FN-176 (Revised

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e: orand hat g Art t sa ed at u p Practice a p ed e nd S o m le h of d b C un Sausagend a g o een Makings r b g s es in ic on a sp as h th i r se lly ra w e a atu d th usu n re o d in ctu an ffed fa tu anu s m s. r ng o si a c
The
Martin Marchello, Ph.D., Professor, Animal and Range Sciences Julie Garden-Robinson, Ph.D., L.R.D., Food and Nutrition Specialist
North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota December 1998
Reviewed and reprinted July 2004

1

History The origin of meat processing is lost in antiquity but probably began Sausage: or when mankind learned that salt is an effective preservative. Any product can be made from a wide range of raw materials exposed fed in stuf to rather extreme conditions of temperature and time schedules and be consumer acceptable. spiced and cased. hat has b ith Good sausage makers are as discriminating about what goes into t sausage as winemakers are about selecting grapes. Sausage also provides significant amounts of vitamins and minerals. nd The primary ingredients of sausage were the parts of the animal spic es a carcasses that could not be used in other ways. cure. Today many primal parts are used in the production of sausage. ground m een quality standards are maintained while using most parts of the animal carcass. Furthermore. organ meats and even blood can be made delicious gs when ground. but sausage recipes have been greatly refined and usual and sausage making has become a highly respected culinary art. The contemporary role of sausage fits conveniently into our modern lifestyles as an elegant appetizer for entertaining as well as the main course in “quick-and-easy” meals. ral or natu d grew in popularity and brought fame and fortune nufac ture Sausage makers and to various cities. seasonin ly The procedure of stuffing meat into casings remains basically the same today. the less other tender cuts. and many of these can be traced back to the town and country of origin. c asings. pH. History 2 . maintenance and repair of body tissue. however. containing all the essential amino acids in appropriate amounts necessary for growth. drying and cooking to preserve the product and eliminate harmful bacteria. In sausage making. Today more than 250to many sausage varieties ma are sold. Sausage making evolved as an effort to economize and preserve meat that Chopped eat could not be consumed fresh at slaughter. Sausages are an excellent source of high quality protein. Early sausage blended w makers found that a wide range of raw ingredients could be used. sausages are a relatively safe product to consume because of the added effects of salt. Sausage is a convenient food available in a great number of varieties and flavors.

Smokehouses can be as simple as a tarp covering or as sophisticated as a commercial unit. If you do not have a grinder. mettwurst. Storage and Handling Keep refrigerated. Plans for smokehouses are available from the Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. Consume within 3 days or freeze. Consume within 7 days or freeze. you can purchase ground meat from the store. summer sausage. smoked product like bacon to produce the smoky flavor. Keep refrigerated. Cook bratwurst. ND 58105 (Phone 231-7261). sausage was formed into a symmetrical shape. poultry and wild game. You can purchase a household smoker or make one. An old refrigerator converted to a smokehouse works quite well if you need to smoke the product. Traditionally. bockwurst thoroughly before eating. Do not require refrigeration. cotto salami Genoa salami. freshness dated and 100% edible. Table 1 Sausage Classifications Classification Fresh sausage Examples Fresh pork sausage. cervelot. Processing methods give sausages easily recognizable characteristics. but liquid smoke can be added to give the smoky flavor desired.Types of Sausage Sausages are made from beef. thuringer Loaves. or from any combination of these meats. pork. Many sausage products are vacuum packed. Box 5626. keilbasa pork sausage Frankfurter. Lebanon bologna. lamb. Keep refrigerated. veal. Equipment It only requires a grinder. a good meat thermometer and some general household items to make excellent sausage. Many products do not need to be smoked. North Dakota State University. Consume within 3 days after opening vacuum package. Uncooked smoked sausage Cooked smoked sausage Dry sausage Semi-dry sausage Cooked meat specialties Smoked. Sausages can be classified in a variety of ways. keep refrigerated. head cheese. country style. but it now can be found in a variety of shapes and sizes to meet consumers’ needs. Keep refrigerated. Cook thoroughly before eating. but probably the most useful is by how they are processed (Table 1). highlymechanized processes. scrapple 3 . bologna. Fargo. Consume within 7 days after opening vacuum package. Sausage making has become a unique blend of old procedures and new scientific. pepperoni. For best quality. or you may add a small portion of a cooked.

