BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY

A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS
Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña

STUDENT´S NAME ________________________________________

DEPARTAMENTO COMUNICACIONAL DEL EJÉRCITO

Este material ha sido preparado como una contribución para los alumnos de las Escuelas dependientes del Comando de Institutos y Doctrina y el Personal del Ejército de Chile -especialmente aquellos que se encuentran destinados en unidades alejadas- y que deseen actualizar y reforzar su dominio de las estructuras gramaticales del idioma inglés, incrementar su vocabulario y mejorar las estrategias comunicativas, mediante un trabajo personal.

Con mucho afecto y gratitud a la querida Institución, que me ha permitido servir con entusiasmo y crecer profesionalmente.

Prof. Juan Gmo. Moya Montaña
Profesor de Inglés de la Academia de Guerra, la Academia Politécnica Militar, la Escuela Militar y la Escuela de Telecomunicaciones del Ejército de Chile. jmoyam@profing.tie.cl

Ejército de Chile Departamento Comunicacional Registro de Propiedad Intelectual N° 151.465 I.S.B.N. N° 956-7527-35-0 Impreso en los Talleres del Instituto Geográfico Militar

INDICE
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• Prologo _________________________________________________________________ 5 • Sugerencias Metodológicas ________________________________________________ 7 • Table of Contents _________________________________________________________ 9 • Unit 1 __________________________________________________________________ 15 • Unit 2 __________________________________________________________________ 27 • Unit 3 __________________________________________________________________ 37 • Unit 4 __________________________________________________________________ 47 • Unit 5 __________________________________________________________________ 59 • Unit 6 __________________________________________________________________ 77 • Unit 7 __________________________________________________________________ 91 • Unit 8 _________________________________________________________________ 103 • Unit 9 _________________________________________________________________ 115 • Unit 10 ________________________________________________________________ 127 • Unit 11 ________________________________________________________________ 141 • Unit 12 ________________________________________________________________ 157 • Unit 13 ________________________________________________________________ 175 • Unit 14 ________________________________________________________________ 191 • Unit 15 ________________________________________________________________ 203 • Unit 16 ________________________________________________________________ 215 • Unit 17 ________________________________________________________________ 225 • Unit 18 ________________________________________________________________ 237 • Unit 19 ________________________________________________________________ 253 • Unit 20 ________________________________________________________________ 263 • Unit 21 ________________________________________________________________ 277 • Apendices ____________________________________________________________ 297
A short course in english for adult students

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Prólogo
Prólogo El profesor Juan Moya Montaña me ha distinguido con la solicitud de prologar Structures and Vocabulary, texto de autoaprendizaje de gramática inglesa básica para adultos. Este manual forma parte del esfuerzo permanente del profesor Moya por contribuir al mejoramiento de la enseñanza de este idioma en el Ejército. El autor me concede la oportunidad de testimoniar mi reconocimiento y felicitarlo por su larga trayectoria como profesor vinculado al Ejército de Chile.* También, me permite hacerle llegar el sentimiento –y creo ser portador de cientos de integrantes de la institución– de profundo afecto hacia el comprometido teacher que, sacrificando horas de descanso, acudió en auxilio de tantos de nosotros cuando, con desesperación y a última hora, buscábamos incrementar nuestro nivel de inglés para cumplir alguna misión encomendada. Al respecto, permítaseme una anécdota. Ella no es sino un ejemplo –me atrevo a decirlo– de miles de vivencias que oficiales y cuadro permanente tuvimos para tratar de estar “a la altura”, poder entender y hacernos entender en un idioma extranjero; casi siempre en la víspera de una comisión de servicio o destinación que así lo exigía. Se vivía el mes de octubre de 1980 y el infrascrito –entonces mayor– recibió la orden de presentarse, ¡en una semana! (después se transformaron en 15 días) al curso de Estado Mayor en el Army War College de Pretoria, Sudáfrica, donde se suponía que las clases eran dictadas en inglés y en afrikaans. Esta designación cambiaba sorpresivamente mi destino a una unidad en Chile, luego de que mi participación en el curso de Estado Mayor en la Escuela Superior de Guerra de Francia fuera cancelada, debido al cese de los intercambios castrenses con dicho país. Ello, después de haber concluido –junto a mi compañero, el mayor Hernán Reyes– una metódica preparación en el idioma francés. Y aquí surge el reconocido rasgo de la personalidad del profesor Juan Moya. Enfrentado él a nuestra poca preparación y escaso tiempo disponible, se entregó de lleno y con entusiasmo a esta titánica tarea. Ésta consistió en clases diarias, donde el profesor Moya fue mi sombra; disparando verbos, haciéndome repetir pertinazmente cientos de palabras para aumentar mi vocabulario; exigiéndome el spelling de todo el abecedario, números y unidades de medida. Esto ocurría durante todo el día, en medio de entregas, cierre de oficina, firmas de actas y trámites para sacar pasaporte. Nunca podré olvidar esas cuatro últimas noches en que nos acompañó, a Isabel y a mí, desde las 9 de la noche hasta las 3 de la madrugada, impartiendo sus lecciones, haciéndonos preguntas a las cuales respondíamos encaramados sobre cajas, baúles y maletas. Si este relato no indica voluntad de servicio y entrega, creo que ningún otro podría reflejar ese espíritu de cooperación del distinguido autor y amigo. De esa traumática experiencia nació la decisión –con el gran apoyo de mis superiores, primero, y, luego, en el ejercicio de mis funciones como CJE.–, de buscar un cambio integral que permitiera a
* El Profesor Juan Moya Montaña fue contratado como Ayudante de Profesor para la Escuela Militar el 1 de marzo de 1970 y prestó servicios a la institución por 30 años en forma continua en el ya mencionado Instituto Matriz, en la Academia de Guerra y en el Comando de Institutos Militares.
A short course in english for adult students

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los oficiales y cuadro permanente del Ejército incorporar al inglés como un segundo idioma, exigible mediante un proceso regulado, que combinara el interés personal y el apoyo institucional para el logro del objetivo. Bien conocemos el sistema vigente que se orienta a tal propósito. Vayan aquí mis agradecimientos también a todos los que lo han construido; también a cuantos han debido “sufrir” el proceso. Sin duda, estos últimos, ahora se dan cuenta que han adquirido una herramienta básica en la formación de un profesional militar moderno. Con todo, no quisiera dejar la impresión que en el Ejército habría existido una despreocupación o falta de eficiencia en esta materia. Por el contrario, nuestros legendarios profesores de inglés, tanto de la Escuela Militar como de la Academia de Guerra del Ejército –Mr. Lühr, Mr. Clerc, Mr. Parada, Mr. Sepúlveda, y otros–, buscaban el mismo propósito. Y, por supuesto, obtenían resultados acordes a las horas, tiempos, sistemas e interés de los alumnos y de la institución por el tema. Lo que pasó fue que las crecientes demandas de cooperación internacional al Ejército superaron el sistema vigente; pero no así la voluntad, vocación y entrega de esos ejemplares maestros. Tampoco, el permanente interés de la institución por el asunto. De allí surge la necesidad del cambio, conocido por todos, hacia la actual estructura de la Escuela de Idiomas del Ejército y la aplicación de un modelo educacional en la materia, que ya cubre varias lenguas (desde el inglés al chino mandarín, incluyendo también las originarias rapanui, mapudungun y aimara), donde nuestro personal se prepara sistemática y formalmente con una gran dosis de compromiso personal en esta tarea. Este libro, sin duda, contribuirá a formar parte de las múltiples variables que configuran este todo: la formación en idiomas extranjeros del personal del Ejército para capacitarlos al nivel que hoy exige nuestra profesión y las características de un mundo globalizado.

Juan Emilio Cheyre Espinosa General de Ejército Comandante en Jefe del Ejército

Santiago, enero de 2006.

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A short course in english for adult students

7. verbos. No es conveniente estudiar varias horas de una sola vez y dejar pasar mucho tiempo antes de iniciar otra etapa. Si hubiera muchas respuestas incorrectas (más de un 20%). Estudiar las ilustraciones. preposiciones. estudiar de nuevo las definiciones y reglas dadas al inicio de la unidad pertinente y volver a hacer los ejercicios. Use lápiz de grafito para escribir. 8. etc. Resolver los ejercicios dados como tarea. A short course in english for adult students 7 . discutir y practicar los ejercicios dados.Sugerencias Metodológicas 1. 9.). 3. estudiar y estudiar. estudiar y memorizar las definiciones y reglas gramaticales dadas en las diferentes unidades del curso. los ejemplos dados y la pronunciación figurada indicada en algunos casos. rendirá sus frutos y le traerá muchas satisfacciones. de modo que haya una continuidad y regularidad. Estudiar en lo posible con otra(s) persona(s) para comparar. Distribuir en forma adecuada el tiempo de estudio. 4. Aprovechar cualquier momento libre para estudiar. 2. Estudiar y memorizar los listados de palabras (sustantivos. Leer. frases y expresiones idiomáticas que aparecen al final de cada unidad. 6. 5. Este esfuerzo realizado por Ud. adjetivos. Comparar las respuestas dadas por Ud. con las dadas en las Claves de Respuestas y corrija sus errores.

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Which?.. next week. How wide?. a lot. How high?. the day after tomorrow. many. TIME AND DATES • How old?. half past. Until... At. How long?. few. A(N). How?.General and specific • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who and Which • VOCABULARY: . quarter past / to. etc. How tall?. at the moment. like? For describing people and things. How much?.TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE: ELEMENTARY LEVEL UNIT 1 • TO BE (Present. Where?.etc. That. etc. Always. books. What kind of?. Past and Future) • SOME . How big?. for the time INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS being. etc... How often?. the day before yesterday. sugar. How? Whom?. On. milk. lots of. Countable nouns: people. very little. every week.Numerals.. How long?. at this time. Why?.Time expressions (I) .ANY • CARDINAL NUMBERS • VOCABULARY: . What size?. Who?. In . at present.People • How much? How many? • Much. water.Clothes • • • • Every day.NOT ANY . These. temporarily. When?. The . A short course in english for adult students 9 . every month. today. minutes past / to In the morning / afternoon / evening. yesterday. Who?.. How far?. What time?. O´clock. last week / last year / last Monday. How thick?.Definite and Indefinite TELLING THE TIME VOCABULARY: .Adjectives • • • • • Uncountable nouns: money. work. Why?. How fast?. two days ago UNIT 2 • THERE TO BE (Present. men. usually. often. at night Noon / midday. midnight UNIT 4 • • • • • PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE • Now. What color?. very few UNIT 3 • • • • • HAVE GOT / HAS GOT ADJECTIVES ARTICLES I .. sometimes. Whose?. What?. etc. Time and Dates UNIT 5 • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE • ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY • QUESTION WORDS II For requesting information. • ARTICLES II . generally. What sort of?. three times a year. For • Now. How many?. Past and Future) • THE ENGLISH ALPHABET • THE PHONETIC ALPHABET • What?. • VOCABULARY: . How old? How long? What time? • This. etc. What is / are . ORDINAL NUMBERS How deep?. students. twice a week. QUESTION WORDS 1 What shape?. never. tomorrow.NO . Those. Once a day. little.

Bob sent his girlfriend some flowers. • EXCLAMATORY FORM • VOCABULARY: . more intelligent than. White. / IT TOOK. etc. Jones. etc. etc. a secretary. in the West Indies. 10 A short course in english for adult students . OUGHT TO • HAVE TO = TENER QUE • VOCABULARY: . professions. = DEMORAR • COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES • VOCABULARY: .. The man whose car is parked outside.. when they got married.. an engineer. • Mr.. How about going to a disco tonight? • The boy also speaks Italian.the shortest • Intelligent. etc. Cpt. • Somebody / someone. In Salt Lake City.. Scott.. etc.. You may use the phone now.. • Who is he? Whom did you see? Whose is that car? Whose care is it? : The man with whom Mary is working now. • An American. • IT TAKES...Nationalities. In Canada..best. a Chilean. • He said that he was tired.. • Good . somewhere..? • Short .Parts Of The Body . etc..EITHER.. etc... • Bob can swim very well. not anybody / not anyone.. countries and geographical names. Bob sent her some flowers.. NOT. SOMETHING..Time Expressions II • John is coming here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow. please? • Can I / May I / Do you mind if I open the window? • Shall I / Do you want me to / Would you like me to open the window? • Shall we / Would you like to / Why don´t we / Let´s go to a disco tonight.. TOO. He speaks Italian.. etc. not anywhere.. nobody / no one.. AS WELL. SHOULD. please. • On Fifth Avenue. not anything. The boy speaks Italian and so does the girl. an Englishman. but the girl doesn´t. MAY. When Peter arrived this morning.. • A doctor. • Can / Will / Could / Would you open the door please? Would you mind opening the door. don´t do that. nowhere UNIT 9 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II : AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO. Whom.. titles and ranks. Whose • SOMEBODY / SOMEONE.. • Open the door. Please.. • How long does it take to.. They should t / ought to be more careful of what they say • I have to buy another dictionary.The house • At that time. MUST. Dr. This one is too old UNIT 11 • • • • • • • • • • FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE MAKING REQUESTS ASKING FOR PERMISSION OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER ALSO.shorter than. streets. the most intelligent • As fast as.UNIT 7 • PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE • IMPERATIVE FORM • ARTICLES III .The City • John will come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week / next month / at this time tomorrow / at this time next year. in the USA. UNIT 10 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III : AM / IS / ARE+ING • MODAL VERBS: CAN. etc. etc.. • It takes me 20 minutes to. too / as well.. • What a tall woman!.. SO.. • Peter doesn´t like golf and I don´t like it either. at 10:30 last night. / IT WILL TAKE.. Peter must be here at 8:15 tomorrow. • The boy speaks Italian. Peter doesn´t like golf and neither do I. NEITHER / NOR BUT POSITION OF DIRECT AND INDIRECT OBJECTS VOCABULARY: • Our Health • They will be working at this time tomorrow / the day after tomorrow..better ....Food • John is going to come here tomorrow / the day after tomorrow / next week. in North Carolina. What beautiful flowers! What nice weather! How tall she is! How quickly time passes! UNIT 8 • SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE I: Will • RELATIVE PRONOUNS: Who. • Bob sent some flowers to his girlfriend. something. nothing.. cities. SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS • VOCABULARY: . He told me that he was tired...

Verb + gerund / bare infinitive D.MAY. / CAN´T HAVE DONE SOMETHING . Sooner. MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE DONE SOMETHING • VOCABULARY: . more carefully. soon More quickly. UNIT 13 • PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS II A. etc.Sports and Recreation • • • • • • • • • • I have been working all day They agreed to meet outside the theater. late. He himself did it. / He ought to have done it You´d better take a taxi if you want to be there before your train leaves We could go to the movie We could have gone to the movie He must be very tired He can´t be hungry already He must have gone home He can´t have done that alone It may / might be true You must have / might have left it in the shop A short course in english for adult students 11 . since. for. earlier. already. etc. etc. etc.MUST / CAN / MUST HAVE. Verb + to-infinitive B. certainly. too I saw her crossing / cross the road.The Weather • • • • • • • • • • • He had been working all day He should have studied harder. ever Book / books. carefully. twice. I´ll help you do / to do that I like to playing / to play golf The floor needs cleaning / to be cleaned He works well. baby / babies. not yet. etc.COULD HAVE DONE SOMETHING .Nature • • • • • • • • He had seen the film before The train had already left when he arrived Quickly. never. etc. MIGHT. day / days. Verb + ing / to-infinitive • TAG ENDINGS • VOCABULARY: . harder. Fast. once. go shopping. Irregular plural forms Enjoy playing. keep talking.PART TWO: INTERMEDIATE LEVEL UNIT 12 • PRESENT PERFECT TENSE • PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS • USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS I VERB + GERUND • VOCABULARY: . lately.Prepositions and Connectors • • • • • • • • I have seen that movie Mary hasn´t finished typing it yet Have they arrived already? Just. He will let them play He wants us to go. He cut himself. early. yet / already?. Go skiing. Verb + somebody + bare infinitive / to-infinitive E. He lives all by himself We were going to play football but it began to rain UNIT 15 • PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE • PAST TENSE OF SHOULD / OUGHT TO • WOULD RATHER / HAD BETTER • MODAL VERBS II: • COULD DO SOMETHING . did he? UNIT 14 • PAST PERFECT TENSE • ADVERBS: FORMATION AND COMPARISON • REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS • PAST TENSE OF “GOING TO” • VOCABULARY: . three times. knife / knives. brush / brushes.before. doesn´t he? He didn´t come to the meeting. hard. Verb + somebody + bare infinitive C.

QUESTIONS C. When I see her tomorrow. or else I´ll miss my flight. Do you need anything else? I´ll take a taxi. COMMANDS.UNIT 16 • FUTURE PERFECT TENSE • SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES • THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER WHEN... ORDERS • VOCABULARY: . UNTIL. • USE OF ELSE.The Workshop • • • • • They will have finished the work by then He says he´s tired / He said he was tired.The Armed Forces II • • • • • • • If you study hard you´ll pass the course If you studied harder you´d get better marks If you had studied harder you would have passed the course I wish I could swim I wish I had seen her I wish it would stop snowing I suggest that she wait a few minutes. OR ELSE / OTHERWISE • VOCABULARY: . UNIT 19 • REPORTED SPEECH A. ETC. AS SOON AS. UNIT 17 • THE PASSIVE VOICE • BE SUPPOSED TO • VOCABULARY: ..The Armed Forces I • The book was published in 1998 • The train is supposed to arrive at 9:45 UNIT 18 • CONDITIONAL SENTENCES • SUBJUNCTIVE AFTER WISH • VERB + PRESENT OF SUBJUNCTIVE • VOCABULARY: ... STATEMENTS B.Regular and Irregular Verbs • • • • He said he wanted to go He told me that he wanted to go He asked me where they were He told me to sit down UNIT 20 • USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS • • • • • • At a social gathering At a hotel At a restaurant How to get to places At the station / airport Shopping UNIT 21 • ASSESSMENT TEST • • • • Student’s Question Booklet Answer Sheet Answer Key Teacher’s Text Script 12 A short course in english for adult students ..

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART ONE ELEMENTARY LEVEL .

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It´s a house. θæηks/ He´s much better. it is. its a pén/ Yes. The /δe (antes de cons. These /δí:z/ estos/as. δei á:r. they are. /δéir in δe ká:r pá:rk/ They´re in the lab. /its on δe désk/ They´re in the car park. /δei a:r búks/ Son libros They´re cars. /shi:z δe sékretri/ They´re Bob.) . It is. Thank you /δæηk iu:/ gracias. /its an æmbiulans/ Es una ambulancia They are books. Jim and Tom. Those /δóuz/ esos/as A/ a/(antes de cons. the secretary. normalmente se usan las contracciones I’m. δei á:r. ARE /a:r/ 1. son/están) (Ellos/as son/están) En conversación. /hi:z δe niú: instráktor/ She´s Miss Black. Normalmente formando las contracciones ISN´ T /íznt/ o AREN´ T /á:rent/ Iam not /ai æm nót/ You are not /iú á:r nót/ He is not /hi: iz nót/ She is not /shí: iz nót/ It is not /it iz nót/ We are not /wí: a:r nót/ They are not /δei a:r nót/ ---------------------------You aren´t /iu á:rent/ He isn´t /hí: íznt/ She isn´t /shí: íznt/ It isn´t /it íznt/ We aren´t /wí: á:rent/ They aren´t /δei á:rent/ I´m not /aim nót/ You´re not /iúr nót/ He´s not / hí:z nót/ She´s not /shí:z nót/ It´s not /its nót/ We´re not /wí:r nót/ They´re not /δeir nót/ A short course in english for adult students 15 . Where? /wéar/ ¿ Dónde?. You´re. /hi:z at hóum/ It´s in the garage. In /in/ en.IS . It´s a pen /iés. On /on/ encima de. /δeir véri wél θæηk iu/ 2. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra not.They´re cars.ARE I am /ai æm/ You are /iú á:r/ He is /hi: íz/ She is /shi: íz/ It is /it íz/ (Yo soy/estoy) (Tú eres/estás) (El es/está) (Ella es/está) (Es/está) We are /wi: á:r/ You are /iú á:r/ They are /δéi á:r/ (Nosotros/as somos o estamos) (Uds. El verbo TO BE tiene tres formas en el tiempo presente: AM . the new instructor. We´re. Jones. /δeir δe stiú:dents/ He´s at home. /iés.. the students. δi/ (antes de vocal) el. they are. /its in δe gáridll/ It´s on the desk. An /an/ (antes de vocal) un/a. Fine /fáin/ bien. He´s. θæηks/ They´re very well. Today /tudéi/ Hoy día. TO BE (SER O ESTAR) A.δeir ká:rz/ He´s Mr. She´s. They´re.it iz. That /δæt/ ese/a. δeir búks/ Yes. /iés. Much better /match béter/ mucho mejor What is this? /wót iz δis/ ¿Qué es esto? What´s that? /wots δæt/ ¿Qué es eso? What are these? /wót a:r δí:z/. ¿Qué son éstos? What are those? /wót a:r δóuz/. This /δis/ este/a. /áim fáin. /hí:z mátch béter. Thanks /δæηks/ gracias. las. repita y aprenda: What? /wót/ ¿Qué? ¿Cuál?. Who? /hu:/ ¿Quién?. /its a pén/ Es un lápiz It´s an ambulance. Very well /véri uél/ muy bien. /δeir ká:rz/ Son autos Yes. It´s. thank you. At /æt/ en. thanks. /δéir in δe læb/ I´m fine. Escuche. /iés it iz its e háus/ Yes. thanks.) un/a. IS /iz/. la. Who are those men? /hú: a:r δóuz mén/ Where is Bob? /wéar iz bób/ Where´s the car? /wéarz δe ká:r/ Where´s the book? /wéarz δe búk/ Where are the cars? /wéar a:r δe ká:rz/ Where are the students? /wéar a:r δe stiú:dents/ How are you? /háu á:r iu:/ How´s John? /háuz dllón/ How are the children? /háu a:r δe tchíldrn/ It is a pen. ¿Qué son esos? Is this a pen? /iz δis a pén/ Is that a house? /is δæt a háus/ Are these books? /a:r δí:z búks/ Are those cars? /á:r δóuz ká:rz/ Who is that man? /hú iz δæt mæn/ Who´s that woman? /hú:z δæt wúman/ . EL TIEMPO PRESENTE: AM /æm/ .UNIT 1 PART I. They´re books.How? /háu/ ¿Cómo?. Now /náu/ ahora. los.

5. repita y aprenda estas preguntas y respuestas: Is this a pen? /pén/ Is that a tank? /tæηk/ Are these books? /búks/ Are those chairs? /tchéarz/ No. Those vehicles______ slow-moving. 10. He isn´t very well. Answer these questions. Doctor Smith _____ busy right now. En conversación coloquial se usa la contracción AIN¨T /éint/ Ejemplo: Aren´t I your friend? Ain´t I your friend? Escuche.Escuche. it isn´t. He´s not here. They aren´t there. They´re not there. /páilot/ They are not students /stiú:dnts/. /trák/ No. 8. (armas-poderosas) 6. The train _____ ten minutes late.rent δei/ Debido a que no existe una contracción para AM NOT. (sala de profs._____________ _______________________________________ Yes. here /híar/ aquí. 3.) It´s a truck. (They´re not books. John and Mary _____ good friends. It isn´t a train. They aren´t in the lab. habitualmente se usa AREN¨T en este caso. /mægazinz/ No. He isn´t here._____________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ . (It´s not a tank. Clark? 3. Are we ready to go? 4. 1.r iu: ó:l ráit/ ¿Estás bien? Is he a captain? /íz hi: a káptin/ Es él un capitán? Are they busy? /á:r δei bízi/ ¿Están ellos ocupados? Is my answer correct? /íz mai á:nser korékt/ EXERCISES Ex. 9. (It´s not a pen. there /δéar/ allí. they aren´t. Am I? /am ai/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Is he? /íz hí:/ Is she? /íz shí:/ Is it? /íz it/ * Aren´t I? * /á:rent ai / Aren´t you? /á:rent iu:/ Isn´t he? /íznt hi:/ Isn´t she? /íznt shi:/ Isn´t it? /íznt it/ Are we? /á:r wí:/ Are you? /á:r iú:/ Are they? /á:r δei/ Aren´t we? /á:rent wi:/ Aren´t you? /á:rent iú:/ Aren´t they? /á. Use the correct form of the verb TO BE (am/is/are) 1. Escuche. La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión de orden con el sujeto de la oración.) Aren´t I right? /á:rent ai ráit/ No estoy en lo cierto? Aren´t you tired? /á:rent iu táiard/ ¿No estás cansado? Isn´t she a nurse? /íznt shi. repita y aprenda: I am not a pilot. The instructors _____ in the staff-room. He´s a pilot. 4. They´re not in the lab. Are you in the office? 2. he is. Is Miss Jones a secretary? 7. The instructor´s name _____ John Doe. They´re tables /téiblz/. are not /a:r nót/. aren´t /á:rent/. It´s not a train. is not /iz nót/. 2. 2.) They´re magazines. /pénsl/ No. they aren´t. repita y aprenda: Am I right? /ám ái ráit/ ¿Estoy correcto? Are you all right? /á. 3. The teacher ______ in the classroom now. Are the students in class? 6. 7. over there /óuver δéar/ allá ---------------------------They aren´t students. it isn´t. They are not there /(éar/ It is not a train. He´s not very well. as in the example Is Tom a pilot? 1. ______ an undergraduate student. Yes. (They´re not chairs). isn´t /íznt/ . Am I a good instructor? 5. a ne:rs/ ¿No es ella una enfermera? Aren´t they happy? /á:rent δei hæpi/ ¿No están ellos felices? Isn´t this question correct? /íznt δis kwéstchion korékt/ Ex. The men ______ tired. He is not here /híar/.) It´s a pencil. Is that man Mr. I´m not a pilot They´re not students. Is this a modern plane? 16 A short course in english for adult students Yes. /tréin/ Bob is not very well /véri wél/ The students are not in the lab /læb/.(vehículos lentos) Those weapons ______ powerful.

at home 1. The manager / in his office 2. 3. claras) 8.(patio) 9. It´s a knife 2. as in the example below: The Browns . Your friends / from Canada 5. Are you a navy officer?(an army officer) 8. The maps / in the library (biblioteca) Are the Browns at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No. as in the example: It´s a plane. The children are tired 10. The computer / connected to Internet 6. 5. Are you thirsty? sedientos (hungry) 3. Who?. Are the manuals updated?(actualizados) 9. The books are on the table 9. Is your brother a doctor? (an engineer) 6. How?. thanks 5. That boy´s my brother 8. The package / light or heavy (liviano o pesado) 7. _________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ ____________________ ( _________________________ ) ___________________________________ Ex. The children / in the playground.8. The cigarettes are in the bag 4. It´s a chair 7. The course / interesting 4. (They aren´t instructors) They ´re students No. Is Bob at home? en casa (at work) en el trabajo 4. I´m fine. 1. Ask questions using the wh-words What?. Are the children happy? felices (sad) tristes 5. Are the men old? viejos (young) jóvenes 10. Answer the questions as in the example: Are they instructors? (students) 1. The pictures / clear (nítidas. The cat´s under the sofa 6.Are you hungry? (hambriento) ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ ________________ _______________________________________ Ex. Are your friends American? (British) 7. Peter and John / in class 3.Is Cpt. They´re books 3.That woman´s my wife What´s this? o What´s that? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 17 . Is the table clean? limpia (dirty) sucia 9. Is the bank open? 10. 4 Ask questions. The CD´s / in the drawer (gaveta) 10. Bowman on duty? de servicio (off duty) de franco Ex. Where?. they are not. Are the boys angry? enojados (hungry) hambrientos 2.

EL TIEMPO PASADO: WAS /woz/ . I´m glad to meet you. Jack Jim Jack Jim Jim Jack Janet : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : How do you do? My name ______ Robert Brown. Jane. ______ she single? No. Where ______ you from. What ______ your name? My name ______ John. Oh. ¿Por qué?. Hello. éramos/estábamos/fuimos/estuvimos) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Uds. /δei wé:r véri gud fréndz/ Mr.WERE /wer/ 1. Robert Jack Robert Jack 2. /míster djækson woz híar θrí: wí:ks agóu/ (Yo estuve muy ocupado ayer) (John estuvo en casa todo el día hoy) (Nosotros estuvimos en Paris del año pasado) (Mary era la mejor alumna de mi curso) (Ellos eran / fueron muy buenos amigos) (Mr Jackson estuvo aquí hace 3 semanas). Where ______ you. That´s bad news. ______ you a student here? No. lea y aprenda: When? /wén/. Hello. Where ______ she from? She ______ from Australia. She ______ from London. Sir. The day before yesterday /δe déi bifór jésterdei/ anteayer Last night /la:st náit/ anoche I was very busy yesterday. Frank John Frank John Frank 3. 6. How ______ you? I ______ fine. Hello. How do you do? My name ______ Jack Richardson. Wisconsin. I ______ with my friend Janet. Come and meet her. 18 A short course in english for adult students . How ______ you? I ______ fine. Complete and practise these dialogues with a partner. Pleased to meet you. Jim? I ______ here. She ______ a new student. My name ______ Frank. I ______ from Appleton. too. Mike Hello. 1. How old? /háu óuld/ ¿Qué edad? Last week /lá:st wí:k/ . ¿Cuándo? Why? /wái/. That ______ very interesting. Who______ that girl? She ______ Mary. (pausa) This ______ Janet. thanks. She ______ my classmate . she ______ ______. I ______ not. la semana pasada Two days ago /tú: déiz agóu/ Hace dos días Yesterday /jésterdei/ ayer. I ______ glad to meet you. Jack. B. She ______ married. I ______ an instructor. I ______ ______. Oh. in the library. Peter. Oh. /dllón woz at hóum ó:l déi tudéi/ We were in Paris last year /wi wé:r in páris la:st íar/ Mary was the best student in my class. Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael Peter Michael 4. /ai woz véri bízi iésterdei/ John was at home all day today.WERE /wer/ I was /ai wóz/ (yo era/estaba/fui/estuve) You were /iú: wé:r/ (Tú eras/estabas/fuiste/estuviste) He was /hí: wóz/ (El era/estaba/fue/estuvo) She was /shi: wóz/ (Ella era/estaba/fue/estuvo) It was /it wóz/ (era/estaba/fue/estuvo) We were /wi: wé:r/ (Nos.Ex. Jackson was here three weeks ago. El verbo TO BE tiene las siguientes formas en el tiempo pasado: WAS /woz/ . ______ you alone? No. / méri woz δe bést stiú:dent in mai klás/ They were very good friends. eran/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) They were /δei wé:r/ (Ellos/as an/estaban/fueron/estuvieron) Escuche. Mr. Brown? I ______ American.

How old. La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después de WAS o WERE. Who? 1. lea y aprenda: I was not very busy last week. /ai woz nót véri bízi lá:st wí:k/ (Yo no estuve muy ocupado la semana pasada) John wasn´t at home this morning. 2. 4. Liz was in bed because she was sick. The weather was fine that day. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 19 . La forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de WAS / WERE con el sujeto Escuche. 3. 3. 2. but they ______ at work yesterday. Mr Clark was about 85 years old when he died. 6. Mary was late for the train this morning. John ______ in New York the day before yesterday but he ______ in Chicago today. John ______n´t in the office at ten this morning because he ______ at a meeting. George was a little better this morning. /méri wóznt a gúd stiú:dent at hái skú:l/ (Mary no era una buena alumna en el liceo) They weren´t very hardworking. 6. 3. present or past: 1. /dllón wóznt at hóum δis mórnin/ (John no estuvo en casa esta mañana) We weren´t in New York last year. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Today ______ Monday. Where ______ the Johnsons last weekend? Where ______ they today? The elevator ______ out of order last night. Bob ______ very sick yesterday. 2. The Smiths were in Chile in 1985. They were good friends at school. The men were tired after the long walk. /δei wé:rnt véri há:rdwérkiη/ (Ellos no eran muy trabajadores) 3. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/.Why?. 2. Ask questions using wh-words like What? Where? When?. 1. but he ______ much better today. Yesterday ______ Sunday. They ______ free today. Escuche. /wi wé:rent in niú: iórk lá:st íar/ (Nosotros no estuvimos en N. How?.M. Tom was at home at midnight last night. lea y aprenda: Were you in class this morning? /we:r iú: in klás δis mórnin/ Was John sick yesterday? /woz dllón sík iésterdi/ Was Mary a good student at school? /woz méri a gúd stiú:dent at skú:l/ Where were you at this time yesterday? /wéar wé:r iú at δis táim iésterdi/ Why was Jim absent from work? /wái woz dllím æbsent from wé:rk/ EXERCISES: Ex.2. Complete these sentences with the proper form of the verb TO BE. but it ______ working well now. 5. el año pasado) Mary wasn´t a good student at high school. 5. 7. Henry was at the movie at 7 P. (¿Estuviste en clase esta mañana?) (¿Estuvo John enfermo ayer?) (¿Era Mary una buena alumna en el colegio?) (¿Dónde estabas a esta hora ayer?) (¿Por qué estuvo Jim ausente del trabajo?) Ex. 6. The secretary was busy at midday. 4. 3.Y. John was in the car at that moment. 5. 4. Change the following sentences into a) Negative b) interrogative 1.

A short course in english for adult students . 3. but they _______________________________ next semester. /δei wóunt bí: híar ó:l dei/ Ellos no estarán aquí todo el día It won´t be cold tonight. but he 1. Escuche. /ail bí: on lí:v for tú: wí:ks/ Yo estaré con permiso por dos semanas 2. Mr. /it wóunt bí: kóuld tunáit/ No estará frio esta noche 3. It is not very cold now. but I ________________________________________________ in ten minutes. but it _____________________________________________ next month. Normalmente se usa la contracción ‘ll en la conversación diaria informal. serán / estarán) They will be /δei wil bí:/ (Ellos / as serán estarán) También se pueden usar las siguientes contracciones: I´ll be /áil bí:/ Escuche. de regreso? EXERCISES: Ex. Tom and Jack aren´t in the same class this semester. /dllón wil bí: in klá:s antil wán oklók/ John estará en clases hasta la 1 It´ll be hot tomorrow. Estaré muy ocupado esta tarde John will be in class until 1 o´clock. /ítl bí: hot tumórou/ Estará caluroso mañana I´ll be on leave for two weeks. I will be /ai wil bí:/ (Yo seré / estaré) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Tú serás / estarás) He will be /hi: wil bí:/ (El será / estará) She will be /shí: wil bí:/ (Ellas será / estará) It will be /it wil bí:/ (Será / estará) We will be /wí: wil bí:/ (Nos. /ái wil bí: véri bízi δis a:fternú:n/ . but it ______________________________________________________________ this evening.seremos / estaremos) You will be /iú: wil bí:/ (Uds. For /for/ por What time? /wót táim/ ¿Qué hora? Tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana. We are not busy right now. lea y aprenda: Will you be free tomorrow evening? /wil iú: bí: frí: tumórou í:vnin/ ¿Estarás libre mañana en la noche? Will the test be difficult? /wil δe tést bí: dífikalt/ ¿Será dificil la prueba? Will they be here on Monday? /wil δei bí: híar on mándei/ ¿estarán ellos aquí el lunes? Won´t you be at the meeting? /wóunt iú. EL TIEMPO FUTURO: WILL BE /will bi:/ 1. La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL Normalmente se usa la contracción WON´T /wóunt/. John isn´t absent today. Next week /´nekst wi:k/ la próxima semana. 2. El tiempo futuro del verbo TO BE se expresa mediante el uso del Verbo Modal WILL seguido del infinitivo BE.Johnson was not at the meeting last week. 7. Escuche. The day after tomorrow /δe déi á:fter tumórou/ pasado mañana You´ll be /iu:l bí:/ He´ll be /hí:l bí:/ They´ll be /δeil bí:/ I will be very busy this afternoon. 6. They won´t be here all day. /méri wil nót bí: at hóum tudéi/ Mary no estará en casa hoy día. lea y aprenda: I will not be very busy tomorrrow. La forma interrogativa se expresa usando el verbo modal WILL o la contracción WON´T delante del sujeto. /ai wil nót bí: bízi tumórou/ No estaré muy ocupado mañana Mary will not be at home today. Complete the sentences as in the example: John is not at home today. I am not in my office at the moment. 1. but he _______________________________________ next Monday. 4. lea y aprenda: How long? /háu lóη/ ¿Cuánto tiempo? Until /antíl/ hasta. but he _________________________________________________ the day after tomorrow. 20 (will be at home) tomorrow.C. bi: at δe mí:tin/ ¿No estarás tú en la reunión? When will they be here again? /wén wil δei bí: híar agéin/ ¿Cuándo estarán ellos aquí nuevamente? How long will they be in Washington? /háu loη wil δei bí: in wóshiδton/ ¿Cúanto tiempo estarán ellos en Washington? What time will you be back? /wót táim wil iu: bí: bæk/ ¿A qué hora estará Ud. 5. The weather was not very nice last month. but we _________________________________________________________ after lunch.

Cuándo están ellos libres todo el día? ¿Quién era ese hombre? Este no es un libro muy interesante. 12. ¿Dónde están tus amigos ahora? ¿Quién estuvo aquí esta mañana? Nosotros no estuvimos aquí la semana pasada. I´ll be in the first team. Esos niños no son muy buenos alumnos. 11. 2. 8. It´ll be hot tomorrow. What time?. 4. 10.When?. The students will be in the lab this afternoon. 5.Ex. Ask questions using Where?. 1. The weather will be very nice this month.Why? How?. They will be at home all day because the weather is not good. Where will you be at this time tomorrow? 10. My friends will be here before 12. She will be back in Chile on Wednesday. Where were you at this time yesterday? 2. 13. etc. Alguien estuvo aquí ayer en la tarde. in English. All the shops will be closed tomorrow because it´s Sunday. Answer the following questions. 5. When will you be on vacation again? 3. 7. 9. 8. John will be in class today. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Why is your friend in bed at this time? 6. 3. They will be here at ten-thirty. en esa ciudad nuevamente? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 21 . 2. I will be free next Tuesday morning. 1. 7. Mr. When is the next general meeting? 9. 3. 3. Mr Jackson estuvo en la oficina todo el día. Mary will be in New York next weekend. Where were you last weekend? 7. Ella será una excelente secretaria. 2. How long?. 6. 7. Ellos estarán muy ocupados mañana en la mañana. Ellos fueron buenos amigos en el colegio Los informes no estaban listos todavía. 5. Who was absent from class last Monday? 5. 6. The program will be interesting. 6. 5. Who was with you at the party last Saturday? 8. Why were you absent from class last Friday? Ex. 2. 9. ¿Cuándo estará Ud. 14. 1. Mary´ll be in the office all morning. 3. Change the following sentences into the negative and the interrogative forms. How are you today? 4. Johnson will be absent from work for three days? ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex. They will be in the next town before midday. 4. 4. 4. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ Ex.

C .L . please A: I-G-N-A-C-I-O B: Thank you /θæηkiu:/ /kán iu: spél δæt plí:z/ /ai dllí: én éi sí: ái óu/ /mái bráδerz néim iz ignásio/ 2.L .E .V -B 3.W .D . that´s V-A-S-Q-U-E-Z.M .P .C .U .T .J . 4.PART II.T .O . lea y aprenda: 1.I .E . it only cost me eighty-five dollars /nóu it óunli kóst mi:éiti fáiv dólarz/ Ex. A: When did you buy your VCR? /wén did iú: bái io:r ví: sí: á.A .R .Y . U .G . 1.E .O .W .K .I .F 4. B: Can you spell that.T .K .S .M .A . How do you spell your first name? /háu diu: spél io:r fe:rst néim/ 2. P . E .V .I .B .Y .I .H . E .N .A . /mái la:st néim is váskes.U .W .Z .J . /tóm wé:rks for ái bí: ém in él éi/ Ex.Q .I .A 5.r/ B: Last month.C .B . My last name is Vasquez.L .I .W .X .V . δæts vi: éi és kiú i: zéd/ 3.E .A Ex. ¿Puede leer estas series de letras? 1. THE ENGLISH ALPHABET Vowels: Consonants: A /éi/ E /i:/ I /ái/ O /óu/ U /iú/ B /bi:/ C /si:/ D /di:/ G /dlli:/ P /pi:/ T /ti:/ V /vi:/ F /ef/ L /el/ M /em/ N /en/ S /es/ X /eks/ Z /zed/* J /dlléi/ H /eitch/ K /kei/ Y /uái/ Q /kiú/ W /dábliu/ R /a:r/ * En Inglés Americano la letra Z se pronuncia /zi:/ PRACTICE EXERCISES: Ex.Q .L . ¿Puede deletrear estas palabras? Yorkshire Mexico Washington Quebec geography Chicago Kalamazoo Venezuela Japan Shanghai whisky Tokyo 22 A short course in english for adult students .N .C .G .Y .X .G .I .O . Practique estos diálogos con algún amigo: 1. Tom works for IBM in LA.O .D .R . 3.U .B .X .K .Z . A: My brother´s name is Ignacio.Q .F .O .X . Escuche.A -E 2. 2. I bought it at the PX A: Was it very expensive? /wóz it ekspénsiv/ /lá:st mánθ ái bó:t it at δe pí: éks/ B: No.A .Q .S .X .F .X .G .N .H .B .O . J .Y .

m. PLO USSR VCR NBT CO ADC EST ATM OAS IBM CIA IRA MIT APC DC COD GPS GMT MIA Ph. A for alfa and N for November: JUAN 2. FBI OK ITT a.D.Ex. I spell: J for Juliett. I spell: C as in Charlie. A as in Alfa.D OBE CEO UK UNO DEA MP FOB CIF ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ¿Puede agregar algunas otras siglas de uso frecuente? ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ THE PHONETIC ALPHABET This alphabet is used in radio / telephone communication to spell difficult words: as in A B C D E F G H I J K L M /az in/ como en Alfa /álfa/ Bravo /brávou/ Charlie /tchá:rli/ Delta /délta/ Echo /ékou/ Foxtrot /fókstrot/ Golf /gólf/ Hotel /houtél/ India /índia/ Juliett /dlluliét/ Kilo /kílou/ Lima /líma/ Mike /máik/ for N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z /fo:r/ para November /nouvémber/ Oscar /óskar/ Papa /pápa/ Quebec /kuibék/ Romeo /rómiou/ Sierra /siéra/ Tango /táηgou/ Uniform /íunifo:rm/ Victor /víktor/ Whisky /wíski/ X-ray /éks réi/ Yankee /iáηki/ Zulu /zúlu/ as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in as in for for for for for for for for for for for for for Examples: 1.C.m. My name is JUAN. The commander´s last name is CLARK. A. BBC UCLA VAT UFO NCO PTO p. U for uniform. R as in Romeo and K as in Kilo: CLARK A short course in english for adult students 23 . L as in Lima. Estudie estas siglas (acronyms) de uso frecuente: USA B. 5.

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When are they free all day? 11. They´re British. The program won´t be . Is ..? 6. Yes.. At what time will they be here? 5. will be absent 3. No.. Is the computer connected to internet? 6. She´s a secretary.. They´re sad. am 9.. Where are the cigarettes?. Somebody was here yesterday afternoon / evening .. He´s at work.? 4. 1. 4.. They´re updated.. 1. What are these / those? 3. Ja: are Ji: am Ja: are Ji: am not . Yes. Are the maps in the library? Ex. Ex. It´s dirty. / Will John be . Ex..? C. 2.? 2. Who was that man? 12... You´re a good instructor.? 4. They´re young. No. 1.is 4.. They were good friends at school. They´re in class...is 6.. 5. Is the course interesting? 4.. I´m hungry.. Yes. 1. 6.Are J: am . 1. Was .. We weren´t here last week. 3.. No.. I´m not. 8... Yes. 4. Yes.? 6. What´s this / that? 7. he´s not.. 6.? 3.are 5. He isn´t at home. It´s a modern plane. Yes. I´m hungry. They aren´t American. are 5. Those children are not very good students. When will Mary be in New York? 7...No. 4. They aren´t old.. Clark. Why will all the shops be closed tomorrow? 2. When will she be back in Chile? 8. 2.am 3... They weren´t. When will you be free? 3. 7. I´m not thirsty.. they are.... I am.are 3. 1. How will the weather be this month? 6. Who was here this morning? 5. / Will the program be. Who´s that woman? Ex. When were the Smiths .. I´m in the office. they´re not.... Yes. is 2. 1. How are the children? 10. 2.are Ex. It won´t be . Are the children in the playground? 9. Why will they be at home all day? 9.. Is the package light or heavy? 7.. 2. 10. 1. It isn´t clean. will be in my office 6. they are. Mary won´t be.....is Ex.? 4. will be very nice. What´s this / that? 2. Ex. 1. They´re hungry. will be in the same class 2. 1.? 3. Yes. They aren´t angry... they´re not. This isn´t a very interesting book. 1.. M: is P: is ..... is 7. I am. Yes. Ex. 3.were 3.. It´s open. is 10.was 7. will be very busy 5. she is. 10. When will you be in that city again? A short course in english for adult students 25 .. / Were the men . / Was Mary. 14.? 5..? 3. 5.is J: is .. 1. Ex.are R: am . 8. / Will it be.. 2... will be at the meeting 7.are Ja: am B.am J: is 2. it is. 1. Henry wasn´t .. My friends won´t be. Are the CD´s in the drawer? 10. 6.? 2. Yes. Who was in the car. we are-We´re ready to go.? 5. Why was Liz in bed? 4.. 1. F: is . are 6.. The secretary wasn´t. Where´s the cat? 6.. The men weren´t .are F: am ...is .. Where will the students be this afternoon? 4..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 1 Part 1 A. / Was Hernry. How are you? 5. He´s Mr.? 5. they´re not. 3. How long will Mr Johnson be absent from work? Ex. Mr Jackson was in the office all day. Was . Is the manager in his office? 2.. 1.. / Will Mary be. John won´t be.was 4.. Where was Tom at. The weather wasn´t . Are the pictures clear? 8.is M: is P: is M: is P: isn´t . 3. he´s not. 5.. I´m a army officer..is 2... / Was the weather. Who´s that boy? 8. No. 13. He isn´t a doctor.. They´ll be very busy tomorrow morning. The reports weren´t ready yet. No. 6. She´ll be an excellent secretary 7. (open answers) Ex. Ex. Were . 3... 7. it´s not. / Were they.. it is.? Ex. No. is 8. / Will my friends be. 2. Where are your friends now? 4...you are. Was .? Ex.is Ja: am ... I´m not an navy officer. They aren´t happy. I won´t be. Are . How old was Mr Clark when. Mary wasn´t . I´m not.R: is J: is .. 3.am (pause) is .. Where are the books? 9... 4. / Was the secretary . How was George. He´s an engineer. No.. Was . 9.? 2. 9. No.. / Will I be .? 6. 5.. he is... will be very cold 4.. 8.. are 4. Are Peter and John in class? 3. they´re not. 1. 9. Are your friends from Canada? 5....

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/δear á:r tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ (Hay 10 alumnos en mi curso) There are some chairs in the room /δear á:r sam tchéarz in δe rúm/ (Hay algunas sillas en la sala) La forma negativa se expresa con THERE IS NOT / THERE ISN´T /δear íznt/ o THERE ARE NOT / THERE AREN´T /δear á:rent/ There is not a book on the desk. /δear a:r nót tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t 10 students in my class. /δear á:rent éni tchéarz in δe rúm/ There are no chairs in the room. /δéarz sam wóter in δe glæs/ (Hay agua en el vaso) There are 10 students in my class. There is a book on the desk /δear íz e búk on δe désk/ (Hay un libro sobre el escritorio) There´s a car in the car park.THERE ARE UNIT 2 Estas expresiones se usan para indicar la existencia de algo. Son equivalentes a la expresión HAY. There´s only one (door). There are no chairs. se usa la contracción THERE´S /δéarz/. en castellano. /háu match/ Como ud. /δéar íznt éni wóter in δe glæs/ There´s no water in the glass /δéarz nóu wóter in δe glæs/ There are not 10 students in my class. /a:r δear éni trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ A short course in english for adult students 27 . /δear á:r nóu trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ Is there any water in the glass? /iz δearz éni wóter in δe glá:s/ Are there any trees in the garden? . THERE IS /δear íz/ se usa con sustantivos singulares o incontables. Estudie la siguiente tabla: Affirmative Negative SOME NOT ANY NO Interrogative ANY? There´s some water in the glass. ha advertido. There´s a lot (of ice). PRESENT TENSE: THERE IS . en el singular. Normalmente. THERE TO BE (HABER. la palabra SOME /sám/ (algo.PART I. En la forma negativa se puede usar NOT ANY /not éni/ o NO /nóu/. Is there a book on the desk? /íz δer e búk on δe désk/ Is there a car in the car park? /íz δer e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ Is there any water in the glass? /íz δér éni wóter in δe glæs/ Are there 10 students in the class? /á:r δer tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ Are there any chairs in the room? /á:r δer éni tchéarz in δe rúm/ Hay dos palabras interrogativas estrechamente relacionadas con There is y There are: HOW MUCH? (¿Cuánto? ¿Cuánta?) y HOW MANY? /háu méni/ (¿Cuántos? ¿Cuántas?) How much whisky is there in the glass? How much ice is there in the glass? How much water is there? How many doors are there in this room? How many windows are there? How many chairs are there? There´s very little (whisky). There´s no water. EXISTIR) A. En las interrogaciones se debe usar la palabra ANY /éni/. /δear á:rent tén stiúdents in mai klæs/ There aren´t any chairs in the room. / δéar íznt e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ There isn´t any water in the glass. /δéarz nóu wóter in δe glá:s/ There are no trees in the garden. /δéarz e ká:r in δe ká:r pa:rk/ (Hay un auto en el estacionamiento) There´s some water in the glass. /δéarz sam wóter in δe glá:s/ There are some trees in the garden /δéar á:r sam trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ There isn´t any water in the glass. /δear íznt éni wóter in δe glá:s/ There aren´t any trees in the garden. /δear iz nót e búk on δe désk/ There isn´t a car in the car park. There are three (windows). THERE ARE /δear á:r/ se usa con sustantivos plurales. There aren´t any (chairs). algunos / as) solamente se usa en forma afirmativa. /δear a:r nóu tchéarz in δe rúm/ La forma interrogativa se hace mediante simple inversión del verbo con la palabra THERE. There isn´t any (water). /δear á:rent éni trí:z in δe gá:rdn/ There ´s no water in the glass.

1. There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden.Note el uso de LITTLE /lítl/ (poco/a). SEVERAL /séverl/ varios/as. There are no flowers in the garden Finalmente. /δéar íznt mutch shúgar in δe bóul/ There aren´t many books on the shelf.una) no tiene una forma para el plural. . /δear a:r véri fiú: desks in δe rú:m/ Hay muy pocos escritorios en la sala There are a lot of chairs in the room. /δéar á:rent méni buks on δe shélf/ Is there much sugar in the bowl? /iz δéar mutch shúgar in δe bóul/ Are there many books on the shelf? /á:r δéar méni buks on δe shélf/ Affirmative a lot of not much not many much? many? Negative Interrogative El artículo indefinido A/AN (un. La expresión a lot of normalmente se usa en oraciones afirmativas. 3. There are flowers in the garden. Complete the sentences using THERE IS or THERE ARE: 1. Normalmente el artículo A/AN se reemplaza por las palabras SOME /sam/ algunos/as. /δear a:r e lót ov tchéarz in rú:m/ Hay bastantes sillas en la sala. There is a tree in the garden. /δéar á:r e lót ov buks on δe shélf/ There isn´t much sugar in the bowl. very few people at the conference. según sea el caso There´s a lot of sugar in the bowl /δéarz e lót ov shúgar in δe bóul/ There are a lot of books on the shelf. Cuando THERE IS/THERE ARE van seguidas directamente por un sustantivo. MANY /méni/ muchos/as. 2. There are many trees in the garden. por lo tanto se omite. en las negaciones generalmente se usa la palabra NO /nóu/ There´s water in that bottle. /δéarz e lót ov áis in mai glá:s/ Hay bastante hielo en mi vaso There are very few desks in the room. very little money left in the box. En las oraciones negativas e interrogativas se prefiere usar las palabras much o many. only one student in the lab now. FEW /fiú:/ (pocos/as) y A LOT OF /e lót ov/ (bastante/bastantes) There´s very little water in the glass /δéarz véri lítl wóter in δe glá:s/ Hay muy poca agua en el vaso There´s a lot of ice in my glass. 28 _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ A short course in english for adult students some books on the shelf. EXERCISES Ex. There´s no water in that bottle. 4. estudie la siguiente tabla some a lot of much a little very little no/not any some several many a lot of a few very few no/not any There is milk in this bottle There are flowers in the garden.

_______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ no more milk in the jug. ___________________ 3. no milk in it. There are some more clean glasses. ___________________ 10.. butter ________________ in the dish? secretaries____________ here? women ______________ in that group? men _________________ in the crew? (There are) 8. ___________________ 6. 7. Ej... ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Use HOW MUCH. 4. no time left. 2.. no more cassettes in the box.. 6. 1. 7. 1. 2. 1. 6. 9. There are a lot of students absent. 10. There are 24 hours in a day. a lot of work. 8. There are some students absent today... 3. ___________________ 4. 4. some letters for you on the desk. There are some extra chairs in the room.. There´s a hotel near the Training Center. ARE THERE? in the questions.: (How many) 1. 3.. ___________________ dictionaries (are there)? money ______________ ? doors ________________ in the lab? milk _________________ in the jug? video tapes ___________ ? work _________________ today? people _______________ in the room?. 4. just one. of noise in this room. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ very little. There are a lot of people in the room. ___________________ 9.5. five or six.IS THERE? Or HOW MANY. There´s some more money in my pocket.. 10. milk left in the bottle. ___________________ 2. FEW. There is another chair in that room There are some more books. Change the following sentences into the interrogative form. Ex. 8. 10. A LOT in the blank spaces. a lot. 3. ___________________ 7. There´s a train for Paris in the morning. 7. 5.. Complete the following questions and answers. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. There are more women than men. There are 30 days in February. There´s central heating in the room. several helicopters in the airfield. 9. 4. four men. ___________________ 8. There are more than 10 students.. 5. ___________________ 5. 9. 6. and THERE’S or THERE ARE in the Answers . 2. There are very ______________________________ There´s ____________________________________ There´s very ________________________________ There´s ____________________________________ books in the school library. There´s a telephone in the room. There´s some more meat in the fridge. There´s a lot of free time in the mornings. just a little. ice in my glass. very few. Ex.. sir. 8. Use LITTLE. Change the following statements into the negative form. There’s a lot of fruit in the basket. a lot of mistakes in your composition. 5. There´s some more coffee in the cup. A short course in english for adult students 29 . 3.. two. 2.

7. 6. How much milk is there in the fridge? There aren´t many hotels in this town. Was there enough bread for all the people? (yes. 10. Was there a TV in the room? / woz δear e tÍ: ví: in δe rú:m / ¿Había un televisor en la habitación? How many people were there at the party? / háu meni pí:pl we:r δear atδe pá:rti / (¿Cuánta gente había en la fiesta?). Escuche. of sugar in my coffee. How many students were there in this class last year? (about 20) _________________________________________________________________________ 2. PAST TENSE: THERE WAS .5. 1. There wasn´t any beer in the can. 2. not more than 30) _________________________________________________________________________ 3. 8. 2. tickets available. There were many people absent. Answer these questions. There weren´t many books on the desk. 10. 9. 7. using the information given in parenthesis: 1. Were there many cars in the street at that time? ( Yes. Is there enough money for the trip? How many people are there on board? There isn´t much time to talk. 8. EXERCISES: Ex. There´s a lot of work in the office today. It´s too sweet. 4. more than enough) _________________________________________________________________________ 5. 6. of course) _________________________________________________________________________ 4. There are __________________________________ There are only a ____________________________ There are __________________________________ There´s ____________________________________ There are __________________________________ There´s just a ______________________________ of trees in that park. 9. There are two books missing from the shelf. 5. lea y aprenda There was a lot of noise in the room /δear was e lot ov nóis in δe rú:m/ Había bastante ruido en la sala. How many students were there in the laboratory? ( not any) _________________________________________________________________________ 6. Were there many people at the meeting last Monday? (No. How many days were there in February that year? (29. There are very few people in the pub. /δear we:r méni pí:pl æbsent/ Había muchas personas ausentes. of errors in my bill. B. 3. Are there many errors in the bill? There´s very little whisky left. Change into the Past Tense: 1. La interrogación se expresa invirtiendo el orden de las palabras WAS y WERE con la palabra THERE.THERE WERE El pasado de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa usando THERE WAS /δear wóz/ / THERE WERE /δear we:r/ La negación se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de WAS y WERE. /δear wé:rnt méni buks on δe désk/ No había muchos libros sobre el escritorio. How much free time was there during the Basic Training Period? (very little. Normalmente se usan las contracciones THERE WASN´T /δear wózent/ THERE WEREN´T /δear wé:rent/. /δear wóznt éni bíar in δe kæn/ No había nada de cerveza en la lata. it was a leap year) _________________________________________________________________________ 7. students absent from class today. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Ex. lots of cars) _________________________________________________________________________ 30 A short course in english for adult students . whisky left in the bottle.

6. Use the right tense of There To Be (Present. There isn´t any food left in the fridge. Translate the previous sentences into Spanish. /δear wil not bí: e gud próugram on tí: ví: tunáit/. There are some women at the meeting. 7. 2.1. There´ll be another meeting this evening. Change into the future tense. lea y aprenda: There will not be a good program on TV tonight. 2. Just one or two bottles. Habrá algo más de lluvia el próximo semana fin de La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después del verbo modal WILL. Habrá dos pruebas más la próxima semana. several trees in the park now. 3. normalmente formando la contracción WON´T /wóunt/ En las preguntas. /δearl bí: sám mó:r réin nékst wikénd/. Ex. Escuche. 4. /δear wóunt bí: tú: mó:r tests nekst wí:k/ Will there be a good program on TV this evening? /wil δear bí: a gud próugram on tí: ví: δis í:vnin/ Will there be any more rain next weekend? /wil δear bí. eni mó:r réin nekst wi:kend/ How many tests will there be next week? /háu méni tésts wil δear bí: nekst wí:k/ EXERCISES: Ex. 7. En la conversación diaria WILL se une con la palabra THERE. 4. How many people are there at the reception? How much money is there in the box? Is there any more work? Are there more than ten students in your class? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. /δear wil bí: tú: mó:r tésts nekst wí:k/ . Habrá un muy buen programa en la TV esta noche. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 31 . not any more exercises in the book now. 5. /δear wil not bí: anáδer mí:tiη δis í:vniη/ There won´t be two more tests next week. Habrá otra reunión esta tarde. Past or Future). 8. in your class last year? much milk left. 3. 5. el verbo modal WILL precede a la palabra THERE. 5. 1. 6. There will be two more tests next week. 1. 2. next time? very little food in the fridge now. /δearl bí: anáδer mí:tiη δis í:vniη/ . There will not be another meeting this evening.C. very few flowers in our garden. 9. Escuche. 4. 10. 3. There´ll be some more rain next weekend. 2. 1. a lot of noise at the disco last night. formando la contracción THERE´LL BE /δearl bí:/. lea y aprenda: There will be a very good program on TV tonight /δear wil bí: e veri gud próugram on tí: ví: tunaít/. How many women ____________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ How much free time __________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ How many students ___________________________ ____________________________________________ at the party last Saturday? a lot of noise in this room now. There is a lot of free time in the evening. 3. FUTURE TENSE: THERE WILL BE El futuro de THERE IS/THERE ARE se expresa con la forma THERE WILL BE /δear wil bí:/.

__________________________________________ No. No habrá muchos partidos de fútbol este fin de semana. 10. How much money is there in your wallet? 10. 5. 3. __________________________________________ No. No hay tiempo para conversar. 11. 2. Había muy poco tiempo libre durante la mañana. 8. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Ex. Hay mucho ruido en esta sala ahora. Había solamente dos hoteles en ese pueblo. ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 9. 4. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ 32 A short course in english for adult students . 7. Translate the following sentences into English 1. 2. 5.. 7. 3. 12. 7. 9. 1. Habrá otra reunión general el próximo viernes. __________________________________________ Yes. How many days are there in a week? How many days will there be in February next year? How many students were there in your class last year? How many computers are there in your office? How many people were there in the room at 8:30? Will there be another meeting this week? Was there much work to do in the office last Monday? Are there any spelling mistakes in the letter? ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ No. ¿Cuánto s autos había en el estacionamiento esa tarde? Había muy pocos niños en la calle ese día. 6. 5. No habrá otro concierto hasta la próxima semana. 9. 4. 8. 4. 6.6. 10. How many eggs are there in a dozen? Ex. Answer these questions in English. 8. ¿Hay un restaurant cerca de aquí? ¿Cuánto dinero hay en la billetera? No había mucha gente en el edificio a esa hora.

365 three hundred and sixty-five.000 three million. Ej. para indicar lo mismo que “lots of. Ej. 5. 45 fortyfive. 1 Read and then write these numbers a) 12 h) 597 a) c) e) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) b) 56 i) 846 c) 79 j) 1. million y billion no van seguidas de and. Las palabras hundred.394 e) 33 l) 24. twenty-one.. thousand.000 two thousand /tú θáuzand/ 2. 21. thirty. 5. el punto es coma y la coma es punto.5% .000. US$ 4.” Ej. 32 thirty-two.000 two hundred thousand /tú: hándred θáuzand/ 200 two hundred /tú hándred/ 2.973 f) 28 m) 256.000 one thousand /uán θáuzand/ 200. 400 four hundred. There were thousands of / lots of people in the stadium.362 five thousand three hundred and sixty-two /faiv θáuzand θri: hándred and síksti tú:/ 45. Las palabras twenty.387 five thousand. Al escribir cifras en inglés.365.45 km. million y billion no se pluralizan en inglés.000.PART II.328 _____________________________________________ b) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ d) ________________________________________________ _____________________________________________ f) ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 33 .285 d) 94 k) 6.80 Ex.265 four hundred and sixty-three thousand. etc siempre van seguidas de un guión antes del número unitario. NUMBERS Escuche. 4.875 g) 148 n) 5. 2. two hundred and sixty-five.000 five thousand. lea y aprenda: 1 one /uán/ 6 six /siks/ 11 eleven /ilévn/ 16 sixteen /sikstín/ 20 twenty /tuénti/ 70 seventy /sévnti/ 2 two /tu:/ 7 seven /sévn/ 12 twelve /tuélv/ 17 seventeen /sevntín/ 30 thirty /δérti/ 80 eighty /éiti/ 3 three /δri:/ 8 eight /éit/ 13 thirteen /δertín/ 18 eighteen /eitín/ 40 forty /fórti/ 90 ninety /náinti/ 4 four /fo:r/ 9 nine /náin/ 14 fourteen /fo:rtín/ 19 nineteen /naintín/ 50 fifty /fífti/ 5 five /fáiv/ 10 ten /ten/ 15 fifteen /fiftín/ 60 sixty /síksti/ 100 one hundred /uán hándred/ 1. 463.000 two million /tú mílion/ 5. three hundred and eighty-seven. 94 ninety-four. Ej. 12.971 forty five thousand nine hundred and seventy-one /fórti fáiv θáuzand nain hándred and séventi uán/ Importante: 1. 3. There are hundreds of / lots of trees in the park. las palabras thousand. La palabra hundred siempre va seguida de and. thousand y million se pluralizan solamente en las siguientes expresiones. forty. Las palabras hundred. Ej. 70. There are millions of / lots of stars in our galaxy 5.. 3.687. 68 sixty-eight.

mámi/ grandpa /grænpa:/ granny /græni/ father-in.papi mamá. dædi/ mom.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words PEOPLE GENERAL person /pε:rsn/ people /pí:pl/ child /children /tcháild/tchildrn/ boy /boi/ girl /gε:rl/ FAMILY AND RELATIVES grandparents /grandpéarents/ grandfather /grandfa:δer/ grandmother /grandmáδer/ grandchildren /grandtchildren/ grandson /grándsan/ granddaughter /grand dó:ter/ parents /péarents/ husband /házband/ wife /waif/ father /fá:δer/ mother /máδer/ children /tchíldren/ son /sán/ daughter /dó:ter/ brother /bráδer/ sister /síster/ uncle /áηkl/ aunt /a:nt/ nephew /néfiu/ niece /ni:s/ cousin /kázin/ abuelos abuelo abuela nietos nieto nieta padres esposo. personas niño/s. mommy /mam. niños hijo hija hermano hermana tío tía sobrino sobrina primo dad. marido esposa. pequeño/s niño niña man/men /mæn/men/ woman/women /wuman/wímen/ gentleman /dlléntlman/ lady /léidi/ kids /kidz/ hombre/s mujer/es caballero dama chicos. mujer padre madre hijos. mami abuelito abuelita suegro suegra yerno nuera cuñado cuñada padrastro madrastra hijastro hijastra hermanastro hermanastra padre adoptivo madre adoptiva padrino madrina persona gente.law /fá:δer in ló:/ mother-in-law /maδer in ló:/ son-in-law /san in ló:/ daughter-in-law /dó:ter in ló:/ brother-in-law /bráδer in ló:/ sister-in-law /síster in ló:/ step-father /step fá:δer/ step-mother /step máδer/ step-son /step san/ step-daughter /step dó:ter/ step-brother /step bráδer/ step-sister /step síster/ foster-father /fóster fá:δer/ foster-mother /fóster máδer/ god-father /god fá:δer/ god-mother /god máδer/ papá. niños 34 A short course in english for adult students . daddy /dæd.

. How many. Ex.. 2.. are there. No hay más ejercicios en el libro ahora 7. There is no time to talk. 3. No. 4. 5... No. there weren´t more than 30 3. There are twelve eggs. / There are no extra.? 10.. Ex. 9. It was a leap year. There´s just one / There are.. There was....... 2. Will there be any. is there. 9. there were lots of cars.? Ex. 1. Was there enough.... 3. Ex.. Were there..... 7.. There isn´t a. There´s a lot of noise in this room now.? There are. Are there more than... There was very little.. is there.... / There´s no more. 1. There is 6.? There´s.. 4. 1. There weren´t any 6. How much. How much milk was there.? 6. there won´t be another meeting 7. There are Ex. There wasn´t. a lot 6. 1.... How much... 2.... 8. There is 3. 10. 2... There won´t be many football games / matches this week end. 4....? 3. Ex. There are 9. Yes. There was very little free time during the morning. 8. computers. Hay muy pocas flores en nuestro jardín 9. 7. There isn´t much money in it.. 8. 1. 5..? 4. 9.. No hay mucha leche sobrante. 5.? 5.. 4. There were... There were very few children in the street that day.. 8. 1... 2. Are there any more. There´s 3.... There were only two hotels in that town. students.? 8. Are there more.. There were 29. there are no spelling mistakes. Will there be 5.There aren´t any extra.? 10.. There is 4. 8..... a lot 10.. Is there a hotel. 3. 2.. ¿Cuánto tiempo libre habrá la próxima vez? 5... a lot 9. little 3. There won´t be any.. a lot 5... few 2. 6. Hay muy poca comida en el refrigerador ahora 6.? 7....... How much money is there in the wallet? 5. C. Ex. How much money will there be.? Thre are. / There are no more.. 9. is there. There weren´t many people in the building at that time. There were..? 9.. 1. There were about 20 .? 6.. 2..? 7. there was a lot of work. There´ll be 28 days. 7... How much.... How many. 2. There weren´t. There won´t be another concert until next week. No. 6. A short course in english for adult students 35 .... There will be another general meeting next Friday. There aren´t many.. There are 4. 3. 1. 1. 3. How many.? 4. There are 9. there was more than enough.. There aren´t 30.. How much.. 12. Hay varios árboles en el parque ahora 4.. are there? There are. 4.? Ex..There are 10. Ex. / No... There aren´t many. 3..were there 10.. There are 7. 11.. Were there 2. There isn´t any more... 3. 4. Sólo una o dos botellas.? 5. are there. There isn´t Ex... 5... There was. 10. Is there a train. There isn´t much. 1. little 4. 3. There are 5. ¿Cuántas mujeres había en la fiesta el sábado pasado? 2. Yes. There will be some. There are 7. Is there any more.. little B.. There isn´t any more.. are there.. Is there another. few 8. There are 2.. 5.. There were. of course.people. 10.Is there a restaurant near here.. There were... is there? There´s.Hay bastante ruido en esta sala ahora. There aren´t any more. there aren´t any. Are there any students. Ex. There´s no central. Había bastante ruido en la discoteca anoche 8.? There´s. Is there much free. Yes...... 9.. 7. There´s 6...? 6.? 7. 2. 4.? 2.? There´s... 4. 1. 5.. There is 8. How many. ¿Cuántos alumnos había en tu curso el año pasado? 10. are there. There are seven days. 6.. 1.. Are there 24. How many people will there be.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 2 Part I A.. 1. Will there be more than. 1. How many people were there.... How many.. How many cars were there in the car park that afternoon / evening? 10. Ex... 1...? There are.. 3. 2.... There will be a lot. are there.. How many.... There was 8.? There´s. 5..? There are. 6.. / There´s no more. few 7.

six hundred and eighty-seven thousand. three hundred and ninety-four l) twenty-four thousand. Ex. nine hundred and seventy-three m) two hundred and fifty-six thousand. a) twelve b) fifty-six c) seventy-nine d) ninety-four e) thirty-three f) twenty-eight g) one hundred and forty-eight h) five hundred and ninety-seven i) eight hundred and forty-six j) one thousand. 36 A short course in english for adult students . 1. three hundred and twenty-eight. two hundred and eighty-five k) six thousand. eight hundred and seventy-five n) five million.Part II.

it has. /pí:ter házent gót. /pí:ter haz gót méni fréndz/ (Peter tiene muchos amigos) They have got a big house. He´s got one sister and two brothers. (of friends) No./ My dog´s got long ears./ Have the rooms got a TV? /hav δe ru:mz got. significa TENER./ The rooms haven´t got central heating.. /δei hav not gót./ The rooms have not got central heating.UNIT 3 PART I.1 Complete the following sentences using HAVE GOT or HAS GOT 1./ Peter hasn´t got many friends.. A short course in english for adult students No. /δei hav gót e bíg háus/ (Ellos tienen una casa grande) My dog has got long ears. /δeiv gót../ They´ve got a big house. 37 . Yes. Hans ____________________________ long black hair . HAVE GOT = TENER Esta expresión verbal se usa especialmente en inglés británico ( y solamente en el tiempo presente) para indicar posesión o propiedad.. /pí:terz gót../ They have not got a big house... Normalmente se usan las contracciones HAVEN´T GOT /hδvent gót/ y HASN´T GOT /hδzent gt/ Escuche./ They haven´t got a big house.r/ Peter has not got many friends...../ My dog hasn´t got long ears..../ La forma interrogativa se hace por simple inversión del sujeto y HAVE o HAS: Escuche. /ai hav not gót. es decir./ My dog has not got long ears. En el Presente Afirmativo se conjuga de la siguiente manera: I have got /ai hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ He has got /hi: haz gót/ She has got /shi: haz gót/ It has got /it haz gót/ We have got /wi: hav gót/ You have got /iú: hav gót/ They have got /δéi hav gót/ Escuche. But they´ve got a radio. I´ve only got 5 dollars.../ I haven´t got a car...../ How much money have you got? How many brothers and sisters has Bob got? EXERCISES: Ex.. John _____________________________ a new uniform.. /δe rú:mz hav not gót . 2. lea y aprenda: Have you got a car? /hav iú gót. /mai dóg haz not gót. I´ve got very little (money)... It´s got very long ones. (ones = ears) No.. /δe rú:mz hav gót séntrl hí:tiδ/ (Las habitaciones tienen calefacción central) I´ve got /aiv gót/ You´ve got /iu:v got/ He´s got /hi:z gót/ She´s got /shi:z gót/ It´s got /its gót/ We´ve got /wi:v gót/ You´ve got /iú:v gót / They´ve got /δéiv gót/ (yo tengo) (tú tienes) (él tiene) (ella tiene) (él / ella tiene) (nos.. lea y aprenda: I have got a car. they haven´t got one. /ai hav gót e ká:r/ (Yo tengo un auto) Peter has got many friends. tenemos) (uds. /mai dóg haz gót loδ íarz/ (Mi perro tiene orejas largas) The rooms have got central heating. tienen) (ellos tienen) I´ve got a car /aiv gót e ká:r/ Peter´s got many friends... /pí:ter haz not gót. /δei hávent got./ Have they got a big house? /hav δei gót. /mai dógz gót. he´s got a lot.../ Has Peter got many friends? /haz pí:ter gót. /ai hávent gót.. lea y aprenda: I have not got a car. They´ve got a small one./ Has the dog got long ears? /haz δe dóg gót. they haven´t.. /mai dóg házent gót.. /δe rú:mz hávent gót.../ En la forma negativa se usa HAVE NO GOT y HAS NOT GOT. I haven´t got one ( one = a car) Yes..

Ex. Bob´s got some money. 7. The soldiers ______________________ We ______________________________ The book _________________________ I ________________________________ Mary _____________________________ My friends ________________________ My flat ___________________________ The car __________________________ a very good instructor. Bob´s sister has got a car. They´ve got our telephone number. 7. 2. 8. 3. a new blue dress. 9. Nancy´s got a computer. 5.. How much money have you got in your pockets? 2. 3. Ex. 4 Ask questions with HOW MUCH. They´ve got a big family. My father´s got a modern car. 9. 7. 8. 200 pages. 5. 6. Has your wife / husband got a car? 4. The boy has got black shoes. a son and two daughters. 6. A car has got four wheels . 5 Answer these questions: 1. Bob´s got a big family. Bob´s got five dollars. 7. The students have got some experience. The house has got a garden. Have you got a dog or a cat? 6. 6. a small house in the country. 9. You´ve got your passport here. 2 Change into the negative form 1. Have you got any friends in Europe? 7. 10. They´ve got a lot of friends there. three children. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Have you got any brothers or sisters? 10. Bob´s got our address. I´ve got some cigarettes. You´ve got a lighter.3. two bedrooms. 6. You´ve got many things to do today.. 10. The flat has got two bathrooms.? 1. 8. My friends have got a telephone.? / HOW MANY. 10. 3. 2. How many children have you got? 3. I´ve got three children. Have you got a computer at home? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 38 A short course in english for adult students . 5. 2. She´s got blue eyes and black hair. four wheels. a lot of money. 4. 4. They´ve got two cars. Has your parents´ house got a garden? 5. 5. 3 Change into the interrogative form: 1. They ´ve got very little free time.. Have you got a big library at home? 9. 4. How many rooms has your house got? 8. Ex. We´ve got a small classroom. 4. The students have got a new instructor.. We´ve got 2 bottles of milk.

Se usa tanto con sustantivos singulares como con plurales. Además. Ej. Those are animals /δóuz a:r æ ´nimalz/ (Esos son animales). EL ARTÍCULO INDEFINIDO A (un. /δis iz a wán wei tíkit/ (Este es un boleto de ida). EL ARTÍCULO DEFINIDO THE (el. /δis iz an æ (Esta es una manzana). masculino o femenino. That´s an orange. Hay palabras que comienzan con una letra o pronunciada como /w/. El artículo A se transforma en AN antes de una palabra iniciada con un sonido vocal o una h “muda”. The book is old. The men are very tall. /δæts an órindll/ (Esa es una naranja). An apple A dollar An exercise A hotel B. En estos casos no deben pluralizarse (porque los adjetivos nunca se pluralizan!!). The woman is very tall. determinados. una) se usa para referirse a un artículo cualquiera. The man is very tall. /δéarz a ká:r in δe strí:t/ (Hay un auto en la calle). A. These are houses. That´s a girl. He is an honest man. Ej. en su lugar se usan normalmente palabras como some /sam/ (algunos/as). Compare: Show me a photograph (Muéstrame una fotografía) (cualquiera fotografía) Show me the photograph (Muéstrame la fotografía) (una fotografía específica) A short course in english for adult students 39 . There are several books on the desk. el adjetivo tall /to:l/ se podría traducir como alto. This is a one-way ticket. Por lo tanto. todos los sustantivos actúan como adjetivos cuando preceden a otro sustantivo. /δæts a gé:rl/ (Esa es una niña). no específico. Mary is a beautiful woman This is an interesting book That is a big car Además. es decir la misma palabra se usa en el singular. This is a house /δis iz a háus/ (Esta es una casa).PART II. That is a tree /δæt iz a trí:/ (Ese es un árbol). The women are very tall. This is an apple. altos. ADJECTIVES En inglés. There is a book on the desk. Por lo tanto se deber decir: This is an umbrella /δis iz an ambréla/ (Este es un paraguas) y This is a uniform /δis iz a iúnifo:rm/ (Este es un uniforme). los adjetivos siempre preceden a los sustantivos: Tom is a tall man. There is a tree in the garden There are trees in the garden There are some trees in the garden There are several trees in the garden There are many trees in the garden An apple tree A one-dollar bill One exercise book A hotel manager Three apple trees A five-dollar bill Ten exercise books Two hotel managers 2. las) se usa para referirse a objetos específicos. la los. The books are old. There´s a car in the street. That´s an animal /δæts an æ ´nimal/ (Ese es un animal). /δi:z a:r háusiz/ (Estas son casas). Ej. Debido a que a / an no tiene una forma para el plural. /δis iz an órindll/ (Esta es una naranja). Compare: This is an orange. ARTICLES (I) 1. plural. Ej. pero también se pronuncia como una semiconsonante en palabras como uniform /iúnifo:rm/. /δis iz a búk/ (Este es un libro). altas. /hí: iz an ónest mæn/ (El es un hombre honrado). Ejemplo. several /séveral/ (varios/as) o many /méni/ (muchos/as). alta. This is a book. en cuyo caso se trata como semi-consonante. El articulo indefinido a/an no tiene plural. This is an old car /δis iz an ´pl/ óuld ká:r/ (Este es un auto viejo). La letra u se considera vocal en palabras como umbrella /ambréla/. Those are trees /δóuz a:r trí:z/ (Esos son árboles). son invariables.

9. 1. There was a car accident last Sunday. 13. 7. That is a picture This is a car. 26. 11. 15. 10. The student has got a new notebook. 1. 16. 7. 6. 2. Mr. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 40 A short course in english for adult students . 19. 24. many or several 1. There´s a text book on the teacher´s desk. Change these sentences into the plural. 18. 4. 30. 6. 12. 8. 12. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. 3. I´ve got a magazine on my desk. 29. 9. There will be an interesting program tonight I´ve got a question for you. 10. 5. 28. This boy isn´t a new student. 7. 27. 5. Is this an envelope? That man isn´t a teacher. 14. Peter´s got a new pen. 3. They´ve got an interesting book in the library The boy´s got a book in English. There´s a tree in the garden. 5. 8. 4. 3. 14. use some. 22.Exe. 20. This is an interesting novel. 9. 25. 32. 2. 31. 11. Smith. 15. 13. There is a letter for you. 12. 14. Is that an apple tree or a pear tree? I haven´t got a cigarette. 10. 4. I´ve got a coin in my pocket. 21. 3. ________ pencil ________ apple ________ egg ________ envelope ________ umbrella ________ hour ________ honor ________ house ________ banana ________ big banana ________ exercise ________ easy exercise ________ difficult exercise ________ university ________ old university ________ new university 17. Is that woman a nurse? Is that man an engineer? There´s a yellow flower in the garden. 23. There is a new student in this class. 13. There is a student in the laboratory now. They´ve got a horse on the farm. There´s a woman in the office. Change the following sentences into the plural. 11. 6. Use the indefinite articles a or an 1. Please show me a photograph. 8. ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ car used car modern car young woman old woman one-dollar bill five-dollar bill hotel instrument musical instrument answer question impertinent question usual question unusual question hard lesson Ex. 2. I´ve got a friend in San Francisco.

