system. Deviation is gready reduced by cornpeDssting mag-

At the poles the.lines of force, being vertical, arc pu[ing the neeille do{rn. As long i.s an ailplane is flyiDg straight and level, tlle compass is accurate. But when the airplane banls arld tuins, the vertical magnetic force causes the iistrum€nt literally to "go crazy." It spins, olten in tlle wrong directioq and it swings back and fodh unable to rnake up its mind as to ivhat direction the airplane is heading. A good pilot alvrays makes one sirnple pre0ight compass check. He lires up his plane in a known direction and checks his compass rdading.

6 -16


Purpose: The altimeter rccords the height abovesea lev€1, Principle: The altimete! is a lype o{ barometerreading altitude in {eet. Its design is based on the Iact that ail pressure decreases evenly with incr€ase of attitude. You will l€arD mor€ about this fact in the section call€d Your Body in Flisht.

diaphrasm and a gear mechanismthe pressure difference is indicated on ihe dial as altitude in {eet. Errorsi Becausethe altimeter is a barometer, it is afiected by.the change of barometiic pressure aDd must be set foi the prevailiDgbarometricpressureto give accurate results. This is done by a knob which turns the dial hands. On the sround, the aliimeter can be set to show the altitude of rhe freld. This conects rhe rAslrumen. for the prevailing baromeidc pressue. The altimerer will show the conect altitude above sea level until the barcmetric pressure changes. Some altimeters are equipped so rhat th€ setting can b€ chaneedin ihe air. For this purpose a small setting window on the face is provided. The pilot obtains the prevailing barometric pressure by radio and res€ts his iistiument accoidingly.

D6ciiption: An altimeter consists mainly of a case open io the atmosphere. Inside the case there is an aifiight metal chamber 6lled with normal air at nomat pressure. When the plane is at sea level, the pressure in the outer case and in the chamber is the same. As the plane gains aliitude, the pressure in the case decreases. The pressure in the chamber, however, remains the same. This crcates a condition in which the pressure in the chamber is greater than t}le pressure in the case. By means df a sensitive

T€mperature Errors: The altimeter is also afiected by change of temperature.It is designed{or normal temperature (15' Centismde) at sea level pressure. A built-in conection takescare of the normal2" drop in temperature {or each 1000 feet gained with temperature normal at sea level. Thus, if the temperatures are hieher than usual, your altimeter will indicate a lowe. altitude than you are flyins. This is nol danBcrousbecauseaccidents never occur lecause you fly too high over a

6-17 But if temperatures ar€ lory€r than normal, use caufion because your altimeter vill indicate a higher altitude than you are flying. These corrections arc made by the pilot with a computer or with an altim-

Airspeed Indlcotor
Purpos€: The airspeedindicator shows the speedat Nhich the airplane is flying thrcugh the surounding air. Its greatest use to the pilot is warning him to stay within safe speedlimits between the mnllum .peed tsralling speed)and the red Iine or marjmum allowable speed limit of the airplane. It also helps the pilot to compute ground speed.

Principle: The airspeed indicator depends on a pitot tube that delivers tu'o kinds o{ ail pressure to the 1. Dynamic air prcssure (impact presswe created by the motion of the plane). 2. S rati c ai r pr.s-urp rpresai l j ng arr pr "s. ur e) . Note thai there is no flow of air through a pitot The airtight case o{ the instrument is connected with the static pr€ssur€ lin€ of ihe pitot tube. A

Preflight Check: Check the setting knob and tap the instrument with your finCeI to be sure
Beiore takeofi, sei altimete. to ffeld elevation.

diaphragm inside the case is connected with the dynamic pr€ssure lin€ o{ the pitot tube. When the plane is in motion, there is an impact of air creating d)nanic pres.ur". This pres.ure increasesas the speed increases.

6-t8 As tle impact pressure increases, the diaphragm expandsand the needleconnectedby a g€ar mechanism shows ihe corresponding airspeed on the dial.
Rore-of-Clinb Indi.olo.

Drrors: As you climb in the sky, the aii becomes thinner and the temperature drops. These changes causeyour airspeedindicator to deceiv€you. It is a reliable and accurate instrument. but it was built to rcad corrcctly only at sea level pressure and at 59' F. Therefore, at higher altitudes and low$ tempentures, you have to correct each reading of it. The chart below showsyou how mueh {aster you are traveling at vadous altitudes than your airspeed indicator shows. It assumes tempentures based on the nornal lapse rate. Ordinarily, you will make the necessary corections with a simple computer which changesindicaled airsp€ed into 1rue aiBpeed. In the section, How to Find Your Way in the Sky, you are told how to do this. HOW FAST ARE YOU REAI,I.Y FI.YING?



rI rt rr um rr. rt0o fr. o.m rr. r5.ou

1011h 116 126 137 143 163

150 mph 161 200 mph 215 250 mph 269

174 189 205 224 245 233 252 214 238 321 291 315 342 3i3 400 349 311 410 441 490

Purpose: The rate-oI-climbindicator showsthe veltical speed of the airplane. It indicates how many hundred feet per minute the airylane is climbing or diving. Principle: The principle of this instrument is the st€ady decrease of ah pressure with increase o{ altitude. The rate-of-climb indicator consistsmainly of a case which is connectedwith the outsid€. As the airplane gains or losesaltitude, the air pressure changes in the case. Inside the case there is a chamber,airtight except for a small calibrated leak. While the air pressure in the casechangeswith the chanee of altitude, the pressure in the chamber remains coNtant until it is equalizcdby th€ air leaking in through the calibmted leak. With the help of a sensitive diaphragh and a gear mechanismthe resulting prcssuredifference,which is in propoltion to the rat€ of climb or descent,is indicated on the dial. An example will best explain the operation of this iNtrum€nt. At sea level flight, the Fessure in the caseand in the chamber is thE same.The needle on the dial points to zero. The airylane has no ve ical speed-As the airylane climbs, the pressure in the case decrcases, and the pressurc in t}Ie chamber remains the same except {or th€ minute flow of air through the small leak. Therc is now a hieher air pressue in the chamber than in the case. The diaphragm expands and the needle points to the late of climb on the dial. This instument has a lae of ? to 10 seconds.

300 mph 323

Preflighl Check: The pitot's preflight checkis simpte. On the $ound the needle wi[ rcst at 0, unless there is a stronE headwind.

Pr€flight Check: The needle should show 0 on the ground.


In explaining the four {orces that act upon an airplane in flight, we have taken it {or gmnted that the airptane moved thrcugh the air at relatively high speed.Naturally it requi.es power properly applied We mentioned that model planes are usually powercd by twisted rubber strands, which exert pressur€ on a propeller, makins it whirl around fast enoush to produce thrust. ln man's long struggle to conquer ihe air and fly, one of the chie{ difficulties he ran into for centu es was how to get power enough to mak€ his contraptions rake off rhe ground and sta) in rhe €ir. Thoush he tried flapping wings which he moved with his arms or lees,he could never prcduc€ enouch power with his own muscular exertion to gy. Birds are able to fly because 60 per cent of their weight is muscles. But man, even if he could buiu emcient mechanical wings, could never produce enough powe! in relation to his weight to fly. Only about

8 per cent of his weight is made up of muscles. It was necessary to devise some powerplant that could produce a great deal of power and still weigh rclatively little. We express the rclatioD berween the weight and the power of an €ngine in terms of pounds per horsepover. For instance 2 pounds per horsepow€r, 1]4 pounds per hors€power, etc. It was not until the invention of the intemal combustion engine t}lat we had an engine capable o{ power enough per pound io make an airplane fly.

Nearly a1l aircraft engines today are 4-cycle recipmcating intenal combustion engines. Four-cycle engines are so called because there are foul cycles or events that Dusl occur {or each power 1. The ffrst stroke is called the inlake or admission stmke. The piston moves outward; or toward the crankshaft, and draws a charce of th€ combustible


. , t r nr , 'r! to p !pular l) f lic l, t l i e c ri g i n e d ({ ,s n o i b u m n . l ,r lon .. I1 bur ns . r , i\ r r Lr e o f a i r t. l ti c h a s ,,)a l !. .1, 1, n 1 t \rp o f z ed luc l ha s b c n a rtrtc d .T trc c a r_ o rurctr,r's onl]' funcrion is to nix rht: hree quadrit]. ,i : r i. si l h l hc c r ) r r c c t s Di a l l q u r.ti r\' .t ftr.1 f.r ,. l i l crl i i ,l o t he c r liNlef . Ir a c ro m p tj s l ,fs th rs rn li c \ r enl u ri l u br of r le c ar b u re ro r \\' ]rfc trre i n orlDg rLr is resrricknl rnd co.scctu.rih tralels ai

6-21 Liqoid or Air-Cooled Engin6. Two types of engines are in conDon use in our firstline miUt€ry aircnft today speaking, the advantages and dGadvaatages oI th€6€ two types of powerplaDts equalize themseh.es.

lypes of Enginer

The cylinders of the inline encine arc anaDsed in a single row on the crankcase.sometimesin an uF right position, but prefelably in an inverted positionThis tr?e of powerplant is not suitable for high horsepower engines, but is rcliable and satisfactory {or tow-peformance airplanes. An inline engine is usually limited to 6 cylindels to {acilitate air-cooling and to avoid too much weight per horsepower.
L Liauid*ool.d A liquid-cooled engine is jacketed around the cylindels. A liquid coolant is cir.culated to absorb the heat and tlansler it to the air through a ndiator located somewher€ in the s)ipstream o{ the ailplane.

The cylinders of the V-type engine are aranged on the crankcase in two rows or banks formine a V. This auangemeni greatly reduc€s weieht per ho$epower because both banks of cylinde$ uiilize th€ sme crankshaft.

In the opposed eneine, the cytinde$ are ananged horizontally in two rows on opposite sides of the crankcase. A single crankshaJt is employed. Becaus€ of the flat shape oI th€ engine, it ofiers sood'visibility. It also is especially adaptable for streamlining and is used particularly on lightweight airylanes- Because of its flat shaper it is aiso adaptable to larger ai.craft Ior iDstallation in the wine.

2. Air-cool.d Air-cooled eneines are, in tlemselves, direct radiators. They radiate their heat tbrough a series of 6ns and radiating su aces into the airctleam and are cooied in this dircct way. There is a never-endingdiscussionbetween pilots and enginedesigners to which is the more efficient as engine-the air-cooled or tiquid-cooled. Both types are considered to be equally sood by the Army Air Forces.The liquid-cooledengineogersb€tter streamlining possibilities.The air'cooled engine senerally has a higher holsepow€r-to-weichtratio. cenerally

R cdi ol E ngi no

Radial enginesare built in sinsle or double-row dF

6 - 22 sigDs. T'he cngine is partjcularly e[i(icnt bccausL-it uses a singlc throlv 360- crankshr{r to vhich a1l ol the connccting rods a.c ritachcd. This results nr a ' ,.,.J . I J l, - r , | . r " rk .r' g p a rr" a ,.o .\,,,ts L \r.rgnl. All niodcrn airplanc cngines are reliablc, dependable sourt'es ol poNcr. A eo(,d pilot has a h-"nlthl rcspcct n)r propcr engine n\aintcnance. h fn(t, roLr caD parrphrasc th-" old s|yinC this wav: "A pilot s besi friend is his rno|or."

\, /--'
T h. p u rp o s e of ih. pr opr )l e r L sto tra n s te r ti re p o r tr of t he e h si Dc int o lonr ar c i tl ru s t. T n e p l p tl i i r r. a r -. .:n - . . . 1. r 1. I . : ^. " cxactl y th e s an, e m |n, ic f th a t rh c (ri ! i .re 1 .,!. I. lif t . It h a s a lc adm g c dec l u s t L k . a \f,r:. rl :, 1 ,i l l is c. rh b crcd jus i lihc a N m s a rd h e l U i r.::: r. a r .. . 1. fl , | . , r L, , f , . p I ^ rr I niorc blades faslened ro a roiatlg hL:b oi ilr etrd ol the eDsine craDkshalt. Iacl L.al ai fphD es. thi s propel l er pi tch or angl e of atl a.k !i th. propel l er bl ade i s control l abl e l roh Thu: ii the pilol d€sires a high cruisins speed and



fl fl n
[/l ' i


IoN enside ryD he places thc propeller in full hish pit(+, (loN rpD). causing the blades ro takc a bigger brtc oi air. For lakcofi, controllable-pitch propellers are sel at thcil loNest anslc of attack (io takc a s,nallcf bite of dre ajr) lor a quick surse of power necessarl {or thc takcoff itself. Constonl-Speed Propelle15 Another reilnetne.l is lddcd on large ]\rmJ, Air Forces taciical airplaDes. It the constant-specd propell-"r. It is both and automatic. Once in rhe aif. thc pilot aircraft and is knos'n as conlrollablc sels his pro,

D.pendirrs on the ensine's rym's,1he pfopellef blades are set at a ccrtaiD aDgie of attack or pitch to transIorm engine poNer ellicientltr into forward thrusr. I'Iost lishiNcisht airplancs have fired-pitch propcllos. On larger airpiancs and Army Air Forces

6-23 p€ller at the angle o{ attack at which his engine operatesmost emciently.Th€n climb or dive, regardless of what he does, the propeller blades chanse their angle of attack automatically to maintain a constant engine speed.

The purpose o{ the tachometer is to indicate the speed o{ the engine cmnkshaft. It is calibrated in revolutions per minute and is driven directly ftom t}le crankshaft through a flexible cable. Faulty or rough €ngine operation can be deienined by the tachometer. It is also used in larger aircraft to determine propeller speeds.


Oil Temperolure Gouge The purpose of the oil tempeEiure cauge is to aid in maintaining oil tempemture *ithin designated lioits. Overheating of an air-cooled ensine (unless it is equipped with head t€mpeiature gaug€s) can first be det€rmined by consultinc the oil temperature gauge. Since airplanes must never be taken oF until the engirles are thoroughly waroed up, the oil temperature gauge is of paramount importance to the pilot just be{orc takeofi.

t-24 P'soight Ch€ck
Usnrs the enginc instfumcnts we hale b lisht aLfplam should stud;d. r prl"r "l mike the folld$rng minimum prerrrgnL check on hc engine instfuftenis: 1. After starling the engjne, he should eauge E Nait until thc oi1 tedper'ture limits belore taxiing to within prcscribcd 2. H. should lock his brakes' slo$4v open th€ thrcltle 1o tho prescribed )imit and his consult his rachomei.r to be sure is dcveloping fuu Po$o' cngnre 3 He should then check his tNo sepafAtc rgnrtronsJslcms bJ lurllrna thc suitch to .ach renrlron \!sltm s(para(elr ano Incn to b,th Il thefe is mu.h ot a- drop rn r o m s u n t h e r d t h u m e ( t r o n c 't f t r o l t h c i;nition sys1.ms. he should not iake ofi' b,,t should llxi back lo the llling line

The oil temperature gauge is a vapor-presslrr€ themometer consisting of three units: ' teD! u"lu, which is located at the point of i. n. oelatule measurement, --i. if'" tube, which connecis thc indi".ot """ cator with the bulb instrument 3. The indicalor itself. mounted on the s T ho b u l b rs f i] ] " d ! v ir h a v o l a l i !" l i c u i d $ h rL h h ' n a Pfessure h€ated changes into a gas and develops tube This pressure moves lhe pointer in the capillary on the dial.

N E5




I n t h e p o i l l O y e o rE rre me n d ou! l dvcncei and c o n s l ru d i o n . W e c d n .o n fi d enl l y mlirered the problehr

hove been mode In ol rpl ons d.ti gn

scy l hal our engi ns€r! dnd de.l gnert have ond, .o far o5 thelr conlrlbullon * N eY erthel ett,l he on i5

ot a€rodyt|omlct

c on.e rn e d , h o v e m o d e n y l n g 03 rofe qt drl vl ns o.or,

oirpldne ho. not yel been builr which c.n dely the elemenrs. The weother hl3 porh of flighr is rtill the firrl conlld€rotlon lor a l o n g rl me to .o me . *

of ! nyer ond wlll conllnue lo be

In rhe fol l orvl ng pdges you w l l l l 6!rn much cboul whql the woqlher wlll be: moltlure .onl€nt, ond,

lhe 3 blg fo.lor5 which delermlne remper.ture, eipe.ldlly,

ond prersure. KnowinE thot there fd.torr knowlng whdt klnd of wealhet

Produc. weothei

vorlout .omblndlloni

of lhem cr€

llkely to .redte li a3 lmporlont

lo rhe nyer cr the omounl of fuel In hlr ldnk!'


tlt tHts

sECrtoil ...

Who|he Scien.eof Meieorotogytr-The 3 LoyeB oI rhe Atnorphere_The Tropopoure_The coies Which l^oke Up rhe Armosphere-Three tnporronr FodoB Which Creote Weqrher

Wdtgr Vapor qnd porflctet Exploining poinr-porr proved porri<re3sorid Humidirv sorurorion ond bv of Morerin proce$ or

TheEorrh!Heoti.gsFrem-How ro c@verrFdhrenheir s.ore inrocenrisrode-whor Rodiorion k k-Exptoiningrhe Lopse -Whol Conduction Rore_Tempe.orure Inve6ion Pf€isure Whor o tnilliborls-How Arh6pherk pre,sure Drops you Rbe_Whor on kobor k d3 l ovemgnfs of fhe Air

Two,rnoin Fo.to6 WhichCouse An'ro L{ove-Eiptoining Convecrion d Current_Four FochWhi.h ltrfluence cenerol Direclion rh. Windi_Meosurins Wind,3 of rhe Velo.ilv

Molrturg in the Ahorphere
\{hol the Dewpoinrof lhe Arhosphe.ek_Exptoining Spreod_Whor Retorive Hlh;diry k_The ProceisWhich Fo.mi Ctoud3 Fos or

Fog ond Clouds
ExploiningGround Fog,Advedion Fog, Upltope Fog_When o piloi Moy Exped fog_The 2 Types of Cloudsto Remember-The 3 Levet' or Which Ctoudi Forn_Whor Vorious CtoudsAre Co eo_ T.rhr Use ro De*ribe Ctoud Cond ions ^teteorologkB

Efiecl of Srobie ond U6robte Air on Weorhe.-Eiptoihing the Adioboric Lopre Rote_How Unsrobte ond Srobb Condiriohs rhe Air Are Cfeoted of

Alr Mor6e5 ond Frohtr
Definins on Air Mosr-Tobte of fiorrh Ahericon Air t{o5,es_Chorocrerkri$ of Cold ond Worh a,r fioises-Worh ond Cold F.onrotZdca or Fronrs

Weolher Repons for the Flyer
Whot EochWeother Report Cohroinr-sompte Repodr of o SingteAfrernoon_Tronrloring rhe Syhbol3 Used-How PilorlnrerprerrRepori, in Tern5 of Th.ir Innu.nceon His propored Ftishr




Look up ond wqtch o cloud moving ocross ihe sky.

Note iL! color, its size and shape, and t}le rate at which it travels. Then, with t}Ie help of a thermomete. and barometer, you may be able to decidc whether to expect iainj snow or good weather. If you can, you are an amateur meteoroloEist. You are able to interyret for your own use the signs in the sky or the atmosphere,

The science o{ meteorology is the study of the atmosphereand the things that happen in the atmosphere such as winds, temperalure changes, and vadations in moisture content. The cloud you see in the sky is the .esult of a numb€. of those happeninss in the atmosphere. They beean a long time before the cloud was formed.

Simply stoted, metcorology is thc itudy of chonging otmorpheric conditionr, commonly known as weolher.
The atmosphereis the whole massof air which surrounds the earth. It ts most dense at sea level and grows less dense as its distance from the earth the atmospheremay be divided into 3 layers: l. Thelropo.ph.r. or lowest laye!, extebds to a height of about 8 miles above the €a h's suface. 2. Ih. 3trclorph.r. or middle hyer, extendslo a height of about 60 miles above the earth's su ace. 3. lhs ion6ph.r. or uppe. layer, extebds to a heisht oI more rhan 500 miles above the earth's suface.



T l -r" I. t , r F L r , nl- r rg F In .t r,o .p h ,... :, ..:.I Letvccn ihe tfoposphere and lhe srralosphere. The di|idi n g l i D c bet ! ' een t h e s c 2 l a y c 6 o l i h e a tm o s pher-" is ca1led the tmpopause. Although cerlain small atmospliedc chang.s do occur abole thc tfopopause, the meieorologist and thc avirtor are p narilj' concetned Niih the tropoIhe tro p o spher eis t he we o th e r re g i o n o f lh e o tm o5pher e. The ahrosphere is cornposcd ot a DrixtLrfr of qases. . . r ' p n ," n r ' I :rr B I Ji rl . _Cn .,r - .. a . dru n l i .g lor aboLr t78 p e r .e n t o f th e to ta L . N e x t i af g.sl . i ! o x jgc n, wiih 2 1 p e r c e n t. T h e re D ra i D d er c onsi stso f Nat er v apor a n d s m a l l q u a n l i l i c s .t o l h e r gases such as heliuDr and hldrogcn. In acldltion. tlioc a re 'i n a l l q uanliiies ol s a l t c rl s ta l s a D d o i h .-r p a rtic lc s o l mat t er , m os t t l d u s t. .1 .r ,r' .,r . ., I l .r" -. 'l ' 'L ' NatL'r lapor and particlcs of mattcr found in thc aldosphere \'ades Creatb'. Its othcr ci,nstiiu.nts rc nai n L rn iior m in pf opo rl i d rs a t a 1 l l € !.1 s . Thrcc important factors \'ltich crfirl{, wfalhrr arc: 1. The aDlount o{ Nater lapor and solid Pariicl.s

(salt crrstals, €tc.) pr-psent in the atrnosplicrc. 2. ID equal i l i es i r l emperature. 3. Inequaliiies ir prcssure.



