Education Concert Curriculum Guide

OrchestrArt - A Colour Symphony

Stimulate, Illuminate and Educate with the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra’s 2005 - 2006 Education Series
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Photo: Vanessa J. Goymour

Curriculum Guide Contents
Part I - General Information
Letter to Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Teachers’ Comments from last season . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 What the Kids Say. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2005-2006 Programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Note to Teachers - Concert Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The History of the CPO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Resident Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Conducting 101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Instruments of the Orchestra. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Map of Orchestra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Members of the Orchestra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Jack Singer Concert Hall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Part II - The Concert
Concert Programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Carnival Overture in A major, Dvorak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Red Poppy: Russian Sailor’s Dance, Glière . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blue Tango, Anderson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Irish Tune from County Derry, Grainger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Firebird: Introduction, Stravinsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Claire de Lune, Debussy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kaleidoscope, Mercure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Nutcracker: Waltz of the Flowers, Tchaikovsky . . . . . . . . 21 24 28 32 36 42 45 53

Glossary of Musical Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

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Dear Music Specialist/Teacher(s),
Music is an integral part of every child’s education. It can have a dramatic positive impact on learning abilities and the school environment. Many of the structures and patterns found in music provide the keys to learning in other subjects. Analytical and critical skills are exercised through listening, reacting, and discussing music. Students also develop their creative imaginations through singing, playing, composing and moving. This developed creativity helps them to discover and learn and is transferable to any experience. Creative arts projects can be initiated through literature, reading, writing, math, history, science, geography and any other subject. Working with music and the arts also increases awareness of others, individual responsibility within a group context, and, perhaps most importantly, a sense of belonging and fun. This Curriculum Guide has been designed to be used with the CD and to assist you in preparing your students for their CPO concert experience. It is intended to be a means for the students to become familiar with and appreciate the repertoire that the orchestra will be performing. We hope the listening and lesson plans will lead you and your students into further study of this extraordinary symphonic music. We hope you enjoy listening and have fun with the lesson plans! The Calgary Philharmonic Society would like to thank Suzanne Derbecker, Tom Mirhady and Robert Penner, for contributing their time and energy in writing and planning the Curriculum Guide. Sincerely,

Pierre Simard Resident Conductor

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Thank you!” .Cecil Swanson -4- . one they look forward to and enjoy .“Keep it up! This has been a 6-year-old tradition for Hawkwood students.Captain John Palliser .one student observed.“We appreciated the whole thing . ‘I love watching her live the music’” . content was highly varied and threw in visual component which helped to entertain the attention spans of young people. I could see students ‘feeling’ the music throughout . We all appreciated your guest soloist .“A valuable musical experience.“This concert inspired my students to listen to classical music and they all are excited about band in junior high.Hawkwood Elementary .“It was a very worthwhile experience for the students.parent council pays for this!!” .“The concert was awesome! Presentation was fast-paced (agile conductor!). Thank you!” .Hawkwood Elementary . engaged interest.Mountainview Home School . content was also helpful for enabling children to understand and interpret music.it was explained in terms that they could understand and visualize! Amazing job!” .Teachers’ Comments from last season: .” .“…by breaking the pieces into layers…the students could appreciate it at a deeper level.Varsity Acres .” .“Exceeded our expectations! Great selections and presented clearly with various instruments so students could understand the composition. lots of opportunity for interaction and response. even students who have difficulty sitting still were mesmerized. Training the musicians and audience of the future!” .Queen Elizabeth Elementary .Cecil Swanson School .smooth.

I loved this field trip!!” . 3 “…my favorite instrument is the gong. gr. gr.Captain John Palliser School. cause I learned that you can picture different things from different songs. It was very good.Cecil Swanson Elementary. 3 “Dear Orchestra: thank you for the music.Cecil Swanson Elementary. gr. gr. 5 “Well. You were great!” .Cecil Swanson. My favorite instrument was the one that was skinny and yellow and you blow into it” . The concert was good. I thought it was a man but women can be conductors too!” . 3 “I had never gone to the Jack Singer Hall. so good and the music sounded so musicell!” . gr.Renfrew Educational Services.Rosemont Elementary. gr. gr. My favorite piece was ‘Jurassic Park’ because I like dinosaurs.What the Kids Say… “Orchestra. you play very good because you never made a mistake and I like the song old to joy” .Renfrew Educational Services. gr. Thanks one and a million” . 3 “The CPO really changed my life” .Rosemont Elementary. Music makes me feel good!” . I was so surprised that you (Rosemary Thomson) would be the conductor. Now you have inspired me to come back again. I think this was a very good field trip. gr.Cecil Swanson. gr. 3 The cello is so cool. 5 -5- . 5 “My favorite instrument is the drum because it makes me have different feelings. 3 “I liked the songs you play and I liked the instruments that you played.Renfrew Educational Services. You played them perfect. 5 “We really enjoyed your presentation because all the instrument players were together all the time and nobody got mixed up!” .

October 26.2005 . March 8. February 15. 2005 10:00am Follow the Clagary Philharmonic Orchestra through a musical adventure inspired by a world of colours. discover how earth. 2006 at 10:00am Wednesday. 2006 at 10:00am Come and discover incredible soundscapes. fire and air are given a musical voice. March 9. 2005 at 10:00am Wednesday. Extreme Music Pierre Simard. as we take a closer look at the length. February 14. Conductor Tuesday. water. 2006 at 10:00am Thursday.2006 Programmes OrchestrArt . 2005 at 10:00am Thursday. October 25. Conductor Tuesday. soft and loud. from images to paintings and much more. Magical Forces of Nature Pierre Simard. March 7. 2006 at 10:00am Thursday. October 27. February 23. height and width of an orchestra’s sonic palette. 2006 at 10:00am Wednesday. and prepare your ears for an extreme experience! -6- . Learn about the real meaning of high and low.A Colour Symphony Pierre Simard. Conductor Tuesday. slow and fast. 2006 at 10:00am From the slightest breeze to the hottest fire.

• All food.15 minutes! This is the situation that our wonderful crew of ushers at Education Concerts frequently face. • Encourage children to remove their outer clothing and place it on their seats. at which time all the musicians will tune their instruments. • Tape recorders. limited space to congregate . cell phones. please remain quiet in your seats. the Concertmaster will make his entrance. If you need to leave your seat. drink and chewing gum must be disposed of before entering the hall. The audience should become quiet so the musicians can hear their instruments. They will be more comfortable. Please help us out and arrive 30 minutes prior to concert time (latecomers will be seated when there is a suitable break in the performance). By warming up.Note to Teachers . Please pull up as close to 1st Street as possible so that other buses can pull in behind. • Applause is appreciated and is appropriate. Please don’t throw anything from the balconies. please wait for applause. fingers and muscles ready to play music. You will know it is time to clap when the conductor has dropped both of his arms to the sides. when all is quiet. During the Performance: • Before the concert begins. Following the tuning. Please encourage students to use washrooms BEFORE and AFTER rather than during the concert so as not to disturb other listeners or the musicians. still cameras and video cameras are prohibited in the concert hall. watch for the arrival of the conductor. musicians get their lips. • Prior to the conductor arriving on stage.Concert Tips Guidelines for Attending Education Concerts: Before the Performance: • Imagine this: 1700 children. the musicians may be “warming up” by playing scales and excerpts from their music. He will walk to his place at the front of the violins and signal the oboist for the “A” note. The audience applauds. Buses must leave Olympic Plaza after they have dropped off the students and return following the performance. • Washroom facilities are located on all floors. • While a piece of music is being played. -7- . • A sign in the window of the bus may facilitate locating and loading of the buses following the performance. • Buses may stop on the 8th Avenue Mall for drop-off. The audience will applaud and the concert will begin.

