This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Natural selection Disruptive selection Stabilizing selection Directional selection Sexual selection Survival of the fittest Canalized phenotype Altruism Kin selection Red Queen Hypothesis Constraint Speciation Shifting balance theory Epistasis Adaptive landscapes Evolutionary stable
What are the different types of natural selection and
how do they contribute to speciation? What does it mean when a phenotype has been canalized? What is the Red Queen Hypothesis? How do constraints influence selection and evolutionary change? What is the relationship between fitness and selection? What is the shifting balance theory? What is altruism and kin selection? How does this influence a species? What are evolutionary stable strategies?
Types of Natural Selection
3 Types of Natural Selection
Extreme phenotype is favored Phenotype already exists in the population
but may have been rare Often happens with species that Have a lot of offspring each time they reproduce Reproduce frequently
Are adapting to a changing environment
Bacteria resistant to antibiotics Malaria and heavy DDT use Bed bug resistance to chemical use Gradual increase in the size of horses Ragweed resistance to Roundup herbicide
Intermediate phenotype is favored
Extreme phenotypes are detrimental
Occurs when individuals are well adapted
to the environment and environment is stable over time (“perfect fit”) Examples: Elephants Trees
Two or more extreme phenotypes are
favored Polymorphism- different forms in a population of the same species Examples: British land snails in forest & low vegetation a
Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place
How humans are influencing the “arms race” Eliminating Dengue Fever
• Think about what this research means as time goes forward. Think about 50 years from now:
– What do you expect to happen to the mosquitoes? – What do you expect to happen to humans in this region? – What do you expect to happen to Dengue?
Producing same phenotype despite environmental or genotype changes