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.., ..

-
. . ..;
: - , 1995 407.
ISBN 5-85382-132-6

A
a- - -. O : , .
A chromosome - -.
- - <B-chromosome>.
A form - - [].
, 75%-
, , - 11,
- - 2,56 ,
- 32,7o , - 23 ,
.
Aarskog syndrome, faciogenital dysplasia - . ,
;
FGD1,
q13 X-,
, Rho-GTP Cdc42.
AAT = aspartate aminotransferase (.).
abasic site = AP-site (.).
abbreviation - , . C
- , .
(, <neoteny>).
Abelson leukemia virus - .
BALB , -,
- <helper virus>.
abetalipoproteinaemia - . ,
:
APOB (-), p24-p23 2.
abiocoen - . C .
abiogenesis - . O
: . -
.
abiotic environment - . C
() () , ..
.
abiotrophic mutation - . ,
<abiotrophy>, .. (
).

abiotrophy - .
(.. ) ,
; , "."
, ,
<Huntington chorea>, <gyrate atrophy> .;
"." . 1902
.
abnormal division = misdivision (.).
AB0 blood groups - 0. C (
),
, , 9.
AB0 [heterochromatic] function - 0- .
<heterochromatin> Drosophila
melanogaster,
abo, 0- <middle repetitious DNA>.
aboriginal - , . O (),
;
""
() , ""
"".
abortive pollen - . ,
; -
( .).
abortive transcription - .
<transcription>,
(); ..
<reoviruses> 1981.
abortive transduction - .
<transduction>, -
- ,
- <episome>
("",
"") <linear inheritance>.
abortus - .
,
() .
abscisic acid - . ,
;
.
absolute lethal = complete lethal (.).
absorption method - .
<antigens>: (
)

, .
abundance [of mRNA] - () []. C
, ; .
<abundant mRNA> <scarce mRNA>.
abundant mRNA - . ,
<abundance> - 1000
10 000 ; M. 100,
50% .
abzymes - . , ;
- . .
acanthocytaric hemolytic anemia - .
<hemolytic anemia>,
();
- .
acceptor branch - "".
<transfer RNA>,
: ."." 7
3 (, --3' E.coli).
acceptor capacity - .
,
, ; ..
,
.
acceptor (right, 3'-) site - , .
<intron> 3'- ,
<splicing>; ...
( / <GT-AG rule>).
accessory chromosome = B chromosome (.).
accessory nuclei - . ,
; ..

<amitosis>.
accessory plate - . "" ,
, ,
, o <equatorial plate>.
accidental (developmental) hermaphroditism - ()
. <hermaphroditism>,

; .. .
.
acclimation - . ,
;
"." "" <acclimatization>.
acclimatization - .

,

(); . , -
; ., ,
( , , ,
..).
Ac-Dc system = activation-dissociation system (.).
acentric (akinetic) chromosome - () .
X, <deletion>
<translocation> <centromere>; ..
.
acentric fragment - . ,

<chromatide>; .. ,
<micronucleus>,
.
acentric inversion = paracentric inversion (.).
acetocarmine - , . K, (
)
.
aceto-orceine - , . ,
, -
<polytene chromosomes>; . 1%- 45% .
acetyl esterases - (. esterases).
acetyl serine - -, N--. ,

<serine>,

N-
()

<formyl methyonine> .
CH2 CO NH CH(CH2 OH) COOH
acetylated tubulin - .
<tubulin>,
(,
)
- <aster> .
acetylation - .
; ,
. N- <histone>
<chromatin>.
acetylcholine - . <choline>,
-
.
H3C CO O CH2 CH2 N+ (CH3)3

acetyl-coenzyme A - - . A
<coenzyme A>,
<tricarboxylic acid cycle>, ,
, <acetylcholine> ..
achiasmata - . O <chiasma> ;
. , . (,
Y) - .
achiasmate (achiasmatic) mutant - . O,
<chiasma>
,
<pachytene DNA> ,
.
achondroplasia - , , -,
. ,
(,
<oxidative phosphorylation>)
,
; .
achromatic - , . ""
<achromatin>.
achromatin - , , . K (
), .
acid phosphatase - [ 3.1.3.2].
,
,
<alkaline phosphatase>,
, (4,7-6,0;
- 8,4-9,4) ; ..
- (ACP).
acidic amino acid - . A
: .. - <aspartic
acid> <glutamic acid>.
aconidial type - . M ,
<hypha>, .. .
aconitase
,

[
4.2.1.3].
,
<tricarboxylic acid cycle>
.

ACP = acid phosphatase (.).


acrasin - . , Dictyostelium discoideum,
: , .
<cyclic AMP>.
acrichine = quinacrine (.).
acridine dyes - . ,
9-
( ); .. - ,
( "
" <frameshift mutation>);
<acridine orange> <acriflavin>.

acridine orange - , . K ( ,
550 ),
<lysosome>, ; .. .

acriflavin - . A <acridine dye>,


, " " <frameshift mutation>.

acrilamide - , 2-. ,
-N- ; .
<polyacrilamide
gel electrophoresis>.
CH2 - CH = CONH
acritarchs

, , ,
; 1,5 . .
acroblast = acrosome (.).
acrocentric chromosome - () .
X, , .
. (1964), 7,0; .. ,
.. <telocentric chromosome>.
acrosin - [ 3.4.21.10]. ( ),
<acrosome> ;
<zona pellucida>(
. ).
acrosome, acroblast, idiosome - , . ,

<Goldgi apparatus> ,
; . (c. <acrosin>),
, ;
, , . .
acrosyndesis - . :
.
actidione = cycloheximide (.).
actin - . ( 42 ),
- , ,
<myosin>, <actomyosin>
- .
actinomycin D - D. ,
(
<acridine dye> , , ,
), Streptomyces chrysomallus; .D -
, <transcription>,
( DAPI)

;
- ().
activating enzyme = aminoacyl tRNA-synthetase (.).
activator - , -. -
<Britten-Davidson model>, - <integrator
gene> <receptor site>
; . ,
- ; .
, .
activator-dissocation system, Ac-Ds system - -.
<transposable
element> ( <controlling
elments>): Ac - () ,

<nonautonomous elements> Ds,


( Ac Ds ); Ds
,
; ..-. .- 1950,
. . 1984.
active site - . ,
, , .. <histones> -
, .. -
..; .. .
activins, transforming growth factors- - , . ,
: ,
-
.
actomyosin - .
;
<actin> <myosin>.
acute irradiation - . .
acytokinesis - . <cytokinesis> (
) ,
( - ) ;
, -
().
ADA = adenosine deaminase (.).
adaptation - . C (),

; . (
- ..) .; .
<natural selection>
, . -
(.); (
) .
adaptive enzyme = inducible enzyme (.).
adaptive norm - . C ,
,
; ..
.. 1948.
adaptive peak - . M
( ) .
adaptive radiation - . ,


; .. -
; .. .. 1875

. 1915.
adaptive response - .
<repair>,
<alkylating agent> (
, , - "conditioning
dose" "challenge dose"); ..
6--- .
adaptive value, Darwinian fitness - ,
. , ..
()
() .
adaptor hypothesis - . ,
<translation> , ; .., . 1958,
<tRNA> .
Ad-cells - Ad-. , ( ; d - dark, ): ,
Ad-., - <Apcells>, , -,
( ).
Addison disease - , .
<anemia>, 12
<cobalamin>; .. ,

-12-
( -II: TCN2
22); .
addition line - () . (),
, ( ):
, ,
.
additional DNA - [].
,
; . ,
1 150 ;
. .
additional nucleolei - . <nucleolus>
, ( ); ..
"-" (
, Drosophila .),
( <polyteny> Drosophila
melanogaster); .. <micronucleoli>,
(.).
additive factors = polymeric genes (.).

additive theorem - . ,
-- ( )
:
,
- - (. <map contraction> <map expansion>).
adducin - . (
- - 103 97 ),
<spectrin> <actin>,
<calmodulin>; - .
4 .
adduct - . ,

- , <methylation>
.
adelphogamy - . C ,
.
adenine - . (6-), ,
, <adenosine triphosphate>, <coenzymes>; 6 <hypoxanthine>.

adenine deoxyriboside - . <nucleoside>:


() (), .
adenosine - . <nucleoside>,
() (), .
adenosine deaminase - [ 3.5.4.4]. ,
<adenosine> <inosine>;
- (ADA).
adenosine diphosphate - , . ,
, ,
,
.
adenosine monophosphate, AMP - , . ,
, ,
,
; . <cyclic AMP>.
adenosine phosphate - . O ,
, , 1 ( <adenosine monophosphate>), 2 (
<adenosine diphosphate>) 3 ( <adenosine triphosphate>)
.
adenosine triphosphatases - , -, [
3.6.1.3]. <hydrolases>,


; . , .. ,
; .
- <myosin> (,
).
adenosine triphosphate - , . ,
<adenine>, ;
( )
, .
Adenoviruses - . - ,
, 70-90 ,
( 20-29 106);
., ; .
<alternative splicing>.
adenylate kinase - , [ 2.7.4.3]. ,

++,
; ,
; . - (.
68 ); - ().
ADH = alcohol dehydrogenase (.).
adichogamy = homogamy (.).
adipocyte - . K, <fat
body> ; . - .
adipokinetic hormones - .
; (, Schistocerca gregaria
AKH-I AKH-II 10 8 ),
, , ,
, ,
..
adjuvant - . ,
;
( , .)
( <agar>, <glycerol>, <protamines> .)
.
ADP = adenosine diphosphate (.).
ADP-ribosilation - -.
- : ,
<elongation factor> eEF2
,
; -. ;
, -. eEF2
.
adrenalin - . ,
; . <dopamine>

<noradrenaline>.

adrenergic receptors - . M ,
;
- 1, 2, 1, 2A, 2B; ..
<introns> - .
80- .
adrenocorticotropic hormone - , .
,
.
advanced taxon - . derived line.
adventitious - , . X (
), (,
..).
adventitious embryony - () .
- (,
)
<gametophyte>; .. <apomixis>,

<polyembriony>.
adventitious homeosis - . <homeosis>:
(
reduplicated legs Drosophila melanogaster - " ").
adverse selection - () . ()
, , ; ..

.
aeromorphosis - .
.
aestivate - . <diapause>,
.
afibrinogenemia
. ,
,
I (),
- ; 1920,
70 ; (F1A,
F1B, F1G) q28 4.
aflatoxins - . , ,
<adduct>
,
,
, ; . - .

Africanized honey bee - " ".


Apis mellifera,
; .
afterbirth = placenta (.).
AG protein = argentophilic protein (.).
agameon - . ,
<apomixis>.
agamete - .
, ; .
.
agamodeme - . ( <deme>),
<apomixis>
.
agamogony - . P , ,
<vegetative reproduction>.
agamospecies - "". ,
<parthenogenesis> <apomixis>.
agamospermy - . ""
; , ,
"" - ,
<gynogenesis>.
agar - . ,
( .) -
.
age group - . (
) .
ageing, senescence - . K
,
,
, , ,

; . .
agglomeration = stickiness (.).
agglutination - .
(, . ), ,
- <agglutinin> ; .

. . 1890 .. 1891.
agglutinin - . A,
<agglutination>; . , ( ), ( ) ..; .
"" - , (.
<phytohemagglutinin>).
agglutinogen - . A,
<agglutionation>.
agmatoploidy - .
;
, <microchromosomes>;
. - <holocentric
chromosomes>,
.
agnation - . P .
agouti - "". T ,
; , "."
- , "."
<wild type>.
agranular reticulum - .
<endoplasmic reticulum>, ;
.. - <glycogen>, ,
.. ( ); (.. ), (..
) ..
agranulocytosis, Kostmann disease - , . ,
( .) ,
;
-
;
.

- NDF p21.3
6.
agriculturally important species - - . ,

; .. ,

; .-..
2.
agrin - . , :
; .
Torpedo 1984 .
agropine - . P , <arginine>,
( <gall>); .
Ti- <Ti plasmid>.
Ag-staining = N-banding (.).

Aicardi syndrome - . (
- ),
, .;
, , AIC p22
-.
AID - . artificial insemination.
AIDS (Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome) - (
). , -
(- ), H-
<TH-lymphocytes> ,
.
AIH - . artificial insemination.
air-drying
method

:

,
(
) - ,
( , ),
; ... (
) - <gravity method> "" <rake
method>.
AK = adenylate kinase (.).
akaryote = enucleate cell (.).
akinetic chromosome = acentric chromosome (.).
akinetic inversion = paracentric inversion (.).
alanine - . A , (L-. - ;
D-. - ); . <fibroin> (
40%); , , , .
Albers-Schoenberg disease = osteopetrosis (.).
albinism - .

; . ,

(
<melanin>,

<chlorophyll>); 10 ,
.
albino - . O, <albinism>.
albomaculation - . - ,

<plastid> ( ).
Albright syndrome, pseudohypoparathyroidism - ,
. ,
- , ,
, ,

, .; -
; GNAS1, -
20.
albumins - . ,
, ,
( .), (),
(),
; . ,
, .
alcohol dehydrogenases - [ 1.1.1.1, 1.1.1.2].
,
; . - <inducible enzyme>,
e
, . - ; .
- (ADH),
- (
<latitudinal cline>) ADHS ADHF,
( ADH S ADHF
192- ),
60 .
aldolases - . ,
; . - [ 4.1.2.13]
( . . 1934), D--1,6 D--3- ,
; .-
<hemolytic anemia>; (II)
. ,
<metalloenzyme>, .
aldose reductase - [ 1.1.1.21]. -
, ,
; .
<diabetes mellitus>.
aldosterone - . C ,
,
.

aleurone grains - . ()
.
Alexander syndrome = SPCA deficiency (.).
alien chromosome - . ( ,

) ,
; ..
-
, .
aliphatic - . X ,
(
).
aliquot - . , - .
alkaline hydrolysis - .
: , pH
, .
alkaline phosphatase - [ 3.1.3.1]. ,
5'- ;
, <vector>
<restriction endonuclease>
( ); E.coli ..
. 80 ; ..
: .. - Regan isozyme, .. Kasahara isozyme, .. - Nagao isozyme.
alkaloids - .
,
; ( ) . ;
13 .
alkaptonuria, Garrod disease - . ,
<tyrosine>
, ,
.; ; 1584.
alkylating agent - . ,
:
.. - <nitrogen mustard>
<sulphur
mustard>,

<epoxide>,

<ethyl
methanesulphonate>, <cyclophosphamide>, <busulfan>,
<chlorambucil>, <melphalan> ..
alkylation - . P
- CH3, C2H5 ..; . <methylation>.
allautogamia - .
- , <anemophily> <entomophily>.
allele, allelomorph - , . O
; . -
. e ;
.,
;
. - . <multiple

alleles>; "" . . 1902


"." . 1909; ,
"." ,
.
allele exclusion - .
<immunoglobulin> ,
:
<clonal selection theory>.
allele substitution - .
o;

<substitutional load>
; a .. ( )
. 1957.
allele-specific oligonucleotide - - .
,
- .
allelism, allelomorphism - , .
, .
allelogenous - . C
- .
allelomorphism = allelism (.).
allelopathy - .
(, .) ;
.
allelosomal - . X ,
<homologous chromosomes>.
allelotype - . ,
( ) .
Allen's rule - . ( ),

, (-
), ; . 1877.
allergens - . , <allergy>,
, - - ,
,
(, );
. (, , ).
allergy, atopy - , . <immune response>,
- (
<allergens>);
(
.); "." . . 1906,
""

() .

allesthetic character - . ,
,
, - , , , ..
"alligator boy", Carini syndrome - .
<ichthyosis>; - .
Allium-test - Allium-. P 50 (. 1938)
<clastogenicity>,
Allium cepa;
".-." ,
( - Pisum
sativum Vicia faba) .
allo- - -. O : , (
).
allocycly - . , -
,
, .. - ; . . 1941,
. (
Paris quadrifolia).
allodiploid - . ,
( - )
.
allodiplomonosomic
.
O
(
<allodiploid>),
.
allogamy = open pollination (.).
allogenesis - . ,

, .
allogony - . T , <mutation>: "."
. 1915 , ""
, "." .
allograft - . T,
.
alloiobiogenesis - . <alteration of
generation>, .
alloiogenesis - . <alteration of
generation>,
.
allomorphosis, idioadaptation - , .
; .
<allogenesis>; "." ..
1925.

alloparapatric speciation - .
<allopatric speciation>,

(
<character displacement>).
allopatric populations - . ,

( ).
allopatric
speciation

, -

,
, ( ,
<parapatric> <sympatry>) , ,
.
allophene - . ,

<somatic
hybridization>

<transplantation>.
allophenic mice - () .
, :
.. ( 8 )
<pronase> ,
, ,
; - .. . 1967.
alloplasm - .
: <cilli>, <flagellum>, - ,
<contractile vacuole> .
alloplasmy - . K ,
; ., ,
<cytoplasmic male sterility>;
,
Agropyron ,
Aegilops caudata
Triticum aestivum . 1951.
allopolyploidy - .
: , .

(
- AABB ..).
allosome - . <sex
chromosome> (.. ,
); "." . 1906.
allosteric effect - .
<allosteric enzyme> (, ,
)

, ,
( <allosteric effector>); .. ., .
. 1963.
allosteric effector - . O
,
( ) <allosteric effect>,
, , (..

);
,

.. .
allosteric (regulatory) enzyme - () .
,

<allosteric effector> .
allosyndesis - , . K
, ( <allopolyploidy>);
. ,
(, ,
- .); .
( -
, )
.
allotetraploid = amphidiploid (.).
allotropy - . H <multiple alleles>
- ,
, ,
.
allotypic differentiation - .
<imaginal disc>
in vitro; ".." . 1963 -
.. .
allotypy - . P
<immunoglobulin>, .
allozygote - . O, -
; . - ,
( <pedigree>).
"Al-organelles",
"Al-structures"
"l-".
C
,

( ),
, ".-."; l
".-." ; ".-."
. 1983.
alpha helix - -.
, .. ,
C=O N-H ; .-.
3,6 , - 5,4 .

alpha peptide - a-. N- <beta-galactosidase> 185 ,


-,
N-
: M13mp,
A-.
alpha rays - -. , a ( ), .
alpha-amanitin - -. C,
Amanita phalloides - ; .-.
- :
- II (
, ),
- I ( -).
alpha-satellite DNA - (-) .
<satellite DNA>,
Cercopithecus 172
; 500 000 (
); .-
,
( .-
in situ <in situ hybridization>
, , - - ,
<Down syndrome> ..).
Alphaviruses - . -
; 70 ; .
Alport syndrome - ,
. H,
; 6
.. - ( q22-24
) - - .
alteration enzyme - () .
4 , - - (),
- , ,
.
alteration of generation, digenesis, heterogenesis - .

; ..,
<heterogony> <metagenesis>; ..
( )
( ) - .. (

) .. ( ,
- - -

).
alternative promoter - .
<promoter>,
, :
- ,
<amylase> .. , (S)
( 2850 ),
( ) ,
- .
alternative segregation of chromosomes -
.
, ()
.
alternative splicing - . <splicing>,

; .. <exon>
; ..
, , <calcitonin gene>
<somatostatin>.
altruistic adaptation - . ,
.
Alu-family
Alu-.
C

,
; Alu- 300 , 170
AluI;
300 000 .-.
Alzheimer disease - . ,
, (, ),
, ..,
, 55 ; , AD1 q21.1 21.
amaurosis, amaurotic idiocy - . ,

; .. ( a <Norman-Wood disease>, - <Tay-Sacks disease> .)
- .
amaurotic idiocy = amaurosis (.).
amber mutation - -, ""-. M,
-, .. - <nonsense codon> - .
ambivalent - . X ,
( ) , -,
; ". " . 1955,
. rII- 4 . 1960.
ameiosis - . ().
amelogenins - . O ( <enamelins>)

,
: .,
; .
(10-40 ) 4N
.
Ames test - . ,
his- Salmonella
typhimurium <histidine>
; , e 12 .
his- ( )
; .
1974.
amethopterin = methotrexate (.).
amino acid - . O () ,
,
-, -, - ..; .
, 20
.; , .
; .
(. .),
. :
- <alanine>;
C - <cysteine>;
D - <asparagine>;
E - <glutamine>;
F - <phenylalanine>;
G - <glycine>;
H - <histidine>;
I - <isoleucine>;
K - <lysine>;
L - <leucine>;
M - <methionine>;
N - <aspartic acid>;
P - <proline>;
Q - <glutamic acid>;
R - <arginine>;
S - <serine>;
T - <threonine>;
V - <valine>;
W - <tryptophan>;
X - - <terminating codon>;
Y - <tyrosine>.
amino acid activation - . P

:
+=-+2,
--;
.
amino acid sequence - . X
,
; ..
.
amino acyl adenilate - .
<amino acid activation>, ,

.
aminoaciduria - .
,
;
, .
aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, activating enzyme - --,
. ,
<amino acid activation>.
aminoacylated (charged) transfer RNA - -. K
<amino acid activation>: ,

3'-- .
aminoacylation - .
<amino acid activation>,
<amino acyl adenilate>
- <aminoacylated transfer RNA>.
-aminolevulinate synthase - - [ 2.3.1.37].
, (
- ), <heme>;
ALAS1 p21 3, ALAS2
- p11-q12 -.
aminopterin - . A <folic acid>,
;
, ..
, -
.

aminopurine

( ),
<transition>.
amitosis - , .
; .
( -
..,
); . ;
. ( ) , , .
<macronucleus>: , .
; "." . 1882.
amixia - . H
.
amixis - .
; . <apomixis> .
amniocentesis - .
() ; .
(
)
, ; . 16
; . . 1956.
amnion - . O ,
(), ().
amoeba - . 1 (Amoeba).
amorph - , . M ,
, .
AMP = adenosine monophosphate (.).
amphi- - -. C " ", "", "
, ", , , .
amphiapomixis - .
<apomixis>, .
amphiastral mitosis - . M,
<centrosome> <centriole>,
.. .. ""; ..
; ".." . 1887.
amphibivalent - . K , I
, <reciprocal
translocation>.
amphidiploid, didiploid, allotetraploid - , .
,
; . - <Raphanobrassica>
; . - Bombyx
mori B.mandarina ( ..); .
; "." .. 1927.
amphigamy = amphimixis (.).

amphihaploid - . O,
.
amphikaryon - . .
amphilepsis - . ()
- <monolepsis>.
amphimixis, amphigamy - , , .
; . -
(
<apomixis>); "." . 1892.
amphinucleolus - . <nucleolus>,

( ).
amphipathic - . ,
, - ; .
- .
amphiplasty - . <satellite>
; , . , ..
, ; . (
); (F 1
) ; "."
.. 1928.
amphitoky, deuterotoky, gametotoky - , .
<parthenogenesis>,
; . .
amphitroph - . A ,
,
.
amphogeny - . H
( <arrhenogeny>
<telygeny>).
amphoheterogony - .
, - ,
.
ampholyte - . <amphoteric
compound>.
amphoteric compound - . ,

, - (
.., ,
, - ); ..
, , ..; ..
( <isoelectric focusing>)
.
amphotropic virus - . ,
<host range>,

(. <ecotropic virus>): ..
- , ..
MLVM ( )
, MLVM - .
amplification - .
, , (
. "" )
<constitutive heterochromatin>;
. , , , , - ,
( . ); .
(,
<methotrexate>); . -
<oncogene> , , N-myc
(
);

<polymerase chain
reaction>.
amplification refractory mutation system -
.
<polymerase chain reaction>
, ,
, 3'-
, ..
, 3' .
amylases - [ 3.2.1.1 - -.; 3.2.1.2 - -.]. ,
<starch>,
<glycogen> ,
; . [ 3.2.1.3], -
-. -1,4-, -1,6 ;
<Pompe disease>.
amylum = starch (.).
amyotrophia - . H
; .
- . -- <Charcot-Marie-Tooth
amyotrophia>, . - .
anaboly - , .
- ;
. - <phylembryogenesis>.
anagenesis, successional speciation, vertical evolution - .
H (
),
.

analbuminemia - . P ,
<albumins>
.
analogous structures - . C,
() ,
(. <analogy>).
analogue - . ,
- ; .
(, <azaserine>), ( <azaguanine> .),
.
analogy - . H

,
; . -
; "." .
1843.
anaphase - . C ( )
<metaphase> <telophase>,
- ( )
; .
( ,
. II ).
anaphase aberrations - . ,
, - ""
<chromosome bridge>, <chromosome lagging>
.
anaphase lag = chromosome lagging (.).
anaphragmic mutation - . M,

.
anaphylaxis - . <allergy> ,
,
.
anareduplication - (. interreduplication).
anastomosis - . C (
), ,
. - ,
. - <hypha>.
anastral mitosis - . M,
<centrosome> <centriole> (..
<aster>): .. .
anatoxins
.

<exotoxins>,
(0,3-0,5%- ) (38-40o),
.
ancestor - . , -

<phylogeny>;
( .)
( - . ..); .
(, , - . ) .
( , -
).
ancestral - . X - <ancestor>
( ) .
ancestral karyotype - . K <karyotype>,
<ancestor> ( ) (); ..
, ..
; , e . 1953,
, .. ( ) ,
(.. ),
- , ( Odonata) .
anchor loci - . ,
( )
; ..
- 1991 ..
200 ; ..

( <microsatellites>).
anchorage-dependent cells - . ,
(
).
ancorosome - . C ,
<chromatin> ; .
.. .
ander = male (.).
Andersen disease, branching enzyme defect - , IV
, . , -1,41,6-, ;
- .
Andreas-cross figure - " ". ,
I
<chiasma terminalization>.
andro- - -. : , .
androchromatype, homeochrome - .
, (
<gynochromatype>); .
, ; .
- , Coenagrionidae.
androdioecy - , . H
() .

androdynamy - .
.
androgamon - . <gamone>,
, - ,
, ().
androgamy - . ,
.
androgen - . M ,

(
),

; . - <testosterone>;
10 ., ; .
,
, ""
..
androgen-aromatase = aromatase (.).
androgenesis, etheogenesis - . P
, , ; . (
), . (
) -
; "." . 1891.
androgynodioecy - . H
(), ()
.
androgynophore - . ,

( ).
andromerogony - . ,
.
androsteron - . M ,
<testosterone>,
.
anemia - , . C,
; . ,
, , , .
( - ,
) . (
); . (. <hemolytic
anemia>, <Addison desiase>, <megaloblastic anemia>).
anemia pernicitosa = Addison disease (.).
anemophily - , .
; . .
aneucentric [chromosome] - []. X
,
.

aneugamy - . O ,
<ploidy>,
.
aneugenicity - . <clastogenecity>,
-
.
aneuploidy - . ,
, ; .
; . <monosomy>,
<nullisomy>, <trisomy>, "" o .
<polyploidy>;
( <Robertsonian translocation> .)
. ; "." . 1922.
aneusomatic - . ,
(
"" <mosaicism>).
Angelman syndrome - .
( , .,
),
<contiguous gene syndromes>; ; .. 15q11-q13 - ..
, , -
<Prader-Willi syndrome>, ..
.
angenesis = regeneration (.).
angiogamy - . K ,
<archegonium>,
.
Angstrom unit - , (). , p 10-10
, 10-4 , -
; ..
anholocyclic - . X ,
, ,
<alteration of generation> .
anhydratic syndromes - . ,

( ), - <Vandenbosche syndrome>, <Villner syndrome>, e- <Hellweg-Larsen-Ludwigsen syndrome>, -
<Sjogren-Gougerot syndrome>, <Werner syndrome>, <Rothnund
syndrome>, - <Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome>,
<congenital diskeratosis>, .
animal pole - . O ,
.
aniridia - . ;

, . ( )
- ; . -
<contiguous gene syndromes>
WAGR <WAGR complex>,
13 11.
aniso- - -. X - -
() ..
anisoautopolyploidy - .
<autopolyploidy>,
, , .
anisocytosis - .
: ,
()

()

.
anisogamete = heterogamete (.).
anisogamy - . ,
- ( ) , ,
().
anisogenic hybrids - . ,
.
anisogeny - . P
<reciprocal crossing>,
<cytoplasmic inheritance>.
anisoploid - . O,
; . - , , ..;
. .
anisotrisomy - . <trisomy>,
"" , - ,
..
ankyrins - . ,
<spectrin>;
.,
. . .
anlage - . , .
annealing - . ()

.
annidation - . ,
,
; "." . 1948.
annual plant - , . P,
( , , )
.

annule - . P ,
<pore complex>; . , ,

.
anorthoploidy, perissoploidy - , .
(..
<anisoploid>),
, , - ;
. <hemiolodiplody>.
antagonism - . ,
, , .
antagonistic pleiotropy - .
<pleiotropy>, , , Gryllus firmus - ""
( ) ,
.
antecedation - . , ""
<plasmon> (. <recedation>); .
.
antedating = anticipation (.).
antenatal - . X ,
.
Antennapedia. C ,
<homeotic mutations>, - pb (proboscipedia ), Sxr (Sex comb reduced -
) Antp ( Antennapedia - );
. Drosophila melanogaster 100 .
antephase - . ,
, ,
.. . - S- <S period> .
anther - . O <stamen>,
,
(); .
<callus>.
antheridium - . M ,
( )
( ).
antherozoid - . A
, <antheridium>
.
anthocyans - . O ,
,
-; . - :

anti-.
O
,
:
.
antibiotic - .
, o

; .,
,
; . (
<penicillin>) . 1925, "."
. 1942.
antibiotic resistance - . O
,
- , 86%
.
antibody - . , ,
<antigen>
; . -
; . 5
<immunoglobulins> - IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE, IgD.
antibody affinity - . M
; ..

<antibody avidity>; ..
-.
antibody avidity - . M
; ..
<antibody affinity>.
antibody differential staining - []
. <chromosome
banding method>,
- ( - )
<kinetochore> (
- CREST).
anticipation, antedating - . X -

- ,
.
anticodon - . T ( ),
() <tRNA>;
. <codon>
, , ()

<wobbling hypothesis>, .
.
antienzymes - . ,
:
, . ,
-.
antifreeze protein - . ( 60%) ,
( ..)

.
antigen - . ,
,
<antibody>, .; .
<epitope>.
antigenic drift - . C ,
,
; ..
<genetic drift>.
antimitotic agent - . ,
(.. = " " <mitotic poison>).
antimorph - , . M ,
, (
) ; , .
.
antimutagen - . , , - ,
. , <repair>, ,
( . <catalase>, ),
, ( .);
( ) . .
1949.
antimutator [gene] - -. , <mutator>, .. , ;

(, 43 4).
antioncogene - . ,
: . - Rb ,
<retinoblastoma>.
antiparallel
.
X

(5' 3' 3' 5')

(-,
-,
-),

.
antipodal cells - . K,
<embryo sac> ( ;
..

300, - 20-42);
.. ,
, - .
Antirrhinum-type - Antirrhinum. O
e - ,
2n
2n-2/2n+2 (Antirrhinum - ,
); Carex (Carex - ) -
2n ;
Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum - ) - , ,
; Pinus (Pinus - ) ,
.
antisense RNA (asRNA) - ().
, ,
, .
antiserum - . C, <antibody>.
antitermination - .
()
("" ); .
.
antitermination factors - , .
C
,

<antitermination> , - , N Q .
antithelic generations - .
<alteration of generation>.
antitoxin - . A,
,
; . <immunoglobulins>
G; ()
. 1894.
antitrombin - . O ,
;
- <heparin>-
; . - , .
( ) 393-
.
antitrypsins - . ,
,
; . 1-., ( ), <multiple
alleles> (PI, Pi).
antivitamins - . ,
,

; ., ,
.
anucleate cells = enucleate cell (.).
anucleolar olistheterochromatin - .
O <olistheterochromatin>,
.
anucleolate mutation - . M,
<nucleolar organizer region>
, , ; ..
( ..
, ).
Ap-cells - Ap- (p - pale, ) (. Ad-cells).
AP-endonuclease,
correcting
endonuclease
AP-,
. <dark
repair>, - AP- <APsite>; AP-. - 3' AP-, 5'- ; ..
(, ) , ,
3'-
(, 3'- ); .. (APE)
q11.2-q12 14.
aphasic lethal factor - . ,
(.. );
...
.
apholate - . A <aziridine mutagen>, ,
, .

aplanogamete - . H : , -
.
aplasia - . - (),
- ( - );
. ( ,
) (
..).
apnea, apnoea - , .
,

, -
. (,
).
apo- - -. O , , , : ,
.
apoamphimict - . P, ,
<apomixis>
.
apoenzyme - . ,
,
.
apogamety = apogamy (.).
apogamogony = apomixis (.).
apogamy, apogamety - , .
, .. ,
( -
<embryo sac>).
apogeny - .
( ) .
apolipoproteins - .
<lipoproteids>; . , , <abetalipoprotienaemia>; ,

. ( q27 6).
apomeiosis - . C ,
""; .
<apogamy>.
apomict - . O,
<apomixis>.
apomixis, apogamogony - , . P ,
; .
<parthenogenesis>,

<apospory>,

<adventitious embryony>, <apogamy>; .


, , ,
(, .); "." . 1908.
apomorphic character - . , (
<plesiomorphic character>)
,
: ,
- .. Mammalia.
apophyte - . A ,
,
.
apoplastidity - . <plastid>
()

; . , ,
.
apoptosis - . ""
( ,
.); .
<chromosome clumping>, ,
; . .
apo-repressor - . , ,
.
aporogamy - .
( <porogamy>),
- () () -
.
apospory - .
; . -
<nucellus> ( .) ( .).
apostatic selection - .
, : ,
<mimicry> - ,
.
apothecium - .
() .
apposition - , . P
; ,
, ..;
. - (e
..).
AP-site, abasic site - AP-. ,
("AP" - "apurinic" "apyrimidinic"),
<apurinization>.
aptitude. <lysogenic
bacterium>,
.
aptogene = aptonuon (.).
aptonuon, aptogene - (. potonuon).
apurinization - .
,
AP- <AP-site>.
apyrene sperm - . C, ;
.. ,
.
aquaporins - .
, ,

. .
,
, , . .-1
( 24 ) AQP1 p15-14 7.
AQP2
, AQP0 .
aquired character - .
<Lamarckism> - ,
; ..
, -
( - );
.. ( )
.
aquired immunity - . ,
<antigen>, - ,
( ..)
( ..).
arachnodactyly = Marfan syndrome (.).
arbitrary trait model = Fisherian model (.).
Arboviruses - . (
) , , ; . -
<togaviruses>.
archallaxis - . -
,
; "." .. 1912.
archegonium - . ,
.
archesporium - . O
, .
archoplasm - . ,
<centriole> .
area - . ,
:
( - )
.
Arenaviruses - . C ;
, 85-300 , -
.
argentophilic proteins, AG proteins - , Ag-.
,
; ..
<nucleolar organizer>, , , ; .. <nucleolin>; ..
.

arginine [Arg] - []. ,


<protamines> ( 85%) <histones>; .
, <ornithine>
; , , , , , .
CH(NH2)(COOH) (CH2)3 NH CNH NH2
argininemia - . , ,
(),
, .; - ,
- ARG1 q23
6.
arginine-rich histone - . <histone>
( 20%) : H2A ( ...), H3 (
) H4 ( ).
aristogenesis - . (
<autogenesis>), ,
( " ");
. . 1931-34.
arm ratio - () . K
,
<chromosome arm>; ..
- <metacentric> ( ),
<submetacentric>, <subtelocentric>,
<acrocentric>, <telocentric>.
arms - "". ,
- <core sequence>; Tn- .
<long terminal repeats>.
aromatase, estrogen synthetase, androgen-aromatase - [
1.14.14.1]. -450 <cytochrome P-450>,
<androgens> <estrogens>
; .

; CYP19 q21.1
15.
aromatic amino acid - . A,
() , - <phenylalanine>
<tyrosine>.
aromorphosis - .
, ;
. .. 1925.
arrestin
.

<rhodopsin> ;
, ., q24-37 2.
arrhenogeny - .
.
arrhenoid - . O,

( )
<sex reversal>.
arrhenokaryon = male pronucleus (.).
arrhenotokous parthenogenesis = arrhenotoky (.).
arrhenotoky, arrhenotokous parthenogenesis - ,
. <parthenogenesis> (
. 1950 .),
, ; ..
- <haplo-diploidy>
( ) .
artifact - . O ( ),
( ),
.
artificial insemination - . ,
, :
( )
; ..
- AIH (.. )
.. - AID (c ).
artificial parthenogenesis - .
( ) -
.
artificial
population

,
() -
.
artificial selection - .
( ..) ( ..) -
, ,
; ..
(, ,
<group selection>, e <recurrent selection>, ,
<family selection> ..).
aryl esterases - (. esterases).
ascogenious hyphaeum - . ,
( "" <crozier>); ..
<plasmogamy>.
ascorbic acid, vitamin C - , . ,
L- ,
, (
..); ,
( .. ); ..
( ) . 1923-27.

ascospore - . ; .
( 8, 1 128), .
.
ascus - , . O -,
,
; . - "" (
"" - Fungi imperfecti - ).
asexual generation - . ,
() ; ..
<metagenesis>; .. .
asexual reproduction, monogenesis, monogony - .
P ,
; ..
, ; , ..
(. <alteration of
generation>).
A-site-P-site model, entry-donor site model - ---. M
<translation>,
: - , - - - <aminoacyl-tRNA>;

( )
,
.
asparagine [Asn] - []. ;
; , .
NH2 CH(COOH) CH2 CO NH2
aspartate aminotransferase - [ 2.6.1.1].
, L-
2-; . - - (AAT);
. ,
100 .
aspartic acid [Asp] - []. ,
(, ,
), ( <protamines> );
..
; , .
NH2 CH(COOH) CH3 COOH
assembly - , . (
)
16S- RI <RI particle> (1- ), RI*- <RI* particle> (2- ),
RI*- 30S; .

; .
E.coli sad- <sad mutation>; .
- ( );
. -
( ) (
..).
assembly proteins - . ,
(), .
assimilation - .
- <Meselson-Radding model>.
association,
chromosome
association

[].

- , . ,
; .
; . = chromosome pairing (.).
assortative overdominance - .
, ,

<balanced polymorphism>.
assortative mating - . C
;
.. ;
,
(..
" ").
Astaurov principle - . ,

- ( ""):
.. ,
, -
.
aster, astrosphaera, astrocentre - , . C
(" "),
<centriole>
<mitotic apparatus>.
astogeny - . ,
, , .
astrocentre = aster (.).
astrosphaera = aster (.).
asymmetric bivalent - . ,
,
, <pericentric
inversion>.
asymmetric chromosome rearrangements (mutations) -
. ,

"" .
asymmetric dyad - . ,
(. <first division restitution>),
I : .. (
) .
asymmetric hybrid - . ,
() , - ,
<protoplast> ""; ,

..

e,

( - )
.
asymmetrical sexual selection - .
() <sexual isolation>,
<Kaneshiro's hypothesis>.
asymmetrical translocation - . T,
,
, .
asymmetry - . <symmetry
ratio>, - ; .
, , - , ;
. - <Astaurov principle>.
asynapsis, asyndesis - , . O
, ;
. - ,
<aneuploidy>; "." . 1931,
"" .. 1935.
asynchronous replication - .
S- , , - , ..
q11.2 15,
- <Prader-Willi syndrome>; ..
<methylation> ,
.
asyndesis = asynapsis (.).
asyngamy - . .
A+T to G+C ratio - /-.
,
; (/ / >50%)
- .
A+T pressure - [].
( ) - ,
( 90% )
""
.
ataktogamy - . H ,

; . .
atavism - . ,
, , ""
.
ataxia-teleangiectasia, Louis-Bar syndrome - -,
-. , (
), ,
( ),
.; "
" -
,
<repair>; - , ATLB
q23 11.
atebrin = quinacrine (.).
ateleosis = pituitary dwarfism (.).
atelomitic chromosome - .
; ".." .
atokous = sterile (.).
atractoplasm - . ,
; .
<phragmoplast>, - .
atransferrinemia - . ,
<anemia>,
<transferrin> .
atresia - .
.
atrichia - . O ,
, - , .
- ( ).
attached-X (compound-X) chromosome - () -,
- . K - (
),
<isochromosome> - ; .-.
. 1922 ;
.-. .
attached XY - XY-. ,
: Y- (YL)
-, (YS) - YL.
attachment point - ().
,
.
attachment site, att-site - , att-.
, ; E.coli ..
gal bio (

<transduction>).
attenuation - . ,
; .
- <attenuator>.
attenuator - . , , trpO trpE E.coli .,

trp-.
att-site = attachment site (.).
Auberger blood groups - . C ,
, Au;
. . 1961.
Australian blowfly - . 1 (Lucilia cuprina).
autarchic genes - . ,
,
.
auto- - -, -. O "", "" (
"-"): , .
autoapomorphic character - .
<plesiomorphic character>, , - ,
- .. "" (
- ).
autoallopolyploid - . A ,
(AABB
AAAABB): . 6.
autobivalent - . ,
( ),
; , .
<chiasma>; . , .
autocatalysis - , .
; .
<trypsin> -
; . ""
, - , ..
( <rybozyme>), ,
, .
autochton = aboriginal (.).
autodeme - . ( <deme>),
<autogamy>.
autogamy, self-fertilization - , .
,
( ),
; . - ,
, ( <self-pollination>).

autogenesis - . ,
,
, ;
. <Lamarckism> .
autogenous control - .
, - , AraC (
E.coli) AraC.
autoimmune disease - () .
,
.
autoimmunity - .
;
- ,
<hemolytic anemia>.
automimicry - .
; . , , , ,
, ,
,
.
automutagen - . ,
.
autonomous elements - . (
<controlling elements>),
, ;
.. - Ac - <activator-dissociation
system> .
autonomous splicing - . H
<splicing> ,
(); ,
( )
..
autonomous state - . H <episome>.
auto-orientation - . O
,
.
autoparasitism - . ,
, - ,
Encarsia pergandiella
( ) , (
) - .
autophene - . H ,
; <grafting>

<allophene>.
autoplast - . ,
: .,
. 1890,
.
autopoiesis - .
:
, ., .
autopolyploid - . O
,
; - (
),
<allopolyploidy>.
autoradiograph = radioautograph (.).
autoradiographic efficiency = radioautographic efficiency (.).
autoradiography, radioautography - , . M

; .
. 1904.
autosegregation - . ,
(, ..),
.
autosexing - , .
( )

, - p, , ..
autosexing lines - . ,
<autosexing>.
autosomal dosage compensation - [].
C
"" (,
..); ... (
- <dosage compensation>) ;
... 1982 21ABC
Drosophila melanogaster.
autosomal inheritance - . H (
) - .
autosome, euchromosome - , . ,
(
"." ); "." .
1904, "" - .- 1916 .
autosynapsis, autosyndesis - , . K
,
, .. "" (
).

autosyndesis = autosynapsis (.).


autotetraploid - .
.
autotroph - . O,
; .
( , ,
) ( ).
autozygote - . O, ,
(..
).
auxanography - . ,
(
<auxotrophs>); . ,
,
..
auxin - . , <indole>,
; . -
<indole acetic acid>.
auxocyte, gonotokont - , . ,
, .. . -
, - .
auxotrophic (nutrient requiring) mutation - .
, -
<auxotrophs>.
auxotrophs - . O ( ),
-
(, ..), .
<minimal medium>; . .
. 1946.
average heterozygosity (H) - . K
,
(, ); .. ,
,

().
avuncular hybridization - .
,
(. <collateral hybridization>).
axenic growth - . P -
; , .. .
axolotl - . 1.
axon - , . ,
( 1 ); . - , - .
axoneme - , .
<flagellum>, , 9 ,
, . 2 (

9+2), 1, 3 .
5-azacytidine - 5-. ,

; 5-.
<methylation>,
1, 9, 15, 16 Y .
8-azaguanidine
8-.
A
,

, -
.

azaserine - . A,
; Streptomyces fragilis.

azauracil - . A <uracil>,
(
) .

aziridine mutagens - .
<alkylating agent>, .

azoospermia - . O ;
( ) . (
).
Azure B - -. O ,
- ;
.

azygote - , . C,
; .
.
azygous - . X
, .. <parthenogenesis>.

B
B chromosome, supernumerary (accessory) chromosome - -,
. X,
; -.
( ) , ( 1
); -. <heterochromatin> (
- , - ) ,
"" - , -.
;
, (
, , ); . <isochromosomes>; -.
- <fragmentation>, ""
..;
"supernumerary..." . 1907, "accessory..." - .-
1902, "-." - . 1928.
B form - - [].
, (>92%)
; ,
-. ( 80- . ,
Z- <Z form>); 1 - 10,
3,38 ,
- 36o, - 19 ,
2'-, .
B-A translocations - -.
(-) -,
1978 ; ,
( ) ,
.
bacitracin - . , Bacillus
licheniformis - -
.
back ground radiation - .
<ionizing radiation>,

, , , .
back (reverse) mutation - . M,
,
: (.. ,
) .. (
); ..
.
back segment break - .
""

" " <sign inversion>,


-.
backcross - .
; "backcross" - , .. ,
.. ().
backcross mapping - [] .
,
,
<restriction fragment length
polymorphism>;
- (Mus musculus M.spretus) M.musculus,
( 1992) 700 .
backstitching mechanism - " ".
<lagging strand> "" (5' 3')
<Okazaki fragments>.
bacterial virus = bacteriophage (.).
bacteriochlorophyll - , .
T , ; .. <chlorophyll> : 4 .x. - a, b, c, d.
bacteriocins - . C ,

, - ,
<colicine>, E.coli.
bacteriocytes - . ,
<endosymbiotic
bacteria>, - , .
bacteriophage, phage, bacterial virus - , . ;
. 2 ; .
. 1915, "." .' 1917;
. - P1, P2, P4, , Mu-1, N4, X174, X80, R17, T1-T7 (E.coli); P22
(Salmonella typhimurium), (Corynebacterium diphteriaea), SP82, 29 (Bacillus
subtilis).
bacteriostatic agent - . ,
() , .
bacteroid - . ( Rhizobium),
,
, , .
Baculoviruses - . , ,
, -
, (),
(,
) - ; . .

balanced hypothesis - [ ]. T,

, .. ; .. . 1911-15.
balanced lethal system - x . O
,
,
; ... -
( ), .
balanced polymorphism, morphism - ,
.
O

<polymorphism>,
.
balanced stock - . , ,
,
; , ,
.
balanced type - . ,
(3n,
4n ..); 2n+1 2n-1 .. ;
, .. = , = e.
Balbiani chromosomes - .
<polytene chromosomes>, ..
. 1881 Chironomus.
Balbiani ring - . K <puff>
; .. , , 75S; .. Chironomus tentans
4.
baldness - , . ,
() : , .
- -
- .
Baldwin effect - .
()
,
.
ball and cup structure of kinetochore - " ".
<kinetochore>,
("") 1,5 ,
, ""
0,8 , , -,
"";
.
ball metaphase - . M ,

c- <C mitosis>,
:
.
Bam island - Bam-. <spacer>
300 ,
; B.-o.
, ; ".-."
, BamHI.
bamboo hair = Netherton syndrome (.).
band, disc, disk - , . ,

<polytene chromosomes> ,
;
, "."
()
<chromosome banding methods>, ,
<electrophoresis>.
banding = chromosome banding method (.).
banding patterns of chromosomes - () .
K
,
<chromosome banding method>.
Bar. C ,
16 -,

; ar .
<position effect>.
Barr body = sex chromatin (.).
barrage - . ,

(, Podospora anserina S s);
. - .
Barth syndrome - . ,
; ,
.. q28 -.
basal (repressed) level of expression - o ()
. O ,
, - , E.coli
70- ..., <lactose
operon> - 1000-.
base analogue - . ,
, - ,
<aminopurine>, <azaguanine>, <azauracil>,
<mercaptopurine>); ..
.

base composition - , .
.
base pair - ().
: ..
- - - (
/- - -); .. -
, , , .
base pair substitution - . ,

; ... <transition>
<transversion>.
base pairing - . C
(-, -,
-) .
base replicon - . M <plasmid>,
, ..
, ,
.
base sequence - .
.
base substitution - . T :
, <base pair
substitution>.
base-pair rule - .
- - - - - .
base-stacking - , . ,
.
base-substitution intermediate model - "" .
K " " <frameshift
mutation>:
.
basic dye - . K,
: .. <azur B>,
<toludine blue>, .
basic number, x - []. H
; .. -
( ..
), - , (, ) ..
x=7; ..
basidiospore - . C,
<ascospore>
; . <mycelium>.
basidium - . <ascus>
() ,

; . ,
2-4 .
basigamy = chalasogamy (.).
basophily - . C
(p B <azure B> .)
( ).
bathmogenesis - . <Lamarckism>
,
; . .
1871.
battery - .
- <Britten-Davidson model> - ,
, -.
B-chromosome-pioneered cytomixis - "-" .
<cytomixis>, -
"" <B chromosome>; ".-.".
Papaver somniferum.
beads-on-a-string - "--" (. superbeads).
Beckwitt-Wiedemann syndrome - -.
<contiguous gene syndromes>,
,
- , ;
- , BWS p15
11.
Becquerel - . E (
), 1 . .
bee dance - .
Apis mellifera,
.
behavioral isolation = sexual isolation (.).
Belling's hypothesis - , .
,
,


; .. . 1931,
.
Bence-Jones protein - -. ,
( ..);
..-. <immunoglobulins> (
); .- 1848.
benign neoplasm - (. neoplasm).
Bennett's model - .
,

,
"
"; . 1981-82; 80- .
.
benz[a]pyrene - []. O
, <adduct> ;
.
; .
1933.

6-benzylaminopurine - 6-. C 6 <aminopurine>, <cytokinins>,


; 6-.
<callus>.

Bergmann's rule - .
-
( )
.
Berk-Shurp method - -, , S1. M
( ), , S1
(
): ,
S1 /-
, <exon> .
Bernard-Soulier syndrome, giant platalet syndrome - -,
.
<platelet> , ,

), ; GP1BA
pter-p12 17. ..-.
GP Ib-IX-V.
- . 2000 .
21 ..-., 14
GP Ib, 5 GP IX
GP Ib.

Best disease - . ,
( ),
. ;
- , , ..,
11.
beta chain - -. O ,
<hemoglobin>, ; .. 146 .
beta-galactosidase
-.
,

<lactose> ; .-.
, ..
() .
beta rays - a-. ( )
,
.
bi- - -. O ( -) , : ..
bi-armed chromosome - . X

<submetacentric>

<metacentric>; ..
<subtelocentric> .
bicaudal. M Drosophila melanogaster, :
( )
,
.
bidirectional genes - .
<overlapping genes> -
.
bidirectional replication - . O
,
<replication fork>.
biennial plant - , . P,
, - ,
; o ..
;
.. - Daucus sativus.
bifunctional plasmid, bifunctional ("shuttle", dual-purpose) vector

().
M
,

, - , E.coli
; ..
.
bifunctional vector = bifunctional plasmid (.).
bilateral athetosis - . ,
( );
- ,

- <rhesus factor> .
bilirubin - . T - ,
<hemoglobin>, .
; . ;
. - <Crigler-Najjar syndrome>.
bimodal karyotype - . K,
("" "") - ,
, ; -
<microchromosomes> ( , .)
".." .
bimodal population - . ( ),
.
binary fission - . A (),

.
bioantimutagens - . O
, <desmutagens>
; "." .
. 1981.
bioassay - . - (
, , ..)
-
( ) .
biochemical genetics - . P ,

; ..
.
biochemical mutation - . M,
() - ;
<auxotrophs>.
biocoenosis - . , ,
, ;
() ( ) .;
"." . 1877.
biocytin - . C, <biotin>,
- .
biogram - . (
), ; ,
. ,
( ,
, , , ,
.).
biological containment - "".
<genetic engineering>, ""

,
<vector> -,

.
biological rad equivalent - , . E
,
, 1
-.
biometrical genetics - . ,
; ..
.
biont - . O ,
: "." - ,
..
biopoesis = spontaneous generation (.).
biopsy - . .
biosome - . C ,

; .
.
biosynthesis - . O
()
.
biotechnology - . ,
:
. , , , ,
, <monoclonal antibody>
<hybridoma>, .;
. <genetic
engineering>.
biotic environment - . C ,
.
biotic (reproductive) potencial - () .
(
, ) ,
.
biotin, vitamin H - , . ,
( D-), .

biotinylated DNA - . M ,

<biotin> ;
. in situ <in situ hybridization>

<streptavidin>
; . .
. 1981.
biotype, elementary species - , , .
C (),
; . ,
() ; "."
. 1905, "" - . , "
" - . 1918.
Birnboim-Doly method - -. M
( ),

, H
.
birth rate - . K
( )
, (
, 1000 ..).
bisection [of embryo] - []. 80- .
,
( ),
, ,
,
( ..).
bisexual (hermaphrodite) flower - . ()
().
bisexual potency - .

.
bisexual reproduction - () . P
( )
() <parthenogenesis>.
bisexuality - . , ;
, (. <hermaphroditism>).
biterminal pairing - . (
<synaptonemal complex>)
(- ) ,

() -
( , monoterminal pairing).
Bithorax. 89 Drosophila
melanogaster: Bithorax

,
<homeotic mutations> -
.
bivalent
.

() I ; .
, - , .
( ) - <chiasma>; "."
. 1892.
bivalent dissociation - . O
-
I .
bivariate flow karyotyping - .
<chromosome sorting>,

( - 33258 3)
:
, , ,
.
bivoltine - . X ,
(),
( ) .
Bkm sequences - Bkm-. ,
;
W- Bungarus
fasciatus (, ) , , W-
.
bladder germ = blastula (.).
blastema - . C ()
, , - ;
. .
blastodisc - . C ,
.
blastogenesis - .
, . -
().
blastokinin = uteroglobin (.).
blastomeres - . ,
<cleavage> ; . ,
.
blastula, vesicular (bladder) germ - .
, ; .
,
.
blending inheritance - (-, )
.

; " "
, .. ,
-
"" .
bleomycin - . ,
Streptomyces verticillis,
, , <radiomimetics>,
SOS- <SOS-response>.
blepharoplast - .
; .
<centriole>.
blood clotting (coagulation) - .
; .. -
, 10
;
..
- <afibrinogenemia>, <parahemophilia> .
blood coagulation = blood clotting (.).
blood group chimaerism - .
e <dizygotic twins> ,

.
blood group incompatibility - .
,
.
blood groups - . ,
,
;
.. (c. ABO, Bombay, Duffy, Dombrock, Kell, Kidd, Lewis,
Auberger, Lutheran, M-N, P blood groups); .. -
( ); ..
. 1900.
blood plasma - . , 90% , 7-8%
, 1,1% . 0,9% .
blood serum - . (
) , ,
.
Bloom syndrome - . ,
(), ,
, ,
<pulverization> ; .. <chromosome fragility>;
- .
blotting - . H ,
(, ) -

( , ..);
. - (, - <Southern blotting>),
- ,
,
<electrophoresis>.
blunt (flush) ends - . K ,
(..
"" - " " <cohesive ends>).
blunt-end ligation - () . :

- 4, ; (
<staggered cuts method>) -

("") .
B-lymphocytes - -. , ,
-.
.
bobbed. P ,
;
bobbed - Drosophila melanogaster,
-, Y-; bobbed
<nucleolar organizer>.
bodyguard hypothesis - "". ,
<constitutive heterochromatin>
(.. ),
; ."."
. 1975.
Bombay blood groups - . P
, 0- (
h/h - H <H substance>
).
bombyxins - . ,
Bombyx mori ;
30 , . ( 4
), <insulin> ,
. <prothoracicotropic
hormone>.
borate G-banding - G-. O
:
10-30 . (=9,2; 50 mM Na2SO2 + 2,5 mM Na2B4O7)
- ; ,
.G-., , G <G-banding> ( ).
border cell - . O ,

<micropyle> .
bottleneck effect - " ".
( <gene drift>) ,
.
bottom crossing - -. C ()
().
bottom recessive - -, . O,
.
bouquet stage - "", "", . I
,
,
".".
brachymeiosis - . A ,
II .
brachyptery - . K,
( - ) ;
,
( Calathus .)
, .
.
brachyury - . M :
( - Orl, - .,
17).
bradytely - . M ,
, ,
( - 400 . )
.
branch migration - .
- , ; .. -
<Meselson-Radding model> <Holliday model>.
branched chromosome - "" .
, -
"" .
branching enzyme defect = Andersen disease (.).
Brattleboro rats - .
, ,
e <diabetes insipidus> ( , 10
);
" " <frameshift mutation> (
- ).
BrdU = 5-Bromodeoxyuridine (.).
break resealing on front side - .
" " <sign inversion model>

-.
breakage-reunion hypothesis - "-". M
<crossing-over>, ,
, ;
(
<exchange hypothesis>,
);
"-"
.
breakthrough, escaper. ,
( ) (),
.
breed - . ,
(.)
- ,
; () .,
,
() .,
; .
. ...
breathing - " ".
,
("" <bubbles>).
breeder' stock = breeding stock (.).
breeding, crossing - .
, ,
() ( ., . .): .
.
breeding size. ,
.
breeding (breeder's) stock, broodstock - ,
. ( - , , ,
),
; ..

, ,
.
breeding system = mating system (.).
bridge = chromosome bridge (.).
bridge corpuscule = desmosome (.).
Bridges' map - .
<polytene chromosomes> Drosophila melanogaster -
( 2- 3- -)
5000 , 100 ,
(

<dublets>) -
, ;
. 1935.
brilliant green - . K,
, <gram-positive bacteria> .

bristle mutations - . O
( 100),

.
Britten-Davidson's hypothesis - -. ,
<heterogenous nuclear RNA>

,
<Georgiev's hypothesis>; . .
1969.
Britten-Davidson's model - -. M
,
- (,
, ); ..-.
,
-
.
5-bromodeoxyuridine, BrdU - 5-. ,
;
5-
, ,
, ,
(. <sister chromatid
exchange>); 5-
S- ; 5-
.

5-bromouracil - 5-. ,

; 5-. . . 1955
.

broodstock = breeding stock (.).


brother-sister mating = sib mating (.).
brood - . ,
;
"brood" ., , , , ..
Bryonia-type - Bryonia. .
: 1) .. (Bryonia - ,
) ,
, ; 2)
Protenor - ,
/0; 3) Lygaeus (Lygaeus - -) -
/Y;
.
"bubble" - "", "". (),
<replication fork>
, ,
;
"."
.
buckle quadrivalent - "" . ,

,
; ".". <reciprocal
translocation>.
bud mutation, sport - . C ,
,
(, -
<mericlinal chimaera>, <periclinal chimaera>, ); ..

.
budding - . -
(), ;
. e , , , ,
, , ; . ( ; -
- , )
( ); . ,
( , ..).

buffer - , . P,
( - ) ; .
,
; .,
: -. <Tris buffer>,
. (pH=6,8: 4,05 KH2PO4 4,25 Na2HPO4 1 ;
pH
), . - (pH=7,0: 0,63 , 6,19
Na2HPO4 0,5 ); . (pH=6,5: 5,6 KH2PO4 2,64 Na2HPO4
1 ; pH=6,8: 6,74 KH2PO4 7,08 Na2HPO4 1 ); . (pH=8,59,0: 0,2 CaCl2, 0,4 KCl, 0,2 MgSO4 7H20, 6,8 NaCl, 2,2 NaHCO3, 0,14
NaH2PO H2O 1 ).
4
bulk method - "Akarp". O
-
(
), 6-
.
Buniaviruses
.
C

<arboviruses>; 90-100 , ,
- .
buoyant density - . ,
, ,

(,
<cesium chloride equilibrium density gradient centrifugation>); ..
- c,
.., .
burdo, burdon - . O,
;
1912 . () Lycopersicon esculentum Solanum
nigrum.
Burkitt lymphoma - . ,
- <Epstein-Barr virus>;
.. . 1958.
burst size - . ,
-
,
.
busulfan - . A <alkylating agent>.

C
. C .
C = constant part (.).
1, 2, 3. O ,
<colchiploid>.
C bivalent - -. - <C meiosis>.
C form - - [].
, 66%
; 1 - 9,1/3,
- 3,32 , - 38,6o,
- 19 .
C meiosis - -, -. M,
<colchicine> ( )
; , -.
II .
C mitosis - -, -. M, ( )
(,
<acetylated tubulin>)
;
( -.)
,
.
C pair - -. - <C mitosis>,

.
C value paradox - .
( )
- , 2-3 ,
- 100 ;
,
, ,
.
CAAT box - . (
) , (
<Hogness box>) <promoter>;
[-75] ( 75 ) ,
, - I
.
caffeine - . , <purine>, ,
, ,
,
, <cyclic

AMP>;
<repair>.
calciferol, vitamin D - , D. ,
, .
<rickets>; .
( D2) ( D3).
calcitonin - , . ,
,
; . - , 32
; . <calcitonin gene> ,
.
calcitonin gene - . , <calcitonin> CGRP (calcitonin gene-related product),
: ( )
128 , 78,
<alternative splicing>.
calico cat = tortoiseshell cat (.).
callus - . ,

() in vitro <auxin>; .
,
.
calmodulin - . ,
, , ,
<glycogen> ,
; .

( . 16,7 ).
caltractin = centrin (.).
calyculin A - . ,
Discodermia calyx, ,
( ),

( ).
calymma = chromosome matrix (.).
cAMP = cyclic AMP (.).
Campbells model - . ,
E.coli:
, att- <attachment
site> - .
camptothecin - . ,
Camptotheca acuminata ( Nyssaceae), :
,

; .
- I <DNA topoisomerase> ,


.
<apoptosis>.
canalization, homeorhesis - , , .
C


; .
- , .
<karyotype ortoselection>.
canalized character - . ,
,
.
Cana-Van disease - , . ,
,
, N , ;
- .
cancer - . , -
; . - ,
() ; . -
();
. <oncogene>,
. ;
() . . 1936, . ...
candidate gene - -. ,
( )
.
canonical sequence - () .
A ,
; .. - ()
, (
),

.
Canton S. ( Oregon R) Drosophila
melanogaster, , -
, .
CAP = catabolite activator protein (.).
cap, methylated cap - , . M
7 ( - 2-) ()
5- ; .
( <methylation>
-7-); . ( 3 <poly(A)-tail>)
.

capacitation - . K ,
;
, .
, <acrosome>.
capillary blotting - . blotting.
capon - . (Gallus domesticus), <castration>.
capsid - . ; .,
,
.
capsomere - .
; . <capsid> .
3-carbon atom end - 3-. K ,
OH-
.
5-carbon atom end - 5-. K ,
-
; 5-.
<replication>, <transcription> <repair>.
carbonic anhydrase - [ 4.2.1.1]. M (
),
; .
<osteopetrosis> .
carboxyl esterase - [ 3.1.1.1].
<esterases>,
,
, ; - ,
(e) 6
164 .
carboxyl terminus, C-terminus - , -. K
, -
.
carboxypeptidases - . ,
-

; .- .-, .
carcinogen - . X ,
.
carcinoma - . O ,
.;
. - .
, .
Carex-type - . Antirrhinum-type.
Carini syndrome = alligator boy (.).
carmine - . , -

Coccus cacti; . - .,
-. <acetocarmine> .
carnosine - . (-),
.
carotenoids - . ,
,
; . , .
carrier - [ ]. ,
; . - , -

<ligand>,
,

, <hapten> ..
carrying capacity - . ( ) ,

.
Carter effect - . H ( <proband>)
-
, , ..
<liability>
<threshold> ; ..
( ,
) . 1976.
caryonide - . , <macronucleus>
e; .
.
cascade mutagenesis - .
, (
) (),
-
() ; ..
.. 1972 . .
caseins - . (
),

( ) 80% ;
, (7%), (12%),
(7%); ( , , )
. - s1-, s2-, - ,
; -.
,
.
cassette - . , ,
: -
<cassette model> .
cassette model - [
]. M (..

-, a-): ()
(a) (HML- HMR-a) ; HML-- HMR-a- ( )
<transposable element> ,
.
caste - . o
(. , ,
..).
castration, gelding - . H
, , ,
, ..; .
(, ..).
catabolism, dissimilation - , . C
,
; . - ,
.
catabolite activator protein, CAP - - .
, ;
, <promoter>,
, - , lac- <lactose operon> E.coli.
catabolite repression - , .
,
, ..
(, , ..)
.
catalase - [ 1.11.1.6]. ,

<peroxisome>.
catalase reactivation - .
()
<catalase> ( ), ..
.
CAT-assay - CAT-.
<promoter>
(CAT)
, CAT
.
catastrophism - , . K ,

;

(); .
. . XIX .
catenation - . C I

<reciprocal translocation>; . -
.
cathepsins - [ 3.4.22-23...].
, <lysosome>
; .
1 (.), 8 (.), 9 (.L), 11 (.D), 14 (.G), 15 (.).
cats cry syndrome, cri du cat syndrome, Lejeune syndrome -
, . ,
5, ()
; CECR
22 (pter-q11);
- , , ....
Cattanachs translocation - . 7 ( - - )
;
( , )
- (
) - <inactivation center>.
cauliflower mosaic virus - . ,
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis
,

-;

....
, 8
, .... - <vector>
.
C-banding - -. M
<chromosome banding methods>, 5%-
() ,
(2 SSC) 60o (2-5 .)
; -.
<constitutive heterochromatin>.
CBG-banding - CBG-. - <Cbanding> ( - CBG-. ),
.
CCC = covalently closed circle (.).
Cd-banding - Cd-. G- <G-banding>,
, ,
, - ,
; Cd-. .
1974.
cDNA = complementary DNA (.).
cecidium = gall (.).
cell - . O -
( ); .
() ( ),
( ) ,

; . , , ;
. (
), (
); .
; .
.
cell constriction - .
; .. =
.
cell culture - . <tissue culture>,
in vitro ( ),
, - (, ,
, ..).
cell cycle - .
, ( G1 <G1period>, S <S period>, G2 <G2-period>) <mitosis> ( ),
G0 ( ); ..
.
cell death genes - . ,

( - ):
... Caenorhabditis elegans -
ced-3 ced-4 , ced-1 ced-2
, nuc-1 .
cell division - . () ,
( ) <mitosis>.
cell division lag - .
,
; ...
() <phenotypic lag>.
cell engineering - . K
, in vitro,
<cell hybridization> ,
;
.. - <protoplast>.
cell fusion - .
( - )
(, <Sendai
virus>), ( .) ;
.. .
cell hybridization - .
<cell fusion>
; ..
, -
..


( ) (. <radiation hybrid
mapping>).
cell lethal - . ,


.
cell line (strain) - . ,
() .
cell lineage - . C -
;
, ..
, Caenorhabditis elegans,
816 ( 302 - ).
cell lineage mutations - . O ,
: ,
( , ), ,
,
<homeotic mutations>.
cell membrane, plasmalemma, cytolemma - ()
, . M ,
( ) <cell wall>; ..
, 7-10 , ,
.. .
cell organ = organelle (.).
cell plate - . ,
,
, .. . <phragmoplast>.
cell population - . -
( ); ..,

; ..
<mosaicism>.
cell (intrasomatic) selection - () .
,
,
( <genetic homeostasis>) ;
.. (.., 1976);
( )
.
cell strain = cell line (.).
cell synchronization - . M
,
(

..); .. <methotrexate>
,
, .
cell theory - . O ,
;
.. . (1838) . (1839).
cell wall, cytoderm - ().
,
, <Goldgi
apparatus>; ( ) .. ( ,
); ..

.
cell-free extract - . ,
, -
; ..
<buoyant density>
.
cell-free transcription = in vitro transcription (.).
cell-free translation = in vitro translation (.).
cellulose - , . O
( ); .
-D-
.
CEN. O
(CEN3 - 3); , CEN
.
CENP-A, centromere-specific histone. ,

- CENP-B, CENP-C, CENP-D;
CENP-A <histones>,
; CENP-A ,
, <protamines>;
CENP-A 17-19 .
center of origin - . P ,
;
, .. -
() ,
..
- , ;
.. -
...
centiMorganide - . Morganide.
central dogma - . O :
(

<transcription>), () ( <translation>); ..
1958 .,
;
(- ).
central domain - . domains of 16S rRNA.
central element - . O
<synaptonemal compex>,
, a <lateral elements>
, .. 15-20 .
central fusion = Robertsonian translocation (.).
central region - .
<composite element>,
; .. -
<synaptonemal complex>,
<lateral elements>
, ; .. 90-120 , 1,0-1,8 .
centric fission = centromere repulsion (.).
centrifugal selection - . ,

<centripetal
selection>,

; ..
.
centrin, caltractin - .
( <troponin> , <calmodulin>
.); . -
, , ,
<centriole>.
centriole - . K ,
; .
<mitotic apparatus> ( ,
<imaginal disc> .,
<pericentriolar substance>,
, );
. ,
.
centripetal selection - .
,
(
<norm reaction>, ),
- ; , ..
,
.
centrodesmose - . <centrosome> -

, .
centrolecithal egg - . ,

() .
centromere - . ,

,
;

();

<holocentric
chromosome> . ( .);
. <kinetochore>,
.
centromere distance - .
<centromere>,
.
centromere interference - . ,
(
<interference> ).
centromere misdivision - .
,
<isochromosomes>.
centromere polarization - .
.
centromere repulsion, centric fission - . X
I
, , ,
<chiasma terminalization>.
centromere separation sequence - .

: - ,
18, 2, , 12, 4, 5 17, 1, 11, 16 Y; ...
, ,
18 <Edwards syndrome>.
centromere shift - .
( )
; .. -
, ..
centromere-specific histone = CENP-A (.).
centromeric filament - . ,

I ; ..
1991, - , ;
, ..
<lateral elements> <synaptonemal complex>.

centrophilin - . ( 1991),

<microtubule organizing center>,
<centrosome>; , .
;
. 210 .
centrosome, spindle-fiber locus - .
( <centriole>
<pericentriolar substance>),
<mitotic apparatus>;
. - .
,
<aster> (.. ),
; . , (
) ; .
.
centrosphere - . C, <centrosome>
( ) ,
.
CEPH (Centre dEtude de Polymorphisme Humain).
, (: rue J.Dodu 27, F-75010
Paris), ,
- -
- ,
,
, .
cercidium = mycelium (.).
certation - .

.
certational crossing - . ,
, F1
- ( <equational crossing>).
ceruloplasmin - , 2-. -
: , 95% .; . , 18 ; ,
., q21-q25 3 9
.
cesium 137, 137Cs - -137. P
30 , .
cesium
chloride
equilibrium
density
gradient
centrifugation

.
M
<density gradient centrifugation>,
(
),


;
,
<buoyant density>,
(r) 2080% -: r = 1,66+0,098(-).
CFTR = cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (.).
chain reaction - . ( ) , ,
( ) ,
() ;
..
( <tricarboxylic acid cycle> .).
chain-initiating codon = initiator codon (.).
chain-terminating mutation - . M,

: .. - <nonsense
mutation>.
chalasogamy, basigamy - .
<pollen tube> ( ,
<micropyle>).
challenge dose - . adaptive response.
change of (reversal of, shifting) dominance - ,
. (
)
; .. - ,
.
chaperones, molecular chaperones - . ,
(
chaperon - , ),
. . <heat shock proteins>,
. , DnaJ E.coli,
,
.
character, characteristic, trait, feature - . ,
; .;
- ( , .)
. ( ..); .
<phene>,
( .).
character displacement - .