Baroque Plus. the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra attracted a celebrated Music Director. The CPO provides several different concert Series: Classics. He was instrumental in creating excitement around the CPO’s award winning European tour in the fall of 2000. where it garnered glowing reviews from music critics after performing in some of the world’s best-known concert halls. the CPO gained wider attention in 1957 with the completion of its first home.The History of the CPO The Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra (CPO) is proud to announce the appointment of a new Music Director. Switzerland. In 2006/2007. The CPO was the first Western Canadian orchestra to tour Europe. Light Classics. including Carnegie Hall. Live in a wonderful range of genres. Mario Bernardi. the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra was formed in 1955 by merging Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra at the Jack Singer Concert Hall. two existing groups. and renowned conductor Hans Graf was appointed Music Director of the CPO. As the audience grew and public acclaim heightened. the CPO moved to its permanent home in the Epcor Centre for the Performing Arts’ Jack Singer Concert Hall in 1985. Twice interrupted by the two world wars. Live with the world’s leading artists. Roberto Minczuk. Austria and France. performing in Germany. Performing in Calgary’s Grand Theatre to a small but enthusiastic audience at first. Mario Bernardi became Conductor Laureate. In 1992. who currently holds the position of Music Director of the Orquestra Sinfonica Brasileira in Rio de Janeiro. Live for an average of five concerts a month. POPS. four Classics and two Light Classics. Maestro Minczuk will be officially introduced to Calgary on September 9. Minczuk will conduct six concerts. Saturday Morning at the Symphony (SMATS) and Young People’s Discovery -8- . the Alberta Photo Credit: Garry Kan Philharmonic and the Calgary Symphony. Maestro Graf remained in this role until the end of the 2002/2003 Season. In 1984. who guided the Orchestra through a period of tremendous artistic growth. In 1995. His official duties will commence with the CPO’s 2006/2007 Season. The CPO has been an integral part of our vibrant community for many years and is excited to be celebrating its 50th Anniversary in the 2005/ 2006 Season. 2005. The CPO has been live in Calgary since 1955. the CPO undertook its first North American Tour. the Jubilee Auditorium. Live in Calgary as one of North America’s finest and most versatile orchestras.

-9- .Series. The CPO’s continued artistic growth and increasing public support have Calgary’s Orchestra poised for great success. The CPO has gained international recognition through its extensive recordings. Alberta Ballet. of which Rosemary Thomson is the Chorus Master. In addition. The CPO is pleased to announce that it will be welcoming Pierre Simard as its new Resident Conductor at the beginning of the 2005/2006 Season. This allows the Orchestra to perform works on a grand scale before more than 90. covering a broad range of musical styles and repertoire and appealing to a wide and diverse audience. Beethoven in the Badlands and POPS in the Park which have become marquis events that complement the regular series offerings. designed for 15 to 29 year olds. the CPO undertakes education and community outreach activities. and serves as the resident Orchestra for Calgary Opera. The CPO is also proud to retain its own 115-member Calgary Philharmonic Chorus. the Calgary International Organ Festival and the Esther Honens Calgary International Piano Competition.000 people each year. The CPO introduced a new web-based program called cpossibilities in September 2004. national CBC broadcasts and touring. to enhance its commitment to keep the Orchestra accessible and affordable and to grow and expand the Orchestra’s younger demographics. The CPO also performs a number of special concerts each year including Mozart on the Mountain.

the Opéra de Montréal Choir. Mauritius and Reunion islands. He also led ensembles with musicians from the Montreal Symphony and the Quebec Symphony. 8 with the Montreal Symphony under Eliahu Inbal. John Passion and Orff’s Carmina Burana. the Domaine Forget and the Montreal High Lights Festival. for Best Young Audience Performance. combining fantasy and humor to music. Pierre Simard studied with Raffi Armenian. Lately. he led a tour with the Rendez-vous de la Francophonie across Canada. A passionate defender of contemporary music. Frederik Prausnitz and JoAnn Falletta.10 - . Belgium. Von Suppe’s Requiem. Ukraine. he performed with Les Violons du Roy. Pierre Simard founded the À tout chant Society. Pierre Simard pursues a career as conductor. he prepared choirs for Mahler’s Symphony no. oboist. Pierre Simard was awarded two OPUS Prizes from the Quebec Music Council.Resident Conductor A versatile musician. the Orchestre Métropolitain du Grand-Montréal. . an ensemble performing works he arranged for voice and chamber orchestra. he is also grantee of the Quebec Arts Council and of Ville de Laval. As guest conductor. Recipient of many honors. the Bradyworks Ensemble and the McGill Contemporary Music Ensemble. Pierre Simard conducts at the Lanaudière International Festival. and throughout Canada. Haydn’s Creation. As a composer. Artistic director of the French Ontario Youth Orchestra. and composer-arranger. such as Bruckner’s E Minor Mass. as music director of SMCQ-Jeunesse. which has led him in France. Grantee of the Montreal Mayor’s Foundation and the Canada Arts Council. His diversified repertoire includes numerous large-scale works. Pierre Simard devotes himself to reinventing the traditional concert formulas. Bach’s St. USA. Holder of a Master’s Degree in Conducting from the Peabody Institute (Johns Hopkins University) in Baltimore and five Conservatory Prizes from the Montreal Conservatory of music.

Experiment with other gestures and see what kind of reaction you get. ask your students to conduct along with the music as they listen to it. When beginning a piece the Conductor will show an upbeat to bring the musicians in. loud or soft music. This is usually the last beat before the down beat which will change depending on the beat pattern. . Try conducting with your students to show smooth or separate music. Specific motions of the arm within the beat pattern can communicate a lot of information to the musicians as to how s/he wants the music to be performed. Once they have determined the number of beats in the bar.11 - . The arm motion for conducting in 2: The arm motion for conducting in 3: The arm motion for conducting in 4: Another job of the conductor is to present an interpretation for the performance of a piece so that the orchestra is unified.Conducting 101 One of a Conductor’s jobs is to keep the musicians together by showing the beat. Below are some of the various patterns that conductors use to indicate the number of beats in a bar.

Four (or sometimes 5 for the double bass) strings made of gut. Sometimes. When playing the violin. The cello section of the orchestra makes a rich. The Violin is the smallest member of the string family and can therefore produce the highest sound. are stretched across a hollow wooden body.12 - . and double basses. and the principal of the 1st violins is called the concertmaster who leads the whole orchestra. To support its longer strings. The bow is held in the right hand and is drawn across the strings. the instrument is rested on one shoulder and held in place with the chin and the left hand. The CPO has 43 string players out of 65 musicians. the violas can be hard to pick out when the whole orchestra is playing. The Viola is an important member of the orchestra. then stretched across the bridge to the other end where they are attached to the tailpiece. making a more percussive sound (col legno). The pitch can be changed in two ways: by the way the bow is drawn across different strings. Since there are more violinists than any other orchestra players. This is because they are softer than the winds. resting the instrument upright against their bodies and using an endpin to support the cello. so the cellist had to squeeze the instrument between their knees. steel. They can also be plucked or strummed like guitars (pizzicato). the instruments can be struck by the bows. or nylon. it is more than twice as big as the viola . warm sound. Usually the bow is drawn across the strings in a process called bowing (arco). violas. Each string section plays the same part. The instrument is a little heavier. Each section is led by a principal. . At one end they are affixed to the tuning pegs. String instruments can be played in many ways. The string instruments all share the same design.Instruments of the Orchestra The String Family The String section consists of four main instruments . Because it is bigger than the violin. There are so many violins that they are divided into 2 sections.the violins. and by the way the left hand fingers are pressed against the strings. while each wind & brass player plays a separate part. brass and percussion so we need more of them. but is not often heard solo. the group can look like waves of an ocean swaying with the music. it makes a darker sound that is lower in pitch. More than 200 strands of horsehair are stretched taut across a wooden stick to form the bow. but you would really notice their absence. The Cello plays even lower than the viola . and long to hold under their chin. with longer strings. In the 1800s not all cellos had endpins.too big. but played the same as the violin. Cellists sit down. cellos. In an orchestra. heavy.a whole octave lower in fact. Playing the “middle” part in the orchestra’s harmony. there are more strings than any other instrument.

