# Summary from previous lecture

• Laplace transform
L [f (t)] ≡ F (s) = Z
+∞

f (t)e−st dt. 1 . s

0−

L [u(t)] ≡ U (s) = L e £
−at

h i ˙(t) = sF (s) − f (0−). L f L ·Z
t

f (ξ)dξ =
0−

Transfer functions and impedances
f (t) x(t)
Ts (s)
J

¤

1 . = s+a

¸

F (s) . s

Ω(s)
b

TF(s) =

X(s) F (s) F (s) X(s)
ZJ = Js;
TF(s) :=

F (s)

X(s)
Z(s) =

Ω(s) 1 . = Ts (s) Js + b

Zb = b;

TF(s) =

1 ZJ + Zb

2.004 Fall ’07

Lecture 04 – Wednesday, Sept. 12

– current. – inductors.Goals for today • Dynamical variables in electrical systems: – charge.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 04 – Wednesday. Sept. – amplifiers. – voltage. Electrical elements: – resistors. 12 . Transfer Functions of electrical systems (networks) Next lecture (Friday): – DC motor (electro-mechanical element) model – DC motor Transfer Function • • • 2. – capacitors.

Electrical dynamical variables: charge. voltage charge q charge ﬂow ≡ current i(t) voltage (aka potential) v(t) + – Coulomb [Cb] Amp´re [A]=[Cb]/[sec] e Volt [V] v(t) + + + + + + + + − + + + – – dq(t) i(t) := dt 2. current. Sept.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 04 – Wednesday. 12 .

energy must be expended to generate current along the resistor..e. i. As result.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 04 – Wednesday.Electrical resistance + + v(t) + + − + + + + + + i(t) • Collisions between the mobile charges and the material fabric (ions. Sept. the current flow requires application of potential across the resistor V (s) v(t) = Ri(t) ⇒ V (s) = RI(s) ⇒ = R ≡ ZR I(s) • • The quantity ZR=R is called the resistance (unit: Ohms. or Ω) The quantity GR=1/R is called the conductance (unit: Mhos or Ω-1) 2. generally disordered) lead to energy dissipation (loss). 12 .

Sept. the potential v is necessary to prevent the charges from flowing away from the electrodes (discharge) • Each change in potential v(t+Δt)=v(t)+Δv results in change of the energy stored in the capacitor.Capacitance + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + dielectric (insulator) v(t) − − − − − − − − − − − − − − electrode (conductor) − − + − + − i(t) + + + + + + E(t) − − − − i(t) + electrode (conductor) • Since similar charges repel. 12 .004 Fall ’07 Lecture 04 – Wednesday. in the form of charges moving to/away from the electrodes (↔ change in electric field) 2.

12 .Capacitance + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + dielectric (insulator) v(t) − − − − − − − − − − − − − − electrode (conductor) − − + − + − i(t) + + + + + + E(t) − − − − i(t) + electrode (conductor) dv(t) dq(t) ≡ i(t) = C • Capacitance C: q(t) = Cv(t) ⇒ dt dt V (s) 1 ≡ ZC (s) = • in Laplace domain: I(s) = CsV (s) ⇒ I(s) Cs 2.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 04 – Wednesday. Sept.

Sept. The magnetic field counteracts changes in current. 12 2.. to effect a change in current i(t+Δt)=i(t)+Δi a potential v must be applied (i. energy expended) Inductance L: − • • di(t) v(t) = L dt in Laplace domain: V (s) ≡ ZL (s) = Ls V (s) = LsI(s) ⇒ I(s) Lecture 04 – Wednesday.e.Inductance v(t) + B(t) i(t) • Current flow i around a loop results in magnetic field B pointing normal to the loop plane.004 Fall ’07 . therefore.

NJ: John Wiley. Hoboken. Current source: i(t) independent of voltage across. Please see: Table 2. Sources Table removed due to copyright restrictions.3 in Nise. Sept. 2004. Electrical inputs: voltage source. 4th ed.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 04 – Wednesday. current source + − Ground: potential reference Voltage source: v(t) independent of current through. v(t) = 0 always 2. Control Systems Engineering. Norman S. 12 .Summary: passive electrical elements.

Network analysis relies on two physical principles • Kirchhoff Current Law (KCL) – charge conservation i1 ··· • Kirchhoff Voltage Law (KVL) – energy conservation − ··· +− vk + ik P 2.004 Fall ’07 + v1 P ik (t) = 0 Ik (s) = 0 − Lecture 04 – Wednesday. Sept. David Trumper. 12 P P vk (t) = 0 Vk (s) = 0 .Combining electrical elements: networks Ω + - Ω v(t) V (s) vC (t) VC (s) Courtesy of Prof. Used with permission.

