NGUY

ˆ
E
˜
N THUY

THANH
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
TO
´
AN CAO C
ˆ
A
´
P
Tˆa
.
p 1
Da
.
i sˆo
´
tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
v`a H`ınh ho
.
c gia

i t´ıch
NH
`
A XU
ˆ
A
´
T BA

N DA
.
I HO
.
C QU
ˆ
O
´
C GIA H
`
A N
ˆ
O
.
I
H`a Nˆo
.
i – 2006
Mu
.
c lu
.
c
L`o
.
i n´oi dˆa
`
u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1 Sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c 6
1.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2 Da
.
ng da
.
i sˆo´ cu’ a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3 Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n h`ınh ho
.
c. Mˆodun v`a acgumen . . . . . . . . 13
1.4 Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac . . . . . . . . 23
2 D
-
a th´ u
.
c v`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’ 44
2.1 D
-
a th´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.1.1 D
-
a th´ u
.
c trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c C . . . . . . . . . 45
2.1.2 D
-
a th´ u
.
c trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ thu
.
.
c R . . . . . . . . . 46
2.2 Phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3 Ma trˆ a
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c 66
3.1 Ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.1.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.1.2 C´ ac ph´ep to´an tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh trˆen ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . 69
3.1.3 Ph´ep nhˆan c´ac ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.1.4 Ph´ep chuyˆe

n vi
.
ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.2 D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.2.1 Nghi
.
ch thˆe
´
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.2.2 D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.2.3 T´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
2 MU
.
C LU
.
C
3.2.4 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.3 Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
3.3.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
3.3.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t`ım ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . . 109
3.4 Ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
3.4.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
3.4.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t`ım ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o . . . . . 119
4 Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 132
4.1 Hˆe
.
n phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i n ˆa

n c´o di
.
nh th´ u
.
c kh´ac 0 . . . . 132
4.1.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.1.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Cramer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.1.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Gauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.2 Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.3 Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t . . . . . . . . . 165
5 Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
177
5.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa khˆong gian n-chiˆe
`
u v`a mˆo
.
t sˆo´ kh´ai niˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
vecto
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
5.2 Co
.
so
.
’ . D
-
ˆo

i co
.
so
.
’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
5.3 Khˆong gian vecto
.
Euclid. Co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n . . . . . . 201
5.4 Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
5.4.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
5.4.2 Ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ph´ep bdtt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
5.4.3 C´ ac ph´ep to´an . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
5.4.4 Vecto
.
riˆeng v`a gi´a tri
.
riˆeng . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
6 Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v`a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng dˆe

nhˆa
.
n da
.
ng du
.
`o
.
ng
v`a m˘ a
.
t bˆa
.
c hai 236
6.1 Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
6.1.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Lagrange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
6.1.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Jacobi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
MU
.
C LU
.
C 3
6.1.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao . . . . . . . . . 244
6.2 D
-
u
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng bˆa
.
c hai v` a m˘a
.
t
bˆa
.
c hai vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
L`o
.
i n´oi dˆa
`
u
Gi´ao tr`ınh B`ai tˆa
.
p to´an cao cˆa´p n`ay du
.
o
.
.
c biˆen soa
.
n theo Chu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh To´an cao cˆa´p cho sinh viˆen c´ac ng` anh Khoa ho
.
c Tu
.
.
nhiˆen cu’ a
Da
.
i ho
.
c Quˆo´c gia H`a Nˆ o
.
i v`a d˜a du
.
o
.
.
c Da
.
i ho
.
c Quˆo´c gia H`a Nˆ o
.
i thˆong
qua v`a ban h`anh.
Mu
.
c d´ıch cu’ a gi´ao tr`ınh l`a gi´ up d˜o
.
sinh viˆen c´ac ng`anh Khoa ho
.
c
Tu
.
.
nhiˆen n˘a
´
m v˜ u
.
ng v`a vˆa
.
n du
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c c´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap gia’ i to´an cao
cˆa´p. Mu
.
c tiˆeu n`ay quyˆe
´
t di
.
nh to`an bˆo
.
cˆa´u tr´ uc cu’ a gi´ao tr`ınh. Trong
mˆo
˜
i mu
.
c, dˆa
`
u tiˆen ch´ ung tˆoi tr`ınh b`ay t´om t˘a
´
t nh˜ u
.
ng co
.
so
.
’ l´ y thuyˆe
´
t
v`a liˆe
.
t kˆe nh˜ u
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c cˆa
`
n thiˆe
´
t. Tiˆe
´
p d´o, trong phˆa
`
n C´ ac v´ı du
.
ch´ ung tˆoi quan tˆam d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t t´o
.
i viˆe
.
c gia’ i c´ac b`ai to´an mˆa
˜
u b˘a
`
ng c´ach
vˆa
.
n du
.
ng c´ac kiˆe
´
n th´ u
.
c l´ y thuyˆe
´
t d˜a tr`ınh b`ay. Sau c` ung, l`a phˆa
`
n B` ai
tˆa
.
p. O
.

dˆay, c´ ac b`ai tˆa
.
p du
.
o
.
.
c gˆo
.
p th`anh t` u
.
ng nh´om theo t` u
.
ng chu’ dˆe
`
v`a du
.
o
.
.
c s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p theo th´ u
.
tu
.
.
t˘ang dˆa
`
n vˆe
`
dˆo
.
kh´o v`a mˆo
˜
i nh´om dˆe
`
u
c´o nh˜ u
.
ng chı ’ dˆa
˜
n vˆe
`
phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap gia’ i. Ch´ ung tˆoi hy vo
.
ng r˘a
`
ng viˆe
.
c
l`am quen v´o
.
i l`o
.
i gia’ i chi tiˆe
´
t trong phˆa
`
n C´ ac v´ı du
.
s˜e gi´ up ngu
.
`o
.
i ho
.
c
n˘a
´
m du
.
o
.
.
c c´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap gia’ i to´an co
.
ba’ n.
Gi´ao tr`ınh B`ai tˆa
.
p n`ay c´o thˆe

su
.
’ du
.
ng du
.
´o
.
i su
.
.
hu
.
´o
.
ng dˆa
˜
n cu’ a
gi´ao viˆen ho˘a
.
c tu
.
.
m`ınh nghiˆen c´ u
.
u v`ı c´ac b`ai tˆa
.
p dˆe
`
u c´o d´ap sˆo´, mˆo
.
t
sˆo´ c´o chı ’ dˆa
˜
n v`a tru
.
´o
.
c khi gia’ i c´ac b`ai tˆa
.
p n`ay d˜a c´o phˆa
`
n C´ac v´ı du
.
tr`ınh b`ay nh˜ u
.
ng chı ’ dˆa
˜
n vˆe
`
m˘a
.
t phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap gia’ i to´an.
T´ac gia’ gi´ao tr`ınh chˆan th`anh ca’ m o
.
n c´ac thˆa
`
y gi´ao: TS. Lˆe D`ınh
Ph` ung v`a PGS. TS. Nguyˆe
˜
n Minh Tuˆa´n d˜a do
.
c k˜ y ba’ n tha’ o v`a d´ong
Co
.
so
.
’ l´ y thuyˆe
´
t h`am biˆe
´
n ph´ u
.
c 5
g´op nhiˆe
`
u ´ y kiˆe
´
n qu´ y b´au vˆe
`
cˆa´u tr´ uc v`a nˆo
.
i dung v`a d˜a g´op ´ y cho t´ac
gia’ vˆe
`
nh˜ u
.
ng thiˆe
´
u s´ot cu’ a ba’ n tha’ o gi´ao tr`ınh.
M´o
.
i xuˆa´t ba’ n lˆa
`
n dˆa
`
u, Gi´ao tr`ınh kh´o tr´anh kho’i sai s´ot. Ch´ ung
tˆoi rˆa´t chˆan th`anh mong du
.
o
.
.
c ba
.
n do
.
c vui l`ong chı ’ ba’ o cho nh˜ u
.
ng
thiˆe
´
u s´ot cu’ a cuˆo´n s´ach dˆe

gi´ao tr`ınh ng`ay du
.
o
.
.
c ho`an thiˆe
.
n ho
.
n.
H`a Nˆ o
.
i, M` ua thu 2004
T´ac gia’
Chu
.
o
.
ng 1
Sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c
1.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.2 Da
.
ng da
.
i sˆo´ cu’ a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3 Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n h`ınh ho
.
c. Mˆodun v`a acgumen . 13
1.4 Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac . 23
1.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c
Mˆo
˜
i c˘a
.
p sˆo´ thu
.
.
c c´ o th´ u
.
tu
.
.
(a; b) ∀a ∈ R, ∀b ∈ R du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo´
ph´ u
.
c nˆe
´
u trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac c˘ a
.
p d´o quan hˆe
.
b˘a
`
ng nhau, ph´ep cˆo
.
ng v`a
ph´ep nhˆan du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
a v`ao theo c´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa sau dˆay:
(I) Quan hˆe
.
b˘a
`
ng nhau
(a
1
, b
1
) = (a
2
, b
2
) ⇐⇒
_
_
_
a
1
= a
2
,
b
1
= b
2
.
(II) Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng
1.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c 7
(a
1
, b
1
) + (a
2
, b
2
)
def
= (a
1
+a
2
, b
1
+b
2
).
1
(III) Ph´ep nhˆan
(a
1
, b
1
)(a
2
, b
2
)
def
= (a
1
a
2
−b
1
b
2
, a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
).
Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a C. Ph´ep cˆo
.
ng (II) v`a ph´ep nhˆan
(III) trong C c´o t´ınh chˆa´t giao ho´an, kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p, liˆen hˆe
.
v´o
.
i nhau bo
.
’ i
luˆa
.
t phˆ an bˆo´ v`a mo
.
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ ,= (0, 0) dˆe
`
u c´ o phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ nghi
.
ch da’ o.
Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p C lˆa
.
p th`anh mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng (go
.
i l`a tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c) v´o
.
i phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ khˆong l`a c˘a
.
p (0; 0) v`a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ do
.
n vi
.
l`a c˘a
.
p (1; 0).
´
Ap du
.
ng quy
t˘a
´
c (III) ta c´ o: (0; 1)(0; 1) = (−1, 0). Nˆe
´
u k´ y hiˆe
.
u i = (0, 1) th`ı
i
2
= −1
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac c˘ a
.
p da
.
ng d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t (a, 0), ∀a ∈ R theo (II) v`a (III) ta
c´o
(a, 0) + (b, 0) = (a +b, 0),
(a, 0)(b, 0) = (ab, 0).
T` u
.
d´o vˆe
`
m˘a
.
t da
.
i sˆo´ c´ac c˘a
.
p da
.
ng (a, 0), a ∈ R khˆong c´o g`ı kh´ac biˆe
.
t
v´o
.
i sˆo´ thu
.
.
c R: v`ı ch´ ung du
.
o
.
.
c cˆo
.
ng v`a nhˆan nhu
.
nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo´ thu
.
.
c. Do
vˆa
.
y ta c´ o thˆe

dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t c´ ac c˘a
.
p da
.
ng (a; 0) v´o
.
i sˆo´ thu
.
.
c a:
(a; 0) ≡ a ∀a ∈ R.
D˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t l`a (0; 0) ≡ 0; (1; 0) ≡ 1.
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z = (a, b):
1
+
Sˆo´ thu
.
.
c a du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phˆa
`
n thu
.
.
c a = Re z, sˆo´ thu
.
.
c b go
.
i l`a phˆa
`
n
a’ o v`a k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a b = Imz.
2
+
Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z = (a, −b) go
.
i l`a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c liˆen ho
.
.
p v´o
.
i sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z
1
def. l`a c´ ach viˆe
´
t t˘a
´
t cu’ a t` u
.
tiˆe
´
ng Anh definition (di
.
nh ngh˜ıa)
8 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
1.2 Da
.
ng da
.
i sˆo
´
cu

a sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c
Mo
.
i sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z = (a; b) ∈ C dˆe
`
u c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
z = a +ib. (1.1)
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, z = (a, b) = (a, 0) + (0, b) = (a, 0) + (0, 1)(b, 0) = a +ib
Biˆe

u th´ u
.
c (1.1) go
.
i l`a da
.
ng da
.
i sˆo´ cu’ a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z = (a, b). T` u
.
(1.1)
v`a di
.
nh ngh˜ıa sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c liˆen ho
.
.
p ta c´ o z = a −ib.
Du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng da
.
i sˆo´ c´ac ph´ep t´ınh trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c
hiˆe
.
n theo c´ac quy t˘a
´
c sau.
Gia’ su
.
’ z
1
= a
1
+ib
1
, z
2
= a
2
+ib
2
. Khi d´o
(I) Ph´ep cˆ o
.
ng: z
1
±z
2
= (a
1
±a
2
) +i(b
1
±b
2
).
(II) Ph´ep nhˆan: z
1
z
2
= (a
1
a
2
−b
1
b
2
) +i(a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
).
(III) Ph´ep chia:
z
2
z
1
=
a
1
a
2
+b
1
b
2
a
2
1
+b
2
1
+i
a
1
b
2
−a
2
b
1
a
2
1
+b
2
1

C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. 1
+
T´ınh i
n
. T` u
.
d´o ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
a) i
n
+i
n+1
+i
n+2
+i
n+3
= 0;
b) i i
2
i
99
i
100
= −1.
2
+
T`ım sˆo´ nguyˆen n nˆe
´
u:
a) (1 +i)
n
= (1 −i)
n
;
b)
_
1 +i

2
_
n
+
_
1 −i

2
_
n
= 0.
Gia’ i. 1
+
Ta c´o i
0
= 1, i
1
= i, i
2
= −1, i
3
= −i, i
4
= 1, i
5
= i v`a
gi´a tri
.
l˜ uy th` u
.
a b˘a
´
t dˆa
`
u l˘a
.
p la
.
i. Ta kh´ai qu´at h´oa. Gia’ su
.
’ n ∈ Z v`a
n = 4k +r, r ∈ Z, 0 r 3. Khi d´o
i
n
= i
4k+r
= i
4k
i
r
= (i
4
)
k
i
r
= i
r
1.2. Da
.
ng da
.
i sˆo´ cu’ a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c 9
(v`ı i
4
= i). T` u
.
d´o, theo kˆe
´
t qua’ trˆen ta c´o
i
n
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 nˆe
´
u n = 4k,
i nˆe
´
u n = 4k + 1,
−1 nˆe
´
u n = 4k + 2,
−i nˆe
´
u n = 4k + 3.
(1.2)
T` u
.
(1.2) dˆe
˜
d`ang suy ra a) v`a b).
2
+
a) T` u
.
hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c (1 +i)
n
= (1 −i)
n
suy ra
_
1 +i
1 −i
_
n
= 1.
Nhu
.
ng
1 +i
1 −i
= i nˆen
_
1 +i
1 −i
_
n
= i
n
= 1 ⇒ n = 4k, k ∈ Z.
b) T` u
.
d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
_
1 +i

2
_
n
+
_
1 −i

2
_
n
= 0 suy r˘a
`
ng
_
1 +i
1 −i
_
n
= −1
v`a do d´o i
n
= −1 ⇒n = 4k + 2, k ∈ Z.
V´ı du
.
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u n l`a bˆo
.
i cu’ a 3 th`ı
_
−1 +i

3
2
_
n
+
_
−1 −i

3
2
_
n
= 2
v`a nˆe
´
u n khˆong chia hˆe
´
t cho 3 th`ı
_
−1 +i

3
2
_
n
+
_
−1 −i

3
2
_
n
= −1.
Gia’ i. 1
+
Nˆe
´
u n = 3m th`ı
S =
__
−1 +i

3
2
_
3
_
m
+
__
−1 −i

3
2
_
3
_
m
=
_
−1 + 3i

3 + 9 −3i

3
8
_
m
+
_
−1 −3i

3 + 9 + 3i

3
8
_
m
= 1
m
+ 1
m
= 2.
10 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
2
+
Nˆe
´
u n = 3m+ 1 th`ı
S =
__
−1 +i

3
2
_
3
_
m
_
−1 +i

3
2
_
+
__
−1 −i

3
2
_
3
_
m
_
1 −i

3
2
_
=
−1 +i

3
2
+
−1 −i

3
2
= −1.
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nˆe
´
u n = 3m+ 2 ta c˜ ung c´o S = −1.
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh biˆe

u th´ u
.
c
σ =
_
1 +
1 +i
2
__
1 +
_
1 +i
2
_
2
__
1 +
_
1 +i
2
_
2
2_

_
1 +
_
1 +i
2
_
2
n_
.
Gia’ i. Nhˆan v`a chia biˆe

u th´ u
.
c d˜a cho v´o
.
i 1 −
1 +i
2
ta c´o
σ =
1 −
__
1 +i
2
_
2
n_
2
1 −
1 +i
2
=
1 −
_
1 +i
2
_
2
n+1
1 −
1 +i
2

Ta cˆa
`
n t´ınh
_
1 +i
2
_
2
n+1
=
__
1 +i
2
_
2
_
2
n
=
_
i
2
_
2
n
=
i
2
n
2
2
n
=
1
2
2
n

Do d´o
σ =
1 −
1
2
2
n
1 −
1 +i
2
=
2
_
1 −
1
2
2
n
_
1 −i

1 +i
1 +i
=
_
1 −
1
2
2
n
_
(1 +i)
V´ı du
.
4. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c

4 −3i du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng da
.
i sˆo´.
Gia’ i. Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa ta cˆ a
`
n t`ım sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c w sao cho w
2
= 4 −3i.
Nˆe
´
u w = a +bi, a, b ∈ R th`ı
4 −3i = (a +bi)
2
= a
2
−b
2
+ 2abi.
1.2. Da
.
ng da
.
i sˆo´ cu’ a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c 11
T` u
.
d´o
a
2
−b
2
= 4, (1.3)
2ab = −3. (1.4)
T` u
.
(1.4) ta c´o b = −
3
2a
. Thˆe
´
v`ao (1.3) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
4u
2
−16u −9 = 0, u = a
2
⇐⇒
_
u
1
=
8 +

100
4
=
8 + 10
4
=
18
4
=
9
2
,
u
2
=
8 −

100
4
=
8 −10
4
= −
1
2

V`ı a ∈ R nˆen u 0 ⇒ u =
9
2
v`a do vˆa
.
y
a = ±
3

2
⇒ b = ∓
1

2

T` u
.
d´o ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
w
1,2
= ±
_
3

2

1

2
i
_

V´ı du
.
5. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
z =

5 + 12i −

5 −12i

5 + 12i +

5 −12i
v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n l`a c´ac phˆa
`
n thu
.
.
c cu’ a

5 + 12i v`a

5 −12i dˆe
`
u ˆam.
Gia’ i.
´
Ap du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap gia’ i trong v´ı du
.
4 ta c´o

5 + 12i = x +iy ⇒ 5 + 12i = x
2
−y
2
−2xyi
⇐⇒
_
_
_
x
2
−y
2
= 5,
2xy = 12.
12 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
Hˆe
.
n`ay c´o hai nghiˆe
.
m l`a (3; 2) v`a (−3; −2). Theo diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n, phˆa
`
n
thu
.
.
c cu’ a

5 + 12i ˆam nˆen ta c´o

5 + 12i = −3 − 2i. Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
ta
t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c

5 −12i = −3 + 2i. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
z =
−3 −2i −(−3 + 2i)
−3 −2i + (−3 + 2i)
=
2
3
i
V´ı du
.
6. Gia’ su
.
’ z = a +ib, z = ±1. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng w =
z −1
z + 1
l`a
sˆo´ thuˆa
`
n a’ o khi v`a chı ’ khi a
2
+b
2
= 1.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o
w =
(a −1) +ib
(a + 1) +ib
=
a
2
+b
2
−1
(a + 1)
2
+b
2
+i
2b
(a + 1)
2
+b
2

T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng w thuˆa
`
n a’ o khi v`a chı ’ khi
a
2
+b
2
−1
(a + 1)
2
+b
2
= 0 ⇐⇒a
2
+b
2
= 1.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh
1.
(1 +i)
8
−1
(1 −i)
8
+ 1
(DS.
15
17
)
2.
(1 + 2i)
3
+ (1 −2i)
3
(2 −i)
2
−(2 +i)
2
(DS. −
11
4
i)
3.
(3 −4i)(2 −i)
2 +i

(3 + 4i)(2 +i)
2 −i
(DS. −
14
5
)
4.
_
1 +
1 −i

2
__
1 +
_
1 −i

2
_
2
__
1 +
_
1 −i

2
_
2
2_

_
1 +
_
1 −i

2
_
2
n_
.
(DS. 0)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n.
´
Ap du
.
ng c´ach gia’ i v´ı du
.
3.
5. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
a) z
1
+z
2
= z
1
+z
2
; b) z
1
z
2
= z
1
z
2
; c)
_
z
1
z
2
_
=
z
1
z
2
;
1.3. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n h`ınh ho
.
c. Mˆodun v`a acgumen 13
d) z
n
= (z)
n
; e) z +z = 2Re z; g) z −z = 2Imz.
6. V´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
thu
.
.
c n`ao cu’ a x v`a y th`ı c´ac c˘a
.
p sˆo´ sau dˆay l`a c´ac c˘ a
.
p
sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c liˆen ho
.
.
p:
1) y
2
−2y +xy −x +y + (x +y)i v`a −y
2
+ 2y + 11 −4i;
2) x +y
2
+ 1 + 4i v`a ixy
2
+iy
2
−3 ?
(DS. 1) x
1
= 1, y
1
= 3; x
2
= 9, y
2
= 5; 2) x
1,2
= −5, y
1,2
= ±5)
7. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng z
1
v`a z
2
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c liˆen ho
.
.
p khi v`a chı ’
khi z
1
+z
2
v`a z
1
z
2
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo´ thu
.
.
c.
8. T´ınh:
1)

−5 −12i. (DS. ±(2 −3i))
2)

24 + 10i. (DS. ±(5 +i))
3)

24 −10i. (DS. ±(5 −i))
4)
_
1 +i

3 +
_
1 −i

3. (DS. ±

6, ±i

2)
9. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
1) 1 −C
2
8
+C
4
8
−C
6
8
+C
8
8
= 16;
2) 1 −C
2
9
+C
4
9
−C
6
9
+C
8
9
= 16;
3) C
1
9
−C
3
9
+C
5
9
−C
7
9
+C
9
9
= 16.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c nhi
.
th´ u
.
c Newton dˆo´i v´o
.
i (1 +i)
8
v`a
(1 +i)
9
.
1.3 Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n h`ınh ho
.
c. Mˆodun v`a acgu-
men
Mˆo
˜
i sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z = a + ib c´o thˆe

d˘a
.
t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i diˆe

m M(a; b) cu’ a
m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng to
.
a dˆo
.
v`a ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i mˆo
˜
i diˆe

m M(a; b) cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng dˆe
`
u
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z = a + ib. Ph´ep tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac lˆa
.
p l`a
do
.
n tri
.
mˆo
.
t - mˆo
.
t. Ph´ep tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng d´o cho ph´ep ta xem c´ac sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
nhu
.
l`a c´ac diˆe

m cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng to
.
a dˆo
.
. M˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a
m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng ph´ u
.
c. Tru
.
c ho`anh cu’ a n´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a Tru
.
c thu
.
.
c, tru
.
c tung
14 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a Tru
.
c a’ o. Thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z = a + ib c´o thˆe

xem
nhu
.
vecto
.
−→
OM. Mˆo
˜
i vecto
.
cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng v´o
.
i diˆe

m dˆa
`
u O(0, 0) v`a
diˆe

m cuˆo´i ta
.
i diˆe

m M(a; b) dˆe
`
u tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z = a + ib v`a
ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i.
Su
.
.
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac lˆa
.
p gi˜ u
.
a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c C v´o
.
i tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
c´ac diˆe

m hay c´ac vecto
.
m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng cho ph´ep go
.
i c´ac sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c l`a diˆe

m
hay vecto
.
.
V´o
.
i ph´ep biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n h`ınh ho
.
c sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c, c´ac ph´ep to´an cˆ o
.
ng v`a tr` u
.
c´ac sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n theo quy t˘a
´
c cˆ o
.
ng v`a tr` u
.
c´ac vecto
.
.
Gia’ su
.
’ z ∈ C. Khi d´o dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a vecto
.
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆodun cu’ a n´o.
Nˆe
´
u z = a +ib th`ı
r = [z[ =

a
2
+b
2
=

z z.
G´oc gi˜ u
.
a hu
.
´o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng cu’ a tru
.
c thu
.
.
c v`a vecto
.
z (du
.
o
.
.
c xem l`a g´oc
du
.
o
.
ng nˆe
´
u n´o c´ o di
.
nh hu
.
´o
.
ng ngu
.
o
.
.
c chiˆe
`
u kim dˆo
`
ng hˆo
`
) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a
acgumen cu’ a sˆo´ z ,= 0. Dˆo´i v´o
.
i sˆo´ z = 0 acgumen khˆong x´ac di
.
nh.
Kh´ac v´o
.
i mˆodun, acgumen cu’ a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c x´ac di
.
nh khˆong do
.
n tri
.
, n´o
x´ac di
.
nh v´o
.
i su
.
.
sai kh´ac mˆo
.
t sˆo´ ha
.
ng bˆo
.
i nguyˆen cu’ a 2π v`a
Arg z = arg z + 2kπ, k ∈ Z,
trong d´o arg z l`a gi´a tri
.
ch´ınh cu’ a acgumen du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i diˆe
`
u
kiˆe
.
n −π < arg z π ho˘a
.
c 0 arg z < 2π.
Phˆa
`
n thu
.
.
c v`a phˆa
`
n a’ o cu’ a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z = a +ib du
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n qua
mˆodun v`a acgument cu’ a n´o nhu
.
sau
_
_
_
a = r cos ϕ,
y = r sinϕ.
1.3. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n h`ınh ho
.
c. Mˆodun v`a acgumen 15
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, acgumen ϕ cu’ a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c c´o thˆe

t`ım t` u
.
hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
_
¸
_
¸
_
cos ϕ =
a

a
2
+b
2
,
sinϕ =
b

a
2
+b
2

C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım mˆodun cu’ a sˆo´ z =
x
2
−y
2
+ 2xyi
xy

2 +i
_
x
4
+y
4

Gia’ i. Ta c´o
[z[ =
_
(x
2
−y
2
)
2
+ (2xy)
2
_
(xy

2)
2
+ (
_
x
4
+y
4
)
2
=
x
2
+y
2
x
2
+y
2
= 1.
V´ı du
.
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng ∀z
1
, z
2
∈ C ta dˆe
`
u c´o:
(i) [z
1
+z
2
[ [z
1
[ +[z
2
[; (ii) [z
1
−z
2
[ [z
1
[ +[z
2
[;
(iii) [z
1
+z
2
[ [z
1
[ −[z
2
[; (iv) z
1
−z
2
[ [z
1
[ −[z
2
.
Gia’ i. (i) Ta c´o
[z
1
+z
2
[
2
= (z
1
+z
2
)(z
1
+z
2
) = [z
1
[
2
+[z
2
[
2
+ 2Re(z
1
z
2
).
V`ı −[z
1
z
2
[ Re(z
1
z
2
) [z
1
z
2
[ nˆen
[z
1
+z
2
[
2
[z
1
[
2
+[z
2
[
2
+ 2[z
1
[[z
2
[ = ([z
1
[ +[z
2
[)
2
⇒[z
1
+z
2
[ [z
1
[ +[z
2
[.
(ii) V`ı [z
2
[ = [ −z
2
[ nˆen
[z
1
−z
2
[ = [z
1
+ (−z
2
)[ ≤ [z
1
[ +[ −z
2
[ = [z
1
[ +[z
2
[.
(iii)
´
Ap du
.
ng (ii) cho z
1
= (z
1
+z
2
) −z
2
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
[z
1
[ [z
1
+z
2
[ +[z
2
[ →[z
1
+z
2
[ [z
1
[ −[z
2
[.
16 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
(iv) [z
1
−z
2
[ = [z
1
+ (−z
2
)[ ≥ [z
1
[ −[ −z
2
[ = [z
1
[ −[z
2
[.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. C´ac bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (iii) v`a (iv) c`on c´ o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i
da
.
ng
(iii)

. [z
1
+z
2
[
¸
¸
[z
1
[ −[z
2
[
¸
¸
; (iv)

. [z
1
−z
2
[
¸
¸
[z
1
[ −[z
2
[
¸
¸
.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y ta c´ o [z
1
+z
2
[ [z
1
[ −[z
2
[ v`a [z
1
+z
2
[ [z
2
[ −[z
1
[. C´ ac
vˆe
´
pha’ i kh´ac nhau vˆe
`
dˆa´u do d´o nˆe
´
u lˆa´y vˆe
´
pha’ i du
.
o
.
ng th`ı thu du
.
o
.
.
c
(iii)

. Bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (iv)

thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
(iii)

b˘a
`
ng c´ach thay z
2
bo
.
’ i
−z
2
.
V´ı du
.
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t th´ u
.
c
[z
1
+z
2
[
2
+[z
1
−z
2
[
2
= 2([z
1
[
2
+[z
2
[
2
).
Gia’ i th´ıch ´ y ngh˜ıa h`ınh ho
.
c cu’ a hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c d˜a ch´ u
.
ng minh.
Gia’ i. Gia’ su
.
’ z
1
= x
1
+iy
1
, z
2
= x
2
+iy
2
. Khi d´o
z
1
+z
2
= x
1
+x
2
+i(y
1
+y
2
),
z
1
−z
2
= x
1
−x
2
+i(y
1
−y
2
),
[z
1
+z
2
[
2
= (x
1
+x
2
)
2
+ (y
1
+y
2
)
2
,
[z
1
−z
2
[
2
= (x
1
−x
2
)
2
+ (y
1
−y
2
)
2
.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c
[z
1
+z
2
[
2
+[z
1
−z
2
[
2
= 2(x
2
1
+y
1
)
2
+ 2(x
2
2
+y
2
2
) = 2([z
1
[
2
+[z
2
[
2
).
T` u
.
hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c d˜a ch´ u
.
ng minh suy r˘a
`
ng trong mˆo
˜
i h`ınh b`ınh h`anh tˆo

ng c´ ac
b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo b˘a
`
ng tˆo

ng c´ac b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng
dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a c´ac ca
.
nh cu’ a n´o.
V´ı du
.
4. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u [z
1
[ = [z
2
[ = [z
3
[ th`ı
arg
z
3
−z
2
z
3
−z
1
=
1
2
arg
z
2
z
1

Gia’ i. Theo gia’ thiˆe
´
t, c´ ac diˆe

m z
1
, z
2
v`a z
3
n˘a
`
m trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on
n`ao d´o v´o
.
i tˆam ta
.
i gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
. Ta x´et c´ac vecto
.
z
3
−z
2
; z
3
−z
1
, z
1
v`a
z
2
(h˜ay v˜e h`ınh).
1.3. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n h`ınh ho
.
c. Mˆodun v`a acgumen 17
B˘a
`
ng nh˜ u
.
ng nguyˆen do h`ınh ho
.
c, dˆe
˜
thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng
arg
z
3
−z
2
z
3
−z
1
= arg(z
3
−z
2
) −arg(z
3
−z
1
)
v`a g´oc n`ay nh`ın cung tr`on nˆo´i diˆe

m z
1
v`a z
2
v`a g´oc o
.
’ tˆam
arg
z
2
z
1
= argz
2
−argz
1
c˜ ung ch˘a
´
n ch´ınh cung tr`on d´o. Theo di
.
nh l´ y quen thuˆo
.
c cu’ a h`ınh ho
.
c
so
.
cˆa´p ta c´ o
arg
z
3
−z
2
z
3
−z
1
=
1
2
arg
z
2
z
1

V´ı du
.
5. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u [z
1
[ = [z
2
[ = [z
3
[ = 1 v`a z
1
+z
2
+z
3
= 0
th`ı c´ ac diˆe

m z
1
, z
2
v`a z
3
l`a c´ac dı ’nh cu’ a tam gi´ac dˆe
`
u nˆo
.
i tiˆe
´
p trong
du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on do
.
n vi
.
.
Gia’ i. Theo gia’ thiˆe
´
t, ba diˆe

m z
1
, z
2
v`a z
3
n˘a
`
m trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng tr`on
do
.
n vi
.
. Ta t`ım dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a c´ac ca
.
nh tam gi´ac.
1
+
T`ım dˆo
.
d`ai [z
1
−z
2
[. Ta c´o
[z
1
−z
2
[
2
= (x
1
−x
2
)
2
+ (y
1
−y
2
)
2
= x
2
1
+y
2
1
+x
2
2
+y
2
2
−(2x
1
x
2
+ 2y
1
y
2
)
= 2(x
2
1
+y
2
1
) + 2(x
2
2
+y
2
2
) −[(x
1
+x
2
)
2
+ (y
1
+y
2
)
2
]
= 2[z
1
[
2
+ 2[z
2
[
2
−2[z
1
+z
2
[
2
.
Nhu
.
ng z
1
+z
2
= −z
3
v`a [z
1
+z
2
[ = [z
3
[. Do d´o
[z
1
−z
2
[
2
= 2[z
1
[
2
+ 2[z
2
[
2
−[z
3
[
2
= 2 1 + 2 1 −1 = 3
v`a t` u
.
d´o
[z
1
−z
2
[ =

3 .
2
+
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
ta c´ o [z
2
− z
3
[ =

3, [z
3
− z
1
[ =

3. T` u
.
d´o suy ra
tam gi´ac v´o
.
i dı ’nh z
1
, z
2
, z
3
l`a tam gi´ ac dˆe
`
u.
18 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
V´ı du
.
6. V´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n n`ao th`ı ba diˆe

m kh´ac nhau t` u
.
ng dˆoi mˆo
.
t z
1
,
z
2
, z
3
n˘a
`
m trˆen mˆo
.
t du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng.
Gia’ i. 1
+
Nˆe
´
u c´ac diˆe

m z
1
, z
2
, z
3
n˘a
`
m trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng cho tru
.
´o
.
c
th`ı vecto
.
di t` u
.
z
2
dˆe
´
n z
1
c´o hu
.
´o
.
ng nhu
.
cu’ a vecto
.
di t` u
.
diˆe

m z
3
dˆe
´
n
z
1
ho˘a
.
c c´ o hu
.
´o
.
ng ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i. Diˆe
`
u d´o c´o ngh˜ıa l`a c´ac g´oc nghiˆeng cu’ a
c´ac vecto
.
n`ay dˆo´i v´o
.
i tru
.
c thu
.
.
c ho˘a
.
c nhu
.
nhau ho˘a
.
c sai kh´ac g´oc π.
Nhu
.
ng khi d´o ta c´o
arg(z
1
−z
2
) = arg(z
1
−z
3
) +kπ, k = 0, 1.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra
arg
z
1
−z
2
z
1
−z
3
= arg(z
1
−z
2
) −arg(z
1
−z
3
) = kπ, k = 0, 1.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
z
1
−z
2
z
1
−z
3
c´o acgumen b˘a
`
ng 0 ho˘a
.
c b˘a
`
ng π, t´ u
.
c l`a sˆo´
z
1
−z
2
z
1
−z
3
l`a sˆo´ thu
.
.
c. Diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n thu du
.
o
.
.
c l`a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n.
2
+
Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d´o c˜ ung l`a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n du’ . Gia’ su
.

z
1
−z
2
z
1
−z
3
= α, α ∈ R.
Khi d´o Im
z
1
−z
2
z
1
−z
3
= 0. Hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c n`ay tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c
y
1
−y
3
y
1
−y
2
=
x
1
−x
3
x
1
−x
2
(1.5)
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng th˘ a

ng qua diˆe

m (x
1
, y
1
) v`a (x
2
, y
2
) c´ o da
.
ng
y −y
1
y
2
−y
1
=
x −x
1
x
2
−x
1
(1.6)
T` u
.
(1.5) v`a (1.6) suy ra diˆe

m (x
3
, y
3
) n˘a
`
m trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng d´o.
V´ı du
.
7. X´ac di
.
nh tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p diˆe

m trˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng ph´ u
.
c tho’a m˜an c´ac
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n:
1.3. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n h`ınh ho
.
c. Mˆodun v`a acgumen 19
1) [z −2[ +[z + 2[ = 5;
2) [z −2[ −[z + 2[ > 3;
3) Re z c;
4) Imz < 0.
Gia’ i. 1) D˘a

ng th´ u
.
c [z −2[ + [z + 2[ = 5 x´ac di
.
nh qu˜ y t´ıch nh˜ u
.
ng
diˆe

m cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng m`a tˆo

ng khoa’ ng c´ach t` u
.
d´o dˆe
´
n hai diˆe

m cho
tru
.
´o
.
c F
1
= −2 v`a F
2
= +2 l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ b˘a
`
ng 5. Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa trong
h`ınh ho
.
c gia’ i t´ıch d´o l`a du
.
`o
.
ng ellip v´o
.
i b´an tru
.
c l´o
.
n b˘a
`
ng
5
2
v`a tiˆeu
diˆe

m ±2.
2) Qu˜ y t´ıch c´ac diˆe

m cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng C tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
¸
¸
[z −2[ −[z + 2[
¸
¸
= 3 l`a du
.
`o
.
ng hypecbˆ on. D˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
[z −2[ −[z + 2[ = 3
x´ac di
.
nh nh´anh bˆen tr´ai cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng hypecbˆ on v`a bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
[z −2[ −[z + 2[ > 3 x´ac di
.
nh phˆ a
`
n trong cu’ a nh´anh d´o.
3) Rez c ⇒ x c. D´o l`a nu
.
’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng bˆen pha’ i du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng
x = c (kˆe

ca’ du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng x = c).
4) V`ı Imz = y ⇒ Imz < c ⇒ y < c. D´o l`a nu
.
’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng du
.
´o
.
i
du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng y = c (khˆong kˆe

du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng d´o).
V´ı du
.
8. X´ac di
.
nh tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p diˆe

m trˆen m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng ph´ u
.
c C du
.
o
.
.
c cho
bo
.
’ i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n:
1) [z[ = Rez + 1;
2) [z −1[ 2[z −i[;
3) [z −2 +i[u
2
−2[z −2 +i[u + 1 > 0 ∀u ∈ R.
4) log
3
(2 +[z
2
+i[) + log
27
1
(2 +[z
2
−i[)
3
= 0.
Gia’ i. 1) Gia’ su
.
’ z = x +iy. Khi d´o t` u
.
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
[z[ = Rez + 1 ⇒
_
x
2
+y
2
= x + 1 ⇒y
2
= 2x + 1.
20 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
D´o l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh parabˆon v´o
.
i dı ’nh ta
.
i diˆe

m
_

1
2
; 0
_
v´o
.
i tru
.
c dˆo´i
x´ u
.
ng l`a tia
γ =
_
(x, y) ∈ R
2
: x −
1
2
, y = 0
_
.
2) Gia’ su
.
’ z = x +iy. Khi d´o t` u
.
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n d˜a cho suy ra:
[x −1 +iy[ 2[x +i(y −1)[

_
(x −1)
2
+y
2
≥ 2
_
x
2
+ (y −1)
2

_
x +
1
3
_
2
+
_
y −
4
3
_
2

8
9

T` u
.
d´o suy ra r˘a
`
ng diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n d˜a cho x´ac di
.
nh h`ınh tr`on tˆamz
0
= −
1
3
+i
4
3
v`a b´an k´ınh
2

2
3
.
3) V`ı tam th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai (dˆo´i v´o
.
i u) o
.
’ vˆe
´
tr´ai cu’ a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n d˜a cho
du
.
o
.
ng ∀u ∈ R nˆen biˆe
.
t sˆo´ cu’ a n´o ˆam, t´ u
.
c l`a
[z −2 +i[
2
−[z −2 +i[ < 0
⇒[z −2 +i[ < 1.
D´o l`a h`ınh tr`on v´o
.
i tˆam ta
.
i z
0
= 2 −i v`a b´an k´ınh b˘a
`
ng 1.
4) T` u
.
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n d˜a cho ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
log
3
2 +[z
2
+i[
2 +[z
2
−i[
= 0

2 +[z
2
+i[
2 +[z
2
−i[
= 1 v`a [z
2
+i[ = [z
2
−i[.
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng z
2
l`a sˆo´ thu
.
.
c bˆa´t k` y. Nhu
.
ng khi d´o z l`a sˆo´ thu
.
.
c bˆa´t
k` y ho˘a
.
c sˆo´ thuˆa
`
n a’ o bˆa´t k` y. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y chı ’ c´o c´ac diˆe

m n˘a
`
m trˆen c´ac
tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
l`a tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n d˜a cho.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
1.3. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n h`ınh ho
.
c. Mˆodun v`a acgumen 21
1. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
1) [z
1
z
2
[ = [z
1
[ [z
2
[;
2) [z
1
±z
2
[ [z
1
[ +[z
2
[;
3) [z
1
±z
2
[
¸
¸
[z
1
[ −[z
2
[
¸
¸
.
2. Xuˆa´t ph´at t` u
.
c´ac biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n h`ınh ho
.
c, ch´ u
.
ng minh:
1)
¸
¸
¸
z
[z[
−1
¸
¸
¸ [argz[;
2) [z −1[
¸
¸
[z[ −1
¸
¸
+[z[[argz[.
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u gi´a tri
.
ch´ınh argz = arg(a + ib) tho’a m˜an
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n −π < argz π th`ı n´o du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
arg(a +ib) =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
arctg
b
a
nˆe
´
u a > 0,
arctg
b
a
+π nˆe
´
u a < 0, b 0,
arctg
b
a
−π nˆe
´
u a < 0, b < 0.
4. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u gi´a tri
.
ch´ınh arg(a +ib) tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
0 arg(a +ib) < 2π th`ı
arg(a +ib) =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
arctg
b
a
nˆe
´
u a > 0, b > 0,
arctg
b
a
+ 2π nˆe
´
u a > 0, b < 0,
arctg
b
a
+π nˆe
´
u a < 0.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng gi´a tri
.
ch´ınh cu’ a arctg
b
a

_

π
2
,
π
2
_
.
5. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng [a +b[
2
+[a −b[
2
= 4[a[
2
nˆe
´
u [a[ = [b[.
6. Ch´ u
.
ng minh dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t th´ u
.
c
[1 −ab[
2
−[a −b[
2
= (1 +[ab[)
2
−([a[ +[b[)
2
, a ∈ C, b ∈ C.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c [z[
2
= zz.
22 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
7. Ch´ u
.
ng minh dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t th´ u
.
c
1) [a +b[
2
= ([a[ +[b[)
2
−2
_
[ab[ −Re(ab)
¸
.
2) [ab + 1[
2
+[a −b[
2
= ([a[
2
+ 1)([b[
2
+ 1).
8. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng mo
.
i sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z ,= −1 v`a [z[ = 1 dˆe
`
u c´o thˆe

biˆe

u
diˆe
˜
n du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
z =
1 +ti
1 −ti
, t ∈ R.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n t qua z v`a ch´ u
.
ng minh t = t.
9. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u Rea 0 th`ı [1 +a[
1 +[a[

2

Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. C´o thˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh b˘a
`
ng pha’ n ch´ u
.
ng.
10. Trong c´ ac sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
[z −25i[ 15
h˜ay t`ım sˆo´ c´o acgument du
.
o
.
ng nho’ nhˆa´t.
11. T`ım acgumen cu’ a c´ac sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c sau dˆay
1) cos
π
6
−i sin
π
6
(DS. −
π
6
)
2) −cos
π
3
+i sin
π
3
(DS.

3
)
3) cos ϕ −i sinϕ. (DS. −ϕ)
4) −cos ϕ −i sinϕ. (DS. π +ϕ)
5) sinϕ +i cos ϕ. (DS.
π
2
−ϕ)
6) sinϕ −i cos ϕ. (DS. ϕ −
π
2
)
7) −sinϕ −i cos ϕ. (DS.
_

π
2
−ϕ
_
)
1.4. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac 23
1.4 Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo
´
ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng
gi´ac
Mo
.
i sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z = a +ib ,= 0 dˆe
`
u biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
z = a +ib = r(cos ϕ +i sinϕ) (1.7)
trong d´o r = [z[ =

a
2
+b
2
, ϕ l` a mˆo
.
t trong c´ac acgumen cu’ a n´o.
Ph´ep biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l` a da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac cu’ a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z. Dˆe

chuyˆe

n t` u
.
da
.
ng da
.
i sˆo´ sang da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac ta chı ’ cˆa
`
n t`ım mˆodun
v`a mˆo
.
t trong c´ ac acgument cu’ a n´o. V`ı mˆodun v`a acgumen cu’ a tˆo

ng
(hiˆe
.
u) hai sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c kh´o c´o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n qua mˆodun v`a acgumen cu’ a
c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng nˆen ph´ep cˆ o
.
ng v`a ph´ep tr` u
.
du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac l`a khˆong
kha’ thi. Ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i, ph´ep nhˆan, ph´ep chia, ph´ep nˆang lˆen l˜ uy th` u
.
a v`a
khai c˘an du
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n rˆa´t tiˆe
.
n lo
.
.
i du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac.
Gia’ su
.
’ z
1
= r
1
(cos ϕ
1
+ i sinϕ
1
), z
2
= r
2
(cos ϕ
2
+ i sinϕ
2
),
z = r(cos ϕ +i sinϕ). Khi d´o
1
+
z
1
z
2
= r
1
r
2
[cos(ϕ
1

2
) +i sin(ϕ
1

2
)]
2
+
z
1
z
2
=
r
1
r
2
[cos(ϕ
1
−ϕ
2
) +i sin(ϕ
1
−ϕ
2
)], r
2
,= 0.
3
+
z
n
= r
n
[cos nϕ +i sinnϕ], n ∈ Z.
4
+
w
k
=
n

r
_
cos
ϕ + 2kπ
n
+i sin
ϕ + 2kπ
n
_
, k = 0, n −1.
T` u
.
3
+
suy ra
[cos ϕ +i sinϕ]
n
= cos nϕ +i sinnϕ. (1.8)
Cˆong th´ u
.
c (1.8) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a cˆong th´ u
.
c Moivre.
Ph´ep to´an nˆang sˆo´ e lˆen lu˜ y th` u
.
a ph´ u
.
c z = x+iy du
.
o
.
.
c di
.
nh ngh˜ıa
bo
.
’ i cˆong th´ u
.
c
e
z
= e
x+iy
def
= e
x
(cos y +i siny). (1.9)
Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n
24 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
e
1+i
= e(cos 1 +i sin1),
e
πi/2
= cos
π
2
+i sin
π
2
= i,
e
πi
= cos π +i sinπ = −1.
T` u
.
(1.9) khi z = iϕ ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
e

= cos ϕ +i sin ϕ (1.10)
go
.
i l`a cˆong th´ u
.
c Euler.
Mo
.
i sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z ,= 0 dˆe
`
u c´o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
z = re

, (1.11)
trong d´o r = [z[, ϕ l`a mˆo
.
t trong c´ac acgumen cu’ a n´o. Ph´ep biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n
(1.11) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
.
ng m˜ u cu’ a sˆ o´ ph´ u
.
c. C˜ ung nhu
.
dˆo´i v´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng
gi´ac ta c´o:
1/ nˆe
´
u z
1
= r
1
e

1
, z
2
= r
2
e

2
th`ı
z
1
z
2
= r
1
r
2
e
i(ϕ
1

2
)
, (1.12)
z
1
/z
2
=
r
1
r
2
e
i(ϕ
1
−ϕ
2
)
, (1.13)
2/ nˆe
´
u z = re

th`ı
z
n
= r
n
e
inϕ
, (1.14)
n

z =
n

re
i
ϕ+2kπ
n
, k = 0, n −1 (1.15)
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c sau dˆay du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac
1) −1 +i

3; 2) 2 +

3 +i.
Gia’ i. 1) T`ım mˆodun v`a acgumen cu’ a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c d˜a cho:
r =
_
(−1)
2
+ (

3)
2
= 2; tg ϕ = −

3 .
1.4. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac 25
T` u
.
d´o ho˘ a
.
c ϕ = −π/3, ho˘ a
.
c ϕ = −
π
3
+ π =

3
. V`ı sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c d˜a
cho thuˆo
.
c g´oc phˆa
`
n tu
.
II nˆen ta cho
.
n ϕ =

3
. T` u
.
d´o −1 + i

3 =
2
_
cos
_

3
_
i sin
_

3
__
.
2) T`ım modun v`a acgumen:
[2 +

3 +i[ =
_
(2 +

3)
2
+ 1 =
_
8 + 4

3 = 2
_
2 +

3.
Nˆe
´
u ϕ = arg(2 +

3 +i) th`ı
cos ϕ =
2 +

3
2
_
2 +

3
=
_
2 +

3
2
=
¸
¸
¸
_1 +

3
2
2
=
¸
¸
¸
_
1 + cos
π
6
2
= cos
π
12

T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
2

3 +i = 2
_
2 +

3
_
cos
π
12
+i sin
π
12
_

V´ı du
.
2. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac
1) 1 + cos ϕ +i sin ϕ, −π < ϕ < π.
2) 1 + cos ϕ +i sin ϕ, π < ϕ < 2π.
3) w =
1 + cos ϕ +i sinϕ
1 + cos ϕ −i sinϕ
, 0 < ϕ <
π
2

Gia’ i. 1) Ta c´ o
[z[ =
_
2(1 + cos ϕ) = 2
¸
¸
¸ cos
ϕ
2
¸
¸
¸ = 2 cos
ϕ
2
v`ı −π < ϕ < π ⇒−
π
2
<
ϕ
2
<
π
2
⇒ cos
ϕ
2
> 0.
Gia’ su
.
’ α = argz. Khi d´o
cos α =
1 + cos ϕ
2 cos
ϕ
2
= cos
ϕ
2
,
sin α =
sinϕ
2 cos
ϕ
2
= sin
ϕ
2

_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
⇒ z = 2 cos
ϕ
2
_
cos
ϕ
2
+i sin
ϕ
2
_
.
26 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
2) Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay ta c´ o
r = [z[ =
_
2(1 + cos ϕ) = 2
¸
¸
¸ cos
ϕ
2
¸
¸
¸ = −2 cos
ϕ
2
v`ı
π
2
<
ϕ
2
< π. Gia’ su
.
’ α = argz. Khi d´o
cos α =
1 + cos ϕ
−2 cos
ϕ
2
= −cos
ϕ
2
= cos
_
ϕ
2
−π
_
,
sin α =
sinϕ
−2 cos
ϕ
2
= −sin
ϕ
2
= sin
_
ϕ
2
−π
_
.
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
1 + cos ϕ +i sinϕ = −2 cos
ϕ
2
_
cos
_
ϕ
2
−π
_
+i sin
_
ϕ
2
−π
__
.
3) Tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t nhˆa
.
n x´et r˘a
`
ng [w[ = 1 v`ı tu
.
’ sˆo´ v`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ cu’ a n´o c´o
modun b˘a
`
ng nhau. Ta t`ım da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac cu’ a tu
.
’ sˆo´ v`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´.
X´et tu
.
’ sˆo´: z
1
= 1 + cos ϕ +i sin ϕ, ϕ ∈
_
0,
π
2
_
[z
1
[ =
_
2(1 + cos ϕ) ,
ϕ
1
= argz
1
= arctg
sin ϕ
1 + cos ϕ
= arctg
_
tg
ϕ
2
_
=
ϕ
2

_

π
2
,
π
2
_
.
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
, dˆo´i v´o
.
i mˆa
˜
u sˆo´
z
2
= 1 + cos ϕ −i sin ϕ
ta c´o
[z
2
[ =
_
2(1 + cos ϕ) ,
ϕ
2
= argz
2
= arctg
_
−sinϕ
1 + cos ϕ
_
= arctg
_
−tg
ϕ
2
_
= arctg
_
tg
_

ϕ
2
__
= −
ϕ
2

_

π
2
,
π
2
_
.
1.4. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac 27
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c
z
2
=
_
2(1 + cos ϕ)
_
cos
_

ϕ
2
_
+i sin
_

ϕ
2
__
v`a do vˆa
.
y
w =
_
2(1 + cos ϕ)
_
2(1 + cos ϕ)

_
cos
ϕ
2
+i sin
ϕ
2
_
cos
_

ϕ
2
_
+i sin
_

ϕ
2
_
= cos ϕ +i sinϕ.
V´ı du
.
3. 1) T´ınh (

3 +i)
126
2) T´ınh acgumen cu’ a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c sau
w = z
4
−z
2
nˆe
´
u argz = ϕ v`a [z[ = 1.
Gia’ i. 1) Ta c´ o

3 +i = 2
_
cos
π
6
+i sin
π
6
_
. T` u
.
d´o ´ap du
.
ng cˆong
th´ u
.
c Moivre ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c:
(

3 +i)
126
= 2
126
_
cos
126π
6
+i sin
126π
6
_
= 2
126
[cos π +i sinπ] = −2
126
.
2) Ta c´ o
w = z
4
−z
2
= cos 4ϕ +i sin4ϕ −[cos 2ϕ −i sin 2ϕ]
= cos 4ϕ −cos 2ϕ +i(sin4ϕ + sin2ϕ)
= −2 sin 3ϕsinϕ + 2i sin 3ϕcos ϕ
= 2 sin 3ϕ[−sinϕ +i cos ϕ].
(i) Nˆe
´
u sin3ϕ > 0 (t´ u
.
c l`a khi
2kπ
3
< ϕ <
(2k + 1)π
3
, k ∈ Z) th`ı
w = 2 sin 3ϕ
_
cos
_
π
2

_
+i sin
_
π
2

__
.
(ii) Nˆe
´
u sin3ϕ < 0 (t´ u
.
c l`a khi
(2k −1)π
3
< ϕ <
2kπ
3
, k ∈ Z) th`ı
w = (−2 sin3ϕ)[sinϕ −i cos ϕ].
28 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
Ta t`ım da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac cu’ a v = sin ϕ − i cos ϕ. Hiˆe

n nhiˆen [v[ = 1.
Ta t´ınh argv
argv = arctg
_
−cos ϕ
sinϕ
_
= arctg(−cotgϕ)
= arctg
_
−tg
_
π
2
−ϕ
__
= arctg
_
tg
_
ϕ −
π
2
__
= ϕ −
π
2

Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y nˆe
´
u sin 3ϕ < 0 th`ı
w = (−2 sin 3ϕ)
_
cos
_
ϕ −
π
2
_
+i sin
_
ϕ −
π
2
__
.
(iii) Nˆe
´
u sin 3ϕ = 0 ⇒ϕ =

3
⇒ w = 0.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
argw =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
π
2
+ϕ nˆe
´
u
2kπ
3
< ϕ <
(2k + 1)π
3
,
khˆong x´ ac di
.
nh nˆe
´
u ϕ =

3
,
ϕ −
π
2
nˆe
´
u
(2k −1)π
3
< ϕ <
2kπ
3

V´ı du
.
4. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
1) cos
π
9
+ cos

9
+ cos

9
+ cos

9
=
1
2
.
2) cos ϕ + cos(ϕ +α) + cos(ϕ + 2α) + + cos(ϕ +nα)
=
sin
(n + 1)α
2
cos
_
ϕ +

2
_
sin
α
2

Gia’ i. 1) D˘a
.
t
S = cos
π
9
+ cos

9
+ + cos

9
,
T = sin
π
9
+ sin

9
+ + sin

9
,
z = cos
π
9
+i sin
π
9
.
1.4. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac 29
Khi d´o
S +iT = z +z
3
+z
5
+z
7
=
z(1 −z
8
)
1 −z
2
=
z −z
9
1 −z
2
=
z + 1
1 −z
2
=
1
1 −z
=
1
_
1 −cos
π
9
_
−i sin
π
9
=
_
1 −cos
π
9
_
+i sin
π
9
_
1 −cos
π
9
_
2
+ sin
2
π
9
=
1
2
+
sin
π
9
2
_
1 −cos
π
9
_
Do d´o S =
1
2

2) Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trong 1) ta k´ y hiˆe
.
u
S = cos ϕ + cos(ϕ +α) + + cos(ϕ +nα),
T = sin ϕ + sin(ϕ +α) + + sin(ϕ +nα),
z = cos α +i sin α, c = cos ϕ +i sinϕ.
Khi d´o
S +iT = c +cz + +cz
n
=
c(1 −z
n+1
)
1 −z
=
(cos ϕ +i sinϕ)[1 −cos(n + 1)α −i sin(n + 1)α]
1 −cos α −i sinα
=
(cos ϕ +i sinϕ)2 sin
(n + 1)α
2
_
cos
(n + 1)α −π
2
+i sin
(n + 1)α −π
2
_
2 sin
α
2
_
cos
α −π
2
+i sin
α −π
2
_
=
sin
(n + 1)α
2
cos
_
ϕ +

2
_
sin
α
2
+
sin
(n + 1)α
2
sin
_
ϕ +

2
sin
α
2
i.
T` u
.
d´o so s´anh phˆa
`
n thu
.
.
c v`a phˆ a
`
n a’ o ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c kˆe
´
t qua’ .
B˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
ta c´o thˆe

t´ınh c´ ac tˆo

ng da
.
ng
a
1
sinb
1
+a
2
sinb
2
+ +a
n
sinb
n
,
a
1
cos b
1
+a
2
cos b
2
+ +a
n
cos b
n
30 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
nˆe
´
u c´ac acgumen b
1
, b
2
, . . . , b
n
lˆa
.
p nˆen cˆ a´p sˆo´ cˆo
.
ng c` on c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
lˆa
.
p nˆen cˆa´p sˆo´ nhˆan.
V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh tˆo

ng
1) S
n
= 1 +a cos ϕ +a
2
cos 2ϕ + +a
n
cos nϕ;
2) T
n
= a sinϕ +a
2
sin2ϕ + +a
n
sinnϕ.
Gia’ i. Ta lˆa
.
p biˆe

u th´ u
.
c S
n
+iT
n
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
Σ = S
n
+iT
n
= 1 +a(cos ϕ +i sinϕ) +a
2
(cos 2ϕ +i sin2ϕ) +. . .
+a
n
(cos nϕ +i sinnϕ).
D˘a
.
t z = cos ϕ +i sinϕ v`a ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Moivre ta c´ o:
Σ = 1 +az +a
2
z
2
+ +a
n
z
n
=
a
n+1
z
n+1
−1
az −1
(nhˆan tu
.
’ sˆo´ v`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ v´o
.
i
a
z
−1)
=
a
n+2
z
n
−a
n+1
z
n+1

a
2
+ 1
a
2
−a
_
z +
1
z
_
+ 1
(do z +
1
z
= 2 cos ϕ)
=
a
n+2
(cos nϕ +i sinnϕ) −a
n+1
[cos(n + 1)ϕ +i sin(n + 1)ϕ]
a
2
−2a cos ϕ + 1
+
−a cos ϕ +ai sinϕ + 1
a
2
−2a cos ϕ + 1
=
a
n+2
cos nϕ −a
n+1
cos(n + 1)ϕ −a cos ϕ + 1
a
2
−2a cos ϕ + 1
+
+i
a
n+2
sinnϕ −a
n+1
sin(n + 1)ϕ +a sinϕ
a
2
−2a cos ϕ + 1

B˘a
`
ng c´ach so s´anh phˆa
`
n thu
.
.
c v`a phˆa
`
n a’ o ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´ ac kˆe
´
t qua’ cˆa
`
n
du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh.
V´ı du
.
6. 1) Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n tg5ϕ qua tgϕ.
1.4. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac 31
2) Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh sin
5
ϕ qua c´ac h`am sin cu’ a g´oc bˆo
.
i cu’ a ϕ.
3) Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n cos
4
ϕ v`a sin
4
ϕ cos
3
ϕ qua h`am cosin cu’ a c´ ac g´oc bˆo
.
i.
Gia’ i. 1) V`ı tg5ϕ =
sin 5ϕ
cos 5ϕ
nˆen ta cˆ a
`
n biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sin 5ϕ v`a cos 5ϕ
qua sinϕ v`a cos ϕ. Theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Moivre ta c´ o
cos 5ϕ +i sin5ϕ = (cos ϕ +i sin ϕ)
5
= sin
5
ϕ + 5i cos
4
ϕsin ϕ
−10 cos
3
ϕsin
2
ϕ −10i cos
2
ϕsin
3
ϕ
+ 5 cos ϕsin
4
ϕ +i sin
5
ϕ.
T´ach phˆa
`
n thu
.
.
c v`a phˆa
`
n a’ o ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u th´ u
.
c dˆo´i v´o
.
i sin5ϕ v`a
cos 5ϕ v`a t` u
.
d´o
tg5ϕ =
5 cos
4
ϕsinϕ −10 cos
2
ϕsin
3
ϕ + sin
5
ϕ
cos
5
ϕ −10 cos
3
ϕsin
2
ϕ + 5 cos ϕsin
4
ϕ
(chia tu
.
’ sˆo´ v`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ cho cos
5
ϕ)
=
5tgϕ −10tg
3
ϕ + tg
5
ϕ
1 −10tg
2
ϕ + 5tg
4
ϕ

2) D˘a
.
t z = cos ϕ + i sinϕ. Khi d´o z
−1
= cos ϕ − i sinϕ v`a theo
cˆong th´ u
.
c Moivre:
z
k
= cos kϕ +i sin kϕ, z
−k
= cos kϕ −i sinkϕ.
Do d´o
cos ϕ =
z +z
−1
2
, sinϕ =
z −z
−1
2i
z
k
+z
−k
= 2 cos kϕ, z
k
−z
−k
= 2i sinkϕ.
´
Ap du
.
ng c´ac kˆe
´
t qua’ n`ay ta c´o
sin
5
ϕ =
_
z −z
−1
2i
_
5
=
z
5
−5z
3
+ 10z −10z
−1
+ 5z
−3
−z
−5
32i
=
(z
5
−z
−5
) −5(z
3
−z
−3
) + 10(z −z
−1
)
32i
=
2i sin5ϕ −10i sin 3ϕ + 20i sinϕ
32i
=
sin5ϕ −5 sin 3ϕ + 10 sin ϕ
16

32 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
3) Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trong phˆa
`
n 2) ho˘a
.
c gia’ i theo c´ach sau dˆay
1
+
cos
4
ϕ =
_
e

+e
−iϕ
2
_
4
=
1
16
_
e
4iϕ
+ 4e
2iϕ
+ 6 + 4e
−2iϕ
+e
−4iϕ
¸
=
1
8
_
e
4ϕi
+e
−4ϕi
2
_
+
1
2
_
e
2ϕi
+e
−2ϕi
2
_
+
3
8
=
3
8
+
1
2
cos 2ϕ +
1
8
cos 4ϕ.
2
+
sin
4
ϕcos
3
ϕ =
_
e
ϕi
−e
−ϕi
2i
_
4
_
e
ϕi
+e
−ϕi
2
_
3
=
1
128
_
e
2ϕi
−e
−2ϕi
_
3
_
e
ϕi
−e
−ϕi
_
=
1
128
_
e
6ϕi
−3e
2ϕi
+ 3e
−2ϕi
−e
−6ϕi
¸_
e
ϕi
−e
−ϕi
¸
=
1
128
_
e
7ϕi
−e
5ϕi
−3e
3ϕi
+ 3e
ϕi
+ 3e
−ϕ
i
−3e
−3ϕi
−e
−5ϕi
+e
−7ϕi
_
=
3
64
cos ϕ −
3
64
cos 3ϕ −
1
64
cos 5ϕ −
1
64
cos 7ϕ.
V´ı du
.
7. 1) Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
1
+
(x + 1)
n
−(x −1)
n
= 0
2
+
(x +i)
n
+ (x −i)
n
= 0, n > 1.
2) Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng mo
.
i nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
_
1 +ix
1 −ix
_
n
=
1 +ai
1 −ai
, n ∈ N, a ∈ R
dˆe
`
u l`a nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c kh´ac nhau.
Gia’ i. 1) Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
1
+
Chia hai vˆe
´
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cho (x −1)
n
ta du
.
o
.
.
c
_
x + 1
x −1
_
n
= 1 ⇒
x + 1
x −1
=
n

