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Education Concert Curriculum Guide

OrchestrArt - A Colour Symphony

Stimulate, Illuminate and Educate with the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra’s 2005 - 2006 Education Series

Photo: Vanessa J. Goymour

Curriculum Guide Contents
Part I - General Information
Letter to Teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Teachers’ Comments from last season . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 What the Kids Say. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2005-2006 Programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Note to Teachers - Concert Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 The History of the CPO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Resident Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Conducting 101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Instruments of the Orchestra. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Map of Orchestra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Members of the Orchestra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Jack Singer Concert Hall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Part II - The Concert
Concert Programme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Carnival Overture in A major, Dvorak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Red Poppy: Russian Sailor’s Dance, Glière . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blue Tango, Anderson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Irish Tune from County Derry, Grainger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Firebird: Introduction, Stravinsky . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Claire de Lune, Debussy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kaleidoscope, Mercure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Nutcracker: Waltz of the Flowers, Tchaikovsky . . . . . . . . 21 24 28 32 36 42 45 53

Glossary of Musical Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Sponsors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60


Dear Music Specialist/Teacher(s),
Music is an integral part of every child’s education. It can have a dramatic positive impact on learning abilities and the school environment. Many of the structures and patterns found in music provide the keys to learning in other subjects. Analytical and critical skills are exercised through listening, reacting, and discussing music. Students also develop their creative imaginations through singing, playing, composing and moving. This developed creativity helps them to discover and learn and is transferable to any experience. Creative arts projects can be initiated through literature, reading, writing, math, history, science, geography and any other subject. Working with music and the arts also increases awareness of others, individual responsibility within a group context, and, perhaps most importantly, a sense of belonging and fun. This Curriculum Guide has been designed to be used with the CD and to assist you in preparing your students for their CPO concert experience. It is intended to be a means for the students to become familiar with and appreciate the repertoire that the orchestra will be performing. We hope the listening and lesson plans will lead you and your students into further study of this extraordinary symphonic music. We hope you enjoy listening and have fun with the lesson plans! The Calgary Philharmonic Society would like to thank Suzanne Derbecker, Tom Mirhady and Robert Penner, for contributing their time and energy in writing and planning the Curriculum Guide. Sincerely,

Pierre Simard Resident Conductor


‘I love watching her live the music’” .Captain John Palliser .Teachers’ Comments from last season: . Thank you!” .Hawkwood Elementary . engaged interest.” .“…by breaking the pieces into layers…the students could appreciate it at a deeper level.Queen Elizabeth Elementary .“It was a very worthwhile experience for the students.smooth.“Exceeded our expectations! Great selections and presented clearly with various instruments so students could understand the composition. Thank you!” .Varsity Acres .Mountainview Home School . Training the musicians and audience of the future!” .“A valuable musical experience. content was also helpful for enabling children to understand and interpret music.“The concert was awesome! Presentation was fast-paced (agile conductor!).Cecil Swanson -4- . lots of opportunity for interaction and student was explained in terms that they could understand and visualize! Amazing job!” . We all appreciated your guest soloist . one they look forward to and enjoy .“Keep it up! This has been a 6-year-old tradition for Hawkwood students. I could see students ‘feeling’ the music throughout .parent council pays for this!!” .“We appreciated the whole thing .Cecil Swanson School .“This concert inspired my students to listen to classical music and they all are excited about band in junior high. content was highly varied and threw in visual component which helped to entertain the attention spans of young people.” .Hawkwood Elementary . even students who have difficulty sitting still were mesmerized.

Rosemont Elementary. I was so surprised that you (Rosemary Thomson) would be the conductor. The concert was good.Renfrew Educational Services. gr.Renfrew Educational Services. Thanks one and a million” . 3 “…my favorite instrument is the gong. Music makes me feel good!” . I think this was a very good field trip. 3 “I liked the songs you play and I liked the instruments that you played. 5 “We really enjoyed your presentation because all the instrument players were together all the time and nobody got mixed up!” . 3 “I had never gone to the Jack Singer Hall. 5 “My favorite instrument is the drum because it makes me have different feelings. gr. 5 “Well. so good and the music sounded so musicell!” .Rosemont Elementary. 5 -5- . cause I learned that you can picture different things from different songs.Cecil Swanson Elementary. gr. I loved this field trip!!” . 3 The cello is so cool.Cecil Swanson Elementary.Cecil Swanson. you play very good because you never made a mistake and I like the song old to joy” . You played them perfect. It was very good. gr. gr. gr. gr. You were great!” . 3 “Dear Orchestra: thank you for the music. My favorite instrument was the one that was skinny and yellow and you blow into it” . gr. 3 “The CPO really changed my life” .What the Kids Say… “Orchestra. I thought it was a man but women can be conductors too!” . gr. gr.Renfrew Educational Services.Cecil Swanson.Captain John Palliser School. My favorite piece was ‘Jurassic Park’ because I like dinosaurs. Now you have inspired me to come back again.

2006 Programmes OrchestrArt . 2006 at 10:00am Thursday. February 23. February 15. Conductor Tuesday. slow and fast. Conductor Tuesday. and prepare your ears for an extreme experience! -6- . October 25. March 8.2005 . 2006 at 10:00am Wednesday.A Colour Symphony Pierre Simard. October 26. 2006 at 10:00am Come and discover incredible soundscapes. fire and air are given a musical voice. 2006 at 10:00am From the slightest breeze to the hottest fire. Learn about the real meaning of high and low. February 14. soft and loud. from images to paintings and much more. 2005 at 10:00am Wednesday. height and width of an orchestra’s sonic palette. 2006 at 10:00am Wednesday. as we take a closer look at the length. Extreme Music Pierre Simard. 2006 at 10:00am Thursday. March 7. 2005 at 10:00am Thursday. Conductor Tuesday. Magical Forces of Nature Pierre Simard. water. October 27. 2005 10:00am Follow the Clagary Philharmonic Orchestra through a musical adventure inspired by a world of colours. March 9. discover how earth.

cell phones. please wait for applause. Please encourage students to use washrooms BEFORE and AFTER rather than during the concert so as not to disturb other listeners or the musicians. • Washroom facilities are located on all floors. watch for the arrival of the conductor. Following the tuning. The audience will applaud and the concert will begin. • Buses may stop on the 8th Avenue Mall for drop-off. They will be more comfortable. You will know it is time to clap when the conductor has dropped both of his arms to the sides. By warming up.Concert Tips Guidelines for Attending Education Concerts: Before the Performance: • Imagine this: 1700 children. • Encourage children to remove their outer clothing and place it on their seats. Please don’t throw anything from the balconies. Please pull up as close to 1st Street as possible so that other buses can pull in behind. at which time all the musicians will tune their instruments. • Applause is appreciated and is appropriate. musicians get their lips. During the Performance: • Before the concert begins. • Prior to the conductor arriving on stage. limited space to congregate . Buses must leave Olympic Plaza after they have dropped off the students and return following the performance. still cameras and video cameras are prohibited in the concert hall. • While a piece of music is being played. fingers and muscles ready to play music. the musicians may be “warming up” by playing scales and excerpts from their music. Please help us out and arrive 30 minutes prior to concert time (latecomers will be seated when there is a suitable break in the performance).15 minutes! This is the situation that our wonderful crew of ushers at Education Concerts frequently face. The audience should become quiet so the musicians can hear their instruments. • All food. drink and chewing gum must be disposed of before entering the hall. He will walk to his place at the front of the violins and signal the oboist for the “A” note.Note to Teachers . when all is quiet. please remain quiet in your seats. The audience applauds. the Concertmaster will make his entrance. • Tape recorders. • A sign in the window of the bus may facilitate locating and loading of the buses following the performance. -7- . If you need to leave your seat.

