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FOURTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM
MINERAL RESOURCES AND MINE DEVELOPMENT
22 - 23 May 2013 RWTH Aachen University Institute of Mining Engineering I www.aims.rwth-aachen.de
04 December 2012 PRESENTATIONS ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE!
Mining Policies, Strategies and Concepts (Mineral Resources)
-001 The Sangan Iron Ore Mines: An example for modern mining in Iran Kretschmann, J. (Professor, President of Technische Fachhochschule Georg Agricola, Germany) Sustainable development strategy for Serbian open cast coal mines and thermo power plants Pavlovic, V. (Professor, University of Belgrade, Serbia) Quantitative analysis of iron ore prices Wårell, L. (Researcher Economics, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden) Deep sea mining concept for manganese nodules and its economic evaluation Knodt, S. (VP Technology & Innovation, Aker Wirth, Germany) Is the lead indicator GDP/DMC preliminarily proposed by the European Commission an appropriate indicator to measure resource efficiency? Valero, Al. (Project manager, CIRCE, Spain)
Mineral Resources Management and Supply Situation (Mineral Resources)
-006 The potential of rare-earth Elements in oxidic deep-sea mineral deposits (Ferromanganese nodules and crusts) Halbach, P. E. (Prof. emer, FU Berlin, Germany) An effective way to preliminary assess mineral resource projects Steinmüller, K. (Senior Geologist, CRONIMET Mining AG, Germany) Tracking of critical minerals using multispectral quantitative analysis: the case of Chelopech (Bulgaria) Evrard, M. (Searcher, Université de Liège, Belgium) Rohstoffallianz – Finding ways to secure critical raw materials for the German industry Loois, E. (Head Business Development, RA Rohstoffallianz GmbH, Germany)
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The importance of economically strategic raw materials und the role of the DERA for securing Germany’s raw materials supply Steinbach, V. (Head of Department Mineral Resources, Geozentrum Hannover, Germany)
Environmental Challenges and Approaches (Mineral Resources)
-011 Health hazards and environmental issues at the uranium mine near Tatanagar, India Sharma, S.K. (Head of Department of Environmental Education, Carman Residential and Day School, India) Coping with the extraction of dimension stones. Current situation and sustainable outlook for natural stone waste management Furcas, C. (PhD Student, University of Cagliari, Italy)
Views, Statements and Needs of Governments, Sectors and Enterprises (Mineral Resources)
-013 Significant factors that influence motivation of employees within the mining sector Yasrebi, A.B. (PhD Student, Camborne School of Mines, UK) Transference of German risk management system in Vietnamese coal mining industry: Prerequisites of a successful implementation Kretschmann, J. (Professor, President of Technische Fachhochschule Georg Agricola Bochum, Germany) Raw materials of strategic economic importance for hightech made in Germany - a new research programme Mennicken, L. (Scientific Officer, Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany)
Mine Planning, Organization and Logistics (Mine Development)
-016 Process-oriented configuration of mine suspended monorails assemblies Winkler, T. (Manager of the Laboratory of Modelling Methods and Ergonomics, KOMAG Institute of Mining Technology, Poland)
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Geomechanical risk assessment for transversal anisotropic rock mass subjected to mining, using strength theories based on true 3D triaxial compression laboratory tests Pytel, W. (Professor, KGHM Cuprum CBR, Poland) Longwall mining skin to skin or with chain pillars, only a matter of habit te Kook, J. (Official and Accredited Expert Strata Control and Support Technology, DMT GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) Recent developments in ground control in Australian coal mines Thomas, R. (Principal, Strata Engineering Australia Pty Ltd, Australia) Economic evaluation as a critical part of the mine development process: The case of rare earths. Klossek, P. (Research Associate, Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology, Germany) Sustainable aggregates planning in South East Europe Shields, D. (Visiting Professor, Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria) Australia in Pole Position in International Mining Leschhorn, F. (Director, Munich Mining & Industry Consulting, Australia)
Continuous Mining Technologies for Hard-Rock Applications (Mine Development)
-023 Development of new long-life bit for hard-rock cutting machine Matsui, K. (Professor, Kyushu University, Japan) Stabilization of waste rock dumps in Vietnam as a precondition for successful environmental rehabilitation and reclamation Martens, P. (Director, Institute of Mining Engineering I, RWTH Aachen University, Germany),)
Machine Technology and Equipment (Mine Development)
-025 Robust online mining machine environmental imaging using unique 2d 3d radar technology Winkel, R. (Executive Director, indurad GmbH - The Industrial Radar Company, Germany)
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Take it to the next level - New technology for creating slot holes Burger, W. (Manager Design Division, Herrenknecht AG, Germany) Global Continuous Miner Census 2012 - Results and comparison with 2008 census Dangela, M. (Mining Analyst, McKinsey & Company, Belgium) The MIKRUS longwall system- new mining technology for thin coal seams Dziura, J. (Senior Design Engineer, Kopex Machinery S.A., Poland) New developments in hydraulic energy transportation systems for longwall mining Weinhold, R. (Managing Director, Dipl.-Ing. K. Weinhold GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) Rapid blind shaft sinking Dr. Neye, E. (Project Manager Shafts, Herrenknecht AG, Germany) Development of a rock bolt automation attachment for the installation of improved self-drilling friction bolts Dolsak, W. (Business Line Manager Rock Reinforcement, DYWIDAG-Systems International GmbH, Austria) From plain technology to high tech: Customer specific solutions for LHDs Riedel, C. (Product management, GHH Fahrzeuge GmbH, Germany) Stand der Bohrtechnik bei RAG Opolony, K. (Bereichsleiter bei SB BT, RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Germany) Neueste Entwicklungen bei der K+S Aktiengesellschaft in der Rohstoffgewinnung Grimmig, G. (Dipl.-Ing., K+S Aktiengesellschaft, Germany)
Operational Experiences (Mine Development)
-035 What happened at Upper Big Branch, and what can we learn from this disaster? Brune, J. F. (Research Professor, Colorado School of Mines, USA)
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Probleme des internationalen Bergbaus beim Abbau in großen Teufen - deutsches Know-how liefert die Lösungen Zuber, P. (Leiter Dienstleistung Bergtechnik, RAG Mining Solutions GmbH, Germany) Stability analysis of paste-fill used in underground gold mining by underhand cut and fill method in the Kencana Halmahera Island Indonesia Sulistianto, B. (Mining Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Indonesia) Mining and transportation of clay-ironstone layers with continuous mining technique / experiences and technical solutions at the Hambach surface mine Houben, B. Versatz im Strebbau auf der Grundlage der Erfahrungen im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau NN, The use and application of pumpable resin grouts for rock anchoring Smith, N (Product Marketing Manager Chemicals EMEA, Minova CarboTech, Germany) Zuschnitt und Auffahrung eines Baufeldes in einem gasausbruchsgefährdeten Flöz Sabltony, H. (Werksleiter SB BT, RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Germany)
Future Technological Options (Mine Development)
-042 Emission analysis of cutting tools with regard to material identification Nienhaus, K. (Univ.Prof.Dr.-Ing, Head of IMR RWTH Aachen University, Germany) Evaluation of sensors for positioning applications in the mining industry Nienhaus, K. (Professor, Head of the Institute IMR, RWTH Aachen University, Germany) Einführung von 3D Reparaturanleitungen bei der Firma Putzmeister Solid Pumps GmbH Großmann, B. (Head of Sales, DMT GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) Validation of surfometric imaging for the estimation of size distribution by weight of rock fragments on conveyor belt Dislaire, G. (Research Engineer, University of Liège, Belgium)
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Mining Processes and Resource Efficiency (Mine Development)
-046 Behaviour of longwall powered supports subjected to different roof conditions: a case study Vedala, R.M. (Professor of Mining Engg., NITK-Surathkal, India) Geostatistical analysis of the calorific value and energy content of the Mavropigi multi-seam lignite deposit in Northern Greece Pavlides, A. (Ph.D. candidate, Technical University of Crete, Greece) Achieving resource efficiency by co-extracting sand and gravel in the Rhenish opencast lignite mines Eyll-Vetter, M. (Head of Department, RWE Power AG, Germany) Modelling a longwall production system using Flexsim Cai, D. (PhD candidate, University of Wollongong, Australia)
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MINING POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND CONCEPTS (MINERAL RESOURCES)
The Sangan Iron Ore Mines: An example for modern mining in Iran
Kretschmann J. (Professor, President of Technische Fachhochschule Georg Agricola, Germany) Amiri R. (PhD Student, Faculty of Georesources and Materials Engineering of RWTH Aachen University, Germany) Mining and related industries are having a long history and tradition in Iran. Today Iran is one of the most important producers of raw materials in the world. The country holds 68 types of minerals, including salt, sand and gravel, chrome, lead, zinc, copper, coal, gold, iron ore etc. with 37 billion tons of proven reserves in total and more than 57 billion tons of potential reservoirs. Iran is ranked among the 15 major mineral rich countries. In this paper the history of mining in Iran, the current status of Iran's Mining Industries and its international rank is described. Furthermore the importance of the state owned mining company Iranian Mines and Mining Industries Development and Renovation Organization (IMIDRO) will be demonstrated. Then, the development of the Sangan Iron Ore Mines (SIOM) which are located in a remote, but strategic important area near the border of Afghanistan will be explained. SIOM can be seen as an example for modern and sustainable mining in Iran. Facts and figures about the deposits of SIOM, general and technical specifications of the development of these mines and the plan of Iran'’s government for these important iron ore deposits will be presented. Advantages and useful impacts of the development of SIOM have been very considerable from the beginning. It has improved the living standard of the population in the Sangan region, increased the level of education and employment and reduced criminal activities. These positive effects will be demonstrated with statistics and figures. Keywords: Iran, IMIDRO, SIOM and Useful Impacts of Mining -002
Sustainable development strategy for Serbian open cast coal mines and thermo power plants
Pavlovic V. (Professor, University of Belgrade, Serbia) Ignjatovic D. (Professor, University of Belgrade, Serbia) Subaranovic T. (State Secretary, Republic of Serbia, Ministry of Natural Resources, Mining and Spatial Planning, Belgrade) Coal resources are of great importance for energy development and the overall economy of Serbia and are the most important domestic energy potential as in the structure of the total primary energy reserves account for about 85%. The most significant coal resources are located in Kostolac and Kolubara basins from which, by surface mining, it is provided about 40 million tons of coal annually.
