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artificial lift

artificial lift

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Published by: mts1234 on Dec 11, 2012
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03/19/2013

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT AN INTRODUCTION

Reservoir characterstics
IPR A well’s inflow performance relationship defines its production potential Liquid production rate The anticipated production rate is a controlling factor in selecting a lift method Gas-liquid ratio A high GLR generally lowers the efficiency of pumpassisted lift Viscosity Viscosities less than 10 cp are generally not a factor in selecting a lift method; high-viscosity fluids can cause difficulty, Other reservoir problems Sand, paraffin, or scale can cause plugging and/or abrasion. Presence of H2 S, CO 2 or salt water can cause corrosion. Downhole emulsions can increase backpressure and reduce lifting efficiency. High bottomhole temperatures can affect downhole equipment.

WELL BORE
Well depth The well depth dictates how much surface energy is needed to move fluids to surface, and may place limits on sucker rods and other equipment. Completion type Completion and perforation skin factors affect inflow performance. Casing and tubing sizes Small-diameter casing limits the production tubing size and constrains multiple options. Small-diameter tubing will limit production rates, but larger tubing may allow excessive fluid fallback. Wellbore deviation Highly deviated wells may limit applications of beam pumping or PCP systems because of drag, compressive forces and potential for rod and tubing wear.

SURFACE
Flow rates Flow rates are governed by wellhead pressures and backpressures in surface production equipment ( separators,chokes and flowlines). Flowline size and length Flowline length and diameter determines wellhead pressure requirements and affects the overall performance of the production system. Fluid contaminants Scale, paraffin or salt can increase the backpressure on a well. Power sources The availability of electricity or natural gas governs the type of artificial lift selected. Diesel, propane or other sources may also be considered.

Fluid contaminants Scale, paraffin or salt can increase the backpressure on a well. Power sources The availability of electricity or natural gas governs the type of artificial lift selected. Diesel, propane or other sources may also be considered. Field location In offshore fields, the availability of platform space and placement of directional wells are primary considerations. In onshore fields, such factors as noise limits, safety, environmental, pollution concerns, surface access and well spacing must be considered. Climate and Physical environment Affect the performance of surface equipment.

TYPES

TYPICAL SCHEMATIC SUCKER ROD PUMP

Sucker Rod Tubing Anchor/Catcher

Sucker Rod Pump Assembly

Reservoir

VALVE ACTION

Pump design procedure

From the IPR curve, the Pwf needed for a desired production rate is determined. From a two-phase flow calculation, the pump inlet pressure, P1, is calculated from Pwf. From the surface tubing pressure, P2, is determined based on single-phase liquid flow at the desired rate. Once the pressure increase from the pump is known, the work required from the pump is found, usually based on knowledge of the frictional losses in the pump

SUCKER ROD PUMP ADVANTAGES
High System Efficiency, Optimization Controls Available, Economical to Repair and Service, Positive Displacement/Strong drawdown, Upgraded Materials Reduce Corrosion Concerns, Flexibility -Adjust Production Through Stroke Length and Speed, High Salvage Value for Surface & Downhole Equipment

LIMITATATIONS
• Potential for Tubing and Rod Wear • Gas-Oil Ratios • Most Systems Limited to Ability of Rods to Handle Loads ( Volume Decreases
As Depth Increases

PCP

Wellhead Surface Drives Continuous & Threaded Sucker Rods Subsurface PC Pumps & Accessories

PCP TYPICAL SCHEMATIC
Vertical Electric Wellhead Drive

Tubing

Sucker Rod
Stator Rotor

ADVANTAGES

Low Capital Cost Low Surface Profile for Visual & Height Sensitive Areas High System Efficiency Simple Installation, Quiet operation Pumps Oils and Waters with Solids Low Power Consumption Portable Surface Equipment Low Maintenance Costs Use In Horizontal/Directional Wells

Limited Depth capability Temperature Sensitivity to Produced Fluids Low Volumetric Efficiencies in High-Gas Environments Potential for Tubing and Rod Coupling Wear Requires Constant Fluid Level above Pump

Gas Lift Systems

TYPICAL LAY OUT GAS LIFT SYSTEM

Injection Gas In

Produced oil

Completion Fluid Production Packer

Side Pocket Mandrel with Gas Lift Valve Reservoir

Gas Lift System Advantages
High Degree of Flexibility and Design Rates Wireline Retrievable Handles Sandy Conditions WellAllows For Full Bore Tubing Drift Surface Wellhead Equipment Requires Minimal Space Multi-Well Production From Single Compressor Multiple or Slim hole CompletionProduced

System Limitations
• • • • • Needs High-Pressure Gas Well or Compressor One Well Leases May Be Uneconomical Fluid Viscosity Bottom hole Pressure High Back-Pressure

ESP
Wellhead Equipment Power Cables Pumps & Motors Variable Speed Drives Gas Separators

ESP’s can be very effective at moving large volumes of fluid with low GLR’s, however, capital costs and run life must be fully understood to ensure profitability: high PI low GOR oil wells (up to 1000 scf/bbl with separator) high water cut producers 􀂾 Casing size limits size and capacity 􀂾 Requires reliable electrical supply at reasonable cost 􀂾 Normally run on tubing, cable deployed for offshore

Inadequate design as a result of poor IPR data gather data on first pump run for re-design 􀂾 Inadequate service facilities 􀂾 Scaling on impellers 􀂾 Solids erosion 􀂾 Inadequate gas separation > 10% through pump 􀂾 Emulsion formation in pump 􀂾 High bottom hole temperatures high temperature insulation is available

Produced Hydrocarbons Out Tubing Pump Seal Section

Motor Control

Motor

High Volume and Depth Capability High Efficiency Over 1,000 BPD Low Maintenance Minor Surface Equipment Needs Good in Deviated Wells Adaptable in Casings > 4-1/2” Use for Well TestingVent

Limitations
• Available Electric Power • Limited Adaptability to Major Changes in Reservoir • Difficult to Repair In the Field • Free Gas and/or Abrasives • High Viscosity • Higher Pulling Costs

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