where it garnered glowing reviews from music critics after performing in some of the world’s best-known concert halls. The CPO was the first Western Canadian orchestra to tour Europe. The CPO has been live in Calgary since 1955. two existing groups. Live in Calgary as one of North America’s finest and most versatile orchestras. Live with the world’s leading artists. Mario Bernardi. four Classics and two Light Classics. The CPO has been an integral part of our vibrant community for many years and is excited to be celebrating its 50th Anniversary in the 2005/ 2006 Season. who currently holds the position of Music Director of the Orquestra Sinfonica Brasileira in Rio de Janeiro. As the audience grew and public acclaim heightened. who guided the Orchestra through a period of tremendous artistic growth. the Jubilee Auditorium. Live in a wonderful range of genres. Roberto Minczuk. Minczuk will conduct six concerts. Baroque Plus. and renowned conductor Hans Graf was appointed Music Director of the CPO. Switzerland. Maestro Graf remained in this role until the end of the 2002/2003 Season. Twice interrupted by the two world wars. 2005. the CPO gained wider attention in 1957 with the completion of its first home. the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra attracted a celebrated Music Director. the CPO undertook its first North American Tour. including Carnegie Hall. Live for an average of five concerts a month. In 1984. performing in Germany. The CPO provides several different concert Series: Classics. the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra was formed in 1955 by merging Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra at the Jack Singer Concert Hall. Austria and France. POPS. His official duties will commence with the CPO’s 2006/2007 Season. He was instrumental in creating excitement around the CPO’s award winning European tour in the fall of 2000. Light Classics. Mario Bernardi became Conductor Laureate.The History of the CPO The Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra (CPO) is proud to announce the appointment of a new Music Director. Performing in Calgary’s Grand Theatre to a small but enthusiastic audience at first. Saturday Morning at the Symphony (SMATS) and Young People’s Discovery -8- . the Alberta Photo Credit: Garry Kan Philharmonic and the Calgary Symphony. In 2006/2007. In 1992. Maestro Minczuk will be officially introduced to Calgary on September 9. the CPO moved to its permanent home in the Epcor Centre for the Performing Arts’ Jack Singer Concert Hall in 1985. In 1995.

000 people each year. The CPO also performs a number of special concerts each year including Mozart on the Mountain. covering a broad range of musical styles and repertoire and appealing to a wide and diverse audience. The CPO is pleased to announce that it will be welcoming Pierre Simard as its new Resident Conductor at the beginning of the 2005/2006 Season. The CPO has gained international recognition through its extensive recordings. The CPO introduced a new web-based program called cpossibilities in September 2004. Beethoven in the Badlands and POPS in the Park which have become marquis events that complement the regular series offerings.Series. national CBC broadcasts and touring. and serves as the resident Orchestra for Calgary Opera. The CPO’s continued artistic growth and increasing public support have Calgary’s Orchestra poised for great success. -9- . designed for 15 to 29 year olds. This allows the Orchestra to perform works on a grand scale before more than 90. to enhance its commitment to keep the Orchestra accessible and affordable and to grow and expand the Orchestra’s younger demographics. Alberta Ballet. of which Rosemary Thomson is the Chorus Master. the CPO undertakes education and community outreach activities. The CPO is also proud to retain its own 115-member Calgary Philharmonic Chorus. the Calgary International Organ Festival and the Esther Honens Calgary International Piano Competition. In addition.

Recipient of many honors. His diversified repertoire includes numerous large-scale works. Grantee of the Montreal Mayor’s Foundation and the Canada Arts Council. and throughout Canada. USA. Pierre Simard conducts at the Lanaudière International Festival. he performed with Les Violons du Roy. such as Bruckner’s E Minor Mass.Resident Conductor A versatile musician. the Orchestre Métropolitain du Grand-Montréal. Haydn’s Creation. Pierre Simard founded the À tout chant Society. he prepared choirs for Mahler’s Symphony no. for Best Young Audience Performance. John Passion and Orff’s Carmina Burana. A passionate defender of contemporary music. as music director of SMCQ-Jeunesse. Mauritius and Reunion islands. Von Suppe’s Requiem. an ensemble performing works he arranged for voice and chamber orchestra. Pierre Simard was awarded two OPUS Prizes from the Quebec Music Council. oboist. the Domaine Forget and the Montreal High Lights Festival. combining fantasy and humor to music. As guest conductor. Artistic director of the French Ontario Youth Orchestra. Frederik Prausnitz and JoAnn Falletta.10 - . As a composer. Holder of a Master’s Degree in Conducting from the Peabody Institute (Johns Hopkins University) in Baltimore and five Conservatory Prizes from the Montreal Conservatory of music. . and composer-arranger. Bach’s St. Pierre Simard studied with Raffi Armenian. the Bradyworks Ensemble and the McGill Contemporary Music Ensemble. the Opéra de Montréal Choir. Ukraine. Pierre Simard pursues a career as conductor. he is also grantee of the Quebec Arts Council and of Ville de Laval. Belgium. Lately. 8 with the Montreal Symphony under Eliahu Inbal. he led a tour with the Rendez-vous de la Francophonie across Canada. Pierre Simard devotes himself to reinventing the traditional concert formulas. which has led him in France. He also led ensembles with musicians from the Montreal Symphony and the Quebec Symphony.

loud or soft music. Experiment with other gestures and see what kind of reaction you get. The arm motion for conducting in 2: The arm motion for conducting in 3: The arm motion for conducting in 4: Another job of the conductor is to present an interpretation for the performance of a piece so that the orchestra is unified. Specific motions of the arm within the beat pattern can communicate a lot of information to the musicians as to how s/he wants the music to be performed.11 - . When beginning a piece the Conductor will show an upbeat to bring the musicians in. Below are some of the various patterns that conductors use to indicate the number of beats in a bar. This is usually the last beat before the down beat which will change depending on the beat pattern. ask your students to conduct along with the music as they listen to it. Once they have determined the number of beats in the bar.Conducting 101 One of a Conductor’s jobs is to keep the musicians together by showing the beat. Try conducting with your students to show smooth or separate music. .

but you would really notice their absence. The Viola is an important member of the orchestra. The Violin is the smallest member of the string family and can therefore produce the highest sound. String instruments can be played in many ways. Each section is led by a principal. They can also be plucked or strummed like guitars (pizzicato). . or nylon. The CPO has 43 string players out of 65 musicians. cellos. then stretched across the bridge to the other end where they are attached to the tailpiece. In an orchestra. Cellists sit down. it is more than twice as big as the viola . it makes a darker sound that is lower in pitch. are stretched across a hollow wooden body. More than 200 strands of horsehair are stretched taut across a wooden stick to form the bow. there are more strings than any other instrument. but is not often heard solo. but played the same as the violin. resting the instrument upright against their bodies and using an endpin to support the cello. Four (or sometimes 5 for the double bass) strings made of gut. and double basses. The cello section of the orchestra makes a rich. the instruments can be struck by the bows. brass and percussion so we need more of them. heavy.12 - .the violins. so the cellist had to squeeze the instrument between their knees. steel. This is because they are softer than the winds. When playing the violin. warm sound. Each string section plays the same part. while each wind & brass player plays a separate part. The Cello plays even lower than the viola . There are so many violins that they are divided into 2 sections. The pitch can be changed in two ways: by the way the bow is drawn across different strings. Because it is bigger than the violin. the instrument is rested on one shoulder and held in place with the chin and the left hand.a whole octave lower in fact. At one end they are affixed to the tuning pegs. and by the way the left hand fingers are pressed against the strings. The instrument is a little heavier. The string instruments all share the same design.Instruments of the Orchestra The String Family The String section consists of four main instruments . The bow is held in the right hand and is drawn across the strings. Playing the “middle” part in the orchestra’s harmony.too big. the violas can be hard to pick out when the whole orchestra is playing. and long to hold under their chin. Since there are more violinists than any other orchestra players. the group can look like waves of an ocean swaying with the music. Sometimes. To support its longer strings. with longer strings. making a more percussive sound (col legno). violas. Usually the bow is drawn across the strings in a process called bowing (arco). In the 1800s not all cellos had endpins. and the principal of the 1st violins is called the concertmaster who leads the whole orchestra.