1 = cos
2kπ
n
+i sin
2kπ
n
= ε
k
,
k = 0, 1, . . . , n −1.
1.4. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac 33
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
x + 1 = ε
k
(x −1) ⇒ x(ε
k
−1) = 1 +ε
k
.
Khi k = 0 ⇒ ε
0
= 1. Do d´o v´o
.
i k = 0 phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh vˆo nghiˆe
.
m. V´o
.
i
k = 1, n −1 ta c´ o
x =
ε
k
+ 1
ε
k
−1
=

k
+ 1)(ε
k
−1)
ε
k
−1)(ε
k
−1)
=
ε
k
ε
k

k
−ε
k
−1
ε
k
ε
k
−ε
k
−ε
k
−1
=
−2i sin
2kπ
n
2 −2 cos
2kπ
n
= −i
sin
2kπ
n
1 −cos
2kπ
n
= icotg

n
, k = 1, 2, . . . , n −1.
2
+
C˜ ung nhu
.
trˆen, t` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho ta c´o
_
x +i
x −i
_
n
= −1 ⇐⇒
x +i
x −i
=
n

−1 = cos
π + 2kπ
n
+i sin
π + 2kπ
n
hay l`a
x +i
x −i
= cos
(2k + 1)π
n
+i sin
(2k + 1)π
n
= cos ψ +i sin ψ, ψ =
(2k + 1)π
n

Ta biˆe
´
n dˆo

i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh:
x +i
x −i
−1 = cos ψ +i sinψ −1

2i
x −i
= 2i sin
ψ
2
cos
ψ
2
−2 sin
2
ψ
2

1
x −i
= sin
ψ
2
_
cos
ψ
2

1
i
sin
ψ
2
_
= sin
ψ
2
_
cos
ψ
2
+i sin
ψ
2
_
.
34 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
T` u
.
d´o suy ra
x −i =
1
sin
ψ
2
_
cos
ψ
2
+i sin
ψ
2
_
=
cos
ψ
2
−i sin
ψ
2
sin
ψ
2
= cotg
ψ
2
−i.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
x −i = cotg
ψ
2
−i ⇒ x = cotg
ψ
2
= cotg
(2k + 1)π
2n
, k = 0, n −1.
2) Ta x´et vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho. Ta c´o
¸
¸
¸
1 +ai
1 −ai
¸
¸
¸ = 1 ⇒
1 +ai
1 −ai
= cos α +i sin α
v`a t` u
.
d´o
1 +xi
1 −xi
=
n
_
1 +ai
1 −ai
= cos
α + 2kπ
n
+i sin
α + 2kπ
n
, k = 0, n −1.
T` u
.
d´o nˆe
´
u d˘a
.
t ψ =
α + 2kπ
n
th`ı
x =
cos ψ −1 +i sin ψ
i[cos ψ + 1 +i sinψ]
= tg
ψ
2
= tg
α + 2kπ
2n
, k = 0, n −1.
R˜o r`ang d´o l`a nh˜ u
.
ng nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c kh´ac nhau.
V´ı du
.
8. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c sau dˆay du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng m˜ u:
1) z =
(−

3 +i)
_
cos
π
12
−i sin
π
12
_
1 −i

2) z =
_

3 +i.
1.4. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac 35
Gia’ i. 1) D˘a
.
t z
1
= −

3 + i, z
2
= cos
π
12
− i sin
π
12
, z
3
= 1 − i v`a
biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c d´o du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng m˜ u. Ta c´o
z
1
= 2e

6
i
;
z
2
= cos
π
12
−i sin
π
12
= cos
_

π
12
_
+i sin
_

π
12
_
= e

π
12
i
;
z
3
=

2e

π
4
i
.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c
z =
2e

6
i
e

π
12
i

2e

π
4
i
=

2e

.
2) Tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c z
1
=

3 +i du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng m˜ u. Ta c´o
[z
1
[ = 2; ϕ = arg(

3 +i) =
π
6
,
do d´o

3 +i = 2e
π
6
i
. T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c
w
k
=
4
_

3 +i =
4

2e
i
(
π
6
+2kπ)
4
=
4

2e
i
(12k+1)π
24
, k = 0, 3.
V´ı du
.
9. T´ınh c´ac gi´a tri
.
1) c˘an bˆa
.
c 3: w =
3

−2 + 2i
2) c˘an bˆa
.
c 4: w =
4

−4
3) c˘an bˆa
.
c 5: w =
5
¸

3 −i
8 + 8i
.
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap tˆo´t nhˆa´t dˆe

t´ınh gi´a tri
.
c´ac c˘ an th´ u
.
c l`a biˆe

u
diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u c˘an du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac (ho˘a
.
c da
.
ng m˜ u) rˆo
`
i
´ap du
.
ng c´ac cˆong th´ u
.
c tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng.
1) Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n z = −2 + 2i du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac. Ta c´o
r = [z[ =

8 = 2

2; ϕ = arg(−2 + 2i) =

4

36 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
Do d´o
w
k
=
3
_

8
_
cos

4
+ 2kπ
3
+i sin

4
+ 2kπ
3
_
, k = 0, 2.
T` u
.
d´o
w
0
=

2
_
cos
π
4
+i sin
π
4
_
= 1 +i,
w
1
=

2
_
cos
11π
12
+i sin
11π
12
_
,
w
2
=

2
_
cos
19π
12
+i sin
19π
12
_
.
2) Ta c´ o
−4 = 4[cos π +i sin π]
v`a do d´o
w
k
=
4

4
_
cos
π + 2kπ
4
+i sin
π + 2kπ
4
_
, k = 0, 3.
T` u
.
d´o
w
0
=

2
_
cos
π
4
+i sin
π
4
_
= 1 +i,
w
1
=

2
_
cos

4
+i sin

4
_
= −1 +i,
w
2
=

2
_
cos

4
+i sin

4
_
= −1 −i,
w
3
=

2
_
cos

4
+i sin

4
_
= 1 −i.
3) D˘a
.
t
z =

3 −i
8 + 8i

Khi d´o [z[ =

3 + 1

64 + 64
=
1
4

2
. Ta t´ınh argz. Ta c´o
argz = arg(

3 −i) −arg(8 + 8i) = −
π
6

π
4
= −

12

1.4. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac 37
Do vˆa
.
y
w
k
=
5
¸
_
1
4

2
_
_
cos


12
+ 2kπ
5
+i sin


12
+ 2kπ
5
_
=
1

2
_
cos
_

π
12
+
2kπ
5
_
+i sin
_

π
12
+
2kπ
5
__
, k = 0, 4.
V´ı du
.
10. 1) T´ınh tˆo

ng mo
.
i c˘an bˆa
.
c n cu’ a 1.
2) T´ınh tˆo

ng 1 + 2ε + 3ε
2
+ + nε
n−1
, trong d´o ε l`a c˘an bˆa
.
c n
cu’ a do
.
n vi
.
.
3) T´ınh tˆo

ng c´ac lu˜ y th` u
.
a bˆa
.
c k cu’ a mo
.
i c˘an bˆa
.
c n cu’ a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c α.
Gia’ i. 1) Dˆa
`
u tiˆen ta viˆe
´
t c´ ac c˘an bˆa
.
c n cu’ a 1. Ta c´o
ε
k
=
n

1 = cos
2kπ
n
+i sin
2kπ
n
, k = 0, n −1.
T` u
.
d´o
ε
0
= 1, ε
1
= ε = cos

n
+i sin

n
,
ε
k
= cos
2kπ
n
+i sin
2kπ
n
=
_
cos

n
+i sin

n
_
k
= ε
k
, k = 1, 2, . . . , n −1.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y mo
.
i nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a c˘an bˆa
.
c n cu’ a 1 c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
1, ε, ε
2
, . . . , ε
n−1
.
Bˆay gi`o
.
ta t´ınh
S = 1 +ε +ε
2
+ +ε
n−1
=
1 −ε
n
1 −ε

Nˆe
´
u n > 1 th`ı ε
n
= 1 v`a do d´o
S =
1 −ε
n
1 −ε
= 0.
38 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
2) Ta k´ y hiˆe
.
u tˆo

ng cˆ a
`
n t´ınh l`a S. Ta x´et biˆe

u th´ u
.
c
(1 −ε)S = S −εS = 1 + 2ε + 3ε
2
+ +nε
n−1
−ε −2ε
2
− −(n −1)ε
n−1
−nε
n
= 1 +ε +ε
2
+ +ε
n−1
. ¸¸ .
0(ε=1)
−nε
n
= −n
v`ı ε
n
= 1.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
(1 −ε)S = −n →S =
−n
1 −ε
nˆe
´
u ε ,= 1.
Nˆe
´
u ε = 1 th`ı
S = 1 + 2 + +n =
n(n + 1)
2

3) Gia’ su
.
’ β
0
l`a mˆo
.
t trong c´ac gi´a tri
.
c˘an cu’ a α. Khi d´o (v´o
.
i
α ,= 0) mo
.
i c˘ an bˆa
.
c n cu’ a α c´o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng t´ıch β
0
ε
k
,
k = 1, 2, . . . , n − 1, trong d´o ε
k
= cos
2kπ
n
+ i sin
2kπ
n
l`a c˘an bˆa
.
c n
cu’ a 1.
T` u
.
d´o tˆo

ng cˆa
`
n t`ım S b˘a
`
ng
S = β
k
0
+ (β
0
ε
1
)
k
+ (β
0
ε
2
)
k
+ + (β
0
ε
n−1
)
k
= β
k
0
(1 +ε
k
1

k
2
+ +ε
k
n−1
)
_
ε
k
m
=
_
cos
2mπ
n
+i sin
2mπ
n
_
k
=
_
cos

n
+i sin

n
_
mk
_
= β
k
0
_
1 +ε
k
1

2k
1
+ +ε
(n−1)k
1
_
.
Biˆe

u th´ u
.
c trong dˆa´u ngo˘a
.
c vuˆong l`a cˆ a´p sˆo´ nhˆan. Nˆe
´
u ε
k
1
,= 1, t´ u
.
c l`a
k khˆong chia hˆe
´
t cho n th`ı
S = β
k
0
1 −ε
nk
1
1 −ε
k
1
= β
k
0
1 −1
1 −ε
k
1
= 0 (v`ı ε
n
1
= 1).
1.4. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac 39
Nˆe
´
u ε
k
1
= 1 t´ u
.
c l`a k chia hˆe
´
t cho n, k = nq th`ı
S = β
nq
0
[1 + 1 + + 1] = β
nq
0
n = nα
q
(v`ı β
n
0
= α).
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
S =
_
_
_
0 nˆe
´
u k chia hˆe
´
t cho n;

q
nˆe
´
u k = nq, q ∈ Z.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
1. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c sau dˆay du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac
1) −1 +i

3 (DS. 2
_
cos

3
+i sin

3
_
)
2)

3 −i (DS. 2
_
cos
11π
6
+i sin
11π
6
_
)
3) −

3 −i (DS. 2
_
cos

6
+i sin

6
_
)
4)

3
2
+
i
2
(DS. cos
π
6
+i sin
π
6
)
5)


3
2
+
1
2
i (DS. cos

6
+i sin

6
)
6)
1
2
−i

3
2
(DS. cos

3
+i sin

3
)
7) −
1
2
−i

3
2
(DS. cos

3
+i sin

3
)
8) 2 +

3 −i (DS. 2
_
2 +

3
_
cos
23π
12
+i sin
23π
12
_
)
9) 2 −

3 −i (DS. 2
_
2 −

3
_
cos
19π
12
+i sin
19π
12
_
)
2. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c sau dˆay du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac
1) −cos ϕ +i sinϕ (DS. cos(π −ϕ) +i sin(π −ϕ))
2) −sin ϕ +i cos ϕ (DS. cos
_
π
2

_
+i sin
_
π
2
+ϕ))
40 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
3) cos ϕ −i sinϕ (DS. cos(−ϕ) +i sin(−ϕ))
4) −cos ϕ −i sinϕ (DS. cos(π +ϕ) +i sin(π +ϕ))
B˘a
`
ng c´ach d˘a
.
t α = θ + 2kπ, trong d´o 0 θ < 2π, ta c´ o:
5) 1+cos α+i sinα (DS. 2 cos
θ
2
_
cos
θ
2
+i sin
θ
2
_
v´o
.
i 0 θ < π;
−2 cos
θ
2
_
cos
θ + 2π
2
+ i sin
θ + 2π
2
_
v´o
.
i π θ < 2π)
6) 1 −cos α +i sin α (DS. 2 sin
θ
2
_
cos
π −θ
2
+i sin
π −θ
2
_
)
7) sinα +i(1 + cos α)
(DS. 2 cos
θ
2
_
cos
π −θ
2
+i sin
π −θ
2
_
v´o
.
i 0 θ < π;
−2 cos
θ
2
_
cos
3π −θ
2
+i sin
3π −θ
2
_
v´o
.
i π θ < 2π)
8) −sinα +i(1 + cos α)
(DS. 2 cos
θ
2
_
cos
π +θ
2
+i sin
π +θ
2
_
v´o
.
i 0 θ < π;
−2 cos
θ
2
_
cos
3π +θ
2
+ i sin
3π +θ
2
_
v´o
.
i π θ < 2π)
3. T´ınh:
1)
_
cos
π
6
−i sin
π
6
_
100
(DS. −
1
2
−i

3
2
)
2)
_
4

3 +i
_
12
(DS. 2
12
)
3)
(

3 + i)
6
(−1 +i)
8
−(1 +i)
4
(DS. −3, 2)
4)
(−i −

3)
15
(1 −i)
20
+
(−i +

3)
15
(1 +i)
20
(DS. −64i)
5)
(1 +i)
100
(1 −i)
96
+ (1 +i)
96
(DS. −2)
6)
(1 +icotgϕ)
5
1 −icotgϕ)
5
(DS. cos(π −10ϕ) +i sin(π −10ϕ))
7)
(1 −i

3)(cos ϕ +i sin ϕ)
2(1 −i)(cos ϕ −i sinϕ)
(DS.

2
2
_
cos
_
6ϕ −
π
12
_
+i sin
_
6ϕ −
π
12
__
)
1.4. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac 41
8)
(1 +i

3)
3n
(1 +i)
4n
(DS. 2)
4. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng z +
1
z
= 2 cos ϕ ⇒z
n
+
1
z
n
= 2 cos nϕ.
5. H˜ay biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac h`am sau dˆ ay qua sinϕ v`a cos ϕ
1) sin 3ϕ (DS. 3 cos
2
ϕsinϕ −sin
3
ϕ)
2) cos 3ϕ (DS. cos
3
ϕ −3 cos ϕsin
2
ϕ)
3) sin 4ϕ (DS. 4 cos
3
ϕsinϕ −4 cos ϕsin
3
ϕ)
4) cos 4ϕ (DS. cos
4
ϕ −6 cos
2
ϕsin
2
ϕ + sin
4
ϕ)
6. H˜ay biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n c´ac h`am sau qua tgx
1) tg4ϕ (DS.
4tgϕ −4tg
3
ϕ
1 −6tg
2
ϕ + tg
4
ϕ
)
2) tg6ϕ (DS.
6tgϕ −20tg
3
ϕ + 6tg
5
ϕ
1 −15tg
2
ϕ + 15tg
4
ϕ −tg
6
ϕ
)
7. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
1 −C
2
n
+C
4
n
−C
6
n
+. . . = 2
n
2
cos

4

C
1
n
−C
3
n
+C
5
n
−C
7
n
+. . . = 2
n
2
sin

4

Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. T´ınh (1 + i)
n
b˘a
`
ng c´ach su
.
’ du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Moivre v`a
su
.
’ du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c nhi
.
th´ u
.
c Newton rˆo
`
i so s´anh phˆa
`
n thu
.
.
c v`a phˆa
`
n
a’ o c´ac sˆo´ thu du
.
o
.
.
c.
8. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
1) cos
π
5
+ cos

5
=
1
2
2) cos
π
7
+ cos

7
+ cos

7
=
1
2
3) cos

5
+ cos

5
= −
1
2
4) cos

7
+ cos

7
+ cos

7
= −
1
2
5) cos

9
+ cos

9
+ cos

9
+ cos

9
= −
1
2
42 Chu
.
o
.
ng 1. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
9. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
_
i −x
i +x
_
n
=
cotgα +i
cotgα −i
, n ∈ N, α ∈ R.
(DS. x = tg
α +kπ
n
, k = 0, n −1)
10. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u A l`a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c c´ o modun = 1 th`ı mo
.
i nghiˆe
.
m
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
_
1 +ix
1 −ix
_
n
= A
dˆe
`
u l`a nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c v`a kh´ac nhau.
11. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
n
−nax
n−1
−C
2
n
a
2
x
n−2
− −a
n
= 0.
(DS. x
k
=
a
ε
k

2 −1
, k = 0, n −1)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D` ung cˆong th´ u
.
c nhi
.
th´ u
.
c Newton dˆe

du
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
vˆe
`
da
.
ng x
n
= (x +a)
n
−x
n
.
12. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
5
+x
4
+x
3
+x
2
+x + 1 = 0.
(DS. x
k
= cos

3
+i sin

3
, k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
13. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
5
+αx
4

2
x
3

3
x
2

4
x +α
5
= 0, α ∈ C, α ,= 0.
(DS. x
k
= α
_
cos

3
+i sin

3
_
, k = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Vˆe
´
tr´ai l`a tˆo

ng cˆa´p sˆo´ nhˆan v´o
.
i cˆong bˆo
.
i b˘a
`
ng
α
x
.
14. Gia’ su
.
’ n ∈ N, n > 1, c ,= 0, c ∈ R. Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau
dˆay
1.4. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac 43
1) (x +c)
n
−(x −c)
n
= 0 (DS. x = −ccotg

n
, k = 1, n −1)
2) (x +ci)
n
−(x −ci)
n
= 0 (DS. x = −cicotg

n
, k = 1, n −1)
3) (x +ci)
n
+i(x −ci)
n
= 0
(DS. x = −cicotg
(3 + 4k)π
4n
, k = 0, n −1)
4) (x +ci)
n
−(cos α +i sinα)(x −ci)
n
= 0, α ,= 2kπ.
(DS. x = −cicotg
α + 2kπ
2n
, k = 0, n −1)
15. T´ınh
D
n
(x) =
1

_
1
2
+ cos x + cos 2x + + cos nx
_
.
(DS. D
n
(x) =
1

sin
2n + 1
2
x
2 sin
x
2
)
16. 1) Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n cos 5x v`a sin5x qua cos x v`a sinx.
2) T´ınh cos

5
v`a sin

5
.
(DS. 1) cos 5x = cos
5
x −10 cos
3
xsin
2
x + 5 cos xsin
4
x,
sin 5x = 5 cos
4
xsinx −10 cos
2
xsin
3
x + sin
5
x.
2) sin

5
=
_
10 + 2

5
4
, cos

5
=

5 −1
4
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Dˆe

t´ınh sin

5
cˆa
`
n su
.
’ du
.
ng biˆe

u th´ u
.
c cu’ a sin5x.
Chu
.
o
.
ng 2
D
-
a th´ u
.
c v`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty

2.1 D
-
a th´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.1.1 D
-
a th´ u
.
c trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c C . . . . . . . 45
2.1.2 D
-
a th´ u
.
c trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ thu
.
.
c R . . . . . . . 46
2.2 Phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
2.1 D
-
a th´ u
.
c
Da th´ u
.
c mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ thuˆo
.
c tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ T du
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n do
.
n tri
.
du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng tˆo

ng h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n
Q(x) = a
0
z
n
+a
1
z
n−1
+ +a
n−1
z +a
n
(2.1)
trong d´o z l`a biˆe
´
n, a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
n
l`a c´ac sˆo´; v`a mˆo
˜
i tˆo

ng da
.
ng (2.1) dˆe
`
u
l`a da th´ u
.
c.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u: Q(z) ∈ T[z].
Nˆe
´
u a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
n
∈ C th`ı ngu
.
`o
.
i ta n´oi r˘a
`
ng Q(z) l`a da th´ u
.
c trˆen
tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c: Q(z) ∈ C[z]. Nˆe
´
u a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
n
∈ R th`ı Q(z) l`a da
th´ u
.
c trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ thu
.
.
c: Q(z) ∈ R[z].
2.1. D
-
a th´ u
.
c 45
Nˆe
´
u Q(z) ,= 0 th`ı bˆa
.
c cu’ a n´o (k´ y hiˆe
.
u degQ(z)) l`a sˆo´ m˜ u cao nhˆa´t
cu’ a mo
.
i lu˜ y th` u
.
a cu’ a c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng ,= 0 cu’ a da th´ u
.
c v`a hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a sˆo´
ha
.
ng c´o lu˜ y th` u
.
a cao nhˆa´t d´o go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
sˆ o´ cao nhˆ a´t.
Nˆe
´
u P(z) v`a Q(z) ∈ T[z] l`a c˘ a
.
p da th´ u
.
c v`a Q(z) ,= 0 th`ı tˆo
`
n ta
.
i
c˘a
.
p da th´ u
.
c h(z) v`a r(z) ∈ T[z] sao cho
1
+
P = Qh +r,
2
+
ho˘a
.
c r(z) = 0, ho˘a
.
c degr < degQ.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y B´ezout. Phˆa
`
n du
.
cu’ a ph´ep chia da th´ u
.
c P(z) cho nhi
.
th´ u
.
c
z −α l` a h˘a
`
ng P(α) (r = P(α)).
2.1.1 D
-
a th´ u
.
c trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆ o
´
ph´ u
.
c C
Gia’ su
.
’ Q(z) ∈ C[z]. Nˆe
´
u thay z bo
.
’ i sˆo´ α th`ı ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c
Q(α) = a
0
α
n
+a
1
α
n−1
+ +a
n−1
α +a
n
.
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 2.1.1. Nˆe
´
u Q(α) = 0 th`ı sˆo´ z = α du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nghiˆe
.
m
cu’ a da th´ u
.
c Q(z) hay cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh da
.
i sˆo´ Q(z) = 0.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y Descate. Da th´ u
.
c Q(z) chia hˆe
´
t cho nhi
.
th´ u
.
c z −α khi v` a
chı ’ khi α l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c P(z) (t´ u
.
c l`a P(α) = 0).
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 2.1.2. Sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c α l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c Q(z)
nˆe
´
u v`a chı ’ nˆe
´
u Q(z) chia hˆe
´
t cho (z −α)
m
nhu
.
ng khˆong chia hˆe
´
t cho
(z −α)
m+1
. Sˆo´ m du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a bˆo
.
i cu’ a nghiˆe
.
m α. Khi m = 1, sˆo´ α go
.
i
l`a nghiˆe
.
m do
.
n cu’ a Q(z).
Trong tiˆe
´
t 2.1.1 ta biˆe
´
t r˘a
`
ng tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c C du
.
o
.
.
c lˆa
.
p nˆen b˘a
`
ng
c´ach gh´ep thˆem v`ao cho tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo´ thu
.
.
c R mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m a’ o x = i cu’ a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x
2
+ 1 = 0 v` a mˆo
.
t khi d˜a gh´ep i v`ao th`ı mo
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh da th´ u
.
c dˆe
`
u c´ o nghiˆe
.
m ph´ u
.
c thu
.
.
c su
.
.
. Do d´o khˆong cˆ a
`
n pha’ i
s´ang ta
.
o thˆem c´ac sˆo´ m´o
.
i dˆe

gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (v`ı thˆe
´
C c`on du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i
l`a tru
.
`o
.
ng d´ong da
.
i sˆo´).
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y Gauss (di
.
nh l´ y co
.
ba’ n cu’ a da
.
i sˆo´).
46 Chu
.
o
.
ng 2. D
-
a th´ u
.
c v`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’
Mo
.
i da th´ u
.
c da
.
i sˆ o´ bˆa
.
c n (n 1) trˆen tru
.
` o
.
ng sˆ o´ ph´ u
.
c dˆe
`
u c´o ´ıt
nhˆa´t mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m ph´ u
.
c.
T` u
.
di
.
nh l´ y Gauss r´ ut ra c´ac hˆe
.
qua’ sau.
1
+
Mo
.
i da th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c n (n 1) trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c dˆe
`
u c´o d´ ung n
nghiˆe
.
m nˆe
´
u mˆo
˜
i nghiˆe
.
m du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh mˆo
.
t sˆo´ lˆa
`
n b˘a
`
ng bˆo
.
i cu’ a n´o, t´ u
.
c l`a
Q(x) = a
0
(z −α
1
)
m
1
(z −α
2
)
m
2
(z −α
k
)
m
k
, (2.2)
trong d´o α
i
,= α
j
∀i ,= j v`a m
1
+m
2
+ +m
k
= n.
Da th´ u
.
c (2.1) v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ cao nhˆa´t a
0
= 1 du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da th´ u
.
c thu
go
.
n.
2
+
Nˆe
´
u z
0
l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c Q(z) th`ı sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c liˆen ho
.
.
p
v´o
.
i n´ o z
0
l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c liˆen ho
.
.
p Q(z), trong d´o da
th´ u
.
c Q(z) du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i
Q(z)
def
= a
0
z
n
+a
1
z
n−1
+ +a
n−1
z +a
n
. (2.3)
2.1.2 D
-
a th´ u
.
c trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆ o
´
thu
.
.
c R
Gia’ su
.

Q(z) = z
n
+a
1
z
n−1
+ +a
n−1
z +a
n
(2.4)
l`a da th´ u
.
c quy go
.
n v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
.
Da th´ u
.
c n`ay c´o t´ınh chˆa´t d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t sau dˆay.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 2.1.1. Nˆe
´
u sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c α l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c (2.4) v´o
.
i
hˆe
.
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c th`ı sˆ o´ ph´ u
.
c liˆen ho
.
.
p v´o
.
i n´o α c˜ ung l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i m cu’ a
da th´ u
.
c d´o.
Su
.
’ du
.
ng di
.
nh l´ y trˆen dˆay ta c´ o thˆe

t`ım khai triˆe

n da th´ u
.
c v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c Q(z) th`anh t´ıch c´ac th` u
.
a sˆo´. Vˆe
`
sau ta thu
.
`o
.
ng chı ’ x´et da
th´ u
.
c v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c v´o
.
i biˆe
´
n chı ’ nhˆa
.
n gi´a tri
.
thu
.
.
c nˆen biˆe
´
n d´o ta k´ y
hiˆe
.
u l`a x thay cho z.
2.1. D
-
a th´ u
.
c 47
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 2.1.2. Gia’ su
.
’ da th´ u
.
c Q(x) c´ o c´ ac nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c b
1
, b
2
, . . . , b
m
v´o
.
i bˆo
.
i tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng β
1
, β
2
, . . . , β
m
v`a c´ ac c˘ a
.
p nghiˆe
.
m ph´ u
.
c liˆen ho
.
.
p a
1
v`a a
1
, a
2
v`a a
2
, . . . , a
n
v`a a
n
v´o
.
i bˆo
.
i tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng λ
1
, λ
2
, . . . , λ
n
. Khi d´o
Q(x) = (x −b
1
)
β
1
(x −b
2
)
β
2
(x −b
m
)
βm
(x
2
+p
1
x +q
1
)
λ
1

(x
2
+p
2
x +q
2
)
λ
2
(x
2
+p
n
x +q
b
)
λn
. (2.5)
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 2.1.3. Nˆe
´
u da th´ u
.
c Q(x) = x
n
+a
1
x
n−1
+ +a
n−1
x +a
n
v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆ o´ nguyˆen v`a v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆ o´ cao nhˆ a´t b˘ a
`
ng 1 c´o nghiˆe
.
m h˜ u
.
u ty’ th`ı
nghiˆe
.
m d´o l`a sˆo´ nguyˆen.
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i da th´ u
.
c v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ h˜ u
.
u ty’ ta c´o
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 2.1.4. Nˆe
´
u phˆan sˆo´ tˆo´i gia’ n

m
(, m ∈ Z, m > 0) l` a nghiˆe
.
m
h˜ u
.
u ty’ cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆ o´ h˜ u
.
u ty’ a
0
x
n
+a
1
x
n−1
+ +a
n−1
x+
a
n
= 0 th`ı l`a u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a sˆo´ ha
.
ng tu
.
.
do a
n
v` a m l` a u
.
´ o
.
c cu’ a hˆe
.
sˆ o´ cao
nhˆa´t a
0
.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Gia’ su
.
’ P(z) = a
0
z
n
+ a
1
z
n−1
+ + a
n−1
z + a
n
. Ch´ u
.
ng
minh r˘a
`
ng:
1
+
Nˆe
´
u P(z) ∈ C[z] th`ı P(z) = P(z).
2
+
Nˆe
´
u P(z) ∈ R[z] th`ı P(z) = P(z).
Gia’ i. 1
+
´
Ap du
.
ng c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a ph´ep to´an lˆa´y liˆen ho
.
.
p ta thu
du
.
o
.
.
c
p(Z) = a
0
z
n
+a
1
z
n−1
+ +a
n−1
z +a
n
= a
0
z
n
+a
1
z
n−1
+ +a
n−1
z +a
n
= a
0
(z)
n
+a
1
(z)
n−1
+ +a
n−1
z +a
n
= P(z).
48 Chu
.
o
.
ng 2. D
-
a th´ u
.
c v`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’
2
+
Gia’ su
.
’ P(z) ∈ R[z]. Khi d´o
P(z) = a
0
z
n
+a
1
z
n−1
+ +a
n−1
z +a
n
= a
0
z
n
+a
1
z
n−1
+ +a
n−1
z +a
n
= a
0
(z)
n
+a
1
(z)
n−1
+ +a
n−1
z +a
n
= a
0
(z)
n
+a
1
(z)
n−1
+ +a
n−1
z +a
n
= P(z).
T` u
.
d´o c˜ ung thu du
.
o
.
.
c P(z) = P(z) v`ı P(z) = P(z).
V´ı du
.
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u a l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c
P(z) = a
0
z
n
+a
1
z
n−1
+ +a
n−1
z +a
n
, a
0
,= 0
th`ı sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c liˆen ho
.
.
p a l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c
P(z) = a
0
z
n
+a
1
z
n−1
+ +a
n−1
z +a
n
(go
.
i l`a da th´ u
.
c liˆen ho
.
.
p ph´ u
.
c v´o
.
i da th´ u
.
c P(z)).
Gia’ i. T` u
.
v´ı du
.
1 ta c´o
P(z) = P(z). (2.6)
V`ı a l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i m cu’ a P(z) nˆen
P(z) = (z −a)
m
Q(z), Q(a) ,= 0 (2.7)
trong d´o Q(z) l`a da th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c n −m. T` u
.
(2.6) v`a (2.7) suy ra
P(z) = P(z) = (z −a)
m
Q(z) = (z −a)
m
Q(z). (2.8)
Ta c` on cˆa
`
n ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng Q(a) ,= 0. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, nˆe
´
u Q(a) = 0 th`ı
b˘a
`
ng c´ach lˆa´y liˆen ho
.
.
p ph´ u
.
c mˆo
.
t lˆa
`
n n˜ u
.
a ta c´ o
Q(a) = Q(a) = 0 ⇒ Q(a) = 0.
Diˆe
`
u n`ay vˆo l´ y. B˘ a
`
ng c´ach d˘a
.
t t = z, t` u
.
(2.8) thu du
.
o
.
.
c
P(t) = (t −a)
m
Q(t), Q(a) ,= 0.
2.1. D
-
a th´ u
.
c 49
D˘a

ng th´ u
.
c n`ay ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng t = a l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c
P(t).
V´ı du
.
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u a l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c v´o
.
i
hˆe
.
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c P(z) = a
0
z
n
+ a
1
z
n−1
+ +a
n
(a
0
,= 0) th`ı sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c liˆen
ho
.
.
p a c˜ ung l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i m cu’ a ch´ınh da th´ u
.
c d´o.
Gia’ i. T` u
.
v´ı du
.
1, 2
+
ta c´o
P(z) = P(z) (2.9)
v`a do a l`a nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i m cu’ a n´o nˆen
P(z) = (z −a)
m
Q(z) (2.10)
trong d´o Q(z) l`a da th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c n −m v`a Q(a) ,= 0.
Ta cˆa
`
n ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
P(z) = (z −a)
m
Q(z), Q(a) ,= 0. (2.11)
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y t` u
.
(2.9) v`a (2.10) ta c´ o
P(z) = (z −a)
m
Q(z) = (z −a)
m
Q(z)
=
_
(z −a)
¸
m
Q(z) = (z −a)
m
Q(z)
v`ı theo (2.9)
Q(z) = Q(z) ⇒ Q(z) = Q(z).
Ta c` on cˆa
`
n ch´ u
.
ng minh Q(a) ,= 0. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y v`ı Q(a) ,= 0 nˆen
Q(a) ,= 0 v`a do d´o Q(a) ,= 0 v`ı dˆo´i v´o
.
i da th´ u
.
c v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c th`ı
Q(t) = Q(t).
V´ı du
.
4. Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh z
3
−4z
2
+ 4z −3 = 0.
Gia’ i. T` u
.
di
.
nh l´ y 4 suy r˘a
`
ng c´ac nghiˆe
.
m nguyˆen cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆ o´ nguyˆen dˆe
`
u l`a u
.
´o
.
c cu’ a sˆo´ ha
.
ng tu
.
.
do a = −3. Sˆo´ ha
.
ng tu
.
.
do
50 Chu
.
o
.
ng 2. D
-
a th´ u
.
c v`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’
a = −3 c´o c´ac u
.
´o
.
c l`a ±1, ±3. B˘a
`
ng c´ach kiˆe

m tra ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c z
0
= 3
l`a nghiˆe
.
m nguyˆen. T` u
.
d´o
z
3
−4z
2
+ 4z −3 = (z −3)(z
2
−z + 1)
= (z −3)(z −
1
2
+i

3
2
__
z −
1
2
−i

3
2
_
hay l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho c´ o ba nghiˆe
.
m l`a
z
0
= 3, z
1
=
1
2
−i

3
2
; z
2
=
1
2
+i

3
2

V´ı du
.
5. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n da th´ u
.
c P
6
(z) = z
6
−3z
4
+ 4z
2
−12 du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng:
1
+
t´ıch c´ac th` u
.
a sˆo´ tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh;
2
+
t´ıch c´ ac th` u
.
a sˆo´ tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh v´o
.
i tam th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´
thu
.
.
c.
Gia’ i. Ta t`ım mo
.
i nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c P(z). V`ı
z
6
−3z
4
+ 4z
2
−12 = (z
2
−3)(z
4
+ 4)
nˆen r˜o r`ang l`a
z
1
= −

3, z
2
=

3, z
3
= 1 +i,
z
4
= 1 −i, z
5
= −1 +i, z
6
= −1 −i.
T` u
.
d´o
1
+
P
6
(z) = (z −

3)(z +

3)(z −1−i)(z −1+i)(z +1−i)(z +1+i)
2
+
B˘a
`
ng c´ach nhˆan c´ac c˘a
.
p nhi
.
th´ u
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i c´ac
nghiˆe
.
m ph´ u
.
c liˆen ho
.
.
p v´o
.
i nhau ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
P
6
(z) = (z −

3)(z +

3)(z
2
−2z + 2)(z
2
+ 2z + 2).
V´ı du
.
6. T`ım da th´ u
.
c hˆe
.
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c c´ o lu˜ y th` u
.
a thˆa´p nhˆa´t sao cho c´ ac
sˆo´ z
1
= 3, z
2
= 2 −i l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a n´o.
2.1. D
-
a th´ u
.
c 51
Gia’ i. V`ı da th´ u
.
c chı ’ c´o hˆe
.
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c nˆen c´ ac nghiˆe
.
m ph´ u
.
c xuˆa´t hiˆe
.
n
t` u
.
ng c˘a
.
p liˆen ho
.
.
p ph´ u
.
c, ngh˜ıa l`a nˆe
´
u z
2
= 2 −i l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a n´o th`ı
z
2
= 2 +i c˜ ung l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a n´o. Do d´o
P(z) = (z −3)(z −2 +i)(z −2 −i) = z
3
−7z
2
+ 17z −15.
V´ı du
.
7. Phˆan t´ıch da th´ u
.
c
(x + 1)
n
−(x −1)
n
th`anh c´ac th` u
.
a sˆo´ tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o
P(x) = (x + 1)
n
−(x −1)
n
= [x
n
+nx
n−1
+. . . ] −[x
n
−nx
n−1
+. . . ] = 2nx
n−1
+. . .
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y P(x) l`a da th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c n −1 v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ cao nhˆa´t b˘a
`
ng 2n. Dˆo´i
v´o
.
i da th´ u
.
c n`ay ta d˜a biˆe
´
t (¸1) nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a n´o:
x
k
= icotg

n
, k = 1, 2, . . . , n −1.
Do d´o
(x + 1)
n
−(x −1)
n
= 2n
_
x −icotg
π
n
__
x −icotg

n
_

_
x −icotg
(n −1)π
n
_
.
Khi phˆan t´ıch da th´ u
.
c trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng T th`anh th` u
.
a sˆo´ ta thu
.
`o
.
ng
g˘a
.
p nh˜ u
.
ng da th´ u
.
c khˆong thˆe

phˆan t´ıch th`anh t´ıch hai da th´ u
.
c c´ o bˆa
.
c
thˆa´p ho
.
n trˆen c` ung tru
.
`o
.
ng T d´o. Nh˜ u
.
ng da th´ u
.
c n`ay du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
th´ u
.
c bˆa´t kha’ quy.
Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n: da th´ u
.
c x
2
−2 l` a kha’ quy trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ thu
.
.
c v`ı:
x
2
−2 = (x −

2)(x +

2)
52 Chu
.
o
.
ng 2. D
-
a th´ u
.
c v`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’
nhu
.
ng bˆa´t kha’ quy trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ h˜ u
.
u ty’ . Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y, nˆe
´
u
x
2
−2 = (ax +b)(cx +d); a, b, c, d ∈ Q
th`ı b˘a
`
ng c´ach d˘a
.
t x = −
b
a
ta c´o
b
2
a
2
−2 = 0 ⇒

2 = ±
b
a
v`a

2 l`a sˆo´ h˜ u
.
u ty’ . Vˆ o l´ y.
V´ı du
.
8. Phˆan t´ıch da th´ u
.
c x
n
− 1 th`anh t´ıch c´ac da th´ u
.
c bˆa´t kha’
quy trˆen R.
Gia’ i. Dˆa
`
u tiˆen ta khai triˆe

n da th´ u
.
c d˜a cho th`anh t´ıch c´ac th` u
.
a
sˆo´ tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
x
n
−1 = (x −ε
0
)(x −ε
1
) (x −ε
n−1
),
ε
k
= cos
2kπ
n
+i sin
2kπ
n
, k = 0, n −1
v`a t´ach ra c´ac nhi
.
th´ u
.
c thu
.
.
c. Ta c´ o
ε
k
∈ R nˆe
´
u sin
2kπ
n
= 0 ⇒2k
.
.
. n, 0 k < n −1.
T` u
.
d´o
1
+
Nˆe
´
u n l`a sˆo´ le’ th`ı diˆe
`
u d´o (2k
.
.
. n) chı ’ xˆa

y ra khi k = 0 (v`ı k < n)
v`a khi d´o ε
0
= 1.
2
+
Nˆe
´
u n l`a sˆo´ ch˘a
˜
n (n = 2m) th`ı nghiˆe
.
m ε
k
chı ’ thu
.
.
c khi k = 0
v`a k = m. Do d´o ε
0
= 1, ε
m
= −1. Dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac gi´a tri
.
k c`on la
.
i ε
k
khˆong l`a sˆo´ thu
.
.
c. Dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac gi´a tri
.
k n`ay ta c´o
sin
2(n −k)π
n
= sin
_
2π −
2kπ
n
_
= −sin
2kπ
n
v`a do d´o
ε
n−k
= ε
k
⇒ε
1
= ε
n−1
, ε
2
= ε
n−2
, . . .
2.1. D
-
a th´ u
.
c 53
M˘a
.
t kh´ ac
(x −ε
k
)(x −ε
k
) = x
2
−(ε
k

k
)x +ε
k
ε
k
= x
2
−x 2 cos
2kπ
n
+ 1.
Do d´o
x
n
−1 =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(x −1)
n−1
2

k=1
_
x
2
−x 2 cos
2kπ
n
+ 1
_
nˆe
´
u n l`a sˆo´ le’,
(x −1)(x + 1)
n−2
2

k=1
_
x
2
−x 2 cos
2kπ
n
+ 1
_
nˆe
´
u n l`a sˆo´ ch˘a
˜
n.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
1. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng sˆo´ z
0
= 1 +i l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c
P
4
(z) = 3z
4
−5z
3
+ 3z
2
+ 4z −2.
T`ım c´ac nghiˆe
.
m c`on la
.
i.
(DS. z
1
= 1 −i, z
2
=
−1 +

13
6
, z
3
=
−1 −

13
6
)
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng sˆo´ z
0
= i l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c
P
4
(z) = z
4
+z
3
+ 2z
2
+z + 1.
T`ım c´ac nghiˆe
.
m c`on la
.
i.
(DS. z
1
= −i, z
2
=
−1 +

3i
2
, z
3
=
−1 −i

3
2
)
3. X´ac di
.
nh bˆo
.
i cu’ a nghiˆe
.
m z
0
= 1 cu’ a da th´ u
.
c
P
4
(z) = z
4
−5z
3
+ 9z
2
−7z + 2. (DS. 3)
4. X´ac di
.
nh bˆo
.
i cu’ a nghiˆe
.
m z
0
= 2 cu’ a da th´ u
.
c
P
5
(z) = z
5
−5z
4
+ 7z
3
−2z
2
+ 4z −8. (DS. 3)
54 Chu
.
o
.
ng 2. D
-
a th´ u
.
c v`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’
5. T`ım da th´ u
.
c hˆe
.
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c c´ o lu˜ y th` u
.
a thˆa´p nhˆa´t sao cho sˆo´ z
1
= i l`a
nghiˆe
.
m k´ep v`a z
2
= −1 −i l`a nghiˆe
.
m do
.
n cu’ a n´o.
(DS. z
6
+ 2z
5
+ 4z
4
+ 4z
3
+ 5z
2
+ 2z + 2)
6. Phˆan t´ıch c´ ac da th´ u
.
c d˜a cho th`anh t´ıch c´ac th` u
.
a sˆo´ tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
1) z
3
−6z
2
+ 11z −6 (DS. (z −1)(z −2)(z −3))
2) 6z
4
−11z
3
−z
2
−4
(DS. 6(z −2)
_
z +
2
3
__
z −
1 +i

3
2
__
z −
1 −i

3
2
_
.
3) 3z
4
−23z
2
−36 (DS. 3(z −3)(z +3)
_
z −i
2

3
__
z +i
2

3
_
)
4) z
n
−1 (DS. (z −ε
0
)(z −ε
1
) (z −ε
n−1
),
ε
k
= cos
2kπ
n
+i sin
2kπ
n
, k = 0, n −1)
5) z
4
+ 4 (DS. (z −1 −i)(z −1 +i)(z + 1 −i)(z + 1 +i))
6) z
4
+ 16
(DS. (z −

2(1 +i))(z −

2(1 −i))(z +

2(1 +i))(z +

2(1 −i)))
7) z
4
+ 8z
3
+ 8z −1
(DS. (z −i)(z +i)(z + 4 −

17)(z + 4 +

17))
8) z
3
+z + 2 (DS. (z + 1)
_
z −
1 +i

7
2
__
z −
1 −i

7
2
_
)
7. Phˆan t´ıch c´ac da th´ u
.
c trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ thu
.
.
c th`anh c´ac da th´ u
.
c bˆa´t
kha’ quy trˆen c` ung tru
.
`o
.
ng d´o.
1) x
3
+x + 2 (DS. (x + 1)(x
2
−x + 2))
2) x
4
+ 16 (DS. (x
2
−2x

2 + 4)(x
2
+ 2

2x + 4))
3) x
4
+ 8x
3
+ 8x −1 (DS. (x
2
+ 1)(x + 4 −

17)(x + 4 +

17))
4) x
4
+ 2x
3
+ 3x
2
+ 2x −3
(DS.
_
x −

5 −1
2
__
x +

5 + 1
2
_
(x
2
+x + 3))
5) x
10
−2x
5
+ 2 (DS.
4

k=0
_
x
2
−2
10

2 cos
8k + 1
20
π +
5

2
_
)
6) x
4
+x
3
+x
2
+x + 1
2.2. Phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ 55
(DS.
_
x
2


5 −1
2
x + 1
__
x
2
+

5 + 1
2
x + 1
_
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t x
2
l`am th` u
.
a sˆo´ chung rˆo
`
i d` ung ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n y =
x +
1
x
7) x
2n
−1 (DS. (x
2
−1)
n−1

k=1
(x
2
−2xcos

n
+ 1))
8) x
2n+1
−1 (DS. (x −1)
n

k=1
_
x
2
−2xcos
2kπ
2n + 1
+ 1
_
)
2.2 Phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty

Mˆo
.
t h`am sˆo´ x´ac di
.
nh du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng thu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a hai da th´ u
.
c da
.
i sˆo´ ta
.
i
nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe

m m`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ khˆong triˆe
.
t tiˆeu go
.
i l`a phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ .
1(x) =
P(x)
Q(x)
, Q(x) ,= 0.
Nˆe
´
u degP < degQ th`ı R(x) go
.
i l`a phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ thu
.
.
c su
.
.
. Nˆe
´
u
degP degQ th`ı R(x) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ khˆong thu
.
.
c su
.
.
.
Nˆe
´
u degP degQ th`ı b˘a
`
ng c´ach thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep chia P(x) cho
Q(x) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
P(x)
Q(x)
= W(x) +
P
1
(x)
Q(x)
(2.12)
trong d´o W(x) l`a da th´ u
.
c, c`on
P
1
(x)
Q(x)
l`a phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ thu
.
.
c su
.
.
.
Vˆe
`
sau ta chı ’ x´et c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ l`a thu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a hai da th´ u
.
c
da
.
i sˆo´ v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c (phˆan th´ u
.
c nhu
.
vˆa
.
y du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u
ty’ v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c).
Phˆan th´ u
.
c thu
.
.
c do
.
n gia’ n nhˆa´t (c`on go
.
i l`a phˆan th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n) l`a
nh˜ u
.
ng phˆan th´ u
.
c du
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n tˆo´i gia’ n bo
.
’ i mˆo
.
t trong hai da
.
ng sau
dˆay
I.
A
(x −α)
m
; II.
Bx +C
(x
2
+px +q)
m
; A, B, C, p, q ∈ R.
56 Chu
.
o
.
ng 2. D
-
a th´ u
.
c v`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’
T` u
.
di
.
nh l´ y Gauss v` a c´ac hˆe
.
qua’ cu’ a n´o ta c´ o
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. Mo
.
i phˆ an th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ thu
.
.
c su
.
.
P(x)
Q(x)
hˆe
.
sˆ o´ thu
.
.
c v´o
.
i mˆa
˜
u
sˆ o´ c´o da
.
ng
Q(x) = (x −α)
r
(x −β)
s
(x
2
+p
1
x +q
1
)
m

(x
2
+p
2
x +q
2
)

(x
2
+p
s
x +q
s
)
n
(2.13)
dˆe
`
u c´ o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng tˆo

ng h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n c´ ac phˆan th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n
da
.
ng I v` a II
P(x)
Q(x)
=
A
(x −α)
r
+
B
(x −α)
r−1
+ +
C
x −α
+
+
D
(x −β)
s
+
E
(x −β)
s−1
+ +
F
x −β
+
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
+
Gx +H
(x
2
+p
1
x +q
1
)
m
+
Ix +H
(x
2
+p
1
x +q
1
)
m−1
+ +
Lx +M
x
2
+p
1
x +q
1
+
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
+
Nx +P
(x
2
+p
s
x +q
s
)
n
+
Qx +R
(x
2
+p
s
x +q
s
)
n−1
+ +
Sx +T
x
2
+p
s
x +q
s
,
(2.14)
trong d´o A, B, . . . l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ thu
.
.
c.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a (2.14) s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p theo
t` u
.
ng nh´om tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i c´ac th` u
.
a sˆo´ o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a (2.13), trong d´o
sˆo´ sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a mˆo
˜
i nh´om b˘a
`
ng sˆo´ m˜ u cu’ a lu˜ y th` u
.
a cu’ a th` u
.
a sˆo´ tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng.
Cˆa
`
n lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng khi khai triˆe

n phˆan th´ u
.
c cu
.
thˆe

theo cˆong th´ u
.
c
(2.14) mˆo
.
t sˆo´ hˆe
.
sˆo´ c´o thˆe

b˘a
`
ng 0 v`a do d´o sˆo´ sˆo´ ha
.
ng trong mˆo
˜
i nh´om
c´o thˆe

b´e ho
.
n sˆo´ m˜ u cu’ a th` u
.
a sˆo´ tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng.
Trong thu
.
.
c h`anh, dˆe

t´ınh c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ A, B, . . . ta s˜e su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac
phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap sau.
2.2. Phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ 57
I. Gia’ su
.
’ da th´ u
.
c Q(x) chı ’ c´o c´ ac nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c do
.
n, t´ u
.
c l`a
Q(x) =
n

j=1
(x −a
j
), a
i
,= a
j
∀i ,= j.
Khi d´o
P(x)
Q(x)
=
n

j=1
A
j
x −a
j
(2.15)
Dˆe

x´ac di
.
nh A
k
ta nhˆan hai vˆe
´
cu’ a (2.15) v´o
.
i x −a
k
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
P(x)
n

j=1
j=k
(x −a
j
)
= A
k
+
_
A
1
x −a
1
+ +
A
k−1
x −a
k−1
+
A
k+1
x −a
k+1
+ +
A
n
x −a
n
_
(x −a
k
). (2.16)
Thay x = a
k
v`ao (2.16) ta c´ o
A
k
=
P(a
k
)
n

j=1
j=k
(a
k
−a
j
)
(2.17)
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y dˆe

t´ınh hˆe
.
sˆo´ A
k
cu’ a phˆan th´ u
.
c
A
k
x −a
k
ta x´oa th` u
.
a sˆo´
(x −a
k
) kho’i mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ cu’ a
P(x)
Q(x)
v`a tiˆe
´
p theo l`a thay x = a
k
v`ao biˆe

u
th´ u
.
c c` on la
.
i. V`ı vˆa
.
y phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ ap n`ay du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap x´ oa.
II. Nˆe
´
u Q(x) c´o nghiˆe
.
m bˆo
.
i th`ı cˆong th´ u
.
c (2.17) khˆong c`on su
.
’ du
.
ng
du
.
o
.
.
c. Gia’ su
.
’ Q(x) = g
m
, trong d´o ho˘a
.
c g = x −α ho˘a
.
c g l`a t´ıch c´ac
th` u
.
a sˆo´ l`a tam th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai v´o
.
i hai biˆe
.
t sˆo´ ˆam. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p
n`ay ta cˆa
`
n khai triˆe

n P(x) theo c´ ac lu˜ y th` u
.
a cu’ a g:
P(x) = a
0
+a
1
g +a
2
g
2
+. . .
58 Chu
.
o
.
ng 2. D
-
a th´ u
.
c v`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’
trong d´o a
0
, a
1
, . . . l`a h˘ a
`
ng sˆo´ nˆe
´
u g = x −α v`a l`a da th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c khˆong
vu
.
o
.
.
t qu´a 1 trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p th´ u
.
hai (trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay ta cˆa
`
n
thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n theo quy t˘a
´
c ph´ep chia c´ o du
.
).
III. Dˆo´i v´o
.
i tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p tˆo

ng qu´at, ta nhˆan hai vˆe
´
cu’ a (2.14) v´o
.
i
da th´ u
.
c Q(z) v`a s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c thu du
.
o
.
.
c
th`anh da th´ u
.
c v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c dˆ o
`
ng nhˆa´t th´ u
.
c gi˜ u
.
a hai da th´ u
.
c: mˆo
.
t da
th´ u
.
c l`a P(x), c`on da th´ u
.
c kia l`a da th´ u
.
c v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ A, B, . . . chu
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c
x´ac di
.
nh. Cˆ an b˘a
`
ng c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a c´ac lu˜ y th` u
.
a c` ung bˆa
.
c ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh v´o
.
i ˆa

n l`a A, B, . . . .
Gia’ i hˆe
.
d´o, ta t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ A, B, . . . Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap n`ay go
.
i
l`a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap hˆe
.
sˆ o´ bˆ a´t di
.
nh.
Ta c´o thˆe

x´ac di
.
nh hˆe
.
sˆo´ b˘a
`
ng c´ach kh´ac l`a cho biˆe
´
n x trong dˆo
`
ng
nhˆa´t th´ u
.
c nh˜ u
.
ng tri
.
sˆo´ t` uy ´ y (ch˘a

ng ha
.
n c´ac gi´a tri
.
d´o l`a nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c
cu’ a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´).
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Khai triˆe

n c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ sau th`anh tˆo

ng c´ac phˆan
th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n
1)
2x
3
+ 4x
2
+x + 2
(x −1)
2
(x
2
+x + 1)
, 2)
x
2
−2x
(x −1)
2
(x
2
+ 1)
2

Gia’ i. 1) V`ı tam th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai x
2
+x+1 khˆong c´o nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c nˆen
R
1
(x) =
2x
3
+ 4x
2
+x + 2
(x −1)
2
(x
2
+x + 1)
=
B
1
(x −1)
+
B
2
(x −1)
2
+
Mx +N
x
2
+x + 1

Quy dˆo
`
ng mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ ta c´o
2x
3
+ 4x
2
+x + 2
(x −1)
2
(x
2
+x + 1)
=
B
1
(x
3
−1) +B
2
(x
2
+x + 1) + (Mx +N)(x
2
−2x + 1)
(x −1)
2
(x
2
+x + 1)

2.2. Phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ 59
Cˆan b˘a
`
ng hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a x
0
, x
1
, x
2
v`a x
3
trong c´ac tu
.
’ sˆo´ ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
3
¸
¸
¸ B
1
+B
2
+N = 2,
x
2
¸
¸
¸ B
2
+M −2N = 1,
x
1
¸
¸
¸ B
2
+N −2M = 4,
x
0
¸
¸
¸ B
1
+M = 2.
Gia’ i hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ta c´ o B
1
= 2, B
2
= 3, M = 0, N = 1. T` u
.
d´o
R
1
(x) =
2
x −1
+
3
(x −1)
2
+
1
x
2
+x + 1

2) Ta c´ o
R
2
=
x
2
−2x
(x −1)
2
(x
2
+ 1)
2
=
A
1
x −1
+
A
2
(x −1)
2
+
M
1
x +N
1
x
2
+ 1
+
M
2
x +N
2
(x
2
+ 1)
2

Quy dˆo
`
ng mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ v`a cˆan b˘a
`
ng c´ac tu
.
’ sˆo´ ta c´ o
x
2
−2x = A
1
(x −1)(x
2
+ 1)
2
+A
2
(x
2
+ 1)
2
+ (M
1
x +N
1
)(x −1)
2
(x
2
+ 1)
+ (M
2
x +N
2
)(x −1)
2
.
So s´anh c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a c´ac lu˜ y th` u
.
a c` ung bˆa
.
c o
.
’ hai vˆe
´
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
x
5
¸
¸
¸ A
1
+M
1
= 0,
x
4
¸
¸
¸ −A
1
+A
2
−2M
1
+N
1
= 0,
x
3
¸
¸
¸ 2A
1
+ 2M
1
−2N
1
+M
2
= 0,
x
2
¸
¸
¸ −2A
1
+ 2A
2
−2M
1
+ 2N
1
+ 2N
1
−2M
2
+N
2
= 1,
x
1
¸
¸
¸ A
1
+M
1
−2N
1
+M
2
−2N
2
= −2,
x
0
¸
¸
¸ −A
1
+A
2
+N
1
+N
2
= 0.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra
A
1
=
1
2
, A
2
= −
1
4
, M
1
= −
1
2
,
N
1
= −
1
4
, M
2
= −
1
2
, N
2
= 1
60 Chu
.
o
.
ng 2. D
-
a th´ u
.
c v`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’
v`a do vˆa
.
y
x
2
−2x
(x −1)
2
(x
2
+ 1)
2
=
1
2
x −1
+

1
4
(x −1)
2
+

1
2
x −
1
4
x
2
+ 1
+

1
2
x + 1
(x
2
+ 1)
2

V´ı du
.
2. C˜ ung ho’i nhu
.
trˆen
1) R
1
(x) =
x
4
x
4
+ 5x
2
+ 1
; 2) R
2
(x) =
1
x
4
+ 1

Gia’ i. 1) R
1
(x) l`a phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ khˆong thu
.
.
c su
.
.
nˆen dˆa
`
u tiˆen
cˆa
`
n thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep chia:
x
4
x
4
+ 5x
2
+ 4
= 1 −
5x
2
+ 4
x
4
+ 5x
2
+ 4
= 1 +R
3
(x).
Ch´ u ´ y r˘a
`
ng x
4
+ 5x
2
+ 4 = (x
2
+ 1)(x
2
+ 4), do d´o
R
3
= −
5x
2
+ 4
(x
2
+ 1)(x
2
+ 4)
=
M
1
x +N
1
x
2
+ 1
+
M
2
x +N
2
x
2
+ 4

Quy dˆo
`
ng mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ v`a so s´anh hai tu
.
’ sˆo´ ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
−5x
2
−4 = (M
1
x +N
1
)(x
2
+ 4) + (M
2
x +N
2
)(x
2
+ 1)
v`a tiˆe
´
p theo l`a cˆan b˘a
`
ng c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a c´ac lu˜ y th` u
.
a c` ung bˆa
.
c cu’ a x ta
thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
3
¸
¸
¸ M
1
+M
2
= 0,
x
2
¸
¸
¸ N
1
+N
2
= −5, ¸
¸
¸ ⇒ M
1
= M
2
= 0, N
1
=
1
3
, N
2
= −
16
3

x
1
¸
¸
¸ 4M
1
+N −2 = 0,
x
0
¸
¸
¸ 4N
1
+N −2 = −4
Vˆa
.
y
R
1
(x) = 1 +
1
3

1
x
2
+ 1

16
3

1
x
2
+ 4

2.2. Phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ 61
2) V`ı x
4
+1 = (x
2
+1)
2
−2x
2
= (x
2
+

2x+1)(x
2


2x+1) nˆen
R
2
=
1
x
4
+ 1
=
M
1
x +N
1
x
2
+

2x + 1
+
M
2
x +N
2
x
2


2x + 1

T` u
.
dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t th´ u
.
c
1 ≡ (M
1
x +N
1
)(x
2


2x + 1) + (M + 2x +N
2
)(x
2
+

2x + 1),
tiˆe
´
n h`anh tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trˆen ta c´o
M
1
= −M
2
=
1
2

2
, N
1
= N
2
=
1
2

Do d´o
1
x
4
+ 1
=
1
2

2
x +

2
x
2
+

2x + 1

1
2

2
x −

2
x
2


2x + 1

V´ı du
.
3. T`ım khai triˆe

n phˆan th´ u
.
c
1) R
1
(x) =
x + 1
(x −1)(x −2)x
; 2) R
2
(x) =
x
2
+ 2x + 6
(x −1)(x −2)(x −4)

Gia’ i. 1) V`ı mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ chı ’ c´o nghiˆe
.
m do
.
n 0, 1, 2 nˆen
x + 1
x(x −1)(x −2)
=
A
1
x
+
A
2
x −1
+
A
2
x −2

´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (2.17) ta du
.
o
.
.
c
A
1
=
x + 1
¸
¸
x=0
(x −1)(x −2)
¸
¸
x=0
=
1
2
;
A
2
=
x + 1
x(x −2)
¸
¸
¸
x=1
= −2, A
3
=
x + 1
x(x −1)
¸
¸
¸
x=2
=
3
2

Vˆa
.
y
R
1
(x) =
1
2x
+
−2
x −1
+
3
2(x −2)

62 Chu
.
o
.
ng 2. D
-
a th´ u
.
c v`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’
2) Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
ta c´o
R
2
(x) =
x
2
+ 2x + 6
(x −1)(x −2)(x −4)
=
A
1
x −1
+
B
x −2
+
C
x −3
V`ı mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ cu’ a R
2
(x) chı ’ c´o nghiˆe
.
m do
.
n nˆen
A =
x
2
+ 2x + 6
(x −2)(x −4)
¸
¸
¸
x=1
= 3,
B =
x
2
+ 2x + 6
(x −1)(x −4)
¸
¸
¸
x=2
= −7,
C =
x
2
+ 2x + 6
(x −1)(x −2)
¸
¸
¸
x=4
= 5.
Do d´o
R
2
(x) =
3
x −1

7
x −2
+
5
x −4

Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Trong mˆo
.
t sˆo´ tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t, viˆe
.
c khai triˆe

n phˆan
th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ c´o thˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c do
.
n gia’ n ho
.
n v`a nhanh ho
.
n. Ch˘ a

ng ha
.
n,
dˆe

khai triˆe

n phˆan th´ u
.
c
1
x
2
(1 +x
2
)
2
th`anh tˆo

ng c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n
ta c´o thˆe

thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n nhu
.
sau:
1
x
2
(x
2
+ 1)
2
=
(1 +x
2
) −x
2
x
2
(x
2
+ 1)
2
=
1
x
2
(x
2
+ 1)

1
(x
2
+ 1)
2
=
(1 +x
2
) −x
2
x
2
(x
2
+ 1)

1
(x
2
+ 1)
2
=
1
x
2

1
x
2
+ 1

1
(x
2
+ 1)
2

V´ı du
.
4. Khai triˆe

n c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ sau:
1)
x
4
+ 5x
3
+ 5x
2
−3x + 1
(x + 2)
5
; 2)
x
5
+ 3x
4
+x
3
−2x
2
+ 2x + 3
(x
2
+x + 1)
3

Gia’ i. 1) D˘a
.
t g = (x + 2). Khi d´o b˘a
`
ng c´ach khai triˆe

n tu
.
’ sˆo´ theo
c´ac lu˜ y th` u
.
a cu’ a x+2 b˘a
`
ng c´ach ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c nhi
.
th´ u
.
c Newton
2.2. Phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ 63
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
x
4
+ 5x
3
+ 5x
2
−3x + 1
(x + 2)
5
=
=
[(x + 2) −2]
4
+ 5[(x + 2) −2]
3
+ 5[(x + 2) −2]
2
−3[(x + 2) −2)] + 1
(x + 2)
5
=
3 + 5g −g
2
−3g
3
+g
4
g
5
=
3
g
5
+
5
g
4

1
g
3

3
g
2
+
1
g
=
3
(x + 2)
5
+
5
(x + 2)
4

1
(x + 2)
3

3
(x + 2)
3
+
1
x + 2

2) D˘a
.
t g = x
2
+ x + 1. D´o l`a tam th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c hai khˆong c´o nghiˆe
.
m
thu
.
.
c.
´
Ap du
.
ng thuˆa
.
t to´an chia c´ o du
.
ta c´o
P(x) = x
5
+ 3x
4
+x
3
−2x
2
+ 2x + 3
= (x
2
+x + 1)(x
3
+ 2x
2
−2x −2) + 6x + 5
t´ u
.
c l` a
P = g q
1
+r
1
, q
1
= x
3
+ 2x
2
−2x −2, r
1
= 6x + 5.
Ta la
.
i chia q
1
cho g v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
q
1
= gq
2
+r
2
, degq
2
< deg(g)
q
2
= x + 1, r
2
= −4x −3.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
P = gq
1
+r
1
= r
1
+g(r
2
+gq
2
)
= r
1
+r
2
g +q
2
g
2
.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra
P
g
3
=
r
1
g
3
+
r
2
g
3
+q
2

1
g
=
6x + 5
(x
2
+x + 1)
3

4x + 3
(x
2
+x + 1)
2
+
x + 1
x
2
+x + 1

64 Chu
.
o
.
ng 2. D
-
a th´ u
.
c v`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay, h˜ay khai triˆe

n phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ d˜a
cho th`anh tˆo

ng h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n thu
.
.
c.
1.
2x −3
x(x
2
−1)(x
2
−4)
(DS. −
3
4x
+
1
6(x −1)
+
5
6(x + 1)
+
1
24(x −2)

