Bài tập toán cao cấp

Tập 2

Nguyễn Thủy Thanh
NXB Đại học quốc gia Hà Nội 2007, 158 Tr.

Từ khoá: Bài tập toán cao cấp, Giới hạn dãy số, Giới hạn hàm số, Tính liên tục
của hàm số, Hàm liên tục, Phép tính vi phân hàm một biến,
Đạo hàm, Vi phân, Công thức Taylor, Đạo hàm riêng, Vi phân của hàm nhiều
biến, Cực trị của hàm nhiều biến.

Tài liệu trong Thư viện điện tử ĐH Khoa học Tự nhiên có thể sử dụng cho mục
đích học tập và nghiên cứu cá nhân. Nghiêm cấm mọi hình thức sao chép, in ấn
phục vụ các mục đích khác nếu không được sự chấp thuận của nhà xuất bản và
tác giả.


NGUY
ˆ
E
˜
N THUY

THANH
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
TO
´
AN CAO C
ˆ
A
´
P
Tˆa
.
p 2
Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan c´ac h` am
NH
`
A XU
ˆ
A
´
T BA

N DA
.
I HO
.
C QU
ˆ
O
´
C GIA H
`
A N
ˆ
O
.
I
Mu
.
c lu
.
c
7 Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆ o
´
3
7.1 Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
7.1.1 C´ ac b`ai to´an liˆen quan t´o
.
i di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n . 5
7.1.2 Ch´ u
.
ng minh su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ du
.
.
a trˆen c´ac
di
.
nh l´ y vˆe
`
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.1.3 Ch´ u
.
ng minh su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ du
.
.
a trˆen diˆe
`
u
kiˆe
.
n du’ dˆe

d˜ay hˆo
.
i tu
.
(nguyˆen l´ y
Bolzano-Weierstrass) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
7.1.4 Ch´ u
.
ng minh su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ du
.
.
a trˆen diˆe
`
u
kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n v`a du’ dˆe

d˜ay hˆo
.
i tu
.
(nguyˆen l´ y hˆo
.
i tu
.
Bolzano-Cauchy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
7.2 Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7.2.1 C´ ac kh´ai niˆe
.
m v`a di
.
nh l´ y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n . . 27
7.3 H`am liˆen tu
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7.4 Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n . . . . . . . . 51
8 Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆ o
.
t biˆe
´
n 60
8.1 D
-
a
.
o h`am . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8.1.1 D
-
a
.
o h`am cˆa´p 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8.1.2 D
-
a
.
o h`am cˆa´p cao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
8.2 Vi phˆan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
8.2.1 Vi phˆan cˆ a´p 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
2 MU
.
C LU
.
C
8.2.2 Vi phˆan cˆ a´p cao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
8.3 C´ac di
.
nh l´ y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi. Quy t˘a
´
c l’Hospital.
Cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
8.3.1 C´ ac di
.
nh l´ y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi . . . . . . . . 84
8.3.2 Khu
.
’ c´ac da
.
ng vˆo di
.
nh. Quy t˘a
´
c Lˆopitan
(L’Hospitale) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
8.3.3 Cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
9 Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 109
9.1 D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
9.1.1 D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
9.1.2 D
-
a
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am ho
.
.
p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
9.1.3 H` am kha’ vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
9.1.4 D
-
a
.
o h`am theo hu
.
´o
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
9.1.5 D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p cao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
9.2 Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
9.2.1 Vi phˆan cˆ a´p 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.2.2
´
Ap du
.
ng vi phˆan dˆe

t´ınh gˆa
`
n d´ ung . . . . . . . 126
9.2.3 C´ ac t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a vi phˆan . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
9.2.4 Vi phˆan cˆ a´p cao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
9.2.5 Cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
9.2.6 Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am ˆa

n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
9.3 Cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
9.3.1 Cu
.
.
c tri
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
9.3.2 Cu
.
.
c tri
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.3.3 Gi´a tri
.
l´o
.
n nhˆa´t v`a b´e nhˆa´t cu’ a h`am . . . . . . 147
Chu
.
o
.
ng 7
Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu

a
h`am sˆo
´
7.1 Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
7.1.1 C´ac b`ai to´an liˆen quan t´o
.
i di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i
ha
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
7.1.2 Ch´ u
.
ng minh su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ du
.
.
a trˆen
c´ac di
.
nh l´y vˆe ` gi´o
.
i ha
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
7.1.3 Ch´ u
.
ng minh su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ du
.
.
a
trˆen diˆe `u kiˆe
.
n du’ dˆe

d˜ay hˆo
.
i tu
.
(nguyˆen l´y
Bolzano-Weierstrass) . . . . . . . . 17
7.1.4 Ch´ u
.
ng minh su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ du
.
.
a trˆen
diˆe `u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n v`a du’ dˆe

d˜ay hˆo
.
i tu
.
(nguyˆen
l´y hˆo
.
i tu
.
Bolzano-Cauchy) . . . . . . . . . . 25
7.2 Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h`am mˆ o
.
t biˆe
´
n . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
7.2.1 C´ac kh´ai niˆe
.
m v`a di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe ` gi´o
.
i ha
.
n 27
7.3 H`am liˆen tu
.
c . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
7.4 Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am nhiˆe `u biˆe
´
n . 51
4 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
7.1 Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu

a d˜ ay sˆo
´
H`am sˆo´ x´ac di
.
nh trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p N du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a d˜ay sˆo´ vˆo ha
.
n. D˜ay sˆo´
thu
.
`o
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng:
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
, . . . (7.1)
ho˘a
.
c {a
n
}, trong d´o a
n
= f(n), n ∈ N du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a sˆo´ ha
.
ng tˆo

ng qu´at
cu’ a d˜ay, n l`a sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u cu’ a sˆo´ ha
.
ng trong d˜ay.
Ta cˆa
`
n lu
.
u ´ y c´ac kh´ai niˆe
.
m sau dˆay:
i) D˜ ay (7.1) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n nˆe
´
u ∃M ∈ R
+
: ∀n ∈ N ⇒|a
n
|
M; v`a go
.
i l`a khˆong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n nˆe
´
u: ∀M ∈ R
+
: ∃n ∈ N ⇒ |a
n
| > M.
ii) Sˆo´ a du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay (7.1) nˆe
´
u:
∀ε > 0, ∃N(ε) : ∀n N ⇒ |a
n
−a| < ε. (7.2)
iii) Sˆo´ a khˆong pha’ i l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay (7.1) nˆe
´
u:
∃ε > 0, ∀N : ∃n N ⇒|a
n
−a| ε. (7.3)
iv) D˜ay c´ o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a d˜ay hˆo
.
i tu
.
, trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p ngu
.
o
.
.
c
la
.
i d˜ay (7.1) go
.
i l`a d˜ay phˆan k` y.
v) D˜ ay (7.1) go
.
i l`a d˜ay vˆo c` ung b´e nˆe
´
u lim
n→∞
a
n
= 0 v`a go
.
i l`a d˜ay
vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n nˆe
´
u ∀A > 0, ∃N sao cho ∀n > N ⇒ |a
n
| > A v`a viˆe
´
t
lima
n
= ∞.
vi) Diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n dˆe

d˜ay hˆo
.
i tu
.
l`a d˜ay d´o pha’ i bi
.
ch˘a
.
n.
Ch´ u ´y: i) Hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c (7.2) tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i:
−ε < a
n
−a < ε ⇔ a −ε < a
n
< a + ε. (7.4)
7.1. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ 5
Hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c (7.4) ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng mo
.
i sˆo´ ha
.
ng v´o
.
i chı ’ sˆo´ n > N cu’ a d˜ay
hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
`
u n˘a
`
m trong khoa’ ng (a − ε, a + ε), khoa’ ng n`ay go
.
i l`a ε-lˆan
cˆa
.
n cu’ a diˆe

m a.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, nˆe
´
u d˜ay (7.1) hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n sˆo´ a th`ı mo
.
i sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a n´o tr` u
.
ra mˆo
.
t sˆo´ h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n sˆo´ ha
.
ng dˆe
`
u n˘a
`
m trong ε-lˆan cˆ a
.
n bˆa´t k` y b´e bao
nhiˆeu t` uy ´ y cu’ a diˆe

m a.
ii) Ta lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng d˜ay sˆo´ vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n khˆong hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a k´ y hiˆe
.
u
lima
n
= ∞ (−∞) chı ’ c´o ngh˜ıa l`a d˜ay a
n
l`a vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n v`a k´ y hiˆe
.
u d´o
ho`an to` an khˆong c´o ngh˜ıa l`a d˜ay c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n.
7.1.1 C´ac b`ai to´an liˆen quan t´o
.
i di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i
ha
.
n
Dˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh lima
n
= a b˘a
`
ng c´ach su
.
’ du
.
ng di
.
nh ngh˜ıa, ta cˆ a
`
n tiˆe
´
n
h`anh theo c´ac bu
.
´o
.
c sau dˆay:
i) Lˆa
.
p biˆe

u th´ u
.
c |a
n
−a|
ii) Cho
.
n d˜ay b
n
(nˆe
´
u diˆe
`
u d´o c´o lo
.
.
i) sao cho |a
n
− a| b
n
∀n v`a
v´o
.
i ε du’ b´e bˆa´t k` y bˆa´t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i n:
b
n
< ε (7.5)
c´o thˆe

gia’ i mˆo
.
t c´ach dˆe
˜
d`ang. Gia’ su
.
’ (7.5) c´o nghiˆe
.
m l`a n > f(ε),
f(ε) > 0. Khi d´o ta c´o thˆe

lˆa´y n l`a [f(ε)], trong d´o [f(ε)] l`a phˆa
`
n
nguyˆen cu’ a f(ε).
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Gia’ su
.
’ a
n
= n
(−1)
n
. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
i) D˜ ay a
n
khˆong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n.
ii) D˜ ay a
n
khˆong pha’ i l`a vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n.
Gia’ i. i) Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng a
n
tho’a m˜an di
.
nh ngh˜ıa d˜ay khˆong
bi
.
ch˘a
.
n. Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y, ∀M > 0 sˆo´ ha
.
ng v´o
.
i sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u n = 2([M] + 1) b˘a
`
ng
n v`a l´o
.
n ho
.
n M. Diˆe
`
u d´o c´o ngh˜ıa l`a d˜ay a
n
khˆong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n.
6 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
ii) Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng a
n
khˆong pha’ i l`a vˆ o c` ung l´o
.
n. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y,
ta x´et khoa’ ng (−2, 2). Hiˆe

n nhiˆen mo
.
i sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a d˜ay v´o
.
i sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u le’
dˆe
`
u thuˆo
.
c khoa’ ng (−2, 2) v`ı khi n le’ th`ı ta c´o:
n
(−1)
n
= n
−1
= 1/n ∈ (−2, 2).
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y trong kho’ng (−2, 2) c´ o vˆo sˆo´ sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a d˜ay. T` u
.
d´o,
theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa suy ra a
n
khˆong pha’ i l`a vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n.
V´ı du
.
2. D` ung di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d˜ay sˆo´ dˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng:
1) lim
n→∞
(−1)
n−1
n
= 0. 2) lim
n→∞
n
n + 1
= 1.
Gia’ i. Dˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh d˜ay a
n
c´o gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n l`a a, ta cˆ a
`
n ch´ u
.
ng minh
r˘a
`
ng dˆo´i v´ o
.
i mˆo
˜
i sˆo´ ε > 0 cho tru
.
´o
.
c c´o thˆe

t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c sˆo´ N (N phu
.
thuˆo
.
c ε) sao cho khi n > N th`ı suy ra |a
n
−a| < ε. Thˆ ong thu
.
`o
.
ng ta
c´o thˆe

chı ’ ra cˆong th´ u
.
c tu
.
`o
.
ng minh biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n N qua ε.
1) Ta c´ o:
|a
n
−0| =
¸
¸
¸
(−1)
n−1
n
¸
¸
¸ =
1
n
·
Gia’ su
.
’ ε l`a sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng cho tru
.
´o
.
c t` uy ´ y. Khi d´o:
1
n
< ε ⇔n >
1
ε
·
V`ı thˆe
´
ta c´o thˆe

lˆa´y N l`a sˆo´ tu
.
.
nhiˆen n`ao d´o tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n:
N >
1
ε

1
N
< ε.
(Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, ta c´o thˆe

lˆa´y N = [1/ε], trong d´o [1/ε] l`a phˆa
`
n nguyˆen
cu’ a 1/ε).
Khi d´o ∀n N th`ı:
|a
n
−0| =
1
n

1
N
< ε.
7.1. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ 7
Diˆe
`
u d´o c´o ngh˜ıa l`a lim
n→∞
(−1)
n
n
= 0.
2) Ta lˆa´y sˆo´ ε > 0 bˆa´t k` y v` a t`ım sˆo´ tu
.
.
nhiˆen N(ε) sao cho ∀n >
N(ε) th`ı:
¸
¸
¸
n
n + 1
−1
¸
¸
¸ < ε.
Bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
|a
n
−1| < ε ⇔
1
n + 1
< ε ⇔
1
ε
−1.
Do d´o ta c´o thˆe

lˆa´y sˆo´ N(ε) l`a phˆa
`
n nguyˆen cu’ a
1
ε
−1, t´ u
.
c l`a:
N(ε) = E((1/ε) −1).
Khi d´o v´o
.
i mo
.
i n N ta c´ o:
¸
¸
¸
n
n + 1
−1
¸
¸
¸ =
1
n + 1

1
N + 1
< ε ⇒ lim
n→∞
n
n + 1
= 1.
V´ı du
.
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng c´ac d˜ay sau dˆay phˆan k` y:
1) a
n
= n, n ∈ N (7.6)
2) a
n
= (−1)
n
, n ∈ N (7.7)
3) a
n
= (−1)
n
+
1
n
· (7.8)
Gia’ i. 1) Gia’ su
.
’ d˜ay (7.6) hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a c´o gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n l`a a. Ta lˆa´y ε = 1.
Khi d´o theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u N sao cho ∀n > N th`ı
ta c´o |a
n
−a| < 1 ngh˜ıa l`a |n−a| < 1 ∀n > N. T` u
.
d´o −1 < n−a < 1
∀n > N ⇔ a −1 < n < a + 1 ∀n > N.
Nhu
.
ng bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c n < a + 1, ∀n > N l`a vˆo l´ y v`ı tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac
sˆo´ tu
.
.
nhiˆen khˆong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n.
2) C´ach 1. Gia’ su
.
’ d˜ay a
n
hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n l`a a. Ta lˆa´y lˆan
cˆa
.
n
_
a −
1
2
, a +
1
2
_
cu’ a diˆe

m a. Ta viˆe
´
t d˜ay d˜a cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng:
{a
n
} = −1, 1, −1, 1, . . . . (7.9)
8 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
V`ı dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a khoa’ ng
_
a −
1
2
, a +
1
2
_
l`a b˘a
`
ng 1 nˆen hai diˆe

m −1
v`a +1 khˆong thˆe

dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i thuˆo
.
c lˆan cˆa
.
n
_
a −
1
2
, a +
1
2
_
cu’ a diˆe

m a,
v`ı khoa’ ng c´ach gi˜ u
.
a −1 v`a +1 b˘a
`
ng 2. Diˆe
`
u d´o c´o ngh˜ıa l`a o
.
’ ngo`ai
lˆan cˆa
.
n
_
a −
1
2
, a +
1
2
_
c´o vˆo sˆo´ sˆo´ ha
.
ng cu’ a d˜ay v`a v`ı thˆe
´
(xem ch´ u
´ y o
.
’ trˆen) sˆo´ a khˆong thˆe

l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay.
C´ach 2. Gia’ su
.
’ a
n
→ a. Khi d´o ∀ε > 0 (lˆa´y ε =
1
2
) ta c´o
|a
n
−a| <
1
2
∀n N.
V`ı a
n
= ±1 nˆen
|1 −a| <
1
2
, | −1 −a| <
1
2
⇒2 = |(1 −a) + (1 + a)| |1 −a| +|a + 1|
1
2
+
1
2
= 1
⇒2 < 1, vˆo l´ y.
3) Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng v´o
.
i n = 2m ⇒ a
2m
= 1 +
1
2m
. Sˆo´ ha
.
ng kˆe
`
v´o
.
i n´o
c´o sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u le’ 2m + 1 (hay 2m−1) v`a
a
2m+1
= −1 +
1
2m + 1
< 0 (hay a
2m−1
= −1 +
1
2m−1
0).
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
|a
n
−a
n−1
| > 1.
Nˆe
´
u sˆo´ a n`ao d´o l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay (a
n
) th`ı b˘a
´
t dˆa
`
u t` u
.
sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u n`ao
d´o (a
n
) tho’a m˜an bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c |a
n
−a| <
1
2
. Khi d´o
|a
n
−a
n+1
| |a
n
−a| +|a
n+1
−a| <
1
2
+
1
2
= 1.
Nhu
.
ng hiˆe
.
u gi˜ u
.
a hai sˆo´ ha
.
ng kˆe
`
nhau bˆa´t k` y cu’ a d˜ay d˜a cho luˆon luˆon
l´o
.
n ho
.
n 1. Diˆe
`
u mˆau thuˆa
˜
n n`ay ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng khˆong mˆo
.
t sˆo´ thu
.
.
c
n`ao c´o thˆe

l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay d˜a cho.
7.1. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ 9
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
H˜ay su
.
’ du
.
ng di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n dˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
1. lim
n→∞
a
n
= 1 nˆe
´
u a
n
=
2n −1
2n + 2
2. lim
n→∞
a
n
=
3
5
nˆe
´
u a
n
=
3n
2
+ 1
5n
2
−1
B˘a
´
t dˆa
`
u t` u
.
sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u N n`ao th`ı:
|a
n
−3/5| < 0, 01 (DS. N = 5)
3. lim
n→∞
a
n
= 1 nˆe
´
u a
n
=
3
n
+ 1
3
n
.
4. lim
n→∞
cos n
n
= 0.
5. lim
n→∞
2
n
+ 5 · 6
n
3
n
+ 6
n
= 5.
6. lim
n→∞
3

n
2
sinn
2
n + 1
= 0.
7. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng sˆo´ a = 0 khˆong pha’ i l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay a
n
=
n
2
−2
2n
2
−9
.
8. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
lim
n→∞
n
2
+ 2n + 1 + sinn
n
2
+ n + 1
= 1.
9. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay: a
n
= (−1)
n
+ 1/n phˆan k` y.
10. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay; a
n
= sinn
0
phˆan k` y.
11. T`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay: 0, 2; 0, 22; 0, 222; . . . , 0, 22 . . . 2
. ¸¸ .
n
, . . .
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n a
n
du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
a
n
= 0, 22 . . . 2 =
2
10
+
2
10
2
+· · · +
2
10
n
(DS. lima
n
= 2/9)
10 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
12. T`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´:
0, 2; 0, 23; 0, 233; 0, 2333; . . . , 0, 2 33 . . . 3
. ¸¸ .
n
, . . .
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n a
n
du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
a
n
=
2
10
+
_
3
10
2
+
3
10
3
+· · · +
3
10
n
_
(DS. 7/30)
13. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u d˜ay a
n
hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n a, c`on d˜ay b
n
dˆa
`
n dˆe
´
n
∞ th`ı d˜ay a
n
/b
n
dˆa
`
n dˆe
´
n 0.
14. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
i) lim
n→∞
n
2
n
= 0.
ii) lim
n→∞
n
a
n
= 0 (a > 1).
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. i) Su
.
’ du
.
ng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c:
2
n
= (1 + 1)
n
= 1 + n +
n(n −1)
2
+· · · + 1 > n +
n(n −1)
2
>
n
2
2
·
v`a u
.
´o
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng |a
n
−0|.
ii) Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
i). Su
.
’ du
.
ng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c:
a
n
= [1 + (a −1)]
n
>
n(n −1)
2
(a −1).
15. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
lima
n
= 2 nˆe
´
u a
n
= 1 +
1
2
+· · · +
1
2
n
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c t´ınh tˆo

ng cˆa´p sˆo´ nhˆan dˆe

t´ınh a
n
rˆo
`
i
u
.
´o
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng |a
n
−2|.
16. Biˆe
´
t r˘a
`
ng d˜ay a
n
c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n, c`on d˜ay b
n
khˆong c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n. C´o
thˆe

n´oi g`ı vˆe
`
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay:
i) {a
n
+ b
n
}.
ii) {a
n
b
n
}.
(DS. i) lim{a
n
+ b
n
} khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i. H˜ ay ch´ u
.
ng minh.
7.1. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ 11
ii) C´o thˆe

g˘a
.
p ca’ hai tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p c´o gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n v`a khˆong c´ o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n,
v´ı du
.
:
a
n
=
n −1
n
, b
n
= (−1)
n
; a
n
=
1
n
, b
n
= (−1)
n
.
7.1.2 Ch´ u
.
ng minh su
.
.
hˆ o
.
i tu
.
cu’ a d˜ay sˆ o
´
du
.
.
a trˆen
c´ac di
.
nh l´ y vˆe
`
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
Dˆe

t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´, ngu
.
`o
.
i ta thu
.
`o
.
ng su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac di
.
nh l´ y v`a
kh´ai niˆe
.
m sau dˆay:
Gia’ su
.
’ lima
n
= a, limb
n
= b.
i) lim(a
n
±b
n
) = lima
n
±limb
n
= a ±b.
ii) lima
n
b
n
= lima
n
· limb
n
= a · b.
iii) Nˆe
´
u b = 0 th`ı b˘a
´
t dˆa
`
u t` u
.
mˆo
.
t sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u n`ao d´o d˜ay a
n
/b
n
x´ac
di
.
nh (ngh˜ıa l`a ∃N : ∀n N ⇒ b
n
= 0) v`a:
lim
a
n
b
n
=
lima
n
limb
n
=
a
b
·
iv) Nˆe
´
u lima
n
= a, limb
n
= a v`a b˘a
´
t dˆa
`
u t` u
.
mˆo
.
t sˆo´ hiˆe
.
u n`ao d´o
a
n
z
n
b
n
th`ı limz
n
= a (Nguyˆen l´ y bi
.
ch˘a
.
n hai phi´a).
v) T´ıch cu’ a d˜ay vˆo c` ung b´e v´o
.
i d˜ay bi
.
ch˘a
.
n l`a d˜ay vˆo c` ung b´e.
vi) Nˆe
´
u (a
n
) l`a d˜ay vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n v`a a
n
= 0 th`ı d˜ay
_
1
a
n
_
l`a d˜ay vˆo
c` ung b´e; ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i, nˆe
´
u α
n
l`a d˜ay vˆo c` ung b´e v`a α
n
= 0 th`ı d˜ay
_
1
α
n
_
l`a vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Dˆe

´ap du
.
ng d´ ung d˘a
´
n c´ac di
.
nh l´ y trˆen ta cˆa
`
n lu
.
u ´ y mˆo
.
t
sˆo´ nhˆa
.
n x´et sau dˆay:
i) Di
.
nh l´ y (iii) vˆe
`
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a thu
.
o
.
ng s˜e khˆong ´ap du
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c nˆe
´
u
tu
.
’ sˆo´ v`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ khˆong c´o gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n ho˘a
.
c mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
b˘a
`
ng 0. Trong nh˜ u
.
ng tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p d´o nˆen biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
bˆo
.
d˜ay thu
.
o
.
ng,
ch˘a

ng ha
.
n b˘a
`
ng c´ach chia ho˘a
.
c nhˆan tu
.
’ sˆo´ v`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ v´o
.
i c` ung mˆo
.
t
biˆe

u th´ u
.
c.
12 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
ii) Dˆo´i v´o
.
i di
.
nh l´ y (i) v`a (ii) c˜ ung cˆa
`
n pha’ i thˆa
.
n tro
.
ng khi ´ap du
.
ng.
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay ta cˆa
`
n pha’ i biˆe
´
n dˆo

i c´ac biˆe

u th´ u
.
c a
n
± b
n
v`a
a
n
· b
n
tru
.
´o
.
c khi t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n (xem v´ı du
.
1, iii).
iii) Nˆe
´
u a
n
= a ≡ const ∀n th`ı lim
n→∞
a
n
= a.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım lima
n
nˆe
´
u:
1) a
n
= (1 + 7
n+2
)/(3 −7
n
)
2) a
n
= (2 + 4 + 6 +· · · + 2n)/[1 + 3 + 5 +· · · + (2n + 1)]
3) a
n
= n
3
/(1
2
+ 2
2
+· · · + n
2
)
Gia’ i. Dˆe

gia’ i c´ac b`ai to´an n`ay ta d` ung l´ y thuyˆe
´
t cˆ a´p sˆo´
1) Nhˆan tu
.
’ sˆo´ v`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ phˆan th´ u
.
c v´o
.
i 7
−n
ta c´o:
a
n
=
1 + 7
n+2
3 −7
n
=
7
−n
+ 7
2
3 · 7
−n
−1
Do d´o
lima
n
= lim
7
−n
+ 7
2
3 · 7
−n
−1
= −49 v`ı lim7
−n
= 0, n →∞.
2) Tu
.
’ sˆo´ v`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ dˆe
`
u l`a cˆa´p sˆo´ cˆo
.
ng nˆen ta c´o:
2 + 4 + 6 +· · · + 2n =
2 + 2n
2
· n;
1 + 3 + 5 +· · · + (2n + 1) =
1 + (2n + 2)
2
(n + 1).
Do d´o
a
n
=
n
n + 1
⇒ lima
n
= 1.
3) Nhu
.
ta biˆe
´
t:
1
2
+ 2
2
+· · · + n
2
=
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
6
7.1. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ 13
v`a do d´o:
lima
n
= lim
6n
3
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
= lim
6
(1 + 1/n)(2 + 1/n)
= 3.
V´ı du
.
2. T`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
lim
1 +
1
2
+
1
4
+· · · +
1
2
n
1 +
1
3
+
1
9
+· · · +
1
3
n
Gia’ i. Tu
.
’ sˆo´ v`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ dˆe
`
u l`a cˆa´p sˆo´ nhˆan nˆen
1 +
1
2
+· · · +
1
2
n
=
2(2
n
−1)
2
n
,
1 +
1
3
+· · · +
1
3
n
=
3(3
n
−1)
2 · 3
n
v`a do d´o:
lima
n
= lim
2(2
n
−1)
2
n
·
2 · 3
n
3(3
n
−1)
= 2 lim
2
n
−1
2
n
·
2
3
lim
3
n
3
n
−1
= 2 lim[1 −(1/2)
n
] ·
2
3
lim
1
1 −(1/3)
n
= 2 · 1 ·
2
3
· 1 =
4
3
·
V´ı du
.
3.
1) a
n
=

n
2
+ n −n
2) a
n
=
3

n + 2 −
3

n
3) a
n
=
3

n
2
−n
3
+ n
Gia’ i.
1) Ta biˆe
´
n dˆo

i a
n
b˘a
`
ng c´ach nhˆan v`a chia cho da
.
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng liˆen ho
.
.
p
a
n
=
(

n
2
+ n −n)(

n
2
+ n + n)

n
2
+ n + n
=
n

n
2
+ n + n
=
1
_
1 + 1/n + 1
Do d´o
lima
n
=
1
lim
n→∞
(
_
1 + 1/n + 1)
=
1
2
·
14 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
2) Biˆe
´
n dˆo

i a
n
tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
1) ta c´o:
a
n
=
_
3

n + 2
_
3

_
3

n
_
3
_
3

n + 2
_
2
+
3

n + 2 ·
3

n +
_
3

n
_
2
a
n
=
2
_
3

n + 2
_
2
+
3

n + 2 ·
3

n +
_
3

n
_
2
Biˆe

u th´ u
.
c mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ b˘a
`
ng:
n
2/3
__
3
_
1 + 2/n
_
2
+
3
_
1 + 2/n + 1
¸
→ ∞
khi n → ∞ v`a do d´o lima
n
= 0.
3) Ta c´ o thˆe

viˆe
´
t n =
3

n
3
v`a ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c:
a
3
+ b
3
= (a + b)(a
2
−ab + b
2
)
suy ra
a
n
=
_
3

n
2
−n
3
+ n
___
3

n
2
−n
3
_
2
−n
3

n
2
−n
3
+ n
2
¸
_
3

n
2
−n
3
_
2
−n
3

n
2
−n
3
+ n
2
=
n
2
_
3

n
2
−n
3
_
2
−n
3

n
2
−n
3
+ n
2
=
1
[1/n −1]
2/3
−[1/n −1]
1/3
+ 1
suy ra lima
n
=
1
3
·
V´ı du
.
4. T`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a c´ac d˜ay sau
a
n
=
n

n
2
+ n
, b
n
=
n

n
2
+ 1
,
c
n
=
1

n + 1
+
1

n
2
+ 2
+· · · +
1

n
2
+ n
·
Gia’ i. Dˆa
`
u tiˆen ta ch´ u
.
ng minh lima
n
= 1. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y:
lima
n
= lim
n
n
_
1 + 1/n
= lim
1
_
1 + 1/n
= 1.
7.1. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ 15
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
limb
n
= 1.
Dˆe

t`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a c
n
ta s˜e ´ap du
.
ng Nguyˆen l´ y bi
.
ch˘a
.
n hai ph´ıa.
Mˆo
.
t m˘ a
.
t ta c´o:
c
n
<
1

n
2
+ 1
+
1

n
2
+ 1
+· · · +
1

n
2
+ 1
=
n

n
2
+ 1
= b
n
nhu
.
ng m˘a
.
t kh´ac:
c
n
>
1

n
2
+ n
+
1

n
2
+ n
+· · · +
1

n
2
+ n
= a
n
.
Nhu
.
vˆ a
.
y a
n
< c
n
< b
n
v`a lim
n→∞
a
n
= lim
n→∞
b
n
= 1. T` u
.
d´o suy ra
lim
n→∞
c
n
= 1.
V´ı du
.
5. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay (q
n
) l`a: 1) d˜ay vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n nˆe
´
u
|q| > 1; 2) d˜ay vˆo c` ung b´e khi |q| < 1.
Gia’ i. 1) Gia’ su
.
’ |q| > 1. Ta lˆa´y sˆo´ A > 0 bˆa´t k` y. T` u
.
d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
|q|
n
> A ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c n > log
|q|
A. Nˆe
´
u ta lˆa´y N = [log
|q|
A] th`ı ∀n > N
ta c´o |q|
n
> A. Do d´o d˜ay (q
n
) l`a d˜ay vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n.
2) Gia’ su
.
’ |q| < 1, q = 0. Khi d´o q
n
=
__
1
q
_
n
_
−1
. V`ı
¸
¸
¸
1
q
¸
¸
¸ > 1 nˆen
d˜ay
_
_
1
q
_
n
_
l`a d˜ay vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n v`a do d´o d˜ay
__
_
1
q
_
n
_
−1
_
l`a vˆo c` ung
b´e, t´ u
.
c l`a d˜ay (q
n
) l`a d˜ay vˆo c` ung b´e khi |q| < 1.
3) Nˆe
´
u q = 0 th`ı q
n
= 0, |q|
n
< ε ∀n v`a do d´o (q
n
) l`a vˆo c` ung b´e.

B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n lim
n→∞
a
n
nˆe
´
u
1. a
n
=
n
2
−n
n −

n
. (DS. ∞)
2. a
n
= n
2
(n −

n
2
+ 1). (DS. −∞)
16 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
3. a
n
=
1 + 2 + 3 +· · · + n

9n
4
+ 1
. (DS. 1/6)
4. a
n
=

ncos n
n + 1
. (DS. 0)
5. a
n
=
5n
n + 1
+
sinn
n
. (DS. 5)
6. a
n
=
n
3
n
2
+ 1

3n
2
3n + 1
. (DS. 1/3)
7. a
n
=
n
n + 11

cos n
10n
. (DS. 1)
8. a
n
=
n
3
+ 1
n
2
−1
(DS. ∞)
9. a
n
=
cos n
3
n

3n
6n + 1
. (DS. −
1
2
)
10. a
n
=
(−1)
n
5

n + 1
. (DS. 0)
11. a
n
=

n
2
+ 1 +

n
3

n
3
+ n −

n
. (DS. +∞)
12. a
n
=
3

1 −n
3
+ n. (DS. 0)
13. a
n
=

n
2
+ 4n
3

n
3
−3n
2
. (DS. 1)
14. a
n
=
(n + 3)!
2(n + 1)! −(n + 2)!
. (DS. −∞)
15. a
n
=
2 + 4 +· · · + 2n
n + 2
−2. (DS. −1)
16. a
n
= n −
3

n
3
−n
2
. (DS.
1
3
)
17. a
n
=
1 −2 + 3 −4 + 5 −· · · −2n

n
2
+ 1 +

4n
2
+ 1
. (DS. −
1
3
)
18. a
n
=
1
1 · 2
+
1
2 · 3
+· · · +
1
n(n + 1)
.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n.
´
Ap du
.
ng
1
n(n + 1)
=
1
n

1
n + 1
(DS. 1)
7.1. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ 17
19. a
n
= 1 −
1
3
+
1
9

1
27
+· · · +
(−1)
n−1
3
n−1
. (DS.
3
4
)
20. a
n
=
2
n+1
+ 3
n+1
2
n
+ 3
n
. (DS. 3)
21. a
n
=
n + (−1)
n
n −(−1)
n
. (DS. 1)
22. a
n
=
_
1

n
__
1

1 +

3
+
1

3 +

5
+· · · +
1

2n −1 +

2n + 1
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Tru
.
c c˘ an th´ u
.
c o
.
’ mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ c´ac biˆe

u th´ u
.
c trong dˆa´u ngo˘a
.
c.
(DS.
1

2
)
23. a
n
=
1
1 · 2 · 3
+
1
2 · 3 · 4
+· · · +
1
n(n + 1)(n + 2)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
1
n(n + 1)(n + 2)
=
1
2
_
1
n(n + 1)

1
(n + 1)(n + 2)
_
(DS.
1
4
)
24. a
n
=
1
a
1
a
2
+
1
a
2
a
3
+· · · +
1
a
n
a
n+1
. (DS.
1
a
1
d
)
trong d´o {a
n
} l`a cˆa´p sˆo´ cˆo
.
ng v´o
.
i cˆong sai d = 0, a
n
= 0.
25. a
n
= (1 −1/4)(1 −1/9) · · · (1 −1/(n + 1)
2
). (DS.
1
2
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. B˘a
`
ng quy na
.
p to´an ho
.
c ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng a
n
=
n + 2
2n + 2
.
7.1.3 Ch´ u
.
ng minh su
.
.
hˆ o
.
i tu
.
cu’ a d˜ay sˆ o
´
du
.
.
a trˆen
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n du’ dˆe

d˜ay hˆo
.
i tu
.
(nguyˆen l´ y
Bolzano-Weierstrass)
D˜ay sˆo´ a
n
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a:
i) D˜ ay t˘ang nˆe
´
u a
n+1
> a
n
∀n
ii) D˜ ay gia’ m nˆe
´
u a
n+1
< a
n
∀n
C´ac d˜ay t˘ang ho˘a
.
c gia’ m c`on du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a d˜ay do
.
n diˆe
.
u. Ta lu
.
u ´ y
r˘a
`
ng d˜ay do
.
n diˆe
.
u bao gi`o
.
c˜ ung bi
.
ch˘a
.
n ´ıt nhˆa´t l`a mˆo
.
t ph´ıa. Nˆe
´
u d˜ay
18 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
do
.
n diˆe
.
u t˘ang th`ı n´o bi
.
ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i bo
.
’ i sˆo´ ha
.
ng dˆa
`
u tiˆen cu’ a n´o, d˜ay
do
.
n diˆe
.
u gia’ m th`ı bi
.
ch˘ a
.
n trˆen bo
.
’ i sˆo´ ha
.
ng dˆa
`
u. Ta c´o di
.
nh l´ y sau dˆay
thu
.
`o
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c su
.
’ du
.
ng dˆe

t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay do
.
n diˆe
.
u.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y Bolzano-Weierstrass. D˜ay do
.
n diˆe
.
u v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n th`ı hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
Di
.
nh l´ y n`ay kh˘a

ng di
.
nh vˆe
`
su
.
.
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i cu’ a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n m`a khˆong chı ’
ra du
.
o
.
.
c phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d´o. Tuy vˆa
.
y, trong nhiˆe
`
u tru
.
`o
.
ng
ho
.
.
p khi biˆe
´
t gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay tˆo
`
n ta
.
i, c´o thˆe

chı ’ ra phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh
n´o. Viˆe
.
c t´ınh to´an thu
.
`o
.
ng du
.
.
a trˆen d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c d´ ung v´o
.
i mo
.
i d˜ay hˆo
.
i
tu
.
:
lim
n→∞
a
n+1
= lim
n→∞
a
n
.
Khi t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n du
.
.
a trˆen d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c v` u
.
a nˆeu tiˆe
.
n lo
.
.
i ho
.
n ca’ l`a su
.

du
.
ng c´ach cho d˜ay b˘a
`
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c truy hˆo
`
i.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Ch´ u
.
nh minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay:
a
n
=
1
5 + 1
+
1
5
2
+ 1
+· · · +
1
5
n
+ 1
hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
Gia’ i. D˜ay d˜a cho do
.
n diˆe
.
u t˘ang. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y v`ı:
a
n+1
= a
n
+
1
5
n+1
+ 1
nˆen a
n+1
> a
n
.
D˜ay d˜a cho bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y:
a
n
=
1
5 + 1
+
1
5
2
+ 1
+
1
5
3
+ 1
+· · · +
1
5
n
+ 1
<
1
5
+
1
5
2
+· · · +
1
5
n
=
1
5

1
5
n+1
1 −
1
5
=
1
4
_
1 −
1
5
n
_
<
1
4
·
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y d˜ay a
n
d˜a cho do
.
n diˆe
.
u t˘ang v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen nˆen n´o hˆo
.
i
tu
.
.
7.1. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ 19
V´ı du
.
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay a
n
=
2
n
n!
hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a t`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a
n´o.
Gia’ i. D˜ay d˜a cho c´ o da
.
ng
2
1
,
2
2
2
, . . . ,
2
n
n!
, . . .
D˜ay a
n
do
.
n diˆe
.
u gia’ m. Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y
a
n+1
a
n
=
2
n+1
(n + 1)!
:
2
n
n!
=
2
n + 1
< 1 ∀n > 1.
Do d´o a
n+1
< a
n
v`a d˜ay bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen bo
.
’ i phˆa
`
n tu
.
’ a
1
. Ngo`ai ra
a
n
> 0, ∀n nˆen d˜ay bi
.
ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i. Do d´o d˜ay do
.
n diˆe
.
u gia’ m v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n. N´ o hˆo
.
i tu
.
theo di
.
nh l´ y Weierstrass. Gia’ su
.
’ a l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a n´o.
Ta c´o:
a
n+1
a
n
=
2
n + 1
⇒a
n+1
=
2
n + 1
a
n
.
T` u
.
d´o
lima
n+1
= lim
2a
n
n + 1
= lim
2
n + 1
lima
n
v`a nhu
.
vˆa
.
y: a = 0 · a →a = 0. Vˆa
.
y: lim
2
n
n!
= 0.
V´ı du
.
3. Cho d˜ay a
n
=

2, a
n+1
=

2a
n
. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay hˆo
.
i
tu
.
v`a t`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a n´o.
Gia’ i. Hiˆe

n nhiˆen r˘a
`
ng: a
1
< a
2
< a
3
< · · · < . D´o l`a d˜ay do
.
n diˆe
.
u
t˘ang v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i bo
.
’ i sˆo´

2. Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng n´o bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen
bo
.
’ i sˆo´ 2.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y
a
1
=

2; a
2
=

2a
1
<

2 · 2 = 2.
Gia’ su
.
’ d˜a ch´ u
.
ng minh du
.
o
.
.
c r˘a
`
ng a
n
2.
Khi d´o:
a
n+1
=

2a
n


2 · 2 = 2.
20 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
Vˆa
.
y theo tiˆen dˆe
`
quy na
.
p ta c´ o a
n
2 ∀n.
Nhu
.
thˆe
´
d˜ay a
n
do
.
n diˆe
.
u t˘ang v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n nˆen n´o c´ o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d´o
l`a a.
Ta c´o:
a
n+1
=