,
,

.
character dissolution - .
: .. I .
. -
.
character pair - . ,
, .
characteristic = character (.).
Charcot-Leyden protein - -. ,
( ), 710% ,
, . ,
(, .); CLC
19 ; ..-. 1853.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease - --, -, . ,
<amyotrophia>,

; - ( - ) ,
- 1A 11.2 17, CMT1B -
1, - - (q11-q13).
Chargaffs rule - .
:
, ,
; .., 1950,
- <Watson-Crick model>.
charged tRNA = aminoacylated transfer RNA (.).
chasmogamy - . O ,
, .
.
check cross - . C
, , - ,
,
, ; ..
<test cross>.
Chediak-Higashi syndrome - -. ,
<lysosome> ,
, ..;
- ,
, , , , , ,
.
chemical cleavage of mismatch - [ ]

.
,
-

(mismatch);

(,
),

;
; .... .
. 1988.
chemical complexity - []. C
<genome complexity>,
; .. <kinetic complexity>
,
() .
chemical elements - :
Ac (actinium) - ( 89; 227,03),
Ag (silver) - (47; 107,87),
Al (aluminium) - (13; 26,98),
Am (americium) - (95; 243,06),
Ar (argon) - (18; 39,94),
As (arsenic) - (33; 74,92),
At (astatine) - (85; 209,99),
Au (gold) - (79; 196,97),
B (boron) - (5; 10,81),
Ba (barium) - (56; 137,33),
Be (beryllium) - (4; 9,01),
Bi (bismuth) - (83; 208,98),
Bk (berkelium) - (97; 247,07),
Br (bromine) - (35; 79,90),
C (carbon) - (6; 12,01),
Ca (calcium) - (20; 40,08),
Cd (cadmium) - - (48; 112,41),
Ce (cerium) - (58; 140,12),
Cf (californium) - (98; 242,06),
Cl (chlorine) - (17; 35,45),
Cm (curium) - (96; 247,07),
Co (cobalt) - (27; 58,93),
Cr (chromium) - (24; 52,00),
Cs (cesium) - (55; 132,91),
Cu (copper) - (29; 63,55),
Dy (dysprosium) - (66; 162,50),

Er (erbium) - (68; 167,26),


Es (einsteinium) - (99; 252,08),
Eu (europium) - (63; 151,97),
F (fluorine) - (9; 19,00),
Fe (iron) - (26; 55,85),
Fm (fermium) - (100; 157,10),
Fr (francium) - (87; 223,02),
Ga (gallium) - (31; 69,72),
Gd (gadolinium) - (64; 157,25),
Ge (germanium) - (32; 72,61),
H (hydrogen) - (1; 1,00794),
He (helium) - (2; 4,00),
Hf (hafnium) - (72; 178,49),
Hg (mercury) - (80; 200,59),
Ho (holmium) - (67; 164,93),
I (iodine) - (53; 126,90),
In (indium) - (49; 114,82),
Ir (iridium) - (77; 192,22),
K (potassium) - (19; 39,10),
Kr (krypton) - (36; 83,80),
Ku (kurchatovium) - (104; 261,11),
La (lanthanum) - (57; 138,91),
Li (lithium) - (3; 6,94),
Lr (lawrencium) - (103; 260,11),
Lu (lutetium) - (71; 174,97),
Md (mendelevium) - (101; 258,10),
Mg (magnesium) - (12; 24,31),
Mn (manganese) - (25; 54,94),
Mo (molybdenum) - (42; 95,94),
N (nitrogen) - (7; 14,01),
Na (sodium) - a (11; 22,99),
Nb (niobium) - (41; 92,91),
Nd ( neodymium) - (60; 144,24),
Ne (neon) - (10; 20,18),
Ni (nickel) - - (28; 58,69),
No (nobelium) - (102; 259,10),
Np (neptunium) - (93; 237,05),
Ns (nilsborium) - (105; 262,11),
O (oxygen) - (8; 16,00),
Os (osmium) - (78; 190,2),
P (phosphorus) - (15; 30,97),

Pa (protactinium) - (91; 231,04),


Pb (lead) - (82; 207,2),
Pd (palladium) - (46; 106,42),
Pm (promethium) - (61; 144,91),
Po (polonium) - (84; 208,98),
Pr (praseodynium) - (59; 140,91),
Pt (platinum) - (78; 195,08),
Pu (plutonium) - (94; 244,06),
Ra (radium) - (88; 226,03),
Rb (rubidium) - (37; 85,47),
Re (rhenium) - (75; 186,21),
Rh (rhodium) - (45; 102,91),
Rn (radon) - a (86; 222,02),
Ru (ruthenium)- (44; 101,07),
S (sulfur) - (16; 32,07),
Sb (antimony) - (51; 121,75),
Sc (scandium) - (21; 44,96),
Se (selenium) - (34; 78,96),
Si (silicon) - (14; 28,09),
Sm (samarium) - (62; 150,36),
Sn (tin) - (50; 118,71),
Sr (strontium) - (38; 87, 62),
Ta (tantalum) - a (73; 180,95),
Tb (terbium) - (65; 158,93),
Tc (technetium) - (43; 97,91),
Te (tellurium) - (52; 127,60),
Th (thorium) - (90; 232,04),
Ti (titanum) - (22; 47,88),
Tl (thallium) - a (81; 204,38),
Tm (thulium) - (69; 168,93),
U (uranium) - (92; 238,03),
V (vanadium) - (23; 50,94),
W (tungsten) - (74; 183,85),
Xe (xenon) - (54; 131,29),
Y (yttrium) - (39; 88,91),
Yb (ytterbium) - (70; 173,04),
Zn (zinc) - (30; 65,39),
Zr (zirconium) - (40; 91,22).
chemical half-life - []. ,
,
-, ; ...

, ,
.
chemical method of DNA sequencing = Maxam-Gilbert method (.).
chemical proofreading - . M
() ,

() - ()
.
chemical shock - . ,
, - ,
<induced polyplody>
( <colchiploidy>)
(, <cytochalasin B> .),
,
.
chemostat - . A,

, ,
;
.

.
chemosynthesis - . T ,
; .
.. 1887.
chi sites - chi-. (RecA-)
E.coli, V (ExoV); chiC. ( E.coli - 1 104 ) 5 - 3 [3 - - 5], ExoV-(RecA).
chi structure, -like structure - chi- . C,
<figure-eight>
<restriction endonucleases>: 4 ,
,
.
chiasma - , . <crossingover>; . <diplotene> (
<synaptonemal complex>),
, . -
<chiasma terminalization>.
chiasma centralization - . C I
(.. ..
<chiasma terminalization>): ..
.
chiasma interference = interference (.).
chiasma localization - .
, ,

;
(), ()
(, ) ..
chiasma terminalization - . H
<diplotene> I
; ..
- , , ,
.. ; ..
. 1931.
chiasmotype theory = one-plane theory (.).
chicken - . 1 (Gallus domesticus).
chimaera - . M , ,
( ).
chimaeric plasmid - . <plasmid>,
<vector> .
Chinese hamster - . 1 (Cricetulus griseus).
chitin - . ,
, - N--D-.
chlorambucil - . A <alkylating agent>,
<melphalan>.

chloramphenicol,
chloromycetin
,
,
. A, Streptomyces venezuelae,
, 50S- ,
( ) ,
.
chloramphenicol amplification - . M
<plasmid> E.coli
<chloramphenicol>,
,
.
chloroform - . ,
( );
( .): CHCl2.
chloromycetin = chloramphenicol (.).

chlorophyll - . ,
, . - - ; .
<chloroplast>;
4 ., -.

chlorophyll mutation - . M
, ; ..
(, Chlamydomonas reinhardti
Euglena viridis ).
chloroplast - . ,
<chlorophyll>, ;
. , ,
; . , , , ,
.
chlorosis - . H .
CHO cell line - . ,
Cricetulus griseus (Chinese Hamster Ovary),
(
, <clastogenicity> .).
cholesterol - .
, ,
, , ,
..; .
.

choline - . , , ,
.
cholinesterases - (. esterases).
chondrioid - .
() <mitochondrion> .

chondriome - . C ,
(.. )

;
.
.
chondriosome = mitochondrion (.).
chondrodysplasia - . ,
-
:

<Volkov
disease>,

( ), ,
- ( <achondroplasia>), , .,
(

,
).
chorio-allantoic grafting - - .
.
chorion - .
, .
; .
<chorionic villi sampling>.
chorion genes - . 7F1 (-)
66D11-15 ( 3) ,

4-5 .; .. -
16-20, 3 - 60-80.
chorionic gonadotropin - .
<placenta> ,
<progesteron>; ..
; ..

.
chorionic villi sampling, CVS - .
( <amniocentesis>)
- ,
() <chorion>
; ...
-
<trimester>; ... 1968
.,
70-.
choroideremia - . ,
, ( );
. ;
- TCD q21 -.
Christmus disease - , . ,

-
IX ( );
( F9 q27.1 ).
chromatic agglutination = stickiness (.).
chromatid
,
.
O

,
; , . .
chromatid aberration - . A,
; .. ,
, .. G2.
chromatid break - .
- ;
.
chromatid bridge - . M ,
.
chromatid core - . ,
; .. ,
, .
chromatid non-disjunction - . O
, , , II
.
chromatid segregation - .
<autopolyploid> ,
(.. -
), ..
.
chromatid translocation - . ,

p , .. -
.
chromatin - . H , x
, , <histones>
; . . 1880
.
chromatin diminution - . ()
( )
, (30 32
..), , ..

; ..
<macronucleus> .
chromatin domain - .
,
30 . ,


.
chromatin elimination - .
( - ) ;
.. <chromatin
diminution>; ..
; , ,
( ..
).
chromatin
(metaphase
chromatin)
flavor

.
,
- <chromosome banding
methods>,
.; .. . 1992,
5 ..: G- 4 R-,
-
AluI.
chromatin-negative Klinefelter syndrome - -
. <Klinefelter syndrome>,
(
) ( Y-)
2n=46,Y.
chromatography - . -
,
, ,
; . ,
- . <thin layer chromatography>, .
<paper chromatography>, ., . .
chromatophore - . K ,
<chloroplast>, .
chromidia = microsome (.).
chromobox - . ,
, <homeotic
mutations> <variegated position effect>;
HP1 Polycomb ,
. , ,
.
chromocenter,
prochromosome
,
.

, ,
, , ,
:
. ; <polyteny> .

.

chromogene - . , (..
); , .
() ,
.
chromomere - .
; . , <puff>
.; . -
<lampbrush chromosomes>; .
, .
chromomycin A3 - 3. ,
- .
chromonema, genonema, gene string - , . H
,
.
chromosomal speciation = stasipatry (.).
chromosomal sterility - .
, (
Drosophila buzzatii),
,
<threashold>,
; ,
(
6), .
chromosomal vesicle = karyomere (.).
chromosome - . O (
),
(),
- ; .

() , <histones>
, <chromatin>; . ()
,
; .
. 1888.
chromosome aberration - . A, (
<chromatid aberration>) ,
, .. G1
; ..
.
chromosome arm - .
,
.
chromosome arm number, nombre fundamental, NF -
. O ,
(- );

...
<subtelocentric> , (NF).
chromosome association = association (.).
chromosome banding methods, banding -
, . K ,
-
, /-

,
; : G-, C-, R-, Q- (.), ...
<antibody differential staining>,
.
chromosome breakage (break) - . ,
;
.. - ,
.
chromosome bridge - []. C
; .
,
, -
<paracentric inversion>,
; .
-
.
chromosome chain - . M ,
-- (.. )
, .. <ring multivalent>.
chromosome chimaera = chromosome mosaic (.).
chromosome clumping, clumping - .
,
, : ..
.
chromosome coil - .
<chromoneme>
() .
chromosome complement (set), chromotype - .
C , ,
, <idiogram>.
chromosome condensation (spiralization, contraction) -
(, ) . ,
; ..
() ,
<histone> 1,
- ; ..
, .

chromosome congression - .
,
( ).
chromosome contraction = chromosome condensation (.).
chromosome diminution - .
, (
),
: , .. -
<chromatin diminution>; ..
<chromosome elimination>, .
chromosome disjunction - .
; ..,
( ,
, , ..), <aneuploidy>
.
chromosome doubling (reduplication) - .
,
; .. <trisomy>,
.
chromosome elimination - .
; .. -

, ,
() .
chromosome erosion (mottling) - .
,
, - ,
( ) .
chromosome fragility - . ,
<gap>, , ,
- ( fra); ..
; ..
- <Bloom syndrome>, <Martin-Bell syndrome> .
chromosome fragments = fragments (.).
chromosome fusion - () . X
, (
):
( <Robertsonian translocation>),
- .
chromosome gradients - . I
-
<chromomere>,
- ( )
; .. .-- 1954.

chromosome jumping - .
<chromosome walking>, ,
- ,
<genomic library>, (
), .
chromosome lagging, anaphase lag - () .

, ;
(
), ; ..
.
chromosome matrix, calymma - .
, ()
;
.. ,
.. , ,
<lampbrush chromosomes>
..
chromosome morphology - . X
: <metacentric>,
<submetacentric>, <subtelocentric>,
<acrocentric> <telocentric> ,
, , M, SM, ST, A T;
- V, V-
(), L (), J () I (,
).
chromosome mosaic (chimaera) - , .
,
: - ( , )
;
- <gynandromorph>.
chromosome mottling = chromosome erosion (.).
chromosome mutation - . T ,
( ,
<chromosome rearrangement>),
, ,
.
chromosome non-disjunction - .
;
( - I - ; II - ) ..
( , ,
<polytene chromosomes>).
chromosome number - . K
()

- 2n.
chromosome painting - .
in situ <in situ hybridization>,
( )
<chromosome-specific library>: ..
,
,
. .
chromosome pairing, conjugation of chromosomes, synapsis, syndesis,
association - , .
I
- <bivalent>,
(,
<crossing-over>).
chromosome phenotype = nuclear phenotype (.).
chromosome polymorphism - . C
,
;
.. <stasipatric
speciation>.
chromosome puff = puff (.).
chromosome rearrangement - .
, ; ..
( <deletion>, <deficiency>),
( <duplication>) (
<inversion>),
( <translocation>) .
chromosome reduplication = chromosome doubling (.).
chromosome segregation - . p
,
( ); .. (
<chromatid segregation>)
.
chromosome set = chromosome complement (.).
chromosome sorting - () .
,
<flow cytometry> ;
90%,
, ..;
- <bivariate flow karyotyping>
; .. -
<slit-scan flow cytometry>.
chromosome species - . ,
() <stasipatric speciation>,
, -

( . .) 4 .. (
2n=52, 54, 58, 60) Spalax ehrenbergi
.
chromosome spiralization = chromosome condensation (.).
chromosome substitution - .
(- )
o (
) .
chromosome theory - [].
, ()
<chromosome>
; .. . .
(), ..
chromosome walking - .
( ),
, ;

,
..; ...

,
; ...
<chromosome jumping>.
chromosome-specific library - .
<genomic library>, , ,
(, . ); ..
()
, <chromosome sorting>
.
chromotype = chromosome complement (.).
chronic exposure = chronic irradiation (.).
chronic irradiation (exposure) - . ,
, .
chrysalis, pupa - .
; .
, .
<imaginal disc> .
Chrysanthemum-type - . Antirrhinum-type.
chymotripsin - [ 3.4.21.1-2].
, .
ciliospore = zoospore (.).
cilium - . O
, ( 14 000 . )
( 500 );
. <flagellum>,

, . (),
.
Cin-1.
(Cin-1 - corn insertion),
<transposable elements>.
cinnabar. M,
, ( vermilion <c.>) ,
-
,
, ,
.
circadian rhythm - .
24 .
circular linkage group - .
<ring chromosome> ,
( , ,
).
circularization - .
<restriction endonuclease>.
cis-arrangement, cis-configuration - -.
.
cis-configuration = cis-arrangement (.).
cis-dominance - -. C - ( -)
(), .. - ( ),
,
; -
, .
cis-inactivation - -. <X-inactivation> -
: .-. T(X;7) .
<methylation>
.
cisplatin - . ,
( ), ,
- N7
, .

cis-trans position effect = stable type position effect (.).


cis-trans-test - --, . M
(),
, ;

------- ------ --- -------------------------------------- --

---- ----- ---


---- ---------
------------------------- --

;
.-.-.
<polarity mutation>,
.
cistron - . ,
-- <cis-trans-test>; , . = ,
., . 1957,
.
citric acid cycle = tricarboxylic acid cycle (.).
citrulline - . A,
- <arginine>;
. , .
H2NCONH(CH2)3 CH(NH2)COOH
citrullinemia - . H,
, <citrullin>,
; , q34-qter
9.
CK = creatine kinase (.).
CL100. ,
, <fibroblast>
(. <heat shock protein>), ,
CL100 ;
CL100 q34 5.
cladogenesis, dendritic evolution - . ,
<adaptive radiation>
; .
. 1947.
cladogram = phylogenetic tree (.).

cladotype = relict (.).


claret. Drosophila melanogaster,
; ,
claret <kinesin>,
; ,
claret, Aspergillus nidulans.
class - . O , (
) ( ); .
.
class switching - .
(
),
,
<constant part>; , IgM.
classification - . P ( )
; . ,
.
clastogen
.

),
<chromosome aberration>.
clastogenesis - .
.
clastogenicity - . C -
.
clathrin - . ,
; .
, (30-40 )
(180 ) ; . ,
.
clawed frog - . 1 (Xenopus laevis).
ClB method - l. M ,
- - - -,
Bar <c.> , (l)
, - ClB;
-
- -5 <Muller-5 method>.
cleared lysate - . ( ),
()
;
, ..
.
cleavage, embryonic fission - . H
,
, .
- ; . :

( ) .
(- ).
cleistogamous flower - . H ,

().
cleistogamy (clistogamy) - .
() ; .
(, Arachis hypogaea).
cline, geographic cline - , .
()
,
- , - , Mytilus edulis
.
<leucine aminopeptidase>; .
.
clinical genetics - . P ,
,
, .
clinodeme - . <deme>,
<cline>.
clistogamy = cleistogamy (.).
clock mutants - clock- (clock - circadian locomotor
output cycles kaput). ,
(24-) (28- ..),
; ( ):
Clock
5.
clomiphene - . ,
.
clonal analysis - . M

.
clonal selection theory - - . T,
<antibody>
:
, <variable part>
<constant part> ,
-,
;
,
(), ,
()
; ,
.
clone - . C ,

(); .
;
. .
cloned (passenger) DNA - .
, - ,
<plasmid> () ,
- ( - E.coli), ,
..
cloning - . C ,
<clone>; . , ,
( )
; . - ,
<cloned DNA>.
cloning site = insertion site (.).
cloning vector - . <vector> ( <plasmid>
),
.
close pollination - . O
( .. =
<geitonogamy>) , .
closed complex - . K,
<loose binding site>
.
closed DNA - . ,
( ), .
closed (intrabreeding) population - () . ,
:
<gene flow> .., .
closed reading frame - . P ,
, ,
, .
club - (. Y-chromosome loops).
clumped-chloroplast mutations - . ,
( )
<chloroplast> ,

; ... ( <prothallium>)
.
clumping = chromosome clumping (.).
clupeins - . H ,
<protamine>; .
Clupea harengus, ;
.-Z 31 , 21 - .

clutch - . , - ,
.
coacervate - . C,
;
; .
<probiont>, ,
.. (1924).
coadaptation - .
( .); . <coevolution>.
co-amplification - -.

- ,
<metothrexate> <metallothionein>
.
coat protein - . ,
.
cobalamin, vitamin B12 - , 12. ,
, ;
<coenzyme>, ,
, ..
Cobalt 60, 60Co - -60. P (
59) 5 ,
- -.
co-carcinogenesis - .

() :
, ,
.
coconversion - . <gene
conversion>, e
,
: ..
.
code ratio - .
; , .. 3.
coding capacity - []. O
,
( - .. <intron>; <overlapping genes>): ,
1
60-70 . .
coding (sense) strand - () . O
,
,

.
coding triplet = codon (.).
coding unit - . E , 3
- <codon>.
codominancy - .
; . 0 <AB0 blood groups>.
codon, triplet, coding triplet - , .
, 3 () :
64 - 61 20
3 - <nonsense codon>.
codon family - .
<wobble hypothesis>:
,
, :
8 ..
codon pair - .
<wobbling hypothesis>: ,
(.. )
, ( ) 3- , , 5 7 ..
coefficient of coincidence - .
,
<interference>; .. 0 (,
,
10 . ).
coefficient of consanguinity = coefficient of parentage (.).
coefficient of inbreeding, Wrights inbreeding coefficient -
. <inbreeding>,
, ,
: F=1-P, -
<panmyxia>; .. - ,
, ; ..
. 1931 .. .
coefficient of kinship = coefficient of parentage (.).
coefficient of parentage (kinship, consanguinity) - .
, ;
.. <coefficient of inbreeding>,
.
coefficient of relationship - .
, ( ).
coenogenesis = embryoadaptation (.).
coenospecies - . ( ,
), ,
. ( ) ; .

. 1922.
coenzyme A - . , 60
,
-3,5- - .
coenzyme Q, ubiquinone - Q, . X ,

(, <cytochromes>).

coenzymes - . O ,

( <holoenzyme>); .
<vitamins>.
coevolution - .
, c , (
); .
, . -
.
Coffin-Lowry syndrome - -.
, ,
() (
), ( ),
.,
;
, CLS - p22.2p22.1.
cofilin - . , <actin>,
, ,
; . 166 .
cohesive (sticky) ends - . K ,

, ..
; ..
<restriction endonucleases> (, EcoRI
BamHI).
coil - .
,
() : -. , . ,
.
coiled body - . ,
: , - 0,5

, , ;
.. <nucleolus>.
co-integrant - . ,
( ),
<transposable element>, , Tn3;
. 2
.
coisogenic - . X ,
, .
colcemid - . C <colchicine>,
,
( ), .
colchicine - . A,
( Colchicum .), ,
;
(
<colchiploid>).

colchicine bath method - . M


, ,
, ; ...
- ,
, ..
colchiploid - . O, <ploidy>
,
. ,
. ;
. . 1937.
cold shock - .
, - ,
<induced popyploidy> , (, ):
1-2o 5-30 . (
- 15-20o) 2-10 . ( )
20-45 . ( ) .
cold-sensitive
mutation

.
,
, , dnaC E.coli,
;
dnaA

( dnaC dnaA)
( dnaA, dnaC), .
col-factor = colicine factor (.).
coli phage - -. , E.coli.
colicine - . ,
E.coli
; .
.
colicine (colicinogenic) factor, Col-factors - .
C <plasmid> ,
( E.coli).
colicinoduction - .
; , Col-
F- <F factor>; . <sexduction>.
colicinogenic cell - . K,
<colicin>.
colicinogenic factor = colicine factor (.).
colicinogeny - . C
<colicin>; . .
colinearity - .
; .
,
<intron> .
collagen - . ,
(, ,
..); . ( : 35% );
. ,
; . ,
<oxyproline> <oxylysine>,
.
collagen diseases - , . ,

; ..
, ,
HLA ( ).
collagenase - . ,
<oxyproline>; . <metalloproteinases>.
collateral hybridization - .
,
(. <avuncular hybridization>).
collateral inheritance - .
( -
..),

; .. , .
collochore - . M ,
<chiasma>
<synaptonemal complex> ; ,
. .
collochore-type meiosis - . A ,

<collochore>; ... .
colony hybridization, Grunstein-Hogness method - ,
-. M
<genomic library> - ,
, ,
, ,
,
,
(
).
color blindness - . H
( ),
() () ;

.
color mutants - . M,
- ,
- .
comb shape - [] . O
, Rr Pp;
<walnut comb>, <rose comb>,
<pea comb> <single comb> ; RRpp rrPP
9:3:3:1.
combining ability - .
,
.
commaless genetic code - .
(..
) (..
- commaless),
<colinearity>.
commiscuum, comparium - , . C ,
, ..
.
common fragile site - .
<fragile site>,
(, ); ...

21-.
comparium = commiscuum (.).
compartmentalization - . H
<imaginal disc> (,
<polyclones>),
,
-; .
.- 1973.
compatibility - .

; . . ( S),

.
compatibility group - [].
<plasmid>,
.
compensating diploid - . ,
(
): ,
( , .), .
compensation - .
( ) ; -
- .
compensator gene - -. C ,
, -
( .-. ); (Y) .-.
, () .-.
- , ,
.
competence
.

,
; .
.
competence factor - . ,

.
competent cell - . ,
,
, .. <transformation>; ..

<vector>.
competition - . ,
;
( ) .

competition [biochemical] - []. C


, ,
. <ligand> , - , . <folic
acid> <aminopterine> .
complement - .
( 20 ),
; .
G
; . - (
),

, ,
, ,
.
complement proteins - . C ,
III ; ..
, ,
3 (1,2
/) 195 .
complementary base sequence -
. ,

:
..

..
.
.

..

..
.
.
complementary DNA, copy DNA, cDNA - , .
M , - ( ).
complementary duplication deficiency -
. ,
, <reciprocal
translocation>, - , AB/CB AD/CD AB/A+CB/C
.
complementary (reciprocal) genes - .
, - ,
.. .
complementary lethal - . C
(), ; ..
,
.
complementary RNA, cRNA - . M ,
- in vitro <in vitro
transcription>.

complementary strand, (-) strand - , (-) . ,


(+)- <viral strand>,
<replicative form>
13, G4, 174 ; (-)-
.
complementation - .
( )
, - ;
, .
complementation
map

.
C
,
,
.
complementation test - .
<cis-trans test>,
-
a+/+b; .. , ..

(
).
complete dominance - . O
(, ) , ..
; ..
() ,
..
<overdominance>, <codominancy>
<semi-dominance>.
complete enzyme, holoenzyme - , .
,
( , ), , . - E.coli 5 -
( 40000 ), (155 000), (165 000)
(85 000) . 480 ; .
(, )
, - <sigma-factor> . <core enzyme>,
, .
complete (absolute) lethal - . M, -,
; .. .
complete linkage - .
.
complete medium - . M
, <auxotrophic
mutation> (, ,
.).
complete mutation - . ,

,
; .. - <transversion>
<transition>.
complete ribosome - . P,
- ;
..,
.
complete sex-linkage - . X ,
- Y-
(, Z- W-); ... - ,
Y- ( W-)
( XX/X0 ZZ/Z0).
complete sterility - . K ,
()
.
complete wobbling - . O
3- ,
,
<partial wobbling>.
complex chromosomal rearrangements -
.
, 4 :
. ., 1987,
19 ...
complex frameshift [mutation] - .
<frameshift mutation>,
, , - ,
, his
Salmonella typhimurium, .
complex glycerol kinase deficiency -
.
<contiguous gene syndromes>, ,
,

; ...
21.2 , ,
<dystrophin> .
complex heterozygote - . O,
.
complex locus - . K
( <pseudoalleles>), - ,
.. <hemoglobin genes> .
complex locus - . K ,
,

<intron>, ..
; ..
- ( - .. Bithorax
) <homeotic mutations> <segmentation
mutation>.
complex (scarce) mRNA - () .
,
<abundance> - 10 ; .

<saturation technique>.
complex mutation = macromutation (.).
complex Robertsonian heterozygote -
. (),

<Robertsonian translocation>: ...
() .
complex species = polytypic species (.).
complexity, genome complexity - . C
,
: , ..
( .);
ot1/2 <cot plot> ..
composite element - .
<transposable elements>, (
, ,
), ,
IS- <IS-like elements>,
, , ;
.. - ..
; , .. Tn
.
compound allelomorphism - . :
, -
, .
compound chromosome - . ,
,
, ..,
.; ..
<attached X-chromosome>.
compound crossing-over = multiple crossing-over (.).
compound X-chromosome = attached X chromosome (.).
concanavalin A - . <lectins>,
Canavalia ensiforme ( ,
); .
- <T lymphocytes>,

,
<colchicine>.
concatemeric molecules - .
(, T4) -
,
; ..
<cyclically permuted sequences>
<headful mechanism>.
concealed variability = potential variability (.).
conception = fertilization (.).
concordance - . () <monozygotic twins>,
, , - ,
<diabetes mellitus> . 40-50%,
<diabetes inspidus> - 100%; .
() .
concordant polymitosis - . <polymitosis>,

; .
condensed chromatin - () .
X, (
), <interkinesis>,
; ..
, - , <sex chromatin>.
conditional dominance - .
,
; .. - ,
.
conditioned lethal - . M,
() ; ..

()

, (
) .
conditioning dose - . adaptive response.
confirmed gene location - (. gene
mapping).
conformations, constellations - , .
,

, ..
conformational proofreading - . M
() (
),
, .
congenital, habitual, innate - . ,

, ,
(), ,
(
)
( ).
congenital adrenal hyperplasia - . ,

21- ,
p21-p33 6; - .
congenital anhydrosis - .
, ;
- .
congenital diskeratosis - .
,
; , DKC q27-q28 X-.
congenital errors of metabolism - . C

; ... .
1902-08.
congression
.

,
.
congruent crossing - . C
.
conidium - . ,
; .
<mycelium> ().
conjugation - . -
,

( ,
) , .
, F, F+- ( F- <F factor>)
F--.
conjugation of chromosomes = chromosome pairing (.).
conjugational tube - . ,
(F+ F-),
<rolling circle model>
F-, F--
.
conjugative plasmids - () .
<plasmid>,

; .. <mobilization>;
.. - F- <F factor>.
conjugon - . ,
: F- <F factor>.
connubium,
mating
.

; , .
.
consanguinity, incest - . C ,
,
- ; . = <inbreeding>;
. .
conserved (invariant) base - () .
O,
( , ), ..
, - ,
OH, 1/3
3-
,
; ,
95%
.
constant part, C - []. (
) (
)

<immunoglobulin>;

,
<variable part> <joining part>
;
.. : IgM .. ; IgD - C ; IgG - C ; IgE - C; IgA - C.
constellation = conformation (.).
constitutive - .
, , , - ,
() <constitutive heterochromatin>,
() ..; .
- .
, . .. (.. );
constitutive
.
constitutive enzymes - . , (
<inducable enzymes>)
,
.
constitutive (housekeeping) genes - ,
. , ,
( <luxury genes>);
, -
, R-

<R-banding>; .. - ,
.
constitutive heterochromatin - () .
<heterochromatin>,
;
, .. <secondary
constriction>, - ,
..

(- <C-banding>,
.); .. (. <facultative heterochromatin>)
. 1966.
constitutive immunity = natural immunity (.).
constitutive mutations - . M,
, .
constitutive transcription - .
, (, lac <lactose operon>) -
-; .. -
<constitutive genes>.
constriction - . H
, ;
<secondary constriction> . - (
<centromere>) , a
. <nucleolar organizer>.
contact inhibition - . (
) ; in vitro ..
;
.. - () .
context - . (
), , - ,

() - , <formyl
methionine>, 5- ,
; .
.
contiguous gene syndromes - .
, , , ,

; ... - <Prader-Willi
syndrome>, - <Langer-Giedion syndrome>, -
<Beckwitt-Wiedemann syndrome>, <Angelman syndrome>,
<DiGeorge syndrome>, <complex
glycerol kinase deficiency> .; ...
. 1986.

continuous fiber - []. H ,


( ).
continuous model [of chromosome] - [].
,
,
<homeotic mutation>; .. ,

<hopeful monsters>; . 1940.
continuous variation - .
() , , ,
.
contractile ring (arc) - . ,
<actin> :
, ..
; ,
.. ,
<calyculin A>.
contractile vacuole - . T
, ()
,
.
contraction stage - . -
() (, ) .
control - . H ,
;

.
controlled pollination - . M ,

, .
controlling elements - []. K

<transposable
elements>

,
,
; .. 2 -
(
),
, ,
- ;
.. -
<activator-dissociation system>.
convariety - . ( ),

, .
conventional (routine, traditional) staining - (,
)
.
O

(, -, , ),
(
<chromosome
banding methods>).
convergence - . H
() , ,
; ., .,
.
convergent adaptation - .
; ..
<convergence>.
convergent co-orientation - .
,
, - , ..
2:1.
convergent improvement - . C :
F1
( F1 - ,
); (,
, ) ,
.
convivum - . ,
- .
consubspecies - . () ,
,
, .
Cooleys anemia = -thalassemia (.).
coordinate regulation - .
, , ..
; ..
, - , <lactose operon> E.coli,
lacZ, lacY lacA.
coordinated
enzymes

.
,
() ,
, ,
<operon>, - , - <beta-galactosidase> E.coli.
coordination - , .
;

), (
) . (
,
); . .. 1914.

co-orientation - .
I ;
., , ,
.
Copes law of the unspecialized - . ,
,
, .., ..,

.
Copes rule - . ,

, ,
; .. . I .
copia-like transposable elements - copia.

,
(276
), (17
); - 20-60, - 5 . .
copolymer - . , (
<starch> .) ( - .).
copulation - . , (
- ) ; . -
<isogamete>.
copy DNA = complementary DNA (.).
copy error, miscopying - . <point
mutation> - ;
, ..
<repair>,
..
copy error lag - .
<mutational lag>, .
copy-choice hypothesis - .
,
()
( );
<breakage-reunion hypothesis>.
cordycepin, 3-deoxyadenosine - 3-, . A

,
,

( poly(A)-),
<polyadenilation>,
-.
core enzyme - . <holoenzyme>
(, - <RNA polymerase>),
( ) (..

) - <sigma factor>,
; E.coli .. 4 - 2 , .
core granule - , . P
, ( )
<drosopterine>
.
core histones - . <histones>,
(
<core particle>); .. ( 1).
core particle, minimal nucleosome - , .
,
146
<core histones>; ,
,
..; , ..
.
core
sequence

()
.
,
(, attB E.coli
attP ), ; .-.
<arms>.
core structure = fibrillar center (.).
co-recessive inheritance - - .
, -
(
); .. . 1985
,
(..
) ; ,
.. <surveillence
genes>, - , <xeroderma
pigmentosum>.
corepressor, repressing metabolite - . H
, ,
<end product inhibition>.
coronaviruses - . C ,
; 80-120 , - .
correcting endonucelase = AP-endonuclease (.).
correlated response - .
, - ,
; ..
<pleiotropy>, <linkage>
.
cortex - . , , .
cortical heredity - .


;
.. 50- . .
Stentor coeruleus, .
corticosteroids - . ,
, ; .
<adrenocorticotropic hormone>.
cosmic irradiation = cosmic rays (.).
cosmic rays (irradiation) - .
<ionizing radiation>, ,
, ( ..),
..
( ..); ..
, .
cosmid vector - . <plasmid>, cos <cos-sites> ,
, s- ()
, ,
; .
. . 1977.
cosmopolitian inversion - . <inversion>,
,
, - , Drosophila melanogaster .. In(2L)t
, .
cos-sites - cos-. ( cohesive ends <.>) ,
; cos-.
<cosmid vector>.
Cot plot, half reaction time, Cot1/2 - 50%- . T
(Cot - -

); Cot1/2
( <complexity>).
cotransduction - .
<transduction> (): .
(..
).
cotranslational transfer - , .

, () ,
, <immunoglobulins>
.
cotton - . 1 (Gossypium).
counterfeit hybrid - -. ,

, ;
.-. <pseudohybrid> (
), .-.
; .-.
Oryza sativa Sorghum bicolor (1979),
.
counterstain-enhanced fluorescence banding = sequential counterstain-enhanced
fluorescence banding (.).
coupled transcription-translation - , .
<translation>
, .
coupling & repulsion configuration - .

() (), .. ...
- .
courtship ritual - .
, , ,
; ..
.
covalently closed circle, CCC - .
, ; CCC
, CCC
.
CpG-rich islands, HTF-islands - - , HTF-.
( - ) ,
, ( ) 5 , ; -..
30 000; HTF-
, -.. HpaII (HpaII tiny fragments).
creatine - . - ,

, <creatine
kinase>.
creatine kinase - [ 2.7.3.2]. ,
<creatine>
- ,
; . -
; . (CKBB), (CKMM)
(CKMT) , , 14q32.3, 19q13.2-q13.3
15; . - (CK).
creeper. M,
: , .
CREST serum - CREST. ,
CREST (Calcinosis cutis, Raynaud phenomenon, Exophageal

dysmotility, Sclerodactyly, Teleangiectasia),


( ,

): .CREST
,
, ,
.
cri du cat syndrome = cats cry syndrome (.).
Crigler-Najjar
syndrome

-,

. ,
<bilirubin>

<UDP-glucuronosyltransferase>;

- , UDPGT
2.
criss-cross bridge - . A
- , .
criss-cross inheritance - - .
, ,
- ; .-..
- (
Z-) .
cristae - , .
<mitochondrion>,
; . ,
<oxidative
phosphorylation>.
critical period (stage), sensitive (sensitive developmental) period -
. ,
;
.... ( ,
, ),
K.... - <gastrulation>;
,
.
cRNA = complementary RNA (.).
cro repressor - cro-. , 66 ,
cro ; cro-.
() , 6
, 17 .
cron - . E , 1 . .
crosier = crozier (.).
cross
(crossing)
.
O

; .
.
cross breeding - .

,
<inbreeding> (.. <top cross>),
();
. = <outbreeding>.
cross combination - . ,
( ),
, e.
cross linkage - . O ,
,
; , .. -
, .
cross pollination = open pollination ().
cross sterility = hybrid sterility (.).
cross-feeding - .
, ; .
,
.
cross-incompatibility - . H
, ..
.
crossing = breeding (.).
crossing-over - , .
, ; .
- <breakage-reunion hypothesis> : .
( <recombination>)
.
crossing-over mapping - . M
(
),
( <Morganide>); ...
<interference>,
<coefficient of coincidence>.
crossing-over modifier - - . ,
( , ) ,
, .
crossover - . O ,
<crossing-over>; . - ,
, ( ),
. .
crossover fixation - .

() ,
, (
<sudden correction>)
,

,
, ,

, .
cross-over inducer - . ,
,
<crossing-over>
.
crossover interference = interference (.).
cross-over reducer - . (),
,
<crossing-over>.
cross-reactivation - () , .
-
,
; .. . 1960.
crozier (crosier) - [ ]. <hypha>,
<ascus>; .
3 , 1 () 2, 2 1 ;
( )
.
cruciform structure - []. ,
,
.. in vitro in vivo - ,
, ;
, .. ,
.
cryoprotector - . ( 0oC)
: . ,
;
(, c 300 - ,
, , , , ) -

.
( - , .); .
, , .
cryptdins - . ( 3-4 )
, <Paneth cells>
; . ( ) ,
.
cryptic hybrid - , . ,

.
cryptic plasmid - . <plasmid>,
; ..

<nonconjugative plasmid>.
cryptic polymorphism - . ,
.
cryptic promoter - . <promoter>,
(,
); .. , - ,
c-myc .
cryptic satellite DNA - .
,
<satellite DNA>, .
cryptic species - () . ,
, - <sibling species>.
cryptic structural heterozygosity (hybridity) -
. ,
( , ,
), ; ...

in situ
,

.
cryptic variability = potential variability (.).
cryptochimaera - . X ,
,
..
.
cryptogamous plants - () .
,

,
,
, .
cryptomery - .
,
, .. ,
.
crystal violet - . O
, , , -
, .. - .
crystallins - . ,
, .
; <multigene family> -
-. q33-q35 2,
. 11, 17 22.
C-terminus = carboxyl terminal (.).
ctetosome - . () ,
().
C-type particles - -.

<retroviruses>, - .-.
.
cull - , . H
, ( ),
( , , ,
..).
cultigen - . , () ,
(, , .).
cultivar - . ,
,
- , ,
; .
,
.
cultivated (domestic) species - . ,
; .., , - , ..
<domesticated
species>.
cultural transmission - . ,
- ,
, , ,
, - , ,

(
<Turner syndrome> .) ;
, .. 0;
.. . 1976.
cumulative factors = polymeric genes (.).
cumulative gene - . ,
; .. , e, ,
(
2,25 . ), ,
, .
cumulative isomery - .
,
;

.
curie, Ci - . E ( ):
1 3,7 1010 ( <beckerel>).
curing - . <plasmid> ,
, , - ,
<ethidium bromide>.
cut and patch repair - --. M

: (, E.coli
uvrA uvrB) (
), -

-
.
cutting periodicity - .
-
, ,
( , 10,7).
CVS = chorionic villi sampling (.).
cyanidin - (. anthocyans).
cyanogen bromide - . ,
:
.
cybrids - . C ,
() .
cyclic adenosine monophosphate = cyclic AMP (.).
cyclic AMP, cAMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate -
. ,
:
3- 5- ; ..

; ..
, -
<catabolite activator protein>; ..
. 1957, 1965.
cyclical selection - . ,
( )
() ( ,
, )
; .. .
cyclically permuted sequences -
.
,
<terminal
redundancy>; ... (, 4
E.coli),
<headful mechanism>.
cycloheximide - . A, Streptomyces
naraensis,

80S-
(, -
<chloramphenicol> ) -
- .

cyclomorphosis - .
: . , ,
,

(); .
.
cyclophosphamide - . ,
, , .

cycloserine, oxamycin - . , <serine>,


Streptomyces,
,
- .
cycloserine enrichment - . M
,
, , <cycloserine>
.
cyclosporin A - . ( 11
),
; -
G0 G1 <lymphokines>.
cyclosyndesis
.

<multivalent>
.
cyst - .
, ; .
( . ),
, .
cystatins - . ,
(, )
, ,
, ; . 3 - .
( 20 ),
.
cystationuria - . ,
( )

; - .
cysteine [Cys] - []. L---- ,
;
<glutathione>; , ,
.; , .
H2N CH(CH2)SH COOH
cysteine switch - .
, <collagenase>
-
-73 , .
cystic fibrosis - . O (
),
; - CFTR <cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator> q21
7 ( 1989 .
CFTR
);
5% ( - 1/2000);
150 ., (
50%) 508- 10-
( F508).
cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, CFTR -
. ,
, 2 2 - ,
; CFTR
<cystic fibrosis>; CFTR ( 27
<exon> 230 . )
7.
cystine - . <cysteine>, ,
; .
.
cystinuria - . ,
(, , ) ,

( ); - .
cystoblast - . M
.
cytidine - . H, ()
().
cyto- - -. X :
, .
cytoblast = nucleus (.).

cytochalasin B - .
,
<phragmoplast>.

cytochrome c - . <cytochromes> -
( 13 000) ,
;
<heme>.
cytochrome oxidase - , 3 [ 1.9.3.1].
<cytochromes> ( ),
, ,
<cytochrome c> ;
13 : 3 (I, II, III ) 10 ,
; . .
cytochromes P-450 - -450 [ 1.14.15.6].
<cytochromes>,
( ),
450 ( ); .450

; .-450
, ,
; .-450 - <aromatase>.
cytochromes - . ,
,
: .
; .
<heme>.
cytoderm = cell wall (.).
cytogamont - . ,
<cytogamy>: <macronucleus> .
,
.
cytogamy - . H <conjugation>
, ; .

,
,
.
cytogene = plasmagene (.).
cytogenetic genotoxicity - . C -

(
<clastogenicity>), (),
, <sister chromatid exchanges> .
cytogenetics - . O ,
(. . )
; . . 1902.
cytohet [cytoplasmic heterozygote] - .
,
( ), - ,
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ..
.
cytokeratins - . C ,

<intermediate
filaments>
,
.
cytokinesis - , .
,
<phragmoplast> ( ),
(); .
, .
cytokinins - . P , 6-
<aminopurine>, ,
..;
. ;
. - <zeatin> ( - ); .
.
cytolemma = cell membrane (.).
cytological hybridization = in situ hybridization (.).
cytology - . H <cell>; .
VII . .
cytolysis - . ,
<lysosome>
.
cytomixis - . C ;
. - ;
., ,
; .
; .
. 1911.
cytophotometry - .

,
( -
. 1936),
(. <Feulgen
nuclear staining> .).
cytoplasm - . C ,
( ),
; .
; ;
. .
cytoplasmic, cytosolic - , .
<cytoplasm>.
cytoplasmic inheritance = maternal inheritance (.).
cytoplasmic male sterility = male sterility (.).
cytoplasmic male sterility factor -
.

<episome>

,
, -,
; .... ,
, , .
cytoplasmic petite = vegetative petite (.).
cytoplasmic protein synthesis - . C

,
; ...
,
, .
cytoplasmic revertant - . ,
<male sterility>
.
cytoreduction - . ,
-.
cytosine - . ,
,
.

cytosine deoxyribose - . H,
() ().
cytosolic = cytoplasmic (.).
cytosomes - . T, ,
.
cytostatic
factor

II
; .. .
cytotaxonomy - . C,
-
( . = ),
..
cytotoxic cells = TC cells (.).
cytovillin - .
, 75 000 ;
. 6 .
D
D form - D- [].
,
; ,
- , <A form, B form, C form>.
D loop = displacement loop (.).
D (dense matrix) loops - D-. H
<lampbrush chromosomes>,
e ; . 1968 Pleurodeles
waltl 2 .
D segment = diversity segment (.).
D sequence = diversity segment (.).
D7 protein - D7.
( Aedes aegypti),
, , ; .D7 (
, ).
Dalton - . E , :
1,67###10-24 .
dam. (.. ).
Danforth equilibrium - . T,

, ,
,
.
Dantu antigen - Dantu. ,

<glycophorin> ( <hemoglobin
Lepore>): ; .D.
.
DAPI, 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. ,
(-),

; ,
, Q- <Q-banding>.
Darier disease, keratosis follicularis - ,
. , ,
( ),
. ; -
, , ..
, , 1.
dark period = eclipse period (.).
dark reactivation = dark repair (.).
dark repair (reactivation), excision repair - ( ,
) . <repair>,
( o <photoreactivation>)
, -- <cut and patch
repair>; .. ,
; , E.coli uvrA uvrB
,
.. ( ); ..
. . 1964.
dark-field microscopy - ,
. M
( ..), -
( ,
) .
Darlingtons rule - . ,

, .. (
)

- ,
,
;
.. . 1937.
darwin - . E
: 1 .
0,1% 1000 ; . . 1949.
Darwinian fitness = adaptive value (.).
Darwinism - . ,
. - ,
,
.
dauer (dauer-like) larva - .
Caenorhabditis elegans, ,
,

.
dauermodification, permanent (persistent) modificatin -
. ,
,
; ..
,
, , ,
.
daughter (sister) cell - () . O ,
.
daughter chromatid - . X,
.
daughter nucleus - . ,
.
daughterless. M Drosophila melanogaster:
- ( )
, Y- ()
.
dcm-site - dcm-.
- (dCm); dcm-.
- <promotor>
( - <CpG-islands>) <intron>.
DDT, dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane - , ,
, , , , . O
,
(100 = 70 /),
- ; 1874,
1939;

.
De Lange syndrome - , .
,
( , , ,
, .);
... - ,
, .
de novo. , , - ,
(
) .
deamination - . P -NH2
, ,
, ;
( ###- ), , ,
. .

debrancher enzyme defect = Forbes disease (.).


decarboxylation - . P -2
.
decay of variability - . C
.
decondensation = despiralization (.).
deduced amino acid sequence - ()
. ,

, ..
.
defective phage (virus) - . ,
- - <helper phage>.
defibrotide - . ,
;
,
; , .
, .
deficiency - . (),
(); .
<deletion>.
deficiency heterozygote - . O,
,
( , ... = <hemizygote>);
... .
definitive host - []. O,
.
deformylase - . ,
<formyl methionine>
.
deformity = malformation (.).
degeneracy, degeneration - .
; . = <regress>.
degenerate code - . ,
,
().
degeneration = degeneracy (.).
degressive (regressive) double crossing-over - (
) , . <double
crossing-over>,
.
dehydrogenases - . O
,

; . ,
- , - <alcohol
dehydrogenase>,

<lactate
dehydrogenase>,
<malate dehydrogenase> .
del Castro syndrome = Sertoli-cell-only syndrome (.).
delayed early genes - . ,
<immediate
early genes>.
delayed effect = late effect (.).
delayed fertilization - .
, , ;
..
,
(, <gynogenesis>
..).
delayed hypersensitivity cells = TDH-lymphocytes (.).
delayed pollination - .
<pollen tube>, (
),
; ..

:
.. 1:1.
deleterious mutation = detrimental mutation (.).
deletion - . (),
(

); .
<deficiency>.
deletion mapping - . M
<deletion>
;
, .
deletion method - . M
, <deletion>;
,
.
delta chain - - []. O
<fetal hemoglobin> ( a- .-.); ,
.-., 11 .
delta rays - -, -. ,
,
.
deme - , . H
(),

, , ,
; .
; , .
, -: <topodeme>,
<ecodeme>,

<phenodeme>,

<genodeme>,

<plastodeme>, <gamodeme>, <autodeme>, <endodeme>,


<agamodeme>, <clinodeme>,
- .., .
demi-embryo - .
( 8-16 ),
; ., ,
.
denaturation - .
,
, , ..
; .
, .
denaturation mapping - .

- ,
; ,
, .
denatured protein - . M ,
(,
, ),
.
denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis -
.
,
, ,
,
, - ,
; .
. 1983.
dendrite - . K
( 700 ), .
dendritic evolution = cladogenesis (.).
Denhardts solution - . P <Ficoll>,
(0,1; 0,1; 0,1 )
(100 ); - <Southern blotting>
-
.
dense matrix loops = D loops (.).
density gradient centrifugation - .
M , ,

;
... <cesium chloride equilibrium density gradient centrifugation>
<sucrose equilibrium density gradient centrifugation>.
3-deoxyadenosine = cordycepin (.).
deoxyadenylic acid - . (), - () (); , ,
, <adenine> 1-3 .
deoxycytidylic acid - . (), - () (); , ,
, <cytosine> 1-3
.
deoxyguanylic acid - . (), - () (); , :
, <guanine> -
.
deoxynucleotidyl transferase = terminal transferase (.).
deoxyribonuclease - , -. ,

() ; . -
<exonuclease>, <restriction endonucleases> .
deoxyribonucleic acid = DNA (.).
deoxyribonucleoside - . M,
.
deoxyribonucleotide - . H, ,
, 1-3
.
deoxyribose - . M, : 1-
. , 3- 5-

.

deoxythymidilic
acid

.
- (), - () ();
, : ,
<thymine> 1-3 .
dependent
differentiation


(), () .

dephosphorylation - . P

, , ; . - ,
.
depletion mutations - . , ,

, .
depressor (depression) effect - .
<mutual exclusion>
( ).
Dercum disease - . H
,

-
; .
derepressed state - .
<operon> , <transcription>.
derepression - .
(
<operon> , ..).
derived line - . (),
- ()
( ..) ;
,
- (promoted, advanced) , , ,
...
dermatoglyphics - . ,
,
, - ;
. - ; . . . 1926,
. 1823;
( <Down syndrome>,
<Edwards syndrome>) .
.
DES = diethylstilbestrol (.).
desmin - . C ,
<intermediate filaments> :
. 52 , . 2 .
desmocyte = fibroblast (.).
desmosine - . A,
<elastin>
.
desmosome, bridge corpuscule - .
,
; 3 . - ,

; ., ,
, .

.
desmutagen - . O
<antimutagen>, (
);
. . . 1981.
despiralization, decondensation - , .

; .
<condensation>.
destabilizing selection - . ,

, (..
) .. ,
; .. ..
1970.
desynapsis - . P I (
<diplotene>) ( ) <chiasma>.
detergents - . - ,
;
(, ),
;
. -100 <Triton X-100>,
. - <sodium dodecyl sulphate>.
determinated disjunction - . P
, () , - ,
12Y -2
1Y- ( ),
1 .
determination - .
,
; .,
().
detrimental (deleterious) mutation - . M,
( 10-<100%); ..
, - .
90% 10%
, , ,
, ,

.
deuteranopia - . <color blindness>,

;
-.
deuterotoky = amphitoky (.).
developmental genetics - . P ,

<ontogeny>.
developmental hermaphroditism = accidental hermaphroditism (.).
developmental homeostasis - .


; ... - ,
<homeotic mutations>.
deviation - , . O
,
,
, - ,
; -
- (
. 1864).
dextrality - . C
-.
dextrose - . (D-) .
di- - -. O -: .
diabetes insipidus - . K ,
();
..
.
diabetes mellitus - . ,

<insulin>, (. . );
.. - , -, (..
) .
diakinesis - . I ,
()
.
dialysis - .
.
2,6-diaminopurine - 2,6-. <purine>,
.

diapause, dormancy - .
( ) ;
. - <aestivate> <hibernate>, -,
- .
; . , ..,
. ( .); - .
<voltinism>.
diaspore - . ,
- ,
(. - , , ..) (,
.).
diastrophic displasia
- .
,
,
..; - .
diauxy - . ,
, .
( <constitutive
enzyme>), - ( <inducable
enzyme>); . E.coli ., ,
. <catabolite
repression> - , E.coli ,
, .
dibasic - . X ,
<basic number>.
dicentric - . X,
: .
<acentric fragment> ,
.
dichlamydic chimaera - .
<periclinal chimaera>,
.
dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane = DDT (.).
2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic
acid
- 2,4-x
.
, .

dichogamy - . P
( ),
; . - <protandry> <protogyny>.
dichophase - . <interphase>,
-

.
diclinous - . X ,
( . =
).
dictyate stage = dictyotene (.).
dictyokinesis - . <Goldgi
apparatus> .
dictyosome - . C- (
) <Goldgi apparatus>,
,
.
dictyotene, dictyate stage - . <diplotene> I
,
( )
<vitellogenesis>.
2,3-dideoxynuceloside triphosphate - 2,3-.

(2-),

3
, 2,3-.
.
didiploid = amphidiploid (.).
Diego blood groups - . ,
Dia Dib; Dia
.
diethylstilbestrol, DES - .
<estrogen>, ,
; .
, ,
<sister chromatid exchange>,
..,
<synaptonemal complex> ,
, <tubulin>.
different
methylation
sensitivity

. C <isoschizomeres>

<methylation>, - , HpaI
,
, MspI
.
differential affinity - . 3 :
(
-
- ).
differential chromosome multiplication -
.

<endomitosis>, - , <nurse cell>


512 (29) Y- 4.
differential decondensation - [].

; ,
.. G-
<G banding>.
differential distance - .

; .. - <interference>.
differential
fertility

() ;
, .. - ,
, ..
..
differential genome introgression - .

()
, - , Helianthus debilis
cucumerifolius ( )
Helianthus annuus
(71,5%), (7,4%).
differential mitosis - . ,

- <K chromosomes>; ..
.
differential pairing - . H
( Y, W Z) , -
.
differential segment - . , 2
e ; ..
; ..
<heterochromosomes>.
differentiation - . P
, (
) - .
( ., .)
(- .).
differentiation - . o
<morphogenesis>, ,
( )
, ;
, ,
; . - <Britten-Davidson model>.

diffuse centromere (kinetochore) - . K


() <holocentric chromosome>
( ).
diffuse stage (phase) - . C I (
<dictyotene>),
- : ..
().
digenesis = alteration of generations (.).
digenomic species - . A ,
.
DiGeorge syndrome - .
<contiguous gene syndromes>,

, . ;
- , ...
q11 22.
diheterozygote = dihybrid (.).
dihybrid, diheterozygote - , . O,
.
dihybrid
crossing

, .
dihydrofolate reductase - (. double-minute
chromosomes).
5,6-dihydrouridine - 5,6-. P ,
, .

dihydroxyphenylalanine - , .
A , ; .
<adrenalin> <melanin>.

dikaryon - . K ,
( ) -
; . -
.
diluting gene = dilution gene (.).
dilution (diluting) gene, diluting factor - -. -,

.
dimethyl guanosine - . P ,
, .

dimethyl sulfate protection - .


(, - <RNA
polymerase>) , , , ,

.
dimethylsulphoxide, DMSO - , .
, (50 - 20 /);
<cryoprotector>,
,
.

dimon mating - - . C
( ) .
dimorphism - . ()

<polymorphism>;
( .).
dinitrophenol - . <benzene>,
,
; .

dioecious plant - . P,
() () ;

- , (Rumex sp.), (Ginkgo biloba) .
diphasism - .
<colchicine> - ,
( )
<heterochromatin>, ; . .
1965 , ().
diplochromosomes - , . X

, <endomitosis>, ..
, (,
), ,
, - .; .
.
diplohaplont - . O,
<alteration of generation>.
diploid - . O,
(2n) <diploid number>; . .
1905.
diploid generation - . , <diploid> (, ..
<sporophyte>).
diploid number, 2n - . O
(),
, - , 2n=46; 2n
(
<mosaicism>), .
diploid
(somatic)
parthenogenesis,
parthenapogamy

() . ,
() .
diploidization - .
; - . -
.
diploidy - . H ( )
.
diplonema = diplotene (.).
diplont - . O, , , , ..
, ; .
.
diplophase - , .
, - ;
.. <diplotene> .
diplotene, diplonema - , , . C
I ,
, , ,
<chiasma terminalization>; .
; .
<diplophase>, .
direct attachment - . H

<kinetochore>.
direct duplication - . <duplication>,
,
: dir-dup.

direct mutation = forward mutation (.).


direct
repeats

(
)
, ,
, ,
; , ( 5
9 ) .. IS- <IS elements>.
directed mutagenesis = site-specific mutagenesis (.).
directional selection - . ,
;

; .. ,
;
.. - <industrial melanism>.
disc = band (.).
disc electrophoresis - -. O
<electrophoresis>, ,
( - discontinuous)
; .-.
,
, ; .-.
.
discoblastula - . ,
: -
, - ; .
, , , , ,
.
discoidal cleavage - .
, <discoblastula>.
discontinuous range = disjunction area (.).
discontinuous character - . ,
(,
..); .. () - ,
, .., ..
( <polygenes>),
( <oligogene>) .
discontinuous replication - .
, <Okazaki
fragments>.
discontinuous variation - () .
, (
..), , , ();
.., ..

.
discordance - . -

<monozygotic twins> - ,
<concordance>.
discordant co-orientation - .
, ,
( ).
discordant polymitosis - .
<polymitosis>,
: ( ).
disfibrinogenemia - . , ,

( I ); - ,
F1 q28 4.
disjunctive (disruptive, incissus) area, discontinuous range -
. ,
() ; ..
,
<allopatric speciation>, ,
( ..) .
disk = band (.).
disomic - . O,
, .. <diploid>.
disomy - . H

(n+1 ..).
displacement loop, D loop - , D-.
<mitochondrial DNA>
,
,
: .. 879 () 2134
( ) ; D- - ,
RecA- ,
.
displasy - . H ; .

, .
.
disruptive area = disjunctive area (.).
disruptive selection - () .
,
; ..
<polymorphism> <divergence>.
dissimilation = catabolism (.).
dissociation - . C
<heterokaryon>,
; . -

(
<Robertsonian translocation>); . -
.
dissociation factor, IF3 factor - IF3, .
:
21-23 , 30S-
, , 50S-,
30S- .
dissogony - . H
, ; .
.
distal - . X (),
; . - ,
.
distant hybridization = interspecific hybridization (.).
distilled water - . ,
() .
distributive pairing - () .
(
<synaptonemal complex>) ,
;
.. ,
(
.. - preferential distributive pairing), ..
- ; ..
; .. .
1962.
disulphide bond - . K
, <cysteine>; ..
.
ditelo-substituted line. ,
, - , 1R
1RS 1RL - 2n=2RL+2RS+12.
divergence - . P
; . .
1859; . <disruptive selection>
, .. ,
..
diversity segment, D segment, D sequence - , D. <immunoglobulin>:
.. (V <variable segment>) (J <joining
segment>) , ..
V- J-.
division, fission - . ,
. <mitosis>

<meiosis>; . ,

.
division center - .
, <centrosome> <centriole>;
.. .
dizygotic (fraternal) twins - (, ,
)
.
,

; .. ,
, , ,
.
D-loop cleaving - D-.
- <Meselson-Radding model>.
DMSO = dimethylsulphoxide (.).
DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid - , . ,

<deoxyribonucleotide>,


; <chromosome>,
- ()
<mitochondrial DNA>, (),
<plasmid>; 1868 .; 1959
. .
in vitro.
DNA bending - . ,
-
; , .
, - , c-fos c-jun.
DNA damage-binding proteins - , .
- ,
, -
, , ,
<repair> .
DNA duplex, double-stranded DNA - . M ,
.
DNA fingerprint technique - .
<fingerprint method>,
<microsatellite DNA>
- - <Southern
blotting> - ,
, ,
, ,
<forensic
genetics>.
DNA gyrase - -. , II <DNA topoisomerase II>,

; -.
100 .; -.
. . 1976.
DNA insertase - -. ,

.
DNA lygase - -. ,
3- 5-
,
<replication>, <repair>
<recombination>; -. . .
1966.
DNA methyltransferases - -. ,
<methylation> ;
-.,

, - , dam
,

();
-. ,
<restriction endonucleases>;
-5 -.
( ,
,

);
2-O-

<cap>.
DNA N-glycosidase - -N-. ,
<dark repair>
N- ,
AP- <AP-site>.
DNA phage - - . ,
.
DNA polymerase - HK-. ,

, -
3-O-; E.coli -. I ,
940 ,
. 1957; -. II ( 120 )
; -. I II
; -. III - ,
7 500
, ; 3
-. ; -.
<polymerase
chain reaction>.
DNA polymerase ### - - ###.
, 500 , .

DNA polymerase ### - - ###. -


, 40 , <repair>
.
DNA polymerase ### - - ###. -
, (
- ) ,
.
DNA polymerase ### - - ###. ,
150 ,
3- .
DNA primase - -. , -
<Okazaki fragments>,
- <replication form>
; E.coli dnaG,
60 ; -. - ###
<DNA polymerase ###>; - -.
-, ;
- <primosome>.
DNA-relaxing enzyme = DNA topoisomerase (.).
DNA synaptase - -. ,
( ), (
RecA)
.
DNA topoisomerases, DNA-relaxing enzymes - -, , ,
,
. -.. -T.. I -T.. II (. DNA topoisomerase I, II III <DNA gyrase>).
-T.. Tyr,

,
3- 5- , ,

.
DNA topoisomerases I - - I. ,
,
.
1. -.. I IA IB,
<primary structure of protein>,
,
. -.. I ,
, Mg2+
5'- ,
. -.. I ,
, ,
3'- , (

).
DNA-agar technique - - . M
:
(
)
;
,
,
; . .- 1964.
[DNAase] hypersensitive site - [ ] .
, ,
, - ,
Drosophila melanogaster
2-20 .
..
DNAase protection - . ,
(, -
)
( . <footprinting>).
DNA-dependent RNA synthesis - - .
; , -.. =
<transcription>.
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase - - -. ,
- <DNA-dependent RNA synthesis>;
2 -.-.: - <DNA primase>
- <Okazaki fragments>
, -
; ( <mRNA>,
<tRNA>, <rRNA>) -.-.;
- ( , E.coli) .
. 1960.
DNA-DNA hybrid - - . ,
,
(,
), --. - .
DNA-relaxing enzyme = DNA topoisomerase (.).
DNA-RNA hybrid - - . ,
,
( );
--., . . 1961,
.
DNei = Nei genetic distance (.).
Dollos rule - . ,
, - ,
.
domain - . , -
(, ., . ..);

, . ,
<intron> (.. ),
(,
###- ###- ); . -
, (),
.
5 domain - . domains of 16S-rRNA.
domains of 16S rRNA: central domain, 3 major domain, 3 minor domain, 5
domain - 16S-. 16S-,
;
.16S-
; , 5-,
3-.
Dombrock blood groups - . C
, ,
D: Do - , . 1965.
domesticated species - () . ,
c
; , ..
-
() ().
domestication - , .
(),
( ),
, .
dominance deviation - . H (
) ;
.. - <incomplete
dominance>, <epistasis> .
dominance modifier [gene], dominigene - - ,
. ,
() ( -
); .-.. ,
.. <pleiotropy>.
dominancy - , .
-
, , . ;
. (
<codominancy> . ); . (Pisum- <Pisumtype>) (Zea-).
dominant epistasis - . <epistasis> ()
() ; .. () I ().
dominant gene (allele) - (). ,

.
dominant white spotting - . piebaldism.
dominigene = dominance modifier (.).
Donohue syndrome, leprechaunism - , . ,
(
) ,
, (),
. ; .. -
.
donor - . O, : 1)
; 2) ; 3)
<transduction>
<conjugation> ; 4)
<transgenic organism>.
donor (left) site, 5-site - , .
<intron> 5-,
<splicing>: ... .
donor strain - . ,
(,
<transduction>), .
dopamine - . H ,
; ,
. , ,
- . . .

Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome - -. P ,
( )
(, , ..);
- , ,
.
dormancy = diapause (.).
dosage compensation - []. M
, ; -Y
.. - <X-inactivation> (
<polysomy> - - - ),
(<sex chromatin>); ..
, (. <autosomal dosage compensation>).
dose-dependent relationship (effect), dose-rate dependence -
.
(
) ;
..
.

dose-rate dependence = dose-dependent relationship (.).


dot-blotting - -. M /- /,
( - dots)
<annealing> ,


.
dotted. O - ,
9 a-
( 3) .
double cross - [ ]. C
,
(A###B)###(C###D),
<heterosis>, (A###B C###D) .
double crossing-over, double exchange - .
<crossing-over>, 2
, 2
, ( ), 3
4 .
double crossing-over correction - . ,

-

(
) .
double diploid = autotetraploid (.).
double dose disadvantage = overdominance (.).
double exchange = double crossing-over (.).
double fertilization - . ,
:
, ( <pollen tube>)
,
, - (
) <endosperm>; ..
.. 1898.
double haploid - . <alloploid> -
,
.
double helix - []. ,
(.
<Watson-Crick
model>.
double promoter - .
<promoter>,
, - , 7 E.coli (rrnA-G) ..,

110 ,

, - .
double X - -. ,
-
(.. .-.
- <attached-X chromosome>).
double-minute chromosomes - .
, ,
<methotrexate> -
100 ..,
, , dhfr
().
double-sieve mechanism - . ,

--:

,


, --.
double-stranded DNA = DNA duplex (.).
double-stranded RNA, dsRNA - , . ,
, - ,
- ,
<antisense RNA>,
(, ); ,
- - ( - 300-800
) - ( - 100-200,
<palindrome>).
doublet - . <polytene chromosome>,
; . -
-, .
doubling dose - . ,
;
,
( ).
doubling time - . ,
; , ..
<generation time>,
, ..
down promoter mutations - .
<promoter>, , ..
.
Down syndrome - () . ,

21 ,
(
);
21 ;
.. - 2n=46/47,21+; .. -
( 1-2 1000
); ..
,
<production line hypothesis>.
downstream - [] .
, , (
), - ,
, <promoter>.
drepanocyte - . ,
- <sickle cell anemia>.
drosopterin - . - .

drug dependence - .

, - ;
.. 50- . . (
)

, ..,
, ,
, .
drug resistance (tolerance) - .
C
<antibiotics> .
; ... 2 : 1)
...,

, 2) ,
, .
dsRNA = double-stranded RNA (.).
D-trisomy syndrome = Patau syndrome (.).
dual-purpose plasmid (vector) = bifunctional vector (.).
Dubin-Johnson syndrome - -. ,
,
; - ,
DJS 13.
Dubinin effect - . <position

effect>, ( Bar <.>


), ;
.. .. .. 1934.
Duffy blood group - . C ,
Fy+ Fy-,
; ... 1 : ,
(. .,
1968).
dunce. Drosophila melanogaster,
( dunce
); , 9
-; dunce
<intragenic gene>, 79000
, - -,
- Sgs-4.
duplex - . ,
.
duplicated genes - .
, ;
11 22; .. ( )
, , ,
9:6:1 15:1; .. . 1914.
duplication - . (),
; .
<gene cluster>
<multigene family>; <inversion duplication>
<direct duplication> .
Durand-Holzel syndrome = lactose intolerance syndrome (.).
dwarf (dwarfism, dwarfismness) - , .
;
. - ; .
,
(, ).
dyad - . ,
; . - <sister chromatid>.
dynamic (replication) banding - () .
<chromosome
banding methods>, S-
; ..
, , - , 5 <5-bromodeoxyuridine> ,
G- <G banding> R- <R banding>;
..
<morphological banding>; .. 5 .. .. 1971.

dynamic mosaicism - .
( , <B
chromosomes>) ,
; .. .
dynein - . , <microtubuleassociated protein>, ,
, <axoneme> ; ,
. , Y-.
dyscentric - . X ,

180o - <inversion>.
dysgenic - . X (

<eugenics>
),

e ( , )
.
dysostosis - . H ,
;
- - ( --),
- ( -), - (
-) - .; .
.
dysploidy - .
,
.
dyssymmetry - (. symmetry ratio).
dystrophin - . ( .
- 427 ),

( ); . -
( 2,5 .
, 65 ).
E
E1 trisomy syndrome = Edwards syndrome (.).
Earles buffer - - . buffer.
early effect - .
, , , ,
. , .
early genes - . ,

,
; - <immediate
early genes> <delayed earle genes>.

early infection - . H -

.
early replication - .
( - -- <Lima-de-Farias rule>)
S- .
EC = enzyme classification (.).
ecdysis, molting - . ;
, ; ., ,
, -
.
ecdysones - . C ,
<ecdysis>
( corpora allata);
###-. ( ) ###. ( ); ###-.:

E-chromosomes (eliminated chromosomes) = K-chromosomes (.).


Eckhardt method - .
<recombinant plasmid>:
( ), ,
, -

.
eclipse (dark) period - , . H
, -
() .
eclosion - [ ]. X
() .
ecocline - . ,
(
) .
ecodeme - . ( <deme>),
- .

ecogenetics - . P ,

( ); . -
( ) ,
-6- <glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency>,
. <pharmacogenetics>; .
. 1971.
ecogeographic divergence - .
,

.
ecogeographic rules - . P ,
(
) ( <Allens rule>,
<Bergmanns rule>, <Glogers rule>).
ecological genetics, genecology - . P ,

( ), ..
.
ecological isolation - .
,
, :
, (, ,
..) .
ecological niche = niche (.).
ecophene - . ,

.
ecophenotype - .
(), () .
EcoRI. O <restriction
endonucleases>, E.coli ( 1991 7 EcoR
- EcoRI EcoRVII);
<cohesive ends>.
ecospecies - . <ecotype>, -
,
; . .
ecosystem - . C
,

; . . 1935.

ecotropic virus - . ,
<host range> (.
<amphotropic virus>).
ecotype - . C ,

.
ectoderm - . H
; . ,
, .; .
<induction>.
ectopia - . ( )
, , - ,
..
ectopic pairing - .

