# SE 302 Linear systems Mathematical background

Mathematical background Laplace t L l transform f Linearization Complex numbers .

Linear and Non-Linear systems A system is linear if It satisfies the principle of superposition The excitation u1+u2 results in y1+y2 It satisfies the principle of homogeneity The excitation a*u1 results in a*y1 Examples: y=x2 y=mx+b .

Linearity of systems A mass on a spring example .

Linearization. m = 2 yo .. The system operating point is the equilibrium position that occurs when the force balances the gravitational force Mg g g fo=Mg If the spring is non-linear f=y2 /2 We get y2 = Mg or yo=(Mg)1/2 From the linear model ∆f = m ∆y where m = df/dy at yo ∆y.

Linearization: Another example Small angle approximation: This will hold for small angle. .

Function linearization Taylor series expansion around the operating .

An example : Double inverted pendulum system .

An example: The Non-linear equations Define the following .

An example…we now get .

Linearization The NL terms The operating point is down-down The linearized model is .

and Im(c) = b dI ( ) .Complex numbers The Th number b c=a+ib Re(c) R ( ) = a.

Representing complex numbers Rectangular form .

Representing complex numbers Exponential form .

Representing complex numbers Polar form .

Operations Conjugate Addition Product Division .

An example .