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TWI Tuition Notes for 3.

4U Course (DIS 4)

Training and Examination Services Granta Park, Great Abington Cambridge, CB1 6AL UK

Issue 1.0 Rev 0 Issue date: 1 April 2006

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TWI TUITION NOTES FOR 3.4U COURSE (DIS 4) ................................................1 TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................2 PREFACE ......................................................................................................................16 1. THE CERTIFICATION SCHEME FOR WELDMENT INSPECTION PERSONNEL (CSWIP) .16 1.1. TWI ...................................................................................................................16 1.1.1. Company Profile .......................................................................................16 1.1.2. Single Source of Expertise ........................................................................16 1.1.3. Non-profit Company .................................................................................16 1.1.4. Global Benefits..........................................................................................17 1.1.5. Confidential Consultancy..........................................................................17 1.1.6. TWI Certification Ltd................................................................................17 1.1.7. Certification Management Board ..............................................................17 1.1.8. The Management Committees: .................................................................18 2. CSWIP CERTIFICATION FOR UNDERWATER INSPECTORS.........................................20 2.1. Inspector Categories ........................................................................................20 2.2. The CSWIP 3.4U Examination.........................................................................20 2.2.1. The Theory Examination...........................................................................20 2.2.1.1. The Question Papers: .........................................................................20 2.2.1.2. Practical Examination ........................................................................21 2.2.2. Concrete Examination ...............................................................................21 2.3. The CSWIP 3.3U Examination.........................................................................21 2.3.1. The Theory Examination...........................................................................21 2.3.1.1. The Question Papers: .........................................................................21 2.3.1.2. Practical Examination ........................................................................22 2.3.2. Concrete Examination ...............................................................................22 2.4. The CSWIP 3.2U Examination.........................................................................22 2.4.1. The Theory Examination...........................................................................22 2.4.1.1. The Question Papers: .........................................................................22 2.4.1.2. Practical Examination ........................................................................22 2.4.2. Concrete Examination ...............................................................................23 2.5. The CSWIP 3.1U Examination.........................................................................23 2.5.1. The Theory Examination...........................................................................23 2.5.1.1. The Question Papers: .........................................................................23 2.5.1.2. Practical Examination ........................................................................23 2.5.2. Concrete Examination ...............................................................................23 CHAPTER 1 ..................................................................................................................25 1. GENERAL BACKGROUND ..........................................................................................25 1.1. Safe To Operate................................................................................................25 1.2. Government Legislation ...................................................................................25 2. DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS ..........................................................................................25 2.1. Materials ..........................................................................................................25 2.2. Working Life.....................................................................................................25 2.3. Loading.............................................................................................................26 2.4. Environment .....................................................................................................26 2.5. Maintenance .....................................................................................................26
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents 2.6. Weight...............................................................................................................26 2.7. Dimensions .......................................................................................................26 3. CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY MONITORING SYSTEM ....................................................26 4. GUIDANCE ON DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION ...........................................................26 4.1. United Kingdom ...............................................................................................27 4.2. Guidance from the UK Regulations .................................................................27 4.2.1. Specific Guidance .....................................................................................28 4.2.2. Environment ..............................................................................................28 4.2.3. Steel And Concrete....................................................................................28 4.2.3.1. Steel....................................................................................................28 4.2.3.2. Concrete Structures ............................................................................30 4.2.3.3. Loads ..................................................................................................30 4.3. United States of America..................................................................................30 4.3.1. Guidance From The US Regulations ........................................................31 4.3.1.1. Planning..............................................................................................31 4.3.1.2. Structural Steel ...................................................................................32 5. CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................32 6. PIPELINES .................................................................................................................32 6.1. Pipeline Laying ................................................................................................33 7. OFFSHORE OIL TERMINALS ......................................................................................34 8. FUTURE TRENDS ......................................................................................................34 8.1. Drilling .............................................................................................................34 8.2. Design Practices ..............................................................................................42 CHAPTER 2 ..................................................................................................................45 1. INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................45 1.1. Terminology .....................................................................................................45 1.1.1. Basic Components Of Steel Platforms ......................................................47 1.1.2. Basic Components Of A Concrete Gravity Structure ...............................53 1.1.2.1. Common Concrete Components ........................................................53 1.2. A Semi-submersible Rig ...................................................................................58 1.3. Drill ship ..........................................................................................................60 1.4. Steel Production Platforms ..............................................................................60 1.4.1. Brent A Statistics.......................................................................................61 1.5. Concrete And Steel Gravity Platforms .............................................................63 1.5.1. Cormorant A Statistics ..............................................................................64 1.5.2. Disadvantages of Concrete Structures.......................................................65 1.6. Compliant Towers ............................................................................................66 1.7. Tension Leg Floating Platforms.......................................................................69 1.8. Floating Production Systems ...........................................................................71 1.9. Seabed Facilities ..............................................................................................72 1.10. Pipelines .........................................................................................................85 CHAPTER 3 ..................................................................................................................92 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................92 1.1. Stress ................................................................................................................92 1.2. Types Of Stress .................................................................................................93 2. PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS .....................................................................................96 2.1. Yield Stress .......................................................................................................96
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents 2.2. Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) ......................................................................97 2.3. Stress Concentration ........................................................................................98 2.3.1. Stress Intensity Factor .............................................................................100 3. CRACK STOPPING OR BLUNTING ............................................................................102 4. RESIDUAL STRESSES ..............................................................................................102 5. FORCES ON A STRUCTURE .....................................................................................102 5.1. The Steady Force On A Structure In A Fluid Flow........................................102 5.1.1. Drag Coefficient......................................................................................103 5.2. Vibrational Forces On A Structure In A Fluid Flow .....................................104 5.3. Wave Loadings ...............................................................................................105 5.3.1. Structural Design For Wave Loadings ....................................................106 5.3.1.1. Static Loads ......................................................................................106 5.3.1.2. Dynamic Loading.............................................................................107 5.4. Structural Response To Wave Loading ..........................................................108 CHAPTER 4 ................................................................................................................111 1. GENERAL COMMENTS ............................................................................................111 2. CATEGORIES OF DETERIORATION AND DAMAGE ....................................................111 3. ACCIDENTAL DAMAGE ...........................................................................................111 4. CORROSION ............................................................................................................112 5. FATIGUE .................................................................................................................112 6. WEAR .....................................................................................................................113 7. EMBRITTLEMENT ....................................................................................................115 8. STRUCTURAL DETERIORATION ...............................................................................115 8.1. Stage One Production Of The Raw Materials.............................................115 8.1.1. Steel.........................................................................................................115 8.2. Stage Two - Fabrication.................................................................................118 8.2.1. Steel Structures Fabrication Defects .......................................................118 8.3. Avoiding Problems by Design ........................................................................120 8.4. Stage Three Installation .................................................................................121 8.5. Possible Damage Caused During Installation...............................................122 8.6. Stage Four In-Service.....................................................................................122 8.6.1. Steel In-Service Defect Categories .........................................................122 8.7. In-Service Defect Categories That Affect Both Steel And Concrete ..............125 8.7.1. Inter-tidal And Splash Zones...................................................................125 8.7.2. Risers.......................................................................................................125 8.7.3. Conductors And Conductor Guide Frames .............................................125 8.7.4. Caissons...................................................................................................125 8.7.5. Overloading.............................................................................................126 CHAPTER 5 ................................................................................................................129 1. GENERAL COMMENTS ............................................................................................129 2. STRUCTURAL DETERIORATION ...............................................................................129 2.1. Stage One Production Of The Raw Materials.............................................129 2.1.1. Concrete ..................................................................................................129 2.1.1.1. Portland Cement...............................................................................129 2.1.1.2. Mixing ..............................................................................................130 2.1.1.2.1. Setting.....................................................................................130 2.1.1.2.2. Hardening ...............................................................................131
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents 2.1.1.3. The Importance Of Water ................................................................133 3. CONCRETE..............................................................................................................133 3.1. Aggregates......................................................................................................133 3.1.1. Water Content .........................................................................................134 4. CONCRETE AS A MATERIAL ..................................................................................134 5. REINFORCED CONCRETE ........................................................................................134 5.1. Reinforcement Design Philosophy .................................................................135 6. PRE-STRESSING ......................................................................................................136 7. PRODUCTION PROBLEMS ........................................................................................137 8. STAGE TWO - FABRICATION ...................................................................................138 8.1. Concrete Structure Fabrication Defects ........................................................138 9. STAGE THREE INSTALLATION.................................................................................139 10. STAGE FOUR IN-SERVICE .....................................................................................139 10.1. In-Service Defect Categories That Affect Concrete Structures....................139 10.1.1. Deterioration Caused By Chemical Attack ...........................................139 10.1.1.1. Sulphate Attack ..............................................................................139 10.1.1.2. Chlorides ........................................................................................140 10.1.1.3. Carbonation ....................................................................................141 10.1.1.4. Reinforcement Corrosion ...............................................................143 10.1.1.5. Corrosion Of Built-in Components ................................................144 10.1.1.6. Cracking .........................................................................................144 11. STANDARD TERMINOLOGY ...................................................................................145 12. ADDITIONAL IN-SERVICE DEFECTS.......................................................................151 CHAPTER 6 ................................................................................................................155 1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................155 2. TYPES OF MARINE GROWTH...................................................................................156 2.1. Soft Fouling ....................................................................................................157 2.2. Hard Fouling..................................................................................................164 3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF MARINE GROWTH..........................................165 3.1. Depth ..............................................................................................................165 3.2. Temperature ...................................................................................................166 3.3. Water Current ................................................................................................166 3.4. Salinity............................................................................................................167 3.5. Food Supply....................................................................................................167 3.6. Cathodic Protection .......................................................................................167 CHAPTER 7 ................................................................................................................170 1. ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS IN CORROSION .............................................................170 2. THE CORROSION PROCESS......................................................................................171 2.1. The Anodic Reaction ......................................................................................172 2.2. The Cathodic Reaction ...................................................................................173 2.3. Seawater Corrosion........................................................................................175 2.4. Electrochemical Aspects Of Corrosion ..........................................................175 3. ELECTRICAL THEORY .............................................................................................176 CHAPTER 8 ................................................................................................................180 1. CORROSION CELLS .................................................................................................180 1.1. Dissimilar Metal Corrosion Cell....................................................................180
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents 1.1.1. The Electrochemical Force Series...........................................................180 2. CONCENTRATION CELL CORROSION.......................................................................183 3. PITTING ..................................................................................................................184 4. INTER-GRANULAR CORROSION ...............................................................................188 5. GRAIN BOUNDARY CORROSION .............................................................................190 6. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING ..............................................................................191 7. FRETTING CORROSION ...........................................................................................192 8. EROSION CORROSION .............................................................................................194 9. CORROSION FATIGUE .............................................................................................196 10. BIOLOGICAL CORROSION .....................................................................................197 CHAPTER 9 ................................................................................................................200 1. POLARISATION AND CORROSION RATE ..................................................................200 2. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING CORROSION RATES..................................203 2.1. Temperature ...................................................................................................203 2.2. Water Flow Rate.............................................................................................204 2.3. The pH Value Of The Water...........................................................................205 CHAPTER 10 ..............................................................................................................209 1. CORROSION PROTECTION .......................................................................................209 2. CATHODIC PROTECTION .........................................................................................210 2.1. Cathodic Protection: The Sacrificial Anode Method.....................................211 3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SACRIFICIAL ANODE SYSTEMS ..............214 4. CATHODIC PROTECTION: IMPRESSED CURRENT METHOD ......................................214 4.1. Practical Considerations For Installing ICCP Systems ................................216 4.2. Reference or Control Electrodes....................................................................219 5. USING COATINGS TO PROTECT THE STRUCTURE ...................................................220 5.1. Paints..............................................................................................................220 6. INHIBITORS (CONTROLLING THE ELECTROLYTE) ...................................................222 6.1. Anodic Inhibitors............................................................................................223 6.2. Cathodic Inhibitors ........................................................................................223 6.3. Adsorption Inhibitors .....................................................................................224 7. CORROSION PROTECTION BY DESIGN ....................................................................224 8. ANODIC PROTECTION .............................................................................................224 CHAPTER 11 ..............................................................................................................227 1. MONITORING CORROSION PROTECTION .................................................................227 2. INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS ..................................................................................227 3. CATHODE POTENTIAL MEASUREMENT ...................................................................228 3.1. High Purity Zinc Electrodes (ZRE)................................................................228 3.2. CP Readings Utilising Silver/silver-chloride (Ag/AgCl) Electrodes .............229 4. CURRENT DENSITY MEASUREMENTS .....................................................................230 5. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES FOR HAND-HELD CP METERS ...................................231 5.1. Necessary Equipment .....................................................................................231 5.1.1. Procedure.................................................................................................232 5.1.1.1. Proving The Calomel Cells ..............................................................232 5.1.1.2. Calibration Of The Meter.................................................................233 5.1.1.2.1. Calibration Of A Bathycorrometer.........................................233 6. OVERALL CALIBRATION OF ROV DEPLOYED CP METERS ....................................234
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents 6.1. Calibration Of An ROV Deployed Contact CP Meter ...................................234 6.2. Calibration Of Ag/AgCl Proximity Probes ....................................................234 7. OPERATING PROCEDURES ......................................................................................235 8. NORMAL CATHODE POTENTIAL READINGS AGAINST AG/AGCL ............................236 CHAPTER 12 ..............................................................................................................239 1. JOINING METAL COMPONENTS ...............................................................................239 2. FABRICATING OFFSHORE STRUCTURES ..................................................................239 2.1. Welding Processes..........................................................................................239 2.1.1. Solid Phase Welding ...............................................................................240 2.1.2. Thermo-chemical Welding......................................................................240 2.1.3. Electric-resistance Welding.....................................................................241 2.1.4. Unshielded Arc Welding.........................................................................241 2.1.5. Radiant Energy Welding .........................................................................242 2.1.6. Flux Shielded Arc Welding.....................................................................242 2.1.7. Gas Shielded Arc Welding......................................................................244 3. TYPES OF WELDED JOINT .......................................................................................246 3.1. The Butt Joint .................................................................................................246 3.2. T Joint ..........................................................................................................247 3.3. Lap Joint.........................................................................................................247 3.4. Corner Joint ...................................................................................................247 3.5. Cruciform Joint ..............................................................................................248 4. TYPES OF WELD .....................................................................................................248 5. WELDING METALLURGY ........................................................................................249 5.1. Further Considerations for Weld Control......................................................251 6. WELDING TERMS ...................................................................................................252 6.1. Plate Preparation Terms................................................................................252 6.2. Terms Defining Weld Features ......................................................................253 6.3. Welding Process Terminology .......................................................................254 6.4. Welded Nodes and Nozzles.............................................................................255 7. WELD DEFECT TERMINOLOGY ...............................................................................256 7.1. Cracks.............................................................................................................257 7.2. Cavities...........................................................................................................258 7.3. Solid Inclusions ..............................................................................................259 7.4. Lack of Fusion and Penetration .....................................................................260 7.5. Imperfect Shape..............................................................................................261 7.6. Miscellaneous.................................................................................................262 8. DEFECT CATEGORIES AND REPORTING...................................................................263 8.1. Reporting Defects in Welds ............................................................................263 8.2. Dimensional Checking Weld Parameters ......................................................264 8.2.1. The Welding Institute Measuring Gauge ................................................264 8.2.2. Welding Institute Leg Length Gauge ......................................................265 CHAPTER 13 ..............................................................................................................268 1. ULTRASONIC INSPECTION .......................................................................................268 2. PRODUCING ULTRASOUND .....................................................................................268 2.1. What Is Ultrasonic? .......................................................................................268 2.2. Frequency of the Wave...................................................................................270 2.3. Speed of the Wave ..........................................................................................272
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents 2.4. Types of Ultrasonic Wave ..............................................................................272 2.4.1. Waves That Propagate Through Solids...................................................272 2.4.1.1. Longitudinal or Compression Waves...............................................272 2.4.1.2. Shear or Transverse Waves ..............................................................273 2.4.2. Surface Waves.........................................................................................274 3. VELOCITY OF ULTRASONIC WAVES .......................................................................275 4. ULTRASONIC WAVELENGTH ..................................................................................277 5. FURTHER EFFECTS OF ULTRASONIC PROPERTIES IN MATERIALS............................279 5.1. Acoustic Impedance (Z)..................................................................................279 5.2. Pressure or Stress Magnitude (p)...................................................................279 5.2.1. Acoustic Attenuation...............................................................................279 5.3. The Decibel System ........................................................................................279 5.4. The Direction of Propagation of an Ultrasonic Wave ...................................282 5.4.1. Law of Reflection....................................................................................282 5.4.2. Law of Refraction....................................................................................283 5.4.2.1. The Reflected Compression Wave in the Perspex ...........................287 5.4.2.2. Refracted Compression Wave in the Steel.......................................288 5.4.2.3. The Refracted Shear Wave in the Steel............................................288 6. TEST FREQUENCY...................................................................................................289 7. ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCERS ..................................................................................289 7.1. Types of Transducers (Probes) ......................................................................291 7.1.1. Single Crystal Probes ..............................................................................291 7.1.1.1. Probe Selection.................................................................................292 7.1.2. Twin Crystal Probes ................................................................................292 7.1.3. Compression or Zero Degree Probes ......................................................293 7.1.4. Angle Probes ...........................................................................................293 8. COUPLANT .............................................................................................................294 9. THE ULTRASONIC BEAM ........................................................................................294 9.1. The Dead Zone ...............................................................................................294 9.2. The Near Zone................................................................................................295 9.3. The Far Zone..................................................................................................295 10. PRINCIPLES OF ULTRASONIC TESTING ..................................................................296 11. ULTRASONIC TEST SYSTEMS ................................................................................298 11.1. The Flaw Detector........................................................................................299 11.2. A-scan Flaw Detector Controls....................................................................300 11.2.1. A-scan Display ......................................................................................301 12. A-SCAN CALIBRATION AND THICKNESS MEASUREMENT .....................................302 12.1. Calibration and Reference Blocks................................................................303 12.1.1. Reference Block ....................................................................................303 12.1.2. Calibration Block ..................................................................................303 12.2. Pre-calibration Checks ................................................................................304 12.2.1. CRT Display..........................................................................................304 12.2.2. Time Base Linearity ..............................................................................304 12.2.3. Linearity of Amplification ....................................................................304 12.3. Calibration Procedure for 100 mm Thickness .............................................305 12.3.1. Setting Sensitivity .................................................................................305 12.3.2. Setting Resolution .................................................................................306 13. THE 6 DB DROP METHOD FOR PLOTTING LAMINATIONS .....................................306 13.1. The 6 dB Drop Method Explained................................................................307
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents 14. THE USE OF ANGLE OR SHEAR WAVE PROBES .....................................................308 14.1. Lamination Plotting......................................................................................308 15. DIGITAL THICKNESS METERS ...............................................................................309 15.1. Procedure for Taking Digital Thickness Readings ......................................310 16. CONVERTING UNDERWATER DTM READINGS .....................................................310 17. PROCEDURE FOR TAKING WALL THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS ............................311 18. ACCURACY OF THE READINGS OBTAINED WITH A DTM .....................................312 19. CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT ...........................................................314 CHAPTER 14 ..............................................................................................................316 1. HISTORY OF MAGNETISM .......................................................................................316 2. TYPES OF MAGNETISM ...........................................................................................316 3. THEORY OF MAGNETISM ........................................................................................317 3.1. Polarity...........................................................................................................318 3.2. Magnetic Field ...............................................................................................319 4. FLUX DENSITY (B) .................................................................................................322 4.1. Remanence or Residual Magnetism ...............................................................326 4.2. Retentivity.......................................................................................................327 4.3. Permeability () .............................................................................................327 4.4. Coercive Force...............................................................................................327 4.5. Reluctance ......................................................................................................327 4.6. Demagnetising................................................................................................328 4.6.1. Measuring the Residual Field..................................................................328 4.7. AC Aperture Coil............................................................................................331 4.8. Reversing DC Aperture Coil ..........................................................................332 4.9. AC Electromagnets.........................................................................................332 4.10. Other Methods to Demagnetise....................................................................333 5. PRODUCING MAGNETIC FIELDS ..............................................................................333 6. MAGNETISATION ....................................................................................................333 6.1. Use of Permanent Magnets ............................................................................333 6.1.1. Strength Required for MPI Permanent Magnets .....................................334 6.1.2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Permanent Magnets..........................335 6.1.2.1. Advantages .......................................................................................335 6.1.2.2. Disadvantages...................................................................................335 6.2. Electromagnet (or Yoke)..............................................................................336 6.2.1. Strength Required for MPI Electromagnets ............................................336 6.2.2. Advantages ..............................................................................................336 6.2.3. Disadvantages..........................................................................................337 6.3. Passing an Electric Current Directly Through the Work Piece.....................337 6.3.1. Alternating Current .................................................................................338 6.3.1.1. Advantages .......................................................................................340 6.3.1.2. Disadvantages...................................................................................340 6.4. Induced Magnetism Using a Coil...................................................................340 6.4.1. Evenly Spaced Coil .................................................................................341 6.4.2. Close Wrapped Coil ................................................................................342 6.4.3. The Right Hand Rule...............................................................................344 6.4.4. Advantages ..............................................................................................346 6.4.5. Disadvantages..........................................................................................346 6.5. Continuous and Residual Magnetisation Techniques ....................................346
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents 6.5.1. Continuous Magnetisation.......................................................................346 6.5.2. Residual Magnetisation ...........................................................................347 7. HOW DEFECTS INTERACT WITH THE INDUCED MAGNETIC FIELD ..........................347 8. DETECTION OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD ....................................................................348 8.1. Burmah Castrol Strips....................................................................................349 8.2. Berthold Penetrameter ...................................................................................349 8.3. Gauss Meter ...................................................................................................350 9. DETECTING THE DISTORTION IN THE MAGNETIC FIELD (FLUX LEAKAGE) .............351 9.1. Visual Detection .............................................................................................351 9.1.1. Ink Properties ..........................................................................................351 9.1.2. Ink Colours Used Underwater.................................................................352 9.2. Testing MPI Ink to BS EN ISO 9934-2:2002 .................................................352 9.2.1. Settling Test.............................................................................................352 9.2.2. Fluorescent Inks ......................................................................................353 9.2.3. Non-fluorescent Inks ...............................................................................353 9.2.4. Carrier Fluid ............................................................................................353 10. LIGHTING AND VIEWING CONDITIONS..................................................................353 10.1. Visible Light Inspection (Using Non-fluorescent Inks) ................................354 10.2. Background and Ultraviolet Light Levels Using Fluorescent Inks..............354 10.2.1. Safety Considerations With Ultraviolet Light.......................................354 10.3. Testing the Ultraviolet Light ........................................................................354 10.3.1. Ultraviolet Light Test Procedure...........................................................355 11. CLEANING STANDARD..........................................................................................356 12. ALTERNATIVE FORMS OF ELECTRIC CURRENT APPLIED IN MPI ..........................356 13. MPI TEST PROCEDURE.........................................................................................359 14. INTERPRETATION OF INDICATIONS .......................................................................360 15. REPORTING INDICATIONS .....................................................................................361 16. RECORDING INDICATIONS ....................................................................................362 16.1. Ultraviolet Photography ..............................................................................362 16.2. Cast...............................................................................................................363 16.3. Foil Packets (Magfoil)...............................................................................363 16.4. CCTV............................................................................................................363 16.5. Rubberised Tape Transfer............................................................................363 17. FACTORS AFFECTING MPI SENSITIVITY...............................................................363 17.1. Surface Condition (1) ...................................................................................364 17.2. Lighting (2)...................................................................................................364 17.3. Ink Condition (3) ..........................................................................................365 17.4. Field Strength (4) .........................................................................................365 17.5. Ink Condition (5) ..........................................................................................365 17.6. Geometry of the Work Piece (6)...................................................................365 17.7. Efficiency of the Magnetic Field Conditions (7) ..........................................365 18. GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND LIST OF STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO MPI.................365 18.1. Glossary .......................................................................................................365 18.2. MPI Standards..............................................................................................367 CHAPTER 15 ..............................................................................................................370 1. INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOGRAPHY .........................................................................370 1.1. Light and Photography...................................................................................371 2. THE CAMERA .........................................................................................................372
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents 2.1. Lens Aperture .................................................................................................372 2.2. Shutter Speed..................................................................................................373 2.3. Relationship between Aperture and Shutter Speed ........................................374 2.4. How Digicams Compare to Conventional Cameras ......................................374 2.5. Bracketing Getting the Exposure Right.......................................................375 3. FOCUSING THE CAMERA .........................................................................................375 3.1. The Lens Focal Length...................................................................................376 3.2. Depth of Field.................................................................................................377 3.3. Framing the Subject .......................................................................................379 4. LIGHT AND UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY .............................................................380 4.1. Colour Absorption..........................................................................................381 4.2. Loss of Light Intensity ....................................................................................381 5. ARTIFICIAL LIGHT FOR UNDERWATER PHOTOGRAPHY...........................................383 5.1. Electronic Strobe Lighting .............................................................................383 5.1.1. Strobe Placement.....................................................................................383 6. CLOSE-UP WELD MOSAIC PHOTOGRAPHY .............................................................384 7. SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS FOR OFFSHORE PHOTOGRAPHY........................................386 7.1. MPI Photography...........................................................................................386 7.2. Stereo-photography and Photogrammetry.....................................................387 8. SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR INSPECTION PHOTOGRAPHS ....................................389 9. ROV MOUNTED CAMERAS ....................................................................................390 10. RECORDING PHOTOGRAPHS AND CARE OF EQUIPMENT ........................................390 10.1. Care of Equipment .......................................................................................391 CHAPTER 16 ..............................................................................................................395 1. THE SCOPE OF USE FOR VIDEO UNDERWATER .......................................................395 1.1. Diver Hand Held ............................................................................................395 1.2. Diver Head (Hat) Mounted ............................................................................396 1.3. Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV)..................................................................397 1.4. Fixed Remotely Operated CCTV....................................................................398 2. TYPES OF VIDEO CAMERA ......................................................................................398 2.1. Tube Cameras ................................................................................................398 2.2. Silicon Intensified Target (SIT) Cameras.......................................................399 2.3. Charged Coupled Device (CCD) Cameras....................................................399 3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES WITH CCTV RECORDING............................399 4. EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................................401 5. PICTURE QUALITY ..................................................................................................401 6. HOW VIDEO IS USED ...............................................................................................402 6.1. Commentary ...................................................................................................402 6.2. What to Say.....................................................................................................402 6.3. Terms used to Direct Camera Movements .....................................................402 6.4. Video Logs......................................................................................................403 6.5. Care of Equipment .........................................................................................404 CHAPTER 17 ..............................................................................................................408 1. VISUAL INSPECTION ...............................................................................................408 2. CLOSED CIRCUIT TELEVISION (CCTV) ..................................................................409 3. PHOTOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................409 4. CATHODIC POTENTIAL READINGS ..........................................................................409
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents 5. ULTRASONIC INSPECTION TECHNIQUES..................................................................409 6. MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION (MPI) ...............................................................410 7. RADIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................410 8. ALTERNATING CURRENT POTENTIAL DROP (ACPD) .............................................410 9. ELECTRO MAGNETIC DETECTION TECHNIQUES (EMD OR EMT)...........................410 10. ALTERNATING CURRENT FIELD MEASUREMENT (ACFM) ...................................410 11. FLOODED MEMBER DETECTION (FMD) ...............................................................410 12. SUMMARY OF INSPECTION METHODS AND THEIR USE .........................................411 13. TAKING MEASUREMENTS .....................................................................................411 14. LINEAR MEASUREMENT .......................................................................................412 14.1. Ruler .............................................................................................................412 14.2. Magnetic Tape..............................................................................................412 14.3. Flexible Tape Measures ...............................................................................412 14.4. Electronic Methods ......................................................................................412 15. CIRCULAR MEASUREMENTS .................................................................................412 15.1. Callipers .......................................................................................................412 15.2. Vernier Gauges ............................................................................................412 15.3. Specialist Jigs...............................................................................................412 16. ANGULAR MEASUREMENTS .................................................................................413 16.1. Protractor.....................................................................................................413 16.2. Pendulum Gauges ........................................................................................413 17. DENTS AND DEFORMATIONS ................................................................................413 17.1. Profile Gauges..............................................................................................413 17.2. Pit Gauge......................................................................................................414 17.3. Linear Angular Measurement (LAM) Gauge ...............................................414 17.4. Casts .............................................................................................................415 17.5. Straight Edge................................................................................................415 17.6. Taut Wire......................................................................................................415 CHAPTER 18 ..............................................................................................................419 1. LEGISLATION RELATING TO INSPECTION OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES ....................419 2. THE IMPORTANCE OF QA AND QC .........................................................................420 2.1. Databases and Trend Analysis.......................................................................420 2.2. The Importance of Documentation and Record Keeping...............................421 2.2.1. Types of Reporting Systems ...................................................................421 3. REASONS WHY INSPECTION IS REQUIRED ..............................................................422 4. CONTINUITY OF INSPECTION ..................................................................................423 5. DESIGN STAGE .......................................................................................................423 5.1. Structural Marking Systems ...........................................................................424 5.1.1. Unique Identification System..................................................................424 5.1.2. The Alpha Numeric System ....................................................................425 5.1.3. The Box Matrix System ..........................................................................425 5.2. Clock Orientation and Datum Points.............................................................426 5.3. Safety Critical Elements (SCE) ......................................................................427 6. PRODUCTION OF THE RAW MATERIALS ..................................................................427 7. FABRICATION STAGE ..............................................................................................428 8. LAUNCHING AND INSTALLATION ............................................................................428 8.1. Base Line Survey ............................................................................................428 8.2. In Service........................................................................................................429
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents 8.2.1. Damage Survey .......................................................................................430 9. HOW THE CRITERIA OF NON-CONFORMANCE SYSTEM IS APPLIED .........................430 10. DOCUMENTATION IN AN ANOMALY BASED REPORTING SYSTEM .........................432 10.1. Work Scopes and Workbooks in an Anomaly Based System........................433 10.2. Damage Register ..........................................................................................434 10.3. Data Sheets...................................................................................................434 10.4. Data Sheet Design........................................................................................435 11. WRITTEN REPORTS...............................................................................................436 12. VERBAL REPORTING ............................................................................................437 13. CORROSION PROTECTION AND COATING INSPECTION REPORT REQUIREMENTS ...438 14. PROCEDURE FOR THE CLOSE VISUAL INSPECTION OF A WELD .............................438 15. SUMMARY OF OTHER RECORDING METHODS USED UNDERWATER .....................440 15.1. Scratchboards ..........................................................................................441 15.2. Sketches ........................................................................................................441 15.3. Photography .................................................................................................441 15.4. CCTV............................................................................................................441 15.5. Radiography .................................................................................................441 15.6. Casts .............................................................................................................441 15.7. EMD, EMT and ACFM Incorporating Computer Recording ......................441 15.8. Sampling.......................................................................................................441 16. CERTIFICATION OF PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT .................................................441 16.1. CSWIP Grade 3.1U Diver Inspector............................................................442 16.2. CSWIP Grade 3.2U Diver Inspector............................................................442 16.3. CSWIP 3.3U ROV Inspector ........................................................................442 16.4. CSWIP 3.4U Underwater Inspection Controller .........................................442 17. EQUIPMENT CERTIFICATION .................................................................................443 18. INSPECTION PLANNING AND BRIEFING .................................................................443 18.1. Real Time Data Gathering ...........................................................................444 18.2. Briefing.........................................................................................................445 18.3. Management of the Inspection .....................................................................445 18.4. Managing Individual Tasks..........................................................................446 19. PERSONNEL RESPONSIBILITIES .............................................................................447 19.1. The IDVB......................................................................................................447 19.2. The Operator, Client, Operating Company, Duty Holder ...........................447 19.3. The Clients Project Manager......................................................................447 19.4. The Clients Representative {Client Approved Representative (CAR)} .......447 19.5. The Legal Representative .............................................................................448 19.6. The Contractor .............................................................................................448 19.7. The Inspection Controller ............................................................................448 19.8. The Superintendent, Offshore Manager, Party Chief ..................................448 19.9. The Dive Supervisor .....................................................................................448 19.10. The Captain ................................................................................................448 19.11. The OIM .....................................................................................................448 19.12. The Divers ..................................................................................................449 19.13. ROV Supervisor..........................................................................................449 19.14. ROV Pilots..................................................................................................449 20. DECOMMISSIONING ..............................................................................................449 CHAPTER 19 ..............................................................................................................452
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................452 2. RADIOGRAPHY .......................................................................................................452 3. PRODUCTION OF RADIATION ..................................................................................453 3.1. X-ray Production............................................................................................453 3.2. Production of Rays ......................................................................................453 4. SAFETY ..................................................................................................................456 5. HOW THE METHOD WORKS ....................................................................................456 5.1. Radiograph Quality........................................................................................458 6. ELECTRO MAGNETIC DETECTION TECHNIQUES (EMD OR EMT)...........................458 6.1. How the Method Works ..................................................................................459 7. ALTERNATING CURRENT POTENTIAL DROP (ACPD) .............................................462 7.1. How the Method Works ..................................................................................462 8. ALTERNATING CURRENT FIELD MEASUREMENT (ACFM) .....................................463 8.1. How the Method Works ..................................................................................464 8.2. Application of the Technique..........................................................................464 9. FLOODED MEMBER DETECTION (FMD) .................................................................465 9.1. Radiographic FMD.....................................................................................465 9.2. Ultrasonic FMD .............................................................................................467 10. GENERAL POINT FOR ALL FMD READINGS ..........................................................467 CHAPTER 20 ..............................................................................................................470 1. GENERAL COMMENTS ............................................................................................470 2. HP WATER JETS .....................................................................................................470 2.1. Diving Medical Advisory Committee (DMAC) Advice ..................................471 2.2. Management of any Injury .............................................................................472 3. STANDARD OF SURFACE FINISH .............................................................................472 4. AREA TO BE CLEANED ...........................................................................................473 5. GENERAL APPLICATIONS OF PROFILE GRINDING....................................................473 6. SPECIFIC APPLICATION OF PROFILE GRINDING .......................................................474 APPENDIX 1 ...............................................................................................................477 1. TYPES OF DRAWING ...............................................................................................477 2. ENGINEERING DRAWING ........................................................................................478 2.1. Multiple views and projections ......................................................................478 2.2. Showing dimensions .......................................................................................479 3. FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION .....................................................................................479 4. THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION ....................................................................................480 5. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION INCLUDED ON DRAWINGS ..........................................480 6. SIZE OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS ..........................................................................480 7. HOW DRAWINGS ARE USED IN OFFSHORE INSPECTION..........................................481 8. ISOMETRIC DRAWING .............................................................................................481 9. EXERCISE IN PRODUCING AN ISOMETRIC DRAWING FROM A THIRD ANGLE PROJECTION ...............................................................................................................481 APPENDIX 2 ...............................................................................................................492 1. WHAT IS REQUIRED ...............................................................................................492 2. POINTS TO NOTE ....................................................................................................492 APPENDIX 3 ...............................................................................................................497
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Table of Contents 1. ROV CLASSIFICATION ...........................................................................................497 2. CLASS 1 PURE OBSERVATION ................................................................................497 3. CLASS II OBSERVATION WITH PAYLOAD OPTION ..................................................498 4. CLASS III WORK CLASS VEHICLES .........................................................................499 5. CLASS IV TOWED OR BOTTOM CRAWLING VEHICLES ...........................................506 6. CLASS V PROTOTYPE OR DEVELOPMENT VEHICLE ................................................507 7. GENERAL WORK COMPLETED BY ROVS ................................................................507 8. PIPELINE SURVEY ...................................................................................................508 8.1. Pipeline Features ...........................................................................................508 8.2. Pipeline Inspection Tasks...............................................................................509 9. MANIPULATORS .....................................................................................................509 9.1. Force Feedback..............................................................................................509 10. SUBMERSIBLES .....................................................................................................510 10.1. Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles (AUV) .....................................................510 11. MANNED SUBMERSIBLES .....................................................................................511 APPENDIX 4 ...............................................................................................................514 1. GENERAL COMMENTS ............................................................................................514 2. DIVER COMMUNICATIONS ......................................................................................514 3. NORMAL COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS ..................................................................514 4. VOICE PROCEDURE.................................................................................................514 4.1. The Phonetic Alphabet ...................................................................................515 APPENDIX 5 ...............................................................................................................516 1. CATEGORY A (DEFECTS) .......................................................................................516 2. CATEGORY B (AREAS OF CONCERN)......................................................................518 3. CATEGORY C (BLEMISHES)....................................................................................522 4. GENERAL CONCRETE TERMS..................................................................................529 4.1. Reporting........................................................................................................530 5. WEATHERING .........................................................................................................530

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Preface

PREFACE
The Certification Scheme For Weldment Inspection Personnel Organisation and Examination
1. The Certification Scheme for Weldment Inspection Personnel (CSWIP) CSWIP is an accreditation body approved by the UK Governments Board of Trade and Industry. CSWIP is a subsidiary of TWI Certification, which is incorporated into The Welding Institute (TWI). 1.1. TWI Is a world centre for materials joining technology and is the parent organisation for TWI Certification. 1.1.1. Company Profile TWI Ltd, the operating arm of The Welding Institute, is one of the world's foremost independent research and technology organisations. Based at Great Abington near Cambridge since 1946, TWI provides industry with engineering solutions in structures incorporating welding and associated technologies (surfacing, coating, cutting, etc.) through Information Advice and technology transfer Consultancy and project support Contract R&D Training and qualification Personal membership 1.1.2. Single Source of Expertise TWI Ltd is the only single source of expertise in every aspect of joining technology for engineering materials - metals, plastics, ceramics and composites. 1.1.3. Non-profit Company TWI is a non-profit distributing company, limited by guarantee and owned by its Members; it is therefore able to offer independent advice. It is internationally renowned for bringing together multidisciplinary teams to implement established or advanced joining technology or to solve problems arising at any stage - from initial design, materials selection, production and quality assurance, through to service performance and repair.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Preface 1.1.4. Global Benefits Over 450 skilled staff are dedicated to helping industry apply all forms of joining technology safely and efficiently. Some 3200 companies and organisations - representing virtually all sectors of manufacturing industry from over 60 countries around the globe - benefit from TWI services. 1.1.5. Confidential Consultancy TWI undertakes contract R & D in confidence for both industry and governments. As a consultant it can offer individual experts or teams able to help solve problems of all kinds related to materials joining. It will send its specialists anywhere in the world at short notice on troubleshooting missions. 1.1.6. TWI Certification Ltd This is a TWI Group company formed in 1993. 1.1.7. Certification Management Board The body with overall responsibility for the activities of TWI Certification Ltd is the Certification Management Board Professional Board of TWI

Certification Management Board


(TWI Certification Ltd)

Membership, Registration & Education Committee

Membership, Registration & Education Committee CSWIP Welding Specialists & Practitioners Management Committee CSWIP Plastics Welders Certification Management Committee Welding Fabricator Certification Management Committee Certification Scheme for Welder Training Organisations CSWIP In-Service Inspection Management Committee

Responsibilities of the Board


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Preface Thus the Certification Management Board: Acts as the Governing Board for Certification in keeping with the requirements of the industries served by the scheme In turn, appoints specialist Management Committees to oversee specific parts of the scheme. The Certification Management Board comprises 12 representatives of industry and other parties with a valid interest in the certification schemes, for example, fabricators, client organisations, design authorities and training associations. This ensures that the certification schemes truly reflect the needs of industry. 1.1.8. The Management Committees: Meet regularly and monitor the administration of the examinations Recommend changes where they are needed if it means that the examinations can be improved to meet the requirements of industry Discuss new certification ideas. It can therefore be seen that CSWIP is a comprehensive scheme, which provides for the examination and certification of individuals seeking to demonstrate their knowledge and/or experience in their field of operation. The scope of CSWIP includes Welding Inspectors, Welding Supervisors, Welding Instructors and Underwater Inspection personnel

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Preface

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Preface

2. CSWIP Certification for Underwater Inspectors Requirement documents: all CSWIP examination requirements documents are available free of charge and may be downloaded from the website www.cswip.com. 2.1. Inspector Categories There are four categories of certification in the Underwater Inspector scheme: 3.1U Diver Inspector 3.2U Diver Inspector 3.3U ROV Inspector 3.4U Underwater Inspection Controller 2.2. The CSWIP 3.4U Examination The 3.4U course this prefaces is a CSWIP approved course. The examination itself consists of two main elements, a theoretical examination and a practical assessment. 2.2.1. The Theory Examination The theory examination is in 3 parts, A, B and C. Parts A and B will be one three hour long paper and part C will consist of one paper for which 3 hours is allowed. 2.2.1.1. The Question Papers: Part A - 50 multi-choice questions Part B - General inspection principles and applications six written answer questions from five sections. You must answer one question from each section and one additional question from any of the five sections. The sections contain questions about: Magnetic particle inspection Ultrasonic inspection Corrosion protection systems Underwater visual inspection
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Preface Non-destructive testing (general knowledge) Part C - Application aspects of inspection: eight written answer questions from seven sections. You must answer one question from each section and one additional question from any of the five sections. The sections contain questions about: Remotely applied inspection systems Recording and processing data Quality assurance Inspection planning and briefing Capabilities and limitations of ROVs and submersibles Care and deployment of equipment 2.2.1.2. Practical Examination The Practical examination is in 7 parts: Data recording Commenting on the video inspection of a component Written reports Written description of a component Technical drawing evaluation Telex prcis Work scheduling 2.2.2. Concrete Examination This consists of 20 multi-choice questions and reporting on 8 photographs of typical concrete blemishes. This is an optional extra that may be taken at the same time as the examination. 2.3. The CSWIP 3.3U Examination The 3.3U course this prefaces is a CSWIP approved course. The examination itself consists of two main elements, a theoretical examination and a practical assessment. 2.3.1. The Theory Examination The theory examination is in 2 parts, A and B 3 hours in total is allowed during which time both papers must be answered. 2.3.1.1. The Question Papers: Part A - 25 multi-choice questions Part B Consists of two sections. Section A One mandatory question from a choice of two on the inspection of an underwater inspection of a riser, pipeline or structure. Section B - Six written answer questions from five sections, which contain two questions each. The sections contain questions about:
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Preface Underwater visual inspection Recording methods Corrosion protection systems Care and calibration of equipment Recording and reporting of data 2.3.1.2. Practical Examination The Practical examination is in 5 parts: Data recording Commenting on video of an inspection task Written reports Description (written) Technical drawing evaluation 2.3.2. Concrete Examination This consists of 20 multi-choice questions and reporting on 8 photographs of typical concrete blemishes. This is an optional extra that may be taken at the same time as the examination. 2.4. The CSWIP 3.2U Examination The 3.2U course this prefaces is a CSWIP approved course. The examination itself consists of two main elements, a theoretical examination and a practical assessment. 2.4.1. The Theory Examination The theory examination is in 2 parts, A and B 2 hours in total is allowed during which time both papers must be answered. 2.4.1.1. The Question Papers: Part A - 25 multi-choice questions Part B Six written answer questions from six sections, which contain two questions each. The sections contain questions about: Technique preparation Corrosion protection Magnetic particle inspection Ultrasonics Visual inspection, photography and CCTV NDT techniques (general knowledge 2.4.1.2. Practical Examination The Practical examination is in 2 parts:

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Preface Magnetic particle assessment of three ferritic steel welds using various magnetisation techniques with fluorescent inks and ultraviolet light Practical weld toe grinding of a 150mm length of weld to a specific requirement 2.4.2. Concrete Examination This consists of 20 multi-choice questions and reporting on 8 photographs of typical concrete blemishes. This is an optional extra that may be taken at the same time as the examination. 2.5. The CSWIP 3.1U Examination The 3.1U course this prefaces is a CSWIP approved course. The examination itself consists of two main elements, a theoretical examination and a practical assessment. 2.5.1. The Theory Examination The theory examination is in 2 parts, A and B 2 hours 40 minutes in total is allowed during which time both papers must be answered. 2.5.1.1. The Question Papers: Part A - 50 multi-choice questions Part B Five written answer questions from five sections, which contain two questions each. The sections contain questions about: Underwater visual - steel Underwater visual - concrete Recording methods, photography and CCTV Corrosion protection Visual inspection, photography and CCTV 2.5.1.2. Practical Examination The Practical examination is in 5 parts: Visual examination of an underwater steel structure Cathodic potential measurements Ultrasonic digital thickness measurements Underwater photography Use of CCTV with oral commentary 2.5.2. Concrete Examination This consists of 20 multi-choice questions and reporting on 8 photographs of typical concrete blemishes. This is an optional extra that may be taken at the same time as the examination.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 1

CHAPTER 1
Engineering Offshore Structures
1. General Background Historically it is true to say that in the initial stages of development of offshore oil platforms the designs evolved from land-based structures and were constructed on site. The engineering design knowledge was either borrowed or extrapolated from traditional fields of civil engineering and naval architecture. During the 1950s, however, new technology began to be developed for this type of structure. Since then many advances have been made particularly in the field of materials. Governments legislation in the various host countries with offshore oil has also played a role in shaping the design of production platforms and the various other structures seen offshore. Economics are very important and play a leading role in platform design. For example it is only possible to justify the expenditure for a massive eight-legged steel of a huge concrete gravity platform when the hydrocarbon reserves in a particular field are large enough to not only warrant the initial capital cost but will also guarantee a good income for a long period of time. There is also a growing concern for the environment and this consideration influences certain aspects of structural design. Another factor of prime importance is safety of personnel. There are two facets to this: 1.1. Safe To Operate The first facet is the usual concern of engineers to design a structure which is elegant if possible, conservative in its use of materials, fit for the design purpose, able to operate for the prescribed length of time, safe to operate and within the allowed budget. 1.2. Government Legislation The other facet is government legislation. This is put in place to ensure that structures are fit in all aspects, including safety, for the purpose they are designed to fulfil. 2. Design Specifications The requirements for an offshore platform will necessitate the consideration of a number of factors and involve drawing up DESIGN SPECIFICATION. The full design specification will contain many different factors, but by way of illustration the following list should serve to indicate some factors affecting load bearing and cost. 2.1. Materials These should be readily available from suppliers in the required form and should meet the requirements of the design specification. 2.2. Working Life This may typically be 25 years

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Engineering Offshore Structures 2.3. Loading The platform should provide a safe working environment for the purpose of recovering hydrocarbon reserves. It must be capable of withstanding the loads imposed on it by the drilling and other works performed in and on the work areas and it must withstand the forces imposed by wind and wave action. 2.4. Environment The open sea, which will impose very harsh conditions indeed on the entire structure but especially the jacket. Due consideration must be made to the effects of corrosion because of this environment. 2.5. Maintenance This should be kept to the barest minimum. Cue consideration must be given to the underwater maintenance being especially singled out wit a view to not only minimising bit but also to use the most cost effective means of achieving any necessary works. 2.6. Weight The weight of the deck modules must be considered so that the jacket can be designed to support this weight. The all-up weight will have ramifications on the cost and on the seabed design of the foundations. 2.7. Dimensions The size of the structure will be dictated by the work functions required to be carried out and will be strongly affected by the requirements to keep the topside weight to the minimum. 3. Construction Activity Monitoring System At the same time as the Design Specification is drafted it is possible for the QUALITY ASSURANCE (QA) function to be implemented. This can take the form of an Activity Monitoring System that would compile: Full certification for the location of all components, normally by way of as built drawings o This would normally include any concessions, repairs and the actual location of J tube and temporary access holes Full material certification Non-destructive Testing (NDT) and inspection certification, which would include personnel qualifications 4. Guidance On Design And Construction With these engineering requirements in mind as the basic starting point design and structural engineers will be able to obtain guidance as to what minimum standards are acceptable to the appropriate authority or government body whatever country they are operating in. As an example of these types of guidance two different sets of national regulations will be illustrated.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 1

4.1. United Kingdom There is a history of legislating in United Kingdom waters going back to 1972 when Parliament enacted legislation that provided for the health, safety and welfare of persons working on offshore installations. This was The Mineral Workings (Offshore Installations) Act 1971 The Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 followed this. Subsequently in 1975 The Petroleum and Submarines Pipelines Act 1975 was enacted, providing for all pipelines and offshore installations not covered by the 1971 act. Using the powers embodied in the 1971 Mineral Workings (Offshore Installations) Act in 1974 the United Kingdom Department of Energy authorised, The Offshore Installations (Construction and Survey) Regulations 1974 (SI 289). This Statutory Instrument (SI) was followed, in April 1984 by, Offshore Installations: Guidance on Design and Construction. The latest amendment to this document was dated 1990 Both of these Statutory Instruments are now superseded as indicated later in this Chapter. 4.2. Guidance from the UK Regulations The guidance given in the UK regulations in the early 1970s followed good engineering practice and provided design engineers what was then the most up to date basic information as to the forces and loads acting upon any offshore structure, with specific emphasis on the North Sea environment. It is worth examining these regulations in a little detail because a good number of North Sea structures in the UK sector were designed and installed during this period. At that time a distinction was made between Primary Structure and Secondary Structure; Primary Structure was defined as meaning all structural components of an Offshore Installation, the failure of which would seriously endanger the safety of the installation. Examples are, for fixed Installations, piles, jacket legs and bracings, concrete caissons and towers, and main deck girders, for a mobile Installation, lower hulls or pontoons, columns, main bracings and deck beams and Secondary Structure, defined as, The structural elements which are not primary structure are secondary structure. Examples are deckhouses, walkways and helicopter decks The Guidance also specified that the latest edition of any British Standard or Code of Practice should be used where appropriate and further that standards and/or codes other than British may be used provided that the Certifying Authority* was satisfied there was an equivalent degree of safety and integrity
* In SI 289 in 1974 and the other legislation in force up to 1996 there were five authorised certifying authorities. The current legislation now in force has revoked this authorisation and now requires verification not certification

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Engineering Offshore Structures 4.2.1. Specific Guidance In SI 289 1974 The Guidance gave specific advice on: Clearance above waves (air gap) Hazardous areas Layout of equipment and systems Fendering Pipeline risers Location of accommodation and working areas Escape routes And various other subjects concerned with the safety of personnel and structure 4.2.2. Environment Environmental considerations were also dealt with in some detail advising designers to determine parameters on: The speed and direction of winds and the effect of averaging period and height above the surface of the sea on their characteristics The heights, periods and directions of waves, the probability of their occurrence and the effect of currents, seabed topography and other factors likely to modify their characteristics The water depth and variations in water level from tide and storm surge The speed and direction of tidal and other currents Air and sea temperatures The extent of snow and ice accumulations The extent to which marine growth may form on the submerged sections of the installation. To assist the designer in determining these parameters various tables were provided showing the then, current relevant data. Comprehensive guidance was also given on corrosion protection and site investigations. 4.2.3. Steel And Concrete Both these materials were considered in some detail with design parameters being indicated. 4.2.3.1. Steel This material may fail in service for a number of reasons as will be detailed in later Chapters. The Guidance notes in the 1970s considered a number of specific items.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 1

Fatigue Life Throughout its service life a structure is exposed to environmental loading. This causes cyclic stress variations in its structural members. Of these forces wave loading is the main source of potential fatigue cracking, for example, supposing a 20-year service life, wave action will result in approximately 108 cycles of stress variations. Any other source of cyclic loading could also contribute to fatigue damage and should therefore be considered as well. Unless otherwise agreed with the Certifying Authority the calculated fatigue life derived by the methods indicated in the Guidance Notes should be not less than 20 years, or the required service life if this is greater. The procedure for the fatigue analysis is based on the assumption that for welded structures it is only necessary to consider ranges of cyclic stress in determining the endurance (i.e. mean stresses are neglected). In most situations the potential fatigue crack is located in parent material (e.g. at a weld toe) and the relevant cyclic stress is accepted as the range of maximum principal stress at the potential crack location. (Note: In estimating the maximum principal stress, shear and torsional effects may be neglected where they are small). For nodal joints the stress range to be used in the fatigue analysis is the hot spot stress range at the weld toe. Figure 1.1 refers.

Specific Joint Design The objective is to minimise stress concentration areas


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Engineering Offshore Structures Buckling This is another prime possibility for component failure and must therefore warrant special attention. The Requirement for Destructive Testing This is considered in order to minimise potential failures and as part of the overall QA. 4.2.3.2. Concrete Structures As with steel failure in service could occur due to a number of factors some specific to concrete. Limit State Design Limit States Shear Fatigue Deflection Cracking Cover Over Reinforcement Reinforcement Detailing 4.2.3.3. Loads The prime categories of load considered are: Dead Loads Imposed (Operational) Loads Hydrostatic Loads Environmental Loads Deformation Loads Accidental Loads The 1974 Guidance indicated the required minimum considerations for designers to take account of, along with the then current best advise on how best to determine these loads. 4.3. United States of America As an historical contrast to this legislation another example of this type of guidance, from the United States of America, which is aimed at American waters is, API Recommended Practice for PLANNING, DESIGNING, and CONSTRUCTING FIXED OFFSHORE PLATFORMS, which was published by the American Petroleum Institute (API) in 1984. These regulations lay down in broad terms the minimum standards for the design and construction of offshore structures in offshore environments as indicated below. The major difference between the US and the UK regulations at that time was

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 1 the fact that the US offered advise and cited recommended practice but did not authorise certification authorities. Nor does it now. 4.3.1. Guidance From The US Regulations US regulations are intended for use in the American offshore environment, but, because they are based on good engineering practice, in common with the old UK regulations, the guidance follows much the same ground. This is not surprising, as the structures will have to withstand very similar forces and loadings. 4.3.1.1. Planning The US Guidance, which was given for this aspect of the design function considers such items as: Function The function for which the structure is intended such as drilling, producing, storage, accommodation, or a combination of these. The Location Orientation Water Depth All of these factors being considered with a view o giving guidance as to what parameters should be applied. The environmental conditions are considered and designers are specifically advised to make best use of all available statistical and mathematical modelling data todevelop the description of operating and extreme environmental conditions. Operating Environmental Conditions (Those conditions which are expected to occur frequently during the life of the structure) are important both during the construction and the life of a platform. Extreme Conditions (Those conditions which recur quite rarely during the life of the structure) are important in formulating platform design loadings The Recommended Practice also indicated minimum requirements for considering the effects of: Wind Waves Tides Currents Ice Earthquakes Sea-floor Instability
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Engineering Offshore Structures Scour Marine Fouling Site investigations with a view as to the impact on the structures foundations are also considered. As with the UK guidance loads are given full consideration and are defined as: Dead Loads Live Loads Environmental Loads Construction Loads Dynamic Loads (If a comparison of this list is made with paragraph 4.2.3.3 it appears that the UK old regulation considered this subject more fully. This is not the case because the US regulation considered some types of loads together. For example hydrostatic loads, which are considered separately in the UK, are associated with dead loads in the US). 4.3.1.2. Structural Steel The behaviour of steel under stress is considered. Bending Buckling Were both given due consideration. Fatigue This is dealt with in the same manner as for the UK along with similar design advice. Joint Design This was also covered in a similar way. Concrete structures are not considered in this particular publication. 5. Conclusion It is obvious from the comparisons made here and from common engineering experience that the engineering requirements for offshore structures anywhere in the world will be similar. The only marked changes will be due to local conditions either imposing greater loadings on the structure or perhaps the local environment being more aggressive. The basic engineering will not change but some components may have to be more massive or higher-grade materials may be required to meet these local requirements. 6. Pipelines Offshore pipelines are used to transport oil or gas from platform to loading towers or to shore. They are fabricated from high-grade steel pipe (e.g.API-5LX) which is bitumen wrapped for corrosion prevention and coated with a layer of
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 1 reinforced concrete to provide a weight coating which gives additional protection as well. The sizes normally vary from 50 mm (2) to 914 mm (36) and the wall thickness normally varies according to the pressure rating required. 6.1. Pipeline Laying The methods for laying pipe has evolved since the 1950s and utilises lay barges on which standard 12 m lengths of pipe are welded together along the centre of the specially designed and fitted out deck of the vessel. Each joint is X-rayed and then coated with bitumen and wrapped with a protective sheathing. As new lengths of pipe are added the assembly is fed over the stern and the barge is moved forward, usually by pulling on anchors, which have been laid by an associated anchor-handling vessel. An alternative approach is laying pipe from a reel barge. The earliest application of this technique occurred during World War II when a 76 mm (3) diameter pipe was laid across the English Channel in Operation PLUTO (Pipeline Under The Ocean). This early application utilised floating reels with the pipeline being unwrapped from them as they were towed along. The modern application requires the pipe to be prepared on land and then wound onto the reel which is mounted on the stern of the reel laying vessel which itself is moored at a specially designed pier. The vessel then proceeds to the required site and lays the pipeline by un-reeling it over the stern as the barge steams forward. The welding and preparation work on land is carried out in a spooling yard, where the pipe sections are supplied in 12 m (40 ft) lengths. These are welded together to form stalks, usually about 518 m (1700 ft) long. All the welds are X-rayed and coated and the stalks are stowed in racks alongside the spooling dock. At the start of spooling, the first stalk is moved into the roller system. The end is welded to a stub of pipe on the reel and is pulled onto the reel. The second length is then welded to the end of the first, the weld is X-rayed and coated and the procedure is then repeated for subsequent stalks. All welding and loading operations are performed at the shore facility and therefore are less affected by weather conditions. The major area of criticality is establishing and maintaining even tightness of the wraps on the reel. This is to avoid potential breakthrough of one wrap into another, which would cause damage to the pipe. The reeling and un-reeling of the pipe actually causes yielding of the steel and the maximum diameter pipeline that can be laid is 600 mm (24). See Figure 1.2

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Engineering Offshore Structures

Figure 1.2 MSV Norlift, Laying the 10in pipeline between the Neptune and Mercury fields 7. Offshore Oil Terminals Large oil tankers are cheaper to run than small tankers. This philosophy of building large tankers was reinforced in the 1950s when the Suez crisis forced tankers from the Gulf to detour around the South of Africa in order to reach Europe. As tanker sizes increased the number of ports that could handle tankers decreased and public opinion was against allowing such tankers too close to inhabited areas. Many solution were proposed to solve this problem of shrinking docking facilities which included artificial harbours, artificial offshore islands, multiple buoy mooring systems, tower mooring systems and Single Point Mooring systems (SPMs). The SPM is the most widely used because of its relatively low operational cost, reliability and flexibility. This configuration is illustrated in a later Chapter. 8. Future Trends The future is likely to see continued development of current trends and techniques in all areas of offshore engineering, with the probability of new techniques being evolved to enable the exploitation of reserves which are currently marginal or beyond the range of present day techniques. 8.1. Drilling This is a branch of engineering, which has seen numerous developments the results of which have made recovery of reserves more efficient and more effective. Cost reduction and further development of marginal reserves will, no doubt, cause a continuation of developments of the present techniques and trends. There will surely be, for instance, increased use of: -

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Horizontal Drilling This enables more formation to be exposed to production and reduces reservoir problems such as associated gas and water production. It is useful for thin and tight, low permeability reservoirs. Fewer wells are needed to achieve optimum reservoir production than with conventional drilling. Figure 1.3 refers.