4 . be sure to follow directions on the packages. is made by placing the ground ingredients in some type of forming device to give them shape and hold them together for thermal processing. A slurry is made of the spices and salt using two cups of water. Sodium nitrite is very necessary to inhibit production and growth of the deadly toxin produced by the microorganism Clostridium botulinum. Natural casings are the gastrointestinal tracts of cattle. If these are used.) The product is then ground again to the desired consistency. The casing materials may be natural or manufactured.Selecting Ingredients Procedure Sausage making is a continuous sequence of events. have the proper lean-tofat ratio and have good binding qualities. mixing thoroughly. Stuffing It is not necessary to stuff fresh sausage meat. stuffing. In other words. we can break sausage production down into four basic processes: selecting ingredients. and thermal processing. (Water is added to dissolve the curing ingredients. buy ground meats. Each step in the proper sequence is important to a successful operation. is sodium nitrite (usually 6 percent) on a salt base. Grinding and mixing For safety. Mixing should be done before the final grind. The meat should be clean and not contaminated with bacteria or other microorganisms. Most sausage. keep the temperature of the meat as cold as possible during grinding and mixing. to facilitate the mixing and to give the products their characteristic texture and taste. grinding and mixing. an essential part of some formulations. hog casings are the most suitable for home use and work quite well for Polish and breakfast-type sausages. it is desirable to work with small batches (up to 25 pounds) so the cure and seasoning can be more evenly distributed. The finished product is only as good as the ingredients it contains. Meat should be fresh. Unless you have special equipment. Cure. If you don’t have a grinder. It usually can be purchased at a local locker plant. Generally. add the seasonings and mix thoroughly by hand. Tender Quick and saltpeter can be found in markets and at drugstores. The usual procedure is to grind the various meats coarsely and then add the rest of the ingredients. They are digestible and are very permeable to moisture and smoke. Grinding improves the uniformity of the product by distributing the ingredients and making the particles the same size. It is not practical to consider each step separately or to assign more importance to one phase or operation. Selecting spices and seasonings and combining them in proper amounts is important. sheep and hogs. It also gives the characteristic cured color to a sausage product and improves flavor. Commercial products such as Freeze Em Pickle. They must complement each other to create a satisfying product. high quality. meat used in sausage production should be as safe as any meat you would prepare in your kitchen. It can be left in bulk form or made into patties. however. but for convenience and illustration.