,
,
<heterochromatin>; ..
.
ectopic transcription = illegitimate transcription (.).
ectrodactyly - .
() ; .
7 ( - q22.1).
EDTA = ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (.).
Edwards syndrome, E1 trisomy syndrome - ,
1. ,
18 (,
, , , ,
, .);
2n=46/47,18+; 1960.
effective fertility - .
, ,
.
effective gene dose - . M
, - ( )
: () ... 2 (
) 1; ... .
effective lethal phase - . C
,
, .

effective pairing sites - . C


, R- <R banding> (,
, G- <G banding>)

; ... .
1986.
effective population size, Ne - . C
,
, <population waves>, ,
... ;
...,
.
effector molecule - . ,
,
.
egg = ovum (.).
egg cell = ootid (.).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, mesenchymatosis - -. ,
, (,
.); ..-. - 1992 11
, <collagen>
(, VIIA1 VIIA2 - COL1A1, 17q21.3122.15, COL1A2, 7q21.3-22.1); V ..-.
, - -.
eIF2 factor - eIF2. O ,
,
IF2, 3 (###, ###
###), ( ) 32, 35 55 ;
.eIF2 (###-) - (###), 40S- .
elaioplast - . <plastid>, .
elastin - .
<scleroprotein>,
; .
<collagen>, ,
( 93%)
( , <desmosin>).
electroblotting - . blotting.
electrokaryotype - . X ,
<electrophoresis>
, -

, , ,
,
- ,
.
electron microscope - .
,
, .. 0,1 ;
.. () ().
electron-dense - -. X ,
,
, (,
, , .).
electron microscopy mapping - .
K ( <exon>
<intron>),
, - , R- <Rloop mapping> ,
.; .. - 50-100 .
electron transport chain - .
;

-

<mitochondrion> <chloroplast>, , ,
<ATP>.
electrophoresis - . H
;
. , , e (),
( <electrokaryotype>) .;
()
, ; .
.. 1807, 30- .

.
.,

.
elementary species = biotype (.).
elimination - .
, ; . <plasmid>
<curing>; . - ( )
<chromosome elimination>.
elite - . X (. , . ),

( )
, (-).
elongated prophase - . <prophase> -
,
.
elongation - . (
<transcription>) (
<translation>),
( )
.
elongation factor - [EF-G - ]. ,
: ..
() ,
, ,

, ..
; .. E.coli 77 444 ; ..,
, .
EMB medium - EMB. K
, , ;
lac+- lac--
.
embryo - . O ( ,
, -
); , . = .
embryo culture - , .
, ,
; ..
<tissue culture>.
embryo sac - .
,
<double fertilization>; ..
, .. .
embryo sac cell - . O
: .
embryo sac mother cell - .
, 3
-
<embryo sac>.

embryo suspensor - .
,
( 29) <polytene
chromosome>;
; ..
Phaseolus coccineus.
embryo transfer (transplantation) - .
() ; ..

,
(
) ; ..
,
.
embryoadaptation,
cenogenesis
,
.
,
; .
.. 1937 ,
. 1866.
embryogenesis - .
, - ,
(..
).
embryological genetics - . P
<developmental genetics>,
<embryogenesis>.
embryonic fission = cleavage (.).
emergent evolution - . K,

;

.
empty particle = ghost (.).
enamelins - . O
, 10 .,
; .
<amelogenins> (70 )
( 0,5 EDTA) .
end product - . ,
.
end product (feedback) inhibition - ,
, .

,
, (),
, ,

;
.

,
. , ..
; .
<tryptophane>
. . 1953.
end
repeated
sequences

,
-, <terminal
redundancy> , - , T4
r.
endangered species - , .
,
( , ..),
;

- , .
, - (, ) .
endemic species - -. , (
) : ,
(),
().
endemism (endemicity) - . O
( , - ,
..); .
.
end-labelling - , .
(32) 5- 3-
,
<terminal transferase> <Klenow fragment>
, <probe>
- <Southern blotting>,
- <Maxam-Gilbert
method>.
endo- - -. O -,
-, ,
-: , .
endoanaphase - - . endomitosis.

endochromocenter - . C <chromocenter>,
<endopolyploidy> ;
,
.
endocrine system - . (
) ( ),
(
) ( ).
endocytosis - .
( <phagocytosis>), ( <pinocytosis>)
(.,
).
endodeme - . <gamodeme>,
.
endogamy - . H (
<exogamy>), <inbreeding>); , .
.
endogenote - . <transduction>,
(),
.
endometaphase - - . endomitosis.
endomitosis - .
( ); .
,
, - ( ),
, ;
. ; .
<endoreduplication>, . -
<interreduplication>,
.
endomixis - . C ,
, .. . <autogamy>.
endonuclease - . ,

; . <recombination>, <repair>, .,
<restriction>, <restriction
endonucleases>.
endoplasmic reticulum - . K
, ,

,
( .. - ),
(,
), ;
.. ()
() -
.
endopolyploidy - . K
<endomitosis>;
.
<chromocenter>,
; .
- , -
<K-chromosomes>.
endoprophase - - . endomitosis.
endoreduplication, masked endomitosis - ,
.

(.. );
. , x <chromocenter>; .
<polyteny> .
endosome = karyosome (.).
endosperm - . -
( ),

<double fertilization>
.
endosymbiotic bacteria - . ,
,
<chloroplast> (, ..
Prochloron Prochlorothrix, - ,
-3- -
), <mitochondrion>,
, <mitotic apparatus> .
.
endotelophase - - . endomitosis.
endotoxin - . T,
(. ); ;
. - .
end-point mutations - . M,
(
)
<mutational lag>.

end-to-end association - --.



, ,
<ring multivalent>.
energy-rich phosphate compound, high-energy phosphate compound . ,
,

; .. - <ATP>, .
engrailed. , <homeobox>,

; engrailed , ,
,
, - Brachydanio rerio,
.
enhancer - . C -
, - II;
, SV40 . - 72 :
###- 200 ,
<promoter>;
.

; , .
<transposable elements>; . - Spm <Spm element>.
enkephalines - . ,
,
, .;
- 5 ,
<polyprotein>;
.,
.
enteroviruses - . P -
, (,
, .).
entomophily, insect pollination - . C
-,
,
, , ..
, , ; . -
<coevolution> .
entry-donor-sites model = A-site-P-site model (.).

enucleate (anucleate) cell, akaryote - . K,


, ; ..
.
enucleation - . - (
) ;
. , .
environment - []. C
, , ..
environmental mutagen - . (
), ;
.. ( , ,
..) .
enzyme (enzymatic) adaptation - .
- ,
(,
).
Enzyme Classification (EC) - ().
: 1- - (1 ; 2 - ; 3 - ; 4 - ; 5 - ; 6 ); 2- 3- - ; 4- ;
1979 ( . ..).
enzyme markers - . ,
, ()
( )
; . 1982
..:
1, - ( - ENO1),
1p - (PGM1),
1q - - (PEPC),
1q - (FH),
2p - (MDH1),
2q - (IDH1),
3p - (ACY1),
4p - (PEPS),
4q - (PGM2),
5q - -- (HEXB),
6p - (GLO),
6q - (SOD2),
6q - NADH- (ME1),
7q - - (GUSB),

8p - (GSR),
9p - (ACO1),
9q - (AK1),
10q - (GOT1),
11p - - (LDHA),
12p - (TPI1),
12q - - (PEPB),
13q - -D (ESD),
14q - (NP),
15q - (MPI),
15q - -2 (PKM2),
16q - (APRT),
17q - (GALK),
18q - - (PEPA),
19q - (GPI),
19q - (PEPD),
20q - (ADA),
21q - (SOD1),
22q - (ACO2),
Xq - (GPD),
Xq - (PGK).
enzyme repression - . -
() ,
- ,
.. <end product inhibition>; ..
. 1953
( trpA trpB E.coli), .
enzyme turnover - .
- <DNA gyrase> ,
-
() ; ..
<novobiocin>.
enzymes - , . C ,
;
,
;
<constitutive enzymes> <inducible enzymes> .; .
<enzyme classification>.
enzymopenic anemia - .
<hemolytic anemia>,
; ..,
-6- <glucoso 6-phosphate

dehydrogenase deficiency>.
ependymins - . ,
(
):
,
; , .
().
ephemeral-zone hypothesis - .
20-30
<hybrid zone> (
);
....
.
epi- - -. O , -,
-: .
epicotyl - , . ()
.
epidermodysplasia verruciformis = verruca (.).
epidermolysis bullosa - , . ,
() ,
; (
- ,
<collagenase> - CLG q21-q22 11)
.. ( - - EBS1 EBS2 q24 8 1).
epigenesis - .
, (
,
<preformation theory>); .
. 1651, ,
. ;
.
.
epigenotype - . ,
, ..
.
epilation - . , ,
, - , Er ,
4.

epimers - . C (.. ,

); , , - ,

episome - . <plasmid>,
, ;
. - R- <R plasmid> F- <F factor>.
epistasis - . ,
() (), ..
- .
epistatic (internal) balance - () .
<coadaptation> -
.
epistatic gene - . , <epistasis>
() .
epistatic variance - .
, (..
<epistasis>).
epithelium - . ,
, ,
. - ;
, .
() .
epitope - , .
<antigen> ( - ,
), ,
(
) .
eponym - . T , (
) - (
), - , <Balbiani chromosome>.

epoxides - . <alkylating agent>,


, - ,

Epstein-Barr virus - -. <herpesviruses>,


<Burkitt lymphoma>
, p35 1; ..-.
in vitro, in vivo,
-; . . 1964.
equational crossing - . ,
( <certational crossing>)
, F1 - .
equational division - . ,
( ).
equational separation = postreduction (.).
equatorial (nuclear) plate, mid-body - () .
C
; ( ) ..
(e - ).
equilibrium population - . ,
,
(
); , .. -
<Hardy-Weinbergs law>.
equilocal genes = allele (.).
ergastoplasm - .
, (..
), - , .
ergosome = polysome (.).
erythroblastosis - . (
),
, .
erythroblastosis
fetalis

,
. ,
<hemolytic anemia> ( <Rhesus factor>, ..) .
erythrocyte - . K ,

, ; .
<hemoglobin>; . , .
; . (
- 2,5 . .)
, - , .
erythromycin - . A, Streptomyces
erythreus, 70S-,
( ) ,
.

escaper = breakthrough (.).


esterases - . ( 20) ,
,
: - (
.), .
; , ,
; -
, ;
<carboxyl esterase> -
( ) , ,
, ; . -
- (Est, Es).
estradiol - . <estrogens>;
( )
.

estrogen synthetase = aromatase (.).


estrogens - .
( <estradiol>, , ), ,
, , ; .

<follicle-stimulating
hormone>

<luteinizing hormone>; - .

.
estrous cycle - .
,

<estrus>; .. 4 - , ,
.
estrus - , . ,
.
ethanol - , . O ,
,
.
etheogenesis = androgenesis (.).
ethers - . O
R=O=R ( .) ,
( .).
ethological isolation = sexual isolation (.).
ethomery - . H ( .
= ); -
.
ethydium bromide - . K ,
, .. ,
,
<frameshift mutations>;
.. .
ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid, EDTA - .
,
, ( )
; .

ethylenimine - . <aziridine mutagen>.

ethylethane sulphonate - . A
<alkylating agent>, <ethylmethane
sulphonate>.
ethylmethane sulphonate - .
<alkylating agent>; , ,

; .
7- (N-7),
,
<transition>.
CH3CH2 O SO2 CH3
etiolation - . , ,
, -
, , ..
eu- - -. O -, :
, .
eucentric translocation - .
<translocation>,
, 180o,
<dyscentric> .
euchromatic - . <euchromatin>.
euchromatin - . <chromatin>,

, ,
<facultative
heterochromatin> - <X-inactivation>; .

<heterochromatin>.
euchromosome = autosome (.).
eugenics - .
; .
, - ; .
. 1869.
eukaryon - . <nucleus> .
eukaryotes, eukaryotic organisms - . O (
, , - - - -
), ;
<chromosome>, <histones>
, <chromatin>;
. . 1937,
. <prokaryotes>;
. (. Lamblia, 1).
eukaryotic - . <eukaryotes>.
eumelanin - . ,
<tyrosine>,
; . ,
,
.

euphenics - . , (
)

( ..), ..
.
euploidy - (. ethomery).
eupycnosis = isopycnosis (.).
eupyrene spermatozoon - . C
.
evocation - .
, .. . - <induction>.
evocator = inducer (.).
evolution - .
, ; . t
, -
<speciation>, . ( <anagenesis>).
evolutionary clock - . C

,

().
evolutionary genetics - . P ,
,
.
evolutionary irreversibility - .
,
( ): ..
. 1893; ..
,
.
evolutionary rate - .

-
,

<bradytely>,
<tachytely> <horotely>.
exaggeration - .
<deficiency> , .
exaggeration gene = intensifier (.).
exaptation - (. potonuon).
exchange hypothesis - .
<chromosome aberration> - ..
, (),

,
( ) , ,
, ; ..
. ( . <breakage-reunoin hypothesis>).
exchange pairing - .
, <crossing-over>
<synaptonemal complex>.
excisiase - . ,
; xis,
<attachment site> attP .
excision - [].
<transposable elements> (-),

<precise excision> .
excision enzymes - . ,
<dark repair>
(, - <DNA N-glycosidase>)
(- <DNA polymerase>, -
<DNA ligase>).
excision repair = dark repair (.).
excitation - . P ,
- .
excluded virus - . ,
.
exclusive mapping - .
<gene mapping> ( ),
,
.
exclusive zygote - . ,

, - , ..
1%.
exconjugant - . ,
<conjugation>.
exo- - -. O -,
-: .
exocytosis - .
- , <endocytosis>.
exogamy - . H -
<endogamy> e

, c ; .
.
exogenote - . ,
- <transduction>.
exon - . , <intron>,
(
<processing>), , ., ;
. <domain>
; . . 1978.
exon scanning - .
( , , ) :
( <cDNA>)
,
,
; 1990.
exon shuffling - .
<exon>
,

.
exonuclease - . ,
( ).
exonuclease III - III. E.coli,
3- ;
.
exonuclease IV - IV. ,
3-, 5-
,
<ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid>.
exonuclease V - V. ,
<recombination> E.coli: .V recB recC (
x ); .V
( recA) ( ,
).
exotoxin - . T, ;
, . , <endotoxins>;
. - , ; .
- .
explant - . K ,
(in vitro).
exponential growth phase - .
, ; ...

.
exposure = irradiation (.).
exposure dose - . ,
1
, , 1 .
expression center - .
Trypanosoma brucei,
<variable surface glycoproteins>:
, .. .
expression cloning vector = expression vector (.).
expression (expression cloning) vector - .
<vector>, <promoter>
,


;
..
<metallothyonein> , SV40 <simian virus 40>,
.
expressivity - . C
( );
( ,
) .; . .. 1927.
extended DNA - . ,
48 ; . <nucleolar organizer
region> (, <argentophylic
proteins>) .
extension. <cohesive ends>
; , BamHI
5- :
5 .... 3
### ### ###
3
.... 5
external guide sequence - (.
guide sequence).
external irradiation - . O ()
.
extra arm - . ,
### 3-5
( 1- ) 13-21 ( 2- ) -

.
extra chromosome = B-chromosome (.).
extra nucleotides - (. filler DNA).
extra-chromosomal arm - - . O
<satellite DNA>
<acrocentric chromosome>, ; .-..

( <Hatchs hypothesis>) ; .-..
.
extrachromosomal
inheritance

.
H , , ..
: .. ()
.
extrachromosomal molecule - . H
( ),
(, 5S- Dictyostelium discoideum); ..
,
(, ); ..
.
extragenic reversion = extragenic suppression (.).
extragenic (intergenic) suppression (reversion) - ()
(). ,
() ( )
() ;
.
extramedial hybridity quotient = hybridity quotient (.).
extramitosis - . ,
, .
extraneous population = marginal population (.).
extranuclear inheritance = maternal inheritance (.).
extrinsic proteins - [] () . ,
, (
<intrinsic proteins>).
extrusome - . , (extrusion)
<exocytosis>
(, ..);
.
.
eye mutations - . O ,
,
, ... -

vermillion cinnabar,
W (White) .
F
F1, first (filial) generation - () .
() .
F episome = F factor (.).
F factor (episome) - F-, F-, .
<episome>, E.coli ( );
F-. (F-) ,
(F+); F-. (Hfr), F--
, ; F-.
105 , F-.
; F-. . 1952.
F' factor, F-prime factor, F' episome - F'-, F'-. F- <F factor>,
, F-

F'-. ;
. 1959.
F pilus - F-, .
+
F - Hfr- E.coli, F <F factor> F -.
F prime factor = F' factor (.).
F+ strain = male bacterium (.).
F- strain = female bacterium (.).
Fabry disease - . ,
- ; ,
GLA -.
factor - . , - ,
, , ;
"." ""
- ( . ..),
(. , . <F factor>).
facultative - . X -
, - , . ( )
, .
facultative heterochromatin - .
<heterochromatin>,
, - , - <X-inactivation>

..
<euchromatin>; ".." (..
-) ,
( ..) ;
".." . 1966.
Fahrenholz's rule - . ,

-, ..
; ..
<coevolution>.
false linkage = pseudolinakge (.).
false stem mother - . C ,
.
familial
amyloidotic
polyneuropathy

.
,

,
<transthyretin> (); ... -
, ,
( 5).
familial Down syndrome = translocation Down syndrome (.).
familial hypercholesterolemia - . ,
<cholesterol>
( 250 %); .. - ,
.. 0,2%
(
0,0001%);

-
,
14.
familial polyposis coli - -. ,

;
-
APC, q21-22 5.
family - . O ,
( - ), ; , ,
.
Fanconi's anemia - . ,
<anemia>,
;
( , ),
<repair>, -
(FA1) 20 .
Fanconi's nephronophtisis - . ,
( ,
); - .
Farber disease - . ,

( ,
, , , ) ,
; .
fast green - . K , .

fat body - . C (,
),

,
.
fate map - . C
,
.
fauna - . C ,
.
favism - . ,
<hemolytic anemia>, -6-
<glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency>
;

(G6PD
Mediterranean),
188-
563- (
5% 6);
.
Vicia faba, ,
: ,
-6-,
; . . 1843.
feature = character (.).
fecundity - . K
, ,
; ,
, .
feeble-minding = idiocy (.).
feed-back - . -
- , <end
product inhibition>.
feedback inhibition = end product inhibition (.).
feeder cells - . , ,

,
.
feline leukemia virus (FeLV) - . P
<retroviruses>, .
female - . O, , (
) , .
female bacterium - , F-- [].
, F- <F factor>
;
...
female gonadal dysgenesis - . H
( ) ( <Turner syndrome>)
( --, XXq-
XXp- .); 0 ... ,

.
female mating preference - .
, . (1871):
,
, , ( . "males with most attractive sexual ornaments");
... ,
; ...
.
female pronucleus, thelykaryon - .
() (
).
female-sterile mutation - . M,
;

...; ...
(, I-).
feminization - . ,

.
feminizing
factors

)
,
-,
,
; - ,
Armadillidium vulgare .. , (F)
Wolbachia, (
ZZ) ZZ+F ZZ+f.
feral - . X ,
; -

; . .
fermentation - .
.
ferritin - . M ,
( 4500 1 ),
( 25%
); .
- (FeO OH)18(FeO OPO3 H20).
ferritin-labeled antibodies - , .
<ferritin>, in vitro,

;
.
ferrochelatase - [ 4.99.1.1]. ,
<heme> -
, .
<porphyria> - ; FECH
q22 18 .
fertility, reproductivity .
,
, "."
, ; .
,
( , , ..),
. <inbreeding>,
. ;
" " <effective fertility>.
fertility factors - . Y-
, , 4 ..
(kl-1, kl-2, kl-3, kl-5) 2 (ks-1, ks-2);
..
, " "
<lampbrush chromosomes>; .. .
1916 , 0 ,
.
fertility restorer - .
,
<cytoplasmic male sterility>.
fertilization, conception, syngamy - , . C
; .
; .
<polyspermy> ( );
. <double fertilization>.
fertilizin - . O <gamone> - ,
.

fetal hemoglobin, hemoglobin F - , F.


(
, , .), - 2 2;
- - - 2 2 ( - 2-3%
- 2 2); ..
- (-) - (-) ,
; ..
.
fetalization - . ,


; .
, .
.
-fetoprotein - -.
( 70 ),
; -. <albumins>
300-500 . .
Feulgen nuclear staining - , .
O <Schiff
reagent> , .
; ...

.
Feulgen-positive
-.
X
,
,
.
fibrillar center, core structure - .
<nucleolus> ( ,
), , - - I
.
fibrillar component - .
<nucleolus> ( ,
), , , g- ; ..
(5 )
.
fibrillin - (. Marfan syndrome).
fibroblast, desmocyte - , . ,
,
,
( <collagen>, <elastin>) ; .,
<lymphocyte>,
.
fibroin - . ,

Bombyx mori . ; .
- ,
, ..
.
fibroin gene - . , <fibroin>,
,
[-------];
.. 18 . .
fibronectin - . .
( 250 ),
, (
<collagen>, <actin>, ); .
,
. ; .
<alternative splicing>.
Ficoll - . ,
;
<sucrose equilibrium density gradient centrifugation>,
<Denhardt's solution>.
"figure-eight" - "". ,
,
.
filler DNA - -. ,
( , - ,
, ..)
<extra nucleotides>, ""
() ; .-
.
filter-binding assay - , .
,
: ,
,
.
filtration enrichment - . M
,
<minimal medium> - ()
,
.
fimbria, pilus - , . H
; . ;
.
(. <F pilus>).
fine structure genetic mapping - . K
, .. ""
.

fingerprint method, fingerprinting - ("


"). M ,

, ;
..
,
,
; .. -
" " <DNA fingerprint technique>.
first division - (I) []. ,

,
, ,
, , .
first division restitution - .
<unreduced gametes>, ""

I: , ... = ;
... , <second
division restitution>, ,
.
first generation = F1 (.).
first polar body - . H ,
I .
first-arriver principle, "king-of-the-mountain" - "",
" ". , ,
( ),

.
FISH = fluorescence in situ hybridization (.).
Fisherian (runaway, arbitrary trait) model - . K
,

; ..
<coevolution>
; . 1980
, . (
"" <"handicap" principle> .) .
fission = division (.).
fissiparous - . (..
- ),
, -

<regeneration>.
fitness - . O

()
.
fixation - .
.
fixation of mutation - .
( )
( .. <polymorphism>);
..
.
fixative - . ,

;
. - (, ), , ;
. ( , .).
fixed allele - . A,
100% ( ), ..
( ); ..

.
fixed fragment - . <acentric
fragment> ,
,
, .
fixity of species theory - . T,
,
; ... . 1735
,
.
flagellin - . , ,
. ;
. - 20 .
flagellum - . K , ,
, ; 1-4 .; .
0,25
150 <axoneme>
; . .
flanking [DNA sequence] - [ ].
,
(" ", " ") ; 5'- 3'-.
[.], .. , , 5'-
3'- .

flavin adenine dinucleotide, FAD - -, .


K <dehydrogenases>;
- .

flavin mononucleotide - -. K L,
--

;
<riboflavin>
.

flavoproteins - . ,
.
flexibility, genetic flexibility - , .
C ( )

.
floating mutation - . M,
() , , .
flora - . C
.
flow cytometry - . ,

, (,
), ( 33258 .)
-
,
; ..

<chromosome sorting>.
flower
.
O

,

( ), . -

; - ., -
, ; .
<pollination>,
<entomophily>.
fluctuating asymmetry - . K
,
(, - ,
..).
fluctuations - . P ,
( ).
fluctuation test - . C ,

, ; ..
. . 1943 E.coli:
, 1
( Tonr), .
fluorescence (nonradioactive, non-isotopic) in situ hybridization, FISH () in situ. in
situ <in situ hybridization>,
(, <biotinylated DNA>),
.
fluorescence microscopy - () .
(
, ),
-, ()
.. .
fluorescent antibody technique - .

,
(
).
fluorochrome - . K,
<fluorescence
microscopy>: - . - 33258
<Hoechst 33258>, DAPI, - - <quinacrine>,
3, .
flush ends = blunt ends (.).
f-met-tRNA, formyl methionine tRNA - -. ,
N- <formyl methionine>,
.
foetus - . (
- ) , .
9- ;
. ;

.
fold back = interarm pairing (.).
folded circle - " ". K ,

-II ( 3'-) ;
5'-""; ".." (
" " <slipped circle>)
, . . 1970.
folic acid, vitamin B9 - , ,
, 9. , ;
,
; .. <anemia>.

follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH - .


, ,
<estrogens>,
.
footprinting - . ,
,
: (
, , - )
-

,
.
Forbes disease, debrancher enzyme defect - , ,
, III . ,
-1,6- () -1,4, ;
- .
forensic genetics - . ,

; ,
<microsatellite DNA>
D1S7 ( 1), D17S79 ( 17) .; ..
( , <DNA fingerprint
method> .) , ,
,
<polymerase chain
reaction>.

formaldehyde - . - ,
: H2C = O.
formalin - . ( 40% ); .
( 2-10%),
; . .
formamide - . , NH2 , ..
.
H CO NH2
formyl
methionine,
N-formyl
methionine
,
N. A, , .
(
), ; .
. . 1964.

formylkynurenine - . <tryptophan>
( , "vermilion"
), .

"forward genetics" - "" . , (


"" <reverse genetics>) ,
( )
().
forward (direct) mutation - . ()
.
fossil - , . X (),
.
foundation stock - -. ()
( ) ; .-.
(
); .-.
(); .-.
<founder effect>.

founder cells - -. H ,
<imaginal disc>.
founder
effect

(-"")

,
.. ""
;
.., - ,
Perccottus glehni .
four strand double crossing-over - ,
. ,
() ,
.
four-o'clock - . 1 (Mirabilis jalapa).
fowl achondroplasia - . ,
- , o
(, , );
.
fowl leukosis - . ,
;
<retroviruses>, 1896.
fra = fragile site (.).
fractionated irradiation, fractionation of exposure -
. O,
; ..
.
fractionation of exposure = fractionated irradiation (.).
fragile (fragile chromosomal) site, fra - . ,
(
<chromosome fragility>); . ..
,
<caffeine>;
104 .., 24 "" <rare fragile site>, 80 "" <common fragile site>:
. 1979.
fragile X syndrome, Martine-Bell syndrome - -,
-.
, ,
, ;
<fragile site> q27.3 -;
,
()n ( - 45 ),
FMR-1 ( ,
, ): ..-. ( )
<folic acid>.

fragmentation - . X -
(, ) , ,
,
; . <micronucleus>.
fragmentational hypothesis - . ,
<oxygen effect>
; ..
. 1949-50.
fragments, chromosomal fragments - , .
O ,

<fragmentation>
;

.;
( ); , .

<microchromosomes>;

.
<agmatoploidy>.
frameshift (reading frame, phase-shift) mutation - " "
[], . M,
( , )
- , ,
- (
) ; .".."

.
framework region - . P <variable
part> ,
.
Franklin syndrome, heavy chain disease - ,
. , ,
- <BenceJones protein> (), <anemia>,
,
.; - .
fraternal rearrangement - .
, (
).
fraternal twins = dizygotic twins (.).
fre sites - Fre-. " " (RecA-)
E.coli; . . 1976;
Chi- <chi-sites>.
free genetic variability - .
, (
<potential variability>).
freemartin - . ,
;

.
freeze-drying, lyophilization - .
, ,
.
freeze-etching - -. M
,

,
,
;
.
freeze-squeeze - -.
: , ,
( ) , ,
60% ,
.
frequency-dependent selection - . ,

, - ,
-,
.
Freund adjuvant - . O
<adjuvant>, ,
; ..
, e
.
Friedreich
familial
ataxia

.
,

() ;
- , FRDA
q13-q21 9.
Friend leukemia virus - . ;
, ... <Rauscher leukemia
virus>, .
frizzle. M, (
),
<keratin>.
frogs - . 1 (Rana).
frontier theory - . T I
-

), ( - )
; .. . 1942.
fructification - . ,

.
fructose - . ,
- ,
.

fructose intolerance = fructosemia (.).


fructosemia, fructose intolerance - ,
. ,
- ;
- , ALDOB q21.3-q22.2
9.
fructosuria - . ; . - ,
-1,6- (
, );
- .
fruit - []. P
; . -
; ( )
., .
fruit fly - . 1 (Drosophila).
Frye test - . , 1923 ,

,
; ..
, , .,
<elecntrophoresis>
<DNA fingerprint method>.
FSH = follicle-stimulating hormone (.).
fucosidosis - . , L- [ 3.2.1.51],
, , .;
- , FUCA1
p34 1.
full sibs - . , ..
.
fully methylated DNA - . ,
.

fumarase
,

[
4.2.1.2].
,
()
<tricarboxylic acid cycle>, (
L- ).

fumigation - . C -
() .
functional diploid - . ,
.
functional gene - . ,

<pseudogenes>; , (..
)
.., .
functional half-life - []. ,
,
, 2 ; ...
2 ., .. 2 . ,
, ;

<chemical half-life>.
functional hermaphroditism - (.
hermaphroditism).
functional unit - . ,
(
, ..); ,
..
fungicides - . X ,
, - ,
, ..,
.
(, , , ..).
fungus gnat - . 1 (Sciara coprophila).
funiculus - . ,
<placenta>, .

;
.

,
.
fused. , - Drosophila

melanogaster, ,
.
fused protein - . () ,
,

; .. . .
1970, hisD hisC .
fusidic acid - . C ,
, EF-G;
EF-G ..
, ,
EF-G+ -
-
, .
fusion gene - . ,

<fused protein>: ..
"" , (
.. <Lepore
hemoglobin>),
.
fuzzy band - "" . ()
: , ".".
<electrophoresis>.
G
G proteins - G-. ,
:
- - ,
.
G0 period - G0. <inter-phase>
, - (
), G1; .G0
.
G1 period - G1. ( ):
(Growth), S <S period>.
G2 period - G2. ( ),
( S) <mitosis>.
GAG-banding - GAG-. G- <G-banding>:
.

galactose - . ; D-.
<lactose>, , . .

galactosemia - . , ,
, ,
D- ; .
-1- ( GALT
p13 9), ( GALK -
q23-q25 17), --4- ( GALE - p36-p35
1); . - .
galactosidase - [ 3.2.1.23]. ,
,
; 2 . - -. (
<Fabry disease>) -. (
<Morquio disease>, ..,
-.
<Goldberg syndrome>); E.coli -.
<lactose operon>.
-galactosidase = beta-galactosidase (.).
galanin - . , 29 ,
,
; .
, ,
, . .
gall, cecidium - , . ()
,

(, , , ); . ()
Ti <Ti
plasmid>.
gametangeogamy - . C
, ,

().
gametangium - . ,
( - );
. - ( ), . -
(), .
gamete - . P ,
; . -
. ,
.
gametic isolation - . O

, -
( ) .
gametic lethal - . (),
, .. .
gametic meiosis - . M,
,
; .. , .. ,
.
gametic number - . .
gametic reduction - , [] .
; .. -
().
gametic selection - . ,
( ); ..
() , .. ,
.
gametic sterility - . (.
<gonadic
sterility>),

.
gametocyte - . H ,
( ) .
gametogenesis - . ; .
<microsporogenesis>
<macrosporogenesis>, . ( <spermatogenesis>
<oogenesis>) -
( .) , ,
( .).
gametophyte - . ,
,
<alteration of generation>;
( );
. - .
,
<pollen tube>.
gametotoky = amphitoky (.).
gamma chain - -. O ,
<fetal hemoglobin>;
.-. - <beta chain>.
gamma globulins - -.
, ; .-.
<immunoglobulins>.
gamma rays - -, -.
, e

; .-.
( ..).
gamobium - . ,
<alteration of generation> .
gamogenesis = gamogony (.).
gamogony, gamogenesis - . ,
();
. .
gamone - . , ;
- ; .
, , ,
.
gamont - . , ,
; . ,
,

,
.
gamontogamy - . <gamont>
.
-gamy - -. O (c
, ..): , .
gangliosides - . C ,
, , , ;
. .
gap - , . X , (
)
; . -
- ,
SV40 <.> (.
<AP site>).
gap filling - .
<Okazaki fragments> - -
; .. (5-3) <nick sealing>.
garden pea - . 1 (Pisum sativum).
gargoilism, Hurler syndrome, Scheie disease - , ,
, I. , (
), , ,
.; , IDUA p16 4.

garlon-4 - -4. ,
,
( ).

Garrod disease = alkaptonuria (.).


gas = growth arrest-specific genes (.)
gastrula - .
<gastrulation>, , ( ) ; .
.. 1865, . .
1874.
gastrulation - .
(- ) ,
e ( ),
<gastrula>.
Gaucher disease - . P ,

(, .)
; - ,
-
, GCGD q21 1.
Gauze law - , . H
( )
, ;
..
; .. 1931-35
. (1926).
G-banding - G-. M ,
(GTG-)
(GAG-) ,
(
, ); G-.
,
, ;
G-. . 1971.
G11-banding - G11-. G- <G-banding>,
pH (10,4-11,0); G11. (
- 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 19 Y).
GBI-banding - GBI-. G- <G-banding>:
5- <5-bromodeoxyuridine>
.

GDH = glucose dehydrogenase (.).


geitonogamy - . ,
.
gelatinises . <metalloproteinases>

. .
II, .
: - (72 ) - (92 ),
. . I,
IV, V, VII, X, XI, XIV, TNF- IL-1.
gelatine - . <collagen>.
gelding = castration (c.).
gender = sex (c.).
gene - . , ,
(
), . <phenotype>; .
<alleles>,
.; . . 1909,
.
gene action - .
, ; ..
<genotypic environment>.
gene activation - . ( )
,
.
gene bank = genomic library (.).
gene cluster - .
, ,
<multigene family>.
gene concept - () .
, <Mendels laws>,
<chromosome theory>, <Watson-Crick model>, - <one gene - one
enzyme theory> . .
gene conversion - .
Aa (3:1 1:3 4:0 0:4 2:2),
() , ;
.. - ,
;
. 1928, ..
. 1930.
gene dosage - . K
; .. <ploidy>, ,
, , - ..
( <trisomy> ..)

( , <monosomy> ..).
gene drift, genetically automatic process - , ()
, - .
(), (
); , ..
; .. .,
- - .. ..
30- .
gene expression - .
- .
gene flow - . ,
; ..
.
gene frequency - .
,
.
gene interaction - .
(), , ,
;
.. - , <epistasis>,
<intergene suppression>, - ..;
.. <genic balance>; .. .
1900- .
gene mapping, mapping - . O
- ;
.. - (
,
- ),
( , ,
.) ( in situ <in situ hybridization>,
<monochromosomal cell hybrid>,
<deletion mapping> .); 4
- (

-), (1 1
), (
), (
); 5 ( 1992-93)
, -
- .
gene mutation, transgenation - . ,
- , -
( <frameshift mutation>
<point mutation>) ,
( <deletion>, <insertion> ..).

gene pool - , . ,
.
gene redundancy - . H
- ,
<multigene family>.
gene scrambling - .
<micronucleus> :
( ),
<internal
eliminated sequences> ( <intron>)
<macronucleusdestined sequences> (), - , I
Oxytrichia nova 9 8 ; ..
. . 1989.
gene sharing. ,
(, -4- <prolyl 4-hydroxylase>); ,
gene sharing
.
gene string = chromonema (c.).
gene substitution - .
, ,
; .. <gene therapy>.
gene symbol - . - : , w ( white: ), MDH (
<malate dehydrogenase>) ..; .. ,
, ,
- .
gene therapy - .
()
<genetic engineering> .
genealogy = phylogeny (c.).
genecology = ecological genetics (c.).
Genentech. (),
(, ,
<transgenic animals> ..).
general repulsion - . ,
<bivalent>, ; ..
<chiasma>, ; .. <repulsion hypothesis>.
generation - , . ,

(
, ,
. - ); .

,

.
generation time, Tg - .
, .. ,
.
generational sterility - . ,

.
generative fertilization - .
<double fertility> -
.
generative nucleus - .
, , :
.. , -
( <double fertilization>).
genital disc - . <imaginal disc>
, ,
( ), .
genetic analysis - . C

.
genetic assimilation - .
( )
, ,
,
; ..
. 1942-53.
genetic bakcground - .
, .
genetic blocking - . ,
- ,
; - ,
.. ( <leaky mutation>), ,
..,
.
genetic burden = genetic load (c.).
genetic coadaptation - .
( ),
.
genetic code - . C

, 3 ()
; : (3 - 1
), ( ,

<overlapping genes>),
( ),
( ),
(.. - ),
( ).
genetic code dictionary - . T
() , 64 , 61
(c. ) 3 - <nonsense-codon>.
genetic colonization - .
<parasitism>, - -
( ), ,
;
.. (Agrobacterium),
.
genetic counselling - .
, : ,
,
( )
() .
genetic death - . .
genetic disease = hereditary disease (c.).
genetic distance - .
(, ..),
,
;
.. <Nei genetic distance>.
genetic engineering - () . P
,
, ; .. 1972,
. ,
-, E.coli SV40 <simian virus
40>.
genetic environment = genotypic environment (c.).
genetic equilibrium - .

- .
genetic fixation - .
() , .. ..
, .
genetic flexibility = flexibility (c.).
genetic grade - .
: - 1 .., ()
- 2 .., - 3 ..; 1 ..
0,5, 2 .. - 0,25 ..

genetic (population) homeostasis - () .


C
.
genetic improvement - . (
)
.
genetic incompatibility - .
,
; .. -
.., , <self sterility gene>
.
genetic instability - .
, ( )

<transposable elements>; .. , ,
. .
genetic intersexuality - (. intersexuality).
genetic load (burden) - .
, ,
; ..
- <mutational load>, <segregational
load> <substitutional load>.
genetic map - . C
( ) ,
,
( ).
genetic map contraction = map contraction (.).
genetic map expansion = map expansion (.).
genetic mapping - .
<genetic map>, e
() , (. <gene
mapping>).
genetic marker - . ,
,
;
.. () .
genetic material - . K ,
, , a
() ; .. -
( - ),
( ), (
), (
).
genetic mobility - .
,

( .).
genetic monitoring - (. monitoring).
genetic polymorphism - .
,
.
genetic prognosis - .

<genetic counselling>, ,
<pedigree> -
.
genetic ratio - . K
e ,
(..
<allelomorph>).
genetic risk - .
<genetic load> ; ..

x ,
..
genetic similarity - .
(, ..),
, (. <Nei genetic
distance>).
genetic stability - .

.
genetic structure of population - .
X ,
( , x
<electrophoresis>) , ; ...
<gene pool>.
genetic system - . K
( ),
.
genetic (hereditary) variation - () .
,
( - ).
genetically automatic process = gene drift (c.).
genetics - . H
.
genetics of sex - . ,
.
genic balance - , . ,
,

- (),
/ 0.5, -
1.0, <intersex> - 0.5<X/A<1.0.
genic sterility - (. chromosome sterility).
genocline - . e
() - .
genocopies - . O ,
,

, - , Drosophila
melanogaster ,
( ).
genodeme - . ( <deme>),
() .
genogeography - . P
, -
, o ,
,
, ; . ..
1928-29.
genome - . C
; (
),
; ,
. (
..), .
<karyotype>, ; . . 1920.
genome addition hypothesis - .
,
() , -
(),
; ...
Poeciliopsis .
( 70 , );
. 1969.
genome analysis - .

; ..
.
genome complexity = complexity (c.).
genome loss - .
; .. (
<delayed fertilization>)
.
genome mutation - . M,

<genome> ; ..
<ploidy> <aneuploidy>.
genome segregation - .

; ..
<monochromosomal cell hybrid>.
genome size - .
; ( ) ..
( )
( , total genome length).

(
,

)
1,62 106
2 106
2 107

Neurospora crassa 4,7 107

1,4 107

1 108
Caenorhabditis
elegans

2,3 109

1,8 108
5 108

1,6 109

1,4 109
3,6 1010
2,7 109

1,5 109
1,2 109

2,6 109

3 109
3 109
1,6 1010
2,7 1010
8 109

Lilium 1,8 1011


longiflorum
genomic
allopolyploidy

.
H


(); .. ; ..
.
genomic exclusion - .
,
<micronucleus>.
genomic formula - . K
: n (), 2n
(), AABB ( ,
), 2n-1 () ..
genomic imprinting = parental imprinting (c.).
genomic library, gene bank - , ,
() . H ,
(, ) <genome>;
( , , .)
<chromosome-specific library>;
, ..
.
genonema = chromonema (c.).
genophore - . ,
, .
genospecies = biotype (c.).
genotype - . C
- , ;
. - ,
<phenotype>; . . 1909.
genotype frequency - . ,
.
genotypic (genetic, internal) environment, residual genotype -
( ) , . ,
( );
.. ,

.. ; ..
.. 1926.
genus - . T, <species>,
<family>.
genus cross = intergeneric hybrid (c.).
geographic cline = cline (c.).
geographical isolation - . ,
,
; .. ,
..; ..
() <allopatric speciation>.
Georgievs
hypothesis

,
<heterogeneous nuclear RNA>
, , ,
() ;

-
<Britten-Davidson
hypothesis>,

.. 1969.
germ (reproductive) cells - ( ) .
K, , .. ; ..
. . 1897
,
; .. - ,
; ..
<somatic cell>.
germ line - . H ,
( ); ..
()
.
germ line limited chromosomes = K chromosomes (.).
germ nucleus - . <germ
line> .
germ plasm - . ,

<germ line>; .. . 1883-85
<neodarwinism>.
germarium - . ,
,
.
germ-free = sterile (c.).
germinal cells - . ,
: - , - .
germinal selection - () .
,
- -

( ); .. .
1896.
germinal vesicle - .
( );
.. I.
germination inhibitor - . ,
( )
; .. (
, .), (
) ( ).
gerontology - . P ,
; .
.. .
gestation - .
; .
- , .
, (
<placenta>) .
GH = growth hormone (.).
ghost, empty particle - . <capsid> ,
, .
giant chromosome - .
(, ,
. ): ..
<lampbrush chromosomes>
<polytene chromosomes>
. . .
giant platelet syndrome = Bernard-Soulier syndrome (.).
giant X chromosome - -.
Microtus agrestis, :
c .-.
20% ( 2n=38);
,
<giant chromosome>.
gibberellin - . ,
; . .

Gierke disease - , - ,
I . , , (
), ,

<insulin>, - .; ..
-6-, ;
- .
gland - . O , ,
;
( )
.; , ( )
c . ( ); (
) . ( ).
globins - . ,
<hemoglobin>, <myoglobin> <leghemoglobin>.
globioid cell leukodystrophy = Krabbe disease (.).
globular loops - .
<lampbrush chromosomes> ,
; . (1968)
Pleurodeles waltl.
globulins - . ,
, (
- ); .
( <immunoglobulins>), (,
) ..
Glogers rule - . ,
,
;
. 1833.
glucagon - . , -
, 29 ; .
<insulin>,
.
glucocorticoids - . ,
,
- , ; .,
, .
glucokinase - [ 2.7.1.2]. P ,
, <insulin>
<glucagon>; .
- , 2
.
glucose - , . ,
, - ,
; . ,
.
glucose dehydrogenase, hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, GDH [ 1.1.1.47]. ,

, -6-, -6- . ;
. - ; GDH
pter-p36.3 1 - ,
.
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD - -6-
[ 1.1.1.49]. , -6-
;
- .-6-. <glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
deficiency>; .-6-. -
(G-6-PDH, G-6-PD); .-6-. , () 4
210 212 .
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, G-6-PD deficiency -
-6-.
C

-6-
(6),

, ;
.6 - 100 .
- 1993
300 , 58 ,
- - (
, , );
6 , <favism>;
.6 , ,
, .
glucose phosphate isomerase - [ 5.3.1.9].
, D--6- D--6
; .
<anemia>; ()
125 ; .
- (GPI).
glucuronic acid - . ,
D- ;
.. . ;

..

<UDP-glucuronosyltransferase>;
..

<ascorbic acid>.
glutamic acid [Glu] - []. - ,
, ,
, ;
, .
NH2 CH(COOH) (CH2)2 COOH

glutamine [Gln] - []. L-- L- ,


; . -
,
; , .
NH2 CH(COOH) (CH2)2 CO NH2
glutathione - . T ( - - ),

.
glycerol - (). ,
.
CH2 CHCH2

OH OH OH
glycine [Gly] - []. A , ,
,
, ..; . -
<hippuric acid>; , , , .
NH2 CH2 COOH
glycogen - . P , -D 105-107 ;
.
glycogen phosphorylase - [ 2.4.1.1]. ,
,
( .), (
.), (. );
. ,
(, .
19, 12 2);
( 100 ),
; . - <McArdle disease>.
glycogen storage diseases = glycogenosis (.).
glycogenosis,
glycogen
storage
diseases
.

, ,
<glycogen>; .
<Gierke disease>, <Pompe disease>,
<Forbes disease>, <Andersen disease>, - <McArdle disease>,
<Hers disease>, <Thomson disease>, <Haag disease>,
<Tarui disease>, .
glycolysis
.

( )
; . .
glycophorin - . ,
, . - ,

(
131 ); . Dantu
<Dantu antigen> Henshaw <Henshaw antigen>.
glycoproteins - . C ,
( % 80%; , 4%),
; . - <transferrin>, ,
<immunoglobulins>, o .
glycoside - . -
; . -
; . - <nucleoside>.
glycosidoses - . ,
; .
<Fabry disease>, <Gaucher disease>, <Krabbe disease>,
<Sanfilippo disease>, - <Tay-Sacks disease> .
GM2-gangliosidosis I = Tay-Sachs disease (.).
GM2-gangliosidosis II = Sandhoff disease (.).
gnotobiosis - .
.
gnotobiota - .
, <gnotobiosis>.
Goldberg syndrome - . ,
, , <gargoilism>,
, ,
.; - ,
- <galactosidase> ,
( 20),
, .
golden hamster - . 1 (Mesocricetus auratus).
Goldenhar syndrome - . ,
, ,
- ,
, .; -
, GHS 7.
goldfish - . 1 (Carassius auratus).
Goldgi apparatus (body, complex) - () .
, ;
.. <dictiosome>;
<endoplasmatic reticulum> .. ;
.. - (,
..), , <lysosome>,
, ; .
1898.
gonad - . ( ) - () ().
gonadic sterility - . ,


; , <gametic sterility>
<zygotic sterility>, .
,
.
gonadotropic hormone - , . ,

( <prolactin> .)
( ..).
goneoclin - . ,
- .
gonial crossing-over - . K,
- ,
<achiasmata>.
gonidia - . O , ; .
- ().
gono- (-gony) - -, -. O ,
: , .
gonochorism - , . C
, .. , ( . =
).
gonomery - .
:
.
gonophage - . ( )
.
gonotokont = auxocyte (.).
-gony = gono- (.).
Gorlin syndrome - . ,

(
), ; -
; , .. - ,
q31 9.
Gowen suppressor of crossing-over - .
P ( - c(3)G), 3
Drosophila melanogaster:

<synaptonemal
complex>
,
, .
G6PD = glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (.).
G6PD deficiency = glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (.).
G6PD Mediterranean - . favism.
GPI = glucose phosphate isomerase (.).

Graafian follicle - . ,
, , ;
..
grading - . K (
), ( );
. - (
).
gradualism - . ,
, . ,

; (gradual)
.
Graffi leukemia virus - . ,

.
graft = grafting (.).
graft = transplantat (.).
graft hybrid - () . P,
() ()
(); (Sorbus
Aronia) .. - .
grafting, graft, transplantation - .
;
. ( )
- .

; .

<autograft>,

<isograft>,
<allograft>, <xenograft>, .
<hybrid graft>.
Gram stain - .
, (1853-1938, )
- - <gram-positive
bacteria> - <gram-negative bacteria>;
.
gramicidin S - S. ,
Bacillus brevis <ornithine> () D-:
D-

D-;
.S - , , (1 2)
.

Gram-negative bacteria - - . ,
<Gram stain>, 180
( <rickettsiae>); ..
<endotoxins> ( ,
. . ).
Gram-positive
bacteria
-
.
,
<Gram stain> (
), 80
.
grand strain - -. - ,
(, <petit>
..).
granular component - .
<nucleolus>, ,
,
.
granular loops - .
<lampbrush chromosomes> 0,5 ,
;
. (1968) 11- . Pleurodeles
waltl.
granum - .
, <chlorophyll> .
gratuitous inducers - .
, <inducible
enzymes>,
.
gravity method - .
<air-drying method>:
,
, - ,

.
Gray, Gy - . E : 1
, 1
, 1 .
green mold - . 1 (Penicillum).
Greenfield disease = metachromatic leucodystrophy (.).
Greig syndrome - . ,
( ), - ,
, , - , ,
.; - ,
GCPS p13 7 (, ..
GLI3, -
).

grid - . ( )
,
.
griseofulvin - . ,
, Penicillum,

.
gRNA = guide RNA (.).
groove - . -
; (
, .. ) .;
. .
Gross leukemia virus - . ,
, -
4-12 .,
. 1951.
group (limited) progress - () .
,
(, )
()
, (,
, ,
- - ..);
1923 . (

).
group selection - . ,

; ..
,
, .
group-specific component, vitamin D-binding factor -
, -D- . C ,
<calcipherol> , ,
3 ;
.-.. <albumin> - <fetoprotein> (
5).
growing point = replicative fork (.).
growth - . (, )
()
; , .
; .
. (),
(, ); . - ,

( G1 G2), .
( ) ; .
-
( .).
growth arrest-specific genes, gas - . ,
;
; ...
( 6) ;
... .
growth hormone, GH, somatotropin - , ,
. ,
, ,
, , ,
( ..
17, 191 ); ..
<transgenic animals>.
Grunstein-Hogness method = colony hybridization (.).
G-synapsis - G-. H,
( <zygotene>)
G- <G banding> ( R-)
; G.; G-. . 1988.
GT-AG rule - -.
<intron>
,
<splicing>; .- - ,
.
GTG-banding - GTG-. G- <G-banding>,
.
guanine - . , <cytosine>;
<xanthine>;
.

guanine deoxyriboside - . ,
.
guanine-7-methyl transferase - -7- (. cap).
guanosine - . H, .
guanosine pentaphosphate, pppGpp - ,
II. ,
, <stringent response>; .
5- 3-
<effector> -, ,

,
relA, <guanosine tetraphosphate>
.
guanosine tetraphosphate, ppGpp - , I.
, , <stringent response>; .
5- 3-; .
- ,
<guanosine pentaphosphate>.
guanylyl transferase - (. cap).
guayule - . 1 (Parthenium argentatum).
guide RNA, gRNA - . ,
<RNA editing>
.
guide sequence - . ,
<splicing>,
- ;
( <snurps>) -
- (, U1- <U1 RNA> ) .. (..
,
<rybozymes>, - , Tetrahymena sp.).
Guinea pig - . 1 (Cavia porcellus).
guppy - . 1 (Lebistes reticulatus).
gymnoplast - . K,
.
gynaecium (gynoecium) - . C ,
.
gynandromorph, sex mosaic - . O,
, - ,
( , ,
, - ; );

<hermaphroditism>; . . 1915.
gyno- - -. X : ,
.
gynochromatype, heterochrome - . , (. <androchromatype>).
gynodioecy - , . H
() .
gynoecium = gynaecium (.).
gynogamone - . <gamone> - ,
; . ,
.

gynogenesis - . <parthenogenesis>,
( . - )
,
; . , ,
.
gynophory - .
,
.
gypsy moth - . 1 (Lymantria dispar).
gyrase = DNA gyrase (.).
gyrate atrophy - . ,
() , ( 60-70 )
-
; - ,
--,
q26 10; 1993
24 , ..
H
H = average heterozygosity (.).
H antigens - -. ,
.
H2 complex - H2-. <major
histocompatibility complex> ; 17,
-
t- <t-haplotypes>.
H form = triplex DNA (.).
H strand = heavy strand (.).
H substance - H. - (
0); , .,
19 ; . (
<Bombay blood groups>).
Haag disease - , I . ,
-, ;
.
habitat - . C
( ) ; .
.
habitual = congenital (.).
haemo- = hemo- (.).
haematoxylin
.
O

( );
. ; .

- .
Hagedoorns effect - . ,
()
, ,
. . 1921, .. .
1922.
Hageman factor - . XII ,
( .. 74 ),
. ( .), .
.
Hageman syndrome - .
, XII;
- , F12
q33-qter 5.
hairpin - .
,
.
hairy willow-herb - . 1 (Epilobium hirsutum).
Haldanes law (rule) - . , ,
,
( ) , -

, - Y-;
. 1922.
half chiasma = terminal chiasma (.).
half heterogamy - . ,
, ,
.
half reaction time = cot plot (.).
half sibs - . , .
half-chromatid - . O
- ( )
, , <trypsin>;
. ;
. .
half-life period - []. ,

2 ; - 1/2.
half-mutant - . O,
.
half-repeats
.

,
,
...ABCDEABNDEABCDEABNDE...; . <satellite

DNA> . .
half-spindles - . C ,
<centriole>,
( ).
half-tetrad - . (AB+ab Ab+aB)
<tetrad>, .
halothane test - .
: () HALn - CRC,
- ( 6);
;
-
, - ..
;
, ,
.
hamodeme - . ( <deme>),

, .
handicap principle, good genes model - . O
, <Fisherian
model>, ..
()
(good genes); ..
; . 1975.
haplo- - -. O , - :
.
haplochlamydic chimaera - .
<periclinal chimaera>,
.
haplodiploidy - -. M ,
(

) , - ; .-.
, . .
haploid - . X (),
(n); ,
- <haplodiploidy>;
,
<gynogenesis> ..
haploid generation - .
<alteration of generation> - <gametophyte>.
haploid number = n (.).
haploid parthenogenesis - () .
<parthenogenesis>,

c ; ..
- <haplo-diploidy>.
haploidization - . <parasexual process>,


; . -.
haploidy - . H .
haplo-insufficient (simple insufficient) allele - .
A, <incomplete dominance>,
.. .
haplome - . ,
() , , ;
.
<genome>.
haplomict - . ,
, .
haplont - . O,
, ; , . -
<gametophyte>; . , -,
.
haplophasic lethal - . ,
( -
<zygotic lethal>); ..
.
haplopolyploid - . O,
()
, () .
haplo-sufficient allele - . A,
<complete dominance>, ..
. () ,
..
haplotype - .
- haplo(id)/(geno)type.
happy puppet syndrome = Angelman syndrome (.).
hapten - , , . C,

- (), - , , .;
.,
, , .,
.
haptoglobin - . ;
<hemoglobin>,
.
Hardy-Weinbergs law - -.

() ; A p,
a - q (p+q=1) AA, Aa aa
p2+2pq+q2=1.
Harvey murine sarcoma virus [Ha-MuSV] - .
<retroviruses>; vrasH, c-rasH,
11 7 .
HAT medium - . Hat-selection.
Hartnup disease - . ,
, ;
- .
Hatchs hypothesis - . ,
<satellite DNA>
, ,
- - <extrachromosome arm>; .. . . 1976.
HAT-selection - -. M
, (
) - , ,

-,
, 17
,
(
); <hybridoma>,

.
haustorium - . <hypha> ,
-
.
Hayflick limit - .
,
- .. 30-50.
haystack model = local mate competition model (.).
Hb = hemoglobin (.).
headful mechanism - .
(, 4) :
,
-

<cyclically permuted sequences>;
<terminal redundancy> -.
heat shock - .
, , ..
<induced polyploidy>

(, ): 29-33o 2-20 .
( 15-20o) 3-10 . (
) 20-40 . ( )
; ..
<heat-shock proteins>, <puffing>
( .. 41-43o).
heat-shock proteins - . C , e
, ,
; ...
( ,
, .),
, -
... 70 ( hsp-70);
..., 9
<puff> ,
( 37o) . 1962.
heavy chain disease = Franklin syndrome (.).
heavy isotope - . A, ,
, - , (2H = D) (3 = T) - ..
(1).
heavy satellite DNA - .
<satellite DNA>, <buoyant
density> , ;
-.
heavy strand, H strand - [].
,
(
, , <satellite DNA>
) , ,
<buoyant density>.
heavy-metal contamination - .
,
,
: , , , ,
.
HeLa cell line, HeLa cells - HeLa.
- ,
, 1951; ..HeLa
. (Henrietta Lacks).
helicase - , rep-. ,
E.coli <replication>.
helix-destabilizing
proteins
,

.
,
<replication fork>,

.
helix-loop-helix, helix-turn-helix - --.
() -
, - ,
- <prolactin> 56 2
( 14 ), 4 .
Hellins rule [of multiple births] - . ,

: n,
n2, - n3 ..; ..
.
.
helper cells = TH-lymphocytes (.).
helper virus - -. H ,
( ) <defective
phage> -, - , gal ( )
.
hematopoiesis
(hemopoiesis)
,
.

,
<stem cell>;
. ;
. , -
( , .).
heme - . K <porphyrins>
; - .-,
<hemoglobin>, <myoglobin>, <peroxidases>,
<cytochromes> .
hemeralopia - , . P
; . , ,
.
hemi- - -. O ( ) -:
.
hemihaploid - . O ( ),
- , Ribes nigrum
(4n=32)
. (4 ).
hemimelia - . .
hemimetabolous development - .

,
(, .), ...
. .
.

hemimethylated DNA - . ,
:
5 3

3m 5,

, ,
<restriction endonucleases>; .
<fully methylated DNA>.
hemiolodiploidy,
seskvidiploidy
,
.
,
; (..
)
; .
<anorthoploidy>.
hemizygosity - .

<aneuploidy> <deletion> (.. ),
,
;
.
hemo-, haemo- - -. : ..
hemochromatosis [hereditary] - []. (
.),
, , ,
. , 40 ;
- , HFE
p21.3 6. . -
HFE, C282Y
HLA-I. -
2 (TFR2), 7q,
HFE2 (1q) .
.
hemocyanin - . ,
; . ,
.
hemocyte - . ; . , .
hemoglobin (haemoglobin), Hb - . K
, ,
;
. 4 ,
<heme>; 1993 350
,
- , ,

. , ,
;
. ; (
, .) .
- <fetal hemoglobin>.
hemoglobin Abruzzo - . ,
, ; 143-
-.
hemoglobin Alesha - . -
; ; 67- -;
1993.
hemoglobin Athens-Georgia - -. K ;
; -
40- .
hemoglobin Boston - . ,
58- -.
hemoglobin Bristol - .
67- -.
hemoglobin Brockton - . - <anemia>;
; 138-
-.
hemoglobin Bruxelles - . -
, ; - 35%, 41-
42- .
hemoglobin C, Hb - . 6- -
.
hemoglobin Caen - . - , ;
132- -.
hemoglobin Cagliari - . - ,
<thalassemia>, ;
60- -.
hemoglobin Coimbra - . ;
99- -.
hemoglobin Constant Spring - -. ; - 141, 172
- <missense mutation>,
- (),
.
hemoglobin Coventry - . 141- -
; .
hemoglobin Cranston - . 2
( ) 144- -,

145- 146- ,
11 (
<hemoglobin Tak>).
hemoglobin D Los Angeles - D -. -
121 ;
; - ( 1951)
, D,

( S <hemoglobin S>)
; D
<hemoglobin Neath> .
hemoglobin Denmark Hill - -.
, ;
95- -.
hemoglobin E - .
( - -
30 . ), - ( ) ; 26 -;
hemoglobin Extremadura - . -
<hemolytic anemia>; 133- -.
hemoglobin F = fetal hemoglobin (.).
hemoglobin F-Macedonia - F-.
: ;
2- -.
hemoglobin Fontainebleau - . -
; ; 21- -.
hemoglobin Fort Ripley - -.
<fetal hemoglobin>, ,
; 92- .
hemoglobin Freiburg - . ;
23- -.
hemoglobin Fukuyama - .
; 77- -.
hemoglobin Gedong - .
; 139- -
.
hemoglobin genes - []. ,
, - 11
-, 2 -, -, -, 16 - 2 - 2 .
hemoglobin Grady - .
116-118- -.

hemoglobin Gun Hill - -. ,


; 5 - 91-95- (, ,
, , ), 92-96-, 93-97-
-,
hemoglobin Hammersmith - .
( 1967) ,
, CD1
<heme>, , -
<anemia>; 42- -.
hemoglobin Hanamaki - . ,
; 139-
-.
hemoglobin Heathrow - .
; 103- .
hemoglobin Hekinan. ;
27- -.
hemoglobin Himeji - . - ,
;
140- -.
hemoglobin Hinsdale - . - ,
, ; 139-
-.
hemoglobin Hyde Park - -.
<hemoglobin M>, 92-
-.
hemoglobin Iwate - . <hemoglobin M>,
87- -.
hemoglobin J-Guantanamo - J . -
, ; 128- -.
hemoglobin J-Lome - J-. ;
59- -.
hemoglobin Koln - . 98-
-.
hemoglobin Leiden - . ,
; 6-
7- -.
hemoglobin Lepore - . ,
-, N-
- - -; .., -,
<fused gene>
<unequal crossing-over>.
hemoglobin Leslie - . ,

; 131- -; .
hemoglobin Luxembourg - . -
, ; 24-
-.
hemoglobin Lyon - . ;
17- 18- -.
hemoglobin M - . ,
<methemoglobinemia>,
. 1948
; 5 . -
, , , - <hemoglobin: Boston, Iwate,
Saskatoon, Hyde Park, Milwaukee>, 4 ( . )
.
hemoglobin Maputo - .
; 47- -.
hemoglobin Marseille-Long Island - --. K
; ; 2-
-.
hemoglobin McKees-Rock - --.
; - (145- 146- -
)
.
hemoglobin Memphis - .
23- -: ..
S <hemoglobin S>.
hemoglobin Milwaukee - .
<hemoglobin M>: 67- .
hemoglobin Monroe - . - ;
30- -.
hemoglobin Moriguchi - . - ,
; 92- -.
hemoglobin Natal - . ,
; - (140-141-) .
hemoglobin Neath - .
121- -; ; D
- <hemoglobin D Los Angeles>.
hemoglobin Niteroi - . ,
; 42-44-
(, , ) -.
hemoglobin Olympia - . - ,
; 20-

-.
hemoglobin Presbyterian - .
; 108- -.
hemoglobin Q-Thailand - Q-.
, ; 74- .
hemoglobin Quong-Sze - -.
- - ; ..-.
-.
hemoglobin Redondo - .
<heme>, ;
92- -.
hemoglobin S - S. 6- -
, .S
; .S - ,
. . 1949 (
. 1957);
Hb-S ( ,
, , , )

,
; .S <sickle-cell
trait>.
hemoglobin San-Jose - -. ;
7- -.
hemoglobin Saskatoon - .
<hemoglobin M>, 63-
-.
hemoglobin Seattle - . -
, , ;
70- -.
hemoglobin Southampton - . ,
; 106- -.
hemoglobin St. Antoine - -. ,
; 74- 75-
( ) -.
hemoglobin St. Francis - -.
, ; 121-
-.
hemoglobin Stanmore - .
, ; 111-
-.
hemoglobin Swan River - -.

<ferritin> ; 6- -.
hemoglobin Tak - . - 2
146- ( ) - ,
-
11 - ,
, , , , , , , ,
, .
hemoglobin Tilburg - . , ,
; 73- .
hemoglobin Tochigi - . ,
4 (, , ) 56-59-
-; .
hemoglobin Tours - . ,
; 87- -.
hemoglobin Volga - . -
, , ;
27- -.
hemoglobin Warsaw - . - ,
, ;
42- -.
hemoglobin Wayne - . 139- -
, 139-141- (,
, ) , , ,
, - 5
- , , , .
hemoglobin Yahata - . (
,
): 112- -.
hemoglobin Zaire - .
- 5
116- 117- -;
.
hemoglobinopathies - . ,
;
( 350) -
S <hemoglobin S>, , , Constant Spring, ,
D, E, H, I ..;
, ( ,
).
hemolymph - . ,
,
.
hemolysine - . A

, <complement>,
<hemolysis>; .

.
hemolysis - . ,
;
( ) ( )
.
hemolytic anemia - . ,
, ,
; 10 ..,
- <phosphoglycerate
kinase> ( PGK1 - Xq13), - <alodolases> (ALDOA - 16q22-q24),
<hexokinase> (HK1 - 10q22), (GSR - 8p21.1) .;

<hemoglobinopathies>,
<thalassemia> .
hemopexin
.
-,

<heme>
; . 11
-.
hemophilia A - . ( ),
VIII ( ) ;
, F8
q28 -.
hemophilia B - . ( ),

); , F9
q26-q27.3 -.
hemophilia C - . ( ),
I (
); - ( ) , F11
q35 4.
hemopoiesis = hematopoiesis (.).
hemorrhagic diathesis - . (
),
, ,
: 1- - <hemophilia A, B, C>,
<trombocytopathya>, <trombastenia>, ; 2-

<hypoprotrombinemia>,

<parahemophilia>, <hypoproconvertinemia>; 3- <afibrinogenemia>, <hypofibrinogenemia>,


<dysfibrinogenemia>, - (
).
Henshaw antigen - Henshaw.

<glycophorin> , .
heparine - . C ,
,
(
in vivo, in vitro); ,
; .
; .
-
- <RNA polymerase>.
hepato-cerebral dystrophy - - ,
-. ,
,
() ; - .
herbicide, weedicide - . ,
; .
( ).
hereditary
diseases

.
,
;
.. ( ) <Down syndrome>, <hemophilia A, B, C>,
<phenylketonuria> ., (
) - , .,
- ,
- <allergy>, , <rickets>
.; .. (),
(, -,
); .. 10% .
hereditary factor - .
(.. ) ,
- (); ..
.,
<gene>.
hereditary fetal hemoglobin persistancy -
. ()
() <fetal hemoglobin> - -:
- -
( <thalassemia>) ; ....
Hb-,
- .
hereditary variation = genetic variation (.).
heredity - . C

; . -

,
, ,
<gene>.
heritability - . K

; . ( ., .), %,
:
G2
h2 =
G2 + E2
G2 - , E2 -
; .
( .,
<mass selection>).
heritable fragile site = rare fragile site (.).
Hermansky-Pudlah disease - -. ,
<trombocytopathy>,
, ; . ..-. ()
, .
pirl , ..-., 3A-
AP3,

.
hermaphrodite - . O,
<hermaphroditism>.
hermaphrodite flower = bisexual flower (.).
hermaphroditism - . H

.:

.
() -
; <protandry>, <protogyny>; , ,

<pseudohermaphroditism>; .
(, ); .
.
Herpesviruses - . K - (
- , ), 100-150 ,
, . ;
.
Hers disease - , VI . ,
, . ,
( ) ,
; - , PYGL

q11.2-q24.3 14.
Hertwig effect - . ,
<gynogenesis> - , ,
, ,
,
,
; . 1911
.
Hessian fly - . 1 (Mayetiola destructor).
hetero-.
X
,
,
, : , .
heteroalleles - . ,

.
heteroauxesis - .
(),
- isoauxesis, - tachyauxesis,
- bradyauxesis.
heterobathmy - . H

; . .. 1954.
heterocapsidic virus - . ,
, <capsid>,
- , .
heterocarpy - .
,

.
heterochromatic - .
<heterochromatin>.
heterochromatin - . ,
, ,
<euchromatin>
<highly repetitious DNA>,
. ; .
- <Cbanding> . ;

(
,
)
<constitutive
heterochromatin> ( ) . <facultative
heterochromatin>; . . 1922, .
..-.
-heterochromatin
-,

.
, , ,
<chromocenter>, ;
-. . 1934

Drosophila virilis; -. -
.
-heterochromatin - -, () .
, <chromocenter>


<band>.
heterochromatinization - .
<facultative heterochromatin> - ,
- <X inactivation>.
heterochrome = gynochromatype (.).
heterochromosome - . ; .,
. 1901, .
heterochronic genes - .
, , - , lin-4, lin-14, lin-28
lin-29 Caenorhabditis elegans
,
..
heterochrony - .
; . - (
) (); .
<paedomorphosis> <fetalization>; . .
1866.
heterocline pollination - . ,
, ; ..
<geitonogamy> <open pollination>.
heterocyclic amino acid - . A,
<heterocyclic compound> <proline>, <tryptophan>, <histidine> .
heterocyclic compound - .
, ,
. () - ,
, .
heterodimer - . , 2 ,
,
.
heteroduplex - . M ( ),

, ,
. - -
<hemoglobin Lepore>; . - in
vitro (/ /
), .
heterofertilization - .

<double fertilization> .
heterogamete,
anisogamete
,
.
,
, .
heterogametic sex - . ,
() ( Y -
; Z W - ),
(0 - ; Z0 - ); .. <hemizygosity> .
heterogamety - . ,
-
; , .,
, , ,
. .
heterogamy - . ,
; .
<anisogamy>.
heterogeneity - . H () ()
.
heterogeneous nuclear RNA, hnRNA - , .
,
;
,
<intron>
,

-, <snurps> (. <BrittenDavidsons hypothesis> <Georgiev hypothesis>).
heterogenesis - .
; . 1864 .
; . = <alteration of
generation>.
heterogenetic = heterogenic (.).
heterogenetic association - . A
() ,
; .. - <allosynapsis> <autosynapsis>.
heterogenic, heterogenetic - . X , ,
().
heterogenic
adaptation

,
,
.
heterogenote, heterogenotic merozygote - ,
. ,
<transduction>
<conjugation>.
heterogony - . <alteration of

generation>,
(. <growth>).
heterograft = heteroplastic transplantation (.).
heterogyny - . H
.
heterohaploid - . ,
-
<deletion> <duplication>.
heterokaryon - . , (
) ,
<heterokaryosis>, .
heterokaryosis - . <hypha> ,
(
) .
heterokaryotypic
.
X
,
- .
heterokinesis - . M <heterogamety>,
(Y ZW)
; . -
( . - <precession>).
heteromeric genes - . ,
<heteromery>.
heteromery - . O
( ) ,
.
heteromixis - . ,
,
.
heteromorphic bivalent - . ,
,
; .. - ZW XY.
heteromorphic pair - [].
, -
,
(XY, ZW).
heteromorphosis - .
( )
<regeneration>.
heterophenogamy - . ,
,
.
heteropheny - , .
.
heteroplasmic = heteroplasmonic (.).

heteroplasmonic, heteroplasmic - . X
, - ()
.
heteroplastic transplantation, heterograft - ,
.

