Mustgtakeg/ 1.

A university science program requires that students take five courses in their first year. All students must take Chemistry and Biology as two of their courses, and then must choose from: One of either Physics, Botany, or Astronomy 𝟑gchoicesg One of Calculus, Linear Algebra, Number Theory, or Statstcs 𝟒gchoicesg One of Psychology, Sociology, Economics, Philosophy, or Anthropology 𝟓gchoicesg How many schedule optons are possible for the first yearr 3 ∗ 4 ∗ 5 = 𝟔𝟔 optoong -

2. A bank card pass-code must consist of any four digits. (a) Provide a number for each blank to determine the total possible bank card pass-codes.


# of optons for first digit … for 2nd digit …for third digit





× 10

(b) Determine the number of bank card pass-codes possible if no digit can repeat.


(c) …no digit can repeat and the first digit cannot be “0”.
Any digit except “0”: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, or 9 (9 optons)




Cai’tgbegzerog Can’t be first digit










= 𝟓 𝟔𝟒𝟔g

= 𝟏𝟔 𝟔𝟔𝟔g =

= 𝟒 𝟓𝟑𝟔g

3. In a partcular urisdicton, license plates consist of any three lelers (where the first of which is not the lelers “I” or “O”), followed by any three non-repeatingdigits (the first of which cannot be “1” or “0”). Determine the total number of possible license plates.

4. The final score of a hockey game was Jets 4, Flames 2. How many game scores were possible at the end of the first periodr


Diploma Example


Diploma Example

7. Consider the word “JACKSON”. How many ways are there to… (a) Arrange all of the lelers in the word (b) Arrange all of the lelers in the word – if the first two lelers must be “JA” (iigthatgorder)

(d) Arrange all of the lelers in the word – if the leler must be a consonant

(c) Make an arrangement using any two lelers.

8. A school play has three male parts. The drama club has 7 boys. (a) Determine the number of arrangements of boys for the three parts, using the fundamental countng principal 𝑛𝑃

(b) Determine the number of arrangements of boys, using the formula

= 𝑛

! (𝑛 − 𝑟)!

(c) Determine the number of arrangements of boys possible if Wagner has been promised the lead role.

(d) Determine the number of arrangements if Wagner has been promised a role.

9. Determine the number of different arrangements using all the lelers of the word ACCESSES that (a) begin with exactly two S’s. Diploma

(b) begin with at least two S’s. (c) Explain why the answers in questons (a) and (b) are different.

10. A co-ed basketball team, consistng of 4 boys and 3 girls, is lining up for a photo. (a) How many different arrangements of the team are possibler (b) How many arrangements are possible if all of the boys are on the lef side, girls on the right sider

(c) How many arrangements are possible if the boys and girls must alternater

(d) How many arrangements are possible if the boys all must be kept togetherr

 Permutatons (arrangements) problems where certain ob ects must be kept together
Count the ob ects that must be kept together as one unit Number of permutatons, countng the “together ob ects” as one × Number of permutatons of the “together ob ects” among themselves



Diploma Example


Diploma Example

 Factorial notaton expressions can be simplified / canceled out.
6! 3! 6∗5∗4∗3! 3!

Strategy: Given an expression 𝑛!, expand it out untl you can cancel the factorial terms out.


= 6 ∗ 5 ∗ 4 gorgg120

 We can also nolve ao equatoon
Goaln “Cancel the factorials!” 𝑛
∗(𝑛−1)∗(𝑛−2)! (𝑛−2)! 𝑛! (𝑛−2)! 𝑛𝑃


= 20 𝑛

2 − 𝑛 − 20 = 0 𝑛

2 − 𝑛 = 20

= 20

13. Without using a calculator, simplify each: 9! (a)


8! 5!3! 𝑛

= 𝟓 or 𝑛 = −𝟒

(𝑛 − 5)(𝑛 + 4) = 20

= 20

14. Simplify the expression:

(𝑛+2)! 𝑛!

