Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997©

Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997 ©

Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997 ©

by Rachel Bar Yosef

:A Note to Students and Teachers
These lessons are not intended to Introduce you to the English verb system. Use them as a review of what you’ve already learned.

?”Are English Verbs ”Ichsa
Are you miserable because you make mistakes with English verbs? Do you think you will never be able to learn? Are you sorry you didn’t listen to your teacher?

!!!It’s not really so hard
You CAN speak and write good English You CAN get good grades on English exams. You only have to learn a few simple rules. Are you ready to LEARN and PRACTICE?

LESSON 1 An Overview

We talk a lot in these lessons about V1, V2, and V3. What in the world are V1, V2, and V3?

?Does this look familiar
– eat – fall – fly ate fell flew eaten fallen flown

This is the table of irregular verbs that we know and love! V1 is the first column (“eat”, ,(‫צורת המקור‬ V2 is the second column (“ate”, past simple form), V3 is the third column (“eaten”, called—oh well, V3)

Lots of people forget that a verb that ends in “d” or “ed” doesn’t have to be a verb in the simple past. Maybe it’s a regular verb in V3 DISGUISED as a simple past verb. For example: love loved loved hate hated hated worry worried worried

Verb Formulas 5
p p

o n

m

be + ing (progressive)--He was crying. be + V3 (passive)--He was beaten. Four men were killed. have + V3 (perfect)--I have already eaten. do + V1 (simple)-- Do you love me? I don’t hate you. modal + V1 (modal)--I can wait.

Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997 ©

BE

HAVE

DO

MODALS

is, am, are, was, were 1) be + ing (progressive) The bus is coming. We were waiting. 2) be + V3 (passive) A lot of money is spent. People were hurt.
Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997 ©

has, have had have + V3 (perfect)

do, does, did do + V1 (simple)

shall, will, should, would, may, might, must, can, could modal + V1

She has finished. Do you love me? You should try. We have eaten. I didn’t hear you. I may visit my aunt.

be
is, am, are was, were (be + Ving ( .1progressive . The bus iscoming .We werewaiting

©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997

be
is, am, are was, were (be + V .23 (passive . Our motherwas invited . Many promiseswere broken

©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997

have
has, have had (have + V3 (perfect You have broken.your promise . Our friendshiphas survived

©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997

do
do, does did (do + V1 (simple I don’t enjoy. homework Do you like? school

©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997

modals
,shall, will, should, would, may might, must, can, could, ought (modal + V1 (modal Miri can speak.four languages . Wemust finish Would youlike? some coffee
©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997

This is the end of Lesson 1

Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997 ©

by Rachel Bar Yosef

do
do, does did do + V1 (simple) I don’t enjoy homework. Do you like school?

: A special note aboutDO
We say that do is the helping verb for the “simple” tenses, but if they’re “simple”, then so is making peace with our neighbors! Pay attention:

WithPRESENT SIMPLE and :PAST SIMPLE ONLY
In present simple and past simple, there are 3 kinds of sentences: – POSITIVE (+) Harry understands Amharic. – NEGATIVE (-) Jill doesn’t understand Amharic. – QUESTION (?) Does Jill understand French? What’s going on here????

In ( + ), the verb really has 2 jobs: 1) MEANING (UNDERSTANDS(‫- להבין‬2) GRAMMAR (UNDERSTANDS), which includes: •Time (understands, not understood; “”‫)מבין” ולא “הבין‬ •Number -- “understands” can’t be ‫רבים‬ (think of he/she/it, which are all (‫יחיד‬ •Person -- “understands” can’t be first person (I understands???) or second person (you understands????)

‫ב ) + ( הפועל מקבל על עצמו את‬ ‫שני התפקידים -- הן משמעות‬ ‫‪ (( HARRYDREAMS‬והן דקדוק .‬ ‫.ב ) - ( ו ) ? ( יש פיצול‬ ‫ואת תפקיד‬ ‫את תפקיד‬ ‫המשמעות‬ ‫הדקדוק תופס‬ ‫תופס עתה‬ ‫עתה הפועל‬ ‫הפועל‬ ‫העזר‬ ‫העיקרי.‬ ‫‪(Harry‬‬ ‫‪(Harry‬‬ ‫‪doesn’t‬‬ ‫‪doesn’t‬‬ ‫)‪dream‬‬ ‫)‪dream‬‬

‫© 7991 ,‪Rachel Bar Yosef‬‬

Now do you understand why the main verb must always be ?‫בצורת המקור‬

....Let’s Practice
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s):

“Shlomi loves computers. Before his father bought him a computer, he thought he would never be able to learn. He didn’t ________ he was clever enough. But now he’s a real professional!” “If Shlomi didn’t _________ computers to begin with, why did his father ________ him a computer?” “He __________ to encourage him. He knew that computers can be a wonderful help with schoolwork.”