They look like long sticks. double bassoon and sometimes a bass clarinet. they are not all made of wood.The Double Bass is the orchestra’s foundation. The horse hair on the bass bow is often black. the single reed is made of cane shaved extremely thin at one end. and 2 bassoons to which are added a piccolo. This is achieved in 3 different ways: (1) Edge-tone: used only for the flute and piccolo. and this stream is divided by the tapered further edge. Otherwise the bass is played much like a cello. which is really nothing but 2 thin strips of cane bound tightly together. . (3) Double reed: the rest of the woodwind instruments have a double reed. 2 clarinets.13 - . deep instruments add weight to the orchestra’s sound. causing the air column within the instrument to vibrate. At six feet or even more. the double bass is often taller than the musician who plays it. Sometimes the lowest longest string of the double bass is extended so it can play even lower. usually with 2 flutes. The modern orchestra usually makes use of the “double wind” configuration. This reed fits over a rectangular hole at the mouthpiece. 2 oboes. cor anglais. causing the air column to vibrate as well. because it is coarser and more effective on the bigger strings. A system of springs and levers allows the holes to be opened and closed. The different shape and materials of each instrument helps to create its own unique sound. They are the largest of all the stringed instruments. These reeds vibrate against each other when the player blows. bone and ivory. Sound is produced by the vibration of the air column within the instrument. and play the lowest notes. (2) Single reed: Found in the clarinet only. They may also be made from metal. and players blow air into them to create sounds. This produces anywhere from a breathy tone to a clear. Despite their name. Some double bassists perch on a high stool and others stand up. a stream of air is directed by the player edgewise across a hole. and drives the vibration of the air column when triggered by the player’s breath. These big. The Woodwind Family Woodwind instruments use vibrating air to produce many different musical sounds. bell-like tone.

So a complex system of rods links the keys to these distant tone holes. mellow sound. one would never mistake it for a clarinet.” It can sound very comical. There are four major types of saxophones. bent into a narrow U-shape. meaning that air makes two reeds vibrate against each other. There are different size and ranges of clarinets. The saxophone has a single reed and a mouthpiece like a clarinet. The oboe is also a double reed instrument that resembles a clarinet. plays an octave lower. however the instrument itself is made of brass. Orchestras occasionally use a saxophone to play solo parts. Clarinets are made of wood or moulded plastic. and pop. meaning that they make noise when air vibrates a small reed on the mouthpiece.You can hear the smooth.14 - . The standard “B-flat” clarinet is a little more than two feet long and the bottom flares out into a bell shape. which is even bigger and plays a whole octave lower than the bassoon. The oboe is the instrument the orchestra tunes to before any performance. It’s a therefore kind of a cross between a woodwind and a brass instrument. Different pitches are played by pressing on the clarinet’s many keys. and baritone. The bassoon is a double-reed woodwind instrument. Bassoons have a rich and mellow sound. The Saxophone is classified as a woodwind because it is played using a reed. and a bass clarinet. and are reed instruments. Because it makes such a distinct sound however. Bassoons are the largest woodwind instruments in the orchestra . . The sax can be a little heavy and so a neck strap may be attached to the instrument. dark tone to the sound of a sea-god speaking. allowing lower notes to be played. rock. velvety sound of the Clarinet in orchestras. The reed is secured in a curved metal tube. Though it makes the same kind of distinct sound that a bassoon does. but it has a metal body with a flared bell. the saxophone is used mainly in jazz. alto. Today. Saxophones make a strong.except for the Contrabassoon. It has almost 8 feet of wooden tubing. military bands and jazz groups. This makes a very distinct sound. The tone holes are spread out much further than fingers could ever reach. Because the bassoon is so long it is held to one side. A contrabassoon is so low in pitch that it seems to “buzz. Playing bottom notes of woodwind chords is one of the most important jobs of the bassoon. The “E-flat” clarinet is smaller and plays a higher range of notes. tenor. each playing a different range of notes: soprano. It takes a lot of breath to play a contrabassoon. One poet compared the bassoon’s deep. next to the knee. blues. it is higher pitched.

2 trombones. the tubes are bent and folded into compact shapes so that they can be easily held. as you would expect from their name. The pitch can be affected not only by the length of tubing.early versions of the trumpet have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs. Making sound with an open bottle is much like playing the flute: when air blows across the hole in the mouthpiece. and send signals and messages. flutes are easily heard and designed to play fast. Piccolos are played in exactly the same way. The timbre of brass instruments is unique. celebrate big ceremonies. The Piccolo is a “short” flute. tusk. detailed music. There are two ways a musician can create different pitches with the trumpet. For this reason. The first is by pressing down on the keys that control the trumpets three valves. it creates a vibrating through the instrument. it has a long tube that is wound in a tight circle flaring out into a very wide bell. which in turn creates a sound. The difference is.500 years old . pure brass instruments are rare and can also be made of other metals. wood. Their lips create a vibration that in turn creates sound. and a tuba.Flutes are usually made of metal. The Brass Family The Brass instruments are usually made of brass. they are often used in military bands that play outside. In stories and legends. flutes often have magical properties. clear sound once used to frighten enemies in battle. Brass players produce sound by blowing in to the mouthpiece of the instrument. In the modern orchestra. In fact. 3 trumpets.15 - . perhaps because of its beautiful sound. The left hand works the valves that help to change the horns pitch and the right hand is held inside the bell. Being some of the highest instruments in the orchestra.the tighter the players lips. ranging from the brilliant fanfare of the trumpets to the sonorous bellows of the tuba. with a flute you can change the notes by pressing some of the many keys. To set the air in motion. trumpets are at least 3. we can usually find 4 horns. 1 bass trombone. but sometimes you will see flutes made of wood. or shell. . The Trumpet has a loud. The second is by changing the shape of the lips against the mouthpiece. The valves and their extra tubing are in the centre of the circle. designed to play a whole octave higher than the flute itself. Playing the horn involves balancing it on the leg and holding it up with two hands. round. Brass instruments are really just long metal tubes (up to 20 feet!) that flare at the end. tone colour that projects across other instruments without overpowering them. Sometimes called the French horn. the higher the note. Because they are so long. The Horn has a velvety. they ‘buzz” their lips together. but also by the tension of the players lips . Today. including that of King Tut. horn.

and they range from the monstrous set of kettledrums to the keyboard-like glockenspiel. their edges vibrate freely producing a huge ring that makes big. When two cymbals are struck together. Steel Drums from the Caribbean. are restricted only to rhythms. The player usually holds each cymbal through a strap attached to the outside of the curved disc.16 - . The triangle’s pitch is not very distinct. Cymbals come in many sizes and sounds: . They fill out the harmonies between the trumpets and the horn on top. Each side of the triangle can be from four to ten inches wide with bigger triangles making louder sounds than little ones. and consequently the foundation of the orchestra. The Percussion Family The Percussion family is huge! It includes any instrument that produces sounds when struck. It is either held in one hand. Cymbals are thin curved bronze disks with a concave shape that are clashed together or struck with sticks to produce a sound. the notes change. But as more modern pieces show. the trombone uses a slide. it rests on the lap of the musician who presses the valves to produce different notes. Though most brass instruments use valves to produce different pitches. Percussion instruments can be pitched or non-pitched. suspended on a cord. While being among the smallest of orchestra instruments. Because the tuba is so large. Pitched instruments are usually struck with a variety of mallets. however. and a whole world of pots and pans just waiting to be hit. the tuba is crucial in an orchestra because it provides the lowest notes for the brass section. at the centre. and its tone varies according to how hard you strike and how large the triangle is. Almost every kind of band around the world has at least one percussion instrument in it. this does not hinder them at all! In fact. The other percussion instruments. Their definite pitch makes it possible for these instruments to even play melodies. The triangle is a simple steel rod bent into the shape of a triangle. it has a very clear and shimmering sound that cuts through even the loudest music. loud chords in the orchestra even more exciting. Like double basses and bassoons. a percussionist in an orchestra may play as many as a dozen different kinds of percussion instruments. Because of this variety. Just think of all the different percussion instruments from around the world: there are African Drums. the wide range of available sounds can be manipulated in many ways to produce new and interesting blends of tone colours.The Trombones sound fills the middle of the orchestral brass section. The trombone is very easy to find in the orchestra because of its shape. The Tuba is the largest member of the brass family and plays the lowest notes. Chinese Cymbals. As the slide is moved. or hung on a stand. It’s also the youngest brass instrument. and the low tuba below. scraped or shaken.

from tiny finger cymbals to large and deafening orchestra cymbals, from soft and delicate, to loud and harsh. The Bass Drum is the biggest of the drums used in the orchestra. It’s a round cylinder with a skin-like paper stretched over both openings. Like the triangle, it is not tuned to a specific pitch, but its tone is very low and deep. It can sound loud and thundering, and sometimes quiet and almost invisible. The ringing notes of the Xylophone make it a colourful addition to the percussion section of an orchestra. A xylophone is a set of wooden bars, mounted on a frame. The wooden bars are arranged like a piano keyboard with the shorter bars play the higher notes and the longer bars playing the lower notes. The biggest xylophones have almost 50 wooden bars! Most xylophones have tubes or gourds below each bar to increase the volume of the sound. Though most percussion instruments are known for their beat, the xylophone can create a beautiful melody too. Timpani are sometimes called kettledrums because they are shaped like big copper kettles. In fact they are made of copper. They have a piece of calfskin, or thin plastic stretched over their opening. This is called a drumhead. Timpani are very important in the orchestra because they “underline “ important chords. Only one note at a time can be played on each timpani and that note can be changed by pressing the foot on a pedal at the base of the drum. An orchestra usually has three or four timpani, and they can all make a very loud noise. The Snare Drum is the most basic of all the percussion instruments, and probably the one with the most familiar sound. These are the drums most frequently seen in military movies. They are short, wide cylinders, covered by a skin and a string of beads that can make a rattling nose when they are touching the drum.