15. A catalogue designer for a ewelry store is constructng an ad to promote a sale on ladies watches. The ad is to have two of the on-sale watches displayed – one on the top of the page, and one on the bolom. Afer showing the store manager all possibilites for the page, 30 different ad optons were given. How many models of ladies watches does the store have on saler

Permutationsiosiobeetns wttsreeettion A grocery store manager is making a fruit arrangement in a display window. (Could happen) He has an apple, an orange, and two banans – four items of fruit in total. How many arrangements are possibler

Would the display be different if he changed the positon of the last two fruitsr 1. Below is a list of all possible arrangements of the lelers “A”, “O”, “B1 ”, “B2 ”. Crinnsiutsaoys reduodaots(reeeated)seotrwen – that is, entries that represent an identcal fruit arrangement. 𝐴
, 𝑂, 𝐵1 ,𝐵2 𝐴, 𝑂, 𝐵2 ,𝐵1 𝐴, 𝐵1 , 𝑂, 𝐵2 𝐴, 𝐵2 , 𝑂, 𝐵1 𝐴, 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 , 𝑂 𝐴, 𝐵2 , 𝐵1 , 𝑂 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 , 𝐴, 𝑂 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 , 𝑂, 𝐴 𝐵1 , 𝑂, 𝐵2 , 𝐴 𝐵1 , 𝐴, 𝐵2 , 𝑂 𝐵1 , 𝑂, 𝐴, 𝐵2 𝐵1 , 𝐴, 𝑂, 𝐵2 𝐵2 , 𝐵1 , 𝐴, 𝑂 𝐵2 , 𝑂, 𝐴, 𝐵1 𝐵2 , 𝐵1 , 𝑂, 𝐴 𝐵2 , 𝑂, 𝐵1 , 𝐴 𝐵2 , 𝐴, 𝐵1 , 𝑂 𝐵2 , 𝐴, 𝑂, 𝐵1 𝑂, 𝐴, 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 𝑂, 𝐴, 𝐵2 , 𝐵1 𝑂, 𝐵1 , 𝐴, 𝐵2 𝑂, 𝐵2 , 𝐴, 𝐵1 𝑂, 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 , 𝐴 𝑂, 𝐵2 , 𝐵1 , 𝐴

2. Hi smaoysdwntoetsarraonemeotn are there of four fruits, consistng of 1 apple, 1 orange, and 2 bananasr 3. How many distnct arrangements are there if the firnt t isoruwtn muntsoesoaoaoanr

Must be bananas!

4. How many distnct arrangements are there if the firntsoruwtsmuntsoesasoaoaoar

Must be a banana!

5. Suppose we replaced each orange with a banana. (crazy!) How many dwntoetsarraonemeotns iuldstteresoestteor 𝐴
, 𝐵3 , 𝐵1 ,𝐵2 𝐴, 𝐵3 , 𝐵2 ,𝐵1 𝐴, 𝐵1 , 𝐵3 , 𝐵2 𝐴, 𝐵2 , 𝐵3 , 𝐵1 𝐴, 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 , 𝐵3 𝐴, 𝐵2 , 𝐵1 , 𝐵3 𝐵1 , 𝐵3 , 𝐴, 𝐵2 𝐵1 , 𝐴, 𝐵3 , 𝐵2 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 , 𝐴, 𝐵3 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 , 𝐵3 , 𝐴 𝐵1 , 𝐵3 , 𝐵2 , 𝐴 𝐵1 , 𝐴, 𝐵2 , 𝐵3 𝐵2 , 𝐴, 𝐵1 , 𝐵3 𝐵2 , 𝐴, 𝐵3 , 𝐵1 𝐵2 , 𝐵1 , 𝐴, 𝐵3 𝐵2 , 𝐵3 , 𝐴, 𝐵1 𝐵2 , 𝐵1 , 𝐵3 , 𝐴 𝐵2 , 𝐵3 , 𝐵1 , 𝐴 𝐵3 , 𝐴, 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 𝐵3 , 𝐴, 𝐵2 , 𝐵1 𝐵3 , 𝐵1 , 𝐴, 𝐵2 𝐵3 , 𝐵2 , 𝐴, 𝐵1 𝐵3 , 𝐵1 , 𝐵2 , 𝐴 𝐵3 , 𝐵2 , 𝐵1 , 𝐴

6. How does the number of distnct arrangements of 𝑛 ob ects relate to the number of repettonsr

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