The atmosph€re d€rives most of th€ water vapor which it contains ftom the earth's supply of vater in oceans, rivels and lakes; from ialling rain and snow, and from plants. In regions where there are lalge sulaces of open water and where vegetation grows abundandy, wat€r in large quantities is drawn off into the atrnospherc in the form ol vapor. In warm weather this happens to a greater extent than in cold weather. The summer is therefore a pedod when the atmosphere is dch in water vapor. Tbe amount of water vapor which the atmosphere contains determines its humidity.

When that point is reachedand you add more sugar, it won't dissolve the water has reachedthe saluration point. But iJ you heat th€ water it can dissolve more sugar-you have raised t}le saturation point.

ol w.l.' vdpot whkh c .uhi. lh. ndrinuE .n.!nl Thir .h{i.hovt indi..i.d lodol.lnorph.6.o. contdin.tlh. E.p..rlv.i.mP.Elu6.

Lnea'r may Ihe prqcessol water vapor rrs'ng 'nro be compared to rhe processof dissolving sugar in a glassoI water. You can't seeany changein the water until it has absorbed all the susar it can contain.


Similarly, when the air has received a ih€ water it can contain,it hasreachedthe saturarionpoinr. Th€ amount of water vapor which the atmospherecan hold at any given time is detemined largely by its temperature at that time. When air is heated,it can absorb more water vapor. When air is cooted, it won I hold as much water vapor. It rhere is more water vapor in the air than tle air can hold, a cedain amount o{ it will condense out. The paiicles of solid matrer which we mentioned above are impotant to the processof condensation.

These particles consist of a number oI impudties which are present in the lower atoosphere.They are mostly myriads of miooscopic salt crvstats (teft when the sea spray €vaporated). Over industrial areasand big cities, smoke particles are also presenr in large quantities. A red sun in the moming and evening indicates the piesence of these particles in the atmosphere.They are impo$ant in the process oI condensationbecauseit is arcund them that the water vapor beginsto condense into clouds,fog, min

Tempemturc is measu.edin degrees. the United In States we use 2 scalesoJ measurement,Fahrenheit and Centigrade.


The sun is ih€ furnace which operates the heating s]'stem of the earth. In the summer time its rays strike more effectively at the ea{h's su#ace than in r}1e winter time. The hear produced by mese rays E not €quauy dist buted, however. It is this unequal warming oI ihe €arth's su ace *luch causesdilTercnces tempemturc. These dif_ in leEnces are directly responsiblefo! changesin the



Conv€rr ;dhr.nheit inlo Cenrigrod. in tho following woyl 59 x (' I-3 2 ):o C For ihe pilot. the follo\ring simplified formula will usually sulEce: Deduct 32 from the number of degrees Fahrenheit and divide lhe remainder in halJ. For example, to convert ?0 des- F- to Centigrade, deduct 32 flom 70, leaviDs 38. Then dividc by 2 and you havc 19 deg. Ccntigrade. While this js not strictly accurate, it is close enough lor all ordinar}. flying problehs.

directly affected by the process. As rve ascend into the air, we find that the temperaturc normaliy drops. The .aie at which ii drops feet o{ ascent is called the lapse rat€. With each 1,000 tempeHture goes ue ffnd that, on the average,the dolvn 51,, des. F ( 2'c).

The rays of the sun penetrate the atmosphere and warm the earth. This process is called radiation. Direct radiation from the sun does not heat thc air appreciably. The air receiYcs Factically all its heat The chief process by which the air is heated is

called conduction, By this means. air passing over a hot surface gains heat in the same Nay lhal cloth rvrapped around a hot iron ab$rbs heat from the iron. It is tho actual contact of an and carth lvhich produces the bansfer of heat by conduclion. This naturall) means ihat onl] the lowest layer of ajr is





It is jmportant to bcar in mind. however, that the lapse .ate is by no means uniform. A differ, ence of as much as 30 degrees Fahrenheit may exist on levels only 1,000 fect apart.

Sometimes, temperatur€ rises with altitude. When this happens, the condition is called a temperature Widely varying lapsc rates aie vital factors in the making of weather, particulaily in detcrmining the

The pressure of the atmosphere fluctuates. At sea level, it averages about l5 pounds upon each square inch of the ea.tn's suface.By means of the bammeter we know that this p.essure is equal to that of approximately 30 inches of melcury. On weather maps pressur€ units called millibars arc used instead of inches of mercury. Thidy-four millibars are app.oximately equal to 1 inch o{ mercury. And 29.92 inches of mercury, which is rhe standard atmospheric pressure at sea level, is equal to 1013.3 millibals.

The "3londord oir" ot seq level is orbitrdlily lixed by meteorologisls ot 29.92 inches press u re (1 0 1 3 . 3 millib o ri) ot

rsoc (59oF).

As we ascend into the atmospherc,the prcssure drops at an approximately even mte of about 1 inch of mercury, or about 34 millibarc, {or every 1,000 {eet o{ climb. The hisher we ctimb, the less dense the atrnosphere becomes. In other wods, although the atmosphere extends {or hudreds of miles, i{ we ascendto approximately 3 miles abovesealevel, hau of all the existing air in the atmosphere is b€low usTo explain this in another way, as you will encounter it again in the section on Your Body in Flight, although nitrogen and oxygen are present in their feet, only half th€ quanusual pioportions at 18,000 tities are present.If we ascendto 36,000 Jeet,we find only about hall as much as at 18,000. higher altiAt tudes, the lowedng o{ pressure is more rapid. HuDan beinss, who are accustomedto breathins oxygen at the normal air pressureof about 30 inches of mercury, or 1,016millibars, find it hard to brcatbe when their supply of oxygen is cut in hau. At an altitude of about 24,000 {eet, an aviator will unless he provides himse with becomeunconscious an additional supply of oxygen.


A ,ye + .^-"r LJ..,.-/'.
C onl rol

a.+ a4.. /4 i ^-'W spa< i meno{ nd-Imclhondw ri l i ng.
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No opporenl efie<t.,

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phyiisFrond Dennite ^e"r.t

B esi nnhs mu.Gul ot i ncoordi nql i on.

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, n{'f 6"-J ru."".r"-,."-, ,v.
W /1.1'q.,- f4u"-77


tosr zero of borh I8,OOO ond 2O,OOO-hd/*ed

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il^M V-74

Feel3so6d. Indshr, iuds|nenr .nd .oordincrion very

A # rr',l'run
Menl ol ond phyri rol hel pl e5!ne55.

1 61 r ( , tt

. t,

lmprovcmentwith few breqlh3of oxygen. ;




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r ;,,...,,^,, / 4,,,
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t : 'i. '(a

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Lq3lzero l eft oF-senercl i mprovenenl , but nol compl etel ynoTmol .



movins towards the poles.Cold.air from the potesis constantly moving away fron them. These movements of air cause th€ prevailing horizont€l winds i'hich blow across the earth.

Taken togetler, the moisture content of the air, the tempeiature, and the pressure fom a round-table trio which makes the basic decisions on what the weather is going to be. Movomenrrof th€ Air The movement oI air is caused by 2 main facto$: 1. Inequaliti€s in temperature 2. Inequalities in pressure We have leamed that th€ sun does not heat aI parts o{ the earth's surface equaily. As a result, the air is unequally heated also. Sinc€ varm air tends to se, an air parcel warmer than its neighboring parcels rises aDd is replaced by cold air. The vertical movementof warm air is called a convectioncurrenl. ThesecuEents are realy winds blowinc up or blowinc do\ri. They are of considerable importanceto tle avraror, because these localized rising and falling curenls push his airplane up and do\a.:n suddenly and produce bumpy flight. The flyer calls it "turbul€nce." On a leger scale,inequalitiesof temperatue cause what rs calledthe globalcircular'on rhe air. of From the tropics, warm air is costantly rjsing and


ro Th e p re v ai l i ng di rc c ti on of these winds is modified o certoin ext.ni bY:
a. The rctation of the earth of b. Unevenn€ss th€ €arth's surface' c. Distribution o{ land and seaareas'

of d. The passage storms. These 4 factors influence the general direction of the winds

In localized areas, the difiereni temp€ratures or tand and seac.eate local winds The land heats raster than th€ sea,and air over ihe laDd b dudng the day tban it does over the sea Cooler theavier) air from the seamoves in io take the place oI the warm air, creatiug a sea breeze' If heat is removed lrom the €anh-for example' at

sundown the €arth cools rapidlv When oerature falls belorv that o{ the adjoining sea' a land Lreeze is created. Cool air from the land flos's out to Lakelhe placeof rhe risingwam air irom the sea' The atmospherehas a basic tendencv-ro stabilize itself around the earth. This meansthat the ail tends to equalize its barometric pressure lf there is too



little air in one place (low baronetric pressurc) and too much air in another place (high baromet c pres_ sure) the air fmm the hish pressure area tends to move towed the low pressure area. If the difierence in plessurc is great, the air moves faster. If it isntt so great, the air moves tess rapidly. The difierence in prcssures between points in the 2 arcas is caled "pressure gradient." The speed or vetocity of the wind is determined by this pressure gradient. If the isobars, which are lines of equal atmosphedc pressure dlawn on a weather map, arc close together this means that the pressurc gradient is steep. High winds may b€ expected in that arca. The speedo{ wind is measuredin miles per hour. On weath€r naps meteorotogists use the Beaufort scale to ;ndicate wind \elocity. r- r










" f ,l*'^ ''""' "
rIL n r.n of. rypr.ct wrrlo mcp. tr +qr rh. mdh! cr oEo or hr.h


sand lose their heat more npidly than wooded areas We have learned that the arnouni of water vapor in t}le air vaiies. We have also leam€d that th€ amount of water vapor in the air determines its humiditv In modern weath€! {orecasting,humiditv can be expressedas the dewpoint ol th€ stmosphere, The dewpoint is a temp€rature reading. It is the temperature to wbich a given part of the altosphere mtlst be cooled to become satunted with water Th€ dewpoint of the air in your own home mav b€ determined by a simple experiment Take a thin metal pitcher partly filled with water aDd place a thermometer in it. Th€n add small pieces o{ ice. When the water and pitcher have been cooled to the dewpoint, small drops oI water {orm on the outside of the pitcher. The temperature indicated on the thermometer when the drops begin to form on the outside of the pitcher is the dewpoint In other words, iJ the air in the room were cooled to the temperature shown on the tieroom.ter it would be saturated with water vapo}. If the mom continued to grow colder, some o{ the water vapor would condense out in rhe form of water. On a weather map, the dewpoint is alwavs found next to the prevailing temperatu.e. The difierence between temperature and d€wpoint is calledspr€adIf the spread is small, and cooling of the air is likely, Iog or clouds may be expected. Another way you may measule the amount of moisture in tle atmospheleis by relative humidity. When air is saturated, we say that it has 100 per cent relative humidity. Completely dry.air (which is never forurd, howeverl woLrldhave a relative humidiiy of zero. I{ we are told that the relative humiditv is 50 per cent, it means that the atmospherc at a given temper_ ature and pressureis holding hau the water vapor it could contain under tlte €xisting conditions ID the atmospherc,when a parcel o{ air has been cooled to and beyond the original dewpoint, the and foms clouds water vapor in the air condenses or fog. This cooling process is caus€d mainly by: a) Convection,This is a rising current of air' As the air dses, it expands and cools considerablv. b) Radiation. After sunset,the ground losesits heat rapidly. The loss oI heat is partially detenined bv the nature of the ground. For example, rocks and c) Adveclioh. This is lhe in6ow of warm ah over a cold su ace; for instance, air otr the Gulf Stream flowing over the I-abrador curleDt.

r ata'r

Ground fog. This type of fog forms on a sur{ace air-cooled during the night. It 6rst app€als in valleys and deprcssionsas isolated patches or, if th€ terrain is level, where saturation of air is greatest. Patches o{ fog join to iorm a layer which deep€ns until an hour or two after sunrise.

Fog may be defined ss a cloud on the ground lt olten forms at night as a result of the air cooling by its contact with the ground to such an extent that the ail becomessaturat€d. That is, it won't hold anv

Adv€ction fog. This log develops principally in winter or early spring as e result of moist ai! drifting over colder eround or snow. Upslope fog. This fog developsin uphill winds. It is a cloud resting on a slope or hill top. A pilot may exp€ct fog when temperature and dewpoint arc only a few degrees apart. Fog is also likely in a widespreed area of prccipitation.


Ctouds are to the aviator what tracks are to the Just as the hunter knows by its tracks what animal has passed and when, so the aviator, by studying the ctouds, should be able to tell what unseen changes have taken place in the atmosphere to lolm those clouds. Atthough a very elaborate classification of clouds has been compiled, it is su$cient lor the pilot to classify them accoding 10 their shape or form and altitude. The 2 types of clouds to remember arel 1. SbatiJorm 2. CumuliJom The 3 levels at which clouds lorm are classfied simply as: 1. Hieh 2. Middle 3. Low Cumulus and stratus are gen€rally lowleYel clouds. Altoctrmulus and altostratus are middl€'level clouds. Ciuus, cirrocumulus and cirrostratus are high-l€vel clouds. On the low level, we also find nimbostratus, which is a stmtus cloud foming in rain or snow, and stmtocumulus, which is a wa!'l' fon o{ stratus. Cumulonimbus clouds are also found on this lev€I. Cilfus, cinosbatus and cinocumulus are the


t, !:=.-->c<-,-;-'-


hiehest ctouds in the sky. Because of th€ height at which -they {orrn they are always composed of ice crystals. Their pres€nce in the sky often means bad weather is coming. Altocumulus clouds, in the middle layer in the sky, are composedprimadly oI water. Th€y are ofien associatedwith stonns, sometimes with thunderstorms. AltostEtus clouds, on the sane level, are conposed of ice and water. nain or snow may be expectedwh€n they are present. Statocrmulus. stratus and nimboshatus are the low layers of cloud. They are composeuur water' ln near-{reezing temperatues, stratocumulus clouds are dangemus to an aviator because the water in them may accumulate on his airytane in the forrn of ice Stratus are the lowest of all the clouds. They actuatly look like fog in the sky. When present, they may be accompanied by a drizzling rain. Nimbostatus clouds indicat€ persistent ruin or snow. Cmulus clouds do not belong to the layer type o{ cloud forrns. They develop upwards, sometimes massing to geat heights. In good weather they do not mass vertically but float as separate woolly tufis. When they begin to massand developupwards, Iorming towering crmulus, it is a sign that you may expect changing weather. As they tow€I upwards, they hay develop into cumulonimbus which produc€ showers and ihunder-






storms. They are then known as ,,thunderheads.', Terms used by meteorologists to descdbe th€ cloud conditions of the sky are: 1. Cl€ar. WIen there are no clouds present, or less than 1/10 of the sky is cloud-covered_ 2- Scattered. When from 1/10 to S/I0 o{ the sky is

3. Brok€n. 'men from 5/10 to 9/10 of the sky is 4. Overcast.When more than 9/10 of the sky is

Clouds arc the basis on which you derermme me ceiling for flyine. The ceiling is tle distancein feet frcm the ground to the base oI ihe towest ctoud covering more than 4,.'10 the sky. I{ there are no of clouds below 10,000feet, the c€iling is unlimiteat. The ceilinc is also unlimited i{ Iess than hatf the sky is c'oud-cov"red belor I0,000 feer. If weather conditions reduce vetical visibility io less than 50 feet, the ceiling is zero.


W€ather chanses which occur dep€nd to a v€ry larc€ extent upon whether the ail over a given region of t}le earth is in a stable or unstable condition. Wlen air is stable and dry, we may normally expect a period of good weather. In unstable air, we frequently hav€ thunderstorms and the high velocity winds usually associated vith them. Generally speaking, we can determine whether we have a stable o! unstable ail condition by measuring the Iate at which the temperature decreases with altitude (the lapse mte). At this point it is necessaryto consider how the temperature of a parcel oI air is affected by verricat As you already bave been totd, when a parcel ol Lrnsaluratedair rises it cools becauseol expansion at the mte of about 514 desrees Fahrenheft per 1.000 feet. This }ate of cooling is called the dry adiabatic laps€ rale. Another point to consider is that iI a parcel of air has the same temperature as the surounding parcels its weight will be equal to that of the surounding air. I1, on the other hand, an air parcel rs warmer than its neighboring parcels it will weigh less than the adjacent air. Parcelsthat are warmer than other parcelsaround them are buoyant and will rise. Parcels colder than thoseoI thei.reDvironmentweish mole and will sink. A rising parcel of air continuesto rise only as long as it is warmer than the surrounding air. When it has ris€n and cooled to the temperature of the surrounding air it stopsdsine. If the t€mperature of the sunounding air denpidly with altiiude (a hich lapse Iate) than that o{ the rising parcel of air, the latter will rise more rapidly and to considerablealtitude. W}len this happens, vertical currents arc likely and the air is said to be in an unstable condition. On the other hand, if the temperaturc of the surrounding air does not decrease as mpidty with altitude as that of a rising parcel o{ air, the latter will rise slowly and to no considenble height. In this cas€, vertical currents are unlikely and the atmosphere is said to be in a stable condition.





Pressure, humidity and tempenture diflerences in the atmosphere are what cause weath€r. But the picture is not completewithout a knowledge of t}Ie characteristicsof the laree masses air which surof When an extremely large parcel of the atmosphere is fairly uniform in temperature,humidity and pressure, it is called an air mass. An air massis usually large, sometimes covering 1,000,000 squarc miles. Air massesusually are not stationary. They move as single bodies, away from their sources o{ origin.

They arc afiected by the surfaces ove! which ttey pass. Tropical air masses moving towards the poles are cooled- Polar air masses moving towards the equator are heated. When diy air masses move over a body of water their humidty increases. Just as mig.atory birds tend to follow customary pa(hs of fl i 8ht w i rh l he changi nC :pasonsJ so ai r masses tend to move along thet customary roures ar difierent seasons of the year. For example, cold polar coDtinental air odeinates in northeh Canada and mo!es sourheastw ardaffos. N orrh A " neri ca.


Alc.lc, C.n.dr ord Gr.., B..in .nd l. lv. uhr.d sr.r..



lhr.osfiour l. ih. y..r , wthr.r .nd tpring l.t, of r..r


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ih. y.dr rh. y.dr rh. y..r rh. y..r



b.h b.tw..n

winr.r !nd .drty,prins

7.17 An air mass whose tehperature in its lower layers is higher than that of the ground over which it passes is a warm air masB. An ail mass \rhose tempemture in its lower layers is lower than that of the ground over which it passes is a cold air mass.

Cold Air Mcs3 a. Turbulent air near the $ound b. Good visibiliiy c. CtmuliJorm ctouds d. Showers, thunderstorms, hail, snow flunies a. Smooth air near the Cround b. Poor visibllity c. StFtiform clouds d. Drizzle, mist, dew

We have learned that air massesnove across the earth's suface. The zones in which cotd ard wann air massescollide are known as frontal zones, or fronts. They may be warrn fronts or cold fronts. The impact of these air masses often results in extensive disturbances of the atmosphere. We know that cold air is heavier than warm alr. Therefore a movins cold air mass, whe]l ft meers a varm atu mass, pushes under the warme! air and lifts it to hishq levels. When the cold air mass continu€s to exert this displacing influence aeainst the warm atu mass,the iront is called a cold front. When a warm air mass is moving towards a cotd air rnass and continues to push back and displace it, the ftont is call€d a wann Ircnt. Som€times,cold and warm air massesLave propedies very much alike. When these masses meet. a front may not develop. Instead, the two air masses merg€ with each other and do not necessarily bring



7-t I

* 6fQ

At every airport throughout the United States hourly weather repolts are available to the flyer. These repo s arc gathered by the U. S. Department of Commerce Weath€r Bureau lrom all paris of the country and are sent out over a teletype network to every airport on the circuit. lbe rcport consists of the following items: Time oI obseNation, celting, sky condition, visibility, current weather. obstructions to vision, barom€tric se: level pressue, temperaturc, dewpoint, wind diection and velocity, altimet€r setting, remarks. Here dre 3 3ompl€ wsothor reporlt on d certcin ofternoon:

c w@ lo lr( - 085/15/69 | 7/919Fqt grvrD trrc Ir ttRtt rt

rt:8 tt

Clr t0 ClD E 'ILIXA 6!', 1OAtEF- 06r/18/14t\5/978 ' sPI, rro@Fn- 7470 !,/


And now we'll trqnslote lhem for you
fltat oa3ttvAfloN

CG i3 tho tymbol for Chic.Eo,lllinoi.r C i!.onrd.r weoth.r; l ir moo3ur.d.eitins;60 ir 4ooo-fool .eilins, @/@ is high overcori {abov€ 9,750 to€r) o'd tower broken .toud, (!l 6.000 feei);4 is 4 mile. vi.ibilirr I i3 rhundordo?m,X- is tishl 3mote, O85 i, b€rom€r,i€ teai€vsl pressursof | 008.5 millibdr3, 75 ir t€mpersrur€;69 i. dewpoint, t 7 i3 wind touth, 7 mil6r per ho'rr;97Q ir oltim.t.r.ofii||g 29.79 Inche!; ,,fqr vivid trng nw rhru no,, is on obbrevidred v..don of "frequenr vivid lighhins northwer rh.ougl northeqlr.,,

tacoND otgEtva oll

Iwl i3 rho 3ymbol for Woiernon, tllinois; Spt,is lp€€iol roport (du€ ro .h.ns. of rignifi.an.o in w€clher); M i3 m.Gur.d ceilingr 30 ir ceiling oI 3,OOO fesh (} is broten ctoud:: RW- is l;ght r.in.howe.;74 is tempe.orur6,TO i. dewpoint, |r' S it wind norrh-nonheor. 5 miler per hourr "lrng.ld to.ld 6,, is o condenscd forrn of,,tighrning ctoud ro ctoud.ost.,,

r/A3rorSlwATtoN BN i3 rho symbol for Burlington,lowo; Spl l! tpociot .eporr (duo ro rignificonr chdng. from eorli€r roporr);,lO is h€ighr of !.c[srod clouds(4,OOO f€d); 0 i! icsr|lr.d ctoud3,4 ii 4 ,riles vi3ibiliry; GF- i3light giound fogr O8l ir bcromerri. 3.oJevet pr.ssure of toog.l mittiborsl 78 it temporotore,74 ir d.wpoinrr +\ 5 is s;ind norrh-norrhwBr,5 mit6t plr hour 978 i. oltihet.r 3lning of 29.78 inch6r.