....Let’s Practice
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s):

“Shlomi loves computers. Before his father bought him a computer, he thought he would never be able to learn. He didn’t _think__ he was clever enough. But now he’s a real professional!” “If Shlomi didn’t __like___ computers to begin with, why did his father ___buy__ him a computer?” “He _wanted___ to encourage him. He knew that computers can be a wonderful help with schoolwork.”

....Let’s Practice
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing :(word(s Hello, Mom? I have a problem. I left my keys at” “.home this morning “?Where did you ____________ them” I ___________ them on the table. __________ you” “?see them Yes, but you _________ have to worry. I won’t” “.lock the door

....Let’s Practice
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing :(word(s Hello, Mom? I have a problem. I left my keys at” “.home this morning Where did you ___leave“?____ them” I ___left____ them on the table. _Can orDo_ you” “?see them Yes, but you __don’t__ have to worry. I won’t” “.lock the door

BUT
Don’t think BE/HAVE/DO can only be helping verbs .(‫( פועלי עזר‬ Often they are main verbs .(‫(הפועל העיקרי‬

be/have/do :as main verbs

You are being stupid! x Dan has had too many absences. x What did you do last night?
x

In the following passage, write “HV” in the parentheses after aH elpingVerb. If the word isn’t a .helping verb, DON’T WRITE ANYTHING
My parents never listen to me. Sometimes they want me to do ( ) something that I don’t ( ) want to do ( ), or else they want me to not do ( ) what I do ( ) want. I have ( ) always been ( ) jealous of Moshe. His parents are ( ) so understanding! He doesn’t ( ) have ( ) any problems with them. They’re ( ) young, and patient, and they remember what it was ( ) like to be ( ) young. Moshe has ( ) never had ( ) any problems with his parents. Not like me. Moshe has ( ) all the luck, and I don’t ( ) have ( ) any. And I never do ( ) anything right!

My parents never listen to me. Sometimes they want me to do ( ) something that I don’t ( HV ) want to do ( ), or else they want me to not do ( ) what I do ( HV ) want. I have ( HV ) always been ( ) jealous of Moshe. His parents are ( ) so understanding! He doesn’t ( HV ) have ( ) any problems with them. They’re ( ) young, and patient, and they remember what it was ( ) like to be ( ) young. Moshe has ( HV ) never had ( ) any problems with his parents. Not like me. Moshe has ( ) all the luck, and I don’t ( HV ) have ( ) any. And I never do ( ) anything right!

This is the end of Lesson 2

by Rachel Bar Yosef

LESSON 3 A Few Words About Modals and Semi-Modals

modals
,shall, will, should, would, may might, must, can, could, ought (modal + V1 (modal Miri can speak.four languages . Wemust finish Would youlike? some coffee
©Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997

A NOTE ABOUT SEMI-MODALS
You shouldn’t--indeed, you can’t--use “can” in the past or in the future tense. Use a form of “be able to” instead, or (in past tense), use “could”. Examples: I can’t speak Russian. I was able to or could speak it when I was young. I will be able to speak it again after my trip to Moscow.

A NOTE ABOUT SEMI-MODALS
Another way to say “must” is “have to” (they both mean the same thing). In fact, in negative sentences (-), questions (?), and in the past or future tenses, you can’t use “must”; you have to use “have to”. Example: I must hurry. I have to hurry. You don’t have to hurry. She had to hurry so that she wouldn’t be late.

....Let’s Practice
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): “Shirli, must you play the radio so loud?” “What __________ you say?” “Do you _____ ____ play the radio so loud?” “No, I don’t ______ _____. Do you _________ me to turn it down?” “Yes, I do, please, if you don’t _________ me to lose my hearing.”

....Let’s Practice
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing :(word(s “Shirli, must you play the radio so loud?” “What ___did____ you say?” “Do you __have to___ play the radio so loud?” “No, I don’t __have to___. Do you __want___ me to turn it down?” “Yes, I do, please, if you don’t _want____ me to lose my hearing.”

