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Hector Berlioz

Hector Berlioz

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Hector Berlioz

by Paul Muljadi

Hector Berlioz

Crop of a carte de visite photo of Hector Berlioz b y Franck, Paris, ca. 1855

Hector Berlioz (pronounced: [ɛktɔʁ bɛʁˈljoːz]; 11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique and Grande messe des morts (Requiem). Berlioz made significant contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation. He specified huge orchestral forces for some of his works; as a conductor, he performed several concerts with more than 1,000 musicians. He also composed around 50 songs. His influence was critical for the further development of Romanticism, especially in composers like Richard Wagner,

Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Franz Liszt, Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler and many others.

Life and career

Early years

Hector Berlioz was born in France at La Côte-Saint-André in the département of Isère, near Grenoble. His father, a respected provincial physician and Antoinette, was an orthodox Roman Catholic. He had five siblings in all, three of whom did not survive to adulthood. The other two, Nanci and Adèle, remained close to Berlioz throughout his life. Berlioz was not a child prodigy, unlike some other famous composers of the time; he began studying music at age 12, when he began writing small compositions and arrangements. As a result of his father's discouragement, he never learned to play the piano, a peculiarity he later described as both beneficial and detrimental. He became proficient at guitar, flageolet and flute. He learned harmony by textbooks alone—he was not formally trained. The majority of his early compositions were romances and chamber pieces. While yet at age 12, as recalled in his Mémoires, he experienced his first passion for a woman, an 18-year-old next door neighbour named Estelle Fornier (née Dubœuf). Berlioz appears to have been innately Romantic, this characteristic manifesting itself in his love affairs, adoration of great romantic literature, and his weeping at passages by Virgil (by age twelve he had learned to read Virgil in Latin and translate it into French under his father's tutelage), Shakespeare, and Beethoven.

scholar, was responsible for much of the young Berlioz's education. His father, Louis-Joseph Berlioz, was an atheist, with a liberal outlook; his mother, Marie-

Student life
Paris

Drawing of Harriet Smithson as Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet

In March 1821, he graduated from high school in Grenoble, and in October, at age 18, Berlioz was sent to Paris to study medicine, a field for which he had no interest and, later, outright disgust after viewing a human corpse being dissected. (He gives a colorful account in his Mémoires.) He began to take advantage of the institutions he now had access to in the city, including his first visit to the Paris Opéra, where he saw Iphigénie en Tauride by Christoph Willibald Gluck, a composer whom he came to admire above all, jointly alongside Ludwig van Beethoven.

He also began to visit the Paris Conservatoire library, seeking out scores of Gluck's operas and making personal copies of parts of them. He recalled in his Mémoires his first encounter with Luigi Cherubini, the Conservatoire's then music director. Cherubini attempted to throw the impetuous Berlioz out of the library since he was not a formal music student at that time. Berlioz also heard two operas by Gaspare Spontini, a composer who influenced him through their friendship, and whom he later championed when working as a critic. From then on, he devoted himself to composition. He was encouraged in his endeavors by Jean-François Le Sueur, director of the Royal Chapel and professor at the Conservatoire. In 1823, he wrote his first article—a letter to the journal Le corsaire defending Spontini's La vestale. By now he had composed several works including Estelle et Némorin and Le passage de la mer Rouge (The Crossing of the Red Sea) – both now lost – the latter of which convinced Lesueur to take Berlioz on as one of his private pupils. Despite his parents' disapproval, in 1824 he formally abandoned his medical studies to pursue a career in music. He composed the Messe solennelle. This work was rehearsed and revised after the rehearsal but not performed until the following year. Berlioz later claimed to have burnt the score, but it was rediscovered in 1991. Later that year or in 1825, he began to compose the opera Les francs-juges, which was completed the following year but went unperformed. The work survives only in fragments; the overture has been much recorded and is sometimes played in concert. In 1826 he began attending the Conservatoire to study composition under Jean-François Le Sueur and Anton Reicha. He also submitted a fugue to the Prix de Rome, but was eliminated in the primary round. Winning the prize would become an obsession until he finally won it in 1830, with his new cantata every year until he succeeded at his fourth attempt. The reason for this interest in the prize was not just academic recognition. The prize included a five year pension-much needed income for the struggling composer. In 1827 he composed the Waverly overture after Walter Scott'sWaverley novels. He also began working as a chorus singer at a vaudeville theatre to contribute towards an income. Later that year, he attended a production by a traveling English theater

company at the Odéon theatre with the Irish-born actress Harriet Smithson playing Ophelia and Juliet in the Shakespeare plays Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet.

He immediately became infatuated by both actress and playwright. Prone to violent impulses, Berlioz began flooding her hotel room with love letters which

both confused and terrified her. Predictably, his advances on her went nowhere.

In 1828 Berlioz heard Beethoven's third and fifth symphonies performed at the Paris Conservatoire – an experience that he found overwhelming. He also read

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's Faust for the first time (in French translation), which would become the inspiration for Huit scènes de Faust (his Opus 1), importance of these immediately. He began to study English so that he could read Shakespeare. Around the same time, he also began to write musical criticism. He began and finished composition of the Symphonie fantastique in 1830, a work which would bring Berlioz much fame and notoriety. He entered into a relationship with – and subsequently became engaged to – Camille Moke, despite the symphony being inspired by Berlioz's obsession with Harriet Smithson. As his fourth cantata for submittal to the Prix de Rome neared completion, the July Revolution broke out. "I was finishing my cantata when the revolution broke

much later re-developed as La damnation de Faust. He also came into contact with Beethoven's string quartets and piano sonatas, and recognised the

out", he recorded in his Mémoires, "I dashed off the final pages of my orchestral score to the sound of stray bullets coming over the roofs and pattering on

the wall outside my window. On the 29th I had finished, and was free to go out and roam about Paris 'till morning, pistol in hand". Shortly later, he finally won

the prize with the cantata Sardanapale. He also arranged the French national anthem La Marseillaise and composed an overture to Shakespeare's The worst rain in Paris for 50 years, meaning the performance was almost deserted. Berlioz met Franz Liszt who was also attending the concert. This proved to be the beginning of a long friendship. Liszt would later transcribe the entire Symphonie fantastique for piano to enable more people to hear it.

Tempest, which was the first of his pieces to play at the Paris Opéra, but an hour before the performance began, quite ironically, a sudden storm created the

Italy

Lithograph of Berlioz b y August Prinzhofer, Vienna, 1845. Berlioz considered this to b e a good likeness.

On 30 December 1831, Berlioz left France for Rome, prompted by a clause in the Prix de Rome which required winners to spend two years studying there. Although none of his major works were actually written in Italy, his travels and experiences there would later influence and inspire much of his music. This is most evident in the thematic aspects of his music, particularly Harold en Italie (1834), a work inspired by Lord Byron's Childe Harold. Berlioz later recalled that

his, "intention was to write a series of orchestral scenes, in which the solo viola would be involved as a more or less active participant [with the orchestra] while

retaining its own character. By placing it among the poetic memories formed from my wanderings in Abruzzi, I wanted to make the viola a kind of melancholy

dreamer in the manner of Byron's Childe-Harold."

While in Rome, he stayed at the French Academy in the Villa Medici. He found the city distasteful, writing, "Rome is the most stupid and prosaic city I know; it

is no place for anyone with head or heart." He therefore made an effort to leave the city as often as possible, making frequent trips to the surrounding

country. During one of these trips, while Berlioz enjoyed an afternoon of sailing, he encountered a group of Carbonari. These were members of a secret

society of Italian patriots based in France with the aim of creating a unified Italy.

During his stay in Italy, he received a letter from the mother of his fiancée informing him that she had called off their engagement. Instead her daughter was to

marry Camille Pleyel (son of Ignaz Pleyel), a rich piano manufacturer. Enraged, Berlioz decided to return to Paris and take revenge on Pleyel, his fiancée, and

her mother by killing all three of them. He created an elaborate plan, going so far as to purchase a dress, wig and hat with a veil (with which he was to disguise himself as a woman in order to gain entry to their home). He even stole a pair of double-barrelled pistols from the Academy to kill them with, saving a single shot for himself. Planning out his action with great care, Berlioz purchased phials of strychnine and laudanum to use as poisons in the event of a pistol jamming. Despite this careful planning, Berlioz failed to carry through with the plot. By the time he had reached Genoa, he realised he left his disguise in the side pocket of a carriage during his journey. After arriving in Nice (at that time, part of Italy), he reconsidered the entire plan, deciding it to be inappropriate and foolish. He sent a letter to the Academy in Rome, requesting that he be allowed to return. This request was accepted, and he prepared for his trip back.

Before returning to Rome, Berlioz composed the overtures to King Lear in Nice and Rob Roy, and began work on a sequel to the Symphonie fantastique, Le retour à la vie (The Return to Life), renamed Lélio in 1855. Upon his return to Rome, Berlioz posed for a portrait painting by Émile Signol (completed in April 1832), which Berlioz did not consider to be a good likeness of himself. Berlioz continued to travel throughout his stay in Italy. He visited Pompeii, Naples, Milan, Tivoli, Florence, Turin and Genoa. Italy was important in providing Berlioz with experiences that would be impossible in France. At times, it was as if he himself was actually experiencing the Romantic tales of Byron in person; consorting with brigands, corsairs, and peasants. He returned to Paris in November 1832.

Decade of productivity
Italie (1834), the Grande messe des morts (Requiem) (1837) and Roméo et Juliette (1839).

Between 1830 and 1840, Berlioz wrote many of his most popular and enduring works. The foremost of these are the Symphonie fantastique (1830), Harold en

Painting of a young Berlioz b y Émile Signol, 1832.

On Berlioz's return to Paris, a concert including Symphonie fantastique (which had been extensively revised in Italy) and Le retour à la vie was performed, with among others in attendance: Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, Heinrich Heine, Niccolò Paganini, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, George Sand, Alfred de Vigny, Théophile Gautier, Jules Janin and Harriet Smithson. At this time, Berlioz also met playwright Ernest Legouvé who became a lifelong friend. A few days after the performance, Berlioz and Harriet were finally introduced and entered into a relationship. Despite Berlioz not understanding spoken English and Harriet not knowing any French, on 3 October 1833, they married in a civil ceremony at the British Embassy with Liszt as one of the witnesses. The following year their only child, Louis Berlioz, was born – a source of initial disappointment, anxiety and eventual pride to his father. Unfortunately for Berlioz, he was soon to discover that living under the same roof as the Beloved was far less appealing than worship from afar. Their marriage proved a disaster as both were prone to violent personality clashes and outbursts of temper. In 1834, virtuoso violinist and composer Niccolò Paganini commissioned Berlioz to compose a viola concerto, intending to premiere it as soloist. This became the symphony for viola and orchestra, Harold en Italie. Paganini changed his mind about playing the piece himself when he saw the first sketches for the work; he expressed misgivings over its outward lack of complexity. [citation needed] The premiere of the piece was held later that year. After initially rejecting the piece, Paganini, as Berlioz's Mémoires recount, knelt before Berlioz in front of the orchestra after hearing it for the first time and proclaimed him a genius and heir to Beethoven. The next day he sent Berlioz a gift of 20,000 francs, the generosity of which left Berlioz uncharacteristically lost for words. Around this time, Berlioz decided to conduct most of his own concerts, tired as he was of conductors who did not understand his music. This decision launched what was to become a lucrative and creatively fruitful career in conducting music both by himself and other leading composers. Berlioz composed the opera Benvenuto Cellini in 1836. He was to spend much effort and money in the following decades trying to have it performed successfully. Benvenuto Cellini was premiered at the Paris Opéra on September 10, but was a failure due to a hostile audience. One of his most enduring pieces followed Benvenuto Cellini—the Grande messe des morts, first performed at Les Invalides in December of that year. Its gestation was difficult; because it was a state-commissioned work much bureaucracy had to be endured. There was also opposition from Luigi Cherubini, who was at the time the music director of the Paris Conservatoire. Cherubini felt that a government-sponsored commission should naturally be offered to himself rather than the young Berlioz, who was considered an eccentric. Regardless of the animosity between the two composers, Berlioz learned from and admired Cherubini's music, such as the requiem. Thanks to the money Paganini had given him after hearing Harold, Berlioz was able to pay off Harriet's and his own debts and suspend his work as a critic. This allowed him to focus on writing the "dramatic symphony" Roméo et Juliette for voices, chorus and orchestra. Berlioz later identified the "love scene" from this choral symphony, as he called it, as his favourite composition.[citation needed] (He considered his Requiem his best work, however: "If I were threatened with the destruction of the whole of my works save one, I should crave mercy for the Messe des morts".) It was a success both at home and abroad, unlike later great vocal works such as La damnation de Faust and Les Troyens, which were commercial failures. Roméo et Juliette was premiered in a series of three concerts later in 1839 to distinguished audiences, one including Richard Wagner.

The same year Roméo premiered, Berlioz was appointed Conservateur Adjoint (Deputy Librarian) Paris Conservatoire Library. Berlioz supported himself and his family by writing musical criticism for Paris publications, primarily Journal des débats for over thirty years, and also Gazette musicale and Le rénovateur. While his career as a critic and writer provided him with a comfortable income, and he had an obvious talent for writing, he came to detest the amount of time spent attending performances to review, as it severely limited his free time to promote his own composition and produce more compositions. Despite his prominent position in musical criticism, he did not use his articles to promote his own works.

Mid-life

Painting of Berlioz b y Gustave Courb et, 1850.

After the 1830s, Berlioz found it increasingly difficult to achieve recognition for his music in France. As a result, he began to travel to other countries more often. Between 1842 and 1863 he traveled to Germany, England, Austria, Russia and elsewhere, where he conducted operas and orchestral music – both his own and others'. During his lifetime, Berlioz was as famous a conductor as he was as a composer. He was made a Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur in 1839. In 1840, the Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale was commissioned to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the July Revolution of 1830. Owing to a strict deadline, it was performed only days after it was completed. The performance was held in the open air on July 28, conducted by Berlioz himself, at the Place de la Bastille. The piece was difficult to hear owing to the crowds and timpani of the drum corps. This was later remedied by a concert performance a month

later, and Wagner voiced his approval of the work. The following year he began but later abandoned the composition of a new opera, La nonne sanglante;

some fragments survive.

In 1841, Berlioz wrote recitatives for a production of Weber's Der Freischütz at the Paris Opéra and also orchestrated Weber's Invitation to the Dance to add

ballet music to it (he titled the ballet L'Invitation à la valse, and the original piano piece has often been mistitled as a result). Later that year Berlioz finished would become his second wife. In 1842, Berlioz embarked on a concert tour of Brussels, Belgium from September to October. In December he began a tour in Germany which continued until the middle of next year. Towns visited included Berlin, Hanover, Leipzig, Stuttgart, Weimar, Hechingen, Darmstadt, Dresden, Brunswick, Hamburg, Frankfurt and Mannheim. In Leipzig he met Felix Mendelssohn and Robert Schumann, the latter of whom had written an enthusiastic article on the Symphonie fantastique. He also met Heinrich Marschner in Hanover, Wagner in Dresden and Giacomo Meyerbeer in Berlin. Back in Paris, Berlioz began to compose the concert overture Le carnaval romain, based on music from Benvenuto Cellini. The work was finished the following year and was premiered shortly after. Nowadays it is among the most popular of his overtures. In early 1844, Berlioz's highly influentialTreatise on Instrumentation was published for the first time. At this time Berlioz was producing several serialisations for music journals which would eventually be collected into his Mémoires and Les soirées de l’orchestre (Evenings with the Orchestra). He took a recuperation trip to Nice late that year, during which he composed the concert overture La tour de Nice (The Tower of Nice), later to be revised and renamed Le Corsaire. With their marriage a failure, Berlioz and Harriet Smithson separated, the latter having become an alcoholic due to the collapse of her acting career. Berlioz moved in with a mistress Marie Recio. He continued to provide for Harriet for the rest of her life. He also met Mikhail Glinka (whom he had initially met in Italy and who remained a close friend), who was in Paris between 1844 and 1845 and persuaded Berlioz to embark on one of two tours of Russia. Berlioz's joke "If the Emperor of Russia wants me, then I am up for sale" was taken seriously. The two tours of Russia (the second in 1867) proved so financially successful that they secured Berlioz's finances despite the large amounts of money he was losing in writing unsuccessful compositions. In 1845 he embarked on his first large-scale concert tour of France. He also attended and wrote a report on the inauguration of a statue to Beethoven in Bonn, and began composing La damnation de Faust, incorporating the earlier Huit scènes de Faust. On his return to Paris, the recently completed La damnation de Faust was premiered at

composing the song cycle Les nuits d'été for piano and voices (later to be orchestrated). He also entered into a relationship with singer Marie Recio who

the Opéra-Comique, but after two performances, the run was discontinued and the work was a popular failure (perhaps owing to its halfway status between

opera and cantata), despite receiving generally favourable critical reviews. This left Berlioz heavily in debt to the tune of 5000 to 6000 francs. Becoming ever

more disenchanted with his prospects in France, he wrote:

Great success, great profit, great performances, etc. etc. ... France is becoming more and more philistine towards music, and the more I see of foreign lands the less I love my own. Art, in France, is dead; so I must go where it is still to be found. In England apparently there has been a real revolution in the musical consciousness of the nation in the last ten years. We shall see.
In 1847, during a seven-month visit to England, he was appointed conductor at the London Drury Lane Theatre by its then-musical director, the popular

French musician Louis Antoine Jullien. He was impressed with its quality when he first heard the orchestra perform at a promenade concert. In London he also

learnt that he knew far more English than he had supposed, although still did not understand half of what was said in conversation. He began writing his

Mémoires. During his stay in England, the February Revolution broke out in France. Berlioz arrived back in France in 1848, only to be informed that his father

had died shortly after his return. He went back to his birthplace to mourn his father along with his sisters. Meanwhile, Harriet's health was declining due to

alcohol abuse and she suffered a series of strokes that left her an invalid. Berlioz paid for four servants to look after her on a permanent basis and visited her almost daily. He began composition of his Te Deum. In 1850 he became head librarian at the Paris Conservatoire, the only official post he would ever hold, and a valuable source of income. During this year Berlioz also conducted an experiment on his many vocal critics. He composed a work entitled the Shepherd's Farewell and performed it in two concerts under the guise of it being by a composer named Pierre Ducré. This composer was of course a fictional construct by Berlioz. The trick worked, and the critics praised the work by 'Ducré' and claimed it was an example that Berlioz would do well to follow. "Berlioz could never do that!", he recounts in his Mémoires, was was to become the "Weimar version" of the opera, containing modifications made with the approval of Berlioz. The performances were the first since the disastrous premiere of 1838. Berlioz travelled to London in the following year to stage it at Theatre Royal, Covent Garden but withdrew it after one

one of the comments. Berlioz later incorporated the piece into La fuite en Egypte from L'enfance du Christ. In 1852, Liszt revived Benvenuto Cellini in what

performance owing to the hostile reception. It was during this visit that he witnessed a charity performance involving six thousand five hundred children

singing in St Paul's Cathedral. Harriet Smithson died in 1854. L'enfance du Christ was completed later that year and was well-received upon its premiere. son, he said that having lived with her for so long, it was his duty to do so. In early 1855 Le retour à la vie was revised and renamed Lélio. Shortly afterwards, the Te Deum received its premiere with Berlioz conducting. During a short visit to London, Berlioz had a long conversation with Wagner over dinner. A second edition of Treatise on Instrumentation was also published, with a new chapter detailing aspects of conducting.

Unusually for a late Berlioz work, it appears to have remained popular long after his death. In October, Berlioz married Marie Recio. In a letter written to his

Photograph of Berlioz b y Nadar, January 1857

Les Troyens
In 1856 Berlioz visited Weimar where he attended a performance of Benvenuto Cellini, conducted by Liszt. His time with Liszt also highlighted Berlioz's increasing lack of appreciation for Wagner's music, much to Liszt's annoyance. Berlioz was convinced by Princess Sayn-Wittgenstein – with whom he had corresponded for some time – that he should begin to compose a new opera. This work would eventually become Les Troyens, a monumental grand opera with a libretto (which he wrote himself) based on Books Two and Four of Virgil's Aeneid. The idea of creating an opera based on the Aeneid had already been in his mind several years, by the time Sayn-Wittgenstein had approached him, homage to his first literary love, whom he still cherished – even after his discoveries of Shakespeare and Goethe. The opera was planned around five acts, similar in size to the grand opera of Meyerbeer. It was composed with the Paris Opéra in mind, a most prestigious venue. Berlioz's chances of securing a production in which his work would receive attention equal to its merits were negligible from the start – a fact he must have been aware of. Despite these grim prospects, Berlioz saw the work through to its completion in 1858. The onset of an intestinal illness which would plague Berlioz for the rest of his life had now become apparent to him. During a visit to Baden-Baden, Edouard Bénazet commissioned a new opera from Berlioz, but due to the illness that opera was never written. Two years later, however, Berlioz instead began work on Béatrice et Bénédict, which Bénazet accepted; it was completed on 25 February 1862. As for Les Troyens, in 1860 the Théâtre Lyrique in Paris had agreed to stage it, only to reject it the following year. It was soon picked up again by the Paris Opéra. Marie Recio, Berlioz's wife, died unexpectedly of a stroke at the age of 48, on 13 June 1862. Berlioz soon met a young woman named Amélie at Montmartre

and despite a long disillusionment, his creative flame seems to have remained lit. Les Troyens proved to be a very personal work for Berlioz, as it paid

Cemetery, and though she was only 24, they developed a close relationship despite a 35-year age difference.

The first performances of Béatrice et Bénédict were held at Baden-Baden on 9th and August 11. The work had had extensive rehearsals for many months,

and despite problems Berlioz found in making the musicians play as delicately as he would like, and even discovering that the orchestra pit was too small

before the premiere, the work was a success. Berlioz later remarked that his conducting was much improved owing to the considerable pain he was in on the

day, allowing him to be "emotionally detached" and "less excitable". Béatrice was sung by Madame Charton-Demeur. Both she and her husband were staunch

supporters of Berlioz's music, and she was present at Berlioz's deathbed.

Les Troyens was dropped by the Paris Opéra with the excuse that it was too expensive to stage; it was replaced by Wagner's Tannhäuser. The work was by the new director of the recently re-built Théâtre-Lyrique. In 1863 Berlioz published his last signed article for the Journal des débats. After resigning, an act which should have raised his spirits given how much he detested his job, his disillusionment became even stronger. He also busied himself judging entrants for the Prix de Rome – arguing successfully for the eventual winner, the 21 year old Jules Massenet. Amélie requested that they end their relationship, which Berlioz did, to his despair. The staging of Les Troyens was fraught with difficulties when performed in a truncated form at the Théâtre-Lyrique. It was eventually premiered on November 4 and ran for 21 performances until December 20. Madame Charton-Demeur sang the role of Didon. It was first performed in Paris without cuts as recently as 2003 at the Théâtre du Châtelet, conducted by John Eliot Gardiner.

attacked by his opponents for its length and demands, and with memories of the failure of Benvenuto Cellini at the Opéra were still fresh. It was then accepted

Later years
In 1864 Berlioz was made Officier de la Légion d'honneur. On August 22, Berlioz heard from a friend that Amélie, who had been suffering from poor health, had died at the age of 26. A week later, while walking in the Montmartre Cemetery, he discovered Amélie's grave: she had been dead for six months. By now, Berlioz was a lonely man. Most of his family and friends had died, including two of his sisters. Events like these became all too common in his later life, as his continued isolation from the musical scene increased as the focus shifted to Germany. He wrote:

Last photograph of Berlioz, 1868

I am in my 61st year; past hopes, past illusions, past high thoughts and lofty conceptions. My son is almost always far away from me. I am alone. My contempt for the folly and baseness of mankind, my hatred of its atrocious cruelty, have never been so intense. And I say hourly to Death: 'When you will'. Why does he delay?
Berlioz met Estelle Fornier – the object of his childhood affections – in Lyon for the first time in 40 years, and began a regular correspondence with her. Berlioz soon realised that he still longed for her, and eventually she had to inform him that as a married woman there was no possibility that they could become closer than friends. By 1865, an initial printing of 1200 copies of his Mémoires was completed. A few copies were distributed amongst his friends, but the bulk were, slightly morbidly, stored in his office at the Paris Conservatoire, to be sold upon his death. He travelled to Vienna in December 1866 to conduct the first complete performance there of La damnation de Faust. In 1867 Berlioz's son Louis, a merchant shipping captain, died of yellow fever in Havana. After learning this, Berlioz burnt a large number of documents and other mementos which he had accumulated during his life, keeping only a conducting baton given to him by Mendelssohn and a guitar given to him by Paganini. He then wrote his will. The intestinal pains had been gradually increasing, and had now spread to his stomach, and whole days were passed in agony. At times he experienced spasms in the street so intense that he could barely move. Later that year he embarked on his second concert tour of Russia, which would also be his last of any kind. The tour was extremely lucrative for him, so much so that Berlioz turned down an offer of 100,000 francs from American Steinway to perform in New York. In Saint Petersburg, Berlioz experienced a special pleasure at performing with the "first-rate" orchestra of the Saint Petersburg Conservatory. He returned to Paris in 1868, exhausted, with his health damaged due to the Russian winter. He immediately traveled to Nice to recuperate in the Mediterranean climate, but slipped on some rocks by the sea shore, possibly due to a stroke, and had to return to Paris, where he lived as an invalid. In August 1868, he made his last trip to Grenoble where lived his sister and her family. Invited by Mayor Jean Vendre during three days of festivities for the inauguration of a statue of Napoleon, he presided a music festival. On 8 March 1869, Berlioz died at his Paris home, No.4 rue de Calais, at 30 minutes past midday. He was surrounded by friends at the time. His funeral was held at the recently completed Église de la Trinité on March 11, and he was buried in Montmartre Cemetery with his two wives, who were exhumed and reburied next to him. His last words were reputed to be "Enfin, on va jouer ma musique" ("At last, they are going to play my music").