/éi ém/ p. It´s five to nine 5. It´s half past eight 9. /pí: ém/ in the morning /in δe mó:rniη/ (en la mañana. H. K. G. escuche y aprenda: o´clock /oklók/ 01:00 07:15 06:30 09:45 quarter past /kuórter pá:st/ half past /ha:f pá:st/ 05:00 10:15 12:30 03:45 quarter to /kuórter tú:/ It´s one o´clock It´s quarter past seven It´s half past six It´s quarter to ten to /tu:/ It´s five o´clock It´s quarter past ten It´s half past twelve It´s quarter to four minutes to /mínits tu:/ past /pá:st/ minutes past /mínits pá:st/ Nota: La palabra “minutes” generalmente se omite después de 5 o múltipos de 5. Match the times in Column A with the sentences is Column B A.PART III.m. E. J. /pii em/ It´s seven o´clock p. A 12:20 08:30 09:45 02:15 07:05 08:55 03:10 04:50 04:00 12:40 06:25 10:35 B C D 1. It´s twenty past twelve 10. I. It´s four o´clock E F G H I J K L It´s midday / It´s noon It´s five o´clock a. D. 04:00 p. /ei. It´s a quarter to ten 11. de18:00 .m. de 13:00 .m. please? /wóts δe táim plí:z/ ¿Cuál es la hora por favor? It´s ten to eight /its tén tu éit/ Son diez para las ocho Lea. It´s ten past three 4. It´s five past seven 8. después de las 21:00) 12:00 05:00 a.m. It´s ten to five 6. TELLING THE TIME (Diciendo la hora) What time is it. It´s a quarter past two 3. B. 11:25 09:55 It´s twenty-five (minutes) past eleven It´s five (minutes) to ten midday /míddei/ mediodía noon /nu:n/ mediodía midnight /mídnait/ medianoche a. C. 10:00 p. It´s twenty-five to eleven 7. It´s twenty-five past six 12.m.m.m.17:00) in the evening /in δi í:vniη/ (en la tarde / noche. /pii em/ 24:00 It´s midnight It´s five o´clock in the morning It´s four o´clock in the afternoon It´s seven o´clock in the evening It´s ten o´clock at night A short course in english for adult students 41 . /pii em/ It´s ten o´clock p. L. F. 1.21:00) at night /at náit/ (en la noche. It´s twenty to one 2. hasta las 12:00) in the afternoon /in δi a:fternú:n/ (en la tarde. EXERCISES Ex. 05:10 02:40 01:27 07:38 It´s ten (minutes) past five It´s twenty (minutes) to three It´s twenty-seven minutes past one It´s twenty-two minutes to eight. 07:00 p. em/ It´s four o´clock p.m.m. please? /wót táim iz it plí:z/ ¿Qué hora es por favor? What´s the time.m.

Ex. 16. 23. 9. 17. 12. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 04:00 p. 24. Write down the times and read: What time is it? What´s the time? 1. 7. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:00 p. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 12:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:20 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 05:25 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 08:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 04:35 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:38 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:18 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 09:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 42 A short course in english for adult students . 8. 3. 09:00 It´s ________________________________________________________________________________ 08:50 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 03:30 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 11:45 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 01:15 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 09:05 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 10:14 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 24:00 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 02:57 ___________________________________________________________________________________ 08:00 a. 18. 22. 20. 11. 2. 2. 19. 15. 10. 4. 6. 14.m. 13. 5.m. 21.m.

impar (números) viejo satisfecho. gordo tonto. sick /il. sin punta brillante ocupado claro frio. precursor fácil vacío parejo.celeste A short course in english for adult students 43 . adinerado correcto. fome temprano. bajo de estatura tonto. ingenuo soñoliento lento pequeño suave recto extraño estúpido alto grueso delgado sediento diminuto cansado feo disparejo.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words ADJECTIVES ENGLISH angry /ægri/ bad /bæd/ big /big/ blunt /blant/ bright /bráit/ busy /bízi/ clear /klíar/ cold /kould/ comfortable /kámfortbl/ cool /ku:l/ curved /kεrvd/ cheap /tshi:p/ dark /da:rk/ dear /díar/ deep /di:p/ difficult /dífikalt/ dull /dal/ early /ε:rli/ easy /í:zi/ empty /émti/ even /í:vn/ expensive /ikspénsiv/ fast /fæst/ fat /fæt/ foolish /fúlish/ free /fri:/ full /ful/ good /gud/ happy /hæpi/ hard /ha:rd/ hard-working /há:rd we:rkiη/ healthy /hélδi/ heavy /hévi/ high /hai/ hot /hot/ huge /hiudll/ hungry /háηgri/ ill. orange /órindll/ gray. sensato maravilloso equivocado. par (números) caro rápido. dificil esforzado saludable.rk blú:/ light blue /láit blú:/ anaranjado gris. puntiagudo corto. fijo. enojado malo grande romo. grey /grei/ purple /pε:rpl/ pink /piηk/ dark blue /dá.contento pobre. gratis lleno. sano pesado. agradable raro. white and red. incorrecto joven COLO(U)RS What colour is the car? What colours is the Chilean flag? black /blæk/ white /wait/ green /gri:n/ blue /blu:/ red /red/ brown /bráun/ yellow /yélou/ negro blanco verde azul rojo café amarillo It´s white. intenso alto caliente enorme hambriento enfermo. It´s blue. atrasado flojo claro. brusco. indispuesto interesante grande ENGLISH late /leit/ lazy /léizi/ light /lait/ long /loη/ narrow /nárrou/ new /niu:/ nice /náis/ odd /o:d/ old /ould/ pleased /pli:zd/ poor /púar/ pretty /príti/ rich /ritch/ right /rait/ rough /ra:f/ sad /sæd/ sharp /sha:rp/ short /sho:rt/ silly /síli/ sleepy /slí:pi/ slow /slou/ small /smo:l/ soft /soft/ straight /streit/ strange /streindll/ stupid /stiu:pid/ tall /to:l/ thick /δik/ thin /δin/ thirsty /δ:rsti/ tiny /táini/ tired /táiard/ ugly /ágli/ uneven /aní:vn/ warm /wo:rm/ wide /waid/ wise /waiz/ wonderful /wánderful/ wrong /roη/ young /jaη/ SPANISH tarde. completo bueno feliz duro.derecho tosco. sik/ interesting /íntrestiη/ large /la:dll/ SPANISH airado.liviano largo angosto. amplio sabio. insatisfactorio bonito rico. leso libre. estrecho nuevo bonito. no plano temperado ancho. apreciado profundo dificil opaco. plomo morado rosado azul oscuro azul claro. agitado triste agudo. helado cómodo fresco curvo barato oscuro caro. leso.

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a 14. There are many students. It´s twelve o´clock / midnight 9. How many children have you got? 3. How many cars have they got? 2.3 H . How many bathrooms has the flat got? 6..? 6.They haven´t got many friends. It´s quarter past one 6.7 F . show me some photographs.? 10. The house hasn´t got. 9. / The students have got no experience.. a 24. It´s half past three 4.10..12 J ..11 L . 6. Have you got many.. 2.an 4. a 10. 5.. How much free time have they got? Ex... There are yellow flowers. Those are pictures 2.. 5. Please. It´s five past ten 17. 11.. 1.. My friends haven´t got.. My father hasn´t got a. Are those apple trees or pear trees? 14. There are several letters. How much milk have we got? / how many bottles of milk have we got? 7.. There are some new students.. It´s quarter past eight 21. an 22. an 3. It´s quarter to twelve 5. has got Ex.. I´ve got several magazines. an 28.. has got 2. Ex. 7. We haven´t got a. an 7. have got 7. Bob hasn´t got a.4.. have got 9... 1. has got 6.F. a 9... Part III. a 15. have got 4. 3. Has Bob´s sister got a. a 29. It´s twenty past three 16. Have you got your. It´s quarter to two 18.. These are cars 3. 1. a 27.. 2.? 5. It´s nine o´clock A short course in english for adult students 45 . an 8.. Ex. a 2. It´s twenty-five past three 14.6 Ex. Are these envelopes? 4... The boy has got some books. There are many women.2 E . Are those women nurses? 11. Peter´s got new pens 8. They´ve got horses. an 16.. has got 10. It´s twenty-five past five 20.? 9. It´s four o´clock in the afternoon 12.. Have they got our. It´s eighteen minutes past ten 24.. Those men aren´t teachers 5. 1... 1.. 3. I´ve got several questions.. a 25.. a 18.... It´s three minutes to three 10. Have the students got a. Ex. a 31. 1. an 12.. Has Bob got our.? 8. It´s eleven o´clock at night 13. There are many text books. has got 3. I haven´t got any cigarettes. a 21.5 I .. 12. It´s twenty-five to five 22. She hasn´t got blue. 1.. 3... 2. How many wheels has a car got? 4.? 4. Have you got a. It´s half past eleven 19. Has Bob got any money? 3. How much money has Bob got? 5. / I´ve got no cigarettes 7.1 K . These are interesting novels 10. It´s five past nine 7. 1. I haven´t got cigarettes Ex. They´ve got some interesting books.a 17. a 11.9 B . 4... 13.a 23. 4. It´s eight o´clock in the morning 11. Are those men engineers? 12..? 2... has got 8. an 26. I´ve got some coins. There were several car accidents. 6. Ex.. 2. I´ve got friends in S. It´s twenty-two minutes to two 23. 6. 1.. B. It´s nine o´clock 2.. a 19. 2. It´s ten to nine 3. There are some trees. an 30.10 D . have got 5. These boys aren´t new students 9. 1. an 6. It´s forteen minutes past ten 8. It´s twelve o´clock / noon 15.. 9.8 C . 7.. an 5.. Has the boy got black.. a 20. 8.. 1.. 10. an 32. Nancy hasn´t go a... 8. A .? 7.4 G . a Ex. There will be many new students. (open answers) Part II..... an 13.? Ex.. The student has got some new notebooks 14. 13. 5.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 3 Part I. 15.. Have they got a. The students haven´t got any experience. 3.

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según la ortografía usada en la formación del gerundio: Grupo A: Verbos terminados en consonante que agregan -ing al infinitivo: to speak /spi:k/ (hablar) to eat /i:t/ (comer) to work /we:rk/ (trabajar) speaking /spi:kiη/ (hablando) eating /í:tiη/ (comiendo) working /wé:rkiη/ (trabajando) Grupo B: Si el infinitivo termina en -e muda. El uso de las contracciones ISN´T y AREN´T es frecuente en la conversación diaria. El tiempo Presente Continuo o Progresivo está formado por el Presente del verbo TO BE (AM/S/ARE) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para expresar acciones que se están realizando NOW /náu/ (ahora) o AT THIS TIME /at δis táim/ (a esta hora). Estos tiempos verbales se usan para especificar qué estamos. /δéi a:r liviη in niu iórk at prézent/ (Ellos están viviendo en N. estoy viviendo con mi hermano John) La forma negativa se expresa usando NOT después del verbo TO BE.Y. esta letra se omite al formar en gerundio: living /líviη/ (viviendo) writing /ráitiη/ (escribiendo) Bl 47 Grupo C: Si el infinitivo está formado por consonante+vocal+consonante o cons.UNIT 4 PART I. AT THE MOMENT /at δe móument/ (en este momento). For the time being.transitoriamente).10 ahora) Herbert´s having lunch at the moment. en la actualidad). FOR THE TIME BEING /for δe táim bí: iδ/ (mientras tanto.. They aren´t living in New York at present. Escuche. AT PRESENT /at prézent/ (en estos días. /hé:rberts hæviν lántch at δe móument/ (Herbert está almorzando en este momento) For the time being. I am not living with my brother John. Es conveniente recordar aquí que el gerundio de un verbo principal se forma agregando -ING al infinitivo. Hay tres grupos de verbos. They´re not living in New York at present. Escuche. Mary isn´t working in Room 10 now. Este sufijo se pronuncia /iη/ . lea y aprenda: They´re living in New York at present. TEMPORARILY /temporárili/ (temporalmente). Mary is not working in Room 10 now. + vocal + cons. la última consonante debe ser duplicada: To sit /sit/ (sentarse) To cut /kat/ (cortar) To stop /stop/ (detener. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO (THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Introducción: Los Tiempos Contínuos Son tiempos continuos o progresivos todos aquellos tiempos verbales que se expresan con una forma del verbo TO BE y el GERUNDIO DE UN VERBO PRINCIPAL. lea y aprenda: They are not living in New York at present. I´m not living with my brother John . /mériz wé:rkiη in rúm tén náu/ (Mary está trabajando en la Of. estábamos o estaremos haciendo en un momento determinado. Mary´s not working in Room 10 now. /for δe táim bí:iη áim lívin wiδ mai bráδer dllón/ (Transitoriamente.parar) To swim /suim/ (nadar) sitting /sítiη/ (sentándose) cutting /kátiη/ (cortando) stopping /stópiη/ (deteniendo. Mary´s working in Room 10 now. actualmente). +cons. I´m living with my brother John. parando) swimming /suímiη/ (nadando) to live /liv/ (vivir) to write /ráit/ (escribir) EL TIEMPO PRESENTE CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO.

dejar/dejando escuchar/escuchando vivir. pedir/pidiendo.IS. viviendo mirar/mirando hacer/haciendo abrir/abriendo pagar/pagando jugar/jugando. En las preguntas negativas se usan las contracciones ISN´T/AREN´T delante del sujeto. Escuche. I am wearing a sweater because it´s cold. How often.ARE) con el sujeto. lea y aprenda: John is living in New York at present. 1. debemos mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. etc. When. solicitar/solicitando comprar/comprando cerrar/cerrando venir/viniendo cortar/cortando hacer/haciendo (actividades) beber/bebiendo conducir/conduciendo secar/secando comer/comiendo terminar/terminando reparar/reparando. Escuche. Where. tocar/tocando (un instr. arreglar/arreglando/fijar/fijando dar/dando ir/yendo ayudar/ayudando invitar/invitando aprender/aprendiendo partir/partiendo. Where is John living at present? What are the children playing? Why are you wearing a sweater? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT ARE YOU DOING? /wót ar iú du: iη/ (¿qué estás haciendo?) EXERCISES Ex. lea y aprenda: Are they living in New York at present? Is Mary working in Room 10 now? Are you living with your brother John? Am I doing the exercise correctly? Aren´t they living in New York at present? Isn´t Mary working in Room 10 now? Aren´t you living with your brother John? Aren´t I doing the exercise correctly? Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por una palabra interrogativa como What. lea y aprenda estos verbos: INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /erráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To ask for /a:sk fo:r/ To buy /bái/ To close /klouz/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To dry /drái/ To eat /i:t/ To finish /fínish/ To fix /fiks/ To give /giv/ To go /gou/ To help /help/ To invite /inváit/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To listen to /lísn tu/ To live /liv/ To look at /luk at/ To make /meik/ To open /óupn/ To pay /pei/ To play /pléi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To receive /risí:v/ 48 A short course in english for adult students GERUND answering /á:nseriη/ arriving /erráiviη/ asking /á:skiη/ asking for /á:skiη fo:r// buying /báiiη/ closing /klóuziη/ coming /kámiη/ cutting /kátiη/ doing /dú:iη/ drinking /dríηkiη/ driving /dráiviη/ drying /dráiiη/ eating /í:tiη/ finishing /fínishiη/ fixing /fíksiη/ giving /gíviη/ going /góuiη/ helping /hélpiη/ inviting /inváitiη/ learning /lé:rniη/ leaving /lí:viη/ listening to /lísniη tu/ living /liviη/ looking at /lúkiη at/ making /méikiη/ opening /óupniη/ paying /péiiη/ playing /pléiiη/ putting /pútiη/ reading /rí:diη/ receiving /risí:viη/ SPANISH responder/respondiendo llegar/llegando preguntar/preguntando. The children are playing soccer. How.La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante simple inversión del verbo TO BE (AM. Escuche..) poner/poniendo leer/leyendo recibir/recibiendo .

/ Reading letters/the newspaper /rí:diη létez/δe niuzpéiper/ Working in the office /wé:rkiη in δi ófis/ Talking with friends /tó:kiη wiδ fréndz/ Leaving the office /lí:viη δi ófis/ Doing the shopping /dú:iη δe shópiη/ Buying the paper/cigarettes /báiiη δe péiper/sígaréts/ Watching TV /wótchiη tí: ví:/ Listening to the news/to the radio /lísniη tu δe niú:z/réidiou/ Writing to a friend /ráitiη tu e frénd/ Calling up a friend /kóliη áp e frénd/ Playing cards/soccer /pléiiη kárdz/sóker Walking to the park /wó:kiη tu δe pa:rk/ Running across the park /rániη akrós δe pá:rk/ Doing exercise /dú:iη éksersaiz/ Working out /wérkiη áut/ Visiting a museum /vízitiη a miu:zíam/ Studying for a test /stádiiη for e tést/ Washing the car /wóshiη δe ká:r/ Cleaning the house /klíiniη δe háus/ Making the bed /méikiη δe béd/ Tidying up the room /táidiiη áp δe rú:m/ Cooking a meal /kúkiη a mi:l/ Preparing some drinks /pripéariη sam dríηks/ Going to bed /góuiη tu béd/ levantándose tomando un baño/una ducha vistiéndose desayunando/almorzando/cenando yendo a casa/al trabajo/a la oficina yendo en auto a casa/trabajo/of. intentar/intentando esperar/esperando caminar/caminando lavar/lavando observar/observando usar/usando(ropas) trabajar/trabajando. leyendo cartas/el diario trabajando en la oficina conversando con amigos saliendo de la oficina haciendo las compras comprando el diario/cigarrillos mirando TV escuchando las noticias/la radio escribiendo a un/a amigo/a llamando a un/a amigo/a (por fono) jugando cartas/football caminando al parque corriendo a través del parque haciendo ejercicio (gimnasia) visitando un museo estudiando para una prueba lavando el auto limpiando la casa haciendo la cama ordenando el cuarto cocinando una comida preparando algunos tragos acostándose A short course in english for adult students 49 . lea y aprenda estas actividades frecuentes: Getting up /gétiη ap/ Having a bath/a shower /hæviη e ba:θ/e sháuer/ Getting dressed /gétiη drést/ Having breakfast/lunch/dinner /hæviη brékfast//lantch/díner/ Going home/to work/to the office /góuiη hóum/tu we:rk/tu δi ófis/ Driving home/to work/to the office /dráiviη hóum/tu we:rk/tu δi ófis/. Escuche.llevar/llevando conversar/conversando decir/diciendo.To rain /réin/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spend/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To take /téik/ To talk /to:k/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To travel /trævel/ To try to /trái tu/ To wait for /weit fo:r/ To walk /wo:k/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wear /wéar/ To work /we:rk/ To write /ráit/ raining /réiniη/ running /rániη/ saying /séiiη/ selling /séliη/ sending /séndiη/ singing /síηiη/ sitting /sítiη/ sleeping /slí:piη/ speaking /spí:kiη/ spending /spéndiη/ starting /stá:rtiη/ staying /stéiiη/ studying /stádiiη/ taking /téikiη/ talking /tó:kiη/ telling /téliη/ thinking /θíηkiη/ travelling /træveliη/ trying to /tráiiη tu/ waiting for /wéitiη fo:r/ walking /wó:kiη/ washing /wóshiη/ watching /wótchiη/ wearing /wéariη/ working /wé:rkiη/ Writing /ráitiη/ llover/lloviendo correr/corriendo decir/diciendo vender/vendiendo enviar/enviando cantar/cantando sentarse/sentándose dormir/durmiendo hablar/hablando gastar/gastando.comenzar/comenzando permanecer/permaneciendo (quedarse) estudiar/estudiando tomar/tomando.pasar/pasando(tiempo) empezar/empezando.contar/contando (narrar) pensar/pensando. creer/creyendo viajar/viajando tratar de/tratando de. funcionar/funcionando escribir/escribiendo Ex. 2.

I´m helping John with the work 5. 3. They ___________________________ (work out) Ex. It´s raining very hard now. The dog´s drinking milk. The students are writing a composition. He isn´t working because it´s Sunday. Our friends___________________________ Disney World today. I´m singing because I´m happy. Why. 5. 1. 5. 7. 6. John´s having breakfast now. 11. (cut) There are several students in the gym. 6. You´re doing the exercise correctly. 11. 9. 1. Billy´s wearing the new sweater. They´re living in Bristol at present. (do) They __________________________ the weekend in Miami.Ex.The men are running now. (listen) The students _________________________ to school now. (arrive) You ___________________________ the exercises well now. The students are reading a story. I´m answering a letter. He__________________________ the grass.They´re looking at the horses. 10. 3. Ask questions using questions word like What. 6. (work). 2. 3. Bill´s answering the phone. 4. The cadet´s sleeping in class. 9. George is travelling by plane. 9. using the Present Continuous tense of the verb provided. 10. (wait) For the time being. (go) Mr. etc. (spend) Look! The bus ___________________________ over there! (come) Listen! Those children ____________________________ Spanish! (speak) There´s a man in the garden. Smith ____________________________ for the bus. 2. The boy´s singing an English song. The girl´s washing the dishes. 12. 8. 8.I´m trying to open the window. 7. John and his friends are watching TV. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 50 A short course in english for adult students . Mary __________________________ as a secretary. Complete the following sentences. 4. The children are watching TV 2. 5. 12. We´re making a lot of progress. 10. (visit) The train_____________________________ at the station at this time. Where. Change into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. 3. 8. I______________________________ to the news at the moment. 11. 4. 12. 4. Mary´s eating an apple now. 7.

What ______ he ___________?(do) I don´t think he ____________(sleep). 6. Study them and practise them with a friend: 1. Complete the dialogs using the verbs provided in the Present Continuous tense. He ____________ (study) for a test. Bob! Where ______ you ____________? ( go) To the post office. Robert : Where are the children? Mary : Billy ____________ (watch) TV in the living-room. They ____________ ( fix) the brakes.Ex. of course! Robert : Well. you know.. He ____________ (sleep). he isn´t. And Betty´s in the kitchen. That´s why he ___________ (do) so well at school this year Well. I think she ____________ (cook) dinner. Where´s Billy? He´s in his room. Why ______n´t you ____________ (drive) your car? It´s in the garage. 3.then. A short course in english for adult students 51 . he ____________ (plan) to study engineering. I ___________ (go) there. No. And Jim´s in his room. He ______ always ____________ ! (study). Jane Peter Jane Peter Jane Peter : : : : : : : : : : Hello. Hans Bob Hans Bob 2. too. Mary : Great! Let´s do that. let´s go for a walk.

and the sixth (sexto) day is Saturday. o también. o también. and Autumn /ó:tom/ (or Fall /fó:l/) Otoño There are seven days in a week. nineteen seventy-five /on ó:gast δe fiftí:nθ náintin séventi fáiv/ (Yo nací el 15 de Agosto de 1975). The months of the year are: January /dlláñiuari/ February /fébruari/ March /má:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /méi/ June /dllú:n/ Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre There are four seasons /sí:zonz/ in a year: Winter /uínter/ Invierno. además de usarse para indicar orden o lugar de precedencia. TIME AND DATES day /déi/ día week /wí:k/ semana month /manθ/ mes year /yíar/ año season /sí:zn/ estación There are 365 days /déiz/ in a year. Summer /sámer/ Verano. May the first. θáuzand tú:/ o también. First /fé:rst/ 2nd Second /sékond/ 3rd Third /θé:rd/ 4th Fourth /fó:rθ/ 5th Fifth /fifθ/ 6th Sixth /sixθ/ 7th Seventh /sévenθ/ 8th Eighth /éitθ/ 9th Ninth /náinθ/ 10th Tenth /ténθ/ Escuche. The seventh (séptimo) and last (último) day of the week is Sunday. on June the twentyfifth /on dllú:n δe tuénti fífθ/ (El cumpleaños de Jane es el 25 de Junio) 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th Eleventh /ilévenθ/ Twelfth /tuélfθ/ Thirteenth /θe:rtí:nθ/ Fourteenth /fortí:nθ/ Fifteenth /fiftí:nθ/ Sixteenth /sikstí:nθ/ Seventeenth /seventí:nθ/ Eighteenth /eití:nθ/ Nineteenth /naintí:nθ/ Twentieth /tuéntieθ/ 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st Twenty-first /tuénti fé:rst/ Twenty-second /tuénti sékond/ Twenty-third /tuénti θé:rd/ Twenty-fourth /tuénti fó:rθ/ Twenty-fifth /tuénti fífθ/ Twenty-sixth /tuénti síksθ/ Twenty-seventh /tuénti sévenθ/ Twenty-eighth /tuénti éitθ/ Twenty-ninth /tuénti náinθ/ Thirtieth /θértieθ/ Thirty-first /θé:rti fé:rst/ 52 A short course in english for adult students . Spring /spriη/ Primavera. lea y aprenda The date today is Wednesday the first of May. Friday is the fifth (quinto) day. on August the fifteenth. A.PART II. The third (tercer) day of the week is Wednesday. two thousand two /wénzdi méi δe fé:rst tú. The days of the week are: Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tiú:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Thursday /δérzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Saturday /sæ ´terdi/ Jueves Viernes Sábado Sunday /sándi/ Domingo Monday is the first (primer) day of the week. two thousand two /δe déit tudéi iz wénzdi δe fé:rst ov méi tú. nineteen seventy-five /ai woz bó:rn on δe fiftí:nθ ov ó:gast náintin séventi fáiv/. θáuzand tú:/ (La fecha de hoy es Miércoles primero de Mayo de 2002) I was born on the fifteenth of August. Jane´s birthday is on the twenty-fifth of June /dlléinz bé:rθei is on δe tuénti fífθ ov dllú:n/. Los números ordinales son: 1st. There are 52 weeks /wí:ks/ in a year /jíar/ There are twelve months /mánθs/ in a year. Tuesday is the second (segundo) day. and Thursday is the fourth (cuarto) day. Wednesday. Ordinal Numbers: Los números ordinales. se usan para expresar fechas.

2. nineteen sixty-three ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ April the thirtieth.EXERCISES Ex. nineteen ninety-nine ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex.03.02.11.1906 18. 4.1956 10.1963 05.1978 12. 12. 9.12. 2. 5. 7. 15. 10. 12. 8.1900 10.1987 02. 14.12. 6. 4. 13.2000 01. 10. 11. 8. 13.2001 18.08. 14. 1.27. 16.1492 07. 3. Write the following dates.1938 02.28. 7.1956 The twelfth of September. 6.01. 3. 5. 9.1893 04. 12. Answer the following questions: 1.1810 05. as in the examples: 1.05. 11. When is your birthday? When was your father born? What day is today? What´s the date today? How many days are there in a week? What are the seasons of the year? What´s your favo(u)rite season? What are the days of the week? What are the months of the year? What´s the first month of the year? What´s the third day of the week? What´s the last month of the year? How many months are there in a year? How many hours are there in a day? When is New Year´s Day? When´s our Independence Day? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 53 .09.30.07.09. 2.1999 08.

How high is that hill? It´s about 1. Study these words: Nouns age /éidll/ edad length /leθ/ longitud width /wiθ/ anchura thickness /θiknis/ grosor distance /dístans/ distancia speed /spí:d/ velocidad depth /depθ/ profundidad height /háit/ estatura.) para describir objetos.. lea y aprenda ENGLISH How old? /háu óuld/ How tall? /háu to:l/ How far? /háu fa:r/ How long? /háu lóη/ How high? /háu hái/ How fast? /háu f(st/ How deep? /háu di:p/ How thick? /háu (ik/ How wide? /háu wáid/ How big.. long.? /hau hévi/ What color? /hwot kólor/ What size? /hwot sáiz/ What shape? /hwot shéip/ What is /are. wide How big is the house? It has got five rooms How well do you drive? I drive very well How heavy is the box? It weighs 5 kilos What color is the car? It´s light blue What size is this shirt? It´s extra large What shape is a football? It´s round What is the house like? It´s very comfortable What are the rooms like? They´re very small What´s Mary like? She´s very nice and friendly.. square /skwear/ cuadrado. high How fast is the train moving? At about 90 k/h How deep is the lake? It´s 120 mt. young /yaη/ joven old /ould/ viejo.? (Descripción de cosas) (Descripción de personas en cuanto a su carácter) EXAMPLE How old are you? I´m 21 years old How tall are you? I´m 1.. En castellano normalmente se usa el verbo tener: How old are you? I am 35 = ¡Que edad tiene Ud? Yo tengo 35 Ex.? /háu wel/ How heavy. low /lóu/ bajo small /smó:l/ pequeño... habrá advertido. Nota importante: Como Ud. narrow /nærrou/ angosto thick /θik/ grueso. en inglés se debe usar el verbo BE (am/is/are/was/were..70 meters tall How far is the airpòrt? It´s about 20 km.. new /niú:/ nuevo long /loη/ largo..like?* /wot. slow /slóu/ lento deep /dí:p/ profundo. thick How wide is the road? About 15 mt. shallow /shálou/ poco profundo tall /tó:l/ alto. triangular /traiængiular/ triangular. light /láit/ liviano 54 A short course in english for adult students . nearby /níarbai/ cercano fast /fa:st/ veloz. viejo. deep How thick is that wall? It´s about 40 cm. big /big/ grande tiny /táini/ diminuto.? /háu big?/ How well.. Iz /a:r. oval /óuval/ ovalado heavy /hévi/ pesado. etc..200 mt. rectangular /rektængiular/ rectangular. short /shó:rt/ bajo de estatura high /hái/ alto.láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué edad? ¿Qué estatura? ¿Qué distancia? ¿Qué longitud? ¿Qué altura? ¿Qué velocidad? ¿Qué profundidad? ¿Qué espesor / grosor? ¿Qué anchura / ancho? ¿Cuán grande? ¿Cuán bien? ¿Cuánto pesa? ¿Qué color? ¿Qué tamaño / talla? ¿Qué forma? ¿Cómo es / son.. away How long is the river? It´s 85 km.B. Question Words (1) Describing people and things Escuche. 1.altura size /saiz/ tamaño. talla shape /shéip/ forma weight /wéit/ peso Adjectives old /ould/ anciano. huge /hiu:dll/ enorme round /ráund/ redondo. thin /θin/ delgado distant /dístant/ distante. short /sho:rt/ corto wide /wáid/ ancho.

000. Days of the week Monday /mándi/ Tuesday /tíu:zdi/ Wednesday /wénzdi/ Thursday /θε ´:rzdi/ Friday /fráidi/ Lunes Martes Miércoles Jueves Viernes Saturday /sæ εrdi/ ´t Sunday /sándi/ Sábado Domingo segundo minuto hora día semana month /mánθ/ season /sí:zon/ year /yíar/ century /séntchuri/ mes estación. temporada año siglo Nota: En Inglés.000 one thousand /wan θáuznd/ mil 1.000th ORDINAL NUMBERS first /fε:rst/ primero second /séknd/ segundo third /θε:rd/ tercero fourth /fo:rθ/ cuarto fifth /fifθ/ quinto sixth /siksθ/ sexto seventh /sévnθ/ séptimo eighth /éitθ/ octavo ninth /náinθ/ noveno tenth /ténθ/ décimo eleventh /ilévnθ/ décimo primero twelfth /twelfθ/ décimo segundo thirteenth /θε:rtí:nθ/ décimo tercero fourteenth /fo:rtí:nθ/ décimo cuarto fifteenth /fiftí:nθ/ décimo quinto sixteenth /sikstí:nθ/ décimo sexto seventeenth /sevntí:nθ/ décimo séptimo eighteenth /eití:nθ/ décimo octavo nineteenth /naintí:nθ/ décimo noveno twentieth /twéntieθ/ vigésimo twenty-first /twénti fε ´:rst/ vigésimo primero twenty-second /twénti séknd/ vigésimo segundo thirtieth /θε θ/ ´:rtie trigésimo thirty-first /θε fε ´:rti ´:rst/ trigésimo primero fortieth /fó:rtieθ/ cuadragésimo fiftieth /fíftieθ/ quincuagésimo sixtieth /síkstieθ/ sexagésimo seventieth /sévntieθ/ septuagésimo eightieth /éitieθ/ octogésimo ninetieth /naintieθ/ nonagésimo one hundredth /wan hándreθ/ centésimo one thousandth /wan θáuzndθ/ milésimo one millionth /wan mílionθ/ millonésimo TIME AND DATES 1. los días de la semana y los meses del año siempre se escriben con mayúsculas.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words: NUMERALS CARDINAL NUMBERS 1 one /wan/ uno 2 two /tu:/ dos 3 three /θri:/ tres 4 four /fo:r/ cuatro 5 five /faiv/ cinco 6 six /siks/ seis 7 seven /sévn/ siete 8 eight /eit/ ocho 9 nine /nain/ nueve 10 ten /ten/ diez 11 eleven /ilévn/ once 12 twelve /twélf/ doce 13 thirteen /θε:rtí:n/ trece 14 fourteen /fortí:in/ catorce 15 fifteen /fiftí:n/ quince 16 sixteen /sikstí:n/ dieciséis 17 seventeen /sevntí:n/ diecisiete 18 eighteen /eití:n/ dieciocho 19 nineteen /naintí:n/ diecinueve 20 twenty /twénti/ veinte 21 twenty-one /twénti wán/ veintiuno 22 twenty-two /twénti tú:/ veintidós 30 thirty /θε ´:rti/ treinta 31 thirty-one /θε wán/ ´:rti treinta y uno 40 forty /fó:rti/ cuarenta 50 fifty /fífti/ cincuenta 60 sixty /síksti/ sesenta 70 seventy /sévnti/ setenta 80 eighty /éiti/ ochenta 90 ninety /náinti/ noventa 100 one hundred /wan húndrid/ cien 1.000. Units of time second /séknd/ minute /mínit/ hour /áuar/ day /dei/ week /wi:k/ 2. A short course in english for adult students 55 .000 one million /wan mílion/ un millón 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 30th 31st 40th 50th 60th 70th 80th 90th 100th 1.000th 1.

Seasons of the year summer /sámer/ autumn /fall/ó:tm/ /fó:l/ 4. Dates Today is Monday. 2nd May. two thousand one) He was born on January 26th. 2001 (the second of May. 1957 (January the twenty-sixth. nineteen fifty-seven) Enero Febrero Marzo Abril Mayo Junio July /dllulái/ August /ó:gast/ September /septémber/ October /októuber/ November /nouvémber/ December /disémber/ Julio Agosto Septiembre Octubre Noviembre Diciembre verano otoño winter /wínter/ spring /spriη/ invierno primavera 56 A short course in english for adult students . Months of the year January /dllániuari/ February /fébruari/ March /ma:rtch/ April /éiprl/ May /mei/ June /dllu:n/ 5.3.

Which sweater is Billy wearing? 9. forteen ninety-two 14. 3. August the twenty-seventh. Why are you singing? 10. April.going Hans : am going / are . Today´s. What are you doing? 5. New Year´s day is on the first of January.. 1.doing / is sleeping Peter: is studying Jane: is .. 1. There are twenty-four hours in a day 15. 5. 9. The first of January. November and December 10. It´s on.. Why isn´t he working? 8. The eighteenth of July. Thursday. The tenth of August.. 4. Saturday and Sunday. 5. Hans: are . are doing 8. The girl isn´t washing the dishes / Is the girl washing the dishes? 6. There are seven days 6.3. 16.. What are they looking at? Ex.. The twelfth of March. nineteen fifty-six 13. February the twenty-eighth. nineteen hundred 5. October the twelfth. What´s Mary eating now? 2. 1.. Wednesday. The second of November. / Is the boy singing...The first month of the year is January 11. June. What are you trying to do? 12. The last month of the year is December 13. / Is it raining. You aren´t doing the exercises. 6. The cadet isn´t sleeping. Tuesday. 2. are spending 9.? 8. is cutting 12. eighteen ten 8.. 1. Spring Summer and Autumn / Fall 7.. / Is the cadet sleeping. nineteen fifty-six Ex. eighteen ninety-three 11.? Ex.? 5.. is my favority season. / Are you doing the exercises. He was born on.? 9. A short course in english for adult students 57 ... Friday.. are speaking 11. May... nineteen thirty-eight 3. July..? 10. 1. The fifth of December. The children aren´t watching TV / Are the children watching TV? 2. September.. How´s George travelling? 7.. What are the students reading? 6. The eighteenth of September.. July the second. The date today is. It isn´t raining.. 4....studyiung / is doing Peter: is planning . Where are they living at present? 4. two thousand 6. The boy isn´t singing. The students aren´t writing. 2. I´m not helping John. Jane: is . The fifth of May. nineteen oh six 4..driving Bob: are fising 2. / Am I helping John. is arriving 7.. am listening 2. August. 1. Mary: is watching / is cooking / is sleeping Part II Ex. Our Independence Day is on September the eighteenth.. October. 3.? 7. is waiting 4. The dog isn´t drinking milk / Is the dog drinking milk? 11.. What are the men doing now? 11. / Are the students writing.. are working out Ex. 2. nineteen eighty-seven 12. John isn´t having breakfast now / Is John having breakfast now? 3..KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 4 Part I Ex. is working 5. Bill isn´t answering the phone / Is Bill answering the phone? 4. is coming 10. two thousand one 7.. What are John and his friends doing? 3.. are visiting 6. nineteen seventy-eight 9.. There are twelve months in a year 14. The seasons of the year are Winter... February. The third day of the week is Wednesday 12. March. are going 3. The months of the year are January. 8. The days of the week are Monday.

Bl 58 .

UNIT 5 PART I. a week /e wi:k/ (a la semana). “ The secretary answers the telephone” estamos diciendo “The secretary does answer the telephone”. it). lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. Esto se comprueba cuando queremos expresar oraciones negativas o interrogativas: I do not speak Spanish every day/Do I speak Spanish every day?. Persona del singular: has /hæz/. y go tienen las siguientes formas en la 3ra. twice /twáis/ (dos veces). usually /íushuali/ (usualmente). en forma habitual. The secretary does not answer the telephone/Does the secretary answer the telephone? Escuche. the telephone. /hi: spí:ks spánish and ínglish wel/ (El habla español e inglés bién) The secretary answers the telephone.changes /tchéindlliz/. often /ófn/ ( a menudo).vamos a la playa todos los veranos) I often see Mary at the club. hardly ever /há:rdli éver/ (casi nunca). sino que con qué frecuencia ocurren las acciones indicadas por el verbo). /δéi ólwiz kám híar on sæ ´terdi/ (Ellos siempre vienen acá los sábados) The students play soccer once a week. You. Los verbos have. /mai wáif wótchiz tí: ví: in δi í:vniη/ (Mi mujer mira TV en las tardes) * John plays tennis every Friday afternoon. it. change /tchéindll/ . /δe sán ráiziz in δi í:st/ (El sol aparece en el este) *** John changes the batteries once a month. se deben considerar las siguientes reglas: * Los verbos terminados en -s. You and I. sometimes /sámtaimz/ (a veces). -ch-. Si la -y está precedida de vocal se agrega -s: play /plei/. *** Los verbos regulares terminados en -se.studies. she. seguidas de las frases a day /e déi/ (al día).También son frecuentes en este tiempo verbal los adverbios de tiempo formados por once /wáns/ (una vez).rises /ráiziz/. También se usan con este tiempo los ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA (que no indican cuando. watches /wótshiz/. o -z deben agregar -es al verbo. -ge sólo agregan -s en la tercera persona del singular. En la forma afirmativa. Este sufijo plural se pronuncia /iz/ y es una sílaba más: washes /wóshiz/. Cuando decimos. does /daz/. every weekend /évri wikénd/ (todos los fines de semana). /δe stiúdents pléi sóker wáns e wi:k/ (Los alumnos juegan fútbol una vez a la semana)æ ´ Cuando el sujeto es tercera persona del singular (he. Es importante destacar aquí que en el Presente Simple afirmativo no se usa el verbo modal DO/DOES (está tácito). every morning /évri mó:niη/ (todas las mañanas). el SUJETO (I. Las expresiones que llevan la palabra every habitualmente van ubicadas al final de la oración. Escuche. persona del singular (he. lea y aprenda: He speaks Spanish and English well. -sh. several times /sévral táimz/ (varias veces). /δe bás stóps híar/ (El bus para aquí) Bob washes the car on saturday.) va seguido por el INFINITIVO de un verbo principal. do. plays /pléiz/. etc. rarely /réarli/ (rara vez). Cuando decimos “I speak Spanish every day” estamos diciendo “I do speak Spanish every day”. /dllón stádiz fréntch on fráidi mó:niη/ John estudia francés los viernes en la mañana)** The sun rises in the east. goes /góuz/. a month /e mánθ/ (al mes). seldom /séldom/ (raramente). /ai spí:k spánish évri déi/ (Yo hablo español todos los días) We go to the beach every summer. three times /θri: táimz/ (tres veces). Son adverbios de frecuencia: always /ó:lwiz/ (siempre). etc. /dllón pléiz téniz évri fráidi a:fternú:n/ (John juega ténis todos los viernes en las tardes)** John studies French on Friday morning. never /néver/ (nunca). pero ese sufijo se pronuncia /iz/ y pasa a ser una sílaba más: rise /ráiz/ . /dllón tchéidlliz δe bátriz wáns e mánθ/ (John cambia las baterías una vez al mes) *** Notas: En la 3ra. the boy. many times /méni táimz/ (muchas veces). /ai ófn sí: méri at δe kláb/ (Yo a menudo veo a Mary en el club) They always come here on Saturday.etc) se debe agregar una -s o -es al verbo principal. -ce. como every day /évri déi/ (todos los días). A short course in english for adult students 59 . etc. /δe sékretri ánserz δe télifoun/ (La secretaria contesta el teléfono) The bus stops here. /wi: góu tu δe bí:tch évri sámer/ (Nos. EL TIEMPO PRESENTE SIMPLE (THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE) Este tiempo se usa para expresar acciones que ocurren a diario. -x. ** Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de consonante transforman dicha letra en -ies : study . generally /dllénerali/ (generalmente). she. Las expresiones de tiempo que más se usan en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan la palabra EVERY /évri/. /bób wóshiz δe ka:r on sæ ´terdi/ (Bob lava el auto los sábados) * My wife watches TV in the evening. The students. mientras que los adverbios de frecuencia van ubicados siempre antes del verbo principal.

Do we go /du wi góu/ to the beach every summer?. por lo tanto necesita el verbo modal do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones. Cuando se usa el verbo to have para expresar la idea de servirse. o experimentar.?) 60 A short course in english for adult students . The students play soccer every day. Para expresar interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales DO/DOES al sujeto. My wife watches TV in the morning. Mary has got many friends in Canada. Does your wife watch /dáz ior wáif wótch/ TV in the morning? Does Bob change /dáz bob tchéindll/ the batteries once a month? Do your friends have /du ior fréndz hæv/ a new car? Does Mary have /dáz méri hæv/ many friends in Canada? Do you have lunch /diu hæv lántch/ at school every day? Don´t you speak /dóunt iu spí:k/ Spanish at home? Doesn´t Mary work /dáznt méri wérk/ on Saturday? Nota: El verbo to have (tener) es un verbo principal. En la tercera personal del singular se debe usar DOES /dáz/ seguido de NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DOESN´T /dáznt/ ) más el Infinitivo del verbo principal (sin agregar -s / -es) Escuche. My wife doesn´t watch /dáznt wótch/ TV in the morning.. comer. Mary hasn´t got many friends in Canada Cuando deseamos formular preguntas introducidas por palabras interrogativas como WHAT. He speaks English well. WHERE. Escuche. beber.En la forma negativa se debe usar el verbo modal DO /du/ seguido de la palabra NOT (normalmente formando la contracción DON¨T /dóunt/ ) más el infinitivo del verbo principal. WHEN. HOW MUCH. The bus stops here. Does he speak /dáz hi: spí:k/ English well? Does the bus stop /dáz δe bás stóp/ here?. My friends don´t have /dóunt hæv/ a new car. como en to have breakfast (desayunar). Mary doesn´t have /dáznt hæv/ many friends in Canada We don´t have lunch /dóunt hæv lántch/ at school every day. Mary has many friends in Canada. lea y aprenda: Do you speak /diu spí:k/ Spanish every day?. I do not speak /du: nót spí:k/ Spanish every day. We have lunch at school every day. En las preguntas negativas se deben anteponer las contracciones DON´T/DOESN¨T Escuche. Do the students play /du δe stiú:dents pléi/ soccer every day?. Bob doesn´t change /dáznt tchéindll/ the batteries once a month. Bob changes the batteries once a month My friends have a new car. debemos mantener el mismo orden usado en las interrogaciones simples. o to have a good time (pasarlo bien. lea y aprenda: What language do you speak at home? /wót láηguidll diú spí:k at hóum/ When do they go to the beach? /wén du δei góu tu δe bí:tch/ Where does the bus stop? /wéar daz δe bás stóp/ Why does John change the batteries every month? /wái daz dllón tchéindll δe báteriz évri mánθ/ La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo verbal es : WHAT DO YOU DO? /wót diu dúu/ (¿Qué hace ud. We go to the beach every summer. He does not speak /daz nót spí:k/ English well The bus doesn´t stop /dáznt stóp/ here. etc. The students don´t play /dóunt pléi/ soccer every day. Recuerde que en inglés británico genertalmente se prefiere usar la expresión have got / has got (Ver Unit 3). se debe usar do / does en las negaciones e interrogaciones ) My friends have a new car My friends don´t have a new car Mary has many friends in Canada Mary doesn´t have many friends in Canada = = = = My friends have got a new car My friends haven´t got a new car. We don´t go /dóunt góu/ to the beach every summer. HOW. lea y aprenda: I speak Spanish every day. divertirse).

Study the following expressions of time: Every Monday /évri mándi/ Every Tuesday /évri tiú:zdi/ Every Wednesday /évri wénzdi/ Every Thursday /évri θérzdi/ Every Friday morning /évri fráidi mó:niη/ Every Saturday afternoon /évri sæ ´terdi aftenún/ Every Sunday evening /évri sándi í:vniη/ Every morning /évri mó:niη/ Every afternoon /évri afternún/ Every evening /évri í:vniη/ Every day /évri déi/ Every night /évri náit/ Every week /évri wi:k/ Every month /évri mánθ/ Every year /évri yiar/ Once a day /wáns e déi/ Twice a week /twáis e wiik/ Three times a year /θri: táimz e yíar/ Several times a month /sévrl táimz e mánθ/ Always /ó:lweiz/ Frequently /fríkwentli/ Usually /iúshuali/ Generally /dllénerali/ Sometimes /sámtaimz/ Often /ófn/ Rarely /réarli/ Hardly ever /hárdli éver/ Seldom /séldom/ Never /néver/ In the summer /in δe sámer/ In the autumn/fall /in δi ó:tom /fo:l/ In the winter /in δe wínter/ In the spring /in δe spriη/ Todos los lunes Todos los martes Todos los miércoles Todos los jueves Todos los viernes en la mañana Todos los sábados en la tarde. 1. ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Interrogative Do I work here every day? ______ you _______________ _______ Bill _______________ ______ Ann _______________ _______ we _______________ ______ they _______________ Do I watch TV after dinner? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 61 . I work here every day You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ b. 2. Todos los domingos en la tarde Todas las mañanas Todas las tardes (13:00 . Complete the conjugation of the following verbs: Affiirmative a.21:00) Todos los días Todas las noches Todas las semanas Todos los meses Todos los años Una vez al día Dos veces a la semana Tres veces al año Varias veces al mes Siempre Frecuentemente Usualmente Generalmente A veces A menudo Raramente Casi nunca Rara vez Nunca En el verano En el otoño En el invierno En la primavera Ex.17:00) Todas las tardes (18:00 . You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ Negative I don´t work here every day You ________________________ Bill _________________________ Ann ________________________ We _________________________ They _______________________ I don´t watch TV after dinner.EXERCISES Ex. I watch TV after dinner.

12. 2. (read) The students sometimes _________________________rugby at school. Complete the following sentences using the Simple Present Tense of the verbs given in parentheses.c. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ I don´t ______________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ Do I ______________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. 2. 4. I have dinner at work. (play) Peter ___________________ bridge with his friends every Friday night. Change the following sentences into a) negative. 5. I study English every day. Then translate them into Spanish 1. (leave) My wife and I often _____________________________ in that restaurant. 10. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 62 A short course in english for adult students . (eat) Mr Smith ________________________ TV after dinner every evening. I play tennis on Saturday You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ e. (go) I ______________________________ breakfast at 7:15 every morning. I go to the movies every night You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ d. (arrive) Myriam__________________________ the floor once or twice a week. 11. b) interrogative. (wash) I never ____________________________________ Spanish at school. Mary likes to drink coffee with milk. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ f. The children ________________________at this time every morning. 9. (get up) We seldom ___________________________ to the North in the summer. 6. 4. 7. They live near here.m. and c) Wh-questions: 1. 8. (play) The train ______________________in London at 7:50 every morning. (speak) The manager generally _________________ the office after 8:00 p. (have) John _______________________ the newspaper on the train every day. 3. You __________________________ Bill ___________________________ Ann __________________________ We __________________________ They _________________________ g. (watch) Ex. I do the exercises well. 3.

6. How often does your English teacher use the VCR in c? 9. What do you do after dinner every evening? 7. 1. 9. John goes to Pucón in the summer. 7. _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? _________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? _______________________________________________ ? 4. The children are in the park. They have two cars. 5. That man speaks German. Peter watches TV every night. When does a person go to see a doctor? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 63 . Peter does everything well. What are they doing? 6. Mary goes shopping on Saturday. They need twenty dollars. 4. They play golf twice a week. etc. How many weeks are there in a year? 2. She usually sleeps six hours every night. 11. Ex. What´s he doing? 3. She lives near Wimbledon. The students need more practice. Answer these questions in English: 1. 6. 7. Bob always drinks beer. They have two cars now. How much free time is there in an intensive course? 8. They go to the park on Sunday. 3.3. Where do you usually spend your summer vacatio 10. Mary comes to work by bus. 6. He walks to work because he hasn´t got a car. They work out every morning. They don´t like the car because it´s too small. Bob is in the office. 14. We go to the club on Friday. 10. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. How many legs has a dog got? 4. 2. They come here twice a week. 9. 5. They get up at 7:15 every morning. Are there any trees in your garden? 5. 13. 8. 10. 12. WHEN. Ask questions using wh-words like WHAT. HOW. The bus leaves at 7:45 5. 8. WHERE.

Who can it be? (play) 17. My grand parents ________________________ in a very small apartment. (do / watch) 14. We seldom _______________________ to the coast in the winter. 2. 4. (watch) 4. (come) 7. Look! It __________________________ to rain! Let´s go inside. 4. 5. (come) 6. The Olympic Games ___________________________every four years. (go) 5. 10. An interpreter ______________________________________ from one language into another. 9. 2. drink(s) live(s) take(s) place Ann __________________________ German very well. 3. (work) 8. The bar _______________________ at 6:45 and _____________________at 10:30 every day. 7. The sun _____________________________________ in the east. He ______________ not ________________ Spanish. 8. 7.m and _____________________ at 6:30 p. Put the verb into the correct form. We ________not ___________________ anything special right now.m. I never ___________________________ coffee. What ___________ you ______________________ doing when you are at home? (like) 18. The swimming pool _________________________at 9:00 a. (wear) 64 A short course in english for adult students . 3. every day. 5. Listen! Somebody _______________________ the piano upstairs. He ___________________________ a green uniform. 3. 5. 4. 6. Look at that man. Sometimes you need the negative: believe eat go flow make rise grow tell translate 1. 1. Vegetarians _______________________________________ meat. Bob! What _____________you _______________ there now? (do) 15.Ex. of the verb given in parentheses: 1. Use one of the following verbs to complete these sentences. (take) How long __________________ you? (it / take) I ___________________________the piano (play) but I ______________________ it very well (not / play). Janet _______________________________ tea very often. What _____________________________________(this word / mean)? Ex. What _________________ the boy ___________________at the moment? (do) 11. The earth _____________________________________ round the sun. A liar is someone who ____________________________________ the truth. 9. Mary __________________________ to visit us once or twice a month. 6. My brother Jim __________________________ in Boston at present. Bees __________________________________ honey. Rice __________________________________ in Britain. (understand) 16. Ex. Mr. (open / close) 13. Look! John __________________________ over there. 2. An atheist ____________________________________ in God. A: ‘What __________________________________?’ (you / do) B:’I’m an electrical engineer’. Bad driving __________________________ many accidents. It __________________________me an hour to get to work. The secretary generally _________________________the office at 7:30 every evening. Ex. 6. For the time being. (begin) 12. Where ________________ they usually _________________ in the summer? (go) 10. We_______ just ____________ TV. . Tom _____________________________ as a mechanic. 7. (Review) Use the Present Continuous or the Simple Present. You must always speak to him in English. (work) 2. Complete the sentences using one of the following: cause(s) open(s) close(s) speak(s) 1. 8. I don’t understand this sentence. The River Amazon _____________________________ into the Atlantic Ocean. Where ________________ they _____________________at present? (live) 9. He must be a police officer. (leave) 3. Why ____________ you ______________________ English now? Are you planning to go to the USA? (study) 19.(not / drink) What time _________________________________in Britain? (the banks / close) A:’Where __________________________________from?’ (Martin / come) B: ‘He’s Scottish’. Why ____________ you always ____________________ home so late every night? (Get) 20. Hello. Scott ____________________________ the news on TV at the moment.

Wilson (sit) ______________________ at the breakfast table. He (sit)_______________on the corner of his desk.Ex. but the children (watch.m. Shhh!! The little boy (sleep) _____________________ . but this morning they (pay. 5. not) _____________________up right now. It´s 7 o´clock now. (Review) Complete the sentences by using the Simple Present or the Present Continuous of the verbs provided. Mrs. It´s 7:30 a. 11. not) ____________________________ any attention to the TV. 7. now and the Wilsons are in their kitchen. it).He (speak) _________________________ Arabic. I usually (sit) _______________________at the same desk in class every day. it) ______________________ now? Should I take my umbrella? 9. She (read) ________________________ the morning paper. not) __________________right now. but right now he (speak) _____________________English. She always (eat) dinner with her family around six o´clock. not) ____________________________ the bus to work every day. you) _______________________ the bus to get to work every day. not) ___________________________________ it. Mr and Mrs Wilson (watch. not) __________________________ TV either. He (sleep) __________________ for ten hours every night. Alice (take. They (like. (Rain. Look out of the window. Black´s at home. _________________much in the South in the winter? 8. 1. 6. 2. Arabic is his native language. Mustafa comes from Saudi Arabia . Right now I´m in class and I (sit) _______________________ at my desk. He (drink) _________________________ two cups of coffee every morning before he (go) to work. It (rain. Mr Wilson (pour) ____________________________________ a cup of coffee. There´s a cartoon on TV now. 4. (Take. She (eat) _________________________________ dinner. The sun (shine) ________________ and the sky (be) ___________blue. you) __________________________________ sometimes? A short course in english for adult students 65 . They (play) with their toys instead. (Rain. She usually (walk) _______________________________instead. not ) __________________________ to watch cartoons. 3. 10. or (walk. Mrs. They usually (watch) _____________________ cartoons in the morning. She (read) ____________________________ the newspaper every morning. Our teacher (stand.

. We take photographs with a camera..at?* /wot.from?* /wéar . 13. las preguntas que comienzan con Preposición + Whom/What. Mr Jenkins writes about his trips round the world. 4. What´s your opinion? Who is that man?. QUESTION WORDS.from/ Where. 10. Nota: Muy a menudo... California Jack visits his parents twice a month.. The boys usually talk about football. With whom will you go? = Who will you go with? (Al trasladar la preposición. My friends come from San Diego. 15.to?* /wéar . 8... 16./Where..about?* /hu: . I go there three times a week. whom vuelve a ser who) Ex.. 1. 9. 12.. They need twenty-five dollars.. oranges and pears We go to the South in the summer. for/ What..at/ What do /does..wiϑ/ Who.....with?* /hu:.. about?* /wot. Bob plays golf with his boss on Sunday. The boy sometimes wears his father´s shoes It takes me about 20 minutes to get there.. 66 Susan is very thin and has got blue eyes.for?* /hu:.lúk láik/ SPANISH ¿Qué? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Quién / es /? ¿Cuál / es? ¿Cuándo? ¿Por qué? ¿Dónde? ¿Cómo? ¿De quién? ¿A quién? ¿Cuánto / a? ¿Cuántos / as? ¿Con qué frecuencia? ¿Cuánto tiempo? ¿Qué hora? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿Qué clase / tipo de? ¿De dónde? ¿Hacia dónde? ¿Con quién? ¿Acerca de quién? ¿Para quién? ¿Para qué? ¿Con qué? ¿Acerca de qué? ¿Hacia qué? ¿Cómo es/son.PART II.....abáut/ What. I like Mary because she´s very friendly.for?* /wot. abáut/ Who. Mr Jackson gets up at 6:45 every morning....físico) EXAMPLE What is that? . (II) Study the following list of interrogative words ENGLISH What? /wot/ Who? /hu:/ Which? /witch/ When? /wen/ Why? /wai/ Where? /wéar/ How? /hau/ Whose? /hu:z/ Whom? /hu:m/ How much? /háu mátch/ How many? /háu méni/ How often? /háu ófn/ How long? /háu long/ What time? /wot táim/ What kind of? /wot káind ov/ What sort of? /wot sort ov/ Where... They look at the stars with the telescope.. Ask the corresponding wh-question for each of the following answers 1. About what are they talking? = What are they talking about?.look like? /wót du /daz.. 3.wiϑ/ What. Who wants to play? Which book is mine? Which car do you like best? When is your birthday? When do you watch TV? Why is Tom absent today? Why are you leaving? Where is Mr Smith? Where do you live? How are you today? How do you feel today? Whose is that car? Whose address do you need? Whom did you see? To whom is Bob speaking? How much money is there in the wallet? How many students are there in your class? How often do you play tennis? How long does the program last? What time is it? At what time do you get up? What kind of books do you like to read? What sort of programs do you watch on TV? Where are they from? Where are you going to? Who do you practice golf with? Who are they talking about? Who is this letter for? What is this for? What do you use a knife for? What do you take photographs with? What are they talking about? What are you looking at? What does Betty look like? She´s tall and thin... 11. 14... Ejemplos: From where is she? = Where is she from?.. tu/ Who. 7.. Ann likes apples.. A short course in english for adult students _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . A..with?* /wot. 5. 2. 6.? (Descripción de personas . normalmente trasladan la preposición al final.for/ What. What do you want to eat? What ´s your name?.

Supply the definite article (the) where necessary in the following: Example: __________ fresh air is good for the health. Girls work harder than boys. ___________history is an interesting subject. experience. 8. ___________air in large cities is not very fresh. Bob goes to bed early when he´s tired. Mr Williamson usually travels by plane. es decir. 10. Lea y compare: I need a dictionary. Ann writes detective stories.Do you sell ____________ stamps here? A short course in english for adult students 67 . 6.We all need _______________fresh air. The books which I want are on the table. 11. We get ________________ leather from the skins of animals. ___________light in this room is not good. people.) 1. We like _________ animals. We are studying ______________history of France. The students go to the gym after lunch. Pero sí debemos usar el articulo definido the cuando nos referimos a sustantivos en forma particular o específica. (Fresh air is good for the health. ARTICLES (II) El artículo definido THE se usa para referirse a sustantivos determinados o específicos y se usa con sustantivos singulares o plurales. ___________water in this glass is dirty. los y las . (Ese es el auto que me gusta más) (específico) No se debe usar ningún articulo con los sutantivos incontables (water. 3.17. El artículo indefinido A/AN se usa con sustantivos singulares no determinados ni específicos. I always drink ________________water with my meals. 16. The books on that shelf are very expensive The girls in this group work very hard. 19. Ejemplos: The secretary works in the laboratory every day. 14. etc) o sustantivos plurales (books. Ex. 4. We eat _______________ meat almost every day. Lea y compare: General Water is good for the health. se traduce como el. ___________fish in the refrigerator is fresh.) cuando estamos refiriéndonos a ellos en forma general. Específico The water in this glass is not clean. 5. 12. 9. (Necesito un diccionario) (general) That is a car. (Necesito el diccionario que está sobre la repisa) (específico) That is the car which I like best. 15. 1. Books are expensive in Chile. We have ______________ good light in our classroom. 18. ___________animals in that photograph are wild animals. money. ___________air in this room is not good. (Ese es un auto) (general) I need the dictionary which is on the shelf. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? B. 7. 17. men. etc. The gold in this ring is of good quality. 20. Gold is an important metal. 13. ___________children like to watch cartoons. ___________leather in these shoes is very good. cats. The secretaries work in the laboratory every day The book which I want is on the table. happiness. milk. la. 2. students.

19. The plane flying over the city is a spy plane. The man ___________________ is driving the car is my father. John is the student_________________ speaks English well. Are these the boys ___________ study with you? The man ___________________ is walking down the road is the postman. ? The women who are wearing a white uniform are nurses. ? The plane which is flying over the city is a spy plane. The dog which is in the garden is a cocker spaniel. Las frases who is/are y which is/are generalmente se omiten en oraciones como las que se expresan a continuación The book which is on the desk is a bilingual dictionary.18. Lea los siguientes ejemplos: The man who is talking with John is an engineer. This is the book which we use in class. 10. PRONOMBRES RELATIVOS WHO Y WHICH 1. En inglés. C. This is the book we use in class.Mr. 4. Ambas palabras se traducen en español con la palabra QUE. The girl _____________________ is with him is his sister. The books __________________ are listed in that catalogue are in English. Is this the newspaper __________________ you read every day? Are these the envelopes __________________you need? The people ____________________ are described in the story are very interesting. I don´t know the man in Mr.Jones has got _____________English books and magazines. ? The men who are trained at our school are good pilots. ____________ magazines are very easy to read. 7. The book ___________________ I want is on the table. Is it Mr Williamson _________________ wants to see the manager? The magazine __________________ is on the sofa is a sports magazine. 8. 20. The people who are waiting outside the theater want to buy tickets for the concert. 3. 20. 3. 13. Cuando queremos especificar acerca de qué persona. 68 A short course in english for adult students . ? I don´t know the man who is in Mr. Smith´s office. Is this the camera __________________ you are planning to buy? Is that the bus __________________ goes to the airport? The chair on ________________ I am sitting is very comfortable. Normalmente el relativo which se omite cuando precede a un nombre o pronombre: This is the book which we use in class. 14. The men trained at our school are good pilots. Smith´s office. ? Ex. The men ___________________ are working in that room are engineers. (I would like = me gustaría) The book on the desk is a bilingual dictionary. el pronombre relativo WHO se usa con las personas. 15. ? The cars which are imported from Japan are really good. Is this the computer __________ you use every day? Do you know the woman _____ is coming over there? That is exactly the car ________ I would like to have. ___________stamps and ______________ coins in this collection are interesting. The cars imported from Japan are really good. animal o cosa estamos hablando. 9. 2. ? The woman who is crossing the road is my wife. 5. 17. debemos usar las pronombres relativos WHO o WHICH. 1 Fill in the blanks with WHO or WHICH: 1. 6.I like collecting _______________stamps and ______________ coins 19. The women wearing a white uniform are nurses. mientras que con los animales y las cosas debemos usar WHICH. 18. 2. 12. 16. The woman crossing the road is my wife.. 11. The movie __________________ is on at the Rex today is very good.

______________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. as in the example: 1. The girl with him is his sister 2. 16. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 18. 7. 3. 14. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. El libro sobre el que ellos están conversando es un best-seller ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. Las personas que están trabajando en esa oficina son ingenieros. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 69 . 12. 4. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. 8. omitting the relative pronoun WHICH. 3. 9. 18. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Smith. or the word groups WHO IS/ARE o WHICH IS/ARE whenever it is possible. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 13. 19. 1. Translate the following sentences into English. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Underline the word(s) which can be omitted in everyday conversation. Rewrite the sentences in Ex. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 17. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 19. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 5. Los libros que están sobre esa silla son míos. 2. 11. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. 17. 20. El hombre que está conversando con Mary es el Dr. 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 20. 10. 1. Translate the sentences in the previous exercise into Spanish.Ex. 2. 15. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex.

Este es el bus que nos lleva al trabajo todas las mañanas. ¿Conoces tú al hombre que está trabajando en el laboratorio de idiomas? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Los zapatos que nosotros fabricamos son de muy buena calidad. Estos son los libros que nosotros usamos en las clases de inglés.5. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.¿Es este el computador que usted quiere comprar? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 70 A short course in english for adult students . Ella es la secretaria que trabaja con el Profesor Stephens ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7.

arete lentes para sol abrigo de piel traje de baño traje de baño dress /dres/ blouse /bláuz/ skirt /ské:rt/ raincoat /réinkout/ cardigan /ká:rdigan/ handkerchief /hændkertchi:f/ stockings /stókiηz/ briefs /bri:fs/ cap /kæp/ galoshes /gæloshiz/ sneakers /sní:kerz/ sandals /sændalz/ waistcoat /wéiskout/ slip /slip/ kerchief /ké:rtchi:f/ bracelet /bréislet/ wrist watch /rístwotch/ finger ring /fíηger riη/ parka /pá:rka /. anorak /ánorak/ leather jacket /léδer dllákit/ necklace /néklis/ vestido blusa falda impermeable chaleco de lana pañuelo medias calzoncillo gorra galochas zapatillas sandalias chaleco de terno enagua pañuelo brazalete reloj pulsera anillo parka chaqueta de cuero collar A short course in english for adult students 71 .siz/ fur coat /fé:r kóut/ swimsuit /swimsiut/ trunks /tránks/ traje abrigo chaqueta pantalones camisa polera corbata suéter sombrero soquetes zapatos botas guantes paraguas bufanda cinturón lentes aro.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words CLOTHES /klou(z/ Vestuario suit /siu:t/ coat /kout/ jacket /dllákit/ trousers /tráuserz/ shirt /shé:rt/ T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ tie /tái/ sweater /suéter/ hat /hæt/ socks /sóks/ shoes /shu:z/ boots /bu:ts/ gloves /glavz/ umbrella /ambréla/ scarf /ská:rf/ belt /belt/ glasses /glá:siz/ earring /íarriη/ sunglasses /sanglá.

72 A short course in english for adult students .

You don´t watch TV.... They don´t have dinner. We don´t have dinner.....? Do we go to the movies.. You play tennis on Saturday Bill plays tennis.. leaves 11. Ann has dinner at work.watches Ex. get up 2.... /Does that man speak...? Do we watch TV.? Does Ann work here.. Ann doesn´t play tennis.... That man doesn´t speak.? Does Ann study English.. Bill doesn´t do the exercises. They don´t work here. plays 7. Interrogative Do you work here.. /Do A short course in english for adult students 73 . Ann doesn´t watch TV.. /Does Peter watch.. 1. Ann doesn´t study English. go 3.?/ Where do they live? 3.? Do we work here. They don´t work out. You do the exercises well Bill does the exercises well Ann does the exercises well We do the exercises well They do the exercises well Negative You don´t work here... /Does Mary like...? Do they go to the movies......../ What does Mary like to drink? 2.... They don´t study English..? Do they study English. You don´t study English........ Ann doesn´t work here. Bill goes to the movies.......? Does Bill study English. reads 5...? Do you study English. Peter doesn´t watch. /Does the bus leave..? Does Bill go to the movies. We don´t go to the movies. You don´t have dinner... Bill doesn´t go to the movies. Bill doesn´t watch TV......? Do they work here......? Do we study English.. They have dinner at work. We have dinner at work..... speak 10.. Ann goes to the movies....?/ What does Peter do every night? 4.. /Do they live ..... Ann doesn´t do the exercises.. Bill doesn´t have dinner.. They study English. They don´t play tennis...... They don´t do the exercises....? Does Bill play tennis..?/ What time does the bus leave? 5.... You don´t go to the movies.. We go to the movies. You don´t play tennis.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 5 Part I Ex.? Does Ann go to the movies.. The bus doesn´t leave.....? Does Ann play tennis.... We don´t play tennis..... Bill doesn´t play tennis...... Ann plays tennis..? Does Bill watch TV.... Ann doesn´t have dinner... 3..? Do we play tennis.... You study English every day Bill studies English..... have 4.. play 6. Ann studies English.. washes 9.? Do you play tennis. Ann doesn´t go to the movies. They don´t go to the movies... We play tennis...... 1. We don´t watch TV... 4...... Affirmative You work here every day Bill works here every day Ann works here every day We work here every day They work here every day You watch TV after dinner Bill watches TV after dinner Ann watches TV after dinner We watch TV after dinner They watch TV after dinner You go to the movies every..?/ When do they work out? 7..? Do you have dinner at work? Does Bill have dinner at work? Does Ann have dinner at work? Do we have dinner at work? Do they have dinner at work? Do you do the exercises well? Does Bill do the exercises well? Does Ann do the exercises well? Do we do the exercises well? Do they do the exercises well? Ex.? Does Ann watch TV....? Do you watch TV. arrives 8.......?/ What does Bob always drink? 8...? What language does that man speak? 6...? Does Bill work here.? Do they watch TV... They go to the movies.eat 12. 2. You don´t do the exercises.. You have dinner at work. Bob doesn´t always drink.....? Do they play tennis.... We don´t work here. Bill doesn´t work here. /Do they work out... They don´t live. They play tennis. They don´t watch TV. They don´t have... Bill doesn´t study English. Bill has dinner at work... We don´t study English... We study English..? Do you go to the movies. /Does Bob always drink... Mary doesn´t like....... We don´t do the exercises..

?/ How does Peter do everything? 10. 10. It´s got four legs 4. That is exactly the car which I would like to have. They don´t come. Is this the computer which you use every day? 19. The air 2. What kind of stories does Ann write? 19. Does it rain 8. Is this the camera which you are planning to buy? 5. stamps 18. The leather 9. flows Ex. A. He hardly ever/never uses it. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. There are fifty-two weeks in a year.closes 4. What does Susan look like? 2. 6. do-go 10. 1. drink 3. live 6. The air 12. They´re playing /running/ etc. is working 2. doesn´t grow 3. The people who are described in the story are very interesting. John is the student who speaks English well. How often do you go there? 12. The man who is walking down the road is a postman 18. 1. History 3. How often do they play golf 3. Where do you go in the summer? 5. are-studying 19. causes 5. What does Mary do on Saturday? 10. 1. What do the boys usually talk about? 9. opens . The magazine which is on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. The fish 16. is sitting / is reading / reads / is pouring / drinks / goes / are not watching / are playing / watch / are not paying / are not watching / don´t like 10. 12. are-living 9. The stamps .they have. isdoing 11.the coins 20. comes 7.. He/she goes to see a doctor when he/she is sick Ex. do you do 5. When does Bob go to bed early? B. 9. 7. meat 15. goes 2. fresh air 11. stamps . does this word mean? Ex. is eating/eats 6. Who does Bob play golf with on Sunday? 13. doesn´t believe 7. 15. Where do your friends come from? 7. 7..don´t play 7.. there aren´t any trees 5. There is very little free time 8. is playing 17. How many cars do they have now? 12.. speaks/is speaking 4.. leaves 3. is not raining / is shining / is 7. When do you go to the club? 8. is wearing Ex. am sitting/sit 3. do the banks close 3. does-understand 16. Why do you like Mary? 17. What do they look at with the telescope? 15. is sleeping/sleeps 2. The girl who is with him is his sister 2. Why does he walk to work? 13 Why don´t they like the car? 14. there are some trees/No. do-like 18. speaks 2. leather 10. The book which I want is on the table 3. Are these the envelopes which you need? 14. 8. He´s working 3.. How much money do they need? 3. 74 A short course in english for adult students . animals 13. Is this the newspaper which you read every day? 13. go 5. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. make 5. The light 6. 5. At what time do they get up every morning? 4. How much money do they need? 11. good light 5. doesn´t tell 9. Are these the boys who study with you? 17. Where does John go in the summer? 6. What do the students need? 5. How often does Jack visit his parents? 8. take place Ex. The animals 14. The man who is driving the car is my father 4. takes/does it take 6. How long does it take you to get there? 11. Do you know the woman who is coming over there? 20. 1. English books / The magazines C. 1. /Do they come.?/ How often do they come here? Ex.. 1. The movie which is on at the Rex today is very good. 11. rises 4. How does Mr Williamson usually travel? 18. I usually spend my summer vacation in. opens-closes 13. I usually watch TV /read a book/ etc. Is it raining 9. do-get 20. What does Mr Jenkins write about? 14. Peter doesn´t do. The chair on which I am sitting is very comfortable 7.coins 19. doesn´t drink 2. Yes.The men who are working in that room are engineers. Children 17. 6. is coming 6. 1. The books which are listed in that catalogue are in English 9.. How does Mary come to work? 7. are-doing 15. Where do the students go after lunch? 20. is not standing/is sitting 5. is working 8. translates 8. What do you take photographs with? 16.. 1. are-doing/are-watching 14.. Ex. 1. 1. /Does Peter do.. don´t eat 6. 16. 10. The water 8. Whose shoes does the boy sometimes wear? 10. is beginning 12. is watching 4.?/ How many cars do they have? 9.. does Martin come 4. 1. 2. play . Where does she live? 2. Ex. What do they do on Sunday? 9. 1. How many hours does she usually sleep every night? Ex.water 7. does not take / walks / Do you take / do you walk Part II. the history 4. 9. What kind of fruit does Ann like? 4. At what time does Mr Jackson get up every morning? 6. 1. 8. Ex.

She is the secretary who works with Professor Stephens 6. The books which are on that chair are mine. John is the student who speaks English well. Is this the computer you use every day? 19. 4. The chair I am sitting on is very comfortable 7. El hombre que está bajando el camino es el cartero.18. The girl with him is his sister 2. That is exactly the car I would like to have. 15. 1. ¿Son estos los niños que estudian contigo? 17. La niña que está con él es su hermana 2. Do you know the woman coming over there? 20. Is this the newspaper you read every day? 13. lee todos los días? 13. 5. 3. ¿Es esta la cámara que estás planeando comprar? 5. ¿Es este el diario que ud. usa todos los días? 19. Ese es exactamente el auto que me gustaría tener Ex. La revista que está sobre el sofá es una revista deportiva 11. Is that the bus which goes to the airport? 6. 8. 12. These are the books which we use in the English lessons 8. The magazine on the sofa is a sports magazine 11. Los hombres que están trabajando en esa sala son ingenieros. The movie on at the Rex today is very good. Is this the camera you are planning to buy? 5. ¿Es este el computador que ud. The man who is talking with Mary is Dr Smith. Ex. Is this the computer which you want to buy? A short course in english for adult students 75 . The man walking down the road is a postman 18. The man driving the car is my father 4. The book I want is on the table 3. 8. ¿Es ese el bus que va al aeropuerto? 6. El libro que quiero está sobre la mesa 3. ¿Conoces a la mujar que viene allá? 20. Las personas que están descritas en el cuento son muy interesantes. 10. 2. El hombre que está conduciendo el auto es mi padre 4. This is the bus which takes us to work every morning 7. 12. Williamson quien quiere ver al gerente? 10. The people described in the story are very interesting. 15. La silla sobre la que estoy sentado es muy comfortable 7. 3. ¿Es el Sr. 1. 16. 1. 2. John es el alumno que habla inglés bien. 16. The books listed in that catalogue are in English 9. Are these the boys who study with you? 17.Ex. La película que está en cartelera hoy día en el Rex es muy buena. Are these the envelopes you need? 14. The book about which they are talking is a best-seller / The book they are talking about is a best-seller 4. The shoes which we make are of very good quality.The people who are working in that office are engineers. Is it Mr Williamson who wants to see the manager? 10. ¿Son estos los sobres que ud. necesita? 14. ¿Do you know the man who is working in the language laboratory? 9. Los libros que están incluidos en ese catálogo están en inglés 9.The men working in that room are engineers.

Bl 76 .

/ Did Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /díd méri klí:n.come. completed /komplí:tid/. como comprobaremos al expresar las negaciones e interrogaciones: I did not buy the car last year. that day (ese día). pudo advertir a través de los ejemplos anteriores. En los Ejemplos 1.. tanto de los Verbos Regulares (aquellos que agregan -ed/-d para formar el Pasado y el Pasado Participio) como de los Verbos Irregulares (aquellos verbos que no siguen dicha regla). Las expresiones más usadas en este tiempo verbal son aquellas que llevan antepuesta la palabra LAST.To buy . to stop .. last Monday morning (el lunes pasado en la mañana). Escuche./ They didn´t see a good film yesterday. 1810 (el 18 de Septiembre.to need. aquí el pasado del verbo modal Do (DID) no se usa en la forma afirmativa (está tácito) Cuando decimos “I bought the car last year” estamos diciendo “I did buy the car last year”.-de.saw . /méri didnt klí:n.. 1810) Escuche. To work . We worked hard that day.. /δéi dídnt sí:.) Como ud./ Peter didn´t come here three days ago.cleaned./ Mary didn´t clean the house yesterday morning. o una hora o fecha pasada..bought . Además están las expresiones yesterday (ayer)..UNIT 6 PART I. /pí:ter didnt kám. Los infinitivos que tienen cons+vocal+cons o cons+cons+voc+cons deben duplicar la última consonante: to stop ./ Did Peter come here three days ago? /díd pí:ter kám. como two days ago (hace dos días). como at 10:15 this morning (a las 10:15 de esta mañana). 3. /méri klí:nd δe háus iésterdi mó:rniη/ (Mary limpió la casa ayer en la mañana.cleaned .. /wí: dídnt wé:rk. a long time ago (hace mucho tiempo). como last week (la semana pasada).worked 6.stopped . en la conversación diaria. on September 18th./ La forma interrogativa se expresa anteponiendo el verbo modal DID o DIDN´T al sujeto y el verbo principal. EL TIEMPO PASADO SIMPLE (The Simple Past Tense) Este tiempo se usa para expresar una acción que se realizó o que ocurrió en el pasado..stopped La pronunciación del sufijo -d/-ed es /d/ o /t/ (nunca /ed/ !!). Mary cleaned the house yesterday morning. To clean .came . como to want. To see . They stopped talking when the teacher arrived /δei stópt tó:kiη wen δe tí:tcher rráivd/ (Ellos dejaron de conversar cuando el profesor llegó.. They saw a good film yesterday. decided /disáidid/. A menudo. lea y aprenda: Did you buy your car last year? /díd iú: bái.worked .2.bought.. needed /ní:did/.. el Tiempo Pasado Simple se expresa con el SUJETO más el PASADO de un verbo principal. To come .. last weekend (el fin de semana pasado./ Did they see a good film yesterday? /díd δéi sí:. last night (anoche). lea y aprenda: I didn´t buy the car last year. 2. La forma negativa se expresa usando DID NOT /did nót/ seguido del INFINITIVO (No el Pasado) de un verbo principal. 5. Escuche. pero este sufijo debe ser pronunciado /id/ como en wanted /wóntid/. last year (el año pasado).etc. -d. Al igual que en el tiempo Presente Simple. the day before yesterday (anteayer).3 los tres pasados corresponden a Verbos Irrregulares. También se usan en este tiempo verbal las expresiones que llevan la palabra AGO.. Peter came here three days ago. /δéi só: e gud fílm iésterdi/ (Ellos vieron una buena película ayer) 4..seen. /ai dídnt bái.to complete. I bought the car last year /ai bó:t δe ká:r lá:st íar/ (Yo compré el auto el año pasado) 2. -te. several weeks ago (hace varias semanas). se usa la contracción DIDN´T /dídnt/.. Did I buy the car last year? Importante: Es necesario aquí aprender el pasado. va en INFINITIVO. /pí:ter kéim híar θrí: déiz agóu/ (Peter vino acá hace tres días) 3. / A short course in english for adult students 77 .to decide también agregan -ed/-d. 5 y 6 son de Verbos Regulares : 1. al igual que en la forma negativa. lea y aprenda: 1. mientras que los de los ejemplos 4. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd δat déi/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro ese día) 6. yesterday morning/afternoon/evening (ayer en la mañana / tarde / noche). 4.stopped (ver formación de gerundios UNIT 4).. 5./ We didn´t work hard that day... Los verbos terminados en -t.

HOW.?) EXERCISES: Ex... pedir fumar comenzar.Did you work hard that day? /díd iú wé:rk.. gustar terminar odiar.. arreglar repetir solicitar.. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras de las interrogaciones simples: Escuche. INFINITIVE To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ 78 A short course in english for adult students PAST TENSE answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ SPANISH contestar. partir quedarse. desear invitar escuchar ubicar. WHEN. etc../ When did you work hard? /wén díd iú wé:rk... gustar necesitar preferir llover recibir recordar reparar. pedir transportar.. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar./ La pregunta más habitual de este tiempo verbal es: WHAT DID YOU DO? /wót did iú dúu/ (¿Qué hizo ud.. utilizar visitar esperar.... atender ./ Where did they see a good film yesterday? /wéar díd δéi sí:./ Cuando se formula una pregunta introducida por una palabra interrogativa como WHAT. Study the Past Tense form of the following regular verbs which are most frequently used./ Why didn´t Mary clean the house yesterday morning? /wái dídnt méri klí:n. WHERE. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar.. no gustar ayudar esperar. localizar mirar amar. 1./ Didn´t you buy your car last year? /dídnt iú bái. lea y aprenda: When did you buy your car? /wén díd iú: bái. responder llega preguntar./ Why did Peter come here 3 days ago? /wái díd pí:ter kám./ Didn´t Peter come here three days ago? /dídnt pí:ter kám. esforzarse usar....

narrar. (get to = llegar a un lugar) dar ir tener.pasar tiempo pararse nadar |tomar. comprender A short course in english for adult students 79 . llevar enseñar contar. enterarse partir.conocer pagar poner. conocer aprender. encontrar olvidar conseguir. creer brillar entender. decir pensar. comer. obtener. extraviar hacer. mirar desear trabajar. colocar leer correr. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. fabricar reunirse.saber. funcionar Ex. mantener saber. 2. Study the Past Tense form of the following Irregular verbs which are most frequently used : INFINITIVE To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lu:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd áp/ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To shine /sháin/ To understand /anderstænd/ PAST TENSE began /bigæn/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /wént/ had /hæd/ heard /he:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /le:rnd/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slépt/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d áp/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ shone /shon/ understood /anderstúd/ SPANISH empezar.servirse oir guardar. dejar prestar perder. salir.To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ caminar querer lavar observar. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar.

