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Univers'tSt Hamburg
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Man has created the myth of "the computer" in his own image, or one of them: cold, immaculate, s te rile , "scientific." oppressive. Some people flee this image. O thers, drawn toward it, have joined the cold-sterile-oppressive cu lt, and propagate it like a faith. Many are still sbout this mischief, making people do things rigidly and saying it is the com puter's fault. Still others see computer* for what they really are: versatile gizmos which may be turned to any p u rp o se , in any style. And so a wealth of new stylea and human purposes are being proposed and trie d , each proponent propounding his own dream in his own very personal w ay. This book presents s panoply of things and dream s. Perhaps some will appeal to the r e a d e r ...

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S ? postpaid f r o . H u g o 's Book S e r v i c e , Box 2 6 2 2 , C h ica g o , I ll i n o i s 60690. P a ek aR e o f te n c o p i e s , $50 p o s t p a i d .

THE COMPUTER PRIESTHOOD Any nitwit can understand com puters, and many do. Unfortunately, due to ridiculous historical circum stances, computers have been made a mystery to most of the w o rld . And this situation does not seem to be Improving. You hear more and more about computers, but to most people it's just one big b l u r . The people who know sbout computers often seem unwilling to explain things or answ er y our q ues­ tions . Stereotyped notions develop about computers operating In fixed w ays-- and so confusion increases. The chasm between lsymen and computer people widens fast and danger­ ously . This book Is a m easure of desperation, so serious and abysms! Is the public sense of confusion and ignorance. Anything with buttons or lights can be palmed off on the layman as a computer. There are so many different things, and their differences are so important; yet to the lay public they are lumped together as "computer stuff." indistinct and beyond understanding or criticism . It’s as If people couldn't tell apart camera from exposure meter or tripod, or car from truck or tollbooth. This book is therefore devoted to the premise that EVERYBODY SHOULD UNDERSTAND COMPUTERS . It is intended to fill a crying need. Lots of everyday people have aeked me where they can learn about com puters, and 1 have had to say now here. Most of what is w ritten about computers for the layman is either unreadable or silly. (Some exceptions are listed nearby: you can go to them Instead of this if you w a nt.) B u t virtually nowhere is the big picture simply enough explained. Nowhere can one get a sim ple, soup-to-nut6 overview of what computers are really about, without technical or mathematical mumbojumbo, complicated examples, or talking down. This book is an attem pt. (And nowhere have I seen a simple book explaining to the layman the fabulous wonderlsnd of computer graphics which awaits us a l l . a matter which means a great deal to me personally . as well as a lot to all of us in g e n e ra l. That's discussed on the flip side.) Computers are simply a necessary and enjoyable part of life, like food and books. Computers are not everything, they are just an aspect of everything, and not to know this is computer Illiteracy, a silly and dangerous igno ra n ce. Computers are as easy to understand as cam eras. I have tried to make this book like a photography m agazine-b re e ry , forceful and as vivid ss possible. This book will explain how to tell apples from oranges and which way la u p . If you want to make c id e r, or help get things right aide u p , you will have to go on from h e r e . I am not a skillful programmer, hands-on person or eminent professional; I am just a computer fa n . computer fanatic if you will. But if D r. David Reuben can w rite about sex I can certainly w rite about computers. I have written this like a letter to a nephew , chatty and p e rso n al. This is perhaps less boring for the re s d e r. and certainly less boring for the w r ite r . who is doing this in a h u r r y . Like a photography m agazine, it throws at you some rudim ents In a m erry setting. Other things are thrown in so you'll get the sound