7
24(x + 2)
)
2.
x + 1
x
3
−1
(DS.
2
3(x −1)

2x + 1
3(x
2
+x + 1)
)
3.
1
x
3
(x −1)
4
(DS.
10
x
+
4
x
2
+
1
x
3

10
x −1
+
6
(x −1)
2

3
(x −1)
3
+
1
(x −1)
4
)
4.
1
(x
4
−1)
2
(DS. −
3
16(x −1)
+
1
16(x −1)
2
+
3
16(x + 1)
+
1
16(x + 1)
2
+
1
4(x
2
+ 1)
+
1
4(x
2
+ 1)
2
)
5.
2x −1
(x + 1)
3
(x
2
+x + 1)
(DS.
2
x + 1

1
(x + 1)
2

3
(x + 1)
3

2x −1
x
2
+x + 1
)
6.
1
x(x
2
+ 1)
3
(DS.
1
x
+
x
(x
2
+ 1)
3

x
(x
2
+ 1)
2

x
x
2
+ 1
)
7.
x
2
+ 3x + 1
x
4
(x
2
+ 1)
(DS.
1
x
4
+
3
x
3

3
x
+
3x
x
2
+ 1
)
8.
x
5
+ 3x
3
−x
2
+ 4x −2
(x
2
+ 1)
3
(DS.
2x −1
(x
2
+ 1)
3
+
x −1
(x
2
+ 1)
2
+
x
x
2
+ 1
)
9.
x
5
+ 2x
3
−6x
2
−3x −9
(x
2
+x + 2)
3
(DS.
1
(x
2
+x + 2)
3
+
x −1
(x
2
+x + 2)
2
+
x −2
x
2
+x + 2
)
10.
2x −1
x(x + 1)
2
(x
2
+x + 1)
2
2.2. Phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ 65
(DS. −
1
x
+
7
x + 1
+
3
(x + 1)
2

6x + 2
x
2
+x + 1

3x + 2
(x
2
+x + 1)
2
)
11.
x
2
(x
2
+ 1)(x
2
+x + 1)
2
(DS.
1
x
2
+ 1
+
1
x
2
+x + 1

x
(x
2
+x + 1)
2
)
12.
1
x
5
−x
4
+x
3
−x
2
+x −1
(DS.
1
3(x −1)

1
6
2x + 1
x
2
+x + 1

1
2(x
2
−x + 1)
)
Chu
.
o
.
ng 3
Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
3.1 Ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.1.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
3.1.2 C´ac ph´ep to´an tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh trˆen ma trˆa
.
n . . 69
3.1.3 Ph´ep nhˆan c´ac ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . 71
3.1.4 Ph´ep chuyˆe

n vi
.
ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . 72
3.2 D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.2.1 Nghi
.
ch thˆe
´
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.2.2 D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.2.3 T´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.2.4 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c . . . . . . . . 89
3.3 Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
3.3.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
3.3.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t`ım ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n . . . . 109
3.4 Ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
3.4.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
3.1. Ma trˆa
.
n 67
3.4.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t`ım ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’o . . . 119
3.1 Ma trˆa
.
n
Gia’ su
.
’ T l`a tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ n`ao d´o (T = R, C).
3.1.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa ma trˆa
.
n
Ta x´et ba’ ng h`ınh ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t lˆa
.
p nˆen t` u
.
mn sˆo´ cu’ a T:
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
. . . a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
a
m2
. . . a
mn
Ba’ ng sˆo´ n`ay du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ma trˆa
.
n (hay ch´ınh x´ac ho
.
n: ma trˆ a
.
n sˆ o´)
k´ıch thu
.
´o
.
c m n. C´ ac sˆo´ a
ij
, i = 1, m, j = 1, n du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n, trong d´o i chı ’ sˆ o´ hiˆe
.
u h`ang, j chı ’ sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u cˆo
.
t cu’ a ma
trˆa
.
n.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u: c´ o thˆe

d` ung mˆo
.
t trong c´ac k´ y hiˆe
.
u
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
. . . a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
a
m2
. . . a
mn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
, hay
_
_
_
_
_
_
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
. . . a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
a
m2
. . . a
mn
_
_
_
_
_
_
hay
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
. . . a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
a
m2
. . . a
mn
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
68 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
hay ng˘a
´
n go
.
n ho
.
n
A =
_
_
a
ij
_
_
m×n
=
_
a
ij
_
m×n
=
_
a
ij
¸
m×n
.
Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p mo
.
i (mn)-ma trˆa
.
n du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a /(mn).
Nˆe
´
u m = n th`ı ma trˆa
.
n A =
_
_
a
ij
_
_
m×n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ma trˆ a
.
n vuˆ ong
cˆa´p n (thu
.
`o
.
ng k´ y hiˆe
.
u: A =
_
_
a
ij
_
_
n×n
=
_
_
a
ij
_
_
n
1
). Dˆo´i v´ o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n
vuˆong A =
_
_
a
ij
_
_
n
1
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a
ii
, i = 1, n du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nh˜ u
.
ng phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo. C´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ n`ay lˆa
.
p th`anh du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo ch´ınh cu’ a ma
trˆa
.
n vuˆong.
Ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong m`a mo
.
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ khˆong n˘a
`
m trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo ch´ınh
dˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 0 (t´ u
.
c l`a a
ij
= 0 ∀i ,= j) go
.
i l`a ma trˆ a
.
n du
.
` o
.
ng ch´eo:
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
d
1
d
2
_
.
.
.
_
.
.
.
d
n
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
= diag[d
1
d
2
. . . d
n
].
Nˆe
´
u trong ma trˆa
.
n du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo A mo
.
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d
1
= d
2
= = d
n
= 1
th`ı ma trˆa
.
n d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ma trˆa
.
n do
.
n vi
.
cˆa´p n v`a k´ y hiˆe
.
u:
E
n
= E =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
1 _
.
.
.
_
.
.
.
1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y E
n
=
_
_
δ
ij
_
_
n
1
, trong d´o δ
ij
=
_
_
_
0 nˆe
´
u i ,= j
1 nˆe
´
u i = j.
3.1. Ma trˆa
.
n 69
Sau c` ung, (mn)-ma trˆa
.
n da
.
ng
O
m×n
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
0 0 . . . 0
0 0 . . . 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 . . . 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
go
.
i l`a ma trˆa
.
n - khˆong k´ıch thu
.
´o
.
c mn. Nˆe
´
u m = n th`ı k´ y hiˆe
.
u O
n
hay O
n
1
.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. 1) Ta nhˆa´n ma
.
nh: ma trˆa
.
n A =
_
_
a
ij
_
_
m×n
khˆong pha’ i l`a
mˆo
.
t sˆo´, n´o l`a mˆo
.
t Ba’ ng c´ac sˆ o´.
2) Ma trˆa
.
n k´ıch thu
.
´o
.
c (1 n) go
.
i l`a ma trˆa
.
n h`ang
_
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
_
c`on ma trˆa
.
n (m1) go
.
i l`a ma trˆa
.
n cˆo
.
t
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
1
a
2
.
.
.
a
m
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
3.1.2 C´ac ph´ep to´an tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh trˆen ma trˆa
.
n
Gia’ su
.
’ mo
.
i ma trˆa
.
n du
.
o
.
.
c x´et l`a trˆen c` ung mˆo
.
t tru
.
`o
.
ng T (= R, C).
C´ac ph´ep to´an tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac ma trˆa
.
n l`a ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´ac
ma trˆa
.
n (chı’ dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac ma trˆa
.
n c` ung k´ıch thu
.
´ o
.
c!) v`a ph´ep nhˆan ma
trˆa
.
n v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t sˆo´ v`a ch´ ung du
.
o
.
.
c di
.
nh ngh˜ıa nh`o
.
c´ac ph´ep to´an trˆen c´ ac
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a ch´ ung.
1. Cho A =
_
a
ij
¸
m×n
, B =
_
b
ij
¸
m×n
. Ma trˆa
.
n C =
_
c
ij
¸
m×n
du
.
o
.
.
c
go
.
i l`a tˆo

ng cu’ a A v`a B nˆe
´
u
c
ij
= a
ij
+b
ij
∀i = 1, m, ∀j = 1, n
70 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
v`a k´ y hiˆe
.
u
C = A+B
_
[c
ij
] = [a
ij
+b
ij
], i = 1, m, j = 1, n
_
.
2. Gia’ su
.
’ A =
_
a
ij
¸
m×n
v`a λ ∈ T. Ma trˆa
.
n C =
_
c
ij
¸
m×n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i
l`a t´ıch cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A v´o
.
i sˆo´ λ nˆe
´
u
c
ij
= λa
ij
∀i = 1, m, ∀j = 1, n
v`a k´ y hiˆe
.
u
C = λA
_
λA =
_
λa
ij
¸
m×n
).
Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t khi λ = −1 ta viˆe
´
t (−1)A = −A v`a go
.
i −A
l`a ma trˆa
.
n dˆo´i cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A.
C´ac ph´ep to´an tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p ma trˆa
.
n /(mn) c´ o c´ac
t´ınh chˆa´t sau dˆay.
Gia’ su
.
’ A, B, C ∈ /(mn) v`a α, β ∈ T. Khi d´o
I. A+B = B +A (luˆa
.
t giao ho´an).
II. A+ (B +C) = (A+B) +C (luˆa
.
t kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p).
III. A+O
m×n
= A.
IV. A+ (−A) = O
m×n
.
V. 1 A = A.
VI. α(βA) = (αβ)A - luˆa
.
t kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p dˆo´i v´o
.
i ph´ep nhˆan c´ac sˆo´.
VII. α(A+B) = αA+αB - luˆa
.
t phˆan bˆo´ cu’ a ph´ep nhˆan v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t
sˆo´ dˆo´i v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng ma trˆa
.
n.
VIII. (α +β)A = αA+ βA - luˆa
.
t phˆan bˆo´ cu’ a ph´ep nhˆan v´o
.
i ma
trˆa
.
n dˆo´i v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´ac sˆo´.
Hiˆe
.
u c´ac ma trˆa
.
n A−B c´o thˆe

di
.
nh ngh˜ıa nhu
.
sau
A−B
def
= A+ (−B).
3.1. Ma trˆa
.
n 71
3.1.3 Ph´ep nhˆan c´ac ma trˆa
.
n
Ma trˆa
.
n A du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n B nˆe
´
u sˆo´ cˆo
.
t cu’ a ma
trˆa
.
n A b˘a
`
ng sˆo´ h`ang cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n B (t` u
.
su
.
.
tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch cu’ a A v´o
.
i B
n´oi chung khˆong suy ra du
.
o
.
.
c r˘a
`
ng ma trˆa
.
n B tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n
A).
Cho ma trˆa
.
n A =
_
a
ij
¸
m×n
v` a B =
_
b
ij
¸
n×p
. Ma trˆa
.
n C =
_
c
ij
¸
m×p
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ıch cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n B nˆe
´
u
c
ij
=
n

s=1
a
is
b
sj
. (3.1)
K´ y hiˆe
.
u C = AB v`a n´oi r˘a
`
ng “nhˆan bˆen pha’ i ma trˆa
.
n A v´o
.
i ma
trˆa
.
n B” hay “nhˆan bˆen tr´ai ma trˆa
.
n B v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n A”.
T` u
.
(3.1) suy ra quy t˘a
´
c t`ım c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a t´ıch c´ac ma trˆa
.
n:
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ c
ij
d´ u
.
ng o
.
’ vi
.
tr´ı giao cu’ a h`ang th´ u
.
i v`a cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
j cu’ a ma
trˆa
.
n C = AB b˘a
`
ng tˆo

ng c´ac t´ıch cu’ a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ h`ang th´ u
.
i cu’ a ma
trˆa
.
n A nhˆan v´o
.
i c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng cu’ a cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
j cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n
B.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
. . . . . . . . . . . .
a
i1
a
i2
. . . a
in
. . . . . . . . . . . .
a
m1
a
m2
. . . a
mn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_

_
¸
¸
_
b
11
.
.
.
b
n1
_
¸
¸
_
b
ij
.
.
.
b
ij
_
¸
¸
_
b
1p
.
.
.
b
np
_
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
_
c
11
.
.
. c
1p
. . . c
ij
. . .
c
m1
.
.
. c
mp
_
¸
¸
_
Ch´ u ´y. 1) N´oi chung ph´ep nhˆan ma trˆa
.
n khˆong c´o t´ınh chˆa´t giao
ho´an.
2) T´ıch hai ma trˆa
.
n kh´ac 0 c´ o thˆe

b˘a
`
ng ma trˆa
.
n khˆong.
3) V´ o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep to´ an du
.
o
.
.
c viˆe
´
t ra c´o ngh˜ıa, ph´ep nhˆan
ma trˆa
.
n c´o c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t sau
I. (AB)C = A(BC) - luˆa
.
t kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p.
II. α(AB) = (αA)B = A(αB), α ∈ T.
III. (A+B)C = AC +BC (luˆa
.
t phˆan bˆo´ ph´ep nhˆan bˆen pha’ i
72 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
dˆo´i v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng ma trˆa
.
n).
IV. C(A+B) = CA+CB (luˆa
.
t phˆan bˆo´ ph´ep nhˆan bˆen tr´ai
dˆo´i v´o
.
i ph´ep cˆo
.
ng ma trˆa
.
n).
3.1.4 Ph´ep chuyˆe

n vi
.
ma trˆa
.
n
Ph´ep to´an trˆen c´ ac ma trˆa
.
n m`a trong d´o c´ac h`ang chuyˆe

n th`anh c´ac
cˆo
.
t c` on c´ac cˆo
.
t chuyˆe

n th`anh c´ac h`ang du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ph´ep chuyˆe

n vi
.
ma
trˆa
.
n.
Cho ma trˆa
.
n A =
_
a
ij
¸
m×n
. Ma trˆa
.
n thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
ma trˆa
.
n A b˘a
`
ng
ph´ep chuyˆe

n vi
.
ma trˆa
.
n du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ma trˆ a
.
n chuyˆe

n vi
.
dˆo´i v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n
A v`a du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a A
T
. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y: A
T
l`a (n m)-ma trˆa
.
n.
Ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ma trˆ a
.
n dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng nˆe
´
u A
T
= A v`a du
.
o
.
.
c
go
.
i l`a ma trˆa
.
n pha’ n x´ u
.
ng nˆe
´
u A
T
= −A. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y nˆe
´
u A =
_
a
ij
¸
n
1
l`a
ma trˆa
.
n dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng th`ı a
ij
= a
ji
∀i, j = 1, n v`a nˆe
´
u A pha’ n x´ u
.
ng th`ı
a
ij
= −a
ji
. Do d´o c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo ch´ınh cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n
pha’ n x´ u
.
ng l`a b˘a
`
ng 0.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. 1) Cˆ o
.
ng c´ac ma trˆa
.
n
_
1 2
3 4
_
v`a
_
5 6
7 8
_
.
2) Nhˆan ma trˆa
.
n A =
_
−1 2 −1
4 0 1
_
v´o
.
i sˆo´ λ = 3.
Gia’ i. 1) Hai ma trˆa
.
n d˜a cho c´o c` ung k´ıch thu
.
´o
.
c nˆen c´o thˆe

cˆo
.
ng
v´o
.
i nhau. Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa ph´ep cˆo
.
ng c´ac ma trˆa
.
n ta c´ o
_
1 2
3 4
_
+
_
5 6
7 8
_
=
_
1 + 5 2 + 6
3 + 7 4 + 8
_
=
_
6 8
10 12
_
.
2) λA = 3
_
−1 2 −1
4 0 1
_
=
_
−1 3 2 3 −1 3
4 3 0 3 1 3
_
=
3.1. Ma trˆa
.
n 73
_
−3 6 −3
12 0 3
_
.
V´ı du
.
2. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ao th`ı:
1) c´o thˆe

nhˆan bˆen pha’ i mˆo
.
t ma trˆa
.
n h`ang v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t ma trˆa
.
n cˆo
.
t ?
2) c´o thˆe

nhˆan bˆen pha’ i mˆo
.
t ma trˆa
.
n cˆo
.
t v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t ma trˆa
.
n h`ang ?
Gia’ i. 1) Ma trˆa
.
n h`ang l`a ma trˆa
.
n k´ıch thu
.
´o
.
c (1 n) c` on ma trˆa
.
n
cˆo
.
t l`a ma trˆa
.
n k´ıch thu
.
´o
.
c (m1). Ph´ep nhˆan ma trˆa
.
n h`ang (1 n)
v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n cˆo
.
t (m1) chı ’ c´o thˆe

nˆe
´
u n = m:
1 n n 1 = 1 1
t´ u
.
c l` a kˆe
´
t qua’ ph´ep nhˆan l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo´, cu
.
thˆe

l`a
_
a
1
a
2
. . . a
n
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
b
1
b
2
.
.
.
b
n
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
a
1
b
1
+a
2
b
2
+ +a
n
b
n
_
= c.
2) Ma trˆa
.
n cˆo
.
t A
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
1
a
2
.
.
.
a
m
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
l`a ma trˆa
.
n k´ıch thu
.
´o
.
c (m1). Ma trˆa
.
n n`ay tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n
k´ıch thu
.
´o
.
c (1 n), t´ u
.
c l`a ma trˆa
.
n h`ang. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ph´ep nhˆan d˜a nˆeu
luˆon luˆon thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n du
.
o
.
.
c, cu
.
thˆe

l`a
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
1
a
2
.
.
.
a
m
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
b
1
b
2
. . . b
n
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
1
b
1
a
1
b
2
. . . a
1
b
n
a
2
b
1
a
2
b
2
. . . a
2
b
n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m
b
1
a
m
b
2
. . . a
m
b
n
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
74 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh AB v`a BA nˆe
´
u
1) A =
_
3 2 1
0 1 2
_
, B =
_
¸
_
1
3
3
_
¸
_.
2) A =
_
1 4 −1
2 0 1
_
, B =
_
¸
_
−1 0
1 3
−1 1
_
¸
_
.
Gia’ i. 1) Theo quy t˘a
´
c nhˆan c´ac ma trˆa
.
n ta c´ o
AB =
_
3 2 1
0 1 2
_
_
¸
_
1
3
3
_
¸
_ =
_
3 1 + 2 3 + 1 3
0 1 + 1 3 + 2 3
_
=
_
12
9
_
.
T´ıch BA khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i v`ı ma trˆa
.
n B khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch v´o
.
i ma
trˆa
.
n A.
2) Ta c´ o ma trˆa
.
n A tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n B. Do d´o
AB =
_
1 4 −1
2 0 1
_
_
¸
_
−2 0
1 3
−1 1
_
¸
_
=
_
1 (−2) + 4 1 + (−1)(−1) 1 0 + 4 3 + (−1) 1
2 (−2) + 0 1 + (1) (−1) 2 0 + 0 3 + 1 1
_
=
_
3 11
−5 1
_
.
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
, ma trˆa
.
n B tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n A v`a
BA =
_
¸
_
−2 −8 2
7 4 2
1 −4 2
_
¸
_
.
V´ı du
.
4. 1) Cho ma trˆa
.
n A =
_
0 1
0 0
_
. T`ım mo
.
i ma trˆa
.
n X giao
ho´an v´o
.
i A (AX = XA).
3.1. Ma trˆa
.
n 75
2) T`ım mo
.
i ma trˆa
.
n giao ho´ an v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n A =
_
1 2
−1 −1
_
.
3) T´ınh t´ıch
_
1 1
0 0
_ _
1 1
−1 −1
_
.
Gia’ i. 1) V`ı A l`a ma trˆa
.
n cˆ a´p 2 nˆen dˆe

c´ac t´ıch AX v`a XA x´ac
di
.
nh, ma trˆa
.
n X c˜ ung pha’ i l`a ma trˆa
.
n cˆa´p 2. Gia’ su
.
’ A =
_
α β
γ δ
_
.
Khi d´o
AX =
_
0 1
0 0
_ _
α β
γ δ
_
=
_
γ δ
0 0
_
,
XA =
_
α β
γ δ
_ _
0 1
0 0
_
=
_
0 α
0 γ
_
.
T` u
.
d´o nˆe
´
u AX = XA ⇒ γ = 0, α = δ. Do d´o mo
.
i ma trˆa
.
n ho´an vi
.
v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n d˜a cho dˆe
`
u c´o da
.
ng
X =
_
α β
0 α
_
.
2) Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trˆen, gia’ su
.
’ X =
_
x y
u v
_
l`a ma trˆa
.
n giao ho´an
76 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n A =
_
1 2
−1 −1
_
. Khi d´o
_
1 2
−1 −1
_ _
x y
u v
_
=
_
x y
u v
_ _
1 2
−1 −1
_

_
x + 2u y + 2v
−x −u −y −v
_
=
_
x −y 2x −y
u −v 2u −v
_

_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x + 2u = x −y
−x −u = u −v
y + 2v = 2x −y
−y −v = 2u −v

_
_
_
x = u −2v
y = −2u
; u, v t` uy ´ y.
Vˆa
.
y ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
X =
_
u −2v −2u
u v
_
, u, v t` uy ´ y.
3) Dˆe
˜
d`ang thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng
_
1 1
0 0
_ _
1 1
−1 −1
_
=
_
0 0
0 0
_
. T` u
.
v´ı du
.
n`ay
suy ra r˘a
`
ng dˆo´i v´ o
.
i c´ ac ma trˆa
.
n nˆe
´
u AB = O th`ı khˆong nhˆa´t thiˆe
´
t
A = O ho˘a
.
c B = O.
V´ı du
.
5. Ma trˆa
.
n S = λE
n
, trong d´o E
n
l`a ma trˆa
.
n do
.
n vi
.
cˆa´p n v`a
λ l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo´ du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ma trˆ a
.
n vˆ o hu
.
´ o
.
ng. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng ma trˆa
.
n
vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng ho´an vi
.
v´o
.
i mo
.
i ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong c` ung cˆa´p.
Gia’ i.
´
Ap du
.
ng c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n do
.
n vi
.
ta c´o
SA = (λE
n
)A = λ(E
n
A) = λA;
AS = A(λE
n
) = λ(AE
n
) = λA,
t´ u
.
c l`a AS = SA dˆo´i v´o
.
i mo
.
i ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong A cˆa´p n.
Cho A l`a ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong, k l`a sˆo´ tu
.
.
nhiˆen l´o
.
n ho
.
n 1. Khi d´o t´ıch
k ma trˆa
.
n A du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a lu˜ y th` u
.
a bˆa
.
c k cu’ a A v`a k´ y hiˆe
.
u A
k
. Theo
3.1. Ma trˆa
.
n 77
di
.
nh ngh˜ıa A
0
= E. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
A
k
def
= AAA A
. ¸¸ .
k lˆa `n
A

= E.
V´ı du
.
6. T`ım mo
.
i lu˜ y th` u
.
a cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o
A
2
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
,
v`a dˆe
˜
thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng
A
3
= A
2
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
,
A
4
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
.
C´ac l˜ uy th` u
.
a tiˆe
´
p theo cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A dˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 0.
V´ı du
.
7. Gia’ su
.

J =
_
0 1
−1 0
_
, E = E
2×2
.
78 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
1) J
2
= −E.
2) Ma trˆa
.
n da
.
ng Z = αE + βJ =
_
α β
−β α
_
du
.
o
.
.
c cˆo
.
ng v`a nhˆan
v´o
.
i nhau tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
c´ac sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c da
.
ng
Z = α +βi.
Gia’ i. 1) Ta c´ o
J
2
=
_
0 1
−1 0
_ _
0 1
−1 0
_
=
_
−1 0
0 −1
_
= −E.
2) X´et Z
1
= α
1
E +β
1
J, Z
2
= α
2
E +β
2
J. Khi d´o theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa
c´ac ph´ep to´an tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh trˆen ma trˆa
.
n c` ung c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a ch´ ung,
mˆo
.
t m˘a
.
t ta c´o
Z
1
+Z
2
= (α
1

2
)E + (β
1

2
)J
v`a m˘a
.
t kh´ac
Z
1
+Z
2
=
_
α
1
β
1
−β
1
α
1
_
+
_
α
2
β
2
−β
2
α
2
_
=
_
α
1

2
β
1

2
−(β
1

2
) α
1

2
_
= (α
1

2
)E + (β
1

2
)J.
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i ph´ep nhˆan su
.
.
l´ y gia’ i c˜ ung tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
.
V´ı du
.
8. T´ınh A
n
nˆe
´
u:
1) A =
_
3 1
0 3
_
; 2) A =
_
4 1
0 3
_
.
Gia’ i. Du
.
.
a v`ao t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng: ma trˆa
.
n vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng
ho´an vi
.
v´o
.
i mo
.
i ma trˆa
.
n c` ung cˆ a´p, ta s˜e biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n ma trˆa
.
n d˜a cho th`anh
3.1. Ma trˆa
.
n 79
tˆo

ng ma trˆa
.
n vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng cˆo
.
ng v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n da
.
ng d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t m`a ph´ep nˆang
lˆen l˜ uy th` u
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n do
.
n gia’ n ho
.
n.
1) A =
_
3 1
0 3
_
=
_
3 0
0 3
_
+
_
0 1
0 0
_
= B +
˜
B,
B
m
=
_
3 0
0 3
_
m
=
_
3
m
0
0 3
n
_
(xem b`ai 4. 3) du
.
´o
.
i dˆay),
˜
B
m
=
_
0 0
0 0
_
∀m 2.
Tiˆe
´
p theo do B
˜
B =
˜
BB nˆen ta c´o thˆe

´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c
(B +
˜
B)
n
=
n

i=0
C
i
n
B
i
˜
B
n−i
(3.2)
(xem b`ai 5.3) du
.
´o
.
i dˆay). Theo (3.2) ta c´o
(B +
˜
B)
n
= B
n
+C
1
n
B
n−1
˜
B +C
2
n
B
n−2
˜
B
2
+ +
˜
B
n
= [do
˜
B
m
= 0, m 2[
= B
n
+C
n
1
B
n−1
˜
B = B
n
+nB
n−1
˜
B
=
_
3
n
0
0 3
n
_
=
_
n3
n−1
0
0 n3
n−1
_ _
0 1
0 0
_
=
_
3
n
0
0 3
n
_
+
_
0 n3
n−1
0 0
_
=
_
3
n
n3
n−1
0 3
n
_
.
2) Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trˆen ta c´o
A =
_
4 1
0 3
_
=
_
3 0
0 3
_
+
_
1 1
0 0
_
= B +
˜
B.
B
m
=
_
3 0
0 3
_
m
=
_
3
m
0
0 3
m
_
, (3.3)
˜
B
m
=
_
1 1
0 0
_
m
=
_
1 1
0 0
_
∀m 1 (3.4)
80 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
Tiˆe
´
p theo do B
˜
B =
˜
BB nˆen ta c´o thˆe

´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c
A
n
= (B +
˜
B)
n
= B
n
+C
1
n
B
n−1
˜
B +C
2
n
B
n−2
˜
B
2
+ +
˜
B
n
. (3.5)
Ta t´ınh C
k
n
B
n−k
˜
B
k
. Theo (3.3) v`a (3.4) ta c´o
C
k
n
_
3
n−k
0
0 3
n−k
_ _
1 1
0 0
_
= C
k
n
_
3
n−k
3
n−k
0 0
_
=
_
C
k
n
3
n−k
C
k
n
3
n−k
0 0
_
.
(3.6)
T` u
.
(3.6), (3.3) v`a (3.5) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
A
n
=
_
3
n
0
0 3
n
_
+
n

k=1
_
C
k
n
3
n−k
C
k
n
3
n−k
0 0
_
=
_
_
3
n
+
n

k=1
C
k
n
3
n−k
0 +
n

k=1
C
k
n
3
n−k
0 3
n
_
_
.
V`ı 3
n
+
n

k=1
C
k
n
3
n−k
= (3 + 1)
n
= 4
n
v`a 0 +
n

k=1
C
k
n
3
n−k
=
n

k=0
C
k
n
3
n−k

3
n
= 4
n
−3
n
, do vˆa
.
y
A
n
=
_
4
n
4
n
−3
n
0 3
n
_
.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
1. T´ınh A+B, AB v`a BA nˆe
´
u
1) A =
_
1 2
3 4
_
, B =
_
4 −4
0 i
_
;
2) A =
_
¸
_
1 −1 0
2 1 1
3 −1 2
_
¸
_, B =
_
¸
_
−2 1 2
0 4 5
2 −3 7
_
¸
_.
3.1. Ma trˆa
.
n 81
(DS. 1) A+B =
_
5 −2
3 4 +i
_
, AB =
_
4 −4 + 2i
12 −12 + 4i
_
,
BA =
_
−8 −8
3 4i
_
;
2) A+B =
_
¸
_
−1 0 2
2 5 6
5 −4 9
_
¸
_, AB =
_
¸
_
−1 −3 −3
−2 3 16
−2 −7 15
_
¸
_,
BA =
_
¸
_
6 1 5
23 −1 14
−17 −12 11
_
¸
_)
2. T´ınh t´ıch c´ac ma trˆa
.
n
1)
_
¸
_
5 2 1
5 2 3
6 5 2
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
1 3 −2
−3 −4 −5
2 1 3
_
¸
_
. (DS.
_
¸
_
1 3 2
5 10 9
−5 0 −7
_
¸
_
)
2)
_
¸
_
3 4 9
2 −1 6
5 3 5
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
5 6 4
8 9 7
−4 −5 −3
_
¸
_
. (DS.
_
¸
_
11 9 13
−22 −27 −17
29 32 26
_
¸
_
)
3)
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 2 −2
1 3 −1
1 −2 5
1 3 −2
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
_
1 −2 4
2 3 2
3 1 4
_
¸
_. (DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 2 0
4 6 6
12 −3 20
1 5 2
_
¸
¸
¸
_
)
4)
_
¸
¸
¸
_
2 1 3
4 2 1
−2 1 −3
1 2 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
_
1
2
−1
_
¸
_. (DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1
7
3
9
_
¸
¸
¸
_
)
82 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
5)
_
1 −3 3 −1
1 3 −5 1
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1
1 2
1 1
1 −2
_
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS.
_
0 0
0 0
_
)
6)
_
¸
_
1
2
3
_
¸
_
_
3 2 1
_
. (DS.
_
¸
_
3 2 1
6 4 2
9 6 3
_
¸
_
)
3. T´ınh c´ac t´ıch AB v`a BA nˆe
´
u
1) A =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 3 0
−2 1 1
3 0 −2
4 1 2
_
¸
¸
¸
_
, B =
_
5 −1 3 1
2 0 −1 4
_
. (DS. T´ıch AB
khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i v`ı ma trˆa
.
n A khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n B; BA =
_
10 15 −5
11 10 10
_
)
2) A =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
2 0
1 −4
3 1
0 −1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
, B =
_
5 1 0 −3
_
. (DS. T´ıch AB khˆong
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i v`ı A khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch v´o
.
i B; BA =
_
11 −1
_
)
3) A =
_
1 2 3 4
2 1 −2 3
_
, B =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 5 3
6 8 2
1 2 −1
3 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS. AB =
_
28 27 8
15 14 13
_
, t´ıch BA khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i)
4) A =
_
cos α −sinα
cos α cos α
_
, B =
_
cos β −sinβ
sin β cos β
_
.
3.1. Ma trˆa
.
n 83
(DS. AB = BA =
_
cos(α +β) = sin(α +β)
sin(α +β) cos(α +β)
_
)
4. T´ınh c´ac lu˜ y th` u
.
a cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A
n
nˆe
´
u:
1) A =
_
1 1
0 1
_
. (DS. A
n
=
_
1 n
0 1
_
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap quy na
.
p to´an ho
.
c
2) A =
_
cos ϕ −sinϕ
sinϕ cos ϕ
_
. (DS. A
n
=
_
cos nϕ −sinnϕ
sin nϕ cos nϕ
_
)
3) A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
d
1
d
2
_
.
.
.
_
.
.
.
d
n
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS. A
n
= diag
_
d
n
1
d
n
2
. . . d
n
n
_
)
4) A =
_
¸
_
2 1 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
¸
_. (DS.
_
¸
_
2 2
n
−1 0
0 1 0
0 0 2
_
¸
_)
5. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u AB = BA th`ı
1) (A+B)
2
= A
2
+ 2AB +B
2
.
2) A
2
−B
2
= (A+B)(A−B).
3) (A+B)
n
= A
n
+C
1
n
A
n−1
B +C
2
n
A
n−2
B
2
+ +B
n
.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap quy na
.
p to´an ho
.
c.
Gia’ su
.
’ cho da th´ u
.
c P(x) = a
0
+ a
1
x + + a + kx
k
. Khi d´o ma
trˆa
.
n vuˆong
P(A) = a
0
E +a
1
A+ +a
k
A
k
, x = A
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a gi´a tri
.
cu’ a da th´ u
.
c P(x) ta
.
i x = A v`a biˆe

u th´ u
.
c
P(A) = a
0
E +a
A
+ +a
k
A
k
go
.
i l`a da th´ u
.
c cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A.
6. Gia’ su
.
’ P(x) v` a Q(x) l`a hai da th´ u
.
c v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ ∈ T v`a A l`a ma trˆa
.
n
vuˆong cˆa´p n. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
84 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
1) ϕ(x) = P(x) +Q(x) ⇒ ϕ(A) = P(A) +Q(A).
2) ψ(x) = P(x)Q(x) ⇒ ψ(A) = P(A)Q(A).
3) P(A)Q(A) = Q(A)P(A).
7. T`ım gi´a tri
.
cu’ a da th´ u
.
c ma trˆa
.
n
1) P(x) = x
2
−5x + 3, A =
_
2 −1
−3 3
_
. (DS.
_
0 0
0 0
_
)
2) P(x) = 3x
2
− 2x + 5, A =
_
¸
_
1 −2 3
2 −4 1
3 −5 2
_
¸
_
. (DS.
_
¸
_
21 −23 15
−13 34 10
−9 22 25
_
¸
_)
3) P(x) = 3x
5
−4x
4
−10x
3
+ 3x
2
−7, A =
_
¸
_
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 0 0
_
¸
_
.
(DS.
_
¸
_
−7 0 3
0 −7 0
0 0 −7
_
¸
_
)
4) Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng ma trˆa
.
n
_
¸
_
1 2 −2
1 0 3
1 3 0
_
¸
_
l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c P(x) = x
3
−x
2
−9x + 9.
5) Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng ma trˆa
.
n
A =
_
¸
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 3
_
¸
_
l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a da th´ u
.
c P(x) = x
3
−5x
2
+ 7x −3.
3.2. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c 85
8. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u A l`a ma trˆa
.
n du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo cˆa´p n v´o
.
i c´ ac
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo ch´ınh l`a λ
1
, λ
2
, . . . , λ
n
th`ı v´o
.
i mo
.
i da th´ u
.
c
P(x) ma trˆa
.
n P(A) c˜ ung l`a ma trˆa
.
n du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo v´o
.
i c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trˆen
du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo ch´ınh l`a P(λ
1
), P(λ
2
), . . . , P(λ
n
). H˜ay x´et tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p
khi A l`a ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong cˆa´p 3.
9. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng (A
n
)
T
= (A
T
)
n
.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Ch´ u
.
ng minh b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap quy na
.
p v`a su
.
’ du
.
ng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c (AB)
T
= B
T
A
T
.
10. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng mo
.
i ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong A dˆe
`
u c´o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
´o
.
i
da
.
ng tˆo

ng mˆo
.
t ma trˆa
.
n dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng v`a mˆo
.
t ma trˆa
.
n pha’ n x´ u
.
ng.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t P =
1
2
(A+A
T
), Q =
1
2
(A−A
T
), A = P +Q.
3.2 D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
3.2.1 Nghi
.
ch thˆe
´
Mo
.
i c´ach s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p th´ u
.
tu
.
.
n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p sˆo´ J = ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t ho´an vi
.
cu’ a n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ d´o. Sˆo´ c´ac ho´an vi
.
c´o thˆe

c´o
cu’ a n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a J l`a n!. Hai sˆo´ trong mˆo
.
t ho´an vi
.
lˆa
.
p th`anh mˆo
.
t
nghi
.
ch thˆe
´
nˆe
´
u sˆo´ l´o
.
n ho
.
n d´ u
.
ng tru
.
´o
.
c sˆo´ b´e ho
.
n. Sˆo´ nghi
.
ch thˆe
´
cu’ a
ho´an vi
.

1
, . . . , α
n
) du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a
inv(α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
n
),
d´o ch´ınh l`a sˆo´ c˘a
.
p lˆa
.
p th`anh nghi
.
ch thˆe
´
trong ho´an vi
.
.
Ho´an vi
.
¦α
1
, . . . , α
n
¦ du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ho´an vi
.
ch˘a
˜
n nˆe
´
u sˆo´ nghi
.
ch thˆe
´
cu’ a n´o l`a ch˘a
˜
n v`a go
.
i l`a ho´an vi
.
le’ nˆe
´
u sˆo´ nghi
.
ch thˆe
´
l`a le’.
3.2.2 D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
Mˆo
˜
i ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong cˆa´p n (v`a chı ’ c´o ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong !) dˆe
`
u tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng
v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t sˆo´ - go
.
i l`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a n´o.
86 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
Gia’ su
.
’ cho ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong cˆa´p n trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng T(R, C):
A =
_
_
a
ij
_
_
n
1
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
. . . a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n1
a
n2
. . . a
nn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(3.7)
Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A l`a mˆo
.
t sˆo´ thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a
ma trˆa
.
n theo quy t˘a
´
c sau dˆay:
1) di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆ a´p n b˘a
`
ng tˆo

ng da
.
i sˆo´ cu’ a n! sˆo´ ha
.
ng;
2) mˆo
˜
i sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c l`a t´ıch
a
i
1
j
1
a
i
2
j
2
a
injn
(3.8)
cu’ a n phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n m`a c´ u
.
mˆo
˜
i h`ang v`a mˆo
˜
i cˆo
.
t dˆe
`
u c´o d´ ung
mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trong t´ıch n`ay;
3) sˆo´ ha
.
ng a
i
1
j
1
a
i
2
j
2
a
injn
cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c c´o dˆa´u cˆo
.
ng nˆe
´
u ho´an
vi
.
lˆa
.
p nˆen bo
.
’ i c´ac sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u h`ang ¦i
1
, i
2
, . . . , i
n
¦ v`a ho´an vi
.
lˆa
.
p nˆen bo
.
’ i
c´ac sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u cˆ o
.
t ¦j
1
, j
2
, . . . , j
n
¦ l`a c` ung ch˘a
˜
n ho˘ a
.
c c` ung le’ v`a c´o dˆa´u
tr` u
.
(“ −”) trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u: Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a
det A, [A[ hay
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
. . . a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n1
a
n2
. . . a
nn
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. 1) Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, dˆe

x´ac di
.
nh dˆa´u cu’ a sˆo´ ha
.
ng di
.
nh th´ u
.
c ta
cˆa
`
n t´ınh
s = inv(i
1
, . . . , i
n
)
σ = inv(j
1
, . . . , j
n
)
v`a khi d´o dˆa´u cu’ a sˆo´ ha
.
ng di
.
nh th´ u
.
c l`a dˆa´u cu’ a th` u
.
a sˆo´ (−1)
s+σ
.
3.2. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c 87
2) Nˆe
´
u ta viˆe
´
t c´ ac th` u
.
a sˆo´ cu’ a t´ıch (3.8) theo th´ u
.
tu
.
.
t˘ang dˆa
`
n cu’ a
sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u h`ang:
a
i
1
j
1
a
i
2
j
2
a
injn
= a

1
a

2
a
nαn
th`ı
det A =


1
,...,αn)
(−1)
inv(α
1
,...,αn)
a

1
a

2
a
nαn
. (3.9)
trong d´o tˆo

ng lˆa´y theo mo
.
i ho´an vi
.

1
, α
2
, . . . , α
n
) cu’ a c´ac sˆo´
1, 2, . . . , n.
Trong ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong (3.7) ta cˆ o´ di
.
nh k (k < n) h`ang v`a k cˆo
.
t n`ao
d´o. Gia’ su
.
’ d´o l`a c´ac h`ang v´o
.
i sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u i
1
< i
2
< < i
k
v`a c´ac cˆo
.
t v´ o
.
i
sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u j
1
< j
2
< < j
k
. T` u
.
c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ n˘a
`
m trˆen giao cu’ a h`ang
v`a c´ac cˆo
.
t du
.
o
.
.
c cho
.
n ta c´ o thˆe

lˆa
.
p di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa´p k
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
i
1
j
1
a
i
1
j
2
. . . a
i
1
j
k
a
i
2
j
1
a
i
2
j
2
. . . a
i
2
j
k
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
i
k
j
1
a
i
k
j
2
. . . a
i
k
j
k
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
.
Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c n`ay du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con cˆa´p k cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A. K´ y
hiˆe
.
u M
i
1
i
2
...i
k
j
1
j
2
···j
k
.
Nˆe
´
u ta bo’ di c´ac h`ang th´ u
.
i
1
, i
2
, . . . , i
k
v`a c´ac cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
j
1
, j
2
, . . . , j
k
th`ı c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ c`on la
.
i cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A s˜e ta
.
o th`anh mˆo
.
t ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong
cˆa´p n − k. Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n vuˆ ong n`ay l`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con cˆa´p
n −k cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A v`a du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phˆa
`
n b` u (hay di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con b` u)
cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con M
i
1
i
2
···i
k
j
1
j
2
···j
k
v`a du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a M
i
1
i
2
···i
k
j
1
j
2
···j
k
.
Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con b` u v´o
.
i dˆa´u
(−1)
(i
1
+i
2
+···+i
k
)+(j
1
+j
2
+···+j
k
)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phˆa
`
n b` u da
.
i sˆo´ cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con M
i
1
···i
k
j
1
···j
k
.
Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t: di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con b` u M
ij
cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con cˆa´p
1 l`a |a
ij
| cu’ a A du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phˆa
`
n b` u cu’ a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a
ij
cu’ a A v`a sˆo´
A
ij
= (−1)
i+j
M
ij
go
.
i l`a phˆa
`
n b` u da
.
i sˆo´ cu’ a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a
ij
.
88 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
3.2.3 T´ınh chˆa
´
t cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c c´ o c´ ac t´ınh chˆa´t sau
I. Qua ph´ep chuyˆe

n vi
.
ma trˆa
.
n, di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a n´o khˆong dˆo

i, t´ u
.
c
l`a det A = det A
T
.
T` u
.
t´ınh chˆa´t b`ınh d˘a

ng n`ay gi˜ u
.
a c´ ac h`ang v`a c´ ac cˆo
.
t cu’ a di
.
nh
th´ u
.
c suy ra r˘a
`
ng mˆo
.
t diˆe
`
u kh˘a

ng di
.
nh n`ao d´o d˜a d´ ung v´o
.
i h`ang th`ı
n´o c˜ ung d´ ung v´o
.
i cˆo
.
t. Do d´o c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t tiˆe
´
p theo dˆay chı ’ cˆa
`
n ph´at
biˆe

u cho h`ang.
II. Nˆe
´
u dˆo

i chˆo
˜
hai h`ang cho nhau th`ı di
.
nh th´ u
.
c dˆo

i dˆa´u.
III. Th` u
.
a sˆo´ chung cu’ a mo
.
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a mˆo
.
t h`ang cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
c´o thˆe

du
.
a ra ngo`ai dˆa´u di
.
nh th´ u
.
c.
IV. Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c c´ o mˆo
.
t h`ang b˘a
`
ng 0 l`a b˘a
`
ng 0.
V. Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c c´o hai h`ang giˆ o´ng nhau l`a b˘a
`
ng 0.
VI. Nˆe
´
u di
.
nh th´ u
.
c c´o hai h`ang ty’ lˆe
.
v´o
.
i nhau th`ı n´o b˘a
`
ng 0.
VII. Nˆe
´
u c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a h`ang th´ u
.
i cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c D c´o da
.
ng
a
ij
= b
ij
+ c
iJ
, i = 1, n, j = 1, n th`ı di
.
nh th´ u
.
c D b˘a
`
ng tˆo

ng hai di
.
nh
th´ u
.
c D
1
+ D
2
, trong d´o di
.
nh th´ u
.
c D
1
c´o h`ang th´ u
.
i l`a (b
i1
b
i2
b
in
)
v`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c D
2
c´o h`ang th´ u
.
i l`a (c
i1
, c
i2
, . . . , c
in
) c` on c´ac h`ang kh´ac
l`a c´ac h`ang tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng cu’ a D.
VIII. Nˆe
´
u di
.
nh th´ u
.
c c´o mˆo
.
t h`ang l`a tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a c´ac
h`ang kh´ac th`ı di
.
nh th´ u
.
c b˘a
`
ng 0.
IX. Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c khˆong dˆo

i nˆe
´
u thˆem v`ao mˆo
.
t h`ang n`ao d´o mˆo
.
t tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a c´ac h`ang kh´ac.
X. Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c b˘a
`
ng tˆo

ng c´ac t´ıch cu’ a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a mˆo
.
t h`ang
n`ao d´o v´o
.
i phˆa
`
n b` u da
.
i sˆo´ tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng.
det A = a
i1
A
i1
+a
i2
A
i2
+ +a
in
A
in
=
n

j=1
a
ij
A
ij
. (3.10)
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta c˜ ung d` ung t´ınh chˆa´t X n`ay dˆe

l`am di
.
nh ngh˜ıa
di
.
nh th´ u
.
c.
3.2. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c 89
XI. Tˆo

ng c´ac t´ıch cu’ a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a mˆo
.
t h`ang n`ao d´o v´o
.
i phˆa
`
n
b` u da
.
i sˆo´ tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng cu’ a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a h`ang kh´ac l`a b˘a
`
ng 0:
n

j=1
a
ij
A
kj
= 0, ∀k ,= i; i, k = 1, n.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. C´ac t´ınh chˆa´t I-III l`a nh˜ u
.
ng t´ınh chˆa´t co
.
ba’ n. C´ ac t´ınh
chˆa´t sau l`a nh˜ u
.
ng hˆe
.
qua’ cu’ a ba t´ınh chˆa´t ˆa´y.
3.2.4 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
I. Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa´p 1, cˆa´p 2 v`a cˆa´p 3 du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo c´ ac cˆong th´ u
.
c
[a
11
[ = a
11
;
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
11
a
12
a
21
a
22
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= a
11
a
22
−a
12
a
21
; (3.11)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
11
a
12
a
13
a
21
a
22
a
23
a
31
a
32
a
33
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= a
11
a
22
a
33
+a
12
a
23
a
31
+a
13
a
21
a
32
−a
13
a
22
a
31
−a
11
a
23
a
32
−a
12
a
21
a
33
.
Khi t´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa´p 3 ta c´ o thˆe

su
.
’ du
.
ng quy t˘a
´
c Surrus “da
.
ng
tam gi´ac” ho˘a
.
c “da
.
ng du
.
`o
.
ng song song” sau dˆay
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
• • •
• • •
• • •
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
• • •
• • •
• • •
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(+) (−)
a
11
a
12
a
13
a
11
a
12
a
21
a
22
a
23
a
21
a
22
a
31
a
32
a
33
a
31
a
32
90 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
¸ ¸ ¸ ⊕ ⊕ ⊕
II. T´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa
´
p n
1
+
Khai triˆe

n di
.
nh th´ u
.
c theo c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a mˆo
.
t h`ang ho˘a
.
c mˆo
.
t
cˆo
.
t (t´ınh chˆa´t XI, (3.10)).
2
+
Su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c dˆe

biˆe
´
n dˆo

i di
.
nh th´ u
.
c d˜a
cho th`anh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c m´o
.
i sao cho ngoa
.
i tr` u
.
mˆo
.
t phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a
i
0
j
0
,= 0, tˆa´t
ca’ c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ c`on la
.
i cu’ a h`ang th´ u
.
i
0
(ho˘a
.
c cˆo
.
t j
0
) dˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 0. Khi
d´o
det A = (−1)
i
0
+j
0
a
i
0
j
0
M
i
0
j
0
.
Tiˆe
´
p theo l`a l˘a
.
p la
.
i qu´a tr`ınh d´o dˆo´i v´o
.
i M
i
0
j
0
l`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa´p thˆa´p
ho
.
n mˆo
.
t do
.
n vi
.
.
3
+
Su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c dˆe

biˆe
´
n dˆo

i di
.
nh th´ u
.
c d˜a
cho th`anh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c tam gi´ac (t´ u
.
c l`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c m`a mo
.
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ o
.

mˆo
.
t ph´ıa cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo ch´ınh dˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 0). Khi d´o di
.
nh th´ u
.
c b˘a
`
ng
t´ıch c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo ch´ınh.
4
+
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap truy hˆo
`
i: biˆe
´
n dˆo

i, khai triˆe

n di
.
nh th´ u
.
c theo h`ang
ho˘a
.
c theo cˆo
.
t sao cho di
.
nh th´ u
.
c d˜a cho c´ o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n qua c´ac di
.
nh
th´ u
.
c c` ung da
.
ng nhu
.
ng cˆa´p thˆa´p ho
.
n.
5
+
Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n di
.
nh th´ u
.
c d˜a cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng tˆo

ng c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c c` ung
cˆa´p.
6
+
D` ung di
.
nh l´ y Laplace: Gia’ su
.
’ trong ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong A cˆa´p n ta
cho
.
n mˆo
.
t c´ach t` uy ´ y m h`ang (hay m cˆo
.
t) 1 m n−1. Khi d´o di
.
nh
th´ u
.
c det A b˘a
`
ng tˆo

ng c´ ac t´ıch cu’ a mo
.
i di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con cˆa´p m n˘a
`
m trˆen
c´ac h`ang du
.
o
.
.
c cho
.
n nhˆan v´o
.
i phˆa
`
n b` u da
.
i sˆo´ tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng cu’ a ch´ ung.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. 1) T´ınh sˆo´ nghi
.
ch thˆe
´
trong ho´an vi
.
_
5 3 1 6 4 2
_
.
2) V´o
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng gi´a tri
.
n`ao cu’ a i v`a j th`ı sˆo´ ha
.
ng a
51
a
1i
a
2j
a
43
a
32
cu’ a
di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa´p 5 c´o dˆa´u tr` u
.
.
3.2. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c 91
Gia’ i. 1) Dˆe

t´ınh sˆo´ nghi
.
ch thˆe
´
tiˆe
.
n lo
.
.
i ho
.
n ca’ l`a tiˆe
´
n h`anh nhu
.
sau: (i) dˆa
`
u tiˆen, t´ınh c´ o bao nhiˆeu sˆo´ d´ u
.
ng tru
.
´o
.
c sˆo´ 1 (gia’ su
.
’ c´o k
1
sˆo´) rˆo
`
i ga
.
ch bo’ sˆo´ 1 kho’i ho´an vi
.
; (ii) tiˆe
´
p dˆe
´
n t´ınh xem c´o bao nhiˆeu
sˆo´ d´ u
.
ng tru
.
´o
.
c sˆo´ 2 (gia’ su
.
’ k
2
) rˆo
`
i ga
.
ch bo’ sˆo´ 2 kho’i ho´an vi
.
; v.v... Khi
d´o
inv(α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
n
) = k
1
+k
2
+ +k
n
.
B˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap v` u
.
a nˆeu dˆe
˜
thˆa´y l`a
inv(531642) = 2 + 4 + 1 + 2 = 9.
2) C´ac chı ’ sˆo´ i v`a j chı ’ c´o thˆe

nhˆa
.
n c´ac gi´ a tri
.
sau dˆay: (a) i = 4,
j = 5; ho˘a
.
c (b) i = 5 v`a j = 4 v`ı v´o
.
i c´ac gi´ a tri
.
kh´ac cu’ a i v`a j t´ıch
d˜a cho ch´ u
.
a ´ıt nhˆa´t hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a c` ung mˆo
.
t cˆ o
.
t. Dˆe

x´ac di
.
nh dˆa´u
cu’ a sˆo´ ha
.
ng ta s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p c´ac th` u
.
a sˆo´ cu’ a t´ıch theo th´ u
.
tu
.
.
t˘ang cu’ a chı ’
sˆo´ th´ u
.
nhˆa´t rˆo
`
i t´ınh sˆo´ nghi
.
ch thˆe
´
cu’ a ho´an vi
.
c´ac chı ’ sˆo´ th´ u
.
hai. Ta
c´o
a
1i
a
2j
a
32
a
43
a
51
+) Gia’ su
.
’ i = 4, j = 5 ⇒ inv(45231) = 8. Do vˆa
.
y v´o
.
i i = 4, j = 5
sˆo´ ha
.
ng d˜a cho c´ o dˆa´u (+).
+) Gia’ su
.
’ i = 5, j = 4 ⇒ inv(54231) = 9. Do d´o sˆo´ ha
.
ng d˜a cho
c´o dˆa´u tr` u
.
. Vˆ a
.
y sˆo´ ha
.
ng d˜a cho chı ’ c´o dˆa´u tr` u
.
khi i = 5, j = 4.
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c sau dˆay
1) ∆
1
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 0 0 a
14
0 0 a
23
0
0 a
32
0 0
a
41
0 0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
; 2) ∆
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 4 2 4
2 3 3 6
3 2 1 2
4 1 1 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
92 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
Gia’ i. 1) C´o thˆe

t´ınh ∆
1
b˘a
`
ng c´ach su
.
’ du
.
ng t´ınh chˆa´t X.

1
= (−1)
1+4
a
14
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 0 a
23
0 a
32
0
a
41
0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (−1)
1+4
a
14
(−1)
2+3
a
23
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 a
32
a
41
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= a
14
a
23
a
32
a
41
.
Kˆe
´
t qua’ n`ay c˜ ung c´o thˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c nh`o
.
di
.
nh ngh˜ıa di
.
nh th´ u
.
c. Theo
di
.
nh ngh˜ıa ∆
1
l`a tˆo

ng da
.
i sˆo´ cu’ a 4! = 24 sˆo´ ha
.
ng, trong d´o chı ’ c´o sˆo´
ha
.
ng
a
14
a
23
a
32
a
41
l`a kh´ac 0. V`ı ho´an vi
.
cu’ a c´ac chı ’ sˆo´ th´ u
.
hai ch˘a
˜
n nˆen sˆo´ ha
.
ng c´o dˆa´u
cˆo
.
ng. T` u
.
d´o ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c ∆
1
= a
14
a
23
a
32
a
41
.
2)
´
Ap du
.
ng t´ınh chˆa´t XI ta c´o thˆe

khai triˆe

n di
.
nh th´ u
.
c theo cˆo
.
t
th´ u
.
nhˆa´t

2
= 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
3 3 6
2 1 2
1 1 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
−2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
4 2 4
2 1 2
2 1 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
+ 3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
4 2 4
3 3 6
1 1 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
−4
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
4 2 4
3 3 6
2 1 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 1 0 −2 0 + 3 0 −4 0 = 0.
O
.

dˆay mo
.
i di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆ a´p 3 dˆe
`
u c´o hai cˆo
.
t ty’ lˆe
.
v´o
.
i nhau, nˆen ch´ ung
b˘a
`
ng 0.
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
1) ∆
1
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1 2 3
1 2 3 1
2 3 6 4
3 5 9 4
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
, 2) ∆
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 0 1 3 1
−1 1 2 2 3
1 4 0 −1 5
2 1 3 1 2
1 2 −1 3 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
.
3.2. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c 93
Gia’ i. Ta biˆe
´
n dˆo

i c´ ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c dˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´ac sˆo´ 0 trong mˆo
.
t
h`ang (cˆo
.
t). Ta quy u
.
´o
.
c c´ac k´ y hiˆe
.
u: h
2
− h
1
→ h

2
c´o ngh˜ıa l`a lˆa´y
h`ang th´ u
.
hai tr` u
.
di h`ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t dˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c h`ang th´ u
.
hai m´o
.
i.
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ta k´ y hiˆe
.
u c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i theo cˆo
.
t.
1) Ta c´ o

1
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1 2 3
1 2 3 1
2 3 6 4
3 5 9 4
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
h
2
−h
1
→ h

2
h
3
−2h
1
→ h

3
h
4
−3h
1
→ h
4
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1 2 3
0 1 1 −2
0 1 2 −2
0 2 3 5
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 1 (−1)
1+1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1 −2
1 2 −2
2 3 5
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1 −2
1 2 −2
2 3 5
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
h
2
−h
1
→h

2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1 −2
0 1 0
2 3 5
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 1 (−1)
2+2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −2
2 −5
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −1.
2) Dˆe

t´ınh ∆
2
ta thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i: c
1
−2c
3
→ c

1
; c
4
−3c
3

c

4
; c
5
−c
3
→ c

5
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c

2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 0 1 0 0
−5 1 2 −4 1
1 4 0 −1 5
−4 1 3 −1 5
−4 1 3 −8 −1
3 2 −1 6 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= a
13
A
13
= 1 (−1)
1+3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
−5 1 −4 1
1 4 −1 5
−4 1 −8 −1
3 2 6 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆ a´p 4 v` u
.
a thu du
.
o
.
.
c ta c˜ ung tiˆe
´
n h`anh tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
:
94 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
c
1
+ 5c
4
→ c

1
; c
2
−c
4
→ c

2
; c
3
+ 4c
4
→ c

3
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c

2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 0 0 1
26 −1 19 5
−9 2 −12 −1
13 0 14 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= a
14
A
14
= 1 (−1)
1+4
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
26 −1 19
−9 2 −12
13 0 14
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ta d˜a du
.
a viˆe
.
c t´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆ a´p 5 vˆe
`
t´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆ a´p 3.
Dˆe

t´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa´p 3 n`ay ta c´ o thˆe

d` ung quy t˘a
´
c Sarrus ho˘a
.
c tiˆe
.
n
ho
.
n ca’ l`a biˆe
´
n dˆo

i n´o theo h`ang: h
2
+ 2h
1
→h

2
v`a c´o

2
= −
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
26 −1 19
43 0 26
13 0 14
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −a
12
A
12
= −(−1)(−1)
1+2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
43 26
13 14
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −264.
V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
1) ∆
1
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2 −1 5
1 5 6 3
−1 −2 3 5
2 4 −2 8
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
, 2) ∆
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −1 3 −2 4
0 3 2 0 1
0 0 4 −1 −1
0 6 4 2 3
1 −1 3 −2 5
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
.
Gia’ i. Ta s˜e t´ınh c´ ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c d˜a cho b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap du
.
a vˆe
`
di
.
nh th´ u
.
c tam gi´ac.
1) Ta c´ o

1
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2 −1 5
1 5 6 3
−1 −2 3 5
2 4 −2 8
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
h
2
−h
1
→h

2
h
3
+h
1
→ h

3
h
4
−2h
1
→ h

4
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2 −1 5
0 3 7 −2
0 0 2 10
0 0 0 −2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
.
V`ı di
.
nh th´ u
.
c tam gi´ ac b˘a
`
ng t´ıch c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo ch´ınh
nˆen

1
= 1 3 2 (−2) = −12.
3.2. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c 95
2)

2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −1 3 −2 4
0 3 2 0 1
0 0 4 −1 −1
0 6 4 2 3
1 −1 3 −2 5
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
h
4
−2h
2
→h

4
h
5
−h
1
→h

5
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −1 3 −2 4
0 3 2 0 1
0 0 4 −1 −1
0 0 0 2 1
0 0 0 0 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 1 3 4 2 1 = 24.
V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
1) ∆
n
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
0
−1 0 0 . . . 0 0
a
1
x −1 0 . . . 0 0
a
2
0 x −1 . . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n−1
0 0 0 . . . 0 −1
a
n
0 0 0 . . . 0 x
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
;
2) ∆
n
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
7 4 0 0 . . . 0 0
3 7 4 0 . . . 0 0
0 3 7 4 . . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 . . . 3 7
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
3) ∆
n
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
α +β αβ 0 . . . 0 0
1 α +β αβ . . . 0 0
0 1 α +β . . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 . . . α +β αβ
0 0 0 . . . 1 α +β
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
96 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
Gia’ i. 1) Khai triˆe

n ∆
n+1
theo h`ang cuˆo´i (h`ang th´ u
.
n + 1) ta c´ o

n+1
= (−1)
n+1
a
n
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
−1 0 . . . 0
x −1 . . . 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 . . . −1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
+x
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
0
−1 0 . . . 0
a
1
x −1 . . . 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n−1
0 0 . . . x
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c th´ u
.
nhˆa´t o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i l`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c tam gi´ac (= (−1)
n
), di
.
nh
th´ u
.
c th´ u
.
hai l`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c c` ung da
.
ng v´o
.
i ∆
1
nhu
.
ng cˆa´p n. Do vˆ a
.
y
di
.
nh th´ u
.
c ∆
n+1
c´o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n bo
.
’ i hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c truy hˆo
`
i sau dˆay:

n+1
= a
n
(−1)
n
(−1)
n
+x∆
n
.
Dˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u th´ u
.
c tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a ∆
n+1
ta x´et ∆
1
v`a ∆
2
:

1
= a
0
; ∆
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
0
−1
a
1
x
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= a
0
x −a
1
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ∆
1
l`a da th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c 0 v´ o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ a
0
, c`on ∆
2
l`a da th´ u
.
c bˆa
.
c nhˆa´t
v´o
.
i hˆe
.
sˆo´ a
0
v`a a
1
.
Ta ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng ∆
n+1
c´o da
.
ng tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
:

n+1
= a
0
x
n
+a
1
x
n−1
+ +a
n
.
Gia’ su
.
’ d˜a ch´ u
.
ng minh ∆
n
= a
0
x
n−1
+ +a
n−1
. Khi d´o

n+1
= a
n
+x∆
n
= a
n
+x(a
0
x
n−1
+ +a
n−1
)
= a
0
x
n
+a
1
x
n−1
+ +a
n−1
x +a
n
.
2) Khai triˆe

n di
.
nh th´ u
.
c theo h`ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c
truy hˆo
`
i:

n
= 7∆
n−1
−12∆
n−2
⇒ ∆
n
−3∆
n−1
= 4∆
n−1
−3 4∆
n−2
= 4[∆
n−1
−3∆
n−2
].
3.2. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c 97
T` u
.
d´o suy ra

n
−3∆
n−1
= 4
n−2
(∆
2
−∆
1
)

1
= 7, ∆
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
7 4
3 7
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 37
v`a do d´o

n
−3∆
n−1
= 4
n−2
[37 −21] = 4
n−2
4
2
= 4
n
.
Nˆe
´
u t` u
.
hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c truy hˆo
`
i ta biˆe
´
n dˆo

i c´ach kh´ac th`ı thu du
.
o
.
.
c

n
−4∆
n−1
= 3[∆
n−1
−4∆
n−2
] = = 3
n−2
(∆
2
−∆
1
)
= 3
n−2
3
2
= 3
n
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y

n
−3∆
n−1
= 4
n

n
−4∆
n−1
= 3
n
_
⇒∆
n−1
= 4
n
−3
n
v`a do d´o

n
= 3∆
n−1
+ 4
n
= 4
n+1
−3
n+1
.
3) Ta biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
nhˆa´t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng c´ac tˆo

ng hai sˆo´ ha
.
ng α+β,
98 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
1 +0, 0 +0, . . . , 0 +0 v`a viˆe
´
t di
.
nh th´ u
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng tˆo

ng hai di
.
nh th´ u
.
c

n
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
α αβ 0 . . . 0 0
1 α +β αβ . . . 0 0
0 1 α +β . . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 . . . α +β αβ
0 0 0 . . . 1 α +β
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. ¸¸ .
D
1
+
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
β αβ 0 . . . 0 0
0 α +β αβ . . . 0 0
0 1 α +β . . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 . . . α +β αβ
0 0 0 . . . 1 α +β
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. ¸¸ .
D
2
= D
1
+D
2
.
T´ınh D
1
. Lˆa´y cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
hai tr` u
.
di cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
nhˆa´t nhˆan v´o
.
i β, lˆa´y cˆo
.
t
th´ u
.
ba tr` u
.
di cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
hai v` u
.
a thu du
.
o
.
.
c nhˆan v´o
.
i β, v.v... Kˆe
´
t qua’ ta
thu du
.
o
.
.
c di
.
nh th´ u
.
c tam gi´ac
D
1
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
α 0 0 . . . 0 0
1 α 0 . . . 0 0
0 1 α . . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 . . . α 0
0 0 0 . . . 1 α
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= α
n
.
3.2. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c 99
T´ınh D
2
. Khai triˆe

n D
2
theo cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
nhˆa´t ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c:
D
2
= β
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
α +β αβ . . . 0 0
1 α +β . . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 . . . α +β αβ
0 0 . . . 1 α +β
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= β∆
n−1
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c cˆong th´ u
.
c truy hˆo
`
i ∆
n
= α
n
+β∆
n−1
.
Ta t´ınh mˆo
.
t v`ai di
.
nh th´ u
.
c dˆa
`
u tiˆen

