Abstract

The IEEE 802.15.4 is a new personal wireless area network standard designed for applications like wireless monitoring andcontrol of lights, security alarms, motion sensors, thermostats and smoke detectors. IEEE 802.15.4 specifies physical and media access control layers that have been optimised to ensure lowpower consumption. The MAC layer defines different network topologies, including a star topology (with one node working as a networkcoordinator, like an access point in IEEE 802.11), tree topology (where some nodes communicate through other nodes to send data to the network coordinator),and mesh topology (where routing responsibilities are distributed between nodesand master coordinator is not needed). In this report a star network topology according to the 802.15.4 standard is simulated with simulator ns- 2. The goals of the thesis are to build a simulation model and to investigate different functional modes of IEEE 802.15.4 and their impact on energy consumption and network performance. Different application scenarios are evaluated. The simulation results are generated with parameter input from ZMDs chip, ZMD44101.

4 Personal Area Networks standard. 914MHz band at 40Kbps in the USA. Standards-based wireless technology . they could’nt be expanded to the automation arena. and the 2. It is primarily designed for the wide ranging automation applications and to replace the existing non-standard technologies. This led to the invention of the wireless . Reliability In this chapter. and .1 Motivation The wireless market has been traditionally dominated by high end technologies. Very small protocol stack . in the areas like computer peripherals. and a detailed introduction about the various concepts of zigbee. mobile devices. Low data-rates .Chapter 1 Introduction ZIGBEE is a new wireless technology guided by the IEEE 802. Interoperability and worldwide usability . Simple design . but so far Wireless Personal Area Networking products have not been able to make a significant impact on the market. etc. focus has been on the evolution of zigbee. Some of its primary features are: . It currently operates in the 868MHz band at a data rate of 20Kbps in Europe. Security. giving an account of other complementary technologies. While some technologies like the bluetooth have been quite a success story.4GHz ISM bands Worldwide at a maximum data-rate of 250Kbps. Ultra low power consumption .15. 1. both proprietary and open source. followed by some intended applications. Support for small to excessively large networks .

However. however. and a hundred such companies are backing it. It has received a tremendous boosting among the industry leaders and critics have been quick enough to indicate that no less than 80 million zigbee products will be shipped by the end of 2006[8]. we are now able to apply several technologies to suite our home and industrial networking needs. Wired Sensors are now intended to be replaced with wireless technologies. based on 802. called the Zigbee Alliance.4. Industry leaders like Ember. Samsung.2 Evolution of zigbee During the last decade there has been an explosion of devices using sensor technologies for control and monitoring purposes. Phillips. ZMD.low datarate personal area networking technology. and remotely controlled and monitored. Corporates have been envisioning of a digital home where every device is connected. several possible contenders have been identified. this concept of a digitally connected home has received a luke warm response due to lack of viable solutions. wirelessly networked monitoring andcontrol products. HoneyWell. But none match the robustness and reliability required for the automation applications.4). low-power. cost-effective. Over the years. Even though a perfect digital home is yet a mirage. FreeScale. 1. The size of this alliance cannot ensure its popularity and widespread use. have been working together to enable reliable. Motorola. Currently the alliance is worth over a hundred other companies and is continually growing. it does indicate a commitment of the industry to focus on one technology rather than going haphazardly in designing their automation products based on self-developed technologies. A group of companies.15.15. Also the alliance is striving to make this technology applicable worldwide by involving corporates around the globe. Robustness when it comes to critical application scenarios as . for the home/Industrial automation. The alliance has been putting considerable weight on the possible success of this technology. Zigbee (IEEE 802.

The current focus is on home/building/industrial applications. So the two primary factors in this study is power consumption and data-rate. lets focus on what we aim at.1 Contenders Several wireless technologies are already in existence and the first question that arises when we speak of a new technology is why do we need yet another technology? Well. it is not necessary to have higher data rates. What makes major technologies unfit for the current challenge is the very thing they are designed for. low-datarate technology. Firstly is the non-availability of a standard. there are a number of reasons to support our requirement for a new technology. which inturn influence the cost factor. None of them have been able to overcome these barriers to suite the needs of home/industrial automation. which has a direct impact on the power requirements. Most technologies designed so far. To provide evidence to this statement a small study of the existing standards and how they fail to fulfill the needs of a viable low-power. and finally a solution leading to zigbee has been presented. giving an account of how they fail to provide a viable solution. As is obvious.applicable to industrial needs and reliability when it comes to power usage and prompt response. WI-FI . several of the application scenarios make it difficult to apply high power consuming devices. 1. worldwide applicable technology. complexity in design and feasibility of application. The following subsections look at other peer technologies which are predominantly used as networking. with wider operating space (range). Before we go on to describe the competing technologies. reliable. to provide controlling and monitoring services. primarily focus either directly or indirectly on the ability to support higher datarates. size.2. Their feasibility to apply for home automation needs is studied. Similarly. automation and sensor technologies.

