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2550
30 :


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29 3 - 2551) 1112.

Abstract

This article is aimed to explain that good governance is

not an easy concept to be grasped. Furthermore, it is closely


related to political, social and economic institution rather than

policy menu chosen that can be implemented simultaneously


similar to general policy recipe. This complexity easily leads
to a widespread misinterpretation and the mistaking the
policies for often core pillars of good governance. In fact,

good governance is never perfect and static, but dynamics


and

evolving

according

to

globalization

which

liberal

democracy regime has been instituted. In this article, an


author is trying to concede that good governance practice has

been implemented in Thailand since the crisis, but the end


2

result is far from successful. Two legal codes have been


drafted and stipulated in 1999 and 2003. Its main failure is

mainly attributed to misunderstanding of good governance.


Apart from that good governance is deemed to succeed or fail

in the context of social institutional reform which heavily


depends on Thai state capability to upgrade political, social
and economic institution to be more effective and sustainable.
Informal institution is often seen as a main barrier of crafting

good governance in Thailand. To make good governance

credible in Thailand, government badly needs to render it


accountable, transparent, predictable and participatory role
which

in

turn

requires

accountable

administration

in

conjunction with a strong but limited government that


guarantees

political

stability

and

increased

capacity. That is a dream rather than a reality.

governance



1997






(global governance)
3






1997

(World Bank, 1992)







2

1.
1.1


good governance
1

...

2

good governance


governance good
governance



governance 1989

Saharan

(World Bank, 1989)



governance

the manner in which power is exercised in the

management of a countrys economics and social resources


for development (World bank, 1992 : 1)

(Underlying the litany of Africas development


problems is a crisis of governance) World Bank (1989)
5


governance good

(2541)
good governance


governance

good



governance
governance

American Heritage Dictionary (1982)


governance
(1)

the

act,

process,

government
(2)

or

power

of

governing;

the state of being governed



(state) (civil
service)

corporate

governance

Shorter
Oxford English Dictionary (2002)
3

American Heritage
(1)

The action, manner or fact of governing;


government

(2)

Controlling or regulating influence, control,

(3)

The state of being governed : good order

mastery

(4)

The function or power of governing :

authority to governance

(5)
(6)

A governing person or body

Conduct of life or business : behaviour

Oxford

governance

gouvernance
7

good

governence 1989
Sub Sahara Africa : From Crisis to Sustainable
Growth

good

governance

good
governance
good governance

3
(1)


(Political regime)

(2)

(3)


(
, 2541)







(Democratic good
governance) ( Leftwich, 1993; 1994)




1997

(2541)


(United Nation Development ProgrammeUNDP)
UNDP Governance for

Sustainable Human Development


3 (Civil Society)
(Private Sector) (State)
1


3

1

Presentation Slides of Training

Module: Developing capacities for Effective

Governance: A workshop for UNDP Country Offices,

Management Development and

Governance Division, UNDP, 1997.


(2541)


-
10

1989

(democratic good governance)



Leftwich (1993;1994)
(liberal

democratic polity)


(accountable)


1960
(good society itself)








1980

bad governance


11



(Stiglitz, 2003; 2006)



1980 ?
4


(Neo-liberalism)

( Leftwich, 1993)

1980




1980s









12



1980


1970s









(minimal state)











13


1980








1991




1980s

1.2
14

1989

Governance
...the exercise of political power to manage a nations

affairs (World Bank, 1989)


(World
Bank, 1989: 60-61 192)
(1)

(an efficient
public service)

(2)

(an independent judicial


system)

(3)

(legal

framework to enforce contracts)


(4)
(the accountable administration of
public funds)

(5)

(an
independent public auditor)

15

(6)


(respect for the law and human right
at all levels of government)

(7)

(a pluralistic
institutional structure)

(8)

(a free press)


(Liberal democracy)

1992
Government and Development

good governence

...Synonymous with sound development management

(World Bank, 1992:1)

1.3




(systematic)

16

(political)

(administrative)

(goverment)





1

(democratic capitalist regime)


(law and order)


-
(legitimacy) (authority)






(checks and balances)





17



(new world order)




100
1.4

Bdeninger (the good


government of society) ( Lateef, 1992)
Ladell-Mills and Serageldin (1992)

(denoting how prople are ruled, or how the affairs of a state

are administrated and regulated)