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Coal mining strategy must be based primarily on the limited exploitation reserves and coordinated plans and the Strategy for the development of the Electric Power Industry of Serbia and the state in terms of construction and reliable supply of power plants as well as the best practices of the EU European Commission in relation to the sustainable management policy and mineral resources mining with recognizing the economic, environmental and social aspects. Coal mining strategy of Kolubara and Kostolac basins is a key five-year program of safe and reliable supply of existing and new thermo power plants by coal, considering the overall generation potentials of these basins. In addition to being a key from the aspect of these two basins importance, it is urgent taking into account the current state of surface mining especially in the Kolubara basin. The Strategy implementation is a complex and nonlinear process of the detailed situation analysis and strategic decision-making based on the anticipation of the future conditions. PEST and SWOT analysis were derived from the previous analysis of the Kolubara and Kostolac basins current state. Analysis of growth in energy consumption in the next period shows that it is necessary to carry out projects for construction of three new power plants (3*700 MW) in accordance with the basic principles of sustainable development. In doing so, a power capacity of 700 MW would meet the expected growth in consumption, and the other would be a replacement capacity for the old ones, inefficient and environmentally unfriendly units. Analysed mining basin has sufficient quantities of suitable coal quality, which can, with appropriate investments in the development and opening of open cast mines, support such development trend of electricity generation. Dynamics of coal mining for the safe supply of thermal power plants and industrial and consumer goods within the five year period with the risk analysis is discussed in the optimistic and realistic option. -003
Quantitative analysis of iron ore prices
Wårell L. (Researcher Economics, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden) For a long period the iron ore market has been characterized by so called producer pricing, i.e., large producers and consumers in the two dominating regional markets have negotiated an annual benchmark price. However, during the last years there has been a change in iron ore pricing. Larger volumes of iron ore (mainly in Asia) have been traded on a so called spot market. In 2010, the system of yearly negotiated prices finally was abolished by the three dominating iron ore producers (Vale, Rio Tinto and BHP Billiton) who have introduced a system of quarterly negotiated prices, which are influenced by the spot market prices during the previous quarter. This paper performs a quantitative analysis of iron ore prices. The analysis focuses on two general issues. First, are prices more volatile before or after the introduction of spot market pricing? Second, has the change in pricing regime had a significant effect on the iron ore price? The quantitative analysis uses monthly data between January 2003 and August 2012. The reason for the chosen time period is that this period includes both pricing regimes, i.e., both a dominating use of long term contracts and a dominating use of spot market pricing. A statistical test for endogenous structural brakes in the iron ore price series is conducted and the results confirm the existence of a structural break about the time of the change in pricing regime. In a second step a reduced regression model is specified, where the monthly iron ore price is assumed to be a function of a number of different factors that affects the iron ore price. Since we analyse time series data it is important to test the variables for stationarity. All price series tested contain a unit root, which is why tests for co-integration among the series have been performed. In short, iron ore prices, GDP growth in China and freight rates are co-integrated when regressed together with a dummy variable that captures a change in the time series due to the change in pricing regime. All econometric model results thus indicate that the market dummy variable is highly significant, and it is once again confirmed that iron ore prices are affected
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by a change in pricing regime. The fact that the change in pricing regime has had a significant effect on iron ore prices has important implications for iron ore producers. -004
Deep sea mining concept for manganese nodules and its economic evaluation
Knodt S. (VP Technology & Innovation, Aker Wirth, Germany) Kleinen T. (Stellv. Entwicklungsleiter, Aker Wirth, Germany) Dornieden C. (Projektmanager, Aker Wirth, Germany) In cooperation with the BGR (German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources) Aker Wirth has developed a concept for deep sea mining of manganese nodules in water depth up to 6000m to evaluate for the German license area in the Pacific Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone CCZ. The three core elements of this deep sea mining system are two nodules collectors, the integrated vertical transport system (riser) using the next generation of air-lift technology and a new concept for a production vessel. The nodules collector is a crawler type vehicle with a new collecting drum technology with limited influence on the seabed structure. The collector is fully covered to reduce the silt plum and therefore the environmental impact. The crawler is equipped with advanced sensor technologies as well as with nodules handling, cleaning and pumping systems. Via hoses and a buffer the collector is connected to the vertical transport system. The air lift technology has been a proven technology for many years and has the huge potential to be also competitive even up to 6000m water depth. The riser as the vertical transport system is the key element in the subsea mining system integrating functionalities for power supply, feeding / air injection and emergency. The concept for the production vessel is considering the requirements for riser handling, air compressors, deaerating bin, heave compensating system, nodules hopper and offloading system for jointed bulkers. With an integrated approach, ship navigation, sea conditions and vehicles motion control needs to be considered for the engineering of the complete system. For the proposed deep sea mining concept a comprehensive profitability analysis was done taking into consideration a sustainable and ecological choice of mining areas, the needed investment in equipment and the operational costs as well as the available processing technologies for minerals and the material price development for the dominant materials Co, Ni and Cu. As of today there is a clear gap of proven mineral processing technology of the rare earth elements in the manganese nodules with a strong need for advanced processes. As the demand of rare earth elements for strategic important high tech industries is growing, manganese nodules has a huge potential to cover these needs and with a process technology in place to increase the profitability of deep sea mining even further. An outlook will be given on the potential mining areas in the CCZ as in 2012 the first three industry driven exploration licenses for polymetallic nodules have been approved by the International Seabed Authority ISA.
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Is the lead indicator GDP/DMC preliminarily proposed by the European Commission an appropriate indicator to measure resource efficiency?
Valero Al. (Project manager, CIRCE, Spain) Valero An. (Director, CIRCE, Spain) The European Commission has proposed in a previous inquiry to experts, different indicators to adopt as part of the Resource Efficiency Roadmap. The lead indicator proposed is GDP/DMC. Being GDP the Gross Domestic Product and DMC the total amount of materials directly used by an economy (calculated through a material flow analysis – MFA) and is defined as the annual quantity of raw materials extracted from the domestic territory, plus all physical imports minus all physical exports. This paper analyzes the drawbacks of using such an indicator especially when assessing mineral resources. Particularly, it is stated that the aforementioned index does not provide enough information in the identification of risks of resource supply and the consequences of resource use in Europe. DMC measures consumption of materials, but it is the dispersion of them inside our borders what is relevant. Additionally, such an aggregated indicator does not supply any relevant information, since those materials that are extracted massively (such as iron or aluminium) will eclipse other materials that are much more critical for our economy (such as REE or cobalt that are used in much smaller quantities). Moreover, MFA is a good starting point for accounting purposes. However, if we stay at this level, we are only taking into account facts in the past. It does not consider the implications that the consumption of materials has in the future. In order to overcome the deficiencies (or some of them) expressed above, this paper proposes to assess the dispersion of materials through replacement costs. The latter represent the useful energy that would be required to reproduce the minerals from the most dispersed state (the bedrock) to the original conditions (of composition and concentration in the mineral deposits if we are talking about mineral resources). This has the advantage that with the same units (energy units), we can assess any substance (hence, we are not comparing apples with oranges). Dispersing a scarce mineral such as gold or cobalt has a much higher replacement cost than that of iron and in the final accounting, the first minerals have a greater weight. Consequently both factors (tonnage produced and dispersion degree) are considered in the proposed index. Furthermore, the index would lead to enhance policies that reduce the consumption of scarce materials with high replacement costs.
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MINERAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND SUPPLY SITUATION (MINERAL RESOURCES)
The potential of rare-earth Elements in oxidic deep-sea mineral deposits (Ferromanganese nodules and crusts)
Halbach P. E. (Prof. emer, FU Berlin, Germany) Cherkashov G. (Prof., VNIIOkeangeologia, Russia) Schneider S. (Dipl. Geol., FU Berlin, Germany) Jahn Andreas (Dipl. Geol., FU Berlin, Germany) The rare earth elements (REEs) have been defined by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) as 15 lanthanides plus scandium and yttrium. Because of their geochemical properties, REEs typically are dispersed and not so often found in concentrated and economically exploitable deposits. In order to be soluble in aqueous solutions, they have to be coordinated with anions. In the aqueous systems of the rivers and the oceans the absolute REE concentrations drop significantly compared to their contents in magmatic and sedimentary upper crustal rocks. Deep-sea deposits like Co-rich ferromanganese seamount crusts and pelagic manganese nodules take up their metal content predominantly from seawater and pore water. REE contents of Co-rich ferromanganese crusts are seven to eight orders of magnitude higher than REE contents in seawater. Their REE contents (typical content in dried matter: about 2100 ppm; 14 elements) are in the range of continental ion-adsorption clay deposits, as they exist, for example, in South China and which are profitably mined. Nodules contain less REEs (about 700 ppm in dried matter). The total REE amount of polymetallic nodules on the seafloor of the world'’s oceans is 22.5 x 106 t, whereby a maximum of 15.0 x 106 t is considered to be revoverable. This corresponds to 15.7 % of the tonnages of REEs in land-based reserves (95.7 x 106 t: USGS, 2012). The REE potential of recoverable Co-rich ferromanganese crusts in the world’s oceans adds up to at least 69.5 x 106 t, which corresponds to 72.6 % of the REE reserves of land-based deposits. In the case of ferromanganese crusts, the estimation is based on the visible occurrence of the young crust generation only. Summarizing the total REE potential in marine oxidic deposits amounts to 84.5 x 106 t REEs (classified as “inferred resources”) which corresponds to 88.3 % of the REE reserves in land-based deposits. The total Y quantity in oxidic seafloor deposits is 7.1 x 106 t which is about ten times more than the continental reserves. Since the marine oxidic deposits generally are economically interesting, in particular, because of their main metals (e.g. Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Ti), the REEs might be considered as significant byproducts. A great advantage of the marine oxidic deposits is the virtual absence of radioactive waste elements like Th and U.
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An effective way to preliminary assess mineral resource projects
Steinmüller K. (Senior Geologist, CRONIMET Mining AG, Germany) Kistner P. (Head of Corporate Development, CRONIMET Mining AG, Germany) The CRONIMET Group is an integrated commodity company being active in producing, recycling and trading ferroalloys and special metals worldwide. Within the group, the CRONIMET Mining AG is working along the whole value chain from mining minerals to distributing processed ore minerals respectively metals to the world’s metal-producing industry. Related to the groups’ business the CRONIMET Mining AG is aiming to develop mineral resource projects of commodities such as chromium, molybdenum, nickel, cobalt, vanadium, antimony, tantalum, tin or tungsten. This is done not only to secure the supply of raw materials for the whole CRONIMET Mining Group, but also to create value for CRONIMET Mining and its Stakeholders. In order to effectively identify and evaluate mineral resource projects, CRONIMET Mining AG has set up a corporate strategy with the following selection criteria: •No investment in greenfield mineral resource exploration projects •Investment in advanced mineral resource projects •Preference of projects that - yield high ore values - will have low to moderate operation costs - require initial low to medium investment -. proof “manageable” modifying factors - produce quickly a sellable product which fits into CRONIMET’s commodity portfolio In order to select projects according to the above criteria, CRONIMET Mining AG is focussing on the following parameters of a project: • • • • • Policy situation of a jurisdiction Ore value of a mineral resource Mining/milling costs (OpEx) Initial investment amount (CapEx) Net Present Value (NPV)
Has an individual project been classified as interesting in regard to the above parameters, a comparison with other similar mineral resource projects is undertaken. Parameters to compare are: • • • Capital intensity = Investment (CapEx) per unit (t, lb or mtu) of ore On site operation costs (OpEx) per unit (t, lb or mtu) of ore Cash Flow Index (CFI) = NPV per unit (USD/Euro) of investment
Finally, in case a mineral resource project has good chances to be developed in a sustainable way, follow-up measure are undertaken such as:
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• • • •
M&A negotiations with project owners, such as developers Due Diligence review of the project Negotiations with Financial Institutions regarding the project financing Planning and realization of required exploration and/or development work
Tracking of critical minerals using multispectral quantitative analysis: the case of Chelopech (Bulgaria)
Evrard M. (Searcher, Université de Liège, Belgium) Pirard E. (Dr Ir Professor, Université de Liège, Belgium) Chelopech ore deposit (Bulgaria) is an epithermal high-sulfidation ore with high grade copper (1.28%) and gold (3.4g/tons). Mineralization set up in Cretaceous era (91.45Ma) and is composed of typical epithermal high-sulfidation sulfides such as pyrite, enargite, tennantite, bornite, covellite, chalcopyrite, (galena, sphalerite) and gold. However, the bulk of extracted copper comes from arsenides and sulfosalts minerals (enargite, luzonite and tennantite). Critical elements such as germanium, gallium, telluride, selenium and tin are also present in very low grade in the ore. Critical elements are more and more important in our geopolitical world and their importance is higher every day. These elements are often rare, difficult to identify and to trace in the ore process. An automated image analysis process is applied on run of mine (sieved), concentrates and tailings samples polished sections. Several pictures of each polished sections are taken in three monospectral wavelengths. The images are then classified and corrected using image processing operations: Thresholding, Erosion, Geodesic Reconstruction, Closing, Hole-fill and Logical Difference. The imaged-based analysis achieved on the different samples fits with optical and chemical analysis. Minerals phases are quantified at each stage of the plant processing. In Chelopech ore deposit, critical elements can be either major components of a mineral phase (10 % Ge in germanite) or appear as traces inside a given mineral (a few ppm Ge in enargite). Ge is present in enargite, bornite and chalcopyrite, Se is present in galena, Te is present with gold and it is now possible to trace them in the process using multispectral quantitative analysis. The applied methodology allows to quantify mineral proportion present at each stage of the ore processing. Thus, valuable and critical elements present in various minerals can be tracked toward the plant. Those mineralogical information are necessary to improve the ore processing and tailings management. -009
Rohstoffallianz – Finding ways to secure critical raw materials for the German industry
Loois E. (Head Business Development, RA Rohstoffallianz GmbH, Germany) 1. Supply and price risks of raw materials
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2. Positioning on strategic minerals Definition of criticality Study outcome 3. Establishment of RA Rohstoffallianz Reasons for existence Business criteria 4. Case Study for rare earth elements -010
The importance of economically strategic raw materials und the role of the DERA for securing Germany’s raw materials supply
Steinbach V. (Head of Department Energy Resources, Mineral Resources, Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources - BGR, Germany) Due to the rapid economical growth in the emerging markets and the development of new technologies, the demand for raw materials has increased significantly. The supply with raw materials is virtually the “Achilles’ heel” of the German industry, especially for the key and advanced technologies. With regard to new technologies, particularly the development of renewable energies and electro mobility, an increasing demand for economically strategic raw materials, especially for the so-called high-tech metals like rare earths, lithium, tantalum, indium, germanium etc. must be anticipated. Supporting the German industry in that key aspect, the German Mineral Resources Agency (DERA) in the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) was founded in 2010. Infolge der rasanten wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung der Schwellenländer und der Einführung neuer Technologien ist der Bedarf an mineralischen Rohstoffen in den letzten Jahren deutlich gestiegen. Die Rohstoffversorgung ist sozusagen die „Achilles Ferse“ für die deutsche Wirtschaft, insbesondere für die Schlüssel- und High-TechIndustrie. Mit Blick auf die Entwicklung neuer Technologien, beispielsweise für den Ausbau der erneuerbaren Energien oder der Elektromobilität, wird ein hoher Anstieg des Bedarfs an wirtschaftsstrategischen Rohstoffen, besonders der sogenannten High-Tech-Metalle, wie Seltene Erden, Lithium, Tantal, Indium, Germanium und anderen vorhergesagt. Um die deutsche Wirtschaft bei dieser Schlüsselfrage zu unterstützen, wurde die Deutsche Rohstoffagentur (DERA) 2010 an der Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) gegründet.