of them , even if the details are e lu siv e. (We learn most everyday things by beginning with vague im pressions, but somehow encouraging these is not usually felt to be re specta ble.) What I have chosen for inclusion here has been a r b itr a r y . based on what might amuse and give quick Insight. Any bright highschool k id , or anyone else who can stumble through the details of s photography magazine, should be able to understand this book, o r get the main id ea s. This will not make you a program m er or a computer perso n , though it may help you talk that t a lk . and perhaps make you feel more comfortable (or at least able to cope) when new machines encroach on your life. If you can get a chance to learn programming-- see the suggestions on p . - - it's an awfully good experience for anybody above fourth g ra d e . But the main idea of this book is to help you tell apples from o ra n g es. and which wsy is up. I hope you do go on from h ere, and have made a few suggestions. 1 am "publiahing" this book myself. In this first draft form, to test its viability, to see how mad the computer people g e t. and to see If there is as much hunger to understand com puters, among all you Polks Out T h e re , as I th in k . I will be interested to receive corrections and suggestions for subsequent editio n s. if a n y . (The computer field is Its own exploding u n iv e rse , so I'll worry about up-to-dateness at that time.) Knowledge is power and so it tends to be hoarded. Experts in any field rarely want people to understand what they do .and generally enjoy putting people down. Thus if we say that the use of computers Is dominated by a priesthood. people who spatter you with unlntelligable answ ers and seem unwilling to give you straight o nes. it is not that they are different in this respect from any o ther profession. Doctors, lawyers and construction engineers are the same w ay. But computers are very s p ec ial. and we have to deal with them everyw here, and this effectively gives the computer priesthood a stranglehold on the operation of all large o rganiza­ tions. of government bureaux, and anything else that they r u n . Members of Congress are now complaining about control of information by the computer people. that they cannot get the information even though it's on computers. Next to this it seems a small matter that in ordinary companies "untrained" personnel can't gel straight questions answered by computer people; but it's the same phenomenon. It is imperative for many reasons that the appalling gap between public and computer insider be closed. As the saying g o es . war is too important to be left to the gen e ra ls. G uardianship of the computer can no longer be left to a p rie sthood. 1 see this as just one example of the creeping evil of Professionalism .* the control of aspects of society by cliques of i n sid ers. There may be some chance, though, that Professionalism can be turned around. Doctors, for exam ple, are being told that they no longer own people's b o d ie s . "* And this book may suggest to some computer professionals that their position should not be as sacrosanct a s they have thought, cither. This in not to say that computer people are trying to louse everybody up on p u rp o s e . Like anyone trying to do a complex job as he sees f i t . they don't want to be bothered with idle questions and complaints. Indeed, probab­ ly any group of insiders would have hoarded computers just as m uch. If the computer had evolved from the telegraph (which it just might h a v e ). perh ap s the librarians would have hoarded it conceptually as much as the math and en­ gineering people have. But things have gone too far. People have legitimate complaints about the way computers a r e u s e d . and legitimate ideas for ways they should be u s e d , which should no longer be shunted aside. In no way do I mean to condemn computer people in general. (Only the ones who don't want you to know w hat's going o n .) The field is full of fine, imaginative people. Indeed, the number of creative and brilliant people known within the field for their cle v er and creative contri­ butions is considerable. They d ese rv e to be known as widely a s . s a y , good photographers or w r it e r s .