18

1994 Michael Camdessus good governance


(IMF, 1994)
18

Nelson (1992) 3
governance

governance
(Report of the

Commission on Global Governance) Our

Global Neighbourhood (1995) governance






governance

7
(1)

Governance capacity as the


ability to coordinate the aggregation of diverting

interests and thus promote policy that can be

credibly taken to represent the public interest


(Frischtak, 1994:VII)
(2)

Governance is an interactive process by which


state and social actors reciprocally probe for a
consensus on the rules of the political game
(Bratton and van de Walle, 1992:30)

19

(3)

Governance means identifying economic and


social objectives, and (), charting a course
designed to move society in that direction
(Boeringer quoted in Doornbos (1995:383))

(4)

Governance is the conscious management of


regime structures with a view to enhancing the
legitimacy
1992:7)

(5)

of

the

public

realm

(Hyden,

Governance is the capacity to establish and

sustain workable relations between individuals

and institutional actors in order to promote


collective goods (Chazan, 1992)

(6)

Governance signifies the capacity to define

and implement policies (Kjaer 1996;6)

(7)

Governance is the science of government


behaviour and performance (Dethier 1995:5)

7

governance ?

governance

(means) (end)

20

1.5 ?

governance




governance
The extent to which governments are responsive to

citizens and provide them with certain core services, such as

secure property rights and, more generally, the rule of law.


(Kealer, 2004: 3)





(outcomes)

(causal)




21


(Voice) (Accountability)


(The Institute on Governance)


4

Economics of

Governance Springer
Synonymous with

governing


governance
OECD

institutions, policy making and participation of civil society





5

4
5

http://www.iog.ca/about_us.asp?strTextsite=false.

http://www.oecd.org/EN/about/O,,EN-about-333-9-no-no-no-

0,00.html/
22

US Agency for international Development







USAID

7

(UNDP)

(democratic governance)

8


9
(public sector reform)




(the rule of law)

http://www.fordfound.org/

http://www.usaid.gov/democracy/gov.html/

http://www.undp.org/governance/

http://www.worldbank.org/publicsector/
23


10



2








governance



( 2)



10

http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ffiexrp/govern/governindex.

htm/

24

Institutions play a central role in economic development and


social outcomes

: AusAID Economic Governance and the Asian

Crisis

governance


25

one size fits all


Leftwich (1994)

it is illusionary to conceive of good governance as

independent of the forms of politics and type of state


(Leftwich, 1994: 363)







(North, 1990, De Soto,
2000)

1.6

(New

Institutional Economics)

North (1990) Williamson
(1994)

(Harvard tradition)

26

( 3 )


3

Form Harvard to Chicago to the New Institutional


Economics

Williamson(1994)

Williamson

(1994) (transaction costs)


governance (effective

governance)

27


( 4 )
3

3

A Layer Schema

: Williamson (1994)

28

Williamson

(governance structures)

mode


Williamson

(bound rationality)

(incomplete
11

information) Williamson

Williamson governance
3 credible commitment,
bureaucratization remediableness

3

3
(economic governance)


(political governance)
Bound rationality


11

29


(administrative governance)

(
, 2541)

1.7 :




(effective governance)

credible commitments



(governance structure)

-
(bad governance)
UNDP



30













( , 2541:6)




(market-state dichotomy)


1.8 (Effective Governance

Dimensions)




31



(economic reform)
(

4)






Dethier (1999)
(public governance)

A stylized model of governance: realms and players

32

A stylized Model of Governance: Realms


and Players

domestic non-political

domestic
political

players
central
gov.

subnatl. gov.
bureaucracy
legislature
judiciary

players
private
individuals
firms
civil
intermedia
society
State-

ries

society

interface
Public
sector

Economic
institutions
Internation
al

structures

Foreign
players
Transnationa

l
International
corporatio
organizatio
ns
Foreign
ns
govs.