7-20 By studymg these rcpolts for t}le stations along his line of flight and checkins them wiih the ;eather map which is available at the airyo{ from which he is preparine to depa{, a pilot is able to forecast the teather to be expecteden route. f'or instance, if the spread between temperature and dewpoint at his destination is small, and he is flying late in th€ day, he may encounter Iog on his ardval. (The sround cools rapidly at night and cools the air.) On the other hand, if he is due to arrive earlier in the day he may find that the spread has incleased because the atu has been heated by the wa]n ground. If he is flying frcn an area o{ hilgh pre$ue to a destination where the pressure is low, he inay
find that the velocity of th€ winds has increased. The weather map will show him in which direction cold or wan fronts are moving and a glance at the weather repots from stations in the path oI the fmnt will indicate what is happening in those areas. Forecasting the weather is a tull-time job for a met€orologist- Though it is not necessary for a pilot to be an expert meteorologist, h€ will find that a working knowledee of reather and forecasting the weather pays ofi handsonely by inueasing his confidence aDd making his flyinc pleasant and safe. When a pilot starts out on a flight, ther€ are 3 words which should always be uppenost in his mind. They are "Know Your Weather."

Forecasling wecther is o full-time iob

l€.oure mon do.t nol ioke lo the o|f nolurolly. llke o blrd, he hd. hqd to rolve more probleh. th6n the prlnclpcl one oI llndlng q way fo ny. When he rlrer from rh. ground, hlr body Ir almorr lmmedtdlely dfie.led In o mdnncr it ror.ly erperlen.er on eorth. Ar.oon or he bsglnr to mov. oround ln lh. tky hl. bodt Ir luble4.d to trlll orh.r rltuollonr cnd condltlon. for whl.h lt b not noturolly

prepdred. * For theie red.onr, d 0yer'r body murl b€ unuluolly srrong and rugt€d. In oddlrlon, hc musl know how to avold or mlnlmlze hormtul or dltlrer.lng erperlences In fllght. A per5on who intsndt to lly connot leorn roo .orly how to prepore hli body lor movlng rhrough the olr ot hlgh spesdr. * In the tollowlng pq!.., you wlll l€orn whqr hoppcn! ro your body olofr ond how bori lo condlrlon yourrell for rhe nylng you hope to do.

r f , t H ts sEC tr o lr...

Flylng ond the lnner m.n
Conditionr for Which rhe Humon lody Wo3n1 8lih-Vorths Diff.r.nt Alritud$-Whoi Altirude Doe6 io Thc Ai. W. &F Wcishh of Ah'o6ph€rk Pr$rsre ot he-PhF.'(.ol Efi€cr! of Oxygen Lockto l^inihize ll'em-Whot blrw€ln Po.itivc ,,.c.l.rotion

Two Woy5 ro Avoid Anoxio-Go5 Trcuble5ot Hish Ahitudd-lbw Hoppem in lhc Middlo Ecr during A$cnr ond D6tc.rr-Ixficr.rr€ lP$itive G) ond Nesdrive Accelerotion lN.gorivc G)-Th.ir

R6pccrive PhFkol E{ecb-Whot

GovernsYou S€nseof Boldncein Hisht-How to Inprorc Night V3ioo

Firrt Aid
It3 Generol Obiectiyci-lmportonc. of Afiddi.s to Liost Scrbt6 Problds FiBr-How to Stop Bleedins-How ro PrevenlInfection-Woy3 of RelievingPoin-Whot to Do Aboul Fro.turca-How to Treof Burni-Symplomr o.d Treorhent of Shock-Synptoft ond Tr.orn.nt of fro6rbne-Artinciol

Respirotion-How to Corry Iniured Perioni-Donseri of Exho6l GGes ond How to ProiectYourself ;f Yor, Dct.ll Then

Phydcql Fltnesr qnd Requlromenlr for FMng
Some R.osonsWhy Flyer5l'{usf8e E peciolly Fit-Ihe Army's RisotourPhFicol Eromimfio. tor FlightTroining-Compiling Youf edi.ol Hi5ro.I-lmporron.e of Po5turc-D.tdilr of Exominoiion-

in Stondord3of Heisht ond Weisht for Vorious Po3ltion3 AAF-Five Woys ro Sofesuord Your Vi3ion-Proper Core of Teeth-Whol Coftprire3 on Ad.quote Diet

Flylng Sctety
Pilot ErroB Whi.h CouseMoit Accidehts-How lr{oioriryof A.cidentsHoppen-The SeruiblePilot'i Attitudo toword3 Sof.ty-Who he ShoulderHohesi li ond Doe3-Proper Core ond U5eof rhe

Porochutc-ltcm3 of Emors.ncyEquipment Wise PilorWill Hove on Hond the


' FtYll{G


Y our E ody in F l i s h t \.:clort in a sky battle often depends on how hieh ] ou can fi]. frequently on how fast ) ou can fly. For ir)at reason. our planes must bc more powerful than lle enemr's. X[oreo\rer, our pilots musi bo able to Co .r,qher into the blue and flr more clcverly than their io€i The]'must fect as stong. think as clearty, and se€ as keenl] at 35.000 {eet as they do ai sea level. l-et man Nas built to live on the ground. Hls body s .or equipped to make up for the drop in armosphenc pressure and temperature chanses vhich €<e place as he clirnbs into the air. If he is nor proIecred against them, they can crtpple his ability to fl1 md eren thrcaten his lifc. He needs special kno$Ledge. too. to minimize the tenilic strain on his

body when he darts and dives through the sky ar a speed oI 6 or ? miles a minute. Atmospheric pressure. as you learn rvhen you study aerodynamics and meteorology, is the weight of the air. At sea level, it weighs about 15 pounds per square inch. At 18,000 feet, it is only half as heavyi ai 33,500 feet, one-fourth as heavy. This concems us because it directty atTects the amount of oxygen we get. Our bodies need oxygen jusi as an internal combustion engine does. Without i 1. i he enei ne w on r run and w e can r ti vc The ah we breathe always contains ihe same retative amount of oxygen 21per cent. But when we go up in an airplane and the atmosphe c pressu.e soes down, the pressure of oxygen in the a drops, toc.

This is pe ectly logical. T$'enty-one pel cent of pounds per square inch is Drore than 21 per cent 7% pounds per square inch. The latter 6gure, you remcmber, is the weisht air (atmospheic pressure) at 18,000 feei. N orv. a t g r ound lev el. rl -e p r" -.u r" o t o x l g e n 15 01 of in the air is suficient to supply \ihat our bodies need. For peak hentat and physical emciency. $,e Dusr keep our blood saturated s.ith oxygen to the exrent of 95 per cent. When the parlial pressure oi i.hat life-siving gas drops, the percenlage o{ t in the btood decliDes also. The elTect is to lower our efrciency.

At first, we don t notice oxygen lack. In fact. oddlr enoughi we generall! feel exceptionallt' good. Alnosi inmediately, however, an oppositc efiect appear-c. We can't see as wel| We think less clearll and react more slolvly. This condition is called o\]gen ,*ant, or Anoxia increases in severiiy as the bod\. sets les and less oxygen. Unless the loss is madr up. our rninds become dull, lve lose our memorl'. and our huscular conrml is poor. Ar 20.000 feer. sreat phr s ical weakness sets in. We mar hale tirs of laughing or crying. Extreme fatigue and sleepiness come on A l, . ! e 2 0 .000 f , ot . r . o. r p e o p e 1 ,,.- .o n s .ro r.n F .. and death may follorv. T h , ro a rp 2 qar . ur \ F l p :n ! ro u a v n d a n " ri a rn ilt rt rd e fl yir e O nr to ' r. r' r..p h e rr" p re ." d j u .r sure artificially, keeping it about thc same ar high ahiiudes as it is on the ground. This has been done in pressurized cabins, and in flying suits and brcathing

masks sinilarl). equipped. Most are still, io a large extent- experjmental. They are not Iidely used. The other \ray. and a FrLrchnore practical one, is ro i r.rras. ,hp pe' (.nl " r. of o\y8pn i n rhe ai r you breathe as you climb. Oxygen masks and apparaius acconrplish this and that is why they have become so important to a!iation in receni. yeam.

,,- - l-

Anoiher unpleasant efiect of ibcr.ascd allilude ahd lowered atmospheric pressure on thc bodr cadnot bc ofiset artifrcially except in a prcssurize.l cabin o. some such device That is the pain, sohelimes acure. which body sases cause when they expand Nithin the stomach, intcstines, sinuses and Diddle ear. As outside pressure decreases l.hcse gases iend to ircrca s. i n \ oluI e. lr le a l ,a l l " o n . a n d c d .,:n p d rn when they can't be releasedYou cannot control this tendency entirely bur you can do much to reduce its ellecis. Don't chew sum before making a high altitudc flight. You sNallow too much ai!. Avoid gas-producing f@ds, such as beaDs. cabbage, and carbonatcd beverages. Not only do body gases expand \rhcn atmosphcic

pressure decreasesj but gascs in solution in the blood and olher fluids tend io escape and forn bubbles. This reaction is similar to what happens shen you .o d a . W h rl e rh " cap i . or, r lk p r he c ap o ff a b o | | l e "i (carbon dioxide) renuins ih soluthe dissolved sas tion. Wlen you remove thc cap you rcduce the pres, sure and bubblcs quickly foh. At altitudes of 30.000 feet or more, the nitrogen in your body fluids forms bubbles, which appear in the

8- 3 joints and iissues. Thcy mar give you a great dcal ol pain in the joints (a condition called thc bcnds). a tcel .rg nf r,.ghr on )our.l --.r. rhrn, * o. pdr n r your throat! or an itchin8 o. irritation of the skin. Sometimes these conditions arc callcd aero-eDbolisn. Remember that the more rapidly you clnnb, thc higher you go, i.he loneer you stay. the coldcr you get, and the more you cxercise at great hcights. the more likely Iou are to have these unplcasant feelinss.

A third effect o{ increased altitude on the body usually results only in discomforl, but hay be exiremcly painful. It occurs because of pressurc ehanges *'ithin the middl€ ear. The middle ear is an air-fflled bony space behind your ear drud. A slitlike canal. called the Eustachian tube, connects ii $'iih your throat. As ihe air in the middlc ear expands it pushes on the ear drum and makes your ear {eel full. At ihiervals, while you're gaining altitude in a plane. thc air slips out of the middle ear throueh the EustachiaD I ube. W h. n th a t h a p p e n s y o u h e " r a c l rck. The pr" : sure is then equal between the middle ear and thc outside atmospheie. When your plane descends, howevcr. you have to make an efiort to opeD the Eustachian tube yourself. You can do it by swallowing, yawning. or pinching your nose and blowing gently with your mouth shut. This proccss is called clearing your ears. It lets the outside air into the middle ear and equal;zes ihc But when you have a head cold, the lining of the Eustachian tube is always ss.ollen- It then becomes dimcult or impossible to clear your eals in the way we've descdbed. Yet. i{ you don't clear them when you arc losing altitude in an airplane, you may rupture your ear drums. Therefore, don't dy when you have a cold. I{ you have to fly, stay low and clinb and descend gnduaily. Your sinuses prcsent a problem similar to that of the niddle ear in oisht. They seldom give you trouble unless you have a cold. Then, however, pressure changes on the sinuses cause great pain. That is another impotant reason for not flying under such



Whenever you changc the speed of an airplane or its direction, new {orces aci upon your body. The more sudden or sharp the maneuver,the grcater the etrect o{ these forces. You've ridden on a roller coaster.Bememberwhen it rcached the botton o{ a dip and stated up? You {elt as if you'd go sht through the floor. The lorce that was acting on you then is the same one which affectva flyer when he makes a sharp inside tuin or pulls out of a power dive. It resuits from positive accel€ration and is called positive G. The letter G stands for gravity. On the ground, at rest, your veight exactly equals the force of Cravity exefied upon it. The symbol commonly used to represent this force is +1G. However, in an inside turn or pull-out, the centifugal forc€ pushing you against the floor of the plane Creatly increasesyour weight in relation to severaltimes as much Cravity. Sometimesit becomes as it normally is. When this happens the blood is tuawn ftom your head towards your feet. Its efiect, varying with the amount of positive G, ranges from sliehtly impaired hearing and less efficiencyat the controls to a da.kening of vision or, for a short time, completeloss of sighl (blackin8 oul) and even lossol consciousness. Blood suqes in th€ opposite direction and rushes

into your head during negative acceleration, which producesn€getive G. Using the roller coasterexample again, this is the force vhich affects you when the car races over the top of a s€ and starls down. You suddenly feel that you have no weight at all and aie about to fly off into space. A flyer experiences this sensation, only to a much crcater decree,when he doesa suddenpush-downor outside tuln. As the blood is driven into his head, it throbs with pain; his eyes i€el gritty and bulging. He may se€ rcd or even lose his sight completely (redding out) for a brief tirae. A person can stand a great deal more positive t}lan negative acceleration.That is because his body is morc elastic and can make a lot more room lor a sudden excess of blood than his head can. Flyers have been knoNn to expelience forces up to +12G and still live but negative accelerationwhich results in forces gieater than 3C is often {atal.

Y (lU R {SEFBA I-A I{C E SEl ( l
Do you know what gives you a senseo{ balance in flieht? Part of it, of course,comesfrom seeingwhere you are in relation to gound and sky. Then, there is the feeling you have in your musclesand tendons when you tum or move up and down in the air. You've heard someonesay, after descendingrapidly in an elevator. I Ihink I lefi my 5romacl^ rhere: up That personhad no doubt he was movine downward. though he couldn't see it happen. By similar sensations while flying, pilots know just about how they are moving in rctation to the ground. They call it flying by the seat of their pants. That's where rhey usually leel the gessure changes.


important toryour sense of balance. horever. i c rhe l abl ri rth or i nner ear. Thr" or 8an cor sists of 3 small circular tubes, called the semrcircular canals, which are fitled with a liquid. Whenever you move your head, the liquid moves too. It ihe! presses against ihe walls of the tubes and causes the brain to receive signals indicating your body is rotating in a certain direction. If you whirl around in one direction and suddenty stop, you feel as i{ you were revolving in the opposite direciion. That's because rh. fl Ji d i n tho5c ci rcul ar rub" s or your innr r Fdr is srill moving. For a momeni or two, it gives your blain a false impression. When such impulses are repeared many inres, as happens on a tossing ship or plane, pe$ons ailected often become scasick or airsick.

' iEqually


H(llltl IMPR(lVE t|ISI(lII T(l I{IGHT
Pilots must often fly at nighi. Naturally thet vision isn't nearly as Cood then as it is in the daytime. But they are able to improve it considerably in several ways rvhich you n'ill ffnd it fun to try youNeu. FiNt, accustom your eyes to darkness by staying in a dark room or wearing red goggles for hau an hour before going out into the night. Once you're ouidoo$ in the dark, don't look directly at the things you wish to see. but sliehtly to one side of ihem. Yciu have a night blind spot at the center of your eye. Thc ofi,center parts o{ it are beiler able io see an object at night and det€ct its Eat {oods. such as eegs, butt.r, carrots, spinach, and ereens. which are rich in Vitamin A, essential to

good night vision. Piiots who fly in the dark do these things. In addition, they keep their planes as dimly tighted as possible at night. They read instrumcnrs, maps, and charts mpidly, or with one eye sxur. Finally, they wear their oxygen masks {rom the ground up on night flights.

8-5 Eveiy airylane should contain a ffrst-aid kit. Every flyer should know the principles of fiIst aid. Learn the Red CrossliNt-aid methods.If an accidentoccurs and someoneis injured, be prepared. The ceneral objectiveso{ frrst aid arc to: 1. Stop bleeding. 2. Sustain breathing. 3, Relieve pain. 5. Prevent infection. Attend to the most serious soblems fiIst. If bleeding is occurring, stop it. II breathing has stopped, give artificial respiration. If bonesare broken, splint them before you move th€ injured person.

To SropBla.dins: 1. Cover wound wilh a sterile dressing and apply 2. If this does not stop the bleeding, elevate the part. 3. If these measures fail, apply a toumiquet in the middle o{ tle upper arm or middle of the thish. You must rclease the tourniquet every 15 minutes for at least a few seconds, depending upon the amount of bleeding.




lo 1. 2. 3.

Prevontlnf..tion: Apply coat oI iodine to sma cuts and scratches. Sprinkte sulfa powder into la€er wounds. Cover wound with sterile dre*sing.

To Reli€vePcin: If pain is severc, inject morphine if available. l. First pairt tle skin with iodine. 2. Then thrust needle throush the skin. 3. Slowly inject contents o{ the tube of morphine. Morphine relieves pain, decreases shock, and facil; ta[es movine the iniured. However, never give morphine to anyone who is unconscious, to a person with a head injury, or to one who is breathing less than 12 times a minute.

1. Don't move a person with a broken bone unless absotutely necessary. 2. Splint the broken limb, using boads, poles, or rolled-up blankets or rewspapers. 3. I{ the broken bone prctudes thmugh the skin,

8-7 stop the bl€eding, sp nkle suua powder into the wound, and cover with a sterile dressing. 4. Inj€ct morphine, if available. 5. Do not atrempt to set the bone. Burni L Apply bodc ointment, suua ointrnent, or other bu.n ointment to a stedle drcssing. 2. Apply the dressing to the buln. 3. For severe burns give morphine, if available. 4. Don't open blisters. Shock Shock follows severe inju es, especialty fractures and burns. The danger signs ar€ pale and clammy skin, shallow brcathing, and sometimes nausea and vomiting. 1. Stop the bleeding. 2. Ke€p patient warm with blankets,but avoid exces3. Put patient on his back wiih head slightly lower than fe€t. 4. Give him pule oxygen to breathe, iJ available. 5. Inject morphine, if availabl€. Frorrbite 1. Fingers, to€s,eals, cheeks,chin, and noseare most commonly afiected. 2. Numbness, stiftness and whitish discolorauon are the frrst slTnptoms. 3. Wrinkle your face. If it is numb, frostbite is beginntns. Warm cold spots with yoru bare hands. 4._ ftostbite occurs,warm the affected part gladu_ If ally against warm parts oI your body such as your 5. Nevel warm a fmstbitten pa rapidly. 6. Do not rub a fmstbitten part. 7. Keep it dry. Don't put it in water, kerosene o, any other liquid. 8. Cover with a stedle dressing. 9. If blisters develop, do not open them. WHAI PIANES ARE THESE?


Un(on3.iou!nerror N€or Uncons.iousne!! Oxysen lack, carbon monoxide poisonins,aod injurv to ihe head are important causes lf breathing has stopped,begin artiffcial respiratioDimmediatelv: 1. Lay the pati€nt on his bely with one arm bent at elbo\\',face resting on hand and othe! arm extended 2. Open his mouth and remove all {oreign substanccs such as false teeth and ch€wing Cum. 3. Give him pure oxygen to breaihe, if available 4. Kneel astrid€ patieni's thighs with your knees about even with his. Plac€ palms of your hands aeainst small of patient's back with your little finger over the lowest rib. 5. With youi arms stifi, swing your body forward slo$ly so that your weight is gradually applied over patient's back. This shoutdtak€ about 3 seconds. 6. Releaseyour hands with sudden snap and swing backward to rcmove all pressurcfrcm patient. A{ter about 2 secondsrepeai this opemtion. Continue for at leasi 2 hours or until normal bt€athing has beeun. 7. K€ep patient warm. 8. Do not give morphin€. Dcng€rou.Gcsei Exhaust gas€sare poisonous.They contain carbon nonoxide, which is particularly hazardous,and the hazad ingeases at altitudes above sround level. Headaches,nausea, shortness of heath, dizziness, dimming of vision, unconsciousness €ven death and nay occur when it is bleath€d. Although carbon monoxide has no odor, you should suspect its presencewhenever you smell €xhaust gasesin the airylane. If you detect exhaust gasesor any other

fumes while in flight, you should protect yourseu by wearing your oxygen mask and breathing pure oxygen. ARE THESE? WHAT PIANE5

Tronsbortcrion wounded of I{ it becomesnecessaryto move an injured person, improvise a litter with 2 poles and a patu of jackets. Turn the sleeves inside out and insert the poles through them. Then button jackets over the outside of the poles. You can obtain additional support by using boards or cardboard inside the jackets. You can also improvise litters with poles and blankets.