( - ).
heteroploidy - . O
( <ploidy>
<aneuploidy>).
heteropolymeric protein - . ,

( <heterodimer>, <heterotetramer> ..).
heteropycnosis - . H x
, , ,
<euchromatin> a <heterochromatin>;
( .
, ) .;
. . 1906, .
. - . 1936.
heterosis, hybrid vigour - , .
,
; .
<heterozygosis> ,
<interallelic complementation> . ; .
. 1911.
heterosomal aberration - () .
A, , .. .. =
<translocation>.
heterospory - . H (- )
.
heterostyly - , . H
, ( -
); ,
2 ( 3 - Lythrum sp.) ,
( -
); .
<open pollination>.
heterotetramer - . , 4
; . -
<hemoglobin>.
heterothallism - .
( ),

( ) .
heterotic - . <heterosis>.

heterotopic substitution - , .
( )
, ( . );
.. .. 1931.
heterotopic transplantation - () .
. .
heterotopy - . - ,
, a - ;
. . 1866.
heterotroph - . O,
; .
( - )
( ).
heterotropic chromosome - . ,
- - Z-
0 () Z0 (), .
heterotypic division - . ()
,
(, ).
heterozygosis, heterozygosity - .
<heterozygote> .
heterozygosity = heterozygosis (.).
heterozygote - . O
<heterozygosity>.
heterozygous - .
<heterozygosis>.
hexa- - -. O 6- : .
hexaploid - . ,
: 6n, 6x.
hexokinase - [ 2.7.1.1]. ,
D- (D-, D-, D- D) D--6- -
; . ,
(), ;
- (Hk, HK).
hexosaminidase - [ 3.2.1.52]. ,
, - -,
15 5, -
- <Tay-Sacks disease> <Sandhoff disease>.
hexose - . : , ,
.
hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase = glucose dehydrogenase (.).
Hfr strain - Hfr. E.coli,

( High frequency recombination):


<F factor>, .
hibernate - . <diapause>,
,
.
hidatidiform
moles

()
.
,
<chorion> (
); .., -,
.
hierarchial population - . ,
,

(
)

,
.
high frequency [of] recombination - . ,
Hfr- E.coli,
3
;
e Hfr- E.coli
<nitrogen mustard> 1950.
high frequency [of] transduction - . ,
,

<transduction> - , Hft (High frequency transduction),

; Hft
.
high mobibity gel proteins = HMG-proteins (.).
high pairing mutation - .
, () , Triticum aestivum (Ph)
5B:
, ( Aegilops).
high variegation - . M,
hv
(O ), - <X
inactivation>;
<dosage compensation>.
high-copy plasmids - . <plasmid>,
1 ; ..
.
high-energy phosphate compound = energy-rich phosphate compound (.).
high-loss phenomenon - .

(
),
- <B chromosomes>

<knobs>; . .
1967.
highly repetitious (rapidly reassociating) DNA - .
H ,

; , () .

(,

),
<heterochromatin> <satellite DNA>.
high-resolution chromosome banding -
. G- <Gbanding> R- <R-banding>,
( - 500
, 2000 ..),
( )
.
hinge region - . -
<lactose operon> E.coli ( 50- 80- ),
<protrusion> , <trypsinresistant core>; . -
<immunoglobulin>, H1 H2.
hinny - . ,
(2n=63; 2n=64 2n=62)
.
Hippel-Lindau disease - -, ,
. P ,
;
-
, VHL p26 3.
hippuric acid - , . O
,
; .. - <glycine>.
Hirschsprung disease - . ,
,
,
(1/5000), 4 ;
.. q32.3-q33.2 13.
histamine - . ,
( ) (
); . -
.

histidine [His] - []. H ,


<histamine>; , .

histidine operon - . Salmonella


typhimurium, 9 ,
<histidine>, ..
histidinemia - .
,

,
<histidine>; (
- ) .
; , ,
12 10 .
histoblast = imaginal disc (.).
histocompatibility - , .
, ,
; ..

.
histogenesis - . ,
; . -

.
histoincompatibility,
parasterility

,
, .
, (
) , ;
, ..
.
histolysis - . P .
histone kinase - (. chromosome condensation).
histones - . H -
, (. .); .
(
):
%
%

H1
21
207
27
2
H2A
14.5
129
11
9
H2B
13.7
125
16
6
H3
15.3
135
10
15
H4
11.3
102
10
14
. <nucleosome>, 8
- H2A-H2B-H4-H3-H3-H4-H2B-H2A,
1 (. 1
- , , ).
hit - . ,

; . -
<target theory>.
hit theory (hypothesis) - .
<target theory>,
,
,
; .
hitchhiking effect - .
. ,
;
<gene drift>; ... . 1980.
HK = hexokinase (.).
HKG-banding - HKG-. - <C-banding>,
<constitutive
heterochromatin> ,
(60o) , 0,9%-
0,06 N 8-12
., .
HMG-proteins, high mobility gel proteins - HMG-. H
,
- ,
( LMG- <LMG-proteins>) 0,35 NaCl ; 20 HMG., - ,
30 ;
. 1965.
hnRNA = heterogeneous nuclear RNA (.).
Hodgkin disease - , .
,
( -)
. ; -
..
Hoechst - . -

, -,
Hoechst (); . 33258.
Hogness box, TATA box - , -.
,
( [-25]); .. - ()();
- ,
- <RNA polymerase>
, <Pribnow box>
.
holandric gene - . , Y-
( - ),
<holandric inheritance>.
holandric
inheritance

( ),

Y- ( ).
Holliday model - . ,
, 2
, ,
,
,

,
, <branch migration>;

,
- ( )
; ..

.
hollow spindle - . ,
:
, .
Holmquist-Dancis hypothesis - -.
<Robertsonian rearrangement>


.
holoblastic cleavage - .
() ,
.
holocentric (holokinetic, pleuromitotic) chromosome -
(, ) . X,
: ..,
,

.. (
).
holoenzyme = complete enzyme (.).
hologamy - , , . ,
,
.
hologenesis - . K,
<ontogeny> <phylogeny> ,
;
. 1931.
hologynic inheritance - .
, ,

W-
(


<maternal inheritance>, ..); ..
- <attached X-chromosome> .
holokinetic chromosome = holocentric chromosome (.).
holometabolous development - .
,
(, .),
- , .
holozoic organisms - (. heterotroph).
Holt-Oram syndrome - -. ,

; - , HOS
14.
homeo- (homoeo-) - -. O ,
: .
homeobox - . C
180 , 3-
, - ; .
(Antennapedia, Bithorax .),
.
homeochrome = androchromatype (.).
homeomorphism - . M
, ,
; .
<convergence>.
homeoplastic
(homoplastic)
graft,
homograft

() .
.
homeorhesis = canalization (.).
homeosis - . P ( .)
( .),

<homeotic mutation> (,
- Antennapedia - ..); .,
. 1894,
<heteromorphosis>.
homeostasis - . C

; . (.
<genetic homeostasis>)
.
homeostat
.

() ; . <plastid>,
<mitochondrion>, <episome> .;
., . 1956,
; . - ,
<homeostasis>
( . 1948).
homeotic mutations - . M (.
<homeosis>), , - ,
()
; .. Bithorax (
) Antennapedia ( ), a Proboscipedia .
homing - . C
(), ,
; .
( , .).
homo- - -. X , , ,
() (
<analogy>).
homoalleles - . ,
- . (
<heteroelleles>) .
homocline pollination = self-pollination (.).
homocopolymer - . ,
, ( ..).
homocystinuria - . ,
- - (L), ,
( .
<Marfan syndrome>); - ,
CBS q22.3 21.
homodimer - . ,
.
homodynamic genes - . ,
, .. .
homoeo- = homeo- (.).

homoeologous chromosomes - .
; .. .
homogametes = isogametes (.).
homogamety - . ,
; , e XX/XY
, ..
-.
homogamy, adichogamy, synacmy - . O
,
<self-pollination>.
homogeneously stained regions, HSR - .
,
<heterochromatin>
(, 1 Mus musculus); ... , .
homogenetic pairing - . K
.
homogenomatic - . X (),
2 .
homogenote - . ,
() ,
- ().
homogentisic acid - .
<tyrosine>; .. <alkaptonuria>.

homogenotization - . ()
RecA-
E.coli,
<transposable elements>);
. replacement.
homograft = homeoplastic graft (.).
homoiology - . ,

, .
homokaryon - . M , a
.
homokaryotic - . X ,
.
homologous - . <homology>.
homologous assist = plasmid rescue (.).
homologous chromosomes - . X,

, ,
,
; e
..
homologous (symmetrical) Robertsonian translocation -
.
<Robertsonian translocation>,
, ..
; ...
- t(21;21) -
100%.
homology - . ,
, , ;
. . 1843.
homomeric genes - . ,
<homomery>.
homomeric protein - . ,
.
homomery - .
( ),
; . -
<polymery>.
homomixis - . ,
,
.
homomorphic bivalent - . <bivalent>,
<homologic chromosomes>
.
homonomy - . ,
, - , .
homoplastic graft = homeoplastic graft (.).
homoplasy - .
( - <Robertsonian
translocation>) ; . - ,
, .
homoploidy - . H
, .. <aneuploidy>.
homopolymer - . , .
homoserine - . (---
), <threonine> <methionine>.
H2N CH2(CH2)2OH COOH
homosomal aberration - . A,
.
homospory - .

; .
<isogamy>.
homosteric enzyme - . ,
<allosteric effector>.
homostyly - . (
<heterostyly>); .
.
homothallism - . ,
,
; , . = <homomixis>.
homotopic substitution - , .
,

( ); ..
. 1886.
homotypy - . ,
, - , , ..
homozygosis, homozygosity - . H

; . . 1902.
homozygosity = homozygosis (.).
homozygote - . K ,
.
homozygotic = homozygous (.).
homozygous, homozygotic - .
<homozygosis>.
honey bee - . 1 (Apis mellifera).
hopeful monsters - . ,
,
. 1940, .. ,
( ,
<continuous model>) - .. .
hordeins - (. prolamins).
horizontal gene transfer - .
,

, - ;
... -
<superoxide dismutase> Leiognathidae
Photobacter leiognathi (
).
horizontal variation - .
, , ,
;
<darwin>.

hormogonia - . M -
, .
hormonal intersexuality - (. intersexuality).
hormones - . ,
. ,
: .
( ),
.
horotelic evolution - . ,
,
.
horse been - . 1 (Vicia faba).
host - . O, ( ); . - ,
() , , , (-.).
host range, tropism [of viruses] - , [].
, - ,
(); ..
, ,
(. <amphotropic virus>, <ectotropic virus>).
host-controlled modification - - .
M, <episome>
,
.
host-cell reactivation - -.
- <repair> ,
, .
host-range mutation - . M ,

, .. ,
<host range> .
hot spot - . (,
<recombination>); .. - ,
(, lacZ trpE E.coli); ,
.. - , , ,
- .
house fly - . 1 (Musca domestica).
houskeeping genes = constitutive genes (.).
HPRT = hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (.).
HSA. (Homo sapiens);
, , - ,
HSA21 - 21 .
hsp-70 - . heat-shock proteins.
HSR = homogeneously stained regions (.).

HTF-islands = CpG-islands (.).


human cytogenetics - . ,
(
),
( ); ..
<symbols used in human cytogenetics>.
human ethology = sociobiology (.).
human genetics - . P ,
; ..
.
humoral regulation - . O
, (,
, , ); .. -
, <hormones>.
humster. [human hamster],

<zona pellucida>;
.
Hunter synrdome - . ,
, .. -
<gargoilism>;
-2-; ,
IDS q27.3-q28 -.
Huntington chorea - , . ,
-
; - , HD
p16.3 4.
Hurler syndrome = gargoilism (.).
H-Y antigen - -Y-. T ,

, Y- -
H-Y-., ,
( ); -,
H-Y-a.
; H-Y-a. .
. 1955.
hyaloplasm = matrix (.).
hybrid - . ( ,
); . - ,
- (), () .
hybrid DNA hypothesis, hybrid DNA (polaron hybrid DNA) model -
() , (-) .
O <crossing-over> <gene
conversion>,
( ) ();

. 1963.
hybrid
duplex
molecule

, ,
.
( ) ; .. <heteroduplex>.
hybrid dysgenesis - .
( )
; ..
- <P-M elements>
, .
<transposable elements> (, I-
..); .. . 1971.
hybrid flock = hybrid swarm (.).
hybrid graft - . ,
,
; ..
.
hybrid incapacity = hybrid sterility (.).
hybrid inviability - .
,
.
hybrid merogony - .
.
hybrid necrosis - .
-
, , ..;
- - .. .
1973, - Ne1 Ne2.
hybrid promoter - . <promoter>,

, - , tac- trp- lacZ E.coli.
hybrid species - . ,
( ) (..
<hybridogenesis>); .. - ()
, , ,
.
hybrid sterility (incapacity), intersterility - .
H ( , ) .
hybrid swarm (flock) - (). M
, (
) , <hybrid zone>.
hybrid tobacco mosaic virus - .
, <tobacco mosaic virus>,

,
; .- . 1955.
hybrid vigour = heterosis (.).
hybrid weakness = pauperization (.).
hybrid zone - . ,
(),

; ..
; .
hybrid-arrested translation - , . M
,
(.. , ),
.
hybridity (extramedial hybridity) quotient - .
,
,
.
hybridization - . C
(, , ..); .
/- /-.
hybridogenesis - . (),
(
), . - Rana
esculenta,
R.ridibunda R.lessonae,
, - R.lessonae;

R.ridibunda R.lessonae.
hybridoma - . K ,
()
,
; .

, .
hydrazine - , . T,
;
- <Maxam-Gilbert method>.
H2N NH2.
hydrogamy - . ,
.
hydrogen
bond

.
C

,
; .. ; ..
.

hydrogen ion concentration, pH - . K


,
,
7,0, <7,0 - , 14,0>>7,0 - ;
<buffer>.
hydrogen peroxide - . H ,
( <catalase>)
: H2O2.
hydrolases - . K (
<Enzyme Classification> 3),
<hydrolysis>; 200 .
- <esterases> ( ), (
), ( ) ..
hydrolysis - . ,
.
hydrophily - .
(, , ) ,
.
hydrophobic - . X
(
).
hydrostatic shock - . ,
, - ,
<induced polyploidy> , (, );
400-600 /2
II ( )
( ).
hydroxykynurenine - .
<xanthommatin>; ,
cinnabar, . , , ,
. cn+-.

hydroxylamine - . M, NH 2-
-NHOH,

: NH2OH.

5-hydroxymethyl
cytosine
5-.

, -, :
5-.
, -.

hydroxymethyl uracyl - . P
, <mesokaryotes>.
5-hydroxytriptamine = serotonin (.).
hymenium - . C ,
<ascus> <basidium>,
<paraphysis>.
hymenophore - . ,
<hymenium>.
hyparchic genes - . , -

.
hyper- - -. O , : ,
.
hyperammoniemia - .
; . (
. ) ( OTC p21.1 -)
( CPS1
2).
hyperaneuploidy - . A <aneuploidy>,
.
hyperchimaera - . X,
; .
,
, (
.).
hyperchromic effect, hyperchromicity - , .
(
) ,
..; ..
.
hyperchromicity = hyperchromic effect (.).
hypercyesis - . O
,
( .).
hyperekplexia, startle disease - . ,

,
(startle), .; , . 5.
hyperglycemia - .
( 120 % -),
( <diabetes mellitus> .).
hyperkinesis - .
; , . <tremophilia>, <Hungtington chorea>,
<bilateral atetosis> .
hyperlipemia - .
.
hypermetamorphosis - .
( , .), ,
( <instar>)
.
hypermorph

,
.
M
,
, , .
hypermorphosis - , .

, -
( ) - ,

.
hyperplasia - .
- <hypertrophia>, .
; .
.
hyperploidy - . ()
1 (
).
hyperprolinemia - . ,

.
hypersensitive site = [DNAase] hypersensitive site (.).
hypersensitivity
.
A
,
,
.
hypersyndesis - . O
, ,
<allosyndesis>.
hypertonic solution - . P
( )
.
.

hypertrophy - . P ( ) -
,
; . ,
(, , .).
hyperuricemia - .
; ( .) .

- <hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase>.


hypervalinemia - . ,
, ;
- .
hypervariable region - .
,

- (, , HV FR);
.. .
hypha - . - .
<mycelium>; . () ,
,
.
hypo- - -. O , , : ,
.
hypoaneuploidy - . A <aneuploidy>,
.
hypochondroplasia - . ,
<achondroplasia>; - .
hypochromic effect - .
( 40%)
; ..
- <base-stacking> ,
.. .
hypochromic anemia - . <anemia>,
;
.. - <atransferrinemia>.
hypofibrinogenemia - . , ;
I ();
- , F1
q28 4.
hypohaploidy - . O
.
hypomorph - , . M ,
.
hypomorphosis - . ,
; .
<neoteny>; .

.
hypophosphatasia = Rathbun syndrome (.).
hypophysis - , .
, ; .
, , ..; .
()
().
hypoplasia - . O ,
; . (, ); . () -
<aplasia>.
hypoploidy - .
() ( 1 ,
).
hypoproconvertinemia - . , ,
VII ();
- , F7 q34
13.
hypoprotrombinemia - . , ,
II ();
- , F2 p11q12 11.
hypostasis - . ,
().
hypostatic gene - . ,
<epistasis>.
hyposyndesis - . O
, .
hypothetical ancestor - (. ancestor).
hypotonic solution - . Po,

(); ..
.
hypotrichosis - . O
, .
hypoxanthine - , 6-.
; ,
<xanthine> ( )
.

hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase -


[
2.4.2.8].
,

; - <LeschNyhan syndrome>.
hysteresis - .
- ,
; . .
1935.
I
I-cell disease - I-, II . ,

(inclusion - I-), - ..; .I-.
, N- (
-6-), GNPTA q21-q23 4.
ICF syndrome - ICF. ,
- (I), 1,
9 16 () (F); .ICF
,
. ,
.
ichthyosis - . O ,
; - , . .
ideal population - .
, , ..
(
), <panmixis>
.
identical twins = monozygotic twins (.).
IDH = isocitrate dehydrogenase (.).
idioadaptation = allomorphosis (.).
idioblast - . O , -
- .
idiochromatin - . X <micronucleus>
(. <trophochromatin>).
idiocy, feeble-minding, mentally retarding, imbecibility, oligophreny , . C
, ..
, -
; .
, ,

, , ,
( 17),
, - <Martin-Bell syndrome>.
idiogamy - . O :
<self-pollination> <geitonogamy>.
idiogram - .
<karyotype>
,
, . .
idioplasm - . ,
; . .
1884
.
idiosomatic variability - . ,
(), (
) ;

..

,
..; .. . .
1926.
idiosynkrasis - .
( )
(, ..).
idiotype - . ()
, -,
-.
idling reaction - . --
<guanosine tetraphosphate>, <guanosine pentaphosphate>
<stringent response> .
IEF = isoelectric focusing (.).
I-effect - I-.
Drosophila melanogaster I- R-: R() I()
; ,
I-, I-.,
<position effect>.
IF1 factor - IF1. O ,
-, (eIF1); ,
, IF2 (eIF2) .
IF2 factor - IF2. 100 (IF2a) 90
(IF2b), - 30S , .
IF3 factor = dissociation factor (.).
ignorant DNA - . ,
<plasmid>
<transposable elements> ,

-, ..

( ); ., ,
<optional introns>.
IHF, integration host factor - . ,
,
2 , .
IL = interleukins (.).
I-line = inbred line (.).
illegitimate crossing-over - . K
( - )
() ; , ..
.
illegitimate (ectopic) transcription - .
, , , <dystrophin>
- ; , ,
.., 2-4 ,
, (
); .. . 1989.
imaginal disc, histoblast - .
,

( )
(), - ,
, ; ..
<holometabolous development>.
imago - .
. ; . ,
.
imbecibility = idiocy (.).
imblueing = staining (.).
immanent gene action - . ,
.
immediate early genes - - () . ,
(, - -
- - N cro), - ,
..., - <delayed early genes> <late genes>.
immobilization - . ,
, ;
. - (cross-linking)
, (, ),
..
immobilized enzymes - . ,
,


.
immortalization - . ,
()
; .
.
immortalizing genes - . ,
in vitro
(
<Heyflick limit>).
immune competent cells = immunocompetent cells (.).
immune
response

,
,
-

( ..),
( ..).
immunity - . H

, (- -
<lymphokins>
<immunoglobulins>); (
<immune response> ) . (
. ); . -

(. <phage immunity>, <transposition
immunity>).
immunity substance - .
,
, ; ,
.. .
immunization - .
<immune response>.
immunocompetent
(immune
competent)
cells,
immunocytes
, . K,

<immune response> ( ).
immunocytes = immunocompetent cells (.).
immunoelectrophoresis - .
<electrophoresis> - ( )
(
).
immunogenetics - . ,

;
. (1901).
immunoglobulin
.
,

<antigen>, .. ; .
,
; . - , L-
50-70 25 , - . , N-
; 5 .,
IgG ( - IgA, IgE, IgD,
IgM).
immunoglobulin genes - . ,
<immunoglobulins>, -
.. -;
300 ,
(L-V) ( 95
), ( 6) L-J- ( 96-107) L-C, ( 108-214);
(H-V),
D (10-50), J (4) (8); -
.
immunological memory - . C
<immune response> (
..) (
<immunological tolerance>) - .
immunological
suppression
.


<immune response>
.
immunological tolerance - .
, <immune
response> ( )
; ( )
; .. - ; .. <immunological memory>.
impaternate offspring - . ,
<parthenogenesis>.
implant - . ,
: , ..;
. , .
() .
implantation - .
( - 5-7-
);
.

imprecise excision - .
<transposable elements> ,
-
( ), ,
; ..
.
imprinting = parental imprinting (.).
In. , .
in situ (cytological) hybridization - in situ,
. M ()
-
( ),
, ()
; 1969
- . . . . -
.
in vitro. X - ,
, : - ( ).
in vitro marker - in vitro. ,
;
.i.v. ,
, ..
in vitro packaging - in vitro.

<genomic library>.
in vitro (cell-free) transcription - in vitro.

; .i.v.
- .
in vitro (cell-free) translation - in vitro.

( , , .);
.i.v. (E.coli, Bacillus stearothermophilus)
( .),
.i.v.,
, .
in vivo. X (
) .
in vivo culturing of imaginal disc - in
vivo. M <imaginal disc>,

;

<allotypic
differentiation>; . 1963.

in vivo marker - in vivo. () ,


in vitro, - ,
G6D- <glucose 6-phosphate
dehydrogenase deficiency> .
inactivation center - . -,
(,
a <Cattanah translocation>),
- <X-inactivation>.
inactive-X (Lyons) hypothesis - -,
. , . .
1961,
- <X-inactivation>,
<dosage compensation>.
inadaptation - . H ,

,
.
inbred - . <inbreeding>.
inbred line (strain), I-line - . ,
<inbreeding>
( ).
inbreeding - , . -
, ,

(,

) .
, ()
() ( .); .
<autogamy> <self-pollination>.
inbreeding depression - , -. K

(,

,
) <inbreeding>;
.. ,
( ,
).
incest = consanguinity (.).
incissus area = disjunctive area (.).
inclusion bodies - . M ,
.
incomplete dominance = semi-dominance (.).
incomplete gynogenesis - .
<gynogenesis>,
; ..
, , Oncorhynchus mykiss ( - Salmo
gairdneri),
.

incomplete sex-linkage - () . C,
-
( Y, Z W); ... , ,
; ...
.
inocompletely linked genes - . ,
,
.
incongruent crossing - . C
.
inconsistent gene location - (. gene
mapping).
incorporation - . -
- , . 5- <5-bromodeoxyuridine>
<sister chromatid
exchanges>, . , , ..
incorporation error, misincorporation - .
,
<transition> <transversion>;
.. - ,
5- <5-bromodeoxyuridine>; .. <base-substitution intermediate model>.
incretin - . ,
,
<insulin>.
incross - . C
<inbred
line>.
incubation period - .
(, , , , )
().
independent assortment - . P ,
, , ..
AB, aB, Ab, ab AaBb; ..
.
independent inheritance - . H
() (.
, ); , .. ,
<linkage group>.
index marker - .
, 70% ( .. <microsattelites>, ,
<restriction fragment length polymorphism>, ..);
.., 2-3 . ,
.

indicator strain (species) - (). O ( ),


x , - ,
- Silene
vulgaris ..
indifferent co-orientation - .
,
,
, . . -
; .. .
indirect division = mitosis (.).
indirect end labelling - . M
,
,
, ,
<restriction endonuclease>.
indirect mutagen - () . ,
,
, .
indirect nuclear division - . ,
, .. <mitosis>.
indiscriminate synapsis - .
<synaptonemal complex>
, ; ..
, , Allium fistulosum.
individual - , . ,
; . ,
.
individual mating - . C
, , , .
individual selection - . M ,


; e ..
<mass selection> .
individual
variation -
. ,
(), (
..) .
indole - . <tryptophan> .

indole acetic acid - -3- , .


,
; ,
, .

indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase - -2,3-. ,


<tryptophan> <formyl
kynurenine>; ; IDO 8 .
induced gynogenesis - (. gynogenesis).
induced mutation - . M,
- .
induced polyploidy - .
,
: ..
( ) ,
, ,

;
<colchiploidy>, <heat shosk>, <cold shosk>, <chemical shock>
<hydrostatic shock>.
induced repair - . T ,

, ; ..
SOS- <SOS-response> <adaptive response>.
inducer, inductor, evocalor - , .
, () ,
,
<adaptive enzymes>.
inducible (adaptive) enzyme - () . ,
(
<constitutive enzymes>);
.
1937, adaptive enzyme constitutive enzyme <.>.
induction - . ( )
. ,
- (); .
. 1901; . -
; . - ,
<inducible enzyme>.
inductor = inducer (.).
industrial melanism - .

()
; ..
( , .).
INei - (. Nei genetic distance).
inert chromosome - . X,
<heterochromatin>, - -
<X-inactivation>, W- Z-.
inert segment - . ,
, .. .
infantile autism, Kanner syndrome - , . ( )
, -
. ; ,
.. ( ADSL
q12-qter 22).
infectious nucleic acid - .
, -
.
infertility = sterility (.).
informatins - . ,

;
. 40 .
informational
macromolecule

.
M,
.
informofer - . ,
<informatins>,
<heterogeneous nuclear RNA> 30S- .
informosome - . ,
<mRNA> , .
in-frame mutation - [].
( , ,
) ( ).
ingestin = multicatalytical protease (.).
inheritance - . aa
( - ); .
(
), (, ,
) () ,
(, .).
inheritance of acquired characteristics -
. <Lamarckism>,
,
( ), .

inhibitor - . X ,
; . - ,
- (. ..); . , -
.
initial spindle - . M
,
.
initiation complex - . C,
, (30S)
, ,
<formyl methionine> , ; ..
-

,
.
initiation factors - . ,
(30S) ,
: .. <tertiary complex>;
3 .. - IF-1 <IF1 factor>, IF-2 <IF2 factor> IF-3
<dissociation factor>; .. -
eIF2 <.>.
initiation mutation - .
dnaA dnaC E.coli,
:
.
initiator (start, chain-initiating) codon - . K
, (),
() ( - )
.
injection - . M ( -
) - , , ,
, , .; . -
.
innate = congenital (.).
inoculation = plating (.).
inoculum - . C ,
.
inosine - . P ; -
<hypoxanthine> ( ) , ,
.

insect pollination = entomophily (.).


insemination - . ,
, . -
; (
), (
), .;
.
insertion, interlocation - e, . M,
; .

<transposable elements>.
insertion mutagenesis - .
<insertion>
, ,
; ..
.
insertion sequences = IS-elements (.).
insertion (cloning) site - (). C
,
: , .. - ()
.
insertion vector - .
<cloning> , (
); ..
.
insertional inactivation - .
<insertion>; ..

.
insertional translocation - . X
,
.
instability - . ,
,
; .
;
, , ., ,
.- - <activatordissociation system>.
instar - . ,
( 5),
; ... (, instar-III 3- ..).
insulin - . ,
(- ); - . 21 , -

- 30, ; ,
. , 11; .

(
<presequence>)

(), . ( , )
<diabetes mellitus> ( ); .
. . 1921-22, (
) . 1945-56; . -
(1982) , .
int-dependent recombunation = prophage lambda integration and excision (.).
intasome - . , <integrase>
<IHF>
attP attB,
-
.
integrases - . , <site-specific recombinases>,
-
<site-specific recombination>,
5'- 6-8-
. .. - 30-40 ,
.
Arg ( 1) His, Arg Tyr ( 2).
Tyr .
.
<prophage lambda integration and excision>; int,
attP, .
integrated state - . C,
<episome> (
) -, - , Hfr F- <F factor> ..
integration - . - (,
..) ( ) - (-);
. -
().
integration efficiency - .
() -.
integration host factor = IHF (.).
integrator gene - -. , - (
), ;
- <Britten-Davidson model> .-. -
, ; .-.
-.
intensifier [gene], exaggeration gene - -, -,
-. ,

.
intensifying screen - . ,
(, ),
;
- <Southern blotting> - <Northern blotting>
.
inter- - -. C : , .
interallelic complementation - () .

, ;
(
..), ( ..) ;
.. .. 1929
Scute .
interallelic recombination - .
.
interarm pairing, fold back - , .
K <isochromosome>
.
interband - , . <polytene
chromosome>, () <band>;
.
intercalary deletion - . <deletion>
() .
intercalary satellite - . C ,

.
intercalate - . ,
<intercalation>.
intercalation - .
, ,
<buoyancy density>
; .
<acridine dye>, <ethidium bromide>
.
intercentric (intercentromeric) segment - .
, (
) .
interchanges = reciprocal exchanges (.).
interchromosomal effect - . H
( , ,
), .
- , - , Drosophila melanogaster
2
-;

.. . 1919;
.. - <position effect>,

, (.. ,
).
interchromosomal interference - .

() ( )
; .. , .
interchromosomal recombination - .

.
intercistronic regions - .
,
; ..
, 20-30 (1-100) ; ..
- <spacer>.
intercross - . C
; . - - Aa
Aa.
interdeme selection - . ,
<deme>; .. ..
interference, positive (crossover, chiasma) interference - ,

, ,
; .
1 - .;
. <negative
interference>; .
; .
; . .,
1916.
interference [of viruses] - []. T ,

-,
, ..
interference microscope - .
, :
,
, ,
.
interferons - . ,
,
,
; 14 -. (-

- - ), 5 -. ()
-. (-).
intergene suppression = extragenic suppression (.).
intergeneric hybrid, genus cross - . ,
, ; .. <Raphanobrassica>.
intergradation - .
(,
); (
<hybrid zone>) .,
<introgression>; . . 1942.
interior loop - . ,

.
interkinesis - . C I II
,
() ; .
<nucleolus>; .
.
interleukins, IL - . <lymphokins>
(

),

-,
- -; 2
. (.-1 .-2) -
q12-21 2.
interlocation = insertion (.).
interlocking - . C ,
; . , ,
<chiasma>.
intermediate
filaments

.
K
10 5

( 65, 100 135 ),


GFAP (50 ), <cytokeratin>, <desmin>
<vimentin>.
intermidiate host - []. O,
,
( );
.. .
intermediate hybrid - . H
, ()
( )
.
intermedin = melanocyte-stimulating hormone (.).
internal balance = epistatic balance (.).

internal
eliminated
sequences

.
(. <gene scrambling>),
<macronucleus> , , Oxytrichia nova ... -I; ...

<macronucleus-destined sequences>,
; , ... <intron>.
internal environment = genotypic environment (.).
internal guide sequence - .
, 5-
<intron>,

<autosplicing>
.
internal irradiation - .
, , ..
.
interphase
.

,
; . (
<interkinesis>); .
G1 G2, () - S.
interphase chromosome arrangement - .
C
,
- , e
( <nucleolus>,
<constitutive heterochromatin>, .).
interphase cytogenetics - .
, -
in situ <in situ hybridization> ,
, , (
<alphoid DNA>),
(, )
, Y; ,
, ,
, ...
,
( <colchicine>,
<phytohemagglutinin> ..),
.
interradial translocation - .
, .
.
interreduplication - .

<interphase> ( . <endomitosis>
); . HeLa <HeLa cell line>

- (), ()
(); . . 1956.
intersex - . O,
<intersexuality>.
intersexuality
.

<hermaphroditism>: ( )
, ;
, ( ,
, - ) .
( ,
, - <sex
reversal>: ).
interspecies (interspecific, species) cross (crossing) -
() . ,
.
interspecies (interspecific, species) hybrid - . ,
, , ..
.
interspecific (remote, distant) hybridization - ()
. C , ,
,
; ( )


; .. <congruent crossing>
<incongruent crossing>.
interspersion - .
,
.
interstitial cell - . K,
, - , (

),

. (
, -
), .
interstitial chiasmata - () . X,
() .
interstitial
segment

()
.
() ().
intersterility = hybrid sterility (.).
intervening sequence = intron (.).
interzonal fibers (connections) - . -

<polytene
chromosome>,

;
,

..
.
intestinal worm - . 1 (Ascaris).
intra- -. C

,
:
(.. ).
intrabreeding population = closed population (.).
intracellular
cross-feeding

<interallelic complementation>,

.
intrachromosomal aberration - .
( ..
, <translocation>,
.).
intracistronic complementation = interallelic complementation (.).
intradermal injection - .
intragenic
(nested)
gene

.
,


, ..
<overlapping genes>; .. TIMP,
<collagenase>, -
SYN1 ( -
), - .
intragenic recombination - .
,
; .. <gene conversion> ,
, .
intragenic suppression - .
.
intrahaploid conjugation - . K
I
; .. ,
.
intramuscular injection - .
intranuclear plasmid - .
<plasmid>, , - , 2
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 6318
- 1 50 2.
intraperitoneal injection - .
intraradial translocation - .
,
.
intrasexual selection - . O,

; ..
. 1938.
intrasomatic selection = cell selection (.).
intrinsic proteins - [] . ,
, , <amphipathic>
.
introgressive hybridization - . ,
(
<hybrid zone>); ..
.
intron, intervening sequence - . ,
,
( ), .
- <exon>; .
( .)
- , - <maturase>
.: ( <intragenic
gene>); . ( 0 50) ( 100 10000
) .
intron homing - . ,
, <intron>
; . (.
<intron mobility>) ; ..
. , .. . 1989.
intron intrusion - .
- <intron>.
intron mobility - . <intron>
,
<transposable elements>; .. . . 1989 Tetrahymena
thermophila, .. .
. Physarum polycephalum;
I <introns group I>.
intronless gene - . (
),
<intron>,
<processed
pseudogene>; ... - DRD1 ( <dopamine>),
5 , <histones>, <heat shock
proteins>.
introns group I - I. ,
<autosplicing> - (
) ,

, <internal
guide sequence>; ..I (, 26S-
Tetrahymena thermophila) - ,
() ..I, ,
.
introns group II - II. ,
<autosplicing>, ; ,
(, -
); ..II
<lariat>.
intussusception - . (
) - ,
-
( ).
invagination - , .
, ,
<imaginal disc> .
invariant base = conserved base (.).
inverse PCR - .
<polymerase chain reaction>,
<restriction
endonucleases> ; ....
,
,
.
inversion - . T ,
180o,

(
.)

( .); .
.
inversion duplication - .
<duplication>, ,
: inv-dup.
inversion heterozygote - . O,
<inversion>; I
,
1-, 2-, 3- 4- .
inverted repeat, IR - .
,

, :
... - - - - - ... - - - - - ...

... - - - - - ... - - - - - ...
.. <palindrome>.

inverted terminal repeats, ITR - .

,
<transposable elements>, - , IS- <IS-elements>.
invisible lethal - . P ,
( )
;
..
invisible mutation = silent mutation (.).
involution - . O , ,
; . -
; . = <invagination>.
ionic bond - () . ,
.
ionization - .

; .
.
ionizing
radiation

( - -, ..
, ), <ionization>
.
ionizing radiation source - .
,
.
ionophores - . ,
-
, - , (+; Rb+), A-23187 (Ca++; 2H+),
(+; +), <gramicidin> (H+; Na+; K+; Rb+).
IPTG = isopropylthiogalactoside (.).
IR = inverted repeat (.).
IRE = iron regulatory elements (.).
iridins - . H ,
<protamins>;
Salmo irideus, ; .
32-33 ,
.
Iridoviruses - . K ( 175-220 ) ,
; -
.
iron regulatory elements, IRE - [,

]
.

28 ,
<ferritin> ( ), -

<-aminolevulinate synthase> ( <heme>)


<transferrin>; ...
, , ,
, 3- 5-.
irradiation, exposure - . H -
.
irregular allopolyploidy - . H

- , AABBBB ..
irregular dominance - .
,
(),
.
IS-elements,
insertion
sequences
IS-,

. <transposable elements>
700-1800 (, );
, IS-. ,
1-2 ( ,
<transposase>), ,
; IS-.
(10-40 )
,
IS-.
IS5-element - IS5-. M <transposable
elements> ,
<overlapping genes>, -
,
.
island model = local mate competition model (.).
IS-like elements, IS-modules - IS- . C IS-
<IS-elements> ,
() <composite element>.
IS-modules = IS-like elements (.).
iso- - -. O , : .
isoacceptor tRNAs - . ,
, ; .
--; .
, ( 6) ,
; . ,
.
isoalleles, potency alleles - . P ,

,
.
iso-anisosyndetic
alloploid
-
.

A () ,
, ,
.
isoantibody
.
A,

<isoimmunization>.
isocapsidic virus - . ,
, , , .
isochores - .
, , , - . ,

G-
<G-banding>

; .
.
isochromatid break - . X ,
()
.
isochromosome - . X
, ()
; . . 1939.
isocitrate dehydrogenase - [ 1.1.1.41]. ,
-
( ) -
<tricarboxylic acid cycle>, ,
; .
; . - -
(IDH); . - ( - 8 : 300
).

isocoding mutation = samesence mutation (.).


isoelectric focusing, IEF - . M
,
,
<isoelectric point>
; .. 60- .,
<ampholites>,
; ..
<electrophoresis>

, (,
.).
isoelectric point, pI - . ,
<ampholites> ; ..

; ..

<isoelectric
focusing>

.
isoenzymes, isozymes - . K
, -

<electrophoresis> . ;
. () , .
, - ,
<lactate dehydrogenase> ()
5 . - , , ,
, .
isofemale line - . ( ,
. ), ,
.
.
isogametes, homogametes - . ,
, .
isogamy - . T , e
<isogametes>; .
.
isogenic strain - . () ,
( ) : <clone>,
.
isogenomic - . X .
isograft - . T,
( ).
isoimmunization - . O ,
.
isolabeling
.

,

<sister chromatid exchange>;
.
isolated populations - . ,
( );
.. .
isolating mechanism - . ,
, , ,

,
(); -
.. <postzygotic and prezygotic isolating mechanisms>.
isolation - .
( ) ()
; . .
isolation estimate = isolation index (.).
isolation gene - , . ,

, <isolating
mechanism>; ..
<sympatry>.
isolation index (estimate) - . K
,

, -
..=1, ..=-1,
..=0; .. . 1942.
isolecithal egg - . ,
.
isoleucine [Ile] - []. H ,
; , , .
H2N CH(COOH) CH(CH3) CH2 CH3
isoloci - . ,
<duplication> -
( , ); ,
. , (,
).
isologous cell lines - . K ,
(
, <monozygotic twins>).
isomerases - . K (
<Enzyme Classification> - 5),
c c; 60 .
isomers - . X ,
,
, - , D- L- ..
isomerization - .
- <Meselson-Radding model>.
isomorph - . M (),
, ., , .
: .
<hypomorph>.

isophene - . ,
() () .
isophenogamy - . , ,
.
isoploid - . ,
- , ..
isopropylthiogalactoside,
IPTG
.
H -
<beta-galactosidase> <lactose operon> E.coli; .
,
lac-.

isopycnic centrifugation = density gradient centrifugation (.).


isopycnosis, eupycnosis - , . O
.
isoschizomeres - . P <restriction endonucleases>
, ,
- <methylation>
, - , MboI, DpnII, PfaI .
, .. .
isosyndetic alloploid - . A
,
, .
isotonic solution - . P,
.
isotope - . O ,
, . .
isotypes - .
<immunoglobulins>,
; 1992 V 30 .; . , ,
.
isozymes = isoenzymes (.).
iterons - . ,
<origin> ,
<stringent plasmid>; .
- - , pSC101 E.coli .
5- 20- .
iteroparity - .
, , , ,
(iterative) (. <semelparity>).

ITR = inverted terminal repeats (.).


i-value - i-. O () , x
<ligation>: j- <j-value> i-. 1
, j/i>2 ( j/i=2) - ,
1<j/i<2 , .
Ivemark syndrome - , .
K
,

()
, , ;
.. - .

J
Jacobsen syndrome - .
: , , (
), ,
.; , ..
<contiguous gene syndromes> -
11 ( - q24.1).
Japanese quail - . 1 (Coturnix c.japonica)
jarovization, vernalization - .
( ..)
( ).
Jimson weed - . 1 (Datura stramonium).
joining part, J-segment - [].
( ) <immunoglobulins>,
<variable part>
<constant part> , - , -
.. 13 ; ,
,
.
joint molecule - . K,

.
jordanon, microspecies - , . -
, , ..
. -
<linneon>; . . 1916 ( .)
, -, .
Jordans rule - . O
() <allopatric speciation> ,
,
; . 1868,
.. . 1906 ( .).
Joseph syndrome - . ,
(XXXY, XXXXY ..),
,
, ,
.
J-segment = joining part (.).
jumping satellites - .
,
( ), -

, 13 22 ; ..
.
junk DNA = selfing DNA (.).
junctional sliding - .
( <intron intrusion>
<exon shuffling>).
juvenile chromosomes - .

; .. (
) - , ..
- <C-banding> 4 .
juvenile (allatum) hormones - . ,
, , ;
.. ,
- , .. - ; 3
.., c ;
.. ().

j-value - j-.
, ; j-. i- <ivalue>.

K
K (limited, germ line limited) chromosomes, L-chromosomes (limited), Echromosomes (eliminated) - -. ,
(
), - <B chromosomes>, -
-. ,

<endoreduplication> ,
; -. ,
;
-. Chironomidae
(, Acricotopus lucidus), Cecidomyiidae .; .
1952 ( Keimbahn ).
k particles = kappa particles (.).

Kallmann syndrome - , .
,

; L 22.32 -.
kanamycin - . ,
, 70S-.
kanamycin resistance, Kanr, Kmr - .
(E.coli .),
; .. <neomycin>.
Kanda staining - .
<chromosomes banding methods>,
- <X-inactivation> ;
..
(0,5% KCl) ,
50o; 1973.
Kaneshiros hypothesis - . ,
(-, )
,

() ,

; . 1976-90
.
Kanner syndrome = infantile autism (.).
kappa particles, k particles - -, k-. , - <kappa
symbionts>.
kappa symbionts - -.
(Caenobacter taenospiralis),
Paramecium aurelia <killer>
, - <kappa particles>;
50% Paramecium aurelia .-.
karyo- - -. : , .
karyocholosis - . ,
,
.
karyoclastic - . X , ,
, .. . - <mitotic poisson>.
karyodesma = nucleodesma (.).
karyogamy - .
.
karyogram - , .
,


(,

).
karyokinesis - . ;
. <mitosis>.
karyolemma = nuclear membrane (.).
karyology - . P , ,
( ); .
<cytogenetics>.
karyolymph = karyoplasm (.).
karyolysis - . P
(, );
. -
.
karyomere, chromosomal vesicle - .
, ,
.
karyoplasm, karyolymph, nucleoplasm - , ,
, . H (
<chromatin>) , ;
. .
karyoplast, mini-cell - . ,
,
; .
(, V79-129
) . .
karyorhexis - . ,
,
.
karyosome, endosome - , . -
,

<synaptonemal complex>; . = <chromocenter>.
karyosphere - . -
,
I ; .
.
karyotaxonomy - . P ,
( )
.
karyotheca = nuclear membrane (.).
karyotin - . X
.
karyotype - . C
, ,

( ),
(, Microtus subarvalis);
.
(. <karyogram>, <idiogram>); .
.. 1924.
karyotype
ortoselection


, (
); ..
..
karyotype symmetrization - .
,
( .)
- .;
- .
Kasahara isozyme - . alkaline phosphatase.
katagenesis - . P ,
-
( ).
kb = kilobase (.).
KB cell line - -. K , 1954,
..
Kearns-Sayre syndrome - -. ,
,
;
.
, 13 .
Kell blood groups - . C ,
6 , 3
(K, k/Kpa, KpB/Jsa, Jsb), 7; ...
. . 1946; ...
- <McLeod syndrome>.
keratins - . , , ,
.., ,
; .
<multigene family> (
11, 12 17).
keratosis follicularis = Darier disease (.).
key gene = major gene (.).
Kidd blood groups - . C ,
, Jk
( Jk+ Jk-), 2;
. . 1951.

killer, mate killer - , , . O


, ,
, ; .
- <kappa symbionts>
Paramecium aurelia . 1938.
killer particle - . ,
( 10 ,
), ..
<colicins> . .
killer-factors = plasmid-like particles (.).
kilobase, kb - , .. E
; ..
(...);
.
kilo-sequencing - .
( )
,
(..
), 300-500
; . . . 1983.
kinetic complexity - []. C ,
,
- ,

..
<chemical complexity>.
kinetic proofreading - . M
()
, .
kinetin - . C <zeatin>,
<cytokinins>.

kinetochore - . ,
, ( ); 2
. - <trilaminar kinetochore> . <ball and cap
structure of kinetochore>; . (
- , - , ..),
, , ,
<holocentric chromosomes>;

. , . Luzula (
, Juncaginaceae).
kinetochore organizer - .
<trilaminar kinetochore>, , ,
<chromatin> ,
.
kinetochore-positive
micronuclei
- -
.
<micronuclei>,
- (kinetochore-negative
micronuclei);
<clastogenicity> ,
(. <CREST serum>).
kinetoplast - . ,
( .
), <kinetoplast DNA>.
kinetoplast DNA - . ,
<kinetoplast>, 2038 (- <maxicircles>) 0.5-2.5 (- <minicircles>) .
; - ,
- ; .
Kinetoplastida.
kinetosome - , . <centriole>,
; .
.
kinety - . P <kinetosome>
.
king-of-the-mountain principle = first-arriver principle (.).
kinks - . O 4 5
, <B form> ( -
<C form>); . .
kirromycin - . A,
EF-Tu, , EFTu :
.
Kirsten leukemia virus - . ,
( C3H); ,
... , .
Kjeldahl method - . M
,
,
, ;
. 1883.
Kleinschmidt spread - . M



-
.
Klenow fragment - . I E.coli,
(, ); ..
53 - 35;
. -
.
Klinefelter syndrome - . ,
, ,
..; ..
- Y, - Y/Y, /Y;
XXXY, XXXXY ..
<Joseph syndrome>; .. - - .. <chromatinnegative Klinefelter syndrome>.
Km = Michaelis constant (.).
kmr = kanamycin resistance (.).
knob [of chromosome] - [ ]. C
,
<chromomere>;
, . .
knot - . C ,
<DNA topoisomerase>; . -
, .
koinophilia - .
("") ; ,
.
; "." . . 1994.
Kornberg enzyme - , - I.
, ;
. . 1959.
Kostmann disease = agranulocytosis (.).
Krabbe disease, globioid cell leukodystrophy - .
,

- (); -
, GALC 17.
Krebs cycle = tricarboxylic acid cycle (.).
kringle domain - kringle-, .
,
( )
. .-.

Kruppell. , ,
<zinc finger proteins>
: , ,
- 5 8
; .. (Zfp-1
Zfp-4 a 8 Zfp-3 - 11).
Ku-proteins - Ku-. ,
, , Ku-.
, <repair>
,
;
Ku-. ( 70 80 )
22q13 2q33-35..

L
L. C, <polytene
chromosomes>.
l. C, ().
L cells, mouse L cells - L- . K in vitro
,
3 1940.
L strand = light strand (.).
label - []. P (3, 32P .)

(, .),
; , -
.
labeled compound - . ,
.
laboratory equipment - :
air bath - ,
burette - ,
centrifuge - ,
cover slip - ,
dissecting needle - ,
drawing tube - ,
eyepiece - ,
funnel - ,
glass-tube - ,
graduate - ,
ground stopper - ,

arge-mouth jar - ,
magnetic stirrer - ,
magnifier - ,
melting pot - ,
mount (slade) - ,
objective - [],
pan - ,
Pasteur pipette - ,
Petri dish - ,
rack - ( ) ,
retort - ,
scalpel (lancet) - ,
scissors - ,
screw-cap jar - ,
section knife - ,
staining jar - ,
tweezers - ,
water bath - ,
weighting bottle - [ ].
labrocytes = mast cells (.).
lac operon = lactose operon (.).
-lactamases - -. , ( <penicillin>, .); -. - , - .
lactate dehydrogenase - [ 1.1.1.27].
,
;
, -
e (LDH); . - 120150 .
lactogenic hormone = prolactin (.).
lactose - , . , D D- (
- <beta-galactosidase>).
lactose intolerance syndrome, Durand-Holzel syndrome - . ( ),
, ,
- ;
- .
lactose operon, lac-operon - , l-.
( - 6 . ) E.coli, 3 : lacZ ( - <beta-

galactosidase>), lacY (-), l (-), .. ; lI, lacY lacZ


, lacA
-, ..
lagging strand - . ,

<Okazaki fragments>.
Lamarckism - . .. (1809),
,
,
(), .;
. .
lambda phage, phage - .
, E.coli;
- ..
; ..
<vector> .
lamella - . <plastid>,
; . ,
.
lampbrush (lateral-loop) chromosome - .
, (
<diplotene> I )
,
, ....
;
,
- D-, - .
landmark loops = marker loops (.).
Langer-Giedion syndrome - -.
<contiguous gene syndromes>,
, ,

,
,
- ; - ,
LGCR 8 q24.11-q24.13.
Langerhans (pancreatic) islet - .
( , ) - -
.. <glucagon>, - - <insulin>;
.. - 50-500 .
LAR = locus activating region (.).
large T-antigen - -. , SV-40
<simian virus 40>, t- ,
N- -

.-.

t-

<alternative splicing>
.
lariat - . ,
5-,

; . <splicing>,
<autosplicing> - II <introns
group II>.
larva - . C ,
; , , . , x .
, .
laser - . ,
;
- , (,
) .., .
laser microprobe - . M
( )
.
late (delayed) effect - . (
) ,
. , , ,
.
late genes - . ,
<early genes>
(, 4 - 9- . )
.
late infection - . K <lytic cycle>
-
e .
late lactation protein - . ,
Macropodidae,
; ..
(- <caseins>)
, , .
late replicating X-chromosome - -.
, X-
(
) (. <X-inactivation>), <Barr
body>; .-.
- .
late replication - .
( - -- <Lima-de-Farias
rule>) S .

latent phage = vegetative phage (.).


lateral asymmetry - .
,
, ,
<satellite DNA> ; .. (
33258 <Hoechst 33258>) , 6, 8, 10,
11, 12, 18, 19 .
lateral chiasma - . ,
, - ,

.
lateral element - () .
<synaptonemal complex>; ..
; ..
; ..
( ) 3060 , .. .
lateral-loop chromosomes = lampbrush chromosomes (.).
latitudinal cline - . H
() <cline>,
( ) ; ..
Drosophila melanogaster -
ADHS
ADHF.
law of dominance - [ ],
, . H
,
;
, <incomplete
dominance> - .
law of independence, law of independent assortment -
[ ], . H
,
( 9:3:3:1
, 2 4 - );
, ,

( 50%).
law of independent assortment = law of independece (.).
law of segregation - , .
: 3:1 (
- 75% 25%
), 1:2:1 ( 25% 50% , .. ).
lawn - . , .

Lawrence phenomenon = secondary pairing (.).


lazy maize - . M ,
.
L-chromosomes (limited chromosomes) = K chromosomes (.).
LD50, median lethal dose - 50. 50%-, , ,
( ,
),
50% .
LDH = lactate dehydrogenase (.).
leader peptidase - . ,
<signal
sequence> -.
leader sequence - .
, 5-
; .. - ,
<attenuator> ( trpE E.coli),
- <Shine-Dalgarno sequence> ..
leader sequence peptide, signal sequence - ,
. N- ,
16-20 ;
<leader peptidase>
<pro-sequence> - , ,

<insulin>;
..

<signal hypothesis>.
leading strand - .
<replication fork>, .
leakage - . C <leaky
mutation>
, ..
.
leaky mutation - () . -
<missence mutation>,
; ..
.
Leber neuropathy - . ,
,
; IV- -Q-, .
lectins - . ,

(. <phytohemagglutinins>); .
.
left site = donor site (.).
leftward [& rightward] transcription - [ ]

. T, , ,
, - , .[.].
- <immediate early genes> N cro <lambda
phage>.
leghemoglobin - . <nodulins>,
-, <heme>
; .
<myoglobin> .
Leigh disease - . ,
, ,
, . ;
(,
8993, 6-
).
Lejeune syndrome = cats cry syndrome (.).
lek - . - (
), ;
, , ,
; .
- ,
Drosophila conformis ( . ).
leprechaunism = Donohue syndrome (.).
leptonema = leptotene (.).
leptotene, leptoneme - , , . H
I ; ,
; . <bouquet>.
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome - -. ,
;

- <hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase>;


, HPRT
q26 -.
lethal gene - . ,
.
lethal mutation - (). M,
; , ,
.. (- ),
- .
leucine
[Leu]

[].
H
:
L- ; , , , , , .
H2N -CH(COOH) CH2(CH3) CH CH3
leucine aminopeptidase - [ 3.4.1.1]. O
- ,
N- ; .

,
N- ; .
- (Lap, LAP),
.
leucine zipper - . X , 30
-, ( .. 4-5)
;
.. ,
, ,
<palindrome>; .. - / 1988.
leucinosis = Menkes disease (.).
leukemia, leukosis - , . ,
(. <retroviruses>),

( ) ; . , ,
.
leukemia viruses - . ,
<leukemia> ( , ..)
(, , )
; .. <Graffi l.v.>, <Gross l.v.>,
<feline l.v.>, <Moloney l.v.>, <Rauscher l.v.>,
<Friend l.v.>, <Kirsten l.v.>, <Abelson l.v.>,
<Mazurenko l.v.>.
leukocyte - . , 3
; . (
- );
2 - ( <lymphocyte> )
(, );
( ., ) .
leukopenia - . <leukocyte>
( - 4000 1 3); ,
.
leukoplast - . <plastid> ,
, , ,
- (), (),

();

.
()

<chloroplast>, ..
leukosis = leukemia (.).
leukoviruses = retroviruses (.).
Lewis blood groups - . C ,
4 , Le (
19);
;
... . 1946.

Lewis effect, positional pseudoallelism - ,


.
- (+,m1/m2,+)
- (m1,m2/+,+); . 1951
.
lexosome - . ,

<nucleosome>; . <histones> H2A/H2B
-.
LH = luteinizing hormone (.).
liability - . K
( ) (
, .. );
. <threashold>.
L-iditol dehydrogenase = sorbitol dehydrogenase (.).
life cycle - . C -
, , ,
; .. -
<metamorphosis>,
<alteration of generation> ..
life cycle mutation - . M
( ..),
.
lifespan = longevity (.).
life span genes - . ,

,
,
,

; ,
- ,
... ,
. .
Li-Fraumeni syndrome - -. ,
, ,
, .; -
, p13.1 17
- TP53.
ligand - . M,
, - , . ..
ligation - .
,
- <DNA ligase>; .
( ) i- <i-value> j <j-value>.
light satellite DNA - . ,

<buyoant density>
; -.
light strand, L strand - [].
,
(
<satellite DNA>) , ,
<buoyant density>.
-like structure = chi structure (.).
Lima-de-Farias rule - --. ,
S <S period>
, ; (
S- )
; .-- 1968-69.
limited chromosome = K chromosome (.).
line crossing = top crossing (.).
line selection - . ,
- ( ) ( ..
); .. - ,

.
lineage = cell line (.).
linear co-orientation - .
,
.
linear inheritance - .
<abortive transduction>; ..
.
linear plasmid - . <plasmid>,
; ..
, - ..
<transposable
element>.
linear satellite - . C
( ).
linearization - .
- ,
<plasmid> <restriction endonucleases>.
linkage - . ,
( .); .
,
; .
e ;
. . . 1906.
linkage
disequilibrium

.
H

,
,
,
.
linkage group - . ,
,
( .. - ,
- ).
linkage map - . C
( ) ; , .. =
.
linker - . K , ;
<vector> ,
<blunt-end ligation> .
linker scanning - .
,
<linker>
;

,
,
, ;

, ,
, ; .. .- .
80- .
<herpesviruses>.
linking number - . , , 2
, .. ..
,
, ; .. L=W+T, T -
, W - , ..
.
linnaeon - . C
, ; .
-
<Jordanon>; .,
. 1916, .
lipase - [ 3.1.1.3]. ,

.
lipid peroxidation - .
( ), ,

( 2-, - .),

; ...
,
<membrane-mediated chromosome damage>; ..

.
lipochondrion - . ,
; ., ,
<Goldgi apparatus>.
lipoproteins - . (
<apolipoproteins>), .
, (
, ).
liposome - . , -
. .
liposome entrapment - .
.
.
liquid-holding recovery - .
<dark repair> -

, ,
.
liriodenine - . ,
(, );
.

lithostathine, pancreatic stone protein, regeneration protein - .


,
,
( ,
);


<Alzheimer disease>; REG, .,
p12 2 .
litter size - . K ,
.

LMG-proteins, low mobility gel proteins - LMG-. H


, ( HMG- <HMG-proteins>)
.
local achromasia - . H
a , ; ..
(..
); .. <gap>.
local male competition (haystack, island) model -
, .

( -
Nasonia vitripennis, .):
(, ) ,

, ..
.
localized gene action - (. pervasive gene
action).
localized repulsion - . O
.
locus - . M ( )
; .
<gene>.
locus-activating region, LAR - - .
, 5- - -
5-
(, .-..
<master-slave hypothesis>);
. (, .).
locus-specific - -. X (, ),
(, <puff>
, ..),
().
lod score. ,

<pedigree>; lod score (logarithm of the odd ratio) :
P(Fir)
ilog -----------,
P(Fir=0,5)

P(Fir)

( ), i-
, r - (
r=0,5 ).
Loeper syndrome - . ,

, ,
(, ), .
; - ,
.
logarithmic phase [of growth] - .
,
;
( ),
; ... .
long gene - . box b : 1155
- 6 6400
, 2 - 2 5 - (14 51
); .. ,
b; , .. box -
<maturase>,
(840 ),
box.
long headpiece - N- . N- ( 1-
59- ) - <lactose operon> E.coli,
( 60-360- - ,
); .N-.. N- <short
headpiece>.
long strain - . ,

<optional introns>, - , Neurospora crassa
-1 4 (
).
long terminal repeats, LTR - .
-
<retorviruses>, ;
... - U3-R-U5, -
170-1250, 10-80 80-100 . ; 3- U5
,
5- U3, .. ...
; ... -, , U3
... , ...
, - -
,
, ;
... <composite element>
.
longevity, lifespan - .
(),
; -,
.. ;

3 , .. -, - ( , -
, - Poa annua .);
..
.
long-patch repair - .
<dark repair>,
<short-patch repair> ,
; ...
1500 , 9000 ;
... 1% E.coli.
long-period interspersion -
. T ,
.
long-QT syndrome = Romano-Ward syndrome (.).
loop - . <lampbrush
chromosomes>, , .
, . ;
. (1968 .) Pleurodeles waltl
. - - <P loops>,
<granular loops>, <globular loops>, D- <D loops>,
<spheres>, - <M loops>; . ,
; . -
, - , .
loose binding site - .
,
-; - <sigmafactor> - ...

.
loosely paired chromosomes - . ,

.
loss mutation - . ,
;
.. - <auxotrophic mutation>.
loss-of-heterozygosity - .
,
<restriction fragment length polymorphism>;
..
- , ( ) .
Louis-Bar syndrome = ataxia-teleangiectasia (.).
low mobility gel protein = LMG-proteins (.).
low-level promotor = weak promotor (.).

LSD = lysergic acid diethylamide (.).


LTR = long terminal repeats (.).
Lucke virus - . ,
Rana pipiens ;
(
).
Ludwig effect - .
(..
),
.
luminal [endoplasmic reticulum] proteins - [
]. ,
-
-
-
-,
,


; ..
<protein disulphide isomerase>.
luminiscence - , .
; -
() - 3,
DAPI, <Hoechst>, <quinacrine> .; .
..
luteinizing hormone, LH - .
, ,
.
Lutherian blood groups - . C ,
Lua Lub ( LU
q12-q13 19); Lua .
. 1946.
luxuriance - . M ; .
<heterosis>.
luxury genes - . ,
(,
<immunoglobulins>); ..
<housekeeping genes>.
lyases - . K (
<Enzyme Classification> - 4),

, ; .
, (=, =, ..).
Lygaeus-type - . Bryonia-type.
lygases, synthetases - , . K (
<Enzyme Classification> - 6),

;
(, S, N ).
lymph - . ,
, ,
, , ,
; . - .
lymphocyte - . A <leukocyte>
, , -
; . in vitro
. .
lymphokins - . ,
10-200 ,
( <lectins> ..),
, ,
<immune response> ; .
<interferons>, <interleukins>, ,
.
Lyon hypothesis = inactive-X hypothesis (.).
lyonization = X-inactivation (.).
lyophilization = freeze-drying (.).
lysate - . ,
;
. - ,
<lysozyme>, <detergent> ..
Lysenkoism - . ,

; .. (1898-1976).
lysergic acid diethylamide, LSD - , .
M

<serotonin>,

.

lysine [Lys] - []. H : L--


, <histones>; ,
.

lysine-rich hystone - .
: H1 ( ...) H2B ( ...).
lysis - . P ,
<lysosome>, . .
lysis from within - . -
,
.
lysis from without - . ,
(
)
,
.
lysogenic bacterium - . ,
<prophage>.
lysogenic conversion = phage conversion (.).
lysogenic response - . P
,
, .
lysogenic strain - . - ,
12 E.coli ( ).
lysogenic virus - . ,
<lysogeny> ; .. =
<temperate phage>.
lysogenicity = lysogeny (.).
lysogenization - .

.
lysogeny, lysogenicity - .
-
; .
. Bacterium megaterium.
lysosomal disease - e. ,
, ( <Fabry disease>,
<Gaucher disease>, - <Nieman-Pick disease>, <Pompe
disease>, <Wolman disease> .).
lysosome - . ,

, ; .
<Goldgi complex>; .,
, , , (
); . .
. 1955, ..
lysotypy = phagotyping (.).
lysozyme - , [ 3.2.1.17]. ,
, ,
;
( , <lysis from
without>); ;
. 12.
lysyl
hydroxylase

[
1.14.11.4].
,
<collagen>
. , .
- <Ehlers-Danlos syndrome>; LHY
p36.2-p36.3 1 .
lytic cycle - . -,
,
, (),
, .
lytic virus - . ,
<lytic cycle> <lysis>.

M
M13 - 13. ,
, (F+) E.coli - M13
-,
; 13-
, ..
,
.
M loops - -. <lampbrush
chromosomes>, ; . 1968
4 Pleurodeles waltl.
maceration - . P ( )
;
() .
(, <airdrying method>).
macro- - -. O -; ,
- :
..

macrochromosomes - .
- <microchromosomes>,
, 6-8 . (
) (40-60) .
macroevolution,
megaevolution
,
.
, , ,
(, ..) ;
.. 1927; .

<microevolution>.
macrogamete - . <hologamy> - ,
; . - .
macrogametophyte
.
,

, .. .
2-macroglobulin - 2-. ( 1 <atitrypsins>) ,
,
; 2-., (720 )
, .
.
macromolecule - . M-
. . : , ,
.
macromelanophore - . ;
,
Xiphophorus,
<melanoma>
.
macromutation, complex mutation - , .
( ,
, .),
()
;
.
<continuous model>,
.
macronucleus - . (
<micronucleus>) 1-2 ; . ,
,
. , ;
. (
<endoreduplication>) - .
. 1969 Stylonychia mytilus; .
,

<amitosis>.
macronucleus-destined sequences -
. <gene scrambling>,

<internal eliminated sequences>
; ...
<exon>.
macropain = multicatalytical protease (.).
macroptery - , (. brachyptery).
macrosatellite - . O ,
.
macrosporangium = megasporangium (.).
macrospore = megaspore (.).
macrosporogenesis = megasporogenesis (.).
maggot - . ,
(, ).
maize - . 1 (Zea mays).
major allele - . : ,
( 0,5;
0,9).
3 major domain - . domains of 16S rRNA.
major (key, master) gene - . ,
, .. .
major
histocompatibility
complex,
MHC

. O ,
, ,
<immune response>; ... I
( ), II (, - ) III ( <complement>); ...
HLA ( 6), - 2 (
2,5 . ; 17).
malaoxon - - . Malathion.
malaria - . O
- 200 . .
1%; . - (
Plasmodium falciparum, P.vivax P.malariae);
- ( S <hemoglobin S>);
.
.
malate dehydrogenase - [ 1.1.1.37]. K
<tricarboxylic acid cycle>,
-
( L-),
; .

( ) ( MDH1
MDH2 p23 2 p13-q22 7); . - (MDH);
( E.coli .
60 , - 70-73 ).
Malathion - .
( S-[1,2-]-0,0), American Cyanamid 1950;
.

<clastogenicity>
, .
in vitro, ,
, .
male, sire, ander - . O, , (
) ,
.
male bacterium - , F+- [].
, F- <F factor>
;
... .
male gametophyte = microgametophyte (.).
male pronucleus (nucleus), arrhenokaryon - .
(, ).
male
pseudohermaphroditism

.
- ,
- ( Oniscoidea) - ..
,
,
.
male (cytoplasmic male) sterility - ( )
. C,
; ( ..

), .
malformation, deformity, teratomorph - , .
( ) (
); . ,
, ; .
().
malic enzyme = NADH-dependent malate dehydrogenase (.).
malignant
hyperthermia

.
H,
, ,
, (.
<halothane test>); - ,

.. 19 .
malignant neoplasm - (. neoplasm).
Mallory staining - .
,
. , ,
,
<orange G> ; , - - ..; .
1900.
mammary tumor agent - . P
<retroviruses>,
.
manifestating heterozygote - . (
- ),
, ;
<dosage compensation>
- , .
manifestation delay - . (
- )
; .. -
<Huntington chorea>, 35-50
.
manifestation rate - .
; , ..
<penetrance> (,
).
manifold effect = multiple effect (.).
mannosidosis = Ockerman syndrome (.).
Manx syndrome - . ,
(
); - .
MAP = microtubule-associated protein (.).
map (genetic map) contraction - .
-
,
(. <map expansion>).
map distance - . P
() -
,
;
, 1%
().
map (genetic map) expansion - .
:
,

(. <map contraction>).
map unit - . E
: 1 .. = 1 <Morgans>.
mapping = gene mapping (.).
Marchenasi syndrome - . ,
. ,
; ..

.
Marek disease virus - . <herpesviruses>,
- ; ...
150 000 .
Marfan
syndrome

.
,

, (
.), ( )
; - ,
( 350 ,
),
15.
marginal (extraneous) population - . ,
() ;
.. (-

)
(
..).
Marie hereditary ataxia - . ,
<Friedreich familial ataxia>,
- -.
marker chromosome - . T (
,
. ) ,
;
.. ( 2n=46) ,
, ..
- +mar.
marker gene - . ,
, , (
, .); ..
. .
marker (landmark) loops - .

<lampbrush
chromosomes>,

() ; . Pleurodeles waltl,
.. . 1986.
marker rescue - . ,

-
,
,
( ).
Maroteaux-Lamy disease - -, .
, .
; ..-. ;
- , ARSB
q13.3 5.
Martin-Bell syndrome = fragile X syndrome (.).
masculinization - . ,

.
masked endomitosis = endopolyploidy (.).
masked mRNA = stored mRNA (.).
mass
mating

.
C
,

(.. )
<mass selection>.
mass mating method - . C
;
, ...,
R ( )
( - -
)
-
.
mass selection - . O,
,
; .. ( )
,
.
mast cells, labrocytes - , .
, ,
, , ;
,
<heparin>, <serotonin> <histamine>,
.. IgE;
, ,
.
master gene = major gene (.).
master-slave concept - . ,

( master) ,
( slave)

; ..
MAT (mating type) locus - -. ,
, - <cassette model>.
mate killer = killer (.).
maternal effect - .
,
-
.. ( ,
x ); .. -
; .. - -
- Lymnaea peregra.
maternal effect mutation - . M,
, a,
; ...
,

; - Drosophila melanogaster 160 ,
..., ... daugterless bicaudal <.>.
maternal (uniparental, extranuclear, cytoplasmic) inheritance -
. ,
(
), ..
; ..

; .., W-, -
<hologynic inheritance>.
maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest = medea (.).
mating continuum - . (
)
; ..
( ) ; ..
<commiscuum>.
mating group - . ,
; ..
, .. ( )
...
mating (breeding) system - . T
( ), :
<inbreeding>, <outbreeding>, ..;
.. .
mating type - []. ()
, (
); ,
..,

,
<F factor> ( ) ( ).
mating type locus = MAT locus (.).
matrilysin . <metalloproteinases>
<stromelysins> -
<hemopexin domain>;
, , .

<extracellular matrix>.
matrix, hyaloplasm - , . O
,
,
; . -

.
matrix bridge = pseudobridge (.).
matrocliny, matroclinal inheritance - , .
, ;

; . - () .
maturase, RNA maturase - , -. ,

,

- (, . ,
<splicing>).
maturation - .
()
.
maturation division = meiosis (.).
maturation period - [].
,
; ..
<lysis> -.
maturation promoting factor, MPF - .
, II
; ,
++- .
Maxam-Gilbert method, chemical method of DNA sequencing - , .

: 32 (3
5) 4 ,

(; +; ; +),


.
maxi-cell - -. (E.coli Bacillus subtilis),

,
.
maxicircle DNA - -.
<kinetoplast DNA>.
maximum permissible dose - ()
[]. ,
(..
50 ,
); 1977 ...
5 , 0,05 <sievert> .
Mazurenko leukemia virus - .
C57BR,
<Rauscher leukemia virus>, <Moloney leukemia virus> <Friend
leukemia virus>.
McArdle disease - -, V . ,

, ., (
) , ;
- , 5 ,
, PYGM q12-q13.2 11.
McIlwaines buffer - - (. buffer).
McLeod syndrome - -. ,
( )
<Kell blood groups>; ,
, p21 -.
MDH = malate dehydrogenase (.).
ME = NADH-dependent malate dehydrogenase (.).
meal moth - . 1 (Ephestia kuehniella).
mealworms - . 1 (Tenebrio molitor).
mechanical isolation - .
, ()
.
mechanocyte - . K, <collagen>; .
, , <fibroblast>
.
medaka - . 1 (Oryzias latipes).
medea, maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest [factor] -
[] .
,

; medea,
, .
. 1992 Tribolium castaneum T.confusum,
()
medea ; ,
medea
<self-selection>.
medfly - . 1 (Ceratitis capitata).
median lethal dose = LD50 (.).
medical genetics - . P <human
genetics>,
; .. - (
); .. (
).
Mediterranean fever - . ,
, , ;
- , FMF
p13 16.
Mediterranean fruit fly - . 1 (Ceratitis capitata).
medium - . ,
;
. (. , 199 ..); a .,
, , , ,
.. - <agar>;
<minimal medium>, . <selective
medium> .; , . - ,
. MS <MS medium> .
mega- - -. O ;
(
) -: =
..
megaevolution = macroevolution (.).
megaheterochromatic
.
X

(), ;
. . 1943.
megakaryocyte - . K ( 40 ) ; .
( ) , .
, , ; .
<platelet>.
megakaryocytopoiesis - . ,
<megakaryocyte>; .
,
.
megaloblastic anemia - .
<anemia>, ( DHFR

q11.2-q13.2 5); .
megaplasmid - . <plasmid>,
Rhyzobium,
( .
); . - 500-800 . .
megasporangium, macrosporangium - , .
M ,
.
megaspore, macrospore - , . O
, 4 ,
; .
: - <prothallium>,
- , -
<embryo sac>.
megaspore competition - . 4
,
, 3
.
megaspore mother cell - .
, .
megasporogenesis, macrosporogenesis - , .
P
; ( )
; (
) ( ).
meiocyte - , . K, I
; . , -
.
meiogram, meiokaryogram - .
I : -, - ,
( )
( ); . . 1992
<karyogram> <idiogram>.
meiokaryogram = meiogram (.).
meiosis, maturation (reduction) division - , .
,
, ; 3
.: , ( ) -

, , (
) -
, , ( ) -
,
3 .; . ,

<interkinesis> ( ), - I
, , II
; I .;
, I ,
II - (.. I - , II - )
: I , , II
- ; . . 1882 .
1888.
meiospore - . C, <meiosis>.
meiotic - . O <meiosis>.
meiotic budding - .
,
, - .
, , , ; ..
() .
meiotic crossing-over - . K <crossingover>, (
<somatic crossing-over>).
meiotic drive - . M ,
.
meiotic figure - . ()
(, ) ,
( ,
..).
meiotic gene - . ,
; .. - mei-9 ,
- ,
<dark repair>
.
meiotic
gynogenesis

<gynogenesis>,
II
( ,
. ); <mitotic
gynogenesis> ..
.
meiotic histone - . ,

<synaptonemal complex>; ..
<lateral elements>
.
meiotic mutations - . ,
; , 10
...: am ( ), afd ( ), dsy dy
( ) . - ,

.
meiotic ratio - . K
: ()
() - ..