: Ahrens (2002)

4 credible commitment

4

(predictability) (transparency)

(participation) (accountability)
4
( 6 )

33

Governance dimensions and economic performance

: Ahrens (2006)
1.9 :




(predictable)







34

()
(

NGO

35


4

3


(
7) -




7
Element of governance overlap

: AusAID
36

1.10



(market-enhancing governance
structure MEGS)

(Ahrens, 2002;2006, Tabb, 2003)


MEGS 4

(state strength) (limits on state

strength) (capacity building)

(economic institutions)









(rent-seeking)



( 8 )

37

The pillars of a market-enhancing governance structure

: Ahrens (2002)

(1)

(Creating a strong state)








(weak state) Myrdal
(1968)

38



Principal-agent
(information asymmetries)

agents (principal) agents



(nepotism)

(predatory state)





Weberian type (Evans,
1995)

(2)

(Limiting the State)

39

(credible commitment)



decentralizations





(Qian, 1999, 2003; Ahrens,
2002, 2006)

(3)

(Creating
capacity for policy

Implementation and rule enforcement)


MEGS

40




(North, 1990)



(hard-

budget constraint) (meritocratic elements)






(4)

(Building economic
institutions)




(Acemoglu et al, 2004)





41



(liability)











(MEGS)



1.11 (Governance Indicators)

12





2


12

42

Williams and

Siddique (2007)
(objective) (subjective)


1)
2)

(The rule of law)

(Corruption in
government)

3)

(The quality of the


bureaucracy)

4)

5)

(Risk of
expropriation of assets by government)

(Repudiation of contracts by government)

Kaufmann et.al.,(2005)
ICRG (International Country

Risk Guide)

43

(democratic

accountability) 6

(government stability)

12

(bureaucratic quality)

(corruption)

(Nepotism)


6
(law and order)


Kaufmann et. al., (2005)

1996 2006 Kaufmann et. al.,(2007)
(Governance indicators) 6

44

(voice and

accountability)


(political instability and violence)

(government
effectiveness)

(regulatory burden)

(rule of law)

(control of

corruption)



1996-2006






45

(governance

reform)

2.
2.1 (High

Performing Asian Economics-HPAES)

13

HPAEs

1997

HPAEs



HPAEs

(cronyism)

HPAEs
13

1993
3

46


HPAEs



( )

1982-95 HPAEs
ICRG
0

1 CEE

-
(SSA)

( 9) HPAEs
OECD
10-14

HPAEs CEE

HPAEs
1980s
OELD

(LAC)

47


( 10) (

11) ( 12)
( 13) ( 14)

5 HPAEs

OECD

HPAEs

Institutional quality by regions: composite institutional index,


1982-95

: Ahrens (2002)

48

10

Risk of repudiation of contracts index by regions, 1982-95

Note: A rise in the index represents a reduction in the

risk of contract repudiation.


: Ahrens (2002)

11

Risk of expropriation index by regions, 1982-95

49

Note: A rise in the index represents a reduction in the

risk of expropriation.

: Ahrens (2002)

12
Rule-of-law index by regions, 1982-95

: Ahrens (2002)

50

13

Corruption in governance index by regions, 1982-95

Note: A rise in the index represents a reduction of


corruption.
: Ahrens (2002)
14

Quality of the bureaucracy index by regions, 1982-95

51

: Ahrens (2002)

HPAEs ( 15)
HPAEs
1990s





52

HPAEs

( 16 17)

15

Institutional change in East Asia by countries: composite


institutional index

: Ahrens (2002)
16

Risk of repudiation of contracts index by East Asian


countries in 1995

53

risk.

Note: A high score in the index means a low level of


: Ahrens (2002)

17

Risk of expropriation index by East Asian countries in


1995

54

risk.

Note: A high score in the index means a low level of


: Ahrens (2002)





( 18)

18

Corruption in government in East Asian countries in 1995

Note: A high score in the index means a low level of

corruption.

55

: Ahrens (2002)







(
19)

19

Rule-of-law index by East Asian countries in 1995

56

: Ahrens (2002)


(NICs)


( 20)
14

14

57

20

Bureaucratic quality index by East Asian countries in 1995

: Ahrens (2002)

58


( 21)
21

Institutional change in East Asian, the HPAEs and

economies in transition, composite institutional index

: Ahrens (2002)

59

2.2

4

1965-1995
5 % purchasing

power parity

3.5%

1965-1990

9% 21%
8% 18%

4

G7
4

NICs NICs



60









NICs

4









NICs

(market-friendly policies)

(1993) NICs

( )



61

NICs





(Stiglitz, 1996,
Rodrik, 1995)

NICs


(developmental state)

(coordinational failure)


NICs




NICs

rent-seeking
NICs 2

62

right)

2.3 (Getting intervention



(externalities)