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ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES AND APPROACHES (MINERAL RESOURCES)
Health hazards and environmental issues at the uranium mine near Tatanagar, India
Sharma S.K. (Head of Department of Environmental Education, Carman Residential and Day School, India) In India, progress and pollution come as a package deal. Though, nuclear energy is the cleanest source of power, no soot, smoke or greenhouse gases. And, if the safety norms are strictly adhered to, there will be insignificant fractional increase of back-ground radiation either in the operating area or outside the power plants. Located near Tatanagar in the Sighbhum district of Jharkhand State, the uranium for the country'’s nuclear program is mined here from three underground mines up to a depth of 700m below the earth'’s surface. The nuclear waste tailings” or “uranium tailing” comes from the mines and mills as a waste after the uranium ore is mined and processed for purification and it is then dumped in the tailing ponds. The poisonous nuclear waste has the potential to cause unimaginable damage to the surroundings especially where the water table is low in the area and surface water flows through it. It is observed that the contents of the tailing ponds are highly radio-active, even though uranium has been extracted but the ponds / tailings remain radio-active for a very long time. Radio-active tailings have permeated the groundwater and contaminated surface water sources. The thermal spring water coming in contact with these tailing also becomes radio-active and the concentration of radium of the order of 7 to 9 ppm in these waters becomes an invisible enemy. The devastating effects caused to local people due to uranium mining and the interaction of tailings with ground water at uranium mine near Tatanager in Jharkhand State has been investigated where local people are fighting this invisible enemy. Local habitants suffer from fatigue, lack of appetite, respiratory ailment, infant mortality, skeletal deformities such as fused fingers, skin disease, leukemia, thalassemia and even Parkinson’s disease have been reported. The radium values in thermal waters varying from 7 to 9 ppm from the tailing pond can be compared with that of Karia of Portugal. The high potential for pollution by dissolution of toxic salts inside the tailing ponds suggests that planning for environmental control should include the best possible dealing of substratum before tailings are deposited. Moreover, no settlement is permitted within five kilometers of the uranium mine to safeguard the health of local habitants. -012
Coping with the extraction of dimension stones. Current situation and sustainable outlook for natural stone waste management
Furcas C. (PhD Student, University of Cagliari, Italy) Balletto G. (Researcher, University of Cagliari, Italy) The need for environmental safeguards has recently grown all over the world. Evidently, industrial activities such as mining and quarrying are closely related to the economic development of industrialized countries. Despite the fact that the need for mineral resources is generally reckoned to be a primary concern, these activities may bring about harmful effects on the natural environment. In addition to this, there is a strong connection between quarrying activity and the construction industry. In fact, an increasing need for private building (residences) and civil engineering projects (schools, hospitals, transport infrastructures, etc.) closely corresponds to a greater demand for construction materials, such as aggregates
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and dimension stones. This relation is more evident in emerging markets. An example within Europe is provided by the rapid growth of Central and Eastern European States. The extraction of natural dimension stones especially may have negative impacts, owing to both economic and environmental reasons. Indeed, intensive quarrying activity frequently generates huge amounts of natural stone waste and slurry. This waste is often dumped inside the quarry boundaries or in places nearby the quarry. Therefore, quarrying companies have to deal with a reduced efficiency of their plants, since large amounts of quarried materials are left out. Also, they might be affected by the increasing fees of waste disposal. Furthermore, the continuous dumping of large quantities of waste could lead to possible environmental risks and to the impoverishment of the stock of land resources. In order to deal with the demand for natural resources from a sustainable perspective, some industrialized countries have undertaken strict environmental protection policies. As an example, they have tried to minimize the exploitation of nonrenewable resources. In contrast, since mining and quarrying have a great impact on the economic and social welfare of the society, not only the minimization, but also the valorization of stone waste should be considered as strategic goals. In the light of this framework, this work will provide the state of the art of the dimension stone market, highlighting its correlations with the natural stone waste produced. Additionally, the analysis will provide some examples of virtuous re-uses of this type of waste. The aim is to examine the economic risks and opportunities of the re-use of natural stone waste, so as to manufacture high-quality by-products for the construction industry.
VIEWS, STATEMENTS AND NEEDS OF GOVERNMENTS, SECTORS AND ENTERPRISES (MINERAL RESOURCES)
Significant factors that influence motivation of employees within the mining sector
Yasrebi A.B. (PhD Student, Camborne School of Mines, UK) Wetherelt A. (Programme Director BEng Mining Engineering, Camborne School of Mines, UK) Foster P. (MSc SLEM Programme Director, CSM Director of Postgraduate Research & Progression, University of Exeter, UK) Peyman Afzal P. (Camborne School of Mines, UK) Esfahanipour R. (Manager of Exploration and Development Engineering, National Iranian Copper Industries Co - NICICO, Iran) Kaveh Ahangaran D. (PhD Student candidate, Camborne School of Mines, UK) In the past, many studies relating to staff motivation within the workplace have been conducted for the mining sector. Of course, motivated employees are the main key to achieving success of any organisation. However, the goal of this paper is to identify factors and behaviours which principally motivate staff within the mining sector. In order to determine these elements, this research was carried out at different copper mines located within Iran with differing climates and working conditions by the collection of a set of questionnaires distributed amongst the mining workforce. The results of this research indicate that the highest rates of demotivation occur often among old and experienced personnel in comparison to the younger employees although older staff definitely has the talent and initiative of younger personnel. As a result, older employees continue to work with cynicism, negativism and defiance. To successfully control and correspondingly overcome the problem of
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employees’ demotivation that prevents mining sectors from achieving prior planned targets, a set of proposals based on this study have been recommended. Keywords: Motivation; Factors and behaviours; Copper mines; Iran -014
Transference of German risk management system in Vietnamese coal mining industry: Prerequisites of a successful implementation
Kretschmann J. (Professor, President of Technische Fachhochschule Georg Agricola Bochum, Germany) Nguyen Thi Hoai Nga (PhD Candidate, Mining Institute 1, RWTH Aachen, Germany) The implementation of a risk management system in German hard coal mining especially in occupational safety and health has been helping to reach the “Zero accidents” goal in recent years. Regarding Occupational Safety and Health (OSH), the Vietnamese coal mining industry also makes plenty of efforts in reaching the target of “Non – accident”. However, in upcoming years, when open – pit mines are gradually closed and excavation underground faces with complicated geological conditions, improvement in OSH will become a big challenge. The transference of the German risk management system in mining to Vietnam is one of solutions for a successful improvement policy. How to transfer the system to Vietnam and under which circumstances the implementation can be successful are the main contents of this article. Measures of the implementation are discussed within case study and methods to evaluate the effectiveness of the transference by the follow – ups. This topic relates to people not only in Vietnam, but also in Southeast Asia in enhancement their efforts for a social sustainable development of their coal mining industry. -015
Raw materials of strategic economic importance for high -tech made in Germany - a new research programme
Mennicken L. (Scientific Officer, Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany) Key technologies made in German, such as solar and wind energy, information technologies or electro mobility, and environmental technologies depend on the reliable availability of (imported) non-energetic metals and minerals. R&D is the basis of innovations for higher resource efficiency including increased supply from primary and secondary resources in a more sustainable way. Thus efficient exploitation and sustainable use of raw materials is a vital contribution to securing the industrial production and the development of a “Green Economy”. The German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) funds joint R&D projects from academia and industry. Ongoing and upcoming BMBF activities on raw materials of strategic economic importance will be presented. This includes an overview and projects of the funding priority \"r3 – Innovative Technologies for Resource Efficiency – Strategic metals and minerals\". Furthermore BMBF’s most recent R&D programme on new resource technologies \"Raw materials of strategic economic importance for high-tech made in Germany\", will be introduced. Research and development along the value chain of non-energetic mineral raw materials will be supported by ca. 200 million Euros over the next ten years. A focus is set on increasing supply of primary and secondary raw materials.