2a
n
⇒a
2
n+1
= 2a
n
.
Do d´o:
lima
2
n+1
= 2 lima
n
hay a
2
−2a = 0 v`a thu du
.
o
.
.
c a
1
= 0, a
2
= 2.
V`ı d˜ay do
.
n diˆe
.
u t˘ang ∀n nˆen gi´o
.
i ha
.
n a = 2.
V´ı du
.
4. Ch´ u
.
ng minh t´ınh hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a t`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay
x
1
=

a; x
2
=
_
a +

a, . . . ,
x
n
=
_
a +
_
a +· · · +

a, a > 0, n dˆa´u c˘an.
Gia’ i. i) R˜ o r`ang: x
1
< x
2
< x
3
< · · · < x
n
< x
n+1
< . . . ngh˜ıa l`a
d˜ay d˜a cho l`a d˜ay t˘ang.
ii) Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh d˜ay x
n
l`a d˜ay bi
.
ch˘a
.
n. Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y, ta c´o:
x
1
=

a <

a + 1
x
2
=
_
a +

a <
_
a +

a + 1 <
_
a + 2

a + 1 =

a + 1.
Gia’ su
.
’ d˜a ch´ u
.
ng minh du
.
o
.
.
c r˘a
`
ng: x
n
<

a + 1.
Ta cˆa
`
n ch´ u
.
ng minh x
n+1
<

a + 1. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, ta c´o:
x
n+1
=

a + x
n
<
_
a +

a + 1 <
_
a + 2

a + 1 =

a + 1.
Do d´o nh`o
.
ph´ep quy na
.
p to´an ho
.
c ta d˜a ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay d˜a
cho bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen bo
.
’ i

a + 1.
7.1. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ 21
iii) Dˆe

t`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n ta x´et hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c x
n
=

a + x
n−1
hay
x
2
n
= a + x
n−1
.
T` u
.
d´o:
limx
2
n
= lim(a + x
n−1
) = a + limx
n−1
hay nˆe
´
u gia’ thiˆe
´
t limx
n
= A th`ı: A
2
= a + A → A
2
−A−a = 0 v`a
A
1
=
1 +

1 + 4a
2
, A
2
=
1 −

1 + 4a
2
·
V`ı A
2
< 0 nˆen gi´a tri
.
A
2
bi
.
loa
.
i v`ı x
n
> 0.
Do d´o;
limx
n
=
1 +

1 + 4a
2
·
V´ı du
.
5. T`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay a
n
du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh nhu
.
sau: a
1
l`a sˆo´
t` uy ´ y m`a
0 < a
1
< 1, a
n+1
= a
n
(2 −a
n
) ∀n 1. (7.10)
Gia’ i. i) Dˆa
`
u tiˆen ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng a
n
bi
.
ch˘a
.
n, m`a cu
.
thˆe

l`a b˘a
`
ng
ph´ep quy na
.
p to´an ho
.
c ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
0 < a
n
< 1. (7.11)
Ta c´o 0 < a
1
< 1. Gia’ su
.
’ (7.11) d˜a du
.
o
.
.
c ch´ u
.
ng minh v´o
.
i n v`a ta
s˜e ch´ u
.
ng minh (7.11) d´ ung v´o
.
i n + 1 .
T` u
.
(7.10) ta c´o; a
n+1
= 1 −(1 −a
n
)
2
.
T` u
.
hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c n`ay suy ra 0 < (1 −a
n
)
2
< 1, v`ı 0 < a
n
< 1.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra: 0 < a
n+1
< 1 ∀n.
ii) Bˆ ay gi`o
.
ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng a
n
l`a d˜ay t˘ang.
Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, v`ı a
n
< 1 nˆen 2 − a
n
> 1. Chia (7.10) cho a
n
ta thu
du
.
o
.
.
c:
a
n+1
a
n
= 2 −a
n
> 1.
22 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
T` u
.
d´o a
n+1
> a
n
∀n. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y d˜ay a
n
do
.
n diˆe
.
u t˘ang v`a bi
.
ch˘a
.
n.
Do d´o theo di
.
nh l´ y Weierstrass, limA
n
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i v`a ta k´ y hiˆe
.
u n´o l`a a.
iii) T` u
.
(7.10) ta c´o:
lima
n+1
= lima
n
· lim(2 −a
n
)
hay a = a(2 −a).
T` u
.
d´o a = 0 v`a a = 1. V`ı x
1
> 0 v`a d˜ay a
n
t˘ang nˆen
a = 1 = lima
n
.
V´ı du
.
6. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay a
n
=
n!
n
n
hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a t`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a
n´o.
Gia’ i. i) Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay a
n
do
.
n diˆe
.
u gia’ m, thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y:
a
n+1
=
(n + 1)!
(n + 1)
n+1
=
n!
(n + 1)
n
=
n!
n
n
·
n
n
(n + 1)
n
=
n
n
(n + 1)
n
a
n
v`ı
n
n
(n + 1)
n
< 1 nˆen a
n+1
< a
n
.
V`ı a
n
> 0 nˆen n´o bi
.
ch˘a
.
n du
.
´o
.
i v` a do d´o lima
n
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i, k´ y hiˆe
.
u
lima
n
= a v`a r˜o r`ang l`a a = lima
n
0.
ii) Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh a = 0. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y ta c´ o:
(n + 1)
n
n
n
=
_
n + 1
n
_
n
=
_
1 +
1
n
_
n
1 +
n
n
= 2.
Do d´o:
n
n
(n + 1)
n
<
1
2
v`a a
n+1
<
1
2
a
n
.
Chuyˆe

n qua gi´o
.
i ha
.
n ta du
.
o
.
.
c a
a
2
⇒ a = 0.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
7.1. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ 23
1. Cho c´ ac d˜ay sˆo´:
1) a
n
=
5n
2
n
2
+ 3
· 2) b
n
= (−1)
n
2n
n + 1
sinn. 3) c
n
= ncos πn.
H˜ay chı ’ ra d˜ay n`ao bi
.
ch˘a
.
n v`a d˜ay n`ao khˆong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n.
(DS. 1) v`a 2) bi
.
ch˘a
.
n; 3) khˆong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n)
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay:
a
1
=
a
0
a + a
0
, a
2
=
a
1
a + a
1
, a
3
=
a
2
a + a
2
, . . . ,
a
n
=
a
n−1
a + a
n−1
, . . . (a > 1, a
0
> 0)
hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ac d˜ay sau dˆay hˆo
.
i tu
.
1) a
n
=
n
2
−1
n
2
2) a
n
= 2 +
1
2!
+
1
3!
+· · · +
1
n!
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. T´ınh bi
.
ch˘a
.
n du
.
o
.
.
c suy t` u
.
n! 2
n−1
v`a do d´o
a
n
2 +
1
2
+
1
2
2
+· · · +
1
2
n−1
= 3 −
1
2
n−1
< 3.
4. Ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ac d˜ay sau dˆay hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a t`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n a cu’ a ch´ ung
1) a
1
=
k

5, a
n+1
=
k

5a
n
, k ∈ N. (DS.
k−1

5)
2) a
n
=
2
n
(n + 2)!
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n.
a
n+1
a
n
=
2
n + 3
< 1. (DS. a = 0)
3) a
n
=
E(nx)
n
trong d´o E(nx) l`a phˆa
`
n nguyˆen cu’ a nx.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c: nx−1 < E(nx) nx. (DS. a = x)
5. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay: a
n
= a
1/2
n
hˆo
.
i tu
.
v`a t`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a n´o
(a > 1).
24 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
(DS. a = 1. Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng a
n
l`a d˜ay do
.
n diˆe
.
u gia’ m
v`ı
a
n+1
= a
1/2
n+1
= a
1/(2
n
·2)
=

a
n
, a
n
> 1)
6. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay
a
n
= 1 +
1
2
2
+
1
3
2
+· · · +
1
n
2
hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng d˜ay do
.
n diˆe
.
u t˘ang, t´ınh bi
.
ch˘a
.
n cu’ a n´o
du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac lˆa
.
p b˘a
`
ng c´ach su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c:
1
n
2
<
1
n(n −1)
=
1
n −1

1
n
, n 2.
7. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay
a
n
=
1
3 + 1
+
1
3
2
+ 2
+· · · +
1
3
n
+ n
c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. T´ınh bi
.
ch˘a
.
n cu’ a a
n
du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac lˆa
.
p b˘a
`
ng c´ach so s´anh a
n
v´o
.
i tˆo

ng mˆo
.
t cˆ a´p sˆo´ nhˆan n`ao d´o.
8. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay
_
_
1 +
1
n
_
n+1
_
do
.
n diˆe
.
u gia’ m v`a
lim
n→∞
_
1 +
1
n
_
n+1
= e.
9. T´ınh lim
n→∞
a
n
, nˆe
´
u
1) a
n
=
_
1 +
1
n + k
_
n
, k ∈ N. (DS. e)
2) a
n
=
_
n
n + 1
_
n
. (DS.
1
e
)
3) a
n
=
_
1 +
1
2n
_
n
. (DS.

e)
4) a
n
=
_
2
n
+ 1
2
n
_
2
n
. (DS. e)
7.1. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a d˜ay sˆo´ 25
7.1.4 Ch´ u
.
ng minh su
.
.
hˆ o
.
i tu
.
cu’ a d˜ay sˆ o
´
du
.
.
a trˆen
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n v`a du’ dˆe

d˜ay hˆo
.
i tu
.
(nguyˆen
l´ y hˆo
.
i tu
.
Bolzano-Cauchy)
Trˆen dˆay ta d˜a nˆeu hai phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap ch´ u
.
ng minh su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a d˜ay.
Hai phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap n`ay khˆong ´ap du
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac d˜ay khˆ ong do
.
n
diˆe
.
u du
.
o
.
.
c cho khˆong b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap gia’ i t´ıch m`a du
.
o
.
.
c cho b˘a
`
ng
phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap kh´ac (ch˘a

ng ha
.
n b˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap truy hˆo
`
i). M˘a
.
t
kh´ac, trong nhiˆe
`
u tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p ngu
.
`o
.
i ta chı ’ quan tˆam dˆe
´
n su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
hay phˆ an k` y cu’ a d˜ay m`a thˆoi. Sau dˆay ta ph´at biˆe

u mˆo
.
t tiˆeu chuˆa

n
c´o t´ınh chˆa´t “nˆo
.
i ta
.
i” cho ph´ep kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a d˜ay chı ’ du
.
.
a
trˆen gi´ a tri
.
cu’ a c´ac sˆ o´ ha
.
ng cu’ a d˜ay:
Nguyˆen l´ y hˆo
.
i tu
.
. D˜ay (a
n
) c´ o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n khi v`a chı ’ khi n´o
tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n:
∀ε > 0, ∃N
0
= N
0
(ε) ∈ N : ∀n > N
0
v`a ∀p ∈ N
⇒ |a
n
−a
n+p
| < ε.
T` u
.
nguyˆen l´ y hˆo
.
i tu
.
r´ ut ra: D˜ay (a
n
) khˆong c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n khi v`a chı ’
khi n´o tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n:
∃ε > 0, ∀N ∈ N ∃n N ∃m N → |a
n
−a
m
| ε.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay
a
n
=
cos 1
3
+
cos 2
3
2
+· · · +
cos n
3
n
, n ∈ N
hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
26 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
Gia’ i. Ta u
.
´o
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng hiˆe
.
u
|a
n+p
−a
n
| =
¸
¸
¸
cos(n + 1)
3
n+1
+· · · +
cos(n + p)
3
n+p
¸
¸
¸

1
3
n+1
+· · · +
1
3
n+p
=
1
3
n+1
1 −
1
3
p
1 −
1
3
<
1
2
·
1
3
n
<
1
3
n
·
Gia’ su
.
’ ε l`a sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng t` uy ´ y. V`ı lim
n→∞
1
3
n
= 0 nˆen v´o
.
i sˆo´ ε > 0 d´o,
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i sˆo´ N ∈ N sao cho ∀n N ta c´o
1
3
n
< ε. Ngh˜ıa l`a nˆe
´
u n N,
c`on p l`a sˆo´ tu
.
.
nhiˆen t` uy ´ y th`ı
|a
n+p
−a
n
| <
1
3
n
< ε.
Do d´o theo tiˆeu chuˆa

n hˆo
.
i tu
.
d˜ay d˜a cho hˆo
.
i tu
.
.
V´ı du
.
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng d˜ay
a
n
=
1

1
+
1

2
+· · · +
1

n
phˆan k` y.
Gia’ i. Ta u
.
´o
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng hiˆe
.
u
|a
n
−a
n+p
| =
¸
¸
¸
1

n + 1
+
1

n + 2
+· · · +
1

n + p
¸
¸
¸

p

n + p
∀n, p ∈ N.
D˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t v´o
.
i p = n ta c´o
|a
n
−a
2n
|

n

2

1

2
∀n. (*)
Ta lˆa´y ε =
1

2
. Khi d´o ∀N ∈ N tˆo
`
n ta
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng gi´a tri
.
n > N v`a
∃p ∈ N sao cho |a
n
−a
n+p
| ε. Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y, theo bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (*) ta
7.2. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n 27
chı ’ cˆa
`
n lˆa´y sˆo´ n > N bˆa´t k` y v`a p = n. T` u
.
d´o theo mˆe
.
nh dˆe
`
phu’ di
.
nh
nguyˆen l´ y hˆo
.
i tu
.
ta c´o d˜ay d˜a cho phˆan k` y.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Su
.
’ du
.
ng tiˆeu chuˆa

n hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh su
.
.
hˆo
.
i tu
.
cu’ a d˜ay (a
n
)
nˆe
´
u
1. a
n
=
n

k=1
sin nα
2
n
, α ∈ R.
2. a
n
=
n

k=1
a
k
q
k
, |q| < 1, |a
k
| < M ∀k, M > 0.
3. a
n
=
n

k=1
(−1)
k−1
k(k + 1)
·
4. a
n
=
n

k=1
(−1)
k
k!
·
5. a
n
= 0, 77 . . . 7
. ¸¸ .
nch˜ u
.
sˆo´
.
6. a
n
=
n

k=1
1
2
k
+ k
·
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng c´ac d˜ay sau dˆay phˆan k` y:
7. a
n
= 1 +
1
2
+· · · +
1
n
, n ∈ N.
8. a
n
=
1
ln2
+
1
ln3
+· · · +
1
lnn
, n = 2, . . .
7.2 Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
7.2.1 C´ac kh´ai niˆe
.
m v`a di
.
nh l´ y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
Di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a c´ac h`am dˆo´i v´ o
.
i n˘am tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p: x → a,
x → a ±0, x → ±∞ du
.
o
.
.
c ph´at biˆe

u nhu
.
sau.
28 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
1) Sˆo´ A du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a h`am f(x) ta
.
i diˆe

m a (khi x →a)
nˆe
´
u ∀ε > 0 b´e bao nhiˆeu t` uy ´ y t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c sˆo´ δ = δ(ε) > 0 (∃δ = δ(ε) >
0) sao cho ∀x m`a
x ∈ D
f
∩ {x; 0 < |x −a| < δ(ε)}
th`ı
|f(x) −A| < ε.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u: lim
x→a
f(x) = A.
2) Sˆo´ A du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bˆen pha’ i (bˆen tr´ai) cu’ a h`am f(x) ta
.
i
diˆe

m x = a nˆe
´
u ∀ε > 0, ∃δ = δ(ε) > 0 sao cho v´o
.
i mo
.
i x tho’a m˜an
diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
x ∈ D
f
∩ {x : a < x < a + δ} (x ∈ D
f
∩ {x : a −δ < x < a})
th`ı
|f(x) −A| < ε.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u:
lim
x→a+0
f(x) = f(a + 0)
_
lim
x→a−0
f(x) = f(a −0)
_
.
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
:
3) lim
x→+∞
f(x) = A ⇔ ∀ε > 0 ∃∆ > 0 : ∀x ∈ D
f
∩ {x : x > ∆}
⇒|f(x) −A| < ε.
Di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n khi x → −∞ du
.
o
.
.
c ph´at biˆe

u tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
.
4) Nˆe
´
u lim
x→+∞
f(x) = lim
x→−∞
f(x) = A th`ı ngu
.
`o
.
i ta viˆe
´
t
lim
x→∞
f(x) = A.
7.2. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n 29
Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p d˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t nˆe
´
u A = 0 th`ı h`am f(x) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a h`am vˆo
c` ung b´e khi x → a (x → a ±0, x → ±∞).
Kh´ai niˆe
.
m h`am vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n ta
.
i diˆe

m a c˜ ung du
.
o
.
.
c ph´at biˆe

u dˆo´i
v´o
.
i ca’ n˘am tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p.
Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n, h`am f(x) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a h`am vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n ta
.
i diˆe

m a nˆe
´
u
∀M > 0 ∃δ = δ(M) > 0 : ∀x ∈ D
f
∩ {x : 0 < |x −a| < δ}
⇒ |f(x)| > M.
Ngo` ai ra, nˆe
´
u f(x) > 0 (f(x) < 0) ∀x ∈ D
f
∩{x : 0 < |x−a| < δ}
th`ı ta viˆe
´
t
lim
x→a
f(x) = +∞
_
lim
x→a
f(x) = −∞
_
.
Ta lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng c´ac k´ y hiˆe
.
u v` u
.
a nˆeu chı ’ ch´ u
.
ng to’ f(x) l`a vˆo c` ung
l´o
.
n ch´ u
.
ho`an to`an khˆong c´o ngh˜ıa r˘a
`
ng f c´o gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n.
Khi t´ınh gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n ta thu
.
`o
.
ng su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac diˆe
`
u kh˘a

ng di
.
nh sau dˆay.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 7.2.1. Nˆe
´
u c´ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n lim
x→a
f
1
(x), lim
x→a
f
2
(x) tˆo
`
n ta
.
i h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n
th`ı
1) lim
x→a
[f
1
(x) + f
2
(x)] = lim
x→a
f
1
(x) + lim
x→a
f
2
(x)
2) lim
x→a
[f
1
(x) · f
2
(x)] = lim
x→a
f
1
(x) · lim
x→a
f
2
(x)
3) Nˆe
´
u lim
x→a
f
2
(x) = 0 th`ı lim
x→a
f
1
(x)
f
2
(x)
=
lim
x→a
f
1
(x)
lim
x→a
f
2
(x)
4) Nˆe
´
u trong lˆan cˆ a
.
n U(a; δ) = {x : 0 < |x − a| < δ} ta c´o
f
1
(x) f(x) f
2
(x) v`a lim
x→a
f
1
(x) = lim
x→a
f
2
(x) = A th`ı lim
x→a
f(x) = A
(nguyˆen l´y bi
.
ch˘a
.
n hai phi´ a).
Di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h`am sˆo´ c´o thˆe

ph´at biˆe

u du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng ngˆon ng˜ u
.
d˜ay nhu
.
sau.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 7.2.2. Gia’ su
.
’ D ⊂ R, a ∈ R l`a diˆe

m tu
.
cu’ a n´o; A ∈ R,
f : D →R. Khi d´o
lim
x→a
f(x) = A
30 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
khi v`a chı ’ khi ∀(a
n
), a
n
∈ D \ {a}, a
n
→ a
f(a
n
) →A
T` u
.
d´o dˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh mˆo
.
t h`am n`ao d´o khˆong c´o gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n khi x → a,
ta chı ’ cˆa
`
n ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng ∃(a
n
), ∃(a

n
) dˆe
`
u hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n a nhu
.
ng
lim
x→a
f(a
n
) = lim
x→a
f

(a
n
).
C´ac di
.
nh l´ y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d˜a ph´at biˆe

u trˆen dˆay khˆong ´ap
du
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n sau dˆay khi x → a, a ∈ R.
1) lim
x→a
[f(x)+g(x)]; f, g l`a c´ ac vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n (vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “∞±∞”).
2) lim
x→a
f(x)
g(x)
; f, g ho˘a
.
c dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i l`a hai vˆo c` ung b´e, ho˘a
.
c dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i
l`a hai vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n (vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “0/0” ho˘a
.
c “∞/∞”).
3) lim
x→a
f(x)· g(x); f l`a vˆo c` ung b´e, c` on g l`a vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n ho˘a
.
c ngu
.
o
.
.
c
la
.
i (vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “0 · ∞”).
4) lim
x→a
_
f(x)
¸
g(x)
:
a) khi f(x) →1, g(x) → ∞ (vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “1

”)
b) khi f(x) → 0, g(x) →0 (vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “0
0
”)
c) khi f(x) → ∞, g(x) →0 (vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “∞
0
”)
Viˆe
.
c t´ınh gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n trong c´ac tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay thu
.
`o
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i
l`a khu
.
’ da
.
ng vˆo di
.
nh. Trong nhiˆe
`
u tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p khi t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n ta
thu
.
`o
.
ng su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n quan tro
.
ng sau dˆay:
lim
x→0
sinx
x
= 1, (7.12)
lim
x→0
(1 + x)
1
x
= e (7.13)
7.2. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n 31
v`a c´ac hˆe
.
qua’ cu’ a (7.13)
lim
x→∞
_
1 +
1
x
_
x
= e, (7.14)
lim
x→0
log
a
(1 + x)
x
=
1
lna
, 0 < a = 1, (7.15)
lim
x→0
a
x
−1
x
= lna, 0 < a = 1. (7.16)
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Su
.
’ du
.
ng (ε −δ) - di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n dˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
lim
x→−3
x
2
= 9.
Gia’ i. Ta cˆa
`
n ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng ∀ε > 0, ∃δ > 0 sao cho v´o
.
i
|x + 3| < δ th`ı ta c´o |x
2
−9| < ε.
Ta cˆa
`
n u
.
´o
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng hiˆe
.
u |x
2
−9|. ta c´o
|x
2
−9| = |x −3||x + 3|.
Do th` u
.
a sˆo´ |x −3| khˆong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen to`an tru
.
c sˆo´ nˆen dˆe

u
.
´o
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng
t´ıch do
.
n gia’ n ho
.
n ta tr´ıch ra 1 - lˆan cˆa
.
n cu’ a diˆe

m a = −3 t´ u
.
c l`a
khoa’ ng (−4; −2). V´o
.
i mo
.
i x ∈ (−4; −2) ta c´o |x −3| < 7 v`a do d´o
|x
2
−9| < 7|x + 3|.
V`ı δ-lˆan cˆa
.
n diˆe

m a = −3 [t´ u
.
c l`a khoa’ ng (−3 −δ; −3 + δ)] khˆong
du
.
o
.
.
c vu
.
o
.
.
t ra kho’i ranh gi´o
.
i cu’ a 1-lˆan cˆa
.
n nˆen ta lˆa´y δ = min
_
1,
ε
7
_
.
Khi d´o v´o
.
i 0 < |x + 3| < δ ⇒|x
2
−9| < ε. Do vˆa
.
y lim
x→−3
x
2
= 9.
V´ı du
.
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng lim
x→2

11 −x = 3.
Gia’ i. Gia’ su
.
’ ε > 0 l`a sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng cho tru
.
´o
.
c b´e bao nhiˆeu t` uy ´ y. Ta
x´et bˆa´t phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
|

11 −x −3| < ε. (7.17)
32 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
Ta c´o
(7.17) ⇔ −ε <

11 −x −3 < ε ⇔
_
_
_

11 −x −3 > −ε

11 −x −3 < ε

_
_
_
x −11 < −(3 −ε)
2
x −11 > −(3 + ε)
2

_
_
_
x −2 < 6ε −ε
3
x −2 > −(6ε + ε
2
).
V`ı 6ε − ε
2
< | − (6ε + ε)
2
| = 6ε + ε
2
nˆen ta c´ o thˆe

lˆa´y δ(ε) l`a sˆo´
δ 6ε −ε
2
. V´o
.
i sˆo´ δ d´o ta thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng khi x tho’a m˜an bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
0 < |x −2| < δ th`ı |

11 −x −3| < ε v`a
lim
x→2

11 −x = 3.
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh c´ac gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n
1) lim
x→2
2
x
−x
2
x −2
(vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng
0
0
);
2) lim
x→
π
4
cotg2x · cotg
_
π
4
−x
_
(vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng 0 · ∞);
3) lim
x→∞
_
e
1
x
+
1
x
_
x
(vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng 1

).
Gia’ i
1) Ta c´ o
2
x
−x
2
x −2
=
2
x
−2
2
−(x
2
−2
2
)
x −2
= 4 ·
2
x−2
−1
x −2

x
2
−4
x −2
·
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
lim
x→2
2
x
−x
2
x −2
= 4 lim
x→2
2
x−2
−1
x −2
− lim
x→2
x
2
−4
x −2
= 4ln2 −4.
2) D˘a
.
t y =
π
4
−x. Khi d´o
lim
x→
π
4
cotg2x · cotg
_
π
4
−x
_
= lim
y→0
cotg
_
π
2
−2y
_
cotgy
= lim
y→0
sin2y
siny
·
cos y
cos 2y
= 2.
7.2. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n 33
3) D˘a
.
t y =
1
x
. Khi d´o
lim
x→∞
_
e
1
x
+
1
x
_
x
= lim
y→0
(e
y
+ y)
1
y
= e
lim
y→0
ln(e
y
+y)
y
;
lim
y→0
ln(e
y
+ y)
y
= lim
y→0
ln[1 + (e
y
+ y −1)]
e
y
+ y −1
·
e
y
+ y −1
y
= lim
t→0
ln(1 + t)
t
· lim
y→0
_
1 +
e
y
−1
y
_
= 2.
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
lim
y→0
_
e
y
+ y
_1
y
= e
2
.
V´ı du
.
4. Ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng h`am f(x) = sin
1
x
khˆong c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n khi
x → 0.
Gia’ i. Ta lu
.
u ´ y mˆe
.
nh dˆe
`
phu’ di
.
nh dˆo´i v´o
.
i di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n:
lim
x→a
f(x) = A ⇔ ∃ε
0
> 0 ∀δ > 0 ∃x
δ
(0 < |x
δ
−a| < δ)
→ |f(x
0
) −A| ε
0
.
Nˆe
´
u A = 0 ta lˆa´y ε
0
=
1
2
v`a x
k
=
2
π
2
+ 2kπ
. Khi d´o ∀δ > 0,
∃k ∈ N : 0 < x
k
< δ v`a
|f(x
k
) −0| = |f(x
k
)| = 1 > ε
0
v`a nhu
.
vˆa
.
y A = 0 khˆong pha’ i l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a h`am d˜a cho khi x →0.
Nˆe
´
u A = 0 th`ı ta lˆa´y ε
0
=
|A|
2
v`a x
k
=
1
2kπ
. Khi d´o ∀δ > 0,
∃k ∈ N : 0 < x
k
< δ th`ı |f(x
k
) − A| = |A| > ε. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y mo
.
i sˆo´
A = 0 dˆe
`
u khˆong l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a h`am sin
1
x
khi x → 0.
V´ı du
.
5. H`am Dirichlet D(x):
D(x) =
_
_
_
1 nˆe
´
u x ∈ Q,
0 nˆe
´
u x ∈ R \ Q
34 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
khˆong c´o gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n ta
.
i ∀a ∈ R.
Gia’ i. Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng ta
.
i mo
.
i diˆe

m a ∈ R h`am D(x) khˆong
tho’a m˜an Di
.
nh l´ y 2. Dˆe

l`am viˆe
.
c d´o, ta chı ’ cˆa
`
n chı ’ ra hai d˜ay (a
n
) v`a
(a

n
) c` ung hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n a sao cho lim
n→∞
D(a
n
) = lim
n→∞
D(a

n
).
Dˆa
`
u tiˆen ta x´et d˜ay c´ac diˆe

m h˜ u
.
u ty’ (a
n
) hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n a. Ta c´ o
D(a
n
) = 1 ∀n v`a do d´o lim
n→∞
D(a
n
) = 1. Bˆay gi`o
.
ta x´et d˜ay (a

n
) -
d˜ay c´ac diˆe

m vˆo ty’ hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n a. Ta c´ o D(a

n
) = 0 ∀n v`a do vˆa
.
y
lim
n→∞
D(a

n
) = 0.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y lim
n→∞
D(a
n
) = lim
n→∞
D(a

n
). T` u
.
d´o suy ra r˘a
`
ng ta
.
i diˆe

m a
h`am D(x) khˆong c´ o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n .
V´ı du
.
6. Gia’ su
.
’ lim
x→a
f(x) = b, lim
x→a
g(x) = +∞. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
lim
x→a
[f(x) + g(x)] = +∞.
Gia’ i. Ta cˆa
`
n ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng ∀M > 0, ∃δ > 0 sao cho ∀x : 0 <
|x −a| < δ th`ı f(x) + g(x) > M.
V`ı lim
x→a
f(x) = b nˆen tˆo
`
n ta
.
i δ
1
-lˆan cˆa
.
n U(a, δ
1
) cu’ a diˆe

m a sao cho
|f(x)| < C, x = a (7.18)
trong d´o C l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng n`ao d´o.
Gia’ su
.
’ M > 0 l`a sˆo´ cho tru
.
´o
.
c t` uy ´ y. V`ı lim
x→a
g(x) = +∞ nˆen dˆo´i
v´o
.
i sˆo´ M + C, ∃δ > 0 (δ δ
1
) sao cho ∀x : 0 < |x −a| < δ th`ı
g(x) > M + C (7.19)
T` u
.
c´ac bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (7.18) v`a(7.19) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c l`a: v´o
.
i x tho’a
m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n 0 < |x −a| < δ δ
1
th`ı
f(x) + g(x) g(x) −|f(x)| > M + C −C = M.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
7.2. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n 35
1. Su
.
’ du
.
ng di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h`am sˆo´ dˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ac d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
sau dˆay:
1) lim
x→
π
6
sinx =
1
2
; 2) lim
x→
π
2
sinx = 1;
3) lim
x→0
xsin
1
x
= 0; 4) lim
x→+∞
arctgx =
π
2
.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D` ung hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c
π
2
−arctgx < tg
_
π
2
−arctgx
_
=
1
x
)
5) lim
x→∞
x −1
3x + 2
=
1
3
; 6) lim
x→+∞
log
a
x = +∞;
7) lim
x→+∞
_√
x
2
+ 1 −x
_
= 0; 8) lim
x→−5
x
2
+ 2x −15
x + 5
= −8;
9) lim
x→1
(5x
2
−7x + 6) = 4; 10) lim
x→2
x
2
−3x + 2
x
2
+ x −6
=
1
5
;
11) lim
x→+∞
xsin x
x
2
−100x + 3000
= 0.
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh c´ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n sau dˆay khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i:
1) lim
x→1
sin
1
x −1
; 2) lim
x→∞
sinx; 3) lim
x→o
2
1
x
;
4) lim
x→0
e
1
x
; 5) lim
x→∞
cos x.
Nˆe
´
u tu
.
’ sˆo´ v`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ cu’ a phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ dˆe
`
u triˆe
.
t tiˆeu ta
.
i diˆe

m
x = a th`ı c´ o thˆe

gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c phˆan th´ u
.
c cho x − a (= 0) mˆo
.
t ho˘a
.
c mˆo
.
t
sˆo´ lˆa
`
n.
Su
.
’ du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap gia’ n u
.
´o
.
c d´o, h˜ay t´ınh c´ ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n sau dˆay
(3-10).
3. lim
x→7
2x
2
−11x −21
x
2
−9x + 14
(DS.
17
5
)
4. lim
x→1
x
4
−x
3
+ x
2
−3x + 2
x
3
−x
2
−x + 1
(DS. 2)
5. lim
x→1
x
4
+ 2x
2
−3
x
2
−3x + 2
(DS. −8)
6. lim
x→1
x
m
−1
x
n
−1
; m, n ∈ Z (DS.
m
n
)
36 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
7. lim
x→1
_
1
1 −x

3
1 −x
3
_
(DS. −1)
8. lim
x→1
_
a
1 −x
a

b
1 −x
b
_
; a, b ∈ N (DS.
a −b
2
)
9. lim
x→1
(x
n
−1)(x
n−1
−1) · · · (x
n−k+1
−1)
(x −1)(x
2
−1) · · · (x
k
−1)
(DS. C
k
n
)
10. lim
x→a
(x
n
−a
n
) −na
n−1
(x −a)
(x −a)
2
, n ∈ N (DS.
n(n −1)
2
a
n−1
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Dˆo

i biˆe
´
n x −a = t.
C´ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay c´o thˆe

du
.
a vˆe
`
da
.
ng trˆen nh`o
.
ph´ep dˆo

i biˆe
´
n
(11-14)
11. lim
x→1
x
p
q
−1
x
r
s
−1
(DS.
ps
qr
)
12. lim
x→−1
1 +
3

x
1 +
5

x
(DS.
5
3
)
13. lim
x→0
3
3

1 + x −4
4

1 + x + 1
2 −2

1 + x + x
(DS.
1
6
)
14. lim
x→0
n

1 + x −1
x
(DS.
1
n
)
Mˆo
.
t trong c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a c´ac biˆe

u th´ u
.
c vˆo ty’
l`a chuyˆe

n vˆo ty’ t` u
.
mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ lˆen tu
.
’ sˆo´ ho˘a
.
c ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i (15-26)
15. lim
x→0

1 + x + x
2
−1
x
(DS.
1
2
)
16. lim
x→2

3 + x + x
2


9 −2x + x
2
x
2
−3x + 2
(DS.
1
2
)
17. lim
x→0
5x
3

1 + x −
3

1 −x
(DS.
15
2
)
18. lim
x→0
3

1 + 3x −
3

1 −2x
x + x
2
(DS. 2)
19. lim
x→∞
_√
x
2
+ 1 −

x
2
−1
_
(DS. 0)
7.2. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n 37
20. lim
x→∞
_
3

1 −x
3
+ x
_
(DS. 0)
21. lim
x→+∞
_√
x
2
+ 5x + x
_
(DS. +∞)
22. lim
x→−∞
_√
x
2
+ 5x + x
_
(DS. −
5
2
)
23. lim
x→+∞
_√
x
2
+ 2x −x
_
(DS. 1)
24. lim
x→−∞
_√
x
2
+ 2x −x
_
. (DS. +∞)
25. lim
x→∞
_
(x + 1)
2
3
−(x −1)
2
3
_
(DS. 0)
26. lim
x→+∞
_
n
_
(x + a
1
)(x + a
2
) · · · (x + a
n
) −x
¸
(DS.
a
1
+ a
2
+· · · + a
n
n
)
Khi gia’ i c´ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay ta thu
.
`o
.
ng su
.
’ du
.
ng hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c
lim
t→0
(1 + t)
α
−1
t
= α (27-34)
27. lim
x→0
5

1 + 3x
4


1 −2x
3

1 + x −

1 + x
(DS. −6)
28. lim
x→0
n

a + x −
n

a −x
x
, n ∈ N (DS.
2
n
a
1
n
−1
)
29. lim
x→0

1 + 3x +
3

1 + x −
5

1 + x −
7

1 + x
4

1 + 2x + x −
6

1 + x
(DS.
313
280
)
30. lim
x→0
3

a
2
+ ax + x
2

3

a
2
−ax + x
2

a + x −

a −x
(DS.
3
2
a
1
6
)
31. lim
x→0
_√
1 + x
2
+ x
_
n

_√
1 + x
2
−x
_
n
x
(DS. 2n)
32. lim
x→0
n

a + x −
n

a −x
x
, n ∈ N, a > 0 (DS.
2
n

a
na
)
33. lim
x→0
n

1 + ax −
k

1 + bx
x
, n ∈ N, a > 0 (DS.
ak −bn
nk
)
34. lim
x→∞
_
n
_
(1 + x
2
)(2 + x
2
) · · · (n + x
2
) −x
2
_
(DS.
n + 1
2
)
38 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
Khi t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n c´ac biˆe

u th´ u
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac ta thu
.
`o
.
ng su
.
’ du
.
ng cˆ ong
th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n
lim
x→0
sinx
x
= 1
c` ung v´o
.
i su
.
.
kˆe
´
t ho
.
.
p c´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d˜a nˆeu o
.
’ trˆen
(35-56).
35. lim
x→∞
sin
πx
2
x
(DS. 0)
36. lim
x→∞
arctgx
2x
(DS. 0)
37. lim
x→−2
x
2
−4
arctg(x + 2)
(DS. −4)
38. lim
x→0
tgx −sinx
x
3
(DS.
1
2
)
39. lim
x→0
xcotg5x (DS.
1
5
)
40. lim
x→1
(1 −x)tg
πx
2
(DS.
2
π
)
41. lim
x→1
1 −x
2
sinπx
(DS.
2
π
)
42. lim
x→π
sinx
π
2
−x
2
(DS.
1

)
43. lim
x→0
cos mx −cos nx
x
2
(DS.
1
2
(n
2
−m
2
))
44. lim
x→∞
x
2
_
cos
1
x
−cos
3
x
_
(DS. 4)
45. lim
x→0
sin(a + x) + sin(a −x) −2 sin a
x
2
(DS. −sina)
46. lim
x→0
cos(a + x) + cos(a −x) −2 cos a
1 −cos x
(DS. −2 cos a)
47. lim
x→∞
_
sin

x
2
+ 1 −sin

x
2
−1
_
(DS. 0)
7.2. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n 39
48. lim
x→0

cos x −1
x
2
(DS. −
1
4
)
49. lim
x→
π
2
cos
x
2
−sin
x
2
cos x
(DS.
1

2
)
50. lim
x→
π
3
sin
_
x −
π
3
_
1 −2 cos x
(DS.
1

3
)
51. lim
x→
π
4

2 cos x −1
1 −tg
2
x
(DS.
1
4
)
52. lim
x→0

1 + tgx −

1 −tgx
sinx
(DS. 1)
53. lim
x→0
m

cos αx −
m

cos βx
x
2
(DS.
β
2
−α
2
2m
)
54. lim
x→0
cos x −
3

cos x
sin
2
x
(DS. −
1
3
)
55. lim
x→0
1 −cos x

cos 2x
tgx
2
(DS.
3
2
)
56. lim
x→0

1 + xsinx −cos x
sin
2
x
2
(DS. 4)
Dˆe

t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n lim
x→a
[f(x)]
ϕ(x)
, trong d´o
f(x) → 1, ϕ(x) → ∞ khi x → a ta c´o thˆe

biˆe
´
n dˆo

i biˆe

u th´ u
.
c
[f(x)]
ϕ(x)
nhu
.
sau:
lim
x→a
[f(x)]
ϕ(x)
= lim
x→a
_
[1 + (f(x) −1)]
1
f(x)−1
_
ϕ(x)[f(x)−1]
= e
lim
x→a
ϕ(x)[f(x)−1]
o
.
’ dˆay lim
x→a
ϕ(x)[f(x) −1] du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap d˜a nˆeu trˆen
dˆay. Nˆe
´
u lim
x→a
ϕ(x)[f(x) −1] = A th`ı
lim
x→a
[f(x)]
ϕ(x)
= e
A
(57-68).
40 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
57. lim
x→∞
_
2x + 3
2x + 1
_
x+1
(DS. e)
58. lim
x→∞
_
x
2
−1
x
2
_
x
4
(DS. 0)
59. lim
x→0
(1 + tgx)
cotgx
(DS. e)
60. lim
x→0
(1 + 3tg
2
x)
cotg
2
x
(DS. e
3
)
61. lim
x→0
_
cos x
cos 2x
_ 1
x
2
(DS. e
3
2
)
62. lim
x→
π
2
(sinx)
1
cotgx
(DS. −1)
63. lim
x→
π
2
(tgx)
tg2x
(DS. e
−1
)
64. lim
x→0
_
tg
_
π
4
+ x
__
cotg2x
(DS. e)
65. lim
x→0
_
cos x
_ 1
x
2
(DS. e

1
2
)
66. lim
x→0
_
cos 3x
_ 1
sin
2
x
(DS. e

9
2
)
67. lim
x→0
_
1 + tgx
1 + sinx
_ 1
sinx
(DS. 1)
68. lim
x→
π
4
_
sin 2x
_
tg
2
2x
(DS. e