(2) Single reed: Found in the clarinet only. Some double bassists perch on a high stool and others stand up.13 - . 2 oboes. These big. and players blow air into them to create sounds. they are not all made of wood. usually with 2 flutes. At six feet or even more. The modern orchestra usually makes use of the “double wind” configuration. the single reed is made of cane shaved extremely thin at one end. (3) Double reed: the rest of the woodwind instruments have a double reed. and drives the vibration of the air column when triggered by the player’s breath. 2 clarinets. and play the lowest notes. Despite their name. Otherwise the bass is played much like a cello. because it is coarser and more effective on the bigger strings. They look like long sticks. and this stream is divided by the tapered further edge. Sound is produced by the vibration of the air column within the instrument.The Double Bass is the orchestra’s foundation. They are the largest of all the stringed instruments. These reeds vibrate against each other when the player blows. This reed fits over a rectangular hole at the mouthpiece. a stream of air is directed by the player edgewise across a hole. This is achieved in 3 different ways: (1) Edge-tone: used only for the flute and piccolo. The Woodwind Family Woodwind instruments use vibrating air to produce many different musical sounds. Sometimes the lowest longest string of the double bass is extended so it can play even lower. . bone and ivory. which is really nothing but 2 thin strips of cane bound tightly together. and 2 bassoons to which are added a piccolo. This produces anywhere from a breathy tone to a clear. The different shape and materials of each instrument helps to create its own unique sound. the double bass is often taller than the musician who plays it. bell-like tone. causing the air column to vibrate as well. The horse hair on the bass bow is often black. cor anglais. causing the air column within the instrument to vibrate. deep instruments add weight to the orchestra’s sound. double bassoon and sometimes a bass clarinet. They may also be made from metal. A system of springs and levers allows the holes to be opened and closed.

Bassoons have a rich and mellow sound. Orchestras occasionally use a saxophone to play solo parts. The saxophone has a single reed and a mouthpiece like a clarinet. The standard “B-flat” clarinet is a little more than two feet long and the bottom flares out into a bell shape. Playing bottom notes of woodwind chords is one of the most important jobs of the bassoon.You can hear the smooth. velvety sound of the Clarinet in orchestras. This makes a very distinct sound. . Because it makes such a distinct sound however. dark tone to the sound of a sea-god speaking. blues. plays an octave lower. There are different size and ranges of clarinets. military bands and jazz groups.14 - . bent into a narrow U-shape. Clarinets are made of wood or moulded plastic. The sax can be a little heavy and so a neck strap may be attached to the instrument. rock. The “E-flat” clarinet is smaller and plays a higher range of notes. one would never mistake it for a clarinet. allowing lower notes to be played. There are four major types of saxophones. meaning that air makes two reeds vibrate against each other. alto. next to the knee. The bassoon is a double-reed woodwind instrument.except for the Contrabassoon. So a complex system of rods links the keys to these distant tone holes. it is higher pitched. Different pitches are played by pressing on the clarinet’s many keys. The Saxophone is classified as a woodwind because it is played using a reed. Because the bassoon is so long it is held to one side. tenor. A contrabassoon is so low in pitch that it seems to “buzz. but it has a metal body with a flared bell. and a bass clarinet.” It can sound very comical. the saxophone is used mainly in jazz. Bassoons are the largest woodwind instruments in the orchestra . It’s a therefore kind of a cross between a woodwind and a brass instrument. which is even bigger and plays a whole octave lower than the bassoon. and are reed instruments. Today. The tone holes are spread out much further than fingers could ever reach. It takes a lot of breath to play a contrabassoon. It has almost 8 feet of wooden tubing. Though it makes the same kind of distinct sound that a bassoon does. The reed is secured in a curved metal tube. and baritone. and pop. The oboe is the instrument the orchestra tunes to before any performance. meaning that they make noise when air vibrates a small reed on the mouthpiece. mellow sound. each playing a different range of notes: soprano. One poet compared the bassoon’s deep. The oboe is also a double reed instrument that resembles a clarinet. Saxophones make a strong. however the instrument itself is made of brass.

The Trumpet has a loud. clear sound once used to frighten enemies in battle. they are often used in military bands that play outside. 1 bass trombone. flutes often have magical properties. The Horn has a velvety. The first is by pressing down on the keys that control the trumpets three valves. In fact. it has a long tube that is wound in a tight circle flaring out into a very wide bell. The valves and their extra tubing are in the centre of the circle. which in turn creates a sound. The difference is. Brass instruments are really just long metal tubes (up to 20 feet!) that flare at the end.15 - . Because they are so long. 3 trumpets. detailed music. 2 trombones. horn. designed to play a whole octave higher than the flute itself. the tubes are bent and folded into compact shapes so that they can be easily held. To set the air in motion. The Piccolo is a “short” flute. For this reason. In the modern orchestra. The second is by changing the shape of the lips against the mouthpiece. ranging from the brilliant fanfare of the trumpets to the sonorous bellows of the tuba. trumpets are at least 3. with a flute you can change the notes by pressing some of the many keys. Today. but sometimes you will see flutes made of wood. and a tuba. Sometimes called the French horn. they ‘buzz” their lips together. pure brass instruments are rare and can also be made of other metals. perhaps because of its beautiful sound. celebrate big ceremonies. Brass players produce sound by blowing in to the mouthpiece of the instrument.Flutes are usually made of metal. as you would expect from their name. or shell. Piccolos are played in exactly the same way. .early versions of the trumpet have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs.500 years old . There are two ways a musician can create different pitches with the trumpet. including that of King Tut. The pitch can be affected not only by the length of tubing.the tighter the players lips. tone colour that projects across other instruments without overpowering them. we can usually find 4 horns. Making sound with an open bottle is much like playing the flute: when air blows across the hole in the mouthpiece. tusk. Playing the horn involves balancing it on the leg and holding it up with two hands. The left hand works the valves that help to change the horns pitch and the right hand is held inside the bell. and send signals and messages. round. but also by the tension of the players lips . Their lips create a vibration that in turn creates sound. In stories and legends. it creates a vibrating through the instrument. The Brass Family The Brass instruments are usually made of brass. wood. the higher the note. flutes are easily heard and designed to play fast. The timbre of brass instruments is unique. Being some of the highest instruments in the orchestra.

Just think of all the different percussion instruments from around the world: there are African Drums. are restricted only to rhythms. a percussionist in an orchestra may play as many as a dozen different kinds of percussion instruments. the notes change. the wide range of available sounds can be manipulated in many ways to produce new and interesting blends of tone colours. Because the tuba is so large. It’s also the youngest brass instrument. Percussion instruments can be pitched or non-pitched. They fill out the harmonies between the trumpets and the horn on top. at the centre. The triangle’s pitch is not very distinct. it rests on the lap of the musician who presses the valves to produce different notes. Almost every kind of band around the world has at least one percussion instrument in it. It is either held in one hand. Because of this variety. Cymbals come in many sizes and sounds: . this does not hinder them at all! In fact. The trombone is very easy to find in the orchestra because of its shape. Each side of the triangle can be from four to ten inches wide with bigger triangles making louder sounds than little ones. Steel Drums from the Caribbean. it has a very clear and shimmering sound that cuts through even the loudest music. the tuba is crucial in an orchestra because it provides the lowest notes for the brass section. however. Like double basses and bassoons.16 - . loud chords in the orchestra even more exciting. The player usually holds each cymbal through a strap attached to the outside of the curved disc. suspended on a cord. Pitched instruments are usually struck with a variety of mallets. When two cymbals are struck together. But as more modern pieces show. While being among the smallest of orchestra instruments. and a whole world of pots and pans just waiting to be hit. As the slide is moved.The Trombones sound fills the middle of the orchestral brass section. The Percussion Family The Percussion family is huge! It includes any instrument that produces sounds when struck. their edges vibrate freely producing a huge ring that makes big. Their definite pitch makes it possible for these instruments to even play melodies. and its tone varies according to how hard you strike and how large the triangle is. The triangle is a simple steel rod bent into the shape of a triangle. The Tuba is the largest member of the brass family and plays the lowest notes. and consequently the foundation of the orchestra. the trombone uses a slide. Chinese Cymbals. or hung on a stand. Cymbals are thin curved bronze disks with a concave shape that are clashed together or struck with sticks to produce a sound. scraped or shaken. and the low tuba below. The other percussion instruments. and they range from the monstrous set of kettledrums to the keyboard-like glockenspiel. Though most brass instruments use valves to produce different pitches.

from tiny finger cymbals to large and deafening orchestra cymbals, from soft and delicate, to loud and harsh. The Bass Drum is the biggest of the drums used in the orchestra. It’s a round cylinder with a skin-like paper stretched over both openings. Like the triangle, it is not tuned to a specific pitch, but its tone is very low and deep. It can sound loud and thundering, and sometimes quiet and almost invisible. The ringing notes of the Xylophone make it a colourful addition to the percussion section of an orchestra. A xylophone is a set of wooden bars, mounted on a frame. The wooden bars are arranged like a piano keyboard with the shorter bars play the higher notes and the longer bars playing the lower notes. The biggest xylophones have almost 50 wooden bars! Most xylophones have tubes or gourds below each bar to increase the volume of the sound. Though most percussion instruments are known for their beat, the xylophone can create a beautiful melody too. Timpani are sometimes called kettledrums because they are shaped like big copper kettles. In fact they are made of copper. They have a piece of calfskin, or thin plastic stretched over their opening. This is called a drumhead. Timpani are very important in the orchestra because they “underline “ important chords. Only one note at a time can be played on each timpani and that note can be changed by pressing the foot on a pedal at the base of the drum. An orchestra usually has three or four timpani, and they can all make a very loud noise. The Snare Drum is the most basic of all the percussion instruments, and probably the one with the most familiar sound. These are the drums most frequently seen in military movies. They are short, wide cylinders, covered by a skin and a string of beads that can make a rattling nose when they are touching the drum.