Figure 1.3 Diagram Of Bottomhole Assemblies These Bottomhole Assemblies Are Designed For Drilling A Straight Hole (Left) And A Directional Hole (Right) Extended Reach Drilling This can reduce the number of platforms required to develop a field as a greater reservoir area can be drained from one central platform. Horizontal distances up to 7000 m have been achieved.

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Slim Line Well Design Involves cost-effective casing design around an optimal production conduit, can also reduce the number of wells needed to achieve optimum reservoir drainage. Rig Automation Will allow several labour-intensive tasks such as pipe handling to be carried out automatically. For instance, on the rig package developed for Norske Shells Troll platform, only one driller and an assistant man the rig floor. On a conventional rig, between five and seven people would be needed to carry out equivalent tasks. All pipe-handling operations are carried out from a specially designed control cabin. Removing personnel from the drill floor means more cost-effective and potentially safer operations. See Figures 1.4 to 1.11.

Figure 1.4 The Drill Floor Showing The Drill String Being Broken Out

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Figure 1.5 The Derrick. The Pyramidal Derrick Supports The Crown Blocks And The Drillstring
Photo courtesy of Mark S. Ramsey

Figure 1.6 Photograph Of Crown Block The Pulleys That Make Up The Crown Block Allow The Cable To Hoist Heavy Loads.
Photo courtesy of Mark S. Ramsey
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Figure 1.7 Drawworks The Drawworks Reels The Drilling Line In Or Out Over The Crown Blocks To Raise Or Lower The Travelling Block (Shows The Spool-Like Drawworks Without The Drilling Line
Photo courtesy of Mark S. Ramsey

Figure 1.8 Travelling Block The Yellow Travelling Block Moves Up And Down In The Derrick, Suspended By The Black Wire Rope, To Lift Or Lower The Drillstring Or Casing
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Photo courtesy of the Petroleum Extension Service The University of Texas at Austin

Figure 1.9 Breakout Cathead. The Breakout Cathead Allows The Driller To Make A Connection Using The Power Of The Motor
Photo courtesy of the Petroleum Extension Service, The University of Texas at Austin

Figure 1.10 Spinning chain The Spinning Chain (Centre Photograph) Turns Pipe Rapidly, But Is A Dangerous Way To Screw Pipe Together Because Of Potential For Catching And Damaging Clothing And Fingers. Mechanical Spinning Devices Are
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Engineering Offshore Structures Now Favoured Over Spinning Chains
Photo courtesy of the Petroleum Extension Service, The University of Texas at Austin

Figure 1.11 Slips The Rig Crew Sets Wedge-Like Pipe Slips (Near The Bottom Of This Photograph) In The Rotary Table To Hold The Pipe While Another Component Is Added To The Drillstring
Photo courtesy of the Petroleum Extension Service, The University of Texas at Austin.

Temporary (Lightweight) Topsides On Platforms This design can make production platforms lighter and cheaper than traditional platforms, which include permanent integrated drilling facilities. For example, Norske Shells Draugen and Troll platforms are designed so that the derrick set can be removed at the end of the drilling and completion phase. Shells Gannet Platform is another lightweight design. Figure 1.12 refers.

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Figure 1.12 Gannet Platform North Sea Central Sector Tender Assisted Operations These operations also help to minimise the weight of the production platform by providing most drilling support equipment on a floating anchored, shipshaped tender in calm waters or an anchored semi- submersible unit for deeper or harsher environments. Mobile Drilling Units These are jack-up or semi-submersible rigs, depending on water and they can be used to drill production wells (with well completion on the seabed and production pipelines led to a nearby facility) where size and economics of the reservoir do not justify the installation of a platform.

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8.2. Design Practices Todays fixed platforms are lighter, slimmer and simpler than the giant platforms built in the 1970s. There is scope for further simplification, for example of topsides, which account for more than half the capital cost of a platform. Figure 1.13 refers.

Topside costs can be reduced, for instance by standardising designs and reducing sparing (duplication of equipment). Another option is to examine alternatives to conventional platform designs. Studies of a purpose-built production jack-up unit, a concrete gravity structure and a tripod tower platform have shown that all three are technically viable and could offer cost saving for applications in water depths around 100 m. Greater use of sub-sea satellite technology instead of building a platform can reduce costs, especially where infrastructure already exists nearby which can be used as a host platform. As indicated by the relative sizes of the pie charts in Figure 1.13, the capital costs of constructing a sub-sea satellite 20 km from an existing platform are much lower than the costs of constructing an additional platform. However, in such an instance, the long term technical integrity of existing facilities, platforms and pipelines must be ensured, given that they may be in continued use beyond the original design life which was probably in the order of 20 years anyway.

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Bibliography Engineering Aspects of North Sea Operations. The Shell Approach PP Tapper The Gatwick Press The Offshore Challenge Shell Briefing Service A Handbook for Underwater Inspectors L K Porter HMSO The Offshore Installations (Construction and Survey) Regulations 1974 (SI 289) BSI Offshore Installations Guidance on Design and Construction HMSO API Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms American Petroleum Institute Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 2

CHAPTER 2
Offshore Structures and Installations
1. Introduction Offshore hydrocarbon deposits may be gas or oil or a mixture of the two. They are found at different depths in the seabed, they are of different sizes and the recovery of the reserves can be easy or difficult depending on the actual geology of the particular well. These factors influence the design of offshore structures and combine to be one of the basic reasons for there being different types of offshore installations. Some of the biggest installations are in the North Sea and consist of concrete gravity structures. Then there are the more common steel platforms, which can be of the eight-legged type or may be of a lightweight four-legged variety. There are also jack-up rigs, which are mobile, and tension leg platforms (TLP), which float. Apart from these production facilities there are also, seabed wells, manifold centres and thousands of kilometres of pipelines. Another common structure seen worldwide is the single point mooring (SPM) which come in a variety of designs, some of which incorporate storage facilities. 1.1. Terminology The production platforms are the most massive installations and they may be of steel or concrete construction, steel being the most prevalent. Both types have standard components and a through working knowledge of this terminology is necessary to be able to communicate with other engineers. Much of this terminology also applies to the other types of structures and therefore a review of this topic for platforms forms the basis for a comprehensive working technical vocabulary. See Figures 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3

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Figure 2.1 Steel Platform

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1.1.1. Basic Components Of Steel Platforms Common terminology for the components making up the steel sub-sea structure, the jacket, which is constructed of steel pipe work and piled into the seabed.

Modern Jackets Figure 2.2 The Jade Jacket Kvaerner Manufactured The Jade Jacket At Methil

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Figure 2.3 A Four Legged Jacket Built For The Compression Platform Installed As Part Of CMS 2 Can One of the sections making up a leg Conductor Guide Frame Horizontal sections of framework, which restrain and guide the conductors Leg The main vertical component, constructed from a number of sections welded together, supporting the rest of the structure
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Member One of the horizontal, vertical or diagonal components of the jacket Node A point on the welded steel structure where two or more members meet and are joined. Figure 2.4 refers.

Figure 2.4 Typical Node Pile Guides Steel cylinder in which the pile is supported while it is driven into the seabed. Pile guides are mounted in clusters around each leg at various levels. They are often removed on completion of piling operations Pile Sleeves These are long steel cylinders, grouped around the base of the legs into which the piles are located before being driven into the seabed. The tops
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Offshore Structures and Installations of the piles should be level with the tops of the sleeves on completion of piling. See Figure 2.5.

Figure 2.5 Pile Sleeves Additional to these components are a number of appurtenances (attachments). The more important of these are: Caissons Open bottomed tubular components terminating at various depths for the purpose of the intake or discharge of water or waste Conductors Tubes for drilling purposes connecting seabed wells to the topside. Figure 2.6 refers.

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Figure 2.6 Conductors Flowline Riser Bundles Pipe work-bringing oil or gas from satellite wellheads into the platform Oil And Gas Risers Vertical pipeline extending the full height of the jacket and used for transporting oil or gas. Production risers carry oil or gas up from the seabed wellheads. Export risers take the processed hydrocarbons down to pipelines. Refer to Figures 2.7 and 2.8

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Conductor

Sea level Export or Import Riser Riser clamp Pile Pile


Flow-line

Vertical Diagonal brace Horizontal brace Node

Seabed

Figure 2.7 Steel Structure Terminology

Batter

Sea level Export or Import Riser Conductor


Vertical Diagonal brace

Horizontal brace Riser clamp


Pile Pile sleeve Node

Flowline

Seabed

Figure 2.8 Steel Structure Terminology

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Figure 2.9 Processing Takes Place on Statoils Gullfaks A Platform North Sea 1.1.2. Basic Components Of A Concrete Gravity Structure Gravity structures may be made of steel or a mixture of steel and concrete but the most usual material is concrete itself. They are anchored to the seabed by their own mass hence the term gravity. Common features of this type of design are the large diameter columns supporting the deck module and numerous ballast/storage tanks making up the base. See Figure 2.9 and 2.12 1.1.2.1. Common Concrete Components Some components are common to all concrete structures. The following list defines a number of these. Anchorage Point This is an essential part of the tensioning components in pre-stressed concrete structures. The anchorage point is cast into the concrete at
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Offshore Structures and Installations the ends of the tensioning tendon or bundle of tendons. It grips the tendon and thereby transfers the load from it to the structural concrete. It is commonly encased in protective concrete domes. Figure 2.10 Breakwater Walls Concrete walls in the splash zone, containing cast in holes that dissipate the wave energy and thus protect the structure within the walled area Cachetage Point This is an alternative name for Anchorage Point. Refer to Figure 2.10

Figure 2.10 Cross-sectional Drawing Of A Cachetage Point Jarlan Holes A term used to describe the cast in holes in the Breakwater Walls. See Figure 2.11

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Figure 2.11 Close-up Photograph Of A Jarlan Hole Support Columns These are the concrete, or steel, columns supporting the deck module. See Figure 2.12.

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Figure 2.12 Support Columns and Support Domes On A Condeep Design Concrete Platform

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Support Domes These are the tops of the tanks at the base of the structure, which may store oil, water or drilling mud. See also Figure 12.12 Terminology With Different Offshore Structures Having introduced the terminology associated with production platforms the discussion should be extended to other types of offshore structures and vessels. There are a number of different configurations for structures that are designed to fulfil different functions. Jack-up Rigs These rigs are used for wildcat drilling, production drilling and workovers. See Figure 2.13.

Figure 2.13 A Three-legged Jack-up Drilling Platform With Tow Still Attached Starting To Jack-up
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Offshore Structures and Installations The jack-up platform consists of a main platform, which is watertight (the hull) and floats for transit. Attached to the hull via a rack and pinion assembly are the tubular steel lattice frame legs. The gears lower the legs to the seabed and the hull is then jacked up by this same method to clear the water. On completion of the drilling the whole operation is reversed and the rig is towed away to a different site. 1.2. A Semi-submersible Rig These are used for the same tasks as jack-ups and may be self-powered or not. Figures 2.14 to 2.16 refer.

Figure 2.14 The sgard B Semi-Submersible Production Platform Is Linked To The Semi-submersible Accommodation Flotel Safe Britannia In deeper water the legs of a jack-up platform would be so long as to give concern about the stability of the legs unless they were much larger in section. Therefore this type of rig is not used in water deeper than about 60 m. At greater water depths the semi-submersible platform is employed. The rig has large hollow legs and pontoons, which can be flooded or pumped dry at, will thus ballasting the platform. When moving from site to site the rig is ballasted up to reduce water drag during transit and, when drilling, the rig is ballasted down to improve stability. It does float at all times and therefore when drilling it is kept in place usually by anchors but it may keep position by dynamic positioning (DP). That is the main engines run all the time and computers especially programmed for the task with current data on weather, tide, sea state and various navigation inputs control the thrust to the various
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 2 thrusters (propellers) to keep the vessel stationary in the sea directly over one point on the seabed.

Figure 2.15 Delivery of the sgard Hull by the Mighty Servant 3

Figure 2.16 The Turret of the sgard A Floating Production Vessel Merges with the Internal Pipe Work
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Offshore Structures and Installations 1.3. Drill ship Again the drill ship is used for the same tasks as a jack-up but in deeper water it is more weather dependant. It is also more manoeuvrable and mobile. See Figure 2.17

Figure 2.17 Drillship Discovery 1 Either DP or anchors normally keep drillships on station dependent on the water depth, site and project parameters. See Figure 2.17 1.4. Steel Production Platforms With steel fixed platforms the jacket supports the substructure, which contains all the necessary facilities. The jacket is built in a fabrication yard and if it is a large six or eight-legged jacket designed to support full production facilities it may well have modified legs designed as floats, or additional ballast tanks may be installed so that it can be floated out to the site. Smaller steel structures, which have been designed, and built as a result of advances made in materials, better understanding of the forces imposed on offshore structures and different design concepts are loaded onto a barge which carries them out. Both these types of platform are sometimes referred to as steel piled structures because the jacket is piled into the seabed once it is in the upright position with piles either driven through the legs or positioned around the main legs and driven through pile sleeves, so-called skirt piles. One example of the large fixed production platform is the Brent A, which is installed in ShellExpros Brent Field in the North Sea.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 2 1.4.1. Brent A Statistics Water Depth Substructure Jacket Type Number of legs Number of piles Weight of jacket Weight of piles Superstructure Production capacity 100,000 bbl/d oil and 200-mmscfd gas Height of deck above sea level Deck area Deck construction Weight of deck Weight of deck facilities See Figure 2.18 21.7 m 2300 m2 Plate girder 1,507 tonnes 2,354 tonnes 14,762 tonnes Self-floating steel construction 6 32 (skirt piles) 14,225 tonnes 7,316 tonnes 140 m

Weight of modules and equipment

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Figure 2.18 ShellExpros Brent A Production Platform North Sea An example of a lightweight platform servicing seabed wellheads and facilities is the Gannet A platform in ShellExpros Gannet Field in the central North Sea. The structure itself is of the same basic design, but is much less massive than the production platform. Figure 2.19 refers

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Figure 2.19 ShellExpros Gannet Platform 1.5. Concrete And Steel Gravity Platforms The first gravity structure was installed in the North Sea in the mid-1970s while the first steel gravity platform was installed offshore in the Congo in the late-1970s. The concept of a concrete structure came about because of some of the problems associated with steel structures, namely the necessity for a large number of heavy and large piles and the corrosion problem with steel in a hostile environment. Concrete gravity structures required no piles and were immune to corrosion. Initially there were perceived additional advantages of storage space within the base cells and potentially huge deck space which could be fitted out in calm sheltered water which in turn would minimise on-site commissioning thus reducing expensive offshore construction manpower.

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Figure 2.20 ShellExpros Brent D Platform North Sea Apart from Brent D illustrated in Figure 2.20 there are numerous examples of this type of structure constructed to different designs, such as Condeep, CG Doris and McAlpine Seatank. To give some idea of the scale of this type of platform the main statistics for Cormorant, A which is a four-legged design, installed in the Cormorant Field in the North Sea are detailed here. 1.5.1. Cormorant A Statistics Water Depth Substructure Storage Capacity Caisson shape Caisson height Number of legs 1,000,000 bbls Square 57 m 4
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 2 Weight in air Superstructure Production capacity Area of deck Deck construction Weight of deck Weight of modules 60,000 b/d oil and 30-mmscfd gas 4,200 m2 box girder 5,593 tonnes 19,011 tonnes Height of deck above MSL 23 m 294,655 tonnes

Weight of deck equipment 3,593 tonnes 1.5.2. Disadvantages of Concrete Structures In spite of the initial optimism for the design of concrete structures it has been found that there are a number of disadvantages for this type of structure. There are stability problems during tow-out to site that have to be counteracted by limiting the topside weight thus reducing the apparent advantage of large deck space fitted out in sheltered waters. The very heavy lift derrick barges now operating are able to operate in comparatively wide weather variations which has reduced the cost of offshore installations thus limiting the apparent cost advantage of concrete constructions. Concrete as a material cannot withstand tensile forces. This in turn means the use of the base storage cells must be carefully monitored at all times t avoid any possibility of the storage of crude oil causing a buildup of differential loadings between cells thus causing excessive tensile stresses. Also pressure must not be allowed to build up in the cells, vapour pressure must not exceed 2 bar (30 psi). Another consideration is that oil temperature in the cells must not exceed 38o C in order to avoid thermal stresses. Another, problem associated with the storage of crude oil is that if it is not carefully monitored emulsions formed by the interaction of oil and associated water can accumulate permanently within the cells. Reservoir sand must not be allowed to accumulate and build up either and therefore steps have to be taken to eliminate this from the crude before it reaches the cells. At least one of the main shafts will house utilities and because it is some 100m tall and very narrow ventilating it is difficult which necessitates the use of breathing apparatus by maintenance staff working there. This in turn makes routine maintenance and operations of the equipment difficult. Stagnant water accumulated in the structure encourages the growth of aerobic bacteria, which consume oxygen, which in turn generates ideal conditions for the formation of Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB). The growth of SRBs in turn leads to the production of Hydrogen Sulphide
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Offshore Structures and Installations H2S. This problem necessitates the creation of safety zones and special procedures to avoid risk to personnel. 1.6. Compliant Towers This design is a tall, slim steel structure that is designed to sway slightly, that is complies with the effects of the wave action. The design is conceived as a half-way house between fixed and floating structures. It is possible to use the design in water depths up to some 1000 m in moderate environments. The Baldpate GB 260 Platform is located in 1,650ft of water, in Garden Banks (GB) block 260, 120 miles off the Louisiana coast. This is the first freestanding offshore compliant tower ever, as well as one of the tallest freestanding structures in the world. The tip of the flare boom extends 1,902ft above the seafloor. Figures 2.21 to 2.25 refer.

Figure 2.21 GB 260 Compliant Tower Gulf Of Mexico


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Figure 2.22 Artist Impression Of GB 260 Compliant Tower

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Figure 2.23 GB 260 Base On Tow Barge During Tow Out To Site

Figure 2.24 GB 260 Jacket Before Float Out

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Figure 2.25 GB 260 Base Launch 1.7. Tension Leg Floating Platforms Tension Leg Platforms (TLP) consist of a hull anchored to the seabed with vertical tendons. Vertical movement is constrained by the tendons thus allowing production wells to be located on deck. An example of this type of structure is Conocos TLP in the Hutton Field in the North Sea which was installed in 1984. This design is suitable for deep-water production and some engineers believe the technology could be extended to water depths of 3000 m. See Figures 2.26 to 2.28

Figure 2.26 Statoils Snorre B TLP North Sea


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Figure 2.27 Diagrammatic Layout Of A Typical TLP

Figure 2.28 Snorre B Anchor Points Under Tow


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 2 1.8. Floating Production Systems Floating production systems (FPS) are a variation on the theme of TLPs and consist of a floating vessel with production facilities connected to seabed wells by flexible risers. Vessels may be purpose built, or converted and may be mono-hulls or semi-submersible. Tankers, for example can be converted for this task relatively quickly and cheaply. In this case they are usually known as Floating Production and Storage Operations (FPSO). These vessels are quite weather dependant, which is why purpose built vessels, have been developed and why semi-submersibles are used for this concept. Semi-submersibles do not have oil storage capacity, which therefore has to be provided separately. FPSs were first introduced in the 1970s and today they have potential for development for deep water drilling. Figures 2.29 to 2.31 refer.

Figure 2.29 The sgard A FPSO Measures 278m in Length and has a Displacement of 184,300t

Figure 2.30 Terra Nova FPSO

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Figure 2.31 Terra Nova FPSO Schematic 1.9. Seabed Facilities The first sub-sea production Christmas tree was installed by Shell offshore California in 1961. Since then there has been a steady increase in these facilities with the early wellheads being installed and serviced by divers. Developments now allow these tasks to be completed remotely thus, importantly extending the depth range for installation and maintenance. Apart from seabed wellheads there are also manifold centres such as the Underwater Manifold Centre (UMC) in Shells Cormorant Field, Linear Block Manifolds (LBM) as installed in Shells Osprey Field and Sub-sea Isolation Valves (SSIV) as installed throughout the North Sea. Currently there are more than 650 sub-sea wells worldwide of which approximately one third are installed on the UK continental shelf. These structures can offer advantages over platforms. To reach remote pats of the field inaccessible to the existing platform To develop a field too small to warrant the cost of a fixed platform where process facilities can be provided as required by a floating facility To develop a wide spread field using dedicated FPS and linking the wells with pipelines
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 2 To develop a number of smaller fields all in the same district again using FPS Some of these facilities are illustrated below. See Figures 2.32 to 2.49

Figure 2.32 Artist Impression Alvheim Field Schematic

Figure 2.33 Anasuria FPSO


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Figure 2.34 Balder Field FPU

Figure 2.35 Artist Impression Balder Field Schematic


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Figure 2.36 Balder FPU Turret Being Installed

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Figure 2.37 Machar Field Seabed Manifolds

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Figure 2.38 Dunbar Sub-sea Choke Manifold

Figure 2.39 Schematic Seabed Four Well Layout

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Figure 2.40 Gannet Sub-sea Isolation Valve (SSIV) Assembly Installation

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Figure 2.41 Artist Impression Gullfaks Field Schematic Layout

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Figure 2.42 Gullfaks Hinge-over Sub-sea Template (HOST)

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Figure 2.43 Artist Impression Leadon Field Infrastructure

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Figure 2.44 Renee Field Manifold And Wellheads

Figure 2.45 Snohvit Seabed Wellheads And Protection Frame

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Figure 2.46 Renee Field Schematic Layout

Figure 2.47 Turret Details On Norne FPSO

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Figure 2.48 Vixen Sub-sea Tree

Figure 2.49 Vixen Wellhead Structure

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1.10. Pipelines Pipelines are used extensively for the transport of crude oil and gas and there are many hundreds of kilometres of sub-sea pipelines throughout the world. Figures 2.50 to 2.59 indicate some of these facilities and how they are laid. These structures may appear to be simple on an initial cursory inspection but they are carefully designed and a good deal of specialised design effort goes into their construction. Traditional pipelines are constructed of steel am may be made up of nominal 40 foot (12.1 m) lengths of pipe sections up to 3 feet (0.9 m) in diameter which are welded together. Figure 2.50 shows a lay barge in operation. Alternatively smaller diameter steel pipe up to 2 foot (0.6 m) diameter can be laid up onto special reels and then laid in long lengths off the back of specially designed reel-laying vessels. Modern developments in materials have led to the widespread use of composite pipes made up of a variety of polymers. One such pipe is known as Coflexip. This type of pipe is commonly laid from specially designed reels off the back of suitable vessels. Figures 12.49 to 12.53 give an indication of reel laying operations. A typical field joint in a pipeline is illustrated in Figure 12.54 that indicates some of the complexities of the design and fabrication of this joint.

Figure 2.50 Lay barge LB 200 Operating In Dunbar Field


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Figure 2.51 Dunbar Field Double Wall Interpipe

Figure 2.52 Gullfaks Flowline Bundle

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Figure 2.53 Beach Launched Pipeline Bundle Showing PLEM About To Enter The Water

Figure 2.54 A General View of CSO Apache Reel Laying Vessel

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Figure 2.55 Onshore Facilities and Jetty for Fabrication, Preparation And Loading Pipelines Onto Reel Laying Vessels

Figure 2.56 Pipe Sections Stockpiled Ready for Fabrication

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Figure 2.57 Pipeline Fabrication in the Sheds at the Pipe Yard

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Figure 2.58 Stern View of the CSO Apache Reel Laying On the Cook Project

Figure 2.59 Diagram of a Standard Pipe Length Field Joint

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Loading on Offshore Structures Engineering Concepts

CHAPTER 3
Loading On Offshore Structures Engineering Concepts
1. General Introduction When any structure is being designed the engineers will, as a matter of course, consider the forces exerted by wind, water, weight of equipment and working loads. The material that the structure is built from supports these forces. The forces set up stresses within the material. Stress is a convenient way of defining the load a material is required to withstand in such a way that comparisons with the loading on other structures of different sizes and shapes can be made. It also allows comparison with the mechanical properties; for example, how near the working stress of any member is to the yield stress or ultimate tensile stress of the material and comparisons of stresses in different parts of the structure identify those members that are carrying the heaviest loads. 1.1. Stress Stress is defined as the Force (or load) divided by the cross-sectional area carrying that load. Stress is denoted by the Greek letter (sigma) and is defined mathematically

As a simple example of how the concept of stress is applied consider the following. Figure 3.1 illustrates a connecting rod. The rod experiences a tension force of 700 N (Newton). Estimate the average stress at each of the cross-sections P and Q

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Figure 3.1 Connecting Rod Solution Section P From the diagram the force acting on the section P is 700N outward from the surface. The cross-section area is: A = r2 =19.6 x 10-6 m2 Then using F

= A

= 35.7 x 106 N m-2 = 35.7 MN m-2 Section Q Again from the diagram the force is 700N outward from the surface. The new cross-section area is A = r2 =7.07 x 10-6 m2 Then using F = A

= 99.0 MN m-2 1.2. Types Of Stress When a material is required to support of transmit a load, it does so by creating a force between the atoms of the material by moving them from their equilibrium position. This can occur in a number of ways.

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Tensile stress This is created in the material when the atoms are pulled apart. See Figure 3.2

Figure 3.2 Tensile Loading On A Solid Compressive stress This is the exact opposite of tensile stress. The atoms are pressed together as illustrated in Figure 3.3. Usually tensile stresses are thought of as positive (+) stresses and compressive stresses as negative (-) stresses.

Figure 3.3 Compressive Loading of a Solid

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 3 Bending stress Structures are sometimes loaded in such a way that there is a mixture of tensile and compressive stresses in it. A simple beam supported at the ends and loaded in the middle is a good example as illustrated in Figure 3.4

Figure 3.4 A Simple Beam with a Point Load The top surface is observed to get shorter as it experiences compressive stresses, and the bottom surface gets longer as it experiences tensile stresses. This type of loading gives a stress distribution that varies from maximum compressive stress on one side, to zero at an unstressed layer called the neutral axis, to maximum tensile stress at the other side. In this type of structure, there are both tensile and compressive stresses. Most braces in platform structures experience this mixture of stresses. Shear Stress Another way in which the atoms can be moved to create a force is when layers of atoms are pushed past each other. This is called shear. Shear stress () is defined mathematically thus

The symbol generally used for shear stress is the Greek letter tau. Shear stress is illustrated in Figure 3.5. As a note of interest, in general, fluids and gasses at rest, cannot produce shear resistance when stationary, and so are subjected to pressure only, which acts at right angles to any surface. Also as well as the shearing action shown in Figure 3.5 most rotating motion is transmitted by shear; for example, the drive shaft of a car or the force to tighten a valve. This is often referred to as Torsion.
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Figure 3.5 Shear Loading of a Solid Every material will have a characteristic way of reacting to stress. The particular reaction for a given material will be determined by the material properties. 2. Properties Of Materials Materials are identified by their characteristic qualities such as; hardness, rigidity, conductivity, magnetic or not and so on. In order that engineers can compare one material with another it is necessary to quantify these material properties. Among those properties commonly considered when selecting a material for a particular application are: Stress Strain Youngs Modulus Toughness Electrical Conductivity Thermal Conductivity Density Hardness (wear resistance) There are others but these will serve to illustrate the principle. It is not necessary here to consider all these properties but some comments on those affecting load bearing should be of some benefit. 2.1. Yield Stress When a component is loaded, the material initially behaves elastically. This means that when the load is removed, the component returns to its original size and shape. This will continue while the component is in use, unless the yield load is exceeded.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 3 Yield Stress is therefore the stress at which the material will no longer behave wholly elastically. If the loading is continued beyond the yield point, the material will deform and some of that deformation will be permanent. Therefore, if a structure or part of it is dented or bent, this indicates that it has been loaded above the yield stress. 2.2. Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) If loading is continued well into the yield region, it reaches a maximum value known as the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS). Ductile Fracture Attempts to load beyond this value will result in the material failing by ductile fracture. Ductile fracture can be identified by a large amount of local deformation in the region of the fracture. Loading a material beyond its UTS can occur within the material at microscopic sites such that there is no noticeable deformation. This type of failure can be caused by: Brittle Fracture This occurs due to the metal becoming harder locally than the surrounding matrix. This local hardening may be as a result of: Differences In The Material Microstructure This can occur during either the smelting process or during the welding process. In either case the root cause is incorrect management of the cooling process leading to local quenching. This leaves some of the grain structure in a brittle state. Hydrogen Embrittlement On an offshore structure hydrogen embrittlement may be caused because of overprotection from an impressed current cathodic protection system. Hydrogen embrittlement may also be caused due to incorrect welding techniques. In either case the fracture surfaces do not display any deformation. Fatigue Fracture Cyclic loading causes this. In a corrosive environment such as seawater a structure will have a design finite fatigue life. The vibrations caused by wave and wind actions as well as drilling operations on platforms apply the cyclic loads. Local components may fail prematurely, however due to macroscopic variations. The mechanism for failure is the cyclic loadings cause metal to become harder locally than the surrounding metal (a form of workhardening). This local brittleness prevents the metal from flexing normally and can lead to failure. The signs of fatigue failure are the same as brittle fracture in that there is no local deformation.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Loading on Offshore Structures Engineering Concepts This lack of noticeable local deformation has been one of the driving forces behind the development of the science of non-destructive testing which is considered in depth in later chapters. See Figure 3.6

Figure 3.6 Typical Tensile Test Characteristics For Ductile And Brittle Failure 2.3. Stress Concentration Stress concentration is caused within a material because geometric irregularities magnify applied stresses locally. These irregularities can be large or small including; holes, notches, sharp corners, inclusions and cracks. What is vitally important about a stress concentration is its shape not its size. Professor Inglis first developed the theory of stress concentration at the beginning of the 20th century when studying the cause of the formation of cracks from the corners of hatch covers in the decks of merchant ships. The effects of stress concentration can be illustrated by considering an elliptical hole in a large flat plate made of an elastic material such as mild steel as shown in Figure 3.7

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Figure 3.7 Stress Concentration The applied stress is enhanced locally by a factor of:

Where 2l is the length of the major axis of the hole and r is the radius at the sharper end, the minor axis. This factor is called the stress concentration factor Kt. For a circular hole l = r and the stress concentration factor becomes 3. As r gets smaller compared to l the elliptical hole becomes crack-like and the stress concentration factor increases. Figure 3.8 refers.

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Figure 3.8 Stress Concentration With Hole Shape 2.3.1. Stress Intensity Factor Currently the science of fracture mechanics has evolved to the extent where predictions on component failure can be made dependant upon the shape of the crack and the stress intensity factor Ki and it can be shown by theoretical analysis that: Ki = a Further analysis proves that: Ki = Y a Ki = Stress intensity factor Y = Factor based on the shape of the structure = Nominal stress

= Crack Length
The Factor Y is dimensionless and depends only on the shape of the structure. There are several handbooks available to the engineer and particular values of Y may be found by consulting them. To illustrate this point the value of Y for a semi-elliptical flaw is shown in Figure 3.9.

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Figure 3.9 Y For A Semi-elliptical Surface Flaw This theory can be developed further to show that failure will occur when the stress intensity factor (Ki) reaches a critical value, the plane strain fracture toughness (Kic). When conditions are such that the material does fail it is possible to write: Ki = Y a = Kic Kic is a material property, which is constant for a given material, and its value can often be found by reference to appropriate handbooks. Example The strength of plain carbon steel is 460 MN m-2 assume this is controlled by surface cracks and estimate their depth. A typical value for Kic for plain carbon steel is 170 MNm-3/2 and Y for an edge crack in an infinite plate is 1.12. Hence Then Thus And Y a = Kic a = Kic/Y a = 170/1.12 x 460 a = 0.0347 m = 34.7 mm which is crack depth

This is obviously an extreme example and it is used merely to illustrate the method and to underline the fact that plane carbon steel is a very tough material.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Loading on Offshore Structures Engineering Concepts 3. Crack Stopping Or Blunting From the discussion above it should be obvious why one of the standard emergency remedial procedures, when a crack has been discovered, is to drill a hole at the tip of the crack. This is often referred to as crack blunting or stopping. Whatever the stress intensity factor is prior to the hole being drilled, after the hole is drilled it reduces to 3. This same principle is applied to the toes of welds which are ground out if undercutting is severe and it applies when an inspection procedure calls for crack-like defects to be ground out, thus reducing the a/b ratio and reducing Ki 4. Residual Stresses Residual stresses are set up within the structure during manufacture. They may have arisen from thermal stresses caused by welding during manufacture or by mechanical stresses set up by force-fitting members of a structure together. It is possible to remove these by a stress relieving treatment. If, for whatever reason, this is either not done, or is incorrectly applied, residual stresses will remain in a material, The working stresses then set up during the operational life of the structure will add to the value of the residual stress. This means that the structure is subjected to a higher stress in service than the design predicted, as the designer would have calculated only the working stress. 5. Forces On A Structure The stresses on the structure will be affected by the forces that the structure experiences. These are of two types; steady and vibrational. Several different effects produce these forces; for example the weight of the equipment, the reaction of the drilling force, the hydrodynamic forces due to wind and wave action. 5.1. The Steady Force On A Structure In A Fluid Flow The steady force exerted by a fluid as it passes a stationary structure is known as the drag force. Therefore if a structure is placed in a current of water (the tide) or air (the wind) it will experience a force in the direction of the flow trying to move it in that direction. This can be illustrated in a simple way by placing a walking stick in a swiftly flowing stream. A holding force must be exerted to keep the stick in position. This holding force is equal and opposite to the drag force on the walking stick caused by the stream. Figure 3.10 Refers

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Figure 3.10 Force On A Cylinder In A Steady Flow The size of this drag force depends on several factors that are related by a simple formula: Drag Force (Fd) = Cd AV2 Where V is the velocity of the fluid flow
(Note that the force on the cylinder in the flow varies with the square of the velocity. For example, double the flow speed and the drag force is increased four times, treble the flow speed and the drag force is increased by nine times)

A is the projected area at right angles to the direction of the fluid flow
(Which for a cylinder of diameter D immersed to a depth h is given by A = Dh)

is the density of the fluid


(As water id denser than air, the drag force on a cylinder in water would be greater than that of air flowing at the same velocity.)

Cd is the drag coefficient


(This is a number that takes into account the shape of the structure and the roughness of its surface.)

5.1.1. Drag Coefficient For illustration consider a disc of diameter D in a fluid flow of velocity V. If a hemisphere of the same diameter as the disc is fixed on the front of the disc, we find that the drag force is reduced. As nothing else has changed, it means that the drag coefficient of this shape is less than that of a disc. If a cone is now added behind the disc, we find that the drag force is further reduced. Again, as nothing else has changed it means that the drag coefficient has reduced. See Figure 3.11.

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Figure 3.11 Change Of Drag Coefficient With Shape 5.2. Vibrational Forces On A Structure In A Fluid Flow Consider the example of a cylinder in a fluid flow as outlined in paragraph 5.1 but this time look at the flow pattern behind the cylinder. Figure 3.12 illustrates this. Notice that the flow behind the cylinder is not symmetrical but that vortices are shed alternatively form each side.

Figure 3.12 Von Karmen Vortices Shed From A Cylinder In A Fluid Flow The effect of this is to place on the cylinder an alternating force at right angles to the fluid flow and drag force direction. Figure 3.13 refers.

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Figure 3.13 Variations In Side Forces On A Cylinder In A Fluid Flow These cyclic forces generated by the wind and water flowing past the structure causes the vibrations that are so important when considering the fatigue life of a structure. 5.3. Wave Loadings Waves provide an oscillatory motion to the structure, producing forces that act in addition to the forces produced by tidal currents. These forces deform of try to overturn the structure The waves have a predominant direction for their maximum effect, but can come from any direction, since they are wind generated Waves produced in a storm are generally short and very confused o However, when produced by winds blowing over a long distance, or fetch, the waves tend to moderate into long, high swell waves with a long period A period of 14 seconds produces a wavelength of about 300 m The height of the waves is independent of the period, but depends upon the stability of the waves and the energy content For the purposes of classification by the Duty Holder and for insurance, there are standards for any design; these are based on statistical data. As much information as possible is collected over as long a period as possible on: Wave heights Wave directions Wave periods The analysis of these data produces two main results: -

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Loading on Offshore Structures Engineering Concepts The maximum wave to be expected in a given time span, generally a 100 year period. (This is only a statistical quality adopted for design, so more than one of these waves, or even larger waves, might actually occur An energy spectrum of the waves (i.e. the graph of the energy in the waves at different periodic times) 5.3.1. Structural Design For Wave Loadings Structures are therefore designed for two conditions: Static loading, using the maximum 100 year storm wave Dynamic loading, using the energy spectrum Owing to the directional properties of the waves, the structure will be designed and placed so that the largest waves from the predominant direction are taken on its strongest orientation, but all other directions should be considered. Inaccuracy in placing the structure can create loads greater than the design loads in that direction. 5.3.1.1. Static Loads The static analysis based on the 100year storm wave is straightforward, but requires a great deal of work, since both the direction and position of the wave crest, relative to the structure, will produce different effects on different parts of the structure. A wave, being an oscillatory motion, contains water particles with both velocity and acceleration. The velocity will produce drag forces, as mentioned above The acceleration will produce inertia forces, in the same way as any car which is slowed down requires a breaking force Considering the wave force on a circular member (diameter D) submerged to a depth (L) of an offshore jacket: Total wave force = drag force + inertia = Cd D L V2 + (mass x acceleration) Cd is the drag coefficient is the density of water V is the velocity of the water The mass considered is the mass of water, which moves around the structure, which equals: Coefficient x x D2/4 x L The coefficient is found by experiment to have a value between 1.5 and 2.0 and is called the inertia coefficient

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 3 (Cm) but this will depend upon the roughness of the surface and the period and height of the wave. The wave force then is equal to: ( Cd D V2 + Cm D2/4 a) L Where a is the acceleration of the water Note the importance of the diameter D in these expressions, and hence the necessity of keeping the thickness of marine growth to a minimum The above expression applies only to members that have a small diameter relative to the wavelength, but this does encompass most steel structures The forces on large concrete gravity structures are found by considering the pressure variations around them 5.3.1.2. Dynamic Loading The dynamic response of a structure can be demonstrated easily by swinging a weight on the end of a string, as a pendulum. If the movement of the hand holding the string varies in frequency so will the deflection of the weight at the other end of the string If the amplitude of the hand movement is fixed and the swing or displacement of the weight is noted, it will be observed that as the frequency of oscillation of the hand increases, so the amplitude of the swinging weight will change o First, the amplitude will increase up to a maximum value; the frequency of the hand movement at this condition will be the natural frequency of the system o Thereafter the amplitude will decrease Another observation is that as the weight displacement increases, the direction of the swing well be the same as that of the hand movement. The motion of the hand and the weight are in phase Once the maximum amplitude of the weight has been exceeded, it will be noticed that the weight is moving in the opposite direction to the hand movement and the motion is then said to be out of phase o As the frequency of the hand motion is further increased, the amplitude of the weight reduces to almost nothing The peak displacement of the weight occurs at a point called the natural frequency

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Loading on Offshore Structures Engineering Concepts This frequency will decrease with increasing length of string and increasing weight Thus using the hand movement of the example, at certain frequencies of forcing the displacements produced can be very large 5.4. Structural Response To Wave Loading When a structure is placed in the sea it will experience a range of wave energies and frequencies causing the structure to deflect As the frequency of the wave energy peak approaches the natural frequency of the structure, so the deflection of the structure increases and with it the stress The further the peaks of wave energy, frequency spectrum and natural frequency are separated, the lower the maximum deflection of the structure The same analysis applies to diving and other floating vessels in heave, roll and pitch. Thus vessels designed for use in one part of the world may be unsuitable for use in another, where the frequency spectrum differs The natural frequency decreases as the height of the structure increases. Thus new designs of structures are being developed for open water applications such as the compliant tower and the TLP, which have natural frequencies below the wave energy peak.

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Bibliography Underwater Inspection Mel Bayliss David Short Mary Bax Failure of Stressed Materials The Open University

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 4

CHAPTER 4
Deterioration Of Offshore Steel Structures
1. General Comments As soon as any piece of engineering equipment, such as an engine, pipeline, bridge or offshore structure is brought into service it starts to wear out because of use and if it is not maintained it will eventually cease to operate satisfactorily, either by no longer carrying out the function for which it was designed or by failing in a catastrophic manner. The possible causes of deterioration of an offshore structure including accidental damage, corrosion, fatigue, wear and embrittlement are discussed in this chapter. 2. Categories of Deterioration and Damage Broadly speaking the modes of deterioration may be classified into 6 groups: Gross structural damage Corrosion and erosion Fouling defects Coating defects Scour Metal and weld defects Specific types of deterioration and damage within these groups may be categorised as: Deformation of the structure caused by impact Loss of concrete matrix through impact or internal flaws Missing bolts Coating damage through abrasion or impact or deterioration Damaged cables or ducts caused by impact or deterioration Unstable foundations through poor geology Missing members caused by accidental damage or failure Debris, which may cause impact damage or create fouling or overload the CP system 3. Accidental Damage Engineers will try to anticipate all the different modes of failure when they first design a structure but deterioration due to accidental damage is difficult to design against (this does not prevent the guidance notes for offshore structural design from recommending that engineers in fact do just that). In the United Kingdom safety cases have to be submitted to the HSE for evaluation and assessment in an attempt to prevent accidental damage from being a threat to safety. Because of the difficulties associated with preventative design one of the
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Deterioration of Offshore Steel Structures prime methods for dealing with accidental damage is the implementation and effective execution of reporting procedures for informing the appropriate responsible persons as soon as any accidental damage is caused. This type of damage is also likely to occur on any structure because of the reliance placed on being serviced by boats and helicopters. This presents a real possibility for damage caused by accidents such as collisions and the dragging of either anchors or trawls across seabed installations. Ideally, as indicated above should this type of accident happen it should be reported and surveyed as soon as it happens, but in the past, at least, such accidental damage was mainly discovered during routine inspections, the event not having been reported. There have been numerous examples of this type of damage and just by way of illustration the Northwest Hutton suffered an accident during installation that resulted in a main leg suffering loss of member straightness. An accident involving a stand-by vessel and Brae Bravo resulted in a horizontal member just above the splash zone suffering a similar fate. 4. Corrosion Because steel is placed in a hostile environment, namely salt water, one of the ever-present deterioration mechanisms on the structure will be corrosion Corrosion takes place in two different ways First of all, uniform corrosion is the process whereby metal is removed uniformly from all over the surface, so that progressive thinning of the member or pipe wall goes on until the thickness is reduced so as to necessitate the renewal of the component Secondly, pitting corrosion is a very localised corrosion, which takes place in an otherwise corrosion free material, creating a pit in the surface of that material o These pits deepen with time and if another failure mechanism does not take over, the pit will penetrate the full thickness of the material, causing leakage in the case of a pipeline or service duct, and so necessitate local repair Corrosion attacks of both kinds are accelerated by erosion, increase in temperature, increase in oxygen content, added chemical attack from biological sources and loading on the member from either external loading or residual stresses caused in manufacture. This last is known as stress corrosion. As this is such an important deterioration mechanism in the offshore environment corrosion is more fully explained in Chapter 7. 5. Fatigue Fatigue is the local failure of the material by crack growth caused by cyclic loading. The cracks can grow from flaws in the material, such as a welding defect or notches caused by accidental damage. Alternatively, they can initiate in regions of highly stressed material, which are brought about by residual stresses or stress concentration. Fatigue cracks can also start from pits created

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 4 by corrosion. This condition is known as corrosion fatigue and is covered in Chapter 7. Fatigue causes more in-service failures of machines, vehicles, bridges and similar structures than any other mode of failure The main reason for fatigue failure being so prevalent, and therefore so important, is that it can occur when the applied stress is significantly lower than the yield stress of the material. Indeed even if the stress intensity is kept below the fracture toughness limit Kic crack growth can occur Fatigue is a cumulative form of failure, in that a crack is initiated at some point of stress concentration and then propagates through the material by acting virtually as its own stress raiser The final fatigue crack is the result of the accumulation of the small-scale events associated with each of a great many load cycles. The fatigue crack thus eventually reduces the cross-sectional area to such an extent that final failure occurs by rapid fracture, often with gross deformation the remaining un-cracked area Fatigue cracking does not affect the material properties therefore fracture toughness remains unchanged. Different materials do however have varying resistance to fatigue although the experience of service failures and laboratory testing has demonstrated that fatigue is difficult to predict. This is because the process is sensitive to a large number of variables including: Number of load cycles Stress or strain amplitude Mean stress level Temperature Environment Microstructure of the material Surface condition For design purposes the metallurgist and the design engineer centre their interest on the results of laboratory tests that assess the number of loading cycles N of a given type that the sample survives before fracture occurs. Measurements of N are made as a function of the stress amplitude a. When N is plotted on a logarithmic scale against a the S-N curve for the material is obtained and this is used for design purposes. 6. Wear Wear is normally thought of as the loss of material from surfaces that have been rubbed against one another and it is often measured in terms of the mass lost in a given time under specified conditions. More precisely, wear involves a redistribution of material that adversely alters the surface. In the offshore environment wear is the thinning of material due to uniform corrosion or erosion of a combination of the two. In the wider sense wear can be caused by a number of different mechanisms.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Deterioration of Offshore Steel Structures Adhesive When two surfaces rub together it causes friction and to explain this it is postulated that some welding of the two contact surfaces occurs within the contact area The mechanism of adhesive wear follows directly from this. When the two surfaces slide over each other material breaks away and does so at the weakest sections. This is found to be the hills which make contact as indicated in the sketch in Figure 4.1

Figure 4.1 Adhesive Wear The junction at which the surfaces are in contact have been strengthened by work hardening and therefore the fractures take place within the materials, at some distance away from the interfaces between the points of contact. Each surface tears out some material from the other and both surfaces become roughened as they gouge and score one another. Wear is rapid and for this reason, sliding combinations of similar metals are usually avoided in good engineering practise. Abrasive Wear In the mechanism for abrasive wear a hard particle in one surface indents, groves and then cuts material from the other surface. In service, the main cause of abrasion between sliding metals is the presence on one of the two surfaces of particles of hard materials, such as carbide in steels, work hardened wear fragments or hard oxide films. The particles may also be airborne dirt such as grit Wear Caused By Fatigue When there is relative motion between two surfaces in contact the state of stress at any given point on or near the surfaces varies with time and this may cause fatigue the slow growth of cracks. The development of such cracks may eventually detach pieces of material from the surfaces, thereby constituting wear

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Chemical And Corrosive Wear Chemical effects are most commonly exemplified by the repeating cycle of the formation, removal and reformation of oxides 7. Embrittlement In this case the material changes its properties from being ductile to brittle. This can be a localised effect. Brittle materials fail due to crack propagation so that they are susceptible to fatigue as well as to brittle fracture. Embrittlement in service could come about due to incorrect welding procedures or by the absorption of a gas, generally hydrogen. Embrittlement has been encountered in natural gas pipelines and could come about from the absorption of hydrogen produced in an overprotected impressed current corrosion protection system. The temperature of the environment affects the brittle behaviour of steel, brittle fracture being more likely to occur at low temperatures This effect is also known simply as Brittle Failure 8. Structural Deterioration The foregoing paragraphs outline the modes of failure associated with any steel structure and these failure systems will now be put into the context of offshore steel structures. Concrete structures are considered in Chapter 5. A convenient way of illustrating these types of failures is to divide the life of a structure into four stages. At every stage defects leading to deterioration and then failure can occur. 8.1. Stage One Production Of The Raw Materials During the manufacturing of the raw materials several defects can be included into what will become either the parent plate or the concrete matrix surrounding the reinforcement. A selection of possible manufacturing defects are laid out below by way of illustration 8.1.1. Steel Casting defects that can occur Fishtails These may occur in steel produced by traditional mills. During the filling of the moulds while molten steel is being poured into the moulds it is possible for some of the liquid steel to splash up the sides of the mould. This will then cool on coming in contact with the cold sides of the mould and will solidify. The remainder of the steel continues to be poured in and then covers the solidified splashes. When the ingot is removed from the mould, the splashes which form shapes similar to fish tails, adhere to the surface. If these fish tails are not removed before rolling they may be rolled into the surface without bonding, thus causing a reduction of material thickness. Figure 4.2 refers

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Figure 4.2 Fishtails Inclusions These will always be present in commercial steels. They are there because of the way iron ore is found and steel is made. The basic ingredient, iron, which usually contains entrapped non-metallic inclusions and typically something over 4 wt% carbon, 1 wt% of both manganese and silicon and there are smaller amounts of both sulphur and phosphorus both of which are highly undesirable. Figure 4.3 refers Because this is the case, in any standard specification the chemical analysis of any unalloyed carbon steel will always involve the determination to the big five, carbon, silicon, manganese, sulphur and phosphorus, though none of them are likely to be present in any amount exceeding 1.5 wt%. The inclusions present in the steel will become aligned as the steel is subsequently worked and therefore give rise to a so-called fibre structure.

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Figure 4.3 Inclusions In fact silicon and manganese are beneficial as deoxidizers and as solidsolution strengtheners. However, sulphur and phosphorus have an embrittling effect and are usually kept below 0.05 wt% unless deliberately increased to impart specific properties such as machinability Banding And Segregation Steel as it cools from the molten state forms solid grains that will have different chemical compositions and orientations within the forming solid material. This is caused by the way the cooling occurs and in individual grains it gives rise to coring where different sections of dissimilar chemical compositions can be viewed through a microscope within each discrete grain. This effect will also manifest itself within the entire solidifying mass where it can be viewed as bands, which give, rise to its name of banding the results of which are macro-segregation within the material caused by the chemical in-homogeneity. Banding can become troublesome in alloyed steels where there is more solute to become segregated and where any alloying elements are required to cause a specific response to heat-treatment. Even in unalloyed carbon steels macro-structural segregation of phosphorus, silicon, manganese and carbon may give rise to directional properties. See Figure 4.4

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Figure 4.4 Left Micrograph Shows Banding And Right Shows Segregation Laminations Occasionally the structural effects of segregation can become pronounced to the point that the material behaves as if it were made up of different layers. This is referred to as lamination and, particularly in thick sections of approximately 40 mm or greater, can cause serious problems in welded structures where the laminations provide paths of easy crack propagation. This possibility of laminated steels developing internal ruptures is of serious concern to any structural engineer 8.2. Stage Two - Fabrication While the structure is being built there are a multitude of problems associated with all the aspects of fabrication. Ensuring that the correct materials are being used, verifying the correct fit-up and tolerances are applied and many other specific construction details are important daily tasks for all construction staff throughout the fabrication period of any structure. 8.2.1. Steel Structures Fabrication Defects With steel structures the major fabrication processes involve welding and therefore some of the problems associated with this process will be outlined. There are numerous variables associate with welding and each of these can be subjected to either human or system errors some of which are listed herewith. o Incorrect machining of the angle of bevel o Improper pre-heat treatment o Poor fit-up o Using improper weld consumables o Incorrect storage of weld consumables o Incorrect post-heat treatment
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 4 These possible faults have to be guarded against during the fabrication stage of any offshore structure During the actual welding process again there are a number of possible weld defects that must be avoided. These are fully explained in Chapter 8. For illustration a short catalogue follows: Lack of root penetration This is a weld defect associated with both submerged arc and manual metal arc welding. Setting too low a voltage with the submerged arc process causes the defect and incorrectly positioning the weld rod is the cause with manual metal arc. In either case the result is a crack-like defect in a very sensitive part of the weld Slag inclusion Another example of a weld defect is slag inclusion. It is possible for this defect to occur when manual metal arc welding is the weld method utilising a multi-pass technique. The cause of the defect is slag from the previous run is imperfectly cleaned off. This leaves isolated pieces of slag that remain and are over-welded by the next run. These inclusions form the sites for potentially dangerous notches Porosity This is a weld defect that must always be guarded against. There may be many causes for this fault such as: o Air contamination of the weld pool o Dirt or damp finding their way into the weld o These contaminants breakdown in the weld and produce either: o Nitrogen o Hydrogen or o Carbon Monoxide These gases dissolve in the weld pool and then, as it cools they come out of solution forming gas bubbles, which is porosity in the weld Hydrogen-induced cold cracking This final example of a fabrication defect is a type of cracking normally formed in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) some time after the weld is completed. The cracking may occur almost immediately, some hours later or even days after the weld is finished. The cause is hydrogen initially dissolved in the weld pool permeates through the weld into the HAZ in sufficient quantities to embrittle the martinsitic structure and cause cracking. It is possible for cracks not to occur on cooling but for the hydrogen to make the HAZ more susceptible to crack propagation under in-service loads

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8.3. Avoiding Problems by Design Designers are aware of the problems associated with fabrication and the processes that accompany it and over time have evolved new designs to minimise these problems. It is well known for example that stress is concentrated at any site where there is a sharp change of geometry such as in weld toes and traditional tubular joints. See Figure 4.5.

Figure 4.5 Stress Concentration Areas As illustrated in Figure 4.5 the stress concentration may be lowered by profiling the weld cap to make the geometry more contoured and less angular. By alterations to the design concept the stress concentration areas may be removed from the nodal areas by utilising cast joints thus removing the welding to less highly stressed regions. Figure 4.6 refers.

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Figure 4.6 Cast Node 8.4. Stage Three Installation Steel structures are commonly constructed on their side and then floated into position where they are rotated to the upright position by flooding ballast compartments in the jacket legs. This rotation imposes a bending moment on the structure that may impose stresses on the structure that are transiently greater than the working stresses the structure will subsequently withstand. Of course the flooding operation is conducted as carefully as possible and some modern steel structures have been positioned with the ballast tanks pre-flooded to minimise the stresses involved. The method is illustrated in Figure 4.7, which shows the sequence of events with a selffloating structure.

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Figure 4.7 Self-floating Structure 8.5. Possible Damage Caused During Installation At any time during the launch and installation stages of the structure damage may be caused through, accidents, piling operations, grouting defects, stress induced failure, seabed anomalies. There is always a possibility of the structure being out of its final position or being out of final orientation. 8.6. Stage Four In-Service This is the stage in the life of a structure where underwater inspection first becomes pre-eminent. The major categories of defects that cause concern are outlined below. 8.6.1. Steel In-Service Defect Categories Fouling This term covers both marine growth building up on the structure and debris collecting on and around it. Fouling may cause structural damage, galvanic corrosion, see Chapter 8, overloading of the CP system and may cause safety hazards to divers and ROVs. Coating Damage All types of coatings, paint, bituminous, epoxy, metallic may suffer from defects caused either when they were applied or subsequently because of deterioration or accidental damage. See Chapter 10

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Cracks These may be caused by latent flaws initiated during any of the earlier stages in the life of the platform. They are certainly associated with welded joints especially on nodal areas and cracking may be the end result of a defect initiated at the fabrication stage. As stated earlier in this chapter, fatigue is the major cause of component failure in-service. An example of this type of damage is conductor guides that failed due to fatigue cracking on one North Sea structure. The failure is illustrated in Figure 4.8

Figure 4.8 Failure Of A Conductor Guide This type of failure may be avoided if the crack is identified at an early stage, before it propagates. It can be considered to be a notch at this stage and profile grinding will remove this effect. This will reduce the weld throat thickness and the wall thickness, however provided this is kept within design parameters and a smooth profile is achieved the possibility of failure is more remote. Profile grinding is more fully discussed in Chapter 20. Corrosion This is a most important form of structural deterioration and it is examined in detail in Chapter 5. A great deal of underwater inspection effort goes into monitoring corrosion

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Physical Damage This form of deterioration is generally caused by either collision or impact damage caused by components being dropped. As mentioned earlier all accidental damage, indeed any incident, should be reported immediately so that it can be assessed. Figure 4.9 illustrates damage caused to a horizontal diagonal member by a 24 m length of caisson pipe that had fallen off from three levels above and pierced through the member. No one was aware that anything had happened.

Figure 4.9 Sketch Indicating Damage Caused By A Caisson Section That Failed In Service Scour The foundations of a structure are an obvious area susceptible to movements of material on the seabed. Any movement is likely to weaken the foundations which, of course, jeopardises the whole structure

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8.7. In-Service Defect Categories That Affect Both Steel And Concrete The in service defects enumerated for steel can also affect concrete. Concrete structures may suffer from cracks, the reinforcement may corrode, physical damage is certainly possible and scour is also quite possible. Cracks in the concrete surface are less serious than cracks in steel because, as indicated in the concrete section, offshore structures fall into the prestressed category and are therefore kept in compression. There are other considerations that do affect both steel and concrete structures and that may cause defects in service such as detailed following. 8.7.1. Inter-tidal And Splash Zones The inter-tidal and splash zones on any structure are regions of particular susceptibility to deterioration. Corrosion is more aggressive in this area and must be more carefully monitored Marine Growth build-up is greater in the top 30 m of the sea and is particularly dense in the inter-tidal region. This increases mass and drag in a part of the structure, which can be more vulnerable to these effects. Marine growth may also affect corrosion rates The risk of physical damage is greater in this region due to the risk from floating objects and, in those parts of the world that are susceptible, icebergs may collide with the structures. Certainly this is possible offshore Canada for example 8.7.2. Risers These components are common to both types of structures, although on concrete platforms they may be installed inside the shaft it is not uncommon to have them mounted externally as well. These items are considered as part of the associated pipeline and therefore are inspected annually because they can suffer the same deterioration as the pipelines. The clamps, guides and flanges are subjected to the same regime. 8.7.3. Conductors And Conductor Guide Frames As with risers these components are common to all platforms and they are exposed to the same risk of failure as risers, perhaps more so as there are greater vibrations possible with these components than the rest of the platform. Furthermore conductors are normally kept in place by guides rather than clamps which allows relative movement between the conductor and its guides, hence wear must be monitored and is a real possibility for fatigue cracking to occur. 8.7.4. Caissons Caissons are another group of components that are carefully monitored on an annual basis. There is a common problem with this component when it is used as a pump caisson. The pump is commonly suspended from the surface inside the caisson. It is common for the pump to be at
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Deterioration of Offshore Steel Structures about 18 m water depth level inside the caisson. Conditions therefore at this point on the inside of the caisson are near perfect for corrosion to progress at excessive rates. This has caused component failure on more than one occasion. 8.7.5. Overloading Changes in the working practices and other commercial factors may lead to extra items of equipment being installed, such as a newer, bigger crane. This may lead to overloading if not carefully monitored.