I2 Impedances in parallel KCL: I = I1 + I2 . equivalent circuit has ¶ µ 1 1 1 = + . I2 Therefore. equivalent circuit has ´ 1 1 ³ 1 = ⇔ G = G1 + G2 .004 Fall ’07 V − + V − Lecture 04 – Wednesday. I1 Z2 = V2 . Z = Z1 + Z2 ⇔ G G1 G2 Therefore. KVL: V1 + V2 ≡ V . Sept. 12 . KVL: V = V1 + V2 . + Z Z1 Z2 Z I Z I + 2.Impedances in series and in parallel I1 Z1 + V1 − + Z2 I2 I Z1 I1 + Z2 + + V2 − V1 − I2 V2 − V − Impedances in series KCL: I1 = I2 ≡ I. From deﬁnition of impedances: Z1 = V1 . I1 Z2 = V2 . From deﬁnition of impedances: Z1 = V1 .

Z Vi Z1 + Z2 V . Sept. + I Vi − Z2 V2 − Vi − + − I Z Since the two impedances are in series.The voltage divider Z1 + + + − Equivalent circuit for computing the current I. Z Block diagram & Transfer Function Vi Z2 Z1 + Z2 V2 2. the voltage drop across Z2 is V2 = Z2 I = Z2 V2 Z2 V ⇒ = .004 Fall ’07 Lecture 04 – Wednesday. The current ﬂowing through the combined impedance is I= Therefore. they combine to an equivalent impedance Z = Z1 + Z2 . 12 .

inertia J and viscous friction coeﬃcient b that we saw in Lecture 3. i. The transfer function is obtained as TF(s) = 1/Cs 1 1 VC (s) = = = . VC (t) = V0 1 − e Lecture 04 – Wednesday.] We can use the analogy to establish properties of the RC system without re—deriving them: e.. where now τ = RC.Example: the RC circuit Z1 = R + + + − Block diagram & Transfer Function Vi − Z2 = 1 Cs VC − Vi 1 1 + RCs VC We recognize the voltage divider conﬁguration. we note the similarity to the transfer function of the rotational mechanical system consisting of a motor. Further. Vi (s) R + 1/Cs 1 + RCs 1 + τs 2. [The transfer function was 1/b(1 + τ s). identical within a multiplicative constant. and the time constant τ was deﬁned as J/b. 12 .e. the response to a step input Vi = V0 u(t) (step response) is ³ ´ −t/τ u(t). with the voltage across the capacitor as output.004 Fall ’07 where τ ≡ RC.g. Sept.

12 . C V0 = 1 Volt R = 2kΩ C = 1μF − − − − − − − − − − + + − − − − − − − − − − VC (t) [Volts] − Charging of a capacitor: becomes progressively more difficult as charges accumulate. Capacity (steady-state) is reached asymptotically (VC→V0 as t→∞) + t [msec] 2. τ = RC.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 04 – Wednesday. Sept.Interpretation of the RC step response Z1 = R + + + + − + Vi − Z2 = 1 Cs VC + + − + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + VC (t) = V0 1 − e ³ −t/τ ´ u(t).

12 . Figure 2. 2. Sept.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 04 – Wednesday.Example: RLC circuit with voltage source + R L + - VL (s) − + VR (s) − Ls C vC(t) R 1 Cs + v(t) + - V (s) i (t) + − VC (s) − Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.3 V(s) s2 + 1 LC R 1 s + L LC VC(s) Figure 2.4 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.

Hoboken. 2004.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 04 – Wednesday. Control Systems Engineering. 2. 2. Sept. Please see: Fig. NJ: John Wiley. Norman S. 12 .6 and 2.7 in Nise.Example: two-loop network Images removed due to copyright restrictions. 4th ed.

where A is the ampliﬁer gain.10 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. 12 . Figure 2. (c). Vo − V1 = Vo = I2 Z2 . vo = A (v2 − v1 ). then vo = −Av1 . the op—amp should then instead be used in the feedback conﬁguration of Fig.) (c) Often. we obtain Vo (s) Z2 (s) . =− Z1 (s) Vi (s) 2. Vi − V1 = Vi = I1 Z1 . Ia = 0 Z2(s) Vi(s) Z1(s) I1(s) V1(s) Ia(s) + I2(s) Vo(s) (because Vo must remain ﬁnite) therefore I1 + I2 = 0.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 04 – Wednesday. Rather than connecting the input directly. +V +v1(t) +v2(t) + A -V vo(t) v1(t) + A vo(t) (b) When v2 is grounded.The operational amplifier (op-amp) (a) Generally. (Inverting ampliﬁer. as is often the case in practice. Sept. A is large enough that we can approximate A → ∞. Combining. We have: V1 = 0.