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Members of the Calgary Philharmonic 2005-2006
FIRST VIOLINS Cenek Vrba - Concertmaster John Lowry - Associate Concertmaster Donovan Seidle - Assistant Concertmaster Janice Amsel Kathryn Corvino Alana Gralen Olga Kotova Theresa Kraucunas Susan Light Bonnie Louie Alla Magid Robert Penner SECOND VIOLINS Jeffrey Plotnick * Stephanie Soltice-Johnson ** (on leave) Rachel Kristenson
(Acting Assistant Principal)

CELLOS Phil Hansen * Susan Foulkes ** Yuri Gindin Kirill Kalmykov Joan Kent Thomas Megee Tom Mirhady Karen Youngquist BASSES Charles Garrett * Sheila Garrett ** Jeffrey Buchner Robert Yung-il Kim Graeme Mudd Patricia Bereti-Reid (on leave) FLUTES Gwen Klassen ** (Acting Principal) Lauren Eselson ** (Acting Assistant
Principal)

BASSOONS Stephen Franse * Michael Hope ** HORNS Robert McCosh * Austin Hitchcock *** William Hopson** Laurie Matiation** Heather Wootton** (on leave) TRUMPETS Howard Engstrom * Gareth Jones ** TROMBONES James Scott * Michael Thomson ** BASS TROMBONE David Reid * (on leave) Robert Fraser (Acting Principal) TUBA Michael Eastep * TIMPANI Tom Miller * PERCUSSION Tim Rawlings * HARP Tisha Murvihill *

Judith Bessel Joy Crawford Craig Hutchenreuther Steven Lubiarz Richard Van de Geer Xiao-Ming Wu David Zweifel VIOLAS John Thompson * Robert Ashworth ** Arthur Bachmann Carl Boychuk Michael Bursey Katherine Grigoriu Heather Heron-Mykyte (on leave) Julie Westgate

PICCOLO Lauren Eselson OBOES Jean Landa * David Sussman ** ENGLISH HORN David Sussman ** CLARINETS Steve Amsel * Jocelyn Colquhoun **

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Jack Singer Concert Hall
The elegant Jack Singer Concert Hall is the permanent home of the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra. Considered to be one of Canada’s few pure music halls, the Jack Singer opened in 1985 as the jewel in the new Calgary Centre for Performing Arts. With a seating capacity of 2,059, the concert hall is a synthesis of some of the world’s finest halls, designed by Artec Consultants. Its ambience and acoustics are designed to offer a total live concert experience. It is modelled in an intimate rectangular form which is said to produce the best quality sound, and the concert stage is geared to host a wide variety of entertainment. In addition, the Carthy Organ is the crowning jewel of the Jack Singer Concert Hall. The organ was designed, engineered and built by Casavant Frères of St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, one of Canada’s prominent organ builders for over 120 years. Further, it was donated to the citizens of Calgary, and the world, by the Carthy Foundation, and is named in its honour. The 75-stop, 111-rank organ has 6,040 pipes, ranging in size from less than half an inch to 32 feet, and varying in weight from just more than three ounces to well over 200 pounds. Measuring 79 feet and 38 feet deep, the concert hall has a 57 tonne laminated canopy suspended high above the stage to combine with two side tower clusters of 20 speakers each, providing a total of 88 speakers powered by 5000 watts. In addition, heavy velour banners along the side walls of the hall and curtains may be used during choral or spoken performances to soften the concert hall’s natural reverberance. A full, computer-controlled color change lighting system and follow-spots enhance performances. The Jack Singer Concert Hall is named for Mr. Jack Singer, whose sons Alan and Stephen made a significant contribution to the hall in honour of Mr. Singer’s commitment to the arts in Calgary.

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I. Conductor Programme Carnival Overture in A Major. Opus 92 Red Poppy: Russian Sailor’s Dance. Grainger I. October 25. Debussy P. Dvorak R. October 27. Opus 70 Blue Tango Irish Tune from County Derry The Firebird: Introduction Claire de Lune (orchestral version) Kaleidoscope The Nutcracker: Waltz of the Flowers A. Tchaikovsky All programmes are subject to change . Anderson P. 2005 at 10:00 am Wednesday.20 - . October 26.A Colour Symphony Concert Programme Tuesday. 2005 at 10:00 am Thursday. 2005 10:00 am The Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra Pierre Simard. Glière L. Stravinsky C. Mercure P.OrchestrArt .

reflect on what feelings he was trying to express through the music. Andantino con moto.Carnival Overture in A Major (Opus 92) A. Activities To Do In Class 1. he began to study music formally in Prague. is permeated with the spirit of dance and exuberance. breaths a sigh of quiet reflection and gives an air of mystery featuring a solo violin. .) In 1891. violin and piano by age twelve. flute and oboe. Dvorak wrote a set of three overtures. He learned to play the organ. Dvorak finishes the piece with a rollicking and boisterous ending. He became involved in a new trend called Nationalism.) All three have thematic material in common but are developed in very different ways to reflect the nature of the subject. a) The first section of the Overture. depicting childhood. Carnival Overture. Nationalistic music uses the rhythms and folk songs of a particular country. Allegro. The first section. A B A. Dvorak preferred to express feeling rather than a particular emotion. Listen to the first three minutes and discuss how Dvorak uses the orchestral instruments to create this carnival atmosphere. Allegro. something he would use later as a composer. Life and Love. b) Listen to the Allegro again and conduct is in 4/4 metre (see diagram below). Discuss how a conductor must move his arms to convey such an exuberant and energetic sound to the musicians. Dvorak (Czeckoslovakia 1841-1904) Written in 1891 General Information Antonin Dvorak grew up in a musical family in a small village called Nelahozevec. viola. It can be divided up into three main sections. Amid Nature. is similar to the first part. At the age of 16. (Later he would use American folk music to highlight his “New World Symphony” when he lived in the United States. youth and manhood. the second of the trilogy. The second section. Carnival and Othello. (They were originally given the titles of Nature. instantly bursts into a lively country fair in full swing with Slavonic Dance music being heard in the rhythms and melodies. The third section.21 - . As you listen to this piece. He used the melodies and characteristic rhythms from Czeckoslovakian to demonstrate the beauty of his country’s music. is fast and exciting. Dvorak absorbed the rhythmic and imaginative folk music that pervaded his rural area at the time. excited and energetic. Allegro.

identifying the flute. 2. Repeat the activities listed in #1. It is about four minutes long. (They may like to attempt it though!) 3. Discuss how the conductor’s body language can convey the mood of the music. oboe and violin solos. Have your students learn the rhythm (by tapping) at a moderate tempo. b) Listen to the first section of the music and identify each theme (by raising a hand) and count the number of times (4) the theme is played. the 4/4 metre pattern will vary in speed as the music changes tempo. is generally quieter and more relaxed but it does gain momentum near the end as it moves towards the final Allegro.22 - 4. but instead. Discuss the actions and movements they chose. As you conduct. a) The main theme in the first and third sections of the Carnival Overture is introduced in the major mode and is very fast and exuberant. perhaps in the gym. more relaxed feel. discuss how Dvorak used the instruments to reflect a slower.Conducting in 4: c) If you were to move or dance to this music. Andantino con moto. The rhythm to this theme is written below. what would the movements and/or dance steps be like? In a large space. Which theme sounds like it is in the minor mode? (the fourth one) The students will not be able to tap the rhythm while listening to the music since it is performed too quickly. . The second section. . Below is a chart that the students can fill out as you listen to and discuss the music. allow the students to listen to the music and to move in ways the music makes them feel.