1
2
)
Khi t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n c´ac biˆe

u th´ u
.
c c´ o ch´ u
.
a h`am lˆodarit v`a h`am m˜ u ta
thu
.
`o
.
ng su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac cˆ ong th´ u
.
c (7.15) v`a (7.16) v` a c´ ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap
t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d˜a nˆeu o
.
’ trˆen (69-76).
69. lim
x→e
lnx −1
x −e
(DS. e
−1
)
70. lim
x→10
lgx −1
x −10
(DS.
1
10ln10
)
71. lim
x→0
e
x
2
−1

1 + sin
2
x −1
(DS. 2)
72. lim
x→0
e
x
2
−cos x
sin
2
x
(DS.
3
2
)
7.3. H`am liˆen tu
.
c 41
73. lim
x→0
e
αx
−e
βx
sinαx −sinβx
(DS. 1)
74. lim
x→0
e
sin5x
−e
sinx
ln(1 + 2x)
(DS. 2)
75. lim
x→0
a
x
2
−b
x
2
lncos 2x
, a > 0, b > 0 (DS. −
1
2
ln
a
b
)
76. lim
x→0
_
a
sinx
+ b
sinx
2
_1
x
, a > 0, b > 0 (DS.

ab)
7.3 H` am liˆen tu
.
c
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 7.3.1. H`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh trong lˆan cˆa
.
n cu’ a diˆe

m x
0
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m d´o nˆe
´
u
lim
x→x
0
f(x) = f(x
0
).
Di
.
nh ngh˜ıa 7.3.1 tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 7.3.1

. H`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh trong lˆan cˆ a
.
n cu’ a diˆe

m x
0
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
nˆe
´
u
∀ε > 0 ∃δ > 0 ∀x ∈ D
f
: |x −x
0
| < δ ⇒ |f(x) −f(x
0
)| < ε.
Hiˆe
.
u x −x
0
= ∆x du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a sˆ o´ gia cu’ a dˆo´i sˆ o´, c`on hiˆe
.
u f(x) −
f(x
0
) = ∆f du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a sˆ o´ gia cu’ a h`am sˆ o´ ta
.
i x
0
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i sˆo´
gia ∆x, t´ u
.
c l`a
∆x = x −x
0
, ∆f(x
0
) = f(x
0
+ ∆x) −f(x
0
).
V´o
.
i ngˆon ng˜ u
.
sˆo´ gia di
.
nh ngh˜ıa 7.3.1 c´o da
.
ng
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 7.3.1
∗∗
. H`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh trong lˆan cˆa
.
n cu’ a diˆe

m x
0
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i x
0
nˆe
´
u
lim
∆x→0
∆f = 0.
42 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
B˘a
`
ng “ngˆon ng˜ u
.
d˜ay” ta c´o di
.
nh ngh˜ıa tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 7.3.1
∗∗∗
. H`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh trong lˆan cˆa
.
n diˆe

m x
0
∈ D
f
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
nˆe
´
u
∀(x
n
) ∈ D
f
: x
n
→x
0
⇒ lim
n→∞
f(x
n
) = f(x
0
).
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 7.3.1. Diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆ a
`
n v` a du’ dˆe

h`am f(x) liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m
x
0
l`a h`am f(x) tho’a m˜ac c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n sau dˆay:
i) H`am pha’ i x´ac di
.
nh ta
.
i mˆo
.
t lˆ an cˆ a
.
n n`ao d´o cu’ a diˆe

m x
0
.
ii) H`am c´ o c´ ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n mˆo
.
t ph´ıa nhu
.
nhau
lim
x→x
0
−0
f(x) = lim
x→x
0
+0
f(x).
iii) lim
x→x
0
−0
= lim
x→x
0
+0
= f(x
0
).
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh trong nu
.
’ a lˆan cˆa
.
n bˆen pha’ i (bˆen tr´ai)
cu’ a diˆe

m x
0
, ngh˜ıa l`a trˆen nu
.
’ a khoa’ ng [x
0
, x
0
+ δ) (tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng: trˆen
(x
0
−δ, x
0
]) n`ao d´o.
H`am f(x) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a liˆen tu
.
c bˆen pha’ i (bˆen tr´ai) ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
nˆe
´
u
f(x
0
+ 0) = f(x
0
) (tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng: f(x
0
−0) = f(x
0
)).
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 7.3.2. H`am f(x) liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
∈ D
f
khi v`a chı ’ khi
n´o liˆen tu
.
c bˆen pha’ i v`a bˆen tr´ai ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
.
H`am liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i mˆo
.
t diˆe

m c´o c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t sau.
I) Nˆe
´
u c´ac h`am f(x) v`a g(x) liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
th`ı f(x) ±g(x),
f(x) · g(x) liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i x
0
, v`a f(x)/g(x) liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i x
0
nˆe
´
u g(x
0
) = 0.
II) Gia’ su
.
’ h`am y = ϕ(x) liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i x
0
, c` on h`am u = f(y) liˆen
tu
.
c ta
.
i y
0
= ϕ(x
0
). Khi d´o h`am ho
.
.
p u = f[ϕ(x)] liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i x
0
.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra r˘a
`
ng
lim
x→x
0
f[ϕ(x)] = f
_
lim
x→x
0
ϕ(x)
¸
.
H`am f(x) go
.
i l`a gi´an doa
.
n ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
nˆe
´
u n´o x´ac di
.
nh ta
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng
diˆe

m gˆa
`
n x
0
bao nhiˆeu t` uy ´ y nhu
.
ng ta
.
i ch´ınh x
0
h`am khˆong tho’a m˜an
´ıt nhˆa´t mˆo
.
t trong c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n liˆen tu
.
c o
.
’ trˆen.
7.3. H`am liˆen tu
.
c 43
Diˆe

m x
0
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a
1) Diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n khu
.
’ du
.
o
.
.
c cu’ a h`am f(x) nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i lim
x→x
0
f(x) =
b nhu
.
ng ho˘a
.
c f(x) khˆong x´ac di
.
nh ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
ho˘a
.
c f(x
0
) = b. Nˆe
´
u
bˆo

sung gi´ a tri
.
f(x
0
) = b th`ı h`am f(x) tro
.
’ nˆen liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i x
0
, t´ u
.
c l`a
gi´an doa
.
n c´o thˆe

khu
.
’ du
.
o
.
.
c.
2) Diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u I cu’ a h`am f(x) nˆe
´
u ∃f(x
0
+0) v`a ∃f(x
0
−0)
nhu
.
ng f(x
0
+ 0) = f(x
0
−0).
3) Diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u II cu’ a h`am f(x) nˆe
´
u ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
mˆo
.
t trong
c´ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n lim
x→x
0
+0
f(x) ho˘ a
.
c lim
x→x
0
−0
f(c) khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i.
H`am f(x) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a h`am so
.
cˆa´p nˆe
´
u n´o du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i mˆo
.
t biˆe

u
th´ u
.
c gia’ i t´ıch lˆa
.
p nˆen nh`o
.
mˆo
.
t sˆo´ h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n ph´ep t´ınh sˆo´ ho
.
c v`a c´ac
ph´ep ho
.
.
p h`am thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n trˆen c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p co
.
ba’ n.
Mo
.
i h`am so
.
cˆa´p x´ ac di
.
nh trong lˆan cˆa
.
n cu’ a mˆo
.
t diˆe

m n`ao d´o l`a
liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m d´o.
Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng h`am khˆong so
.
cˆa´p c´o thˆe

c´o gi´ an doa
.
n ta
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe

m
n´o khˆong x´ ac di
.
nh c˜ ung nhu
.
ta
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe

m m`a n´o x´ac di
.
nh. D˘a
.
c biˆe
.
t
l`a nˆe
´
u h`am du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i nhiˆe
`
u biˆe

u th´ u
.
c gia’ i t´ıch kh´ac nhau trˆen c´ac
khoa’ ng kh´ac nhau th`ı n´o c´o thˆe

c´o gi´ an doa
.
n ta
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe

m thay dˆo

i
biˆe

u th´ u
.
c gia’ i t´ıch.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng h`am f(x) = sin(2x −3) liˆen tu
.
c ∀x ∈ R.
Gia’ i. Ta lˆa´y diˆe

m x
0
∈ R t` uy ´ y. X´et hiˆe
.
u
sin(2x −3) −sin(2x
0
−3) = 2 cos(x + x
0
−3) sin(x −x
0
) = α(x).
V`ı | cos(x + x
0
− 3)| 1 v`a sin(x − x
0
)| < |x − x
0
| nˆen khi x → x
0
h`am sin(x −x
0
) l`a h`am vˆo c` ung b´e. T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng α(x) l`a t´ıch cu’ a
h`am bi
.
ch˘a
.
n v´o
.
i vˆo c` ung b´e v`a
lim
x→x
0
sin(2x −3) = sin(2x
0
−3).
44 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
V´ı du
.
2. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng h`am f(x) =

x + 4 liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe
`
m
x
0
= 5.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o f(5) = 3. Cho tru
.
´o
.
c sˆo´ ε > 0. Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa 1

ta
lˆa
.
p hiˆe
.
u f(x) −f(5) =

x + 4 − 3 v`a u
.
´o
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng mˆodun cu’ a n´o. Ta
c´o
|

x + 4 −3| =
|x −5|
|

x + 4 + 3|
<
|x −5|
3
(*)
Nˆe
´
u ta cho
.
n δ = 3ε th`ı v´o
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng gi´a tri
.
x m`a |x − 5| < δ = 3ε
ta s˜e c´ o |

x + 4 −3| < ε. T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng h`am f(x) liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m
x
0
= 5.
V´ı du
.
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng h`am f(x) =

x liˆen tu
.
c bˆen pha’ i ta
.
i
diˆe

m x
0
= 0.
Gia’ i. Gia’ su
.
’ cho tru
.
´o
.
c sˆo´ ε > 0 t` uy ´ y. Bˆ a´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c |

x−0| < ε
tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c 0 x < ε
2
. Ta lˆa´y δ = ε
2
. Khi d´o
t` u
.
bˆa´t d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c 0 x < δ suy r˘a
`
ng

x < ε. Diˆe
`
u d´o c´o ngh˜ıa r˘a
`
ng
lim
x→0+0

x = 0.
V´ı du
.
4. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng h`am y = x
2
liˆen tu
.
c trˆen to`an tru
.
c sˆo´.
Gia’ i. Gia’ su
.
’ x
0
∈ R l`a diˆe

m t` uy ´ y trˆen tru
.
c sˆo´ v`a ε > 0 l`a sˆo´ cho
tru
.
´o
.
c t` uy ´ y. Ta x´et hiˆe
.
u
|x
2
−x
2
0
| = |x + x
0
||x −x
0
|
v`a cˆa
`
n u
.
´o
.
c lu
.
o
.
.
ng n´o. V`ı |x + x
0
| khˆong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n trˆen R nˆen dˆe

u
.
´o
.
c
lu
.
o
.
.
ng hiˆe
.
u trˆen ta x´et mˆo
.
t lˆan cˆa
.
n n`ao d´o cu’ a x
0
, ch˘a

ng ha
.
n U(x
0
; 1) =
(x
0
−1; x
0
+ 1). V´ o
.
i x ∈ U(x
0
; 1) ta c´ o
|x + x
0
| = |x −x
0
+ 2x
0
| |x −x
0
| + 2|x
0
| < 1 + 2|x
0
|
v`a do d´o
|x
2
−x
2
0
| < (1 + 2|x
0
|)|x −x
0
|.
7.3. H`am liˆen tu
.
c 45
V`ı δ-lˆan cˆa
.
n cu’ a diˆe

m x
0
cˆa
`
n pha’ i n˘a
`
m trong U(x
0
; 1) nˆen ta lˆa´y
δ = min
_
ε
1 + 2|x
0
|
; 1
_
v`a v´o
.
i |x −x
0
| < δ = min
_
ε
1 + 2|x
0
|
; 1
_
ta s˜e
c´o
|x
2
−x
2
0
| < ε.
V´ı du
.
5. X´ac di
.
nh v`a phˆan loa
.
i diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n cu’ a h`am
f(x) =
1
1 + 2
1
x−1
·
Gia’ i. H`am d˜a cho x´ac di
.
nh ∀x = 1. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n l`a
diˆe

m x
0
= 1.
Nˆe
´
u (x
n
) l`a d˜ay hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n 1 v`a x
n
> 1 th`ı
_
1
x
n
−1
_
l`a d˜ay vˆ o
c` ung l´o
.
n v´o
.
i mo
.
i sˆo´ ha
.
ng dˆe
`
u du
.
o
.
ng. Do d´o
_
1 + 2
1
xn−1
_
l`a d˜ay vˆo
c` ung l´o
.
n. T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng f(x
n
) =
1
1 + 2
1
xn−1
l`a d˜ay vˆo c` ung b´e, t´ u
.
c
l`a lim
n→∞
f(x
n
) = 0 v`a lim
x→1+0
f(x) = 0.
Nˆe
´
u (x
n
) → 1 v`a x
n
< 1 th`ı
_
1
x
n
−1
_
l`a d˜ay vˆo c` ung l´o
.
n v´o
.
i c´ac
sˆo´ ha
.
ng dˆe
`
u ˆam. Do vˆa
.
y
_
2
1
xn−1
_
→ 0 (n → ∞) v`a
f(x
n
) =
1
1 + 2
1
xn−1
→1 (n → ∞),
t´ u
.
c l`a lim
x→1−0
f(x) = 1. Do d´o diˆe

m x
0
= 1 l`a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u I.
V´ı du
.
6. X´ac di
.
nh v`a phˆan loa
.
i diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n cu’ a h`am
f(x) =
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
xcos
1
x
khi x < 0
0 khi x = 0
cos
1
x
khi x > 0.
46 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
Gia’ i. Diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n c´o thˆe

c´o cu’ a h`am l`a x
0
= 0. Ta x´et c´ac gi´o
.
i
ha
.
n mˆo
.
t ph´ıa ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
= 0.
i) Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng lim
x→0−0
f(x) = 0. Thˆ a
.
t vˆa
.
y, nˆe
´
u d˜ay (x
n
)
hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n 0 v`a x
n
< 0 ∀n th`ı
0 |f(x
n
)| = |x
n
|
¸
¸
¸ cos
1
x
n
¸
¸
¸ |x
n
|.
V`ı |x
n
| →0 khi n →∞ nˆen lim
n→∞
f(x
n
) = 0.
ii) H`am d˜a cho khˆong c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bˆen pha’ i ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
= 0. Dˆe

ch´ u
.
ng minh diˆe
`
u d´o ta x´et hai d˜ay hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n 0 lˆa
.
p nˆen t` u
.
c´ac d˜ay
sˆo´ du
.
o
.
ng x
n
=
1
π
2
+ nπ
v`a x

n
=
1
2πn
. Nˆe
´
u nhu
.
h`am f c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
bˆen pha’ i ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
= 0 th`ı hai d˜ay f(x
n
) v`a f(x

n
) pha’ i hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n
c` ung mˆo
.
t gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n. Thˆe
´
nhu
.
ng f(x

n
) = cos 2πn = 1 hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n 1, c`on
f(x
n
) = cos
_
π
2
+ nπ
_
= 0 hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n 0.
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng h`am c´o gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u II ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
= 0.
V´ı du
.
7. T`ım v`a phˆan loa
.
i c´ac diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n cu’ a c´ac h`am:
1) y = (signx)
2
; 2) y = [x]
Gia’ i
1) T` u
.
di
.
nh ngh˜ıa h`am signx suy r˘a
`
ng
(signx)
2
=
_
_
_
1, x = 0
0, x = 0.
T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng h`am y = (signx)
2
liˆen tu
.
c ∀x = 0 (h˜ay du
.
.
ng dˆo
`
thi
.
cu’ a h`am) v`a ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
= 0 ta c´o y(0 − 0) = y(0 + 0) = y(0).
Diˆe
`
u d´o c´o ngh˜ıa r˘a
`
ng x
0
= 0 l`a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n khu
.
’ du
.
o
.
.
c.
2) Gia’ su
.
’ n ∈ Z. Nˆe
´
u n − 1 x < n th`ı [x] = n − 1, nˆe
´
u
n x < n + 1 th`ı [x] = n (h˜ay du
.
.
ng dˆo
`
thi
.
cu’ a h`am phˆa
`
n nguyˆen
[x]). Nˆe
´
u x
0
∈ Z th`ı tˆo
`
n ta
.
i lˆan cˆa
.
n cu’ a diˆe

m x
0
(khˆong ch´ u
.
a c´ac sˆo´
7.3. H`am liˆen tu
.
c 47
nguyˆen) sao cho ta
.
i d´o h`am b˘a
`
ng h˘a
`
ng sˆo´. Do vˆa
.
y n´o liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i x
0
.
Nˆe
´
u x
0
= n l`a sˆo´ nguyˆen th`ı [n − 0] = n −1, [n + 0] = n. T` u
.
d´o suy
r˘a
`
ng x
0
= n l`a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u I.
V´ı du
.
8. Kha’ o s´at su
.
.
liˆen tu
.
c v`a phˆan loa
.
i diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n cu’ a c´ac
h`am
1) f(x) =
x
2
x
, 2) f(x) = e

1
x
, 3) f(x) =
_
_
_
x nˆe
´
u x 1
lnx nˆe
´
u x > 1.
Gia’ i
1) H`am f(x) = x nˆe
´
u x = 0 v`a khˆong x´ac di
.
nh khi x = 0. V`ı ∀a
ta c´o lim
x→a
x = a nˆen khi a = 0:
lim
x→a
f(x) = a = f(a)
v`a do vˆa
.
y h`am f(x) liˆen tu
.
c ∀x = 0. Ta
.
i diˆe

m x = 0 ta c´o gi´an doa
.
n
khu
.
’ du
.
o
.
.
c v`ı tˆo
`
n ta
.
i
lim
x→0
f(x) = lim
x→0
x = 0.
2) H`am f(x) = e

1
x
l`a h`am so
.
cˆa´p v`ı n´o l`a ho
.
.
p cu’ a c´ ac h`am
y = −x
−1
v`a f = e
y
. Hiˆe

n nhiˆen l`a h`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh ∀x = 0 v`a
do d´o n´o liˆen tu
.
c ∀x = 0. V`ı h`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh trong lˆan cˆa
.
n diˆe

m
x = 0 v`a khˆong x´ac di
.
nh ta
.
i ch´ınh diˆe

m x = 0 nˆen diˆe

m x = 0 l`a diˆe

m
gi´an doa
.
n. Ta t´ınh f(0 + 0) v`a f(0 −0).
Ta x´et d˜ay vˆo c` ung b´e t` uy ´ y (x
n
) sao cho x
n
> 0 ∀n. V`ı
lim
x→∞
_

1
x
n
_
= −∞nˆen lim
x→∞
e

1
xn
= 0. T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng lim
x→0+0
e

1
x
= 0.
Bˆay gi` o
.
ta x´et d˜ay vˆo c` ung b´e bˆa´t k` y (x

n
) sao cho x

0
< 0 ∀n. V`ı
lim
n→∞
_

1
x

n
_
= +∞ nˆen lim
x→0
e

1
x

n
= +∞. Do d´o lim
x→0−0
e

1
x
= +∞
t´ u
.
c l`a f(0 −0) = +∞.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bˆen tr´ai cu’ a h`am f(x) ta
.
i diˆe

m x = 0 khˆong tˆo
`
n
ta
.
i do d´o diˆe

m x = 0 l`a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u II.
48 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
3) Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng f(x) liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m x = a = 1. Ta lˆa´y
ε < |a −1|, ε > 0. Khi d´o ε-lˆan cˆa
.
n cu’ a diˆe

m x = a khˆong ch´ u
.
a diˆe

m
x = 1 nˆe
´
u ε < |a −1|. Trong ε-lˆan cˆa
.
n n`ay h`am f(x) ho˘a
.
c tr` ung v´o
.
i
h`am ϕ(x) = x nˆe
´
u a < 1 ho˘a
.
c tr` ung v´o
.
i h`am ϕ(x) = lnx nˆe
´
u a > 1.
V`ı c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p co
.
ba’ n n`ay liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m x = a nˆen h`am f(x)
liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m x = a = 1.
Ta kha’ o s´at t´ınh liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am f(x) ta
.
i diˆe

m x = a = 1. Dˆe

l`am
viˆe
.
c d´o ta cˆa
`
n t´ınh c´ ac gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n mˆo
.
t ph´ıa cu’ a f(x) ta
.
i diˆe

m x = a = 1.
Ta c´o
f(1 + 0) = lim
x→1+0
f(x) = lim
x→1+0
lnx = 0,
f(1 −0) = lim
x→1−0
f(x) = lim
x→1−0
x = lim
x→1
x = 1.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y f(1 +0) = f(1 −0) v`a do d´o h`am f(x) c´ o gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u
I ta
.
i x = a = 1.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Kha’ o s´at t´ınh liˆen tu
.
c v`a phˆan loa
.
i diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n cu’ a h`am
1. f(x) =
|2x −3|
2x −3
(DS. H`am x´ac di
.
nh v`a liˆen tu
.
c ∀x =
3
2
; ta
.
i
x
0
=
3
2
h`am c´o gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u I)
2. f(x) =
_
_
_
1
x
nˆe
´
u x = 0
1 nˆe
´
u x = 0.
(DS. H`am liˆen tu
.
c ∀x ∈ R)
3. C´o tˆo
`
n ta
.
i hay khˆong gi´a tri
.
a dˆe

h`am f(x) liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i x
0
nˆe
´
u:
1) f(x) =
_
_
_
4 · 3
x
nˆe
´
u x < 0
2a + x khi x 0.
(DS. H`am f liˆen tu
.
c ∀x ∈ R nˆe
´
u a = 2)
7.3. H`am liˆen tu
.
c 49
2) f(x) =
_
_
_
xsin
1
x
, x = 0;
a, x = 0, x
0
= 0.
.
(DS. a = 0)
3) f(x) =
_
_
_
1 + x
1 + x
3
, x = −1
a, x = −1, x
0
= −1.
(DS. a =
1
3
)
4) f(x) =
_
_
_
cos x, x 0;
a(x −1), x > 0; x
0
= 0.
(DS. a = −1)
4. f(x) =
| sinx|
sinx
(DS. H`am c´o gi´an doa
.
n ta
.
i x = kπ, k ∈ Z v`ı:
f(x) =
_
_
_
1 nˆe
´
u sinx > 0
−1 nˆe
´
u sinx < 0)
5. f(x) = E(x) −E(−x)
(DS. H`am c´o gi´an doa
.
n khu
.
’ du
.
o
.
.
c ta
.
i x = n, x ∈ Z v`ı:
f(x) =
_
_
_
−1 nˆe
´
u x = n
0 nˆe
´
u x = n.)
6. f(x) =
_
_
_
e
1/x
khi x = 0
0 khi x = 0.
(DS. Ta
.
i diˆe

m x = 0 h`am c´o gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u II; f(−0) = 0, f(+0) =
∞)
T`ım diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n v`a t´ınh bu
.
´o
.
c nha’ y cu’ a c´ac h`am:
7. f(x) = x +
x + 2
|x + 2|
(DS. x = −2 l`a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u I, δ(−2) = 2)
50 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
8. f(x) =
2|x −1|
x
2
−x
3
(DS. x = 0 l`a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u II, x = 1 l`a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u
I, δ(1) = −4)
H˜ay bˆo

sung c´ ac h`am sau dˆay ta
.
i diˆe

m x = 0 dˆe

ch´ ung tro
.
’ th`anh
liˆen tu
.
c
9. f(x) =
tgx
x
(DS. f(0) = 1)
10. f(x) =

1 + x −1
x
(DS. f(0) =
1
2
)
11. f(x) =
sin
2
x
1 −cos x
(DS. f(0) = 2)
12. Hiˆe
.
u cu’ a c´ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n mˆo
.
t ph´ıa cu’ a h`am f(x):
d = lim
x→x
0
+0
f(x) − lim
x→x
0
−0
f(x)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a bu
.
´o
.
c nha’ y cu’ a h`am f(x) ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
. T`ım diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n
v`a bu
.
´o
.
c nha’ y cu’ a h`am f(x) nˆe
´
u:
1) f(x) =
_
_
_

1
2
x
2
nˆe
´
u x 2,
x nˆe
´
u x > 2.
(DS. x
0
= 2 l`a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u I; d = 4)
2) f(x) =
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
2

x nˆe
´
u 0 x 1;
4 −2x nˆe
´
u 1 < x 2, 5;
2x −7 nˆe
´
u 2, 5 x < +∞.
(DS. x
0
= 2, 5 l`a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u I; d = −1)
3) f(x) =
_
_
_
2x + 5 nˆe
´
u −∞ < x < −1,
1
x
nˆe
´
u −1 x < +∞.
(DS. x
0
= 0 l`a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n kiˆe

u II; diˆe

m x
0
= −1 l`a diˆe

m gi´an
doa
.
n kiˆe

u I, d = −4)
7.4. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 51
7.4 Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v` a liˆen tu
.
c cu

a h`am nhiˆe
`
u
biˆe
´
n
1. Gia’ su
.
’ u = f(M) = f(x, y) x´ac di
.
nh trˆen tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p D. Gia’ su
.

M
0
(x
0
, y
0
) l`a diˆe

m cˆo´ di
.
nh n`ao d´o cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng v`a x →x
0
, y → y
0
,
khi d´o diˆe

m M(x, y) → M
0
(x
0
, y
0
). Diˆe
`
u n`ay tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i khoa’ ng
c´ach ρ(M, M
0
) gi˜ u
.
a hai diˆe

m M v`a M
0
dˆa
`
n dˆe
´
n 0. Ta lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng
ρ(M, M
0
) = [(x −x
0
)
2
+ (y −y
0
)
2
]
1/2
.
Ta c´o c´ac di
.
nh ngh˜ıa sau dˆay:
i) Di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n (theo Cauchy)
Sˆo´ b du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a h`am f(M) khi M → M
0
(hay ta
.
i
diˆe

m M
0
) nˆe
´
u
∀ε > 0, ∃δ = δ(ε) > 0 : ∀M ∈ {D : 0 < ρ(M, M
0
) < δ(ε)}
⇒ |f(M) −b| < ε.
ii) Di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n (theo Heine)
Sˆo´ b du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a h`am f(M) ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
nˆe
´
u dˆo´i v´o
.
i
d˜ay diˆe

m {M
n
} bˆa´t k` y hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n M
0
sao cho M
n
∈ D, M
n
= M
0
∀n ∈ N th`ı d˜ay c´ ac gi´a tri
.
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng cu’ a h`am {f(M
n
)} hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n b.
K´ y hiˆe
.
u:
i) lim
M→M
0
f(M) = b, ho˘a
.
c
ii) lim
x →x
0
y →y
0
f(x, y) = b
Hai di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n trˆen dˆay tu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng v´o
.
i nhau.
Ch´ u ´y. Ta nhˆa´n ma
.
nh r˘a
`
ng theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa, gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a h`am khˆong
phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao phu
.
o
.
ng M dˆa
`
n t´o
.
i M
0
. Do d´o nˆe
´
u M → M
0
theo
c´ac hu
.
´o
.
ng kh´ac nhau m`a f(M) dˆa
`
n dˆe
´
n c´ac gi´ a tri
.
kh´ac nhau th`ı khi
M →M
0
h`am f(M) khˆong c´ o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n.
52 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
iii) Sˆo´ b du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a h`am f(M) khi M → ∞ nˆe
´
u
∀ε > 0, ∃R > 0 : ∀M ∈ {D : ρ(M, 0) > R} ⇒ |f(M) −b| < ε.
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n, c` ung v´o
.
i gi´o
.
i ha
.
n thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng d˜a nˆeu o
.

trˆen (gi´o
.
i ha
.
n k´ep !), ngu
.
`o
.
i ta c`on x´et gi´o
.
i ha
.
n l˘a
.
p. Ta s˜e x´et kh´ai
niˆe
.
m n`ay cho h`am hai biˆe
´
n u = f(M) = f(x, y).
Gia’ su
.
’ u = f(x, y) x´ac di
.
nh trong h`ınh ch˜ u
.
nhˆa
.
t
Q = {(x, y) : |x −x
0
| < d
1
, |y −y
0
| < d
2
}
c´o thˆe

tr` u
.
ra ch´ınh c´ac diˆe

m x = x
0
, y = y
0
. Khi cˆo´ di
.
nh mˆo
.
t gi´a tri
.
y th`ı h`am f(x, y) tro
.
’ th`anh h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n. Gia’ su
.
’ dˆo´i v´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
cˆo´
di
.
nh y bˆa´t k` y tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n 0 < |y −y
0
| < d
2
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
lim
x→x
0
y cˆo´ di
.
nh
f(x, y) = ϕ(y).
Tiˆe
´
p theo, gia’ su
.
’ lim
y→y
0
ϕ(y) = b tˆo
`
n ta
.
i. Khi d´o ngu
.
`o
.
i ta n´oi r˘a
`
ng
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i gi´o
.
i ha
.
n l˘a
.
p cu’ a h`am f(x, y) ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(x
0
, y
0
) v`a viˆe
´
t
lim
y→y
0
lim
x→x
0
f(x, y) = b,
trong d´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n lim
x→x
0
y cˆo´ di
.
nh
0<|y−y
0
|<d
2
f(x, y) go
.
i l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n trong. Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
, ta
c´o thˆe

ph´at biˆe

u di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n l˘a
.
p kh´ac lim
x→x
0
lim
y→y
0
f(x, y) trong
d´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
lim
y→y
0
x cˆo´ di
.
nh
0<|x−x
0
|<d
1
f(x, y)
l`a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n trong.
Mˆo´i quan hˆe
.
gi˜ u
.
a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n k´ep v`a c´ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n l˘a
.
p du
.
o
.
.
c thˆe

hiˆe
.
n
trong di
.
nh l´ y sau dˆay:
7.4. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 53
Gia’ su
.
’ ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(x
0
, y
0
) gi´o
.
i ha
.
n k´ep v` a c´ ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n trong cu’ a
c´ac gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n l˘a
.
p cu’ a h`am tˆo
`
n ta
.
i. Khi d´o c´ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n l˘a
.
p tˆo
`
n ta
.
i v`a
lim
x→x
0
lim
y→y
0
f(x, y) = lim
y→y
0
lim
x→x
0
= lim
x→x
0
y→y
0
f(x, y).
T` u
.
di
.
nh l´ y n`ay ta thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng viˆe
.
c thay dˆo

i th´ u
.
tu
.
.
trong c´ac gi´ o
.
i
ha
.
n khˆong pha’ i bao gi`o
.
c˜ ung du
.
o
.
.
c ph´ep.
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n ta c˜ ung c´o nh˜ u
.
ng di
.
nh l´ y vˆe
`
c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t
sˆo´ ho
.
c cu’ a gi´o
.
i ha
.
n tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
c´ac di
.
nh l´ y vˆe
`
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a h`am mˆo
.
t
biˆe
´
n.
2. T` u
.
kh´ai niˆe
.
m gi´o
.
i ha
.
n ta s˜e tr`ınh b`ay kh´ai niˆe
.
m vˆe
`
t´ınh liˆen tu
.
c
cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n.
H`am u = f(M) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
nˆe
´
u:
i) f(M) x´ac di
.
nh ta
.
i ch´ınh diˆe

m M
0
c˜ ung nhu
.
trong mˆo
.
t lˆan cˆa
.
n
n`ao d´o cu’ a diˆe

m M
0
.
ii) Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n lim
M→M
0
f(M) tˆo
`
n ta
.
i.
iii) lim
M→M
0
f(M) = f(M
0
).
Su
.
.
liˆen tu
.
c v` u
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c di
.
nh ngh˜ıa go
.
i l`a su
.
.
liˆen tu
.
c theo tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p
biˆe
´
n sˆo´.
H`am f(M) liˆen tu
.
c trong miˆe
`
n D nˆe
´
u n´o liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i mo
.
i diˆe

m cu’ a
miˆe
`
n d´o.
Diˆe

m M
0
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n cu’ a h`am f(M) nˆe
´
u dˆo´i v´o
.
i
diˆe

m M
0
c´o ´ıt nhˆa´t mˆo
.
t trong ba diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n trong di
.
nh ngh˜ıa liˆen tu
.
c
khˆong tho’a m˜an. Diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n c´o thˆe

l`a nh˜ u
.
ng
diˆe

m cˆo lˆa
.
p, v`a c˜ ung c´o thˆe

l`a ca’ mˆo
.
t du
.
`o
.
ng (du
.
`o
.
ng gi´an doa
.
n).
Nˆe
´
u h`am f(x, y) liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(x
0
, y
0
) theo tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p biˆe
´
n sˆo´
th`ı n´o liˆen tu
.
c theo t` u
.
ng biˆe
´
n sˆo´. Diˆe
`
u kh˘a

ng di
.
nh ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i l`a khˆong
d´ ung.
C˜ ung nhu
.
dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n, tˆo

ng, hiˆe
.
u v`a t´ıch c´ ac h`am liˆen
tu
.
c hai biˆe
´
n ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
l`a h`am liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m d´o; thu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a hai
h`am liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i M
0
c˜ ung l`a h`am liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i M
0
nˆe
´
u ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
h`am
54 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ kh´ac 0. Ngo` ai ra, di
.
nh l´ y vˆe
`
t´ınh liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am ho
.
.
p vˆa
˜
n
d´ ung trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trˆen ta c´ o thˆe

tr`ınh b`ay c´ac kh´ai niˆe
.
m co
.
ba’ n liˆen quan dˆe
´
n gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am ba biˆe
´
n,...
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng h`am
f(x, y) = (x + y) sin
1
x
sin
1
y
l`a vˆo c` ung b´e ta
.
i diˆe

m O(0, 0).
Gia’ i. Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa vˆo c` ung b´e (tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`am mˆo
.
t
biˆe
´
n) ta cˆa
`
n ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng
lim
x→0
y→0
f(x, y) = 0.
Ta ´ap du
.
ng di
.
nh ngh˜ıa gi´o
.
i ha
.
n theo Cauchy. Ta cho sˆo´ ε > 0 t` uy
´ y v`a d˘a
.
t δ =
ε
2
. Khi d´o nˆe
´
u
ρ
_
M(x, y), O(0, 0)
¸
=
_
x
2
+ y
2
< δ th`ı |x| < δ, |y| < δ.
Do d´o
|f(x, y) −0| =
¸
¸
¸(x + y) sin
1
x
sin
1
y
¸
¸
¸ |x| +|y| < 2δ = ε.
Diˆe
`
u d´o ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng
lim
x→0
y→0
f(x, y) = 0.
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh c´ac gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n sau dˆay:
1) lim
x→0
y→2
_
1 + xy
_
2
x
2
+ xy
, 2) lim
x→0
y→2
_
x
2
+ (y −x)
2
+ 1 −1
x
2
+ (y −2)
2
,
3) lim
x→0
y→0
x
4
+ y
4
x
2
+ y
2
.
7.4. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 55
Gia’ i. 1) Ta biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n h`am du
.
´o
.
i dˆa´u gi´o
.
i ha
.
n du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
_
_
1 + xy
_
1
xy
_
2y
x + y
.
V`ı t = xy → 0 khi
_
x → 0
y → 0
_
nˆen
lim
x→0
y→2
_
1 + xy
_
1
xy
= lim
t→0
_
1 + t
_
1
t
= e.
Tiˆe
´
p theo v`ı lim
x→0
y→2
2
x + y
= 2 (theo di
.
nh l´ y thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng vˆe
`
gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
cu’ a thu
.
o
.
ng), do d´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cˆa
`
n t`ım b˘a
`
ng e
2
.
2) Ta t`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n M(x, y) → M
0
(0, 2). Khoa’ ng c´ach
gi˜ u
.
a hai diˆe

m M v`a M
0
b˘a
`
ng
ρ =
_
x
2
+ (y −2)
2
.
Do d´o
lim
x→0
y→2
f(x, y) = lim
ρ→0
_
ρ
2
+ 1 −1
ρ
2
= lim
ρ→0