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Focal Points of this R&D programme will be: • Concepts for exploration of primary and secondary raw materials • Development of technical concepts for economical use of complex ores of known deposits • Recycling of end-of-life products • Recycling of mining and production residues
MINE PLANNING, ORGANIZATION AND LOGISTICS (MINE DEVELOPMENT)
Process-oriented configuration of mine suspended monorails assemblies
Winkler T. (Manager of the Laboratory of Modelling Methods and Ergonomics, KOMAG Institute of Mining Technology, Poland) Tokarczyk J. (Leader of the Group for Virtual Prototyping, KOMAG Institute of Mining Technology, Poland) Turewicz A. (Design Engineer, KOMAG Institute of Mining Technology, Poland) Product Configuration term has been known in the machinery industry for a long time and it refers to products of variant or modular structure. Configuration of components and sub-systems of the product, which meets the requirements of the customer, is created on the basis of rules for selection, combination and parameterization of product features. Product Configuration defined as the activities leading to realization of specific order of customer is oriented on the following processes in a factory: getting the customers, development of offers and calculations, development of workshop documentation and list of parts, manufacturing, selling. Some systems of mining machines and equipment change their configuration many times during entire life cycle. The first configuration is arranged in the factory, and then machines are configured in mine at the place of operation. In the case of mine suspended monorails, the assemblies used in the transportation systems adequate to present needs are delivered to the mine. Assemblies of suspended monorails and load-bearing systems are selected depending on the following: shape of transportation route, type of transported load, geological-and-mining conditions. Selected configuration implies the computational models used in verification of suspended monorail components. Combinations of planning the transportation system based on suspended monorails and planning the rest processes in mine are presented. Formalization of the rules for selection of assemblies is discussed. Methods for visualization and verification of transportation systems are given for the selected configuration, especially in the light of safety criteria. Documents associated with the present configuration, which condition safe mining operations, are discussed. Management of mine material resources is aided by the ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems. Application of data collected in these systems for configuration of suspended monorails is shown.
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Geomechanical risk assessment for transversal anisotropic rock mass subjected to mining, using strength theories based on true 3D triaxial compression laboratory tests
Pytel W. (Professor, KGHM Cuprum CBR, Poland) Palac-Walko B. (Specialist, KGHM Cuprum CBR, Poland) Mertuszka P. (Senior Engineer, KGHM Cuprum CBR, Poland) The Legnica-Glogów Copper Basin is the area where the underground copper mining operations are usually associated with a high seismic activity with high-energy tremors creating a significant risk for the mine underground infrastructure. For better understanding of this type of seismicity, the stronger tremors’ focal mechanisms are investigated on the routine basis in the local mines’ seismic stations. The largest risk for the mining operations are created by high-energy tremors which hipocenters are located within main roof strata composed of a sedimentary type of rocks – mainly dolomite/anhydrite, about 40-200 m above the excavated copper ore body. These categories of rock clearly exhibit anisotropic strength/deformation parameters what may affect significantly the safety level value represented by the appropriate safety margin (or safety factor) based on adequate strength hypotheses. Since the most often encountered focal mechanisms of such tremors are the slipping type mechanism with the rupture plane, typically the Coulomb-Mohr theory of strength is applied in Polish copper mines for safety level assessment. However it has been assumed that strength theories based on the complete three principal stresses’ set should serve as an indicator providing better correlation between observed and well characterized sedimentary rock strata failure mechanisms and the location of concentration areas of the negative values of margin of safety. Therefore one may conclude that the unique conjunction of stress induced by mining, the coseismic alterations of stress field and the primary stress in rock mass involving also the tectonic residual components, are the most important elements involved in such tremors’ occurrence. Since changes of stress in rock mass during the mining process may be effectively tracked using the solutions offered by the appropriate 3D geomechanical models (e.g. FEM), the assessment of these changes due to mining face progress turned out to be possible also in the location where the seismic tremor has occurred and afterwards was characterized by its focal mechanism by using the appropriate geophysical methods. This permitted finding such geomechanical formulae, involving components of rock mass’ strain/stress states and the material characteristics assessed using the “true” 3D compression tests performed on the recently developed original true triaxial apparatus, which on the basis of the long-term path of rock mass loading due to mining predicted by numerical modeling, could indicate the necessary conditions which should be fulfilled if the anticipated by methods of geophysics failure mechanism could develop. The developed approach is illustrated using an example of strong seismic event occurred in 2005 in one of the areas of the Rudna mine.
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Longwall mining skin to skin or with chain pillars, only a matter of habit
te Kook J. (Official and Accredited Expert Strata Control and Support Technology, DMT GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) Thomas R. (Principal, Strata Engineering Australia Pty Ltd, Germany) Longwall mining is worldwide the most widespread method for underground coal extraction. In Australia and the USA it is common practice to run the longwalls with multiple entry systems. In western and eastern Europe and as well in Russia, it is more common to run a longwall with a single entry roadway system. Longwall mining with single entries is with the exception of the UK, done skin to skin. In contrast to this, with multiple entry systems, neighbouring longwalls are separated by chain pillars.This paper compares in particular from the view of strata control, longwall mining skin to skin to longwall mining with chain pillars. The mining conditions and resulting requirements are explained exemplary for Australia and Germany and their influence on the mine layout, roadway development and ground support techniques are discussed. Possible rock mechanical hazards like periodic weighting, roadway closure and rock bursts are described. The strata mechanical planning tools, their strengths and weaknesses, are also compared and guidance is given as to when the skin to skin or chain pillar method of longwall mining should be used. -019
Recent developments in ground control in Australian coal mines
Thomas R. (Principal, Strata Engineering Australia Pty Ltd, Australia) Wittenberg D. (Head of Business Segment Mining Engineering, Head of the Expert Body for Mechanics and Support Technology, DMT GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) In recent years, several advances have been made to the ground control practices adopted on a routine basis in Australian coal mines. These include improvements in support hardware, mine design and strata management. Developments made in support hardware include the use of 60 and 80 tonne capacity full column grouted cables pre-tensioned to 25 tonnes, self-drilling roof and rib bolts, full-column grouted floor cables, pumpable grout filled cribs, 1000 tonne capacity timber cribs, 40 tonne capacity cuttable rib bolts, bolt-up mesh for longwall recoveries and 1750 tonne capacity longwall shields. In regard to mine design, increasing use has been made of pre-driven longwall recovery roads, yield pillars to reduce driveage requirements in main heading roadways and maximise the amount of stress relief offered to longwall installation roadways, dual entry chain pillars tailored to the serviceability requirements of the mine and not simply a Factor of Safety, and the establishment of industry databases including in particular, primary roof and rib bolt design, secondary roof support design, wide roadway design, chain pillar and tailgate standing support design, and longwall panel width design. Advances made in strata management include the use of visual tell-tale type extensometers, remote reading extensometers, powered support leg pressure and convergence monitoring, Trigger Action Response Plans (TARPs) and Authority to Mines (ATM’s).
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Economic evaluation as a critical part of the mine development proces s: The case of rare earths.
Klossek P. (Research Associate, Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology, Germany) van den Boogaart K. G. (Professor, Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology, Germany) Economic evaluation is an inherent part of the mine development process and is undertaken on each of its steps from the first decision on further exploration to the evaluation of the viability of the mine production plan. Mine development cannot progress without answering the questions: 1) will a mine generate profit and under which circumstances will it do so; 2) which are the probabilities and risks for a mine to generate profits. In order to answer these questions specific input data is needed for the economic calculations. However, generating the required data is problematic for the case of some critical metals due to their specific technological and geopolitical features. A recent example of such metals is rare earths – metals which are critical for new technologies such as permanent magnets used for the production of wind turbines or electric cars, energy efficient lighting, or color screen LCDs. This example is used in the paper to explain, how the specific features of critical metals complicate economic evaluation of correspondent projects. These specific features range from the de facto monopoly of China on the rare earth production and, as a consequence, the intransparent rare earth market, to the environmental impact of available rare earth processing technologies. Due to these specific features classical evaluation methods partially do not apply to the case of rare earths. The authors propose an integrated economic evaluation approach and suggest possible solutions which include, e.g., the use of real options and game theory. Keywords: Mine development, Economic evaluation, Rare Earths -021
Sustainable aggregates planning in South East Europe
Shields D. (Visiting Professor, Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria) Tiess G. (Senior Researcher, Montanuniversität Leoben,Austria) Assuring sustainable supply of aggregates is an important challenge due to their economic contribution, but also the potential environmental and social impacts associated with their production. Th Sustainable Aggregates Planning in South East Europe (SNAP-SEE) project is has been funded by the EU SEE Transnational Cooperation Programme. It focuses on developing and disseminating tools for aggregates management and planning in Southeast Europe (SEE) and builds on the results of the Sustainable Aggregates Resource Management (SARMa) project. SNAP-SEE has 27 partners from 13 SEE countries and Turkey and has University of Leoben (MUL), Austria, as lead partner. SNAP-SEE is a 2 year project that will end in September of 2014. Due to regional differences in historical development, there are diverse approaches to aggregates policies, planning and management in SEE that are hindering resource efficiency and economic development in the region, including: differences among mineral policies; aggregates policies and plans that are distributed among many different legal documents, making coordination and a comprehensive understanding difficult; authorities in SEE countries who do not have an understanding of either SARM or planning for sustainable supply mix (SSM); and an almost complete lack of coordination on planning supply from primary and secondary aggregates sources. Given the EU goals of resource and eco-efficiency and recycling, this latter issue is extremely problematic. Thus, the primary objective of SNAP-SEE is to develop a
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Toolbox for Aggregates Planning to support national/regional, primary and secondary aggregates planning in SEE countries, which will include: 1) a SNAP-SEE Vision for a transition to integrated, comprehensive sustainable primary and secondary aggregates planning in SEE; 2) a Handbook on Capacity Building and Stakeholder Consultation; 3) a Handbook on Data and Analysis Methods; and 4) an Aggregates Planning Scheme, containing planning text modules that embody the principles, approaches and action necessary to achieve the goals of the Vision. The results of SNAP-SEE will be publicly available via the project website.
Australia in Pole Position in International Mining
Leschhorn F. (Director, Munich Mining & Industry Consulting, Australia) 1.Introduction Australia in Pole Position was deliberately chosen because similar to a Formular One race it means a significant advantage but without a guarantee for success. Australia is located perfectly in the Asia/Pacific region, the economic power house of the world with highest growth rates and huge consumption of energy, iron ore and metals. Australia produces all those commodities and exports them under free market conditions. The market for minerals is highly competitive. Any comparative cost advantages count heavily to the profitability of mining companies. 2.Status of the Australian Mining Industry Australia is rich in nearly all mineral resources. The annual minerals exports represent a value of over 120b$ with iron ore by far the biggest contributor, followed by metallurgical coal, gold, thermal coal and copper. Due to GFC commodity prices have fallen significantly with the exception of gold. As a result thousands of mining and contractor jobs have been slashed, production have been reduced, some costly operations have been closed and expansions or new projects were shelved. Australia will needs to use this situation to focus on cost control, efficiency and productivity rather than continuing to maximise production. The cyclic nature of the resources market will soon create new growth. Then the Australian mines have to be prepared to be competitive against the new rivals especially in Africa, Asia and South America. 3. Technical Leadership of the Australian Mining Industry The Australian mining industry has taken over the global leadership in operational mining experience and use of technologies. It’s expertise in exploration technology, underground & open-cut mining and minerals processing is requested world-wide. The Australian mining technology and equipment sector had increased its exports from 470 m$ in 1996 to 2.5 b$ in 2009. Many engineering firms, consultants and mining contractors successfully offer their knowhow in overseas markets. 4. Foreign Direct Investment into Australia Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong used to be the dominant investors in the Australian mining industry along with South African, US and Canadian enterprises but the new drive comes from China and India. They have chosen a country with the most restrictive foreign investment regimes in the advanced world. 5. Australian Investments Overseas Besides the international projects of the large Australian multi-national mining houses there are hundreds of smaller exploration and mining companies active in all parts of the world. Australian mining companies use their operational knowledge to develop and operate mines all over the world
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CONTINUOUS MINING TECHNOLOGIES FOR HARD-ROCK APPLICATIONS (MINE DEVELOPMENT)
Development of new long-life bit for hard-rock cutting machine
Matsui K. (Professor, Kyushu University, Japan) Takeuchi K. (Graduate Research Assistant, Kyushu University, Japan) Continuous hard rock cutting technique is now widely applied for tunnel construction. The cutter head with bits and the ground is drivaged by rotating the cutter head and pushing it by thrust. The cobalt-chromium-tungsten alloy attaches on the head of cutter bits. The bit wear during cutting operation is inevitable. Moreover, once the bit hits with hard materials such as a cobblestone, the bit may get damaged. As the wear and damage of bit has an obvious impact on the drivage efficiency of the cutting machine, the suitable type of material and/or structure of bit should be selected according to the geological condition. Although several researches on the wear and/or damage of bit have been conducted under several geological conditions, the guidelines for selection of suitable material and/or structure of bit for a long bit life have not been developed yet. From these conditions, our research attempts to develop the new long-life bit for maintaining the cutting efficiency for long-time even different or irregular geological conditions encountered and the guidelines for selecting suitable bit structure and material for geological condition. This paper describes the characteristics of the developed new long-life bit and then discusses the effect of its unique structure on its impact resistance and that of different bit materials on the bit wear by means of a series of laboratory tests. -024
Stabilization of waste rock dumps in Vietnam as a precondition for successful environmental rehabilitation and reclamation
Martens P. (Director, Institute of Mining Engineering I, RWTH Aachen University, Germany),) Fuchsschwanz M. (Research Assistant, Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Germany),) Katz T. (Senior Engineer, Institute of Mining Engineering I, RWTH Aachen University, Germany).) Coal extraction plays an important role for the economic development of Vietnam. At the moment, around 60% of the coal is extracted from open-pit mines. The large amount of overburden removed by blasting and haulage requires large areas for waste rock dumping. So far, most of the material was disposed on high waste rock dumps (WRD), but recently also the backfilling of open-pits by in-pit dumping has increased. As the coal extraction is more and more moving underground, the topic of mine-closure and land use after mining is rising in attention. Growing environmental awareness leads to higher requirements concerning environmental rehabilitation and reclamation on the part of the government and the local authorities. New regulations obligate the extractive industry to transfer provisions to a fund for future environmental rehabilitation and to establish projects for environment rehabilitation as well as conduct Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA), both of which require approval by an authorized agency.