1
= α +β =
α
2
−β
2
α −β
;

2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
α +β αβ
1 α +β
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= α
2
+αβ +β
2
=
α
3
−β
3
α −β
,

3
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
α +β αβ 0
1 α +β αβ
0 1 α +β
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= α
3

2
β +αβ
2

4
=
α
4
−β
4
α −β
; ................
Ta s˜e ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c

m
=
α
m+1
−β
m+1
α −β
(*)
d´ ung v´o
.
i m ∈ N bˆa´t k` y. Ta ´ap du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap quy na
.
p to´an ho
.
c.
Gia’ su
.
’ (∗) d´ ung v´o
.
i m = n−1. Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh n´o d´ ung v´o
.
i m = n.
Khi m = n −1 ta c´ o

n−1
=
α
n
−β
n
α −β


n
= α
n

α
n
−β
n
α −β
=
α
n+1
−α
n
β +α
n
β −β
n+1
α −β
=
α
n+1
−β
n+1
α −β

100 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c (∗) d´ ung ∀m ∈ N. Do d´o

n
=
α
n+1
−β
n−1
α −β

B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
1. X´ac di
.
nh sˆo´ nghi
.
ch thˆe
´
trong c´ ac ho´an vi
.
.
1) (1 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8). (DS. 10)
2) (9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1). (DS. 36)
3) (2 5 8 1 4 7 3 6 9). (DS. 12)
4) (7 5 4 6 1 2 3 9 8). (DS. 17)
2. Cho
.
n k v`a sao cho ho´an vi
.
1) (7 4 3 k 8 5 2) l` a ho´ an vi
.
le’. (DS. k = 6, = 1)
2) (k 3 4 7 2 6 5) l` a ho´ an vi
.
ch˘a
˜
n. (DS. k = 8, = 1)
3) (4 8 k 2 5 1 7) l`a ho´ an vi
.
ch˘a
˜
n. (DS. k = 6, = 3)
4) (6 3 4 k 7 2 1) l`a ho´ an vi
.
le’. (DS. k = 5, = 8)
3. X´ac di
.
nh sˆo´ nghi
.
ch thˆe
´
trong c´ ac ho´an vi
.
.
1) n n −1 n −2 . . . 2 1. (DS.
n(n −1)
2
)
2) 1 3 5 7 . . . 2n −1 2 4 6 . . . 2n. (DS.
n(n −1)
2
)
3) 2 4 6 . . . 2n 1 3 5 . . . 2n −1. (DS.
n(n + 1)
2
)
4) 2n −1 2n −3 . . . 5 3 1 2n 2n −2 . . . 6 4 2. (DS.
3n(n −1)
2
)
4. Trong c´ ac t´ıch sau dˆay, t´ıch n`ao l`a sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa´p 7;
x´ac di
.
nh dˆa´u cu’ a sˆo´ ha
.
ng d´o.
1) a
43
a
53
a
63
a
15
a
23
a
34
a
71
. (DS. Khˆong pha’ i)
2) a
23
a
67
a
54
a
16
a
35
a
41
a
72
. (DS. Sˆo´ ha
.
ng c´o dˆa´u cˆo
.
ng)
3) a
15
a
28
a
74
a
36
a
61
a
43
. (DS. Khˆong pha’ i)
4) a
72
a
16
a
33
a
55
a
27
a
61
a
44
. (DS. Sˆo´ ha
.
ng c´o dˆa´u cˆo
.
ng)
3.2. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c 101
5. Trong c´ac t´ıch sau dˆay, t´ıch n`ao l`a sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆ a´p tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng x´ac di
.
nh dˆa´u cu’ a sˆo´ ha
.
ng d´ o.
1) a
43
a
61
a
52
a
13
a
25
a
34
. (DS. Khˆong pha’ i)
2) a
27
a
63
a
14
a
56
a
35
a
41
a
72
. (DS. L`a sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa´p 7
v´o
.
i dˆa´u +)
3) a
15
a
28
a
75
a
36
a
81
a
43
. (DS. Khˆong pha’ i)
4) a
n1
a
n−1 2
. . . a
1n
.
(DS. L`a sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆ a´p n v´o
.
i dˆa´u (−1)
n(n−1)
2
)
5) a
12
a
23
. . . a
k,k+1
. . . a
n−1,n
a
n1
.
(DS. L`a sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆ a´p n v´o
.
i dˆa´u (−1)
n−1
)
6) a
13
a
24
a
35
. . . a
n−2,n
a
n−1,1
a
n2
.
(DS. Sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa´p n v´o
.
i dˆa´u “+”)
6. X´ac di
.
nh c´ac sˆo´ k v`a sao cho trong di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa´p 6:
1
+
C´ac t´ıch sau l`a sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a n´o v´o
.
i dˆa´u “−”:
1) a
62
a
35
a
k3
a
44
a
6
a
21
. (DS. k = 5, = 1)
2) a
1k
a
25
a
44
a
6
a
52
a
31
. (DS. k = 6, = 3)
2
+
C´ac t´ıch sau l`a sˆo´ ha
.
ng c´o dˆa´u +:
3) a
63
a
16
a
5
a
45
a
2k
a
31
. (DS. k = 2, = 4)
4) a
k5
a
21
a
34
a
13
a
6
a
62
. (DS. k = 5, = 4)
7. Trong di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆ a´p n
1) t´ıch c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo ch´ınh l`a sˆo´ c´o dˆa´u g`ı ?
(DS. +)
2) t´ıch c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo phu
.
c´o dˆa´u g`ı ?
(DS. C´o dˆa´u “+” nˆe
´
u n = 4k ho˘a
.
c n = 4k + 1; v`a c´o dˆa´u “−”
nˆe
´
u n = 4k + 2 ho˘a
.
c n = 4k + 3)
8. T´ınh c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆ a´p hai:
1)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
2
ab
ab b
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
2
+ab +b
2
a
2
−ab +b
2
a +b a −b
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
3)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
cos α −sinα
sinα cos α
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
4)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
sinα cos α
sinβ cos β
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
102 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
5)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 log
b
a
log
a
b 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
6)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a +bi c +di
−c +di a −bi
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
; i
2
−1.
7)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(1 −t)
2
1 +t
2
2t
1 +t
2
2t
1 +t
2

(1 +t)
2
1 +t
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
8)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
ε ε
−1 ε
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
, ε = cos

3
+i sin

3
.
(DS. 1) 0; 2) −2b
3
; 3) 1; 4) sin(α −β); 5) 0; 6) a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
+ d
2
;
7) −1; 8) −1)
9. T´ınh c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa´p ba
1)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
3 2 1
2 5 3
3 4 3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a b c
b c a
c a b
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
3)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
cos α sin αcos β sinαsinβ
−sinα cos αcos β cos αsinβ
0 −sin β cos β
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
.
4)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 i 1 +i
−i 1 0
1 −i 0 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
; i
2
= −1, 5)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
2
+ 1 ab ac
ab b
2
+ 1 bc
ac bc c
2
+ 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
6)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
sinα cos α 1
sinβ cos β 1
sinγ cos γ 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
7)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1 ε
1 1 ε
2
ε
2
ε ε
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
, ε = cos

3
+i sin

3
8)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a +b c 1
b +c a 1
c +a b 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(DS. 1) 8; 2) 3abc − a
3
−b
3
− c
3
; 3) 1; 4) −2; 5) 1 +a
2
+ b
2
+c
2
;
6) sin(α −β) + sin(β −γ) + sin(γ −α); 7) −3; 8) 0)
3.2. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c 103
10. T´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c Vandermonde
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1 1 1
a b c d
a
2
b
2
c
2
d
2
a
3
b
3
c
3
d
3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(DS. (b −a)(c −a)(d −a)(c −b)(d −b)(d −c))
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Lˆa´y c´ac cˆ o
.
t tr` u
.
di cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
nhˆa´t rˆo
`
i khai triˆe

n di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
thu du
.
o
.
.
c theo h`ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t v`a tiˆe
´
p tu
.
c nhu
.
vˆa
.
y dˆo´i v´o
.
i di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
cˆa´p ba.
11. T´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1 1 0 0
1 2 3 0 0
0 1 1 1 1
0 x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
0 x
2
1
x
2
2
x
2
3
x
2
4
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(DS. (x
3
−x
2
)(x
4
−x
2
)(x
4
−x
3
) −2(x
3
−x
1
)(x
4
−x
1
)(x
4
−x
3
))
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D` ung di
.
nh l´ y Laplace cho h`ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t v`a th´ u
.
hai v`a
chı ’ dˆa
˜
n cho b`ai 10.
12. T´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c b˘a
`
ng c´ach khai triˆe

n (theo c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a h`ang
ho˘a
.
c cˆ o
.
t):
1)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a 3 0 5
0 b 0 2
1 2 c 3
0 0 0 d
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. abcd)
2)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1 1 a
2 2 1 b
3 2 1 c
1 2 3 d
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
theo c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
tu
.
.
1
A. T. Vandermonde (1735-1796) l`a nh`a to´an ho
.
c Ph´ap.
104 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
(DS. 4a −c −d)
3)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a 1 1 1
b 0 1 1
c 1 0 1
d 1 1 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
theo c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
nhˆa´t.
(DS. 2a +b −c +d)
4)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2 −1 2
2 −1 −2 1
a b c d
−2 −1 1 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
theo c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a h`ang th´ u
.
ba.
(DS. −5a −5b −5c −5d)
5)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 3 5 −4
3 −5 4 2
−4 2 3 5
5 4 −2 3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
theo c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ h`ang th´ u
.
hai.
(DS. −2858)
6)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
−5 1 −4 1
1 4 −1 5
−4 1 −8 −1
3 2 6 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
theo c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ h`ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t
(DS. −264)
13. D` ung di
.
nh ngh˜ıa dˆe

t´ınh c´ ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c sau
1)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 0 0
2 2 1
3 3 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. 1)
2)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
log
b
a 1 0
0 2 0
2 1 log
a
b
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. 1)
3.2. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c 105
3)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 0 0 2
3 0 0 4
0 5 6 0
0 7 8 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. 4)
4)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 0 3 4
0 0 4 3
1 2 0 0
2 1 0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. −21)
5)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
1
0 0 . . . 0
a
1
a
1
0 . . . 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n
a
n−1
a
n−2
. . . a
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. a
n
1
)
6)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 . . . 0 0 −1
0 . . . 0 −2 0
0 . . . −3 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
−n . . . 0 0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. (−1)
n(n+1)
2
n!)
7)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 a a . . . a
0 2 a . . . a
0 0 3 . . . a
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 . . . n
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. n!)
8)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 . . . 0 0 a
1
0 . . . 0 a
2
a
1
0 . . . a
3
a
2
a
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n
. . . a
3
a
2
a
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. (−1)
n(n−1)
2
a
1
a
2
. . . a
n
)
106 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
9)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 1 0 4
−1 2 0 4
−2 3 0 5
−3 4 0 6
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. 0)
10)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2 1 2 1
1 1 1 1 1
2 3 0 0 0
3 2 0 0 0
1 2 0 0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. 0)
14. Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
1)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1 4 4
−1 3 −x
2
3 3
7 7 5 5
−7 −7 6 x
2
−3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0. (DS. x
1,2
= ±3; x
3,4
= ±3)
2)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2 3 4
−2 2 −x 1 7
3 6 4 +x 12
−4 x −14 2 3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0. (DS. x
1
= 6; x
2
= 5)
3)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 x x
2
x
3
1 2 4 8
1 3 9 27
1 4 16 64
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0. (DS. x
1
= 2, x
2
= 3, x
3
= 4)
15. T´ınh c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa´p n
1)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 2 3 . . . n
−1 0 3 . . . n
−1 −2 0 . . . n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
−1 −2 −3 . . . 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. n!)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Thˆem h`ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t v`ao mo
.
i h`ang cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c b˘a
´
t
3.2. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c 107
dˆa
`
u t` u
.
h`ang th´ u
.
hai.
2)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2 2 . . . 2
2 2 2 . . . 2
2 2 3 . . . 2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
2 2 2 . . . n
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. −2(n −2)!)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Lˆa´y mo
.
i h`ang (kˆe

t` u
.
h`ang th´ u
.
ba) tr` u
.
di h`ang th´ u
.
hai,
sau d´o lˆa´y h`ang th´ u
.
hai tr` u
.
di h`ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t nhˆan v´o
.
i 2.
3)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
x a
1
a
2
. . . a
n−1
1
a
1
x a
2
. . . a
n−1
1
a
1
a
2
x . . . a
n−1
1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
1
a
2
a
3
. . . x 1
a
1
a
2
a
3
. . . a
n
1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. (x−a
1
)(x−a
2
) (x−a
n
))
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Lˆa´y tˆa´t ca’ c´ac cˆ o
.
t cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c tr` u
.
di cˆ o
.
t cuˆo´i c` ung
nhˆan tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
.
4)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 1 1 . . . 1
1 0 1 . . . 1
1 1 0 . . . 1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1 1 1 . . . 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
n×n
. (DS. (−1)
n−1
(n −1))
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Thˆem cho cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
nhˆa´t tˆa´t ca’ c´ac cˆo
.
t c` on la
.
i; sau d´o lˆa´y
mo
.
i h`ang kˆe

t` u
.
h`ang th´ u
.
hai tr` u
.
di h`ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t.
5)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 n n . . . n
n 2 n . . . n
n n 3 . . . n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
n n n . . . n
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. (−1)
n
n!)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Lˆa´y c´ac h`ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t, th´ u
.
hai, ... th´ u
.
n−1 tr` u
.
di h`ang
th´ u
.
n.
108 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
6)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 x
1
x
2
. . . x
n−1
x
n
1 x x
2
. . . x
n−1
x
n
1 x
1
x . . . x
n−1
x
n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1 x
1
x
2
. . . x x
n
1 x
1
x
2
. . . x
n−1
x
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. (x−x
1
)(x−x
2
) (x−x
n
))
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Nhˆan h`ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t v´o
.
i (−1) rˆo
`
i cˆo
.
ng v´o
.
i tˆa´t ca’ c´ac
h`ang c`on la
.
i.
7)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2 3 . . . n −1 n
1 3 3 . . . n −1 n
1 2 5 . . . n −1 n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
1 2 3 . . . 2n −3 n
1 2 3 . . . n −1 2n −1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. (n −1)!)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Nhˆan h`ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t v´o
.
i (−1) rˆo
`
i cˆo
.
ng v´o
.
i tˆa´t ca’ c´ac
h`ang c`on la
.
i.
8)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a b 0 . . . 0 0
0 a b . . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 . . . a b
b 0 0 . . . 0 a
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
. (DS. a
n
+ (−1)
n+1
b
n
)
9)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
0
a
1
a
2
. . . a
n−1
a
n
−y
1
x
1
0 . . . 0 0
0 −y
2
x
2
. . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 . . . −y
n
x
n
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
.
(DS. a
0
x
1
x
2
x
n
+ a
1
y
1
x
2
x
n
+ a
2
y
1
y
2
x
3
x
n
+ +
a
n
y
1
y
2
y
n
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Khai triˆe

n di
.
nh th´ u
.
c theo cˆo
.
t cuˆ o´i dˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c
truy hˆo
`
i.
3.3. Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n 109
10)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2 3 4 . . . n −1 n
−1 x 0 0 . . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 0 . . . x 0
0 0 0 0 . . . −1 x
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(DS. ∆
n
= x∆
n−1
+n, ∆
n
= x
n−1
+ 2x
n−2
+ + (n −1)x +n)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Khai triˆe

n di
.
nh th´ u
.
c theo cˆo
.
t cuˆ o´i.
3.3 Ha
.
ng cu

a ma trˆ a
.
n
3.3.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa
Sˆo´ nguyˆen r > 0 du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A nˆe
´
u n´o tho’a m˜an
hai diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n sau dˆay:
(i) Ma trˆa
.
n A c´o ´ıt nhˆa´t mˆo
.
t di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con kh´ac 0 cˆa´p r.
(ii) Mo
.
i di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con cˆ a´p r + 1 v`a cˆ a´p cao ho
.
n (nˆe
´
u c´o) cu’ a ma
trˆa
.
n A dˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 0.
Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n Athu
.
`o
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a r(A), r
A
ho˘a
.
c rank(A).
T` u
.
di
.
nh ngh˜ıa suy ra:
a) Dˆo´i v´o
.
i (mn)-ma trˆa
.
n A ta c´o: 0 r(A) min(m; n).
b) r = r(A) = 0 khi v`a chı ’ khi mo
.
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n dˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng
0.
c) Dˆo´i v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong cˆa´p n ta c´o r(A) = n ⇔detA ,= 0.
3.3.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t`ım ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap I (phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap di
.
nh th´ u
.
c bao) du
.
.
a trˆen di
.
nh
ngh˜ıa ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n, gˆo
`
m c´ac bu
.
´o
.
c sau dˆay
(i) T`ım mˆo
.
t di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con n`ao d´o kh´ac 0; gia’ su
.
’ d´o l`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c

r
,= 0.
110 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
(ii) T´ınh tiˆe
´
p c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con ∆
r+1
cˆa´p r + 1 bao di
.
nh th´ u
.
c ∆
r
(t´ u
.
c l`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con ∆
r+1
ch´ u
.
a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con ∆
r
) nˆe
´
u ch´ ung tˆo
`
n ta
.
i.
+) Nˆe
´
u tˆa´t ca’ c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con cˆa´p r +1 dˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 0 th`ı kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n
r(A) = r.
+ Nˆe
´
u c´o mˆo
.
t di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con cˆ a´p r +1 kh´ac 0 (∆
r+1
,= 0) th`ı t´ınh
tiˆe
´
p c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con cˆa´p r + 2 bao di
.
nh th´ u
.
c ∆
r+1
d´o (nˆe
´
u ch´ ung
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i). Nˆe
´
u mo
.
i di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cˆa´p r + 2 dˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 0 th`ı r(A) = r + 1,
c`on nˆe
´
u c´o mˆo
.
t di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con cˆ a´p r + 2 kh´ac 0 th`ı quy tr`ınh la
.
i tiˆe
´
p
tu
.
c.
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap II du
.
.
a trˆen c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n
trˆen ma trˆa
.
n d˜a cho.
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa. C´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i sau dˆay trˆen ma trˆa
.
n du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a c´ac
ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p:
1
+
Dˆo

i chˆo
˜
hai h`ang (ho˘a
.
c hai cˆo
.
t) cho nhau.
2
+
Nhˆan tˆa´t ca’ c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a mˆo
.
t h`ang (ho˘a
.
c cˆo
.
t) v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t sˆo´
kh´ac 0.
3
+
Cˆo
.
ng v`ao mˆo
.
t h`ang cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n mˆo
.
t h`ang kh´ac sau khi nhˆan
v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t sˆo´ t` uy ´ y ,= 0.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆ a
.
n l`a bˆa´t biˆe
´
n qua c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆ o

i so
.
cˆa´p.
Khi thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p trˆen ma trˆa
.
n ta luˆon quy
u
.
´o
.
c r˘a
`
ng dˆa´u A ∼ B c´o ngh˜ıa l`a mˆo
.
t ma trˆa
.
n thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
ma trˆa
.
n
kia bo
.
’ i c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆ o

i so
.
cˆa´p v`a r(A) = r(B).
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım ha
.
ng r(A) nˆe
´
u
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 0 0 1
0 1 1 2
1 1 1 1
4 2 3 1
3 1 2 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
3.3. Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n 111
Gia’ i. Ta t`ım ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n d˜a cho theo phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap I. Hiˆe

n
nhiˆen ma trˆa
.
n A c´o di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con

2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
−1 0
0 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −1 ,= 0.
Ta t´ınh c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con ∆
3
bao ∆
2
. Ta c´o

(1)
3
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
−1 0 0
0 1 1
1 1 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (−1)
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1
1 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0;

(2)
3
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
−1 0 0
0 1 1
4 2 3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −1 ,= 0.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y c´o mˆo
.
t di
.
nh th´ u
.
c bao ∆
(2)
3
,= 0. Ta t´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c bao cu’ a

(2)
3
. Ta c´o
δ
(1)
4
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
−1 0 0 1
0 1 1 2
1 1 1 1
4 2 3 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
(ta
.
i sao ?). T` u
.
d´o suy ra r(A) = 3.
V´ı du
.
2. T`ım ha
.
ng r(A) nˆe
´
u
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −3 2 5
−2 4 3 1
0 −2 7 11
7 −15 −7 2
−1 1 5 6
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Gia’ i. Ta gia’ i theo phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap I. Hiˆe

n nhiˆen ma trˆa
.
n A c´o di
.
nh
th´ u
.
c con

2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −3
−2 4
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −2 ,= 0.
112 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
Tˆa´t ca’ c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con bao ∆
2
:
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −3 2
−2 4 3
0 −2 7
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
;
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −3 5
−2 4 1
0 −2 11
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
;
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −3 2
−2 4 3
7 −15 −7
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
;
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −3 5
−2 4 1
7 −15 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
;
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −3 2
−2 4 3
−1 1 5
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
;
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −3 5
−2 4 3
−1 1 6
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
dˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 0. Do d´o r(A) = 2.
V´ı du
.
3. B˘a
`
ng c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p, t´ınh ha
.
ng cu’ a c´ac ma trˆa
.
n
1) A =
_
¸
_
1 2 3 5
3 −1 4 −2
5 3 10 8
_
¸
_
; 2) B =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 0 0 1
0 1 1 2
1 1 1 1
4 2 3 1
3 1 2 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
Gia’ i. 1) Ta thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p theo h`ang v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
A =
_
¸
_
1 2 3 5
3 −1 4 −2
5 3 10 8
_
¸
_h
2
−3h
1
→ h

2
h
3
−5h
1
→ h

3


_
¸
_
1 2 3 5
0 −7 −5 −7
0 −7 −5 −17
_
¸
_
h
3
−h
2
→ h

3

_
¸
_
1 2 3 5
0 −7 −5 −17
0 0 0 0
_
¸
_
.
D´o l`a ma trˆa
.
n h`ınh thang v`a hiˆe

n nhiˆen n´o c´o ha
.
ng b˘a
`
ng 2. Do d´o
r(A) = 2.
3.3. Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n 113
2) Ta c´ o
B =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 0 0 1
0 1 1 2
1 1 1 1
4 2 3 1
3 2 1 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
h
3
+h
1
→ h

3
h
5
+ 4h
1
→ h

4
h
5
+ 3h
1
→ h

5

_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 0 0 1
0 1 1 2
0 1 1 2
0 2 3 5
0 1 2 3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
h
3
−h
2
→ h

3
h
4
−2h
2
→ h

4
h
5
−h
2
→ h

5

_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 0 0 1
0 1 1 2
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_

_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 0 0 1
0 1 1 2
0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
h
5
−h
3
→h

5

_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 0 0 1
0 1 1 2
0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c r(B) = 3.
V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh ha
.
ng cu’ a c´ac ma trˆa
.
n
1) A =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 2 4 5 2
2 3 1 1 3
0 1 7 9 1
1 3 11 14 3
_
¸
¸
¸
_
; 2) B =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 3 2 0 5
2 6 9 7 12
−2 −5 2 4 5
1 4 8 4 20
_
¸
¸
¸
_
.
Gia’ i. 1) Ta thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i sau:
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 2 4 5 2
2 3 1 1 3
0 1 7 9 1
1 3 11 14 3
_
¸
¸
¸
_

_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 2 4 5 2
−0 −1 −7 −9 −1
0 1 7 9 1
0 1 7 9 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_

_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 2 4 5 2
0 1 7 9 1
0 1 7 9 1
0 1 7 9 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_

_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 2 4 5 2
0 1 7 9 1
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_

_
1 2 4 5 2
0 1 7 9 1
_
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng r(A) = 2.
114 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
2) Ta thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
B =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 3 2 0 5
2 6 9 7 12
−2 −5 2 4 5
1 4 8 4 20
_
¸
¸
¸
_

_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 3 2 0 5
0 0 5 7 2
0 1 6 4 15
0 1 6 4 15
_
¸
¸
¸
_

_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 3 2 0 5
0 1 6 4 15
0 0 5 7 2
0 1 6 4 15
_
¸
¸
¸
_

_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 3 2 0 5
0 1 6 4 15
0 0 5 7 2
0 0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng r(B) = 3.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T`ım ha
.
ng cu’ a c´ac ma trˆa
.
n:
1. A =
_
1 2
3 −1
_
. (DS. r(A) = 2)
2. A =
_
−1 3
2 −6
_
. (DS. r(A) = 1)
3. A =
_
1 2
3 6
_
. (DS. r(A) = 1)
4. A =
_
¸
_
1 2
3 4
5 6
_
¸
_
. (DS. r(A) = 2)
5. A =
_
1 −2 1
−1 4 3
_
. (DS. r(A) = 2)
3.3. Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n 115
6. A =
_
¸
_
0 1 3
0 3 −1
0 2 0
_
¸
_. (DS. r(A) = 2)
7. A =
_
¸
_
1 −2 3
2 −4 6
5 1 4
_
¸
_. (DS. r(A) = 2)
8. A =
_
¸
_
1 3 2
2 6 4
−1 3 −2
_
¸
_. (DS. r(A) = 1)
9. A =
_
¸
_
1 −2 4 0
−1 3 5 1
2 −1 4 0
_
¸
_
. (DS. r(A) = 3)
Su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p dˆe

t`ım ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n:
10. A =
_
¸
_
−1 0 3 −2
2 3 −1 −3
3 6 1 −8
_
¸
_. (DS. r(A) = 2)
11. A =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
2 −2 1
−3 1 −1
5 4 1
1 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS. r(A) = 3)
12. A =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
4 9 0 7 2
−1 1 6 0 3
0 −1 2 1 −3
4 −3 −1 9 6
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. r(A) = 4)
13. A =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 −3 −2 1 −3
4 1 2 4 −1
−6 9 −1 −2 6
4 6 1 12 −4
_
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS. r(A) = 3)
116 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
14. A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2 −9 −5 −2 9 −5
4 4 3 7 −4 4
−2 −3 −1 −3 3 −3
2 2 −1 2 −6 2
−1 1 3 −1 1 −1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS. r(A) = 4)
T`ım ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap di
.
nh th´ u
.
c bao:
15. A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 0 0 0
2 3 0 0 0
0 0 5 0 0
0 0 0 6 0
0 0 0 0 8
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS. r(A) = 5)
16. A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 2 3 4
−1 3 0 1
2 4 1 8
1 7 6 9
0 10 1 10
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS. r(A) = 3)
17. A =
_
¸
_
1 1 3 3 2
2 2 −1 −1 4
1 1 3 3 2
_
¸
_
(DS. r(A) = 2)
18. A =
_
¸
_
2 4 −2 3 3 1
−1 −2 1 1 7 2
1 2 −1 4 10 3
_
¸
_. (DS. r(A) = 2)
19. A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 2 3 −1
0 2 1 2 2
0 0 3 3 −3
0 0 0 4 0
1 3 6 12 −2
1 3 3 5 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS. r(A) = 4)
3.3. Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n 117
20. V´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
n`ao cu’ a λ th`ı ma trˆa
.
n
A =
_
λ −1
1 2
_
c´o ha
.
ng b˘a
`
ng 1 ? (DS. λ = −
1
2
)
21. V´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
n`ao cu’ a λ th`ı ha
.
ng r(A) = 2, nˆe
´
u
A =
_
¸
_
λ 0 1
3 4 1
1 −1 2
_
¸
_
? (DS. λ =
7
9
)
22. V´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
n`ao cu’ a λ th`ı ha
.
ng r(A) = 3 nˆe
´
u
A =
_
¸
_
1 0 −1
2 λ −2 3
1 0 4
_
¸
_? (DS. λ ,= 2)
23. V´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
n`ao cu’ a λ th`ı ha
.
ng r(A) = 3 nˆe
´
u
A =
_
¸
_
1 0 λ
2 3 4
0 0 8
_
¸
_
? (DS. ∀λ ∈ R)
24. V´ o
.
i gi´a tri
.
n`ao cu’ a λ th`ı ha
.
ng: 1) r(A) = 1; 2) r(A) = 2;
3) r(A) = 3 nˆe
´
u:
A =
_
¸
_
1 λ 2
2 1 4
4 2 8
_
¸
_?
(DS. 1) λ =
1
2
; 2) λ ,=
1
2
; 3) Khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i)
118 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
3.4 Ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da

o
3.4.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa
Nˆe
´
u A l`a ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong cˆa´p n th`ı ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong B cˆa´p n tho’a m˜an
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
AB = BA = E
n
trong d´o E
n
l`a ma trˆa
.
n do
.
n vi
.
cˆa´p n du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ma trˆ a
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o
dˆo´i v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n A v`a du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a B = A
−1
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa
AA
−1
= A
−1
A = E
n
.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. Ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong A c´ o ma trˆ a
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o khi v` a chı ’ khi ma
trˆa
.
n A khˆong suy biˆe
´
n (t´ u
.
c l` a khi detA ,= 0) v` a khi d´ o
A
−1
=
1
detA
P
A
, (3.12)
P
A
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
A
11
A
21
. . . A
n1
A
12
A
22
. . . A
n2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
A
1n
A
2n
. . . A
nn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
trong d´o A
ij
l`a phˆa
`
n b` u da
.
i sˆ o´ cu’ a phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a
ij
(i, j = 1, n) cu’ a ma
trˆa
.
n A. Ma trˆa
.
n P
A
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ma trˆ a
.
n phu
.
ho
.
.
p cu’ a ma trˆ a
.
n A.
T´ınh chˆa
´
t
1
+
Nˆe
´
u ma trˆa
.
n A c´o ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o v`a m ,= 0 th`ı ma trˆa
.
n
mA c˜ ung c´o ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o v`a
(mA)
−1
=
1
m
A
−1
.
3.4. Ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o 119
2
+
Nˆe
´
u A v`a B l`a hai ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong c` ung cˆa´p v`a dˆe
`
u c´o ma trˆa
.
n
nghi
.
ch da’ o th`ı
(AB)
−1
= B
−1
A
−1
.
3
+
Nˆe
´
u A c´o ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o A
−1
th`ı A
−1
c˜ ung c´o ma trˆa
.
n
nghi
.
ch da’ o v`a
_
A
−1
_
−1
= A.
3.4.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t`ım ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap I gˆo
`
m c´ac bu
.
´o
.
c sau
Bu
.
´o
.
c 1. T´ınh detA
+ Nˆe
´
u detA = 0 th`ı A khˆong c´o ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o.
+ Nˆe
´
u detA ,= 0 th`ı chuyˆe

n sang bu
.
´o
.
c 2.
Bu
.
´o
.
c 2. T`ım ma trˆa
.
n phu
.
ho
.
.
p P
A
. T` u
.
d´o ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c
(3.12) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c ma trˆa
.
n A
−1
.
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap II (phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Gauss-Jordan)
Dˆa
`
u tiˆen ta viˆe
´
t ma trˆa
.
n do
.
n vi
.
c` ung cˆa´p v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n A v`ao bˆen
pha’ i ma trˆa
.
n A v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c ma trˆa
.
n
M =
_
A[E
n
_
. (3.13)
Tiˆe
´
p theo thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p trˆen c´ac h`ang cu’ a
ma trˆa
.
n M dˆe

du
.
a khˆo´i ma trˆa
.
n A vˆe
`
ma trˆa
.
n do
.
n vi
.
E
n
c`on khˆo´i E
n
trong (3.13) th`anh ma trˆa
.
n B:
_
A[E
n
_
−→
_
E
n
[B
_
.
Khi d´o B = A
−1
.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
120 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac ma trˆa
.
n sau:
1) A =
_
¸
_
3 5 −2
1 −3 2
6 7 −3
_
¸
_; 2) A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 −2 1 −7
−5 4 2 0 3
1 6 7 8 9
2 6 5 9 2
3 −2 1 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Gia’ i. 1) Ta c´ o detA = 10 ,= 0. Do d´o ma trˆa
.
n A trong 1) c´o
ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o. Phˆa
`
n b` u da
.
i sˆo´ cu’ a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a n´o b˘a
`
ng:
A
11
= −5; A
12
= 15; A
13
= 25; A
21
= 1; A
22
= 3; A
23
= 9; A
31
= 4;
A
32
= −8; A
33
= −14.
T` u
.
d´o theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (3.12) ta c´o
A
−1
=
1
10
_
¸
_
−5 1 4
15 3 −8
25 9 −14
_
¸
_ =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_

1
2
1
10
2
5
3
2
3
10

4
5
5
2
9
10

7
5
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
2) Ta t´ınh detA. Lˆa´y h`ang th´ u
.
ba cˆo
.
ng v`ao h`ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t ta c´o
detA =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 6 5 9 2
−5 4 2 0 3
1 6 7 8 9
2 6 5 9 2
3 −2 1 0 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
v`ı trong ma trˆa
.
n thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´o h`ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t v`a th´ u
.
tu
.
giˆo´ng nhau.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ma trˆa
.
n A trong 2) l`a ma trˆa
.
n suy biˆe
´
n, do d´o n´o khˆong c´o
ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o.
V´ı du
.
2. D` ung c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p t`ım ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o dˆo´i
3.4. Ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o 121
v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n
1) A =
_
¸
_
2 0 4
1 −1 −2
−1 2 3
_
¸
_
; 2) A =
_
¸
_
2 3 4
2 6 8
2 6 12
_
¸
_
.
Gia’ i. 1) Ta lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n
M =
_
¸
_
2 0 4
¸
¸
1 0 0
1 −1 −2
¸
¸
0 1 0
−1 2 3
¸
¸
0 0 1
_
¸
_
.
Nhˆan h` ang th´ u
.
nhˆa´t v´o
.
i
1
2
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
M −→
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 2
¸
¸
¸
1
2
0 0
1 −1 −2
¸
¸
¸ 0 1 0
−1 2 3
¸
¸
¸ 0 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
h
2
−h
1
→h

2
h
3
+h
1
→ h

3
−→
−→
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 2
¸
¸
¸
1
2
0 0
0 −1 −4
¸
¸
¸ −
1
2
1 0
0 2 5
¸
¸
¸
1
2
0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
h
2
(−1)→h

2
−−−−−−−→
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 2
¸
¸
¸
1
2
0 0
0 1 4
¸
¸
¸
1
2
−1 0
0 2 5
¸
¸
¸
1
2
0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
h
3
−2h
2
→ h

3
−→
−→
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 2
¸
¸
¸
1
2
0 0
0 1 4
¸
¸
¸
1
2
−1 0
0 0 −3
¸
¸
¸ −
1
2
2 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
h
3
(−
1
3
) → h

3
−→
122 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 2
¸
¸
¸
1
2
0 0
0 1 4
¸
¸
¸
1
2
−1 0
0 0 1
¸
¸
¸
1
6

2
3

1
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
h
1
−2h
3
→ h

1
−−−−−−−−−→
h
2
−4h
3
→ h

2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 0
¸
¸
¸
1
6
4
3
2
3
0 1 0
¸
¸
¸ −
1
6
5
3
4
4
0 0 1
¸
¸
¸
1
6

2
3

1
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
A
−1
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
6
4
3
2
3

1
6
5
3
4
3
1
6

2
3

1
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2) Ta lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n
M =
_
¸
_
2 3 4
¸
¸
1 0 0
2 6 8
¸
¸
0 1 0
2 6 12
¸
¸
0 0 1
_
¸
_
.
Thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p
M
h
2
−h
1
→h

2
−−−−−−−−−→
h
3
−h
1
→h

3
_
¸
_
2 3 4
¸
¸
1 0 0
0 3 4
¸
¸
−1 1 0
0 3 8
¸
¸
−1 0 1
_
¸
_
−−−−−−−−−→
h
3
−h
2
→ h

3
_
¸
_
2 3 4
¸
¸
1 0 0
0 3 4
¸
¸
−1 1 0
0 0 4
¸
¸
0 −1 1
_
¸
_
h
1
−h
3
→h

1
h
2
−h
3
→h

2
−−−−−−−→
_
¸
_
2 3 0
¸
¸
1 1 −1
0 3 0
¸
¸
−1 2 −1
0 0 4
¸
¸
0 −1 1
_
¸
_
3.4. Ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o 123
h
1
−h
2
→h

1
−−−−−−−→
_
¸
_
2 0 0
¸
¸
2 −1 0
0 3 0
¸
¸
−1 2 −1
0 0 4
¸
¸
0 −1 1
_
¸
_
h
1
(
1
2
) → h

1
−−−−−−−→
h
2
(
1
3
) → h

2
h
3
(
1
4
) → h

4
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −
1
2
0
0 1 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸

1
3
2
3

1
3
0 0 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
0 −
1
4
1
4
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
A
−1
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −
1
2
0

1
3
2
3

1
3
0 −
1
4
1
4
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
V´ı du
.
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ ac t´ınh chˆa´t sau dˆay cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
1) detA
−1
= (detA)
−1
.
2) Nˆe
´
u A v`a B khˆong suy biˆe
´
n th`ı t´ıch AB c˜ ung khˆong suy biˆe
´
n
v`a
(AB)
−1
= B
−1
A
−1
.
3)
_
A
−1
_
−1
= A.
4)
_
A
T
_
−1
=
_
A
−1
_
T
.
Gia’ i. 1) Ta s˜e ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c t´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a t´ıch hai ma
trˆa
.
n vuˆong c` ung cˆa´p A v`a B:
detAB = detA detB
Ta c´o
AA
−1
= E ⇒det(AA
−1
) = detE = 1
⇒detA detA
−1
= 1 ⇒ (detA)
−1
= det(A
−1
).
124 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
2) Ta c´ o
(B
−1
A
−1
)(AB) = B
−1
(A
−1
A)B = B
−1
B = E
v`a t` u
.
d´o suy ra B
−1
A
−1
= (AB)
−1
. Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
B
−1
A
−1
(AB) = E v`a
do d´o ma trˆa
.
n B
−1
A
−1
l`a ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n AB.
3) Ta thˆa´y
_
A
−1
_
−1
l`a ma trˆa
.
n duy nhˆa´t m`a t´ıch cu’ a n´o nhˆan v´o
.
i
A
−1
b˘a
`
ng E. Nhu
.
ng ma trˆa
.
n A c˜ ung c´o t´ınh chˆa´t d´o. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y 3)
du
.
o
.
.
c ch´ u
.
ng minh.
4) Dˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh
_
A
T
_
−1
=
_
A
−1
_
T
ta x´et d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c AA
−1
= E.
T` u
.
d´o ´ap du
.
ng t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n vi
.
ta c´o
(AA
−1
)
T
= E ⇒ (A
−1
)
T
A
T
= E ⇒(A
−1
)
T
= (A
T
)
−1
theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o.
V´ı du
.
4. 1) Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u A l`a ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong tho’a m˜an
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n A
2
−3A+E = O th`ı A
−1
= 3E −A.
2) Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng (E −A)
−1
= E +A+A
2
nˆe
´
u A
3
= O.
Gia’ i. 1) T` u
.
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n d˜a cho ta c´o
E = 3A−A
2
= A(3E −A).
Do vˆa
.
y
detA det(3E −A) = detE = 1
v`a do d´o detA ,= 0, t´ u
.
c l`a A c´o ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o. Do
E = A(3E −A) → A
−1
E = A
−1
A(3E −A)
⇒ A
−1
= 3E −A.
2) Ta c´o thˆe

nhˆan ma trˆa
.
n E − A v´o
.
i E +A+ A
2
. Nˆe
´
u ch´ ung l`a
ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o nhau th`ı kˆe
´
t qua’ l`a ma trˆa
.
n do
.
n vi
.
. Ta c´o
(E −A)(E +A+A
2
) = E −A+A−A
2
+A
2
−A
3
= E −A
3
= E
3.4. Ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o 125
v`ı theo gia’ thiˆe
´
t A
3
= O. T` u
.
d´o suy ra diˆe
`
u pha’ i ch´ u
.
ng minh.
V´ı du
.
5. T`ım ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o dˆo´i v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n
A =
_
α β
γ δ
_
.
Gia’ i. Dˆe

tˆo
`
n ta
.
i ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o ta cˆ a
`
n gia’ thiˆe
´
t r˘a
`
ng detA =
αδ − γβ ,= 0. V´o
.
i gia’ thiˆe
´
t d´o ta t`ım c´ ac phˆa
`
n b` u da
.
i sˆo´: A
11
= δ;
A
12
= −γ; A
21
= −β; A
22
= α. Do d´o
A
−1
=
1
αδ −γβ
_
δ −β
−γ α
_
.
T` u
.
v´ı du
.
n`ay ta r´ ut ra quy t˘a
´
c t`ım ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o v´o
.
i ma
trˆa
.
n cˆ a´p 2:
Ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n cˆa´p hai b˘a
`
ng t´ıch cu’ a mˆo
.
t sˆo´
l`a nghi
.
ch da’ o cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a n´o nhˆan v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n m`a du
.
`o
.
ng
ch´eo ch´ınh l`a ho´an vi
.
cu’ a hai phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo ch´ınh cu’ a
n´o v`a c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo th´ u
.
hai c˜ ung ch´ınh l`a c´ac
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo th´ u
.
hai cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n d˜a cho nhu
.
ng v´o
.
i
dˆa´u ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i.
Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, nˆe
´
u A =
_
6 5
2 2
_
th`ı
A
−1
=
1
2
_
2 −5
−2 6
_
.
V´ı du
.
6. 1) Gia’ su
.
’ A l`a ma trˆa
.
n khˆong suy biˆe
´
n. H˜ ay gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh ma trˆa
.
n:
AX = B, Y A = B.
2) Gia’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh trong 1) nˆe
´
u
A =
_
7 3
2 1
_
, B =
_
1 2
0 −1
_
.
126 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
Gia’ i. Nhˆan bˆen tr´ai hai vˆe
´
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh AX = B v´o
.
i A
−1
v`a
thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep t´ınh da
.
i sˆo´ tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng ta c´ o
A
−1
AX = A
−1
B ⇒ EX = A
−1
B ⇒ X = A
−1
B.
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
Y AA
−1
= BA
−1
⇒Y E = BA
−1
⇒ Y = BA
−1
.
R˜o r`ang l`a nˆe
´
u A
−1
v`a B khˆong giao ho´ an th`ı X ,= Y .
2) V´o
.
i
A =
_
7 3
2 1
_
⇒ A
−1
=
1
detA
_
1 −3
−2 7
_
=
_
1 −3
−2 7
_
T` u
.
d´o
X = A
−1
B =
_
1 −3
−2 7
_ _
1 2
0 −1
_
=
_
1 5
−2 −11
_
,
Y = BA
−1
=
_
1 2
0 −1
_ _
1 −3
−2 7
_
=
_
−3 11
2 −7
_
.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T`ım ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n d˜a cho (nˆe
´
u ch´ ung tˆo
`
n ta
.
i)
1.
_
2 −1
3 5
_
. (DS.
1
13
_
5 1
−3 2
_
)
2.
_
0 1
3 −2
_
. (DS.
1
3
_
2 1
3 0
_
)
3.
_
¸
_
1 −1 3
5 1 2
1 4 −1
_
¸
_. (DS.
1
41
_
¸
_
−9 11 −5
7 −4 13
19 −5 6
_
¸
_)
3.4. Ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o 127
4.
_
¸
_
1 2 −3
3 −1 5
5 3 −1
_
¸
_. (DS. Khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i)
5.
_
¸
_
2 −3 0
−1 1 4
3 −2 5
_
¸
_
. (DS. −
1
25
_
¸
_
13 15 −12
17 10 −8
−1 −5 −1
_
¸
_
)
6.
_
¸
_
1 0 1
0 0 2
−1 3 1
_
¸
_. (DS.
1
6
_
¸
_
6 −3 0
−2 −2 2
0 3 0
_
¸
_)
7.
_
¸
_
−1 3 4
0 1 2
0 1 5
_
¸
_. (DS. −
1
3
_
¸
_
3 −11 2
0 −5 +2
0 1 −1
_
¸
_)
8.
_
¸
_
3 2 −1
1 1 2
2 2 5
_
¸
_
. (DS.
_
¸
_
1 −12 5
−1 17 −7
0 −2 1
_
¸
_
)
9.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 0
0
1

2
1

2
0 −
1

2
1

2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 0
0
1

2

1

2
0
1

2
1

2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
)
10.
_
¸
_
1 2 2
2 1 −2
2 −2 1
_
¸
_
. (DS.
1
9
_
¸
_
1 2 2
2 1 −2
2 −2 1
_
¸
_
)
11.
_
¸
_
2 1 −1
3 1 −2
3 1 0
_
¸
_. (DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1
1
2
1
2
3 −
3
2

1
2
0 −
1
2
1
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
)
128 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
12.
_
¸
_
−1 5 2
1 4 1
1 2 1
_
¸
_. (DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_

1
3
1
6
1
2
0
1
2

1
2
1
3

7
6
3
2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
)
13.
_
¸
_
1 4 1
1 1 4
−1 2 2
_
¸
_
. (DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2
9
2
9

5
9
2
9

1
9
1
9

1
9
2
9
1
9
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
)
14.
_
¸
_
1 −3 −1
−1 4 1
1 9 −2
_
¸
_. (DS.
_
¸
_
17 15 −1
1 1 0
13 12 −1
_
¸
_)
15.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 2 3 4
1 −1 0 0
3 −5 −1 −3
2 1 0 3
_
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS. Khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i)
16.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 1 1
0 1 1 1
0 0 1 1
0 0 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −1 0 0
0 1 −1 0
0 0 1 −1
0 0 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
)
17.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 0 0
−1 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
1 1 1 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 −1 1 0
1 1 −1 0
−1 0 0 1
1 0 1 −1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
)
18.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 2 −1 2
2 5 −3 5
0 0 5 4
0 0 6 5
_
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
5 −2 −5 4
−2 1 11 −9
0 0 5 −4
0 0 −6 5
_
¸
¸
¸
_
)
3.4. Ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o 129
19.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 3 −5 7
0 1 2 −3
0 0 1 2
0 0 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −3 11 −38
0 1 −2 7
0 0 1 −2
0 0 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
)
20.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
11
0 . . . 0
0 a
22
. . . 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0
.
.
. a
nn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
, a
11
a
12
a
nn
,= 0.
(DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
a
11
0 . . . 0
0
1
a
22
. . . 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 . . .
1
a
nn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
)
21.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 1 . . . 1
0 1 1 . . . 1
0 0 1 . . . 1
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0
.
.
. 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −1 0 . . . 0 0
0 1 −1 . . . 0 0
0 0 1 . . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 . . . 1 −1
0 0 0
.
.
. 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
)
22.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 a a
2
. . . a
n
0 1 a . . . a
n−1
0 0 1 . . . a
n−2
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 0 . . . 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
. (DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −a 0 . . . 0 0
0 1 −a . . . 0 0
0 0 1 . . . 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
. 1 −a
0 0 0 . . . 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
)
23. V´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
n`ao cu’ a λ th`ı c´ ac ma trˆa
.
n sau dˆay c´o ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch
da’ o:
130 Chu
.
o
.
ng 3. Ma trˆa
.
n. D
-
i
.
nh th´ u
.
c
1)
_
¸
_
1 −2 2
λ 3 0
2 1 1
_
¸
_; 2)
_
¸
_
λ 2 0
2 λ 1
0 1 λ
_
¸
_.
(DS. 1) λ ,=
9
4
; 2) λ ,= 0, λ = ±

5)
24. T`ım ma trˆa
.
n X tho’a m˜an c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
1)
_
2 −1
3 1
_
X =
_
1 −1
0 1
_
. (DS.
1
5
_
1 0
−3 5
_
)
2) X
_
3 1
2 1
_
=
_
−2 1
3 −1
_
. (DS.
_
−5 2
13 −5
_
)
3)
_
2 −1
1 0
_
X
_
3 1
−1 2
_
=
_
1 −1
3 0
_
. (DS.
_
6 −3
11 −2
_
)
4) AX +B = 2C, trong d´o
A =
_
¸
_
1 1 1
0 1 1
0 0 1
_
¸
_, B =
_
¸
_
1 −1 2
0 3 4
−2 0 −1
_
¸
_, C =
_
¸
_
2 3 0
4 −3 5
1 −1 0
_
¸
_.
(DS.
_
¸
_
−5 16 −8
4 −7 5
4 −2 1
_
¸
_
)
5) XA−2B = E, trong d´o
A =
_
¸
_
1 −1 3
−2 5 7
−1 1 2
_
¸
_, B =
_
¸
_
1 3 −2
−1 2 0
3 −1 4
_
¸
_.
(DS.
1
15
_
¸
_
−21 45 −156
−21 15 −21
51 20 −79
_
¸
_)
25. Gia’ su
.
’ A l`a ma trˆa
.
n cˆa´p n v`a (E + A)
k
= O v´o
.
i sˆo´ tu
.
.
nhiˆen k
n`ao d´o. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng ma trˆa
.
n A khˆong suy biˆe
´
n.
3.4. Ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o 131
26. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng c´ac ma trˆa
.
n A+ E v`a A − E khˆong suy biˆe
´
n
v`a nghi
.
ch da’ o nhau nˆe
´
u A
2
= O.
27. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng ma trˆa
.
n A+E v`a A
2
+E −A khˆong suy biˆe
´
n
v`a nghi
.
ch da’ o nhau nˆe
´
u A
3
= O.
28. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u A, B, C l`a nh˜ u
.
ng ma trˆa
.
n khˆong suy biˆe
´
n
th`ı ABC v`a C
−1
B
−1
A
−1
l`a nghi
.
ch da’ o nhau.
29. Ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong A cˆa´p n du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a dˆ o
`
ng da
.
ng v´o
.
i ma trˆ a
.
n vuˆ ong
c` ung cˆa´p B nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i ma trˆa
.
n kha’ nghi
.
ch T sao cho B = T
−1
AT.
Ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t sau cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n dˆo
`
ng da
.
ng:
1
+
Mo
.
i ma trˆa
.
n dˆe
`
u dˆo
`
ng da
.
ng v´o
.
i ch´ınh n´o.
2
+
Nˆe
´
u A dˆo
`
ng da
.
ng v´o
.
i B th`ı B dˆo
`
ng da
.
ng v´o
.
i A.
3
+
Nˆe
´
u A dˆo
`
ng da
.
ng v´o
.
i B, c`on B dˆo
`
ng da
.
ng v´o
.
i C th`ı A dˆo
`
ng
da
.
ng v´o
.
i C.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. 1
+
´
Ap du
.
ng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c E
−1
= E. 2
+
Nhˆan bˆen pha’ i hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c B = T
−1
AT v´o
.
i T
−1
v`a nhˆan bˆen tr´ai v´o
.
i T. 3
+
´
Ap du
.
ng di
.
nh
ngh˜ıa.
30. Ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ma trˆ a
.
n tru
.
.
c giao nˆe
´
u AA
T
= A
T
A =
E, ngh˜ıa l`a ma trˆ a
.
n chuyˆe

n vi
.
A
T
b˘ a
`
ng ma trˆ a
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o A
−1
cu’ a
A. Ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ ac t´ınh chˆa´t sau cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n tru
.
.
c giao:
1
+
Nˆe
´
u A tru
.
.
c giao th`ı A
−1
tru
.
.
c giao.
2
+
T´ıch c´ ac ma trˆa
.
n tru
.
.
c giao c` ung cˆa´p l`a ma trˆa
.
n tru
.
.
c giao.
3
+
Nˆe
´
u A l`a ma trˆa
.
n tru
.
.
c giao th`ı A
T
c˜ ung l`a ma trˆa
.
n tru
.
.
c giao.
4
+
Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n tru
.
.
c giao l`a b˘a
`
ng ±1.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n 4
+
. Xuˆa´t ph´at t` u
.
AA
T
= E v`a ´ap du
.
ng di
.
nh l´ y det(AB) =
detAdetB.
Chu
.
o
.
ng 4
Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
4.1 Hˆe
.
n phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i n ˆa

n c´o di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
kh´ac 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
4.1.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ma trˆa
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.1.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Cramer . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.1.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Gauss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
4.2 Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh . . . 143
4.3 Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t . . 165
4.1 Hˆe
.
n phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i n ˆa

n c´ o di
.
nh
th´ u
.
c kh´ac 0
Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh trˆen tru
.
`o
.
ng sˆo´ T du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
Cramer
1
nˆe
´
u sˆo´ phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh b˘a
`
ng sˆo´ ˆa

n v`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n co
.
ba’ n (ma
trˆa
.
n hˆe
.
sˆo´) cu’ a hˆe
.
l`a kh´ac khˆong.
1
G. Cramer (1704-1752) l`a nh`a to´an ho
.
c Thu
.
y S˜ı.
4.1. Hˆe
.
n phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i n ˆa

n c´o di
.
nh th´ u
.
c kh´ac 0 133
Hˆe
.
Cramer c´o da
.
ng
a
11
x
1
+a
12
x
2
+ +a
1n
x
n
= h
1
,
a
21
x
1
+a
22
x
2
+ +a
2n
x
n
= h
2
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a
n1
x
1
+a
n2
x
2
+ +a
nn
x
n
= h
n
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(4.1)
hay du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng ma trˆa
.
n
AX = H (4.2)
trong d´o
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
. . . a
2n

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n1
a
n2
. . . a
nn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
, X =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x
1
x
2
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
, H =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
h
1
h
2
.
.
.
h
n
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
ho˘a
.
c
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
11
a
21
.
.
.
a
n1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x
1
+
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
12
a
22
.
.
.
a
n2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x
2
+ +
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
1n
a
2n
.
.
.
a
nn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x
n
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
h
1
h
2
.
.
.
h
n
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
4.1.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ma trˆa
.
n
V`ı detA ,= 0 nˆen tˆo
`
n ta
.
i ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o A
−1
. Khi d´o t` u
.
(4.2) ta
thu du
.
o
.
.
c
A
−1
AX = A
−1
H ⇒ EX = X = A
−1
H.
Vˆa
.
y hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t l`a
X = A
−1
H. (4.3)
Tuy nhiˆen viˆe
.
c t`ım ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o n´oi chung l`a rˆa´t ph´ u
.
c ta
.
p nˆe
´
u
cˆa´p cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A l´o
.
n.
134 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
4.1.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Cramer
Nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t cu’ a hˆe
.
Cramer du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh theo cˆong th´ u
.
c
Cramer:
x
j
=
det(A
j
)
detA
, j = 1, n (4.4)
trong d´o A
j
l`a ma trˆa
.
n thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
ma trˆa
.
n A b˘a
`
ng c´ach thay cˆo
.
t
th´ u
.
j bo
.
’ i cˆo
.
t c´ ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ tu
.
.
do H, v`a c´ac cˆ o
.
t kh´ac gi˜ u
.
nguyˆen.
4.1.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Gauss
Nˆo
.
i dung chu’ yˆe
´
u cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Gauss (hay thuˆa
.
t to´an Gauss) l`a
khu
.
’ liˆen tiˆe
´
p c´ac ˆa

n cu’ a hˆe
.
. Thuˆa
.
t to´an Gauss du
.
.
a trˆen c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n
dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh. D´o l`a c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i:
1
+
Nhˆan mˆo
.
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh n`ao d´o cu’ a hˆe
.
v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t sˆo´ kh´ac 0.
2
+
Thˆem v`ao mˆo
.
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh n`ao d´o cu’ a hˆe
.
mˆo
.
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
kh´ac nhˆan v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t sˆo´ t` uy ´ y.
3
+
Dˆo

i chˆo
˜
hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a hˆe
.
.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. Mo
.
i ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n trˆen hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(4.1) dˆe
`
u du
.
a dˆe
´
n mˆo
.
t hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh m´ o
.
i tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng.
Viˆe
.
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p trˆen hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınnh
(4.1) thu
.
.
c chˆa´t l`a thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p trˆen c´ac h`ang
cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng cu’ a hˆe
.
.
Do d´o sau mˆo
.
t sˆo´ bu
.
´o
.
c biˆe
´
n dˆo

i ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
(4.1) tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng
v´o
.
i hˆe
.
tam gi´ac
b
11
x
1
+b
12
x
2
+ +b
1n
x
n
= h
1
b
22
x
2
+ +b
2n
x
n
= h
2
. . . . . . . . .
b
nn
x
n
= h
n
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
T` u
.
d´o r´ ut ra x
n
, x
n−1
, . . . , x
2
, x
1
.
4.1. Hˆe
.
n phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i n ˆa

n c´o di
.
nh th´ u
.
c kh´ac 0 135
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ma trˆa
.
n
1)
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 4,
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 4x
3
= 4,
x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 9x
3
= 2.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(4.5)
2)
3x
1
+ 2x
2
−x
3
= 1,
x
1
+x
2
+ 2x
3
= 2,
2x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 5x
3
= 3.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(4.6)
Gia’ i. 1) Ta k´ y hiˆe
.
u
A =
_
¸
_
1 1 1
1 2 4
1 3 9
_
¸
_
, X =
_
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
¸
_
, H =
_
¸
_
4
4
2
_
¸
_
.
Khi d´o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (4.5) c´o da
.
ng
AX = H.
V`ı detA = 2 ,= 0 nˆen A c´o ma trˆa
.
n nghi
.
ch da’ o v`a do vˆa
.
y hˆe
.
(4.5) c´ o
nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t:
X = A
−1
H.
Dˆe
˜
d`ang thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng
A
−1
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
3 −3 1

5
2
4 −
3
2
1
2
−1
1
2
_
¸
¸
¸
_
v`a do d´o
_
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
3 −3 1

5
2
4 −
3
2
1
2
−1
1
2
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
_
4
4
2
_
¸
_
.
136 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
Thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep nhˆan ma trˆa
.
n o
.
’ vˆe
´
pha’ i ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
x
1
= 3 4 −3 4 + 1 2 = 2,
x
2
= −
5
2
4 + 4 4 −
3
2
2 = 3,
x
3
=
1
2
4 −1 4 +
1
2
2 = −1.
2) Viˆe
´
t ma trˆa
.
n A cu’ a hˆe
.
v`a t`ım A
−1
:
A =
_
¸
_
3 2 −1
1 1 2
2 2 5
_
¸
_ ⇒ A
−1
=
_
¸
_
1 −12 5
−1 17 −7
0 −2 1
_
¸
_.
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
_
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
¸
_ =
_
¸
_
1 −12 5
−1 17 −7
0 −2 1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
1
2
3
_
¸
_ =
_
¸
_
−8
12
−1
_
¸
_
t´ u
.
c l`a
x
1
= 8, x
2
= 12, x
3
= −1.
V´ı du
.
2.
´
Ap du
.
ng quy t˘a
´
c Cramer, gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
1)
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
= 6,
2x
1
−x
2
+x
3
= 2,
3x
1
−x
2
−2x
3
= 2.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(4.7)
2)
x
1
−2x
2
+ 3x
3
−x
4
= 6,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
−4x
3
+ 4x
4
= 7,
3x
1
+x
2
−2x
3
−2x
4
= 9,
x
1
−3x
2
+ 7x
3
+ 6x
4
= −7.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(4.8)
Gia’ i. 1)
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (4.4)
x
j
=
det(A
j
)
detA
, j = 1, 3
4.1. Hˆe
.
n phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i n ˆa

n c´o di
.
nh th´ u
.
c kh´ac 0 137
trong d´o
detA =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2 3
3 −1 1
3 1 −2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 30 ,= 0; detA
1
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
6 2 3
2 −1 1
2 1 −2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 30;
detA
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 6 3
2 2 1
3 2 −2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 30; detA
3
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2 6
2 −1 2
3 1 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 30.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra
x
1
= 1, x
2
= 1, x
3
= 1.
2) T´ınh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a hˆe
.
:
detA =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −2 3 −1
2 3 −4 4
3 1 −2 −2
1 −3 7 6
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 35.
V`ı detA ,= 0 nˆen hˆe
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t v`a nghiˆe
.
m du
.
o
.
.
c t`ım theo
cˆong th´ u
.
c (4.4). Ta t´ınh c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
det(A
1
) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
6 −2 3 −1
−7 3 −4 4
9 1 −2 −2
−7 −3 7 6
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 70,
138 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
det(A
2
) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 6 3 −1
2 −7 −4 4
3 9 −2 −2
1 −7 7 6
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −35,
det(A
3
) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −2 6 −1
2 3 −7 4
3 1 9 −2
1 −3 −7 6
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0,
det(A
4
) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −2 3 6
2 3 −4 −7
3 1 −2 9
1 −3 7 −7
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −70.
Do d´o
x
1
=
det(A
1
)
detA
= 2, x
2
=
det(A
2
)
detA
= −1,
x
3
=
det(A
3
)
detA
= 0, x
4
=
det(A
4
)
detA
= −2.
V´ı du
.
3.
´
Ap du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Gauss gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
1)
x
1
−2x
3
= −3,
−2x
1
+x
2
+ 6x
3
= 11,
−x
1
+ 5x
2
−4x
3
= −4.
2)
2x
1
−x
2
+ 3x
3
−x
4
= 9,
x
1
+x
2
−2x
3
+ 4x
4
= −1,
3x
1
+ 2x
2
−x
3
+ 3x
4
= 0,
5x
1
−2x
2
+x
3
−2x
4
= 9.
4.1. Hˆe
.
n phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i n ˆa

n c´o di
.
nh th´ u
.
c kh´ac 0 139
Gia’ i. 1) Lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng v`a thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i:
¯
A =
_
¸
_
1 0 −2
¸
¸
−3
−2 1 6
¸
¸
11
−1 5 −4
¸
¸
−4
_
¸
_h
2
+ 2h
1
→h

2
h
3
+h
1
→ h

3
−→
_
¸
_
1 0 −2
¸
¸
−3
0 1 2
¸
¸
5
0 5 −6
¸
¸
−7
_
¸
_
−→
h
3
−5h
2
→h

3
_
¸
_
1 0 −2
¸
¸
−3
0 1 2
¸
¸
5
0 0 −16
¸
¸
−32
_
¸
_.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra
x
1
−2x
3
= −3
x
2
+ 2x
3
= 5
−16x
3
= −32
_
¸
_
¸
_
⇒x
1
= 1, x
2
= 1, x
3
= 2.
2) Lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng v`a thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p:
_
¸
¸
¸
_
2 −1 3 −1
¸
¸
9
1 1 −2 4
¸
¸
−1
3 2 −1 3
¸
¸
0
5 −2 1 −2
¸
¸
9
_
¸
¸
¸
_
h
1
→ h

2
h
2
→ h

1
−→
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 −2 4
¸
¸
−1
2 −1 3 −1
¸
¸
9
3 2 −1 3
¸
¸
0
5 −2 1 −2
¸
¸
9
_
¸
¸
¸
_
−→
h
2
−2h
1
→h

2
h
3
−3h
1
→h

3
h
4
−5h
1
→h

4
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 −2 4
¸
¸
−1
0 −3 7 −9
¸
¸
11
0 −1 5 −9
¸
¸
3
0 −7 11 −22
¸
¸
14
_
¸
¸
¸
_
h
2
→ h

3
h
3
→ h

2
−→
140 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
−→
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 −2 4
¸
¸
−1
0 −1 5 −9
¸
¸
3
0 −3 7 −9
¸
¸
11
0 −7 11 −22
¸
¸
14
_
¸
¸
¸
_h
3
−3h
2
→ h

3
h
4
−7h
2
→ h

4
−→
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 −2 4
¸
¸
−1
0 −1 5 −9
¸
¸
3
0 0 −8 18
¸
¸
2
0 0 −24 41
¸
¸
−7
_
¸
¸
¸
_
−→
h
4
−3h
3
→ h