such as liver sausage. Fibrous casings are more suitable for summer sausage and similar products because of their greater strength and the variety of sizes available. • Keep meat as cold as possible (40 °F or lower) during processing. Place in a cooler. are cooked but not smoked. Smoke at 120 °F for one hour. are smoked with a minimum of heating and are designed to be cooked at the time of consumption. 150 °F for one more hour. • Sanitize surfaces with a solution of 1 tablespoon chlorine bleach per gallon of water. These casings also are used for the manufacture of dry sausages. as well as to impart a smoky flavor and improve its appearance. Let dry for one to two hours. running cold water through the casing. They are permeable to smoke and moisture and can easily be removed from the finished product. Collagen casings contain the attributes of both natural and fibrous casings. They are uniform in size. For cooked products that are generally water-cooked (like braunschweiger). 160 °F for one more hour.All casings preserved in salt must be soaked in lukewarm water for at least 30 minutes before use. These casings should be soaked before use in 80 to 100 °F water for at least 30 minutes. Smoking and heating also fixes the color and causes protein to move to the surface of the sausage so it will hold its shape when the casing is removed. Allow to air dry. Flush each casing under cold water. A few products. • If dehydrating meat. Keep raw meat separate from other foods. as this will ruin the product. Procedure for smoking polish sausage: After stuffing in hog casings (pre-flushed). • Marinate raw meat in the refrigerator. • Start with clean equipment and clean thoroughly after using. Thermal processing Sausage is smoked and heated in order to pasteurize it and extend its shelf life. smoke at 140 °F for one hour. obtaining proper temperature. If the casings are not pre-stuck they should be punctured with a knife point or pin to eliminate air and fat pockets in the finished sausage. Remove from the smokehouse and follow the same procedure as for polish sausage. • If using frozen meat in sausage formulations. thaw it in a cooler on the lowest shelf to avoid dripping of juices on ready-to-eat foods. The water should not boil. 5 . Food Safety Guidelines Bacteria can spread throughout a work area and contaminate equipment and work surfaces. covered with salt and frozen. plastic casings impermeable to water are used. This removes excess salt from the casing. Remove from smokehouse and spray with hot water for 15 to 30 seconds. such as mettwurst. Be sure all surfaces that come into contact with meat are clean. Measure the temperature of the dehydrator with a calibrated thermometer. To reduce your risk of foodborne illness: • Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds with soap and water before beginning to work and after changing tasks or after doing anything that could contaminate your hands such as sneezing or using the bathroom. put the sausage into a pan of water. then at 180 °F for two hours or until the internal temperatures reach 155 °F . but not more than four hours before use. Follow with cold shower or dip in a slush tank until internal temperature reaches 100 °F . let hang and dry. be sure the meat was cooked with low heat. then at 170 °F for two hours or until an internal temperature of 141 °F is reached. Procedure for smoking summer sausage: After stuffing in casing. Heat water to 170 °F and hold it there until the sausage reaches 155 °F A thermometer is essential for . because they are permeable and will shrink. don’t rely on the dial settings. Unused casings can be drained. They have been developed primarily for use in products such as fresh pork sausage and pepperoni sticks. If you are making a sausage product using cooked meat. Others. Procedure for making cooked sausage: After stuffing the ground ingredients into an impermeable casing. relatively strong and easy to handle.

it is recom that dehyd m rator temp eratures of ended or higher b 145 °F e used. Sl product ice as thin as desirable and oven racks. two to (See chart fo r dehydrator drying. through Drying Minimum Temperatu re Drying Tim e 125 °F 10 hours 135 °F 8 hours 145 °F 7 hours 155 °F 4 hours Source is very import jerky.) *NOTE: Tem perature BEEF JERKY * . The USD ant wh recommend A Meat and Poultry Hotlin en making ation for mak ing jerky safe e’s current to 160 °F be ly is to heat fore the deh meat yd any bacteria present will rating process to assure be destroyed th by wet heat. since wild venison can be heavily co with fecal ba ntaminated cte hunter in dre ria depending on the skill ssin of wound. Spray with liquid sm n lay garlic mixture oke and . a 6 : Wiscon Animal Scienc sin Cooperative Extensio n Service. p multiplication otentially allowing bacteri . es are typica lly held at am temperature bient s. at the Univers ity of Wiscon onstrated tha sin demt the followin g time-tempe combination rature s are effectiv e at killing E. th a racks. Sp lay on ray oven rack slices on the s with oil. M e Departmen ea t. 0157:H7 in je coli rk lower temp y products. Put pan lined in cooler or fr eezer to firm for slicing. Mon itor the dehydrato r by placing th the temperature of thermomete e metal stem r be of a dial an opening fo tween dehydrator trays. Grind and pre eat. While g the animal and locatio the n of the fresh beef is usually rapid deer carcass ly chilled. at Recent work 5 pounds lea n beef 1½ tablespo ons salt 1 tablespoon black pepper 1½ teaspoon s cardamon 2 teaspoons ma 1½ teaspoon rjoram s cure (pink co lor) 2 teaspoons monosodium glutamate 2 teaspoons cayenne pep per 1 tablespoon garlic powde r ½ cup liquid smoke ½ cup water Mix all spices together wit hm meat is tacky.Sausage formulations The following sausage formulations have been used for classroom work and tested at the North Dakota State University Meats Laboratory ecia homemade je l considerations when m aking rky from ven ison or other game. Dry in oven at 170 °F for three hours. University of Wisconsin t and There are sp — Madison. or create r the stem by drilling a hole the side of th e tray. Mix well until ss into a loaf with foil. Although th eratures are e tive at killi considered ng bacteria effec.