(public goods)





Rent-Seeking
NICs

(complementarities)

1960s

( 1 2)

take off

(coordination failure)



63

(scale economies)


(Rodrik,
1995) NICs


(Aoki, et .al.,
1977) NICs

(rent) rent
opportunities contingent rents

Schumpeterian

entrepreneurs rents
contingent rents
rents

contingent

rents


rent-seeking

contingent rents

NICs

64

2.4 :

NICs

Ahrens (2002) NICs




1960

NICs





NICs
(credible commitment)

(shared growth)
2

meritocratic Weberian type

bureaucracy)

65

1 :

Human capital indicators in East Asia and

comparator countries, actual

Versus predicted values, c. 1960


Per-

Primary

Secondary

capita

enrollment

enrollment

growth

ratio

Ratio

Literacy rate

1965-

Actual

predict

actual

predict

actual

predict

6.3

0.87

0.83

0.24

0.23

0.70

0.59

Indonesia

4.4

0.67

0.51

0.06

0.07

0.39

0.25

Japan

4.3

1.03

0.92

0.74

0.29

0.98

0.70

Korea

7.0

0.94

0.57

0.27

0.10

0.71

0.31

Malaysia

4.0

0.96

0.68

0.19

0.15

0.53

0.43

89

ed

ed

ed

HPAEs
Hong
Kong

66

Singapor

7.0

1.11

0.78

0.32

0.21

0.50

0.54

Taiwan

6.17*

0.96

0.62

0.28

0.12

0.54

0.36

Thailand

4.2

0.83

0.57

0.12

0.10

0.68

0.31

2.5

0.98

0.64

0.07

0.13

0.65

0.39

Philippin

1.6

0.95

0.62

0.26

0.12

0.72

0.36

Paraguay

3.0

0.98

0.65

0.11

0.14

0.75

0.40

Sri

3.0

0.95

0.65

0.27

0.14

0.75

0.39

Others
Dominic
an

Republic
es

Lanka

Note: *1960-89

Sources: World Bank (1991), Rodrik (1995 and 1996)

67

2 :
countries

Gini indices for HPAES and comparator

land

Income

Income

income

ownership

1965-70

1971-80

1981-90

Hong

n.a

0.49

0.42

0.39

Indonesia

n.a

0.40

0.41

0.30

Korea

0.39

0.34

0.38

0.33

Malaysia

0.47

0.50

0.48

0.42

Taiwan

0.46

0.32

0.36

0.30

Singapore

n.a

0.50

0.45

0.41

Thailand

0.46

0.44

0.38

0.37

Unweighte

0.45

0.43

0.41

0.36

Argentina

0.87

0.43

0.41

0.43

Brazil

0.85

0.57

0.60

0.60

c. 1960

HPAEs
Kong

average
Others

68

India

0.52

0.40

0.41

n.a

Kenya

0.69

n.a

0.59

n.a

Mexico

0.69

0.58

0.52

0.53

Philippines

0.53

0.48

0.45

0.39

Unweighte

0.69

0.49

0.50

0.49

average
Source: Rodrik (1996), Root (1996)






principal-

agent

checks and balances

NICs

69

(shared growth)
( 2 )


Simon Kuznets


NICs

NICs 1960

( 2)




Ahrens
(2002) 22

70

22

A politico-institutional approach to economic development in


East Asia

: Ahrens (2002)
22

NICs



embedded autonomy (Evans,

1995)



71









(shared economic growth)

agent principal



Weberian type bureaucracy



NICs

(MITI)
(Evans, 1995)

(technocrats)

NICs


NICs

72

NICs


2.5 :

Best practice

governance





(Washington

Consensus)











73


(best practice

institutions)



MEGS






(market socialism)

74

23

Governance in China

: Ahrens (2006)

(gradualism)

Township Village Enterprises TVEs



NICs
( 23)

TVEs

TVEs

75

(Che and Qian (1998a, 1998b:

Che, 2992)











(Commit) 4
MEGS





3.