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The stability of a WRD is a crucial factor for its successful rehabilitation and reclamation. Due to the local climatic conditions in northern Vietnam, with distinct dry and raining periods with extensive rainfalls, special attention has to be paid to the impact of erosion on the stability. The material characteristics have to be considered for slope stability calculations and the construction method has a severe influence on the postconstruction subsidence behavior. The subsidence behavior in turn is crucial for a possible land use after mining. Within the framework of the joint R&D project RAME (Research Association Mining and Environment in Vietnam), research activities for stabilization and rehabilitation of WRD have been carried out by the Institute of Mining Engineering I and the Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, both at RWTH Aachen University. The project was funded by the German Federal Ministry for Research and Education (BMBF). Scientific findings have been conditioned specifically to build up appropriate capacity on the Vietnamese side. In the following several of the technical findings will be presented.
MACHINE TECHNOLOGY AND EQUIPMENT (MINE DEVELOPMENT)
Robust online mining machine environmental imaging using unique 2d 3d radar technology
Winkel R. (Executive Director, indurad GmbH - The Industrial Radar Company, Germany) Rabel M. (Head of Hardware Development, indurad GmbH - The Industrial Radar Company, Germany) Accurate Real Time Information of the geometrical environment of mining machines is essential for safety, productivity and machine automation. Unique 2D and 3D Radar Technology has been developed to acquire terrain contours and to locate people and equipment with high accuracy under fully operational mining conditions. The sensor package combines passive radar to locate objects without being tagged, but as well transponder based elements being able to locate objects in range and angle. The physical radar layer using millimeter waves play a key role within a multi sensor concept with other physical measurement principles to provide functional safety with a maximum of system availability while offering more data for automation purposes. Based on this fundamental technology a series of individual Solutions have been developed addressing individual problems and challenges of open pit and underground mining operations but as well ports and plants. -026
Take it to the next level - New technology for creating slot holes
Burger W. (Manager Design Division, Herrenknecht AG, Germany) Künstle B. (Mining Applications and Business Development, Herrenkencht AG, Germany) Stöhr M. (Project Manager Mining, Herrenknecht AG, Germany) A large number of vertical or inclined small-diameter slot holes need to be excavated in many underground mines worldwide. To this aim, Herrenknecht has developed and built a new Boxhole Boring Machine (BBM) capable of boring 1.5 m diameter and 60 m long holes in hard rock. Its concept is based on the well-proven
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Microtunnelling pipe jacking technology – an area in which the company has broad experience. Today, the BBM is primarily deployed in gold, copper and other ore mines where it bores extraction points during the production process (block/panel caving method), ore passes, ventilation shafts and services shafts. This paper gives an insight into the machine set-up and technology, an overview of its test at the Clara mine and its successful operation at Cadia mine (Australia). The principal components of the Herrenknecht BBM system are the boring unit, the jacking frame, transport unit and the power unit. The boring unit, which includes the cutterhead, gives the rotational forces necessary for drilling, while the jacking frame, which houses the hydraulic cylinders, makes available the thrust forces required for advance. The thrust forces are transferred to the cutterhead via steel thrust pipes similar to a conventional horizontal pipe jacking operation. The excavated cuttings slide by gravity through the thrust pipes into a skip for further transporting. A breakout unit allows the thrust pipes to rotate if the pipe string is blocked. The BBM and the crawler are fully remote-controlled. The first test under real conditions was in early 2011 at the „Clara Mine“, a small mine site in the Black Forest, Germany. Vertical and inclined test slot holes with a diameter of 1.1 m and a length of 9 m were successfully drilled achieving production rates of 9.0 m within 5 hours in challenging rock conditions (up to 250 MPa). The BBM was then sent to Newcrest’s Cadia East, the largest underground mine in Australia and the deepest block caving underground mine in the world. The BBM ordered by the contractor Mancala Pty Ltd successfully finished 40 slot holes with an average length of 16.5 m and an average advance rate of 1.5 m/h in the production level for developing the extractions points. The operator succeeded in realizing up to 3 slot holes a week in single-shift operation. In conclusion the field test and the operation in Australia indicate that the machine is capable of achieving high and consistent production rates and guarantees high mobility and flexibility compared to other methods. Thanks to these positive results, three further Boxhole Boring Machines are under manufacturing. These involve two identical BBM1100 machines for deployment in mines in Australia and a further development of the BBM1500 (steerable) model for the Chilean market where it will be used for producing slot holes with a length of 60 m and a diameter of 1,500 mm for various applications. -027
Global Continuous Miner Census 2012 - Results and comparison with 2008 census
Dangela M. (Mining Analyst, McKinsey & Company, Belgium) Lange U. (IMR, RWTH Aachen, Germany) Bayer Arne K. (Head of Strategy, E.ON New Build & Technology GmbH, Germany) Nienhaus, K. (Professor, Head of IMR, RWTH Aachen, Germany) After the initial Global Continuous Miner & Bolter Miner Census in 2008 the authors conducted the same study in 2012 identified again the overall numbers of globally applied CM production units and Bolter Miners mainly employed in coal mining operations. The study identified a number of relevant trends of interest to mining companies as well as original equipment manufacturers (OEM): E.g. new markets like Russia are not developing as quickly as expected, while Asia shows significant progress in using these automated machines. The comparison with 2008 states that large CM&BM nations like traditional markets (e.g. US + RSA) are
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“struggeling, while newer markets show upward potential (Australia, India). Overall core markets like US, Australia and South Africa will remain saturated and the annual replacement rate of new machines will no exceed a maximum of 100+ pieces, with the US facing a general pressure on smaller scale, hence CM mining operations. Overall the authors conclude that innovative CM type operations will continue to grow despite the ongoing trend to larger scale underground (e.g. longwall operations) and ever deeper open pit operations in global coal- and non-coal mining. -028
The MIKRUS longwall system- new mining technology for thin coal seams
Dziura J. (Senior Design Engineer, Kopex Machinery S.A., Poland) The paper deals with KOPEX Group’s new design solutions of an innovative and efficient MIKRUS longwall system for mining operations in thin coal seams, being combined with cutting-loading machine and a conveyor integrated with it. KOPEX Group, based on its own design Longwall system to operate thin coal seams has manufactured a coherent longwall system whose subassemblies are structurally linked with each other and are equipped with joint control system. There are also described technical parameters of the individual elements of the longwall system and technology of coal cutting enabling its high productivity, maintaining the appropriate safety measures for the mine staff, despite small dimensions of the working area and taking into consideration the abilities of the mine staff to efficient using the system. Besides, the paper also enlightens on the plans of implementing the system into operation. The MIKRUS system can be operated in thin seams of high coal hardness, in irregular residual deposits and it achieves cost-effective performance. Full accomplishment of the project covers manufacturing all the longwall equipment devices on the basis of technical documentation, research works including bench testing as well as trial and performance tests of the longwall system. Performance tests are scheduled to be carried out in the Jas-Mos Coal Mine in January 2013. The MIKRUS longwall system is a unique global solution, enabling the launch of a new product in the mining market. It results in cost-effective and safe mining operations in thin coal seams, and its innovative solutions open up new possibilities in those operations, while maintaining efficient performance even in harsh mining and geological conditions. They also reduce significantly the safety hazard for mining crews and by automation they also improve comfort and working conditions of the miners working in the longwall. The MIKRUS combines the best qualities of plow and longwall shearer systems resulting in an innovative approach to operating thin coal seams. Besides, the applied advanced control and diagnostic system enable construction of a complete automated longwall mining to operating thin coal seams. It is characterised by the following features: operation process is automated and simple structure of the cutting and loading machine as well asconcentration of all the control devices in the head gate allow remote controlling and monitoring of the longwall system from safe zones and the crew is not required to stay directly in the forehead.