All the t lean) 3 cups y also b ow two r the cu salt ec curing t r 1 cup s ime per alculated by us e to complete. Spre ack rature) for nine fat and connec 2 tsp. Bring the rips (a few at a asoned meat st merse the se rn gray ine until they tu to the boiling br ). b ch as the round poons o der u prefer ottom a re 1 tables to cook to nd tip. If spice. open 1. 7 KY** KLE CURE JER HOT PIC DRIED BEEF SWEET ITALIA N SAUS AGE . th red. proximately a pre-cook This recipe uses of fresh meat should weigh ap ck or ds n dehydrator ra Yield: Five poun t meat on a clea n oven. and 2 Tb hours in the re om oven before bent in jerky fr stand for 24 ld crack when or dish and let dried jerky shou Properly o pieces. A. but any te flavor. me. propl: Dip strips of m e part r and freeze. 1 amb or m for fu per for beef. Mak k pepper **Source of Wyoming Agric . medium boil. ground bl est oven tempe d. not cros out meat and second stop. drying or smok 2 pounds after phase. /3 cup c ven rth ay Use larg 1 or legs. As this ssary.A. w r plate a ices. Ad sp diamete d salt. or un sp. Im brine to a low to time) 4. a few months. d befor e servin g. n o s g m t must b e cooke oking is nece s. ure and ings. th is a fres nd stuff h into po rough ¼-inch rk casin Produc s a u s a g e . ru b the sure all ture ont ar o beef tw 90 pou ice at th eas are well co the beef. H ad to 24 hours to the first or tive tissue. dissolving ¾ cu d Your Wild Ga ultural Extension in a recipe: You an e a brine by 3. 5. ugar inch of t ing seve 6 tables hicknes After the poons c s o f t h e n days of beef is c ur 7 tables cut. Store jerky kept dry. usin meat nds lean ntacted raw mea beef 9 cups s that have not co utensils alt 6¾ cup s su 3½ table gar spoons nitrate Using 1 -1½ oun ces per salt. ground blac and C. Optiona rts water to on in freezer pape it indefinitely at (five pa r added will last almost smoke solution two seconds fo prepared jerky rates after erly r one to its quality deterio liquid smoke) fo mperature.ing. sug pou ar making and nitrate mix nd of meat. and 2 Tb the salt and 58. lack pep NOTE: L ll-ventilated roo e as desired. Spread ou half of a kitche strips) with the rack in the top ch on a clean the oven door ds of meat (¼-in meat free of hen oven. e lean p ison can be su er /3 cup g enne pepper bstitute and sep ieces. Put the meat in til the desired dr or brittle. rinse it wit lus 3 tea en hang fennel s h cold w hours. a pan yness is reache sprinkle on 3 Tb . from brine. p. A spoons at it p cracked 3 ounce eed Hang in ply a light or he and allow to dr er s paprik y for 24 avy smo a dry. or 2. R ree to fiv kt days pe 3 quart ub ed rp s water rim (70 percen This ma ound of meat fo ay intervals. su arlic po d arate int w 2 tables ** If yo o top. Regrind ater. Pound the m in clean jars or eat in a liquid 6. . poon sw gano an intern have a cooke d produ al temp eet basil ct. . Remove (low sp. Raab sugar. sugar it gets too hard frigpepper. Stir to dissolve Service. several t u poons p e imes. Field ½ cup p salt. Slice 5 poun 0 °F Use fresh lean If you use a kitc swise. w 1 a /3 cup b e k drying. Coarse-g erature of at lea smoke and r st 160 ° sugar. University of sp. c ind meat trimm F . Remove in to two minutes roximately one other (app g clean tongs or 100 pou t. eat at 120 to 15 grain. nds por vered. not break into tw erator. half but should the s to work in wrap eat on both side plastic bags. salt. 1984 by R. B-613R gallon of water sugar.