A careful history is compiled of all the diseases, operations, and injud€s which you have had. Certain ones oI ihese are disqualifying. A Ftight Surgeon, who is fall1iliar with the physical requirements lhich flying nDposes. then will give you a physical Your posture must be good. Physical tmining and regutar exercise will help you attain this. Bad postuie 1\'hich is no: correctible will disqualify you. . Your body wiil be examired carefully from head to foot. The Flight Surseon and his assistants {il1 record you pulse and blood pressure and observe their rcsponse io exercise. Poor physical condition ui l l .horv l r." l l In rhi s l e.r. Thpr u,l l .xam ine ) our eyes by a va ety of tests because eood lision, includine color vision, is oI extreme importance to all nyers. You. nose, ears, teeth, throat. hcart, lungs, and abdomen will be examined with equal thoroughness. They rvitl make an x-ray picture of your chcst and tesr a sample of your blood in the laboratory. Only the most fit will be permitted to fty. Your neNous systern and your psychologic reactions must stand up under exacting iests, for ehotional stability is one of the pdmary requirehents for emcient and safe nying.

The physical requirements for flight tninine in the military air services are most demanding and strineeni. You will understand lhe reason if you look into rhe pilot's cabin of one of our heavy bombers and notice the hundred,odd instruments-controls, switches, levers, dials, and Cages-that line th. $'alls, ceilins, and floor. Then imagine you are dlessed in a heavy flight suii, boots and mitiens, or in electrically heated clothine, with a parachute strapped on your back. An oxygen mask with a built-in microphonc coverc your {ace. Your eyes peer through Soggles. Your ears are trying to hear messagescoming through the eaiphones amid the roar of four 1000 ho$epo{er eneines. Imaeinej moreover, that you are 6 or 7 milcs above the ground, vith the atmospheric pressure reduc.d by thlee-fourths and the outsid. temperature 60 to ?0 degrees below zero. Only pe$ons in the best possible physical condition can {unction efr ciently in such an environment. Many perso'ns are now being accepted {or military service *'ho rvould have been rejected previously because of physical defects. However, these men cannot rcceive advanced training, especially flisht trainine, unless they can pass the rigorous physical examination required of all flyers. The Army's physical requirements for Rying are rieidly pres$ibed. Unless you can meet them, you can't fly.

8- l o
In addition you hust con{orm to certain standards of heieht and weight in ordei to fly in the Army Air Forces. Your height must not be less than 60 ihches or morc thaD ?6, youi weight not over 200 pounds. Here are the heisht aDd weight requircments for leading positions in the AAtr': 4. Have a periodic eye examination by a physician. If ninor troubles develop, the doctor u'i[ detect thcm early and help you corect them. 5. Use your eycs properly. Use adequate lightine and proper posture while readins or working. These measues will help consenre your vision by pieventGood teeth and eood health go hand in hand. Good nutdtion depends upon good teeth, for wiihout them you camot chew properly the foods you need. Morcover, Sood teeih depend upon good nutrition. The ninerals you obtain flom an adequaie diet sirengthcn your ieeth and help protect them from decay. Cavities and infections in and around your teeth may cause you to lose them. They may also cause trcub1e in oiher parts of the body. Take care of your teeth by eating an adequate diet, keepine your moulh clean, and by makins peiodic visits to your dentist. What constitutes an adequatc diet? Man F x'nar he eats. An adequate diet is one which furnishes you w rrh Frough fual l o " l c' l yoJr body \ cn, rsJ raquir ments. It's one with the necessary amounts and va ety of proteins, {ats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, and water to satisfy the body's nceds {or Sros'th and repair. .{n adequate diet helps ke€p you at the peak of health. An inadequate dier impai$ youl emciency and lowers your resistance. It is impoitant to €at 3 complete and vaded meals a day. The common practice o{ skippins break{asr rcbs you of energy when you need it and makes it more difficult to satisfu your body's nutriiional requirements. SoIt drinks and candy cannot substitute for food. They provide you wiih temporary energy but coDtain none of the protective food essentiats or viiamins. Get your vitamins in the food you eat. Vitamin pills are a poor substitute. A Sood breakiast consists oI {ruit, cereal, eggs or meat, and brcad, butter, and milk. Your Iuch and dinner should contain a portion of fish, meat, cheese, eges or fowl; vegetables or fruits; a green or yellow leafy vegetable; and milk. These {oods are basic. Add to them, if you 1ike, with orher dishes such as desserts and cofiee, but don't n€glect the fundamentals.

EXA M I t { A I l0t { FOR pllot, Pilot, dider

HEIGHT inchos in WElGtlT inpouids Min. lllal. Min. Ma[ | ]4 64 64 It t2 114 105 105 140 t80

200 100



(8.26) E0mhrdin Flighl nuae





There are several conditions ihat afiect the dcvelopment and mainienance of a desimble level of physical titness. We have already emphasized the ihportance o{ rcgular participaiion in a physical training progmm. Other faciors that influence physical litness {avorably or advemely and are or parucular significance to flyeft are care of the eyes, care of the teeth, and nubition. Good eyesight is always an asset. When you are f yi n g rr r" r or e lhan an d " s e t. K e e n , .l a € r ri .i o n i s ind-p "n ""b le. Y ou r an .a re C U a rd y o u r v i s :o n ,n 1. Protect your eyes from infection. Infection may be introduced from dirty fingen or dirty towels. Or it may come from an intemal source, such as infecred tonsils. Have a periodic hedical examinatioD. 2. Eat an adequate diet. cood eyesieht is dependent upon good nutrition. Vitamin A and riboflavin help protect your eyes tuom infection. Vftamin A is also impo{ant for night vision. 3. Protect your eyes from injury. Wear prorective goggles in laboratodes when you are engaged in activities such as grinding, chipping, sandblasting. or pourine hot metals.

8-t I

Flyine is an exacting,seriousbusiness. demandsall It your knowledge,attention, etroft, judgment and ski[ I{ you Cive it any less t}an your best it exacts a high p ce for your misiakes. Relatively few airplane accidentsoccur as a resutt of matedel failurc; that is, failure oI the ensne or sone other palt of the plane. The vast majodry oI them result from pilot failure. Between 70 and 80 per cent of all accidents are attributable to one or more of the folowins Iaults on the part of the pitot: Bad Judgment Poor PhysicalCondition Half of alt accidentshappen durins landing. One_ third are divided amons take-otr,forced landins, and taxiing accidents,rhich occui $,ith abour equal frequency. The rest are the result o{ spins or stals, collision $'ith other ancra{t, and collision wit} other objecis such as buildings or mouniains. In about four-fifths of alt accidentsno one is hu . Least dangeious ar€ the tatiing and landine acci_ denrs. Thosecauseo spin. and sratt.,on the orher by hand, although less frequent, are most dangerous. Safety in flight dependsupon you. There are stand_ ard practices,rules and rcgulations, which hetp de_ Ieat these€nemiesof safety.They onty poinr the way. Flying is as safe or as daagerousas you make it.

2. Abide by the rule5. 3. keep .orsrdn y on rhe ol€rr, a. Uie.onridercd 5. K€eF phyii.dlly iudem€hr. fir.



Three salety aids which shoutd never be neglectedarc the seat belt, the shoutderharness, and the parachure. The seat belt and shoulder hamess have 2 purposes: 1. To keep you in the airplane. 2. To protect you in caseof a crash. Fasten both of them durinc all takeofis and landrngs. durine acrobaric.. and when flyins in gusty air.

8 -r2

The shoulder hamess helps protect you in case of a crash or rough tandine. It consistsof 2 stmps which attach to the back of the seat. come over the shoulden, and fasten to the buckle of the safety belt in ftont. Unlocked, it p€rmits freedom o{ novement; locked, it prevents the wearer irom being thrown forwald on crashimpact. In us€,the shoulderharness helps proteci your head, neck, shoulders and chest Irom injur.t'. Experiencedpilots say the routine wearing of the shoutder harness has prevented serious
injurie: and saved many lives.

The parachute is one oI the best {orms of life insurance. Never go up in t}le air with one without inspectins it. Remember. you may have to jump with itl Make sure thc pcord pins are not bent and that the seal is not brcken. See that the comels of the pack are neatly stowed, that the 6 or 8 opening Be sure that it fits properly- Handle it carefully, keepins it clean, dry, and away from oil and acid. Never fly without it, for you can'r rell lvhen unexpected trouble s.i[ deve]op in the air. Plan in advance for possible emergencies and decide how you will aci in each. It js usually better to make an

Cqryint rh. P.E.hur.+





8-t3 eDergency landing than to bail out, if you have the airytane under control and if you can find a favorable place to land. If fire occurs during flight or if some other emergency{orces you to bail out, {ollow this t. Slow the airplane as much as possible. 2. Releasesafety belt and shoulderharness. 3. Open the canopy. 4. Dive out and down, head 6rst, keeping feet together. 5. Wait 5 to 10 seconds, then pull the ripcord6. Tutn your body to face in the direction of drift. Lcarn how do rhrsby hanipulatingIhe ri.ers 'o ?. Prepare for landing by placins your feet together aDdslishtly bending your kneesso that you will land on the balls of youl feet. 8. Just before impact pull sharply down on the risers. 9. At the moment of impact {all forward or sideward into a tumbling rcll to take up the shock. The Rol1 and Fall exercise in Section 4 provides excellent practice in this landing technique.


Em€rgency Equiplnent A wise pilot makes cedain he is prepared for emergencies belore he takes off on any flight. A Iew sinple itehs may make a great deal of difierence. In addition, the AAF has desisned kits of speciai value to flycm forced to land in desert, jungle, Archc regrons, or in the ocean. You will 6nd how importani certain items are il you need them and don't have them.

l. Fi.e extinsuisher. \ .{

These are essential:


2. smollhcnddx.

3. Mdlches in woterpfoof .onto iner.


I @ S t)v,

4. First-did kit.

5. C omp.ss.

6. Po<ket-knife.

7. Glove..



8. C onl e€nof dri nki ng w oi er.

9. E mergency i ons. rdl

Mosquito netling (in s'rmmer).

Sleepins (in winter). bos


there is o greor deol nore ro flying rhon sifiing ot rhe conrrots of on . ir p l o n e . A n d th e p i l o r w h o l B thoroughty fomi ti or w i rh ground op e ro tl o n s i !.b l e to h .n d l e hi s l hi p more i ni etti gentty i n on emergen.y

or i n c o h b c t. * F o r e y e ry p lsne In rhe oi r rhere musr be o crew on rhe ground to supply it wlth fuel .nd oil, inspe.t ir regutorty, dnd keep ir In good mechoni.ol .ondition. lr need3 solrdble fletds on whi.h ro tond ond (tnd d

r ok e o ff. T h o s e fi e l d s mu s r b e sel ected w i rh experi enced.ore

s pe c l o l k n o w l e d g e o f th e re qui rementi . They husr be totd our dnd bui tr to provide the greatest efficien.y ond s6tery, rhe besr ovoitobte needed

f oc i l i ri e s , Md n y p e rro n s o f w l del y vori ed ski l 15ond rroi ntng.re to oper.te

rhe ol.lields ofrer rhey ore buitr. rhough rheir durte3 ore they ore or smoll civilion fields, t.rge municipot ones,

similor whelher

or A rm y d i r b q s e i , Ai d s o f h o ny kl nds ro sui de cnd i nform rhe opprod.hi ng Oyer must be dvoil.ble ond kepr in order. tn the event of d.cidenr, w ho

t he re m u s r b e fi re -fi g h ri n g e qul pment or hcnd ond.rosh.rew s

k no w h o w to o p e ro re l r i p e e d i l y !nd w el l . * rhi s se.rton of your monuol provldes you wlth a ydluoble inslghr inro rhe mony ord imporr.nr der.i l ! o t s e l e c ti n g , b u i l d l n g , dnd operortns cn oi rti etd.

s E c tto tl

rl r t H t s sEC tr o lr ...
Der.riprions Clo3r l, ll, lll, ond IV Airffelds-Points to Considerin Selectingon Airfleld Site-fiow to of Loy Out RunwoF-Vorious Su ocinsi Used to Moke Runwoys ond Toxi Srripr-Runwoy Lengths, Grodet, A{orking5-How to Loy Out Toxi Stripr

Airtield Aids lo Airmen
Wind Dire.tion Mdrkers-How Ob+rucllonsAre Pointed-Airfield lighh: Rotolins Eeocon;Boundory; Rlnwoyr Wind Tee ond Wind Cone Lishli, Floodlighrs Ob3truction; ond Others

Detolk of Vorioursize HongoR-How to Siock Plond in One-Adyontoges of o T-fype Horyor


he Weother

Dulie3of Operolio.t Of{icer or Anport llonoger-His Stoff-Dirpotcher'3 Duties-Who

Officer Does-The Tower ond lls Operdio.-Duties of Recorder-Lishr Gun Sisnok-Troffi. Pqriehi-Dutiee oI Engineerins Ofilcer-PeBons Supedied by Engineeri.gOffi.er:Techni.ol InspedorrLine Chief; FlishrChief;Crew Chief;Honso. Chief;the Crew- I O Connondments WhichAidield /'16r Obey-How lo Pork Aircroft-How lo Tie ThemDown-Toxi Sisnok Vkito6 or Servicemen

Airplone Inspeclions
Preflishtlnipeclion Doily Inspe€tion-Afierflishr Inspeclio.- 25-Hour,so-tlou.. dnd 1oo-Hour Inrpections-EngineChongeInlpection-25-Hour Afte. E.gin. Chonge Inspedion-Doily Flight Inlpe.lion for SmollAnplone-How to Check:Propeller,Engine,Londins Geor; Winss; Toil Control Surfoces, F6eloge-Worm-Up-How to Refuelond Cleon Aircrolr-How to S€ryi<eAirfield Fo.illties

CAA Fohr for Servicednd Overhoul-Ahy Out)-Foh Form | (PilotFillr Out) ond Fo.m lA (C.ew Chief Fills 60A (for Airplone), Form608 (for Ensine), ond Form61 (for Propeller)-Fo.m 4l BPilorMut CheckEefore Toling Off

The Red Tqg-Whot

Crdsh Procedures
MembeB of CroshCrew-Whol CroshTruckContoins-Whot o Crorh Crew Member ShouldKhow About: Hk Anfield qnd SuiioundingCounlryside; Approochingo CroshedPlonej Locotinsthe Po s of o PloneJGettins into o Crorhed Plone

Flre Fighiing
Typesof Equipmeht-lnporlont Pointrto Remembe. When Fightingon Airplone Fire-Whot to Do When RenovingDohosed Ancroft


the Clvll Acronourki diYldei olrtield!


Inro 4 alcs!ot:

1- Can accohmodate sroll aircmft, usually p!ivaiely owned. \-./ 2. Have one or more landing strips between 1,800 and 2.500feet lohgr at least 300 feet wide. 3. May or may not have a small adminisiration buildiDs aDd a small hansar. 4. Should have 1 wind direction indicator and a fence to encloserhe airfield propelty. If there is to be night {lying, they should have ar aideld beacon and bounda.y, obstNction, and runway lights. 1. Are found at iDtemediate points oq maiD line airways and on shaller "feeder line" airsays 2. Crn :ccommodale larse trsnsporl p'anes. 3. Have several paved ruways, feet loDg3,500 to 4,500

4. Have o ail tlaffic tower equlpped vith 2-way radio ald lisht gu signs!, landins area floodlighting, instrMent approach system, and special iDsiruments for determining weather.

1. Are found at large cities and at junction points along the airways systems. 2- Can aacommodate twin and 4-engine au-


ctAss AtRFtEtDs il
1. Can accomodaie aircmfi of moderate size. 2. Have runways between 2,500 and 3,500 feet long, 500 feei lvide. 3. Have 2 or more hansals if there de larse numbe$ of arcrafi at ihe airfield. 4. Maintain aids to aviation such as weatler nrformation, shop wo.k facilities, and additional lighting facilities for night flying.

3. Have several runways, 4j500 leet long and 4. Mai nraj n l argp hangars ro house and re pajr 5- Have administation building with offices for airline companies, Airvays Trafrc Control, and 6. Have passengerfacilities such as lestaumnis aqd automobile parking lots. 7. Usualy have a separate set of buildings and hangars Ior Army air.raft.




In sele.ting on oirfield sife, here ore the points lo aonsider:

A shall airficlcl should contain between 150 and 200 acres. Ncarby areas, wiihout obstructions, should be alailablc h case air traflic gDws and you Nish ro expand the airfield at a later daie. It niust be casy to go to and flom an ai ield by autoDrobile. bus. and other mcans. 3. O b3t r u. lioh s These are objccts that block the approach zoDes of aD airfield. Thcre are nalural obstruclions likc hills a.d trees, or man-made obstNctions such as buildmss. leleg.aph poles and wires, srnoke stacks, and Note: An approach zone staris at thc bolLndar\.of an airfield and coDiinues 2 miles be).ond each land ing s t r jp. A t th e s tfi p i t i s 5 0 0 fe e t N i d e r 2 mres our it is .2.500feet \cide. Ipproach zones musl bc ctear of all objecrs \rhich Nould obslfuct an airplane coming irto the airfield

at a 20 to-l giide that is, 20 feei lors'ard to every 1 foot oI descent {rom a point 2 Jbiles out. For Class II, III. and IV airfrelds. this elide ratio is 30 to 1, or 30 Icet foNrard to clery 1 foot of descent. 4. Ierroi n ond S oi l Ah airficld must drain quickly after a rarn. Choose: a. An area not so ffat Nater cannot run ol} ii easily. b. An area hish enough in relerence to the rcst of the lerraiD to drain naturally. Grarel and sand) soi1s absorb water lik. sponges. Thcrefore. i1 can be trapped and drained lrom underneath. Clal soils repel $ater. Accordingly, aifields built on clar must be gradcd so that $,aicr will dmin If I'ou selecl an airffeld sit€ with good terrain and soi l condi ti ons. Iou $i l l sare l he cost o f expensir e drainage st stems. RunNavs arc laid out accordine to prevailing wind



tA ss 2,3,4 A tnFt Et DS Ft . I 55O

A P P R O A 'H


----r-: -- - : '- ---- -----------


9-4 diFcl.ions, detemined {rom local wealher history. a. P.oximity 6. Diston.e From Olher Airfields The center of oDe airfrcld should not be closer than 6 niles to the ceDter of another. This is a matler ol safety. Otherwisc, ttallic of one ai ield interlercs with tramc of thc other. b. -{lailabilitl of coDstmciion materials such as sood of eleciric polver, telephoDc, gas, waier,

c. Prevnlence of ground fogs, or smoke brown rnro rhe licinitl o{ tlie aDfield.




s\'JX N\-


A slNoll Dtltcllolt

RUI{WAY It lAlD OUt ll'l IHE oP tttvarltNo wDtD5.

a l;coxb ruNwaY ErftEr |l u|o at ic||t a|roltS to tE attlt, tN tH! aHA?lof a "r':

ol tt tt latD tN tHa Dntc olt oF tHt xrxr faotT tlloult{t tttva[rl.c wrND,

Where land slopes too abruptly in the center of a field, build L-shapedrunways around ihe slope. Where land slopes at both ends of a field, build T-shaped runways. Wlen ai$elds are expandedto include more run$a]'s. slopesor declivities must be frlled in. It is bet,

ter, of course, to Ald an airfield site you can expand \a'ithout the need of extensive construction work. Runways and landins area should not have a grade of more than 1y2 per cent. Steep grades are hard to judge when landing, especiauy at nisht. Water should drain off the runways immediately and away from buildines and hanears.

Runwoy Surfcces Dirt runways are muddy and slushy in winler tnne, dusty in summer. They become bumpy and rutted. Taxiing aircraft throw pebbles and small stones into the propclle4, causine nicks and holes. Small airficlds use Srass runways and landing areas successlully s.here there is Dot heavy traffic at the tield and where grass is kept up well, especially during rainy months. Class I airfields do not need paved runuays or pav€d taxi strips, but $hcre it is posslble. build them. They are: 1. Easy to keep lrec of $atcr and snolv 2. Easy on the plane and its landing sear 3. Easy on propellers. Here are various i.ypes of suriacnig used in runways and taxi strips: 1. Sand clay 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Gravel Oyster shell Bituhihous soil stabilization Cement soil stabilization Macadam Sand asphalt Lime rock

10. Asphaltic concrete 11. Bituhinous sudace tieatmenis, and others. Idxi S tri ps Taxi si.rips should lead easily and naturally Irom hangars to the ends of the run$.a]s. Lay them out in such a rvay that taxiing aircraft will not intedere wilh incoming and outgoing tramc or with other planes taxiing on and ofi the iield. Where possible,





{ S RUNW AYHAS A C O M 'A S S B E A n | N G ) f BETW EEN O A N D I I O D C G T E I S I2 '


wtND DttraltoN rvratxt13 Lighr5 Where there is nieht flying at a ffeld there musr be certain lights to guide pilots or to wam them o{ obsiructions. These liehts are kept bumine from hau an huLr afrar sunqer hdlt dn hour be ore sunrise 1o and at all times when visibility is poor. 1. Airfield Rotating B€acon.This is a 36-inch rotating beacon,capableof giving light fxom 2 sides.It is usually mounted on the aifield administrationbuilding or on a beaconto$'er where it can be seen tuom ali sides. 2. Iloundary Lights. The airfield boundary is marked with white lights. 3. Obstruction Lights. Obstructions are marked with red lights. FlashiDg red beaconsare placed at the top of very hish objectswhile smaller rcd liehts, set up at so-foot inteNals, clearly show the outlines of the obstruction.


