This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Ref: Moir & Seabridge 2006, Chapter 6 Dr Ron Smith
5. 6. 7.
Introduction Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Electronic Support Measures (ESM) Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) Defensive Aids Jam resistant radar design Exercises
EEE381B Electronic Warfare - 2
Electronic Warfare - 3
1.1 Electronic Warfare Roles
Electronic warfare (EW) plays both a strategic and tactical role in any modern military operation. Assets are employed in supportive, protective and offensive measures. Specific capabilities and equipment specifications are usually highly classified.
Electronic Warfare - 4
1.2 The EW spectrum Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .5 .
continuous cycle of intelligence gathering and application. Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .6 .3 The intelligence cycle The picture below depicts the typical.1.
4 EW elements Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .1.7 .
Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) Military intelligence typically involves the following sources: human intelligence (HUMINT) image intelligence (IMINT) photographic intelligence (PHOTINT) signals intelligence (SIGINT) SIGINT is further broken down into: communications intelligence (COMINT) electronic intelligence (ELINT) Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .2.8 .
as well as any communication patterns (including silence). their signal characteristics. Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare . their messages.9 .1 COMINT Communications intelligence operations involve the collection of: the locations and numbers of specific communication transmissions.2.
modulation schemes. pulse and PRF. scan parameters.2 ELINT Electronic intelligence operations involve the collection of the source and direction of arrival (DOA) of a broad range of radar emitters. Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare . signal strength. Signals are analyzed for such things as: frequency.2.10 . and usage patterns.
11 .3 Airborne intelligence gathering A typical airborne intelligence operation involves highflying specialized aircraft gathering emissions data on long patrol flights along national borders and outside missile engagement range.2. In the 1980s and 1990s Canada employed CE144 Challengers in a national ELINT role one specially equipped aircraft commonly referred to as the “Manitou” was operated by the CF. Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .
12 .4 Typical COMINT/ELINT architecture Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .2.
mode of operation (search. An effective ESM will identify the location. engaged) and level of threat of each emitter. an Electronic Support Meausres (ESM) system’s role is to detect and classify received radar emitters. Real-time signal analysis is performed against received signals.3. comparing them with known emitter characteristics stored in its threat library the library having been developed based upon intelligence data EEE381B Electronic Warfare .13 Winter 2009 . type of transmitter. The difference being that an ESM is generally employed tactically (for use against immediate threats). Electronic Support Measures Similar to an ELINT system. track.
14 . Alternatively.3. it may be employed tactically in a radar warning mode such as in an attack aircraft. Canada’s CP140 Aurora Incremental Modernization Program (AIMP) includes the fitment of the AN/ALQ-217 ESM suite in block 3 of the program. ~$50M (US) for 24 systems Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare . This suite will be used in both formation support and self-defence roles.1 ESM employment Electronic support measures may be employed in formation support role aircraft such as that of an AWACs or a coastal patrol aircraft.
Electronic counter-countermeasures (ECCM) involve taking actions to interfere with or deceive the countermeasures so as to restore radar use.15 .4. and so on. Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare . Electronic Countermeasures Electronic countermeasures (ECM) involve taking actions to interfere with or deceive the enemy’s radar system. in a classic “cat and mouse” game. and so.
16 . Effectiveness is based upon such parameters as: jammer power antenna gain transmitter bandwidth barrage jamming swept-spot jamming multiple-spot jamming Typical types of noise jamming techniques include: Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .4.1 Noise Jamming Active noise jamming involves the transmission of high power “white noise” directed at the enemy radar with the intent of interference.
1.1 Effects of noise jamming Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .4.17 .
188.8.131.52 Effects of noise jamming  Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .18 .
the more likely it is that the radar breaks through the noise signal. EEE381B Electronic Warfare . this is known as the burnthrough range.2 Burnthrough range With any noise jamming technique there is some range at which the strength of the radar echo becomes stringer than the jamming noise.1. The range of the radar return is a function of 1/R4.4. Therefore the closer the jammer gets to the radar. A radar with low gain and poor sidelobes is susceptible to jamming. whereas the range of the jamming signal is a function 1/R2. this is depicted on the graph in the next slide.19 Winter 2009 . conversely a high power noise jammer becomes a “target” and is susceptible to home-on-jamming attacks.
1 Burnthrough depicted Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .20 .1.2.4.
2 Deception Jamming Radar deception techniques are more sophisticated and can often be achieved without the radar (operator) knowing that jamming is being used. Typical techniques include: false target generation range gate stealing velocity gate stealing angle track breaking Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .4.21 .
1 False targets & range gate stealing By knowing the radar pulse parameters. EEE381B Electronic Warfare . Range gate stealing (RGS) is a similar deception jamming technique that begins by transmitting a strong enough signal to mask the true radar return.22 Winter 2009 .4. Jamming may then stop and repeat the process making it difficult for the radar to gain lock.2. Once this is achieved the pulse is walked off the echo range until the radar loses accurate range information. false targets can be injected into a radar by replicating or repeating well timed pulses so as to appear as spurious random targets.
