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INTRODUCTION

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Laser are presently used for a variety of applications in the medical field. This is the interaction between the laser radiation and human tissue.

Success of this depends on:
*Radiation *Wavelength *Ability of the tissue to absorb *Total energy incident on the tissue and area to be treated.

Ophthalmology

An increased understanding of laser-tissue interactions in ophthalmology has led to the use of lasers in treating a wide spectrum of diseases involving both the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. *Retinal holes or tears can be treated with laser therapy to prevent their progression to a full-scale detachment. *Laser photocoagulation uses the heat from a laser to seal or destroy abnormal, leaking blood vessels in the retina. One of two approaches may be used when treating diabetic retinopathy.

Laser in Neurosurgery
Carbon di-oxide lasers have been used in neurosurgery for the treatment of brain tumours since the 1970s. *Laser tissue welding (LTW) is a method of creating an instant watertight wound closure inside the skull and spine. *

Gastroenterology
The removal of lower gastro intestinal fats. Nd YAG lasers are mostly used. It is also used to cure cancers. The temperature of the tissue does not increase.

DERMATOLOGY
Used to treat skin imperfections by laser irradiation(The act of exposing or the condition of being exposed to radiation.).argon and carbon dioxide lasers.

Gynaecology

The carbon di-oxide laser emits continuous or pulsed infrared radiation which is highly absorbed in water. Used for fertility microsurgery and reconstruction of fallopian tube.

ENT

The laser transmits radiation via a flexible quartz fibre optic cable that can be used with a set of intra nasal, micro laryngeal hand pieces. These hand pieces allow for optimal laser focusing. Use of Diode Laser(This a lightweight, portable, battery supported ,980-nm wavelength Diode laser with a fibre optic delivery system)

Laser surgery
*diagnosis and surgery as well. *Nd YAG and carbon di-oxide used for destruction of tumours. *Tissue incisions.
Laser beam

Rotating mirror

Focusing lens.

Advantages: •Painless and bloodless surgery •No side effects. •Sterile. •Heals fast. Disadvantage: •Highly expensive