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Members of the Calgary Philharmonic 2005-2006
FIRST VIOLINS Cenek Vrba - Concertmaster John Lowry - Associate Concertmaster Donovan Seidle - Assistant Concertmaster Janice Amsel Kathryn Corvino Alana Gralen Olga Kotova Theresa Kraucunas Susan Light Bonnie Louie Alla Magid Robert Penner SECOND VIOLINS Jeffrey Plotnick * Stephanie Soltice-Johnson ** (on leave) Rachel Kristenson
(Acting Assistant Principal)

CELLOS Phil Hansen * Susan Foulkes ** Yuri Gindin Kirill Kalmykov Joan Kent Thomas Megee Tom Mirhady Karen Youngquist BASSES Charles Garrett * Sheila Garrett ** Jeffrey Buchner Robert Yung-il Kim Graeme Mudd Patricia Bereti-Reid (on leave) FLUTES Gwen Klassen ** (Acting Principal) Lauren Eselson ** (Acting Assistant

BASSOONS Stephen Franse * Michael Hope ** HORNS Robert McCosh * Austin Hitchcock *** William Hopson** Laurie Matiation** Heather Wootton** (on leave) TRUMPETS Howard Engstrom * Gareth Jones ** TROMBONES James Scott * Michael Thomson ** BASS TROMBONE David Reid * (on leave) Robert Fraser (Acting Principal) TUBA Michael Eastep * TIMPANI Tom Miller * PERCUSSION Tim Rawlings * HARP Tisha Murvihill *

Judith Bessel Joy Crawford Craig Hutchenreuther Steven Lubiarz Richard Van de Geer Xiao-Ming Wu David Zweifel VIOLAS John Thompson * Robert Ashworth ** Arthur Bachmann Carl Boychuk Michael Bursey Katherine Grigoriu Heather Heron-Mykyte (on leave) Julie Westgate

PICCOLO Lauren Eselson OBOES Jean Landa * David Sussman ** ENGLISH HORN David Sussman ** CLARINETS Steve Amsel * Jocelyn Colquhoun **

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Jack Singer Concert Hall
The elegant Jack Singer Concert Hall is the permanent home of the Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra. Considered to be one of Canada’s few pure music halls, the Jack Singer opened in 1985 as the jewel in the new Calgary Centre for Performing Arts. With a seating capacity of 2,059, the concert hall is a synthesis of some of the world’s finest halls, designed by Artec Consultants. Its ambience and acoustics are designed to offer a total live concert experience. It is modelled in an intimate rectangular form which is said to produce the best quality sound, and the concert stage is geared to host a wide variety of entertainment. In addition, the Carthy Organ is the crowning jewel of the Jack Singer Concert Hall. The organ was designed, engineered and built by Casavant Frères of St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, one of Canada’s prominent organ builders for over 120 years. Further, it was donated to the citizens of Calgary, and the world, by the Carthy Foundation, and is named in its honour. The 75-stop, 111-rank organ has 6,040 pipes, ranging in size from less than half an inch to 32 feet, and varying in weight from just more than three ounces to well over 200 pounds. Measuring 79 feet and 38 feet deep, the concert hall has a 57 tonne laminated canopy suspended high above the stage to combine with two side tower clusters of 20 speakers each, providing a total of 88 speakers powered by 5000 watts. In addition, heavy velour banners along the side walls of the hall and curtains may be used during choral or spoken performances to soften the concert hall’s natural reverberance. A full, computer-controlled color change lighting system and follow-spots enhance performances. The Jack Singer Concert Hall is named for Mr. Jack Singer, whose sons Alan and Stephen made a significant contribution to the hall in honour of Mr. Singer’s commitment to the arts in Calgary.

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2005 10:00 am The Calgary Philharmonic Orchestra Pierre Simard. I.A Colour Symphony Concert Programme Tuesday. Stravinsky C. Dvorak R. Anderson P.OrchestrArt . Conductor Programme Carnival Overture in A Major. Grainger I. October 26. Tchaikovsky All programmes are subject to change . October 27.20 - . 2005 at 10:00 am Thursday. 2005 at 10:00 am Wednesday. Opus 70 Blue Tango Irish Tune from County Derry The Firebird: Introduction Claire de Lune (orchestral version) Kaleidoscope The Nutcracker: Waltz of the Flowers A. Debussy P. Glière L. October 25. Opus 92 Red Poppy: Russian Sailor’s Dance. Mercure P.

) In 1891. (They were originally given the titles of Nature. reflect on what feelings he was trying to express through the music. At the age of 16. Allegro. Nationalistic music uses the rhythms and folk songs of a particular country. (Later he would use American folk music to highlight his “New World Symphony” when he lived in the United States. Discuss how a conductor must move his arms to convey such an exuberant and energetic sound to the musicians.) All three have thematic material in common but are developed in very different ways to reflect the nature of the subject. viola. Activities To Do In Class 1. He used the melodies and characteristic rhythms from Czeckoslovakian to demonstrate the beauty of his country’s music. Allegro. youth and manhood. Andantino con moto. Dvorak wrote a set of three overtures. Carnival Overture. Carnival and Othello. Listen to the first three minutes and discuss how Dvorak uses the orchestral instruments to create this carnival atmosphere. The first section. Life and Love. a) The first section of the Overture. breaths a sigh of quiet reflection and gives an air of mystery featuring a solo violin. Dvorak (Czeckoslovakia 1841-1904) Written in 1891 General Information Antonin Dvorak grew up in a musical family in a small village called Nelahozevec. flute and oboe. instantly bursts into a lively country fair in full swing with Slavonic Dance music being heard in the rhythms and melodies. Dvorak absorbed the rhythmic and imaginative folk music that pervaded his rural area at the time. It can be divided up into three main sections. Dvorak finishes the piece with a rollicking and boisterous ending. is similar to the first part. something he would use later as a composer. The third section. As you listen to this piece. Dvorak preferred to express feeling rather than a particular emotion. is fast and exciting. b) Listen to the Allegro again and conduct is in 4/4 metre (see diagram below). is permeated with the spirit of dance and exuberance. A B A. excited and energetic. violin and piano by age twelve. Amid Nature.Carnival Overture in A Major (Opus 92) A. depicting childhood. the second of the trilogy. . he began to study music formally in Prague. He learned to play the organ. Allegro.21 - . He became involved in a new trend called Nationalism. The second section.

The second section. perhaps in the gym. (They may like to attempt it though!) 3. The rhythm to this theme is written below. b) Listen to the first section of the music and identify each theme (by raising a hand) and count the number of times (4) the theme is played. discuss how Dvorak used the instruments to reflect a slower. Below is a chart that the students can fill out as you listen to and discuss the music.Conducting in 4: c) If you were to move or dance to this music. As you conduct. oboe and violin solos. Which theme sounds like it is in the minor mode? (the fourth one) The students will not be able to tap the rhythm while listening to the music since it is performed too quickly. Andantino con moto. It is about four minutes long. more relaxed feel. allow the students to listen to the music and to move in ways the music makes them feel. is generally quieter and more relaxed but it does gain momentum near the end as it moves towards the final Allegro. Discuss the actions and movements they chose. Have your students learn the rhythm (by tapping) at a moderate tempo.22 - 4. identifying the flute. 2. the 4/4 metre pattern will vary in speed as the music changes tempo. what would the movements and/or dance steps be like? In a large space. but instead. . . a) The main theme in the first and third sections of the Carnival Overture is introduced in the major mode and is very fast and exuberant. Discuss how the conductor’s body language can convey the mood of the music. Repeat the activities listed in #1.