.
melanin - . - ; . -5,6-
5,6--2- ,
.
melanism - . <melanin>
, - ; .
, ,
- - (Panthera pardus) . ; -
. <industrial melanism>.
melanocyte - . ,
<melanin>; .,
. .
melanocyte-stimulating
hormone,
MSH,
intermedin
, , . ,

<melanin> ; .-..
.
melanoma - . ,
; . , . , .
, . - ; .
<macromelanophores>.
melanosome - . ,
<melanin>
.
melanotic tumor of Drosophila - .
<pseudotumor>,
,
.
melphalan - . A ,
.

melting

.
(, , /-)

. <melting temperature>.
melting profile - .
( /H-) , ..
.
melting temperature, Tm - . O
( /-) , 50% ,
, ..
; m /- <AT/GC ratio>
, .. - 3 (- - 2)
, - ,
.. - .
membrane - . O , ;
. 6-10 .
membrane filter method - . M
E.coli (-);

, ,
.
membrane trigger hypothesis - - . ,
() <signal sequence>
() ;

,
()
o, .
membrane-mediated chromosome damage - ,
.
( ) ;
<lipid
peroxidation>, ; .....
. . 1983.
membrane-type metalloproteinases .
Mendelian character - . ,
<Mendels laws>.
Mendelian inheritance - . H
; , ..
.
Mendelian mutation - . ,
.
Mendelian population - . C
.
Mendelism - .
, ; .
. 1905.

Mendels laws - .
- <law of
dominance>, <law of segregation>
<law of independence>; ..
. 1866; .,
. . 1900 ( ,
. ).
meningioma - . O (
) ; ,
., MGCR
22 ( q12.3-qter); . -
<neurofibromatosis type I>.
Menkes disease, leucinosis - , ,
. ,
(, ) -
; - .
Menkes syndrome, copper transport disease - . ,

( ), ..
( <superoxide dismutase>, <tyrosinase> .),
,
.., 1-2
;
, MNK q13.2-q13.3 -.
mentally retarding = idiocy (.).
mercaptoethanol - . .
HS (CH2)2 OH
mericlinal chimaera - . X () ,
()
() .
meristem - . ()
,
; . o (. , ,
, , . ..)
.
merlin. , , ,
II <neurofibromatosis type II>,
, ;
merlin 22 (
- 11).
meroblastic cleavage - . H ()
( , , ,
, ) .
merodiploid, merozygote - , , .
, -

, F- <F factor>.
merogony - , .
, ,
- ; .
<parthenogenesis>;
,
.
meromixis - .
- <merodiploid> -

<conjugation>, <transduction> <transformation>.
merospermy - .
,
<gynogenesis>.
merostathmokinesis - . <meiosis>
, ,
,
; .
<tropokinesis> <stathmokinesis>.
merotomy - .
, , , - ,
Acetobularia
.
merozygote = merodiploid (.).
Meselson-Raddings model - -. M
- 6 ; () -
, ,
; . . 1975.
mesenchymatosis = Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (.).
meso- - -. O
-: .
mesokaryotes - . ,
<prokaryotes> <eukaryotes>, .
( Dinoflagellata); .
( ),
( , ),
,
<histones>, <nucleolar
organizer
region>

,
; . . 1965.
mesomitosis - . ,

<centriole> , , ,
; .
.
mesoplasm - . ,
<mesosome>.
mesosome - . ,
; .
,
; . , . - ,
( , ..).
messenger RNA = mRNA (.).
meta-.
X

,
,
(, ), ( , ).
metabiosis
.

,
.
metabolic nucleus - . G1, S G2
, .. ;
.. .
metabolic nucleus - . ,
; ..

<endomitosis>.
metabolic block - .
<metabolite> ,
.
metabolism - . O ,
,
; .
,
.
metabolite - . <metabolism>.
metacentric [chromosome] - , .
X
; . (1964) ..
1,3.
metachromasy - . C
,
, ; . ..
( ) - ,
<azur B> .
- , , ; .
, . .
metachromatic dye - . K,

<metachromasy>.
metachromatic leucodystrophy, Greenfield disease -
, -, ,
. , -
; 3 ,
,
, , ,
- ;
- , ARSB
q13.31-qter 22.
metachromatin - . ,
. , .. . <chromatin> .
metafemale - , , . C ,
-
( , );
. 1922.
metagamic - . X
,


(, ).
metagenesis - . O ,
,
, ; .
.
metakinesis = prometaphase (.).
metalloenzyme - . ,
- <tyrosinase> ( ),
<carbonic anhydrase> <carboxypeptidases> (),
<xanthine oxidase> (),
(, ) .
metalloelastase . <metalloproteinases>
<stromelysins>;
, ,
. ,
<elastin>, IV, I, 1- .
metalloproteinases (MMPs) - .
,
( )
, ; .
, 1) , 2)
, . , 3)
, Zn2+-

(HExGHxxGxxHS/T), 4) - ,
5) - ,
.,
<tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase>
- .
<cysteine switch>.
.:
<collagenases>, <stromelysins>, <gelatinases>,
<membrane-type M.> .
metallothioneins - . H
,
, 3 :
.-I .-II,
.-III; .-I .-II (
1991 .-I - Mimulus
guttatus).
metamale, supermale - , , . O
- (,
/3 ..); .
metamerism - , . P
( ) , ;
,
- .
metamitosis - . M ,
( <centrosome>
).
metamorphosis - .
( ) ,
(
).
metaphase - . ,
<prophase> ( <prometaphase>);
,
; . -
, .
metaphase arrest - .

( <colchicine>, ..).
metaphase chromatin flavor = chromatin flavor (.).
metaphase inhibitor - . ,
, (, ,
.).
metaphase pairing index - .
, , c

.
metaphase plate - . C ,
( )
; ..
.
metareduplication - (. interreduplication).
metastasis - .
<tumor>;
. - .,
.
metathely - . C .
methanol - ( ). H ,
:
CH3 OH.
methemoglobin
,
.

<hemoglobin>, ,
; . ; .
.
methemoglobinemia - .
(), (
), ..
( ); .
, -
.
methionine [Met] - []. H , L--- ,
<methylation> ; - .

methotrexate, amethopterin - . A <folic


acid>,
, .; M.
<cell synchronization> .

methyl green - . O (
), , ..

=5,7; .. ().

methyl guanosine - . P ,
.

methyl inosine - . P ,
.

methylase - . - ,
<methylation>.
methylated cap = cap (.).
methylation - .
- , 7%
, <satellite DNA>
, ,
,
- ,
06---,
.; . ()

<modification methylase>.
methylisocyanate - . ,
,
() 2-3 . 1984;
. ,

..; , 5-6

.
methylmalonyl-CoA mutase - -- [ 5.4.99.2]. ,
- -
;
.--. , MUT p21 6
17 .
methylmercuric hydroxide - . M
,
: H3C HgOH.
methyl-methane sulphonate - . M
( 3-),
; .
<transition>.
CH3 OSO2 CH3
metromorphism - . H

<parthenogenesis>
();
<pseudohybrids>.
Michaelis constant, Km - . K
, ,
; ..
.
micoplasma - . , ,
,
; . ,
750 ; . , , <spiroplasma>.
micro- - -. O () :
, ; (
) :
..
microbe = microorganism (.).
microbeam radiation - .
( )
,
.
microbial genetics - . P ,
.
microbody, peroxisome - , .
0,3-1,5 ,
<endoplasmic reticulum>, ,
, , .
microcell - . ,

,
. .
microchromosomes - . (, - )
, . ; , - ,
, , , ;
. ,
; .
<agmatoploidy>, - <B
chromosomes> ..
micrococcal nuclease - [ 3.1.31.1].
<endonuclease> Staphilococcus aureus ( Foggi) ( );
5- ,
<nucleosome>.
microevolution - . ,
,

; . ..- 1938
: . ,

,
(
.).
microgamete - . M .
microgametophyte, male gametophyte - . ,
; .
microheterochromatic - . X ,

<heterochromatin>; . . 1943.
microheterogeneity - . P
, <multigene family>
; ( ) .

<spacer>, 5
.
microinjection - . -
(, ..); .
.
micron - , . a ,
: 1 M. 10-6 , 1000 , 10000 .
micronucleolus,
nucleolinus
.
M,

,
<nucleolus> .
micronucleus - . ,

<macronucleus>
, ;
( 100) .; . () ,
,
<micronucleus test>.
micronucleus test - .
() ,
<micronucleus [2- ]> (
);
..
.
microorganism - , . ,
; . XVII . .;
. - ,
-, .
micropyle - . O ,
( ); . ( ) 1015 () ; . , ,
; . - ,
<pollen tube>.
micropyrenic nucleus - .
, .
microsatellite - . M ,
.
microsatellite DNA - . <satellite
DNA>, (n>5) - ()n,
()n, ()n ..; ,
(, , , .)
,
(VNTR-),
.
microsome, chromidia - , .
<endoplasmic reticulum>
<Goldgi complex>, ,
.
microsome fraction - . ,
,
<microsome> ; ..
, .
microspecies - . (),
(); .
. 1948; . = <Jordanon>.
microspectrophotometer - .
, 0,2-200 , -

( ),
, ..; . . .
1948
( );
., - .
microsporangium - . M
, ; . .
microspore - . O
,
( <prothallium>,
) .
microsporocyte, pollen mother cell - ,
. M ,
.
microsporogenesis - . P

(
- ).
microsporophyll - . ,
; . .
microsubspecies - . (
) () .
microtome - .
.
microtubular fir-tree - . H
, :
<half-spindle>,
- ,
; .. .
.- 1973.
microtubule - .
e , - <tubulin>,
. 24 ; .
(),
, ,
, . .
microtubule organizing center - . ,
( )
; ...
<centrosome>; ..., -,
<centrophilin>, 1991.
microtubule-associated proteins, MAP - ,
. ,

( <dynein>, , <syncolin>),
( -,
2), - , .
microvilli - .
; .
.
micton - . , ,
,
.
mid-body = equatorial plate (.).
middle repetitious DNA - . H
( 100-500 ),
10-100 ; ..
<heterochromatin>, , .
<multigene family>,
.
migrant selection - . ,
.
migration - .
, ; .

; . ( )
(), ( ),
; .
; . -
, <gene flow>.
migratory nucleus - . ,
<micronucleus>
: ,
.
Miller spreads - . M
:
10%- (
0,1 ) <grid>
, , ,
;
- ;
. 1969.
millipore filter - . (
0,005 8 ) ;
, ..
MIM-Catalogue [Mendelian Inheritance in Man].
(.. ),
.- 1966 ( 1971, 1975, 1978, 1983,
1986, 1988 1990); 1990 (9- .) 6- :

100000 199999 - - , 200000 - 299999 -, 300000 - 315000 - - .


mimic gene - . , ,
. () ; , .. -
<isomorph>.
mimicry - .
(, ) . ; .
- ( -
.; - ..)
( . - -, ,
.); 2 . :
. <Bateson mimicry> . <Mullerian mimicry>.
mini-cell - -. K E.coli Bacillus subtilis,
( - <maxi-cell>) ,
, ; . =
<karyoplast>.
minichromosome - -. K
( , - ,
), <nucleosome>.
minicircle - -. <kinetoplast
DNA>.
minimal inhibiting concentration - .
,
,
.
minimal medium - . M ,
,
<prototrophs>, <auxotrophs> .
minimal nucleosome = core particle (.).
3 minor domain - . domains of 16S-rRNA.
minor gene - . ,
( <major gene>).
minority advantage - . ,
Drosophila
melanogaster - -
, ; ,
..
<frequency-dependent selection>.
minute. M - ,
, , , ;
. ( 1990 60)
,
,
<deficiency>.

mirror duplication - . ,

() . , - ,
...XYABCDEEDCBAWU...; .. 21
<Down syndrome>.
miscopying = copy error (.).
misdivision, abnormal division - () .
, ,
( ,
, .); .. -

, . .
misincorporation = incorporation error (.).
mispairing - , . H
(
) - -, -, - ..;

,
.
missense codon - -. M
-
, .
missense mutation - -. M,
- <missense codon>.
missense suppression - -. ,
- <missense mutation>;
, ,
,
(, .-.
, ,
);
.-. .
mistranslation - .

( <neomycin> .), . , ,
, -- .
mitochondrial genome - .
, <mitochondrion> (
16 . ,
); ..
, ( ,
<cytochrome oxidase> .),
(, ,
- , ..
); , .. <maternal

inheritance>; <restriction
endonucleases> - .
mitochondrial ribosome - . P <ribosome>,
,

( ..).
mitochondrial sheath = nebenkern (.).
mitochondrion, chondriosome, plastosome - , ,
. O ,
<oxidative phosphorylation>;
. - .; .
( ), ,
; . ,
<cristae>; . . 1897
(1894) . - .
mitodepression - . C
( ) - ( , )
; .

.
mitogen - . ,
<phytohemagglutinin>,

(Phytolacca
americana), , E.coli .
mitomycins - . ,
Streptomyces
caespitosus:

, ( . - . )

.

mitosis - , . O
,
() ; .
. (1876-1879) .
(1882); .
, 1-1,5 .; . - <prophase>,
<metakinesis> (), <metaphase>,
<anaphase>, <telophase>,
<interphase>; .
( , .,

); . (),
, , .
().
mitosome - . , , , .
mitospore - . C,
, .
mitotic - . <mitosis>.
mitotic apparatus - . Ko ,
, <aster>,
, ,
<centriole>.
mitotic border - . ,
,
(.. ), , 10-11-
.
mitotic center - . C ,

,
, <aster>; ,
, .. .
mitotic
crossing-over

()
.
K, , ,
(, , ..)
,
<polytene chromosomes>,
; .. .
.
mitotic cycle - . C
,
<mitosis>.
mitotic fidelity - .
; ,
.. - -
(, <colchicine>)
; , ..,
- , MIF2 (mitotic fidelity) .
mitotic
gynogenesis

<gynogenesis>,

; <meiotic gynogenesis>
.. .
mitotic index - . ,
, ( , ); ..

,
; (
) .. 3-5%.
mitotic inhibition - . ,
.
mitotic poison (inhibitor) - . ,
(. <metaphase inhibitor>).
mitotic (somatic) recombination - () .
P,

), . . 1952
Aspergillus;
.
mixed infection - . O

; - <ViscontiDelbrucks hypothesis> ..
.
mixed pollination - . C -
;

.
mixo- - -. O -: .
mixoploidy, poikiloploidy, polysomaty - , .
-
(
); .
( ), -
, .
MMU. : Mus musculus;
, , , MMU5 5 .
M-N blood groups - M-N. C ,
( 30),
4 ;
. . 1927.
mob. O ,
<mobilization> ;
mob+,
(-) .
mobilization - .

<conjugative plasmid> <plasmid donation>.
modificability - . C (
)
, .. (

).
modification - . ()
; . -
<methylation>, , ,
<restriction endonucleases> , .
, .; . -

(..
).
modification allele - . A,
<methylation> ( )
.
modification methylases - .
, <methylation>
,
<restriction endonucleases>.
modifier [gene], modifying gene - -. ,
,
. (, <intensifier> - <inhibitor gene>); .. - , -
. () , .-.,
( ), .-.
modifying gene = modifier (.).
modulating codon - . K,
.
modulation - .
.
modulator - . ,
; . . 1952,
.
- <activator-dissociation system> .
Moebius syndrome - . ,
(VI VII ), ,
; , MBS q12.2
13.
molecular biology - . H
; .. 50- . XX .;
.. - ,
( ),
(
) .
molecular chaperones = chaperones (.).
molecular disease - . O

( , ),
- ; .. .
- <sickle-cell anemia>.
molecular evolution - . P ,

- ;
.. - <electrophoresis>, ,
.
.
molecular genetics - . P ,
-
;
.. - <Watson-Crick model>
1953, .. .
.
molecular heterozygosity - . H

(.. );
.. . . 1951.
molecular
karyotyping

.

,
, - , .
Moloney leukemia virus - .
, .
moltinism - . ( )
- , Bombyx mori ,
3, 4 5 ().
molting = ecdysis (.).
monad - . E ,
<tetrad> ;
.
.
monitoring - . K
, ;
., ..
e ,
..
mono- - -. O -,
-, -: , .
monoallelic - . X ,
.
monobrachial homology - . O
,
(, )

. , - , 3/ - Rb(6;15)/Rb(4;6);
, ..
; .. . . 1972.
monocaryon - . O ( - ) (
- , ).
monocentric,
monokinetic
,
.
X ,
,
; ,
( ) <holocentric
chromosomes>.
monochromosomal cell hybrid - .
,
( ) . (,
... ); ... (, <panel>)
,
(.
<selective assay>).
monocistronic RNA - . ,
; . ;
, . .
monoclinous - . A
, .. (
).
monoecious plant - . P,
( - ).
monogamy - .
, (
, ) .
monogenesis = asexual reproduction (.).
monogenic character - . ,
( .. = ).
monogeny - . .
monogony = asexual reproduction (.).
monohaploid - . ,
( ) ; . . 1935.
monohybrid - . ,
.
monohybrid cross - . C
,
Aa Aa.
monohybrid heterosis = overdominance (.).
monokinetic = monocentric (.).

monolayer - . X ,
.
monolepsis - . ()
( , ) (.
<amphilepsis>).
monomer - . H
, , - . , - .
..
monomeric fragments - . H ( 200
) ,
( .); ..
50% (.. <opened DNA>).
monomery - .
.
monomorphic equillibrium - . H
(..
).
monophasic lethal - . M,
-
.
monophyletic - . X (),
; . - (..
) .
monoploid = monoplont (.).
monoplont, monoploid - . O, ()
.
monopolar orientation - .
-
, ,
.
monosome - .
0 Z0; .,
. 1904, .
monosomic analysis - . K
,
() - 2n 2n-1;
, ,
.
monosomy - , .
( - : 2n-1); .
( ) .
monospermy - . O , ..
. ; .
.

monosporangium - . T ,
.
monoterminal pairing - (. biterminal pairing).
monotypic - , . X
(, ), ; .
, . - ,
Selevinia betpakdalensis.
monozygotic (identical) twins - () .
, ()
, ..
- 2 ,
; ..
<bissection [of embryo]>.
monster particle - -. <capsid>,
.
Morgan rules - . P ,
..: ,
,

, .
Morganide (CentiMorganide), Morgan unit - ().
E ; 1 . = 100 , 1
,
1%.
Morgan unit = morganide (.).
morph - . () (
) (. <polymorphism>); .
(, ..).
morphactins - . C ,

.
morphism = balanced polymorphism (.).
morphogenesis - . ()
, .
morphogenetic movement - - .
()
,

( ,
..).
morphogenetic stimulus - - .
, ()
() .
morphological (structural) banding - () .
C

<chromosome banding methods> ,


(. <dynamic banding>).

morphological mutation - . ,

(, , ..).
morphosis - . ,
(, -
..); . -
.
Morquio disease - . ,
-
( )
-N- ( ;
q24.3 16 ) -D ( ); - .
mortality - . K
( ),

() ( 100, 1000 ..).
morula - . P ,
( . ,
<blastula>),
.
mosaic
development

.
,
; ...
,
.
mosaic evolution - . H
; .. .
1954 ,
.
mosaicism, variegation - . (,
) ,
(
); .
<gynandromorph> ( M.) M.
( .); M.
(, , ); M.
- , (,
<Down syndrome>).
motif - .
,
(, - .
..); . -
. (, ),
. ( ) ..

mouse (pl. mice) - . 1 (Mus).


mouse inbred lines - e . ,
,
;
... BALB (), C57BL, C58 (), , 3
( ), C57BR () .,
- BALB/6J ..
mouse L cells = L cells (.).
mouse satellite DNA - .
<satellite DNA>, 10% , 10 6
400 ,
.
MPF = maturation promoting factor (.).
mRNA, messenger RNA - () , , .
M ,
, ; ,
;
.
MS medium - MS. C,
<callus>
,

2,4 ( -3-
<indole acetic acid>); . . 1962.
MS2. - , .
MSH = melanocyte-stimulating hormone (.).
mu particle (phage), -particle - -()-, -. -
,
-
(Mu - mutator phage) - .-.
<transposable elements>.
mucocyst - . <extrusome> Tetrahymena.
mucopolysaccharide - . C ,
(70-80%) ;
; . - <heparine>, .
mucopolysaccharidosis - . ,

<mucopolysaccharides>; 7 . - ,
<gargoylism>, <Sanfilippo disease>, <Morquio
disease>, <Scheie disease>, - <Maroteaux-Lamy disease>
<Sly disease>.
mucoprotein - . , 4% ;
. -
<mucopolysaccharides> <glycoprotein>.
mule - . , (. <hinny>).

Muller-5 method - -5, -5.


, -; ..-5
, - ( Wa, B, sc8),
, ; , , ,
,
;
- F2 ,
.
Mullers ratchet - . M ,

( Z), . (W Y)

( Y- W , - Z); , ..
- <B chromosomes>.
Mullerian mimicry - . O <mimicry>
, ..
, -
, - , - ..
multi-.
O
,
:
.
multicatalytical protease, macropain - .
, ,
, <prosome>, ,
.
multidrug resistance factor -
. ,
;
, ....,
, . ; ,
.... - ,
; ,
.... , q21.1 7.
multifunctional protein - . ,
; .. - -
-4-
(
22),

<collagen>;
( -4- )
- ; ,
55 ( )
;
.. (4) 11 18 .
17 ( q25).

multigene family - .
, ,

-;
- .. , <immunoglobulins>,
<histones> (, 15-20 ,
2) .
multihybrid = polyhybrid (.).
multimer - . ,
( ,
), , , ..;

, ..
multinucleate cell, polykaryocyte - . K,
( ),
( ); ..
<mycelium> ,
.; ..
<symplast>.
multipronuclear oocyte - . ,
<pronucleus>
( ),
- , ..
5% , (in
vitro).
multiparous - .
.
multiple alleles - , . P

, , - ,
.. W ( - ) - w (), wp
(), wco () .. ( 10);
100 , ..
1- <antitrypsins>;
, .. (
. <allotropy>).
multiple allelism - .
<multiple alleles>.
multiple allelomorphs - . ,
<multiple alleles> .
multiple centromeres - .
, : ..
<compound chromosome> Parascaris equorum,
.
multiple clones - .

, <cloning>
, - , <dystrophin>.
multiple codon recognition - .
<translation>
(.
<wobble hypothesis>).
multiple congenital abnormalities - .
H ;
10% , , ...
<contiguous gene
syndromes>.
multiple (compound) crossing-over - . H
,
,
(); ..,
, () ,
.
multiple drug resistance -
.

,
,
; ,
- <streptomycin>, ,
<tetracyclins>, <chloramphenicol> .
multiple (manifold) effect - . (,
) , .. ..
<pleiotropism>.
multiple genes = polymeric genes (.).
multiple myeloma - , ,
, -. <plasma
cell> , - <Bence-Jones protein>;

..

-.
multiple paternity - .
;
(, ) - ,
Sorex araneus
<Robertsonian translocation>
<fingerprinting>.
multiple sex chromosomes - . C
, 2 ,
; (1122 12Y ..), p -
( ), Y; ... ; ...
/Y , ,

- (); ...
.
multiplex family - . ,
, ; ..
, .
multipolar division, multipolar (polycentric) mitosis - ,
(, ) . M
, 2 ( 3 ) ; ..
(
).
multipolar mitosis = multipolar division (.).
multipolar spindle - . ,
<centriole>;
.. ,
. ..
.
multistrand model = polynemic model (.).
multistranded = polynemic (.).
multivalent, polyvalent - , . H
3 (,
..); ., ,
; .

( ..),
<multiple sex chromosomes>.
multivoltine - . X (, ),
(, );
-
.
muscular dystrophy progressive - ,
. , ,

;

; 4 - , -,
-; ... () -, ,
, -, - (), -,
( ),
; ... 1853..
mutability
,

.
K
( , )
; . , .
10-5-10-8.

mutable gene - . ,
<mutability>, - , Drosophila virilis .
, (ma mc)
(4-10%), m+ ( ) mb
( 10-6); .. . -
<mosaicism>.
mutable site - . ,
.
mutagen - . (- ,
, .) (
, -
- ) ,
.
mutagenesis - .
; . . (
.); . (. <site-directed
mutagenesis>), .
mutagenic - . <mutagen>.
mutant - . , ; , .
( )

.
mutant species - . ,
- ,
; ..
,
(); .. , .
mutation
.

(
)

( ,
, ), ( . <silent allele>)
; . .
1901.
mutation frequency = mutation rate (.).
mutation isoalleles - . P
( <hypomorph> <hypermorph>),
.
mutation lag - , .
, , - ,
<alkylating agent>
( )
100-150 . .
mutation pressure - , .

(, , , ),
; ..
; ..
. 1921.
mutation rate (frequency) - . K
,
( ); ..
(
..) .
mutation spectrum - . ,
.
mutation target - . ( , -
), .
mutation theory - . T,
() ,
. 1901-03; .. (
.),
. - Oenothera
lamarkiana - ,
( , ,
, ..)
.
mutation trend - . (
)
.
mutational equilibrium - . C

.
mutational hot spot - . ,
<mutability> .
, - , ( 300
) rII 4 ...,
100 , .
mutator [gene] - -. , ,
, , - , .-.
uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, uvrD , ,
.-. mutT - <transversion> ( 1000 ), .-. mutL -
<transition> <frameshift mutation> ( 100 ); .-.

<transposable elements>.
mutein - . M , , .
muton - . H , ;
. . 1957, trpA E.coli
. .
, . .

mutual exclusion - .

(); ..
( ); ..
<depressor effect>.
mutual translocation - .
<translocation>, (
).
mycelium, circidium - . (),
( <hypha>),
; . () -
, ( ) - (), ,
.
myelocyte - . ,
<leukocyte>,
myeloma, plasmacitoma - . <plasma cell>,
,
;
. - . <multiple myeloma>.
myoclonus
epilepsia
-.

,
, (
), . ;
.-. - -, 2 -
; , EPM1,
q22.3 21.
myoglobin - . M, <heme>
( ),
(
), - ;
. - 17 500 ( 150 ),
0,34%, 22.
myoneme - . O -
, ( , ),
.
myosin - . ( 2
), 60% ,
; <actin>, .
.
myotonia congenita - , .
; ..
( );
- - .

N
n, haploid number. (, 2n ..).
N-acetyl serine = acetyl-serine (.).
N-acetyltransferase - N- [ 2.3.1.5]. ,
( , 2, 4- -),
; N-. (NAT2)
pter-q11 8,
.
NAD = nicotineamide-adenine dinucleotide (.).
NADH-dependent malate denydrogenase, malic enzyme - NADH-
, -, [ 1.1.1.40]. ,
L-
( ); NADH-.
- (ME).
Nagao isozyme - . alkaline phosphatase.
nalidicsic acid - . ,
- <DNA gyrase> E.coli.

Nance-Horan syndrome - -. ,
. ( ,
, , );
, NHS
p22.3-p21.1 -.
nanomelia - . ( ) ,
, . , .
napin - . <albumins>,
(Brassicaceae):
, <multigene family>.
naptogene = naptonuon (.).
naptonuon, naptogene - (. potonuon).
narrow groove - (. groove).
nascent polypeptide chain - .
, , 50S-
; ... ,
<formyl methionine>,
- <acetyl serine>.

nascent RNA - .
, 5- .
Nasses law - . <hemophilia>,
() -
, ; ..
,
;
. 1820.
native - , . X
; ,
(. ..).
native variety - . (, , ,
..), <aboriginal>, ..
.
natural crossing - . C
() , ..
.
natural (constitutive) immunity - (, ,
) . - ,
,
. ; ..
(, , ) ..
natural mutation = spontaneous mutation (.).
natural population - . , ,
( ) .
natural selection - . O,
. (1858-1859), ;
.. -
<struggle for existence>; .. -
, -
.
N-banding - N-.
<chromosome banding methods>,
<nucleolar organizer regions>;
50%-

60o 1-2 .; N-.
Ag-staining Ag-NOR-staining.
Ne = effective population size (.).
nebenkern, mitochondrial sheath - , .
, ,
.
neck cells - . K,
<archegonium>; ..
.

negative amphiplasty - .
, ,
.
negative complementation - .

.
negative genome - . (,
), , -
, ..
..
- - ().
negative heteropycnosis - (. heteropycnosis).
negative interference - .
,
<coefficient of coincidence> 1;
.. - ,
, , ..
,
; -
.. (
) .
negative regulation - . ,

(),
, -
.
negative replication control model - .
C , <plasmid> ,


; ,
, , ,
ColE1 -I,
- ,
, ; ....
. . 1969.
negative staining - . M

( )
.
negative supercoil - .
,

;

, .. - <B form>

Z- <Z form>.
Nei genetic distance, DNei - .
<genetic distance>,
, . 1972; DNei = -ln INei, INei
- <genetic similarity>, Iab
( ai bi )
Ia Ib ( a i
bi), DNei
1 ,
DNei
, (. , .):

INei
[DNei]

?
0.510
[0.808]
0.793
0.620
[0.232] [0.559]
0.738
0.437
[0.306] [0.988]
0.836
0.520
[0.181] [0.742]

0.966
[0.035]
0.944

[0.058]
0.949
[0.053]
0.984

[0.017]

0.980
0.850
0.531
[0.020] [0.163] [0.760]
0.987
0.851
0.381

[0.020] [0.163] [1.066]


0.985
?
0.465

[0.016]
[0.878]
neo- - -. X , :
, .
neobiogenesis - . K,
.
neocentromeric activity - .

( ); ..
.
Neo-Darwinism - . C ,

, ..

, .
neomorph - . M (),
.
neomycin - . ,
3 - , , - Streptomyces fradiae;
1949.
neoplasm, tumor - , , .
, <proliferation>
,
;
. (, ),
, <metastasis>,
. ( ),
.
neoteny - . ,
,
; .
( Ambystoma),
- .
neoXY chromosomes - neoXY. O
, - ( 0
), ( Y-),
- - <B
chromosome>.
nepotenes - . O , .. (F1,
F2 ... Fn) (..
); . . 1912, e
( ).
nested genes = intragenic genes (.).
Netherton syndrome, bamboo hair - . ,
(
- ), , ,
- ;
, (
-) .

neuraminic acid - . 9-
, ,
( ,
.); ..
; ..
.

neurofibromatosis type I, Recklinghausen disease - I ,


. O (
1/3000),
,
() ( );
- , NF1 q11.2
17.
neurofibromatosis type II - II . ,
I <neurofibromatosis type I>,
,
(1.40000); - ,
, "merlin" (.).
neurological mutant - . M,
, - , ,
. ;
100 (, . shaker <.>).
neuron (neurone) - , . O , .
neurula - . ,

, .
neutral equilibrium = passive equilibrium (.).
neutral mutation theory = neutral theory (.).
neutral petite, rho0 - . P
<petite>, .
neutral (neutral mutation, random drift) theory - p ,
. ,
(
) p , ..
( ,

)

; .. ..
nevirapine - . ,
<AIDS>,
( ),
<reverse transcriptase>.
NF = chromosome arm number (.).
N-formylmethionine = formyl methionine (.).
niche, ecological niche - , . C
(); . ,
( ,
. 1917).
nick - , . P
, ..
.
nick
sealing

()
.


,
<Okazaki fragments>, .. <gap filling>;
.. -
<nick> -.
nick-closing enzyme = DNA topoisomerase (.).
nick-translation - -, .
- I
( <nick>),
53,
;
.-. .
nicotineamide-adenine dinucleotide - , .
( , , 2
),
<dehydrogenases>,
- ; . . .
1904, . .-
1936.
nicotineamide-adenine
dinucleotide
phosphate
, . K
<dehydrogenases>, -
o ;
, .

nicotine - . -,
( ., 1560
); .
.

nicotinic acid - , -3- ,


, 3. , ,
, 1867; ..
.

Nieman-Pick disease - -, . H

,
,
, ,
- ,
, ,
;
; -p
, SMPD1 p15 11.
nif. O ,
+
( N2 NH4 NO3 )
, ; nif 17
.
Nile blue - . K,
.
ninhydrin - . ,
- ( , ).

N6-isopentenyladenosine - N6-. P ,
, .

nitric oxide synthase - . ,


L- <arginine> L- <citrullin> ; ...
- : -450 <cytochrome P-450>
( ) (
- ); ...
.
nitrocellulose, cellulose nitrate - .
,
(0,22 .), - <Southern blotting> <Northern blotting>, , ,
.
nitrogen mustard - . <alkylating agent>,

<radiomimetic
substances>; . 1935.
H3C N (CH2 CH2Cl)2
4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide - 4--1-. ,
,
.

nitrosoguanidine - , N--N--N-.
, ,
<replication fork> ( E.coli),
( ); .
.
nitrosomethylurea - . C
, .

nitrous acid - . H
; , <transition>
:
HNO2.

N6-methyladenine
,
N6-.
M
, ,
; . .
Nobel Prizes - :
1933 - (.);
1945 - , <penicillin>
(., ., .);
1946 -
(.);
(.);
1952 - (A., .);
1957 - <nucleotide>
(A.);
1958 - (., ., .);
1959 - in vitro (., .);
1962 - (., ., .);
<hemoglobin> <myoglobin>
(., .);
1965 - (., ., .);
1966 - (.);
1968 -
(., ., .);
1969 - (., ., .);
1974 - (., . , .);
1975 - (., .,
.);
1978 -
(., ., .);
1980 - (., ., .);
(.,
., ,);
1982 - ( ) ,
, <tRNA> <nucleosome> (.);
1983 - <transposable elements>
(.-);
1985 -

<familial
hypercholesteronemia> (., .);
1986 - (.);
1987 - (.);
1989 - <retroviruses> (.,
.);

<rybozymes> (., .).


node - .
- .
nodule bacteria - . 1 (Rhyzobium).
nodulins - . ,
.
Rhyzobium; . -
<leghemoglobin>.
Nomarski differential interference microscope -
. M ,
,
.
nombre fundamental = chromosome arm number (.).
nomogenesis - . ,

() ;
. , .. 1922.
nonallelic copies - . ,
, , - ,
; , ..
<cluster>.
nonautonomous elements - . (
<controlling elements>),
, -

; .. - Ds <activator-dissociation system>.
nonconjugative plasmid - () .
,
, o
<colicinogenic factors>, R- <R plasmids>; , ..
, ,
<mobilization>.
non-cris-cross
exception

--.
-- <criss-cross inheritance> , - <attached X> .
non-enzymatic
interaction

.
- <aminoacyl transfer RNA>
- ();
.
non-homologous pairing - . K
( ) .
noninducibility - . H

.

non-isotopic in situ hybridization = fluorescence in situ hybridization (.).


non-Mendelian factor - . ,

<mitochondrion> <plastid>.
non-Mendelian inheritance - . O
, <Mendels laws>,
, ,
,
()
( <plastom>).
nonparental type - . O ,
:
AB ab, .. Ab,Ab,aB,aB.
nonpermissive conditions - .
, - <conditioned lethal>.
nonradioactive in situ hybridization = fluorescence in situ hybridization (.).
nonreciprocal recombination - . ,
;
.. <trasformation>
<transduction>.
nonreciprocal recombinant chromosomes -
. ()
, <unequal
crossing-over>.
non-recurrent parent - . ,
.
nonreduction,
semiheterotypic
division

,
.
-
.
non-repetitious
DNA
sequences

()
[]. ,
( , 10);
( ,
<multigene family>) ..;
.. .
nonsense codon - -, . K,
, <terminating codon>;
. , ..
.-. ( ) .
nonsense mutation - -. T ,
- <nonsense codon> , ,

.

nonsense suppressor - -. ,
<anticodon>,
- <nonsense codon>,
.
nonspecific transduction - (, )
.

( .. - 2%
); , .., 22,
<transduction>,
.
nonsynonymous substitution - [].
,

; -
(. <synonymous substitution>).
nontaster = taste blindness (.).
noose - (. Y-chromosome loops).
nopaline - . P , <arginine>,

-
;
,
., Ti- <Ti plasmid>.
NOR = nucleolar organizing region (.).
noradrenaline - . M ,
<dopamine>;
(
- ); .
.

norm of reaction, reaction norm - .


()
; ,
.., - , ,
..
normoblast - . ,

.
normogenesis - . H ,
.
Norrie disease, pseudoglioma - . ,
. ,
, , .;
, NDP p11.3-p11.23 X.

Northern blotting (transfer) - -. M,


- <Southern blotting>
(
-),

; .-. . .
1977.
Northern transfer = Northern blotting (.).
Norum disease - . ,
,
, ; ( LCAT q22.1
16), - .
Notch. C <complex locus> ( 4
), <homeotic
mutation>, , - ; N/+ ,

; Notch
; Notch 37 . ;
(TAN1), q34.3
9.
notomorphs - . O,
(F1, F2, ..), .. . =
<hybrids>.
novobiocin - . A, Streptomyces niveus,
- <DNA gyrase>;
.

npf [no plasmodium formation]. (),



.
N-terminus - N-. K NH2-;
N-. .
nu particle = nucleosome (.).
nucellar (nuclear) embryony - .
<nucellus>,
.
nucellus - . ()

(.
);

, . (
) <perisperm>.
nuclear association - . ,
,
().
nuclear dimorphism - . H
( <macronucleus>
<micronucleus>): ..
( ).
nuclear embryony = nucellar embryony (.).
nuclear factor I - I. - ,
(/)N5;
in vitro,
.; ..I
(, p13 19).
nuclear fibrils - . H ,
<nucleoskeleton>.
nuclear fragmentation - , .
<amitosis>,
; ..
.
nuclear gene - . , .
nuclear genome - . ,
( <plastome>).
nuclear matrix = nucleoskeleton (.).
nuclear membrane, karyotheca, karyolemma - , ,
. ,
; ,
; ..
, <pore complex>.
nuclear petite - . M
<petite>, ; ..
.
nuclear (chromosome) phenotype - () .
H
( );
(, , .),
.
nuclear plate = equatorial plate (.).
nuclear
revertant

.
,

<male sterility>
( ,


).
nuclear scaffold = nucleoskeleton (.).
nuclear transfer - .
; .
nuclear transplantation - . M
,
.

; .. -
(
..).
nuclease - . ,
-
;
<exonuclease>

<endonuclease>,

, <restriction endonucleases> ..
nucleation stage - . H
,
(, 10-20 )
, (
<zipper-like stage>); .. .
nucleic acid - , .
, - ,
, 5-
3- ; ..
1010; ( ) 2 .. -
<DNA> <RNA>, .. -
; .. 1889 ( ..
. 1868).
nucleo- - -. O (
- <karyo->): (= ),
.
nucleo-cytoplasmic interaction - - .
K ,
- ; .-..
,
, <tubulins> ,
; .-..
.
nucleodesma, karyodesma - . ,

; .
.
nucleoid, prokaryon - . -

- (
. ), .
; . - -
, .
nucleolar chromosome - . X,
<nucleolar organizer>.
nucleolar domain - .
, ,
, -; .. -
.
nucleolar fusion - . ,
( G1 <G1 period>)

<nucleolus> <nucleolar
organizing region>.
nucleolar olisthheterochromatin - .
O
<olisthheterochromatin>

<nucleolar organizing region>.


nucleolar organizer - . K ,

<Nbanding>.
nucleolar organizing (organizer) region, NOR -
. X <multigene
family> , ;
... <N-banding>, ...
-
2 ... ( ),
2 ( ),
...
nucleolar trisomic - . O,
, <nucleolar organizer>;
.. .
nucleolin - . ,
<nucleolar organizer>,
;
. ( 23) . . 1984.
nucleolinus = micronucleolus (.).
nucleolus, plasmosome - . ,

<nucleolar organizer>
( ); 1-2 ., - 2;
.
(, ); . <fibrillar
center>, <fibrillar component> <granular component>

.
nucleolus-associated bodies - .
, ,
<nucleolus> ,
; ,
() , .
nucleoplasm = karyoplasm (.).
nucleoplasmic ratio - - .
; ., 1908,
,
(

.-..).
nucleoplasmin - . H ,

; , ..
; . p,
29 .
nucleoporins - . ,
<pore complex>, . ( 1992
10) 1 N-,
; .
.
nucleoprotein - . K ( ,
),
<histones> <protamines>, (
<informosome>, ); .
.
nucleosidase - . ,

; .
.
nucleoside - . ,
- ;
. (, ,
, , ); .
.
nucleoskeleton, nuclear scaffold (matrix) - (). O
,
, ,
.. <chromatin>
; , .. ,
, ..

.
nucleosome, nu () particle - .
10 ,
<chromatin>; (
<histones> 2, 3, 4, 1), 7/4
(140 ), ()
15-100 ;
. 262 (108 , 130 -
, 24 - );
- ,
[ ] <[DNAase] hypersensitive sites>.
nucleosome phasing - .
() ;
, ..
, - , <promoter>
<nucleosome> -
, .
nucleotide - . ,
<nucleic acid>; . , , <coenzyme A>
. ; .
- , <ATP>.
nucleotype - . ,
( 2)
( ., 1972):
. ,
, ,
.
nucleus, cytoblast - . O
, . (,
); .
( ),
.
nucleus substitution - .
c . (
.. 5-15
), (
) .
nuclide - . O ,
( ); .
null allele = silent allele (.).
null effect - . <deletion>
.
nulliplex - . ,
aaaa.

nullisomic - . O,
; - .
nullisomic analysis - . O
<monosomic analysis>;
;
( ,
) - ,
Chinese Spring.
numerical hybrid - . ,
.
numerical taxonomy - . T ,
;

-

.
nuon - .
(nuon - nucleic acid); . . .
1992,
(. <potonuon>).
nurse cell - () , -.
; 15 .. 1
; ..,
, , .
nutrient reguiring mutation = auxotrophic mutation (.).
nymph - . ,
( - );
. ;
( ).
nystatin - . , Streptomyces
noursei, ,
,
.

O
obesity - . ;
( )
. - , ( <diabetes mellitus>,
- <Prader-Willi syndrome> .).
obligate parasite - . ,
.
ocelliles. - ,
3 (-)

<chorion genes>; ocelliles


,
,
<position effect>.
ochre mutation - -. O -
<nonsense mutation>, - ,
;
.-. phoA E.coli;
- , Stylonychia
lemnae.
Ockerman syndrome, mannosidosis - .
- ,
, , , ,
-, .
; - ,
- - ( MANA MANB ,
, q11-qter 15 cen-q13.1 19).
octad - . <ascus>, 8 ;

, .
octo- - -. O : .
octopine - . P , (
<nopaline> .) - ,
<arginine>; , ., Ti <Ti plasmid>.
octoploid - . O, 8 .
O-DNA - -. 2 ,
600 ,
2 ,
<vector>.
oenocytes - . ,
-
; . <polyteny>,
Acricotopus lucidus
., 128C.
offspring = progeny (.).
Ohnos hypothesis - . ,

, .
oil-immersion objective - . O
,
. - (
..), .. 60 , 90 , 100 .
Okazaki fragments - . O ( E.coli - 12 ., - 100 )

<lagging strand>
( 5 3); () ..
- <DNA ligase>, ..
-,
<primase>; .. . . 1968.
oligo- - -. O -: .
oligogene - . O , (
, ) .
oligogenic character - . ,
; , ..,
.
oligomer - . , ; .
(, <enkephalines>),
5-20 .
oligomerization - .
(,
)
; . .. 1936.
oligonucleotide - . O ,
( 20).
oligonucleotide primer - .
( 15-25
), <polymerase chain
reaction> .
oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis = site-specified mutagenesis (.).
oligophreny = idiocy (.).
oligopyrene sperm - . A (
) .
oligospermia - . A
() ( ) ;
, .
.
olisthheterochromatin - . X
<secondary constriction>; . . . 1948

;
<nucleolar olisthheterochromatin> .
olisthheterozones - . ,
<olisthheterochromatin>, - <secondary
constriction>.
olphactogenetics - . ,
(
); , ,
<monozygotic twins>
; ,

<major histocompatibility
complex>.
omnipotent - . X
,
<induction>.
omnipotent suppressors - .
- <nonsense suppressor> ;
, ;
, .. ,
.
oncocyte - . ,
, .
oncogene - . ,
() ; .
<proto-oncogene> ,
. .
oncogene theory (hypothesis) - . T,

()
; .. (
) ; .. .
. 1969.
oncogenic (tumor) virus - () . ,
,
; .. ,
scr; ..
, (, ),
-
; . .
1978 ( ) -
scr (
).
oncomouse. , ras
MMTV;
; -
( ) <transgenic animals>.
one enzyme - two genes theory - - . M,

,
N-
(52
)
-6 ,
6, (479 ) - -;
. . 1989.
one gene - one enzyme theory - - . ,
;
- , ..
,

.
one gene - one polypeptide hypothesis - () -
(). , -
, ,
, , ,
; . .
1941 - ,

- ( 1958 .
. ); 80- .
,
- <one enzyme two genes theory> ( - ),
<overlapping genes>;

<multifunctional protein>.
one step growth curve - . ,
( . .);
( )
, ,

.
one step meiosis - . M,

,
; .. .
one-plane (chiasmotype) theory - ().
( <twoplane theory>) <chiasma>
, (
).
onion - . 1 (Allium).
ontogenetic imprinting - .
,
<crossing-over>, ; ..
..,

..
ontogenetic variation - .
( - ),
; .. - <Astaurov
principle>.
ontogeny - . C
( );
, . ,


; . . 1866.
oo- - -. X (): .
oocyte - . ;
. <oogonium>;
(, ) .
( I ),
(, , ) .
, . , I
. ,
( I II ); .
.
oogamy - . ,
,
(); . ,
.
oogenesis - . ()
, , ;
( ),
( ) . (
).
oogonium - . ,
<oogenesis>, (
); .
.
ooplasm - . .
oospore - . -,
; .
.
ootid, egg cell - . ,
.
ootid nucleus - . O 4 ,
; 3 ..
.
opa box - opa-. ,
- 30
( ):
- <homeobox>, Opa-.
, ;
Opa-. , Dictyostelium discoideum,
, ; Opa-. 1985 Notch
<.> D.melanogaster.
opal mutation - -. O -
<nonsense mutation>, - - ;
- ,

Stylonychia lemnae Myoplasma


capricolum.
open (relaxed) circle - () . O

()

;
,
.
open complex - . K,
- <RNA polymerase> (

- 10-20 -
); , ..,
<tight binding> -
.
open (cross) pollination, staurigamia, allogamy - .
O . ,
( - . );
.. .
open population - . H
, .. - - ,
.
open reading frame, ORF - .
, ;
.
opened DNA - . ,
(.. )
<nuclease>; .
. 1975.
operator - . , ,
- ; , .
( );
., ()
.
operon - , . ,
(, lac-. <lactose operon> E.coli
3 ),
; ., , -
-,

;
.

- <promoter>
; . . .
1961.
oppositional factor - . ,

,
o, .. c <histoincompatibility>.

opsonins - . ,
, .
<phagocytosis>;
. - 3- <complement>.
optical dense - .
, ,
-, , E=lgIo/I=kcb ( Io - , I - , k , c - );
.. (. <flow
cytometry>, <chromosome sorting>).
optional introns - . ,

-,
, ,

Neurospora
crassa

60-73 .
- .. ( ,
-1 0 4 ..); ..
<ignorant DNA>.
orange G - . K ,
, :
,
- - .

orb snail - . 1 (Biomphalaria).


orcein - . ,
Roccella ( 3,5-
); - (
. - -)
.

ordered tetrad - . 4
<ascus> , ..

<tetrad analysis>.
Oregon R. ( Canton S) Drosophila
melanogaster, (
, ).
ORF = open reading frame (.).
organ - . C-
, a
.
organ culture - .
( ) in vitro, in vitro
.
organelle, cell organ - , .
( ),
; 10 .;

. - .
organism - .
,
( - .. ., ,
..) , (
).
organization effect - . ,

; ..
. 1954.
organizer - . ,
- . .
organogenesis - . O
,
. ,
() (-
); .
; .
<morphogenesis>.
orphan receptor -. ,
.
orientation - .
.
origin [of replication] - [].
( ), .
Origin of Species - .
. - .. ,
( 1859-72 6
.): , .. ( ,

),
(1868)
(1871).
ornithine - . A, (
),
( ).

ornithine transcarbamylase - [ 2.1.3.3].


,

<ornithine>

<citrulline> ( );
. - ( p21.1).
orotate phosphoribosyl transferase/orotidine-5-phosphate decarboxylase - [ 2.4.2.10] / -5- [ 4.1.1.23]. ,
<pyrimidines>,
<anemia>; OPRT/UMPS
3 .
orotic acid - , 13.
, ,
; ..
.

orotidine-5-phosphate decarboxylase = orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (.).


orphons - . , (
<processed pseudogenes>)
, - ,
<histones>, <hemoglobin> .; , .

,
(. <gene sharing>).
ortet - . -,
( <ramets>) .
orthogenesis - , . ,

, ; .
. (1888-1897);
, .
orthologic genes - . ,
(), .. , ,
, ;

.. ( <paralogic genes>)
<duplication>.
Orthomyxoviruses - . C
, 80-120 ,
- 7 ;
. - .
orthotopic transplantation - .
, () .
orthoselection - . ,
,
- .
osmosis - . ,
; . ,
(..
).
osteopetrosis, Albers-Schoenberg disease - ,
, -. ,
( ),
, , ;
- ,
<carbonic anhydrase>, 8.
osteopontin - .
( 44 ), 1
12 ;
, , . .
Ostergrens model - . ,
<prometaphase>

; , . 1951,
,
(, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus)

<half-spindles>,
..
otu. C - ,
,
(ovarian tumor); ,
,
<nurse cell> ( 8000 ).
outbreeding - , , . C (
) , ..
4-5 ; .
,
<heterosis>.
ovalocytic hemolytic anemia - .

<hemolytic anemia>, ,
(), (
8-15%); - ; -,
..., - <rhesus factor>.
ovariole - . .
ovary - . H <pistil>,
, , .
.
ovary - . ,
<oogenesis> ( - ); .
( -
).
overdominance, monohybrid heterosis, double dose disadvantage , ,
. ,
, ;
. 1955 ,
. ,
.
overexpression - .

,
.
5-(3-)-overhanging end - 5-(3-)- .
<cohesive ends>
5- ( 3-) .
overlapping code - .
, ,
; ..,
. 1954,
.
overlapping fragments - .
, , - , ..
<chromosome-specific library>.
overlapping genes - . ,
(, -
E.coli); , .. ;
.. IS5- <IS5 elements>.
overlapping inversion - .
, o
.
overwound DNA - .
; in vivo ,
in vitro.
oviparous - . X ,

.
oviposition-site preference - .

-
,
,
.
ovotestis - . P
( ,

) (
).
ovoviviparity - . C ,
,
; . ,
.
ovoviviparous - . ,
<ovoviviparity>.
ovulation - .
; .
,
(, ).
ovule - , . M ,
, ; .
<nucellus>, ,
(); ,
- ; . - 1 (
).
ovum, egg - , . , (
<parthenogenesis>)
() ; . .
1827.
Owren disease = parahemophilia (.).
oxamycin = cycloserine (.).
oxidative
phosphorylation

.
( ),

;

(
)

(
);
..

.. 1930.
oxidoreductase - , . K (
<Enzyme Classification> - 1),
- ; -
, (, ..);
200 .
oxygen effect - .

()
, ,
() . ; .. (
, <fragmentational hypothesis>
<restitutional hypothesis>); ..
; .. . 1921.
oxyhemoglobin - . <hemoglobin>,
, ..
; (, )
; .
.
oxylisine - . A, <collagen>,
<gelatine>, - -.

oxyproline - . c,
<gelatine> ( 13%), <collagen>
.

P
P. C,
F1; P P1,
P F0.
P blood groups - . C ,
( 4 - P1, P2, pk, p),
; . . 1927
M-N <M-N blood groups>.
P DNA = pachytene DNA (.).
P loops, particulate loops - -.
<lampbrush chromosomes>, (45
30 ); . 1968 4
Pleurodeles waltl.
32P suicide - .
32.
pachynema = pachytene (.).

pachytene, pachynema - , , . C
I ;

<bivalent>,

<synaptonemal complex>; .
,
,
<crossing-over>.
pachytene analysis - .
() ,
; .
pachytene DNA, P DNA - . (2-3 .
) ,
,
. .
packing - []. C
,
; . <packing ratio>.
packing ratio - [].
.
Paget disease - , . ,
(
,
..); - ,
PDB p21.3 6.
pair mating - () . M ,

.
paired. Drosophila melanogaster (
2),
; prd <homeobox> ,
- , ..
, .
pairing index (number) - .
() ,
.
pairing number = pairing index (.).
pairing segment - , .
K ( Y, Z
W),

()

<differential segments>;
.. - ( , ), ,
, - -
.
Pajamo experiment - Pajamo ( Pardee-JacobMonod). , ., .

. 1957
;
- <beta-galactosidase> E.coli, ,
- -,
-.
Palades granule = ribosome (.).
palindrome - . ,

5- 3-, .. .
, :
5 3


3 5

. (
. ),
<restriction endonucleases>,
. .
palingeny - . ,

; . . 1874.
Pallister-Killian
syndrome

-.
,

, . ;
-
,
12 - i(12p); ..-.
LDH-B ().
pancreatic islet = Langerhans islet (.).
pancreatic stone protein = lithostathine (.).
panel - . ,
- , . ,
( .
)
.
Paneth cells - , .
,
, , ,
<lysozyme> <cryptdins>.
pangenes - . ,
; . .
1889 <pangenesis>.

pangenesis - . ,

( ) ,
; . 1868
. 1871; . .
1889 <pangenes>,
.
panmictic index - . K
: 1-P=F, F - ;
.. . 1931.
panmictic unit - . M
(),
.
panmixis (panmixia), random mating - . C
; () .
,
, . ; .
; - <Hardy-Weinberg law>
.
panspermy - .
(

),
. 1895.
pantothenic acid - , 5. C
<coenzyme A>, .
; .. (14-35 -%) .
paper chromatography - . O
,
.
papilloma - . ;
. ( -
).
Papovaviruses - . -
, ; 2 <polyomaviruses>; . 45-55 ,
; .
(, SV40 <simian virus 40>, <papilloma>).
para- - -. O , -
() , .
paraalleles = pseudoalleles (.).

paraaminobenzoic acid - , 1.
; <folic acid>
.

parabiosis - . M
() .
parabiotic twins - , .
() ; .. ,
; .. 1862.
paracentric - . X
(, . ).
paracentric heterochromatin = paracentromeric heterochromatin (.).
paracentric (acentric, akinetic) inversion, parainversion -
(, , ) , .
<inversion> (.. ,
).
paracentromeric
(paracenric)
heterochromatin

. <heterochromatin>,
<satellite DNA> (
- <alphoid DNA>); ..

, , ..; ..
<chromocenter>; ..
- <C banding>.
parachromatin - .
<chormatin>,
.
paraffine sectioning method - .
, -

, ;
,
.
parageneon - . ,
(
).
paragenetic - . X ,
(,
).
parahemophilia, Owren disease - , . ,

, V
(); - , F5
q22-q23 1.
parainversion = paracentric inversion (.).
parallel co-orientation - .
: 2
.
parallel mutations - () . C
, ;
.. ,
() , ...
paralocuses = pseudoalleles (.).
paralogic genes - . ,

(
<orthologic genes>); .. - -, , -, -, - -
.
paramecin - . , -
<killer>, ,
, . K, S1
S2 .
paramutation - . C
,
, - ,

<hypomorph> .
Paramyxoviruses - . C - ,
, 100-300 ,
- ; .
-
<Sendai virus>.
paranecrosis - . H
- ; <necrosis>
. -
.
paranemic joint - .
,
,
(. <plectonemic joint>); in vivo ..
- . .
parapatric - . X ,
. ,
( <hybrid zone>);
. .

paraphysis - , .
, <ascus>,
<basidium> ,
, ; .
.
paraplasm - , .
( , , ..).
paraselectivity - .
()
().
parasexual process (cycle) - .
( )

(
- );
.., ,
<somatic hybridization>.
parasexuality - .
<parasexual process>.
parasite - . O, . ()
;
(
); , . , -,
() - ,
- .; -
<genetic colonization>.
parasterility = histoincompatibility (.).
parasynapsis (parasyndesis) - .
I (
).
parasyndesis = parasynapsis (.).
parathyroid hormone - . ,
,
; .. 83
9,5 ( PTH pter-p15.4
11, - 7).
parenchyma - . O ;
, - ,
;

( ..).
parental (genome) imprinting, imprinting - ()
, . ,
; ..
<Huntington chorea> ( ,

, 40
) - <Prader-Willi syndrome>
<Angelman syndrome>
15
; .
<methylation> .
parental type - . X ( ),
-
.
parental generation - . , o
.
paripotency - . ,
: .
.
parity. ;
<pedigree>: 0 - (
), 1, 2 .. - (
).
Parkinson disease - , . ,
() .
; -
( ).
paroral cone - . ,
<conjugation>
: <micronucleus>,
.., - .
parthenapogamy = diploid parthenogenesis (.).
parthenocarpy
.

<parthenogenesis> -
; ( ) . (
<gynogenesis> ); .
.
parthenogenesis, virgin birth, virginal (unisexual) reproduction - ,
, .
,
;
;
, ., <amphitoky>,
<arrhenotoky> <telytoky>, .

<pedogenesis>,

<parthenocarpy>,

<gynogenesis> <androgenesis>; .
-
( ..).
parthenogenote (parthenote) - . O,
.

parthenomixis - .
- , 2
.
parthenote = parthenogenote (.).
partial denaturation - . H

- ( 3 2
-).
partial digest - () .
<restriction endonucleases>
, ,
;
; ..
, ,
,
.
partial replica hypothesis - . ,
, ,
( )
; ... . 1952.
partial replication model - . M,
<chromocenter>
<polytenization>,
<euchromatin>,
;
- <-heterochromatin> <-heterochromatin>.
partial sterility, semi-sterility - .
-
.
partial wobbling - .

- ,
4 2
,
<complete wobbling> 1 4 .
-particle = mu particle (.).
particulate inheritance - . ,

,
, ; ..,
., <gene>.
particulate loops = P loops (.).
Parvoviruses - . C ( 20
) , ; . -

.
passenger - . , <vector>
-.
passenger DNA = cloned DNA (.).
passive (neutral) equilibrium - .
, .
passive immunity - . ,
, , .
.
Patau syndrome, D-trisomy syndrome - , D.
, 13;
- , ,
, ,
.; 2n=46/47,13+.
paternal-X inactivation - -.
- <X-inactivation>,
; (
-).
paternity examination - .
( ); -
.. (
..), - ( ,
, );
.. ;
..
<fingerprint method>.
pathologic mitosis - . <polymitosis>,
- <B
chromosomes>.
patroclinal
inheritance
,

.
H ,
, , .
patrogony - . H
.
pauperization, hybrid weakness - , .

; ..
() , .. -
; , , ..,
.
pBR322. <plasmid> E.coli,
<cloning vector>
. . 1977; -
,
( -

<chimaeric plasmid>
), .
PCR = polymerase chain reaction (.).
PCR-karyotyping - -.
<polymerase chain
reaction> (, Alu, <alphoid DNA> .).
PDGF = platelet-derived growth factor (.).
pea comb - . ,
rrPP rrPp.
Pearson syndrome - . , ,
, .
;
- <KearnsSayre syndrome>
.
pectin - . K ,
, -1,4- ;
- . ; -
. ( );
( .) -
, . - .
pedigree - , . ,
.
pedigree selection - . M
<pedigree>,

; .. , a
- ,
.
pedogamy - . C ,
<isogametes>
<hermaphroditism>.
pedogenesis - . <parthenogenesis>;
. 1862 (
. - Miastor); . ,

.
pedomorphosis - . , e
-
, ; .
<neoteny> <pedogenesis>.
Pelger nuclear anomaly - ( ) .
H (
) , ;

. 1928,
. 1932.
Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease - -. ,
; ,
, (PLP)
q21.33-q22 -.
Pendred syndrome - . ,
, , -
;
.. - ; - , ,
, PDS
q24 8.
penetrance - , .
(
<expressivity>); .
,
. ( %); .
., ..-.
penicillin - . O ,
Penicillum notatum ; ,
; .
. 1929 ( .. 1872); .
.

penicillin resistance - .
, <penicillin>
- (),
- ; - <inducible enzyme>, - - .
penicillin selection method - . M
:
<minimal medium> 1 ,
,
( )
( ).
penta- - -. O : .
pentaploid - . O, 5
.
pentasomic - . O, 3

2 (.. 5 ).
pentraxins - . ,
;
. - - ( CRP 1q21q23 ) - ( SAP: 10q21-q23);
. - , 5
.
peppered moth - . 1 (Biston betularia).
pepsin - [ 3.4.23.1-2].
, (
=2,0); . 1836, .
1930; . 327
34,5 , , .,
q13 11.
peptidase, protease, proteolytic enzyme - .
,

,
, ..
peptide - . , ,
<peptide bond>; .,
, .
peptide bond - . P ,
- - .
peptidyl transferase - [ 2.3.2.12]. P
, 50S(60S)-
, , ..
; .
-
<complete ribosome>, , .
(. ., L16)
.
peptone - . ,
; . .
perennial [plant] - . P, 2 : (
)
() ();

(, ..).
perfusion - . M ( ,
, ..)
o ; .
.- 1858.
peri- - -. X , (
-) ( ).
pericarp - , . C : . (

) 3 - (),
() ().
pericentric (symmetrical, transcentric) inversion -
(, ) . <inversion>
, .
pericentriolar material - .
<centrosome>, - ,
; , ..
,
<mitotic apparatus>.
periclinal chimaera - . () ,
()
() .
perikaryon - . ,
.
perinuclear cisterna - .
.
period. Drosophila melanogaster;
- <cyrcadian
rythm> () ;
24- -;

period

, . .
peripatric speciation - .
<parapatric speciation> -
, ,
-;

<genetic drift>.
peripheric migration - .
, , ,
I; .. .
peripherin - . (
, , ),
<intermediate filaments>, ,
. III ; . = RDS- <RDS-protein>.
periplasm - . - ,

.
perisperm - . ,
<nucellus> ( <endosperm>,
), ;
. .
perissoploidy = anorthoploidy (.).

perithecium - . (,
).
perivitelline space - .
, ;

..
permanent heterozygote - . O (),
- (,

),

(,
).
permanent hybrid - . ,
( )
, .. .
permanent modification = daueromodification (.).
permanent univalents - . ,
.
permeability - . X ,
, ;
( ) . (
<phagocytosis> <pinocytosis>); ( )
. ( ) , .
(, )
-.
permease - . -,
.
permissible enzyme - . ,
, - <missense
mutation>, ,
() .
permissive conditions - . ,
(, )
,
, <permissible enzyme>
.
permutation - . H
<terminal redundancy>,
(, 4).
peroxiacetyl nitrate - . ,

, : CH3C(O)OO + NO2 = CH3C(O)OONO2; . -
,

.

peroxidases - [ 1.11.1.1-10; 1.11.1.6 - <catalase>].


- ,
22; .
1.11.1.7 (
: o - 1.11.1.9, . .).

peroxisome = microbody (.).


persistance - . K ,
; ., ,
1/i, i - (..
).
persistance form - . ,
(10 .
), - , (Latimeria
chalumnae), (Xiphosura), (Lycopodiales), (Sphenodon
punctatus);

..

<stabilizing selection>.
persistant modification = daueromodification (.).
pervasive gene action - . ,
( ,
- ,
, ..); ...,
, . 1947.
petite - . K Saccharomyces cerevisiae,
, petite- <petite
mutation>, ; 3 . - <nuclear
petite>, <neutral petite> <suppressive petite>;
. . . 1948.
petite mutation - -. M,
<petite>
;
,
( ) .
PGM = phosphoglucomutase (.).
Ph1 = Philadelphia chromosome (.).
PHA = phytohemagglutinin (.).
phacomatosis
.

,
, ,
, - , ,
., ;
- , - ( -
90% - ).
phaeomelanin - . ,


<tyrosine>, . - ; .
<agouti>; . (
<eumelanin>) ,
.
phaeoplast - . <plastid>
( ), .
phage = bacteriophage (.).
phage = lambda phage (.).
phage (lysogenic) conversion - () .
( , ..)

;
..
( )
( );
..
.
phage cross - . -
, , -
<Visconti-Delbrucks
hypothesis>,
:
.
phage immunity - . C
.
phage induction - . C
(, )
; ..
.
phagemids - . <vector>,
<plasmid>,

; . <cosmid>.
phagocyte - . C ,
.
phagocytosis - . A

. (, .).
phagolysosome - . ,
<phagosome> <lysosome>; .
.
phagosome - . ,
<phagocytosis>, .
phagotyping, lysotypy - . M

; . . 1938.
phalloidin - . ( ),

Amanita phalloides ( .
- - <alpha-amanitin>)
; . <actin>.
pharmacogenetics - . P ,

; . ,
, .
<ecogenetics>; . . 1959.
phase contrast microscope - - . M,
() ;
,
( ).
phase of growth acceleration - .
;
; ...
- ( )
.
phase of growth declining - .
, -
,
; ...
(
), - ,
, (
),
.
phase specificity - . -
() .
phase variation - . ,
(), ;
(I -
2 r1, 1; II - 2 r1
1);
10-3-10-5 . ..
- <site-specific
recombination system> .

phaseolin - .
Phaseolus vulgaris ( 50% ),
<multigene family>, 10 .
phase-shift mutations = frameshift mutations (.).
phene - . ,
; ,
. - , ; .
. 1909.
phenocopy - . M ,

; , .,

.; .
.
phenodeme - . ( <deme>),
. (), - ,
.
phenodeviant
,

.
,
, ,
<polygenes>.
phenogenetics - . P ,
( )
, .. .
phenogeography - . P ,
<phene>
.
phenoindex - .
-
.
phenon - . ,
( , -) .
phenotype - . C ,
; . -
( ),
; . .
1903.
phenotypic expression - .
- .
phenotypic flexibility - . C
,
.. .
phenotypic lag - .
, ( - <mutational
lag>), - , .. E.coli
4 .
phenotypic mixing - .
, ,

.
phenotypic selection - . H (
) ,
() .
phenotypic
suppression

.
C,
, - ,
; .. , , E.coli

, , ,
, .
phenylalanine [Phe] - []. L----
, ;
<protamines>, ( ) <melanin>,
<adrenalin> .; , .

phenylketonuria
,

.
,
,
, , , .,

; ,
, . (1/11000);
- , PAH q22-q24.1
12; .
,
.
pheromones - . ,
.
( , , . ..).
phi-eighty phage, 80 phage - 80. ,
E.coli att trp;
,
<polycistronic message>.
phi X-174 phage, X174 phage, phi-X one-seven-four phage - 174.
M ( 250 ) ,
; . X174
, 9 ,
(5374), (6078) -
, ,
1 ;
. X174 . 1977.
Philadelphia chromosome - Philadelphia. A ,
,
, . ; ..
22 . ( 90%
- 9).
phocomelia - .
( - ); .