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Bibliography A Handbook for Underwater Inspectors L K Porter HMSO Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 5

CHAPTER 5
Deterioration Of Offshore Concrete Structures
1. General Comments This chapter looks at concrete as a building material suitable for offshore structures. Following the format of Chapter 4 the various modes of deterioration will be considered. Effects such as accidental damage, and fabrication defects may occur with concrete in similar fashion to steel and generally the comments made in Chapter 4 regarding these items apply. Otherwise this chapter will concentrate on aspects of deterioration specific to concrete 2. Structural Deterioration The format of illustrating types of failures by dividing the life of a structure into four stages laid out in Chapter 4 will be continued in this chapter. 2.1. Stage One Production Of The Raw Materials The fabrication of concrete structures has the potential for producing several defects included into what will become the concrete matrix surrounding the reinforcement. A selection of possible manufacturing defects are laid out below by way of illustration 2.1.1. Concrete This is a composite material consisting of cement, fine aggregates and coarse aggregates. The cement is the binding agent and contains the reactive agents; therefore this will be examined first. 2.1.1.1. Portland Cement This is the most popular and therefore most important of the cement binders and the comments made here will be confined to this material. This type of cement is made up of a mixture of about 75% limestone (CaCO3) and 25% clay, which is principally aluminosilicate; it does have a significant iron and alkalioxide content. These raw materials are ground together and fed through a kiln where various chemical reactions occur. The resultant constituents are laid out in table 5.1

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Constituents Of Portland Cement


Compound Name Tricalcium silicate Dicalcium silicate Tricalcium aluminate Tetracalcium aluminoferrite Hydrated calcium sulphate Alkali oxides and other constituents Compound Chemical Formula CaO.Ca2SiO4 Ca2SiO4 2CaO.Ca(AlO2) 4CaO.Al2O3.Fe2O CaSo4.2H2O CaO.SO3.2H2O Equivalent Oxide Formula 3CaO.SiO2 2CaO.SiO2 3CaO.Al2O3 Shorthand Nomenclature C3S C2S C3A C4AF CSH2 Mineral Name Alite Belite Aluminate Ferrite Gypsum Density -3 (kg m ) 3150 3280 3030 3770 2320 Typical wt% 55 20 12 8 3.5

K2O.Na2OcaO

1.5

Table 5.1 Constituents Of Portland Cement 2.1.1.2. Mixing When water is added to the cement hydration begins and two things happen; the mix is transformed into a paste and heat is evolved in an exothermic reaction 2.1.1.2.1. Setting This is the first stage in the process of forming concrete into a structural building material once the water is added to form the paste it is called setting. The setting period is the length of time the mix remains workable The setting period will last for a few hours during which time heat is evolved at a very high rate, reaching a maximum of approximately 200Wkg-1 at about 30 seconds, and then falling to a low value. During this period the compressive strength is barely measurable The pH value of the mixture also rises very rapidly during the first minute after water is added, starting at about 7 going up to a maximum of about 12.9 after about 3 hours and then settling to a constant 12.6
Its pH number specifies the acidity or alkalinity of any aqueous solution. This is a measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions present in the solution. This is commonly written in shorthand form by using square brackets [H+]. The pH number is defined by: pH = log10 1/[H+] or
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pH = -log10 1/[H+] In these solutions at 298K (0oC) there is a fixed relationship between [H+] and [OH-] which is: [H+] x [OH-] = 10-14 (mol l-1)2 or log10 [H+] + log10 [OH-] = -14 Therefore in terms of pH [H+] = 10-pH mol l-1 and [OH-] = 10-(14-pH) mol l-1 Hence pH 1 is extremely acidic and pH 14 is extremely alkaline. Pure water, which is neutral, has a pH value of 7. There is a fuller explanation of the pH system in Chapter 6

2.1.1.2.2. Hardening The next stage is hardening which begins when setting ends. In the hardening period heat is again evolved reaching a peak of about 1% of the initial exothermic maximum after about 10 hours. The compressive strength increases during this period, the process continuing over a number of years until it reaches its maximum of some 50 MN m-2 after about 27 years. During the hardening process silicon ions form together to form polymers. This reaction is exothermic which goes some way to explaining the heat output during hardening. The sequence of events during the hydration process is thought to be: On adding water to the cement there is an initial period of about one minute of very rapid hydration, with C3S and C3A being the main reactants. This is accompanied by a high rate of heat evolution, silicate polymerisation and a rapid increase in [OH-] which causes a similar rise in the pH number The reaction rate then slows dramatically as the surface cement grains become coated with silicate and aluminate gels. Concurrently the gypsum dissolves so that [Ca2+] and [SO24-] both increase rapidly to a peak after about 2 minutes This peak and subsequent fall is due to the formation of ettringite which is a fine, needle-like crystal phase The cement paste cohesion during the setting period is due to gel-to-gel contact between adjoining grains. This is increasingly aided by the formation of ettringite crystals

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Deterioration of Offshore Concrete Structures The gel coating is permeable to Ca2+ and OH- both of which diffuse out during the setting period thus increasing the pH number. At the same time water diffuses in continuing the hydration of the cement grains. The silicates and aluminates do not diffuse through the gel coat but either add to it or build up in solution inside it, thus they are not present in the liquid outside The water inside the gel coating eventually builds to such a pressure that the coating ruptures, then peels away from the grain forming gel foils and fibrils and also some tubules. The grain locally is then exposed to contact with the outside liquid and further hydration continues As each grain sprouts multitudes of these fibres they grow and multiply and start to interlock and the paste starts to harden. Concurrently with this Ca(OH)2 precipitates out of the supersaturated solution and forms portlandite which is a plate-like hexagonal crystal The continued hardening of the cement comes from the multiplication, growth and interlocking of gel fibres and crystal species such as portlandite. Over a longer time scale C2S participates in the hydration process forming the same products as C3S but developing more slowly and long-term polymerisation of the silicate in the gel all contributes to the hardening process, as does the gel drying out below its saturation point Summarising the parts played by the individual constituents then: Alite Major ingredient, initial gel formation contributes to setting, hydration products, fibres and crystals, make a major contribution to strength, particularly in the early stages of hardening Belite Same hydration products as Alite but reacted more slowly, contributes to increase in strength at later stages of hardening Aluminate Contributes to setting through gel and ettringite formation, but contributes little to hardening Ferrite This along with Aluminate acts as a flux in the cement kiln during the initial manufacture of cement powder. Its hydration products play little part in either setting or hardening. It gives colour to cement

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Gypsum Controls the hydration rate of the Aluminate and is a constituent of ettringite which contributes to setting. 2.1.1.3. The Importance Of Water Water is an important constituent of concrete firstly because of the hydration process but also because it materially affects the final strength of the concrete. Pores form in the interstices between fibres and between fibres and crystals and these invariably contain water. This gel water constitutes some 15% by weight of the hydrated cement. Combined chemically with the hydrated compounds in the cement is a further 25% by weight, which means that some 40% by weight of water is required for complete hydration. The pores are basically responsible for the tensile strength of concrete being only about 10% of its compressive strength. Excessive amount of water in the initial mix have other effects on the final material. Both compressive strength and stiffness decrease with increasing water-cement ratio The stiffness increases with increasing hardening time The stress-strain curves are non-linear. The Youngs Modulus has no unique value, which is the same as with polymers. This means that either a secant or a tangent modulus is used 3. Concrete Concrete is made by adding cement to aggregates and mixing them together to form a versatile building material. Composite materials normally display material characteristics that are better that the characteristics of the individual constituents. With concrete the composite can be considered in two ways: Either the aggregates toughen the cement paste by introducing numerous weak interfaces into the material Or the cement paste provides the means of binding together the aggregates into a low cost useful material The actuality lies between the two. 3.1. Aggregates In a concrete mix the aggregate consists of a mixture of sand, with a mean particle size of less than 2 mm, and crushed rock or gravel, with a mean particle size greater than 2 mm. There must be sufficient cement paste to bind these materials together and using graded aggregate that contains particles of a range of sizes can in fact reduce this. The small particles fit into the spaces between the large particles and the cement only has to flow into any remaining spaces. In this case the usual ration of aggregate to cement is about 5:1 and the typical proportion of sand to gravel is about 3:2.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Deterioration of Offshore Concrete Structures The actual shape of the stones in the gravel affects the final mix. Stone crushed from quarried stone will be angular and give a stronger but less workable mix than stones from river gravel which are smooth and rounded giving a more workable mix but with less strength. 3.1.1. Water Content Water content is as important in the concrete mix as it is in cement mixes. A mix containing 40% water by weight will be totally unworkable but concrete with a high water: cement ratio will result in a lower strength material than a similar mix made with a lower ratio water: cement. This is because quite large pores can develop if compaction is inadequate. It can be seen from this that the actual water content of any mix is very important and must be high enough to allow the mix to be worked but at the same time be low enough to allow the concrete to attain its full strength. One method of overcoming this problem is to use flow-enhancing admixtures (plasticizers), which can keep the water: cement ration low 4. Concrete As A Material Concrete as a material can be compared to stone in that it can withstand compressive loads very well indeed but it cannot withstand tensile loads. As a building material then it is only safe to use it in situations where it is subjected to compressive stresses only. Its big advantage over stone is that it can be cast on site into almost any required shape. 5. Reinforced Concrete In order to exploit concrete as a building material to its full potential steel reinforcement bars, made from mild steel, which has been heavily cold-worked, are combined with it. This reinforcement may be assembled into quite complex shapes on site prior to the concrete being poured. Shuttering is then used to retain the required shape while the concrete is setting. The complex reinforcement is the result of having to resist stresses other than, for example, the main tensile stresses due to bending. See Figure 5.2

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Figure 5.2 Placement Of Reinforcement To Counteract Crack Formation 5.1. Reinforcement Design Philosophy A point to note in reinforced concrete structures is that if full advantage is to be taken of the high strength of the steel reinforcement that surface of a beam, for example, which is under tensile stress is allowed to crack. This allows the steel to carry all the tensile forces. This also explains the placement of the reinforcement in Figure 5.2, which is positioned close to the surface that is under the tensile load.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Deterioration of Offshore Concrete Structures This leads to one problem with reinforced concrete, which is that the concrete on the tension side is cracked which means that it is doing no work and therefore represents a weight penalty on the structure. Additionally vibrations and environmental forces can cause the cracks to open and close repeatedly which leads to gradual deterioration and crumbling of the concrete and may expose the reinforcement to corrosion 6. Pre-stressing A way to overcome the problem of cracking is to ensure the entire structure is kept in compression. This is known as prestressing. There are two techniques prestressing and post-stressing. In both cases hightensile steel wires with a tensile strength of 1500 to 1800 MN m2 are employed to apply compression. The technique can be applied in a factory environment in the manufacture of standard prestressed components that can be transported to the site Or the method can be applied on site. In this case the technique is post-tensioning and the cables are laid through ducts deliberately left empty for the purpose. The cable is then tensioned up and the duct filled with grout under pressure. Figure 5.3 refers.

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Figure 5.3 Diagram Of A Prestressed Beam 7. Production Problems The forgoing will serve to introduce concrete as a material and a selection of possible production problems will serve to illustrate what may go wrong at the manufacturing stage. Too much water in the mix can result in a loss of both compressive strength and stiffness and by creating large pores within the matrix it may promote in-service cracking A reaction between the alkalis in the cement and susceptible, mainly siliceous materials, in the aggregates is a possibility. This expansive reaction is known as alkali/aggregate reaction (AAR). The process is quite slow taking a number of years to develop. The symptoms in the latter stages are cracking and spalling. This is not a problem on offshore structures as the quality of manufacture was and is high. There have been no reports of this defect on any offshore concrete structure to date Exudation is a viscous, gel-like material, which can form a deposit on the surface of the concrete. As this is associated as a symptom of AAR it is unlikely to be seen on offshore structures as indicated above and the
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Deterioration of Offshore Concrete Structures more-so as it is likely to be dissolved in the seawater anyway, unless it were on a dry surface out of the water Rust stains are possible on these structures and the worst-case scenario is that it indicates corrosion of the reinforcement. There could be other causes however, such as corrosion of embedment plates or even nails cast into the surface being left over from the shuttering operation. This is a possible serious anomaly and therefore rust stains must always be treated seriously Incrustation, which is caused by the leaching of lime from the cement, will leave a white crusty deposit on the concrete surface. Once more this is unlikely to be identified on offshore structures due to the QC at manufacture and the possibility of the deposit being dissolved by the seawater 8. Stage Two - Fabrication Comments made in Chapter 4 regarding fabrication problems apply to concrete, of course, and items specific to concrete are enumerated here 8.1. Concrete Structure Fabrication Defects There can be numerous fabrication defects with concrete as with steel and a selected sample will once more serve to illustrate the types of faults that may be encountered. Honeycombing This is a common construction defect that leaves the surface of the concrete looking like a honeycomb with numerous voids forming between coarse aggregate grains. The cause is inadequate compaction during the forming which allows air to be trapped between the concrete surface and the inside face of the shuttering. This reduces the cover over the reinforcement and leaves voids on the surface, which may degenerate more quickly than a firm surface. See Figure 5.4

Figure 5.4 Honeycombing

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 5 Efflorescence This is the deposit of salts, usually white, coming out from the concrete mass. It may indicate a reaction between the constituents of the cement and the water used for mixing. Underwater these deposits may well be dissolved Inadequate cover over reinforcement The recommended minimum cover of concrete over reinforcement in very severe conditions, such as surfaces exposed to seawater is 60 mm as stated in CP 110. If the cover is inadequate the reinforcement may corrode which will be manifest by rust stains 9. Stage Three Installation Concrete structures are commonly built from the base up using a continuous slip forming technique in a dry dock. When the construction reaches a predetermined level the dock is flooded and the structure then floats while work continues. The structure is then towed to position already upright. It is then ballasted down by controlled flooding of tanks built into the base. Stresses are thus minimised and the main consideration with this type of structure is its stability during the tow. This limits the towing speed and weather perimeters that can be tolerated. 10. Stage Four In-Service The major categories of defects that could cause concern in concrete structures are outlined below. 10.1. In-Service Defect Categories That Affect Concrete Structures Concrete can deteriorate because of either chemical or physical deterioration. Because concrete is permeable to various ions it is susceptible to chemical attack. Physical damage is possible externally and possibly internally, should the reinforcement corrode, for example it would cause the concrete surrounding it to crack. 10.1.1. Deterioration Caused By Chemical Attack It is unlikely that any significant deterioration will occur in concrete of the quality that is normally specified for offshore structures. Never the less, deterioration may occur in concrete that has not been properly compacted or because of environmental pollution. 10.1.1.1. Sulphate Attack The Tricalcium aluminate, C3A, in the cement can react with magnesium sulphate, which is present in concentrations of about 0.5% in seawater. The reaction is expansive which will lead to cracking but the presence of chlorides inhibits the degree of expansion. The net result is softening and disruption of the concrete in the form of solution and crumbling. Sulphate-resisting Portland cement (SRPC) is a form of Portland cement low in C3A content and the use of this type will minimise the risk of this problem occurring. This type of cement has a higher content of Tetracalcium aluminoferrite, C4AF, than other Portland
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Deterioration of Offshore Concrete Structures cements which gives it a darker colour. There are detailed requirements for the use of this cement in CP 110 and BRE Digest 174. The British Standard for this cement is BS 4027:1996 10.1.1.2. Chlorides Chlorides do not attack plain concrete when present in the concentrations that are normally present in seawater, but they may greatly accelerate the corrosion of the reinforcement by destroying the passivity of the concrete coating. Chloride, [Cl-] ions react with the oxide film on the steel by becoming incorporated into the oxide lattice and increasing the electrical conductivity of the film. The effect of increasing [Cl-] moves the corrosion/passivity boundary to higher pH levels. If carbonation is occurring concurrently this will reduce the pH of the combined water in the concrete, which in turn reduces the concentration of [Cl-] necessary for corrosion to occur according to the pH value. See Figure 5.5

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Figure 5.5 The Concentration Of Chloride Ions In Concrete Plotted Against pH 10.1.1.3. Carbonation Carbon dioxide is present in the air and can attack the concrete directly. It has the effect of destroying the normal passivity of the concrete coating over the reinforcement, thus leading to reinforcement corrosion. The permeation is generally limited to a penetration of approximately 50 mm, which will take many years to accomplish. Figure 5.6 refers

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Figure 5.6 Depth Of Carbonation Layer Plotted Against Time CP 110 recommends 60 mm cover over the reinforcement for concrete exposed to very severe conditions. To illustrate the likelihood of carbonation being a problem in the normal course of events it is possible to apply: x = Dt hence t = x2/D where t = time in years x = depth of penetration D = Diffusivity of CO2 (Taken as 1.4 x 10
-13

m s )

-1

thus (where x = 60 mm as being the recommended minimum cover) t = (60 x 10-2)2/1.4 x 10-13 x 60 x 60 x 24 x 365 = 815 years In the normal course of events than 815 years would elapse before the steel starts to corrode because of carbonation! While this is not a realistic situation, potentially any cracks could radically reduce this time by providing a path for the carbonation, it gives an indication that carbonation is normally a slow process. It has been found, however that in cracks less than 0.3 mm wide CaCo3 precipitates from the cement and acts as a seal. A further point to note here is that offshore structures are of a prestressed design and are therefore unlikely to crack.

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10.1.1.4. Reinforcement Corrosion The normal pH of concrete is approximately 12.5 and the pore water incorporated within the concrete at this pH reacts with the steel to form hydrated iron oxide, Fe2O3, which is insoluble at this pH and therefore form a passive film. The Pourbaix diagram in Figure 5.7 shows the possible environments when considering the electrode potential and the pH surrounding the steel.

Figure 5.7 Pourbaix Diagram For Steel In Concrete If the passivation is destroyed for any reason the reinforcement will corrode. This is an expansive reaction, which leads to cracking and then spalling of the concrete accompanied by rust staining. Once the cracks are wider than 3 mm or spalling has occurred seawater will come in contact with the steel and corrosion may proceed more quickly. The first signs of this type of corrosion are rust staining and cracking following the line of the reinforcement.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Deterioration of Offshore Concrete Structures It almost goes without saying that the inter-tidal zone is the area most at risk due to the high oxygen concentration along with the possible increase in chloride ion concentration. By contrast the submerged part of the structure is less at risk mainly because the oxygen content in seawater is low. 10.1.1.5. Corrosion Of Built-in Components This form of deterioration is perhaps more likely than reinforcement corrosion. There are a number of different types of steel components cast into the structure such as riser clamp supports, steel skirts and towing eyes. Should any of this steelwork be in contact with the internal reinforcement the exposed steelwork acts as an active anode and the reinforcement becomes the cathode, as shown in Figure 5.8.

Figure 5.8 Corrosion Of Cast-in Items 10.1.1.6. Cracking It is generally accepted that all concrete structures will contain cracks; indeed this is a design philosophy in reinforced structures. As detailed above these cracks can be caused by: Overloading As in the case on the tensile face of a reinforced beam Shrinkage
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 5 May be caused at the fabrication stage Thermal Stresses Can be caused at the fabrication stage during the setting period As the presence of cracks in concrete structures will not normally impair the performance and furthermore as the structure is in compression anyway any cracks will be of much less significance than a crack found in a steel structure. As stated above, provided the crack width is less than 3 mm there should be no corrosion to the reinforcement. Never the less all cracks must be reported and there is a standard terminology applied to this class of defect. 11. Standard Terminology There are a number of standard terms used to precisely describe flaws in concrete. The following list enumerates several of them. General Cracking An incomplete separation into one or more parts Cracks in concrete are further classified by: Direction Longitudinal, transverse, vertical, diagonal or random Width Fine less than 1 mm, medium 1 to 2 mm, wide over 2 mm see Figures 5.9 to 5.10 Depth

Figure 5.9 Medium and Wide Cracks

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Figure 5.10 Wide Crack with Rust Staining Pattern Cracking A series of fine interlocking cracks over an area. Caused by either surface shrinkage or expansion of the sub-surface matrix There are a number of other common concrete defects that have not been mentioned earlier but do have standard terms as listed below. Spalling This is the loss of material from the surface of the concrete. It is usually conically shaped and is caused by either an impact or by pressure from within. It may well be associated with reinforcement corrosion in which case it will probably follow the line of the reinforcement and in this case it will not have the typical conical shape, see Figure 5.11

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Figure 5.11 Spalling Delamination This is the loss of a large sheet of surface material that exposes the coarse aggregates. Caused by the build-up of internal pressure over a large area, Figure 5.12

Figure 5.12 Delamination

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Deterioration of Offshore Concrete Structures Disintegration This involves the general breakdown of the matrix with numerous small fragments breaking away from the surface. This is a very serious problem caused by internal chemical reactions, such as AAR that causes the concrete to become soft. It is a most uncommon problem and there are no instances of it on offshore structures to date Scaling A local or general flaking or peeling away of the surface layer, occasionally there is some loss of aggregate particles. Weathering or chemical reactions between the concrete and the environment may be the cause of this defect. Even if scaling is present it will only become a problem if it becomes very progressive provided there is adequate cover over the reinforcement in the first case. As this defect is associated with poor quality control it should be unlikely to be found on platforms Pop out This appears as small roughly 10 to 50 mm diameter, conically shaped fragments breakaway from the surface. This defect is similar in appearance to spalling but the fragments are smaller. The cause is internal pressure and may be caused by excessive water in the mix. This defect is again unlikely given the QC applied to offshore platforms see Figure 5.13

Figure 5.13 Pop out

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Erosion This is long-term deterioration caused by abrasive action. The abrasive particles may be air or water-born and it may become evident on platforms in the intertidal region later in the life of the structure. This is a long-term problem most unlikely to cause any concern until several years have passed Stains The most serious stain on concrete surfaces is rust staining. This may be the early sign of reinforcement corrosion and therefore all such stains must be reported. It is possible that subsequent investigation and document checks will show stains to be benign as there are a number of causes that are of no structural significance Reinforcement may have been included to withstand construction stresses and subsequently is un-important Mesh reinforcement that is not structurally significant could possibly corrode and would then look cosmetically poor but once again be of no real significance In any case the rule is to report and allow the responsible engineers make the judgement. See Figure 5.11. In Artic waters freeze/thaw damage is quite possible. The repeated freezing and thawing of moisture in the porous concrete surface in the splash zone causes high stresses in these pores due to water expansion during freezing. This in turn causes small fissures which then fill with water on the next annual cycle and so on Marine organisms that bore into the concrete have seriously attacked concrete structures in tropical water. The organisms involved seem to have an affinity for limestone and include: Boring worms Mussels and Sponges The boring sponge Cliona and the boring mussel Lithophaga are both known to do considerable damage. The sponge confining its activities to the outer surfaces and the mussel penetrates deeply into the interior where it fashions ovoid cavities Probably the most destructive mussel is the species Lithophaga antillarum that can grow up to 10 cm in length and 2 cm in diameter. This species is common in tropical waters world wide There are several other marine organisms that also bore into concrete such as: Gastrochaena which is a bi-valve mollusc Upogebial which is a burrowing mud shrimp There are also other creatures that make their homes in concrete.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Deterioration of Offshore Concrete Structures This problem has been known for a number of years in the Persian Gulf and the current method of dealing with it is to fit a cladding to the concrete surface to try to prevent access to the marine organisms in the first place thus preventing the problem. As a resume Table 5.14 is laid out to summarise the in-service types of defects mentioned so far in this chapter.

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Defect Type General Cracking

Reported As Cracking

Description Jagged separations with or without a gap As above but covering an area

Cause Overloading, steelwork corrosion or shrinkage Volume changes between interior and exterior Alkali Aggregate Reaction (AAR)

Details Reported Length, depth and width Surface area, width and depth Severity, area and thickness Severity, area and thickness Severity, area thickness Area and depth Area and depth

Pattern Cracking

Cracking

Exudation

Surface deposit

Viscous, gel-like substance; often associated with cracking Brown stains

Rust Stains

Surface deposit

Corrosion of surface steelwork, tie wires or reinforcement Leaching of lime from cement Increase in internal pressure External impact or internal pressure

Incrustation

Surface deposit Concrete loss Concrete loss

White, crusty deposit Shallow conical depression Conical shaped fragment expressed from the surface Loss of a large area of the concrete surface

Popout Spalling

Delamination

Concrete loss

Internal pressure

Area and depth Area and depth

Honeycombing Construction Voids between defect coarse aggregate particles

Lack of vibration

Table 5.14 Possible In-service Defects in Concrete 12. Additional In-service Defects The Offshore Technology Report OTH 84 206 was produced in 1984 as currently remains the most comprehensive document for classification of defects on offshore structures. Apart from the defects already mentioned there are a number that are defined in this publication an extract of which, showing
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Deterioration of Offshore Concrete Structures photographs of the anomalies is listed in the appendix to these notes, Appendix 5. The document groups defects into 3 categories: Category A (Defects) Category B (Areas of Concern) Category C (Blemishes)

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 5 Bibliography A Handbook for Underwater Inspectors L K Porter HMSO Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon Materials The Open University

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 6

CHAPTER 6
Marine Growth
1. Introduction Once any structure is placed into the sea marine growth will colonise it. This build-up will have two effects: First The profile area of any component presented to the water flow will be increased. This will increase the force on the structure overall. Second Marine growth will change the texture of the surface from a smooth, round steel or painted surface, to a surface made much rougher by the presence of the marine growth on it. This roughness will increase with time as the surface becomes more irregular due to parts of the dead marine growth sloughing off. The effect or this is to increase the drag coefficient. Both these effects increase the force on the structure. Information on the types and amounts of marine growth build-up is required to confirm or modify the design-predicted loads on the structure. Figures 6.1 and 6.2 refer.

Figure 6.1 Flow conditions Around A Cylinder


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Marine Growth These two effects of marine growth will have a knock-on effect with the structure that will manifest itself By producing an increase in mass without any significant change in stiffness. This causes a reduction in the structures natural frequency By increasing the added mass of water and the drag forces on the structure. Marine growth being most abundant at and just below the water level coincides with the zone of maximum wave and water force. So the forces on the structure are increased in the region of maximum water force By affecting the corrosion rate, either by accelerating or retarding it By reducing the effective area of the service inlets and outlets, hence reducing system efficiency By obscuring the important features on the structure, such as diver orientation marks, valve handles anodes and similar objects By making inspection impossible before cleaning These effects give marine growth such an importance that it is necessary to examine the problem in a little more detail. 2. Types of Marine Growth From the engineering standpoint there are two main categories of fouling; soft and hard. Those organisms that have a density approximately the same as seawater cause soft fouling. They are important because of their bulk, but are generally easy to remove Organisms causing hard fouling are much denser and more firmly attached to the structure and therefore are more difficult to remove These organisms will colonise the structure at different rates and at different depths dependant on the natural propensity of the particular species. Some guidance is available to designers as indicated in Table 6.3. Using this and other data designers can predict the most propitious time of the year to launch and install a structure.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 6

Type

Settlement Season

Typical Growth Rate

Typical Coverage (%)

Typical Terminal Thickness

Depth (Relative To MSL)

Comments

Hard Fouling
Mussels Jul Oct 25 mm in1 yr 50 mm in 3 yr 75 mm in 7 yr Solitary tubeworms May Aug 30 mm (L) in 3 mths 50 to 70 About 10 mm (tubeworms lay flat on the steel surface) 0 to mud line Coverage is often 100% especially on new structures 1 to 2 years after installation. Tubeworms also remain as a hard, background layer when dead 100 150 200 mm 0 to 30 m But faster growth rates are found on installations in the North Sea

Soft Fouling
Hydroids Apr Oct 50 mm in 3 mths 100 Summer 30 70 mm Winter 20 30 mm Plumose Jun Jul 50 mm in 1 yr 100 300 mm -30 to 120 m 0 to mud line A permanent hydroid turf may cover an installation and obscure the surface for many years Usually settle 4 to 5 years after installation and can then cover surface very rapidly. Live for up to 50 years Often found in association with anemones

Soft coral

Jan Mar

50 mm in 1 yr

100

About 200 mm

-30 to 120 m

Seaweed Fouling
Kelp Feb Apr 2 m in 3 yrs 60 to 80 Variable up to 6 m long -3 to 15 m May be several years before colonisation begins but tenacious holdfast when established. Present on some installation in Northern and Central North Sea

Table 6.3 Typical Distribution Of Marine Growth In The North Sea (Extract from Offshore Installations: Guidance on design,
construction and certification Forth edition 1990)

2.1. Soft Fouling Organisms in this group include Algae This is often referred to as slime and is generally the first organism to inhabit an offshore structure. As it is very light sensitive, it is seldom observed in any quantity below 20 m (76 feet). This is a very large family of organisms and even includes kelp, thus is goes from the very small to the very large.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Marine Growth

Bacteria This, like algae, will be amongst the first inhabitants of an offshore structure and will be present in depths will in excess of 1000m (3333 feet) Sponges These are often found as a fouling species on offshore platforms and are present at depths greater that 1000m (3333 feet)

Figure 6.4 Different Species Of Sponges Sea Squirts These are soft-bodied animals and sometimes grow in large colonies

Figure 6.5 Different Species Of Sea Squirts

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Hydroids These grow in colonies and from their appearance can be mistaken for seaweed, but they are in fact animals related to sea anemone. The colonies can produce dense coverage to depths of 1000m (3333 feet)

Figure 6.6 Close Up Photograph Of A Hydroid

Figure 6.7 Different Species Of Hydroids

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Marine Growth

Seaweeds There are many types of seaweed that attach themselves to underwater structures, but of these, kelp produces the longest fronds, which in the North Sea, grow up to 6m (20 feet) in length under favourable conditions

Figure 6.8 Green Seaweed (Left) Bladder Wrack (Ascophyllum) (Right)

Figure 6.9 Kelp Holdfast (Centre) Laminaria Digitalis (Left) Laminaria (Right)Bryozoa This has a moss-like appearance, and is really an animal with tentacles

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Figure 6.10 Different Species Of Bryozoa Anemones These are sometimes called anthozoans, which means flowering animals. The cylindrical body is surmounted by a radical pattern of tentacles and looks a bit like broccoli. It attaches itself to the structure by a basal disc, and this attachment is so firm that attempts to remove it often result in tearing the

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Marine Growth body of the anemone. The colours and shapes are extremely variable even within the same species

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 6

Figure 6.11 Anemones Dead Mens Fingers (Alcyonium Digitalum) Colonies have been observed on pier piles, rocks on the foreshore and offshore structures. These colonies often grow to 150 mm (6 inches) in length. When submerged, many small polyps arise from the finger-shaped, fleshy main body, each polyp having eight feathery tentacles. It is white to yellow or pink to orange in colour, but when out of the water it is flesh coloured and the similarity to the human hand gives it its common name

Figure 6.12 Dead Mens Fingers

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Marine Growth

2.2. Hard Fouling Composed of calcareous or shelled organisms, the common types in this group include Barnacles The common species is Balanus Balanoides. These grow in dense colonies to a depth of 15 20m (49 67 feet), but are observed to depths of 120m (394 feet)

Figure 6.13 Barnacles Mussels The main species is Mytilus edulis. The hard-shelled mollusc attaches itself to the structure by byssal threads at the hinge of the shell. These thread attachments are very strong and mussels generally form dense colonies. Main colonisation is to depths of 20m (67 feet), but mussels are found to depths of about 50m (164 feet)

Figure 6.14 Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis)


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Tubeworms The full title for this species is calcareous serpulid tubeworm. This often forms on flat surfaces. It is white in colour, very firmly attached to the surface of the metal and difficult to remove. It also grows in colonies and these have been known to fill a warm water outlet, arranging themselves parallel to the flow to obtain maximum nutriments. Power cleaning is required to remove this growth, so firmly is it attached. Although the main growth occurs to depths of 50m (164 feet), tubeworms are found to depths of 100m (328 feet)

Figure 6.15 Tubeworm 3. Factors Affecting The Rate Of Marine Growth If no steps are taken to prevent growth, such as application of an anti-fouling solution or paint, the formation of bacterial slime occurs in two to three weeks. As indicated in Table 6.3 marine growth can mature very rapidly with barnacles and soft fouling having been known to attach themselves and reach maturity on three to six months. It generally takes two seasons for mussel colonies to develop. Often on top of the dead earlier fouling. The type of organism, its development and growth rate will depend on several factors, including the following. 3.1. Depth Figure 6. 4 gives a generally accepted diagrammatic representation of the combined effects of weight and volume on the various types of marine fouling in British waters. This should be read in conjunction with Table 6.3, which contains information more specific to the design function. The diagram shows clearly that the most weight is added in the vicinity of the surface which is the region of highest water-induced loading The total column in the diagram is not the sum of the others, but an estimate of a balanced colony. Note that the long lengths of seaweed have not been included.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Marine Growth Increase in depth reduces light intensity, which therefore reduces the ability of organisms such as algae to photosynthesise. Algae therefore gradually disappear with depth and there is also a change in species to red algae at the greater depths. Algae growth at depths below 30m (98 feet) has been observed in the North Sea due mainly to the clarity of the water.

Figure 6.4 Diagrammatic representation Of The Distribution Of Marine Growth With Depth 3.2. Temperature In general, a rise in water temperature will increase the growth rate of a colony. The growth rate approximately doubles with a 10o C rise in temperature. There will of course be a limit and most organisms cease growth at 30o 35o C. As the temperature variation is greatest near the surface, there is seasonal growth in the marine colonies near the surface, and continuous, slower growth as the depth increases. 3.3. Water Current The speed at which the water flows over the surface plays an important part in the type of fouling colony that develops. There are two aspects to

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 6 consider, the first being that of the larvae attaching themselves to the structure. It is suggested that at speeds greater than 1 knot, many larvae are unable to attach themselves. However, once attached, most fouling can withstand water currents of more than 6 knots. At high water velocities, weakly attached fouling is removed leaving only the firmly attached hard fouling. Also, colonies growing on dead or dying fouling become loose and may be sloughed off. The larvae can attach themselves to structures during slack flow periods, on in localised spots of slower flow or dead water, such as crevices and locations between hard fouling The second aspect to consider is that in general, once the organism is established, a strong current brings more food and growth is accelerated 3.4. Salinity In nearly fresh water, fouling is usually confined to algae slime. As the salinity increases, so the amount and type of fouling increases. First hydroids and barnacles and finally mussels occur. The normal salinity of seawater is about 3% - 3.5% and the size of mussels, for example, increases five-fold from a salinity of 0.6% to 3.5%. 3.5. Food Supply Growth of the fouling is obviously dependent on the quantity of nutriment available. Growth rates seem to be faster in coastal waters then those a few miles offshore where the water is deeper. Investigations suggest that the slow currents that circulate around platforms become enriched with nutriments from sewage and other waste that will increase the growth rate. 3.6. Cathodic Protection There are two types of corrosion protection widely used on North Sea structures (see Chapter 5) On those that use sacrificial anodes, the patterns of marine growth on the structures themselves seem normal, but the anodes generally remain clear of growth. The other system, which uses an impressed current to cancel the corrosion-induced ionic currents between the structure and the sea, suggests, on a limited amount of evidence, that the marine growth rate is increased. Currently the mechanism that encourages an increased growth rate in not understood, more data is required before the observations of increased growth can be confirmed.

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Bibliography Underwater Inspection Mel Bayliss David Short Mary Bax E & F N Spon ISBN 0-419-13540-5 A Handbook For Underwater Inspectors L K Porter HMSO OTI 88 539 Structural Materials The Open University Butterworths ISBN 0408 04658 9

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion

CHAPTER 7
Corrosion
1. Energy Considerations In Corrosion With time most materials react with their environment to change their structure. The reaction in metals is called corrosion, in polymers (plastics) degradation and in concrete weathering. Corrosion in metals is defined as the chemical or electrochemical reaction between a metal and its environment, which leads to one of three consequences: The removal of the metal The formation of an oxide The formation of another chemical compound This change in the metal will be expected if the thermodynamics (energy state) of the system is considered. The FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS states: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed As a direct consequence of this Law when spontaneous changes occur they must follow a rule, which is: Whenever a spontaneous change occurs it must release free energy from the system to the surrounding at constant temperature and pressure Which is a way of stating the SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS. When corrosion occurs naturally it releases free energy, as it is a spontaneous process. Take the case of a metal such as iron or aluminium as an example; both are fund in nature as ores which, when analysed, are found to be a chemical compound including oxygen and carbon amongst other elements. This necessitates the extraction of the metal itself from the other elements before it can be used in fabrication. The process whereby the metal is extracted requires either the smelting of the ore or an electrolysis process. The final metal produced is therefore at a higher energy level than the ore from which it was extracted i.e. energy is added to the system. One of the fundamental laws of equilibrium is that all systems try to reduce their energy level to a minimum. This is why water runs downhill thus reducing its potential energy level as it flows. In similar fashion metals tend to reduce their energy and therefore the rule imposed by the second Law. Thus free energy is released. There are numerous forms of energy but the energy causing corrosion is chemical energy that is utilised to form lower energy chemical compounds, like the metal oxide, which resemble the original ore. Because steel (iron alloys of
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 7 various types) is such an important material in building and industry the corrosion of iron has a special term, rust. Figure 7.1 refers.

Figure 7.1 Changes In Energy Levels Of A Typical Metal Extracted From Ore 2. The Corrosion Process Knowing there is a driving force for the process it is necessary to consider the mechanism by which corrosion can take place. Firstly a reminder of the basic structure of the atom will assist in the understanding to the topic. In its simplest form an atom is a positive nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. Figure 7.2 shows a simplified diagram of the structure of an atom that is adequate for the purposes of this discussion.

Figure 7.2 Simple Structure Of An Atom The overall charge on the atom is zero and an atom is so composed that the negative charge of the electrons is equal to the positive charge of the nucleus.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion However, electrons can be added to or taken from the group that surrounds each atom. When this happens, the overall charge on the atom is no longer zero. This condition of the atom is called ionic. Thus if the atom loses an electron it becomes a positive ion, which means that the atom now has a positive charge. This may be referred to as a cation. If the atom gains an electron it becomes a negative ion and now has a negative charge. This may be referred to as an anion. The first step in the corrosion process is that metal atoms change their state from being metallic (that is no charge on the atom) to being ionic (that is having a charge on the atom) by losing at least one electron from the outer shell. The process of corrosion then goes on at the atomic level, each atom losing one or more (usually no more than 3) electrons to become an ion. 2.1. The Anodic Reaction The reaction in which the metal is changed from its metallic state into its ionic state is known as an anodic reaction that is part of an overall reaction involving the metal and other species present in the environment. This process is also called oxidation. The overall reaction may be summarised by a chemical equation thus: M Mz+ + zeZ may be 1, 2 or 3. Higher values are possible but rare. Reaction such as those indicated by this equation that produce electrons are known as oxidation Figure 7.3 illustrates this anodic reaction diagrammatically.

Figure 7.3 Anodic Reaction

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 7 The site at which it takes place is the anode, which is positive using conventional notation. The anodic reaction for iron releases two electrons. This is shown diagrammatically in Figure 7.4, which represents a free rusting iron surface immersed in seawater.

Figure 7.4 Anodic Sites On Surface Of Iron Exposed To Seawater This is one part of the reaction in electrochemical corrosion that takes place in the presence of an electrolyte that is often water or a water-based solution of ionic compounds such as acids, bases or salts. The metal ion passes into solution and the electron passes through the metal that is not actually being corroded, that is, an electric current flows as indicated in Figure 7.4 2.2. The Cathodic Reaction These free electrons formed in the anode reaction must be used up if the reaction is to proceed. This part of the reaction in the electrochemical corrosion process therefore takes place at the site where the free electrons are neutralised and is known as the cathodic reaction. Alternatively reactions such as this that consume electrons are also known as reduction reactions. A part reaction is illustrated in Figure 7.5

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion

Figure 7.5 Cathodic Reaction Typically a complete reaction is for the free electrons to be taken up by positive ions and atoms of oxygen in the electrolyte. This gives the oxygen a negative charge. Oxygen, however, readily accepts the free electrons because for its electron stability it needs eight electrons in its outer valence shell yet occurs naturally with only 6. Figure 6.6 refers.

Figure 7.6 Cathode Reaction


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 7 Free electrons move through the metal cathode to its surface where negative ions form and subsequently emit free electrons into the electrolyte where they combine with elements creating different compounds. The site of this reaction is known as the cathode, which conventionally is negative. The actual reduction reaction at the cathode will vary according to the composition of the electrolyte. Some common frequent recurring reactions in metallic corrosion are: Hydrogen evolution 2H+ + 2e
+

H2 2H2O 4OH-

Oxygen reduction (acid solutions) O2 + 4H + 4e Oxygen reduction (neutral or basic solutions) Metal ion reduction

O2 + 2H2O + 4e M2+

M3+ + e

Hydrogen evolution is a common reaction when the electrolyte is acidic while oxygen reduction is very common since any aqueous solution in contact with air is capable of producing this reaction. It is, of course, the reaction encountered in seawater. Metal ion reduction is less common and is normally found in chemical process streams. The common denominator with all these reactions is that they consume electrons and this is the most important point to note. 2.3. Seawater Corrosion These partial reactions are included here because they can be used to interpret virtually all corrosion problems. For example, consider iron in seawater; corrosion occurs. The anodic reaction is: The cathodic reaction is: Fe O2 + 2H2O + 4e Fe2+ + 2e 4OHThe seawater contains dissolved oxygen and therefore: The effective overall reaction can be found by adding these two equations thus: 2Fe + 2H2O + O2 2Fe2+ + 4OH2Fe(OH) 2 This is ferrous hydroxide precipitate from solution. This compound is unstable in oxygenated solutions and it oxidises to ferric salt: 2Fe(OH) 2 + H2O + O2 This final product is the familiar rust. 2.4. Electrochemical Aspects Of Corrosion A fundamental definition for corrosion is: CORROSION IS THE DEGRADATION OF A METAL BY AN ELECTROCHEMICAL REACTION WITH ITS ENVIRONMENT For corrosion to take place four criterions must apply: There must be an anode. This normally corrodes by loss of electrons
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2Fe(OH) 3

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion There must be a cathode. This does not normally corrode There must be an electrolyte. This is the name given to the solution that conducts electricity. Pure distilled water is not an electrolyte while seawater is There must be an electrical connection between the anode and the cathode These four elements are shown diagrammatically in Figure 7.7 and all electrochemical corrosion takes place by setting up cells like this.

Figure 7.7 Corrosion Circuit As this is an electrochemical reaction and the chemistry has been touched on already a few basic electrical definitions will round off this section. 3. Electrical Theory Electricity is the passage of electrons between two defined points. This normally occurs through a metal wire connecting the two points and is called a current. Electricity can also pass through suitable aqueous solutions, but the electrical charge is then carried by ions. The amount of charge carried by an electron is known and when a given electron flow is passed at a constant rate it is measured in amperes and is given the symbol I. In the MKS system one ampere is defined as that constant current which, if maintained in each of two infinitely long straight parallel wires of negligible cross-section placed 1 m apart, in a vacuum, will produce between the wires a force of 2 x 10-7 Newtons per m length The driving force causing this current to flow is the potential difference between two points and is measured in volts, which has the symbol V.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 7 In the MKS system this is defined as that difference of electrical potential between two points of a wire carrying a constant current of 1 ampere when the power dissipation between those points is 1 watt The flow of electric charges is impeded by a quantity called resistance and between any two points there is always some resistance to the passage of the current. The unit of resistance is the ohm which has the symbol . The MKS system defines the unit of electrical resistance as being the resistance between two points of a conductor when a constant potential difference of 1 V applied between these points produces in the conductor a current of 1 A During the majority of this chapter all discussion and illustrations will be in terms of electron or ion flow and as far as possible positive and negative notations will be avoided so as to avoid confusion, which often occurs when corrosion is studied. This confusion arises because of an historical accident that resulted in producing what is now called conventional current. Electron flow is exactly opposite to conventional current, which is what causes the confusion when studies in corrosion so often involve discussion on electron or ion flow. To avoid such problems for the rest of this chapter Figure 6.8 illustrates the two types of flow.

Figure 7.8 Conventional and Electron Flow

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion Bibliography A Handbook for Underwater Inspectors L K Porter HMSO Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon Corrosion For Students Of Science And Engineering K R Trethewey & J Chamberlain Longman Scientific & Technical

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Types of Corrosion

CHAPTER 8
Types of Corrosion
1. Corrosion Cells Corrosion cells, using the corrosion process outlined in Chapter 7, can be set up by many different means, but they all operate because there is some dissimilarity between the anode and the cathode, such as: Dissimilar metals Dissimilar phases in the grains of the metal Dissimilar energy levels between the grain and the grain boundary of the metal Dissimilar ion concentrations Dissimilar oxygen concentrations 1.1. Dissimilar Metal Corrosion Cell It is found that when dissimilar metals are placed in the same fluid (electrolyte) a potential difference (voltage) exists between them. This can be demonstrated easily by placing two rods of different metals in water and connecting a voltmeter between them. The voltmeter measures a voltage and a current flows from the anode to the cathode via the outside connection. The cell acts as a very basic, low powered battery and in battery terms the anode is the negative and the cathode the positive. Electrons flow from the negative terminal to the positive terminal in the external circuit. Figure 7.7 refers. It is possible to determine which of the two metals will be the cathode and which the anode by reference to an Electrochemical Force Series. 1.1.1. The Electrochemical Force Series Under standard conditions, where the electrolyte is dilute sulphuric acid at a temperature of 25oC, the potential of various metals is measured and given in a table known as the Electrochemical Force Series, or Electromotive Series, (see Table 7.9). From the table, it will be seen that any metal will be anodic to any metal higher in the table and cathodic to any metal lower in the series. It must be remembered, however, that the table only applies under the standard conditions stated.

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Metal Atom Gold Gold Platinum Mercury Palladium Silver Mercury Copper Copper Hydrogen Lead Tin Nickel Cobalt Thallium Indium Cadmium Iron Gallium Chromium Zinc Manganese Aluminium Beryllium Magnesium Sodium Calcium Potassium

Electrode Reaction Atom to Ion Au Au Pt Hg Pd Ag 2Hg Cu Cu H2 Pb Sn Ni Co Ti In Cd Fe Ga Cr Zn Mn Al Be Mg Na Ca K Au+ + eAu Pt


+++

Potential in Volts Standard 1.68

+ 3e
-

Ca 1.42 Ca 1.2 0.85 0.83 0.80

++

+ 2e

Hg++ + 2ePd
++

+ 2e

Ag+ + eHg2
++

+ 2e
-

0.80 0.52 0.34 0.00 -0.13 -0.14 -0.25 -0.28 -0.34 -0.34 -0.40 -0.44 -0.52 -0.71 -0.76 -1.05 -1.67 -1.70 -2.34 -2.71

Cu + e

Cu++ + 2e2H + 2e
+ -

Pb++ + 2eSn Ni
++

+ 2e
-

++

+ 2e

Co++ + 2eTi + e
+ -

In+++ + 3eCd Fe
++

+ 2e + 2e

++

Ga+++ + 3eCr
+++

+ 3e

Zn++ + 2eMn Al
++

+2e

+++

+ 3e

Be++ + 2eMg
++

+ 2e

Na+ + eCa
+ ++

+ 2e
-

-2.87 -2.92

K +e

Table 7.9 Electrochemical Force Series

Similar tables are produced for metals under actual conditions and these are called Galvanic Series. Table 7.10 give the series for seawater. The same rule applies to the Galvanic Series as for the foregoing table, i.e. metals found higher in the series are cathodic to any metal below them. For example, zinc is lower in the series than mild steel; therefore, if zinc
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Types of Corrosion is connected to mild steel and immersed in seawater zinc will be the anode and corrode and mild steel will be the cathode and not corrode. If on the other hand mild steel, in the form of a ships hull is connected to manganese bronze, the ships propeller, the mild steel now becomes the anode and corrodes and the manganese bronze propeller is the cathode, which does not corrode.
Gold Silver 18-8 (3%Mo) Stainless steel (Passive) 70% Ni, 30% Cu (Monel) 78% Ni, 13.5%Cr, 6%Fe (Passive) Nickel (Passive) 88%Cu, 3%Zn, 6.5%Sn, 1.5%Pb 88%Cu, 2%Zn, 10%Sn 5%Zn, Ni, Ba, Cu Silicon Bronze Copper Red Brass Aluminium Bronze Admiralty Brass Yellow Brass 78%Ni, 13.5%Cr, 6%Fe (Active) Nickel (Active) Manganese Bronze Tin Lead 18-8 (3%Mo) Stainless Steel (Active) 18-8 Stainless (Active) 50-50 Lead-Tin Solder 13% Chromium Stainless Steel (Active) Cast Iron Wrought Iron Mild Steel Aluminium 24S-T Aluminium 17S-T Aluminium A17S-T Cadmium Alcad Aluminium 52S-T Aluminium 52Sh Galvanised Iron Zinc Magnesium Alloys Magnesium

Table 7.11 Galvanic Series In Seawater


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 8 This type of corrosion cell, consisting of two dissimilar metals, is easy to identify, but corrosion can occur in a much more localised way, caused by small-size effects that can lead to corrosion pits and thereby cause considerable damage. This type of corrosion and some others are discussed below. 2. Concentration Cell Corrosion Corrosion of this type is associated with crevices in the order of 25 to 100 m wide and commonly involves chloride ions in the electrolyte. The stages in the process are: Corrosion will at first occur over the entire surface of the exposed metal at a slow rate, both inside and outside the crevice. During this period of time the electrolyte may be assumed to have a uniform composition and normal anodic and cathodic processes take place. Under these conditions positive metal ions and negative hydroxyl ions are produced so as to maintain equilibrium within the electrolyte This process consumes the dissolved oxygen, which results in the diffusion of more oxygen from the atmosphere at any surface where the electrolyte is in contact with air. In turn then the oxygen in the bulk of the electrolyte is replaced more easily at metal surfaces rather than in any small crevices. This creates a low oxygen situation within the crevice that in turn impedes the cathodic process and the production of hydroxyl ions is therefore reduced This results in excess positive ions accumulating in the crevice which causes negative ions to diffuse there from the bulk of the electrolyte outside in order to maintain minimum potential energy overall. The metal ions, water molecules and chloride all react in complicated chemical reactions forming complex ions, which it is thought, react with water in a hydrolysis reaction resulting in corrosion products. This can be described by a simplified equation thus M+ + H2O MOH + H+ The increase of hydrogen ion concentration accelerates the metal dissolution process, which, in turn, makes the problem worse, as does the accompanying increase of anion (chloride) concentration within the crevice. An important feature of active crevice corrosion cells is that they are autocatalytic that is once started they are self-sustaining. It is worth underlining the fact that the electrolyte in an active crevice can become very acidic. This is the situation shown in Figure 7.12. The metal inside the crevice is corroding rapidly while that outside is cathodically protected.

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Figure 7.12 Crevice Corrosion 3. Pitting Pitting is localised corrosion that selectively attacks areas of a metal surface. The point of initiation may be: A compositional heterogeneity such as an inclusion or segregate of precipitate A surface scratch or any similar blemish in an otherwise perfect film Or it may be an emerging dislocation or a slip step caused by applied or residual tensile stresses. All metals have crystal lattice structures but these are never defect free. All metals contain imperfections in their lattice structures, and these are known as defects, these may occur in a number of ways: Vacancies This is where there is an atom missing from the lattice site Substitutional Defects This is where a foreign atom occupies a lattice site that would have been occupied by a host atom Interstitial Defects This is where an atom occupies a site that is not a normal lattice site and it is squeezed in between atoms of the host lattice. The interstitial atom may be either a host atom or a foreign atom. Figure 7.13 refers

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 8

Figure 7.13 Point Defects In A Crystal Lattice These point defects are very significant in the theory of alloying where they cause a significant improvement in mechanical properties of metals. They also play a role in some corrosion mechanisms, notably hydrogen embrittlement, selective attack, oxidation and hot corrosion, that all rely on the diffusion of species through the metal lattice Another type of defect occurs within the grain structure when planes of atoms are not perfectly fitted into the lattice. These are known as line defects. An example of this type of defect is the dislocation and two specific examples of this type of dislocation are: Edge Dislocations This is where an unfinished plane of atoms is present between two other planes. Figure 7.14a refers Screw Dislocations This is where a plane is skewed to give it a different alignment to its immediate neighbour. Figure 7.14b refers

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Figure 7.14 Edge Dislocation (b) Screw Dislocation Corrosion pits once formed propagate in the same way as crevice corrosion; it is the initiation phase that is different. In the case of corrosion pits the initiation is dependant on metallurgical factors alone. Now consider the case of a water drop laying on the surface of a sheet of clean mild steel The corrosion process initiates uniformly on the surface of the steel under the water. This consumes oxygen by the normal cathode reaction in what is a neutral solution at this stage This causes an oxygen gradient to form within the water drop. It is obvious that the wetted area around the water/air interface has more oxygen diffusion from the air that the centre of the drop This concentration gradient anodically polarises the central region, which dissolves The hydroxyl ions generated in the centre of the drop at the cathode diffuse inwards and react with iron ions diffusing outwards, causing the deposition of insoluble corrosion product around the depression, or pit This further retards the diffusion of oxygen, accelerates the anodic process in the centre of the drop and causes the reaction to be autocatalytic. Figure 7.15 refers

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Figure 7.15 The Mechanism Of Pitting Because Of Differential-aeration Beneath A Water Drop As the process continues the corrosion products accumulate over the pit and its immediate surroundings, forming a scab or tubercle and isolating the environment within the pit from the bulk electrolyte. It is thought that the autocatalytic process is assisted by an increased concentration of chloride ions within the pit. This type of corrosion would be possible in the splash zone of a structure if it were not protected with a coating such as paint One of the most damaging environments for producing pitting and crevice corrosion in one of high chloride ion content. The resistance of alloys to these forms of corrosion in seawater has been ranked and is laid out in Table 7.16

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Metal Or Alloy Hastalloy C276 Titanium

Resistance Inert

Cupronickel (70/30) + Fe Cupronickel (90/10) + Fe Bronze Brass

Good

Austenitic Cast Iron Cast Iron Carbon Steel

Moderate

Incoloy 825 Carpenter 20 Copper

Low

316 Stainless Steel Ni-Cr Alloys 304 Stainless Steel 400 Series Stainless Steel

Poor pit initiation at crevices

Table 7.16 The Relative Crevice Corrosion Resistance Of Metals And Alloys In Quiet Seawater It can be seen from Table 7.16 that mild steel has moderate resistance to crevice corrosion. However, some caution should be exercised when referring to this table, as there is a good deal of conflicting evidence about material susceptibility. 4. Inter-granular Corrosion Intergranular corrosion occurs between the grain boundaries because of precipitates in these regions. This is primarily because grain boundaries are the preferred sites for the precipitation and segregation processes which occur in many alloys. These intrusions are of two types:
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 8 Intermetallic (intermediate Constituents) These are species formed from metal atoms and having identifiable chemical formulae. They can be either anodic or cathodic to the metal Compounds These are formed between metals and non-metallic elements, such as; hydrogen, carbon, silicon, nitrogen and oxygen Iron carbide and manganese sulphide, which are both important constituents of steel, are both cathodic to ferrite In principle any metal that has intermetallics or compounds at grain boundaries will be susceptible to Intergranular corrosion. For example, it has most frequently been found in austenitic stainless steels but it may occur in ferric and two-phase stainless steels and nickel base corrosion resistant alloys. Plain carbon steel is a two phase metal and some grains are cathodic while others are anodic and Intergranular corrosion initiates as indicated in Figure 7.17.

Figure 7.17 Corrosion In Two Phase Metal In the Galvanic Series the phase is below the phase and will therefore corrode
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Types of Corrosion 5. Grain Boundary Corrosion The driving force behind grain boundary corrosion is the area of higher energy found at the grain boundary itself. These higher energy regions become the anodic sites while the bulk of the grain itself becomes the cathode. This situation results in the loss of material in the anodic reaction at the grain boundaries themselves in the form of a line.

Figure 7.18 Grain Boundary Corrosion Weld decay or preferential corrosion is an example of this type of decay. In this case the boundary is the fusion boundary that forms along the toe of the weld and is a region of higher energy. This region becomes the anode and corrosion sets in, often giving quite significant visual indications of its presence. Figure 7.19 refers

Figure 7.19 Weld Decay Or Preferential Corrosion


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 8 6. Stress Corrosion Cracking This type of corrosion is a form of Intergranular corrosion that increases in severity when the material is subjected to a tensile load and a specific environment. The effects are to concentrate the corrosion on a limited number of grain boundaries that are at right angles to the direction of loading. A common feature of stress corrosion cracking that repeatedly occurs is the unexpectedness of its manifestation. Often a material that has been chosen for its corrosion resistance is found to fail at a stress level well below its normal fracture stress. It is rare that there is any obvious evidence of failure and it presents itself in components that are apparently unstressed. Problems with pipes and tubes are common because of the hoop residual stresses that are the result of the fabrication process. Stress-relieving heat treatments are a vital part of the quality control for these components because of this. It is currently agreed that there is no one mechanism for producing stress corrosion cracking, but rather a number of significant factors. Parkins has compiled a list of alloys and combinations that lead to this type of cracking. It is referred to as The Stress-corrosion Spectrum and is reproduced below as Table 7.20
Electrolyte Requirements Alloy Characteristics

INTERGRANULAR CORROSION
Corrosion dominated (solution requirements highly specific) Carbon steels in NO-3 solutions Al-Zn-Mg alloys in Cl- solutions Cu-Zn alloys in NH3 solutions Fe-Cr-Ni steels in Cl- solutions Mg-Al alloys in CrO2-4 + Cl- solutions Cu-Zn alloys in NH3 solutions Mixed crack paths by adsorption, decohesion or fracture of brittle phase Intergranular fracture along pre-existing paths Transgranular fracture along strain generated paths

Stress dominated (solution requirements less specific)

Ti alloys in methanol High strength steels in Cl- solutions

BRITTLE FRACTURE Table 7.20 The Stress Corrosion Spectrum (After Parkins)

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Types of Corrosion For this cracking to occur there must be tensile stress, which may be applied directly during the working life of the structure, or it may be present as a consequence of the installation or fabrication process In general alloys are more susceptible than pure metals although copper is one known exception A particular metal may crack in the presence of a relatively few chemical species that may be present in small concentrations In the absence of stress the alloy is usually inert to the same environment that would otherwise cause cracking Even with particularly ductile materials stress corrosion cracks have the appearance of a brittle fracture It is usually possible to determine a threshold stress below which stress corrosion cracking does not occur. 7. Fretting Corrosion Fretting describes corrosion occurring at contact areas between materials under load subjected to vibration and slip. In appearance it shows pits and groves in the metal surrounded by corrosion products. It has been observed in a number of different components in machinery and in bolted parts. In essence this is a form of erosion corrosion that occurs in the atmosphere rather than under aqueous conditions. Fretting corrosion is very detrimental due to the destruction of metallic components and the production of oxide debris. This leads to loss of tolerance and may result in fatigue fracture due to the excessive strain caused by the extra movement and the pits acting as stress raisers. A classic case on land of fretting occurs at bolted tie plates on railroad tracks. The basic requirements for the occurrence of fretting corrosion are: The interface must be under load Vibration or repeated relative motion between the interface must be sufficient to produce slip or deformation on the surfaces The load and relative motion of the interface must be sufficient to produce slip or deformation on the surfaces The relative motion need only be as little as 10-10 m but it must be cyclic in nature and does not occur between surfaces in continuous motion. There are two theories proposed for fretting corrosion; wear-oxidation and oxidation-wear both of which are shown schematically in Figures 7.21 and 7.22

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Figure 7.21 Schematic Illustration Of The Wear-oxidation Theory Of Fretting Corrosion The wear-oxidation mechanism is based on the concept that cold welding or fusion occurs at the interface between metal surfaces under pressure and, during the subsequent relative motion, these contact points are ruptured and fragments of metal are removed. These fragments, because of their small diameter and the heat due to friction are immediately oxidized. This process is repeated resulting in the loss of metal and accumulation of oxide residue.