To the h nd sprinkle in ine pulp. eaten h throughout . onions. Sm ough evelopm oke at perature ture of p ent and to 170 ° th r very ho oduct reaches F until internal t en t. ma . St ne consistency and other ingr uff in m edients . er with Bring th be Ch e Stir vigo broth to a bo op onions to ef suet af il a r meats. li to a ver ver y fi cure. NO smoky fl avor. Addit til milk forms ugar to a light ional m ssary. rts and liver in d 1 broth. Rem 80-190 °F wa ter until nd grin ove coo d throug h ¼-inc hearts and liv ked items. spoon of shor ettle or frying e gravy. ot mass oatmea s proof c l. N unt of o atmeal. o k fo m r Chill in until internal t r about 3 hou oistureice wat empera rs in 17 er 0 tu Quite p erishab and keep at 3 re reaches 16 °F le. ously. Grind . ot with To heat butter up with potatoe gravy: s c pan. then add . spicy 155 °F empera . a and ITALIA N HOT SAUSA GE 8 . Ad in potato sala ut into small pieces d) into d 1 tab (lik ak le taste an d milk. Stuff in 140 °F fo again th to r r raise tem proper color d hog casing. dd the cooke nd coo d Stuff in water. a o not boil. a asing a alt and spices. S Cook u tening. Cook un large kettle o water. br ilk may be add own ed BLOOD SAUSA GE (KL 1 pint b UB) lood 1 pint m 5 pound s 5 pound pork trim 60/40 s lean b ee 20 clov es garlic f trim . Excellen OTE: This is a t on pizz r peppe roni. TE: Fat b ches 155 °F . N pr will sub stitute fo oduct. acon giv es BRAUN SCHWE IGER 10 poun ds HAGGI S 5 poun ds 3 p o u n pork hearts ds pork liv 2 poun ds beef er suet 21 cup so 2-3 med atmeal (3½ po unds) ium on 1 ions /3 cup s alt 2½ tab les 1 tables poons white p epper poon n utmeg Cook h ea tender. y want to cut OTE: down o n il ½ teasp k or water oon pe pper ¼ teasp o 1½ tea on nutmeg sp 1½ tea oons ground spoons c ground loves 1 table spoon allspice salt 1 cup q uick co oking r 5-6 cup oll s flour – enou ed oats dough gh to m ake a fa irly stiff Mix abo ve ingr edients spoonf uls t salted b (about ½ cu ogether. Mix in ois sp cook in 165 °F w ture-proof fibro ices. n e s as nece rve hot. Drop p) into oiling w by larg a e Remov e from ater. crushe ons thym d 8 bay le e aves 3 tables po 1 tables ons salt poon bla ck pepp ½ teasp er oon nut meg Grind m e spices a at through a co nd mix t arse pla te ho a mediu m plate roughly. salt and us casin internal ater bat g h te Chill rap mperature of s for 1½ hours o and ausage r until idly in w rea ater. crushe 4 teaspo d on 4 teaspo s red pepper on 2 teaspo s fennel seeds . Re serve h plate. f til brow and syr May be n up.10 poun 50/50 pork trim ds 1 pound pork liver fat baco 2/ n 3 cup s alt (7 ou nces) 4 tables po 3 ounce ons white pepp ss er 1 mediu oy protein (70 p m size o ercent) nio (optiona 1 teaspo l) on nutm n e 1½ teas poon gin g ger 1 tables po 2½ teas on cure (6 perc poons ent) (optiona monosodium g l) lutamat e Grind p ork trim mings. You 0 °F 0-34 °F the amo .