Religious views
Berlioz often stated in his letters that he was an atheist.[citation needed] In a letter which was written shortly before his death, he wrote in regard to religion, "I believe nothing." The Catholic Encyclopedia, for its part, claims Berlioz as a Catholic, but appears to concede that he did not remain faithful to Catholicism.

Berlioz as a conductor

Drawing of Berlioz conducting a choir b y Gustave Doré, pub lished in Journal pour rire, 27 June 1850

Berlioz's work as a conductor was highly influential and brought him fame across Europe. He was considered by Charles Hallé, Hans von Bülow and others to be the greatest conductor of his era. Berlioz initially began conducting due to frustrations over the inability of other conductors – more used to performing older and simpler music – to master his advanced and progressive works, with their extended melodies and rhythmic complexity. He began with more enthusiasm than mastery, and was not formally trained, but through perseverance his skills improved. He was also willing to take advice from others, as evidenced by Spontini criticising his early use of large gestures while conducting. One year later, according to Hallé, his movements were much more economical, enabling him to control more nuance in the music. His expert understanding of the way the sound of each instrument interacts with each other (demonstrated in his Treatise on Instrumentation) was attested to by the critic Louis Engel, who mentions how Berlioz once noticed, amidst an orchestral tutti, a minute pitch difference between two clarinets. Engel offers an explanation of Berlioz's ability to detect such things as in part due to the sheer nervous energy he was experiencing during conducting. Despite this talent, Berlioz never held an employed position of conductor during his lifetime, forced to be content with only guest conducting. This was almost not the case. In late 1835, he was approached by the management of a new concert hall in Paris, the Gymnase Musical, and offered a position as their musical director. To Berlioz this was an ideal opportunity. Not only would it give him a large annual salary (between 6000 to 12,000 francs), but it would also give him a platform from which to perform his own music, and the music of fellow progressives. Berlioz accepted the offer, and signed the contract for the position. However, a new decree issued by the revolutionary government forced him to change his mind. The obstacle was one of the many restrictions that the revolutionary government had placed on the running of musical establishments, forbidding the performance of vocal music, so they did not compete with the influential Paris Opéra (among other organisations). There were passionate arguments and attempts to circumvent this restriction, but they fell on deaf ears, and the Gymnase Musical became a dance hall instead. This left Berlioz dejected, and would prove to have been a crucial cross-roads in his life, forcing him to work long hours as a critic, which severely impaired his free time available for composition. From then on, he conducted at many different occasions, but mainly during grand tours of various countries where he was paid handsomely for visiting. In particular, towards the end of his life, he made a lot of money by touring Russia twice, the final visit proving extremely lucrative and also being the final conducting tour before his death. This enabled him not only to perform his music to a wider audience, but also to increase his influence across Europe – for example, his orchestration was studied by many Russian composers. Not just fellow hyper-Romantic Tchaikovsky , but also members of The Five are indebted to these techniques, including Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, but even Modest Mussorgsky – often portrayed as uninterested in refined orchestration – revered Berlioz and died with a copy of Berlioz's Treatise on Instrumentation on his bed. Similarly, his conducting technique as described by contemporary sources appears to set the groundwork for the clarity and precision favoured in the French School of conducting right up to the present, exemplified by such figures as Pierre Monteux, Désiré-Émile Inghelbrecht, Paul Paray, Charles Munch, André Cluytens, Pierre Boulez and Charles Dutoit.

Legacy

Pencil drawing of Berlioz, b y Alphonse Legros, c.1860

Although neglected in France for much of the 19th century, the music of Berlioz has often been cited as extremely influential in the development of the symphonic form, instrumentation, and the depiction in music of programmatic and literary ideas, features central to musical Romanticism. He was considered extremely progressive for his day, and he, Wagner, and Liszt have been called the "Great Trinity of Progress" of 19th century Romanticism.[citation needed]Richard Pohl, the German critic in Schumann's musical journal, the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, called Berlioz "the true pathbreaker".[citation needed] Liszt was an enthusiastic performer and supporter, and Wagner himself, after first expressing great reservations about Berlioz, wrote to Liszt saying: "we, Liszt, Berlioz and Wagner, are three equals, but we must take care not to say so to him." [citation needed] As Wagner here implies, Berlioz himself was indifferent to the idea of what was called "la musique du passé" (music of the past), and clearly influenced both Liszt and Wagner (and other forward-looking composers) although he increasingly began to dislike many of their works.[citation needed] Wagner's remark also suggests the strong ethnocentrism characteristic of European composers of the time on both sides of the Rhine. Berlioz not only influenced Wagner through his orchestration and breaking of conventional forms, but also in his use of the idée fixe in the Symphonie fantastique which foreshadows the leitmotif. Liszt came to see Berlioz not

only as a composer to support, but also to learn from, considering Berlioz an ally in his aim for "A renewal of music through its closer union with poetry". During his centenary in 1903, while receiving attention from all leading musical reference books, he was still not generally accepted as being one of the great composers. Some of his music was still in neglect and his following was smaller than other, mainly German, composers. Even half a century did not change much, and it took until the 1960s for the right questions to be asked about his work, and for it to be viewed in a more balanced and sympathetic light. One of

the pivotal events in this fresh ignition of interest in the composer was a performance of Les Troyens by Rafael Kubelík in 1957 at Covent Garden. The music of Berlioz enjoyed a revival during the 1960s and 1970s, due in large part to the efforts of French conductor Charles Munch and of British conductor Sir Colin Davis, who recorded his entire oeuvre, bringing to light a number of Berlioz's lesser-known works. An unusual (but telling) example of the increase of Berlioz's fame in the 60s was an explosion of forged autographs, manuscripts, and letters, evidently created to cater for a much greater interest in the composer. Davis's recording of Les Troyens was the first near-complete recording of that work. The work, which Berlioz never saw staged in its entirety during his life, is now a part of the international repertoire, if still something of a rarity. Les Troyens was the first opera performed at the newly built Opéra Bastille in Paris on 17 March 1990 in a production claimed to be complete, but lacking the ballets. In 2003, the bicentenary of Berlioz's birth, his achievements and status were much more widely recognized, and his music is now viewed as both serious and original, rather than an eccentric novelty. Newspaper articles reported his colourful life with zeal, very many festivals dedicated to the composer were held, readings of his books and a one-hour French television dramatised biography all helped to create a lot of exposure to the composer's life and music – far more than the previous centenary anniversary. Numerous recording projects were begun or reissued, and broadcasts of his music increased. Prominent Berlioz conductor Colin Davis had already been in the process of recording much of Berlioz's music on the LSO Live label, and has continued this project to this date with a L'enfance du Christ recording issued in 2007. The internet was also a factor in the celebrations, with the comprehensive hberlioz.com site

(which has been online since 1997) being an easily available source of information to anyone interested in the composer. The 'Berlioz 2003' celebrations,

organised by French academic institutions, also had a prominent website, listing events, publications and gatherings the domain of which has now lapsed.

There was also a site maintained by the Association nationale Hector Berlioz. A proposal was made to remove his remains to the Panthéon, and while initially

encouraged by French President Jacques Chirac, it was postponed by him, claimed to be because it was too shortly after Alexandre Dumas was moved there.

He may have also been influenced by a political dispute over Berlioz's worthiness as a republican, since Berlioz, who regularly met kings and princes, had some of whom claimed that Berlioz was an anti-establishment figure and would have no interest in such a ceremony, and that he was happy to be buried next to his two wives in the location he has been in for almost 150 years. Since Chirac retired as President, the future of Berlioz's resting place is still unclear. Peter Cornelius counted Berlioz as one of the Three Bs at the heights of classical music alongside Bach and Beethoven. Commemorations of Berlioz include the 2000-seat Opera Berlioz at the Corum arts centre in Montpellier, Berlioz Point in Antarctica and asteroid 69288 Berlioz.

severely criticized the 1848 Revolution, speaking of the "odious and stupid republic".[citation needed] There were also objections from supporters of Berlioz,

Influences

Hector Berlioz

Literature
Berlioz had a keen affection for literature, and many of his best compositions are inspired by literary works. For Symphonie fantastique, Berlioz was inspired in part by Thomas de Quincey's Confessions of an English Opium-Eater. For La damnation de Faust, Berlioz drew on Goethe's Faust; for Harold en Italie, he drew on Byron's Childe Harold; for Benvenuto Cellini, he drew on Cellini's own autobiography. For Roméo et Juliette, Berlioz turned, of course, to Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. For his magnum opus, the monumental opera Les Troyens, Berlioz turned to Virgil's epic poem The Aeneid. In his last opera, the comic opera Béatrice et Bénédict, Berlioz prepared a libretto based loosely on Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing . His composition "Tristia" (for orchestra and chorus) drew its inspiration from Shakespeare's Hamlet.

Shakespeare
In 1827, Berlioz watched Irish actress Harriet Smithson at the Odéon theatre playing Ophelia and Juliet in Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet by William would become a lifelong love. He followed the rest of the 1827 season closely, until the company moved to the Salle Favart, and began learning the plays from pocket translations on sale. Though the performances were in English, of which Berlioz knew virtually none, he was still able to grasp the grandeur and sublimnity of Shakespeare's language along with the richness of the plays' dramatic design. The timing for these performances, not just for Berlioz' career but also for French Romanticism in general, could not have been more apt. Berlioz was on the verge of producing his most Romantic works—as were the writers Vigny, Dumas, Gautier and several others in attendance that night. Shakespeare served as a model for French Romanticism, with Hugo extolling Shakespeare as a challenge to French classicism and the model for the new Romantic theater. Shakespeare for Berlioz represented the summit of poetic utterance, with the bard's veracity of dramatic expression and freedom from formal constraints

Shakespeare. This led to two intense infatuations. One was to Smithson, which would result in a disastrous marriage. The other was to Shakespeare, which

resounding in the composer's spirit. More profoundly, Shakespeare became a source, by way of its dramatic truth, for Berlioz' fundamental notion of expressive truth; this was how he could call Romeo and Juliet "the supreme drama of my life." He read from the plays constantly, often aloud for anyone who would listen. He quoted from them for the rest of his life and would associate any personal upheaval with its Shakespearian counterpart. Berlioz was especially taken with Shakespeare's ability to pinpoint the heart of a dramatic conflict and penetrating the secrets of intense love. These secrets, Berlioz suggested in the text of Roméo et Juliette the playwright took with him to heaven. Time and again through the years, Berlioz would distill the favorite image of a play and distill it into musical terms. Roméo et Juliette may have been the first. Later came The Tempest, King Lear, a funeral march for the final scene in Hamlet, the love scene for Les Troyens (which, some claim, Berlioz took from The Merchant of Venice), and Béatrice and Benedict.

Faust
Berlioz discovered Goethe's Faust through Gérard de Nerval's translation, published in December 1827. Its impact on Berlioz was, again, profound and immediate, with the Faustian concept of man striking several chords with the composer. He described Shakespeare and Goethe in an 1828 letter as "the silent confidants of my suffering; they hold the key to my life." In any event, Shakespearian tragedy and Faustian mystique became of one type in his mind.

The Romantics
Simultaneous with Berlioz's discovery of Shakespeare was his immersion in the texts of true Romanticism. These included the works of Thomas Moore, Sir

Walter Scott and Lord Byron. All three inspired Berlioz to compose works based on theirs. He also immersed himself in Chateaubriand, E. T. A. Hoffmann , Gustave Flaubert and Théophile Gautier to his list of favorites; he also used Gautier's poems as texts for his song cycle Les nuits d'été. Perhaps as a result of this reading and seeing himself as an archetypical tragic hero, Berlioz began to weave personal references into his music. It may in fact have been his love for Shakespeare, shared with the other young artist-heroes of 19th-century France, that drew Berlioz firmly into the brotherhood of Romanticism.

James Fenimore Cooper and his compatriots Victor Hugo, Alfred de Vigny, Alfred de Musset and Gérard de Nerval. He later added Honoré de Balzac,

Music
Beethoven
Berlioz writes in his Memoirs,

In an artist's life one thunderclap sometimes follows swiftly on another ... I had just had the successive revelations of Shakespeare and Weber. Now at another point on the horizon I saw the giant form of Beethoven rear up. The shock was almost as great as that of Shakespeare had been. Beethoven opened before me a new world of music, as Shakespeare had revealed a new universe of poetry.
He was able to hear Beethoven's works through the performances of the Société des Concerts du Conservatoire, an orchestra founded by François Antoine Habeneck and his colleagues to promote modern orchestral music. The inaugural concert, on 9 March 1828, featured the French premiere of the Eroica Symphony. Despite protests from French and Italian composers, by the end of the first season Habeneck and the orchestra had also performed the Fifth Symphony, the Third Piano Concerto, the Violin Concerto as well as other works. For Berlioz the experience of hearing the Eroica brought the last and greatest revelation of the power of instrumental music as an expressive language, along with the freedom of action with which it could be expressive. He understood at once that the symphony was a dramatic form to an extent that he had not previously realized, and that in Beethoven he saw a way to the dramatic manner in which he desired to compose. Most tellingly, hearing the Eroica inspired Berlioz to widen his horizons for the first time past opera and other vocal works and consider the expressive power of purely instrumental music. Prior to this, he had defaulted to the dominant view of the Parisian music establishment, as typified by Le Sueur: that the symphony was a lesser form of composition that Mozart and Haydn had already taken as far as possible. Berlioz would go on to find instrumental music to be far more penetrating in expression and articulation than vocal setting. "Now that I have heard that terrifying giant Beethoven", he wrote, "I know exactly where my musical art stands; the question is to take it from there and push it further."

Other composers
Next to those of Beethoven, Berlioz showed deep reverence for the works of Gluck, Mozart, Méhul, Weber and Spontini, as well as respect for some of those of Rossini, Meyerbeer and Verdi. Curiously perhaps, the adventures in chromaticism of his prominent contemporaries and associates Chopin and Wagner seemed to have had little effect on Berlioz's style.

First page of original Symphonie fantastique (1830) manuscript

Works
See also: List of compositions and literary works by Hector Berlioz

Musical works
The five movement Symphonie fantastique, partly due to its fame, is considered by most to be Berlioz's most outstanding work, and the work had a considerable impact when first performed in 1830, 3 years after the death of Beethoven and 2 years after that of Schubert. It is famous for its innovations in the form of the programmatic symphony. The story behind this work relates to Berlioz himself and can be considered somewhat autobiographical. In addition to the Symphonie fantastique, some other orchestral works of Berlioz currently in the standard orchestral repertoire include his "légende dramatique" La damnation de Faust and "symphonie dramatique" Roméo et Juliette (both large-scale works for mixed voices and orchestra), and his

concertante symphony (for viola and orchestra) Harold en Italie, several concert overtures also remain enduringly popular, such as Le Corsaire and Le appeal, as have the quasi-liturgical Te Deum and Grande messe des morts. The unconventional music of Berlioz irritated the established concert and opera scene. Berlioz often had to arrange for his own performances as well as pay

Carnaval romain. Amongst his more vocally oriented works, the song cycle Les nuits d'été and the oratorio L'enfance du Christ have retained enduring

for them himself. This took a heavy toll on him financially and emotionally. The nature of his large works – sometimes involving hundreds of performers –

made financial success difficult. His journalistic abilities became essential for him to make a living and he survived as a witty critic, emphasizing the importance

of drama and expressiveness in musical entertainment. It was perhaps this expense which prevented Berlioz from composing more opera than he did. His

talent in the genre is obvious, but opera is the most expensive of all classical forms, and Berlioz in particular struggled to arrange stagings of his operas, due

in part to the unwillingness of conservative Paris opera companies to perform his work.

Literary works

While Berlioz is best known as a composer, he was also a prolific writer, and supported himself for many years by writing musical criticism, utilising a bold,

vigorous style, at times imperious and sarcastic. He wrote for many journals, including the Rénovateur,Journal des débats and Gazette musicale. He was

active in the Débats for over thirty years until submitting his last signed article in 1863. Almost from the founding, Berlioz was a key member of the editorial

board of the Gazette as well as a contributor, and acted as editor on several occasions while the owner was otherwise engaged. Berlioz took full advantage of

his times as editor, allowing himself to increase his articles written on music history rather than current events, evidenced by him publishing seven articles on

Gluck in the Gazette between June 1834 and January 1835. An example of the amount of work he produced is indicated in his producing over one-hundred

articles for the Gazette between 1833 and 1837. This is a conservative estimate, as not all of his submissions were signed. In 1835 alone, due to one of his

many times of financial difficulty, he wrote four articles for the Monde dramatique, twelve for the Gazette, nineteen for the Débats and thirty-seven for the

Rénovateur. These were not mere scribbles, but in-depth articles and reviews with little duplication, which took considerable time to write.

Berlioz in 1863

Another noteworthy indicator of the importance Berlioz placed on journalistic integrity and even-handedness were the journals which he both did and did not write for. During the middle of the 1830s the Gazette was considered an intellectual journal, strongly supporting the progressive arts and Romanticism in general, and opposing anything which it considers as debasing this. Exemplified in its long-standing criticism of Henri Herz, and his seemingly endless stream of variations on opera themes, but to its credit, it also positively reviewed his music on occasion. Its writers included Alexandre Dumas, Honoré de Balzac and George Sand. The Gazette wasn't even unanimous in its praise of Berlioz's music, although it always recognised him as an important and serious composer to be respected. An example of another journal of the same time is the Revue musicale, which thrived on personal attacks, many against Berlioz himself from the pen of critic François-Joseph Fétis. At one point, Robert Schumann was motivated to publish a detailed rebuttal of one of Fétis' attacks on Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique in his own Neue Zeitschrift für Musik journal. Fétis would later contribute to the debasement of the reputation of the Gazette when his journal failed and was absorbed by the Gazette, he found himself on the editorial board. The books which Berlioz has become acclaimed for were compiled from his journal articles.Les soirées de l’orchestre (Evenings with the Orchestra) (1852), a

scathing satire of provincial musical life in 19th century France, and the Treatise on Instrumentation, a pedagogic work, were both serialised originally in the

Gazette musicale. Many parts of the Mémoires (1870) were originally published in the Journal des débats, as well as Le monde illustré. The Mémoires paint a

magisterial (if biased) portrait of the Romantic era through the eyes of one of its chief protagonists. Evenings with the Orchestra is more overtly fictional than

his other two major books, but its basis in reality is its strength, making the stories it recounts all the funnier due to the ring of truth. W. H. Auden praises it,

saying "To succeed in [writing these tales], as Berlioz most brilliantly does, requires a combination of qualities which is very rare, the many-faceted curiosity of

the dramatist with the aggressively personal vision of the lyric poet." The Treatise established his reputation as a master of orchestration. The work was

closely studied by Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss and served as the foundation for a subsequent textbook by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, who, as a music

student, attended the concerts Berlioz conducted in Moscow and Saint Petersburg.

External links
Works by Hector Berlioz at Project Gutenberg The Hector Berlioz Website Comprehensive Berlioz reference site, including scores, analysis and libretti Works by Hector Berlioz full scores and set of parts Association Nationale Hector Berlioz The French National Berlioz Society The U.K. Berlioz Society Website Festival Berlioz Held in his birthplace it commemorates him and his work Free scores by Berlioz at the International Music Score Library Project Grande ouverture de Benvenuto Cellini / par Hector Berlioz; for piano four hands Le carnaval romain, for piano four hands Free scores by Hector Berlioz in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki) Memorial Page at FindaGrave Berlioz cylinder recordings the Cylinder Preservation and Digitization Project at the University of California, Santa Barbara library

Works
The Lied and Art Song Texts Page List of the musical settings for most of Berlioz's major works, with translations into various languages, as maintained by Emily Ezust The Complete Berlioz List of works by Berlioz @ UC Davis The Berlioz Song Site Scores and texts of Berlioz songs for voice and piano

Writings
The Orchestral Conductor by Hector Berlioz A treatise upon modern instrumentation and orchestration by Hector Berlioz

Music

List of compositions and literary works by Hector Berlioz
This is a list of works by the French composer Hector Berlioz. It includes his literary works as well as his music. The musical compositions are arranged by both opus number and genre. (Note: many of Berlioz's works resist easy categorisation and assigning them to a genre is often impossible. The genres given below should be regarded as merely a guideline).

Musical compositions arranged by genre
NB: Date of composition is given first, followed by date of first performance.

Orchestral works
Symphonies
Symphonie fantastique (1830) Harold en Italie (1834) Roméo et Juliette (1839) Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale (1840)

Overtures Main article: Overtures by Hector Berlioz
Waverley Le roi Lear Rob Roy Le carnaval romain Le corsaire

Other orchestral
Romance: Rêverie et caprice, for violin and orchestra

Choral and vocal works
Operas
Les francs-juges (1826; unperformed - survives in fragments) Benvenuto Cellini (1836-8; 1838) La nonne sanglante (1841-7, unfinished) Les Troyens (1856-8; final three acts performed 1863) Béatrice et Bénédict (1860–1862; 1862)

Liturgical music
Messe solenelle (1824) Grande messe des morts (Requiem) (1837) Te Deum (1849)

Oratorio
L'enfance du Christ (1854)

Concert drama
La damnation de Faust (1846)

Prix de Rome cantatas Main article: Prix de Rome cantatas (Berlioz)
La mort d’Orphée (1827)

Herminie (1828) Cléopâtre (1829) Sardanapale (1830)

Other choral works
La révolution grecque: scéne héroïque (1825; 1828) Huits scènes de Faust (1828-9; one number performed 1829) Le ballet des ombres (1829; withdrawn) Lélio, ou le retour à la vie (1831; 1832) Sara la baigneuse (1834; 1834) Le cinq mai (1831-5; 1835) Hymne à la France (1844; 1844) Chant des chemins de fer (1846; 1846) Tristia (written between 1831 and 1844: published 1852)

Songs
La dépit de la bergère Le maure jaloux Amitié reprends ton empire Pleure, pauvre Colette Canon libre à quinte Le montagnard exilé Toi qui l'aimas, verse des pleurs Nocturne Le pêcheur Le roi de Thulé Le coucher du soleil Hélène La belle voyageuse L'origine de la harpe Adieu Bessy Elégie en prose La captive Le jeune pâtre breton Les champs Sara la baigneuse Je crois en vous Le chant des Bretons Chansonette Les nuits d'été: 1. Villanelle 2. Le spectre de la rose 3. Sur les lagunes 4. L'absence 5. Au cimitière 6. L'île inconnue La mort d'Ophélie La belle Isabeau

Le chasseur danois Zaïde Le trébuchet Nessun maggior piacere Le matin Petit oiseau

Arrangements
Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle: La Marseillaise Carl Maria von Weber: Invitation to the Dance (for a ballet for an 1841 production of Weber's Der Freischütz; Berlioz titled the ballet L'Invitation à la valse.)