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? 80 A short course in english for adult students . 4. 2. The boy reads a book every month. 18. 6. 6. 7. We wrote the letter in Spanish. 11. Peter comes here every week. 13. 10. 10. 4. Change the following sentences into a) negative. Change the following sentences into the Simple Past Tense. 19. 9. Remember that you have to use the word LAST instead of EVERY in the expressions of time 1. They go to Europe every year. We went to work by bus. 2. They sell lots of books every year.000 dollars. b) interrogative and c) Wh-questions: 1. Mary visits her parents every month. 16. 12. The postman brings a letter every Monday. 3. 4. They eat fish every Friday. We had dinner at the Club. I write to Mary every week-end. I give the boy a present every year. I wanted to drink tea. It rains a lot here every winter. 15. We have a test every week. Peter came here yesterday. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. They receive a letter every week. They bought the car in Paris. 20. I buy the newspaper every Sunday. I sleep well every night. We watch TV every night. Father tells the boy a story every night. 8. Peter drives to Baltimore every Sunday. 3. John sold his house for 120. 8. 5. 5. They studied English in London. We enjoy our vacation every summer. desgastar escribir Ex. 17. 3. The boy did the exercise well. __________________________________________ last week. Bob washes the car every Saturday.To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /róut/ vestir. 7. Mother makes an apple pie every Saturday. They saw the car accident. 14. 9.

The children got up at 6:30 He went to the doctor because he was ill. What did you watch? _________________________________________________ What time did you get up this morning? ___________________________________________________ Ex. How much. 6. 5. Did Jack have lunch at home? (at work) 13. Did you see Mary last Sunday? (yesterday) 12. Peter saw the film last week. 7. How often. ___________________________________________________ Did you watch TV last night? If so. 6 7. 7. Where. 9. Did you read the book in English? (French) 8. 4. In each case. Did John write a poem? ( a short story) 10. the underlined part must be the answer of the question asked. 6. 4. Did they drink beer? (wine) 9. They stayed in Vancouver for a week. Answer these questions using the information given in parentheses. 2. 8. When. They came here by taxi. Did you eat fish for supper? (chicken) 4. I didn´t (go by bus). The boy wanted to play. Did Mary send you a fax? (a letter) 5. 3. Did the old man feel well? (weak and tired) 14. 10. Did Peter say “yes” (“No”) 7. Bob did the same exercise three times. Answer the following questions with complete sentences: 1. Did they walk to the park? (take a bus) 6. Ask questions using question words like What. 5. etc. He didn´t go because he was tired. Did the man speak to you in English? (French) 15. Smith come in the morning? (at midday) No. 5. Did Mr. Did they watch TV last night? (listen to the radio) 2. I went by taxi. Where did you go last Saturday evening? ___________________________________________________ When did you begin to study English? ___________________________________________________ How long did it take you to get here today? ___________________________________________________ What did the teacher tell you to do? ___________________________________________________ What did you eat for dinner last night?. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 81 . 2. Did John go out last night? (stay at home) 3. He went to the zoo yesterday. Did the woman buy a dress? ( a jacket) 11. Bill spent one hundred dollars.Ex. __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? __________________________________________________? Ex. 1. 3. as in the example: Did you go by bus? (taxi) 1. How.

Did Jane wear a short skirt? (a long one) 20. Did he break his arm in the accident? (his leg) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 82 A short course in english for adult students . Did the secretary leave the office early? (late) 19.16. Did you fly American Airlines? (United Airlines) 17. Did you give the boy an apple? (some money) 18.

. Equivale al la terminación -aba o -ía del español.. not. (not.. but he used to get /iú:st tu gét/ very good grades anyway. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. (not.. Where did you use to spend /did iú iú:s tu spénd/ your summer vacation when you were young? ¿Dónde pasabas tus vaciones de verano cuando eras joven? EXERCISES Ex 1.PART II. any longer o no longer (antes del verbo principal) Escuche.. lea y aprenda: I used to play /ái iu:st tu plei/ football well when I was young.. Ahora no juego bien) They used to visit /δei iú:st tu vízit/ us every summer. anymore) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7. They don´t visit us in the summer anymore/any longer. pero de todos modos obtenía buenas notas. We exported shoes to the USA. (not... Peter was a good student. I rode the subway to work. (not. Explain the change in meaning. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. Jim no estudiaba mucho en el colegio.. (not. Bob la amaba mucho. Mother played the piano well. Mary spoke Italian at home.... Scott used to smoke cigars. Mr. Bill helped me with my homework. I don´t play well now.. “USED TO + INFINITIVE” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a actividades que antes se realizaban en forma regular y que se han dejado de hacer. John Kerry went to that school. anymore. Scott smoked cigars. 1. He no longer loves her now. Bob used to love ama. Introduce USED TO by changing the italicized verbs.. Bill brought her flowers every Friday.. Uncle Paul lived in that house. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. /iú:st tu láv/ her very much. (not.. (not. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ 2.. anymore) Bob used to work in the car factory. (no longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5.. (He doesn´t work there now) Mr. (Ellos nos visitaban todos los veranos. (not.. any longer) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6. (Yo jugaba fútbol bien cuando era joven.. (He doesn´t smoke cigars anymore/He doesn´t smoke cigars any longer/He no longer smokes cigars) A short course in english for adult students 83 . Ahora ya no la Jim didn´t use to work /dídnt iú:s tu wé:rk/ very hard at school. now) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. as in the examples Bob worked in the car factory. En las oraciones negativas que siguen a una oración con USED TO normalmente se usan las expresiones not. Ellos no nos visitan más en el verano. Ann came to class on time every day.

His /hiz/= suyo. 1. de él Hers /hé:rz/= suyo. That is the car of my brother. 7. I walk to ______ chair 2. lea y aprenda: I´ve got a book. Fill in the blanks with the correct possessive adjective. salvo que sean sustantivos plurales irregulares. The students´ books are new.. The names of the children are Bob and Joe. . es decir agregando un apóstrofe + S (´s) a los nombres o sustantivos referidos a personas. This is my book. (de nosotros) La posesión tambien se expresa usando el Saxon genitive (genitivo sajón). Clark goes to ______ office every day 5. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES AND POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla: Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /wi:/ You /iú:/ They /δéi/ Possessive Adjectives My /mái/= mi Your /ió:r/= su (de Ud. This is my parents´ house. Escuche. lea y aprenda: This is the book of John. They went back to ______ seats and began to write. EXERCISES Ex. 3. A. 4. Escuche. 1. Mr and Mrs. Jones take ______ children to the park on Sunday. Con los sustantivos plurales solamente se debe agregar un apóstrofe. This is the house of my parents. That´s my brother´s car. Un possessive pronoun (pronombre posesivo) reemplaza a un adjetivo posesivo y un sustantivo que ha sido mencionado con anterioridad. Escuche. This is John´s book. 8. lea y aprenda: The book of the student is new. The car is hers. (mi libro) The book is mine (mío) Mary bought this car last year. Smith´s house is very big. You walk to ______ school every morning.) His /hiz/= su (de él) Her /hé:r/= su (de ella) Its /its/= su (de un anim.PART III.(su auto). o cosa) Our /áuar/= nuestro Your /ió:r/= vuestro Their /δéar/= su (de ellos) Possessive Pronouns Mine /máin/=mío Yours /ió:rz/= suyo. (de ella) They´ve got a house. Mr. de ella -------------------------- Ours /áuarz/= nuestro Yours /ió:rz/= vuestro Theirs /δéarz/= suyo (de ellos) Un possessive adjective (adjetivo posesivo) siempre acompaña a un sustantivo para indicar posesión. This is their house (nuestra casa). It is her car. We moved to ______ new house last month. The house of Mr Smith is very big. Mrs. 6. 84 A short course in english for adult students The student´s book is new. The house is theirs. John walks to______ desk. The books of the students are new. The teacher writes with ______ pen. The children´s names are Bob and Joe. de ud.

3. The dog wags ______ tail. That’s the home of my teacher. 13. 3. 9. I have a dog and a cat. the English books are _______________. The friend of my sister is very sick. 10. 10. 9. 5. 6. 12. 5. the dog and the cat are _______________. 3. Helen has a cat. That (notebook) is Helen’s notebook. You have a dog and a cat.. the cat is _______________. He’s the teacher of Helen 9. 3. the car is _______________. This (desk) is the teacher’s desk. the pen is _______________. Helen and Mary have two English books. Mary has a new pen. This is the notebook of William. 4. Substitute possessive pronouns for the italicized words: 1. 6.9. 4. Ex. This (office) is John’s office. 6. My brother drives ______ car every day. 8. The desk of the teacher is new. This is the book of John.2 . 10. You have a pen. 8. 4. the English books are _______________. 2. Mr. 7. This is the pen of Helen. The house of my friends is beautiful 12. 2. John has a dog. That is the room of the teachers. This (book) is my book. Is this (pencil) your pencil? Is this (coat) your coat or her coat? These (seats) are our seats. This (room) is her room. He’s also the teacher of my friend. 11. 4. the pen is _______________. 7.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. We have two English books. Jones has a new car. These (cigarettes) are Peter´s cigarettes. These (newspapers ) are their newspapers. This (notebook) is my notebook. the dog and the cat are _______________. 5. What are the names of those men? (This is John’s book. Smith is very large.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. (This book is mine. What´s the name of that man? 14. Change the words in italics to Possessive form: 1. 8. This is the wife of Mr Smith 11. 10. 7. A short course in english for adult students 85 . He took his book and left my book. I have a dog. the dog is mine . 2. The office of Mr. Complete the following by adding the necessary possessive pronoun: 1. the dog is _______________.

3. 7. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 86 A short course in english for adult students . her. 9. 6. you. 14. 4. it. 5. 11. James goes with John and Alice to the club. Substitute the correct pronoun for the italicized word or words: 1. They are talking about the accident. Subject Pronouns I /ai/ You /iú:/ He /hi:/ She /shi:/ It /it/ We /uí:/ You /iú:/ They /δei/ Object Pronouns Me /mi:/ You /iú:/ Him /him/ Her /he:r/ It /it/ Us /az/ You /iú:/ Them /δem/ Los SUBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres nominativos) reemplazan al sujeto de una oración: Los OBJECT PRONOUNS (pronombres complementarios) reemplazan a un direct object (complemento directo) o a un indirect object (complemento indirecto) y. 12. 8. por lo tanto. 9. (last summer) When did you speak to Tom? (yesterday morning) When did he invite you? (last month) When did they eat the apples? (this morning) When did she meet Robert? (last Friday morning) (I saw him 2 days ago). 7. Use object pronouns (me. 2. 2. us. siempre van ubicados después de un verbo principal o de una preposición. Pedro speaks with Helen in English. 11. him. 8. I understand the teacher very well. 10. 1. William studies the book She speaks with John. 12. 3. 6. When did you see Peter? (2 days ago) When did you buy the car? (5 years ago) When did he visit Mary? (last Sunday afternoon) When did she send the letters? (last Monday) When did they wash the car? (2 weeks ago) When did you visit your parents? (last weekend) When did he get his diploma? (a long time ago) When did she spend the money. 10. 5. John likes Mary. Janet sent the invitations to Mary and me. SUBJECT PRONOUNS AND OBJECT PRONOUNS Estudie la siguiente tabla. Jones or for his wife? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. them) instead of names 1.B. Answer these questions using the expressions of time provided in parentheses. Jim goes with Mary and me to the lesson. The teacher likes Mary and William. I like this song very much. Bob studies his book every day. 13. EXERCISES Ex. Is this letter for Mr. 4. I know William and his wife very well. 2.

gásfiter policía cartero sacerdote. cura garzón garzona relojero escritor A short course in english for adult students 87 . boticario clergyman /klε ´:rdlliman/ clérigo. conductor electrician /elektríshn/ electricista engineer /endlliníar/ ingeniero farmer /fá:rmer / granjero firefighter /fáiarfáiter/ bombero fireman /fáiarman/ bombero florist /flórist/ florista gardener /gá:rdner/ jardinero greengrocer /gri:ngróuser/ verdulero grocer /gróuser/ almacenero hair-dresser /héar dreser/ peinadora hostess /hóustes/ azafata janitor /dllánitor/ conserje jeweller /dllúeler/ joyero journalist /dllórnalist/ periodista judge /dlládll/ juez lawyer /ló:yer/ manager /mænidller/ mechanic /mekænik/ newsagent /niuzéidllent/ newspaper boy /niu:zpéiper bói/ painter /péinter/ photographer /fotógrafer/ pilot /páilot/ plumber /plámer/ policeman /polísman/ postman /póustman/ priest /pri:st/ receptionist /risépshonist/ salesman /séilzman/ secretary /sékretri/ shoe-maker /shu:méiker/ singer /si(ger/ steward /stiú:ard/ stewardess /stiú:ardes/ student /stiúdent/ tailor /téilor/ technician /teknishan/ teacher /ti:tcher/ telephonist /télifonist/ tourist guide /túrist gáid/ vicar /víkar/ waiter /wéiter/ waitress /wéitres/ watch-maker /wotchméiker/ writer /ráiter/ abogado gerente mecánico agente de diarios suplementero pintor fotógrafo piloto plomero. peluquero butcher /bútcher/ carnicero chemist /kémist/ farmacéutico. cura recepcionista vendedor secretaria zapatero cantante sobrecargo azafata alumno sastre técnico profesor telefonista guía turístico vicario.BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words PROFESSIONS AND OCCUPATIONS actor /(ktor/ actor actress /(ktres/ actriz architect /á:rkitekt/ arquitecto artist /á:rtist/ artista baker /béiker/ panadero barber /bá:rber/ barbero. sacerdote clerk /klε ´:rk/ vendedor cook /kuk / cocinero conductor /kondáktor/ inspector (trenes) doctor /dóktor/ doctor dress-maker /drés méiker/ modista driver /dráiver/ chofer.

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KEY TO ANSWERS

UNIT 6
Part I
Ex. 1. & 2. Study List of Regular and Irrgular Verbs Ex. 3. 1. Peter came here... 2. I bought the...3. They went to .4. Mary visited her... 5. I wrote to... 6. They ate fish... 7. Bob washed the... 8. We watched TV... 9. The postman brought a... 10. We had a... 11. The boy read / red / a... 12.. I gave the...13. Peter drove to... 14. We enjoyed our... 15. It rained a lot... 16. They received a...17. I slept well... 18. Father told the... 19. Mother made an... 20. They sold lots of... Ex. 4. (didn´t = did not) 1. We didn´t go to... / Did we go to...? / How did we go to work? 2. Peter didn´t come... / Did Peter come...? / When did Peter come here? 3. I didn´t want to drink... / Did I want to drink...? / What did I want to drink? 4. They didn´t see the... / Did they see the...? / What did they see? 5. John didn´t sell his... / Did John sell his...? / How much did John sell his house for? 6.They didn´t buy the... / Did they buy the...? / Where did theybuy the car? 7. They boy didn´t do the... / Did the boy do the...? / How did the boy do the exercise? 8. We didn´t have dinner... / Did we have dinner...? / Where did we have dinner? 9. We didn´t write the... / Did we write the...? / What language did we write the letter in? 10. They didn´t study... / Did they study... / Where did they study English? Ex. 5. 1. Where did he go yesterday? 2. At what time did the children get up? 3. Why did he go to the doctor? 4. When did Peter see the film? 5. How did they come here? 6. What did the boy want to do? 7. Why didn´t he go? 8. How long did they stay in Vancouver? 9. How much money did Bill spend? 10. How many times did Bill do the same exercise? Ex. 6. (open answers) 1. I went to... 2. I began to study English (... ago / last... / in...) 3. It took me about... 4. He / she told me to... 5. I ate... 6. Yes, I did. I watched... / No, I didn´t. 7. I got up at... Ex. 7. 1. No, they didn´t (watch TV). They listened to the radio. 2. No, He didn´t (go out). He stayed at home. 3. No, I didn´t (eat fish). I ate chicken. 4. No she didn´t (send me a fax) . She sent me a letter. 5. No, they didn´t (walk ) They took a bus. 6. No, he didn´t (say “yes”). He said “No” 7. No, I didn´t (read it in English). I read it in French. 8. No, they didn´t (drink beer) . They drank wine. 9. No, he didn´t (write a poem). He wrote a short story. 10. No, she didn´t (buy a dress). She bought a jacket. 11. No, I didn´t (see her last week). I saw her yesterday. 12. No, he didn´t (have lunch at home) He had lunch at work. 13. No, he didn´t (feel weel) . He felt weak and tired. 14. No, he didn´t ( speak to me in english) . He spoke to me in French. 15. No, he didn´t (come in the morning). He came at midday. 16. No, I didn´t (fly American) I flew United Airlines. 17. No, I didn´t (give him an apple) . I gave him some money. 18. No, she didn’t (leave early) She left late. 19. No, she didn´t (wear a short skirt). She wore a long one. 20. No, he didn´t (break his arm). He broke his leg.

Part II
Ex. 1. 1. Uncle Paul used to live in that house. He doesn´t live there now 2. Mary used to speak Italian at home. She doesn´t speak it at home anymore 3. Ann used to come to class on time every day. She doesn´t come to class on time every day now 4. Peter used to be a good student. He no longer is a good student 5. I used to ride the subway to work. I don´t ride it to work any longer 6. Bill used to bring her flowers every Friday. He doesn´t bring her flowers on Friday any more 7. Mother used to play the piano well. She doesn´t play it well now 8. Bill used to help me with my homework. He doesn´t help me with it any longer 9. John Kerry used to go to that school. He doesn´t go to that school now 10. We used to export shoes to the USA. We no longer export shoes to the USA.

Part III.
A. Ex. 1. 1. my 2.. his 3. your .4.. her 5. their .6. his / her .7. our .8. their .9. its 10. his Ex. 2. 2. This is Helen´s pen. 3. The teacher´s desk is new. 4. That´s my teacher´s home 5. My sister´s friend is very sick 6. Mr Smith´s office is very large 7. This is William´s notebook 8. He´s Helen´s teacher 9. He´s also my friend´s teacher 10. This is Mr Smith´s wife. 11. My friends´ house is beautiful 12. That´s the teachers´ room. 13. What´s that man´s name? 14. What are those men´s names?
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Ex. 3. 2. This room is hers. 3. This office is John´s 4. He took his book and left mine. 5. These newspapers are theirs. 6. These cigarettes are Peter´s. 7. That notebook is Helen´s. 8. This notebook is mine. 9. Is this pencil yours? 10. Is this coat yours or hers? 11. These seats are ours. 12. This desk is the teacher´s. Ex. 4. 1. mine 2. his 3. hers 4. yours 5. his 6. hers 7. ours 8. theirs 9. mine 10. yours B. Ex. 1. 1. her 2. it 3. him 4. him / her 5. them 6. it 7. us 8. it 9. them 10. her 11. them 12. us 13. it 14. him or her?. Ex. 2. 2. I bought it 5 years ago. 3. He visited her last Sunday afternoon. 4. She sent them last Monday 5. They washed it 2 weeks ago 6. I visited them last weekend. 7. He got it a long time ago. 8. She spent it last summer. 9. I spoke to him yesterday morning. 10. He invited me last month. 11. They ate them this morning. 12. She met him last Friday morning.

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UNIT 7
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO CONTINUO O PROGRESIVO (THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal se usa para expresar una acción que se estaba realizando en un momento o en una fecha determinada en el pasado. En este tiempo verbal se debe usar el pasado del verbo To Be (WAS /woz/, o WERE /we:r/) más el gerundio de un verbo principal. Las expresiones de tiempo que normalmente se usan con el pasado contínuo son aquellas que indican una hora exacta en el pasado, como at 10 o´clock this morning /at tén oklók δis mó:niη/, at midday last Sunday /at míddei lá:st sándi/, etc. También son importantes las expresiones compuestas por When + SUBJECT + Past Tense como When I got home last night /wen ai got hóum la:st náit/. Lea, escuche y aprenda: I was driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning. /ai woz dráiviη tu δi éarpo:rt at ten oklók δis mó:niη/ (Yo iba conduciendo al aeropuerto a las 10 de esta mañana) They were playing football at midday last Sunday. /δéi we:r pléiη fútbol at míddei lá:st sándi/ (Ellos estaban jugando fútbol al mediodía el domingo pasado) He was visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. /hí: woz vízitiη hiz péarents in ditróit on δe fifθ ov dllú:n/ (El estaba visitando a sus padres en Detroit el 5 de junio) I was sleeping when the telephone rang last night. /ái woz slí:piη wen de télifoun ræη la:st náit/ (Yo estaba durmiendo cuando sonó el teléfono anoche) We were having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. /wí: we:r hæviη lantch wen áuer frénd dllæk arráivd lá:st sándi/ (Nosotros estábamos almorzando cuando nuestro amigo Jack llegó el Domingo pasado)) La forma negativa se expresa usando la palabra NOT después de was/were. Normalmente se usan las contracciones WASN´T /wóznt/ o WEREN´T /wé:rent/: Lea, escuche y aprenda: I was not driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning. /ai wóznt dráiviη.../ They were not playing football at midday last Sunday. /dei wé:rent pléiiη.../ He wasn´t visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June. /hi: wóznt vízitiη.../ I wasn´t sleeping when the telephone rang last night. /ai wóznt sli:piη.../ We weren´t having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday. /wi: wé:rent hæviη lántch... / La forma interrogativa se expresa mediante la inversión del orden del sujeto y los verbos WAS/WERE (o las contracciones WASN´T/WEREN´T) Lea, escuche y aprenda: Was I driving to the airport at 10 o´clock this morning? /woz ái dráiviη.../ Were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /we:r δéi pléiiη.../ Wasn´t he visiting his parents in Detroit on the 5th of June? /wóznt hi: vízitiη.../ Weren´t you sleeping when the telephone rang last night? /wé:rent iú slí:piη.../ Were we having lunch when our friend Jack arrived last Sunday? /we:r wí: hæviη lántch.../

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En las preguntas introducidas con palabras interrogativas como What, Where, Why, etc. se debe mantener el mismo orden de las interrogaciones simples: Lea, escuche y aprenda: What were you reading when the teacher entered the room? /wót we:r iú rí:diη.../ Where were they playing football at midday last Sunday? /wéar we:r δei pléiiη fútbol.../ Why weren´t they having lunch when Jack arrived? /wái wé:rnt δei hæviη lántch.../ Why wasn´t he working at 9 o´clock this morning? /wái wóznt hí: wé:rkiη.../ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: What were you doing...? /wót we:r iú: dúiη.../ (¿Qué estaba haciendo ud....?) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses in the Past Continuous Tense 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. The sun _________________________ when Peter got up this morning. (shine) Bill _________________________the report when Mr. Jenkins entered the room. (read) The students ___________________________ rugby when it began to rain. (play) We ________________________the road when the accident happened. (cross) At that time, everyone _________________________to go to work. (get ready) I ________________________to the coast when the car broke down. (drive) We ________________________near the river that evening. (camp) Ann ________________________in Germany when the war broke out. (live) When we got to the station, the train ________________________ . (leave) We ________________________when the lights went out last night. (have dinner) Mrs. Brown ____________________________ the shopping when she had the accident. (do) Mary and John _______________________________ in the park when we saw them yesterday. (walk)

Ex. 2. Change the following sentences into a) negative form, and b) interrogative form : 1. She was having a bath. 2. We were running down the road. 3. The soldiers were doing exercise 4. Alice was making the beds. 5. The children were watching TV. 6. The men were going to work. 7. The boys were studying for a test. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Ex. 3. Ask questions using question words like Who, Where, What, How, etc. In each case, the underlined part must be the answer to your question. 1. They were walking in the park at midday. ___________________________________________________ 2. Mary was eating a sandwich in her room. ___________________________________________________ 3. Peter wasn´t working because he was on vacation. ___________________________________________________ 4. The generals were working in the conference room. ___________________________________________________ 5. I was getting dressed when you called me up this morning. ______________________________________________
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6. Mrs. White was lying on the sofa because she was tired._________________________________________________ 7. The soldiers were jogging when it began to rain. ___________________________________________________ 8. Bob was taking a shower when the fire started. ___________________________________________________ 9. When the war broke out, they were living in the north of France. __________________________________________ 10. More than ten people were standing outside the building. _______________________________________________ Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Ellos estaban jugando bridge a esa hora. ___________________________________________________ Yo no estaba durmiendo cuando ellos llegaron ___________________________________________________ Juan y sus amigos estaban mirando TV en ese momento . _______________________________________________ Cuando llegué, todos estaban conversando ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué estaba haciendo ud. a esa hora? ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no estaban ellos trabajando ese día? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde estaban viviendo tus padres cuando se conocieron? ____________________________________________ ¿Qué estabas haciendo a esta hora ayer? ___________________________________________________ Yo estaba escuchando las noticias en ese momento. ___________________________________________________

Ex. 5. Answer the following questions in English. Give complete answers. 1. What were you doing at this time yesterday? ___________________________________________________ 2. Where were you working in December last year? ___________________________________________________ 3. Where were your parents living when they got married? __________________________________________________ 4. What were you doing when Jack phoned you last night? _________________________________________________ Ex. 6. (Review) Fill in the blank spaces using the verbs provided in the appropriate verb tense. You must use either the Past Simple or the Past Continuous Tenses only. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. I ___________________________ very well last night. (sleep) I ___________________________ soundly when you ______________________________ last night. (sleep...arrive) They _______________________ to the office when I __________________________ them this morning. (go..see) Peter _______________________ his wife Lynda when he __________________________ in Chicago (meet... live) We ________________________ golf when it ______________________________ to rain yesterday. (play...begin) Bill ________ not _____________ in the office when the boss ____________________ into the room. (work...walk) When John ______________________ us last night, we ____________________________ ( call on...have dinner) Peter _______________________ the accident while he _______________________________ home. (have...drive) What _______________________ you ______________________________________ last Saturday afternoon? (do) What _______________________ you ________________________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) Mr. Johnson ______________________ in New York when he _____________________ chairman of the company. (work...become) 12. He _________________________ the newspaper while he ______________________ the bus to work. (read...ride)

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please. 9. Listen to him please. 3. por favor Para expresar una orden negativa se debe usar la contracción DON´T /dóunt/ antes del infinitivo Escuche lea y aprenda: Don´t come here Don´t listen to me Please. THE IMPERATIVE FORM (LA FORMA IMPERATIVA) La forma imperativa se usa para dar órdenes o para solicitar servicios. Las órdenes o solicitudes se expresan mediante el uso del INFINITIVO sin sujeto ( el pronombre you. You eat more slowly. 2. ya sea al inicio o al final de la orden o solicitud. 2. please Work slowly please. 6. don´t open the window. 4. You write your answer on the whiteboard. Drink black coffee. Por favor. 10. 6. Change the following sentences into the imperative form: Add the word PLEASE at the end of your sentence: You look at the map 1. A. You come here tomorrow morning. please /spí:k mó:r slóuli/ Venga para acá Escúchame Por favor. 4. Come again this afternoon. (so /sou/= tan) Ex. Change the following imperative sentences into the negative form: Speak slowly. no abra la ventana No hable tan rápido. please Drive fast please. 8. You fill up the tank. You drink milk every morning. please. Normalmente se usa la palabra PLEASE. You listen to the story carefully. You study hard every day. Eat my bread and butter. You have another cup of coffee. (so = tan) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 94 A short course in english for adult students . esta implícito en la orden). Escuche lea y aprenda: (You) Come here /kám híar/ (You) Listen to me /lísn tu mí:/ Please. 5. You call me up after 9 o´clock. abra la ventana Hable más lento. please EXERCISES Ex. 9. 10. 2. 3. You spell your first name. 1. Give Mary my new address. Take a taxi. Say that again. 1. please ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ No venga para acá No me escuche. Don´t speak so fast. please Don´t speak so slowly please. 5. 8. 7. Work hard. /pli:z óupn δe wíndou/ (you) Speak more slowly. por favor. please.PART II. (you) open the window. Look at the map. 7.

A short course in english for adult students 95 . (We plan to spend our vacation in Mexico and North Carolina. mares. Cuando los nombres de ciudades o países cumplen la función de adjetivos estos van precedidos del artículo definido the.. montes. Escuche.. (excepto cuando el adjetivo es un punto cardinal). No se usa the delante de los nombres de continentes.They´ve climbed Mount Everest.. You should take a trip sometime to __________ West Indies. 4. Mrs. The Santiago newspapers are not very expensive. 1. President. lea y compare: New York is a large city. Escuche lea y aprenda The Mississippi and the Missouri rivers are in Central United States. (adj. The New York City subways go very fast.) Santiago is the capital of Chile.) EXERCISES Ex. Later we want to visit __________ Dominican Republic.) y también delante de los nombres de países compuestos de Adj. Sgt.. Cpt. He lives on Fifth Avenue. Prof. Johnson ordered Sgt. 3. 9. cordilleras. canales. Lady Macbeth fainted when she saw the body of her husband lying on the floor. países. Sir. 7..Ms. ARTICLES (III) No se debe usar ningún artículo delante de los nombres de personas. Tampoco se debe anteponer artículo a los nombres de personas cuando éstos van precedidos de títulos (Mr.) Escuche lea y aprenda When did they go to Europe? Did you see Mary this morning? They lived in New York City for several years. 10. 5. calles cuando estos son usados como nombres propios.+Sust. Supply the definite article the where necessary: 1.B. continentes. ciudades. etc. They are coming back from China. (adj.. Some ships can cross __________ Atlantic Ocean from __________ France to __________ Unites States. The principal city of __________ Germany is __________ Berlin.) 2. The United States and South Korea will sign a new free trade agreement. Sin embargo se debe usar el artículo definido the delante de los nombres geográficos (ríos. 6. volcanes. estados.. __________ United States. President Bush and Senator Payne will meet at 10:15 next Tuesday. Dr. __________ United Kingdom and __________ Soviet Union were permanent members of the UN Security Committee.) o grados (Gen. We live on __________ Madison Avenue near __________ Central Park Station. Smith to send the message right away.etc. 8. Miss. __________ China. The Pacific Ocean is much larger than the Atlantic Ocean. We plan to spend our vacation in __________ Mexico and __________ North Carolina. They are planning to spend a week in the West Indies. Lady. Mr De Ponti invited Dr.. He spent several weeks in __________ Italy and several weeks in __________ Spain. White to a famous Italian restaurant that evening. __________ Hudson River lies west of __________ New York City. Gen.. Senator etc. __________ Panama Canal joins __________ Atlantic and __________ Pacific Oceans.

8. + plural noun (+S + V)! What + adj. We walked along __________ Broadway. 6. 1. 14 15. They live on __________ Clark Street in __________ Salt Lake City. + uncountable noun (+S + V)! How + adj. 6. 8. / adv. Estudie el siguiente diagrama: Structure What + a(n) + adj. 3. Lots of oil tankers go from _________ Persian Gulf to _________ Mediterranean Sea through _________ Suez Canal. 12. 9. Ex. (He lives in Mexico. 11. (+S + V)! Examples What a beautiful woman (she is)! What an interesting book (you are reading)! What beautiful eyes (you have)! What nice people (we met at the party)! What nice music (this is)! What good coffee (they served)! What terrible weather (we are having)! How silly (I was)! How fast (you´re driving Tom)! How expensive (that book is)! EXERCISES Ex. 10. 96 A short course in english for adult students . 4. 11.) __________ Mexican climate is warm. 7. 3. 2. He lives in __________ Mexico. 4. __________ New York city traffic is very slow. Fill in the blanks with the correct articles where needed: 1. 9. 5. 7. C. __________ Europe is a large continent. __________. 2. __________ Broadway buses are slow. __________ England is a small country. 12. Supply WHAT or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. 5. 10. ______________________ good idea! ______________________ beautiful day! ______________________ pretty eyes she has! ______________________ strange thing to say! ______________________ easy exercise! ______________________ difficult lesson! ______________________ funny name to give a dog! ______________________ good whisky! ______________________ happy child! ______________________ happy children! ______________________ beautiful music! ______________________ large room! ______________________ foolish mistake! ______________________ hot day! ______________________ beautiful weather!. THE EXCLAMATORY FORM (LA FORMA EXCLAMATIVA) Las exclamaciones en inglés se expresan de la siguiente manera. in __________ Utah. 2. _________ English language is easy. 13. Some __________ European cities are very interesting to visit. + singular noun (+ S +V)! What + adj.11.London and __________ York are beautiful __________ English cities. __________ London School of Economics is very famous.

Ex. _____________________ hot weather we are having! 11. These shoes are very expensive. _____________________ hot day it is today! 12. He runs very fast. as indicated: 1. _____________________ well she speaks English! 14. ______________________ hot it is today! 6. The movie was very exciting. 4. 6. 5. ______________________ beautifully she sings! 9. This music is very romantic. or WHAT A(N) in the following exclamatory sentences: 1. 3. I was a very stupid person. 3.. 4. 12. Mary is a very friendly person 13. Mr Johnson is a very pleasant man. _____________________ excellent student he is! Ex. ______________________ beautiful eyes she has! 8. ______________________ hard sentences these are! 7... WHAT. This trip is very interesting. It is a beautiful day. 3.. She plays the piano well. They are very beautiful women.. ______________________ well she swims! 5. 2. ______________________ strange remark to make! 4.. She plays the violin beautifully. New York is a fascinating city. What.!. Supply HOW. What a tall man Peter is! How tall Peter is! ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. This is a very incredible story. _____________________ quickly the time passes! 13. 7. or How. 5. 9. She is an excellent pianist. 2. Make exclamations using What a(n). These exercises are very difficult. 2. ______________________ foolish thing to say! 10. ______________________ pretty she is! 3. 14.! . ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 97 . John is a very intelligent person. These photographs are very beautiful 11. 4. ______________________ pretty girl! 2. This whisky is very good 10. 8. as in the example Peter is a very tall man 1. Change these sentences to exclamatory form by using HOW or WHAT / WHAT A(N).!.

You have a beautiful new car. 17.6. She is very pretty. 16. He is a handsome fellow. 11. 14. 15. He is a very tall man. 8. 7. She is wearing a beautiful dress. It´s a cold day today. 13. Ann was a generous woman. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 98 A short course in english for adult students . 12. It was a very fast train. We were very tired after the walk. It is very cold today. Grandfather told us a sad story. 10. It was very cold last night. 18. 9. Bob acted very foolishly.

/ terrace house /téris háus/ villa /vila/ casa de campo departamento (BR) casa choza. d) The Sitting-room /δe sítiηrum/ El Living arm-chair /á:rm tchéar/ carpet /ká:pit/ CD player /sí: dí: pléier/ chair /tchéar/ china /tcháina/ clock /klok/ curtains /kértenz/ fireplace /faiarpléis/ picture /píktcher/ sillón alfombra (BR) reproductor de CD silla loza fina.(USA) block of flats /blok ov flæts/ edificio de dptos. excusado.c. reloj cortinas chimenea cuadro porcelain /pó:rselein/ radio set /réidiou set/ rug /rag/ sofa /sóufa/ table /téibl/ telephone /télifoun/ television set /télivilln set/ VCR /vi: si: a:r/ porcelana radio alfombra (USA) sofá mesa teléfono televisor video-grabadora e) The Bedroom /δe bédrum/ El Dormitorio alarm clock /alá:rm klók/ bed /bédrum/ bed spread /bédspred/ blanket /blæηkit/ chest of drawers /tchést ov dró:erz/ night gown /náit gáoun/ night table /náit téibl/ reloj despertador cama cubrecamas frazada cómoda.. cabaña casa pareada casa en fila casa de veraneo apartment /apa:rment/ departamento (USA) apartment building /apa:rmet bíldiη/ edificio de dptos. (BR) bungalow /báηgalou/ bungalow condominium /kondomínium/ condominio cottage /kótidll/ casa de campo.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE HOUSE a) Housing /háusiη/ Vivienda farm house /fá.cajonera bata de noche velador pillow case /pílou kéiz/ pillow /pílou/ pyjama /pidllámaz/ sheets /shi:ts/ slippers /slíperz/ wardrobe /wó:dróub/ funda almohada pijamas sábanas zapatillas ropero f) The Kitchen /δe kítchin/ La Cocina broom /brú:m/ can opener /kæn óupner/ escoba abrelatas (USA) mixer /mikser/ napkin /nápkin/ máquina licuadora servilleta A short course in english for adult students 99 .w..quinta detached house /ditηtætcht háus/ casa aislada b) Parts of the House /parts ov (e háus/ Partes de la Casa ceiling /síliη/ door /do:r/ floor /flo:r/ front door /fránt dó:r/ landing /lændiη/ cielo raso puerta piso puerta de calle descanso (de escaleras) roof /ruf/ staircase /stéar kéis/ wall /wo:l/ window /wíndou/ techo escaleras muralla ventana c) Rooms of the House /ru:mz ov (e háus/ Piezas de la Casa attic /ætik/ basement /béisment/ bathroom /bá:θrum/ bedroom /bédrum/ cellar /sélar/ dining-room /dáiniηrum / kitchen /kítchin/ ático subterráneo sala de baño dormitorio bodega(vinos) comedor cocina laundry room /ló:ndrirum/ library /láibreari/ lounge /láundll/ pantry /pæntri/ sitting room /sítiηrum/ study /stádi/ toilet /tóilet/ lavandería biblioteca salon (Br) despensa living estudio baño.rm háus/ flat /flæt/ house /háus/ hut /hat/ semi-detached house /sémi.

cooker/stove/range /kúker/stóuv/réindll/ cocina (artefacto) cookery book /kúkri buk/ libro de recetas corkscrew /korkskrú:/ sacacorchos crockery /krókeri/ loza corriente cup /kap/ taza cupboard /kábord/ aparador cutlery /kátleri/ cuchillería dishwasher /dishwósher/ lavadora de vajilla drier /dráier/ secadora fork /fo:rk/ tenedor freezer /frí:zer/ congeladora fridge /frídll/ refrigerador frying pan /fráiiη pæn/ sartén garbage can /gá:rbidll kæn/ basurero (USA) glass /glá:s/ vaso glassware /glá:swear/ cristalería kettle /kétl/ tetera knife/knives /náif /náivz/ cuchillo /s microwave oven /máikrouweiv ávn/ horno micro ondas g) The Bathroom /δe bá:θrum/ La Sala de Baño bath tub /bá:θ tab/ cold water tap /kóuld wó:ter tæp/ comb /kóum/ electric shaver /iléktrik shéiver/ faucet /fó:set/ hair brush /héar brash/ hair dryer /héar dráier/ hot water tap /hot wó:ter tæp/ lotion /lóushn/ mirror /míror/ safety razor /séifti réizor/ tina de baño llave de agua fria peineta afeitadora llave del agua (USA) cepillo de pelo secador de pelo llave de agua caliente loción espejo máquina de afeitar oven /ávn/ horno pan /pæn/ olla plate /pléit/ plato pot /pot/ cacerola refrigerator /refridlleréitor/ refrigerador rubbish bin /rábish bin/ basurero (BR) saucer /só:ser/ platillo silverware /sílverwéar/ platería sink /siηk/ lavaplatos spoon /spú:n/ cuchara tea pot /tí: pot/ tetera para el té teaspoon /tí:spun/ cuchara de té tin opener /tin óupener/ abrelatas (BR) toaster /tóuster/ tostadora trash can /træsh kæn/ basurero (USA) tray /trei/ bandeja vacuum cleaner /vækium klí:ner/ aspiradora wall clock /wó:l klók/ reloj de pared washing machine /wóshiη mashí:n/ lavadora de ropa shaving brush /shéiviηbrash/ shaving cream /shéiviη krí:m/ shower /sháuer/ shower cap /sháuer kæp/ soap dish /sóup dish/ tap /tæp/ tooth brush /túθbrash/ tooth paste /tú:θpéist/ towel rack /táuel ræk/ towel /táuel/ wash basin /woshbéizin/ hisopo crema de afeitar ducha gorra de baño jabonera llave del agua (Br) cepillo de dientes pasta dental pañera toalla lavamanos h) The Studio /δe stúdiou/ La Sala de Estudio book shelf /buk shelf/ bookcase /buk kéis/ chair /tchear/ computer /kompiúter/ desk /desk/ desk lamp /desk læmp/ fax machine /fæks mashí:n/ file /fail/ filing cabinet /fáiliη kábinet/ j) Outdoors /áutdó:rz/ El exterior fence /fens/ garage /gará:dll/ garden /gá:rdn/ gate /geit/ lawn /ló:n/ reja garage jardín puerta (reja) césped orchard /ó:rtcha:rd/ huerto path /pa:θ/ sendero swimming pool /suimiη pú:l/ piscina vegetable garden /védlletabl gá:rdn/ huerta repisa para libros librero silla computador escritorio lámpara de escritorio máquina fax archivador archivo laptop /læp top/ notebook /nóutbuk/ note-pad /nóutpæd/ printer /prínter/ punch /pantch/ scanner /skæner/ stapler /stéipler/ telephone /télifoun/ typewriter /táipráiter/ PC portátil (US) PC portátil (Br.) block de borrador impresora perforadora escáner corchetera teléfono máquina de escribir 100 A short course in english for adult students .

What a. I wasn´t sleeping when they arrived. Germany. 6. 9. What an. Ex. was driving 7. 1.? 3. Drink milk every morning... was getting ready 6. C.. The West Indies 7.... 4. The Atlantic Ocean..France. the United States 6.) 2.? 7. 10. / Was she having. What. (at this time yesterday........ England... 1. What. 9...? 5. / Was Alice making. Ex. 2. 4.. The Broadway buses. The soldiers weren´t doing. The Mexican climate. / were the men going. 10.. York. 11. Ex...the Dominican Republic 3.They were playing bridge at that time.. Why weren´t they working that day? 7. was leaving 10. 2. 2.. Where were your parents living when they met? 8. What a. 8. 7.. 2. Alice wasn´t making. Don´t work so hard please.. 1..? 6. 6. Don´t work so slowly please. The London School of Economics. was sleeping / arrived. was reading 3.. I was. B.working / walked 7. Fill up the tank please... was ..UNIT 7 Key to answers PART I Ex. read / was riding PART II A....... 3. (Open answers) 1. Study hard every day please. 2. 4. Salt Lake City... slept 2. 9. John and his friends were watching TV at that moment. 3. 6... 9... Don´t listen to him please 5.. Don´t say that again please. I was listening to the news at that moment. Don´t take a taxi please. What were the soldiers doing when it began to rain? 8.. How many people were standing outside the building? Ex..the Mediterranean Sea. Listen to the story carefully please.. were camping 8. China.. Don´t drink black coffee please. / Were the boys studying. Write your answer on the whiteboard please. Eat more slowly please 7..English cities 7.. met / was living 5. The United States. had / was driving 9. European cities. called on / were having dinner 8. 3... What a. What a.. 3. What a.. What was Mary eating in her room? 3... 10. (when he phoned me last night) Ex. She wasn´t having.? Ex.. 1. were going / saw 4. The boys weren´t studying.do 10. Ex. the Suez Canal 12. 1. What a... 13. was living 9... 3. were having dinner 11... 2.doing 11...... 5. Have another cup of coffee please. Why wasn´t Peter working? 4. 3..... We weren´t running.Utah Ex. were walking Ex. 2. Come here tomorrow morning please. Madison Avenue. was shining 2. Call me up after 9 o´clock please 5. What. What.... The Hudson River / New York City 4..Berlin 9. Where were they living when the war broke out? 10.. was doing 12. 8. London. 5. The children weren´t watching.The Panama Canal. 4. / Were the soldiers doing. did . (when they got married / then). Don´t eat my bread and butter please. What a. What were you doing at this time yesterday? 9.. 1. / Were we running.. What were you doing when I called you up this morning? 6. 4. 1. 12.Clark Street.. 5. 8.. A short course in english for adult students 101 . were playing / began 6. What a.. 7... 8.? 4.were playing 4. 1.Don´t drive so fast please.. Where were the generals working? 5. Don´t come again this afternoon please. Italy. 1. the Persian Gulf.. White lying on the sofa? 7. 1. The men weren´t going. The English language.. I was working. Spain 10.Broadway. Don´t give Mary my new address please. 1... 3.... (in December last year). 11. the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union 5. Spell your first name please.. 4... 2..the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans 8. 15... Europe.. 10.. were . was working / became 12.... 5. I was. Central Park Station 11.. What was Bob doing when the fire started? 9.. What were you doing at that time? 6..? 2.. When I arrived... The New York City traffic. please 2. / Were the children watching. They were living in.What were they doing in the park at midday? 2.. 6. everyone was talking.. were crossing 5. Why was Mrs.. Ex. What a. 14. 4.. What. 6... 3... 1..

13.. What a cold day it is today! 8. 9... Johnson is! / How pleasant Mr. How beautifully she plays the violin! 6. 11. 1. How cold it is today! 7.. What a beautiful new car you have! 14. How. 10. What an exciting movie it was! / How exciting the movie was! Ex. 3. What a fast train it was! 17.. What a sad story grandfather told us! 15. What a beautiful day it is today! 4.. 8.. What. Ex. 5. What a pleasant man Mr.. How. How. What.. 2.What a..Ex... 12. What a handsome fellow he is! 12. 1. What expensive shoes these are! / How expensive these shoes are! 14.. What a stupid person I was! / How stupid I was! 5. What a beautiful dress she is wearing! 13.... What a. How... What a. What good whisky this is! / How good this whisky is! 10. How pretty she is! 11. How fast she runs! 5. 7.. How cold it was last night! 10... What romantic music this is! / How romantic this music is! 8.. What difficult exercises these are! / How difficult these exercises are! 9. What a fascinating city New York is! / How fascinating New York is! 12.What an interesting trip this is ! / How interesting this trip is! 6. What a. What beautiful women they are! / How beautiful they are! / How beautiful those women are! 3. How. How. What a generous woman Ann was! 18. 4. What a friendly person Mary is! / How friendly Mary is! 13.. How tire we were after the walk! 16. What an incredible story this is! / How incredible this story is! 4. 1. 6.. What. 4.. What an excellent pianist she is! 3. What an intelligent person John is! / How intelligent John is! 2. How well she plays the piano! 2. What a tall man he is! 9... 3.. Johnson is!. 2. What an. What beautiful photographs these are! / How beautiful these photographs are! 11. 14.7. How foolishly Bob acted! 102 A short course in english for adult students .

Mary won´t come to work tomorrow. promesa o determinación. in three months /in θrí: mánθs/ dentro de tres meses. intenciones. Lea.. by the end of this year /bai δi énd ov δis yíar/ hacia fines de este año. escuche y aprenda: Will they visit us next week-end? /wil δei vízit. En la conversación diaria se prefiere usar la contracción WON´T / wóunt / Lea. Dgo. Las expresiones de tiempo frecuentes en este tiempo verbal son tomorrow /tumórou/ mañana. EL TIEMPO FUTURO SIMPLE THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE Este tiempo verbal se usa para referirse a acciones que ocurrirán en el futuro. /pí:ter iz góuiδ tu kám tu tchíle nékst manδ/ Peter va a venir a Chile el próximo mes. En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre el verbo modal WILL y el Infinitivo. escuche y aprenda: They will not visit us next weekend. /méri wóunt kám../ Won´t they visit us next week-end? /wóunt δei vízit. /δéi wil vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos nos visitarán el proximo fin de semana Mary´ll come to work tomorrow. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE +ING (Present Continuous) para referirse a actividades agendadas./ Will Mary come to work tomorrow? /wil méri kám. next month /nékst manθ/ el próximo mes. se debe mantener el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples: Lea. Peter will come to Chile next month. o sucesos que evidentemente o muy probablemente ocurrirán. /δei wóunt vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary will not come to work tomorrow. next week /nékst wí:k/ la próxima semana. /ai wóunt bí: at hóum ó:l dei nékst sándi/.. etc El Futuro Simple se puede expresar de tres maneras.UNIT 8 PART 1. y sugiere la idea de decisión. Tu wé:rk tumórou/ I will not be at home all day next Sunday. SUBJECT + AM / IS / ARE+ GOING TO + INFINITIVE para referirse a planes. SUBJECT + WILL + INFINITIVE para referirse a decisiones. Si se desea formular una pregunta introducida por What. Peter is going to come to Chile next month./ Will you be at home all day next Sunday? /wil iu: bí: at hóum o:l déi nekst sándi/ When will they visit us? /wén wil δei vízit ás/ Why won´t Mary come to work tomorrow? /wái wóunt méri kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ A short course in english for adult students /pí:ter iz kámiδ tu tchíle nekst mánδ/ Peter viene (tiene previsto venir) a Chile el 103 . En la conversación diaria WILL forma la contracción ´LL. En la interrogación. /áil bí: at hóun ó:l dei nekst sándi/ Estaré en casa todo el día el próx. I won´t be at home. próximo mes EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON WILL Esta construcción generalmente se usa para expresar el Futuro Simple. /pí:ter wil kám tu tchile nekst mánδ/ Peter vendrá a Chile el próximo mes 2. They won´t visit us next weekend../ Won´t Mary come to work? /wóunt méri kám. escuche y aprenda: They will visit us next week-end.. acordadas o previstas con antelación.... promesas o determinaciones. se debe anteponer el verbo modal WILL (o la contracción WON¨T) al sujeto. Where.. según la idea que se desee transmitir: 1. 3. the day after tomorrow /δe déi áfter tumórou/ pasado mañana... When. next year /nekst yíar/ el próximo año. /méril kám tu wé:rk tumórou/ Mary vendrá a trabajar mañana I´ll be at home all day next Sunday. etc. Peter is coming to Chile next month.

10.La pregunta habitual con esta construcción verbal es: What will you do? /wót wil iu: dú:/ EXERCISES: Ex. 4. Ask questions using question words like When. 8. the underlined part of the sentence must be the answer for the question asked. 10. etc. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. 4. 1. 12. 7. 3. 1. How long. 4. 6. Mr Smith will see you tomorrow. 3. (use) The gardener ________________________ a deep hole in the ground to plant the tree. 2. 3. John will accept the offer. 8. 5. They´ll get married in May 6. ___________________________________________________ John will give the answer next week. (have) Mr Jackson ________________________ his old car. 2. ___________________________________________________ They´ll stay in Toronto for three days ___________________________________________________ We´ll wait for you in the cafeteria ___________________________________________________ They´ll need five volunteers. (buy) Mr Jackson ________________________ a limousine to take his guests to the airport. (attend) I ________________________ busy all day tomorrow. using WILL 1. ___________________________________________________ Mr Smith will send them another catalog ___________________________________________________ Sue will not buy the dress because it´s too expensive. Use the verbs given in parentheses in the future simple tense. (be) We ________________________ a new house soon. (march) I ________________________ you a post card from Washington DC. (hire) The Smiths ________________________ to a new house in the Spring. 3. 5. In each case. (send) My little brother ________________________ a hard test next Monday. 9. 11. ___________________________________________________ They´ll talk about many things tomorrow ___________________________________________________ 104 A short course in english for adult students . 1. (launch) Professor Lee________________________ a conference in Paris next month. ___________________________________________________ The soldiers will wait there until dawn. They´ll go to the north in the summer.2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. (sell) The instructor ________________________ the overhead projector. 2. You will send them a fax. Where. 9. (move) ¿Qué hará ud. Mary will go out this evening. The soldiers ________________________ to the top of that hill tomorrow. The train will arrive soon.? Ex. 7. 5. ___________________________________________________ Bob will sell the car because it´s old. How. (dig) NASA ________________________ a space ship to Mars next week. What. and b) interrogative.

Fill in the blanks with SAY or TELL 1. “Please sit down and look at the map” “I love you very much”. 13. 14. he said. 3. “I love you. Then make whatever other changes are necessary. 3. es decir. 7. “I am very tired after the long walk” Mr. 8. 4. “I will be back at about 10:30”. Mary ________________________ her teacher that her mother was sick. En posición final I didn´t understand what she said. USE OF SAY AND TELL Los verbos SAY y TELL tienen el mismo significado (DECIR). “I am very tired after the long walk”. she ________________________ Bob ________________________ that he doesn´t like hot weather. 2 Change SAY to TELL. Sorry. Did you hear what she ________________________? Ex. 2.PART II. “This book is very interesting “. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 105 . Mr Jackson ________________________ us all about his trip to Nepal. what did you say? What are you going to say? El verbo TELL se usa cuando se menciona al interlocutor. John ________________________ yesterday. Mary told me that she was very tired after the long walk. (You) Tell Mary that I want to speak with her. Yesterday John ________________________ his friends that he was planning to get married. 6. 11. 10. “I´m going to phone you as soon as I get home” Yesterday. Helen” Mary said. A. She said (to me) that she was sick. Mr Smith said (to Peter) that he was too busy to go with us. El verbo SAY se usa en los siguientes casos: 1. Jackson told his students to sit down and look at the map.1. 5. John said (to his friends) that he could not go with them to the park. Yesterday I ________________________ my teacher that I liked my lessons. 2. The boy ________________________ that he likes geography very much. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________ Mr Jones before leaving the house. John told Helen that he loved her. Jackson said (to his students). Can you ________________________ me where the office is. Miss Brown ________________________ that she loves spring. Antes de la conjunción that John said that he loved Helen Mary said that she was very tired after the long walk. 1. Mr. pero difieren en cuanto a su uso. please? Please ________________________ John that I´ll send him the money tomorrow. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. la persona a quien se le habló. 12. 9. said Mary. John ________________________ that he is very busy at the moment. EXERCISES Ex. Antes o después de una cita textual John said (to Helen). please.

y por lo tanto va seguido de un pronombre o un nombre. William said (to the doctor) that he had a terrible headache. La palabra WHOSE /hu:z/ (posesivo de who) se puede traducir como ¿de quién? en interrogaciones. . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. too. The boy said (to us) that he liked to swim in the river. Mr Smith told his friends that he knew how to play tennis. WHOSE Habíamos visto que la palabra WHO? significa ¿quién? Y que además es un pronombre relativo y que se debe traducir con la palabra QUE para especificar acerca de quién estamos hablando (Revisar el uso de los pronombres relativos who y which. The man whom I met was John´s father.Then make whatever other changes are necessary. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ B. John told the police officer that he lived near the church. The man says (to me) that he wants to see the manager immediately. RELATIVE PRONOUNS WHO. The boy tells me that he wants to drink some water. The woman about whom Jim was talking was his wife. I told my girlfriend that I wanted to go for a walk in the park. 1. With whom will you go to the party? (Who will you go to the party with?) I met a man in the street. I told Mr Smith that I knew how to play. en BEGS & VOC Unit 5) Who is that man? The man who is in the car is a policeman. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Ann said (to the officer) that she did not speak French. pero también es el pronombre relativo cuyo(s)/cuya(s). The teacher told John that our compositions were very good. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Jim was talking about a woman. WHOM. He tells me that she doesn´t want to participate in the game. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The teacher said (to Paul´s parents) that Paul was a good student.4. Bob told me that he could speak French well. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Helen said (to the travel agent) that she was travelling alone. La palabra WHO se tranforma en WHOM /hu:m/ después de las preposiciones y cuando actúa como complemento directo de un verbo. The car which is outside is a police car. Change TELL to SAY. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. a) Whose? = ¿De quién? Whose is this hat? o Whose hat is this? (el sustantivo hat puede ir al final o junto a whose) Whose are these cigarettes? / Whose cigarettes are these? (el sustantivo hat puede ir al final o junto a whose) Whose is that yellow sweater? (aquí el sustantivo está modificado por un adjetivo) 106 A short course in english for adult students .

Everyone liked the poem __________________ Prof. The woman __________________ we met at the party was a friend of Peter´s. 1. but I´m not quite sure. 8. (Who. WHOM or WHOSE 1. 6. Clark mentioned in his lecture is a famous American writer. I met a man _______________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 107 . whom) did you get the money? 10. 22. 2. whom) I danced was very beautiful. With (who. Whom. Whose 1. Combine the two sentences to make one single sentence. With __________________ will you go to the theater tomorrow? He is the man __________________ daughter will participate in the competition. 4. the blue one or the brown one? __________________ pen-knife is this? I think it´s Peter´s. His car is parked outside the building. The boy (who. 3. __________________ are those brown shoes __________________ are under the chair? __________________ are you talking to? The children with __________________ my son is playing are not Chilean.Whose is that book on the desk? (aquí el sustantivo va seguido de una frase adjetiva) b) whose = cuyo(s) / cuya(s) A man wants to see you. __________________ are they talking about? The man __________________ Prof. Mr Clark. 7. The man is a doctor. The man about __________________ they are talking is a well-known football player __________________ will you ask for help? __________________ are those cigarettes on the small table? Are they yours? The man with __________________ John is speaking is an Australian pilot. whom) does he want to speak? 3. 17. __________________ jacket do you like best. The man whose car is parked outside the building is a doctor. His daughter called you this morning The man whose daughter called you this morning wants to see you. 18. Ex. 9. He wrote detective stories. I met a man yesterday. 1. Is it yours? The children __________________ are in Room B are 2nd grade students. 10. EXERCISES Ex. 2. 9.using WHO. whom) is the best student in your class? 4. 6. whom ) are they talking? 8. 24. 13. Which. 11. This isn´t the dictionary __________________ we generally use in class. Smith read in class yesterday.. They are American. 21. Is that the bus __________________ we must take? She is the woman __________________ I really love. About (who. 7. The boy __________________ father died in the accident is still in hospital. 14. Ex. 12. whom) telephoned you is my brother. 20. whom) you saw is my new teacher. 19. 5. whom) the policemen rescued from the boat was terrified. 16. From (who. The train __________________ leaves at 10:25 is an express train. Mr Clark.whom) did you write a letter last night? 2. The woman (who. __________________ was working in the office at 9 o´clock this morning? With __________________ will you work on the thesis? I don´t know __________________ watch this is. whom) did you meet at the party? 5. Fill in the blank spaces with Who. Choose the correct form. 23. 15. The girl with (who. 3. To (who. (Who. The man (who.

This is the young __________________________________________________________________________________ 4.This sweater isn´t my sister´s. 2. The policemen interrogated the old man. 9. It´s my brother´s 108 A short course in english for adult students . There´s a man ____________________________________________________________________________________ 6. There´s a man in the lobby. 3. 8. 14. 15. Exercise 4. They contacted a man. Those keys are mine. It´s hers. 4. 2. I met a woman yesterday. 1. 6. To whom does this pen belong? (belong = pertenecer) Whose pen is this? / Whose is this pen? To whom does that old blue jacket belong? Whose is that old blue jacket? To whom does this car belong? _________________________________________________ To whom do these books belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does this brand new car belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does that coat belong’ _________________________________________________ To whom does this gold ring belong? _________________________________________________ To whom do the cigarettes on that table belong? _________________________________________________ To whom does this camera belong? _________________________________________________ 1. 6. Where is he? Where is the man ________________________________________________________________________________ ?. Peter came to the party with a young woman. Her husband died in a car accident. The policemen interrogated _________________________________________________________________________ 5. They found his wallet in the street. Are these cigarettes yours? Whose is this watch? This pen _________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ To ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________ To ______________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ I´m sure __________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? 10. I met a woman ___________________________________________________________________________________ 3. You were talking to a man in the lobby.This house is ours. It isn´t theirs. 4. 7. These aren´t Mary´s shoes. Make synonymous sentences using the verb belong instead of the possessives. 13. That´s not your leather jacket.. 3.I think that this wallet is yours. as in the example. They contacted the man ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. His car was parked outside the school. 5.That car isn´t his. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex.I´m sure that that house isn´t theirs. 5.Whose glasses are these? 11. Ask questions with whose. This is the young woman.2. He wants to speak with you. This pen is mine That house is ours. 7. Is that car yours? That is not John´s bicycle. 12. 5.

anywhere Nowhere Anywhere En la BEGS & VOC UNIT 2. etc.... I saw somebody in the corridor. There is someone in the room 109 . There is someone at the door. Anybody Not. Esta misma regla se debe seguir al usar las palabras derivadas. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 3. alguna cosa). 1.C. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 1. ANY b) NO ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2.. Somewhere (algun lugar. y que en las interrogaciones se debía usar ANY. En las oraciones negativas había dos alternativas: se podía usar NOT. They don´t need anything now.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 4. alguna parte). Tell somebody about Peter´s problems. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 10. He said something to her.anything Nothing Anything Somewhere Not.any No Interrogative Any Somebody/someone Not. I ´ve got some friends in Atlanta I haven´t got any friends in Atlanta / I´ve got no friends in Atlanta Have you got any friends in Atlanta? 2.. I saw somebody in the car I didn´t see anybody in the car / I saw nobody in the car Did you see anybody in the car? 3.anyone Nobody No One Anybody / Anyone Something Not.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 6.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 5. SOMEWHERE AND DERIVED WORDS Study the following chart Afirmative Negative Some Not. SOMEBODY. es decir con Somebody / Someone (alguien) Something (algo. habíamos aprendido que la palabra SOME solamente se usaba en oraciones afirmativas.. Change to negative form Use a) NOT.... ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 9. They need something now.. Please put it somewhere in this room. He lives somewhere in New York. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: 1. I put the money somewhere in this drawer yesterday. SOMETHING. He gave the book to somebody. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 7. / They need nothing now Do they need anything now? 4. They will go somewhere after the lesson They won´t go anywhere after the lesson / They will go nowhere after the lesson Will they go anywhere after the lesson? EXERCISES Ex. He told somebody about it. ANY o NO..

She spoke to no one about it. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex. 1 saw somebody I knew.. They found nobody at home. 9. thank you. We went nowhere after the dance. He brought something with him. 12. He took them somewhere on Long Island. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 110 A short course in english for adult students . 14. 3. 11. She put it somewhere. 4. He gave it to someone. 3. They gave us nothing to eat. ANY” negative form: 1. Rewrite the following “NO” sentences in the more common “NOT . 12. 1 want no more. We saw nobody at all in the park. 8. 5. I saw somebody at the desk. 2.. 9. There is no more coffee. I liked something about her. 4. 10. 7. He told somebody about it. Ex. 6. He went somewhere last night. 7.11. They want nothing to drink. They found the money somewhere. 5. They will send the goods to someone. She has something to do. He has something to do. He can see nothing without his glasses. 13. 2. 3. There is nowhere for him to sit. He´s going to do something now. There is someone in the next room. Change to question form 1. 8. 10. 2. Somebody wants to speak to him. 6.

calzada roundabout /ráundabáut/ rotonda school /skú:l/ colegio.) store /stóar/ tienda (USA) street /stri:t/ calle street-car /strí:t ká:r/ tranvía subway /sábwei/ paso bajo nivel (BR) subway /sábwei/ tren subterráneo (USA) supermarket /supermá:rkit/ supermercado tailor’s /téilorz/ sastrería take-away restaurant /téikawei réstrant/ restaurante de platos preparados para llevar taxi /tæksi/ taxi tea shop /ti:shop/ salón de té theatre /θíater/ teatro town hall /táun hó:l/ municipalidad traffic lights /træfik laits/ semáforo traffic sign /træfik sáin/ señalización train /tréin/ tren travel agent´s /trævel éidllents/ agencia de viajes truck /trak/ camióm (USA) tunnel /tánel/ tunnel underground /andergráund/ tren subterráneo (BR) university /iunivérsiti/ universidad van /væn/ camioneta (BR) zebra crossing /zibra krósiη/ cruce de zebra zoo /zu:/ zoológico A short course in english for adult students 111 .BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE CITY airport /éarport/ aeropuerto all-you-can-eat restaurant /ó:l iu kn í:t réstrant/ restaurant tenedor libre art gallery /á:rt gæleri/ galería de arte baker’s /béikerz/ panadería book shop /buk shop/ librería police station /polís stéishn/ cuartel de policia building /bíldiη/ edificio bus /bás/ bus bus stop /bas stop/ paradero de buses bus terminal /bas té:rminl/ terminal de buses butcher’s /bútcherz/ carnicería cab /kæb/ taxi (USA) café /kæfei/ café cafetería /kafitíria/ fuente de soda.casino car /ka:r/ automóvil casino /kazínou/ casino de juegos chemist’s /kémists/ farmacia church /tchértch/ iglesia cinema /sínema/ sala de cine coach /kóutch/ bus interurbano coffee shop /kófishop/ cafetería college /kólidll/ escuela (univ. tintorería estate car /estéit ká:r/ ranchera (BR) fire brigade /fáiar brigéid/ cuartel de bomberos flower shop /fláuer shop/ florería greengrocer’s /gri:ngróuserz/ verdulería grocer’s /gróuserz/ almacén (BR) grocery store /gróuseri stóar/ almacén (USA) hardware store /hárdwear stóar/ ferretería hospital /hóspitl/ hospital hostel /hóstel/ hostal hotel /houtél/ hotel jeweller´s /dllúelerz/ joyería level crossing /lével krósiη/ cruce FFCC (BR) lorry /lorri/ camión (BR) museum /miuzíam/ museo news-stand /niuz stænd/ puesto de diarios night-club /náit klab/ boite park /pa:rk/ parque pavement /péivment/ vereda (BR) pedestrian /pedéstrian/ peatón pick up /pik áp/ camioneta (USA) planetarium /planetærium/ planetario bridge /bridll/ puente post office /póust ófis/ oficina de correos public library /páblik láibreari/ biblioteca pública railway station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes restaurant /réstorant/ restaurant road /róud/ camino.) corner /kó:rner/ esquina crossroads /krósroudz/ cruce department store /dipá:rment stóar/ tienda de depart. escuela shoe shop /shu: shop/ zapatería shop /shop/ tienda (BR) sidewalk /sáidwo:k/ vereda (USA) snack bar /snæk bá:r/ fuente de soda station wagon /stéishn wágon/ ranchera (USA) stationer’s /stéishonerz/ librería (art.escrit. disco /dískou/ discoteca dry-cleaner’s /drái klí:nerz/ lavaseco.

Bl 112 .

? 5. 9. Which 2. Whose 9. will dig 7. Whose coat is that? Whose is that coat? 5. / Will they get married? 6.. Mr Smith told Peter that.. 1. 1.. Who 17. whom 10. will have 4.. who 6. Whose books are these? Whose are these books? 3. 1. Mary will not go out.. The teacher said that. whom Ex.. Whom 5. 13. 15. said 10. Whose car is this? Whose is this car? 2..UNIT 8 Key to answers PART I A.. whom 18. 1. will buy 11.. 7. Whose is this brand new car? 4. 7. When will John give the answer? 3. will use 6.. said 9. 8. / Will you send. 6. You won`t send. I´m sure (that) that house doesn´t belong to them .. Whose camera is this? Whose is this camera Ex. / Will Mr Smith see.. Who 19.. It doesn`t belong to them. 1. How long will they stay in Toronto? 8. I said that.. / Will John accept. 5. 7.....who wrote detective stories. Whose .. / Will Mary go out.the old man whose car was parked outside the school. will hire 12... Who(m) 8... That house belongs to us 3. 5.. 1. 4.. says 11. 3. will march 2.... 2. 4..which 16.. Why won`t Sue buy the dress? 7. whom 7.. 1.? Ex. 2. A... The teacher told Paul`s parents that. The boy says that. 1. Do these cigarettes belong to you? 9. whom 7.. Who 4. That car doesn´t belong to him. whom 3. whom 9. 5. John told his friends that... William told the doctor that. How long will the soldiers wait there? 5. Whose is this gold ring? 6.5.to whom you were talking in the lobby? Ex. The man tells me that.. Ex. 12. This sweater doesn´t belong to my sister. told 7.. Does that car belong to you? 6. told 5. belongs to me 2. whom 8. Whose 3. which 6. whom 4. That bicycle doesn`t belong to John. Bob said that he. whose wallet they found in the street. John will not accept. 2. 3.. 2. Ex. What will they talk about tomorrow? PART II. 2. the boy told us that... The train won´t arrive. Helen told the travel agent that. Whose are the cigarettes on that table? 7.. Why will Bob sell the car? 4.woman with whom Peter came to the party. 2. says 8.. will sell 5.. 6.. 6. It belongs to her. He says that she. said Ex. Ex. They won`t get married. 1.whom do these glasses belong? / Who do these glasses belong to? 11. I said that. Mr Smith won`t see.. Where will you wait for me / us? 9. whose 15.. will send 3....? 4... B. 14. How many volunteers will they need? 10.. will be 10. Ann told the office that. tell 12. whom 11.who wants to speak with you. 8... I think (that) this wallet belongs to you. says 2. John said that. Ex. 3. Mr Smith said that. whom 14. 1. told 3.. said 4... Those shoes don´t belong to Mary 8.. 1.. / Will the train arrive. 4. says 6...whom does this watch belong? / Who does this watch belong to? 10. 1.. whom 2... A short course in english for adult students 113 .? 3.whose husband died in a car accident 3. Where will they go in the summer? 2.. told 14.. It belongs to my brother. 1. will move Ex. whose 21. She told me that. 1.. Those keys belong to me 5. whom Ex. 3. will launch 8 will attend 9.. 4. 3.. That leather jacket doesn`t belong to you? 4. Who 13. What will Mr Smith send them? 6. 7... This house belongs to us..? 2. who 22. which 23.whom 10.. whose 5.. tell 13.. whom 20. which 24.. which 12..

. He isn´t going to do anything now / He`s going to do nothing now 13... He doesn`t have anything to do / He has nothing to do 12. 6..C. He doesn´t live anywhere in. Did he tell anybody about it? 5.. Did he go anywhere last night? 3.. 3.3.... I didn`t put the money anywhere. I don´t want any more. 3... He can´t see anything without his glasses... Is there anyone in the next room? 7. 7.. / I put the money nowhere. / There`s no one at. There isn`t anyone at. 1. I didn´t see anybody in... Don`t tell anybody about. There isn`t anyone in.. / He lives nowhere in. 11. Ex. 10. 7.. / Please.. Please. There isn´t any more coffee. 1.. / He said nothing. don´t put it anywhere in.. Does she have anything to do? 4.. We didn´t see anybody at all in the park 9. They didn´t give us anything to eat . 2.. 2. / Tell nobody about.. Did I see anybody at the desk. / I saw nobody in. Did she put it anywhere? 6... They didn´t find anybody at home 2... 1. They don´t want anything to drink 4.? 2. 8. He didn`t give the book to anybody / He gave the book to nobody 8. There isn´t anywhere for him to sit 5. 9.. Did I like anything about her? Ex.. They won´t send the goods to anyone / They´ll send the goods to no one. Did he take them anywhere on Long Island? 14.. He didn´t tell anybody. 1... We didn´t go anywhere after the dance 114 A short course in english for adult students . She didn`´t speak to anyone about it 6. put it nowhere in.. Ex.. Did I see anybody I knew? 9. Did he give it to anyone? 11. thank you. 4. 5.. 10. Did he bring anything with him? 10. He didn´t say anything. They didn´t find the money anywhere / They found the money nowhere 14. Does anybody want to speak to him? 8. / He told nobody. / There´s no one in.

”. 2.. La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What are you going to do? /wót a:r iú góuiη tu dú:/ ¿Qué va ha hacer ud.. etc. “Tú vas a . 8. 3. 5. 2. Tom isn´t going to come to Chile next year. Change the following sentences using AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO instead of WILL: 1. Tom will come to Chile next year. /δéi á:rent góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t going to come to work tomorrow. 4. Mary va a venir a trabajar mañana En la negación y en la interrogación se aplican las mismas reglas dadas en el Presente Continuo. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Is Tom going to come to Chile next year? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A short course in english for adult students 115 . Change the sentences you wrote in the previous exercise into a) negative and b) interrogative 1. 6.A. Mr. Mary is going to come to work tomorrow /mériz góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. Why isn´t Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /wái iznt méri góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. Equivale a la expresión “Yo voy a . Are they going to visit us next week-end? /á:r δéi góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary going to come to work tomorrow? /iz méri góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. Lea.. /méri íznt góuiη tu kám tu wé:rk tumórou/. Lea. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. 7.”. 2. The instructor will use a video.. I will send Mary a post-card from L. /δéi a:r góuiη tu vízit as nékst wí:kénd/ Ellos van a visitarnos el próximo fin de semana. “Él va a . 8. 1. Paul will go to Germany and France.”. 5. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t going to visit us next week-end. Jackson will play tennis tomorrow Jane will buy a bilingual dictionary..UNIT 9 PART 1.. 7. escuche y aprenda: They are going to visit us next week-end. The Johnsons will spend their vacation in Acapulco. EL FUTURO SIMPLE II (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE II) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GOING TO Esta construcción gramatical se usa para expresar intenciones o planes que probablemente se llevaran a cabo en el futuro cercano. 6.? EXERCISES Ex. When are they going to visit us? /wén a:r δéi góuiη tu vízit as/. They´ll travel to Mexico in March.

. en casa esta tarde? Yo voy a visitar a Mary este fin de semana. lea y aprenda: It takes Mr Clark about twenty minutes to drive to his office /it téiks míster klá:rk abáut twénti mínits tu dráiv tu hiz ófis/ El Sr..”.. 1. /IT TOOK. 2.. /it tuk δe stiú:dents abáut an áuar tu á:nser δe kwéstchonz/ Los alumnos demoraron más o menos una hora en contestar las preguntas. 5.. to fly from London to Chicago PAST It took the students the men me ________________ FUTURE It will take you the men ____________________ Escuche. A.. How long. They´re going to fix the engine.. Ellos no van a venir a la fiesta esta noche.”.. In each case the underlined part of the sentence will be the answer to the question asked. 3.?”. Bill is going to answer the question... 4. La forma interrogativa se expresa con “Does it take. She´s not going to go because she´s tired. Where.. “It didn´t take.. 4. 5. It will take you at least an hour to type the report. 3. LA EXPRESION IDIOMATICA IT TAKES. 6. ¿Qué vas ha hacer mañana en la mañana? ¿Van a estar uds. Bob and Jim are going to swim. o “Will it take.”. 2. Ask questions using question words like When. Clark demora cerca de 20 minutos en conducir a su oficina. o “It won´t take. “ tomar tiempo” Study the following chart: Whom? PRESENT It takes Mr Clark the students us ________________ How long? about 20 minutes about 15 minutes about one hour about 2 hours about 1 hour six months more than a year a long time at least an hour two years about 10 hours To do what? to drive to his office to run to the stadium to walk that distance to drive to Viña del Mar to answer the questions to build the bridge. 6....?” 116 A short course in english for adult students . We´re going to buy fruit and drinks. Ella va a comprar otro par de zapatos.?”. to learn English to build the pyramids to type the report to build the new highway. etc. It took the students about an hour to answer the questions. “Did it take. 7. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Ex.. I´m going to get back from work at 6:30.Ex.. demorará por lo La forma negativa se expresa mediante el uso de “It doesn´t take. Translate the following sentnces into English 1. 4. ¿Cuándo vas a vender tu auto? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ PART II. menos una hora en tipear el informe /it wil téik iú: at lí:st an áuar tu táip δe ripó:rt/ Ud.. Esta expresión idiomática se usa para expresar la idea de “demorar”. 3./ IT WILL TAKE. Bill is going to travel by plane.

Escuche. Will it take you more than an hour to type the report? .. 10. Does it take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office? It didn´t take the students much time to answer the questions.? Ex.. lea y aprenda: How long does it take Mr Clark to drive to his office every morning? How long did it take the students to answer the questions? How long will it take you to type this report? EXERCISES Ex. 4.: 1... It took Herbert a long time to walk there.. 1..? How long will it take you to.. It takes me seven minutes to walk there. ___________________________________________________ I found my mistake in a few minutes. It didn’t take Herbert a long time to walk there. or IT WIL TAKE.? Escuche. en. Did it take Herbert a long time to walk there? How long did it take Herbert to walk there? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 117 . 5.. ___________________________________________________ I walked to the station in fifteen minutes.. It took them many years to build the road.) I did my exercise in one hour.. 8.. Change the following to introduce IT TAKES. ___________________________________________________ I wrote the letter in a few minutes. ___________________________________________________ We drove to Philadelphia in one hour.. It takes me ten minutes to get there by subway. ___________________________________________________ They will build the bridge in two years. Then ask a Wh-question with HOW LONG? 1. ___________________________________________________ He does his homework every day in one hour. 2. 7. 12. 4.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demoró Ud. 11.. La pregunta habitual con esta expresión idiomática es : How long does it take you to. Did it take the students much time to answer the questions? It won´t take you more than an hour to type the report. Change to negative and to interrogative form. ___________________________________________________ I finished the work in an hour. ___________________________________________________ She learned to speak English in only one year..? How long did it take you to. en. 3.? ¿Cuánto tiempo se demorará Ud. 3. IT TOOK.. 9. (It takes me ten minutes to come to work on the bus... 2. I come to work on the bus in ten minutes. ___________________________________________________ They will complete the work in six years. It took him several hours to finish it. en... ___________________________________________________ I do my homework every night in a short time. 2. 6. ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuánto tiempo se demora Ud. lea y aprenda: It doesn´t take Mr Clark more than twenty minutes to drive to his office. 5.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Translate the following sentences into English 1. It took an hour to discover the mistake. It took a month to complete the work. Ella no demoró mucho tiempo en aprender a usar el computador. Uno no demora más de dos horas en viajar de Santiago aPuerto Montt en avión. 3. demorarán por lo menos tres meses en preparar el informe. Yo generalmente demoro diez minutos en caminar a casa desde la oficina. no demorará mucho tiempo en leer ese artículo _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 118 A short course in english for adult students . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.6. 11. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. It will take you a week to read this book. It took them two days to find him. Uds. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. en aprender a conducir un auto? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoró Ud. It takes much time to learn English. Ud. usualmente en ducharse todas las mañanas? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. ¿Cuánto tiempo demoraremos nosotros en aprender a hablar inglés bien? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 7. 12. It takes an hour to do this exercise. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 10. 8. It will take a long time to get there. ¿Cuánto tiempo demora Ud. Los alumnos demoraron más de dos horas en contestar todas las preguntas. 9.

GRADO COMPARATIVO Al usar el Grado Comparativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a. (Bob es una persona inteligente) Our house is very big. Cuando usamos el GRADO DE IGUALDAD estamos diciendo que dos personas o cosas tienen la misma característica. old.taller. Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra more: intelligent . es decir son iguales.thinner c. big. Mary is as beautiful as her sister Alice. (Nuestra casa es muy grande) This car is very old. Nosotros usamos el GRADO COMPARATIVO cuando especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando: Mary is more beautiful than her sister Alice. Grado Comparativo. (Este auto es tan viejo como ese). (Bob es más inteligente que George) Our house is bigger than your house. tall .hotter. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. (Bob es la persona más inteligente que conozco) Our house is the biggest house in the neighborhood.more important A short course in english for adult students 119 . (Nuestra casa es la casa más grande en el barrio) This is the oldest car in this town (Este es el auto más viejo en este pueblo) 4. intelligent estamos haciendo comparaciones. (Nuestra casa es tan grande como vuestra casa) This car is as old as that one.+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vocal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante: big . (Mary es más hermosa que su hermana Alaice) Bob is more intelligent than George. (Bob es tan inteligente como George) Our house is as big as your house. Mary is the most beautiful girl in the group. short . Grado Superlativo y Grado de Igualdad. 1.more intelligent important .bigger. (Mary es tan hermosa como su hermana Alice) Bob is as intelligent as George. Los adjetivos tienen cuatro grados de comparación: Grado Positivo. GRADOS DE COMPARACION DE LOS ADJETIVOS Cuando usamos un adjetivo calificativo como beautiful. thin . (Mary es la niña más hermosa en el grupo) Bob is the most intelligent person I know.smaller. EL GRADO POSITIVO es aquel que usamos cuando no especificamos con qué persona o cosa estamos comparando. Mary is a beautiful girl. (Este auto es muy viejo) 2.shorter b. (Este auto es más viejo que ese) 3. hot . (Nuestra casa es más grande que vuestra casa) This car is older than that one.B. Cuando usamos el GRADO SUPERLATIVO estamos comparando una persona o cosa con todas las demás de su especie. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -er: small . Cuando decimos que “Mary is a beautiful girl” estamos comparándola con otras niñas que hemos visto anteriormente. (Mary es una niña hermosa) Bob is an intelligent person.