4. Runway Lights. Runways are outlined by 2 parallel mws of lights. The lights acrossthe landine stdp at the approachend of each runway are green. 5. Wind Tee and Wind Cone Lights. \{ind teeshave green liehts which can be seen from the ai!. Wind cones,too, are Iighted by rcflecioN in such a manner that pilots overhead can see them. In the center of the sind cone lighiing assembly is an obstruction lieht. 6. Floodtights, At laryer airfields,floodlighis illuminate landing areas and hangar aprons. They musi throw a unifoml light \\.ithout shadow.Frun, ure a,r, shadowslook like hollows in the ground- The lights must not glare or they will blind pilots momentalily. ?. Other Lights. Auxiliary range lights, appmach lights, and laxi suidance lighls assista pilot in finding a ffeld or in taxiing. once he is on it, but they are not lound at all 6elds. Another aid to the pilot is the airport cod€ b€acon l"rnd at larec teld". This beaco, flaJr*. a ere.n liehi in code so that the pilot can tell *.hich airffeld he is approaching or passing over. Large airfields have a call letter desisnation. These letiers are marked on airways maps. Aiffields r!hich have standard lishting facilities are marked "LF" on airxays maps.

crRcuMtrnrilcE 0t Ttilr(
HHGfiT T i t( 0r SUPP()NT

Mork;ns of Obstru(t;ons ObstNctions are paintcd |hroughoui their hcjsht with alternate bands of internarionat ohnse and white, chrome yellow and black, or chrone t ellor. and shite. At night rhey arc marked rvith rd lights.


T he r dr s e H o n g d r a r Cl a s . I I I and Cl a s " l V a i rfi c l d s , rh . l a rs e U. ed Provides space {or laree numbers of snall airT-type HdnEor At small fields the T-type hangar is most pmciical. It is a series of individual garaees for small ailoaft. Each garage dovetails into ihe nexi. T-type hanears can be extended indefinitely as more aircraft need housing facilities. Since they are built to frt aircraft contours, you must back the aircra{i into them. (See illusiration) 1. Each airplane is housed individuatly. 2. Equipment and personal possessions can be kept in the hangar space. 3. The pilot rentins the space can lock his garage rvhen his plane is housed there or while he is flying.


Houses such equipment as cranes, pulleys. laddeN, and other devices used in servicing aircraft. Allows ground crews to work in freedom and sa{ety. But it is costly and dimculi to build. T he s m dl l e r H o n s o r This is usually found at Class I and Class II airfields althoueh larger airfields sometimes p.efer sclcral small hangars to one or tlvo big .nes. It can house several small planes. It also can be built a t a re as onablec o" r, fo r rr n " ' d s n o .rp .n .i \e foundations, trusses, or large doo$. Sevenl small hangars ar€ less of a ffre hazard than one or t\lo big hangars. You can stack sma1l airoaft in hansars of moderate size in such a rnanner that 100 or niore ale housed in one buildihg. Stacking consists of tilting them on theh noses $'ith the fuselages at an ansle of about 80 degees with thc hangar floor. You niust exercise c ar " i n d o ins r his , how. v .f. s o th a t p ro p e l l e rs , e n gines, and bracings are not damaged.

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3. Advise the tower (sec below) of the pilot's flight (A fiight plan is ihc essential inlormation oi an jntendcd flight.) 4. Transmit the fli8ht pian to Airrvays Trafrc Control NhcD a pilor flies betond the local area. 5. Kcep a 6le of pilots' clearances. 6. Keep an inde\ of Notlces to Airnien up to date. 7. Hale a(ailable lhe lalesi regional aDd seciional maps. radio lacilill chafts and periodicals of inleresi. 8. Keep a dcparture aDd arrival board. usually a blackboard that lisls the departurc and arrival tiDes of al l ai rcraft conri ns i nto and goi ng out of t he Iocal flying area. The Weofher Omcer At the weather omce a pilot gels all inlormation about realher condilions both at the ai$eld and in other areas. In charge of this omce is a Weather Omcer or s'eather expert. He has a staf o{ pcoplc who are fahi l i ar \ri th n,eteorol ogy. The Weather Omcer: 1. Advises the pilot of weather conditions along his proposed route and at his dcstination. 2. If weather conditiorN arc favorable, enters all Neathcr infolmation along the proposed route on the pilot s clearance form. 3. Maintains a detailed $'cather map that shows eencral Neather conditions throuehout the country. L Kceps a file of vcathcr sequences received from 5. Maintains a chart showins winds at difierent ali.irudps. Tl ^i s ." cal l ed a W i rds A l oft C har r The Weather Oflicer recei\-es his informauon rrom: 1. The United States Weatler Bureau at 6 hour intenals. This information is put down on the weather 2. Teletypc weather sequences obtained hourly from weather reportine stations. 3. Pilois who ha!,e just landed.

Operorion5 Ofiicer or Airlield Monoser One person is jn charge of an airfreld. At an Anny base he is .alled lhe Operations Omcei; at civilian arrtields he is called ihe Airport Manaeer or Superintendent. He is responsible forl l. Pfoper clearance of aircrait. 2. Issuing orders pertainins to local flying and the lLrnctroning of the airlleld. 3. Couect seNicing and maintenance of aircraft based at the air'lield or stopping there. .1. Saier] and discipline at the Eirfreld. -q.tan! liDe. wilhih his discrction, hc niay close the 6eld lor ill lng or lorbid any planc or pilot to leave His ofiice is in thc opcrations or admnristralion burlding of the airlield. At Army bases it is called thc operations ofrce.

Om.e Stofr
The person in charge of an ai$eld has a sta1T of people. nrcluding one or more assistants, to help him take care of operai.ional functions. This slafl: 1. -{cts in his placc whcn he is absent. I K . - p" t r " . k o l \" fro u s fo r1 ,r"u .e d i r fr y' nB . 3. Takes care of correspondence. .r. flaintains frles. 5. Helps prcparc rcpolts. fh e D i s p o l c h e r lhe dispatch dcsk a pilot gets all information about -Ll his ibtcndcd flight and Iills oui his clearabce forh. In char-se of this desk is a Dispatcher. He usually has ohe or mole assistants. Thc Dispatcher's duties are tol 1 Help each pilot Iill out his clearance recll!. 2. Present this foN to the Operaiions Ofrcer lor check and approval.

9-l o Air Trofiic Tower Per.onnel Air traffic on a 6eld is directcd {rom the air tralic tower. Responsiblefor the operation of the i.o$'er arc tne Tower Operator and the Recorder.
.1. Helps pilots with radio check. and ans$'ers questions il ihe) pertain to the {light. 5. Looks out for thc salciy of aircra{t on the freld bt' carefullt superrisins tramc. 6. Stops all airc.aft molcrlent on the lield and prelenis all plaDcs Irom landing rvhen an accideDt occufs of wh.n a distressed ailplane lnakes an emer$hen a pi l ot i s N i l hi n I mi i es of a fi el d he must fol l o$ al l to\er i nsl rucl i ons, unl €ss he l i rst adl i ses the to$er operator of hi s i nl enti ons ani l obtai n s appro\ al of th€m. The Tower Recorder
The Tower This is usurlly a shgle room of about 1:0 square leei, rvith NindoNs on all sid.s h is buill on iop of a high platfo.rn of on onc oi the anfield buildnrgs f.om $hich !h. enllfe lield and thc ai. spac. abo\e it can be vicwed without obstfuclioh. Ar smallef ar.ficlds, lvhere pilols 1lr onl) in good (eadrer. a raised, open platform is sufficieni ior a

1. K eeps a conti nuous record oi al l pl ades ari vj ne and ci cparti ng nom l he l i el d. 2. Inlorms -\ir$a\s Trailic Control of departure ln.s oi aircrall fl] iDg bcl-ond the 1ocal area. il. Recei\ ej n om -{irNal s Tralic Control the anival 1i ,res ol ai rcfaft fl t' rng i rl to the area. l. .L.si:ts the ToNer Operalor whcrcvcr possible. Iroffi. Potterns

Nhen a pjlor is h sjsht of nn aiflield hc adviscs thc to\er b! radLo.i hj ; aprroach. A i . that ti me hc ma]' be 3i ren l andnl g j D sl rucl i ons. U not. hc ci rcl es the i cl d. al nal s 1o the l €f1 unl ess othcrvi se i nstructed. unrLl he i j rl l d on \rhi ch runw a].to l and. In hD di ne , he iollos s thc trafiic paltem illustrated below: li ah lifplane rs Dot equipped $'irh radio its pilot r' h l , . . ' .., ..r. u, ,1l , " .,.r\p. . srFAr l .-h .r-n-i i r" ,r ' | , , - ' 1u J" \i ,u$l pdgp rl .r" .i sDa) he rocks h:s ri urgs or dips the nosc of his airplane. Il he recerle-r n(] sisnrl he circles, 6nds the dilection .,i lhe siDd bt lookin.g !t thc airlield wind indicator, and lands on lhe appropriate run$'ay.

T he T owe r Op e rd to r 1. Dirccts all air traftic ffying jn the local area ol the airfrcld and all pilots taxiing on the ground. 2. Advises by radio or lisht sun signal whelh.r rt N safc to land or lake o1I. what run\lat-s 10 use. and s'hat taxi strips 1lr use. 3. Gives inlormation such as altiiude ol ajrport, al in,.r.f sn lr ' r ' g. $ir d d' rF c l i o n a n d l r' .e .



9-12 The Engine€rirgOmcer At Am). airfietds there is an Engineerjng Officer: at civilian fields the Airpot Manager usually takes care oi eDginceringduties. The Engineering Omcer is responsibtefc,r: 1. Mainienancc of all hanears and machinc shops. 2. Maintenance of the airficld, inctuding ruqways and liehts. 3. Inspcction aDd ovcrhaut of aircraft. 4. Dutr assignments rnaintenance of creNs. 5. Proper kecping of forms used in the servicing and ovcrhaul of aircraft.
Uncler the supervision of rhe Ensineedne Omcer are: Technical Inspector: Who inspects aircrarr ro make slLre they are airworthy. Hc sees that periodic inspections are made. Line Chief: Who sup€Nises maiirtcnance oI aircraft at a field or tactical unit. He sees that aI1 lorms arc filled out. Flight Chief: Who supeNises maintelance cre\ls workins on a single flighr. He chccks aircratt bef.,re they are rcturncd 1(, Crerv Chief: Who is thc tead mcchanic for thc inspec_ ri un. Larn enrn.e and spr\i ,.:ng ot unc o.,norF a.r planes. He lills oul all mainrcnance fonr,s. Hangar Chief: Who is in chafse of the upkcep oI han8-ars and their tools and equipment. 'I'he Cr€w: Who are mechanics and helpers assigned to a crew chief. They inspect, seNice, ctean and re_ D uri es of S ervi comen When you are on an airEeld, either as an observer or as a serviceman, you musl be carcful at a1l 1imes. Your life, the lives of serviceincn and pilots, rhe condition ol aircraft and equipment, depend upon \\hat you do and how you do it. Porking Airocfr Park aircra{t lar enough apart so rhere is no danger oJ colljsion whcn they are moved. Set brakes or ptacc chocks under rhe sheeis. Ir is good practice to use borh brakes and chocks. Aircrafr must be parkect only in areas desisnated by the Operations Officer or Airpolt Manager. If thcre is more tlan a 20-niite Nind, tic dos.n aircaft, espcciall]. light airc.att. which are nor rn This is liow you 1ie down an airptane: r. Dile a stake inro the sround h front, be],ond the end of each ning, and behind tho tait. 2. Atiach a rope {rom each stake ro a sLrons pornl on the plane. Do not tie rop€s too tigh ].as moisrure may cause them to shri nk. 3. Lock control sufacos by inserrins wooden clamps to hold theD in neutral. Lash the controt stick or '$heel and rudder. If rou use a clamp, attach a rope lrom the claDp to the door i"o remtnd the pitot to remove the clamps before takeoff. .1. Cover aircraft whenever possibtc. Toxi S i gnots When n pilot taxies a plane near buildings or parked arrcrart. aD assistant hust srand by io help him_ Use these staDdard hand laxi sienatsl

Here ore lO aornmondments
you mltst alsays observe at an ai$eld: 1. Do hot so on the tanding area unless you are authorized ro go there or are conducred thefe by a flyo or ailffeld atrendani. 2. Do not drive an autohobitc on thc tanding area wjthout permission, 3. Never shoke on the apron or ivithin s0 feet of any airplane. 4, Do noi start or warm up an airytane rvhen hangars. shops. orhe! buitdines. or persons are in the path of the plopelter srream. 5. Do noi start or narh up an airylane when it faces another airplane. 6- Whcn you service ailchft with fuel, ground all tanks ro discharge static et.c_ ;. D o n^r lupl an " , r p ' a n F w h i l p l \. e n s i n 8. When an airplane js sraried or fueled, rnake sure an attendani stands by with a fire €xtinguisher_ 9. Do not hove a propetler unnecessauy and at all iimes staad alray trom ii. A rjro_ peller is as daneerousas a buzz-salv. l 0 w h e n J ou r . p het D ,n sro m o re F n plane, do lot take hotd of the hiddle" i r_ of snuts or braces, Nddcr, or other s.eak places. The stlong ptaces are ar ihe cn.ls oi the braces and atong the fuselagc. Weak praccsgeneully are har.ked on an ailptane.

9-t I
"G6n. I'n d&Ed lo l.nd."

L i g h t Gu n S i g n o l 3 Ai.craft not equipped Nith radio hLrst be ouecreo lroD the io$er by ]tsht gun signa1s.,A.ljsht gun is a .ound. open c] tinder about 11, feet lons. \snn a ieflcctor at one end. lThen the Tower Operator points the open end of rhe light gun at an airplane, the pilot sees eilher a red or green light. In the daylime, the pilot ackno$nedges these signals bl movins thc ailerons or ruddcr o{ his planc. At Dight he can signal the tower with his landins tiehts.

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SICNAL s , I I ETCTI I ED I Y AAF REG UI AT I O N6 2 . T 0 . 'I{ClE DA'EO 2 AU6U5 I I "3, TEPLACE I I O RM ET T A X I i I G N A L S . AI tllEY wlLL lE U5a0 lY CRI W S O F AAF. U! N, US M C .R A F , TCAF. AND TN. .l


A F IA G mA N w i t h < he< ke re d fl o g w i l l meet oi F .ro fi o n d n y l c n d ing.po< e w h e re th e n .l s re of traffi c d e md n d 5 i t. H e wi l l di re.t l h e p i l o t l o w o rd the i ori ti g n c l m o n w h o wi l l 3tond w i l h b o th o rh s e xl ended fu l l l € n s rh o b o v e hi s heod.

t. rlgnll tuh3, ngnoln.. will bd.kcn "com. Afi.ld wirfi h.rd on rh. !dn. iid. o3 rh. wins ro t. Si.ughr .rounc, d.d Foinr wirfi .rh.' hond .t



T HE S I G NA LM AN w i l l d n e d to ti i n s f r on d pos it io n fo N o rd o f l h e l e ft wing lip of t he o i rP l o n e , w h e re th e p ilot < on. ee h i m e o 3 i l y o l l th € ti me



IO W IN G. Left w i ng ti p si gnol mon gi ves ol l si gnol s to rroctor dr iv€r .




F n , 3 isn a l .,tm e € .n<y i op_.,rhen poinr one hond r.ned. Rorora orher hond.



atl ctEAR(o.x.)

/V her ei l l u mi n ot ion F er m ir s ,s i g n d l h o n w i l l mo v e i n l i g h ted oreo ond u5e tb ov e s i g n o l s. O ut of light ed o re o , h e w i l l u 3 e fl o s h l i g h rt or, i f ovoi l dbte, .u . it e wo rd s. A ll 3ignc l5 iom e o s o b o v e e r.e p t " E m e rg e n.y 5rop," w hi (h be g i ve n b y . r o55ing ligh rs i n f.o n r o ffo < e . 'ill

50-hour Inspe.ri on This is Dade betwecn the 40th and 60ih flyins houls of the airplane, and clcry 10 to 60 flyiDg hours rhcreal rer. A l l parl " ar..nrpa.red ro -. : rh ) dr p in Sood condiiion and workine properly and to make sure that the prescribed mainiennncc has bccn doDe. l oo-hour Inspedi on This is madc during every second 50 hour in-cpection and consists of maintenance operations in addition io rhose $hich the 5O,hour inspcction requires. E ngi ne C hqnge tnspedi on engiDes hust bc reDroved ft,. ovcrhaul after -tirplane froln 1.000 ro 5.000 hl iDg hours, depeidinlt upon ihe nakc of the eDsnre Sp.cillcatioDs lor this orerhaul come vi th the anpl ane. z5-hour A fter E ngi ne C hqnge This is a thoroush inspection {hich is nade beiNeen 20 and 30 flI iDg hol[s altcr the ensinc charse. S pe< i ol Insp€.ti ons At specified intervals pres.ribed inspectlons and opcrations must be made.

E! er ] anplaDe D ru s l b e i n s p e c te da t c c rta i n nrtcN al s. p, . \ 1 r . s .... . l - .\. .\.r F r. . --l -.n a f e out iined he re . T h e C n i L ,\e ro n a u tL c s,\d rnri stati on r . qulf e: s i ::i l a r o n e s . (F o r d e l a i l s . -.e e\\' ar D ep af t nr . nt T ec h ri c a l l l 6 n u a l t-1 1 5 . -1 .j fp l aD e h:fecti on G uid. . ) Pre n i g h t l h s p e d i o n This is m ade t h e l i rs t th i n g i n th e m o rn i ng. bel ore a n air plaDe is i l o w n . It c o D s i s tso f a l i s u a l chcck of contrc,ls. lucl s.\stcm. and cnginc intruments. all co( 1m s s lc or e n s s ). l u e l a n d o i l c a p s . D o i l y In s p € c ti o n This ij a detailed. visual inspection given to every airplan-" each day. unless the plane is iD storage or uDdergoing repairs. Afre|l)ight Inspe(tion llade after each flight, this is a chcck of thc airplane's sencral condition and includcs corrcctioD of any mechanical difrculty. 2 s -h o u r In s p e .l i o n This DNpection of an airylane is Drade everl 20 io 30 flvrng hours. It in.ludes a check of weaf and icar aDd releals any deterioralion at an early stageNo airplane can reDain hore than l month \rithout .r 2i+our inspcction, rcgardless oI flvine tine, unless i1 is in sroragc o. undcrgonrg orerhaul.

Wcrnings $Ihen an airplaneis uridogoirg repans
or ltas soh. pa missing. thc crc$' chicl places a red lag on lhe ronlol colLurn of some prominenl place hside rh. cockpit $,her. the pilot Nill be srue lo se€ ii This card t--lls rvhat repans are b€ing urd.frak.n or *hat paft is missnrg.


Uhl e r s o n d i r p l d h e i . i n d r e p d i r 3 h o p . r i s . r o r . d i r m u . t b e i n r p e . t e d .l lhe end of eo.h ddy. This is o requned i.fery pr6..urion, th6 doily inrp..rion outlin€d in rhit .e.ri.h ir Gonfin€d io rhe tioit 6h , o f e m d l l , r i n s l o € n q i h e l y p e o f . i r p l . n e . t r i t r h e t i n J o f o i r p t o n e you 9en6rdlly ree ot CAP oirneHi.



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c. Check propeller for track. Do this by starting the propeller and watching it rotate {rcm one side. If it is in track, it witl make one continuous circle as it \\hirls through the ai!. If i1 js out of tmck, it will make 2 dislinci lines. 2. E nsi ne a. Inspect engine co\rling for cracks and secudtyThe co\ling is the hood or cover that goes over an b. Remove corvling and inspect cngine to see i{ there are ant cracks in the tnoior mount. By pushing gentll asainst the motor, you can discover cracks. Check exhaust stacks and collector fing for cracks and securitr. Old exhaust stacks develop cracks and holes. c. Hale man in cockpit mole carburetor heat "ON. and OFF." Put l.our finger up the vent to see if the vahe works. Lubrjcate if necessary. d. Chcck spark plug termlnal assenlblies for cleanlincss and tightDess. e. Inspect ignition wiring and harncss for security of f. Clean main fucl,line straine$. Check sediment bo\'l and hose lcading to borvl. In winter. check to sc. if there is ice in the hose. g. Drain smau quantity of fuel Irom boltom drain ancl i n.pFcl j ' . h. Check fuel and oil systcms for leaks. vent openinss, surplus oil. i. Check fuel and oil supply. You can check the oit lust as you do in an automobilc. j. Check all bolis and Duts on ensine and nount. See that cotter keys are on bolts and that safety wire is k. Tum propeler; check compression of cylinders. i. Check throttle to see if all connections are sccure.