Works by opus number

Dates given are those of publication. [Opus 1]: Huit scènes de Faust (1828/29) (withdrawn) Opus 1: Waverley (overture) (1828) Opus 2: Le ballet des ombres (1830) Opus 2b: Irlande: mélodies irlandaises (9 songs) (1829) Opus 3: Les francs-juges (overture) (1836) Opus 4: Le roi Lear (1839) Opus 5: Grande messe des morts (Requiem) (1838) Opus 6: Le cinq mai (1840) Opus 7: Les nuits d'été (1841) Opus 8: Rêverie et Caprice (1841) Opus 9: Le carnaval romain (1844) Opus 10: Grand traité d'instrumentation et d'orchestration moderne (1843) (book) Opus 11: Sara la baigneuse (1850) Opus 12: La captive (1833/revised version: 1849) Opus 13: Fleurs des landes (1850) Opus 14: Symphonie fantastique, épisodes d'une vie d'artiste (full score: 1845) Opus 14b: Lelio ou Le retour à la vie (1855) Opus 15: Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale (1843) Opus 16: Harold en Italie (1848) Opus 17: Roméo et Juliette (1847) Opus 18: Tristia (1849)
1: Méditation religieuse 2: La mort d'Ophélie 3: Marche funèb re pour la dernière scène d'Hamlet

Opus 19: Feuillets d'album (1850)
1: Zaide 2: Les champs 3: Chant des chemins de fer 4: Prière du matin 5: La b elle Isab au 6: Le chasseur danois

Opus 20: Vox populi (1849)
1: La menace des Francs 2: Hymne à la France

Opus 21: Le corsaire (1852)

Opus 22: Te Deum (1855) Opus 23: Benvenuto Cellini (1838/full score: 1886) Opus 24: La damnation de Faust (1854) Opus 25:
La fuite en Egypte (1852) L'enfance du Christ (1855)

Opus 26: L'Impériale (1856) Opus 27: Béatrice et Bénédict (1863/full score: 1907) Opus 28: Le temple universel (1861) Opus 29: Les Troyens (1863/full score: 1969)
29a La prise de Troie , 29b Les Troyens à Carthage

Literary works
Grand traité d'instrumentation et d'orchestration moderne (Treatise on Instrumentation) Études sur Beethoven, Gluck et Weber Mémoires (Memoirs) Correspondance générale Les soirées de l'orchestre (Evenings with the Orchestra) Le voyage musical en Allemagne et en Italie ; À travers champs Les grotesques de la musique Hugh Macdonald: Berlioz ("The Master Musicians", J.M.Dent, 1982)

Operas

Béatrice et Bénédict
Hector Berlioz

Béatrice et Bénédict (Beatrice and Benedick) is an opera in two acts by Hector Berlioz. Berlioz wrote the French libretto himself, based closely on Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing . Berlioz composed the score of Béatrice et Bénédict following the completion of Les Troyens in 1858. It was first performed at the Theater der Stadt, Baden-

Baden on 9 August 1862. Berlioz conducted the first two performances of a German version in Weimar, where, as he wrote in his memoirs, he was

"overwhelmed by all sorts of kind attention."

Performance history

The first performances of the opera in France took place at the Opéra-Comique in 1890. It was again produced at that theatre in 2010. Although rather

infrequently performed and not part of the standard operatic repertoire, other recent productions have included Amsterdam and Welsh National Opera tour in

2001, Santa Fe Opera in 2004, Strasbourg in 2005, Lyric Opera of Chicago in 2007, Houston Grand Opera in 2008, and Opera Boston in 2011.

Roles
Role Voice type Premiere cast, 9 August 1862 (Conductor: Hector Berlioz) Héro Béatrice Bénédict soprano Monrose

mezzo-soprano Anne-Arsène Charton-Demeur tenor Achille-Félix Montaubry Mathieu-Émile Balanqué Bernard Lefort Victor Prilleux Coralie Geoffroy Guerrin

Don Pedro bass Claudio baritone

Somarone bass Ursule Léonato contralto spoken

People of Sicily, Lords, Ladies, Musicians, Maids - Chorus

Synopsis
Time: The 16th century. Place: Messina, Sicily.

Act 1
friends and fellow soldiers, Claudio and Bénédict. They are greeted by Léonato, governor of Messina, together with his daughter, Héro, and niece, Béatrice. Héro awaits the return of her fiancé, Claudio. Béatrice inquires about and scorns Bénédict. They trade insults and tease each other. Bénédict swears to his friends that he will never marry. Later, Claudio and Pedro scheme to trick Bénédict into marrying Béatrice. Knowing that he is listening, Léonato assures Pedro that Béatrice loves Bénédict. Upon hearing this, Bénédict resolves that Béatrice's love must not go unrequited, and so he decides to pursue her. Meanwhile, elsewhere, Héro and her attendant, Ursula, manage to play a similar trick on Béatrice who now believes that Bénédict is secretly in love with her.

Don Pedro, prince of Aragon, is visiting Messina after a successful military victory over the Moors, which is celebrated by all of Sicily. He is joined by two

Act 2
To celebrate the pending wedding of Claudio and Héro, Léonato hosts a masquerade party. A local music teacher, Somarone, leads the group in song and everybody enjoys themselves except Béatrice who realizes that she has fallen in love with Bénédict. As she turns to leave she is met by Bénédict, prompting an exchange in which they both attempt to conceal their love for each other. A notary solemnizes the marriage and, as arranged by Léonato, asks a second

couple to come forward. Bénédict summons the courage to declare his love to Béatrice and the two sign the wedding contract along with Héro and Claudio.

Recordings
There are several recordings of the opera, and the overture, which refers to several passages in the opera without becoming a pot-pourri, is frequently heard in concerts and has been recorded many times. Josephine Veasey (Béatrice), John Mitchinson (Bénédict), April Cantelo (Héro), Helen Watts (Ursule), John Cameron (Claudio), John Shirley-Quirk (Don Pédro), Eric Shilling (Somarone), London Symphony Orchestra conducted by Colin Davis. L'Oiseau-lyre SOL 256-7 (1962).

Janet Baker (Béatrice), Robert Tear (Bénédict), Christiane Eda-Pierre (Héro), Helen Watts (Ursule), Thomas Allen (Claudio), Robert Lloyd (Don Pédro), Jules Bastin (Somarone), London Symphony Orchestra conducted by Colin Davis. Philips 6700 121 (1977) Yvonne Minton (Béatrice), Plácido Domingo (Bénédict), Ileana Cotrubaş (Héro), Nadine Denize (Ursule), Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (Claudio), Roger Soyer (Don Pédro), John Macurdy (Somarone), Orchestre de Paris conducted by Daniel Barenboim. Deutsche Grammophon 2707 130 (1981). Susan Graham (Béatrice), Jean-Luc Viala (Bénédict), Sylvia McNair (Héro), Catherine Robbin (Ursule), Gilles Cachemaille (Claudio), Vincent le Texier (Don Pédro), Gabriel Bacquier (Somarone), Lyon Opera Orchestra and Chorus, John Nelson (conductor). Erato 2292-45773 (1991). Enkelejda Shkosa (Béatrice), Kenneth Tarver (Bénédict), Susan Gritton (Héro), Sara Mingardo (Ursule), Laurent Naouri (Claudio), David WilsonJohnson (Somarone), London Symphony Orchestra conducted by Colin Davis. London Symphony Orchestra Live (2000) Notes

External links
HBerlioz.com | Béatrice et Bénédict libretto

Benvenuto Cellini (opera)
Hector Berlioz

Benvenuto Cellini is an opera in two acts with music by Hector Berlioz and libretto by Léon de Wailly and Henri Auguste Barbier. It was the first of Berlioz's performed, and is not part of the standard operatic repertoire. However, the overture to the opera features in symphony orchestra programs, as well as the concert overture Le carnaval romain that Berlioz composed from material in the opera. Ora Frishberg Saloman has discussed in detail the opera's characterisation of the historical figure of Cellini.

operas. The story is loosely based on the memoirs of the Florentine sculptor Benvenuto Cellini. The opera is technically very challenging and rarely

Composition history

Poster advertising the first performance

In 1834, Berlioz, de Wailly and Barbier devised a libretto in the opéra comique style, with spoken dialogue. However, the Paris Opéra-Comique company rejected it. The story was then reworked into more "conventional" opera format, without spoken dialogue. With actual composition starting in 1836, the opera was first performed at the Paris Opera on September 10, 1838, conducted by François Antoine Habeneck, and with Gilbert Duprez in the title-role. At its premiere, the audience, disturbed by the radical new opera, rioted, and the musicians branded the work as impossible to play. In 1851, Franz Liszt offered to revive the opera in a new production (and version) in Weimar, and suggested changes to the score to Berlioz. This version was performed in Weimar in 1852, and also in London in 1853. However, the London reception was poor. The final performances of the opera in Berlioz's lifetime were in Weimar in 1856. In 1856, the vocal score of the Weimar edition was published in Germany. A French publication of the Weimar version vocal score appeared in 1863 from Choudens. Thomasin La May has examined the Weimar edition of the opera. In 1996, a critical edition of the opera, edited by Hugh Macdonald, was published by Bärenreiter Verlag, as part of the New Berlioz Edition. The critical edition takes into account all of the available editions: the original version as Berlioz composed it, before changes demanded by the censors the version premiered in Paris, with the changes after evaluation by the censors the Weimar edition, after the changes suggested by Liszt.

Performance history
Occasional performances took place after Berlioz's death: in Hanover in 1879, Vienna in 1911, and as part of the inaugural season at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées for six performances from 31 March 1913 conducted by Weingartner. Following Les Troyens in 1935, the Glasgow Grand Opera Society mounted the opera alongside a production of Béatrice et Bénédict in 1936, conducted by Erik Chisholm. The Carl Rosa Opera Company, a British touring company, brought it into its repertoire in 1956, giving two performances to packed houses at London's Sadler's Wells Theatre in 1957. The title role was sung by tenor Charles Craig, then at the start of a notable international career. The Royal Opera House in London staged the work on December 15, 1966, followed by its Italian premiere in Naples in 1967.

The first United States production was by the Opera Company of Boston in 1975, under the direction of Sarah Caldwell and with Jon Vickers in the title role. The first performance of the work at the Metropolitan Opera took place on December 4, 2003, with James Levine conducting and stage direction from Andrei Şerban, and Marcello Giordani singing the role of Cellini. Another notable interpreter of the title role is John Duykers. In 2007 Benvenuto Cellini was staged at Salzburg Festival, Valery Gergiev conducting.

Roles
Role Teresa, Daughter of Balducci, in love with Cellini, b ut promised to Fieramosca Ascanio, A b reeches role, Cellini’s trusted apprentice Benvenuto Cellini, An artist/goldsmith Fieramosca, The Pope’s sculptor Pope Clement VII Balducci, The Pope's treasurer and Teresa’s father Francesco, An artisan Bernardino, An artisan An innkeeper Pompeo, friend of Fieramosca Columbine Voice type soprano mezzo-soprano tenor baritone bass baritone tenor bass tenor baritone spoken Premiere Cast, September 10, 1838 (Conductor: François Antoine Habeneck) Julie Dorus-Gras Rosine Stoltz Gilbert Louis Duprez Jean-Étienne-Auguste Massol Jacques-Émile Serda Prosper Dérivis Pierre François Wartel Ferdinand Prévôt H.-M. Trévaux Molinier

Chorus: maskers, neighb ours, metal-workers, friends and apprentices of Cellini, troupers, dancers, people, guards, white friars, the Pope's retinue, foundrymen, workmen, spectators

Costumes

The costumes for the original production in 1838 were designed by Paul Lormier (1813–1895).

The Pope (Serda) Cellini (Duprez) Teresa (Dorus-Gras) Balducci (Dérivis)

Ascanio (Stoltz)

Fieramosca (Massol)

Bernardino (Prévôt)

Francesco (Wartel)

Synopsis
Time: 1532 Place: Rome, during Carnival, over Shrove Monday, Mardi Gras, and Ash Wednesday.

Act 1
Tableau 1 (Balducci's residence) Balducci has been summoned to a meeting with Pope Clement VII concerning the Pope's commission of a bronze statue of Perseus from the sculptor Benvenuto Cellini. Balducci would have preferred Fieramosca as the chosen sculptor, and also because he hopes to marry his daughter Teresa to Fieramosca. But Teresa is smitten with Cellini. Before Balducci goes to his meeting with the Pope, Cellini and other Carnival celebrators come on the scene, and pelt Balducci with fausses dragées (flour pellets) that make Balducci look "like a leopard". He can't clean himself off, however, so he continues to his meeting.

A bouquet of flowers comes through the window and lands at Teresa's feet. Attached is a note from Cellini saying that he is coming up. He does so, and explains his plan to take her away from her father so that they can live together. He and his assistant Ascanio will be disguised as monks, and will take her from her father during the Mardi Gras celebrations, when the Castel Sant'Angelo cannon is sounded to mark the end of Carnival. Unbeknownst to them both, Fieramosca has also entered the room, and tries to eavesdrop on them. He does not hear all the information on the first rendition, but he does on the second. Upon hearing Balducci approach, Fieramosca hides in Teresa's bedroom, and Cellini hides behind the main room door. To distract her father, Teresa invents a story about a noise in her bedroom. Balducci goes into her bedroom, and Cellini escapes in the meantime. To Teresa's surprise, Balducci produces Fieramosca from the bedroom. He and Teresa call on the servants and neighbors to take Fieramosca and dump him outside in the fountain, but Fieramosca breaks free of the crowd. Tableau 2 (Piazza Colonna) Cellini, his apprentices and friends sing the praises of being goldsmiths. Bernardino asks for more wine, but the innkeeper demands settlement of their tab. Ascanio then appears with the Pope's advance payment for the Perseus statue, but also with a warning that the casting of the statue must occur the next day. The amount of money in the advance is less than expected, which gives new impetus to the plan to mock Balducci at Cassandro's booth that night. Fieramosca has also overheard this plan, and confides to his friend Pompeo. Pompeo suggests that they too disguise themselves as monks and abduct Teresa themselves. People gather in the piazza. A crowd assembles at Cassandro's booth, where "the pantomime-opera of King Midas or The Ass's Ears" is unfurled. Balducci and Teresa enter, soon after Cellini and Ascanio dressed as monks, and then Fieramosca and Pompeo similarly disguised. In the pantomime, Harlequin and Pierrot compete for the attention of King Midas, who is attired to look like Balducci. At this, the real Balducci approaches the stage, leaving Teresa alone. Both sets of "friars" then approach Teresa, to her confusion. The four friars begin to battle by sword, and in the struggle, Cellini fatally stabs Pompeo. The crowd becomes silent, and Cellini is arrested for murder. As he is about to be taken away, the three cannon shots from Castel Sant'Angelo are heard, indicating the end of Carnival and the start of Lent. All of the lights in the piazza are extinguished. During the darkness and resulting confusion, Cellini escapes his captors and Ascanio and Teresa go off. Fieramosca is then mistakenly arrested in Cellini's place.

Act 2
Tableau 1 (Ash Wednesday, Cellini's studio) Ascanio and Teresa wait for Cellini in his studio. When a procession of friars passes by, they join in the prayer. Cellini then enters, still in monk's disguise, and recounts his escape. Because he is now wanted for murder, he plans to escape Florence with Teresa, but Ascanio reminds him of his obligation to cast the statue. Ascanio goes off to find a horse. Balducci and Fieramosca then appear. Balducci denounces Cellini as a murderer and then promises Teresa to Fieramosca in marriage. The Pope then appears to check on the progress of the statue. Cellini makes excuses, but the Pope dismisses them and decides that he will give the commission to another sculptor. Cellini then threatens to destroy the mould, and when the Pope's guards approach him, he raises his hammer. The Pope then makes Cellini an offer: if Cellini can cast the statue that evening, he will forgive Cellini's crimes and let him marry Teresa. But if Cellini fails, he will be hanged.

Bronze sculpture b y Benvenuto Cellini

Tableau 2 (Ash Wednesday, evening, Cellini's foundry) After an aria from Ascanio, Cellini comes on stage and muses on the quiet life of a shepherd. The workmen are at their labours and sing a sea-shanty, which Cellini sees as a bad omen. Ascanio and Cellini encourage the goldsmiths to continue their work. Fieramosca then arrives with two henchmen and challenges

Cellini to a duel. Cellini accepts and asks to settle it on the spot, but Fieramosca prefers it to be done away from his workplace. Fieramosca and his men leave. Teresa arrives and sees Ascanio hand Cellini his rapier, but Cellini assures her that he will be safe. Alone, she hears the workmen start to lay down their tools and stop work, as they have not been paid and lack direction from Cellini. She tries to assure them that they will be paid eventually, but to no avail. Fieramosca then appears, and Teresa faints, thinking that Cellini is dead. This is not so, as Fieramosca is about to offer a bribe to the goldsmiths to cease work completely. This turns the goldsmiths against Fieramosca and they reassert their loyalty to Cellini. Cellini then reappears, and he and the workmen force Fieramosca to don workclothes to help out. In the evening, the Pope and Balducci arrive to see if the statue is completed. Fieramosca then announces that they are out of metal, which Francesco and works in his studio, of whatever metal, be put into the crucible and melted, to the consternation of Francesco and Bernardino. After this is done, an explosion blows the lid off the crucible. Then molten metal emerges to fill the mould, and the casting is successful. Balducci and Fieramosca acknowledge Cellini's success. The Pope pardons Cellini, and Cellini and Teresa are united. The opera closes with praise for the goldsmiths.

Bernardino confirm. Balducci and Fieramosca are pleased at Cellini's impending failure. Cellini then prays, and in a moment of desperation, orders that all art

Recordings
Philips 416-955-2: Nicolai Gedda (Benvenuto Cellini), Christiane Eda-Pierre (Teresa), Jane Berbié (Ascanio), Jules Bastin (Balducci), Robert Massard (Fieramosca), Roger Soyer (Pope Clement VII), Derek Blackwell (Francesco), Robert Lloyd (Bernardino), Raimund Herincx (Pompeo), Hugues Cuénod (Le cabaretier), Janine Reiss (Colombine; speaking role); Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden; BBC Symphony Orchestra; Colin Davis, conductor

Virgin Classics 7243 5 45706 2 9 (using the New Berlioz Edition): Gregory Kunde (Benvenuto Cellini), Patrizia Ciofi (Teresa), Joyce DiDonato (Ascanio), Laurent Naouri (Balducci), Jean-François Lapointe (Fieramosca), Renaud Delaigue (Pope Clement VII), Eric Salha(Francesco), Marc Mauillon (Bernardino), Roman Nédélec (Pompeo), Eric Huchet (Le cabaretier); Chorus of Radio France; Orchestre National de France; John Nelson, conductor Hänssler Classic 093.105.000 (Weimar Edition): Bruce Ford (Benvenuto Cellini), Laura Claycomb (Teresa), Monica Groop (Ascanio), Franz Hawlata (Balducci), Christopher Maltman (Fieramosca); MDR Radio Choir (Leipzig); Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra; Roger Norrington, conductor LSO Live LSO0623: Gregory Kunde (Benvenuto Cellini), Laura Claycomb (Teresa), Isabele Cais (Ascanio), Darren Jeffery (Balducci), Peter ColemanWright (Fieramosca), John Relyea (Pope Clement VII), Andrew Kennedy (Francesco), Andrew Foster-Williams (Bernardino), Jacques Imbrailo (Pompeo), Alasdair Elliott (Le cabaretier); London Symphony Chorus; London Symphony Orchestra; Sir Colin Davis, conductor Allegro Opera d'Oro OPD-1373 (Weimar Edition): Franco Bonisolli (Benvenuto Cellini), Teresa Zylis-Gara (Teresa), Wolfgang Brendel (Fieramosca), Elizabeth Steiner (Ascanio), Gino Sinimberghi (Francesco), Pierre Thau (Balducci), James Loomis (Bernardino), Robert Amis El Hage (Cardinal), Tommaso Frascati (Pompeo); RAI Orchestra and Chorus; Seiji Ozawa, conductor Notes Sources Berlioz, Hector; Cairns, David, editor and translator (1969). The memoirs of Hector Berlioz (2002 edition). New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-37541391-9. Budden, Julian (1973). The Operas of Verdi, Volume 1: From Oberto to Rigoletto . New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-304-93756-1. Holoman, D. Kern (1989). Berlioz. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-06778-3. Holoman, D. Kern (2004). The Société des Concerts du Conservatoire 1828–1967. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-23664-6. Jowers, Sidney Jackson; Cavanagh, John (2000). Theatrical Costume, Masks, Make-up and Wigs: A Bibliography and Iconography . London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-24774-0. Jullien, Adolphe (1888). Hector Berlioz: Sa Vie et ses oeuvres (in French). Paris: Librairie de l'Art. View at Google Books. Sadie, Stanley, editor; John Tyrell; executive editor (2001). The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd edition. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-56159-239-5 (hardcover). OCLC 419285866 (eBook).

External links
Information on Benvenuto Cellini from the Metropolitan Opera Benvenuto Cellini: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project Benvenuto Cellini at Salzburger Festspiele 2007, pamphlet containing production notes, libretto, pictures French libretti of works by Berlioz, including two version of Cellini

Les Troyens
Hector Berlioz

Les Troyens (in English: The Trojans) is a French grand opera in five acts by Hector Berlioz. The libretto was written by Berlioz himself from Virgil's epic poem The Aeneid; the score was composed between 1856 and 1858. Les Troyens is Berlioz's most ambitious work, the summation of his entire artistic career, but he did not live to see it performed in its entirety. Under the title Les Troyens à Carthage, the last three acts were premièred with many cuts by Léon Carvalho's company, the Théâtre Lyrique, at their theatre (now the Théâtre de la Ville) on the Place du Châtelet in Paris on 4 November 1863, with 21 repeat performances.

Composition history

Cover of the score of La prise de Troie , the first two acts of Les Troyens

Berlioz began the libretto on 5 May 1856 and completed it toward the end of June 1856. He finished the full score on 12 April 1858. Berlioz had a keen affection for literature, and he had admired Virgil since his childhood. The Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein was a prime motivator to Berlioz to compose this opera. In his memoirs, he gives a detailed account of how he embarked upon an opera based on The Aeneid: I happened to be in Weimar with the Princess Wittgenstein, a devoted friend of Liszt's, a woman of rare intelligence and feeling, who has often comforted me in my fits of depression. Something led to me to speak of my admiration of Virgil and of an idea I had formed of a grand opera on the Shakespearean model, to be founded on the second and fourth books of The Aeneid. I added that I was too well acquainted with the necessary difficulties of such an undertaking ever to attempt it. "Indeed", replied the Princess, "your passion for Shakespeare, combined with your love of the antique, ought to produce something grand and uncommon. You must write this opera, or lyric poem, or whatsoever you choose to call it. You must begin it, and you must finish it." I continued my objections, but she would hear none of them. "Listen", said she. "If you are shirking the inevitable difficulties of the piece, if you are so weak as to be afraid to brave everything for Dido and Cassandra, never come to see me again, for I will not receive you." This was quite enough to decide me. On my return to Paris, I began the poem of Les Troyens. I attacked the score, and after three years and a half of corrections, changes, additions, etc., I finished it. On 3 May 1861, Berlioz wrote in a letter: "I am sure that I have written a great work, greater and nobler than anything done hitherto." Elsewhere he wrote: "The principal merit of the work is, in my view, the truthfulness of the expression." For Berlioz, truthful representation of passion was the highest goal of a dramatic composer, and in this respect he felt he had equalled the achievements of Gluck and Mozart.

Poster for the 1863 premiere

In his memoirs, Berlioz described in excruciating detail the intense frustrations he experienced in seeing the work performed. For five years (from 1858 to 1863), the Paris Opéra -- the only suitable stage in Paris—vacillated. Finally, tired of waiting, he agreed to let a smaller theater, the Théâtre Lyrique, mount a production. However, the management, alarmed at the size, insisted he cut the work in two. It mounted only the second half, given the name Les Troyens à Carthage. Berlioz noted bitterly: "it was manifestly impossible for them to do it justice... the theater wasn't large enough, the singers insufficiently skilled, the chorus and orchestra inadequate." Many compromises and cuts were made and the resulting production "an imperfect" one. In view of all the defects, Berlioz lamented "to properly organize the performance of so great a work, I should have to be master of the theater as absolutely as I am master of the orchestra when rehearsing a symphony." Even in its less than ideal form, the work made a profound impression. For example, Meyerbeer attended 12 performances. Berlioz's son Louis attended each performance. A friend tried to console Berlioz for having endured so much in the mutilation of his magnum opus and pointed out that after the first night audiences were increasing. "See", he said encouragingly to Berlioz, "they are coming." "Yes", replied Berlioz, feeling old and worn out, "they are coming, but I am going." Berlioz never saw the first two acts, later given the name La prise de Troie ['The Capture of Troy'], performed. The first five-act performance of the "complete" Les Troyens, spread over two nights, only took place at Karlsruhe in 1890, 21 years after Berlioz's death. In subsequent years, wrote British Berlioz biographer David Cairns, the work was thought of as "a great sprawling white elephant, product of declining creative vitality, beautiful in patches but fatally uneven and quite unstageable——apart from anything else, because of its length."