4
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 −2 4
¸
¸
−1
0 −1 5 −9
¸
¸
3
0 0 −8 18
¸
¸
2
0 0 0 −13
¸
¸
−13
_
¸
¸
¸
_
T` u
.
d´o suy ra r˘a
`
ng x
1
= 1, x
2
= −2, x
3
= 2, x
4
= 1.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh sau
1.
x
1
−x
2
+ 2x
3
= 11,
x
1
+ 2x
2
−x
3
= 11,
4x
1
−3x
2
−3x
3
= 24.
_
¸
_
¸
_
. (DS. x
1
= 9, x
2
= 2, x
3
= 2)
2.
x
1
−3x
2
−4x
3
= 4,
2x
1
+x
2
−3x
3
= −1,
3x
1
−2x
2
+x
3
= 11.
_
¸
_
¸
_
. (DS. x
1
= 2, x
2
= −2, x
3
= 1)
3.
2x
1
+ 3x
2
−x
3
= 4,
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 2x
3
= 5,
3x
1
+ 4x
2
−5x
3
= 2.
_
¸
_
¸
_
. (DS. x
1
= x
2
= x
3
= 1)
4.1. Hˆe
.
n phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i n ˆa

n c´o di
.
nh th´ u
.
c kh´ac 0 141
4.
x
1
+ 2x
2
+x
3
= 8,
−2x
1
+ 3x
2
−3x
3
= −5,
3x
1
−4x
2
+ 5x
3
= 10.
_
¸
_
¸
_
. (DS. x
1
= 1, x
2
= 2, x
3
= 3)
5.
2x
1
+x
2
−x
3
= 0,
3x
2
+ 4x
3
= −6,
x
1
+x
3
= 1.
_
¸
_
¸
_
. (DS. x
1
= 1, x
2
= −2, x
3
= 0)
6.
2x
1
−3x
2
−x
3
+ 6 = 0,
3x
1
+ 4x
2
+ 3x
3
+ 5 = 0,
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
+ 2 = 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
. (DS. x
1
= −2, x
2
= 1, x
3
= −1)
7.
x
2
+ 3x
3
+ 6 = 0,
x
1
−2x
2
−x
3
= 5,
3x
1
+ 4x
2
−2x = 13.
_
¸
_
¸
_
. (DS. x
1
= 3, x
2
= 0, x
3
= −2)
8.
2x
1
−x
2
+x
3
+ 2x
4
= 5,
x
1
+ 3x
2
−x
3
+ 5x
4
= 4,
5x
1
+ 4x
2
+ 3x
3
= 2,
3x
1
−3x
2
−x
3
−6x
4
= −6.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
.
(DS. x
1
=
1
3
, x
2
= −
2
3
, x
3
= 1, x
4
=
4
3
)
9.
x
1
−2x
2
+ 3x
3
−x
4
= −8,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
−x
3
+ 5x
4
= 19,
4x
1
−x
2
+x
3
+x
4
= −1,
3x
1
+ 2x
2
−x
3
−2x
4
= −2.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
.
(DS. x
1
= −
1
2
, x
2
=
3
2
, x
3
= −
1
2
, x
4
= 3)
10.
x
1
−x
3
+x
4
= 3,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
−x
3
−x
4
= 2,
5x
1
−3x
4
= −6
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
+x
4
= 2.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
.
(DS. x
1
= 0, x
2
= 1, x
3
= −1, x
4
= 2)
142 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
11.
2x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 8x
4
= 0,
x
2
−x
3
+ 3x
4
= 0,
x
3
+ 2x
4
= 1,
x
1
+x
4
= −24
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
.
(DS. x
1
= −19, x
2
= 26, x
3
= 11, x
4
= −5)
12.
3x
1
+x
2
−x
3
+x
4
= 0,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
−x
4
= 0,
x
1
+ 5x
2
−3x
3
= 7,
3x
2
+ 2x
3
+x
4
= 2,
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
.
(DS. x
1
= −1, x
2
= 1, x
3
= −1, x
4
= 1)
13.
x
1
−2x
2
+x
3
−4x
4
−x
5
= 13,
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
−5x
4
= 15,
x
2
−2x
3
+x
4
+ 3x
5
= −7,
x
1
−7x
3
+ 8x
4
−x
5
= −30,
3x
1
−x
2
−5x
5
= 4.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
(DS. x
1
= 1, x
2
= −1, x
3
= 2, x
4
= −2, x
5
= 0)
14.
x
1
+x
2
+ 4x
3
+x
4
−x
5
= 2,
x
1
−2x
2
−2x
3
+ 3x
5
= 0,
4x
2
+ 3x
3
−2x
4
+ 2x
5
= 2,
2x
1
−x
3
+ 3x
4
−2x
5
= −2,
3x
1
+ 2x
2
−5x
4
+ 3x
5
= 3.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
(DS. x
1
=
2
5
, x
2
= −
3
5
, x
3
=
4
5
, x
4
= 0, x
5
= 0)
4.2. Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 143
4.2 Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
Ta x´et hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh gˆ o
`
m m phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i
n ˆa

n
a
11
x
1
+a
12
x
2
+ +a
1n
x
n
= b
1
,
a
21
x
1
+a
22
x
2
+ +a
2n
x
n
= b
2
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a
m1
x
1
+a
m2
x
2
+ +a
mn
x
n
= b
m
,
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(4.9)
v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n co
.
ba’ n
A =
_
¸
_
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
. . . . . . . . . . . .
a
m1
a
m2
. . . a
mn
_
¸
_
v`a ma trˆa
.
n mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng
¯
A =
_
¸
_
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
¸
¸
b
1
. . . . . . . . . . . .
¸
¸
. . .
a
m1
a
m2
. . . a
mn
¸
¸
b
m
_
¸
_
Hiˆe

n nhiˆen r˘a
`
ng r(A) r(
¯
A) v`ı mˆo
˜
i di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con cu’ a A dˆe
`
u l`a di
.
nh
th´ u
.
c con cu’ a
¯
A nhu
.
ng khˆong c´ o diˆe
`
u ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i. Ta luˆon luˆon gia’ thiˆe
´
t
r˘a
`
ng c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A khˆong dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i b˘a
`
ng 0 tˆa´t ca’ .
Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta quy u
.
´o
.
c go
.
i di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con kh´ac 0 cu’ a mˆo
.
t ma trˆa
.
n m`a
cˆa´p cu’ a n´o b˘a
`
ng ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n d´o l`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a n´o.
Gia’ su
.
’ dˆo´i v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n d˜a cho ta d˜a cho
.
n mˆo
.
t di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con co
.
so
.
’ .
Khi d´o c´ac h`ang v`a c´ac cˆ o
.
t m`a giao cu’ a ch´ ung lˆa
.
p th`anh di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
con co
.
so
.
’ d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a h`ang, cˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ .
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa. 1
+
Bˆo
.
c´o th´ u
.
tu
.
.
n sˆo´ (α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
n
) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nghiˆe
.
m
cu’ a hˆe
.
(4.9) nˆe
´
u khi thay x = α
1
, x = α
2
, . . . , x = α
n
v`ao c´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh cu’ a (4.9) th`ı hai vˆe
´
cu’ a mˆo
˜
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a (4.9) tro
.
’ th`anh
dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t.
144 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
2+ Hˆe
.
(4.9) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch nˆe
´
u c´o ´ıt nhˆa´t mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m v`a
go
.
i l`a khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch nˆe
´
u n´o vˆo nghiˆe
.
m.
3
+
Hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
x´ac di
.
nh nˆe
´
u n´o c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy
nhˆa´t v`a go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
vˆo di
.
nh nˆe
´
u n´o c´o nhiˆe
`
u ho
.
n mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y Kronecker-Capelli.
2
Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh (4.9)
tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch khi v` a chı ’ khi ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆ a
.
n co
.
ba’ n b˘ a
`
ng ha
.
ng cu’ a
ma trˆa
.
n mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng cu’ a hˆe
.
, t´ u
.
c l`a r(A) = r(
¯
A).
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch ngu
.
`o
.
i ta go
.
i c´ac ˆa

n m`a hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a ch´ ung lˆa
.
p
nˆen di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n co
.
ba’ n l`a ˆa

n co
.
so
.
’ , c´ac ˆa

n c`on
la
.
i du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ˆa

n tu
.
.
do.
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap chu’ yˆe
´
u dˆe

gia’ i hˆe
.
tˆo

ng qu´at l`a:
1.
´
Ap du
.
ng quy t˘a
´
c Kronecker-Capelli.
2. Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap khu
.
’ dˆa
`
n c´ac ˆa

n (phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Gauss).
Quy t˘a
´
c Kronecker-Capelli gˆ o
`
m c´ac bu
.
´o
.
c sau.
1
+
Kha’ o s´at t´ınh tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch cu’ a hˆe
.
. T´ınh ha
.
ng r(
¯
A) v`a r(A)
a) Nˆe
´
u r(
¯
A) > r(A) th`ı hˆe
.
khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch.
b) Nˆe
´
u r(
¯
A) = r(A) = r th`ı hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch. T`ım di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con
co
.
so
.
’ cˆa´p r n`ao d´o (v`a do vˆa
.
y r ˆa

n co
.
so
.
’ tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng xem nhu
.
du
.
o
.
.
c
cho
.
n) v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng gˆo
`
m r phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
v´o
.
i n ˆa

n m`a (r n)-ma trˆa
.
n hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a n´o ch´ u
.
a c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a di
.
nh
th´ u
.
c con co
.
so
.
’ d˜a cho
.
n. C´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh c`on la
.
i c´o thˆe

bo’ qua.
2
+
T`ım nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng thu du
.
o
.
.
c
a) Nˆe
´
u r = n, ngh˜ıa l`a sˆo´ ˆa

n co
.
so
.
’ b˘a
`
ng sˆo´ ˆa

n cu’ a hˆe
.
th`ı hˆe
.
c´o
nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t v`a c´ o thˆe

t`ım theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Cramer.
b) Nˆe
´
u r < n, ngh˜ıa l`a sˆo´ ˆa

n co
.
so
.
’ b´e ho
.
n sˆo´ ˆa

n cu’ a hˆe
.
th`ı ta
chuyˆe

n n − r sˆo´ ha
.
ng c´o ch´ u
.
a ˆa

n tu
.
.
do cu’ a c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sang
vˆe
´
pha’ i dˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
Cramer dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac ˆa

n co
.
so
.
’ . Gia’ i hˆe
.
n`ay ta
thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´ ac biˆe

u th´ u
.
c cu’ a c´ac ˆa

n co
.
so
.
’ biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n qua c´ac ˆa

n tu
.
.
do.
2
L. Kronecker (1823-1891) l`a nh`a to´an ho
.
c D´ u
.
c,
A. Capelli (1855-1910) l`a nh`a to´an ho
.
c Italia.
4.2. Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 145
D´o l`a nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a hˆe
.
. Cho n −r ˆa

n tu
.
.
do nh˜ u
.
ng gi´a tri
.
cu
.
thˆe

t` uy ´ y ta t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c c´ ac gi´a tri
.
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng cu’ a ˆa

n co
.
so
.
’ . T` u
.
d´o thu
du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a hˆe
.
.
Tiˆe
´
p theo ta tr`ınh b`ay nˆo
.
i dung cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Gauss.
Khˆong gia’ m tˆo

ng qu´at, c´o thˆe

cho r˘a
`
ng a
11
,= 0. Nˆo
.
i dung cu’ a
phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Gauss l`a nhu
.
sau.
1
+
Thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p trˆen c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a
hˆe
.
dˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng m`a b˘a
´
t dˆa
`
u t` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
hai
mo
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆe
`
u khˆong ch´ u
.
a ˆa

n x
1
. K´ y hiˆe
.
u hˆe
.
n`ay l`a S
(1)
.
2
+
C˜ ung khˆong mˆa´t tˆo

ng qu´at, c´ o thˆe

cho r˘a
`
ng a

22
,= 0. La
.
i thu
.
.
c
hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p trˆen c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a hˆe
.
S
(1)
(tr` u
.
ra phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
nhˆa´t du
.
o
.
.
c gi˜ u
.
nguyˆen!) nhu
.
d˜a l`am trong bu
.
´o
.
c
1
+
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng m`a b˘a
´
t dˆa
`
u t` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh th´ u
.
ba
mo
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆe
`
u khˆong ch´ u
.
a ˆa

n x
2
,...
3
+
Sau mˆo
.
t sˆo´ bu
.
´o
.
c ta c´o thˆe

g˘a
.
p mˆo
.
t trong c´ac tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p sau
dˆay.
a) Thˆa´y ngay du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch.
b) Thu du
.
o
.
.
c mˆo
.
t hˆe
.
“tam gi´ ac”. Hˆe
.
n`ay c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t.
c) Thu du
.
o
.
.
c mˆo
.
t “hˆe
.
h`ınh thang” da
.
ng
a
11
x
1
+a
12
x
2
+ . . . +a
1n
x
n
= h
1
,
b
22
x
2
+ . . . +b
2n
x
n
= h
2
,
. . . . . . . . . . . .
b
rr
x
r
+ +b
rn
x
n
= h
r
,
0 = h
r+1
,
. . . . . .
0 = h
m
.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Nˆe
´
u c´ac sˆo´
h
r+1
, . . . , h
m
kh´ac 0 th`ı hˆe
.
vˆo nghiˆe
.
m. Nˆe
´
u h
r+1
=
= h
m
= 0 th`ı hˆe
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m. Cho x
r+1
= α, . . . , x
m
= β th`ı
thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
Cramer v´o
.
i ˆa

n l` a x
1
, . . . , x
r
. Gia’ i hˆe
.
d´o ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
146 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
nghiˆe
.
m x
1
= x
1
; x
2
= x
2
, . . . , x
r
= x
r
v`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
d˜a cho l`a
(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
r
, α, . . . , β).
Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng viˆe
.
c gia’ i hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng
ph´ap Gauss thu
.
.
c chˆa´t l` a thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p trˆen c´ac
h`ang cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n mo
.
’ rˆ o
.
ng cu’ a hˆe
.
du
.
a n´o vˆe
`
da
.
ng tam gi´ac hay da
.
ng
h`ınh thang.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Gia’ i hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
3x
1
−x
2
+x
3
= 6,
x
1
−5x
2
+x
3
= 12,
2x
1
+ 4x
2
= −6,
2x
1
+x
2
+ 3x
3
= 3,
5x
1
+ 4x
3
= 9.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Gia’ i. 1. T`ım ha
.
ng cu’ a c´ac ma trˆa
.
n
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
3 −1 1
1 −5 1
2 4 0
2 1 3
5 0 4
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
,
¯
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
3 −1 1
¸
¸
6
1 −5 1
¸
¸
12
2 4 0
¸
¸
−6
2 1 3
¸
¸
3
5 0 4
¸
¸
9
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
Ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c r(
¯
A) = r(A) = 3. Do d´o hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch.
Ta cho
.
n di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con co
.
so
.
’ l`a
∆ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −5 1
2 4 0
2 1 3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
v`ı ∆ = 36 ,= 0 v`a r(A) = 3 v`a c´ac ˆa

n co
.
so
.
’ l`a x
1
, x
2
, x
3
.
4.2. Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 147
2. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i hˆe
.
x
1
−5x
2
+x
3
= 12,
2x
1
+ 4x
2
= −6,
2x
1
+x
2
+ 3x
3
= 3.
_
¸
_
¸
_
Sˆo´ ˆa

n co
.
so
.
’ b˘a
`
ng sˆo´ ˆa

n cu’ a hˆe
.
nˆen hˆe
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t l`a x
1
= 1,
x
2
= −2, x
4
= 1.
V´ı du
.
2. Gia’ i hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
1
+ 2x
2
−3x
3
+ 4x
4
= 7,
2x
1
+ 4x
2
+ 5x
3
−x
4
= 2,
5x
1
+ 10x
2
+ 7x
3
+ 2x
4
= 11.
_
¸
_
¸
_
Gia’ i. T`ım ha
.
ng cu’ a c´ac ma trˆa
.
n
A =
_
¸
_
1 2 −3 4
2 4 5 −1
5 10 7 2
_
¸
_
,
¯
A =
_
¸
_
1 2 −3 4
¸
¸
7
2 4 5 −1
¸
¸
2
5 10 7 2
¸
¸
11
_
¸
_
Ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c r(
¯
A) = r(A) = 2. Do d´o hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch.
Ta c´o thˆe

lˆa´y di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con co
.
so
.
’ l`a
∆ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 −3
4 5
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
v`ı ∆ = 22 ,= 0 v` a cˆ a´p cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c = r(A) = 2. Khi cho
.
n ∆ l`am
di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con, ta c´o x
2
v`a x
3
l`a ˆa

n co
.
so
.
’ .
Hˆe
.
d˜a cho tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i hˆe
.
x
1
+ 2x
2
−3x
3
+ 4x
4
= 7,
2x
1
+ 4x
2
+ 5x
3
−x
4
= 2
hay
2x
2
−3x
3
= 7 −x
1
−4x
4
,
4x
2
+ 5x
3
= 2 −2x
1
+x
4
.
148 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
2. Ta c´o thˆe

gia’ i hˆe
.
theo quy t˘a
´
c Cramer. D˘a
.
t x
1
= α, x
4
= β ta
c´o
2x
2
−3x
3
= 7 −α −4β,
4x
2
+ 5x
3
= 2 −2α +β.
Theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Cramer ta t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c
x
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
7 −α −4β −3
2 −2α +β 5
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
22
=
41 −11α −17β
22
,
x
3
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 7 −α −4β
4 2 −2α +β
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
22
=
−24 + 18β
22

Do d´o tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
c´o da
.
ng
_
α;
41 −11α −17β
22
;
9β −12
11
; β
¸
¸
∀α, β ∈ R
_

V´ı du
.
3. B˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Gauss h˜ay gia’ i hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
4x
1
+ 2x
2
+x
3
= 7,
x
1
−x
2
+x
3
= −2,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
−3x
3
= 11,
4x
1
+x
2
−x
3
= 7.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
Gia’ i. Trong hˆe
.
d˜a cho ta c´o a
11
= 4 ,= 0 nˆen dˆe

cho tiˆe
.
n ta dˆo

i chˆo
˜
hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆa
`
u v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng
x
1
−x
2
+x
3
= −2,
4x
1
+ 2x
2
+x
3
= 7,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
−3x
3
= 11,
4x
1
+x
2
−x
3
= 7.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
4.2. Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 149
Tiˆe
´
p theo ta biˆe
´
n dˆo

i ma trˆa
.
n mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng
¯
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −1 1
¸
¸
−2
4 2 1
¸
¸
7
2 3 −3
¸
¸
11
4 1 −1
¸
¸
7
_
¸
¸
¸
_
h
2
−4h
1
→h

2
h
3
−2h
1
→h

3
h
4
−4h
1
→h

4
−→
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −1 1
¸
¸
−2
0 6 −3
¸
¸
15
0 5 −5
¸
¸
15
0 5 −5
¸
¸
15
_
¸
¸
¸
_
h
4
−h
3
→ h

4

−→
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −1 1
¸
¸
−2
0 6 −3
¸
¸
15
0 5 −5
¸
¸
15
0 0 0
¸
¸
0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
h
2
5 → h

2
h
3
6 → h

3
−→
−→
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −1 1
¸
¸
−2
0 30 −15
¸
¸
75
0 30 −30
¸
¸
90
0 0 0
¸
¸
0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
−→
h
3
−h
2
→h

3
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −1 1
¸
¸
−2
0 30 −15
¸
¸
75
0 0 −15
¸
¸
15
0 0 0
¸
¸
0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng
x
1
−x
2
+x
3
= −2
30x
2
−15x
3
= 75
−15x
3
= 15
_
¸
_
¸
_
v`a do d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m x
1
= 1, x
2
= 2, x
3
= −1.
V´ı du
.
4. Gia’ i hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
+x
4
+x
5
= −1,
2x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
4
+x
5
= 1,
2x
3
+ 2x
4
−x
5
= 1,
−2x
3
+ 4x
4
−3x
5
= 7,
6x
3
+ 3x
4
−x
5
= −1.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
150 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
Gia’ i. 1) B˘ a
`
ng c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p (chı ’ thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n trˆen c´ ac
h`ang !) ma trˆa
.
n mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng
¯
A du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
a vˆe
`
ma trˆa
.
n bˆa
.
c thang
A −→
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 1 1 1
¸
¸
−1
0 0 −2 1 −1
¸
¸
3
0 0 0 3 −2
¸
¸
4
0 0 0 0 0
¸
¸
0
0 0 0 0 0
¸
¸
0
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
2) Ma trˆa
.
n n`ay tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
+x
4
+x
5
= −1,
−2x
3
+x
4
−x
5
= 3,
3x
4
−2x
5
= 4.
_
¸
_
¸
_
hˆe
.
n`ay tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i hˆe
.
d˜a cho v`a c´o x
1
, x
3
, x
4
l`a ˆa

n co
.
so
.
’ , c` on
x
2
, x
5
l`a ˆa

n tu
.
.
do.
3) Chuyˆe

n c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng ch´ u
.
a ˆa

n tu
.
.
do sang vˆe
´
pha’ i ta c´ o
x
1
+x
3
+x
4
= −1 −x
2
−x
5
,
−2x
3
+x
4
= 3 +x
5
,
3x
4
= 4 + 2x
5
.
_
¸
_
¸
_
4) Gia’ i hˆe
.
n`ay (t` u
.
du
.
´o
.
i lˆen) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at
x
1
=
−3 −3x
2
−x
5
2
,
x
3
=
−5 −x
5
6
, x
4
=
4 + 2x
5
3

V´ı du
.
5. Gia’ i hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 5x
3
+ 7x
4
+ 9x
5
= 1,
x
1
−2x
2
+ 3x
3
−4x
4
+ 5x
5
= 2,
2x
1
+ 11x
2
+ 12x
3
+ 25x
4
+ 22x
5
= 4.
_
¸
_
¸
_
4.2. Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 151
Gia’ i. Ta thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p trˆen c´ ac h`ang cu’ a ma
trˆa
.
n mo
.
’ rˆo
.
ng:
¯
A =
_
¸
_
1 3 5 7 9
¸
¸
1
1 −2 3 −4 5
¸
¸
2
2 11 12 25 22
¸
¸
4
_
¸
_ h
2
−h
1
→ h

2
h
3
−2h
1
→ h

3
−→
−→
_
¸
_
1 3 5 7 9
¸
¸
1
0 −5 −2 −11 −4
¸
¸
1
0 5 2 11 4
¸
¸
2
_
¸
_
h
3
+h
2
→ h

3
−→
−→
_
¸
_
1 3 5 7 9
¸
¸
1
0 −5 −2 −11 −4
¸
¸
1
0 0 0 0 0
¸
¸
3
_
¸
_
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng r(
¯
A) = 3; r(A) = 2 v`a do vˆa
.
y r(
¯
A) > r(A) v`a hˆe
.
d˜a cho khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch. .
V´ı du
.
6. Gia’ i v`a biˆe
.
n luˆa
.
n hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh theo tham sˆo´ λ:
λx
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 1,
x
1
+λx
2
+x
3
= 1,
z
1
+x
2
+λx
3
= 1.
_
¸
_
¸
_
Gia’ i. Ta c´o
A =
_
¸
_
λ 1 1
1 λ 1
1 1 λ
_
¸
_ ⇒detA = (λ + 2)(λ −1)
2
= D,
tiˆe
´
p theo dˆe
˜
d`ang thu du
.
o
.
.
c
D
x
1
= D
x
2
= D
x
3
= (λ −1)
2
.
1
+
Nˆe
´
u D ,= 0, t´ u
.
c l`a nˆe
´
u (λ +2)(λ −1)
2
,= 0 ⇔λ ,= −2 v`a λ ,= 1
th`ı hˆe
.
d˜a cho c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t v` a theo c´ac cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Cramer ta c´o
x
1
= x
2
= x
3
=
1
λ + 2

152 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
2
+
Nˆe
´
u λ = −2 th`ı D = 0 v`a ta c´o
A =
_
¸
_
−2 1 1
1 −2 1
1 1 −2
_
¸
_
⇒ r(A) = 2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
−2 1
1 −2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
,= 0
_
,
¯
A =
_
¸
_
−2 1 1
¸
¸
1
1 −2 1
¸
¸
1
1 1 −2
¸
¸
1
_
¸
_
.
B˘a
`
ng c´ach thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p trˆen c´ac ma trˆa
.
n
¯
A ta
thu du
.
o
.
.
c r(
¯
A) = 3.
Do d´o v´o
.
i λ = −2 th`ı r(
¯
A) > r(A) v`a hˆe
.
vˆo nghiˆe
.
m.
3
+
Nˆe
´
u λ = 1 th`ı detA = 0 v`a dˆe
˜
thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng r(
¯
A) = r(A) = 1 < 3
(sˆo´ ˆa

n cu’ a hˆe
.
l`a 3). T` u
.
d´o suy ra hˆe
.
c´o vˆo sˆo´ nghiˆe
.
m phu
.
thuˆo
.
c hai
tham sˆo´: x
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 1.
V´ı du
.
7. Gia’ i v`a biˆe
.
n luˆa
.
n hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh theo tham sˆo´
λx
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 1,
x
1
+λx
2
+x
3
= λ,
x
1
+x
2
+λx
3
= λ
2
.
_
¸
_
¸
_
Gia’ i. Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a hˆe
.
b˘a
`
ng
D =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
λ 1 1
1 λ 1
1 1 λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (λ −1)
2
(λ + 2).
Nˆe
´
u D ,= 0 ⇔ λ
1
,= 1, λ
2
,= −2 th`ı hˆe
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t. Ta t´ınh
4.2. Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 153
D
x
1
, D
x
2
, D
x
3
:
D
x
1
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 1 1
λ λ 1
λ
2
1 λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −(λ −1)
2
(λ + 1),
D
x
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
λ 1 1
1 λ 1
1 λ
2
λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (λ −1)
2
,
D
x
3
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
λ 1 1
1 λ λ
1 1 λ
2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= (λ −1)
2
(λ + 1)
2
.
T` u
.
d´o theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Cramer ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
x
1
= −
λ + 1
λ + 2
, x
2
=
1
λ + 2
, x
3
=
(λ + 1)
2
λ + 2

Ta c`on x´et gi´a tri
.
λ = 1 v`a λ = −2.
Khi λ = 1 hˆe
.
d˜a cho tro
.
’ th`anh
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 1,
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 1,
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 1.
_
¸
_
¸
_
Hˆe
.
n`ay c´o vˆo sˆo´ nghiˆe
.
m phu
.
thuˆo
.
c hai tham sˆo´. Nˆe
´
u d˘a
.
t x
2
= α,
x
3
= β th`ı
x
1
=1 −α −β,
α, β ∈ R,
v`a nhu
.
vˆa
.
y tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p nghiˆe
.
m c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng (1 − α −
β; α; β; ∀α, β ∈ R).
Khi λ = −2 th`ı hˆe
.
d˜a cho tro
.
’ th`anh
−2x
1
+x
2
+x
2
= 2,
x
1
−2x
2
+x
3
= −2,
x
1
+x
2
−2x
3
= 4.
_
¸
_
¸
_
154 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
B˘a
`
ng c´ach cˆo
.
ng ba phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh la
.
i v´o
.
i nhau ta thˆa´y ngay hˆe
.
d˜a cho
vˆo nghiˆe
.
m.
V´ı du
.
8. X´et hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
1
+ 2x
2
+λx
3
= 3,
3x
1
−x
2
−λx
3
= 2,
2x
1
+x
2
+ 3x
3
= µ.
_
¸
_
¸
_
V´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
n`ao cu’ a c´ac tham sˆo´ λ v`a µ th`ı
1) hˆe
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t ?
2) hˆe
.
vˆo nghiˆe
.
m ?
3) hˆe
.
c´o vˆo sˆo´ nghiˆe
.
m ?
Gia’ i. Ta viˆe
´
t c´ ac ma trˆa
.
n
A =
_
¸
_
1 2 λ
3 −1 −λ
2 1 3
_
¸
_;
¯
A =
_
¸
_
1 2 λ
¸
¸
3
3 −1 −λ
¸
¸
2
2 1 3
¸
¸
µ
_
¸
_
Ta c´o
D = detA =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2 λ
3 −1 −λ
2 1 3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 2λ −21.
T` u
.
d´o
1
+
Hˆe
.
d˜a cho c´ o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t khi v`a chı ’ khi
detA ,= 0 ⇔ λ ,=
21
2
, µ t` uy ´ y.
2
+
Dˆe

hˆe
.
vˆo nghiˆe
.
m dˆa
`
u tiˆen n´o pha’ i tho’a m˜an
detA = 0 ⇔ λ =
21
2

Khi λ =
21
2
th`ı detA = 0 v`a do vˆa
.
y
r(A) < 3.
4.2. Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 155
V`ı di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 2
3 −1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −7 ,= 0 nˆen:
r(A) = 2 khi λ =
21
2

Theo di
.
nh l´ y Kronecker-Capelli hˆe
.
d˜a cho vˆo nghiˆe
.
m khi v`a chı ’ khi
r(
¯
A) > r(A) = 2.
Ta t`ım diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n dˆe

hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c n`ay tho’a m˜an. Cu
.
thˆe

l`a t`ım r(
¯
A) khi
λ =
21
2
. Ta c´o
¯
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 2
21
2
¸
¸
¸ 3
3 −1 −
21
2
¸
¸
¸ 2
2 1 3
¸
¸
µ
_
¸
¸
¸
_
h
1
2 → h

1
h
2
2 → h

2
−→
−→
_
¸
_
2 4 21
¸
¸
6
6 −2 −21
¸
¸
4
2 1 3
¸
¸
µ
_
¸
_h
2
−3h
1
→h

2
h
3
−h
1
→h

3
−→
−→
_
¸
_
2 4 21
¸
¸
6
0 −14 −84
¸
¸
−14
0 −3 −18
¸
¸
µ −6
_
¸
_h
2

_
−1
14
_
→ h

2
−→
−→
_
¸
_
2 4 21
¸
¸
6
0 1 6
¸
¸
1
0 −3 −18
¸
¸
µ −6
_
¸
_
h
3
+ 3h
1
→h

3
−→
_
¸
_
2 4 21
¸
¸
6
0 1 6
¸
¸
1
0 0 0
¸
¸
µ −3
_
¸
_
T` u
.
kˆe
´
t qua’ biˆe
´
n dˆo

i ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
r(
¯
A) =
_
_
_
2 nˆe
´
u µ = 3,
3 nˆe
´
u µ ,= 3,
156 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
V`ı r(A) = 2 nˆen hˆe
.
d˜a cho vˆo nghiˆe
.
m nˆe
´
u
λ =
21
2
v`a µ ,= 3.
3
+
Hˆe
.
d˜a cho c´ o vˆo sˆo´ nghiˆe
.
m khi v`a chı ’ khi
r(
¯
A) = r(A) = r < 3
t´ u
.
c l`a khi ha
.
ng cu’ a A v`a
¯
A b˘a
`
ng nhau nhu
.
ng b´e ho
.
n sˆo´ ˆa

n cu’ a hˆe
.
l`a
3. T` u
.
lˆa
.
p luˆa
.
n trˆen suy r˘a
`
ng hˆe
.
c´o vˆo sˆo´ nghiˆe
.
m nˆe
´
u
r(
¯
A) = r(A) = 2 ⇔
_
_
_
λ =
21
2
,
µ = 3.
Khi d´o hˆe
.
d˜a cho tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i hˆe
.
2x
1
+ 4x
2
= 6 −21α,
6x
1
−2x
2
= 4 + 21α.
_
α = x
3
,
v`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a n´o l`a
_
1 +
3
2
α, 1 −6α, α
¸
¸
∀α ∈ R
_
.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
1.
6x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 4x
3
= 3;
3x
1
−x
2
+ 2x
3
= 5.
_
(DS. x
2
= −
7
5
, x
3
=
18 −15x
1
10
, x
1
t` uy ´ y)
2.
x
1
−x
2
+x
3
= −1,
2x
1
+x
2
−x
3
= 5.
_
(DS. x
1
=
4 + 2x
3
3
, x
2
=
7 −x
3
3
, x
3
t` uy ´ y)
4.2. Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 157
3.
x
1
+x
2
+ 2x
3
+x
4
= 1,
x
1
−2x
2
−x
4
= −2.
_
(DS. x
3
=
1
2
(−2x
1
+x
2
−1), x
4
= x
1
−2x
2
+ 2,
x
1
, x
2
t` uy ´ y)
4.
x
1
+ 5x
2
+ 4x
3
+ 3x
4
= 1,
2x
1
−x
2
+ 2x
3
−x
4
= 0,
5x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 8x
3
+x
4
= 1.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= −
14
11
x
3
+
2
11
x
4
+
1
11
, x
2
= −
6
11
x
3

7
11
x
4
+
2
11
,
x
3
, x
4
t` uy ´ y)
5.
3x
1
+ 5x
2
+ 2x
3
+ 4x
4
= 3,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 4x
3
+ 5x
4
= 1,
5x
1
+ 9x
2
−2x
3
+ 2x
4
= 9.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. Hˆe
.
vˆo nghiˆe
.
m)
6.
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
= 14,
3x
1
+ 2x
2
+x
3
= 10,
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 6,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
−x
3
= 5,
x
1
+x
2
= 3.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= 1, x
2
= 2, x
3
= 3)
7.
x
1
+ 3x
2
−2x
3
+x
4
+x
5
= 1,
x
1
+ 3x
2
−x
3
+ 3x
4
+ 2x
5
= 3,
x
1
+ 3x
2
−3x
3
−x
4
= 2.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. Hˆe
.
vˆo nghiˆe
.
m)
8.
5x
1
+x
2
−3x
3
= −6,
2x
1
−5x
2
+ 7x
3
= 9,
4x
1
+ 2x
2
−4x
3
= −7,
5x
1
−2x
2
+ 2x
3
= 1.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= −
1
3
, x
2
=
1
6
, x
3
=
3
2
)
158 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
9.
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
+x
4
= 1,
x
1
+x
2
−2x
3
−x
4
= 0,
x
1
+x
2
−4x
3
+ 3x
4
= 2,
x
1
+x
2
+ 7x
3
+ 5x
4
= 3.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
=
2 −3x
2
−2x
4
3
, x
3
=
1 −2x
4
3
, x
2
, x
4
t` uy ´ y)
10.
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
+ 4x
4
= 5,
x
2
+ 2x
3
+ 3x
4
= 1,
x
1
+ 3x
3
+ 4x
4
= 2,
x
1
+x
2
+ 5x
3
+ 6x
4
= 1.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
=
15
4
, x
2
=
3
2
, x
3
= −
13
4
, x
4
= 2)
11.
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
+ 4x
4
= 30,
−x
1
+ 2x
2
−3x
3
+ 4x
4
= 10,
x
2
−x
3
+x
4
= 3,
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
+x
4
= 10.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= 1, x
2
= 2, x
3
= 3, x
4
= 4)
12.
5x
1
+x
2
−3x
3
= −6,
2x
1
−5x
2
+ 7x
3
= 9,
4x
1
+ 2x
2
−4x
3
= −7,
5x
1
−2x
2
+ 2x
3
= 1.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= −
1
3
, x
2
=
1
6
, x
3
=
3
2
)
13.
x
1
−x
2
+x
3
−x
4
= 4,
x
1
+x
2
+ 2x
3
+ 3x
4
= 8,
2x
1
+ 4x
2
+ 5x
3
+ 10x
4
= 20,
2x
1
−4x
2
+x
3
−6x
4
= 4.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= 6 −
3
2
x
3
−x
4
, x
2
= 2 −
1
2
x
3
−2x
4
, x
3
v`a x
4
t` uy ´ y)
4.2. Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 159
14.
x
1
−2x
2
+ 3x
3
−4x
4
= 2,
3x
1
+ 3x
2
−5x
3
+x
4
= −3,
−2x
1
+x
2
+ 2x
3
−3x
4
= 5,
3x
1
+ 3x
3
−10x
4
= 8.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. Hˆe
.
vˆo nghiˆe
.
m)
15.
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
−2x
4
= 1,
2x
1
−x
2
−2x
3
−3x
4
= 2,
3x
1
+ 2x
2
−x
3
+ 2x
4
= −5,
2x
1
−3x
2
+ 2x
3
+x
4
= 11.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
=
2
3
, x
2
= −
43
18
, x
3
=
13
9
, x
4
= −
7
18
)
16.
x
1
+ 2x
2
−3x
3
+ 5x
4
= 1,
x
1
+ 3x
2
−13x
3
+ 22x
4
= −1,
3x
1
+ 5x
2
+x
3
−2x
4
= 5,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 4x
3
−7x
4
= 4.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= −17x
3
+ 29x
4
+ 5, x
2
= 10x
3
−17x
4
−2, x
3
, x
4
t` uy ´ y)
17.
x
1
−5x
2
−8x
3
+x
4
= 3,
3x
1
+x
2
−3x
3
−5x
4
= 1,
x
1
−7x
3
+ 2x
4
= −5,
11x
2
+ 20x
3
−9x
4
= 2.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. Hˆe
.
vˆo nghiˆe
.
m)
18.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
x
2
−3x
3
+ 4x
4
= −5,
x
1
−2x
3
+ 3x
4
= −4,
3x
1
+ 2x
2
−5x
4
= 12,
4x
1
+ 3x
2
−5x
3
= 5.
(DS. x
1
= 1, x
2
= 2, x
3
= 1, x
4
= −1)
Kha’ o s´at t´ınh tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch cu’ a c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh sau dˆay
19.
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
−x
4
= 0,
x
1
−x
2
−x
3
+x
4
= 1,
x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 3x
3
−3x
4
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
160 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
(DS. Hˆe
.
khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch)
20.
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
+x
4
= 1,
x
1
+x
2
+ 2x
3
+x
4
= 0,
x
1
+x
2
−x
3
+x
4
= 3.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. Hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch)
21.
x
1
−2x
2
+x
3
+x
4
= 1,
x
1
−2x
2
+x
3
−x
4
= −1,
x
1
−2x
2
+x
3
+ 5x
4
= 5.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. Hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch)
22.
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
+x
4
+x
5
= 7,
3x
1
+ 2x
2
+x
3
+x
4
−3x
5
= −2,
x
2
+ 2x
3
+ 2x
4
+ 6x
5
= 23,
5x
1
+ 4x
2
+ 3x
3
+ 3x
4
−x
5
= 12.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. Hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch)
23.
2x
1
+x
2
−x
3
+x
4
= 1,
3x
1
−2x
2
+ 2x
3
−3x
4
= 2,
5x
1
+x
2
−x
3
+ 2x
4
= −1,
2x
1
−x
2
+x
3
−3x
4
= 4.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. Hˆe
.
khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch)
24.
3x
1
+x
2
−2x
3
+x
4
−x
5
= 1,
2x
1
−x
2
+ 7x
3
−3x
4
+ 5x
5
= 2,
x
1
+ 3x
2
−2x
3
+ 5x
4
−7x
5
= 3,
3x
1
−2x
2
+ 7x
3
−5x
4
+ 8x
5
= 3.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. Hˆe
.
khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch)
25.
5x
1
+ 7x
2
+ 4x
3
+ 5x
4
−8x
5
+ 3x
6
= 1,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 3x
3
−6x
4
+ 7x
5
−9x
6
= 2,
7x
1
+ 9x
2
+ 3x
3
+ 7x
4
−5x
5
−8x
6
= 5.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. Hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch)
4.2. Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 161
Kha’ o s´at t´ınh tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch v`a gia’ i c´ ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (nˆe
´
u hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch)
26.
2x
1
−x
2
+ 3x
3
= 3,
3x
1
+x
2
−5x
3
= 0,
4x
1
−x
2
+x
4
= 3,
x
1
+ 3x
2
−13x
3
= −6.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= 1, x
2
= 2, x
3
= 1)
27.
2x
1
−x
2
+x
3
−x
4
= 1,
2x
1
−x
2
−3x
4
= 2,
3x
1
−x
3
+x
4
= −3,
2x
1
+ 2x
2
−2x
3
+ 5x
4
= −6.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= 0, x
2
= 2, x
3
=
5
3
, x
4
= −
4
3
)
28.
2x
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 2,
x
1
+ 3x
2
+x
3
= 5,
x
1
+x
2
+ 5x
3
= −7,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
−5x
3
= 14.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= 1, x
2
= 2, x
3
= −2)
29.
2x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 4x
3
+ 3x
4
= 0,
4x
1
+ 6x
2
+ 9x
3
+ 8x
4
= −3,
6x
1
+ 9x
2
+ 9x
3
+ 4x
4
= 8.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. x
1
=
7
2

3x
2
2
, x
3
= −1, x
4
= −1, x
2
t` uy ´ y)
30.
3x
1
+ 3x
2
−6x
3
−2x
4
= −1,
6x
1
+x
2
−2x
4
= −2,
6x
1
−7x
2
+ 21x
3
+ 4x
4
= 3,
9x
1
+ 4x
2
+ 2x
4
= 3,
12x
1
−6x
2
+ 21x
3
+ 2x
4
= 1.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
=
7
5
, x
2
= −4, x
3
= −
11
5
, x
4
=
16
5
)
162 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
31.
x
1
+x
2
+ 2x
3
+ 3x
4
= 1,
3x
1
−x
2
−x
3
−2x
4
= −4,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
−x
3
−x
4
= −6,
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
−x
4
= −4.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= x
2
= −1, x
3
= 0, x
4
= 1)
32.
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
−2x
4
= 6,
2x
1
−x
2
−2x
3
−3x
4
= 8,
3x
1
+ 2x
2
−x
3
+ 2x
4
= 4,
2x
1
−3x
2
+ 2x
3
+x
4
= −8.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= 1, x
2
= 2, x
3
= −1, x
4
= −2)
33.
x
2
−3x
3
+ 4x
4
= −5,
x
1
−2x
3
+ 3x
4
= −4,
3x
1
+ 2x
2
−5x
4
= 12,
4x
1
+ 3x
2
−5x
3
= 5.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= 1, x
2
= 2, x
3
= 1, x
4
= −1)
34.
x
1
+x
2
−x
3
+x
4
= 4,
2x
1
−x
2
+ 3x
3
−2x
4
= 1,
x
1
−x
3
+ 2x
4
= 6,
3x
1
−x
2
+x
3
−x
4
= 0.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= 1, x
2
= 2, x
3
= 3, x
4
= 4)
35.
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
+x
4
= 0,
x
2
+x
3
+x
4
+x
5
= 0,
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
4
= 2,
x
2
+ 2x
3
+ 3x
4
= −2,
x
3
+ 2x
4
+ 3x
5
= 2.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= 1, x
2
= −1, x
3
= 1, x
4
= −1, x
5
= 1)
4.2. Hˆe
.
t` uy ´ y c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 163
36.
3x
1
−x
2
+x
3
+ 2x
5
= 18,
2x
1
−5x
2
+x
4
+x
5
= −7,
x
1
−x
4
+ 2x
5
= 8,
2x
2
+x
3
+x
4
−x
5
= 10,
x
1
+x
2
−3x
3
+x
4
= 1.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= 5, x
2
= 4, x
3
= 3, x
4
= 1, x
5
= 2)
164 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
Gia’ i v`a biˆe
.
n luˆa
.
n hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh theo tham sˆo´
37.
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
= −1,
2x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 2x
3
= 3,
5x
1
+ 6x
2
+ 7x
3
= λ.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. a) Nˆe
´
u λ = 4 nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at l`a x
1
= 5 +x
3
,
x
2
=
−7 −4x
3
2
, x
3
t` uy ´ y;
b) Nˆe
´
u λ ,= 4 hˆe
.
khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch)
38.
2x
1
−x
2
+λx
3
= 0,
x
1
−2x
2
−2x
3
= −3,
x
1
+x
2
+ 3x
3
= −1.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. a) Nˆe
´
u λ ,= 1, hˆe
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t
x
1
=
−5λ −11
3(λ −1)
, x
2
=
2λ −22
3(λ −1)
, x
3
=
4
λ −1
;
b) Nˆe
´
u λ = 1 hˆe
.
khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch)
39.
λx
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 1,
x
1
+λx
2
+x
3
= 1,
x
1
+x
2
+λx
3
= 1.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. a) Nˆe
´
u λ ,= −2, 1 hˆe
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t x
1
= x
2
= x
3
=
1
λ + 2
b) Nˆe
´
u λ = −2 hˆe
.
khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch;
c) Nˆe
´
u λ = 1 hˆe
.
c´o vˆo sˆo´ nghiˆe
.
m phu
.
thuˆo
.
c hai tham sˆo´ v`a x
1
+
x
2
+x
3
= 1)
40.
x
1
+x
2
+ 2x
3
= −3,
3x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 4x
3
= a,
5x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 6x
3
= a
2
.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. a) Nˆe
´
u a = −1 ho˘a
.
c a = 3 hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch v`a x
1
= 5,
x
2
= −8 −2x
3
, x
3
t` uy ´ y;
b) Nˆe
´
u a ,= −1, a ,= 3 th`ı hˆe
.
khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch)
4.3. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t 165
41.
(1 +λ)x
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 1,
x
1
+ (1 +λ)x
2
+x
3
= λ,
x
1
+x
2
+ (1 +λ)x
3
= λ
2
.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. a) Nˆe
´
u λ(λ + 3) ,= 0 hˆe
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t
x
1
=
2 −λ
2
λ(λ + 3)
, x
2
=
2λ −1
λ(λ + 3)
, x
3
=
λ
3
+ 2λ
2
−λ −1
λ(λ + 3)

b) Nˆe
´
u λ = 0 ho˘a
.
c λ = −3 hˆe
.
khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch)
42.
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
+λx
4
= 1,
x
1
+x
2
+λx
3
+x
4
= −1,
x
1
+λx
2
+x
3
+x
4
= 0,
λx
1
+x
2
+x
3
+x
4
= 0.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. a) Khi λ ,= −3 v`a λ ,= 1 hˆe
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t;
x
1
= 0, x
2
= 0, x
3
= −
1
λ −1
, x
4
=
1
λ −1

b) Khi λ = −3 nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at l`a
x
1
=
1
4
+x
4
; x
2
=
1
4
+x
4
, x
3
=
1
2
+x
4
; x
3
t` uy ´ y;
c) Khi λ = 1 hˆe
.
khˆong tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch)
4.3 Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n
nhˆa
´
t
Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t nˆe
´
u sˆo´ ha
.
ng tu
.
.
do cu’ a mˆo
˜
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 0.
Hˆe
.
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t c´ o da
.
ng
a
11
x
1
+a
12
x
2
+ +a
1n
x
n
= 0,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a
m1
x
1
+a
m2
x
2
+ +a
mn
x
n
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(4.10)
166 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t luˆon luˆon tu
.
o
.
ng th´ıch v`ı n´o c´ o ´ıt nhˆa´t
l`a nghiˆe
.
m-khˆong. Nghiˆe
.
m n`ay du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a nghiˆe
.
m tˆa
`
m thu
.
`o
.
ng.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. 1
+
Hˆe
.
(4.10) c´o nghiˆe
.
m khˆong tˆ a
`
m thu
.
`o
.
ng khi v` a chı’ khi
ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a hˆe
.
b´e ho
.
n sˆo´ ˆa

n cu’ a hˆe
.
d´ o.
2
+
Hˆe
.
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t n phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i n ˆa

n c´ o nghiˆe
.
m khˆong tˆ a
`
m
thu
.
`o
.
ng khi v`a chı ’ khi di
.
nh th´ u
.
c D cu’ a hˆe
.
b˘a
`
ng 0.
Gia’ su
.
’ x
1
= α
1
, x
2
= α
2
, . . . , x
n
= α
n
l`a nghiˆe
.
m khˆong tˆa
`
m thu
.
`o
.
ng
n`ao d´o cu’ a hˆe
.
(4.10). Nghiˆe
.
m n`ay c´ o thˆe

xem nhu
.
mˆo
.
t h`ang gˆo
`
m n
phˆa
`
n tu
.

e
1
= (α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
n
).
Khi d´o theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa, h`ang λe
1
= (λα
1
, . . . , λα
n
) c˜ ung l`a nghiˆe
.
m
cu’ a (4.10). Gia’ su
.
’ h`ang
e
2
= (β
1
, β
2
, . . . , β
n
)
l`a mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m kh´ac cu’ a (4.10). Khi d´o h`ang tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
λe
1
+µe
2
def
=
_
λ
1
α
1
+µβ
1
, λ
1
α
2
+µβ
2
, . . . , λα
n
+µβ
n
)
c˜ ung l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a (4.10). T` u
.
d´o: mo
.
i tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh c´ac nghiˆe
.
m
cu’ a hˆe
.
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t (4.10) c˜ ung l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a n´o.
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 1. 1
+
C´ac h`ang e
1
, e
2
, . . . , e
m
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n
t´ınh nˆe
´
u c´o thˆe

t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c c´ ac sˆo´ γ
1
, γ
2
, . . . , γ
m
khˆong dˆ o
`
ng th`o
.
i b˘a
`
ng 0
sao cho
γ
1
e
1

2
e
2
+ +γ
m
e
m
= 0. (4.11)
2
+
Nˆe
´
u c´ ac sˆo´ γ
i
, i = 1, m nhu
.
vˆa
.
y khˆ ong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i (t´ u
.
c l`a d˘a

ng
th´ u
.
c (4.11) chı ’ tho’a m˜an khi γ
1
= γ
2
= = γ
m
= 0) th`ı ngu
.
`o
.
i ta
n´oi r˘a
`
ng e
1
, e
2
, . . . , e
m
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 2. Hˆe
.
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh c´ac nghiˆe
.
m
e
1
, e
2
, . . . , e
m
4.3. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t 167
cu’ a hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (4.10) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n cu’ a n´o nˆe
´
u
mˆo
˜
i nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
(4.10) dˆe
`
u l` a tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a c´ac nghiˆe
.
m
e
1
, e
2
, . . . , e
m
.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y (vˆe
`
su
.
.
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n). Nˆe
´
u ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆ a
.
n
cu’ a hˆe
.
(4.10) b´e ho
.
n sˆo´ ˆa

n th`ı hˆe
.
(4.10) c´o hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n.
168 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t`ım hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n
1) Dˆa
`
u tiˆen cˆa
`
n t´ach ra hˆe
.
ˆa

n co
.
so
.
’ (gia’ su
.
’ d´o l`a x
1
, . . . , x
r
) v`a thu
du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
a
11
x
1
+ +a
1r
x
r
= −a
1r+1
x
r+1
− −a
1n
x
n
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a
r1
x
1
+ +a
rr
x
r
= −a
rr+1
x
r+1
− −a
rn
x
n
.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(4.12)
2) Gia’ su
.
’ hˆe
.
(4.12) c´ o nghiˆe
.
m l`a
x
i
=
_
α
(i)
1
, α
(i)
2
, . . . , α
(i)
r
; x
r+1
, . . . , x
n
)
_
; i = 1, r.
Cho c´ ac ˆa

n tu
.
.
do c´ac gi´a tri
.
x
r+1
= 1, x
r+2
= 0, . . . , x
n
= 0
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
e
1
=
_
α
(1)
1
, α
(1)
2
, . . . , α
(1)
r
; 1, 0, . . . , 0
_
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
, v´o
.
i x
r+1
= 0, x
r+2
= 1, x
r+3
= 0, . . . , x
n
= 0 ta c´o
e
2
=
_
α
(2)
1
, . . . , α
(2)
r
; 0, 1, 0, . . . , 0
_
, . . .
v`a sau c` ung v´o
.
i x
r+1
= 0, . . . , x
n−1
= 0, x
n
= 1 ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
e
k
= (α
(k)
1
, . . . , α
(k)
r
, 0, . . . , 1), k = n −r.
Hˆe
.
c´ac nghiˆe
.
m e
1
, e
2
, . . . , e
k
v` u
.
a thu du
.
o
.
.
c l`a hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at v`a hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n cu’ a hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh
2x
1
+x
2
−x
3
+x
4
= 0,
4x
1
+ 2x
2
+x
3
−3x
4
= 0.
_
4.3. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t 169
Gia’ i. 1) V`ı sˆo´ phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh b´e ho
.
n sˆo´ ˆa

n nˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a
hˆe
.
l`a vˆ o ha
.
n.
Hiˆe

n nhiˆen ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a hˆe
.
b˘a
`
ng 2 v`ı trong c´ ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
con cˆ a´p 2 c´o di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 −1
4 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
,= 0.
Do vˆa
.
y hˆe
.
d˜a cho tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i hˆe
.
2x
1
−x
3
= −x
1
−x
4
,
4x
1
+x
3
= −2x
2
+ 3x
4
.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra
x
1
=
−3x
2
+ 2x
4
6
, x
3
=
5
3
x
4
. (4.13)
Do d´o tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
c´ o da
.
ng
_
−3α + 2β
6
; α;
5
3
β; β
¸
¸
∀α, β ∈ R
_
(*)
2) Nˆe
´
u trong (4.13) ta cho c´ ac ˆa

n tu
.
.
do bo
.
’ i c´ ac gi´a tri
.
lˆa
`
n lu
.
o
.
.
t
b˘a
`
ng c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a c´ac cˆo
.
t di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 0
0 1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
(,= 0)
th`ı thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´ac nghiˆe
.
m
e
1
=
_

1
2
; 1; 0; 0
_
v`a e
2
=
_
1
3
; 0;
5
3
; 1
_
.
D´o l`a hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n cu’ a hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho v`a nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng
qu´at cu’ a hˆe
.
d˜a cho c´ o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
X = λe
1
+µe
2
= λ
_

1
2
; 1; 0; 0
_

_
1
3
; 0;
5
3
; 1
_
170 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
trong d´o λ v`a µ l`a c´ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ t` uy ´ y:
X =
_
−3λ + 2µ
6
; λ;
5
3
µ; µ
¸
¸
∀λ, µ ∈ R
_
.
Khi cho λ v`a µ c´ac gi´ a tri
.
sˆo´ kh´ac nhau ta s˜e thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´ac nghiˆe
.
m
riˆeng kh´ac nhau.
V´ı du
.
2. Gia’ i hˆe
.
x
1
+ 2x
2
−x
3
= 0,
−3x
1
−6x
2
+ 3x
3
= 0,
7x
1
+ 14x
2
−7x
3
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
Gia’ i. Hˆe
.
d˜a cho tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
1
+ 2x
2
−x
3
= 0.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
l`a:
x
1
= −2x
2
+x
3
,
x
2
= x
2
,
x
3
= x
3
; x
2
v`a x
3
t` uy ´ y,
hay du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng kh´ac
e = (−2x
2
+x
3
; x
2
; x
3
).
Cho x
2
= 1, x
3
= 0 ta c´o
e
1
= (−2; 1; 0),
la
.
i cho x
2
= 0, x
3
= 1 ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
e
2
= (1, 0, 1).
Hai h`ang e
1
v`a e
2
l`a dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh v`a mo
.
i nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
dˆe
`
u c´o
da
.
ng
X = λe
1
+µe
2
= (−2λ +µ; λ; µ)
4.3. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t 171
trong d´o λ v`a µ l`a c´ac sˆo´ t` uy ´ y.
V´ı du
.
3. T`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at v`a hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n cu’ a hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh
x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 3x
3
+ 2x
4
+ 4x
5
= 0,
x
1
+ 4x
2
+ 5x
3
+ 3x
4
+ 7x
5
= 0,
2x
1
+ 5x
2
+ 4x
3
+x
4
+ 5x
5
= 0,
x
1
+ 5x
2
+ 7x
3
+ 6x
4
+ 10x
5
= 0.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
Gia’ i. B˘a
`
ng c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
cˆa´p, dˆe
˜
d`ang thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng hˆe
.
d˜a cho
c´o thˆe

du
.
a vˆe
`
hˆe
.
bˆa
.
c thang sau dˆay
x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 3x
3
+ 2x
4
+ 4x
5
= 0,
x
2
+ 2x
3
+x
4
+ 3x
5
= 0,
x
4
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
Ta s˜e cho
.
n x
1
, x
2
v`a x
4
l`am ˆa

n co
.
so
.
’ ; c`on x
3
v`a x
5
l`am ˆa

n tu
.
.
do. Ta
c´o hˆe
.
x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 2x
4
= −3x
3
−4x
5
,
x
2
+x
4
= −2x
3
−3x
5
,
x
4
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
Gia’ i hˆe
.
n`ay ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at l`a
x
1
= 3x
3
+ 5x
5
,
x
2
= −2x
3
−3x
5
,
x
4
= 0.
Cho c´ac ˆa

n tu
.
.
do lˆa
`
n lu
.
o
.
.
t c´ac gi´a tri
.
b˘a
`
ng x
3
= 1, x
5
= 0 (khi d´o
x
1
= 3, x
2
= 2, x
3
= 1, x
4
= 0, x
5
= 0) v`a cho x
3
= 0, x
5
= 1 (khi d´o
x
1
= 5, x
2
= 3, x
3
= 0, x
4
= 0, x
5
= 1) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n
e
1
= (3; −2; 1; 0; 0),
e
2
= (5; −3; 0; 0; 1).
172 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
T` u
.
d´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at c´ o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
X = λ(3; −2; 1; 0; 0) +µ(5; −3; 0; 0; 1)
= (3λ + 5µ; −2λ −3µ; λ; 0; µ); ∀λ, µ ∈ R.
B˘a
`
ng c´ach cho λ v`a µ nh˜ u
.
ng gi´a tri
.
sˆo´ kh´ac nhau ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´ac
nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng kh´ac nhau. Dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i, mo
.
i nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng c´o thˆe

thu
du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
d´o b˘a
`
ng c´ach cho
.
n c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ λ v`a µ th´ıch ho
.
.
p.
4.3. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t 173
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t
1.
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
= 0,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 4x
3
= 0,
3x
1
+ 4x
2
+ 5x
3
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
.
(DS. x
1
= α, x
2
= −2α, x
3
= α, ∀α ∈ R)
2.
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 0,
3x
1
−x
2
−x
3
= 0,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
+x
3
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
. (DS. x
1
= x
2
= x
3
= 0)
3.
3x
1
−4x
2
+x
3
−x
4
= 0,
6x
1
−8x
2
+ 2x
3
+ 3x
4
= 0.
_
(DS. x
1
=
4α −β
3
, x
2
= α, x
3
= β, x
4
= 0; α, β ∈ R t` uy ´ y)
4.
3x
1
+ 2x
2
−8x
3
+ 6x
4
= 0,
x
1
−x
2
+ 4x
3
−3x
4
= 0.
_
(DS. x
1
= 0, x
2
= α, x
3
= β, x
4
=
−α + 4β
3
; α, β ∈ R t` uy ´ y)
5.
x
1
−2x
2
+ 3x
3
−x
4
= 0,
x
1
+x
2
−x
3
+ 2x
4
= 0,
4x
1
−5x
2
+ 8x
3
+x
4
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= −
1
4
α, x
2
= α, x
3
=
3
4
α, x
4
= 0; α ∈ R t` uy ´ y)
6.
3x
1
−x
2
+ 2x
3
+x
4
= 0,
x
1
+x
2
−x
3
−x
4
= 0,
5x
1
+x
2
−x
3
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. x
1
= −
α
4
, x
2
=

4
+β, x
3
= α, x
4
= β; α, β ∈ R t` uy ´ y)
7.
2x
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 0,
3x
1
+ 2x
2
−3x
3
= 0,
x
1
+ 3x
2
−4x
3
= 0,
5x
1
+x
2
−2x
3
= 0.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
174 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
(DS. x
1
=
α
7
, x
2
=

7
, x
3
= α; α ∈ R t` uy ´ y)
4.3. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t 175
T`ım nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at v`a hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n cu’ a c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh
8.
9x
1
+ 21x
2
−15x
3
+ 5x
4
= 0,
12x
1
+ 28x
2
−20x
3
+ 7x
4
= 0.
_
(DS. Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at: x
1
= −
7
3
x
2
+
5
3
x
3
, x
4
= 0.
Hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n e
1
= (−7, 3, 0, 0), e
2
= (5, 0, 3, 0))
9.
14x
1
+ 35x
2
−7x
3
−63x
4
= 0,
−10x
1
−25x
2
+ 5x
3
+ 45x
4
= 0,
26x
1
+ 65x
2
−13x
3
−117x
4
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at: x
3
= 2x
1
+ 5x
2
−9x
3
.
Hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n: e
1
= (1, 0, 2, 0); e
2
= (0, 1, 5, 0); e
3
=
(0, 0, −9, 1))
10.
x
1
+ 4x
2
+ 2x
3
−3x
5
= 0,
2x
1
+ 9x
2
+ 5x
3
+ 2x
4
+x
5
= 0,
x
1
+ 3x
2
+x
3
−2x
4
−9x
5
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(DS. Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at: x
1
= 2x
3
+ 8x
4
, x
2
= −x
2
−2x
4
; x
5
= 0.
Hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n: e
1
= (2, −1, 1, 0, 0); e
2
= (8, −2, 0, 1, 0)
11.
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 4x
3
−3x
4
= 0,
3x
1
+ 5x
2
+ 6x
3
−4x
4
= 0,
4x
1
+ 5x
2
−2x
3
+ 3x
4
= 0,
3x
1
+ 8x
2
+ 24x
3
−19x
4
= 0.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at: x
1
= 8x
3
−7x
4
, x
2
= −6x
3
+ 5x
4
.
Hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n: e
1
= (8, −6, 1, 0), e
2
= (−7, 5, 0, 1))
12.
x
1
+ 2x
2
−2x
3
+x
4
= 0,
2x
1
+ 4x
2
+ 2x
3
−x
4
= 0,
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 4x
3
−2x
4
= 0,
4x
1
+ 8x
2
−2x
3
+x
4
= 0.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at x
1
= −2x
2
, x
4
= 2x
3
.
Hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n: e
1
= (−2, 1, 0, 0), e
2
= (0, 0, 1, 2))
176 Chu
.
o
.
ng 4. Hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
13.
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
+ 4x
4
+ 5x
5
= 0,
2x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 4x
3
+ 5x
4
+x
5
= 0,
3x
1
+ 4x
2
+ 5x
3
+x
4
+ 2x
5
= 0,
x
1
+ 3x
2
+ 5x
3
+ 12x
4
+ 9x
5
= 0,
4x
1
+ 5x
2
+ 6x
3
−3x
4
+ 3x
5
= 0.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(DS. Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at x
1
= x
3
+15x
5
, x
2
= −2x
3
−12x
5
, x
4
= x
5
.
Hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n: e
1
= (1, −2, 1, 0, 0), e
2
= (15, −12, 0, 1, 1))
Chu
.
o
.
ng 5
Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
5.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa khˆong gian n-chiˆe `u v`a mˆo
.
t sˆo´
kh´ai niˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n vˆe ` vecto
.
. . . . . . . . . . 177
5.2 Co
.
so
.
’ . D
-
ˆo

i co
.
so
.
’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
5.3 Khˆong gian vecto
.
Euclid. Co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n201
5.4 Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh . . . . . . . . . . . 213
5.4.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
5.4.2 Ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ph´ep bdtt . . . . . . . . . . . 213
5.4.3 C´ac ph´ep to´an . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
5.4.4 Vecto
.
riˆeng v`a gi´a tri
.
riˆeng . . . . . . . . . 216
5.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa khˆong gian n-chiˆe
`
u v` a
mˆo
.
t sˆo
´
kh´ai niˆe
.
m co
.
ba

n vˆe
`
vecto
.
1

. Gia’ su
.
’ n ∈ N. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p mo
.
i bˆo
.
c´o thˆe

c´o (x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
) gˆ o
`
m n
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c (ph´ u
.
c) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a khˆong gian thu
.
.
c (ph´ u
.
c) n-chiˆe
`
u v`a du
.
o
.
.
c
178 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a R
n
(C
n
). Mˆo
˜
i bˆo
.
sˆo´ d´o du
.
o
.
.
c chı ’ bo
.
’ i
x = (x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
)
v`a du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a diˆe

m hay vecto
.
cu’ a R
n
(C
n
). C´ ac sˆo´ x
1
, . . . , x
n
du
.
o
.
.
c
go
.
i l`a to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a diˆe

m (cu’ a vecto
.
) x hay c´ ac th`anh phˆa
`
n cu’ a vecto
.
x.
Hai vecto
.
x = (x
1
, . . . , x
n
) v` a y = (y
1
, . . . , y
n
) cu’ a R
n
du
.
o
.
.
c xem l`a
b˘a
`
ng nhau nˆe
´
u c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng cu’ a ch´ ung b˘a
`
ng nhau
x
i
= y
i
∀i = 1, n.
C´ac vecto
.
x = (x
1
, . . . , x
n
), y = (y
1
, . . . , y
n
) c´ o thˆe

cˆo
.
ng v´o
.
i nhau
v`a c´o thˆe

nhˆan v´o
.
i c´ac sˆo´ α, β, . . . l`a sˆo´ thu
.
.
c nˆe
´
u khˆong gian du
.
o
.
.
c x´et
l`a khˆong gian thu
.
.
c v`a l` a sˆo´ ph´ u
.
c nˆe
´
u khˆong gian du
.
o
.
.
c x´et l`a khˆong
gian ph´ u
.
c.
Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa: 1
+
tˆo

ng cu’ a vecto
.
x v`a y l`a vecto
.
x +y
def
= (x
1
+y
1
, x
2
+y
2
, . . . , x
n
+y
n
). (5.1)
2
+
t´ıch cu’ a vecto
.
x v´o
.
i sˆo´ α hay t´ıch sˆo´ α v´o
.
i vecto
.
x l`a vecto
.
αx = xα
def
= (αx
1
, αx
2
, . . . , αx
n
). (5.2)
Hai ph´ep to´an 1
+
v` a 2
+
tho’a m˜an c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t (tiˆen dˆe
`
) sau dˆay
I. x +y = y +x, ∀x, y ∈ R
n
(C
n
),
II. (x +y) +z = x + (y +z) ∀x, y, z ∈= R
n
(C
n
),
III. Tˆo
`
n ta
.
i vecto
.
- khˆong θ = (0, 0, . . . , 0
. ¸¸ .
n
) ∈ R
n
sao cho
x +θ = θ +x = x,
IV. Tˆo
`
n ta
.
i vecto
.
dˆ o´i −x = (−1)x = (−x
1
, −x
2
, . . . , −x
n
) sao cho
x + (−x) = θ,
V. 1 x = x,
5.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa khˆong gian n-chiˆe
`
u v`a mˆo
.
t sˆo´ kh´ai niˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
vecto
.
179
VI. α(βx) = (αβ)x, α, β ∈ R (C),
VII. (α +β)x = αx +βx,
VIII. α(x +y) = αx +αy
trong d´o α v`a β l`a c´ac sˆo´, c`on x, y ∈ R
n
(C
n
).
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 5.1.1. 1
+
Gia’ su
.
’ 1 l`a tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p khˆong rˆo
˜
ng t` uy ´ y v´o
.
i c´ac
phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a x, y, z, . . . Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p 1 du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a khˆong gian
tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh (hay khˆong gian vecto
.
) nˆe
´
u ∀x, y ∈ 1 x´ac di
.
nh du
.
o
.
.
c phˆa
`
n
tu
.
’ x + y ∈ 1 (go
.
i l`a tˆo

ng cu’ a x v`a y) v`a ∀α ∈ R (C) v`a ∀x ∈ 1 x´ac
di
.
nh du
.
o
.
.
c phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ αx ∈ 1 (go
.
i l`a t´ıch cu’ a sˆo´ α v´o
.
i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ x) sao
cho c´ ac tiˆen dˆe
`
I-VIII du
.
o
.
.
c tho’a m˜an.
Khˆong gian tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh v´o
.
i ph´ep nhˆan c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a n´o v´o
.
i c´ac
sˆo´ thu
.
.
c (ph´ u
.
c) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a khˆong gian tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thu
.
.
c (tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng:
ph´ u
.
c).
Khˆong gian R
n
c´o thˆe

xem nhu
.
mˆo
.
t v´ı du
.
vˆe
`
khˆong gian tuyˆe
´
n
t´ınh, c´ac v´ı du
.
kh´ac s˜e du
.
o
.
.
c x´et vˆe
`
sau. V`a trong gi´ao tr`ınh n`ay ta
luˆon gia’ thiˆe
´
t r˘a
`
ng c´ac khˆong gian du
.
o
.
.
c x´et l`a nh˜ u
.
ng khˆ ong gian thu
.
.
c.
2