A.23 - . Dvorak Sections of the Overture Definition and Theme Tempo and Dynamics How are instruments used to create this musical effect? Descriptive Terms Allegro means: A Allegro Theme is heard times B Andantino con moto Andantino con moto means: A Allegro Theme is heard times Ending .Carnival Overture .

in her last dying scene. instrumentation. something the people of Russia felt they lost since the 1917 Russian Revolution. is seen as a symbol of freedom. a) Explain the concept of a theme and variations. Yablochko (Little Apple) in the Russian Sailor’s Dance. (This is a good melody to reinforce the syncopated rhythm and the minor scale. or by listening to it on the piano or another instrument you feel comfortable playing.24 - . At age 16 he entered the Kiev school and later the Moscow Music Conservatory to study violin and composition. rhythms and other musical effects to make each repetition sound different and interesting. Activities To Do In Class 1. The Red Poppy has six sections. Variations are created when the theme is altered or modified on each repetition by using various musical techniques. She meets her death at the hands of a British imperialist port commandant. (A theme is a musical idea or a short melody. Yablochka) by reading the notes or the solfa letters. also called movements. The red poppy. The Red Poppy is a ballet that tells the tragic story of a Russian sailor and his Chinese love. He repeats the song twelve times but in twelve different ways.Red Poppy: Russian Sailor’s Dance R.) 2. Glière varies the speed. a cello concerto and chamber works. They are: 1) Heroic Coolie Dance 2) Scene and Dance 3) Chinese Dance 4) Phoenix 5) Valse 6) Russian Sailor’s Dance The orchestra will be performing the sixth movement at the Education Concert. Glière (Russia 1875-1956) Written in 1927 General Information Reinhold Glière was born in Kiev and was the son of a woodwind instrument maker. He wrote symphonies. ballets. Glière used an old traditional song called.) Use Twinkle Twinkle Little . a) Teach the students the theme (the song.

etc. Discuss the overall sound and mood. Make changes to it (like repeating each note) so that it sounds different but the students can still recognize the song.25 - .Star as an example of a theme. 3.) so it will still be recognized but will sound somewhat different. 4. Listen to the introduction and then the theme. repeated rhythms. . What instruments play the theme? Begin listening to the variations and discuss how Glière created different moods and emotions by using the same theme. major mode. b) Discuss how you could change Glière’s theme (speed. How does the piece end? Use the chart below to record what the students hear in each the Russian Sailor’s Dance. Have the students count the number of times the theme is repeated in the piece. dynamics.

Gliere Theme Instruments that play the theme Background Instruments Tempo Dynamics Descriptive Terms Introduction Theme 1st Variation 2nd Variation 3rd Variation 4th Variation 5th Variation 6th Variation 7th Variation 8th Variation 9th Variation 10th Variation 11th Variation Ending .26 - .The Russian Sailor’s Dance from The Red Poppy by R.

27 - Strong Energetic to the end . Gliere (partially completed chart) Theme Introduction Instruments that play the theme Strings Background Instruments Tempo Dynamics Quick Descriptive Terms Anticipation Excitement Theme Double Bass Timpani Cello Double Bass Moderately loud mf Walking 1st Variation 2nd Variation Woodwinds Tambourine Moderate speed 3rd Variation Flute Light 4th Variation High Woodwinds High Strings Loud f Oboe Soft p Frantic Stately Majestic 5th Variation 6th Variation 7th Variation 8th Variation Violins Violas Tempo is getting faster Violins Trumpets Tempo is still getting faster “Square” sound 9th Variation 10th Variation 11th Variation Running Ending Whole Orchestra .The Russian Sailor’s Dance from The Red Poppy by R.

the Minuet for String Quartet. A Tango is a dance that grew out of the slums of Buenos Aires in the 1880’s. it is a couple’s dance with the foot patterns and steps being marked with glides and sudden pauses. He studied trombone. arranger and conductor. (For example. sandpaper in The Sandpaper Ballet (1954) and sleigh bells in the well-known The Sleigh Ride (1948). graduating with a Bachelor and then a Master of Music by 1930. Listen to the recording again and have the students conduct in two. He wrote over 40 compositions of classical and light classical popular pieces.28 - . In 1952. colourful and vital sound. (Mr. one year after the Blue Tango was written. His music was heavily influenced by G.Blue Tango Leroy Anderson (USA 1908-1975) Written in 1951 General Information Leroy Anderson was born in Cambridge. always moving to the beat of the music. Anderson emerged as an outstanding composer. Gershwin and by folk music idioms from around the world. Anderson’s popular pieces are witty and charming orchestral works that are memorable and singable. selling more than one million copies. double bass. . Mitchell Parish wrote lyrics for the song. He used creative instrumental effects and occasional items that are not traditionally used as musical instruments like the typewriter in The Typewriter (1950). b) The tango is written in 2/4 metre and can be conducted in two. He combined South American rhythms. an unusual. conducting and composition at Harvard. See the diagram below that demonstrates how to conduct in two. He began taking piano lessons at an early age and later also became proficient on the organ and the double bass. voice. Massachusetts. the tango evolved and moved into the ballroom by 1910 and was written as art music by 1920 Activities To Do In Class 1.) The Blue Tango became the biggest seller of instrumental music on the Hit Parade. Afro-American spirituals and a mix of blues and jazz. Parish wrote lyrics for many of Anderson’s pieces. The Blue Tango was one of Anderson’s most commercially successful works. Anderson wrote his first composition at age 12.) As time passed. keeping with the beat of the music. By 1935. It contained elements of Afro-Argentine steps and rhythms (like syncopations) mixed with European music and choreography. a) Listen to the Blue Tango and have your students show the beat (by tapping with their fingers or with their feet).

(For example. by reading the notes using solfa. and both use syncopated rhythms.) How will you be able to tell the difference between the themes when listening to the music? c) Listen to the Blue Tango. but they have different melodies. b) Discuss the differences and similarities between the two themes. by playing them on the piano or another instrument you are comfortable playing). Blue Tango Theme 1 . They flow easily and are quite easy to learn and identify.29 - . The themes are distinct from each other but do have some similarities. both themes have the same form. Anderson used two main themes in the Blue Tango. identify (by raising a hand) and count the themes when they are heard. Which theme is played first? Which theme did you hear next? Which instrument or instrument family played the themes each time? The students may want to map out the music as they are listening to it. a) Teach each theme to the students (by rote.2. A B A C.

It is very different but compliments the main themes nicely.30 - . How does it differ from the two themes? Discuss why Anderson decided to add this extra musical layer.Blue Tango Theme II 3. It was recorded using a vocal soloist. Below are the lyrics to this piece with accompanying guitar chords. How does it contribute to the overall sound of the music? What instruments does Anderson use for this second musical layer? Try to tap the rhythm of this second layer of music as you listen to the Blue Tango one more time. . Mitchell Parish wrote lyrics to the Blue Tango in 1952 one year after the orchestral version was released. 4. There is another layer of music (which has a strong rhythmic pulse) that is heard “under” or in the background of the main themes. but listeners preferred the orchestral version of the Blue Tango instead.