....Let’s Practice
:(Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s “_________ you help me, please? I want a book about the Internet, but I ___________ find one.” “_________ you look among the computer books?” “Yes, I __________, but I ______________ find anything.” “Well, I’m ____________ somebody else right now, but I _______ ____ ______ ___ help you in about ten minutes. ________ you come back in ten minutes?” “OK. And in the meantime, I __________ try again. Maybe I _____ ___ _____ ___ find it by then.”

....Let’s Practice
:(Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s Can___ you help me, please? I want a book about the___” Internet, but I ___can’t “.___ find one Did“?___ you look among the computer books___” Yes, I ___did____, but I __couldn’t“.____ find anything” Well, I’m __helping___ somebody else right now, but I” ___will be able to __ help you in about ten minutes. ___Can“?__ you come back in ten minutes OK. And in the meantime, I ___will___ try again. Maybe I” __will be able to“.__ find it by then

--Refresh Your Memory
Take another look at the table of .helping verbs Pay attention to the .colors

BE

HAVE

DO

MODALS

is, am, are, was, were 1) be + ing (progressive) The bus is coming. We were waiting. 2) be + V3 (passive) A lot of money is spent. People were hurt.
Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997 ©

has, have had have + V3 (perfect)

do, does, did do + V1 (simple)

shall, will, should, would, may, might, must, can, could modal + V1

She has finished. Do you love me? You should try. We have eaten. I didn’t hear you. I may visit my aunt.

....Let’s Review
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 1. Moshe _________ drive (V1) more carefully. He _____________ drive (V1) so carelessly. 2. _________ you want (V1) anything to eat? Yes, thanks. I ___________ like (V1) a sandwich. 3. Bob ______ acting in movies and making lots of money. 4. __________ you seen (V3 - irregular verb) my hat? No, I ________ remember (V1) seeing it. 5. Dan ______ wasted (V3 - regular verb) all of his money. 6. Some Americans _______ surprised (V3 - regular verb) when Bush ____ elected (V3 - regular verb) President. x These photographs ________ taken (V3 - irregular

....Let’s Review
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 1. Moshe _should__ drive (V1) more carefully. He ___shouldn’t_ drive (V1) so carelessly. 2. ___Do____ you want (V1) anything to eat? Yes, thanks. I __would____ like (V1) a sandwich. 3. Bob __is__ acting in movies and making lots of money. 4. ___Have___ you seen (V3 - irregular verb) my hat? No, I __don’t_ remember (V1) seeing it. 5. Dan _has__ wasted (V3 - regular verb) all of his money. 6. Some Americans _were__ surprised (V3 - regular verb) when Clinton _was_elected (V3 - regular verb) President. x These photographs __were__ taken (V3 - irregular verb) at Niagara Falls.

Let’s Review Some ....More
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 1. Don’t you ________ you _________ drunk enough beer? 2. People should __________ a dentist once a year. 3. I will ________ an umbrella, because it may __________. 4. Gabi has always ___________ to visit India. 5. Most of our friends had already _________ the party when we arrived. Why did they _________ so soon? 6. Please forgive me for phoning you so early this morning. __________ you sleeping? 7. I was ___________ TV, when suddenly I heard a shot. x Poor Miri! She’s __________ her arm! Call a doctor!
Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997©

Let’s Review Some ....More
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 1. Don’t you _think__ you __have___ drunk enough beer? 2. People should ___see____ a dentist once a year. 3. I will __take__ an umbrella, because it may __rain____. 4. Gabi has always __wanted___ to visit India. 5. Most of our friends had already __left___ the party when we arrived. Why did they __leave__ so soon? 6. Please forgive me for phoning you so early this morning. __Were____ you sleeping? 7. I was __watching_ TV, when suddenly I heard a shot. 8. Poor Miri! She’s __broken__ her arm! Call a doctor!
Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997©

....Let’s Try a Test
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 1. I don’t _________ to think about it. 2. Anat _______ lost ten kilo. You ___________ see her! 3. Did you _____________ to take your keys? 4. I haven’t ________, and I _____ not planning to eat anything before dinner. 5. ________ you considered going into politics? 6. He is ______________ a great expert. 7. A lot of wine was __________ at the party last night. 9. We ___________ talking on the telephone when the lights went out.

....Let’s Try a Test
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 1. I don’t _want____ to think about it. 2. Anat __has__ lost ten kilo. You _should____ see her! 3. Did you __remember___ to take your keys? 4. I haven’t __eaten_, and I _am__ not planning to eat anything before dinner. 5. __Have__ you considered going into politics? 6. He is __considered__ a great expert. 7. A lot of wine was __drunk___ at the party last night. 8. We ___were____ talking on the telephone when the lights went out.