2
+ 1) −1
ρ
2
(
_
ρ
2
+ 1 + 1)
= lim
ρ→0
1
_
ρ
2
+ 1 + 1
=
1
2
·
3) Chuyˆe

n sang to
.
a dˆo
.
cu
.
.
c ta c´o x = ρ cos ϕ, y = ρ sin ϕ. Ta c´o
x
4
+ y
4
x
2
+ y
2
=
ρ
4
(cos
4
ϕ + sin
4
ϕ)
ρ
2
(cos
2
ϕ + sin
2
ϕ)
= ρ
2
(cos
4
ϕ + sin
4
ϕ).
V`ı cos
4
ϕ + sin
4
ϕ 2 nˆen
lim
x→0
y→0
x
4
+ y
4
x
2
+ y
2
= lim
ρ→0
ρ
2
(cos
4
ϕ + sin
4
ϕ) = 0.
56 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
V´ı du
.
3. 1) Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng h`am
f
1
(x, y) =
x −y
x + y
khˆong c´o gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n ta
.
i diˆe

m (0, 0).
2) H`am
f
2
(x, y) =
xy
x
2
+ y
2
c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n ta
.
i diˆe

m (0, 0) hay khˆong ?
Gia’ i. 1) H` am f
1
(x, y) x´ac di
.
nh kh˘a
´
p no
.
i ngoa
.
i tr` u
.
du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng
x + y = 0. Ta ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng h`am khˆong c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n ta
.
i (0, 0). Ta
lˆa´y hai d˜ay diˆe

m hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n diˆe

m (0, 0):
M
n
=
_
1
n
, 0
_
→(0, 0), n → ∞,
M

n
=
_
0,
1
n
_
→(0, 0), n → ∞.
Khi d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c
lim
n→∞
f
1
(M
n
) = lim
n→∞
1
n
−0
1
n
+ 0
= 1;
lim
n→∞
f
1
(M

n
) = lim
n→∞
0 −
1
n
0 +
1
n
= −1.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y hai d˜ay diˆe

m kh´ac nhau c` ung hˆo
.
i tu
.
dˆe
´
n diˆe

m (0, 0) nhu
.
ng
hai d˜ay gi´ a tri
.
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng cu’ a h`am khˆong c´ o c` ung gi´o
.
i ha
.
n. Do d´o
theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa h`am khˆong c´o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n ta
.
i (0, 0).
2) Gia’ su
.
’ diˆe

m M(x, y) dˆa
`
n dˆe
´
n diˆe

m (0, 0) theo du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng
y = kx qua gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
. Khi d´o ta c´ o
lim
x→0
y→0
(y=kx)
xy
x
2
+ y
2
= lim
x→0
kx
2
x
2
+ k
2
x
2
=
k
1 + k
2
·
7.4. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 57
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y khi dˆa
`
n dˆe
´
n diˆe

m (0, 0) theo c´ac du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng kh´ac nhau
(tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i c´ac gi´a tri
.
k kh´ac nhau) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´ac gi´a tri
.
gi´o
.
i
ha
.
n kh´ac nhau, t´ u
.
c l`a h`am d˜a cho khˆong c´ o gi´o
.
i ha
.
n ta
.
i (0, 0).
V´ı du
.
4. Kha’ o s´at t´ınh liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a c´ac h`am
1) f(x, y) =
x
2
+ 2xy + 5
y
2
−2x + 1
2) f(x, y) =
1
x
2
+ y
2
−z
3) f(x, y) =
x + y
x
3
+ y
3
Gia’ i. 1) Diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am d˜a cho bi
.
vi pha
.
m ta
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng
diˆe

m cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng R
2
m`a to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a ch´ ung tho’a m˜an phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
y
2
−2x+1 = 0. D´o l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh du
.
`o
.
ng parabˆon v´o
.
i dı ’nh ta
.
i diˆe

m
_
1
2
, 0
_
. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y c´ac diˆe

m cu’ a parabˆon n`ay l`a nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n
- d´o l`a du
.
`o
.
ng gi´an doa
.
n cu’ a h`am. Nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe

m cu’ a m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng R
2
khˆong thuˆo
.
c parabˆon d´o l`a nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe

m liˆen tu
.
c.
2) H`am d˜a cho liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i mo
.
i diˆe

m cu’ a khˆong gian R
3
m`a to
.
a dˆo
.
cu’ a ch´ ung tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n x
2
+ y
2
− z = 0. D´o l`a phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
m˘a
.
t paraboloit tr`on xoay. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay m˘a
.
t paraboloit l`a
m˘a
.
t gi´ an doa
.
n cu’ a h`am.
3) V`ı tu
.
’ sˆo´ v`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am liˆen tu
.
c nˆen thu
.
o
.
ng l`a h`am
liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe

m m`a mˆa
˜
u sˆo´ x
3
+y
3
= 0. H`am c´o gi´ an doa
.
n ta
.
i
nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe

m m`a x
3
+ y
3
= 0 hay y = −x. Ngh˜ıa l`a h`am c´o gi´an doa
.
n
trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng y = −x.
Gia’ su
.
’ x
0
= 0, y
0
= 0. Khi d´o
lim
x→x
0
y→y
0
x + y
x
3
+ y
3
= lim
x→x
0
y→y
0
1
x
2
−xy + y
2
=
1
x
2
0
−x
0
y
0
+ y
2
0
·
T` u
.
d´o suy ra r˘a
`
ng c´ac diˆe

m cu’ a du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng y = x (x = 0) l`a
58 Chu
.
o
.
ng 7. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am sˆo´
nhu
.
.
ng diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n khu
.
’ du
.
o
.
.
c. V`ı
lim
x→0
y→0
x + y
x
3
+ y
3
= lim
x→0
y→0
1
x
2
−xy + y
2
= +∞
nˆen diˆe

m O(0, 0) l`a diˆe

m gi´an doa
.
n vˆo c` ung.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay (1-10) h˜ay t`ım miˆe
`
n x´ac di
.
nh cu’ a c´ac
h`am nˆe
´
u:
1. w =
_
x
2
−y
2
. (DS. |y| |x|)
2. w =

xy. (DS. x 0, y 0 ho˘a
.
c x 0, y 0)
3. w =
_
a
2
−x
2
−y
2
. (DS. x
2
+ y
2
a
2
)
4. w =
1
_
x
2
+ y
2
−a
2
. (DS. x
2
+ y
2
> a
2
)
5. w =
_
1 −
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
. (DS.
x
2
a
2
+
y
2
b
2
1)
6. w = ln(z
2
−x
2
−y
2
−1). (DS. x
2
+ y
2
−z
2
< −1)
7. w = arcsin
x
2
+

xy. (DS. Hai nu
.
’ a b˘ang vˆo ha
.
n th˘a

ng d´ u
.
ng
{0 x 2, 0 y < +∞} v`a {−2 x 0, −∞ < y 0})
8. w =
_
x
2
+ y
2
−1 + ln(4 −x
2
−y
2
).
(DS. V`anh tr`on 1 x
2
+ y
2
< 4)
9. w =
_
sinπ(x
2
+ y
2
). (DS. Tˆa
.
p ho
.
.
p c´ac v` anh dˆo
`
ng tˆam
0 x
2
+ y
2
1; 2 x
2
+ y
2
3; . . . )
10. w =
_
ln(1 + z −x
2
−y
2
).
(DS. Phˆa
`
n trong cu’ a mˆa
.
t paraboloid z = x
2
+ y
2
−1).
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay (11-18) h˜ay t´ınh c´ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a h`am
7.4. Gi´o
.
i ha
.
n v`a liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 59
11. lim
x→0
y→0
sinxy
xy
. (DS. 1)
12. lim
x→0
y→0
sinxy
x
. (DS. 0)
13. lim
x→0
y→0
xy

xy + 1 −1
. (DS. 2)
14. lim
x→0
y→0
x
2
+ y
2
_
x
2
+ y
2
+ 1 −1
. (DS. 2)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Su
.
’ du
.
ng khoa’ ng c´ach ρ =
_
x
2
+ y
2
ho˘a
.
c nhˆan - chia
v´o
.
i da
.
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng liˆen ho
.
.
p v´o
.
i mˆa
˜
u sˆo´.
15. lim
x→0
y→3
_
1 + xy
2
_
y
x
2
y + xy
2
. (DS. e
3
)
16. lim
x→0
y→0
x
2
y
x
2
+ y
2
. (DS. 0)
17. lim
x→0
y→5
_
(x
2
+ (y −5)
2
+ 1 −1
x
2
+ (y −5)
2
. (DS.
1
2
)
18. lim
x→1
y→0
tg(2xy)
x
2
y
. (DS. 2).
Chu
.
o
.
ng 8
Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t
biˆe
´
n
8.1 D
-
a
.
o h`am . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8.1.1 D
-
a
.
o h`am cˆa´p 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
8.1.2 D
-
a
.
o h`am cˆa´p cao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
8.2 Vi phˆan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
8.2.1 Vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
8.2.2 Vi phˆan cˆa´p cao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
8.3 C´ac di
.
nh l´ y co
.
ba’ n vˆe ` h`am kha’ vi. Quy
t˘a
´
c l’Hospital. Cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor . . . . . . 84
8.3.1 C´ac di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe ` h`am kha’ vi . . . . . 84
8.3.2 Khu
.
’ c´ac da
.
ng vˆo di
.
nh. Quy t˘a
´
c Lˆopitan
(L’Hospitale) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
8.3.3 Cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
8.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am 61
8.1 D
-
a
.
o h`am
8.1.1 D
-
a
.
o h`am cˆa
´
p 1
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am y = f(x) x´ac di
.
nh trong δ-lˆan cˆa
.
n cu’ a diˆe

m x
0
(U(x
0
; δ) =
{x ∈ R : |x −x
0
| < δ) v`a ∆f(x
0
) = f(x
0
+ ∆x) −f(x
0
) l`a sˆo´ gia cu’ a
n´o ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i sˆo´ gia ∆x = x −x
0
cu’ a dˆo´i sˆo´.
Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n
lim
∆x→0
f(x
0
+ ∆x) −f(x
0
)
∆x
khi ∆x → 0 th`ı gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am f(x) ta
.
i
diˆe

m x
0
v`a du
.
o
.
.
c chı ’ bo
.
’ i mˆo
.
t trong c´ac k´ y hiˆe
.
u:
lim
∆x→0
f(x
0
+ ∆x) −f(x
0
)
∆x

dy
dx

d
dx
f(x) ≡ f

(x) ≡ y

.
Da
.
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng
f

+
(x
0
) = f

(x
0
+ 0) = lim
∆x→0
∆x>0
∆y
∆x
= lim
∆x→0+0
∆y
∆x
v`a
f


(x
0
) = f

(x
0
−0) = lim
∆x→0
∆x<0
∆y
∆x
= lim
∆x→0−0
∆y
∆x
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
.
o h`am bˆen pha’ i v`a da
.
o h`am bˆen tr´ai cu’ a h`am y = f(x)
ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
nˆe
´
u c´ac gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n d˜a nˆeu tˆo
`
n ta
.
i.
Su
.
’ du
.
ng kh´ai niˆe
.
m gi´o
.
i ha
.
n mˆo
.
t ph´ıa ta c´ o:
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 8.1.1. H`am y = f(x) c´o da
.
o h`am ta
.
i diˆe

m x khi v`a chı ’ khi
c´ac da
.
o h`am mˆo
.
t ph´ıa tˆo
`
n ta
.
i v`a b˘a
`
ng nhau:
f

(x + 0) = f

(x −0) = f

(x).
H`am f(x) kha’ vi nˆe
´
u n´o c´o da
.
o h`am f

(x) h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n. H` am f(x) kha’
vi liˆen tu
.
c nˆe
´
u da
.
o h`am f

(x) tˆo
`
n ta
.
i v`a liˆen tu
.
c. Nˆe
´
u h`am f(x) kha’
vi th`ı n´o liˆen tu
.
c. Diˆe
`
u kh˘a

ng di
.
nh ngu
.
o
.
.
c la
.
i l`a khˆong d´ ung.
62 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
8.1.2 D
-
a
.
o h`am cˆa
´
p cao
Da
.
o h`am f

(x) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
.
o h`am cˆ a´p 1 (hay da
.
o h`am bˆ a
.
c nhˆa´t).
Da
.
o h`am cu’ a f

(x) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
.
o h`am cˆ a´p hai (hay da
.
o h`am th´ u
.
hai) cu’ a h`am f(x) v`a du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a y

hay f

(x). Da
.
o h`am cu’ a
f

(x) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
.
o h`am cˆa´p 3 (hay da
.
o h`am th´ u
.
ba) cu’ a h`am f(x)
v`a du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u y

hay f

(x) (hay y
(3)
, f
(3)
(x) v.v...
Ta c´o ba’ ng da
.
o h`am cu’ a c´ac h`am so
.
cˆa´p co
.
ba’ n
f(x) f

(x) f
(n)
(x)
x
a
ax
a−1
a(a −1)(a −2) · · · (a −n + 1)x
a−n
,
x > 0
e
x
e
x
e
x
a
x
a
x
lna a
x
(lna)
n
lnx
1
x
(−1)
n−1
(n −1)!
1
x
n
, x > 0
log
a
x
1
xlna
(−1)
n−1
(n −1)!
1
x
n
lna
, x > 0
sinx cos x sin
_
x +

2
_
8.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am 63
f(x) f

(x) f
(n)
(x)
cos x −sinx cos
_
x +

2
_
tgx
1
cos
2
x
cotgx −
1
sin
2
x
arc sinx
1

1 −x
2
, |x| < 1
arccosx −
1

1 −x
2
, |x| < 1
arctgx
1
1 + x
2
arccotgx −
1
1 + x
2
Viˆe
.
c t´ınh da
.
o h`am du
.
o
.
.
c du
.
.
a trˆen c´ ac quy t˘a
´
c sau dˆay.
1
+
d
dx
[u + v] =
d
dx
u +
d
dx
v.
2
+
d
dx
(αu) = α
du
dx
, α ∈ R.
3
+
d
dx
(uv) = v
du
dx
+ u
dv
dx
.
4
+
d
dx
_
u
v
_
=
1
v
2
_
v
du
dx
−u
dv
dx
_
, v = 0.
5
+
d
dx
f[u(x)] =
df
du
·
du
dx
(da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am ho
.
.
p).
6
+
Nˆe
´
u h`am y = y(x) c´o h`am ngu
.
o
.
.
c x = x(y) v`a
dy
dx
≡ y

x
= 0 th`ı
dx
dy
≡ x

y
=
1
y

x
·
64 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
7
+
Nˆe
´
u h`am y = y(x) du
.
o
.
.
c cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng ˆa

n bo
.
’ i hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c kha’ vi
F(x, y) = 0 v`a F

y
= 0 th`ı
dy
dx
= −
F

x
F

y
trong d´o F

x
v`a F

y
l`a da
.
o h`am theo biˆe
´
n tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng cu’ a h`am F(x, y)
khi xem biˆe
´
n kia khˆong dˆo

i.
8
+
Nˆe
´
u h`am y = y(x) du
.
o
.
.
c cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng tham sˆo´ x = x(t),
y = y(t) (x

(t) = 0) th`ı
dy
dx
=
y

(t)
x

(t)
·
9
+
d
n
dx
n
(αu + βv) = α
d
n
u
dx
n
+ β
d
n
v
dx
n
;
d
n
dx
n
uv =
n

k=0
C
k
n
d
n−k
dx
n−k
u
d
k
dx
k
v (quy t˘a
´
c Leibniz).
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. 1) Khi t´ınh da
.
o h`am cu’ a mˆo
.
t biˆe

u th´ u
.
c d˜a cho ta c´ o thˆe

biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
bˆo
.
biˆe

u th´ u
.
c d´o sao cho qu´a tr`ınh t´ınh da
.
o h`am do
.
n gia’ n
ho
.
n. Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n nˆe
´
u biˆe

u th´ u
.
c d´o l`a logarit th`ı c´o thˆe

su
.
’ du
.
ng c´ac
t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a logarit dˆe

biˆe
´
n dˆo

i... rˆo
`
i t´ınh da
.
o h`am. Trong nhiˆe
`
u
tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p khi t´ınh da
.
o h`am ta nˆen lˆa´y logarit h`am d˜a cho rˆo
`
i ´ap
du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c da
.
o h`am loga
d
dx
lny(x) =
y

(x)
y(x)
·
2) Nˆe
´
u h`am kha’ vi trˆen mˆo
.
t khoa’ ng du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
F(x, y) = 0 th`ı da
.
o h`am y

(x) c´ o thˆe

t`ım t` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
d
dx
F(x, y) = 0.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
8.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am 65
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh da
.
o h`am y

nˆe
´
u:
1) y = ln
3
_
e
x
1 + cos x
; x = π(2n + 1), n ∈ N
2) y =
1 + x
2
3

x
4
sin
7
x
, x = πn, n ∈ N.
Gia’ i. 1) Tru
.
´o
.
c hˆe
´
t ta do
.
n gia’ n biˆe

u th´ u
.
c cu’ a h`am y b˘a
`
ng c´ach
du
.
.
a v`ao c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a logarit. Ta c´o
y =
1
3
lne
x

1
3
ln(1 + cos x) =
x
3

1
3
ln(1 + cos x).
Do d´o
y

=
1
3

1
3
(cos x)

1 + cos x
=
1
3
+
1
3
sin x
1 + cosx
=
1 + tg
x
2
3
·
2) O
.

dˆay tiˆe
.
n lo
.
.
i ho
.
n ca’ l`a x´et h`am z = ln|y|. Ta c´o
dz
dx
=
dz
dy
·
dy
dx
=
1
y
dy
dx

dy
dx
= y
dz
dx
· (*)
Viˆe
´
t h`am z du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
x = ln|y| = ln(1 + x
2
) −
4
3
ln|x| −7ln| sinx|

dz
dx
=
2x
1 + x
2

4
3x
−7
cos x
sinx
·
Thˆe
´
biˆe

u th´ u
.
c v` u
.
a thu du
.
o
.
.
c v`ao (∗) ta c´o
dy
dx
=
1 + x
2
3

x
4
sin
7
x
_
2x
1 + x
2

4
3x
−7
cos x
sinx
_
.
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh da
.
o h`am y

nˆe
´
u: 1) y = (2+cos x)
x
, x ∈ R; 2) y = x
2
x
,
x > 0.
Gia’ i. 1) Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa ta c´ o
y = e
xln(2+cos x)
.
66 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
T` u
.
d´o
y

= e
xln(2+cos x)
_
xln(2 + cos x)
¸

= e
xln(2+cos x)
_
ln(2 + cos x) −x
sinx
2 + cos x
_
, x ∈ R.
2) V`ı y = e
2
x
lnx
nˆen v´o
.
i x > 0 ta c´o
y

= e
2
x
lnx
[2
x
lnx]

= e
2
x
lnx
_
1
x
2
x
+ 2
x
ln2 · lnx
_
= 2
x
x
2
x
_
1
x
+ ln2 · lnx
_
.
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh da
.
o h`am cˆa´p 2 cu’ a h`am ngu
.
o
.
.
c v´o
.
i h`am y = x + x
5
,
x ∈ R.
Gia’ i. H`am d˜a cho liˆen tu
.
c v`a do
.
n diˆe
.
u kh˘a
´
p no
.
i, da
.
o h`am y

=
1 + 5x
4
khˆong triˆe
.
t tiˆeu ta
.
i bˆa´t c´ u
.
diˆe

m n`ao. Do d´o
x

y
=
1
y

x
=
1
1 + 5x
4
·
Lˆa´y da
.
o h`am d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c n`ay theo y ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
x

yy
=
_
1
1 + 5x
4
_

x
· x

y
=
−20x
3
(1 + 5x
4
)
3
·
V´ı du
.
4. Gia’ su
.
’ h`am y = f(x) du
.
o
.
.
c cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng tham sˆo´ bo
.
’ i c´ac
cˆong th´ u
.
c x = x(t), y = y(t), t ∈ (a; b) v` a gia’ su
.
’ x(t), y(t) kha’ vi cˆa´p
2 v`a x

(t) = 0 t ∈ (a, b). T`ım y

xx
.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o
dy
dx
=
dy
dt
dx
dt
=
y

t
x

t
⇒y

x
=
y

t
x

t
·
Lˆa´y da
.
o h`am hai vˆe
´
cu’ a d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c n`ay ta c´o
y

xx
=
_
y

t
x

t
_

t
· t

x
=
_
y

t
x

t
_

t
·
1
x

t
=
x

t
y

tt
−y

t
x

tt
x

t
3
·
8.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am 67
V´ı du
.
5. Gia’ su
.
’ y = y(x), |x| > a l`a h`am gi´ a tri
.
du
.
o
.
ng cho du
.
´o
.
i
da
.
ng ˆa

n bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
= 1.
T´ınh y

xx
.
Gia’ i. Dˆe

t`ım y

ta ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c
d
dx
F(x, y) = 0.
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay ta c´ o
d
dx
_
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
−1
_
= 0.
Lˆa´y da
.
o h`am ta c´ o
2x
a
2

2y
b
2
y

x
= 0, (8.1)
⇒y

x
=
b
2
x
a
2
y
, |x| > 0, y > 0. (8.2)
Lˆa´y da
.
o h`am (8.1) theo x ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
1
a
2

1
b
2
_
y

x
_
2

y
b
2
y

xx
= 0
v`a t` u
.
(8.2) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c y

x
:
y

xx
=
1
y
_
b
2
a
2

_
y

x
_
2
_
=
1
y
_
b
2
a
2

b
4
a
4
x
2
y
2
_
= −
b
4
a
2
y
3
_
x
2
a
2

y
2
b
2
_
= −
b
4
a
2
y
3
, y > 0.
V´ı du
.
6. T´ınh y
(n)
nˆe
´
u: 1) y =
1
x
2
−4
; 2) y = x
2
cos 2x.
Gia’ i. 1) Biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n h`am d˜a cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng tˆo

ng c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n
1
x
2
−4
=
1
4
_
1
x −2

1
x + 2
_
68 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
v`a khi d´o
_
1
x
2
−4
_
(n)
=
1
4
__
1
x −2
_
(n)

_
1
x + 2
_
(n)
_
.
Do
_
1
x ±2
_
(n)
= (−1)(−2) · · · (−1 −n + 1)(x ±2)
−1−n
= (−1)
n
n!
1
(x ±2)
n+1
nˆen
_
1
x
2
−4
_
(n)
=
(−1)
n
n!
4
_
1
(x −2)
n+1

1
(x + 2)
n+1
_
.
2) Ta ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Leibniz dˆo´i v´o
.
i da
.
o h`am cu’ a t´ıch
(x
2
cos 2x) = C
0
n
x
2
(cos 2x)
(n)
+ C
1
n
(x
2
)

(cos 2x)
n−1
+ C
2
n
(x
2
)

(cos 2x)
n−2
.
C´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng c`on la
.
i dˆe
`
u = 0 v`ı
_
x
2
_
(k)
= 0 ∀k > 2.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c
(cos 2x)
(n)
= 2
n
cos
_
2x +

2
_
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
(x
2
cos 2x)
(n)
= 2
n
_
x
2

n(n −1)
4
_
cos
_
2x +

2
_
+ 2
n
nxsin
_
2x +

2
_
.
V´ı du
.
7. V´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
n`ao cu’ a a v`a b th`ı h`am
f(x) =
_
_
_
e
x
, x 0,
x
2
+ ax + b, x > 0
8.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am 69
c´o da
.
o h`am trˆen to`an tru
.
c sˆo´.
Gia’ i. R˜o r`ang l`a h`am f(x) c´ o da
.
o h`am ∀x > 0 v`a ∀x < 0. Ta chı ’
cˆa
`
n x´et diˆe

m x
0
= 0.
V`ı h`am f(x) pha’ i liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
= 0 nˆen
lim
x→0+0
f(x) = lim
x→0−0
f(x) = lim
x→0
f(x)
t´ u
.
c l`a
lim
x→0+0
(x
2
+ ax + b) = b = e
0
= 1 ⇒b = 1.
Tiˆe
´
p d´o, f

+
(0) = (x

+ ax + b)

¸
¸
x
0
=0
= a v`a f


(0) = e
x
¸
¸
x
0
=0
= 1.
Do d´o f

(0) tˆo
`
n ta
.
i nˆe
´
u a = 1 v`a b = 1. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y v´o
.
i a = 1, b = 1
h`am d˜a cho c´ o da
.
o h`am ∀x ∈ R.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh da
.
o h`am y

cu’ a h`am y = f(x) nˆe
´
u:
1. y =
4

x
3
+
5
x
2

3
x
3
+ 2. (DS.
3
4
4

x

10
x
3
+
9
x
4
)
2. y = log
2
x + 3log
3
x. (DS.
ln24
xln2 · ln3
)
3. y = 5
x
+ 6
x
+
_
1
7
_
x
. (DS. 5
x
ln5 + 6
x
ln6 −7
−x
ln7)
4. y = ln(x + 1 +

x
2
+ 2x + 3). (DS.
1

x
2
+ 2x + 3
)
5. y = tg5x. (DS.
10
sin10x
)
6. y = ln(ln

x). (DS.
1
2xln

x
)
7. y = ln
_
1 + 2x
1 −2x
. (DS.
2
1 −4x
2
)
70 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
8. y = xarctg

2x −1 −

2x −1
2
. (DS. arctg

2x −1)
9. y = sin
2
x
3
. (DS. 3x
2
sin2x
3
)
10. y = sin
4
x + cos
4
x. (DS. −sin 4x)
11. y =

xe

x
. (DS.
e

x
(1 +

x)
2

x
)
12. y = e
1
cos x
. (DS. e
1
cos x
sinx
cos
2
x
)
13. y = e
1
lnx
. (DS.
−e
1
lnx
xln
2
x
)
14. y = ln
_
e
2x
+

e
4x
+ 1. (DS.
2e
2x

e
4x
+ 1
)
15. y = ln
_
e
4x
e
4x
+ 1
. (DS.
2
e
4x
+ 1
)
16. y = log
5
cos 7x. (DS. −
7tg7x
ln5
)
17. y = log
7
cos

1 + x. (DS. −
tg

1 + x
2

1 + xln7
)
18. y = arccos
_
e

x
2
2
_
. (DS.
xe

x
2
2

1 −e
−x
2
)
19. y = tg sin cos x. (DS.
−sincos(cos x)
cos
2
(sincos x)
)
20. y = e
x
2
cotg3x
. (DS.
xe
c
2
cotg3x
sin
2
3x
(sin6x −3x))
21. y = e

1+lnx
. (DS.
e

1+lnx
2x

1 + lnx
)
22. y = x
1
x
. (DS. x
1
x
−2
(1 −lnx))
23. y = e
x
. (DS. x
x
(1 + lnx))
8.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am 71
24. y = x
sinx
. (DS. x
sinx
cos x · lnx + x
sinx−1
sinx)
25. y = (tgx)
sinx
. (DS. (tgx)
sinx
_
cos xlntgx +
1
cos x
_
)
26. y = x
sinx
. (DS. x
sinx
_
sinx
x
+ lnx · cos x
_
)
27. y = x
x
2
. (DS. x
x
2
+1
(1 + 2lnx))
28. y = x
e
x
. (DS. e
x
x
e
x
_
1
x
+ lnx))
29. y = log
x
7. (DS. −
1
xlnxlog
7
x
)
30. y =
1
2a
ln
¸
¸
¸
x −a
x + a
¸
¸
¸. (DS.
1
x
2
−a
2
)
31. y = sinln|x|. (DS.
cos ln|x|
x
)
32. y = ln| sinx|. (DS. cotgx)
33. y = ln|x +

x
2
+ 1|. (DS.
1

x
2
+ 1
).
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay (34-40) t´ınh da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am y du
.
o
.
.
c
cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng tham sˆo´.
34. x = a cos t, a sint, t ∈ (0, π). y

xx
? (DS. −
1
a sin
3
t
)
35. x = t
3
, y = t
2
. y

xx
? (DS. −
2
9t
4
)
36. x = 1 + e
at
, y = at + e
−at
. y

xx
? (DS. 2e
−3at
−e
−2at
)
37. x = a cos
3
t, y = a sin
3
t. y

xx
? (DS.
1
3a sin t cos
4
t
)
38. x = e
t
cos t, y = e
t
sint. y

xx
? (DS.
2
e
t
(cos t −sint)
3
)
39. x = t −sint, y = 1 −cos t. y

xx
? (DS. −
1
4 sin
4
t
2
)
40. x = t
2
+ 2t, y = ln(1 + t). y

xx
? (DS.
−1
4(1 + t)
4
).
72 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay (41-47) t´ınh da
.
o h`am y

ho˘a
.
c y

cu’ a
h`am ˆa

n du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho
41. x +

xy + y = a. y

? (DS.
2a −2x −y
x + 2y −a
)
42. arctg
y
x
= ln
_
x
2
+ y
2
. y

? (DS.
x + y
x −y
)
43. e
x
sin y −e
−y
cos x = 0. y

? (DS. −
e
x
siny + e
−y
sinx
e
x
cos y + e
−y
cos x
)
44. x
2
y + arctg
_
y
x
_
= 0. y

? (DS.
−2x
3
y −2xy
3
+ y
x
4
+ x
2
y
2
+ x
)
45. e
x
−e
y
= y −x. y

? (DS.
(e
y
−e
x
)(e
x+y
−1)
(e
y
+ 1)
3
)
46. x + y = e
x−y
. y

? (DS.
4(x + y)
(x + y + 1)
3
)
47. y = x + arctgy. y

? (DS.
−(2y
2
+ 2)
y
5
).
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay (48-52) t´ınh da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am ngu
.
o
.
.
c
v´o
.
i h`am d˜a cho.
48. y = x + x
3
, x ∈ R. x

y
? (DS. x

y
=
1
1 + 3x
2
)
49. y = x + lnx, x > 0. x

y
? (DS. x

y
=
x
x + 1
, y > 0)
50. y = x + e
x
. x

y
? (DS. x

y
=
1
1 + y −x
, y ∈ R)
51. y = chx, x > 0. x

y
? (DS. x

y
=
1
_
y
2
−1
)
52. y =
x
2
1 + x
2
, x < 0. x

y
? (DS. x

y
=
x
3
2y
2
, y ∈ (0, 1)).
53. V´o
.
i gi´a tri
.
n`ao cu’ a a v`a b th`ı h`am
f(x) =
_
_
_
x
3
nˆe
´
u x x
0
,
ax + b nˆe
´
u x > x
0
8.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am 73
liˆen tu
.
c v`a kha’ vi ta
.
i diˆe

m x = x
0
?
(DS. a = 3x
2
0
, b = −2x
3
0
).
54. X´ac di
.
nh α v`a β dˆe

c´ac h`am sau: a) liˆen tu
.
c kh˘a
´
p no
.
i; b) kha’ vi
kh˘a
´
p no
.
i nˆe
´
u
1) f(x) =
_
_
_
αx + β nˆe
´
u x 1
x
2
nˆe
´
u x > 1
2) f(x) =
_
¸
_
¸
_
α + βx
2
nˆe
´
u |x| < 1,
1
|x|
nˆe
´
u |x| 1.
(DS. 1) a) α + β = 1, b) α = 2, β = −1; 2) a) α + β = 1, b)
α =
3
2
, β = −
1
2
).
55. Gia’ su
.
’ h`am y = f(x) x´ac di
.
nh trˆen tia (−∞, x
0
) v`a kha’ vi bˆen
tr´ai ta
.
i diˆe

m x = x
0
. V´ o
.
i gi´a tri
.
n`ao cu’ a a v`a b th`ı h`am
f(x) =
_
_
_
f(x) nˆe
´
u x x
0
,
ax
2
+ b nˆe
´
u x > x
0
kha’ vi ta
.
i diˆe

m x = x
0
(x
0
= 0) ?
(DS. a =
f

(x
0
−0)
2x
0
, b = f(x
0
) −
x
0
2
f

(x
0
−0)).
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an (56-62) t´ınh da
.
o h`am y

nˆe
´
u
56. y = e
−x
2
. (DS. 2e
−x
2
(2x
2
−1))
57. y = tgx. (DS.
2 sin x
cos
3
x
)
58. y =

1 + x
2
. (DS.
1
(1 + x
2
)
3/2
)
59. y = arcsin
x
2
. (DS.
x
(4 −x
2
)
3/2
)
60. y = arctg
1
x
. (DS.
2x
(1 + x
2
)
2
)
74 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
61. y = xarcsinx. (DS.
2 −x
2
(1 −x
2
)

1 −x
2
)
62. y = f(e
x
). (DS. e
x
f

(e
x
) + e
2x
f

(e
x
)).
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an (63-69) t´ınh da
.
o h`am cˆa´p 3 cu’ a y nˆe
´
u:
63. y = arctg
x
2
. (DS.
4(3x −4)
(4 + x
2
)
3
)
64. y = xe
−x
. (DS. e
−x
(3 −x))
65. y = e
x
cos x. (DS. −2e
x
(cos x + sinx))
66. y = x
2
sinx. (DS. −2e
x
(cos x + sin x))
67. y = x
3
2
x
. (DS. 2
x
(x
3
ln
3
2 + 9x
2
ln
2
x + 18xln2 + 6))
68. y = x
2
sin2x. (DS. −4(2x
2
cos 2x + 6xsin2x −3 cos 2x))
69. y = (f(x
2
). (DS. 12xf

(x
2
) + 8x
3
f

(x
2
)).
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an (70-84) t´ınh da
.
o h`am y
(n)
nˆe
´
u
70. y = sin3x. (DS. 3
n
sin
_
3x +

2
_
)
72. y = e
x
2
. (DS. e
x
2
_
1
2
_
n
)
73. y = 2
3x
. (DS. 2
3x
(3ln2)
n
)
74. y = cos
2
x. (DS. 2
n−1
cos
_
2x + n ·
π
2
_
)
75. y = (4x + 1)
n
. (DS. 4
n
n!)
76. y = ln(ax + b). (DS. (−1)
n−1
(n −1)!
a
n
(ax + b)
n
)
77. y = sin
4
x + cos
4
x. (DS. 4
n−1
cos
_
4x +

2
_
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng sin
4
x + cos
4
x =
3
4
+
1
4
cos 4x.
78. y = sin
3
x. (DS.
3
4
sin
_
x +

2
_

3
n
4
sin
_
3x + n ·
π
2
_
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D` ung cˆong th´ u
.
c sin3x = 3 sin x −4 sin
3
x.
8.2. Vi phˆan 75
79. y = sinαxsin βx.
(DS.
1
2
(α−β)
n
cos[(α−β)x+n
π
2
] −
1
2
(α+β)
n
cos[(α+β)x+n
π
2
])
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Biˆe
´
n dˆo

i t´ıch th`anh tˆo

ng.
80. y = e
αx
sinβx.
(DS. e
αx
_
sinβx
_
α
n

n(n −1)
1 · 2
α
n−2
β
2
+ . . .
_
+
+cos βx
_

n−1
β −
n(n −1)(n −2)
1 · 2 · 3
α
n−3
β
3
+ . . .
_
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D` ung quy t˘a
´
c Leibniz.
81. y = e
x
(3x
2
−4). (DS. e
x
[3x
2
+ 6nx + 3n(n −1) −4])
82. y = ln
ax + b
ax −b
_
ax + b
ax −b
> 0
_
(DS. (−1)
n−1
a
n
(n −1)!
_
1
(ax + b)
n

1
ax −b)
n
_
)
83. y =
x
x
2
−4x −12
. (DS.
(−1)
n
n!
4
_
3
(x −6)
n+1
+
1
(x −2)
n+1
_
)
84. y =
3 −2x
2
2x
2
+ 3x −2
. (DS. (−1)
n
n!
_
2
n
(2x −1)
n+1
+
1
(x + 2)
n+1
_
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Dˆe

gia’ i b`ai 83 v`a 84 cˆa
`
n biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n h`am d˜a cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
tˆo

ng c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c do
.
n gia’ n.
8.2 Vi phˆan
8.2.1 Vi phˆan cˆa
´
p 1
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am y = f(x) x´ac di
.
nh trong lˆan cˆ a
.
n n`ao d´o cu’ a diˆe

m x
0
v`a
∆x = x −x
0
l`a sˆo´ gia cu’ a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p. H` am y = f(x) c´ o vi phˆan cˆa´p
1 (vi phˆan th´ u
.
nhˆa´t) ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
nˆe
´
u khi dˆo´i sˆo´ di
.
ch chuyˆe

n t` u
.
gi´a tri
.
x = x
0
dˆe
´
n gi´a tri
.
x = x
0
+∆x sˆo´ gia tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng cu’ a h`am f(x) c´ o thˆe

76 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
∆f(x
0
) ≡ f(x
0
+ ∆x) −f(x
0
) = D(x
0
)∆x + o(∆x) (8.3)
trong d´o D(x
0
) khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c ∆x v`a
o(∆x)
∆x
→0 khi ∆x → 0. T´ıch
D(x
0
)∆x du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a vi phˆan cˆ a´p 1 cu’ a h`am f(x) ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
v`a du
.
o
.
.
c
k´ y hiˆe
.
u
dy ≡ df ≡
dy
dx
dx.
Sˆo´ gia ∆x cu’ a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p x du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a vi phˆan cu’ a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p,
t´ u
.
c l`a theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa: dx = ∆x.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y 8.2.1. H`am y = f(x) c´o vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
khi v`a
chı ’ khi h`am d´o c´o da
.
o h`am h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n ta
.
i d´o v`a D(x
0
) = f

(x
0
).
Vi phˆan df(x
0
) cu’ a h`am f ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n qua da
.
o h`am f

(x
0
)
bo
.
’ i cˆong th´ u
.
c
df(x
0
) = f

(x
0
)dx (8.4)
Cˆong th´ u
.
c (8.4) cho ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan cu’ a c´ ac h`am, nˆe
´
u biˆe
´
t da
.
o h`am
cu’ a ch´ ung.
T` u
.
(8.3) suy ra
y(x
0
+ ∆x) = y(x
0
) + df(x
0
) + o(dx), dx →0.
Nˆe
´
u df(x
0
) = 0 th`ı dˆe

t´ınh gi´a tri
.
gˆa
`
n d´ ung cu’ a h`am f(x) ta
.
i diˆe

m
x
0
+ ∆x ta c´o thˆe

´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c
y(x
0
+ ∆x) ≈ y(x
0
) + df(x
0
) (8.5)
Vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 c´o c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t sau.
1
+
d(αu + βv) = αdu + βdv,
d(uv) = udv + vdu,
d
_
u
v
_
=
vdu −udv
v
2
, v = 0.
8.2. Vi phˆan 77
2
+
Cˆong th´ u
.
c vi phˆan dy = f

(x)dx luˆon luˆon tho’a m˜an bˆa´t luˆa
.
n
x l`a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p hay l`a h`am cu’ a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p kh´ac. T´ınh chˆa´t n`ay
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a t´ınh bˆ a´t biˆe
´
n vˆe
`
da
.
ng cu’ a vi phˆan cˆa´p 1.
8.2.2 Vi phˆan cˆa
´
p cao
Gia’ su
.
’ x l`a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p v`a h`am y = f(x) kha’ vi trong lˆan cˆ a
.
n n`ao
d´o cu’ a diˆe

m x
0
. Vi phˆan th´ u
.
nhˆa´t df = f

(x)dx l`a h`am cu’ a hai biˆe
´
n
x v`a dx, trong d´o dx l`a sˆo´ t` uy ´ y khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao x v`a do d´o
(dx)

= 0.
Vi phˆan cˆa´p hai (hay vi phˆan th´ u
.
hai) d
2
f cu’ a h`am f(x) ta
.
i diˆe

m
x
0
du
.
o
.
.
c di
.
nh ngh˜ıa nhu
.
l`a vi phˆan cu’ a h`am df = f

(x)dx ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
v´o
.
i c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n sau dˆay:
1) df pha’ i du
.
o
.
.
c xem l`a h`am cu’ a chı ’ mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p x (n´oi c´ach
kh´ac: khi t´ınh vi phˆan cu’ a f

(x)dx ta cˆa
`
n t´ınh vi phˆan cu’ a f

(x), c` on
dx du
.
o
.
.
c xem l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´);
2) Sˆo´ gia cu’ a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p x xuˆa´t hiˆe
.
n khi t´ınh vi phˆan cu’ a f

(x)
du
.
o
.
.
c xem l`a b˘a
`
ng sˆo´ gia dˆa
`
u tiˆen, t´ u
.
c l`a b˘a
`
ng dx.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa ta c´ o
d
2
f = d(df) = d(f

(x)dx) = (df

(x))dx = f

(x)dxdx
= f

(x)(dx)
2
hay l`a
d
2
f = f

(x)dx
2
, dx
2
= (dx)
2
. (8.6)
B˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap quy na
.
p, dˆo´i v´ o
.
i vi phˆan cˆa´p n ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
cˆong th´ u
.
c
d
n
f = f
(n)
(x)dx
n
(8.7)
78 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
Vi phˆan cˆ a´p n (n > 1) cu’ a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p x du
.
o
.
.
c xem l`a b˘a
`
ng 0, t´ u
.
c
l`a
d
n
x = 0 v´o
.
i n > 1. (8.8)
Nˆe
´
u ∃d
n
f v`a ∃d
n
g v`a α, β ∈ R th`ı
d
n
(αf + βg) = αd
n
f + βd
n
g (8.9)
d
n
fg =
n

k=0
C
k
n
d
n−k
f · d
k
g. (8.10)
Ch´ u ´y. 1) Khi n > 1, c´ac cˆ ong th´ u
.
c (8.6) v`a (8.7) chı ’ d´ ung khi x
l`a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p. Dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`am ho
.
.
p y = y(x(t)) cˆong th´ u
.
c (8.6) du
.
o
.
.
c
kh´ai qu´at nhu
.
sau:
d
2
y = d(dy) = d(y

x
dx) = d(y

x
)dx + y

x
d(dx)
v`a do d´o
d
2
y = y

xx
dx
2
+ y

x
d
2
x. (8.11)
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p khi x l`a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p th`ı d
2
x = 0 (xem (8.8)) v` a
cˆong th´ u
.
c (8.11) tr` ung v´o
.
i (8.6).
2) Khi t´ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p n ta c´ o thˆe

biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
bˆo
.
h`am d˜a cho.
Ch˘a

ng ha
.
n nˆe
´
u f(x) l`a h`am h˜ u
.
u ty’ th`ı cˆ a
`
n khai triˆe

n n´o th`anh tˆo

ng
h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ co
.
ba’ n; nˆe
´
u f(x) l`a h`am lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac
th`ı cˆ a
`
n ha
.
bˆa
.
c nh`o
.
c´ac cˆong th´ u
.
c ha
.
bˆa
.
c,...
3) T` u
.
cˆong th´ u
.
c (8.7) suy ra r˘a
`
ng
f
(n)
(x) =
d
n
f
dx
n
t´ u
.
c l`a da
.
o h`am cˆa´p n cu’ a h`am y = f(x) ta
.
i mˆo
.
t diˆe

m n`ao d´o b˘a
`
ng ty’
sˆo´ gi˜ u
.
a vi phˆan cˆa´p n cu’ a h`am f(x) chia cho l˜ uy th` u
.
a bˆa
.
c n cu’ a vi
phˆan cu’ a dˆo´i sˆo´.
8.2. Vi phˆan 79
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh vi phˆan df nˆe
´
u
1) f(x) = ln(arctg(sinx)); 2) f(x) = x

64 −x
2
+64arcsin
x
8
.
Gia’ i. 1)
´
Ap du
.
ng c´ac t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a vi phˆan ta c´ o
df =
d[arctg(sinx)]
arctg(sinx)
=
d(sin x)
(1 + sin
2
x)arctg(sinx)
=
cos xdx
(1 + sin
2
x)arctg(sinx)
·
2)
df = d[x