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c) The lyrics for Danny Boy and Londonderry Air are also provided. Londonderry Air or Danny Boy. Australia. a) Play the tune to Irish Tune from County Derry on the piano or on an instrument you are comfortable with.A. He moved to the U. Grainger used this Irish melody as a basis for his arrangement of Irish Tune from County Derry. He was born in Brighton. 1882 Australia . founding the Percy Grainger Museum at the University of Melbourne. He not only wrote it for orchestra (which will be heard at the Education Concert) but also for keyboard. in 1914. and introducing new and innovative ways of writing and performing music. Australia and was first taught to play the piano by his mother. His piece is a beautiful slow arrangement of the melody. Danny Boy also uses the same tune (but has different lyrics). He performed in his first concert tour at the age of twelve. Grainger’s piano and composition studies took him to Frankfurt Germany (from 1895 to 1901) and then to London England (from 1901-1914). After World War I. Victoria. You may need to discuss the meaning of the . (The melody is provided below. Grainger led a busy life of concert tours. Choose one version and teach it your students. Grainger created a mesh of drifting chords which lay the foundation for the more prominent flowing melody. The melody from Irish Tune from County Derry (also referred to as Londonderry Air) is a traditional tune from Ireland.Irish Tune from County Derry P. Irish Tune from County Derry is one of over 100 songs that have been written to this same melody. one being the love of and preservation of folk music. b) Teach the song to your students. 1961 USA Written in 1927 General Information Percy A. large wind ensemble. he collected and transcribed songs from folksingers. This famous melody was first published in 1855 in Ancient Music of Ireland by George Petric. lectures. Grainger b. composing. P. vocal and band. a melody sometimes called.d.) Ask your students if they are already familiar with the tune and if they know of any lyrics that accompany it. one being Irish Tune from County Derry. Activities To Do In Class 1.S. Grainger was best known as a composer and a pianist. By using a phonograph. Grainger had other musical interests as well. He composed many famous arrangements from these musical works.32 - .

Which instruments or instrument family does Grainger use to create these effects? c) Discuss why it would be difficult to sing the lyrics while Grainger’s arrangement is played. originally was not written down. 3. It was kept in the minds of the people who heard it from others. discuss the characteristics that apply to them. If your students have learned other folksongs. a) Discuss the difference between folk music and newly composed music. In the twentieth century.). verbally • sometimes contains nonsense words • often several different versions exist c) Discuss the folk song characteristics of Irish Tune from County Derry. published and recorded. . dreamy. Most music that students listen to has been recently written. etc. collectors of folk songs have recorded and transcribed these old and beautiful melodies. The continual singing and passing on of the folk melodies allowed them to live on in people’s minds and lives. 2. sleepy. a) Listen to the recording and have your students identify (by raising their hand) when the melody begins. b) Make of list of descriptive terms that reflect how the music sounds (eg.33 - . b) Explain to your students some of the characteristics that make a song a folk song. Have them follow (by pointing) the melody on the score as the music is played. relaxing. The goal is to have your students become very familiar with the melody. Grainger was one of those people who helped to preserve and record folk songs. Folk music.text as they use older English words. • usually no known composer • usually is a story based on facts • very old • passed on from generation to generation.

in the garden path That so your silver foot might press me going Might press me going even unto death. to touch you. The summer’s gone. If you’ll not fail to tell me that you love me I simply sleep in peace until you come to me. You’ll come and find the place where I am lying And kneel and say an “Ave” there for me. And I shall hear. Yea.34 - . oh Danny boy. since you will not love. And if you come. And all my dreams will warm and sweeter be. Oh Danny boy. would to God I were among the roses That lean to kiss you as you float between While on the lowest branch a bud uncloses A bud uncloses. To lie and faint within your silken bosom Within your silken bosom as that does now.Danny Boy Oh Danny boy. and your hair’s spun gold. From glen to glen. ‘Tis you. Or when the valley’s hushed and white with snow. when all the flowers are dying. and all the flowers are dying. ‘Tis I’ll be there in sunshine or in shadow. And I am dead. But come you back when summer’s in the meadow. Lyrics and music. would I were growing A happy daisy. traditional Londonderry Air Would God I were the tender apple blossom That floats and falls from off the twisted bough. the pipes. ‘tis you must go and I must bide. Lyrics by Frederic Edward Weatherly. Or would I were a little burnish’d apple For you to pluck me. gliding by so cold While sun and shade your robe of lawn will dapple Your robe of lawn. queen. traditional . and down the mountain side. as dead I well may be. tho’ soft you tread above me. the pipes are calling. Nay. 1910 Music. I love you so.

Irish Tune from County Derry .35 - .

bright sonorities and clear textures. is one of those adventures. a princess. an adventurous prince who is always finding himself in dangerous situations. commissioned it. The rhythms were allied with body movements and expressive gestures of ballet dancers.36 - . A princess tells Ivan that he must not follow them or he. and later shows her appreciation by giving him one of her feathers. 1882-1971) Ballet written in 1910 General Information Igor Stravinsky was born in Oranienbaum. possessing an exciting new vein of Russian music yet incorporating a modern European flavour as well. Unlike Claire de Lune. She convinces Ivan to release her. Diaghilev. Prince Ivan is hunting in the forest when he comes upon a bird of exquisite colour. the Firebird. The Firebird was just the beginning of his rich collection of musical scores. Stravinsky wrote three ballets. if he ever needs help. As a young adult. at the beginning of World War II. The harmonies kept a strong sense of key. He initially studied law in university but changed his focus to music by age 20. a firebird and many adventures. He became one of the most influential composers of his time. by C. Ignoring her warning. he moved to the United States where he would stay for the rest of his life. She explains that the feather is magic. He snatches her from a silver tree where she is eating golden fruit. The ballet that Stravinsky created was considered “Post-Impressionistic”. Soon Ivan sees 13 beautiful princesses dancing as if they are in a trance. a producer of Russian ballet. is to wave the feather in the air. Stravinsky used traditional and approachable orchestral means. Russia into a musical family. He moved to Switzerland in 1917 to avoid the Russian Revolution and then to France in 1920. Over the next 9 years. In 1939. The Firebird being the first. The Firebird story. Stravinsky began to seriously compose and to teach music. A brief version of The Firebird story is summarized below. recordings and performances. made into a ballet. Stravinsky toured extensively throughout Europe. North and South America. The Russian people enjoyed stories of a popular hero named Ivan. too. All he must do.The Firebird: Introduction I. Stravinsky lived a long life and as a result his music changed styles over the years. He wanted Stravinsky to write music for a ballet that included a hero. Debussy. he follows them to the castle where he sees people . Stravinsky established his own style of composition. will fall under the spell of the wicked King Kastchei. He began piano and composition lessons as a young boy. Stravinsky (Russia.

The orchestra will only be performing the Introduction section of The Firebird at the education concert. When the woodwinds enter they seem to be giving warning signals with a more insistent sound. The ballet is made up of 22 different musical scenes. They are written below. b) Listen to the Introduction and have the students imagine what the initial setting or stage scene would look like before the action starts. a) Read the brief summary of The Firebird story to your students. Soon everyone falls asleep except a princess who has been put into an enchanted trance by the Firebird.) 2. Just as he begins to fall under the spell he remembers the feather. the creatures in the castle emerge from their sleep. It is about three minutes long and begins in a calm yet unsettled way by the lower strings. Why would this be an interesting way to beginning a story? c) Make a list of words that best describe the sounds and the scene as the story begins. There are 2 six beat melodies that are repeated throughout the introduction. lower strings can create an eerie and scary sound. Explain that Stravinsky wrote music to accompany the story. Count the number of times each theme is heard. (For example.37 - . suspense. At first light. Two different and mysterious 6 beat melodies are repeated throughout the Introduction.) d) Discuss how the use of instruments creates such a dramatic and foreboding effect. told through a form of dance called a ballet. When he waves it in the air the Firebird appears and leads everyone in the castle in an exhausting dance. Activities To Do In Class 1. When they see that the spell is broken. a) Play the melodies for the students on the piano or an instrument you are comfortable with so they will be able to learn and to distinguish between them while listening to the music. (The melodies would be quite difficult to sing in tune. .) b) Listen to the music and have the students raise their right hand when they hear the first melody and their left hand when they hear the second melody. they celebrate by parading out of the castle. Ivan quickly smashes the egg and darkness falls.who have been turned into zombie-like creatures. The Ballets Russes in Paris was first to perform The Firebird (L’Oiseau de Feu). She leads Ivan to a tree where they find an egg containing the soul of Kastchei. (For example: spooky. dark. etc.

3. Listen to the Introduction again and write down each melody.38 - .) . and when other musical passages occur. the dynamics (volume). (An incomplete and partially completed chart has been included. 1 or 2. A chart has been prepared (on the following page) to help the students map out the music. and words that could describe the overall sound. Also identify which instruments are used in each part.

Introduction to The Firebird by Igor Stravinsky Listening Chart Form (Melodics 1 and 2 or other musical ideas) Instruments Dynamics Descriptive Terms .39 - .