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New developments in hydraulic energy transportation systems for longwall mining
Weinhold R. (Managing Director, Dipl.-Ing. K. Weinhold GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) An efficient exploitation indispensably requires the use of hydraulic energy, especially in underground mining. The transport of hydraulic fluids at pressures of up to 400 bars from the pressure producing components (pumps) to the consuming components (working face) is an important challenge in this respect. Corresponding systems such as pipe lines and hoses have to meet various requirements. Besides technological aspects such as minor pressure losses these systems need to be operated fast and ergonomically with regard to the reduced space available and ever increasing labour costs. Based on these underlying conditions new concepts for the transport of fluids, which are resource-efficient in every respect, are shown. After a general overview regarding the options available for fluid transport the developmental process of a completely new connection system is shown. This system is a pipe line which consists of an inner and an outer pipe which are arranged concentrically. The inner pipe is used to transport the hydraulic fluid from the pump station to the face under high pressures (up to 400 bars) whereas the external pipe is used for return of the fluids at pressures of 40-70 bars. The pipes are usually 5-6 m long. By means of specially developed coupling elements, which are welded to the pipes the inner pipe, is centrically fixed to the external pipe. Connection of the pipe-in-pipe system can for example be effected by screwing a union nut or by fixing a clamp. Leak-proofness is realized by two radially working sealing rings. Dimensioning of the pipes and the corresponding coupling elements is realized by means of Finite-ElementMethod, ensuring a detailed stress analysis. Additional CFD-simulations allow to examine fluid flow behaviour since the return flow in the external pipes might be disturbed in the coupling elements. Finally, it is demonstrated that pressure losses produced that way are of minor importance for the complete system. Due to the fact that only one pipe is laid instead of two separate pipes extensive savings can be realized in transporting and installing the pipes underground. The functionality of the presented system has been proven in first tests, thus confirming the results shown in the corresponding simulations. Finally, some examples for practical applications in longwall mining are given and discussed. -030
Rapid blind shaft sinking
Dr. Neye E. (Project Manager Shafts, Herrenknecht AG, Germany) Burger W. (Head of Design Department, Herrenknecht AG, Germany) Over the last century numerous attempts have been made to develop and optimize mechanized blind shaft sinking methods. In the beginning of 2011 Herrenknecht developed a shaft sinking machine suitable for applications in frozen ground and medium soft rock up to 120 MPa and variable shaft diameters of up to 12 meters. The machine
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was manufactured and assembled on Herrenknecht premises in Schwanau during winter/spring 2012 after a pre-design phase. This paper shall give the reader an insight to the machine set-up and technology, an overview of its assembly and the cutting trials that have taken place in early summer of 2012 at the HK workshop in Germany. It is also presenting the enhanced safety for personnel working on such a machine. The Shaft Boring Roadheader (SBR) is divided in three main areas being the infrastructural platforms, the area of rock support and the core machine. Due to the machine set-up workers will not be exposed to the unsupported cut shaft wall during regular operation. Explosives are not required when using a SBR for blind shaft sinking. Shaft sinking will be undertaken by partial face excavation and parallel application of primary rock support. The development of a pneumatic mucking system solved the problem of removing cut material from bottom of the shaft and its vertical transportation through the machine to a discharge point on one of the machine work decks. The SBR cutting technology in conjunction with the much removal system will increase shaft sinking rates compared to conventional methods. A brief case history of the first application will be given. -031
Development of a rock bolt automation attachment for the installation of improved self-drilling friction bolts
Dolsak W. (Business Line Manager Rock Reinforcement, DYWIDAG-Systems International GmbH, Austria) Glantschnegg D. (Business Line Manager Automation Systems, DYWIDAG-Systems International GmbH, Austria) Following the development of an improved one-step self-drilling friction bolt system, consecutive large-scale application in underground Mining and Tunnelling as well as recent developments regarding the underground working environment showed a considerable demand for an integrated, automated attachment for rock bolt installation. Rock bolting attachments, special bolting rigs, and semi-automated units for the installation of conventional rock reinforcement systems such as friction stabilizers or cable bolts have been successfully introduced to the market in the past decades. However, the increasing demand for fast and safe one-step rock bolting procedures resulted in significant changes in the design of bolting automation units. Main issues are an integrated view on the rock bolt itself, the installation mode, and required machinery. A rock bolt automation unit for self-drilling rock reinforcement systems must feature a reliable and easy-to-handle interconnection with the associated supporting machinery, as well as a tough and lightweight design. In addition, the integration of the automated handling into the drilling procedure requires measures on synchronization and optimization of corresponding working procedures. This paper briefly introduces the features of the improved self-drilling friction bolt system, as well as the description of the development process of the automation unit. In the following, the design of the in-house developed automation unit for six bolts per installation sequence and results of installation trials and first underground application examples are presented. Finally, a summary on state-of-the-art automated rock bolt installation for rapid and safe ground control procedures under challenging ground conditions is provided.
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From plain technology to high tech: Customer specific solutions for LHDs
Riedel C. (Product management, GHH Fahrzeuge GmbH, Germany) This article illustrates the technological possibilities to adapt LHDs to the wide range of underground mine requirements. The general characteristics relevant for an optimal solution are the mining method, type of rock and mineral and its characteristics, density and abrasiveness. Ambient conditions such as height above sea level, temperature, dust pollution, ventilation rate and water as well as its aggressiveness must be taken into account as well. The examination of the LHD-cycle itself is relevant to obtain maximum productivity and includes loading conditions, distance, inclination, road conditions, gallery size, curves and characteristics of the dumping station. The key to reach an optimal customer fit is the availability of a large bandwidth reaching from simple “plain technology” to “high tech” solutions. A great variety of internal and external requirements can be met by means of a modular design strategy. On the one hand so-called “plain technology” components are optimized for rough and aggressive conditions and are easy to service. These have maximized durability, minimized electronics and high spare part availability even in remote locations. On the other hand “high tech” components are maximized for efficiency and optimized for the highest performance standards. The focus is on ergonomics, minimum lifecycle cost and the lowest emissions. This article depicts how engines, exhaust treatment, buckets, controls as well as protection against aggressive water can be adapted to match requirements as part of the modular system strategy. Further features such as fire protection, central lubrication and condition monitoring systems can be added. In the complex correlations of the LHD-cycle the power-to-weight ratio, propelling and breakout force as well as maximum admissible speed under the given conditions have to be taken into account. As an important factor for maximizing productivity the choice of the optimal drive train is described in this article. Besides engines with certain power and torque the transmission is a key-component. A hydrostatic drive has many advantages compared to a conventional hydrodynamic drive, which is unique for underground use and guarantees a fully flexible power allocation to the relevant systems during the operation cycle. A computerized drivetrain control improves safety, efficiency, ergonomics, traction, tire and brake wear. As the torque converter is removed the oil temperature remains low, the fuel consumption and thus emissions are reduced significantly. -033
Stand der Bohrtechnik bei RAG
Opolony K. (Bereichsleiter bei SB BT, RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Germany) Andrzejewski M. (Fachingenieur Bohrtechnik bei SB BT, Germany)
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Neueste Entwicklungen bei der K+S Aktiengesellschaft in der Rohstoffgewinnung
Grimmig G. (Dipl.-Ing., K+S Aktiengesellschaft, Germany)
OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCES (MINE DEVELOPMENT)
What happened at Upper Big Branch, and what can we learn from this disaster?
Brune J. F. (Research Professor, Colorado School of Mines, USA) On April 5, 2010, a major coal dust explosion ripped through the Upper Big Branch (UBB) mine near Montcoal, West Virginia. The explosion killed 29 miners, making it the worst mining disaster in the United States in nearly 40 years. The miners died from physical and burn trauma as well as CO poisoning. The explosion was caused by a methane ignition near the tailgate of the longwall face which created a subsequent coal dust explosion which engulfed nearly 70 km of mine entries. The methane may have been ignited by the shearer although it is believed to have come from the gob. Two main root causes were identified: The ventilation system was deficient in that it did not sufficiently dilute the methane accumulation, and insufficient amounts of rock dust had been placed in the mine entries to inertize the coal dust and prevent a dust explosion. This paper analyzes the shortcomings of the UBB ventilation system as well as those of the rock dusting practices and identifies a number of research gaps in the area of explosion prevention in US coal mines. Outline 1. 2. a. b. 3. a. b. c. 4. a. b. 5. Introduction: What happened at Upper Big Branch Shortcomings of the UBB mine ventilation system Methane accumulations in bleedered longwall gobs Potential for explosive mixtures in the longwall tailgate area Shortcomings of UBB and US rock dusting and dust inspection practices Principles of explosion protection with rock dust Rock dust sampling method Requirement for additional barriers Research gaps and recommendations Understanding the ventilation flows and gas compositions in bleedered and bleederless longwall gobs Understanding the mechanisms of coal dust explosions and their suppression by barriers Conclusions
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Probleme des internationalen Bergbaus beim Abbau in großen Teufen deutsches Know-how liefert die Lösungen
Zuber P. (Leiter Dienstleistung Bergtechnik, RAG Mining Solutions GmbH, Germany) Gutberlet K. (Leiter Marketing/Kommunikation, RAG Mining Solutions GmbH, Germany) Notwithstanding all the debates on climate change and renewable energy, coal remains the world\'s no. 1 primary energy source even in the 21st century. In 2011 alone, total output rose from 420 million t to around 6.6 billion t. Similar growth rates are also expected for the next few years. In order to meet demand, new seams are being tapped and others mined far more extensively. In most cases, this means a move from opencast to deep mining, and extracting coal from ever greater depths. At the same time, extraction processes such as the room and pillar method are being replaced by longwall mining, which significantly increases seam yield and therefore output. The depth of extraction with new, modified mining methods is increasing rapidly around the world - in most countries, much more rapidly than the corresponding expertise. A trade in mining expertise has therefore developed alongside the coal trade proper. Germany relies on coal imports, but can export mining industry services and advanced mining equipment. Geological conditions in the Ruhr and Saar coalfields forced Germany to drive forward development of deep working for hard coal years ago. For 30 years now, Germany has been mining hard coal at depths of over 1,000 m, and excavation is now at depths up to 1,600 m. Deeper extraction and more extensive excavation posed new challenges for both miners and equipment. Intelligent logistics, modern roadway development methods and longwall mining with ploughs or shearers combined with optimised process coordination offered pioneering solutions - solutions to enable cost-effective coal extraction in the long term without compromising safety. Countries such as Russia, the Ukraine, China and the Czech Republic, where extraction is now reaching similar depths, can now benefit from this experience: they do not need to go through the same process of trial and development, but can draw on Germany\'s findings and ultimately save on costs. Now, Germany is offering this knowledge and experience on the international market on a client- and depositspecific basis to continue providing mining countries with safe and cost-effective coal mining solutions and secure the energy supply. The presentation gives a number of examples of how international mining companies have used expertise from Germany to better meet the challenges of deep mining. Auch im 21. Jahrhundert, und allen Diskussionen um Klimawandel und Erneuerbare Energien zum Trotz, bleibt Kohle der Primärenergieträger Nr. 1 in der Welt. Allein in 2011 hat sich die Fördermenge um 420 Mio. t auf nunmehr rd. 6,6 Mrd. t erhöht. Es ist davon auszugehen, dass auch in den kommenden Jahren mit ähnlichen Wachstumsraten zu rechnen ist. Zur Befriedigung der Nachfrage werden sowohl neue Lagerstätten erschlossen, als auch die bekannten immer weitreichender ausgebeutet. Damit einher geht in aller Regel der Übergang vom Tage- in den Tiefbau sowie eine Förderung von Kohle aus immer größeren Teufen. Parallel dazu werden Abbauverfahren wie Room and Pillar durch Longwall Mining ersetzt, da dieses Verfahren das Ausbringen aus einer Lagerstätte, und somit die Fördermengen, deutlich erhöht. Die Geschwindigkeit, mit welcher der Abbau aus zunehmender Teufe mit neuen, angepassten Abbauverfahren weltweit von statten geht, ist meist deutlich höher als die Know-how-Entwicklung in den jeweiligen Ländern. Der Kohlehandel wird somit durch einen Handel an Bergbau Know-how ergänzt. Während
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Deutschland auf Kohleimporte angewiesen ist, können umgekehrt Dienstleistungen im Bergbausektor sowie hochentwickelte Bergbaumaschinen exportiert werden. Die Entwicklung des Steinkohlenabbaus in zunehmende Teufe musste, bedingt durch die geologischen Gegebenheiten der Lagerstätten im Ruhr- und Saarrevier, in Deutschland schon vor Jahren durchlaufen werden. Bereits seit 30 Jahren geht dieser in Teufen von über 1.000 m um - heute sogar bis in eine Teufe von 1.600 m. Die zunehmenden Abbauteufen und der steigende Durchbauungsgrad stellten dabei neue Herausforderungen an Menschen und Maschinen. Eine intelligente Logistik, moderne Methoden zum Streckenausbau sowie der langfrontartige Abbau mit Hobel oder Walze bei gleichzeitiger optimaler Abstimmung aller Prozesse boten hier beispielhaft Lösungen, um weiterhin möglichst kostengünstig eine Kohlenförderung zu ermöglichen, ohne Abstriche an die Arbeitssicherheit machen zu müssen. Von diesen Erfahrungen können heute Länder wie Russland, Ukraine, China oder Tschechien - die in ähnliche Teufen vorstoßen - profitieren, indem sie die in Deutschland gemachten Erfahrungen nicht selbst durchlaufen müssen, sondern von deren Schlussfolgerungen lernen und letzen Endes Kosten sparen können. Dieses Wissen wird heute dem internationalen Markt kunden- und lagerstättenspezifisch angeboten, um auch zukünftig den infrage kommenden Ländern eine sichere und kostengünstige Kohleförderung und somit Energieversorgung ermöglichen zu können. Der Vortrag gibt einige Beispiele wieder, bei dem internationale Bergbaukonzerne auf das Know-how aus Deutschland zurückgegriffen haben, um so für die Herausforderungen des untertägigen Bergbaus besser gerüstet zu sein.