Dvorak Sections of the Overture Definition and Theme Tempo and Dynamics How are instruments used to create this musical effect? Descriptive Terms Allegro means: A Allegro Theme is heard times B Andantino con moto Andantino con moto means: A Allegro Theme is heard times Ending .23 - .Carnival Overture .A.

Variations are created when the theme is altered or modified on each repetition by using various musical techniques.) Use Twinkle Twinkle Little . instrumentation.Red Poppy: Russian Sailor’s Dance R. The Red Poppy has six sections. (A theme is a musical idea or a short melody. ballets. Glière used an old traditional song called. Activities To Do In Class 1. a) Teach the students the theme (the song. He repeats the song twelve times but in twelve different ways. The Red Poppy is a ballet that tells the tragic story of a Russian sailor and his Chinese love. also called movements. At age 16 he entered the Kiev school and later the Moscow Music Conservatory to study violin and composition. is seen as a symbol of freedom.24 - . in her last dying scene. Yablochka) by reading the notes or the solfa letters. Glière varies the speed. Yablochko (Little Apple) in the Russian Sailor’s Dance. He wrote symphonies.) 2. rhythms and other musical effects to make each repetition sound different and interesting. They are: 1) Heroic Coolie Dance 2) Scene and Dance 3) Chinese Dance 4) Phoenix 5) Valse 6) Russian Sailor’s Dance The orchestra will be performing the sixth movement at the Education Concert. The red poppy. Glière (Russia 1875-1956) Written in 1927 General Information Reinhold Glière was born in Kiev and was the son of a woodwind instrument maker. a) Explain the concept of a theme and variations. or by listening to it on the piano or another instrument you feel comfortable playing. She meets her death at the hands of a British imperialist port commandant. something the people of Russia felt they lost since the 1917 Russian Revolution. (This is a good melody to reinforce the syncopated rhythm and the minor scale. a cello concerto and chamber works.

What instruments play the theme? Begin listening to the variations and discuss how Glière created different moods and emotions by using the same theme. dynamics. Make changes to it (like repeating each note) so that it sounds different but the students can still recognize the song. b) Discuss how you could change Glière’s theme (speed. Discuss the overall sound and mood. 3.25 - . etc. . Have the students count the number of times the theme is repeated in the piece. Listen to the introduction and then the theme. major mode. 4.Star as an example of a theme.) so it will still be recognized but will sound somewhat different. How does the piece end? Use the chart below to record what the students hear in each the Russian Sailor’s Dance. repeated rhythms.

The Russian Sailor’s Dance from The Red Poppy by R.26 - . Gliere Theme Instruments that play the theme Background Instruments Tempo Dynamics Descriptive Terms Introduction Theme 1st Variation 2nd Variation 3rd Variation 4th Variation 5th Variation 6th Variation 7th Variation 8th Variation 9th Variation 10th Variation 11th Variation Ending .

The Russian Sailor’s Dance from The Red Poppy by R.27 - Strong Energetic to the end . Gliere (partially completed chart) Theme Introduction Instruments that play the theme Strings Background Instruments Tempo Dynamics Quick Descriptive Terms Anticipation Excitement Theme Double Bass Timpani Cello Double Bass Moderately loud mf Walking 1st Variation 2nd Variation Woodwinds Tambourine Moderate speed 3rd Variation Flute Light 4th Variation High Woodwinds High Strings Loud f Oboe Soft p Frantic Stately Majestic 5th Variation 6th Variation 7th Variation 8th Variation Violins Violas Tempo is getting faster Violins Trumpets Tempo is still getting faster “Square” sound 9th Variation 10th Variation 11th Variation Running Ending Whole Orchestra .

sandpaper in The Sandpaper Ballet (1954) and sleigh bells in the well-known The Sleigh Ride (1948). voice. The Blue Tango was one of Anderson’s most commercially successful works. a) Listen to the Blue Tango and have your students show the beat (by tapping with their fingers or with their feet). It contained elements of Afro-Argentine steps and rhythms (like syncopations) mixed with European music and choreography. Parish wrote lyrics for many of Anderson’s pieces. Anderson emerged as an outstanding composer.28 - . By 1935. selling more than one million copies. it is a couple’s dance with the foot patterns and steps being marked with glides and sudden pauses. Listen to the recording again and have the students conduct in two. keeping with the beat of the music. an unusual. Gershwin and by folk music idioms from around the world. (For example. In 1952. Anderson’s popular pieces are witty and charming orchestral works that are memorable and singable. He combined South American rhythms. always moving to the beat of the music. (Mr. arranger and conductor. He studied trombone. b) The tango is written in 2/4 metre and can be conducted in two. the tango evolved and moved into the ballroom by 1910 and was written as art music by 1920 Activities To Do In Class 1. He used creative instrumental effects and occasional items that are not traditionally used as musical instruments like the typewriter in The Typewriter (1950). . Afro-American spirituals and a mix of blues and jazz. graduating with a Bachelor and then a Master of Music by 1930. conducting and composition at Harvard. the Minuet for String Quartet.Blue Tango Leroy Anderson (USA 1908-1975) Written in 1951 General Information Leroy Anderson was born in Cambridge.) The Blue Tango became the biggest seller of instrumental music on the Hit Parade. colourful and vital sound. See the diagram below that demonstrates how to conduct in two. A Tango is a dance that grew out of the slums of Buenos Aires in the 1880’s. Massachusetts. His music was heavily influenced by G. one year after the Blue Tango was written.) As time passed. Mitchell Parish wrote lyrics for the song. He began taking piano lessons at an early age and later also became proficient on the organ and the double bass. He wrote over 40 compositions of classical and light classical popular pieces. Anderson wrote his first composition at age 12. double bass.

but they have different melodies. Blue Tango Theme 1 . by reading the notes using solfa.) How will you be able to tell the difference between the themes when listening to the music? c) Listen to the Blue Tango. A B A C. The themes are distinct from each other but do have some similarities.29 - .2. Anderson used two main themes in the Blue Tango. Which theme is played first? Which theme did you hear next? Which instrument or instrument family played the themes each time? The students may want to map out the music as they are listening to it. (For example. both themes have the same form. a) Teach each theme to the students (by rote. identify (by raising a hand) and count the themes when they are heard. They flow easily and are quite easy to learn and identify. by playing them on the piano or another instrument you are comfortable playing). b) Discuss the differences and similarities between the two themes. and both use syncopated rhythms.

4. How does it differ from the two themes? Discuss why Anderson decided to add this extra musical layer. Mitchell Parish wrote lyrics to the Blue Tango in 1952 one year after the orchestral version was released. There is another layer of music (which has a strong rhythmic pulse) that is heard “under” or in the background of the main themes. Below are the lyrics to this piece with accompanying guitar chords. .Blue Tango Theme II 3. It is very different but compliments the main themes nicely. It was recorded using a vocal soloist. How does it contribute to the overall sound of the music? What instruments does Anderson use for this second musical layer? Try to tap the rhythm of this second layer of music as you listen to the Blue Tango one more time. but listeners preferred the orchestral version of the Blue Tango instead.30 - .