It utilizes the unlicensed 2. intended to replace cables connecting portable and/or fixed electronic devices. Bluetooth Bluetooth is a short range communication technology. Cell phones. data peripherals (mice. several piconets can be linked together to form a bigger network. with frequency hopping and avoids interference by hopping to a new frequency 1600 times a second and using small packet size. Also. it is highly unlikely it is used for home automation. other than the applications that need Audio/Video transmissions. low power and low cost technology. speakers.4GHz ISM Band. Its key features being robust. printers. Infrared . Another major constraint being its lack of flexibility in its topologies as in the scatternets. joysticks. piconet) can be formed with as many as seven slave devices and a master coordinator. PCs). cameras. stereo receivers) and embedded applications[2]. But the effort of Bluetooth to cover more applications and provide quality of service (QoS) has led to its deviation from the design goal of simplicity. low complexity. The complexity of bluetooth makes it expensive and inappropriate for some applications requiring low-cost and low-power applications. audio peripherals (headsets. It has a range of over 10 meters and can easily extend to 100 meters with a power boost. lan access points). intelligent devices (PDAs. Research shows that Bluetooth faces scalability problems[3][4]. Based on its application sphere and its features. we can conclude bluetooth can be a good contender for automation. a globally available frequency band. With the current specifications a small network (called. With its higher bandwidth support and power thirsty features. It can transfer data at a maximum range of 720 Kbps. keyboards. WI-FI ever was a contender for home automation. Typical applications include.It would be wrong even to say.

Z-Wave Z-Wave is a proprietary short-range low-datarate wireless technology. point-to-point control. and light and fan controls predominantly support one-way. even those remotes used for the same function (like turning on and off lights) are not interchangeable with similar remotes from different manufacturers. intruder and fire detection. Because most remotely controlled devices are proprietary and not standardized among manufacturers. So if there is a centralized controlling device which can be used to form a network among all the devices present. Z-Wave is a wireless RF-based communications technology designed for residential and light commercial control and status reading applications such as meter reading. lighting and appliance control. Z-Wave transforms any stand-alone device into an intelligent networked device that can be controlled and monitored wirelessly.Using infrared radiation as a medium of short-range high-speed communication has been in existence for over a decade now. A typical household. The provider has aligned with over a hundred other companies to provide building automation services. Virtually every home appliance comes with an infrared commander. garage door openers. Devices such as TVs. Z-Wave delivers high quality networking by focusing on narrow bandwidth applications and substituting costly hardware with . it could be possible to solve some of these problems. owned by Zensys Inc. as in a home area network. They’re not interchangeable and they don’t support more than one device. As more and more appliances are intended to be remotely controlled. etc. access control. currently use as many as 5-10 remote commanders. Also the spectral band offers unlimited band and is unregulated worldwide[5]. HVAC. more infrared devices are used. It is this technology that zigbee has set out to replace. Their popularity in the home appliance market brought down the prices of Infrared emitters and detectors to throw away rates.

bright). dim. the X-10 protocol is one of the oldest. X-10 Of the few attempts to establish a standard for home networking that would control various home appliances. Zensys claims that Z-Wave is superior to zigbee in several ways. meaning that it wont interfere with WiFi as zigbee sometimes. The network consists of transmitter units. In Zensys says zigbee requires 10 times the power that Z-Wave does. The X-10 commands enable you to change the status of the appliance unit (turn it on or off) or to control the status of a lamp unit (on. X-10 transmissions are synchronized to the zero-crossing point of the AC power line.com. a broad range of devices that control home appliances using the X-10 protocol is available from Radio Shack or web retailers such as www. Currently. The X-10 PRO code format is the de facto standard for power line carrier transmission. This is one possible contending technology that may need to be watched noting its high pitched claims of better performance than zigbee.x10. A special code is used to accommodate the data transfer from analog sensors. Receiving units work as remote control power switches to control home appliances or as remote control dimmers for lamps. It was introduced in 1978 for the Sears Home Control System and the Radio Shack Plug’n Power System. receiver units. It enables . It uses power line wiring to send and receive commands.innovative software solutions. off. Availability and simplicity have made X-10 the best-known home automation standard. and bidirectional units that can receive and transmit X-10 commands.smarthome. The transmitter unit is typically a normally-open switch that sends a predefined X-10 command if the switch is closed.com and www. such as operating at 908 MHz in the United States and at 868 MHz in Europe. A binary 1 is represented by a 1ms burst of 120KHz at the zero-cross point and binary 0 by the absence of 120KHz. Bidirectional units may send their current status (on or off) upon request.