64 −x
2
] + d
_
64arcsin
x
8
_
= xd

64 −x
2
+

64 −x
2
dx + 64d
_
arcsin
x
8
_
= x
d(64 −x
2
)
2

64 −x
2
+

64 −x
2
dx + 64 ·
d
_
x
8
_
_
1 −
x
2
64
=
−x
2
dx

64 −x
2
+

64 −x
2
dx + 64
dx

64 −x
2
= 2

64 −x
2
dx, |x| < 8.
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh vi phˆan cˆ a´p 2 cu’ a c´ac h`am
1) f(x) = xe
−x
, nˆe
´
u x l`a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p;
2) f(x) = sinx
2
nˆe
´
u
a) x l`a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p,
b) x l`a h`am cu’ a mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p n`ao d´o.
Gia’ i. 1) Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap I. Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa vi phˆan cˆa´p 2 ta c´ o
d
2
f = d[df] = d[xde
−x
+ e
−x
dx]
= d(−xe
−x
dx + e
−x
dx) = −d(xe
−x
)dx + d(e
−x
)dx
= −(xde
−x
+ e
−x
dx)dx −e
−x
dx
2
= xe
−x
dx
2
−e
−x
dx
2
−e
−x
dx
2
= (x −2)e
−x
dx
2
.
80 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap II. T´ınh da
.
o h`am cˆa´p hai f

(x) ta c´o
f

(x) = (xe
−x
)

= (e
−x
−xe
−x
)

= −e
−x
−e
−x
+ xe
−x
= (x −2)e
−x
v`a theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (8.6) ta c´o
d
2
f = (x −2)e
−x
dx
2
.
2) a) Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap I. Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa vi phˆan cˆ a´p hai ta c´ o
d
2
f = d[d sin x
2
] = d[2xcos x
2
dx] = d[2xcos x
2
]dx
=
_
2 cos x
2
dx + 2x(−sinx
2
)2xdx
_
dx
= (2 cos x
2
−4x
2
sinx
2
)dx
2
.
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap II. T´ınh da
.
o h`am cˆa´p hai f

xx
ta c´o
f

x
= 2xcos x
2
, f

xx
= 2 cos x
2
−4x
2
sinx
2
v`a theo (8.6) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
d
2
f = (2 cos x
2
−4x
2
sinx
2
)dx
2
.
b) Nˆe
´
u x l`a biˆe
´
n trung gian th`ı n´oi chung d
2
x = 0 v`a do d´o ta c´ o
d
2
f = d(2xcos x
2
dx) = (2xcos x
2
)d
2
x + [d(2xcos x
2
)]dx
= 2xcos x
2
d
2
x + (2 cos x
2
−4x
2
sin x
2
)dx
2
.
V´ı du
.
3.
´
Ap du
.
ng vi phˆan dˆe

t´ınh gˆa
`
n d´ ung c´ac gi´a tri
.
:
1)
5
_
2 −0, 15
2 + 0, 15
; 2) arcsin0, 51; 3) sin29

.
Gia’ i. Cˆong th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n dˆe

´ u
.
ng du
.
ng vi phˆan dˆe

t´ınh gˆa
`
n d´ ung l`a
∆f(x
0
) ≈ df(x
0
) ⇒f(x
0
+ ∆x) −f(x
0
) ≈ f

(x
0
)∆x
⇒ f(x
0
+ ∆x) ≈ f(x
0
) + f

(x
0
)∆x
8.2. Vi phˆan 81
T` u
.
d´o, dˆe

t´ınh gˆa
`
n d´ ung c´ac gi´a tri
.
ta cˆ a
`
n thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n nhu
.
sau:
1
+
Chı ’ ra biˆe

u th´ u
.
c gia’ i t´ıch dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`am m`a gi´a tri
.
gˆa
`
n d´ ung cu’ a
n´o cˆa
`
n pha’ i t´ınh.
2
+
Cho
.
n diˆe

m M
0
(x
0
) sao cho gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am v`a cu’ a da
.
o h`am cˆa´p
1 cu’ a n´o ta
.
i diˆe

m ˆa´y c´o thˆe

t´ınh m`a khˆong d` ung ba’ ng.
3
+
Tiˆe
´
p dˆe
´
n l`a ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c v` u
.
a nˆeu.
1) T´ınh gˆa
`
n d´ ung
5
_
2 −0, 15
2 + 0, 15
Sˆo´ d˜a cho l`a gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am
y =
5
_
2 −x
2 + x
ta
.
i diˆe

m x = 0, 15. Ta d˘a
.
t x
0
= 0; ∆x = 0, 15. Ta c´ o
y

=
−4
5
_
2 −x
2 + x
5(4 −x
2
)
= −
4y
5(4 −x
2
)
⇒ y

(x
0
) = y

(0) = −
1
5
·
Do d´o v`ı y(0) = 1 nˆen
y(0, 15) ≈ y(0) + y

(0)∆x
= 1 −
1
5
· (0, 15) = 1 −0, 03 = 0, 97.
2) T´ınh gˆa
`
n d´ ung arcsin0, 51.
X´et h`am y = arcsinx. Sˆo´ cˆa
`
n t´ınh l`a gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am ta
.
i diˆe

m
0, 51; t´ u
.
c l`a y(0, 51).
D˘a
.
t x
0
= 0, 5; ∆x = 0, 01. Khi d´o ta c´ o
arcsin(x
0
+ ∆x ≈ arcsinx
0
+ (arcsinx)

x=x
0
∆x
⇒ arcsin(0, 5 + 0, 01) ≈ arcsin0, 5 + (arcsinx)

¸
¸
x=0,5
· 0, 01
=
π
6
+
1
_
1 −(0, 5)
2
×(0, 01).
82 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
C´o thˆe

t´ınh gˆa
`
n d´ ung
_
1 −(0, 5)
2
=

0, 75 ≈ 0, 88 v`a do d´o
arcsin0, 51 ≈
π
6
+ 0, 011 ≈ 0, 513.
3) Sˆo´ sin 29

l`a gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am y = sinx khi x =
π
180
×29. Ta d˘a
.
t
x
0
=
π
180
×30 =
π
6
; y
_
π
6
_
=
1
2
, y = cos x ⇒ y

_
π
6
_
= cos
π
6
=

3
2
·
D˘a
.
t ∆x = x −x
0
=
29π
180

π
6
= −
π
180
. Do d´o
sin29

≈ y
_
π
6
_
+ y

_
π
6
_
· ∆x =
1
2
+

3
2
_

π
180
_
≈ 0, 48.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh vi phˆan df nˆe
´
u:
1. f(x) = arctg
1
x
. (DS. df =
−dx
1 + x
2
)
2. f(x) = 2
tg
2
x
. (DS. 2
tg
2
x
ln2 · 2tgx ·
dx
cos
2
x
)
3. f(x) = arccos(2
x
). (DS. −
2
x
ln2dx

1 −e
2x
)
4. f(x) = x
3
lnx. (DS. x
2
(1 + 3lnx)dx)
5. f(x) = cos
2
(

x). (DS. −2 cos

x · sin

x ·
dx
2

x
)
6. f(x) = (1 + x
2
)arcotgx. (DS. (2xarccotgx −1)dx)
7. f(x) =
arctgx

1 + x
2
. (DS.
1 −xarctgx
(1 + x
2
)
3/2
dx)
8. f(x) = sin
3
2x. (DS. 3 sin 2xsin 4xdx)
9. f(x) = ln(sin

x). (DS.
cotg

x
2

x
dx)
8.2. Vi phˆan 83
10. f(x) = e

1
cos x
. (DS.
−tgx · e

1
cos x
cos x
dx)
11. f(x) = 2
−x
2
. (DS. −2xe
−x
2
ln2dx)
12. f(x) = arctg

x
2
+ 1. (DS.
2xdx
2 + x
2
)
13. f(x) =

xarctg

x. (DS.
1
2

x
_
arctg

x +

x
1 + x
_
dx)
14. f(x) =
x
2
arcsinx
. (DS.
x
_
2arcsinx −
x

1 −x
2
_
(arcsinx)
2
dx).
T´ınh vi phˆan cˆ a´p tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng cu’ a c´ac h`am sau
15. f(x) = 4
−x
2
; d
2
f ? (DS. 4
−x
2
2ln4(2x
2
ln4 −1)(dx)
2
)
16. f(x) =
_
ln
2
x −4. d
2
f ? (DS.
4lnx −4 −ln
3
x
x
2
_
(lnx −4)
3
(dx)
2
)
17. f(x) = sin
2
x. d
3
f ? (DS. −4 sin 2x(dx)
3
)
18. f(x) =

x −1, d
4
f ? (DS.
−15
16(x −1)
7/2
(dx)
4
)
19. f(x) = xlnx, d
5
f ? (DS. −
6
x
4
(dx)
5
, x > 0)
20. f(x) = xsin x; d
10
f ? (DS. (10 cos x −xsinx)(dx)
10
)
Su
.
’ du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c gˆa
`
n d´ ung
∆f ≈ df
(khi f

(x) = 0) dˆe

t´ınh gˆa
`
n d´ ung c´ac gi´a tri
.
sau
21. y =

3, 98. (DS. 1,955)
22. y =
3

26, 19. (DS. 2,97)
23. y =
¸
(2, 037)
2
−3
(2, 037)
2
+ 5
. (DS. 0,35)
24. y = cos 31

. (DS. 0,85)
84 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
25. y = tg45

10

. (DS. 0,99)
26. y = ln(10, 21). (DS. 1,009)
27. y = sin31

. (DS. 0,51)
28. y = arcsin0, 54. (DS. 0,57)
29. y = arctg(1, 05). (DS. 0,81)
30. y = (1, 03)
5
. (DS. 1,15)
8.3 C´ ac di
.
nh l´ y co
.
ba

n vˆe
`
h`am kha

vi.
Quy t˘ a
´
c l’Hospital. Cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Tay-
lor
8.3.1 C´ac di
.
nh l´ y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y Rˆon (Rolle). Gia’ su
.
’ :
i) f(x) liˆen tu
.
c trˆen doa
.
n [a, b].
ii) f(x) c´o da
.
o h`am h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n trong (a, b).
iii) f(a) = f(b).
Khi d´o tˆo
`
n ta
.
i diˆe

m ξ : a < ξ < b sao cho f(ξ) = 0.
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y Lagr˘ ang (Lagrange). Gia’ su
.
’ :
i) f(x) liˆen tu
.
c trˆen doa
.
n [a, b].
ii) f(x) c´o da
.
o h`am h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n trong (a, b).
Khi d´o t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c ´ıt nhˆ a´t mˆo
.
t diˆe

m ξ ∈ (a, b) sao cho
f(b) −f(a)
b −a
= f

(ξ) (8.12)
hay l`a
f(b) = f(a) + f

(ξ)(b −a). (8.13)
Cˆong th´ u
.
c (8.12) go
.
i l`a cˆong th´ u
.
c sˆo´ gia h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n.
8.3. C´ac di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi 85
D
-
i
.
nh l´ y Cˆosi (Cauchy). Gia’ su
.
’ :
i) f(x) v`a ϕ(x) liˆen tu
.
c trˆen doa
.
n [a, b].
ii) f(x) v`a ϕ(x) c´o da
.
o h`am h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n trong (a, b).
iii) [f

(x)]
2
+ [ϕ

(x)]
2
= 0, ngh˜ıa l`a c´ ac da
.
o h`am khˆong dˆo
`
ng th`o
.
i
b˘a
`
ng 0.
iv) ϕ(a) = ϕ(b).
Khi d´o t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c diˆe

m ξ ∈ (a, b) sao cho:
f(b) −f(a)
ϕ(b) −ϕ(a)
=
f

(ξ)
ϕ

(ξ)
· (8.14)
Di
.
nh l´ y Lagrange l`a tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p riˆeng cu’ a di
.
nh l´ y Cauchy v`ı khi
ϕ(x) = x th`ı t` u
.
(8.14) thu du
.
o
.
.
c (8.13). Di
.
nh l´ y Rˆ on c˜ ung l`a tru
.
`o
.
ng
ho
.
.
p riˆeng cu’ a di
.
nh l´ y Lagrange v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n f(a) = f(b).
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Gia’ su
.
’ P(x) = (x + 3)(x + 2)(x −1).
Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng trong khoa’ ng (−3, 1) tˆo
`
n ta
.
i nghiˆe
.
m cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh P

(ξ) = 0.
Gia’ i. Da th´ u
.
c P(x) c´ o nghiˆe
.
m ta
.
i c´ac diˆe

m x
1
= −3, x
2
= −2,
x
3
= 1. Trong c´ac khoa’ ng (−3, −2) v`a (−2, 1) h`am P(x) kha’ vi v`a
tho’a m˜an c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cu’ a di
.
nh l´ y Rˆon v`a:
P(−3) = P(−2) = 0,
P(−2) = P(1) = 0.
Do d´o theo di
.
nh l´ y Rˆon, t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c diˆe

m ξ
1
∈ (−3, −2); ξ
2
∈ (−2, 1)
sao cho:
P


1
) = P


2
) = 0.
Bˆay gi`o
.
la
.
i ´ap du
.
ng di
.
nh l´ y Rˆon cho doa
.
n [ξ
1
, ξ
2
] v`a h`am P

(x), ta
la
.
i t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c diˆe

m ξ ∈ (ξ
1
, ξ
2
) ⊂ (−3, 1) sao cho P

(ξ) = 0.
86 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
V´ı du
.
2. H˜ay x´et xem h`am f(x) = arcsinx trˆen doa
.
n [−1, +1] c´o
tho’a m˜an di
.
nh l´ y Lagrange khˆong ? Nˆe
´
u tho’a m˜an th`ı h˜ay t`ım diˆe

m
ξ (xem (8.12)).
Gia’ i. H`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh v`a liˆen tu
.
c trˆen [−1, +1]. Ta t`ım f

(x).
f

(x) =
1

1 −x
2
→f

(x) < ∞, x ∈ (−1, 1)
(Lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng khi x = ±1 da
.
o h`am khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i nhu
.
ng diˆe

u d´o
khˆong a’ nh hu
.
o
.
’ ng dˆe
´
n su
.
.
tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cu’ a di
.
nh l´ y Lagrange !).
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y h`am f tho’a m˜an di
.
nh l´ y Lagrange.
Ta t`ım diˆe

m ξ. Ta c´o:
arcsin1 −arcsin(−1)
1 −(−1)
=
1
_
1 −ξ
2

π
2

_

π
2
_
2
=
1
_
1 −ξ
2

_
1 −ξ
2
=
2
π
⇒ξ
1,2
= ±
_
1 −
4
π
2
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay cˆong th´ u
.
c (8.12) tho’a m˜an dˆo´i v´o
.
i
hai diˆe

m.
V´ı du
.
3. H˜ay kha’ o s´at xem c´ac h`am f(x) = x
2
−2x + 3 v`a ϕ(x) =
x
3
− 7x
2
+ 20x − 5 c´o tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n di
.
nh l´ y Cauchy trˆen doa
.
n
[1, 4] khˆong ? Nˆe
´
u ch´ ung tho’a m˜an di
.
nh l´ y Cauchy th`ı h˜ay t`ım diˆe

m
ξ.
Gia’ i. i) Hiˆe

n nhiˆen ca’ f(x) v`a ϕ(x) liˆen tu
.
c khi x ∈ [1, 4].
ii) f(x) v`a ϕ(x) c´ o da
.
o h`am h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n trong (1, 4).
iii) Diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n th´ u
.
iii) c˜ ung tho’a m˜an v`ı:
g

(x) = 3x
2
−14x + 20 > 0, x ∈ R.
iv) Hiˆe

n nhiˆen ϕ(1) = ϕ(4).
8.3. C´ac di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi 87
Do d´o f(x) v`a ϕ(x) tho’a m˜an di
.
nh l´ y Cauchy v`a ta c´o
f(4) −f(1)
ϕ(4) −ϕ(1)
=
f

(ξ)
ϕ

(ξ)
hay
11 −2
27 −9
=
2ξ −2

2
−14ξ + 20
, ξ ∈ (1, 4).
T` u
.
d´o thu du
.
o
.
.
c ξ
1
= 2, ξ
2
= 4 v`a o
.
’ dˆay chı ’ c´o ξ
1
= 2 l`a diˆe

m trong
cu’ a (1, 4). Do d´o: ξ = 2.
V´ı du
.
4. Di
.
nh l´ y Cauchy c´o ´ap du
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c cho c´ac h`am f(x) = cos x,
ϕ(x) = x
3
trˆen doa
.
n [−π/2, π/2] hay khˆong ?
Gia’ i. Hiˆe

n nhiˆen f(x) v`a ϕ(x) tho’a m˜an c´ ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n i), ii) v`a
iv) cu’ a di
.
nh l´ y Cauchy. Tiˆe
´
p theo ta c´o: f

(x) = −sinx; ϕ

(x) = 3x
2
v`a ta
.
i x = 0 ta c´o: f

(0) = −sin0 = 0; ϕ

(0) = 0 v`a nhu
.
vˆa
.
y

(0)]
2
+ [f

(0)]
2
= 0. Do d´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n iii) khˆong du
.
o
.
.
c tho’a m˜an. Ta
x´et vˆe
´
tr´ai cu’ a (8.14):
f(b) −f(a)
ϕ(b) −ϕ(a)
=
cos(π/2) −cos(−π/2)
(π/2)
3
−(−π/2)
3
= 0.
Bˆay gi` o
.
ta x´et vˆe
´
pha’ i cu’ a (8.14). Ta c´o:
f

(ξ)
ϕ

(ξ)
= −
sinξ

2
·
Nhu
.
ng dˆo´i v´o
.
i vˆe
´
pha’ i n`ay ta c´ o:
lim
ξ→0
_

sinξ

2
_
= lim
ξ→0
sinξ
ξ
· lim
ξ→0
_

1

_
= ∞.
Diˆe
`
u d´o ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng c´ac h`am d˜a cho khˆong tho’a m˜an di
.
nh l´ y
Cauchy.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
1. H`am y = 1−
3

x
2
trˆen doa
.
n [−1, 1] c´o tho’a m˜an diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cu’ a di
.
nh
l´ y Rˆon khˆong ? Ta
.
i sao ? (Tra’ l`o
.
i: Khˆong)
88 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
2. H`am y = 3x
2
−5 c´o tho’a m˜an di
.
nh l´ y Lagrange trˆen doa
.
n [−2, 0]
khˆong ? Nˆe
´
u n´o tho’a m˜an, h˜ay t`ım gi´ a tri
.
trung gian ξ. (Tra’ l`o
.
i:
C´o)
3. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng h`am f(x) = x +1/x tho’a m˜an di
.
nh l´ y Lagrange
trˆen doa
.
n [1/2, 2]. T`ım ξ. (DS. ξ = 1)
4. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng c´ac h`am f(x) = cos x, ϕ(x) = sinx tho’a m˜an
di
.
nh l´ y Cauchy trˆen doa
.
n [0, π/2]. T`ım ξ ? (DS. ξ = π/4)
5. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng h`am f(x) = e
x
v`a ϕ(x) = x
2
/(1 + x
2
) khˆong
tho’a m˜an di
.
nh l´ y Cauchy trˆen doa
.
n [−3, 3].
6. Trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng cong y = x
3
h˜ay t`ım diˆe

m m`a ta
.
i d´o tiˆe
´
p tuyˆe
´
n v´ o
.
i
du
.
`o
.
ng cong song song v´o
.
i dˆay cung nˆo´i diˆe

m A(−1, −1) v´o
.
i B(2, 8).
(DS. M(1, 1))
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Du
.
.
a v`ao ´ y ngh˜ıa h`ınh ho
.
c cu’ a cˆ ong th´ u
.
c sˆo´ gia h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n.
8.3.2 Khu
.
’ c´ac da
.
ng vˆo di
.
nh. Quy t˘a
´
c Lˆopitan
(L’Hospitale)
Trong chu
.
o
.
ng II ta d˜a dˆe
`
cˆa
.
p dˆe
´
n viˆe
.
c khu
.
’ c´ac da
.
ng vˆo di
.
nh. Bˆ ay gi`o
.
ta tr`ınh b`ay quy t˘a
´
c Lˆopitan - cˆ ong cu
.
co
.
ba’ n dˆe

khu
.
’ c´ac da
.
ng vˆo
di
.
nh
Da
.
ng vˆo di
.
nh 0/0
Gia’ su
.
’ hai h`am f(x) v`a ϕ(x) tho’a m˜an c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
i) lim
x→a
f(x) = 0; lim
x→a
ϕ(x) = 0.
ii) f(x) v`a ϕ(x) kha’ vi trong lˆan cˆ a
.
n n`ao d´o cu’ a diˆe

m x = a v`a
ϕ

(x) = 0 trong lˆan cˆ a
.
n d´o, c´o thˆe

tr` u
.
ra ch´ınh diˆe

m x = a.
iii) Tˆ o
`
n ta
.
i gi´o
.
i ha
.
n (h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n ho˘a
.
c vˆo c` ung)
lim
x→a
f

(x)
ϕ

(x)
= k.
8.3. C´ac di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi 89
Khi d´o
lim
x→a
f(x)
ϕ(x)
= lim
x→a
f

(x)
ϕ

(x)
·
Da
.
ng vˆo di
.
nh ∞/∞
Gia’ su
.
’ f(x) v`a ϕ(x) tho’a m˜an c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ii) v`a iii) cu’ a di
.
nh l´ y
trˆen dˆay c`on diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n i) du
.
o
.
.
c thay bo
.
’ i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n:
i)

lim
x→a
f(x) = ∞, lim
x→a
ϕ(x) = ∞.
Khi d´o:
lim
x→a
f(x)
ϕ(x)
= lim
x→a
f

(x)
ϕ

(x)
Ch´ u ´y. Nˆe
´
u thu
.
o
.
ng f

(x)/ϕ

(x) la
.
i c´ o da
.
ng vˆ o di
.
nh 0/0 (ho˘a
.
c
∞/∞) ta
.
i diˆe

m x = a v`a f

, ϕ

tho’a m˜an c´ ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n i), ii) v`a iii)
(tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng i)

, ii) v`a iii)) th`ı ta c´ o thˆe

chuyˆe

n sang da
.
o h`am cˆ a´p hai,...
C´ac da
.
ng vˆo di
.
nh kh´ac
a) Dˆe

khu
.
’ da
.
ng vˆo di
.
nh 0 · ∞
_
lim
x→a
f(x) = 0, lim
x→a
ϕ(x) = ∞
_
ta
biˆe
´
n dˆo

i t´ıch f(x) · ϕ(x) th`anh:
i)
f(x)
1/ϕ(x)
(da
.
ng 0/0)
ii)
ϕ(x)
1/f(x)
(da
.
ng ∞/∞).
b) Dˆe

khu
.
’ da
.
ng vˆo di
.
nh ∞−∞
Ta biˆe
´
n dˆo

i f(x) − ϕ(x) (trong d´o lim
x→a
f(x) = ∞, lim
x→a
ϕ(x) = ∞)
th`anh t´ıch
f(x) −ϕ(x) = f(x)ϕ(x)
_
1
ϕ(x)

1
f(x)
_
ho˘a
.
c th`anh t´ıch da
.
ng
f(x) −ϕ(x) = f(x)
_
1 −
ϕ(x)
f(x)
_
90 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
ho˘a
.
c
f(x) −ϕ(x) = ϕ(x)
_
f(x)
ϕ(x)
−1
_
.
c) Da
.
ng vˆo di
.
nh 0
0
, ∞
0
, 1

Khi t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n cu’ a h`am da
.
ng F(x) = [f(x)]
ϕ(x)
thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng
ta g˘ a
.
p c´ac da
.
ng vˆo di
.
nh 0
0
, ∞
0
ho˘a
.
c 1

. Trong nh˜ u
.
ng tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p
n`ay ta c´o thˆe

biˆe
´
n dˆo

i F(x) dˆe

du
.
a vˆe
`
da
.
ng vˆo di
.
nh 0 · ∞ d˜a n´oi trong
1) nh`o
.
ph´ep biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
F(x) = [f(x)]
ϕ(x)
= e
ln[f(x)]
ϕ(x)
= e
ϕ(x)lnf(x)
v`a do t´ınh liˆen tu
.
c cu’ a h`am m˜ u ta s´e c´o:
lim
x→a
[f(x)]
ϕ(x)
= e
lim[ϕ(x)·lnf(x)]
Ch´ u ´y. Ta lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng m˘a
.
c d` u quy t˘a
´
c Lˆopitan l`a mˆo
.
t cˆong cu
.
ma
.
nh de’ t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n nhu
.
ng n´o khˆong thˆe

thay to`an bˆo
.
c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng
ph´ap t´ınh gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n d˜a x´et trong chu
.
o
.
ng II. Diˆe
`
u d´o du
.
o
.
.
c ch´ u
.
ng to’
trong v´ı du
.
7 sau dˆay.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh lim
x→1
x
2
−1 + lnx
e
x
−e
Gia’ i. Ta c´ o vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “0/0”.
´
Ap du
.
ng quy t˘a
´
c L’Hospital ta
thu du
.
o
.
.
c
lim
x→1
x
2
−1 + lnx
e
x
−e
= lim
x→1
(x
2
−1 + lnx)

(e
x
−e)

= lim
x→1
2x +
1
x
e
x
=
3
e
.
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh lim
x→+∞
x
n
e
x
8.3. C´ac di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi 91
Gia’ i. Ta c´o vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “∞/∞”.
´
Ap du
.
ng quy t˘a
´
c L’Hospital n
lˆa
`
n ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
lim
x→∞
x
n
e
x
= lim
x→1
nx
n−1
e
x
= lim
x→1
n(n −1)x
n−2
e
x
= · · · = lim
x→1
n(n −1) · · · 2 · 1
e
x
= lim
x→1
n!
e
x
= 0.
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh lim
x→0+0
xlnx.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “0 · ∞”. Nhu
.
ng
xlnx =
lnx
1
x
v`a ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “∞/∞”. Do d´o
lim
x→0+0
xlnx = lim
x→0+0
(lnx)

_
1
x
_

= lim
x→0+0
1
x

1
x
2
= − lim
x→0+0
x = 0.
V´ı du
.
4. T´ınh lim
x→0+0
x
x
.
Gia’ i. O
.

dˆay ta c´ o vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “0
0
”. Nhu
.
ng
x
x
= e
xlnx
v`a ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng 0 · ∞ o
.
’ sˆo´ m˜ u. Trong v´ı du
.
3 ta d˜a thu
du
.
o
.
.
c
lim
x→0+0
(xlnx) = 0,
do d´o
lim
x→0+0
x
x
= lim
x→0+0
e
xlnx
= e
lim
x→0+0
xlnx
= e
0
= 1.
V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh lim
x→0
_
1 + x
2
_ 1
e
x
−1−x
92 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
Gia’ i. O
.

dˆay ta c´ o vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng 1

. Nhu
.
ng
_
1 + x
2
_ 1
e
x
−1−x
= e
ln(1+x
2
)
e
x
−1−x
v`a o
.
’ sˆo´ m˜ u cu’ a l˜ uy th` u
.
a ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “0/0”.
´
Ap du
.
ng
quy t˘a
´
c L’Hospital ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
lim
x→0
ln(1 + x
2
)
e
x
−1 −x
= lim
x→0
2x
1 + x
2
e
x
−1
= lim
x→0
2x
(e
x
−1)(1 + x
2
)
= lim
x→0
2
e
x
(1 + x
2
) + (e
x
−1)2x
=
2
1
= 2.
V´ı du
.
6. T´ınh lim
x→
π
2
_
tgx
_
2cos x
.
Gia’ i. Ta c´o vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “∞
0
”. Nhu
.
ng
_
tgx
_
2cos x
= e
2cos xln tgx
= e
2ln tgx
1/ cos x
v`a o
.
’ sˆo´ m˜ u cu’ a l˜ uy th` u
.
a ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c vˆo di
.
nh da
.
ng “∞/∞”.
´
Ap du
.
ng
quy t˘a
´
c L’Hospital ta c´o
lim
x→
π
2
2ln tgx
1
cos x
= 2 lim
x→
π
2
1
cos
2
x · tgx
+sinx
cos
2
x
= 2 lim
x→
π
2
1
cos x
tg
2
x
= 2 lim
x→
π
2

sinx
cos
2
x
2tgx ·
1
cos
2
x
= lim
x→
π
2
cos x = 0.
Do d´o
lim
x→
π
2
_
tgx
_
2cos x
= e
lim
x→
π
2
2 cos x·ln tgx
= e
0
= 1.
V´ı du
.
7. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
1) lim
x→0
x
2
sin(1/x)
sinx
= 0
8.3. C´ac di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi 93
2) lim
x→∞
x −sinx
x + sinx
= 1
khˆong thˆe

t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c theo quy t˘a
´
c L’Hospital. H˜ay t´ınh c´ ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
d´o.
Gia’ i. 1) Quy t˘a
´
c L’Hospital khˆong ´ap du
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c v`ı ty’ sˆo´ c´ac da
.
o
h`am [2xsin(1/x) −cos(1/x)]/ cos x khˆong c´o gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n khi x →0.
Ta t´ınh tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p gi´o
.
i ha
.
n n`ay.
lim
x→0
x
2
sin(1/x)
sinx
= lim
x→0
x
sinx
· lim
x→0
xsin
1
x
= 1 · 0 = 0.
2) Quy t˘a
´
c L’Hospital khˆong ´ap du
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c v`ı ty’ sˆo´ c´ac da
.
o h`am
1 −cos x
1 + cos x
= tg
2
(x/2)
khˆong c´o gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n khi x →∞.
Ta t´ınh tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p gi´o
.
i ha
.
n n`ay
lim
x→∞
x −sinx
x + sinx
= lim
x→∞
[1 −(sinx)/x]
[1 + (sinx)/x]
= 1 v`ı | sin x| 1.
Nhu
.
o
.
’ phˆa
`
n dˆa
`
u cu’ a tiˆe
´
t n`ay d˜a n´oi, quy t˘a
´
c L’Hospital l`a mˆo
.
t
cˆong cu
.
ma
.
nh dˆe

t`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n nhu
.
ng diˆe
`
u d´o khˆong c´o ngh˜ıa l`a n´o c´o
thˆe

thay cho to`an bˆo
.
c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap t`ım gi´o
.
i ha
.
n. Cˆ a
`
n lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng
quy t˘a
´
c L’Hospital chı ’ l`a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n du’ dˆe

tˆo
`
n ta
.
i gi´o
.
i ha
.
n: lim
x→a
f(x)
g(x)
ch´ u
.
khˆong pha’ i l`a diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n.
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
´
Ap du
.
ng quy t˘a
´
c L’Hospital dˆe

t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n:
1. lim
x→2
x
4
−16
x
3
+ 5x
2
−6x −16
. (DS.
16
13
)
2. lim
x→a
x
m
−a
m
x
n
−a
n
. (DS.
m
n
a
m−n
)
94 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
3. lim
x→0
e
2x
−1
sinx
. (DS. 2)
4. lim
x→0
1 −cos ax
1 + cos bx
. (DS.
a
2
b
2
)
5. lim
x→0
e
x
−e
−x
−2x
x −sinx
. (DS. 2)
6. lim
x→0
ln(1 + x
2
)
cos 3x −e
−x
. (DS. 0)
7. lim
x→∞
e
1/x
2
−1
2arctgx
2
−π
. (Ds. −
1
2
)
8. lim
x→∞
2x + 1
3x
2
+ x −1
. (DS. 0)
9. lim
x→∞
ln(1 + x
2
)
ln[(π/2) −arctgx]
. (DS. −2)
10. lim
x→∞

x
2
−1
x
. (DS. −1)
11. lim
x→∞
x
ln(1 + x)
. (DS. +∞)
12. lim
x→+0
lnsinx
lnsin 5x
. (DS. 1)
13. lim
x→a
arcsin
x −a
a
cotg(x −a). (DS. 1/a)
14. lim
x→∞
(π −2arctgx)lnx. (DS. 0)
15. lim
x→∞
(a
1/x
−1)x, a > 0. (DS. lna)
16. lim
x→1
(2 −x)
tg
πx
2
. (DS. e
2/π
)
17. lim
x→1
_
1
lnx

x
lnx
_
. (DS. −1)
18. lim
x→∞
(x −x
2
ln(1 + 1/x)). (Ds. 1/2)
19. lim
x→0
_
1
x
2
−cotg
2
x
_
. (DS. 2/3)
20. lim
x→0
x
1/ln(e
x
−1)
. (DS. e)
8.3. C´ac di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi 95
21. lim
x→0+0
_
cotgx
_
tgx
. (DS. 1)
22. lim
x→0
_
5
2 +

9 + x
_
1/sinx
. (DS. e
−1/30
)
23. lim
x→0
_
cos x
_
cotg
2
x
. (DS. e
−1/2
)
24. lim
x→0+0
_
ln2x
_
1/lnx
. (DS. 1)
25. lim
x→0
_
1 + sin
2
x
_
1/tg
2
x
. (DS. e)
26. lim
x→0+0
_
cotgx
_
1/lnx
. (DS. e
−1
)
27. lim
x→π/2
_
sin x
_
tgx
. (DS. 1)
28. lim
x→0
e
+x
−e
−x
−2x
sinx −x
. (DS. −2)
29. lim
x→0
e
−x
−1 + x −
x
2
2
e
x
3
−1
. (DS. −
1
6
)
30. lim
x→0
e
−x
−1 + x
4
sin 2x
. (DS. −
1
2
)
31. lim
x→0
2
x
−1 −xln2
(1 −x)
m
−1 + mx
. (DS.
ln
2
2
m(m−1)
)
32. lim
x→0
_
2
π
arccosx
_
1/x
. (DS. e

2
π
)
33. lim
x→∞
lnx
x
α
, α > 0. (DS. 0)
34. lim
x→∞
x
m
a
x
, 0 < a = 1. (DS. 0)
35. lim
x→0+0
lnsin x
ln(1 −cos x)
. (DS.
1
2
)
36. lim
x→0
_
1
x
2
−cotg
2
x
_
. (DS.
2
3
)
37. lim
x→
π
4
_
tgx
_
tg2x
. (DS. e
−1
)
38. lim
x→
π
2
−0
_
tgx
_
cotgx
. (DS. 1)
96 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
8.3.3 Cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am f(x) x´ac di
.
nh trong lˆan cˆa
.
n n`ao d´o cu’ a diˆe

m x
0
v`a n lˆa
`
n
kha’ vi ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
th`ı
f(x) = f(x
0
) +
f

(x
0
)
1!
(x −x
0
) +
f

(x
0
)
2!
(x −x
0
)
2
+· · · +
+
f
(n)
(x
0
)
n!
(x −x
0
)
n
+ o((x −x
0
)
n
)
khi x →x
0
hay:
f(x) =
n

k=0
f
(k)
(x
0
)
k!
(x −x
0
)
k
+ o((x −x
0
)
n
), x → x
0
. (8.15)
Da th´ u
.
c
P
n
(x) =
n

k=0
f
(k)
(x
0
)
k!
(x −x
0
)
k
(8.16)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da th´ u
.
c Taylor cu’ a h`am f(x) ta
.
i diˆe

m x
0
, c`on h`am:
R
n
(x) = f(x) −P
n
(x)
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a sˆo´ ha
.
ng du
.
hay phˆa
`
n du
.
th´ u
.
n cu’ a cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor.
Cˆong th´ u
.
c (8.15) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor cˆa´p n dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`am
f(x) ta
.
i lˆan cˆ a
.
n cu’ a diˆe

m x
0
v´o
.
i phˆa
`
n du
.
da
.
ng Peano (n´o c˜ ung c`on
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng). Nˆe
´
u h`am f(x) c´ o da
.
o h`am
dˆe
´
n cˆa´p n th`ı n´o c´ o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n duy nhˆa´t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng:
f(x) =
n

k=0
a
k
(x −x
0
)
k
+ o((x −x
0
)
n
), x → x
0
v´o
.
i c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ a
k
du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c:
a
k
=
f
(k)
(x
0
)
k!
, k = 0, 1, . . . , n.
8.3. C´ac di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi 97
Nˆe
´
u x
0
= 0 th`ı (8.15) c´o da
.
ng
f(x) =
n

k=0
f
(k)
(0)
k!
x
k
+ o(x
n
), x → 0 (8.17)
v`a go
.
i l`a cˆong th´ u
.
c Macloranh (Maclaurin).
Sau dˆay l`a cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor ta
.
i lˆan cˆ a
.
n diˆe

m x
0
= 0 cu’ a mˆo
.
t sˆo´
h`am so
.
cˆa´p
I. e
x
=
n

k=0
x
k
k!
+ o(x
n
)
II. sinx = x −
x
3
3!
+
x
5
5!
+· · · +
(−1)
n
x
2n+1
(2n + 1)!
+ o(x
2n+2
)
=
n

k=0
(−1)
k
x
2k+1
(2k + 1)!
+ o(x
2n+2
)
III. cos x =
n

k=0
(−1)
k
x
2k
(2k!)
+ o(x
2n+1
)
IV. (1 + x)
α
= 1 +
n

k=1
α(α −1) . . . (α −k + 1)
k!
x
k
+ o(x
n
)
= 1 +
n

k=1
_
α
k
_
x
k
+ o(x
n
)
α(α −1) . . . (α −k + 1)
k!
=
_
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
_
_
_
α
k
_
_
nˆe
´
u α ∈ R,
C
k
α
nˆe
´
u α ∈ N.
Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p riˆeng:
IV
1
.
1
1 + x
=
n

k=0
(−1)
k
x
k
+ o(x
n
),
IV
2
.
1
1 −x
=
n

k=0
x
k
+ o(x
n
).
98 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
V. ln(1 + x) =
n

k=1
(−1)
k−1
k
x
k
+ o(x
n
).
ln(1 −x) = −
n

k=1
x
k
k
+ o(x
n
).
Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap khai triˆe

n theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, dˆe

khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor ta pha’ i ´ap
du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c
f(x) = T
n
(x) + R
n+1
(x),
T
n
(x) =
n

k=0
a
k
(x −x
0
)
k
,
a
k
=
f
(k)
(x
0
)
k!
· (8.18)
1) Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap tru
.
.
c tiˆe
´
p: du
.
.
a v`ao cˆ ong th´ u
.
c (8.18). Viˆe
.
c su
.

du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (8.18) dˆa
˜
n dˆe
´
n nh˜ u
.
ng t´ınh to´an rˆa´t cˆo
`
ng kˆe
`
nh m˘a
.
c
d` u n´o cho ta kha’ n˘ang nguyˆen t˘a
´
c dˆe

khai triˆe

n.
2) Phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap gi´an tiˆe
´
p: du
.
.
a v`ao c´ac khai triˆe

n c´o s˘a
˜
n I-V sau
khi d˜a biˆe
´
n dˆo

i so
.
bˆo
.
h`am d˜a cho v`a lu
.
u ´ y dˆe
´
n c´ac quy t˘a
´
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n
c´ac ph´ep to´an trˆen c´ac khai triˆe

n Taylor.
Nˆe
´
u
f(x) =
n

k=0
a
k
(x −x
0
)
k
+ o((x −x
0
)
n
)
g(x) =
n

k=0
b
k
(x −x
0
)
k
+ o((x −x
0
)
n
)
th`ı
a) f(x) + g(x) =
n

k=0
(a
k
+ b
k
)(x −x
0
)
k
+ o((x −x
0
)
n
);
8.3. C´ac di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi 99
b) f(x)g(x) =
n

k=0
c
k
(x −x
0
)
k
+ o((x −x
0
)
n
)
c
k
=
k

p=0
a
p
b
k−p
c) F(x) = f[g(x)] =
n

j=0
a
j
_
n

k=0
(b
k
(x −x
0
)
k
−x
0
_
j
+o
_
_
n

k=0
b
k
(x −x
0
)
k
−x
0
_
n
_
3) Dˆe

khai triˆe

n c´ac phˆan th´ u
.
c h˜ u
.
u ty’ theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor thˆong
thu
.
`o
.
ng ta biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n phˆan th´ u
.
c d´o du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng tˆo

ng cu’ a da th´ u
.
c v`a c´ ac
phˆan th´ u
.
c co
.
ba’ n (tˆo´i gia’ n !) rˆo
`
i ´ap du
.
ng VI
1
, IV
2
.
4) Dˆe

khai triˆe

n t´ıch c´ac h`am lu
.
o
.
.
ng gi´ac thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng biˆe
´
n dˆo

i
t´ıch th`anh tˆo

ng c´ac h`am.
5) Nˆe
´
u cho tru
.
´o
.
c khai triˆe

n da
.
o h`am f

(x) theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Taylor
th`ı viˆe
.
c t`ım khai triˆe

n Taylor cu’ a h`am f(x) du
.
o
.
.
c thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n nhu
.
sau.
Gia’ su
.
’ cho biˆe
´
t khai triˆe

n
f

(x) =
n

k=0
b
k
(x −x
0
)
k
+ o((x −x
0
)
n
),
b
k
=
f
(k+1)
(x
0
)
k!
·
Khi d´o tˆo
`
n ta
.
i f
(n+1)
(x
0
) v`a do d´o h`am f(x) c´o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
´o
.
i
da
.
ng
f(x) =
n+1

k=0
a
k
(x −x
0
)
k
+ o((x −x
0
)
n+1
)
= f(x
0
) +
n

k=0
a
k+1
(x −x
0
)
k+1
+ o((x −x
0
)
n+1
)
trong d´o
a
k+1
=
f
(k+1)
(x
0
)
(k + 1)!
=
f
(k+1)
(x
0
)
k!
·
1
k + 1
=
b
k
k + 1
·
100 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
Do d´o
f(x) = f(x
0
) +
n

k=0
b
k
k + 1
(x −x
0
)
k+1
+ o((x −x
0
)
n+1
) (8.19)
trong d´o b
k
l`a hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a da th´ u
.
c Taylor dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`am f