( ,

2542)


76

3.1 : Good governance


good governance
governance

( 3 )

good governance 7

77

3 good governance

15

/ ()

1. (2541)

2. (2542)
3. (2542)

4. (2542)

16

5. TDRI (2541)
6.
(..) (2542)
7.
(..) (2542)
8.
(.)

9. (2542)
1. (2540)
2. (2541)
3. (2541)
4. (2541)
5. (2541)

15

2.2

, , (:, 2544) 13-14


16

(The Rule of Law)



78

6.
7. (2540, 2541, 2546)
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
( 5-12 ,

2549)

17

(2541)




( , 2541)
18

/ ()

1. (2541)


2. (2541)

1.
17

( 2541)

, , ,
, , , , ,
, , (
), ( )
, , (: , 2544) 18
18

2541

, ,

79

8
2. (2542)

Good

governance

3. (2541)
-

(2541)

(2542)

World Bank (2000) JICA, UN and ADB



( , 2541)

( )

(2542)



(2540)19

19

, ,

20 2540, 11 ,
(), ( : , 2542) 18-19
80



good governance
good





(The Rule of Laws)
(Transparency) (Participation)

(Accountability) 2

(Ethics) (Cost Recovery)


( 4)

81

82

1.

( . .)

1.
2.

3.

(2542)
2.

3.

20

4.

(..) (2542)

5.

21
6.

( .)
(2542)

4.

(2542)

(2541), UNDP

2.

3.
4.

20

(Subjectivity)
2 1.

(Professionalism)
2.


21
.. 2546
(New Public Management)
(Learning Organization)
(Knowledge Management) 6
83

(Consensus
5.

Orientation)

(Political

Legitimacy)


(Equity)
7.



(Effectiveness
6.

and Efficiency)
8.



(Accountability)
9.

(Strategic

Vision)


1.


(Participation)
(2541)
2.

( ,
(Transparency)
3.

2549)


(Accountability)

84



(Predictability)

4.


(2541)

22

1.

2.
(

)

3.

4.



5.


(Predictability)

(Accountability)
1.

2.



22


, (: , 2544) 27


, ( ), ( :
, 2542) 17
85

3.

4.

5.

6.

( ,

2549)
,

23

23

, ,

, , (:, 2544) 27
86

1.

2.

3.




25

4.

5.

24
6.



2.

(Sustainability)
26

3.

(Legitimacy)
1.

4.

5.
(Equity)

6.


7.

24

(.)

25

23 2542

26
(2543) 13-24
.
87

8.
(Tolerance)

9.

10.
11.
(regulator)

1.
(2542)
(Participation)

2.
(Transparency)

3.


(Accountability)



(Interactive

Relation)





88





2544

()


...



1

3














25-32 ( ()
89

2541)

good
governance 18

2541 41-42
2 2544


( clear)

(open)


(corporate sector)






( , 2541)
( , 2542)




6



90


:? 2541
2546



()











good governance


91



(2541)
6

(public participation)

()
1.

(equity)






(decentralization)

(honesty and transparency)







2.

92

3. (accountability)




bureaucracy accountability, political accountability






accountability
(political legitimacy)





5. (fair legal framework


4.

and predictability)






93

6.

(efficiency and

effectiveness)




(
)
3.



2
.. 2542

.. 2546


94


27

11(8)

.. 2534

2541









5
(1)


27

(:

, 2542)

11 2542

116 63 10 2542

16 2542

0204 / 130
95

(2)

(3)

(4)


(5)

4
















96

4.2

6
()






(2)





(3)




(4)




(5)



(1)

97

(6)






2540 2541

5

3
()

5.1

5.2


98

5.3





6 5
6.1

6.2




30 2542

7 7

99

7.1


(1)



..

(2)




(3)

7.2

28
89
7.3

2540 89




28

100



7.4

.. 2540

7.5

7.6

7.7




(1)

(2)

101

(3)


(4)


8







2546

29
.. 2546 2542







29

120 100 9 2546

102






3/1
.. 2534

( 5) .. 2545




9

6 7
(1)


(2)

(3)
(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)
7 3

Value for money


103



7


9



8





11






104


4
20




...




22

22











105








... 34
...




34

34






...
7

(Accountability)



106


44
44










8

2
48 49

48

...


107

...

49


... ...




...

.. 2546

.. 2542



Institutions associated with governability and accounts
for institutional variety as well as its importance for state
capacity in conducing policy reform (Ebner, 2005)




Weberian type Bureaucracy
108


collective goods


4.

(best practice of good governance)






NICs










109

NICs



(strong state)



(western best practice institutions)




110

(weak state)


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18 2541.

. :

. (Hi-Class) 2541.