Publication of the score
Berlioz himself arranged for the entire score to be published by the Parisian music editors, Choudens et Cie. In this published score, he introduced a number of optional cuts which have often been adopted in subsequent productions. Berlioz complained bitterly of the cuts that he was more-or-less forced to allow at the 1863 Théâtre Lyrique première production, and his letters and mémoires are filled with the indignation that it caused him to "mutilate" his score. In 1969, Bärenreiter Verlag of Kassel, Germany, published a Critical Edition of Les Troyens, containing all the compositional material left by Berlioz. The preparation of this critical edition was the work of Hugh Macdonald, whose Cambridge University doctoral dissertation this was. The tendency since then has been to perform the opera complete. The published score is now part of the New Berlioz Complete Edition of Bärenreiter. This edition has formed the musical basis for subsequent productions of the opera.

Performance history
While the Grand Opéra in Paris performed both "halves" of the unwillingly severed work at various times between 1899 and 1919, the company did not produce the complete Les Troyens, in one evening as Berlioz had conceived it, until 10 June 1921, with mise-en-scène by Merle-Forest, sets by René Piot

and costumes by Dethomas. Philippe Gaubert conducted. The cast included Marguerite Gonzategui (Didon), Lucy Isnardon (Cassandre), Jeanne Laval

(Anna), Paul Franz (Énée), Édouard Rouard (Chorèbe), and Armand Narçon (Narbal).

Marisa Ferrer, who would later sing the part under Sir Thomas Beecham in London, sang Didon in the 1929 revival, with Germaine Lubin as Cassandre and

again Franz as Énée. Georges Thill sang Énée in 1930.

In 1935, Les Troyens was first performed outside of France by Glasgow Grand Opera Society. This complete version of Berlioz's work was directed by

Scottish composer Erik Chisholm.

Lucienne Anduran was Didon in the 1939 revival, with Ferrer as Cassandre this time, José de Trévi as Énée, and Martial Singher, later a long-time favourite

at the Metropolitan Opera, as Chorèbe. Gaubert conducted all performances before the Second World War.

The Paris Opéra gave a new production of the complete Les Troyens on March 17, 1961, directed by Margherita Wallmann, with sets and costumes by Piero

Zuffi. Pierre Dervaux was the conductor. Régine Crespin sang Didon, with Geneviève Serrès as Cassandre, Jacqueline Broudeur as Anna, Guy Chauvet as

Énée, Robert Massard as Chorèbe and Georges Vaillant as Narbal. Air-checks are extant of performances by this cast from broadcasts made by the French

National Radio. Several of these artists, in particular Crespin and Chauvet, participated in a set of extended highlights commercially recorded by EMI in 1965,

Georges Prêtre conducting.

In the UK, J.A. Westrup recalled concert performances of Les Troyens à Carthage in 1897 and 1928, as well as a complete staging in Glasgow in 1935. The distinction of performing Les Troyens for the first time in London belongs to Sir Thomas Beecham, who led a concert performance of the complete opera broadcast over the BBC in 1947. His cast included Ferrer as both Didon and Cassandre, Jean Giraudoux as Énée, and baritone Charles Cambon as both

Chorèbe (a role he had sung in Paris as part of the alternate 1929 cast) and Narbal. An aircheck of this performance exists and has been issued on CD. However, the 1957 production at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden conducted by Rafael Kubelík and directed by John Gielgud, has been described as "the first full staging in a single evening that even approximated the composer's original intentions". (A curious comment, considering that this production used an English adaptation by Edward J. Dent of Berlioz' French-language libretto.) The musical details and performing editions of Les Troyens used at various productions at the Paris Opéra and by Sir Thomas Beecham and by Rafael Kubelík in London were all the same, the orchestral and choral parts from Choudens et Cie. of Paris, the only edition then available. The score made

available by Bärenreiter from its Critical Edition, first published in 1969, was used by Colin Davis in his 1969 Covent Garden production, recorded by Philips.

The first American stage performance of Les Troyens (an abbreviated version, sung in English) was given by Boris Goldovsky with the New England Opera

Theater on March 27, 1955, in Boston. San Francisco Opera staged a heavily cut version of the opera (reducing it to about 3 hours), billed as the “American

professional stage premiere,” in 1966, with French soprano Régine Crespin as both Cassandra and Dido and Canadian tenor Jon Vickers as Aeneas, and

again in 1968 with Ms. Crespin and Guy Chauvet; Jean Périsson conducted all performances. The first complete American production of Les Troyens was Metropolitan Opera staging of Les Troyens, in the opera's first performances in New York City and the third staging in the United States.Shirley Verrett was both the Cassandre and the Didon at the Metropolitan Opera premiere, with Jon Vickers as Énée. Les Troyens was staged again in 1990 for the opening of the new Bastille Opéra in Paris. It was a partial success, because the new theatre could not be quite ready on opening night, which caused much trouble during rehearsals. The performance had several cuts, authorised, willingly or not, by Berlioz, including some dances in the third act. To mark the bicentenary of Berlioz's birth in 2003, Les Troyens was revived in productions at the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris (conducted by John Eliot Gardiner), Amsterdam (conducted by Edo de Waart), and at the Metropolitan Opera (with the American mezzo-soprano Lorraine Hunt Lieberson as Dido, conducted by James Levine).

given in February 1972 by Sarah Caldwell with her Opera Company of Boston, at the Aquarius Theater. In 1973, Rafael Kubelík conducted the first

Critical evaluation
Only knowing the work from a piano score, the British critic W.J. Turner declared that Les Troyens was "the greatest opera ever written" in his 1934 book on Berlioz, much preferring it to the vastly more popular works of Richard Wagner. American critic B. H. Haggin heard in the work Berlioz' "arrestingly individual musical mind operating in, and commanding attention with, the use of the [Berlioz] idiom with assured mastery and complete adequacy to the text's every demand". David Cairns described the work as "an opera of visionary beauty and splendor, compelling in its epic sweep, fascinating in the variety of its musical invention... it recaptures the tragic spirit and climate of the ancient world." Hugh Macdonald said of it: In the history of French music, Les Troyens stands out as a grand opera that avoided the shallow glamour of Meyerbeer and Halevy, but therefore paid the price of long neglect. In our own time the opera has finally come to be seen as one of the greatest operas of the 19th century. There are several recordings of the work, and it is performed with increasing frequency.

Roles
Role Voice type Premiere Cast, (Acts 3-5 only) 4 November 1863 (Conductors: Adolphe Deloffre and Hector Berlioz) Énée (Aeneas), Trojan hero, son of Venus and Anchises tenor Jules-Sébastien Monjauze – Péront Jules "Giulio" Petit De Quercy Mme Estagel – Premiere Cast, (complete opera) 6–7 December 1890 (Conductor: Felix Mottl) Alfred Oberländer Marcel Cordes Carl Nebe Fritz Plank Hermann Rosenberg Auguste Elise Harlacher-Rupp Luise Reuss-Belce

Chorèbe (Coroebus), a young prince from Asia, b etrothed to Cassandra baritone Panthée (Pantheus), Trojan priest, friend of Aeneas Narbal, minister to Dido Iopas, Tyrian poet to Dido's court Ascagne (Ascanius), Aeneas' young son (15 years) Cassandre (Cassandra), Trojan prophetess, daughter of Priam Didon (Dido), Queen of Carthage, widow of Sychaeus, prince of Tyre Anna, Dido's sister Supporting roles: Hylas, a young Phrygian sailor Priam, King of Troy A Greek chieftain Ghost of Hector, Trojan hero, son of Priam Helenus, Trojan priest, son of Priam Two Trojan soldiers Mercure (Mercury), a God A Priest of Pluto Polyxène (Polyxena), sister of Cassandra Hécube (Hecuba), Queen of Troy Andromaque (Andromache), Hector's widow Astyanax, her son (8 years) bass bass tenor soprano mezzo-soprano

mezzo-soprano Anne-Arsène Charton-Demeur Pauline Mailhac contralto Marie Dubois Christine Friedlein

tenor or contralto Edmond Cabel bass bass bass tenor basses baritone or bass bass soprano soprano silent silent – – – – – Guyot, Teste – –

Wilhelm Guggenbühler

Fritz Plank

Hermann Rosenberg

Annetta Heller Pauline Mailhac

Chorus: Trojans, Greeks, Tyrians and Carthaginians; Nymphs, Satyrs, Fauns, and Sylvans; Invisib le spirits

Synopsis

Detail from The Procession of the Trojan Horse in Troy b y Domenico Tiepolo (1773).

Act 1
At the abandoned Greek camp outside the walls of Troy The Trojans are celebrating apparent deliverance from ten years of siege. They see the large wooden horse left by the Greeks, which they presume to be an offering to Pallas Athene. Unlike all the other Trojans, however, Cassandre is mistrustful of the situation. She foresees that she will not live to marry her fiancé Chorèbe. Chorèbe appears and urges Cassandre to forget her misgivings. But her prophetic vision clarifies, and she foresees the utter destruction of Troy. When Andromache silently walks in, the celebration halts. Énée then rushes on to tell of the devouring of the priest Laocoön by a sea serpent, after he had warned the Trojans to burn the horse. Énée interprets this as a sign of the goddess Athene's anger at the sacrilege. Against Cassandre's futile protests, Priam orders the horse to be brought within the city of Troy and placed next to the temple of Pallas Athene. There is a sound of what seems to be the clashing of arms from within the horse, but the Trojans, in their delusion, interpret it as a happy omen. Cassandre has watched the procession in despair, and as the act ends, resigns herself to death beneath the walls of Troy.

Act 2
Before the act proper has started, the Greek soldiers hidden in the wooden horse have come out and begun to destroy Troy and its citizens. Scene 1: Palace of Énée With fighting going on in the background, the shade of Hector visits Énée and warns him to flee Troy and seek Italy, where he will build a new Troy. After Hector fades, Panthée conveys the news about the Greeks hidden in the horse. Ascagne appears with news of further destruction. At the head of a band of soldiers, Chorèbe urges Énée to take up arms for battle. All resolve to defend Troy to the death. Scene 2: Palace of Priam Several of the Trojan women are praying at the altar of Vesta/Cybele for their soldiers to receive divine aid. Cassandre reports that Énée and other Trojan warriors have rescued Priam's palace treasure and relieved people at the citadel. She prophesies that Énée and the survivors will found a new Troy in Italy. But she says also that Chorèbe is dead, and resolves to die. The other women acknowledge that Cassandre was correct in her prophecies and their error in dismissing her. Cassandre then calls upon the Trojan women to join her in death, to prevent being defiled by the invading Greeks. One group of women admits to fear of death, and Cassandre dismisses them from her sight. The remaining women unite with Cassandre in their determination to die. A Greek captain observes the women during this scene, with admiration for their courage. Greek soldiers then come on the scene, demanding the Trojan treasure from the women. Cassandre defiantly mocks the soldiers, then suddenly stabs herself. Polyxène takes the same dagger and does likewise. The remaining women scorn the Greeks as being too late to find the treasure, and commit mass suicide, to the horror of the Greek soldiers. Cassandre summons one last cry of "Italy!" before she collapses, dead.

Act 3

Set design for the throne room (1863)

Didon's throne-room at Carthage The Carthaginians and their queen, Didon, are celebrating the prosperity that they have achieved in the past seven years since fleeing from Tyre to found a new city. Didon, however, is concerned about Iarbas, the Numidian king, not least because he has proposed a political marriage with her. The Carthaginians swear their defence of Didon, and the builders, sailors and farmers offer tribute to Didon. In private after these ceremonies, Didon and Anna then discuss love. Anna urges Didon to re-marry, but Didon insists on honoring the memory of her late husband Sichée (Sychaeus). Iopas then enters to tell of an unknown fleet that has arrived in port. Recalling her own wandering on the seas, Didon bids that these strangers be welcome. Ascagne enters, presents the saved treasure of Troy, and relates the Trojans' story. Didon acknowledges that she knows of this situation. Panthée then tells of the ultimate destiny of the Trojans to found a new city in Italy. During this scene, Énée is disguised as an ordinary sailor. Narbal then comes to tell Didon that Iarbas and his army are attacking the fields surrounding Carthage and are marching on the city. But Carthage does not have enough weapons to defend itself. Énée then reveals his true identity and offers the services of his people to help Carthage. Didon accepts the offer, and Énée entrusts Ascagne to Didon's care. The Carthaginians and Trojans then prepare for battle against the Numidians.

Act 4
Scene 1: Royal Hunt and Storm This scene is purely instrumental, set in a forest with a cave in the background. Didon and Énée have been separated from the rest of the hunting party. As a storm breaks, the two take shelter in the cave, where they acknowledge and consummate their mutual attraction.

Gardens of Didon b y the shore (1863)

Scene 2: The gardens of Didon by the shore The Numidians have been beaten back, and both Narbal and Anna are relieved at this. However, Narbal worries that Didon has been neglecting the

management of the state, distracted by her love for Énée. Anna dismisses such concerns and says that this indicates that Énée would be an excellent king for

Carthage. Narbal reminds Anna, however, that the gods have called Énée's final destiny to be in Italy. Anna replies that there is no stronger god than love. After Didon's entry, and dances from the Egyptian dancing girls, the slaves, and the Nubian slave girls, Iopas sings his song of the fields, at the queen's request.

Énée et Didon b y Guérin (1815).

She then asks Énée for more tales of Troy. Énée reveals that after some persuading, Andromaque eventually married Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, who killed Hector, Andromache's earlier husband. Didon then feels resolved regarding her lingering feelings about her late husband. At one point, Ascagne slips Sichée's ring from Didon's finger. Didon retrieves it, but then forgets about it later. Alone, Didon and Énée then sing a love duet. At the end of the act, the god Mercury appears and strikes Énée's shield, then calls out three times, "Italy!".

Act 5
Scene 1: The harbour of Carthage Hylas sings his song of longing for home, alone. Two sentries mockingly comment that he will never see his homeland again. Panthée and the Trojan

chieftains discuss the gods' angry signs at their delay in sailing for Italy. The sentries remark that they have good lives in Carthage and do not want to leave. Énée then comes on stage, singing of his despair at the gods' portents and warnings to set sail for Italy, and also of unhappiness at his betrayal of Didon with this news. The ghosts of Priam, Chorèbe, Hector and Cassandre appear and relentlessly urge Énée to proceed on to Italy. Énée gives in and realizes that he must obey the gods' commands, but also realizes his cruelty and ingratitude to Didon as a result. He then orders his comrades to prepare to sail that morning, before sunrise. Didon then appears, appalled at Énée's attempt to leave in secret, but still in love with him. Énée pleads the messages from the gods to move on, but Didon will have none of this. She pronounces a curse on him as she leaves.

Didon's apartment (1863)

Scene 2: Didon's apartment at dawn Didon asks Anna to plead with Énée one last time to stay. Anna acknowledges blame for encouraging the love between her sister and Énée. Didon angrily counters that if Énée truly loved her, he would defy the gods, but then asks her to plead with for a few days' additional stay. The crowd has seen the Trojans set sail. Iopas conveys the news to Didon. In a rage, she demands that the Carthaginians give chase and destroy the Trojans' fleet, and wishes that she had destroyed the Trojans upon their arrival. She then decides to offer sacrifice, including destroying the Trojans' gifts to her and hers to them. Alone, she resolves to die (Je vais mourir – "I am going to die"), and after expressing a final love for Énée, prepares to bid her city farewell (Adieu, fière cité – "Farewell, proud city"). Scene 3: The palace gardens

Press illustration of the last act (1863)

A sacrificial pyre with Énée's relics has been built. Narbal and Anna expound curses on Énée to suffer a humiliating death in battle ( Dieux de l'oubli, dieux de Ténare – "Gods of oblivion, gods of Tenarus"). Didon then ascends the pyre ( Pluton ... semble m'être propice – Pluto ... seems to be propitious"). She removes her veil and throws it on Énée's toga (D'un malheureux amour, funestes gages – "You, sad pledges of an unhappy love"). She has a vision of a future African warrior, Hannibal, who will rise and attack Rome to avenge her. Didon then stabs herself with Énée's sword, to the horror of her people. But at the moment of her death, she has one last vision: Carthage will be destroyed, and Rome will be "immortal". The Carthaginians then utter one final curse on Énée and his people, vowing vengeance for his abandonment of Didon, as the opera ends.

Recordings
Colin Davis' 1970 release was the first complete recording.
Year Cast Enée, Chorèbe, Panthée, Narbal, Iopas, Hylas, Ascagne, Cassandre, Conductor, Opera House and Orchestra Label

Didon, Anna 1957 Jon Vickers, Jess Walters, Michael Langdon, David Kelly, Richard Verreau , Dermot Troy, Joan Carlyle, Amy Shuard, Blanche Thebom, Lauris Elms 1969 Jon Vickers, Peter Glossop, Anthony Raffell, Roger Soyer, Ian Partridge, Ryland Davies, Anne Howells, Berit Lindholm, Josephine Veasey, Heather Begg 1983 Plácido Domingo, Allan Monk, John Cheek, Paul Plishka, Douglas Ahlstedt, Philip Creech, Claudia Catania, Jessye Norman, Tatiana Troyanos , Jocelyne Taillon 2000 Ben Heppner, Peter Mattei, Tigran Martirossian, Stephen Milling, Kenneth Tarver, Toby Spence, Isabelle Cals, Petra Lang, Michelle DeYoung , Sara Mingardo 2003 Gregory Kunde, Ludovic Tézier, Nicolas Testé, Laurent Naouri, Mark Padmore, Topi Lehtipuu , Stéphanie d'Oustrac, Anna Caterina Antonacci , Susan Graham, Renata Pokupić John Eliot Gardiner, DVD: Opus Arte Théâtre du Châtelet, Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique, Monteverdi Choir,Chœur du Théâtre du Châtelet Cat: OA 0900 D Colin Davis, London Symphony Orchestra, London Symphony Chorus (Live audio recording) Audio CD: LSO Live Cat: LSO0010 James Levine, Metropolitan Opera orchestra and chorus (Live video recording) DVD: Deutsche Grammophon Cat: 00440 073 4310 Laser Disc: Pioneer Artists Cat: PA-85-137 Colin Davis, Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, The Wandsworth School Boys' Choir Audio CD: Philips Cat: 416 432-2 Cat: 6709 002 (LP) Rafael Kubelík, Orchestra and Chorus of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden (Recorded live at Covent Garden, 20 June) In English Audio CD: Testament Cat: SBT4 1443

Arkadia: RAI broadcast of live performance Nicolai Gedda, Marilyn Horne, Shirley Verrett, Robert Massard, Verlano Luchetti, Plinio Clabassi, ; Orchestra and Chorus of the RAI, Rome; Georges Prêtre, conductor, 20. 5. 1969 Decca Classics: Gary Lakes, Françoise Pollet, Deborah Voigt, Claudine Carlson, Gregory Cross, Rene Schirrer, Catherine Dubosc, Gino Quilico; Montreal Symphony Chorus; Montreal Symphony Orchestra; Charles Dutoit, conductor Vai Audio: Chester Watson, Regina Resnik, Martial Singher, Frances Wyatt, William Lewis, John Dennison, Kenneth Smith, Regina Sarfaty, Glade Peterson, Eleanor Steber, Richard Cassilly; Robert Lawrence (conductor). Recorded at Carnegie Hall, New York City, December 29, 1959 and January 12, 1960. Notes Sources Berlioz, Hector (2003). Les Troyens. Grand Opéra en cinq actes, vocal score based on the Urtext of the New Berlioz Edition by Eike Wernhard. Kassel: Bärenreiter. Listings at WorldCat. Kutsch, K. J.; Riemens, Leo (2003). Grosses Sängerlexikon (fourth edition, in German). Munich: K. G. Saur. ISBN 978-3-598-11598-1. Walsh, T. J. (1981). Second Empire Opera: The Théâtre Lyrique Paris 1851–1870. New York: Riverrun Press. ISBN 978-0-7145-3659-0. Wolff, Stéphane (1962). L'Opéra au Palais Garnier, 1875-1962. Les oeuvres. Les Interprètes. Paris: L'Entracte. (1983 reprint: Geneva: Slatkine. ISBN

978-2-05-000214-2.)

External links
Les Troyens: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project Les Troyens in Extracts from the Memoirs of Hector Berlioz Preface to Les Troyens by Hugh Macdonald MP3 Creative Commons Recording of Les Troyens (1959); like most productions from that period, the recording follows the Théâtre Lyrique première in including only the second part of the opera, i.e. Acts 3, 4, and 5. description of Les Troyens at Naxos.com Guy Dumazert, French-language commentary on Les Troyens, 12 August 2001. Libretto Video clip of "Les Troyens" at the Mariinsky Theater

Other compositions

La damnation de Faust
Hector Berlioz

La damnation de Faust (English: The Damnation of Faust), Op. 24 is a work for four solo voices, full seven-part chorus, large children's chorus and orchestra by the French composer Hector Berlioz. He called it a "légende dramatique" (dramatic legend). It was first performed at the Opéra-Comique in Paris

on 6 December 1846.

Background and composition history

The French composer was inspired by a translation of Goethe's dramatic poem Faust and produced a musical work that, like the masterpiece it's based on,

defies easy categorization. Conceived at various times as a free-form oratorio and as an opera (Berlioz ultimately called it a "légende dramatique") its

travelogue form and cosmic perspective have made it an extreme challenge to stage as an opera. Berlioz himself was eager to see the work staged, but once

he did, he conceded that the production techniques of his time were not up to the task of bringing the work to dramatic life. Most of the work's fame has come

through concert performances.

Berlioz read Goethe's Faust Part One in 1828, in Gérard de Nerval's translation; "this marvelous book fascinated me from the first", he recalled in his Faust" became his Opus 1 (1829), though he later recalled all the copies of it he could find. He returned to the material in 1845, to make a larger work, with some additional text by Almire Gandonnière to Berlioz's specifications, that he first called a "concert opera", and as it expanded, finally a "dramatic legend". He worked on the score during his concert tour of 1845, adding his own text for "Nature immense, impénétrable et fière"— Faust's climactic invocation of all nature— and incorporating the Rákóczi March, which had been a thunderous success at a concert in Pest, Hungary, 15 February 1846.

Memoirs. "I could not put it down. I read it incessantly, at meals, in the theatre, in the street." He was so impressed that a suite entitled "Eight Scenes from

Performance history
Its first performance at the Opéra-Comique, Paris, 6 December 1846, did not meet with critical acclaim, perhaps due to its halfway status between opera and cantata; the public was apathetic, and two performances (and a cancelled third) rendered a financial setback for Berlioz: "Nothing in my career as an artist wounded me more deeply than this unexpected indifference", he remembered. La Damnation de Faust is performed regularly in concert halls, since its first successful complete performance in concert in Paris, in 1877; it is occasionally staged as an opera, for the first time in Opéra de Monte-Carlo on 18 February 1893, where it was produced by its director Raoul Gunsbourg, Jean de Reszke singing the role of Faust. The Metropolitan Opera premiered it first in concert (2 February 1896) and then on stage (the United States stage premiere on 7 December 1906). The Met revived it first in concert at Carnegie Hall on 10 November 1996, (repeated on tour in Tokyo the next year), then on the stage production on 7 November 2008, produced and directed by Robert Lepage, with innovative techniques of computer-generated stage imagery that responds to the performers' voices. Filmmaker Terry Gilliam made his opera debut at London's English National Opera in May 2011, directing The Damnation of Faust. The production received positive reviews in the British press Three instrumental passages, the Marche Hongroise (Hungarian March), Ballet des sylphes, and Menuet des follets are sometimes extracted and performed as "Three Orchestral Pieces from La Damnation de Faust."

Roles
Role Voice type Premiere Cast 6 December 1846 (Conductor: Hector Berlioz) Marguerite, a young woman Faust, an aging scholar mezzo-soprano Hortense Dufflot-Maillard tenor Gustave-Hippolyte Roger

Méphistophélès, the Devil disguised as a gentleman baritone or bass Léonard Hermann-Léon Brander, a student bass Henry ("Henri") Deshaynes

Peasants, gnomes and sylphs, soldiers and students, demons and the damned, celestial spirits

Instrumentation
The orchestral score requires: 3 flutes (all doubling piccolo), 2 oboes (one doubling English horn), 2 clarinets (in C/A/B♭), bass clarinet in B♭, 4 bassoons 4 horns (in all keys), 2 trumpets in C/D/F, 2 cornets in A/B♭, 3 trombones, 2 tubas (originally scored for one ophicleide and one tuba) timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, suspended cymbal, triangle, tamtam, bell (sounding D, F♯, A, or C) 2 harps strings: 15 violins I, 15 violins II, 10 violas, 10 violoncellos, 9 double basses

Synopsis
Part I
The aging scholar Faust contemplates the renewal of nature. Hearing peasants sing and dance, he realizes that their simple happiness is something he will never experience. An army marches past in the distance (Hungarian March). Faust doesn't understand why the soldiers are so enthusiastic about glory and fame.