. Cho hˆe
.
gˆo
`
m m vecto
.
n-chiˆe
`
u
x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
m
. (5.3)
Khi d´o vecto
.
da
.
ng
y = α
1
x
1

2
x
2
+ +α
m
x
m
; α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
m
∈ R.
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a c´ac vecto
.
d˜a cho hay vecto
.
y biˆe

u
diˆe
˜
n tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh du
.
o
.
.
c qua c´ac vecto
.
(5.3).
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 5.1.2. 1
+
Hˆe
.
vecto
.
(5.3) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
dˆ o
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n
t´ınh (dltt) nˆe
´
u t` u
.
d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c vecto
.
λ
1
x
1

2
x
2
+ +λ
m
x
m
= θ (5.4)
k´eo theo λ
1
= λ
2
= = λ
m
= 0.
180 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
2
+
Hˆe
.
(5.3) go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh (pttt) nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i c´ac sˆo´
λ
1
, λ
2
, . . . , λ
m
khˆong dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i b˘a
`
ng 0 sao cho d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (5.4) du
.
o
.
.
c
tho’a m˜an.
Sˆo´ nguyˆen du
.
o
.
ng r du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ha
.
ng cu’ a hˆe
.
vecto
.
(5.3) nˆe
´
u
a) C´o mˆo
.
t tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p con gˆ o
`
m r vecto
.
cu’ a hˆe
.
(5.3) lˆa
.
p th`anh hˆe
.
dltt.
b) Mo
.
i tˆa
.
p con gˆo
`
m nhiˆe
`
u ho
.
n r vecto
.
cu’ a hˆe
.
(5.3) dˆe
`
u phu
.
thuˆo
.
c
tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
Dˆe

t`ım ha
.
ng cu’ a hˆe
.
vecto
.
ta lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a n´o
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
. . . a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
m1
a
m2
. . . a
mn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. Ha
.
ng cu’ a hˆe
.
vecto
.
(5.3) b˘a
`
ng ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆ a
.
n A c´ ac to
.
a
dˆo
.
cu’ a n´o.
T` u
.
d´o, dˆe

kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n hˆe
.
vecto
.
(5.3) dltt hay pttt ta cˆ a
`
n lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n
to
.
a dˆo
.
A cu’ a ch´ ung v`a t´ınh r(A):
1) Nˆe
´
u r(A) = m th`ı hˆe
.
(5.3) dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
2) Nˆe
´
u r(A) = s < m th`ı hˆe
.
(5.3) phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng hˆe
.
vecto
.
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
m
(m > 1) phu
.
thuˆo
.
c
tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh khi v`a chı ’ khi ´ıt nhˆa´t mˆo
.
t trong c´ac vecto
.
cu’ a hˆe
.
l`a tˆo

ho
.
.
p
tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a c´ac vecto
.
c`on la
.
i.
Gia’ i. 1
+
Gia’ su
.
’ hˆe
.
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
m
phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh. Khi d´o
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i c´ac sˆo´ α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
m
khˆong dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i b˘a
`
ng 0 sao cho
α
1
a
1

2
a
2
+ +α
m
a
m
= θ.
Gia’ su
.
’ α
m
,= 0. Khi d´o
a
m
= β
1
a
1

2
a
2
+ +β
m−1
a
m−1
, β
i
=
α
i
α
m
5.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa khˆong gian n-chiˆe
`
u v`a mˆo
.
t sˆo´ kh´ai niˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
vecto
.
181
t´ u
.
c l` a a
m
biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh qua c´ac vecto
.
c`on la
.
i.
2
+
Ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i, ch˘a

ng ha
.
n nˆe
´
u vecto
.
a
m
biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh qua
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
m−1
a
m
= β
1
a
1

2
a
2
+ +β
m−1
a
m−1
th`ı ta c´o
β
1
a
1

2
a
2
+ +β
m−1
a
m−1
+ (−1)a
m
= θ.
Do d´o hˆe
.
d˜a cho phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh v`ı trong d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c trˆen c´ o hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a a
m
l`a kh´ac 0 (cu
.
thˆe

l`a = −1).
V´ı du
.
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng mo
.
i hˆe
.
vecto
.
c´o ch´ u
.
a vecto
.
-khˆong l`a hˆe
.
phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
Gia’ i. Vecto
.
- khˆong luˆon luˆon biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng tˆo

ho
.
.
p
tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a c´ac vecto
.
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
m
:
θ = 0 a
1
+ 0 a
2
+ + 0 a
m
Do d´o theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa hˆe
.
θ, a
1
, . . . , a
m
phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh (xem v´ı
du
.
1).
V´ı du
.
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng mo
.
i hˆe
.
vecto
.
c´o ch´ u
.
a hai vecto
.
b˘a
`
ng
nhau l`a hˆe
.
phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
Gia’ i. Gia’ su
.
’ trong hˆe
.
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
c´o hai vecto
.
a
1
= a
2
. Khi d´o
ta c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t
a
1
= 1 a
2
+ 0 a
3
+ + 0 a
m
t´ u
.
c l`a vecto
.
a
1
cu’ a hˆe
.
c´o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
cu’ a c´ac vecto
.
c`on la
.
i. Do d´o hˆe
.
phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh (v´ı du
.
1).
V´ı du
.
4. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u hˆe
.
m vecto
.
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
m
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p
tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh th`ı mo
.
i hˆe
.
con cu’ a hˆe
.
d´o c˜ ung dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
Gia’ i. Dˆe

cho x´ac di
.
nh ta x´et hˆe
.
con a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
k
, k < m v`a ch´ u
.
ng
minh r˘a
`
ng hˆe
.
con n`ay dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
182 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
Gia’ su
.
’ ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i: hˆe
.
con a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
k
phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh. Khi
d´o ta c´ o c´ac d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c vecto
.
α
1
a
1

2
a
2
+ +α
k
a
k
= θ
trong d´o c´o ´ıt nhˆa´t mˆo
.
t trong c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
k
kh´ac 0. Ta viˆe
´
t
d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c d´o du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
α
1
a
1

2
A
2
+ +α
k
a
k

k+1
a
k+1
+ +α
m
a
m
= θ
trong d´o ta gia’ thiˆe
´
t α
k+1
= 0, . . . , α
m
= 0. D˘a

ng th´ u
.
c sau c` ung n`ay
ch´ u
.
ng to’ hˆe
.
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
m
phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh. Mˆau thuˆa
˜
n.
V´ı du
.
5. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng hˆe
.
vecto
.
cu’ a khˆong gian R
n
e
1
= (1, 0, . . . , 0),
e
2
= (0, 1, . . . , 0),
. . . . . . . . . . . .
e
n
= (0, . . . , 0, 1)
l`a dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
Gia’ i. T` u
.
d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c vecto
.
α
1
e
1

2
e
2
+ +α
n
e
n
= θ
suy ra r˘a
`
ng

1
, α
2
, . . . , α
n
) = (0, 0, . . . , 0) ⇒ α
1
= α
2
= = α
n
= 0.
v`a do d´o hˆe
.
e
1
, e
2
, . . . , e
n
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
V´ı du
.
6. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng mo
.
i hˆe
.
gˆo
`
m n+1 vecto
.
cu’ a R
n
l`a hˆe
.
phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
Gia’ i. Gia’ su
.
’ n + 1 vecto
.
cu’ a hˆe
.
l`a:
a
1
= (a
11
, a
21
, . . . , a
n1
)
a
2
= (a
12
, a
22
, . . . , a
n2
)
. . . . . . . . . . . .
a
n+1
= (a
1,n+1
, a
2,n+1
, . . . , a
n,n+1
).
5.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa khˆong gian n-chiˆe
`
u v`a mˆo
.
t sˆo´ kh´ai niˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
vecto
.
183
Khi d´o t` u
.
d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c vecto
.
x
1
a
1
+x
2
a
2
+ +x
n
a
n
+x
n+1
a
n+1
= θ
suy ra
a
11
x
1
+a
12
x
2
+ +a
1n+1
x
n+1
= 0,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a
n1
x
1
+a
n2
x
2
+ +a
nn+1
x
n+1
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
D´o l` a hˆe
.
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t n phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh v´o
.
i (n +1) ˆa

n nˆen hˆe
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m
khˆong tˆa
`
m thu
.
`o
.
ng v`a
(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
, x
n+1
) ,= (0, 0, . . . , 0).
Do d´o theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa hˆe
.
d˜a x´et l`a phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
V´ı du
.
7. T`ım ha
.
ng cu’ a hˆe
.
vecto
.
trong R
4
a
1
= (1, 1, 1, 1); a
2
= (1, 2, 3, 4);
a
3
= (2, 3, 2, 3); a
4
= (2, 4, 5, 6).
Gia’ i. Ta lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
v`a t`ım ha
.
ng cu’ a n´o. Ta c´o
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 1 1
1 2 3 4
2 3 2 3
3 4 5 6
_
¸
¸
¸
_
h
2
−h
1
→h

2
h
3
−2h
1
→h

3
h
4
−3h
1
→h

4
−→
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3
0 1 0 1
0 1 2 3
_
¸
¸
¸
_h
3
−h
2
→ h

3
h
4
−h
2
→ h

4

−→
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 1 1 1
0 1 2 3
0 0 −2 −3
0 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
.
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng r(A) = 3. Theo di
.
nh l´ y d˜a nˆeu ha
.
ng cu’ a hˆe
.
vecto
.
b˘a
`
ng 3.
184 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
V´ı du
.
8. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh gi˜ u
.
a c´ac vecto
.
cu’ a R
4
:
a
1
= (1, 4, 1, 1); a
2
= (2, 3, −1, 1);
a
3
= (1, 9, 4, 2); a
4
= (1, −6, −5, −1).
Gia’ i. Lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n m`a c´ac h`ang cu’ a n´o l`a c´ac vecto
.
d˜a cho v` a t`ım
ha
.
ng cu’ a n´o
S =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 4 1 1
2 3 −1 1
1 9 4 2
1 −6 −5 −1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
⇒r(A) = 2.
Do d´o ha
.
ng cu’ a hˆe
.
vecto
.
b˘a
`
ng 2. V`ı c´ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ cu’ a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con
∆ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 4
2 3
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −5 ,= 0
n˘a
`
m o
.
’ hai h`ang dˆa
`
u nˆen a
1
v`a a
2
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh, c` on a
3
v`a a
4
biˆe

u
diˆe
˜
n tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh qua a
1
v`a a
2
. [Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng mo
.
i c˘a
.
p vecto
.
cu’ a hˆe
.
dˆe
`
u
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh v`ı ta c´ o c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con cˆ a´p hai sau dˆay ,= 0:
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 4
1 9
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 4
1 −6
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 3
1 9
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 3
1 −6
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
,
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 9
1 −6
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
.]
Ta t`ım c´ac biˆe

u th´ u
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n a
3
v`a a
4
qua a
1
v`a a
2
.
Ta viˆe
´
t
a
3
= ξ
1
a
1

2
a
2
hay l`a
(1, 9, 4, 2) = ξ
1
(1, 4, 1, 1) +ξ
2
(2, 3, −1, 1)
⇒ (1, 9, 4, 2) = (ξ
1
+ 2ξ
2
, 4ξ
1
+ 3ξ
2
, ξ
1
−ξ
2
, ξ
1

2
)
5.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa khˆong gian n-chiˆe
`
u v`a mˆo
.
t sˆo´ kh´ai niˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
vecto
.
185
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
ξ
1
+ 2ξ
2
= 1,

1
+ 3ξ
2
= 9,
ξ
1
−ξ
2
= 4,
ξ
1

2
= 2.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
Ta ha
.
n chˆe
´
hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆa
`
u. Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a hai
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh n`ay ch´ınh l`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c ∆ chuyˆe

n vi
.
. V`ı ∆ ,= 0 nˆen hˆe
.
hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
ξ
1
+ 2ξ
2
= 1

1
+ 3ξ
2
= 9
c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t l`a ξ
1
= 3, ξ
2
= −1. Do d´o
a
3
= 3a
1
−a
2
.
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
ta c´ o
a
4
= 2a
2
−3a
1
.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
1. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng trong khˆong gian R
3
:
1) Vecto
.
(x, y, z) l`a tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a c´ac vecto
.
e
1
= (1, 0, 0),
e
2
= (0, 1, 0), e
3
= (0, 0, 1).
2) Vecto
.
x = (7, 2, 6) l`a tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a c´ac vecto
.
a
1
=
(−3, 1, 2), a
2
= (−5, 2, 3), a
3
= (1, −1, 1).
2. H˜ay x´ac di
.
nh sˆo´ λ dˆe

vecto
.
x ∈ R
3
l`a tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a c´ac
vecto
.
a
1
, a
2
, a
3
∈ R
3
nˆe
´
u:
1) x = (1, 3, 5); a
1
= (3, 2, 5); a
2
= (2, 4, 7); a
3
= (5, 6, λ).
186 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
(DS. λ ,= 12)
2) x = (7, −2, λ); a
1
= (2, 3, 5); a
2
= (3, 7, 8); a
3
= (1, −6, 1).
(DS. λ = 15)
3) x = (5, 9, λ); a
1
= (4, 4, 3); a
2
= (7, 2, 1); a
3
= (4, 1, 6).
(DS. ∀λ ∈ R)
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng trong khˆong gian R
3
:
1) Hˆe
.
ba vecto
.
e
1
= (1, 0, 0), e
2
= (0, 1, 0), e
3
= (0, 0, 1) l`a hˆe
.
dltt.
2) Nˆe
´
u thˆem vecto
.
x ∈ R
3
bˆa´t k` y v`ao hˆe
.
th`ı hˆe
.
¦e
1
, e
2
, e
3
, x¦
l`a phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
3) Hˆe
.
gˆo
`
m bˆo´n vecto
.
bˆa´t k` y cu’ a R
3
l`a pttt.
4. C´ac hˆe
.
vecto
.
sau dˆay trong khˆong gian R
3
l`a dltt hay pttt:
1) a
1
= (1, 2, 1); a
2
= (0, 1, 2); a
3
= (0, 0, 2). (DS. Dltt)
2) a
1
= (1, 1, 0); a
2
= (1, 0, 1); a
3
= (1, −2, 0). (DS. Dltt)
3) a
1
= (1, 3, 3); a
2
= (1, 1, 1); a
3
= (−2, −4, −4). (DS. Pttt)
4) a
1
= 1, −3, 0); a
2
= (3, −3, 1); a
3
= (2, 0, 1). (DS. Pttt)
5) a
1
= (2, 3, 1); a
2
= (1, 1, 1); a
3
= (1, 2, 0). (DS. Pttt)
5. Gia’ su
.
’ v
1
, v
2
v`a v
3
l`a hˆe
.
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng hˆe
.
sau dˆay c˜ ung l`a dltt:
1) a
1
= v
1
+v
2
; a
2
= v
1
+v
3
; a
3
= v
1
−2v
2
.
2) a
1
= v
1
+v
3
; a
2
= v
3
−v
1
; a
3
= v
1
+v
2
−v
3
.
6. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng c´ac hˆe
.
vecto
.
sau dˆay l`a phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i hˆe
.
vecto
.
n`ao th`ı vecto
.
b l`a tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a c´ac vecto
.
c`on la
.
i ?
1) a
1
= (2, 0, −1), a
2
= (3, 0, −2), a
3
= (−1, 0, 1), b = (1, 2, 0).
(DS. b khˆong l`a tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh)
2) a
1
= (−2, 0, 1), a
2
= (1, −1, 0), a
3
= (0, 1, 2); b = (2, 3, 6).
(DS. b l`a tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh)
5.1. D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa khˆong gian n-chiˆe
`
u v`a mˆo
.
t sˆo´ kh´ai niˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
vecto
.
187
7. T`ım sˆo´ cu
.
.
c da
.
i c´ac vecto
.
dltt trong c´ ac hˆe
.
vecto
.
sau dˆay
1) a
1
= (2, 3, −1, 4); a
2
= (−1, 1, 2, 0); a
3
= (0, 0, 1, 1);
a
4
= (1, 4, 1, 4); a
5
= (2, 3, 0, 5). (DS. = 3)
2) a
1
= (1, 0, 0, 0); a
2
= (0, 1, 0, 0); a
3
= (0, 0, 1, 0)
a
4
= (0, 0, 0, 1); a
5
= (1, 2, 3, 4). (DS. = 4)
3) a
1
= (1, 1, 1, 1); a
2
= (1, 1, 1, 0); a
3
= (1, 1, 0, 0);
a
4
= (1, 0, 0, 0); a
5
= (1, 2, 3, 4). (DS. = 4)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
m`a mˆo
˜
i cˆo
.
t cu’ a n´o l`a to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a
vecto
.
cu’ a hˆe
.
rˆo
`
i t´ınh ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n.
8. C´ac hˆe
.
vecto
.
sau dˆay trong khˆong gian R
4
l`a dltt hay pttt
1) a
1
= (1, 2, 3, 4), a
2
= (1, 2, 3, 4). (DS. Pttt)
2) a
1
= (1, 2, 3, 4), a
2
= (1, −2, −3, −4). (DS. Pttt)
3) a
1
= (1, 2, 3, 4), a
2
= (3, 6, 9, 12). (DS. Pttt)
4) a
1
= (1, 2, 3, 4), (a
2
= (1, 2, 3, 5). (DS. Dltt)
5) a
1
= (1, 0, 0, 0), a
2
= (0, 1, 0, 0), a
3
= (0, 0, 1, 0), a
4
= (0, 0, 0, 1)
v`a a l`a vecto
.
t` uy ´ y cu’ a R
4
. (DS. Pttt)
6) a
1
= (1, 1, 1, 1), a
2
= (0, 1, 1, 1), a
3
= (0, 0, 1, 1), a
4
= (0, 0, 0, 1).
(DS. Dltt)
7) a
1
= (1, 2, 3, 4), a
2
= (3, 6, 9, 12), a
3
= (1, 2, 3, 6). (DS. Pttt)
9. C´ac hˆe
.
vecto
.
sau dˆay dltt hay pttt. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p pttt h˜ay chı ’
ra mˆo
.
t su
.
.
pttt. H˜ay chı ’ ra mˆo
.
t hˆe
.
con cu
.
.
c da
.
i n`ao d´o l`a dltt.
1) a
1
= (2, 1, −2, −1), a
2
= (−9, 5, −6, 21), a
3
= (2, −5, −1, 3),
a
4
= (−1, −1, −1, 5), a
5
= (−1, 2, −3, 4).
(DS. a
1
+a
2
+a
3
−3a
4
−2a
5
= θ; a
1
, a
2
, a
3
, a
4
)
2) a
1
= (1, 1, 1, 1), a
2
= (2, 0, 1, −1), a
3
= (3, −4, 0, −1),
a
4
= (13, −10, 3, −2). (DS. 2a
1
+a
2
+ 3a
3
−a
4
= θ; a
1
, a
2
, a
3
)
3) a
1
= (1, −1, 1, −1), a
2
= (2, 0, 1, −1), a
3
= (3, −1, 1, −1),
a
4
= (4, −2, 1, −2). (DS. Hˆe
.
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh)
4) a
1
= (1, 2, −2, −1), a
2
= (−1, 0, 2, 1), a
3
= (0, 1, 0, 1),
a
4
= (3, 6, 0, 4). (DS. Hˆe
.
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh)
188 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
10. T´ınh ha
.
ng r cu’ a hˆe
.
vecto
.
v`a chı ’ r˜o hˆe
.
d˜a cho l`a pttt hay dltt:
1) a
1
= (1, −2, 2, −8, 2), a
2
= (1, −2, 1, 5, 3), a
3
= (1, −2, 4, −7, 0).
(DS. r = 3, hˆe
.
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh)
2) a
1
= (2, 3, 1, −1), a
2
= (3, 1, 4, 2), a
3
= (1, 2, 3, −1),
a
4
= (1, −4, −7, 5). (DS. r = 3, hˆe
.
pttt)
3) a
1
= (2, −1, −3, 2, −6), a
2
= (1, 5, −2, 3, 4), a
3
= (3, 4, −1, 5, 7),
a
4
= (3, −7, 4, 1, −7), a
5
= (0, 11, −5, 4, −4). (DS. r = 3 hˆe
.
pttt)
4) a
1
= (2, 1, 4, −4, 17), a
2
= (0, 0, 5, −7, 9), a
3
=
(2, 1, −6, 10, −11),
a
4
= (8, 4, 1, 5, 11), a
5
= (2, 2, 9, −11, 10). (DS. r = 5, hˆe
.
dltt)
5.2 Co
.
so
.

. D
-
ˆo

i co
.
so
.

D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 5.2.1. Hˆe
.
vecto
.
E
1
, E
2
, . . . , E
n
gˆo
`
m n vecto
.
cu’ a khˆong
gian vecto
.
R
n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a n´o nˆe
´
u
1) hˆe
.
E
1
, E
2
, . . . , E
n
l`a hˆe
.
dltt;
2) mo
.
i vecto
.
x ∈ R
n
dˆe
`
u biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh du
.
o
.
.
c qua c´ ac vecto
.
cu’ a hˆe
.
E
1
, . . . , E
n
.
Ch´ u ´ y r˘a
`
ng co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a R
n
l`a mˆo
.
t hˆe
.
c´ o th´ u
.
tu
.
.
bˆa´t k` y gˆo
`
m n vecto
.
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a n´o.
Diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n 2) c´ o ngh˜ıa r˘a
`
ng ∀x ∈ R
n
, ∃(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
) sao cho
x = x
1
E
1
+x
2
E
2
+ +x
n
E
n
, (5.5)
trong d´o x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
l`a to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
x trong co
.
so
.
’ E
1
, E
2
, . . . , E
n
v`a (5.5) go
.
i l`a khai triˆe

n vecto
.
x theo co
.
so
.
’ E
1
, E
2
, . . . , E
n
.
´
Y ngh˜ıa co
.
ba’ n cu’ a kh´ai niˆe
.
m co
.
so
.
’ l`a: c´ac ph´ep to´an tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
trˆen c´ ac vecto
.
trong co
.
so
.
’ cho tru
.
´o
.
c chuyˆe

n th`anh c´ac ph´ep to´an trˆen
c´ac sˆo´ l`a to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a ch´ ung.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 5.2.1. Trong khˆ ong gian R
n
:
1) To
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a mˆo
.
t vecto
.
dˆ o´i v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ l` a duy nhˆa´t.
5.2. Co
.
so
.
’ . D
-
ˆo

i co
.
so
.
’ 189
2) Mo
.
i hˆe
.
dltt gˆo
`
m n vecto
.
dˆe
`
u lˆ a
.
p th`anh co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a khˆong gian
R
n
.
Ta x´et vˆ a´n dˆe
`
: Khi co
.
so
.
’ thay dˆo

i th`ı to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a mˆo
.
t vecto
.
trong
khˆong gian R
n
thay dˆo

i thˆe
´
n`ao ?
Gia’ su
.
’ trong khˆong gian R
n
c´o hai co
.
so
.

c :c
1
, c
2
, . . . , c
n
- “co
.
so
.
’ c˜ u” (5.6)
E :E
1
, E
2
, . . . , E
n
- “co
.
so
.
’ m´o
.
i” (5.7)
V`ı E
1
, E
2
, . . . , E
n
∈ R
n
nˆen
E
1
= t
11
ε
1
+t
21
ε
2
+ +t
n1
ε
n
,
E
2
= t
12
ε
1
+t
22
ε
2
+ +t
n2
ε
n
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E
n
= t
1n
ε
1
+t
2n
ε
2
+ +t
nn
ε
n
.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.8)
C´o thˆe

n´oi r˘a
`
ng co
.
so
.
’ E
1
, . . . , E
n
thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, . . . , c
n
nh`o
.
ma trˆa
.
n
T
EE
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
t
11
t
12
. . . t
1n
t
21
t
22
. . . t
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
t
n1
t
n2
. . . t
nn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.9)
trong d´o cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
i cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n (5.9) ch´ınh l`a c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
E
i
trong co
.
so
.
’ (5.6).
Ma trˆa
.
n T = T
EE
trong (5.9) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a ma trˆ a
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ (5.6) dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ (5.7). Di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n detT ,= 0
v`ı trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i th`ı c´ac vecto
.
cˆo
.
t (v`a do d´o c´ac vecto
.
E
1
, . . . , E
n
) l`a phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y dˆe

t`ım ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ c˜ u sang co
.
so
.
’ m´o
.
i dˆa
`
u
tiˆen ta cˆ a
`
n khai triˆe

n c´ac vecto
.
cu’ a co
.
so
.
’ m´o
.
i theo co
.
so
.
’ c˜ u. Tiˆe
´
p d´o
ta lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n m`a cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
i cu’ a n´o l`a c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
th´ u
.
i cu’ a
co
.
so
.
’ m´o
.
i trong co
.
so
.
’ c˜ u. D´o ch´ınh l`a ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n.
190 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
Gia’ su
.
’ vecto
.
a ∈ R
n
v`a
a = x
1
ε
1
+x
2
ε
2
+ +x
n
ε
n
,
a = y
1
E
1
+y
2
E
2
+ +y
n
E
n
.
Khi d´o quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a c` ung mˆo
.
t vecto
.
dˆo´i v´o
.
i hai co
.
so
.

kh´ac nhau (5.6) v` a (5.7) du
.
o
.
.
c mˆo ta’ nhu
.
sau
x
1
= t
11
y
1
+t
12
y
2
+ +t
1n
y
n
,
x
2
= t
21
y
1
+t
22
y
2
+ +t
2n
y
n
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x
n
= t
n1
y
1
+t
n2
y
2
+ +t
nn
y
n
.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.10)
hay l`a
X = T
EE
Y, (5.11)
X =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x
1
x
2
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
, Y =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
y
1
y
2
.
.
.
y
n
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T` u
.
d´o c˜ ung suy ra
Y = T
−1
EE
X. (5.11*)
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Trong khˆong gian R
3
hˆe
.
c´ac vecto
.
c
1
(1, 0, 0), c
2
(0, 2, 0),
c
3
(0, 0, 3) l`a co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a n´o.
Gia’ i. 1) Hˆe
.
vecto
.
c
1
, c
2
, c
3
l`a hˆe
.
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh. Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y,
d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c vecto
.
α
1
c
1

2
c
2

3
c
3
= (0, 0, 0)
⇔ α
1
(1, 0, 0) +α
2
(0, 2, 0) +α
3
(0, 0, 3) = (0, 0, 0)
⇔ (α
1
, 2α
2
, 3α
3
) = (0, 0, 0)
⇔ α
1
= α
2
= α
3
= 0.
5.2. Co
.
so
.
’ . D
-
ˆo

i co
.
so
.
’ 191
2) Gia’ su
.
’ x ∈ R
3
, x = (ξ
1
, ξ
2
, ξ
3
). Khi d´o
x = ξ
1
(1, 0, 0) +
ξ
2
2
(0, 2, 0) +
ξ
3
3
(0, 0, 3)
= ξ
1
c
1
+
ξ
2
2
c
2
+
ξ
3
3
c
3
t´ u
.
c l` a x l`a tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a c
1
, c
2
, c
3
.
V´ı du
.
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng trong khˆong gian R
3
c´ac vecto
.
c
1
=
(2, 1, 1), c
2
= (1, 3, 1), c
3
= (−2, 1, 3) lˆa
.
p th`anh mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ . T`ım to
.
a
dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
x = (−2, −4, 2) theo co
.
so
.
’ d´o.
Gia’ i. 1) Hˆe
.
c
1
, c
2
, c
3
l`a dltt. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y gia’ su
.
’ α
1
c
1

2
c
2

3
c
3
=
θ ⇔

1

2
−2α
3
= 0,
α
1
+ 3α
2

3
= 0,
α
1

2
+ 3α
3
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
Hˆe
.
n`ay c´o detA ,= 0 v`a l`a hˆe
.
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t nˆen n´o chı ’ c´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆa
`
m
thu
.
`o
.
ng α
1
= α
2
= α
3
= 0 v`a do d´o c
1
, c
2
, c
3
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh. Theo
di
.
nh l´ y 1 (phˆa
`
n 2) c´ ac vecto
.
n`ay lˆa
.
p th`anh co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a R
3
.
2) Dˆe

khai triˆe

n vecto
.
x = (−2, −4, 2) theo co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
ta d˘a
.
t
x = λ
1
c
1

2
c
2

3
c
3
v`a t` u
.
d´o

1

2
−2λ
3
= −2,
λ
1
+ 3λ
2

3
= −4,
λ
1

2
+ 3λ
3
= 2.
_
¸
_
¸
_
Hˆe
.
n`ay c´o nghiˆe
.
m l`a λ
1
= 1, λ
2
= −2, λ
3
= 1. Vˆa
.
y trong co
.
so
.

c
1
, c
2
, c
3
vecto
.
x c´o to
.
a dˆo
.
l`a (1, −2, 1).
V´ı du
.
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng ba vecto
.
c
1
= (1, 0, −2), c
2
= (−4, −1, 5),
c
3
= (1, 3, 4) lˆa
.
p th`anh co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a R
3
.
192 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
Gia’ i. Ta c´o thˆe

t`ım ha
.
ng cu’ a hˆe
.
ba vecto
.
d˜a cho. Ta c´o
_
¸
_
1 0 −2
4 −1 5
1 3 4
_
¸
_
−→
_
¸
_
1 0 −2
0 −1 13
0 3 6
_
¸
_
−→
_
¸
_
1 0 −2
0 −1 13
0 0 45
_
¸
_
.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra r˘a
`
ng ha
.
ng cu’ a hˆe
.
vecto
.
d˜a cho b˘a
`
ng 3 v`a do vˆa
.
y hˆe
.
d´o
l`a dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh. Theo di
.
nh l´ y 1 n´o lˆa
.
p th`anh mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ .
V´ı du
.
4. Gia’ su
.
’ trong co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
vecto
.
x c´o to
.
a dˆo
.
l`a 1; −2. T`ım
to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
d´o trong co
.
so
.
’ E
1
= c
1
, E
2
= c
1
+c
2
.
Gia’ i. Dˆa
`
u tiˆen ta viˆe
´
t ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
dˆe
´
n E
1
, E
2
.
Ta c´o
E
1
= 1 e
1
+ 0 e
2
,
E
2
= 1 e
1
+ 1 e
2
.
Do d´o
T =
_
1 1
0 21
_
⇒ T
−1
=
_
1 −1
0 1
_
.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (11*) ta c´o
_
y
1
y
2
_
= T
−1
_
x
1
x
2
_
=
_
1 −1
0 1
__
1
−2
_
=
_
3
−2
_
.
Do d´o y
1
= 3, y
2
= −2.
V´ı du
.
5 (ph´ep quay tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
). H˜ay dˆa
˜
n ra cˆ ong th´ u
.
c biˆe
´
n dˆo

i c´ac
to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
trong R
2
trong mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ ch´ınh
t˘a
´
c e
1
= (1, 0), e
2
= (0, 1) sau ph´ep quay tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
g´oc ϕ.
5.2. Co
.
so
.
’ . D
-
ˆo

i co
.
so
.
’ 193
H`ınh 5.1
Gia’ i. T` u
.
h`ınh v˜e suy ra r˘a
`
ng vecto
.
e

1
lˆa
.
p v´o
.
i c´ac vecto
.
e
1
v`a e
2
c´ac g´oc tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng b˘a
`
ng ϕ v`a ϕ−
π
2
. Do d´o to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a e

1
trong co
.
so
.

e
1
, e
2
l`a cos ϕ v`a cos
_
ϕ −
π
2
_
= sinϕ:
e

1
= cos ϕ e
1
+ sin ϕ e
2
Vecto
.
e

2
lˆa
.
p v´o
.
i e
1
v`a e
2
c´ac g´oc tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng b˘a
`
ng
π
2
+ϕ v`a ϕ. Do d´o
to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a n´o trong co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
l`a cos
_
π
2

_
= −sinϕ v`a cos ϕ:
e

2
= −sinϕ e
1
+ cos ϕ e
2
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
e

1
= cos ϕ e
1
+ sinϕ e
2
,
e

2
= −sinϕ e
1
+ cos ϕ e
2
.
v`a t` u
.
d´o
T
ee
∗ =
_
cos ϕ −sinϕ
sin ϕ cos ϕ
_
T
−1
ee
∗ =
_
cos ϕ sinϕ
−sinϕ cos ϕ
_
.
Do vˆa
.
y c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
trong co
.
so
.
’ c˜ u v`a m´o
.
i liˆen hˆe
.
bo
.
’ i c´ac hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c
x = x

cos ϕ −y

sinϕ,
y = x

sinϕ +y

cos ϕ.
_
x

= xcos ϕ +y sinϕ,
y

= −xsinϕ +y cos ϕ.
_

194 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
V´ı du
.
6. Gia’ su
.
’ x = (3, −1, 0) l`a vecto
.
cu’ a R
3
v´o
.
i co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
.
T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a x dˆo´i v´o
.
i co
.
so
.

E
1
= 2c
1
−c
2
+ 3c
3
,
E
2
= c
1
+c
3
,
E
3
= −c
2
+ 2c
3
.
Gia’ i. T` u
.
c´ac khai triˆe

n E
1
, E
2
v`a E
3
theo co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
ta c´o ma
trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n
T =
_
¸
_
2 1 0
−1 0 −1
3 1 2
_
¸
_
t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
sang co
.
so
.
’ E
1
, E
2
, E
3
.
Ta k´ y hiˆe
.
u x
1
, x
2
, x
3
l`a to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a x trong co
.
so
.
’ E
1
, E
2
, E
3
. Ta c´o
_
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
¸
_
= T
−1
_
¸
_
3
−1
0
_
¸
_
V`ı T
−1
=
_
¸
_
1 −2 −1
−1 4 2
−1 1 1
_
¸
_ nˆen
_
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
¸
_ =
_
¸
_
1 −2 −1
−1 4 2
−1 1 1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
3
−1
0
_
¸
_ =
_
¸
_
5
−7
−4
_
¸
_.
Vˆa
.
y trong co
.
so
.
’ m´o
.
i E
1
, E
2
, E
3
ta c´o
x = (5, −7, −4).
V´ı du
.
7. Trong khˆong gian R
2
cho co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
v`a c´ac vecto
.
E
1
=
e
1
−2e
2
, E
2
= 2e
1
+e
2
, x = 3e
1
−4e
2
.
5.2. Co
.
so
.
’ . D
-
ˆo

i co
.
so
.
’ 195
1
+
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng E
1
, E
2
lˆa
.
p th`anh co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a R
2
.
2
+
T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
vecto
.
x trong co
.
so
.
’ E
1
, E
2
.
3
+
T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
x trong co
.
so
.
’ E
2
, E
1
.
Gia’ i. 1
+
Ta lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a E
1
v`a E
2
:
A =
_
1 −2
2 1
_
⇒detA = 5 ,= 0.
Do d´o hˆe
.
hai vecto
.
E
1
, E
2
l`a dltt trong khˆong gian 2-chiˆe
`
u R
2
nˆen n´o
lˆa
.
p th`anh co
.
so
.
’ .
2
+
Trong co
.
so
.
’ d˜a cho vecto
.
x c´o to
.
a dˆo
.
l`a (3, −4). Gia’ su
.
’ trong
co
.
so
.
’ E
1
, E
2
vecto
.
x c´o to
.
a dˆo
.
(x
1
, x
2
). Ta lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ E
1
, E
2
:
T =
_
1 2
−2 1
_
⇒ T
−1
=
1
5
_
1 2
−2 1
_
Khi d´o
_
x
1
x
2
_
= T
−1
_
3
−4
_

_
x
1
x
2
_
=
1
5
_
1 −2
2 1
__
3
−4
_
=
1
5
_
11
2
_
=
_
¸
_
11
5
2
5
_
¸
_.
Vˆa
.
y x
1
=
11
5
, x
2
=
+2
5
.
3
+
V`ı E
1
, E
2
l`a co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a R
2
nˆen E
2
, E
1
c˜ ung l`a co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a R
2
. Ma
trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ E
2
, E
1
c´o da
.
ng
A

=
_
2 1
1 −2
_
, A
∗−1
= −
1
5
_
−2 −1
−1 2
__
3
−4
_
= −
1
5
_
−2
−11
_
=
_
¸
_
2
5
11
5
_
¸
_
Do d´o x
1
=
2
5
, x
2
=
11
5
trong co
.
so
.
’ E
2
, E
1
.
V´ı du
.
8. Trong khˆong gian R
3
cho co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
n`ao d´o v`a trong
co
.
so
.
’ d´o c´ac vecto
.
E
1
, E
2
, E
3
v`a x c´o to
.
a dˆo
.
l`a E
1
= (1, 1, 1); E
2
=
(1, 2, 2), E
3
= (1, 1, 3) v`a x = (6, 9, 14).
196 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
1
+
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng E
1
, E
2
, E
3
c˜ ung lˆa
.
p th`anh co
.
so
.
’ trong R
3
.
2
+
T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a x trong co
.
so
.
’ E
1
, E
2
, E
3
.
Gia’ i. 1
+
tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trong v´ı du
.
7, ha
.
ng cu’ a hˆe
.
ba vecto
.
E
1
, E
2
, E
3
b˘a
`
ng 3 nˆen hˆe
.
vecto
.
d´o dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh trong khˆong
gian 3-chiˆe
`
u nˆen n´o lˆa
.
p th`anh co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a R
3
.
2+ Dˆe

t`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a x trong co
.
so
.
’ E
1
, E
2
, E
3
ta c´o thˆe

tiˆe
´
n h`anh
theo hai phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap sau.
(I) V`ı E
1
, E
2
, E
3
lˆa
.
p th`anh co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a R
3
nˆen
x = x
1
E
1
+x
2
E
2
+x
3
E
3
⇒ (6, 9, 14) = x
1
(1, 1, 1) +x
2
(1, 2, 2) +x
3
(1, 1, 3)
v`a do d´o x
1
, x
2
, x
3
l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
= 6,
x
1
+ 2x +x
3
= 9,
x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 3x
3
= 14.
_
¸
_
¸
_
⇒ x
1
=
1
2
, x
2
= 3, x
3
=
5
2

(II) Lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
sang co
.
so
.
’ E
1
, E
2
, E
3
:
T
EE
=
_
¸
_
1 1 1
1 2 1
1 2 3
_
¸
_ ⇒ T
−1
EE
=
1
2
_
¸
_
4 −1 −1
−2 2 0
0 −1 1
_
¸
_.
Do d´o
_
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
¸
_ = T
−1
EE
_
¸
_
6
9
14
_
¸
_ =
1
2
_
¸
_
1
6
5
_
¸
_ =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1
2
3
5
2
_
¸
¸
¸
_
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c kˆe
´
t qua’ nhu
.
tronng (I).
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
5.2. Co
.
so
.
’ . D
-
ˆo

i co
.
so
.
’ 197
1. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng c´ac hˆe
.
vecto
.
sau dˆay l`a nh˜ u
.
ng co
.
so
.
’ trong khˆ ong
gian R
4
:
1) e
1
= (1, 0, 0, 0); e
2
= (0, 1, 0, 0); e
3
= (0, 0, 1, 0); e
4
= (0, 0, 0, 1).
2) c
1
= (1, 1, 1, 1); c
2
= (0, 1, 1, 1); c
3
= (0, 0, 1, 1); c
4
= (0, 0, 0, 1).
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng hˆe
.
vecto
.
do
.
n vi
.
:
e
1
= (1, 0, . . . , 0
. ¸¸ .
n−1
); e
2
= (0, 1, 0, . . . , 0), . . . , e
n
= (0, 0, . . . , 0
. ¸¸ .
n−1
, 1)
lˆa
.
p th`anh co
.
so
.
’ trong R
n
. Co
.
so
.
’ n`ay du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a co
.
so
.
’ ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng hˆe
.
vecto
.
c
1
= (1, 0, . . . , 0),
c
2
= (1, 1, . . . , 0),
. . . . . . . . .
c
n
= (1, 1, . . . , 1)
l`a mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ trong R
n
.
4. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng hˆe
.
vecto
.
c
1
= (1, 2, 3, . . . , n −1, n),
c
2
= (1, 2, 3, . . . , n −1, 0),
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
c
n
= (1, 0, 0, . . . , 0, 0)
lˆa
.
p th`anh co
.
so
.
’ trong khˆong gian R
n
.
5. H˜ay kiˆe

m tra xem mˆo
˜
i hˆe
.
vecto
.
sau dˆay c´o lˆa
.
p th`anh co
.
so
.
’ trong
khˆong gian R
4
khˆong v`a t`ım c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
x = (1, 2, 3, 4) trong
mˆo
˜
i co
.
so
.
’ d´o.
1) a
1
= (0, 1, 0, 1); a
2
= (0, 1, 0, −1); a
3
= (1, 0, 1, 0);
a
4
= (1, 0, −1, 0). (DS. 3, −1, 2, −1)
2) a
1
= (1, 2, 3, 0); a
2
= (1, 2, 0, 3); a
3
= (1, 0, 2, 3);
198 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
a
4
= (0, 1, 2, 3). (DS.
2
3
, −
1
6
,
1
2
, 1)
3) a
1
= (1, 1, 1, 1); a
2
= (1, −1, 1, −1); a
3
= (1, −1, 1, 1);
a
4
= (1, −1, −1, −1). (DS.
3
2
, −
1
2
, 1, −1)
4) a
1
= (1, −2, 3, −4); a
2
= (−4, 1, −2, 3); a
3
= (3, −4, 1, −2);
a
4
= (−2, 3, −4, 1). (DS. −
13
10
, −
7
10
, −
13
10
, −
17
10
)
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Ta nh˘a
´
c la
.
i r˘a
`
ng c´ac k´ y hiˆe
.
u e
1
, e
2
, . . . , e
n
du
.
o
.
.
c d` ung dˆe

chı ’ c´ac vecto
.
do
.
n vi
.
cu’ a tru
.
c x
i
(i = 1, 2, . . . , n):
e
i
= (1, 0, . . . , 0
. ¸¸ .
n−1
), e
2
= (0, 1, 0, . . . , 0), . . . , e
n
= (0, . . . , 0
. ¸¸ .
n−1
, 1)
6. T`ım ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ e
2
, e
3
, e
1
.
(DS.
_
¸
_
0 0 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
_
¸
_
)
7. T`ım ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
, e
4
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ e
3
, e
4
, e
2
, e
1
.
(DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0
1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
)
8. Cho ma trˆa
.
n
_
−1 1
2 0
_
l`a ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.

c
1
, c
2
. T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
c
1
, c
2
.
(DS. c
1
= (−1, 2); c
2
= (1, 0))
9. Gia’ su
.

_
¸
_
1 2 −1
3 1 0
2 0 1
_
¸
_
5.2. Co
.
so
.
’ . D
-
ˆo

i co
.
so
.
’ 199
l`a ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
. T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
c
2
trong co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
. (DS. c
2
= (2, 1, 0))
10. T`ım ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.

c
1
= 2e
1
−e
3
+e
2
; c
2
= 3e
1
−e
2
+e
3
; c
3
= e
3
.
(DS.
_
¸
_
2 3 0
1 −1 0
−1 1 1
_
¸
_
)
11. T`ım ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.

c
1
= e
2
+e
3
; c
2
= −e
1
+ 2e
3
; c
3
= e
1
+e
2
.
(DS.
_
¸
_
0 −1 1
1 0 1
1 2 0
_
¸
_
)
12. T`ım ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
, e
4
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.

c
1
= 2e
2
+ 3e
3
+e
4
; c
2
= e
1
−2e
2
+ 3e
3
−e
4
; c
3
= e
1
+e
4
;
c
4
= 2e
1
+e
2
−e
3
+e
4
.
(DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 1 1 2
2 −2 0 1
3 3 0 −1
1 −1 1 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
)
13. Cho
_
2 1
−1 2
_
l`a ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
. T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a c´ac
vecto
.
e
1
, e
2
trong co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
.
(DS. e
1
=
_
2
5
,
1
5
_
. e
2
=
_

1
5
,
2
5
_
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. T` u
.
ma trˆa
.
n d˜a cho t`ım khai triˆe

n c
1
, c
2
theo co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
.
T` u
.
d´o t`ım khai triˆe

n e
1
, e
2
theo co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
.
200 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
14. Cho ma trˆa
.
n
_
¸
_
1 −1 3
5 1 2
1 4 −1
_
¸
_
l`a ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
. T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
vecto
.
e
2
trong co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
.
(DS. e
2
=
_
11
41
, −
4
41
, −
5
41
_
)
15. Cho ma trˆa
.
n
_
¸
_
1 0 1
0 0 2
−1 3 1
_
¸
_
l`a ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
. T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
c´ac vecto
.
e
1
, e
2
, e
3
trong co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
.
(DS. e
1
=
_
1,
1
3
, 0
_
, e
2
=
_

1
2
, −
1
3
,
1
2
_
, e
3
=
_
0,
1
3
, 0
_
)
16. Trong co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
vecto
.
x c´o to
.
a dˆo
.
l`a (1; 2). T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a
vecto
.
d´o trong co
.
so
.
’ c
1
= e
1
+ 2e
2
; c
2
= −e
1
+e
2
.
(DS. x =
_

1
3
, −
4
3
_
)
17. Trong co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
vecto
.
x c´o to
.
a dˆo
.
l`a (−3; 1). T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a
vecto
.
d´o trong co
.
so
.
’ c
1
= −2e
1
+e
2
; c
2
= e
2
.
(DS. x =
_
3
2
, −
1
2
_
)
18. Trong co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
vecto
.
x c´o to
.
a dˆo
.
l`a (−1; 2; 0). T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
d´o trong co
.
so
.
’ c
1
= 2e
1
− e
2
+ 3e
3
, c
2
= −3e
1
+ e
2
−2e
3
;
c
3
= 4e
2
+ 5e
3
. (DS. (−0, 68; −0, 12; 0, 36))
19. Trong co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
vecto
.
x c´o to
.
a dˆo
.
l`a (1, −1, 0). T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
d´o trong co
.
so
.
’ : c
1
= 3e
1
+ e
2
+ 6e
3
, c
2
= 5e
1
− 3e
2
+ 7e
3
,
c
3
= −2e
1
+ 2e
2
−3e
3
.
5.3. Khˆong gian vecto
.
Euclid. Co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n 201
(DS. x = (−0, 6; 1, 2; 1, 6))
20. Trong co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
vecto
.
x c´o to
.
a dˆo
.
l`a (4, 0, −12). T`ım to
.
a
dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
d´o trong co
.
so
.
’ c
1
= e
1
+ 2e
2
+e
3
, c
2
= 2e
1
+ 3e
2
+ 4e
3
,
c
3
= 3e
1
+ 4e
2
+ 3e
3
.
(DS. x = (−4, −8, 8))
21. Trong khˆong gian v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ l`a e
1
, e
2
, e
3
cho c´ ac vecto
.
c
1
=
e
1
+e
2
, c
2
= 2e
1
−e
2
+e
3
, c
3
= e
2
−e
3
.
1) Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng c
1
, c
2
, c
3
lˆa
.
p th`anh co
.
so
.
’ .
2) T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
x = e
1
+ 8e
2
−5e
3
trong co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
.
(DS. x = (3, −1, 4))
22. Trong co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
cho c´ac vecto
.
a = (1, 2, 3), b = (0, 3, 1),
c = (0, 0, 2), d = (4, 3, 1). Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng c´ac vecto
.
a, b, c lˆa
.
p th`anh
co
.
so
.
’ v`a t`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
d trong co
.
so
.
’ d´o.
(DS. d
_
4, −
5
3
, −
14
3
_
)
5.3 Khˆong gian vecto
.
Euclid. Co
.
so
.

tru
.
.
c
chuˆa

n
Khˆong gian tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh thu
.
.
c 1 du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a khˆong gian Euclid nˆe
´
u trong
1 du
.
o
.
.
c trang bi
.
mˆo
.
t t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng, t´ u
.
c l`a nˆe
´
u v´o
.
i mˆo
˜
i c˘a
.
p phˆa
`
n tu
.

x, y ∈ 1 dˆe
`
u tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i mˆ o
.
t sˆo´ thu
.
.
c (k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a ¸x, y)) sao cho
∀x, y, z ∈ 1 v`a sˆo´ α ∈ R ph´ep tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng d´o tho’a m˜an c´ac tiˆen dˆe
`
sau
dˆay
(I) ¸x, y) = ¸y, x);
(II) ¸x +y, z) = ¸x, z) +¸y, z);
(III) ¸αx, y) = α¸x, y);
(IV) ¸x, x) > 0 nˆe
´
u x ,= θ.
Trong khˆong gian vecto
.
R
n
dˆo´i v´o
.
i c˘a
.
p vecto
.
a = (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
),
202 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
b = (b
1
, b
2
, . . . , b
n
) th`ı quy t˘a
´
c tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng
¸a, b) =
n

i=1
a
i
b
i
= a
1
b
1
+a
2
b
2
+ +a
n
b
n
(5.12)
s˜e x´ac di
.
nh mˆo
.
t t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a hai vecto
.
a v`a b.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y khˆong gian R
n
v´o
.
i t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng x´ ac di
.
nh theo cˆong
th´ u
.
c (5.12) tro
.
’ th`anh khˆong gian Euclid. Do d´o khi n´oi vˆe
`
khˆong gian
Euclid R
n
ta luˆon luˆon hiˆe

u l`a t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng trong d´o x´ac di
.
nh theo
(5.12).
Gia’ su
.
’ x ∈ R
n
. Khi d´o sˆo´
_
¸x, x) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a dˆo
.
d`ai (hay chuˆ a

n)
cu’ a vecto
.
x v`a du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a |x|. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
|x|
def
=
_
¸x, x) (5.13)
Vecto
.
x v´o
.
i dˆo
.
d`ai = 1 du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a du
.
o
.
.
c chuˆa

n h´oa hay vecto
.
do
.
n
vi
.
. Dˆe

chuˆa

n h´oa mˆo
.
t vecto
.
kh´ac θ bˆa´t k` y ta chı ’ cˆa
`
n nhˆan n´o v´ o
.
i sˆo´
λ =
1
|x|
.
Dˆo
.
d`ai c´o c´ ac t´ınh chˆa´t
1
+
|x| = 0 ⇔ x = θ.
2
+
|λx| = [λ[ |x|, ∀λ ∈ R.
3
+
[¸x, y)[ |x| |y| (bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c Cauchy-Bunhiakovski)
4
+
|x + y| |x| + |y| (bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c tam gi´ac hay bˆa´t d˘a

ng
th´ u
.
c Minkovski).
T` u
.
bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c 3
+
suy r˘a
`
ng v´o
.
i hai vecto
.
kh´ac θ bˆa´t k` y x, y ∈ R
n
ta dˆe
`
u c´o
[¸x, y)[
|x| | cos y|
1 ⇔ −1
¸x, y)
|x| |y|
1.
Sˆo´
¸x, y)
|x| |y|
c´o thˆe

xem nhu
.
cosin cu’ a g´oc ϕ n`ao d´o. G´oc ϕ m`a
cos ϕ =
¸x, y)
|x| |y|
, 0 ϕ π (5.14)
5.3. Khˆong gian vecto
.
Euclid. Co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n 203
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a g´oc gi˜ u
.
a hai vecto
.
x v` a y.
Hai vecto
.
x, y ∈ R
n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a vuˆ ong g´ oc hay tru
.
.
c giao nˆe
´
u t´ıch
vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a ch´ ung b˘a
`
ng 0: ¸x, y) = 0.
Hˆe
.
vecto
.
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
m
∈ R
n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
tru
.
.
c giao nˆe
´
u ch´ ung
tru
.
.
c giao t` u
.
ng dˆoi mˆo
.
t, t´ u
.
c l`a nˆe
´
u ¸a
i
, a
j
) = 0 ∀i ,= j.
Hˆe
.
vecto
.
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
m
∈ R
n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a hˆe
.
tru
.
.
c giao v`a chuˆ a

n
h´oa (hay hˆe
.
tru
.
.
c chuˆ a

n) nˆe
´
u
¸a
i
, a
i
) = δ
ij
=
_
_
_
0 nˆe
´
u i ,= j
1 nˆe
´
u i = j
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 5.3.1. Mo
.
i hˆe
.
tru
.
.
c giao c´ ac vecto
.
kh´ac khˆong dˆe
`
u l`a hˆe
.
dˆo
.
c
lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
Hˆe
.
gˆo
`
m n vecto
.
c
1
, c
2
, . . . , c
n
∈ R
n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c giao
nˆe
´
u n´o l`a mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ gˆo
`
m c´ac vecto
.
tru
.
.
c giao t` u
.
ng dˆoi mˆo
.
t.
Trong khˆong gian R
n
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng co
.
so
.
’ d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t tiˆe
.
n lo
.
.
i du
.
o
.
.
c
go
.
i l`a nh˜ u
.
ng co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n (vai tr`o nhu
.
co
.
so
.
’ Dˆec´ ac vuˆong g´oc
trong h`ınh ho
.
c gia’ i t´ıch).
Hˆe
.
gˆo
`
m n vecto
.
c
1
, c
2
, . . . , c
n
∈ R
n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c
chuˆ a

n cu’ a R
n
nˆe
´
u c´ac vecto
.
n`ay t` u
.
ng dˆoi mˆo
.
t tru
.
.
c giao v`a dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a
mˆo
˜
i vecto
.
cu’ a hˆe
.
dˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 1, t´ u
.
c l`a
(c
i
, c
k
) =
_
_
_
0 nˆe
´
u i ,= k,
1 nˆe
´
u i = k.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 5.3.2. Trong mo
.
i khˆong gian Euclid n-chiˆe
`
u dˆe
`
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆ a

n.
Dˆe

c´o diˆe
`
u d´o ta c´o thˆe

su
.
’ du
.
ng ph´ep tru
.
.
c giao h´oa Gram-Smidth
du
.
a mˆ o
.
t co
.
so
.
’ vˆe
`
co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n. Nˆ o
.
i dung cu’ a thuˆa
.
t to´an d´o nhu
.
sau
Gia’ su
.
’ c
1
= a
1
. Tiˆe
´
p d´o ph´ep du
.
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c tiˆe
´
n h`anh theo quy na
.
p.
204 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
Nˆe
´
u c
1
, c
2
, . . . , c
i
d˜a du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
.
ng th`ı c
i+1
c´o thˆe

lˆa´y
c
i+1
= a
i+1
+
i

j=1
α
j
a
j
,
trong d´o
α
j
= −
¸a
i+1
, c
j
)
¸c
j
, c
j
)
, j = 1, i
du
.
o
.
.
c t`ım t` u
.
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n c
i+1
tru
.
.
c giao v´o
.
i mo
.
i vecto
.
c
1
, c
2
, . . . , c
i
.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
1. Trong c´ ac ph´ep to´an du
.
´o
.
i dˆay ph´ep to´an n`ao l`a t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a
hai vecto
.
x = (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
), y = (y
1
, y
2
, y
3
) ∈ R
3
:
1) ¸x, y) = x
2
1
y
2
1
+x
2
2
y
2
2
+x
2
3
y
2
3
;
2) ¸x, y) = x
1
y
1
+ 2x
2
y
2
+ 3x
3
y
3
;
3) ¸x, y) = x
1
y
1
+x
2
y
2
−x
3
y
3
.
Gia’ i. 1) Ph´ep to´an n`ay khˆong l`a t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng v`ı n´o khˆong tho’a
m˜an tiˆen dˆe
`
III cu’ a t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng:
¸αx, y) = α
2
x
2
1
y
2
1

2
x
2
2
y
2
2

2
x
2
3
y
2
3
,= α(x
2
1
y
2
1
+x
2
2
y
2
2
+x
2
3
y
2
3
)
2) Ph´ep to´an n`ay l`a t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, hiˆe

n nhiˆen c´ac tiˆen
dˆe
`
I v`a II tho’a m˜an. Ta kiˆe

m tra c´ac tiˆen dˆe
`
III v`a IV.
Gia’ su
.
’ x

= (x

1
, x

2
, x

3
), x

= (x

1
, x

2
, x

3
) ∈ R
3
. Khi d´o
¸x

+x

, y) = (x

1
+x

1
)y
1
+ 2(x

2
+x

2
)y
2
+ 3(x

3
+x

3
)y
3
= (x

1
y
1
+ 2x

2
y
2
+ 3x

3
y
3
) + (x

1
y
1
+ 2x

2
y
2
+ 3x

3
y
3
)
= ¸x

, y) +¸x

, y).
Tiˆe
´
p theo ta x´et
¸x, x) = x
2
1
+ 2x
2
2
+ 3x
2
3
0 v`a
¸x, x) = 0 ⇔ x
2
1
+ 2x
2
2
+ 3x
2
3
= 0 ⇔ x
1
= x
2
= x
3
= 0 ⇔ x = θ.
5.3. Khˆong gian vecto
.
Euclid. Co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n 205
V´ı du
.
2. T`ım dˆo
.
d`ai c´ac ca
.
nh v`a g´ oc trong ta
.
i A cu’ a tam gi´ac v´ o
.
i
dı ’nh A(2, 1, −2, −3), B(2, −1, 2, 1) v` a C(6, 5, −2, −1).
Gia’ i. Ta t`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a c´ ac vecto
.
−→
AB,
−→
AC v`a
−→
BC. Ta c´o
−→
AB(0, −2, 4, 4),
−→
AC(4, 4, 0, 2),
−→
BC(4, 6, −4, −2).
´
Ap du
.
ng di
.
nh ngh˜ıa dˆo
.
d`ai vecto
.
trong co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n ta c´ o
|
−→
AB| =
_
0
2
+ (−2)
2
+ 4
2
+ 4
2
=

36 = 6
v`a tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
|
−→
AC| = 6, |
−→
BC| = 6

2. Theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c (5.14) ta c´o
cos A =
¸
−→
AB,
−→
AC)
|AB| |AC|
=
0 4 + (−2) 4 + 4 0 + 4 2
6 6
= 0.
Do d´o
´
A =
π
2
.
V´ı du
.
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng trong bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c Cauchy-Bunhiakovski
[¸a, b)[ |a| |b| dˆa´u b˘a
`
ng “=” da
.
t du
.
o
.
.
c khi v`a chı ’ khi a v`a b phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
Gia’ i. 1) Nˆe
´
u a = λb th`ı
[¸a, b)[ = [¸λb, b) = [λ[ |b|
2
= |λb| |b| = |a| |b|.
Ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i, nˆe
´
u [¸a, b)[ = |a| |b| th`ı
_
a −
¸a, b)
|b|
2
b, a −
¸a, b)
|b|
2
b
_
= |a|
2
−2
¸a, b)
|b|
2
¸a, b) +
¸a, b)
2
|b|
4
|b|
2
=
= |a|
2
−2
|a|
2
|b|
2
|b|
2
+
|a|
2
|b|
2
|b|
2
|b|
4
= 0.
Nhu
.
ng t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng ¸x, x) = 0 ⇔ x = θ. T` u
.
d´o suy ra r˘a
`
ng a =
¸a, b)
|b|
2
b, t´ u
.
c l`a a, b phu
.
thuˆo
.
c tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
V´ı du
.
4. Hˆe
.
c´ac vecto
.
do
.
n vi
.
trong R
n
v´o
.
i t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng (5.12)
e
1
= (1, 0, 0, . . . , 0)
e
2
= (0, 1, 0, . . . , 0)
. . . . . . . . . . . .
e
n
= (0, 0, 0, . . . , 1)
206 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
l`a mˆo
.
t v´ı du
.
vˆe
`
co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n trong R
n
. Co
.
so
.
’ n`ay go
.
i l`a co
.
so
.