Figure 7.22 Schematic Illustration Of The Oxidation-wear Theory Of Fretting Corrosion The oxidation-wear concept is based on the hypothesis that most metal surfaces are protected from atmospheric oxidation by a thin, adherent oxide layer. When metals are placed in contact under load and subjected to repeated relative motion, the oxide layer is ruptured at high points and results in oxide debris. It is assumed that the exposed metal re-oxidizes and the process is repeated. Fretting corrosion could occur in the metal adjacent to clamps and collars of risers, conductors and caissons if there is the slightest movement underneath them. See Figure 7.23.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Types of Corrosion

Figure 7.23 Possible Fretting Corrosion Between Riser And Riser Clamp 8. Erosion Corrosion This is a self-explanatory name for a form of corrosion that results from a metal being attacked because of the relative motion between an electrolyte and a metal surface. Examples of this type of corrosion are attributable to mechanical effects, such as, wear, abrasion and scouring. Soft metals such as, copper, brass, pure aluminium and lead are particularly vulnerable. Two main forms of erosion corrosion are: Corrosion associated with laminar flow Damage caused by impingement in turbulent conditions A laminar flow will cause several effects: The ionic distribution in the double layer is carried away by the flow and equilibrium cannot be established which leads to an increased rate of dissolution Where the increased flow replenishes aggressive ions such as chloride and sulphide this has a detrimental effect and corrosion rates increase If the flow contains any solid particles protective layers may be scoured away causing excessive corrosion

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 8 The alternative to this is that it is sometimes possible in pipes for the deposit of silt or dirt to be prevented thus preventing the formation of any differential-aeration cells in the crevices beneath A possible beneficial effect is that more oxygen is carried to the area, which minimises the formation of differential-aeration cells that are normally a common cause of attack. Stainless steels in particular benefit from improved corrosion resistance because oxygen replenishment maintains its protective oxide film Another possible beneficial effect is where a steady supply of inhibitor is concentrated within the flow, as in a pipeline for example These combined circumstances make the effects of laminar flow unpredictable. Taking the case of turbulent flow, however the situation is much more straightforward. The fluid molecules now impinge directly on the metal causing wear. This obviously increases the corrosion rate This effect can easily occur inside a pipe because turbulence can be caused by, sudden changes in bore diameter, sudden changes in direction (i.e. pipe bends), a badly fitted joint or gasket, any deposits that may be either circumferential welds or silt deposits. Figure 7.24 refers.

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Figure 7.24 Effects Of Flow In Pipes 9. Corrosion Fatigue There are many similarities between corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking but the most significant difference is that corrosion fatigue is extremely non-specific. As detailed in Chapter 4 fatigue affects all metals causing failure at stress levels well below the UTS. In aqueous environments it is frequently found that a metals fatigue resistance is reduced, or even that it no longer has a fatigue limit. Summarising the stages in the development of a fatigue crack as discussed in Chapter 4 yields: Firstly the formation of slip bands Next the nucleation of an embryo crack in the order of 10 m long Then the extension of this crack along favourable paths Finally macroscopic, 0.1 to 1 mm, crack propagation in a direction at right angles to the maximum principal stress that leads to failure Corrosion fatigue can occur in any of the three corrosion states indicated by the Pourbaix diagram as shown in Figure 7.2, it can also occur at stress levels much lower than those for stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It is also true that while SCC growth rates are independent of the stress intensity factor during much of the crack growth, fatigue crack growth is always affected by it. Figure 7.25 illustrates this point.
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Figure 7.25 General Characteristics Of Corrosion Fatigue Curves There is some evidence that offshore structures behave in the way indicated by the stress corrosion fatigue graph indicated in Figure 7.25, although the actual effect may well be attributable to hydrogen embrittlement. It is thought that the use of cathodic protection systems that place the metal in the immune state and over time cause calcareous deposits to form that tend to inhibit crack growth ensure that the structures are resistant to corrosion fatigue. 10. Biological Corrosion Corrosion by marine biological action can be initiated in various ways: By the production of corrosive substances like hydrogen sulphide or ammonia, which result in direct chemical attack on the metal By producing or actually being a catalyst in the corrosive action By the reaction of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) under anaerobic conditions o The most important of these are the bacteria Sporovibrio desulfuricans. These thrive in the reduced oxygen conditions created under heavy accumulations of marine growth, under thick deposits of corrosion products, or under mud o There are indications that because oxygen is unable to diffuse through the heavy marine growth the effect of this organism is to take the place of oxygen in the usual cathodic reaction By the formation of concentration cells around and under the organisms
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Bibliography Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon Corrosion For Students Of Science And Engineering K R Trethewey & J Chamberlain Longman Scientific & Technical

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Factors Affecting Corrosion Rates

CHAPTER 9
Factors Affecting Corrosion Rates
1. Polarisation And Corrosion Rate When a metal is exposed to an aqueous solution containing ions of that metal, both oxidation of metal atoms to ions and reduction of metal ions to atoms occur on its surface according to the formula: Men+ + neMe This means that there are two reactions involving the flow of electrons and the rate at which these reactions occur can be given by two current densities. The necessity for using current density as a measurement of corrosion currents can be demonstrated by considering two pieces of metal; one say, of 10 mm2, the other of 1 mm2 and suppose they both corrode such that the current flow is 10 electrons per second. The smaller piece will obviously corrode 10 times faster than the larger piece. Thus the surface area of the corroding metal must be taken into account when measuring current. The units of currents density are Am-2 (amps per square meter) The corrosion rate and the current density are directly related; which makes the topic quite important when considering the long-term deterioration of metals in aqueous solution These two current densities can be indicated as forward and reverse reaction currents thus: i and i and at equilibrium (Eo) as the exchange current density. i = i = io and io is known

The electrode potential and the equilibrium potential can then be calculated according to the Nernst equation: E = Eo + Where
0.0001983 T

log10 Mn+

Eo = standard electrode potential Mn+ = metal ion activity T = absolute temperature

If a net current (i) is applied to the surface i I this applied net current will be the difference between the forward and reverse currents. This difference in current changes the electrode potential and this new potential is given the value Ei and the electrode is said to be polarized. The change in electrode potential is called polarization and is given the Greek letter (eta). = Ei - Eo There are two main polarization components to consider.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 9 Concentration Polarization Caused by the difference in concentration between the layer of electrolyte nearest the electrode surface and the bulk of the electrolyte. See Figure 7.26

Figure 7.26 Concentration Polarization (The Double Layer) The initial polarization at the anode produces a surfeit of positive cations that in turn causes a non-homogeneous distribution of ions with the most densely populated layer nearest to the electrode being the Helmholtz and the second more diffuse being the Guoy-Chapman. In this layer the potential changes exponentially. This distribution is commonly referred to as the double layer Activation Polarization Caused by a retardation of the electrode reaction. The polarization of an anode is always positive and that of a cathode always negative. Figure 7.27 refers

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Figure 7. 27 Anodic And Cathodic Polarization Curves It is the usual case in corrosion that two, or even more electrode reactions can take place simultaneously at an electrode site; for example the cathode and anode reactions will commonly occur in this way. In this case the anode and cathode current densities are alike and the electrode shows a mixed potential (Emix), which is equivalent to the point of intersection between the anodic and cathodic over-potential curves. Figure 7.28 refers.

Figure 7.28 Over-potential Curves For Two Electrode Reactions Occurring Simultaneously At An Electrode Site As stated earlier activation polarization is directly proportional to the current density. However, this is only true for low polarization values (>30 50 mV).
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 9 Above this level there is a linear relationship between activation polarization and the logarithm of the current density, which is given by the Tafel equation. = a + b log10 i Polarization curves are therefore drawn as a rule as a function of log10 so that straight lines are produced; such plots are often called Tafel lines. Later in these notes the monitoring of corrosion in a seawater environment will be discussed and reference will be made there to measuring both potential and current density 2. Environmental Factors Affecting Corrosion Rates As indicated in paragraph 5 the corrosion rate is predictable within certain parameters and corrosion engineers work this out when designing a protection system. There are however, environmental factors that effect the overall corrosion reaction and these will be indicated here. Specifically the factors considered will be: Temperature Water Flow Rate The pH of the Water 2.1. Temperature Most chemical reactions are speeded up by an increase in temperature. Thus temperature cycling and temperature differences will also have this effect. Hot risers, exhaust and cooling water dumps are all sites that can and do corrode more quickly than the remainder of typical offshore structures. Studies undertaken by the Dow Chemical Company showed that the corrosion rate of mild steel and a selected low alloy steel, in a standard brine solution at a pH of 7.4, approximately doubled as the temperature was increased from 180o F (82o C) to 250o F (121o C). Therefore, components like cooling water outlets and hot risers are particularly susceptible to corrosion and must be inspected regularly. The effect of seawater temperature is illustrated by the graph in Figure 7.29.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Factors Affecting Corrosion Rates

Figure 7.29 The Effect Of Temperature On Corrosion Of Steel In Seawater 2.2. Water Flow Rate In general if the flow rate is increased the rate at which metal is removed is also increased. If there is impingement of the flow on the metal or aeration takes place in the region of the surface, then a very much larger rate of metal removal is experienced locally. The pitting of ships propellers and pump and dredger impellers are general examples of this. Tests carried out by P Ffield show how the corrosion of steel pipes carrying seawater is effected in a straightforward way by increasing the velocity of the flow. Figure 7.30 illustrates his findings.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 9

Figure 7.30 Effect Of Seawater Velocity On Corrosion Of Steel At Ambient Temperature Exposed 38 Days 2.3. The pH Value Of The Water The corrosion rate of metals in directly affected by the pH value of the electrolyte. Steel for example corrodes least when in a solution that has a pH between 11 and 12. A resume of the pH system is laid out below. The resume starts by considering water, which is neutral. Water is a neutral molecule in which two atoms of hydrogen combine with one of oxygen, there is a limited amount of dissociation into hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions in the normal course of events and this can be noted in the form of an equilibrium thus: H2O H+ + OHThe Law of Mass Action can be applied to this equilibrium process and assuming the concentration of water in dilute solution is constant given Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) a new equation for water can be written thus: [H+] . [OH-] = constant (I) This constant has been measured experimentally as 10-14 (STP) and this value and the relationship equation form the basis of a scale of acidity. All acids have one common property that is the presence in aqueous solution of the hydrogen ion. The opposite of acid is alkali or basic, which means that acids are neutralised by alkalis and that alkalinity, is associated with hydroxyl ions. Water as indicated by the equilibrium equation represents a neutral substance as it contains both acid, (H+) and alkali (OH-) in equal quantities.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Factors Affecting Corrosion Rates The modern method of defining acidity is by means of a term called pH, which indicates the amount of hydrogen activity. It is measured on a scale of 0 to 14 and is defined thus: pH = -log [H+] (II) The term in square brackets is the concentration of hydrogen ions expressed as a molarity. As an example of how the pH system works take a solution with a concentration of 10-8 M if this is substituted into equation (II) it gives: pH = -log [10-8] = 8 Similarly a concentration of 10-2 yields a pH of 2. In pure water [H+] = [OH-] and this can be substituted into the equilibrium equation (I) to give: [H+] . [OH-] = 10-14 Substituting [H+] for [OH-] [H+] . [H+] =10-14 [H+]2 = 10-14 [H+] = 10-7 Hence the pH of pure water at STP is 7, which is the mid-point for the pH scale that is laid out below: -

Figure 7.31 pH Scale

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Bibliography Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon Corrosion For Students Of Science And Engineering K R Trethewey & J Chamberlain Longman Scientific & Technical

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 10

CHAPTER 10
Corrosion Protection
1. Corrosion Protection There are numerous methods for preventing corrosion including, coatings, inhibitors (controlling the electrolyte), selective design, anodic protection and cathodic protection. Before considering these methods a brief examination of the way in which the corrosion process is influenced by the two main variables; the electrode potential and the pH value will assist in understanding the various protection methods. These data are often presented in diagrammatic form known as Pourbaix diagrams. These diagrams are obtained from laboratory tests carried out under controlled conditions of constant temperature and no flow.

Figure 10.1 Pourbaix Diagram For Iron In Water It can be seen from Figure 10.1 that there are three distinct possible states of corrosion depending on electrode potentials and pH values: -

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion Protection Corrosion At intermediate electrode potentials and over a very wide range of pH values corrosion takes place and metal is removed Passivity At higher electrode potentials and over a wide range of pH values, there is a passivity region. This it the region in which a corrosion product film is formed, that in most cases is an oxide film. It is worth noting that the diagram only indicates that an oxide film is formed; it does not mean that the oxide film gives protection. The properties of the film must be known in order to determine this Immunity At low electrode potentials and over almost the whole of the pH range, the rate of corrosion is so low that the metal is said to be immune 2. Cathodic Protection Apart from the three stages indicated by Figure 10.1 it is also possible to determine basic strategies for preventing corrosion. Making the electrode potential more positive will produce passivation at point C Making the electrode potential more negative will produce immunity at point B Making the electrolyte more basic will produce passivation at point D Altering the electrical potential to produce passivation or immunity by the methods of cathodic or anodic protection is the most useful technique for offshore structures. This section considers cathodic protection and Figure 10.2, based on work in this field by LaQue shows the correlation between a corrosion rate/current density curve and a potential/current density curve.

Figure 10.2 Variation Of Cathodic Potential With Current Density For Steel In Seawater
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 10 In designing a Cathodic Protection system the system designer starts by determining an acceptable corrosion rate (r) this information is input to a graph such as Figure 10.1 to determine a value for current density (I). This level of current density will ensure the required corrosion rate is achieved. All that remains is to read off from the graph the value of the necessary potential to match this current (E). In this example the value is 850 mV (Ag/AgCl) and referring back to Figure 10.1 shows this to be in the immunity region of the Pourbaix diagram. From this example and the diagrams it would seem that potentials more negative that 850 mV (Ag/AgCl) would produce even less metal loss. There are two reasons why it is not prudent to use very much more negative potentials. At potentials much more negative than 1000 mV (Ag/AgCl) the possibility of hydrogen evolution exists and this can cause hydrogen embrittlement Secondly large currents are associated with more negative potentials that produce high local concentrations of hydroxyl ions that often damage barrier coating such as paint if it is present These last two points are more likely to occur with an electrical impressed current protection system but non-the-less are quite valid which makes the choice of 800 to 900 mV (Ag/AgCl) a valid design parameter in all cases for offshore platforms. 2.1. Cathodic Protection: The Sacrificial Anode Method With this method of corrosion prevention the entire structure is made into the cathode in a massive corrosion cell as indicated diagrammatically in Chapter 7, Figure 7.7. The structure will therefore not corrode but at the expense of the anode, which is sacrificed providing the electron flow and gives the process its name. Refer to Figure 10.3

Figure 10.3 Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion Protection The anode must be picked from the appropriate galvanic series. The most appropriate metals are zinc, aluminium and magnesium. Table 10.4 indicates some additional parameters for these anode materials. Sacrificial Anodes
Property Zinc Alloy (C-sentry) Composition (%) Al: 0.4 0.6 Cd: 0.075 0.125 Cu: <0.005 Fe: <0.0014 Pb: <0.15 Si: <0.125 Zn: remainder Aluminium Alloy (Galvalum 1) Al: remainder Cd: <0.02 Cu: <0.006 Fe: <0.1 Pb: <0.02 Si: 0.11 0.21 Zn: 0.3 0.5 Cu: 0.02 Fe: <0.03 Mg: remainder Mn: 0.5 1.3 Ni: 0.001 Pb: <0.01 Sn: <0.01 Zn: <0.01 Density Capacity Wastage (Weight) Wastage (Volume) Output Ecor (Ag/AgCl) 6.5 A m-2 -1050mV 6.5 A m-2 -1050mV 10.8 A m-2 -1700mV 1518 ml Ay-1 1180 ml Ay-1 2296 ml Ay-1 7060 kg m-3 780 Ah kg-1 10.7 kg Ay-1 2695 kg m-3 2640 Ah kg-1 3.2 kg Ay-1 1765 kg m-3 1232 Ah kg-1 4.1 kg Ay-1 Magnesium Alloy (Galvomag) Al: <0.01

Table 10.4 Some Properties Of Anode Metals This method of corrosion protection is almost as straightforward as that. The main question, which is implied by Table 10.4, is how much anode material will be required? This question has two parts: How large a surface area must the anodes protect? How long will the protection last?
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 10 To answer the first part of the question an example will be given: An uncoated steel offshore drilling platform has a sacrificial anode cathodic protection system installed designed to last for 10 years. What anode material should be used and how many anodes are required? Total wetted surface area of structure Current required for uncoated steel = 2500 m2 = 110 mA m-2

Zinc Anode output (Table 10.4) = 6.5 A m-2 Total current required = 2500 m2 x 110 mA m-2 = 275 A Anode surface area to supply 275A = 275 6.5 = 42.5 m2 given semi-cylindrical anodes of 0.063 m2 Minimum number required = 42.5 0.063 = 671 This number could not supply the required current for the period required because as the anodes depleted the volume would diminish. However, instead consider 2510 anodes as the required number of anodes. Still the current required is 275 A for 10 years = 275 x 10 = 2750 Ay Total output required from each anode = 2750 2510 = 1.10 Ay Take the approximate volume of 1 anode = 1.57 x 10-3 m3 From Table 10.4 volume wastage rate for zinc = 1.518 x 10-3 m-3 Ay-1 Hence 1.518 x 10-3 x 1.10 = 1.67 x 10-3 m3 Which is the total wastage of the zinc anodes after 10 years assuming regular wastage and uniform conditions Anode material should be zinc or aluminium, as magnesium would react to quickly Aluminium anodes will last longer but this example serves to illustrate the method for calculations To answer the second part of the question sacrificial anodes are partly evaluated by means of their capacity, which indicates the number of ampere-hours that can be supplied by each kilogram of material and for other parameters that are indicated in Table 10.4. This gives an indication of how long the anode will last when considered with the example given above. Reference has been made here to both current density and potential required to provide adequate protection and an illustration has been given. More detailed guidance is available for the corrosion engineer as for instance BS 7361-1: 1991 Cathodic protection, Code of practice for land and marine applications The British Standards Institution. A natural phenomenon does occur which assists in the protection of structures. Calcium, magnesium and other metal ions are present in sufficient quantities in seawater to react with the hydroxyl ions produced by the negative potential of the cathodic steel surface. The reaction precipitates insoluble calcium and magnesium salts, known as calcareous deposits.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion Protection These form a strongly adherent film that reduces the current requirement and may reduce environment-sensitive cracking. 3. Advantages And Disadvantages Of Sacrificial Anode Systems The advantages and disadvantages of sacrificial anode systems are summarised in Table 10.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Sacrificial Anode Systems Advantages No external electric power required No danger of overprotection No running costs Active from day of immersion A well proven and reliable method Table 10.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Sacrificial Anodes 4. Cathodic Protection: Impressed Current Method An Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) system works on the same principal as the sacrificial system in that the structure is made to be the cathode. However in the case of the ICCP system the necessary potential and current flow is provided by a DC generator rather than by a galvanic coupling. This system can be made to be self-adjusting by incorporating reference electrodes into the circuit that measure potential. The potential can vary depending on the circumstances; if the structure has a coating initially that in subsequent service becomes damaged this will increase the exposed surface area needing to be protected. The control unit can deal with this by increasing the current density. If on the other hand there were a reduction in the surface area; as for instance a calcareous deposit building up, there would be less surface area exposed and the current requirement would be less. In both cases the reference electrode provides the means of monitoring the potential, which varies proportionally according to the current. Figure 10.5 shows the system diagrammatically. Disadvantages Current output decreases with time Comparatively difficult to increase protection by retro-fitting anodes Initial costs are comparatively high Adds considerable weight and drag to the structure

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Figure 10.5 The Principle Of Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Using A Potentiostat The anode material is selected from the top of the galvanic series not the bottom. Materials such as titanium, platinised niobium and lead/silver alloys are used. The anode and supply cables are insulated from the structure to prevent any of the problems associated with over-protection. Noble metals, virtually non-consumable anodes, can be used in this system because in electrolytes of pH 7 or less the anode reaction is the oxidation of water, rather than metal dissolution: 2H2O O2 + 4H+ + 4eIn electrolytes of pH values greater than 7 (alkaline solutions) the reaction is the oxidation of hydroxyl ions: 4OH2ClO2 + 2H2O + 4eCl2 + 2eIn seawater the reaction is usually oxidation of chloride ions to chloride gas: Table 10.6 lists some properties of impressed current anode materials.

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Material Platinum Platinised Metals High Silicon Iron Steel Iron Cast Iron Lead-Platinum Lead-Silver Graphite

Consumption 8 x 10-6 0.25 1.0 6,8 9.1 Approx 9.5 4.5 6.8 0.09 0.09 0.1 1.0

Recommended Uses Marine environments and high purity liquids Potable waters and soil or carbonaceous backfill Marine environments and carbonaceous backfill Marine environments and carbonaceous backfill Marine environments and carbonaceous backfill Marine environments Marine environments Marine environments, potable water, and carbonaceous backfill

Table 10.6 Some Impressed Current Anode Materials And Their Properties (From Brand) 4.1. Practical Considerations For Installing ICCP Systems Anodes made from materials such as listed in Table 10.6 are capable of supplying high current densities and it would be possible to protect a structure with a few large anodes supplied with a high current. However, in practice anodes are usually distribute at regular intervals over the whole structure. This is because: The high current density that would be present in the immediate vicinity of a single anode could damage paint surfaces and possibly cause embrittlement as previously discussed. The use of more anodes reduces the current density for each one and reduces the probability of this type of damage Offshore structures have a reasonably complicated geometry that makes it difficult for corrosion engineers to predict the total distribution potentials. Therefore it is prudent to use more anodes, each one protecting a smaller area thus minimising the areas at risk of inadequate protection

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 10 When designing the system should the corrosion engineers have any doubts about protecting any particular area of the structure sacrificial anodes may be installed to work in conjunction with the ICCP system The ICCP system installed on the Claymore platform was designed to provide 160 mA m-2 utilising 55 platinum-iridium anodes and 12 reference electrodes. Also the Murchison platform uses 100 anodes and 50 reference electrodes. In general in the North Sea the most common anode materials are Platinum sheathed Titanium and Lead/Silver alloys. It is vitally important that the power supply is connected with correct polarity. The negative terminal must be connected to the structure and the positive terminal must be connected to the anode. Should these connections be reversed the structure would corrode catastrophically. Figures 10.7 and 10.8 refer.

Figure 10.7 Diagrammatic Layout Of An Impressed Current Cathodic Protection System

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Figure 10.8 Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Distribution Of Anodes And Dielectric Shield As indicated above the actual distribution of the anodes on any structure may be either: Platform Based Here numerous anodes are attached to the structure at intervals around it in similar fashion to sacrificial anodes but ensuring that they are insulated from the structure. Figure 10.8 refers. Two problems are associated with this method. One is the possibility of shadow areas where inadequate protection is provided. This problem can be solved by the use of sacrificial anodes complementing the ICCP system as indicated earlier. The second problem is the possibility of current flowing directly from the anode to the adjacent structure. This could cause embrittlement as discussed earlier and to avoid this dielectric shields are employed to insulate the structure electrically. Also the current is limited by design because each anode is positioned to provide adequate protection for the local area only. This limits as well the possibility of embrittlement and coating damage. See Figure 10.8 There is also a diver safety consideration in that these anodes are at about 80 V potential with some 1000A current. If divers are employed adjacent to any of the anodes they should be isolated from the system Remote From The Structure A number of anodes may be placed on the seabed at a designated distance from the structure. This method avoids the possibility of current flowing directly from the anode to the adjacent structure but there being fewer anodes the current density is higher and therefore there is still a possibility of coating damage and embrittlement. As discussed earlier design considerations generally favour more anodes distributed around the structure.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 10 There is a safety issue with divers but as the anodes are some distance away from the structure is may be possible to ensure safety by imposing a 12 m (40 ft) exclusion zone around the anode. See Figure 10.9

Figure 10.9 Diagram Of ICCP System With Anodes Remote From Structure 4.2. Reference or Control Electrodes These electrodes are commonly zinc, silver/silver-chloride (Ag/AgCl) or (SCC) or copper/copper-sulphate (CSE). CSE is favoured in applications with reinforced concrete. Reference or control electrodes are vital components of any ICCP system. They determine the current required from the power source, without these items the system cannot provide a quantifiable degree of protection. Figure 10.10 refers.

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Figure 10.10 Zinc Reference Electrode Installed On An Offshore Structure 5. Using Coatings To Protect The Structure Coatings form a barrier between the electrolyte and the surface of the protected structure. They may be paints, organic films, varnishes, metal coatings or enamels and even sheathing. It is surprising how effective coatings can be when consideration is given to the thickness of a typical paint coat. This may be only in the order of 25 to 100 microns thick for some applications. 5.1. Paints When paint is applied to a metal surface it presents a barrier to air, moisture and ions aggressive to the metal. However, paint cannot provide a complete barrier to oxygen or water. In time these will penetrate through to the surface of the metal. Any paint system used underwater must have a strong bond onto the metal surface and therefore high quality metal surface preparation is required such as SA 3. The bonding between successive coats must also be strong and the topcoats must provide as impervious a barrier to the electrolyte as is possible. This last is achieved by ensuring the constituents making up the topcoats have very low water absorption and transmission coefficients. Coal Tar Epoxides are used extensively on offshore structures. They consist of coal tar and epoxide resin for the binder. These coatings are highly impermeable to water and resistant to attack by most chemicals and hydroxyl ions (that are be produced by the cathodic reaction)
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 10 Zinc coatings utilising a combination of zinc dust and complex silicates with a solvent-based self-curing binder give good protection to steel surfaces. These coatings are frequently over-painted by another system and are used on components such as ladders in a marine environment Concrete is used to provide a protective coating to pipelines where it provides a passive environment for the steel pipe as well as adding weight. Metallic coatings such as galvanising, using zinc, impose a continuous barrier between the metal surface being protected and the surrounding environment. These coatings may be applied in a number of ways. Electroplating utilises a bath of salts as an electrolyte. The component and rods of the plating metal are immersed in the electrolyte and a potential is applied between the component and the rods. The component becomes the cathode and the rods the anode so metal ions of the plating material deposit from the solution onto the component Hot dipping involves the component being immersed in a bath of molten coating metal. Galvanising is accomplished by this method. See Figure 10.11

Figure 10.11 Galvanising Spray coats utilise a specialised torch that is fed with wires of the coating metal that are melted and blown out by it. The molten metal is expressed in the form of droplets travelling at 100 to 150 m s-1 that flatten and adhere on impact with the component Cladding uses metal skins laminated onto the component. The skin can be applied by Rolling Explosive welding
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion Protection Buttering (building up a welded coat on the surface to be protected) Sheathing o Aluminium roll-bonded to duralumin is marketed as Alcad. Some offshore risers are sheathed with monel (cupronickel) See Figure 10.12

Figure 10.12 Monel Cladding On An Offshore Riser Diffusion requires the component to be heated to just below the melting point of the coating metal in the presence of the coating in powder form and in an inert atmosphere. The component is allowed to baste for several hours and the coating diffuses into the surface of the component. 6. Inhibitors (Controlling The Electrolyte) Remember the Pourbaix diagram indicates three methods for preventing corrosion: Making the electrode more positive Making the electrode more negative Changing the electrolyte pH This section will outline methods for changing the electrolyte. Also remember there are four processes in metal corrosion: The anodic reaction
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 10 The cathodic reaction Ionic conduction through the electrolyte Electron conduction through the metal Only the first three are affected by the electrolyte, electron conduction through the metal is not considered here. The properties of the electrolyte that can be affected by using inhibitors are: The conductivity of the electrolyte The pH of the electrolyte The interaction of the electrolyte with the metal surface, attacking or strengthening passive films As an example of how this can be achieved consider steel in seawater. If distilled water is substituted for the seawater the conductivity and pH of the electrolyte is reduced and a passive film will form on the surface of the steel. 6.1. Anodic Inhibitors Anodic inhibitors increase the polarisation of the anode by reaction with the ions of the corroding metals to produce either thin passive films or salts of limited solubility that coat the anode. See Figure 10.13

Figure 10.13 Anodic Inhibitor 6.2. Cathodic Inhibitors Cathodic inhibitors affect both normal reactions In one effect the inhibitor reacts with hydroxyl ions to precipitate insoluble compounds on the cathodic site thus blanketing the cathode from the electrolyte and preventing access of oxygen to the site. In the other reaction increasing the polarisation of the system controls the evolution of hydrogen. This forms a layer of adsorbed hydrogen on the surface of the cathode. This type of inhibitor may allow
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion Protection hydrogen atoms to diffuse into steel and cause hydrogen embrittlement 6.3. Adsorption Inhibitors Adsorption inhibitors interrupt the ion flow from the metal surface by forming long organic molecules with side chains that are adsorbed and desorbed from the metal surface. These bulky molecules can limit the diffusion of oxygen to the surface, or trap the metal ions on the surface, stabilise the double layer and reduce the rate of dissolution In general anodic inhibitors are more efficient than cathodic ones. 7. Corrosion Protection By Design This aspect of corrosion protection has been indicated earlier in this chapter. The methods employed to protect structures from corrosion can be summarised thus: Avoid all unnecessary bimetallic corrosion cells Avoid differential-aeration cells (crevices, debris traps, inadequate drainage, etc.) Avoid stray currents from electrical machinery or conductors Choose the material with the best properties for the environment 8. Anodic Protection In this method of corrosion protection a potential is applied to the anode that maintains it in the passive range of the Pourbaix diagram. This allows the formation of a passive film that is robust enough to provide a barrier to the normal corrosion process. However, this film is unreliable for steel in aqueous solutions and therefore is not used on offshore structures. Aluminium does form such a film naturally and some types of aluminium can benefit from this because the passive layer is sufficiently robust to be relied upon.

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Bibliography Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon Corrosion For Students Of Science And Engineering K R Trethewey & J Chamberlain Longman Scientific & Technical

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 11

CHAPTER 11
Corrosion Protection Monitoring
1. Monitoring Corrosion Protection It has been indicated several times during this discussion on corrosion that there are variables presented in-service that cannot be adequately predicted. Therefore a monitoring regime is necessary to ensure that the designed corrosion protection system is operating to its design specifications and that there are no in-service effects interfering with this. The amount of current from sacrificial anodes or from an impressed current system required for protection varies: From metal to metal With the geometry of the structure With differences in sea water environment (temperature, pH value etc.) With any other factors that affects the resistance of the circuit Since the amount for current required for protection of any structure cannot be accurately predicted or distributed evenly through the structure, the method of checking for adequate protection is to measure the potential and current density of the structure at various places. 2. Inspection Requirements Monitoring or inspection requirements for corrosion protection systems are therefore as follows: Visual inspections of the anode (both sacrificial and impressed current nodes) for wear Visual inspection of electrical connections of the sacrificial system to see that it is intact and of the impressed current system to ensure that there are no breaks in the insulation of the supply cables Potential measurements on the structure to confirm that it is still the cathode by confirming the readings obtained are in the immunity range of the Pourbaix diagram Current density measurements to confirm that the impressed current system is providing adequate protection Visual and ultrasonic inspection for corrosion damage including pitting and loss of wall thickness The specific visual inspection requirements are detailed in Chapter 12 Visual inspection. The ultrasonic requirements are covered in Chapter 14 The potential measurements, usually referred to as Cathode Potential (CP) readings are obtained by: Taking contact readings with a CP meter
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion Protection Monitoring o By hand employing a diver with a hand-held instrument o By mounting a contact probe on an ROV Taking proximity readings with a proximity probe mounted on an ROV Monitoring proximity readings via remotely mounted permanent sensors with readout in a surface control room Current density measurements and monitoring are obtained by: Taking current density readings normally with an ROV mounted sensor and usually for a specific requirement. This method is not used for regular inspections Monitoring potential and current through remotely mounted electrodes incorporated into the impressed current system 3. Cathode Potential Measurement The cathode potential is measured by using a reference electrode incorporated into an instrument that has a readout calibrated in mV. As stated in the previous Chapter these electrodes are commonly: High purity zinc Silver/silver-chloride (Ag/AgCl) or (SCC) or Copper/copper-sulphate (CSE) (this is more favoured for concrete structures) 3.1. High Purity Zinc Electrodes (ZRE) High purity zinc (99.9% pure) is most commonly used with remote mounted monitoring systems as shown in Chapter 10 Figure 10.10. The site for mounting the electrode is selected because it is, a representative site, it is an area of marginal protection, it is an area of high stress and it is installed as part of the impressed current system. The electrode is connected to a meter in the surface control room. See Figure 11.1

Figure 11.1 High Purity Zinc Electrode (ZRE)


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 11 The most common reference electrode used in offshore corrosion monitoring is Silver/silver chloride. This electrode is used extensively for both contact and proximity applications whether diver or ROV deployed. 3.2. CP Readings Utilising Silver/silver-chloride (Ag/AgCl) Electrodes Ag/AgCl electrodes, most frequently referred to as half-cells (because they form a cell when the meter is connected to the cathode) are utilised in several contact CP probes, including the Bathycorrometer, the Morgan Berkeley Rustreader, that are hand held, and ROV probes. They are commonly used as proximity probes also. The probe contact tip is placed on the cathode and the meter gives the readout in mV of the electrical potential between it and the half-cell. Figure 11.2 refers for a hand-held meter. Figure 11.3 illustrates an ROV contact probe and Figure 11.4 diagrammatically shows the proximity method. When taking proximity CP readings it is vital that a sound electrical connection is made between the structure and the positive terminal of the surface control room installed meter, as indicated in Figure 11.4

Figure 11.2 Diver-held CP Meter (Bathycorrometer or similar)

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Figure 11.3 Contact CP Reading Taken By An ROV

Figure 11.4 Proximity CP Measurement 4. Current Density Measurements Current density may be measured using a specialised probe and may be conducted by either a diver or, more usually an ROV. This type of inspection would be undertaken for a specific purpose such as investigating a particular area of the structure that was suspected of being under-protected or following up a visual inspection that had identified more corrosion than was anticipated. Specific procedures will be provided for this type of survey.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 11 As stated earlier impressed current systems may have reference electrodes installed to monitor current flow and potential. Figure 10.10 shows a ZRE monitoring potential and Figure 11.5 illustrates a monitored anode. A monitored anode is a sacrificial anode that is isolated electrically from the structure and is connected via an insulated cable to the surface control room. Thus the current can be constantly monitored.

Figure 11.5 Monitored Electrode 5. Calibration Procedures For Hand-held CP Meters It is necessary to calibrate CP meters to ensure that the readings obtained are accurate and comparable with other and previous readings. A standard method of calibration has been adopted in the offshore industry for this purpose that is detailed here. 5.1. Necessary Equipment Three Calomel Electrodes complete with electrical connectors, or three screw-on calomel cells for hand-held CP meters (these are available for the Bathycorrometer and can be provided with screw in electrical connectors,
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion Protection Monitoring which should be specified. The electric connector is provided so that the cells can be proven as described below.) High impedance (10 ) voltmeter Zinc (99.9% pure) block with clamp and electrical connector Plastic bucket filled with fresh seawater (not from fire main which contains inhibitors) Log sheets 5.1.1. Procedure The first part of the procedure proves that the calomel cells are chemically saturated and sufficiently stable enough to be used as reference cells. 5.1.1.1. Proving The Calomel Cells There are different types of cells available. One type is specifically designed for use with a Bathycorrometer. This type has a solid polymer body protecting the calomel cell. The procedure outlined below also applies to this type of cell, however it is not possible to visually confirm they are fully saturated with solution. They are sealed, and provided there is no damage to the casing they should remain saturated. Visually inspect the electrodes to ensure they are undamaged and full of solution. The solution is potassium chloride (K Cl) and if the solution is saturated or supersaturated solid crystals may be seen in the phial. (Commonly the phials are glass or clear plastic) Label the electrodes 1,2 and 3 Soak the electrodes in the bucket for 24 hours, being careful to immerse each one only as far as the filling hole in the phial While the electrodes continue to soak connect electrode 1 to the negative terminal of the voltmeter and electrode 2 to the positive terminal and record the reading Repeat the test with each permutation of electrodes 1 and 3 2 and 3 Acceptable readings between any pair of electrodes is 2 mv If all the readings are within this range any electrode may be used If one reading is out of this range the electrode not in that pair is the one to use If one reading is in range either of the electrodes in that pair can be used If all of the readings are out the pair giving the least reading may be used (with clients acceptance) Rinse the electrodes in fresh water. Figure 11.6 refers.

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Figure 11.6 Proving Calomel Reference Cells The second part of the procedure confirms the calibration of the CP meter. 5.1.1.2. Calibration Of The Meter The calibration procedure for a contact CP meter is basically the same whether it is diver hand-held or ROV deployed. 5.1.1.2.1. Calibration Of A Bathycorrometer There is slight difference in the application if the meter is a Bathycorrometer being calibrated with the specifically designed screw-on cells. In this case the following procedure applies. Fully charge the CP meter batteries and soak in fresh seawater (not drawn from the fire main) Remove the contact probe tip from the meter Screw the calomel reference electrode onto the Bathycorrometer instead of the tip Immerse the meter in the bucket at least far enough to submerge the semi-permeable membrane. (The meter display may be left out of the water to assist taking readings.) Allow time for the meter to stabilise (approximately 10 minutes maximum) The voltage potential between the reference electrode and the meters own Ag/AgCl cell is read off the meter display directly.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion Protection Monitoring Record the reading on the log Acceptable readings are between 0 to -10 mV. (The reading will be negative as the Ag/AgCl cell built into the hand-held meter is connected to the positive terminal of the meter). The calibration of other types of contact CP meters is essentially the same as for ROV deployed meters and the procedure is outlined under paragraph 5.2 below. 6. Overall Calibration of ROV Deployed CP Meters It is common for CP readings to be displayed on the ROV monitor in the control room in real-time. This display is electronically displayed via an analogue to digital converter. This circuitry must be calibrated before use as will as the electrode. This is simply accomplished by applying a known voltage to the input for the display. If there is any discrepancy in the display is can either be adjusted electronically or a calibration curve may be prepared. The calibration of the contact meter is detailed below. 6.1. Calibration Of An ROV Deployed Contact CP Meter Select the proven calomel electrode and immerse the tip for 30 minutes into a plastic bucket on deck Take the zinc block, attach the clamp and electric wire and place the block into the same bucket Connect the calomel electrode to the negative terminal of a high resistance voltmeter via the electric cable attached to the electrode Connect the zinc block to the positive terminal of the voltmeter via its electric connector. (Immerse only the zinc, not the clamp or connector) Take a reading from the voltmeter. Acceptable readings are 1.00 V 5 mV. Record the reading on the log Remove the zinc block and disconnect it from the clamp Soak the CP probe assembly in a bucket of fresh seawater for 30 minutes Place the zinc block into the same bucket as the probe and make submerged contact between the probe tip and the zinc. Take a reading from the ROV system in the control room on the calibrated video display. This reading should be the same as that recorded from the calomel 10 mV Record the reading on the log Remove the zinc and calomel cells from the seawater, wash in fresh water, dry and store. This procedure may be adopted for hand held meters also as indicted previously. 6.2. Calibration Of Ag/AgCl Proximity Probes Before initiating this procedure ensure that the insulation on the conductors for the proximity cell is intact. This may be achieved by using an insulation
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 11 test meter. The cable must be properly insulated to avoid any possibility of the copper conductor being exposed to seawater and affecting the readings. Select a proven calomel cell and immerse the tip in a bucket of fresh seawater for 30 minutes Immerse the Ag/AgCl probe in the same bucket for the same time Connect the negative terminal of the high resistance voltmeter to the Ag/AgCl half-cell Connect the positive terminal of the voltmeter to the calomel electrode Take the reading. Acceptable readings are 0 10 mV Remove the calomel electrode and immerse the zinc block (only) positioned 100 mm from the Ag/AgCl half-cell. The zinc block is connected to the positive terminal of the meter system via the clamp and electrical connection Take the reading. Acceptable readings are 1.00 V 5 mV The procedure for calibrating an ROV proximity probe applies to a hand-held probe. 7. Operating Procedures To ensure that accuracy is maintained and that repeatable results are obtained CP monitoring methods should follow a procedure as follows. Ensure any self-contained meters are fully charged and maintain a batterycharging log. (Usual requirements for battery-operated equipment is 14 to 16 hours from fully discharged) Ensure the probe tip for contact meters is sharp (hand-held meters are usually supplied with spare tips) Soak meters and half-cells for a minimum of 30 minutes before use. (This allows time for ion penetration through the semi-permeable membranes.) Confirm the calibration of the system in use according to the appropriate calibration procedure. Record the results on the appropriate log sheet Record meter serial number and any other specified details on the appropriate log sheet Take a reference reading on zinc on the inspection site prior to starting the survey For each contact reading ensure that there is correct metal-to-metal contact between the probe tip and the cathode surface. With proximity probe surveys ensure there is a solid electrical connection to the structure connected to the positive terminal of the surface instrument For proximity probe readings ensure the standoff between the probe and the cathode is correct

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Corrosion Protection Monitoring During the course of the survey ensure that each reading is correctly recorded on the appropriate log On completion of the survey take another reference reading on zinc Recover the equipment, wash in fresh water, dry and store. Charge any batteryoperated equipment as necessary and complete the battery-charging log Notes: Morgan-Berkley meters can be left soaking in a solution of silver chloride, on trickle charge continuously if required If a large number of readings are being taken it is prudent to take check readings periodically during the survey 8. Normal Cathode Potential Readings Against Ag/AgCl Following are the normal range of readings expected during a survey of a steel structure Over-protected structure Zinc Protected Steel Unprotected Steel Calomel (K Cl) >-1.10 V (>-1100 mV) -1.00 to 1.05 V (-1000 to 1050 mV) < -0.80 V (<-800 mV) -0.45 to 0.65 V (-450 to 650 mV) 0 to 0.01 V (0 to 10 mV)

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Bibliography Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon Corrosion For Students Of Science And Engineering K R Trethewey & J Chamberlain Longman Scientific & Technical

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 12

CHAPTER 12
Welding And Welding Defects
1. Joining Metal Components In considering joining, forming or shaping metal components there are four ways in which they can be formed into shape. By machining, when the material is cut away; by casting, where the metal is moulded to shape in the first place; by forging, where the material is worked into shape; and by fabricating, where the component is built up a bit at a time from different parts. The components that are inspected underwater are almost all formed by fabrication. This being the case, a closer look at this process is in order. Fabrication can be accomplished by mechanical fastenings, for example bolting or riveting components together; by welding, where parts are joined together by metallurgical bond; by brazing, where a metal of a different composition from the pieces to be joined is melted between them to solidify and thus make a bond (a stronger version of soldering); or by adhesive bonding, where parts are glued together. The most important technique for consideration here is welding. 2. Fabricating Offshore Structures Steel fabricated structures are used extensively offshore as has been indicated in previous chapters. In fabricating the structures the designers choose to use welding as the prime means of joining the various parts together. However, it is extremely difficult indeed to guarantee that any particular weld is free from all faults and because of this welds are constantly inspected to ensure they are not about to fail. The knowledge of how the welding was achieved in the first place is of great assistance when inspecting welded joints because all techniques have certain faults that are common to that technique. It is therefore important to have some knowledge of the main types of welding. 2.1. Welding Processes Currently there are more than thirty-five different welding processes used in industry. These different welding processes can be classified into seven major groups. All processes within each group have similar characteristics and thus similar effects on the parent metals. The seven groups are: Solid phase welding Thermo-chemical welding Electric-resistance Welding Unshielded arc welding Radiant energy welding Flux-shielded arc welding Gas-shielded arc welding

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Welding and Welding Defects 2.1.1. Solid Phase Welding These processes bring the two sides of a joint into intimate atomic contact by mechanical pressure or atomic diffusion or a combination of both. With this type of welding, as its name suggests, the materials to be joined do not melt. The oldest form of welding of this type is the blacksmiths weld, where the two pieces of metal to be joined were heated and hammered together on an anvil until the metals joined. Often known as hammer welding, chains used to be made in this way. Modern examples of this type of welding are: Cold pressure welding This is used with ductile metals such as copper. The joint is made by mechanical pressure at room temperature Hot pressure welding This is where heat is used to make metals ductile. The process is then similar to cold pressure welding Explosive welding This impacts the parts together; it also causes local distortion and heat Friction welding The two pieces are rubbed together generating heat and also local distortion

Figure 12.1 Friction Welding Diffusion welding This is where high temperatures are created for a sufficient time to allow atomic diffusion across the joint 2.1.2. Thermo-chemical Welding A gas flame generates sufficient heat to fuse the joint. Alternatively, an exothermic reaction can be used, whereby super-heated molten metal is produced. This is then poured into the joint. For example:
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 12 Gas Welding Here a mixture of gases (usually acetylene and oxygen) is burnt in a torch to provide a high temperature flame; filler metal is added as necessary Thermic Welding A mixture of iron oxide and aluminium is ignited in a ladle to produce molten iron and alumina slag; the work pieces are preheated and surrounded by a mould into which the molten iron is cast. (Railway tracks are welded this way) 2.1.3. Electric-resistance Welding This is the process whereby heat is produced by passing an electric current across the faces of a joint. For example: Spot-welding This is mainly used on sheet metal. The parts are pressed together by electrodes and the pressure point provides the path for low-voltage high current electricity. This causes resistance heating at the point and results in a spot weld

Figure 12.2 Spot Welding Seam Welding The parts to be welded are run through a pair of wheels; these replace the electrodes, but have the same effect 2.1.4. Unshielded Arc Welding This type of welding produces an arc for only a very short period of time and the contamination of the weld by the air is either accepted or rectified later. For example: Stud Welding Many different techniques are used here including the fusible collar method, which involves the use of round studs. The stud and collar are held against the work and a current is passed through; the collar collapses, allowing the stud to drop into a molten pool

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Figure 12.3 Stud Welding 2.1.5. Radiant Energy Welding In this process the work and usually the heat source are in a vacuum. The usual heat source is a stream of electrons and this type of welding produces a deep, very narrow weld. For example: Electron Beam Welding A high-energy beam of electrons is focused onto the work piece. This beam is powerful enough to vaporise a hole through the material and the keyhole thus formed is carried forward with the work. The major disadvantages are that the work must be in a vacuum and the cost of the necessary plant is very high Laser Welding This process has only recently become available. It works in a similar fashion to electron beam welding, but does not require a vacuum. This process is highly specialised From the point of view of offshore structures and underwater inspection, the following welding processes are the most widely used 2.1.6. Flux Shielded Arc Welding This is the most widely used of all the welding processes. An arc is formed between a consumable electrode and the work, the heat thus formed melts and fuses the joint together. The electrode provides the filler metal and the flux is used to prevent contamination. For example: Manual Metal Arc (MMA) Welding This is the most widely used technique. In this process, heat to melt the work piece is supplied by an
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 12 electric arc; the electrode is covered by flux and melts down forming small drops, which are transferred to the weld pool; the flux forms molten slag that protects the weld together with protective gases formed at the same time

Figure 12.4 Manual Metal Arc Welding Common faults associated with MMA are: Overlap Porosity Slag inclusion Excessive spatter Lack of fusion Crater cracks Arc strike Incomplete penetration Undercut Excessive penetration Submerged Arc Welding This method applies the flux separately in the form of a powder. The electrode is a continuous wire and is fed automatically. The arc and weld pool are totally submerged under the flux powder

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Figure 12.5 Submerged Arc Welding Common faults associated with this method are: Lack of fusion Porosity Weld profile anomalies Excessive penetration Incomplete penetration Slag inclusion Undercut 2.1.7. Gas Shielded Arc Welding This method generates heat by an arc and the weld pool and arc are both shielded by with an inert gas. The gas can be argon of helium, which is common with the Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) process, or the gas may have carbon dioxide or oxygen added, as with Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding. For example: Metal Inert Gas or Metal Active Gas In this process an arc is maintained between the end of a continuously fed thin wire electrode and the work piece. The electric current is passed into the wire through a copper contact tip near the end of the gun. The arc melts the wire and the base metal and this molten and cooling metal is protected from the atmosphere by a gas shield directed from a nozzle concentric with the wire.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 12 With the MIG process the gas shield is argon or helium or a mixture of these inert gases and the process is widely used to weld, light alloys, nickel and aluminium. With the MAG process, which is more frequently used in steel, the gas shield is a mixture of Argon, CO2 and O2. Wire is usually of the solid type but fluxed core wires are used when better metallurgical properties are required in the joint. See Figure 12.6.

Figure 12.6 Metal Inert Gas Welding Common faults associated with MIG are: Porosity Excessive spatter Lack of fusion Incomplete penetration Excess penetration Cracking Arc strike Undercut Tungsten Inert Gas In this process the arc is struck between a non-consumable tungsten electrode and the weld. The high melting point of tungsten ensures that no tungsten is melted into the weld pool. Filler metal in the form of a solid wire is added separately into the weld pool as required. A gas shield issuing from a nozzle concentric with the tungsten electrode shields the tungsten filler rod, the arc and the weld metal from the atmosphere. The
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Welding and Welding Defects gas shield is normally pure argon but helium or argon mixtures may be used for specialist applications.

Figure 12.7 Tungsten Inert Gas Common faults associated with TIG are: Excessive penetration Arc Strike Burn though Porosity Lack of fusion Tungsten inclusion Incomplete penetration Undercut Oxide inclusions 3. Types of Welded Joint There are approximately 110 different welded joint variations; however the vast majority of these are not seen in the construction of offshore structures. Therefore it is only necessary to have knowledge of only five types of joint. 3.1. The Butt Joint The two components that make up this joint are fitted together end to end at an angle of between 135o and 180o. This joint is used to join pipe sections end to end, welding plates together and numerous other applications. See Figure 12.8.

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Figure 12.8 Butt Joint 3.2. T Joint The two components are fitted together at an angle of 5o to 90o. This configuration is found on offshore jackets at nodes and in numerous other areas. See Figure 12.9.

Figure 12.9 T Joint 3.3. Lap Joint The two components are fitted one on top of the other. The angle between them is 0o to 5o. See Figure 12.10.

Figure 12.10 Lap Joint 3.4. Corner Joint The two components are connected at the ends to make a joint at an angle between 30o and 135o. See Figure 12.11

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Figure 12.11 Corner Joint 3.5. Cruciform Joint A joint made by welding two components to a third at right angles, on the same axis, on opposite sides of the third component to form the shape of a cross. See Figure 12.12.

Figure 12.12 Cruciform Joint 4. Types of Weld The two types of weld most frequently inspected on offshore structures are the butt and the fillet. A butt weld is defined as: -

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 12 A tension resisting weld in which the bulk of the weld metal is contained within the planes of thickness of the joined parent metals. A fillet weld is defined as: The bulk of a fillet weld is contained outside the parent metal planes or thickness. The fillet weld has less strength than the butt weld. See Figure 12.13

Figure 12.13 Types of Weld Butt and Fillet Welds As fillet welds are not used for structural joints that must withstand high stresses the butt weld will be the type of weld most frequently inspected offshore. All nodes including any Safety Critical Nodes on the structure will be constructed with butt welds. 5. Welding Metallurgy The welding processes outlined in paragraph 2 and the types of joint and types of weld specified in paragraphs 3 and 4 are all designed for the purpose of fixing components together safely for the entire duration of the design life of the structure. In order that this prime aim may be achieved the mechanism by which welding takes place must be understood. The prime factor in welding is temperature. The various welding processes, types of weld and types of joint are all designed so that the heat generated during the welding process can be dissipated uniformly as the molten metal cools once the weld metal is deposited. To form an appreciation of how this occurs consider Figure 12.14.
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Figure 12.14 Temperature Variation in a Butt Weld At point 1 within the molten weld pool, the temperature will be above the melting point of the filler rod metal. The welding current and technique of the welder determine this temperature. The main heat flow away from the weld pool will be along the parent plate. Between point 1 and 2, the temperature must raise above the parent metal melting temperature so that fusion (i.e. melting the parent plate and mixing with the weld pool metal) occurs. This region (between point 1 and 2) is known as the fusion zone and can be readily seen if a sample of the weld is sectioned, polished and etched. The temperature then reduces from point 2 to 3, which is a region of the parent metal that has sufficient heat input to cause grain structure modification, known as the heat affected zone (HAZ). HAZ One of the means of making a material softer (often called annealing) is to heat it up and allow it to cool slowly. A common example of this is copper pipes for domestic water systems that are softened in this way in order to bend them to required shapes. To achieve this softening effect a material has to be heated above its re-crystallisation temperature (Trecry). Above this temperature, grains in the material will reform and grow. In the diagram of the weld, Figure 12.14, this temperature is reached at point 3 so that the material between point 2 and 3 that has been raised above the recrystallisation temperature will be liable to a change of properties. This region can also be seen on a polished and etched sample of the weld.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 12 The temperature continues to fall between point 3 and 4, which is ambient temperature. Figure 12.14 only shows what is happening along the line AA; but of course this happens throughout the section. This then, leads to the different regions of the weld as shown in Figure 12.15 below and is a graphic indication of the way temperature gradients have to be managed in any weld.

Figure 12.15 Weld Regions or Zones This temperature management is as important for cooling as it is for heat energy input into the weld. The cooling rate must be as controlled as the heat flow during the actual welding. In general, fast cooling rates (often referred to as quenching) make the material harder. In steel, this comes about by the formation of a structure known as martinsite. Martinsitic steel has a grain structure arranged in a regular lattice, which makes the steel hard and less tough (i.e. less able to withstand crack propagation). Note that if the cooling rate is not properly controlled and the material is allowed to quench it has the opposite effect to annealing outlined above. 5.1. Further Considerations for Weld Control While heat input and cooling rate control may be of paramount importance to the finished quality of a weld there are several other factors that must also be considered. Defects, for example porosity, often arise in welds due to gas penetrating the weld pool protection. Gases that are likely to be present in the weld are hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. These are derived from the atmosphere, water, hydrocarbons (usually in the form of grease and oil) and other oxides present in the vicinity of the weld because of a lack of care in preparation to see that the weld area is clean and dry. These products get into the arc and provide a supply of gas that can be dissolved in the liquid metal of the weld pool. On cooling, the solubility of the dissolved gas in metal reduces and the gas comes out of solution to form bubbles trapped in the weld metal; or sometimes the gas diffuses into the parent metal. Hydrogen diffusing into the HAZ will cause hydrogen embrittlement, which may lead to cracking. The different temperatures in the regions around the weld will cause differential expansion. On cooling, if cracking does not immediately occur in the weld or in the HAZ, the material is put under a permanent stress, unless
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Welding and Welding Defects a stress relieving procedure is specified. This state of stress is referred to as a residual stress, so that the normal working stress in imposed on top of and added to this residual stress, thus giving an in-service stress that is higher that the normal design working stress. The effect of residual stresses will be at the very least that the fatigue life is shortened. At the moment, there is no way that these residual stresses can be measured during the course of a routine inspection. (ACFM may be developed for this purpose). 6. Welding Terms There are a number of standard, defined, welding terms and also symbols that are used internationally to define different parts or elements of welds. These terms and symbols are defined in several international standards. BS EN 24063:1992, ISO 4063:1990: Welding, brazing, soldering and braze welding of metals. Nomenclature of processes and reference numbers for symbolic representation on drawings BS EN 22553:1995: Welded, brazed and soldered joints. Symbolic representation on drawings BS EN ISO 5817:2003: Welding. Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded). Quality levels for imperfections BS EN 13622:2002: Gas welding equipment. Terminology. Terms used for gas welding equipment BS 499-1:1991: Welding terms and symbols. Glossary for welding, brazing and thermal cutting
(This standard has the status of being current, partially replaced by BS EN 13622:2002)

A list of extracts from these standards that may apply to in-service inspection is compiled below. 6.1. Plate Preparation Terms Double V butt weld a butt weld in which the prepared faces will form two opposing Vs in section, welded from both sides

Included angle of a butt weld the angle between the prepared faces Included angle of a fillet weld the angle between the parent plates Parent plate Prepared angle, weld prep Prepared face Root gap Root face the metals that are to be joined by the weld the angle of bevel between the prepared face and the perpendicular the bevelled portion of the parent plate prior to welding separation between the parent plates to be joined the un-bevelled portion of the parent plate adjacent to the root gap
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 12 Single bevel butt weld Single V butt weld a butt weld that has only one prepared face, welded from one side only a butt weld in which the prepared faces will form a V in section, welded from one side only

Figure 12.16 refers

Figure 12.16 Standard Weld Terms for Plate Preparation 6.2. Terms Defining Weld Features Cap, Face of the weld Excess weld metal Toe of the weld Root Weld zone Heat affected zone (HAZ) the visible face of the completed weld the weld metal lying outside the line joining the weld toes the junction between the cap and the parent plate the point where the back of the weld intersects the back face of the parent plate the area containing the weld and both heat affected zones The part of the parent plate that has been affected by heat from the welding process but which has not melted the total thickness of the weld metal

Throat thickness

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Welding and Welding Defects Effective throat thickness (design throat thickness) Weld width Toe blend Leg (of a fillet weld) Figure 12.17 refers

weld thickness for design purposes, usually a line between both toes and the root the shortest distance between the toes of the weld the transition between the weld material and the parent plate the distance from the root of the weld to the toe of the weld

Figure 12.17 Weld Feature Terminology 6.3. Welding Process Terminology Filler rod Filler bead Run or pass Weldment Fusion zone the filler metal for a weld in the form of a rod 440 mm long used in MMA welding when the weld is made up of more than one pass of a filler rod the successive passes are called filler beads the weld metal laid down in a single pass from a filler rod an alternative term to describe the weld zone the edge of the parent plate along the prepared face and the root face along which the weld metal fuses with the parent plate
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 12 Root bead weld bead laid into the root that protrudes beyond the back wall of the parent plate

Figure 12.18 refers

Figure 12.18 Weld Process Terminology 6.4. Welded Nodes and Nozzles Underwater in-service inspection of offshore oil platforms is almost exclusively on pipe work and will involve inspection of pipe joints. These will usually be nodes or nozzles. Node a node is a T or cruciform joint between two pipes that only has preparation on the minor member, a single bevel weld. The minor tubular is called the brace and it is this member that has the preparation. The major tubular is known as the chord. In joints where both members are the same size the through tubular is the chord. Both tubular members have preparation, which also means that the chord has a hole to match the brace. This is a full penetration butt-welded joint. This type of joint is commonly found in pipelines and where fluid flow is required.

Nozzle

Figure 12.19 refers.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Welding and Welding Defects

Figure 12.19 Nodes and Nozzles 7. Weld Defect Terminology An inspector must be capable of not only recognising a fault in a weld but subsequently be able to describe this fault accurately. In common with welding terminology this aspect of welding also has internationally agreed and defined terms. In this case the International Institute of Welding (IIW) and BS EN ISO 5817:2003 apply. In the same way that welding terms are defined in this standard weld defect terminology is also defined. The different types of defect are listed in 6 categories. Cracks Cavities Solid inclusions Lack of fusion and penetration Imperfect shape Miscellaneous Only a certain number of these standard terms apply to defects that may be found on the surface of the weld accessible to the underwater inspector but knowledge of a representative sample of standard terms from all categories will
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 12 assist any inspector when reporting findings and conversing with other engineers. 7.1. Cracks These are linear discontinuities produced by fracture, cracks may be; Longitudinal Transverse Edge Creature Centreline Fusion zone Weld metal Parent metal Figure 12.20 and 12.21 refer.