2.thinnest c.d.. 5. (old) The weather today is ____________________________ yesterday (bad) This summer is ____________________________ last summer (hot) This article is ____________________________ that one.most much .Washington (large) John is ____________________________ William (short) Henry is ____________________________ I (tall) This book is ____________________________ that book . (interesting) A short course in english for adult students .most important d. Existen algunos adjetiivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good bad far better worse farther little many much less more more GRADO SUPERLATIVO Al usar el Grado Superlativo debemos observar las siguientes reglas: a.farthest little . short . (El no es TAN alto como su hermano) (su hermano es mucho más alto) EXERCISES Ex. 120 Philadelphia is.shortest b.most GRADO DE IGUALDAD Estas oraciones se expresan usando as + adj. En las oraciones negativas el grado de igualdad puede ser expresado con not as. 7. si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra most.least many . (El no es tan alto como su hermano) (su hermano es ligeramente más alto) He is not so tall as his brother.. pretty common prettier more common clever modern cleverer more modern e..(larger than).prettiest common .most intelligent important . 4.smallest tall . 1. A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -er . He is not as tall as his brother. pretty .hottest.worst far .. hot .as o not so..most common clever . Supply the comparative form of the adjectives in parentheses 1.biggest. thin .most modern e.best bad . dependiendo del grado de diferencia existente He is as tall as his brother. 3.+vocal+cons o cons+cons+vo cal+cons debemos duplicar la última consonante big . Si el adjetivo tiene tres o más sílabas se debe anteponer la palabra most: intelligent ..tallest. 6. A los adjetivos de una sílaba debemos agregar el sufijo -est: small ..as. si es de origen latino o griego se le antepone la palabra more. Existen algunos adjetivos que tienen una forma excepcional en el grado comparativo: good .. Si el adjetivo está formado por cons. + as.cleverest modern . A los adjetivos de dos sílabas de origen sajón (que no se parecen al español) se le agrega el sufijo -est.

. 11.. This book was __________________________________ The weather today is not better than it was yesterday. This exercise is _______________________________________ This book is not thicker than my French book. 12.. 8. 15. Grace is.(interesting) 5. In the following. Henry is... 4..(long) 8...... Henry is ____________________________________________________________________ New York is not smaller than Chicago... (bad) Which is ____________________________ city in this country? (large) This is ____________________________ room in the whole building.. introduce the superlative form or the adjective in parentheses: 1...... The Mississippi River is. (sweet) This is ____________________________ park in the city. 9.. 3. This book is ______________________________________________ This book was not more expensive than my French book. (good) Henry is ____________________________ dancer in the school.. (intelligent) He is also ____________________________ student in the class. Helen is __________________________________________________________ This street is not wider than that street.(tall) 2.. 8...... is.(intelligent) 4... The weather today is ________________________________ The weather today is not colder than it was yesterday.(wide) 9. (interesting) New York is also ____________________________ city in the United States.... 9.. New York is _____________________________________________________ Helen is not younger than her sister.. 2. 5.. 12.. This book is. Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (difficult) These apples are ____________________________ those... 4. 9.... 7... first in comparative form.. Complete these sentences by using the adjective which is the opposite of the one in italics: 1.... 7. Today is ____________________________ day of the year. State the adjectives in parentheses...... 5.. 10.8. 3.. Henry is not taller than I. and second in superlative form.. 6.. 6...(pretty) 3. John is a.... Use words of your choosing to complete each sentence: 1. This street is... (healthy) This room is ____________________________ that one. (light) Is this exercise ____________________________ the last one? (important) Ex. 10. The Empire State Bldg..... (young) 6.(tall) 7.. 11.The weather today is ________________________________ Ex. 4.. (good) student ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 121 . 13. (good) Some people are ____________________________ others.. (little) Ex. Frank is. This street is ___________________________________________________ This exercise is not more difficult than the last one.(hot) New York is ____________________________ city in the United States. 3.. 2.. John is ____________________________ boy in the class (tall). (large) This is ____________________________ apple of all. (few) John has ____________________________ experience in computers in the group. 14. Bill is. 2. (beautiful) John is ____________________________ boy in the class.. (light) Which student in your class knows ____________________________ English words? (many) Which man in the group has ____________________________ money? (much) That city has ____________________________ parks in the region.

10. 6.. 7.. John isn’t as / so tall as his brother. (easy) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4. 9. The sky is darker than it was yesterday.John makes more mistakes than Henry. 3. New York is more important than Washington D. This corridor is larger than the room.There are more people today than yesterday 13. Rewrite each sentence to show equality of comparison.. This exercise is. Peter has more money than Henry 14.The weather today is worse than it was yesterday.C.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 122 A short course in english for adult students . John is taller than his brother. This book is better than the other. Our apartment is larger than yours. 2.. This exercise is longer than the last.. 5. 8. 11. John has less experience in computers than I. John is as tall as his brother. Helen is more beautiful than Mary.10.. 5. This street is wider than that one. State each sentence first in positive form and then in negative form: 1... 12.

BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words FOOD /fu:d/ Los alimentos 1. plaice /pléis/ squid /skuid/ swordfish /sórdfish/ caballa cholga. Sea Food /sí: fu:d/ Pescados y mariscos abalone /abalouni/ clam /klæm/ cockle /kókl/ cod /kod/ conger eel /kónger i:l/ crab /kræb/ eel /í:l/ fish /fish/ haddock /hædok/ hake /heik/ herring /hérriη/ loco almeja caracol. Provisions /províllnz/ Abarrotes bread /bred/ biscuit /biskit/ butter /báter/ cake /keik/ candies /kændiz/ coffee /kófi/ cookie /kúki/ cracker /kræker/ cream /kri:m/ cheese /tchi:z/ chips /tchips/ egg /eg/ french fries /frénch fráiz / jam /dllæm/ lard /la:rd / margarine /má:rdllari:n/ marmalade /má:rmeléid / 2. Meats /mi:ts/ Carnes beef /bi:f/ breast /brest/ chicken /tchikin/ chop /tchop/ duck /dak/ fillet /filét/ lamb /læm/ leg /leg/ mutton /mátn/ vacuno pechuga pollo chuleta pato filete cordero lechón pata. pastillas tea /ti:/ té toast /tóust/ tostada(s) vinegar /vínegar/ vinagre 4. berberecho bacalao congrio jaiva anguila pescado abadejo.camarones salmón ostión mariscos langostinos lenguado calamar albacora /pez espada 123 A short course in english for adult students . Meals /mi:lz/ Las comidas breakfast /brékfast/ brunch /brantch/ lunch /lantch/ supper /sáper/ dinner /díner/ appetizer /apetáizer/ 3. mejillón ostra gamba. pié cordero pheasant /féznt/ pork /po:rk/ rib /rib/ sirloin /se:rloin/ T-bone /tí: bóun/ turkey /té:rki/ veal /vi:l/ venison /vénison/ wing /wiη/ faisán cerdo costilla lomo entrecot pavo ternera ciervo ala desayuno desayuno-almuerzo almuerzo cena (informal) cena (formal) aperitivo hors-dóeuvres /o:dévre/ starter /stá:rter/ first course /fé:rst kó:rz/ main course /méin kó:rz/ dessert /dizé:rt/ entremeses entrada primer plato plato de fondo postre pan galleta (Br) mantequilla torta calugas café galleta (USA) galleta de agua crema queso papas fritas (Br) huevo papas fritas (USA) mermelada.merlango merluza arenque mackerel /mækerel/ mussel /mázl/ oyster /óister/ prawns /pro:nz/ salmon /sá:mon/ scallop /skálop/ shellfish /shelfish/ shrimps /shrimps/ sole /soul /. dulce manteca margarina mermelada cítrica mashed potatoes /mæsht potéitouz/ puré de papas noodles /nú:dlz/ fideos oil /oil/ aceite pepper /péper/ pimienta rice /ráis/ arroz salad dressing /sælad drésiη/ aliño para ensaladas salt /sólt/ sal sauce /so:s/ salsa soup /su:p/ sopa Spaghetti /spagéti/ tallarines sugar /shúgar/ azúcar sweets /suits/ dulces.

choclo pepino garlic /gá:rlik/ lemon /lémon/ lettuce /létis/ onion /ánion/ pea(s) /pi:(z)/ potato(es) /potéitou(z)/ pumkin /pámkin/ raddish /rædish/ red /green pepper /péper/ spinach /spínidll/ tomato(es) /toméitou(z)/ ajo limón lechuga cebolla arveja(s) papa(s) zapallo rábano pimentón /morrón espinaca tomate(s) 7. Beverages /bívridlliz/ Bebestibles beer /bíar/ coffee /kófi:/ drink /driηk/ herbal tea /hérbal tí:/ juice /dllu:s/ lemonade /lémoneid/ milk /milk/ cerveza café trago aguita de hierbas jugo limonada leche red wine /réd wáin/ soda water /sóuda wó:ter/ soft drink /sóft driηk/ tea /ti:/ water /wó:ter/ white wine /wáit wáin/ wine /wáin/ vino tinto agua de soda refresco té agua vino blanco vino 124 A short course in english for adult students . Vegetables /védlletablz/ Verduras celery /séleri/ artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ asparragus /aspáragaz/ bean(s) /bi:n(z) beetroot /bí:trut/ broad bean /broud bí:n/ cabbage /kæbidll/ carrot /károt/ chicory /tchíkori/ corn /kó:rn/ cucumber /kiukámber/ apio alcachofa espárrago poroto(s) betarraga haba repollo zanahoria chicoria maíz.king crab /kiη kræb/ lobster /lóbster/ 5. Fruits /fru:ts/ Frutas apple /æpl/ apricot /éiprikot/ banana /banana/ blackberry /blækberi/ blueberry /blú:beri/ cherry/cherries /tchérriz/ coconut /kókounat/ cranberry /krænberi/ dates /déits/ gooseberry /gú:zberi/ grapefruit /gréifru:t/ grapes /greips/ hazel nuts /héizl nats/ centolla langosta trout /traut/ tuna fish /tuna fish/ urchin /é:rchin/ trucha atún erizo manzana damasco plátano mora arándano cerezas coco arándano agrio dátiles grosella pomelo uvas nueces melon /mélon/ orange /órindll/ peach /pi:tch/ peanut /pí:nats/ pineapple /páinápl/ plum /plam/ prunes /prú:nz/ quince /kuins/ raisins /réizinz/ raspberry /ræzberi/ strawberry /stró:beri/ watermelon /wotermélon/ melón naranja durazno maní piña ciruela ciruelas secas membrillo pasas frambuesa frutilla sandía 6.

.? / How long does it take to. 1.. 2.. 3.? 6.. / Does it take much time to.. How long does it usually take you to take a shower every morning? 7. 4.. 3... B.UNIT 9 Key to answers PART I Ex..? Ex.. 1. more important than A short course in english for adult students 125 . It will take them two years to build the bridge.. better than 10. 2.. 2.. Paul isn´t going to go to. It took her only one year to learn to speak English. Who is going to answer the question? Ex. 2..? 4. / Did it take them many years to build. / Did it take him several hours to.. It generally takes me ten minutes to walk home from the office.. 5... Mr Jackson isn´t going to play..? / How long does it take me to. 2...3. / Is Paul going to go to. 1. It took us one hour to drive to Philadelphia....? 10.. It took the students more than two hours to answer all the questions.? / How long does it take to. It took me a few minutes to write the letter.? 2. They are going to travel to. 4. The Johnsons aren´t going to spend....They aren´t going to come to the party tonight.? / How long did it take them to. Ex. 1. The instructor isn´t going to use. / Does it take an hour to.? 8. more interesting than 8. It didn´t take a month to. How long will it take us to learn to speak English well? 6... What time / When are you going to get back from work? 5.... It didn´t take an hour to. It will take them six years to complete the work... It took me fifteen minutes to walk to the station . It doesn´t take me ten minutes to get.. What are Bob and Jim going to do? 3.? / How long will it take to. I´m going to send Mary. / Did it take a month to.? Ex. It didn´t take him several hours to. / Will it take a long time to.. 1. / Are the Johnsons going to spend..? 4... What are they going to do? 6. 9. lighter than 12.. taller than 4.. Tom is going to come to. 8. It took me a few minutes to find my mistake... healthier than 11. 8. 6.. How long did it take you to learn to drive a car? 5..? 6. It doesn´t take an hour to. 1.. What are you going to do tomorrow morning? 4. worse than 6.. older than 5.? 8. 2...? / How long does it take me to get... / Did it take an hour to.. shorter than 3. It won´t take a long time to. Tom isn´t going to come to.? 7. She´s going to buy another pair of shoes. I´m not going to send Mary. 9. 4.. Mr Jackson´s going to play. 1 How is Bill going to travel? 2.... 4. It won´t take you a week to... / Are they going to travel to.... more difficult than 9.? / How long did it take to.. / Is Mr Jackson going to play. / Does it take me ten minutes to get... / Is the instructor going to use. Are you going to be at home this evening? 5.? / How long did it take them to build....... 11.? 3.? 3. 2.. It doesn´t take me seven minutes to. / Will it take you a week to.. 7. It will take you at least three months to prepare the report.. It takes him one hour to do his homework every day..? 12.... 3. It didn´t take them many years to build...? 7.. I´m going to visit Mary this weekend? 6. It doesn`t take much time to.. It took me an hour to do my exercise 3.? / How long will it take you to. / Am I going to send Mary. When are you going to sell your car? PART II A. Ex.... 8. The instructor´s going to use. Ex. They aren´t going to travel to.... 3. 1.... Why isn´t she going to go? 7. It didn´t take her very long / much time to learn how to use the computer.. 6. / Did it take them two days to. It doesn´t take more than two hours to travel from Santiago to Puerto Montt by plane... 2. / Is Jane going to buy... It took me an hour to finish the work 10..... It didn´t take them two days to.? 5. Paul`s going to go to. What are you / we going to buy? 4. It won´t take you very long to read that article..? 9.? / How long did it take to. Ex.. hotter than 7. 5. 12...... / Is Tom going to come to. It takes me a short time to do my homework every night 7. Jane isn´t going to buy.. The Johnsons are going to spend.... / How long did it take him to... / Does it take me seven minutes to. Jane´s going to buy.? 11...? 5.

/ This is the most interesting book (that) I have ever read 5. 9. 7. / The Empire State (Building) is the tallest building in New York. 1. bigger than Chicago 3. Our apartment is as large as yours. 3. the most 13. John has as little experience in computers as I. shorter than I 2. The sky is as dark as it was yesterday. narrower than 5. the most beautiful 7. Peter has as much money as Henry. There are as many people today as yesterday. the sweetest 6. 12. / New York isn´t as / so important as Washington. John doesn´t make as / so many mistakes as Henry. 13.. 3. warmer / hotter than it was yesterday. This book is more interesting than that one. the best 9. This exercise is easier than the previous one. / Grace is the prettiest girl (whom) I know. / This is the widest street in this town. 8. The weather today isn´t as / so bad as it was yesterday. 11. the least Ex. 126 A short course in english for adult students . (Open answers) 1. This book isn´t as / so good as the other. The sky isn´t as / so dark as it was yesterday. The weather today is as bad as it was yesterday. the worst 10.This corridor is as large as the room.5. 2. 10. The Mississippi River is longer than the Colorado River / The Mississippi River is the longest river in the USA 8. 6. There aren´t as / so many people today as yesterday. easier than 6. the most 14. / Bill is the most intelligent person in my class. the most interesting 4. The Empire State Building is taller than the RCA Building. 9. Helen is as beautiful as Mary. worse than it was yesterday. Our apartment isn´t as / so large as yours. 4. John makes as many mistakes as Henry. the tallest 2. 4. the hottest 3.New York is as important as Washington. the most intelligent 8. the lightest 12. 2. 1. cheaper than my French book 8.Ex. 10. thinner than my French book 7. / This is the easiest exercise in this unit. Frank is younger than his sister / Frank is the youngest person in the family 6. This exercise isn´t as / so long as the last. the fewest 15. the largest 11. 14. 4. 7. 4. Ex. the largest 5. John doesn´t have as / so little experience in computers as I. Bill is more intelligent than James. Ex. This street is wider than my street. This street isn´t as / so wide as that one. Grace is prettier than her sister. 3. This street is as wide as that one. This book is as good as the other. 2. John is a better student than Peter / John is the best student in my class. This corridor isn´t as / so large as the room. Peter doesn´t have as / so much money as Henry. Helen isn´t as / so beautiful as Mary. 9. This exercise is as long as the last. Henry is taller than Bill / Henry is the tallest person in the group. older than her sister. 5.

1 Practice these questions and answers with a friend: What are you doing on Friday night? What are you doing next week-end? What´s the boss doing this afternoon? What are you and your wife doing next summer? How are you getting there? When are you leaving? How long are you staying there this time? I´m going to a disco with some friends. He´s attending a meeting. (have dinner) I´m having dinner with the Johnsons next Friday evening. Mr Mitchell _____________________________________________________________________________________ 2. to come back.UNIT 10 PART 1. He went to his travel agent this morning and bought an air ticket (fly). Esta construcción gramatical se usa para referirse a actividades que han sido acordadas. Mr Mitchell wants to visit Sydney next week. I accepted their invitation. agendadas. /δéi á:rent vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ Mary isn´t coming to work tomorrow. Make sentences using the Present Continuous to refer to future activities. por ejemplo: to go. /méri íznt kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ Are they visiting us next week-end? /á:r δéi vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ Is Mary coming to work tomorrow? /iz méri kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ When are they visiting us? /wén a:r δéi vízitiη ás/ Why isn´t Mary coming to work tomorrow? /wái íznt méri kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo es: What are you doing tomorrow morning/on Sunday/ etc? /wót á:r iu dú:iη tumórou mó:rniη/on sándi/ etc. 2. to travel. /mériz kámiη tu wé:rk tumórou/ (She confirmed this morning) Los verbos más comúnmente usados en esta variante son aquellos que indican movimiento o desplazamiento de uno a otro lugar. to leave. 1. to fly. (Qué tienes previsto / planificado hacer mañana en la mañana / el domingo / etc. We´re going to Cancun again. We´re leaving on January 21st. Ex. to arrive. to attend. /δéi a:r vízitiη as nékst wí:kénd/ (They accepted our invitation) Mary´s coming to work tomorrow. etc. to stay. to have lunch/dinner. We´re staying there for 10 days. We´re flying / We´re going by plane. Lea. to visit. Las forma negativa e interrogativa se expresa en la misma forma que se hizo con el Presente Contínuo Lea. I´m visiting my sister in New Jersey. John wrote in his diary: “Monday 10:30 Conference at YMCA Auditorium” (attend) John __________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 127 .) EXERCISES Ex. escuche y aprenda: They are visiting us next week-end. ha advertido. like in the example: The Johnsons invited me for dinner next Friday evening. to drive. escuche y aprenda: They aren´t visiting us next week-end. previstas o fijadas con anticipación para una fecha próxima. to come. EL FUTURO SIMPLE III (THE SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE III) EL FUTURO SIMPLE CON AM/IS/ARE + GERUNDIO Como probablemente ud. en esta variante se usa la misma estructura del Presente Contínuo (S+AM/IS/ ARE+ING/.

“ Yes. I´ll be away on a business trip”. he _______________________________________________________________________ On Friday morning. (leave) Our train_____________________________________________________________ in ten minutes. Sat. 3. It´s 8:15 now. ____________________________________________________________________________________ At 7:40 AM on Thursday.3. 3. 5. On Monday morning. As you can see. Dr.. Use the information given below: Dr. at 16:00. Ex. Now complete the sentences using the information given in the chart. 10:30 Meeting at the US Medical Assn. I asked Bob if he wanted to play with me and he said. The departure of our train is at 8:25. Ex. 8. 14. 19:30 Reception at the White House Tues. he´s _______________________________________________________________ at the Waldorf Hotel. 2. let´s go”! (go) Jim and Mary __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Dr. Brown said to us. Brown 11:30 Ceremony at Lincoln Memorial 20:00 Dinner party at US. 10:00 Visit Bethesda Medical Center 19:45 Concert. I want to play tennis tomorrow. Write sentences indicating Dr. 7. 07:40 Fly to Houston. 3. Mary?”. _________________________________________________________________________________ On Wednesday morning. “I´m afraid. United Airlines Flight 908 from National Airport. 4. Nasa Space Center 12:45 Lunch with friends at Waldorf Hotel 16:00 Fly back to Washington. Make complete sentences: 1. at Kennedy Center Thurs. Novoa ____________________________back to Chile. Let´s hurry up. He is arriving at Arturo Merino Airport at about 21:15. On Monday evening. Answer these questions in English. 09:30 Play tennis with Dr. Novoa is going to the USA next week. DC 10:15 Fly back to Chile. he _______________________________________________________ at Nasa Space Center At midday. 4. We must hurry up. First he is visiting Washington DC and then he is attending a Conference in Houston. he ____________________________________________________________________ He is arriving in Washington DC. 11. he´s ________________________________________________________________________ He´s _______________________________________________________________________ on Tuesday morning. After that.Texas 14:00 Conference at Houston Medical Center 08:00 Conference. 6. Texas. It says. of course!” (play) I______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 7. 4. 2. (not attend) Mr Brown______________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Novoa´s Schedule Mon._________________________________________________________________________ After dinner. Right after lunch. 9. 1. Mary: “Yes. Fri. Dr. At 10:15 on Saturday. he´s attending a meeting at the US Medical Association. Novoa will have a very busy week next week. Jim: “Why don´t we go to a disco tonight. 5. he ___________________________________________________________________________________ In the evening. 12. he ______________________________________________________________________ On Thursday afternoon. by boat or plane? _____________________________________________ What are you doing on Saturday? ___________________________________________________ What time are you getting home tonight? ___________________________________________________ 128 A short course in english for adult students . Surgeons Club Wed. 6. “Arriving on 8:15 train Saturday morning” (arrive) Our daughter___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 13. We just got a telegram from our daughter. Novoa´s activities in Washington and in Houston. Mr. 10. late in the evening. What are you doing this evening? ___________________________________________________ Where are you going on vacation this year? ___________________________________________________ What are you doing next Friday evening? ___________________________________________________ When are your friends from New York coming to visit you? ____________________________________________ How is Mr Jackson travelling to Japan. I can´t come to your wedding party on Friday.

. 6. Bob = You are allowed to use my computer 1. be likely to. / I assume. He must be over 70 years old. Jones ___________________________________________________ Yo no voy a salir de Stgo. 1. PODER = tener permiso para (Informal) Synonym 1.. PODER = ser posible 3. be allowed to 2.. Be allowed to Example 1. have to 2. He can swim well. Be possible to 3. Translate the following sentences into English 1. Ej. (No se debe decir. DEBER = tener que (obligación/ necesidadad) 2. 10. Can he swim well? • Rara vez se usa el verbo modal OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas.. 1. Be able to 2. = I think / assume he is over. It´ll probably rain tomorrow. You can use my computer. 3. You must obey orders. = You have to obey orders. CAN. Ej. You can see the lake from here. (No se debe decir. It may rain tomorrow. 8. ¿a que hora vamos a llegar allá? __________________________________________________ PART II. 7. 2. 5. = Bob is able to swim well 2.. You may leave now = You are allowed to leave now. 2. ___________________________________________________ Ellos van a estar con nosotros varios días. ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué harán ellos con el dinero que recibieron? ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuando tienen ellos previsto viajar a los EEUU? ___________________________________________________ ¿A que hora vas a llegar del trabajo esta tarde? ___________________________________________________ Según el itinerario. 2. probably MAY SHOULD OUGHT TO 1. Bob can swim well. MODAL VERBS (I) A. Mary vendrá a vernos la próxima semana. DEBER = tener que (deducción/ conclusión) 1.) Ej. You should study every day. A short course in english for adult students 129 .. He can swim well. este fin de semana. DEBERÍA = consejo. 1. ___________________________________________________ Te prometo que no haré eso nuevamente. “He cans swim well”) • Niegan agregando la palabra NOT (formando en algunos casos una contracción) Ej. ___________________________________________________ Creo que ella no va a aceptar nuestra invitación. / You ought to study every day = It is convenient for you to study every day.. ___________________________________________________ Esta noche tenemos previsto cenar con Mr. I think. = It is likely to rain tomorrow. PODER = ser capaz de. PODER = tener permiso (formal) 2. He cannot / can´t swim well (cannot es el único caso en que el verbo modal y not van unidos) • Interrogan mediante simple inversión con el sujeto. 9..Ex. OUGHT TO. MAY. = It´s possible (for you) to see the lake from here 3. “He can to swim”) • No agregan -s en la tercera persona singular en el tiempo presente. recomendación 1. MUST. 5. PODER = ser posible o probable 1. 2. You had better study every day MUST 1. be advisable to / convenient / had better Estos verbos modales o especiales acompañan a un verbo principal y tienen las siguientes características: • Van seguidos de un infinitivo sin TO (excepto. 4. SHOULD/OUGHT TO Estos Verbos Modales (también llamados defectivos o especiales) tienen los siguientes significados: Spanish CAN 1.

(Ud. (Negative). (El está usando un uniforme verde. puede ver el lago desde esta ventana) We can´t use the elevator now . Tommy.?) It´s getting cloudy. 3. It´s not good for your health. It´s dangerous. 6. Puede que llueva mañana) Don´t get on that chair. Para indicar obligación. Sir? (¿Puedo fumar aquí. 1. mother? You ____________ not do that again. It´s out of order. He is a retired civil servant.you ought to see a doctor / iu: ó:t tu sí: e dóktor / (No te ves bien. 2. (Deberías sentirte orgulloso de ser chileno) 3. (Los alumnos no deben fumar en el laboratorio) He´s wearing a green uniform. Peter) Can I turn on the TV. si lo desea) You may not use this telephone at any time. He ____________ be over 65 years old now.. You ____________ easily fall and break your leg. debe obedecer las leyes del tránsito) Students mustn´t smoke in the laboratory. Para expresar incredulidad o asombro May (Poder) 1. Está descompuesto) You can leave now. No pueden usar este teléfono a ninguna hora) May I smoke here. (Ud. Creo que deberías ver un médico) You should not smoke so much. 9. Para indicar capacidad. 7. (Uds.(No podemos usar el ascensor ahora. reprochar o indicar un deber moral You don´t look well. dad? (¿Puedo encender el televisor. habilidad o destreza. (No debería fumar tanto.. MUST. (Puedes retirarte ahora. 4. Para indicar incredulidad o asombro.(Mary no puede tocar la guitarra) Can you speak English? (¿Puede Ud. 8. 4. Para pedir o dar permiso o autorización. Joe. Debe ser un policía) Ask the secretary. You may fall down and break an arm. Complete the blanks with CAN. He must be a policeman. (formal). 2. I just put on my glasses. 2. Para dar consejos. 2. Te puedes caer y quebrar un brazo) Cigarette smoking may cause cancer! (Fumar cigarrillos puede producir cancer) Should / Ought To (Debería) 1. (Positive) Para indicar suposición o deducción. You ____________ take your umbrella in case it rains this afternoon. (Se está nublando. (No te subas a esa silla. puede retirarse. papá?) That can´t be true! (Eso no puede ser cierto!) I can´t believe my eyes! (No puedo creer lo que estoy viendo!) You must obey all traffic regulations. 5. She must know where Mr Jackson is now. John. Peter. you ____________ ask questions at the end of the presentation. Ella debe saber dónde está el Sr Kackson ahora) You must be joking! (Debes estar bromeando!) It must be a mistake! (Debe ser un error!) You may leave now. You ____________ study harder if you want to get better grades. 1. ____________ I use your pen please. Para indicar que la posibilidad para hacer algo. MAY o SHOULD. if you like. según corresponda. Para indicar posibilidad o probabilidad EXERCISES Ex. (John puede nadar bien) Mary can´t play the guitar. Sr. if you wish. No es bueno para tu salud) You should feel proud of being a Chilean. Sir? ____________ I have another piece of cake.Estos verbos tienen los siguientes significados y usos : Can (Poder) 1. (Pregúntele a la secretaria. 130 Gentlemen. It may rain tomorrow. John can swim very well. (Ud. Now I ____________ read better. I think that you should see a doctor /. Tommy. 3. A short course in english for adult students . (Informal) Para dar o pedir permiso o autorización. hablar Inglés?) You can see the lake from this window. You ____________ have a passport and a visa to enter the United States. Must (Deber) 1.

2 Change the following sentences into a) negative. Ud. I think you ____________ go on a diet. 4. You ____________ come and visit us any day. He ____________n´t be an engineer. 22. mientras que MUST enfatiza más la idea de obligación. b) interrogative and c) Wh-question : 1. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Ex. 3. They may use Room 203. Eso puede suceder nuevamente. He ____________n´t be driving the car! He doesn´t know how to start a car. 3. HAVE TO = TENER QUE El verbo modal MUST (deber) tiene un sinónimo: la expresión idiomática HAVE TO . 4. Why don´t you phone at his home. 13. pueden fumar aquí. 2. 19. A pesar de ser sinónimos. What ____________ I do in order to improve my pronunciation. The boss gets very angry when people are late. ¿Puedes tú ayudarme esta tarde? 8. It´s almost midnight now. 3. They ____________ be working instead. Billy . El puede correr muy rápido. 15. (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) A short course in english for adult students ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 131 . Why don´t you give them some more money? You ____________ be more generous. We must go because it´s late. en el uso díario HAVE TO se utiliza frecuentemente para expresar idea de necesidad. 5. 18. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) Peter has to work until late this evening. They´re very poor. ¿Qué debería hacer yo ahora? 7. ¿Puedo sentarme aquí. Ex. Debe estar cansado. It´s too young. 6. You ____________ be punctual for the meeting. John. You´ll be welcome to our home. He is only 18 years old! Miss Clark ____________ type fast but she ____________n´t use a computer. B. The man is very strong. Puede que ellos nos visiten mañana. He sometimes goes home for lunch. The little bird ____________n´t fly yet.10. 2. (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) Peter must work until late this evening. He ____________ be there. escuche y aprenda: I must go to the hospital to see a friend. 20. Bob can speak three languages. Lea. (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) I have to go to the hospital to see a friend. 10. 17. 23. I don´t know why they´re talking. Uds. Translate the following sentences into English 1. They ____________ be sleeping at this time. 16. He ____________ lift that heavy box easily. señor? 9. 11. 12. 21. They should take a taxi. professor? You ____________ pay by credit card or by cheque. 24.We don´t accept cash. El trabajó muy duro. You are too fat. debe venir mañana nuevamente. You ____________ insert two coins in the slot if you want to use the telephone. 14. El no puede hablar español bién.

John must also take another language. (Peter debe trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) (Peter tiene que trabajar hasta tarde todas las noches) (Past) = Peter had to work until late yesterday evening. 12. WON´T. al igual que con los verbos principales. Lea. I must work tonight. 5. (Peter tuvo que trabajar hasta tarde ayer) (Future) = Peter will have to work until late this evening. Mary and John must fly to Paris today. 2. 11. escuche y aprenda: Does Peter have to work until late every evening? Did Peter have to work until late yesterday evening? Will Peter have to work until late this evening? EXERCISES Ex. = Peter has to work until late every evening. DID. 3. We must prepare our lessons every night. 1 must write many letters. escuche y aprenda: Peter doesn´t have to work until late every evening Peter didn´t have to work until late yesterday evening Peter won´t have to work until late this evening En las interrogaciones debemos anteponer los verbos modales do/does/did/will al sujeto Lea. John must go out of town this afternoon. I must get up early every day. 7. 10. Mary must study French next year. DIDN´T. Lea. Peter tendrá que trabajar hasta tarde esta noche) En la forma negativa de HAVE TO se deben usar. Substitute the correct form of HAVE To for MUST in the following: 1. We must learn many new words every day. 6. (Yo tendré que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Present) Peter must work until late this evening. ni tampoco se puede usar en otros tiempos verbales. escuche y aprenda: (Present) I must go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo debo ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) (Past) (Future) = I have to go to the hospital to see a friend (Yo tengo que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I had to go to the hospital to see a friend. (Yo tuve que ir al hospital a ver a un amigo) = I will have to go to the hospital to see a friend. We must write a composition each night. es necesario recurrir a la forma correspondiente de HAVE TO. 9. They must stay there at least an hour. los verbos modales DO / DOES. 1. WILL + NOT o las contracciones DON´T / DOESN´T. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 132 A short course in english for adult students . You must read this article.Debido a que el verbo modal MUST no tiene una forma para expresar el pasado. 4. 8.

3. 5. 8. 2. They have to come back later. I have to get up early. Ex. I have to work today. We have to go to the hospital this afternoon. Read the following with MUST. Then. We __________ telephone her right away. 9. We all have to write a short story. 12. 7. They have to write many letters. Change to negative form: 1. He had to be there at two o’clock. Change to past and future time: 1. I ____________ answer this letter at once. 3. 9. 8. I had to leave at once. Mr. 5. 7. John has to stop his English lessons. We __________ hurry in order to get there early. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. He __________ learn all the new words. We have to write a composition tonight. 6. change to past and future time: 1. We had to meet him at noon. 11. (at once = right away= = immediately) I will have to leave at once. 2. She__________ attend class every day. Mary has to come with him. John has to be here at two o’clock. 2. We have to get up early. 6.Ex. 4. You have to wait a few minutes. He has to see a doctor. 4. 10. 1 must must leave at once. He __________ go to the hospital right away. Ex. 4. 5. 10. 6. Smith has to go out of town. We have to study tonight. 3. He __________ stay at home and rest. 4. We __________ make reservations at once. He __________ spend more time on his English. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 133 A short course in english for adult students . They have to study very hard. 3.

WHAT TIME. They have to rent an apartment soon. They will have to come back later. 5. 8. etc. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 1. 3. 11. 9. 11. 7. He had to leave at noon. They have to study every day. We have to prepare our homework every day. He has to wear a coat because it´s cold. We will have to learn many new words. John had to go to the hospital. WHERE. He had to return yesterday.00 every morning. He will have to wait a few minutes. 10. 2. 5. WHY. 9. They had to leave early. I have to buy a new pen. Then. He has to take more exercise. 12. 8. 10. 4. She has to rest a while because she´s tired 12. 6. ask questions with WHEN. We have to work on Sunday. He had to buy several new books. We have to get up at 6.. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 134 A short course in english for adult students . He had to leave a tip for the waiter.7. Change to interrogative form.

The Head /(e hed/ La cabeza beard /bíard/ brains /breinz/ cheek /tchi:k/ chin /tchin/ ear /iar/ eye /ai/ eyebrow /aibrau/ eyelash /áilæsh/ eyelid /áilid/ face /feis/ forehead /fo:red/ hair /héar/ Head /héd/ jaw /dllo:/ 2. entrañas pecho.BASIC VOCABULARY: PARTS OF THE BODY /pá:rts ov δe bódi/ Las Partes del Cuerpo 1. Related Words /riléitid we:rdz/ Palabras relacionadas corn /ko:rn/ callo cough /kof/ tos freckle /frékl/ peca hiccough /híkap/ hipo mole /moul/ lunar Pins and needles /pinz an ní:dlz/ calambres sigh /sai/ sneeze /sni:z/ wart /wo:rt/ wrinkle /rínkl/ yawn /io:n/ suspiro estornudo verruga arruga bostezo A short course in english for adult students 135 . fi:t/ hand /hænd/ heel /hi:l/ index finger /índeks fiηger/ knee /ni:/ kneecap /ni:kap/ knuckle /nákl/ leg /leg/ tobillo brazo axila pantorrilla codo dedo(mano) pie /s mano talón índice rodilla rótula nudillo pierna limbs /limz/ little finger /lítl fiηger/ middle finger /mídl fiηger/ nail /neil/ palm /pa:m/ ring finger /riη fiηger/ shin /shin/ shoulder /shóulder/ sole /soul/ thigh /θai/ thumb /θam / toe /tou/ wrist /rist/ extremidades meñique cordial uña palma anular canilla hombro planta (del pie) muslo pulgar dedo(del pie) muñeca 4. torax vesícula corazón cadera intestines /intéstinz/ kidney /kídni/ liver /líver/ lung /laη/ navel /néivl/ ribs /ribz/ spleen /spli:n/ stomach /stómak/ waist /weist/ intestinos riñón hígado pulmón ombligo costillas bazo estómago cintura barba cerebro mejilla mentón oreja ojo ceja pestaña párpado cara frente cabello cabeza mandíbula lip /lip/ moustache /mustá:sh/ mouth /mauθ/ neck /nek/ nose /nouz/ nostrils /nóstrilz/ pupil /piu:pl/ sideburns /sáidbernz/ skull /skal/ temple /témpl/ throat /θrout/ tongue /táη/ tooth /teeth /tu:θ. The Trunk /(e truηk/ El tronco back /bæk/ backbone /bækboun/ bladder /bláder/ bowels /báuelz/ breast /brest/ buttocks /bátoks/ chest /tchést/ gall bladder /golbláder/ heart /ha:rt/ hip /hip/ espalda espina dorsal vejiga vientre. The Limbs /(e limz/ Las extremidades ankle /æηkl/ arm /a:rm/ armpit /á:rmpit/ calf /ka:f/ elbow /élbou/ finger /fíηger/ foot / feet /fu:t. ti:θ/ labio bigote boca cuello nariz fosas nasales pupila patillas cráneo sien garganta lengua diente(s) 3.mamas nalgas pecho.

un rato atrás inmediatamente de inmediato al instante. por ahora ahora mismo hoy día ayer mañana esta mañana esta tarde esta tarde esta noche mañana en la mañana ayer en la tarde anoche la semana pasada el próximo lunes el martes pasado en la mañana el próximo domingo en la tarde pasado mañana anteayer en la mañana en la tarde en la tarde por /durante la noche el lunes subsiguiente el domingo antepasado en diciembre del año pasado en el verano de 1976 todos los días todas las semanas todos los meses todos los años todos los lunes en la mañana día por medio cada tres días una vez al día dos veces a la semana varias veces al mes muchas veces al año hace mucho tiempo /mucho tiempo atrás hace muchos años hace diez minutos no hace mucho tiempo hace muchísimo tiempo hace un rato.TIME EXPRESSIONS /táim iksprésh now /náu/ at this moment /at δe móument/ at present /at prézent/ for the time being /for δe táim bi:iη/ right now /rait náu/ today /tudéi/ yesterday /yésterdi/ tomorrow /tumórou/ this morning /δis mó:rniη/ this afternoon /δis a:fternú:n/ this evening /δis í:vniη/ tonight /tunáit/ tomorrow morning /tumórou mó:niη/ yesterday afternoon /yésterdi a:fternú:n/ last night /la:st náit/ last week /la:st wí:k/ next Monday /nekst mándi/ last Tuesday morning /la:st tíuzdi mó:rniη/ next Sunday afternoon /nekst sándi a:fternú:n/ the day after tomorrow /δe déi a:fter tumórou/ the day before yesterday /δe déi bifó:r iésterdi/ in the morning /in δe mó:rniη/ in the afternoon /in δi a:fternú:n/ in the evening /in δi í:vniη/ at night /at náit/ a week next Monday /e wí:k neks mándi/ a week last Sunday /e wí:k la:st sándi/ in December last year /in disémber la:st yíar/ in the summer of 1976 /in δe sámer ov náintin séventi síks/ every day /évri déi/ every week /évri wí:k/ every month /évri mánθ/ every year /évri yíar/ every Monday morning /évri mándi mó:niη/ every other day /évri áδer déi/ every other three days /évri áδer θrí: déiz/ once a day /wans e déi/ twice a week /twáis e wí:k/ several times a month /sévral táimz e mánθ/ many times a year /méni táimz e yíar/ a long time ago /e lóη táim agóu/ many years ago /méni yíarz agóu/ ten minutes ago /tén mínits agóu/ not very long ago /nót véri loη agóu/ ages ago /éidlliz agóu/ a short while ago /e short wáil agóu/ immediately /immídlliatli/ at once /at wáns/ right away /ráit ewéi/ as soon as possible /as sú:n as pósibl/ always /ó:lweiz/ generally /dllénerali/ usually /iúshuali/ frequently /fríkwentli/ often /ó:fn/ occasionally /okéillonali/ 136 A short course in english for adult students nz/ Expresiones de Tiempo ahora en este momento en la actualidad transitoriamente. “al tiro” lo antes posible. lo más pronto posible siempre generalmente usualmente frecuentemente a menudo ocasionalmente .

A short course in english for adult students 137 .sometimes /sámtaimz/ rarely /réarli/ seldom /séldom/ hardly ever /ha:dli éver/ never /néver/ from time to time /from táim tu táim/ once in a while /wáns in e wáil/ now and then /náu an δén/ a veces raramente rara vez casi nunca nunca de vez en cuando de vez en cuando. de vez en cuando.

Bl 138 .

. According to the schedule. A. Must / should . Must 3. That may / can happen again.. Must 11. Should 19... Can 5.. They didn´t have to leave. Attending a reception at the White House 3. 2..We have to learn Ex. John had to stop.8. Playing tennis with Dr Brown 4. 7.. / Can Bob speak. / We´ll have to hurry. Must 20. We had to hurry. He´s having lunch with some friends at the Waldorf Hotel.8.. May 8... 2.. You had to wait. 8. / Mary will have to come. 1. 4.. I don´t have to buy... 4. 5.. 7.. 4. What should I do now? 7. Mary and John have to fly. Mary had to come..? / How many languages can Bob speak? 2. Mr Brown isn´t attending our wedding party on Friday. / I´ll have to work. 2. May I sit here.. I had to answer.. 12. I had to work. We had to study... I have to write. I´m playing tennis with Bob tomorrow. 6.. 3... Should / ought to 4.. He had to spend. Can you help me this afternoon? 8. I have to work. When are they traveling to the USA? 9. They shouldn´t take. / I´ll have to answer. He had to learn.. / He´ll have to learn. 6. / We´ll have to go.. He´s attending a conference at Nasa Space Center. 11.....Key to answers UNIT 10 PART I. 3. at what time are we getting there? PART II. / He´ll have to spend 7... Ex. / You´ll have to wait... She had to attend.. Is attending a ceremony at Lincoln Memorial. He´s flying back to Chile from National Airport.. He can run very fast. 10. 2. 1. Jim and Mary are going to a disco tonight.. At what time are you going to arrive / get back from work this evening? 10. Mr Mitchell is flying to Sydney next week. Must 6. 4.. 12. Sir? 9. We don´t have to work...... 5.11. He´s flying to Texas. They´re going to stay several days with us. They don´t have to study...... 9. He worked very hard. We must not go... 4. 12.. I´m not going out of Santiago this weekend. 5. I think / believe she´s not going to accept our invitation 7. Can ... Should / ought to 21. 9. Mary has to study. 1. They may not use. 4. 10. They may visit us tomorrow 5. They had to write..? / What should they do? 3.10.. Mary will come to see us next week. / Should they take. He must be tired... We don´t have to write........ / They´ll have to come back.. 6..? / Why must we go? 4.. 3. 1.. / He´ll have to go.. We didn´t have to meet. 10. / I´ll have to get up. 1.. 3. 2. He can´t speak Spanish well.... Bob can´t speak. He didn´t have to be.. Can´t Ex.. He had to see. Ex.......He´s visiting Bethesda Medical Center. 5. They had to come back. Should / ought to 24. 1.. 5. 10... We´re having dinner with Mr Jones this evening. 5. You can / may smoke here.. -I had to get up. 1.. 11. / John´ll have to stop... 3.. Should / ought to 18.12.. We have to prepare. We don´t have to prepare. We had to telephone. 14. 2.. Ex. 8.. 3. John has to go out. 6.. 10. 7. May 2. 2. Can´t 13. / She´ll have to attend. What will they do with the money they received? 8. He had to go.. 2.11. / We´ll have to make... 9. 3. He´s attending a conference at houston Medical Center. 8. 1. We all had to write. Mr Smith doesn´t have to go.. / He´ll have to stay. Can 9... He´s attendding a concert at the Kennedy Center. / John will have to be. Can´t 15.... We won´t have to learn... Ex.. 4.... We had to go. 5. 6. He had to stay. John didn´t have to go. You have to read. 7... 3...can / may 10.? / Which room may they use? Ex... Should / ought to 7. / We´ll have to study. 4...You must come again tomorrow. 4.5. I have to get up.. / May they use. Ex.. / They´ll have to write.. 6. A short course in english for adult students 139 .. Must 22. 2. We don´t have to get up. 1.... / Must we go.. John had to be.... Can / must 16. 1.can´t 14. He´s flying back to Washington DC. 2.. Open answers Ex. Can 12. Ex.. 9... Ex.. B.. / He´ll have to see.. 3. / We´ll have to telephone.. May 17.. He´s attending a dinner party at the US Surgeons Club 6. We have to write. I promise you I will never do that again. 9. / We´ll have to write. 6. John is attending a conference at YMCA at 10:30 on Monday. They have to stay. Must 23.. 3. We had to make. 2. Our daughter is arriving on the 8:15 train on Saturday morning.. John also has to take...

When will they have to come back? 10. Why does he have to wear a coat? 11. When / What time did he have to leave? 2. 1. What did he have to buy? 6. What time do we / you have to get up every morning? 3. What does she have to do? 140 A short course in english for adult students . Why does she have to rest a while? 12. 5. What do they have to do every day? 4. When do they have to rent an apartment? 5. When did he have to return? 8. What did he have to leave for the waiter? 7.Ex. How long will he have to wait? 9.

EL TIEMPO FUTURO CONTINUO (THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo verbal se expresa con el futuro del verbo BE (WILL BE) más el GERUNDIO de un verbo principal y se usa para referirse a acciones que estarán realizándose a una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro. They won´t be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. (drive) The Browns ________________________ some friends at 9 this evening (entertain) Mr Scott and his friends ________________________Toronto next weekend. 2. (do) We________________________ soccer at this time next Saturday. es decir. Complete the following sentences using the verbs given in parentheses.?) EXERCISES: Ex. /δéi wóunt bí: wé:rkiη in δe labóratri at δis táim nékst mándi/ The children will not be sleeping when the program starts tonight. También se usan expresiones de tiempo como. 3. /línda wil bí: tráveliη in iúrop at δis táim nékst mánθ/ Lynda estará viajando en Europa en esta fecha el próximo mes. I ________________________ here. (work) At this time next month. (travel) I ________________________ to work at this time tomorrow morning. 4. They will be working in the laboratory at this time next Monday. 2. (play) The students ________________________ in the gym after 7 this evening. etc. We will be having lunch at 1 o´clock tomorrow. o when the program starts tonight /wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ (cuando el programa comience esta noche). /δéi wil bí: wé:rkiη in δe labóratri at δis táim nékst mándi / Ellos estarán trabajando en el laboratorio a esta hora el próximo lunes. The children will be sleeping when the program starts tonight.UNIT 11 PART I. 2. como when you come home this evening /wen iú: kam hóum δis í:vniη/ (cuando tú vengas a casa esta tarde). in the Future Continuous Tense: 1. lea y aprenda: 1. 3. at midday next Saturday /at míddei nékst sæ ´terdi/ (al mediodía el próximo sábado). we ________________________ in the USA. 1. at this time tomorrow /at δis táim tumórou/” (a esta hora mañana). 7. at ten o´clock tomorrow /at tén oklók tumórou/ (mañana a las 10:00). 8. con WILL NOT / WON´T en las negaciones e invirtiendo el orden del sujeto con el modal WILL en las interrogaciones: Escuche. At 10 o´clock tomorrow morning. 10. The President will be flying to Tokyo at this time on Tuesday /δe prézident wil bí: fláiiη tu tókiou at δis táim on tiú:zdi/ El Presidente estará volando hacia Tokio a esta hora el martes La forma negativa y la forma interrogativa se expresa como en el tiempo futuro simple. lea y aprenda: 1. /wi: wil bí: hæviη /lántch at wán oklók tumórou/ Nosotros estaremos almorzando a la una mañana. 9. (work out) I ________________________ television when you come home tonight. Escuche. Lynda will be travelling in Europe at this time next month. 3. (watch) What _____________ you ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do) A short course in english for adult students 141 . /δe tchíldren wil bí: slí:piη wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Los niños estarán durmiendo cuando el programa comience esta noche 5. (visit) Jane ________________________ the shopping at midday today. 4. 5. 4. Por lo tanto son frecuentes las expresiones de tiempo compuestas por WHEN + SUBJECT + PRESENT + TOMORROW/ NEXT MONDAY. cuando otra acción ocurra. 6. /δe tchíldren wil nót bí: slí:piη wen δe próugram stá:rts tunáit/ Will they be travelling in Europe at this time next month? /wíl δéi bí: tráveliη in iú:rop at δis táim nékst mánθ/ What will the President be doing at this time on Tuesday? /wót wil δe prézident bí: dú:iη at δis táim on tíu:zdi/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es : WHAT WILL YOU BE DOING? /wót wil iú: bí: dú:iη/ (¿Qué estará haciendo ud.

142 Listen! Mary ______________________________ the piano now. (work) Mr. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. Where. Ask questions using question words like What. (practise) What ___________ you ________________________ at this time yesterday? (do) They ____________ not ________________________ the story at the moment. 4. the Past or the Future tenses. 3. 9. (read) What _____________ the Johnsons ________________________ last Saturday? (do) W___________ Mary ________________________ at this time tomorrow? (do ____________ n´t you ________________________ the newspaper this morning? (buy) Jane __________ n´t __________________________ to see me every day. Jackson will be attending a meeting at this time on Thursday. 15. Change the following sentences into a) negative and b) interrogative: 1.2. Use the proper verb tense of the verbs provided. 6. ___________________________________________________ 5. Jim won´t be working tomorrow because it´s a holiday. 11. I´ll be staying at the Carlton Hotel in London. Use the Present. (come) They ________________________ in Boston at this time next year. 8. 10. 9. we ______________________________ television. 1. My friends will be taking their final exams by this time next month. Smith ________ not __________________ home for dinner tonight. 13. (see) They _________ not ________________________ English very often. ___________________________________________________ 3. 3. 12. Use the verbs provided in the Simple Future or the Future Contínuous Tense: 1. Review Practice. etc. 5. (visit) At this time tomorrow. Mr. 7. 4. (live) They ________________________ at a Chinese restaurant tonight. 4. 17. in their Simple or Contínuous forms: 1. 10. __________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 8. (cook) Where _________ they ________________________ when they visit Paris in June? (stay) What _______________ you ________________________ at midday on Sunday? (do) ___________ they ________________________ their holidays in Chile again next year? (spend) Ex. _________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. 3. ___________________________________________________ 4. 8. 2. Mike will be washing his car in the morning. 5. I´ll be working in the lab tomorrow morning. They´ll be having dinner at 8 this evening. 14. The train will be arriving at 12:30 tomorrow. ___________________________________________________ 7. (watch) John usually ______________________________ here on Tuesday. (play) We ________________________ our vacation in Majorca next year. 16. How long.Ex. (come) Mr. (have dinner) Mary ________________________ dinner when John gets home tonight. 5. Helms ________________________ a very good movie last night. 2. Janet will be travelling in Asia for 2 weeks. 7. 18. 3. They´ll be running up the hill at midday. They ________________________ dinner at 8:45 this evening. (spend) At 10:30 last night. 4. ___________________________________________________ 6. The students will be taking a test at 10. ___________________________________________________ 2. (have) They ________________________ Brazil next month. Hans will be working all morning tomorrow. we ________________________. (come) ____________ you always ________________________ home at midday? (phone) _________ your friends __________________you when you arrived at their home yesterday? (expect) Where _______________ they __________________ when World War II started? (live) How often ________ your friend ________________________to you? (write) What time __________________ you __________________ this morning? (get up) What time __________________ you __________________here tomorrow? (be) A short course in english for adult students . of course.

MAKING REQUESTS .. 20. please? B: With pleasure EXERCISES Ex. please? Would you sign your name here. using Could you. Speak more slowly... please? B: Sure Ex. A: Could you help me.. 2.. please + will you? (Informal) Could you + infinitive. Open the window. please?. please? (Muy formal) Can you open the door please? Will you help me please? Listen to me please.(SOLICITANDO SERVICIOS O FAVORES) Para solicitar que una persona haga algún servicio o favor. please? 1. 3. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 143 . Sign your name here.please? or Would you. Turn the radio down.. Be quiet. Pay attention.please?. will you? Could you speak more slowly. Sit on this chair. 6... please? (Formal) Would you + infinitive. 2... as a rule. lea y aprenda: 1. (instead of = en vez de) 1. using Can you. 1. A: Why ________n´t Helen _____________________ abroad on her vacation last summer? (travel) B: Because she hates flying. or Will you.please? (Informal) Will you + infinitive. 24... please? (Informal) Imperative. today or tomorrow? (arrive) How long __________ you ________________________ at the hotel this time. 2. PART II A..ing. (smoke) A: Why________ you ________________________ your sweater yesterday? (put on) B: Because it was too cold. please? (Formal) Would you mind +.. instead of the simple imperative form.. 3. Wait for me in the lobby. Ask somebody to do the following things. Speak more slowly. 22.19.... 5...+ infinitive. (go) When _____________the Johnsons________________________. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2.. A: Will you lend me your pen. 5... 7. 4. 4. 23. generalmente se usan las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • • • Can you.. please? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • With pleasure /wiδ pléllar/ Con mucho gusto Sure /shúar/ seguro Certainly /sé:rtenli/ Por cierto Of course /ov kó:rz/ Por supuesto Escuche. two or three nights? (stay) Walter never ______________________________ in bed. please? Would you mind waiting outside. Help me open the suitcase. They ______________n´t ________________________ out tonight because it´s too cold. Repeat your question. 21.. Come back this afternoon.. Ask somebody to do the following things...

5. You want María to call you up tomorrow morning. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? He/She: Yes. You want somebody to spell his/her surname for you. You want your brother Tom to turn down the radio. Smith 4. B. A: Do you mind if I open the window? B: Please don´t. You : _________________________________________________________ . Take off your hat. Wait for me in the lobby. 3. of course. You want a friend to give you a hand (= help you). 1. You: _________________________________________________________________ ? Peter: With Pleasure 2. You want a stranger to show you the way to the railway station. Escuche. 2. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. 6. __________________________________________________________ ? María: Yes. • Please don´t. Repeat your question. 6. please? Stranger: Sure. Use the other elevator. 7. Ask him. Repeat the previous exercise using the polite form Would you mind. I didn´t know you were studying. go ahead. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights and then turn left. You: ____________________________________________________________ . 3. Tom? Tom:: Of course. Follow the instructions carefully. Ask him. Ask him. John? John : Certainly. Turn the radio down. You : __________________________________________________________ . You : María.. please? 1 Speak more slowly. You want Sr. Sign your name here. John? B: Sure. S-M-I-T-H.6. Ask him/her politely. Use the other elevator. ASKING FOR PERMISSION (SOLICITANDO PERMISO) Para solicitar permiso para hacer algo debemos usar las siguientes fórmulas: • • • • Can I + Infinitive? (Informal) May I + Infinitive? (Formal) Do you mind if I + Infinitive? (Formal) Would you allow me to + Infinitive? (Formal) Can I open the door? May I ask a question? Do you mind if I smoke? Would you allow me to use the phone? Normalmente estas solicitudes se responden con expresiones como: • Sure. Ask him. Perez to help you translate this letter into Spanish. go ahead. lea y aprenda: A: Can I use your computer. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 4.. Take off your hat. certainly. Ask her to do that informally. Make requests. 7. At what time do you want me to call you up? 5. It´s too cold. • Please do. 144 A short course in english for adult students .ing. 4.

Sir? Old man: Please don´t open it. 2. You : ______________________________________________________________________________________ . Ask your mother´s permission. 4. please. A short course in english for adult students 145 . Ask the speaker´s permission. You want to open the window. You: _____________________________________________________________________________________ . here you are. You´re at a conference. OFFERING TO DO SOMETHING. 1. You want to take a look at his newspaper. Ask permission to do things. You want to go in . I can do it myself / I can manage it myself EXERCISES Ex.EXERCISES Ex. 2. 6. Follow the instructions carefully. I´m working. You are a visitor and you want to use the telephone. Jack? Jack. You want to turn on the TV. It´s getting dark Do you want me to _________________________________ ? Yes. to shut the window. 7. please. I don´t need it now. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. Sir? Normalmente estos ofrecimientos se responden con expresiones como: • Yes. You want to ask a question. come in please. Ask his permission. Jackson: Sure. to spell your last name. You want to use your friend´s lighter. please do. to turn the light on. Ask his permission. You´re sitting next to an old man on the bus. You : ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Host: Sure. but keep the volume down. My Spanish is not very good Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. You: ________________________________________________________________________________________. Offer yourself to do these things : 1. You: ________________________________________________________________________________ . You: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Speaker: Certainly. (OFRECIENDOSE A HACER ALGO) Cuando nos ofrecemos a hacer algo por alguien podemos usar las siguientes estructuras: • Shall I + Infinitive? • Do you want me to + Infinitive? • Would you like me to + Infinitive? Shall I help you? Do you want me to get you a taxi? Would you like me to carry your bags to the room. go ahead. I´ve got a bad cold. I read it this morning. You: _____________________________________________________________________________________ . Ask his permission. 3. please. Mr. Bob? Bob: Sure. please • No. 5. You are at a friend´s house. thank you. Please use the microphone so everyone can hear your question. 3. Ask your host´s permission. It´s all yours. mum? Your mother: Yes. Mr Jackson. It´s too cold outside. Mr Jackson is working in his office. please. C. 1. 1. Ask his permission.

Sure. 8. I´m a bit busy right now. Las invitaciones o sugerencias de este tipo se responden con expresiones como las siguientes: • • • • Good idea! Let´s do that. Would you ________________________________________ ? Of course! We´d love to. thanks. etc. Invite or suggest your friends to do the following activities together: 1. D. please. please. please. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Please do. 6. 3. I´m too busy / It´s too late / I have to study for a test. I need to tell her something Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. 5. to get me some coffee and a sandwich. Let´s do that. To go to the seaside next weekend. I don´t understand English very well yet. to speak more slowly. I´m a little hungry.. Why not? Yes. to repeat your question. certainly / Yes. To go to the movies after dinner tonight. 9.4. that´s a good idea. Why _____________________________________________ ? Good idea.ing? Let´s + infinitive Shall we go to a disco this evening? Do you want to play cards now? Would you like to have dinner with us tonight? Why don´t we sit down and talk for a while? How about going out for a walk? Let´s take a walk after dinner. to tell Mary that I want to see her. To sit on the grass and rest for a while. thanks. 1. Shall I ____________________________________________ ? Yes. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. to call back later today. How about _______________________________________ ? I don´t think we should. 4. EXERCISES Ex. 2. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No.. I can manage myself. It´s not necessary Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. 146 A short course in english for adult students . to translate this letter into English Would you like me to _______________________________ ? Yes. of course. (INVITANDO O SUGIRIENDO HACER ALGO EN CONJUNTO) Para invitar o sugerir una acción conjunta normalmente se usan expresiones como estas: • • • • • • Shall we + infinitive? Do you want to + Infinitive Would you like to + infinitive? Why don´t we + Infinitive? How about +. 7. It´s getting late. to help me complete the application form. Sorry I can´t. INVITING OR SUGGESTING TO DO SOMETHING TOGETHER. Do you want me to _________________________________ ? No. 10. I don´t understand French. please. To spend the summer holidays with us.

1) Mary: I really like that dress. John didn´t like the party. 7. John went to the party. but peter didn´t. A. John didn´t go to the party and neither did Peter Or John didn´t go to the party and nor did Peter. To stay at home and watch TV . + + + - + But BUT +S+ Contr. Peter: And so will Janet! A short course in english for adult students 2) John: Mary will come to the party tonight. AS WELL AND SO (TAMBIÉN). How about _______________________________________ ? I´d rather (preferiría) go out for a walk. 2) John. BUT (PERO) Study the following chart Also Too As well SO+MV+S Not. but peter didn´t go to the party.. Let´s _______________________________________________ Yes. Also se usa antes de un verbo principal. SO va seguida de un Verbo Modal + Sujeto 1) Mary: I really like that dress. It´s a pleasant evening.5. 9. Tom: And his brother was sleeping as well. To travel by boat instead of by plane 8. Escuche. mientras que las palabras too y as well se usan al final de las oraciones. La palabra SO es un sinónimo de ALSO. Jane: I also like it very much. John didn´t go to the party. 6. Why _____________________________________________ ? Yes. John went to the party. Peter went to the party as well. Mary will come to the party tonight. To invite the Smiths to dinner one evening. Jane: So do I . lea y aprenda. To take a taxi to the airport Why _____________________________________________ ? Sure. Peter went to the party.TOO. _________________________________________________ ? I think we should travel by plane.. To play tennis tomorrow morning. It´s a very interesting exhibition. To go to the arts exhibition. let´s do that. Peter also went to the party. John went to the party and so did Peter. ALSO. let´s do that. John went to the party. They´re very nice people.. I´ll be free all morning tomorrow. but peter liked the party. Peter: And Janet will come too! 147 . / BUT +S+ MV 1. John didn´t like the party. either NEITHER +MV+S / NOR +MV+S John went to the party.too. Las palabras ALSO. Peter didn´t go to the party either. but peter did. NOT. Would you ________________________________________ ? Yes. Why not. John went to the party. It´s much cheaper. 10. or else we´ll miss our plane PART III. TOO y AS WELL y se usa para abreviar y hacer más fluída la conversación. TOO y AS WELL significan TAMBIEN. I´d love to. 2.. 3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. EITHER AND NEITHER / NOR (TAMPOCO).

John went to the movies with us (Peter) 6. EXERCISES Ex. as in the examples: Bob likes coffee. ___________________ my husband can. What language do you speak. then? 2a) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t go. 2. (Carmen) 2. Escuche. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 148 A short course in english for adult students . Tom: And so was his brother . Ann: I didn´t see you either. (the children) Bob likes coffee and Jane also likes coffee. (the secretary) 3. 1a) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane saw it.. 1. or do you speak another language? So you don´t speak Spanish and you don´t speak Italian ________________. She comes here every day.. lea y aprenda. Do you ___________________ speak Spanish.3) Mike: John was sleeping at the time. Escuche. The boys didn´t go to the lab and the girls didn´t go ___________________ We´ve got a big house. 8. He liked the picture. EITHER. 9. ___________________ John is not going to go there. 5. or BUT 1. 1 watch TV after dinner. John is going to travel to Europe and we´re going to travel there ___________________ Mary is going to go to Spain. I don´t understand it ___________________ I can´t drive a car. Mary: I don´t like it either. Ann: Nor did I! 4. Mary can speak Italian well. (my wife) 8. Las palabras NOT. 1b) Peter: I don´t like classical music. (Jane) 1. 4. 2a) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. 1a) Peter: I don´t like classical music. 1 eat lunch in the cafeteria. Peter likes dogs very much and his sister likes them very much ___________________ Mr Johnson isn´t going to attend the meeting. 2a. 10. Ex. (he) 5. Mary: Neither do I. La palabra BUT se usa tanto en la forma completa como en la forma abreviada. (I) 4. 2b) John will go to the meeting BUT Mary won´t. 3. Use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL. 2b) Ruth didn´t see the accident BUT Jane did. They´ve ___________________ got a big one.EITHER (tampoco) pueden ser reemplazadas por NEITHER (o NOR) para abreviar y hacer más fluida la conversación. 6. Mary likes pie for dessert. 2b) John: I didn´t see you at the meeting yesterday. He´s going to go to France. 7. lea y aprenda. Peter doesn´t understand Italian. John walks to school. First use ALSO / TOO / AS WELL and then use SO. ___________________ Mr Clark is (going to attend the meeting). (We) 7. 3. Bob likes coffee and SO does JANE.

I didn´t eat there yesterday. (They) 11. She doesn´t come here every day.(My wife´s car) 12. John doesn´t go to school . 1 eat lunch in the cafeteria. as in the example Bob doesn’t like coffee and Jane doesn’t like coffee either. 2b. (my wife’s car) 12. Bob doesn´t like coffee. Mary doesn´t like pie for dessert. John didn´t go to the movies.9. My car is very old. Mary shouldn´t work harder. They weren´t very busy. 3. I don´t watch TV after dinner (My wife) 8. (Carmen) 2. Mary can speak Italian well. Complete these sentences with BUT. as in the examples Bob likes coffee. (the secretary) 3. Mary should work harder. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 149 . They were very busy. (The children) 9. Then use NEITHER (or NOR). first use NOT. (Jane) 1. (you) 14. I don´t eat lunch in the cafeteria. (he) 5..EITHER. (I) 13. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. We will go by train.. (Carmen) 2. (they) 11. (I) 13. They mustn´t pay more. but Jane does. (the secretary) 3. but Jane doesn´t. Mary can´t speak Italian well. 1. My car isn´t very old. Now. (Peter) 6. 1 ate there yesterday (my friends) 10. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. They must pay more. (My friends) 10. Bob doesn´t like coffee and NEITHER DOES JANE. (you) 14. John walks to school. (I) 4. He didn´t like the picture (We) 7. (I) Bob likes coffee. We won´t go by train.

El complemento directo responde a la pregunta What? En la oración. He sent a letter to me. He sent some candy to his sister. A short course in english for adult students ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . 3. pero en ese caso se deben omitir las preposiciones to o for. He liked the picture. Mary bought him a pair of shoes.4. POSITION OF INDIRECT OBJECT (posición del complemento indirecto) Son Verbos Transitivos aquellos que van seguidos de un Complemento Directo (Direct Object). They were very busy. 1. (they) 11. (We) 7. 1 watch TV after dinner. (I) 13. They must pay more. 1 ate there yesterday. La inversión del orden de los complementos directo e indirecto es muy común cuando el complemento indirecto es un pronombre complementario (object pronoun) Escuche. 150 He gave the money to me. 2. (he) 5. (Peter) 6. 5. En la oración “Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday” el complemento indirecto es “Mr Smith” y en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son”. 6. “What did Mary buy?. “What did Peter send yesterday”. (my friends) 10. el complemento indirecto es “her son”. The teacher gave some dictation to us. My car is very old. She brought the book to me. He told the story to us. (we) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. Del mismo modo.”Peter sent a letter yesterday” el complemento directo es la frase “a letter” porque responde a la pregunta. habrá advertido los complementos directos e indirectos van unidos por las preposiciones to o for El complemento indirecto se reconoce porque responde a las preguntas to whom? (¿a quién?) o for whom? (¿Para quién?) : “To whom did Peter send a letter yesterday”? “For whom did Mary buy a pair of shoes”? El orden de los complementos directo e indirecto puede ser invertido. Peter sent a letter to Mr Smith yesterday Peter sent Mr Smith a letter yesterday= Mary bought a pair of shoes for her son. Mary likes pie for dessert. la frase “a pair of shoes” es el complemento directo porque responde a la pregunta. Mary bought her son a pair of shoes= Peter sent him a letter yesterday. lea y aprenda. el complemento directo puede ir seguido por un Complemento Indirecto (Indirect Object). A su vez. (my wife’s car) 12. en la oración “Mary bought a pair of shoes”. Ex. She comes here every day. 4. Como ud. (my wife) 8. (you) 14. John went to the movies with us. Mary shouldn´t work harder. (the children) 9. Place the indirect object before the direct object: 1.Los verbos To send y To buy son verbos transitivos porque van seguidos de un complemento directo. We will go by train.

He bought some flowers for his wife He gave a ring to (=phoned) his friend. He gave me some books. Please lend me your pencil for a few minutes. 8. 8. Will you lend your pen to me? He gave some excellent advice to all of us. 4. 1 gave him the note which you sent. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 151 . 2. They sent us the material right away. 12. Please give us some dictation today. 6. 10. 9. John lent some money to his friends. 10. 12. 9. Henry told us the story of his trip. They gave us some magazines. John gladly lent me the money. They sent an invitation to us. They brought us many presents from abroad. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 5. 2. Please hand me that book. Place the indirect object after the direct object: 1. They sent us an invitation to the party. 11. 3. 7. He sent his mother several letters.7. 11.

152 A short course in english for adult students .BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words OUR HEALTH /áuar hél(/ La salud arthritis /a:rθráitis/ blister /blíster/ chicken-pox /tchíkin poks/ chilblain /tchilblein/ chills /tchilz/ cold /kóuld/ colic /kólik/ constipation /konstipéishn/ diarrhea /daiaría/ disease /disí:z/ earache /iar eik/ fever /fí:ver/ flu /flu:/ hay fever /héi fí:ver/ headache /héd eik/ health /hélθ/ heart attack /ha:ræt atæk/ ´ artritis ampolla alfombrilla sabañón escalofríos resfrío cólico estitiquez colitis enfermedad dolor de oídos fiebre gripe fiebre del heno dolor de cabeza salud paro cardiaco illness /ílnis/ enfermedad insomnia /insómnia/ insomnio mumps /mamps/ parotiditis nervous breakdown /né:rvas bréikdaun/ depresión pain /pein/ dolor rheumatism /rúmatizm/ reumatismo runny nose /ráni nouz/ romadizo sickness /síknis/ mareo smallpox /smol poks/ viruela sore throat /só:r θróut/ faringitis stomach-ache /stómak eik/ dolor de estómago stroke /stróuk/ trombosis tonsilítis /tonsiláitis/ amigdalitis toothache /tuθ eik/ dolor de muelas typhus /táifus/ tifus whooping cough /hú:piη kof/ tos convulsiva.

5.come 5.. 3.travel PART II A. Can you / Will you pay.? 7. 1. please? B.. please? 3....? 4..and watching.. 4. will .. will be working 2.doing 8.... 3. tell Mary that you. will be living 6. please? / Would you mind showing me... At what time will the train be arriving tomorrow? 7.. will .. don´t we invite.? 2.stay 9. Mr Perez? 2........ 8. 6. will...going to stay / are ... please? 5.? 6.. 2. 3.. will spend / are going to spend / are spending 3. May I / Do you mind if I open. saw 6. me to speak..write 17. 4. will . / Will Hans be working. Can you / Will you call me up. Can I use your. A short course in english for adult students 153 .. Where will you be working tomorrow morning? 4.. will be doing 7.. 1.3.Would you mind speaking.... please? 6.. 5...go / are .. me to translate. 4.. me to repeat my.be doing Ex.? 3. shut.be doing 10......arrive / are . does ... 1 They won´t be running. Could you / Would you speak.. me to get you. D. will be working out 9. 1.. Could you / Would you help me...Why won´t Jim be working tomorrow? 5.arriving 21.. did . 9.expecting 15..... me to help you.. does . May I / Do you mind if I go in.. smokes 23.. staying. 1 What will they be doing at 8 this evening? 2... Could you / Would you use. Can you / Will you give me. is playing 2. What will Mr Jackson be doing at this time on Thursday? 8.. 6. 1. Ex. Could you / Would you repeat...? 2. Can I turn. Where / In which hotel will you be staying in London? 6. Can you / Will you help. 6. Ex. will be driving 4. please? 2. 1. will be working 4.. 1. Ex.. Do . Would you mind signing. please? 6..... were .be doing 11. Ex... 1... Would you mind taking.? 2. 1. like to go. please? 4.going to be 19.. 10. please? 4. 1. were . 8.. and resting. Were ... please? Ex. How long will Janet be travelling in Asia? 3. please? 4. did .be / are . Could you / Would you show me. Would you mind turning.. play.put on 24. will . will be visiting. Can you / Will you come... Ex. will be cooking 8... go. The students won´t be taking.. turn...? 4.KEY TO ANSWERS UNIT 11 PART I Ex... will be travelling 3.please? 7.. 2. 9...... like to spend.. please? Ex. 7. Can you / Will you turn down.. Will ... 1.....going to go / are .? 3.. please? 3. please? 5.please? 5. will .spend . 5. 7.? 6.buy 12... Would you mind waiting. Can you / Will you speak. Would you mind repeating. Did . Could you / Would you sign.. 1.. please? 6. did ..phone 14. Could you / Would you spell.practice 7. will be playing 8...... / Will the students be taking.. 4.. 1. Can you / Will you sit.? 3. Hans won´t be working. sitting.. will . will visit 3. please? Ex. Mr Perez? Would you mind helping me.please? 3 Can you / Will you open ..going to arrive / are .? C... please? 2 Could you / Would you wait.please? 2.? 5. to spell my. Could you / Would you take.do 10.. 2. will be watching 10.stay / are . please? 7..... will .going 20. please? 7. / Will they be running.come 13. are . 10. Will ..? Ex. don´t we travel. Mike won´t be washing. 1. don´t we take.. May I / Do you mind if I ask.get up 18. Can I take. will have dinner 7. 1... Would you mind using. call back.please? 4.. What will your friends be doing by this time next month? Ex. Can you / Will you be. do . will be entertaining 5.. don´t we go.... / Will Mike be washing. were watching 4. comes 5. Could you / Would you turn. May I / Do you mind if I use.. will be having 2. please? / Would you mind spelling... 1....living 16..... did ......staying 22.reading 9....? 5.

...12. and neither / nor will they.... but we didn´t / He didn´t like.. and I don´t walk.. and neither / nor did my friends.. too / as well 2.. 10. 7. and the secreatry also eats.. Ex... 3. and Carmen can... They must pay and we must pay.They brought many presents to us from abroad... and so must we Ex.. and I wasn´t...... I ate. 1. but they will.PART III A. My car is.and so did Peter. and neither / nor does the secretary. but I was.. / John went. and I walk. but we must B.... and neither / nor does my wife 8...... She brought me the book.... Please hand that book to 154 A short course in english for adult students .5. 9..either / I didn´t eat. and so do I 4. and the secretary doesn´t eat. and neither / nor did we 7. My wife´s car is.. 10. and my friends also ate. 10.. 6...either / Mary should work. 8. He gave me the money 2. but 3.. I watch.. and Peter also went.. also 10... Mary likes..and neither / nor does he 5. 1 gave the note which you sent to him. John didn´t go.either / Mary doesn´t like. 6.. and so can Carmen 2. Mary can..9.. 4. Mary should work.. but Carmen can 2. 2.. either / They must pay..... John gladly lent the money to me.. 13. They sent us an invitation. as well / They were..... but my wife does. 14. / John didn´t go... either / I don´t eat. We´ll go... 1. 2b. John went. but Peter did. and neither / nor was I... 2a.. 1.. 1... either / Mary can´t.. and neither / nor can Carmen 2... John lent his friends some money 11.. 11... 1. They gave some magazines to us. and neither / nor do I 4. / I don´t watch.. 10. and my wife´s car is.. 2. and my wife also watches.. 6.too / Mary should work....... and so did my friends. and we liked... / I eat.either. The teacher gave us some dictation 6. but I wasn´t. My car isn´t.. too / Mary can. He bought his wife some flowers. and so does the secretary. and you should work. and the children also like... She doesn´t come. 14. and my wife doesn´t watch... We will go.. Please give some dictation to us today.. and the children don´t like.. but I don´t. but we mustn´t / They mustn´t pay.. Will you lend me your pen? 12.11. They sent an invitation to the party to us. either / They weren´t.. We won´t go.. and they will also go. / Mary likes. Ex. also 5. / I watch... and my friends didn´t eat... I don´t eat. She comes. 1. John walks.... I eat. John walks..8. I don´t watch. but Peter didn´t / John didn´t go. Mary doesn´t like.... either Ex.. / I don´t watch. 10.. and so does my wife 8... Mary can´t. He didn´t like... I ate..... They were. and so should you. and he comes.. I diidn´t eat. but Carmen can´t / Mary can´t speak. either 4... but my friends didn´t / I didn´t eat.. but my friends did... They must pay. but the secretary does 3. 3.. / We´ll go.either / We won´t go.. and they won´t go.... He gave some books to me. but he doesn´t / She doesn´t come..either / My car isn´t very old and neither / nor is my wife´s (car) 12. / John doesn´t walk. / They weren´t.. but you shouldn´t / Mary shouldn´t work..... either / John doesn´t walk. too / as well 8. John doesn´t walk.. and he doesn´t come... Mary shouldn´t work.. and I was.. either / He didn´t like. I watch. but you should .. 12.and so does he 5. but 7.... They weren´t... 5. and so did we 7... too. 13. Henry told the story of his trip to us. / Mary doesn´t like. as well / He liked..7. 7.... and you shouldn´t work... and neither / nor must we Ex. but we did.and neither / nor did Peter. 3 He sent me a letter 4.. / They must pay... He liked....... 11. / My car´s very old and so is my wife´s (car)12. I eat... She comes... Mary should work.. and Carmen can´t. They mustn´t pay... 14.... 3..but the secretary doesn´t / I don´t eat.. but the children do.. 4... and we mustn´t pay. He gave his friend a ring. as well. 6.. They were. He sent several letters to his mother.. either 6.. too / She comes.. but I do.. but the children don´t. 1. 1.. / I ate...... but my wife´s car is. and neither / nor should you. but my wife doesn´t.. and so will they. Mary can speak. / We won´t go.. He sent his sister some candy. and so was I 13...... 3. as well / John walks.. Mary likes.. but 9. but he does. and neither / nor do the children 9.. 11........ Please lend your pencil to me for a few minutes.... and so do the children 9. 8. John went. and we didn´t like. 9... and Peter didin´t go. and my wife´s car isn´t.. but they won´t. He liked..either / She doesn´t come. They sent the material to us right away. but my wife´s car isn´t / My car isn´t. He told us the story 5... He gave all of us some excellent advice Ex.....

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY PART TWO INTERMEDIATE LEVEL A short course in english for adult students 155 .

Bl 156 .

como por ejemplo: I´ve. habremos Uds. la mayoría de nuestras acciones o actividades cotidianas se expresan con verbos irregulares. También es importante recordar aquí que el verbo HAVE en inglés y HABER en español tienen las siguientes formas en los tiempos presente. To work . Escuche.decided. To decide . etc.. /méri haz ríten anáδer nóvel/ Peter ´s bought a new car.worked.studied. Recuerde que se pueden formar contracciones.worked . puede ver. Recuerde que son VERBOS REGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio agregando el sufijo -d o -ed al infinitivo del verbo. María ha escrito otra novela Peter ha comprado un auto nuevo Nosotros hemos terminado nuestro trabajo... hemos Uds. forma) de un verbo principal. To study . She´s /shí:z.studied . /hí:z/. Ej. pasado y futuro: Presente Inglés I have You have He has She has It has We have You have They have Español Yo he Tú has El ha Ella ha El / Ella ha Nos. Como Ud. /ái hav sí:n δæt múvi twáis/ I ´ve been there before. Ellos han contestado la carta. habían Ellos habían Inglés I will have You will have He will have She will have It will have We will have You will have They will have Futuro Español Yo habré Tú habrás El habrá Ella habrá El / Ella habrá Nos.. Son VERBOS IRREGULARES todos aquellos verbos que forman el Pasado y el Pasado Participio en forma diferente. y por lo tanto Ud. /aiv/.UNIT 12 PART I EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) INTRODUCCIÓN Son TIEMPOS PERFECTOS todos los tiempos verbales compuestos por una forma del verbo modal o auxiliar HAVE (haber) más un PARTICIPIO PASADO (3ra. habrán Ellos habrán Ejemplos: I have seen = Yo he visto I had seen = Yo había visto I will have seen = Yo habré visto Mary has been = Mary ha estado Mary had been = Mary había estado Mary will have been = Mary habrá estado They have worked = Ellos han trabajado They had worked = Ellos habían trabajado They will have worked = Ellos habrán trabajado EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO (THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE) El Presente Perfecto se forma con el presente del verbo modal HAVE (have /hæv/ o HAS /h_ z/ ) más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. /wí: hav fínisht áuar dllób/ They´ve answered the letter.. ahora deberá aprender la 3ra.. /áiv bí:n δéar bifó:r/ Mary has written another novel. han Ellos han Inglés I had You had He had She had It had We had You had They had Pasado Español Yo había Tú habías El había Ella había El / Ella había Nos. Curiosamente. He´s. /iu:v/. forma o Participio Pasado de los verbos regulares e irregulares de uso más frecuente. /δéiv á:nserd δe léter/ Yo he visto esa película dos veces Yo he estado allí antes. lea y aprenda: I have seen that movie twice. You´ve. debe aprenderlos y memorizarlos. A short course in english for adult students 157 . Habíamos Uds.decided . /pí:tez bó:t a niú: ká:r/ We have finished our job.