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S. Grainger had other musical interests as well. one being the love of and preservation of folk music.) Ask your students if they are already familiar with the tune and if they know of any lyrics that accompany it. Activities To Do In Class 1. 1882 Australia . 1961 USA Written in 1927 General Information Percy A. c) The lyrics for Danny Boy and Londonderry Air are also provided. a melody sometimes called.A.Irish Tune from County Derry P. Grainger b. he collected and transcribed songs from folksingers. b) Teach the song to your students. He not only wrote it for orchestra (which will be heard at the Education Concert) but also for keyboard. P. He composed many famous arrangements from these musical works. (The melody is provided below. He was born in Brighton. Irish Tune from County Derry is one of over 100 songs that have been written to this same melody. Grainger’s piano and composition studies took him to Frankfurt Germany (from 1895 to 1901) and then to London England (from 1901-1914). Grainger led a busy life of concert tours.d. founding the Percy Grainger Museum at the University of Melbourne. You may need to discuss the meaning of the .32 - . composing. Grainger created a mesh of drifting chords which lay the foundation for the more prominent flowing melody. This famous melody was first published in 1855 in Ancient Music of Ireland by George Petric. lectures. Victoria. a) Play the tune to Irish Tune from County Derry on the piano or on an instrument you are comfortable with. Grainger was best known as a composer and a pianist. Londonderry Air or Danny Boy. Danny Boy also uses the same tune (but has different lyrics). He moved to the U. By using a phonograph. one being Irish Tune from County Derry. and introducing new and innovative ways of writing and performing music. His piece is a beautiful slow arrangement of the melody. large wind ensemble. He performed in his first concert tour at the age of twelve. The melody from Irish Tune from County Derry (also referred to as Londonderry Air) is a traditional tune from Ireland. in 1914. After World War I. Australia. Grainger used this Irish melody as a basis for his arrangement of Irish Tune from County Derry. Australia and was first taught to play the piano by his mother. Choose one version and teach it your students. vocal and band.

verbally • sometimes contains nonsense words • often several different versions exist c) Discuss the folk song characteristics of Irish Tune from County Derry. Grainger was one of those people who helped to preserve and record folk songs.33 - . • usually no known composer • usually is a story based on facts • very old • passed on from generation to generation. b) Explain to your students some of the characteristics that make a song a folk song. relaxing. dreamy. discuss the characteristics that apply to them. It was kept in the minds of the people who heard it from others. originally was not written down. The continual singing and passing on of the folk melodies allowed them to live on in people’s minds and lives. . The goal is to have your students become very familiar with the melody. Have them follow (by pointing) the melody on the score as the music is played.text as they use older English words. etc. a) Discuss the difference between folk music and newly composed music. Folk music. If your students have learned other folksongs. collectors of folk songs have recorded and transcribed these old and beautiful melodies. sleepy. published and recorded. 3. Most music that students listen to has been recently written. b) Make of list of descriptive terms that reflect how the music sounds (eg. 2. In the twentieth century.). Which instruments or instrument family does Grainger use to create these effects? c) Discuss why it would be difficult to sing the lyrics while Grainger’s arrangement is played. a) Listen to the recording and have your students identify (by raising their hand) when the melody begins.

traditional . and all the flowers are dying. Or would I were a little burnish’d apple For you to pluck me. tho’ soft you tread above me. when all the flowers are dying. Or when the valley’s hushed and white with snow. as dead I well may be. ‘Tis I’ll be there in sunshine or in shadow. If you’ll not fail to tell me that you love me I simply sleep in peace until you come to me. ‘Tis you. the pipes. I love you so. to touch you. oh Danny boy. Lyrics and music. Lyrics by Frederic Edward Weatherly. The summer’s gone. gliding by so cold While sun and shade your robe of lawn will dapple Your robe of lawn.Danny Boy Oh Danny boy. in the garden path That so your silver foot might press me going Might press me going even unto death. And all my dreams will warm and sweeter be. To lie and faint within your silken bosom Within your silken bosom as that does now. ‘tis you must go and I must bide.34 - . since you will not love. would to God I were among the roses That lean to kiss you as you float between While on the lowest branch a bud uncloses A bud uncloses. Yea. Oh Danny boy. And I shall hear. Nay. would I were growing A happy daisy. and down the mountain side. the pipes are calling. And I am dead. traditional Londonderry Air Would God I were the tender apple blossom That floats and falls from off the twisted bough. and your hair’s spun gold. You’ll come and find the place where I am lying And kneel and say an “Ave” there for me. queen. 1910 Music. And if you come. But come you back when summer’s in the meadow. From glen to glen.

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recordings and performances. a producer of Russian ballet. North and South America. Prince Ivan is hunting in the forest when he comes upon a bird of exquisite colour. He became one of the most influential composers of his time. Soon Ivan sees 13 beautiful princesses dancing as if they are in a trance. Unlike Claire de Lune. Russia into a musical family. if he ever needs help. She explains that the feather is magic. The harmonies kept a strong sense of key.The Firebird: Introduction I. Stravinsky (Russia. 1882-1971) Ballet written in 1910 General Information Igor Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum. Stravinsky began to seriously compose and to teach music. Stravinsky wrote three ballets. Diaghilev. the Firebird. As a young adult. an adventurous prince who is always finding himself in dangerous situations. a princess. Over the next 9 years. Ignoring her warning. a firebird and many adventures. by C. made into a ballet. The Firebird was just the beginning of his rich collection of musical scores. possessing an exciting new vein of Russian music yet incorporating a modern European flavour as well. Stravinsky lived a long life and as a result his music changed styles over the years. He began piano and composition lessons as a young boy. A brief version of The Firebird story is summarized below. Debussy. Stravinsky used traditional and approachable orchestral means. The Firebird being the first. The rhythms were allied with body movements and expressive gestures of ballet dancers. bright sonorities and clear textures. is one of those adventures. All he must do. He initially studied law in university but changed his focus to music by age 20. The ballet that Stravinsky created was considered “Post-Impressionistic”. He wanted Stravinsky to write music for a ballet that included a hero. She convinces Ivan to release her. Stravinsky established his own style of composition. A princess tells Ivan that he must not follow them or he. at the beginning of World War II. In 1939. The Firebird story. Stravinsky toured extensively throughout Europe. will fall under the spell of the wicked King Kastchei. he moved to the United States where he would stay for the rest of his life. commissioned it. and later shows her appreciation by giving him one of her feathers. He moved to Switzerland in 1917 to avoid the Russian Revolution and then to France in 1920. is to wave the feather in the air. he follows them to the castle where he sees people .36 - . He snatches her from a silver tree where she is eating golden fruit. The Russian people enjoyed stories of a popular hero named Ivan. too.

Two different and mysterious 6 beat melodies are repeated throughout the Introduction. At first light. Explain that Stravinsky wrote music to accompany the story.) 2. suspense. the creatures in the castle emerge from their sleep. dark.37 - .) b) Listen to the music and have the students raise their right hand when they hear the first melody and their left hand when they hear the second melody. told through a form of dance called a ballet. Why would this be an interesting way to beginning a story? c) Make a list of words that best describe the sounds and the scene as the story begins. (For example. b) Listen to the Introduction and have the students imagine what the initial setting or stage scene would look like before the action starts. . She leads Ivan to a tree where they find an egg containing the soul of Kastchei. etc. they celebrate by parading out of the castle. When they see that the spell is broken. lower strings can create an eerie and scary sound. (The melodies would be quite difficult to sing in tune. The Ballets Russes in Paris was first to perform The Firebird (L’Oiseau de Feu). When he waves it in the air the Firebird appears and leads everyone in the castle in an exhausting dance. a) Play the melodies for the students on the piano or an instrument you are comfortable with so they will be able to learn and to distinguish between them while listening to the music. The ballet is made up of 22 different musical scenes. The orchestra will only be performing the Introduction section of The Firebird at the education concert. Activities To Do In Class 1. There are 2 six beat melodies that are repeated throughout the introduction. Just as he begins to fall under the spell he remembers the feather. a) Read the brief summary of The Firebird story to your students.who have been turned into zombie-like creatures.) d) Discuss how the use of instruments creates such a dramatic and foreboding effect. Ivan quickly smashes the egg and darkness falls. Soon everyone falls asleep except a princess who has been put into an enchanted trance by the Firebird. It is about three minutes long and begins in a calm yet unsettled way by the lower strings. (For example: spooky. They are written below. Count the number of times each theme is heard. When the woodwinds enter they seem to be giving warning signals with a more insistent sound.

1 or 2. A chart has been prepared (on the following page) to help the students map out the music. Also identify which instruments are used in each part. the dynamics (volume). (An incomplete and partially completed chart has been included.) .3.38 - . and words that could describe the overall sound. and when other musical passages occur. Listen to the Introduction again and write down each melody.