Part II
Depressed, Faust has returned to his study. Even the search for wisdom can no longer inspire him. Tired of life, he is about to commit suicide when the sound of church bells and an Easter hymn remind him of his youth, when he still had faith in religion. Suddenly Méphistophélès appears, ironically commenting on Faust's apparent conversion. He offers to take him on a journey, promising him the restoration of his youth, knowledge, and the fulfillment of all his wishes. Faust accepts. Méphistophélès and Faust arrive at Auerbach's tavern in Leipzig, where Brander, a student, sings a song about a rat whose high life in a kitchen is ended by a dose of poison. The other guests offer an ironic "Amen," and Méphistophélès continues with another song about a flea that brings his relatives to infest a whole royal court (Song of the Flea). Disgusted by the vulgarity of it all, Faust demands to be taken somewhere else. On a meadow by the Elbe, Méphistophélès shows Faust a dream vision of a beautiful woman named Marguerite, causing Faust to fall in love with her. He calls out her name, and Méphistophélès promises to lead Faust to her. Together with a group of students and soldiers, they enter the town where she lives.

Part III
Faust and Méphistophélès hide in Marguerite's room. Faust feels that he will find in her his ideal of a pure and innocent woman ("Merci, doux crepuscule!"). Marguerite enters and sings a ballad about the King of Thule, who always remained sadly faithful to his lost love ("Autrefois, un roi de Thulé"). Méphistophélès summons spirits to enchant and deceive the girl and sings a sarcastic serenade outside her window, predicting her loss of innocence. When the spirits have vanished, Faust steps forward. Marguerite admits that she has dreamed of him, just as he has dreamed of her, and they declare their love for each other. Just then, Méphistophélès bursts in, warning them that the girl's reputation must be saved: the neighbors have learned that there is a man in Marguerite's room and have called her mother to the scene. After a hasty goodbye, Faust and Méphistophélès escape.

Part IV
Faust has seduced, then abandoned Marguerite, who still awaits his return ("D'amour L'ardente flamme"). She can hear soldiers and students in the distance, which reminds her of the night Faust first came to her house. But this time he is not among them. Faust calls upon nature to cure him of his world-weariness ("Nature immense, impénétrable et fière"). Méphistophélès appears and tells him that Marguerite is

in prison. She has accidentally given her mother too much of a sleeping potion, killing the old woman, and will be hanged the next day. Faust panics, but

Méphistophélès claims he can save her—if Faust relinquishes his soul to him. Unable to think of anything but saving Marguerite, Faust agrees. The two ride

off on a pair of black horses.

Thinking they are on their way to Marguerite, Faust becomes terrified when he sees demonic apparitions. The landscape becomes more and more horrible

and grotesque, and Faust finally realizes that Méphistophélès has taken him directly into hell. Demons and damned spirits greet Méphistophélès in a

mysterious infernal language and welcome Faust among them.

Hell has fallen silent after Faust's arrival — the torment he suffers is unspeakable. Marguerite is saved and welcomed into heaven.

Recordings
Audio CD (First CD release 1995; Reissued April 24, 2007) Number of Discs: 2 ASIN: B000NPCMEE Label: EMI Classics Performers: Gabriel Bacquier, Janet Baker, Maria Peronne, Nicolai Gedda Orchestra: Paris Orchestra, Orchestre de l'Opéra de Paris, London Symphony Orchestra Conductor: Georges Prêtre Philips (ASIN B00000E35N) Performed by London Symphony Chorus and Orchestra with Jules Bastin, Josephine Veasey, Richard van Allan, Ambrosian Singers, Geoffrey Browne, Gillian Knight, Alex Taylor, Nicolai Gedda Conducted by Sir Colin Davis Audio CD (October 23, 2002) Number of Discs: 2 ASIN: B00006L76O Label: Deutsche Grammophon Performers: Pierre Mollet, Michel Roux, Consuelo Rubio,

There are a number of recordings, a few of which are given below.

Richard Verreau Orchestra: Lamoureux Concert Association Orchestra, Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra Conductor: Igor Markevitch Audio CD (August 7, 1995) Orchestra: Number of Discs: 2 ASIN: B000005E3I Label: Warner Classics UK / Erato Performers: Susan Graham, Thomas Moser, Jose Van Dammo Lyon Opera Orchestra and Chorus Conductor: Kent Nagano Audio CD (August 11, 1998) Number of Discs: 2 Label: Deutsche Grammophon ASIN: B000009ON4 Performed by London Philharmonia Orchestra with Keith Lewis, Anne Sofie von Otter, Bryn Terfel, Victor von Halem Conducted by Myung-Whun Chung There are also countless recordings of excerpts.

Parodies
The piece, "L'Éléphant" (The Elephant) from Camille Saint-Saëns's Carnival of the Animals (1886) uses a theme from the "Danse des sylphes," played on a double bass. Notes

External links
La Damnation de Faust: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project (French) Libretto On Berlioz's Damnation of Faust by Jacques Barzun. Special Disc Jockey Pressing Recorded Autumn 1954

L'enfance du Christ
L'enfance du Christ (English: The Childhood of Christ), Opus 25, is an oratorio by the French composer Hector Berlioz, based on the Holy Family's flight into Egypt. (see Gospel of Matthew 2:13) Berlioz wrote his own words for the piece. Most of it was composed in 1853 and 1854, but it also incorporates an earlier work La fuite en Egypte (1850). It was first performed at the Salle Herz, Paris on 10 December 1854, with Berlioz conducting and soloists from the Opéra-

Comique: Jourdan (Récitant), Depassio (Hérode), the couple Meillet (Marie and Joseph) and Bataille (Le père de famille).

Berlioz described L'enfance as a Trilogie sacrée (sacred trilogy). The first of its three sections depicts King Herod ordering the massacre of all newborn

children in Judaea; the second shows the Holy Family of Mary, Joseph and Jesus setting out for Egypt to avoid the slaughter, having been warned by angels;

and the final section portrays their arrival in the Egyptian town of Sais where they are given refuge by a family of Ishmaelites. It is worth noting that Berlioz

himself was by no means a religious believer, though he was a great admirer of Catholic church music.L'enfance also shows some influence from the Biblical

oratorios of Berlioz's teacher Jean-François Lesueur.

Background to the composition

The idea for L'enfance went back to 1850 when Berlioz composed an organ piece for his friend Joseph-Louis Duc, called L'adieu des bergers (The

Shepherds' Farewell). He soon turned it into a choral movement for the shepherds saying goodbye to the baby Jesus as he leaves Bethlehem for Egypt.

Berlioz had the chorus performed as a hoax on 12 November 1850, passing it off as the work of an imaginary 17th-century composer "Ducré". He was

gratified to discover many people who hated his music were taken in and praised it, one lady even going so far as to say, "Berlioz would never be able to write

a tune as simple and charming as this little piece by old Ducré". He then added a piece for tenor, Le repos de la sainte famille (The Repose of the Holy

Family) and preceded both movements with an overture to form a work he called La fuite en Egypte. It was published in 1852 and first performed in Leipzig in

December, 1853. The premiere was so successful, Berlioz's friends urged him to expand the piece and he added a new section, L'arrivée à Sais (The Arrival

at Sais), which included parts for Mary and Joseph. Berlioz, perhaps feeling the result was still unbalanced, then composed a third section to precede the

other two, Le songe d'Hérode (Herod's Dream).

Reception

Berlioz's music was usually received with great hostility by Parisian audiences and critics, who generally accused it of being bizarre and discordant. Yet

L'enfance du Christ was an immediate success and was praised by all but two critics in the Paris newspapers. Some attributed its favourable reception to a

new, gentler style, a claim Berlioz vigorously rejected: In that work many people imagined they could detect a radical change in my style and manner. This opinion is entirely without foundation. The subject naturally lent itself to a gentle and simple style of music, and for that reason alone was more in accordance with their taste and intelligence. Time would probably have developed these qualities, but I should have written L'enfance du Christ in the same manner twenty years ago.

The work has maintained its popularity - it is often performed around Christmas - and many recordings have been made of it.

Roles
Le récitant (the narrator) (tenor) La vierge Marie (the Virgin Mary) (mezzo-soprano) Joseph (baritone) Hérode (Herod) (bass) Le père de famille (father of the family) (bass) Centurion (a Roman centurion) (tenor) Polydorus (bass)

Structure of the work
Part One: Le songe d'Hérode (Herod's Dream) 1. Scene 1: Narrator: "Dans la créche" ("In the cradle..."). The work starts abruptly without an overture or prelude with the tenor narrator describing the situation in the land at the time of Christ's birth. 2. Marche nocturne (Nocturnal March). A fugue evoking Roman soldiers patrolling outside King Herod's palace by night. 3. Polydorus: "Qui vient" ("Who is coming..?") 4. Marche nocturne (continued) 5. Scene 2: Herod's aria. One of the most famous pieces in L'enfance, this long aria expresses the king's inner despair as he is tormented by a recurring

dream of a child who will overthrow him. Herod is accompanied by trombones just as Méphistophélès was in The Damnation of Faust. 6. Scene 3: Polydorus: "Seigneur" ("My lord"). Polydorus announces the arrival of the Jewish soothsayers. 7. Scene 4: Herod and the soothsayers. Herod describes his dream to the soothsayers. 8. The soothsayers make Cabbalistic processions and proceed to the exorcism. A short, wild dance in 7/4 time. 9. Soothsayers: "La voix dit vrai" ("The voice speaks the truth"). The soothsayers confirm that Herod's dream is true and advise him to kill every newborn child in the land. 10. Herod: "Eh bien" ("Very well") Herod agrees and gives orders for the Massacre of the innocents. 11. Scene 5: The stable in Bethlehem. Christ is in the manger as Mary and Joseph sing a lullaby to him. 12. Scene 6: Choir of angels: Joseph! Marie!". The angels warn them to flee to Egypt to escape Herod's persecution. Berlioz uses an off-stage choir to represent the angels, an effect originally used in Gossec's La nativité (1774). Part Two: La fuite en Egypte (The Flight to Egypt) 1. Overture. Another fugue in triple time. 2. L'adieu des bergers (The shepherds' farewell). Probably the most famous movement, often performed separately. 3. Le repos de la sainte famille (The repose of the Holy Family). A gentle movement depicting Mary, Joseph and Jesus resting beneath the shade of a tree. Part Three: L'arrivée à Saïs (The Arrival at Sais) 1. Narrator: "Depuis trois jours" ("For three days...") The narrator describes the troubled journey from Bethlehem to Sais in Egypt. 2. Scene 1: Inside the town of Sais. Joseph and Mary's pleas for refuge are rejected by the people of Sais because they are Hebrews. The musical accompaniment is suitably anguished. 3. Scene 2: Inside the Ishmaelites' house. Finally the father of a family of Ishmaelites (in other words, unbelievers) takes pity on them and invites them into his house. 4. Father of the family: "Grand Dieu!" ("Almighty God!"). The Ishmaelite orders his family to care for the travellers. 5. Father of the family: "Sur vos traits fatigués" ("On your tired features"). Learning that Joseph is a carpenter too, he invites him to join him at his work. Joseph and his family may stay in the house for as long as necessary. 6. Father of the family: Pour bien finir cette soirée ("To end this evening"). He has music played to soothe them. 7. Trio for two flutes and a harp. An instrumental interlude, one of the few pieces of chamber music Berlioz ever wrote. The use of the flutes and harps is inspired by Gounod's opera Sapho and is meant to evoke the atmosphere of the ancient world. 8. Father of the family: "Vous pleurez, jeune mère ("You are weeping, young mother"). The Ishmaelite urges Mary to go to sleep and worry no longer. 9. Scene 3: Epilogue. The narrator describes how Jesus spent ten years growing up in Egypt. 10. Narrator and chorus: "O mon âme" ("O my soul"). The work concludes with this serene movement for tenor and choir.

Recordings
L'enfance du Christ Hélène Bouvier, Jean Giraudeau, Michel Roux, Louis Noguèra, Choeurs Raymond Saint-Paul, Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire, conducted by André Cluytens L'enfance du Christ Janet Baker, Eric Tappy , Philip Langridge, Thomas Allen, John Alldis Choir, London Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Sir Colin Davis (Philips) L'enfance du Christ Anne Sofie von Otter, Anthony Rolfe Johnson, José van Dam, Monteverdi Choir, Lyons Opera Orchestra, conducted by John Eliot Gardiner (Erato) L'enfance du Christ Victoria de los Ángeles, Nicolai Gedda, Roger Soyer, Ernest Blanc, René Duclos Choir, Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire, conducted by André Cluytens (EMI) L'enfance du Christ Florence Kopleff, Cesare Valletti, Giorgio Tozzi , Gérard Souzay, New England Conservatory Chorus, Boston Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Charles Münch (RCA Victor) (there is also a Munch version on DVD with some of the same artists, taken from a television broadcast) L'enfance du Christ Christiane Gayraud, Michel Sénéchal, Michel Roux, André Vessières, Xavier Depraz Choeurs de la Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française, Orchestre des concerts Colonne, conducted by Pierre Dervaux (Disques Véga)

Sources
David Cairns: Berlioz: The Making of an Artist (the first volume of his biography of the composer) (André Deutsch, 1989) David Cairns: Berlioz: Servitude and Greatness (the second volume of his biography of the composer) (Viking, 1999) Hugh Macdonald: Berlioz ("The Master Musicians", J.M.Dent, 1982)

Berlioz: Memoirs (Dover, 1960)

Les francs-juges
Hector Berlioz

Les francs-juges is the title of an unfinished opera by the French composer Hector Berlioz written to a libretto by his friend Humbert Ferrand in 1826. Berlioz other musical material in later compositions.

abandoned the incomplete composition and destroyed most of the music. He retained the overture, which has become a popular concert item, and used some

The opera
Ferrand was a law student with a love of poetry who became a lifelong friend of Berlioz. He had already written the words to a cantata for the composer, La Révolution grecque in 1825. Now Ferrand gratified Berlioz's eagerness to write his first opera by providing him with a three-act libretto, Les francs-juges. The work is set in Mediaeval Germany and the title literally means "The Free Judges", referring to the secret "Vehmic" trials held in the region during the late Middle Ages. The plot, with its stormy passions and theme of rescue from oppression, offered Berlioz the opportunity to compose a work in the style of the French Revolutionary operas of Méhul and Cherubini. Berlioz intended Les francs-juges for performance at the Odéon theatre and the management accepted it on the basis of Ferrand's libretto. Berlioz threw himself into writing the score in the summer of 1826: the first two acts were finished by June, and he composed the third act in July and August and added the final touches in September. Unfortunately for Berlioz, the Odéon could not obtain government licensing to stage new French operas and Les francs-juges was shelved. The composer made later attempts to have it performed at the Opéra, the Nouveautés, the German Theatre and in Karlsruhe. He revised it in 1829 and again in 1833, but to no avail. Les francs-juges was never staged and only five numbers from the original score of 1826 survive complete. Some of the music was reused in the Marche au supplice of the Symphonie fantastique and the second movement of the Symphonie funèbre et triomphale;

the overture survived as a separate work.

The overture

This was the first work Berlioz wrote solely for orchestra and it is the earliest of his compositions to retain a place in the repertoire today. It was first performed

at the Paris Conservatoire on 26 May 1828 and published in 1836 (the opus number is 3). Franz Liszt prepared a piano transcription of it in 1833 (S.471).

References

Sources Berlioz, Hector, Memoirs, Dover, 1960 Cairns, David, Berlioz: The Making of an Artist (the first volume of his biography of the composer). André Deutsch, 1989 Macdonald, Hugh, Berlioz, "The Master Musicians", J.M.Dent, 1982

External links
The text of the surviving complete numbers from the score

Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale
Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale (English: Grand Funeral and Triumphal Symphony), Op. 15, is the fourth and last symphony by the French composer Hector Berlioz, first performed on 28 July 1840 in Paris.

Introduction
The symphony was a commission by the French government to celebrate the tenth anniversary of the July Revolution which had brought Louis-Philippe to work which brought him a payment of 10,000 francs. The Symphonie militaire (later renamed Symphonie funébre et triomphale), far from being a successor to Romeo and Juliet represents a reversion to an earlier, pre-Beethovenian style, the monumental French tradition of public ceremonial music. Remarkably, Berlioz claimed to have finished the score to the entire symphony in only 40 hours. This strengthens the supposition that Berlioz in fact harvested much of the musical material for the Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale from unfinished works. The first movement, the Marche funèbre, was constructed from the Fête musicale funèbre à la mémoiredes homes illustres de la France. This project, which Berlioz started in 1835, was meant to be a massive, sevenmovement ceremonial piece that he could sell to the French government to promote the glory of France. According to Julian Rushton, “Berlioz worked best on large projects; when he could see no future for them he preferred not to compose.” Apparently he abandoned the Fête musicale funèbre because he could not secure a commission for it. Fortunately for Berlioz, the commission finally did come, but for the tenth anniversary of the July Revolution and not the fifth. The symphony was originally scored for a wind band of 200 players who were to accompany the procession which moved the coffins of those who had died fighting in the 1830 revolution for reburial beneath a memorial column which had been set up on the site of the Bastille. On the actual day of the parade, little of the music could be heard over the cheering crowds who lined the way. Nevertheless, the work had been such a success at the dress rehearsal that it was given two more performances in August which sealed its reputation as one of the composer's most popular works during his lifetime. Berlioz revised the score in January 1842, adding an optional part for strings and a final chorus to words by Antony Deschamps. Among those in the audience at the Salle Vivienne, when the new version was first given on 1 February 1842, was the (soon-to-be) composer of Tannhäuser (opera) : on the 5th, Richard Wagner told Robert Schumann that he found passages in the last movement of Berlioz's symphony so "magnificent and sublime that they can never be surpassed."

power, by erecting the July Column in the place de la Bastille, Paris. Berlioz had little sympathy for the régime, but he accepted the opportunity to write the

Composition of the symphony
The symphony is in three movements (the last two are linked together):

1. Marche funèbre (Funeral march) By general consent, the most successful movement. Berlioz's handling of wind instruments was particularly admired by Richard Wagner. 2. Oraison funèbre (Funeral oration) Berlioz reused an aria from Act III of his abandoned opera Les francs-juges, replacing the voice part with a trombone.[citation needed] 3. Apothéose (Apotheosis) A triumphal march in B-flat major, with a choral finale at the end when needed.

Lyrics of the finale to the Apotheosis
By Berlioz's orders, Antony Deschamps in 1842 wrote the lyrics to be sung by choirs at the finale of the Apotheosis movement of the symphony.

French (public performance lyrics)
Gloire! Gloire! Glorie! Glorie! Gloire et triomphe, à ces Héros! Gloire et triomphe! Venez, élus de l’autre vie! Changez, nobles guerriers, Tous vos lauriers, pour des palmes immortelles! Suivez les Séraphins, Soldats divins, dans les plaines éternelles!

A leurs chœurs infinis, soyez unis! Entrez, sublimes victimes! Gloire et triomphe, à ces Héros! Ils sont tombés aux champs de la Patrie! Gloire et respect à leurs tombeaux! A leurs tombeaux! Glorie! Et Respect!

Anges radieux, harmonieux, brûlants comme eux,

A Leurs! Tombeaux!

Instrumentation
A combination of a military band, concert band or marching band, an orchestra or string orchestra and a choir or either of the first three or the former plus the

chorus is used for this composition.

For the first three, the instrumentation is that of: Flutes (Western concert, alto and bass) and Piccolos Fifes (optional) Oboes (regular, bass) and Cor anglais Clarinets (piccolo, sopranino in E flat, soprano, alto, bass) Bassoons and Contrabassoons (the latter for orchestral use and for concert band) Saxophones (sopranino, soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass) Horns (single and double), Vienna horns, mellophones Trumpets Cornets (including soprano cornets) Flugelhorns Trombones (tenor, bass, contrabass and valve) Euphoniums Tubas Saxhorns including baritone horns and alto horns Helicons (including soprano helicons), Sousaphones (optional) Wagner tubas (optional) Snare drums Tenor drums (optional) Bass drums Cymbals (suspended cymbals, clash cymbals) Timpani Glockenspiels (optional) Turkish crescents (optional) Triangle (optional) Tambourine (optional) Gong (tamtam) (optional) Drum kit (optional in concert settings) Celesta (in concert settings) Piano (optional in concert settings) Pipe organ (optional in concert settings) For the strings, it's common to add violins, violas, cellos and double basses to the concert band or if it's the orchestra that's playing. In some concert and military bands only the cello and the double bass accompany the winds and percussion.

Recordings
Berlioz: Requiem & Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale: John Alldis Choir, London Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Sir Colin Davis (Philips) David Cairns: Berlioz: Servitude and Greatness (the second volume of his biography of the composer) (Viking, 1999) Hugh Macdonald: Berlioz ("The Master Musicians", J.M.Dent, 1982) Berlioz: Memoirs (Dover, 1960)

External links

Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project

Harold en Italie
Harold en Italie, Symphonie en quatre parties avec un alto principal (English: Harold in Italy, Symphony in Four Parts with Viola Obbligato), Op. 16, is Hector Berlioz's second symphony, written in 1834.

Creation
Niccolò Paganini (1782–1840) encouraged Berlioz (1803–1869) to write Harold en Italie. The two first met after a concert of Berlioz’s works conducted by Narcisse Girard on 22 December 1833, three years after the premiere of Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique. Paganini had acquired a superb viola, a Stradivarius — "But I have no suitable music. Would you like to write a solo for viola? You are the only one I can trust for this task." Berlioz began "by writing a solo for viola, but one which involved the orchestra in such a way as not to reduce the effectiveness of the orchestral contribution." When Paganini saw the sketch of the allegro movement, with all the rests in the viola part, he told Berlioz it would not do, and that he expected to be playing continuously. They then parted, with Paganini disappointed.

Description
Harold en Italie is a four-movement work featuring an extensive part for solo viola. Lord Byron's poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage inspired the mood of Harold. Berlioz wrote, "My intention was to write a series of orchestral scenes, in which the solo viola would be involved as a more or less active participant while retaining its own character. By placing it among the poetic memories formed from my wanderings in the Abruzzi, I wanted to make the viola a kind of melancholy dreamer in the manner of Byron’s Childe-Harold." That he had recycled some of the material from his discarded concert overture, Rob Roy, went unmentioned. The first movement ("Harold aux montagnes") refers to the scenes that Harold, the melancholic character, encounters in mountains. In the second movement ("Marche des pèlerins"), Harold accompanies a group of pilgrims. The third movement ("Sérénade") involves a love scene; someone plays a serenade for his mistress. In the fourth movement, ("Orgie de brigands"), spiritually tired and depressed, Harold seeks comfort among wild and dangerous company, perhaps in a tavern. Jacques Barzun reminds us that "The brigand of Berlioz’s time is the avenger of social injustice, the rebel against the City, who resorts to nature for healing the wounds of social man." Throughout the symphony, the viola represents Harold's character. The manner in which the viola theme hesitantly repeats its opening phrase — gaining confidence, like an idea forming, before the long melody spills out in its entirety — was satirized in a musical paper after the premiere. It began "Ha! ha! ha! – haro! haro! Harold!"— a cheeky touch that Berlioz recalled years later in his Memoirs.

In addition to the solo viola, the work calls for 2 flutes (2nd doubling piccolo), 2 oboes (1st doubling cor anglais in Movement III), 2 clarinets in C (Movements

I,III, and IV) and A (Movement II), 4 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 cornets, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, cymbals, triangle, 2 tambourines, harp and strings.

History
Narcisse Girard conducting. Even though the second movement "March of the Pilgrims" received an encore, this performance contributed to Berlioz's decision to conduct his own music in the future. Paganini did not hear the work he had commissioned until 16 December 1838; then he was so overwhelmed by it that, following the performance, he dragged Berlioz onto the stage and there knelt and kissed his hand before a wildly cheering audience and applauding musicians. A few days later he sent Berlioz a letter of congratulations, enclosing a bank draft for 20,000 francs. Franz Liszt prepared a piano transcription (with viola accompaniment) of the work in 1836 (S.472). Notable performances 1842, 1 February, Paris, Salle Vivienne – Jean-Delphin Alard (soloist); Berlioz (conductor) 1842, 26 September, Brussels – Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst (soloist); Berlioz (conductor) 1847, 5 May, Saint Petersburg premiere – Heinrich Wilhelm Ernst (soloist); Berlioz (conductor) 1848, 7 February, London premiere – Henry Hill (1808–1846) (soloist); Berlioz (conductor); Drury Lane Theatre 1853, 22 November, Bremen – Joseph Joachim (soloist); Berlioz (conductor) 1853, 1 December, Leipzig – Ferdinand David (soloist); Berlioz (conductor); Gewandhaus Orchestra 1868, 11 January, Moscow – Ferdinand Laub (soloist); Berlioz (conductor); Moscow Conservatory Orchestra 1868, 8 February, Saint Petersburg – Hieronymus Weickmann (soloist); Berlioz (conductor); final performance under the direction of the composer 1937, 4 February – Lionel Tertis (soloist, his last public performance); Ernest Ansermet; BBC Symphony Orchestra The first recording was made in 1946, by William Primrose with the Boston Symphony Orchestra conducted by Serge Koussevitzky.