Ad . Add oatmeal eno ix in to with salt soak up excess b ugh old-fashion ed roth. P duct for 2 hours g. Strain bro nd herbs and th and ad mer unti cooked g d pearled l round m barley becomes plump. water. . Sim 1 hour. erving. a cooked before s ure of 141 °F nd heat to an . Add enough ook neck water to Skim off mer unti an l te from bro y extra fat from b nder (2 to 3 hou th ro rs tongue. ct must be POLISH SAUS AGE 9 . rm GRITS 45 poun ds fre (70 perc sh pork trimmin ent lean gs 2½ qua ) rts wate r 11/3 cup s salt 15 ½ tab les ¼ cup ru poons white pe pper bbed sa ge ½ cup s ugar Coarse-g rind por k. ¼-inch diamete mix thoroughly d salt. S gs. roduct m a ust be c t ooked FRESH PORK SAUSAG E VENISO N GARL IC SAUSAG E 12 poun ds 10 poun pork trim 60/40 ds veniso n tr 2 pound s beef trim im 1 pint w ate 1½ table r spoons c 2/ ure 3 cup salt 4 tablesp oons bla ck 2 teaspo ons marjo pepper ra 5½ teasp oons mu m stard see 2 cloves d garlic or ½ teaspo on garlic Use sam powder e proced ure as fo r Polish s ausage. Remove mea ).GERMAN 1 beef he art 1 beef to ngue 5 pound sn 1 large o eck bones or sho nion (cho rt ribs pped) 2 cloves garlic (ch opped) 1 teaspo on ½ teaspo salt on black pepper ¼ teaspo on musta rd seed 2 cups p earled ba rley (1 po Old-fashio und) ned oatm eal Cook hea rt bones in and tongue in o ne kettle another . NOTE: If a bee fier taste bouillon grits into is cubes to patties an broth. r plate a . product to desire mix in seasonin d size. 40 pou nds le (80 per an pork trimm ings 3 poun cent lean) ds lean beef trim 1 quart mings ( water 80 perc 3 tables ent lean poons c ) ure 11/3 cup s salt ½ cup b la 4 tables ck pepper poons m ustard s 4 teasp oons m e arjoram ed 3 clove s garlic or ¾ te aspoon Coarse-g garlic p r owder cure an ind meat trimm d spices ings. remove meat fr th. grind NOTE: M tuff a 120 °F fo y also smoke pr into sheep cas in o r before s smoky flavor. Regrin Smoke pr nd d interna oduct to desire stuff into por through l tempe k casing d color rat s. To each sa r barley.C kett cover me at and sim le. ste add beef r. om bone Grind me t s and skin at throug kettle of h fi bro simmer fo th add the spice ne plate. Sea and pep pe son to ta desired. Produ erving. fo d fry. M eat.