Figure 12.20 Cracks

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Figure 12.21 HAZ Cracking 7.2. Cavities There are a number of flaws that are covered by this category. Porosity Elongated cavities Shrinkage cavity Wormhole gas pores that may be located in different locations a string of gas pores parallel to the weld axis a cavity cause by shrinkage of the weld metal while it is in a plastic state an elongated or tubular cavity formed by gas trapped during the solidification process, this may have a herringbone appearance on a radiograph a depression caused by shrinkage at the end of a run if the heat is removed quickly a hole in the centre of a crater again caused by shrinkage

Crater Crater pipe See Figure 12.22

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 12

Figure 12.22 Cavities 7.3. Solid Inclusions These are volumetric defects that are caused by solids trapped in the weld pool before it solidifies. Inclusion slag or other foreign matter trapped during welding, this has a more irregular shape than a gas pore metallic oxide trapped during welding tungsten inclusion from the tungsten electrode used in TIG welding copper inclusion from the nozzle in MIG, MAG or submerged arc welding caused by poor welder control oxide covering on the weld or bead that has irregular surfaces and a deeply entrained oxide film, which may occur when materials that form refractory oxides are welded

Oxide inclusion Tungsten inclusion Copper inclusion

Puckering

See Figure 12.23

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Figure 12.23 Slag Inclusions 7.4. Lack of Fusion and Penetration Lack of fusion the weld metal has not bonded, this can be either

Between weld metal and weld metal (lack of inter-run fusion) Between weld metal and parent metal (lack of sidewall fusion) Lack of sidewall fusion Lack of root fusion Lack of inter-run fusion Incomplete root penetration Figure 12.24 refers no union between the weld metal and the parent plate no bonding at the root of the weld joint no fusion between adjacent beads in a multi-pass weld no weld metal extending into the root of the weld

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Figure 12.24 Lack of Fusion and Penetration 7.5. Imperfect Shape Excess weld metal Excess penetration Root concavity Incompletely filled grove Undercut weld metal lying outside the plane joining the toes excess weld metal protruding through the root a shallow grove in the root a grove caused by insufficient weld metal being laid onto the cap a grove in the toe of the weld where parent plate is gouged due to the welding current weld metal spilled over from the cap onto the parent plate outside the line of the toe that has not fused with the parent metal a collapse in the weld pool caused by excessive penetration resulting in a hole in the weld (not a standard term but internationally understood), describing different leg lengths on a fillet weld, usually a T joint

Overlap

Burn through

Unequal leg length

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Welding and Welding Defects Poor restart (not a standard term but internationally understood), an irregular start or pickup after one bead is ended or interrupted and the next arc strike is imperfectly aligned with the previous bead (not a standard term but internationally understood), poor fit-up resulting in the parent plates being out of alignment either laterally or angularly

Misalignment

See Figure 12.24 and 12.25

Figure 12.25 Imperfect shape 7.6. Miscellaneous Stray flash, or arc strike burn marks on the parent metal caused by striking arcs with the welding rod off the line of the weld grinding away too much weld metal and leaving the weld below the depth of the parent plate groves or marks on the parent plate caused by poorly controlled grinding or surfacing tools marks indented into the parent plate caused by chipping hammers or similar hand tools
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Excessive dressing

Grinding mark

Tool mark

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 12 Hammer mark Torn surface Surface pitting Spatter obvious damage caused by a hammer blow surface irregularity caused by breaking off temporary attachments small depressions on the parent plate spots of weld metal thrown out from the weld pool and attaching themselves to the parent plate a welding scar left over after removal of a dog, which is a temporary metal fixing used to stabilise the parent plates during the welding process

Dog scar

See Figure 12.26

Figure 12.26 Miscellaneous Defects 8. Defect Categories and Reporting Internal weld defects are categorised broadly into two types: Planar Defects: These have a large surface area but small volume such as cracks and laminations. They are essentially 2 dimensional. Volumetric Defects: Inclusions, porosity and other internal flaws that have a large volume compared to surface area are in this category. They are 3 dimensional and will also include undercut and lack of penetration. This category of defect is caused during fabrication, not in-service, while planar defects may be caused by in-service deterioration. 8.1. Reporting Defects in Welds As diver inspectors are concerned with in-service inspections volumetric defects will seldom be identified as they are usually caused during
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Welding and Welding Defects fabrication. Planar defects may be observed as these could be caused by stress or fatigue failure leading to crack-like features becoming evident. This type of discontinuity will be of most concern in the toe of the weld, which is also the zone where it is most likely to be found. This is because at this point there is a region that has been heated and melted causing grain structure changes as outlined earlier. Also in this area the geometry of the weld changes, which may create a notch effect that, is an area where stress is increased above the average for the rest of the component. Any defects identified must be reported by recording at least; The type of defect Location describe the defect with correct terminology state the global location, i.e. what component is damaged, where on the component is the damage (state the clock position), give the relative location, i.e. is it on the HAZ, in the toe, on the weld cap or in the parent plate state the start position and give length. If the defect is a crack-like feature state whether it is continuous or branching, the orientation and if it is measurable give width and depth describe the feature, if it is a crack is it branching, if it is state the orientation of the branches

Dimensions

Description

8.2. Dimensional Checking Weld Parameters During fabrication the weld dimensions are checked and verified against the weld design specifications to ensure that the welding is completed to the required quality to meet design parameters ensuring that it is fit for purpose. Welding inspectors will confirm that the welds meet these requirements and for the visual elements of the inspection requirements there are a number of measuring gauges, templates and devices that are employed. These instruments are available for in-service inspections a review of a selection will be of interest for underwater applications. 8.2.1. The Welding Institute Measuring Gauge This is a gauge specially designed to accurately measure weld reinforcement height, leg length, throat thickness and depth of lack of fill. Figure 12.27 refers

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 12

Figure 12.27 Welding Institute Gauge Measuring Various Weld Parameters 8.2.2. Welding Institute Leg Length Gauge This gauge is specially designed for measuring T joint leg length as indicated in Figure 12.28

Figure 12.28 Welding Institute Leg Length Gauge

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Welding and Welding Defects

Bibliography Underwater Inspection Mel Bayliss David Short Mary Bax Principles of welding technology L M Gourd

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection

CHAPTER 13
Ultrasonic Inspection
1. Ultrasonic Inspection Ultrasonic inspection is based on the behaviour of an ultrasonic sound wave as it passes through the material under inspection. The ultrasonic wave is a stress pulse travelling at the speed of sound within the material under test. Such a wave travels in straight lines and will be partially reflected from any interface in its path. Measurements of the time interval between the transmitted wave and the reflected wave will give information about the length of the waves path through the material. From this information the thickness of materials can be measured and the presence of flaws can be detected. For offshore applications this NDT method is used regularly for corrosion monitoring and occasionally for weld inspection. 2. Producing Ultrasound Ultrasonic testing depends on the manner in which sound waves pass through the material under test. Ultrasonic sound waves are used because it has been determined that at frequencies in this part of the frequency spectrum sound waves travel furthest with the minimum loss of energy. Thus the greatest penetration into solid materials is achieved by this selection. Table 13.1 refers. 2.1. What Is Ultrasonic? Ultrasound is sound waves at a frequency beyond the range of human hearing. The frequency spectrum at Figure 13.1 refers.

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FREQUENCY SPECTRUM
Velocity of a wave = Frequency x wavelength (f x ) Speed of light in a vacuum = 3 x 108 m sec-1 Speed of sound in air = 330 m sec-1

Sound Waves (Travelling at the speed of sound)


Infrasound 2 x 10-2 kHz (20 kHz)

Frequency (kHz)
10
-3

Electro-magnetic Waves (Travelling at the speed of light)

10 10

-2

-1

Sonar uses frequencies in the audio range Human hearing range

1 10 10 10
2

VLF LF MF Radio frequencies HF VHF UHF SHF EHF Infra-red 3.8 Red 7.6 Visible Ultra-violet

2.5 kHz Ultrasonic frequency test range

10 10 10

10 MHz

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

X-rays
-rays

17

18

19

20

21

Cosmic radiation

22

23

Table 13.1 The Frequency Spectrum


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection The ultrasonic sound wave range of frequency is from 20 kHz up to approximately 6 MHz. For most practical ultrasonic testing the frequency range from 0.5 to 6 MHz is used. Frequencies lower than 0.5 MHz are not used for test purposes and the lower frequencies between 0.5 and 1.5 MHz are used for testing materials with very large grain structures such as concrete or cast iron. Frequencies from 2 to 6 MHz are used for testing materials with fine grain structures including steels. 2.2. Frequency of the Wave The number of oscillations it causes per second determines the frequency of a signal. The basic unit of frequency is the Hertz, abbreviated Hz. One Hertz is one complete cycle of an event per second.

The time for one cycle is known as the periodic time (P) and is measured in seconds. Therefore: -

See Figure 13.2, which displays a graph for an alternating voltage

Figure 13.2 Graph of a Signal with a Frequency of 1 Hertz (Hz) Considering a sound wave it can be compared with Figure 13.2 in that as the sound wave train passes through a material it propagates a stress front that causes the atoms within the crystal lattice structure of the material to be alternatively tensely and compressively stressed and relaxed.

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Figure 13.3 The Stress Variation with Time at a Point in a Solid Subjected To Ultrasonic Impulse from an Ultrasonic Transducer The frequency of the signal shown in Figure 13.3 may be calculated thus: -

The periodic time (the time taken for one cycle) is calculated hence: -

It is not usual to include all the zeros with the numbers related to frequency. Normally the writing is reduced by the use of prefixes thus: -

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Number 1,000,000,000 1,000,000 1,000 1 0.001 0.000001

Engineering 109 106 103 1 10-3 10-6 Table 13.4

Prefix giga mega Kilo

Symbol G M K

milli micro

Number Prefixes Used With Frequency The frequency calculated above would normally be written as 10 kHz and the period of the signal as 100 sec. 2.3. Speed of the Wave So far only the effects of the wave passing one point in the material have been considered. However, the wave itself is passing along through the material. (Like a surface wave on water, the water at any point goes up and down, but as well as this, the wave travels forwards). Ultrasonic waves travel through a solid at the speed of sound for a given type of wave in a given material. That is, the speed of travel of a sound wave is different for different types of wave and the speed of travel is also different in different materials. 2.4. Types of Ultrasonic Wave Sound waves propagate through a material (liquid, solid or gas) by causing the atoms to oscillate as the wave front passes through it. There are two types of wave that propagate through the solid material and three types that propagate as surface wave along the surface skin of the material. 2.4.1. Waves That Propagate Through Solids The two type of wave that propagates through a solid are discussed below. 2.4.1.1. Longitudinal or Compression Waves This type of wave is denoted by the symbol L. Thus, VL is the velocity of propagation of these longitudinal or compression waves. With this type of wave propagation, the direction of oscillation of the atoms is the same as the direction of the wave propagation. Figure 13.5 refers.

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Figure 13.5 Longitudinal or Compression Wave 2.4.1.2. Shear or Transverse Waves Shear or transverse waves are denoted by the symbol T. Thus VT is the velocity of propagation of these waves. The direction of oscillation of the atoms in this mode of travel is at right angles to the direction of motion of the propagating wave. Figure 13.6 refers.

Figure 13.6 Transverse or Shear Wave

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection

Figure 13.7 Diagrammatic Representation of the Movement of the Atoms as a Shear Wave Passes through the Material If Figure 13.7 is compared with Figure 13.5 it may be seen that both diagrams represent the wave at a given instant in time. The main difference is in the movement of the atoms. Whereas in the compression wave the atoms are compressed and pulled apart in the direction that the wave is moving, the shear wave atoms are displaced pass each other that is sheared. 2.4.2. Surface Waves Of the three types of surface wave used in ultrasonic testing none have uses in underwater inspection. Raleigh Waves The Raleigh Wave is the main type of surface wave. These waves travel only on the surface of the material. The atomic motion of the wave is elliptical, with the major axis of the ellipse perpendicular to the surface, thus resembling a surface wave on water. The wave can be easily damped out if the surface is in contact with either a solid or a fluid. This mode of travel is not used underwater. Lamb Waves These waves are generated when the thickness of the material is comparable with the wavelength of the Lamb wave. There are two main types of Lamb waves, symmetrical and asymmetrical. Each has a series of modes of travel. In this respect they differ from the wave trains
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 13 mentioned so far that only propagate in one mode. On land, Lamb waves are applied for testing thin wall tubing and for laminar defects, which lie very close to the surface of the part. They are also used to test the quality of bond in laminate materials. Love Waves Love waves travel on the surface of the material without a vertical component of displacement, which makes them analogous to a surface compression wave motion. Table 13.7 summarises properties of these modes of propagation.
Type of Wave Longitudinal or Compression Symbol VL Condition Passes through the large bulk of the material Passes through the large bulk of the material Atomic Motion Longitudinal that is, in the direction of wave propagation Transverse that is, at right angles to the direction of wave propagation Compound that is, motion up and down as well as in the direction of wave propagation Compound Compound Single Velocity Yes Comments on Underwater Use Used for thickness and lamination measurement Used for defect sizing

Shear or Transverse

VT

Yes

Raleigh (often referred to as surface waves)

VS

Semi-infinite free surface

Yes

Not used underwater

Lamb (plate waves) Thin rods

VRN VO

Thin sheet Small diameter bars

No Yes

Not used underwater Not used underwater

Table 13.7 Properties of Ultrasonic Waves 3. Velocity of Ultrasonic Waves In order that ultrasonic waves can be used to measure depths and sizes within any material it is a fundamental principal that the velocity of the sound wave remains constant for different samples of the same material. This is in fact the case; furthermore the ultrasonic wave obeys the laws of light and can therefore be used with confidence for inspection tasks. Methods for calculating some of the single value velocities are shown in Table 13.8

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection

Type of Wave Compression or Longitudinal Shear or Transverse

Velocity of Sound

Symbols Used Symbol V* (meters second-1) E (Newton meter-2) G (Newton meter-2) (kilograms meter-3) Meaning Velocity of sound (meters second-1) Elastic modulus Shear modulus Density Poisson ratio

* In some books, C is used as the velocity of sound Table 13.8 Ultrasonic Velocities A summary of wave velocities of the various waves discussed here in a selection of materials is shown in Table 13.9.

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Material

Acoustic Velocity (ms-1) VL VT 3100 VS 2900 VO 5100

Density (kgm-3) 2710 1200 2000

Modulus (GNm-2) E 70.8

Modulus (GNm-2) G 26.5

Aluminium Araldite Concrete Brass (Naval) Copper Lead (Pure) Air Bronze, Phosphor (5%) Lead, Antimony (6%) Steel (Structural) Steel Steel Stainless 302 Steel Stainless 410 Water Motor Oil Transformer Oil Nylon Polyethylene Perspex (Plexi-glass)

6350 2500 4600 4430 4660 2160 333 3530 2160 5940 5850 5660 7390 1490 1740 1380 2620 2340 2730

2120 2260 700

1950 1930 630

3490 3710 1200

8100 8900 11400 1

98.4 122.7 16.1

36.4 45.5 5.6

2230 810 3250 3230 3120 2990

2010 740

3430 1370

8860 10900 7850 213.3 82.9

2790 3120 2160

5170 4900 5030

7800 8030 7670 1000 870 920

1080 925 1430

1100 940 1180

3.59 2.26 6.33

1.28 0.80 2.41

Table 13.9 Acoustic Velocities for Different Modes in Selected Materials 4. Ultrasonic Wavelength A further property of the ultrasonic wave is its wavelength. This property indicates how far the ultrasonic stress wave moves forward during one complete stress cycle and has to be considered when the maximum sensitivity of any ultrasonic test is being assessed. The method of calculation is shown in the following equations.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection

For example, to calculate the wavelength for a 20 kHz ultrasonic compression wave in aluminium: -

Now calculate the wavelength for a 5 MHz compression probe in steel. (Answer 1.17 x 10-3m or 1.17mm) What would the wavelength be if it were a shear wave? (Answer 6.46 x 10-4m or 0.646mm) Because the wavelength depends on the velocity of sound, the wavelength of the ultrasonic signal will change when it passes from one material into another. For example, when an ultrasonic compression wave passes from perspex into steel, (perspex would be the material used for the shoe of the transducer and steel the work piece), the wavelength in steel would be larger than that in the perspex as the velocity of sound in perspex is smaller than the velocity in steel. Refer to Table 13.9 and Figure 13.10 below.

Figure 13.10 Compression Wave Passing From One Material (Perspex) Into another (Steel)

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5. Further Effects of Ultrasonic Properties in Materials As the ultrasonic signal propagates through a material a pressure or stress front will be initiated in the material which will present resistance to the passage of the sound wave energy. The amount of resistance will depend on the properties of the material. This is a useful parameter of a material and must be determined if the pressure or stress magnitude of the ultrasonic wave is to be determined. 5.1. Acoustic Impedance (Z) The resistance to the passage of ultrasound is called acoustic impedance (Z). It is the product of density () and acoustic velocity (V). That is: Z=xV (For a compression wave, V would be VL). 5.2. Pressure or Stress Magnitude (p) The pressure or stress magnitude (p) of the ultrasonic wave is proportional to the acoustic impedance (Z), the frequency (f), and the displacement amplitude of the atoms (d). That is, p = 2 z f d Now from this the acoustic power density (J) of the ultrasonic wave is given by the equation: -

5.2.1. Acoustic Attenuation A further effect on the sound wave is the reduction in energy of the wave as it passes through the material. Large amounts of attenuation will reduce the penetrability of the wave and a loss of the back wall reflection could be caused by this effect. The main physical phenomena that attenuate the ultrasonic signal are, Scattering Diffusion Viscous damping losses Relaxation losses The first two are due to the wave motion of the ultrasound and the second two are due to the effect of stressing the atoms in the material. 5.3. The Decibel System It is usual to measure the amplitude performance or how much a signal is attenuated in terms of the ratio of one signal to another; e.g. input to output; in the case of an amplifier the output is larger than the input, while with an attenuator the reverse is the case. It is therefore consistent to measure the attenuation of a signal using this technique. It is not an absolute
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection measurement but gives the relationship of the decay of the power in a signal as it passes through a piece of material. Figure 13.11 refers.

Figure 13.11 Power in the Ultrasonic Signal Will Decrease With Distance into the Material The amount of signal attenuation is given by the curve that joins up the peaks of the graphs and the attenuation in decibels (dB) is given by

P1 and P2 can be any successive two peaks. The ultrasonic signal from the probe is, however, a voltage and the ratio of the power P1/P2 Is given by the ratio Now as And Then V12/V22 P = IV I = V/R P (V) 2

This then gives the attenuation as 10 Log10 V1/V2 dB This reduces to 20 Log10 V1/V2 dB This last expression is a standard ultrasonic formula for calculating the attenuation of a signal in dB. For example, what is the attenuation of the ultrasonic signal between the first and second echo for the signals shown in Figure 13.12

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Figure 13.12 Attenuation of the Ultrasonic Signal between the First and Second Echoes

= 20 log10 (1.5) = 20 x 0.1761 = 3.52 dB What would the attenuation be if V2 were exactly half V1 and what would it be if V2 were one-tenth V1? (Answer 6 dB and 20 dB) The last two results calculated are most important as they are both utilised in practical material testing. It should be remembered that if the signal is halved that is a 6 dB drop and if the signal is one tenth that is a 20 dB drop. A table showing the ratios associated with gains of 0 to 20 dB is shown as Table 13.13.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection

Decibel Gain
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Ratio V1 to V2
1.0 1.26 1.6 2.0 2.5 3.2 4.0 5.0 6.3 7.9 10.0

Comments
No change, the ratio is 1:1

Double the value (half for loss) ration 2:1

Four fold (or quarter for loss) ratio 4:1

Ten fold (or one tenth for loss) ratio 10:1

Table 13.13 Decibel Gain for the Range 0 to 20 dB 5.4. The Direction of Propagation of an Ultrasonic Wave Thus far it has been established that the ultrasonic wave travels at a know speed in a straight line and it has been mentioned that the wave obeys the laws of light. In order to predict the direction that the wave travels as it passes through interfaces into different materials it is necessary to determine what happens when the wave meets an interface. An interface is any boundary between two materials of differing properties (e.g. water and steel, perspex and steel, water and air etc.). An interface will include the outside edges of a component and indeed, the back surface is referred to as the back wall. Similarly the surfaces of a crack or a porosity bubble are boundaries also. At these interfaces, in accordance with the laws of light, the direction of travel of the wave after meeting the interface will be determined by the law of reflection for the wave moving in the initial material (material 1) and the law of refraction (Snells Law) for the wave that passes into the second material (material 2). 5.4.1. Law of Reflection This states that the angle the reflected wave makes with the normal angle to the interface from which the wave is being reflected is the same as the angle that the incident wave makes with the same normal angle. Figure 13.14 refers.

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Figure 13.14 Reflection of an Ultrasound Wave from an Interface When the angle of incidence is 0o the reflected angle is also 0o so the wave is reflected back along the incident direction. The wave is travelling in the same material therefore there will be no change in wavelength of the signal or the mode of travel of the wave. This is the ideal condition for thickness measurement using ultrasonic compression waves. 5.4.2. Law of Refraction At an interface, part of the ultrasonic wave is reflected and the rest will pass into the second material. The path in the second material will still be a straight line, but the direction of this wave will not be continuous with the direction of the incident wave, as it will have been turned through an angle that can be determined by Snells Law. Snells Law of Refraction states that: -

Angle need not be larger that as shown in Figure 13.14. The value of is determined by the properties of material 1 and material 2. The wavelength will always change between the two materials. See Figure 13.15

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection

Figure 13.15 Snells Law The constant in Snells Law is the ratio of the velocity of sound in the two materials, so that Snells Law can be written: -

As there are two velocities of sound in a material, VL and VT, if the incident wave can cause these then there will be two resulting refracted waves. Now an incident compression (longitudinal) wave at an angle can produce two stress waves, or forces, at the interface, as it has a component parallel to the interface given by sine that will produce a shear wave in material 2 and a normal component given by cos that will produce a compression wave in material 2. See Figure 13.16.

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Figure 13.16 Force Exerted by the Incident Wave on the Interface Both these resulting waves in material 2 will be turned from the incident direction by an angle determined by Snells Law and the velocity of sound in the two materials. Figure 13.17 refers.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection

Figure 13.17 Reflected and Refracted Shear Wave and Compression Wave at an Interface of Two Materials The angle that the compression wave makes with the normal in material 2 is determined from Snells Law, which gives: -

VL1 = velocity of sound in 1 VL2 = velocity of sound in 2 Therefore L is the angle whose sine is equal to: -

The angle that the resulting shear wave makes with the normal in material 2 is again determined using Snells Law, except that this time the velocity of sound of the shear wave VT2 is used in the equation, so that: -

Thus the angle that the resulting shear wave makes with the normal in material 2 T is the angle whose sine is: -

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 13 Example: Determine the resultant wave angle and wavelengths when an ultrasonic compression wave of 50 kHz travelling in perspex meets an interface with steel at an angle of 10o to the normal. From Table 13.9 VL in perspex is VL in steel is VT in steel is 2730 ms-1 5850 ms-1 3230 ms-1

The incident compression wave in perspex will, on meeting the interface, produce three ultrasonic waves. A reflected compression wave in the perspex A refracted compression wave in the steel A refracted shear wave in the steel See Figure 13.18.

Figure 13.18 Diagram of Wave Configuration from a Perspex Block at 10o 5.4.2.1. The Reflected Compression Wave in the Perspex The law of reflection tells us that the angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence, so that the reflected wave makes an angle of 10o to the normal.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection The wavelength of the reflected wave will be the same as the incident wave, as they are both compressive and travelling at the same speed. The wavelength is calculated from the equation: -

5.4.2.2. Refracted Compression Wave in the Steel For this wave Snells Law gives the angle of refraction thus: -

The wavelength of the compression wave in steel is: -

5.4.2.3. The Refracted Shear Wave in the Steel Similarly Snells Law gives: -

The wavelength of the shear wave in steel is given by: -

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First and Second Critical Angles If the last calculations are followed and projected it will be seen there are two critical angles. These are angles of inclination of the incident wave at which the ultrasonic compression or shear wave will not pass into material 2 from material 1. The first critical angle is when the refracted compression wave angle (path 4 in Figure 13.17) is 90O. This means, of course, that the only wave transmitted is the shear wave. As the incident angle to the normal increases, the second critical angle is reached. At this angle, the shear wave is passing along the interface as a surface wave, having gone through a change of mode. Show that for the data given in the previous example, the first critical angle is 27.8O and the second critical angle is 57.7O. 6. Test Frequency The test frequency used for flaw detection in land-based equipment varies with different applications. Table 13.19 gives some examples of frequency and application. Applications Concrete Wood Natural rocks Coarse grain metal structures (e.g. cast iron, copper, stainless steel) Finer grain metal structures Plastics Forgings Welds Table 13.19 Selected Applications and Frequencies 7. Ultrasonic Transducers A transducer is any device that transforms energy from one form to another. In the case of the ultrasonic transducer, it transforms high frequency electrical signals to the same high frequency mechanical signals and vice versa. There are two possible types of device for doing this. At the lower frequency end of the
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Frequency Range 25 100 kHz

200 kHz 1 MHz 400 kHz 5 MHz 200 kHz 2.25 MHz 1 10 MHz 1 2.25 MHz

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection scale (below 100 kHz) a magneto-strictive device is used, and above this range Piezo electric devices are used. At the moment, ultrasonic non-destructive testing uses mostly Piezo electric devices, while magneto-strictive devices are widely used in sonar and underwater signalling. Magneto-strictive devices use the expansion and contraction of magnetic materials under the influence of a varying magnetic field, to generate a mechanical pulse from a magnetic signal. The device also works in reverse, the input of a mechanical signal generating a magnetic signal. The Piezo electric transducer makes use of the property that certain crystalline and ceramic materials have whereby, if the material is subjected to a mechanical extension of contraction, it generates an electrical signal related to the size of the mechanical input. This effect is also reversible, although the efficiency of the conversion is dependent on the type of use. Early transducers were made from quartz, and Rochelle salt crystals, but now they are made from a range of synthetic crystalline and ceramic materials that include barium titanate, lithium sulphate and potassium zirconium titanate. In practice the transducer is mounted in a probe assembly for protection and to enable electrical connections to be made. The crystal is fitted with electrodes; often silver foil, to apply the voltage across the crystal if it is acting as a transmitter, or to take the voltage signal from it if it is acting as a receiver. The crystal is attached to the case by the mounting, which acts not only as a fixing but also as a backing to the crystal. The backing has a significant influence on the transducers performance. Its impedance controls the bandwidth of the transducer and the damping of the crystals ring. For maximum damping, the impedance of the backing must equal the impedance of the crystal. Also, it must have the ability to attenuate completely the sonic energy transmitted from the back of the Piezo electric element so that this signal is prevented from returning to the back of the Piezo electric crystal, which would thereby produce an unwanted signal. A shoe is added to protect the crystal from physical damage or wear, and also from the environment. Most transducers are completely sealed units. Furthermore, the shoe can be shaped to act as a lens. In this respect, sound waves behave like light waves and acoustic lenses are designed in a similar manner to light lenses. The index of refraction is the ratio of the velocities of sound in the lens to those in the other acoustic media (e.g. sea water), as defined by Snells Law. The shoe should absorb as little of the sound as possible and so its impedance is usually selected to be between the crystal and the material with which the transducer is in contact. Shoes are often constructed of perspex. Also, a probe that operates in a shear mode can be produced from a Piezo electric crystal that operates in a longitudinal mode, by having a wedge-shaped shoe. The wedge shape directs the longitudinal wave at an angle to the surface of the test part. Depending on the angle of incidence, this will produce partial or total conversion of the longitudinal wave into a shear wave, as previously seen. Figure 13.20 refers.
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Figure 13.20 Basic Arrangement of a Single Crystal Transducer 7.1. Types of Transducers (Probes) There are a number of different types of probes some designed for specific tasks. However, in the sphere of underwater inspection and NDT it is only necessary to be familiar with the main types. All probes are designed to transmit an ultrasonic signal into the test specimen with maximum efficiency. The configuration of any probe is dependant on the actual task it is designed for. There are broadly four types of probe. Single Crystal Probes Twin Crystal Probes Compression or Zero Degree Probes Angle Probes 7.1.1. Single Crystal Probes These probes are designed to utilise a single Piezo electric crystal that both transmits and receives the ultrasonic signal. The acoustic characteristics of this transducer are quite specific and the selected crystals possess particular characteristics. The crystal must transmit the signal, stop ringing, ring down to rest, pick up any reflected signal, ring up to produce electrical energy that is passed onto the receiver amplifier. So, the natural frequency of the crystal needs to be very widely separated from the ultrasonic frequency being used for the test. Figure
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection 13.20 indicates the main design features of a single crystal compression probe. 7.1.1.1. Probe Selection Ultrasonic probes are selected depending on their output characteristics. Single crystal probes have: Advantages Good power output Greater penetration Disadvantages Poor near zone resolution Cannot measure thin plate accurately Twin crystal probes: Advantages Good near zone resolution Initial pulse and dead zone are contained in the shoe Can be focused to any depth Can measure thin plate Disadvantages Less power output Less penetration 7.1.2. Twin Crystal Probes This type of transducer has separate crystals for transmission and reception. The two crystals are mounted in the same housing but are carefully isolated from each other electrically and acoustically. The material properties of the crystals are quite different from those of the single crystal probe because the two crystals are not required to ring down in order to receive. One is constantly transmitting while the other is constantly receiving. The electrical isolation is achieved by providing two co-axial connectors one for transmit and one to receive, while the acoustic barrier is generally a thin layer of cork. This is the arrangement for the transducers mounted on the Baugh and Weedon Sea Probe and the Wells Krautkramer D meter. Figure 13.21 refers.

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Figure 13.21 Twin Crystal Compression Probe 7.1.3. Compression or Zero Degree Probes This type of probe transmits longitudinal waves that are transmitted into the test specimen at the normal angle. Thus there is no refraction and the signal passes directly through the specimen at the normal. This type of probe may be single or twin crystal. Figures 13.20 and 13.21 refer 7.1.4. Angle Probes Angle probes produce an ultrasonic beam that is introduced into the material at an angle to the interface, and not perpendicular, as is the case of normal angle probes. The angle is determined to either match the weld angle of preparation or to introduce the beam at an angle most propitious to reflect from internal defects. As has been shown this type of probe, in accordance with Snells Law, can produce shear and compression waves, purely shear waves or surface waves depending on the probe angle. Figure 13.22 refers.

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Figure 13.22 Single Crystal Angle Probe Using a Piezo electric Crystal in Compression Mode, The Angle on the Wedge Producing a Shear Wave in the Material 8. Couplant Ultrasonic testing cannot be carried out in air without the use of a suitable coupling agent between the transducer and the test surface. This is because the small mechanical pulses cannot travel across the small air gap that exists between the two surfaces, because of the mismatch in acoustic impedance between the shoe of the transducer and the air. For land-based tests, liquids, greases or pastes are therefore used. Under the sea, the equivalent of the land based immersion technique exists and transmission across the gap between the work piece and the probe is not a problem. The surface of the work piece must, of course, be free from marine fouling or other detritus on the surface as this would attenuate and scatter the ultrasonic signal to such an extent that it would not enter the work piece. 9. The Ultrasonic Beam In order to use the passage of the ultrasonic wave through the material to search for defects, it is necessary that the effective volume of the material covered by the beam be visualised. An easy analogy for this is to visualise a beam of light from a hand torch (flashlight) as this illustrates an ultrasonic beam exactly. The shape of the beam can be considered as a short cylindrical portion containing the Dead Zone and Near Zone followed by a conically shaped Far Zone (or Far Region). 9.1. The Dead Zone This is the region immediately ahead of the crystal face. It is a zone that cannot differentiate reflected signals from defects due to the interference caused by ringing the crystal to produce the initial pulse. This interference is due to the crystal vibrations taking time to reach resonance and then taking
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 13 time to return to rest. During this ringing period spurious harmonic frequencies are produced and while the crystal is being stimulated electrically it cannot simultaneously be stimulated mechanically. The volume of this region is extremely dependant upon the electronic circuitry that governs pulse length, amplifier recovery time gain setting and selection of the crystal itself. This region is usually of the order of 1 to 3 wavelengths in depth and the probe designer will normally construct the probe so that it is contained within the dimensions of the shoe. This region of the beam cannot be used for testing. 9.2. The Near Zone This is the name given to the cylindrical portion of the beam that extends from the face of the crystal to a predictable depth. As it commences at the crystal face it includes the dead zone. The depth or length of the near zone is calculated using the expression: -

D = crystal diameter 4 = constant = wavelength This equation calculates the length of the near zone from the crystal face in one material. If, however, the near zone is not contained within the shoe, an allowance must be made for the change in near zone length as the ultrasonic beam travels from one material into another with a consequent change in wavelength. It is possible to identify reflectors in the near zone but it is not possible to size defects because of the variations in signal intensity that is a characteristic of this region. 9.3. The Far Zone In the far zone (or region) the ultrasonic beam spreads from a cylindrical shape to a cone, as can be visualised by considering a torch of flashlight beam. The boundary of the cone is defined by the degree of attenuation of the maximum power at any cross-section of the cone to a given level of reduced power, either a 6 dB or 20 dB drop. The angle of spread of the cone is defined as , (in Figure 13.22 the cone angle is indicated as being /2, which shows the actual angle of spread from the edge of the cylindrical region of the beam. This angle subtends angle at the face of the crystal) the following equation is used to calculate the angle of spread of the far zone from the boundary of the near zone, which is /2: -

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection = wavelength D = diameter of the crystal k = constant for 6 dB drop k = 0.56 for 20 dB drop k = 1.06 This region of the beam is generally the part used for thickness measurement, flaw detection and flaw measurement as the ultrasonic energy of the beam decays exponentially according to an inverse square rule and is therefore predictable. Furthermore there are no discernable interfering signals in this region to confuse the interpretation of the reflected signal. Figure 13.23 refers.

Figure 13.23 The Shape of the Ultrasonic Beam and the Beam Energy Envelope 10. Principles of Ultrasonic Testing There are two basic principles of ultrasonic testing. The first is based on the detection of a decrease in energy of the ultrasonic beam due to absorption by the flaw. This often involves the transformation of energy due to the internal friction of the defect or a failure to transmit energy across the air gap of the defect. This is sometimes referred to as the shadow method. It can be referred to as a through transmission technique also. Figure 13.24 refers.

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Figure 13.24 Flaw Detection by Decrease in Energy of the Ultrasonic Wave The second principle of ultrasonic testing is based on the reflection of energy from a flaw or interface. This is the method used in underwater ultrasonic inspection and it is the basis of a majority of ultrasonic test systems. The principle is illustrated in Figure 13.25

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection

Figure 13.25 Flaw Detection by Reflection of the Ultrasonic Wave 11. Ultrasonic Test Systems From paragraph 10 it will be seen that an ultrasonic test system should be able to measure either the amplitude of the signal if the first type of test is used or the time required for the ultrasonic signal to travel between specific interfaces if the second method is employed. A versatile test system will measure both the parameters at the same time. For thickness measurement the main use of ultrasonic testing sub-sea is for the measurement of the time the ultrasonic signal takes to travel between specific interfaces, as Figure 13.25 illustrates. A test system for ultrasonic thickness measurement is based on a pulse/echo flaw detector circuit. A simple block diagram for this arrangement is shown in Figure 13.26

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Figure 13.26 Basic Block Diagram of a Pulse Echo Ultrasonic System The technique employed is to generate a short duration (up to about 15 cycles) electrical pulse that is fed to the transmitting crystal, which then rings and converts the electrical energy to mechanical vibrations because of the Piezo electric effect. These pulses are produced cyclically so that a wave train is set up in the test piece. As these pulses of ultrasound impact on reflecting surfaces such as the back wall, a crack, an inclusion or a lack of fusion, the wave is reflected back along the transmission path. This reflected wave train is detected by the receiving crystal; which changes these mechanical vibrations into pulses of electrical energy, which is then fed to the amplifier and timing circuits. The circuits compare the time of transmission with the time of reception to determine the period of time taken for the signal to be reflected. This indicates the distance to this reflecting surface. This reflected signal is finally displayed on a cathode ray tube (CRT) in the case of a flaw detector and as a digital display in a digital thickness meter The wave train set up by the pulses of energy effectively sets up a continuous signal that is used to display information either on the CRT or the digital display continuously. However electronically there is sufficient time between pulses to allow the receive crystal to receive the reflected signal. 11.1. The Flaw Detector There are several types of units that can be used in this system, depending on the method employed for timing and indicating the pulses of energy. For ultrasonic flaw detection the indicator is generally a CRT (or cathode ray
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection oscilloscope) as this presents all the information available in the echo system. With this type of instrument there are four types of presentation. A-scan beam path B-scan C-scan Shows real time depth of the defect, or distance along the Holds the reflector and shows cross-sectional views Illustrates using a plan view and traces the defect

P-scan Adds all of the above together and gives a threedimensional computer impression The most commonly used diver deployed flaw detector is an A-scan instrument. As an example of this type of instrument Figure 13.27 gives a drawing of the control panel of a Baugh and Weedon PA 1011.

Figure 13.27 Drawing of a Baugh and Weedon PA 1011 A-scan Flaw Detector Control Panel 11.2. A-scan Flaw Detector Controls All A-scan flaw detectors have the same basic controls because they are all manufactured to the same standards and specifications. Some may have additional features or built in computer chips but the basic controls are all the same. The standard controls are all illustrated on the drawing in Figure 13.27 and their functions starting at the top left of the diagram are: Issue 1.0 Rev 0 Issue date: 1 April 2006

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 13 Course Range Control This adjusts the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) in steps, which sets the basic pulse transmission rate of the set. This control is calibrated in centimetres up to 100 Fine Range Control This control adjusts the PRF continuously within the step set on the Course Range Control. These controls together set the time base of the set and calibrate to different ranges as required for different tests Delay Control This control moves the whole time base (Xaxis) across the screen without altering the PRF. This control is used with the two range controls to complete the calibration procedure Battery Indicator A meter to indicate battery life Reject Control This control suppresses incoming signals and cleans up the display. It is analogous with the squelch control on a radio set. Care must be exercised with the use of this control as it may adversely affect sensitivity Fine Gain Control This is calibrated in 1 or 2 dB steps depending on the manufacturer here it is 2 dB. The gain controls are analogous with the volume control on a radio and together adjust the amplitude of the screen display and affect the sensitivity of the set Course Gain Control This is a calibrated attenuator calibrated in 20 dB steps On/Off Control Switches the set on and off. In this set this is also a fine gain control Transmit Coaxial Connector The coaxial connector to the transmitting crystal in a twin crystal probe is connected here Single/Double Probe Switch Selects the mode of operation of the set for either single or twin crystal probe operation Receive Coaxial Connector The coaxial connector to the receiving crystal in a twin crystal probe is connected here Charging Connection connected here 11.2.1. A-scan Display If a thickness measuring system using a twin crystal probe with the unit displaying the information on a CRT is considered it will serve to illustrate how this type of flaw detector works. On the CRT a spot moves across the screen at a fixed speed set by the controls. This has two effects; the first is that as the speed is constant the distance measured across the screen represents time. The second is that the phosphors coating the inside of the screen have an after-glow that persists in between pulses to give an apparently constant display.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection The signal processor via the control panel can adjust the speed of scanning of the spot. Thus the display can be adjusted for different distances or thicknesses of material. The transmitted signal is indicated on the screen by the first rise or peak, and a second peak indicates the reflected signal. This second peak should represent the thickness of the material provided there is a clear defect free path as it will be the reflection from the back wall. If there is a defect inside the material this may present a reflecting surface to the signal. This situation is discussed later in paragraphs 13 and 14. Taking the second signal to be the reflection from the back wall the distance between the two peaks is the time (t) taken for the ultrasonic wave to travel across the material and return. The thickness of the material can then be calculated in the following way. Figure 13.9 gives the speed of the longitudinal wave (VL) in a selection of materials. For example, take the test material to be structural steel; the velocity of the longitudinal wave (VL) is 5940 ms-1. The time taken for the wave to cross this material and back is t seconds, measured from the trace on the CRT screen. The product of VL and t then gives the distance travelled by the ultrasonic wave in this test. This distance is twice the thickness of the material as the wave has to travel there and back, so the thickness of the material (d) is given by the following expression: d = (VL x t) If a through transmission method was used, see Figure 13.24, that is where a receiver is placed on the opposite side from the transmitter, the thickness of the material would be given by: d = VL x t These expressions are based on Newtons Laws of Motion and are the basis for ultrasonic testing. However, as stated earlier A-scan instruments are provided with controls to adjust the CRT display, which is part of a calibration procedure. This procedure adjusts the instrument for time base and therefore electronically adjusts the value of VL. 12. A-scan Calibration and Thickness Measurement With any A-scan instrument the CRT display represent time on the base line or X-axis, which is calibrated to represent distance, while the vertical or Y-axis gives the amplitude of the returning signal; the higher the amplitude of this signal the greater the strength of the reflected signal. Of course, in the case of thickness measurements this signal will be the back wall echo. A-scan types of ultrasonic instruments all require calibration before they can be used for testing. Modern instruments incorporate computer chips that assist in this process but following is outlined the procedure for a standard instrument so as to illustrate the various stages that must be completed to ensure a valid test is completed.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 13 12.1. Calibration and Reference Blocks Normally calibration will require the use of a calibration block, however a reference block may be used if this is either specified or agreed by the contracting party. 12.1.1. Reference Block A reference block is produced to agreed measurements and specifications, is manufactured to the same tolerances and surface finish as a calibration block and is used in the same way. The difference between this and a calibration block is that the reference block is intended to be used only for the specified task and is not intended to be used for general work on any other components. 12.1.2. Calibration Block There are several different calibration blocks available for ultrasonic testing. The two most popular are the V1 and the V2 calibration blocks. A calibration block is manufactured to standard specifications and to international standards. It is produced from specified material and is machined to close tolerances and laid down standard of surface finish. All the dimensions on the block are also specified and it is used to calibrate ultrasonic flaw detectors in general. A sketch of the V1 calibration block in Figure 13.28 shows all the major dimensions.

Figure 13.28 IIW V1 Block

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection 12.2. Pre-calibration Checks For portable sets check the power supply is fully charged Switch on the set and allow it to warm up for 15 minutes, or the manufacturers recommended time. This allows the CRT and other circuits to reach operating temperature and stabilise. 12.2.1. CRT Display Adjust the focus and brilliance of the spot on the CRT screen. The spot will normally not be visible, but will, however, appear as a line across the screen Use the delay control to adjust the time base to display the initial pulse (the first transmitted pulse) on the screen Position the course range control to the required range. (This may be between 10 mm and 1 m depending on the actual instrument). Select and connect the required probe. (For thickness measurement and lamination testing this will be a 0o or normal angle compression probe either single or twin crystal). 12.2.2. Time Base Linearity Place the probe onto a calibration block and use the course and fine range (time base) controls to display four back wall echoes on the screen. Adjust the back wall echoes so that they are equally spaced along the X-axis, then adjust the second and fourth so that they are on the fifth and tenth divisions on the graticule. Provided this is achieved the time base is linear. 12.2.3. Linearity of Amplification Set the reject or suppression control to off or zero. Place the probe over the 1.5 mm diameter hole on a V1 calibration block. Adjust the gain controls to display the height of the reflected signal to 80% (8 divisions on the graticule) full screen height. Note the gain settings. Use the fine (2 dB or 1 dB) gain control to increase the signal by 2 dB. This represents the difference in height between 80% and 100%, that is a ratio of 4:5, which will in fact increase the signal on the screen by of its displayed height and the signal should be at full screen height. Readjust the fine gain control to attenuate the signal back to 80% full screen height. Attenuate the signal by 6 dB. This represents a decrease of and the signal therefore should reduce to 40% of full screen height. Now attenuate a further 12 dB. This represents a decrease of of the displayed signal and the height should then be 10% of the full screen height.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 13 If the gain adjustment does not produce these results the amplifier is not linear and the instrument must be recalibrated internally, which involves stripping it down to readjust internal trim settings. 12.3. Calibration Procedure for 100 mm Thickness Place the probe onto the face of a suitable calibration or reference block that is 25 mm thick ensuring there is adequate coupling A number of back wall echoes should be displayed on the CRT screen. Adjust the gain settings as necessary to display the second echo signal amplitude to 75% full screen height Adjust the fine range and delay controls to alter the screen display so that four back wall echoes are shown, all equally spaced across the X-axis As the screen on the CRT has a graticule that is divided into 10 equal segments the four echoes are adjusted to 2, 5, 7, and 10 divisions along the X-axis. See Figure 13.29

Figure 13.29 A-scan Flaw Detector Calibrated to 100 mm 12.3.1. Setting Sensitivity On completion of calibration it is necessary to adjust the sensitivity to conform to the requirements for identifying and sizing the smallest specified flaw. This may be, for example a flaw that is 2 or 3 in size, although this would be a very sensitive setting as the minimum flaw size that may be achieved is of the order of 1 to 2 . Whatever the required sensitivity is should be detailed in the workbook or the procedure agreed with the contracting party.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection The procedure will require that the gains be adjusted so that a reflected signal from the smallest identifiable defect is displayed discretely on the screen and is not lost in background clutter. The general practise for scanning with compression probes for laminations is to adjust the gain setting so that the first back wall echo from the parent plate is displayed at full screen height. An alternative method is to adjust to full screen height the first back wall echo from a specified (say 1.5 mm diameter) hole drilled horizontally into a reference block at the maximum range for the test. Figure 13.28 shows a diagram of the International Institute of Welding V1 calibration block. This block is an industry standard calibration block and contains such a 1.5 mm diameter hole. 12.3.2. Setting Resolution The final process in the calibration procedure is setting resolution. This is adjusting the gain controls so that the CRT display is capable of displaying several reflected signals from the smallest detectable flaws at the maximum range of the test. This may be accomplished using an agreed and specified reference block. The common method is to display the three signals reflected from the step, cut out and back wall on the V1 block. Figure 13.30 refers.

Figure 13.30 A Method For Setting Resolution 13. The 6 dB Drop Method For Plotting Laminations It is common for steel plate to be tested for laminations before structural welding is undertaken. A normal angle probe will be used and the entire test surface will be scanned, initially fairly quickly to get an impression of how the reflected signals are displayed on the CRT display. This is followed by a detailed scan based on a grid search to fully scan the entire test area.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 13 If any laminations are discovered the initial reaction is to make temporary marks with a paint stick or chinagraph pencil on the surface of the parent plate to give a first impression of the size and shape of the defect. This is followed by a careful scan employing the 6 dB drop method to accurately size the flaw and determine its shape. 13.1. The 6 dB Drop Method Explained The probe is manipulated over the defect area until a maximum amplitude signal is displayed on the CRT. The height of this signal is noted or, if it is very strong, the gains are adjusted to display this echo at full screen height. The probe is then manipulated around the defect area until the signal displayed on the screen reduces in amplitude. The probe is manoeuvred to a position where the initial echo signal is reduced to the maximum that was obtained. This represents a 6 dB reduction in signal strength, which gives this method its name. The reason for this reduction at this point is that now only half the flaw echo signal is being reflected from the flaw while the remainder of that signal is now not reflected but continues on its transmission path through the material. The centre point where the probe is now positioned is marked accurately on the surface of the test piece and this procedure is continued until the entire outline of the lamination is plotted on the surface of the plate. The outline shape is recorded and measured as necessary. Figure 13.31 refers.

Figure 13.31 6 dB Drop Method

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection 14. The Use of Angle or Shear Wave Probes Angle probes as their name indicates propagate the ultrasonic signal into the material at an angle. As mentioned earlier the actual angle will be determined by the expected orientation of the flaws that are being scanned for. Most frequently these will lie on the fusion boundary of a weld and therefore the probe angle will be the same as the angle of preparation. This will ensure that any signal reflected from a flaw will be returned along the same path as the transmission signal because the angle of reflection will equal the incident angle. There are standard probes available for 45o and 60o as these angles are common preparation angles in structural welds. Other angles may be calculated by trigonometry and the application of Snells Law. Figure 13.32 refers.

Figure 13.32 Angle Probe Scanning the Preparation Face of a Weld The probe is traversed along the weld until the signal from the flaw is maximised. Further traversing of the probe will drop the signal height on the CRT in the same manner as for a 6 dB drop but with angle probes the signal is reduced to 1/10th using a 20 dB drop. This point can be plotted and the defect size obtained by numerous such manipulations of the probe. 14.1. Lamination Plotting Should there be any laminations in the scanning area the signal will be reflected from these and not the flaw. To avoid this the entire area is scanned with a compression probe prior to using the angle probe. The area may be marked out in a grid pattern to ensure 100% coverage. See Figure 13.33

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Figure 13.33 Scanning for Laminations 15. Digital Thickness Meters Digital thickness meters measure the thickness of the material using longitudinal waves propagated by a compression probe and transmitted into the material under test at the normal angle. The system method can be demonstrated by considering a thickness measuring system using a twin crystal compression probe with the instrument having a CRT display. The screen will display the initial pulse and the signal from the BWE. The distance measured across the screen, the X-axis, represents the time difference between these two signals. The thickness of the material can then be calculated as shown in paragraph 11.2.1. A diagram of this system is shown in Figure 13.34.

Figure 13.34 Schematic Block Diagram of the Methodology for Digital Thickness Meters
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Ultrasonic Inspection Of course in a working digital thickness meter the CRT is replaced by either a liquid crystal display (LCD) or a light emitting diode (LED) digital display. For underwater use the LED is preferred as it is easier to read in low light. The most widely used instrument for thickness measurement underwater is the digital thickness meter. Instruments manufactured by Baugh and Weedon, Wells Krautkramer, and Cygnus have all been employed for this purpose. 15.1. Procedure for Taking Digital Thickness Readings For the purpose of stating a typical procedure for taking digital thickness readings the Baugh and Weedon Sea Probe (See Figure 13.38) will be considered. This instrument has been used extensively in offshore applications and a procedure for this type of DTM will also be valid for any other type. A block diagram of the instrument as shown in Figure 13.35 will help to illustrate the procedure.

Figure 13.35 Block Diagram of a Sea Probe Digital Thickness Meter If Figure 13.35 is compared with 13.26 it will be seen that the circuitry is exactly similar except for the method of display. 16. Converting Underwater DTM Readings With specially designed, underwater DTMs like the Sea Probe (see Figure 13.35) and Cygnus meter the display gives a direct digital readout of thickness. With these instruments this reading is based on the value of VL for structural steel because the meter is designed with this velocity set into the circuits. In fact the meter is factory calibrated for use specifically on structural steel components. Therefore when these meters are used to test steel structures the circuitry works out the distance electronically based on the expressions given above. They will not give an accurate read-out for any other material To convert readings obtained from materials other than structural steel simply divide the meter reading by the value of VL for steel and multiply by the value of VL for the new material.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 13 For example, if a measurement is made on aluminium the reading obtained is multiplied by 6350 and divided by 5940 to give the correct thickness measurement for aluminium. Say the meter indicates 30.5 mm. Then the required thickness for aluminium is: -

17. Procedure for Taking Wall Thickness Measurements The actual procedure for taking wall thickness readings will be: Ensure the DTM is fully charged prior to use Ensure that a properly qualified inspector is available to conduct the survey Take calibration readings and record these onto the appropriate data sheet. (Strictly speaking this is a confirmation reading as the type of instrument referred to here is factory calibrated as indicated in paragraph14.1.1.1.) These readings are best done on a reference block in the form of a step wedge to confirm the instrument is in calibration over its entire test range Record the serial number of the instrument, and the calibration or reference block Complete a visual inspection of the test surface. This should be clean and free from marine fouling and rust cleaning standard SA 2. For a Sea Probe coatings should be removed. (This is not necessary with a Cygnus DTM) Take a calibration reading on the work site Take a reading and record the result. Continue this process to complete the survey. Any readings that are outside the CNC must be repeated to verify accurate results. Any readings thinner than expected may indicate either laminations, reduced material thickness or possibly an internal flaw. These readings should be checked with a flaw detector to verify the situation. On completion of the survey take a final calibration reading on the work site Wash off the meter in clean potable water, dry and store in a clean, dry environment Report all results Figure 13.36 illustrates a typical ultrasonic data sheet

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Figure 13.36 Typical Ultrasonic Inspection Data Sheet 18. Accuracy of the Readings Obtained With a DTM A DTM is only designed to give a single readout for each application of the probe. This is different from an A-scan instrument, which is designed to display multiple reflections simultaneously on the CRT screen. It is therefore necessary to consider the effects on the ultrasonic beam generated by a DTM as the beam propagates through the material under test. The beam may reflect from an inclusion The beam may reflect from an isolated corrosion pit The beam might reflect from the sidewalls of a long narrow plate If the back wall is very corroded the beam may be totally scattered Poor probe contact will prevent the beam propagating into the material at all

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 13 If the material under test is very hot a false reading may result due to different sound velocities between the material and the calibration of the DTM Insufficient beam energy will be reflected from a small isolated corrosion pit because the reflected energy from the BWE will swamp it and the meter will only display the depth to the back wall If the scanning surface of the plate is very corroded there may be so much reflection of the beam that it will not propagate into the material at all Should the back wall of the plate be at an angle to the front wall the reflected signal may not be directed back to the probe and no reading will be displayed All of these considerations may be summed up for a DTM by stating that the major limiting factor with this instrument is that it can only display the depth of the MAJOR REFLECTOR, It is not designed for any other purpose. Figure 13.37 refers.

Figure 13.37 Possible Problems Associated With a DTM


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Figure 13.38 Sea Probe SP 200 Underwater Digital Thickness Meter 19. Care and Maintenance of Equipment The care of all ultrasonic equipment follows the same pattern. Clean all terminations, plugs, leads and controls Wash off all housings with potable water Charge all batteries in accordance with manufactures recommendations Do not overcharge (with some batteries this may evolve Hydrogen gas and cause an explosive hazard) Store equipment is a dry warm place Be aware of the danger of electric shock from some components Never operate equipment that is thought to be damaged get it repaired

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Magnetic Particle Inspection

CHAPTER 14
Magnetic Particle Inspection
1. History of Magnetism Even in very early times, it was known that magnetite (an iron ore FE3O4) attracted small pieces of iron. Also, if magnetite were shaped into a shaft and suspended it would rotate and align its longest axis in a North-South direction. This gave rise to its name loadstone, derived from an Anglo-Saxon word meaning way or course. The directive property of magnetite was utilised in early navigational devices. The Frenchman De Magnette discovered the first method of forming an artificial magnet in 1600. He found that heating and hammering an iron bar produced a power in the bar that enabled it to attract pieces of iron. This power, named after him, was called magnetism. In 1819, the German Oested observed a relationship between electricity and magnetism. He noticed that when a compass was placed near a currentcarrying wire, the compass needle showed a deflection. This phenomenon is now known as electro-magnetism. 2. Types of Magnetism There are three types of magnetism: Ferromagnetism This is shown by materials which can be strongly magnetised and which show good magnetic properties Paramagnetism This is shown by materials, which are weakly attracted by strong magnetic fields Diamagnetism This type of magnetism is shown by materials that are repelled by a strong magnetic field. This externally applied magnetic field induces a like magnetic field within the material; hence repulsion occurs. Table 14.1 lists some common materials and their magnetic properties. FERROMAGNETIC Iron Nickel Cobalt Steel PARAMAGNETIC Platinum Palladium Most non-ferrous metals Oxygen Table 14.1 Magnetic Properties Exhibited by a Selection of Materials DIAMAGNETIC Bismuth Antimony Most non-metals Concrete

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 14 3. Theory of Magnetism In ferromagnetic materials, the atoms are gathered together in groups called domains. These domains have a magnetic moment, one end acting as a north pole, the other as a south pole. This magnetic moment is created by the combined effort of the motion of electrons around the nucleus of the atom and by electron spin, which is the rotation of the electron about its own axis. When the material is un-magnetised, the domains lie distributed randomly and

their magnetic effects cancel each other. See Figure 14.2 Figure 14.2 Magnetic Domains If an external magnetic field is applied to the material the domains are aligned north to south in a common direction. Hence, one end of the material will be the north pole and the other the south pole. Figure 14.3 refers.

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Figure 14.3 Material in a Magnetised State 3.1. Polarity When the material is magnetised it has a north and a south pole. These poles are located at opposite ends of the material and magnetism seems to be concentrated at these points. The north or north seeking pole of a magnet is said to be the pole that points towards the earths North Pole; the south pole of the magnet pointing towards the earths South Pole. Magnetic poles show attraction and repulsion, like poles repelling and unlike poles attracting. See Figure 14.4

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Figure 14.4 Like Poles Repel Unlike Poles Attract 3.2. Magnetic Field This is described as the area surrounding the magnet in which the magnetic forces exist. Lines of force or lines of magnetic flux represent the magnetic field. These lines are purely imaginary and were introduced by Michael Faraday as a means of visualising the distribution and density (flux density) of a magnetic field. The symbol used for magnetic flux is and the SI unit is the weber (1 Wb = 108 Mx). The CGS unit is the Maxwell (Mx) and 1 Mx = 10-8 Wb. Table 14.5 tabulates the units used in magnetism. The Tesla is the SI unit used in practical magnetic particle inspection (MPI).

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Magnetic Particle Inspection

SI Units Tesla weber

CGS Units Gauss (G) Maxwell (Mx)

Equivalent Units Flux Density SI Tesla (T) Tesla (T) weber (Wb) Maxwell (Mx) Gauss (G) 1 T m2 10-4 10-4 Table 14.5 Units of Flux and Flux Density The magnetic lines of forceAre considered to have direction as if flowing, though no actual movement occurs Travel from the north pole to the south pole externally Travel from south pole to north pole internally They form a closed loop They all have the same strength Their density decreases with increasing distance from the poles They do not cross They seek the path of least resistance They are in constant tension Their density decreases (they spread out) when they move from an area of higher permeability to an area of lower permeability They prefer to travel in materials that easily accept magnetic fields See Figure 14.4 and 14.6 CGS Gauss (G) 104 108 1 10-8 10-8 1 Mx cm-2 SI weber (Wb) 1 Flux CGS Maxwell (Mx) 108 108

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Figure 14.6 Magnetic Field Surrounding a Bar Magnet The magnetic field produced by a current-carrying conductor forms closed circles perpendicular to the conductor, see Figure 14.7 and 14.8.

Figure 14.7
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Figure 14.8 Diagram of a Magnetic Field Surrounding a Conductor


(Figures 14.6, 14.7 and 14.8 attributed to University of Iowa)

4. Flux Density (B) Magnetic flux density is a term used to describe the amount of magnetism within a specimen and is abbreviated by the letter B. When a magnetising force is applied, lines of force of magnetism will be created within the specimen, the number of lines depends on the size of the magnetising force. These lines represent the magnetic force, and the flux density is the term applied to the quantity of them that emerge per unit cross section of the specimen. The unit of flux density is defined as the density of a magnetic field in which a conductor carrying 1 ampere at right angles to that field has a force of 1 Newton per metre acting on it. This unit is called a Tesla (T). In the CGS system of units, this was called a gauss (G) and 1 G = 10-4 T (1 T = 104 G). Flux density is measured as B Tesla. Table 14.5 refers. When a magnetic field is induced in a work piece by an electric current flowing in a cable arranged either as a coil or parallel conductors the input electrical force is called the magnetising force (H), and can be defined in the following way. Consider a very long coil (like a solenoid) uniformly wound with N turns per meter and let the current flowing in this coil be 1 ampere.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 14 Then the magnetising force H in this coil is N x 1 ampere-turns per meter. (In common practice the word turns is omitted so that the units H are Am-1. In the CGS units this used to be called Orsted (Oe) and: -

This equation for the magnetising force is the basis of the calculations for how much current to use to set up an adequate magnetic field for MPI. In free space (vacuum, air or other non-magnetic material), B = o H. The value of o is 4 x 10-7 (T Am-1) and represents the permeability of free space (sometimes referred to as the magnetic space constant). In a magnetic material, B and H can vary independently and the coefficient of B/H is called the RELATIVE PERMEABILITY and is often given the symbol r (for air r = 1 while for certain nickel-iron alloys it can be as high as 100,000). Relative permeability is not a constant value; it varies with B and H. Figure 14.9 gives an indication of the relative permeability for a selection of ferromagnetic

materials, including steel. Figure 14.9 Variation of Relative Permeability With Magnetising Force When magnetising a piece of steel using and electrical magnetising force, we do not get a uniform increase in flux density with a uniform increase in magnetising force see Figure 14.10.