/wí: hav lívd híar for sévral yíarz/ Hemos vivido aqui por varios años • Son frecuentes.. Es frecuente aquí el uso de la palabra JUST pasado participio. for ten years /for tén yíarz/.? Lea. sin especificar cuándo exactamente ella ocurrió.. Lea.. escuche y aprenda: A: Have you ever drunk tequila? /hav iú: éver dræηk tekíla/ ¿Has tomado tequila alguna vez? B: No. escuche y aprenda: Tom has worked here since 1992. Lea. nunca A: Have they ever visited you in the winter? /háv δéi éver vízitid iú: in δe wínter/ ¿Te han visitado ellos alguna vez en el invierno? B. tambien. /yés wáns δéi vízitid mi in δe wínter v náintin náiti fáiv/ Sí. /áiv sí:n δat dokiuméntri twáis/ Yo he visto ese documental dos veces We´ve been in New York several times. three or four times /θrí: or fó:r támiz/. /áim shó:r δat áiv sí:n δt fílm bifó:r/ Estoy seguro de que he visto esa película antes She ´s been here lately. for 2 weeks /for tú: wí:ks/. /shiz bí:n híar léitli/ Ella ha estado aquí últimamente • Para indicar que la acción expresada por el verbo ha sido realizada varias veces a la fecha de hoy. durante). twice /twáis/. /δéiv dllást léft/ Ellos acaban de retirarse/irse • Para referirse a una acción que ha ocurrido antes (BEFORE /bifó:r/) o últimamente (LATELY /léitli/). en las negaciones de debe usar yet. una vez.. las preguntas que comienzan con HAVE YOU EVER.. escuche y aprenda: The train has just arrived. several times /sévral támiz/. never /nóu/néver/ No. Ellos me visitaron en el invierno de 1995 • También se debe usar el Presente Perfecto con las expresiones ALREADY / olrédi / (ya) y YET / yét / (aún).. Already siempre se usa en oraciones afirmativas.? vez.. la palabra for va seguida de un período: since last Monday /sins lá: st mándi/. /tóm haz wé:rkt híar sins náintin náinti tú:/ Tom ha trabajado aquí desde 1992 We have lived here for several years. etc. since 10:30 /sins tén θé:rti/. Yes. since 1978 /ins náintin séventi éit/. once. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son SINCE /síns/ (desde) y FOR /for/ (por. many times /méni támiz/.El Presente Perfecto se usa en los siguientes casos: • Para describir una acción que acaba de suceder. En las interrogaciones se puede usar indistintamente already o yet. /δe tréin haz dllást arráivd/ El tren acaba de llegar They´ve just left. Lea.. /wí:v bí:n in niú: ió:rk sévral tamiz/ Nosotros hemos estado en Nueva York varias veces • Para referirse a una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado hasta el día de hoy. Lea. Mientras since va seguido de una fecha u hora. /hav iú éver. alguna 158 A short course in english for adult students ./ /dllást/ antes del Ha Ud. escuche y aprenda: I´ve seen that documentary twice. They visited me in the winter of 1995. Las expresiones de tiempo más usadas en este caso son: once /wáns/. hasta este momento. escuche y aprenda: I am sure that I´ve seen that film before.

obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener.Lea. 1. learned /lé:rnd/ learnt /le:rnt/ learned /lé:rnd/ left /léft/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ lost /lost/ A short course in english for adult students 159 . escuche y aprenda: They have seen that documentary. /áiv olrédi sí:n θæt mú:vi/ Yo ya he visto esa película. En las interrogaciones se debe invertir el orden de have/has con el sujeto: Lea. extraviar begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /draηk/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:len/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got /gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/. We haven´t had breakfast yet. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. conocer aprender. Has the train arrived already/yet? /haz δe tréin arráivd olrédi/ yet/¿Ha llegado ya el tren? En la forma negativa se usa la palabra NOT entre HAVE/HAS y el pasado participio del verbo principal. /δéi hav sí:n θt dokiuméntri/ Ellos han visto ese documental They haven´t seen that documentary. servirse. /méri haz sóuld he:r ká:r/ Mary ha vendido su auto. /δéi hævent sí:n θæt dokiuméntri/ Have they seen that documentary? /hav δéi sí:n θt dokiuméntri/ How many times have they seen that documentary? /háu méni táimz hav δéi sí:n θæt dokiuméntri/ Mary has sold her car. Generalmente se prefiere usar las contracciones HAVEN´T /hævnt/ HASN´T /hæznt/). escuche y aprenda: I´ve already seen that movie. mantener saber. conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. /méri hæznt sóuld he:r ká:r/ Has Mary sold her car? /haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ Why has Mary sold her car? /wái haz méri sóuld he:r ká:r/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: What have you done? /wót hav iú: dán/ ¿Qué ha hecho Ud. encontrar olvidar conseguir. Mary hasn´t sold her car. Estudie el Pasado Participio de los siguientes verbos irregulares: Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ Past Tense began /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ Past Participle Spanish empezar. dejar prestar perder.? EXERCISES Ex. haber oir guardar. enterarse partir. salir. /wí: hævent hæd brékfast yet/ No hemos tomado desayuno aún.

You´ll have to take the 8:15 train which leaves from Victoria Station. (work) 9. Bob ________________to San Francisco several times. (be) 3. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. (go) 10. Bill ________________ in Tokyo several times. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 160 A short course in english for adult students . (leave) 4. Peter has had dinner already. I ________________ that man before. 1. Hurry up! (start) 2. John has sent them a fax. The students ________________ already ________________ that book (read) 11. He can tell you where to go and what to do there. (go) 8. They´ve given her Tom´s new address. My friends ________________ in this house for over 10 years. The soccer game has already finished. The plane has already left. confeccionar reunirse. 4. 5. Peter ________________ just ________________ a letter. vestir escribir Ex.To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ To pay /péi/ To put /put/ To read /ri:d/ To run /ran/ To say /séi/ To see /si:/ To sell /sel/ To send /send/ To shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ To sit /sit/ To sleep /sli:p/ To speak /spi:k/ To spend /spénd/ To stand up /stænd ap/ ´ To swim /swim/ To take /téik/ To teach /ti:tch/ To tell /tel/ To think /θiηk/ To understand /anderstænd/ ´ To wear /wéar/ To write /ráit/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ ran /ræn/ said /sed/ saw /so:/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sang /sæη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoke /spóuk/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swam /swæm/ took /tuk/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ wore /wo:r/ wrote /rout/ made /méid/ met /met/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /saη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood up /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn/ hacer. colocar leer correr. 6.conocer pagar poner. comprender usar (ropa). He´s reading it now. but I´m sure I know him. (receive) 7. He isn´t in Chile. creer entender. I don´t remember when. He________________ to America. He knows it well. Sir. Mary ________________ to him about it twice already. (see) 5. Your train ________________ already ________________. (speak) 12. fabricar. 3. 2. (meet) Ex. I´m quite sure that I ________________ that woman before. They have studied the report. 3. John ________________ for that company since 1987. The tennis game________________ just ________________. Complete las siguientes oraciones usando el verbo dado en el tiempo Presente Perfecto: 1. Cambie las siguientes oraciones a) al negativo y b) al interrogativo. llevar enseñar decir pensar. 2. pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. (live) 6.

pero se debe pronunciar /z/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sonora. como /k/. /p/. Where. 1. ___________________________________________________ The students have done the same exercise three times. ___________________________________________________ El General ya se ha ido a la reunión. 5. /b/. ___________________________________________________ We´ve waited for them for more than two hours. ___________________________________________________ John has been in Chicago and Boston. ___________________________________________________ ¿Por qué no han visitado California Uds. ___________________________________________________ They´ve bought a new house. How. She __________________________________________ In 1991 and in 1997 ___________________________________________________ Yes. en el Ejército? ___________________________________________________ ¿Dónde han estado ellos desde las ocho de esta mañana? ______________________________________________ PART II A. 9. 4. En Inglés los sustantivos normalmente se pluralizan agregando una -s al singular. When. etc. Este sufijo se pronuncia /s/ cuando se agrega a los sustantivos singulares que terminan en una consonante sorda. _______________________________________________ Yes. /g/. ___________________________________________________ ¿Has mirado televisión esta tarde. 2. /l/. 3. 4. ___________________________________________________ He´s gone to bed because he´s ill. 5. es decir con vibración de las cuerdas vocales. ___________________________________________________ Tom´s lived in Pakistan for over a year. 10. Esta regla también se aplica a los sustantivos terminados en -e “muda” Ejemplos: one book /buk/ one hat /hæt/ one dam /dæm/ one pad /pæd/ two books /buks/ six hats /hæts/ two dams /dæmz/ ten pads /pædz/ one top /top/ one bag /bæg/ one club /klab/ three tops /tops/ three bags /bægz/ two clubs /klabz/ A short course in english for adult students 161 . 8. Traduzca las siguientes oraciones al inglés. 5. 6. ______________________________________________ No. 2. 1. ___________________________________________________ Ann hasn´t answered the letters because she´s been too busy. 9. 5. etc. ___________________________________________________ I´ve eaten a ham sandwich. PLURALIZATION OF NOUNS (LA PLURALIZACIÓN DE LOS SUSTANTIVOS) 1. 2. How long. 3. Have you ever been to Japan? (never). 10. 4. todavía? ___________________________________________________ ¿Cuánto tiempo ha trabajado Ud. Tom´s seen that same movie three times. _________________________________________________ Ex. etc. Have they ever seen a UFO? (Never) Have you ever driven a Mercedes? (Once or twice) Has your father ever lived abroad? (several times) Have you seen the President in person? (never) Has Susan ever come to Chile? (a couple of times) ___________________________________________________ Yes.. 6. Yo no he leído ese libro todavía. 7. 7. 8.Ex. ___________________________________________________ Paul´s worked for our company since 1989. ___________________________________________ The boys have done nothing today. /d/. 11. es decir sin vibración de las cuerdas vocales. ___________________________________________________ ¿Qué te ha contado Mary acerca de ello? ___________________________________________________ Ellos han estudiado Inglés por más de dos años. Formule preguntas usando palabras interrogativas como What. como /m/. Conteste las siguientes preguntas usando las expresiones dadas después de cada pregunta: 1. John? ___________________________________________________ Mi suegro ha vivido en esta ciudad toda su vida. ___________________________________________________ They´ve sold ten books today. 6. /t/. 6. Has Maria ever visited the USA? (twice) 3. 4. 7. ___________________________________________________ Ellos han estado aquí varias veces antes. _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 12.

Los sustantivos terminadas en -o precedida por una vocal normalmente agregan una -s Ejemplos: one tomato /toméitou/ one hero /híarou/ one radio /réidiou/ one video /vídiou/ one studio /stúdiou/ two tomatoes /toméitouz/ two heroes /híarouz/ two radios /réidiouz/ three videos /vídiouz/ two studios /stúdiouz/ one potato /potéitou/ one folio /fóuliou/ one zoo /zu:/ two potatoes /potéitouz/ two folios /fóuliouz/ several zoos /zu:z/ 162 A short course in english for adult students . -sh. forman su plural cambiando la -f o -fe en -ves. los que solamente agregan -s pero en este caso la pronunciación tambien es /iz/ Ejemplos: One bus /bás/ One watch /wótch/ One case /keis/ One page /péidll/ two buses /básiz/ three watches /wótchiz/ two cases /kéisiz/ ten pages /péidlliz/ one brush /brash/ one box /boks/ one face /féis/ four brushes /bráshiz/ ten boxes /bóksiz/ three faces /féisiz/ 3. Los sustantivos terminados en -f o -fe. -x. several beliefs /bilí:fs/ one cliff /klif/. two roofs /ru:fs/ 5. sino que simplemente agregan -s para formar el plural. Los sustantivos que terminan en -s. no siguen la regla anterior. banjo. Los sustantivos terminados en -y precedida por una vocal agregan -s para formar su plural. -ch. o -z forman el plural agregando -es /iz/ . two handkerchiefs /hænke:rtchi:fs/ a belief /bilí:f/. piano. -ge. -ff. Ejemplos: one handkerchief /hænke:rtchi:f/. soprano. pero aquellas que terminan en -y precedida por una consonante cambian la -y por -i y enseguida agregan -es Ejemplos: one day /dei/ one key /ki:/ one boy /boi/ two days /deiz/ five keys /ki:z/ three boys /boiz/ one lily /líli/ one baby /béibi/ one fly /flái/ three lilies /líliz/ two babies /béibiz/ several flies /fláiz/ 4. también se incluyen aquí los sustantivos terminados en -se. -ce. some cliffs /klifs/ a roof /ru:f/. -oof. solo. Los sustantivos terminados en -o precedida por una consonante normalmente agregan -es para formar el plural (excepto las palabras relacionadas con música (generalmente de origen italiano) como.one gate /géit/ one note /nóut/ one name /néim/ one tone /tóun/ two gates /geits/ ten notes /nóuts/ two names /néimz/ two tones /tóunz/ one lake /léik/ one cave /kéiv/ several lakes /léiks/ two caves /kéivz/ 2. Ejemplos: one leaf /li:f/ one wolf /wulf/ one wife /waif/ two leaves /li:vz/ five wolves /wulvz/ three wives /wáivz/ one loaf /lóuf/ one knife /naïf/ three loaves /lóuvz/ ten knives /náivz/ Algunos sustantivos terminados en -ief. etc).

: mosquitos/mosquitoes /moskitouz/ . zeros/zeroes /zíarouz/ 6. Existen algunos sustantivos de origen latín o griego que tienen plurales especiales o irregulares: Ejemplos: criterion /kraitérion/ analysis /anælisis/ ´ crisis /kráisis/ oasis /ouéisis/ thesis /θí:sis/ curriculum /karíkiulam/ medium /mí:diam/ stimulus /stímiulas/ cactus /kæktas/ ´ syllabus /sílabas/ formula /fó :rmiula/ vertebra /vértibra/ appendix /apéndiks/ index /índeks/ criteria /kraitíaria/ analyses /anælisi:z/ ´ crises /kráisi:z/ oases /ouéisiz/ theses /δí:siz/ curricula /karíkiula/ media /mí:dia/ stimuli /stímiulai/ cacti /kæktai/ ´ syllabi /sílabai/ formulae /fó :rmiuli:/ vertebrae /vértibri:/ appendices /apéndisi:z/ indices /indisi:z/ phenomenon /fenómenon/ basis /béisis/ hypothesis /haipóθesis/ parenthesis /parénθesis/ bacterium /bæktí:ariam/ datum /déitam/ memorandum /memorædam/ ´ cactuses /kæktasi:z/ ´ syllabuses /sílabasiz/ formulas /fó :rmiulaz/ appendixes /apéndiksi:z/ indexes /índeksiz/ phenomena /fenómena/ bases /béisi:z/ hypotheses /haipóθesi:z/ parentheses /parénθesi:z/ bacteria /bæktía:ria/ data /déita/ memoranda /memorδda/ A short course in english for adult students 163 . tornados/tornadoes /to:rnéidouz/ . Existen algunos sustantivos que mantienen la misma forma en el plural: Ejemplos: one/several fish /fish/ one/two series /siariz/ one/several aircraft /éarkrá:ft/ one/ten deer /díar/ one/ten sheep /shi:p/ one/several means /mí:nz/ one/two species /spíshiz/ 8. volcano / volkéinou / y zero / zíarou / forman el plural agregando indistintamente -s o -es. tornado / to:rnéidou /. Existen algunos plurales irregulares que no siguen ninguna de las reglas anteriores y que debemos memorizar: Ejemplos: one man /mæn/ one woman /wúman/ one child /tcháild/ one tooth /tu:θ/ one foot / fu:t / one goose /gu:z/ one louse /láus/ one mouse /máus/ one ox /oks/ two men /men/ three women /wímin/ five several children /tchíldren/ two teeth /tí:θ/ two feet /fi:t/ ten geese /gí:z/ several lice /láis/ three mice /máis/ four oxen /óksen/ 7.Excepciones one piano /pianou/ one kilo /kílou/ one photo /fóutou/ two pianos /pianouz/ two kilos /kílouz/ several photos /fóutouz/ one banjo /bændllou/ ´ one memo /mémou/ two banjos /bændllouz/ ´ three memos /mémouz/ Los sustantivos mosquito /moskitou/. volcanos/volcanoes /volkéinouz/ .

También existe un grupo de verbos que pueden ir seguidos indistinatamente de TO + INFINITIVO o de un GERUNDIO (I like to swim / I like swimming). I heard some surprising news. seguir To mind /máind/ importar. 1. they went to the library. como To want (I want to read the newspaper). aceptar como cierto To avoid /avóid/ evitar To consider /konsíder/ considerar. 164 A short course in english for adult students . VERB + GERUND Los siguientes verbos van normalmente seguidos de un gerundio: To admit /admit/ admitir. abandonar To suggest /sadllést/ sugerir To practise /práktis/ practicar Ejemplos: Would you mind closing the door? I enjoy walking in the park in the morning. el gerundio (en este caso el presente participio) se usa con el verbo TO BE para expresar los tiempos continuos o progresivos: I am playing tennis now. como ud. (Uso de los infinitivos y los gerundios) Se denomina Infinitivo a la palabra To + la forma simple de un verbo principal: to go. o de un BARE INFINITIVE (infinitivo sin To). USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS.B. I enjoy playing tennis. Ann will soon finish typing the letter. I was playing tennis at this time yesterday. gustar To fancy /f(nsi/ agradar. to write. como To enjoy (I enjoy reading) y otros verbos que normalmente van seguidos de TO + INFINITIVO.) To go window-shopping /góu wíndow shópiη/ ir a vitrinear Ejemplos: I usually go jogging in the evening. speaking. El gerundio es la forma simple de un verbo principal + el sufijo -ING: going. gustar To finish /fínish/ terminar To imagine /imádllin/ imaginar(se) To involve /invóulv/ involucrar. continuar. writing. salir. como To make (He made us do the exercise again). to speak. recordar con nostalgia To postpone /pospóun/ postergar To appreciate /áprishieit/ agradecer To risk /risk/ arriesgar. Además. molestar To miss /mis/ echar de menos. El verbo TO GO va seguido de un gerundio en expresiones que se refieren a actividades deportivas como las siguientes: To go boating /góu bóutiη/ ir a andar en bote To go bowling /góu bóuliη/ ir a jugar a los bolos To go camping /góu kæmpiη/ ir a acampar To go dancing /góu dænsiη/ ir a bailar To go fishing /góu físhiη/ ir a pescar To go hang gliding /góu hænd gláidiη/ ir a planear (delta) To go hiking /góu háikiη/ ir a excursionar To go jogging /góu dllógiη/ ir a trotar To go running /góu rániη/ ir a correr To go sailing /góu séiliη/ ir a andar en yate To go shopping /góu shópiη/ ir de compras To go sightseeing /góu sáitsí:iη/ ir en un tour To go skating /góu skéitiη/ ir a patinar To go skiing /góu skí:iη/ ir a esquiar To go skydiving /góu skáidáiviη/ ir a hacer salto libre To go swimming /góu swímiη/ ir a nadar To go trekking /góu trékiη/ ir de excursión To go water-skiing /góu wó:terskí:iη/ ir a esquiar (acuat. etc. Mrs Brown goes shopping every Saturday morning. pensar en To delay /diléi/ retrasar To deny /dinái/ negar. They went sightseeing in the morning. Existen algunos verbos que van seguidos normalmente por un GERUNDIO. no aceptar como cierto To enjoy /endllói/ disfrutar. etc. seguramente recordará. comprender To keep /kí:p/ mantener(se). After playing tennis. correr el riesgo de To quit /kuit/ dejar. (ver reglas dadas en la Unit 4) Un gerundio puede actuar como: a) b) c) d) Sujeto de una oración: Complemento directo de un verbo: Complemento de una preposición: Adjetivo: Playing tennis is fun.

2. I look forward to seeing you soon. soñar que sentir o tener ganas de perdonar a alguien por terminar acostumbrarse a dejar de. desear evitar o impedir que alguien postergar.Todas las preposiciones (excepto la preposición to) van seguidas de un gerundio. Por lo tanto. discutir Ejemplos: John´s given up smoking at last.. 6. Ann is fond of gardening. worth /iz δis. (say) The girl washed the apple ______________________________ it. dejar para más tarde o después lograr exitosamente conversar. (pay) 1 can increase my salary ______________________________ overtime. mantenerse esperar con ansia. Use the correct preposition in the blank space and the gerund of the verbs in parentheses. Las siguientes expresiones idiomáticas también van seguidas de un gerundio: There´s no use /δeaz nóu iu:s/ No vale la pena.. He left the house ______________________________ good bye.. 3.. 4.. Is this book worth reading? Is it worthwhile going there now? EXERCISES Ex. Es inutil It´s no use insisting There´s not much point in doing that. rendirse continuar. 3. Have you fínished ______________________________ (read) the book yet? We’re considering ______________________________ (take) a new course. 2. (leave) ______________________________ to bed. 1. 4. Would you mind ______________________________ (wait) a few minutes? They´ve stopped ______________________________ (speak) to each other.esta/e. las siguientes expresiones van seguidas de un gerundio: Hay algunas expresiones idiomáticas que a pesar de contener la preposición to van seguidas de un gerundio To accuse someone of /akiú:z sámwane v/ To apologize for /apólodlláiz for/ To be accustomed to /bí: akástomd tu/ To be afraid of /bí: afréid v/ To be capable of /bí: kéipabl v/ To be fond of /bí: fond v/ To be tired of /bí: táiard v/ To be used to /bí: iu:st tu/ To carry on /kæri on/ ´ To dream of/about /drí:m v.. 5. seguir insistir en continuar.we:rθ/ ¿Vale la pena. seguir. 1.? Is it worthwhile /iz it we:rθwail/ ¿Vale la pena.. Bob will soon get used to living in this country. seguir. abáut/ To feel like /fí:l láik/ To forgive somebody for /forgív sámbodi for/ To get through /get θru:/ To get used to /get iu:st tu/ To give up /giv áp/ To go on /gou ón/ To insist on /insíst ón/ To keep on /kí:p ón/ To look forward to /luk fórward tu/ To prevent somebody from /privént sámbodi from/ To put off /put óf/ To succeed in /saksí:d in/ To talk about /to:k abáut/ acusar a alguien de disculparse por estar acostumbrado a tener miedo a ser capaz de ser aficionado a estar cansado de estar acostumbrado a continuar. (eat) Bob left the restaurant ______________________________ the check. Supply the gerund form of the verb in parentheses 1. It´s no use /its nóu iu:s/ There´s not much point in /δeaz nót match póint in/ No sirve de mucho Is this. A short course in english for adult students 165 . (work) We’re thinking ______________________________ a trip to Europe. (take) He put on his coat ______________________________ the house. They kept on talking for hours.. 7.. (go) Ex. the old woman locked all the doors.?) There´s no use waiting any longer. mantenerse soñar con. 2..

2. Complete the sentences so that they mean the same as the first sentence. Bob: We could go the cinema. 5. 10. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 1 dislike ______________________________ (ride) on the subway. Could you please stop _______________________ so much noise? I enjoy _______________________ to music. Hello! Fancy _______________________ you here! What a surprise! I’ve put off _______________________ the letter so many times. 1 aIways enjoy ______________________________ (visit) new places. 11. 1. 6. 10. Ann: You were driving so fast! Bob: Yes. Use -ING. _______________________________________? 4. 12. 9. The driver couldn’t avoid ______________________________ (hit) the pedestrian. Ann: You broke into the shop. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody _______________________ so stupid? Sarah gave up _______________________ to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad. You can´t stop me doing what I want. I can do what I want and you can´t stop me. 4. 2. 6. it’s true. They can’t risk ______________________________ (be) seen. 7. 1 didn’t! Bob denied ___________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 3. Bob didn’t fancy _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. The driver of the car said it was true that he didn´t have a licence. you risk _______________________ knocked down by a passing car. Bob didn’t mind ________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. The boy’s finished ______________________________ (eat) his supper. The driver of the car admitted ____________________________________________________________________ 166 A short course in english for adult students . Shall we go away tomorrow instead of today? Shall we postpone ________________________________ until. apply be be listen make see try use wash work write He tried to avoid answering my question. 5. 1. Jim is 65 but he isn’t going to retire yet. no problem. Sorry! Bob admitted. Ann: Do you want to play tennis Bob: No. I considered _______________________ for the job but in the end I decided against it. idea to travel during the rush hour. 7. Ann: Why don’t we go for a swim? Bob: Good idea! Ann suggested ________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Complete the sentences for each situation using -ing. 8. It´s better to avoid ______________________________________________________________________________ 3.5. Ann: Can you wait a few minutes? Bob: Sure. Have you finished _______________________ your hair yet? If you walk ínto the road without looking. 2. Ex. 9. He wants to carry on _______________________. I don’t mind you _______________________ the phone as long as you pay for all your calls. Ann: What shall we do? Bob suggested going to the cinema. Ex. 4. 8. It´s not a good. 3. 1 don’t mind ______________________________ (have) to work till late on Fridays. not really. I really must do it today. Bob: No. Complete each sentence with one of these verbs: answer 1.

Mary is very fond _______________________ in the river (swim) John insisted _______________________ to the stadium with us. I aIways enjoy talking to her. She won’t go to the university. (wait) Bill has no intention _______________________ part in the game. She will study music. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 2. John will study to be an engineer. please? Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? 6. We will not visit the Smiths. (take) There´s no possibility _______________________ the work today. 1. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 167 . 11. 2. They won’t go abroad. l’m not feeling very well. Supply the correct preposition and the gerund form of the verb in parentheses: 1. We’re going to the movie tonight. Would you mind ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. (drive) John got tired _______________________ for us. 7. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. so I suggested ________________________________________________________________ It was very funny. He will not work in his father’s store.5. 8. Please don´t interrupt me all the time. 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. I don’t fancy ______________________________________________________________ l’m afraid there aren’t any more chairs. (do) We are thinking _______________________ French. 4. 10. I hope you don`t mind _________________________________________ It was a lovely day. 12. Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. 3. 5. Could you turn the radio down. 5. It keeps _________________________________________________________________ Ex. He will not stay at the home of his cousin. 4. He will marry Helen. 8. (finish) Ex. They will not drive in their new car. (hit) There is little chance _______________________ her again. 6. 7. He will live in a dormitory. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. (study) Bob has very little experience _______________________ trucks. (see) lt’s a question _______________________ it at once. I will play tennis. 6. He will not remain a bachelor. Use gerunds. 6. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. She’s a very interesting person. (go) Henry needs much more practice _______________________ (speak) We look forward _______________________ you soon. 9. 3. Join the following pairs of sentences by using INSTEAD OF /instéd ov/ (en vez de) 1. (see) The seat belt prevented me _______________________ my head against the windshield. I won’t work in the garden today I will play tennis instead of working in the garden today. They will stay home this summer. They will fly to Mexico. I couldn´t stop __________________________________________________________________ My car isn´t very reliable.

A: Are you listening to me? B: Yes.Ex. 168 A short course in english for adult students . lt’s slowly falling apart. They’re considering _______________________ We discussed _______________________ Colorado for our vacation. 6. Be sure to use a gerund in each sentence. I’m listening to you. 11. A: Good. The Porters´ house is too small. Use the expressions in the list or your own words. I enjoy _______________________ sports. sometimes I put off ___________________________________ 7. 2. A: What do you usually do in your free time in the evening? B: I enjoy ___________________________________ 4. B: Oh? A: I quit ___________________________________ B: That´s wonderful! 5. 1. We had a blizzard. I´m considering _______________________ New York City. A: I´ve been having a lot of trouble with my old Honda the last couple of months.. 9. and I don’t run out of breath when I walk up a hill. I´m considering ___________________________________ 3. so we postponed going to/visiting the botanical gardens. Well. A: Could you please stop doing that? B: Doing what? A: Stop ___________________________________ It´s driving me crazy. I’m thinking about _______________________ a biology course next semester. but it finally stopped _______________________ around 10 p. and 1 still don’t understand it. 3. Add a preposition after the gerund. B: Well. yesterday. 2. When Martha finished _______________________ the floor. 10. A: When you finísh ___________________________________ could you he1p me in the kitchen? B: Sure. try._______________________ their homework. it has. She’s talking about _______________________ a different job. try again. I´d be glad to. 13. then. I quit _______________________ comic books when I was twelve years old. A: Would you mind _______________________ the window? B: Not at all. don’t give up. news! I feel great. I´m not tired yet. Keep__________________________________ lf at first you don`t succeed. Sometimes students put off. I´m thinking about ___________________________________ B: Do you think you´ll get another Honda? A: No. 9. 5. B: Oh. A: Would you like to go for a walk? B: Has it stopped raining? A: Yes. Complete the sentences in the dialogues. buy a new car do things go to the zoo on Saturday rain repeat that help him do my homework get a Toyota try read a good book smoke tap your fingernails on the table 1. if necessary. Keep _______________________. 8. Complete the sentences by using GERUNDS. Ex. A: What are you doing? B: I´m helping Teddy with his homework. That’s someone who always postpones ___________________________________.m. 10. 8. A: Are you a procrastinator? B: A what? A: A procrastinator. 14. 7. 12. B: Let´s go. 6. A: I’ve been working on this math problem for the last half hour. A: Do you want to take a break? B: No. she dusted the furniture. 4. I don’t cough any more. Beth doesn’t like her job. It was cold and rainy yesterday. Let’s keep on _______________________ for another hour or so.

They don’t open their parachutes until the last minute. Mr. I said. The ice is smooth. What are the Taylors going to do tomorrow? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Jim and his wife live near the sea. “Three free trees. He usually takes long walks in the woods. What does Sara often do? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Answer the questions. What does he like to do? He likes _______________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Frank and his girlfriend like to spend the whole day on a lake with poles in their hands. On weekends in the winter. What did he do last summer? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. A: I didn’t understand what you said.9. What do they do on buses? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. When there’s a strong wind. Colette and Ben like to jump out of airplanes. Tourists often get on buses that take them to see interesting places in an area. Jim Clark is a nature lover.ING 1. so the lake is completely frozen. He slept in a tent and cooked his food over a fire. My sister goes to the beach almost every day. Barbarta prefers indoor sports. They like to race down the side of a mountain in the snow. they like to spend the day ín their yatch. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 12.. A: Do you have any plans for this weekend? B: Henry and I talked about ___________________________________ 10. Smith´s wife takes good care of her health. She spends hours in the water.. Use the expressions GO +. the Smiths sometimes go to a mountain resort. Would you mind ___________________________________? B: Of course not. The Taylors are going to go to a little lake near their house tomorrow. Johnson likes to go to the Shopping Mall and buy things. What does she like to do? She likes to go swimming 2. What do they probably do a lot? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. What do they like to do? They _________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Mr. What do they like to do? They ________________________________________________________________________________________ . George and Jane know all the latest dances. What do you like to do for exercise and fun? I _____________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 169 . She goes to a place where she rolls a thirteen-pound ball at some wooden pins. She runs a couple of miles every day. What does she do every day? She __________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. What do they like to do? hey like _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Last summer John went to Paine National Park. 11. 14. “ Ex. What does Joe like to do? He ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. It´s winter now.

a en la parte posterior de en la parte inferior de en la parte superior de antes de detrás de más abajo de más abajo de al lado de además de entre (dos) más allá de por. PREPOSITIONS AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES English about / báut/ above / báv/ across / krós/ after /á:fter/ against /egéinst/ along / lóη/ among / máη/ around / ráund/ at / t/ at the back of / t δ bæk v/ at the bottom of / t δ bótom v/ at the top of / t δ top ηv/ before /bifó.r/ behind /biháind/ below /bilóu/ beneath /biní:θ/ beside /bisáid/ besides /bisáidz/ between /bituí:n/ beyond /biyónd/ by /bai/ despite /dispáit/ down /dáun/ during /diúriη/ far from /fá:r from/ for /fo:r/ from /from/ in /in/ in front of /in fránt v/ in the corner of /in δ kórner v/ inside /insáid/ into /íntu/ near /niar/ next to /nékst tu/ of / v/ off /of/ on /on/ onto /óntu/ opposite /óposit/ out /áut/ out of /áut v/ outside /autsáid/ over /óuver/ since /sins/ through /θru:/ till /til/ to /tu/ towards /tuwó:rdz/ under /ánder/ until /antíl/ up /ap/ with /wiδ/ within /wiδin/ without /wiδáut/ 170 A short course in english for adult students Spanish acerca de más arriba de a través de (de un lado al otro) después de en contra de a lo largo de entre (varios) alrededor de en. de en al frente de en la esquina de dentro de hacia adentro cerca de próximo a de lejos de encima de (sobre) hacia encima de frente a afuera hacia afuera fuera de sobre desde a través de hasta a. hacia hacia. cerca de a pesar de hacia abajo durante lejos de para desde.BASIC VOCABULARY: A.15 at the back of the room at the bottom of the map at the top of the shelf before the lesson behind the door below the carpet beneath the ground beside the table besides John Clark between you and me beyond the hill by the river despite the noise down the coast during the day far from London for the students from the USA in the garden in front of the school in the corner of the room inside the classroom into the room near the hospital next to the supermarket of the week off the coast on the desk onto the table opposite the bank out in the street out of the room outside the office over the roof since that day through the tunnel till tomorrow to the office towards the east under the table until next Sunday up the road with my friends within a week without money . en dirección a debajo de hasta hacia arriba de con dentro de sin Example about the history of the USA above the clouds across the street after the lesson against the enemy along the coast among all the girls around the house at home. at 4.

6. 5.no:r/ not only. He didn´t study hard enough. yet she didn´t pass her exam. nonetheless.. Peter and Tom went to visit Hans in hospital... de lo contrario similarmente. moreover. sin embargo. después de todo como resultado de ello en realidad..... He gave her a beautiful diamond. 13... por cierto thus /δas/ inicialmente. ni.como.and.. de este modo en cambio.o:r/ neither. al comienzo instead /instéd/ en último término del mismo modo. it has an excellent location 14.. 10... on the other hand. he went to the post office.and/ either.. we have to wash the car. no obstante Adverbial connectives: accordingly /akó:rdiηli/ actually /æktchuali/ ´ although /ólδou/ anyway /éniwei/ besides /bisáidz/ consequently /kónsekwentli/ despite /dispáit/ equally /íkwali / finally /fáinali/ first /fé:rst/ furthermore /férδermó:r/ hence /héns/ however /hauéver/ indeed /indí:d/ initially /iníshiali/ en conformidad last(ly) /lá:stli/ en realidad likewise /láikwaiz/ aún cuando.B. entonces.. 7.. It´s cold outside. con posterioridad por lo tanto. He studied hard as well..but ólsou/ yet /iét/ tanto. o. Mary was sick. como resultado de ello aún así en primer término por ejemplo por ejemplo en primer lugar por ese motivo in fact /in fækt/ de hecho. por otra parte sin embargo.. pues por lo tanto. next /nékst/ a pesar de. por lo tanto then /δen/ sin embargo. then.. but he didn´t do well in the test. she came to class.nor /ní:δer. my roommate is not doing so well. así mismo mientras tanto además. nevertheless.. no obstante ello de otro modo. Both Peter and Tom went to see Hans in hospital. debido a que no both. I´m getting along quite well. del mismo modo por lo tanto. no sólo. in addition.. he took her to Europe. On one hand. 4. 11. 3.or /í:δer. however.. primeramente so /sóu/ además subsequently /sábsikwentli/ de aquí que.but also /nót óunli. Connectors Coordinating conjunctions: and /ánd/ or /o:r/ so /sou / for /fó:r/ not /not/ y o por lo tanto porque. we can´t afford the house.. no obstante después. 8. so he failed the exam.. the house is not very comfortable.. 9.. a pesar de meanwhile /mí:nwail/ de todos modos moreover /mó:rouver/ además nevertheless /néverδelés/ en consecuencia. en lugar de eso Phrasal adverbial connectives after all /á:fter ó:l/ as a consequence /az kónsikwens/ as a matter of fact /az máter ov fækt/ ´ as a result /az rizált/ even so /í:vn sóu/ first of all /fé:rst v ó:l/ for example /for igzámpl/ for instance /for ínstans/ for one thing /for wan θiη/ for that reason /for δæt rí:zn/ ´ Examples: 1... no obstante therefore /δéarfo:r/ en efecto. en consecuencia posteriormente. aunque. besides. He´s my best friend. ya sea.. 2. The yard is too big. The student speaks English well. he seems to know a lot about our customs. 12.ni. acto seguido sin embargo. no obstante nonetheless /nanδeles/ igualmente otherwise /áδerwaiz/ finalmente. First... furthermore. Alice studied very hard. enseguida. /bóuθ.sino que también. en realidad in addition /in adíshon/ además in spite of that /in spáit v δæt/ a pesar de ello in the first place /in δ fé:rst pléis/ en primer lugar in the meantime /in δ mí:ntaim/ mientras tanto in the same way /in δ seim wéi/ del mismo modo on one hand / n wan hænd/ por un lado ´ on the other hand / n δi áδ r hænd/ por otro lado ´ to begin with /tu bigín wiδ/ para comenzar to start with /tu stá:rt wiδ/ para comenzar A short course in english for adult students 171 . por consiguiente así.. por fin similarly /símilarli/ en primer lugar... he went to the bank. we´ve known each other all our lives.

Bl 172 .

They´ve been here several times before. 8. visiting 12. Where has John been? 9.started 2. 2. 3. The general has already gone to the meeting. How long has Paul worked for our company? 7. Peter hasn´t had dinner yet / Has Peter had dinner already / yet? 3.. breaking down Ex. looking for 10. 6. 3. 6.. 1. waiting 2. 4. No. they´ve never seen one 4. waiting a few minutes.... please? 6. of swimming 2. Why haven´t you visited California yet? 9. How many books have they sold today? 6. have seen 5. 1. by working 5. Why has he gone to bed? 4. instead of visiting the Smiths 5. 7. have lived 6. Ex. 4. John hasn´t sent them a fax / Has John sent them a fax? 6.. 5.? Ex. 1.. vacuuming 5.. How long has Tom lived in Pakistán? 5. 1. / Have they given her. making 3.. (Possible answers) 2. has . listening 4. Why hasn´t Ann answered the letters? 10. has been 3. hitting 9. having 10. being 12. My father-in-law has lived in this city all his life. Driving / having been driving too fast 4. 9. has worked 9. snowing 7..Yes. about taking 6. 5. taking 5. of doing 8. I haven´t read that book yet. How many times has Tom seen that same movie? 2.. Breaking / having broken 6. of driving 10. she´s been there twice. before eating 3. has . being 8. of taking 12. tomorrow 4. What have you eaten? 8. They haven´t given her. to seeing 5. going for a swim 5. of waiting 11. without / after paying 4. before leaving 7.received 7. before going Ex. 3.instead of going to the university 3. visiting Ex.. 2. laughing 6. going to 4.instead of working in his father´s store 6. (Possible answers) 2. 2. riding 7. 2. I´ve driven one once or twice.. going out this evening 3. 1.. not having a license 5. travelling during the rush hour 3. have . standing up 4. has. Ex.1 1.Key to answers UNIT 12 A. I´ve never been there 2. 1. 3. taking 9.. in speaking 4. she´s come here a couple of times. They´ve studied English for more than two years. applying 5.instead of staying at the home of his cousin 7. reading 4. going away. 6.. has spoken 12. The soccer game hasn´t finished yet / Has the soccer game finished already / yet? 2. buying 8. working 14. What have the boys done today? 11.left 4. No. he´s lived abroad several times 6. not interrupting me all the time? Ex. instead of going abroad 4. practising 11.. 8. working 8. John? 5.. instead of remaining a bachelor 8. Ex. 1. 2. closing A short course in english for adult students 173 .. on going 3. doing 6. Yes.. No. has gone 8. How long have you worked in the army? 10. eating 6.read 11. has . have met Ex. of finishing Ex... about studying 9. speaking 13.. 7.. without / after saying 2. How long have we / you waited for them? 12. from hitting 6. Ex. How many times have the students done the same exercise? Ex. Yes. using 9.. moving into a larger house 3.. 4. They haven´t studied the report / Have they studied the report? 4.been 10. trying Ex. going out for a walk 5. I´ve never seen him in person. The plane hasn´t left yet / Has the plane left already / yet? 5.instead of driving in their new car Ex. answering 11. What have they bought? 3. seeing 10. Where have they been since eight o´clock this morning? B. 5. turning the radio down. washing 6. speaking 3. of seeing 7. What has Mary told you about that? 7. Yes. 2. playing tennis 3. Have you watched TV this afternoon / evening. being 7.

repeating that Ex. to go water-skiing 3. goes bowling 9. go sight-seeing 13. 11. trying 6. like to go (fishing / window-shopping / swimming. doing things / doing his homework 7. like to go sky-diving 14. 10. like to go sailing 12. etc. 2. 174 A short course in english for adult students . smoking 5. goes jogging 6. like to go skiing 7. reading a good book 4. tapping your fingernails on the table 9. go dancing 10. went camping 4.Ex. likes trekking 8. buying a new car / getting a Toyota 3. going to the zoo on Saturday 10. 2. helping him 8. to go shopping 5. are going to go ice-skating 11.

Complete the following sentences using the verb provided in the Present Perfect Continuous Tense. /tóm haz bí:n wé:rkiη δéar sins éit θé:rti/. 3. Normalmente este tiempo describe acciones que se empezaron a realizar hace poco tiempo. escuche y aprenda: Tom has been working there since 8:30 las 8. Tom _______________________________ here for several months (live) . /tóm /hæznt bí:n wé:rkiη δéar for mó:ar δan tú: áuarz/ Tom no ha estado trabajando allí por más de dos horas Have they been living there very long? /hav δei bí:n líviη δéar véri lóη/ ¿Han estado ellos viviendo allí mucho tiempo? How long have you been practising English today? /háu loη hav iú: bi:n præktisiη íηglish tudéi/ ¿Cuánto tiempo has estado practicando inglés hoy día? La pregunta más habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT HAVE YOU BEEN DOING? /wót av iu: bi:n dú:iη/ ¿Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. 1. /its bí:n ráiniη for abáut an áuar/. (sit) The cadets _______________________________ at attention for about 15 minutes. Lea. escuche y aprenda: Tom hasn´t been working there for more than 2 hours. /wí:v bí:n stádiiη iηglish for óuver tú: mánθs/ It´s been raining for about an hour. Tom ha estado trabajando ahí desde Ellos han estado viviendo en Nosotros hemos estado They have been living in Miami since 1985. /δéi hav bí:n líviη in maiámi sins náintin éiti fáiv/ We´ve been studying English for over two months. Miami desde 1985. La forma negativa se expresa usando HAVEN´T BEEN /hævnt bí:n/ HASN´T BEEN /hæznt bí:n/ más el GERUNDIO y en la forma interrogativa de debe usar HAVE/HAS delante del sujeto de la oración. (stand) A short course in english for adult students 175 . EL TIEMPO PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PRESENT PERFECCT CONTINUOUS) Este tiempo verbal está formado por el presente perfecto de To Be (HAVE BEEN /hav bí:n/ HAS BEEN /haz bí:n/) más un GERUNDIO de un verbo principal. 1. hasta esta fecha. They _______________________________ in the office for several hours. /hi:z bí:n wérkiη δéar for abáut tú: áuarz/.30. 4. Lea. 2 horas They ´ve lived in the South ever since they got married. 2. El ha estado trabajando allí aprox. Ha estado lloviendo cerca de una hora Compare: He´s worked there for many years. /hi:z wé:rkt δéar for méni yíarz/ El ha trabajado allí por muchos años He´s been working there for about 2 hours. Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que comenzó en el pasado y ha continuado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento. estudiando inglés por más de dos meses. (work) That man _______________________________ there for about 2 hours. /δéiv bi:n líviη in δe sáuθ for at lí:st tú mánθs/ Ellos han estado viviendo en esa casa por lo menos 2 meses.UNIT 13 PART 1. /δéiv lívd in δe sáuθ éver sins δéi gót mærid/ Ellos han vivido en el sur desde que se casaron They´ve been living in that house for at least two months.? EXERCISES Ex.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 9. How long. 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Jane´s been feeling well since March. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 176 A short course in english for adult students . ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. 10. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. (read) Miss Black _______________________________ her new novel since April. 1. 6.5. They´ve been discussing the new project too long. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. They´ve been staying at the Rex Hotel. Ask questions using question words like What. 7. (write) The officers _______________________________ in the gym for about 45 minutes. When. I _______________________________ for the bus for more than 10 minutes (wait) Jack and Mary _______________________________ in the park for nearly an hour. Henry´s been reading the newspaper all morning. 8. (run) The commander _______________________________ the report all evening. 1. Bob´s been swimming all morning. (discuss) Ex. They´ve been saving money because they´re planning to buy a house. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. and b) interrogative. He´s been living in Caracas since 1995. The boy´s been listening to the radio since 7 o´clock. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. Bill´s been sleeping all morning. My friends have been living in Madrid since December 2002 ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6. 3. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. Change the following sentences into a) negative. (work out) The generals _______________________________the situation all morning. etc. They´ve been waiting for a taxi for about 15 minutes. They´ve been playing tennis since midday. Where.

tambien pueden ir seguidos de TO BE + Gerund: Mary appeared to be suffering too much. He pretended to be reading the paper. The man attempted to escape from the prison twice. pensar. I can´t afford to buy a Honda car. van seguidos por to+Infinitive Los siguientes verbos van seguidos de to+infinitive: To agree /agrí:/ To afford /afó:rd/ To aim /éim/ To arrange /arréindll/ To ask /a:sk/ To attempt /atémpt/ To claim /kléim/ To decide /disáid/ To deserve /disε´:rv/ To fail /féil/ To forget /forgét/ Acordar Disponer (dinero o tiempo) Aspirar Convenir Solicitar Intentar Reclamar. The boy doesn´t want to do his homework now. simular. simular Prometer Rehusar. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. (II) A. afirmar autoría Decidir Merecer No conseguir. Peter wants to study engeneering. TO A short course in english for adult students 177 . Querer (necesitar) /disáid/ decidir. no lograr Olvidar To hope /houp/ To learn /lε:rn/ To manage /mænidll/ ´ To mean /mi:n/ To offer /ófer/ To plan /plæn/ To pretend /priténd/ To promise /prómis/ To refuse /refiú:z/ To threaten /θréten/ To want /wont/ Esperar (desear) Aprender Conseguir (lograr) Tener intención de. /si:m/ parecer. TO WISH /wish/ desear. The students tend to be negligent. TO DECIDE planear. USE OF INFINITIVES AND GERUNDS. que son las siguientes: 1. Verb + to be +Gerund (Continuous Infinitive) Los verbos TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. VERB + TO-INFINITIVE Ciertos verbos como TO WANT /wont/ querer. 2. TO PRETEND /priténd/ fingir. etc. querer decir Ofrecer(se) Planificar Fingir. negarse a Amenazar. TO TEND /tend/ tender a They seem to be very annoyed. TO PLAN /plæn/ Ejemplos: Sam was in a difficult situation. so I agreed to lend him some money. The woman pretends to know everything. verse. TO SEEM /si:m/ parecer. We aim to increase our exports to Europe. verse. simular. Verb + to be + adjective Esta estructura es muy común con los siguientes verbos: TO APPEAR /apíar/ aparecer. She promised not to be late. They seem to be doing well now. Existen algunas variantes de la estructura presentada anteriormente. I promise to help you. TO SEEM TEND /tend/ tender a.PART II.

They don´t mean to do it now. TO ASK /a:sk/ pedir. We expect to be there soon. Sus padres no le permitirían a ella salir sola. I begged them to see the photos. I begged to see the photos. Verb + Wh. mostrar. him. I´d hate the boys to do it here. (No se debe decir. ´ The IRA claimed to have planted the bomb in the car. Verb + (somebody) + to-infinitive Los siguientes verbos pueden ir seguidos por a) un to-Infinitive o por b) un Complemento Indirecto + to-Inifinitive. obligar y TO LET /let/ permitir. TO TELL /tel/ decir. We expect you to be there soon. + to-Infinitive Después de los verbos TO ASK /a:sk/ solicitar. Do you understand what to do? 5. TO KNOW /nóu/.3. Hot weather makes me feel tired. Verb + to have + Past Participle Perfect Infinitive) Hay algunos verbos que pueden ir seguidos de TO HAVE + un Pasado Participio: They seem to have been doing well so far. I´d love to go to the club. 4. I´d like you to go I´d prefer them to do it now I´d love you to go to the club. madam. pedir. I would prefer /wud prifε preferiría ´:r/ I would love /wud lav/ me encantaría I would hate /wud héit/ me desagradaría. señora Please let me go out. Permítame llevarle su bolso. El tiempo caluroso me hace sentir cansado. solicitar. Let me carry your bag for you. TO UNDERSTAND /anderstænd/ entender. 178 A short course in english for adult students . the student. dejar van seguidos de un BARE INFINITIVO (Infinitive sin TO) en la siguiente estructura: TO MAKE / TO LET + Somebody + bare infinitive You make me feel happy. déjeme salir I want to go there.Mary. saber. VERB + BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos TO MAKE /meik/ hacer. I would like to go. pueden ir seguidos por un complemento indirecto (Peter. se puede usar una palabra interrogativa seguida de to+infinitivo We asked how to get to the station Have you decided where to go for your holidays? I don´t know whether to apply for the job or not. I´d prefer to do it now.) + un to-infinitive Can someone show me how to change the film in this camera? I told them what to do and where to go in London. I´d hate to do that here. Bob taught us how to use the computer. I don´t mean you to do it now. Por favor. (so far = hasta ahora) Bob seems to have lost weight.. where. etc. me. A To want /wont/ querer To ask /a:sk/ pedir To expect /ikspékt/ esperar To beg /beg/ rogar To mean /mi:n/ tener la intención de I would like /wud laik/ me gustaría. 6. He asked to take part. TO ADVISE /adváiz/ aconsejar y TO TEACH /ti:tch/ enseñar.. Verb + Somebody+ wh + to-infinitive Los verbos TO SHOW /shóu/. Her parents wouldn´t let her go out alone. B. etc) + una palabra interrogativa (what. TO DECIDE /disáid/ decidir. “You make me TO feel happy”) Tú me haces sentir feliz The customs officer made Sally open her suitcase. when. El oficial de aduana hizo a Alice abrir su maleta. them. B I want you to go there He asked us to take part.

fine. It’s relaxing. Man: What´s your name? Woman: I´m not going to tell you. 2. (call) A short course in english for adult students 179 . Mary agreed ___________________________________________________ 3. Put the verb into the correct form to-Infinitive or -ing 1. Nobody dared _____________________________ anything. thanks. The woman refused _____________________________________________ Ex. (parte de la acción) Los oí cantando una canción We heard them sing ten songs. Jack : Please help me. They arranged _________________________________________________ 5. 2. 5. Ex. Hans: OK. She promised not_____________________________ late. Don’t forget _____________________________ the letter I gave you. (go) It’s a nice day. van seguidos de un gerund cuando nos referimos a una acción parcial o de un bare infinitive cuando nos referimos a la acción completa Ejemplos: I saw her crossing the road. 4. 3. D. (parte de la acción) I saw her cross the road. so we decided _____________________________ for a walk. please? EXERCISES Ex. 7. 2. I haven’t learnt how _____________________________ it yet. 3. (go) I wish that dog would stop _____________________________ . (watch) It was a nice day. (bark) Our neighbour threatened _____________________________ the police if we didn’t stop the noise. 6. 3. 4. Tom: Shall we get married? Betty: Yes. I don’t mind _____________________________ (wait) They don’t have much money. TO WATCH /wótch/ observar. Bob: Can I carry your bag for you? Woman: No. let´s They decided __________________________________________________ 2. 5. 1. Jill has decided not _____________________________ a car. I can manage. Does anyone fancy _____________________________ for a walk? (go) I’m not in a hurry. We were all too afraid to speak. They can’t afford _____________________________ out very often.C. 1. TO HEAR /híar/ oir. We’ve got a new computer in our office. VERB + SOMEBODY + TO-INFINITIVE/BARE INFINITIVE El verbo TO HELP /hélp/ ayudar puede ir seguido indistintamente de un to-Infinitive o un bare Infinitive Ejemplo: Can you help me to lift / lift this box. There was a lot of traffic but we managed _____________________________to the airport in time. Bob: Let´s meet at 8 o´clock. VERBO + GERUND o BARE INFINITIVE Los verbos de percepción TO SEE /sí:/ ver. It’s driving me mad. (acción completa) Los oí cantar 10 canciones. (acción completa) La ví cruzando la calle La vi cruzar la calle We heard them singing a song. Bob offered ____________________________________________________ 4. 1. Mary: OK. 6. I enjoy _____________________________ television. When I’m tired. I wonder where Sue is. Complete each sentence with a suitable verb. Complete the sentences for each situation.

7. Tom & Betty: John: Yes. My father allowed _________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 4. (seem) That car has broken down. 6. (appear) You know a lot of people. 1. TO SHUT. CompIete the sentences for each situation. 1. Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence. of course.. He has lost weight. (miss) 10. 2. I will. (find) Ex.. 8. Use DO YOU WANT ME TO. 3. Why don´t you come and stay with us for a few days? ____________________________________________________________________ Mary: No ____________________________________________________________________ Hans: Don´t worry. I’ve been invited to the party but I don’t know _____________________________ or not. We were hungry. so I suggested _____________________________ dinner early. 6. Do you want to go alone or do you want me to _______________________________________________________? Have you got enough money or do you want me to ___________________________________________________? Shall I leave the window open or would you like me to _________________________________________________? Do you know how to use the machine or would _______________________________________________________? Did you hear what I said or do _____________________________________________________________________? Can 1 go now or do ______________________________________________________________________________? Ex. Yes. Bob: Can I use your phone? Mary wouldn´t let 4. I was surprised that it rained. Sue told Hans to lock the door. 2.? or WOULD YOU LIKE ME TO. 7. Ex. I didn’t expect ____________________________________________________________________________________ 180 A short course in english for adult students .8. TO WAIT 1. Hurry up! I don’t want to risk _____________________________ the train. (appear) David forgets things.? with one of these verbs (+ any other necessary words): TO COME. 5.(tend) They have solved the problem. TO REPEAT. Sue: Lock the door. 4. 3. 4.(seem) Tom is worried about something. (seem) My English is getting better. 1. I didn’t know _____________________________.. TO LEND. Complete each sentence using what/how/whether + one of these verbs: 1. Sylvia warned 5. Complete the questions. ____________________________________________________________________ Ex. 5. I was really astonished. Make a new sentence using the verb in brackets. 2. 3. Sylvia: Be careful. I’m still looking for a job but I hope _____________________________something soon. do get go ride say use Do you know _____________________________ to John’s house? Can you show me_____________________________ this washing machine? Would you know_____________________________ if there was a fire in the building? You´ll never forget _____________________________ a bicycle once you have learned. 5. (have) 9. My father said I could use his car. I´d love to Tom and Betty invited John 3. 6. 6. 5. 4. ____________________________________________________________________ Jane. TO SHOW. 2. (claim) He ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Tom: Can you give me a hand? Tom asked Hans: OK..

Sarah persuaded _________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Glasses make ____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. TO START /stá:rt/ comenzar.3. They have been working all morning and feel very tired. Los verbos TO REMEMBER /rimémber/ recordar. It started snowing around midnight We continued working until 10:30 I like listening to music while I´m studying I love going to baseball games I can´t stand waiting in lines too long = = = = = It started to snow around midnight. el ministro pasó a hablar acerca de la política exterior.ING/TO-INFINITIVE Algunos verbos pueden ir seguidos indistintamente de un gerundio o de un to-infinitive. At first I didn’t want to apply for the job but Sarah persuaded me. and now I am sorry about it) Lamento haber dicho lo que dije. 3. I love to go to baseball games. you are able to travel round more easily. I like to listen to music while I´m studying. so I did that) Me acordé de hacer eso. 6. 7. I was warned not _________________________________________________________________________________ 10. TO GO ON /gou on/ continuar también pueden ir seguidos de un gerundio o un to-infinitive pero. Los verbos más comunes de este tipo son: TO PREFER /prifè:r/ preferir.continuar. My lawyer said 1 shouldn’t say anything to the police. detenerse. My lawyer advised. Don’t let me forget to phone my sister. TO HATE /heit/ desagradar. I want ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I regret to say that we can´t send the price lists yet. I regret saying what I said. arrepentirse. (I said that. (smoke) I’ve never been to Iceland but I’d like _____________________________there. CAN´T STAND /ká:nt stænd/ no soportar. TO INTEND /inténd/ tener la intención de. TO CONTINUE /kontíniu/ seguir. They will stop (in order) to rest for a while. I think you should know the truth. sin cambiar de significado. She doesn’t allow us _____________________________ in the house.. The food is awful (eat) The film was very sad. I remember doing that. What do you advise me _____________________________?(do) She said the letter was personal and wouldn´t let me _____________________________it. I can´t stand to wait in lines too long. (He talked about the same thing) El ministro siguió hablando por dos horas. They stopped working in the fields when it started to rain / raining. Remind __________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. a diferencia de los anteriores. TO LIKE /láik/ gustarle a uno. Después de hablar acerca de la economía. (study) E. (read) He was kept at the police station for two hours and then he was allowed _____________________________ (go) Where would you recommend me _____________________________ for my holidays? (go) I wouldn’t recommend you_____________________________in that restaurant. TO LOVE /lav/ encanterle a uno. After discussing the economy. (I did it and now I remember it) Recuerdo haber hecho eso.. Put the verb in the right form : -ing or infinitive (with or without to). A short course in english for adult students 181 . 8. recordarse. I remembered to do that. TO REGRET /rigrét/ lamentar. It made me _____________________________ (cry) Carol’s parents always encouraged her _____________________________hard at school. The minister went on talking for two hours. (go) I’m in a difficult position. parar. Don´t stop him doing what he wants. estos cambian de significado de la oración. the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy. Let ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. He looks older when he wears glasses. TO BEGIN /bigín/ empezar. 1. (I remembered I had to do that. 4. Having a car enables ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 2. 9. (I´m sorry that I have to say that) Lamento decir que aún no podemos enviarle la lista de precios. 9. If you’ve got a car. We continued to work until 10:30. 5. TO STOP /stop/ parar. I was told that 1 shouldn’t believe everything he says. VERBS +.

(talk) Bud and Sally have decided _____________________________ married. 2. 14. 13. (camp) My roommate offered _____________________________ me with my English. (pay) Ann was having dinner when the phone rang. 1. I clean (= completely) forgot. 7. (live) Don’t put off _____________________________ your composition until the last minute. 17. 9. B: Did l? Are you sure? 1 don’t remember . (write) Ken had to quit _____________________________ because he hurt his knee. 8. (see) The baby began _____________________________ in the middle of the night. 12. 1 haven’t got enough money. I’ll phone her tomorrow. 4. 2. 1. 16. 1. (go) I forgot _____________________________ the door when I left my apartment this morning. Please remember to lock the door when you go out. Complete the sentences with the TO-INFINITIVE or the GERUND form of the words in parentheses.EXERCISES Ex. 5. 20. That’s not what I meant! 1 meant _____________________________ just the opposite. 16. 11. A: You lent me some money a few months ago. (jog) The company will continue _____________________________ new employees as long as new production orders keep _____________________________in. (lock) I don’t mind _____________________________ with four roommates. 2. 14. I’m too tired. Sometimes either form is possible. They denied _____________________________the money. (go) I can’t afford _____________________________ out tonight. 18. 6. 21. (hire) (come) 22. (meet) 1 hope _________________________ you again soon._____________________________you any money. (go) Has it stopped _____________________________ yet? (rain) Can you remind me_____________________________ some coffee when we go out? (buy) Why do you keep _____________________________me questions? Can’t you leave me alone? (ask) Please stop _____________________________ me questions! (ask) I refuse _____________________________ any more questions. Complete these sentences with a suitable verb in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. 3. 6. (be) I’m considering _____________________________ to a new apartment. A: Did you remember _____________________________ your sister? B: No. (get) We finished _____________________________ around seven. 7. 9. (move) What time do you expect _____________________________ in Denver? (arrive) Some children hate _____________________________ to school. Use the verb provided in the correct form: TO-INFINITIVE or GERUND. (break) The boy’s father promised _____________________________for the window to be repaired. (cry) Julia has been ill but now she’s beginning _____________________________ better. 3. 15. 1 promise _____________________________ on time. 1. (help) I’ve just begun _____________________________ a movie on TV. 3. 12. 13. (meet) The Wilsons went _____________________________ in Yellowstone National Park last summer. 2. 4. she just carried on _____________________________ (eat) “How did the thief get into the house?” “ I forgot _____________________________ the window. (get). (want) (go) (sail) Ex. 15. 19. (steal) I don’t enjoy _____________________________very much. 10.’ (shut) I’ve enjoyed __________________________you. 5. 182 A short course in english for adult students . (answer) One of the boys admitted _____________________________ the window. (watch) Please stop _____________________________ your knuckles! (crack) Did you remember _____________________________ the cat this morning? (feed) 1 won’t be late. I want _____________________________this afternoon. 3. Ex. Alex seems _____________________________ this weekend. She didn’t answer the phone. 10. 8. (drive) I don’t want _____________________________out tonight. (go) (shop) 24. (say) 23. (eat) Are you planning _____________________________ a vacation this year? (take) I like _____________________________ new people. 11. I need to study tonight (study) I enjoy cooking gourmet meals (cook) Helen started talking/to talk about her problem.

(move) I am planning _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. In fact I don´t remember ___________________ her for a long time (phone) I look forward _____________________________ to that wedding party on Friday. 4. (wash). (rain) Bob never got used _____________________________ in that part of the country. (lock) I think Jane is quite used _____________________________ with Dr. I´ve already done my homework. 15. 11. 11. 4. (move) He left the house without _____________________________ the front door. 5. He was quickly promoted and became assistant manager after two years. It is too expensive. (watch) I am considering _____________________________ to a smaller apartment soon. GERUND. 12. 1 don’t regret _____________________________ it. (do) Could you helpj Jimmy _____________________________ that math exercise. (Review) Use the verbs given in the correct form. She looked up and said hello to me. I can’t go on _____________________________here any more. in La Paz or in Sucre? (meet) The men have been walking up the hill for about an hour. This is very urgent. As a matter of fact I do it every day. 7. Did you remember _____________________________ Mary last night. Someone must have taken my bag. This jacket is dirty. I saw him _____________________________ his car. 12. so they´ll stop ________________________ (rest) a while. or did you forget? (phone) I haven´t phoned her at her home lately. (after a driving test) I regret _____________________________ that you have failed the test. 6. 20. When you see Mandy tomorrow. TO-INFINITIVE. 1. 1 believe that what 1 said was fair. 8. 7. remember _____________________________ her my regards. (watch) Where did they agree_____________________________. 2.(buy) They wanted _____________________________ the soccer game on TV. 10. mum. When 1 came into the room Liz was reading a newspaper. Smith.George? (do) Please let me _____________________________ cartoons. Remember that in some cases you have two alternatives and that sometimes there is a change in the meaning. (talk) I can´t afford _____________________________ that house. (go) We used_____________________________ on holiday every summer when I was a child. 10. 14. I need _____________________________ with the manager immediately.4. A few years later he went on _____________________________ manager of the company. won’t you? 5. Ex. 8. The children stopped _____________________________ when the teacher entered the room. 19. 6. (work) A short course in english for adult students 183 . I saw Bob _____________________________ the car yesterday. 9. 3. (live) I don´t mind _____________________________ the washing up. and then went on _____________________________ her newspaper. 9. It took him more than 20 minutes to do it. 18. Keith joined the company 15 years ago. 17. BARE INFINITIVE. 16. (wash) I drove past Peter´s house yesterday. I clearly remember _____________________________ it by the window and now it has gone. 13. I want a different job. It needs _____________________________. (go) It started _____________________________ at about 7:30 this morning.

______________________________________________________? 7. _______________________________________________________? He has many friends here. normalmente se usa una entonación descendente. The boy can´t speak French. Contracción+ Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) isn´t she? don´t you? can´t he? Verbo Modal + Pronombre (Nunca un nombre) is she? do you? can he? EXERCISES Ex. 11. _____________________________________? 5. Los Tag Endings se usan al final de una aseveración con el fin de buscar una confirmación o para indicar que lo que se afirma está correcto. The wind is blowing very hard. doesn’t he?) She can speak French well. Add the proper tag ending: 1. 13. 10. ______________________________________ ? (John is a good student. Note that all these sentences are formed with the verb To BE. ____________________________________________? 3. 2. ___________________________________________________________? 184 A short course in english for adult students . Equivale a la pregunta ¿Verdad? ¿No es cierto?.PART III TAG ENDINGS. They were both absent from the lesson. ____________________________________________? 9. is she? You don´t know him well. ______________________________________________________? They will be here early. ___________________________________________________? Ex. Salvo que estemos buscando una confirmación. ________________________________________________________? There´s some more milk in the fridge. 7. You are busy today. Sujeto + aseveración negativa Mary isn´t at home now. ___________________________________________________________? He will be back later. 1. 4. ___________________________________________________? I´m your best friend. The boy can speak French. ____________________________________________________________? Mr. don´t you? Bob left on Wednesday. 6. ________________________________________________________? 8. 12. You know him well. Helen and her sister are both studying English. 8. He comes here every day. didn´t he? The boys can speak French. 9. Mary is at home now. 2. ha advertido. It is beginning to rain. can´t they? Thomas has been here before. isn’t he?) 2. Smith has seen that movie. Add the proper tag ending. ____________________________________________________? 4. has he? Como Ud. I´m doing the exercise well. ____________________________________________________________? Henry left at two o’clock. ____________________________________ ? (He comes here every day. ___________________________________________________________? He left at two o’clock. ____________________________________________________________? 6. John is a good student. 3. _______________________________________________________? You live uptown. los tag endings siempre se expresan de la siguiente manera: Sujeto + aseveración afirmativa Mary is at home now. do you? Bob didn´t leave on Wednesday. George is a very tall boy. _______________________________________________________________? She studies with you. can they? Thomas hasn´t been here before. used either as the main verb or as the auxiliary verb: 1. isn´t she? You know him well. __________________________________________________________? He has to work tomorrow. ______________________________________________? Both men look very much alike. hasn´t he? Mary isn´t at home now. You were absent from class yesterday. 5. You don´t know him well. did he? The boys can´t speak French. 14.

_____________________________________ ? Ex. She isn’t busy now. _____________________________________________ ? 8. ________________________________________________________ ? 5. _____________________________? (Mary goes shopping every day. They didn’t arrive on time. ______________________________________________________ ? 7. _____________________________________________? 8. ____________________________________________? 10. He didn’t visit us last night. ________________________________________________________? 11. _________________________________________ ? William was born in Cardiff. ____________________________________________? 9. 7. They didn’t come with her. He didn’t mail any packages. He doesn’t always buy stamps. _________________________ ? (John often walks to the post office. She won’t be at the lesson tomorrow. _______________________________________? 10. He gave him the stamps. ________________________________________________ ? The sun is setting now. 4. ________________________________ ? The sun sets at about six o’clock. 12. _______________________________________________________? 12. He hasn’t got any money. ______________________________________________________ ? William will be here soon. There are many students absent today. _________________________________________? 7. _______________________________________________? 11. He first goes to the window marked “Stamps. Mr. ______________________________________________________ ? The shopping district extends for many blocks. 8. Add the proper tag ending: 1. _____________________________________________________ ? 9. Add the proper tag ending: 1.. He doesn’t always have to wait in line. 4. He put a stamp on the envelope. __________________________ ? (He doesn’t come here every day. They didn’t have to work yesterday. __________________________________________________________ ? Bob´s going to buy a new car this year. ____________________________________________________________ ? 3. __________________________________________________ ? William has been working very hard today. They are leaving early in the morning. 5. _____________________________________________? 12. John often walks to the post office. __________________________________________________? 12. 10. ______________________________________________? 3. _______________________________________________________ ? 4. doesn’t she?) Sue was at home when you called last night. 3. They don’t know each other. ________________________________________________________ ? The traffic on this street was very heavy that evening. _______________________________________ ? José used to work in this office. ________________________________________________________? 11. There are many people ahead of him.. He won’t have to wait in line tomorrow. 6. He doesn’t come here every day. Smith is out of town. does he?) 2.10. Add the proper tag ending: 1. _________________________________________________________ ? 6. John didn’t receive any change. Mary goes shopping every day. But he dropped the letter into the box.”. _______________________________________________________ ? Ex. He never goes there in the morning. He didn’t have to wait in line yesterday. We don’t have to come to school tomorrow. 3. There are only a few people ahead of him. doesn’t he?) 2. _____________________________________? 4. 5. _____________________________________________? 6. 2. ____________________________________________ ? They went into the church. She can’t speak French. ____________________________________________? Ex. They don’t live uptown. __________________________________________________? 5. _________________________________________________? 13. ____________________________________________________? 14. ____________________________________________? A short course in english for adult students 185 . 9. 11.

Ex. 6. You think, but you are not sure. Ask questions, using tag endings. Read these examples: You think Mary speaks Spanish, but you`re not sure. You say: Mary speaks Spanish, doesn`t she? You think the children can`t swim well. You say: The children can`t swim well, can they? 1. You think John`s been to England twice, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 2. You think my friends come from Wisconsin, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 3. You think Bob didn`t attend the meeting last Monday, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 4. You think there isn`t any more whisky in the bottle, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 5. You think they have to work a little faster, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 6. You think Jane shouldn`t do that again, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 7. You think the boy has had dinner already, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 8. You think there was too much noise in the room, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 9. You think you´re a good student, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 10. You think the boys worked harder than the girls, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 11. You think I wouldn`t like to go there again, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 12. You think John put on his new sweater, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 13. You think I was at the meeting too, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________? 14. You think the train hadn`t left yet when I got to the station, but you`re not sure. You say: ________________________________________________________________________________________________?

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BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words SPORTS AND RECREATION Deportes y Recreación amusement park /amiuzment pá:rk/ angling /ægliη/ ´ athletics /aθlétiks/ baths /ba:θs/ beach /bi:tch/ bowling /bóuliη/ boxing /bóksiη/ car-racing /ka:r réisiη/ casino /kazí:nou/ cinema /sínema/ circus /sé:rkas/ climbing /kláimiη/ competition /kompetíshn/ court /kó:rt/ cycling /sáikliη/ championship /tchámpionship/ disco /dískou/ diving /dáiviη/ drive /dráiv/ excursion /ekskérshion/ exhibition /eksibíshion/ expedition /ekspedíshion/ fair /féar/ fencing /fénsiη/ field /fí:ld/ fishing /físhiη/ game /géim/ gliding /gláidiη/ green /grí:n/ horse riding /ho:rs ráidiη/ horse-racing /hó:rs réisiη/ hunting /hántiη/ hurdling /hé:rdliη/ ice-skating /áis skéitiη/ javelin /dllævelin/ ´ jogging /dllógiη/ journey /dllé:rni/ jumping /dllámpiη/ parque de diversiones. pesca de río atletismo baños, termas playa bocha boxeo carrera de autos casino de juegos cine circo andinismo competición cancha (tenis) ciclismo campeonato discoteca buceo paseo en auto excursión exposición expedición feria esgrima cancha (fútbol) pesca juego, partido planeo cancha (golf) equitación carreras hípica caza salto de vallas patinaje en hielo javalina trote Viaje Salto lawn /ló:n/ césped match /mætch/ ´ partido (fútbol,box) movie theater /múvi θíater/ sala de cine museum /miuzíam/ museo night club /náit klab/ club nocturno oar /óar/ remo obstacle /óbstakl/ hurdle /hé:dl/ obstáculo,valla paddling /pæliη/ ´ remo de paleta park /pá:rk/ parque pentathlon /péntaθlon/ pentatlón picnic /píknik/ picnic ride /ráid/ paseo a caballo, etc rink /riηk/ cancha de patines rowing /róuiη/ remo running /rániη/ carrera seaside resort /sí:said risó:rt/ balneario sightseeing tour /sáitsi:iη túar/ paseo turístico skating /skéitiη/ patinaje skiing /skí:iη/ esquí skiing resort /skí:iη rizó:rt/ centro de esquí sneakers /sní:kerz/ zapatillas surfing /sé:rfiη/ surfing sweat-shirt /suét shé:rt/ polerón swimming /suímiη/ natación sword /só:rd/ espada theater /δíater/ teatro tour /túar/ viaje, excursión tournament /tó:rnament/ torneo track /træk/ pista de carrera trekking /trékiη/ excursión en montaña trip /trip/ viaje trunks /tráηks/ pantalones de atlet. T-shirt /ti: shé:rt/ polera voyage /vóiidll/ viaje walk /wó:k/ caminata water-skiing /wó:ter skíiη/ esquí acuático weight-lifting /wéit líftiη/ pesas

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Key to answers

UNIT 13
PART I.
Ex. 1. 1 has been living 2. have been working 3. has been sitting 4. have been standing 5. have been waiting 6. have been running 7. has been reading 8. has been writing 9. have been working out 10. have been discussing Ex. 2. 1. He hasn`t been living... / Has he been living...? 2. They haven`t been playing... / Have they been playing...? 3. Jane hasn`t been feeling... / Has Jane been feeling...? 4. They haven`t been discussing... / Have they been discussing...? 5. Bob hasn`t been swimming... / Has Bob been swimming...? `t Ex. 3. 1. What has Henry been reading all morning? 2. What has Bill been doing all morning? 3. Where have they been staying? 4. Why have they been saving money? 5. How long have your friends been living in Madrid? 6. What has the boy been doing since 7 o`clock? 7. How long have they been waiting for a taxi?

PART II.
A. Ex. 1. 1. to get married 2. to help Jack 3. to carry the woman`s bag 4. to meet at 8 o`clock 5. to tell the man her name Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 1. to post. 2. to get 3. to buy 4. (how) to use 5. to be 6. to say Ex. 3. 1. watching 2. to go 3. going 4. waiting 5. to go 6. barking 7. to call 8. having 9. missing 10. to find Ex. 4. 1. He seems to have lost weight 2. Tom appears to be worried about something. 3. You seem to know a lot of people. 4. My English seems to be getting better. 5.That car appears to have broken down 6. David tends to forget things. 7. They claim to have solved the problem. Ex. 5. 1. how to get 2. how to use 3. what to do 4. how to ride 5. what to say 6. whether to go Ex. 6. 1. go with you? 2. lend you some 3. shut it 4. you like to show you how to use it 5. you want me to repeat what I said 6. you want me to wait Ex. 7. 2. to come and stay with them for a few days 3. Bob use her phone 4. Hans to be careful 5. Jane to give him a hand. Ex. 8. 1. me to use his car. 2. it to rain / it would rain. 3. him do what he wants. 4. him look older. 5. you to know the truth. 6. me to phone my sister. 7. me to apply for the job. 8. not to say anything to the police. 9. to believe everything he says. 10. you to travel round more easily. Ex. 9. 1. to smoke 2. to go 3. to do 4. read 5. to go 6. to go 7. to eat 8. cry 9. to study. B. Ex. 1. 4. to get 5. eating 6. to take 7. meeting / to meet 8. camping 9. to help 10. watching / to watch 11. cracking 12. to feed 13. to be 14.. moving 15. to arrive 16. going / to go 17. to lock 18. living 19. writing 20. jogging 21. to hire / hiring - coming 22. .to say 23. to go shopping 24. to want to go sailing Ex. 2. 1. stealing / having stolen 2. driving 3. to go 4. to go 5. raining 6. to buy 7. asking 8. asking 9. to answer 10. breaking / having broken 11. to pay 12. eating 13. to shut 14. meeting...to see 15. to cry / crying 16. to get Ex. 3. 2. lending / having lent you 3. to phone. 4. to give 5. having left / leaving 6. saying / having said 7. to tell 8. to become 9. working 10. reading 11. cleaning 12. to talk / to meet
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Ex. 4. 1. wash 2. washing 3. to phone 4. phoning 5. to going 6.to go 7. to rain / raining 8. to living 9. doing 10. do / to do 11. watch 12. to meet 13. (in order) to rest 14. talking 15. to buy 16. to watch 17. moving 18. to move 19. locking 20. to working C. Ex. 1. 2. She can speak..., can`t she? 3. They`ll be..., won`t they? 4. He left..., didn`t he? 5. He has to work..., doesn`t he? 6. He has many..., doesn`t he? 7. You live..., don`t you? 8. She studies..., doesn`t she? 9. He`ll be back..., won`t he? 10. Henry left..., didn`t he? 11. There`s some..., isn´t there? 12. Both men look..., don`t they? 13. I`m your..., aren`t I? 14. Mr Smith``s seen..., hasn`t he? Ex. 2. 2. They were both absent..., weren`t they? 3. The wind`s blowing..., isn`t it? 4. Helen and her sister are both..., aren`t they? 5. You`re busy..., aren`t you? 6. I`m doing..., aren`t I? 7. George`s a very..., isn`t he? 8. You were absent..., weren`t you? 9. It`s beginning..., isn`t it? 10. Mr Smith`s out of..., isn`t he? 11. They`re leaving..., aren`t they? 12. There are many..., aren`t there? Ex. 3. 2. Sue was at home..., wasn`t she? 3. José used to work..., didn´t he? 4. William`s been working..., hasn`t he? 5. William was born in..., wasn`t he? 6. William will be..., won`t he? 7. The traffic on this street was very..., wasn`t it? 8. The sun sets..., doesn`t it? 9. The sun`s setting..., isn`t it? 10. Bob`s going to buy..., isn`t he? 11. They went..., didn`t they? 12. The shopping district extends..., doesn`t it. Ex. 4. 2. She isn`t busy..., is she? 3. They didn`t come..., did they? 4. She can`t speak..., can she? 5. They don`t live..., do they? 6. He didn`t visit..., did he? 7. She won`t be..., will she? 8. They don`t know..., do they? 9. We don`t have to come..., do we? 10. They didn`t have to work..., did they? 11. He hasn`t got..., has he? 12. They didn`t arrive..., did they? Ex. 5. 2. He never goes..., does he? 3. He first goes to..., doesn`t he? 4. He doesn`t always buy..., does he? 5. There are many people..., aren`t there? 6. There are only a few..., aren`t there? 7. He doesn`t always have to wait..., does he? 8. He didn`t have to wait..., did he? 9. He won`t have to wait..., will he? 10. He gave..., didn`t he? 11. John didn`t receive..., did he? 12. He put..., didn`t he? 13. He didn`t mail..., did he? 14. But he dropped..., didn`t he? Ex. 6. 1. John`s been to England twice, hasn`t he? 2. Your friends come from Wisconsin, don´t they? 3. Bob didn´t attend the meeting last Monday, did he? 4. There isn`t any more whisky in the bottle, is there? 5. They have to work a little faster, don`t they? 6. Jane shouldn`t do that again, should she? 7. The boy has had dinner already, hasn`t he? 8. There was too much noise in the room, wasn`t there? 9. I´m a good student, aren´t I? 10. The boys worked harder than the girls, didn`t they? 11. You wouldn´t like to go there again, would you? 12. John put on his new sweater, didn`t he? 13. You were at the meeting too, weren`t you? 14. The train hadn`t yet left when you got to the station, had it?

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UNIT 14
PART 1. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO (THE PAST PERFECT TENSE)
Este tiempo verbal se forma con el pasado del verbo modal Have (HAD /hæd/) más el Participio Pasado (3ra. forma) de un verbo principal y se usa para describir una acción que ocurrió antes que otra acción sucediera. Por lo tanto este tiempo no se usa en forma independiente, pues siempre va junto a una oración expresada en pasado simple. De dos acciones pasadas, la que cronológicamente ocurrió primero debe ir en el Pasado Perfecto. Escuche, lea y aprenda Hans left at 8:15. You phoned at 8:25. Hans had already left when you phoned this morning. /háns had oñrédi léft wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ Hans ya había partido cuando tú llamaste por teléfono esta mañana The show started at 10:30. Paul arrived at the theater at 10:40. The show had already started when Paul arrived at the theater. /δe shóu had olrédi stá:rtid wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ El espectáculo ya había comenzado cuando Paul llegó al teatro. The old man died at 11:25. The ambulance arrived a few minutes later. By the time the ambulance arrived, the old man had already died. /bai δe táim δe æmbiuláns arráivd δe óuld mæn had olrédi dáid/ Cuando la ambulancia llegó, el viejo ya había fallecido. Al igual que en el Pasado Contínuo, las expresiones de tiempo que acompañan al Pasado Perfecto, son aquellas cláusulas compuestas por WHEN + S + PASADO SIMPLE: When you phoned this morning; When Paul arrived at the theatre; By the time the ambulance arrived. Compare: They were having lunch when you called. /δéi we:r hæviη lántch wen iú: kó.ld/ Ellos estaban almorzando cuando tú llamaste. (La acción no había concluido) They had already had lunch when you called. /δéi had olrédi hæd lántch wen iú: kó.ld/ Ellos ya habían almorzado cuando tú llamaste. (La acción ya había concluido) En la primera oración, la acción expresada por el Pasado Contínuo todavía se estaba realizando (They were having lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called), mientras que en la segunda oración la acción expresada por el Pasado Perfecto ya había concluído (They had already had lunch) cuando la segunda acción ocurrió (when you called). La forma negativa se expresa con HAD NOT (o HADN´T /hædnt/ ) más un Participio Pasado y la forma interrogativa se expresa invirtiendo el orden de HAD con el sujeto. (Recuerde que en las oraciones negativas debe usar yet en vez de already). En las preguntas introducidas con una palabra interrogativa como what, where, how, etc., se debe seguir el mismo orden de palabras usado en las preguntas simples. Lea, escuche y aprenda: Hans had not left yet when you phoned this morning. /háns had nót léft yét wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ The show hadn´t started yet when Paul arrived at the theater. /δe shóu hædnt stá:rtid yét wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ The old man hadn´t died yet by the time the ambulance arrived. /δi óuld mæn hædnt dáid yét bai δe táim δe æmbiuláns arráivd/ Had Hans left already when you phoned this morning? /had háns léft olrédi wen iú: fóund δis mó:rniη/ Had the show started yet when Paul arrived at the theatre? /had δe shóu stá:rtid yét wen pó:l arráivd at δe θíater/ Where had they lived before they moved to Santiago? /wéar had δéi lívd bifó:r δéi mú:vd tu santiágou/ La pregunta habitual en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU DONE? /wót had iú: dán/ (¿Qué había hecho ud.?)

