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9/6/2010

TR NG I H C BCH KHOA H N I VI N CNG NGH THNG TIN V TRUY N THNG

TIN H C I CNG

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Gi i thi u v mn h c
Trnh : SV chnh quy nm th hai S n v h c trnh: 4 tn ch (3-1-1-8) L thuy t : 45 ti t Bi t p : 15 ti t Th c hnh: 5 bi (15 ti t) N i dung:
Ph n 1: Tin h c cn b n (16 LT + 4 BT + 6 TH) Ph n 2: Gi i quy t bi ton (8 LT + 4 BT) Ph n 3: L p trnh (21 LT + 7 BT + 9 TH)
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N i dung mn h c Ph n 1: Tin h c cn b n
Bi 1: Thng tin v bi u di n thng tin Bi 2: Bi u di n d li u trong my tnh Bi 3: H th ng my tnh v m ng my tnh Bi 4: H i u hnh

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N i dung mn h c Ph n 2: Gi i quy t bi ton


Bi 5: Gi i quy t v n v xy d ng thu t ton

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N i dung mn h c Ph n 3: L p trnh C
Bi 6: T ng quan v ngn ng l p trnh C Bi 7: Ki u d li u v bi u th c trong C Bi 8: Cc c u trc l p trnh trong C Bi 9: M ng v xu k t Bi 10: C u trc Bi 11: Hm

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Ti li u tham kh o
Tin h c cn b n: 1. Tin h c cn b n, Quch Tu n Ng c.
2. Slide bi gi ng Tin h c i cng, Vi n CNTT & TT 3. Tin h c i cng, T Vn Nam

L p trnh C:
1. 2. 3. 4. Nh p mn l p trnh ngn ng C, Nguy n Thanh Th y (ch bin) c c quy n bi t p. Ngn ng l p trnh C, Quch Tu n Ng c Slide bi gi ng Tin h c i cng, Vi n CNTT & TT Tin h c i cng, T Vn Nam

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9/6/2010

TR NG I H C BCH KHOA H N I VI N CNG NGH THNG TIN V TRUY N THNG

TIN H C I CNG
Bi 1: Thng tin v bi u di n thng tin
@it-hut.edu..vn

N i dung
1.1. Cc khi ni m c b n v thng tin v tin h c 1.2. My tnh i n t v phn lo i 1.3. Tin h c v cc ngnh lin quan.

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N i dung
1.1. Cc khi ni m c b n v thng tin v tin h c 1.2. My tnh i n t v phn lo i 1.3. Tin h c v cc ngnh lin quan.

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1.1 Cc khi ni m c b n
Thng tin D li u Tri th c H th ng thng tin X l thng tin

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Thng tin
Thng tin (information) l g ? L khi ni m tr u t ng m t t t c nh ng g em l i cho con ng i s hi u bi t, nh n th c t t hn v nh ng i t ng trong i s ng x h i, trong thin nhin,... Gip cho con ng i th c hi n h p l cng vi c c n lm t t i m c ch m t cch t t nh t. L ng c nh trong d li u c xem xt
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D li u
D li u (data) l g ?
o L bi u di n c a thng tin c th hi n b ng cc tn hi u v t l.

Thng tin ch a ng ngha cn d li u ch l cc s ki n khng c c u trc v khng c ngha n u khng c t ch c v x l. L v t mang tin, d li u sau khi c t p h p v x l s cho ta thng tin.
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D li u
D li u trong th c t c th l:
Cc s li u th ng c m t b ng s nh trong cc b ng bi u. Cc k hi u qui c, v d ch vi t Cc tn hi u v t l v d nh nh sng, m thanh, nhi t , p su t,

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Tri th c
Tri th c (Knowledge) l g?
Tri th c theo ngha th ng l thng tin tr u t ng hn m c

Tri th c kh a d ng:
C th l s ki n , l thng tin L cch m m t ng i thu th p c qua kinh nghi m ho c qua o t o. C th l s hi u bi t chung hay v m t lnh v c c th no .

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H th ng thng tin
H th ng thng tin (information system) l m t h th ng ghi nh n d li u, x l chng t o nn thng tin c ngha ho c d li u m i.

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X l thng tin
M i qu trnh x l thng tin b ng my tnh hay b i con ng i u c th c hi n theo m t qui trnh sau:

NH P D LI U (INPUT)

X L (PROCESSING)

XU T D LI U (OUTPUT)

LU TR

(STORAGE)

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X l thng tin
X l thng tin b ng my tnh i n t
L i ch: Ti t ki m r t nhi u th i gian, cng s c Tng chnh xc cao trong vi c t ng ha m t ph n hay ton ph n c a qu trnh x l d li u hay thng tin.