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Figure 14.10 Induced Magnetic Field The flux density rises rapidly to point A on the diagram and thereafter rises very much less rapidly as the condition approaches saturation of the magnetic field; i.e. there is a very small rise in flux density for a very large rise in magnetising force. The shape of this characteristic and the saturation value varies from material to material.

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Figure 14.11 Variation of Flux Density With Magnetising Force The graph shown in Figure 14.11 shows flux density values for different magnetising currents for a field being set up in one direction by a DC supply. If the field is set up by an AC supply, then the magnetic field will experience a complete reversal of direction for each cycle and successive cycles will trace out a loop for the relationship between magnetising force and flux density. This is known as the HYSTERESIS LOOP - refer to Figure 14.12.

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Figure 14.12 Hysteresis Loop In Figure 14.12 OP is the initial magnetisation curve as seen in Figure 14.10. After point P, the current reduces and the flux density reduces. The curve then passes through Hc to Br then to P, which is the maximum flux density for the magnetic field in the opposite direction. The current now increases again and the flux density reduces to Hc and as the current increases in the opposite direction the curve climbs to point P at maximum H. Successive cycles trace out the hysteresis loop P, Hc, P, Hc, P. The loop shows that energy is used up each cycle and is dissipated in the form of heat and whilst this heating effect is rapidly dissipated underwater, on land the material being magnetised will get quite hot. The value of Br indicates that when the magnetising force is removed the material will still be magnetic. The name for this is remanence (or residual magnetism in the USA) and Hc is the magnetising force required to remove it. This is known as coercivity. In practice, the residual magnetism is removed by gradually reducing the magnetising force (lowering the current) so that the loops get smaller, thus reducing the residual magnetism. Figure 14.16 following refers. 4.1. Remanence or Residual Magnetism Remanence or residual magnetism is the magnetic flux density that remains in a material when the magnetizing force is zero. (Note that residual magnetism and retentivity are the same when the material has been magnetized to the saturation point. However, the level of residual magnetism may be lower than the retentivity value when the magnetizing force did not reach the saturation level.)
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 14 The terms retentivity and permeability have been used in connection with magnetism and MPI for very many years and while they still remain in use the ideas of relative permeability and remanence have given them a more fundamental explanation. 4.2. Retentivity When the magnetising force is removed, the amount of magnetism retained varies from material to material and this effect was know as retentivity that is a measure of the residual flux density corresponding to the saturation induction of a magnetic material. In other words, it is a material's ability to retain a certain amount of residual magnetic field when the magnetizing force is removed after achieving saturation. (The value of B at point Br on the hysteresis curve, Figure 14.12). The amount has been related to the permeability of the material and the general rule was that material with high permeability having low retentivity while those with low permeability have high retentivity. Modern permanent magnets are generally made from low permeability/high retentivity special alloys that have been subjected to large magnetising forces. See Table 14.13. 4.3. Permeability () Permeability has been defined as the ease with which a material can be magnetised. Of course, it is only some of the ferromagnetic group that are usefully magnetised. Those that are easy to magnetise are: Soft iron Low carbon steel These were said to have high permeability. As a contrast high carbon steel, which required more magnetising force to produce the same amount of magnetisation, was said to have low permeability. See Table 14.13 4.4. Coercive Force The amount of reverse magnetic field which must be applied to a magnetic material to make the magnetic flux return to zero. (The value of H at point Hc on the hysteresis curve.) 4.5. Reluctance This is another term that has been in use for many years in MPI. It is a term used to describe the opposition that a ferromagnetic material shows to the establishment of a magnetic field. Reluctance is analogous to the resistance in an electrical circuit, however it does not have units while resistance does of course. (This term is sometimes used as the opposite of permeability; low permeability would indicate high reluctance and visa versa).

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Low Permeability (Difficult to magnetise) High Retentivity High Remanence High Reluctance High Coercivity to demagnetise

High Permeability (Easily magnetised) Low Retentivity Low Remanence Low Reluctance Low Coercivity to demagnetise

Table 14.13 The Relationship Between Permeability and Retentivity 4.6. Demagnetising After a work piece is magnetised for inspection a residual magnetic field will remain, the strength of this field will depend on the retentivity of the material. 4.6.1. Measuring the Residual Field Applying a Field Strength Indicator to the work piece will assess the magnitude of the residual field. This is a sensitive meter that has a small bar magnet mounted on a bearing built in. This magnet will swing to align itself with any magnetic field that is present in the test area. These meters may be calibrated, in which case the magnitude of the residual field may be read off directly, or they may be un-calibrated. It must be emphasised that these meters are only for measuring residual field strength. They are far too sensitive to measure the magnitude of the induced field applied for an inspection and will be damaged if they are attempted to be used for this purpose. See Figures 14.14 and 14.15

Figure 14.14 Field Strength Indicator Diagram


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Figure 14.15 Field Indicator This residual field should be removed: Prior to MPI to prevent the possibility of magnetic vector fields that would reduce the sensitivity of the inspection A vector is the result of two opposing forces that is orientated in a different direction to either of them. With an unknown residual field interacting or opposing the applied field the vector will be unpredictable On offshore structures before MPI as they are fixed in the earths magnetic field subject to constant vibration and may be weakly magnetic After the inspection so as not to interfere with any sensitive electronic or electrical equipment Prior to welding as residual magnetic fields may cause arc blow As required before any other process is initiated that may be affected by stray residual magnetic fields The process is illustrated in Figure 14.16 and only requires that the hysteresis be collapsed. This can be achieved most easily electrically by reducing the magnetising force over a short period of time as indicated in the diagram. Practically this may be accomplished by winding a coil around the site to be demagnetised then using a rheostat to wind down

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Magnetic Particle Inspection the current as opposed to switching it off which would leave a residual field.

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Figure 14.16 Collapsing the Hysteresis Loop To Demagnetise a Material There are other methods for demagnetising other than reducing the current with a rheostat. 4.7. AC Aperture Coil A pre-formed coil consisting of a large number of windings with internal diameters up to approximately 1 m is connected to an AC supply. The supply is switched on, which generates a strong magnetic field surrounding the coil. This equipment is bench mounted. Any component that is to be demagnetised is passed slowly through the coil along its axis and withdrawn approximately 1 to 2 m. As the component is withdrawn it cuts fewer and fewer lines of flux, which collapses the hysteresis. See Figure 14.17

Figure 14.17 AC Coil


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Magnetic Particle Inspection As an alternative to withdrawing the component it may be left in place and the current reduced by a rheostat as outlined above. This also collapses the hysteresis again demagnetising the component, which may then be removed. 4.8. Reversing DC Aperture Coil This is a time consuming method, which will not be used offshore but is applied when it is necessary to demagnetise strong residual fields that have been induced by a DC force or strong permanent magnets. The component is placed in the coil then a DC is applied that is high enough to produce a magnetic field stronger than the residual field. The polarity is then reversed and the current reduced in measured steps to ensure the residual field is reduced by each step. This process is continued until the residual field is reduced to zero. See Figure 14.18

Figure 14.18 Reversing DC Coil 4.9. AC Electromagnets If an AC induced the residual field it can be removed by stroking with an electromagnet. The stroking is accomplished in a circular manner ensuring the return path is as far removed from the metal surface as possible. Figure 14.19 refers.

Figure 14.19 Demagnetising With an AC Yoke


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 14 This method can also be applied with a permanent magnet. 4.10. Other Methods to Demagnetise Demagnetising can be accomplished by heating the component up to the Curie point (700 720o C). This method is not applied offshore. It is possible to demagnetise by vibrating or beating the component but this has no practical application. 5. Producing Magnetic Fields This system of inspection is based on the phenomenon that the path of the magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material is distorted because inhomogeneities (like cracks, blowholes, inclusions, grain boundaries etc.) have different magnetic properties to a greater or lesser degree than the surrounding material. All systems of magnetic non-destructive testing need some method of detecting this distortion of the magnetic flux, most often called flux leakage. Of course all such systems need a method for producing the magnetic field in the first instance. 6. Magnetisation The magnetic field can be set up in a magnetic material in the following ways: Align the test piece North South in the earths magnetic field Heat the test piece to the Curie point and align North South Induced Magnetism by the use of a permanent magnet Induced Magnetism by passing an electric current directly through the work piece Induced Magnetism by passing an electric current through a conductor close to the work piece The first two methods are only of interest in a laboratory and are of no further interest. The last three methods are applied underwater mainly by diver inspectors but some also by ROV 6.1. Use of Permanent Magnets (This also applies to electro-magnets) A U shaped magnet is used, the work piece completing the magnetic path or circuit between the poles. The lines of flux that normally exist between the poles are concentrated in the work piece, instead of returning through the air because the work piece completes the magnetic circuit in the same manner as a keeper normally acts. Figures 14.20A and B refer. The direction of the magnetic field set up using a permanent magnet is shown in Figure 14.20A. The maximum disturbance to the magnetic field and hence the maximum flux leakage is caused by defects that are at right angles to the field. This of course is true no matter how the magnetic field is produced. Figure 14.20C and D refer.

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Figure 14.20 Permanent Magnets Inducing Magnetic Flux 6.1.1. Strength Required for MPI Permanent Magnets The strength for a permanent magnet used in MPI is stated in BS EN ISO 9934-1:2001 (this replaces BS 6072:1981 which remains current). The requirement is that the permanent magnet must be able to lift at least 18 kilograms with a pole spacing of between 75 to 150 mm. The area that can be inspected lies between the poles and extends to half the pole spacing at right angles to this dimension. If the magnet is too weak the field will be insufficient to give a clear magnetic pattern, if too strong a dense accumulation of iron particles from the detection medium will make the patterns difficult to interpret, especially in the region of the pole pieces. On straight work pieces like plates and cylinders good contact between the pole pieces and the work pieces is easily obtained by having shaped pole pieces, flat for plate and radiused for cylindrical-shaped work pieces. For more complicated shapes, for example when examining the weld at 12 oclock on the joint of a vertical diagonal member on a node, the pole pieces need to rotate as well as being shaped in order to make good contact. Figure 14.21 refers

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Figure 14.21 Flexible Pole Electro-magnet Electro-magnets have the advantage that they can be applied and removed from the work piece easily when the current is off, but this system does need an electrical supply. 6.1.2. Advantages and Disadvantages of Permanent Magnets Any system used for testing will have advantages and disadvantages and the use of permanent magnets, as a system for MPI is no exception. 6.1.2.1. Advantages Magnets are cheap and readily available No power supply is required for permanent magnets There are no contact problems with the poles and the work piece, thus arching or damage to the surface is avoided They will be self-supporting and can be used overhead easily They are relatively lightweight 6.1.2.2. Disadvantages All permanent magnets loose strength with age and each time a magnet is used it will loose a small amount of its strength
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Magnetic Particle Inspection They only produce a direct longitudinal field. There is no skin effect. The magnet will have to be physically removed from the work piece which will take some force if it is a 18 kg lift magnet or stronger. There is no control over field strength; the magnet only has one value. This may cause saturation in some circumstances. The magnetic poles on the magnet may attract the iron particles in the indicating medium and mask defect indications in the region adjacent to the poles. Good pole contact is extremely desirable to ensure maximum flux density in the work piece. 6.2. Electromagnet (or Yoke) Electromagnets are constructed of a soft iron laminated core around which is wound very many turns of insulated copper wire thus forming a coil. The reason for using a laminated core is to reduce inductance when the current is flowing. If an AC electromagnet is used the induced magnetic field will exhibit the skin effect. The method of application is as shown for a permanent magnet. 6.2.1. Strength Required for MPI Electromagnets The strength for an electromagnet used in MPI is stated in BS EN ISO 9934-1:2001. The requirement is that the electromagnet must be able to lift 4 kilograms with pole spacing up to 300 mm. As with permanent magnets the inspection area should be between the poles. See Figures 14.21 and 14.22.

Figure 14.22 Electromagnet 6.2.2. Advantages Either AC or pulsed DC can be used to induce the magnetic field The current can be adjusted thus controlling flux density
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 14 The magnetising current can be switched off for easy removal from the metal surface Mains power can be used there is no need for a transformer Will not damage the work piece Lightweight AC electromagnets can be used to demagnetise 6.2.3. Disadvantages A power supply is required Only longitudinal magnetisation can be generated Mains voltage is carried directly in the yoke There must be good pole contact on the metal surface to ensure adequate flux flow in the work piece 6.3. Passing an Electric Current Directly Through the Work Piece Induced magnetism is achieved by using contact prods to pass an electric current directly through the work piece. Sometimes these prods are clamped in place but mainly they are hand held. (This method has been a recommended
method for magnetisation in Det Norske Veritas, Rules for the Design, Construction and Inspection of Offshore Structures, 1977, Appendix 1, In-service Inspection.)

Passing a current through the work piece produces a circular field between the contact points as shown in Figure 14.23. The orientation of this field can be seen to be different to that produced by permanent magnets, which is longitudinal. The magnitude of the current employed will depend on: The plate thickness Prod separation The current requirement as stated in BS EN ISO 9934-1:2001 is that for every 1 mm prod separation 4 to 5 Amperes current is required. This means that if the prod separation is 200 mm between 800 and 1000 Amps are required. (This requirement is equivalent to 100 Amps per one-inch prod separation).

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Figure 14.23 Magnetic Field Produced by Current Flow Prods When using this technique, care must be taken to ensure that the contact areas are sufficiently clean to pass the current required without arching or burning. To ensure that arching is avoided the following applies: Do not turn on the magnetising current until there is full and adequate prod contact Turn the power off before the prods are removed from the test surface The prods should have soft tips to assist with good prod contact Use only low voltage The prods may be separate, when two hands are required, or mounted on a bar, which allows one-handed operation. Direct or alternating current (DC or AC) may be used. DC produces magnetic fields that penetrate deeper into the work piece. AC produces a skin effect which confines the current and therefore the magnetic field, to the surface skin of the metal. 6.3.1. Alternating Current Alternating current (AC) reverses in direction at a rate of 50 or 60 cycles per second. In the United States, 60 cycles current is the commercial norm but 50 cycles current is standard in the UK. Since AC is readily available in most facilities, it is convenient to make use of it for magnetic particle inspection. However, when AC is used to induce a magnetic field in ferromagnetic materials the magnetic field will be limited to narrow region at the surface of the component. This phenomenon is known as skin effect and it occurs because induction is not a spontaneous reaction and the rapidly reversing current does not allow the domains down in the material time to align. Therefore, it is recommended that AC
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 14 be used only when the inspection is limited to surface defects. See Figure 14.24

Figure 14.24 Skin Effect in a Circular Component When the conductor is carrying alternating current, the internal magnetic field strength rises from zero at the centre to a maximum at the surface. However, the field is concentrated in a thin layer near the surface of the conductor. This is the "skin effect." It should also be remembered that with AC the field is constantly varying in strength and direction. OIS of Great Yarmouth manufacture and supply a composite MPI unit that is purpose designed and built for underwater use. See Figure 14.25.

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Figure 14.25 OIS Mark 2 Sub-sea MPI Unit and Current Flow Prods In the case of prod testing the advantages and disadvantages are listed below 6.3.1.1. Advantages Either AC or DC may be used Low voltage may be used (typically 3 V) Adjusting current output will control Field strength There will be no collection of indicating medium around the prods 6.3.1.2. Disadvantages Without good prod contact there will be no induced magnetic field A heavy transformer must be used to drop the voltage There is always the danger of arching on the metal surface There is a danger of overheating the equipment If arching does occur metal inclusions from the prod tips may result 6.4. Induced Magnetism Using a Coil A conductor carrying a current induces a circular magnetic field around it as shown with prods. Therefore, ferromagnetic materials near the conductor will be in this magnetic field and lines of magnetic flux will be concentrated in them as they have less magnetic resistance than air. However, a different shaped magnetic field will be produced if the conductor is wound in the form of a coil around the material to be tested. See Figure 14.26

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Figure 14.26 Longitudinal Magnetisation Produced Inside a Coil A ferromagnetic material placed in the coil, or outside parallel to and touching the coil, will experience longitudinal magnetism. This method is widely used offshore and two practical applications will serve to show how the technique may be applied. 6.4.1. Evenly Spaced Coil A flexible cable is wound around the test piece so that the area under inspection is contained within the encircling coil with individual wraps of the coil being evenly spaced equidistant to each other. Figure 14.27 refers.

Figure 14.27 Evenly Spaced Coil


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Magnetic Particle Inspection The current requirement for this technique is determined from the formulas: -

Where I = Required current (DC) T = Wall thickness of the work piece Y = Coil spacing 4 = Constant 7.5 = constant If AC is to be used the formula is modified to: -

Where I = Required current (AC) 10 = Constant Y = Coil spacing 7.7 = Constant As AC will produce magnetic flux only on the skin of the work piece the thickness of the material is of no consequence therefore another constant 10 replaces T. 6.4.2. Close Wrapped Coil In this technique the inspection area does not have to lie inside the encircling coils. However, the test zone must still lie close enough to the ends of the coil to ensure an adequate flux density in this area. Figure 14.28 refers.

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Figure 14.28 Close Wrapped Coil The current requirement for this technique is determined by the formula: -

Where I peak = The peak current value (AC) r = The radius of the coil (mm) N = Number of turns in the coil (minimum 3) 16 = Constant The distance either end of the coil where minimum field strength of 0.72 Tesla should be present is given by the formula: -

Where d = Width of the inspection area (where field strength = 0.72 T) N = Number of turns in the coil I = Peak current (Amps) 30 = Constant It is also possible to produce a transverse magnetic field by looping the conductor into a configuration called parallel loops, see Figure 14.29
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Figure 14.29 Parallel Loops This produces a transverse field between the two sides of the loop. The loop has to be positioned so that the current in the two sides of it is moving in the same direction or else the magnetic fields will tend to cancel instead of reinforce. Furthermore the return cables not forming the parallel loops must be a minimum of 10d away from the inspection area as shown in Figure 14.29. The direction of the field may be ascertained by applying the right hand rule. The required current may be found by applying the formula: I peak (ac) = 30 x d It will be noted that this is the coil end effect formula transposed. 6.4.3. The Right Hand Rule If the thumb of the right hand is extended in a thumbs up gesture and the fingers are loosely gripped the thumb indicates the conventional current flow and the fingers indicate the direction of the circular magnetic field produced. See Figure 14.30

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Figure 14.30 The Right Hand Rule The OIS Mark 2 Sub-sea MPI unit may be used for this technique.

Current up to 1000 Amps can be used. See Figure 14.31 Figure 14.31 OIS Mark 2 Sub-sea MPI Unit Showing Flexible Cables Connected That May be used as Parallel Conductors or Encircling Coils
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Magnetic Particle Inspection This method of magnetising ferromagnetic materials offers development potential for producing adequate magnetic fields for inspecting structures that have complicated shapes, like nodes and pipe intersections. It was shown some 30 years age by Lumb and Winship in their paper on Magnetic Particle Crack Detection printed in Metal Construction, July and August 1977, that this method of magnetising could give good uniformity in the magnetic field between the parallel sides of the loop. 6.4.4. Advantages Flexible cables can be positioned relatively easily Large areas can be inspected with one placement of the coil or loop The field strength and thus flux density can be adjusted Demagnetising is easily achieved 6.4.5. Disadvantages A relatively weak field is produced Long cables are required Large, heavy step-down transformers are required Isolating transformers are required on deck 6.5. Continuous and Residual Magnetisation Techniques Both techniques are used for land base inspections but the continuous technique is used almost exclusively for underwater applications because of the possibility of wash out or dilution of the indicating medium in the water. 6.5.1. Continuous Magnetisation This technique entails magnetising the work piece at the same time as the indicating medium is applied. The area under inspection is then examined while the magnetic field is maintained. This method is generally regarded as being the more sensitive, but indications of defects other than actual damage such as cracks can be given; for example, leakage fields from the coil wrapped around the work piece and flux leakage in the vicinity of a prod from spurious indications such as grain boundaries, due to high flux density in these regions. The closer the magnetic field is to saturation the more sensitive it is to flux leakage due to small order inhomogeneities in the material. Figure 14.32 refers. The recommended flux level for satisfactory crack detection is between 1/3 and full saturation.

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Figure 14.32 Variation of Types of Defects Giving Indications as the Field Strength Increases 6.5.2. Residual Magnetisation In the residual technique the work piece is magnetised and the indicating medium is still applied at the same time. However, the actual inspection is completed with the magnetising force removed and the work piece is examined with only any residual field producing the flux leakage at any discontinuities. As these fields are much weaker than those produced by the continuous method there is much lower sensitivity. Of course, the technique does eliminate spurious or false indications. Underwater it could be used re-inspect any suspect area where the suspicion is that a false indication has been identified. 7. How Defects Interact With the Induced Magnetic Field Surface breaking and near-surface indications are detectable by MPI because of the way these discontinuities interact with the induced magnetic field. The defect will cause a distortion of the magnetic field because either its permeability is different to the surrounding metal or consequential poles are formed at the parameters of surface breaking discontinuities. In either case the flux density will increase. With a distortion in the field the flux lines will be grouped together raising the field strength while with consequential poles the tension in the lines of flux will increase; there will be increased field density due to this, as with the poles of a magnet. See Figure 14.33

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Figure 14.33 Discontinuities Interacting With the Magnetic Field The orientation of the defect to the direction of flow of the lines of flux will determine how strong an indication will be, or even if an indication will be seen at all. The strongest indication will be given by discontinuities at 90o to the lines of flux as it cuts through the maximum number and causes most distortion to the field, if the orientation is at 45o the indication will be less strong because the defect is cutting less flux lines. If the flaw is parallel with the lines of force it will not cut any and will not be seen, as it gives no indication. Figure 14.34 refers.

Figure 14.34 Flaw Orientation Because of the affect that defect orientation has on how strong an indication will be given it is most important that the induced magnetic field be applied in two directions, perpendicular to each other. This will ensure maximum sensitivity for the test and should ensure that all defects are identified no matter what their orientation within the magnetic field. 8. Detection of the Magnetic Field In MPI it is essential that a diver inspector know that a magnetic field does actually exist in the test area that has been set up. There are test devices; called flux indicators available designed specifically to detect magnetic fields. Those that are used underwater will be examined and explained.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 14 8.1. Burmah Castrol Strips This is a strip of steel that has 3 fine longitudinal cuts in it. This is completely encased in two strips of brass. When this is placed in a magnetic field at 90o to the expected orientation and indicating medium is applied, the cuts will appear as crack indications provided the field is strong enough. These are available with different degrees of sensitivity. See figure 14.35 and 14.40

Figure 14.35 Burmah Castrol Strip 8.2. Berthold Penetrameter The Berthold Penetrameter is shown in Figure 14.36. When the Penetrameter is placed on the work piece being magnetised, some of the induced flux is shunted to two slits cut at right angles in the soft iron cylindrical stud that is the test element. The flux leakage at these air gaps in the test element can be detected by applying indicating medium to the thin plate that is held in place by a screw thread and covers the test element. The indication is a thin line of indicator where the iron particles have collected at the flux leakage. The direction of the field can be deduced from which line of the cross is shown up. The field lies at right angles to this line. Varying the distance between the test element and the plate that covers it will control the sensitivity. Screwing or unscrewing the cap and setting the calibration numbers against a datum mark on the swivel holder achieves this.

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Figure 14.36 Berthold Penetrameter 8.3. Gauss Meter This is an electric powered meter that will read the field strength directly from the input of a probe that is applied to the test area. The meter gives a digital readout in Tesla. Figure 14.37 refers

Figure 14.37 Combined Gauss Meter and White and Black Light Meter
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 14 9. Detecting the Distortion in the Magnetic Field (Flux Leakage) The effectiveness of the magnetic particle inspection is determined by the sensitivity with which it is possible to detect the change in the magnetic field due to the presence of a defect causing the flux leakage. There are three possibilities Moving a compass over the test area and watch for the needle to kick Using a search coil and looking for a change in impedance By visual observation using indicating mediums to show the distortion The first two methods are impractical currently underwater for diver inspectors although the search coil may have potential for ROV. 9.1. Visual Detection Visual detection is achieved by observing the distortion of the magnetic field as shown by the patterns in magnetic particles distributed over the test surface. These magnetic particles are available in dry powder form, as a liquid suspension, magnetic ink, or as powders ready to mix with water to form a useable suspension. There are other types of indicating media but the water-based ink is the type used underwater and the other types will not be considered further. The particles used are fine ferrous oxides that are much lighter than iron filing and therefore will go into suspension in the water more easily and remain suspended much longer. For underwater use a fluorescent powder is mixed with the particles so that they will fluoresce under ultra-violet light, which makes them easier to see. Non-fluorescent ink powders are also available. The method of use is to apply the magnetic field and while the test surface is magnetised the ink is applied. Any flaws cause flux leakage with a resultant build-up in flux density. The iron oxide in the ink will be strongly attracted to this strong magnetic field and will collect. Using a suitable ultra-violet light the indication can be viewed, interpreted and reported. 9.1.1. Ink Properties Ink properties are required to meet standards for composition, content, safety and toxicity. The current standard for MPI inks is BS EN ISO 9934-2:2002. This standard states that inks must, be non-toxic, be free of contaminants, not cause discomfort to users, and be non-corrosive to the work piece. Additionally the ink should have the following properties: The ink grains should be fine enough to reduce gravitational effects to go easily into suspension but not be so fine as to coagulate in the liquid The grains should have an elongated shape to facilitate polarisation The grains must have high permeability so as to be easily magnetised
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Magnetic Particle Inspection The grains must have low retentivity to facilitate removal after the test The ink itself must have a good contrast against the test background to ensure good visibility and greater sensitivity The concentration of ferrous particles, additives and fluorescent powder is specified in the standard, as is the method for testing the correct concentration in any ink. 9.1.2. Ink Colours Used Underwater The most common ink used is fluorescent ink and this is available in different colours, although green is the most popular. Black and Red inks are also available. The fluorescent powder coating the ferrous particles is a salt that fluoresces when it is illuminated by ultraviolet light. 9.2. Testing MPI Ink to BS EN ISO 9934-2:2002 The ink or powder must be supplied as certified manufactured to the ISO standard with a batch number that should be recorded. The correct quantity of powder as per manufacturers instructions should be measured and put into a suitable mixing vessel. Inks are available which include wetting agents however; it is more common to add such an agent at this stage. The standard does not allow the addition of more than 10% by weight of any additives to the ink A wetting agent is a chemical that lowers the surface tension of water; most washing up liquids contain one Enough water is added to the mixing vessel to make up it into a slurry, which is then put into a measuring bucket and made up to the correct quantity with water It is becoming increasingly common to have batches of ink supplied in slurry form all ready to mix with water to the correct concentration Once the ink is mixed it should be constantly agitated to ensure the suspension is maintained and a 100 ml sample should be drawn off The sample is required to complete a settling test to confirm the ink has been made up to the correct concentration. 9.2.1. Settling Test The test is completed to the following procedure: Draw off the 100 ml sample into a calibrated settling flask. Either a Sutherland or thistle type flask is suitable. See Figure 14.38 Allow the sample suspension to settle for 60 minutes Read off and record the quantity of solids that have collected in the bottom of the flask.

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Figure 14.38 Settlement Flask The recommended concentrations for a valid result are different for different inks. 9.2.2. Fluorescent Inks Ferromagnetic particles Other solids Ferromagnetic particles Other solids 9.2.4. Carrier Fluid Water or paraffin Soluble Additives no more than 10% by weight 10. Lighting and Viewing Conditions As the chosen method for detecting MPI indications is vision the ambient light conditions and the quality and quantity of ultraviolet light must be at correct levels. The standards for adequate lighting is stated in BS EN ISO 3059:2001. The minimum requirements for ambient and ultraviolet light as stated in the standard are summarised below.
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0.1% to 0.3% (0.6 2.4 gm l-1) by volume in the ink 10% by weight 1.25% to 3.5% (6 24 gm l-1) by volume in the ink 10% by weight

9.2.3. Non-fluorescent Inks

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10.1. Visible Light Inspection (Using Non-fluorescent Inks) There must be a minimum of 500 lux white light in the viewing area. This light should be provided using a diffused light source if possible. (An 80-watt fluorescent light tube gives 500 watt at 1 m distance). 10.2. Background and Ultraviolet Light Levels Using Fluorescent Inks The background light level must be dark with ambient light not exceeding 20 lux so that the fluorescence from the ink particles has sufficient contrast to be easily seen. The ultraviolet light must be a minimum of 1000 W cm-2. The wavelength of the light should be 365 to 400 nm. (Refer to the electromagnetic spectrum in Chapter 13 Ultrasonic Inspection). 10.2.1. Safety Considerations With Ultraviolet Light Ultraviolet light can be harmful to health causing burns, cataracts and cancer if not used under controlled conditions. As can be seen from the electromagnetic spectrum ultraviolet light covers a range of frequencies. These have been split into UVA and UVB with UVA, being the less harmful wavelengths. Wavelengths between 365 and 400 nm produce UVA which is why they are used for MPI testing. Mercury vapour spot light bulbs, which produce light by discharging an arc in mercury vapour contained in the bulb, produce a large amount of ultraviolet light along with visible white light. This type of bulb is put into a housing and a Woods filter is placed in front of it. The woods filter blocks the harmful wavelengths of UV light while allowing UVA at 365 nm to pass through. Care should still be exercised when using ultraviolet light to avoid either looking into it directly or shining it into anyone elses eyes. 10.3. Testing the Ultraviolet Light There are a number of reasons to test ultraviolet lights used for MPI: The intensity must be high enough to create sufficient fluorescence in the ink to make identification of flaws possible The wavelength of the light must be in the correct part of the spectrum for operator safety The mercury vapour bulbs degenerate with use and produce less ultraviolet light as they age. They must be checked regularly because of this The requirements stated in the standard must be met The procedure for testing an ultraviolet light is laid down below.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 14 10.3.1. Ultraviolet Light Test Procedure Switch on the lamp and allow it to warm up for 15 minutes Lamps designed for underwater use must be immersed in cooling water during this test otherwise the heat generated will damage the seals Shine the lamp onto a photometer (black light meter); holding it at the viewing distance from the meter. (The viewing distance is typically 30 40 cm) Read the meter and record the result. (The reading must be 1000 W cm2 or the lamp must be changed). The lamp should be checked before every inspection and at least monthly when not in constant use. Figures 14.37 14.39 and 14.40 refer.

Figure 14.39 Testing Output From A Black Light

Figure 14.40 OIS Underwater Black Light with Castrol Strip Attached by Cord
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Magnetic Particle Inspection 11. Cleaning Standard The inspection area must be cleaned to a minimum SA 2 (for a weld this must be for at least 75 mm either side of the weld). Additionally sufficient general cleaning (SA 1) must be completed to allow intimate contact for magnetising apparatus. 12. Alternative Forms of Electric Current Applied in MPI Inducing a magnetic field into a work piece electrically was examined in paragraph 5 where it was stated that either DC or AC might be used. The type of current must be considered further as the induced magnetic field strength and its characteristics are determined by this current. First consider measuring electricity. Either current or voltage may be measured. For the purpose of inducing a magnetic field the amperage is the more important value. In underwater inspection the voltage is kept as low as possible for safety reasons and typically only about 4 volts potential is applied to the coils or prods. However, up to 1000 A may well be used. Direct Current Considering DC firstly the actual current flow is in one direction only, from positive to negative conventionally. This can be shown on a graph thus Figure 14.41: -

Figure 14.41 Direct Current Using DC to induce a magnetic field will produce a field that penetrates into the work piece and will be a better method for discovering defects that are just below the metal surface. In ferromagnetic materials, the magnetic field produced by DC generally penetrates the entire cross-section of the component; whereas, the field produced using alternating current is concentrated in a thin layer at the surface of the component.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 14 Alternating Current AC reverses in direction at a rate of 50 or 60 Hz. In the UK, 50 Hz current is the commercial norm but 60 Hz current is common in many countries. Since AC is readily available in most facilities, it is convenient to make use of it for MPI. However, when AC is used to induce a magnetic field in ferromagnetic materials the magnetic field will be limited to a narrow region at the surface of the component. This phenomenon is known as "skin effect" and it occurs because induction is not a spontaneous reaction and the rapidly reversing current does not allow the domains down in the material time to align. Therefore, it is recommended that AC be used only when the inspection is limited to surface defects. See Figure 14.42

Figure 14.42 Alternating Current Furthermore as the current is constantly reversing no single value for the current can be measured. To determine a single measured value for an AC the Root Mean Square (RMS) value is calculated. This is indicated on Figure 14.42. To calculate the RMS value all that is required is to divide the peak value by the constant 1.414. The normal situation is that an amperage reading indicates the current being applied. The meter will be indicating an RMS value. Therefore to obtain the peak value multiply the meter reading by 1.414. (This may be required if the applied current is close to the saturation value for the work piece). Rectified Alternating Current Clearly, the skin effect limits the use of AC since some inspection applications may call for the detection of sub-surface defects. However, the convenient access to AC drives its use beyond surface flaw inspections. However, AC can easily be converted to current that is very much like DC through the process of rectification. With the use of rectifiers, the reversing AC can be converted to a
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Magnetic Particle Inspection one-directional current. The three commonly used types of rectified current are described below. See Figure 14.43

Figure 14.43 Rectified Alternating Current


(Figures 14.30, and 14.43 attributed to University of Iowa)

Half Wave Rectified Alternating Current (HWAC) When single phase alternating current is passed through a rectifier, current is allowed to flow in only one direction. The reverse half of each cycle is blocked out so that a one directional, pulsating current is produced. The current rises from zero to a maximum and then returns to zero. No current flows during the time when the reverse cycle is blocked out. The HWAC repeats at same rate as the un-rectified current (50 or 60 HZ typical). Since half of the current is blocked out, the amperage is half of the unaltered AC. This type of current is often referred to as half wave DC or pulsating DC. The pulsation of the HWAC helps magnetic particle indications form by vibrating the particles and giving them added mobility. This added mobility is especially important when using dry particles. The pulsation is reported to significantly improve inspection sensitivity. HWAC is most often used to power electromagnetic yokes. Full Wave Rectified Alternating Current (FWAC) (Single Phase) Full wave rectification inverts the negative current to positive current rather than blocking it out. This produces a pulsating DC with no interval between the pulses. Filtering is usually performed to soften the sharp polarity switching in the rectified current. While particle mobility is not as good as half-wave AC due to the reduction in pulsation, the depth of the subsurface magnetic field is improved.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 14 Three Phase Full Wave Rectified Alternating Current Three phase current is often used to power industrial equipment because it has more favourable power transmission and line loading characteristics. This type of electrical current is also highly desirable for magnetic particle testing because when it is rectified and filtered, the resulting current very closely resembles direct current. Stationary magnetic particle equipment wired with three phase AC would usually have the ability to magnetize with AC or DC (three phase full wave rectified), providing the advantages of each current form. However, currently this form of power is not deployed sub-sea. 13. MPI Test Procedure A general procedure that may be applied or adapted for offshore use would be: Surface Checks Obtain the necessary work permits (possibly hot work may be required) Ensure that an isolating transformer is in the circuit Test all circuit breakers or Residual Current Devices (RCD) Check all electric cables for integrity Confirm rigging and buoyancy is correct Ensure the ultraviolet light is to BS EN ISO 3059:2001 specifications Ensure the ink is to BS EN ISO 9934-2:2002 (settling test) Confirm the ink distribution system is functioning correctly Calculate the required current Function test all the MPI equipment Ensure the gauss meter is functioning and ready for deployment Ensure all ancillary equipment is available, (tapes, grinder, hammer, punch, etc.) Confirm that the personnel are qualified and briefed Prepare the recording equipment (CCTV, camera, data sheets) In Water Preparation Establish the down lines and working lines on the correct site Clean the inspection site to the specifications (SA 2 for 75 mm) Pre-inspection Establish the datum and place tape measure, mark up the weld Complete a Close Visual Inspection (CVI) identify areas that may cause spurious indication during the MPI MPI Rig the transformer safely as close as possible to the test site Switch on the ultraviolet light Confirm that ambient light is less than 20 lux Rig and lay out the coils or parallel loops or prods or magnet on the test site Demagnetise the work site Confirm the ink is constantly agitated Position the gauss meter ready to monitor the induced field strength Switch on the current on the diver inspectors command, record current Read out the indicated field strength on the gauss meter (0.72 T minimum) Apply ink as required to the weld and complete the inspection As the inspection progresses confirm adequate field strength at each clock
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Magnetic Particle Inspection position If any indications are identified re-inspect to confirm the findings With confirmed indications record Location (distance from datum) Length Orientation and position on weld Continuous or intermittent Branching or not Weak or strong indication Complete remedial grinding as per the procedure Retest after grinding Mark the ends of the feature with a punch mark if required Post inspection Demagnetise De-rig and recover all equipment to the surface Wash all equipment with fresh water Flush out the ink system Report the results to the client Cancel work permits 14. Interpretation of Indications There are three type of indication that may result from an MPI: Relevant indications These are produced by defects Spurious or non-relevant Caused by sharp changes in geometry, such as the toe of the weld Brazed joints because of the difference in permeability Changes in permeability caused by heat treatment. (The parent plate, the HAZ, the weld itself) Magnetic writing caused by two different metals rubbing together False indications Figure 14.44 refers Caused by other factors such as gravity

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Figure 14.44 Spurious or Non-relevant Indications 15. Reporting Indications Any indications should be reported in a standard manner. The distance from the datum mark The length The orientation and position relative to the weld Whether the indication is strong or weak Whether the indication is continuous or intermittent Whether it branches or not with the orientation of any branches Position of the indication, whether on the weld, toe, HAZ, parent plate etc. Always use the correct terminology. An example of a report sheet is reproduced in Figure 14.45

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Client: Location: Dive number: Description of workpiece

Node reference: Date:

MPI report sheet: Depth: Sheet

of

Equipment: Used: Make & Serial No: Ink: % by vol: Permanent Make: magnet: Coil: Water based: Parallel loop: Fluorescent: U/V lamp: Black: Ink dispenser: Current used: Amps Other: AC: DC: Turns: Cleaning: HP water: HP grit: LP grit: Hyd wire brush Hand: Viewing conditions: Ambient light Lux Surface finish: W/CM2 _ UV/A General report: Flux indicator: 3oc 6oc 9oc 12oc

Test restrictions: Client:

Diver:
Inspection engineer

Figure 14.45 Sample Data Report Sheet 16. Recording Indications The actual MPI indications may be recorded in a number of ways. 16.1. Ultraviolet Photography A conventional photograph can be taken using either: An ultraviolet lamp and a long exposure on the camera An appropriate ultraviolet filter on the strobe and expose for the flash

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 14 16.2. Cast This is used with dry powder not ink and therefore has no underwater application. The indication is exposed with the dry powder and a cast such as microset is applied. The dry powder particles are captured in the cast. 16.3. Foil Packets (Magfoil) These are supplied in ready-made packets that have two compartments that are separated by an internal barrier that is ruptured when the packet is applied to the test site. The two compartments contain magnetic particles and the mixing liquid that are kept apart until the barrier is ruptured. A triangular wire flux indicator is also mounted inside the packet. The method of operation is to break the internal barrier and mix the contents by manipulating the bag. This takes approximately 45 seconds and the contents will take on a grey colour. Apply the bag to the test site. The contents will remain liquid for 100 seconds. Apply the magnetising force during this period The defect indication will be recorded as a white mark in the packet Leave the packet in place until the liquid sets (approximately 5 minutes) The packet can then be removed and the indication length and breadth can be measured. These dimensions will give an indication of defect length and depth 16.4. CCTV Some video cameras will capture the visible light of the fluorescent particles when the ultraviolet light is directed on them. This signal can be recorded on disc. 16.5. Rubberised Tape Transfer An adhesive rubberised tape can be applied to a dry indication. The magnetic particles adhere to the tape, which can then be peeled off. This cannot be applied underwater. It may have a possible use in a welding habitat. 17. Factors Affecting MPI Sensitivity The sensitivity of a magnetic particle inspection is the effectiveness with which the test will discover defects and crack-like features in the material. This will depend in the main on three factors: The diver inspector The equipment being used The conditions on site For maximum efficiency of the operation, the diver inspector should, as well as being comfortable and as well equipped for the dive as possible: Issue 1.0 Rev 0 Issue date: 1 April 2006

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Magnetic Particle Inspection Have confidence in his ability to use the equipment for a particular test Be confident in his own ability to detect defects with it Be sure of the value of his contribution to the efficiency and safety of the plant or structure he is inspecting. These last three points are obtained from the competence and confidence imparted to the inspector by good training and an active involvement in the inspection function. The sensitivity of the magnetic particle test will depend on several factors, some of which will be within the control of the inspector and others not. The sensitivity of detection depends ultimately on the contrast that can be produced between the defect and its surroundings and the definition, which tells the size, shape and orientation of the defect. Figure 14.46 shows some of the factors that will affect the performance. Like a chain, it will only be as good as its weakest link.

Figure 14.46 Sensitivity of a Magnetic Particle Inspection The following points should be considered in connection with the contrast of the test. 17.1. Surface Condition (1) The effectiveness of the cleaning processes to produce a bright finish is an important factor here. A paint background would help if coloured magnetic particles were being used. 17.2. Lighting (2) If the ambient lighting is too high, for example because of bright sun near the surface, the tests must be done at night when fluorescent inks are used. The diver inspector should monitor regularly the intensity of the ultraviolet lamp to detect any deterioration in brightness, which would decrease the efficiency of detecting defects.

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17.3. Ink Condition (3) Important factors here include the best colour to attract the attention of the inspector and the right size of particle. This is tightly controlled by the appropriate standard, there could be some consideration given to larger size particles that may give better contrast. The physical condition of the ink is also important. It should be a finely divided suspension of particles that is delivered to the work piece and so the diver inspector should check to see that the agitator is working continuously. This should be a regular part of the routine. 17.4. Field Strength (4) This must be high enough to hold the ink to the surface of the defect. The following factors are important when considering definition: 17.5. Ink Condition (5) As can be seen from the chart the ink condition has an affect on both contrast and definition. The definition can be improved if the defect outline is picked out by fine magnetic particles. 17.6. Geometry of the Work Piece (6) In the main, MPI has to be carried out by diver inspectors on welds that are parts of complicated nodes in very difficult position in a hostile environment. This might be the most significant weakness in the system and methods of improving the procedures, back up for divers at the work position and redesign of the equipment with this in mind will bring about a marked improvement in defect detection. 17.7. Efficiency of the Magnetic Field Conditions (7) The effectiveness with which the inspector can set up the magnetic field condition is the heart of the magnetic particle inspection. Factors like current flow, field direction, electrical contact of the prods, coil fill factor, need to be considered carefully. 18. Glossary of Terms and List of Standards Applicable to MPI 18.1. Glossary Coercive Force: Consequential Poles: The force required to reduce the flux density within a material to zero. Areas of flux leakage that are cause by discontinuities forming breaks in the surface of the metal. The magnetic force at right angles to the direction of flow of an electric current. The units for magnetic field strength (H) are Am-1. A magnetic field strength of 1 Am-1is produced at the centre of a single circular

Electromagnetism: Field Strength:

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Magnetic Particle Inspection conductor of diameter 1 meter carrying a steady current of 1 A. See Figure 14.47.

Figure 14.47 Field Strength Flux: Flux Density: Lines of force in a magnetic field The number of flux lines per unit area. The unit is the Tesla (T), symbol B, 0.72 T is the minimum flux density required for MPI. An implement used to indicate the amount of flux density produced by an external magnetising force. A point where a line of flux leaves a material or the pole of a magnet. A diagram produced by plotting field strength (H) against flux density (B). The ease with which a material can be magnetised. The ends of a bar or horseshoe magnet where flux leakage occurs. The resistance to the flow of flux in a material, equivalent to resistance in electricity. The amount of magnetism remaining in a material after the external field is removed. The point on the hysteresis loop that indicates the residual magnetism in a material that remains after the magnetising force is removed. The point at which a material will not accept any more lines of flux. The resultant field orientation that is caused by two fields simultaneously interacting with each at different angles within a component.

Flux Indictor:

Flux Leakage: Hysteresis: Permeability (): Poles: Reluctance: Residual Magnetism: Retentivity:

Saturation: Vector Field:

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 14 18.2. MPI Standards There are a number of international standards that apply to MPI. Following is a current list of these. BS EN ISO 9934-1:2001 Non-destructive testing. Magnetic particle testing. General principles (BS 6072:1981 Method for magnetic particle flaw detection is obsolescent but remains current) BS EN ISO 3059:2001 Non-destructive testing. Penetrant testing and magnetic particle testing. Viewing conditions BS EN ISO 4063:2000 Welding and allied processes. Nomenclature of processes and reference numbers BS EN 22553:1995:1995 Welded, brazed and soldered joints. Symbolic representation on drawings BS EN 13622:2002 Gas welding equipment. Terminology. Terms used for gas welding equipment (BS 499-1:1991 Welding terms and symbols. Glossary for welding, brazing and thermal cutting is current but partially replaced) BS EN ISO 9934-1:2002 Non-destructive testing. Magnetic particle testing. General principles (BS 6072:1981 Method for magnetic particle flaw detection remains current but is obsolescent, superseded) BS EN ISO 9934-2:2002 Non-destructive testing. Magnetic particle testing. Detection media BS EN ISO 9934-3:2002 Non-destructive testing. Magnetic particle testing. Equipment

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Bibliography Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon Iowa State University Web site

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Photography

CHAPTER 15
Photography
1. Introduction to Photography Photography is a prime method for recording images of defects that have been identified by either close visual inspection or magnetic particle inspection. Photographs provide: A permanent record of the subject Comparatively high-resolution images for detailed interpretation Close-up, magnified images when required A cheap method for obtaining verification of inspection findings Time lapse exposures should this be required A proven visual recording technique An easily deployable system Stereo-photography that may be analysed by photogrammetry to provide a variety of very accurate computer generated presentations A readily available method for recording images An adaptable technique that can be tailored to suit different requirements Until recently the traditional method of photography using conventional cameras loaded with conventional colour film was the preferred application of this technique. However modern digital photography utilising the newest cameras deployed underwater in specialised housings has taken over the field. It will be this type of photography that is considered here With this in mind and having considered the advantages of the system as a recording method it is necessary to consider the disadvantages of still photography It is necessary to ensure that the subject is correctly in frame and in focus The actual definition of the recorded image is dependant on the quality of the digital camera. This type of camera records the image electronically not on a film. The electronics are either Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductors (CMOS) devices or Charged-Coupled Devices, (CCD) that take in light and give out electricity. These are rated by the number of pixels and the greater the number per square unit of screen, (the greater the density) the better the resolution. For underwater applications it is necessary to use the best quality cameras that provide the best resolution. For the applications considered here the camera should be at least 6 mega-pixels and preferable greater, up to 12 mega-pixels. Lighting has to be correct to ensure an acceptable image is captured

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 15 Lighting is the most crucial element in this list, followed closely by the number of pixels. 1.1. Light and Photography Although digital cameras record the light image electronically a brief look at the way traditional film records light will assist greatly in gaining a better understanding of how the camera actually captures the image. Traditional film is made of celluloid that has an emulsion coating containing silver halide salts, which react when exposed to light. When the film is processed the silver halides are converted chemically to dyes to produce either colour negatives or colour positives, (slides). The slides can be viewed once processed while the negatives must be further processed to produce colour prints. Digital cameras, of course, react to light electronically and the image is recorded immediately the exposure is taken, however the image will be sharp or muddy, crisp or blurred, good or bad depending on how the shutter speed and aperture controls are selected by the circuitry. In this regard the digital camera is the same as the traditional camera, the quantity and quality of light falling onto the recording medium must be correctly controlled. In other words the exposure must be correct. The basis for monitoring and controlling the amount of light entering the traditional camera was the film speed. The film manufacturers grading the silver halides used on the film stock determined this, the finer the grains the slower the film, or the larger the grains the faster the film. The way that the film manufactures marked the film speed was by evolving a numbering system that indicated the film speed by increasing numbers. Traditionally there were two numbering systems; one in the US called the ASA system (ASA is the American Standards Association), the other was in Europe called the DIN system (DIN is Deutsch Industries Norm). Both were an increasing number series where the higher the number the faster the film reaction to light. Some 20 years ago the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) combined the two systems to one international standard. The chart in Figure 15.1 shows a typical series

Figure 15.1 Film Speed


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Photography As can be seen by consulting the chart the ISO system merely grouped the other two systems together. Also the chart groups the films into slow, medium and fast films. Furthermore, it is obvious that as the ISO number increases the film speed, its speed of reaction to light, also increases. There is another, more fundamental but less obvious relationship to film speed and light that is also shown on the chart. This relationship is more readily demonstrated by considering the ASA system. Taking 100 ASA as an example; film of this rating will react twice as quickly to a given quantity of light than 50 ASA but only half as quick as 200 ASA. This relationship between adjacent film speeds is the same for the DIN system and therefore for the ISO system. Thus ISO 400/27 will react twice as quickly to light as ISO 200/24 but only half as quickly as ISO 800/30. This relationship is known as being a one stop difference, which will be fully explained when considering the lens system of a camera. 2. The Camera In its simplest form the camera is no more than a lightproof box with a hole in it and that contains the film. Indeed that is all the original cameras were. However modern cameras have evolved and as the film stock became standardised so cameras developed standard calibrated controls to meter the amount of light entering to expose the film. Thus the ISO number for a film has a tangible and fundamental impact on the conventional camera. Modern digital cameras only differ from conventional cameras in the recording medium and therefore they have either the same or comparable controls. 2.1. Lens Aperture All cameras then, have a lens system containing three elements, including the most fundamental, a diaphragm called the aperture that has a certain diameter, which can be adjusted by the aperture control. The aperture control is calibrated to integrate with the ISO numbering system although the units are different. Aperture controls are calibrated with f-numbers and the size of the aperture is called the f-stop. In this system f stands for factor because that is what it is. The f-stop is the number representing the ratio of the focal length of the lens to the aperture diameter thus: -

The method for determining any particular f-stop is shown by the following examples. Firstly take a typical focal length for a standard lens to be 50 mm and an aperture diameter (for a given intensity of light) of 12.5 mm.

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Then: -

Now for comparison take a typical focal length for a telephoto lens to be 135 mm with an aperture diameter of 33.75 mm (for the same intensity of light). Hence: -

It can be seen from these two examples that regardless of what the focal length of the lens is setting the f-stop control to f4 will always allow the same, metered amount of light to enter the camera, provided the aperture diameter varies in a standard manner. Of course, the camera, or lens manufactures design the lens diaphragm to open and close to the correct diameter in response to the control setting, which provides a universal standard, integrated with the ISO film speeds. Altering the aperture control by one step will either double or halve the quantity of light entering the camera. The chart in Figure 15.2 demonstrates this.

Figure 15.2 Relationship Between f-stops and Metered Light The aperture control steps are called stops because each step down stops a metered amount of light from entering the camera. 2.2. Shutter Speed The second lens control to be considered is the shutter speed control. This is more straightforward than the aperture control as it is quite obvious that if the speed of opening of the lens is either halved or doubled the quantity of light entering the camera will also be halved or double. The chart in Figure 15.3 shows a standard set of shutter speeds.
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Figure 15.3 Shutter Speeds 2.3. Relationship between Aperture and Shutter Speed There is a fixed relationship between film speeds; apertures and shutter speeds because they are all calibrated to the ISO film speed even though different units are used. Changing the lens settings by one stop will either halve or double the quantity of light getting into the camera and changing the film speed by one does exactly the same. The chart in Figure 15.4 shows the relationship between aperture and shutter speed.

Figure 15.4 Relationship Between Aperture and Shutter Speed In the chart the example shows that if f8 at 1/16th sec allows the correct amount of light (1 unit) to enter the camera then f5.6 at 1/30th sec and f11 at 1/8th sec would also allow the same amount of light in. (Conventional light meters
commonly provide exposure values (EV) rather than actual f-stop and shutter speeds allowing a choice to be made on the spot for any given light situation).

(Problem: Using this chart and Figures 15.2 and 15.3 confirm whether the arbitrary light units indicated for f22 at 1.125th sec and f2.8 at sec are correct.) 2.4. How Digicams Compare to Conventional Cameras The difference between a digital and a conventional camera is the digital camera does not contain film. The light entering the camera does not fall on light sensitive silver halides but instead onto a light sensitive computer chip. This chip may be either a CMOS or a CCD sensor. Either will have
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 15 numerous closely packed pixels as mentioned in paragraph 1. The pixels each react to the amount of light falling on it in the same way as the grains of silver halide react in conventional film. The difference is that the reaction produces a varying electrical charge that is transmitted to the built in microprocessor that then transforms this signal into digital bits, which are stored onto the memory card. Of course, this circuitry is a permanent part of the camera and cannot be changed unlike traditional film that can be taken out to put in a faster or slower film to compensate for changing light conditions. Camera manufactures understand that it may be necessary to alter the light sensitivity for different circumstances and provide an option to change the equivalent ISO number of the pixels. This option may be either an option on the cameras computer menu or a physical control. Either way the cameras sensitivity to light, how quickly it reacts, is actually adjusted electronically but the ISO number system is maintained because it is so universally understood. 2.5. Bracketing Getting the Exposure Right In the majority of circumstances Digicams will be self-selecting for exposure, automatically selecting a correct exposure value. It may be that occasionally a difficult lighting situation presents itself and the camera selection does not give an acceptable result. In this case the camera can be made to bracket the exposure. This entails stopping up and down by one stop on the aperture or shutter speed. Figure 15.5 refers.

Figure 15.5 Bracketing 3. Focusing the Camera The final control on a lens system is the focus control. In digital cameras focusing is automatic with a manual override facility. If the digicam is a single lens reflex (SLR) type manual focus is straightforward as the image is viewed through the lens and it can be seen in the viewfinder when sharp focus is obtained. If, however, the subject is being viewed on the cameras mini-screen it may be difficult to actually judge when sharp focus is obtained. In the underwater environment setting the focus control to a pre-determined distance and then using either a measured prod or string and magnet to actually measure the camera standoff can overcome this.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Photography The pre-determined distance should be no more than 1/3rd the visibility distance. Figure 15.6 refers.

Figure 15.6 Focus Using a Measured Rod There are three other factors that must be considered when focusing the camera: The focal length of the lens The depth of field Framing the image or subject in the centre of shot All three of these factors can affect whether the final recorded image is of acceptable quality. 3.1. The Lens Focal Length The focal length of the lens determines the field of view. The actual focal length of the lens is the distance from the film plane in the camera to the first optical element of the lens. The larger this measurement the narrower is the field of view and the greater the magnification. Long lenses are telephoto, while short lenses, (optical element close to the film plane), are wide angle. Underwater where it is necessary to get close to the subject because light levels are always low and contrast is always poor due to the environment wide-angle lenses are normally used. See Figure 15.7.

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Figure 15.7 Lens Focal Length 3.2. Depth of Field What is depth of field? On a photograph it is the amount of foreground in front of a subject and the depth of background behind the subject that appears to be in sharp focus as well as the subject itself. Figure 15.8 refers.

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Figure 15.8 Depth of Field Suppose the lens is focused on the yellow dot as shown in Figure 15.9 below. This subject generates a yellow dot on the image plane. Once focused, all subjects that have the same subject to lens distance as that of the yellow dot will appear sharp. Now, consider a grey dot that is behind the yellow dot (i.e., with larger subject-lens distance). Since it is out of focus, it will not produce a sharp grey dot image. Instead, its image is formed somewhere in front of the image plane. On the image plane, the image of this grey dot is a circle as shown below. This circle is usually referred to as a circle of confusion. As the subject to lens distance increases, the size of this circle increases. The same holds true for a subject in front of the yellow dot (e.g., the green dot in Figure 15.9). Since these circles of confusion are actually out of focus images of subjects, if the size of circle of confusion can be reduced the sharpness of the resulting image can be increased. This is actually easy to accomplish Since light rays passing through the lens tube form circles of confusion, the size of a circle of confusion is proportional to the amount of light that can pass through the lens tube. This means smaller circles of confusion will be formed if less light can pass through. Restricting how much light can pass through the lens is the function of the diaphragm in the lens tube that sets the aperture values. Therefore, a smaller aperture means a smaller diaphragm opening, which, in turn, means
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 15 allowing less light to strike the film/CCD plane. Thus smaller circles of confusion are produced and, as a result, a sharper image is formed.

Figure 15.9 Depth of Field In practical terms to produce the greatest depth of field: Use the shortest possible focal length lens as the shorter the focal length the greater the depth of field because the light path of the lens is shorter Make the camera to subject distance as long as possible as the further the camera is away from the subject the greater is the depth of field Use the smallest possible aperture as the smaller the aperture the less light enters and the greater the depth of field This means that setting the aperture at f22 gives a greater depth of field than setting f2.8. The higher the f-stops number the smaller the aperture and the greater the depth of field. Conversely the lower the f-number the bigger the aperture and the depth of field is less. 3.3. Framing the Subject At first glance this would appear to be the easiest part of using the camera, having set all the controls just point in the right direction and shoot. Unfortunately this is not the case unless extreme close-up photography is considered where special close-up lenses or dioptres are used in conjunction with specially designed close-up frames. In all other cases it is the photographers own responsibility to ensure that the actual required subject is in the centre of the photograph. Always remember that an

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Photography excellent rule of thumb underwater is to never try to take a photograph of a subject that is more than 1/3rd the visibility away from the camera. Normally with digicams the subject is framed up in the mini-screen built into the camera. When this is the case there is no problem with framing. However, underwater the mini-screen may be difficult to see because of the effects of refraction, reflection and parallax. The effects of refraction and reflection are that the image on the mini-screen is inside a housing in air. The image path from the air-filled housing to the outside water must be both refracted and reflected which will, at times, make it impossible to see especially when it is considered that the light path must then go through another water to air interface to get to a diver inspectors eyes. The effects of parallax are less obvious but still may affect framing the subject. The problem exists when a diver inspector is trying to see the miniscreen image at the same time as observing the subject himself. In this situation his eyes are not in the same plane as the lens producing the image on the mini-screen. This can be compared to the situation when using a hatmounted CCTV camera. The camera on the hat is on a different plane to the diver inspectors eyes and neither is seeing the same image. Figure 15.10 applies.