Introduction to The Firebird by Igor Stravinsky Listening Chart Form (Melodics 1 and 2 or other musical ideas) Instruments Dynamics Descriptive Terms .39 - .

strings becomes louder then soft again intense moment before a “wash” of string sounds 1 1 1 1 flute (low register) flute (high register) oboe oboe “mf” (moderately loud) sustained last note Other musical ideas .Introduction to The Firebird by Igor Stravinsky Listening Chart Form (Melodics 1 and 2 or other musical ideas) 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 “mp” (moderately soft) lower strings and woodwinds Instruments Dynamics Descriptive Terms scary lower strings “p” (soft) Other musical ideas 1 Other musical ideas clarinet.40 - haunting. suspense . trumpet footsteps clarinet.

and textures that might be used to create a work of art. shapes. Discuss colours.4. Use the Introduction of The Firebird as an art lesson. What kinds of materials would you use to best reflect the music? .41 - .

Debussy believed that his art (music) should be one of colours and rhythms. As a young adult he traveled extensively throughout Europe and Asia and became familiar with the many different kinds of music that used unusual scales. Impressionism was an artistic movement in the late 19th and early 20th century that was liked to painters like Monet. Clair de Lune. that are rather vague and entangled rather than clear and concise. people saw him as a musical rebel. Debussy wrote both orchestral and piano music. At the time. For more information on the internet about Debussy and other artists of the Impressionist era use the following address: http://www. challenging the foundation of traditional harmony.html .42 - . and orchestration. the literary community like E. He put sounds together in new ways.ie/Music/JF%20History/debussy. like mixing orchestral effects. The suite is made up of four individual movements: Prelude. It belongs to a larger piano work called Suite Bergamasque. and Passepied. A. soft sounds. At times the music is very intense and then it quickly changes to being very distant. Clair de Lune (Moonlight). Clair de Lune is written in ternary form.tcd. Poe and to music. always maintaining a strong sense of form yet creating music that was new and original. He took piano lessons as a child and at age 11 he entered the Paris Conservatory to study music. or using the piano pedal (pressed half way down) to create blurry. one of Debussy’s earlier and most famous works. Claire de Lune is mostly played pianissimo (very quietly) in D-flat major. tone colours and creative styles. form. Debussy applied many of these early musical experiences to his musical compositions. but he was actually carving out a new form of music. It focused on ideas that seem to hint rather than to state. It is one of the most beautiful pieces from the Impressionist epoch.Claire de Lune (orchestral version) Claude Debussy (France 1862-1918) Written in 1890 (for piano) General Information Claude Debussy was born in Paris where his parents owned a china shop. was written first as a piano piece and later arranged for orchestra. Debussy is considered to be the father of Impressionistic music. having a sense of spontaneity. Impressionistic music. (A B Av) which means it can be divided into three sections with the first and third sections being very similar. There are two main themes in the piece that are written below. Menuet.

2.) Discuss its differences from the theme of the Red Poppy (by R. b) The second theme of Claire de Lune is stated at the beginning of the second section of the piece (B). E. a) The first theme of Claire de Lune is stated at the beginning of the first section of the piece (A). or by listening to it on the piano or another instrument you feel comfortable playing. Dvorak). Before telling the students Debussy’s choice of terms. A. Gliere) or the theme rhythm of the Carnival Overture (by A. Does it sound like moonlight. Repeat the teaching process as done in 2. Poe). discuss what words they would choose. c) Listen to the orchestral version of Claire de Lune. perhaps reflecting on water at night time? Does it sound dreamy?) b) Explain briefly about the era of Impressionism. Discuss how Debussy’s music reflected this idea. Monet) and read some literary works (eg. measure 43. Discuss how it was arranged to maintain the same overall atmosphere and musical effect. (This is a good melody to reinforce tied rhythms and the compound metre. Teach the students the theme by reading the notes or the solfa letters. a) Have the students listen to the piano version of Claire de Lune. (A copy of the first page of the piece is included in the following pages.a) above. Show examples of art work (eg.) Discuss how the music sounds. (eg. . Which instruments were used to help achieve this? d) Andante tres expressif (moderately slow and very expressive) are the terms Debussy chose describe how he wanted this piece to be performed.43 - . suggesting descriptive terms for the music.Activities To Do In Class 1. either through a recording or a live performance.

and Degas. symbolism. Give examples of Impressionist writing. Use Claire de Lune as the basis of an art lesson. and Mallarme. Discuss colours.44 - .2. Use Claire de Lune as the basis of a poetry writing lesson. Renoir. discuss the form. flow. shapes. Verlaine. c) Listen to Claire de Lune again and have the students identify and count the themes when they are played (by raising the right hand for theme 1 and the left hand for theme 2). Refer to examples of Ed. etc. A. subject matter. 4. Manetand. . Poe. and textures that might be used to create a work of art. What instruments play the theme each time it is performed? 3. Refer to some examples by Monet. use of words.

dynamics. b) Create an art project from this listening lesson.) Some of your students may have a kaleidoscope at home. rhythmic passages. The piece changes constantly as it progresses. As the end of the device is turned. producer. bassoonist and administrator. (It is a nonmusical instrument that is in a cylindrical shape.Kaleidoscope Pierre Mercure (Canada. Discuss how the patterns are always different and how it is impossible to predict the next colour combinations and patterns. Instrumentation. As a young boy. Mercure was continually searching for new forms. literary works. He was a composer. T. His work revolved around integrating creative art forms. It is sometimes referred to as a “symphonic imagination” as it is filled with insistent rhythms. Discuss what was in the music that caused them to think of the specific colours and patterns. Activities To Do In Class 1. Have the students draw and colour .V. Ask them to bring it to school to show and to demonstrate for class. 1927-1966) Written in 1948 General Information Pierre Mercure was born in Montreal. and more help to create the unpredictable and continuous colour changes in this piece. 3 a) Choose a different excerpt of Kaleidoscope and do the activities in #2 again. the bits of glass change position creating an endless variety of colourful patterns. Quebec.45 - . He studied composition with Claude Champagne in Montreal from 1944-1949 and then with Nadia Boulanger in France in 1949. dance. playing in the Symphony orchestra of Montreal for four years. sculpture and later electronic music (1960’s). he studied piano. theatre. 2. a) Explain to the students that Mercure’s Kaleidoscope was written to reflect constant changing and unpredictable musical patterns like a kaleidoscope. like a kaleidoscope changes as it is turned. Kaleidoscope is one of Mercure’s first orchestral works and is still one of the most performed pieces of Canadian music. music. It contains bits of coloured glass that are contained between two flat plates and also has two 2 plane mirrors inside. but later became proficient on the bassoon. and colourful orchestral sonorities using various instrument combinations. trying to exceed the borders of conventional music in order to discover a new universe of sonorities. painting. Discuss what a kaleidoscope is. b) Listen to the first few minutes of the recording and have the students imagine what kind of glass patterns and colours best fit the musical excerpt.

The complete piece of written music is called the score. melody. dynamics. When composers write music for the orchestra. It’s easier to read and there won’t be as many pages to turn. You can see the family groupings clearly. they only have the parts that they play. brass.) c) Mercure used a rather small orchestra. b) Discuss why the conductor would need to have this form of music? Would each individual player need a score? (No. the conductor must be able to easily read and follow the music while leading the orchestra. Also. Discuss ways to make the picture symmetrical. The instruments included in Kaleidoscope are listed in proper score order below. It is organized by instrument families usually starting with the highest to the lowest pitched instruments.the kaleidoscope pattern that they imagined while listening to one of the musical excerpts.46 - . tempo and instrumentation. 4. etc. The order of a traditional full score for an orchestra is given here: a) Discuss the order of the instrument families on the score: woodwind. they need an organized way of recording the rhythm. what kind of colouring materials to use. What instruments did he not use? 2 flutes 2 oboes 2 clarinets (in B flat) 2 bassoons 2 horns (in F) 2 trumpets (in B flat) 2 Trombones Glockenspiel Xylophone Piatti (cymbals) Tympani Harp Strings . percussion and then the strings.

finding dynamic levels (like “pp”) and expressive terms (like “energico”) and other interesting observations.47 - . which instruments play first. It is a very difficult task since the tempo of the piece is very fast and energetic. The students will gain a greater appreciation for what the conductor must read when conducting and orchestra. Show your students the beginning of the score. which ones have rests. .d) The first few pages of the Kaleidoscope score are included in this guide. looking for the order of the instruments. e) Listen to the beginning of Kaleidoscope attempt to follow the score music.