(x).
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. Khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Maclaurin dˆe
´
n sˆo´ ha
.
ng
o(x
n
), nˆe
´
u
1) f(x) = (x + 5)e
2x
; 2) f(x) = ln
3 + x
2 −x
Gia’ i 1) Ta c´o f(x) = xe
2x
+ 5e
2x
.
´
Ap du
.
ng I ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
f(x) = x
_
n−1

k=0
2
k
x
k
k!
+ o(x
n−1
)
_
+ 5
_
n

k=0
2
k
x
k
k!
+ o(x
n
)
_
=
n−1

k=0
2
k
k!
x
k+1
+
n

k=0
5 · 2
k
k!
x
k
+ o(x
n
).
V`ı
n−1

k=0
2
k
x
k+1
k!
=
n

k=1
2
k−1
(k −1)!
x
k
nˆen ta c´o
f(x) = 5 +
n

k=1
_
2
k−1
(k −1)!
+
5 · 2
k
k!
_
x
k
+ o(x
n
)
=
n

k=0
2
k−1
k!
(k + 10)x
k
+ o(x
n
).
2) T` u
.
d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c
f(x) = ln
3
2
+ ln
_
1 +
x
3
_
−ln
_
1 −
x
2
_
v`a V ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
f(x) = ln
3
2
+
n

k=1
1
k
_
1
2
k
+
(−1)
k−1
3
k
_
x
k
+ o(x
n
).
8.3. C´ac di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi 101
V´ı du
.
2. Khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor ta
.
i lˆan cˆa
.
n diˆe

m
x
0
= −1 dˆe
´
n sˆo´ ha
.
ng o((x + 1)
2n
) nˆe
´
u
f(x) =
3x + 3

3 −2x −x
2
·
Gia’ i. Ta c´o
f(x) =
3(x + 1)
_
4 −(x + 1)
2
=
3
2
(x + 1)
_
1 −
(x + 1)
2
4
_

1
2
.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c IV ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
f(x) =
3
2
(x + 1) +
3
2
(x + 1)
n−1

k=1
_
_

1
2
k
_
_
(−1)
k
(x + 1)
2k
4
k
+ o((x + 1)
2n
)
trong d´o
_
_

1
2
k
_
_
(−1)
k
= (−1)
k
_

1
2
__

1
2
−1
_
. . .
_

1
2
−(k −1)
_
k!
=
(2k −1)!!
2
k
k!
·
Do d´o
f(x) =
3
2
(x + 1) +
n−1

k=1
3(2k −1)!!
2
3k+1
k!
(x + 1)
2k+1
+ o((x + 1)
2n
).
V´ı du
.
3. Khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor ta
.
i lˆan cˆa
.
n diˆe

m
x
0
= 2 dˆe
´
n sˆo´ ha
.
ng o((x −2)
n
), nˆe
´
u
f(x) = ln(2x −x
2
+ 3).
Gia’ i. Ta biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n
2x −x
2
+ 3 = (3 −x)(x + 1) = [1 −(x −2)][3 + (x −2)]
= 3[1 −(x −2)]
_
1 +
x −2
3
_
.
102 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
T` u
.
d´o suy ra r˘a
`
ng
f(x) = ln3 + ln[1 −(x −2)] + ln
_
1 +
x −2
3
_
v`a ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c V ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
f(x) = ln3 −
n

k=1
1
k
(x −2)
k
+
n

k=1
(−1)
k−1
(x −2)
k
k3
k
+ o((x −2)
n
)
= ln3 +
n

k=1
_
(−1)
k−1
3
k
−1
_
(x −2)
k
k
+ o((x −2)
n
).
V´ı du
.
4. Khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) = lncos x theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Maclaurin
dˆe
´
n sˆo´ ha
.
ng ch´ u
.
a x
4
.
Gia’ i.
´
Ap du
.
ng III ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
ln(cos x) = ln
_
1 −
x
2
2
+
x
4
24
+ o(x
4
)
_
= ln(1 + t),
trong d´o ta d˘a
.
t
t = −
x
2
2
+
x
4
24
+ o(x
4
).
Tiˆe
´
p theo ta ´ap du
.
ng khai triˆe

n V
ln(cos x) = ln(1 + t) = t −
t
2
2
+ o(t
2
)
=
_

x
2
2
+
x
4
24
+ o(x
4
) −
1
2
_

x
2
2
+
x
4
4
+ o(x
4
)
_
2
_
+ o
_
_

x
2
2
+
x
4
24
+ o(x
4
)
_
2
_
= −
x
2
2
+
x
4
24

x
4
8
+ o(x
4
) = −
x
2
2

x
4
12
+ o(x
4
).
V´ı du
.
5. Khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) = e
xcos x
theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Maclaurin
dˆe
´
n sˆo´ ha
.
ng ch´ u
.
a x
3
.
Gia’ i. Khai triˆe

n cˆa
`
n t`ım pha’ i c´o da
.
ng
e
xcos x
=
3

k=0
a
k
x
k
+ o(x
3
).
8.3. C´ac di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi 103
V`ı xcos x = x + 0(x), (xcos x)
k
= x
k
+ o(x
k
), k = 1, 2, . . . nˆen
trong cˆ ong th´ u
.
c
e
w
=
n

k=0
w
k
k!
+ o(w
n
), w = xcos x
ta cˆa
`
n lˆa´y n = 3. Ta c´ o
w = xcos x = x −
x
3
2!
+ o(x
4
)
w
2
= x
2
+ o(x
3
), w
3
= x
3
+ o(x
3
)
v`a do d´o
e
xcos x
=
3

k=0
w
k
k!
+ o(w
3
)
= 1 + x −
x
3
2!
+ o(x
4
) +
1
2
_
x
2
+ 0(x
3
)
_
+
1
3!
_
x
3
+ o(x
3
)
_
+ 0(x
3
)
= 1 + x +
1
2
x
2

1
3
x
3
+ o(x
3
).
V´ı du
.
6. Khai triˆe

n theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Maclaurin dˆe
´
n o(x
2n+1
) dˆo´i v´o
.
i
c´ac h`am
1) arctgx, 2) arc sinx.
Gia’ i. 1) V`ı
(arctgx)

=
1
1 + x
2
=
n

k=0
(−1)
k
x
2k
+ o(x
2n+1
)
nˆen theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (8.19) ta c´o
arctgx =
n

k=0
(−1)
k
x
2k+1
(2k + 1)
+ o(x
2n+2
).
V´o
.
i n = 2 ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
arctgx = x −
x
3
3
+
x
5
5
+ o(x
6
)
104 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
2) Ta c´ o
(arcsinx)

=
1

1 −x
2
= 1 +
n

k=1
(−1)
k
_
_

1
2
k
_
_
x
2k
+ o(x
2n+1
)
= 1 +
n

k=1
(−1)
k
(2k −1)!!
2
k
k!
x
2k
+ o(x
2n+1
).
T` u
.
d´o ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (8.19) ta c´o
arc sinx = x +
n

k=0
(2k −1)!!
2
k
k!(2k + 1)
x
2k+1
+ o(x
2n+2
).
V´o
.
i n = 2 ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
arc sinx = x +
1
6
x
3
+
3
40
x
5
+ o(x
6
).
V´ı du
.
7. Khai triˆe

n h`am f(x) = tgx theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Maclaurin dˆe
´
n
o(x
5
).
Gia’ i. Ta s˜e d` ung phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap hˆe
.
sˆo´ bˆa´t di
.
nh m`a nˆo
.
i dung du
.
o
.
.
c
thˆe

hiˆe
.
n trong l`o
.
i gia’ i sau dˆay.
V`ı tgx l`a h`am le’ v`a tgx = x + o(x) nˆen
tgx = x + a
3
x
3
+ a
s
x
5
+ o(x
6
).
Ta su
.
’ du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c sinx = tgx· cos x v`a c´ac khai triˆe

n II v`a III
ta c´o
x −
x
3
3
+
x
5
5
+ o(x
6
) =
_
x + a
3
x
3
+ a
5
x
5
+ o(x
6
)
_
_
1 −
x
2
2!
+
x
4
4!
+ 0(x
5
)
_
Cˆan b˘a
`
ng c´ac hˆe
.
sˆo´ cu’ a x
3
v`a x
5
o
.
’ hai vˆe
´
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
_
¸
_
¸
_

1
6
= −
1
2
+ a
3
1
5!
=
1
4!

a
3
2!
+ a
5
8.3. C´ac di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi 105
T` u
.
d´o suy ra a
3
=
1
3
, a
5
=
2
15
. Do d´o
tgx = x +
x
3
3
+
2x
5
15
+ o(x
6
).
V´ı du
.
8.
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Maclaurin dˆe

t´ınh c´ ac gi´o
.
i ha
.
n sau:
1) lim
x→0
sinx −x
x
3
, 2) lim
x→0
e

x
2
2
−cos x
x
3
sinx
·
Gia’ i. 1)
´
Ap du
.
ng khai triˆe

n dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`am sinx v´o
.
i n = 2 ta c´o
lim
x→0
sin x −x
x
3
= lim
x→0
x −
x
3
3!
+ o(x
4
) −x
x
3
= −
1
3!
+ lim
x→0
o(x
4
)
x
3
= −
1
3!
+ 0 = −
1
3!
·
2)
´
Ap du
.
ng c´ac khai triˆe

n ba’ ng dˆo´i v´o
.
i e
t
, cos t, sin t cho tru
.
`o
.
ng
ho
.
.
p n`ay ta c´ o
lim
x→0
e

x
2
2
−cos x
x
3
sinx
= lim
x→0
1 −
x
2
2
+
x
4
8
+ o(x
4
) −1 +
x
2
2

x
4
24
+ 0(x
4
)
x
3
(x + 0(x))
= lim
x→0
x
4
8

x
4
24
+ 0(x
4
)
x
4
+ 0(x
4
)
= lim
x→0
1
8

1
24
+
o(x
4
)
x
4
1 +
0(x
4
)
x
4
=
1
8

1
24
+ 0
1 + 0
=
1
12
·
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
Khai triˆe

n c´ac h`am theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Maclaurin dˆe
´
n o(x
n
) (1-8)
1. f(x) =
1
3x + 4
. (DS.
n

k=0
(−1)
k
3
k
4
k+1
x
k
+ o(x
n
))
106 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
2. f(x) =
1

1 + 4x
. (DS.
n

k=0
(−1)
k
2
k
(2k−1)!!
k!
x
k
+ o(x
n
))
3. f(x) =
1
(1 −x)
2
. (DS.
n

k=0
(k + 1)x
k
+ o(x
n
))
4. f(x) = ln
2 −3x
2 + 3x
. (DS. ln
2
3
+
n

k=1
(−4)
k
−9
k
k6
k
x
k
+ o(x
n
))
5. f(x) = ln(x
2
+ 3x + 2).
(DS. ln2 +
n

k=1
(−1)
k−1
k
(1 + 2
−k
)x
k
+ o(x
n
))
6. f(x) = ln(2 + x −x
2
). (DS. ln2 +
n

k=1
(−1)
k−1
−2
−k
k
x
k
+o(x
n
))
7. f(x) =
1 −2x
2
2 + x −x
2
.
(DS.
1
2
+
n

k=1
(−1)
k+1
−7 · 2
−(k+1)
3
x
k
+ o(x
n
))
8. f(x) =
3x
2
+ 5x −5
x
2
+ x −2
. (DS.
5
2
+
n

k=1
_
(−1)
k
2
−(k+1)
−1
¸
x
k
+o(x
n
)).
Khai trˆe

n h`am theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Maclaurin dˆe
´
n 0(x
2n+1
) (9-13)
9. f(x) = sin
2
xcos
2
x. (DS.
n

k=1
(−1)
k+1
2
4k−3
(2k)!
x
2k
+ o(x
2n+1
))
10. f(x) = cos
3
x. (DS.
n

k=0
3(−1)
k
4(2k)!
(3
2k−1
+ 1)x
2k
+ o(x
2n+1
))
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. cos
3
x =
1
4
cos 3x +
3
4
cos x.
11. f(x) = cos
4
x + sin
4
x.
(DS. 1 +
n

k=1
(−1)
k
4
2k
(2k)!
x
2k
+ 0(x
2k+1
))
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng cos
4
x + sin
4
x =
3
4
+
1
4
cos 4x.
12. f(x) = cos
6
x + sin
6
x.
(DS. 1 +
n

k=1
3(−1)
k
4
2k−1
2(2k)!
x
2k
+ o(x
2n+1
))
8.3. C´ac di
.
nh l´y co
.
ba’ n vˆe
`
h`am kha’ vi 107
13. f(x) = sin xsin3x.
(DS.
n

k=0
(−1)
k
2
2k−1
(2k)!
(1 −2
2k
)x
2k
+ o(x
2n+1
)).
Khai triˆe

n h`am theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Taylor trong lˆan cˆ a
.
n diˆe

m x
0
dˆe
´
n
o((x −x
0
)
n
) (14-20)
14. f(x) =

x, x
0
= 1. (DS.
n

k=0
_
_
1
2
k
_
_
(x −1)
k
+ o((x −1)
n
))
15. f(x) = (x
2
−1)e
2x
, x
0
= −1.
(DS.
n

k=1
e
−2
2
k−2
(k −5)
(k −1)!
(x + 1)
k
+ o((x + 1)
n
))
16. f(x) = ln(x
2
−7x + 12), x
0
= 1.
(DS. ln6 −
n

k=1
2
−k
+ 3
−k
k
(x −1)
k
+ o(x −1)
n
))
17. f(x) = ln
(x −1)
x−2
3 −x
, x
0
= 2.
(DS. (x −2) +
n

k=2
_
1
k
+
(−1)
k
k −1
_
(x −2)
k
+ o((x −2)
n
))
18. f(x) =
(x −2)
2
3 −x
, x
0
= 2. (DS.
n

k=2
(x −2)
k
+ o((x −2)
n
))
19. f(x) =
x
2
−3x + 3
x −2
, x = 3.
(DS. 3 +
n

k=2
(−1)
k
(x −3)
k
+ o((x −3)
n
))
20. f(x) =
x
2
+ 4x + 4
x
2
+ 10x + 25
, x
0
= 2.
(DS.
n

k=2
(−1)
k
(k −1)
3
k
(x + 2)
k
+ o((x + 2)
n
)).
´
Ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c Maclaurin dˆe

t´ınh gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
21. lim
x→0
e
x
−e
−x
−2x
x −sin x
. (DS. 2)
22. lim
x→0
tgx + 2 sin x −3x
x
4
. (DS. 0)
108 Chu
.
o
.
ng 8. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n
23. lim
x→0
e
x
−e
−x
−2
x
2
. (DS. 1)
24. lim
x→0
_
1
x

1
sinx
_
. (DS. 0)
25. lim
x→0
cos x −e

x
2
2
x
4
. (DS. −
1
12
)
26. lim
x→0
1 −

1 + x
2
cos x
x
4
. (DS.
1
3
)
27. lim
x→0
ln
_
cos x +
x
2
2
_
x(sinx −x)
. (DS. −
1
4
)
28. lim
x→0
sin(sinx) −x
3

1 −x
2
x
5
. (DS.
19
90
)
Chu
.
o
.
ng 9
Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am
nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
9.1 D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
9.1.1 D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
9.1.2 D
-
a
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am ho
.
.
p . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
9.1.3 H`am kha’ vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
9.1.4 D
-
a
.
o h`am theo hu
.
´o
.
ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
9.1.5 D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p cao . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
9.2 Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am nhiˆe `u biˆe
´
n . . . . . . . . . 125
9.2.1 Vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
9.2.2
´
Ap du
.
ng vi phˆan dˆe

t´ınh gˆa
`
n d´ ung . . . . . 126
9.2.3 C´ac t´ınh chˆa´t cu’ a vi phˆan . . . . . . . . . . 127
9.2.4 Vi phˆan cˆa´p cao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
9.2.5 Cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
9.2.6 Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am ˆa

n . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
9.3 Cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a h`am nhiˆe `u biˆe
´
n . . . . . . . . . 145
110 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
9.3.1 Cu
.
.
c tri
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
9.3.2 Cu
.
.
c tri
.
c´o diˆe `u kiˆe
.
n . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
9.3.3 Gi´a tri
.
l´o
.
n nhˆa´t v`a b´e nhˆa´t cu’ a h`am . . . . 147
9.1 D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng
9.1.1 D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa
´
p 1
Gia’ su
.
’ w = f(M), M = (x, y) x´ac di
.
nh trong lˆan cˆ a
.
n n`ao d´o cu’ a diˆe

m
M(x, y). Ta
.
i diˆe

m M ta cho biˆe
´
n x sˆo´ gia t` uy ´ y ∆x trong khi vˆa
˜
n gi˜ u
.
gi´a tri
.
cu’ a biˆe
´
n y khˆong dˆo

i. Khi d´o h`am f(x, y) nhˆa
.
n sˆo´ gia tu
.
o
.
ng
´ u
.
ng l`a

x
w = f(x + ∆x, y) −f(x, y)
go
.
i l`a sˆ o´ gia riˆeng cu’ a h`am f(x, y) theo biˆe
´
n x ta
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y).
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
da
.
i lu
.
o
.
.
ng

y
w = f(x, y + ∆y) −f(x, y)
go
.
i l`a sˆ o´ gia riˆeng cu’ a h`am f(x, y) theo biˆe
´
n y ta
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y).
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa 9.1.1
1. Nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n
lim
∆x→0

x
w
∆x
= lim
∆x→0
f(x + ∆x, y) −f(x, y)
∆x
th`ı gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
.
o h`am riˆeng cu’ a h`am f(x, y) theo biˆe
´
n
x ta
.
i diˆe

m (x, y) v` a du
.
o
.
.
c chı ’ bo
.
’ i mˆo
.
t trong c´ac k´ y hiˆe
.
u
∂w
∂x
,
∂f(x, y)
∂x
, f

x
(x, y), w

x
.
9.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng 111
2. Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
: nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i gi´o
.
i ha
.
n
lim
∆y→0

y
w
∆y
= lim
∆y→0
f(x, y + ∆y) −f(x, y)
∆y
th`ı gi´o
.
i ha
.
n d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
.
o h`am riˆeng cu’ a h`am f(x, y) theo biˆe
´
n
y ta
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y) v`a du
.
o
.
.
c chı ’ bo
.
’ i mˆo
.
t trong c´ac k´ y hiˆe
.
u
∂w
∂y
,
∂f(x, y)
∂y
, f

y
(x, y), w

y
.
T` u
.
di
.
nh ngh˜ıa suy r˘a
`
ng da
.
o h`am riˆeng cu’ a h`am hai biˆe
´
n theo biˆe
´
n
x l`a da
.
o h`am thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng cu’ a h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n x khi cˆo´ di
.
nh gi´a tri
.
cu’ a biˆe
´
n y. Do d´o c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo c´ ac quy t˘a
´
c v`a
cˆong th´ u
.
c t´ınh da
.
o h`am thˆong thu
.
`o
.
ng cu’ a h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Ho`an to`an tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
ta c´o thˆe

di
.
nh ngh˜ıa da
.
o h`am riˆeng
cu’ a h`am ba (ho˘a
.
c nhiˆe
`
u ho
.
n ba) biˆe
´
n sˆo´.
9.1.2 D
-
a
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am ho
.
.
p
Nˆe
´
u h`am w = f(x, y), x = x(t), y = y(t) th`ı biˆe

u th´ u
.
c w =
f[x(t), y(t)] l`a h`am ho
.
.
p cu’ a t. Khi d´o
dw
dt
=
∂w
∂x
·
dx
dt
+
∂w
∂y
·
dy
dt
· (9.1)
Nˆe
´
u w = f(x, y), trong d´o x = x(u, v), y = y(u, v) th`ı
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
∂w
∂u
=
∂w
∂x
∂x
∂u
+
∂w
∂y
∂y
∂u
,
∂w
∂v
=
∂w
∂x
∂x
∂v
+
∂w
∂y
∂y
∂v
·
(9.2)
9.1.3 H`am kha’ vi
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am w = f(M) x´ac di
.
nh trong mˆo
.
t lˆan cˆa
.
n n`ao d´o cu’ a diˆe

m
M(x, y). H`am f du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a h`am kha’ vi ta
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y) nˆe
´
u sˆo´ gia
112 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
∆f(M) = f(x + ∆, y + ∆y) − f(x, y) cu’ a h`am khi chuyˆe

n t` u
.
diˆe

m
M(x, y) dˆe
´
n diˆe

N(x + ∆, y + ∆y) c´ o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
∆f(M) = D
1
∆x + D
2
∆y + o(ρ), ρ → 0
trong d´o ρ =
_
∆x
2
+ ∆y
2
.
Nˆe
´
u h`am f(x, y) kha’ vi ta
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y) th`ı
∂f
∂x
(M) = D
1
,
∂f
∂y
(M) = D
2
v`a khi d´o
∆f(M) =
∂f
∂x
(M)∆x +
∂f
∂y
∆y + o(ρ), ρ → 0. (9.3)
9.1.4 D
-
a
.
o h`am theo hu
.
´o
.
ng
Gia’ su
.
’ :
(1) w = f(M) l`a h`am x´ac di
.
nh trong lˆan cˆa
.
n n`ao d´o cu’ a diˆe

m
M(x, y);
(2) e = (cos α, cos β) l`a vecto
.
do
.
n vi
.
trˆen du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng c´o hu
.
´o
.
ng
L qua diˆe

m M(x, y);
(3) N = N(x + ∆x, y + ∆y) l`a diˆe

m thuˆo
.
c L v`a ∆e l`a dˆo
.
d`ai cu’ a
doa
.
n th˘a

ng MN.
Nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i gi´o
.
i ha
.
n h˜ u
.
u ha
.
n
lim
∆→0
(N→M)
∆w

th`ı gi´ o
.
i ha
.
n d´o du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a da
.
o h`am ta
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y) theo hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a
vecto
.
e v`a du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a
∂w
∂e
, t´ u
.
c l`a
∂w
∂e
= lim
∆→0
∆w

·
9.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng 113
Da
.
o h`am theo hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a vecto
.
e = (cos α, cos β) du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh theo
cˆong th´ u
.
c
∂f
∂e
=
∂f
∂x
(M) cos α +
∂f
∂y
(M) cos β. (9.4)
trong d´ o cos α v`a cos β l`a c´ac cosin chı ’ phu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a vecto
.
e.
Vecto
.
v´o
.
i c´ac to
.
a dˆo
.
∂f
∂x
v`a
∂F
∂y
(t´ u
.
c l`a vecto
.
_
∂f
∂x
,
∂f
∂y
_
) du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i
l`a vecto
.
gradiˆen cu’ a h`am f(M) ta
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y) v`a du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a
gradf(M).
T` u
.
d´o da
.
o h`am theo hu
.
´o
.
ng
∂f
∂e
c´o biˆe

u th´ u
.
c l`a
∂f
∂e
=
¸
gradf, e
_
.
Ta lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng: 1) Nˆe
´
u h` am w = f(x, y) kha’ vi ta
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y)
th`ı n´o liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i M v`a c´o c´ ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆ a´p 1 ta
.
i d´o;
2) N´eu h`am w = f(x, y) c´o c´ ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆ a´p 1 theo mo
.
i biˆe
´
n
trong lˆan cˆa
.
n n`ao d´o cu’ a diˆe

m M(x, y) v`a c´ ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng n`ay liˆen
tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y) th`ı n´o kha’ vi ta
.
i diˆe

m M.
Nˆe
´
u h`am f(x, y) kha’ vi ta
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y) th`ı n´o c´ o da
.
o h`am theo
mo
.
i hu
.
´o
.
ng ta
.
i diˆe

m d´o.
Ch´ u ´y. Nˆe
´
u h`am f(x, y) c´ o da
.
o h`am theo mo
.
i hu
.
´o
.
ng ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
th`ı khˆong c´o g`ı da’ m ba’ o l`a h`am f(x, y) kha’ vi ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(xem v´ı
du
.
4).
9.1.5 D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa
´
p cao
Gia’ su
.
’ miˆe
`
n D ⊂ R
2
v`a
f : D →R
114 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
l`a h`am hai biˆe
´
n f(x, y) du
.
o
.
.
c cho trˆen D. Ta d˘a
.
t
D
x
=
_
(x, y) ∈ D : ∃
∂f
∂x
= ±∞
_
,
D
y
=
_
(x, y) ∈ D : ∃
∂f
∂y
= ±∞
_
.
D

= D
x
∩ D
y
D
-
i
.
nh ngh˜ıa. 1) C´ ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng
∂f
∂x
v`a
∂f
∂y
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a c´ ac da
.
o
h`am riˆeng cˆa´p 1.
2) Nˆe
´
u h`am
∂f
∂x
: D
x
→R v`a
∂f
∂y
: D
y
→R c´o c´ ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng

∂x
_
∂f
∂x
_
=

2
f
∂x∂x
=

2
f
∂x
2
,

∂y
_
∂f
∂x
_
=

2
f
∂x∂y
,

∂x
_
∂f
∂y
_
=

2
f
∂y∂x
,

∂y
_
∂f
∂y
_
=

2
f
∂y∂y
=

2
f
∂y
2
th`ı ch´ ung du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆ a´p 2 theo x v`a theo y.
C´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p 3 du
.
o
.
.
c di
.
nh ngh˜ıa nhu
.
l`a c´ ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng
cu’ a da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p 2, v.v...
Ta lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng nˆe
´
u h`am f(x, y) c´ o c´ac da
.
o h`am hˆo
˜
n ho
.
.
p

2
f
∂x∂y
v`a

2
f
∂y∂x
liˆen tu
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m (x, y) th`ı ta
.
i diˆe

m d´o c´ac da
.
o h`am hˆo
˜
n ho
.
.
p n`ay
b˘a
`
ng nhau:

2
f
∂x∂y
=

2
f
∂y∂x
·
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
9.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng 115
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p 1 cu’ a c´ac h`am
1) 4w = x
2
−2xy
2
+ y
3
. 2) w = x
y
.
Gia’ i. 1) Da
.
o h`am riˆeng
∂w
∂x
du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh nhu
.
l`a da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am w
theo biˆe
´
n x v´o
.
i gia’ thiˆe
´
t y = const. Do d´o
∂w
∂x
= (x
2
−2xy
2
+ y
3
)

x
= 2x −2y
2
+ 0 = 2(x −y
2
).
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
, ta c´ o
∂w
∂y
= (x
2
−2xy
2
+ y
3
)

y
= 0 −4xy + 3y
2
= y(3y −4x).
2) Nhu
.
trong 1), xem y = const ta c´o
∂w
∂x
=
_
x
y
_

x
= yx
y−1
.
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
, khi xem x l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
∂w
∂y
= x
y
lnx.
(v`ı w = x
y
l`a h`am m˜ u dˆo´i v´o
.
i biˆe
´
n y khi x = const.
V´ı du
.
2. Cho w = f(x, y) v`a x = ρ cos ϕ, y = ρ sin ϕ. H˜ay t´ınh
∂w
∂ρ
v`a
∂w
∂ϕ
.
Gia’ i. Dˆe

´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (9.2), ta lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng
w = f(x, y) = f(ρ cos ϕ, ρ sinϕ) = F(ρ, ϕ).
Do d´o theo (9.2) v`a biˆe

u th´ u
.
c dˆo´i v´o
.
i x v`a y ta c´o
∂w
∂ρ
=
∂w
∂x
∂x
∂ρ
+
∂w
∂y
∂y
∂ρ
=
∂w
∂x
cos ϕ +
∂w
∂y
sin ϕ
∂w
∂ϕ
=
∂w
∂x
∂x
∂ϕ
+
∂w
∂y
∂y
∂ϕ
=
∂w
∂x
(−ρ sinϕ) +
∂w
∂y
(ρ cos ϕ)
= ρ
_

∂w
∂x
sinϕ +
∂w
∂y
cos ϕ
_
.
116 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am w = x
2
+y
2
x ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(1, 2) theo
hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a vecto
.
−→
M
0
M
1
, trong d´o M
1
l`a diˆe

m v´o
.
i to
.
a dˆo
.
(3, 0).
Gia’ i. Dˆa
`
u tiˆen ta t`ım vecto
.
do
.
n vi
.
e c´o hu
.
´o
.
ng l`a hu
.
´o
.
ng d˜a cho.
Ta c´o
−→
M
0
M
1
= (2, −2) = 2e
1
−2e
2
,
⇒|
−→
M
0
M
1
| = 2

2 ⇒e =
M
0
M
1
|M
0
M
1
|
=
2e
1
−2e
2
2

2
=
1

2
e
1

1

2
e
2
.
trong d´o e
1
, e
2
l`a vecto
.
do
.
n vi
.
cu’ a c´ac tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
. T` u
.
d´o suy r˘a
`
ng
cos α =
1

2
, cos β = −
1

2
·
Tiˆe
´
p theo ta t´ınh c´ ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(1, 2). Ta c´o
f

x
= 2x + y
2
⇒ f

x
(M
0
) = f

x
(1, 2) = 6,
f

y
= 2xy ⇒ f

y
(M
0
) = f

y
(1, 2) = 4.
Do d´o theo cˆong th´ u
.
c (9.4) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
∂f
∂e
= 6 ·
1

2
−4 ·
1

2
=

2.
V´ı du
.
4. H`am f(x, y) = x + y +
_
|xy| c´o da
.
o h`am theo mo
.
i hu
.
´o
.
ng
ta
.
i diˆe

m O(0, 0) nhu
.
ng khˆong kha’ vi ta
.
i d´o.
Gia’ i. 1. Su
.
.
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i da
.
o h`am theo mo
.
i hu
.
´o
.
ng.
Ta x´et hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a vecto
.
e di ra t` u
.
O v`a lˆa
.
p v´o
.
i tru
.
c Ox g´oc α. Ta
c´o

e
f(0, 0) = ∆x + ∆y +
_
|∆x∆y|
=
_
cos α + sinα +
_
| cos αsinα|
_
ρ,
9.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng 117
trong d´o ρ =
_
∆x
2
+ ∆y
2
, ∆x = ρ cos α, ∆y = ρ sinα.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra
∂f
∂e
(0, 0) = lim
ρ→0

e
f(0, 0)
ρ
= cos α + sinα +
_
| sinαcos α|
t´ u
.
c l`a da
.
o h`am theo hu
.
´o
.
ng tˆo
`
n ta
.
i theo mo
.
i hu
.
´o
.
ng.
2. Tuy nhiˆen h`am d˜a cho khˆong kha’ vi ta
.
i O. Thˆa
.
t vˆa
.
y, ta c´o
∆f(0, 0) = f(∆x, ∆y) −f(0, 0) = ∆x + ∆y +
_
|∆x| |∆y| −0.
V`ı f

x
= 1 v`a f

y
= 1 (ta
.
i sao ? ) nˆen nˆe
´
u f kha’ vi ta
.
i O(0, 0) th`ı
∆f(0, 0) = ∆x + ∆y +
_
|∆x∆y| = 1 · ∆x + 1 · ∆y + ε(ρ)ρ
ε(ρ) → 0(ρ → 0), ρ =
_
∆x
2
+ ∆y
2
hay l`a lu
.
u ´ y ∆x = ρ cos α, ∆y = ρ sin α ta c´o
ε(ρ) =
_
| cos αsinα|.
Vˆe
´
pha’ i d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c n`ay khˆong pha’ i l`a vˆo c` ung b´e khi ρ → 0 (v`ı n´o
ho`an to` an khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao ρ). Do d´o theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa h`am f(x, y)
d˜a cho khˆong kha’ vi ta
.
i diˆe

m O.
V´ı du
.
5. T´ınh c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p 2 cu’ a c´ac h`am:
1) w = x
y
, 2) w = arctg
x
y
·
Gia’ i. 1) Dˆa
`
u tiˆen t´ınh c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p 1. Ta c´o
∂w
∂x
= yx
y−1
,
∂w
∂y
= x
y
lnx.
Tiˆe
´
p theo ta c´ o

2
w
∂x
2
= y(y −1)x
y−2
,

2
w
∂y∂x
= x
y−1
+ yx
y−1
lnx = x
y−1
(1 + ylnx),

2
w
∂x∂y
= yx
y−1
lnx + x
y
·
1
x
= x
y−1
(1 + ylnx),

2
f
∂y
2
= x
y
(lnx)
2
.
118 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
2) Ta c´ o
∂w
∂x
=
y
x
2
+ y
2
,
∂w
∂y
= −
x
x
2
+ y
2
·
T` u
.
d´o

2
w
∂x
2
=

∂x
_
y
x
2
+ y
2
_
= −
2xy
(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
,

2
w
∂y
2
=

∂y
_
−x
x
2
+ y
2
_
=
2xy
x
2
+ y
2
,

2
w
∂x∂y
=

∂y
_
y
x
2
+ y
2
_
=
x
2
−y
2
(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
,

2
w
∂y∂x
=

∂x
_

x
x
2
+ y
2
_
=
x
2
−y
2
(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
·
Nhˆa
.
n x´et. Trong ca’ 1) lˆa
˜
n 2) ta dˆe
`
u c´o

2
w
∂x∂y
=

2
w
∂y∂x
.
V´ı du
.
6. T´ınh c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆ a´p 1 cu’ a h`am w = f(x+y
2
, y+x
2
)
ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(−1, 1), trong d´o x v`a y l`a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p.
Gia’ i. D˘a
.
t t = x + y
2
, v = y + x
2
. Khi d´o
w = f(x + y
2
, y + x
2
) = f(t, v).
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y w = f(t, v) l`a h`am ho
.
.
p cu’ a hai biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p x v`a y. N´ o phu
.
thuˆo
.
c c´ ac biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p thˆong qua hai biˆe
´
n trung gian t, v. Theo cˆong
th´ u
.
c (9.2) ta c´o:
∂w
∂x
=
∂f
∂t
·
∂t
∂x
+
∂f
∂v
·
∂v
∂x
= f

t
(x + y
2
, y + x
2
) · 1 + f

v
(x + y
2
, y + x
2
) · 2x
= f

t
+ 2xf

v
.
9.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng 119
∂w
∂x
(−1, 1) =
∂f
∂x
(0, 2) = f

t
(0, 2) −2f

v
(0, 2)
∂w
∂y
=
∂f
∂t
·
∂t
∂y
+
∂f
∂v
·
∂v
∂y
= f

t
(·)2y + f

v
(·)1
= 2yf

t
+ f

v
∂w
∂y
(−1, 1) =
∂f
∂y
(0, 2) = 2f

t
(0, 2) + f

v
(0, 2).
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh da
.
o h`am riˆeng cu’ a c´ac h`am sau dˆay
1. f(x, y) = x
2
+ y
3
+ 3x
2
y
3
.
(DS. f

x
= 2x + 6xy
3
, f

y
= 3y
2
+ 9x
2
y
2
)
2. f(x, y, z) = xyz +
x
yz
.
(DS. f

x
= yz +
1
yz
, f

y
= xz −
x
y
2
z
, f

z
= xy −
x
yz
2
)
3. f(x, y, z) = sin(xy + yz). (DS. f

x
= y cos(xy + yz),
f

y
= (x + z) cos(xy + yz), f

z
= y cos(xy + yz))
4. f(x, y) = tg(x + y)e
x/y
.
(DS. f

x
=
e
x/y
cos
2
(x + y)
+ tg(x + y)e
x/y
1
y
,
f

y
=
e
x/y
cos
2
(x + y)
+ tg(x + y)e
x/y
_

x
y
2
_
.)
5. f = arc sin
x
_
x
2
+ y
2
. (DS. f

x
=
|y|
x
2
+ y
2
, f

y
=
−xsigny
x
2
+ y
2
)
6. f(x, y) = xyln(xy). (DS. f

x
= yln(xy) + y, f

y
= xln(xy) + x)
120 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
7. f(x, y, z) =
_
y
x
_
z
.
(DS. f

x
= z
_
y
x
_
z−1
_

y
x
2
_
= −
z
x
_
y
x
_
z
,
f

y
=
z
y
_
y
x
_
z
, f

z
=
_
y
x
_
z
ln
y
x
)
8. f(x, y, z) = z
x/y
.
(DS. f

x
= x
x/y
lnz ·
_
1
y
_
, f

y
= z
x/y
lnz ·
_
−x
y
2
_
, f

z
=
_
x
y
_
z
x/y−1
)
9. f(x, y, z) = x
y
z
.
(DS. f

x
= y
z
x
y
z
−1
, f

y
= x
y
z
zy
z−1
lnx, f

z
= x
y
z
ln(x)
z
lny)
10. f(x, y, z) = x
y
y
z
z
x
.
(DS. f

x
= x
y−1
y
z+1
z
x
+ x
y
y
z
z
x
lnz, f

y
= x
y
lnxy
z
z
x
+ x
y
y
z−1
z
x+1
,
f

z
= x
y
y
z
lny · z
x
+ x
y+1
y
z
z
x−1
)
11. f(x, y) = lnsin
x + a

y
.
(DS. f

x
=
1

y
cotg
x + a

y
, f

y
= −
x + a
y
cotg
x + a

y
)
12. f(x, y) =
x
y
−e
x
arctgy.
(DS. f

x
=
1
y
−e
x
arctgy, f

y
= −
x
y
2

e
x
1 + y
2
)
13. f(x, y) = ln
_
x +
_
x
2
+ y
2
_
.
(DS. f

x
=
1
_
x
2
+ y
2
, f

y
=
1
x +
_
x
2
+ y
2
·
y
_
x
2
+ y
2
).
T`ım da
.
o h`am riˆeng cu’ a h`am ho
.
.
p sau dˆay (gia’ thiˆe
´
t h`am f(x, y)
kha’ vi)
14. f(x, y) = f(x + y, x
2
+ y
2
).
(DS. f

x
= f

t
+ f

v
2x, f

y
= f

t
+ f

v
2y, t = x + y, v = x
2
+ y
2
)
15. f(x, y) = f
_
x
y
,
y
x
_
.
9.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng 121
(DS. f

x
=
1
y
f

t

y
x
2
f

v
, f

y
=
−x
y
2
f

t
+
1
x
f

v
, t =
x
y
, v =
y
x
)
16. f(x, y) = f(x −y, xy).
(DS. f

x
= f

t
+ yf

v
, f

y
= −f

t
+ xf

v
, t = x −y, v = xy)
17. f(x, y) = f(x −y
2
, y −x
2
, xy).
(DS. f

x
= f

t
−2xf

v
+ yf

w
, f

y
= −2yf

t
+ f

v
+ xf

w
,
t = x −y
2
, v = y −x
2
, w = xy)
18. f(x, y, z) = f(
_
x
2
+ y
2
,
_
y
2
+ z
2
,

z
2
+ x
2
).
(DS. f

x
=
xf

t
_
x
2
+ y
2
+
xf

w

z
2
+ x
2
, f

y
=
yf

t
_
x
2
+ y
2
+
yf

v

x
2
+ z
2
,
f

z
=
zf

v
_
x
2
+ y
2
+
zf

w

z
2
+ x
2
, t =
_
x
2
+ y
2
,
v =
_
y
2
+ z
2
, w =

z
2
+ x
2
)
19. w = f(x, xy, xyz).
(DS. f

x
= f

t
+ yf

u
+ yzf

v
,
f

y
= xf

u
+ xzf

v
,
f

z
= xyf

v
t = x, u = xy, v = xyz).
Trong c´ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay h˜ay ch´ u
.
ng to’ r˘a
`
ng h`am f(x, y) tho’a
m˜an phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng (f(x, y)-kha’ vi).
20. f = f(x
2
+ y
2
), y
∂f
∂x
−x
∂f
∂y
= 0.
21. f = x
n
f
_
y
x
2
_
, x
∂f
∂y
+ 2y
∂f
∂y
= nf.
22. f = yf(x
2
−y
2
), y
2
∂f
∂x
+ xy
∂f
∂y
= xyf.
23. f =
y
2
3x
+ f(x, y), x
2
∂f
∂x
−xy
∂f
∂y
+ y
2
= 0.
122 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
24. f = x
n
f
_
y
x
α
,
z
x
β
_
, x
∂f
∂x
+ αy
∂f
∂y
+ βz
∂f
∂z
= nf.
25. f =
xy
z
lnx + xf
_
y
x
,
z
x
_
, x
∂f
∂x
+ y
∂f
∂y
+ z
∂f
∂z
= f +
xy
z
.
26. T´ınh

2
f
∂x
2
,

2
f
∂x∂y
,

2
f
∂y
2
nˆe
´
u f = cos(xy)
(DS. f

xx
= −y
2
cos xy, f

xy
= −sinxy − xy cos xy, f

yy
=
−x
2
cos xy)
27. T´ınh c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p hai cu’ a h`am f = sin(x + yz).
(DS. f

xx
= −sint, f

xy
= −z sint, f

xz
= −y sin t, f

yy
= −z
2
sint,
f

yz
= −yz sint, f

zz
= −y
2
sint, t = x + yz)
28. T´ınh

2
f
∂x∂y
nˆe
´
u f =
_
x
2
+ y
2
e
x+y
.
(DS.
e
x+y
(x
2
+ y
2
)
3/2
_
−xy + (x + y)(x
2
+ y
2
) + (x
2
+ y
2
)
2
_
)
29. T´ınh

2
f
∂x∂y
,

2
f
∂y∂z
,

2
f
∂x∂z
nˆe
´
u f = x
yz
.
(DS. f

xy
= x
yz−1
z(1 + yzlnx), f

xz
= x
yz−1
y(1 + yzlnx),
f

yz
= lnx · x
yz
(1 + yzlnx))
30. T´ınh

2
f
∂x∂y
nˆe
´
u f = arctg
x + y
1 −xy
. (DS.