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(go) 2.(start) 3. the rain (stop) _____________ _________ 6. 3. Robert (be)______________________ a taxi driver before he (become) ______________________ a businessman. They arrived only ten minutes after John ______________________. When the police arrived. 10. the neighbours _________________already_________________the fire. he noticed that someone ______________________ his TV set. They _____________________ already _____________________ the discussion when we entered the room. Mary ______________________already ______________________ to the cinema when I arrived. the thief ______________________ already ______________________. 4. I (recognize. 2.EXERCISES Ex.Yesterday at a restaurant. 6. 5. (leave) 9. I (see. Ex. Tom had already left the office. By the time the firemen arrived. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 192 A short course in english for adult students . They´d already spent all the money. never) ______________________any of Renoir´s paintings before they (visit) ________________ ______ the art gallery. The policeman told us that we ______________________ the wrong road. dinosaurs (roam) ______________________ the earth. 1. 3. but they (become. (put out 10. not)_______________________________ him in years. The students (see. so we quietly (take) ______________________a seat in the back. Millions of years ago. All of the other passengers (board. 3. 7. Jane had seen that movie twice. Gloria almost missed her plane. an old friend of mine. The detectives (leave) ______________________ the place after they (collect) ______________________ enough evidence 5. Mrs Bentley had gone to bed already. The children had already had supper. She said she ______________________ there several times before. and b) the interrogative. (be) 6.already) __________ ____________ extinct by the time man first (appear) ______________________ 8. It was raining hard. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verbs in the Past Perfect tense. Paul had already sent her a fax. Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided either in the Simple Past or in the Past Perfect Tenses. (go) Ex. Change the following sentences into a) the negative. (take) 8.(finish) 4. 9. As soon as he opened the door. (steal) 7. Bob ________________ just _________________ typing the report when the general called him to his office. not) ______________________ _______ _______________ him because he (lose) ____________________________ at least fifteen kilos. 4. Remember in the negative you must use YET instead of ALREADY. 1. The teacher (give. 2. already) ______________________ by the time she (get)______________________ to the boarding gate. 1. I (see) _______________________________ John Palmer. The show (begin. already) ______________________ the test results when I (get) ____________________ to class. Mr Smith (feel) ______________________ a little better after he (take) ______________________ the medicine. already) ______________________ by the time we (get) ______________________ to the theater. 1. At first. 2. but by the time the meeting (be) ______________________ over. (disappear) 5.Mary _____________________ already _____________________ to bed when we arrived home last night.

Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. Ellos habían visitado otros países antes de venir a USA. 4. 2. Yo no había visto un partido de crícket antes. Translate the following sentences into English 1. ¿Habías comido esto anteriormente? ¿Por qué no habías escrito a nosotros antes? Ella no había leído ese libro aún. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Ella nunca había estado en el extranjero antes. 5. 9. When. ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 7. The engineer had graduated from UCLA in 1945. The plane had taken off from JFK Airport at 23:25 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Paul had sold his house the previous year. etc. John had eaten three sandwiches that evening. John had visited them that evening. 10. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 193 . 1. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Ellos no habían estudiado allí por mucho tiempo. Dr. He´d worked in the Army for 29 years when he became a general. Ask questions using question words like What. 5. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. El dijo que había estado muy ocupado ese día. 4. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 3. The girl had studied French at school.000 before they arrived in Tokyo. How long. How. Where. Bill had made the same mistake three times. ¿Dónde habían estado ellos esa mañana? Ella había trabajado duro por mucho tiempo. 6. Black had studied at Harvard University. They´d spent over US $ 3. 8.

A dog runs faster than a horse. This train is very slow. dependiendo del número de sílabas del adjetivos. es decir. difícil. Bob works harder than any of the other students. Comparison of adverbs Cuando estudiamos la Comparación de los Adjetivos (Unit 9). (arduamente) They arrived late (tarde. I have to study hard (adv. FORMATION OF ADVERBS. Con los adverbios SOON. tempranamente. I got up a little earlier than usual today. early /ε:rli / ´ temprano. atrasados) 2. Estos son los principales adjetivos / adverbios: fast /fæst/ ´ rápido/rápidamente. late /leit/ tarde/atrasado. (casi no. A bus runs more slowly than a train. LATE y HARD. vimos que. Mike came more quickly than the other boys. Formation of adverbs Muchos adverbios en inglés se forman agregando el sufijo -ly a los adjetivos correspondientes. He drives carefully (adverbio). Peter hardly works on Saturday. COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 1.). We arrived there early (adv.) lesson.) train. el grado de comparación se expresa mediante el uso del sufijo -ER. Es importante notar que existen las palabras HARDLY y LATELY que tienen un significado especial Compare: Bob works very hard. FAST. intenso/intensamente.). A. adelantado Examples: This is a hard (adj. (adjetivo) It moves very slowly (adverbio) John is a careful (adjetivo) driver.(últimamente) 194 A short course in english for adult students . apenas) I haven´t seen John lately . + THAN: We got there sooner than we expected. They took the early (adj. se agregaba el sufijo -ER o se anteponía el adverbio MORE al adjetivo Normalmente el GRADO COMPARATIVO DE LOS ADVERBIOS se expresa mediante el uso de MORE+ ADVERB + THAN: John drives more carefully than Bob.PART II. hard /ha:rd/ duro. Mr Blake will call later tonight. no es necesario agregar el sufijo -ly al adjetivo para formar el adverbio. slow /slóu/ lento quick /kuik/ rápido careful /kéarful/ cuidadoso happy /hæpi/ feliz ´ certain /sε:rten/ cierto ´ safe /séif/ seguro slowly /slóuli/ lentamente quickly /kuíkli/ rápidamente carefully /kéarfuli/ cuidadosamente happily /hæpili/ felizmente ´ certainly /sε:rtenli/ ciertamente ´ safely /séifli/ con seguridad Existen algunas palabras que pueden actuar indistintamente como adjetivo o adverbio. EARLY.

8. We went farther. (easy).+ AS Bob speaks English as well as Helen does. (good) 7. 3. She plays the guitar ____________________________ anyone else. well (bien) badly (mal) far (lejos) better (mejor) worse (peor) farther (más lejos) John works well. 8. She speaks English____________________________ (beautiful). EXERCISES Ex. They acted ____________________________ in that matter. La comparación de igualdad se expresa con AS +ADVERB. I go there ____________________________ he does. (good). John works better than William. 6. He comes here ____________________________ he did before. He studies ____________________________ Mary. (wise) 12. 5. John was very ____________________________ (foolish). Bill behaves badly in class. John works more carefully than I. 2. (easy) 5. John works ____________________________ I (hard) 9. Mary is a ____________________________ girl. (quick). They went very far. (beautiful) 7. 6. We drove to the hospital very ____________________________ (fast) Ex. He learns his lesson ____________________________(quick). 3. 1 can do this exercise ____________________________ (easy). This is an ____________________________ exercise. (fast). 8. (careful) 2. 11. (serious) A short course in english for adult students 195 . 1 Supply the adverb form of the adjective in parentheses: 1. 10. It is always ____________________________ to prepare for the future. He always does his work ____________________________ (careful). She also sings and plays the guitar ____________________________ (beautiful).(regular) 4. 3. 4. 2. We arrived home ____________________________ that evening (early). 9. 2. but Jack behaves worse as a rule. He is a very careful student. 12. 7. 9. 1 feel very ____________________________ today. (bad) Ex. (often) 3. as usual. They acted ____________________________ in doing. She prepares her lessons ____________________________ (careless). They get up every morning ____________________________ we. He can run much ____________________________ I. (hard).Hay algunos adverbios que usan una forma diferente en el grado comparativo. (early) 5. that. John left the office quickly that afternoon. Express the words in parentheses in comparative form: 1. She works very ____________________________ every day. 4. 10. He always drives ____________________________ (careful). Supply the proper form: adjective or adverb: 1. He always does his work ____________________________ (good) He speaks very ____________________________ (fast). We walked very ____________________________ (quick). He certainly acted ____________________________ (foolish). (wise) 11. He did the work____________________________. He gets up as early as I do. (frequent) 6. He comes here ____________________________ she.

(early) 11. He works ____________________________ he can. (El Rey visitará personalmente la zona desvastada) I myself will do it. (early) 5. (bad) 9. We drove to the hospital ____________________________ we could. (quick) 8. (soon) 12. (Los hombres se suicidaron) 2. They came to work ____________________________usual. He can’t come ____________________________ we. Se usan para expresar énfasis. (hard) 7. John speaks English ____________________________I. (easy) 5. Express in full form. The sun is shining ____________________________ it was yesterday. (Yo mismo lo haré) 196 A short course in english for adult students . He doesn’t play tennis ____________________________ he plays baseball. (good) 4. He gets up ____________________________ his sister. He didn’t arrive ____________________________ we expected him. He can run ____________________________ his brother. (fast) 12. He will arrive____________________________ they. She can’t play ____________________________ she can sing. (regular) 10. Speak ________________________________________________________ possible. (bright) 9. I can’t do it ____________________________ I did it before. 4. Express in full form. (careful) 7. (good) 4. (late) 11. He came here ____________________________ he could. Se usan para expresar acciones reflejas. (soft) 10. Helen doesn´t attend class ____________________________ Mary. REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS Los pronombres reflexivos son los siguientes: Singular myself /maisélf/ yourself /io:rsélf/ himself /himsélf/ herself /he:rsélf/ itself /itsélf/ Plural ourselves /auersélvz/ yourselves /io:rsélvz/ themselves /δemsélvz/ Los pronombres reflexivos tienen tres usos frecuentes: 1. (Bob se cortó con el cuchillo) The men killed themselves. Bob cut himself with the knife. (early) Ex. “personalmente” The King himself will visit the devastated areas. I go to bed ____________________________ you. He came ____________________________ he could. She doesn’t speak ____________________________ her sister. He goes to bed ____________________________ I (late) 2. (fast) 3. You can do it ____________________________ I . using equality of comparison: 1. He doesn’t work ____________________________ she. (beautiful) 6. (easy) 5. (fast) 2. She sings ____________________________ she plays. using equality of comparison: 1. (early) 3.(en este caso se traducen con las palabras “mismo”. He doesn’t walk as / so fast as I do. Bob doesn´t work ____________________________ you do. (good) 8. (early) 6. (hard) B..10.

3. Se usan (con la preposición by) para indicar la idea de “alone” (= solo, sin la ayuda o la compañía de otra persona). The poor man lives by himself in an old house. (El pobre hombre vive solo en una casa vieja) Hans studies in a group but I study by myself. (Hans estudia en un grupo, pero yo estudio solo) The girl solved the problem by herself. (La niña resolvió el problema sola) EXERCISES Ex. 1 Supply the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. John hurt ______________________________ when he fell. The baby cannot dress ______________________________. Helen burnt ______________________________ with the match. William shaves ______________________________ every day. We enjoyed ______________________________ at the concert. She looked at ______________________________ in the mirror. Some people like to talk about ______________________________ Do you like to talk about______________________________? The little girl cut ______________________________ with a pen-knife I shave ______________________________ every morning. The poor man killed ______________________________. He fell and hurt ______________________________ on the ice.

Ex. 2. Supply the correct reflexive pronoun (emphatic use): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. I myself will do it. Helen ______________________________ will deliver the speech. He said that he ______________________________ could meet us at the airport. They ______________________________ will deliver the merchandise. We ______________________________ will wait for you. The President ______________________________ attended to the meeting. Miss Smith ______________________________ will speak to us. The ambassador ______________________________ will sign the agreement. John ______________________________ wrote to me. Mary ______________________________ will attend the meeting. You ______________________________ must speak to him, Peter. You ______________________________ have to do it, boys.

Ex. 3. For the word ALONE substitute the preposition BY with the correct reflexive pronoun: 1. John lives alone in an apartment 2. She likes to study alone. 3. I went to the movie alone. 4. Do you like to go to the movie alone? 5. He likes to walk alone in the park. 6. My aunt lives alone in the cottage. 7. He works alone in a small office. 8. He prefers to work alone. 9. I do not like to eat alone. 10. I do not think he can do it alone. 11. Both the boys and the girls study alone. 12. He wrote the entire book alone. (John lives by himself in an apartment) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

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C. EL PASADO DE “GOING TO” (subject + was / were going to + infinitive) Esta estructura se usa para referirse a acciones que, habiendo sido planeadas o planificadas con anterioridad, no se llevaron a cabo por alguna razón. Compare: We are going to play football at midday today. (Nosotros vamos a jugar fútbol hoy al mediodía) We were going to play football at midday yesterday but it rained. (Nosotros íbamos a jugar fútbol ayer al mediodía pero llovió) EXERCISES Ex. 1. Substitute the past form of GOING To for the italicized, verbs: 1. I intended to call you yesterday but I forgot I was going to call you yesterday but I forgot. 2. I planned to go to the beach but it rained. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. We planned to telephone you but we couldn’t find your number. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. We intended to wait but we had to leave. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I planned to come back earlier but I had to work until late. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I intended to go home early but the manager asked me to help him. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. We intended to walk in the park but it was too cold. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. I intended to write you a letter last week but I couldn´t find your address. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. We planned to eat early but our guests arrived late. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. We intended to go to a movie first but we had to wait for our friends to arrive. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. We planned to study for our examination but some friends called on us (= visited us). _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. They intended to leave New York yesterday but they missed their flight. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. 2. Answer the questions as in the example 1. Ann: Did you telephone Peter last night? You: No, I didn´t. I was going to telephone him but I forgot. 2. Ann: Did you buy the car? You: No, I didn´t. I ________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ann: Did you visit your friends last Saturday? You: No, I didn´t. _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Ann: Did you go out after dinner last night? You: No, I didn´t . _________________________________________________________________________________

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BASIC VOCABULARY : Study these words NATURE /néitchar/ La Naturaleza a) Geography /dlliógrafi/ geografía air /éar/ archipelago /a:rkipélagou/ bay /béi/ beach /bí:tch/ canal /kanæl/ ´ canyon /kænion/ ´ countryside /kántrisaid/ city /síti/ cliff /klif/ coastline /kóuslain/ comet /kómet/ continent /kóntinent/ country /kántri/ creek /krí:k/ channel /tchænel/ ´ desert /dézert/ earth /é:rθ/ forest /fórest/ galaxy /gælaksi/ ´ ground /gráund/ harbour /há:rbor/ hill /hil/ island /áiland/ ithmus /íθmas/ jungle /dllángl/ lake /léik/ land /lænd/ landmark /lændma:rk/ ´ aire archipiélago bahía playa canal (artificial) cañón campiña ciudad acantilado costa cometa continente país riachuelo canal (natural) desierto tierra (planeta) bosque, foresta galaxia suelo, tierra rada, bahía cerro, colina isla istmo selva lago tierra hito landscape /lændskeip/ ´ moon /mu:n/ mountain range /máuntin réingll/ ocean /óushn/ peak /pi:k/, summit /sámit/ peninsula /penínsiula/ planet /plænet/ ´ pond /pond/ prairy /préari/ rain forest /réin fórest/ river /ríver/ satellite /sætelait/ ´ sea /si:/ shore /shóar/ slopes /slóups/ solar system /sóular sístem/ space /spéis/ spring /spriη/ star /stá:r/ strait(s) /stréit(s)/ stream /strí:m/ town /táun/ valley /væli/ ´ village /vílidll/ volcano /volkéinou/ water /wó:ter/ waterfalls /wóterfo:lz/ paisaje luna, satélite nat. cordillera océano cumbre península planeta laguna pradera selva tropical río satélite mar playa lomas sistema solar espacio vertiente estrella estrecho arroyo pueblo valle pueblito, villa volcán agua cataratas

b) Vegetation /vedlletéishn/ vegetacióin branch /bræntch/ ´ bush /bush/ flower /flaúer/ fruit /fru:t/ grass /gra:s/ leaf /li:f/ leaves /li:vz/ c) Animals /ænimalz/ Animales ´ alligator /æligéitor/ ´ ant /ænt/ ´ bear /béar/ bee /bi:/ bird /bé:rd/ bird of prey /bé:rd ov préi/ búfalo /báfalou/ bumblebee /bámblbí:/ butterfly /báterflai/ cat /kæt/ ´ cock /kok/, cockerel /kókerel/ caimán hormiga oso abeja ave, pájaro ave de rapiña búfalo moscardón mariposa gato gallo flea /fli:/ fly /flai/ goose /gu:z/ geese /gi:z/ hare /héar/ hen /hen/ horse /ho:rs/ horsefly /ho:rsflai/ insect /ínsekt/ lion /láion/ louse /láus/ lice /lais/ monkey /máηki/ pulga mosca ganso /s liebre gallina caballo tábano insecto león piojo /s mono
A short course in english for adult students

rama arbusto flor fruto pasto hoja /s

plant /pla:nt/ roots /ru:ts/ seed /si:d/ shrub /shrab/ tree /tri:/ trunk /traηk/

planta raíces semilla arbusto, mata árbol tronco

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cow /káu/ crocodile /krókoudáil/ chicken /tchikin/ deer /dí:ar/ dog /dog/ dolphin /dólfin/ donkey /dóηki/ dragonfly /drægonflai/ ´ duck /dak/ eagle /í:gl/ elephant /élifant/ fish /fish/ flamingo /flæmíηgou/

vaca cocodrilo pollo ciervo perro delfin burro libélula pato águila elefante pez flamenco

mouse /máus/ mice /mais/ ostrich /óstritch/ rabbit /ræbit/ ´ rat /ræt/ rhinoceros /rainoseros/ seagull /sí:gal/ seal /si:l/ shellfish /shélfish/ snake /snéik/ squirrel /skuírel/ tiger /táiger/ turkey /té:rki/ whale /wéil/

ratón /es avestruz conejo rata rinoceronte gaviota foca marisco culebra ardilla tigre pavo ballena

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Key to answers

UNIT 14
PART I
Ex. 1. 1. had - gone 2. had - started 3. had - finished 4. had - disappeared 5. had been 6. had stolen 7. had taken 8. had left 9. had - put out 10. had - gone Ex. 2 1. had been - became 2. felt - had taken 3. had already given - got 4. left - had collected 5. was - had stopped 6. had already begun - got - took 7. roamed - had already become - appeared 8. had never seen - visited 9. had already boarded - got 10. saw - had not seen - didn`t recognize - had lost Ex. 3 1. Tom hadn`t left...yet / Had Tom left...yet / already? 2.They hadn`t spent all... yet. / Had they spent all...already / yet? .3. Paul hadn`t sent...yet / Had Paul sent...already / yet? 4. Jane hadn`t seen... / Had Jane seen...? 5. The children hadn`t had...yet. / Had the children had... already / yet? 6. Mrs. Bentley hadn´t gone...yet / Had Mrs. Bentley gone... already / yet? Ex. 4 1. How many sandwiches had John eaten that evening? 2. Where had Dr. Black studied? 3. When had the engineer graduated from UCLA? 4. What had Paul done the previous year? 5. At what time / When had the plane taken off from JFK Airport? 6. How long had he worked in the Army when he became a general? 7. How much money had they spent before they arrived in Tokyo? 8. How many times had Bill made the same mistake? 9. Who had visited them that evening? 10. What language had the girl studied at school? Ex. 5 . 1. They had not studied there very long. 2. I hadn`t seen a cricket game before. 3. Had you eaten / had this before? 4. Why hadn`t you written to us before? 5. She hadn`t read that book before. 6 They had visited other countries before they came / before coming to the USA. 7. Where had they been that morning? 8. She´d worked hard very long. 9.She`d never been abroad before. 10. He said (that) he`d been very busy that day.

PART II.
A. Ex. 1 2. beautifully 3. carefully 4. hard 5. early 6. easily 7. quickly 8. well 9. well 10. fast 11. carelessly 12. badly Ex. 2 . 2 carefully 3. quickly 4. easy 5. easily 6.beautiful 7. beautifully 8.foolish 9. foolishly 10. wise 11. wisely 12. fast Ex. 3. 2. more often than 3. more regularly than 4. earlier than 5. more frequently than 6. better than 7. faster than 8. harder than 9. more seriously than 10. later than 11.sooner than 12. earlier than Ex. 4. 1. as late as 2. as fast as 3. as well as 4. as early as 5. as beautifully as 6. as hard as 7. as quickly as 8. as brightly as 9. as softly as 10. as early as 11. as fast as 12. as easily as Ex. 5. 2. as / so early as 3. as / so well as 4. as / so easily as 5. as / so early as 6. as / so carefully as 7. as / so well as 8. as / so badly as 9. as / so regularly as 10. as / so hard as . B. Ex 1 1. himself 2. itself / himself / herself 3. herself 4. himself 5. ourselves 6. herself 7. themselves 8. yourself / yourselves 9. herself 10. myself 11. himself 12. himself Ex. 2 . 2. herself 3. himself 4. themselves 5. ourselves 6. himself 7. herself 8. himself 9. himself 10. herself 11. yourself 12. yourselves

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Ex. 3. 2. She likes to study by herself 3. I went to the movie by myself 4. Do you like to go to the movie by yourself? 5. He likes to walk by himself in the park 6. My aunt lives by herself in the cottage. 7. He works by himself in a small office 8. He prefers to work by himself. 9 I do not like to eat by myself 10. I do not think he can do it by himself. 11. Both the boys and the girls study by themselves 12. He wrote the entire book by himself. C. Ex. 1. 2. I was going to go to the beach but...3. We were going to telephone you but... 4. We were going to wait but... 5. I was going to come back earlier but... 6. I was going to go home early, but...7. We were going to walk in the park but... 8. I was going to write you a letter last week but... 9. We were going to eat early but... 10. We were going to go to a movie first but... 11. We were going to study for our examination but... 12. They were going to leave New York yesterday but... Ex. 2. (Possible answers) 2. I was going to buy it but I decided to save more money to buy a newer model. 3. I was going to visit them but I could not go out of town because of the snow storm. 4. I was going to go out but then decided to stay in and watch the baseball game on TV instead.

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The man had been working all day. 7. escuche y aprenda: The man had worked all day /δ mæn had wé:rkt o:l déi/ El hombre había trabajado todo el día. (watch) The men ________________________ for 6 hours when they got to the village. Complete the following sentences using the appropriate verb in the Past Perfect Continuous tense 1. 5. Lea. (drink) We ________________________ for over 12 hours when the plane landed in New York. /δéid bi:n pléiiη sóker for Ellos habían estado jugando fútbol cerca de dos horas. Tom ________________________ TV since 8:45 that evening. Had they been playing soccer all day? /had δéi bi:n pléiη sóker o:l déi/ ¿Habían estado ellos jugando fútbol todo el día? How long had they been playing soccer? /háu lóη had δei bi:n pléiη sóker/ ¿Cuánto tiempo habían estado ellos jugando fútbol? La pregunta más frecuente en este tiempo verbal es: WHAT HAD YOU BEEN DOING? /wót had iú: bí:n dú:iη/ (¿Qué había estado haciendo ud.(fly) A short course in english for adult students 203 . (rain) What ________________________ they ________________________before we arrived? (do) They ________________________ not ________________________ too much before the bar closed.?) EXERCISES Ex.UNIT 15 PART 1. Normalmente se usa en vez del Pasado Perfecto con el fin de enfatizar la idea de continuidad de la acción. They´d played soccer for about two hours. En la forma interrogativa se debe anteponer HAD al sujeto: Lea. (study) The ground was very wet that morning because it ________________________ all night. 1. 4. /δéi had nót bi:n wé:rkiη o:l déi/ Ellos no habían estado trabajando todo el día. (walk) Jack ________________________ German for 2 years before they sent him to Germany. báut tú: áuarz/ Las forma negativa se expresa usando HAD NOT o HADN´T /hædnt/. EL TIEMPO PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO (THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE) Este tiempo se forma usando el Pasado Perfecto del verbo modal BE (HAD BEEN /had bi:n/) más un GERUNDIO del un verbo principal. /δ mæn had bin wé:rkiη o:l déi/ El hombre había estado trabajando todo el día. 2. escuche y aprenda: They had not been working all day. 6. 3. They´d been playing soccer for about two hours. /δéid pléid sóker for abáut tú: áuarz/ Ellos habían jugado fútbol cerca de 2 horas.

Smith had been saving money because he was planning to take a trip to Africa. etc. Bob had been sleeping since 8. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Mr. Where. I´d been working out for 20 minutes. They´d been studying the report that evening.Ex. The patient had been feeling better. esa mañana? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. and b) the interrogative 1. It´d been raining hard that afternoon. 4.30. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 204 A short course in english for adult students . ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud. Ellos habían estado conversando aproximadamente una hora antes que yo llegara. El joven ingeniero había estado haciendo trabajo de investigación durante mucho tiempo. 3. Ella había estado trabajando en ese informe desde la semana anterior. She´d been reading a magazine. The boy had been watching the stars before he went to bed that night. 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. He had been teaching Physics for 2 decades in that school before he retired. 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Change the following sentence into a) the negative. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. ¿Cuánto tiempo habías estado viviendo en ese departamento antes de comprar esta casa? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Brown había estado trabajando arduamente ese día y se sentía cansada. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. The students had been practising Spanish. El cielo estaba despejado y el sol estaba brillando. Ask questions using question words like What. La Sra. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Había estado lloviendo toda la mañana. 4. 5. 2. How long. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. The Johnsons had been living in the same house for about 20 years. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 6. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex.

) You ought to have telephoned (telephone) me yesterday (but you didn´t) You ________________________ (go) to the opera with us last night. You ________________________ (tell) me that you were not able to come. He ________________________ (start) a long time ago. 2. but you ought ________________________________________________________ 6. You ________________________ (attend) the lecture last night. using constructions with SHOULD HAVE or OUGHT TO HAVE: 1.PART II. It was very interesting. PAST TENSE OF SHOULD . 12.) 2. It was excellent. (Deberías haber llegado más temprano. We sent her a fax. Ex. 2. He sent the package by regular mail. but we should_____________________________________________________________________ 7. (Deberías venir más temprano) You OUGHT TO HAVE COME earlier. Compare: I should start to study French now.OUGHT TO Los verbos modales SHOULD y OUGHT TO (debería o debiera) tienen una forma de expresar el pasado. but he should have waited for me on the corner of 57th Street. A. but he should _____________________________________________________ 3. En este caso estos verbos van seguidos de HAVE + UN PAST PARTICIPLE . We went to Mexico on our vacation. but I did not. as usual. but we should _____________________________________________________ 10. You ________________________ (telephone) to the police as soon as you reached home. . He ________________________ (come) at ten o’clock last night instead of twelve. You ________________________ (give) that money to Mr. but you came late. pero llegaste atrasado como de costumbre) EXERCISES Ex. Rara vez se usa OUGHT TO en oraciones negativas o interrogativas. pero no lo hice) You ought to come earlier. He left the books in Room 10. (Yo debería haber comenzado a estudiar Francés hace mucho tiempo. 1. He should have studied (study) before he took his examinations ( but he didn´t. 7. 5.Smith yesterday You ________________________ (not give) our address to John. They sent us the merchandise by parcel post. but she should __________________________________________________________ 4. 11. 3. but he ___________________________________________________________ 8. 9. but he should ____________________________________________ (He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. You ________________________ (not tell) her anything about the accident. He studied engineering in college. You telephoned him at his office. expresa un reproche o crítica. but he should ___________________________________________________________ 5. 8. 10. but he should _______________________________________________________ 9. He started to study English last month. mientras que la oración “You HAD BETTER SEE a doctor right away” (Sería mejor que vieras un médico de inmediato) es sinónimo de “You should see a doctor right away” o “It is advisable that you see a doctor right away” A short course in english for adult students 205 . He invested his money in real estate. (Yo debería comenzar a estudiar Francés ahora) I SHOULD HAVE STARTED to study French a long time ago. but they should ____________________________________________ B. IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASES: “WOULD RATHER” AND “HAD BETTER” Estas frases idiomáticas se usan como si fueran verbos modales y van seguidas de un bare infinitive (Infinitivo sin “to”). She gave the money to John. 6. Ambas se refieren a situaciones presentes o futuras. Complete the following in your own words. 4. Supply the proper past tense form of SHOULD or OUGHT TO (Alternate should and ought to ) 1. He waited for me on the corner of 42nd Street. I ________________________ (not go) to bed so late last night. La oración “I WOULD RATHER WATCH TV” (Preferiría mirar TV) es sinónimo de “I prefer to watch TV”. Es importante destacar que esta estructura conlleva una idea negativa.

___________________________________________________ It will be better if you don’t work so hard after your illness. 9. I’d rather eat chicken ______________________________ beef. When I’m hot and thirsty. He´d better see a doctor immediately En la forma negativa se debe usar NOT después de WOULD RATHER o HAD BETTER. 4.. They prefer to speak to him at his home. 8. EXERCISES Ex. John prefers to go to the party with Helen. We prefer not to say anything to him about it. 8.. 8.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ I like apples better than oranges I like watching TV better than studying math. I prefer not to go to the party alone.En las conversación diaria tanto WOULD RATHER como HAD BETTER se usan en contracción. 2. When I choose a book. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if she spends more time on her homework. A short course in english for adult students . 7. Change these sentences to introduce HAD BETTER 1. 3. 5. 3. (I’d rather wait here. Tina would rather lie on the beach ______________________________ go swimming. como los ejemplos siguientes: I´d rather see a movie than go to the opera. como en estos ejemplos: I´d rather not go at all than go with them. _______________________________________________ It will be better if we don’t stand so close to the curb. 10. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if we don’t mention it to him. 2. 6. I Prefer to stay at home and watch television. BETTER THAN or TO. 9. It will be better if you come back later. They prefer not to wait outside. 1. What would you rather drink. 6. podemos indicar o expresar preferencia mediante el uso de PREFER.. 6. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if Helen begins to spend more time on her English.) It will be better if he goes to a doctor at once. 9. (You’d better come back later. 5. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if he takes private lessons. 10.3 Complete the sentences with THAN. ___________________________________________________ It will be better if you rest a while. 7. I prefer to drink tea with my meals. Al formular interrogaciones se debe anteponer WOULD o HAD al sujeto.. 206 When I’m hot and thirsty. I´d rather have an apple than an orange. 2. Change these sentences to introduce WOULD RATHER: 1. 1. I’d rather have a cold drink than a hot drink. Ex. 7. I like rock ‘n roll ______________________________ classical music. 2.. She prefers to come back later. I prefer nonfiction ______________________________ fiction. I like chicken ______________________________ beef. stay in bed all day or see a doctor? Además de WOULD RATHER. 4. I like cold drinks better than hot drinks. 4.. I prefer chicken ______________________________ beef. tea or coffee? You´d better not mention it to anyone. TO o LIKE. ________________________________________ Ex. 5... 3. When I’m hot and thirsty.. What had I better do. I prefer to wait here . I prefer cold drinks to hot drinks. BETTER THAN I prefer apples to oranges I prefer watching TV to studying math. I prefer to go to South America on my vacation. _______________________________________________ It will be better if we send him an e-mail right away.

My parents would rather work______________________________ retire. Compare las siguientes oraciones: • I am so tired now that I could sleep for a week. I suppose I could do that (podría hacer eso). (Podría haberse lastimado seriamente) A short course in english for adult students 207 . no se realizaron o no sucedieron. 15. • Why did you stay at a hotel when you came to Santiago. • I was so tired that day that I could have slept for a week. 18. • When you go to New York next month. They could arrive (podrían llegar) at any time. 16.(Pudrías haberte quedado con nosotros) • John fell off a ladder yesterday but he´s all right. I can hear something. 17. (Present) (Estoy tan cansado ahora que podría dormir durante una semana. Tina prefers lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. • John: What shall we do this evening? Mary: We could go (podríamos ir) to the cinema. My brother would rather read a book in the evening ______________________________ visit with friends. etc. También COULD se usa para referirse a algo que es posible ahora o en el futuro. 14. why don´t you ask Karen? Tom: Yes. It could be Tim. ser capaz de) • Listen. podrías. (podría ser Tim) • I don´t know when they´ll be here. Kim prefers tea ______________________________ coffee with his evening meal. I prefer visiting my friends in the evening ______________________________ watching TV by myself. • I listened. We could go for a walk (podríamos salir a caminar) in the park. • It´s a nice day. especialmente cuando deseamos hacer una sugerencia. COULD es el pasado CAN (poder. There´s a very good film on at the Rex.10. En este caso COULD significa podría. C. Mr. MODAL VERBS (II) 1. • Jim: If you need money. 11. My sister likes her math class ______________________________ her biology class.(Estaba tan cansado ese día que podría haber dormido una semana) (Past) COULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE se usa para referirse a acciones que pudiendo haberse realizado o sucedido. (Puedo oir algo) (Present). you could stay (podrías quedarte) with Barbara. Tina likes lying on the beach ______________________________ going swimming. Do you like fresh vegetables ______________________________ frozen or canned vegetables? I would rather take a picture of a wild animal______________________________ kill it with a gun. En este caso COULD es sinónimo de MIGHT. I could hear something (Podía oir algo) (Past) Pero COULD también se puede usar cuando queremos referirnos a acciones posibles de realizar ahora o en el futuro. 13. You could have stayed with us. podríamos. He could have hurt himself badly. COULD (DO SOMETHING) AND COULD HAVE (DONE SOMETHING) Como sabemos. They enjoy their jobs. 12. • The phone´s ringing.

A: There’s an interesting job advertised in the paper. 4. I ______________________________ eat a horse! If you’re very hungry. A: Where shall we meet tomorrow? B: Well. We ______________________________ watch that’. 2 Put in CAN or COULD. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Jack wanted Ken to lend him £50 last week. A friend of his wanted him to go out for a meal on Friday evening. 6. A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday. Have you seen it?’ ‘No. Paul couldn´t have gone (no habría podido salir) anyway because he was ill. I ______________________________ to your house if you like. 3. You have to say whether he could have done or couldn’t have done them. I’m really hungry. We ______________________________ but we decided not to. Ken doesn’t know anything about machines. 1. Answer the questions with a suggestion. A: What shall we do this evening? B: I don’t mind. A: The phone is ringing. 2. Use COULD or COULD HAVE + a suitable verb. 1. What shall we have for dinner tonight?(fish) What shall I give Ann for her birthday?(a book) When shall I phone Angela? (right now) When shall we go and see Tom? (on Friday) Where shall we hang this picture?(in the kitchen) We could go to Scotland. 5. • The trip was cancelled last week. ‘ B: Why did you stay at home? You ______________________________ to the cinema. Ken ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Ken was free on Monday afternoon. 3. Who do you think it is?’ B: It ______________________________ be Tim. Read this information about Ken: Ken didn’t do anything on Saturday evening. 4. 7. 8. Complete the sentences. 6. So he didn’t do any of these things. Ken´s car was stolen on Monday. Use COULD.’ Peter is a keen musician. 2. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 208 A short course in english for adult students . EXERCISES Ex. We could go to the cinema. 4. The weather is nice now but it ______________________________ change later. He plays the flute and he ______________________________ also play the piano. It’s so nice here. 2. 5. 1. Ex. Ken was short of money last week. You ______________________________ for it. but it ______________________________ be in the car. Sometimes either word is possible.A veces esta estructura puede usarse para expresar la idea de “WOULD HAVE BEEN ABLE TO” (habría podido) • Why didn´t Liz apply for the job? She could have got it. Ex. Ken had to work on Friday evening. ‘I can’t find my bag. Ken’s aunt wanted him to drive her to the airport on Tuesday. 5. 3. Some people wanted Ken to do different things last week but they couldn’t contact him. (Podría haberlo conseguido) • We could have gone away (podríamos haber salido) if we´d had enough money. Where shall we go for our holidays? (to Scotland). we ______________________________ have dinner now. B: What sort of job is it? Show me the advertisement. 4. Another friend wanted him to play tennis on Monday afternoon. I ______________________________ stay here all day but unfortunately I have to go. A: Did you go to the concert last night? B: No. 1. ‘What shall we do?’ ‘There’s a film on television. We _______________________________________________ You _______________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Ex. 1. He couldn´t have driven her to the airport (because his car had been stolen) 2. 3.

4. You can´t be hungry already. /iú: más bi: véry táiard/ They must have gone out. You. 1. You got here very quickly. I’ve lost one of my gloves. Ted isn’t at work today. She can´t have seen me. 3. 1. 5. Bill and Sue go away on holiday very often. Ken’s mother wanted him to repair her washing machine. AND CAN´T HAVE Sabemos que uno de los usos de MUST es el de expresar una suposición. You ___________________ be very pleased. so they ___________________ have had a very nice time. He must have been watching the news on TV. /sh: ká:ntav sí:n mi:/ He must have been watching TV.(Debo haber estado dormido) • Jane walked past me without speaking. It’s always full of people. Jane wanted Ken to come to her party on Saturday evening. 3. 1. No puede haber estado durmiendo) Note la pronunciación de las siguientes oraciones: You must be very tired. 2. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. They haven’t lived here very long. o conclusión. 4. 8. He____________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. They can´t know many people. He must ___________________________ ill. You’ve been travelling all day. (No debe haberme visto) • It was about 9:15 in the evening. I must _____________________________ it somewhere. You ___________________ be very tired. como en los siguientes ejemplos: • You have been working all day. debemos usar CAN´T. He´s rung the doorbell three times but nobody has answered They must have gone out. You must be very tired. Put in MUST or CAN’T. She does the same thing every day. I must have been asleep. Ex. 6. (Deben haber salido) • The phone rang but I didn´t hear it. It’s always empty.___________________ have walked very fast. (No puedes estar con hambre ya) • They haven´t lived here very long. (Debes estar muy cansado) • A: “Jim is a hard worker” B: Jim? A hard worker? You must be joking (Debes estar bromeando) He´s very lazy” • Carol must get very bored (debe aburrirse mucho) in her job. MUST HAVE. CAN´T. MUST. /hi: mástav bi:n wótchiδη tí: ví:/ He can´t have been sleeping /hi: ká:ntav bi:n slí:piδη/ EXERCISES Ex. Congratulations on passing your exam. Cuando estamos seguros de que algo no es posible. A short course in english for adult students 209 .(No pueden conocer mucha gente) En situaciones pasadas se debe usar MUST HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE o CAN´T HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE. cuando estamos seguros que algo es así. 7. He must _____________________________ ill.. /δei mástav gón áut/ She can´t have seen me. es decir. That restaurant ___________________ be very good. Ted wasn’t at work last week.5. They can’t _____________________________many people. 2. Estudie los siguientes ejemplos: • George is outside his friends´ house. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. so they ___________________ be short of money. Tom was in his bedroom. You ___________________ be looking forward to it. You’re going on holiday next week. He can´t have been sleeping (Deber haber estado viendo las noticas en TV. como en los siguientes ejemplos : • You´ve just had lunch. It rained every day during their holiday. que no puede ser cierto. That restaurant ___________________ be very good.

B: You might have left it in the shop (Podrías haberla dejado. 2. I left my bike outside the house last night and this morning it wasn’t there any more.Somebody must _____________________________ it. (she/understand/what I said) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Don passed the exam without studying for it. (I/leave it in the restaurant last night) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. . The lights were red but the car didn’t stop. It can’t ____________________ Mary. B: She might not have known about it. I was woken up in the middle of the night by the noise next door. 8. (I/forget/to turn it off) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. He has been walking behind us for the last 20 minutes. 10. She knew everything about our plans. I haven’t seen the people next door for ages.. The jacket you bought is very good quality. There is a man walking behind us... She must _____________________ to the cinema a lot.. 6. (Puede que no haya estado sintiéndose bien) (= perhaps he wasn’t feeling well) 210 A short course in english for adult students 5. MAY / MIGHT AND MAY HAVE / MIGHT HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Los verbos modales MAY / MIGHT se usan frecuentemente para indicar una posibilidad: * It may be true (Puede que sea cierto) It might be true (Podría ser cierto). (she/listen/to our conversation) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.(Puede que haya estado durmiendo) (= perhaps she was asleep) • A: I can’t find my bag anywhere. 9.) She might know (Ella podría tal vez saber. Carol knows a lot about films. Ex. • A: I wonder why Kay didn’t answer the phone. She’s still at work at this time. (Puede que no haya sabido) (= perhaps she didn’t know) • A: I wonder why Colin was in such a bad mood yesterday.. When I woke up this morning. (she/see/me) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Jack is putting on his hat and coat. I can’t find my umbrella. B: He may not have been feeling well. Fiona did the opposite of what I asked her to do. It can’t _____________________________easy for her. I may not have enough. Jane walked past me without speaking. 3. He must _____________________________ out. (= perhaps she knows what happened ) La forma negativa se expresa usando MAY NOT o MIGHT NOT * It might not be true. (Puede que no tenga suficiente) (=perhaps I don’t have enough) En el pasado podemos usar MAY HAVE + past participle o MIGHT HAVE + past participle. (= perhaps it is true) * She may know what happened (Puede que ella sepa.. (the neighbours/have/a party) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Look. B: She may have been asleep. (I/asleep) 1 must have been asleep.) what happened. He must _____________________________ us. the light was on. (they/go away) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5.) (= perhaps you left it in the shop) • A: I was surprised that Sarah wasn’t at the meeting. 1. (the driver/see/the red light) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 11.. 7. (it/very expensive) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The phone rang but I didn’t hear it.(The doorbell rings) I wonder who that is. Ann was in a very difficult situation. Read the situations and use the words in brackets to write sentences with MUST HAVE and CAN’T HAVE. (the exam/very difficult) ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. (Podría no ser cierto) (= perhaps it isn’t true) * I’m not sure whether I can lend you some money.

MAY HAVE (or MIGHT HAVE). He __________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I’m looking for Helen. 3 Read the situations and make sentences from the words in brackets. it´s possible. Perhaps she wasn´t invited. 1. Perhaps she was ill yesterday. 1. I can’t find my umbrella. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ In sentences 9-11 use MAY NOT or MIGHT NOT. 8. 5. 4. Perhaps Margaret is in her office. A: I wonder why Ann didn´t come to the party. A: Do you think she saw you? B: No. Write these sentences in a different way using MAY (or MIGHT)). Perhaps Margaret is busy. 3. ‘Where’s Bob?’ ‘I’m not sure. b (he / play / tennis) He might be playing tennis 2. 10. Do you think it was an accident? B. 4. Perhaps she isn’t working today. Perhaps she is working. Why didn’t Tom answer the doorbell? I’m sure he was in the house at the time. I can’t find George anywhere. The police say it _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. Perhaps she went home early.. 3. 2 Complete the sentences with a verb in the correct form. 2. She couldn´t have seen me 2. B: Well. 11. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Perhaps she wasn’t feeling well yesterday. She might be in her office. 5. B: Yes. 1. Perhaps she didn´t see me.’ ‘Who was the man we saw with Ann yesterday?’ ‘I’m not sure. B: I agree. He might. Do you know where she is? a (she / watch / TV / in her room) ___________________________________________________ b (she / go / out) ___________________________________________________ 3. Perhaps she doesn’t want to see me. Perhaps she was working yesterday. the police aren´t sure. 1. a (he / be / in the bathroom) ___________________________________________________ b (he / not / hear / the bell) ___________________________________________________ Ex. A: Tom loves parties. 2. Complete the sentences using MIGHT. He might ___________________________________ it already. A: I wonder why she didn´t say hello. 4.’ Ex. A: How did the fire start? I suppose it was an accident. It might ______________________ her brother.’ ‘Shall I buy this book for Tim?’ ‘You’d better not. Perhaps she wants to be alone. She might not have seen you. MIGHT NOT or COULD.EXERCISES Ex. They say it __________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 211 . B: That´s possible. They might ________________________ for a bus. I wonder where he is. I´m sure he would have come to the party if he´d been invited. 3. A: I wonder how the fire started. She ________________________________________________________________________ 4. a (he / go / shopping) He may have gone shopping.’ ‘Why are those people waiting in the street?’ ‘I don’t know. Use MAY or MIGHT. 6. It might ________________________________________ her brother..’ ‘Who is that man with Ann?’ ‘I’m not sure. be having lunch. COULDN’T. Have you seen it? a (it / be / in the car) ___________________________________________________ b (you / leave / in the restaurant last night) ___________________________________________________ 4. Perhaps she had to go home early. 1. 9. 7. she was too far away.

bruma brumoso escarcha ventarrón granizo onda de calor huracán hielo aluvión de barro relámpago bruma matinal brumoso rainfall /réinfo:l/ scattered shower /skæterd sháuer/ ´ shower /sháuer/ sleet /slí:t/ snowfall /snóufo:l/ snowflake /snóufleik/ sunny /sáni/ sunny intervals /sáni íntervolz/ sunny patches /sáni pætchiz/ ´ sunny spells /sáni spelz/ thunder /θánder/ thunderbolt /θánderboult/ thunderstorm /θándersto:rm/ thundery /θánderi/ tornado /tornéidou/ twister /tuíster/ typhoon /taifú:n/ whirlwind /wé:rlwind/ wind /wind/ windy /wíndi/ lluvia caída chubasco ocasional chubasco aguanieve nevazón copo de nieve soleado intervalos de sol claros de sol ratos de sol trueno rayo tormenta eléctrica tormentoso (torm. aluvión de agua neblina. remolino tifón remolino viento con viento 212 A short course in english for adult students . eléctica) tornado tromba.VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WEATHER /(e wé(er/ El tiempo Atmosférico blizzard /blízard/ breeze /brí:z/ cloud /kláud/ cloudy /kláudi/ cold wave /kóuld wéiv/ cyclone /sáikloun/ dew /diu:/ downpour /dáunpoar/ drizzle /drízl/ drought /dráut/ flood /flad/ flashflood /flæshflad/ ´ fog /fog/ foggy /fógi/ frost /frost/ gale /géil/ hail /heil/ heat wave /hi:t wéiv/ hurricane /hárikein/ ice /áis/ landslide /lændslaid/ ´ lightning flash /láitniη flæsh/ mist /mist/ misty /místi/ ventisca brisa nube nublado onda de frío ciclón rocío aguacero llovizna sequía inundación torrente.

1. 4. They´d rather speak to him at his home. 8. 6. have sent it by UPS / FedEx B... 1. I´d rather not go to the party alone... 1. Ex. could apply 4.. 12. 2. 9. 7. 7. / Had she been reading. He´d better go to a doctor at once.. How long had he been teaching Physics in that school when he retired? Ex. 9. 4. You ought to have telephoned. 8. than 7.... The sky was clear and the sun was shining. than 10. We´d better not stand so close to the curb. 10. She´d better spend more time on her homework.been doing 6. She hadn`t been reading. 2. than 13. Ex.. 6. have gone to Tahiti 10..The patient hadn´t been feeling. 9. You´d better not work so hard after your illness. / Had I been working.. have studied medicine. 4. 10. Bob hadn´t been sleeping. You should have gone.. What had you been doing that morning? 2.? 3.. 7. You ought to have given.? 4. better than 11. could 3. could 5. I´d rather drink tea with my meals. Smith been saving money? 4. I´d rather stay at home and watch TV.. Ex.. 5. can 7. Ex. 2. They´d rather not wait outside 5. 10. 3. 2. Helen had better begin more time on her English. 2. could 8. to 5..what had they been doing that evening? 2.. We´d better not mention it to him. 5.1. 5. Why had Mr. You should not have given. to have invested it in stocks / shares. can / could 6. 1.Key to answers UNIT 15 PART I Ex. You could phone her now . They´d been talking for about an hour before I arrived. 1.could have gone 3.. (Possible answers) 2.? 2. 5.. We could have fish 3.. We´d better send him an e-mail right away. How long had the Johnsons been living in the same house? 5. better than 14.. had . He´d better take private lessons. It´d been raining all morning . 11. better than 6.. had been watching 2..been drinking 7. 6... 5.? Ex.. 1. 6.. Ex. 8. Ex. / Had the students been practicing. 1. could Ex. 2. 2.. I hadn´t been working. You could give her a book. Ex.. / Had it been raining.. 3. You should not have told l her. have given it to Jane 4. to 12. I´d rather go to South America on my vacation... / Had the patient been feeling. than 18. could come A short course in english for adult students 213 . 1. had been raining 5.. have left them in Room 11. had . You should have attended.? 5. PART II A.. . to 17. / Had Bob been sleeping. 3. had been walking 3. have sent her an e-mail. to 8. 6. 4.. How long had you been living in that apartment before buying this house? 4. 7.. Mrs.. We could go and see him on Friday..? 6. have sent it by air mail 3.. can / could 2. It hadn`t been raing. to 16. 1. had been studying 4. She´d been working on that report since last week / the previous week.. 2. She´d rather come back later. 7. What had the boy been watching? 3.. than 15. 8. The young engineer had been doing research work for a long time.could have gone 5. 9. 3.. 3. Brown had been working hard that day and felt very tired. can / could 4. better than C. 3. The students had not been practicing. We could hang it in the kitchen. John would rather go to the party with Helen. I ought not to have gone. 4.. better than 9. You should have told. to have telephoned him at his home 6. We´d rather not say anything to him about it. 3. had been flying Ex.. You´d better rest a while 4. He ought to have started. He ought to have come.

be 6. 6. have taken / stolen 9. might have been an accident. She may / might be working 4. 3. 5. She may / might be busy. b e 3. 4. 3. be waiting 5. 6. Ex. 8. 4. She may / might have gone home early 7. 2. 5. 6. 4b. It may / might be in the car. 2. She may / might have gone out 3a. The exam can´t have been very difficult 7. C. I must have left it in the restaurant last night. 2. He may / might have been in the bathroom. Ken couldn´t have gone out because he had to work. She may / might not have been feeling well yesterday. 4. (Possible answers) 1. It must have been very expensive 4. can´t 6.The neighbors must have been having a party . She may / might have had to go home early 8. have bought Ex. be following Ex. might not have been invited. He couldn´t have come to her party because he didn´t do anything on Friday evening. She may / might have been ill yesterday . 10. have been 4. He couldn´t have repaired it because he doesn´t know anything about machines. She can´t have understood what I said. 2. 9. She must have listened to our conversation. 3. 9. 1. have left 2. 2a. Ex. must 2. 5. might have come if he´d been invited.They must have gone away. know 3. I must have forgotten to turn it off. 10. The driver can´t have seen the red light. have been 10. go 7. (Possible answers)2. C. must 5. be going 8. have been 5. 3. 4. He may / might not have heard the bell.She may / might have been working yesterday. She may / might not want to see me. can´t 4. He couldn´t have lent him £50 because he was short of money. Ex. Ken could have played tennis on Monday evening because he was free. must 3. must 8. 3. 1. 6. 11.2. She may / might want to be alone 5. 2b. 1. be 4. 3. can´t Ex. She may / might be watching TV in her room. You may / might have left it in the restaurant 4a. 2. 3.Ex.must 7. might have been an accident 214 A short course in english for adult students . 3b.. Ex.She can´t have seen me. She may / might not be working today 11.

? Note como la palabra WHEN cambia el significado de las siguientes oraciones: You come here every day Tú vienes acá todos los días When you come here tomorrow... Las expresiones de tiempo usadas en el Futuro Perfecto son aquellas introducidas con by + una fecha futura como by December 15th. La forma negativa se expresa usando WILL NOT HAVE + past participle y en la interrogación se antepone el verbo modal WILL al sujeto. Tambien son comunes las expresiones que contienen WHEN / IF + S + PRESENTE SIMPLE + UNA FECHA FUTURA. como When Peter gets home tonight (cuando Peter llegue a casa esta noche). we will have gotten our third trophy.. by the end of this month.. Este tiempo se expresa usando WILL HAVE más el PASADO PARTICIPIO de un verbo principal. I have the information now Yo tengo la información ahora When I have the information this afternoon. etc. la nave espacial habrá llegado a Júpiter. if they arrive after 10 tomorrow (si ellos llegan después de las 10 mañana). Cuando ella esté libre la próxima vez... ´ If our team wins the next game. /bai disémber δe fift:nθ wi wil hav lívd in δis kántri fáiv yíarz/ Hacia el 15 de diciembre. When we get to that town tomorrow (cuando lleguemos a esa ciudad mañana).UNIT 16 PART I. we will have lived in this country five years.. Escuche. A short course in english for adult students 215 . Escuche. /bai δi énd ov δis mánθ δe spéiship wil hav rí:tcht dllúpiter/ Hacia fines de este mes. /if auar tí:m winz δe nékst géim wi wil hav góten áuar θerd trófi/ Si nuestro equipo gana el próximo partido. When Peter gets home tonight. Cuando tú vengas acá mañana.. nosotros habremos ganado nuestro tercer trofeo. Will they have finished the work by 10:30? What time will they have finished the work? La pregunta habitual en este tiempo es: WHAT WILL YOU HAVE DONE? /wót wil iu: h v dán/ ¿Qué habrá hecho Ud. /wen wi gét tu δæt táun tumórou wil hav ´ træveld móar δan tuelv áuerz/ Cuando lleguemos a ese pueblo mañana. by this time next week. lea y aprenda : By December 15th. She is free now. nosotros habremos vivido cinco años en este país By the end of this month the spaceship will have reached Jupiter. etc. yo ya habré cenado When we get to that town tomorrow. Cuando yo tenga la información esta tarde. nosotros habremos viajado más de doce horas. Ella está libre ahora When she is free next time. we´ll have travelled more than twelve hours. /wen pí :ter géts hóum tunáit ail hav hæd díner alrédi/ Cuando ´ Peter llegue a casa esta noche. I will have had dinner already. lea y aprenda : They will have finished the work by 10:30 They will not/won´t have finished the work by 10:30... EL TIEMPO FUTURO PERFECTO (THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE) Este tiempo verbal describe una acción que será completada antes de una fecha específica dada en el futuro...

_________________________________________________________________________________________________ 216 A short course in english for adult students . 5. the students ________________________ their first course. 2. (recover) Before they leave New York next Sunday. 4. I ________________________ all these grammar rules. What things will you have done: a) by the end of this month? b) by the end of this year?. 3. I will have completed this course in English. 4. 4. 3. 2. 8. (complete) I________________________ in this country two years next October. (change) If you come at noon tomorrow. 3. 4. the Johnsons ________________________ already. (have) By December. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ b) By the end of this year. 1. El ya habrá realizado todos sus planes antes termine el verano. (forget) When he becomes a man. I will have finished reading this book. By two o´clock. 2. nosotros ya habremos procesado toda la información. 6. we ________________________ the work.go) Ex. 5. 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. When you arrive at midday tomorrow. (go) If he doesn´t hurry. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. 9. you ________________________ from your illness. (leave) By the end of March. Si no tomamos un taxi. they ________________________ and ________________________ . el concierto ya habrá comenzado cuando lleguemos al teatro. they ________________________ dinner when he gets there. they ________________________ home. 5. 1. Ellos habrán terminado ese edificio antes del fin de año. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ c) By the time I retire. 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 5.EXERCISES Ex. 3. (finish) If he gets here at 6 o´clock. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 1 Complete the following sentences using the verbs provided in the Future Perfect Tense. they________________________ the most important places of interest. I will have worked as a teacher for thirty-five years ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. a) By the end of this month. (come . 2. (visit) 12. he ________________________ many things. 1. 11. 2. (be) By tomorrow. Antes de las seis de la tarde. and c) when you retire? Write at least three sentences for each question. 3. the weather ________________________ considerably. 10. (learn) By this time next month.

had to. (El dice que su nombre de pila es Robert) He said that his first name was Robert. (Ellos dijeron que debían en estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) A short course in english for adult students 217 . could. would.) He says that his first name is Robert. had. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PASADO o en el POTENCIAL. muy pronto Ud. lea y aprenda : Mary says that she knows Bob well. (Tom creía que podría venir a la fiesta esta noche) The man says that he will come here tomorrow. los verbos modales am / is / are. (Ellos dicen que deben estar en el aeropuerto a las 8:30) They said they had to be at the airport at 8:30. Antes de la medianoche. can. must. De acuerdo con esta regla. may deben ser cambiados a las respectivas formas del pasado: was / were. La mayoría de los pájaros habrá emigrado al norte antes que llegue el invierno. Escuche. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. (El hombre dijo que vendría acá mañana) They say they must be at the airport at 8:30.5. (El dijo que su nombre de pila era Robert) Tom thinks that he can come to the party tonight. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. do / does. Si sigue los consejos de su médico. A. (Mary dice que conoce bien a Bob. SEQUENCE OF VERB TENSES (CONCORDANCIA DE TIEMPOS VERBALES) Observe la siguiente tabla: PRINCIPAL VERB PRESENT PAST Según la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales. did. have / has. b) Cuando el verbo principal está expresado en el TIEMPO PASADO. yo ya habré aprendido a conversar en inglés. SUBORDINATE VERB Present Future Past Conditional a) Cuando el verbo principal de una oración está expresado en el TIEMPO PRESENTE. los demás verbos subordinados deben estar expresados en el TIEMPO PRESENTE o en el TIEMPO FUTURO. will. might. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ PART II. (El hombre dice que vendrá acá mañana) The man said that he would come here tomorrow. los resultados de elección habrán sido enviados a la prensa. Hacia fines de este curso. (Mary dijo que conocía bien a Bob. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. (Tom cree que puede venir a la fiesta esta noche) Tom thought that he could come to the party tonight.) Mary said that she knew Bob well. se habrá recuperado de su operación.

He thinks he (can. 6. He hopes he can be there early I think it may rain this evening. AFTER (después que). 9. The young man tells us he is married. 1. The newspaper says it (will. I didn’t know what he (is. 5. I think he will be there by ten o´clock He believes he can do it.EXERCISES Ex. 18. 12. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B. was). 10. I think Mr Jones may be in his office. 218 A short course in english for adult students . I told him that I (cannot. 2. 4. following the rule of sequence of tenses: 1. is going) away. would) rain. AS SOON AS (en cuanto). The boy says he has seen the movie. 5. Del mismo modo. 15. I think there´ll be a lot of work to do. 19. could not) go. 4. He says he will be here at noon. She said she (does not. 3. 9. I think it will be very hot this afternoon. Bob wants to know how many people there are. they will not go to the beach. 14. 6. She said she (may. THE PRESENT TENSE AFTER IF (EL TIEMPO PRESENTE DESPUES DE IF ) Se debe usar el TIEMPO PRESENTE (y no el tiempo futuro) después de la palabra IF. might) be late. had been) a soldier. UNLESS (a menos que). u otra palabra similar para introducir una cláusula subordinada en el tiempo futuro. UNTIL (hasta que). could) do it easily. 11. “will rain”) next Sunday. She said she (was going. debemos usar el PRESENTE (y no el futuro) después de las palabras WHEN (cuando). 7. 11. BEFORE (antes que). 17. 13. 16. The girl says she is studying for a test. He said he (will. 10. lived). meant). aún cuando nos estemos refiriendo a situaciones futuras. lea y aprenda : If John comes (no. 12. I don´t know where Mary is. he will see Mary. 8. I didn’t know what the word (means. He said he (has been. 20. He says he has to work. 8. He says he is very sorry. I don’t know what his name (is. If it rains (no. I think I can meet you. “will come” ) tomorrow. 2. He wants to know where she is. Choose the correct form: 1.hard every day I know where she lives. would) be here. did not) feel well. He asked me where 1 (live. 7. Change to past tense. The weather man predicts it will rain. AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 2. was) trying to do. 3. Escuche. I don´t think Bob will like the new job.

he will keep it. BEFORE. As soon as he ____________________________ (telephone) today. You can stay here ____________________________ we go to the movie this evening. 12. Do not leave before I ____________________________:____________________________ (tell) you to go . 7. If he_____________________not _____________________ (come) here soon. any other thing. 3. etc.` If he ____________________________ (like) the job next week. ANY y NO (somebody / someone. 4 5. I will give him your message. please give him the message. Do not call me tomorrow morning unless he ____________________________ (come) to the office. we will have to leave without him. él vera a Mary) As soon as I see Mr Smith tomorrow. nothing. please let me know. 6. 2. AS SOON AS. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. etc. too.(within a few minutes) I´ll believe ít ____________________________ I see it PART III. (Espere aquí hasta que el bus llegue.Escuche. Insert the missing conjunction: UNTIL. WHILE. (Cuando John venga acá esta tarde. They will stay in the South West ____________________________ the war lasts. We will not leave the hotel ____________________________ you are ready to go. (Alguien más se preocupara de ustedes) Is there anything else (= any other thing) that you need? (¿Hay algo más que necesite usted?) A short course in english for adult students 219 . anything. You will know him ____________________________ you see him at the meeting tomorrow. A. AS LONG AS. 11. nobody / no one. Call me as soon as he ____________________________ (get) here tomorrow morning. 8. something. WHEN. 1. 4. no other person. lf he ____________________________ (be) late this evening. USE OF “ELSE” Y “OR ELSE”. 2. we may go to the beach. they will not wait for him. we will go to the beach. Don´t start moving. within ten or fifteen minutes. Please wait here ____________________________ the doctor arrives. he can go with us on the city tour. 10. (En cuanto yo vea a Mr Smith mañana le dare su mensaje) Wait here in the lobby until the bus arrives. lf it _____________________ not ______________________ (rain) tomorrow. We wilI wait here ____________________________ you telephone this afternoon. 6. 3. 10. We’ll come to see you next week ____________________________ you leave on your vacation. dentro de 10 o 15 minutos) EXERCISES Ex. Ex. Escuche.: 1. 2. If he____________________________ (arrive) on time tomorrow morning. somewhere. anywhere. You must wait ____________________________ the light changes to green. 7. ELSE Esta palabra se usa junto a las palabras derivadas de SOME. nowhere) como un sinónimo de some other person. 5. some other thing. he will see Mary. lea y aprenda : When John comes here this evening. If the weather ____________________________ (be) good tomorrow. 9. When he ____________________________ (come) this afternoon. I will not go to the meeting next Monday unless you ____________________________ (go) too. lea y aprenda : Somebody else ( = some other person) will take care of you. 8. I´ll write to you ____________________________ I get to New York next Friday evening. anybody / anyone. 9. any other person.

You must ask some other person about it. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 220 A short course in english for adult students . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. We must hurry. you’ll wake the baby. 9. Do you have any other thing to tell us about him? 12. Mrs. you will soon forget it. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. OR ELSE Esta frase se usa como un sinónimo de if not (= o si no). she´ll punish you. you won’t pass the course. Join the following pairs of sentences. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Will they go any other place after the concert? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. You´d better tell him about it or else (if you don´t) he´ll be angry with you. If you don’t. we´ll miss the train. If she doesn’t. I must go home right away. Helen must rest more. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. substituting OR ELSE for the words in italics: 1. No other person helped him with the work. my mother will be angry with me. There was no other person in the room at that time. 1. Did you see any other thing that you liked? 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 6. You must practice your English every day. 2. Let’s do some other thing tonight. He´d better wait here or else (if he doesn´t) he will miss her. Haven’t I met you some other place? 5. Smith? 10. If you don’t. If you don’t. you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. You must do as your mother says. I didn’t tell any other person about it. Did they go any other place? 2. Put the dog outside. They´ve never sold that product in any other place. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 4. If we don’t. Can I show you any other thing. También se puede usar en este caso la palabra otherwise (= de lo contrario) Escuche. If you don’t. Turn off the radio. 8. Substitute the correct expression with ELSE for the words in italics: 1. If I don’t. lea y aprenda : We must hurry or else (if we don´t) we will be late for the train. she may have a nervous breakdown. You must study hard. We had better hurry. 11. If you don’t he will bark and wake everyone up. If we don´t. EXERCISES Ex. we´ll be late. Save your money.B. If you don’t.

Repeat the previous exercise. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ VOCABULARY: Study these words THE WORKSHOP /(δ axe /æks/ bolt /bóult/ bucket /bákit/ drill /dril/ file /fáil/ hammer /hæmer/ ´ jack /dllæk/ lathe /leiδ/ lever /lí:ver/ measuring tape /mélloriη téip/ nail /neil/ needle /ní:dl/ nut /nat/ plane /pléin/ pliers /pláiarz/ hacha perno balde taladro lima martillo gata torno palanca huincha de medir clavo aguja tuerca formón alicates wé:rkshop/ El Taller serrucho tijeras tornillo desatornillador soldadora pala llave de tuercas escuadra tenazas banco de torno golilla soplete para soldar alambre banco de trabajo llave inglesa saw /so:/ scissors /sízorz/ screw /skru:/ screwdriver /skru:dráiver/ soldering-iron /sólderiη áiron/ spade /spéid/ spanner /spæner/ ´ square /skwéar/ tongs /tongz/ vise /váis/ washer /wósher/ welding torch /wéldiη tó:rtch/ wire /wáiar/ workbench /we:rkbéntch/ wrench /réntch/ A short course in english for adult students 221 . _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. We must hurry. otherwise we´ll be late 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 3. but this time substitute the word OTHERWISE for the words in italics: 1.Ex. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9.

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4. Put the dog outside. arrives 2. Save your money. Nobody else helped him with the work. is 4. can 3. 4. 3. 1 must go home right away. 4. 7. will have forgotten 9. Did they go anwhere else? 2. I didn´t think Bob would like the new job. would 2. Before midnight. He said he was very sorry. 6. I you follow your doctor´s advice. I thought it would be very hot this afternoon. 14. 2. 1. until 4. 3. He hoped he could be there. very soon you´ll have recovered completely from your surgery 8. will have visited 12. He wanted to know where she was. Ex. or else you will soon forget it. otherwise she´ll punish you. telephones 10. He said he had to work. The young man told us he was married. 1. 2. 8. or else you won’t pass the course. 5. He believed he could do it. as long as 5. as soon as 3. We must hurry. or else you’ll wake the baby. 7. otherwise you will soon forget it. 2. otherwise my mother will be angry with me. we´ll have processed all the information. will have left 2. tell 7. was 12. You must ask somebody else about it. The boy said he had seen the movie. 11.come Ex. will have completed 7. You must study hard. 3. could not 8. will have learnt (or learned) 10. Will they go anywhere else after the concert? Ex. the concert will have already started by the time we get to the theatre. 2. 11. comes 11. Put the dog outside. is 11.Key to answers UNIT 16 PART I. Bob wanted to know how many people there were. otherwise you won’t pass the course. Ex. 1. will have been 8. did not 10. or else you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. lived 4. 4. Ex. Ex. does . I thought Mr Jones might be in his office. 1. likes 8. or else my mother will be angry with me. Helen must rest more. will have had 6. otherwise she may have a nervous breakdown. or else he will bark and wake everyone up. We had better hurry. 13.(will have ) gone Ex.rain 3. 5. 7 You must practice your English every day. We had better hurry. is 9. until 6. 1. while 7. go 12. 5. They´ve never sold that product anywhere else 6. 19. I thought it might rain this evening.16. I knew where she lived. 2. Let’s do something else tonight. There was nobody else in the room at that time. I thought I could meet you. was going 7. We must hurry. 1. or else she´ll punish you. comes 5. The girl said she was studying for a test. 20. A. The weather man predicted it would rain. 6. Turn off the radio. 2. They´ll have finished that building before the end of this year. Before 6 this evening. Can I show you anything else. otherwise he will bark and wake everyone up. 8. otherwise you’ll wake the baby. when / as soon as 8. otherwise we´ll miss the train. By / Towards the end of this course I´ll have learnt to talk in English. He said he would be here at noon 2. will have gone 5. 3. 9. 1. will have recovered 11. had been 9. 17. 18. If we don´t take a taxi / cab. or else she may have a nervous breakdown. Ex. A short course in english for adult students 223 . or else we´ll miss the train. 3. Most birds will have emigrated to the north before winter comes. 8. 1. (Open answers) Ex. Helen must rest more. Turn off the radio. Haven’t I met you somewhere else? 5. might B. will have come . 1 didn’t tell anybody else about it. You must do as your mother says. 2. 1. gets 6. 8. Did you see anything else that you liked? 7. I didn´t know where Mary was. Smith? 10. You must study hard. 1. Ex. otherwise we´ll be late. does . Do you have anything else to tell us about him? 12. otherwise you won’t be able to go away on your vacation. 10. will have changed 3. 9. 4. He´ll have fulfilled / carried out all his plans before the summer ends / is over. before 9. the results of the election will have been sent / released to the press PART II. 7 You must practice your English every day. meant 5.9. Save your money. 3. 10. 1 must go home right away. will have finished 4. You must do as your mother says. 12. Mrs. 5. when / as soon as PART III. 15. 10. unless 2. 6. I thought there would be a lot of work to do. until 10. 1.hard every day. will 6. I thought he would be there by ten o´clock. 3. or else we´ll be late. 9. 6. 1 1.

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He will deliver the merchandise today. Smith teaches that class on Friday. En la voz pasiva. She has just taken the newspaper. 5.V) (D. 12.) (be + p.) (doer) (P. Mary prepares the meals in the kitchen (S) (Tr. éste va seguido por un complemento directo (direct object). Normalmente en una oración pasiva no se hace mención del sujeto agente (doer). (S) (Tr. 3. perfect) Passive Voice The car is fixed (by him). Mr. They have found the child at last. 14. 8. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. The wind blew the smoke away soon. People speak English all over the world. (P. She broke the plate on purpose. es decir.) (doer) Para cada oración en voz activa hay una oración pasiva correspondiente (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. el complemento directo de la oración activa pasa a ser el sujeto pasivo (passive subject) de la oración.S. 10. (be + p. 9. Este sujeto pasivo va seguido de una forma del verbo modal Be más el participio pasado del verbo principal. They fought a big battle here many years ago. The workers will build a new bridge over that river. 225 .O). 17. 1. 15.Jackson saw the accident. They will leave the tickets for you.V) (D.p.p.p. 4.) (doer) A new bridge will be built (by the workers) over that river. The car will have been fixed. (Present) (Past) (Future) (Pres. He will fix the car.UNIT 17 PART 1.V) (D. 2. En una oración en voz activa el verbo principal es un verbo transitivo (transitive verb). He took the money last Monday evening.S. Change to passive voice: 1. Somebody has taken my book. The car was fixed. 16. perfect) (Past perfect) (Fut. (S) (Tr. 6. The car has been fixed.) The meals are prepared (by Mary) in the kitchen. 13.) (be + p.O). perfect) EXERCISES Ex.S. They will bring the boy tomorrow. People will forget it in few days. The money was taken by him last Monday evening ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students Active Voice He fixes the car. 11. He fixed the car. THE PASSIVE VOICE Hay oraciones gramaticales expresadas en voz activa y oraciones gramaticales expresadas en voz pasiva. They had finished the work by noon. 18. Mr. He will do the work this afternoon.O). The car had been fixed. Peter wrote the letter last year. (P. 7. debido a que éste es desconocido o no es importante. He had fixed the car. Smith wrote the book last summer. He has fixed the car. The car will be fixed. The letter was written (by Peter) last year. She ate the cake this morning. Mrs. He will have fixed the car.

Smith. ___________________________________________________ The work had been finished by June. 9. 12. 7. America was discovered in 1492. 2. Thompson. A car ran over our dog a short while ago. The work won’t be done by Mr. 3.19. My grandfather _____________________________________ The books will be brought by John. 20. They ______________________________________________ The house was built in 1910. __________________________________________________ He was struck by an automobile. 9. The e-mail was sent this morning. 21. Longmans _________________________________________ The lecture was attended by many people. 13. The book was written by Mr. Someone has put all the chairs in the next room. The city was destroyed by bombs. 2. He _______________________________________________ The town will have been captured by Wednesday. 6. Smith. ___________________________________________________ Our exercises are corrected each night by our teacher. ___________________________________________________ This book was written by Mr. 3. Change to negative and to question form: 1. Columbus _________________________________________ Our class is taught by Mr. The money has been found. 6. The cries of the child were heard clearly. 11. 10. The work will be done by Mr. 22. They made this gun by hand. 5. 2. The lesson is taught by Mr. 15. Scott. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus. 15. The book will be published in June. The book has been returned by John. The money had been stolen by one of the boys. Smith. They will send the book next week. ___________________________________________________ The book will be published next spring. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. The money was stolen by a thief. 4. 14. 7. 12. ___________________________________________________ The merchandise will be delivered tomorrow. 8. 4. ___________________________________________________ America was discovered in 1492. Will the work be done by Mr. 8. 24. The work will be completed tomorrow. The book was found by Mary. 10. The house was struck by lightning. Change to active voice: 1. Smith. ___________________________________________________ Ex. He broke his leg in an accident. Mary found the book. 23. Smith? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 226 A short course in english for adult students . 14. 5. 13. The dish was broken by the maid. They ______________________________________________ The city has been destroyed (by the enemy). 3. 11. They left the wounded soldiers behind.

a la voz pasiva. (Active) They have to send this report today.. _________________________________________ in Chicago. (How) __________________________________________________? The work will be completed next month. _____________________________ by the end of the month.When was America discovered?) The house was destroyed by fire. 8. were + being). (Who. se debe usar el verbo modal seguido de Be y del pasado participio del verbo principal. ___________________________________________ in 1492. _______________________________________ in Valparaiso. (Passive) The road was being built (by the men) when I was there La voz pasiva con verbos modales can. 4. ________________________________________ by the maid. 3. 16. Change to question form. 11. 6. ____________________________________ in a wooden box. must. must. _________________________________________ in the safe. (In what year) __________________________________________________? The money was stolen by one of the servants. have to. 15. may. ________________________________________ in Scotland. 4. 7. 9. 9. 5. may. 8. should. ________________________________________about 10:30.Ex. (Active) They must finish this job today. Answer these questions: 1. (Active) They boy can do this exercise easily. 6..by / By whom) _____________________________________? Ex. 13. 12. 3. __________________________________one of the servants.by / By whom) _______________________________________________? The book will be published in June. (Active) The mechanic is fixing the car now (Passive) The car is being fixed (by the mechanic) now (Active) The men were building the road when I was there. (Where) __________________________________________________? The tree was planted by my father. 5. (In what kind of accident) ______________________________________? The house was built in 1945. America was discovered in 1492. beginning each question with the question word in parentheses: 1. 5. (What time) ______________________________________________? He was injured in an automobile accident. 4. 2.. La voz pasiva de los tiempos presente y pasado continuo se construye usando la forma continua del verbo modal Be (am. is. La voz pasiva en los tiempos continuos. 10. _____________________________ because of bad weather. (Passive) This exercise can be done by the boy easily. have to Al cambiar oraciones activas que contienen un verbo modal como can. (Passive) This job must be finished (by them) today. ___________________________________ for about 2 hours. (When) __________________________________________________? The mail is delivered at ten o’clock every day. By whom was America discovered? In what year was America discovered? When was this book published? Where was this book published? Who was the money stolen by? Where was the child finally found? Who will the dinner be prepared by? By whom are your exercises corrected? Why was the train delayed? Where was the money hidden? When was the news released? When will the work be completed? Where were they married? In what country was Helen born? By whom was the plate broken? Where was the money put? How long was the man held by the police? ____________________________ by Christopher Columbus. (Who. más el pasado participio del verbo principal. (When) __________________________________________________? The child was finally found in the park. 14.. was. 17. are. 7. 10. A short course in english for adult students 227 . should. _________________________________________ in the park. etc. _________________________________________by the chef. 2. ____________________________________ by our instructor. ____________________________________________in 1999. (Passive) This report has to be sent (by them) today.

They were discussing the question when I went in. John has brought the mail every day. . John has to bring the mail every day. 2. We must lose no time. 4. 3. 2. 8. 5.Ex. 3. They were cleaning the office this morning. 5. This can be finished (by us) right away. He was killed in an accident. How. He is finishing the work now. 12. 9. John brought the mail yesterday. By whom. 12. Change to passive voice: 1. 7. They may deliver the goods tomorrow. They are defending the city well. 3. We must find him immediately. 10. They cannot put those things here. He cannot finish this today. 5. once in simple form and once with some question word like Who. 9. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 10. 6. John brings the mail every day. 11. John is bringing the mail now. He should send this right away. Change to passive voice: 1. Was he killed in an accident? How was he killed? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 228 A short course in english for adult students . 11. They are transferring him to another class. 4. 7. They are examining him now. He has to do it immediately. Where. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 10. They are sending the merchandise today. 6. He wasn’t killed in an accident. 7. John may bring the mail tomorrow. The story is being published today. 8. 7. They may send the fax tomorrow. We have to write these exercises at home. We must help him. Change to passive voice : 1. 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 6. The mail is brought by John every day. They have to deliver the books today. They are considering that question now. She is typing that letter now. They are holding the meeting today. 6. 8. Change to negative and to question form. 9. State each question twice. 3.: 1. John will bring the mail tomorrow. 4. We can finish this right away. This must be checked twice. 12. He sent the e-mail last week. The police may hold him for several days. 9. You can use this room for the lesson. We are using this room. 2. 2. The material is being sent (by them) today. etc. They are sending the material today. They have put the chairs in the room. 11. They are sending troops there today.

5. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 229 . no siempre se expresa la voz pasiva con el verbo SER más un PARTICIPIO PASADO de un verbo principal.4. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Muchas cartas se envían al extranjero desde esta oficina todos los días. Se están desarrollando nuevos métodos para controlar la inflación. It has to be done at once. Smith. sin embargo es muy frecuente el uso del signo “SE” en este tipo de oraciones. The money has been sent to New York. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ El signo “SE” en español En español. 7. The class is taught by Mr. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 6. Se deben construir nuevos caminos en esta parte del país. lt has to be sent right away. 12. This book was published in 1945. Compare las siguientes oraciones pasivas: El español es hablado en este país Una gran batalla fue librada en este lugar Un nuevo puente será construido aquí el próximo año En este país se habla español En este lugar se libró una gran batalla Aquí se construirá un nuevo puente el próximo año Estas mismas oraciones se pueden traducir al inglés de la siguiente manera: “English is spoken in this country”. 11. 10. The material is being prepared by Mr. lt can be done three or four times a month. 8. Se enviaron todas las invitaciones por correo aéreo. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. It should be sent immediately. “A big battle was fought here”. Este libro se ha traducido a varios idiomas. Esto se puede hacer fácilmente. Se han descubierto otros planetas en nuestro sistema solar.Reese. “A new bridge will be built here next year” Ex. 10. si se usan las herramientas apropiadas. This room can be used for our meetings. 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6.

most goals had been successfully attained. It is considered that English has become a universal language. the comet will be easily seen near the Southern Cross _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. The information is being analyzed thoroughly. 11. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 1. The data was being processed at that moment. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Translate the following sentences into Spanish. Next time. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex. By the end of the 90’s. Se deberían mejorar los servicios de transporte publico en esta ciudad. All kinds of computers are repaired here. Durante ese año se habían llevado a cabo varios proyectos importantes. During this week. Se construirán varios hospitales en el país durante los próximos 5 años. A new type of missile has been tested recently. several animals will be sent into space in order to study the effects of weightlessness. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Several different techniques may be applied. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. The economic policies have been changed in order to control inflation. using the word “SE” in each case. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 230 A short course in english for adult students .8.

They expect the train to arrive at four ‘clock. 9. 7. Se supone que él está aquí ahora. (They at ten o’clock. They´re supposed to start the work soon. We expect our lesson to finish at ten o’clock. 11. The merchandise ______________________________ (send) tomorrow. Supply the correct form of SUPPOSED TO: 1. 2. We expect John to come at six o’clock. (John is supposed to come at six o’clock. This fax ______________________________ (send) yesterday. 3. (Present) Helen is supposed (by us) to arrive tomorrow. 6. 3. We expect him to leave for Europe next week. Change to introduce SUPPOSED TO: 1. The train ______________________________ (be) faster than the bus. 4. 3. They are supposed to leave (leave) at ten o’clock. He ______________________________ (send) this letter yesterday. Is he supposed to leave tomorrow morning? When is he supposed to leave? ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 231 . He ______________________________(call) me tomorrow. We expect the parade to begin soon.PART II. 10.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. 1.) 2. Esta es una oración pasiva que surge debido a que “se supone” o “se espera” que el sujeto realice la acción prometida o el compromiso adquirido. 5. He ______________________________ (know) her well. Esta frase idiomática se usa solamente en los tiempos presente y pasado. We expect her to bring the book with her. We expect the weather to be hot tomorrow. (Passive Voice) 14. He ______________________________ (be) here yesterday at three o’clock. Se suponía que el barco llegaría anoche (Past) Bob is supposed (by us) to be here now. 7. They ______________________________ (deliver) the merchandise last week. We expected him to arrive last night. Change to negative and to question form. 10.. We expect our lesson to last one hour. 8. State each question twice. (Passive Voice) 15. John ______________________________ (be) a better student than Henry. The ship was supposed (by the public and by the officials) to arrive last night. 4. WHAT TIME. WHERE. 12. (Passive Voice) Ex. 3. 2. (Future) This book is supposed to have been published in 1975.: 1. En las ideas futuras se debe usar el verbo BE en presente. They expected the war to be over sooner. He was supposed to bring the money last night. (Passive Voice) 13. We expect the bank to open at nine o’clock. Se supone que Helen llegará mañana. We expect the bus to stop here. He ______________________________ (come) tomorrow at five. 2. 6. He is supposed to leave tomorrow morning. 12. 11. He ______________________________ (be) here now. These chairs ______________________________ (put) in the next room. 8. THE IDIOMATIC VERB PHRASE “BE SUPPOSED TO” Esta expresión se usa para referirse a una obligación del sujeto de llevar a cabo una promesa o un compromiso. He ______________________________ (meet) us in Macy’s. He isn’t supposed to leave tomorrow morning. once in simple form and once with some question word like WHEN. Se supone que este libro fue publicado en 1975 Ex. etc. This book ______________________________ (publish) last year. 9. 5.