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N i dung
1.1. Cc khi ni m c b n v thng tin v tin h c 1.2. My tnh i n t v phn lo i 1.3. Tin h c v cc ngnh lin quan.

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My tnh i n t v phn lo i
Khi ni m v nh ngha my tnh L ch s hnh thnh v pht tri n Phn lo i my tnh
Phn l ai truy n th ng Phn lo i hi n i

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My tnh l g? My tnh (computer) l thi t b i n t th c hi n cc cng vi c sau:


Nh n thng tin vo X l thng tin theo chng trnh c nh s n bn trong a thng tin ra

Chng trnh (program) l m t dy cc l nh n m trong b nh yu c u my tnh th c hi n cng vi c c th . My tnh ho t ng theo chng trnh.
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L ch s pht tri n my tnh My tnh i n t th c s thnh t th p nin 1950. 5 th h : b t u hnh

Th h 1 (1950 - 1958): Von Neumann Machine


S d ng cc bng n i n t chn khng M ch ring r , vo s li u b ng phi u c l i u khi n b ng tay, kch th c r t l n Tiu th nng l ng nhi u, t c tnh ch m kho ng 300 - 3.000 php tnh/s.
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Bng n chn khng

My tnh u tin: ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer)


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Von Neumann v i my tnh Institute u tin nm 1952


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IBM 701 (1953 )

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EDVAC (M )

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UNIVAC I
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UNIVAC II

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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)


Th h 2 (1958 - 1964): Transistors
S d ng b x l b ng n bn d n, m ch in c chng trnh d ch nh Cobol, Fortran v h i u hnh n gi n. Kch th c my cn l n T c tnh kho ng 10.000 - 100.000 php tnh/s i n hnh:
IBM 7000 series (M ) MINSK (Lin X c)

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IBM 7030 (1961)

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MINSK (Lin X c)

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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)


Th h 3 (1965 - 1974): Integrated Circuits
Cc b vi x l c g n vi m ch i n t c nh T c tnh kho ng 100.000 - 1 tri u php tnh/s. C cc h i u hnh a chng trnh, nhi u ng i ng th i ho c theo ki u phn chia th i gian. K t qu t my tnh c th in tr c ti p t my in. i n hnh:
IBM-360 (M )
DEC PDP-8
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IBM-360 IBM(M )

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IBM-360 (M )

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DEC PDP-1 PDP(1960)

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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)


Th h 4 (1974 1990): LSI (Large Scale Integration), Multiprocessors
C cc vi m ch a x l T c tnh hng ch c tri u n hng t php tnh/s. 2 lo i my tnh chnh:
My tnh c nhn bn (Personal Computer - PC) ho c xch tay (Laptop ho c Notebook computer) Cc lo i my tnh chuyn nghi p th c hi n a chng trnh, a x l,... Hnh thnh cc h th ng m ng my tnh (Computer Networks). Cc ng d ng phong ph a phng ti n
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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)


Intel
4004 (1971): B vi x l u tin, t t c cc thnh ph n CPU u n m trn m t chip n, 4 bit. 8008 (1972): 8 bit. 8080 (1974 ): B vi x l a nng u tin c a Intel, 8 bit, c s d ng trong my tnh c nhn u tin Altair. 8086: M nh hn r t nhi u, 16 bit 8088: 8 bit external bus, c s d ng trong IBM PC u tin 80286: 16 Mbyte memory addressable, up from 1Mb
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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)


Intel (ti p)
80386: 32 bit, h tr ch a nhi m 80486: Sophisticated powerful cache and instruction pipelining, built in maths co-processor. Pentium: Superscalar, multiple instructions executed in parallel Pentium Pro:

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Increased superscalar organization Aggressive register renaming Branch prediction Data flow analysis Speculative execution
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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)

INTEL 4004 INTEL 4004

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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)

INTEL 8008

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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)

INTEL 8080

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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)

INTEL 80286

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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)

INTEL 80386

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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)

INTEL 80486

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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)

Pentium

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Pro III

More Pentium
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IV

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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)

Itanium
64-bit Intel Microprocessors

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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)


Th h 5 (1990 - nay): VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration), ULSI (Ultra), Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Microelectronic technologies with high computing speeds and parallel processing. M ph ng cc ho t ng c a no b v hnh vi con ng i C tr khn nhn t o v i kh nng t suy di n pht tri n cc tnh hu ng nh n c H qu n l ki n th c c b n gi i quy t cc bi ton a d ng.
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L ch s pht tri n (ti p)

Th h 5 (ti p)

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Phn lo i my tnh Phn lo i truy n th ng:


My vi tnh (Microcomputer) My tnh nh (Minicomputer) My tnh l n (Mainframe Computer) Siu my tnh (Supercomputer)

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Phn lo i my tnh (ti p) Phn lo i hi n i:


My tnh " bn" (Desktop Computing) My ch (Server) My tnh nhng (Embedded Computer)

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My tnh bn (Desktop)
L lo i my tnh ph bi n nh t Thi t k theo h ng t i u c v gi thnh v hi u nng M t s lo i:
My tnh c nhn (Personal Computer PC) My tr m lm vi c (Workstation)

1981: IBM gi i thi u my tnh IBMPC s d ng b vi x l Intel 8088 1984: Apple a ra Macintosh s d ng b x l Motorola 68000 Gi thnh: t 500$ n 10,000$
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My ch (Server)
Th c ch t l my ph c v Dng trong m ng my tnh theo m hnh Client/Server T c v hi u nng tnh ton cao Dung l ng b nh l n tin c y cao Gi thnh: t hng ch c nghn n hng tri u USD.

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My tnh nhng (Embedded Computer)


c t trong thi t b khc i u khi n thi t b lm vi c c thi t k chuyn d ng V d :
i n tho i di ng B i u khi n trong my gi t, i u ha nhi t M t s thi t b m ng: Switch, Router,

Gi thnh: t vi USD n hng trm ngn USD

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N i dung
1.1. Cc khi ni m c b n v thng tin v tin h c 1.2. My tnh i n t v phn lo i 1.3. Tin h c v cc ngnh lin quan.

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Tin h c v cc ngnh lin quan


Thu t ng tin h c Cng ngh thng tin Cng ngh thng tin v truy n thng

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Thu t ng tin h c (Infomatic)


Thu t ng Tin h c c ngu n g c t ti ng c vo nm 1957 do Karl Steinbuch x ng trong 1 bi bo Informatik: Automatische Informationsverarbeitung (i.e. "Informatics: automatic information processing"). Sau vo nm 1962, Philippe Dreyfus ng i Php g i l informatique, ti p theo l Walter F.Bauer cng s d ng tn ny. Ph n l n cc n c Ty u, tr Anh u ch p nh n. Anh ng i ta s d ng thu t ng computer science, hay computing science, Nga cng ch p nh n tn informatika (1966).
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Tin h c (Infomatic)
Tin h c c xem l ngnh khoa h c nghin c u cc phng php, cng ngh v k thu t x l thng tin m t cch t ng. Cng c ch y u s d ng trong tin h c l my tnh i n t v m t s thi t b truy n tin khc. N i dung nghin c u c a tin h c ch y u g m 2 ph n:
K thu t ph n c ng (Hardware engineering) K thu t ph n m m (Software engineering)

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Cng ngh thng tin (Information Technology - IT) Thu t ng Cng ngh thng tin xu t hi n Vi t nam vo nh ng nm 90 c a th k 20. Cng ngh thng tin l ngnh nghin c u cc h th ng thng tin d a vo my tnh, c bi t l cc ph n m m ng d ng v ph n c ng my tnh. Ni m t cch ng n g n, IT x l v i cc my tnh i n t v cc ph n m m my tnh nh m chuy n i, lu tr , b o v , truy n tin v trch rt thng tin m t cch an ton. (theo Information Technology Association of America (ITAA)
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Cng ngh thng tin v truy n thng (Information and Comunication Technology - ICT)

Cc ng d ng ngy nay c a IT:


Qu n tr d li u. Thi t k h th ng c s d li u. Qu n l h th ng thng tin. Qu n l h th ng. Cc chng trnh gi i tr: game, nghe nh c, xem phim, c truy n, c bo..

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Cng ngh thng tin v truy n thng (Information and Comunication Technology - ICT) Ngy nay, khuynh h ng s d ng "information" thay th cho "data" v c xu th m r ng cho lnh v c truy n thng v tr thnh ICT (Information and Communication Technology). Thu n tu theo cch ni th hai thu t ng ny l nh nhau.

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Cng ngh thng tin v truy n thng (Information and Comunication Technology - ICT) Truy n thng my tnh, ni n gi n l s k t n i m t s l ng my tnh v i nhau trong m t ph m vi a l nh . Tuy nhin, nhi u my tnh c th k t n i v i nhau theo m t ph m vi r ng hn v vi c trao i th c hi n qua m t m ng vi n thng no . Internet - M ng my tnh ton c u l m t pht minh v i c a nhn lo i trong th k 20, cng chnh l s n ph m c a ngnh Cng ngh thng tin v Truy n thng.
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Th o lu n

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