Harold in Italy was premiered on 23 November 1834 with the Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire, Chrétien Urhan playing the viola part,

Recordings
William Primrose, New York Philharmonic, Arturo Toscanini , January 2, 1939 Live Broadcast William Primrose, Boston Symphony Orchestra, Serge Koussevitzky, 1944 William Primrose, Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Charles Münch William Primrose, Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Sir Thomas Beecham Wolfram Christ, Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Lorin Maazel Pinchas Zukerman, Montreal Symphony Orchestra, Charles Dutoit Yehudi Menuhin, Philharmonia Orchestra, Colin Davis, 1962 (EMI) Nobuko Imai, London Symphony Orchestra, Sir Colin Davis, 1975 Donald McInnes, Orchestre National de France, Leonard Bernstein, 1977 (EMI) Yuri Bashmet, Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra, Eliahu Inbal Tabea Zimmermann , London Symphony Orchestra, Sir Colin Davis, 2003 Heinz Kirchner, Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, Igor Markevitch, mid-1950s Daniel Benyamini, Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, Zubin Mehta, 1970s Ulrich Koch, SWF Symphony Orchestra Baden-Baden, Jan Lathan-Koenig, March 21, 1988 Rivka Golani, San Diego Symphony Orchestra, Yoav Talmi - Conductor. Naxos 8.553034 Gérard Caussé, Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique, John Eliot Gardiner - conductor, released mid-1990s (Philips). Jean-Éric Soucy, Southwest German Radio Symphony Orchestra, Sylvain Cambreling, 2009.x David Aaron Carpenter, Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra, Vladimir Ashkenazy, 2011

Bibliography
Berlioz, Hector. Memoirs. ch. 45 Berlioz website: Harold in Italy Stolba, K. Marie. The Development of Western Music: A History. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.; New York, New York; 1998. Richard Freed, program notes, 2005 D. Kern Holoman, program notes, 1996

Further reading
Sir Donald Tovey , essay on Harold in Italy in Essays in Musical Analysis, vol. IV

External links
Harold in Italy: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project BBC Discovering Music (page down for link to .ram file discussing the work) Viola-in-Music.com | Harold in Italy

Lélio
Lélio, ou le Retour à la Vie (English: Lélio, or the Return to Life) Op. 14b, is a work incorporating music and spoken text by the French composer Hector Berlioz, intended as a sequel to his Symphonie fantastique.

It was composed in Italy in 1831, often using previously written music, and first performed at the Conservatoire de Paris on 9 December 1832 as Le retour à la

vie, mélologue en six parties. It was revised for a performance in Weimar at the request of Franz Liszt in 1855 and published the following year. According to which appealed to early audiences have served to date the piece and it is rarely revived or recorded nowadays.

David Cairns, Lélio had the most "immediate impact" of all Berlioz's works, yet the fashionable Romantic features and the mixture of declamation and music

Overview
Lélio is a kind of sequel to Symphonie fantastique and makes use of the famous idée fixe (the recurring musical theme symbolising the beloved) from that work. Both the symphony and Lélio were inspired by the composer's unhappy love affairs, the symphony by Harriet Smithson, Lélio by Camille Moke, who had broken off her engagement to Berlioz, prompting the composer to contemplate suicide. Lélio is a record of the composer overcoming his despair and "returning to life" via the consolations of music and literature. Berlioz later revised his intentions, making it seem as if both the symphony and Lélio were about Harriet Smithson (she later became his wife). The symphony uses programme music to describe a despairing artist trying to kill himself with an overdose of

opium, leading to a series of increasingly terrifying visions. The programme of Lélio describes the artist wakening from these dreams, musing on

Shakespeare, his sad life, and not having a woman. He decides that if he can't put this unrequited love out of his head, he will immerse himself in music. He

then leads an orchestra to a successful performance of one of his new compositions and the story ends peacefully.

Lélio consists of six musical pieces presented by an actor who stands on stage in front of a curtain concealing the orchestra. The actor's dramatic

monologues explain the meaning of the music in the life of the artist. The work begins and ends with the idée fixe theme, linking Lélio to Symphonie

fantastique.

The music

The six pieces of music are: 1. Le pêcheur. Ballade (The Fisherman. Ballad) A setting of a translation of Goethe's ballad Der Fischer. 2. Choeur d'ombres (Chorus of Shades) An evocation of the ghostly atmosphere of Shakespeare's Hamlet, this piece reuses music from Berlioz's cantata La mort de Cléopâtre. 3. Chanson de brigands (Brigands' Song) A celebration of the freedom of life enjoyed by outlaws in Calabria. 4. Chant de bonheur - Souvenirs (Song of Happiness - Memories) A tenor hymn in praise of the artist's recovered happiness. The music was originally used in the cantata La mort d'Orphée (1827). 5. La harpe éolienne (The Aeolian Harp) For orchestra alone, this is another reworking of music from the cantata La mort d'Orphée. The Aeolian harp was an important symbol of artistic inspiration in Romanticism. 6. Fantaisie sur la "Tempête" de Shakespeare (Fantasy on Shakespeare's "The Tempest") A piece of programme music based on Shakespeare's The Tempest for orchestra and chorus (singing in Italian. "The work marks the first appearance of the piano as an orchestral instrument. Berlioz, who rarely repeated himself, never made use of it again." (Cairns p. 382)

Recordings
Lélio Lambert Wilson (narrator), Orchestre Symphonique de Montréal, conducted by Charles Dutoit (Decca) Orchestre National de l'ORTF, conducted by Jean Martinon (EMI) "Pierre Boulez Conducts Berlioz: Symphonie Fantastique and Lélio" London Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Pierre Boulez. Recording in public domain.

Sources
David Cairns: Berlioz: The Making of an Artist (the first volume of his biography of the composer) (André Deutsch, 1989) Hugh Macdonald: Berlioz ("The Master Musicians", J.M.Dent, 1982) Berlioz: Memoirs (Dover, 1960) Booklet notes to the Dutoit recording

External links

Complete text of Lélio

Messe solennelle (Berlioz)
Messe solennelle is a setting of the Catholic Solemn Mass by the French composer Hector Berlioz. It was written in 1824, when the composer was twenty, and first performed at the church of Saint-Roch, Paris on 25 July 1825, and again at the church of Saint-Eustache in 1827. After this, Berlioz claimed to have destroyed the entire score, except for the Resurrexit, but in 1992 a Belgian schoolteacher, Frans Moors, came across a copy of the work in an organ gallery in Antwerp. Scored for soprano, tenor, (prominent) bass, mixed chorus, and large orchestra, its movements are: Kyrie Gloria Gratias Quoniam Credo Incarnatus Crucifixus Resurrexit Motet pour l’Offertoire Sanctus O salutaris hostia Agnus Dei Domine salvum fac Those familiar with Berlioz's Requiem and Symphonie fantastique will recognize elements of each of those compositions in the Messe solennelle, although

somewhat altered.

Performances
was made by conductor Jean-Paul Penin on 5 October 1993 in the Vézelay Basilica. Gardiner too recorded the work. Recent performances include three given at the 2012 Salzburg Festival, with the Vienna Philharmonic under Riccardo Muti.

The first modern performance was given by the conductor John Eliot Gardiner at the church of St. Petri in Bremen on 3 October 1993, and the first recording

Recordings
Messe solennelle, Christa Pfeiler, soprano, Ruben Velasquez, tenor, Jacques Perroni, bass, National Krakow Choir and Philharmony, UNESCO and French Presidency (François Mitterrand) patronage. Conducted by Jean-Paul Penin, October 5, 1993, Vézelay basilica. France-Télévision, FranceMusique, Accord Universal Music Group, 1994. First world recording. Messe solennelle, Donna Brown (soprano), Jean-Luc Viala (tenor), Gilles Cachemaille (bass), Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique, conducted by John Eliot Gardiner (Philips, 1994). Messe solennelle, Julia Kleiter (soprano), Saimir Pirgu (tenor), Ildar Abdrazakov (bass), Konzertvereinigung Wiener Staatsopernchor, Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Riccardo Muti (live from Salzburg, ORF, 2012).

Sources
Booklet notes to the Penin recording listed above Berlioz: Mémoires, Paris, Garnier-Flammarion, 1969. Booklet notes to the Gardiner recording listed above David Cairns: Berlioz: The Making of an Artist (the first volume of his biography of the composer) (André Deutsch, 1989) Hugh Macdonald: Berlioz ("The Master Musicians", J.M.Dent, 1982) Berlioz: Memoirs (Dover, 1960) Association Nationale Hector Berlioz, Bulletin de liaison n°44, jan. 2010.

External links
Site Berlioz 2003. [1]

"Les Premières armes du jeune Berlioz : la Messe Solennelle", Jean-Paul Penin. De ontdekking van de Messe Solennelle, W. Gladines. La Messe Solennelle de Berlioz, oct. 13 th, 1993 La Croix La Messe Solennelle de Berlioz, oct. 13 th, 1993 Le Monde

Les nuits d'été
Les nuits d'été (Summer Nights), Op. 7, is a song cycle by the French composer Hector Berlioz. It is a setting of six poems by Théophile Gautier. The collection was completed in 1841, and initially composed for either baritone, contralto, or mezzo-soprano, and piano. Berlioz later adapted the work for soprano voice, and also gave it full orchestral accompaniment in 1856; almost all modern performances of the piece use the orchestral rather than the piano version. The title of the song collection is a nod to the French title of A Midsummer Night's Dream, by Berlioz's beloved Shakespeare. At first Berlioz had difficulty in deciding on a suitable order for the songs, but he finally settled on the following sequence, which is generally used for performances today, and which places the two liveliest movements at either end: 1. Villanelle 2. Le spectre de la rose 3. Sur les lagunes 4. Absence 5. Au cimetière 6. L'île inconnue

Sources
Yves Gérard, liner notes to Les nuits d'été by Hector Berlioz, Véronique Gens (soprano), Virgin Classics 7243 5 45422 2 0. Track listing of "Les nuits d'été", Veronique Gens (soprano), Virgin Classics 7243 5 45422 2 0

External links
Les nuits d'été: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project BerliozSongs.co.uk | Scores and texts of Berlioz songs for voice and piano Texts of Les nuits d'été.

Overtures by Hector Berlioz
The French composer Hector Berlioz wrote a number of overtures, many of which have become popular concert items. They include overtures intended to

introduce operas as well as independent concert overtures.

Les francs-juges
Conservatoire as part of an all Berlioz concert on 26 May 1828. In his study on the composer, Jacques Barzun describes the work as "a genuine tour de force for a young dramatic musician working without knowledge of Beethoven"

Les francs-juges, Op. 3. Composed 1826. The overture to Berlioz's first, unperformed opera. It was first performed in the concert hall of the Paris

Waverley
Waverley: grande ouverture (Waverley: Grand Overture), Op. 1. A concert overture composed in 1828. It was first performed at the Paris Conservatoire on 26 May 1828. Berlioz took his inspiration from Sir Walter Scott's Waverley novels.

Le roi Lear
Le roi Lear (King Lear), Op. 4. Composed in Nice in 1831 during Berlioz's journey back to France after his stay in Italy (due to winning the Prix de Rome). The overture is based on Shakespeare's King Lear, a recent discovery for the composer whose love of the dramatist is evident in many other of his works. It was first performed at the Paris Conservatoire on 22 December 1833.

Rob Roy
Intrata di Rob Roy Macgregor (Rob Roy Overture). Composed in 1831 and first performed at the Paris Conservatoire on 14 April 1833. The overture was inspired by Sir Walter Scott's novel Rob Roy. Berlioz was never happy with the piece, regarding it as "long and diffuse", and withdrew it after the premiere.

Benvenuto Cellini
Overture to the opera of the same name, composed in 1838.

Le carnaval romain
Le carnaval romain, ouverture pour orchestre (Roman Carnival Overture), Op. 9. Composed in 1843 and first performed at the Salle Herz, Paris, on 3 February 1844. A stand-alone overture intended for concert performance, made up of material and themes from Berlioz's opera Benvenuto Cellini, including some music from the opera's carnival scene – hence the overture's title. It is scored for large orchestra, is in the key of A major, and features a prominent and famous solo for the cor anglais.

Le corsaire
Le corsaire (The Corsair). Composed while Berlioz was on holiday in Nice in August 1844. It was first performed under the title La tour de Nice (The Tower of Nice) on 19 January 1845. It was then renamed Le corsaire rouge (after James Fenimore Cooper's novel The Red Rover) and finally Le corsaire (suggesting

Byron's poem The Corsair).

La fuite en Egypte

Overture to La fuite en Egypte (The Flight into Egypt). With two other pieces, L'adieu des bergers and Le repos de la sainte famille, this made up La fuite en

Egypte, a short work depicting Jesus and his family fleeing to Egypt to escape the persecution of King Herod, which was first published in 1852. This became

the core of the oratorio L'enfance du Christ.

Béatrice et Bénédict
Béatrice et Bénédict. Overture to the opera of the same name, composed in 1862.

Les Troyens à Carthage: Prologue

Les Troyens à Carthage: Prologue (The Trojans at Carthage: Prologue) Berlioz's epic opera Les Troyens was never performed complete during his lifetime. Troy) and acts 3–5 Les Troyens à Carthage. Only the latter was accepted and Berlioz wrote an orchestral prologue to introduce this version evoking the tragic fate of Troy.

In an attempt to have the opera staged by the Théâtre Lyrique in 1863, he split it into two parts, with acts 1 and 2 becoming La prise de Troie (The Capture of

Recordings
The individual overtures have been recorded many times. This is a partial list of collections exclusively devoted to Berlioz's overtures: Overtures: Les francs-juges, Waverley, Le roi Lear, Le carnaval romain, Béatrice et Bénédict, Le corsaire, Benvenuto Cellini, Rob Roy. London Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Adrian Boult. Recorded 28–29 August 1956: LPs Westminster WST 14008 and WST 14009 reissued on CD, First Hand Remasters FHR07, 2010 Overtures: Les francs-juges, Waverley, Le roi Lear, Le carnaval romain, Béatrice et Bénédict, Le corsaire, Benvenuto Cellini. Staatskapelle Dresden, conducted by Sir Colin Davis. CD, RCA, 1998 Overtures: La damnation de Faust, Op. 24 (excerpts): Part I Scene 3: Hungarian March/Rakoczy March & Part II Scene 7: Ballet des syphes; Roman Carnival Overture, Op. 9; Romeo et Juliette, Op. 17 – Love Scene; Le roi Lear; Benvenuto Cellini, Op. 23 – Overture; Le corsaire, Overture, Op. 21. Polish State Philharmonic Orchestra, Katowice, Kenneth Jean cond. CD, DDD, TT: 1h08m, Naxos. Cat. no. No: 8.550231, barcode 0730099523127 Overtures: Benvenuto Cellini, Op. 23; Waverley, Op. 1; Beatrice and Benedict; King Lear, Op. 4; Roman Carnival Overture, Op. 9; Rob Roy; Le Corsaire, Op. 21. San Diego Symphony, Yoav Talmi. CD, DDD, TT: 1h15m, Naxos. Cat. no. 8.550999, barcode 0730099599924 Overtures: Le Carnaval Romain, Beatrice et Benedict, Le corsaire, Benevenuto Cellini, Les Troyens: Royal Hunt and Storm, Romeo et Juliette: Queen Mab Scherzo, and Camille Saint-Saëns's Omphale's Spinning Wheel, Boston Symphony Orchestra conducted by Charles Munch. CD, RCA

References
Booklet notes to the Davis recording David Cairns: Berlioz: The Making of an Artist (the first volume of his biography of the composer) (André Deutsch, 1989) Hugh Macdonald: Berlioz ("The Master Musicians", J.M.Dent, 1982) Berlioz: Memoirs (Dover, 1960)

External links
Waverley, King Lear, Rob Roy Overture, Roman Carnival Overture, The Corsair: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project

Prix de Rome Cantatas (Berlioz)
1. REDIRECT Prix de Rome cantatas (Berlioz)

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Requiem (Berlioz)
The Grande Messe des morts, Op. 5 (or Requiem) by Hector Berlioz was composed in 1837. The Grande Messe des Morts is one of Berlioz's best-known works, with a tremendous orchestration of woodwind and brass instruments, including four antiphonal offstage brass ensembles placed at the corners of the

concert stage. The work derives its text from the traditional Latin Requiem Mass. It has a duration of approximately ninety minutes, although there are faster

recordings of under seventy-five minutes.

History

In 1837, Adrien de Gasparin, the Minister of the Interior of France, asked Berlioz to compose a Requiem Mass to remember soldiers who died in the

Revolution of July 1830. Berlioz accepted the request, having already wanted to compose a large orchestral work. Meanwhile, the orchestra was growing in wrote, "if I were threatened with the destruction of the whole of my works save one, I should crave mercy for the Messe des morts." The premiere was conducted by François Antoine Habeneck on December 5, 1837 in commemoration of General Damrémont and the soldiers killed in the Siege of Constantine. According to Berlioz himself, Habeneck put down his baton during the dramatic Tuba mirum (part of the Dies irae movement), and took a pinch of snuff. Berlioz rushed to the podium to conduct himself, saving the performance from disaster. The premiere was a complete success. Berlioz revised the work two times in his life, the first in 1852, making the final revisions in 1867, only two years before his death.

size and quality, and the use of woodwinds and brass was expanding due to the increasing ease of intonation afforded by modern instruments. Berlioz later

Structure
Berlioz's Requiem has ten movements, and the structure is as follows: Introit 1. Requiem aeternam & Kyrie: Introitus Sequence 2. Dies irae: Prosa, Tuba mirum 3. Quid sum miser 4. Rex tremendae 5. Quaerens me 6. Lacrymosa Offertory 7. Domine Jesu Christe 8. Hostias 9. Sanctus Agnus Dei 10. Communion

Instrumentation
The Requiem is scored for a very large orchestra, four offstage brass bands, and chorus placed throughout the hall:
Woodw inds 4 Flutes 2 Oboes 2 Cors anglais 4 Clarinets in B-flat 8 Bassoons Brass 12 Horns (4 parts + 2 extra in Mvt 2) 4 Cornets in B-flat 4 Tubas Percussion 16 Timpani (10 players) 2 Bass Drums 10 pairs of Cymbals 4 Tam-tams 4 Brass Choirs Choir 1 to the North
4 Cornets 4 Trombones 2 Tubas

Voices Chorus:
80 Sopranos and Altos (exact ratio not specif ied) 60 Tenors 70 Basses

Choir 2 to the East
4 Trumpets 4 Trombones

Tenor solo Strings 25 Violin I 25 Violin II 20 Violas 20 Violoncellos 18 Double Basses

Choir 3 to the West
4 Trumpets 4 Trombones

Choir 4 to the South
4 Trumpets 4 Trombones 4 Ophicleides (usually substituted by Tubas)

In relation to the number of singers and strings, Berlioz indicates in the score that, "The number [of performers] indicated is only relative. If space permits, the chorus may be doubled or tripled, and the orchestra be proportionally increased. But in the event of an exceptionally large chorus, say 700 to 800 voices, the entire chorus should only be used for the Dies Irae, the Tuba Mirum, and the Lacrymosa, the rest of the movements being restricted to 400 voices." The work premiered with over four hundred performers.

Music

The Requiem opens gravely with rising scales in the strings, horns, oboes, and cor anglais preceding the choral entry. Later, the music becomes extremely

agitated with despair. The first movement contains the first two sections of the music for the Mass (the Introit and the Kyrie).

The Sequence commences in the second movement, with the Dies irae portraying Judgement Day. The four brass ensembles at the corners of the stage first

appear in this movement, one by one; they are joined by sixteen timpani, two bass drums, and four tam-tams. The loud flourish is followed by the choral entry.

There is a powerful unison statement by the basses, followed by the choir. Woodwinds and strings end the movement.

The third movement, Quid sum miser, is short, depicting after Judgement Day. It features an interesting orchestration of TTB chorus, two cors anglais, eight

bassoons, cellos, and double basses. The Rex tremendae contains contrasting opposites. The choir sings both beseechingly, as if for help, and majestically.

Quaerens me is a quiet, soft movement which is completely a cappella.

The sixth movement, Lacrimosa, is in 9/8 time signature, and is considered the center of the entire Requiem. It is the only movement written in recognizable

sonata form and the last movement depicting pain. The dramatic effect of this movement is heightened by the addition of the massed brass and percussion.

This movement concludes the Sequence section of the Mass.

The seventh movement begins the Offertory. Domine Jesu Christe is based on a repeated three-note motif: A, B flat, and A. The choral statements of this

motive interweave with the orchestral melodies. The "A, B flat, A" motif persists for about ten minutes almost to the end, which concludes peacefully. Robert

Schumann was very interested in the innovativeness of this movement. The concluding part of the Offertory, the Hostias, is short and scored for the male

voices, eight trombones, three flutes, and strings. A solo male tenor voice is featured in the ninth movement, the Sanctus. There are long held notes played by the flute. Women's voices also sing, perhaps answering the tenor. Later, the low strings and cymbals join in. A full orchestral fugue ends the movement. In his original version, Berlioz requested ten tenors for the solo part. The final movement, containing the Agnus Dei and Communion sections of the Mass, features long held chords by the woodwinds and strings. The movement recapitulates melodies and effects from previous movements.

Notable recordings
Leonard Bernstein conducts the Orchestre National de France and the Choeurs de Radio France with Stuart Burrows, Tenor. Recorded at St Louis des Invalides, Paris, 1975. Sir Thomas Beecham conducting the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, Royal Philharmonic Chorus and Richard Lewis (tenor). Charles Münch conducting the Boston Symphony Orchestra, New England Conservatory Chorus and Leopold Simoneau (tenor). Charles Münch conducting the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, Bavarian Radio Choir and Peter Schreier, Tenor. Recorded at Herkulessaal, Munich, July 1967. Seiji Ozawa conducting the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Tanglewood Festival Chorus and Vinson Cole. Sir Colin Davis conducting the London Symphony Orchestra, London Symphony Chorus and Ronald Dowd (tenor) Robert Shaw conducting the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra & Chorus and John Aler. André Previn conducting the London Philharmonic Choir, London Philharmonic Orchestra and Robert Tear. James Levine conducting the Berliner Philharmoniker, Ernest-Senff-Chor and Luciano Pavarotti. Valery Gergiev conducting the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, City of Birmingham Symphony Chorus, Mariinsky Theatre Orchestra and Chorus and Sergei Semishkur.

References
Steinberg, Michael. "Hector Berlioz: Requiem." Choral Masterworks: A Listener's Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, 61-67.

Further reading
Niecks, Frederick. "Berlioz's Messe des Morts and Its Performance in Glasgow". The Musical Times and Singing Class Circular 25, no. 493 (1 March 1884): 129–31.

External links
Overview of the Requiem including history, a description of the movements, and the complete text Requiem: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project Free scores of this work in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki) "The Berlioz Requiem - Pre-Concert Talk", lecture by David Cairns at Gresham College on 12th July 2007

Roméo et Juliette (Berlioz)

Handb ill advertising the first performance of Roméo et Juliette.

Roméo et Juliette is a "symphonie dramatique", a large-scale choral symphony by French composer Hector Berlioz, which was first performed on 24 November 1839. The libretto was written by Émile Deschamps and the completed work was assigned the catalogue numbers Op. 17 and H.79. It is based on

Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet; it is regarded as one of Berlioz's finest works, and it is among the most original in form. The score is Berlioz's most

comprehensive and detailed programmatic piece.

Composition

Genesis
cast included Harriet Smithson, who also inspired Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique. In his Memoirs, Berlioz describes the electrifying effect of the drama: ... to steep myself in the fiery sun and balmy nights of Italy, to witness the drama of that passion swift as thought, burning as lava, radiantly pure as an angel's glance, imperious, irresistible, the raging vendettas, the desperate kisses, the frantic strife of love and death, was more than I could bear. By the third act, scarcely able to breathe—it was as though an iron hand had gripped me by the heart—I knew that I was lost. I may add that at the time I did not know a word of English; I could only glimpse Shakespeare darkly through the mists of Letourneur's translation; the splendour of the poetry which gives a whole new glowing dimension to his glorious works was lost on me. ... But the power of the acting, especially that of Juliet herself, the rapid flow of the scenes, the play of expression and voice and gesture, told me more and gave me a far richer awareness of the ideas and passions of the original than the words of my pale and garbled translation could do.