Produ erving. and finish temperature t ke at o 160 ° produc l tempe ta F ra substitu te lamb ture reaches 1 t 170 °F until 55 °F N or beef . for the venison OTE: Can . Ad an ¼-inch diamete d spices. Mix t Mix spices in coarse p horoug casing. Stuff into p ind ork o desire n d color a must be internal tempe nd ra cooked before s ture of 141 °F . gr p S heat to a moke product t late.LAR’S S UP SAUSAG ER GARLIC E 17 poun ds 33 poun beef or veniso n trim ds pork tr 1½ cup s Tende im (50/50) 2/ r Quick 3 cup s alt 1 cup b rown su ga ½ cup b lack pep r per 6 tables poons g arlic pow 2 teaspo der on 1 teaspo s sage on allsp ice 1 tables poon co rian 1 gallon warm w der ater Grind m eat thro u water a nd pour gh coarse plate . ind thro r plate. Regr d water. -inch diameter thoroughly. Produ ke (90 ° g F). Re . ct NOTE: If you don must be cooke smoke for d before amount ’t like ga . late aga hly. salt. over me through at. if VENIS ON SUM MER SAUSA GE 15 pou nd 10 pou s venison nds 50 2/ /50 po 3 cup s rk trimm a ing 1½ tab lt les 2½ tab poons cure lespoon s ½ cup black p mustard seed epper ½ cup su 1 tables gar po 1 tables on marjoram poon m o 3 table spoons nosodium glu tamate garlic p (option owder Mix salt al) and cu re with Pack in co sh to five d allow pan an arse-ground pr d place ays. ck on rind the product . rais for 2 ho d gs. Smoke ug Stu pr interna oduct to desire ff into pork ca h l tempe sin d color rat and hea gs. Mix and stu in coole oduct. cure ings. Smo e u interna rs. be cook t to an ed befo ure of 141 °F . regrin e urs. M gs. U in 12 hour sing a cool smo and stuff in ho Grind s. lso could fine-g lic flavor. ct SMOKE D BRAT WURST und 40 pou s turkey trim (9 nd 0 perce nt 3 quart s pork trim (50 s water percent lean) lean) 3 cups salt 1 cup to 1 6 tables cup and 2 tab lespoon poons c ure s dextro 1 cup w se hite pep per ½ cup s age ¼ cup c ay 1 tables enne poon th yme 1 tables po 1 tables on nutmeg po 1 tables on ginger poon m ace 10 table spoons monoso (option dium glu al) tamate Coarse-g r dextros ind meat trimm e. c ind meat trimm in ure and spices. 90 poun ds pork trim (70 3 quarts percent water lean) 3 cups s alt 1 to 11/ 3 cups sugar 6 tables poons c ure ¾ cup w hite pep per ¼ cup c ayenne 2 tables poons n utmeg 2 tables poons th yme 2 tables poons g inger 1 tables poon ro semary 1 tables poon m ace Coarse-g r sugar. ff in 3-in in remainder r for thr o 140°F f e c or 2 ho h fibrous casin f spices. Add water. through salt ix ¼ casings. Produ re servin ct must g. cut ba erving.A s r desired. 10 SMOKE D PORK S TURKEY AND AUSAG E 50 po .

5 1. an amino acid. Can be water-cooked or baked to internal temperature 155 °F. It is the sodium salt of glutamic acid.09 . • pickle and pimento loaf – add 5 pounds sweet pickles and 5 pounds pimentos. • wieners – stuff in sheep casing. Weight Conversions of Common Ingredients 1 pound salt = 1½ cups 1 pound sugar = 2¼ cups 1 ounce cure = 1½ tablespoons 1 ounce MSG = 2. form into a ring. • bologna – stuff in 6-inch diameter fibrous casings.75 Weights & Measures Table Equivalents: 4 cups = 1 quart = 950 ml 2 pints = 1 quart = 950 ml 16 ounces = 1 pint = 500 ml 2 cups = 1 pint = 500 ml 2 cups = 16 fluid ounces = 500 ml 16 tablespoons = 1 cup = 240 ml 8 liquid ounces = 1 cup = 240 ml 4 tablespoons = ¼ cup = 60 ml ¼ cup = 2 liquid ounces = 60 ml 1 liquid ounce = 2 tablespoons = 30 ml 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon = 15 ml 1 cc = 1 ml 1 ounce = 28 g From the above formulation. • macaroni and cheese loaf – add 5 pounds cheese and 5 pounds cooked