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. The main difference is that dances are not performed while the music is played. Tchaikovsky drew his material from the story in a collection. It is the best-known ballet ever written. The students may recognize the music as it has been used in venues outside of The Nutcracker Suite and ballet. Tea (Chinese Dance). and Dance of the Toy Flutes and the Clown. The Nutcracker is made up of a series of fifteen pieces that tell a fairy tale story. Bernstein. seven symphonies. In the story. L. He studied piano at a very young age and started composing at the age of 14. Petersburg Conservatory. he changed his focus and studied music composition at the St. and many pieces for vocal and instrumental ensembles. an American composer. The Nutcracker Suite is an orchestral piece that is made up of the music from The Nutcracker ballet. The Nutcracker ballet was the third of his three ballets. I. Russia. a German romantic. Trepak (Russian Dance). The Waltz of the Flowers is the thirteenth of the fifteen sections in this musical work. There she attends a festive banquet and meets various magical creatures.T. Tchaikovsky (Russia.A. His music was not only admired in Russia but also around the world.53 - . 1840-1893) Written in 1892 General Information Piotr Illych Tchaikovsky was born in Kamsko-Votkinsk. It is performed after a series of dances that include Chocolate (Spanish Dance). Coffee (Arabian Dance). beauty and tragedy and the ecstasy and anguish of the human condition. After going to law school for 3 years. three ballets. a young girl receives a nutcracker. emotional melodies.” He was also talented at orchestration. said that Tchaikovsky was “one of the most inspired melodists on earth.The Nutcracker: Waltz of the Flowers (op. The Waltz of the Flowers uses brilliant orchestral colours to compliment the flowing melodies and background harmonies. creating unique colour and making unusual use of instruments and large orchestras. As a composer in the Romantic era. 71) P. She dreams that the nutcracker is turned into a handsome prince who takes her to the Kingdom of Sweets. The Brothers of the Serapion by E. in the form of a small soldier. Tchaikovsky wrote ten operas. as a Christmas gift. Hoffman. music that expressed joy and pain. Tchaikovsky wrote beautiful.

the first and the third being very similar. large. The Introduction to The Waltz of the Flowers is approximately one minute long. It has 47 strings and over 100 moving parts. it has a large soundboard and has a range of six octaves and a fifth. This means there are 3 main sections.54 - . The harp is beautifully featured in this initial section with a solo called a cadenza.Activities To Do In Class 1. tempo.) if the students contribute extra ideas. . Each section has its own internal form as well. A Waltz is a dance form that originated from the 1800’s and has generally retained its popularity to the present day. a) Explain to your students how this piece is organized (in three parts) and show them how it can be organized on a chart. Some of the strings are coloured to help the harpist know which ones to pull. adjusting arm gestures with the dynamics. 2. It asks for information about instruments and descriptive terms.) can communicate precise information to the orchestra as to how the music is to sound. jerky. smooth. Have your students practice this conducting pattern. The harp used in the orchestra is call a double-action harp and was introduces to orchestras in 1810 by Sebastien Erard. etc. It displays the virtuosity of the player and the capabilities of the instrument. a) Listen to the Introduction of The Waltz of the Flowers and discuss the sounds of the harp. The chart on the next page illustrates the form (with the Introduction ) of The Waltz of the Flowers. Addition columns may be added (like dynamics. The chart can be filled out together or individually. c) Listen to each subsequent section. Start after the Introduction. b) Conduct The Waltz of the Flowers in 3 while listening to the music. For example. It is written in triple time and is conducted in 3. What adjectives could be used to describe the cadenza? b) Show (with pictures) and discuss some of the special features of the harp. tempo. Conducting in 3 The Waltz of the Flowers is in ternary form. and rhythm of the piece. 3. etc. a) Discuss how a conductor’s arm movements (rigid. The arm movements for conducting in 3 are illustrated (right). b) Listen to the Introduction again and fill in the columns on the chart. discuss what is heard and add to the chart.

55 - . Tchaikovsky Section Instruments playing Instruments playing the melody the harmony Descriptive Terms Introduction (1 minute) A (about 2 minutes) B (about 1.The Waltz of the Flowers from The Nutcracker by P.5 minutes) A (About 2 minutes) Ending (about 10 seconds) .

The Waltz of the Flowers from The Nutcracker by P. .56 - . Tchaikovsky Section Instruments playing Instruments playing the melody the harmony Oboe Harp Strings Woodwinds Descriptive Terms Introduction (1 minute) Harp Cadenza A (about 2 minutes) French Horns Clarinet Strings Strings Woodwinds Flute Full Sound B (about 1.5 minutes) Oboe Flute Strings Strings Flute Strong sound A (About 2 minutes) French Horns Strings Trumpet Woodwinds Brass Triangle Energetic Flowing sound Ending (about 10 seconds) Whole Orchestra Powerful Additional words and ideas can be added to this chart.

.4. b) The original movie.). a) The students have probably already heard The Waltz of the Flowers before but in a different venue. Watch the segment of The Waltz of the Flowers and discuss how the artists used the music to enhance and compliment the animation. Fantasia (1940) used the music from The Nutcracker Suite in one of its animated features. Discuss when and where they have heard this piece (commercial. computer game. etc. cell phone.57 - .

Composer one who writes music Conductor one who leads the orchestra. that are rather vague and entangled rather than clear and concise Lyrics the words that are written to fit with a melody of a musical piece Melody a significant musical line that can stand on its own or can be enhanced by accompanying harmonic tones Mezzo Forte “mf”. It focused on ideas that seemed to hint rather than to state.Glossary of Musical Terms Allegro a rather quick tempo Andantino con moto quite slow with motion Andante tres expressif moderately slow and very expressive Ballet a dance that originated in the 15th century France and has evolved into the 21st century. often illustrated with letter (A. moderately soft Motif/Motive a short characteristic musical building block that is shorter than a theme and flexible enough to be used in development sections Movement distinct sections of music. C.58 - . themes. or phrases in the music Harmony musical tones and/or chord structures that accompany and enhance the melody of a musical work. its volume Energico vigorous Excerpt a short passage of music that taken from a longer musical work Form the structural outline of a musical piece. scenery. cannot be effective unless performed with an overlying melodic musical line Impressionism an artistic movement in the late 19th and early 20th century that was likened to painters. artistic dancing that usually includes costumes. it is usually made up of excerpts taken from the musical selections in . …) that represents distinct sections. the literary community. sculpture and music. indicating tempo. moderately loud Mezzo Piano “mp”. or concerto) Nationalistic Music uses the rhythms and folk songs of a particular country Opus used to indicate the chronological position of a composer’s published works within his entire musical output Overture instrumental music composed for the introduction of an opera. and orchestral music often telling a story Cadenza displays the virtuosity of the player and the capabilities of the instrument. sonata. several of which make up a complete musical work (like in a symphony. oratorio or similar works. B. dynamics. starts and stops Dynamics how loud or soft a piece of music is played.

Strauss. musically represented by Mendelssohn. a short melody that is often repeated and sometimes varied throughout a piece of music Theme and Variations the theme is a musical idea or a short melody. and Sibelius Score the music that the conductor reads. Wagner and Tchaikovsky. very soft Romantic Era the time between 1820 and 1920. and late Romantic (1890-1920). it can be divided into three sections. Chopin. R. musically represented by Liszt. it contains the musical notation of every orchestral instrument part Suite the modern suite is made up of a number of musical movements. middle Romantic (1850-1890).the production which follows Piano “p”. is smaller in dimension than a symphony Tango a modern dance that originated in Buenos Aires. soft Pianissimo “pp”. early romantic (1820-1850). (Variations are created when the theme is altered or modified on each repetition by using various musical techniques) Waltz a dance in moderate triple metre (grouped in 3’s) which emerged in the early 1800’s . Argentina in the late 1800’s. Schumann. each with a different character.59 - . musically represented by Mahler. by 1910 it was accepted into the ballroom and by 1920 it’s musical style became a part of art music Tempo how fast or slow a piece of music is played: its speed Ternary Form music made up of three distinct and self-contained sections. the first and third sections being very similar and the second section being noticeably different (A B A) Theme a musical idea.

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