The letter was supposed to be sent yesterday. We were supposed to meet them on 42nd Street. 8. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 232 A short course in english for adult students . He´s supposed to be living somewhere in L. They´re suppposed to finish the job tomorrow. 5. 6. 10. He was supposed to telephone me yesterday.4. 9. 7.A.. The King is supposed to visit the USA in May. The book is supposed to be published in June.

proyectil Cartridge case /ká:rtridll kéiz/ Propellant /propélant/ propelente o polvora Primer /práimer/ Shrapnel /shræpn l/ ´ metralla o esquirla TACTICAL WEAPONS /tæktikal wéponz/ Armas Tácticas Pistol /pístol/ pistola Rifle /ráifl/ Gun /gan/ cañón. bomba A short course in english for adult students 233 .VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /(i á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (I) Army /a:rmi/ Air Force /éar fó:rs/ Ranks /ræηks/ ´ Commander /kománder/ Subordinate /sabó:dinit/ Ejército Fuerza Aérea filas comandante subalterno Navy /néivi/ Rank /ræηk/ ´ Officer /ófiser/ Superior /supíarior/ Marina rango. grado Oficial superior ARMS /á:rmz/armas.) regimiento división Ejército vainilla estopin ROUND OF AMMUNITION /ráund ov amiuníshon/ Tiro de munición Bullet /búlit/ bala. pistola Knife /naif/ Sword /só:rd/ espada Dagger /dæger/ ´ Machine gun /mashí:n gán/ ametralladora Mortar /mó:rtar/ Howitzer /hóuitser/ obús Hand grenade /hænd granéid/ Flame-thrower /fléim θróuer/ lanzallamas Rocket launcher /rókit ló:ntcher/ Mine /main/ mina Missile /mízil/ Mass destruction weapon /mæs distrákshon wèpon/ arma de destrucción masiva Bullet /búlit/ bala Shell /shel/ Bomb /bom/ bomba fusil cuchillo daga mortero granada de mano lanzacohetes misil proyectil. BRANCHES /bræntchiz/ramas o servicios ´ Infantry /infantri/ Infantería Artillery /a:rtílori/ Armored Cavalry /á:rmord kævalri/ Caballería Blindada ´ Signal /sígnal/ Airborne /éarbó:rn/ aerotransportada Engineers /endlliníarz/ Transportation /transportéishon/ Transportes Medical /médikal/ Finance /fáinans/ Intendencia Mechanized /mékanáizd/ Ordnance /ó:rdnans/ material de guerra COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /komíshond ófiserz/ Oficiales Comisionados Full General /ful dlléneral/ General de Ejército Lieutenant General /luténant dlléneral/ Major General /méidllor dlléneral/ Mayor General Brigadier General /brigadíar dlléneral/ Colonel /ké:rnel/ Coronel Lieutenant Colonel /luténant ké:rnel/ Major /méidllor/ Mayor Captain /kæptin/ ´ First Lieutenant /f :rst luténant/ Teniente Second Lieutenant /sékond luténant/ Ensign /énsin/ Alférez (en la marina) Cadet /kadét/ NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS /non komíshond ófiserz/ Suboficiales Sergeant Major /sá:rdllent méidllor/ Sargento Mayor (US) Staff Sergeant /sta:f sá:rdllent/ Sergeant First Class /sá:rdllent férst kla:s/ Sargento Primero Sergeant /sá:rdllent/ Corporal /kó:rporal/ Cabo Private First Class /práivit férst kla:s/ Lance Corporal /láns kó:rpral/ Soldado Primero (Br) Private /práivit/ Recruit /rékrut/ Soldado conscripto TACTICAL UNITS /tæktikal iúnits/ Squad /skwod/ Troop /tru:p/ Squadron /skuódr n/ Battalion /batælion/ ´ Brigade /brigéid/ Corps /ko:r/ Unidades Tácticas pelotón escuadrón (cab.) batallón brigada cuerpo Platoon /plδtú:n/ Company /kámpni/ Battery /bæteri/ ´ Regiment /rédlliment/ División /dividllon/ Army /a:rmi Artillería Telecomunicaciones Ingenieros Sanidad Mecanizado Teniente General Brigadier General Teniente Coronel Capitán Subteniente Cadete Sargento Mayor (Br)) Sargento Segundo Soldado Primero (US) Soldado pelotón compañía batería (art.) grupo (cab.blin.

gatillo Armor plate /á:mor pléit // Gun tube /gán tiu:b/ Tank commander /tæηk komá:nder/ ´ Tracks /træks/ ´ Wheel /wi:l/ plancha de blindaje tubo del cañón comandante del tanque orugas rueda posición sentada posición encuclillas FIRING POSITIONS /fáiariη posillonz/ Posiciones de Disparo Standing /stændiη/ position ´ posición de pie Sitting /sítiη/ position Prone /próun/ position posición tendida Squat /skuot/ position Kneeling /ní:liη/ position posición arrodillada 234 A short course in english for adult students . comandante orgullo subalterno rasgo.TACTICAL VEHICLES /tæktikal víiklz/ Vehículos Tácticos ´ Tank /tæηk/ tanque Truck /trak/ camion Fighter plane /fáiter pléin/ cazabombardero Helicopter /hélicopter/ helicóptero Speedboat /spi:d bout/ lancha de desembarco Airplane carrier /éarplein kærier/ portaviones ´ Submarine /sábmarí:n/ submarino LEADERSHIP /lí:dership/ Liderazgo Behavior /bihéivior/ conducta Commander /kománder/ comandante Control /kontróul/ control Courage /káridll/ valor. coraje Decisiveness /disáisivnis/ decision Determination /diterminéishon/ determinación Echelon of command /éshelon v komænd/ escalón de mando ´ Enthusiasm /enθusiázn/ entusiasmo Initiative /iníshiativ/ iniciativa Justice /dllástis/ justicia Morale /morá:l/ moral Span of control /spæn v kontróul/ ámbito de control ´ Tact /tækt/ ´ tacto. característica Barrel /bærel/ ´ Butt /bat/ Firing mechanism /fáiariη mékanízm/ Follower /fólouer/ Hammer /hæmer/ ´ Muzzle /máz l/ Receiver /risí:ver/ Sling /sliη/ Trigger /trigger/ cañón culata mecanismo de disparo cargador martillo trompetilla caja de mecanismos correa disparador. criterio Willing obedience /wíliη obí:diens/ obediencia espontánea PARTS OF A RIFLE /pa:rtse v ráifl/ Partes del Fusil Aiming mechanism /éimiη mécanizm/ mecanismo de puntería Bolt /boult/ cerrojo Chamber /tchéimber/ recámara Firing pin /fáiariη pin/ percutor Front sight /fránt sáit/ punto de mira Locking lug /lókiη lag/ asegurador Rear sight /ríar sáit/ alza Sighting mechanism /sáitiη mekanízm/ mecanismo de visada Stock /stok/ caja Trigger guard /trigger gá:rd/ guardamonte THE TANK /δ tδk/ El Tanque Armor /á:mor/ Gun /gan/ Gunner /gáner/ Tank driver /tæηk dráiver/ ´ Turret /tárit/ blindaje cañón artilllero conductor del tanque torreta APC /éi pí: sí:/ transporte de personal Airplane /éarplein/ avión Bomber /bómer/ cazabombardero Chopper /tchóper/ helicóptero Warship /wó:rship/ buque de guerra Mine sweeper /main suí:per/ barreminas Main Battle Tank / mein bætl tæηk/ tanque de combate ´ Command /komænd/ ´ Confidence /kónfidens/ Cooperation /kouoperéishon/ Chain of command /tchéin v komá:nd/ Dependability /dipendabíliti/ Dignity /digniti/ Endurance /endiúarans/ Esprit de corps /esprí: de kó:r/ Integrity /intégriti/ Leader /lí:der/ Pride /práid/ Subordinate /sabó:rdinit/ Trait /tréit/ mando confianza cooperación cadena de mando confiabilidad dignidad resistencia espíritu de cuerpo integridad líder.

He had finished the work by June. It has to be done by him immediately.. All the chairs have been put by someone in the next room. 20. He may be held by the police for several days. The cake was eaten by her this morning 4. The accident was seen by Mrs. The newspaper has just been taken by her 6. 5. Jackson. 3. He was held for about two hours.. 10. The enemy has destroyed the city. 9. The mail has been brought by John every day. / Was America discovered in. 15. 10. 3..? 9. 14.. 11. Ex. 11.. Ex. The mail is being brought by John now. It was released at about 10:30 12.(At) what time is the mail delivered every day? 8. 7. Smith teaches our class. / Has the book been returned by. Ex. 12.? 10. 9. The goods may be delivered by them tomorrow.. The city wasn´t destroyed by bombs. 3. The mail was brought by John yesterday. The tickets will be left for you by them. Where was the child finally found? 5. The work had been finished by them by noon. 5. 8. 6. 8. / Was the city destroyed by.. The book will be sent by them next week.? 12.The money hadn´t been stolen by one of the boys.Key to answers UNIT 17 PART I. English is spoken (by people) all over the world. 2. 6 Many people attended the lecture. It was published in Chicago. 21. It will be completed by the end of the month..The lesson isn´t taught by Mr. 11. A thief stole the money. / Was the book written by. 22. The office was being cleaned by them this morning. 6. The plate was broken by her on purpose. 13.? 3. Who was the tree planted by? / By whom was the tree planted? 6. The dish wasn´t broken by the maid. The city is being defended by them well 11. 5. 4. The meeting is being held by them today. / Was it discovered by. That question is being considered by them now.? 11. 3..The telegram wasn´t delivered this morning. 17. 18. An automobile struck him 9. 8. He must be helped by us . His leg was broken (by him) in an accident. He´s being transferred by them to another class. It was discovered by Christopher Columbus.? 5. 4. They were married in Valparaiso. 13. 15. The book was written by Mr. / Was the telegram delivered.The book hasn´t been returned by John. When will the book be published? 7. 2. 3. The mail will be brought by John tomorrow. The merchandise will be delivered by him today 3. 6. Smith on Friday. A big battle was fought (by them) here many years ago. 24. The smoke was blown away by the wind soon. This cannot be finished by him today. 2. Smith. 2. / Had the money been stolen by. 12.. It was discovered in 1492. They will have captured the town by Wednesday. 2. 6. This should be sent by him right away. Those things cannot be put by them here.? 8. My book has been taken by somebody. Mr. 7. They´re corrected by our instructor... / Has the money been found? 13./ Is the lesson taught by. 9.. These exercises have to be written by us at home.. Smith last summer. Thompson. 2. The work will be done by him this afternoon. 5. Longmans will publish the book next spring. 19. It wasn´t discovered by Christopher Columbus. 10. / Will the book be published in. 12. 4. 3. 1. My grandfather built the house in 1910. 7 Our teacher corrects our exercises each night. It was broken by the maid.. It will be prepared by the chef. 8.? 6. 16. The mail may be brought by John tomorrow. 8. 2. 14. She was born in Scotland. The fax may be sent by them tomorrow. Our dog was run over by a car a short while ago. This gun was made (by them) by hand . The work is being finished by him now... That letter is being typed by her now. Mr. 6. They will deliver the merchandise tomorrow. 7.In what year was the house built? 10.Scott wrote this book. 7.. 4..The money hasn´t been found. 2. / Was the house struck by.. 4.. 10.? 4. The wounded soldiers were left behind (by them)./ Will the work be completed. A short course in english for adult students 235 .The house wasn´t struck by lightning. The question was being discussed by them when I went in. 1. This room can be used by you for the lesson. That class is taught by Mr. It was hidden in a wooden box. He was finally found in the park.America wasn´t discovered in 1492. Troops are being sent (by them) there today. 9. Who was the money stolen by? / By whom was the money stolen? Ex. This room is being used by us. 11. Ex. 10. 5. 4. 14. It was put in the safe. / Were the cries of the child heard clearly? 7. It will be forgotten(by people) in a few days. The boy will be brought by them tomorrow. He´s being examined by them now. The book wasn´t written by Mr. Ex.. It was published in 1999. 17. 2. When will the work be completed? 4. In what kind of accident was he injured? 9.. 12. No time must be lost by us. The work won´t be completed tomorrow. Columbus discovered America in 1492. 5. John will bring the books. 8. The child has been found by them at last 15.? 14. 16.? 15.? Ex. 23. 7. 13. How was the house destroyed? 3.The book won´t be published in June. It was delayed because of bad weather conditions.. Ex.The cries of the child weren´t heard clearly. / Was the dish broken by. It was stolen by one of the servants.

She is supposed to bring the. / Was he supposed to telephone. 1. / Was he supposed to bring it.. Ex. The chairs have to be put by them in the room. / Can it be done three or four times a month? / How many times a week / How often can it be done? 5..? / Where are we supposed to meet them? 9. The train is supposed to arrive at. The e-mail was sent by him last week. is supposed to have been sent 14. 3. This room can´t be used for our meetings. Se está analizando minuciosamente la información. Se pueden aplicar varias técnicas diferentes... 3. is supposed to be 6. 9... He wasn´t supposed to telephone... He isn´t supposed to be living. This mustn´t be checked twice. 10. The merchandise is being sent by them today. several important projects have been carried out..Many letters are sent abroad from this office every day. It doesn´t have to be done at once. / Does it have to be sent right away? / When does it have to be sent? 6... Se han cambiado las políticas económicas con el fin de controlar la inflación.. is supposed to be sent 13. It can´t be done three or four times a month. The letter wasn´t supposed to be sent yesterday / Was the letter supposed to be sent yesterday? / When was the letter supposed to be sent? 6. The King isn´t supposed to visit.. The money hasn´t been sent to NY.. La próxima vez. 12... Ex. 11. He wasn´t supposed to bring it. is supposed to be 7.. 10. 10. Several hospitals will be built in the country during the next five years. The story isn´t being published today / Is the story being published today? / When is the story being published? 3. Other planets have been discovered in our solar system. 1. It shouldn´t be sent immediately. / Are they supposed to finish tomorrow. is supposed to call 9..? / When are they supposed to finish? 5. All the invitations were sent by air mail. / Must it be checked twice? / How many times must it be checked? 4. 12. 6. 6. This book has been translated into several languages. They aren´t supposed to start soon / Are they supposed to start soon? / When are they supposed to start the work? 4... / Are we supposed to meet them. The class isn´t taught by Mr.. This can be done easily if the right / appropriate tools are used. The bus is supposed to stop. 2.. 2.? / Where is he supposed to be living? 7. The bank is supposed to open at.. 2. They aren´t supposed to finish tomorrow. / Can this room be used for our meetings? / What can this room be used for? 7. was supposed to send 5. he was supposed to arrive. It doesn´t have to be sent right away. He must be found by us immediately. He is supposed to leave for. 8.. Ex... 9. Se ha probado un nuevo tipo de misíl recientemente.? / When was he supposed to telephone you? 8. Smith / Is the class taught by Mr. Reese? / Who is the material being prepared by? 10. / Is he supposed to be living.? / When is the King supposed to visit the USA? 236 A short course in english for adult students .. 9.. Reese.. 2. The material isn´t being prepared by Mr. were supposed to deliver 4. 10. 1. Durante esta semana se verá el cometa fácilmente cerca de la Cruz del Sur. / Should it be sent immediately? / When should it be sent? 11. 10. se habían logrado satisfactoriamente la mayor parte de las metas. 6. / Does it have to be done at once? / When does it have to be done? 12. is supposed to know 12. 4. The mail has to be brought by John every day. 8. Smith? / Who is the class taught by? Ex. Ex. 8. se enviarán varios animales al espacio para estudiar los efectos de la ingravidez / falta de gravedad PART II. 2.11. Our lesson is supposed to finish at. / Was this book published in 1945? / When was this book published? 9. 5... The war was supposed to be over. Se considera que el Inglés ha llegado a ser un idioma universal. During that year.. The weather is supposed to be hot. 4. are supposed to be put Ex.? / When was he supposed to bring it? 3. is supposed to be 8. Se estaban procesando los datos en ese momento. 4. 7.. 8. This book wasn´t published in 1945. Our lesson is supposed to last. was supposed to be 11.. / Is the King supposed to visit. The books have to be delivered by them today. New methods are being developed to control inflation.. Public transport services should be improved in this city.. / Is the material being prepared by Mr. 7. 3.. Aquí se repara todo tipo de computadores. 2... 9... is supposed to meet 10. 5. We aren´t supposed to meet them. 5. The book isn´t supposed to be published in June / Is the book supposed to be published in June? / When is the book supposed to be published? 10. 3. 11. / Has the money been sent to NY? / Where has the money been sent to? 8. New roads have to / must be built in this part of the country. Hacia fines del la década de los 90. is supposed to come 3. The parade is supposed to begin. 7.. 2.. 9.7.

no te sacarás una buena nota) If Diana doesn´t leave at once. If he comes tomorrow. (Si él viene mañana. (Si te sientas aquí. she´ll miss her train. (Si no eres cuidadoso cuando estás conduciendo. FUTURO POSIBLE (Future Possible): If he comes tomorrow.) . lo más probable es que se dé el resultado previsto en la cláusula de Resultado. cuando la condición introducida por IF se materializa. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES Introducción 1. iremos a la playa) If I see John at the party. you will see him. we will go to the beach (Si el tiempo está bueno mañana. 4. (Si no estudias duro. Las oraciones condicionales son oraciones compuestas. (Si. (Si él hubiera venido acá ayer. (Si él viene mañana. you´ll have an accident. lo verás) (Condición) (Resultado) 3. El orden de las cláusulas que componen una oración condicional puede ser invertido If he comes tomorrow. PASADO IRREAL (Past Unreal): If he had come here yesterday. you will be able to see everything. you would have seen him. tendrás un accidente) A short course in english for adult students 237 .. podrás ver todo) If you don´t study hard. tú lo verías más seguido también) c. (Si él viniera acá más seguido.. you will see him. introducida por la palabra IF. I´ll give him your message..). you will not get a good mark. you would see him more often..UNIT 18 PART I.. you will see him. listen and repeat these examples: If the weather is good tomorrow. (Si él viene mañana.. tú lo verás. PRESENTE IRREAL (Present Unreal): If he came here more often. (Si Diana no sale de inmediato.. La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Present Resultado Subject + will + Infinitive Read. perderá su tren) If you aren´t careful when you´re driving. Una de ellas es la CONDICIÓN. Existen tres tipos de oraciones condicionales: a. la segunda es la cláusula de RESULTADO. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL PRIMER TIPO: FUTURO POSIBLE En este tipo de oraciones condicionales.. too.. You will see him if he comes tomorrow. Son oraciones condicionales aquellas oraciones que empiezan con la palabra IF. (Si veo a Juan en la fiesta.. le daré tu mensaje) If you sit here. b.) 2. ya que están formadas por dos cláusulas. tú lo habrías visto) I. If he comes tomorrow.

BEFORE (antes que). she would study more. Read. él viajaría en auto a California) (Real situation: He doesn´t have a car. él nos ayudaría) If I were a millionaire I would buy many things. verá al Príncipe) I will wait here until she telephones. lf he ________________________ (prepare) his lessons every night. this evening. we could study better. 3. 6. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL SEGUNDO TIPO: PRESENTE IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones condicionales nos planteamos una situación hipotética (es contraria a la realidad) If John had a car. John would do it if he ________________________ (be) not so busy. 7. he would drive to California (Si John tuviera un auto. If Mary comes tomorrow (No. 12. next Monday morning. he would be a better student. (lf Mary had more time. como tomorrow. debe usar el tiempo presente (y no el futuro) después de los conectores WHEN (cuando). she would go to the beach more often. etc. 11. el verbo debe ir en presente simple (y no en futuro). 10. AFTER (después que). he will tell us what happened. If John were here now he would help us.. 5. él nos contará qué pasó) As soon as she opens her eyes. Si Mary supiera nadar. lf Mary ________________________ (have) more time. etc. es decir todas las personas deben usar la forma WERE. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses in the following PRESENT-UNREAL conditional statements: 1. cuando se está usando una expresión de tiempo futuro. We would speak better if we ________________________ (have) more practice in conversation. he would help us. AS LONG AS (durante todo el tiempo que). Del mismo modo. 8. she will see the Prince. If he ________________________ (know) her better. (Cuando Kevin venga esta tarde. UNTIL (hasta que).) 2.1. so she doesn´t go to the beach very often) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Past Resultado Subject + would/could/might + Infinitive Es importante observar que cuando se usa el verbo TO BE en estas oraciones debemos usar el subjuntivo de dicho verbo. she would study more. compraría muchas cosas) EXERCISES Ex. lf Helen ________________________ (be) a good student. I would buy that suit. WHILE (mientras). UNLESS (a menos que). I will give her your message. listen and repeat these examples: When Kevin comes this afternoon. lf John ________________________ (be) here now. we would go for a walk. I would study French. lf I ________________________ (have) the money. 238 A short course in english for adult students . (Si John estuviera aquí. 9. I would go if I ________________________ (have) more time. “If Mary will come”). AS SOON AS (en cuanto). 4.Es importante notar aquí que en la condición. ella iría a la playa más seguido) (Real situation: She doesn´t know how to swim. If the weather ________________________ (be) warmer. he could go with her to the party. (En cuanto ella abra los ojos. (Esperaré aquí hasta que ella llame por teléfono) II. (Si yo fuera millonario. aún cuando nos estamos refiriendo a una acción futura. lf our room ________________________ (be) larger. she would speak English better. If I ________________________(be) in your position. so he can´t drive to California) If Mary knew how to swim.

___________________________________________________ She has very little money. I ________________________ (speak) to her. ___________________________________________________ I am not in Florida now. ___________________________________________________ 8. 4. he would go) 2..Ex. 3. he. 3.. He would speak better if. lf John prepared his lessons every night. 2.. 10. 9.. ___________________________________________________ 6. he________________________ (learn) more. (John does not study hard. I will go to the movie. If he is here.. I __________________________ (visit) the museum Ex. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 239 .. but if. Supply the proper form of the verb in parentheses: 1. If today were a holiday.. ___________________________________________________ Ex... ___________________________________________________ 5... I will read more books.. but if.. Complete the following: 1. 11. 7.. If l were in Florida now. 6. 6... I. 5. he will see her. Complete the following by using Present Unreal Conditions: 1. he.. 4. ___________________________________________________ Mary isn’t here now. he ________________________ (feel) better. If he came to class on time. If he comes.. but if. If I could speak French. but if. If I were you. he will go. lf I knew her.. If he came to class more often. 7.. lf he had more money. lf I am free tomorrow. She ________________________ (go) with us if she were not so busy. Change to Present Unreal Conditions: 1. he will make good progress. he ________________________ (help) us. 9. ___________________________________________________ I can’t speak French. She ________________________ (make) more progress if she studied more. ___________________________________________________ Ex.. If he went to bed earlier.. but if he studied hard he would learn more quickly... he will pass. If the weather is cold. 12.) Mary does not prepare her lessons. ___________________________________________________ 9... lf John were here. he ___________________________ (work) harder. he. but if.. If I have more time .) 2. If he came to class regularly. 4.. If he studies hard. ___________________________________________________ He doesn’t like to study English.. he ________________________ (take) trip to Japan. we will speak better. lf I don’t have to work. ___________________________________________________ 4.. ___________________________________________________ He has very little practice in speaking. 9.. 12. he ________________________ (be) a better student. 5. ___________________________________________________ He has very little free time. 11. 5.. would be very happy.. 8. ___________________________________________________ 11. ___________________________________________________ William never comes to class on time. 10. 11. ___________________________________________________ 3.. he can help us. ___________________________________________________ He has very few friends... 6. (If he were here. (If he had time. If he were stronger . I.. 8.. ___________________________________________________ 12. If today were a holiday. If he goes to the party.. lf they try hard. 10. 7. 4.. but if. ___________________________________________________ 7. __________________________________________________ 10. I.. John does not study hard but if. 3. lf he were here. but if. 3. but if. 8. 2 . ___________________________________________________ I don’t speak English well. If he has time.. I will go to the beach.. but if. but if. 2. She ________________________ (speak) English better if she had more practice. he. If he studied more. we ______________________________ (go) to the beach. If he had more time.. 5. but if. we. If he prepares his lessons. If we have more practice... he will meet her. they will succeed. If I were free tomorrow. I. he. If I knew her well. we will not go. he would help us.

had) the time. 4. (Real situation: He didn´t pass his examination because he didn´t study hard) If they had known your telephone number. 7.. Ex. would) be here soon. he would have passed his examination. ORACIONES CONDICIONALES DEL TERCER TIPO: PASADO IRREAL En este tipo de oraciones nosotros nos referimos a una situación hipotética (contraria a la realidad) en el pasado. Mary will talk with him. If today were Sunday. If you studied harder.. have) time tomorrow. would) walk to school.12. When John (comes. I would go swimming every day. te habrían llamado) (Real situation: They didn´t call you up because they didn´t have your telephone number) La estructura de este tipo de oraciones condicionales es la siguiente: Condicion If + Subject + Past perfect Resultado Subject + would have/could have/might have + Past participle 240 A short course in english for adult students . 12. John said he (will. (Si ellos hubieran conocido su número telefónico. If I (was. I (will. If you had much money. 14. If John had studied hard. 11. If you had an automobile. 2. I will go to the movie. will come) here tomorrow. Mary would go with us if. He said he (may. habría aprobado su examen). would you get better marks in all your subjects? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. 6. I am sure he would. 8. Would you speak English better if you had more practice in conversation? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 5. If you could visit any country in the world.) If the weather (is. 10.. he could telephone me. what other language would you begin to study? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ III. If I were you. I would. will be) nice tomorrow. If he (knows. Answer these questions: 1. Choose the correct form: 1. 9. 3. If he (can. they would have called you up. He would speak better if. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. If today were a holiday. If today were Sunday. (lf I were in your position. we. We would go for a walk in the park if.... how would you spend it? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. I would study French.. might) be late. 15. we may drive to the country. 13.. what country would you visit first? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. knew) how to swim. could) help us. where would you go and what would you do? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. (Si John hubiera estudiado más. Mary told me that she (can. If you knew English perfectly. could) not come.. knew) my number. where would you go? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. If I (had.. were) in your position. 7. He would go to the theater more often if he (have. where would you drive this weekend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. 6. Would John speak English better if he spent more time on his lessons? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. If I (know.

He would have come to the party if he had known (know) about it. Complete the following sentences by adding a PAST-UNREAL conditional statement: 1. If he had studied more. Ex. He didn’t tell me about it. We ________________________ (go) to the movie last night if we had been free. If I________________________(have) your address. 3. 3. but if_________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. If yesterday ________________________ (be) a holiday. John wasn’t at the meeting yesterday. 5. We ________________________ (come) earlier if we had known about it. If he had not worn his overcoat. I would have told him. I would have called on you. 5. If I________________________ (be) in your place.En situaciones formales o literarias. 7. 4. he he would have succeeded. 10. He ________________________ (be) angry if he had learned the truth. I ________________________ (help) him if he had asked me. 8. 3. but if he had prepared them he would have learned English better . He would have gotten sick if he ________________________ (go) out in the rain. 2. I didn’t have your telephone number. He couldn’t speak English at the time. 7. I would have visited you if I________________________ (know) you were living in New York. they would have gone to the park. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. 4. he ________________________(catch ) cold. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. I didn’t know his name. he would have come to see you . En estos casos el verbo modal HAD precede al sujeto. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Ex. 9. I didn’t have a car last winter. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 6. but if _____________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. We ________________________ (be) glad to meet you if you had invited us. but if ___________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. 1. If the weather ________________________(be) nice yesterday. (succeed) . but if. but if ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 2. 8. Had he known that you were ill. If you ________________________ (call) me. 9. 6. but if ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 241 . I would have been glad to go. but if ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. I wasn’t in his position. we would have gone to the beach. Mary didn’t come to school yesterday. 2. If he________________________ (tell) me the truth. (He would have come to the party if he about it). este tipo de oraciones condicionales se expresan sin IF. I would not have been so angry. I wasn’t in Florida last winter. She didn’t wear her raincoat. 2. John didn’t prepare his lessons. EXERCISES Ex. 10. If he ________________________ (wear) his overcoat. he would not have caught cold. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. I ________________________ (tell) you about it if I had known all the facts. She didn’t come on time. They ________________________ (drive) to the country if they had had a car. He________________________ (write) to you if he had had your address. ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.

I ____________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. They would have come if they _______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. I ______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. If he has the money. I __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. they will stay at home a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 10. (Open Exercise) Complete the following: 1. If he had come. he may help us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 7. 2. b.Ex. If he had telephoned me. Change to PRESENT-UNREAL and to PAST-UNREAL Conditions: 1. If he works harder. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. If he comes. he will let us know a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 9. 4. he will be promoted a b ______________________________________________________________________________ 11. If he has time. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. If I had known about it. If the weather is nice. If I see her. she would have spoken to him. He would have helped us if __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 242 A short course in english for adult students . 5. If I am free next week. If he came. he will go with us a. If I were you. she would speak to him. I will give her the message a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 8. If he were here. If I can do it. If John is present. _____________________________________________________________________________ b. a. he may go with us a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 12. the meeting will be good a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ Ex. I would go if I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. he would take part in the game 2. I _____________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. If he goes there. I will do it gladly a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 6. they will go to the beach a. I will call her up a ______________________________________________________________________________ b ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. If he is here. If you had asked me. she will speak to him. If it rains.

If he (was. 7. I (will. 13. would have come) if we had asked him. would you have gone to the movies with your friend? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. 8.If today (was.I feel as if I (ate. had eaten) a large dinner. had been) here. Ex. I ________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. could have gone) if they had asked me. we may not go away. If you had known it was going to rain.If I (would be. I would not accept the work. 9. we _____________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15. If the weather had been nice. I might have caught cold if I _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Ex.) 2. 15. would you have gone on that picnic yesterday? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. If the weather were nice. we _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 14. He would have succeeded if he ______________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12. 4. were) the manager of the place.Call me if he (comes. I would certainly do it. If I had been invited. Germany __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Answer these questions: 1. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. will rain) tomorrow. 14.I think he (would come. 7. (lf I were you. 11. If I (knew. had had) a great shock. If you had had last week off. If you had studied harder. we could have gone to the beach. were) sick. he would have taken part in the discussion. If I had more time. were) you. 10. had been) a holiday. They would have joined the class if they _______________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 16. will come) before noon. Choose the correct form: 1. He acted as if he (had. 12. 3. If England had been better prepared for war. were) a holiday. I _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 13. If you hadn´t had to study last night. Would John have gone to the stadium with you if he had not been sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 16. had known) this yesterday. 6. 6. were) in his position. we could go to the beach. If I (was. Would the party have been better if Mary had been present? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.He will not go unless she (goes. Would you have helped your friend with his homework if he had asked you? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 243 . would) like to study Spanish if I had the time. I would have acted differently.If yesterday (was. If it (rains. If yesterday had been a holiday. John looks as though he (was. would you have gotten a better mark on your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. where would you have gone? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. I would certainly do it. has been. He acted as if he (was.9. will go) too. I (could go. 5.

I wish I ______________________________ (have) yesterday off.. The weather isn’t nice today but I wish 7. I wish I knew how to swim. 1. I wish John ______________________________ (be) here now. John wishes he ______________________________ (be) in Florida now.. I wish it ______________________________ (stop) snowing soon. I wish today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. John won’t do it for us but I wish 9.. I wish I ______________________________ (go) with you to the movie last night. o “Me habría gustado. I didn’t study before my examinations but I wish 4. 5.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . I wish I weren´t so busy. I´d certainly invite her to the party. I wish he wouldn´t do that again Observe la siguiente tabla: Situaciones Presentes: Situaciones Pasadas: Situaciones Futuras: EXERCISES Ex.”. A. 7.PART II. I wish I ______________________________ (have) today off. I can´t go to the conference because I´m very busy. 10.. 4.I have to work this afternoon but I wish 11. 9.) I wish I ______________________________ (can) swim. Mary is not here now.I can’t speak English well but I wish 244 A short course in english for adult students ( I had one. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1.” I don´t know how to swim. es decir. I am not a millionaire but I wish 8. I wish I had seen her. 2. Cuando queremos expresar un deseo relacionado con una situación futura. I wish it ______________________________ (be) not so cold now. Complete the following sentences: 1. I wish I ______________________________ (know) her better.. 3. I wish I ______________________________ (study) English when I was a boy. I didn´t see Mary at the meeting yesterday. “Me gustaría. este siempre debe ir seguido por el modo subjuntivo. Today isn’t a holiday but I wish 5. 8. I cannot swim but I wish 3. I have no car but I wish 2. va seguido de un verbo en PASADO en situaciones presentes y un PASADO PARTICIPIO en situaciones pasadas. Yesterday wasn’t a holiday but I wish 6. 6. al igual que en las oraciones condicionales. debemos usar el verbo modal WOULD. 11.. 2. En estos casos estas expresiones se usan para expresar un deseo y equivalen a “Ojalá. John wishes she were here now. Mary isn’t here but I wish 10.”. USO DEL SUBJUNTIVO DESPUES DE WISH Debido a que el verbo WISH (desear) sugiere una situación que es hipotética o contraria a la realidad. I wish it would stop raining soon. 12. I wish I ______________________________ (know) about this yesterday. (I wish John were here now. S + Past I wish S + Past Perfect S + Conditional Ex. It´s been raining hard for about five hours.

. TO INSIST y TO PROPOSE. deben ir seguidos de THAT + PRESENTE DE SUBJUNTIVO cuando estamos refiriéndonos a una situación propuesta o hipotética. Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses: 1. It is imperative that they ______________________________ (be) there on time. 3. EXERCISES Ex.) I suggested that you see the manager today. I’m sorry that I don’t know her better... I´m sorry John is not here with us. She asked that we should be there before midday. “It´s advisable that... etc. (He recommended that she go with him.”. A short course in english for adult students 245 .) He suggested that John______________________________(wait) a few minutes. I’m sorry that she could not go with us to the beach. todas las personas usan la forma simple del infinitivo..”.Mary isn’t going with us but I wish ___________________________________________________ Ex. I’m sorry that Helen can’t go with us to the beach. They insisted that we ______________________________ (visit) them again. The doctor suggested that Mr. I’m sorry he did not go with us last night. It´s advisable that you be there before midday. I’m sorry that today is not a holiday. He recommended that she should wait for us outside the theater. He recommended that she wait (sin “s”) for us outside the theater. “It is necessary that. 1. He recommended that she ________________________ go) with him. “It´s essential hat. (Yo sugerí que usted viera al gerente hoy día) Cuando se desea usar el verbo TO BE no se debe usar las formas am/is/are.. 8. 6. 2. 8. I’m sorry you could not go to the opera last night. 3.. Is it necessary that this ______________________________ (be) finished today? He insisted that she ______________________________ (go) on with the work. (Él recomendó que ella nos esperara. 4. (I wish he spoke English well. TO DEMAND. 5. I’m sorry he does not speak English well. He asked that it______________________________ (be) done right away. I´m sorry it is raining so hard. (Ella pidió que nosotros estuviéramos alli antes del mediodia) They recommended that I be there a few minutes earlier. En el Presente del Subjuntivo. 4. TO SUGGEST. 3. VERBOS SEGUIDOS DEL PRESENTE DEL SUBJUNTIVO Los verbos TO RECOMMEND.. 2. They recommended that I should be there a few minutes earlier También se debe usar el presente del subjuntivo después frases como. TO REQUIRE... 7. 7. 5. sino que la forma simple BE She asked that we be there before midday.. Change the sentences to introduce I WISH instead of I´M SORRY: 1. He proposed that John ______________________________ (be) chairman. I’m sorry that you can’t swim. TO ASK. 10. 10. I suggested that you should see the manager today. 6. por lo tanto no se debe agregar -s o -es en la tercera persona del singular.12. (Ellos recomendaron que yo estuviera alli. 9.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ B.. I recommended that you ______________________________ (come) back later. 9.”. como los siguientes ejemplos: It is necessary that Mary see the manager today. “It´s imperative that. Smith ______________________________ (take) a long vacation.”.) En la conversación diaria coloquial se prefiere usar el verbo modal should + infinitive para expresar estas ideas.

to be rich or poor? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Which would you prefer to study in the future. 3. he would have spent it at the beach. Ex. He (is living.Ex. If you come too early. German or Chinese? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. 2. be) there early. he would spend it at the beach. I ______________________________ (telephone) you. comes) back later. I would go swimming. 11. He would help us if he ______________________________ (can). may be sleeping). The owner of the store asked me to call back later. He asked me to lend him the money. I wish I (were. I (saw. The teacher asked us to visit her in her home. please let me know. I wish I (went.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. Ex. comes) soon. If John were here. 4. 2. 3. 9. If yesterday ______________________________ (be) a holiday. I ______________________________ (begin) to study Spanish. 2. 10. 10. to travel in Europe or in South America? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I asked her to come back later. 6. 7. We asked them to go with us in our car. 5. He would have finished sooner if he ______________________________ (hurry). is sitting) at this desk. What would you do if you ______________________________ (be) I? Were I you. If today ______________________________ (be) a holiday. Which would you prefer to be. If I (were. had gone) with you to the party last night. I (may sleep. Which would you prefer. 11. 6. 5. to be sent) tomorrow. Change the sentences to introduce SUGGESTED / INSISTED / RECOMMENDED instead of ASKED: 1. 10. 4. 12. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. would) be here tomorrow. If he had been well. have seen) John yesterday. He asked me to be there on time. 14. I suggested that John wait for me. He suggested that John (come. 2. If he (will come. Had I had more time. We asked her to be at our home at eight o’clock. 4. John always (sits. 8. Which would you prefer. I ______________________________ (do) it. in good health or in bad health? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. has been living) here many years. 8. The teacher asked Bill to be more careful. 5 Answer these questions: 1. He said he already (saw. Supply the correct form in the following: 1. he ______________________________ (come) to the meeting. would be) in Florida now. 8. Which would you prefer. 3. John sat between Mary and (I. 7. 12. Had I known your number. If he felt better. The merchandise is supposed (to send. 13. 6. Choose the correct form: 1. 3. he ______________________________ (go) to the party. me). 4. He recommended that I (am. 9. John said he (will. 7. would be) in Florida now. I asked John to wait for me. had seen) that movie. If he had felt better. John asked me to take a walk with him. 5. 9. it (would be) (be) much easier for us. to own a house or an apartment? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 246 A short course in english for adult students .

Would I be right or wrong if I said that fish could fly? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you were not going to graduate? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that your friend was sick? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Would I be right or wrong if I said that birds could swim? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 12.6. Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had failed your examination? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Would I be right or wrong if I said that you spoke English very well? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 247 . Would you be pleased or sorry to hear that you had won a large prize? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.

asedio toque de queda derrota acción defensiva zona desmilitarizada despliegue destrucción destacamento disuasión fuego directo ruptura del combate buzo doctor ejercicio fuego enemigo lucha. cuadra batalla campo de batalla bombardeo campaña matanza. bajas maniobras Mercenary /mersenæri/ ´ Militant /mílitant/ Mountaineer /maunteníar/ Nurse /né:rs/ Offensive action /ofénsiv æktchn/ ´ Orderly /ó:rderli/ Parade /paréid/ Paratrooper /paratrú:per/ Peace /pí:s/ Peace treaty /pí:s trí:ti/ Peacekeeping forces Policeman /polísman/ Preemptive action /pi:skí:piη fó:rsiz/ mercenario militante andinista enfermero acción ofensiva ordenanza parada paracaidista paz tratado de paz fuerzas de mantenimiento de paz policía acción preemptiva acción preventiva prisionero incursión comando retaguardia posición de retagurdia reconocimiento refuerzo ayuda.BASIC VOCABULARY: Study these words THE ARMED FORCES /δi á:rmd fó:rsiz/ Las Fuerzas Armadas (II) Allied forces /aláid fó:rsiz/ Armistice /á:rmistis/ Assault /asó:lt/ Attacking unit /atækiη iunit/ ´ Barrack /bærak/ ´ Battle /bætl/ ´ Battlefield /bætlfí:ld/ ´ Bombardment /bombá:rdment/ Campaign /kampéin/ Carnage /ká:rnidll/ Casualty /kællualti/ ´ Ceasefire /si:sfáiar/ Chaplain /tchæplin/ ´ Civilian /sivílian/ Clash /klæsh/ ´ Combatant /kómbatant/ Combat /kómbat/ Commando /komændou/ ´ Conflict /kónflikt/ Coup d´etat /ku:detá:/ Siege /sí:dll/ Curfew /ké:rfiu/ Defeat /difí:t/ Defensive action /defénsiv æktchn/ ´ Demilitarized zone /dimilítaráizd zóun/ Deployment /diplóiment/ Destruction /distrákshn/ Detachment /ditætchment/ ´ Deterrent /dité:rrent/ Direct fire /dairékt fáiar/ Disengament /disengéidllment/ Diver /dáiver/ Doctor /dóktor/ Drill /dril/ Enemy fire /énemi fáiar/ Fight /fáit/ Flank /flæηk/ ´ Foe /fou/ Friendly fire /fréndli fáiar/ Front /frant/ Front line /frant lain/ Garrison /gærison/ ´ Guerrilla /geríla/ Headquarters /hedkuórterz/ Hostage /hóstidll/ Indirect fire /indairékt fáiar/ Killing /kíliη/ Logistic support /lodllístik sapó:rt/ Losses /lósiz/ Maneuvers /manú:verz/ fuerzas aliadas armisticio asalto unidad de ataque barraca. auxilio equipo de rescate reservista toque de diana recogida.carnicería baja de guerra cese al fuego capellán civil enfrentamiento combatiente combate comando conflicto golpe de estado sitio. retreta revista revuelta revuelta saludo tirador escogido escaramuza matanza espía estrategia lucha rendición vigilancia táctica tregua no tripulado veterano de guerra victoria guerra (evento) guerra (actividad) guerrero repliegue /priémptiv æktchn/ ´ Preventive action /privéntiv æktchn/ ´ Prisoner /prízoner/ Raid /reid/ Ranger /réindller/ Rear /ríar/ Rear position /ríar posíshon/ Reconnaissance /rikónisans/ Reinforcement /riinfó:rsment/ Relief /rilí:f/ Rescue team /réskiu ti:m/ Reservist /rése:rvist/ Reveille /revæli //réveli/ ´ Retreat /ritrí:t/ Review /riviú:/ Revolt /rivólt/ Riot /ráiot/ Salute /saliút/ Sharp shooter /sharp shú:ter/ Skirmish /sk :rmish/ Slaughter /sló:ter/ Spy /spái/ Strategy /strætedlli/ ´ Struggle /strægl/ ´ Surrender /sarénder/ Surveillance /se:rvéilans/ Tactics /tæktiks/ ´ Truce /tru:s/ Unmanned /anmænd/ ´ Veteran /véteran/ Victory /víktri/ War /wo:r/ Warfare /worféar/ Warrior /wórior/ Withdrawal /wiθdróal/ 248 A short course in english for adult students . combate flanco enemigo fuego amigo frente línea de frente guarnición guerrillero cuartel general rehén fuego indirecto matanza apoyo logístico pérdidas.

ayudar rendirse librar una guerra ganar replegarse inspeccionar A short course in english for adult students 249 . conducir perder movilizar ocupar vencer invadir patrullar incursionar reclutar retirarse revistar saludar tomar. asir bombardear hacer puntería espiar luchar suministrar apoyar. pelear disparar rendirse invadir To kill /kil/ To lead /li:d/ To lose /lu:z/ To mobilize /móbiláiz/ To occupy /ókiupái/ To overcome /óuverkám/ To overrun /óuverán/ To patrol /patróul/ To raid /réid/ To recruit /rekrú:t/ To retreat /ritrí:t/ To review /riviú:/ To salute /saliú:t/ To seize /sí:z/ To shell /shel/ To sight /sáit/ To spy /spái/ To struggle /strágl/ To supply /saplái/ To support /sapó:rt/ To surrender /sarrénder/ To wage /wéidll/ To win /win/ To withdraw /wiθdró:/ To inspect /inspékt/ matar guiar.Verbs: To accomplish /akómplish/ To aim /éim/ To ambush /æmbush/ ´ To arm /a:rm/ To attack /atæk/ ´ To besiege /bi:sí:dll/ To blow up /blou áp/ To bomb /bom/ To bombard /bombá:rd/ To break out /breik áut/ To capture /kæptcher/ ´ To carry out /kæri áut/ ´ To command /komænd/ ´ To conquer /kónker/ To defeat /difí:t/ To defend /difénd/ To deploy /diplói/ To destroy /distrói/ To disarm /disá:rm/ To drill /dril/ To endure /endiú:ar/ To engage /engéidll/ To fight /fait/ To fire /fáiar/ To give up /giv áp/ To invade /invéid/ llevar a cabo apuntar emboscar armar atacar sitiar estallar bombardear bombardear comenzar. estallar capturar realizar comandar conquistar derrotar defender desplegar destruir desarmar ejercitar resistir trabar combate luchar.

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4. If I were free tomorrow. I´d have given her the message.... she would have taken part in the competition. I would be a CEO (Chief Executive Officer). 2. 6... they would go to the beach. C) Ex. he studied harder 3. 10.. Ex. were 7. I had known it. had been 8. I would have driven to Denver at Christmastime . I ´d have asked for an interview with the boss. could 6.I were there now I would visiting Orlando. If he prepared his lessons.. 3. would 4.I had been there. If I had more time. / If I´d been able to do it.. I ´d have done it gladly. 7... he would see her. I´d go to the beach. 1. I´d have called you up. / If I´d seen her. he would pass 5.. he would play tennis more often. we would not go. 8. 4. (Possible answers) 2. he might have helped us. 5... 9..If the weather were nice. had had 3. he would meet her... If I didn´t have to work. Yes. 8. would go to the beach. 10. would visit Ex.. 6. 2.. 12.. you would have seen him. 11.. I´d read more books. 3. 11. / If he´d been here. would feel 8. If he came.. had been 4. I would call you up. 9. would have come 6. 11. had 11. 7. would have helped 4. If A short course in english for adult students 251 . I´d buy. he had told me. would have gone 10. 3. 2. I´d would visit. have 9.. Ex. Ex. 2. 5.. 5. If 1 could do it. I´d beging to study. If he were here.. 9. If he went... knew Ex.he´d be a better student. 1 would do it gladly.. of course...I had had it. 2 .. they would have gone to the beach. would learn faster 4. would have been 5. I´d getter better marks. 4. would speak 6. he came to class on time he´d be a better student... he might he1p us. comes 10. 2. (Suggested answers) 1.. she prepared her lessons she´d learn more. 6. 11. If he were here.. she had come. had told 10. 6. 8. 8. 5. we would speak better.....he´d learn more. 7. could 7.I had had one. might 12. would go 10. If the weather were cold.would buy a modern car. 3. 3... had called 5. 6.she had wore it... I´d have gone on a cruise in the Caribbean. 5.. would make 5.would visit Epcot Center 7.. / I´d go to. If he had time.she had the day off / free. he would have gone with us.. And I´d.. had been Ex.I could speak it. would go 12.. 4. 13. 14. I´d drive to. he could help us. is 3.he had been there. would have written 8... 4.. she´d be able to travel abroad more often.... 5. If 1 were free now.. would 5. 8. would learn 4... were 12. 12. would work 11. knew 8.he had spoken it. knew 4. 10. had Ex. would be 7... If we had much practice... 8. I´d go to.. had known 7. he´d enjoy living here. 6. would have told 9. she wouldn´t have miss the first act of the opera. I´d be planning a trip to France.. 9..he had more free time.would plan a trip to France..I spoke it well. I´d speak a lot better ...could go on a picnic. I´d go to.Key to answers UNIT 18 PART I B) Ex.. had gone 9.. 4. had 5.. would take 9. If I saw her. I would have called you up.I had been in his position. he had more practice in speaking he would speak a lot better.would do more things every day.. were 3... prepared 10. I´d have acted differently.. Yes. 10.. were 6.. would speak 3. 2. 2... 2. 3.he had more practice in conversation. 7. 9. I would have included it in the list of guests 7.. 15. had worn 6..it were not so cold. I´d give her the message. were 8. 2. Oh yes. (Possible answers) 2. they would succeed. I´d go to the movie. 1. would have caught 3.. he´d speak it better. / If 1 had been free yesterday. were 9. 7.. would have driven Ex... 6.he liked to do it. / If the weather had been nice. he´d make good progress.would invite her out to dinner.. first. 3. Ex. she wouldn´t have caught cold.. 12.she were here I would be talking with her now... he would go with us.. if he studied hard. he ´d have gotten a better job..he had more friends.. had 11. He´d certainly speak better... 2.. If they tried hard. 12.she had more money.. she had come on time. (Possible answers).. / If he had had time... would have been 7. 4..

. I´d have gone to. had 11.. had gone 3. 7. wait 3. 13. I´d prefer to own a horse. 2 . 8. he would be promoted. 11. the meeting would have been good. Yes. 7. He loves sports / No. I´d be sorry to hear that. 5. (Suggested answers) 1. 8. he would have been promoted. me 9. would have come 8. 5.. I wish I knew her better 7. he might have gone with us. be 9.. come 5.. I wish Helen could go with us to the beach. I wish today were a holiday. I would have gone all the same.. He suggested that I be / should be there on time.. would have done 7. I´d be very sorry to hear that. 10. 9... she were. / .. I wish John were here with us. could 3. knew Ex. would have telephoned 3.. had known 5. I wish you could swim / I wish I were able to swim B) Ex. of course. My English is not very good. of course. 5...had been invited 4.. he wouldn´t have gone. were 11. saw 13. she were here. I wish it weren´t raining so hard. come 6. they would have stayed at home. 4. If he worked harder.. perhaps it would have been better if she had been present / No. had already seen 14. I love the rain. I wish he had gone with us last night. If he´d worked harder. 16. had been 8. 10. Of course he would have gone. they would stay at home. PART II A) Ex. would have phoned you 3. 2. I wish you had been able to go to the opera last night. 5. 5. 9.. 7. 2.. We recommended that she be / should be at our home at eight o´clock. I´d be pleased to hear that. 5.we had asked him to help us. I´d prefer to be rich. it would have been the same 8.. 1. 4. could Ex. were 7. 3.. were 3. I´d be very sorry to hear that. I would have certainly helped him.. 10.would have attended the conference. were 5. If he´d gone there. 2. 6. he would do it 9. has been living 12. 7. The owner of the store suggested that I call / should call back later. 8. had had 12. You´d be right or wrong. he might go with us / If he´d had the money. / .. 2. would have helped you 6. may be sleeping 11. take Ex. were 14.. would 10. of course. 6. it were a holiday. (Suggested answers) 2. 3. comes 8. had had 4.. visit 7. If he had the money.. 3. had known it started today. I could swim 3.. of course. of course.. I had studied 4. I hate the rain / Yes. comes 13. 4. You´d be very wrong if you said that. The teacher recommended that we visit / should visit her in her home. 9... would begin 5.had gone out in the cold yesterday evening.. Ex. of course. he had worked harder during the term. 9. 12. rains 6. would have come Ex.. go 10. be 4. I insisted that she come / should come back later 3. would go 9. were 11. be 5. of course. of course. 2. I like riding horses. 9. were 6. he would have let us know. 1. You´d be wrong if you said that.. Ex. 6. I´d prefer to be in good health. I wouldn´t have helped him. I´d prefer to travel to Europe. 10. If it had rained. 11. John recommended that I take / should take a walk with him.. would have I´d have told him you were here. He suggested that I lend / should lend him the money. it had been a holiday 6.. had been 12. I would have gone. 4. Ex. 1. 2. 2. would 7. If John were present. The teacher insisted that Bill be / should be more careful. . 8. had gone 6. I wish she had been able to go with us to the beach. could have gone 7. I were 8. had hurried 6. had studied 4. sits Ex. 3. would have gone out for a walk 15. had been 12.. 7. would watch TV every day 11. I didn´t have to work. the meeting would be good.. 2. No. / No. would go out for a walk 14.wouldn´t have attacked the territory by air. would have gone 10. 10.. had known 9. I would have gotten a better mark. of course / No. I wouln´t have gone. 11. to be sent 10. be 8. be 4. 2. I wouldn´t have gone to the movies. 6.. I could speak it . 10. 1. 12. 12. it were nice 7.. Yes.. I would have gone to. / . were 10.. 252 A short course in english for adult students . 2. 12. I was too busy at that moment. It depends. 5. He hates sports.he went there. were 9. he will let us know. 5. goes 15. had the day off . / If John had been present..were 4. were 2. (Possible answers) 1. I´d have gone to a concert instead. 4. I´d prefer to speak English perfectly.. had eaten 16. Yes.. 6. We insisted that they go / should go with us in our car. Ex. I think. Yes. would buy a Japanese car. would 8. If it rained. 3.

dependiendo si entre lo que se dijo y lo que estamos contando ha habido cambios de orden cronólogico (tiempo) o geográfico (lugar) Cambios Verbales (obligatorios): Present cont. “I´m very busy. “I´m busy today. o podemos realizar algunos cambios verbales. lo que se conoce como Discurso Indirecto en castellano (o Indirect Speech en inglés). “I can use a computer. He said. John said. He said. “I have to do that again. “I will work hard all day. preguntas u órdenes del discurso directo al indirecto. He said. nos preguntó o nos ordenó. He said.” He said that he was busy at that moment He said. Simple present Present perfect Simple past Future Can Must May Have to / Has to Past continuous Simple past Past perfect Past perfect Conditional Could Had to Might Had to He said. “I always work hard. (Indirect Speech) I. En esos casos debemos hacer algunos cambios que son obligatorios (verbos y pronombres) y otros son optativoss. “I´m busy now. He said.” He said that he had to do the job well. Es necesario revisar la regla de la concordancia de los tiempos verbales estudiadas en la Unidad 16.” He said that he could use a computer. Yesterday A short course in english for adult students 253 .” He said that it might rain again. “I´m working very hard. Cambios de orden cronológico o geográfico (Optativos) Now Today This These Then That day / Yesterday That Those The day before / The previous day He said.UNIT 19 THE REPORTED SPEECH (DISCURSO DIRECTO E INDIRECTO) Cuando deseamos contar a otra persona lo que alguien nos dijo. “I must do the job well.” He said that he would work hard all day. “I like New York. He said. He said. (Indirect Speech) John told us that he liked New York. “I´m busy at this moment.” (Direct Speech) John said that he was very busy. “ (Direct Speech) John said (to us). lo que en castellano se conoce como Discurso Directo (o “Direct Speech” en inglés). He said. He said. He said.” ➙ He said that he was working very hard. “I like these books” He said that liked those books. He said.” He said that he had worked very hard.” He said that he had worked very hard. “I was busy yesterday. pidió o advirtió hacer.” He said that he had been busy the day before. pronominales o adverbiales para respetar la concordacia de los tiempos verbales y la correspondencia de los pronombres y las expresiones de tiempo o lugar. “It may rain again.” He said that he had to do that again.” He said that he was busy that day / yesterday. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORACIONES AFIRMATIVAS O NEGATIVAS Existen ciertas reglas que debemos conocer cuando estamos cambiando oraciones. “I worked very hard. podemos utilizar las palabras textuales usadas por esa persona.” He said that he always worked hard. “I have worked very hard.” He said that he was busy then.

“I cannot go with you tonight. 254 John said.” Mary said to me. “I´m very busy tonight. 1. se debe usar TOLD en vez de SAID. un requerimiento.” Bob told us that he liked New York. He said. Smith said. ‘’I will be back later.” He said that she was very busy that night. “I hope she comes soon. etc.” The doctor said. “We will finish this tomorrow. “I´ll be busy tomorrow. “We may have an exam. ETC. REQUERIMIENTOS. He said. según vimos en la Unidad 8. Change from direct to indirect form: 1. “Do you like New York?” Bob asked me whether / if I liked New York. Bob asked me. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON ORDENES. II.” He said. “John is a very sick man. “Why is Bob absent today?” The teacher asked the students why Bob was absent today. “I was very busy last night” He said that he´d been very busy the previous night. en el discurso indirecto. III. me you him / her us them the boy the boys To/not To + Infinitive. no se debe mantener la estructura negativa (VM+S+VP) en la cláusula subordinada sino que se debe usar la estructura afirmativa (S+(VM)+VP John asked me.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ . ADVERTENCIAS. 3. 10. “I have no money. 2. 9. “l have known him a long time. 8. advertencia.” Mr. Note que cuando se nombran a las dos personas que intervinieron en la conversación.” Mary said to me.” He said.Tomorrow Here Tonight Last night The following day There Last night The night before / The previous night He said. Cuando se desea expresar una orden. DISCURSO INDIRECTO CON PREGUNTAS Cuando se desea expresar un pregunta en el discurso indirecto. “I´m very happy here. “Where does Mary live?” John asked me where Mary lived. Bob asked his friends. “I have to work tonight. to sit down to work harder to be more careful not to be late not to talk in class EXERCISES Ex.” A short course in english for adult students (John said that he had to work tonight. “Will you come to my party?” Bob asked his friends whether / if they would come to his party. Smith said. 7. The teacher asked the students. Bob said. “I like New York. se debe usar la siguiente estructura: Subject He Miss White The teacher The instructors They Verb asked told warned requested ordered Object Pro (Noun).” He said that he was very happy there. 5. “I don’t know her well.” He said that he would be busy the following day. 6. He said.” Mr.” He said. 4.” He said.

? Is he a good student? (I´m not sure. I asked him. “Don’t make the same mistake again. He warned the child. Take your feet off the desk. John said.” ___________________________________________________ 5. 2. He asked me. “What time is it?” ___________________________________________________ 5. 7. He asked me. “Do you have to work tonight?” ___________________________________________________ 6. Helen said to me. . Begin each one with THE TEACHER TOLD ME: 1.” (John told me to wait five minutes for him. 4.. I asked her.) 2. He said to me. Don’t look at your neighbor’s paper. Change from direct to indirect form: ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 1.” ___________________________________________________ 6. “When are you leaving for Europe?’’ ___________________________________________________ 10.” ___________________________________________________ 7. Change the following imperative sentences to indirect form. “I am going away tomorrow. He said to me. ‘’Please send me the money at once. He said to me.” ___________________________________________________ S. “Don’t write in pencil. “Where is it?” ___________________________________________________ Exercise 3. I asked her. Smith. “Where does John live?” (Mary asked where John lived.He asked me. Wait outside in the hall. The teacher asked. “Are you going to the movies with us?” __________________________________________________ 8.. “Don’t forget what I told you..” ___________________________________________________ 9. 4.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. ) Is he in the building? (She wants to know. Sit down and read the story. “What does the word mean?” ___________________________________________________ 11. He said to me. I asked John. The teacher said to us. 5.) 2. 3. “How are you today?” ___________________________________________________ 13. “Try to come on time. 3. I asked him. Sit up straíght. (The teacher told me to sit in the first row..11.. 5. “Be more careful.) Where does she live? (Can you tell me. He begged me. Change to indirect form: 1. Do your exercíses in ink.” ___________________________________________________ 4. “How long have you lived here?’’ ___________________________________________________ 3. He asked me. 6. “Do you understand this exercise?” _________________________________________________ 4.) Where is she going? (She didn’t say. Answer the following questions in indirect form. “ls it raining?” ___________________________________________________ 7. -) How much does it cost? (He wants to know . Prepare your lessons more carefully. “Did you see that documentary?” ___________________________________________________ 9. 4.. He asked me.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ A short course in english for adult students 255 .” 12. Come back later. ‘’Please don’t be late. 10. 2. 5.. He said to me. 6. Begin each answer with the words given in parentheses after the question: 1. Don’t waste so much time.Mr Smith asked us. John said to me.” ___________________________________________________ 3. Give this message to Mrs.. 8. “When did you read that book?” ___________________________________________________ 12. Go to the whiteboard. “Do you like my new hat?” ___________________________________________________ 15. 9.” Ex. She said to him. Where´s John? (I don’t know. He asked me. 12. 11. “Sit down for a few minutes. She said. ) (I don’t know where John is.” __________________________________________________ 10. Sit in the first row. “He is supposed to be here now.” ___________________________________________________ Ex. “ls John here?” ___________________________________________________ 14. Mary asked. “Wait five minutes for me. “Don’t cross the road.. 2. .

.7. 3.) How is he getting along? (Mrs. 8. 6. . He asked her whether she liked New York. 8. He didn’t say where he (is. (He asked me where I lived. I’d like to know where (is it..) ___________________________________________________ Where does he live? (Ask him. Where did William ask you to meet him tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. I asked her whether she (is. 6. 12. was). 10. 13. 5. He said he would be back soon. 7. 15.. . Why did John tell you to wait for him after the lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. 7. was) going. He asked me where I lived. I´m not sure whether (he is. He asked me what time it (is. I asked him what the word (means. He said that he could not meet us. meant). 2. I don’t know whether (I can. He (told me. 12.. was) married. 4.. 8. said to me) that he was busy.) _________________________________________________ Is the elevator out of order? (Can you tell me.. He asked whether I had mailed the letter. 8. He asked me where I (live. How is he getting along? (She wants to know . can I) do it. 4. Change from indirect to direct form: 1. 6.. He asked how much it cost. 11. 3. “I am busy.”) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. could) meet us easily. He told her to leave the room. 2. 12.) ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ Ex. She said her maiden name had been Jones.. it is). Why did you ask Mary what time it was? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Answer these questions: 1. 14. 9.. He told me not to wait for him. What exercise did the teacher tell you to prepare for tomorrow’s lesson? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3...) ___________________________________________________ Where is he now? (Can you tell me. is it)? He said he (will.) ___________________________________________________ Ex.. Why did the mother warn the child not to cross the street? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Jones wanted to know. 11. He said he was busy. Did John say that he had or had not seen that movie? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. 10.. He said he (can. She said she was going out of town. ) ___________________________________________________ Is he very tall? (I really don’t know. 5.. Did Grace tell you whether or not she had enjoyed the party? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 256 A short course in english for adult students . is he) here now. 10. Can you tell me what time (it is. 9. Why doesn’t Henry know whether or not he can go to the party tonight? _________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. 11.) ___________________________________________________ How tall is he? (I don’t know. 7. ) ___________________________________________________ Is Mr. lived). Choose the correct form: 1. Smith here? (I’d like to know. (He said. She said her last name was Smith. 9.. would) come here soon.) ___________________________________________________ When will he get back? (I´d like to find out.

localizar mirar A short course in english for adult students 257 . Los que no lo hacen así se llaman Verbos Irregulares. decide /disáid/ decided /disáidid/. deben duplicar la última consonante antes de agregar -ed. watched /wotcht/ worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Gerund watching /wótchiη/ working /wé:rkiη/ loving /láviη/ playing /pléiη/ studying /stádiiη/ fitting /fitiη/ stopping /stopiη/ guiding /gáidiη/ repeating /ripí:tiη/ Spanish observar trabajar amar jugar estudiar calzar detener guiar repetir NOTAS: 1. Según la manera en que forman el pasado y el pasado participio los verbos principales se clasifican en dos grupos: Verbos Regulares y Verbos Irregulares. Aquellos verbos regulares terminados en -t. lea y aprenda: We work hard every day. /δéi spóuk íηglish in klá:s/ They have always spoken Spanish. /wí: hav wé:rkt há. o cons+cons+vocal+cons. el pasado. el pasado participio.BASIC VOCABULARY Verbos principales: Verbos Regulares e Irregulares Todos los verbos principales tienen cuatro formas: el infinitivo. 3. -de deben agregar -d/ed y ese sufijo se pronuncia /id/. -te. el gerundio.rd δis íar/ We are working hard now. y es una sílaba más: fit /fit/ fitted /fitid/. /wí:r wé:rkiη ha:rd náu/ They speak Spanish at home /δéi spí:k spænish at hóum/ They spoke English in class. Escuche. /wí: wé:rk há:rd évri dei/ We worked hard yesterday. (Ellos están hablando inglés ahora) A. gustar terminar odiar. 2. mientras que los que terminan en -y precedida de consonante deben transformar la -y en -ied. Son verbos regulares aquellos que agregan D / ED para formar el pasado y el pasado participio. Los verbos terminados en -y precedida de una vocal deben agregar -ed. Verbos regulares de uso frecuente Infinitive To watch /wotch/ To work /we:rk/ To love /lav/ To play /plei/ (1) To study /stádi/ (1) To fit /fit/ (2) To stop /stop/ (2) To guide /gáid/ (3) To repeat /ripí:t/ (3) Past watched /wotcht worked /we:rkt/ loved /lavd/ played /pléid/ studied /stádid/ fitted /fítid/ stopped /stopt/ guided /gáidid/ repeated /ripí:tid/ Past Part. -d. La mayoría de los verbos que tienen la conbinación consonante+vocal+consonante. request /rikwést/ requested /rikwéstid/. responder llegar preguntar. desear invitar escuchar ubicar. /δéir spí:kiη íηglish náu/ (Nosotros trabajamos duro todos los días) (Nosotros trabajamos arduamente ayer) (Nosotros hemos trabajado duro este año) (Nosotros estamos trabajando duro ahora) (Ellos hablan español en casa) (Ellos hablaron inglés en la clase) (Ellos siempre han hablado español). /δéi hav ó:lweiz spóukn spænish/ They are speaking English now. /wí: wé:rkt há:rd iésterdi/ We have worked hard this year. Infinitive To answer /á:nser/ To arrive /arráiv/ To ask /a:sk/ To carry /kærri/ To clean /kli:n/ To close /klóuz/ To dry /drái/ To enjoy /endllói/ To finish /fínish/ To hate /heit/ To help /hélp/ To hope /hóup/ To invite /inváit/ To listen /lísn/ To locate /loukéit/ To look /luk/ Past Tense /past Participle answered /á:nserd/ arrived /arráivd/ asked /a:skt/ carried /kærrid/ cleaned /kli:nd/ closed /klóuzd/ dried /dráid/ enjoyed /endllóid/ finished /fínisht/ hated /héitid/ helped /helpt/ hoped /hóupt/ invited /inváitid/ listened /lísnd/ located /loukéitid/ looked /lukt/ Spanish contestar. no gustar ayudar esperar. pedir transportar. llevar limpiar cerrar secar disfrutar.

conducir comer caer sentir(se) hallar. pedir fumar comenzar. comenzar traer construir comprar venir cortar hacer beber manejar. obtener dar ir ir (y volver) tener. arreglar repetir solicitar. gustar necesitar ofrecer preferir llover recibir recordar reparar. utilizar visitar esperar. permanecer estudiar sugerir conversar tratar. conocer aprender. funcionar B. salir. encontrar olvidar conseguir.enterarse partir. fabricar reunirse. dejar prestar perder. atender caminar querer lavar observar. esforzarse usar. partir quedarse.To love /láv/ To need /ni:d/ To offer /ófer/ To prefer /priféar/ To rain /rein/ To receive /risí:v/ To remember /rimémber/ To repair /ripéar/ To repeat /ripí:t/ To request /rikwést/ To smoke /smóuk/ To start /sta:rt/ To stay /stéi/ To study /stádi/ To suggest /sadllést/ To talk /to:k/ To try /trái/ To use /iú:z/ To visit /vízit/ To wait /weit/ To walk /wo:k/ To want /wont/ To wash /wosh/ To watch /wotch/ To wish /wish/ To work /we:rk/ loved /lávd/ needed /ní:did/ offered /óferd/ preferred /priféard/ rained /réind/ received /risí:vd/ remembered /rimémberd/ repaired /ripéard/ repeated /ripí:tid/ requested /rikwéstid/ smoked /smóukt/ started /stá:rtid/ stayed /stéid/ studied /stádid/ suggested /sadlléstid/ talked /tó:kt/ tried /tráid/ used /iú:zd/ visited /vízitid/ waited /wéitid/ walked /wó:kt/ wanted /wóntid/ washed /wósht/ watched /wótcht/ wished /wísht/ worked /wé:rkt/ amar. mantener saber. Verbos irregulares de uso frecuente Infinitive To begin /bigín/ To bring /briη/ To build /bild/ To buy /bái/ To come /kam/ To cut /kat/ To do /du:/ To drink /driηk/ To drive /dráiv/ To eat /i:t/ To fall /fo:l/ To feel /fi:l/ To find /fáind/ To forget /forgét/ To get /get/ To give /giv/ To go /góu/ To have /hæv/ To hear /híar/ To keep /ki:p/ To know /nóu/ To learn /le:rn/ To leave /li:v/ To lend /lend/ To lose /lú:z/ To make /meik/ To meet /mi:t/ 258 Past Tense began /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ came /kéim/ cut /kat/ did /did/ drank /dræηk/ drove /dróuv/ ate /eit/ fell /fel/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgot /forgót/ got /got/ gave /géiv/ went /went/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ knew /niú:/ learnt * /le:rnt/ left /léft/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ Past Participle begun /bigán/ brought /bro:t/ built /bilt/ bought /bo:t/ come /kam/ cut /kat/ done /dan/ drunk /draηk/ driven /drívn/ eaten /í:tn/ fallen /fó:ln/ felt /felt/ found /fáund/ forgotten /forgótn/ got/gotten /got/gótn/ given /gívn/ gone /gon/ been to /bi:n tu/ had /hæd/ heard /hé:rd/ kept /kept/ known /nóun/ learnt /le:rnt/ left /left/ lent /lent/ lost /lost/ made /méid/ met /met/ Spanish empezar. extraviar hacer.conocer A short course in english for adult students . haber oir guardar. servirse. mirar desear trabajar.

llevar enseñar decir. narrar pensar. creer entender. administrar decir ver vender enviar cerrar cantar sentarse dormir hablar gastar. colocar leer correr. comprender vestir.pasar tiempo pararse nadar tomar. desgastar escribir A short course in english for adult students 259 .To pay /péi/ paid /péid/ To put /put/ put /put/ To read /ri:d/ read /red/ To run /ran/ ran /ræn/ To say /séi/ said /sed/ To see /si:/ saw /so:/ To sell /sel/ sold /sóuld/ To send /send/ sent /sént/ To shut /shat/ shut /shat/ To sing /siη/ sang /sæη/ To sit /sit/ sat /sæt/ To sleep /sli:p/ slept /slept/ To speak /spi:k/ spoke /spóuk/ To spend /spénd/ spent /spént/ To stand up /stænd ap/ stood /stu:d ap/ To swim /swim/ swam /swæm/ To take /téik/ took /tuk/ To teach /ti:tch/ taught /to:t/ To tell /tel/ told /tóuld/ To think /θiηk/ thought /θo:t/ To understand /anderstænd/ understood /anderstú:d/ To wear /wéar/ wore /wo:r/ To write /ráit/ wrote /rout/ paid /péid/ put /put/ read /red/ run /ran/ said /sed/ seen /si:n/ sold /sóuld/ sent /sént/ shut /shat/ sung /saη/ sat /sæt/ slept /slept/ spoken /spóukn/ spent /spént/ stood /stu:d ap/ swum /swam/ taken /téikn/ taught /to:t/ told /tóuld/ thought /θo:t/ understood /anderstú:d/ worn /wo:rn/ written /rítn pagar poner.

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Mary told me (that) she would be back later. 7. He said (that) he didn´t know her well 11. I´m not sure whether / if he is a good student. was 9. “My maiden name was Jones. He told me not to forget what he had told me. “Don´t wait for me. 15. 8. 4. 14. He asked me whether / if I had to work tonight . Ex. 7. Ex. 9. 3. He asked me. He asked me to try to come on time. 12. She wants to know how he is getting along. 2. 6. 5. The doctor said (that) John was a very sick man. He asked me to meet him outside the station. 15. She didn´t say where she was going . He begged me to send him the money at once. A short course in english for adult students 261 . Can you tell me where he is now? 11.Key to answers UNIT 19 Ex. I asked him when he had read that book. He said.She said. was 7. He said (that) he hoped she came soon. 1. 7. 14. “Did you mail the letter?” 12.” 8. He asked. He asked me whether / if I was going to the movies with them. 8. He asked me to sit down for a few minutes. I´d like to know whether / if Mr. 5. The teacher told me to do my exercises in ink.” 5. “I´ll be back soon. Ex. Because there was too much traffic at that time. Smith asked us whether / if we understood this exercise. 1. 8. “I can´t meet you . 2. The teacher told me not to write in pencil. He asked me how I was today. 3. 2. 4. He wants to know how much it costs. 7. He said he´d seen it. 7. 2. The teacher told me to sit up straight. 7. 10. 3. She said she hadn´t enjoyed it. 5. Ask him where he lives. 8. Smith said (that) we might have an examination. 6. 12. meant 8. (Possible Answers) . I really don´t know whether / if he´s very tall. The teacher told me to sit down and read the story. 9. 10. The teacher told me to prepare my lessons more carefully. 2. “Where do you live?” 3. Can you tell me whether / if the elevator is out of order? 10. 5. 8. would 5. 12. 9. I asked her where it was. “My last name´s Smith 6. 4. I´d like to find out when he´ll get back. 11. Ex. 2. . 4. The teacher told me to come back later. 3. John asked whether / if it was raining. 8. “ 11. Helen asked me how long I had lived here. He said (that) he had no money. 2. He said (that) he had known him a long time. Smith is here. She said (that) she was going away tomorrow. “Leave the room. He told me to write a short story in English. 4. 6. 9. Jones wanted to know how he was getting along. he is 12. 13. Ex. 6. 7. He warned the child not to cross the road. 6. 2. I asked her whether / if John was here.” Ex. The teacher told me to give this message to Mrs. “Do you like New York?” 4. 5. The teacher told me not to waste so much time. 3. He said. Can you tell me where she lives? 4. Smith said (that) we would finish this tomorrow. Mrs.” 9. Because I wanted to know what time it was and I didn´t have a watch. told me 6. He asked her. 7. it is 10. The teacher told me to take my feet off the desk. He asked me. I told him to be more careful. He politely asked me not to be late. 8. “I´m going out of town. 10. 9. I don´t know how tall he is. She asked him whether / if he liked her new hat. could 11. 5. She wants to know whether / if he is in the building. 4. Because he wanted to tell me about his new plans. He told me (that) he was supposed to be here now. He said to me. 5. Mary told me (that) she could not go with me tonight. The teacher told me to go to the whiteboard. The teacher told me to wait outside in the hall. She said. 6. 2. He asked me what the word meant. 12. I can 3. it is 4. 13. He said to her. Mr. 11. Mr. “How much does it cost?” 10. was Ex. She said. 6. Smith. 3. I asked John what time it was. The teacher asked whether / if I had seen that documentary. 3. He asked me when I was leaving for Europe. 10. He told me not to make the same mistake again. Mr. Because he thinks he´ll have to work till late tonight. The teacher told me not to look at my neighbor´s paper.

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. casado/a o soltero/a? ¿Tiene Ud.? Have you got any children? How many children have you got? Where are you from? I´m from Chile Where do you come from? I come from Santiago. bat ai spí:k spænish and íηglish/ /aim sóri ai dóunt anderstænd fréntch/ /a:r iu mærid o:r síngl/ ´ /hav iu gót a. Permítame presentarme..... This is Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor. .....? ¿De dónde es Ud.../ /aid láik iu tu mí:t míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor. mi nombre es.. Pleased to meet you I´m glad to meet you Please I´m sorry I´m sorry I´m late I´m afraid I´m afraid I don´t know I´m afraid I can´t What´s your first name? What´s your surname/last name? What do you do? I´m an army officer What is your rank? Do you speak French/German/Italian/ No. Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr.. francés/alemán/italiano? No. I´d like you to meet Mr/Mrs/Miss/Captain/Doctor..../ /plí:z lét mi introdiu:z maisélf mai néim iz... My name is..../ /plí:zd tu mí:t iu/ /aim glæd tu mí:t iu/ /plí:z/ /aim sóri/ /aim sóri aim léit/ /aim afréid/ /aim afréid ai dóunt nóu/ /aim afréid ai ká:nt/ /wóts io:r fé:rst néim/ /wóts io:r sé:rneim/lá:st néim/ /wót diu dú:/ /aim an á:rmi ófiser/ /wóts io:r ræηk /diu spí:k fréntch/dllérman/itálian/ /nóu ai dóunt.? ¿Cuál es el número de su habitación? A short course in english for adult students 263 . At a social gathering (en una reunion social) Hallo!/Hello!/Hi! Good morning Good afternoon Good evening Good bye/Bye bye Good night See you later See you tomorrow See you this evening Thank you/Thank you very much You´re welcome How are you today? I´m very well. ¿Cuál es su grado? ¿Habla Ud... Encantado/a de conocerlo/a Me alegra conocerlo/a Por favor Lo siento Lamento haberme atrasado Lamentablemente. hijos? ¿Cuántos hijos tiene Ud.UNIT 20 USEFUL ENGLISH PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS IN ENGLISH FOR TRAVELLERS Frases y expresiones útiles en inglés para viajeros A. Mi nombre es...... thank you I´m fine. Me gustaría presentarle al Sr.? ¿Tiene Ud. un/a./ /δis iz míster/mísiz/mis/káptin/dóktor. No entiendo francés Es Ud.? Vengo de Stgo. Pero hablo español e inglés Lo siento...? Soy de Chile ¿De dónde viene Ud.. My name is.Chile ¿Vive ud./Sra/Srta/Cap/Dr.. Este es el o la Sr./ /hav iu gót éni tchíldren/ /háu méni tchíldren hav iu gót/ /wéar á:r iu from/ /aim from tchile/ /wéar diu kám from/ /ai kám from santiágou tchile/ /diu liv híar/ /witch houtél a:r iu stéiiη æt/ /wóts io:r rú:m námber/ ¡Hola! Buenos días Buenas tardes Buenas tardes Hasta luego Buenas noches Hasta pronto Hasta mañana Hasta la noche Muchas gracias De nada ¿Cómo está UD hoy? Estoy muy bien gracias Estoy bien gracias y ¿cómo está Ud? No estoy muy bien lamentablemente Encantado. Please let me introduce myself. Chile Do you live here? Which hotel are you staying at? What´s your room number? /halóu//hai/ /gud mórniη/ /gud afternú:n/ /gud í:vniη/ /gud bái//bái bái/ /gud náit/ /sí: iu: léiter/ /sí: iu: tumórou/ /sí: iu: δis i:vniη/ /θækiu:/ /θækiu: véri mátch/ /io:r wélkam/ /háu á:r iu tudéi/ /aim véri wel θæηkiu/ /aim fáin θæηks and hau a:r iú:/ /aim nót veri wél aim afréid/ /háu diu: dú: mai néim iz.. thanks and how are you? I´m not very well I´m afraid How do you do. But I speak Spanish and English I´m sorry I don´t understand French Are you married or single? Have you got a. I don´t.... aqui? ¿En qué hotel está hospedado/a Ud. Desgraciadamente no sé Lamentablemente no puedo ¿Cuál es su nombre? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Qué hace Ud? Soy un oficial de ejército.

entre y siéntese Espere un momento por favor ¿Puede UD esperar un minuto? ¿Puede UD repetir su pregunta? ¿Cómo deletrea Ud. I don´t mind.? ¿Le molesta si fumo? No me molesta. of course/certainly/sure No. Ud. correcto Eso es lo que quiero decir ¿Qué quiere decir con eso? ¿Qué significa esta palabra? ¿Cuál es el significado de esta palabra? . razón. lamentablemente no Con mucho gusto Lo siento debo irme ahora Lamentablemente es tarde y tengo que irme ahora.. Fue grato conocerlo a Ud. feliz? ¿Está triste Ud. Sí. Así lo espero.? ¿Está preocupado/a? ¿Está enfermo/a Ud. por supuesto No. No concuerdo con Ud. please Let´s sit here Let´s go inside/outside It´s cold in here It´s too hot here What time is it? What´s the date today? Are you all right? Are you tired? Are you cold? Are you hot? Are you hungry? Are you thirsty? Are you sleepy? Are you happy? Are you sad? Are you worried? Are you sick/ill? Do you mind if I smoke? No. por favor hágalo Tiene Ud. that´s right That´s what I mean What do you mean by that? What does this word mean? What´s the meaning of this word? 264 A short course in english for adult students /wóts io:r télifoun námber/ /wóts io:r addrés/ /kan ai hélp iu/ /kan iu hélp mi:/ /pá:rdon/ /kud iu spí:k mó:r slóuli plí:z/ /ies ov kó:rs/sé:rtnli/shuar/ /nóu aim afréid nót/ /wiδ pléllar/ /aim sóri ai mast góu náu/ /aim afréid its léit and ai hæf tu góu náu/ /it woz náis mí:tiη iu:/ /kan/mei ai kám ín/ /plí:z kám ín and sít dáun/ /wéit e móument plí:z/ /kan iu wéit e mínit/ /kan iu ripí:t io:r kwéstchon plí:z/ /háu diu spél io:r néim/ /kan iu spél it plí:z/ /sit dáun plí:z/ /dóunt óupn δe wíndou plí:z/ /léts sit hiar/ /léts góu insáid/autsáid/ /its kóuld in híar/ /its tú: hot híar/ /wót táim iz it/ /wóts δe déit tudéi/ /a:r iu ó:l ráit/ /a:r iu táiard/ /a:r iu kóuld/ /a:r iu hot/ /a:r iu háηgri/ /a:r iu θé:rsti/ /a:r iu slí:pi/ /a:r iu hæpi/ ´ /a:r iu sæd/ /a:r iu wárid/ /a:r iu sik/íl/ /diu máind if ai smouk/ /nou ai dóunt máind góu ahéd/ /iz it ó:l ráit if ai sít híar/ /ies plí:z dú:/ /io:r ráit/ /io:r róη/ /ai agrí: wiδ iú:/ /ai dóunt agrí: wiδ iú:/ /ai dóunt θiηk sóu/ /ai hóup sóu/ /ies ai θiηk sóu/ /ies δæts ráit/ /δæts wot ai mí:n/ /wót diu: mí:n bai δæt/ /wót daz δis wé:rd mí:n/ /wóts δe mí:niη ov δis wé:rd ¿Cuál es su número telefónico? ¿Cuál es su dirección? ¿Puedo ayudarle? ¿Puede ayudarme? ¿Perdón? ¿Podría hablar más lento por favor? Sí. come in and sit down Wait a moment. please? How do you spell your name? Can you spell it please? Sit down. Sentémonos aquí Entremos/Salgamos Hace frío aquí adentro Hace demasiado calor aquí. su nombre? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? Siéntese.. está equivocado. por favor No abra la ventana. I´m afraid not With pleasure I´m sorry I must go now I´m afraid it´s late and I have to go now. Hágalo ¿Está bien si me siento aquí? Si. Go ahead Is it all right if I sit here? Yes. por favor. creo que sí Sí. ¿Qué hora es? ¿Qué fecha es hoy? ¿Está bien Ud.? ¿Está cansado/a? ¿Tiene frío? ¿Tiene calor? ¿Tiene hambre? ¿Tiene sed? ¿Tiene sueño? ¿Está Ud. It was nice meeting you Can/may I come in? Please. ¿Puedo entrar? Por favor. please Don´t open the window.What´s your telephone number? What´s your address? Can I help you? Can you help me? Pardon? Could you speak more slowly please? Yes. I think so Yes. No lo creo así. Concuerdo con Ud. please Can you wait a minute? Can you repeat your question. please do You´re right You´re wrong I agree with you I don´t agree with you I don´t think so I hope so Yes.