Initial inspiration came from a performance he witnessed in 1827 of Romeo and Juliet (in David Garrick's edited version) at the Odéon Theatre in Paris. The

The range of feeling and mood as well as poetic and formal invention which Berlioz found in Shakespeare had a strong influence on his music, making a

direct musical setting of Shakespeare's work only natural. In fact, he had been planning a musical realisation of Romeo and Juliet for a long time before 1838,

but other projects intervened. Emile Deschamps (the librettist of the work) says that he and Berlioz worked out a plan for the symphony shortly after the

Odéon's 1827-28 season. Indeed, it may be the case that Roméo et Juliette's genesis is intertwined with other works composed before the composer left for the Roméo seul ("Romeo alone") portion of the second movement and the Grande fête chez Capulet ("Great banquet at the Capulets"). There is abundant evidence that Berlioz was gradually working out a scheme for Roméo et Juliette during his sojourn in Italy. He reviewed a February 1831

his Prix de Rome sojourn of 1830-32. Sardanapale, the cantata with which Berlioz finally won the Prix de Rome in 1830, includes the melodic material of both

performance in Florence of Bellini's I Capuleti e i Montecchi, outlining in passing how he would compose music for the Roméo et Juliette story: it would

feature, he says, the swordfight, a concert of love, Mercutio's piquant buffooning, the terrible catastrophe, and the solemn oath of the two rival families. One

line of text from the review eventually shows up in the libretto of the symphony.

Realization

The eventual composition of Roméo et Juliette as we know it now was made possible by the generous gift of 20,000 francs by Niccolò Paganini; after hearing heir of Beethoven. Sadly, Paganini died shortly after, and did not read or hear the piece. Berlioz used the money primarily to repay his debts, and afterwards was still left with "a handsome sum of money", which he used to allow himself to put his full focus towards working on "a really important work", unobstructed by his usual time-consuming obligations as a critic. Berlioz finished the score on 8 September 1839. The work's libretto is not sourced from the original plays, and as a result contains inaccuracies, both in the version Berlioz worked from, and subsequent cuts

a performance of Harold en Italie at the Paris Conservatoire on 16 December 1838, the great virtuoso had publicly knelt before Berlioz and hailed him as the

he and his librettist made. Berlioz's composition was heavily influenced by the play he had seen acted by Charles Kemble and Harriet Smithson in 1827, which had been rewritten by the 18th century actor David Garrick to have Juliet awaken from her death-like sleep before Romeo's death from (a much slower acting) poison. Berlioz enlisted the services of author Emile Deschamps to write the libretto. Between them they also left out the character of the nurse and expanded Shakespeare's brief mention of the two families' reconciliation into a substantial vocal finale. Berlioz's developed a special predilection for the symphony over his career, writing in his memoirs that one movement in particular became a favorite: "If you now ask me which of my pieces I prefer, my answer will be that I share the view of most artists: I prefer the adagio (the Love Scene) in Romeo and Juliet."

Performance
From composition until the first performance, Berlioz's time was occupied with physical arrangements for the premiere: parts were copied, chorus parts

lithographed, and rehearsals got underway. The bass-baritone, Adophe-Louis Alizard (Friar Lawrence), and the Prologue chorus, all of whom came from the

Paris Opéra, were prepared during the intermissions of performances there. There was much anticipation in Paris prior to the first performance. In the

rehearsals, Berlioz pioneered the practice of orchestral sectionals, rehearsing the different sections of the orchestra separately to better prepare them for the

challenging piece. This was followed by two full orchestra rehearsals to polish up the details. The Roméo was the tenor Alexis Dupont, and the Juliette was a

contralto whose name appears variously as Mme Wideman or Widemann, or Mlle Wiedemann.

It was first performed in three concerts conducted by Berlioz at the Paris Conservatoire with an orchestra of 100 instruments and 101 voices on 24 November,

1 December and 15 December 1839, before capacity audiences that comprised much of the Parisian intelligentsia. Another notable audience member was

Richard Wagner. Reactions to the piece were quite varied, as could be expected for a radical work. However, it was widely acknowledged that Berlioz had

scored a major triumph in these first performances; a "tour de force such as only my system of sectional rehearsals could have achieved". Berlioz comments:

"The work as it was then {in 1839] was performed three times at the Conservatoire under my direction and, each time, appeared to be a genuine success. But

I felt at once that much would have to be changed, and I went over it carefully and critically from every point of view." He continued to revise the work, a few

instances upon the suggestions of critics, but generally by his own judgement. A premiere of a later revision (including cuts and changes to the Prologue, Queen Mab Scherzo, and the Finale) was held in Vienna on 2 January 1846, the first performance since 1839 and the first abroad. After hearing a complete performance in Vienna on 26 January 1846, Berlioz took the opportunity to make major revisions before a performance scheduled for the following April in Prague. He accepted advice from several confidants and advisers, rewriting the coda of the Queen Mab Scherzo, shortening Friar Laurence's narrative at the end, deleting a lengthy second Prologue at the beginning of the second half, and introducing musical foreshadowing in the first prologue. The full score was not published until 1847. Reflecting on the first performances, Berlioz commented in his memoirs: The work is enormously difficult to perform. It poses problems of every kind, problems inherent in the form and in the style and only to be solved by long and patient rehearsal, impeccably directed. To be well done, it needs first-rate performers—players, singers, conductor—intent on preparing it with as much care as a new opera is prepared in a good opera house, in fact almost as if it were to be performed by heart.

Instrumentation
The score calls for: piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes (one doubling cor anglais), 2 clarinets, 4 bassoons 4 horns, 2 cornets, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, bass tuba 2 pairs of timpani, 2 snare drums, bass drum, cymbals, crotales 2 harps strings

Music
Structurally and musically, Roméo et Juliette is most indebted to Beethoven's 9th symphony - not just due to the use of soloists and choir, but in factors such as the weight of the vocal contribution being in the finale, and also in aspects of the orchestration such as the theme of the trombone recitative at the Introduction. The roles of Roméo and Juliette are represented by the orchestra, and the narrative aspects by the voices. Berlioz's reasoning follows: If, in the famous garden and cemetery scenes, the dialogue of the two lovers, Juliet's asides, and Romeo's passionate outbursts are not sung, if the duets of love and despair are given to the orchestra, the reasons for this are numerous and easy to understand. First, and this reason alone would be sufficient, it is a symphony and not an opera. Second, since duets of this nature have been treated vocally a thousand times by the greatest masters, it was wise as well as unusual to attempt another means of expression.

The vocal forces are used sparingly throughout, until they are fully deployed in the finale. The exceptional virtuosity deployed in the orchestral writing seems

particularly appropriate for the dedicatee of the work, Paganini himself, who was never able to hear it, much to Berlioz's regret. Further examples of Berlioz's

inventiveness are shown in the use of thematic links throughout the piece, somewhat laying the ground for the Wagnerian leitmotif, for example the last solo

notes of the oboe which follow Juliet's suicide echo a phrase from the earlier funeral procession when she was thought to be dead. Berlioz signed and dated

his autograph on 8 September 1839. The final score was dedicated to Paganini.

The stylistic links of the work with Beethoven before (and Wagner after) could not be stronger. From Beethoven, Berlioz learned the very notion of

programmatic music. He saw in the Pastoral symphony how music might be depictive without being naïve, in the symphonic scherzi how the delicate Queen Mab might best be evoked, and in the 9th symphony how effective a choral finale could be. He sensed Beethoven's flexibility with regard to number of movements and the performing force.

Influence
From Roméo et Juliette Wagner absorbed so much about the ideals of dramatic music that the work can be considered a major influence on Tristan und Isolde. When Wagner first heard the work in 1839 he said it made him feel like a schoolboy at Berlioz's side. And Roméo et Juliette was the one of Berlioz's works he knew best. Indeed, their second and last meeting was on the occasion of a performance of the work in London in 1855. Wagner learned something of melodic flexibility and perhaps even a mastery of the orchestral force from Berlioz. He may have absorbed more specific features: the close relationship of the first few bars of the Tristan Prelude to the opening of the second movement of Romeo and Juliet cannot be denied. Moreover, in 1860, he sent Berlioz the published full score of Tristan und Isolde inscribed merely:
Au grand et cher auteur de Roméo et Juliiette L'auteur reconnaissant de Tristan et Isolde. (To the dear and great author of Romeo and Juliet from the grateful author of Tristan and Isolde.)

Beyond the influence on Wagner's music drama, the piece pushed the limits of the contemporary orchestra's capabilities, in terms of colour, programmatic scope and individual virtuosity. While this applies to much of Berlioz's music, it is even more true for Roméo et Juliette, written at the height of his powers and ambition. Its vivid scene-setting surpasses many operas, which constitutes an enormous success on Berlioz's part. Franz Liszt also recognised the significance of Berlioz as a progressive composer, and championed his music.

Structure
Part I 1. Introduction: Combats (Combat) - Tumulte (Tumult) Intervention du prince (Intervention of the prince) Prologue - Strophes - Scherzetto Part II 2. Roméo seul (Romeo alone) - Tristesse (Sadness) Bruits lointains de concert et de bal (Distant sounds from the concert and the ball) Grande fête chez Capulet (Great banquet at the Capulets) 3. Scène d'amour (Love scene) - Nuit serène (Serene night) Le jardin de Capulet silencieux et déserte (The Capulets' garden silent and deserted) Les jeunes Capulets sortant de la fête en chantant des réminiscences de la musique du bal (The young Capulets leaving the banquet singing snatches of music from the ball) 4. Scherzo: La reine Mab, reine des songes (Queen Mab, the queen of dreams – the Queen Mab Scherzo)

Part III

5. Convoi funèbre de Juliette (Funeral cortège for the young Juliet): "Jetez des fleurs pour la vierge expirée" ("Throw flowers for the dead virgin")

6. Roméo au tombeau des Capulets (Romeo at the tomb of the Capulets) Invocation: Réveil de Juliette (Juliet awakes) - Joie délirante, désespoir (Delirious joy, despair) Dernières angoisses et mort des deux amants (Last throes and death of the two lovers)

7. Finale: La foule accourt au cimetière (The crowd rushes to the graveyard) Des Capulets et des Montagus (Fight between the Capulets and Montagues) Récitatif et Air du Père Laurence (Friar Lawrence's recitative and aria) Aria: "Pauvres enfants que je pleure" ("Poor children that I weep for") Serment de réconciliation (Oath of reconciliation) Oath: "Jurez donc par l'auguste symbole" ("Swear by the revered symbol")

Bibliography
Berlioz: Roméo et Juliette: Julian Rushton, 129pp, Cambridge University Press, 26 August 1994. ISBN : 0521377676, ISBN : 978-0521377676 Berlioz's Semi-Operas: Roméo et Juliette and La Damnation de Faust: Daniel Albright, 204pp, University of Rochester Press, September 2001. ISBN : 1580460941, ISBN : 978-1580460941

Discography
Complete

Roméo et Juliette; Nuits d'été: Janet Baker, Jessye Norman. John Barbirolli & Riccardo Muti cond., Philadelphia Orchestra, New Philharmonia Orchestra. 2 CDs, DDD, EMI Classics, 11 August 1998. ASIN: B000009OQO Roméo et Juliette; Les Nuits d'été: Denis Sedov, Melanie Diener, Kenneth Tarver. Pierre Boulez cond., Cleveland Orchestra. 2 CDs, DDD, Deutsche Grammophon, 14 October 2003. ASIN: B00008NR4P Roméo et Juliette; Symphonie Fantastique: Andre Turp. Pierre Monteux & René Leibowitz cond., London Symphony Orchestra, Wiener Staatsopernorchester. 2 CDs, ADD, Deutsche Grammophon (originally Westminster), 23 November 2001. ASIN: B00005RIH4 Roméo et Juliette: Robbin, Fouchecourt, Cachemaille. John Eliot Gardiner cond., Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique, Monteverdi Choir. 2 CDs, DDD, Philips/PolyGram, 14 April 1998. ASIN: B0000069CM Roméo et Juliette: Daniela Barcellona, Orlin Anastassov, Kenneth Tarver. Colin Davis cond., London Symphony Orchestra. 2 CDs, DDD, LSO Live, 1 January 2000. Cat. no: LSO0003, UPC: 822231100324, ASIN: B00004XR87 Roméo et Juliette; Bizet - Carmen & L'Arlésienne Suites: Nicola Moscona, Gladys Swarthout. Arturo Toscanini cond., NBC Symphony Orchestra. 2 CDs, ADD, RCA Records. ASIN: B000003EX4 Roméo et Juliette: Olga Borodina, Thomas Moser, Alastair Miles. Colin Davis cond., Wiener Philharmoniker, Bavarian Radio Chorus. 2 CDs, DDD, Philips Classics Records, 1 September 1996. ASIN: B00000418S Roméo et Juliette; Symphonie Fantastique: Rosalind Elias. Charles Münch cond., Boston Symphony Orchestra, New England Conservatory Chorus. 2 CDs, RCA Records, 20 May 2003. ASIN: B000024HIJ

Roméo et Juliette; Les nuits d'été: Harvard Glee Club and Radcliffe Choral Society, Margaret Roggero, Leslie Chabay, and Yi-Kwei Sze, Charles Münch cond., Boston Symphony Orchestra. 2 CDs, RCA Records, 14 April 1992. ASIN: B000003F2S Berlioz: Complete Orchestral Works: John Shirley-Quirk, Robert Tear , Sir Colin Davis cond., London Symphony Orchestra, John Alldis Choir, Phillips, 1968. ASIN: B0017MU60E

Excerpts
Roméo et Juliette; Le Troyens à Carthage: Frank Almond & Yoav Talmi cond., San Diego Symphony Orchestra, San Diego Master Chorale. CD, DDD, Naxos, 22 August 1995. Cat. no: 8.553195, Barcode: 0730099419529, ASIN: B000001460 Roméo et Juliette; L'enfance du Christ: Victoria de los Ángeles, Nicolai Gedda. André Cluytens & Carlo Maria Giulini cond., Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire. 2 CDs, ADD, EMI Classics/Angel, 19 November 1996. ASIN: B000002SCH Roméo et Juliette; Requiem; Mort de Cléopâtre: Jennie Tourel , Stuart Burrows. Leonard Bernstein cond., New York Philharmonic, Orchestre National d'Ile de France, Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France. 2 CDs, ADD, Sony, 28 July 1992. ASIN: B0000027LZ Roméo et Juliette; Symphonie Fantastique: Charles Münch cond., Orchestre National et Choeurs de la RTF. 2 CDs, Cascavelle, 26 April 2007. ASIN: B000P2A4YU (more information needed) Roméo et Juliette; Symphonie Fantastique: André Cluytens, Orchestre National de la Radiodiffusion, Française Orchestre du Théâtre National de l'Opéra. CD, Testament, 25 February 2002. Cat. no: SBT1234 , ASIN: B000060K9F

DVD
Roméo et Juliette: Hanna Schwarz, Philip Langridge, Peter Meven. Colin Davis cond., Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra. DVD, Arthaus Musik, 1h42m, 21 March 2006. Cat. no: 102017, Barcode: 807280201796, ASIN: B000E5LHLM

Sources
Berlioz, Hector; Cairns, David, translator and editor (2002). The Memoirs of Hector Berlioz. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-375-41391-9. Cairns, David (1999). Berlioz. Volume Two. Servitude and Greatness 1832–1869 . London: Allen Lane. The Penguin Press. ISBN 978-0-7139-9386-8. Holoman, D. Kern (1989). Berlioz, p. 201. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-06778-3. Macdonald, Hugh (1982). Berlioz, The Master Musicians Series. London: J. M. Dent. ISBN 978-0-460-03156-1.

External links
Creative Commons Recording (MP3: 105kbit/s VBR) HBerlioz.com | Roméo et Juliette analysis CarringBush.net | Roméo et Juliette analysis Charlotte Symphony. Programme notes (PDF) at the Wayback Machine (archived September 28, 2007) Roméo et Juliette (Berlioz): Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project

Symphonie fantastique
Symphonie fantastique: Épisode de la vie d'un Artiste ... en cinq parties (Fantastic Symphony: An Episode in the Life of an Artist, in Five Parts ) Op. 14 is a program symphony written by the French composer Hector Berlioz in 1830. It is an important representative piece of the early Romantic period, and is popular with concert audiences worldwide. The first performance was at the Paris Conservatoire in December 1830. The work was repeatedly revived between 1831 and 1845 and subsequently became a favourite in Paris.

Instrumentation
The score calls for: 2 flutes (one doubling piccolo), 2 oboes (one doubling cor anglais), 2 clarinets (one doubling E♭E♭ clarinet bassoons E♭ clarinet 4 clarinet), 4 horns, 2 cornets, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, 2 tubas/ophicleides 2 pairs of timpani, cymbals, suspended cymbal, tenor drum, bass drum, bells (sounding C and G) 2 harps strings

Outline
The symphony is a piece of program music that tells the story of "an artist gifted with a lively imagination" who has "poisoned himself with opium" in the "depths of despair" because of "hopeless love." Berlioz provided his own program notes for each movement of the work (see below). He prefaces his notes with the following instructions: The composer’s intention has been to develop various episodes in the life of an artist, in so far as they lend themselves to musical treatment. As the work cannot rely on the assistance of speech, the plan of the instrumental drama needs to be set out in advance. The following programme must therefore be considered as the spoken text of an opera, which serves to introduce musical movements and to motivate their character and expression. There are five movements, instead of the four movements that were conventional for symphonies at the time: 1. Rêveries – Passions (Daydreams – Passions) 2. Un bal (A ball) 3. Scène aux champs (Scene in the Country) 4. Marche au supplice (March to the Scaffold) 5. Songe d'une nuit de sabbat (Dream of a Witches' Sabbath)

First movement: "Rêveries – Passions" (Reveries – Passions)
In Berlioz's own program notes from 1845, he writes:

The author imagines that a young vibrant musician, afflicted by the sickness of spirit which a famous writer has called the wave of passions [la vague des passions], sees for the first time a woman who unites all the charms of the ideal person his imagination was dreaming of, and falls desperately in love with her. By a strange anomaly, the beloved image never presents itself to the artist’s mind without being associated with a musical idea, in which he recognises a certain quality of passion, but endowed with the nobility and shyness which he credits to the object of his love. This melodic image and its model keep haunting him ceaselessly like a double idée fixe. This explains the constant recurrence in all the movements of the symphony of the melody which launches the first allegro. The transitions from this state of dreamy melancholy, interrupted by occasional upsurges of aimless joy, to delirious passion, with its outbursts of fury and jealousy, its returns of tenderness, its tears, its religious consolations – all this forms the subject of the first movement.

idée fixe melody

Most of the rest of this article is copied directly from the book "Hector Berlioz: The Complete Guide".: "The first movement is radical in its harmonic outline, building a vast arch back to the home key; while similar to the sonata form of the classical period, Parisian critics regarded this as unconventional. It is here that the listener is introduced to the theme of the artist's beloved, or the idée fixe. Throughout the movement there is a simplicity in the way melodies and themes are presented, which Robert Schumann likened to 'Beethoven's epigrams' ideas that could be extended had the composer chosen to. In part, it is because Berlioz rejected writing the more symmetrical melodies then in academic fashion, and instead looked for melodies that were 'so intense in every note as to defy normal harmonization', as Schumann put it. The theme itself was taken from Berlioz's scène lyrique "Herminie", composed in 1828.

Second movement: "Un bal" (A Ball)
Again, quoting from Berlioz's program notes:

The artist finds himself in the most diverse situations in life, in the tumult of a festive party, in the peaceful contemplation of the beautiful sights of nature, yet everywhere, whether in town or in the countryside, the beloved image keeps haunting him and throws his spirit into confusion.

The second movement has a mysterious-sounding introduction that creates an atmosphere of impending excitement, followed by a passage dominated by two harps; then the flowing waltz theme appears, derived from the idée fixe at first, then transforming it. More formal statements of the idée fixe twice interrupt the waltz. The movement is the only one to feature the two harps, providing the glamour and sensual richness of the ball, and may also symbolise the object of the young man's affection. Berlioz wrote extensively in his memoirs of his trials and tribulations in having this symphony performed, due to a lack of capable harpists and harps, especially in Germany.

Third movement: "Scène aux champs" (Scene in the Fields)
From Berlioz's program notes:

One evening in the countryside he hears two shepherds in the distance dialoguing with their 'ranz des vaches'; this pastoral duet, the setting, the gentle rustling of the trees in the wind, some causes for hope that he has recently conceived, all conspire to restore to his heart an unaccustomed feeling of calm and to give to his thoughts a happier colouring. He broods on his loneliness, and hopes that soon he will no longer be on his own ... But what if she betrayed him! ... This mingled hope and fear, these ideas of happiness, disturbed by dark premonitions, form the subject of the adagio. At the end one of the shepherds resumes his ‘ranz des vaches’; the other one no longer answers. Distant sound of thunder ... solitude ... silence ...
The two "shepherds" Berlioz mentions in the notes are depicted with a cor anglais and offstage oboe tossing an evocative melody back and forth. After the cor anglais–oboe conversation, the principal theme of the movement appears on solo flute and violins. Berlioz salvaged this theme from his abandoned Messe solennelle. The idée fixe returns in the middle of the movement, played by oboe and flute. The sound of distant thunder at the end of the movement is a striking passage for four timpani.

Fourth movement: "Marche au supplice" (March to the Scaffold)
From Berlioz's program notes:

Convinced that his love is unappreciated, the artist poisons himself with opium. The dose of narcotic, while too weak to cause his death, plunges him into a heavy sleep accompanied by the strangest of visions. He dreams that he has killed his beloved, that he is condemned, led to the scaffold and is witnessing his own execution. As he cries for forgiveness the effects of the narcotic set in. He wants to hide but he cannot so he watches as an onlooker as he dies. The procession advances to the sound of a march that is

sometimes sombre and wild, and sometimes brilliant and solemn, in which a dull sound of heavy footsteps follows without transition the loudest outbursts. At the end of the march, the first four bars of the idée fixe reappear like a final thought of love interrupted by the fatal blow when his head bounced down the steps.
Berlioz claimed to have written the fourth movement in a single night, reconstructing music from an unfinished project – the opera Les francs-juges. The movement begins with timpani sextuplets in thirds, for which he directs: "The first quaver of each half-bar is to be played with two drumsticks, and the other five with the right hand drumsticks". The movement proceeds as a march filled with blaring horns and rushing passages, and scurrying figures that later show up in the last movement. Before the musical depiction of his execution, there is a brief, nostalgic recollection of the idée fixe in a solo clarinet, as though representing the last conscious thought of the soon-to-be-executed man. Immediately following this is a single, short fortissimo G minor chord – the fatal blow of the guillotine blade, followed by a series of pizzicato notes representing the rolling of the severed head into the basket.[citation needed] After his death, the final nine bars of the movement contain a victorious series of G major brass chords, along with rolls of the snare drums within the entire orchestra, seemingly intended to convey the cheering of the onlooking throng.