macaroni.Emulsified Products 30 pounds bull meat 25 pounds 50/50 beef trim 20 pounds 60/40 pork trim 10 quarts water 5 pounds flavorings* NOTE: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) intensifies and enhances flavor but does not contribute a flavor of its own.2 coriander 2.6 2. These differ in texture and taste.75 1.70 . smoke and cook to 155 °F internal temperature. FDA believes that MSG is a safe food ingredient for the general population. *5 pounds of flavorings consists of: Ounces Pounds % salt 40 corn syrup solids 16 mustard 11.20 . smoke and cook to 155 °F internal temperature.14 . . • dinner franks – stuff in hog casings.75 . such as would be found in heavily enhanced foods.2 dehydrated onion and garlic 1.2 cure 3. smoke and cook to 155 °F internal temperature. different products can be made.20 . Proceed as with pickle and pimento loaf. diced and skinned hog jowls plus 1/3 cup garlic powder to the emulsion.14 .75 2. stuff into 2-inch diameter fibrous casings.2 tablespoons 11 . • ring bologna – stuff in beef casing.2 nutmeg 2.04 50 20 14 4 4 2. smoke and cook to 155 °F internal temperature.4 sodium erythorbate . • Leona – add 20 pounds cooked. One to two percent of the population may be sensitive to MSG and have mild to transitory reactions in some circumstances when they consume significant amounts. Stuff into parchment-lined metal molds or waterproof fibrous casing. smoke and cook to 155 °F internal temperature.2 ground black pepper 3.

edu/subfood.5 4 4 3.75 4 4. age.nodak. sex.8 9 6 10 11 12 4.5 10 1. ground 1.25 7 7. 2.5 18 6.5 4 20 24 14 16 16 14 16 16 16 15 18 12 20 22 24 9 16 16 16 32 16 64 16 15 28 40 8 22 28 14 2 3 4 6 12 16 2 3 4 1. ¼ Name of Spice Allspice Basil Caraway Cardamom Celery. Fargo.4 8 8 8 16 8 32 8 7. then you would use 5 level tablespoons.25 1.Spice Weights and Measures This table is for approximate weights and measures of various spices and is intended as a handy compilation in estimating quantities. whole Fennel. ground Sage.17 Conversion from OUNCES ½ ¾ 1 2 3 To TABLESPOONS 2. ground Marjoram MSG Mustard Nutmeg Onion powder Oregano Paprika Parsley flakes Pepper.5M 7-00.33 2.25 1 1 0.5 12 12 10. religion.7 13. visit the NDSU Extension web site: www.5 2 4 5.5 4 4 4 3.ndsu.5 5 1 2.75 5.33 1.66 3 3 2.93 1.1 21 30 6 16.5 2.25 3. .33 1.25 2. For more information about food safety. Department of Agriculture cooperating.5 5.75 3 1 2 2 2 4 3.25 1. 1914. ground Cumin Dill.88 1 1 1 1 1 0.85 2. disability.66 7 3.5 3 5 5. national origin.5 2.75 2 2 1. We offer our programs and facilities to all persons regardless of race.5 0.9 4. ground Salt Savory Thyme Tumeric.5 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 0.5 1.63 3 3 3 3 3.5 21 10.25 1.5M-6-02.2 4 4 4 8 10 12 7 8 8 7 8 8 8 7.75 3. ground Coriander.htm NDSU Extension Service. Vietnam era veterans status.66 3 3 3 6 5 6 3. 1M-7-04 This publication will be made available in alternative format upon request (701) 231-7881.75 1. whole Garlic powder Ginger Mace. North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Science.S. Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30.5 12 12 12 11. Interim Director. Duane Hauck.5 Example: If a recipe calls for one ounce of Allspice. ground Rosemary. North Dakota.5 1.ag. and U.5 1. 2M-12-98.75 3.4 14 20 4 11 14 7 15 18 10. and are an equal opportunity employer.5 9 15 16.5 0. or sexual orientation.5 2.5 3 1.6 12 12 12 24 12 48 12 11. black Pepper.5 6 2.75 4. 1.7 3.75 2 2 2 2 2.75 2.5M-6-99.5 1.75 1. 1. ground Cinnamon Cloves. color.

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