Shall I. ) 7. spell it? (.)? estaba 2.. etc)? 9. Can May I.)? UD? 4. What do you...... etc.(sentarme aquí. Sentémosnos aquí (vamos...etc) (hará. ¿Le deletreo? ( Le ayudo.... Let´s sit here.. etc.. ¿Le molesta a UD si yo.)? Would 5. please.etc..(help me.... 5.)? Can Will 6. por favor.. Sit here.(doing... (. etc.. 8. address.. ¿Qué está estará (hizo. What are you will you be .... etc. ¿Puedo yo.). What´s your.(nombre dirección...etc.)? ¿Querría Ud. 8.)... etc) ..)? will 4..)? were you 2. ¿Podría Ud.( haciendo... etc. etc.. por favor. etc. Do you mind if I.)UD? did 3.(ayudarme..)? Recuerde: 1.. etc .)? ¿Puedes ¿Quieres 6.) A short course in english for adult students 265 . etc.... help you.)? 7... ¿Cuál es su. (sit here..(come here. go there ( speak.etc.(smoke.(do.etc)? 9...) please.Remember: 1.. etc. etc.. Siéntese aquí (venga.etc. No vaya allá (hable... ¿Qué (hace.. Don´t.. Could you. etc) 3..(name.... go..)...(fumo..

please? There´s an error in my bill/check. Quiero hacer una llamada con cobro revertido. At a hotel (en un hotel) I want to check in What´s my room number? Could you take this suitcase to my room please? Is there a colo(u)r TV in the room? The central heating/air conditioner isn´t working well My bed hasn´t been made yet I need another blanket Could you change the towels? Could you get me some soap/shampoo. Necesito otra frazada ¿Podría cambiar las toallas? ¿Podría conseguirme jabón/shampú.. please? Room number 206 Is there a telephone in the lobby? Can I have my bill/check. por favor? ¿Hay una oficina de cambio en el hotel? ¿Podría traerme un... despacharme estas cartas/postales? ¿Dónde están los ascensores? Tome el ascensor al 10° piso Quiero dejar el hotel/registrar mi salida a las.. please? What is the voltage used here? 220 or 110? Could you get me an adaptor for my electric shaver? Is there a coin operated washing machine? I want to have these clothes washed and ironed. por favor Deseo hacer una llamada interna-cional a Chile El código de mi país es 56 y el código para Santiago es 2.m veri mátch/ ¿Me pueden traer desayuno a mi habitación¡ ¿Podría conseguirme un periódico en español.B... I want to check out at.tu mai rú:m plí:z/ /wéarz δe réstorant ápstéarz o:r dáunstéarz/ /antíl wót táim iz δe bá:r óupn/ /hav ai gót éni mésidlliz/ /kan ai hæv mai rú:m kí: plí:z rú:m námber tú: óu síks/ /iz δer e télifoun in δe lóbi/ /kan ai hæv mai bíl/tchék plí:z/ /δérz an éror in mai bíl/tchék ai θiηk/ /ai dídnt hæv díner híar la:st náit/ /ai dídnt hæv/í:t/driηk/órder δis/ /iz δer a bá:rberz shop híar/ /kud iu póust δí:z léterz/póuská:rdz for mí:/ /wéar a:r δe lífts/elevéitorz/ /téik δe líft/elevéitor tu δe ténθ fló:r/ /ai wónt tu tchék áut at. por favor. por favor? ¿Hay una piscina/casino/gimnasio en el hotel? ¿Puede despertarme a las seis. por favor. o´clock I liked/I didn´t like the service/the food/the room very much /ai wónt to tchek ín/ /wóts mai rú :m námber/ /kud iu téik δis sútkeis tu mai rú:m plí :z/ /iz δér e kólor tí: ví: in δe rú:m/ /δe séntral hí:tiη/éar kondíshoner íznt wé: rkiη wél/ /mai béd háznt bí:n méid iet/ /ai ní:d anáδer blæηkit/ /kud iu tchéindll δe táuelz/ /kud iu gét mi sam sóup/shæmpu: plí:z/ /wóts δe vóltidll iú:zd híar/tú: twénty or uán hándrid and tén/ /kud iu gét mi an adæptor for mai eléktrik ´ shéiver/ /iz δear a kóin operéitid wóshiη mashí:n/ /ai wónt tu hæv δi:z klóuδz wósht and áiond plí:z/ /ai ní:d tu méik an internæshonal kó:l tu ´ tchile/ /mai kántri kóud námber is fífty siks and δe kóud námber for santiágou is tú:/ /ai wónt tu méik it kolékt kó:l plí:z/ Deseo registrarme ¿Cuál es el número de mi habitación? ¿Podría llevar esta maleta a mi habitación por favor? ¿Hay un TV a color en la habitación? La calefacción central/El aire acondicionado no está funcionando bien Mi cama aún no ha sido hecha. My country code number is 56 and the code number for Santiago is 2 I want to make a collect call.. Me gustó mucho/No me gustó mucho el servicio/ la comida/la habitación. please Can I send a fax/an e-mail from the hotel? At what time do you serve breakfast/lunch/dinner? Can I have breakfast in my room? Could you get me a newspaper in Spanish. ¿Hay una peluquería aquí? ¿Podría Ud. I didn´t have/eat/drink/order this. por favor. Could you post these letters/postcards for me? Where are the lifts/elevators? Take the lift/elevator to the tenth floor. /kan ai sénd e fáks/an í: méil from δe houtél/ ¿Puedo enviar un fax/e-mail desde el hotel? /at wót táim diu sé:rv brékfast/lántch/díner/ ¿A qué hora sirven desayuno/almuerzo/cena? /kan ai hæv brékfast in mai rú:m/ /kud iu gét mi e niuzpéiper in spánish plí:z/ /iz δer e suímiη pú:l/kazí:nou/dlli:m in δe houtél/ /kan iu wéik mi áp at siks oklók/ /kud iu gét mi e tæksi plí:z/ ´ /iz δer e máni ekstchéindll in δe houtél/ /kud iu bríη e. I think I didn´t have dinner here last night. por favor? ¿Donde está el restaurant? Arriba o Abajo? ¿Hasta qué hora está abierto el bar? ¿Tengo algún mensaje? ¿Puede darme la llave de mi pieza. Habitación 206 ¿Hay un teléfono en el hall? ¿Puede darme la cuenta.oklók/ /ai laikt/ai dídnt láik δe sé:rvis/δe fu:d/δe rú. Is there a barber´s shop here. a mi habitación. por favor? ¿Podría conseguirme un taxi. please I need to make an international call to Chile. me parece. Yo no cené aquí anoche.. ¿Cuál es el voltaje usado aquí? 220 o 110? ¿Podría conseguirme un adaptador para mi afeitadora eléctrica? ¿Hay una lavadora operada con monedas? Deseo que me laven y planchen estas ropas... to my room please? Where´s the restaurant? Upstairs or downstairs? Until what time is the bar open? Have I got any messages? Can I have my room key.. Yo no me serví/comí/bebí/pedí ésto. por favor? Hay un error en mi cuenta.. 266 A short course in english for adult students . please? Is there a swimming pool/casino/gym in the hotel? Can you wake me up at six o´clock? Could you get me a taxi please? Is there a money exchange in the hotel? Could you bring a.

. / teléfonos.) en el hotel? 4. etc...(bar. bar. toilets...etc.)? Where are the.(make a phone call. etc)? 3...etc.Remember: 1. etc...) in the hotel? 4...( have another coffee. etc.(despertarme a las 7.. baños.etc.) please? Recuerde: 1. Is there a..(hacer una llamada..(servirme otro café. ) 2.)? ¿Dónde están los . (telephones... ¿Dónde está el.....(lift..etc..etc. bar.. Quiero.(wake me up at 7:30.etc. I want to... ¿Podría Ud. ¿Hay un..? 3. ) por favor? A short course in english for adult students 267 .. Where is the.) I would like to...) 2. etc. etc) Desearía.(ascensor... Could you.(bar..

)? How would you like your. What will you have for dessert? I´d like to order a fruit salad. Fue muy buena en verdad. (la cuenta.)? ¿Me podría traer. bíar or e sóft dríηk/ /kan ai hæv e drá:ft bíar plí:z/ ´ /háu diu wónt io:r mí:t/diu wónt it réar. please? I´d like to have a glass of soda water Would you like something to drink? Wine.). por favor? Realmente disfrute la comida.etc. You can keep the change. Could you pass me the salt. cerveza o una gaseosa? Podría servirme una cerveza de barril. cerca de la ventana? ¿A qué hora comienzan a servir el almuerzo/la cena? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito/con cheque/ en efectivo? ¿Puede cargarme ésto en mi cuenta del hotel? Habitación 2105 ¿Puedo mirar el menú? ¿desea un aperitivo? Me serviré una copa de vino blanco y queso.? Could you get me.)? 3. I want to have. almendras saladas o maní. (beber. amareto? ¿Me podría traer la cuenta.. cherry. please? I really enjoyed the meal. (some more tea.. Hasta luego... What do you want to. Recuerde: 1.. etc)..)? 2. etc. etc. (tea. ) /ai ní:d e téibl for θrí: (pí:pl) plí:z/ /iz δer e téibl in δe non smóukiη éaria níar δe wíndou/ /wót táim diu stá:rt sé:rviη lántch/díner/ /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/bai tchek/kæsh/ ´ /kan iu: tchárdll δis íntu mai houtél bíl/rú:m tuénti wán óu fáiv/ /kan ai téik a lúk at δe méniu:/ /wud iu láik an apetáizer/ /ail hæv e glá:s of wáit wáin and sam tchí:s ´ sóltid ó:lmondz or pí:nats plí:z/ /wót wud iu láik tu stá:rt wiη/ /ai θiηk ail hæv tchíkin sú:p plí:z/ ´ /wót wil iu hæv tu fólou/ ´ /ail hæv rámp stéik/potéitou tchips and e ´ míkst sælad/ /kud iu get mi anáδer náif δis wan iz dé:rti/ /kud iu pá.. please What will you have to follow? I´ll have rump steak. (steak. Quiero servirme. .. a sandwich. Muchísimas gracias. etc. Thank you very much. La quiere a punto. (the bill. ¿Desearía algo para beber? Vino.)? ¿Cómo desearía Ud su (bife. Remember: 1..C. etc. (una cerveza.etc) Desearía servirme.rder e frú:t sælad ´ /kud ai hæv sam kófi:/ ´ /wud iu láik sam likiuar/skótch/tchéri/ amarétou/ /kud iu bríη mi δe bíl/tchék plí:z/ /ai ríali endllóid δe mí:l/it woz véri gud indí:d/ /θæηkiu véri match/iu kan kí:p δe tchéidll/ ´ Necesito una mesa para tres (personas) por favor. etc... (pollo con arroz. por favor. por favor? Desearía servirme un vaso de soda.. Puede conservar el vuelto.. ¿Qué se servirá de postre? Desearía ordenar una ensalada de fruta. ¿Qué quiere Ud. medium or well-done? I want it well done please. At a restaurant (en un restaurante) I need a table for three (people) please Is there a table in the non-smoking area. Good bye. etc.. Could I have some coffee? Would you like some liqueur? Scotch.s mi δe só:lt plí:z/ /aid láik tu hæv e glá:s of souda wóter/ ´ /wud iu láik sámθiη tu dríηk wáin..)? What would you like to. It was very good indeed.)? ¿Qué desearía Ud. regular o bien cocida? La quiero bien cocida. mí: dium or wél dán/ /ai wónt it wél dán plí:z/ /wót wil iu hæv for dizért/ ´ /aid láik tu ó. etc)? Desearía pedir. (eat. beer or a soft drink? Can I havea draught beer please? How do you want your meat? Do you want it rare. ¿Podría servirme un café? ¿Desearía un bajativo? Whisky. (comer. etc) ¿Puedo servirme. etc. (drink. (otro whisky..)? I´d like to order.. potato chips and a mixed salad Could you get me another knife? This one is dirty.. (a beer. etc. amaretto? Could you bring me the bill/check.. ¿Hay una mesa en la zona no fumadores.. (chicken and rice. por favor? ¿Cómo quiere la carne. How do you want your.. por favor ¿Qué se servirá a continuación? Me serviré un trozo de lomo. please What would you like to start with? I think I´ll have chicken soup. (más tea. salted almonds or peanuts. cognac. etc....) I´d like to have. Can I have. ¿Podría pasarme la sal. un sandwich..etc)? 2. papas fritas y una ensalada mixta ¿Me podría traer otro cuchillo? Este está sucio. etc. near the window? What time do you start serving lunch/dinner? Can I pay by credit card/by cheque/cash? Can you charge this into my hotel bill? Room 2105 Can I take a look at the menu? Would you like an appetizer? I´ll have a glass of white wine and some cheese. (another whisky. por favor ¿Con qué desearía comenzar? Creo que me serviré una sopa de pollo. etc) 268 A short course in english for adult students .. etc)? 3. ¿Cómo quiere Ud su (té.

TRAGOS Bebida alcohólica Cerveza Cerveza inglesa (amarga) Coñac Champaña Jugo de frutas Agua de hierbas Té helado Cerveza rubia (pílsener) Té con limón Limonada Licor Leche Agua mineral Vino tinto Vino Rosado Cerveza con orange Gaseosa Tea Whisky Vino blanco VERDURAS Alcachofa Espárragos Palta Bruselas Repollo Zanahoria Apio 269 A short course in english for adult students . bill /tchek. pléis/ Squid /skuid/ Trout /tráut/ tuna fish /tú :na fish/ BEVERAGES.Restaurants: Useful vocabulary (Restaurantes: Vocabulario util) Waiter /wéiter/ Menu /méniu/ Breakfast /brékfast/ Lunch /lántch/ Supper /sáper/ Dinner /díner/ Snack /snæk/ Chef /tchef/ Check. DRINKS: Alcoholic drink /alkohólik drink/ Beer /bíar/ Bitter /bíter/ Brandy /brændi/ Champagne /shampéin/ Fruit juice /fru:t dllu:s/ Herbal tea /hé:rbal tí:/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Lager /lá:ger/ Lemon tea /lémon tí:/ Lemonade /lémoneid/ Liqueur /líke:r/ Milk /milk/ Mineral water /míneral wóter/ Red wine /réd wáin/ Rosé /rouzéi/ Shandy /shændi/ Soft drink /soft drink/ Tea /tí:/ Whisky /wiski/ White wine /wáit wáin/ VEGETABLES: /védlletablz/ Artichoke /á:rtitchouk/ Asparragus /aspárragas/ Avocado /ævoká:dou/ Brussels sprouts /brásels spráuts/ Cabbage /kábidll/ Carrot /kárrot/ Celery /séleri/ PESCADOS Y MARISCOS Loco Bacalao Jibia Arenque Centolla Langosta Cholgas pulpo Ostras Gambas Salmón Sardina Ostiones Erizo Langostinos Lenguado calamar Trucha Atún BEBIDAS. bil/ Tip /tip/ Change /tcheindll/ BREAKFAST /brékfast/ Bacon and eggs /béikonanégz/ Boiled eggs /bóild égz/ Bread /bréd/ Bread and butter /brédanbáter/ Coffee /kófi/ Cornflakes /kó:rnfleiks/ Fried eggs /fráid égz/ Ham /hæm/ Ham and eggs /hæmanégz/ Jam /dllæm/ Marmalade /mármeléid/ Milk /milk/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Scrambled eggs /skrámbld égz/ Tea /tí:/ Toast /tóust/ Wholemeal bread /hóulmi:l bréd/ LUNCH /DINNER:/ lántch/díner/ Dessert /dezé :rt/ French dressing /fréntch drésiη/ Fruit /frú:t/ hors d’oeuvres /o :rdá :vre/ main course /méin kó :rs/ Mayonnaise /máioneiz/ Salad /sælad/ Sauce /só :s/ Soup /su :p/ Starter /stá:rter/ MEATS: /mí:ts/ Beef /bí:f/ Chicken /tchiken/ Chops /tchops/ Duck /dák/ Fillet steak /fílit stéik // Lamb /læm/ Meatballs /mí:tbo:lz/ Mutton /mátn/ Garzón Carta. plaice /sóul. menú Desayuno Almuerzo Cena liviana Cena Refrigerio Maestro de cocina Cuenta Propina Vuelto.cambio DESAYUNO Huevos con tocino Huevos duros Pan Pan con mantequilla Café Cereales Huevos fritos Jamón Jamón con huevos Mermelada (dulce) Mermelada (cítrico) Leche Huevos fritos en agua Huevos revueltos Té Tostada Paan integral ALMUERZO /CENA Postre Aliño francés Fruta Entremeses Plato de fondo Mayonesa Ensalada Salsa Sopa Entrada CARNES Vacuno Pollo Chuletas Pato Filete Cordero lechón Albóndigas Cordero FISH AND SEAFOOD Abalone /abalóuni/ Cod /kod/ Cuttlefish /kátlfish/ Herring /hériη/ King-crab /kiη kræb/ Lobster /lóbster/ Mussels /máslz/ Octopus /óktopas/ Oysters /óisterz/ Prawns /pró:nz/ Salmon /sá:mon/ Sardine /sa:rdí:n/ Scallops /skælops/ Sea-urchin /sí: é:rtchin/ Shrimps /shrimps/ sole.

casi a punto A punto Bien cocido COMO ESTA PREPARADA LA COMIDA Queque horneado Huevos cocidos Pollo a lo spiedo Vino helado Fruta picada Pescado frito Queso rallado Bife a la parrilla Café en grano molido Té helado Azucar derretida Carne molida Ensalada mixta Huevos escalfados Vacuno asado Pan rebanado Salmón ahumado Pescado al vapor Bife estofado Pavo relleno Crema batida MISCELANEO Cenicero Vaso para cerveza Botella de vino Abridor de botella Cuchillo para pan Mantequillera Alcuza Taza Cuchara para postre Tenedor Copa Jarro Cuchillo Encendedor Fósforo Corn /kó :rn/ Cucumber /kíukumber/ Green beans /grí:n bí:nz/ Leek /lí:k/ Lettuce /létis/ Mushrooms /máshrumz/ Peas /pí:z/ Potato /potéitou/ Red pepper /réd /grí:n péper/ Tomato /tomá:tou //toméitou/ Maíz Pepino Porotos verdes Puerro Lechuga Champiñones Arvejas Papa Pimiento rojo Tomate FRUIT /frú:t/ DESSERTS /dizé:rts/ Apple /æpl/ Apricot /éiprikot //éiprikot/ Banana /baná:na/ Blackberry /blæberi/ Cake /kéik/ Cherry /tchéri/ Chocolate mousse /tcóklit mu:z/ Grapefruit /gréipfrut/ Grapes /gréips/ Ice cream /áis krí:m/ Melon /mélon/ Mints /mints/ Orange /órindll/ Peach /pí:tch/ Pear /péar/ Pineapple /páinápl/ Plum /plám/ Raspberry /rázberi/ Redcurrant /redkúrant/ Scone /skóun/ Strawberry /stró:beri/ Sweets /sui:ts/ Watermelon /wótermelon/ Yoghourt /ióga:rt/ HOW FOOD TASTES Bitter /bíter/ Hot /hot/ Salty /só:lti/ Sour /sáuer/ Spicy /spáisi/ Sweet /sui:t/ SPICES /spáisiz/ Bay leaf /béi lí:f/ Chilli pepper /tchili péper/ Cinnamon /sínamon/ Garlic /gá.Pork /pó:rk/ Ribs /ribz/ Roast beef /róus bí:f/ Rump steak /rámp stéik/ Sirloin steak /sé:rloin stéik/ T-bone /tí : bóun/ Turkey /té:rki/ Veal /ví:l/ HOW MEAT IS COOKED Medium to rare /mí:dium tu réar/ Rare /réar/ Well done /wél dán/ HOW FOOD IS PREPARED Baked cake /béikt kéik/ Boiled eggs /bóild egz/ Broiled chicken /bróild tchiken/ Chilled wine /tchíld wáin/ Chopped fruit /tchópt frú:t/ Fried fish /fráid fish/ Grated cheese /gréitid tchí:z/ Grilled steak /grild stéik/ Ground coffee /gráund kófi/ Iced tea /áist tí:/ Melted sugar /méltid shúgar/ Minced meat (mínst mí:t/ Mixed salad /míkst sálad/ Poached eggs /póutcht égz/ Roast beef /róust bí:f/ Sliced bread /sláist bréd/ Smoked salmon /smóukt sá:mon/ Steamed fish /stí:md fish/ Stewed beef /stiu:d bí:f/ Stuffed turkey /stáft té:rki/ Whipped cream /wipt krí:m/ MISCELLANEOUS Ashtray /æshtrei/ Beerglass /bíargla:s/ Bottle of wine /bótl ov wáin/ Bottle opener /bótl óupner/ Bread knife /brédnaif/ Butter dish /báterdish/ Cruet /kru:it/ Cup /káp/ Dessertspoon /dezértspu:n/ Fork /fórk/ Goblet /góblit/ Jug /dllág/ Knife /náaif/ Lighter /láiter/ Match /mætch/ Cerdo Costillas Rosbif Lomo Lomo vetado Entrecot Pavo Ternera COCCIÓN DE CARNES Regular.rlik/ FRUTA POSTRES Manzana Damasco Plátano Mora Torta Guinda Mus de chocolate Pomelo uvas Helado Melón Bombones de menta Naranja Durazno Pera Piña Ciruela Frambuesa Grosella Bollo Frutilla Pastilla Samdía Yogurt SABORES Amargo Picante Salado Agrio Condimentado Dulce CONDIMENTOS Laurel Ají Canela Ajo 270 A short course in english for adult students .

Mug /mág/ Napkin /næpkin/ Place mat /pléismæt/ Plate /pléit/ Saucer /só:ser/ Soup bowl /sú:p bóul/ Sugar bowl /shúgarbóul/ Tablecloth /téiblkloθ/ Tablespoon /téiblspu:n/ Teaspoon /tí:spun/ Tin opener /tin óupner/ Tumbler /támbler/ Wineglass /wáingla:s/ Tazón Servilleta Individual Plato Platillo Plato para sopa Azucarero Mantel Cuchara para sopa Cuchara de té Abrelatas Vaso para gaseosas Vaso para el vino Ginger /dllíndller/ Ketchup kétchap/ Mustard /másta:rd/ Parsley /pá:rsli/ Pepper /péper/ Salt /só:lt/ Thyme /táim/ Genjibre Ketchup Mostaza Perejil Pimienta Sal Tomillo A short course in english for adult students 271 .

there´s one in Bridge Street. Go straight ahead until you come to the bridge. is there a restaurant near here? Yes. Hay uno en la calle Bridge. Pregúntele a un policía Perdón. por favor? ¿Podría decirme dónde está el banco. Necesita tomar el tren. please? Excuse me. please? Excuse me. Turn left at the next corner and walk down the street for two blocks. does this bus go to the stadium? Please. ¿A qué hora abren los bancos? ¿A que hora comienzan a correr los buses? ¿A qué hora cierran las tiendas? ¿Abre el supermercado los domingos? 272 A short course in english for adult students . in Park Street. can you tell me the way to the park. Siga derecho hacia adelante hasta llegar al puente Tiene que tomar el bus 44 aquí y bajarse en la estación de ferrocarriles. Take the third turning on the right and then walk for about 40 meters. lléveme al Hotel Oxford. What time do the banks open? What time do buses start running? What time do the shops close? Does the supermarket open on Sunday? /hav iu got/diu hæv e mæp ov lándon/ /ai wónt tu góu tu δe kaθídrl. Enseguida doble a la derecha y verá la torre al final de la calle Lo siento. opposite the cinema. por favor? Perdón. Where´s the post office. take me to the Oxford Hotel. How to get to places (como llegar a lugares) Have you got/Do you have a map of London? I want to go to the cathedral. Yo también soy forastero aquí. por favor? Perdón. Sorry I don´t know. Estamos aquí afuera de la estación. It´s not very far. We are here. o tengo que tomar un bus? Perdón. ¿Donde está la oficina de correos. where is the nearest underground station? Can I walk. Doble a la izquierda en la próxima esquina y baje (por esa calle) dos cuadras Tome la tercera bocacalle a la derecha y enseguida camine unos 40 metros No está muy lejos. how do I get to the museum? Look at the map. You need to take the train. Perdón. No sé. Do you know where the station is. please? Excuse me. Drive along this road till you come to Clark Avenue. Ask a policeman. ¿Podría indicarme el camino.¿Hay un restaurante cerca de aquí? Sí. please? Could you tell me where the bank is.D. en la Calle Park Perdón. Conduzca por este camino hasta llegar a la calle Clark. Walk along this street as far as the traffic lights. óposit δe sínema/ /wót táim du δe bæηks óupen/ /wót táim du básiz stá :rt rániη/ /wót taim du δe shóps klóuz/ /dáz δe supermá:rkit óupn on sándi/ ¿Tiene Ud. Excuse me which bus do I need to take to go to the National Art Gallery? How far is the airport from here? It´s about 20 kilometers.. outside the station. Then turn right and you´ll see the tower at the end of the road. You have to take bus 44 here and get off at the Railway Station. or do I have to take a bus? Excuse me. frente al cine. ¿Sabe Ud. un mapa de Londres? Deseo ir a la Catedral. Camine por esta calle. hasta el semáforo. dónde está la estación. I´m a stranger here myself. ¿Cómo llego yo al museo? Mire el mapa. ¿Qué bus necesito tomar para ir a la National Art Gallery? ¿A qué distancia está el aeropuerto de aquí? Esta a más o menos 20 kms. por favor? Perdón. Excuse me. ¿Va este bus al estadio? Por favor. ¿Dónde está la estación de metro más próxima? ¿Puedo irme a pié. ¿Podría indicarme el camino al parque.por favor? Perdón. Excuse me. Could you show me the way please? Excuse me. Kan iu shóu mi δe wéi pli:z/ /ikskiú:z mi wéarz δe póust ófis plí:z/ /kud iu tél me wéar δe bæηk iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/diu nóu wéar δe stéishn iz plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/kan iu tél mi δe wéi tu δe pá: rk plí:z/ /ikskiu:z mi/háu du ai gét tu δe miu:zíam/ /luk at δe mæp/wi a:r híar autsáid δe stéishn/ góu stréit ahéd antil iu kæm tu δe brídll/ /iu hæf tu téik bás fó:rti fóar and get óf at δe réilwei stéishn/ /wó:k alóη δis strí:t as fá:r as δe træfik láits/ /té:rn léft at δe nékst kó:rner and wó:k dáun δe strí:t for tú: blóks/ /téik δe θé:rd té:rniη on δe ráit and δén wó:k for abáut fó:rti mí:terz/ /its nót veri fá:r/dráiv aloη δis róud til iu kám tu klá:rk áveniu/δen té:rn ráit and iul sí: δe táuer at δi énd ov δe róud/ /sóri ai dóunt nóu/aim a stréidller híar maisélf/á:sk e plísman/ /ikskiu:s mi/witch bás du ai ní:d tu téik to góu tu δe næ´shional á:rt gæleri/ /hau fá:r iz δi éarpó:rt from híar/ /its abáut twénti kiloumí:terz/iu ní:d tu téik δe tréin/ /ikskiú:s mi dáz δis bás go tu δe stéidium/ /plí:z téik mi tu δi óksford houtél in pá:rk strí: t/ /ikskiu:s mi wéarz δe níarest ándergráund stéishn/ /kan ai wó:k or du ai ní:d tu téik e bás/ /ikskiú:z mi/iz δer e réstorant níar híar/ Iés/δéarz wan in bridll strí:t.

por favor? 3..de aquí? 7. is......s.. /péivment/ vereda(Br) Sidewalk /saidwó:k/ vereda(US) Bus stop /bas stóp/ parada de buses Underground Station (Br) /ándergráund stéishn/ estación de metro Subway Station (US) /sábwei stéishn/ estación de metro Railway Station /réilwei stéishn/ estación de trenes Airport /éarpó:rt/ aeropuerto Square /skuéar/ plaza Traffic lights /træfik láits/ semáforo Park /pá:rk/ parque Remember: 1. from here? 7.por favor? ¿Puede decirme dónde está la..is... How do I get to. ¿Sabe UD dónde está la.? ¿A qué hora abre / cierra el / la.. ¿A qué hora abren / cierran las. Where is the. Where is the nearest. ¿Dónde está la.. please? 4.más cercana.. Hay un / una.. ¿Cuál bus necesito tomar para ir a.? 2....open / close? 6...Useful vocabulary (vocabulario util) City..? 2.. What time do the..por favor? ¿Dónde esta la. please? 3... Could you show the way to..? 5. Could you tell me the way to..... Which bus do I need to take to go to the.? Is there a...? 6. /síti/ ciudad Town /táun/ pueblo Street /strí:t/ calle Pavement........cerca de aquí A short course in english for adult students 273 .... por favor? 4.. near here? Building /bíldiη/ edificio Hotel /houtél/ hotel Lift /lift/ ascensor (Br) Elevator /elevéitor/ ascensor (US) Restaurant /réstorant/ resturant Store/Shop /stóar/shop/ tienda Shopping centre Centro comercial Shopping mall Centro comercial Library /láibreari/ biblioteca Museum /miu:zíam/ museo Park /pá:rk/ parque Hospital /hóspitl/ hospital Supermarket /supermá:kit/ supermercado Department store /dipá:rment stóar/ Tienda de departamente Book store /buk stó:r/ librería book shop /buk/shop/ librería Post office /póust ófis/ Oficina de Correos Police station /polís stéishn/ Cuartel de policia Cinema /sínema/ cine Theater /θíater/ teatro Night club /náit klab/ club nocturno Recuerde: 1.? 5. Do you know where the. please?..... please? Can you tell me where the. How far is the. ¿Cómo llego a.. Necesito comprar un / algunos... ¿A qué distancia está el / la.? ¿Podría indicarme el camino a.. open / close? What time does the. I need to buy a / some.

Can you spell it please? ¿Puede mostrame su pasaporte por favor? ¿Cuál es su apellido? ¿Puede deletrearlo por favor? ¿Puedo ver su boleto? Quiero un ticket a Milán ¿Cuánto cuesta un b oleto simple a Nápoles? ¿Cuánto cuesta un boleto de ida y vuelta a Lyon? How much is the bus ticket to the zoo? /háu mátch is δe bás tíkit tu δe zú:/ ¿Cuánto cuesta el pasaje de bus al zoo? Is it a direct journey /flight? /iz it a dirékt dllérni /fláit/ ¿Es un viaje /vuelo directo? How long does the journey /flight take? /háu lóη daz δe dllérni /fláit téik/ ¿Cuánto tiempo dura el viaje /vuelo? What time does the train /plane leave? /wot táim daz δe tréin /pléin lí:v/ ¿A qué hora sale el tren /avión? What time does the train /plane /get there? /wot táim daz δe tréin /pléin get δéar/ ¿A qué hora llega el tren /avión allá? Which platform /gate does it leave from? /witch plátform /géit daz it lí:v from/ ¿Desde cuál andén /puerta sale? How long does it take to get to Budapest? /háu loη daz it teik to get tu budapést/ ¿Cuánto se demora en llegar a Budapest? What time do we need to check in? /wót táim du wi ní:sd tu tchek ín/ ¿A qué hora necesitamos presentarnos? Do they serve lunch on board? /du δei sé:rv lántch on bó:rd/ ¿Sirven almuerzo a bordo? Can I have a seat by the window? /kan ai hæv e sí:t bai δe wíndou/ ¿Puede darme un asiento al lado de la ventana? I want a seat in the non smoking area /ai wónt e sí:t in δe non smóukiη éaria/ Deseo un asiento en la zona de no fumadores These are my suitcases /δí:z a:r mai sutkéisiz/ Estas son mis malaetas Please carry my suitcases with care /plí:z kæri mai sutkéisiz wiδ kéar/ Por favor transporte mis maletas con cuidado I will carry this handbag myself. /plí:z riméin sí:tid antil δe pléin /tréin haz Por favor manténgase sentado hasta que el stópt/ avión /tren se haya detenido. At the station / airport (en la estacion / aeropuerto) /kan ai hav ior pá:spo:rt plí:z/ /wóts ior læst néim plí:z kan iu spél it plí:z/ Can I see your ticket? /kan ai sí: ió:r tíkit/ I want a ticket to Milan /ai wónt e tíket tu milán/ How much is a single ticket to Naples? How much is a /háu mátch iz e síngl tíkit tu néiplz/ /háu return ticket to Lyon? mátch iz a ritérn tíkit tu lión/ Can I have your passport. fold the table and put the back of /fá:sn io:r sí:t bélt /fóuld δe téibl and put δe Ajuste su cinturón. doble la mesita y enderece your seat in the upright position. please? What´s your last name. Fasten your seat belt. Please put your cigarette out now. /wi a:r lændiη /aráiviη in e fiu: minits/ Estamos aterrizando /llegando dentro de unos pocos minutos. /ai wil kæri δis hændbæg maisélf/ Yo mismo transportaré ese bolso de mano Where is the luggage /baggage claim? /wéar iz δe lágidll /bægidll kléim/ ´ ¿Dónde está la entrega de equipaje? I have nothing to declare /ai hæv náθiη tu dikléar/ No tengo nada para declarar How many bottles can I take with me? /háu méni bótlz kan ai téik wiδ mí:/ ¿Cúantas botellas puedo llevar conmigo? Do I have to pay sales tax /customs duties? /du ai hæv tu pei seil taks /diútiz/ ¿Debo pagar IVA /derechos aduaneros? Is there a duty-free shop here? /iz δer e diu:ti frí: shop híar/ ¿Hay una tienda libre de IVA aquí? Where is the bar? /restaurant? /wéarz δe bá:r /restorant/ ¿Dónde está el bar /restaurante? Are we landing /arriving soon? /á:r wi lændiη /aráiviη sú:n/ ¿Estamos aterrizando /llegando pronto? We´re landing /arriving in a few minutes. /plí:z put io:r sigarét áut nau/ Por favor apague su cigarrillo ahora. bæk ov io:r sí:t in δi apráit posíshn/ el respaldo de su asiento We hope you´ve enjoyed your trip /flight /wi hóup iuv indllóid io:r trip /fláit/ Esperamos que haya disfrutado su viaje /vuelo 274 A short course in english for adult students .E. Please remain seated until the plane /train has stopped.

¿Puede mostrarme algo? ¿Está hecho de cuero /plástico /lana /algodón /oro /plata? Por favor. Shopping (de compras) I like this /that watch /jacket. Le enviaremos los artículos al avión ¿Cuánto vale este reloj? ¿Cuánto valen esos guantes? A short course in english for adult students 275 .? Quiero comprar un regalo para mi esposa. ¿Tiene Ud.F. Can you show me /ai wónt tu bái e prezent for mai wáif /kan something? iu shóu mi sámθiη/ Is it made of leather /plastic /wool /cotton /gold /silver? /iz it méid of léδer /plástik /wu:l /kóton /góuld /sílver Please keep this receipt. /plí:z kí:p δis risí:t /wí wil sénd δi áitmz tu δe pléin/ How much is this watch? /háu mátch iz δis wotch/ How much are those gloves? /háu mátch a:r δouz glávz/ Me gusta este reloj /esa chaqueta ¿Puedo verlo /a? ¿Puedo probármelo /a? ¿Cuánto vale? ¿Cuánto cuesta? ¿Tiene una talla más grande /más chica? Me gustans estos lentes /esos zapatos ¿Puedo verlos /verlas? ¿Puedo probármelos /las? ¿Cuánto valen? ¿Cuánto cuestan? ¿Puedo pagar con tarjeta de crédito? ¿Puedo pagar con dinero norteamericano /dólares? No me gusta el color. un color diferente? ¿Qué talla tiene Ud. Do you have a different colo(u)r? /ai dóunt láik δe kólor /diu hæv e dífrent kólor/ What size do you take? /wót sáiz diu ték/ I want to buy a present for my wife. We´ll send the items to the plane. guarde este recibo. Can I see them? Can I try them on? How much are they? /How much do they cost? /ai láik δis /δæt wótch /dllákit/ /kan ai sí: it/ /kan ai trái it ón/ /háu mátch iz it /háu mátch daz it kóst/ /diu hæv e lárdller /smóler sáiz/ /ai láik δí:z /δóuz glá:siz /shú:z/ /kan ai sí: δem/ /kan ai trái δem ón // /háu mátch á:r δei /háu mátch du δei kóst/ Can I pay by credit card? /kan ai péi bai krédit ká:rd/ Can I pay with American money /US dollars /kan ai péi wiδ amérikan máni /iú: és dólarz/ I don´t like the colo(u)r. Can I see it? Can I try it on? How much is it? /How much does it cost? Do you have a larger /smaller size? I like these /those glasses /shoes.

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El examinador deberá leer 2 veces cada una de las preguntas..Para contestar las preguntas 51 a 120 de la READING PART (Parte Escrita) usted cuenta con tiempo maximo de 35 minutos. compruebe sus respuestas con la ANSWER KEY (Clave de Respuestas) y cuente el número de respuestas correctas obtenidas.Esta prueba consta de 2 partes: A.. que le lea las preguntas que aparecen en el EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto del para el Examinador).Para contestar las preguntas de la LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita). 5.. usted deberá solicitar a otra persona (en lo posible un profesor de inglés o una persona que tenga buen dominio de ese idioma)... 3..50.Usted deberá tener su QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) y su ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de Respuestas) sobre su escritorio. antes de comenzar la prueba. Enseguida calcule su puntaje final según la pauta dada a continuación: Pauta de Evaluación Scoring (Puntaje): Listening Part: 50 % Reading Part : 50 % Overall Score: 100 % Your score x 1/0 Your score x 5/7 Your overall score: = ______ % = ______ % = ______ % A short course in english for adult students 277 . Preguntas 1 .UNIT 21 ASSESSMENT TEST (Prueba de Evaluación Final) INSTRUCCIONES GENERALES 1.Una vez que haya contestado las 120 preguntas. 4..READING PART (Parte Escrita) 2.LISTENTING PART (Parte Audio Escrita) B.

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are having dinner that evening. a few difficult for him. was been stolen. give your message to him 2. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. “What expensive it is!” C. D. deberá consignarla. which Peter sent Mary last week. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. C. C. knew her new address. B. B. 10. have just opened the door. A. very ill now. C. nowhere that day. 3. 7. oirá oraciones incompletas. D. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. D. D. deberá elegir la alternativa A. A. too difficult for him. had to be there very quickly. had better go by taxi. B. “What expensive watch is it!” 8. can see a doctor today. B. too much difficult for him. won’t be allowed to see it well. 9. 12. quite busy at the moment. might see a doctor today. were having dinner that evening. C. A. A. 15. had stolen. is trying to open the door now. anywhere that day. will give to him your message C. too late right now. so much difficult for him. C. A. had dinner that evening. Ud. D. give him your message. would know her new address. “How expensive watch is it!” D. En cada caso Ud. a little bored. should know her new address. somewhere that day. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador. would rather go by taxi. B. he always works hard. A. B. have been having dinner that evening. D. am going to give him your message D. should to go by taxi. C. won’t be possible to see it well A. won’t be able to see it well. were there earlier. B. 14. B. D. had been stolen. won’t can see it well. B. A. will be there on time. A short course in english for adult students 279 .15. B. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 . B. he seldom works hard. wants open the door now. D. A. C. ought to see a doctor today. C. are better to go by taxi. was stealing. D. he often works hard. B. 5. whose Peter sent Mary last week. D. D. B whom Peter sent Mary last week. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. who Peter sent Mary last week. A. o D. A. C. 13. A. C.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT ASSESSMENT TEST 1 QUESTION BOOKLET (Cuadernillo de Preguntas) A. C. A. B. C. D. A. C. can be there now. 11. opens the door now. may see a doctor today. 4. B. C. Ud. know her new address. everywhere that day. A. he works hard as a rule. D. “How expensive it is!” B. 6.

Because it’s a quiet and pleasant place. A. They go there only when the weather’s fine. Instrucciones para las preguntas 31 -40. A sociable person. 24. B. He hasn’t told us much about her. B. C. A short course in english for adult students 32. Didn’t forget. D. D. C. He has to decide what to do soon. A. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. He was away all day long. 20. No escriba en este cuadernillo. A. A. A. A dull person. B. A. Away from the office. 30. C. She’ll call the roll. A. B. B. D. He must finish the job sometime. C. 17. Because they like shopping. C. They are 12 years old. Didn’t make a decision. D. 31 A. Didn’t care much. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. deberá elegir la alternativa A. C. C. C. C. He wanted to take a walk. They met people and went on sightseeing tours. They are 10 years altogether. He hates to be at home during the day. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. D. B. C. o D. He stayed in the garden all morning. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. 21. He became accustomed to living in this house quickly. A polite person. Ud. They go there from time to time. A. 25. Después de cada oración U¡. He doesn’t feel like going out today.He had no time to travel. C. D. D. He visited a friend he had met at the airport. C. C. A. B. A. 23. B. He wanted to save money. C. que la conteste en mejor forma. No escriba en este cuadernillo. Didn’t remember. They attended a meeting at the club. He doesn’t see her so often. He came to live in this house very recently. D. He has to work in the evenings too D. B. There were too many people there. B. At once. Because they like the rain. 16. 0 D. B. A. B. They went somewhere else together. C. The weather was awful. He used all his money quickly while he was living there. D. He hasn’t studied her well. He would miss his family. A kind person. A. D. They go there when they have time. 28. The buses were crowded at that time C. They are a little younger. 29. D. She’ll go and see them. 27. 22. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. A. Because it’s a busy little town. He’d better stay at home all day today. D. oirá oraciones completas y.Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . B. He preferred to go home by taxi. They had dinner at the restaurant. He lived in this house until recently. B. He must order someone to do the job. They decided to go home early. C. She’ll show them a map. On his way to the office. D. 26. They are a different age. en cada caso. B. Later in the day. D. B. He drove to the airport to pick up a friend. 19. He’s happy when he can stay at home all day. B. A. D. B. He was resting all day. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. She’ll ring them up. He wanted to get home more safely.30. He remembered he had a friend. A. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. B. C. D. It was a very crowded place. 280 . He didn’t like hotels very much. He was away almost all day. C. He was working at home all day. They go there when they want to have fun. A. 18. He’ s only seen her once or twice. Ud.

B. A. 36. o D. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. Robert called to give them a new order. D. so they ate quickly and left the place. At a summer house they had in the south of France. That area never appears on the maps. C. Harry doesn’t know that area very well. Escuche atentamente. No escriba en este cuadernillo. C. C. At an expensive hotel near Paris.33. D. The weather in winter is not very nice in the area. deberá elegir la alternativa A. He wasn’t allowed to attend the reception. C. A. Because she told him about her husband´s death. He wasn’t able to go to the reception. Paul is too young to have that kind of trouble. B. It doesn’t snow very often in that part of the country. A. 39. C. Paul is too young to go abroad alone. D. B. 281 . Because she wanted to go back Brighton next summer. They didn’t eat everything because the food was cold. Paul isn’t tall enough to drive the car himself. She did everything correctly. D. They already knew how to repair cars in those days. B. She wanted to buy an air ticket. It wasn’t warm enough inside. She did everything as carefully as possible. They didn’t accept Harry’s invitation because it was cold. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. He should have gone to the reception. Mary touched him as soon as she saw him. D. 34. They didn’t like the meal Harry served because it was not warm. Mary telephoned him after she got there. A. She wanted him to advise her where to go on holiday. Because they´d been friends for many years. 35. Robert telephoned them in a given order. 43. Robert called them up to tell them what had happened. C. D. A. A. D. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. D. D. He could not help at the reception. 41. They worked in a garage in those days. A. El examinador leerá una historia. Because he noticed she was an old lady now. B. D.. A. They have used that car for a long time. C. C. 40. D. At a hotel which a member of the family had in Brighton. En cada caso. B. Paul can’t travel because he doesn’t have enough time. A. B. C. 38. B. They used to have two cars in those days. B. Mary was very surprised to see him so soon. Robert telephoned then to give them the new orders B. At a nice cheap guest house on the coast in Britain. A. Mary was welcomed by him at the railway station. Because he was glad to see her again B. A short course in english for adult students 42. She did everything following the instructions. C. C. B. She did everything immediately. She wanted to travel abroad by boat. 37. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta. A. deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. C..

Because she didn´t like package tours very much. B. Because the travel agent told them the weather was nicer in those countries. The Greens went on holiday abroad for the last time. Because he was not expecting to see Mrs Green that day. 49. A. Because they knew they were going to have good weather there. Because they wanted their children to study a foreign language. THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST 282 A short course in english for adult students . 50. C. To a nice and pleasant holiday resort in Potugal. B. D. Because it was a lot more convenient for them to go there on holiday. D. A. Because that was the only way to visit interesting places in India. D. C. To the same family hotel she used stay when she was young. B. Because India was an amazing country. 47. Mrs Green went to her travel agent to inquire about cheap hotels in Portugal. A. To a hotel a Potuguese friend had in Lisbon. C. C. Because he happened to have a guidebook and some brochures to show her. B. D. Because wanted to take a two-week package tour of India. 46. Because she wanted to arrange her holiday herself and travel cheaply. B.44. as usual. Mrs Green´s husband passed away. Because lots of people were spending their holidays there these days. They decided not to go on holiday abroad any longer. B. Because he thought Mrs Green had died a few months ago. C. D. B. D. A. A. A. Because she didn´t like traveling with other people. A. 45. Because everything was included in the fare and she wouldn´t have to worry about anything. To spend her summer holidays in Britain. To spend her summer holidays abroad. To go to a cheap hotel in Italy or Spain. To a particular holiday place in India. Because Mrs Green was planning to spend her summer holidays in Asia. 48. C. C. To visit some friends in Portugal. D.

A. As soon as I opened the door and looked inside. consigne su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 51. C. there were C. it was 55. hard enough D. No escriba en este cuadernillo. too many C. valuable C. during . they were having D. En cada una de las oraciones hay uno o dos espacios en blanco. She´ll surely get one of ____________ marks in the final examination.drunk A. along . Mr Morrison __________ the children to the park that morning. B. o D. never. should to C. A. Captain Thomas has not worked _________ during the last three months.your friends 60. C. before you’re leaving D. must to B. elija la alternativa A. _____________ books you´ve brought with you. READING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 51 – 80. She has studied very hard ______________ this semester. What a lot of D. You are getting too fat. How long . before to leave 58. in order to leaving C. satisfactory 53.the highest C.drink D. How often . Remember that you have to turn off all the lights ___________ the office. But I know it’s a very strong liquor. there had been B. Will . Jack! Do you think you´ll have time to read them all? A. How much time . before leaving B. que llene el o los espacios en blanco en forma correcta y. hardest B. too good B. but he remembered that he _________ go and see a A short course in english for adult students 283 .B. so I don’t think he’ll get a good report from his superiors. A. better D. Have . would rather D. Have . most good 54. for .them D. since . I think you __________ eat less and do more physical exercise. enseguida..your family B. I noticed that ______________ a party the night before because there were dirty plates and glasses and empty bottles all over the place. What a few B How interesting C. ought to 59. Do – drank B.the most highest D.the higher 57. José? No.the high B. Bob : José: __________ you ever _________ Drambuie. Jim. How much 56. A. Mary seems to be a very responsible person. What is the ____________ professional experience you’ve had in your military career? A. John. __________ did you use to write to ____________ when you were serving in the United Nations Peacekeeping Forces in the Middle East? A. How many times – theirs C.been drunk 52. A.

An illiterate person is a person _______ can’t read or write. A.will never be 64. so that D.doesn’t have to be D. give the letter to her . too much heavy C.have talked C. are decreased . The manager told the secretary to use the computer ________ have the work done before midday. whom . John and his friends seldom_____________ when they´re at work because their boss is always keeping an eye on them. must have prevented B. as B. Don’t you think I should go and see if she is all right? A. not heavy enough 68. A.will see her B. Consequently.friend who was in hospital. The number of accidents caused by careless drivers_____________ during the last two years. for the year 66. give to her the letter .Mr Smith isn’t in the office at the moment. had been taking – should D. either as or C.will be producing 63. talk 69. he _________ considered a full member of our modern society. have been decreasing . A. If they had taken all the necessary precautions. He must be _________ having lunch ________attending a meeting at the Conference Hall. A. very heavy B.produce . I’ m sure the strict regulations the Ministry of Transport imposed two years ago ___________ the effects everyone expected. A.see her C. I can’t move this box by myself because it’s ____________ A. neither D. whose . had taken – must B.will produce C. A.mustn´t be C. a year D. give the letter her D. had been sleeping – yet 62.was allowed 61. for to B. in order to 70. don´t talk D. Grandmother ____________ when I went out to do the shopping about two hours ago and she is __________ asleep. could be prevented D.am going to see her 65. slept – also B.had to C. was going to take . which .are talking B. has slept – already D. I´m going to ______________ as soon as I ____________ this afternoon. too heavy D. so to C. by the year C. has decreased D. who . the accident _____________. give her the letter . was sleeping – still C. A. Mrs Brown takes her children to the dentist once or twice________ A.can see her . have been prevented . in a year B. could have been prevented 284 A short course in english for adult students C.are producing .never was able to be B. A. both nor and 67. are decreasing B.. would take .

had played C. right now D. would better B. You _________ do it right now. at all B. what time was it exactly 72. At this time tomorrow.Tom. don’t contradict C. A. suddenly 76. did D.will be C. still B. so I could go ___________ else. Your taxi hasn’t arrived _______. have used B. are going to fly B. was playing B. A. He may get angry and reprimand you. would rather 79. were allowed to use D. He needed the answer urgently. at once C. A.should be . I ____________ football almost every afternoon. Miss Jones? A. A. ___________ him. I think. Sir. If a superior tells you that you aren’t doing the job correctly. they _________ the old computer. seldom use 77. all the same D. had better D. do - would havecan have A short course in english for adult students 285 . would have had C.71. what the young man was doing C. had to C. too much everywhere somewhere C. have been flying 73. are using C. some nowhere anywhere 78. used to play D. Do you know ___________ when the fire began. will be flying D. where did the people go B. any D. I would have visited some other places too.Their laptop is being checked by a technician at moment. are flying C. otherwise you’ll be too busy tomorrow . A: What ________ you do if you __________ a lot of money? A. If I had had some extra money. 80. yet . do contradict 75. except to the places which were listed in the brochure. why was sleeping the old man D. A. I didn’t have___________ extra money. we______________ over the Atlantic near the coast of Africa. you don’t contradict B. don’t you contradict D. When I was your age. went 74. A. already must to be going to be B: I’d buy a car. so I sent him an email __________ A. can B. enough B. It __________ here in a few minutes A. For the time being.

need to remain 85. 81. A. The girl wasn’t old enough to get a driving licence. somewhere else C. got afraid of D. ought to stay D. A. The old man wasn’t able to get on the bus. o D. and Bill didn’t either. C. que exprese lo mismo o casi lo mismo que la parte subrayada. Registre su elección en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 91. was too very young 87. What time C. wasn’t very old D. No escriba en este cuadernillo.95. almost D. Mr Smith is quite fond of reading fiction novels. John didn’t come to class today. A. refused to 88. becomes B. and neither did Bill. simply couldn’t D. completely alone D. 89. How long B. became sick of C. dislikes to read 83. too. A. D. in the right way B. was much too old B. punctually 90. doesn’t enjoy reading D. How frequent 86. very often B. prefers to read B. The boy usually gets sick when he drinks milk. B. B. didn’t want to C. at once C. simply . My grandfather seldom goes out for walks in the evening. It’s too cold. hardly ever 286 A short course in english for adult students C. would like to stay 84. A. I think the children would rather stay at home today. wasn’t allowed to B. How often D.Instrucciones para las preguntas 81 . How many times a week do you practise tennis? A. A. so he walked home. but Bill didn’t also. hates reading C. Mrs Scott quickly got used to living in the Middle East. D. became accustomed to 82. so the little boy had to spend the day all by himself. The lieutenant reported to the general right away. begins D. A. obtains C. A. C. B. A. without anything to eat. There wasn’t anyone else in the house. quietly and secretly. was too young C. Elija la alternativa A. from a distant place. and Bill didn’t. have to be B. got tired of B. fills C. Cada una de las siguientes oraciones tiene una parte subrayada. A. and so did Bill.

so you should not have any trouble. D. Lea cuidadosamente el siguiente trozo de lectura. 98. actually C. be in that town B. “She’s still in the living-room. and Mrs Soames was a little worried. of course. report 94. C. D. Instrucciones para las preguntas 96 – 105. Because there wasn´t much food for the baby-sitter. o D. They saw a program on television. He is too old and is losing his memory. Mrs Soames went to the living-room right away and came out again a moment later holding the boy. My husband and I will be back at about eleven o’clock. Why was Mrs Soames so worried? A. es la más adecuada en cada caso. Because the boy was not in good health. They invited a baby-sitter to their house.” Mrs Soames said.What time do you think they will get there? A. Before she left. Enseguida deberá contestar las preguntas eligiendo la alternativa A. but don’t have it too loud because you might wake our little boy. She’s fast asleep!” 96. at present. from time to time B. leave out D. only a few times 95. leave the city C. C. The girl had never done baby sitting before. Because the boy was going with them as well. obtain a room C. No escriba en este cuadernillo. Because the girl had never done that kind of job before. with some exaggeration D. Carol. D. A short course in english for adult students 287 . Because she had left a tray of food in case he felt hungry. He’s told me the same thing over and over. Please cross out my name. They went to visit some friends. I won’t be able to attend the reception.92.” “He was looking at the television. They had some trouble with their baby. consider C. D. They are living in Los Angeles for the time being. It’s on the table.” Mrs Soames said. Registre la alternativa correcta en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. What did the Soames do that evening? A. A.” Mr and Mrs Soames returned rather later than they had expected A light was still on in the living-room. B. and the television could just be heard. “I’ve prepared a tray of food for you. listen to the radio or watch television. C. a young girl of seventeen. B. “He’s wide awake. Why was the girl told that she would have no trouble with the boy? A. He´ll go back to sleep at once. Anyway. 97. If the boy wakes up. A. get a place D. because the weather’s good there. You can. B. go to his room and stay there for a few minutes. Because the girl could not hear the television very well. C. A. “Make yourself comfortable. “Where’s Carol?” Mr Soames asked. many times. “What was he doing there?” Mr Soames exclaimed. B. 93. que estime Ud. Because the boy would be sleeping most of the time. because it’s a nice city. underline B. B. Mrs Soames gave last minute instructions to the baby-sitter. he’s four years old. Because the boy was a newly born baby.

among B. You can lie down on our bed if you feel tired. should E. quickly A. along E. his C. clever C. 102. 100. 110. 111. hour A short course in english for adult students . wide D. promised D. B. It was almost midnight. tie D. across D.butter B. however (line 3) 103. It was only a few minutes past eleven. Ubique en cada serie el término excluido y regístrelo en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 101. (término excluido). worse A. 105. looking for D. throw C. faster D. left (line 10) C. He will go to his bedroom again. It was just before eleven. well E. B.niece B. They were both in the living-room. high E.would B. rice A. perhaps C. Get a sofa and watch TV or listen to the radio if you like. ought D. B. waking up C. o E. What is the meaning of “holding” A. 114. No escriba en este Cuadernillo 106. C. planned. of course. looking at B. narrow A. age C. He will fall asleep again. D. It wasn´t very late. 104. En cada una de las series de palabras hay una que no corresponde a ella. month C. day D. century E. cotton E. B. happier E. C. What is the meaning of the expression “of course” (line 4) A. What time was it when the Soames arrived? A. could A. her D. Don´t worry about anything. D. by no means B. carrying Instrucciones para las preguntas 106 -120. 288 A. The boy was in the living-room and Carol was in the bed-room. aunt C. meat C. B. 113. weak B.? (line 8) A. their E. He will feel sleepy. glove E. juice D. En esta sección hay cinco alternativas A. behind A. 115.our B. C.deep B. C. cousin A. slowly B. fast D.neck B. sock C. mine A. 107 108. obviously D. C. D. careful C. What is the best synonym for “expected”’. The boy was awake and the girl was asleep. sight C. D. 109.99. Where were Carol and the baby when the Soames returned home? A. nephew D. decided B. Be careful with the neighbours. cheaper B. sun E. Carol was downstairs and the baby was upstairs. D. 112. shirt A. What’s the best synonym for “make yourself comfortable” A. What does the expression “He’ll go back to sleep” mean? (line 6) A. He will go to his bed.

barber D. seldom A. elbow C. broke C. 120. always E. bought B. often B. real C. shut E. sometimes D. arm D. tired D. nose B. shoulder A. tailor C. come THIS IS THE END OF THE ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A short course in english for adult students 289 . 119. brought C. belt E. made A. put E. grocer A.customer B. seen B.116. 118. 117. A. butcher E. forgot D.

Bl 290 .

63 64. 4. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 3. 70.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 ANSWER SHEET (Hoja de respuestas) Student_s Name _______________________Date: _____________ Score: _______ % A. 15. 50. 11. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 291 A short course in english for adult students . 25. 16. 2. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D B. 67. 21. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 53. 60. 42. 31. 47. 22. 23. 46. 40. 52. 10. 62. 48. 49. LISTENING PART 1. 44. 13. 32. 43. 55. 39. 14. 5. 34. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 12. 66. 37. 41. 68. 59. 9. 57. 19. 7. 17. 35. 20. 6. 54. 27. 38. 33. 8. 18. 36. 30. 45. 29. 65. 24. 56. 58. 28. 69.

104. 112. 117. 75. 103. 108. 115. 119. 89. 91. 102. 77. 80. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E 292 A short course in english for adult students . 99. 82. 109. 83. 105. 101. 81. 86. 88. 94. 120. 92. 106. 111. 107.71. 76. 87. 95. 90. 93. 78. 100. 116. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 96. 74. 98. 73. 97. 85. 118. 72. 114. 79. 110. 84. 113.

Question: Why are they so happy to be living there? 24. No escriba en este cuadernillo 1. Ud. I’m not happy with him because ________ There was a big noise outside the building and the lights went out while we __________ When the shop assistant told my wife the price of the watch. Question: Why did he refuse to accept the job offer? 20. Ud.30.John is fond of visiting people and usually entertains friends at his home.Tom knows Jane better because they’ve been friends for years since they were at school together. I’m absolutely sure that these are the books for children ___________What’s that noise. you really don’t look well this morning. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente.The secretary could not get in touch with the customers this morning. Question: How did Jack spend the day yesterday? 18. 13. Después de cada oración Ud. Jack. Question: Why can’t we ask Robert to talk about Jane’s personality? 22.45 that evening but they did not go in because it was too early and they did not feel hungry at that moment. Una vez elegida la alternativa correcta. Question: What did they A short course in english for adult students 293 . but Bill is two years younger. 6. marcando una X sobre la letra correspondiente. C.It’s usually cold and it rains quite a lot during the year in that part of the country. 0 D. I ___________ Instrucciones para las preguntas 16 . He is only ten at present. Ud. en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. oirá oraciones incompletas.15. I noticed that the computer ________ Although the old man knows how to do the job well. 4. Bill will have to work overtime if he wants to finish the job before the end of this month. Question: How old are Jack and Tom? 27. 9. so he left the job for the following weekend. C. you ________ I would certainly send her a post card from Edinburgh if I ____________ As soon as I entered the office this morning. If you take a taxi. Question: What must he do in order to complete the job in good time? 26. 15.BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 EXAMINER´S TEXT (Texto para el Examinador) A. Mary? I think somebody _____________ The traffic is too heavy at this time of day. she exclaimed __________ Robert Smith is planning to go somewhere and do something interesting because he feels ________ The little boy won’t be able to answer all the questions correctly because they are _______ Tom. 7. you are going to get there late if you go by bus. deberá elegir la alternativa A. He thought he’d rather be near his wife and children than be travelling all the time. They went to the club instead. que complete en mejor forma la oración leída por el examinador.The young captain did not make up his mind quickly. you ___________ As soon as the manager comes back to the office this afternoon. Mr Jackson and his friends met outside the restaurant at about 7. John. but he remembered he had to go and meet a friend at the airport.Robert told Jim to come to his office right away. En cada caso Ud. 11. LISTENING PART Instrucciones para las preguntas 1 . en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS. 16. Question: When did Robert want to see Jim? 17. 3.John didn’t accept the job offer because he would have to be away from home too often. whereas Robert only met her a couple of days ago. 10. deberá consignarla. una vez elegida la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla. so she will have to call them again this afternoon. No escriba en este cuadernillo. 8. oirá una pregunta y deberá elegir la alternativa A. 2. que la conteste en mejor forma. Question: What kind of a person is John? 21.John was going to work in the garden that morning. Question: What does the expression “didn’t make up his mind” mean in this sentence? 19. I think you __________ I had so many things to do at the office that I decided to go _________ John. o D. but they like living in that small town because all the shops are near. 12. Question: What did John do that morning? 25. the traffic is never so heavy and there are no factories nearby. B.Jack and Tom are the same age. 14.Jack didn’t go out yesterday because he had to read some reports and write some letters. 5. Question: What will the secretary do after lunch today? 23. B. oirá oraciones completas esta vez. I think you __________ If you don’t put on your glasses. That’s why he can’t tell us much about her.

do after all of them had arrived? 28.They had a good time there because, although the weather was not fine, they had the chance of making friends and visiting places. Question: Why did they enjoy their holidays so much? 29.Mr Clark walked home from the office that evening because all the buses were full at that time and he didn’t have enough money to take a taxi. Question: Why didn’t Mr Clark go home by bus? 30.The Browns hardly ever go to their parents´ farm in the south because it is too far and it takes them more than ten hours to drive there. Question: How often do they go there during the year? Instrucciones para las preguntas 31-40. Ud. oirá oraciones completas y, en cada caso, deberá elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que ten-ga el significado más parecido a la oración leída por el examinador. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. 31. He’d rather stay at home all day today. 32. He got used to living in this house after a few months. 33. He could not attend the reception at the embassy that day because he was too busy. 34. Mary got in touch with him as soon as she got there. 35. Paul isn´t old enough to travel abroad by himself. 36. They ate their meal in a hurry because it was too cold inside the restaurant. 37. Robert telephoned them that evening in order to give them the news. 38. It hardly ever snows in that region. 39. They used to repair cars in those days. 40. She did everything right away. Instrucciones para las preguntas 41 -50. El examinador leerá una historia. Escuche atentamente. Enseguida oirá preguntas relativas al texto leído. En cada caso, deberá elegir la alternativa A, B, C, o D. que responda en mejor forma la pregunta. Una vez que haya elegido la alternativa correcta, deberá consignarla en su HOJA DE RESPUESTAS, No escriba en este cuadernillo. “A holiday abroad? Yes, of course, Mrs Green. I’m sure we can arrange something for you.” The travel agent smiled at the old lady across the counter. He knew her well. At one time, years before, she and her husband used to go to Brighton every summer. In those days, he booked a family hotel for them. Then they started to take their holidays in France - and he got them their boat tickets. Later, when their children grew up, they ‘discovered’ Italy and Spain. He bought their air tickets or found cheap holidays for them. But then, the previous autumn, Mr Green died. “Well, no more holidays abroad for Mrs Green,” he thought. “She’ll probably start going to Brighton again!” But he was wrong! Here she was, only a few months after her husband’s death, back in his office asking about holidays abroad. “Have you any particular place in mind?” he asked. “How about Portugal, for instance? A nice, friendly place, with good weather... “ Mrs Green shook her head. “As a matter of fact,” she said, “I was thinking of India!” India! For a moment, the travel agent was surprised, but then he thought: “Of course! Lots of people want to go to India these days. It’s all these programmes and films on TV. However, at her age...” “India …” he said. “Well, yes. I’m sure we can fix up something for you.” He showed Mrs Green a brochure. “How about a two-week tour, for example? Complete with air ticket, hotels, meals and guides. You’ll see the really important places - and you won’t have to think about a thing!” “Thank you,” said Mrs Green. “That’s exactly what 1 don’t want.” The travel agent looked puzzled. “Look,” Mrs Green went on. “I’ve got a guidebook of India here.” She waved it at him. “It says you can go everywhere by bus or train. There are plenty of cheap hotels - and food is cheap too. So all I need is a cheap air ticket! Can you get me one or not?” 41. Why did Mrs Green visit the travel agent that morning? 42. Why did the travel agent smile when he saw her in his office? 43. Where did the Greens spend their summer holidays when the children were small? 44. Why did they start going to Italy or Spain? 45. What happened a few months ago? 46. What did the travel agent think Mrs Green was planning to do? 47. Where did the travel agent suggest Mrs Green should go on holiday next summer? 48. Why was the travel agent so surprised? 49. Why did the travel agent offer her the two-week package tour of India? 50. Why didn’t Mrs. Green want to take the package tour the travel agent recommended her? THIS IS THE END OF THE LISTENING PART OF THE TEST
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A short course in english for adult students

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR STRUCTURES AND VOCABULARY A SHORT COURSE IN ENGLISH FOR ADULT STUDENTS ASSESSMENT TEST 1 A. LISTENING PART 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A KEY TO ANSWERS (Clave de respuestas) B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

B. READING PART (Time limit : 35 minutes) 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D
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A short course in english for adult students

71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120.

A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A

B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B

C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C

D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D

E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

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A short course in english for adult students

APENDICE 1 CHART 1. BASIC VERB TENSES
PRESENT SIMPLE
(S + DO / DOES + INFINITIVE)

I write (= I do write) a letter every day
(Yo escribo una carta todos los días;)

Mary writes (= Mary does write) a letter every day.
(Mary escribe una carta todos los días)

CONTINUOUS
(S + AM / IS / ARE + ING)

I am writing a letter now.
(Yo estoy ecribiendo una carta ahora)

PERFECT
(S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE)

I have written several letters today.
(Yo he escrito varias cartas hoy)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + HAVE / HAS BEEN + ING)

I have been writing letters since 8:30 this morning
(Yo he estado escribiendo cartas desde las 8:30 de la mañana)

PAST

SIMPLE
(S + DID + INFINITIVE )

I wrote (= I did write) a letter yesterday.
(Yo escribí una carta ayer)

CONTINUOUS
(S + WAS / WERE + ING)

I was writing a letter when John arrived at 8:45 this evening .
(Yo estaba escribiendo una carta cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde)

PERFECT
(S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE)

I had already written three letters when John arrived at 8:45 this evening.
(Yo ya había escrito tres cartas cuando John llegó al las 8:45 esta tarde)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + HAD BEEN + ING)

I had been writing letters for about two hours when John arrived at 8:45 this evening
(Yo había estado escribiendo cartas por cerca de dos horas cuando John llegó a las 8:45 esta tarde)

FUTURE

SIMPLE
A) B) C) (S + WILL + INFINITIVE) (S +AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO + INF) (S + AM / IS / ARE + ING)

a) I will write a letter to John tomorrow
(Yo escribiré una carta a Juan mañana)

b) I am going to w rite a letter to John tomorrow.
(Yo voy a escribir una carta a John mañana )

c) I am writing a letter to John in a few minutes
(Estoy escribiendo una carta a Juan dentro de unos pocos minutos)

CONTINUOUS
(S + WILL BE + ING )

I will be writing letters when you come to see me this evening.
(Yo estaré escribiendo cartas cuando tú vengas a verme esta tarde)

PERFECT
(S + WILL HAVE + PAST PART)

I will have written several letters when you come to see me this evening.
(Yo habré escrito varias cartas cuando vengas a verme esta tarde)

PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(S + WILL HAVE BEEN + ING )

I will have been writing letters for more than two hours when you come at midday.
(Yo habré estado escribiendo cartas por más de dos horas cuando vengas al mediodía.)

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APENDICE 2 CHART 2. BASIC VERB TENSES: STRUCTURE AND USAGE
A. CONTINUOUS (OR PROGRESSIVE) TENSES
PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO:

Describe una acción que se está realizando Describe una acción que se estaba Describe una acción que se estará realizando o está ocurriendo en este momento y que realizando o estaba ocurriendo en un o estará ocurriendo en un momento aún no han concluido. momento determinado en el pasado determinado en el futuro

ESTRUCTURA:
S + AM / IS / ARE+ ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S+WAS / WERE +ING

ESTRUCTURA:
S+WILL BE+ ING S + AM / IS / ARE + GOING TO BE + ING

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
Now, at the moment, at this time, For the time being, at present

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S + Past + yesterday / last Monday,etc .At...o´clock yesterday / last Monday, etc,

EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO:
When + S + Present + tomorrow / next week, etc. At..o´clock tomorrow / next Monday, etc.

EJEMPLOS:
John is speaking with the manager now John is not / isn´t speaking with the manager now Is John speaking with the manager now?

EJEMPLOS:
John was speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday. John was not / wasn´t speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday Was John speaking to the manager when I saw him yesterday?

EJEMPLOS:
John will be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. John will not / won´t be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow. Will John be speaking with the manager at this time tomorrow.

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What are you doing (now)? / wót a:r iu: dúi_ náu / ¿Qué esta haciendo Ud. ahora?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What were you doing (at that time)? / wót wer iu: dúi_ at __t táim / ¿Qué estaba Ud. haciendo a esa hora?

PREGUNTA HABITUAL:
What will you be doing (at 8:30 this evening) ? / wót wil iu: bí: dú:i_ at eit _é: rti _is ívni_ / ¿Qué estará haciendo Ud. a las 8:30 esta tarde?

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Sam: Hi Bob! What are you doing? Are you watching the news? Bob: No, I´m not. I´m studying history. I have my term test tomorrow. And what are you doing here? Sam: I´m looking for Mary. Is she at home? Bob: Yes, she is. She´s reading the paper in the garden, I think. Sam: Thanks, Bob. I´m sorry I interrupted you. Bob: Don´t worry,. It´s all right Detective:

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Were you at home at the time the men broke into the house, Mr Smith? Yes, Sir. But I was in the garage. I was washing the car. Was your wife with you? No, she wasn´t. She was attending a conference at the Arts Museum. Did you hear any noise in the house? Yes, I did. But I thought Billy was watching TV upstairs.

SAMPLE DIALOG:
Bob: What will you be doing at this time next Saturday? Jack: I´ll be flying to London. Bob: What time will you be landing at Heathrow? Jack: At about 8:15 in the evening. We won´t be arriving at the hotel before 9:30. Bob: Will you go on a sightseeing tour on Sunday? Jack: Of course not! We will be working all day on Sunday. We must have everything ready for the World Peace Talks which start on Monday.

Peter:

Detective: Peter:

Detective: Peter:

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EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Tomorrow. Describe una acción que se realiza o Describe una acción que se realizó o sucede en forma habitual... como ayer..etc..... Do I speak with the manager . That day. often. como todos los sucedió en una fecha u hora determinada días.. every month. el sábado pasado. Did I speak with the manager...? EJEMPLOS: a) I will speak with the manager tomorrow... next Sunday. Jane does not speak with the .. etc Always. I did not speak with the manager. several times a year. Will I speak with the manager. etc. SIMPLE TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se realizará o sucederá en una hora o fecha determinada en el futuro. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa do / does + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: S+DID+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa S + Past. last week...? b) I´m going to speak with the manager tomorrow.... I do not speak with the manager..she it se agrega s / es al infinitivo). twice a week.? Jane speaks (= Jane does speak) with the manager every day.. plan) c) S+AM / IS / ARE+ING (Actividad .... next month.. seldom. Am I speaking with .. etc...? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What do you do (every day) ? / wót diu: dú: évri déi / (¿Qué hace Ud. siempre. 1997.. (con He.. usually..etc. EJEMPLOS: I speak (= I do speak) with the manager every day.. etc. Does Jane speak with the manager. Two days ago. last Sunday.... ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: a) What will you do (tomorrow) ? / wot wil iú dú: tumórou / ¿Qué hará Ud. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Yesterday. I ´m not speaking with .? EJEMPLOS: I spoke (= I did speak) with the manager yesterday. mañana?) b) What are you going to do (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: gói_ tu dú: tomórou / ¿Qué va a hacer . el próximo sábado. last night..? 300 A short course in english for adult students .. every week... next week. en el pasado...... etc... in 1986.? c) I´m speaking with the manager tomorrow.... ESTRUCTURA: S+DO / DOES+INFINITIVE* *En la forma afirmativa se usa solamente S + Infinitive. como mañana.B. I´m not going to speak with . on May 4... todos los días) PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What did you do (yesterday)? / wót did iu: dú: iésterdei / ¿Que hizo Ud.. ten months ago. etc. sometimes.. I will not speak with the manager. En las negaciones e interrogaciones se usa did + infinitive (Ver Ejemplos) ESTRUCTURA: a) S+WILL+INFINITIVE (Decisión) b) S+AM / IS / ARE+GOING TO + INF (Intención..prevista o acordada con aticipación) EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Every day... Am I going to speak with. Once a day..? c) What are you doing (tomorrow)? / wót a:r iu: dúi_ tumórou / ¡Que tiene previsto hacer.

Nancy? Nancy: I live on Clark Street. Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: PAST SAMPLE DIALOG: What did you do last week-end? I went to the beach. We will go to Cancun again. Did you go alone? No. We really had a great time there. we´re going to make reservations for the last two weeks in July. Bob: Ann: Bob: Ann: FUTURE SAMPLE DIALOG: What will you do in the summer?. Where did you stay? We rented a small house. Bob: How do you get here every day? Nancy: I generally take the bus. Bob: That sounds great! Bob: Jack: Bob: Jack: A short course in english for adult students 301 . My friends and I are meeting this evening to discuss our plans. I didn´t. Bob: Does your husband take the bus too? Nancy: No he doesn´t . When are you going to leave? Well. Bob: Are you just going to visit Cancún? Ann: I don´t know yet. It doesn´t take him more than 5 minutes to get to the office. He usually walks. I went with some friends.PRESENT SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Where do you live. What did you do on Saturday? In the afternoon we went swimming and in the evening we went to a disco.

They will have gone by the time Peter arrives this evening PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you done (since you arrived this morning)? / wot av iu: dán sins iu: arráivd δ is mó:rniη / ¿Que ha hecho Ud. antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have done (by the end of this month)? / wot wil iu: hav dán bai δ i énd ov δ is mánθ / ¿Qué habrá hecho ud. continuado hasta este momento. since. John: I hope your dreams come true 302 A short course in english for adult students ... b) una acción que acaba de ocurrir.etc By this time tomorrow / next month. Have you ever drunk tequila? EJEMPLOS: The train had already left when we got to the station. twice. never. EJEMPLOS: When Peter gets here today.... never. not. He had worked in the Army for about 30 years when he retired. lately. Once. already .. many times before. I must say Central Park is beautiful at this time of the year. three times.before EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S+ Present + tomorrow / next Monday. I´ve come here three or four times. it wasn´t I had been in New York a couple of times before.. He says it´s spectacular. Officer: I´m sure you will enjoy the visit SAMPLE DIALOG: Bob: Was that your first visit to New York? Jane: No. Bob: Why didn´t Jack go with you? Jane: He couldn´t afford the trip. we will have had lunch already. PERFECT TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá realizado o completado antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro. Jackson has never travelled abroad.. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE ESTRUCTURA: S + WILL HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For. Your train has just left. We had had dinner by the time they arrived last night. He had not saved enough money for the tickets. Just.C.. Sir.etc. Officer: Have you ever been to the Grand Canyon? Peter: No. etc. I have never been there. Sir Peter has been in Chicago twice. I think they will have finished building it before the end of this week. antes de una fecha futura Describe a) una acción que comenzó a realizarse Describe una acción que se realizó u en una fecha u hora en el pasado y que ha ocurrió antes que otra ocurriera...yet. But they will have built several important roads and our economy will have grown considerably. before. She had never been in Paris before. But one of my brothers has visited it several times. SAMPLE DIALOG: John: Have they finished building the bridge yet? Peter: No they haven´t..Several times.... desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you done (before Peter arrived yesterday)? / wot had iu: dán bifó: r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Que había hecho ud. hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Officer: Is this the first time you came to the United States? Peter: No. many times Ever? EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: When + S + Past By the time + S + Past Several times before. Mrs.. c) una acción que se ha realizado varias veces en el pasado.. But I had never visited it in the spring. John: How many bridges will they have built by the end of this decade? Peter: I don´t know. EJEMPLOS: I have lived in Santiago for ten years I have lived in Santiago since 1992.. By the end of this month / year.

. After all we have been using the ferry for years and have become used to it.. hacia fines de este mes? SAMPLE DIALOG: Peter: What have you been doing since you got up this morning? Mary: I´ve been doing lots of things. They´d been dancing and singing... antes de una fecha futura. desde que llegó esta mañana? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What had you been doing before Peter arrived yesterday? / wot had iu: bí:n dú:iη bifó:r pí:ter arráivd iésterdei / ¿Qué había estado haciendo Ud.. by the time + S + Present EJEMPLOS: I have been working on this project since March this year They have been waiting for the bus for about twenty minutes so far.. PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What have you been doing since you arrived here this morning? / wot av iu: bí:n dú:iη sins iu: arráivd híar δis mó:rniη / ¡Qué ha estado haciendo Ud. I haven´t been sleeping well since this term started in March.... John: And why were the neighbors so angry? Jim: They had been trying to sleep. It had been raining hard for about two hours that morning... / for.. Peter: Yes.. And they had also been sitting and talking by the fire. ESTRUCTURA: S + HAVE / HAS+BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S + HAD + BEEN + ING ESTRUCTURA: S+WILL HAVE + BEEN + ING EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For.. since. and I have been studying for the final exams.... but hadn´t been able to do so because of the noise!!! SAMPLE DIALOG: A. A short course in english for adult students 303 .. EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: Since.D.. They will have been discussing it for fifteen months next week and they haven´t yet decided whether it should or shouldn´t be built. Peter: You really look tired. by the time + S + Past EXPRESIONES DE TIEMPO: For..... I hope they take a stand and vote for it.. and you´ll get your degree at last!! SAMPLE DIALOG: John: What had your friends been doing that evening? Jim: They´d been celebrating Mary´s birthday. Al igual que el Presente Perfecto describe Describe una acción que se había estado una acción que comenzó a realizarse en realizando en forma ininterrumpida antes una fecha u hora en el pasado y que ha que otra ocurriera. PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES PRESENT USO: PAST USO: FUTURE USO: Describe una acción que se habrá estado realizándose en forma ininterrumpida antes que otra ocurra otra acción en el futuro... It´s a shame! Well. we simply have to be patient and wait. Yes. Anyway. / for.. antes que Peter llegara ayer? PREGUNTA HABITUAL: What will you have been doing by the end of this month? / wót wil iu: hav bí:n dú:iη bai δi énd ov δis mánθ / ¿Qué habrá estado haciendo Ud. A. Mary: Yes. continuado en forma ininterrumpida hasta este momento. It will all be over before the end of this month.. when S + Past Since... I will have been working on this project for more than three months by the time this term ends. EJEMPLOS: John had been working in his office since 8:30 that morning. In the meantime. I´ve been working on my thesis.. EJEMPLOS: Peter will have been living in this country for five years by the end of this month..... Are they still discussing the project to build the new bridge across the Potomac? B.

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