Figure 15.10 Parallax 4. Light and Underwater Photography As photography is all about recording light and as it is being considered for underwater use it is necessary to examine how light is affected by water. As light entering the water passes through an air/water interface the light wave will be subjected to the laws of light and some will be reflected while the remainder
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 15 is refracted as it passes through the interface. (The laws of light have been examined in Chapter 13). As the light wave penetrates the water it is subjected to absorption (attenuation), which is the dissipation of the light wave energy as it passes through the water. The two most noticeable effects of this are that as the depth increases it becomes darker, there is less light penetration and also colours disappear as the water becomes deeper. 4.1. Colour Absorption Looking at the loss of colour firstly it will be seen that in open sea conditions the red light is absorbed first followed by orange with indigo and violet penetrating much deeper. See Figure 15.11

Figure 15.11 Colour Absorption in Sea Water 4.2. Loss of Light Intensity The loss of light intensity is due to: Reflection Because of reflection at the surface of the ocean only those light rays meeting the interface at, or very close to the normal angle will penetrate into the sea. This, of course, means that only a limited amount of the visible light ever penetrates into the sea at all. If the surface of the sea is rough this will exacerbate the problem by providing many more reflecting surfaces as numerous different angles of incidence. Figure 15.12 refers

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Figure 15.12 Loss of Light Intensity With Increasing Water Depth Attenuation What light does penetrate the interface will be attenuated as it penetrates deeper into the water. The rate of attenuation increases with increasing water depth. See Figure 15.12 Scatter As the light passes through the water is meets suspended particles in the sea and is scattered, reflected, by these particles. See Figure 15.12. These effects on the passage of light in water will also occur horizontally which is where they will impact most strongly on the underwater inspector trying to record images for an inspection report. The effects outlined here can largely be overcome by introducing artificial light into the scene normally in the form of flashlights for photography and floodlights for video.

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5. Artificial Light for Underwater Photography The most common form of lighting used for underwater photography is electronic strobe flashlight. Commonly this is referred to as strobe light. 5.1. Electronic Strobe Lighting This form of flash photography uses an electronic capacitor discharge devise to produce an intense, short duration (in the order of 1/1000th sec) intense white light. This type of flash recycles quickly and has a very long life, being capable of taking tens of thousands of exposures. All modern cameras likely to be used for underwater inspection photography will utilise cameras with dedicated or compatible strobes that are synchronised so that the camera exposure value is automatically matched to the strobe output and duration. The basis for this is quite simple and it will be of value to understand this. The light output for a strobe will be given a numerical value by the manufacturer that is calibrated to the ISO number of the film and integrated with the camera lens controls. The numerical value is called the Guide Number (GN) and is usually rated for film speed ISO 100/21 and may be given for metric or imperial units and for underwater or air use. To use this guide number for manually setting the camera controls the procedure is straightforward. Set the shutter speed to synchronise with the strobe (normally 1/60th sec) Divide the GN by the distance from the flash to the subject to obtain the fstop Set the f-stop and take the picture Example: Take the GN to be 22 (metric) and the strobe to subject distance to be 2 m

Some strobes have half-power settings in which case divide the GN by 2 and than apply the formula. Once the camera is set to automatic the electronic circuitry does all the necessary calculations provided that it has through the lens (TTL) light metering which the majority of them do. 5.1.1. Strobe Placement The placement of the strobe relative to the subject is quite important if an acceptable image is to be recorded. The preferred orientation is at as
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Photography large an angle to the centreline of the lens of the camera as possible and within 1/3rd the visibility distance to the subject. See Figure 15.13

Figure 15.13 Strobe Placement to Avoid Backscatter Orientating the strobe in this fashion will avoid backscatter, reflected light from suspended particles, as far as possible. 6. Close-up Weld Mosaic Photography Diver inspectors will often be required to take close up photographs to record the results of a CVI or an MPI. For this type of photography there are a number of factors to keep in mind. The subject area will be quite small so framing will be more critical The depth of field will be minimal so focus will also be more critical There will be a minimum standoff distance determined by the camera lens Some form of prods may be required to maintain a correct standoff A scale will be required in each frame If a weld is photographed a complete mosaic of the entire weld will be required Weld mosaic photographs require a minimum of 40% overlap for each frame; see Figure 15.14 and 15.15

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Figure 15.14 Weld Mosaic Photographs

Figure 15.15 Close-up Weld Photograph Showing Member Identification Tabs


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Photography An identification board containing specified information is normally required A typical example is in Figure 15.16

Figure 15.16 Identification Board on a Spool-piece (North Sea) 7. Specific Applications for Offshore Photography There are two specialised applications for underwater photography that are used periodically in offshore inspection. Taking photographs to record indications of defects identified during MPI is one and Stereo-photography that is subsequently analysed by computer programs, called photogrammetry is the other. 7.1. MPI Photography With modern digicams this should be a straightforward photographic application. The weld should have a tape measure and identification labels applied as shown in Figure 15.15 and the photograph should be taken as a close up as indicated in paragraph 5. An example of a digital photograph recording a weld sample with fluorescent ink illuminated by an ultraviolet lamp set up in The Welding Institutes MPI practical workshop is shown as Figure 15.17.

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Figure 15.17 MPI Indications Test Photograph 7.2. Stereo-photography and Photogrammetry This application of photography requires a stereo-pair of photographs that have been taken by a specially set up stereo-photographic pair of cameras. The photographic results are then analysed by special computer programs that have been evolved from aerial photography and the results can be presented as drawings, photographs or digital printouts. These photographs have been used for a number of inspection tasks: Damage survey Weld defect analysis Corrosion pitting assessment Marine growth assessment Anode wastage assessment Scour survey In addition some engineering tasks have been undertaken: Production of engineering drawings compiled from stereophotographs for sub-sea components Producing measurements of the ovality of tubular members

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Photography Producing accurate measurements obtained from stereo-photographs of physical damage (these measurements have been accurate enough to allow a template of the damage to be made which was then used to produce the repair component) Accurate measurements of distances and relative positions of structural members subsequently used to assist in the installation of risers, clamps and pipeline end-flanges Producing as-built drawings of nodes confirming the actual geometry The actual camera rigs for the stereo-cameras that produce the photographs are constructed to very high specifications and are carefully calibrated so that each lens system is an exactly matched pair. A flat glass plate etched with calibration marks, called a Reseau Plate is installed on the film plane to act as a pressure plate to ensure that the film is held absolutely flat and that there are no irregularities on the film surface. The film itself will be a medium format rather than small format. These cameras must be handled very carefully as heavy handling may throw them out of calibration. The calibration marks on the Reseau plate are used in the analysis process. See Figure 15.18.

Figure 15.18 An Example of a Photograph Taken With a Camera That Incorporates a Reseau Plate A diagram of a typical stereo-camera rig set up for producing photographs that will be subjected to photogrammetry is shown in Figure 15.19

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Figure 15.19 Stereo-Cameras Set Up to Take Photogrammetric Pairs Finally stereo-photography can be completed with small format cameras and with digital cameras but the photographs produced will be used for viewing in 3 dimensions rather than being used for photogrammetry. 8. Specific Requirements for Inspection Photographs When photographs are taken to record inspection findings each frame must include: A Scale The subject in frame centre Identification of the component In addition the following points should be addressed: When taken by a diver inspector ensure there are no items hanging in the frame, umbilicals hog-off lines or the like Make sure there are no exhaust bubbles in shot Avoid camera shake; be comfortable before taking the shot Position lighting to avoid backscatter Always be prepared to bracket the exposure With digicams it may well be possible to take photographs using hat lights or ROV vehicle lights but always remember that underwater photography is always in a low contrast situation. This means that artificial light is even more crucial to obtaining good, acceptable results than normal.

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9. ROV Mounted Cameras ROVs can have cameras mounted either independently of any onboard video cameras or coupled with the video camera. The latter situation is easier for taking photographs as whatever is shown on the TV monitor will be what the still camera records. In either case there are two difficulties that must be addressed. Identification tabs and scales are difficult to include in the frame and therefore the photo-log is even more important than usual. The scale problem can be addressed by inserting a 30 cm long rod with 1 cm graduations on it into one of the vehicle manipulators if it has them or by securing it on the vehicle frame. In either case the rod should be positioned so that each time a still photograph is taken the rod is included in the frame. The photo-log can be used to record each frame subject matter as normal and also member identification will have to be included. This should address both difficulties of using still cameras on an ROV. It has been quite common for some time now to have picture grabbers included in the ROV video suite. These are useful for initial reports of damage or discontinuities but lack quality because they are basically stills recorded from the video camera. Modern video cameras are improving in quality all the time and this issue will improve no doubt. 10. Recording Photographs and Care of Equipment It is most important that a photo-log be maintained during any photographic survey and Figure 15.20 illustrates a typical example.

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Figure 15.20 A Typical Photo-log 10.1. Care of Equipment Prior to use the following points should be completed: Ensure that the batteries are fully charged, if rechargeable complete charging log Set the camera controls to any required settings Prepare a photo-log sheet Choose any close up or special lenses required for the specific task Inspect, lubricate and secure any seals and sealing faces on the camera, housing or strobe. Switch on camera and strobe for test Take a test shot and switch off unless deployed immediately Fit the camera to the ROV or pass it to the diver inspector and switch it on as necessary Remove any lens caps as required After the dive complete the following: Issue 1.0 Rev 0 Issue date: 1 April 2006

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Photography Switch off the camera and the strobe Wash the system in potable water Dry everything thoroughly Take out the memory chip or connect the camera up to the computer and download the data Lightly grease the O rings as necessary Store in a clean, dry place Ensure the photo-log is completed Replace or re-charge the batteries

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 15 Bibliography Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 16

CHAPTER 16
The Use of Video in Offshore Inspection
1. The Scope of Use for Video Underwater Every time an ROV is put into the water video is used extensively for, navigating to the work site, observation of any ROV task, video surveys and diver observation when in support of divers. All offshore divers are deployed with a hat camera and it is extremely common in all other aspects of underwater work. In the case of diver-deployed systems these are used for, monitoring the divers well being, monitoring the job, survey work and site identification. The methods of deployment including the advantages and disadvantages of each are summarised in the following tables 16.1 to 16.4. Figure 16.1 1.1. Diver Hand Held Advantages Can be manipulated into tight areas Best for recording CVI The diver can either give a commentary or be asked questions Disadvantages The diver only has one hand free Lighting for the camera may be an issue Movement around the work site may be restricted by the extra cable and the camera is difficult to swim with

The diver can respond to surface instructions and direct the camera to show specific items Table 16.1 Diver Hand-held CCTV

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1.2. Diver Head (Hat) Mounted Advantages Enhances diver safety as he can be more closely monitored as he works Can be used to assist in site or component identification Can be used to monitor the diver as he works and may generate helpful suggestions to improve work efficiency The diver can respond to surface instructions and direct the camera to show specific items If the diver is working at a specific task requiring specialised knowledge engineers on the surface can more easily monitor the task and offer specific advise The diver can be asked questions or may give a commentary Table 16.2 Diver Head Mounted CCTV Disadvantages Increases the load on the divers neck and shoulders When used for CVI the issue of parallax must always be addressed When the diver is directed to show a specific item to the surface he may not be able to see it himself, due to parallax again

Figure 16.1 Parallax Between Divers Eyes and the Video Camera
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1.3. Remote Operated Vehicles (ROV) Advantages May be safely deployed in circumstances where personnel could be at risk As long as the ROV is serviceable the video can be kept on the job indefinitely The video can be sent to any accessible site at any time as there are no decompression consideration Vehicle lights give very good illumination for the best quality picture available Dependant on the type of ROV high currents can be tolerated so that the job can continue Dependant on the type of ROV several different types of camera and stereo-video cameras can be deployed to the work site A wide variety of sensors can be fitted to the vehicle again depending of the class of ROV Table 16.3 ROV Deployed CCTV Disadvantages There will be occasions when access into tight areas is impossible The detail on the monitor screen may be limited as it is dependant on camera resolution. A diver would have his eyes on the job There is no human on the job and this can impact on the work at times Cost may be an issue at times

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1.4. Fixed Remotely Operated CCTV Advantages Excellent for monitoring an item or area continuously Can be safely deployed in any area that may present a danger to personal safety Barring un-serviceability will be constantly available Disadvantages Limited range of vision even if it has 360o pan and 180o tilt Needs regular cleaning

Deployed for one specific task only Table 16.4

Fixed, Remote Operated CCTV 2. Types of Video Camera There are different types of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) cameras in use underwater. Some are used specifically by ROV whereas others are used universally. The older type of tube camera is virtually superseded by more modern developments. 2.1. Tube Cameras Rough handling or strong light sources can easily damage this type of camera also it will not be able to function in strong magnetic fields. They can even be damaged if left for periods of time either without a lens cap or being constantly pointed at one spot. One advantage with this type of camera is that depth of field is very good. Figure 16.2 shows a diagram of one of these types of camera because it indicates the working principal of video cameras.

Figure 16.2 A Tube Camera The camera consists of a photo-cathode at the front end that emits electrons in return for and in proportion to the amount of light focused on it by the lens
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 16 system. The more light focused on it, of course, the more electrons there are emitted. The cathode at the back end is an electron gun that emits a stream of electrons that are focused into a beam and made to scan the target by the electro-magnets. When this focused electron beam scans the target the electron density, which electronically represents the image that already exists on the target either enhances the strength of the electron beam or detracts from it. This effectively has changed the light image into a series of electrical impulses known as the picture signal. The picture signal is collected by the electron multiplier where it is amplified and transmitted down the line. Modern CCD cameras do not work exactly like this but they do have electronic components internally changing light into electrons thus producing a picture signal. 2.2. Silicon Intensified Target (SIT) Cameras This type of camera has been in use offshore at least since the late 1970s and is still extensively used on ROVs where it is most frequently used for navigation. The SIT camera is a low light camera that can be used in light levels equivalent to bright starlight. This means that the vehicle lights can be kept at a low level thus avoiding backscatter from suspended particles and allowing the maximum penetration possible for the camera. The ROV personnel thus have the best chance of seeing landmarks as they go about the work site or navigate to it. This type of camera does not have good resolution and is a monochrome camera. It is not used for actual inspection work but is extensively used in support of inspection tasks. 2.3. Charged Coupled Device (CCD) Cameras This type of camera is widely used and operates on the same principal as a digital camera as outlined in Chapter 15 paragraph 2.4. These video cameras are lightweight and physically small and are the normal type fitted to divers helmets and band-masks. Because they are solid state they are robust and can tolerate some rough handling. Normally colour cameras are deployed, monochrome is available. Unlike tube video cameras CCD cameras are not damaged by very strong, bright lights and will operate in magnetic fields. The major restriction with them compared to a tube camera is that depth of field is more limited. These cameras are very widely used to record inspection results. 3. Advantages and Disadvantages With CCTV Recording In underwater inspection and NDT different methods for recording inspection results are widely used because it is so difficult to go back for a second look. The time, effort and money involved in deploying resources underwater are so high that it becomes imperative to get it right first time. With some forms of inspection there is no facility built in to the method that allows results to be recorded, which is one prime reason why CCTV is so widely used and video recordings have been so extensive.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course The Use of Video in Offshore Inspection Considering CCTV purely as a recording method, like still photography, there are advantages and disadvantages that everyone involved with the selection, deployment and application of the method should be aware of. Table 16.5 applies. Advantages
CCTV transmits real time images.

Disadvantages
The system cannot freeze fast movement because the picture signal is transmitted at the equivalent of 1 frame every 1/50th sec. (Fast movement may be caused by the current moving the ROV or diver, it does not have to be caused purely by deliberate fast panning) The cameras currently cannot provide such good resolution as still cameras this limits how much fine detail can actually be recorded If the information is recorded on a video cassette recorder (VCR) there will be further loss of picture quality

A video or digital or computer recording can provide a permanent record

Numerous electronic signals from numerous sensors can be combined with the picture signal: CP readings Depth Time and Date All kinds of pipeline data Typewritten information can be included Instant playback ensures that the recording is actually correct before leaving the work site Personnel safety is enhanced when divers are involved. CCTV can be deployed in circumstances that preclude access to personnel When deployed with a diver the human senses of 3D vision and touch can greatly assist in the interpretation of the item being inspected An on the spot commentary is possible from a diver inspector who can also answer questions while actually on the spot

There is normally only a 2D image and without the depth dimension picture information may be difficult to interpret When operated by a diver inspector CCTV can cause diver fatigue

The sense of touch is not available when deployed by ROV

Table 16.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of CCTV as a Recording Method


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 16 4. Equipment Mention has been made several times thus far of CCTV this refers to the video system that gathers the pictures. The system consist of a number of items viz a vie: The camera The umbilical Converts focused image into the picture signal The cable used to carry the picture signal to the monitor and the control signals to the camera Controls camera functions, focus, pan, tilt, lights Receives and decodes the picture signal converting it back to a visual image

Surface control unit Monitor

There will most frequently be a number of ancillary items included with the system such as: Video typewriter Used to type in headings, member or component identification information and labels as necessary

Video Cassette Recorder Most often two are installed. The black box running all the time as a safety or security measure and another for inspection purposes only Video Printer DVD Recorder 5. Picture Quality Modern cameras are much improved over the older tube types but the actual picture definition and resolution is still less than what is obtainable from still cameras. This means that very fine detail cannot be seen on the video screen. The actual quality of the picture signal from a tube camera is determined by the way it is transmitted. The picture signal is made up of packets of information each packet representing one scan line; see Figure 16.1. The number of scan lines per picture is determined by the transmission standard. The two most popular are: PAL/Secam The European systems transmitting 625 lines per field NTSC The US system transmitting 510 lines per field Only uses 200 lines per frame Only uses 400 lines but does record luminance (brightness) and chrominance (colour) separately to improve quality. (to
operate correctly this require either two co-axial cables or a special S-VHS cable)
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This device will print an individual frame from any recorded video Rapidly replacing VCRs to record the picture signal

This picture signal when recorded on videotape will be further degraded: Video Home System (VHS) Super VHS (S-VHS)

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course The Use of Video in Offshore Inspection 6. How Video is used Common techniques used with CCTV are outlined below 6.1. Commentary When a commentary is required it should be fluent, use correct terminology and be factual. The manner of speaking should follow good voice procedure practice: Rhythm Speed Volume Pitch A steady normal speech rhythm normally modulated Slightly slower than normal but not stilted Just a little higher than conversational volume Do not mumble, pitch the voice up a little

6.2. What to Say An introduction may be required to let subsequent viewers know what the video is about. Surface personnel often speak it when divers are involved and with ROVs it will be whoever is making the recording rather than flying the vehicle. The following points will help. Who Where What When State company name, (inspectors name if required) State the global location,(North Cormorant Jacket) the site location, (leg A1) State the task, (GVI of all platform members in accordance with contract 2/6/06 task code listing 301) State the date and time

6.3. Terms used to Direct Camera Movements There are a few standard terms used to describe camera movement, taken from the world of cinema. Pan The camera is rotated left or right. If diver deployed the diver holds his position and moves only the camera. An ROV may rotate on the spot or use an onboard mechanism The camera is pivoted up or down again without other movement The diver or ROV physically moves left or right The diver or ROV physically moves into or out from the subject The camera is twisted clockwise or anticlockwise about its own axis

Tilt Move Come Rotate

See Figure 16.3

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Figure 16.3 Camera Movements The camera movement commands apply to the camera not the carrier and are relative to the picture displayed on the monitor. Picture Framing The best technique is to aim the camera mid-water or towards a neutral background to begin so that any required headings and introductions might be inserted. This also gives an anonymous start point for the recording. This should be followed by a general shot taken as far away from the subject as is comfortably possible within the limits of the underwater visibility. This will give an overall impression of the area when the video is later reviewed. Then move the camera in to complete the actual task whether a GVI, CVI or MPI. 6.4. Video Logs As with all other inspection tasks a written record is required. A typical log sheet is shown at Figure 16.4

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Figure 16.4 Sample Video Log 6.5. Care of Equipment A check list of the requirements for care of the equipment follows: Wash in potable water after use Inspect for damage before and after each use Store in a warm dry environment Keep the lens cap in place at all times when the camera is not in use Always handle with care Do not leave power on out of the water as this generates heat that may damage seals Lamps must be switched off out of the water Protect all topside equipment from the elements
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 16 Do not allow magnets anywhere near any of the equipment or recording media Mark all tapes and DVs with appropriate labels as soon as they are started Ensure that all recorded tapes and DVs are write-protected Ensure that all seals are properly lubricated and assembled prior to use Always make as many copies of recordings as necessary immediately

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course The Use of Video in Offshore Inspection

Bibliography Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Inspection Methods to Assess Underwater Structures

CHAPTER 17
Inspection Methods Available to Assess Underwater Structures
1. Visual Inspection There are a number of methods used to conduct an inspection or damage survey but the prime method is visual inspection because it has a number of advantages over other methods. Table 17.1 refers Advantages of Visual Inspection Over Other Methods Advantages With a diver inspector on the job good vision is possible The object can be viewed in three dimensions The object is viewed in colour Disadvantages There is no record of an eyeball inspection The brain interprets what is seen and this interpretation affects how any object is seen Only those indications that can be seen on the surface of the component being inspected can be assessed Poor underwater visibility may adversely affect the results Divers are constrained by decompression considerations which may curtail or inhibit the inspection when diver inspectors are used The problem of interpretation may impact on the results of the inspection. An experienced inspector will acquire better information than one who lacks experience

This method is always available With a diver inspector the sense of touch may assist interpretation

A commentary that contains the inspectors impressions and interpretation of the visual evidence can be given No specialised equipment is required. Only the diver inspector need be deployed to the worksite

Table 17.1 A visual inspection will be completed before any other inspection method or non-destructive test is undertaken to identify any features or areas of concern that may impact on the quality of these other methods.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 17 To properly assess the extent of any defects identified during a CVI it will be necessary to measure the flaws. Comments on standard measurements are contained in paragraph 13. 2. Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) This method is used extensively to record the results of a visual inspection when diver inspectors have been deployed. When ROVs are employed to complete inspections this is the prime method of inspection. The advantages and disadvantages of this method are summed up in Table 17.2. Advantages CCTV shows real time pictures Video recording is a permanent record Additional information can be included in the picture, CP readings, depth etc. Instant playback Safety A commentary can be given Table 17.2 3. Photography This method of recording inspection information is widely used and is fully explained in Chapter 15. With digital cameras photographs can be obtained in real time and be viewed immediately. Stereo-photography is also possible as is photogrammetry. 4. Cathodic Potential Readings This method is extensively used to monitor the corrosion protection coverage of offshore structures. The methods are fully explained in Chapter 11. It should be remembered that this is not a defect detection method. It is used to monitor the entire structure and data obtained is analysed to determine whether some other inspection or action needs to be taken. 5. Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques These techniques are fully explained in Chapter 13. Ultrasonic digital thickness meters are widely used as another means of monitoring corrosion. A-scan instruments can find and size internal defects in welds or the parent plate although this application of the method is much less widely used. Disadvantages Cannot freeze fast movement Poor resolution compared to photography Gives a two dimensional image When diver deployed can cause diver fatigue When diver hat-mounted deployed parallax must be considered

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6. Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) This technique is fully explained in Chapter 14. It is widely used to inspect for fine surface breaking and slightly sub-surface discontinuities in Ferro-magnetic materials. 7. Radiography This method is explained in Chapter 19. The method is widely used in pipeline survey and occasionally for platform inspection. It is used in specialised applications. 8. Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) This method is explained in Chapter 19. It is not widely used but can be deployed to measure the depth of surface breaking crack-like features. It is not used as a detection method. 9. Electro Magnetic Detection Techniques (EMD or EMT) These methods are fully explained in Chapter 19. These methods are being more widely deployed and in some cases are superseding MPI. The method can identify surface breaking crack-like features even under non-conductive coatings and can size them for length and depth. A permanent record is made at the time of the inspection 10. Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM) This method is fully explained in Chapter 19. The method is a variation of the EMD technique and is employed in the same manner. The method can also be used to measure the thickness of coatings, which may be useful offshore. 11. Flooded Member Detection (FMD) This method is fully explained in Chapter 19. The method is used to assess the integrity of the structural members in a batch-testing manner. The method is a go/no go technique that is quickly applied and gains results quite fast. However, when results indicate a loss of member integrity follow up inspections with other methods must be deployed to identify the cause of the lack of integrity.

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12. Summary of Inspection Methods and Their Use Method Visual Inspection CCTV Photography CP Readings Ultrasonic DTM Ultrasonic A-scan MPI Radiography ACPD EMD ACFM FMD Widely Used Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Frequency Daily Daily Daily Very frequently Often Uses GVI, CVI, Initial assessment before other methods are used Video surveys and recording visual inspections Recording Visual and CCTV inspections Assessment of CP system coverage Assessment of wall thickness in conjunction with CP Readings

Occasionally Specialised tasks associated with welds Often Weld inspection on SCE and nominated nodes

Occasionally Specialised tasks associated with welds Seldom Often Often Very often Sizing known defects, possibly recorded on the damage register Weld inspection on SCE and nominated nodes Weld inspection on SCE and nominated nodes Annual surveys for structural integrity

13. Taking Measurements All the methods outlined in this chapter are useful for identifying some in-service defects or damage, some are better than others for certain types of damage and some will record dimensions when defects are identified while others, especially CVI will not. It is, of course, essential that any defect be measured as accurately as possible so that the actual risk of failure posed by it may be accurately assessed. The major reasons for taking measurements are: To provide dimensions that are as accurate as possible To locate the defect in relation to a known datum
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Inspection Methods to Assess Underwater Structures To provide a measured record that may be used later for relocating the defect To provide measurements so that any repair components can be manufactured A measurement may be taken directly or by comparison. The methods are outlined below. 14. Linear Measurement Straight measurements between two points may be taken with traditional means or electronically. 14.1. Ruler An engineers ruler may be used for measurements up to 1m. The accuracy for this method will be 0.5mm. 14.2. Magnetic Tape Magnetic tapes up to 3m in length are used for measuring welds. The accuracy will be 1.0mm in 1m. 14.3. Flexible Tape Measures Flexible tape measures may be fibre or steel and are available up to 100m in length although 30m tapes are the most common in use offshore. The accuracy will be 2mm over 5m. 14.4. Electronic Methods Both sonar and infrared methods for ranging and measuring are employed for taking measurements up to 1000m (for area mapping). The accuracy will depend on the actual method but infrared methods may achieve 1mm over 5m. 15. Circular Measurements There are several means of taking circular measurements one of which is a comparison method. 15.1. Callipers This method is an indirect method of measuring and therefore a comparison. The diameter of the item is accurately taken by either the inside or outside callipers and the measurement is taken between the points of the calliper legs. Measurements up to 1m diameter may be taken. The accuracy depends on the ruler being used but will be 0.5mm usually. 15.2. Vernier Gauges Vernier gauges are used to take both inside and outside diameters up to 300mm. The accuracy is 0.1mm. 15.3. Specialist Jigs Ovality gauges are made up for specialist applications and can measure up to 1m diameter. They are usually a comparison method and accuracy will be 2mm.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 17 16. Angular Measurements Angular measurements may be taken by a number of methods. 16.1. Protractor These are available in sizes up to 1m. They may take vertical or horizontal angular measurements and the accuracy will be 0.5o. 16.2. Pendulum Gauges These are also called inclinometers and are a form of vertical protractor. Figure 17.3 refers.

Figure 17.3 Pendulum Gauge 17. Dents and Deformations Impact damage can be measured either directly, or by photogrammetry or electronically. 17.1. Profile Gauges If the damaged area is less that 300mm profile gauges may be used. They are a comparison method and the accuracy will be 0.5mm. Care must be taken not to disturb the setting of the pins once the profile is obtained. See Figure 17.4

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Figure 17.4 Profile Gauge 17.2. Pit Gauge Small corrosion pits or similar may be measured with a pit gauge that consists of a calibrated plunger that is pushed into the pit and the depth read off from the calibrated part. 17.3. Linear Angular Measurement (LAM) Gauge The LAM is an accurate measuring device specifically designed to take angular and depth measurements. It can effectively measure: Pit depth Misalignment Weld leg length Weld throat thickness Excessive weld metal Undercut All the weld profile angles and measurements The gauge can take measurements from flat or curved surfaces. Figure 17.5 refers.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 17

Figure 17.5 LAM Gauge 17.4. Casts A cast may be made of any depression to accurately mimic the exact shape. Several materials may be used. Plasticine Putty Two part compounds (e.g. Microset) There are a number of problems that may occur when using casting materials: The cast may be difficult to remove without distortion The cast may be deformed or damaged during transfer to the surface The cast is a negative image The casting material may be difficult to apply. In cold seawater two part compounds may not flow and malleable materials do not mould easily. A hot water box may be required 17.5. Straight Edge This method may also be used for small deformations. Holding the straight edge over the area and using a ruler to measure vertically down at small increments obtains a profile of the damage. The accuracy may be 0.5mm. 17.6. Taut Wire This method may be used for any size deformation. A wire is stretched over the deformed area and vertical measurements taken at small increments obtain the profile.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Inspection Methods to Assess Underwater Structures The wire should be set up in two planes at 90o to each other to ensure that any out of straightness of the member is measured. Accuracy of 0.5mm may be achieved with care. Figure 17.6 illustrates the method.

Figure 17.6 Taut Wire

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Bibliography A Handbook for Underwater Inspectors L K Porter HMSO Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 18

CHAPTER 18
Inspection Maintenance and Repair, Quality Assurance and Control, Recording, Reporting
1. Legislation Relating to Inspection of Offshore Structures In 1992 the UK Government brought into force The Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations SI 2885 (1992). These regulations expand the Health and Safety as Work Act (1974) to offshore structures in the UK sector of the North Sea. These regulations are very wide ranging in scope and are further clarified and are made more precise by amplifying guidance notes, Approved Codes of Practice and further Statutory Instruments. DCR SI 913 (1996) PSR SI 825 (1996) PFEER SI 743 (1995) MAR SI 738 (1995) PUWER SI 2932 (1998) Design and Construction Regulations Pipeline Safety Regulations Prevention of Fire, Explosion and Emergency Response Regulations Management and Administration Regulations Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (Plant and Equipment)

There are numerous requirements laid down in this legislation but the main intent for all of it is to reduce any risk to be As Low As Reasonably Practical (ALARP). DCR SI 913 (1996) and TOISCR SI 2885 (1992) specify and rely on VERIFICATION NOT CERTIFICATION. The regulations also specify that there must be an appointed DUTY HOLDER who has the authority to carry out a selfcertification scheme. The Duty Holder will normally be the operating company. The Duty Holder is responsible for ensuring that the structure remains in a safe condition to carry out its design purpose. The regulations specify that verification must be obtained from an INDEPENDENT VERIFYING BODY (IDVB). There are five IDVBs appointed by the regulations: Lloyds Register of Shipping Det Norske Veritas Bureau Veritas Germanischer Lloyd American Bureau of Shipping There is no statutory requirement to inspect structures, however the Duty Holder must satisfy the IDVB that a particular structure or component does not require any inspection to ensure safety and obtain verification of this. The IDVB does have the authority to stop all operations on any structure if it considers that
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course IMR, QA and QC, Recording and Reporting it is damaged or that major alterations or deterioration are likely to impair the structures ability to perform its design task. In practice the Duty Holder will invariably evolve a full inspection program that will ensure the safety of plant and personnel, which must be submitted to the IDVB for verification. The Duty Holder must appoint the IDVB at the design stage of the structure development so that continuity of verification may be maintained. 2. The Importance of QA and QC Quality Assurance and Quality Control are two sides of the same coin. All the Offshore Operators operate quality management systems which all rely on quality assurance procedures to ensure that all management functions, including but not limited to, efficient operations, safety, conformance to legislation and protection of assets are completed effectively, without waste or duplication up to required standards. Furthermore, all these functions must be applied the same way every time to a measurable standard; the entire system must also be actively managed and continuously improved. The quality control is applied to ensure that all the processes associated with the management system are in fact complied with and executed correctly. The QC ensures that the processes meet the measured standard and that this fact is recorded. The QA for offshore structures starts with the written procedures and continues with the inspections, audits and other documentation that is certified and recorded throughout the life of the structure. The QC follows this same path producing the documentation that verifies that the various processes have all been completed. There are a number of different methods that any company can adopt to ensure that Total Quality Management (TQM) is achieved but commonly BS EN ISO 9002:2002 is adopted. The importance of QA and QC to any large organisation is that it is fundamental to the ability of a company to function. Without procedures that demand a certain standard that are controlled by verification to ensure correct compliance a large company would descend to anarchy and bankruptcy very quickly in the modern business world. As indicated in Chapter 1 QA and QC begin with the conception of the structure and continues throughout all the stages of the structures life right through to decommissioning. 2.1. Databases and Trend Analysis Modern QA systems make extensive use of databases and offshore inspection reporting follows this trend. The major factor to emphasise with a database system is the way information is stored. The great advantage of a database is the accessibility to the information. Each item of information will have a number of tags the information can then be called up from different points. Take as an example that an anomaly has been reported on a horizontal brace on a jacket. The anomaly can be called up or accessed by: Type of anomaly, pitting, crack, impact damage etc Using member identification
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 18 Using platform identification, in this case all damage on the platform will be listed with its location Using platform identification and defect type, in this case all defects of that type on the platform will be listed with its location Once the database is set up trend analysis is facilitated and all the data required for any type of analysis is both more extensive and more easily accessed. 2.2. The Importance of Documentation and Record Keeping The fundamental importance of the QA system indicates how important documentation and record keeping are and of course, documentation and record keeping are fundamental elements of any quality system. The various inspection reports, damage registers, fabrication drawings, material documentation and other documents and records become part of the QA forming the archives that prove structural integrity. Additionally the offshore operators will maintain records for: Engineering assessments and analysis Recording defects and damage Maintaining the damage register Monitoring defects or damage that is not repaired Modifying the existing IMR program where necessary Evolving future structural designs Compliance with the statutory requirements and verification by the IDVB 2.2.1. Types of Reporting Systems There are basically two types of reporting systems: Full Reporting This system requires that every item or component inspected that has any blemishes, deterioration or damage no matter how minor is reported as being defective. This way of reporting generates large quantities of data a large proportion of which is on no interest to structural engineers. This system: Generates large volumes of data that must be reviewed by responsible engineers Much of the data will be considered non-relevant after being reviewed The review of the data requires a good deal of time It is possible that serious defects could deteriorate further during the time taken to review the inspection data This system is seldom used offshore as the anomaly based reporting system is preferred

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course IMR, QA and QC, Recording and Reporting Anomaly Based Reporting This system requires that only items that are outside specified parameters be reported. Any other, blemishes, deterioration or minor damage is accepted with the component being considered as fit for purpose. This system still requires that every item included in the inspection program is fully inspected but only items out-with the specifications are reported as defective. This has several ramifications. The Duty Holder must specify the parameters for all types of damage or deterioration. The normal response to this requirement is that a Criteria of Non-conformance (CNC) is evolved by the Duty Holder All inspection personnel must be fully qualified in the various inspection methods and skilled enough to make value judgements on the job site in real time to apply the parameters laid down in the CNC There is a high level of responsibility on all inspection staff to properly identify any indication found during the inspection, whether it is to be reported or not, that is whether it is an anomaly or not. If any inspector misses any reportable defect it will remain undetected until the next scheduled inspection that includes that component. Every reportable defect will require some actions to be initiated in accordance with the instructions given in the CNC. These actions may be to repair or conduct further inspections or monitor. In any event there will be more reports and records generated to prove that the reported anomalies have been dealt with properly. 3. Reasons Why Inspection Is Required There are a number of reasons why any structure must be inspected regularly. The safety of personnel is of paramount importance and a regular Inspection, Maintenance and Repair (IMR) program will ensure that component or structural failure is avoided thus guaranteeing the safety of personnel Any structure will deteriorate in service and a properly applied IMR cycle will target and identify items that require repair, renewal or replacement in a timely manner allowing these actions to be undertaken as part of a planned, controlled program The Operators of any offshore structure must comply with the requirements of Government legislation and Statutory Instruments Whether structures are insured against damage by outside agencies or the risk is carried by the Operator an IMR program will be required so that the risk of catastrophic failure is minimised A properly implemented IMR program will provide raw data that can be entered into data bases for computer analysis to complete trend analysis for engineering applications
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 18 Inspection data can be utilised to evolve improved designs for later generation structures 4. Continuity of Inspection The life of a structure after the concept is agreed may be split into six stages: Design Production of the raw materials Fabrication Launch and Commissioning In service Decommissioning Structural inspection programs are instigated immediately after the conception of the structure and then run throughout its life forming part of the quality management approach to structural engineering. Statutory regulations also require that the Operators ensure the structures are fit for design purpose and that verification of this is obtained from appointed independent verification bodies. 5. Design Stage Quality Assurance and Quality Control (QA/QC) is an integral part of the design stage for any structure. All the designs, design calculations, and drawings have to be prepared and completed to specified procedures that include checks and internal verification to ensure compliance with the numerous standards that apply to the various engineering disciplines and functions. At this stage The Duty Holder will nominate the Independent Verification Body that will be responsible during the life of the structure for verifying that all the statutory requirements are met. At the outset then the design drawings are subjected to a form of inspection, validation and verification before they are sent to the yard for fabrication. Also at the outset a marking system will be evolved or adopted so that every component can be identified, tracked, audited and inspected throughout its life cycle. With topside items this may be a Tag system where unique identification numbers are assigned to components such as pumps or generators. The jacket for a structure will similarly have an identification system specific to the requirements for the component parts.

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5.1. Structural Marking Systems There are several marking systems used in the North Sea but all are based on a grid system where the structure is considered in plan view to have x and y co-ordinates and the various depth levels are the z component. Examples of three systems are included here but any personnel involved with structural inspection must ensure that they understand the actual system used on whatever structure they inspect. 5.1.1. Unique Identification System In this system, which is an extension of the tag system, each platform has a unique 3-digit identification number. This is used as a prefix to a 6digit number made up of 3 pairs. The first pair is a 2-digit code number for the type of component. Main legs are Horizontal braces Main nodes are 11 12 13

And so on for the various types of member making up the jacket. The next 2 digits indicate the level starting with 0 at the top of the jacket where the module is located and finally the last 2 digits are the identification number of that type of component on that level. Figure 18.1 refers.

Figure 18.1 Unique Identification System

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 18 5.1.2. The Alpha Numeric System This system uses letters to denote different levels starting with A at the top of the jacket working up the alphabet as the levels descend. This first letter is followed by an alphanumeric pair that identify the x and y coordinates on the level. For example see Figure 18.2 that identifies component DC 3 and DB 3.

Figure 18.2 5.1.3. The Box Matrix System The box matrix system firstly denotes a letter for each type of component Member Node Riser Conductor Pile guides Anodes M N R C P A Diagonal member F

And so on for all types of components. Then the levels are denoted by letters starting with A at the top of the jacket working up the alphabet as the depth levels increase. Finally there are 2 digits that represent the x and y co-ordinates. See example ME 45 in Figure 18.3

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Figure 18.3 The Box Matrix Marking System 5.2. Clock Orientation and Datum Points In conjunction with the platform marking system datum points will be nominated. Tubular members are always inspected clockwise and so the clock orientation is nominated. The 12 oclock position is invariably the datum point and this may be marked with up to three punch marks during the fabrication stage. Figure 18.4 shows the common orientation for reading the clock and indicates the way the datum point may be marked.

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Figure 18.4 Clock Positions 5.3. Safety Critical Elements (SCE) Another design function is to calculate, identify and specify the numerous Safety Critical Elements (SCE) that exist on the jacket, the platform modules and in all the systems and sub-systems. A SCE is any part or parts of an offshore installation the failure of which would cause or substantially contribute to a major incident or a component the purpose of which is to prevent or limit the effect of a major incident. Examples of SCE are: Systems Primary structure Fire and water systems Fire and gas detection systems Hydrocarbon containment systems Subsystems Mooring system Deluge system Control panels Mooring system main bearing Fire pumps Fire detection heads Electrical equipment in hazardous areas

Equipment

6. Production of the Raw Materials During the design stage of the structures development decisions are made regarding what materials are to be used in the fabrication of the structure. These materials are chosen with careful attention as to their suitability for the design task. Mild steel to the 50D specification with tight quality control over manufacture is a common choice for North Sea steel structures. Other materials
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course IMR, QA and QC, Recording and Reporting are selected for different design specifications and concrete for gravity structures is equally carefully specified. Taking steel as an example the steel foundry producing the steel will provide certified documentation with casting specification and material composition. Plates are serial numbered and totally traceable. Other specified materials will have similar documentation. All these documents are verified and filed as part of the QC function. The materials supplied to the fabrication yards are stored in controlled locations so that it remains fit for purpose and traceable. As it is issued certification goes with it and is filed with the as built drawings and other documentation. The raw materials may contain flaws or manufacturing defects in spite of the best QA and QC arrangements which has two ramifications: The QA systems employed to minimise defects will be aimed at 100% effectiveness, however 98% may be realistically achievable. This would be normally acceptable provided that these defects were with design limits. The presence of manufacturing defects in the raw material would not normally cause in-service failures but there is a small risk that they might. Within the realms of good engineering practice and design tolerances this is acceptable. 7. Fabrication Stage The QA and QC continue throughout the fabrication stage of the structure development. Welding procedures and parameters are all carefully applied and certified. Concrete composition is monitored confirmed and certified. All the inspection documentation and certification is verified and filed with the remaining documents continuing to build up the QA database. The types of flaws that may occur during fabrication are discussed in Chapter 12. 8. Launching and Installation The launching and installation stages in the structure life are again subjected to tight QC and the relevant supervision, inspection, control and reporting processes continue to be implemented and recorded. It is reasonably obvious that launching a 15,000 T jacket, swinging it from horizontal to vertical, then sinking it upright in the correct position at the correct orientation must require very through procedures and tight control. See Chapter 4 Figure 4.9. It is at this stage that the most extensive underwater inspection will take place. The inspection undertaken on the structure so far has been extensive and will not be so comprehensive for the remainder of the life of the structure, although it will continue un-interrupted. 8.1. Base Line Survey The first major in water inspection will be totally comprehensive including the entire jacket and all underwater components, attachments and appurtenances including, of course, the Safety Critical Elements. The seabed surrounding the structure will be inspected up to 30 to 50 m from the base. A complete CP system survey will also be completed including CP
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 18 readings and an anode count to confirm the presence and the physical integrity of each anode. This survey is usually referred to as the Base Line Survey. The Base Line Survey will confirm that: The structure is in the correct position Whether any significant damage has occurred during launch and installation That any damage that is identified is accurately reported and recorded That any significant defects are highlighted for immediate rectification The structure will only be declared fit for purpose when either there are no reported significant defects or any reported significant defects have been rectified and re-inspected and the results of the Base Line Survey are accepted by the Duty Holder and verified by the appointed Approved Verification Body. The Base Line Survey will be used to evolve or modify an ongoing inspection program that will extend throughout the remaining life of the structure. 8.2. In Service The in-service IMR program will ensure that adequate monitoring is accomplished to satisfy the requirements of the Duty Holder, safe working practices and to achieve verification by the IDVB. The usual program for in-service inspections is based on a five-year cycle. Some items are inspected each year while others are inspected less frequently within the five-year cycle. Each year 20% of all SCE are inspected as a matter of routine so that over the five years all will be inspected once. There is always the option to change the schedule should the need to do this be identified. The typical annual inspection would include: CP survey Inspection of all riser, conductors and caissons CVI of 20% of selected representative welds MPI of 20% of selected representative welds Complete GVI of the entire structure Debris and marine growth survey Scour survey Items on the damage register may be monitored during the annual inspection. The annual inspection program reports are monitored and used to update the damage register and to modify the IMR program as necessary.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course IMR, QA and QC, Recording and Reporting 8.2.1. Damage Survey During the service life of a structure damage may occur at any time due to environmental forces, accidents, failure and numerous other causes. It is a requirement that all damage be reported and that any incidents are also reported. Unfortunately not all incidents actually are reported and damage underwater cannot be seen unless there is an underwater inspection program. It has been determined that approximately 70% of damage found offshore is primarily due to: Collision by shipping Fatigue failure Dropped objects Furthermore the biggest majority of this type of damage was discovered by routine inspections. During any inspection the basis of the inspection is to report anything that appears to be not in the as made condition. Superimposed on top of this basic rule of thumb are any specific instructions contained in the damage survey workbook. 9. How the Criteria of Non-conformance System is Applied The Criteria for Non-conformance is a set of parameters issued by the Duty Holders engineering department that defines the limit of acceptance of any damage or defect that may be identified during any inspection. During any inspection if any item is identified as not being in the as made condition the CNC is referred to determine whether the anomaly is reportable or can be considered as being within acceptable engineering parameters. As an illustration an extract of a typical CNC Table is shown in Figure 18.5
Inspection field General Visual Inspection Weld inspection CP survey Anode survey Riser Possible anomalies Coating damage Debris Physical damage Corrosion on welds Cathodic Potential Anode wastage Leak Anomaly code CD DB PD CR CP AW LK Criteria of non-conformance (CNC) Any Metallic or hazardous Any Greater than 2 mm deep Outside 850 to 1100 mV Severe > 75% Any

Figure 18.5 Extract of a Typical CNC Table


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Anomaly AW CP CR

Actions to be taken Record anode identification and position Take additional CP measurements to establish extent Measure corroded area & cover in area, max and average depth and diameter of pits in the area Record type, position and dimensions, include a sketch

Additional checks CR, CP, DB, LI AW, CR, DB AW, CR, CP, DB

DB LK WT

AW, CD, CP, DB

Record flange identification and location, PD, LI, DB, CR, SD sketch and estimate rate of loss of product Record element and location, take additional WT readings to assess the extent of the area Figure 18.6 Extract of a Typical Technical Specification Key to Abbreviations CR, PD, CP

Abbreviation AW CP CR DB LK WT LI SD PD CD Anode Wastage

Meaning

Cathodic Potential Readings Corrosion Debris Leak Wall Thickness Lack of Integrity Seal Displacement Physical Damage Coating Damage

It is normal that either the CNC includes follow up actions that are authorised to be implemented without further instructions in the event of finding any anomalous items or to have a table of technical specifications that lays down these follow up actions. The method for applying the CNC is straightforward.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course IMR, QA and QC, Recording and Reporting When any item is identified as being outside the CNC the actions dictated by the technical specification are implemented. The item and all the data concerning it is recorded and submitted in the inspection report. Any authorised immediate follow up action is implemented and the fact that this has been done together with the results of the actions taken is recorded and reported. The flow chart in Figure 18.7 refers

Figure 18.7 Flow Chart for CNC Actions In the flow chart the reference to the job card applies to the actions taken by the Duty Holders engineering department. A job card system for initiating work actions of any kind is a common approach to control of resources, personnel and finances throughout industry. 10. Documentation in an Anomaly Based Reporting System The documentation involved with an anomaly-based system is normally standardised data report sheets and is commonly on a computer-based system. With this method the responsible engineers become familiar with one method of presentation of information which saves time when reviewing the inspection data. Using standard data sheets also ensures that all the required information is included and does not rely on memory. The data report sheets will be reviewed and subsequently form the basis for: Further follow-up or additional structural inspection programs Maintenance or repair projects Any engineering analysis that is required by the Duty Holder Reports submitted to the IDVB for verification On completion of any review action the reports will be archived to become part of the QA records for the structure.
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10.1. Work Scopes and Workbooks in an Anomaly Based System A central feature of an anomaly based system will be a defined scope of work for each inspection campaign detailing the extent of the inspection, the components or items to be inspected and the required tasks. The scope of work will be contained in the workbook issued at the start of the campaign. The workbook is a part of the contractual documentation. The workbook will contain: The scope of work The list of inspection tasks The procedures The CNC All the required drawings Blank log sheets Blank data sheets Anomaly report forms Daily report forms An extract of the damage register applying to the items in the scope of work In some operating companies the inspection tasks take the form of Task Code Listings, which contain three digit codes. Each code represents a group of tasks all associated with one activity. Then within that group different aspects or applications of the activity can be specified. The Table 18.8 applies. Task Group 100 101 200 201 300 301 Task General swim round Specific swim round Weld inspection Weld CVI Marine growth survey Specific marine growth survey Specifications GVI report any gross damage Anode inspection Cleaning for inspection CVI of specified welds General marine growth survey Report build up of specified species

Table 18.8 Example of Task Code Listing The workbook will generally be in sections thus: Work Scope
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course IMR, QA and QC, Recording and Reporting Technical Specifications Defines design details such as brace diameters, wall thicknesses structural marking system Structural drawings, field layout drawings and environmental details such as water depth, tides, currents Acceptance criteria to be applied to any anomalies identified during the inspection and reporting requirements Contains master copies of standard report forms, to be copied as necessary in a paper reporting system. In a computer reporting system the formats will be in the associated computer program

Field and Platform Data

CNC and Anomaly Reporting Requirements

Data and Log Sheets

10.2. Damage Register The damage register forms a crucial part of the documentation. Any damage on the structure is recorded on the register along with the engineering action taken to resolve the damage. Any new damage identified during inspection activities will be added to the register. 10.3. Data Sheets Data sheets are all computer-generated and most commonly the inspection will be recorded directly onto a computer. It is becoming more prevalent that the data gathered during the inspection is input into a database, which is accessible by any authorised party. The advantage of having a database is the accessibility of the information that lends itself very well to any engineering analysis that may be required. An example of a typical data sheet is shown in Figure 18.9

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Figure 18.9 Typical Data Sheet 10.4. Data Sheet Design When designing a data sheet the first question is what is its purpose? Is it part of a QA system? If it is there must be a procedure that goes with it as the data sheet performs the function of applying the requirements of the procedure and ensuring that nothing is left out as well as providing the validation that the procedural requirements have been met. The data sheet would normally become part of the archives for the Quality System and as such it becomes part of the QA. Similarly is the data sheet to be included into a computer reporting system? If it is then is the system a database system? If the answer to these questions is yes then the database will
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course IMR, QA and QC, Recording and Reporting normally be able to generate the data sheet and the design will be done on the computer through the computer program. Any data sheet will have a number of fields and these will access data base information in a computer reporting system. If the data sheet is not part of a database but is to be a form in a system stored on the computer the different fields will refer to different files in the computer. The types of information likely to be required so that any data sheet can be designed are: Does the Client or Sponsoring Engineer have to be nominated? What type of inspection is it designed for? What is the CNC? What type of component is to be inspected? What is the extent of the inspection? The actual fields on the data sheet would normally allow the following to be recorded: Customer or client or sponsoring engineer Contracting company Location (platform) Type of component and reference number Type of inspection Resource used to gather the data (ROV, Diver) Dive number Date Data sheet reference number Any specialist equipment used for the data gathering What cleaning standard has been achieved Inspection controllers name Comments not covered elsewhere Anomalies Drawing of the component Signatures Page number 11. Written Reports If required, written reports will follow a standard layout as dictated by the operating company. As a guide the usual report layout will contain the major items enumerated below.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 18 Title This is normally the specified project title with the date of starting and the completion date

Signing off sheet This is a sheet containing the signature of the project managers and key personnel involved with the project Table of contents The page numbers for the items included in the report Introduction Gives the purpose of the report. It will contain: Location The extent of the inspection or project The client The contractor company name The dates of the inspection Summary This is a very condensed resume of the report which will contain: The overall scope of the inspection Listings of any anomalies out side the CNC Results This is the body of the report that lays out all the findings and the total extent of the inspection. It will refer to the appendices where the raw data sheets are contained

Conclusions or Recommendations Both, either or neither of these may be included in the report. Unless qualified engineers have prepared the report these paragraphs should be omitted Appendices These are the data sheets, logs, drawings and any other raw data gathered during the inspection

12. Verbal Reporting Verbal reports are normally concerned with diver intervention and frequently follow a question and answer scenario with the topside asking specific questions for the diver inspector to respond to. The voice reproduction is via the diver communication unit and may leave something to be desired regarding clarity of reproduction. A radio procedure approach is adopted with the diver being the control station. Some prowords are used but over is seldom used. Care must be exercised to speak plainly and the divers speech is sometimes difficult to understand because of poor amplification. When receiving verbal reports from saturation divers the situation can be quite difficult indeed, as their speech has to go through a de-scrambler because of the distortion to the voice pitch caused by the helium environment. Always: Use correct terminology Maintain a fluent flow of speech (decide what to say before you speak) If a full verbal report is to be recorded onto a video ensure that the introduction includes answers to the questions: Issue 1.0 Rev 0 Issue date: 1 April 2006

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course IMR, QA and QC, Recording and Reporting Who is speaking? Where is the inspection site? What actions are being completed? When is the verbal report being made? 13. Corrosion Protection and Coating Inspection Report Requirements The normal inspection reporting requirements for CP surveys are Visual assessment of anode condition, and deposits including their type and extent % Anode wastage (may be required to be measured) Sacrificial anode stub integrity Impressed current cable and cable duct integrity and electrode connection Marine growth build up on any anodes Metallic debris in contact with the structure identify location, type and quantity CP readings at specified sites or spacing Photographs of representative anodes Coating Inspections will normally require that the following be assessed: Note the % present of topcoat, primer and bare metal Note any blistering and burst them and try to collect a sample of any deposit Assess the surface condition of the steel under any blister Note the % of any paint cracking Note any paint sagging with the extent Note any paint wrinkling with the extent Note any flaking and note the extent If inspecting Monel cladding be especially careful to inspect very closely for any breaks or deformation however small in the Monel surface. 14. Procedure for the Close Visual Inspection of a Weld Verbal reports are commonly recorded onto data sheets during the actual inspection. A typical procedure for a weld CVI would include: Complete surface checks of all the equipment Obtain the work permits Locate the correct weld GVI to assess any gross damage and the build up of marine growth

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 18 Clean to SA 2 (or any other specified standard) 75mm either side of the weld Establish the datum and a tape measure and mark up the clock positions Measure and record the overall weld length (in accordance with the established platform conventions or procedure) Complete the CVI Record the results in real time on the data sheet Record the CVI on CCTV and video Take still photographs as required Recover all equipment Wash all equipment in potable water Report any anomaly out with the CNC in accordance with the instructions contained therein (normally to the offshore client representative) Take any follow up remedial actions authorised in the CNC (normally in consultation with the offshore client representative) Cancel work permits when clear of the work site Incorporate the data sheet into the final report along with any new anomaly report sheets and any remedial actions taken An example of a typical CVI sheet is contained in Figure 18.10

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Figure 18.10 Typical CVI Data Sheet 15. Summary of Other Recording Methods Used Underwater Because of the nature of underwater inspection with intervention methods being so costly and weather dependant a good deal of effort is expanded to ensure that any data gained during inspection activities is recorded in the event of a future need to reassess any item. The methods for recording can be very simple or complex as illustrated in the following notes.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 18 15.1. Scratchboards This may be a rigid white plastic board or a plastic sheet of paper with a pencil. Can be used underwater by a diver to make a sketch or take notes when nothing else is available. 15.2. Sketches These can be useful if there is no other way of recording what the diver inspector has identified or incorporated into a report to show a point of detail. 15.3. Photography Good quality images of any anomalous items or points of interest may be obtained by photography and prints included in any type of report. 15.4. CCTV This is a prime method for recording all manner of inspection information and is extensively used throughout the underwater commercial industry. The video records real time images that subsequently may be easily incorporated into a report. 15.5. Radiography A radiograph is a permanent record by itself and is easily incorporated into a report. 15.6. Casts These may be taken on occasion but they are difficult to take and difficult to incorporate into a report. There are other ways of recording the images set into casts and whenever possible these are used in preference to taking a cast. When they are taken care must be exercised in storing them as they can easily be damaged. 15.7. EMD, EMT and ACFM Incorporating Computer Recording These methods are all available with computer recording facilities and the ability to have the program print out the data. This is ideal for incorporation into a formal report. 15.8. Sampling This is normally a specialist form or recording for marine life for example. It does have other uses such as collecting gas escaping from the seabed for analysis. Storage of samples is a difficulty that must be anticipated before the sampling is undertaken. 16. Certification of Personnel and Equipment Any Quality Management System (QMS) will include the requirement that personnel and equipment is certified to a known standard. In the case of personnel in the UK sector of the North Sea the Certification Scheme for Weldment Inspection Personnel (CSWIP) scheme for underwater inspectors has been adopted. The notes in the preface outline the CSWIP organisation. The scheme certificates four types of inspectors as detailed in the preface. The more important proficiencies for each level of certification are outlined below
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course IMR, QA and QC, Recording and Reporting 16.1. CSWIP Grade 3.1U Diver Inspector This diver inspector will be proficient in: Visual inspection The use of CCTV in the hat mounted or hand held deployment mode Taking still photographs Taking CP readings Taking ultrasonic wall thickness readings using an Ultrasonic Digital Thickness Meter 16.2. CSWIP Grade 3.2U Diver Inspector This diver inspector will be proficient in: All the 3.1U Diver Inspector proficiencies The application and interpretation of Magnetic Particle Inspection The ability to use hand held grinding tools to profile welds and surface breaking anomalies 16.3. CSWIP 3.3U ROV Inspector This ROV pilot will be proficient in: The use of CCTV in ROV deployed mode Taking CP readings Taking ultrasonic wall thickness readings using the ROV probe technique Handling and managing data Knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of underwater vehicles 16.4. CSWIP 3.4U Underwater Inspection Controller The inspection controller will be proficient in: Visual inspection The use of CCTV in the hat mounted or hand held or ROV deployment mode Taking still photographs Taking CP readings Taking ultrasonic wall thickness readings using an Ultrasonic Digital Thickness Meter The application and interpretation of Magnetic Particle Inspection Taking ultrasonic wall thickness readings using the ROV probe technique Handling and managing data Knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of underwater vehicles
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 18 Knowledge of advanced methods of NDT Knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of diver inspectors Knowledge of how to plan and schedule inspection projects Knowledge of the application of QMS The inspection controller must be capable of developing close working relations with all the staff involved with any inspection project. Some staff will be senior engineers with the Operator of the structure and tact and diplomacy must be exercised on occasion. 17. Equipment Certification Any equipment used during an inspection program must be certified so as to conform to the QA requirements. This requirement is intended to ensure that all equipment is, safe to operate, in good working order and is within the required calibration specifications. The requirements for legal compliance and the typical QA calibration requirements are: Electrical equipment shall be tested 6 monthly All electrical equipment must be tested for safety each time it is used; e.g. all Residual Current Devices (RCD) should be tested daily, any other type of electrical equipment should be visually inspected and confirmed safe to use before each use All inspection equipment shall be calibration checked before and after each use A competent person shall calibrate all electrical equipment at intervals proscribed by regulations or manufacturers recommendations and certify this fact. This includes Voltmeters and Digital Volt Meters which shall be calibrated annually and tagged to confirm the date the next calibration is due Each batch of MPI ink shall be tested for conformity to specifications and subsequently at intervals as stated in BS EN ISO 9934-2:2002 Nondestructive testing. Magnetic particle testing. Detection media Ultraviolet lamps shall be tested for conformity to the requirements of BS EN ISO 3059:2001 Non-destructive testing. Penetrant testing and magnetic particle testing. Viewing conditions each time they are used and periodically in accordance with the standard 18. Inspection Planning and Briefing Good planning and briefings are the difference between success and, at worst, failure with any project, not least inspection campaigns. Good planning and briefing leads to efficient, focused and effective inspection activities that are themselves crucial in insuring that the tasks are completed as quickly as possible, without having to go back, that the correct items are inspected, to the correct standard, that the personnel involved are all focused on the job, motivated and sufficiently well briefed and skilled to be able to recognise any defects and apply the correct actions to them. These activities as fundamental in any anomaly based reporting system as it is recognised that any items being
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course IMR, QA and QC, Recording and Reporting inspected in real time will not be subjected to any secondary inspection. Should anything be missed during the current inspection it will remain undiscovered until there is another scheduled inspection of that component. 18.1. Real Time Data Gathering Real time data gathering means that the personnel on the job inspect and assess the components under inspection. Any items judged to be outside the CNC will be flagged up and recorded in real time on video, by photography or by electronic means. This data may then be re-evaluated at a later date for second opinions or follow up analysis. The crucial point is that data is only submitted if it is judged to be anomalous at the moment in time when it is inspected. As a comparison some forms of inspection lend themselves to retrospective inspection. For example eddy current inspection and ACFM inspection both of which store real time data on computer programs. The original inspector will make on the spot judgements but all the data can subsequently be reviewed. The computer will contain all of the gathered information not a selection determined by the original inspector. Planning Requirements The overall campaign will be planned months in advance whereas the daily tasks must be planned on a weekly and daily basis. The inspection coordinator will need to consider at least: The actual task requirements The procedural requirements regarding personnel qualifications, specialised equipment or particular cleaning tasks Work permits and whether hot work permits or restricted access permits are required The weather Access restraints DSV operating parameter restrictions Vessel movements Any task priorities Any time constraints Any helicopter operations Supply boat schedules There may well be many other items that have to be taken into account. The next stage is to evolve the plan with a look ahead for the next few days and a detailed plan for the next 24 hours. The plan will normally be presented at the daily meeting on big inspection campaigns and may have to be modified as a result of input from other management team members. The plan will then contain:

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 18 The location, platform face, identification and depth of the items to be inspected in the next shift The personnel qualifications required The estimated time per task Known restrictions, platform crane operations or helicopter operations etc Any items that must be completed at night, e.g. MPI Any ongoing tasks How much work is outstanding at what depths on which platform faces Any follow up work generated by reported anomalies according to the CNC Contingency plans in case changes have to be made due to weather etc This is not an exhaustive list but goes some way to illustrate the factors that have to be considered. 18.2. Briefing Once the plan is agreed their line management can brief the various team members up. A reasonable way of presenting briefs is to follow the outline of: Location Where is the component? Local situation Are there any obstructions to the site? Is it on the damage register? When was it last inspected? What resources are available to complete the task? The task Execution Ensure that everyone knows what the task or tasks are What specific jobs everyone has to do to successfully complete the task. Any vessel moves or other factors that will impact on the tasks Confirm the lines of communication for any reports or questions

Chain of command

18.3. Management of the Inspection The inspection coordinator is not working in isolation but as part of the management team for the campaign or project. To put this into context a typical organisation is shown in Figure 18.11

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Figure 18.11 Chain of Command and Lines of Responsibility 18.4. Managing Individual Tasks Even though an inspection is anomaly based the fact that all components have actually been inspected must be recorded as well as the fact that every task has been fully completed. As any inspection task is likely to have several elements, cleaning, marking, CVI, MPI etc, as well as any component may be subjected to more than one inspection method (task) then keeping track of the precise state of an inspection campaign can become very difficult. A method that may help is to keep a tally board or spread sheet. Table 18.12 refers. Component CVI NJ56 MF55 FF31 MF49 NC14 X X X X X MPI X X X X X Table 18.12 Sample Spread Sheet The sample spread sheet shows that component NJ56 must be visually inspected, be non-destructively tested by MPI and have photographs taken.
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CP

Phot X

ACFM

DTM

FMD

X X X X

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 18 As the various inspections are completed the dates are entered into the boxes. Additional boxes may be required for tasks with additional sub-tasks, CVI will normally require cleaning to SA 2 and so on. 19. Personnel Responsibilities On an annual platform inspection the inspection controller will need a full understanding of the responsibilities of all the members of the management team offshore and onshore. A resume of the salient responsibilities for these team members is laid out below. 19.1. The IDVB The IDVB is government approved to act in the capacity of verification that the Duty Holder has discharged his responsibilities under the appropriate legislation. The five IDVB are listed in paragraph 1. Regarding the IMR program the Duty Holder remains responsible that the program is sufficiently detailed to ensure that the structure remains fit for role. The IDVB verifies this fact only. 19.2. The Operator, Client, Operating Company, Duty Holder The Duty Holder is responsible in law to ensure that the structure remains in a safe condition so as not to endanger personnel and is fit for design purpose. The client is the party contracting for the IMR services. 19.3. The Clients Project Manager The project manager for the client will be a nominated engineer from the operating companys engineering department. He will receive daily reports, be responsible for the day to day administration of the contract for the Duty Holder and will issue any instructions regarding the requirements for the contract and any follow up requirements for the Duty Holder The CAR reports to him directly. 19.4. The Clients Representative {Client Approved Representative (CAR)} The CAR will oversee the works being carried out offshore and will be the Project Managers on site representative. He will ensure that the terms of the contract are honoured and will pass all information regarding the daily working of the contract to and from the Project Manager who is on shore. He will ensure that the contract is conducted to the standard of safety required by the Duty Holder. He will liaise with the operators other offshore managers such as the OIM and any other CAR on site. Any additional work will be authorised by the Project Manager but the CAR will give the on site instructions. The CAR is responsible for the acceptance of all the inspection data including, CDs, Videos, Photographs etc. Contractually he may be authorised to stop work if contractual requirements are not complied with and he may stop work or diving if he considers that safety is compromised. He cannot order a dive to start. He may only inform

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course IMR, QA and QC, Recording and Reporting the Dive Supervisor that all the safety and administration requirements are in place. 19.5. The Legal Representative The clients legal department will interpret the legal contractual requirements and advise the Project Manager accordingly. 19.6. The Contractor This is the party providing the actual services specified in the contract. This will be the offshore contracting company providing the vessel, services and staff to fully comply with the contract requirements. The contractor has a legal obligation to health and safety to provide a safe workplace and procedures. 19.7. The Inspection Controller May be employed by the contractor, a third party or the client. He is responsible for the efficient management of the inspection program, ensuring that all procedures are properly applied and fully implemented. He plans the dive tasks with the Dive Supervisor and the Superintendent or Offshore Manager or Party Chief. He briefs divers, supervisors, and pilots on the overall tasks for the next 24 hours. He ensures that all data is correctly stored and reports anomalies to the Offshore Manager and CAR. He will liaise between, the Offshore Manager, the CAR, the Captain, and the OIM and on shore Project Managers as required. 19.8. The Superintendent, Offshore Manager, Party Chief This person is the contractors offshore project manager. He will be in overall command of the entire offshore contractors spread with regard to contractual requirements, administration and logistics. He is the team leader and has to ensure the efficient running of the entire project on a daily basis. He will liaise with the CAR, the contractors on shore project manager and the clients Project Manager. The Inspection Controller is directly responsible to him. 19.9. The Dive Supervisor The Dive Supervisor is responsible for the safety of any person under pressure while under his direct supervision. He is the only person who can initiate a dive. He can terminate the dive at any time that he feels the wellbeing or safety of the divers is in jeopardy. He is not responsible for saturation divers while they are in the saturation chambers on deck not in the diving bell. 19.10. The Captain The ships master is responsible for the safety of all persons on board the vessel whether crew, passengers, supernumeries or even stowaways. He can stop the diving on safety grounds but he cannot start a dive. 19.11. The OIM He is the manager of the offshore installation and controls the daily activities of anyone on the platform and for 500m around the platform. He controls all
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 18 the work activities for the entire platform and the 500m zone and can order work of any kind to stop. 19.12. The Divers The divers are required to be fully qualified for the type of diving they are employed for and must have appropriate inspection qualifications on an inspection project. They are directly responsible to the Dive Supervisor. 19.13. ROV Supervisor He is responsible that the ROV remains operational for the agreed contractual periods daily. He must ensure that all specified equipment is fully serviceable and correctly calibrated. The ROV Pilots are directly responsible to him. He is directly responsible to the Offshore Manager. He may be qualified to CSWIP 3.3U. 19.14. ROV Pilots The pilots are responsible to the ROV Supervisor. They will be responsible for servicing, maintaining and flying the ROV safely. On an inspection contract sufficient numbers of pilots must be CSWIP 3.3U qualified. 20. Decommissioning When the fields become depleted the various platforms and seabed completions will be removed. The QA and QC will continue throughout this process to ensure that everything actually is removed and to verify that the ocean floor is left clear of any debris.