Stability analysis of paste-fill used in underground gold mining by underhand cut and fill method in the Kencana Halmahera Island Indonesia
Sulistianto B. (Mining Engineering, Institute of Technology Bandung, Indonesia) Karim R. (Mining Engineering, Muhammadiyah University of North Maluku, Indonesia) Lopulalan A. (Mine Engineer PT, Arutmin, Indonesia) PT Nusa Halmahera Minerals (PT NHM) is a gold mining company which operating in the Kencana – Gosowong, Tabobo Village, Sub-District of Kao, District of North Halmahera of North Maluku Province. From the evaluation results, Underhand Cut and Fill method (UCF) has been chosen because of several considerations, among others, low cash flow, high recovery, and more secure in the face of poor rock conditions. But the problem that must be faced is about the stability of pastefill that act as a roof for workers and mine equipment below. Then the location will be focused of this research is Kencana-1 Sub 12C Undercut 3 Ore Drive 1 North. In analyzing the stability of pastefill is used of two approaches, the numerical modeling with distinct element method use of software 3DEC Version 2.0 from Itasca and analytical approach with use of limit equilibrium method. Physical and mechanical properties of rocks obtained from PT. NHM and pastefill properties obtained from Tekmira Geomechanics Laboratory testing in Bandung. From the results of this numerical modeling, pastefill with 14% cement content with 7 and 28 days curing time would collapse with the mechanism of caving failure on 6m of span and it is appropriate with the limit equilibrium calculation that mechanism of caving failure will occur in 6m of span. To solve the instability of these pastefill, the chain link mesh is installed on the bottom of the stope opening before the stope filled. Based on numerical modeling results, that is indicate pastefill with 7 days curing time remains unstable with the installation of chain link mesh, while pastefill with 28 days curing time is more stable and obtained UCS value 1.31 MPa, has full fill
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condition of 1.2 MPa. Then the mining under pastefill with 14% cement content can be carried out at age of 28 days. UCS design of pastefill is matched with the short term and long term mine planning, in relation to the strength of cement mix design within time required to mine, either beside or below it. -038
Mining and transportation of clay-ironstone layers with continuous mining technique / experiences and technical solutions at the Hambach surface mine
Houben B. Schollmeyer P. Over the medium and long term, production in the Rhenish lignite mining area (western Germany) has been and will be concentrated on the three surface mines Garzweiler, Hambach and Inden. These mines have a total annual output of some 100 million tonnes of lignite. Of this, 90 million tonnes per year are used to generate electricity in five large power plants; the rest is processed in three factories to upgrade products like briquettes, pulverised lignite and coke. To expose the lignite, some 450 to 470 million cbm of overburden must be removed each year. Moving such enormous masses is only possible in economic terms by the use of bucket-wheel excavators with nominal daily capacities between 110,000 and 240,000 cbm+t. Mass transportation in the mines is done by up to 3meter wide conveyor belt systems. The company-owned railway system is used to transport lignite to customers or substantial overburden quantities to outside dumps for the recultivation of depleted mine areas. This presentation focuses on the handling of clay ironstone at the Hambach surface mine. Clay layers, in which hard siderite concretions occur, decrease the productivity of bucket-wheel excavators and damage these excavators and the following conveyor belts due to their hard, sharp-edged and chunky properties. In order to regain acceptable output rates and machinery load, an integrated approach was pursued. This covered optimisations regarding surface-mine planning, excavator deployment and mining equipment. The implemented optimisations can be summarised as follows: 1. According to geological aspects mine-levels were adjusted to achieve optimal geometrical deployment conditions for the excavators. 2. Machinery selection was done according to requirements, and the production parameters were adjusted. Excavators with stiff steel structures and adjustable bucket-filling rates proved to be best suited. The following operating parameters were modified to reduce the chunk size and minimise the oscillation excitation of the bucket-wheel boom: chip depth, bucket-filling rate and boom velocity. 3. The whole conveyor line was adapted to increase its lifetime in the face of hard concretions and chunky overburden: the steel structure of the excavator and the conveyor line were reinforced. Damped rollers are now applied to prevent belt damage at material transfer points. A new bucket design with a round bucket shape and multiple teeth minimises the chunk size. The oscillation movement of the bucket-wheel boom was also reduced by this design. Mounting the buckets free from play boosts lifetime by reducing crack initiation. 4. To improve the productivity of the bucket-wheel excavators when exposed to clay-ironstone formations, different additional methods to loosen up those formations were tested in situ. These tests involved: blasting, ripping (dozer) and digging tests (hydraulic excavator). Owing to operational or economic aspects, these methods were not pursued. This suite of measures forms the basis for an increase in the output efficiency of the Hambach surface mine.
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Versatz im Strebbau auf der Grundlage der Erfahrungen im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau
Das Einbringen von Versatz im deutschen Bergbau hat eine lange Tradition. Aus der Literatur sind Anwendungen des Blasversatzes seit mindestens 1924 bekannt, sehr wahrscheinlich ist einfacher Versatz weit früher umgesetzt worden. Für unterschiedliche Lagerstätten und Gewinnungsverfahren gelten aufgrund unzähliger Erfahrungen aus dem internationalen Bergbau und den entsprechenden Randbedingungen sehr spezifische Regeln. Der Vortrag beschreibt zunächst ausgehend von der Situation des Strebbaus mit Selbstversatz, dem so genannten Bruchbau, und dessen grundsätzlichen technischen und wirtschaftlichen Merkmalen, die Zielsetzung des Einbringens von Versatz. Anschließend werden erprobte Methoden im deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau beschrieben und die Erfahrungen insbesondere Blasversatz zusammengefasst. Abschließend erfolgt anhand eines Beispiels ein Ausblick auf das Potenzial zukünftiger Anwendungen - wie sie derzeit auf höchstem technischen Niveau in China angewendet werden - mit den für den deutschen Steinkohlenbergbau geschaffenen Entwicklungen weiter zu optimieren. Das vorgestellte innovative Verfahren für das Einbringen von Vollversatz wird derzeit in China erfolgreich eingeführt. Es ist ausgerichtet auf den modernen chinesischen Hochleistungsbergbau und hat zum Ziel, umweltgerechten Strebbau auch in dicht besiedelten Regionen leistungsfähig zu betreiben. Obwohl das beschriebene Feststoffversatzverfahren bereits heute gute Betriebsergebnisse zulässt, besitzt das System weiteres Entwicklungspotenzial. Dies gilt insbesondere für den Bereich Automatisierung beim Versatztransport wie auch bei der eigentlichen Versatztätigkeit. Erste Lösungsvorschläge werden dargestellt. -040
The use and application of pumpable resin grouts for rock anchoring
Smith N (Product Marketing Manager Chemicals EMEA, Minova CarboTech, Germany) Rockhoff M (Technical Support Manager EMEA, Minova CarboTech, Germany) Minova is one of the world’s leading suppliers of injection and bolting chemicals for use in underground mining. Developed from the range of silicate resins, Carbothix is a thixotropic resin system that can be used for the placement of rock bolts in underground mines. This paper describes the use of Carbothix in the underground environment and describes the cost benefits and advantages of using Carbothix for the anchoring of rock bolts.
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Zuschnitt und Auffahrung eines Baufeldes in einem gasausbruchsgefährdeten Flöz
Sabltony H. (Werksleiter SB BT, RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Germany) Zilligen W. (Werksleiter Bergwerk Prosper Haniel, RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Germany)
FUTURE TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS (MINE DEVELOPMENT)
Emission analysis of cutting tools with regard to material identification
Nienhaus K. (Univ.Prof.Dr.-Ing, Head of IMR RWTH Aachen University, Germany) Warcholik M. (M.Sc., IMR RWTH Aachen University, Germany) Boos F. D. (Dipl. Wirt.-Ing., IMR RWTH Aachen University, Germany) Röllinger D. (Dipl.-Wirt.-Ing., IMR RWTH Aachen University, Germany) Mining and tunneling machines equipped with a system capable of recognizing the type of rock that is being cut will considerably improve their efficiency of operation and increase the productivity as well as reduce the wear of the cutting instruments. Therefore it is crucial for underground mining to understand and to develop a system for boundary layer detection. In this paper two different possibilities for boundary layer detection will be shown. On the one hand Acoustic Emission (AE) and on the other hand Vibration. Both methods are based on the idea that every rock formation has its own structure and composition and will react differently on mechanical influences. Acoustic Emission and Vibration are compared to each other to determine which method is most appropriate for the given scenario. Different materials such as coal, dead rock, potassium salt and rock salt are tested in a modified test bench. Past work has shown that statistical parameters allow the identification of different rocks successfully. For example, AE signals can be used as a measurement method to differentiate coal amongst other rocks. This study can be considered for further research as a basis for a correlation of these parameters with different rocks and cutting conditions.
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Evaluation of sensors for positioning applications in the mining industry
Nienhaus K. (Professor, Head of the Institute IMR, RWTH Aachen University, Germany) Berg J. (Research Engineer, IMR RWTH Aachen University, Germany) Hahn M. (Research Engineer, IMR RWTH Aachen University, Germany) Neumann K. (Research Engineer, IMR RWTH Aachen University, Germany) Zingsheim M. (M.Sc., Research Engineer, IMR RWTH Aachen University, Germany) Sensor technologies are becoming increasingly important for the mining industry. Technologies that are able to perceive the surrounding environment geometrically can be used for process automation e. g. automated conveyor/chute positioning or for increasing safety like for instance by facilitating collision avoidance systems. As in the mining industry, both adverse installation and harsh environmental conditions prevail, not all solutions that are even used in challenging industrial applications are suitable for positioning applications in mines. Due to the vast dimensions of modern mining machinery, overseeing all relevant points of the machine is nearly impossible, even under favourable weather conditions. In harsh environmental conditions, possibly with impaired visibility, the difficulty of their operation tasks can be significantly increased. Geometrical sensors that are able to deliver reliable data in these conditions enable the operators to handle their equipment with a higher productivity and at an increased level of safety especially in rough environments. Within the scope of the EU funded research project I²Mine, a technology scoping for sensor technologies for positioning applications is undertaken at the IMR. In the beginning, technologies have been evaluated based on a literature research. Subsequently, the aptitude of promising technologies has been evaluated in laboratory tests. This paper gives an overview of positioning sensors and assesses their applicability to positioning tasks in the mining industry based on the aforementioned tests. -044
Einführung von 3D Reparaturanleitungen bei der Firma Putzmeister Solid Pumps GmbH
Großmann B. (Head of Sales, DMT GmbH & Co. KG, Germany) (Dr., Putzmeister Solidpumps GmbH, Germany) Die modernen Betonpumpen von Putzmeister werden immer anspruchsvoller und komplexer. Die Aus- und Fortbildung des internationalen Servicepersonals im Bereich Montage-, Wartungs- und Reparaturaufgaben stellt Putzmeister vor neue Herausforderungen. Als international agierendes Unternehmen steht Putzmeister darüber hinaus noch vor einer oder mehrerer Sprachbarrieren. Die DMT GmbH und Co. KG wurde von Putzmeister beauftragt die vorhandenen Reparaturanleitungen in 3D Reparaturanleitungen umzusetzen. Über die genutzte Software können technische Vorgänge und Zusammenhänge am Computer dreidimensional und beindruckend realitätsnah dargestellt werden. Durch die präzise Darstellung ist die Verwendung von Sprache oder Schriftbild überflüssig.. Sprachbarrieren oder falsche Übersetzungen werden vermieden. Die 3D Reparaturanleitungen werden zentral auf Basis der technischen Dokumentation entwickelt und anschließend allen Servicemitarbeiter weltweit zur Verfügung
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gestellt. Dadurch sind alle Mitarbeiter in der Lage mit einer identischen Anleitung ihr Reparatur oder Wartung mit einer hohen Qualität, sowie Zeit effizient an der Maschine durchzuführen. Für die Firma Putzmeister Solid Pumps GmbH wurde ein entsprechendes Softwaresystem gemäß den Kundenanforderungen entwickelt und DMT begleitet den Putzmeister damit von der Planung bis zur Inbetriebnahme des kompletten Softwaresystems. Zusammen mit Putzmeister wurden folgende Arbeitsschritte bearbeitet: • Die Aufnahme eines Anforderungsprofils (Pflichten-/Lastenheft) • Die Sichtung vorhandener Reparatur- und Wartungsanleitungen • Die Erfassung verfügbarer geometrischer Konstruktionsdaten • Die Erstellung von Drehbüchern für die interaktiven Reparatur- und Wartungsanleitungen • Die Zusammenstellung der relevanten Reparatur- und Wartungsdokumente • Überprüfung der Modelle • Entwicklungen von weiteren notwendigen Modellen • Erstellung der 3D Reparaturanleitungen Anhand eines Beispiels einer 3D Wartungskarte werden die Vorteile beschrieben und gezeigt.