:A Test....Part 2
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 9. You could _________ until the last minute, or you could ________ the work now and _________ it over with. 10. _________ you name ten countries in Africa? 11. I __________ sleep very well last night. 5. I have _________ my promise, and I _________ keep my word.

:A Test....Part 2
Use what you’ve learned to fill in the missing word(s): 9. You could __wait___ until the last minute, or you could ___do___ the work now and ___get___ it over with. 10. ___Can___ you name ten countries in Africa? 11. I __didn’t__ sleep very well last night. x I have __given__ my promise, and I __will___ keep my word.

This is the end of Lesson 3

by Rachel Bar Yosef

LESSON 4

?

V

English verb phrases can be ! l o n g
Icouldn’t have been expected to have known.that known
‫!יו‬ !An 8-word verb

Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997 ©

Forming Yes/No Questions
Take the first element (‫ מרכיב‬of the ( verb and put it before the subject (‫(:נושא‬ I can believe it. Can you believe it? I’ve been there. Have you been there?

!Forming questions...still
Follow the same rule even for a monster verb! He couldn’t have been expected to understand. Could he have been expected to understand?
Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997©

How do I translate "‫"האם‬ when I’m forming a yes-no question?

Rachel Bar Yosef,1997 ©

To translate “‫”האם‬ when forming a yes-no question, simply begin the question with the suitable helping verb.

Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997 ©

For example: Are you serious? ?‫האם אתה רציני‬

Are you listening? ‫?האם אתה מקשיב‬ Do you collect stamps? ‫? האם אתה אוסף בולים‬ Have you lost weight? Can you convince me? ‫האם תוכל לשכנע אותי‬ ? ‫?האם רזית‬ Will he succeed?‫?האם הוא יצליח‬

Rachel Bar Yosef, 1997 ©

....Let’s Practice
Complete the conversation: BENNY: Arik! I haven’t seen you for a long time! __________________________________________? ARIK: Of course I haven’t been hiding! I’ve been very busy. BENNY: _______________________________________? ARIK: Yes, I’m studying a lot. I want to do well on my exams. BENNY: ________________________________________? ARIK: Yes, unfortunately, I still have that part-time job. It’s really too much. That’s why I’m always so tired. BENNY: ________________________________________? ARIK: You’re right. I guess I wasn’t smart to take the job. But I need the money! BENNY: ________________________________________? ARIK: Yes, I’ve been able to save a lot of money, although not as much as I’d hoped to save!

....Let’s Practice
:Complete the conversation BENNY: Arik! I haven’t seen you for a long time! _Have you been hiding?_____________________? ARIK: Of course I haven’t been hiding! I’ve been very busy. BENNY: __Are you studying a lot?___________________? ARIK: Yes, I’m studying a lot. I want to do well on my exams. BENNY: ___Do you still have that part-time job?________? ARIK: Yes, unfortunately, I still have that part-time job. It’s really too much. That’s why I’m always so tired. BENNY: _Are you sure you were smart to take the job?___? ARIK: You’re right. I guess I wasn’t smart to take the job. But I need the money! BENNY: __Have you been able to save any money?______? ARIK: Yes, I’ve been able to save a lot of money, although not as much as I’d hoped to save!

‫‪Let’s Practice‬‬
‫‪:Ask these questions in English‬‬
‫האם אתם חייבים לעשות כל כך הרבה רעש ?‬ ‫______________________________________________‬ ‫האם אראה אותך הערב ?‬ ‫_________________________________________________‬ ‫האם מותר לנו להשתמש במילון ?‬ ‫_________________________________________________‬ ‫השתגעת ?‬ ‫_________________________________________________‬ ‫האם אתה מקשיב ?‬ ‫_________________________________________________‬

Let’s Practice
:Ask these questions in English
? ‫האם אתם חייבים לעשות כל כך הרבה רעש‬ _________?Do you have to/Must you) make so much noise)_ ? ‫האם אראה אותך הערב‬ ______________________________?Will I see you tonight_ ? ‫האם מותר לנו להשתמש במילון‬ ___________?Are we allowed to/ May we) use a dictionary)_ ? ‫השתגעת‬ _________________Are ?you crazy? Have you gone crazy_ ? ‫האם אתה מקשיב‬ _________________________________?Are you listening_