The daity flight inspection detaited here foltoNs ihe Civil Aeronautics Adninistralion s Dailr'Flighr Inspection Record. Ar!1y servicemen follo\s the poinls outlined in the War Depaltnent s Technical Vanual TM 1-.{15, Airplane Inspection Guide. You can use either in making a dailli inspecrion of anr airplane. L Th e Pro peller a. Inspect propeller blades for pits, cracks. and nicks. Run your hand over thc edges of the propeller ro 6nd cracks and nicks. cralel throrvn up Jrom the uheels often causes propeller damagc. b. I n sp p .r h ubs and ar r acl i rs p a .rr fo r d e r-,.r" . r.g h t-

Make sure that th. strilch is OFF' \rhcn rou touch the propellef. But do n.r llusl it ever then. fof a brokc. \rne has rhe saDc.ilecr as rnrnine rhc s*,ilch -ON.,. Reason, the ig.iiion arrangcm€nts ot an rn plaDe are bascd ob the disconnecrslstem,

9-17 3. r onding G e o r a. Inspect tires for defects and prcper inflation. b. Inspect rvheels Ior cracks aDd distortion and hub caps foi security. c. Inspect shock-absorber units.Ifthe shock absorber has a shock cord, inspect to see if lt has deiedorated. d. Inspect strut-retainine bolis and flttings lor sea. Inspect covering for damaee and distodion. cct down on your hands and knecs and look underneath the fuselage. b. Tn" pecrconrroj col urn (.rn k) r or hee" " s" mbl y dor ot morement. r cl rri ry of drl achmrnr s. c. Inspect rudder pcdal assembly and control system (cables and pulle}.s) for freedom of hovcment and d. Check fire extinguisher and first aid kit. See that the fire extinguisher is full of fiuid- You can find this out by shaking it. e. Check proper functioning of lighting sl.steb. f. Inspect safetl behs. e. Clean aU \indo1vs. \ote: Before an airylane is flown it should be preflishted. Thar is. the engine is wamed up until it reaches takeoff temperatLrre. While it is beine warmed. chcck the instruments. Preflieht also includes visual jnspection outlined in this seciion. a. Make sure that chocks are under whcels. b. Warn up and check ensine operationc. Test magnetos and all tanks. d. Check engine controls. e. Chcck position Df carbureior ai preheater. f. Check opcration o{ carburetor mixture controt. g. Check radio equipment. h. Check: Oil temperature, oil pressure, rym, amounr of fucl, amount o{ oil. i. Check idlins rym. e. Inspect control cable, pulleys. Lubricate if necesf. Check stabilizer adjustment. e. Check tail $hccl assembly. If it is dahaged it might be pushcd up against the rudder. Lubricate i{

e. T n" pec t br ac e q i re s fo r te n .i o n a n d :.curi ty.

a. Inspect wing covering for damage, buckled ribs, and end bo*s. Check the winss both top and bottom. In Right. an airplane is lifted mosily {rom the top of the lLinss and therelore this is th€ir most impotant su.lace. Test fabric by tapping. I{ it rcsists your tapping it is in good condition. If it is rotten it will gile !vay. Check wines by sightlng along thc top surface fiom the $.iDgtips. b. Inspect attachment fittings for security. c. Check struts {or secudty oI terminal connections. You can do this by close visual inspection and by gcntly rocking the wines and watching to see how firn the braces are. d. Check ailerons and aileron hinees and controls. By looking at them carefully and by movrng rne ailerons gently, you can tell if they ale in good order and rvorking properly. 5. Toil Control Surfd.€s a. Inspect covefing for damage, bucklcd ribs. and bruised cdges. Be sure to look undcrneath the tail surtaces as well as above. b . I n. pc c t ar ia c h me n r fi tti n g . to r s e c u rrrl . c- Check struts and brace wires, especially the terminal conneciions. Check above and below. d. Check control surface hinges. See i{ they work easily. See if there is much play in them. Check cot-

CAP Codets mvst not do this unless they hove had previous experience, or ftqve been giyen speciql instruction.

9-t 8 Cleonins Air.rofr Clean aircrafl regularly to preserve the surfaces and to improve their appearancc. Whilc you arc cleaning an airyIane you can check breaks in ibs, de{ormations in metal structures, tears in fabric, excess play in fittings or controls. Ref uelins th e Ai rp l o n e When you refill an airplane with fuel or oil, be caretul to: 1. Walk, stand, and sit in ihc right place. Ai.oaft are desiened to take conccntrated loads in oDly a few places. Learn where those places are. 2. Fill fucl and oi1 tanks onl) to rated capacil). 3. Use thc proper erade of fuel, oI therc can be seri ous da|nase. (L 2 M planes use 73 octaDe gasoline only, or thc next higher grade in enlereencr'.) 1- Grcund (electdcally) the tanks before fillins thenl 5. Replace iank caps securelr. 6. Find oLrt the arnount of fuel in a taDk alwa\s b! measudng with a clean stick. Gages can be nrong. S ervi .i ng A i rfiel d Foci l i ti es Hangars, {uel pumps and other airport facilities must b" " erv' .ed a. $.l l !. ai rcratl . A B ood ser!i c" ma n: 1. Keeps the hangar in ordeily condition. 2. Maintains Srounds. This includes repairing fences, cleadng a\ral. rubbish, and sihilar work. 3. Kno$s how t.r operate and care for equipment such as fuel trucks. pits or pumps, oil pumps! iractors, and other machinery. ,1. Helps maintain ihe landing area. This work includes bro\ing grass. removing snowj repairing soft or roush spots. and examining hard-surfaced runNa]s. iaxi strips and aprons for nails or otner rrredesfo! jns objects. 5. Replaces lvorn out airport lights. 6. Knoss ho$ to do ordinary jobs such as changing 1ires. clcding and adjusting spark plugs, and clcani. Kno\rs fire prelention methods, where the 6re exringuishers are, and hoiv to use them. 8. Kno\ts 6rst aid.



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Each airplane carries a set of forms. These {or1N tell the conplete story of each flight: who the pilot and passcngcrs ivere, where 1.hcy fle$-, the amount oI Iuel the plane used, and uhat seNicing was done. CAP airfields generally use the Civil Aeronautics AdmiDistration's forDs lor the service and ovcrhaul of aircra{t. The Aircralt and Engine Logbooks, rhe Periodic Aircralt Inspcction Report, and other {onns are alailable ai all civil airfrelds. If Army aircmfi are used. Fonns 1 aDd 1A must be kept. Army forms Form I The piloi fllls out this form. Before takcofi ne wnres nr as nuch of the data as he can. F'o! inslancc: his name. name of passenger or passengeN. slation. durj., desrination. Upon landing and before leaving the cockpil, he fi]ls in the the ent es. W hdt o P i l ot Ms3l C heck Before takeolT. a pilot must check to see if the airplane is propcrly seiviced. He must also cheek ceitain instruments in it. Here is a check list used in the liaison type of airplane: 1. Check flyins controls for {ree movement. 2. Check sas, oil, and "S" on Form 1A. 3. See that Cas valve is "ON." 4. Check opention of both maenetos. Minimum srarrc rprn 2,050. 5. Check to see that engine insiruments ivork propcrl y. 6. Check "TRIM TAB" control position. 7. Check altitudc contml. Place on "RICH" position. 8. Check carburetor heater control. Place on "COLD" The pilot should then take a careful look around the cockpit to see iI everything is in order




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Form lA The crew chie{ 6lls out this form and places it in the cockpit. On it he lists the amount of fuel and oil in t}le airplane, the totat number of hours flown, ar]d the hou6 flown that day. If th€re is any weakness in the airplane, he marks a red diagonal unde. Status Today. Under this circumstancethe airplane cannot be flown unless the pilot siens the space marked Exceptional Release.When a major defeci exists and the airylane caDot be flown, a red cross is marked in this space. If t}le pilot notices any weakness wh€n he is flying, he makes a note of it under Remarks. tlyable bul not i. perfe.r .ondition. Airplonenusl NOt be flown!

Ol her Forms Form 60A. Technical Instruction Cohpliance Record, for the airplane. Form 608. Technical Instruction CoDpliance Rccord, for the engine. These forms ale used when some technical chanee i . " nade i n ar ai -p ane. or $hpn an ensi ne i s u!pr hauled. Form 61. Pmpelier Historical Record. It sho$'s when a propeller has been installed and {'hen it is Form 4lB. This gives all infonnation about each airplane. Every inspection and rvhen it rvas made, what has been done or not done, najor overhauls, defects, and a1l other data are listed on this {orm. The enginee ng staff keeps it up day by day.



When an airplane oash€s at an aideld, tue mEt be controUed and injured ailmen must be rescued with great speed. To do these things quickly, d airnetd must have at least 1 crash truck parked ne& @ hangar aplon, ready for ist3nt duty, and a weuho*s, th.ough which fue-exringuishing sprayed. The.e are usually 2 hanil-linehen agenrs are ro a crcw.

4. Rescuenen. They remov€ injured air qews from danEged aircrafi. There are usuauy 2 rc*uemen to a oew, but where it is impossibl€ ro have 2 xr€r the dew chief seNes as one oI the r€*uemen, The crash truck ha.

A crash crew contaiG: 1. Crew Chief. He directs the @w quick acnon is necessary, 2. Drirer. H€ drives the tluck or helps when

1, A Crash Kit, This includes equipment used io break into airoaft and b re$u€ work, 2. A FircrAid Kit. 3. Fire-Fighting Equipment. This includes tanks of tue-fishting ag€nts, which sr€ explained mder me heading Fire Fighting,

anil ope.ares the fire-

3, Hand-linemen. They opersre the hard lines, or

fhe critical period, porticulorly for endongered qircrews, is the lirst 60 seconds sfler o fire hos broken out.



AS M U C H A5 PO5 5 I BL E A B OU T: L T h e o i rU e l d o n d s u rroundi ng co{ ,ntrysi de. 2. A p p ro o .h i n g d .ro s h e d pl dne. 3. L o .q ri o n o f d i rp l d n e ports.
Ge rti n g i n to o c rd !h e d pl one.

5. F i r3 tAi d .
F i re fi 9 h ti n s .

I n pr oc e e d i n g to o n d fro n < rc a h e s, wc l. h out f o r o i rc ro fr th o r m a v s ri l l b e r ox iing. l 6 n d i n g o r ta k i n g o ff. O n e

o..idenr or o rirne is

rhe A i rl l el d ond S ur.oundi ng C ounl rysi de YoLir Cash oe\r should have a map o{ the airfield and the coLrntr] suuounding it. This nap should include roads. rirers. streams, hi s and mountains, inlohration as to tlpe of country (such as woodcd or brush] ) . and landnarks, botlr large and small. If 1ou are a member of that crew, you should make trequent trips into the country surounding the airfie1d so that 1ou rvill knorv it thoroushly. During these trips, mark on the map a]I possible ways of reaching anr particular point. Your crew should have practice runs to predetermined locations. A pproo.hi ns rhe C rcsh When you anivc at ihc scene of a crash, you must: 1. Remove all members of the air crew. If thc crashed plane is alire, do this as quickly as possible. If there is no dangcr of ffie, use great care and take all the tinic necessary to avoid ageravating the iniuries of those hurt. 2. Look for injured members of the cre$'\'ho havc juhped or parachuted. 3. Remove all nearby vchicles md airoaft. 4. Open Crash Kit ed place in a spot easy ro rcacn.





TH E S E ?

Lo c o ti o n o f Ai rp l o n e Pc rts A De.rber of a oash cres' must know how i.o gct inro a ddraged airplane, lvhat parts of the airplane are most dangerous! and rvhere luel lines are so mar he can cur them off quickly. To kDoN these things. he hust be familiar vith parts o{ air$aft. in particular: 1. llarerials used in aircralt. 2. Posilioh ol gasoline md oil tanks. 3. Fuel vah es. Fuel lire selector (alles L Elecirical systems. 5. Openings. ti. Controls. 7. Special {asteners. 8. Landing gear. L Batteries. 10. Engines. 11. Crew positions in larger aircraft. The only way to learn about aircraft is to get jn them and study thefu parts, read about them, and *atch lvhile fhey ar€ being dismantled. G et t ins I nlo o C rc s h e d Ai rp l o n e (N o r A R re) One of the rescuemen ente$ the airylane. The other h" lps h. r ' r or rh e o u ' -i d e H e s " r. ;1 6 5 1. Doors or escapehatches or, if that is impossibte, by 2. Breakine plexiglas or safety elass. As a Iast resort, 3. Cuts a hole in the fuselaee. Hc must be caieful not to cut through cables or connections that will increase the tue hazard. He makes a cut alone 3 sides of a rectangle and opens the rectangle like a hinged door.

Insi de rhe A i rptone Once inside the airplane the rescueman: 1. Detcrmines condition oI crew. 2. Cuts ofi fuel selector switches, booster and trans3. Rcmoves hazardous matedals such as flares or light pistols. 4. Relcases air crciv ftom safety be1ts. He docs nor cut alvat safety belts unless absolutely llrcssary. UDsnapping thcm is easier and causes tess damage. 5. Removes cre* fron airplane carefully, especially if thel' are badly injured. Once out of the airplane, he rnores injured mehbers of the crew a safe distance from the \creckage and gives prompt inedical

1. Ground bi e.

Other E d< tofsi n C rdshes (electrically) aircraft as soo! as possr-

2. Plue hoken Cas tanks with a soft .ivooden plue, putty or adhesive tape. 3. \'Uatch out for sparks. Do not wear nailed shoes as they will give ofi sparks when they tact with metal. Rubber shoes are pre{erable.


4. Direct carbon dioxide and carboD tetrachiolide at the base o{ the flame. Use large amounis in mass 5. Sweep flames froDl side to side with high-pressurc water and slowly drive back. 6. Don't mix water and foam, ior the {oam will dissipate and be useless. 7. Cool gas tanks with a spray of water. Heat will expand and burst them if they are full. 8. Do not direct high-pressure waier sireams at luel burnine in tanks, Ior they will spread the buming fue1. 9. Watch our for flash-backs. Sometimes when a frre is out, a spark or heat combustion will re-ignite pools o{ {uel. Removing Domoged Air.rcft Do not move a crashed airplane uniil you put out all ffres aDd rerrove fuel. Moving might cause a shortcircuit in a broken wire and stait a 6re o! cause an explosion. fhe only time an airplane should be moved during rescue work is in an emereency, r'hen it is necessary to extract a member of the cre\, Before you remove a darnaged airplane, be sure 1. See that removal is coordinated ivith an AiI Force representative if the airylane is Army property. 2- Tum all switches to the "OFF" position 3. Disconnect batteries. 4. Reinove fLiel. You can pump it from airyiane tanks
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Fire Fighring Fire-fighLine equipmpnrincludasran]j's ol. 1. Foam. A mixtrre of a powder and water that produces a {rcthy mass of bubbles. When this mass is play€d on a fire, it {orrns a blanket that excludes oxygen and chokes out the flames. 2. Carbon dioxid€ (CO"). This is dischaqed as a heavy gas that smotheN the flames. Like foam, tt cuts off the fire's oxygen supply. 3. Carbon tetrachloride, A hea\,x'liquid that quickly foms a spray. It is used like carbon dioxide. Carbon tetrachloride is effective in temperatures below freezine. 4. Water. This is dirccted at flames through highpresstrreJgun-type nozzles, or applied as IogJike spmy. A straisht blast oI water extinguishesthe tue and at the same time sweeps away gasoline vaporsA wide {og steam cools the air around a buining airylane and the su ace of the airplane. It is excellent for coverine r€scue men who are attempting to get inside buming wrcckage. Here are someimportant points about fire ffghting: 1. Attack with the wind. 2. Don't ddve fire back into the cockpit. 3. Direct foam along edses of burning liquid and allow it to work back until the liquid is covercd.

5. Blanl<et completely with foam any Iuel on the gfound. 6. Remove all flares and signals. If you cannot remove the airplane frcm the scene of the accident at oncel 1. Anchor it securely2. Place a guard over it to protect onlookers from ffrcs that might start up again and to stop any After an airplane is removed: 1. Look over the entirc area of the crash {or fuel and oil that might have seepedinto low areas. 2. Carefully burn all fuel on the sround.

the.ulminorlon ot everyrhlng yoylGonledrn obour oviorton comeswhen you Glimbinto dn .irplon€ dnd srortto ny ilro a definire desrtnorion. Bur your knowledse ot Rylng wlll be rheGninsr6srunlesr you know how to find your woy over the {oce of the edrth. IH! lcleice of findins your wcy from one pt.ce on the eorlh to qnorher by o d,6slred roure is colled novigorton. *rhts iedion o{ your manual expldlns rhe fundlmenrclc of ceriol novlqdrion ond discus5es .errdin oid5 whl.h" when.tused.orrectly, help you novigore.n oirptane. Among thele oldi, the oeron.uflcgf ch.rr i5 mosr l|nporr.nr. lr ti dtro etrenri!t rhor you know how ro exp/e' rime o..uidtely, ond know rhe retartonlhtp berween tlme ond dilronce. ltln/6rder ro be oble ro ny lhe lhorresr dtsrdnce berween rwo polnr3 on rhe gttlh'5 5ur{.ce rhroush d conlron y shifrins mdss of oir, you musr rfe ure of your ndvigorion old5. Remember obove o etse to u5e -"sre. rhem .orefully a'l{ d..urdrely. /

f 1 r T HIS S E C r tOi l .. .


to Nqvigotion

Novisotion os You Akeody Know lt-Noviqoting oi Seo-Novigoting in the Air-Querrionr ro Aek YouBelf Eefore Eesihninso Trip by Air-Selecting the Shoden. Q!i<ken, Sofed Roure

Mops ond Chdrts
Whol o Mop k-How /v{op MokeB Put Cuded Sorfocero Flot Pdper-The Lofrberr Conlormol SeciionolChdd Thot Aviotors Use-B$t Feoiur.t of ll-S<ole of o LombertConforhol-How Thi3 Chort Helps in Aeriol Novigoiion-Finding Your Positionin Terms of Inierse.tins Sneeb-How eridion! ond Porollek of Lotitode R$€mble Them-How MeridionsAre Nunbered-How Porollel5of LotitudeAre Numbered-Expr*tins o Pdirion by Lotirudeond Longitlde-Divhions

of o Degree-Locoting Your Exoct Potitionon on Aeronouti(ol Chorl-How to find Plocet on the Ground When You've Lo.dted Themon o Chort-Chod Symbolsfor Teroin Fedtures-Contour LinesChdrt Symbok for: Woter Feotures; Culturol Feorure3, Aimeldt, Lishtr ond Beocons; Rodio Srorionsr Obstruclions-lmportonceof Hoving on Up+o-Dote Chort

Dlrec?lon, Di3iqn.e ond Time
Di3lon.eson o Chod-Meosurins o True CooRe-How to Usethe ProkoctorHow to ly\eosure DeierminingWhoi Quodront Your CouRe k In-Exploining the Mqsneti<Conpo$-How to Deterhine

Composs Coor3e-Relotion of Sunt Po$d9e to Time-The Eorth! 24 TimeZoner-Why Airnen M6t Erpre$ Time in HouB ond Tifre Zone-The 24-Hour Clock-How io E:pre* lime in Terhs of AnotherTime Zone-lnterhotionol Dote Line-Sunret Toble5ond How to Ute Them-How ro U5e the D3 Novisotion Computer

Elemenfory Nqvig.lion
How An Cuiieih Afie.t on Airpldnel Co!6e-How ond W hI to D row o W i nd Tri ongl e-H ow to DelermineYour Cohpo$ Heodins, True Heodins, ond Mogneti c eodi ns-A P rocti .ol P robl em H in


0nue loltEs Sto|f





Hor do iou naligate? Holv do you lind your way Iron one place on the earth to another? Answer the question ] ou$elf. When you go from home io school 1 o u lollor v t he s a me s tre e t l o u h a l e fo l l o wed el er siDce lou slarled going to school. That street helps lou find rour Nat. The stre€t srgns on everY corner tell }'ou that \'ou are on the right street. You recogr.. z e Lr r l. ar pa rh . a c ro " s l d c a n t 1 o r5 Yo L d re na!r. sating eleN da!. and these familiar landmarks help Iou f ind l our N a l . \l'hen the captain of a boat starts out across the ocean for Europe or China or rvhereler he ma1' be bound. he has to navigate to get where he \yants ro go. There are no street signs in the middle of the ocean to help him. There are Do paihq acoss vacani

lots. And there are currents in the ocean that cause his boat to drifi. But boats ooss oceans every day. They don't get lost because the capiain and his crew have ways o{ navieating. They use the stals and ihe sun and they knolv hol\ the ocean curents are afiecting their boat. They have certain aids that they use to replac€ l he strepr si srs The) know w here i be} ar e goin8 as the] cross the ocean just as you do vhen you go to school each day. because ihey are.just as familiar \rith thef aids as liou are with yours. In the air you have a dilTerent prcblem. You are still tr)ing to get from one place to another and you have to use aids to do it. The difierence lies in the type of aids )ou use. The airman (anyone who gies


is called an aihan) uses some of the aids you use in traveling around on the ground, and he uses some of the aids the ship captain uses in traveling over the ocean. But he also has some additional ones.

The airman uses a combination of aids. Beiore you can do this you must know the best lvay of using these aids. There are ihree things you must ihink aboui before starline on any air trip. 1. What is the shoiest way to get to your 2. Whai is ihe quickest way to get io youi 3. Above all, Nhat js the saJest\ray to get to It takes some thinking to figure out the shortest. quickest. and safcst way to go to a particular place, but you hust do it: Doni staft uiil ]ou have thought it over carefullr.


Here is somethirg to remember- Distance ish t always measured in miles. In the air. distance is measured in terms of time-hours and minutes. The quickest way to get to a destination is the short€st. Be sure to choose the sa{est ivay to )our destination. If you select a dangerous route you mal' nerei

Set there. Pick the safest way you kno$'. II there is a railroad tunnel through a mountain bet$'een you and school, you might save time by going to and from school through the tunnel. Bui the trains don't aiways run on time, and if you start throush the tunnel ,ou might get caught in ihe middle- It is sa{er.to go a.ound the hill. Therefore, you do so- It takes a little more time and it is a geater distance, but you know it is a safer way to get there. When you are in the air you don't have io $'orry about tunnels, but you do have to worry about other obstacles. When you plan a flight you must avoid mountains and go around bad weather. It may take you longer to get to you! destination, but you will be moie sure of eetting therc. You plan your flight wiih the aids you have. A{ter you have done this intelligently, you start using those aids. But beforc you can use any aid you rnust know what it is and how it can serve you best. Let's discuss ihese aids oDe at a time. First, you must know shat a chart is and hos' to use it.