.
phosphate bond energy - . ,

, - , ( );
... .
phosphate buffer - (. buffer).
phosphodiesterase - . , 5-,
5- 3-- .
phosphoglycerate kinase - [ 2.7.2.3]. ,
1,3-
,

(Mg++,
Mn++,
Ca++);

. ( PGK -)
<hemolytic anemia>;
.,
Pgk-2, <retroposition>.
phosphoglycerate
mutase

[
5.4.2.1].
, 2 ( ; - ; -
); 10 7.
phosphoglucomutase - , [ 2.7.5.1].
, -1- (
) -6-; . -
- (PGM);
(E.coli, 75 ), (, 62 ).
phosphokinases - . ,
; , .
() [ 2.7.3.3] () [ 2.7.3.2] ( 2 - ),
- , - .
phospholipids - . ,
.
phosphoprotein p53 - 53. ,
G1 G2;
.53 ,
E1a, myc fos.
phosphorylase kinase - [ 2.7.1.38]. O ,
(
)
; .. 4
,
-; .. - , 16 4 (, ,
, ), (, ); ,

c, .
phosphorylation - .
(23-),
; ()
;
.
phosphovitin - . ()
( 2 . 1
); .
40 .
photolysis - . P ,
.
photomicrography - .
;
(Opton, Olympus, -15 .)
.
photoperiodism - . P (
) (), ..
; ,
, ,
( ..).
photophosphorylation
.
O

<phosphorylayion> ,
; .
.
photoreactivating
enzyme,
PRE

.
[ 3.1.25.1],
<photoreactivation>
<pyrimidine dimer>, ; ..
E.coli 35 ,
(10-15 ),
.
photoreactivation, photorecovery - .
<repair>,
<photoreactivating enzyme>;
. .
photorecovery = photoreactivation (.).
photosynthesis - .
,
; .
( <chlorophyll> .).
phragmoplast - . ,
; .
<Goldgi complex>.
phratrie - . ,

, ..
.
phylembryogenesis - .
,
, ; . .. 1910,
3 . - <anaboly>,
<deviation> <archallaxis>.
phyletic gradualism - . ,
, ;
- , <punctuated
equilibria> . - .. .
phylogenetic tree, cladogram - , . C
() ,
;
..
().
phylogeny - , .
; . ( )

; . . 1866.
physical mapping - . K
(

,
); ..
( )
(),
( ).
physiological adaptation - .
( ) (
) ;
.. .
physiological genetics - . P ,

;

( , ..).
physiological mutant - . M,
- (
..).
physiological races - .
,
; .. - <sibling species>.
physiological solution = Ringers solution (.).
phytochrome - . ; .
, , .

phytohemagglutinin - . <lectins>
Phaseolus vulgaris,
; .
( G2 )
; . .
1960.
phytohormones - , . O
, (
<auxins>, <gibberellins> <cytokinins>)
( <abscisic acid> )
.
pI = isoelectric point (.).
Picornaviruses - . M -
, 25-40 ; .
.
piebaldism - . ,
, . ,
; -
KIT (,
),
q12 4; ( Kit- - 5)
- dominant white spotting - .
pilus = fimbria (.).
pinocytosis - .
<pinosome>; . <phagocytosis>
.
pinosome - , .
,
.
Pinus-type - . Antirrhinum type.
pistil - . , ;
, ,
; .
<pollen tube>.
pistillate flower - . () ,
.
pistillate plant - . - ,
.
pitch. .
pituitary dwarfism, ateleosis - . ,
( ) ; ..
.
placebo - . ,

,
.
placenta, afterbirth - . O,
(
, ); .
, ,
; . - .
planogamete, zoogamete - . .
planospore = zoospore (.).
plaque - , . ,

, ; .
, .
plaque-forming unit - .
,
<plaque>.
plasma cell - . ,
<immunoglobulins>;
,
-.
plasma protein - . ,
<blood plasma>.
plasmacitoma = myeloma (.)
plasmagynogamous - . X e,
,
.. , , .
plasmaheterogamous
.
X

,
(.. ) .
plasmaisogamous - . X
,
.
plasmalemma = cell membrane (.).
plasmid - . ,
;
1-200 .
, ,
. <linear plasmid>; .
(F- <F factor>, Col- ..),
<episome>; . ( , ,
.)
; ,
. . ,
<plasmid incompatibility>; .
, - , V1 V2

, - <killer particle>; .
. 1952.
plasmid donation (rescue), homologous drift - .
<non-conjugative plasmid> - c
- , ColE1 () F ( mob <.>) E.coli
.
plasmid incompatibility - ,
. M <plasmid>

, ; ..
- ..
, .
plasmid rescue = plasmid donation (.).
plasmid-like particles, killer-factors - , .
P-

(, ),
<plasmid>; , .. - V1
V2, - , V1 ..; V2
V1.
plasmin - . ,
<plasminogen>, .
plasminogen - . - <plasmin>,
,
-.
plasmodesma - . ,
; .
, .
plasmodium - . ( ),

,

,
(. <npf>); . -
, <malaria>.
plasmogamy - . C <protoplast> 2
; . .
plasmogene, cytogene - . ,
() .
plasmolysis - . O

;
( . ).
plasmon - . C ,

.
plasmon mutation - . M <plasmon>.
plasmosome = nucleolus (.).
plasmotomy - . ,
- 2
, .
plasmotype - . O,
.
plastid
.

; 3 . (), () (
); . ,
;
.
plastid inheritance - . O
, <plastid>;
.. ( Mirabilis jalapa)
. 1908.
plastid nucleus - . ,
(
, ,
).
plastidotype - . A <genotype>,
,
.
plastodeme - . ( <deme>),
()
, .
plastom - . C , <plastid>;
80 , (16S, 28S,
5S) .
plastom mutation - . ,
.
plastosome = mitochondrion (.).
platelet - . ,
; -
( ), - ;
<megakaryocyte> .
platelet-derived growth factor, PDGF - . ,

; ... - ,
,
v-sis
.

platelet storage pool deficiency - . C,


( -
7 ), ,
..; ... -
- <Chediak-Higashi syndrome>, - <Wiskott-Aldrich
syndrome> .
plating, inoculation - [].
( , , - ..)
.
playback experiment - .
, ,
/-

.
plectonemic joint - .
,
( -
(. <paranemic joint>).
pleiotropism (pleiotropy), polypheny, polytopy - , ,
, . M ; . -
, ,
;
. , (,
)
.
pleomorphism - , . H
- ,
, -
; .
<polymorphism>.
plesiomorph character - . ;
. ; . (
<apomorph characetr>) -
, .
pleuromitotic chromosome = holocentric chromosome (.).
ploidy - . ,
(, , ).
plumage pigmentation genes - .
( ) ,
:
- IICC ( ) iicc
( ).
pluriphasic lethal = polyphasic lethal (.).
pluripotent - . X
,

.
P-M elements (factors) - - . ,
,
<hybrid dysgenesis>: -
(paternal) - <transposable element>
, - (maternal) -
, -,
- ( - - ); <transposase>,
-, -
; , -..

.
podophyllin - . ,

(Podophyllum
peltatum);

.
poikilocytosis - .
: , ( )
, .
poikiloploidy = mixoploidy (.).
point mutation - . <gene mutation>,
( <transition>
<transversion>), .
pokeweed mitogen - , .
Phytolacca americana <lectin>,
, , - -.
polar body (cell) - () . M ,
I ( ..) II ( ..)
, ,
; ,
.., <oogenesis>.
polar cell = polar body (.).
polar fusion nucleus - , .
,
2 ;

<endosperm>.
polar gene conversion - .
<gene conversion> : ,
, ,
, . .
polar granule - .
, ;
, .. ( )
.

polarity - .
,
() , - , (
) <pole>; .
<polarity effect>.
polarity effect - .
, <operon>; ..
<polycistronic
message>,
-
. - , E.coli galE (UDP-Gal-)
2 . (galK - ; galT ) .
polarity gradient - . K
<polarity mutation> ; ..
- <nonsense codon>
.
polarity mutation - . ,
<polarity effect>
polarization - [].
,
; .
<polarization microscope>.
polarization
microscope

.
M,
(..
) ;
.. , .
polaron hybrid DNA model = hybrid DNA hypothesis (.).
pole - . ,
( - ..)
;
<centriole>.
polish - .
,
<extension> <Klenow fragment>
- 4.
pollen - . C ,
; ,
( 8, 12, 16 ),
( . ).
pollen grain - . ,
; .. (
) 2 -
() (); .. 2 250 .

pollen lethal - . ,

.
pollen mother cell = microsporocyte (.).
pollen tetrad - . C 4 ,
4 , .
pollen tube - . ,
( - , -
), ,
,
; 3
.. - ,
() (), ( ) -
<porogamy>.
pollen-restoring gene - , . ,

<male sterility>.
pollination - .
; ,
; .,
- . <open pollination> ( . <anemophily>, <entomophily>, <hydrophily>,
, ), o <selfpollination> ( .); (
<heterostyly>) .
pollution - . K
(), (,
, , , ) ,
( ), , ..
polocyte - . M ;
<polar cell>.
poly- - -. O , , : , .
polyacrylamide gel - . ,
<acrylamide>
N,N---,

,

; ..
<polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis>
<isoelectric focusing>.
polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis - .
O
<electrophoresis> (
),
<polyacrylamide gel>,


,
( .).
polyadenylation - .
<poly(A)tail> 3-
; <histones> .

.
polyandry - . ,
; (
.) ,
.; . -
(, Rhea americana -
); .
<polyspermy> ,
.
poly(A)-tail - , -(). H () 10-200 ,

<polyadenilation>;
, .. ( 5- <cap>)

.
polycentric chromosome - . A
, ( ,
, .. ); ..
.
polycentric mitosis = multipolar division (.).
polychronism - . (
, ) .
polycistronic message - . ,
;
, .
polyclones - . -,

<imaginal
disc>

<compartmentalization>.
polycomplex - . C
<synaptonemal complex>, (
) I
(
) ,
; .
,
;

. ,
. ;
. .. 1977.
polycross - -. M
, 100 ,
5 ; . .
.
polydactyly - . H ,
.
polyecious plants - . P,
3 : 1) , 2) , 3)
, ( Veratrum,
Silene, Aesculus .); , .
polyembryony - . P
, <monozygotic twins>;
( -
Bryozoa, , )
. ( );
. -
( ), . -
( Fragaria .),
( Lilium, Alchemilla .)
( Hieracium,
Artemisia).
polyene antibiotic - . ,
, (
<nystatin>, .).
polygamous = trimonoecious (.).
polygamy - . H
; <polyandry>,
<polygyny> ; . -
.
polygene - . O , -
(, ) ; .
<polymery>; . , ..
( ) (..
);
. - <quantitative trait loci>;
. . 1941.
polygenic character = quantitative character (.).
polygenic
inheritance

.
H
, .. ,
().
polygyny - . ,

;
( ,
), (
) (
); x . () .
polyhaploid, alloploid - , , . O,

; , . .
polyhedrin - (). ,
<baculoviruses>
.
polyhybrid, multihybrid - . ,
, ;
(
);
<Punnett square>.
polykaryocyte = multinucleate cell (.).
polykaryogram - . ,
, ;
. -,
;
.
,
,
<chromosome banding methods>
.
polylinker - .
<vector>,
<restriction endonucleases>.
polymegaly - .
( - ; 2
).
polymer - . M,
(),
; . , , ( <starch> .) ( .), ..
.
polymerase - . ,
; .
- <DNA polymerase> - <RNA polymerase>,
, , .
polymerase chain reaction, PCR - .

in
vitro

-,


; ... 3
(20-30 ) - ,
,

; ...
5-6 .
, ,
-, (
in situ) .
polymerization - .
; . ( ) -

; ,
; . ..
1929.
polymeric (multiple) genes, cumulative factors - ,
. ,
;
<polygene> ..
.
polymery - . <polymeric genes>;
. ( <polygene>),
,
. ( <polymeric genes>),
;
. .- 1909.
polymitosis - . , <pollen
grain> ( ), ;
.
polymitotic gene - . ,
(, );
.. <polymitosis>.
polymorphic equillibrium - . H
( <monomorphic equillibrium>)
.
polymorphic gene - . ,
( 95%).
polymorphism - . C
( ) ; .
() - ,
(. <polyphenism>) ..; . , <alteration of generation>;

. - <pleiotropy>, ( ,
); .
,
( .), -
<electrophoresis>, (.); .
- , .
<restriction fragment length polymorphism>;
. ( ., .), ,
, . ; .

(),
.
polynemic (multistranded) model - [].
<replication> ,
:
.
polynucleotide - . ,
; . - .
polynucleotide
kinase
,
[ 2.7.1.78]. ,
<phosphorylation> 5--
( )
.
polynucleotide ligase - , [
6.5.1.1]. ,
,
(, . 4) (. E.coli).
polynucleotide phosphorylase - [ 2.7.7.8].


.
Polyomaviruses - . P
<papovaviruses>, 5 . ; .
, , .
polyphasic (pluriphasic) lethal - .
(), .
polyphenism - . ,
, ..
( );
. .
polypheny = pleiotropism (.).
polyphyletism - . ()
;
- Rodentia,

.
polyplicate genes - . H (2 , 3 - ..)
, ; ..
- A1a1, A2a2, A3a3 ..
polyploidization - . O , ,
, .
polyploidy - .
p ; <autopolyploidy>
<allopolyploidy>,
<aneuploidy>.
polyprotein - . C
-,
<processing> ;
.
<retroviruses>; .
<enkephalin>, 6 (----) 1 - (---).
polyribosome = polysome (.).
polysaccharide - , .
, (, ..,
, , );
( - ,
, .) (
).
polysomaty = mixoploidy (.).
polysome, polyribosome, ergosome - , , .
,
; .
; .
4-5 ; . 1962
- . . . .
polysomic - . O,
<polysomy>.
polysomy - .
(, .. - ,
, ..), . -
.
polyspermy - .
( ; ); (
, )
. ( , ),
, ..

.
polytene chromosome - .
, <polyteny>;
..
,

; ..
, , .
( ), ,
( Sciara), (); 1989 .
2- .. .
polytene nucleus - . ,
.
polyteny - . <polytene
chromosome>
( 10 - 210=1024 -
) ,
; . . 1881.
polytopy = pleiotropy (.).
poly(T)-poly(A)-method - poly(T)-poly(A), .
<vector> ,

<terminal transferase> 3- <plasmid>
<poly(A)-tail>, 3- poly(A)- poly(T)-
.
polythetic group - . ,
,
.
polytypic (complex) species - () . ,
,
(, ..),
; .. - <sibling
species>, , , Taraxacum officinale
Alchemilla vulgaris, ;
,
p
.
polyvalent = multivalent (.).
Pompe disease - , , II
. , , , ,
, .; .. ;
-1,4-,
; - , GAA
q23 17.

population - . C ,
( )
; o .
(, <deme>, <lek>, ..);
. ( ),
<effective size of population>, <population density>
..; .
<microevolution>; . . 1903.
population
biology

.
P
,
; ..
,
, .., ..
a .
population cage - . C
(), ( )
; ..
.
population density - . ,
.
population dynamics - . P ,
-
; ..
.
population equilibrium - . C
( , ) , ..
- <Hardy-Weinbergs law>;
.. , ..
<ideal population>.
population genetics - . P ,

<population>; .. . (
, 1903), . . (
- <Hardy-Weinbergs law>), .., ,

(1926), .., .. . (
<gene drift>, 1931-32).
population homeostasis = genetic homeostasis (.).
population size - .
.
population system - . K ,

,
; ..

.

population waves - , . K
, ;
( , , ,
, ),
; .. -
,
,
; ..
1905.
pore complex - , .
, 8 ,
; .. ,
(
) ; ..
<annule>; .. 124 000 .
porins - . ,
- , , E.coli (

); .
(, , ) . .
porogamy - .
<micropyle> .
porphyria - .
,
<porphyrins>; . (
- ); .

- ( .
PBGD

11),
( . - PPOX

14),

(
), ( . - UROD
p34 1), () .
porphyrins - . ; . - 4
(), -
( <hemoglobin>, ) (
<chlorophyll> ); .
<glycine> ; .
<porphyria>.
position effect - .
( ),
;
<stable type position effect> .. <variegated position
effect>; .. <Dubinins effect>.
positional allele - . ,
<position effect>.

positional cloning - .
, ;
() ,
, -
.
positional pseudoallelism = Lewis effect (.).
positive heteropycnosis - (. heteropycnosis).
positive interference = interference (.).
positive regulation - . ,
- (
<negative regulation>).
positive regulators - . ,
-,
; ..
- <catabolite activator protein> E.coli; ..
<promoter>.
positive replication control (replicon) model - (
). M
<plasmid>,
,
, ( -); .. . . 1963.
positive selection - .
,
, - , .. , .
post- - -. : .
post-adaptation - .
,
.
postreduction, post-reductional disjunction, equational separation , () . P
() II
- I .
post-reductional disjunction = postreduction (.).
post-replicative repair - () .
T <repair>, ,
:
, ,
<gap>,
( .-) (
. ) .
posttranscriptional modifications - .
:
<processing>, <polyadenylation> .
.

posttranslational
modifications

.
; ..
(
), , ,

<pro-sequence>

<pre-sequence> .
postzygotic (& prezygotc) isolation mechanisms - (
)

.
,

,
,
( )
<ecological isolation>, <geographic
isolation>, <ethogical isolation> .
( , ..
); ,

,
, .
potency alleles = isoalleles (.).
potential (cryptic, concealed) variability - ()
. ,
;
,
.
potogene = potonuon (.).
potonuon, potogene - . ,
(,
<transposition>, <pseudogene> ..)
,
(potonuon = potential nuon <nuon>); . .
. 1992; (.,
, - , Alu-
<Alu-family> , ,
200), (., ),
( . ), (,
), ,
(,
<retroposition>).
POU-domain - POU-. ,
, <promoter>
<enhancer> .
Poxviruses - . C -
( 300 240 100 ), . -
; . ( 15

),
, ;
. .
ppGpp = guanosine tetraphosphate (.).
pppGpp = guanosine pentaphosphate (.).
pp60v-src. ( 60 ),
(
), v-src.
Prader-Willi syndrome - -.
<contiguous gene syndromes>,
, ,
. , - ;
2 ; ..-. q11.2
15 ( PWCR), ,
, , ( <Angelman syndrome>,
) ..-. .
PRE = photoreactivating enzyme (.).
pre- - -. , -: .
pre-adaptation - .
,
,
() ; .
, ,
.
precession - . <heterokinesis> , .
precipitation - .
-, (
) ; .
( ),
.
precise excision - .
<transposable element> (
<imprecise excision>) ,
.
precocity theory - . T,
<mitosis>
<meiosis>: (
) ,
<crossing-over>, -
, <asynapsis>;
..., . 1937,
.
precursor - . M,

. ,
., - ,
. , <splicing>
45S-- . - 18S 28S.
predetermination - .
,
;
.
(, ,
- <X-inactivation> -
Coccoidea, . 1967).
preferential
association

[].
( )
; , ..

.
preferential chromosome condensation = premature chromosome condensation
(.).
preferential distributive pairing - . distributive pairing.
preferential (selective) mating - . H
- ,

.
preferential segregation - () .
H ( )

.
preformation theory - . ,

() ;
.. , ,
,
.
preinitiation complex - . -
<RNA polymerase> <promoter>,
<transcription>.
premature anaphase - . ,

; ..
(, Coturnix coturnix japonica)
.
premature (preferential) chromosome condensation -
. ,

, ;

...
, -
-,
, -
. 1978-80;
...
, .
premature termination - . T
, ;
- <nonsence mutation>,

(,

<puromycin>,
.) . .
premessenger RNA - -. (
),

<posttranscriptional modifications>.
premutation - .
( , ..),
, .. (
); .
.
prenatal diagnosis - (, ) .
C , , <amniocentesis>,
<chorionic villi sampling> ..; .. ,
, .
prepotency - . C
.
prepriming complex - . , 6
,
<DNA primase> ( dnaG) -
174.
prepupal period - .

<imaginal disc>.
prereduction - , .
, I ; .
- Y- ( Z- W) .
pre-replicative repair - (, )
. <repair> ,

<pyrimidine dimer> ( <photoreactivation>)

( <dark repair>).
preribosomal (ribosomal precursor) RNA - ,
. ,
; .., , 38S
, 40S , 45S HeLa <HeLa cells>; ..

.
presence and absence theory - -.
, ,
, .
pre-sequence - .
,

<pro-sequence>,

.
presumptive areas - . ,

; .. (
<preformation theory>)
.
prezygotic isolation mechanisms -
(. postzygotic isolation mechanisms).
Pribnow box - . ,
10
6 ( 9) , .. ; , ..
, ..
- <promoter>; ..
<Hogness box>, .
primary chromosome rearrangements - .
, de novo, - ..
(
<secondary chromosome rearrangements>).
primary constriction = centromere (.).
primary culture - . K ,
.
primary diserythropoietic anemia - .
P ,

; .
primary intergradation - . H
( )
<hybrid zone> (
<secondary intergradation>).
primary non-disjunction - . H


XX, ZZ 0 ( ), ..
( ).
primary oocyte - .
I : .. 2
- () ();
..
.
primary polyploid - . , ( <autopolyploid> ..)
.
primary sex ratio - . C
, .. -
.
primary sex-linked genes - .
, -;
( ) -.
primary sexual character - . ,
. ;
.
primary speciation - . P
, , ,
.
primary spermatocyte - , .
,
, I
.
primary structure of protein - .
;
<insulin>.
primase = DNA primase (.).
primer DNA - -. ,
- , - ,
<parvoviruses>.
primer RNA - -. O,
- - <DNA primase>: 5- -.
- III (
<Okazaki fragment>), -. ,
- I,
<nick> - <DNA ligase>.
primer walking - .
( 500 ) ,
;

..

primitive - . X ,
, ,
. .
primitive streak - [ ].
<gastrulation>
( ; - );

..

.
primordial germ cells - . K
- , , ;
.
primordium - . H (, )
;
.
primosome - . K ,
<replication fork>
<Okazaki fragments>;
. - - <DNA primase>.
prions - .
(, scrapie <.>, <prion diseases>),

(PrPSc, Sc = scrapie),
PrPC, -. PrPSc
PrPC ,
- -,
-
,
.
.
PrPC ( PRNP). prion . 1982
proteinaceous infectious particle.
proband, propositus - . ,
<pedigree>.
proband method - .
<pedigree> ()
( ) ;
.. .
probe - . (),
( , ..)
()
; .
<cDNA>,
, , .
probiont, proto-cell - , .
(),

, , , ( -)
(. <coacervation>).
processed pseudogenes, retrogenes - .
<pseudogenes>, <intron> 3 ; , ..
, , , ,
()
( );
.. - , PDHA2 .
processing - . K
; ,
(, 41S-, 32S-, 20S-
- ; 7S-, 28S-, 18S- - )
; .
<splicing>;
. - , <methylation>
.
processive attitude - [].

,
, , ,
<exonuclease>.
prochromosome = chromocenter (.).
production line hypothesis - . ,

,
,
, ,
; ...
<Down syndrome>
; . . 1968.
productivity - . T,
<fertility>, - , . -
- ;
( ) . - ,
- .
proenzyme - . H , .
. ; .
<processing>; .
<zymogenes>.
profilin - . ,
<actin> ,
, - (
) .; .

, ..
proflavin - . A ,
( , <frameshift
mutation>).

progenesis - .
; , .
<neoteny>.
progenote - . ,
.
progeny, offspring - . O () ,
() . ; .
( ,
), (
, ..).
progeny test - . O
, c

,

.
progesterone - . ,
, ( )
; .
.

progradation - .
() .
progress (progression) - . C
( , ) ;
.. (1925) . (
, )
- . (, - .,
) -
; . (., 1935)
(...) .
progressive arthroophthalmopathy = Stickler syndrome (.).
progressive double crossing-over = two strand double crossing-over (.).

prokaryon = nucleoid (.).


prokaryotes, prokaryotic organisms - . O,
; ,
() ;
. , -. , , ,
,
; . (, ),
(, ) (
, ) ; . 1937
., .
<eukaryotes>.
prolactin, lactogenic hormone - , , .

(
,
, ,
..); . 199 3
, p22.2-p21.3 6.
prolamins - . ,
,
; 3 - ,
; . - ,
( Hordeum).
proliferation - . - (
, ), ;
, .
(.. ),
(, )
.
proliferin - . ,
<proliferation>; <prolactin>
<growth hormone>.
proline [Pro] - []. ,
; . -
<caseins>, <protamins> .; . - , , , .

proline-rich proteins - - . ,
( 70% ) ;
.-.. ,
12.

prolyl 4-hydroxylase - -4- (. multifunctional protein).


prometaphase, metakinesis - , . C
<prophase> <metaphase>,

( .
); . ,


<chromosome banding methods>.
prometaphase stretch - .
I , (),

;
.
promiscuous DNA - . C ,
( <transposable elements>) ,
( . Strongylocentrotus purpuratus);
., -, ,

(, -3-).
promitochondrion
.
A

<mitochondrion>
,

;

<cytochromes>.
promitosis - . , (
<metamitosis> o <mesomitosis>) ; .
.
promoted taxon - . derived line.
promoter (promotor) - . ,
- <RNA polymerase> (
. -
), ;
, . <operon>;
( ) ., ; .
. . lac- <lactose
operon> E.coli.
promutagen - . ,
(..
).
pronase - . ,
.
pronucleus - . ( .
. )
(); .

( ) -
.
proofreading - . ,

, ; 3 . - <kinetic
proofreading>, <conformational proofreading>
<chemical proofreading> .
propagation - . C
; .
3 - <asexual reproduction>,
<vegetative reproduction> . <sexual reproduction>,
. ;
. (
<alteration of generation>).
properdin - . -
200 , 4 ,
3-
<complement> .
prophage - , () .
, -

; .
<lysogeny>,
; . -
.
prophage excision - (. prophage integration and excision).
prophage integration and excision - ()
. <prophage>
- -

<site-specific
recombination>
(

- - attB attP)
( );
, , attP int ( ) xis ( );
... int- ;
... ,
, -, .
prophage-mediated conversion - , .
<prophage>
<lysogeny> - , ,
,
..
prophase - . H :
, , ()
, <centriole>

<aster>; .
<prometaphase>;
. I -
<leptotene>, <zygotene>, <pachytene>, <diplotene>
<diakinesis>; . II
, . . - I
, .
prophase index - .
( ).
propinquity effect - . , ,

, .
propositus = proband (.).
pro-sequence - . C
,

<pre-sequence>
<insulin>,

.
prosomes - . O
, (,
); .,
( 20)
- ., , 1 1 ; .
. . 1969-70, programsome.
protallaxis - .
,
; . .. 1912.
protamine - . H (4-12 ) ;
. <histones> ,
(, ) ; .
; .
. 1872 .
protandry, proterandry - , .
(
) ,
( , );
. -
, (, ,
Labridae); . - , ,
().
protanopia - . <color blindness>,

-.

protease = peptidase (.).


protection = repair (.).
protein - . , 1
, (
20 -L-), <peptide bond>;
., <enzymes>,

, .
; 4 . - <primary
structure of protein>, <secondary...>, <tertiary...>
<quaternary...>; .
( )
.
protein C - C. , ,
; , Va VIIIa
; .C
1/200 - ;
PROC q13 2.
protein clock hypothesis - . ,

;
,
.
protein disulphide isomerase - . ,
,
<disulphide bond>
; ,
<multifunctional protein>, - -4 ( <collagen>); ,
. 4 -
, ,

<ascorbic acid>; ,

- <one gene - one polypeptide hypothesis>
.
protein engineering - .
, ;
.. de novo,
() ,
(
).
protein kinases - . ,
,
; . - , pp60v-src

<.>.
protein = DNA topoisomerase I of Escherichia coli (.).
protein synthesis - . C
<translation>.
protein-image hybridization technique -
.
M

,
;
-

;
(.. .) 80- .
proteinoid - . 10
, 70o 18
( ); .
, ,
.
Protenor-type = Bryonia-type (.).
proteolytic enzyme = peptidase (.).
proterandry = protandry (.).
proterogyny = protogyny (.).
prothallium - , . ( )
(, , ),
( ).
prothetely - .
; .
.
prothoracic gland - . ,
(); ..
,
,
.
prothoracicotropic hormone - .
, ,
<prothotacic gland>
<ecdysones>.
prothrombin - , , II .
,
, ; .
.
prothrombinase complex , .
proto-cell = probiont (.).
protogonocyte - . ,
( ).
protogyny, proterogyny - , .

(
) ,
( , ); . , .
proto-oncogene
.
,


<oncogene>; .
(, c-src), -
( c-ras), .
protoperitecium - . H
Neurospora crassa, ; .
;
.
protoplasm - . C ,
( ); .
. 1839; -, .
,
<cytoplasm> .
protoplast - . P ,
, () ; .
( )
-; L-
.
protoplast fusion - .
, 2
<protoplast> ( ); ..
.
prototroph - . O,

<minimal medium>.
protoxins - . , ,
Bacillus,
.
(, ).
protrusion - , . N- -
<lactose operon> E.coli - 1- 50- ,
;
, <trypsin-resistant core>
<hinge region>.
provirus - . , ()
- (); .
(. <lysogeny>).
provisional gene location - (. gene
location).
proximal - . X -

(, - ,
..); , . ()
(..
).
pseudo- - -. O - , , :
(= ), .
pseudoagglutination - . C
(, ..),
-, , . .
pseudoalleles, semi-alleles, paralocuses, paraalleles - ,
. ,
<allelism>, ; .
- , lozenge (
) Drosophila melanogaster 18 , 3 (.);
. -
(-)
(-) ; . (1952), . ,
.
pseudoallelism, semi-allelism - . ,
; . 50- . ., .
. .
pseudoamitosis - . M,
(, .):

.
pseudoanaphase - . <anaphase>,
,
.
pseudoaneuploidy - . (
, )
- <Robertsonian translocation> .
pseudoapogamy, somatogamy - , .
, .
pseudoautosomal locus - . ,
( 3 . ) ,
, - Y- (,
. , ),
, .. ..
; ( ,
)

.
pseudobivalent = quasibivalent (.).
pseudoblepharoplast - .
; .

.
pseudobridge, matrix bridge - , . A ,

.
pseudochiasma - .
,
<interlocking> .
pseudocompatibility - . O
(
S), p S-
.
pseudocopulation - .
, (
), , , ; .

<entomophily>.
pseudodominance - .

.
pseudoequatorial plate - .
,
<pollen tube>
.
pseudoexogenous adaptation - . ,
,
.
pseudogamy - , . O,
; .
<gynogenesis>, <androgenesis> <apomixis>;
. <pseudomixis>.
pseudogenes - . ,
, , ,
;
. - ,
, , ..
<processed pseudogenes>, .

; . <orphons>; , .
().
pseudoglioma = Norrie disease (.).
pseudohaploid - . ,
, ,
.
pseudohermaphroditism - .
(

) ;
. ,
.
pseudohomeotypic division - . I

, ; <pseudomeiosis>
.. , ()
.
pseudohybrid - , . A
,
,
; .
(. <counterfeit
hybrid>).
pseudohypoparathyroidism = Albright syndrome (.).
pseudoisochromosome - .
,
; <isochromosomes> .

() .
pseudolinkage, false linkage - , .

I .
pseudomeiosis - . ,
<asynapsis> ,
;
() ,
; , .
<prereduction>.
pseudometaphase - . <metaphase>,
:
-
(, ).
pseudomixis - . ,
,
; .
pseudomonosomic - . ,
2n-1,
( -
<Robertsonian translocation>); -
. ,
.
pseudomosaicism - . <mosaicism>,
, in vivo
; .

- ,
<phytohemagglutinin>,
.
pseudonucleolus - (. Y-chromosome loops).
pseudonurse cells - . A
<nurse cell>, (, otu)
<polyteny>; ..
, ,
.
pseudopolyploidy - .
( , ),
; .
,
,
; .
<fragmentation>.
pseudosatellite - . K

<secondary constriction>; .
, <gap>.
pseudoselectivity - . O
( )
.
pseudotumor - . ,
, - , .

; , .
( .).
pseudotyping - .
, , , <host
range>, .. <ecotropic virus>
<amphotropic virus>.
pseudouridine, 5-ribosyl uracil - . P ,
, - , .

pseudovirion, reassortant virus - , .


,
( , ,
), - , SV40
, , .

pseudowild type - . ,
(, ),
.
psi-factor - psi-. ,
() (,
SUQ5).
psoriasis - . ( ),
; . (
) - . .
PSR chromosome - PSR-.
(Paternal Sex Ratio) - - <B chromosome>
Nasonia vitripennis,
( PSR-.),
, ( N.vitripennis - <haplo-diploidy>).
pteridines - . ,
: <drozopterin>,
e .

puff, chromosome puff - . <polytene


chromosome>,
, ; , .
; .
.
puffing - . <puff>
.
puff-specific proteins - , .
, <puff>
;
(- II, .),
,
.
pulse-chase - . ,



; ,
..; , ..

<heterogeneous nuclear RNA>

(5- <cap> 3-
<poly(A)-tail>).
pulsed field gradient gel electrophoresis - -
. ;
,
, 1 90 ; .-...
, ,
( - , ) 100
2000 ; . .
1984.
pulverisation - . K
- <fragmentation>,
( )
.
punctuated equilibria - . ,

(
); .. . . 1972.
Punnett square - .
, ;
. 1906; :

A
a

A
AA
Aa
a
Aa
aa
pupa = chrysalis (.).
pupation - .
,
<imaginal disc>.
pure culture - . K,
() , , -
.
pure line - . , 1
( , , <inbreeding>); ..
, 2 (
); ..
( ); .. .
1903.
pure line selection - .
, ( .)
, ( )
.

pure species - .
()
;
.
purine - . ,
, .
- <caffeine>, <theobromine>,
( <xanthine>, <hypoxanthine>) .

purine bases - . ,
, ,
<coenzymes>, . ;
.. ,
; .. - <adenine>
<guanine>.
purine nucleoside phosphorylase - - [ 2.4.2.1].
,

( ); .-.
( - 32 ); .-.
14 .
puromycin - . A,
- <aminoacyl-tRNA>, -
,
; (), , ,
. .

pur.pyr DNA [tract]. ,


, -
; ,
100 000 300
.
pycnosis - . K (
, - ,

); .
, <karyorhexis>
p; . -
.
pyrenoid - . H ,
,
.
pyridoxal phosphate - . K ,
; .
6.

pyridoxine - , . ,
6
,
; .
.

pyrimidine - . ,
( <cytosine>,
<uracil>, <thymine>, 5-, 5-,
<orotic acid>).

pyrimidine dimer - . ,


( ,
),
.

pyronin Y - -Y, -G. O ;


.

pyruvate kinase - [ 2.7.1.40]. ,


( )

( ) - ; .
-
, , ; . ,
- ( PKL
q21 1, PKM . - q22-q26
15); . , ( 64 ),
( ) - (230 ).
Q
Q. , ,
(+)- <viral strand>, ..
, - (-)- -
(+)-;
(+)- .
Q-banding - Q-. M ,
<quinacrine> .
, - , QFQ- <QFQbanding>, QFH- <QFH-banding> . Q-.; (
)
<constitutive heterochromatin> (, , ,
C- <C banding>);
Y-.
QFH-banding - QFH-. Q- <Q-banding>;
33258 <Hoechst 33258>.
QFQ-banding - QFQ-. Q- <Q-banding>;
<quinacrine>.
QM. - , 3
,
; QM
c-jun ; QM 214 ,
q28 -.

Q-supergene - Q. C <supergene>,
.
quadri- - -. O , ( -)
: .
quadriplochromosomes
.

<diplochromosome>,
<endoreduplication>.
quadriradial - . ,
( )
; . - ,
.
quadrivalent, tetravalent - , . M ,
4 (
. ) ,
<reciprocal translocation>; .
<multiple
sex chromosomes> - , X1X2X3Y.
quadruplex - .
, AAAA.
qualitative character - . ,
(, )
- , a ..
quantasome - , . ,
<chloroplast>;
100 200 .
quantitative character - . ,
,
; .. ,
, .
..
quantitative genetics - . P ,
()
.
quantitative inheritance - . H
() ,
() ; ..
.
quantitative trait loci - . K
, <polygene>; ,
() ,
, ;
... . . (1980) 20
.
quantitative variation - .
() , , ,

.
quantum evolution - .
, ,

; .. . 1944
.
quartet = tetrad (.).
quasibivalent,
pseudobivalent
,
.
H ( )
.
quasicontinuous variation - .
<continuous variation> - ,
(.. ) ,

, - ,
.., ;
.. . 1952.
quaternary structure of protein - . C
(.. )
,

.
queuosine - . P , ; .

quick-stop mutations - .
()

,
( )
, ;
.... - ..

quinacrine - , , , .
<acridine> ,
Q- <Q banding>;
- ().

R
R. C, .
R1. ,
<callus>; R2 R1 ..
r mutant - r-. M , (r - rapid)
<rapid lysis> -.
R plasmid (factor), resistance factor, resistance transfer factor - R-,
. <plasmid>,
,
(, - <streptomycin>
.), , , .
, R-. . .
rabbit - . 1 (Oryctolagus cuniculus).
rabbit pseudogene - . O
<pseudogenes>; - b1 b2
20- b2,
.
race, variety - .
, ,
()
. ;
. .
rad (radiation absorbed dose) - .
<ionizing radiation>; 1 100
( 0,01 ) ; 100 = 1 .
radiation - .
,
, , ,
-.
radiation absorbed dose - . ,
; (

<rad>).
radiation biology - . H
<ionizing radiation> ,
.
radiation chimaera - . ,
, ;
,
,
.
radiation damage - .
<ionizing
radiation>; .. , . 1940,
<thymine dimer>, () ..
radiation dose - , .
<ionizing radiation> - ,
; .. - ,
, .
radiation genetics - . P ,
,
; ..
. (1927),
, .. ..
(1925), .
radiation hybrid mapping -
[].
- ,
1 ,
, ;
,
,
;
, 8000
200-500 . .
radiation mutagenesis - .
<ionizing radiation>;
() .. - ()
, ( ..),
(, ) ..
( , ) ; ..
( )
,
.
radiation protection - .

()
; .
( .), ,
.; .
( . ),
.
radiation sensitivity, radiosensitivity - .
O
; , ..
- ..
, - , ( 3 ,
) ; ..
- 100, 50
<LD50>, 37 .
radiation sickness - . O ,

; 500-600 (
) - ( 99%)
( -
.), -
,
.
radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations -
.
; .
1940.
radioactive contamination - .
; .. -
. , ,

.
radioactive decay - . C
( ) ,
.
radioactive fall-out - . O
(
), ();
, .. , ,
, ,
; ..
226R, .
radioactive half-life - . 50%-
,
..
radioactive isotope, radioisotope - . H

, . , .. ..
<radionuclids>.
radioactive label - . ,
<radionuclids>, , - ,

( ); -
.. - , 14C, 32P, 35S
.
radioactivity - .
( , ..)
<radionuclids>
; . . 1896.
radioautograph,
autoradiograph
,
.
,
<autoradiography>.
radioautographic (autoradiographic) efficiency -
() . K
100 ,
o .
radioautography = autoradiography (.).
radiogenic element - . X ,
.
.
radiograph - .
, ; . ,
.
radioisotope = radioactive isotope (.).
radiomimetics, radiomimetic substances (chemicals) -
. X ,
<ionizing radiation> ; ..
- <epoxide>, <nitrous mustard>
<sulphur mustard> . .
radionuclids - . P
, . ( )
; (
- 40, 87Rb .),
(
. P. - 235U, 238U, 3 .) () P.
radioresistance - .
(, )
; ..
<repair> - ,
<thymine dimer>,
.

radiosensibility - .

; .
.
radiosensitivity = radiation sensitivity (.).
rake method - .
<air-drying method> -
( <gravity method>)
, ..;
, -
.
ramets - . ,
- ( <ortet>) .
rampant polyploidy - .
, ;
.
random assortment - []. H

, .
random attitude - [].
<exonuclease> . , (
<processive attitude>)
,
, .
random coil - . ,

; ..
.
random drift (fixation) - . K ()
,
.
random drift theory = neutral theory (.).
random fixation = random drift (.).
random mating = panmixis (.).
random mating population - . ,
<panmixis> <Hardy-Weinbergs law> .
random X-inactivation = X-inactivation (.).
Raphanobrassica - . M (Raphanus
sativus) (Brassica oleracea),
- 2n=4x=36 ( - 2n=2x=18 ); .
.. 1927.
rapid lysis - . ,

rII.
rapid lysis mutants - . M -,
E.coli.
rapidly reassociating DNA = highly repetitous DNA (.).
rare allele - . - ,
( 0,2 )
<major allele>.
rare bases - () .
, , ,
: <inosine>, <methyl inosine>,
<dimethyl guanosine>, <methyl guanosine>,
<ribothymidine>,

<pseudouridine>,
5,6-
<5,6dihydrouridine> .; .. 4 ,
( ) (e
<queuosine> .), ;
40 ..; .. .
(, <mesokaryotes>
); .. . .
1965 .
RARE (RecA-assisted restriction endonuclease) cleavage - RARE.
<restriction endonucleases>, RecA
( E.coli)

, ;
RecA
; .RARE-. . .-
1991.
rare (heritable) fragile site - .
<fragile site>;
... Xq27.3 <MartinBell syndrome>; 24 ... - ,
1, 3, 4, 5, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21 Y; (21)
<folic acid>.
rat - . 1 (Rattus).
rate of concordance - []. K
<concordance>.
Rathbun syndrome, hypophosphatasia - , .

<alkaline
phosphatase> ( ); ..
<rickets>; 2 ..
-
- .
Rauscher leukemia virus - . <retroviruses>,

;
... - (
).
Rb. , <Robertsonian
translocation> ( - Rob).
R-banding - R-. M
<chromosome banding methods>, G- <G-banding> (R - reverse);


<acridine orange>; R-. G-
, R-. - RFA- <RFA-banding>, RHG- <RHGbanding>, RBG- <RBG-banding> RBI- <RBI-banding>.
RBG-banding - RBG-. R- <R-banding>,
;
5- <5bromodeoxyuridine>.
RBI-banding - RBI-. R- <R-banding>;

5-
<5-bromodeoxyuridine>


.
rcp.
,

<reciprocal
translocation>.
RDS-protein - RDS-.
( ) ,
( ,
<.>); RDS-.
- <retinitis pigmentosa>,
, , (
- RDS: retinal degeneration slow).
re- - -. O , : ,
.
reaction norm = norm of reaction (.).
reactivation = repair (.).
reading frame mutations = frameshift mutations (.).
readthrough - , .
, ;
..
- , -, ..
()
- <nonsense codon>, .
readthrough proteins - .
( ) ,
<readthrough> (
); ...

.
realized inheritance - .
, , .. h2 = R/S,
S - (
), R - ( ).
reassortant virus = pseudovirion (.).
Re-banding - R-.
,
<restriction endonucleases>; (
- <C-banding> ,
<heterochromatin> )
(AluI, EcoRI,
HaeIII, RsaI .).

Rec- mutation, recombination-deficient mutation - Rec . M,


E.coli; R.-.
, ,
- ( <exonuclease>, - <DNA
polymerase>, - <DNA ligase> ..); R.-.
E.coli . . 1965, ,
Rec-- ,
, ,
.
RecA-dependent recombination - RecA- . O
E.coli,
recA,
( - ,
, );
RecA-.. RecA
D.
recapitulation - . ,
;
. 1811, ,
, . ,
.; .. , .
, .
recedation - . A <recessivity> (.
<antecedation>) <plasmon> .
receptivity to remating - .
;
... - 2 - (,

( <sperm effect>).
receptor - . C ,

(, -
) ;
,
, , , ; . ,
,
( .)
.
receptor site - . -
<Britten-Davidsons model> - ,
<activator>.
recessive - . <recessivity>.
recessive allele (gene) - . A, ,

, .. ; , ..

.
recessive complementation - .
( )
() ; .. -
.
recessive epistasis - . <epistasis>,
,
, . () .
recessivity - . O
(.. ) .
recipient - . (), -
. ( <donor>): . - ,
; . - (, ),
(
); <transduction> <conjugation> . , .
reciprocal chiasmata - . ,
.
reciprocal crossing - . ,
, , - .
reciprocal exchange, interchange - .
() ,
, , .
reciprocal genes = complementary genes (.).
reciprocal hybrid - . ,
<reciprocal crossing>; ..
() .
reciprocal translocation - , . T

, 2 (
) ; ..
.
recircularization, self-ligation - . ()
, ..
; . ,
,
; .
5-
<alkaline phosphatase>.
Recklinghausen disease = neurofibromatosis type I (.).
recognition palindrome = short palindrome (.).
recognition site = restriction site (.)
recombinant - . O ( ),
, .
recombinant DNA - . ,
in vitro (
) <vector>
.
recombinant gamete - . (),

; , ..
, ..
.
recombinant inbred lines, RI lines - . ,
<inbreeding> F1,
,
( , ,
); ...
.
Recombinant joint .

recombinant plasmid - () .
<plasmid>,
,
, -
; .. 1972 . -
SV40 <simian virus 40> ,
E.coli.
recombinant RNA - .
, ,
, , Q <.>.
recombination - .
, ;

.
, . -
; .
<conjugation>, <transformation> <transduction>,
- ; , , .
( .), ( .);
( ),
( ); (
<crossing-over>), - <site-specific recombination> .
(
).
recombination frequency = recombination index (.).
recombination gene - . , ,
, - , E.coli .. recB recC,
,
; rec- .
recombination index (frequency) - ,
. K
; ., ..
(n) () (
2n+x); ..
-
(
).
recombination load = segregational load (.).
recombination nodules - .
100
<synaptonemal complex> ( <chiasma>)
( ,
<interference> ..); ..
,
(, 15-46-70 .. 51 ).
recombination
suppression

,
, - ,
, (, rec-1
Caenorhabditis elegans), .
recombination-deficient mutantion = Rec- mutation (.).
recombinational repair - .
<repair>,
-, -
2
.
recombinator - . ,
, - ,

chi E.coli.
recon - . ; .
. 1957, trpA E.coli . .
,
. .
recovery = repair (.).
recuperation = repair (.).
recurrence - .
.
recurrent (repeated) backcrossing - .
, (
- ) ,
( ),
. .
recurrent parent - . ,
<back cross>.
recurrent selection - () ,
. ,

;
..

<inbreeding>
( ) .
red bread mold - . 1 (Neurospora crassa).
reduced fertilization - .
( )
.
reduction - . H
(); (
) . (
).
reduction division = meiosis (.).
reductional grouping - . O
,
2 ,
<somatic reduction>.
redundant cistrons - . ()
<multigene family>, .. .
reduplication = replication (.).
reference markers - . (),

; 1991
(HMG - 1991 HMG-11) ..
, 1 10 <centiMorgan> , .. 21,
22 ( 5 );

..
<microsatellites>.
Refsum disease - . ,
( , ,
, .),
; .
refuge theory - . , . 1969-82
(,
.) :
,
, (
forest refuge theory) ,
,
.
Regan isozyme - . alkaline phosphatase.
regeneration, angenesis - .
,
( ); . ; , .
(
, );

.
(

),
. (
- ..),
( ) ( .
- ,
); . . 1712.
regeneration protein = lithostathine (.)
regress, throwback - . ;
( .., 1925) . -

() , , ,
; - . () -
(
, .), .
.
regressive double crossing-over = degressive double crossing-over (.).
regular alloploidy - . <alloploidy>,

.
regulation [embryonic] - []. C
, ,
( , ..); .
, (,

.) , ( ) .
regulative development - . T
,

; ..
<monozygotic twins>.
regulator gene, repressor gene - -. , , -
; .-.,
-, <constitutive
transcription> .
regulatory enzyme = allosteric enzyme (.).
regulon - . H ,
-.
reiterated genes - . ,

, .. ( ),
<reiteration>.
reiteration - ().

;
.

<highly repetituous DNA>


<multigene family>.
reiterative synthesis - () .
- , () -
,
- .
rejection [graft rejection] - [].
<immune response> ,
<major
histocompatibility complex> -.
relational coil - . (.
<plectonemic joint>), ;
.. .
relative biological effectiveness - .
<ionizing radiation> ,
.
relative plasticity - .
,
; .. <norm of reaction>.
relative sexuality - .
, ,

(-), (-); ..

.
relaxation - .
, .. , <DNA topoisomerase> <nick>.
relaxation complex - . 3 ,
E.coli;
(, .) ..

<relaxation>

,
1 3 .. 5-
; ,
.
relaxation of selection - . C
, ,
; ..
(,
50 .).
relaxed circle = open circle (.).
relaxed mutations - . M,
() <stringent response>
- ;
. ,
.
relaxin - . ,
, ;
,
<insulin>; . . 1926.
release factors, RF - ().
, ;
E.coli .. - RF1 , RF2 -
, - - ;
1 .. - eRF, 3
.
releasing factor, R-factor - -, -, R-.
,
;
( .-.: 3 ) ( .-. - 7).
relic coiling - . ,

.
relict, cladotype - . ( ),

, , Latimeria chalumnae - .
..; .
.

remote hybridization = interspecific hybridization (.).


renaturation - . ( )
( );
, . ( )
<annealing>,
.
Renner complex - . (
),
.
Renner effect - . 4
,
.
Reoviruses - . 75-80 ,
, . 10-12
; 6 () .,
, . -.
rep - . E
<ionizing radiation>, 93
1 .
repair, reactivation, restoration, recovery, recuperation, protection - ,
.
(.. ,
);
<photoreactivation>, <dark repair>
. <post-replicative repair>; .
<repair enzymes>;
. - <xeroderma
pigmentosum>, - <ataxia telangiectasia>,
<Fanconi anemia>, <trichothiodystrophy> .
repair enzymes - .
, <repair>; ..
(, E.coli uvrA uvrB

),
-
I,

( E.coli phr),
<photoreactivation>, .
- , - <DNA ligase>.
repair replication - .
<dark repair>, ,
<replication>
- I.
repair synthesis = repair (.).
repeated backcrossing = recurrent backcrossing (.).
repetition frequency - .
1 ;
( f) <chemical complexity>

<kinetic complexity> ; ..
.
repetitious DNA - ().
,
;
<highly repetitous DNA>
(. ),
<middle repetitious DNA> ( ).
repetype - .
(. <repetitious DNA>);
. ,
repeating unit .
replacement - . homogenotization.
replacement site - . C
, ( )
;
, .. , (
- - ),

.
replica - . O ,
. ;
. - .
replica method - . M
,
- <freeze-etching>; ..
- -
(, - ..) .
replica plating [method] - (). M

. 1952,
( - E.coli),
, , ,
, , -
.
replicating region - . (),
;

.. - , ,
, . 1963.
replication, reduplication - , , ,
. ,
( )
; .
( <helicase>, ,

- <DNA polymerase> I III, - <DNA ligase>),


<replication fork>;
<leading strand> ,
<lagging strand>
<Okazaki fragments>; . - ,
10-9; .
; . 100, - 1000
.
replication banding = dynamic banding (.).
replicative bipass - . <repair>
, (,
<pyrimidine dimer>);


; .. 1976,
.
replicative fork, growing point - () ,
. M ,
.
replicative form - .
,
,
; .. ()
; .. . 1967
- 174.
replicator - , -. ,
( ), .. ; .
-, . .
replicon - . <replication>,
();
. ,
.; . . . 1963.
replicon fusion - .
<transposition>, <cointegrant>.
replicon model = positive replication control model (.).
replisome - . M

<replication
fork>,

; - . .
representation [of mRNA] = abundance [of mRNA] (.).
repressed level of expression = basal level of expression (.).
repressible system - . C
, (), - -;
-,

<corepressor>.
repressing metabolite = corepressor (.).
repression - . O ( )
,
- (
-) .
repressor - . , - <regulator gene>.
repressor gene = regulator gene (.).
reproductive cell = germ cell (.).
reproductive death - .

.
reproductive isolation - .
p
(, , ); .. ,
, - ( <ethological isolation>,
<ecological isolation>, ..)
( ,
); ..
; .. ,
<hybrid zone>; .. .
reproductive over-compensation - .

( , )
( ,
..).
reproductive phase - .
,
; ( .)
.. (
..), . ., .. .
reproductive potential = biotic potential (.).
reproductive
probability

; ..

.
reproductivity = fertility (.).
repulsion hypothesis - . ,

; ..
..
residual genotype = genotypic environment (.).
residual homology - .
<homeologous
chromosomes>,

( )
.
resistance = tolerance (.).
resistance factor = R plasmid (.).
resistance transfer factor = R plasmid (.).
resolvases - . <site-specific recombinases>,
<invertases>, . ..
<co-integrant>
- <site-specific recombination>
<recombination sites>.
, -.
res- 34 ..,
<kink> 60; 2/3
. N- Ser ,
-
-- <helix-turn-helix>.
resolving power - . C
; .. 2 (),
; ..
0,2 ,
.. 0,01 ; ..
G- <G banding> R- <R
banding> () - ,
G- .. 500
.
resonance mutagenesis - . ,
1965 .. ,
(),
, -
<complete mutation>.
respiratory deficient mutations - . M,
,
<cytochromes> .
; ... .
responder gene - -. ( Rsp),
<segregation distortion> ( SD),
(Rsp+) SD; Rsp

2 Drosophila melanogaster.
resting (uncycling) cell - . G0 <G0 period>
; .. - , .
resting nucleus - . .
resting stage (phase) - . ;

, .. = <interphase>.
restitution nucleus - .
() , I II
.
restitutional hypothesis - . ,
<oxygen effect>
<repair> ( ); ..
. 1952.
restoration = repair (.).
restrained supercoil - .

()
.
restricted transduction = specialized transduction (.).
restriction - .
- <restriction
endonucleases>; . (.. ) ,
, -
; .

.
restriction endonucleases - , .
,
; .,
,

<isoschizomeres>,

<methylation>
; . <blunt
ends> (HindIII) <cohesive ends> (EcoRI, BamHI);
. 3-4-
, (. 6),
; .
(
, <restriction
mapping>
<restriction fragment length polymorphism>),
; .
., . . 1978
.
restriction fragment length polymorphism, RFLP -
, . ,
<restriction endonucleases>,
;
(
) ,
,

,
<restriction mapping>.
restriction gene - . () ,
<restriction endonuclease>.
restriction map - .
<restriction endonucleases>;
.. ,
<mitochondrial DNA> . ,
.
restriction mapping - .
() <restriction
endonucleases>;

(),


; .. -
(
- - <Berk-Shurp
method>); .. - 20 .
restriction and modification model - .
,
- ; ,

<restriction endonucleases> ;
. . 1953,
..
restriction (recognition) site - .

<restriction
endonucleases>, ;
.. <short palindrome>.
restrictive temperature - () .
T,
, .
retardation - .
; .
()
( <fetalization>); . . 1866.
reticulate evolution - . ,
<stasipatry> , ,
; .. .
reticulocyte - . - <erythrocyte>,
<hemoglobin>;
, - ,
, .
retinitis pigmentosa - , .
, ( )

,
; , ,
; .. -
-, -
; ..: RHO - 3, RPD2 - 1,
RPD3 - 3, RPX1 - p11.3 -, RPX2 - p21.1 , RPX3 - p21 -.
retinoblastoma - . ,
3 ; . (; Rb
13:
.) . (
).
retinoblastoma susceptibility gene - .
Rb, q14 13 ,
( pp110Rb, )
;
Rb, 200 . (27
), <retinoblastoma>,
. .
retinol - , . ,
, , .
; . ,
(), ; . -
(.-, ., 1915).

retrieval system - . <repair> ,


-
,
( ),

.
retrogen = processed pseudogene (.).
retro-naptonuon - (. potonuon).
retroposition - . (
, <pseudogene>) -
,
<reverse transcription> , ;
. -
, Pgk-2 <phosphoglycerate
kinase> .

retro-potonuon - (. potonuon).
retroregulation - . ,
, <upstream>
, - ,
int sib,
sib int-
() .
retrotransposones - .
<transposable elements>,
(
); . , Ty .
Retroviruses, Leukoviruses - , . 70-120 ,
, 2
<reverse transcriptase>; .
( <Rous sarcoma virus>,
, .); .
<vector>
; . .
. 1908.
retro-xaptonuon - (. potonuon).
reversal of dominance = change of dominance (.).
reverse genetics - . ,
()
-;
.. -
( <zinc finger proteins> .).
reverse mutation = back mutation (.).
reverse selection - . O
, ,
, - , ,
..
reverse transcriptase - , - , . , ( );
, .. (.. ,
/-); -, ..
; in vivo ..
<retroviruses>,
-; ..

; .. 1970.
reverse transcription - . C ,
<reverse transcriptase>.

reversion - , .
<pseudowild type>, ,
,
, ; .
( )
<sex reversal>.
revertant - . O, <reversion>
; . - () .
RF = release factor (.).
RFA-banding - RFA-. R- <R-banding>;
<acridine orange>.
RFLP ( [rif lip]) = restriction fragment length
polymorphism (.).
Rh factor, rhesus-factor - -. C (
) , ,
; .-. 3 ,
p36.2-p34 1;
.-. () Rh0 (D) - ( ) (- ),

( 85:15 99:1); .-. . . 1940.
Rhabdoviruses - . C ,
(. 175 , . 70 ); ;
- ;
. .
Rhesus factor = Rh factor (.).
rhesus monkey - . 1 (Macaca mulatta).
rheumatoid arthritis - .
;
..,
.
rheumatoid factor - . ,
<immunoglobulins> IgM
IgG;
.. ,
. .
RHG-banding - RHG-. R- <R-banding>;

;
- - (T - thermal).
rho0 = neutral petite (.).
rho-dependent
terminator
-
.
T
( , ),
-

<rho-factor>.
rhodopsin - . ,
, - , ( )
( );
. --;
5 , .
rho-factor - -, . E.coli,
- ; .-.
- 55 ; in vitro .-.
,
- () ,
.
rho-independent
(simple)
terminator
-
.
T, - <rho-factor>;
.-.. -
, 4-8 .
RI lines = recombinant inbred lines (.).
RI particle - RI-. ,
<assembly> 30S- .
RI* particle - RI*-. C,
30S- .
Ri plasmid, root inducing plasmid - Ri-. <plasmid>
Agrobacterium rhizogenes,
,
.
riboflavin - , , 2. ,
;
(<flavin adenine dinucleotide>, <flavin mononucleotide>),
, ;
. - , , , .

ribonuclease - , - [ 3.1.27.1-5]. ,
.
ribonuclease A - . P, 3-
c
5- ; 3- , -5-.
ribonuclease D - D. <exonuclease>,
I,

3- ,
.
ribonuclease inhibitor - .
, ,
; , ..

( , ); ..
( 50 ), RNH, p15.5
11 HRAS.
ribonuclease P - P. (,
E.coli Bacillus subtilis); ,
5 ; .P
, - .P
, .
ribonuclease TI - TI. P, 3 5-
, -3-
, -5-; , E.coli
.:
BN - , - 3- ,
D - ( ind), ,
T - , - -,
III - ( rnc), - ,
R - , ,
E - ( rne), - 5S-,
I - ( rna), - ,
II - ( rnb), - 3- ,
H - ( rnh), - /.
ribonucleic acid, RNA - , . H ,
,
; -
( o
);
PHK- <RNA polymerase>; 3 :
<ribosome RNA>, <transfer RNA>
() <mRNA>;
; , ,
( - -), <splicing> .

<posttranscriptional
modifications>
() , (
) .
ribonucleoprotein, RNP - , . K ;
.
<informosome>, -,
( <spliceosome>, P <ribonuclease P> .).

ribonucleotide - . H, ,
( <rare bases>) 1
.
ribophorin - . ,

: . - 68 , ,
3.
ribose - . M ; . ()
,
.

ribosomal cistron - . ,
; E.coli .. ( rrn) 16S-, 23S-
5S-, 2 , .
ribosomal precursor RNA = preribosomal RNA (.).
ribosomal protein - . , ; 2030 .. ,
.
ribosomal RNA, rRNA - , . ,
( 3 , - 4,
, - , E.coli 5S, 16S 23S,
5S, 8S, 18S 28S); ,
<nucleolar organizer> (
).
ribosome, Palades granule - , . O ,
,
( <translation>); . ,
, ..
; .
( ) ,
; . 20 ; .
: 70S ., 50S (23S-) 30S (16S-) ,
. - 80S, 60S (25S-) 40S (16S-)
, . - 80S, 60S (29S-) 40S
(18S-), . - 81S, 61S (25S-) 47S (19S-); .
<polysome>.
ribosome-binding site = Shine-Dalgarno sequence (.).
5-ribosyl uracil = pseudouridine (.).

ribothymidine .

ribozymes - . ,
( , a); .
<autosplicing>
26S- Tetrahymena thermophila.
ribulose bis-phosphate-carboxylase = Rubisco (.)
ricefish - . 1 (Oryzias).
Richner-Hanhart syndrome, tyrosinemia II - -. ,
, ,
, ,
; <tyrosine> -
; - ,
TAT q22.1 16.
rickets - , D. ,
D ( <calcipherol>)
- , ..;
D ,
. .
rickettsiae - . M -
,
( , , ,
, ) (. );
- .
Rieger syndrome - .
( . ,
..); - , RGS
q22.2-q25 4.
rifamycins - . ,
Streptomyces (Nocardia) mediterranei; .
-
-, <tertiary complex>,
, . ;
. - ,
.
right site = acceptor site (.).
ring bivalent - () . ,

2 .
ring chromosome - . E
, , ,
-
<covalently closed circle>, ..
; .. - ,
,
; ..
<fragmentation> ( ) <pulverization>.
ring multivalent - . M ,
, , (,
),
( -- <end-to-end association>).
Ringers solution, physiological saline - ,
. O ,

<perfusion> ,

; .. 6,5
NaCl, 0,14 KCl, 0,12 CaCl2, 0,2 NaHCO2
( 1883); ( -,
1901): 9 NaCl, 0,42 KCl, 0,24 CaCl2 6H2O (), 0,2 NaHCO2
.
RK. C, (
..) ( rank).
R-loop - R-. ,
/-
; R-. .
R-loop mapping - R-. M
, , <intron>
- ,
/- , ,
/- R- <R-loop>.
RNA = ribonucleic acid (.).
RNA editing - .
<posttranscriptional
modifications>
,

(
<kinetoplast>)

(
.), -
,
, ,
; , .
<guide RNA>.
RNA ligase - -. ,
(, -. 4).
RNA maturase = maturase (.).

RNA phage - -, -. (),


: <retroviruses> .
RNA plasmid = killer particle (.).
RNA polymerase, RNA synthetase - -, -. ,
;
- - -
<DNA-dependent RNA polymerase> - -. <RNA-dependent RNA
polymerase>; 2 -.: <Okazaki fragments>, -
; - 3 -.: -.I
<ribosomal RNA>, -.II <mRNA>, -.III - <transfer
RNA>, 5S- . ; -.
- , <rifamycins>
D <actinomycin D> ( -.), -
<alpha amanitin> (-.II ).
RNA replicase = RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (.).
RNA synthetase = RNA polymerase (.).
RNA transcriptase = RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (.).
RNAase = ribonuclease (.).
RNAase protection - .
,
- (,
--); ..
<DNAase protection>.
RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, RNA transcriptase, RNA replicase - -, -, -. ,
; -.-. .
. 1978.
RNA/DNA ratio - /. K
(), ,
; ./
,
.
Roberts syndrome - . ,
, -
; .. , ,

Y-, ,
.; - .
Robertsonian fan - . ,
-
; .. Mus musculus -
2n=40 ( : )
2n=22 ( ); .. Sorex araneus,

. , Salmo gairdneri .
Robertsonian heterozygote - . (),
<Robertsonian translocation>;
<simple Robertsonian heterozygote> <complex
Robertsonian heterozygote> ..
Robertsonian translocation (rearrangement), centric fusion -
, . ,
. (..
2 ); , ..
(
); ..
, ..
, - ,
, ,
; .. ,
, ..; ,
.., -;
.. -
<Holmquist-Danciss hypothesis>; . 1911.
Robertsonian trivalent - . <trivalent>,
(1 2)
<Robertsonian
translocation> (12).
Robertsons law - . ,
,
2n;
.. ,

<Robertsonian
translocation>.
rod cell - , .
, .
Roentgen - .
-, 2,083 109
1 3 0o 760 .. 2 1
3 , ( 1,35); 1 . =
2,57976 10-4 /.
rogue. ( , )
(: ).
rolling circle model, -type replication - ,
, -.
, ,
( );
5-, ,
5- ;


, ,

.
Romano-Ward syndrome, long-QT syndrome - -. ,
(
),
QT, ;
- , LQT p21.3
6.
root inducing plasmid = Ri plasmid (.).
root tips - . A ,
(),

.
rose comb - . ,
RRpp Rrpp.
rotational base substitution - .
<transversion>, (
)
180 o
.
rotational hypothesis - . ,
<complete mutation>;
.. - ,
<rotational base
substitution>.
Rous sarcoma virus - a. O
<retroviruses>, ; ... gag
( ), pol ( <reverse
transcriptase>), env (, ), src
(); src (,
, v-src c-src), v-src c-src
.
routine staining = conventional staining (.).
royal hemophilia - . ,
-
(
).
rpm (round per minute) - . E ,

( g - ).
rRNA = ribosomal RNA (.).
RT-PCR, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction -
.

<polymerase chain reaction>,


, -
<reverse transcriptase>
,
-; RT-PCR ,
, - ,
.;
-, (, Thermus thermophilus).
Rubinstein-Taybi
syndrome

-.
H,
, ,
; - ,
RTS p13.3 16.
Rubisco - -1,5-/ [ 4.1.1.39].
, (
Rubisco ); , Rubisco -
; <holoenzyme> Rubisco
8 2 -
( rbcL), ( rbcS);
Rubisco 560 .
Ruiter-Pompen syndrome - -.
, ,
. ;
- .
runaway model = Fisherian model (.).
runaway replication - .
<plasmid>.
running buffer - . <buffer>,
<electrophoresis>.
runt disease - , -. ,
( ) e
e; ..
.

S
S. ,
(. <sedimentation coefficient>).
S1, S2, S3... O - ,
<self-pollination>.
S allele = self sterility gene (.).
S
chromosomes
S-.

- <K chromosomes>.
S period - S. ( <interphase>),
<replication> ( - Synthesis) .

S-100 protein - S-100. ;


.S-100
.
S regions - S-.
<immunoglobulins>, CH,
<class switching>.
sad mutations - sad- ( subunit assembly defective).
,
<ribosome>, , s.-. ,
. ( .);
sad-
<assembly> .
salivary gland chromosomes - . X,

<polytene chromosomes>.
salivary gland squash preparation - .
<polytene
chromosomes>,
.
saltation - . , , ,
(: )
; .
<mutation>.
saltatory replication - () .
<satellite DNA>,
;
.. -

.
samesense (isocoding) mutation - -, .
( <missense mutation> - <nonsense mutation>);
( ),
.
Sandhoff disease, GM2-gangliosidosis II - . ,
;
- ,
; .. <Tay-Sachs disease>; - ,
HEXB q13 5.
Sanfilippo disease - .
, ,
(-; N--D-; - - , 3
..); - .

sarcolysine - . A ,
;
.

sarcoma - . ,
,
( ); . ,
.
sarcomere - . -
2,5 ;
<actin> <myosin>.
sarcosine - , . N- ,
<glycine>;
; ;
.
CH3 NH CH2 COOH
sarcosome - . M ,
.
SAT zone - S-. <secondary constriction>
,
<nucleolar organizer region>.
sat-chromosome - . X,
( ),
( ),
; .. <amphiplasty>.
satellite, trabant - . ,
<secondary constriction>.
satellite DNA, satDNA - . , ,
+/+ ( + -
; + - ) . ,
(105 ) , ,
; .
<cesium chloride
equilibrium density gradient centrifugation> ()
; , C.
-
<heterochromatin>; .
<saltatory replication> .
satellite Y chromosome - Y- .
,

; , Y-,
<nucleolar organizer>

(, 15p).
saturation technique - .
,
,
;
...

; , ...

,
<playback experiment>.
scanning electron microscopy, SEM - ()
. M
( ,
- <freezeetching>,
. ).
scarce mRNA = complex mRNA (.).
SCE = sister chromatid exchanges (.).
Scheie disease = gargoilism (.).
Schiffs reagent - , . P,
;
<Feulgen nuclear staining> ,
. ( .).
schistic mutation - . M,
; ,
.
schizogony - .
; .
-
().
Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia - .
,

<chondrodysplasia>,

, ( ),
.; - ,
COL10A1,
X .
Schultz-Redfield effect - -.
,
<pericentric inversion> (
); ..-. (
. . 1951) , , .
<genetic
homeostasis>,

.
sclerite - . e ,
; . ,
;
4 . - (), () ().
scleroderma - (. CREST serum).
scleroproteins,
proteinoids
,
.

,
, . -
<collagen>, <keratins> .; .
, , .
scrapie. H , (
-);
-
<prions>.
screening [genetic] - [ ]. ,

- ,
, ..
scyrps, small cytoplasmic RNAs - .
(100-300 ) ,
<snurps>.
SD factor - SD-. <segregation
distortion>.
SD sequence = Shine-Dalgarno sequence (.).
SDS-PAGE.
<PolyAcrylamide Gel Electrophoresis>
<Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate>.
sdi-factor, short duration of imaginal lifespan factor - sdi-. M
, Bombyx mori ( Daizo , ,
.) ( 2 45 7-10 ),
.
sea urchins - . 1 (Echinoidea).
Searles translocation - . -
; ..
- <X-inactivation>,
.
second division - . ,
,
.
second division restitution - .
<unreduced gametes>,
I .
second (second filial) generation, F2 - . ,
(F1) .

second messenger - . ( ),

() ; ..
.
second polar body - . II
; .
second site mutation = suppressor mutation (.).
secondary attachment - . H
(
), , ;
.. .
secondary attachment sites - .
, (0,1%
)
<attachment site>.
secondary chromosome rearrangements - .
, , -
<primary chromosome rearrangements>; ...
.
secondary constriction - . ,
<satellite> ,
; ..
<nucleolar organizer region>, ..
.
secondary intergradation - , .
( )
;
<hybrid zone> .
secondary non-disjunction - .
,
( XX/XY) XXY
(); .. XX, XY, X0 Y0.
secondary oocyte - . ,
I .
secondary pairing, Lawrence phenomenon - . C
<bivalent> (, ..)
- I ; .. -
; ..
; ..
,
.
secondary polyploid - . P ,
,
<allopolyploidy> <polysomy>.
secondary sex ratio - . Co ,
(..
).

secondary sexual character - .


, (
, , ,
- , ..); ...
.
secondary spermatocyte - . ,
I .
secondary structure of protein - .
a- -
(); ... .
secretion - . ;
( )
. ( ); (
) ( ),
( ) .
( ).
sector [of tissue] - []. , ,
; . ,
( .
), .. .
<mosaicism>.
sectorial chimaera - () . X (
, ),
(, ..);
<mericlinal chimaera>, <periclinal chimaera> ..
sedimentation coefficient - .
; .. S (
., 1923 ): 1S=1 10-13
.; ..
, ; ..
1-200 S; ..
, <ribosome> .
sedimentation equilibrium method - . M,

,
,


; ...
<cesium chloride equilibrium density gradient
centrifugation>.
sedimentation velocity method - . M
,
()
;
(, , ),

...;

<sucrose equilibrium density gradient centrifugation>.
seed - . P ; . ,
,
( , ,
); <polyembriony> .
.
seed resting - . (
) ( ,
); (
- ) .. (
).
segmental alloploid - . A,
, ,

, ..
(
).
segmental genome - . ,
, - ,
4 ,
, -
1 ..;
( )
..
segmentation mutations - . M,

; .. <complex
locus>.
segregating generation - . (F1, F2 ..),
- .
segregation - , , .
(. )
(. ); .
<Mendels laws>;
() ( -
) .,
<mosaicism>. .
.
segregation distortion - .
,
, ..;
5%; () .. - SD 37D2-6 ; ..
, - <responder

gene>; .. . . 1959.
segregational lag (delay) - . M,
<mutation lag> -
2
( ) 1 ,
,
; .. . 1951
(segregational delay) . 1953 (segregational lag).
segregational (recombination) load - () .
<genetic load>,
.
segregational sterility - ,
. C,
, ,
..
segregone - . K <supergene>,
; . <synaptonemal
complex>; . .
Seitelberger disease - . ,

( <amaurotic idiocy>
. ); - ;
-N-, NAGA
q13-qter 22.
selected markers - . ,
( )
(), ; ..
-
; , ..
.
selection - . H
, (
) ; . ; .
( ) -
<artificial selection> <natural selection> .
selection coefficient - .
,

.
selection differential - . P
()
,
.
selection intensity - . K
,

();
.. - .
selection pressure - .


; ..
1 .
selection response - , . K
()
( , ) ;
.. ( R) h2 ( e
) S ( ) DS (
<selection differential>).
selective advantage (advance) - ,
. ,
.
selective assay - . M <aneuploidy>,

;
(
, ,
),
.
selective fertilization - . H (
) ,
..
selective mating = preferential mating (.).
selective medium - . C
. ;
, ..
;
.. - - <HAT selection>.
selective peak - . (),
<genetic homeostasis>,
..
.
selective plating - . M
,
<minimal medium>, -
, .
selective silencing - [].