Kasian Tejapira, Good Governance or Thammarat, Paper

prepared for the concluding workshop on Words in Motion

organized by the Social Science Research Council at Raid Fes


hotel, Fez, Morocco, 1-6 June 2004.

137

: Good Governance:
Rethinking its Concept .

: Good Governance:
Rethinking its Concept .

by . on Friday, November 25, 2011 at 4:40pm

:
Good Governance: Rethinking its Concept

Good Governance

(governance) (administration)
3 Good Governance
.. 1989
Good
Governance .. 2540
Good
Governance [1]
138




Good
Governance

1.1 (Definition of Good


Governance)
1.1.1
Good Governance
(World Bank)

1989

(donor international agencies

) (donor
countries)

(Nanda
2006: 269;Leftwich 2000:105)
(governance)


[2]
Governance

Government Good Governance

(development management)(World Bank,
1992b: 1:Liftwich 2000:105)
Good Governance
Democratic Governance
Good Governnace

Good
Governance (Gills and Rocamara 1992, Leftwich 1993;2000).
Good Governance 2

139

1) Good Governance as Dvelopement Managemnet Good


Governance Efficient Management

2) Good Governance as Democratic Governance Good


Governance

Good Governance

1.1.2 Governance

Governance
1980
New Public Management (
)
Governance
( Dunleavy and Hood 1994; Turner
and Hulme 1997; Leftwich 2000:117)
Rhodes (1995:2-10) Governace
5
Governance as Mininal State Governance


(public service)

Governance as Corporate Governance




(integrity)
(openness) (accountability)
Governance as New Public Management [3]



140

Good Governance as a socio-cybernetic system


(cooperation) (negotiation)


Good Governance as self-organizing networks
(coordination)
(interaction)

1.1.3
Good Governance


Good Governance


(Gleneagles Communiqu 2005 para. 27)







(Bhagwati
and Gambari 2005; Wolf 2005)



141


(Martin Albrow)
(H. Schneider)


(accountability)
(participation) (consensus orientation)
(predictability)
Good Governance





3
(Transparency)
(Accountability) (Efficiency)





Good Governance









142

Good Governance






(accountability) (transparency)
(predictability)
(participation)
(democracy) (equality)
UNESCAP 8

1) (participatory)
2) (rule of law)
3) (transparency)
4) (responsiveness)
5) (consensus oriented)
6) (equity and inclusiveness)
7) (effectiveness and efficiency)

8) (accountability)

. .
6
1)
2)
3)
4)
143

5)
6)



Good
Governance



Corporate Good Governance Public
Governance

Good Governance
Bad Governance
Good
Governance
Good Governance
3

1) (Public Sector)

2) (Private Sector)


1)

(Accountability) 2)


(Responsibility) 3)

(Equitable Treatment) 4)
(Transparency) 5)

(Vision to Create
Long Term Value) 6)
(Ethics)
3) (Civil Society)

144

Good
Governance 3

.. 2542



( 2553; 2541; 2543:13-14)


6 1)
2) 3) 4)
5) 6)

6



(output)
(Result)

145



[4]
(real participation)
(flake participation)
(Effectiveness and Efficiency)

(Eqaulity)
(Strategic vision)




6 ( )

2




(





(Accountability) (Tranparency)
( Civil Society) (:
2542)[5]

146


(2541:22-30)[6]


147

(Good Governance)

..2540






(Public Interest)
148



.. 2542
10 2542

11 2542
(..)
(...)

() ( 2546: 1)

6


(
2546: 12- 13)

149

1)







2)



3)






4)

5)

6)

150

[1]

Good
Governance

( 2553:25).

[2] Underlying
yje litany of Africa sdevelopment problem, is a crisis of governanace.
By governance is meant the exercise of political power to manage a
nations affairs. (World Bank, 1989:60).

[3] Old and New Public


Management Dunleavy and Hood, From public management
to new pulic management, Public Money and Management,
July/September, pp.9-16.

[4] Good Governance UN


Particopation, Rule of Law, Transparency, Responsiveness,
Concensus Oreintation, Equity, Effectiveness and Efficiency,
Accountability, Strategic Vision
www.undp.org/magnet/policy/chapter.

[5] 2542
.

[6] 2541

() :

.
151


http://www.oknation.net/blog/dhiwakorn/2011/11/25/entry-1

152