2.23 .1 Range gate pull-off (RGPO) Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .4.1.
184.108.40.206 Range gate pull-off (RGPO) Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .24 .
3 Range gate pull-off (RGPO) Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .220.127.116.11 .
26 Winter 2009 .2 Other deception techniques Velocity gate stealing (VGS) works much the same as range gate stealing except that the transmitted jamming signal contains false Doppler frequency shifts causing errors in the radars velocity calculations.2. and sidelobe jamming. Angle track can then be affected by appropriate signal modulation (as the case of conscan). Other techniques include terrain bouncing. or previous intelligence). cross-polarization.4. EEE381B Electronic Warfare . Angle track breaking requires knowledge of the radar tracking method and scan parameters (perhaps from an on-board ESM.
4. These systems are generally stand-alone and often more powerful and capable than self-screen ones. EEE381B The EA-6B Prowler is being replaced with the EA-18G Growler (escort / stand-off role) Winter 2009 Electronic Warfare .27 .3 Airborne jamming platforms Airborne jammers (and their platforms) are generally employed in one of two common modes: Self-screening mode is provided by on-board jammer(s) as protection suites. Escort and stand-off mode is provided by support aircraft. with stand-off aircraft usually operating outside “harms way”. These systems are generally highly integrated into the mission suite.
3.1 Airborne jamming platforms  Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .28 .4.
In Canada these are collectively referred a defensive electronic warfare (DEW) suite Common threats faced by aircraft include: Small arms fire Radar guided anti-aircraft missiles (AAA) Shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SAM) SAM from ground sites.29 . vehicles or ships Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .5. Defensive Aids When operating in a hostile environment an aircraft must be equipped with appropriate selfdefence measures.
Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .5. A typical architecture includes 4 sensors located at the wing tips with each providing up to 90° conical coverage.30 . A typical antenna would be a spiral with ~75° beamwidth and ~10 dB gain.1 Radar warning receiver (RWR) The goal of an RWR is to detect the presence of a hostile radar prior to the radar detecting you.
5.1 A typical RWR architecture Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .31 .1.
each with 110° of coverage (providing front and rear protection.2 Other warning receivers A missile warning receiver (MWR) is designed to detect the infrared (IR) or ultraviolet (UV) emissions of a missile.5. Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare . Similarly a laser warning receiver (LWR) provides detection against missiles that emit signals in the laser band.32 . This system may employ up to 6 sensors.
5. countermeasure dispensers offer a defence against an imminent (launched) attack. Typical dispensers include: Chaff Flares Towed Decoys Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .33 .3 Countermeasure dispensers While warning receivers are designed to detect the presence of a threat.
It is cut into ½ wavelength strips and dispensed in cloud bursts behind the aircraft. thus forming a brief but large RCS so as to break the lock of an incoming missile. Chaff consists of tiny pieces of reflective metal foil or plastic. Usually used in conjunction with evasive manoeuvres. EEE381B Electronic Warfare .34 Winter 2009 . then known as “window”.1 Chaff Chaff is the oldest form of radar EW.5.3. dating back to WWII.
18.104.22.168 .1 Chaff Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .
5.2 Flares Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .3.36 .
5.3.3 Towed decoys Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .37 .
38 .4 F/A-18E/F Defensive EW Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .5.
39 .5 Modern active decoys Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .5.
40 . Jam resistant radar design Modern radar designs include features which make them less vulnerable to traditional EW techniques including: Low antenna sidelobes Sidelobe blanking Wide dynamic range with fast automatic gain control Constant false alarm rate (CFAR) reduction Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .6.
6.41 .1 Jam resistant radar design Modern radars also include low probability of detection techniques in order to prevent being detected (before any EW can begin). Typical techniques include: A purposeful reduction in peak power Frequency agility along with an increase in receiver bandwidth (with advanced low loss. low noise floor receivers) Very high gain antennas 55dB above the first sidelobe Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .
In-class exercises Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .7.42 .
1 Quick response # 1 How might a frequency agile radar be able to defend itself against spot noise jamming? What noise jamming mode will the jammer have to resort to and at what cost? Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .43 .7.
How could false targets be injected between the jammer and the radar? What key radar parameter must be known for this to work? Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .7.44 .2 Quick response # 2 Range gate pull-off (RGPO) injects false targets at ranges beyond that of the jammer.
7.3 Quick response # 3 How could knowledge of a radar’s scan pattern and antenna characteristics be used to effectively jam the radar? Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare .45 .
SciTch Publishing. Introduction to Airborne Radar.A First Course in Electronic Warfare. Military Avionics Systems. American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics. student laboratory manual. Second Edition. 2006.46 .6 & 2. Lab-Volt (Quebec) Ltd. [Chapters 3. Mark A. 1998. Artech House. David Adamy. 38542-00. 2000. Stimson. [Sections 2. "Clip art licensed from the Clip Art Gallery on DiscoverySchool.com" Winter 2009 EEE381B Electronic Warfare . 2006.References 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Moir & Seabridge. EW101 .4 & 6] George W. Hicks.7] Radar in an Active Target Environment.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?