.
selective variant - . M ,
, () , , ..
selector gene - -. ,
() <imaginal disc>
; .-. <homeotic mutation>.
self-compatibility - . C ,

; .
( S
<self sterility gene>).
self-fertility - . C ; . , <self-sterility>.
self-fertilization = autogamy (.).
selfguarding [of DNA] - [].
, ..
<repair>.
self-incompatibility = self-sterility (.).
selfing = self-reproduction (.).
selfing (junk) DNA - . , ;
. <satellite DNA>, .
<highly repetitous
DNA>; .
-
. ;
. .
self-ligation = recircularization (.).
self-pollination, homocline pollination - , .
A <autogamy>, <geitonogamy> ( . );
. , ; .
,
.
self-propagation = self-reproduction (.).
self-replicating - .
,
() , - , <plasmid>.
self-reproduction, selfing, self-propagation - .

<autogamy>
(,
).
self-selection - . ,

( , );
. Medea <.>.
selfsplicing - . <splicing> ,
- . (), ..
( <ribozyme>); .
. . 1981 26S-
Tetrahymena thermophila.
self-sterility, self-incompatibility - , .
H ( ) ; . -
<heterostyly>, <protandry>, <protogyny>,
.;
., . <self sterility genes>,

.
self-sterility gene, S-allele - , S-. ,

(.. );
.. ; ..
- S-
.
SEM = scanning electron microscopy (.).
semelparity - .
: (
), - , ,
.
semen = sperm (.).
semi-alleles = pseudoalleles (.).
semi-allelism = pseudoallelism (.).
semiapospory - . <apomixis>,
.
semiconservative replication - .
,
( <replication fork>),
()
; .. . .
, .
.
<cesium chloride
equilibrium density gradient centrifugation>.
semiconserved (semiinvariant) base - ()
. ( - ,

)
,

; ..
<conserved base> .
semi-dominance,
incomplete
dominance

.

.
semi-dwarf - . H (
50-70% ,
).
semigamy - .
.
semiheterotypic division = nonreduction (.).
semi-incompatibility - . ,

() ; .. Podospora
anserina, s- - , s- s+, - +
.
semiinvariant base = semiconserved base (.).

semi-lethal (sub-lethal) [mutation] - , ()


. M, ( )
.
seminal fluid = sperm (.).
semispecies - . ,
, ,
(, , ) ;
., Drosophila paulistorum ,
,
.; . <sibling species>.
semisterility - . H (
) ; , . ,
<reciprocal translocation> , - ,
, .
Sendai virus - . <paramyxoviruses>,
; ,
; ,
,
.
senDNA = senescent DNA (.).
senescence = ageing (.).
senescent DNA, senDNA - .
Podospora anserina ,
,
, , , .
.
sense codon - . ,
.
sense strand = coding strand (.).
sensibilization - .

. (, ,
).
sensibilziing agent - . ,
.
sensitive developmental period = critical period (.).
sensitive period = critical period (.).
sensitive strain - . , p
- ; ..,
, (,
) .
sensitivity = susceptibility (.).
sensitivity to ultraviolet light - .

<repair> .
sensory site - . - <Britten-

Davidsons model> - , , , , ; 1 ..
1 <battery> .
Sephadex - . ,
-;
,
.
sepiapterin - . , ,
; <drosopterin>.

septum - . ,
; . (,
).
sequenase - . - 7 (
, - - E.coli); .

.
sequence homogenization - . O
<coevolution> ,

() ,
, - ,
,
, - .
sequence tagged site = STS (.).
sequencing gel - .
,
- ( ),
1 (
); ..
- , -
<Maxam-Gilbert method> .
sequencing reaction - .
, ,
( )
;
, ..,
<sequencing gel>.
sequencing strategy - .

, (

); ,
<polymerase chain
reaction> ,
() .
sequential counterstain-enhanced fluorescense banding -
-.
,

,
; ... -
DAPI, 33258 (
)

D <actinomycin D>;
; ...
, (,
).
serial homology - , .
<homology>, , , .
serine [Ser] - []. ,
, . ( 40%) -
<silk>; . (, ,
, ); - , , , , , .

serology - . ,
<blood serum>.
serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptamine - . M ,
;
( ) .
.

serotype - . (,
.), <serology>.
Sertoli-cell-only syndrome, del Castillo syndrome - . ,
,
(
); .
seskvidiploidy = hemiliolodiplody (.).
set [of genes] - []. ,
, ,

; . ,
, - , .
sevenless. , Drosophila melanogaster
,
sevenless ; , ,
, ,
.
sex, gender - . C
; . ( , - -
. + -); .
, <conjugation>
(, , 2 .) - .
<F factor>; .
<sex chromosome>;
. ( ) -
<hermaphroditism>.
sex cell = sexual cell (.).
sex
chromatin,
Barr
body

.
<X-inactivation>
-
; .. - (..
)
.
sex chromosome - . X,
; .. <homogametic sex> <heterogametic sex>;
.. XX/XY, ZZ/ZW - XO, ZO ..
<multiple sex chromosomes>; .. (
) ;
.. <dosage
compensation>; .. -
.
Sphaerocarpus 1917.
sex determination - .
, :
<sex chromosome>, - , -
, - <haplo-diploidy> .
sex differentiation - .

; ..
( , -
, ..); , ..
( .); ..
. ( , ),

..
sex hormone - . ,
,
; ..
, ,
<androgens>, <estrogens>, <gonadotropic hormone> .
sex linkage - .
(, Y, Z W).
sex mosaic = gynandromorph (.).
sex ratio - . O
(), ( )
.
sex reversal (transformation) - (, ) .
; ..
( <protogyny> <protandry>)
(,
,
-
); .. , (. <PSR chromosome>)
<feminizing factors>.
sex vesicle - . C,
, , ;
(, ) .. <nucleolus>; ..
(
),
.
sex-conditioned dominance = sex-influenced dominance (.).
sex-controlled inheritance = sex-linked inheritance (.).
sexduction - , F-. ,
F- <F factor>
; . F- 50%
; . .
sex-influenced (sex-conditioned) dominance - .
-
, .
sex-limited character - . (
), ,
.
sex-limited inheritance = sex-linked inheritance (.).
sex-linked (sex-limited, sex-controlled) inheritance -
. H , ,
.
sex-ratio organism - .
, -, - ,
<spiroplasma>.
sexual (sex) cell - . (

..).
sexual character - . ,
; <primary sexual character>
.. <secondary sexual character>
sexual dimorphism - .
, <polymorphism>;
.. -
, ( , );
.. ; ..
(, , - ,
..) ..
sexual generation - ().
<alteration of generation> - ,
.. <gametophyte>.
sexual (ethological, behavioral) isolation - (,
) . ,
( ..) ;
.. .
sexual reproduction - . T ,
,

(
); .. (
<parthenogenesis>,
<vegetative reproduction> .); <conjugation>
..
SG-mutation - SG (Slow Growth).
Neurospora crassa,
( , <petite>);
. 1963
<acriflavin>.
shadowing method - . ,
.
shaker. ,
( ,
,
, - ); - waltzer, pirouette,
jerker, fidger, twizler, zig-zag .; shaker
30 .
Shambons rule - . ,
<intron> , , .. ..
- <GT-AG rule>; -,

<splicing>.
shearing - [].
, ,
; , .
,


.
Sherman paradox - .
- <fragile X
syndrome>: ..
,
()n FMR-1.
shifting dominance = change of dominance (.).
Shine-Dalgarno
sequence,
SD
sequence,
ribosome-binding
site
-, . 5-
( - ),
; ..-. 3- 16S ; .
. 1974.
Shope papilloma virus - . , <papilloma> ,
- 53 , - 5000 .
short duration of imaginal lifespan factor = sdi-factor (.).
short gene - . box b ;
3
- <maturase>; .
short headpiece - N- . N- E.coli - 1- 51- , ; .N-..,
N- <long headpiece>,
.
short inverted terminal repeats - .
K IS-
<IS elements>; 15-25, 9-41 ,
,
.
short (recognition) palindrome - . ( 4-6
) <palindrome>,
<restriction endonucleases>, - , ..
5 - - // - - - - - 3

3 - - - - - // - - 5
EcoRI <.>.
short strain - . ,

<optional introns>, - , -b ..
Aspergillus nidulans 7 ( 9).
short-live break(down)s - . -
, ,
( <replication>,

<recombination>, <processing> .)
.
short-patch repair - .
<dark repair>, (
<long-patch repair>)
() 99% ( E.coli)
; ...
; ...
20 .
short-period interspersion -
. T ,

300 ()
1000 .
shotgun experiment - -, .

(.. ),
<genomic library>; .-.

.
shrunken kernel - . ,
SH, ;
, ,
Ds - <activator-dissociation system>.
shuttle vector = bifunctional vector (.).
Siamese twins - . O
, - ,
; ,
( - ).
sib (brother-sister) mating, sibbing - . C
- ,
() ; ... -
<inbreeding>.
sib (Weinberg) method - , .
,
,
<proband>; .. .
sibbing = sib mating (.).
sibling effect - . O
- , , (
, .. -,
)
; .. . 1976.
sibling (twin) species - -, -. M
, ;
, .-.
(, Spalax), ( 2 .-.

3 ):
(, , )
.-.
(, Drosophila willisoni
<Nei genetic distance> 3 0.031 0.230 - 0.581); .-. . 1942.
siblings = sibs (.).
sibs, sibling - . O ; . -
; . - <inbreeding>.
sibship. ( ) .
sickle-cell anemia - , .
,
, ; .. ,
-
( S): .. SS; .. ,
S F, <thalassemia> .
sickle-cell trait - .
- ( HA
HS ),
;
... ; ...
(, 9% ), 1992
5 - ( )
( , , ).
side-by-side arrangement - --.
-;
,

.
side-by-side association - --.
( )
I ,

<secondary pairing> . .
sideroblastosis anemia - () .

, <heme>; .. ( ),
;
(ASB) p11.21-q21.31 -.
Sievert (Sv) - . E (
),
<ionizing
radiation>; 1 , 1
1 .

sigma-factor, -factor - -, -. O
-,
; .. ; .-.
;
. . 1969.
sigma-virus, -virus - -, -. ,
( , Drosophila
melanogaster) ;
;
.-. (
); .-. -
<retroviruses> .
sign inversion - . , <DNA gyrase>

; .. 3 , ,
.
signal hypothesis - . ,
( )
NH2- <leader
sequence peptide>,
();

( )
; ...
. . 1975.
signal recognition particle - .
, ,

<leader sequence peptide>; ...


23-24 5-6 ,
6 ( 240 ) ( 300
) 7S.
signal sequence = leader peptide sequence (.).
silent (null) allele - () . ,
;
(, ) 2
4 - 2 ,
, ..
silent site - . C ,
( <replacement site>)
, .. (. <samesence mutation>);
.. - , .
silk - .

, <fibroin>,
; , ,
20 (
1 ); Bombyx mori ,
., - Fib, Src-2, Nd, Nd-s, flc .
silk gland - . (),
, <silk>;
.. , -
<fibroin>.
silkworm - . 1 (Bombyx mori).
Silver-Russell syndrome - -. ,
,
, , , ,
, .;
- , ,
(IGF1),
q26.3 15;
( ).
simian herpesviruses - . a
, Saimiri Ateles;
.. 2 ( ).
simian virus 40, SV40 - 40, SV40. ,
(5227 ),
5 ; ..40 <temperate phage>
(
..40 );
SV40 100 000
-
.
simple insufficient allele = haplo-insufficient allele (.).
simple Robertsonian heterozygote - .
(), 2
<Robertsonian translocation>, 2 .
; ...
.
simple terminator = rho-independent terminator (.).
simplex - . ,
Aaaa.
simplex insufficient allele = haplo-insufficient allele (.).
Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome - --. ,
( ),

,
-
,
. ( - ),
;

-
<Beckwitt-Wiedemann
syndrome>; , SGBS q26 .

simultaneous division - . T
,
,
, ,

; .. . 1947.
single comb - . ,
, - rrpp.
single-copy plasmids - . , 1
1 ; ..
.
single-strand binding (SSB) protein - ,
, SSB. E.coli (, 74 ),

.
single-strand passage - . I -
.
sinistrality - .
(Z- <Z form>); .
..
sire. ,
.
sister chromatids (strands) - .
<chromatid>,
; <mitosis> II <meiosis>
..
sister chromatid exchanges, SCE - , .
<sister chromatids>
; ,

5-
<5bromodeoxyuridine>; (3-8
1 ),
, ..
;
- , <Bloom syndrome>.
sister chromatid (strand) reunion - .
C <sister chromatids>,

; ... ,
( ...).
sister chromosomes - . ,
; ..
<sister chromatids>
<holocentric chromosomes>.
site - . M , ..

; .
( , )
(, ), .
3-site = acceptor site (.).
5-site = donor site (.).
site-directed (directed) mutagenesis - . in vitro
; ..

,
(, ), - ,
112 ..
<growth
hormone> .
site-specific recombination - - .
, ,
( ,
, <transposition>,
, .-.. ); -
.-.. , (, ,
<prophage integration and excision>)
(attP attB)
.
site-specified (oligonucleotide-directed) mutagenesis - -
.
-
(,
13) in vitro,
- ,
,

, ;
.-.. 1978.
Sjoegren-Gougerot syndrome - -, ,
. ,
,
; I .;
.
skew bivalent - . <bivalent>,


.
slipped circle - .
(
, ,
); ...,
(. <folded circle>)
. . 1970.

slit-scan flow cytometry - [].


<chromosome sorting>,

;
,
.
slow component - . ,
<annealing> ;
, ()
.
slow-stop mutations - .
- () dna
E.coli, ,
.
Sly disease - . , (VII),
- , ,
.; -
, GUSB
q22 7.
small cytoplasmic RNA = scyrps (.).
small nuclear RNA = snurps (.).
small satellite RNA - . ( 400
) , ; ..
.
small t-antigen - t-. , 40
<simian virus 40>; - <large T-antigen>
- N - ; .t-.
- <alternative
splicing> 2 .
smear
.
M

- , .
; .
. ( )
,
. ( ..)
( , - .).
Smith-Lemli-Opitz
syndrome

--.
,
, -
, () , ,
. ;
; - , SLOS
q32 7.
Smith-Magenis syndrome - -. ,
<contiguous gene syndrome>,
, , ,

- ( .),
; p11.2 17.
snapdragon - . 1 (Atnirrhinum).
snurposome - . ,
<snurps> ; .
, , ,
<lampbrush chromosomes>.
snurps, small nuclear RNA - ( ) .
(105-106) (100-300
), <heterogeneous
nuclear RNA>, ;
.. <splicing>
(, .. U -
), 3- - (, U7 - - 3 ), ..
<processing> ;
.. - U1- <U1-RNA>; .
. 1979.
social evolution - .
,
.
social isolation - () .
- (..
) , ,
, , ..; ..

.
sociobiology, human ethology - , . H
;

,
-
; . , a
- .
SOD = superoxide dismutase (.).
sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS - .
<detergent>,
<polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis>.
soluble RNA = transfer RNA (.).
soma - . C ( )
, .
somaclonal variability - . -
, (
) , () , ..
<clone>.
somatic antigen - , -. K

,
- ( ,
.) ; ..
<endotoxins>.
somatic cell - . K , ..
.
somatic cell genetics - . ,
<somatic cell>
, , .
somatic cell hybrid - . ,
<cell hybridization> -
.
somatic conversion - . <gene
conversion>, ()
<mitotic recombination>.
somatic doubling - . C
,
; , ..
<colchicine> . .
somatic inconstancy - . K
(. <aneuploidy>) ; ,
; (, ),
( .,
, ).
somatic meiosis - . , (
, ..)
<somatic reduction>; ..
- , .
somatic mutation - . M,
( )
( , ) ,
, .. <mosaicism>; ..
.
somatic pairing - . T
, ;
( )
.
somatic parthenogenesis = diploid parthenogenesis (.).
somatic recombination = mitotic recombination (.).
somatic reduction - .
<reductional grouping>, 2
( ); ..
( , .. ),
; .. . Allium
cepa, .
somatic segregation - .

- ,
, ..
somatogamy = pseudoapogamy (.).
somatostatin - . O ( 14
),
<growth hormone>, <insulin>
<glucagon>.
somatotropin = growth hormone (.).
somite - . - ,
.
sonicated DNA. , .
sorbitol dehydrogenase, L-iditol dehydrogenase - [
1.1.1.14]. , 6-
D-,
.
Sorensens buffer - (. buffer).
SOS box - SOS-. ,
E.coli, - LexA; SOS-.
, SOS- <SOS
repair> (recA, lexA, uvrA, uvrB, umuC himA).
SOS repair - SOS-. <repair>,
(SOS <SOS response>); SOS-. ,
. ; SOS-.
, ..
, .
SOS response - SOS-. P
, ,
(SOS- <SOS repair>);
E.coli SOS-. SOS- <SOS box>.
Southern-blotting, Southern-transfer - -, .
M

() (blotting : ) - -,

<autoradiography>;
. . 1975.
Southern-transfer = Southern-blotting (.).
SP6 RNA polymerase - - SP6. - <RNA polymerase> SP6 (
Salmonella typhimurium), SP6-;
in vitro ,
, SP6 run-off.
SP6 run-off - . SP6.
spacer - . H ,
; .

( ),

(); . - ,
( 5-10 ); .
<transcribed spacer>.
spaghetti marker - -. ,
2- <lampbrush
chromosomes> Gallus domesticus,
. 15-16 35 . 500 2000
; , .-.
.
spanandry - . ()
; ., <spanogyny>,
.
spanogyny - . () .
SPCA deficiency, Alexander syndrome - .
, VII
( );
- , F7 q34 13.
special segment - . ,
( 0o) ,

;
.. - ,
<heterochromatin>.
special transduction = specialized transduction (.).
specialized (special, restricted) transduction - ()
.
,
( ,
); , .., <lambda
phage> . .
speciation - .

(
,
. 1859); .
<disruptive selection>;
<allopatric speciation> . <sympatric speciation>,
() <stasipatry> () .
speciation genes - . ,
() ,

<reproductive isolation> .
species - . O ,
ec ; . ,

( ) ,

,
(.); .
.
species cross = interspecis cross (.).
species hybrid = interspecies hybrid (.).
species transformation - .
(), ( )
; ,
.
species-specifity - . C - (
) -
.
specificity - . (,
, ..)
.
spectrin - . ,
; ( ) .
, .
,
,
<actin> . .
spectrophotometer - . O ,
( ..)

.
sperm, semen, seminal fluid, milt - , . ,
, ;
. ,
.;
.
sperm effect - .
( - ),

; .. . 1962 , 1988
.. .
sperm entry - .
.
sperm selection - . ,
, -
(, . , .. -
);
..
, -
.. (,
).
sperm sharing - . ,
, - ,

,
,

;
..

- Biomphalaria.
spermatheca - . ,
; . ( )
.
spermatid - . , II
; .
.
spermatogenesis - .

(); . 4 : ()
,
I ,
, II - , . <spermiogenesis>.
spermatogonium - . ,
( 3-6)
.
spermatophore - . O
, ,
.; .
spermatozoon, sperm - , . ,
,
;
( , , , <acrosome>)
, ;
. ().
spermiogenesis - . ,
,
;
. .
spheres - . H
<lampbrush chromosomes>;
-
0,5-1 ; . 1968
4 11 Pleurodeles waltl; .
. .
spherocytic anemia - ( )
, , -.
<hemolytic anemia>,
;
- , ,
<spectrin>, p14 -.
spheroplast - . , -
( , .)
,

; .
(-).
sphingolipids - . (
) .

sphingomyelin - . ,

<sphingosine>,
.

sphingosine - . ,
<sphingolipids>.
spindle - [], . C
, ,
;
, ; .
2 ( ) -
; .
; .
<mitotic apparatus>.
spindle fiber - . <spindle>,
.
spindle fiber attachment site (locus) - .
,
.... .
spiral cleavage - . ,

, ;
.. .
spiralization = chromosome condensation (.).
spiroplasma, SR-factor - , SR-. ,
, ,
; . ,
( ,

. ,
).
splice junction - .
<exon> <intron>,
<splicing>
.
spliceosome - . ,
, ( in vitro, in vivo)
<splicing> .
splicing - . ;

<intron>

.
splicing-vector - -. , 2 ,
<selected marker> (, neo dhfr), -
<splicing>, -,
.
split genes - . <eukaryotes>
; <exon> <intron>;
.. .
split proteins - . ,
(30S ), RI*- <RI*particle> <assembly>.
split spindle - . P
- , (
Hemiptera) .. , -
; , ..
.
Spm element, suppressor-mutator - Spm-.
<transposable elements>, ,
- , ,
,
; Spm-.
, ,
.
spontaneous generation, biopoiesis - .
( )
;
.
spontaneous (natural) mutation - () . M,

( ,
..) ( ,
.) .
spontaneous transformation - .

<transformation>,
(,
<phagocytosis> ) , ,
; ..
, ; ..
1962 .
sporadic - . X .
sporangium, spore sac - , . O ,
(), (
) ; .
, .. ( - );
.
spore - . ()
() ,
; (
) ( ), .
(- ); . ,

, .
sporogenesis - . .
sporogonium - . H ,
.
sporophyte - . ,
, ;
. <gametophyte> (
).
sport = bud mutation (.).
spot-test - spot-. rII- 4:
E.coli, ,
(spots), ,
-.
spreading effect - .
<position effect>, e -

,
.
squash method - . K
: ,
- , (, 1 ) ..,
( ); ...
<air-drying method>.
SR-factor = spiroplasma (.).
SSC. ,
(, - <C-banding>); 2 SSC - 17,5 NaCl 8,8

Na3C6H5O7 2H2O 1 .
stabilizing positive node - .
<sign inversion>, -
<DNA gyrase>.
stabilizing selection - . ,
( ,
) ; ..
,
; ..
.. 1946.
stable type (cis-trans) position effect - .
<position effect>,
, ; ....
. 1945 .
staggered breakages - . ,
<cohesive ends>; .. 2
<nick> 2
- ,
<restriction endonuclease> -
<cor-sequence> ( ,
attP attB E.coli).
staggered cuts method - . -

<cohesive ends>, ;
<blunt-end
ligation> poly(T)-poly(A) <poly(T)-poly(A) method>;
... -
.
staining, imblueing - . ()
,

; (.
)
., (.
<Feulgen nuclear staining> ..).
stamen - . M ;
. ( , ) ;
. .
staminate flower - . () ,
.
staminate plant - . - ,
.
standard type - . H (,
) ; , .. = <wild type>.
star metaphase - . M ,

, - ; ..
( .)
( ).
star strain. ,
<micronucleus>.
starch, amylum - . O , 25%
75% ;
, , , .
start codon = initiator codon (.).
startle disease = hyperekplexia (.).
stasigenesis - . ()

- .
stasipatry, chromosomal speciation - ()
. ,
(
),
; ..
( , Spalax ehrenbergi) .; ..
<sympatric
speciation> - ..
.
stathmokinesis - .
( ) <colchicine>
; .
.
stationary nucleus - . ,
<micronucleus>
<conjugation>:
.
stationary phase - .
, ,
.
staurigamia = open pollination (.).
stem body - . ,
.
stem cells - . ,

, - , .. ,
.
stem mother - . C (,
. ), ( ,
)
(
<false stem mother>).
stem structure - . ,

; .
<hairpin> .
stenospermocarpy - . ,

; . ( Musa) .
step allelomorphism - . C
, (, scute )
(); ..
.
stereoisomeres - . M,

.
sterile, germ-free, atokous - . ;
atokous, , .
sterile male technique = Strunnikov scheme (.).
sterility - . H
- ,
() .; .
(),
( . -
., . <gonadic sterility>) ;
. - () ,
; . <self-sterility>.
sterilization - .
- , .; . <sterility>
.
steroids - . K
( ),
; .
, D, , .
stickiness, chromatic agglutination, agglomeration - [],
. ,
2 , ;
(. <pseudobridge>).
Stickler syndrome, progressive arthroophthalmopathy - .
(
, ,
.); - , AOM
q14 12.
sticky ends = cohesive ends (.).
stock culture - .
,
.
stolon - . ,
( , . ..).

storage effect - .

( );

.
stored (masked) mRNA - . ,


; ( .) ,
.
.
strain - , . ,
,
( -
);
strain, line variety,
.
strand - , . (.
), ( .) ..; (
<crossing-over>)
(.. ) - ..
(+) strand = viral strand (.).
(-) strand = complementary strand (.).
strand displacement - . <replication> ,

(,

29):
() -
2 2 -
,
; .. e - <MeselsonRaddings model>.
strand-transfer reaction - .

RecA ( E.coli) RecA- ( .
), ; , ...
<recombination>.
streptavidin - . , Streptomyces avidinii,
<biotin>,

<biotinylated DNA>
in situ.
streptolydigins - . ,
: . (
<rifamycins>) - -.
streptomycin - . ,
Streptomyces griseus; () .

-,
, - , ..

.
streptomycin resistance - . O
(),
<streptomycin resistant mutation>
() <streptomycin> 3-, 3-- 6--,
(
), -
.
streptomycin resistant mutations - .

E.coli,

<streptomycin>; ... 3 ( 10-9).
streptonigrin - . A, Streptomyces flocculus,
.

stress (stress-induced) proteins - . ,



; ..
<heat-shock proteins>
, ( hsp)
() . ( ) .
stress-induced proteins = stress proteins (.).
stringent plasmid - . <plasmid>,
()
, 1-2 1
.
stringent response - .
, ( 1020 ), ..; ..
<guanosine tetraphosphate>; ..
.
strobile - . O ,
( ) ( -
) ; .
( Juniperus, Taxus baccata).

stroma - . C ,
; , . - <mitochondrion>
<chloroplast>.
stromelysins . <metalloproteinases>

. 1, 2 3,
<metalloelastase> <matrilysin>. . 1 2
( );
<extracellular matrix>,
, , , .. . 1
1.
strong-stop DNA. , 5-
, <reverse transcriptase>
-
in vivo.
strontium 90 - -90. P
28 ; x ( -60)
.
structural banding = morphological banding (.).
structural changes - .
; .. . 1929.
structural gene - . , -
, ,
, ..
structural heterozygote - .
- , <deficiency heterozygote>.
structural homozygosity - . O

.
structural hybrid - . ,
( - ).
structural periodicity - .
;
10,7 (. <B form> . ).
structural protein - . ,
; .. <actin>,
<myosin>, <collagen>, ..
-structure = chi structure (.).
struggle for existence - . O
. - .
p ; .. -
, - .
Strunnikov scheme, sterile male technique - . M
() -,
- 2
(.. Z-) (

Z)
; .. 1978 (
o Bombyx mori 1975).
STS, sequence tagged site - - .
,
<polymerase chain
reaction>.
Stuart-Prauer disease - -. , ,
(,
3.4.21.6) - , F10
q34 13.
stuffer fragment - . (,
),
<vector>.
sub- - -. O , ,
: .
subclones - . H ,
; .
,
- .
subcloning - . <subclones>,
.
subculture - . K ,
.
subdioecy - . H
.
subgenes - . ,
: , . scute-achaete
( ) Drosophila melanogaster.
subgenomic transcript - .
( - ),
env,
;
env, pol ( <reverse transcriptase>)
gag ( ); ..
,
, - <splicing-vector>.
subkaryon - . ,
() .
sublethal mutation = semi-lethal (.).
submedian attachment - .
.
submedian
centromere

.
,
; ..
.
submetacentric chromosome - . H
, ;

. . (1964) .. 1,43,0.
subspecies - . T (
),
<species>; .
, .
substitutional homeosis - .
<homeosis>: - (Antennapedia
.).
substitutional load - () .
<genetic load>, ,

.
substrate - . K- ,
; . - (
), .
subtelocentric
chromosome

.
P
, 3,0-7,0
. . (1964);
.. ( ) .
subtelomeric
(telomere-associated)
DNA

<telomere sequence>; .
,

, , .
.
subterminal attachment - .
.
subterminal
centromere

.
,
() ;
<subtelocentric chromosome>
<acrocentric chromosome>.
subtraits - . ,
(
<supertrait>), - ,
. , .
subvital - . X
(50-100% ).
subvital mutation - . M,
50% ( 100%) .
successional speciation = anagenesis (.).
successive division - . T
, ; ..
,
.
succinate
dehydrogenase

[
1.3.99.1].

,

:
OOC CH2 CH2 COO- +
OCC CH CH COO- +
,
Q <coenzyme Q>; . ( SDH 1), ( ) 97 .
sucrose - . , ,
,
; . <starch>.
sucrose equilibrium density gradient centrifugation -
.
<sedimentation coefficient>:

<sucrose>, , .
sudan black B - . O
( II,
, ..), .

sudden correction - . M
;
o ,

; .. ,
<spacer> (
) ;
<crossover
fixation>.
sugar effect - .
<Balbiani ring> <polytene chromosomes>
(, .),
Chironomidae; ..
, ,
. .
suicide vector - -. ,
<reverse transcription> ,
( ),
,
.

sulfanilamide - . A, ;
( 130) . -
<folic acid>
,
( ).

sulphur dioxide - . O
;
, , : SO2.
sulphur mustard - . --;

<alkylating
agent>,

<radiomimetic
substance>;

.. . 1886.

sulphur-containing amino acids - . A,


: <cysteine> <methionine>.
sunbean. - Helianthus annuus
Phaseolus vulgaris,
( ) -
Agrobacterium tumefaciens ;
. . 1981.
superbeads - [ ].
<nucleosome>,
; , .. 30 (
12 );
, -- (beads-on-a-string).
supercapsid - . ,
; .
.
supercentrifuge = ultracentrifuge (.).
supercoil - .
,
,
.
supergene - . (..
),
, ,
; .

; . <synteny>;
. . . 1950.
supermale = metamale (.).
supernatant - . ,
.
supernumerary chromosome = B chromosome (.).
superovulation - . , (
) <ovulation> , ,
; .
<embryo transfer>
.
superoxide dismutase - , [ 1.15.1.1].
, 2-
- ,
; . - ,
2 , 1 ,
; . - -
(SOD); SOD1, SOD2 SOD2
21q22.1, 6p23-p21.1 4p16.3-q21.
superreduction - . , ,
.
superrepressed state - .
, -
, .. ..
<noninducibility>.
supersex - . O -
(, ):
<metamale> <metafemale>.
superspecies - . -
(); , .

.
supersuppressor - . M,
, ; .
- <nonsense suppressor>.
supertrait
.
C

()
,
<subtraits>, - , .
, ..;
. ; .
. 1936.
supervital mutation - . M,

.
supplemented medium - . K ,
,

,
; ..
<auxotroph>, <catabolite repression> ..
suppression - .
; .

(); <intragenic suppression> .
<intergene suppression>.
suppressive petite - . <petite>,
,
0,2-36% .
suppressor cells = TS-lymphocytes (.).
suppressor gene - -. ,
( ), .
; .-. - <inhibitor gene>.
suppressor (second site) mutation - . M,
<suppression>.
suppressor-mutator = spm element (.).
surveillance genes - . ,
; .. <repair>, ,
, ,
<oncogene>; , ..
- <co-recessive inheritance>.
survival - . O
( ),
. - ; .
; .
( )
.
survival of the fittest - . K
., ,

, - .
survival index - . M
,
,
.
survival rate - . K
.
susceptibility, sensitivity - . C
- ; .
- (, ..)
.
suspension culture - . ,

,
.
SV40 = simian virus (.).
switch gene - -. ,
,
. ; , .-.
<homeotic mutations>.
swordtail - . 1 (Xiphophorus).
Swyer syndrome, XY female gonad dysgenesis - .
, , ,
, ; ..
XY Y-
TDF (-, ),
p11.2 Y-.
Sxr. sex-reversed, -
- ( Y-)
X-; XX X0
.
symbiogenesis - . K
, ()
; .

, <spiroplasma> .; .
.. 1909.
symbionin
.
,

, <endosymbiotic
bacteria> - , .; .
, groEL E.coli.
symbiosis - . C ,
,

()

.; .
( ) (, ..
) - ; . ,
.
symbiotic genes - . ,

-; ..
<megaplasmids> ( ) .
symbols used in human cytogenetics - ,
( ):
A-G - ,
1-22 - ,
X, Y - ,
, q - ,
pter - ,
qter - ,

cen - <centromere>,
dic - ,
inv - <inversion>,
del - <deletion>,
r - ,
i - <isochromosome>,
der - ,
dup - <duplication>,
ins - <insertion>,
inv-ins - ,
rcp - <reciprocal translocation>,
rec - ,
rob (Rb) - ,
tan - ,
(+),(-) - ,
h+ -
ter - ,
: - ,
:: - ,
/ - ,
mat - ,
pat - - .
symgenesis - . -
,

, ;
. - ;
. .. 1960.
symmetrical inversion = pericentric inversion (.).
symmetrical Robertsonian translocation = homologous Robertsonian translocation
(.).
symmetrical translocation - .
<translocation>, 1
.
symmetry ratio - . , ..-:
( - - r=+1),
(0<r<1), (
- r=0),
(-1<r<0) (r=-1); ..,
,

,
<Astaurov principle>.
sympatric - . <sympatry>.
sympatric speciation - . O (
) ,
;

.. - ,
().
sympatric species - . ,
, .. <sympatry>.
sympatry - . C (.. ,
)
- , ; .
( ).
symplast - . ,
; . ,
-, - .
synacmy = homogamy (.).
synapomorphic character - .
<autoapomorphic charater>,
; . . (1993), 2
.. - <syntrepty> <synapousy>.
synapousy - .
<synapomorphic character>
() ; .
<syntrepty> .
synapsin - . ,

; .-1
- (
11) - ,
(, <Norrie
disease> .).
synapsis = chromosome pairing (.).
synaptena = zygotene (.).
synaptic adjustment - . K
(),
, ..;
,
, - .. .
1977, , ..
.
synaptic correction - .
- ,
.. + (,
Bombyx mori).
synaptomere
.

,
( <chromosome pairing>);
. . 1957.
synaptonemal complex - . C,
; 2
<lateral elements>, ,
, ,

; .. 1956 .
..
synchronous culture - . K,
.
synchronous divisions - . O ()
, - , .
syncytial blastoderm - . ,

( , ): 13 (
9 - ) ,
6000 ; 14-
( )
(.. ).
syncytium = multinucleate cell (.).
syndesis = chromosome pairing (.).
syndiploidy - . O -
, ;
., , <colchiploidy>.
syndrome - . (),
(), ,
() ; .
,
, .
synergism - . ()
(),
.
synezis - . ;
. ( <leptotene>
<microsporogenesis>).
syngamy = fertilization (.).
syngenote - . ,
<transduction>, ..
<exogenote>.
syngens - . (, Paramecium aurelia
14 .); .
2 ; .
, .
syngonic (syngenotic) - . ,
() .
syngraft - . ,
- .
synkaryon - .
<conjugation>,
<macronucleus> <micronucleus>;
. - ,
.

synkaryophyte - . - :
() ,
.
synonymous substitution - [].
, , ..
.
syntenic group = linkage group (.).
synteny - . C ,
; .
<supergene>; . . 1971
,
.
synthetases = ligases (.).
synthetic lethal - . ,
<crossing-over>.
synthetic polyribonucleotide - .
, -.
syntrepty - .
<synapomorphic character>,
() .
systematics = taxonomy (.).
systemic lupus erythematosus - .
<autoimmune disease> ,
; , ...
( <cytokines>) ,
<immunoglobulins>.

T
T. C, <trans-location>,
- , T(5;16).
T antigen - -. A, ,
(, SV40
<simian virus 40>); -. - , .
T cells = T-lymphocytes (.).
T complex - -. 17 ,
, ;
-.
.
T factors, transfer factors - .
, - <aminoacyl-tRNA>
; 2 . - (EF-Tu)

(EF-Ts); -
. ( ) .
T phages - -. E.coli;
"", -;
-.
2 - (2, 4) (1, 3, 5, 7).
tachytelic evolution, tachytely - . O

( ,
).
tac-promoter - . hybrid promoter.
TACTAAC box - .
, (3'-)
<intron> "" <lariat>
-.
tailing. 3'--
( - ) "" ("tail")

<terminal transferase>; "" (,
- - )
.
Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein = uromodulin (.).
tandem association - . K
,

; , ..
.
tandem fusion - . C ,
2
;
.. .
tandem inversion - . X ,
( 180o)
.
tandem ring - .
: .. 2 -
,
.
tandem satellites - .
; -
, - .
tandem selection - .
, .
Tangeur disease - . ,
-.

tannins - . (
500-3000 ), ; .
.
.
tapetal cell - () . K,
(),
; .. 1 .
Taq DNA polymerase - - Taq. ( 95o) Thermus
aquaticus; -.Taq
<polymerase chain reaction> .
target - []. <target theory> ,
(, ..)
; "." .
. 1924; . - , ,
, .
target theory - . P (20-30- .) ,
;
, (, ,
, ..) -
<target>; ..
.
target tissue - -. T,
; .-. - , .
Tarui disease - , VII . ,

, ;
- , PFKM
1.
taste blindness, nontaster - " ". ,
, ;
".."
.
TATA box = Hogness box (.).

tautomer - . O ,
<tautomerism>, - , . :

tautomeric shift - . T ,
-

(, ..
, .., -,
- ).
tautomerism - .
(); , .

,
,

<tautomeric shift>; "." . 1885.
taxon - . ,
. ; . ( -
<species>, <genus>, <family> ..)
() .
taxonomy, systematics - , . P ,

; . -
() , .. ,
().
Tay-Sacks disease - -.
<amaurotic
idiocy>

; ( 4-6 );
- , HEXA
q23-q24 15.
T-banding - - (. RHG-banding).
TC-lymphocytes, cytotoxic cells - C-. T - <Tlymphocytes>,
.
TDF = testis-determining factor (.).
TDH-lymphocytes, delayed hypersensitivity cells - DH-. T -


<T-lymphocytes>,

.
T-DNA, transferred DNA - -. Ti- <Ti- plasmid> Ri <Ri plasmid>, -
( ) 7 ; -
-.
telegony - . ,
, ..
/ /.
teliospore - . (Ustilaginales);
. ,
<basidium> 4 .
telocentric chromosome - . X,
; ,
.. , .. (
), -, ;

".."

" " <acrocentric chromosome>.


telochromomere - . K ( )
.
telochromosome
.

<telocentric chromosome>.
telolecithal egg - . ,
( ); ..
<meroblastic cleavage>.
telomerase - . ,
, <telomere> ;
. Tetrahymena thermophila,
<macronucleus> .
, . (,
159 , ,
100 )
500 .
telomere - . K ,
<heterochromatin>,
.;

""
.

,
. .
telomere repeat = telomere sequence (.).
telomere sequence (repeat) - ().
,
(), ,

, , , ;
, .. ()n,

100
- , , , , ; ..
Tetrahymena pyriformis ( 30-70 )
. . 1978.
telomere-associated DNA = subtelomeric DNA (.).
telomeric fusion - . ,
(
<Robertsonian rearrangement>)
; , .. ,
() , ..
2 ( ) .
telomorphosis - . H " "
,
; "." .. 1939.
telophase - . (
); .
, 2 ( -
), 2 , ;
. <interphase>.
telophase configuration - .

,
() .
teloreduplication - (. interreduplication).
telosynapsis = terminal association (.).
telosyndesis = terminal association (.).
TEM = transmission electron microscopy (.).
temperate phage - . ,
<lysogeny> , ..
; ..
<lysis> -.
temperature-sensitive mutant - , ,
. M ,

() ( E.coli
42o); E.coli
. 1951; Neurospora
crassa . .
template - . M
- , , .
..
temporal gene - . ,
- . ();
.. .

tension hybrid zone - .


<hybrid zone>,
(
"" ).
tentative gene location - (. gene mapping).
teratogen - . , <teratogenesis>.
teratogenesis - .
,
( ).
teratoma - . ,
(, Ti- <Ti plasmid>
) ,
.
teratomorph = malformation (.).
terminal
affinity

,
"" ()
I , ..
<chiasma terminalization>.
terminal associaion, telosynapsis, telosyndesis - ,
. C "--" I ;
.. <parasynapsis>.
terminal attachment - .
() ;
<telocentric chromosome>.
terminal (half) chiasma - , . X,
() .
terminal deletion - .
- , 1
.
terminal
redundancy

()
; .. - -
<cyclically permuted sequences>.
terminal satellite - . H
<satellite>, ;
..
terminal
transferase,
deoxynucleotidyl
transferase

. , 3'-

- ..
"tailing" <.>.
terminalization coefficient - .
.
terminase - . , ,

cos- <cos-site>,
,
12- .
terminating codon - , -. K,
() - , , ; .. (-) ; ,
( ) ; , ,
( ),
, ( . ).
termination - . O
; . -
<transcription>
<replication>.
terminator - .
, ()
.
terminus [of replication] - [].
, .
ternary complex - . K,
<core enzyme> - ( ..
- <sigma factor>),
; -
( <tight binding>); .. - ,
, 3
- <initiation factors>, - <formyl
methionine> - .
territoriality - . A
,
.
tertiary H bonds - . ,
(
" "
).
tertiary structure of protein - .
,
.
test cross - , -. C ,
, ,
; ..
2 - .
tester-strain - -. ,
; .-.
-
.

testicular feminization - ,
. (, ,
)
, ..
; , ..
- ; ..
<androgens> .
testis - . M , ,
; .
.
testis-determining factor, TDF - .
(
, ),

Y-;

,
..., - .
testosterone - . O ,
. . , , ,
; . ,
<secondary sexual character>,
<spermatogenesis> .
teta-replication = -type replication (.).
tetra- - -. O : .
tetra-allelic - . X :
A1 A2 A3 A4 .
tetracyclines - . ,
Streptomyces; . 30S-
- <aminoacyl-tRNA>
-.

tetrad - . 4 , ( <bivalent>)
I ; . - 4
,
( ) .
tetrad analysis - . K
, .. 4 (),
, , ; ..
, (
) , - (
- Neurospora crassa).

tetrad segregation type - . P


2 , 4
(Ab, Ab, aB, aB) AB,
Ab, aB, ab ( ).
tetramine - . A <aziridine mutagen>.

tetranucleotide hypothesis - .
1- . . , ,
, 4 ,
,
; ..
.
tetraploid - . ,
4 ( , <allotetraploid>) .
tetrapolarity - . <heterothallism>,
; .
2 - (A 1B1, A1B2,
A2B1, A2B2), ,
(
).
tetrasomic - . X ,
(.. ""
).
tetravalent = quadrivalent (.).
Tg = generation time (.).
TH-lymphocytes, helper cells - H-, -.
- <T-lymphocytes>,

<immune response>; -, -, - -.
thalassemia - , . ,
<hemolytic anemia>,
;
.

,
, - -., -., -.
.
-thalassemia, Cooley's anemia - -, . ,

<hemolytic anemia>, ( - ,
<Lepore hemoglobin> <Kenya
hemoglobin>, ..); -.
<fetal hemoglobin>, (+-) (0-);
-. ,
.
thallus - , . ,

; . 1
( .);
. - <mycelium>,
() - <prothallium>.
t-haplotypes - t-. H2-
<H2 complex> Mus musculus ( 17);

<transmission ratio
distortion> - 5 t-.
( 20 ),
;
t-.,
Mus ( 515%).
thelygenous female - . C, -
( <thelytokous parthenogenesis>),
W-W (ZZ
ZW), .
thelygeny - . .
thelykaryon = female pronucleus (.).
thelykaryotic organism - . O,
- , .. .. -
.
thelytokous parthenogenesis (thelytoky) - , .
<parthenogenesis>,
, , ;
, .
, (
"" ,
<arrhenotokous parthenogenesis>, .. ).

theobromine - . , -,
; <purine>.

theophyllin - . , ,
; <caffeine>, <theobromine>
. ( ,
<cyclic AMP> ).

thermocleistogamy - .
<cleistogamy>, (
).
thermophylic - . X ,
, , (40-60o)
.
thiamine - , 1.
; ( , ),
.

thiamine pyrophosphate - . K
(, ).
thin layer chromatography - .
,
, (,
, ..),
; ..
<paper chromatography>.
6-thioguanine resistance test - 6-.
- ,

HPRT
(-), 6-

( ), ..
HPRT.
4-thiouridine - 4-. P , ;
.

third [filial] generation, F3 - . o


(F2).
Thomsen disease - . , ,

;
- ( -
, ), ..
q35 7.
thoraco-abdominal syndrome - . ,
, ,
- .;
, TAS
q25-26 -.
thread - "" (. Y-chromosome loops).
thread-worm - . 1 (Ascaris).
three-factor crossing - . M
- , 2
1 , - 2 1 (
<selected markers>);

.
three-way cross = triple cross (.).
thremmatology - . H
.
threonine [Thr] - []. H ;
<protamins>; , , , .

threshold - . P ;
<liability>,
; ., ,
, .

threshold character - . ,
()
.
threshold dose - . (
, , ..),
- (, ,
..) .
thrombin .
, <prothrombin>,
<blood clotting (coagulation)>
. . ,

, V, VIII, XI XIII

, C. .
, G20210A ,
<thrombophilia>, .
<hemophilia>. .
.
thrombopoietin . ,

<megakaryocyte>;

. 353 .
, cmpl,
<platelet>,
, ,
<endomitosis>, in vitro.
throwback = regress (.).
thymidine - . H, ( <thymine>)
.
thymine - . , ,
- ( . ).

thymine dimer - . ,
.
thymineless death - . E.coli .
,
.
thymus - , . O
, .
- <T-lymphocytes>; .

, .
thyroglobulin - . - <thyroxin>,
. 2
<alanine>.
thyroxin - . O ,

<thyroglobulin>
( ) ( ).

tight binding - .
<open complex> -
, ( - <sigma
factor>) ,
-.
timopoetin - . ,
- <T-lymphocyte>; 2
. 49 2
.
Ti-plasmid, tumor inducing plasmid - Ti-. <plasmid>
Agrobacterium tumefaciens, -

, ( <gall>);
, () - , ,
; Ti-. <vector>
.
Tiselius apparatus - . P . 30- .
( 1933)
<electrophoresis> .
tissue - . C () , ,
,
; . , ,
.
().
tissue culture - , . M
, ( ),
( ) in vitro ,
, ,
, , ,
; .. (
) . 1907.
tissue-specific splicing - . <splicing>

- , - ,
; SHBG
( 11), ..
SHBG, ,
- ABP.
T-lymphocytes, T cells - -. ,
<thymus>,
<lymphokines>; -.
(. TH, TC, TS, TDH).
Tm = melting temperature (.).
Tn. C,
<composite element>.
tobacco - . 1 (Nicotaia tabacum).
tobacco mosaic virus - . K -
, ( )
( Nicotiana); ... - (..,
1892).
tocopherols - , .
, ,
; -.

Togaviruses - . C ,
40-70 ; , , ;
-.
tokonothy
.

( ).
tolerance, resistance - , , .
C
( , , ..);
. - .

toluidine blue - , . O

;
. ,
<metachromasy>.

tonoplast - . M ,
.
top cross (topcrossing), line crossing - , .
C
,

)
( ,
) ("" , , )
<heterosis>,
.
top dominance - .
(
).
topodeme - . ( <deme>),
.
topoisomerase II = DNA gyrase (.).
topological isomeres - . O
, <linking
number>; .. <DNA topoisomerase>.
toromere - .
(Drosophila melanogaster, D.lummei .) -
() ,

<acriflavin>;

() - , . ,
, <episome>; . D.melanogaster
. . 1973.
torsion pairing - . "K"
, ,
; ..
.
torsionic distonia - .
, , ; ;
-,
- .
tortoiseshell (calico) cat - "" . Felis

catus, - ,
<mosaicism>,
- <X-inactivation>; ".".
(--) - "calico cat" (" ").
total genome length - (. genome size).
totipotency - . C
; .
(), .
(,
).
touch-and-go pairing - . C
I ,
, ;
.. .
toxin - . (
); . - ( <endotoxins> ); "."
, () .
toxoplasma - . 1 (Toxoplasma gondii).
tra = transformer (.).
trabant = satellite (.).
traction fiber - () .
,
.
trade-off - . (,
- phenotypic trade-off) ,
(, ) .
Tradescantia-test - Tradescantia-.
:
(. 1 - Tradescantia) ,
.
traditional staining = conventional staining (.).
trait = character (.).
trans- - -. O -
- -, : , .
trans arrangement (configuration) - -. 2
() ; .-.
-- <cis-trans-test>.
trans-acting locus - - . ,
- ( - <cis-dominance>)
,
- ,
.
transcapsidation - , .

(
. ) -; .
.
transcentric inversion = pericentric inversion (.).
transconjugant - . P,
Hfr F-; . F- (
F- <F factor>) ( Hfr-
) Hfr- F-.
transcribed spacer - .
, ; ..
;
( .) .. ,
(5,8S).
transcription - . -
; .
- <RNA polymerase>,
3 -, .
transcription factors - . ,
- <RNA polymerase>
(, ),
(,
<enhancer>).
transdetermination
.

- ,
; , .
in vivo .
transducing phage - .
<temperate phage>, <transduction>, , .. 22 ( Salmonella typhimurium), 1,
( E.coli), S1, S10 ( Bacillus subtilis) ..
transductant - . ,
( ),
<transduction>.
transduction - . ()
() ()
;

<nonspecific
transduction>,
<special transduction> . <abortive transduction>,
<cotransduction>; . .
. 1952 Salmonella typhimurium 22.
transfection - .
,
; . -
.
transfer factor - []. (
<lymphokines>), -

<T-lymphocytes>,
.
transfer factors = T factors (.).
transfer (soluble) RNA, tRNA - , () .
H ,

;
" ", <anticodon> ,
5'- ; (

<rare
bases>;

() L;
- 3'-
<aminoacylation>,
-- ;
" " .
. 1965.
transferases - . K (
- 2),
(, , , .)
; -
; 450 .
transferred DNA = T-DNA (.).
transferrin - . ,
( );
. , () ().
transformant - .
(, , ) <transformation>.
transformation - .

<plasmid>, ( -
<transduction>); . (,
,
); . ,
- , ; . <spontaneous transformation>; . -
<transformed cells> ,
. .
transformed cells - . ,

; ..
( , ),
,
.; ..
<tumor>.

transformer, tra - . A ,
( 3):
(tra/tra) .
transforming growth factors- = activins (.)
transfusion, blood transfusion - . ,

() ,
( .),
( .); ..
- <Rhesus factor> .
transgenic organism - . , (
)
, ; ..
() . . 1980 (
).
transgenation = gene mutation (.).
transgression = transgressive variation (.).
transgressive variation, transgression - .
,
, .
transient polymorphism - .
,
() .
transition - . M, ,

; .
, <ethyl-methane
sulphonate>, <nitrous acid>,
; ".", "" <transversion>,
. 1959.
transition proteins - () .
, <histones>
( )
<protamines>; .. (TNP1)
22 15 .
translation - .
-
; . ,
,
.
translational control - .
.
translocase - , G. ,
:
- - ,

.
translocation - . T ,
(
.) . ,
( .),
( .); . - 1
,
, - ,
<translocase>.
translocation analysis - . O
,

.
translocation (familial) Down syndrome - .
<Down syndrome>, -21
- ( 14-);

... 0,(3).
translocation heterozygote - . O (
), ,
; ..
,
.
transmission electron microscopy, TEM -
.

,
( 0,005 , ,
50 000 );
,
,
.
transmission ratio distortion - .

,
.. ,

2 ; ... t- <t-haplotypes>,
95%,
1:1,
, t-,
.
transpeptidation - .
; . - -
- -,
- -; -, - -.
transplantat, graft - , . ,

.
transplantation = grafting (.).
transplantation antigens - . C
,
;
I, .
transposable (controlling) elements - ()
. H ( ),
; ... <activator-dissociation system> ; ,
, ... (-, copia,
1, 4, "" .); 3 - ...
(FB-),
( copia <"copia"-like transposable elements>) ( <P-M elements> ); ... IS- <IS
elements> <transposons>; ...
, ..
, ...
<transposase> <resolvase>.
transposase - . ,
<transposable
elements> (), , Tn3 Ac <activator-dissociation system>; .,
<resolvase>, .
transposition - .
<transposable elements> ;
, ,
; -, .
, ;
. -
- . - ,
.
transposition burst - .

<transposable elements> , ,
,
; .. <hybrid dysgenesis>.
transposition immunity - .
Tn3 -
Tn3- ( .
), Tn3 .
transposons - . ,
IS- <IS elements> ,
,
. , - , .

trans-splicing - -.
; .-. in vitro
2
-
; .-., ,
"" <exon shuffling>,
.
transthyretin - . C (
),
<familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy>;
, .
30.
transvection
.

,
,
, ; . -
; .
Bithorax <.> white zeste , . .
transvection effect - . C
,
; .. ,
,
.
transversion - . M, ,
p
; . ,
. .
Treacher-Collins
syndrome

-.
,
( , ),
. ; - ,
TCS q31.3-q33.3 5.
trehalose - . , 2 .
treiler
.
H

,
- 3'-

()-,

<poly(A)-tail>.
tremophilia - , . ,
20 , .
tri- - -. O : .
triallelic - . X ,
3 ( 2
""): A1A1A2A3, A1A2A2A3 A1A2A3A3.
tribe - . H ,
; .

, , . .
tricarboxylic acid (Krebs, citric acid) cycle - ,
.
(- ),

, 2 2; ...
;
... - <aconitase>, <isocitrate
dehydrogenase>, <succinate dehydrogenase>,
<fumarase>, <malate dehydrogenase> ., ...
8 ; ...
. 1940 ( 1953 ).
trichloracetic acid - . O ,
(
).

trichogyne - . , Neurospora crassa.


trichothiodystrophy - . ,
( -), ,
, - ;
- , (
<xeroderma pigmentosum> .)
<repair>.
trigenomic species - . ,
;
.. (, AASSTT
Achillea millefolium, AABBDD
Triticum aestivum .).
trigger [gene] action - []. ,
;
<homeosis>; .., ..
" ",

.
trihybrid cross - . C,
, 3 ;
.. " " .

triiodothyronine - . ,
, <thyreoglobulin>;
<thyroxin>.

trilaminar kinetochore - . O
<kinetochore>, 2
; "", "", .. 0,2-1,4 (
), 15-60 ;
.. , ,
,
3 ; .. ( .)
.
trimester - . ,
3 .
trimethylpsoralen
.
,

,

,
; . .
trimonoecious, polygamous - . X ,
3 - , .
triple chiasma - . ,
<chiasma terminalization> ,
( ,
).
triple (three-way) cross - . C 2
,
;
.
triple hybrid - .
() () - ( ) ; ..
,
.
triplet = codon (.).
triplex - . ,
AAAa.
triplex DNA, H form - .
, ,
;
. in vitro ,

, - (..
"pur.pyr-"); , . in vivo
.
triploid - . O, 3 (
) .
Tris buffer - -. O
-()-,
7,0-9,0;
.
trisomic - . O, <trisomy>
.
trisomic inheritance - . C

()

5 (3 , 1
+); ()
(
) .. ;
1 2
"" .
trisomy - . H ""
,
; . - ,
., , ; .
<Down syndrome>, <Edwards syndrome> ..
tritanopia - . P ,
.
tritium, 3H - . P
12,5 ; ,

<autoradiography>
-.
Triton X-100 - -100. <detergent>; (
, - <Tris buffer>)
, . .
; .-100 ,
.

trivalent - . C, 3
( - ,

12Y) .
tRNA = transfer RNA (.).
tRNA nucleotidyl transferase - -. ,
3'- II (..
, - ,
, ).
tRNA synthetase recognition site - -.
,
<aminoacyl synthetase>, ;
..-.

) " " .
tRNA-like segment - - .
- ,
;
-.. <rare base>,
" " . .
trombastenia - . , ,
;
- .
trombocytopathya - . , ,
III ;
- .
trophoblast - . H <blastocyst>
,
.
trophochromatin - . X <macronucleus>
(. <idiochromatin>); "." ,
(
) .
tropism [of viruses] = host range (.).
tropokinesis - . (
<merostathmokinesis> <stathmokinesis>) ,

<colchicine> .
tropomyosin - . - , 2
35 ; . -
.
troponins - . : (. I, C
T), - -
; .
, .
truncated pseudogene - "" .
<pseudogene>, (
<processed pseudogene>), ,

- , ".". <tyrosinase> 2
5.
truncation selection - . ,
,
( )
( - truncation point).
trypan blue - . K ,
,
,
.
trypsin - [ 3.4.4.4]. O
() , .
,
;
- ( TRY1 q32-qter
7 6 ); .
G- <G banding> ,
(
..).
trypsin-resistant core - "", . -
- E.coli 60- 360- ,
<inductor>,
<operator>; N-
N- <long head-piece>.
tryptophan [Trp] - []. H
; ,
<xanthommatin>, <serotonin>,
.; .

tryptophan synthetase - [ 4.2.1.20]. ,


-
<indole>,
. (80 1
).
TS mutant = temperature-sensitive mutant (.).
TS-lymphocytes, suppressor cells - S-. T - <Tlymphocytes>, - <immune response>.

tube nucleus - .
,
<pollen tube>.
tuberous sclerosis - , . ,

, ,
(" "), .
; - ; ..
- 2 : TSC1
9, TSC2 -
11.
tubular ribbons - " " (. Y-chromosome loops).
tubulin
.
O

; , - -
55 ; . (,
4 -.),
; .
<colchicine>,
.
tumor = neoplasm (.).
tumor inducing plasmid = Ti-plasmid (.).
tumor virus = oncogenic virus (.).
turbid plaque - .
,
( "" )
<lysogeny> .
turbogenicity - . ,
-
; . "
" <metaphase poison>.
Turner syndrome - , -,
, . ,
, . ; ..
( Y-,
- ) - 2n=45,; .. .
( ..), 2n=45,/46, ..;
.., , <sex chromatin>.
turnover number - . ,
1 .
.
twin hybrids - .
F ,
1
"" () ; .. .
1907 Oenothera.

twin method - . O
: ,
( , )
a priori ..;
.. - .
twin sectors - . [], 1
,
<transposition>
; , 80% (,
- <activator-dissociation system>)
..
twin spots - .
,
, <mitotic crossing-over>
( );

..)

<hynandromorphism>.
twinning rate - . ,
(),
2 , -
( )
.
twins - . ,
, , , 1
( - ):
<monozygotic twins> . <dizygotic twins>;
. (1/240),
-
.
twisting number - .
,
1 .
twofold rotational symmetry - .

(5' 3' ), .. .. -
<palindrome>.
two-plane theory - . T,
<crossing-over>
( ) (
) ; ... . 1924,
.
two strand (progressive) double crossing-over -
() , . ,
,
.

two-component transposable elements -


. <transposable elements>,
(),
() ; 1987 9 ...,
- <activator-dissociation
system>.
twopoint cross - . T 2 : AaBb
aabb; AB, Ab,
aB ab A B;
2 ().
Ty. <transposable element>
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Transposon of yeast); 3035 Ty-; Ty-
( 5600 )
( 330 ).
tychogenesis - . ,
; "."
<orthogenesis>
; "." . 1929.
tychoparthenogenesis
.

; . ,
<parthenogenesis>.
-type replication = rolling circle model (.).
-type replication - -, -.
,
"", ,
;
"" ().
typogenesis - . <typostroph> -
()
; .
"" () .
typolysis - . <typostroph> -
; ,
, .
typostasis - . <typostroph>
, .
typostroph - . ,
<typogenesis>, <typostasis>
<typolysis>; . . 1950.
tyrosinase - [ 1.14.18.1].
, ()
- ( <melanin>); ,

., 11 ( q14-21
) 7 ; .
<albinism> - ,
85 - BALB/c.
tyrosine [Tyr] - []. ;
<dopamine>,
<adrenalin>, <melanin>; , .

tyrosinemia, tyrosinosis - . ,
(, .)
- ;
- ; . ,
(, ,
1/20).
tyrosinemia II = Richner-Hanhart syndrome (.).
tyrosinosis = tyrosinemia (.).
U
UAS = upstream activator sequence (.).
ubiquinone = coenzyme Q (.).
ubiquitin - . , (ubiquitous)
- ; . 76 , , .
196- 2;
. 2 (U-H2A)
(, Drosophila melanogaster); .
, -
-, ;
.
<intron>; ., , - ,
<Alzheimer disease>.
UDP-glucuronosyltransferase - - [ 2.4.1.17].
,
<bilirubin>, , .
<glucuronic acid>; -.
- <Crigler-Najjar syndrome>; -.
2 1 .
UEP = unit evolutionary period (.).
ultracentrfuge, supercentrifuge - . ,

,
100 000 ./.
500 000 g.
ultrathin section method - . M
0,1
; ( <freeze-etching> .)
"" .
ultraviolet light, UV - , . He
, "" (> 400
) (< 100 ).
ultraviolet microscope - . ,
;
( )
,
260 , (
) - 280 ;
..
.
uncharged tRNA - . <transfer RNA>,
.
uncoiling of chromomeres - . P
(),
,
" " <lampbrush chromosomes>.
uncoordinated region - " ". C
- Drosophila melanogaster ( 19E8 ),
unc - ( )
; .".."
-
<variegated position effect>; 6
,
.
uncycling cell = resting cell (.).
undercondensation - [].

() - 33258 <Hoechst
33258>, 5- <5-azacytidine> .; ..
<chromosome banding methods>.
underdominance - .
( )
- , NZB
( ) ,
, NZW ( ) -

NZB NZW ..
, "" NZB.
undermethylated
gene

.
A
,
. .
underwound DNA - . M (
), - ,
.
unequal bivalent - . ,
,
(,
).
unequal crossing-over - . ,
,
; ..

(, ),
1 , - 3 ;
.. Bar <.>
Drosophila melanogaster.
uni-armed chromosome - . X,
; .. - <acrocentric
chromosomes> <telocentric chromosome>, ,
, <subtelocentric chromosome>)
( <microchromosomes>).
unidentified reading frames, URF - .
,
; , 13
...
unidirectional replication - . P,

<replicating fork>.
unilateral inheritance - . H
( ) (
), .. ..
Y- W-.
uniparental inheritance = maternal inheritance (.).
uniparental disomy - .

- ,
,
( . );
..
- <Prader-Willi syndrome> .
unipolar division - . O

- ,

; .. ,
.
unisexual flower - . ,
(, ),
(, ), ,
- .. - ;
( ;
- Typha sp.) (); , ..
, , -,
.. .
unisexuality - . H ()
,
,
, ; "."
() ()
"" ("").
unisexual reproduction = parthenogenesis (.).
unit character - . ,
; , .. = <phene>.
unit evolutionary period, UEP - . ,
1%.
univalent - . X, - .
(, ) I
; . -
Y-, , .
( ) - .
universal code theory - . ,
, ()
; ... ,
,
..
universal donor - . 1-
( 0 0 <AB0 blood groups>);
.
universal recipient - . 4-
( 0 <AB0 blood groups>);
. (0 - 1- ; - 2- ; 3- ).
unkempt. , " " <zinc finger
proteins> (. <Kruppel>), 5 "" [3],
(
),

; 3 Drosophila melanogaster
94.
unreduced gamete (spore) - . ,
(
) , , ;
.. 2 I <first division restitution> II <second
division restitution>; (, .)
, ..
unscheduled DNA synthesis - "" . C ,
S- <S period>, (,
<zygotene DNA> , <repair> ..).
unselected markers - . (),
; ..

, ,
.
unstable mutation - . ,
; , ..
<controlling
elements>.
Unverricht-Lundborg disease - - (. myoclonus
epilepsia).
unwinding proteins - . 6 ,
dnaC, 6 - dnaB E.coli (
<helicase>),
<lagging strand> .
upstream - [] .
, .
, - , ..
upstream activator sequence, UAS - .
<promoter> ,
<upstream> ;
.. , ,
<enhancer> ;
GAL4, .., ,
, - , ..,
" " <zinc finger proteins>.
uracil - . ,
("" ), .
uracil fragments - . ,
, ;
..
E.coli.
uracil-DNA glycosidase - --. ,


; .--. -,
, , ,
.
Urbach-Wiethe disease - -, . ,
,
; ,
();
.
urease - [ 3.5.1.5]. ,
; . - ,
(., 1926).
urethan - . ,
.

uric acid - . K
.

uridine - . H, ( <uracil>)
().
URF = unidentified reading frames (.).
U1-RNA - U1-. O
( . 1 ) <snurps>,
165
,

; U1-
<splicing>.
uromodulin, Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein - . ,
; 2 .
( )
; . (UMOD)
p13.1-p12.3 16.
Usher syndrome - . , ,
. ; ; 2 .. - (
USH1) (USH2)
; USH2 q32 1,
USH1 1 .
Usn RNAs - <snurps> U.

( 60 400 ) ,
<spliceosome>
; 4 5 Usn- - U1
<U1-RNA>, U2, U4 U5 - 5'- <cap>,
.
uteroglobin, blastokinin - , . ,
,
;
. ( . - ) .
(, .
); , . ,
11.
UV = ultraviolet light (.).
UV reactivation - -. ,
, E.coli ( )
; -.
E.coli.

V
vacuole - . , ,
, ;
., ( ) .; .
()
., .
valine [Val] - []. - ;
, ; , , ,
.

valinomycin - . , <ionophores>,
.
Van der Hoeve syndrome - . ,
, ,
-
<collagen> <elastin>; (1 40-60 ).
Van der Woude syndrome - .
( ,
.), - ; VWS
q32-q41 1.

vancomycin
.

(C148H185Cl4N21O56), Streptomyces orientalis;


. ( - )
,
, . <penicyllin> .
.
variability = variation (.).
variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) locus -
. ,
;
<restriction endonucleases>
,
; VNTR
<microsatellites>.
variable part, V - []. N-
( ) <immunoglobulin>,
.
variable surface glycoproteins, VSG -
. B Trypanosoma brucei,
; 5-10 .
..., ,
-;
... <expression
center>; 100 , ...
variant - []. ,
"" (
<wild type>); , , .
.
variation, variability - .
,
, ;
, .,
.; . - ,

, <selection>.
variegated position effect - () .
<position effect>,
(
, , )
"";
<mosaicism>.
variegation - , . H
() - ..
(), (
..); .., ,

..; ..
(, ) ,
- ,
.; "variegation" = mosaicism (.).
variety = race (.).
vasopressin - , .
, ,
, .. -
.
vector - , . ()
, , <plasmid>,
( , )
- -,
<cloning vector>; . , ;
. - , -
(, - ..).
vector capacity - .
( . ),
<vector>, - ,
() - ..
24 . ( EMBL4 EMBL3 - 923 ., gt11 - 7 . ).
vegetative death - . ,
,
, - , Aspergillus glaucus, -
.. .
vegetative fertilization - .
<double fertilization> -
.
vegetative hemisphere - . H
, .
vegetative hybrid - () . ,
, ;
.. - ().
vegetative nucleus - .
( ) ,
<pollen tube>; .. =
<micronucleus> .
vegetative (cytoplasmic) petite - () "".
M ,
.
vegetative (latent) phage - . ,
, .. .
vegetative phase - . ( ,

" " <reproductive phase>)


"" -
; .. (= ) -
-
,
, -.
vegetative pole - . (),
; .. ,
,
.. ,
.. . ;
..
.
vegetative reproduction - . O
,
, ; ..
- a <budding>; ..
( )
( e , );
.. <regeneration>.
vehicle - "". <plasmid> ,
, .. "." = <vector>.
ventral canal cell - . K,
<neck cells>
o .
vermilion. P ;
vermilion - , ,
<tryptophan> (
<xanthommatin>).
vermilion plus substance - "vermilion".
<formylkynurenine>, (
); "+"-
"vermilion".
vernalization = jarovization (.).
verruca,
epidermodysplasia
verruciformis

,
.

,
,
.
versatile reproduction - .
, ,
.
vertical evolution = anagenesis (.).
vertical gene transfer - .

<horizontal gene
transfer>.
vertical variation - . (
<darwin>)
,
.
vesicular germ = blastula (.).
vestigial organ - , .
(
) , .
viability - . K ,
( ) .
() .
vicinism - . ,
.
vimentin - . C ,
<intermediate filaments> ,
( );
. 55 ; , .,
p13 10.
vinblastine
.
A

( Vinca rosea),
( <colchicine>).
vincristine - . A (
Vinca rosea), ,
<vinblastine>.
vinculin - . . ~120 ,

,
- F- ; .
10
. . ,
F-.
viral strand, (+) strand - , (+)-. O
(, 4),
<replicative form>; ..
.
viral-induced insertional mutagenesis - .
M, , ,
- ,
, <insertion>; ...
DBA/2J,
<Moloney leukemia virus>.
viral-specific
enzyme
-
.
,


-.
virgin birth = parthenogenesis (.).
virginal reproduction = parthenogenesis (.).
virion - . C ; "."
(.. -) .
virogeny - . , , ..
. ; ,
., <temperate phage>; .
<lysogeny> <transformation>.
viroid - . (, ),
(150-170 )
, -, "" ;
. ; .
, 7S- -,
,
, <signal
recognition particle>.
viroplasm - . M ,
.
virulence - . K
; .
- , 50%- , 50%-
.
virus - . ,
();
( ) . (
, ,
); "." . 1899.
virus morphogenesis - .
(),
(); ..
(), , ..
virus receptor - . ,
; ..
<neuraminic acid>.
Visconti-Delbruck hypothesis - -. T
,
-
, ;
. . 1953.
visible lethality - . ,
; ..

"", ,
, - ,
" ".
visible mutation - . M,
.
vital genes - . , , ..
, .
vital staining - . M
; ..
, <trypan blue> .
vitality mutations - . H ,
; ..
<semilethal mutation>, <sublethal mutation>
<supervital mutation>.
vitamin A = retinol (.).
vitamin B complex - .
, <thiamine> ( ) . (. ).
1
vitamin B2 = riboflavin (.).
vitamin B5 = pantothenic acid (.).
vitamin B9 = folic acid (.).
vitamin B12 = cobalamin (.).
vitamin B13 = orotic acid (.).
vitamin C = ascorbic acid (.).
vitamin D = calciferol (.).
vitamin D-binding factor = group-specific component (.).
vitamin-D-resistant rickets - -D- , -.
,
D;
<rickets> -
D.
vitamin H = biotin (.).
vitamin H1 = paraaminobenzoic acid (.).
vitamins - . ,
,
, <coenzymes>; .
<antimutagens>.
vitellogenesis - .
() ,
( ) (
- ).
vitellogenins - . ,
( - , -

, )
<vitellogenesis> .
vitellophages - . O
; .
.
vitronectin . ,

<extracellular
matrix>;

, , , ;

1, . .
, - III,
.
. RGD,
V3- ,
.
viviparity - . -
; . .
vivipary, viviparity - . ,
,
; .
. .
VNTR locus = variable number of tandem repeats locus (.).
voltinism - .
() <diapause>.
volutin - .
, (, );

; . .
von Willebrand disease - . ,
<von Willebrand factor>
, (
); ...:
I (70% ) ;
II, ,
2A, 2B, 2M 2N, 2A 2M
( 2A, 2M
); 2B
GPIb , 2N
VIII; III
.
von Willebrand factor - . ,
. 0,5-1,0 . .