I O-3

A map is a represeniationof a portion oI the earth,s surlace on a sheet of paper. The earth's su*ac€ is curved. The paper is flat. It is difficult to take a portion of a globe and flatten it and still keep things in thet righi rclation to each other. You can appre€iatethis bettel if you recall what happens when you take half an orange peel and press ii flat. It splits ai the edgesand creases the centerin But the map makers have ngued out ways oI flattening a globe without greatly distorting the outlines of ihe continentsor coast lines. Since this isn,t a coursein mathematicsyou don't have to learn how to build these maps.You only have to leam how to A map which is prepa.€d {or navigation is called a chart. A chart that is prepaled {or aedal naviga-

tion is called an aeronautical chat. Since you are studyine aerial navigation you will use aemnautical charts only. The most common one is the Lamb€rt Conformal sectional chart. The Lambe Conlormal chart shows the sulfac€ of the earth as i{ it werc the surface of a cone-That is the way its makers construct this type o{ chart. The cone intersectsthe globe along two lines, called the standard parallels. The standard parallels are 33 degreesand 45 degreesnorth latitude, and a statement of that fact is printed in the upper right-hand comer of the cha . The ar€a between theseparaltels is representedwith a minirnum of distortion on the Lambert Conformal-that's the important value o{ ihis cha.t. Lcmbert Conforncl Chorl Why do most aimen use the Lambert Conlormal Chart? They have many reasoDs.Here are a iew:

Thi. l. th. wdt n.p


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E hqr or. podlon ol d gloh. l. th. ll.l


1. It closely resemblesthe earih as you see it on a Clobe.The m€ridians point toward t}le pole on this chart just as th€y do on the elob€.Look atyour chat. Compare the me dians oD the right side oI the chaft with the edge oI it. They arc not palalel. lte parallels bf latitud€ are spaced equally on this chart, just as th€y are on the globe,and slightly curved, too. Look at you chart. Seehow the parallel

at the top of it cuNes in compadsonwith the straieht 2. You can use the scale at the bottom o{ the chart to measure distancesanywhere on it, because it is a constantscale. 3. If you &aw a straight line between two points on this chart, that line reprcsents the shortest distance between those two points on the glound.

4. This chart has little distortion. the land areas and water areas all appear on it in correct proportion. (Comparc aerial photo and chart below.) Because the chart approximates the correci proportion and tocation o{ featurcs on ihe ea h, you can rccognize landmarks irom the air. This makes it ideal for the type of work the ainan has to do. The particular type of LImb€It ConJormal which you will use in this couNe is a sectional chart. This chart is so constucted that 1 inch on it is equal to apprcximately 8 miles on the surface of the eadh. Actually, the scale is l inch on the cha{ to 500,000 inches on the earth's surface. That's nearly 8 miles. The scale of a chart is always p nted in the upper risht-hand colner. Always check the scale you are

Why should you always use the Lambet Con formal construct.d to this scale? Becausc the scaie is large enough to make the landma.ks show up plainly, yet small enough so that it cove$ a large In your CAPC cou$e this is the only chart you wiU us€, so always check th€ scale al the upp€r dghl-hand corner to make sure you hav€ th€ proper one. The chaft is an aid to aerial navigation because: 1. It helps you find your position. 2. It helps you find the distancebetween any two 3. It helps you ffnd direction. Each of these advantagesis impoitant all by itsell so they are discussedsepaiately.

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l0 -6

?.t' ' /,.

When you are trying to locate a friend in a strange town you usually go into a drug store and reach him by telcphone. You try to explain s.here 1ou are so he can tell you how to get to his home You tell him. {or instancc, that you are in Jones' drug sto.e. If he doesn't know where Jones' drus store is. ]'ou hase to eive him better directions. What do Iou do? You so out to the corner and Iook at the street sign. The sign tells you that you are on the corner oI 22nd Street and 5th Avenue. When yoLr eive ].our friend this information he knows exactly rvhere ]ou are and tells you in detail how to get from there to his home. YJhy does he know where the corne! of22nd Street and 5th Avenue is when he doesn't kno\' \\'here Jones' drug store is? Because there is onlt- one corn€r in the whole city where 5th A\_enue crosses 22nd Street. In most towns the stieets run no h and




south. east and Nest. If they are parallel to a iiver or some prominent landmark and are numbered from that point. it is easy to tell where 22nd Street is. It is 22 blocks from the river. Stleets running at right angles to one another actually {orm a system of coordinates. By naning tlvo streets that intersec!, you name a dennite corne!. The captain of the boat wants to know where he is all the time, just as you want to know where you are all the time. He can't look up at a street sign. It isn't sufrcient for him to know that he is in the Atlantic Ocean betiveen the United States and Europe. He has to know his exact location in the ocean. By using the available aids he finds the geoSraphical position o{ his boat and expresses that position by coodinates. These coordiDaies are diIferent from the ones rpresented by intersecting strects but, like them, they are found by ihe mtei.ecri on of rw o l ' ne. rurni ng al ri S ht argl e..

10-7 lvhen you eo into the air you have thc same problem as the caplain of the boat. It isn't sumcicnt {or Iou to know that you are some$here between the Mississippi River and the Allesheny Mountains. You want to know exactly wherc you are. You can find lour position over a definite landmark by referring 1l) your chart. Express this position by using thc Iatilude and longitude syst€m of coordinat€s. This isn't hatd to do. Just as a river may be the starting point for nuhberine the streets in a tosn. there is a starting point {or nuhbefing the meridians and another for nurnbe ng the parallels of lalitude.




- - - - - - - - - ' i' - r - - J -


The distance along any meridian between either pole and the equator is dividcd into 90 parts. These parts are also called degrees. On a globe or chart they are indicated by lines parallel to the equator. Since the equator is theb starting point, they are nuhbered f.om there to thc pole- No matter Nherc you are on the earth )ou arc on a parallelof latitudc, which is $hat this coordinate is called. You can tell the

IO N GIIU D I Green$'ich. England is the spot where the nuDberine of meddians begins. Stafiing with the meridian which passes through this point, we measure lonsitude. For this purpose, each half of the earth is divided into 180 paits- Each part is called a degree and is designated by the sign '. From the Green$'ich me dian westwad to the meridian exactly opposite it on the other side of the earth there are 180 dcsrces and frcm the GreenNich meridian eastward to that sane point there are 130 degrees. Meridians are dra$'n thrcugh each of these degrees, and ihey are called degrees of longi-

tude. There are 180deerees west longitudeand 180 of
degrees of east longitude. Since Grcens'ich is the starting point for numbering these meridians, you exp.ess your posiiion by saying, for instmce, that I ou are 45 degrees wesi of Crcenwich, or you are at .15 degrees Nest longitude. NoN let s considei the other coordinate, latitude.

parallel you are on by couniing the number of degreesit is north or south o{ the equator.Il you are north o{ the equator,you des$ibe the point as beine so many degrees north. If you are south of the equaior! you desc be it as being so many degrees The entire ea{h is thus divided into a system of coordinates just ]ike a well-planned town. The me dians run north and south and the pamllels of

l0-8 latitude run east and west. Fihd shich he.jdian you are oni then find Nhich parallcl of latitudc crosses ihat meridian at your position. ADy placc you may bc has a mcridian and a parallel of latitude runnins through it. Therefore, you can alwavs express lour position in dcgrees of latitudc and lonsitucle. A degree is further dilided into 60 parls. Each pafr is callcd a minutc- There are 60 Drinutes in 1 des.ce. The deerees are broken dowD this lar su juu ea,L express your posilion rorc accuralell. B]- cxpressing your position in dcgrees aDd n,inulcs ol larirude and longitude you can come wiihin 1 mile of bfine exacdy accurate. If 1ou measure these coordjnares carefully you may cxpress lour position elen nr(fe exactly within a half mile or. e|en a quarter of a Measure lalitude and longitude carefully. To read your longitude, Iay a ruler o. some straightedeed instrument north and south over rour position on the chart. Be su.e the ruler is exactl]. north and south, parallel to the nearest meridian. NoN,.ead your longitude where the ruier oosses 2 parallels of

latitude. To 6nd you latitude, use a pair oI divide$ to Deasure along the ruter. Measure up to you! position ftom the parallel below it. Then, measu.e ofi that distance along t}le nearest me dian and read your latitude. rthat you've done is to find which meridie and which parailel of latitude inrelsecr ar Remember. an expression of yol,r pos x,n oy coordinates doesnt hean a thing Lrnlcss it js cxact. In fact- carelessness is misleadinq and dangerous. No$ that )or.r know how to cxpress your posilion b! latiiude and lonsitudc. horv do you ffnd your position from the air so rou can use this knowlcdge? Your chart describes landnrarks such as mountains, rivers, towns and roads. Recognize a landmark di iectll' beneaih you. fiDd this landmark on lour chart. Then, describe its posiiion in latitude |nd loneitude. Thc coordinates of your posirion are the sahe as those of the landmark because you are d!


Your chari doesn't have a picture of a towD. a railroad, a mountain, or a wate! tower, horveter.

lG 9 Thcre a|e symi.:ols on your chart that reserrble but do not picture the landmarks represented. They are exasserated in size so you can easily find theDr on rou. chaft. You hust leam \\'hat each symbol represeDts. once you have learned these symbols you Nill recognize the synbol for a torvn ot a certain sizc. for inslance, and identily the town from the air. You will .ccognize the symbol for an airfield and iheh ideDlily rhe airneld from the air. There are manl landmarks $hich you will scc {rom the ai! that ar. not shoNn on youf chart. If everl' landmark $ere indicated on ii, thc chart would be all cluttered up. Ir contains only the information thai is most useLook al \ our chartleiioin ond W o te r fe o tu re s The l'irsl thing ]'ou notice is the colors. Thc colors ar. !arious shades of green and bro$n. These colors t ell lou hoN h i g h th e l e rra j n i s a b o v e s e a ]eve]. R e, , ' , m bc r . J , \ re p re = e n tsa n a l t:tu d e ranq" f "olor l0n0 ippr . F or :n n rn c e . rh e d a rk e r .h .d e of sreen represenls altitudcs from sea lerel through 999 feet. A location shoNn in rhis shade Dray be anl height Irom 1 to 1000 Ieet. The next most prominent feature of the chart is its conlour lines. A conlour represents an imaginar! line on the ground drawn through eve{ point which



is the same height abovc sea level. The va ed curves of the conrour line rcveal the shapes o{ ridges, valleys, canyons, blu{Is, and other details. Any contour is the inteneciion of an imaginary hodzontal plane with the su#ace of the terain. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate this. A sandpile 5 feet hieh stands on a pavement. An imaginary plane passes through the sandpile at a heighi of 2 {eet. You are seeing it {rom the side and from above. As you look down on the sandpile, you can readily see how contour lines are {ormedB odre. of w ater arp ea.y to.ee f-on rl^eair . Tb. y are accurately represented on yrur chart as to shape


I O-lO

Wqfer Feotures
I Inlermittent Sheom (.,--" \ lor s e Riv er on d S h e d tn


D ry Ldke

Many man-madc {eatures caD be scen aDd recognized from the air. These features a.e called cultural Towns and cities are rh€ most proDrinent .ultural Oniy the more prominent paved roads are sholrn on your chart- When you sce an unpared road from the air it does not seem to hale the slne clean. gra!' appearance of a paved road. Railroads are more dimcult io see froh u,e ar than mads. They usually look like dak ribbom. and

the rails themselles are seldom visibte. lliscellaeous cuhural fearur.s are als,ays sholvn Features lrhi.h present a menace to aj. travet arc ahval's sho*a in red. Prominent tansmission lines nmy rcpresenr a haa.d to at tamci therefore. they are shorvn in red. PiFelines are iDpoirant because you can sce fronl the air rhe !ight-of-Na)- scars made ior rhen,. Derricks dd oil srorase tanks are represented bl. s1-rnbolsplaced approxihatel): ove! rhe area covereal bt rhe denicks or tanks. The slrbol does not tell lou hoN hanj' there are. however.

Ci ti e 5 d n d lowns O les5 rh.n l@O

/-) ---l l

rooo sooo ro
*-",n.. uooo{d..uor5r'ope)
ForeslR onser S tori on

Highwoys qnd Rdilroqd5
P!ohinenl Highwoyi

codsr Guord srdrion

tr O vel(


Se.ondory Hishwoyi Rdilr oo d (o n o h o .k )

tooro',tJower ->...r:t4.1r)

-l1----------+l+ +l::::lrF

Two o, morerro.ks abondoned wirhrunn€l







Obslru.tion3 (H e i s h r.b o v e g ro u n d )

Lights ond aeocons Lighis and beacons are sho$'n in red on your chart because they are important aids to naligation. There are several lypes of beaconsl 1. Rotating beacons are spaccd about 10 or 15 milcs apart and {om a light line that coDnects pfincipal cilies and toqns. They sweep a beam of light ib a circle 6 times every minute. 2. The stationary beacon flashes in one position 3. Some beacons have red code lishis i.hat llash ij timcs pcr nlinute. Thc codc is markcd on 5our chart under the beacon slmbol. You can see the code uhen iou cross lhe light line or fly parallel 1.oit. $'heq the flashing code lisht is sreen it means thcrc is an airlield there with night iandins {acilities. There are sereral combinations o{ Iights and


Airlields are shorvn in red because they are of prime inLportance to the airman. Their altitude above sea lelcl is printed in slanths red figures. The letters LF near an ai leld nrean that ii has lishtine facilities and it is sa{e to land thcre at night


(l "\

Army , N o v y , o r M o ri ne Fi el d


Roloting Beo.on

lwxfi no3hlns .cd. b.occn)

1, f -r


Deporfnenl of Codmer.e

Mo'ked Auriliory Field seoplone Bq.e (wirh romp, beoch 6 n d h o n d l i n s l o c i l i ti e .)



Fl o5hi ngC ode B eoco n Mori ne N ovi goti on Lighl


An c h o rd g e (w i l h r€ fu Gl i nsond u s u o l h o rb o r fo (i l i ti o .) An(horose (wirh limired fo .i l i ti e 3 )

Rodio Sldtions There are various types of radio staiions and vou can usc ihem all to help you find your position. Mosi airplanes have equipment thai witi help yotl do this On ] our chart the symbols {or radio stations are also in rcd becausc of their importancc.

E4b: tt,:/,


| "!'o$ uuo I I r*rp | I0e- h. $ -i I

Non Didionor roJi6 8.o6" (*nihqu.irv,FowFIir.dincd.n nf'r)

lGl 2

';.,..::i !,i:t,,.m
O* o*
O (
Rsi \

Fon Mork6r Beo.on iiiniin.ofi irrncr) .n {wrrfi Rodio Slolion (wirh..ll |.rbr .nd rnqu€nly)






ii* - 0" 1; toi 5.m

Rodio Findersrorion
(whh cdll |.fi.r. .nd ,6qu.ncy)

M q ri n e R o d i o Be o .o n
(wxh rr.qu.ncy cnd rd.nrifl(cii.i



P roni nenl Tronsmi .si onl i n e

Mosnel i c V ori qti on
(B.driis3 dr. hoen.ri. or rh.3r.ricn)

D i sl on(e

An obstruction likely to be dangercus to ail tramc is malked on the chart by a red in!'eried V and a numeral representing the height of the oDstucuon. Remernbcr, ihis numeral tells you how high rhe obstruction is above the elevation oI the ground. I{ the ground elevation is 4.000 fi. and the obstruction is liarked 1,000 ft., that mcans it is 5,000 ft. above sea leve l . A restricted area is an area over i,",hichyou must marntain a certain minimurn altil.udc. The ligure sho$'n on the chari tells you the minimum altitude An airspace reservation is an area over rvhich flight is forbidden. You must l€arn what all these slmbols represent and thcn be able to recogniz€ the landmarks and navigation aids from the air. Some prominent landmarks change from time to time. Lakes are formed by newly built dans. New roads are built. Towns change in size. The chart makers have to kecp your chart up-ro-datc, and they do their best. But they can'i publish a nes,chari as often as landmarks change because it is too expensive. They do tell you when your chart was published, howcver. The date of publication is printed in red in ihe Iower left-hand corner. -A.lways use the mosl recent char{ ayailable. You now know how to erpress any posiiion by latitude and longitude, and you know whar the chart symbols represent. It is important that you kno$, ihis- But when you leave your departure point you must also know how {ar your destination is. your chatt helps l.ou determine distan4€.

You rneasure distances in miles on your chart, and the mile Iou use has 5,280 ft. jn it. This is a statute mile. There is a scale on the bottom of your chart that helps rou measure distances. Use this scale anlrrhere on the chart. but be sure to measure distances accuratel]. A big adlantage 1l) you in rleasuring distances on an aeronautical chart is the fact that you fly from one place straisht to another. You don't follo\l the tujsts and turns of a highrvay. Just measure rhe straight line between departure and destnatron. Nolv that !'ou knoN how to use your chart, you have hastcred the usc of one of the aids to a,r navL gation. This is the single mosi important aid you ha\-e and you must use it accurately. Diredion To get to your deslination you musi also know \(hich direction to take.


You don't wody aboul the direction you are traleling when you travel on the eround, because you only hale to follow a street or a road, read the signs and follo{ the aFows. Direction is taken care of fo! you. The roads lead io where you want to go, so you folThe captain and crew of the boat don'i have any roads 1o follow across t}le oceans, so they must use some other Dcars o{ taking the ght direction. The}' use a compass, which is a dilection-findjng instruThe ailman has a problem similar to ihat of the captain of the boai. He can't fly down a highway. readiDg a ows and signs. So the aiman uses a com-

froh lrue north, True noth is the direciioD {rom an! point to the gcographic Noith Pole. You remember that every circle has 360 degrees. A circle indicating all directions is called a compass rose. There are compass roses on the chart you are using. \\}en planniog Iour flight you tust draw a line bet\reen the points of depariure and destination. This line is called youi lrue course. To measure the direction of this course you use a protractor, which js hau a compass rose.

pass also. He calls the direction between his departure and destination his course. How do you measuie your course? The airman expresses direction in deelees measured ctockwise

Place the index of the plotractor over a meridian and along a line you want to measure. Read the diiection of the line wherc the meridian cuts the protractor. If your cou6e is easteily, read the figure on the p.otractor as it is. If your course is westerly, add

tGl 4 180 degreesto the roading you get on your protmctor- Always use the meddian hau way betNeenyour departure and destination points on which io measure the course bet\.e.n those places. Remember: Always add 180 degreesto the reading of your protrflctor wh€n you have a westerly
270' 360' quadrant. I{ your course line is in rhe first quadrant the course angle cannot exceed 90._ If it is in the second quadrant the ansle musr be betq'een 90' and 180'. If the course line is iD the third quadrant the angle must be between 180. and 270'. If the course Inre is in the fouirh quadrant, the course ansle must be beiNeen 2?0" and 3600. Keep this diasram in mind. You can elance at a course liDe. deternine \\hich quadianl ii is iD, and estrmate the approximate course angle. This will hel p roLr " l $rnare I-fs. ,,ri .rak.. In Inea,u-,nc The conpass that airmen use is a magnetic compass. Its principle and purpose are described in Section 6. \Yhat Xlakes an Ai$lane Fly." It is an accuate and dependable instrument in the hands of the pilot or naligalor Nho knoivs how to use it. Bur it is subject to t\!o tlpcs of enors: 1 Flisht errors. 2. Inherent errors. Flisht eroN are not discussed in this section, bur are described in Section 6. Innerent errors must ahvalis be considercd. Thel 1. Variation. 2. Deviation.