2
f
∂x∂y
= 0)
31. T´ınh f

xx
(0, 0), f

xy
(0, 0), f

yy
(0, 0) nˆe
´
u
f(x, y) = (1 + x)
m
(1 + y)
n
.
(DS. f

xx
(0, 0) = m(m−1), f

xy
(0, 0) = mn, f

yy
(0, 0) = n(n −1))
32. T´ınh

2
r
∂x
2
nˆe
´
u r =
_
x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
. (DS.
r
2
−x
2
r
3
)
33. T´ınh f

xy
, f

yz
, f

xz
nˆe
´
u f =
_
x
y
_
z
.
(DS. f

xy
= −z
2
y
−2
_
xy
−1
_
z−1
, f

xz
=
_
1
y
__
x
y
_
z−1
_
1 + zln
x
y
_
,
9.1. D
-
a
.
o h`am riˆeng 123
f

yz
= −
1
y
_
x
y
_
z
·
_
1 + zln
x
y
_
)
34. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng

2
f
∂x∂y
=

2
f
∂y∂x
nˆe
´
u f = arc sin
_
x −y
x
.
T´ınh c´ac da
.
o h`am cˆa´p hai cu’ a c´ac h`am (gia’ thiˆe
´
t hai lˆa
`
n kha’ vi)
35. u = f(x + y, x
2
+ y
2
).
(DS. u

xx
= f

tt
+ 4xf

tv
+ 4x
2
f

vv
+ 2f

v
,
u

xy
= f

tt
+ 2(x + y)f

tv
+ 4xyf

vv
,
u

yy
= f

tt
+ 4yf

tv
+ 4y
2
f

vv
+ 2f

v
,
t = x + y, v = x
2
+ y
2
.)
36. u = f
_
xy,
x
y
_
.
(DS. u

xx
= y
2
f

tt
+ 2f

tv
+
1
y
2
f

vv
,
u

xy
= xyf

tt

x
y
3
f

vv
+ f

t

1
y
2
f

v
,
u

yy
= x
2
f

tt
−2
x
2
y
2
f

tv
+
x
2
y
4
f

vv
+
2x
y
3
f

v
,
t = xy, v =
x
y
)
37. u = f(sin x + cos y).
(DS. u

xx
= cos
2
x · f

−sin x · f

, u

xy
= −siny cos x · f

,
u

yy
= sin
2
y · f

−cos y · f

)
38. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng h`am
f =
1
2a

πt
e

(x−x
0
)
2
4a
2
t
(trong d´o a, x
0
l`a c´ac sˆo´) tho’a m˜an phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh truyˆe
`
n nhiˆe
.
t
∂f
∂t
= a
2

2
f
∂x
2
·
124 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
39. Ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng h`am f =
1
r
trong d´o
r =
_
(x −x
0
)
2
+ (y −y
0
)
2
+ (z −z
0
)
2
tho’a m˜an phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh Laplace:
∆f ≡

2
f
∂x
2
+

2
f
∂y
2
+

2
f
∂z
2
= 0, r = 0.
Trong c´ ac b`ai to´an 40 - 44 ch´ u
.
ng minh r˘a
`
ng c´ac h`am d˜a cho tho’a
m˜an phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng (gia’ thiˆe
´
t f v`a g l`a nh˜ u
.
ng h`am hai lˆa
`
n
kha’ vi)
40. u = f(x −at) + g(x + at),

2
u
∂t
2
= a
2

2
u
∂x
2
41. u = xf(x + y) + yg(x + y),

2
u
∂x
2
−2

2
u
∂x∂y
+

2
u
∂y
2
= 0.
42. u = f
_
y
x
_
+ xg
_
y
x
_
, x
2

2
u
∂x
2
+ 2xy

2
u
∂x∂y
+ y
2

2
u
∂y
2
= 0.
43. u = x
n
f
_
y
x
_
+ x
1−n
g
_
y
x
_
,
x
2

2
u
∂x
2
+ 2xy

2
u
∂x∂y
+ y
2

2
u
∂y
2
= n(n −1)u.
44. u = f(x + g(y)),
∂u
∂x
·

2
u
∂x∂y
=
∂u
∂y
·

2
u
∂x
2
·
45. T`ım da
.
o h`am theo hu
.
´o
.
ng ϕ = 135

cu’ a h`am sˆo´
f(x, y) = 3x
4
+ xy + y
3
ta
.
i diˆe

m M(1, 2). (DS. −

2
2
)
46. T`ım da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am f(x, y) = x
3
− 3x
2
y + 3xy
2
+ 1 ta
.
i diˆe

m
M(3, 1) theo hu
.
´o
.
ng t` u
.
diˆe

m n`ay dˆe
´
n diˆe

m (6, 5). (DS. 0)
47. T`ım da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am f(x, y) = ln
_
x
2
+ y
2
ta
.
i diˆe

m M(1, 1)
theo hu
.
´o
.
ng phˆan gi´ac cu’ a g´oc phˆa
`
n tu
.
th´ u
.
nhˆa´t. (DS.

2
2
)
9.2. Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 125
48. T`ım da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am f(x, y, z) = z
2
− 3xy + 5 ta
.
i diˆe

m
M(1, 2, −1) theo hu
.
´o
.
ng lˆa
.
p v´o
.
i c´ac tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
nh˜ u
.
ng g´oc b˘a
`
ng nhau.
(DS. −

3
3
)
49. T`ım da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am f(x, y, z) = ln(e
x
+e
y
+e
z
) ta
.
i gˆo´c to
.
a dˆo
.
v`a hu
.
´o
.
ng lˆa
.
p v´o
.
i c´ac tru
.
c to
.
a dˆo
.
x, y, z c´ac g´oc tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng l`a α, β, γ.
(DS.
cos α + cos β + cos γ
3
)
50. T´ınh da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am f(x, y) = 2x
2
−3y
2
ta
.
i diˆe

m M(1, 0) theo
hu
.
´o
.
ng lˆa
.
p v´o
.
i tru
.
c ho`anh g´oc b˘a
`
ng 120

. (DS. −2)
51. T`ım da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am z = x
2
−y
2
ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(1, 1) theo hu
.
´o
.
ng
vecto
.
e lˆa
.
p v´o
.
i hu
.
´o
.
ng du
.
o
.
ng tru
.
c ho`anh g´ oc α = 60

. (DS. 1 −

3)
52. T`ım da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am z = ln(x
2
+ y
2
) ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(3, 4) theo
hu
.
´o
.
ng gradien cu’ a h`am d´o. (DS.
2
5
)
53. T`ım gi´a tri
.
v`a hu
.
´o
.
ng cu’ a vecto
.
gradien cu’ a h`am
w = tgx −x + 3 sin y −sin
3
y + z + cotgz
ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
_
π
4
,
π
3
,
π
2
_
.
(DS. (gradw)
M
=

i +
3
8

j, cos α =
8

73
, cos β =
3

73
)
54. T`ım da
.
o h`am cu’ a h`am w = arc sin
z
_
x
2
+ y
2
ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(1, 1, 1)
theo hu
.
´o
.
ng vecto
.
−→
M
0
M, trong d´o M = (3, 2, 3). (DS.
1
6
)
9.2 Vi phˆan cu

a h` am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
Trong mu
.
c n`ay ta x´et vi phˆan cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n m`a dˆe

cho go
.
n ta
chı ’ cˆa
`
n tr`ınh b`ay cho h`am hai biˆe
´
n l`a du’ . Tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p sˆo´ biˆe
´
n l´o
.
n
ho
.
n hai du
.
o
.
.
c tr`ınh b`ay ho`an to`an tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
.
126 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
9.2.1 Vi phˆan cˆa
´
p 1
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am w = f(x, y) kha’ vi ta
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y), t´ u
.
c l`a ta
.
i d´o sˆo´ gia
to`an phˆa
`
n cu’ a h`am c´o thˆe

biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
∆f(M) = f(x + ∆x, y + ∆y) −f(x, y)
= D
1
∆x + D
2
∆y + o(ρ) (9.5)
trong d´o ρ =
_
∆x
2
+ ∆y
2
, D
1
v`a D
2
khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao ∆x v`a
∆y. Khi d´o biˆe

u th´ u
.
c (go
.
i l`a phˆa
`
n ch´ınh tuyˆe
´
n t´ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i ∆x v`a ∆y
cu’ a sˆo´ gia ∆f)
D
1
∆x + D
2
∆y
du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a vi phˆan (hay vi phˆan to`an phˆ a
`
n ≡ hay vi phˆan th´ u
.
nhˆa´t)
cu’ a h`am w = f(x, y) v`a du
.
o
.
.
c k´ y hiˆe
.
u l`a df:
df = D
1
∆x + D
2
∆y.
V`ı ∆x = dx, ∆y = dy v`a v`ı f(x, y) kha’ vi ta
.
i M nˆen D
1
=
∂f
∂y
,
D
2
=
∂f
∂y
v`a
df =
∂f
∂x
dx +
∂f
∂y
dy (9.6)
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, nˆe
´
u w = f(x, y) kha’ vi ta
.
i M(x, y) th`ı t` u
.
(9.5) v`a (9.6)
ta c´o
∆f(M) = df(M) + o(ρ) hay ∆f(M) = df(M) + ε(ρ)ρ (9.7)
trong d´o ε(ρ) → 0 khi ρ → 0.
9.2.2
´
Ap du
.
ng vi phˆan dˆe

t´ınh gˆa
`
n d´ ung
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i ∆x v`a ∆y du’ b´e ta c´ o thˆe

thay xˆa´p xı ’ sˆo´ gia ∆f(M) bo
.
’ i vi
phˆan df(M), t´ u
.
c l`a
∆f(M) ≈ df(M)
9.2. Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 127
hay l`a
f(x + ∆x, y + ∆y) ≈ f(x, y) +
∂f
∂x
(M)∆x +
∂f
∂y
(M)∆y (9.8)
Cˆong th´ u
.
c (9.8) l`a co
.
so
.
’ dˆe

´ap du
.
ng vi phˆan t´ınh gˆ a
`
n d´ ung. Dˆo´i
v´o
.
i h`am c´o sˆo´ biˆe
´
n nhiˆe
`
u ho
.
n 2 ta c˜ ung c´o cˆong th´ u
.
c tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
.
9.2.3 C´ac t´ınh chˆa
´
t cu’ a vi phˆan
Dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac h`am kha’ vi f v`a g ta c´o:
(i) d(f ±g) = df ±dg;
(ii) d(fg) = fdg + gdf, d(αf) = αdf, α ∈ R;
(iii) d
_
f
g
_
=
gdf −fdg
g
2
, g = 0;
(iv) Vi phˆan cˆa´p 1 cu’ a h`am hai biˆe
´
n f(x, y) bˆa´t biˆe
´
n vˆe
`
da
.
ng bˆa´t
luˆa
.
n x v`a y l`a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p hay l`a h`am cu’ a c´ac biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p kh´ac.
9.2.4 Vi phˆan cˆa
´
p cao
Gia’ su
.
’ h`am w = f(x, y) kha’ vi trong miˆe
`
n D. Khi d´o vi phˆan cˆ a´p 1
cu’ a n´o ta
.
i diˆe

m (x, y) ∈ D tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng v´o
.
i c´ac sˆo´ gia dx v`a dy cu’ a c´ac
biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p du
.
o
.
.
c biˆe

u diˆe
˜
n bo
.
’ i cˆong th´ u
.
c
df =
∂f
∂x
dx +
∂f
∂y
dy. (9.9)
O
.

dˆay, dx = ∆x, dy = ∆y l`a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo´ gia t` uy ´ y cu’ a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p, d´o
l`a nh˜ u
.
ng sˆo´ khˆong phu
.
thuˆo
.
c v`ao x v`a y. Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, khi cˆo´ di
.
nh dx v`a
dy vi phˆan df l`a h`am cu’ a x v`a y.
Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa: Vi phˆan th´ u
.
hai d
2
f (hay vi phˆan cˆa´p 2) cu’ a
h`am f(x, y) ta
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y) du
.
o
.
.
c di
.
nh ngh˜ıa nhu
.
l`a vi phˆan cu’ a vi
phˆan th´ u
.
nhˆa´t ta
.
i diˆe

m M v´o
.
i c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n sau dˆay:
(1) Vi phˆan df l`a h`am chı ’ cu’ a c´ac biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p x v`a y.
128 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
(2) Sˆo´ gia cu’ a c´ac biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p x v`a y xuˆa´t hiˆe
.
n khi t´ınh vi phˆan
cu’ a f

x
v`a f

y
du
.
o
.
.
c xem l`a b˘a
`
ng sˆo´ gia dˆa
`
u tiˆen, t´ u
.
c l`a b˘a
`
ng dx v`a dy.
T` u
.
d´o
d
2
f(M) =

2
f(M)
∂x
2
dx
2
+ 2

2
f
∂x∂y
(M)dxdy +

2
f
∂y
2
(M)dy
2
(9.10)
trong d´o dx
2
= (dx)
2
, dy
2
= (dy)
2
v`a ta xem c´ ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng hˆo
˜
n
ho
.
.
p b˘a
`
ng nhau.
Mˆo
.
t c´ ach h`ınh th´ u
.
c d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c (9.10) c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
d
2
f =
_

∂x
dx +

∂y
dy
_
2
f(x, y)
t´ u
.
c l`a sau khi thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n ph´ep “b`ınh phu
.
o
.
ng” ta cˆa
`
n diˆe
`
n f(x, y) v`ao
“ˆo trˆo´ng”.
Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
d
3
f =
_

∂x
dx +

∂y
dy
_
3
f(x, y)
=

3
f
∂x
3
dx
3
+ 3

3
f
∂x
2
∂y
dx
2
dy + 3

3
f
∂x∂y
2
dxdy
2
+

3
f
∂y
3
dy
3
,
v.v... Mˆo
.
t c´ ach quy na
.
p ta c´ o
d
n
f(x, y) =
n

k=0
C
k
n

n
f
∂x
n−k
∂y
k
dx
n−k
dy
k
. (9.11)
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p nˆe
´
u
w = f(t, v), t = ϕ(x, y), v = ψ(x, y)
th`ı
dw =
∂f
∂t
dt +
∂f
∂v
dx (t´ınh bˆa´t biˆe
´
n vˆe
`
da
.
ng !)
d
2
w =

2
f
∂t
2
dt
2
+ 2

2
f
∂t∂v
dtdy +

2
f
∂v
2
dv
2
+
∂f
∂t
d
2
t +
∂f
∂v
d
2
v. (9.12)
9.2. Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 129
9.2.5 Cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor
Nˆe
´
u h`am f(x, y) l`a n + 1 lˆa
`
n kha’ vi trong ε-lˆan cˆa
.
n V cu’ a diˆe

m
M
0
(x
0
, y
0
) th`ı dˆo´i v´o
.
i diˆe

m bˆa´t k` y M(x, y) ∈ V ta c´o cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Taylor
f(x, y) = f(x
0
, y
0
) +
1
1!
_
f

x
(x
0
, y
0
)(x −x
0
) + f

y
(x
0
, y
0
)(y −y
0
)
_
+
1
2!
_
f

xx
(x
0
, y
0
)(x −x
0
)
2
+ 2f

xy
(x
0
, y
0
)(x −x
0
)(y −y
0
)
+ f

yy
(x
0
, y
0
)(y −y
0
)
_
+· · · +
1
n!
m

i=0
C
i
n

n
f(x
0
, y
0
)
∂x
n−i
∂y
i
(x −x
0
)
n−i
(y −y
0
)
i
+
1
(n + 1)!
n

i=0

n+1
f(ξ, η)
∂x
n−i
∂y
i
(x −x
0
)
n−i
(y −y
0
), (9.13)
trong d´o ξ = x
0
+ θ(x −x
0
), η = y
0
+ θ(y −y
0
), 0 < θ < 1.
hay l`a
f(x, y) = f(x
0
, y
0
) +
1
1!
df(x
0
, y
0
) +
1
2!
d
2
f(x
0
, y
0
) + . . .
+
1
n!
d
n
f(x
0
, y
0
) + R
n+1
,
= P
n
(x, y) + R
n+1
(9.14)
trong d´o P
n
(x, y) go
.
i l`a da th´ u
.
c Taylor bˆa
.
c n cu’ a hai biˆe
´
n x v`a y,
R
n+1
l`a sˆo´ ha
.
ng du
.
. Nˆe
´
u d˘a
.
t
ρ =
_
∆x
2
+ ∆y
2
th`ı (9.14) c´o thˆe

viˆe
´
t du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng
f(x, y) = P
n
(x, y) + 0(ρ), ρ →0,
o
.
’ dˆay R
n+1
= o(ρ) l`a phˆa
`
n du
.
da
.
ng Peano.
130 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
9.2.6 Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am ˆa

n
Theo di
.
nh ngh˜ıa: biˆe
´
n w du
.
o
.
.
c go
.
i l`a h`am ˆa

n cu’ a c´ac biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p
x, y, ..., t nˆe
´
u n´o du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
F(x, y, . . . , w) = 0
khˆong gia’ i du
.
o
.
.
c dˆo´i v´o
.
i w.
Dˆe

t´ınh vi phˆan cu’ a h`am ˆa

n w ta lˆa´y vi phˆan ca’ hai vˆe
´
cu’ a phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh (xem nhu
.
dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t th´ u
.
c) rˆo
`
i t` u
.
d´o t`ım dw. Dˆe

t´ınh d
2
w ta cˆa
`
n
lˆa´y vi phˆan cu’ a dw v´o
.
i lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng dx v`a dy l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´, c`on dw l`a vi
phˆan cu’ a h`am.
Ta c˜ ung c´o thˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c vi phˆan dw b˘a
`
ng c´ach t´ınh c´ac da
.
o h`am
riˆeng:
w

x
= −
F

x
(·)
F

w
(·)
, w

y
= −
F

y
(·)
F

w
(·)
, . . .
rˆo
`
i thˆe
´
v`ao biˆe

u th´ u
.
c
dw =
∂w
∂x
dx +
∂w
∂y
dy +· · · +
∂w
∂t
dt, v.v...
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T´ınh vi phˆan df nˆe
´
u
1) f(x, y) = xy
2
, 2) f(x, y) =
_
x
2
+ y
2
.
Gia’ i. 1) Ta c´ o
f

x
=
_
xy
2
_

x
= y
2
, f

y
=
_
xy
2
)

y
= 2xy.
Do d´o
df(x, y) = y
2
dx + 2xydy.
2) Ta t´ınh c´ ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng:
f

x
=
x
_
x
2
+ y
2
, f

y
=
y
_
x
2
+ y
2
·
9.2. Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 131
Do d´o
df =
x
_
x
2
+ y
2
dx +
y
_
x
2
+ y
2
dy =
xdx + ydy
_
x
2
+ y
2
·
V´ı du
.
2. T´ınh df(M
0
) nˆe
´
u f(x, y, z) = e
x
2
+y
2
+z
2
v`a M
0
= M
0
(0, 1, 2).
Gia’ i. Ta c´o
df(M) =
∂f
∂x
(M)dx +
∂f
∂y
(M)dy +
∂f
∂z
(M)dz, M = M(x, y, z).
Ta t´ınh c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng
∂f
∂x
= 2xe
x
2
+y
2
+z
2

∂f
∂x
(M
0
) = 0, (v`ı x = 0)
∂f
∂y
= 2ye
x
2
+y
2
+z
2

∂f
∂y
(M
0
) = 2e
5
,
∂f
∂z
= 2ze
x
2
+y
2
+z
2

∂f
∂z
(M
0
) = 4e
5
.
T` u
.
d´o
df(M
0
) = 2e
5
dy + 4e
5
dz.
V´ı du
.
3. T´ınh dw ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(−1, 1) nˆe
´
u
w = f(x + y
2
, y + x
2
).
Gia’ i. C´ach 1. T´ınh c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng cu’ a h`am f(x, y) theo x v`a
theo y rˆo
`
i ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c (9.9). T` u
.
v´ı du
.
4, mu
.
c 9.1 ta c´o
∂f
∂x
(M
0
) = f

t
(0, 2) −2f

v
(0, 2)
∂f
∂y
(M
0
) = 2f

t
(0, 2) + f

v
(0, 2)
t = x + y
2
, v = y + x
2
v`a do d´o
df(M
0
) =
_
f

t
(0, 2) −2f

v
(0, 2)
¸
dx + 2
_
2f

t
(0, 2) + f

v
(0, 2)
¸
dy.
132 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
C´ach 2.
´
Ap du
.
ng t´ınh bˆa´t biˆe
´
n vˆe
`
da
.
ng cu’ a vi phˆan cˆa´p 1.
Ta c´o
t = x + y
2
⇒dt = dx + 2ydy,
v = y + x
2
⇒dv = 2xdx + dy.
Do d´o
df(M
0
) =
∂f
∂t
(0, 2)dt +
∂f
∂v
(0, 2)dv
= f

t
(0, 2)[dx + 2ydy] + f

v
(0, 2)[2xdx + dy]
=
_
f

t
(0, 2) −2f

v
(0, 2)
¸
dx +
_
2f

t
(0, 2) + f

v
(0, 2)
¸
dy.
V´ı du
.
4. 1) Cho h`am f(x, y) = x
y
. H˜ay t`ım vi phˆan cˆa´p hai cu’ a f
nˆe
´
u x v`a y l`a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p.
2) T`ım vi phˆan cˆa´p hai cu’ a h`am f(x + y, xy) nˆe
´
u x v`a y l`a biˆe
´
n
dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p.
Gia’ i. 1) T` u
.
v´ı du
.
2, 1) v`a cˆ ong th´ u
.
c (9.10) ta c´o
d
2
f =

2
f
∂x
2
dx
2
+ 2

2
f
∂x∂y
dxdy +

2
f
∂y
2
dy
2
,
trong d´o

2
f
∂x
2
= y(y −1)x
y−2
,

2
f
∂y
2
= x
y
(lnx)
2
,

2
f
∂x∂y
= x
y−1
(1 + ylnx)
v`a do d´o
d
2
f = y(y −1)x
y−2
dx
2
+ x
y−1
(1 + ylnx)dxdy + x
y
(lnx)
2
dy
2
.
2) Ta viˆe
´
t h`am d˜a cho du
.
´o
.
i da
.
ng u = f(t, v), trong d´o t = x + y,
v = xy.
9.2. Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 133
1
+
C´ach I. T´ınh c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng rˆo
`
i ´ap du
.
ng (9.10). Ta c´o:
∂f
∂x
= f

t
(x + y, xy) + f

v
(x + y, xy) · y,
∂f
∂y
= f

t
(x + y, xy) + f

v
(x + y, xy) · x,

2
f
∂x
2
= f

tt
+ f

tv
y + f

tv
y + f

vv
y
2
= f

tt
+ 2yf

tv
+ y
2
f

vv
,

2
f
∂x∂y
= f

tt
+ f

tv
x + f

tv
y + f

vv
xy + f

v
= f

tt
+ (x + y)f

tv
+ xyf

vv
+ f

v
,

2
f
∂y
2
= f

tt
+ f

tv
x + f

tv
x + f

vv
x
2
= f

tt
+ 2xf

tv
+ x
2
f

vv
.
Thˆe
´
c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c v`ao (9.10) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
d
2
f = (f

tt
+ 2yf

tv
+ y
2
f

vv
)dx
2
+ 2(f

tt
+ (x + y)f

tv
+ xyf

vv
+ f

v
)dxdy
+ (f

tt
+ 2xf

tv
+ x
2
f

vv
)dy
2
.
2
+
C´ach II. Ta c´ o thˆe

thu du
.
o
.
.
c kˆe
´
t qua’ n`ay nˆe
´
u lu
.
u ´ y r˘a
`
ng v´o
.
i
t = x + y ⇒ dt = dx + dy v`a v = xy → dv = xdy + ydx v`a t` u
.
d´o
d
2
t = d(dx + dy) = d
2
x + d
2
y = 0
(v`ı x v` a y l`a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p) v`a
d
2
v = d(xdy + ydx) = dxdy + dxdy = 2dxdy.
´
Ap du
.
ng (9.12) ta c´o
d
2
f =

2
f
∂t
2
(dx + dy)
2
+ 2

2
f
∂t∂v
(dx + dy)(xdy + ydx)
+

2
f
∂v
2
(xdy + ydx)
2
+
∂f
∂t
· 0 +
∂f
∂v
(2dxdy)
=
_
f

tt
+ 2yf

tv
+ y
2
f

vv
_
dx
2
+
_
f

tt
+ 2xf

tv
+ x
2
f

vv
_
dy
2
+ 2
_
f

tt
+ (x + y)f

tv
+ xyf

vv
+ f

v
_
dxdy.
134 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
V´ı du
.
5.
´
Ap du
.
ng vi phˆan dˆe

t´ınh gˆa
`
n d´ ung c´ac gi´a tri
.
:
1) a = (1, 04)
2,03
2) b = arctg
_
1, 97
1, 02
−1
_
3) c =
_
(1, 04)
1,99
+ ln(1, 02)
4) d =
sin1, 49 · arctg0, 07
2
2,95
.
Gia’ i. Dˆe

´ap du
.
ng vi phˆan v`ao t´ınh gˆa
`
n d´ ung ta cˆ a
`
n thu
.
.
c hiˆe
.
n c´ac
bu
.
´o
.
c sau dˆay:
Th´ u
.
nhˆa´t l`a chı ’ r˜o biˆe

u th´ u
.
c gia’ i t´ıch dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`am m`a gi´ a tri
.
gˆa
`
n
d´ ung cu’ a n´o cˆa
`
n pha’ i t´ınh.
Th´ u
.
hai l`a cho
.
n diˆe

m dˆa
`
u M
0
sao cho gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am v`a cu’ a c´ac
da
.
o h`am riˆeng cu’ a n´o ta
.
i diˆe

m ˆa´y c´ o thˆe

t´ınh m`a khˆong cˆa
`
n d` ung
ba’ ng.
Cuˆo´i c` ung ta ´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c
f(x
0
+ ∆x, y
0
+ ∆y) = f(x
0
, y
0
) + f

x
(x
0
, y
0
)∆x + f

y
(x
0
, y
0
)∆y.
1) T´ınh a = (1, 04)
2,03
. Ta x´et h`am f(x, y) = x
y
. Sˆo´ a cˆa
`
n t´ınh l`a
gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am khi x = 1, 04 v`a y = 2, 03.
Ta lˆa´y M
0
= M
0
(1, 2). Khi d´o ∆x = 0, 04, ∆y = 0, 03.
Tiˆe
´
p theo ta c´ o
∂f
∂x
= yx
y−1

∂f
∂x
¸
¸
M
0
= 2
∂f
∂y
= x
y
lnx ⇒
∂f
∂y
¸
¸
M
0
= 1 · ln1 = 0.
Bˆay gi`o
.
´ap du
.
ng cˆong th´ u
.
c v` u
.
a nˆeu o
.
’ trˆen ta c´o:
a = f(1, 04; 2, 03) = (1, 04)
2,03
≈ f(1, 2) + 2 · 0, 04 = 1 + 0, 08 = 1, 08.
2) Ta nhˆa
.
n x´et r˘a
`
ng arctg
_
1, 97
1, 02
−1
_
l`a gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am
f(x, y) = arctg
_
x
y
−1
_
9.2. Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 135
ta
.
i diˆe

m M(1, 97; 1, 02).
Ta cho
.
n M
0
= M
0
(2, 1) v`a c´o
∆x = 1, 97 −2 = −0, 03,
∆y = 1, 02 −1 = 0, 02.
Tiˆe
´
p dˆe
´
n ta c´ o
∂f
∂x
=
1
y
1 +
_
x
y
−1
_
2
=
y
y
2
+ (x −y)
2
∂f
∂y
= −
x
y
2
+ (x −y)
2
·
T` u
.
d´o
∂f
∂x
(M
0
) = f

x
(2, 1) =
1
1
2
+ (2 −1)
2
= 0, 5
∂f
∂y
(M
0
) = f

y
(2, 1) = −1.
Do d´o
arctg
_
1, 97
1, 02
−1
_
= arctg
_
2
1
−1
_
+ (0, 5) · (−0, 03) + 1 · (0, 02)
=
π
4
−0, 015 −0, 02 = 0, 785 −0, 035
= 0, 75.
3) Ta thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng c =
_
(1, 04)
1,99
+ ln(1, 02) l`a gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am
u = f(x, y, z) =

x
y
+ lnz ta
.
i diˆe

m M(1, 04; 1, 99; 1, 02).
Ta cho
.
n M
0
= M
0
(1, 2, 1). Khi d´o
∆x = 1, 04 −1 = 0, 04
∆y = 1, 99 −2 = −0, 01
∆z = 1, 02 −1 = 0, 02.
136 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
Bˆay gi`o
.
ta t´ınh gi´a tri
.
c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
. Ta c´o
∂f
∂x
=
yx
y−1
2

x
y
+ lnz

∂f
∂x
(M
0
) =
2 · 1
2

1 + ln1
= 1,
∂f
∂y
=
x
y
lnx
2

x
y
+ lnz

∂f
∂y
(M
0
) = 0,
∂f
∂z
=
1
2z

x
y
+ lnz

∂f
∂z
(M
0
) =
1
2
·
T` u
.
d´o suy ra
_
(1, 04)
1,99
+ ln(1, 02) ≈

1 + ln1 + 1 · (0, 04) + 0 · (−0, 01)
+ (1/2) · 0, 02 = 1, 05.
4) Ta thˆa´y d l`a gi´a tri
.
cu’ a h`am f(x, y, z) = 2
x
siny arctgx ta
.
i diˆe

m
M(−2, 95; 1, 49; 0, 07)
Ta lˆa´y M
0
= M
0
_
−3,
π
2
, 0
_
. Khi d´o
∆x = −2, 95 −(−3) = 0, 05
∆y = 1, 49 −1, 57 = −0, 08
∆z = 0, 07.
Tiˆe
´
p theo ta c´ o
f(M
0
) = 2
−3
sin(π/2) arctg0 = 0,
f

x
(M
0
) = 2
x
ln2 · siny arctgz
¸
¸
M
0
= 0,
f

y
(M
0
) = 2
x
cos y arctgz
¸
¸
M
0
= 0,
f

z
(M
0
) =
2
x
sin y
1 + z
2
¸
¸
M
0
= 2
−3
.
T` u
.
d´o ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c
sin1, 49 arctg0, 07
2
2,95
≈ 2
−3
· 0, 07 ≈ 0, 01.
V´ı du
.
6. Khai triˆe

n h`am f(x, y) = x
y
theo cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor ta
.
i lˆan
cˆa
.
n diˆe

m (1, 1) v´o
.
i n = 3.
9.2. Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 137
Gia’ i. Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p n`ay cˆong th´ u
.
c Taylor c´o da
.
ng sau dˆay
f(x, y) = f(1, 1) +
df(1, 1)
1!
+
d
2
f(1, 1)
2!
+
d
2
f(1, 1)
3!
+ R
3
. (*)
1
+
T´ınh mo
.
i da
.
o h`am riˆeng cu’ a h`am cho dˆe
´
n xˆa´p 3. Ta c´o
f

x
= yx
y−1
, f

y
= x
y
lnx, f

x
2 = y(y −1)x
y−2
,
f

xy
= x
y−1
+ yx
y−1
lnx, f

y
2 = x
y
(lnx)
2
,
f
(3)
x
3
= y(y −1)(y −2)x
y−3
, f
(3)
x
2
y
= (2y −1)x
y−2
+ y(y −1)x
y−2
lnx,
f
(3)
xy
2
= 2x
y−1
lnx + yx
y−1
(lnx)
2
, f
(3)
y
3
= x
y
(lnx)
3
.
2+ T´ınh gi´a tri
.
cu’ a c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng ta
.
i diˆe

m (1, 1). Ta c´o
f(1, 1) = 1, f

x
(1, 1) = 1, f

y
(1, 1) = 0, f

x
2(1, 1) = 0,
f

xy
(1, 1) = 1, f

y
2 (1, 1) = 0, f
(3)
x
3
(1, 1) = 0, f
(3)
x
2
y
(1, 1) = 1,
f
(3)
xy
2
(1, 1) = 0, f
(3)
y
3
(1, 1) = 0.
3
+
Thˆe
´
v`ao cˆ ong th´ u
.
c (*) ta c´o
df(1, 1) = f

x
(1, 1)∆x + f

y
(1, 1)∆y = ∆x,
d
2
f(1, 1) = f

x
2(1, 1)∆x
2
+ 2f

xy
(1, 1)∆x∆y + f

y
2 (1, 1)∆y
2
= 2∆x∆y,
d
3
f(1, 1) = 3∆x
2
∆y
v`a do d´o
x
y
= 1 + ∆x + ∆x∆y +
1
2
∆x
2
∆y + R
3
.
V´ı du
.
7. T´ınh vi phˆan cu’ a h`am ˆa

n w(x, y) du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh
w
3
+ 3x
2
y + xw + y
2
w
2
+ y −2x = 0.
Gia’ i. Ta xem phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh d˜a cho nhu
.
mˆo
.
t dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t v`a lˆa´y vi
phˆan cu’ a vˆe
´
tr´ai v`a vˆe
´
pha’ i:
3w
2
dw + 6xydx + 3x
2
dy + wdx + xdw + 2y · w
2
dy
+ 2y
2
wdw −2dx + dy = 0
138 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
v`a t` u
.
d´o r´ ut ra dw. Ta c´o
(6xy + w −2)dx + (3x
2
+ 2yw
2
+ 1)dy + (3w
2
+ x + 2y
2
w)dw = 0
v`a do d´o
dw =
2 −6xy −w
3w
2
+ x + 2y
2
w
dx −
3x
2
+ 2yw
2
+ 1
3w
2
+ x + 2y
2
w
dy.
V´ı du
.
8. T´ınh dw v`a d
2
w cu’ a h`am ˆa

n w(x, y) du
.
o
.
.
c cho bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh
x
2
2
+
y
2
6
+
w
2
8
= 1.
Gia’ i. Dˆa
`
u tiˆen t`ım dw. Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
trong v´ı du
.
7 ta c´o
xdx +
ydy
3
+
wdw
4
= 0 ⇒dw = −
4x
w
dx −
4y
3w
dy. (*)
La
.
i lˆa´y vi phˆan to`an phˆa
`
n d˘a

ng th´ u
.
c thu du
.
o
.
.
c v´o
.
i lu
.
u ´ y l`a dx, dy l`a
h˘a
`
ng sˆo´; dw l`a vi phˆan cu’ a h`am.
Ta c´o
d
2
w = −4
wdx −xdw
w
2
dx −
4
3
·
wdy −ydw
w
2
dy
hay l`a
d
2
w = 4
_
1
w
dx
2

x
2
w
2
dxdw +
1
3w
dy
2

y
3w
2
dydw
_
(**)
Dˆe

c´o biˆe

u th´ u
.
c d
2
w qua x, y, w, dx v`a dy ta cˆ a
`
n thˆe
´
dw t` u
.
(*) v`ao
(**).
V´ı du
.
9. C´ac h`am ˆa

n u(x, y) v`a v(x, y) du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i hˆe
.
xy + uv = 1,
xv −yu = 3.
9.2. Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 139
T´ınh du(1, −1), d
2
u(1, −1); dv(1, −1), d
2
v(1, −1) nˆe
´
u u(1, −1) = 1,
v(1, −1) = 2.
Gia’ i. Lˆa´y vi phˆan hˆe
.
d˜a cho hai lˆa
`
n ta c´ o
_
ydx + xdy + udv + vdu = 0,
xdv + vdx −ydu −udy = 0.
(I)
_
2dxdy + 2dudv + ud
2
v + vd
2
u = 0,
2dxdv −2dudv + xd
2
v −yd
2
u = 0.
(II)
Thˆe
´
v`ao (I) gi´a tri
.
x = 1, y = −1, u = 1, v = 2 ta c´o
_
−dx + dy + dv + 2du = 0
2dx −dy + dv + du = 0

du = 3dx −2dy
dv = −5dx + 3dy
(III)
T` u
.
(III) ta c˜ ung thu du
.
o
.
.
c u

x
= 3, u

v
= −2; v

x
= −5, v

y
= 3.
Thay v`ao (II) c´ac gi´a tri
.
x = 1, y = −1, u = 1, v = 2 v`a du, dv t` u
.
(III) ta c´ o:
d
2
v + 2d
2
u = −2dxdy −2(3dx −2dy)(3dy −5dx)
d
2
v + d
2
u = 2dy(3dx −2dy) −2dx(3dy −5dx)
v`a do d´o
d
2
u = 4(5dx
2
−10dxdy + 4dy
2
),
d
2
v = 10(−dx
2
+ 4dxdy −2dy
2
).
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
T´ınh vi phˆan dw cu’ a c´ac h`am sau
1. w = x
2
y −y
2
x + 3. (DS. dw = (2xy −y
2
)dx + (x
2
−2xy)dy)
2. w = (x
2
+ y
2
)
3
. (DS. 6(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
(xdx + ydy))
3. w = x −3 sin y. (DS. dw = dx −3 cos ydy)
140 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
4. w = ln(x
2
+ y). (DS.
2xdx
x
2
+ y
+
dy
x
2
+ y
)
5. w =
_
y
x
_
x
. (DS.
__
y
x
_
x
ln
y
x