ch´ınh t˘a
´
c trong R
n
.
Gia’ i. Hiˆe

n nhiˆen ¸e
i
, e
j
) = 0 ∀i ,= j, |e
j
| = 1 ∀j = 1, n. T` u
.
d´o
thu du
.
o
.
.
c diˆe
`
u cˆa
`
n ch´ u
.
ng minh.
V´ı du
.
5. To
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
a ∈ R
n
bˆa´t k` y dˆo´i v´o
.
i co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n
b˘a
`
ng t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a vecto
.
d´o v´o
.
i vecto
.
co
.
so
.
’ tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng.
Gia’ i. Gia’ su
.
’ a ∈ R
n
v`a c
1
, c
2
, . . . , c
n
l`a mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n cu’ a
R
n
. Khi d´o
a =
n

i=1
λ
i
c
i
.
Nhˆan vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c n`ay v´o
.
i c
k
, k = 1, 2, . . . , n ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
¸a, c
k
) = λ
k
, k = 1, 2, . . . , n.
Do d´o
a =
n

i=1
¸a, c
i
)c
i
∀a ∈ R
n
.
Sˆo´ λ
k
= ¸a, c
k
) k = 1, 2, . . . , n ch´ınh l`a to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
a ∈ R
n
theo
co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n d˜a cho.
V´ı du
.
6. 1) Trong khˆong gian R
3
v´o
.
i t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng (5.12) cho co
.
so
.
’ c
1
= (1, 2, 1); c
2
= (1, 1, 0); c
3
= (2, 0, 0). H˜ay d` ung phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap
tru
.
.
c giao h´oa dˆe

t`ım co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c giao trong R
3
t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ d˜a cho.
2) Trong khˆong gian R
3
v´o
.
i t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng (5.12) cho co
.
so
.
’ c
1
=
(1, −1, 1), c
2
= (2, −3, 4), c
3
= (2, 2, 6). H˜ay du
.
.
ng co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n
trong R
3
theo co
.
so
.
’ d˜a cho.
Gia’ i. 1) Tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t ta cho
.
n E
1
= c
1
= (1, 2, 1). Tiˆe
´
p theo d˘a
.
t
E
2
= c
2
+λE
1
sao cho ¸E
2
, E
1
) = 0, t´ u
.
c l`a
¸E
2
, E
1
) = ¸E
1
, c
2
) +λ¸E
1
, E
1
) = 0.
5.3. Khˆong gian vecto
.
Euclid. Co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n 207
Nhu
.
ng ¸E
1
, E
1
) ,= 0 (cu
.
thˆe

l`a > 0) v`ı E
1
= c
1
,= θ. Do d´o
λ = −
¸E
1
, c
2
)
¸E
1
, E
1
)
= −
¸(1, 2, 1), (1, 1, 0))
1
2
+ 2
2
+ 1
2
= −
1
2

Do d´o
E
2
= (1, 1, 0) −
1
2
(1, 2, 1) =
_
1
2
, 0, −
1
2
_
.
Tiˆe
´
p theo d˘a
.
t
E
3
= c
3
+αE
1
+βE
2
sao cho ¸E
3
, E
1
) = ¸E
3
, E
2
) = 0. Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trˆen, t` u
.
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
¸E
3
, E
1
) = 0 ta c´o α = −
1
3
v`a t` u
.
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ¸E
3
, E
2
) = 0 ta c´o β = −2.
Do d´o
E
3
= c
3

1
3
E
1
−2E
2
=
_
2
3
, −
2
3
,
2
3
_
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c giao
E
1
= (1, 2, 1), E
2
=
_
1
2
, 0, −
1
2
_
, E
3
=
_
2
3
, −
2
3
,
2
3
_
.
2) Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
phˆa
`
n 1), dˆ a
`
u tiˆen ta d˘a
.
t
E
1
= c
1
= (1, −1, 1)
E
2
= c
2
+λE
1
sao cho ¸E
2
, E
1
) = 0. T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c
λ = −
¸E
1
, c
2
)
¸E
1
, E
1
)
= −
2 + 3 + 4
3
= −3,
v`a do d´o
E
2
= (−1, 0, 1).
208 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
Tiˆe
´
p theo ta t`ım
E
3
= c
3
+αE
1
+βE
2
sao cho ¸E
3
, E
1
) = 0, ¸E
3
, E
2
) = 0 v`a t` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c
α = −
¸E
1
, c
3
)
¸E
1
, E
1
)
= −2; β = −
¸E
2
, c
3
)
¸E
2
, E
2
)
= −2.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
E
3
= (2, 4, 2).
Sau c` ung ta chuˆa

n h´oa c´ ac vecto
.
E
1
, E
2
, E
3
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c
chuˆa

n
e
1
=
_
1

3
, −
1

3
,
1

3
_
, e
2
=
_

1

2
, 0,
1

2
_
,
e
3
=
_
1

6
,
2

6
,
1

6
_
.
V´ı du
.
7. H˜ay bˆo

sung cho hˆe
.
tru
.
.
c giao gˆ o
`
m ba vecto
.
trong R
4
:
b
1
= (1, 1, 1, 1), b
2
= (2, 2, −2, −2), b
3
=
_

1
2
,
1
2
, −
7
2
,
7
2
_
dˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c giao trong khˆong gian d´o.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o thˆe

bˆo

sung b˘a
`
ng hai c´ach
1
+
V`ı sˆo´ vecto
.
cu’ a hˆe
.
d˜a cho nho’ ho
.
n 4 (l`a sˆo´ chiˆe
`
u cu’ a khˆong
gian R
4
) nˆen trong khˆong gian R
4
ta c´o thˆe

cho
.
n vecto
.
a
4
sao cho hˆe
.
vecto
.
b
1
, b
2
, b
3
, a
4
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh v`a sau d´o ´ap du
.
ng ph´ep tru
.
.
c giao
h´oa Gram-Smidth.
2
+
Ta c´o thˆe

cho
.
n vecto
.
x = (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, x
4
) dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i tru
.
.
c giao v´o
.
i
c´ac vecto
.
b
1
, b
2
, b
3
, t´ u
.
c l`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
+x
4
= 0,
2x
1
+ 2x
2
−2x
3
−2x
4
= 0,

1
2
x
1
+
1
2
x
2

7
2
x
3
+
7
2
x
4
= 0.
5.3. Khˆong gian vecto
.
Euclid. Co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n 209
Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, t` u
.
hˆe
.
d´o ta c´ o x = (7, −7, −1, 1).
V´ı du
.
8. 1
+
Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng c´ ac vecto
.
x
1
= (1, 1, 1, 2) v`a x
2
=
(1, 2, 3, −3) l`a tru
.
.
c giao v´o
.
i nhau.
2
+
H˜ay bˆo

sung cho hˆe
.
hai vecto
.
d´o dˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c giao
cu’ a R
4
.
Gia’ i. 1
+
Ta c´o
¸x
1
, x
2
) = 1 1 + 1 2 + 1 3 −2 3 = 0.
Do d´o ch´ ung tru
.
.
c giao.
2
+
Gia’ su
.
’ x
3
= (α, β, γ, 0), trong d´o α, β, γ du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh t` u
.
c´ac
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ¸x
3
, x
1
) = 0, ¸x
3
, x
2
) = 0 t´ u
.
c l`a
α +β +γ = 0
α + 2β + 3γ = 0.
T` u
.
d´o x
3
= (1, −2, 1, 0).
Bˆay gi`o
.
ta s˜e bˆo

sung thˆem cho hˆe
.
vecto
.
x
1
, x
2
, x
3
mˆo
.
t vecto
.
n˜ u
.
a.
Gia’ su
.
’ x
4
= (α, β, γ, δ), trong d´o c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
α, β, γ, δ du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh
t` u
.
c´ac d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c:
¸x
4
, x
1
) = 0, ¸x
4
, x
2
) = 0, ¸x
4
, x
2
) = 0.
T` u
.
d´o
α +β + γ + 2δ = 0,
α +β + 3γ −3δ = 0,
α −2β +γ = 0.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c x
4
= (−25, −4, 17, 6). Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ta d˜a bˆo

sung thˆem
hai vecto
.
x
3
, x
4
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
vecto
.
tru
.
.
c giao x
1
, x
2
, x
3
, x
4
trong
khˆong gian 4-chiˆe
`
u. D´o l`a co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c giao.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
210 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
1. Gia’ su
.
’ a = (a
1
, a
2
), b = (b
1
, b
2
) l`a nh˜ u
.
ng vecto
.
t` uy ´ y cu’ a R
2
. Trong
c´ac quy t˘a
´
c sau dˆay, quy t˘a
´
c n`ao x´ac di
.
nh t´ıch vˆ o hu
.
´o
.
ng trˆen R
2
:
1) ¸a, b) = a
1
b
1
+a
2
b
2
.
2) ¸a, b) = ka
1
b
1
+a
2
b
2
, k, ,= 0.
3) ¸a, b) = a
1
b
1
+a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
.
4) ¸a, b) = 2a
1
b
1
+a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
+a
2
b
2
.
5) ¸a, b) = 3a
1
b
1
+a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
−a
2
b
2
.
(DS. 1), 2) v`a 4) x´ac di
.
nh t´ıch vˆ o hu
.
´o
.
ng
3) v`a 5) khˆong x´ac di
.
nh t´ıch vˆ o hu
.
´o
.
ng).
2. Trong khˆong gian Euclide R
4
, x´ac di
.
nh g´oc gi˜ u
.
a c´ac vecto
.
:
1) a = (1, 1, 1, 1), b = (3, 5, 1, 1). (DS. arccos
5
6
)
2) a = (1, 1, 1, 1), b = (3, −5, 1, 1). (DS.
π
2
)
3) a = (1, 1, 1, 1), b = (−3, −3, −3, −3). (DS. π)
3. Trong khˆong gian Euclid R
4
, t`ım dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a c´ac ca
.
nh v`a c´ ac g´oc
cu’ a tam gi´ ac lˆa
.
p bo
.
’ i c´ac vecto
.
a, b, a +b nˆe
´
u
1) a v`a b nhu
.
trong 2.1)
2) a v`a b nhu
.
trong 2.2)
3) a = (2, −1, 2, 4), b = (2, −1, 2, −4).
(DS. 1) |a| = 2, |b| = 6, |a + b| = 2

15, cos(
´
a, b) =
5
6
,
cos(

a, a +b) =
7
2

15
; cos(

b, a +b) =
13
6

15
; 2) |a| = 2, |b| = 6,
|a + b| = 2

10, cos(
´
a, b) = 0, cos(

a, a +b) =
1

10
, cos(

b, a +b) =
3

10
; 3) |a| = 5, |b| = 5, |a + b| = 6, cos(
´
a, b) = −
7
25
,
cos(

a, a +b) =
4
5
, cos(

b, a +b) =
4
15
)
4. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng trong khˆong gian Euclide
1) a ⊥ a ⇔a = θ.
2) Nˆe
´
u vecto
.
a ⊥ b
i
∀i = 1, s th`ı a tru
.
.
c giao v´o
.
i mo
.
i tˆo

ho
.
.
p tuyˆe
´
n
t´ınh cu’ a b
1
, . . . , b
s
.
5.3. Khˆong gian vecto
.
Euclid. Co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n 211
3) Hˆe
.
c´ac vecto
.
kh´ac khˆong v`a tru
.
.
c giao v´o
.
i nhau t` u
.
ng dˆoi mˆo
.
t l`a
hˆe
.
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
5. Gia’ su
.
’ mˆo
.
t tam gi´ac trong khˆong gian Euclide du
.
o
.
.
c lˆa
.
p nˆen bo
.
’ i
c´ac vecto
.
a, b, a +b. Ch´ u
.
ng minh:
1) di
.
nh l´ y Pithago: Nˆe
´
u a ⊥ b ⇒ |a + b|
2
= |a|
2
+|b|
2
.
2) di
.
nh l´ y da’ o cu’ a di
.
nh l´ y Pithago: Nˆe
´
u |a +b|
2
= |a|
2
+|b|
2

a ⊥ b.
3) di
.
nh l´ y h`am cosin:
|a +b|
2
= |a|
2
+|b|
2
+ 2|a| |b| cos(
´
a, b).
4) bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c tam gi´ac
|a| −|b| |a +b| ≤ |a| +|b|.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c Cauchy-Bunhiakovski.
6. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng trong h`ınh b`ınh h`anh du
.
.
ng trˆen hai vecto
.
a v`a b
tˆo

ng c´ac b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo b˘a
`
ng tˆo

ng c´ac b`ınh
phu
.
o
.
ng dˆo
.
d`ai c´ac ca
.
nh
|a +b|
2
+|a −b|
2
= 2|a|
2
+ 2|b|
2
.
7. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u c´ ac vecto
.
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
m
cu’ a khˆ ong gian
Euclide l`a t` u
.
ng dˆoi mˆo
.
t tru
.
.
c giao th`ı
|a
1
+a
2
+ +a
m
|
2
= |a
1
|
2
+|a
2
|
2
+ +|a
m
|
2
.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. X´et t´ıch vˆo hu
.
´o
.
ng
¸a
1
+a
2
+ +a
m
, a
1
+a
2
+ +a
m
)
8.
´
Ap du
.
ng qu´a tr`ınh tru
.
.
c giao h´oa dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac hˆe
.
vecto
.
sau dˆay cu’ a
R
n
:
1) a
1
= (1, −2, 2), a
2
= (−1, 0, −1), a
3
= (5, −3, −7).
212 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
(DS. c
1
= a
1
= (1, −2, 2); c
2
=
_

2
3
, −
2
3
, −
1
3
_
; c
3
= (6, −3, −6))
2) a
1
= (1, 1, 1, 1), a
2
= (3, 3, −1, −1), a
3
= (−2, 0, 6, 8).
(DS. c
1
= a
1
= (1, 1, 1, 1); c
2
= (2, 2, −2, −2), c
3
= (−1, 1, −1, 1))
3) a
1
= (1, 1, 1, 1); a
2
= (3, 3, −1, −1); a
3
= (−1, 0, 3, 4).
(DS. c
1
= a
1
= (1, 1, 1, 1), c
2
= (2, 2, −2, −2), c
3
=
_

1
2
,
1
2
, −
7
2
,
7
2
_
)
9. Tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n h´oa c´ac hˆe
.
vecto
.
sau dˆay cu’ a khˆong gian R
4
:
1) a
1
= (1, 1, 1, 1), a
2
= (1, 1, −3, −3), a
3
= (4, 3, 0, −1).
(DS. c
1
=
_
1
2
,
1
2
,
1
2
,
1
2
_
, c
2
=
_
1
2
,
1
2
, −
1
2
, −
1
2
_
, c
3
=
_
1
2
, −
1
2
,
1
2
, −
1
2
_
)
2) a
1
= (1, 2, 2, 0), a
2
= (1, 1, 3, 5), a
3
= (1, 0, 1, 0).
(DS. c
1
=
_
1
3
,
2
3
,
2
3
, 0
_
, c
2
=
_
0, −
1
3

3
,
1
3

3
,
5
3

3
_
,
c
3
=
_
6

78
, −
17
3

78
,
8
3

78
, −
5
3

78
_
)
10. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng c´ac hˆe
.
vecto
.
sau dˆay trong R
4
l`a tru
.
.
c giao v`a bˆo

sung cho c´ac hˆe
.
d´o dˆe

tro
.
’ th`anh co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c giao:
1) a
1
= (1, −2, 1, 3), a
2
= (2, 1, −3, 1)
(DS. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, c´ac vecto
.
a
3
= (1, 1, 1, 0), a
4
= (−1, 1, 0, 1))
2) a
1
= (1, −1, 1, −3), a
2
= (−4, 1, 5, 0).
(DS. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, c´ac vecto
.
a
3
= (2, 3, 1, 0) v` a a
4
= (1, −1, 1, 1))
11. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng c´ac vecto
.
sau dˆay trong R
4
l`a tru
.
.
c giao v`a bˆo

sung
cho c´ ac hˆe
.
d´o dˆe

tro
.
’ th`anh co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c giao v`a chuˆa

n h´oa c´ac co
.
so
.
’ d´o
1) a
1
= (1, −1, 1, −1), a
2
= (1, 1, 1, 1).
(DS. c
1
=
_
1
2
, −
1
2
,
1
2
, −
1
2
_
, c
2
=
_
1
2
,
1
2
,
1
2
,
1
2
_
, c
3
=
_

1

2
, 0,
1

2
, 0
_
,
5.4. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 213
c
4
=
_
0, −
1

2
, 0,
1

2
_
)
2) a
1
= (1, −1, −1, 3), a
2
= (1, 1, −3, −1)
(DS. c
1
=
_
1
2

3
, −
1
2

3
, −
1
2

3
,

3
2
_
, c
2
=
_
1
2

3
,
1
2

3
, −

3
2
, −
1
2

3
_
,
c
3
=
_
2

6
,
1

6
,
1

6
, 0
_
, c
4
=
_

1

6
,
2

6
, 0,
1

6
_
)
5.4 Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
5.4.1 D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa
´
Anh xa
.
L : R
n
→R
n
biˆe
´
n khˆong gian R
n
th`anh ch´ınh n´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a
mˆo
.
t ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh (bdtt) cu’ a khˆong gian R
n
nˆe
´
u n´o tho’a
m˜an hai diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n sau dˆay
(i) V´o
.
i hai vecto
.
a v`a b ∈ R
n
bˆa´t k` y
L(a +b) = L(a) +L(b). (5.15)
(ii) V´o
.
i vecto
.
a ∈ R
n
bˆa´t k` y v`a ∀λ ∈ R ta c´o
L(λa) = λL(a). (5.16)
Hai diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n (5.15) v`a (5.16) tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n:
L(λ
1
a +λ
2
b) = λ
1
L(a) +λ
2
L(b).
T` u
.
di
.
nh ngh˜ıa suy ra: nˆe
´
u hˆe
.
vecto
.
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
m
∈ R
n
l`a pttt th`ı
hˆe
.
c´ac vecto
.
a’ nh f(a
1
), . . . , f(a
m
) c˜ ung l`a pttt.
5.4.2 Ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ph´ep bdtt
Gia’ su
.
’ trong khˆong gian R
n
ta cˆo´ di
.
nh mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ (c) n`ao d´o:
c = ¦c
1
, c
2
, . . . , c
n
¦. (5.17)
214 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
Khi d´o ∀x ∈ R
n
ta c´o khai triˆe

n
x = x
1
c
1
+x
2
|
2
+ +x
n
c
n
.
Mo
.
i ma trˆa
.
n vuˆong A =
_
_
a
ij
_
_
n×n
dˆe
`
u x´ac di
.
nh ph´ep bdtt L theo
cˆong th´ u
.
c
_
¸
¸
¸
_
y
1
y
2

y
n
_
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
. . . a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n1
a
n2
. . . a
nn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x
1
x
2
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.18)
N´oi c´ ach kh´ac: dˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
a’ nh y = L(x) ta cˆa
`
n nhˆan ma trˆa
.
n
A v´o
.
i cˆo
.
t to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a x. Viˆe
´
t ra chi tiˆe
´
t ta c´o
y
1
= a
11
x
1
+ a
12
x
2
+ +a
1n
x
n
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (5.19)
y
n
= a
n1
x
1
+a
n2
x
2
+ +a
nn
x
n
.
Ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i, trong co
.
so
.
’ d˜a cho
.
n (5.17) mˆo
˜
i ph´ep bdtt L dˆe
`
u tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t ma trˆa
.
n A = |a
ij
| cˆa´p n v`a su
.
.
t´ac dˆo
.
ng cu’ a ph´ep bdtt
du
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (5.18) hay (5.19).
Viˆe
.
c t`ım ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ph´ep bdtt du
.
o
.
.
c tiˆe
´
n h`anh nhu
.
sau
1
+
T´ac dˆo
.
ng L lˆen c´ac vecto
.
co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a (5.17) v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c a’ nh
L(c
i
), i = 1, n.
2
+
Khai triˆe

n c´ac a’ nh L(c
i
) theo co
.
so
.
’ (5.17):
L(c
1
) = a
11
c
1
+a
21
c
2
+ +a
n1
c
n
,
L(c
2
) = a
12
c
1
+a
22
c
2
+ +a
n2
c
n
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
L(c
\
) = a
1n
c
1
+a
2n
c
2
+ +a
nn
c
n
.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.20)
T` u
.
c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
trong (5.20) ta lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n A sao cho to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
5.4. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 215
L(c
i
), i = 1, n l`a cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
i cu’ a A, t´ u
.
c l`a
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
. . . a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n1
a
n2
. . . a
nn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
D´o l`a ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ph´ep bdtt.
Ta lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng khi thay dˆo

i co
.
so
.
’ th`ı ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh s˜e thay dˆo

i. Gia’ su
.
’ ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ (c) dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.

(c

) du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a T
EE
, trong d´o
c

= ¦c

1
, c

2
, . . . , c

n
¦
v`a A l`a ma trˆa
.
n ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh L theo co
.
so
.
’ (5.17). Khi d´o,
ma trˆa
.
n B cu’ a L theo co
.
so
.
’ (c

) liˆen hˆe
.
v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n A cu’ a n´o theo
co
.
so
.
’ (5.17) bo
.
’ i cˆong th´ u
.
c
B = T
−1
EE

AT
EE
(5.21)
hay l`a
A = T
EE
BT
−1
EE

(5.22)
5.4.3 C´ac ph´ep to´an
Gia’ su
.
’ / v`a B l`a hai ph´ep bdtt cu’ a khˆong gian R
n
v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng l`a A = |a
ij
| v`a B = |b
ij
| t` uy ´ y.
1
+
Tˆo

ng /+B l`a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i ( sao cho
((x) = /(x) +B(x) ∀x ∈ R
n
v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng l`a C = A+B = |a
ij
| +|b
ij
|.
216 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
2
+
T´ıch c´ ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh / v´o
.
i sˆo´ thu
.
.
c α ∈ R l`a ph´ep
biˆe
´
n dˆo

i α/ sao cho
(α/)(x) = α/(x)
v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n l`a α|a
ij
|.
3
+
T´ıch /B l`a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
((x) = /(B(x))
v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n l`a C = A B.
5.4.4 Vecto
.
riˆeng v`a gi´a tri
.
riˆeng
Vecto
.
kh´ac khˆong x ∈ R
n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh L nˆe
´
u t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c sˆo´ λ sao cho d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c sau tho’a m˜an
L(x) = λx. (5.23)
Sˆo´ λ du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a gi´a tri
.
riˆeng cu’ a ph´ep bdtt L tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i vecto
.
riˆeng x.
C´ac t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a vecto
.
riˆeng
1
+
Mˆo
˜
i vecto
.
riˆeng chı ’ c´o mˆo
.
t gi´ a tri
.
riˆeng.
2
+
Nˆe
´
u x
1
v`a x
2
l`a c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a ph´ep bdtt L v´o
.
i c` ung mˆo
.
t
gi´a tri
.
riˆeng λ th`ı tˆo

ng x
1
+ x
2
c˜ ung l`a vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a L v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
riˆeng λ.
3
+
Nˆe
´
u x l`a vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a L v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
riˆeng λ th`ı mo
.
i vecto
.
αx
(α ,= 0) c˜ ung l`a vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a L v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
riˆeng λ.
Nˆe
´
u trong khˆong gian R
n
d˜a cho
.
n mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ x´ac di
.
nh th`ı (5.23) c´o
thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng ma trˆa
.
n
AX = λX (5.24)
v`a khi d´o: mo
.
i cˆo
.
t kh´ac khˆong tho’a m˜an (5.24) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a vecto
.
riˆeng
cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
riˆeng λ.
5.4. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 217
V`ı λX = λEX, trong d´o E l`a ma trˆa
.
n do
.
n vi
.
nˆen (5.24) c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
(A−λE)X = 0
v`a du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng to
.
a dˆo
.
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
(a
11
−λ)x
1
+a
12
x
2
+ +a
1n
x
n
= 0,
a
21
x
1
+ (a
22
−λ)x
2
+ +a
2n
x
n
= 0,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a
n1
x
1
+a
n2
x
2
+ + (a
nn
−λ)x
n
= 0.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(5.25)
Dˆe

t`ım c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng, tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t cˆ a
`
n t`ım nghiˆe
.
m kh´ac 0 cu’ a hˆe
.
(5.25). Nghiˆe
.
m kh´ac 0 cu’ a hˆe
.
(5.25) tˆo
`
n ta
.
i khi v` a chı ’ khi di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
cu’ a n´o b˘a
`
ng 0, t´ u
.
c l`a
[A−λE[ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
11
−λ a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
−λ . . . a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n1
a
n2
. . . a
nn
−λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0. (5.26)
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (5.26) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng cu’ a ma
trˆa
.
n A, c`on c´ac nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a n´o go
.
i l`a c´ ac sˆo´ d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng hay gi´a tri
.
riˆeng
cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A. Sau khi t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c c´ac sˆo´ d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng λ
1
, λ
2
, . . . , λ
n
ta
cˆa
`
n thay gi´a tri
.
λ
i
v`ao (5.25) dˆe

t`ım c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
x
1
, . . . , x
n
cu’ a vecto
.
riˆeng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Cho L : R
2
→R
2
(a
1
, a
2
) −→ L(a
1
, a
2
) = (a
1
+a
2
, 2a
1
).
1
+
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng L l`a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
2
+
T`ım ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a L theo co
.
so
.
’ ch´ınh t˘a
´
c e = ¦e
1
, e
2
¦.
218 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
Gia’ i. 1
+
Gia’ su
.
’ x = (x
1
, x
2
), y = (y
1
, y
2
). Khi d´o
αx +βy = α(x
1
, x
2
) +β(y
1
, y
2
) = (αx
1
+βy
1
, αx
2
+βy
2
)
v`a do d´o
L(αx +βy) = L(αx
1
+βy
1
, αx
2
+βy
2
)
=
_
αx
1
+βy
1
+αx
2
+βy
2
, 2(αx
1
+βy
1
)
¸
=
_
α(x
1
+x
2
) +β(y
1
+y
2
), α2x
1
+β2y
1
¸
=
_
α(x
1
+x
2
), α2x
1
_
+
_
β(y
1
+y
2
), β2y
1
_
= α(x
1
+x
2
, 2x
1
) +β(y
1
+y
2
, 2y
1
)
= αL(x
1
, x
2
) +βL(y
1
, y
2
)
= αL(x) +βL(y).
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y L l`a ph´ep bdtt.
2
+
Dˆe

t`ım ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh L ta khai triˆe

n
a’ nh L(e
1
) v`a L(e
2
) theo co
.
so
.
’ ch´ınh t˘a
´
c. Ta c´ o
L(e
1
) = L(1, 0) = (1, 2 1) = L(1, 2) = 1 e
1
+ 2 e
2
,
L(e
2
) = L(0, 1) = (1, 2 0) = L(1, 0) = 1 e
1
+ 0 e
2
.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c
A =
_
1 1
2 0
_
.
V´ı du
.
2. X´et khˆong gian R
3
v´o
.
i co
.
so
.
’ c: c
1
= (1, 1, 1), c
2
= (0, 1, 1),
c
3
= (0, 0, 1) v`a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i L : R
3
→R
3
x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
L[(u
1
, u
2
, u
3
)] = (u
1
, u
2
−u
1
, u
3
−u
1
) ∀u = (u
1
, u
2
, u
3
) ∈ R
3
.
1
+
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng L l`a ph´ep bdtt.
2
+
T`ım ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a L trong co
.
so
.
’ d˜a cho
.
n.
5.4. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 219
Gia’ i. 1
+
Gia’ su
.
’ x = (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
), y = (y
1
, y
2
, y
3
) ∈ R
3
v`a α, β ∈ R.
Ta c´o
L(αx +βy) = L
_
α(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) +β(y
1
, y
2
, y
3
)
¸
= L
_
(αx
1
+ βy
1
, αx
2
+βy
2
, αx
3
+βy
3
)
¸
=
_
αx
1
+βy
1
, αx
2
+βy
2
−αx
1
−βy
1
, αx
3
+βy
3
−αx
1
−βy
1
_
=
_
αx
1
, α(x
2
−x
1
), α(x
3
−x
1
)
_
+
_
βy
1
, β(y
2
−y
1
), β(y
3
−y
2
)
_
= α(x
1
, x
2
−x
1
, x
3
−x
1
) +β(y
1
, y
2
−y
1
, y
3
−y
1
)
= αL(x) +βL(y).
Vˆa
.
y L l`a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i phˆan tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh.
2
+
Dˆe

t`ım ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a L dˆo´i v´o
.
i co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
ta c´o
L(c
1
) = L(1, 1, 1) = (1, 1 −1, 1 −1) = (1, 0, 0) = c
1
+ 0 c
2
+ 0 c
3
,
L(c
2
) = L(0, 1, 1) = (0, 1, 1) = 0 c
1
+ 1 c
2
+ 1 c
3
,
L(c
3
) = L(0, 0, 1) = (0, 0, 1) = 0 c
1
+ 0 c
2
+ 1 c
3
.
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a L dˆo´i v´o
.
i co
.
so
.
’ d˜a cho l`a
A =
_
¸
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 1 1
_
¸
_
.
V´ı du
.
3. Trong khˆong gian R
3
cho co
.
so
.
’ ch´ınh t˘a
´
c e = ¦e
1
, e
2
, e
3
¦ v`a
c = ¦c
1
, c
2
, c
3
¦, c
1
= 2e
1
− e
2
+ 3e
3
, c
2
= e
1
+ e
3
, c
3
= −e
2
+ 2e
3
l`a
mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ kh´ac v`a gia’ su
.
’ L : R
3
→R
3
l`a ´anh xa
.
du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh theo
co
.
so
.
’ ¦e
1
, e
2
, e
3
¦ nhu
.
sau
x = (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) −→ f(x) = (x, x
1
+x
2
, x
1
+x
2
+x
3
)
1
+
T`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
x = 3e
1
− e
2
= (3, −1, 0) dˆo´i v´o
.
i co
.
so
.

(c
1
, c
2
, c
3
).
2
+
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng L l`a ph´ep bdtt.
220 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
3
+
T`ım ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a L theo co
.
so
.
’ ¦e
1
, e
2
, e
3
¦ v`a ¦c
1
, c
2
, c
3
¦.
Gia’ i. 1
+
Ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ ¦e
1
, e
2
, e
3
¦ dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ (c
1
, c
2
, c
3
¦
l`a:
T
eE
=
_
¸
_
2 1 0
−1 0 −1
3 1 2
_
¸
_ ⇒ T
−1
eE
_
¸
_
1 −2 −1
−1 4 2
−1 1 1
_
¸
_.
Gia’ su
.
’ (x

1
, x

2
, x

3
) l`a to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a x dˆo´i v´o
.
i co
.
so
.
’ ¦c
1
, c
2
, c
3
¦. Khi
d´o
_
¸
_
x

1
x

2
x

3
_
¸
_
= T
−1
eE
_
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
1 −2 −1
−1 4 2
−1 1 1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
3
−1
0
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
5
−7
−4
_
¸
_
.
Vˆa
.
y to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a x dˆo´i v´o
.
i co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
l`a (5, −7, −4) v`a do d´o x =
5c
1
−7c
2
−4c
3
.
2
+
Viˆe
.
c ch´ u
.
ng minh L l`a ph´ep bdtt du
.
o
.
.
c tiˆe
´
n h`anh tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
v´ı du
.
2.
3
+
Gia’ su
.
’ f(x) = (y
1
, y
2
, y
3
). Khi d´o ´ap du
.
ng (5.18) ta c´o
f(x
1
, x
2
, x
2
) = (x
1
, x
1
+x
2
, x
1
+x
2
+x
3
) = (y
1
, y
2
, y
3
).
Do vˆa
.
y trong co
.
so
.
’ ch´ınh t˘a
´
c ta c´o
_
¸
_
y
1
y
2
y
3
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
x
1
x
1
+x
2
x
1
+x
2
+x
3
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
1 0 0
1 1 0
1 1 1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
¸
_
v`a do d´o
A =
_
¸
_
1 0 0
1 1 0
1 1 1
_
¸
_
.
5.4. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 221
Gia’ su
.
’ B l`a ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a L theo co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
, c
3
. Khi d´o
B = T
−1
eE
AT
eE
=
_
¸
_
1 −2 −1
−1 4 2
−1 1 1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
1 0 0
1 1 0
1 1 1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
2 1 0
−1 0 1
3 1 2
_
¸
_
=
_
¸
_
−4 −3 1
10 7 −2
3 2 0
_
¸
_
.
V´ı du
.
4. Gia’ su
.
’ L : R
3
→ R
3
v`a L

: R
3
→ R
3
l`a hai ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh cu’ a R
3
, trong d´o
L(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = (x
2
+x
3
, −2x
1
, x
1
+x
2
),
L

(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = (c
1
−x
2
, 2x
3
, 2x
2
+x
3
).
T`ım L +L

, L ◦ L

, L

◦ L v`a ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ch´ ung.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o:
1) (L +L

)(x
1
, x
2
, x
2
) = L(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) +L

(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
)
= (x
2
+x
3
, −2x
1
, x
1
+x
3
) + (x
1
−x
2
, 2x
3
, 2x
2
+x
3
)
= (x
1
+x
3
, −2(x
1
−x
3
), x
1
+ 3x
2
+x
3
).
T` u
.
d´o ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i L +L

c´o thˆe

du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i cˆong th´ u
.
c
y
1
= x
1
+x
3
,
y
2
= −2x
1
+ 2x
3
,
y
3
= x
1
+ 3x
2
+x
3
v`a ma trˆa
.
n A
L+L
∗ cu’ a L +L

c´o da
.
ng
A
L+L
∗ =
_
¸
_
1 0 1
−2 0 2
1 3 1
_
¸
_
.
222 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
Ta lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng t` u
.
c´ac cˆong th´ u
.
c cho L v`a L

ta c´o
A
L
=
_
¸
_
0 1 1
−2 0 0
1 1 0
_
¸
_, A
L
∗ =
_
¸
_
1 −1 0
0 0 2
0 2 1
_
¸
_
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c A
L+L
∗ b˘a
`
ng ph´ep cˆo
.
ng A
L
v´o
.
i A
L
∗.
2) Ta c´ o
(L ◦ L

)(x) = L[L

(x)] = L
_
x
1
−x
2
, 2x
3
, 2x
2
+x
3
)
=
_
2x
3
.¸¸.
+2x
2
+x
3
. ¸¸ .
, −2(x
1
−x
2
), x
1
−x
2
. ¸¸ .
+ 2x
3
.¸¸.
_
= (2x
2
+ 3x
3
, −2x
1
+ 2x
2
, x
1
−x
2
+ 2x
3
)
v`a tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trˆen ta c´o
A
L◦L
∗ =
_
¸
_
0 2 3
−2 2 0
1 −1 2
_
¸
_
(Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng A
L◦L
∗ = A
L
A
L
∗).
3) Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p L

◦ L du
.
o
.
.
c gia’ i tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
2).
V´ı du
.
5. 1) Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng trong co
.
so
.
’ e = ¦e
1
, e
2
¦ cu’ a khˆong
gian R
2
vecto
.
x = e
1
−3e
2
l`a vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a ph´ep bdtt L c´o ma trˆa
.
n
trong co
.
so
.
’ e l`a
A =
_
2 1
3 0
_
v`a v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
riˆeng λ = −1.
2) T`ım gi´a tri
.
riˆeng v`a vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a ph´ep bdtt x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i c´ac
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh y
1
= 5x
1
+ 4x
2
, y
2
= 8x
1
+ 9x
2
.
Gia’ i. 1) Tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t ta lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng vecto
.
x ,= θ.
Ta cˆa
`
n ch´ u
.
ng to’ L(x) = −x. Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y, ta c´o
L(x) =
_
2 1
3 0
__
1
−3
_
=
_
−1
3
_
= −
_
1
−3
_
= −x.
5.4. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 223
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y L(x) = −x v`a do d´o x l`a vecto
.
riˆeng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
riˆeng
λ = −1.
2) 1
+
Ta c´o ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i l`a
_
5 4
8 9
_
.
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng c´o da
.
ng
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
5 −λ 4
8 9 −λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0 ⇔ λ
2
−14λ + 13 = 0

_
λ
1
= 1,
λ
2
= 13.
2
+
Ca’ hai gi´a tri
.
λ = 1 v`a λ = 13 dˆe
`
u l`a c´ac gi´ a tri
.
riˆeng.
3
+
Dˆe

t`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng ta c´o hai hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh
(I)
_
(5 −λ
1

1
+ 4ξ
2
= 0,

1
+ (9 −λ
1

2
= 0.
(II)
_
(5 −λ
2

1
+ 4ξ
2
= 0,

1
+ (9 −λ
2

2
= 0.
i) V`ı λ
1
= 1 nˆen hˆe
.
(I) c´o da
.
ng

1
+ 4ξ
2
= 0,

1
+ 8ξ
2
= 0.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra ξ
2
= −ξ
1
, do d´o nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
n`ay c´o da
.
ng ξ
1
= α
1
,
ξ
2
= −α
1
, trong d´o α
1
l`a da
.
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng t` uy ´ y. V`ı vecto
.
riˆeng kh´ac khˆong
nˆen c´ac vecto
.
´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
riˆeng λ
1
= 1 l`a c´ac vecto
.
u(α
1
, −α
1
),
trong d´o α
1
,= 0 l`a t` uy ´ y.
ii) Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
khi λ
2
= 13 hˆe
.
(II) tro
.
’ th`anh
−8ξ
1
+ 4ξ
2
= 0,

1
−4ξ
2
= 0,
224 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
t´ u
.
c l`a ξ
2
= 2ξ
1
. D˘a
.
t ξ
1
= β ⇒ ξ
2
= 2β. Vˆa
.
y hˆe
.
(II) c´o nghiˆe
.
m l`a
ξ
1
= β, ξ
2
= 2β. V`ı vecto
.
riˆeng kh´ac khˆong nˆen c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng ´ u
.
ng
v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
λ
2
= 13 l`a c´ ac vecto
.
v(β, 2β).
V´ı du
.
6. T`ım gi´ a tri
.
riˆeng v`a vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n
t´ınh L v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n
A =
_
1 2
5 4
_
.
Gia’ i. Da th´ u
.
c d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i L
P(λ) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −λ 2
5 4 −λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= λ
2
−5λ −6.
N´o c´o hai nghiˆe
.
m thu
.
.
c λ
1
= 6, λ
2
= −1. C´ac vecto
.
d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c
t`ım t` u
.
hai hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
_
(1 −λ
i

1
+ 2ξ
2
= 0,

1
+ (4 −λ
i

2
= 0,
i = 1, 2.
V`ı di
.
nh th´ u
.
c cu’ a hˆe
.
= 0 nˆen mˆo
˜
i hˆe
.
chı ’ thu vˆe
`
mˆo
.
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh.
1
+
V´o
.
i λ
1
= 6 ta c´ o 5ξ
1
− 2ξ
2
= 0 ⇒
ξ
1
ξ
2
=
2
5
v`a do d´o ta c´o thˆe

lˆa´y vecto
.
riˆeng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng l`a u = (2, 5) (ho˘a
.
c mo
.
i vecto
.
αu, α ∈ R,
α ,= 0)
2
+
V´o
.
i λ
2
= −1 ta c´o ξ
1

2
= 0 ⇒
ξ
1
ξ
2
= −1 v`a vecto
.
riˆeng tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng l`a v = (1, −1) (hay mo
.
i vecto
.
da
.
ng βv, β ,= 0).
V´ı du
.
7. T`ım c´ac gi´a tri
.
riˆeng v`a vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n
t´ınh L trˆen R
3
v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n theo co
.
so
.
’ ch´ınh t˘a
´
c l`a
A =
_
¸
_
1 1 4
2 0 −4
−1 1 5
_
¸
_
5.4. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 225
Gia’ i. Ta c´o da th´ u
.
c d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A l`a
det(A−λE) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −λ 1 4
2 −λ −4
−1 1 5 −λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= −λ
3
+ 6λ
2
−11λ + 6
v`a
det(A−λE) = 0 ⇐⇒
_
¸
_
λ
1
= 1,
λ
2
= 2,
λ
3
= 3.
Gia’ su
.
’ x = (ξ
1
, ξ
2
, ξ
3
) ,= 0 l`a vecto
.
riˆeng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
riˆeng λ.
Khi d´o x l`a nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a hˆe
.
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t
(1 −λ)ξ
1

2
+ 4ξ
3
= 0,

1
−λξ
2
−4ξ
3
= 0,
−ξ
1

2
+ (5 −λ)ξ
3
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(*)
1
+
Khi λ = 1 ta c´o
(∗) ⇒
ξ
2
+ 4ξ
3
= 0,

1
−ξ
2
−4ξ
3
= 0,
−ξ
1

2
+ 4ξ
3
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
⇒ nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at l`a (0, −4α, α), α ,= 0 t` uy ´ y.
Vˆa
.
y v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
riˆeng λ
1
= 1 ta c´o c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i n´o l`a
(0, −4α, α), α ∈ R, α ,= 0.
2
+
Khi λ = 2 ta c´o
(∗) ⇒
−ξ
1

2
+ 4ξ
3
= 0,

1
−2ξ
2
−4ξ
3
= 0,
−ξ
1

2
+ 3ξ
3
= 0
_
¸
_
¸
_
⇒hˆe
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at l`a (β, β, 0), β ,= 0 v`a do d´o vecto
.
riˆeng ´ u
.
ng
v´o
.
i λ = 2 l`a (β, β, 0), β ,= 0.
226 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
3
+
Khi λ = 3, thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
o
.
’ 1
+
v`a 2
+
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
vecto
.
riˆeng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng (2γ, 0, γ), γ ,= 0 t` uy ´ y.
V´ı du
.
8. T`ım gi´a tri
.
riˆeng v`a vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a ph´ep bdtt v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n
A =
_
¸
_
7 −12 6
10 −19 10
12 −24 13
_
¸
_.
Gia’ i. Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
P(λ) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
7 −λ −12 6
10 −19 −λ 10
12 −24 13 −λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0
c´o nghiˆe
.
m λ
1
= λ
2
= 1, λ
1
= −1. C´ac vecto
.
d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh
t` u
.
hai hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(7 −λ
i
)ξ −12η + 6ζ = 0,
10ξ −(19 +λ
i
)η + 10ζ = 0,
12ξ −24η + (13 −λ
i
)ζ = 0; i = 1, 2.
1
+
Khi λ = 1 ta c´o
6ξ −12η + 6ζ = 0,
10ξ −20η + 10ζ = 0,
12ξ −24η + 12ζ = 0.
Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n (go
.
i l`a ma trˆa
.
n d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng) (A − λ
1
E) cu’ a hˆe
.
n`ay
l`a b˘a
`
ng r = 1. Do d´o hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
ξ −2η +ζ = 0.
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng hˆe
.
c´o hai nghiˆe
.
m dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh, ch˘a

ng ha
.
n
u = (4, 5, 6),
v = (3, 5, 7).
5.4. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 227
2
+
Khi λ
2
= −1 ta c´ o
8ξ −12η + 6ζ = 0,
10ξ −18η + 10ζ = 0,
12ξ −24η + 14ζ = 0.
Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n (A−λ
3
E) cu’ a hˆe
.
b˘a
`
ng r = 2. Do d´o hˆe
.
tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng
v´o
.
i hˆe
.
hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh. Nghiˆe
.
m riˆeng cu’ a n´o c´o da
.
ng w = (3, 5, 6).
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y u, v, w l`a c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a ph´ep bdtt d˜a cho.
V´ı du
.
9. Cho ma trˆa
.
n
A =
_
0 1
1 0
_
.
T`ım ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh L tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n d´o.
Gia’ i. Gia’ su
.
’ x = ae
1
+be
2
l`a vecto
.
t` uy ´ y cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng. Dˆe

t`ım
ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh ta cˆa
`
n chı ’ r˜o a’ nh y = Ax. Ta c´o
y =
_
0 1
1 0
__
a
b
_
=
_
b
a
_
= be
1
+ae
2
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i L c´o t´ınh chˆa´t l`a: thay dˆo

i vai tr`o cu’ a c´ac to
.
a
dˆo
.
cu’ a mˆo
˜
i vecto
.
x ∈ R
2
. T` u
.
d´ o suy r˘a
`
ng L l`a ph´ep pha’ n xa
.
gu
.
o
.
ng
dˆo´i v´o
.
i du
.
`o
.
ng phˆan gi´ac th´ u
.
nhˆ a´t.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an (1 - 11) h˜ay ch´ u
.
ng to’ ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i d˜a cho l`a
ph´ep bdtt v`a t`ım ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ch´ ung theo co
.
so
.
’ ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
1. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i L l`a ph´ep quay mo
.
i vecto
.
cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng xOy xung
quanh gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
mˆo
.
t g´ oc ϕ ngu
.
o
.
.
c chiˆe
`
u kim dˆo
`
ng hˆo
`
.
(DS. A
L
=
_
cos ϕ −sin ϕ
sinϕ cos ϕ
_
)
228 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
2. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i L l`a ph´ep quay khˆong gian thu
.
.
c ba chiˆe
`
u mˆo
.
t g´ oc ϕ
xung quanh tru
.
c Oz.
(DS.
_
¸
_
cos ϕ −sinϕ 0
sinϕ cos ϕ 0
0 0 1
_
¸
_
)
3. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i L l`a ph´ep chiˆe
´
u vuˆong g´ oc vecto
.
a ∈ R
3
lˆen m˘a
.
t
ph˘a

ng xOy.
(DS.
_
¸
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 0
_
¸
_
)
4. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i L l`a t´ıch vecto
.
y = [a, x], trong d´o a = a
1
x
1
+a
2
x
2
+
a
3
x
3
l`a vecto
.
cˆo´ di
.
nh cu’ a R
3
.
(DS.
_
¸
_
0 −a
3
a
2
a
3
0 −a
1
−a
2
a
1
0
_
¸
_
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng ph´ep biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n t´ıch vecto
.
du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng di
.
nh th´ u
.
c.
5. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i L l` a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t trong khˆong gian
n-chiˆe
`
u R
n
trong mo
.
i co
.
so
.
’ .
(DS. E =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 . . . 0
0 1 . . . 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 . . . 1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
)
6. L l`a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i dˆ o
`
ng da
.
ng L(x) = αx trong khˆong gian n-chiˆe
`
u.
(DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
α 0 . . . 0
0 α . . . 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 . . . α
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
)
5.4. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 229
7. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i L c´o da
.
ng L(x) = x
2
e
1
+x
3
e
2
+x
4
e
3
+x
1
e
4
trong d´o
x = x
1
e
1
+x
2
e
2
+x
3
e
3
+x
4
e
4
.
(DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
)
8. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i L l`a ph´ep chiˆe
´
u vuˆong g´oc khˆong gian 3-chiˆe
`
u lˆen
tru
.
c ∆ lˆa
.
p v´o
.
i c´ac tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
nh˜ u
.
ng g´oc b˘a
`
ng nhau, t´ u
.
c l`a (

Ox, ∆) =
(

Oy, ∆) = (

Oz, ∆) = α.
(DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a cosin chı ’ phu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a g´oc bˆa´t k` y
cos
2
α + cos
2
α + cos
2
α = 1.
9. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i L l`a ph´ep chiˆe
´
u R
3
theo phu
.
o
.
ng song song v´o
.
i m˘a
.
t
ph˘a

ng vecto
.
e
2
, e
3
lˆen tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a vecto
.
e
1
(DS.
_
¸
_
1 0 0
0 0 0
0 0 0
_
¸
_
)
10. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i L l`a ph´ep quay R
3
mˆo
.
t g´oc ϕ =

3
xung quanh
du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng cho trong R
3
bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x
1
= x
2
= x
3
.
(DS. a)
_
¸
_
0 0 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
_
¸
_ nˆe
´
u quay t` u
.
e
1
dˆe
´
n e
2
,
b)
_
¸
_
0 1 0
0 0 1
1 0 0
_
¸
_
nˆe
´
u quay t` u
.
e
2
dˆe
´
n e
1
)
230 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
Trong c´ac b`ai to´an (12-22) cho hai co
.
so
.
’ (e) : e
1
, e
2
, . . . , e
n
v`a
(c) : c
1
, c
2
, . . . , c
n
cu’ a khˆong gian R
n
v`a ma trˆa
.
n A
L
cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n
dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh L trong co
.
so
.
’ (e). T`ım ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a L trong co
.
so
.
’ (c).
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap chung l`a: (i) t`ım ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n T t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ (e) dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ (c); (ii) T`ım ma trˆa
.
n T
−1
; (iii) T`ım B
L
= T
−1
AT.
11. A
L
=
_
17 6
6 8
_
, c
1
= e
1
−2e
2
, c
2
= 2e
1
+e
2
). (DS.
_
5 0
0 20
_
)
12. A
L
=
_
−3 1
2 −1
_
, c
1
= e
2
, c
2
= e
1
+e
2
. (DS.
_
−2 3
1 −2
_
)
13. A
L
=
_
2 4
−3 3
_
, c
1
= e
2
−2e
1
, c
2
= 2e
1
−4e
2
. (DS.
_
−3 14
−3 8
_
)
14. A
L
=
_
1 0
2 −4
_
, c
1
= 3e
1
+2e
2
, c
2
= 2e
1
+2e
2
. (DS.
_
5 6
−6 −8
_
)
15. A
L
=
_
¸
_
0 −2 1
3 1 0
2 −1 1
_
¸
_
, c
1
= 3e
1
+e
2
+ 2e
3
, c
2
= 2e
1
+e
2
+ 2e
3
,
c
3
= −e
1
+ 2e
2
+ 5e
3
. (DS.
_
¸
_
−85 −59 18
121 84 −25
−13 −9 3
_
¸
_)
16. A
L
=
_
¸
_
15 −11 5
20 −15 8
8 −7 6
_
¸
_, c
1
= 2e
1
+ 3e
2
+e
3
, c
2
= 3e
1
+ 4e
2
+e
3
,
c
3
= e
1
+ 2e
2
+ 2e
3
. (DS.
_
¸
_
1 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 3
_
¸
_
)
17. A
L
=
_
¸
_
2 −1 0
0 1 −1
0 0 1
_
¸
_
. c
1
= 2e
1
+e
2
−e
3
, c
2
= 2e
1
−e
2
+ 2e
3
,
5.4. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 231
c
3
= 3e
1
+e
3
. (DS.
_
¸
_
−2 11 7
−4 14 8
5 −15 −8
_
¸
_)
18. A
L
=
_
2 1
0 3
_
, e
1
= 3c
1
−c
2
, e
2
= c
1
+c
2
. (DS.
_
3 3
0 2
_
)
19. A
L
=
_
−1 4
5 0
_
, e
1
= c
1
+c
2
, e
2
= 2c
1
. (DS.
_
2 7
2 −3
_
)
20. A
L
=
_
¸
_
1 2 −3
0 3 1
−1 2 5
_
¸
_
, e
1
= c
1
, e
2
= 3c
1
+c
2
, e
3
= 2c
1
+c
2
+ 2c
3
.
(DS.
_
¸
_
−1 18 −3
−1 8 0
−2 10 2
_
¸
_)
21. A
L
=
_
¸
_
2 −1 0
0 1 −1
0 0 1
_
¸
_
, e
1
= 2c
1
+c
2
−c
3
, e
2
= 2c
1
−c
2
+ 2c
3
,
e
3
= 3c
1
+c
2
. (DS.
_
¸
_
3 −10 −8
−1 8 5
2 −13 −7
_
¸
_
)
22. Trong c´ ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i sau dˆay t` u
.
R
3
→ R
3
ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i n`ao
l`a tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh (gia’ thiˆe
´
t x = (x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) ∈ R
3
)
1) L(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = (x
1
+2x
2
+3x
3
, 4x
1
+5x
2
+6x
3
, 7x
1
+8x
2
+9x
3
);
2) L(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = (x
1
+3x
2
+4, 5x
3
; 6x
1
+7x
2
+9x
3
; 10, 5x
1
+12x
2
+
13x
3
)
3) L(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = (x
2
+x
3
, x
1
+x
3
, x
1
+x
2
).
4) L(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = (x
1
, x
2
+ 1, x
3
+ 2).
5) L(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = (x
2
+x
3
, 2x
1
+x
3
, 3x
1
−x
2
+x
3
).
6) L(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = (2x
1
+x
2
, x
1
+x
3
, x
2
3
).
7) L(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = (x
1
−x
2
−x
3
, x
3
, x
2
).
232 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
(DS. 1), 2), 3), 5), 7) l`a ph´ep bdtt; 4), 6) - khˆong)
23. T`ım phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘ a
.
c tru
.
ng v`a sˆ o´ d˘ a
.
c tru
.
ng cu’ a ph´ep bdtt L
nˆe
´
u
1) L(e
1
) = 2e
1
; L(e
2
) = 5e
1
+ 3e
2
; L(e
3
) = 3e
1
+ 4e
2
−6e
3
, trong
d´o e
1
, e
2
, e
3
l`a co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a khˆong gian. (DS. (λ + 6)(λ −2)(λ −3) = 0)
2) L(e
1
) = −e
1
, L(e
2
) = 2e
1
+ 5e
2
, L(e
3
) = 2e
1
− e
2
+ 3e
3
+ 5e
4
,
L(e
4
) = e
1
+ 7e
2
+ 4e
3
+ 6e
4
, trong d´o e
1
, e
2
, e
3
, e
4
l`a co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a khˆong
gian.
(DS. (λ + 1)(λ −5)(λ
2
−9λ −2) = 0)
3) L(e
1
) = 2e
1
+ 2e
3
, L(e
2
) = 2e
1
+ 2e
2
, L(e
3
) = −2e
2
+ 2e
3
;
e
1
, e
2
, e
3
l`a co
.
so
.
’ cu’ a khˆong gian. (DS. λ
3
−6λ
2
+ 12λ = 0)
24. Gia’ su
.
’ trong co
.
so
.
’ e = ¦e
1
, e
2
¦ ph´ep bdtt L c´o ma trˆa
.
n l`a
A
L
=
_
3 5
−1 4
_
c`on trong co
.
so
.
’ c = ¦c
1
, c
2
¦, c
1
= e
1
− e
2
, c
2
= e
1
+ 2e
2
ph´ep bdtt
L

c´o ma trˆa
.
n
A
L
∗ =
_
0 −2
1 1
_
.
T`ım ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i:
1) L +L

trong co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
;
2) L +L

trong co
.
so
.
’ c
1
, c
2
.
(DS. 1)
1
3
_
10 13
5 14
_
; 2)
1
3
_
1 13
−3 23
_
)
25. Gia’ su
.
’ trong co
.
so
.
’ e = ¦e
1
, e
2
, e
3
¦ ph´ep bdtt L c´o ma trˆa
.
n
A
L
=
_
¸
_
2 0 −2
1 1 0
3 0 −1
_
¸
_
5.4. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 233
c`on trong co
.
so
.
’ c = ¦c
1
, c
2
, c
3
¦, c
1
= e
1
+2e
2
, c
2
= e
1
−e
3
, c
3
= e
2
+e
3
ph´ep bdtt L

c´o ma trˆa
.
n
A
L
∗ =
_
¸
_
0 3 0
0 1 −2
1 2 0
_
¸
_.
T`ım ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i:
1) L +L

trong co
.
so
.
’ e. (DS.
_
¸
_
6 −2 −2
16 −6 7
8 −2 3
_
¸
_)
2) L +L

trong co
.
so
.
’ c. (DS.
_
¸
_
−2 −4 4
4 12 −8
8 17 −7
_
¸
_
)
26. Gia’ su
.
’ trong co
.
so
.
’ e = ¦e
1
, e
2
¦ ph´ep bdtt L c´o ma trˆa
.
n
A
L
=
_
−1 2
0 1
_
c`on trong co
.
so
.
’ c = ¦c
1
, c
2
¦, c
1
= 2e
1
+ e
2
, c
2
= e
1
− e
2
ph´ep bdtt
L

c´o ma trˆa
.
n
A
L
∗ =
_
3 −2
1 0
_
.
T`ım ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a c´ac ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
1) L ◦ L

trong co
.
so
.
’ e. (DS.
_
−1 −1
0 2
_
)
2) L

◦ L trong co
.
so
.
’ e. (DS.
_
−1 7
0 2
_
)
3) L ◦ L

trong co
.
so
.
’ c. (DS.
1
3
_
−1 −2
−7 4
_
)
234 Chu
.
o
.
ng 5. Khˆong gian Euclide R
n
4) L

◦ L trong co
.
so
.
’ c. (DS.
1
3
_
7 −10
1 −4
_
)
27. Gia’ su
.
’ ph´ep bdtt L c´o ma trˆa
.
n
_
2 −1
5 −3
_
trong co
.
so
.
’ c =
¦c
1
, c
2
¦, c
1
= (−3, 7), c
2
= (1, −2) v`a trong co
.
so
.
’ c

= ¦c

1
, c

2
¦,
c

1
= (−6, −7), c

2
= (−5, 6) ph´ep bdtt L

c´o ma trˆa
.
n l`a
_
1 3
2 7
_
. T`ım
ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a L ◦ L

trong co
.
so
.
’ m`a c´ac vecto
.
trˆen du
.
o
.
.
c cho.
(DS.
_
109 93
34 29
_
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. T`ım c´ac ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n co
.
so
.
’ T
ea
, T
eb
v`a ´ap du
.
ng
cˆong th´ u
.
c (5.22) dˆe

t`ım ma trˆa
.
n A
L
v`a A
L
∗ trong co
.
so
.
’ e. T` u
.
d´o
A
L◦L
∗ = A
L
A
L
∗.
Trong c´ac b`ai to´an (28-31) h˜ay x´ac di
.
nh trong c´ ac vecto
.
d˜a cho
vecto
.
n`ao l`a vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a ph´ep bdtt v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n d˜a cho (trong co
.
so
.
’ n`ao d´o).
28. A =
_
1 0
−2 1
_
; x
1
=
_
1
2
_
, x
2
=
_
0
3
_
, x
3
=
_
0
−1
_
. (DS. x
2
v`a x
3
)
29. A =
_
1 −1
−6 2
_
; x
1
=
_
−1
3
_
, x
2
=
_
2
−4
_
, x
3
=
_
1
2
_
.
(DS. x
1
v`a x
3
)
30. A =
_
¸
_
0 0 2
2 0 0
0 2 0
_
¸
_
; x
1
=
_
¸
_
1
1
3
_
¸
_
, x
2
=
_
¸
_
1
0
5
_
¸
_
, x
3
=
_
¸
_
2
2
2
_
¸
_
. (DS. x
3
)
31. A =
_
¸
_
0 1 0
6 3 2
3 0 1
_
¸
_
; x
1
=
_
¸
_
−1
2
0
_
¸
_
, x
2
=
_
¸
_
1
0
−3
_
¸
_
, x
3
=
_
¸
_
−4
0
1
_
¸
_
. (DS. x
2
)
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an (32-35) h˜ay t`ım c´ ac vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n
dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh du
.
o
.
.
c cho trong mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ n`ao d´o bo
.
’ i ma trˆa
.
n A.
5.4. Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh 235
32. A =
_
2 4
−1 −3
_
. (DS.
_
4
−1
_
α,
_
1
−1
_
β v´o
.
i α ,= 0, β ,= 0 bˆa´t k` y)
33. A =
_
3 −4
−2 1
_
. (DS.
_
−2
1
_
α,
_
1
1
_
β v´o
.
i α ,= 0, β ,= 0 bˆa´t k` y)
34. A =
_
¸
_
1 2 −2
1 0 3
1 3 0
_
¸
_. (DS.
_
¸
_
−2
1
1
_
¸
_α,
_
¸
_
0
1
1
_
¸
_β,
_
¸
_
6
−7
5
_
¸
_γ,
α ,= 0, β ,= 0, γ ,= 0 bˆa´t k` y)
35. A =
_
¸
_
1 0 2
0 3 0
0 0 0
_
¸
_
. (DS.
_
¸
_
−2
0
1
_
¸
_
α,
_
¸
_
0
1
0
_
¸
_
β; α ,= 0, β ,= 0 bˆa´t k` y)
36. Cho ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh L : R
2
→R
2
nhu
.
sau
L : (x
1
, x
2
) −→(5x
1
+ 4x
2
, 8x
1
+ 9x
2
).
T`ım gi´ a tri
.
riˆeng v`a vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a L.
(DS. λ
1
= 1, u = (α, −α), α ,= 0; λ
2
= 13, v = (β, 2β), β ,= 0)
37. T`ım gi´a tri
.
riˆeng v`a vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n
A =
_
¸
_
2 −1 1
−1 2 −1
0 0 1
_
¸
_
(DS. λ
1
= λ
2
= 1, u = (α, α), α ,= 0; λ
3
= 3, v = (β, −β), β ,= 0) .
Chu
.
o
.
ng 6
Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v`a ´ u
.
ng
du
.
ng dˆe

nhˆa
.
n da
.
ng du
.
`o
.
ng v`a
m˘a
.
t bˆa
.
c hai
6.1 Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng
Da th´ u
.
c d˘a

ng cˆa´p bˆa
.
c hai cu’ a c´ac biˆe
´
n x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
.
ng
to`an phu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a n biˆe
´
n d´o:
ϕ(x
1
, . . . , x
n
) =
n

i=1
n

j=1
a
ij
x
i
x
j
=
n

i,j=1
a
ij
x
i
x
j
. (6.1)
D´o l`a ph´ep tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng d˘a
.
t tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng mˆo
˜
i vecto
.
x = (x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
) ∈
R
n
v´o
.
i sˆo´ ϕ(x
1
, . . . , x
n
).
Nˆe
´
u d˘a
.
t
X =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x
1
x
2
.
.
.
x
n
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
, A =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
. . . a
nn
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n1
a
n2
. . . a
nn
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
6.1. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng 237
th`ı thu du
.
o
.
.
c
ϕ(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
) = X
T
AX. (6.2)
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. Nˆe
´
u C l`a ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ph´ep bdtt thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n trˆen c´ ac biˆe
´
n
cu’ a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng (6.1) v´o
.
i ma trˆ a
.
n A th`ı da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng m´ o
.
i
thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´o ma trˆa
.
n l`a C
T
AC.
Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng da
.
ng
α
1
x
2
1

2
x
2
2
+ +α
n
x
2
n
(6.3)
khˆong ch´ u
.
a c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng v´o
.
i t´ıch cu’ a c´ac biˆe
´
n kh´ac nhau (v`a do d´o n´o
c´o ma trˆa
.
n du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng ch´eo hay da
.
ng
ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
Tiˆe
´
p theo ta tr`ınh b`ay nˆo
.
i dung cu’ a c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap du
.
a da
.
ng
to`an phu
.
o
.
ng vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
6.1.1 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Lagrange
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y Lagrange. B˘a
`
ng ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆ o

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh khˆ ong suy biˆe
´
n
dˆo´i v´ o
.
i c´ ac biˆe
´
n x
1
, . . . , x
n
mo
.
i da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng dˆe
`
u du
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
Tinh thˆa
`
n co
.
ba’ n cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Lagrange l`a nhu
.
sau.
1
+
´
It nhˆa´t mˆo
.
t trong c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ a
ii
kh´ac khˆong.
Khˆong gia’ m tˆo

ng qu´at, c´o thˆe

cho r˘a
`
ng a
11
,= 0 (nˆe
´
u khˆong th`ı
d´anh sˆo´ la
.
i). Khi d´o b˘a
`
ng ph´ep tr´ıch mˆo
.
t b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng du’ t` u
.
cu
.
m tˆa´t
ca’ c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng ch´ u
.
a x
1
ta c´o
ϕ() = αy
2
1