Pick out any position oD your cha{ and express that position by latitude and ionsitude. From that position dnw Iines in several dilections. Stading at North, which is 0o, measure the dircction these lines are pointing Irom your position. Express these directions or courses in de$ees from 0'to 360., clockwise

\\'henever you

rcmember this

The first quarter (or quadfant) .is the 0' 90, qradrant: the second, the 90"-180' quadmnt; the jrid. the 180'-270'quadranti the fourth, the

Va ation is causcd by the fact thai the needl. o{ the magnetic compass points io the earth's magnetic pole. Unfo{unately the masnetic north pole of the earth is not in the same place as the geographic No{h PoleYou have just learned to measure your course frcm tru. north. Your compass, however, gives direc-

I O-15

a ,




U. S. ConDoss Vcriot;ons

tioD iroD DFgDetic north. The angle or dilTefeDce belNeen these two directions fron ]our posiiion is .alled variatioD. Because of the wal thc earth is hade. this variatjon is dillerent at difiereDt places on tlic carth. Find the amount of vadaiion of your flight area on your chart. This is shown by hcavy dashed lines. call-"d isosonic lines, x'hich connect poiDis ol equal ! a- : , o. . I i y o : c r.s . ,e v e ra l s r.h l i n Fr i n onn flisht, ligure lhe averaee amouni of vadation and VadatioD is either easterly o! westerl)'. Appl! variation to your true cou$e. Add westerlv lalia-

tr{agnelic course i deviation : compasscourse. Here is an example: You! t.ue course is 2?5'. Va ation o{ your fligLt area is ?'E. Your compass card indicaies {or the nearest beadng (270'): M to C, +1. True Course.. . .. ... . . . .. .275" J" Variation................... course. . .. . .. ... . .268" Masnetic Deviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +1" course . . . . . . . . . .. 269" Compass

ljqs slLb!_rg€l_9e9lc_t_I9!eug. rrue course corrected lor variatioh is called magnetic course. Deyiation is the conrpass crrol caused by the nearby maenctic sourccs in the airpiane, such as the proximitr of iron pafts and the elect cal cunent in the radio or electdcal s)stem. You Ni11.6nd the amount of deviation of your compass on a card installed on the insirument panel. Ii is called a Apply dcliaiion, as ii is indicated on the compass card, to your magnetic course. Magnetic .ou$e corrected for deviaiion is called compass course. ,{ cornpass course is ihe course $'hich you must steer in oder to compensate {or ihe two inhercnt True course lariation hagnetic course.

ro-1 6

F r om e a rl y day s m an nc a s u rM ri rn e b \ ..\a r..:r:g and n o ti n g t he Dov c r llen t o l th e s u n a c ri .. :l t .k r H pd ru \, a" r c k ir r u 1, B -.,., '. rt . .h a d u w m nv P d a- |.n . r W e no w know, of c our s c . i h a t rh e a p !,rtfr:: ;r:, r.ment o f th e s uD is c aus edb | rh e f(,:rl i f:l around its axis. Bul sinc. ine amu n d u s. r v e s hall pr c t c n d h L -.e rh a r i ,. ;:.:-:.-1 .. T h cp "ri o d of r m - r " p rl .i .

r:r! ro:ati.n is calied a day. A day in this sense in.lulei b(,rh rhe time oI daylighl and darkness. It is dr l(lid !r1. :1 hours. Each hour is further divided ::.tr :rurute; and seconds. ,fr ar\ llace oh the earth when the sun is highest L. :Ii C ai l l l ri p acrossthe sky i t i s nooh or mi d-day | 12 Li.h.k). TNelle hours before, $,hen the sun $.as e\ai:l\ opposjt-p.on thc orher side of the ea4h, the ir,y .tarted for. this particulai ptace. Twelve hours air.r !rid-da\'. ihe slur, having completed a circle, is

lo- lz again exactly opposite the spot o{ which we arc speaking. It is now midnight there and a new day .{11 people on the same meridian, regardless of the lalitude of thei. position, have the same time. They ha\e noon and therefore every other hour of t}|e day at the sane rime. But remember, this is true only of people on rhe same meddiaD. For instance, when it is 12 o'clock in West Palm Beach. Fla . rhe clocks in Charleston, S- C., E e, Pa., and in Pau]'Sound, Northem Onta o, also indicate 12 o clock. That is because these places all are locat€d along the neridian o{ 80' $.esi longitude. On rhe other hand, when it is noon for the people \\ ho iive on the meridian of 80" sest longiiude, accordrng 1() the position of the sun ii is not yet noon Accordinely, it will iake 8 minutes for the sun to cover the 2 degrees o{ distance between 80' and 82' west longitude. When it's noon at 80,' west it is 8 minutes be{ore noon at 82' west. According to the movement of the sun. no rwo places east or lvest of each other have the same iime. For practical ieasons i1{'as d€cided to esrablish time zones. These are large areas within Nhich all people set their watches to the same ljme. They use the time o{ the meddian passine through the middie o{ their zone. This meridian is called the standard meridian of the respective time zone and the inre ihat is used in the entire zone is called standard {i me. It i : ato know n vari ou:l } as zone t im c, m ean time, and ciYil tim€. Twenty-four time zones were established, each zone covedng 15 degrees of longitudc. excepr whcrc local s uatioDs such as the position of staie borders had to be considered.

flitc zoNES

for those rvho live at 82" west longitude. That's because it takes t}le sun a certain amount of tiDe to travel the additional 2 degrees. Holv long does it take thc sun to travet this dis_ tance? It cohpletes a circle in 24 hours. Eycry circte has 360 dcgrees. Therefore, the sun travets 15 decr pF . ui longlu d e e re ry h o rr a n d I d p gree p\ery


I O-1 8 These 1i,ne zoncs arc ccntcrcd on 24 slandard mp', ,r,r rh p ," p " ' J r" n r,J -:r c ' b s r nnD S wI l throush Grcenrvich, EmglaDd.This is rhe z€ro meridPeople on the ground travcl at comparatively 1ow speeds and only occasionally cmss lhe borders of timc zones. Whenever ihey cross thc boder of a time zone in an easterly .lircction the! must set therr walches t holrr ahead. This is because the sun travcls from cast to sest, while they are nDving in thc oppositc direciion. When they cross thc border of a tirre zone jb a westcrly dircction ih-"v set their $ arch b -k I ho r r . f " r th e r up $i n " " r" .a r.\rn ! Airhen, travelins at high speeds, frequently cross sevefal time zones on a single trip. Thcreforc it is particularly imporlant fof them t.r understand and arc spoken of as thirtccn hundred, fou{een hundfed, N cter al l cmpl l o sol ve a ti me prohl em i n l our head. Atways do it on paper. Here is the way to do it: What is 12:42 Eastern Standard Time in Pacilic Standad Time? EST is based on 75 west longitude, the standard meridian of the easiern time zone. PST i . I l )..d un 120 w F-r l on8 tud.. Th" di fi er.nre i n longitudc between thern is 45 dcgrees. Thereforc. the difference between Eastcrn Standard Time and ,.' " or 3 hour. S :ni . you 15' l rn i xprp\rrne l h i ' np or an pd5l err r' _- zun. :n terms of a tlne zone further uest you must set your qatch back 3 houn. 12:,12EST minus 3 hours equals 09:42 PST. Here is another example: What is 15:10 Ceniml Standard Time in creenwich Standard Time? CST is based on 90'west lonsitude. crcenwich S randard Ti mF i . basd 0" . Th" orff" rer ce i n "n loneitude between these standad meridians is 90 qn deqrFe-. Th" drfl .r" n.e ra ri me j - or 6 hourr. 15,' 15110 CST plus 6 hours equals 21:10 GST. Remembe., in this case you hust sei your watch ahcad. You are ffsurins lime in a timc zone east o{ yours. Clocks havc bcen set ahead t hour in maDy time zon,- bc, au" " ol rhe w ar ' l hrs $a' d" n. l u :nr..a" u the amount of dayliltht in a normal $'ork day. It is callcd war tim€. lt creates some cohplicalion in your time pmblems but not a scdous onc. To change war ljme to siandard tnnc, subtract t houi. P a.rfi . S rand" rd T,r,

bc able to exprcss time accurately. They ah'ays must bc conscious of which time zone thcy are in. When they exprcss their time they must not only give i.he hour bLrt also the lime zone. To avoid misuhde$tanding and to simpli{y cominunications, airmen do not express time as a.m. and p.m. They usc the z4-hour clock. On this clock the moning houls are numbered as usual but the hours frorn noon to midnighr aie numbeied from 1;l to 24. Moreover, tle alrernoon and evening hours

lG l9

The apparent movement of the sun around the earth not only creates day and night and the 24 hours of t}le day, as you have just leamed, but it also causes the days to change. When ihe sun is over the Grcenwich meridian it is noon ih€re. For an instant o{ time, and only for that instant, it is t}le same date all over the worldIn ihe next instmt a new day is bom at the Intenational Date Lin€, which is the 180th meridian (east or west). As the sun moves on, see (in the center drawins on this page) what happens t hour later. Remember: When you cross the Internaiional Date Line in a westerly direction you must add 1 day. When you cross it in an easterly dircction, you mut subtnct 1 day.

I O-20 east of the standard meridian in this tihe

TABtts sl|l{stT

For example: Find the sunset time tor May 20 at 33'00'N latitude and 94'30' W longitude. 1. Enter the top or bottom scale with the proper date, May 20. 2. Move v€rtically down or up to the cuNe for your latitude,33"00'. Since this exact latitude is .ot sho]m on the chart, you must estimate its approximate position between the 30' and 35" lines of latitude. 3. Move horizontally to the le{t and rcad the local standard time on the vetical scale at th€ side 18155. 4. To find the coDect zone or standard tih€


lvhen you start on a trip in an airptane it E impodani for you to know Nhen you $ili ardve at your destination- You vill alrvays try to get there before the sun soes down so you can land beiore it gets dark. There are tables prepared to help you lind the time of sunset at your destination. This is how you use them: 1. Enter the top or bottom scale with the 2. Move vertically dorvn or up to the cuN€ ior

3. Move horizontally to the right or teft and rcad the local standard time of sunset on the vetical scales at the side. The tables gi\'e you the time o{ sunset at any standard meddian. ,1- To find the exact zone iime of sunset {or any iocation not on a standard meridian, add I minuies f('r'each degree vcst of the standad neridian in this lime zone and subtract 4 minutes lor each degree

of sunset,add 4 minutes for eachdegreeyour destination is wesi of the standardmeridian. Your longiiude is 4"30'west o{ the standard 90th meridian (Centrai Standard Time). There{ore, 4% X 4 (18 minutes) is added to 18;55 to eet the time of sunset-19r13 Central Standard Time. If you have sar time on your Natch, when the sun sets at your destination the waich wiU read 20113 CWT (Central War Tine). your destination befor€ the Always try to reach

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sun goes down, so you *'on't have lo make a night tanding. You hare been given enough aids now to stad some elementary navigation. You know how to fnd

and measure location, direction ud dist&ce on you chart. You know what the symbols mean. and r-ou undersrand ti mc. E l ementary navi gation E a . om bination of these aids.

How use Nqvigofion ro the compurer, TYPE
Your D-4 navigation comput€t, which is also given to every Aviation Cadet at the start of his flight training, is a simpl€ gadget but it saves a lot of time and trouble. It helps you solve time-distance problems, figure true airspeed ftom indicated airspeed, correct your altimeter rcadings, and change statute miles to nautical miles and kilon€tels. It has scales piinted on both sides. TheTinlDi.ronce Sid.r


Set the (MPH) aEow to 15 on the outer scal€. That ffgure, in this insiance, represenLs 150 miles. Now, look below the 6gure 30 on th€ outer scale. Immediately below it is 12. That represents 120 min-


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utes. Below 12 is 2:00, representing2 hours. Suppose, to take another example, you know how far you've flolm and how tong it has taken you to do it, but you don't know what your groundspeed is.

On the time-distance side of your computer the outer, stationary scale, when you're using it to work a tihe-distance problem, rcpr€sents distance. (It is like a slide rute in that the ffgures have no decimal point. For instance, the figure 15 can represent .15, 1.5, 150,1500,etc.) The inner, rDovable disk has two rcws oI figures and markings. For timedistance probl€ms, they both represent time. The larae arrow, marked MPH, is at the 1-hour mark. (Note that, in the spaces between ffeu.€s arc divided into 10 r'artsj in other cases, into 5 pa!ts.) Here's how you work a prcblem in time and distance: Suppose, for exanpte, the distance between your point of departure and destination js 300 miles. You groundspeed is 150 mph. How lonc will it take to get to your destination?OI cou$e, you can fuure this in your head. But work it on the compuler.

Let us say you have fiown 240 miles in 1r, hN. To ffnd your sroundspeed, s€t the ffsure I (representins 90 minutes, or 116 hn.) on the inner scale opposite 24 (repr€s€ntinc 240 miles) on the outer scale.Oppositethe MPH arrow is your groudspe€d, 160 mph.

Allilude Coneclion The time-distance side of your computer has another use. In t}Ie section of this manual called What Makes An Air?lane Fly, you arc told how chanses in barcmei c pressure and temperature can make an altimeter read inconectly. On the time-distance side of the D-4 coDputer you can 6nd corrected or tlue altitude from the altitude which the altimeter ind! cates. To do this, set the 6gure for indicated altitude against the 6gure for temperature at flight level in the window of the computer. Chqnsins rhe SGole Mile3 of OD the time-distance side of the computer, you can solve still anoiher kind of problem. For instance, you can change nautical miles to statute miles or kilomete$, and vice versa. You do this with the help of the three small arrows on the edge o{ the computer's movable disk. The kilometer anow, marked KM, is right beside the large MPH anow. The nauticai (NAUT.) and statuie (STAT.) alrows are left and right of 35 on the same scale. Here's an example: 100 nautical miles equal how many statute miles or kilometers? Set the NAUT. auow to the figure 10 (for 100) on tle outer scale, whics, in this kind o{ problem, again represents dislance. You find how many statute miles thG equals by looking above the STAT. arrow. It points hallvay between 11 aDd 12 on the outer scale. Call it 11.i ard read it as 115.The KM arrow, meanwhile. poinls at a spot a little morc than 2 lines belond 18 on the oute! scale. Call it 18.25 or 182%. To sum up, 100 nautical miles equal 115 statute miles or 18214 kilometers.

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For example,we'll assumeyour indicated altitude is 10,000 md the tempemturc is 20o. ft. To find your correct altitude, first set the 6gue 10 on the Press. Alt. scale opposite -20 on the Air Temp- scale in the computer's vindow. Now, look abovethe ligure 10 on the edge of the movable disk. You rcad 94 on the outer scale.In altitude corection problehs, both thesescalesrepresentfeet. The figu.e 10 stands for 10,000ft.; the fuure 94 represents 9400 ft. In this particular ploblem, that is your true 20' at 10,000ft. is altitude. The temperatu.e of lower than normal; therefore your true altitude is less than the altimeter indicates. Let's try another exampl€: Your indicated altitud€ is 8000ft. and the temperature js +20". To find your true altitude, set 8 on the Press.Alt. scale opposite +20 on the Air Temp. scale. Now, look above the ffgure 8 (for 8000 it.) on the edse of the movable disk. You read 86 (8600 ft.). In this exampl€, the actual temperaturc at 8000 {t. is above normal for that altitude. Accordingly, you true altitude is gr€ter than the altimeter indicates.

rh. AiEpGed Side: The airspeed side oi your D-4 computer helps you figure true airspeed f.om indicated airspeed. The oute., stationary scale represents calitrated aiBpeed. For youi purposes, this is the same as indicated airspeed. The pressure altitude scale, which for your pu.poses is the same as iDdicated altitude, is on the inne., movable disk. You read true airspeed in the computer's window. This is how you work a problem on the airspeed side of the computer:

Bwer o. True A-5. S..1.

Suppose your indicated akspeed is 160 mph, youi altitude is 10,000 it., and the temperatue is 0o. You want to find you. true airspeed. Set your altitude (10 on the Prcssure Altitude scale) against 160 on t}Ie outer scale. Now, in the window, opposite a temperature rcading of 0' on the Air Temp. scale, read your true airspeed, 187 mph. On the same side oI the computert you see a Density Altitude scale and another air temperatuie scale. These apply only to ce -ain problems involving exireme altitudes and high speeds, which are not required in your course.

T im e, s peed. d i 5 t6 n c e . q n d d i re c ti o n When you are driving your car down a highlLay lour direction is determincd {or you by thc road. and your speedomctcr ielis you hou fast you are going. Y . t , " lr f" l l o u ,h " r" a d In l " a j . y ,,' ar- i , J s hiit ir g c l. m e n t. It i s c o n s ta n l l y n o v i n A a,' u,\our airspeed indicator only 1el1syou how fast you are m ov DS r l- n o l h u $ fa .l l o u rre mo!i ns 'sh ' ov er t he gr o u n d . Your problcm is likc that of dossing a rrver in a boat. Thc lratcr in thc river is hoving dowbstream. Thc novcment of the water is called a cuuent You {ant to go straighl across ihe river. Bui. il you point your boat directly at the opposite shore thc currcnt carries you downstream. Thcre arc two forces acting on the boat. Thc oars arc pushine it foN'ard and the cuffent is cauying it sidcways.

In the air' t'ou are ih a curcnt al1 the time. Il you l care S our departurc poi nt w i i h your air plane headed dircctly to$ards your destination, you will arrjle therc oriy il there is no lvjhd. But there is al\ays a lviId. The air is never con,pleicly calm. S o there w i l l be t$o l orces acl i ng on your planc just as there rvefe lwo lorccs acting on thc boat. Wilh a boat in a stream, you find that y.,u can eo \l rai ght across i f you head upstream at a. er lain anslc B! sclecting just th-" right angle you can ..tr! pensale completely for the eflect of lhe curreni, shi ch i s l r]i ng b push you dow nsl rea r n. In plannins a flisht, your problcm is similar. You husl f;nd out hov niuch you havc to hcad into ihc rvind in ordcr to counteract its ellect. You do this \rith the heip of a vector diagrah, commonly catled a $ind trianslc. A vector is a line represenllbg hoih

dbection and force. By dnwing this simple triangle you can 6eu!e out just how much you must h€ad into the wind in order to travel over the ground in the direction you want to go. you want to fly lrom Altus Airyort, Okla., Suppose to Midway Field at Clinton, Okla., a distance of 62 miles. Your airplane, we'll say, cruisesat an airsp€edl of 100 mil€s per hour. First, draw a line on your aercnautical chart coFnecting the two points. This is your ltue course and you find, by measuring, that it is 22". The varaation in your flight area, as the chart iDdicates, is 11' E. Let's assume that the deviation given on your compass card is f4'. lherefore, your compa.ss course is 15o. It is ffgurcd this v,/ay: True corfse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - .22" Variation (E) . ..... ...... .-11' MasneticcouNe -...... - -. -..11' Deviation ..................+4' Compass course. ... ...... ... .15' These co$ections have taken care of your compass errols, but iI you v/ere to hold a couise at 15' you would get from Altus to Clinton only in a dead calm. This, as you know, is never possible. The air is alBy getting in touch with the Weather Station, you learn that there is a wind of 20 miles p€r hour frcm 325". lhe purpose of the wind trisngle is to 6nd out how to correcl your course to compensate for this wind. Since speed is always given in miles p€r hour, always draw a wind t iangte on the basis o{ I hour, no matter how long or short the tdp. Also, you must

Or a piece of papr of suitable s;e to illustrate your problem, draw a vertical line representing North-South. (Figure 1.) Print an N at the top of it. Atong this line, s€lect a point representing youi place of departure. Frcm this point, draw a line in the di"ection of 22o. This represents your true cou$e . . . the line oD youi chart b€tween points of deparWHAT P LA N E S ARE IH E S E ?

select a pmctical scale to represent miles per hour on the diagram you are going to draw and use that scdle thrcughout the problem.

lG 25 Your wind line now shows only the direction ofthe wind. You must next indicate its velocity. Using the scale you have chosen, measuie ofi 20 miles (velocity pe! hour) along the wind line, beeinning at the point

ture and destination. Label the liner TC-22'. (Fieure 2.) Now, thmueh the same point, dlaw a line from 325'. This is your vind line. Label it W-325". (Fieure 3.) Note that you have to draw the wind line through your starting pbint. This is important. To emphasize it, dmw an auowhead at the €nd o{ the line, to point out the direction into which the wind is blowing. Because the wind is moving in that direction, its force acts in that direction, too.

representing your place o{ departurc. B€ sur€ to measure in the direc{ion the wind is blowing. Haiing made a point on this line to represent 20 miles per hour, maik it W, for it is called the wind point. Your diagram now shows both the dircction

l0-26 and velocity of the wind for a period of t hour. (Figure 4.) Next, measure ofi 100 miles accordina o your scale. This is your true airspeed for t hour. From point W, ffnd wher€ this line inte$ects the line of your true course. W}Ien you have determined that

point, mark it GS and draw a dashed line from W to GS. (Figure 5.) This line represents yuur uue a ir"pee d . Th " r ef or e. label i r T A S-I0 o mp h . Your wiDd triangle is now coDplete, and you can read on it what you want to k!ow: The angle betwcen your tue ai$peed line and your true course line is the amount you are going to have io corect your course to couDteract the force







of the wind. Accordingty, it is called the wind correction angle. Measure it with your Fotractor and you will find it is 10". (Ficure 6.) You previously found that your compasscourse is 15'. Your wind triahsle shows you that the wind correction angle is 10'. Do you add or subtract this angle?

In retation to the direction oI your course in this problem the wind blows from the left. In order to counteract its efiect, you therefore must corect ro the left, just as you must head a boat upsrream ro counteract the river curent. menever you corect to the left, you must subtmct your wind conecuon ansle. Therefore:

C o mpas s c ouNe . . .. . .. . ... ..1 5 Wi nd c or r ec t ion a n g l e . . ... .. 1 0 ' L o mpac r hF adr n g ,,,..,,,.... ! As you see, compass heading is your true course conected for variation, deviation, md wind. You have found that in order to make eood the desired tiue course of 22'the magnetic compass of your plane will have to read 5". The result is the same no matter in what order you apply these correciions. So far, we have gone f.om true course to magnetic coulse, irom magnetic cou$e to compass course, and tuom compass course to compass headins. Often, it is bore practical to make these couectioN in the followins order: Apply the wind conection angle to )'our true cou$e and get your true heading. Apply variation to the tNe heading to get magnetic heading. Conect magnetic heading for deviation and set compass headine. In your problem, this would work out in the folTru e c our s e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 2 ' Wind co eciion angle . .. . . . 10 ' Tru e headins . . . .............It Va d at ion ( E ) . . . .......... 11"

moviDg you to the left, always correct to the dght. Whcn"v"r you cor.Fcltu thr lefi, it a minrs correction. Whenever you correct to the ight, it is a On the vind trianele which you drew, the distance lrcm your starting point to the point GS represenis Thal. )ou rcmembpr,js your Jour eroundsp"pd. actual speed over the ground. Measure it at your scaleand you {ind it is 88 miles per hour. This means that. becauseof the $ind, though you are flyins at a true airspeedof 100miles per hour, you are traveling over the ground at a speedof only 88 niles per hour. In a wind triangle, the groundspe€d is always found along the tru€ course line and th€ true heading is the directionol lhe lrue airspeedline. Remember: In speakingof wind triangles a key No.d is true. \\ten lou draw one, always use true course and true airspeed. You previously measured on your chat the distmce flom Altus Airport to Midway I'ield and found it to be 62 miles. You. {ind triangle showsyou your groundspeedis 88 miles per hour. To ffnd out how long your trip \siil take, consull your Dg computer. Set the black s)inter at your groundspeed,88 miles per hour. No\r read the number of minutes under the disbnce, 62 miles. You find it is about 42 minutes. Accodingly, if you take oiTlrom Altus Airpolt at 10100CWT, you can corectly estimate that you will arive at Midway Field at 10:42CWT. If you know hotr' to r€ad your chart, if you undersland time, if you can draw a wind t angle, and if you know how to operale your computer, you have learled elementarJ_ aerial navigation.

Magnelic heading ............ LDeviation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . +4" Lompass neaomg You see, the rcsult is the same. Note that a course conected for wind is called a heading. R€membert W}len the wind is moving you to the right, always correct to the left. Wlen the wind is




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