Introduction to The Firebird by Igor Stravinsky Listening Chart Form (Melodics 1 and 2 or other musical ideas) 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 “mp” (moderately soft) lower strings and woodwinds Instruments Dynamics Descriptive Terms scary lower strings “p” (soft) Other musical ideas 1 Other musical ideas clarinet. trumpet footsteps clarinet. strings becomes louder then soft again intense moment before a “wash” of string sounds 1 1 1 1 flute (low register) flute (high register) oboe oboe “mf” (moderately loud) sustained last note Other musical ideas . suspense .40 - haunting.

4. Use the Introduction of The Firebird as an art lesson. and textures that might be used to create a work of art.41 - . shapes. Discuss colours. What kinds of materials would you use to best reflect the music? .

Poe and to music. Impressionism was an artistic movement in the late 19th and early 20th century that was liked to painters like Impressionistic music. Claire de Lune is mostly played pianissimo (very quietly) in D-flat major. It is one of the most beautiful pieces from the Impressionist epoch. At times the music is very intense and then it quickly changes to being very distant. At the time. He took piano lessons as a child and at age 11 he entered the Paris Conservatory to study music. Debussy is considered to be the father of Impressionistic music. It focused on ideas that seem to hint rather than to state.Claire de Lune (orchestral version) Claude Debussy (France 1862-1918) Written in 1890 (for piano) General Information Claude Debussy was born in Paris where his parents owned a china shop. Debussy believed that his art (music) should be one of colours and rhythms.html . people saw him as a musical rebel.tcd. The suite is made up of four individual movements: Prelude. tone colours and creative styles. and orchestration. always maintaining a strong sense of form yet creating music that was new and original. (A B Av) which means it can be divided into three sections with the first and third sections being very similar. but he was actually carving out a new form of music. that are rather vague and entangled rather than clear and concise. For more information on the internet about Debussy and other artists of the Impressionist era use the following address: http://www. one of Debussy’s earlier and most famous works. A. As a young adult he traveled extensively throughout Europe and Asia and became familiar with the many different kinds of music that used unusual scales. form. He put sounds together in new ways. was written first as a piano piece and later arranged for orchestra. There are two main themes in the piece that are written below. It belongs to a larger piano work called Suite Bergamasque.42 - . Clair de Lune is written in ternary form. challenging the foundation of traditional harmony. soft sounds. Clair de Lune (Moonlight). and Passepied. Debussy wrote both orchestral and piano music. Clair de Lune. Debussy applied many of these early musical experiences to his musical compositions. the literary community like E. having a sense of spontaneity. Menuet. or using the piano pedal (pressed half way down) to create blurry. like mixing orchestral effects.

either through a recording or a live performance. Gliere) or the theme rhythm of the Carnival Overture (by A. a) Have the students listen to the piano version of Claire de Lune. E. A. Before telling the students Debussy’s choice of terms.Activities To Do In Class 1.) Discuss how the music sounds. Discuss how it was arranged to maintain the same overall atmosphere and musical effect. (This is a good melody to reinforce tied rhythms and the compound metre. (eg. Repeat the teaching process as done in 2. Discuss how Debussy’s music reflected this idea. Poe).43 - . Does it sound like moonlight. Teach the students the theme by reading the notes or the solfa letters. or by listening to it on the piano or another instrument you feel comfortable playing. Show examples of art work (eg. . 2. b) The second theme of Claire de Lune is stated at the beginning of the second section of the piece (B). Which instruments were used to help achieve this? d) Andante tres expressif (moderately slow and very expressive) are the terms Debussy chose describe how he wanted this piece to be performed. suggesting descriptive terms for the music. c) Listen to the orchestral version of Claire de Lune. discuss what words they would choose. measure 43.) Discuss its differences from the theme of the Red Poppy (by R. a) The first theme of Claire de Lune is stated at the beginning of the first section of the piece (A). Dvorak). perhaps reflecting on water at night time? Does it sound dreamy?) b) Explain briefly about the era of Impressionism. Monet) and read some literary works (eg.a) above. (A copy of the first page of the piece is included in the following pages.

and textures that might be used to create a work of art. symbolism. A. 4. Use Claire de Lune as the basis of an art lesson. flow. discuss the form. Discuss colours. Give examples of Impressionist writing. shapes.44 - . What instruments play the theme each time it is performed? 3. use of words.2. Verlaine. Use Claire de Lune as the basis of a poetry writing lesson. and Degas. Poe. Refer to examples of Ed. c) Listen to Claire de Lune again and have the students identify and count the themes when they are played (by raising the right hand for theme 1 and the left hand for theme 2). Renoir. subject matter. etc. Manetand. and Mallarme. . Refer to some examples by Monet.

It contains bits of coloured glass that are contained between two flat plates and also has two 2 plane mirrors inside. Mercure was continually searching for new forms.Kaleidoscope Pierre Mercure (Canada. 3 a) Choose a different excerpt of Kaleidoscope and do the activities in #2 again. dynamics. 2. like a kaleidoscope changes as it is turned.V. theatre. music. Discuss what was in the music that caused them to think of the specific colours and patterns.) Some of your students may have a kaleidoscope at home. playing in the Symphony orchestra of Montreal for four years. Discuss how the patterns are always different and how it is impossible to predict the next colour combinations and patterns. sculpture and later electronic music (1960’s). the bits of glass change position creating an endless variety of colourful patterns. As the end of the device is turned. His work revolved around integrating creative art forms. Discuss what a kaleidoscope is. He was a composer. producer. The piece changes constantly as it progresses. Have the students draw and colour . Instrumentation. Activities To Do In Class 1. b) Listen to the first few minutes of the recording and have the students imagine what kind of glass patterns and colours best fit the musical excerpt. but later became proficient on the bassoon. and colourful orchestral sonorities using various instrument combinations. rhythmic passages. he studied piano. a) Explain to the students that Mercure’s Kaleidoscope was written to reflect constant changing and unpredictable musical patterns like a kaleidoscope. trying to exceed the borders of conventional music in order to discover a new universe of sonorities. Kaleidoscope is one of Mercure’s first orchestral works and is still one of the most performed pieces of Canadian music. He studied composition with Claude Champagne in Montreal from 1944-1949 and then with Nadia Boulanger in France in 1949. It is sometimes referred to as a “symphonic imagination” as it is filled with insistent rhythms. bassoonist and administrator. Quebec. Ask them to bring it to school to show and to demonstrate for class. painting. dance.45 - . T. As a young boy. and more help to create the unpredictable and continuous colour changes in this piece. b) Create an art project from this listening lesson. literary works. 1927-1966) Written in 1948 General Information Pierre Mercure was born in Montreal. (It is a nonmusical instrument that is in a cylindrical shape.

dynamics. You can see the family groupings clearly. etc. It’s easier to read and there won’t be as many pages to turn. melody. Also. The instruments included in Kaleidoscope are listed in proper score order below. The order of a traditional full score for an orchestra is given here: a) Discuss the order of the instrument families on the score: woodwind. they need an organized way of recording the rhythm. Discuss ways to make the picture symmetrical. brass. 4.46 - . the conductor must be able to easily read and follow the music while leading the orchestra. It is organized by instrument families usually starting with the highest to the lowest pitched instruments. b) Discuss why the conductor would need to have this form of music? Would each individual player need a score? (No. tempo and instrumentation.the kaleidoscope pattern that they imagined while listening to one of the musical excerpts. What instruments did he not use? 2 flutes 2 oboes 2 clarinets (in B flat) 2 bassoons 2 horns (in F) 2 trumpets (in B flat) 2 Trombones Glockenspiel Xylophone Piatti (cymbals) Tympani Harp Strings . When composers write music for the orchestra. The complete piece of written music is called the score. they only have the parts that they play.) c) Mercure used a rather small orchestra. percussion and then the strings. what kind of colouring materials to use.

which ones have rests.47 - . which instruments play first. e) Listen to the beginning of Kaleidoscope attempt to follow the score music. The students will gain a greater appreciation for what the conductor must read when conducting and orchestra.d) The first few pages of the Kaleidoscope score are included in this guide. It is a very difficult task since the tempo of the piece is very fast and energetic. Show your students the beginning of the score. finding dynamic levels (like “pp”) and expressive terms (like “energico”) and other interesting observations. looking for the order of the instruments. .