Fifth movement: "Songe d'une nuit de sabbat" (Dreams of a Witches' Sabbath)
From Berlioz's program notes:

He sees himself at a witches’ sabbath, in the midst of a hideous gathering of shades, sorcerers and monsters of every kind who have come together for his funeral. Strange sounds, groans, outbursts of laughter; distant shouts which seem to be answered by more shouts. The beloved melody appears once more, but has now lost its noble and shy character; it is now no more than a vulgar dance tune, trivial and grotesque: it is she who is coming to the sabbath ... Roar of delight at her arrival ... She joins the diabolical orgy ... The funeral knell tolls, burlesque parody of the Dies irae, the dance of the witches. The dance of the witches combined with the Dies irae.
This movement can be divided into sections according to tempo changes: The introduction is Largo, in common time, creating an ominous quality through dynamic variations and instrumental effects, particularly in the strings (tremolos, pizz, sf). At bar 21 the tempo changes to Allegro and the metre to 6/6. The return of the idée fixe as a "vulgar dance tune" is depicted by the C clarinet. This is interrupted by an Allegro Assai section in cut common at bar 29. The idée fixe then returns as a prominent E-flat clarinet solo at bar 40, in 6/8 and Allegro. The E-flat clarinet contributes a shriller timbre than the C clarinet. At bar 80, there is one bar of alla breve, with descending crotchets in unison through the entire orchestra. Again in 6/8, this section see the introduction of tubular bells and fragments of the "witches' round dance". The "Dies irae" begins at bar 127, the motif derived from a Gregorian chant. It is initially stated in unison between by the unusual combination of four bassoons and two tubas. At bar 222, the "witches' round dance" motif is repeatedly stated in the strings, to be interrupted by three syncopated notes in the brass. This leads into the Ronde du Sabbat (Sabbath Round) at bar 241, where the motif is finally expressed in full. The Dies irae et Ronde du Sabbat Ensemble section is at bar 414. There are a host of effects, including eerie col legno in the strings – the bubbling of the witches' cauldron to the blasts of wind. (Berlioz's use of the word "orgy" pertains to a cultic gathering and not the more modernized meaning.) The climactic finale combines the somber Dies Irae melody with the wild fugue of

the Ronde du Sabbat. The aim of the second kind of imitation, as we have said before, is to reproduce the intonations of the passions and the emotions, and even to trace a musical image, or metaphor, of objects that can only be seen. [citation needed] He later adds: ...Emotional (imitation) is designed to arouse in us by means of sound the notion of the several passions of the heart, and to awaken solely through the sense of hearing the impressions that human beings experience only through the other senses. Such is the goal of expression, depiction or musical metaphors.[citation needed] As part of this he uses an example of cyclical structure – an idea drawn from Beethoven's use of similar rhythmic structures in his Fifth Symphony, and the idea of musical "cycles", such as a "song cycle". Berlioz did not know of Mendelssohn's Octet, which also uses this device.[citation needed] Leonard Bernstein described the symphony as the first musical expedition into psychedelia because of its hallucinatory and dream-like nature, and because history suggests Berlioz composed at least a portion of it under the influence of opium. According to Bernstein, 'Berlioz tells it like it is. You take a trip, you wind up screaming at your own funeral.'" In 1831, Berlioz wrote a lesser known sequel to the work, Lelio, for actor, orchestra and chorus. [citation needed]Franz Liszt made a piano transcription of the work in 1833 (S.470).

Harriet Smithson

Berlioz fell in love with an Irish actress, Harriet Smithson, after attending a performance of Shakespeare's Hamlet with her in the role of Ophelia on 11 September 1827. He sent her numerous love letters, all of which went unanswered[citation needed]. When she left Paris they had still not met[citation needed]. He

then wrote the symphony as a way to express his unrequited love[citation needed]. It premiered in Paris on 5 December 1830; Harriet was not

present[citation needed]. She eventually heard the work in 1832 and realized his genius[citation needed]. The two finally met and were married on 3 October

1833[citation needed]. Their marriage became increasingly bitter, and eventually they separated after several years of unhappiness.

Media
European Archive Copyright-free LP recording of the Symphonie fantastique by Willem van Otterloo (conductor) and the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra (for non-American viewers only) at the European Archive.

References
Holomon, D. Kern, Berlioz (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University press, 1989). ISBN 0-674-06778-9. Oxford Companion to Music, Oxford University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-19-866212-2.

External links
Symphonie Fantastique on the Hector Berlioz Website, with links to Scorch full score and program note written by the composer. Symphonie Fantastique: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project Keeping Score: Berlioz Symphonie fantastique multimedia website with interactive score produced by the San Francisco Symphony Symphonie Fantastique at the Internet Archive, performed by the Cleveland Orchestra, Artur Rodzinski conducting. [1] A visual analysis of the 5th movement

Te Deum (Berlioz)
The Te Deum (Op. 22 / H.118) by Hector Berlioz (1803–1869) was completed in 1849. It, like the earlier and more famous Grande Messe des Morts, is one orchestral forces required for the Te Deum are by no means as titanic as those of the Requiem, the work does call for an organ which can compete on equal terms with the rest of the orchestra. It lasts approximately fifty minutes and derives its text from the traditional Latin Te Deum, although Berlioz made some changes to word order for dramatic purposes.

of the works referred to by Berlioz in his Memoirs as "the enormous compositions which some critics have called architectural or monumental music." While the

Background and premiere
The Te Deum was originally conceived as the climax of a grand symphony in honor of Napoleon Bonaparte. Some of the material used by Berlioz in this piece was originally written for his Messe Solennelle of 1824, thought to have been destroyed by the composer but rediscovered in 1991.

Structure
Orchestration
The choral movements of the Te Deum are scored for: 4 flutes 4 oboes (one doubling on cor anglais) 4 clarinets (one doubling on bass clarinet) 4 bassoons 4 horns 2 trumpets 2 cornets 6 trombones 2 ophicleides/tubas timpani 4 tenor drums bass drum 5 cymbals tenor solo 2 large 3-part (STB) mixed choirs 1 large unison children's choir Strings Organ There are differences in the orchestration of the non-choral movements. The Prelude calls for a piccolo and 6 snare drums, while the March requires a piccolo saxhorn and 12 harps.

List of movements
Neglecting the rarely performed or recorded orchestral Prelude and Marche pour la présentation aux drapeaux (March for the presentation of the colours), there are six movements to this Te Deum, designated by Berlioz as either hymns (Hymne) or prayers (Prière), except for the last movement which he designated as both. These are listed below: 1. Te Deum (Hymne) 2. Tibi omnes (Hymne) 3. Dignare (Prière) 4. Christe, Rex gloriae (Hymne) 5. Te ergo quaesumus (Prière) 6. Judex crederis (Hymne et prière) When performed, the Prelude falls between the Tibi omnes and Dignare, while the Marche usually comes after the Judex crederis.

Reception
Prior to writing his own Te Deum, Bruckner criticized Berlioz's setting for being too secular. The Tibi omnes was performed during the lighting of the Olympic Flame during the Opening Ceremony of the 2000 Summer Olympics, held in Sydney, Australia. (See The Games of the XXVII Olympiad 2000: Music from the Opening Ceremony)

External links
Te Deum: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project Overview of the Te Deum including history and an analysis of the movements Discussion and table of Berlioz's self-borrowings, including the two in the Te Deum

Tristia (Berlioz)
Tristia Op. 18 is a musical work consisting of three short pieces for orchestra and chorus by the French composer Hector Berlioz. Apart from its title, it has nothing to do with the collection of Latin poems by Ovid (the word tristia in Latin means 'sad things'). The individual works were composed at different times the composer's lifetime.

and published together in 1852. Berlioz associated them in his mind with Shakespeare's Hamlet, one of his favourite plays. They were never performed during

Details of the work
The three movements are: 1. Méditation religieuse (Religious Meditation) A setting of a poem by Thomas Moore (translated into French by Louise Belloc) for six-part chorus and small orchestra. It was composed during Berlioz's stay in Rome in 1831. 2. La Mort d'Ophélie (The death of Ophelia) A setting of a ballade by Ernest Legouvé, based on Gertrude's description of Ophelia's drowning in Act IV of Hamlet. It was originally composed for solo voice and piano in 1842 but in 1848 Berlioz revised it for female choir and orchestra. 3. Marche funèbre pour la dernière scène d'Hamlet (Funeral March for the final scene of Hamlet) Probably composed in 1844 for a stage performance of Hamlet which never took place. This is the most famous of the three pieces. It uses wordless chorus and orchestra and culminates in a volley of musketry (on scene).

References
David Cairns: Berlioz: Servitude and Greatness (the second volume of his biography of the composer) (Viking, 1999) Hugh Macdonald: Berlioz ("The Master Musicians", J.M.Dent, 1982) Berlioz: Memoirs (Dover, 1960)

External links
Information on the Funeral March Legouvé's French text for La mort d'Ophélie.

Article Sources and Contributors
Hector Berlioz Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=526650213 Contributors: (Former user), A4, AK456, Ahoerstemeier, Alansohn, AlbertSM, AlexPlank, All Hallow's Wraith, Allansteel, Andy M. Wang, Andycjp, Anglius, Angr, Antandrus, Antiquary, Archanamiya, Ariasne, Arthur Oon, Arunion1, Arunrajmohan, Attilios, Bebop23, Bellperc, Benjamin Mako Hill, Blastwizard, Bob247, Bobrayner, Braincricket, BrownHairedGirl, Bruce1ee, Brunnock, Bsdaemon, Butko, Byrial, CCooke, Camembert, Canned Soul, Casadesus, Ccady, CenturionZ 1, Cgingold, Charvex, Chombor, Chopin-AteLiszt!, Chris Roy, Ciacchi, Classiko, Clik clik, Colonel Tom, Colonies Chris, Connormah, Corksmusic, Cosprings, D6, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, DJRafe, DStoykov, Dalinian, Daniel11, DannyDaWriter, Darev, Davichito, DavidRF, DeadEyeArrow, Deb, Defrosted, DerHexer, Destynova, Dh22, Dirac1933, Discospinster, Dl2000, Don4of4, Dotianmay, Dsp13, Dukeofomnium, Dyfsunctional, Ecrz, Edgar181, EirikFS, Electronic.mayhem, Ellywa, Eternal Pink, Eusebius12, Ewlyahoocom, Excirial, Favonian, Fayenatic london, Fingerz, Flamurai, Florestanova, Flyguy649, Folantin, Fransvannes, Frehley, Gaia Octavia Agrippa, Gaius Cornelius, Garion96, Gashouse1, Geodyde, Geoffrey, Goalisraised, Goodmanjaz, Graham87, Grenix, Gurch, Honeypie1998, Honghu, Hoyohoyogold, Hpgoldstein, Hyacinth, Iluvcapra, Inferno, Lord of Penguins, Infrogmation, Itai, Itmusica, J.delanoy, Jab843, JackofOz, Jackol, JamesAM, JanetRy, JillandJack, Jonyungk, Josh cavan, Jpeob, Karlhenning, Karljoos, Katalaveno, Kawasakigirl09, Kbh3rd, KelleyCook, Kelovy, Kenyon, Khalid Mahmood, Kikadue, Kingturtle, Kintaro, Kipala, Kleinzach, Korg, Kosboot, Kostisl, Kpjas, Krenakarore, Kreuzkümmel, Ksnow, Kwamikagami, Kyoko, LAX, Lachatdelarue, Larrythepoet, Lawrence S C TAM, Leonard Vertighel, Lethesl, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, Lockley, Lord Emsworth, Loren.wilton, Luna2431, MBisanz, MER-C, Macarrones, Makemi, Mani1, Marcus2, Marechal Ney, Markjoseph125, Mary weber, Mathiasrex, MaxEnt, Mayooranathan, Meiskam, Melodia, Merchbow, Michael Bednarek, Michael David, Michael miceli, Mijelliott, Mike.lifeguard, MikeCapone, Milikguay, Mindspillage, Mishae, Missmarple, Mmccalpin, Monegasque, Montgomery '39, Msalkindpearl, Mschel, Mschlindwein, Musicmouse, MyGiulianiAccount, Neddyseagoon, Ngorongoro, Nihiltres, Nk, Noctibus, Nolanus, Nrswanson, Nuitsdete, Numbo3, Ohconfucius, Olivier, Oos, Opus33, Orxanabbasov, OttawaAC, OxfordWriter, Oxymoron83, Pacaro, Pajz, PamD, Pavel Vozenilek, Phantomsteve, Pheidias, Philip Trueman, Pierre de Lyon, Pjmpjm, Pjoef, PowerCS, Princess Lirin, Prodego, Rajah, RandomP, Randy102, Raonisousa, Rappelle-toi, Raul654, Reccmo, RepliCarter, Rettetast, Rich Farmbrough, Rich257, RichardNeill, Rigaudon, Rjwilmsi, Rlee0001, Robert.Allen, RobertG, Roja4349, Rothorpe, RoyBoy, Russavia, Ruziklan, Ryan Vesey, S.Bowen, SURIV, Sam Hocevar, Sazzaaa-ox, Scarian, Segilla, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Shimwell, Sibref, SidP, Sietse Snel, Sjc, Skapino, Skater, Sketchee, Sluzzelin, Smeira, Smerus, Spanglej, Springeragh, Stammer, Stephen Burnett, Stepshep, Stirling Newberry, Suisui, Svanimpe, Tanis118, Tarquin, Tassedethe, Telos, TheOldGuitarist, Tiglou, TimderEnchanter, Timrollpickering, Tobias Conradi, Tomaxer, Tommy2010, Tony1, Toyokuni3, Tpbradbury, Tusbra, TutterMouse, Twang, Twthmoses, Txuspe, Ulric1313, Vega2, Viajero, Violncello, Voceditenore, W.M. O'Quinlan, Wavelength, Wenli, Wetman, Whiteghost.ink, Why not?, Wik, Wiki alf, William Avery, William Rehtworc, Winchelsea, Winderful1, Wspencer11, Xav71176, Yms, Zeimusu, Zeno Gantner, ZooFari, Саша Стефановић, 460, ‫د‬ ‫دا د‬ anonymous edits

List of compositions and literary works by Hector Berlioz Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=505841978 Contributors: Akerans, Alan Liefting, Arpingstone, Asparagus, Bender235, CenturionZ 1, Chopin-Ate-Liszt!, Darev, EJF, Folantin, FordPrefect42, Good Olfactory, JackofOz, Jdiazch, Kleinzach, Leszek Jańczuk, Lethesl, Nolanus, Rigadoun, Rjwilmsi, Shawn Dessaigne, ThisIsAce, WikiHendrik, 13 anonymous edits Béatrice et Bénédict Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=522844278 Contributors: Allen3, Bmclaughlin9, BrownHairedGirl, CenturionZ 1, Cg2p0B0u8m, Closedmouth, Danny, DrG, Dwanyewest, Flcelloguy, Folantin, Fredrik, Gene Nygaard, GuillaumeTell, Hu12, JackofOz, Kleinzach, Lethesl, Moreschi(AWB), Neilc, Nunquam Dormio, Pageewell, Pearle, Plucas58, Rich Farmbrough, Roscelese, Troutsneeze, Viajero, Viva-Verdi, Voceditenore, Whjayg, X42bn6, 19 anonymous edits Benvenuto Cellini (opera) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=512239833 Contributors: 4meter4, Alcuin, Altenmann, BaronLarf, Brenont, Brian Joseph Morgan, BrownHairedGirl, Burzmali, CenturionZ 1, Cg2p0B0u8m, Classickol, DJRafe, DTOx, DavidLevinson, Dekimasu, DrG, Folantin, GuillaumeTell, Hqb, Hydro, Igiffin, JackofOz, Kleinzach, Kukkurovaca, Lectonar, Leonard Vertighel, LilHelpa, Marleau, Moreschi(AWB), Nrswanson, Olivier, Pearle, Phi1ip, Qmwne235, Rjwilmsi, Robert.Allen, Roscelese, Tassedethe, Vega2, Viajero, Viva-Verdi, Voceditenore, Whjayg, Xezbeth, Xic667, 20 anonymous edits Les Troyens Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=525816472 Contributors: 12thNight, Aktqnf, Allansteel, Badagnani, BaronLarf, Brightgalrs, BrownHairedGirl, Camembert, Camster, Caspian blue, Cazo3788, CenturionZ 1, Cg2p0B0u8m, Charles Matthews, Charvex, Chunky Rice, Colonies Chris, Cote d'Azur, DJRafe, DTOx, Demonslave, Die Kaiserin, DrG, Drhoehl, Folantin, Francesco Malipiero, Fredrik, Gaius Cornelius, Goustien, GuillaumeTell, IKato, In ictu oculi, Itai, JackofOz, Kbdank71, Kleinzach, Leonard Vertighel, Marleau, Matancha, Moreschi, Naumov, Neddyseagoon, Neilc, Nick Number, Nrswanson, Orbicle, Pearle, Rjwilmsi, Robert.Allen, Romit3, Sartorialpics, Scaniport, Segilla, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Singingdaisies, Slp1, Smerus, Spinazo, Stroppolo, Tassedethe, Telos, Teratornis, Tiberius47, Tjarrett, Tonerman, TonyTheTiger, Vega2, Vegaswikian, Viajero, Violncello, Viva-Verdi, Voceditenore, Vranak, Whjayg, Wilderblue, William Avery, Woohookitty, Zoicon5, 59 anonymous edits La damnation de Faust Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=517341123 Contributors: AlbertSM, BWernham, BrownHairedGirl, CenturionZ 1, Chochopk, Davidonline, Docu, Dunc0029, Editorabcd, Ednamae Oliver, Endomion, Ettrig, Folantin, FordPrefect42, Francesco Malipiero, Gene Nygaard, Goethean, Grm wnr, GuillaumeTell, Jack1956, JackofOz, Japanese Searobin, Josh Parris, Karlhenning, Kibiusa, Kleinzach, Lastdayx52, Lbark, Leonard Vertighel, Lightmouse, Lud.Tischler, Mahlum, Maximus Rex, Mezigue, Missmarple, Molitorppd22, Olivier, OwenBlacker, Phil Boswell, Raymondwinn, Rjwilmsi, Robert A West, Roscelese, Sander123, Schickaneder, Seneca91, Shalhevet, Sherurcij, Stefanomione, Sunray, Telos, ThatDamnDave, TonyTheTiger, Vanilor, Vega2, Viajero, Viva-Verdi, Voceditenore, Wetman, Whjayg, 54 anonymous edits L'enfance du Christ Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=517313416 Contributors: AlbertSM, Andycjp, CenturionZ 1, Cg2p0B0u8m, Cgingold, EReichel, Folantin, GFHandel, Gerda Arendt, GrahamHardy, Hoof Hearted, Ingaiji, JackofOz, KConWiki, Kleinzach, R'n'B, Rjwilmsi, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, StAnselm, Surréalatino, Telos, Yuyu, 9 anonymous edits Les francs-juges Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=524715020 Contributors: Bmclaughlin9, CenturionZ 1, Folantin, Funper, JackofOz, Karol Langner, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Torage, Viva-Verdi, Whjayg, Wjbealer, 3 anonymous edits Grande symphonie funèbre et triomphale Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=520850359 Contributors: BD2412, CenturionZ 1,

Cgingold, Download, Folantin, JMRAMOS0109, JackofOz, Jerome Kohl, Landr, Myasuda, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Soonerdm56, Tijd-jp, Wetman, 5 anonymous edits Harold en Italie Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=524335258 Contributors: Addaick, AlbertSM, Alfietucker, Antandrus, Antwerp42, BigrTex, Centaur81, CenturionZ 1, Crelake, Darev, DavidRF, Denverjeffrey, Dr. Friendly, Folantin, Funper, Grover cleveland, Hmains, Hrdinský, JackofOz, Jedwards01, Kiwa, Kripkenstein, Leonard Vertighel, Lethesl, Magister Mathematicae, Mani1, MapsMan, Missmarple, Monteville, MuirSR, Nextyoyoma, Prsephone1674, Qmwne235, RCS, Robert.Allen, Sadara, Sallyrob, Schweiwikist, Tony419c, Twang, Wetman, Wolfrock, Yip1982, 32 anonymous edits Lélio Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=523106108 Contributors: Bdesham, Caesura, CenturionZ 1, Cgingold, Cmdrjameson, Cornflake pirate, Davidkinnen, Emersoni, Estel, Folantin, Icthusgirl, JackofOz, Missmarple, OlEnglish, Pearle, RJFJR, Smily, 12 anonymous edits Messe solennelle (Berlioz) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=507530993 Contributors: CenturionZ 1, Cgingold, Folantin, JackofOz, Lethesl, Rjwilmsi, Robert1054, Tiglou, Woohookitty, Андрей Романенко, 16 anonymous edits Les nuits d'été Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=517221586 Contributors: Antandrus, CenturionZ 1, DJRafe, Folantin, GFHandel, Graham87, JackofOz, Johnbod, Kleinzach, Kyoko, Lethesl, Mherr, Msalkindpearl, Pegship, Pmiize, Rjwilmsi, Salamander01234, 6 anonymous edits Overtures by Hector Berlioz Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=516600661 Contributors: AlbertSM, CenturionZ 1, Cg2p0B0u8m, ChrisGualtieri, DavidRF, Folantin, Graham87, JackofOz, Lethesl, Michael Bednarek, SaintStephen71, Wetman, 3 anonymous edits Prix de Rome Cantatas (Berlioz) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=495138846 Contributors: CenturionZ 1, DavidRF, Folantin, JackofOz, Lethesl, Neddyseagoon, Singingdaisies, Vorodin, 10 anonymous edits Requiem (Berlioz) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=526138109 Contributors: Andy M. Wang, Bobnotts, Bobthb, CSWarren, Casadesus, CenturionZ 1, Chopin-Ate-Liszt!, Cnoel77, DTOx, David Schaich, Deb, Engineer Bob, Fdewaele, Flamurai, Folantin, FordPrefect42, Graham87, Hu12, JackofOz, Jamesfranklingresham, Jerome Kohl, Justin Tokke, Lbark, Leonard Vertighel, MarkBuckles, Mato, Mhrivnak, NawlinWiki, R. fiend, RMeier, SarekOfVulcan, Singingdaisies, Slysplace, SteinbDJ, Telos, Voceditenore, Woohookitty, 38 anonymous edits Roméo et Juliette (Berlioz) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=511637659 Contributors: AlbertSM, BD2412, Calmypal, Casadesus, CenturionZ 1, Ceoil, Cgingold, Chris the speller, Colonies Chris, Darev, DavidRF, Folantin, Francis Schonken, Gaius Cornelius, Goustien, Grm wnr, Hyacinth, Infrogmation, JackofOz, Jeff G., Jnestorius, Johnpacklambert, Jonyungk, Kenneth e d, Kubigula, Lethesl, Lightmouse, Manxdave, Mu, OboeCrack, Qmwne235, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Robert A West, Robert.Allen, Santiparam, Smcleish, Strachon, Telos, Tomates Mozzarella, Viajero, Wetman, WikiMan225, Wrad, Xover, 19 anonymous edits Symphonie fantastique Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=526499305 Contributors: 1pownage1, 2602:306:C5A8:74E0:E9C8:F193:2DB7:B13, Addaick, Adeliine, Adelsmettawa, Agtalw, AlbertSM, Alsoevso, Amazins490, Andy M. Wang, Antandrus, Arunrajmohan, Auntieruth55, BD2412, Babygrand1, Babyhamtaro1, Barbthedarb, Baron D. Z., BassBone, Bixkie, Bryce, Caesura, Camembert, CenturionZ 1, Chewy5000, Chrishmt0423, ClarineteBajo, Classical geographer, Clíodhna-2, Conrad.Irwin, Corksmusic, Daniel11, Dantas, DaraJavaherian, DavidRF, Delirium, Denisarona, Dethme0w, Djodjo666, Dono, Electronic.mayhem, Epinheiro, Evercat, Flamurai, Flippedout, Florestanova, Folantin, FortunateTheognis, Funper, GFHandel, GcSwRhIc, Glynwiki, Gritchka, Gus, Gzornenplatz, HCtmv13, Hapless Hero, Hede2000, ILike2BeAnonymous, J Goodland, JB82, JackofOz, Jay-Sebastos, Jlking3, Johnwhite79, JonathanDP81, Jonyungk, Jubileeclipman, K. Lastochka, Kubigula, Kyoko, La Pianista, Labrynthia9856, Langston JDCH, Lawrence H K, Lawrence S C TAM, LeCire, Leonard Vertighel, Little Mountain 5, MUSIKVEREIN, MaddieRhea, Mani1, Marcus2, MarnetteD, Mermaid from the Baltic Sea, Mgarraha, Mirokado, Missmarple, Mizukahosen, Musicalantonio, Neodude, Nonagonal Spider, ObsidianFlame, Otterhouse, Park3r, Paweł ze Szczecina, Perlnerd666, Peter gk, Pi, Possum, QueenCake, RepliCarter, Rickjpelleg, Rjwilmsi, RobertG, RoseSoul, Sam Hocevar, Sasquatch, Schissel, SebastianHelm, Sefuhotman3, SkerHawx, SlubGlub, Slysplace, Stirling Newberry, Svanimpe, Tarosan, Tedders83, Telos, Tide rolls, ToddC4176, Toddpollock, Tommy2010, Tony1, TrumpetMan202, Turangalila, Violncello, Vishnava, Vmicro75, Wasted Time R, Wetman, Wikipelli, Winderful1, Znethru, Zoe, Михајло Анђелковић, მოცარტი, 253 anonymous edits edits მოცარტი, 253 anonymous Te Deum (Berlioz) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=517408040 Contributors: Addaick, CenturionZ 1, Cgingold, Chopin-Ate-Liszt!, Danmuz, Euroleague, Folantin, Graham87, J04n, JackofOz, James470, JohnOFL, Lethesl, Maarvarq, Peter cohen, Smjg, Telos, Witchwooder, Youngmg, 16 anonymous edits Tristia (Berlioz) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=391602675 Contributors: Barticus88, CenturionZ 1, Chopin-Ate-Liszt!, Clerks, Folantin, JackofOz, Kyoko, Nearly Human, Neelix, Robert.Allen, ShootoutSam, SteinbDJ, Webdinger, 4 anonymous edits

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