2
(x
2
, x
3
, . . . , x
n
)
y
1
= λ
1
x
1

2
x
2
+ +λ
n
x
n
trong d´o λ
1
, λ
2
, . . . , λ
n
l`a c´ ac h˘a
`
ng sˆo´, ϕ
2
(x
2
, . . . , x
n
) l`a da
.
ng to`an
phu
.
o
.
ng chı ’ c`on n − 1 biˆe
´
n (khˆong c` on x
1
). Dˆo´i v´o
.
i ϕ
2
(x
2
, . . . , x
n
) ta
la
.
i thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n thuˆa
.
t to´an nhu
.
v` u
.
a tr`ınh b`ay,...
238 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
2
+
Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p a
ii
= 0 ∀i = 1, n nh˜ u
.
ng a
ij
,= 0 (i ,= j) du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
a
vˆe
`
tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p trˆen b˘a
`
ng ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh khˆong suy biˆe
´
n
x
j
= y
j
+y
i
x
k
= y
k
, k ,= j
V´ı du
.
1. Du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng
ϕ(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = x
2
1
+x
2
2
+x
2
3
+ 4x
1
x
2
+ 4x
1
x
3
+ 4x
2
x
3
vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
Gia’ i. Nh´om c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng c´o ch´ u
.
a x
1
th`anh mˆo
.
t cu
.
m v` a tr´ıch t` u
.
cu
.
m d´o mˆo
.
t b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng du’ ta c´ o
ϕ() = (x
2
1
+ 4x
1
x
2
+ 4x
1
x
3
) +x
2
2
+x
2
3
+ 4x
2
x
3
= (x
1
+x
2
+ 2x
3
)
2
−(2x
2
+ 2x
3
)
2
+x
2
2
+x
2
3
+ 4x
2
x
3
= (x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 2x
3
)
2
−3x
2
2
−3x
2
3
−4x
2
x
3
.
Nh´om c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng c´o ch´ u
.
a x
2
rˆo
`
i tr´ıch b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng ta c´ o
ϕ() = (x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 2x
3
)
2
−3(x
2
+
2
3
x
3
)
2

5
3
x
2
3
.
D` ung ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh khˆong suy biˆe
´
n
y
1
= x
1
+ 2x
2
+ 2x
3
y
2
= x
2
+
2
3
x
3
y
3
= x
3
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_

x
1
= y
1
−2y
2

2
3
y
3
x
2
= y
2

2
3
y
3
x
3
= y
3
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
ϕ() = y
2
1
−3y
2
2

5
3
y
2
3
.
V´ı du
.
2. Du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng
ϕ(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = x
1
x
2
+ 2x
1
x
3
+ 4x
2
x
3
6.1. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng 239
vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
Gia’ i. V`ı a
11
= a
22
= a
33
= 0 nˆen dˆa
`
u tiˆen thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
so
.
bˆo
.
khˆong suy biˆe
´
n thu du
.
o
.
.
c sˆo´ ha
.
ng c´o b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng:
x
1
= y
1
x
2
= y
1
+y
2
x
3
= y
3
_
¸
_
¸
_
(6.4)
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
ϕ() = y
1
(y
1
+y
2
) + 2y
1
y
3
+ 4(y
1
+y
2
)y
3
= y
2
1
+y
1
y
2
+ 6y
1
y
3
+ 4y
2
y
3
.
Xuˆa´t ph´at t` u
.
da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng m´o
.
i thu du
.
o
.
.
c, tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trong
v´ı du
.
1 ta c´o
ϕ() =
_
y
1
+
1
2
y
2
+ 3y
3
_
2

_
1
2
y
2
+ 3y
3
_
2
+ 4y
2
y
3
=
_
y
1
+
1
2
y
2
+ 3y
3
_
2

1
4
y
2
+y
2
y
3
−9y
3
.
Thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i khˆong suy biˆe
´
n
z
1
= y
1
+
1
2
y
2
+ 3y
3
,
z
2
= y
2
,
z
3
= y
3
v´o
.
i ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i ngu
.
o
.
.
c
y
1
= z
1

1
2
z
2
−3z
3
,
y
2
= z
2
,
y
3
= z
3
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
(6.5)
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
ϕ() = z
2
1

1
4
z
2
2
+z
2
z
3
−9z
2
3
.
240 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
Nh´om c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng c´o ch´ u
.
a z
2
ta c´o
ϕ() = z
2
1

1
4
(z
2
−2z
3
)
2
−8z
2
3
.
Thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i khˆong suy biˆe
´
n
u
1
= z
1
,
u
2
= z
2
−2z
3
,
u
3
= z
3
_
¸
_
¸
_

z
1
= u
1
,
z
2
= u
2
+ 2u
3
,
z
3
= u
3
_
¸
_
¸
_
(6.6)
Sau ba ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i liˆen tiˆe
´
p (6.4)-(6.6) da
.
ng d˜a cho c´ o da
.
ng du
.
`o
.
ng
ch´eo
ϕ() = u
2
1

1
4
u
2
2
−8u
2
3
.
Dˆe

t`ım ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i ho
.
.
p ta cˆa
`
n nhˆan c´ ac ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a
(6.4), (6.5) v` a (6.6). Ta c´o
_
¸
_
1 0 0
1 1 0
0 0 1
_
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
1 −
1
2
−3
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
_
1 0 0
0 1 2
0 0 1
_
¸
_ =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −
1
2
−4
1
1
2
−2
0 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
= C.
Do ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i khˆong suy biˆe
´
n du
.
a da
.
ng ϕ vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c l`a
x
1
= u
1

1
2
u
2
−4u
3
,
x
2
= u
1
+
1
2
u
2
−2u
3
,
x
3
= u
3
.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
Dˆe

kiˆe

m tra ta t´ınh t´ıch C
T
AC. Ta c´o
C
T
AC =
_
¸
¸
_
1 1 0

1
2
1
2
0
−4 −2 1
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0
1
2
1
1
2
0 2
1 2 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −
1
2
−4
1
1
2
−2
0 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
=
_
¸
¸
_
1 0 0
0 −
1
4
0
0 0 −8
_
¸
¸
_
D´o l`a ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c thu du
.
o
.
.
c.
6.1. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng 241
6.1.2 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Jacobi
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap n`ay chı ’ ´ap du
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c khi mo
.
i di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con ch´ınh cu’ a
ma trˆa
.
n A cu’ a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng dˆe
`
u kh´ac 0, t´ u
.
c l`a khi

1
= a
11
,= 0, ∆
2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
11
a
12
a
21
a
22
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
,= 0, . . . , ∆
n
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
a
11
a
12
. . . a
1n
a
21
a
22
. . . a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
n1
a
n2
. . . a
nn
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
,= 0.
(6.7)
Cu
.
thˆe

ta c´o
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y. Nˆe
´
u da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng
ϕ(x
1
, . . . , x
n
) =
n

i,j=1
a
ij
x
i
x
j
tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n v` u
.
a nˆeu: ∆
i
,= 0 ∀i = 1, n th`ı tˆo
`
n ta
.
i ph´ep biˆe
´
n
dˆo

i tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh khˆong suy biˆe
´
n t` u
.
c´ac biˆe
´
n x
1
, . . . , x
n
dˆe
´
n c´ac biˆe
´
n
y
1
, . . . , y
n
sao cho
ϕ() =

1

0
y
2
1
+

2

1
y
2
2
+ +

n

n−1
y
2
n
, ∆
0
≡ 1.
Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i nˆeu trong di
.
nh l´ y Jacobi c´ o da
.
ng
x
1
= y
1

21
y
2

31
y
3
+ +α
n1
y
n
,
x
2
= y
2

32
y
3
+ +α
n2
y
n
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
x
n
= y
n
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.8)
trong d´o c´ ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ α
ji
cu’ a ph´ep bdtt (6.8) du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh theo c´ac cˆong
th´ u
.
c
α
ij
= (−1)
j+i
D
j−1,i

j−1
(6.9)
242 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
o
.
’ dˆay ∆
j−1
l`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con ch´ınh trong (6.7), c`on D
j−1,i
l`a di
.
nh th´ u
.
c
con cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A lˆa
.
p nˆen bo
.
’ i c´ ac phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ n˘a
`
m trˆen giao cu’ a c´ac
h`ang th´ u
.
1, 2, . . . , j −1 v`a c´ac cˆo
.
t th´ u
.
1, 2, . . . , i −1, i + 1, . . . , j
V´ı du
.
3. Du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phuwo
.
ng
ϕ(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = 2x
2
1
+ 3x
2
2
+x
2
3
−4x
1
x
2
+ 2x
1
x
3
−2x
2
x
3
vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
Gia’ i. Ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a da
.
ng d˜a cho c´ o da
.
ng
A =
_
¸
_
2 −2 1
−2 3 −1
1 −1 1
_
¸
_
v´o
.
i c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con ch´ınh

1
= 2, ∆
2
= 2, ∆
3
= 1.
Khi d´o da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng d˜a cho du
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c
ϕ() = 2y
2
1
+y
2
2
+
1
2
y
2
3
. (6.10)
Ta t`ım ph´ep bdtt du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng d˜a cho vˆe
`
da
.
ng (6.10).
N´o c´ o da
.
ng
x
1
= y
1

21
y
2

31
y
3
,
x
2
= y
2

32
y
3
,
x
3
= y
3
.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(6.11)
Ta t`ım c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a (6.11) theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c (6.9). Ta c´o
α
21
= (−1)
3
D
1,1

1
= −
−2
2
= 1,
α
31
= (−1)
4
D
2,1

2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
−2 1
3 −1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
= −
1
2
,
α
32
= (−1)
5
D
2,2

2
= −
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 1
−2 −1
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2
= 0.
6.1. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng 243
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
x
1
= y
1
+y
2

1
2
y
3
,
x
2
= y
2
,
x
3
= y
3
.
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
V´ı du
.
4. Du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng
ϕ(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = 2x
2
1
+ 3x
1
x
2
+ 4x
1
x
3
+x
2
2
+x
2
3
vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ϕ l`a
A =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
2
3
2
2
3
2
1 0
2 0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
v´o
.
i c´ac di
.
nh th´ u
.
c con ch´ınh b˘a
`
ng

1
= 2, ∆
2
= −
1
4
, ∆
3
= −
17
4

Khi d´o theo di
.
nh l´ y Jacobi ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c l`a
ϕ() = 2y
2
1

1
8
y
2
2
+ 17y
3
nh`o
.
ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
x
1
= y
1

21
y
2

31
y
3
,
x
2
= y
2

32
y
3
,
x
3
= y
3
_
¸
_
¸
_
244 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
v´o
.
i c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh theo (6.9).
´
Ap du
.
ng (6.9) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
α
21
= (−1)
3
D
1,1

1
= −
3
2
2
= −
3
4
,
α
31
= (−1)
4
D
2,1

2
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
3
2
2
1 0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸

1
4
= 8,
α
32
= (−1)
4
D
2,2

2
= −
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 2
3
2
0
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸

1
4
= −12.
Vˆa
.
y ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i l`a
x
1
= y
1

3
4
y
2
+ 8y
3
,
x
2
= y
2
−12y
3
,
x
3
= y
3
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
.
6.1.3 Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao
V`ı ma trˆa
.
n A cu’ a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng l`a ma trˆa
.
n dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng, thu
.
.
c nˆen
b`ai to´an du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c c´o thˆe

quy vˆe
`
b`ai
to´an du
.
a ma trˆa
.
n dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng A vˆe
`
da
.
ng du
.
`o
.
ng ch´eo. C´ac nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng [A − λE[ = 0 l`a c´ac sˆ o´ d˘ a
.
c tru
.
ng, c` on c´ ac
vecto
.
riˆeng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i c´ac sˆo´ d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng d´o l`a c´ ac hu
.
´ o
.
ng ch´ınh cu’ a
da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng (Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng hai vecto
.
riˆeng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i c´ac gi´a
tri
.
riˆeng kh´ac nhau cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng l`a tru
.
.
c giao v´o
.
i nhau). M˘a
.
t
kh´ac v`ı A l`a ma trˆa
.
n dˆ o´i x´ u
.
ng thu
.
.
c nˆen n´o c´ o n sˆo´ d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng thu
.
.
c
(nˆe
´
u mˆo
˜
i sˆo´ du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh mˆo
.
t sˆo´ lˆa
`
n b˘a
`
ng bˆo
.
i cu’ a n´o).
T` u
.
d´o t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c du’ n vecto
.
riˆeng dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh. B˘a
`
ng ph´ep
tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n h´oa ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ gˆo
`
m t` u
.
c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a A.
6.1. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng 245
Ma trˆa
.
n T chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n (e) dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n (c)
lˆa
.
p nˆen t` u
.
c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng (v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n
A) l`a ma trˆa
.
n tru
.
.
c giao v`ı ca’ hai co
.
so
.
’ dˆe
`
u tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y dˆo´i v´o
.
i mo
.
i ma trˆa
.
n dˆo´i x´ u
.
ng thu
.
.
c A c´o thˆe

t`ım mˆo
.
t
ma trˆa
.
n tru
.
.
c giao T c` ung cˆa´p sao cho B = T
−1
AT l`a ma trˆa
.
n ch´eo.
D´o c˜ ung ch´ınh l`a ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng d˜a cho trong co
.
so
.

(c). T` u
.
d´o ta c´ o quy t˘a
´
c t`ım ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao du
.
a da
.
ng to`an
phu
.
o
.
ng vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
1) Viˆe
´
t ma trˆa
.
n A cu’ a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v`a t`ım c´ ac sˆo´ d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
cu’ a n´o.
2) T`ım hˆe
.
vecto
.
riˆeng tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n cu’ a A.
3) Lˆa
.
p ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao.
V´ı du
.
5. Du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng
ϕ(x
1
, x
2
) = 27x
2
1
−10x
1
x
2
+ 3x
2
3
vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
Gia’ i. 1
+
Viˆe
´
t ma trˆa
.
n A cu’ a da
.
ng
A =
_
27 −5
−5 3
_
.
Lˆa
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
[A−λE[ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
27 −λ −5
−5 3 −λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0 ⇔ λ
2
−30λ + 56 = 0.
Gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng ta c´ o λ
1
= 2, λ
2
= 28.
2
+
T`ım c´ ac vecto
.
riˆeng chuˆa

n t˘a
´
c. Dˆe

t`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng ta lˆa
`
n lu
.
o
.
.
t gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(27 −λ
i

1
−5ξ
2
= 0,
−5ξ
1
+ (3 −λ
i

2
= 0
246 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
khi λ
1
= 2 v`a λ
2
= 28.
a) Nˆe
´
u λ
1
= 2 th`ı ta c´o hˆe
.
25ξ
1
−5ξ
2
= 0,
−5ξ
1

2
= 0.
Do d´o ξ
2
= 5ξ
1
. D˘a
.
t ξ
1
= α. Khi d´o ξ
2
= 5α v`a do d´o vecto
.
riˆeng c´o
da
.
ng
u = αe
1
+ 5αe
2
.
b) Nˆe
´
u λ
2
= 28 th`ı ta gia’ i hˆe
.
−ξ
1
−5ξ
2
= 0,
−5ξ
1
−25ξ
2
= 0
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c ξ
1
= −5ξ
2
. D˘a
.
t ξ
2
= β th`ı ξ
1
= −5β v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c vecto
.
riˆeng
v = −5βe
1
+βe
2
.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´ ac vecto
.
riˆeng chuˆa

n h´oa
c
1
=
1

26
e
1
+
5

26
e
2
, c
2
= −
5

26
e
1
+
1

26
e
2
.
3
+
Lˆa
.
p ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao.
Tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t ta lˆa
.
p ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n T t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ (e) sang co
.
so
.
’ (c)
_
¸
¸
_
1

26

5

26
5

26
1

26
_
¸
¸
_
V`ı (e) v`a (c) dˆe
`
u l`a nh˜ u
.
ng co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n nˆen T l`a ma trˆa
.
n tru
.
.
c
giao. N´o tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao cu’ a c´ac biˆe
´
n x
1
v`a x
2
:
x
1
=
1

26
x

1

5

26
x

2
,
x
2
=
5

26
x

1
+
1

26
X

2
.
6.1. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng 247
T` u
.
d´o ta c´o
ϕ() = 27
_
1

26
x

1

5

26
x

2
_
2
−10
_
1

26
x

1

5

26
x

2
__
5

26
x

1
+
1

26
x

2
_
+ 3
_
5

26
x

1
+
1

26
x

2
_
2
= 2x

1
2
+ 28x

2
2
.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c cuˆo´i c` ung c´o thˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c b˘a
`
ng c´ach t`ım ma
trˆa
.
n B cu’ a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng trong co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n (c). Ta c´ o
B = T
−1
AT = T
T
AT =
_
2 0
0 28
_
v`a do d´o
ϕ() = 2x

1
2
+ 28x

2
2
.
V´ı du
.
6. Du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng
ϕ(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = 3x
2
1
+ 2x
2
2
+x
2
3
+ 4x
1
x
2
+ 4x
2
x
3
vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
Gia’ i. 1
+
Lˆa
.
p v`a gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
3 −λ 2 0
2 2 −λ 2
0 2 1 −λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0 ⇔ λ
1
= 2, λ
2
= −1, λ
3
= 5.
2
+
Dˆe

t`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng ta lˆa
`
n lu
.
o
.
.
t gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh
(3 −λ
i

1
+ 2ξ
2
+ 0 ξ
3
= 0,

1
+ (2 −λ
i

2
+ 2ξ
3
= 0,
0 ξ
1
+ 2ξ
2
+ (1 −λ
i

3
= 0
_
¸
_
¸
_
(6.12)
v´o
.
i λ
1
= 2, λ
2
= −1 v`a λ
3
= 5.
248 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
a) Gia’ su
.
’ λ
1
= 2. Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n
A−2E =
_
¸
_
1 2 0
2 0 2
0 2 −1
_
¸
_
cu’ a hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t
ξ
1
+ 2ξ
2
= 0,

1
+ 2ξ
3
= 0,

2
−ξ
3
= 0
_
¸
_
¸
_
(6.13)
b˘a
`
ng 2 nˆen hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n cu’ a hˆe
.
(6.13) chı ’ gˆo
`
m mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m. T` u
.
(6.13) suy r˘a
`
ng ξ
1
= 2α, ξ
2
= −α, ξ
3
= −2α. Do d´o vecto
.
riˆeng ´ u
.
ng
v´o
.
i λ
1
= 2 l`a
u
1
(2α, −α, −2α)
v`a sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
c =
2
3
e
1

1
3
e
2

2
3
e
3
trong d´o e
1
, e
2
, e
3
l`a co
.
so
.
’ m`a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng c´o ma trˆa
.
n l`a A.
b) Gia’ su
.
’ λ = −1. Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n
A+E =
_
¸
_
4 2 0
2 3 2
0 2 2
_
¸
_
cu’ a hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t

1
+ 2ξ
2
= 0,

1
+ 3ξ
2
+ 2ξ
3
= 0,

2
+ 2ξ
3
= 0
_
¸
_
¸
_
(6.14)
6.1. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng 249
b˘a
`
ng 2 nˆen hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n cu’ a n´o chı ’ gˆo
`
m mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m. T` u
.
(6.14)
suy r˘a
`
ng ξ
1
= β, ξ
2
= −2β, ξ
3
= 2β, β ∈ R. Do d´o vecto
.
riˆeng tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i λ
2
= −1 s˜e l`a
u
2
(β, −2β, 2β)
v`a sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
c
2
=
1
3
e
1

2
3
e
2
+
2
3
e
3
.
c) Gia’ su
.
’ λ
3
= 5. Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trˆen, t` u
.
hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
−2ξ
1
+ 2ξ
2
= 0,

1
−3ξ
2
+ 2ξ
3
= 0,

2
−4ξ
3
= 0
_
¸
_
¸
_
ta c´o ξ
1
= 2γ, ξ
2
= 2γ, ξ
3
= γ v` a vecto
.
riˆeng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng c´o da
.
ng
u
3
(2γ, 2γ, γ), γ ∈ R
v`a sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa ta c´ o
c
3
=
2
3
e
1
+
2
3
e
2
+
1
3
e
3
.
T` u
.
c´ac khai triˆe

n cu’ a c
1
, c
2
, c
3
suy r˘a
`
ng ch´ ung lˆa
.
p th`anh mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n cu’ a khˆong gian R
3
.
Ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao c´ o da
.
ng
T =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2
3
1
3
2
3

1
3

2
3
2
3

1
3
2
3
1
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
v´o
.
i c´ac cˆong th´ u
.
c biˆe
´
n dˆo

i to
.
a dˆ o
.
x
1
=
2
3
x

1
+
1
3
x

2
+
2
3
x

3
,
x
2
= −
1
3
x

1

2
3
x

2
+
2
3
x

3
,
x
3
= −
2
3
x

1
+
2
3
x

2
+
1
3
x

3
.
250 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
V´o
.
i ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i d´o ta c´ o
ϕ() = 2x

1
2
−x

2
2
+ 5x

3
2
.
V´ı du
.
7. Du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng sau dˆay vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c
ϕ(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = 6x
2
1
+ 3x
2
2
+ 3x
2
3
+ 4x
1
x
2
+ 4x
1
x
3
−8x
2
x
3
.
Gia’ i. 1
+
Lˆa
.
p v`a gia’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
6 −λ 2 2
2 3 −λ −4
2 −4 3 −λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0 ⇔ λ
1
= λ
2
= 7, λ
3
= −2.
2
+
Dˆe

t`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng ta cˆa
`
n gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t
(6 −λ
i

1
+ 2ξ
2
+ 2ξ
4
= 0,

1
+ (3 −λ
i

2
−4ξ
3
= 0,

1
−4ξ
2
+ (3 −λ
i

3
= 0
_
¸
_
¸
_
lˆa
`
n lu
.
o
.
.
t v´o
.
i λ
1
= λ
2
= 7, λ
3
= −2.
a) Gia’ su
.
’ λ = 7. Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A−7E cu’ a hˆe
.
−ξ
1
+ 2ξ
2
+ 2ξ
3
= 0,

1
−4ξ
2
−4ξ
3
= 0,

1
−4ξ
2
−4ξ
3
= 0
_
¸
_
¸
_
(6.15)
l`a b˘a
`
ng 1 nˆen hˆe
.
c´o hai nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n. Hˆe
.
(6.15) du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
a vˆe
`
mˆo
.
t
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
ξ
1
= 2ξ
2
+ 2ξ
3
.
Do d´o nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a hˆe
.
(6.15) c´o da
.
ng ξ
1
= 2α + 2β, ξ
2
= α,
ξ
3
= β:
(2α + 2β, α, β), (6.16)
6.1. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng 251
t´ u
.
c l` a ho
.
c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng phu
.
thuˆo
.
c hai tham sˆo´ α v`a β.
Ta lˆa´y ra hai vecto
.
tru
.
.
c giao n`ao d´o cu’ a ho
.
u = 2(α+β)e
1
+αe
2
+
βe
3
. Ch˘ a

ng ha
.
n d˘a
.
t α = 0, β = 1 th`ı thu du
.
o
.
.
c vecto
.
riˆeng
u
1
(2, 0, 1)
v`a sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa ta du
.
o
.
.
c
c
1
=
_
2

5
, 0,
1

5
_
.
Dˆe

c´o vecto
.
th´ u
.
hai u
2
ta cˆa
`
n cho
.
n α v`a β sao cho ¸u
1
, u
2
) = 0 t´ u
.
c
l`a
2 2(α +β) +β = 0 ⇔ 4α + 5β = 0.
Ta c´o thˆe

cho
.
n α = 5, β = −4 v`a t` u
.
(6.16) ta c´o
u
2
(2, 5, −4)
v`a sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa ta c´ o
c
2
=
_
2
3

5
,

5
3
,
−4
3

5
_
.
b) Gia’ su
.
’ λ = −2. Ta c´ o

1
+ 2ξ
2
+ 2ξ
3
= 0,

1
+ 5ξ
2
−4ξ
3
= 0,

1
−4ξ
2
+ 5ξ
3
= 0
_
¸
_
¸
_
Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a hˆe
.
b˘a
`
ng 2 nˆen hˆe
.
co
.
ba’ n chı ’ gˆo
`
m mˆo
.
t nghiˆe
.
m.
Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n gia’ i hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cuˆo´i ta c´o ξ
2
= ξ
3
v`a ξ
1
= −
ξ
2
2
v`a
do d´o ξ
1
= −
ξ
1
2
= −
ξ
3
2
.
D˘a
.
t ξ
1
= α ta c´o ho
.
vecto
.
riˆeng phu
.
thuˆo
.
c mˆo
.
t tham sˆo´
u
3
(α, −2α, −2α), α ∈ R
252 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
v`a sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa ta du
.
o
.
.
c
c
3
=
_
1
3
,
−2
3
,
−2
3
_
.
R˜o r`ang l`a c
1
, c
2
, c
3
l`a mˆo
.
t co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n cu’ a khˆong gian R
3
v`a
ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n vˆe
`
co
.
so
.
’ m´o
.
i n`ay l`a ma trˆa
.
n tru
.
.
c giao da
.
ng
T =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2

5
2
3

5
1
3
0

5
3

2
3
1

5

4
3

5

2
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng trong co
.
so
.
’ m´o
.
i c
1
, c
2
, c
3
l`a
B = T
T
AT =
_
¸
_
7 0 0
0 7 0
0 0 −2
_
¸
_
t´ u
.
c l`a
ϕ() = 7x

1
2
+ 7x

2
2
−2x

3
2
,
trong d´o
x
1
=
2

5
x

1
+
2
3

5
x

2
+
1
3
x

3
,
x
2
=

5
3
x

2

2
3
x

3
,
x
3
=
1

5
x

1

4
3

5
x

2

2
3
x

3
.
V´ı du
.
8. T`ım ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng
ϕ(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = x
2
1
−8x
1
x
2
−16x
1
x
3
+ 7x
2
2
−8x
2
x
3
+x
2
3
vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
6.1. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng 253
Gia’ i. 1
+
Ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng l`a
A =
_
¸
_
1 −4 −8
−4 7 −4
−8 −4 1
_
¸
_
T` u
.
d´o ta c´o
[A−λE[ =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −λ −4 −8
−4 7 −λ −4
−8 −4 1 −λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0 ⇔ λ
1
= −9, λ
2
= λ
3
= 9
2
+
T`ım c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng
Dˆe

t`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng ta cˆ a
`
n gia’ i c´ac hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t
(1 −λ
i

1
−4ξ
2
−8ξ
3
= 0,
−4ξ
1
+ (7 −λ
i

2
−4ξ
3
= 0,
−8ξ
1
−4ξ
2
+ (1 −λ
i

3
= 0
_
¸
_
¸
_
(6.17)
lˆa
`
n lu
.
o
.
.
t v´o
.
i λ
1
= −9, λ
2
= λ
3
= 9.
a) Gia’ su
.
’ λ
1
= −9. Khi d´o t` u
.
(6.17) ta c´o
10ξ
1
−4ξ
2
−8ξ
3
= 0,
−4ξ
1
+ 16ξ
2
−4ξ
3
= 0,
−8ξ
1
−4ξ
2
+ 10ξ
3
= 0
_
¸
_
¸
_
hay l`a

1
−2ξ
2
−4ξ
3
= 0,
ξ
1
−4ξ
2

3
= 0,

1
+ 2ξ
2
−5ξ
3
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
V`ı ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a hˆe
.
b˘a
`
ng 2 nˆen hˆe
.
c´o nghiˆe
.
m kh´ac 0. Ta gia’ i
hˆe
.
hai phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆa
`
u

1
−2ξ
2
−4ξ
3
= 0,
ξ
1
−4ξ
2

3
= 0
254 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at l`a
u(2α, α, 2α), α ∈ R.
D´o l`a ho
.
vecto
.
riˆeng (phu
.
thuˆo
.
c mˆo
.
t tham sˆo´) ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
riˆeng
λ
1
= −9. Sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
c
1
=
_
2
3
,
1
3
,
2
3
_
.
b) Gia’ su
.
’ λ
2
= λ
3
= 9. Khi d´o t` u
.
(6.17) thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
thuˆa
`
n nhˆa´t
−8ξ
1
−4ξ
2
−8ξ
3
= 0,
−4ξ
1
−2ξ
2
−4ξ
3
= 0,
−8ξ
1
−4ξ
2
−8ξ
3
= 0
_
¸
_
¸
_
hay l`a

1

2
+ 2ξ
3
= 0,

1

2
+ 2ξ
3
= 0,

2

2
+ 2ξ
3
= 0.
_
¸
_
¸
_
Ha
.
ng cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a hˆe
.
b˘a
`
ng 1 nˆen hˆe
.
nghiˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n cu’ a n´o gˆo
`
m
hai nghiˆe
.
m. Nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a hˆe
.
c´o da
.
ng
v(α, −2α −2β, β), α, β ∈ R, α
2

2
,= 0. (6.18)
T` u
.
nghiˆe
.
m tˆo

ng qu´at n`ay ta r´ ut ra hai vecto
.
riˆeng tru
.
.
c giao v
1
v`a v
2
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
riˆeng λ
2
= λ
3
= 9. Dˆe

c´o v
1
ta cho α = 1, β = 0
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
v
1
= (1, −2, 0). (6.19)
Dˆe

t`ım v
2
ta cˆa
`
n x´ac di
.
nh α v`a β trong (6.18) sao cho tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u
kiˆe
.
n tru
.
.
c giao gi˜ u
.
a v
1
v`a v
2
, t´ u
.
c l`a ¸v
1
, v
2
) = 0. T` u
.
(6.18) v`a (6.19)
ta c´o
α + 4α + 4β = 0 ⇔α = −
4
5
β.
6.1. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng 255
Do vˆa
.
y, ta c´o thˆe

lˆa´y β = 5 v`a khi d´o t` u
.
(6.18) suy ra
v
2
= (−4, −2, 5).
Sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa v
1
v`a v
2
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
c

=
_
1

5
, −
2

5
, 0
_
c
3
=
_
−4
3

5
, −
2
3

5
,

5
3
_
.
(Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng c
1
⊥ c
2
, c
1
⊥ c
3
v`ı c
1
v`a c
2
, c
3
l`a c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i hai gi´a tri
.
riˆeng kh´ac nhau nˆen ch´ ung tru
.
.
c giao v´o
.
i nhau).
3
+
X´ac di
.
nh ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao. Trong co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n v` u
.
a
thu du
.
o
.
.
c c
1
, c
2
, c
3
da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng d˜a cho du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
a vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh
t˘a
´
c
ϕ() = −9y
2
1
+ 9y
2
2
+ 9y
2
3
nh`o
.
ma trˆa
.
n tru
.
.
c giao
T =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2
3
1

5

4
3

5
1
3

2

5

2
3

5
2
3
0

5
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
v´o
.
i ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng l`a
x
1
=
2
3
y
1
+
1

5
y
2

4
3

5
y
3
,
x
2
=
1
3
y
1

2

5
y
2

2
3

5
y
3
,
x
3
=
2
3
y
1
+

5
3
y
3
.
256 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Trong c´ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay h˜ay viˆe
´
t ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng
c´o biˆe

u th´ u
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
sau trong khˆong gian R
3
(1-4) v`a trong R
4
(5-6).
1. x
2
1
+x
2
2
−3x
1
x
2
. (DS.
_
¸
_
1 −3/2 0
−3/2 1 0
0 0 0
_
¸
_)
2. 2x
2
1
+ 3x
2
2
−x
2
3
+ 4x
1
x
2
−6x
1
x
3
+ 10x
2
x
3
.
(DS.
_
¸
_
2 2 −3
2 3 5
−3 5 −1
_
¸
_
)
3. x
2
1
+x
2
2
+x
2
3
+ 4x
1
x
2
+ 4x
2
x
3
+ 4x
1
x
3
.
(DS.
_
¸
_
1 2 2
2 1 2
2 2 1
_
¸
_
)
4. 4x
2
1
+x
2
2
+ 9x
2
3
−4x
1
x
2
−6x
2
x
3
+ 12x
1
x
3
.
(DS.
_
¸
_
4 −2 6
−2 1 −3
6 −3 9
_
¸
_)
5. 4x
2
1
+x
2
3
−2x
2
4
−x
1
x
2
+ 8x
1
x
4
−5x
2
x
4
.
(DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
4 −
1
2
0 4

1
2
0 0 −
5
2
0 0 1 0
4 −
5
2
0 −2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
)
6. 2x
1
x
2
−6x
1
x
3
−6x
2
x
4
+ 2x
3
x
4
.
6.1. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng 257
(DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
0 1 −3 0
1 0 0 −3
−3 0 0 1
0 −3 1 0
_
¸
¸
¸
_
)
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an 7-8, t`ım ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a mˆo
˜
i da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng
7.
_
x
1
x
2
_
_
1 3
4 5
__
x
1
x
2
_
(DS.
_
¸
_
1
7
2
7
2
5
_
¸
_)
8.
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
_
¸
_
−1 0 2
2 4 1
3 0 −1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
¸
_. (DS.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
−1 1
5
2
1 4
1
2
5
2
1
2
−1
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
)
9. Cho c´ ac da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng sau dˆay du
.
o
.
.
c viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng ma trˆa
.
n.
H˜ay viˆe
´
t c´ ac da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng d´o du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng
1)
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
_
¸
_
3 0 −1
0 −2 1
−1 1 2
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
¸
_
(DS. 3x
2
1
−2x
1
x
3
−2x
2
2
+ 2x
2
x
3
+ 2x
2
3
)
2)
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
_
¸
_
4 1 0
1 3 −1
0 −1 −1
_
¸
_
_
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
¸
_
.
(DS. 4x
2
1
+ 2x
1
x
2
+ 3x
2
2
−2x
2
x
3
−x
2
3
)
10. Viˆe
´
t c´ ac da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng sau dˆay du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng ma trˆa
.
n.
1) 3x
2
1
+ x
2
2
−x
1
x
2
. (DS.
_
x
1
x
2
_
_
¸
_
3 −
1
2

1
2
1
_
¸
_
_
x
1
x
2
_
)
2) x
2
1
+x
2
3
−2x
1
x
2
+ 5x
1
x
3
.
258 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
(DS.
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
_
¸
¸
¸
_
1 −1
5
2
−1 0 0
5
2
0 1
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
¸
_)
3) 2x
2
1
+ 3x
2
2
−2x
2
3
+x
1
x
2
+ 2x
1
x
3
+ 3x
2
x
3
.
(DS.
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
2
1
2
1
1
2
3
3
2
1
3
2
−2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
_
¸
_
x
1
x
2
x
3
_
¸
_
)
Trong c´ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay (11-14) t`ım da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng thu
du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
da
.
ng d˜a cho bo
.
’ i ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i d˜a chı ’ ra
11. ϕ(x
1
, x
2
) = 3x
2
1
−x
2
2
+ 4x
1
x
2
; x
1
= 2y
1
−y
2
, x
2
= y
1
+y
2
.
(DS. ϕ
1
(y
1
, y
2
) = 19y
2
1
−2y
2
2
−10y
1
y
2
)
12. ϕ(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = 2x
2
1
+ 3x
2
2
−x
2
3
+x
1
x
2
;
x
1
= −y
1
+ 2y
2
; x
2
= 3y
1
+y
2
+y
3
; x
3
= −2y
1
−y
2
.
(DS. ϕ
1
(y
1
, y
2
, y
3
) = 22y
2
1
+ 12y
2
2
+ 3y
2
3
+ 11y
1
y
2
+17y
1
y
3
+ 8y
2
y
3
)
13. ϕ
1
(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = 2x
2
2
+ 4x
2
3
−2x
1
x
2
+x
2
x
3
;
x
1
= y
1
+y
2
−y
3
, x
2
= y
1
−y
2
+y
3
, x
3
= y
3
+y
2
.
(DS. ϕ
1
(y
1
, y
2
, y
3
) = 7y
2
2
+ 9y
2
3
−3y
1
y
2
+ 5y
1
y
3
))
14. ϕ(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = x
2
1
−2x
2
2
+x
2
3
−4x
1
x
2
−2x
2
x
3
;
x
1
= y
1
+ 2y
2
, x
2
= y
2
, x
3
= y
2
−y
3
.
(DS. ϕ
1
(y
1
, y
2
, y
3
) = y
2
1
−7y
2
2
+y
2
3
)
D` ung phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Lagrange du
.
a c´ac da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng sau vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c (15-19)
15. 2x
2
1
+ 3x
2
2
+ 4x
2
3
−2x
1
x
2
+ 4x
1
x
3
−3x
2
x
3
.
(DS. ϕ = 2(x
1

1
2
x
2
+x
3
)
2
+
5
2
(x
2

3
5
x
3
)
2
+
11
10
x
2
3
⇒ ϕ
1
(y
1
, y
2
, y
3
) = 2y
2
1
+
5
2
y
2
2
+
11
10
y
2
3
)
6.1. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng 259
16. ϕ(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = 9x
2
1
+ 6x
2
2
+ 6x
2
3
−6x
1
x
2
−6x
1
x
3
+ 12x
2
x
3
.
(DS. ϕ() = (3x
1
−x
2
−x
3
)
2
+ 5(x
2
+x
3
)
2
⇒ ϕ(y
1
, y
2
, y
3
) = y
2
1
+ 5y
2
2
+ 0 y
2
3
)
17. x
2
1
+ 5x
2
2
−4x
2
3
+ 2x
1
x
2
−4x
1
x
3
.
(DS. ϕ = (x
1
+x
2
−2x
3
)
2
+ 4x
2
2
−8x
2
3
⇒ ϕ(y
1
, y
2
, y
3
) = y
2
1
+ 4y
2
2
−8y
2
3
)
18. x
1
x
2
+ 2x
1
x
3
+ 4x
2
x
3
.
(Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n v`a D´ap sˆo´: D` ung ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i phu
.
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
x
1
= y
1
x
2
= y
1
+y
2
x
3
= y
3
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c da
.
ng c´o ch´ u
.
a b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng
ϕ() = (y
1
+
1
2
y
2
+ 3y
3
)
2

1
4
(y
2
−2y
3
)
2
−8y
2
3
⇒ ϕ
1
= z
2
1

1
4
z
2
2
−8z
2
3
)
19. 4x
1
x
2
−5x
2
x
3
(Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n v`a D´ap sˆo´: D` ung ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i phu
.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
x
1
=
1
2
(y
1
−y
2
)
x
2
=
1
2
(y
1
+y
2
)
x
3
= y
3
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
ϕ() =
_
y
1

5
4
y
3
_
2

_
y
2
+
5
4
y
3
_
2
= z
2
1
−z
2
2
+ 0 z
2
3
)
D` ung phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap Jacobi dˆe

du
.
a c´ac da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng vˆe
`
da
.
ng
ch´ınh t˘a
´
c (20-25)
20. 3x
2
1
+ 4x
1
x
2
−2x
1
x
3
+ 2x
2
2
−2x
2
x
3
+ 6x
2
3
.
260 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
(DS. ϕ() = 3y
2
1
+
2
3
y
2
2
+
11
2
y
2
3
nh`o
.
ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
x
1
= y
1

2
3
y
2
,
x
2
= y
2
+
1
2
y
3
,
x
3
= y
3
.)
21. 5x
2
1
−2x
1
x
2
+ 4x
1
x
3
+ 5x
2
2
+ 4x
2
x
3
+ 3x
2
3
.
(DS. ϕ() = 5y
2
1
+
24
5
y
2
2
+y
2
3
nh`o
.
ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
x
1
= y
1
+
1
5
y
2

1
2
y
3
,
x
2
= y
2

1
2
y
3
,
x
3
= y
3
.)
22. x
2
1
+ 5x
2
2
+ 2x
3
2
+ 4x
1
x
2
+ 2x
1
x
3
+ 4x
2
x
3
.
(DS. ϕ() = y
2
1
+y
2
2
+y
2
3
nh`o
.
ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i:
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
x
1
= y
1
−2y
2
−y
3
,
x
2
= y
2
,
x
3
= y
3
.)
23. 5x
2
1
+x
2
2
+ 3x
2
3
+ 4x
1
x
2
−2x
1
x
3
−2x
2
x
3
.
(DS. ϕ() =
1
5
y
2
1
+ 5y
2
2
+y
2
3
nh`o
.
ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
x
1
= y
1

2
5
y
2
−y
3
,
x
2
= y
2
+ 3y
3
,
x
3
= y
3
.)
24. x
2
1
+x
2
2
+ 5x
2
3
−4x
1
x
2
−2x
1
x
3
+ 4x
2
x
3
.
6.1. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng 261
(DS. ϕ() = y
2
1
−3y
2
2
+ 4y
2
3
nh`o
.
ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
x
1
= y
1
+ 2y
2
+y
3
,
x
2
= y
2
,
x
3
= y
3
.)
25. 3x
2
1
+ 2x
1
x
2
−2x
1
x
3
+x
2
3
+ 4x
2
x
3
(DS. ϕ() = 3y
2
1

1
3
y
2
2
+ 17y
2
3
nh`o
.
ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
x
1
= y
1

1
3
y
2
−2y
3
,
x
2
= y
2
+ 7y
3
,
x
3
= y
3
.)
Trong c´ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay (26-35) t`ım ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao du
.
a
mˆo
˜
i da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng d˜a cho vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c v`a viˆe
´
t da
.
ng ch´ınh
t˘a
´
c d´o.
26. 2x
2
1
−4x
1
x
2
+ 5x
2
2
.
(DS.
x
1
=
2

5
y
1
+
1

5
y
2
x
2
= −
1

5
y
1
+
2

5
y
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
⇒ ϕ() = y
2
1
+ 6y
2
2
)
27. x
2
1
+x
2
2
+ 4x
1
x
2
.
(DS.
x
1
=
1

2
y
1
+
1

2
y
2
,
x
2
=
1

2
y
1

1

2
y
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
⇒ ϕ() = 3y
2
1
−y
2
2
)
28. 5x
2
1
+ 12x
1
x
2
.
(DS.
x
1
=
3

13
y
1

2

13
y
2
,
x
2
=
2

13
y
1
+
3

13
y
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
⇒ϕ() = 9y
2
1
−4y
2
2
)
29. 7x
2
1
+ 3x
2
2
+ 6

5x
1
x
2
.
262 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
(DS.
x
1
=
3

14
y
1
+
_
5
14
y
2
x
2
=
_
5
14
y
1

3

14
y
2
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
⇒ ϕ() = 12y
2
1
−2y
2
2
)
30. 2x
2
1
−4

5x
1
x
2
+ 3x
2
2
.
(DS.
x
1
=
2
3
y
1
+

5
3
y
2
x
2
= −

5
3
y
1
+
2
3
y
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
⇒ ϕ() = 7y
2
1
−2y
2
2
)
31. ϕ(x
1
, x
2
) = 4x
1
x
2
(DS.
x
1
=
1

2
y
1

1

2
y
2
x
2
=
1

2
y
1
+
1

2
y
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
⇒ ϕ(y
1
, y
2
) = 2y
2
1
−2y
2
2
)
32. 3x
2
1
+ 6x
1
x
2
+ 3x
2
2
.
(DS.
x
1
=
1

2
y
1

1

2
y
2
,
x
2
=
1

2
y
1
+
1

2
y
2
_
¸
_
¸
_
⇒ϕ() = 6y
2
1
)
33. 6x
2
1
+ 5x
2
2
+ 7x
2
3
−4x
1
x
2
+ 4x
1
x
3
(DS.
x
1
=
2
3
y
1

1
3
y
2
+
2
3
y
3
,
x
2
= −
1
3
y
1
+
2
3
y
2
+
2
3
y
3
,
x
3
=
2
3
y
1
+
2
3
y
2

1
3
y
3
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
⇒ϕ() = 9y
2
1
+ 6y
2
2
+ 3y
2
3
)
34. 2x
2
1
+x
2
2
+ 3x
2
3
−4

2x
2
x
3
.
(DS. x
1
= y
1
, x
2
=
1

3
y
2
+
_
2
3
y
3
, x
3
= −
_
2
3
y
2
+
1

3
y
3
;
ϕ() = 2y
2
1
+ 5y
2
2
−y
2
3
)
35. 2x
2
1
+ 5x
2
2
+ 2x
2
3
−4x
1
x
2
−2x
1
x
3
+ 4x
2
x
3
.
(DS. x
1
=
1

2
y
1
+
1

6
y
2
+
1

3
y
3
, x
2
= −
2

6
y
2
+
1

3
y
3
,
x
3
=
1

2
y
1

1

6
y
2

1

3
y
3
; ϕ() = y
2
1
+ 7y
2
2
+y
2
3
)
6.2. D
-
u
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng bˆa
.
c hai v`a m˘a
.
t bˆa
.
c hai vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c 263
6.2 D
-
u
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at cu

a
du
.
`o
.
ng bˆa
.
c hai v`a m˘a
.
t bˆ a
.
c hai vˆe
`
da
.
ng
ch´ınh t˘a
´
c
1

X´et phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng bˆa
.
c hai
a
11
x
2
+ 2a
12
xy +a
22
y
2
+ 2a
13
x + 2a
23
y +a
33
= 0. (6.20)
Tˆo

ng cu’ a ba sˆo´ ha
.
ng dˆa
`
u tiˆen
ϕ(x, y) = a
11
x
2
+ 2a
12
xy +a
22
y
2
(6.21)
l`a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a c´ac biˆe
´
n x v`a y v`a du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
.
ng to`an
phu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (6.20). Ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng
n`ay c´o da
.
ng
A =
_
a
11
a
12
a
12
a
22
_
.
1
+
Nˆe
´
u detA > 0 th`ı (6.20) l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng da
.
ng eliptic.
2
+
Nˆe
´
u detA < 0 th`ı (6.20) l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng da
.
ng hy-
pecbolic.
3
+
Nˆe
´
u detA = 0 th`ı (6.20) l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng da
.
ng parabolic.
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p khi detA ,= 0 th`ı (6.20) x´ac di
.
nh du
.
`o
.
ng c´o tˆam
diˆe

m. Nˆe
´
u detA = 0 th`ı (6.20) l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng khˆong c´o tˆam
diˆe

m. Hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng tru
.
.
c giao cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n da
.
ng to`an
phu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (6.20) go
.
i l`a hu
.
´o
.
ng ch´ınh cu’ a
du
.
`o
.
ng x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (6.20).
Ngu
.
`o
.
i ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng tˆo
`
n ta
.
i hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
Dˆec´ ac vuˆong g´oc m`a
trong d´o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at (6.20) cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng bˆa
.
c hai c´o da
.
ng
ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
Dˆe

t`ım hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
d´o ta tiˆe
´
n h`anh nhu
.
sau.
264 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
1
+
T`ım ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng
v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
2
+
Du
.
.
a theo ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i n`ay ta t`ım c´ ac hu
.
´o
.
ng ch´ınh cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng,
t´ u
.
c l`a t`ım c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n c
1
v`a c
2
cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n da
.
ng to`an
phu
.
o
.
ng (6.21).
3
+
T`ım phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng d˜a cho trong hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
Oc
1
c
2
.
4
+
Trong phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh thu du
.
o
.
.
c ta bˆo

sung dˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c b`ınh
phu
.
o
.
ng du’ rˆo
`
i t`ım c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a diˆe

m O

l`a gˆo´c cu’ a hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
cˆa
`
n
t`ım. Trong hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c O

c
1
c
2
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng d˜a
cho c´ o da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c.
2

. X´et phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a m˘a
.
t bˆa
.
c hai
a
11
x
2
+a
22
y
2
+a
33
z
2
+ 2a
12
xy + 2a
13
xz + 2a
23
yz +bx +by +ez +f = 0,
(6.22)
trong d´o ´ıt nhˆa´t mˆo
.
t hˆe
.
sˆo´ a
ij
,= 0, i = 1, 3, j = 1, 3.
Tˆo

ng cu’ a s´au sˆo´ ha
.
ng dˆa
`
u cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
ϕ(x, y, z) = a
11
x
2
+a
12
y
2
+a
33
z
2
+ 2a
12
xy + 2a
13
xz + 2a
23
yz
(6.23)
l`a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng ba biˆe
´
n x, y, z v`a du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (6.22). Ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a da
.
ng l`a
A =
_
¸
_
a
11
a
12
a
13
a
12
a
22
a
23
a
13
a
23
a
33
_
¸
_
.
Trong mu
.
c tru
.
´o
.
c d˜a ch´ u
.
ng to’ tˆo
`
n ta
.
i ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao du
.
a
da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng (6.23) vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c. Do vˆa
.
y viˆe
.
c kha’ o s´at v`a
du
.
.
ng m˘a
.
t bˆa
.
c hai x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (6.22) du
.
o
.
.
c tiˆe
´
n h`anh
tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trong 1

.
6.2. Du
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at ... vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c 265
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Du
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
17x
2
+ 12xy + 8y
2
+ 20

5x + 20 = 0
vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c v`a du
.
.
ng du
.
`o
.
ng x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d´o.
Gia’ i. 1
+
Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng
ϕ(x, y) = 17x
2
+ 12xy + 8y
2
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho c´ o ma trˆa
.
n
A =
_
17 6
6 8
_
.
N´o c´ o c´ ac sˆo´ d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng l`a λ
1
= 20, λ
2
= 5. Ta t`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a A b˘a
`
ng c´ach gia’ i hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(17 −λ
i

1
+ 6ξ
2
= 0,

1
+ (8 −λ
i

2
= 0
lˆa
`
n lu
.
o
.
.
t v´o
.
i λ
1
= 20 v`a λ
2
= 5.
V´o
.
i λ
1
= 20 ta c´o
−3ξ
1
+ 6ξ
2
= 0

1
−12ξ
2
= 0
_
⇒ ξ
1
= 2ξ
2
.
Do d´o vecto
.
riˆeng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i λ
1
= 20 c´ o da
.
ng
u(2α, α), α ∈ R
v`a sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa ta du
.
o
.
.
c
c
1
=
_
2

5
,
1

5
_
.
266 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
V´o
.
i λ
2
= 5 ta c´o
12ξ
1
+ 6ξ
2
= 0,

1
+ 3ξ
2
= 0
_
→ ξ
2
= −2ξ
1
.
Do d´o vecto
.
riˆeng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i λ
2
= 5 c´o da
.
ng
v(β, −2β)
v`a sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c vecto
.
riˆeng chuˆa

n cu’ a ma trˆa
.
n A:
c
2
=
_

1

5
,
2

5
_
.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n vˆe
`
co
.
so
.
’ m´o
.
i (ma trˆa
.
n cu’ a ph´ep biˆe
´
n
dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao) c´o da
.
ng
T =
_
¸
¸
_
2

5

1

5
1

5
2

5
_
¸
¸
_
v`a do vˆa
.
y ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao cˆ a
`
n t`ım c´o da
.
ng
x =
2

5
x


1

5
y

,
y =
1

5
x

+
2

5
y

.
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
(6.24)
N´o du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng ϕ vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c
ϕ
1
= 20x

2
+ 5y

2
.
2
+
C´ac vecto
.
co
.
so
.
’ c
1
v`a c
2
thu du
.
o
.
.
c t` u
.
c´ac vecto
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
b˘a
`
ng ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i cˆong th´ u
.
c
c
1
=
2

5
e
1
+
1

5
e
2
,
c
2
= −
1

5
e
1
+
2

5
e
2
.
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
(6.25)
6.2. Du
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at ... vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c 267
3
+
Thay (6.24) v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng trong hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
Oc
1
c
2
:
20x

2
+ 5y

2
+ 40x

−20y

+ 20 = 0
v`a t` u
.
d´o
(x

+ 1)
2
1
+
(y

−2)
2
4
= 1 (6.26)
4
+
Thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep d`o
.
i hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
Oc
1
c
2
theo vecto
.
−→
OO

= −c
1
+2c
2
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
O

c
1
c
2
v` a trong hˆe
.
d´o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (6.26) c´o
da
.
ng
x

2
1
+
y

2
4
= 1. (6.27)
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho x´ac di
.
nh elip (h`ınh 6.1)
H`ınh 6.1
T` u
.
l`o
.
i gia’ i v`a h`ınh v˜e tr`ınh b`ay suy ra c´ach du
.
.
ng elip (6.27) trong
hˆe
.
O

c
1
c
2
. Dˆa
`
u tiˆen du
.
.
ng hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
Oc
1
c
2
(thay cho c
1
v`a c
2
c´o thˆe

du
.
.
ng c´ac vecto
.
−→
OM

1
= 2e
1
+ e
2
,
−→
OM

2
= −e
1
+ 2e
2
); tiˆe
´
p dˆe
´
n thu
.
.
c
hiˆe
.
n ph´ep ti
.
nh tiˆe
´
n song song hˆe
.
d´o mˆo
.
t vecto
.
−→
OO

= −e
1
+ 2e
2
dˆe
´
n
O

. Sau c` ung l`a du
.
.
ng elip (6.27).
268 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
V´ı du
.
2. Du
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng cong
x
2
−2xy +y
2
−10x −6y + 25 = 0
vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c v`a du
.
.
ng du
.
`o
.
ng cong d´o.
Gia’ i. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho
ϕ(x, y) = x
2
−2xy +y
2
c´o ma trˆa
.
n l`a
A =
_
1 −1
−1 1
_
Lˆa
.
p phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
1 −λ −1
−1 1 −λ
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0 hay l`a λ
2
−2λ = 0.
T` u
.
d´o λ
1
= 2, λ
2
= 0. Ta t`ım to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a c´ac vecto
.
riˆeng cu’ a A b˘a
`
ng
c´ach gia’ i hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(1 −λ
i

1
−ξ
2
= 0,
−ξ
1
+ (1 −λ
i

2
= 0
_
lˆa
`
n lu
.
o
.
.
t v´o
.
i λ
1
= 2 v`a λ
2
= 0.
V´o
.
i λ
1
= 2 ta c´o
−ξ
1
−ξ
2
= 0,
−ξ
1
−ξ
2
= 0
_
⇒ ξ
1
= −ξ
2
v`a do d´o hu
.
´o
.
ng ch´ınh tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i λ
1
= 2 du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i vecto
.
riˆeng
u = (α, −α), α ∈ R
6.2. Du
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at ... vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c 269
v`a sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa ta c´ o
c
1
=
_
1

2
, −
1

2
_
.
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
v´o
.
i λ
2
= 0 ta c´o ξ
1
−ξ
2
= 0, −ξ
1

2
= 0 ⇒ξ
1
= ξ
2
v`a
hu
.
´o
.
ng ch´ınh ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i λ
2
= 0 x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i vecto
.
riˆeng
v(β, β), β ∈ R
v`a chuˆ a

n h´oa ta du
.
o
.
.
c
c
2
=
_
1

2
,
1

2
_
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ta d˜a chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n c
1
, c
2
,
trong d´o
c
1
=
1

2
e
1

1

2
e
2
,
c
2
=
1

2
e
1
+
1

2
e
2
bo
.
’ i ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n
T =
_
¸
¸
_
1

2
1

2

1

2
1

2
_
¸
¸
_
v`a ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng
x =
1

2
x

+
1

2
y

,
y = −
1

2
x

+
1

2
y

.
_
¸
_
¸
_
(6.28)
Dˆe

t`ım da
.
ng cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng d˜a cho trong hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
Oc
1
c
2
ta thay (6.28) v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at d˜a cho v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c
2x

2

4

2
x


16

2
y

+ 25 = 0 (6.29)
270 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
hay l`a
_
x


1

2
_
2
= 4

2
_
y


3

2
2
_
.
Sau ph´ep ti
.
nh tiˆe
´
n song song c´ac tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
dˆe
´
n gˆo´c m´o
.
i O

=
_

2
2
,
3

2
2
_
, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh (6.29) trong hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
O

XY c´o da
.
ng ch´ınh
t˘a
´
c X
2
= 4

2Y . Su
.
.
s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p cu’ a parabon du
.
o
.
.
c chı ’ ra trˆen h`ınh 6.2.
6.2. Du
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at ... vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c 271
H`ınh 6.2
V´ı du
.
3. Du
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a m˘a
.
t bˆa
.
c hai
9x
2
+ 20y
2
+ 20z
2
−40yz −36x −4

2y + 4

2z + 4 = 0
vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c v`a du
.
.
ng m˘a
.
t d´o.
Gia’ i. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho c´o
da
.
ng
ϕ(x, y, z) = 9x
2
+ 20y
2
+ 20z
2
−40yz
v´o
.
i ma trˆa
.
n
A =
_
¸
_
9 0 0
0 20 −20
0 −20 20
_
¸
_.
Ma trˆa
.
n n`ay c´ o ba sˆo´ d˘a
.
c tru
.
ng l`a λ
1
= 9, λ
2
= 40, λ
3
= 0. Do d´o
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c cu’ a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng ϕ() l`a
ϕ
1
() = 9x

2
+ 40y

2
.
Ta cˆa
`
n t`ım ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c. To
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a c´ ac vecto
.
272 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
riˆeng du
.
o
.
.
c t`ım t` u
.
hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
(9 −λ
i

1
+ 0 ξ
2
+ 0 ξ
3
= 0,
0 ξ
1
+ (20 −λ
i

2
−20ξ
3
= 0,
0 ξ
1
−20ξ
2
+ (20 −λ
i

3
= 0
v´o
.
i λ
1
= 9, λ
2
= 40, λ
3
= 0.
a) V´o
.
i λ
1
= 9 ta c´o
0 ξ
1
+ 0 ξ
2
+ 0 ξ
3
= 0,
0 ξ
1
+ 11ξ
2
−20ξ
3
= 0,
0 ξ
1
−20ξ
2
+ 11ξ
3
= 0.
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c vecto
.
riˆeng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i λ
1
= 9 l`a
u(α, 0, 0), α ∈ R, α ,= 0
v`a sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa ta du
.
o
.
.
c
c
1
= (1, 0, 0).
b) V´ o
.
i λ
2
= 40 ta c´o
31ξ
1
+ 0 ξ
2
+ 0 ξ
3
= 0,
0 ξ
1
−20ξ
2
−20ξ
3
= 0,
0 ξ
1
−20ξ
2
−20ξ
3
= 0
v`a t` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c vecto
.
riˆeng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i λ
2
= 40:
v(0, β, −β), β ∈ R, β ,= 0
v`a sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa ta du
.
o
.
.
c
c
2
=
_
0,
1

2
,
−1

2
_
.
6.2. Du
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at ... vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c 273
c) V´o
.
i λ
3
= 0 ta c´o vecto
.
riˆeng tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng l`a
w(0, γ, γ), γ ∈ R, γ ,= 0
v`a sau khi chuˆa

n h´oa ta c´ o
c
3
=
_
0,
1

2
,
1

2
_
.
Ma trˆa
.
n chuyˆe

n t` u
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
dˆe
´
n co
.
so
.
’ tru
.
.
c chuˆa

n c
1
, c
2
, c
3
c´o da
.
ng
T =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
1 0 0
0
1

2
1

2
0 −
1

2
1

2
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i tru
.
.
c giao du
.
a da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c c´ o da
.
ng
x = x

,
y =
1

2
y

+
1

2
z

,
z = −
1

2
y

+
1

2
z

.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.30)
Ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i n`ay biˆe
´
n c´ac vecto
.
co
.
so
.
’ e
1
, e
2
, e
3
th`anh
c
1
= e
1
,
c
2
=
1

2
e
2

1

2
e
3
,
c
3
=
1

2
e
2
+
1

2
e
3
.
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
(6.31)
Dˆe

t`ım phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng d˜a cho trong hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
m´o
.
i
Oc
1
c
2
c
3
ta thˆe
´
(6.30) v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at d˜a cho v`a thu
du
.
o
.
.
c
9x

2
+ 40y

2
−36x

−8y

+ 4 = 0
274 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
hay l`a
(x

−2)
2
3, 6
+
(y

−0, 1)
2
0, 81
= 1.
Tiˆe
´
p theo ta thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep ti
.
nh tiˆe
´
n song song hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
Oc
1
c
2
c
3
mˆo
.
t vecto
.
−→
OO

= 2c
1
+ 0, 1c
2
v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c hˆe
.
O

c
1
c
2
c
3
, trong hˆe
.
d´o
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho c´ o da
.
ng
x

2
a
2
+
y

2
b
2
= 1, a =
_
3, 6, b = 0, 9.
Phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh n`ay (v`a do d´o phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho) x´ac di
.
nh m˘a
.
t tru
.
eliptic v´o
.
i du
.
`o
.
ng sinh | c
3
.
Du
.
.
ng m˘a
.
t tru
.
eliptic: c` ung v´o
.
i hˆe
.
to
.
a dˆo
.
Oe
1
e
2
e
3
ta du
.
.
ng hˆe
.
to
.
a
dˆo
.
O

c
1
c
2
c
3
, trong d´o thay cho viˆe
.
c du
.
.
ng c´ac vecto
.
(6.31) ta c´o thˆe

du
.
.
ng c´ac vecto
.
−→
OM
1
= e
1
,
−→
OM
2
= e
2
−e
3
,
−→
OM
3
= e
2
+e
3
.
Su
.
.
s˘a
´
p xˆe
´
p cu’ a m˘a
.
t d˜a cho du
.
o
.
.
c chı ’ r˜o trˆen h`ınh 6.3
H`ınh 6.3
6.2. Du
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at ... vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh t˘a
´
c 275
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Du
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng bˆa
.
c hai vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh
t˘a
´
c v`a nhˆa
.
n da
.
ng ch´ ung.
1. 3x
2
−2xy + 3y
2
+ 2x −4y + 1 = 0.
(DS. Du
.
`o
.
ng elip, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ch´ınh t˘a
´
c
32
3
x

2
+
16
3
y

2
= 1)
2. x
2
+ 2xy −y
2
−6x + 4y −3 = 0.
(DS. Du
.
`o
.
ng hypecbˆ on, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ch´ınh t˘a
´
c 2

2y

2
−2

2x

2
= 1)
3. x
2
−2xy +y
2
+ 4x −6y + 1 = 0.
(DS. Du
.
`o
.
ng parabˆon, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ch´ınh t˘a
´
c 2y

2


2x

= 0)
4. 2x
2
−4xy −y
2
+ 8 = 0
(DS. Du
.
`o
.
ng hypecbˆ on, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ch´ınh t˘a
´
c
x

2
2
2

y

2
(
_
8/3)
2
= 1)
5. 5x
2
+ 4xy + 5y
2
−9 = 0.
(DS. Du
.
`o
.
ng elip, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ch´ınh t˘a
´
c
x

2
(3/

7)
2
+
y

2
(

3)
2
= 1)
6. 11x
2
+ 24xy + 4y
2
−15 = 0.
(DS. Du
.
`o
.
ng hypecbˆ on, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ch´ınh t˘a
´
c
x

2
(

3/2)
2

y

2
(

3)
2
= 1)
7. 2x
2
+ 4xy + 5y
2
−24 = 0.
(DS. Du
.
`o
.
ng elip, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ch´ınh t˘a
´
c
x

2
(

24)
2
+
y

2
2
2
= 1)
8. x
2
−8xy + 7y
2
−36 = 0.
(DS. Du
.
`o
.
ng hypecbˆ on, phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ch´ınh t˘a
´
c
x

2
2
2

y

2
6
2
= 1)
Du
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tˆo

ng qu´at cu’ a c´ac m˘a
.
t bˆa
.
c hai vˆe
`
da
.
ng ch´ınh
t˘a
´
c v`a nhˆa
.
n da
.
ng ch´ ung.
276 Chu
.
o
.
ng 6. Da
.
ng to`an phu
.
o
.
ng v` a ´ u
.
ng du
.
ng
9. 6x
2
−2y
2
+ 6z
2
+ 4xz + 8x −4y −8z + 1 = 0.
(DS. Du
.
`o
.
ng paraboloid mˆo
.
t tˆa
`
ng;
x

2
(
_
5/4)
2
+
y

2
(
_
5/8)
2

z

2
(
_
5/2)
2
= 1)
10. 4x
2
+ 3y
2
+ 2z
2
+ 4xy −4yz + 4x −2y −4z −3 = 0.
(DS. M˘a
.
t tru
.
eliptic;
x

2
(

2)
2
+
y

2
1
= 1)
11. x
2
+ 2y
2
−3z
2
+ 2x + 8y + 18z −54 = 0.
(DS. Hypecboloid 1-tˆa
`
ng;
x

2
36
+
y

2
18

Z

2
12
= 1)
12. 2x
2
+y
2
−4xy −4yz = 0.
(DS. M˘a
.
t n´on,
x

2
4
+z

2
=
y

2
2
)
13. 2x
2
+ 2y
2
+ 3z
2
+ 4xy + 2xz + 2yz −4x + 6y −2z + 3 = 0.
(DS. M˘a
.
t parabˆoloid eliptic, 2x

2
+ 5y

2
−5

2z

= 0)
14. 2x
2
+ 2y
2
+ 3z
2
−2xz −2yz −16 = 0
(DS. M˘a
.
t elipxoid,
x

2
4
2
+
y

2
(2

2)
2
+
z

2
2
2
= 1)

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