‫‪Let’s Practice‬‬
‫‪:Ask these questions in English‬‬
‫האם אי פעם בקרת בפטרה ?‬ ‫_________________________________________________‬ ‫האם שמעת בימיך דבר כל כך מגוחך ?‬ ‫_________________________________________________‬ ‫האם הייתם בהפגנה ?‬ ‫_________________________________________________‬ ‫האם ראית את המפתחות שלי ?‬ ‫_________________________________________________‬ ‫האם היית מציע לי להזמין אותם ?‬ ‫_________________________________________________‬

Let’s Practice
:Ask these questions in English
? ‫האם אי פעם בקרת בפטרה‬ _________________________?Have you ever visited Petra_ ? ‫האם שמעת בימיך דבר כל כך מגוחך‬ ____________?Have you ever heard anything so ridiculous_ ? ‫האם הייתם בהפגנה‬ ______________________?Were you at the demonstration_ ? ‫האם ראית את המפתחות שלי‬ ____________________________?Have you seen my keys_ ? ‫האם היית מציע לי להזמין אותם‬ _____?Would you (advise me to/suggest that I) invite them_

WH-words
:Learn these question words who whom whose which what where when why

?????

WH-words
And these, too: how how much how many how often [‫[באיזו תדירות‬ how long (ago) [(‫[לפני( כמה זמן‬ how + ‫כל תואר שהוא‬ (how rich, how strong, how sick)

?????

?How easy is it
It’s really easy!
x

x

x

(The answer:) I want my money. (The next question:) Why do you want your money? (The answer:) I’ve given Adam some money. (The next question:) How much money have you given him? (The answer:) I’m planning to leave tomorrow. (The next question:) Why aren’t you planning to leave today?

Who” and “What” as subjects”
Where who or what refers to the subject ,(‫( הנושא‬ the Hebrew translation is ‫?מי או מה‬ If who or what refers to the subject, DON’T use dodoes-did in the simple tenses; DON’T change the word order: Answer: Tal loves Rami Kleinstein’s music. Question: Who loves Rami Kleinstein’s music?

(‫“ )מכשולים‬Stumpers”
How old are you? ? ‫בן כמה אתה‬ What happened ? ‫?מה קרה‬ What did x do? ? X ‫מה עשה‬ When were you born? ‫? מתי נולדת‬ What do you do for a living? ?‫במה אתה עובד‬ How long will he be gone? ?‫לכמה זמן הוא לא יהיה‬

?How good are you at this
Ask the right questions. See how much you’ve learned. X: Hello, I’m phoning about your advertisement. _____________________________________________? MOTI: They’re not very old. Five years isn’t really so old. Anyway, they’re in good shape. X: _____________________________________________? MOTI: I’m not “getting rid of” them. I’m offering them because I’m moving to a new flat, where I’m not allowed to keep them. X: _____________________________________________? MOTI: I don’t understand it either. They don’t bother anyone.

?How good are you at this
Ask the right questions. See how much you’ve learned. X: Hello, I’m phoning about your advertisement. _How old are they?______________________________? MOTI: They’re not very old. Five years isn’t really so old. Anyway, they’re in good shape. X: _Why are you getting rid of them?_________________? MOTI: I’m not “getting rid of” them. I’m offering them because I’m moving to a new flat, where I’m not allowed to keep them. X: _Why aren’t you allowed to keep them?_____________? MOTI: I don’t understand it either. They don’t bother anyone.

...Keep going
X: ____________________________________________? MOTI: You can take them whenever it’s convenient. I’m always home. X: ____________________________________________? MOTI: I live on the corner of Plony and Almony. X: I know the building. ___________________________? MOTI: My entrance is Number 2. X: ____________________________________________? MOTI: Oh, I don’t want any money for them. All I care about is finding a good home for them! X: A good home! ________________________________? MOTI: Of course I’m not selling a set of skis! I’m giving away my beloved cats!

...Keep going
X: _When can I take them?________________________? MOTI: You can take them whenever it’s convenient. I’m always home. X: _Where do you live?___________________________? MOTI: I live on the corner of Plony and Almony. X: I know the building. _Which entrance is yours?_____? MOTI: My entrance is Number 2. X: _How much money do you want for them?_________? MOTI: Oh, I don’t want any money for them. All I care about is finding a good home for them! X: A good home! _Aren’t you selling a set of skis?_____? MOTI: Of course I’m not selling a set of skis! I’m giving away my beloved cats!

!CONGRATULATIONS
YOUR NAME has been awarded the.M.V (Master of Verbs)

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