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Bibliography A Handbook for Underwater Inspectors L K Porter HMSO Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Other NDT Methods Used Offshore

CHAPTER 19
Other NDT Methods Used Offshore
1. Introduction There are a number of non-destructive test methods employed for particular inspection tasks on offshore structures. These methods may not be used so frequently as the NDT techniques outlined in Chapters 13 and 14 but they are important additions to the spread of techniques that can be employed to test structural integrity. An outline of the methods principles of operation, advantages and disadvantages and uses is contained below. 2. Radiography Radiography is a well-proven method of NDT that has been employed in industry for many years to test welds and many other items. It is extensively used in the Health Service as X-rays to enable health workers to see inside the human body. Offshore radiography is used in pipeline survey, topside platform inspections and occasionally underwater for specific tasks. The worlds Navies employ radiography for specialist mine disposal activities. Table 19.1 indicates the advantages and disadvantages of the method as a non-destructive test. Advantages Permanent records are produced as radiographs The radiograph can be viewed by many It is a well proven method Measurements can usually be taken directly off the radiograph Cleaning standard is only SA 1 Disadvantages Safety requirements are very high Storage and transport of the radioactive sources are expensive due to the safety requirements In the UK Government approval is required The radiographers must be HSE controlled and carry dosimeters Costs are high because of the safety requirements and the production methods to produce radioactive isotopes Interpretation of the radiograph often requires trained radiographic interpreters Table 19.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Radiography as an NDT Technique
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 19 3. Production of Radiation Radiography employs two methods of producing radiation and two types of radiation, X-rays and Gamma () rays. X-rays are produced electronically and therefore there is no storage of radioactive sources but the equipment is bulky and heavy, rays are produced by radioactive isotopes that are always a source of radiation and are therefore always potentially harmful to personnel and storage must be extremely carefully controlled. 3.1. X-ray Production X-rays can be produced within a thermionic valve where a stream of electrons emitted from the cathode bombards an anode. The impact of the electrons on the anode produces photons or X-rays. See Figure 19.2

Figure 19.2 Production of X-rays As well as being bulky and heavy high voltages are required to produce the electron stream and this presents a hazard to diver deployment. Commercially this equipment is not used underwater. 3.2. Production of Rays Radiation is produced by the spontaneous disintegration of the nuclei of an unstable element as it emits particles thereby reducing to a lower energy state to become stable. The units of measure of this radiation are the Curie (Ci). Some radioactive isotopes exist naturally but they emit low levels of radiation and commercially artificial isotopes are produced by bombarding certain elements, such as Iridium, with neutrons. This changes the atomic structure of the element because the neutrons are captured in its nucleus. The most common source used offshore is Iridium 192, which has a radiation output of some 480 Ci when first produced. This drops as the isotope ages. Iridium 192 can penetrate approximately 90mm of steel but is
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Other NDT Methods Used Offshore normally limited to 50mm. Cobalt 60 is an alternative source that is used offshore if a stronger source is required. In use the source is housed in a radiation shielded housing that may be constructed with depleted uranium. The housing is designed with an aperture that can be opened remotely to expose the source for a controlled exposure. There is at least one diver deployable source that is remotely controlled. The diver will place the film cassettes and the source in its housing unexposed. The housing is connected to a compressed air supply on the surface and is locked with a key in the safe, housed position. The last task for the diver when all is set up is to unlock the safety and withdraw the key and leave the site. The safety zone is maintained as 8m. The housing aperture is opened from the surface remote control to expose the source. On completion of the timed exposure the aperture is closed and an ROV would confirm via a visual indicator that the source is housed. The diver then returns to lock the unit and adjust it for the next exposure. The aim would be to cover the pipe radius in three hits. Figures 19.3 to 19.5 refer

Figure 19.3 Diver Deployed Radioactive Source in Housing


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Figure 19.4 Source Placed at 12 Oclock Setup for First Exposure


(Arrow indicates direction of 3 oclock)

Figure 19.5 Source Connected to Surface Unlocked With Key Removed Ready to be Exposed
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Other NDT Methods Used Offshore The method of placing the film cassettes is illustrated in Figure is 19.6

Figure 19.6 Placing Film Cassettes For Double Wall Single Image Technique 4. Safety It is imperative to maintain an 8m-exclusion zone at all times. The most important factor when handling radioactive sources is safety; there can be no compromise. The company supplying the source, equipment and radiographers must be Home Office approved and the staff are all badged and monitored. 5. How the Method Works The radiation emitted from the source will cause silver halides contained in the film emulsion to react in the same way that light causes a reaction in photography. The more radiation falling on the film the darker it will appear when developed. Figure 19.7 illustrates the method.

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Figure 19.7 Radiation Exposing the Film The preferred method of recording an image is the single wall, single image or panoramic technique, which is illustrated in Figure 19.8. The alternative when there is only access to one side is the double wall single image technique as shown in Figure 19.6.

Figure 19.8 Single Wall Single Image or Panoramic Technique

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5.1. Radiograph Quality The quality of the radiograph is important because it will determine how small a defect can be found. Radiography is best at recording volumetric defects not planar as illustrated in Figure 19.7. The quality of the radiograph is commonly indicated by the use of an Image Quality Indicator (IQI). This is a plastic packet that contains wires of different diameters that record or not on the radiograph. The size of the smallest wire that records is the size of the smallest defect that will show on the radiograph. See Figure 19.9

Figure 19.9 Image Quality Indicator 6. Electro Magnetic Detection Techniques (EMD or EMT) Eddy current testing of welds is widespread offshore because developments have taken place to improve the equipment design to better adapt it to the environment. Eddy current techniques are used to: Detect and size for length and depth surface breaking cracks in conducting materials whether magnetic or non-magnetic Inspecting tubes and bar materials during production Sorting pure metals and alloys Taking coating thickness measurements Assessing stress in conducting materials
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 19 Assessing the thickness of marine growth The most sensitive area for stress cracks propagating is the toes of welds and this type of defect will be surface breaking. Eddy currents can find this type of defect through paint coating and therefore has real potential in the offshore scene. 6.1. How the Method Works As shown in Chapter 14 MPI when an electric current is passed through a conductor a circular magnetic field at 90o to the current flow is generated around the conductor. If the conductor is twisted into a coil the magnetic field vectors into a longitudinal flux orientation. With the eddy current technique this is called the PRIMARY FIELD. If this coil is brought to close proximity to a conducting material the primary field will pass through the material and produce a circular electric current orientated at right angles to the direction of the primary magnetic field. This induced electric current is called an eddy current and this is the principal that transformers work on. Figure 19.10 refers.

Figure 19.10 The Eddy Current Principle These eddy currents will induce another magnetic field that is called the secondary field, which has the opposite orientation to the primary field. These two fields can be balanced via the instrumentation that can have a display that would then read zero. This would be the case with a plane conducting material with no discontinuities. If there were a surface breaking crack in the plate this will cause the lines of current flow to bunch together which in turn will cause the induced lines of magnetic flux to bunch. As seen in Chapter 14 this increases the flux density, this in turn increases the magnetic field strength in the secondary magnetic field. This causes an imbalance between the two fields that will be indicated on the instrument display, which is commonly a CRT. Figure 19.11 refers.
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Figure 19.11 Effects of a Crack Interacting With the Eddy Currents There are a number of factors that can affect the eddy currents apart from surface breaking cracks: Probe lift off can cause spurious indications Varying permeability can cause spurious indications If the probe is close to the edge of a plate edge effect will cause spurious indications Differenced in material thickness can cause spurious indications Figure 19.12 refers

Figure 19.12 Spurious Indications

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Other factors that effect eddy currents are: Test probe frequency Material permeability Material conductivity the higher the frequency the less the penetration the higher the permeability the less the penetration the higher the conductivity the less the penetration

Table 19.13 indicates the advantages and disadvantages of the method. EMD/ACFM Advantages over MPI Can size a defect for length and depth Works through non-conducting materials Data recorded directly onto computer MPI Advantages over EMD/ACFM Well proven industrial technique Easier to use on complex geometry Good for finding transverse or complex branching cracks

Permanent record of inspection data Good for finding shallow cracks Quicker than MPI Lower cleaning standard required Works on non-magnetic materials Interpretation is completed topside Off-line interpretation is available There are no lighting problems ROV deployment may be possible Table 19.13 Advantages of EMD/ACFM Over MPI Finally there are a number of important points to note that must apply during any EMD or ACFM inspection. The probe operation must be agreed between the surface technician and the diver inspector The terminology to be used during the dialogue between the technician and the diver inspector must be agreed and understood by both Cleaning standard must be a minimum of SA 2 The diver inspector must appreciate the important points concerning probe manipulation and know the name of the parts of the probe
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Gives a visual unambiguous indication Better for use with remedial grinding The equipment is less complex The equipment is less costly

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Other NDT Methods Used Offshore The weld must be correctly marked The diver inspector must be aware of the limitations of the technique regarding weld profile, seams and component geometry 7. Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) ACPD is a method for sizing the depth of a surface-breaking defect. The method is not used to detect defects only to size a known flaw. The method can be used on any conducting material as it relies solely on the resistance path to an alternating current. 7.1. How the Method Works Alternating current exhibits a skin effect as has been mentioned previously. The skin effect is more prevalent the higher the frequency of the alternating current. A pair of probes, called field probes is placed in contact with the surface of the material being tested and a current is applied across them. The current will flow from one probe to the other through the skin of the material. A second probe, which is the equivalent of the two prods of a voltmeter, measures the potential drop between them when they are placed in the current field established by the field probes. This establishes a baseline reading. The sensing probe is then placed to straddle the crack and a different reading is obtained because the resistance path is longer. Care must be exercised to ensure that the current carrying conductor for the field probes is kept as far away from the measuring probe and its umbilical as possible to avoid any interference with the readings. See Figure 19.14

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Figure 19.14 Methodology for ACPD To size the depth of the crack the two readings are compared and a simple formula is applied to calculate the actual crack depth. A probe designed for underwater deployment is shown in Figure 19.15.

Figure 19.15 ACPD Underwater Probe 8. Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM)
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Other NDT Methods Used Offshore ACFM will find and size surface-breaking defects in most metals even through coatings up to 5mm thick. ACFM has largely replaced MPI offshore in the UK sector of the North Sea. The method is applied by diver inspectors and may be achievable by ROVs in the near future. The diver inspector manipulates the probe and the surface technician interprets the results and records the data. The minimum qualification for the diver inspector is 3.1U. A 3.2U diver inspector is often specified, however as remedial grinding may be necessary. The scanning techniques and terminology are as for the EMD techniques in paragraph6.1 above. ROV deployed probes will require 3.3U qualified personnel. Cleaning standard of SA 1 is required. 8.1. How the Method Works The ACFM method was evolved to combine the ACPD technique of sizing with a method that does not require surface contact. This is achieved by inducing an electric field similar to EMD methods. With ACFM the induced electric field then induces magnetic fields as with EMD methods and these magnetic fields are measured electronically to determine crack length and depth. The fact that electric fields exhibit the skin effect is utilised to confine the measurement of the magnetic field to the crack area only. Figure 19.16 refers.

Figure 19.16 Principle of Operation of ACFM 8.2. Application of the Technique

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Chapter 19 The standard ACFM probe contains both the field induction and the magnetic field sensors in one probe assembly. No electrical contact is required to the worksite and therefore cleaning to SA 1 is sufficient. There are two cables connected to the probe, one for input current to the field induction unit and one to carry output current from the magnetic field sensors. These two cables are contained in a single umbilical. Care should be exercised not to pass this close to the probe assembly as it could alter the induced field strength. The diver inspector under directions from the surface technician manipulates the probe. The surface technician will brief the diver as detailed in paragraph 6.1 before the inspection. Interpretation is completed on the surface by the surface technician and the results are all recorded in real time and can be reviewed at any time during or after the inspection. The system does not suffer from probe lift off as EMD does. Cracks can be sized for length and depth. 9. Flooded Member Detection (FMD) Flooded members can be detected in two ways Gamma Radiography Ultrasonically The most widely used in the North Sea is radiography. FMD is used to identify tubular members that have flooded. It is used as a batch testing method on a go/no go system. If a member is tested and found to be dry it is a go and considered to be serviceable and fit for purpose. If it is flooded it is a no go and is identified for further follow up analysis and testing to determine where it has failed, why it has failed and what ramifications this has on the structure. 9.1. Radiographic FMD This technique places and exposes a source on one side of the tubular while a dosimeter is held opposite on the other side. The radiation penetrating the tubular will be much less if it is flooded than if it is dry. The diameter and wall thickness of the member must be known so that the expected doses may be calculated. The most common source used for this method is caesium 137 and safety zones must be established around the ROV when it is on deck with the source fitted. The last person to leave the ROV before launching is the radiographer and the first person to approach it on recovery is the radiographer. No cleaning is required as long as the thickness can be assessed as the software will compensate for the marine growth. Figure 19.17 illustrates the technique and Figure 19.18 shows a typical configuration on an ROV.

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Figure 19.17 Radiographic FMD

Figure 19.18 Radiographic FMD Mounted on ROV

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9.2. Ultrasonic FMD The ultrasonic technique uses a standoff ultrasonic method with an A-scan display. The 500 kHz probe is mounted on a standoff frame which must be held exactly at the normal to the surface of the member. The ultrasonic signal is propagated through the water to the near wall of the member. If the member is dry there is a reflected signal from the near wall only. If the member is flooded there is a reflected signal from the near wall and from, either the far wall or the surface of the internal water. It is a go/no go method the same as the radiographic technique. Figure 19.19 refers.

Figure 19.19 Ultrasonic FMD The cleaning standard is SA 2. As this method is diver deployed the necessary cleaning can be accomplished by the diver prior to taking the reading. 10. General Point for all FMD Readings All FMD readings must be taken at either the 6 oclock position on any horizontal members or as low as possible on any vertical or vertical diagonal members. This is because this is the point where liquid will accumulate. It is also vital to know the diameter and wall thickness of any member that is to be tested.

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Bibliography A Handbook for Underwater Inspectors L K Porter HMSO Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon

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CHAPTER 20
Cleaning for Inspection and Profile Grinding
1. General Comments There are two prime reasons for cleaning areas of structures. The first is to prepare the area for CVI, MPI or other NDT. The second is to remove excessive marine growth, debris or other fouling. In either case only discrete areas of the structure will be cleaned, not the entire jacket. A number of methods for cleaning exist and are tabulated in Table 20.1
Method
Hand Cleaning (Scrapers etc) Pneumatics Hydraulics HP Water Jet HP Water Grit Entrainment Grit Blasting LP Air Grit Cavitation Jet Inhibitors (Including Henderson Rings)

Advantages
Inexpensive, easy to deploy More efficient More efficient Fast, effective, least damaging Fast, matt finish Removes all growth, matt finish Fast, matt finish Effective on hard growth, safe, no grit No diver intervention required

Disadvantages
Slow, diver fatigue, poor finish Depth limits, control, exhaust Expensive, limited choice, bulky hose Hazardous, leaves reflective surface Hazardous, may damage the surface Hazardous, maintenance, backup team required May be depth limited, large compressor required Will not remove soft growth Only in splash zone, environmental impact

ROV
NO YES YES YES NO YES YES NO NO

Table 20.1 2. HP Water Jets HP water jets are widely used offshore as are the grit entrainment and LP grit blasting systems. These methods of cleaning have potential to harm the operator and therefore some safety considerations must be included with any discussion as to their use. A Hughes standard system is shown in Figure 20.2

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Figure 20.2 Hughes HP Water Jet Safety considerations are: Never block or wire the trigger open When in use never point at anything other then the area to be cleaned Keep clear of any retro-jets Never get any part of the body in front of the jet Ensure that all HP hoses, fittings and unions are in test, good condition and are correctly fitted and tightened If grit is used be aware of the grit entering the life-support system because of circulation in the water If grit penetrates the suit or gloves take medical advice immediately Treat the equipment with respect, it is capable of maiming or even killing if not handled correctly All HP water jet or grit guns must be properly designed for underwater use. 2.1. Diving Medical Advisory Committee (DMAC) Advice The Diving Medical Advisory Committee (DMAC) has published the following advice on managing any accident that might occur while using this type of equipment.
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Cleaning for Inspection and Profile Grinding The wound caused may appear insignificant and give little indication of the extent of the injury beneath ant the damage to deeper tissue. Large quantities of water may have punctured the skin, flesh and organs through a very small hole that may not even bleed. Initial mild damage to the wall of an organ may result in subsequent rupture, particularly if infection has been introduced. The development of subsequent infection is particularly important in abdominal injuries. 2.2. Management of any Injury The outcome depends upon the extent of the initial injury and the presence or absence of infection, and even through the injury seems trivial on the surface and the patient has no complaints, it is of great importance to arrange for medical examination as quickly as possible. Where surgical examination is not immediately possible in a remote situation, first aid measures are confined to dressing the wound and observing the patient closely for the development of further complaints over four or five days. The development of fever and a rising pulse rate suggest the injury is serious together with persistence or occurrence of pain. On evacuation, the diver should carry the following card, which outlines the possible nature of the injury. This man has been involved with high pressure water jetting up to 14,500 psi (100Mpa, 1000 bar, 1019 Kgcm-2) with a jet velocity of 900 mph (1440 Kmhr-1). Please take this into account when making your diagnosis. Unusual infections with micro-aerophilic organism occurring at low temperatures have been reported. These may be gram negative pathogens such as are found in sewage, bacterial swabs and blood cultures may therefore be helpful 3. Standard of Surface Finish The standard of surface finish that is normally adopted in the North Sea was originally a Swedish standard for specifying blast cleaning of steel prior to the application of paint coatings. This standard in now incorporated into BS EN ISO 8501-1:2001, BS 7079-A1: 1989 and .BS EN ISO 8501-1: Supplement: 2001, BS 7079-A1: Suppliment 1: 1996 The specifications from these standard normally applied offshore are: SA 1 Light cleaning, removal of gross fouling (for general visual inspection) SA 2 Cleaning to paint coat including removal of loose paint and corrosion products SA 2 Very thorough blast cleaning with grit entrainment resulting in dull matt metal finish. (This is the most widely adopted cleaning level applied offshore as it leave a surface, sometimes referred to as stippled, that does not unduly reflect light. It is an excellent surface for CVI, MPI CCTV, Photography and all other NDT.)

SA 3 Thorough blast cleaning to bright shiny metal. This is good for most inspection but will reflect light and is therefore not such a good surface if CCTV and Photography are employed.
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4. Area to Be Cleaned The size of the cleaned area must be large enough to ensure that there is a valid inspection but small enough to ensure that time is not wasted in unnecessary cleaning. For CVI and MPI the area cleaned to SA 2 should include the weld and an area 75mm wide either side of it. Also an area large enough to allow access for inspection equipment and the diver inspector should be cleaned to SA 1 either side of the weld. An area approximately 1m wide should be sufficient. See Figure 20.3.

Figure 20.3 Cleaned Area 5. General Applications of Profile Grinding Profile grinding may be required during the fabrication stage of the structures life as a means of improving the profile of fabrication welds that may have process faults such as, excessive weld metal, undercut, poor restart, stray arc, spatter or any other fabrication flaws. If pressure vessels such as caissons and conductors are constructed to PD 5500:2000 all welds should be dressed to comply with the requirements of the standard. Profile grinding obviously has an established place in welding fabrication. Regarding the in-service stage for any structure the need to employ profile grinding may be dictated by: The need to establish whether or not any indications identified during MPI or EMD investigations are actually cracks
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Cleaning for Inspection and Profile Grinding The requirement to grind out any cracks that are actually confirmed during inspection activities The practice of removing identified notches and stress raisers discovered during the normal IMR cycle When profile or remedial grinding is undertaken it will be authorised either by the CNC or by instructions from the Duty Holders engineering department via the on site Client Representative. The actual parameters for the grinding will be given in a written instruction. 6. Specific Application of Profile Grinding The most common application of remedial grinding is when crack-like features are identified during either MPI or EMD activities undertaken as part of the annual IMR program. A common inclusion in a typical CNC is the instruction to grind out any indications to a maximum depth of 2mm in 0.5mm steps. There is normally a requirement to re-inspect after each step to determine whether the indication has been ground out or not. The on-shore engineering department in accordance with their requirements and procedures will initiate further follow up actions if the indication remains after the full 2mm depth is reached. Figure 20.4 applies.

Figure 20.4 Remedial Grinding


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Bibliography A Handbook for Underwater Inspectors L K Porter HMSO Underwater Inspection M Bayliss, D Short, M Bax E & F N Spon

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Appendix 1

APPENDIX 1
Technical Drawings How They Apply to Inspection
1. Types of Drawing An engineering drawing is a type of drawing that is technical in nature, used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items, and is usually created in accordance with standardized conventions for layout, nomenclature, interpretation, appearance (such as typefaces and line styles), size, etc. Engineering drawings are often referred to as "blueprints" or "bluelines". However, the terms are rapidly becoming an anachronism, due to the fact that most copies of engineering drawings that were formerly made using a chemicalprinting process that yielded graphics on blue-colored paper or, alternatively, of blue-lines on white paper, have been superseded by more modern reproduction processes. The process of producing engineering drawings, and the skill of producing them, is often referred to as technical drawing, although technical drawings are also required for disciplines that would not ordinarily be thought of as parts of engineering. Common features of engineering drawings A variety of line styles are used to graphically represent physical objects. Types of lines include the following: visible - are continuous lines used to depict edges directly visible from a particular angle. hidden - are short-dashed lines that may be used to represent edges that are not directly visible. center - are alternately long- and short-dashed lines that may be used to represent the axes of circular features. cutting plane - are thin, medium-dashed lines, or thick alternately long- and double short-dashed that may be used to define sections for section views. section - are thin lines in a parallel pattern used to indicate surfaces in section views resulting from "cutting." Section lines are commonly referred to as "crosshatching." Here is an example of an engineering drawing. The different line types are colored for clarity. Black = object line and hatching Red = hidden line Blue = center line Magenta = phantom line or cutting plane
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2. Engineering Drawing In most cases, a single view is not sufficient to show all necessary features, and several views are used. Types of views include the following: 2.1. Multiple views and projections Orthographic projection - show the object as it looks from the front, right, left, top, bottom, or back, and are typically positioned relative to each other according to the rules of either first-angle or third-angle projection. Not all views are necessarily used, and determination of what surface constitutes the "front," etc., varies from object to object. "Orthographic" comes from the Greek for "straight writing (or drawing)." Section - depict what the object would look like if it were cut perfectly along cutting plane lines defined in a particular view, and rotated 90 to directly view the resulting surface(s), which are indicated with section lines. They are used to show features not externally visible, or not clearly visible. Detail - show portions of other views, "magnified" for clarity. Auxiliary Projection - similar to orthographic projections, however the directions of viewing are other than those for orthographic projections. Isometric - show the object from angles in which the scales along each axis of the object are equal. It corresponds to rotation of the object by 45 about the vertical axis, followed by rotation of approximately 35.264 [= arcsin(tan(30))] about the horizontal axis starting from an orthographic projection view. "Isometric" comes from the Greek for "same measure."

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2.2. Showing dimensions The required sizes of features are conveyed through use of dimensions. Distances may be indicated with either of two standardized forms of dimension: linear and ordinate. With linear dimensions, two parallel lines, called "extension lines," spaced at the distance between two features, are shown at each of the features. A line perpendicular to the extension lines, called a "dimension line," with arrows at its endpoints, is shown between, and terminating at, the extension lines. The distance is indicated numerically at the midpoint of the dimension line, either adjacent to it, or in a gap provided for it. With ordinate dimensions, one horizontal and one vertical extension line establish an origin for the entire view. The origin is identified with zeroes placed at the ends of these extension lines. Distances along the x- and yaxes to other features are specified using other extension lines, with the distances indicated numerically at their ends. Sizes of circular features are indicated using either diametral or radial dimensions. Radial dimensions use an "R" followed by the value for the radius; Diametral dimensions use a circle with forward-leaning diagonal line through it, called the diameter symbol, followed by the value for the diameter. A radially-aligned line with arrowhead pointing to the circular feature, called a leader, is used in conjunction with both diametral and radial dimensions. All types of dimensions are typically composed of two parts: the nominal value, which is the "ideal" size of the feature, and the tolerance, which specifies the amount that the value may vary above and below the nominal. Of the several different ways that engineering drawings are presented and produced the types of drawing that apply to underwater inspection are, first angle, which is the European standard, third angle, which is the American standard, and isometric projection, which is a method for presenting drawings in 3 dimensions. The standard in use is represented by a truncated cone, as indicated below. 3. First Angle Projection The ISO standard considers a projection on the opposite direction; the top view is under the front view, the right view is at the left of the front view. This is called First Angle Projection

Key To Indicate First Angle Projection


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4. Third Angle Projection The American standard (called Third Angle Projection) places the left view on the left and the top view on the top.

Key To Indicate Third Angle Projection 5. Additional Information Included on Drawings Although writing on drawings is kept to the minimum; Notes--textual information-are also typically included in drawings, specifying details not otherwise conveyed. Notes are almost always in completely uppercase characters, for uniformity and maximal legibility after duplication of the drawing, which may involve substantial reduction in size. Leaders may be used in conjunction with notes in order to point to a particular feature or object that the note concerns. Drawings are numbered in accordance with the system incorporated into the QA system. The actual drawing number is included in the Title box. Titles are concise and normally in the bottom right hand corner of the drawing. They are normally all in upper case. Typically the Title box includes: Project title Drawing number Drawing title Description of the project Scale Date of drawing Office of origin Office drawing project number Draftsman name Approval signatures 6. Size of Engineering Drawings Sizes of drawings typically comply with either of two different standards, metric or U.S. Customary, according to the following tables:

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Metric Drawing Sizes (mm) A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 210 X 297 297 X 420 420 X 594 594 X 841 841 X 1189

U.S. Customary Drawing Sizes A B C D E 8.5" X 11" 11" X 17" 17" X 22" 22" X 34" 34" X 44"

The metric drawing sizes correspond to international paper sizes. These developed further refinements in the second half of the twentieth century, when photocopying became cheap. Engineering drawings could be readily doubled (or halved) in size and put on the next larger (or, respectively, smaller) size of paper with no waste of space. And the metric technical pens were chosen in sizes so that one could add detail or drafting changes with a pen of double (or half) the width to the copy. The U.S. Customary "A-size" corresponds to "letter" size, and "B-size" corresponds to "ledger" size. There were also once British paper sizes, which went by names rather than alphanumeric designations.
(ANSI Y14.2, Y14.3, and Y14.5 are standards that are commonly used in the U.S.)

7. How Drawings Are Used in Offshore Inspection The common use is for briefing of all personnel involved in the inspection. The engineering drawing may be used for this but it is generally more beneficial to use either schematic or isometric presentations, as these are easier to relate to. The other main use of drawings is to determine measurements and sizes of the various components being inspected. 8. Isometric Drawing As indicated in paragraph 2.1 isometric drawings show the object with equal scale on all the axis of the drawing. The perspective for the drawing is slightly above and to the side of the object. The vertical lines from the engineering drawing remain vertical while the horizontal lines are drawn at 30o above the horizontal. Working through the following exercise should be helpful in gaining the skill required to produce an isometric drawing from an engineering projection. 9. Exercise in Producing an Isometric Drawing From a Third Angle Projection

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Bibliography Wikipedia The free encyclopedia

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APPENDIX 2
Exercise in Writing an Engineering Description of a Component
1. What Is Required The CSWIP 3.3U and 3.4U practical examinations both require that a written description of a component be prepared and submitted for assessment. A photograph of the component will be provided and the candidate must write a description of the feature in engineering terms, in approximately 150 words. This is an engineering description to ensure that the candidate can discuss engineering items with other engineers. It is not an inspection of the component. This exercise mimics this examination requirement. You are required to prepare a written description of the item shown in the photograph in Figure A2.1 in approximately 150 words. On completion of the exercise submit your description to the course instructor and he will give you an assesment of it. When you have digested the assessment attempt a second description of the item in Figure A2.2 and submit this for the instructor to assess. 2. Points to Note Take into account the following points while preparing your description. What material do you assess the component is made from? Only describe the specific features of the item that you can actually see What function does the item fulfill? Is it a clamp or a guide? How is it constructed? Is it welded or bolted? Are there any attachements to the item such as bonding wires? Can you see evidence of bolts, liners or any other features normally associated with the component?

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Figure A2.1 Component One

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Figure A2.2 Component Two

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Figure A2.3 Component Three

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Appendix 3

APPENDIX 3
Types, Capabilities and Limitations of ROVs and Submersibles
1. ROV Classification ROV classifications as stated in Chapter 21 are specified in IMCA guidance note 051. Some extra notes on the capabilities and limitations of the various types of vehicle are laid out below. A typical system is illustrated in Figure A3.1.

Figure A3.1 Typical ROV System 2. Class 1 Pure Observation Pure observation vehicles are physically limited in size and power and will provide live video only. This type of vehicle has limited applications but has the advantage of being very easy to mobilise and deploy. A class 1 vehicle is shown in Figure A3.2.
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Figure A3.2 Class 1 ROV This type of vehicle may be used for diver support. When engaged in this task the divers safety is enhanced as is the efficiency by: Locating the job site Providing a real time overview of the divers work Provide extra lighting Monitoring the divers well being 3. Class II Observation With Payload Option These are vehicles that can carry additional sensors such as CP probes and sonar as well as additional cameras. They may have simple manipulators fitted of the two function extend and grab type. These are slightly more powerful vehicles that are capable of performing their original design function with at least two additional functions added. They will have multiplexing facilities and some spare umbilical capacity. See Figure A3.3

Figure A3.3 Class 2 ROVs


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Appendix 3 Common types of equipment mounted on this type of vehicle are: Colour Camera SIT Camera Sonar CP Probe (stabbing or proximity) Digital Still Camera Pan and Tilt Camera (Colour or SIT) Lights Gyro-compass Depth Sensor Location Pinger Location Strobe This type of vehicle may also be used for diver support operations. 4. Class III Work class Vehicles These vehicles are large enough and powerful enough to be fitted with additional sensors, tools and manipulators. These vehicles will have significant multiplexing capability and spare conductors in the umbilical. These vehicles are used for some construction tasks, as well as inspection work, particularly pipeline surveys. See Figures A3.4 to A3.10. As an example of the power

available to this type of vehicle a Super Scorpio is rated at 40 horsepower. Figure A3.4
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Figure A3.5

Class 3 ROV Trojan


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Appendix 3 Figure A3.6 Class 3 ROV Components

Figure A3.7 Subsea Offshore Pioneer

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Figure A3.8 Slingsby Engineering Multi-role Vehicle (MRV)

Figure A3.9 Hydrovision Diablo

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Figure A3.10 Perry Tritech Super Scorpio This type of vehicle may have a considerable payload fitted including: Side-scan Sonar gives object location to both sides of the ROV Sub-bottom profiler measures a section through the seabed strata and indicates composition. The ROV must maintain an altitude of 5 6cm Parametric sub-bottom profiler a panormic view of the seabed uses an array of transducers to obtain

3D mapping sonar an array of transducers provide a 3 dimensional view of the seabed Scanning sonar ROV shows a sonar picture of the seabed in front of the

Ranging Sonar or Avoidance sonar an echo-location sonar that gives a bearing and distance to an object in range of the sonar beam Bathymetric Unit (Altimeter) measures depth and altitude, can be linked to thursters to maintain depth automatically Ultrasonic trench profiler provides an image of the pipeline trench Spot-scan trench profiler a high frequency scanning device that provides either a longitudinal or lateral trench profile Spot-scan profiler profiles the pipeline by laser scanning Pipe-tracker a magnetometer that plots the pipe by detecting magnetic anomalies

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Types, Capabilities & Limitations of ROVs & Submersibles Laser sizing and ranging lasers can give accurate ranges to objects and can also size even quite small objects such as dents in the pipeline SIT cameras Lights Pan and Tilt Camera Boom Cameras Emerergency Acoustic Transponder Emergency High Intensity Flashing Strobe Light Gyro compass Depth sensor Digital Still Camera Stero Cameras (if required) photogrammetry in real time is available to give accurate dimensions of any anomalies Current Density probe CP probe Ultrasonic digital thickness meter thickness when required. Temperature sensor Salinity sensor Odometer Acoustic responder Pipe tracker Wheels Sampling Equipment A diagram of a typical pipeline survey ROV is shown in Figures 21.11 and 21.12 measures pipeline wall low light monochrome video camera

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Figure 21.11 Diagram of a Typical Pipeline Survey ROV

Figure 21.12 Diagram of a Typical Pipeline Survey ROV Front View

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Types, Capabilities & Limitations of ROVs & Submersibles 5. Class IV Towed or Bottom Crawling Vehicles Towed vehicles have no propulsion power but will have limited manoeuvrability via vanes. They are used for survey tasks. The towing speed is normally between 0.5 and 4 kts. The tasks include seabed survey, pipeline survey and locating shipwrecks. The equipment that can be installed includes: Emergency strobe unit Compass Depth sensor Digital still camera Pan and tilt camera Lights SIT camera Sidescan sonar Sub-bottom profiler Trench profiler Ranging sonar Echo sounder and altimeter Emergency transponder Temperature sensor Salinity sensor Bottom crawler vehicles are negatively buoyant and move on the seabed with tracks or wheels. They are trenching vehicles. Some can fly with limited manoeuvrability. See Figures A3.13 and A3.14

Figure A3.13 Soil Machine Dynamics Bottom Crawling Cable Burial ROV
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Figure A3.14 Slingsby Engineering ROV 128 Cable Burial/Retrieval System 6. Class V Prototype or Development Vehicle This type of vehicle is either under development or does not fit into any of the other four categories. 7. General Work Completed by ROVs There are numerous tasks completed by ROVs and as the technology improves so the number of tasks increases. The type of work completed by ROVs currently includes: General survey with video General survey with sonar Close inspection wit video Riser inspection Pipeline surveys Scour survey Debris survey CP survey Recording details photographically Stereo-photographic survey Flooded Member Detection

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8. Pipeline Survey Work class ROVs are used extensively for pipeline survey work. While pipelines appear to be simple structures there are a number of features associated with them that are warrant of note. 8.1. Pipeline Features A selection of the more important pipeline features follows but see also Chapter 2. Risers facility pipe work that carries product up to or down from the production clamp that holds the riser in place on the jacket

Riser Clamp

PLEM Pipeline End Manifold, which is the termination of the pipeline under an SBM Valves product positioned strategically along the pipeline to control the flow of

Flanges the ends of pipes that are bolted together to form a sealed joint between two pipe runs Weight coat reinforced concrete coating applied to the pipe to provide: Protection from physical damage Passivate the pipe to provide corrosion protection Add weight to the pipe to provide some stability Trenches trenches to bury the pipeline for protection and stability Rock dumps 200mm graded rocks dumped onto sections of pipe where protection and stability are required but trenching cannot be accomplished Cross-over a point on the pipeline where one line crosses over another. Each pipe is prevented from touching the other by purpose built bridges or grout bags. Pipeline protection frames (igloos) may be built over the crossing. Kilometre post every kilometre is marked on the pipeline survey plan. These plans are used to navigate the vessel to the correct geographical position for the survey Saddle blocks large concrete constructions in the shape of a horse saddle that are used to anchor the pipeline to the seabed Expansion loops large purpose designed u bends in the pipeline built in to provide for the expansion and contraction of the pipeline caused by thermal or mechanical expansions and contractions Tie-in the seabed location where a pipeline is joined to a riser, PLEM another pipe or a manifold etc

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8.2. Pipeline Inspection Tasks The actual inspection tasks will consist of the following: Assessment of the pipeline burial or rock-dump area for pipeline integrity and stability Assessment of any spans to ensure the pipeline is not overstressed due to weight loading caused by the pipes own weight Assessment of the weight coat integrity to ensure the integrity of the pipe and that corrosion protection is maintained Assessment of any physical damage discovered during the survey CP voltage and amperage readings to confirm the CP system is fully operational Visual assessment of valves and flanges to ensure there is no leakage 9. Manipulators There are a number of manipulators used by ROV some are more functional than others. Class 3 vehicles rely on manipulators when employed in construction and sample gathering tasks. The types of arms available include: Perry five function arm Kraft five function arm Kraft nine function arm Slingsby five function arm Slingsby nine function arm Slingsby TSC nine function computer arm Schilling nine function arm The number of functions refers to the number of axis of rotation possible. Some arms are computer controlled and are capable of assessing distances within the scope of the arm. Trials have been undertaken using manipulators to scan welds with ACFM probes. There has been qualified success with this but more development is required before this application can be applied with total confidence. 9.1. Force Feedback This refers to the manipulator providing resistance to finger pressure on the control, which equates to feeling how hard anything is gripped. This technology is used quite widely in the atomic energy industry but has not been deployed very often on ROVs. The systems are available but currently there is only a limited demand for them.

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10. Submersibles Submersibles may be un-manned or manned. It is more common to deploy manned submersibles. Both types are used for specialised tasks and neither is a widely used as ROVs. 10.1. Autonomous Unmanned Vehicles (AUV) These have been deployed for seabed mapping and pipeline inspection. They are normally deployed pre-programmed and fly the mission on this program. Their use is limited. Advantages and disadvantages are summarised in Table A3.15

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Intervention Method AUV

Advantages No decompression issues at all No human exposure to risk Can have a large number of sensors installed to gather masses of data Can collect real time colour video easily May reach extraordinary depths The observer is viewing the real thing not a video There are no decompression issues at all Table 21.15

Disadvantages Access will be restricted at times Usually only 2 dimensional view available from video Will be inspecting from a video image not the real thing No other human senses are on the job site Battery life limits endurance There are safety considerations because humans are in the water Access to sites may be very restricted

11. Manned Submersibles Again these may be split into two groups, tethered and autonomous. The autonomous type is used mainly for deep scientific diving. There have been a number of one-man submersibles that have been used and there are recreational submersibles used for tourism at some resorts. Currently this type of vehicle is not deployed offshore. The tethered submersible included one-atmosphere diving suits such as Jim suits. None are currently in use offshore.

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Bibliography Handbook for ROV Pilot/Technicians Chris Bell, Mel Bayliss, Richard Warburton OPL

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Communications Techniques

APPENDIX 4
Communications Techniques
1. General Comments Good communications are crucial to any project and offshore inspection campaigns are no exception. 2. Diver Communications Since the traditional diver rope signals were initiated to have some communications with a working diver technology has taken over. The communications to a diver now generally consist of hard wire communications systems with de-scramblers on line when divers breath helium. The usual system is simplex with the diver having priority. A press to talk switch (pressel switch) must be depressed to be able to speak to the diver. It is possible to have a duplex or round robin system which is more like a telephone with both parties able to talk at the same time. Through water communications are available but are mainly used by police divers and archaeologists. It is common to use a very loose radio voice procedure when using these systems and at times the speech reproduction is quite poor. 3. Normal Communications Systems These vary in different parts of the world but in the North Sea the following are all available: Telephone (both internal and to shore) Two way intercoms (internal and to other vessels) Electronic mail The telephone systems may be satellite or cell phone. The methods of communication over the two way systems are all based loosely on radio voice procedure but of course the telephone systems are used as for normal conversation. 4. Voice Procedure Radio communications use voice procedures to ensure that the system runs as smoothly as possible. The following points should always be observed: Distress calls always have precedence over any other call absolutely Keep conversations brief and to the point, do not chat or be unnecessarily verbose, which will tie up the air ways Do not break into other persons calls listen out before transmission. Unless it is a matter of urgency or distress to break in Do not use swear words on the air
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Appendix 4 Do not stammer or use er or um think of what you want to say before you speak Speak clearly and with a normal speech rhythm (RSVP) Use the proword over when you finish your sentence and expect a reply or use the proword out when you finish your sentence and do not expect a reply Use the proword roger to acknowledge reception of the other persons transmission 4.1. The Phonetic Alphabet This is an international set of standard words used in place of letters. Alpha stands for letter A and Bravo for letter B etc. The full alphabet is: A Alpha B Bravo C Charlie D Delta E Echo F Foxtrot G Golf H Hotel I J India Juliet N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z November Oscar Papa Quebec Romeo Sierra Tango Uniform Victor Whisky X-ray Yankee Zulu

K Kilo L Lima M Mike

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Appendix 5
Extract of Offshore Technology Report OTH 84 206
1. Category A (Defects) Cracks Cracks can be divided into three categories: Fine cracks not more than 1mm wide Medium cracks between 1mm and 2mm wide Wide cracks more than 2mm wide The edges of the fracture are normally sharp and the aggregate may also be fractured. The usual cause is structural movement. Although all concrete structures have some cracks in them they will not become significant until they are measurable, which usually only occurs in-service Delamination A Delamination is a thin sheet of concrete, which has become partially or completely detached from the main structure. Beneath the Delamination the surface of the structure is much rougher and shows aggregate. Delamination is caused by corrosion of a layer of reinforcement or possibly impact damage and is principally an in-service defect Pop-out A pop out is a small conical depression in the concrete surface, usually with a piece of corroding reinforcement at its base. It is caused by the expansion of isolated particles in the concrete or by corrosion of the ends of reinforcing bars. This causes the surface of the concrete to be put under tension and will so produce local failure in the form of a conical piece of the concrete popping out from the structure. The edges will usually be sharp and well defined. Pop outs are an in-service defect Impact Damage Impact damage is described as a rough area in which the smooth surface of the concrete has been removed by means of a blow or impact. It is caused by a blow from an object, which will dislodge part of the structure usually at the edges or corners. Impact damage could occur either during the construction phase or the installation phase. It should have been found and corrected Tearing Tearing is crack-like in its appearance but the width will vary and the edges are often rough and indistinct. Coarse aggregate will not be broken. It will be widest at the mid-length point and it will tend to taper towards the ends. There may be
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Appendix 5 some indications of rust staining. While the concrete was inside the slip form shutter it adhered to the surface of the shutter and so when the shutter was moved upwards the concrete was torn apart Exposed Reinforcement The steel reinforcement bars become visible on the surface of the concrete accompanied by rust staining. There are two ways in which this occurs: either by displacement of the steelwork during construction or by removal of the outside covering of concrete during the in-service life of the structure (impact damage)

Figure A5.15 Exposed Reinforcement Faulty Repair Any repair, which allows the ingress of seawater to the reinforcement cage, should be described as faulty. Normally this will have the appearance of a patch, which will be of different texture and colour to the surrounding concrete. There may also be cracking around the edge of the repair and maybe a poor porous surface to the repair. The cause is normally a defect, which has occurred during the construction phase and ahs been repaired badly

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Figure A5.16 Faulty repair Variable Cover Concrete protect the reinforcement cage by passivation but in order for this to be effective then there must be a minimum thickness of concrete over the reinforcement. This defect may not be visible but in extreme cases there may be some rust staining seen. The cause is either due to the reinforcement cage being displaced or the slip form shutter being dislodged. Variable cover is a construction defect. All of the above are defects primarily because they will allow a more or less unrestricted flow of seawater to the reinforcement cage, thus allowing corrosion to take place 2. Category B (Areas of Concern) Embedded Objects Consists of objects such as wire, nails, wood etc., which have been accidentally dropped into the concrete while it is still wet and become embedded objects. They will all have been included at the time of construction

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Figure A5.17 Embedded Object Cast in sockets The visible description of cast in sockets is just a small hole, which may have some threads visible inside. They will have been caused by the use of bolt fixings during the construction phase. The bolts will have been removed leaving the sockets still embedded in the concrete. They may well be filled with mortar. Cast in sockets will have been included during the construction phase

Figure A5.18 Cast in Socket


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Extract of Offshore Technology Report OTH 84 206 Recessed metal plates This is a metal plate, which has been cast into the structure. Usually it will be recessed some way into the concrete in order to allow the slip form shutter to pass unhindered. The recess will have rough uneven sides, there may also be some corrosion of the plate and so possibly some staining and cracking of the concrete around the plate. These plates will be included in the structure during the construction phase

Figure A5.19 Recessed Metal Plate Water jet damage Water jets can be used to cut through concrete, so great care must be taken in order to prevent the damage of the surface of the concrete during cleaning operations. If damage occurs it will form dark lines in an irregular pattern over an area of concrete, which has been cleaned. Aggregate may be exposed and the surface will feel rough to the touch. The damage is caused by the use of pressures, which are too high, or by the use of a jet which is too small. Water jet damage will occur in-service

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Figure A5.20 Water Jet Damage Abrasion Abrasion can look similar to water jet damage but the surface will be smooth. Although the aggregate may well be visible the edges will be well defined. Abrasion will be caused by movement of hard objects against the concreter wearing away (abrading) the surface of the concrete. This is normally an inservice problem

Figure A5.21 Abrasion


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Extract of Offshore Technology Report OTH 84 206 Honeycombing Honeycombing will appear as an area of coarse aggregate, which has little or no grout around it. Voids will be apparent in the concrete. The course aggregate will not be broken. It is caused by insufficient compaction or vibration of the concrete during construction, or maybe grout loss beneath a shutter. Also the concrete not having sufficient fine material present can cause it. Honeycombing occurs during the construction phase 3. Category C (Blemishes) Construction joint This will be a fairly straight line on the surface with irregular ridges and/or depressions along its length. The edges may be indistinct and may be accompanied by some tearing. The coarse aggregate will not be broken. The colour or texture of the surface above and below the joint nay differ somewhat. This blemish is formed at the end of one pour of concreter and beginning of another pour where the formwork has not been tailored to fit the structure very well. It will occur during the construction phase and may be useful as a datum for the location of defects etc. Formwork misalignment This will show as a step or a ridge on the surface of the concrete. It is caused by the poor tailoring or fitting of shutters during the fabrication or the structure. It will occur during the construction phase

Figure A5.22 Formwork Misalignment


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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Appendix 5 Blowholes These will be small holes in the surface of the concrete usually less than 10mm in diameter with sharp edges. There will not normally be any aggregate visible. Blowholes are caused by air bubbles being trapped against the formwork face. There will always be some blowholes in a concrete structure but they will not be significant unless they are frequent, due to insufficient vibration of the liquid concrete slurry They will occur during the construction phase

Figure A5.23 Blowholes Scabbling This will have a rough surface appearance due to the surface of the concrete having been removed so exposing the course aggregate. This is an intentional removal of the smooth surface, usually prior to placing further concrete. It will normally be done at the construction phase

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Extract of Offshore Technology Report OTH 84 206

Figure A5.24 Scabbling Rubbing down marks Irregular marks on the surface of the concrete may have the appearance of brush marks on wet concrete. These are caused by the rubbing down of the concrete to remove surface blemishes as they emerge from the formwork. It may indicate a repair. Rubbing down marks will have been done at the construction phase Good repair This will be a repair, which has a smooth and complete appearance, which in not likely to allow seawater ingress to the reinforcement cage. This will have been done to repair a slight defect from the construction phase

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Figure A5.25 Good Repair Regular horizontal ridge These are ridges formed on the surface of the concrete, which are spaced regularly and will normally extend all around the structure. As the slip form shutters rise the concrete should be self-supporting as it emerges from the bottom of the shutter. The shutter will be jacked up approximately once every hour and will then be stationary for the next hour. While the shutter is stationary there is often some sagging of the concrete from the base of the shutter, which will form a ridge. This will be formed at the construction phase Irregular horizontal ridge Irregular horizontal ridges may be from 50mm to 250mm apart but will not expose aggregate. These ridges are a feature of slip forming. The shutters are tapered at the top and the pressure of each pour of concrete may cause outward movement of the shutters at the bottom allowing grout seepage below the shutters. These are formed during the construction phase Vertical drag marks These are straight vertical marks with a coarse surface, sometimes referred to as pebble runs.

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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Extract of Offshore Technology Report OTH 84 206 Stones or pebbles being trapped behind the slip form shutters and being dragged up the structure with them, so causing indentation in the surface of the concrete, normally cause the drag marks. They can also be caused by dents or deformations in the shutter itself. Vertical drag marks are formed during the construction phase

Figure A5.26 Vertical Drag Marks Resin mortar repair This is a patchy of a plastic type of substance on the surface of the structure. It indicates that a defect has been repaired, maybe in the service life of the structure. It can be an in-service blemish

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Figure A5.27 Resin Mortar Repair Curing compound These are large areas of coloured coating, which may well be peeling off and flaking. Curing compounds are applied to concrete during the construction process to reduce water loss by evaporation during the curing of the concrete. Therefore curing compound will be applied during the construction phase

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Figure A5.28 Curing Compound Grout run These will often be associated with a construction joint and will have the appearance of ragged, irregular runs of grout, adhering to the surface of the concrete. They are formed by the leakage of concrete from the bottom of poorly fitting shutters. The concrete underneath will be unaffected by the run and so it will not pose a problem. Grout runs will be formed during the construction phase

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Figure A5.29 Grout Run 4. General Concrete Terms Spalling Spalling does not appear as a specific term, this is because spalling is considered to be a symptom of something more serious. A spall is a loose piece of concrete, which must have come from a spalled area. One of the Category A defects will be the cause of the spall. Grout Grout is semi-fluid slurry consisting of cement and water. Gunite Concrete sprayed by compressed air. Will have high strength and density, used to repair walls and as weight coat on pipelines. It has a darker colourisation than normal concrete. Cable Duct Cast tubular duct through which the pre-stressing tendons will run. Normally grout filled after tensioning. Prestressed concrete Concrete that has all the tensile and shear stresses relieved by the introduction of compressive stress on the structure. Base Raft
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Extract of Offshore Technology Report OTH 84 206 The foundation slab bearing on the seabed Caisson Large cylindrical structure often referred to as a cell. Cell Void bounded by diaphragm walls, term used synonymously with caisson for the base cells of a structure. Invert The lowest point of an opening or tunnel Soffit The underside of a concrete beam Jarlan Hole Perforation in a breakwater wall, used to dissipate the forces from wave action, some of the force will be repelled and some will be admitted through the wall where the ventury principle dissipates the energy thus reducing the forces acting on the wall. Laitance This is a fine powdery substance, which accumulates on the surface of concrete as it sets; it will need to be removed prior to any new pour being applied. Exudation Exudation consists of salts, which dissolve, in the concrete when fluid is passing through a crack; it shows on the surface of the concrete as a whitish semi-fluid, which accumulates around the crack. Note that on the surface it will always run downwards, however in water it may drift sideways or even upwards, owing to the fact that its density may be less than the water around it. 4.1. Reporting When inspecting concrete always report: All defects using correct terminology Length of defect Width of defect Depth of defect Location on the structure Any staining As far as possible report all defects in three dimensions 5. Weathering Weathering is the term used for the deterioration of concrete due to environmental forces; this is the concrete equivalent of corrosion in steel. Weathering may be caused by:
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Tuition Notes for 3.4U Course Appendix 5 Erosion from water borne particles both in the splash zone and near the seabed may be caused by cavitation in the water flow Frost damage in the splash zone, water will penetrate the structure to a degree and will freeze and expand during winter weather thus causing the concrete to crack and spall Chemical attack, such as salt attack will cause the concrete to become softened; it occurs near the surface of the structure and will take a very long time to show. Alkali Aggregate Reaction from the aggregate can cause cracking but takes a number of years to manifest itself Corrosion of the reinforcement can occur if the seawater is allowed to flow too freely through the concrete reinforcement cage or pre-stressing tendons. This could lead to catastrophic failure, especially with prestressed structures

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