Validation of surfometric imaging for the estimation of size distribution by weight of rock fragments on conveyor belt
Dislaire G. (Research Engineer, University of Liège, Belgium) Di Carlo P. (Research Engineer, Haute Ecole de la Province de Liège, Belgium) Moitroux C. (Assistant professor, Haute Ecole de la Province de Liège, Belgium) Pirard E. (Professor, University of Liège, Belgium) Aggregate size measurement in the mineral industry is still dominated by manual sampling and subsequent sieving. Automatic online measurements are of interest to allow for optimization of the process with a real time feedback to the plant. 3D laser triangulation is used to digitize the surface of the stream of rocks on conveyor belt. Segmentation of fragments is performed on this surface using 3D boundary detection insensitive to lightning and fragment color. Size distribution by weight is computed by measuring the size and estimating the volume of each nonoverlapped fragment. This study investigates the correlation of the size distributions obtained by non-invasive surfometric measurement and by sieving techniques in the case of rock fragments on conveyor belt. Narrow, bimodal and spread fragment distributions are measured to explore the segregation problem and the representativeness of the measured fragments. A weighting model is proposed to correct the segregation bias according to the measured fragment distribution.
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MINING PROCESSES AND RESOURCE EFFICIENCY (MINE DEVELOPMENT)
Behaviour of longwall powered supports subjected to different roof conditions: a case study
Vedala R.M. (Professor of Mining Engg., NITK-Surathkal, India) Venkatramaiah S. (General Manager, Singareni Collieries Co. Ltd., India) Coal fuels major power generation in India, similar to many developing nations. About 80% of coal production in India comes from opencast mines. However, the depth wise distribution of coal deposits in India indicates availability of 135Bt of coal upto 300m depth and about 49.5Bt in the depth range of 300 - 600m. As surface mines are facing adverse striping ratios and severe environmental issues, the longwall mechanized mining seems to be the answer for exploitation of deeper deposits. Strata control is the major area of concern in the implementation of longwall mining projects in the country. A study was taken up to assess the influence of contact roof condition on the loading of powered roof supports, with sandstone and coal roof conditions in the same working panel. Two phase investigation was carried out with field monitoring followed by numerical modeling using FEM. Field study involved assessing the loading pattern on longwall powered supports during excavation of the panel. Filed monitoring was done using various instruments. Multiple borehole extensometers were installed in a borehole 30m behind the panel, to understand strata behavior and separation of roof beds. Remote convergence reorders were installed inside goaf to detect local falls. Load cells installed on each leg of the chock and continuous pressure recorders at strategic chock shield legs, provided information about the loading pattern of front and rear legs of chock shields in the LW face. Stress cells installed in coal block was helpful in assessing change in the stress in the coal block of panel. Three dimensional numerical modeling was carried out using FEM software – NISA, incorporating relevant physico-mechanical properties into the model. A chock shield pressure of 0.7MPa was modeled considering 70% of yield pressure of legs as setting pressure. An elasto-plastic model was considered with Drucker-Prager criteria to define yield behavior of rock mass. A strain hardening parameter was introduced into model in order to simulate stress-strain behavior of strata after failure. Major findings of the study are: Front legs and canopy were subjected to high vertical stress as the face progressed with coal roof condition. Coal roof failed regularly as the face progressed. At the time of main fall, bleeding was observed in more number of front legs compared to rear legs. Overhang of roof was observed till main fall in the panel with sandstone roof condition. Vertical stress was higher on rear legs with sandstone roof condition. The modeling study predicted the main fall at 44m, – 48m face progress with coal roof condition and 40m with sandstone roof condition. This was in confirmation of the field monitoring results. Details of the field monitoring and numerical modeling along with the results are presented in full text of paper.
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Geostatistical analysis of the calorific value and energy content of the Mavropigi multi-seam lignite deposit in Northern Greece
Pavlides A. (Ph.D. candidate, Technical University of Crete, Greece) Hristopoulos D. (Professor, Technical University of Crete, Greece) Roumpos C. (Head of mine design sector, Public Power Corporation, Greece) Galetakis M. (Assistant Professor, Technical University of Crete, Greece) Lignite is used by many electric power companies to fuel steam power plants. While planning the exploitation of a lignite deposit and designing the corresponding power plant, it is important to have estimates for both the total tonnage or volume of the lignite reserves and the total energy content of those reserves. The calorific value is an important characteristic of every energy fuel and enables the estimation of the total energy content of the reserves. However, the calorific value of a lignite deposit often is not measured for all drill-hole samples taken and should thus be estimated from different measured parameters. In this study, two methods of estimating the lower calorific value of the lignite from Mavropigi Mine are presented and compared. The first is a geochemistry-based equation that estimates the calorific value from other sample parameters (ash content, CO2 content and water content). The second method is based on a statistical regression model that links calorific value with other parameters (depth, ash content, water content, CO2 content) to form a mathematical equation to estimate the calorific value of the lignite. The estimated calorific values from the regression are used to estimate the calorific value of the drill-hole samples from Mavropigi mine that lack calorific value data. Finally, the total energy content of the Mavropigi Mine reserves is estimated using the geostatistical method of Ordinary Kriging. -048
Achieving resource efficiency by co-extracting sand and gravel in the Rhenish opencast lignite mines
Eyll-Vetter M. (Head of Department, RWE Power AG, Germany) den Drijver J. The opencast mines in the Rhenish lignite area are looking back on long-term practical experience in coextraction operations. Aside from lignite, which is used for electricity generation or for upgrading purposes, gravel and sand, which are mainly applied in the building-materials industry, are mined at the same time. On the one hand, co-extraction helps save raw materials as the available deposit resources can be extracted and utilised completely. On the other hand, co-extraction allows gravel, which is normally extracted from different gravel pits before coal mining operations start, to be mined in an efficient and conflict-reducing way in parallel with lignite extraction. For example, deposit sections in great depths small gravel companies are not able to extract in a cost-efficient way can be mined with this method using large-scale bucket-wheel excavators. As a result, the yield of the deposit is increased. The co-extraction process of sand and gravel is optimised and adapted to mining developments in the opencast mines on an ongoing basis. To illustrate this, practical examples from the Garzweiler and Inden opencast mines are used.
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Modelling a longwall production system using Flexsim
Cai D. (PhD candidate, University of Wollongong, Australia) Baafi E.. (Associate Professor, University of Wollongong, Australia) Porter I. (Associate Professor, University of Wollongong, Australia) Longwall mining accounts for more than 75% of underground coal production in Australia. It is a popular underground coal mining method worldwide, mainly due to its high extraction ratio, high productivity and increased safety due to improved powered support units. A longwall system requires significant capital investment, and it is necessary to minimise the financial risk associated with this investment. Minimisation of this financial risk requires a sound knowledge of the relationship between underlying operational/technical constraints and associated costs. A discrete simulation model using the Flexsim 3D virtual reality environment has been developed to assist management evaluate the impact of technical and operational constraints on longwall productivity. Using such a model, any set of operational scenarios can be evaluated to establish the optimum operational parameters for a longwall system.
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AUTHOR INDEX A
Amiri, R. 8 Andrzejewski, M. 30
Baafi, E.. 41 Balletto, G. 16 Bayer, Arne K. 26 Berg, J. 37 Boos, F. D. 36 Brune, J. F. 31 Burger, W. 25, 28
Cai, D. 41 Cherkashov, G. 12
Dangela, M. 26 den Drijver, J. 40 Di Carlo, P. 38 Dislaire, G. 38 Dolsak, W. 29 Dornieden, C. 10 Dr. Neye, E. 28 Dziura, J. 27
Esfahanipour, R. 17 Evrard, M. 14 Eyll-Vetter, M. 40
Foster, P. 17 Fuchsschwanz, M. 24 Furcas, C. 16
Galetakis, M. 40 Glantschnegg, D. 29 Grimmig, G. 31 Großmann, B. 37 Gutberlet, K. 32
Hahn, M. 37 Halbach, P. E. 12 Houben, B. 34 Hristopoulos, D. 40
Ignjatovic, D. 8
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Jahn, Andreas 12
Karim, R. 33 Katz, T. 24 Kaveh Ahangaran, D. 17 Kistner, P. 13 Kleinen, T. 10 Klossek, P. 22 Knodt, S. 10 Kretschmann, J. 8, 17 Künstle, B. 25
Lange, U. 26 Leschhorn, F. 23 Loois, E. 14 Lopulalan, A. 33
Martens, P. 24 Matsui, K. 24 Mennicken, L. 18 Mertuszka, P. 20 Moitroux, C. 38
Neumann, K. 37 Nguyen, Thi Hoai Nga 17 Nienhaus, K. 36, 37 NN 35
Opolony, K. 30
Palac-Walko, B. 20 Pavlides, A. 40 Pavlovic, V. 8 Peyman Afzal, P. 17 Pirard, E. 14, 38 Porter, I. 41 Prof. Dr. Ing. Karl Nienhaus 26 Pytel, W. 20
Rabel, M. 25 Richter. A. 37 Riedel, C. 30 Rockhoff, M 35 Röllinger, D. 36 Roumpos, C. 40
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Sabltony, H. 36 Schneider, S. 12 Schollmeyer, P. 34 Sharma, S.K. 15 Shields, D. 22 Smith, N 35 Steinbach, V. 15 Steinmüller, K. 13 Stöhr, M. 25 Subaranovic, T. 8 Sulistianto, B. 33
Takeuchi, K. 24 te Kook, J. 21 Thomas, R. 21 Tiess, G. 22 Tokarczyk, J. 19 Turewicz, A. 19
Valero, Al. 11 Valero, An. 11 van den Boogaart, K. G. 22 Vedala, R.M. 39 Venkatramaiah, S. 39
Warcholik, M. 36 Wårell, L. 9 Weinhold, R. 28 Wetherelt, A. 17 Winkel, R. 25 Winkler, T. 19 Wittenberg, D. 21
Yasrebi, A.B. 17
Zilligen, W. 36 Zingsheim, M. 37 Zuber, P. 32
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