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in the form of a small soldier. Coffee (Arabian Dance). Tchaikovsky wrote ten operas. In the story. It is the best-known ballet ever written. beauty and tragedy and the ecstasy and anguish of the human condition. 71) P. L. The Nutcracker ballet was the third of his three ballets. Tea (Chinese Dance).” He was also talented at orchestration.53 - . It is performed after a series of dances that include Chocolate (Spanish Dance). and Dance of the Toy Flutes and the Clown. Tchaikovsky drew his material from the story in a collection. a German romantic. He studied piano at a very young age and started composing at the age of 14. The Nutcracker Suite is an orchestral piece that is made up of the music from The Nutcracker ballet. Tchaikovsky (Russia. a young girl receives a nutcracker. three ballets. She dreams that the nutcracker is turned into a handsome prince who takes her to the Kingdom of Sweets. as a Christmas gift. Russia. The Waltz of the Flowers is the thirteenth of the fifteen sections in this musical work. he changed his focus and studied music composition at the St. Trepak (Russian Dance).T. There she attends a festive banquet and meets various magical creatures. The Waltz of the Flowers uses brilliant orchestral colours to compliment the flowing melodies and background harmonies. seven symphonies. His music was not only admired in Russia but also around the world. The Nutcracker is made up of a series of fifteen pieces that tell a fairy tale story. The main difference is that dances are not performed while the music is played. I. Bernstein. Tchaikovsky wrote beautiful. Hoffman. Petersburg Conservatory. After going to law school for 3 years. an American composer. The students may recognize the music as it has been used in venues outside of The Nutcracker Suite and ballet.A. creating unique colour and making unusual use of instruments and large orchestras. music that expressed joy and pain. As a composer in the Romantic era. 1840-1893) Written in 1892 General Information Piotr Illych Tchaikovsky was born in Kamsko-Votkinsk. emotional melodies.The Nutcracker: Waltz of the Flowers (op. . and many pieces for vocal and instrumental ensembles. The Brothers of the Serapion by E. said that Tchaikovsky was “one of the most inspired melodists on earth.

large. Each section has its own internal form as well. jerky. b) Listen to the Introduction again and fill in the columns on the chart. it has a large soundboard and has a range of six octaves and a fifth. 2. tempo. Start after the Introduction. b) Conduct The Waltz of the Flowers in 3 while listening to the music.54 - .) if the students contribute extra ideas. the first and the third being very similar. The chart can be filled out together or individually. The harp is beautifully featured in this initial section with a solo called a cadenza. For example. A Waltz is a dance form that originated from the 1800’s and has generally retained its popularity to the present day. Some of the strings are coloured to help the harpist know which ones to pull.Activities To Do In Class 1. etc. etc. The harp used in the orchestra is call a double-action harp and was introduces to orchestras in 1810 by Sebastien Erard. It has 47 strings and over 100 moving parts. What adjectives could be used to describe the cadenza? b) Show (with pictures) and discuss some of the special features of the harp. This means there are 3 main sections. smooth. and rhythm of the piece. It displays the virtuosity of the player and the capabilities of the instrument.) can communicate precise information to the orchestra as to how the music is to sound. tempo. It is written in triple time and is conducted in 3. . a) Discuss how a conductor’s arm movements (rigid. It asks for information about instruments and descriptive terms. The chart on the next page illustrates the form (with the Introduction ) of The Waltz of the Flowers. The Introduction to The Waltz of the Flowers is approximately one minute long. 3. Have your students practice this conducting pattern. Conducting in 3 The Waltz of the Flowers is in ternary form. a) Listen to the Introduction of The Waltz of the Flowers and discuss the sounds of the harp. adjusting arm gestures with the dynamics. Addition columns may be added (like dynamics. c) Listen to each subsequent section. The arm movements for conducting in 3 are illustrated (right). discuss what is heard and add to the chart. a) Explain to your students how this piece is organized (in three parts) and show them how it can be organized on a chart.

5 minutes) A (About 2 minutes) Ending (about 10 seconds) .The Waltz of the Flowers from The Nutcracker by P. Tchaikovsky Section Instruments playing Instruments playing the melody the harmony Descriptive Terms Introduction (1 minute) A (about 2 minutes) B (about 1.55 - .

56 - .5 minutes) Oboe Flute Strings Strings Flute Strong sound A (About 2 minutes) French Horns Strings Trumpet Woodwinds Brass Triangle Energetic Flowing sound Ending (about 10 seconds) Whole Orchestra Powerful Additional words and ideas can be added to this chart. Tchaikovsky Section Instruments playing Instruments playing the melody the harmony Oboe Harp Strings Woodwinds Descriptive Terms Introduction (1 minute) Harp Cadenza A (about 2 minutes) French Horns Clarinet Strings Strings Woodwinds Flute Full Sound B (about 1. .The Waltz of the Flowers from The Nutcracker by P.

Fantasia (1940) used the music from The Nutcracker Suite in one of its animated features. . Watch the segment of The Waltz of the Flowers and discuss how the artists used the music to enhance and compliment the animation. a) The students have probably already heard The Waltz of the Flowers before but in a different venue.). computer game. b) The original movie. cell phone.57 - . etc. Discuss when and where they have heard this piece (commercial.4.

or phrases in the music Harmony musical tones and/or chord structures that accompany and enhance the melody of a musical work. It focused on ideas that seemed to hint rather than to state. themes. or concerto) Nationalistic Music uses the rhythms and folk songs of a particular country Opus used to indicate the chronological position of a composer’s published works within his entire musical output Overture instrumental music composed for the introduction of an opera. indicating tempo. C. scenery. that are rather vague and entangled rather than clear and concise Lyrics the words that are written to fit with a melody of a musical piece Melody a significant musical line that can stand on its own or can be enhanced by accompanying harmonic tones Mezzo Forte “mf”. B. starts and stops Dynamics how loud or soft a piece of music is played. moderately loud Mezzo Piano “mp”. cannot be effective unless performed with an overlying melodic musical line Impressionism an artistic movement in the late 19th and early 20th century that was likened to painters. moderately soft Motif/Motive a short characteristic musical building block that is shorter than a theme and flexible enough to be used in development sections Movement distinct sections of music. the literary community. often illustrated with letter (A. sonata.Glossary of Musical Terms Allegro a rather quick tempo Andantino con moto quite slow with motion Andante tres expressif moderately slow and very expressive Ballet a dance that originated in the 15th century France and has evolved into the 21st century. Composer one who writes music Conductor one who leads the orchestra. dynamics.58 - . and orchestral music often telling a story Cadenza displays the virtuosity of the player and the capabilities of the instrument. several of which make up a complete musical work (like in a symphony. its volume Energico vigorous Excerpt a short passage of music that taken from a longer musical work Form the structural outline of a musical piece. oratorio or similar works. sculpture and music. artistic dancing that usually includes costumes. …) that represents distinct sections. it is usually made up of excerpts taken from the musical selections in .

Strauss. by 1910 it was accepted into the ballroom and by 1920 it’s musical style became a part of art music Tempo how fast or slow a piece of music is played: its speed Ternary Form music made up of three distinct and self-contained sections.59 - . musically represented by Mendelssohn. and late Romantic (1890-1920). Schumann. R. very soft Romantic Era the time between 1820 and 1920. it can be divided into three sections. Argentina in the late 1800’s. musically represented by Liszt. the first and third sections being very similar and the second section being noticeably different (A B A) Theme a musical idea. musically represented by Mahler. is smaller in dimension than a symphony Tango a modern dance that originated in Buenos Aires. and Sibelius Score the music that the conductor reads. Wagner and Tchaikovsky. each with a different character. Chopin. it contains the musical notation of every orchestral instrument part Suite the modern suite is made up of a number of musical movements. middle Romantic (1850-1890). (Variations are created when the theme is altered or modified on each repetition by using various musical techniques) Waltz a dance in moderate triple metre (grouped in 3’s) which emerged in the early 1800’s . early romantic (1820-1850).the production which follows Piano “p”. a short melody that is often repeated and sometimes varied throughout a piece of music Theme and Variations the theme is a musical idea or a short melody. soft Pianissimo “pp”.

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