Automation is the buzz word for zigbee. Pressure sensors. For any power appliances. Monitoring: Surveillance systems. It stands to automate our household. and lack of security. Figure 1.2 Applications There has been tremendous excitement on part of the corporates. too slow for any meaningful data communication between nodes.1: Wireless Technologies 1. Meter reading monitors. the market and the consumers alike because of the wide spectrum of applications that zigbee has to offer. low reliability. The figure 1.play operation with any home appliance and doesn’t require special knowledge to configure and operate a home network. Fire alarms. corporate buildings and industries. . Reliability and security issues rule out the use of the X-10 network for critical household applications like remote control of an entry door. The effective data transfer rate is 60bps. It is a revolutionary new technology built to compliment or replace existing not so successful technologies. The downside of its simplicity is slow speed. High redundancy in transition is dictated by heavy signal degradation in the power line. Its control and monitoring capabilities offer an excellent platform for automation.plugand. the X10 transmission looks like noise and is subject to removal by the power line filters. A host of application categories/scenarios are presented here: . Health and Environment monitors.1 illustrates the datarate and the operating range of zigbee in comparison to the other famous wireless technologies.

and informing the controlling station about the current inventory level. constantly monitoring the contents of the refrigerator. To have a better understanding on how well these technologies can be applied to make our lives even more lazy and loathsome. these application scenarios can be applied broadly into three application spheres. In industrial applications there are personnel deployed to monitor certain critical situations. . feasibility and requirements posed by each sphere of application. these are merely applications that are intended/desired and there may be scenarios where this technology cannot be successfully applied. The controlling station. Control: Health. based on the complexity. can be installed. Efficiency. will be intelligent enough to decide if its time to shop for a particular item and prepares the .. Its significance is no way inferior in the home application sphere. Sensors. power consumption. by waking up at prescribed intervals. Industrial Each of the application categories. Home . A simple monitoring device. health and resource (water. and services offered by zigbee. As already stated. controlling the lighting system are no way similar to the home and the Industrial application spheres. lets go through some of these applications in detail. At home. For example. the contents of the refrigerator. Environment. etc)management need constant monitoring. environmental. fuel. Firstly. apply differently to each of the application spheres. Home. Building and Industry Automation . Building . Conservation Theoretically there can be innumerable number of applications. It only depends on how better we tend to harness the flexibility. gas. even though look very similar. Monitoring is a part of our daily activity. Imagine a situation where the refrigerator shops for items that are frequently used but are currently low on stock.

consider an industrial application where a bigger and intelligent controlling node is stationed at a manufacturing plant. pressure applying devices. boilers. These devices either wake up at regular intervals. Or it can merely relay the archived video of the past few minutes back to the security control room. Several smaller nodes spread across the plant which constantly keeps posting the central controlling node about the current status of the individual machine. . Allocate utility costs equitably based on actual consumption . or constantly monitorthe given machine/application. a motion detection camera for intruder detection. Similarly. Provide detailed data to improve preventive maintenance programs . Similarly. Similarly. Reduce energy expenses through optimized HVAC management . a pressure threshold break can be reported back to the concerned personnel. when the security camera detects unwanted motion. this technology can be conveniently applied to obtain better efficiency and conservation of scarce and precious resources. which then executes the appropriate service routines. etc need not have a constant monitoring solution. Critical applications like security sensors need to be constantly active. Configuring and running multiple systems from a single remote control .order form and either issues it to its master or directly to the supermarket through the internet. where as thermostats. Automate data acquisition from remote sensors to reduce user intervention . It can call on the security staff. And any abnormalities that these sensors observe are reported back to the controlling station. And now lets assume thermostats. etc are operational across the plant. pressure sensors.

But key to such implementations are cost.There is no dearth of applications for this technology. . power consumption and bandwidth requirements.

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