GPIb
GPIIb/IIIa , VIII

; ;
... <von Willebrand disease>.
..., 12, 178 ... (52 ),
8,7 .., 2813
, (22 ), (741
) (2050 )
W
W chromosome - W-. ,
ZZ/ZW ( ), , ,
.; ( )
.
Waardenburg syndrome - . ,
,
, (
" "), ,
.; - , WS1
q34 9 (
q33-q37 2).
WAGR complex - WAGR ( Wilms tumor,
Aniridia, Genitourinary defect, mental Retardation). :
<Wilms tumor>, ,
<aniridia> ,
11 (
11p13) - t(4;11), t(11;14), t(11;22), del(11)(p13) .
Wahlund effect - . (
- <Hardy-Weinberg's law>)

,
<inbreeding>.
waist - . H <polytene
chromosome>, <interband>.
Wallace effect - . , ,

<reproductive isolation>.
walnout comb - . ,
RRPP, RRPp, RrPP, RrPp.
Watson-Crick's model - -, .
C 2
, ,

;

<semi-conservative replication>,
<transcription> ;

..-. . . 1953,
- 20 ,
34 , 3,4 .
Watson's rule - . ,
, ..
,
; ..

; . 1919.
weak (low-level) promotor - "" .
(. <down promotor mutation>), ,
.
"weak spot" - " ". <polytene
chromosome>, , ""
.., <endoreduplication>
; ".."
. 1935 - ".." 11
Drosophila melanogaster.
weaver. H ,
( wv
16, 21 , -
,
21 <Down
syndrome>).
weedicide = herbicide (.).
Weigle-reactivation = W-reactivation (.).
Weinberg method = sib method (.).
Weismannism - . .,
,
; .
<neodarwinism>.
Werdnig-Hoffmann amyotrophia - . , <amyotrophia>,
;
- ,
, q12-14
5; ...-. (
<cystic fibrosis>) - .
Werner syndrome - , . A
, , ;
.. <Rothmund syndrome> -
, ; .
Western blotting - -. M,
<Southern
blotting>

();
.-. .
white-footed mouse - . 1 (Peromyscus leucopus).
whole-arm transfer (translocation) - . X
,
; ...
; ...
<Robertsonian translocation>.
wide groove - (. groove).
wild type - . H
, "" ()
.
wild type gene - . H
().
Willinston's rule - . ,

,

.
Wilms tumor - . ,
1-3 1/10000,

; .. ,
WAGR <WAGR complex>,
p13 11.
Wilson disease - , - . ,

<ceruloplasmin>,
; - WND q14.2-q21 13.
wing dimorphism - [ ] (. brachyptery).
wing mutant - . M ( ,
, . ),
( , ,
..) - vestigial ( ), cut ( ), curly
( ), dichaete ( ) .
wing-spot test - .
<genotoxicity>,
Drosophila melanogaster -
( )
,
.
Wiskott-Aldrich
syndrome

-.
,

,
,

; WAS p11.23-p11.22 X-,

WASP . 56 ,

, ,
. C- WASP
Arp2/3, , GTP CDC42HsGTP, Rho-,
<podosome .>. CrcL WASP
syk,
. 100 WAS,
N- WASP.
wobble hypothesis - , "".
<multiple codon recognition>
<anticodon>
,
; ...

(- .); ...
<isoacceptor tRNA>; . 1953.
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome - -.
<contiguous gene syndromes>,
,
, , (" ")
.; 4 (4p15.1-pter,
4p16.1-pter .).
Wolman disease - . (

),

(
) ,
; LIPA
q24-q25 10.
W-reactivation, Weigle-reactivation - W-. <repair>,

( ), - ,
- E.coli ; W-.
- <UV reactivation>; "W-."
. 1975, . 1953.
Wright effect - .
; , .. = <gene drift>.
Wright's inbreeding coefficient = coefficient of inbreeding (.).

wyosine - . P , ; ,
, , .

X
x = basic number (.).
X chromosome - -. ,
XX/XY (- );
<multiple sex chromoso-mes> -.
- X1, X2 ..
xantha. , ,
<chloroplast>.
xanthine - . ,
; <uric
acid>.

xanthine oxidase - , [ 1.2.3.2].


, <xanthine>
<uric acid>,
; . - , 2 8 .
xanthinuria - . ,

<xanthine> , .
xanthommatin - . ()
, 2 <hydroxykynurenine>.
xaptogene = xaptonuon (.).
xaptonuon, xaptogene - (. potonuon).
xaptoprotein - . ,
; 1992 . . (
"" <xaptonuon>), . <lactate dehydrogenase> 4 (

- <crystallins>), - (-)
( 2-).
xenia - .
; . (. 1-
) (. 2- , ,
); . 1-
, ;
. - ,
.
xenogamy = open pollination (.).
xenogenetic translplantation = xenoplastic transplantation (.).
xenoparasite - . , (
), - ,
, ,
.
xenoplastic (xenogenetic) transplantation - ()
. T ,
( ,
).
xeroderma pigmentosum - . , ,
,
;
.. - XPA1, XPA2 XPAF ,
, 1, 9
15.
X-inactivation, random X-inactivation, lyonization - -.
- ,
<dosage compensation> -
; ()
-, -
(, Ornithorhynchus
paradoxus) - , -
Y-; , .-.
,
; 90- .
- , Gryllotalpa fossor.
X-inactivation center - - . , -
<X-inactivation>; -.. - , ( ) (

XIC

Pgk-1
() Phka (); .. -
XIST <.>.

Xi-specific transcript = XIST (.).


XIST, Xi-specific transcript. - <Xinactivation center>, (1991)
; XIST
.
X-linked hyperuricemia - - . ,
<uric acid> -

; .
X0-type (X0 sex-determining mechanism) - X0.
,
Y-,
Y; ...0 - .
X-ray resistance - .
, "--"
, .
X-ray sensitivity - .

, .
X-rays - . C (
) ( )
800 0,0001 1
1 ; ..
; . 1895.
XY female gonad dysgenesis = Swyer syndrome (.).
XY-type (XY sex-determining mechanism) - XY.
-
; ( ,
. , , ),
- Ginkgo biloba,
Rumex acetosa .; ...Y
.

Y
Y chromosome - Y-. ,
XX/XY ( ); (
) .
Y chromosome loops - Y-. X Y ( Drosophila hydei .),
" " <lampbrush
chromosomes> ; .Y-.
- , ,
, ,

; . 1965
Drosophila hydei 5
- "" (thread), "" (pseudonucleolus), " "
(tubular ribbons), "" (club) "" (noose).
YAC = yeast artificial chromosomes (.).
yeast - . 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae).
yeast artificial chromosomes, YAC - .
, ,

, (
)
(); ...
; ...
,
, <genomic library>.
yolk - , . P ,
; . , ,
, , ; .
<vitellogenesis>.
yolk nucleus - . M ,
,
; , .. ;
.. .
yolk sac - . O ,

,
,
,

; .
Y-suppressed lethal - Y- . C
, 0,
Y-.
Yunis-Varon
syndrome

-.
P
,
, .
; - ,
.

Z
Z chromosome - Z-. ,
ZZ/ZW .
Z form, zig-zag DNA - Z- []. (
- A- <A form>, B- <B form>, C- <C form>, D- <D form>)
,
, ,
()n; Z-.
: -

2'--, - -, -
3'--, - -;
1 - 12, 18 ; Z-.
in vivo (, ).
Z intron - Z-. <intron>, Z o ()n, - , - : -, Z-.
,
.
Z-DNA = zygotene DNA (.).
zeatin - . ( ) <cytokinins>.

zebrafish - . 1 (Brachydanio rerio).


zeins - . ,
, 50% ; .
.
Zellweger syndrome - . ,
;
7 q11 ( ZWS).
zero point mutations - . M,
, ..
.
zig-zag DNA = Z form (.).
Zimmermann cell fusion - . M
,
, ""
,

, ,
.
zinc finger proteins - " ". O : ,
, 2 1 : ,
""; .".."
Zfp (,
, Y, 11 8); .".."

<Kruppel gene>.
zipper-like stage - "-".
( ),

.
zona pellucida - . ,

; ..
, <acrosome>;
..
( . ) .
zona-free egg - , .
, <zona
pellucida> (, ),

( );
Mesocricetus auratus
- , , ,
. , ();
,
.
zoocenosis - . C
; . - .
zoochory - . ,
;

), (
), ( ).
zoogamete = planogamete (.).
zoosporangium - . O
, .
zoospore, planospore, ciliospore - , . O

, ; .
.
Z0-type (Z0 sex-determining mechanism) - Z0.
,
1, - 2 Z-;
ZW; .
ZW-type (ZW sex-determining mechanism) - ZW.
,
;
(), ,
, , .
zygogamy - . T ()

( - ) -

<zygospore>.
zygoneme = zygotene (.).
zygosome
.

""

I .
zygospore - . 2
; . -
.
zygote - . O - ,
; , .
; "." .
1902.
zygotene, zygoneme, synaptene - , , ,
. I (
<leptotene> <pachytene>),
().
zygotene DNA, Z-DNA - . H (,
- 0,3% ), I (
<zygotene>), S- <S period>; .
- ; .
. . 1966 Lilium sp.
zygotic induction - .
F--
F+ F--; .. .
. 1954.
zygotic lethal - . ,
,
( <haplophasic lethal>);
.. ,
.
zygotic meiosis - . M,
(
<zygogamy>).
zygotic selection - .
,
(
), , ,
.
"zygotic" sterility - "" . ,
(.
<"gonadic" sterility>).
zymogenes - . H ,
, <insulin> .
:

,
( <lysosome>
<metalloproteinases>),
( ,
).
e- <pre-sequence> <pro-sequence>
( )
( VII
).
1
,
1

Acetabularia - . P
, ( 2 ) -
.
;

, .
Agapornis - . P (Psittaciformes),
6 ,
; . - (
..).
Agrobacterium tumefaciens. ,
<gall>
, Ti- <Ti-plasmid>
.
Allium: A.cepa, A.sativum, A.fistulosum etc. (onion, leek, garlic) - . P -
,
Liliaceae ( , Alliaceae); 500 ,
;
A.cepa, -
( <clastogenicity>; .
<Allium-test>) . .
Ambystoma: A.tigrinum, A.mexicanum etc. - . X
( Caudata), p
- . ( - <axolotl> -
<neoteny>) .
1

, , ,
; ,
,
- - ; , 2 ,
, .

Amoeba proteus (amoeba) - . K ,



( 700 ),
;
.
Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) - . P
(Scrophulariaceae); A.majus

<multiple alleles>.
Apis mellifera (honey bee) - .
, 25
, 4 (
A.m.mellifera, A.m.ligustica, A.m.caucasica, A.m.carnica); ..
<arrhenotoky>,
, -
..;
.. <Africanized
honey bee>, ..
Arabidopsis thaliana - .
(Brassicaceae, Cruciferae),
-
, ,
. (
)
.
Artemia salina - . ( 1 )
(Branchipoda), ,
; . ;
(5n ),
Artemia parthenogenetica.
Ascaris: A.suum, A.lumbriocoides; Parascaris equorum (thread-worms, intestinal
worms) - . C ; ,
;
- (A.lumbricoides), (A. suum), .
(P.equorum); . <chromatin
diminution>.
Ascobolus immersus. -: <tetrad
analysis> .
Aspergillus - . P (Fungi Imperfecti);
; . ;
A.nidulans <parasexual
process>.
axolotl - . - (
, Ambystoma tigrinum),
<neoteny>; .

.
Bacillus: B.subtilis, B.cereus, B.natto, B.brevis, B. sterothermophilus etc. . A, -
; . ( B.subtilis)
<transformation> <transduction> .
; .
.
Biomphalaria (orb snail) - -.
( - B.glabrata),
(

);
-
; B.glabrata
<sperm sharing>.
Biston betularia (peppered moth) - . H
Geometridae, ; ..
<industrial melanism>
( B.b.carbonaria).
Bombyx mori (silkworm, silk moth) - , .
H

<Lepidoptera>,

( 4000
- <silk>); ..
<voltinism> (
); .. - ,
( ,
.).
Bonellia viridis - . ( ),
; ( - 7
1 , 3
) -
, , , .
Brachydanio rerio (zebrafish) - . (Cyprinidae),
; 80- .
(
- ,
- ).
Bracon hebetor [= Microbracon hebetor = Habrobracon juglandis] - .
( Hymenoptera),
<Ephestia kuehniella>;
( <arrhenotoky>.
Bryophyllum sp. - . P
(Crassulaceae); . ,

.

Caenorhabditis elegans. M : 2- .
. (
- 3,5 20o),
( ,
), ( ,
) .; C.elegans - 100 .
, 17%
, 5000-10000 (..
, ).
Carassius auratus (goldfish) - . P
(Cyprinidae);
<parthenogenesis> ( ); ..
.
Cavia porcellus (Guinea pig) - .
(Rodentia), ;

( .).
Cepaea: C.nemoralis, C.hortensis etc. - . P
Helicidae,
; .
( ) -
.
Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly) - .
Tephritidae, 200 ;
, ( ,
<polytene chromosomes>), -

Chironomus: Ch.tentans, Ch.thummi etc. - -, . P
( ); .-. (
)
; .-.
<polytene chromosomes> ( ,
<Balbiani ring>).
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii - .
(Volvocales), 2 ;
. 2-8 ,
<isogamy> <heterogamy>,
- <oogamy>; . - ,

.
Chlorella - . P (
20 ), 15 ,
<chloroplast>, 4-8 (16)
; ,


<photosynthesis>.
Colchicum: C.autumnale etc. - . P
(Liliaceae); ,
- <colchicine>.
Coprinus - . Agaricales (),
200 , ;
. - C.radiatus - ,
, .
Coturnix coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) - .
(Galliformes);
-
( ,
, .),
( , ) ..
Crepis: C.capillaris etc. - . P
(Compositae); C.capillaris -
(2n=6) (
).
Cricetulus griseus (Chinese hamster) - . M
(Rodentia);
, ,
- 2n=22; ..
,
, - ( ), V79 ( ), AS52 .;
..
.
Culex: C.pipiens etc. - . K
<Diptera>; - C.pipiens -
-
<polytene chromosomes>, .
Datura stramonium (Jimson weed) - . T
(Solanaceae), <alkaloids>; . ,
<polysomy>.
Dictyostelium discoideum. ( ,
), ; 2 , , ( ),
;
..
Diptera (dipteran insects) - []. O
; (
) ; .
(,

.),
<polytene chromosomes> .
Drosophila (fruit, vinegar flies) - . P ,
1000 , ; .
( 10
), (4
), ,
, ,
..;
. (
, D.melanogaster) .
Echinoidea - sea urchins - . K
, ;
, ( - ),
, 800 ..;

Paracentrotus
lividus,
Strongylocentrotus franciscanus ..
Ephestia kuehniella (meal moth) - . M
(Pyralidae),
-;
( );
..
Habrobracon juglandis <Bracon hebetor>.
Epilobium hirsutum (hairy willow-herb) - . M
(Onagraceae); ..
;
- E.angustifolium -
<dichogamy>.
Escherichia coli - , -. -
;
- 0,4-0,8 1-3 , ,
, ,
. ,
; ..
: .. -
.
Euglena: E.viridis etc. - . P
( .
); . ( )
.
Gallus domesticus (han, chicken) - , .
; ,
..;
.

Giardia = Lamblia (.).


Gossypium: G.hirsutum etc. (cotton) - . P - ( )
(Malvaceae),
, ;
35 - ( G.hirsutum, G.barbadense, G.arboreum)
-
.
Haplopappus - . P
(Compositae), ( );
H.gracilis,
- 2n=4.
Lamblia (= Giardia) - . ,

(
); 2 , ,
- ,
16S, .
<eukaryotes>.
Lebistes reticulatus [= Poecilia reticulata] (guppy) - . O
(Cyprinodontidae),
;
.;
. Y-
,
Y- . 1989 .
.
Leishmania: L.donovani etc. - . ()
,
<kinetoplast DNA>,
, - ;
(
) - L.donovani ( ).
Lucilia cuprina (Australian blowfly) - . H
<Diptera>, ;
<polytene chromosomes>
,
; . -
, <Strunnikov
scheme>.
Luzula - . P
(Juncaginaceae), ( );
80 ,
; . - ,
<holocentric chromosomes>.
Lymantria dispar (gypsy moth) - .

(Lymantriidae), ,
, ; .. .
Macaca
mulatta
[=
M.rhesus]
(rhesus
monkey)
-.
M ( ), ; .-.
- <rhesus factor>; .-.

.
Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly) - .
(Cecidomyiidae),
; - ,
.
Mesocricetus auratus (golden hamster) - . M
(Rodentia);
,

<zona-free egg>.
Mirabilis jalapa (four-oclock) - .
(aryophyllaceae);

()

<cytoplasmic inheritance>.
Mus: M.musculus, M.spretus etc. (mouse, pl. mice) - . P
(Rodentia);

,
( ,
M.musculus M.spretus );
M.musculus, M.domesticus M.molossinus
- ,
<hybrid zone>,
M.musculus M.domesticus ( . M.musculus musculus M.m.domesticus); (
<Robertsonian translocation>) M.musculus 40
.
Musca domestica (house fly) - . H
<Diptera>, ,
10-45 ;
( ),
<polytene chromosomes> .
Mycoplasma - . K ,
; , .
.
Naegleria
gruberi.

(
).
Nasonia vitripennis [= Mormoniella vitripennis] (parasitic wasp) -

. H ,
( Sarcophaga);

<parthenogenesis>, -
-.
Neurospora crassa (red bread mold) - , .
; -
<tetrad analysis>,
.
Nicotiana: N.tabacum, N.plumbaginifolium (tobacco) - . P
- (Solanaceae);
, ,
, ,
..
Notophthalmus viridescens - . Triturus.
Oryzias: O.latipes (medaka, ricefish) - . O
( )
(Cyprinodontidae) (
); 80- . .
( , ,
.),
( , ).
Oryctolagus cuniculus (rabbit) - . M
(Lagomorpha);
, ( )
, - (, .
<rabbit pseudogene>).
Paracentrotus lividus - . Echinoidea.
Paramecium: P.caudatum, P.aurelia, P.bursaria - , . P ( Ciliata),
( 300 ); 1
<macronucleus> 1 ; .
- (
), P. aurelia ( 14
- ),
<killer>.
Parthenium argentatum (guayule) - . ;
( );
,
.
Pelargonium: P.zonale etc. - . T
(Geraniaceae), - ,
; P.zonale
,
x .

Penicillum: P.notatum etc. (green mold) - , . P


, 250 ; . -
<antibiotics>, <penicillin>
( P.notatum P.chrysogenum).
Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse) - . M
, ,
;
- .
Phycomyces blakesleeanus. (
), , , 70 000 ;
,
.
Physarum polycephalum. ( )
( - ,
); 2 - Dictyoscelium
discoideum (.).
Pisum sativum (garden pea) - .
;
; .
., , .
Pleurodeles waltl - . Triturus.
Podospora
anserina.
-;

,
,
- ,
( 1983)
, ,
.
Pseudomonas: P.aeruginosa, P.putida etc. - . ,
, 1 ;
(
<lysogeny> ..)
.
Rana: R.pipiens, R.esculenta etc. (frogs) - . P
Ranidae; 200 ,
R.pipiens (,
, .) - .
; R.esculenta ( .)
- ,
R.ridibunda ( .) R.lessonae ( .).
Rattus: R.rattus, R.norvegicus (rats) - . P ,
;
; 2 . - R.rattus ( .) R.norvegicus

(, , ., ) -
( -
); (2n=38-42)
;
. Wistar Sprague-Dawley.
Rhyzobium (nodule bacteria) - , . ,
( Rhyzobium
3-4

-
,
.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast)
- . C , <mycelium>
;
500 .,
. (S.cerevisiae),
Sch.pombe ( <tetrad analysis>) .
.
Salmonella
.
P

-
, , 0,40,7 1-3 , . ;
S.typhimurium,
( <Ames test>);
<transduction>
S.typhimurium 22.
Schizophyllum commune. -;
, .
Schizosaccharomyces pombe - . Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Sciara coprophila (fungus gnat) - .
( Diptera), ; .. -
<polytene
chromosomes>.
Sordaria fumicola. -;
<gene conversion>.
Streptomyces - . -
; Streptomyces - 400 ; .

(
<streptomycin>,

<erythromycin> .).
Strongylocentrotus sp. - . Echinoidea.
Stylonychia. ,
; 2 <macronucleus>,
<endoreduplication>
() ;
S.lemnae -
( ).
Tetrahymena: T.thermophila, T.pyriformis - .

Ciliata ( );
, .
<autosplicing>,
<ribozymes>.
Tenebrio molitor - . Tribolium.
Toxoplasma gondii - . ,
; -
; ,
(), ,
;
T.gondii , ,
.
Tradescantia - .
(Commelinaceae), ;
T.virginica -
<Tradescantia-test>.
Tribolium: T.castaneum, T.confusum; Tenebrio molitor (mealworms) -
. (Tenebrionidae),
( - );
(
T.castaneum 120 ) .
Triturus:
T.alpestris,
T.cristatus,
T.marmoratus;
Pleurodeles
waltl;
Notophthalmus viridescens (newts) - .
( Caudata);
<lampbrush chromosomes>;
P.waltl - , . 1968
: D- <D loops>, - <M loops>,
<globular loops> .
Trypanosoma brucei - . ()
( <kinetoplast DNA>;
, , - .
(, Leishmania <.>);
. , .
Ustilago: U.maydis, U.violacea etc. (smut) - . ,
- ; 4-, ,
,
; Ustilago ,
, .
Vicia faba [= Faba bona] (horse bean) - []. C

(Fabaceae);
( <clastogenicity>)
(2n=12);
. .

Xenopus: X.laevis - . P (
Anura), 12 , ; .. ( ,
X.laevis) - (
, - ..).
Xiphophorus: X.helleri, X.maculatus, X.xiphidium . (platyfish, swordtail) . A (Cyprinodontidae);

( -
, <macromelanophores>).
Zea mays (maize) - . O
(Graminae),
( - , - );
( ); . - (,
- <activator-dissociation system>
..); - , lazy maize, shrunken
kernel (.).
_

[] 225
= (.) 165
= (.) 166
237
"" 237
237
= (.) 79
= (.) 18
= (.) 73
163
163
188
65
37
228
68
242
163
155
222
109
124
124
147
= (.) 96
- .
= -- (.)
41
109
= (.) 116
= (.) 249
109
109
= (.) 15
= (.) 164
109
109
"" 41
164
124
- .
167
167
164
= (.) 11

167
165
164
164
164
164
164
167
116
123
123
"" 121
"" 121
"" 254
27
254
= (.) 69
167
165
= (.) 26
165
165
139
I 165
II 165
165
"" 165
165
123
167
- .
- .
- 121
167
167
101
164
81
- .
164
160
165
165
165
164
= (.) 63
= (.) 213

167
= (.)
167
- .
139
223
180
123
123
= (.) 104
"" 123
165
155
40
55
[] 55
51
= (.) 156
123
123
= (.) 123
141
254
254
in situ = in situ (.)
88
45
47
= (.) 165
129
129
254
167
167
167
66
- .
254
[] 239
33
= (.) 186
168
- .
255
125
257
122

= (.) 50
= (.) 167
"" 218
257
247
167
85
= (.) 229
165
166
165
166
166
- 165
166
170
166
170
- .
166
166
4--1- 166
166
"" 245
= (.) 234
231
165
166
168
165
167
- 168
167
- 167
- 168
- 168
168
168
168
= (.) 184
168
168
[ ] 37
168
169
153
= (.) 9

169
169
170
170
169
169
169
= (.) 134
170
170
170
170
170
30
= (.) 30
170
170
= (.) 228
170
170
170
170
170
170
170
= (.) 170
- .
168
168
- .
171
129
= (.) 58
= (.) 251
" " 231
= (.) 63
= (.) 89
81
81
87
60
79
217
38
= (.) 41

" " 214


28
128
85
214
214
"" 211
- .
246
= (.) 168
95
229
229
"" 52
175
- .
175
175
176
212
231
226
= (.) 101
- - . -

86
158
158
20
254
= (.) 55
254
= (.) 180
254
254
158
254
254
254
- .
- .
172
172
228
= (.) 165
158
71

= (.) 71
171
176
182
[] 63
133
146
86
233
100
55
176
6- = (.) 119
176
176
176
171
171
171
201
172
172
172
172
172
172
172
172
172
172
172
133
172
172
172
172
172
173
173
- .
= (.) 8
"" 173
173
173
173
173
173

173
173
221
- 173
173
139
173
86
a 173
173
173
= (.) 172
= (.) 165
261
188
9
174
174
174
174
" " 135
174
174
"" 226
- .
174
= (.) 174
260
174
174
174
- 174
174
174
175
175
175
175
175
175
= (.) 175
174
125
210
254
175
- .

234
[] 30
146
146
= (.) 246
29
30
= (.) 21
212
210
= (.) 97
175
- .
138
10
231
184
201
59
= (.) 222
= "" (.) 198
= (.) 127
= (.) 127
19
71
65
"" 173
173
173
173
173
210
210
210
- .
23
238
= (.) 7
164

164
164
= (.) 175
250
= (.) 46
138

167
40
[] 210
- 171
48
123
56
155
155
178
178
"" 217
= "" (.) 217
178
178
178
178
178
178
178
178

30
41
178
178
= (.) 178
178
179
179
179
36
226
179
= (.) 178
179
179
179
= (.) 199
179
179
179
179
179
179

179
179
179
179
179
= (.) 113
179
179
179
178
178
180
179
- .
180
177
180
180
180
180
180
= (.) 27
"" 180
180
180
- .
180
180
180
= (.) 180
= (.) 180
= (.) 177
177
177
177
= (.) 213
" " 186
181
181
181
181
181
181
181
181
181
181

182
181
182
182
182
183
194
194
194
= (.) 40
[ ] 195
195
- .
195
194
194
194
195
194
194
195
195
[] 87
87
84
= [ ] (.) 139
117
141
48
= (.) 43
58
173
"" 57
175
175
175
175
175
247
"" 82
38
= (.) 257
225
76
55
260
= (.) 236

182
182
= (.) 182
182
182
G0 92
G1 92
G2 92
S 219
125
[] 104
[] 148
= (.) 209
59
182
182
182
= (.) 20
182
182
182
= [] (.) 83
182
182
182
182
182
"" 182
182
10
182
183
- = (.) 237
= (.) 153
183
182
186
186
= (.) 257
"" 183
Y- 264
142
= (.) 213
263
213
223

201
186
= (.) 87
186
= (.) 186
186
201
-3- = (.) 166
201
201
201
202
-G = -Y (.) 202
-Y 202
202
170
85
= (.) 118
150
35
33
= (.) 39
186
= (.) 39
186
186
235
186
"" 186
187
187
187
187
187
186
186
187
187
186
187
187
187
187
187
= (.) 160
186
= (.) 266

186
187
187
"" 187
187
88
187
187
187
= (.) 156
186
= (.) 113
187
= (.) 187
= (.) 187
187
187
187
"" 23
45
29
88
[] 90
112
85
90
187
191
188
- = - (.) 125
= (.) 226
, 150
209
211
210
209
- .
205
33
209
58
140
236
128
"copia" 56
218
= (.) 248

- 43
188
54
147
138
"" 138
138
- 138
=
(.) 152
138
138
192
192
192
192
192
192
= (.) 140
188
222
95
222
212
212
193
225
189
189
189
189
= (.) 161
189
189
= (.) 190
189
189
190
189
189
189
190
189
189
- 189
190
190

190
190
190
217
190
190
190
190
190
190
213
190
190
[] 190
190
190
190
= (.) 190
190
= (.) 190
190
191
191
191
191
= (.) 191
191
191
= (.) 157
191
191
191
191
191
191
191
191
= (.) 187
191
= (.) 187
191
189
189
= (.) 161
189
190
189

53
""
- . .
"" 53
53
53
- .
52
53
53
53
91
91
= - (.) 33
= (.) 53
= (.) 226
= (.) 97
226
226
225
226
226
= F- (.) 84
225
226
226
225
225
113
= (.) 126

192
189
= (.) 104
104
224
103
= (.) 223
223
223
223
224
= (.) 224
106
104
104

103
224
104
= (.) 242
103
= (.) 44
64
188
188
[] 188
40
= (.) 193
188
188
188
= (.) 188
188
188
- = (.) 116
113
= (.) 177
58
72
191
192
192
192
192
= (.) 96
191
191
- 89
192
245
192
245
245
34
192
192
40
[] 187
[] 195
- 224
59
- 226
192

( ) 193
182
- .
- = (.) 33
182
= (.) 192
192
192
192
192
193
97
" " 143
94
196
122
193
35
35
8
14
31
98
- 101
63
132
71
56
-- 140
30
217
261
260
105
103
41
226
156
66
- .
195
193
198
= (.) 148
193
194
18

18
" " 146
18
85
175
= - (.) 121
=
(.) 63
[] = [] (.) 8
193
194
" " 194
194
194
194
194
155
= (.) 222
194
- .
194
- 194
194
194
194
= (.) 194
194
194
= (.) 194
69
68
" " 201
68
[] 193
193
193
193
193
100
= (.) 11
= (.) 11
11
258
41
" " 227
- .
195

195
195
() 160
24
= (.) 94
" " = "" (.) 87
"" 87
22
22
195
164
164
= (.) 164
87
- .
178
44
195
195
41
198
"" 257
196
196
= (.) 261
196
196
196
161
" " 47
"" - .
142
195
65
" " 174
196
199
196
196
-4- 196
196
- 196
196
196
127
126
126

- .
= (.) 127
[] 126
196
196
196
196
197
197
197
231
182
197
2- = (.). 9
197
197
- . .
248
197
228
- .
197
= (.) 198
197
197
197
198
198
198
- .
= (.) 197
= (.) 198
198
123
198
198
= (.) 195
198
198
- .
198
198
198
- .
198
198
198

88
198
197
197
197
195
196
= (.) 45
195
195
195
207
245
= (.) 181
146
"" 132
" " 46
"" 89
68
89
187
= (.) 17
= (.) 168
68
68
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
199
= (.) 204
199
200
199
199
205
199
199
199
= (.) 13
199
199
199
199

199
200
200
200
200
"" 199
200
200
200
200
199
199
200
200
199
199
199
"" 200
200
200
= (.) 88
= (.) 112
"" 35
201
91
201
- 201
201
201
200
200
- 181
20
188
188
188
188
188
214
151
62
162
80
114
205

205
= (.) 205
205
206
205
206
205
205
206
= (.) 206
206
206
206
206
206
206
206
205
206
206
206
206
206
"" 34
105
114
= (.) 100
66
246
66
142
192
87
197
31
= (.) 111
69
69
212
28
= (.) 69
" " 253
169
37
206
"" 74

74
74
- = (.) 218
205
"" = (.) 134
253
155
255
"" 91
"--" 227
[] 72
[] 255
127
35
69
233
[] 32
147
64
216
= (.) 247
= (.) 139
= (.) 186
= (.) 220
163
163
147
82
46
63
222
D- 69
232
"" 232
207
216
- .
220
38
- 116
234
= (.) 86
208
214
= (.) 225
= (.) 214
= (.) 214

214
214
214
214
210
210
- .
[, ] 129
210
210
= - (.)
= (.) 15
210
[] 210
"" 216
= (.) 53
207
"" 207
207
= (.) 176
209
209
93
63
[] = (.) 93
= (.) 211
209
= (.) 246
212
212
- 214
210
210
208
208
208
208
209
209
208
209
209
= (.) 222
209
209
209
= (.) 209

209
209
210
210
210
= (.) 173
210
210
- . .
211
217
263
206
211
211
211
= (.) 211
211
" " 141
142
226
"--" 59
211
211
211
211
211
= (.) 211
= (.) 73
211
- = - (.) 252
- = " " (.) 217
- 252
= (.)
217
212
212
211
= (.) 29
212
212
79
212
212
212
212

212
= (.) 32
- .
47
212
212
- .
221
87
213
213
213
= (.) 213
213
213
212
213
213
213
213
214
77
214
213
213
214
214
214
208
208
258
208
208
208
208
208
208
208
208
208
208
208
208
208
201
215
216

215
215
D 215
P 215
1 215
215
215
215
215
215
215
215
216
215
215
-1,5-/ 218
216
- = - (.) 210
- 210
57
216
= (.) 215
= (.) 215
- = (.) 10
- = - (.) 216
- - = (.) 214
- - 217
- 195
- 216
- = (.) 148
- 216
- - .
- SP6 230
- = - - (.) 217
- = - (.) 216
- = - - (.) 217
- 216
= (.) 215
217
217
217
217
97
179
179
179
214

181
181
32
- 214
217
- 214
" " 47
101
217
- 214
= (.) 215
257
"" 102
= (.) 55
= - (.) 110
228
125
211
= (.) 125
25
- 250
213
= - (.) 226
- 229
- 229
219
146
85
223
"" [] 223
= (.) 223
= (.) 25
223
"" 223
223
24
223
223
223
- . .
220
220
220
220
220

220
159
- 230
66
" " 236
236
29
29
29
= (.) 24
33
175
26
237
= (.) 152
= (.) 152
[ ] 70
175
90
253
207
225
87
251
222
= (.) 152
29
= (.) 221
222
222
= (.) 208
178
222
222
97
243
222
224
224
224
221
225
= (.) 251
[] 221
221
223
"" [] 223

222
223
223
222
222
= - (.)
222
222
222
85
90
85
= - (.) 112
- 85
85
50
223
243
223
223
= (.) 167
222
= (.) 176
176
224
224
224
224
= (.) 56
225
225
= (.) 160
237
237
- .
225
237
225
225
227
72
= (.) 106
= (.) 63
228
228
228
228

213
224
147
227
59
227
"" 227
- 227
- 227
= (.) 139
= (.) 227
238
238
238
"" 238
95
, 238
238
134
= (.) 182
238
238
238
238
238
238
228
WAGR 260
228
239
239
239
= (.) 47
= (.) 266
239
239
= "" (.) 33
239
239
= (.) 86
239
239
239
239
239
239
7

231
15
29
- 30
- 31
- - .
33
260
256
256
261
- 261
- 261
= - (.) 31
99
99
100
101
- 229
116
= (.) 93
72
63
225
67
71
- 71
- 73
- 138
132
131
= (.) 133
= (.) 124
14
- 134
135
- 50
" " 38
- 57
- 138
= " " (.) 38
142
- 139
- 140
- 89
- = - (.) 25
- 148

147
147
- = - (.) 89
147
157
151
= (.) 90
165
- 163
13
171
- 178
180
181
- - .
181
- 193
207
216
- 216
217
- 217
- 218
- 218
- 228
-- 228
-- 229
- 229
234
238
251
= (.) 243
" D" = (.) 180
" " = (.) 75
1
- 249
= (.) 251
-
255
90
103
- 114
265
- 42
= - (.) 229
-- - .
- = (.) 251

75
19
12
- 75
- 264
132
ICF 120
55
239
239
- .
239
239
166
239
= (.) 143
239
= (.) 10
239
239
39
239
239
239
= (.)
- 10
213
29
148
241
239
141
82
[] 229
220
219
= (.) 207
" " 88
220
220
220
" " 132
= (.) 210
81
34
227
183

[ ] 221
= (.) 193
128
58
= (.) 58
= (.) 58
74
= (.) 77
" " 260
143
120
"" 260
143
- .
[] 234
33
39
266
198
212
46
169
" " 95
= (.) 244
- = - (.) 25
53
53
53
53
- .
207
[] 207
[] 207
8
207
159
196
156
= (.) 33
157
248
41
" " = - (.) 165
[] 168
224
229
52

49
= (.) 46
[] 132
148
55
= (.) 246
55
= (.) 46
230
230
230
230
230
230
230
230
= (.) 156
230
257
= (.) 156
230
= (.) 68
230
230
= (.) 199
230
= (.) 101
= (.) 101
230
242
= (.) 23
225
/ 217
55
230
59
47
30
53
91
116
= (.) 229
229
"-" 230
231
231
54

30
147
230
161
231
231
231
231
231
231
231
= (.) 231
231
221
195
231
231
"" 231
231
- .
= (.) 231
- .
231
12
- 261
= (.) 46
= (.) 54
50
232
50
-- 105
232
232
- 232
232
232
232
233
232
232
- .
= (.) 232
233
233
233
220
"" 63

149
[] 78
237
EMB 76
MS 159
149
" " = (.) 56
26
78
233
233
233
"" = "" (.) 33
= (.) 68
"-" 266
169
212
194
= (.) 266
55
" " = (.) 177
" " = (.) 139
34
233
12
"" 224
233
233
233
233
233
- .
234
"" 234
234
147
234
234
= (.) 179
= (.) 186
234
= (.) 222
234
234
234
- .
- = (.) 242

224
234
234
234
235
235
235
-90 235
235
235
235
235
235
= (.) 159
235
55
235
246
233
234
236
236
235
235
235
236
235
235
235
= (.) 224
236
236
236
236
236
115
111
236
18
236
236
236
236
236
89
236
236

236
= (.) 23
237
237
Q 203
237
237
237
237
237
= (.) 152
= (.) 152
237
237
237
237
237
100
237
238
" " = - (.) 229
232
231
"" 231
232
232
232
220
= (.) 228
141
225
132
- 25
- 263
226
XY- 25
" " 115
33
33
CREST 57
""- 219
= (.) 59
241
= (.) 241
244

- 244
244
240
240
241
240
240
241
30
241
241
241
- = (.) 113
241
241
241
240
241
244
244
244
241
244
= (.) 244
241
242
241
242
242
= (.) 242
242
242
= (.) 242
242
242
241
241
241
123
= (.) 225
= (.) 215
62
= (.) 62
= (.) 63
150
= (.)
"" 98

244
10
= (.) 94
" " 147
90
251
= (.) 38
56
241
"-" 194
87
= "" (.) 165
" - " 172
" - " 172
" - " 172
173
172
113
" " 193
193
209
254
= (.) 173
244
105
242
242
242
= (.) 146
242
242
43
242
242
242
242
242
242
243
41
242
242
244
244
- .
243
52

196
261
6- 244
16
243
- = (.) 243
- 243
243
243
= (.) 203
243
243
243
243
= (.) 14
243
243
243
243
80
244
244
= (.) 203
245
245
245
245
245
4- 244
148
Antirrhinum 21
Bryonia 35
Carex 21
Chrysanthemum 21
Lygaeus 35
Pinus 21
Protenor 35
252
252
252
252
245
252
252
252
= (.) 36
245

252
252
113
112
245
245
- 241
.. = (.) 134
246
246
246
246
246
246
244
87
246
246
- .
246
II = - (.)
246
244
246
246
246
246
25
[] 174
[] 243
232
= (.) 211
188
193
... - .
55
= (.) 248
247
- 246
249
249
249
247
247
247
247
247

247
246
247
247
= (.) 173
247
, 57
in vitro 122
248
248
248
248
38
221
261
248
248
, 117
in vitro 122
60
= (.) 54
248
248
248
100
169
248
248
248
248
- 246
, 57
= (.) 247
- 248
248
247
247
247
247
= (.) 111
247
231
= (.) 225
247
247
- = (.) 10

= (.) 182
249
249
245
249
245
= [ ] (.)
139
243
243
244
249
249
249
249
245
250
249
250
[] 249
249
249
249
249
250
249
= (.) 50
250
250
251
251
- 250
250
250
250
250
250
-100 250
249
249
249
247
- 250
- 250
249
249
249

243
250
= (.) 198
187
250
[] = (.) 115
250
250
250
250
250
" " 251
251
251
33
251
147
134
233
233
- .
105
[] 105
105
"" = "" (.) 134
253
= (.) 68
76
- 253
167
"" 135
209
"--" 30
"" 250
= (.) 8
= (.) 8
253
253
253
155
242
= (.) 120
254
254
254

[] 167
[] 177
in vitro 122
255
-- 255
255
255
255
255
238
[] 207
146
255
125
54
54
= (.) 37
180
= (.) 246
20
206
133
73
181
263
234
255
= (.) 253
- 255
85
= (.) 29
13 145
80 184
174 184
138
183
183
183
183
183
183
183
183
212

183
183
184
170
- 183
184
183
84
- = - (.) 227
= IF3 (.) 69
52
146
[] 247
243
187
= - (.) 214
148
= R- (.) 205
160
= F- (.) 84
259
103
61
224
76
G = (.) 248
eIF2 75
IF1 121
IF2 121
IF3 69
21
124
210
= (.) 210
247
86
- = (.) 187
240
- .
174
84
84
183
183
85
- 86
86

86
184
184
184
184
184
184
184
184
184
- .
184
184
184
184
184
184
184
183
183
135
- = - (.) 70
= - (.) 70
= (.) 262
86
78
78
79
184
86
86
86
86
86
86
- 86
86
86
86
86
86
86
185
186
- .
- .
186

186
= (.) 216
- .
211
185
86
87
87
58
87
87
= (.) 56
185
- 87
= (.) 185
- .
- .
185
185
185
87
- .
186
186
186
- 87
- 88
88
87
[ ] 87
88
88
88
88
in situ 88
88
88
184
88
88
= (.) 62
- . .
[] 51
89
89
89
89

89
- 88
97
- = -D- (.) 258
= - (.) 166
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
185
53 185
185
177
185
185
185
185
185
185
135
90
90
[] 226
168
90
172
185
89
90
185
90
90
90
- .
90
91
= (.) 220
91
= (.) 91
91
91
91
[] 91
91

91
91
= -- (.) 48
91
89
41
41
-() = (.) 189
105
43
43
113
43
43
33
43
= (.) 200
43
[] 42
42
= - (.) 148
- .
43
[] 43
[ ] 42
47
43
43
43
43
44
= (.) 43
44
44
44
43
= (.) 63
115
- 12
- . .
44
44
44
= (.) 113
"" = (.) 143

51
51
120
53
114
"" 128
44
44
= (.) 156
44
115
116
- 44
44
44
44
"" 160
44
44
44
45
45
"" 44
44
45
45
"" 45
- 45
45
178
45
= (.) 154
45
45
45
3 45
45
45
220
"Philadelphia" 184
45
47
46
46
47
46

45
[] 47
= (.) 46
46
46
= (.) 233
47
47
46
= (.) 90
47
46
46
46
47
46
= (.) 169
29
219
" " 138
neoXY 165
- .
45
47
51
88
- 57
-137 41
39
50
= (.) 76
69
122
154
40
43
40
40
188
40
40
40
64
236
41

40
= (.) 217
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
41
40
41
76
234
(+) = (.) 258
(-) = 52
41
41
41
= (.) 92
59
= (.) 249
249
59
59
59
59
60
60
60
60
47
47
- - . -
- 48
- 48
48
- 48
60
60
60
60
" " 60
60
60

60
-- 48
48
60
61
61
61
61
127
116
61
61
= (.) 61
61
61
61
61
- . .
= in situ (.) 122
61
61
61
61
= (.) 146
61
"" = "" (.) 257
61
61
61
61
61
= (.) 61
61
60
3 = (.) 60
60
60
60
-450 60
48
48
- 158
227
- 59

180
224
180
254
254
180
= (.) 180
= (.) 123
= (.) 151
- - . -
94
97
161
= (.) 161
211
= (.) 209
90
15
142
226
"" 246
- = (.)
204
89
"" 141
251
45
"" 201
201
"" 201
224
238
263
224
13
112
= - (.) 70
29
164
228
228
220
139
" " 28
235

"" 188
""- 227
"" 103
234
Hfr 111
13
13
= (.) 124
81
81
" " 81
81
81
"" 121
80
= (.) 192
80
80
74
81
81
- .
82
82
- .
- .
- .
82
82
III 82
IV 82
V 82
82
82
= (.) 75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75
75

= (.) 165
75
75
75
75
75
82
"Pajamo" 178
82
= (.) 245
82
82
82
82
82
94
83
= (.) 188
83
82
""- 82
83
81
= (.) 62
81
75
75
75
75
76
76

= (.) 128
76
76
- 76
76
76
64
189
= (.) 32
76
45
46
76
76
76

76
76
76
= (.) 76
76
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
- .
- .
- .
- .
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
78
= (.) 134
78
78
78
77
77
184
79
= (.) 79
78
171
78
78
78
78
79
79
79
- .
79
= (.) 251

79
79
= (.)
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
79
80
- .
= (.) 191
= (.)
= (.) 244
80
= (.) 80
80
80
80
11
80
80
80
= (.) 80
209
80
= (.)
80
81
81
= (.) 80
81
81
= (.) 226
= (.) 229
80
= (.) 17
81
81
81
81
= (.) 130
81
81

81
81
= (.) 26
81
80
197
29
" " 33
260
109
" " 113
73
234
38
140
143
89
192
261
211
260
103
- 220
75
75
75
125
- .
75
75
75
"" 132
132
" " = NADH- (.) 163
" " 112
181
169
169
= (.) 80
- 169
- 170
168
169

169
168
= (.) 170
"" 169
169
170
" " = (.) 134
I 168
169
170
173
98
251
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169
- .
169
169
169
169
175
175
175
175
= (.) 176
, 266
176
= (.) 192
18
- = - (.) 16
132
- [] 7
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Ad- 10
g- = (.) 22
l- 15
Allium- 14
Alu- 16
Ap- 21
AP- 22
--- 23
AP- 21
att- = (.) 25
- 33

"-" 30
- [] 28
- 28
BA- 28
Bam- 29
Bkm- 32
- 36
- 38
- = (.) 37
- 36
- 36
- 36
- [] 36
CAT- 38
CBG- 38
Cd- 38
chi- = - (.) 43
chi- 43
"clock"- 49
cos- 57
cro- 57
D- 62
D- = (.) 69
D- = (.) 69
D- [] 62
dcm- 63
EMB- 76
F- = (.) 225
F- 84
F- 84
F+- = (.)
F-- = (.) 85
F- = F- (.) 84
F'- 84
F'- = F'- (.) 84
fre- 90
G- 94
G- 92
G11- 94
G- 101
GAG- 92
GBI- 94
GTG- 101
- 103
H2- 103
- 105

HKG- 113
HMG- 113
HTF- = - (.) 57
H-Y- 116
i- 131
I- 121
IS- 129
IS- 129
IS5- 129
j- 132
- 133
k- = - (.) 133
kringle- 136
Ku- 136
L- 137
lac- = (.) 138
LMG- 142
- 145
- 148
N-- = - (.) 8
N- 163
N- 164
N- 168
N6- 166
N6- = (.) 166
N--N'--N- = (.) 166
N- = (.) 89
NADH- 163
O- = (.) 230
O- 171
opa- 173
- 177
- - . ---
- 188
POU- 193
psi- 200
PSR- 200
Q- 203
QFH- 203
QFQ- 203
R- 207
r- 205
R- 216
R- 205
R- = - (.) 210
RBG- 207

RBI- 207
RDS- 207
Re- 208
rec-- 208
RecA- 208
rep- = (.) 105
RFA- 214
RHG- 214
Ri- 214
RI- 214
RI*- 214
S- = (.) 223
S- 219
S- 219
sad- 219
SAT- 220
SD- 221
sdi- 221
SOS- 230
SOS- 230
SOS- 230
Spm- 232
spot- 233
SR- = (.) 232
T- 240
T- 241
t- 244
T- 241
T- 240
T- 245
T- = TH- (.) 243
TC- 241
TDH- 241
TH- 243
TS- 251
T- 230
Ti- 245
Tradescantia- 246
U1- 255
W- 251
W- 260
X- 263
- 262
- = - (.) 25
Y- 264
Y- 264

Y- 220
Z- 265
Z- [] 265
Z- 265

7
7
8
7
7
7
7
7
7
- .
8
7
8
7
8
20
25
25
25
26
25
25
= (.) 206
=
(.) 206
26
= (.) 211
= (.) 211
26
26
= (.) 7

26
12
12
"" 12
12
12
12
12
12
= [] (.) 234
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
"" 12
10
10
10
10
10
10
= (.) 124
10
11
11
11
= (.) 190
10
10
10
11
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11

11
11
= (.) 11
- 11
11
90
8- 26
27
27
5- 26
27
27
27
166
166
B 27
8
22
= (.) 178
= (.) 8
8
8
9
9
= (.) 9
9
9
= (.) 9
9
9
9
= (.) 204
9
9
9
9
26
- .
26
26
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10
16
94
10
255
= (.) 16

10
9
D 9
10
8
= (.) 8
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13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
13
14
14
= (.) 13
= (.) 14
14
14
14
13
13
- 14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
14
15
14
14
- .
= (.) 14
14
14
14
14
14
= (.) 189
= (.) 189

15
15
15
15
15
15
= (.) 17
15
15
15
14
14
14
= (.) 29
13
13
13
= (.) 220
13
13
13
13
15
15
15
15
16
- 15
- 15
- 15
- = (.) 15
- 15
15
15
16
= - (.) 15
- 16
16
16
16
17
17
18
= (.) 18
- .
16
16

16
- 16
-- 16
16
16
- 16
16
17
18
-- 41
17
17
17
17
= (.) 17
17
17
= (.). 63
= (.) 11
17
17
17
= (.) 17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
- . .
18
18
252
243
18
29
18
18
18

18
18
18
18
18
18
18
18
19
19
19
19
" " 18
18
18
18
19
19
19
18
18
19
19
18
19
= - (.) 244
85
= (.) 19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
= (.) 110
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
19
18
19

20
= (.) 181
= (.) 155
20
20
20
= (.) 194
20
20
20
20
20
20
21
20
Dantu 62
Henshaw 108
= (.) 79
20
= (.) 257
20
20
20
21
= (.) 21
21
21
21
21
21
, 86
20
= (.) 21
21
21
21
21
21
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20
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20
20
20
21
= (.) 11
22

21
21
21
21
= (.) 22
22
= (.) 22
22
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22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
22
100
245
= (.) 22
22
22
22
22
22
23
23
22
22
23
23
- .
23
23
23
23
23
23
= (.) 23
23
23

22
22
22
22
24
= (.) 178
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
= (.) 24
24
23
23
23
23
24
24
24
24
24
24
[] 24
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"--" 78
o 168
169
24
24
= (.) 24
24
- 25
24
/ 24
= (.)
25
= (.) 14
25
25
25
25
25
25

= (.) 11
- = (.) 11
26
26
26
26
26
25
34
175
= (.) 175
= (.) 25
25
25
25
25
25
26
25
25
= (.) 25
25
25
26
26
= (.) 111
26
26
26
= (.) 211
= (.) 211
26
26
= (.) 26
26
26
26
223
26
26
21
11
12
21
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20
8

8
9
89
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9
9
= (.) 232
= (.) 178
8
8
8
8
-- 8
- 8
8
8
8
8
= (.) 178
10
11
= (.) 135
30
30
30
30
28
29
29
= (.) 28
29
29
29
29
96
[ ] 29
= (.) 97
29
30
30
28
123
78
21
30

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, 105
52
[ ] 143
"" 207
24
, 70
, 200
235
105
" " 266
- .
198
198
197
- 30
- 41
- 38
- - . "", .
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C 198
D7 62
S-100 219
SSB = , (.) 228
= (.) 70
[] 30
6- 30
= (.) 112
98
39
23
23
123
= - (.) 167
245
- 31
- 31
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= (.) 97
32
32
32
31
31
31
31
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31
- . .
- . .
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= (.) 31
"" 31
31
31
232
31
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
32
31
31
31
= (.) 32
31
32
= (.) 31
31
32
32
32
= (.) 253
= (.) 165
32
33
33
33
49
251
251
251
[] 254
33
= - (.) 230
" " 195
88
186
186

23
144
= (.) 139
194
240
113
36
= (.) 10
- = (.) 175
16
18
31
261
- = - (.) 109
261
109
- 112
98
93
= (.) 152
62
= (.) 72
65
222
37
218
= (.) 89
= (.) 12
135
44
139
- 148
- .
- 147
151
- = (.) 232
159
- 166
168
168
= (.) 179
180
- = (.) 9
= (.) 177
- 181
191
= I (.) 165

209
- = (.) 160
219
220
229
- 235
241
- 241
244
= (.) 90
- 255
- 255
84
85
= (.) 184
259
89
103
104
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112
113
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= (.) 93
"I-" 120
261
- 138
33
G- 33
101
235
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- 33
34
33
33
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= (.) 93
34
5- 34
59
80
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257
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= (.) 79
35
35
35
35
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230
74
= (.) 35
207
207
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29
= (.) 45
31
257
256
256
256
256
[] 256
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256
[] 256
184
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= (.) 77
257
257
257
257
257
257
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"" 257
257
257
261
257
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97
[] 232
257
257
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- 261
"vermilion" 257
H 103
162
162
94
[ ] 135
259
231
258
258
231
231
231
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- 227
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= (.) 245
258
258
258
258
= (.) 98
261
258
258
258
258
258
258
258
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147
[] 140
7
100
101
135
85
148
157
207
90
143
38
40 228

226
217
104
224
245
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SV40 = 40 (.) 228
49
258
- 105
- 258
258
= (.) 213
1 = (.) 244
2 = (.) 215
B3 = (.) 166
5 = (.) 178
6 = (.) 201
9 = (.) 88
12 = (.) 49
13 = (.) 174
= (.) 23
D = (.) 36
= (.) 246
= (.) 32
H1 = (.) 178
= (.) 88
= (.) 166
- = (.) 101
258
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266
258
259
259
258
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128
236
= (.) 194
82
82
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82
127

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[] 83
[] 128
126
= (.) 79
126
= (.) 97
126
128
127
= (.) 125
127
127
127
127
127
127
128
= (.) 192
= (.) 39
127
127
117
117
81
28
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12
= (.) 192
259
259
208
86
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65
242
95
50%- 57
72
54
162
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79
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= (.) 131
= (.) 257
54

54
54
54
= (.) 164
= (.) 175
102
= (.) 125
221
221
221
221
221
221
221
= (.) 188
221
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221
221
221
221
221
221
= (.) 139
= (.) 219
= (.) 59
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237
237
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89
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= (.) 128
" " 112
63
112
112
112
112
78
= (.) 241
"" 198
5'-(3'-)- 175
200
35

"" 139
92
92
92
92
92
104
92
92
92
93
93
"" 93
93
93
93
93
93
93
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- = - (.) 93
- 93
- 93
93
93
104
93
93
93
93
- 104
104
104
104
104
104
[] 163
104
104
104
104
104
104
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104
104
104

104
104
93
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4 93
93
93
105
94
111
111
111
111
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105
103
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105
105
= (.) 152
106
106
105
106
106
106
- 106
106
106
106
106
108
108
- 107
- 107
107
107
- 106
108
107
106
106
107
106
106
- 106
106

- 107
107
107
107
107
107
-- 107
107
-- 107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
"" 107
107
- 108
- 108
108
108
- 108
- 108
108
108
108
108
108
108
108
106
- 106
107
107
107
107
107
107
107
106
108
106
D - 106
E 106
F = (.) 86

F- 106
Hekinan 107
J- 107
J- 107
107
Q- 107
S 107
108
108
108
108
108
80
108
= (.) 105
108
108
108
108
[] 106
106
106
94
21
, 188
261
130
- 125
- 125
36
-"" 37
- 52
- 157
- 71
- 58
- 162
- 67
- 238
- 210
209
- = (.) 211
- 212
223
- 223
- 237
- = - (.) 125
86

213
[""] = (.) 181
= (.) 168
= (.) 191
95
95
= (.) 104
95
= (.) 95
96
203
153
96
65
230
116
- = (.) 94
95
96
95
96
96
95
95
96
96
= (.) 88
96
96
95
96
96
95
95
96
96
= (.) 94
95
96
96
96
96
96
96
96
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= (.)

96
95
95
96
95
95
164
96
124
96
95
94
= (.) 95
94
96
= (.) 96
= (.) 94
= (.) 94
= (.) 32
96
96
96
96
96
97
97
97
97
97
= (.) 179
= (.) 45
95
97
97
94
97
101
[] 107
" " 39
" " 54
122
187
140
"" 143
44
97
= (.) 49

108
- = (.) 98
- 109
109
98
109
109
98
109
228
= (.) 63
109
= -3- (.) 123
109
110
110
110
110
110
110
110
110
15
110
110
110
110
= (.) 110
110
110
111
110
110
= (.) 116
111
63
111
111
111
111
109
110
110
110
109
110
110

111
111
111
[] 111
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111
111
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111
111
= (.) 111
111
111
111
111
111
111
111
111
111
111
= (.) 111
111
111
111
111
110
109
- 110
- 110
110
109
110
110
110
110
110
= (.) 148
98
98
112
116
230
117
39
51

in situ 122
116
117
116
58
= (.) 209
= (.) 111
"" 180
116
116
= (.) 116
"" 116
116
91
116
116
116
117
117
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98
- 98
117
117
153
117
117
117
5- 117
117
117
117
117
117
117
117
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
102
117
117
117

118
118
118
118
118
118
118
118
118
118
118
118
= (.) 118
118
118
118
118
118
= (.) 118
118
118
118
D = (.) 216
118
119
-- 119
118
118
118
118
119
119
119
119
119
30
- 34
- 258
" " 195
97
116
- 122
133
"" = (.) 261
= - (.) 122
- .
261

" - " = " - " (.) 172


171
212
" " 56
" " 198
"-" 34
227
" " 97
"" 33
104
- 113
84
180
79
119
119
119
118
118
186
= (.) 207
118
118
118
112
102
112
119
112
112
112
112
113
113
113
= (.) 113
= (.) 112
118
146
"" = "" (.) 35
= (.) 191
99
I = (.) 98
II = (.) 191
III = (.) 89
IV = (.) 18
V = - (.) 148

VI = (.) 109
VII = (.) 241
I = (.) 103
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
99
98
2- = (.) 41
98
98
99
a 99
99
98
98
- .
= (.) 38
98
-6- 99
99
= (.) 185
98
98
99
99
99
113
113
113
= (.). 9
113
113
113
114
= (.) 113
- .
- .
113
114
114

114
114
114
114
= (.) 37
114
65
114
114
114
114
114
"" 224
114
114
114
114
114
114
= (.) 224
115
115
115
114
115
115
= (.) 223
115
= (.) 179
115
115
115
115
115
115
115
115
115
115
= (.)
114
115
115
115
115
114
115

115
115
115
115
= (.) 115
114
100
"" 100
= (.) 100
100
100
100
100
100
= (.) 26
100
100
115
115
115
101
115
115
115
181
" " 116
100
101
- .
188
100
S 100
- 100
- 100
101
- 100
232
"" 105
101
100
= (.) 248
= (.) 57
100
101
101
148
[] 52

141
101
101
101
33
0 7
33
73
66
71
134
134
a 140
143
25
M-N 157
P 177
101
102
101
-7- 102
102
102
102
= (.) 37
116
93
= (.) 110

[] 24
161
222
219
62
51
63
63
= (.) 10
246
72
- - . -
[] 72
- 72
251
251

72
[ ] 72
17
31
72
251
72
=
(.) 251
p 72
63
=
(.) 63
72
68
31
31
66
31
32
32
32
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251
251
32
68
70
72
= (.) 69
63
= (.) 65
= (.) 180
63
63
63
64
11
3'- 56
64
101
64
64
69
64
64
65

64
61
94
65
= (.) 17
= (.); (.) 179, 264
= (.) 151
63
= (.) 65
66
69
31
= (.) 149
64
64
[] - . []
- 64
- [] 64
- = - (.) 64
64
64
64
64
= (.) 63
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
65
= (.) 86
65
65
65
65
65
225
124
63
63
-6- 99
187
- .
63
63

177
65
73
66
66
= (.) 117
2,6- 66
66
66
66
66
= (.) 9
69
67
= (.) 67
67
67
67
5,6- 67
67
2',3'- 66
= (.) 69
73
69
67
261
= (.) 63
66
66
66
64
67
68
45
46
- 68
68
[ ] 261
191
- .
73
73
73
68
= (.) 67
68
68

68
68
68
68
68
68
= (.) 68
68
68
= (.) 68
68
85
73
= (.) 29
68
68
69
69
69
- 68
69
69
69
73
73
= (.) 38
69
69
32
69
69
= (.) 69
73
= - (.) 147
69
69
73
67
[] 67
67
67
[] 20
45
67
67
67
67

67
67
225
67
67
67
- .
= - (.) 110
- . .
66
= (.) 63
66
66
66
143
66
= (.) 146
142
"" 142
"" 142
N- 142
63
= (.) 68
= (.) 69
- 70
= (.) 64
- 70
- 71
- - 71
- 71
- 195
- 70
- 70
- 235
- 70
- 70
- I = (.) 135
- Taq 241
- 70
- 70
- 70
- 70
- 70
- = - (.) 70
- 71
- 70

- 70
- 70
- I 70
-N- 70
[] 10
10
8
= - (.) 28
8
82
30
229
94
205
72
71
16S- 71
71
= (.) 71
= (.) 71
= (.) 71
71
[] 149
71
= - (.) 71
71
71
= (.) 71
71
82
117
232
10
69
= (.) 194
= (.) 194
- 72
71
= (.) 84
63
63
63
94
= (.) 227
48
= (.) 180
73

= (.) 72
72
73
73
73
46
" " 34
81
147
50
= (.)
178
254
254
" " 154
257
= (.) 232
164
164
164
28

87
94
98
227
264
264
264
= (.) 102
85
85
186
259
183
140
258
85
132

- .

65
175
189
105
64
39
152
= (.) 161
64
64
56
222
94
- .
= [ ] (.) 139
[ ] 139
163
[ ] 139
139
90
- 104
150
158
87
"" 49
49
49
49
165
34
30
217
30
248
236
14
95
47
234
170
69
= (.) 49
- 90
- 90
46
"" 234
93

"" 94
= (.)
97
98
97
76
98
98
198
= - - (.) 195
= (.) 98
19
67
71
216
233
265
265
85
"" 155
227
266
= (.) 266
266
266
266
266
266
266
- .
266
"" 266
266
266
266
146
146
195
266
266
266
266

120
14

120
120
120
- .
120
120
= (.) 9
120
120
120
112
223
223
209
70
135
59
41
257
= (.) 15
129
129
- 129
129
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
129
= ""- (.) 219
130
130
130
= (.) 130
130
130
130
130
130
130
130
- .
130
130

- .
130
130
130
130
131
130
130
130
130
130
129
129
129
129
130
129
129
121
121
121
171
121
121
121
121
121
121
248
121
121
121
121
121
122
122
122
= (.) 121
121
122
122
= (.) 179
122
125
- 263
- 180
122

122
159
122
122
128
= (.) 54
128
128
" " 227
128
128
128
128
= (.) 77
156
= (.) 77
124
152
156
98
215
130
152
178
[] 177
123
123
123
123
123
= (.) 123
123
123
-3,3- 123
-3- 123
124
124
183
124
123
124
206
123
124
124
124
124

124
124
123
123
123
123
125
124
125
= IS- (.) 129
125
125
125
125
125
125
125
197
125
222
125
126
125
125
126
126
126
126
126
126
= - (.) 150
127
127
127
127
127
127
= (.) 127
127
127
126
167
126
[] 126
= (.) 126
126
- . .

128
128
= (.) 221
128
I 128
II 128
128
124
124
124
= (.) 159
124
- .
124
= (.) 122
- = (.) 122
124
128
128
- . -
129

129
129
= (.) 159
82
[] 81
-- 167
197
82
"" 82
= (.) 89
23
23
264
23
23
- .
- .
- .
129
234
41
= (.) 29
131
131
120

38
37
36
37
36
36
37
= (.) 37
37
133
37
37
37
37
- 133
- 133
37
37
37
37
37
37
134
134
134
134
= (.) 169
134
= (.) 134
134
134
38
134
134
134
134
134
134
= (.) 169
134
134
134
134
90
73

37
37
37
- . .
34
85
141
94
58
- 31
28
S1 = -
(.) 31
[] 205
R- 216
37
38
38
"" [ ] 38
38
38
38
38
134
38
- .
38
38
= (.) 69
203
203
203
203
203
204
204
203
204
204
= (.) 204
= (.) 52
134
134
134
135
185
204

135
135
135
[] 135
135
135
135
135
" " 29
- 135
135
9
9
176
49
48
= (.) 185
46
48
48
78
48
48
48
94
48
48
48
39
76
- .
- = (.) 170
98
178
- 89
39
39
39
CHO 44
HeLa 105
39
= (.) 39
39
39
39
61
39

39
39
39
39
121
39
= (.) 39
49
49
49
49
49
- 49
49
49
49
49
97
49
- = - (.) 36
49
- 49
49
49
-60 49
57
[] 49
50
49
50
50
50
50
50
- .
135
49
51
- 51
51
51
51
51
51
204
203
203

51
51
51
= (.) 51
51
51
51
51
50
- = C- (.) 36
50
47
216
216
216
29
" " 229
51
52
= - (.) 110
= (.) 52
52
52
52
[] 72
52
52
258
= (.) 100
192
211
53
= (.) 145
53
53
[ ] 237
53
= (.) 191
- . .
53
" " 53
52
52
52
52
52
52

52
52
52
52
55
55
55
55
94
, 197
55
54
54
46
54
3'- 37
5'- 37
- . .
77
54
53
53
53
54
52
[] 52
149
= poly(T)-poly(A) (.) 191
55
54
153
[] 54
= (.) 54
55
= " " (.) 54
55
54
54
= (.) 55
= (.) 164
55
[] 55
148
- 116
55
55
55

248
57
54
54
242
77
77
94
54
54
178
177
= "" (.) 134
54
" " = (.) 125
125
47
54
56
55
56
56
[] 8
56
56
= 3'- (.) 56
56
- 56
217
56
56
56
217
56
- .
226
"" 226
226
"" 226
N- 226
"" 226
180
= AP- (.) 21
197
56
56
56

56
= (.) 11
= (.) 26
123
57
56
57
" " 229
57
36
50
Q 50
50
50
50
237
117
251
50
222
50
221
50
242
246
233
57
57
[] 58
150
58
58
58
58
58
58
58
= (.) 197
59
58
59
58
- 57
57
59
59
57

105
54
57
58
[ (.)] 58, 175
58
58
58
58
- = (.) 58
58
115
= (.) 216
[ ] 58
262
262
262
262
262
262
262
= (.) 263
262
263
59
47
in vivo 122
59
59
39
174
245
76
"" 59
- . .
59
- . .
59
= (.) 105
37
59

137
= (.) 147
138

138
- .
- 138
138
= (.) 196
138
138
= (.) 215
138
138
"" 138
= (.) 197
138
139
139
50 139
71
228
= (.) 43
[ ] 139
139
- .
140
[] 140
140
= (.) 214
- = (.)
152
= (.) 140
89
140
140
140
140
140
"" 140
= (.) 151
139
73
140
139
= (.) 89
"" 139
= (.) 71
= (.) 139
139

140
139
= (.) 140
143
143
140
140
= (.) 165
= (.) 33
139
139
139
143
144
143
144
144
144
144
144
144
= (.) 183
144
144
144
144
144
144
139
143
= (.) 113
143
35
143
141
141
141
174
141
= (.) 245
141
141
= (.) 9
234
- 134
141
141

74
90
141
" " 50
= - (.) 255
141
141
141
141
141
228
144
144
141
138
146
128
"" 235
142
- .
85
200
= (.) 199
= (.) 199
= (.) 199
200
43
142
142
- .
- .
142
= (.) 64
142
256
- 142
- 142
203
89
46
112
143
206
143
= (.) 88
143
143

= (.) 195

I = (.) 102
II = (.) 102
229
145
145
= (.) 113
2- 145
145
145
145
146
146
146
= (.) 149
= (.) 149
= (.) 149
145
145
- 148
- 148
- .
[] 148
146
146
146
163
229
- = NADH- (.) 163
228
= (.) 19
221
229
U 255
t- 229
146
147
in vitro 122
in vivo 122
147
"" 147
147
= (.) 246

147
147
147
76
149

= (.) 154
148
148
= (.) 34
148
242
159
= (.) 199
148
= (.) 148
148
145
149
149
149
149
149
149
149
149
= (.) 145
149
"" 229
125
125
127
127
127
= (.) 83
126
= (.) 125
234
127
30
126
= (.) 111
126
126
126
126
126

- .
151
- .
151
151
151
149
149
51
149
- .
150
149
150
150
150
149
149
150
"" 149
149
150
150
150
150
150
= - (.) 150
150
- 150
150
150
- 150
150
150
150
150
150
151
151
151
151
151
= (.) 151
151
151
= (.) 151
- .

- .
151
151
151
151
103
151
151
151
151
151
152
152
= (.) 196
- . .
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
152
220
- .
152
152
152
152
151
152
152
166
153
= (.) 220
153
153
153
153
= (.) 37
-- 153

153
152
152
[] 137
- (.) 31
- 32
= (.) 227
12
" " 70
" " 198
- = (.) 51
64
233
= ""- (.) 227
8
135
" " 51
"" 206
135
-5 = -5 (.) 160
- 148
147
-5 160
150
220
226
"Akarp" 35
211
" " = (.) 87
181
195
211
= (.) 87
221
227
222
179
235
233
253
87
88
74
ClB 48
poly(T)-poly(A) 191
RARE- 207
153

" " 72
Y 263
0 263
ZW 266
Z0 266
= (.) 30
" " 105
149
149
137
155
155
155
34
162
= (.) 160
162
153
= (.) 154
= (.) 132, 154
154
153
154
154
154
154
153
163
= (.) 154
154
154
154
154
154
154
153
154
154
63
154
154
154
154
154
154
154
154

= (.) 232
153
154
154
185
153
= (.) 232
153
154
154
157
155
155
- .
- .
155
160
155
- 155
- 155
155
= (.) 56
155
56
- 155
= (.) 207
155
162
162
= (.) 11
- 162
162
- 155
- 155
- 155
156
188
156
156
156
156
156
156
156
156
156
156

156
156
156
156
= (.) 164
156
156
156
162
[] 241
161
189
112
8
182
161
161
= (.) 161
190
160
160
160
= (.) 58
160
161
160
160
160
160
161
160
160
= - (.) 112
160
= (.) 161
160
157
248
30
- 34
"" 30
"" 104
= (.) 116
= - (.) 260
217
37
142

- 151
164
175
= (.) 192
192
" " 213
" " = (.) 142
- 260
87
113
"" 180
157
157
- .
157
157
157
157
157
159
159
159
257
= (.)
257
157
157
157
157
157
157
= (.) 231
= (.) 138
228
228
157
157
157
158
158
- .
158
158
158
158
158
158

= (.) 175
= (.) 158
158
- .
= (.) 158
158
158
158
"" 158
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
158
159
159
159
159
= (.) 29
159
258
- 159
- 159
159
159
159
46
- - . .
- - .
- - .
" " 227
"" [] 46
159
255
175
= (.) 159
146

= (.) 18
146
233
146
146
60
II = "I-" (.) 120
159
I = (.) 93
159
159
159
159
161
161
160
160
160
161
160
= (.) 144
161
161
161
161
161
161
161
261
, 242
161
161
204
212
258
229
124
65
39
" " 49
78
148
150
266
83
210
" " 72

34
235
" " 162
162
161
= (.) 161
161
161
[] 124
85
116
140
143
"" 183
" " 112
" " [] 90
= " " (.) 90
SG 226
161
251
161
- = - (.) 159
- 159