_
y
x
_
x
_
dx +
_
y
x
_
x−1
dy)
6. w = ln tg
y
x
. (DS. −
2ydx
x
2
sin
2y
x
+
2dy
xsin
2y
x
).
T´ınh dw(M
0
) cu’ a c´ac h`am ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
d˜a cho (7-14)
7. w = e

y
x
, M
0
(1, 0). (DS. dw(1, 0) = −dy)
8. w = y
3

x, M
0
(1, 1). (DS. dw(1, 1) =
1
3
dx + dy)
9. f(x, y) =
yz
x
, M
0
(1, 2, 3). (DS. df
¸
¸
M
0
= −6dx + 3dy + 2dz)
10. f(x, y, z) = cos(xy + xz), M
0
_
1,
π
6
,
π
6
_
.
(DS. df
¸
¸
M
0
= −

3
2
_
π
3
dx + dy + dz
_
)
11. f(x, y) = e
xy
, M
0
(0, 0). (DS. df
¸
¸
M
0
= 0)
12. f(x, y) = x
y
, M
0
(2, 3). (DS. df
¸
¸
M
0
= 12dx + 8ln2dy)
13. f(x, y) = xln(xy), M
0
(1, 1). (DS. df
¸
¸
M
0
= dx + dy)
14. f(x, y) = arctg
x
y
, M
)
(1, 2). (DS. df
¸
¸
M
0
=
1
5
(2dx −dy)).
T`ım vi phˆan cu’ a c´ ac h`am ho
.
.
p sau dˆay ta
.
i c´ac diˆe

m d˜a chı ’ ra (15-18)
15. f(x, y) = f(x −y, x + y), M(x, y), M
0
(1, −1).
(DS. df
¸
¸
M
= (f

t
+ f

v
)dx + (f

v
−f

t
)dy,
df
¸
¸
M
0
=
_
f

t
(2, 0) + f

v
(2, 0)
¸
dx +
_
f

v
(2, 0) −f

t
(2, 0)
¸
dy,
t = x −y, v = x + y)
9.2. Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 141
16. f(x, y) = f
_
xy,
x
y
_
, M(x, y), M
0
(0, 1).
(DS. df
¸
¸
M
=
_
yf

t
+
1
y
f

v
_
dx +
_
xf

t

x
y
2
f

v
_
dy,
df
¸
¸
M
0
=
_
f

t
(0, 0) + f

v
(0, 0)
¸
dx, t = xy, v =
x
y
)
17. f(x, y, z) = f(x
2
−y
2
, y
2
−z
2
, z
2
−x
2
), M(x, y, z), M
0
(1, 1, 1).
(DS. df
¸
¸
M
= 2(xf

t
−xf

w
)dx + 2y(f

v
−f

t
)dy + 2z(f

w
−f

v
)dz,
df
¸
¸
M
0
= 2(f

t
(0, 0, 0) −f

w
(0, 0, 0))dx + 2(f

v
(0, 0, 0) −f

t
(0, 0, 0))dy
+ 2(f

w
(0, 0, 0) −f

v
(0, 0, 0))dz,
t = x
2
−y
2
, v = y
2
−z
2
, w = z
2
−x
2
)
18. f(x, y, z) = f(sinx+sin y, cos x−cos z), M(x, y, z) v`a M
0
(0, 0, 0).
(DS. df
¸
¸
M
= (f

t
cos x −f

v
sinx)dx + f

t
cos ydy + f

v
sinzdz,
df
¸
¸
M
0
= f

t
(0, 0)dx + f

v
(0, 0)dy,
t = sinx + siny, v = cos x −cos z).
T´ınh vi phˆan dw v`a d
2
w ta
.
i diˆe

m M(x, y) (19-22) nˆe
´
u:
19. w = f(lnz), z = x
2
+ y
2
.
(DS. d
2
w =
2
(x
2
+ y
2
)
2
_
(2x
2
f

tt
−x
2
f

t
+ y
2
f

t
)dx
2
+ (4xyf

tt
−4xyf

t
)dxdy + (x
2
f

t
−yf

t
+ 2yf

t
2)dy
2
)
20. w = f(α, β, γ), α = ax, β = by, γ = cz; a, b, c-h˘a
`
ng sˆo´.
(DS. dw = af

α
dx + bf

β
dy + cf

γ
dz;
d
2
w = a
2
f

α
2dx
2
+ b
2
f

β
2dy
2
+ c
2
f

γ
2dz
2
+ 2(f

αβ
abdxdy + f

βγ
bcdydz + f

αγ
acdxdz))
21. w = f(x + y, x −y). (DS. x + y = u, x −y = v;
d
2
w = (f

u
2 + 2f

uv
+ f

v
2)dx
2
+ (f

u
2 −2f

v
2 )dxdy + (f

u
2 −2f

uv
+ f

v
2 )dy
2
)
142 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
22. w = xf
_
x
y
_
. (DS. dw =
_
f +
x
y
f

_
dx −
x
2
y
2
f

dy,
d
2
w =
_
2
y
f

+
x
y
2
f

)dx
2

_
4x
y
2
f

+
2x
2
y
3
f

_
dxdy −
_
2x
2
y
3
f


x
3
y
4
f

_
dy
2
)
T´ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p hai cu’ a c´ac h`am sau dˆay ta
.
i c´ac diˆe

m M(x, y)
v`a M
0
(x
0
, y
0
) nˆe
´
u f l`a h`am hai lˆa
`
n kha’ vi v`a x, y, z l`a biˆe
´
n dˆo
.
c lˆa
.
p
(23-25)
23. u = f(x −y, x + y), M(x, y), M
0
(1, 1) .
(DS. d
2
u
¸
¸
M
= f

tt
(dx −dy)
2
+ 2f

tv
(dx
2
−dy
2
) + f

vv
(dx + dy)
2
,
d
2
u
¸
¸
M
0
= f

tt
(0, 2)dx(dx −dy)
2
+ 2f

tv
(0, 2)(dx
2
−dy
2
)
+ f

vv
(0, 2)(dx + dy)
2
)
24. u = f(x + y, z
2
), M(x, y, z), M
0
(−1, −1, 0).
(DS. d
2
u
¸
¸
M
= f

tt
(dx + dy)
2
+ 4zf

tv
dz(dx + dy)
+ 4z
2
f

vv
dz
2
+ 2f

v
d
2
z,
d
2
u
¸
¸
M
0
= f

tt
(0, 0)(dx + dy)
2
+ 2f

v
(0, 0)dz
2
,
t = x + y, v = z
2
)
25. u = f(xy, x
2
+ y
2
), M(x, y), M
0
(0, 0).
(DS. d
2
u
¸
¸
M
= f

tt
(ydx + xdy)
2
+ 4f

tv
(ydz + xdy)(xdx + ydy)
+ 4f

vv
(xdx + ydy)
2
+ 2f

t
dxdy + 2f

v
(dx
2
+ dy
2
),
d
2
u
¸
¸
M
0
= 2f

t
(0, 0)dxdy + 2f

v
(0, 0)(dx
2
+ dy
2
),
t = xy, v = x
2
+ y
2
)
T´ınh vi phˆan d
n
w (26-27) nˆe
´
u:
26. w = f(ax + by + cz).
(DS. d
n
w = f
(n)
(ax + by + cz)(adx + bdy + cdz)
n
)
9.2. Vi phˆan cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 143
27. w = f(ax, by, cz).
(DS. d
n
w =
_
a

∂α
dx + b

∂β
dy + c

∂γ
dz
_
n
f(α, β, γ),
α = ax, β = by, γ = cz)
Khai triˆe

n c´ac h`am d˜a cho theo cˆ ong th´ u
.
c Taylor dˆe
´
n c´ac sˆo´ ha
.
ng
cˆa´p 2 (28-30) nˆe
´
u
28. f(x, y) =
1
x −y
(DS. ∆w =
∆y −∆x
(x −y)
2
+
∆x
2
−2∆x∆y + ∆y
2
(x −y)
3
+ R
2
)
29. f(x, y) =

x + y.
(DS. ∆w =
∆x + ∆y
2

x + y

∆x
2
+ 2∆x∆y + ∆y
2
8(x + y)
3/2
+ R
2
)
30. f(x, y) = e
x+y
.
DS. ∆w = e
x+y
(∆x + ∆y) + e
x+y
(∆x + ∆y)
2
2
+ R
2
).
´
Ap du
.
ng vi phˆan dˆe

t´ınh gˆa
`
n d´ ung (31-35)
31. i) a = (0, 97)
2,02
(DS. ≈ 0, 94)
ii) b =
_
(4, 05)
2
+ (2, 93)
2
(DS. ≈ 4.998)
32. i) a =
_
(1.04)
2,99
+ ln1, 02. (DS. 1,05)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. X´et h`am

x
y
+ lnz.
ii) b =
3
_
(1, 02)
2
+ (0, 05)
2
. (DS. 1,013)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. X´et h`am
3
_
x
2
+ y
2
.
33. i) a = sin29

· tg46

. (DS. ≈ 0, 502)
ii) b = sin 32

· cos 59

. (DS. ≈ 0, 273)
34. i) a = ln(0, 09
3
+ 0, 99
3
). (DS. ≈ −0, 03)
144 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. X´et h`am f = ln(x
3
+ y
3
), M
0
(0, 1).
ii) b =
_
5e
0,02
+ (2, 03)
2
. (DS. ≈ 3, 037)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. X´et h`am f =
_
5e
x
+ y
2
, M
0
(0, 2).
35. T´ınh vi phˆan cu’ a h`am f(x, y) =
_
x
3
+ y
3
.
´
U
.
ng du
.
ng dˆe

t´ınh
xˆa´p xı ’
_
(1, 02)
3
+ (1, 97)
3
. (DS. ≈ 2, 95)
Trong c´ac b`ai to´an sau dˆay (36-38) h˜ay t´ınh vi phˆan cˆ a´p 1 cu’ a
h`am ˆa

n z(x, y) x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng
36. z
3
+ 3x
2
z = 2xy. (DS. dz =
(2y −6xz)dx + 2xdy
3(x
2
+ z
2
)
)
37. cos
2
x + cos
2
y + cos
2
z = 1.
(DS. dz = −
sin2xdx + sin2ydy
sin2z
).
38. x + y + z = e
−(x+y+z)
. (DS. dz = −dx −dy)
39. Cho w l`a h`am cu’ a x v`a y x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
x
w
= ln
w
y
+ 1.
T´ınh vi phˆan dw, d
2
w.
(DS. dw =
w(ydx + wdy)
y(x + w)
, d
2
w = −
w
2
(ydx −xdy)
2
y
2
(x + w)
2
).
40. T´ınh dw v`a d
2
w nˆe
´
u h`am w(x, y) du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
w −x = arctg
y
w −x
.
(DS. dw = dx +
(w −x)dy
(w −x)
2
+ y
2
+ y
,
d
2
w = −
2(y + 1)(w −x)[(w −x)
2
+ y
2
]
[(w −x)
2
+ y
2
+ y]
3
dy
2
).
9.3. Cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 145
9.3 Cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu

a h` am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
9.3.1 Cu
.
.
c tri
.
H`am f(x, y) c´ o cu
.
.
c da
.
i di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng (ho˘a
.
c cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng) b˘a
`
ng
f(x
0
, y
0
) ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(x
0
, y
0
) ∈ D nˆe
´
u tˆo
`
n ta
.
i δ-lˆan cˆa
.
n cu’ a diˆe

m M
0
sao cho v´o
.
i mo
.
i diˆe

m M = M
0
thuˆo
.
c lˆan cˆa
.
n ˆa´y ta c´ o
f(M) < f(M
0
) (tu
.
o
.
ng ´ u
.
ng : f(M) > f(M
0
)).
Go
.
i chung cu
.
.
c da
.
i, cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u cu’ a h`am sˆo´ l`a cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a h`am sˆo´.
Diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n dˆe

tˆo
`
n ta
.
i cu
.
.
c tri
.
di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng: Nˆe
´
u ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
h`am
f(x, y) c´o cu
.
.
c tri
.
di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng th`ı ta
.
i diˆe

m d´o ca’ hai da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p
1 (nˆe
´
u ch´ ung tˆo
`
n ta
.
i) dˆe
`
u b˘a
`
ng 0 ho˘a
.
c ´ıt nhˆa´t mˆo
.
t trong hai da
.
o h`am
riˆeng khˆong tˆo
`
n ta
.
i (d´o l`a nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe

m t´o
.
i ha
.
n ho˘a
.
c diˆe

m d` u
.
ng cu’ a
h`am f(x, y)). Khˆong pha’ i mo
.
i diˆe

m d` u
.
ng dˆe
`
u l`a diˆe

m cu
.
.
c tri
.
.
Diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n du’ : gia’ su
.

f

xx
(M
0
) =, f

xy
(M
0
) = B, f

yy
(M
0
) = C.
Khi d´o:
i) Nˆe
´
u ∆(M
0
) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
A B
B C
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
> 0 v`a A > 0 th`ı ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
h`am f c´o
cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng.
ii) Nˆe
´
u ∆(M
0
) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
A B
B C
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
> 0 v`a A < 0 th`ı ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
h`am f c´o
cu
.
.
c da
.
i di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng.
iii) Nˆe
´
u ∆(M
0
) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
A B
B C
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
< 0 th`ı M
0
l`a diˆe

m yˆen ngu
.
.
a cu’ a f, t´ u
.
c
l`a ta
.
i M
0
h`am f khˆong c´o cu
.
.
c tri
.
.
iv) Nˆe
´
u ∆(M
0
) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
A B
B C
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 0 th`ı M
0
l`a diˆe

m nghi vˆa´n (h`am f c´o
thˆe

c´o v`a c˜ ung c´o thˆe

khˆong c´o cu
.
.
c tri
.
ta
.
i d´o).
146 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
9.3.2 Cu
.
.
c tri
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
Trong tru
.
`o
.
ng ho
.
.
p do
.
n gia’ n nhˆa´t, cu
.
.
c tri
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cu’ a h`am f(x, y)
l`a cu
.
.
c da
.
i ho˘a
.
c cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u cu’ a h`am d´o da
.
t du
.
o
.
.
c v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n c´ac biˆe
´
n
x v`a y tho’a m˜an phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh ϕ(x, y) = 0 (phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh r`ang buˆ o
.
c).
Dˆe

t`ım cu
.
.
c tri
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n r`ang buˆo
.
c ϕ(x, y) ta lˆa
.
p
h`am Lagrange (h` am bˆo

tro
.
.
)
F(x, y) = f(x, y)
λ
ϕ(x, y)
trong d´o λ l`a h˘a
`
ng sˆo´ nhˆan chu
.
a du
.
o
.
.
c x´ac di
.
nh v`a di t`ım cu
.
.
c tri
.
thˆong
thu
.
`o
.
ng cu’ a h`am bˆo

tro
.
.
n`ay. Dˆay l`a phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap th` u
.
a sˆo´ bˆa´t di
.
nh
Lagrange.
T`ım diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cˆa
`
n dˆe

tˆo
`
n ta
.
i cu
.
.
c tri
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n chung quy l`a gia’ i
hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
∂F
∂x
=
∂f
∂x
+ λ
∂ϕ
∂x
= 0
∂F
∂y
=
∂f
∂y
+ λ
∂ϕ
∂y
= 0
ϕ(x, y) = 0
(9.15)
T` u
.
hˆe
.
n`ay ta c´o thˆe

x´ac di
.
nh x, y v`a λ.
Vˆa´n dˆe
`
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i v`a d˘a
.
c t´ınh cu’ a cu
.
.
c tri
.
di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng du
.
o
.
.
c minh di
.
nh
trˆen co
.
so
.
’ x´et dˆa´u cu’ a vi phˆan cˆa´p hai cu’ a h`am bˆo

tro
.
.
d
2
F =

2
F
∂x
2
dx
2
+ 2

2
F
∂x∂y
dxdy +

2
F
∂y
2
dy
2
du
.
o
.
.
c t´ınh dˆo´i v´o
.
i c´ac gi´a tri
.
x, y, λ thu du
.
o
.
.
c khi gia’ i hˆe
.
(9.15) v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u
kiˆe
.
n l`a
∂ϕ
∂x
dx +
∂ϕ
∂y
dy = 0 (dx
2
+ dy
2
= 0).
Cu
.
thˆe

l`a:
9.3. Cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 147
i) Nˆe
´
u d
2
F < 0 h`am f(x, y) c´ o cu
.
.
c da
.
i c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n.
ii) Nˆe
´
u d
2
F > 0 h`am f(x, y) c´ o cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n.
iii) Nˆe
´
u d
2
F = 0 th`ı cˆ a
`
n pha’ i kha’ o s´at.
Nhˆa
.
n x´et
i) Viˆe
.
c t`ım cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a h`am ba biˆe
´
n ho˘a
.
c nhiˆe
`
u ho
.
n du
.
o
.
.
c tiˆe
´
n h`anh
tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
nhu
.
o
.
’ 1.
ii) Tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
c´o thˆe

t`ım cu
.
.
c tri
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cu’ a h`am ba biˆe
´
n ho˘a
.
c
nhiˆe
`
u ho
.
n v´o
.
i mˆo
.
t ho˘a
.
c nhiˆe
`
u phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh r`ang buˆo
.
c (sˆ o´ phu
.
o
.
ng
tr`ınh r` ang buˆ o
.
c pha’ i b´e ho
.
n sˆo´ biˆe
´
n). Khi d´o cˆa
`
n lˆa
.
p h`am bˆo

tro
.
.
v´o
.
i
sˆo´ th` u
.
a sˆo´ chu
.
a x´ac di
.
nh b˘a
`
ng sˆo´ phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh r`ang buˆo
.
c.
iii) Ngo` ai phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap th` u
.
a sˆo´ bˆa´t di
.
nh Lagrange, ngu
.
`o
.
i ta c`on
d` ung phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap khu
.
’ biˆe
´
n sˆo´ dˆe

t`ım cu
.
.
c tri
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n.
9.3.3 Gi´a tri
.
l´o
.
n nhˆa
´
t v`a b´e nhˆa
´
t cu’ a h`am
H`am kha’ vi trong miˆe
`
n d´ong bi
.
ch˘a
.
n da
.
t gi´a tri
.
l´o
.
n nhˆa´t (nho’ nhˆa´t)
ho˘a
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m d` u
.
ng ho˘a
.
c ta
.
i diˆe

m biˆen cu’ a miˆe
`
n.
C
´
AC V
´
I DU
.
V´ı du
.
1. T`ım cu
.
.
c tri
.
di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a h`am
f(x, y) = x
4
+ y
4
−2x
2
+ 4xy −2y
2
.
Gia’ i. i) Miˆe
`
n x´ac di
.
nh cu’ a h`am l`a to`an m˘a
.
t ph˘a

ng R
2
.
ii) T´ınh c´ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng f

x
v`a f

y
v`a t`ım c´ac diˆe

m t´o
.
i ha
.
n. Ta
c´o
f

x
= 4x
3
−4x + 4y, f

y
= 4y
3
+ 4x −4y.
Do d´o
4x
3
−4x + 4y = 0
4y
3
+ 4x −4y = 0
148 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
v`a t` u
.
d´o
_
x
1
= 0
y
1
= 0
_
x
2
= −

2
y
2
=

2
_
x
3
=

2
y
3
= −

2.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y ta c´o ba diˆe

m t´o
.
i ha
.
n. V`ı f

x
, f

y
tˆo
`
n ta
.
i v´o
.
i mo
.
i diˆe

m
M(x, y) ∈ R
2
nˆen h`am khˆong c`on diˆe

m t´o
.
i ha
.
n n`ao kh´ac.
iii) Ta t´ınh c´ ac da
.
o h`am riˆeng cˆa´p hai v`a gi´a tri
.
cu’ a ch´ ung ta
.
i c´ac
diˆe

m t´o
.
i ha
.
n.
f

xx
(x, y) = 12x
2
= 4, f

xy
= 4, f

yy
= 12y
2
−4.
Ta
.
i diˆe

m O(0, 0): A = −4, B = 4, C = −4
Ta
.
i diˆe

m M
1
(−

2, +

2): A = 20, B = 4, C = 20
Ta
.
i diˆe

m M
2
(+

2, −

2): A = 20, B = 4, C = 20.
iv) Ta
.
i diˆe

m O(0, 0)ta c´ o
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
A B
B C
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
−4 4
4 −4
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 16 −16 = 0.
Dˆa´u hiˆe
.
u du’ khˆong cho ta cˆ au tra’ l`o
.
i. Ta nhˆa
.
n x´et r˘a
`
ng trong lˆan
cˆa
.
n bˆa´t k` y cu’ a diˆe

m O tˆo
`
n ta
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe

m m`a f(x, y) > 0 v`a nh˜ u
.
ng
diˆe

m m`a f(x, y) < 0. Ch˘ a

ng ha
.
n do
.
c theo trung c Ox (y = 0) ta c´ o
f(x, y)
¸
¸
y=0
= f(x, 0) = x
4
−2x
2
= −x
2
(2 −x
2
) < 0
ta
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe

m du’ gˆa
`
n (0, 0), v`a do
.
c theo du
.
`o
.
ng th˘a

ng y = x
f(x, y)
¸
¸
y=x
= f(x, x) = 2x
4
> 0
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y, ta
.
i nh˜ u
.
ng diˆe

m kh´ac nhau cu’ a mˆo
.
t lˆan cˆa
.
n n`ao d´o cu’ a
diˆe

m O(0, 0) sˆo´ gia to`an phˆa
`
n ∆f(x, .y) khˆong c´o c` ung mˆo
.
t dˆa´u v`a do
d´o ta
.
i O(0, 0) h`am khˆong c´o cu
.
.
c tri
.
di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng.
Ta
.
i diˆe

m M
1
(−

2,

2) ta c´o
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
A B
B C
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
=
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
20 4
4 20
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 400 −16 > 0
9.3. Cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 149
v`a A > 0 nˆen ta
.
i M
1
(−

2,

2) h`am c´o cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng v`a
f
min
= −8.
Ta
.
i diˆe

m M
2
(

2, −

2) ta c´o AC − B
2
> 0 v`a A > 0 nˆen ta
.
i d´o
h`am c´o cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng v`a f
min
= −8.
V´ı du
.
2. Kha’ o s´at v`a t`ım cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a h`am
f(x, y) = x
2
+ xy + y
2
−2x −3y.
Gia’ i. i) Hiˆe

n nhiˆen D
f
≡ R.
ii) T`ım diˆe

m d` u
.
ng. Ta c´o
f

x
= 2x + y −2
f

y
= x + 2y −3

2x + y −2 = 0,
x + 2y −3 = 0.
Hˆe
.
thu du
.
o
.
.
c c´o nghiˆe
.
m l`a x
0
=
1
3
, y
0
=
4
3
. Do d´o
_
1
3
,
4
3
_
l`a diˆe

m
d` u
.
ng v`a ngo`ai diˆe

m d` u
.
ng d´o h`am f khˆong c´o diˆe

m d` u
.
ng n`ao kh´ac v`ı
f

x
v`a f

y
tˆo
`
n tˆa
.
i ∀(x, y).
iii) Kha’ o s´at cu
.
.
c tri
.
. Ta c´o A = f

x
2
= 2, B f

xy
= 1, C = f

y
2
= 2.
Do d´o
∆(M
0
) =
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
2 1
1 2
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
= 3 > 0 v`a A = 2 > 0
nˆen h`am f c´o cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(
1
3
,
4
3
_
.
V´ı du
.
3. T`ım cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a h`am f(x, y) = 6 −4x −3y v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n l`a
x v`a y liˆen hˆe
.
v´o
.
i nhau bo
.
’ i phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh x
2
+ y
2
= 1.
Gia’ i. Ta lˆa
.
p h`am Lagrange
F(x, y) = 6 −4x −3y + λ(x
2
+ y
2
−1).
Ta c´o
∂F
∂x
= −4 + 2λx,
∂F
∂y
= −3 + 2λy
150 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
v`a ta gia’ i hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
−4 + 2λx = 0
−3 + 2λx = 0
x
2
+ y
2
= 1
Gia’ i ra ta c´o
λ
1
=
5
2
, x
1
=
4
5
, y
1
=
3
5
λ
2
= −
5
2
, x
2
= −
4
5
, y
2
= −
3
5
V`ı

2
F
∂x
2
= 2λ,

2
F
∂x∂y
= 0,

2
F
∂y
2
= 2λ
nˆen
d
2
F = 2λ(dx
2
+ dy
2
).
Nˆe
´
u λ =
5
2
, x =
4
5
, y =
3
5
th`ı d
2
F > 0 nˆen ta
.
i diˆe

m
_
4
5
,
3
5
_
h`am
c´o cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n.
Nˆe
´
u λ = −
5
2
, x = −
4
5
, y = −
3
5
th`ı d
2
F < 0 v`a do d´o h`am c´o cu
.
.
c
da
.
i c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ta
.
i diˆe

m
_

4
5
, −
3
5
_
.
Nhu
.
vˆa
.
y
f
max
= 6 +
16
5
+
9
5
= 11,
f
min
= 6 −
16
5

9
5
= 1.
V´ı du
.
4. T`ım cu
.
.
c tri
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cu’ a h`am
1) f(x, y) = x
2
+ y
2
+ xy −5x −4y + 10, x + y = 4.
2) u = f(x, y, z) = x + y + z
2
_
z −x = 1,
y −xz = 1.
9.3. Cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 151
Gia’ i. 1) T` u
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh r`ang buˆo
.
c x +y = 4 ta c´o y = 4 −x v`a
f(x, y) = x
2
+ (4 −x)
2
+ x(4 −x) −5x −4(4 −x) + 10
= x
2
−5x + 10,
ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n sˆo´
g(x) = x
2
−5x + 10
v`a cu
.
.
c tri
.
di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng cu’ a g(x) c˜ ung ch´ınh l`a cu
.
.
c tri
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cu’ a
h`am f(x, y).
´
Ap du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap kha’ o s´at h`am sˆo´ mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n sˆo´ dˆo´i
v´o
.
i g(x) ta t`ım du
.
o
.
.
c g(x) c´ o cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng
g
min
= g
_
5
2
_
=
15
4
·
Nhu
.
ng khi d´o h`am f(x, y) d˜a cho c´o
cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ta
.
i diˆe

m
_
5
2
,
3
2
_
(y = 4 −x ⇒y = 4 −
5
2
=
3
2
) v`a
f
min
= f
_
5
2
,
3
2
_
=
15
4
·
2) T` u
.
c´ac phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh r`ang buˆo
.
c ta c´o
z = 1 + x
y = x
2
+ x + 1
v`a thˆe
´
v`ao h`am d˜a cho ta du
.
o
.
.
c h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n sˆo´
u = f(x, y(x), z(x)) = g(x) = 2x
2
+ 4x + 2.
Dˆe
˜
d`ang thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng h`am g(x) c´o cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u ta
.
i x = −1 (khi d´o y = 1,
z = 0) v`a do d´o h`am f(x, y, z) c´o cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u c´ o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ta
.
i diˆe

m
(−1, 1, 0) v`a
f
min
= f(−1, 1, 0) = 0.
152 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
V´ı du
.
5. B˘a
`
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap th` u
.
a sˆo´ bˆa´t di
.
nh Lagrange t`ım cu
.
.
c tri
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cu’ a h`am
u = x + y + z
2
v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
_
z −x = 1
y −xz = 1
(9.16)
(xem v´ı du
.
4, ii)).
Gia’ i. Ta lˆa
.
p h`am Lagrange
F(x, y, z) = x + y + z
2
+ λ
1
(z −x −1) + λ
2
(y −zx −1)
v`a x´et hˆe
.
phu
.
o
.
ng tr`ınh
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
¸
_
∂F
∂x
= 1 −λ
1
−λ
2
z = 0
∂F
∂y
= 1 + λ
2
= 0
∂F
∂z
= 2z + λ
1
−λ
2
x = 0
ϕ
1
= z −x −1 = 0
ϕ
2
= y −xz −1 = 0.
Hˆe
.
n`ay c´o nghiˆe
.
m duy nhˆa´t x = −1, y = 1, z = 0, λ
1
= 1 v`a
λ
2
= −1 ngh˜ıa l`a M
0
(−1, 1, 0) l`a diˆe

m duy nhˆa´t c´ o thˆe

c´o cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a
h`am v´o
.
i c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n r`ang buˆo
.
c ϕ
1
v`a ϕ
2
.
T` u
.
c´ac hˆe
.
th´ u
.
c
z −x = 1
y −xz = 1
ta thˆa´y r˘a
`
ng (9.16) x´ac di
.
nh c˘a
.
p h`am ˆa

n y(x) v`a z(x) (trong tru
.
`o
.
ng
ho
.
.
p n`ay y(x) v`a z(x) dˆe
˜
d`ang r´ ut ra t` u
.
(9.16)). Gia’ su
.
’ thˆe
´
nghiˆe
.
m
9.3. Cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 153
y(x) v`a z(x) v`ao hˆe
.
(9.16) v`a b˘a
`
ng c´ach lˆa´y vi phˆan c´ac dˆo
`
ng nhˆa´t
th´ u
.
c thu du
.
o
.
.
c ta c´o
_
dz −dx = 0
dy −xdz −zdx = 0

_
dz = dx
dy = (x + z)dx.
(9.17)
Bˆay gi` o
.
t´ınh vi phˆan cˆa´p hai cu’ a h`am Lagrange
d
2
F = 2(dz)
2
−2λ
2
dxdz. (9.18)
Thay gi´ a tri
.
λ
2
= −1 v`a (9.17) v`ao (9.18) ta thu du
.
o
.
.
c da
.
ng to`an
phu
.
o
.
ng x´ac di
.
nh du
.
o
.
ng l`a
d
2
F = 4dx
2
.
T` u
.
d´o suy ra h`am d˜a cho c´o cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n ta
.
i diˆe

m
M
0
(−1, 1, 0) v`a f
min
= 0.
V´ı du
.
6. T`ım gi´a tri
.
l´o
.
n nhˆa´t v`a nho’ nhˆa´t cu’ a h`am
f(x, y) = x
2
+ y
2
−xy + x + y
trong miˆe
`
n
D = {x 0, y 0, x + y −3}.
Gia’ i. Miˆe
`
n D d˜a cho l`a tam gi´ac OAB v´o
.
i dı ’nh ta
.
i A(−3, 0),
B(0, −3) v`a O(0, 0).
i) T`ım c´ac diˆe

m d` u
.
ng:
f

x
= 2x −y + 1 = 0
f

y
= 2y −x + 1 = 0
T` u
.
d´o x = −1, y = −1. Vˆ a
.
y diˆe

m d` u
.
ng l`a M(−1, −1).
Ta
.
i diˆe

m M ta c´o:
f(M) = f(−1, −1) = −1.
154 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
ii) Ta c´o
A = f

xx
(−1, −1) = 2
B = f

xy
(−1, −1) = −1
C = f

yy
(−1, −1) = 2.
Vˆa
.
y AC−B
2
= 4−1 = 3 > 0, nˆen h`am c´ o biˆe
.
t th´ u
.
c AC−B
2
> 0
v`a A = 2 > 0. Do d´o ta
.
i diˆe

m M n´o c´ o cu
.
.
c tiˆe

u di
.
a phu
.
o
.
ng v` a
f
min
= −1.
iii) Kha’ o s´at h`am trˆen biˆen cu’ a miˆe
`
n D.
+) Khi x = 0 ta c´o f = y
2
+y. Dˆo´i v´o
.
i h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n f = y
2
+y,
−3 y 0 ta c´o
(f
ln
)
¸
¸
x=0
= 6 ta
.
i diˆe

m (0, −3)
(f
nn
)
¸
¸
x=0
=
−1
4
ta
.
i diˆe

m
_
0, −
1
2
_
.
+) Khi y = 0 ta c´o h`am mˆo
.
t biˆe
´
n f = x
2
+ x, −3 x 0 v`a
tu
.
o
.
ng tu
.
.
:
(f
ln
)
¸
¸
y=0
= 6 ta
.
i diˆe

m (0, −3)
(f
nn
)
¸
¸
y=0
=
−1
4
ta
.
i diˆe

m
_

1
2
, 0
_
.
+) Khi x + y = −3 ⇒ y = −3 −x ta c´ o f(x) = 3x
2
+ 9x + 6 v`a
(f
nn
)
¸
¸
x+y=−3
=
−3
4
ta
.
i diˆe

m
_

3
2
, −
3
2
_
(f
ln
)
¸
¸
x+y=−3
= 6 ta
.
i diˆe

m (0, −3) v`a (−3, 0).
iv) So s´anh c´ac gi´a tri
.
thu du
.
o
.
.
c dˆo´i v´o
.
i f ta kˆe
´
t luˆa
.
n f
ln
= 6 ta
.
i
(0, −3) v`a (−3, 0) v`a gi´a tri
.
f
nn
= −1 ta
.
i diˆe

m d` u
.
ng (−1, −1).
B
`
AI T
ˆ
A
.
P
9.3. Cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 155
H˜ay t`ım cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a c´ac h`am sau dˆay
1. f = 1 + 6x −x
2
−xy −y
2
. (DS. f
max
= 13 ta
.
i diˆe

m (4, −2))
2. f = (x −1)
2
+ 2y
2
. (DS. f
min
= 0 ta
.
i diˆe

m (1, 0))
3. f = x
2
+ xy + y
2
−2x −y. (DS. f
min
= −1 ta
.
i diˆe

m (1, 0))
4. f = x
3
y
2
(6−x−y) (x > 0, y > 0). (DS. f
max
= 108 ta
.
i diˆe

m (3, 2))
5. f = 2x
4
+ y
4
−x
2
−2y
2
.
(DS. f
max
= 0 ta
.
i diˆe

m (0, 0),
f
min
= −
9
8
ta
.
i c´ac diˆe

m M
1
_
1
2
, −1
_
v`a M
2
_
−1
2
, 1
_
f
min
= −
9
8
ta
.
i c´ac diˆe

m M
3
_
1
2
, −1
_
v`a M
4
_
−1
2
, −1
_
)
6. f = (5x + 7y −25)e
−(x
2
+xy+y
2
)
.
(DS. f
max
= 3
−13
ta
.
i diˆe

m M
1
(1, 3),
f
min
= −26e
−1/52
ta
.
i diˆe

m M
2
_
−1
26
,
−3
26
_
)
7. f = xy +
50
x
+
20
y
, x > 0, y > 0. (DS. f
min
= 30 ta
.
i diˆe

m (5, 2))
8. f = x
2
+ xy + y
2
−6x −9y. (DS. f
min
= −21 ta
.
i diˆe

m (1, 4))
9. f = x

y −x
2
−y + 6x + 3. (DS. f
max
= 15 ta
.
i diˆe

m (4, 4))
10. f = (x
2
+ y)

e
y
. (DS. f
min
= −
2
e
ta
.
i (0, −2))
11. f = 2 + (x −1)
4
(y + 1)
6
. (DS. f
min
= 2 ta
.
i diˆe

m (1, −1))
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Ta
.
i diˆe

m M
0
(1, −1) ta c´ o ∆(M
0
) = 0. Cˆ a
`
n kha’ o s´at dˆa´u
cu’ a f(M) −f(M
0
) = f(1 + ∆x, −1 + ∆y) −f(1, −1).
12. f = 1 −(x −2)
4/5
−y
4/5
. (DS. f
max
= 1 ta
.
i diˆe

m (2, 0))
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. Ta
.
i diˆe

m (2, 0) h`am khˆong kha’ vi. Kha’ o s´at dˆa´u cu’ a
f(M) −f(M
0
), M
0
= (2, 0).
156 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
T`ım cu
.
.
c tri
.
c´o diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n cu’ a c´ac h`am sau dˆay
13. f = xy v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n x + y = 1.
(DS. f
max
=
1
4
ta
.
i diˆe

m
_
1
2
,
1
2
_
)
14. f = x + 2y v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n x
2
+ y
2
= 5.
(DS. f
max
= 5 ta
.
i diˆe

m (1, 2))
15. f = x
2
+ y
2
v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n
x
2
+
y
3
= 1.
(DS. f
min
=
36
13
ta
.
i diˆe

m
_
18
13
,
12
13
_
)
16. f = x −2y + 2z v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
= 9.
(DS. f
min
= −9 ta
.
i diˆe

m (−1, 2, −2); f
max
= 9 ta
.
i (1, −2, 2).)
17. f = xy v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n 2x + 3y = 5.
(DS. f
max
=
25
24
ta
.
i diˆe

m
_
5
4
,
5
6
_
)
18. 1) f = x
2
+ y
2
v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n r`ang buˆo
.
c
x
4
+
y
3
= 1.
(DS. f
min
=
144
25
ta
.
i
_
36
25
,
48
25
_
)
2) f = e
xy
v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n x + y = 1.
(DS. f
max
= e
1/4
ta
.
i diˆe

m
_
1
2
,
1
2
_
)
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. C´o thˆe

su
.
’ du
.
ng phu
.
o
.
ng ph´ap khu
.
’ biˆe
´
n.
19. f = x
2
+ y
2
+ 2z
2
v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n x −y + z = 1.
(DS. f
min
= 0, 4 ta
.
i diˆe

m (0, 4; −0, 4; 0, 2))
20. f = x
3
+ y
2
−z
3
+ 5 v´o
.
i diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n x + y −z = 1.
(DS. f
min
= 5 ta
.
i diˆe

m (0, 0, 0) v`a f
max
= 7
10
27
ta
.
i diˆe

m
_

4
3
,
8
3
,
4
3
_
)
9.3. Cu
.
.
c tri
.
cu’ a h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n 157
21. f = xyz v´o
.
i c´ac diˆe
`
u kiˆe
.
n x + y + z = 5, xy + yz + zx = 8.
(DS. f
max
= 4
4
27
ta
.
i
_
4
3
,
4
3
,
7
3
_
;
_
4
3
,
7
3
,
4
3
_
;
_
7
3
,
4
3
,
4
3
_
f
min
= 4 ta
.
i (2, 2, 1); (2, 1, 2); (1, 2, 2))
T`ım gi´a tri
.
l´o
.
n nhˆa´t v`a nho’ nhˆa´t cu’ a c´ac h`am sˆo´ sau.
22. f = x
2
y(2 − x − y), D l`a tam gi´ac du
.
o
.
.
c gi´o
.
i ha
.
n bo
.
’ i c´ac doa
.
n
th˘a

ng x = 0, y = 0, x + y = 6.
(DS. f
ln
=
1
4
ta
.
i diˆe

m (1, 2); f
nn
= −128 ta
.
i diˆe

m (4, 2)).
23. f = x + y, D = {x
2
+ y
2
1}.
(DS. f
ln
=

2 ta
.
i diˆe

m biˆen
_

2
2
,

2
2
_
;
f
nn
= −

2 ta
.
i diˆe

m biˆen
_


2
2
, −

2
2
_
).
24. T` u
.
mo
.
i tam gi´ac c´ o chu vi b˘a
`
ng 2p, h˜ay t`ım tam gi´ac c´o diˆe
.
n t´ıch
l´o
.
n nhˆa´t.
Chı ’ dˆa
˜
n. D˘a
.
t a = x, b = y ⇒ c = 2p − x − y v`a ´ap du
.
ng cˆong
th´ u
.
c Heron
S =
_
p(p −x)(p −y)(x + y −p)
(DS. Tam gi´ac dˆe
`
u).
25. X´ac di
.
nh gi´a tri
.
l´o
.
n nhˆa´t v`a nho’ nhˆa´t cu’ a h`am
f = x
2
−y
2
, D = {x
2
+ y
2
1}
(DS. f
ln
= 1 ta
.
i (1, 0) v`a (−1, 0);
f
nn
= −1 ta
.
i (0, 1) v`a (0, −1)).
26. X´ac di
.
nh gi´a tri
.
l´o
.
n nhˆa´t v`a nho’ nhˆa´t cu’ a h`am
f = x
3
−y
3
−3xy, D = {0 x 2, −1 y 2}.
158 Chu
.
o
.
ng 9. Ph´ep t´ınh vi phˆan h`am nhiˆe
`
u biˆe
´
n
(DS. f
ln
= 13 ta
.
i diˆe

m (2, −1);
f
nn
= −1 ta
.
i diˆe

m (1, 1) v`a (0, −1)).