"Computers are catching h^ll from growing multitudes who see them uniformly as the tools of the regulation and suffocation of all things w a rm . moist, and human. The cha rg e s, of course, ' are not totally unfounded, but in their most sweeping form they are ineffective and therefore actually an acquiescence to the dehumanization which they d e c ry . We clearly need a much more discerning evaluation in o rd e r to clarify the ethics of various roles of machines in human affairs."

Ken Knowlton in "Collaborations with A rtists-a Programm er's Reflections" in Nake a Rosenfeld, e d s . , Graphic Languages (North-Holland Pub. C o .), p. 399.

* This is a side point. I see Professionalism aa a spreading disease of the present-day w orld, a sort of poly-oligarchy by which various groups (subway conductors, social w o rk ers, bric kla yers) can b rin g things to a halt if their particular new increased demands are not met. (Meanwhile, the Irrele­ vance of each profession in creas e s , in proportion to its increasing rig id ity .) Such lucky groups demand more In each go-ro u n d -- but meantime, the number who are permanently unemployed grows and grow s. ** Ellen F rankfort, Vaginal Politics, Q uadrangle B ooks. Boston Women'a Health Collective, Our Bodies, O u rse lv es.' Simon a S ch u ster.

Hamburg

T h isf s i d e o f t h e b o o k . C o m p u t e r L ib p r o p e r ( w h o s e t i t l e i s n e v e r t h e l e s s t h e s i m p l e r ! w a y lo r e f e r lo b o t h h a l v e s ) , i s a n a t t e m p t to e x p l a i n s i m p l y a n d c o n c i s e l y w h y c o m p u t e r s a r e m a r v e l o u s a n d w o n d e r f u l , a n d w h a t s o m e m a in th i n g s a r e i.i th e f ie ld . T h e s e c o n d h a l f o f th e b o o k . D r e a m M a c h i n e s , i s s p e c i a l l y a b o u t f a n t a s y a n d i m a g i n a t i o n , a n d n e w t e c h n i q u e s f o r i t . T h a r h a l f i s r e l a t e d lo t h i s h a l f , b u t c a n b e r e a d fir sL ; I w a n t e d lo s e p a r a t e th e m a s d i s t i n c t l y a s p o s s i b l e .

T h e r e m a r k s b e l o w a l l r e f e r to t h i s f i r s t h a l f , t h e C o m p u t e r L i b h a l f o f Lhe b o o k .

FANDOM W ith t h i s b o o k I am no l o n g e r c a l l i n g m y s e l f a c o m p u t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l . I 'm a c o m p u t e r f a n , a n d I'm o u t l o m a k e y o u o n e . (A ll c o m p u t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s w e r e f a n s o n c e , b u t p e o p l e g e t c r a b b i e r a e t h e y g e t o ld e r , a n d m ore p r o fe s s io n a l - ) A g e n e r a ti o n of c o m p u te r fane a n d h o b b y is t s i s w ell on Its w a y , b u t fo r th e m ost p a rt th e s e a r e p e o p le w ho h a v e h a d s o m e s o r t of a n I n . T h i s i s m e a n t to b e a n I n f o r t h o s e who d id n 't g e t one e a rlie r. T h e c o m p u te r fa n is som e one w ho a p p r e c ia te s th e o p t i o n s , f u n , e x c i t e m e n t , a n d f i e n d i s h f a s c i n a t i o n of c o m p u t e r s . N o t o n l y le t h e c o m p u t e r fu n in i t s e l f , l i k e e l e c t r i c t r a i n s ; b u t I t a l s o e x t e n d s to y o u a w id e v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b l e p e r s o n a l u s e s . O n c a s e y ou d o n 't k now i t , th e p r i c e of c o m p u te r s a n d o f u s i n g th e m i s g o i n g d o w n a s f a s t a s e v e r y o t h e r p r i c e 1b g o i n g u p . S o i n t h e n e x t few d e c a d e s w e m a y b e r e d u c e d to e a t i n g s o y b e a n s a n d c a r r o t s , b u t w e ' l l c e r t a i n l y h a v e c o m p u te rs .) S o m e h o w th e I d e a i s a b r o a d t h a t c o m p u t e r a c t i v i t i e s a r e u n c r e a t i v e , a s c o m p a r e d . sa y , w ith r o ta t in g c la y a g a in s t y o u r f i n g e r s u n t i l It b e c o m e s a p o t . T h i s i s c a t e g o r i c a l l y f a l s e . C o m p u t e r s i n v o l v e im a g i n a t i o n a n d c r e a t i o n a t t h e h ig h e s t l e v e l . C o m p u ters a re an in v o lv e m e n t you can r e a lly g e t i n t o , r e g a r d l e s s of y o u r t r i p o r y o u r k a r m a . T h e y a re to y s , t h e y a re to o ls , th e y a r e g lo r io u s a b s t r a c t i o n s . So I t y o u l i k e m e n t a l c r e a t i o n , t o y t r a i n s , o r a b s t r a c t i o n s , c o m p u t e r s a r e f o r y o u . I f y o u a r e i n t e r e s t e d in d e m o c r a c y a n d its f u t u r e , y o u 'd b e tte r u n d e r s t a n d c o m p u te rs . A nd It y o u a r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t p o w e r a n d t h e w a y i t i s b e i n g u s e d , a n d a r e n 't we a ll r i g h t n o w , th e sa m e th in g g o e s .

T h e r e i s a lre a d y a b a c k la s h a g a in s t c o m p u te r s , a n d th e s p i r i t o f t h is a n li- c o m p u t e r b a c k la s h i s c o r r e c t , b u t s h o u ld b e d ir e c te d a g a in s t v e r y s p e c ific k in d s or th in g s . T h e p u b l i c s h o u l d s t o p b e i n g m a d at " c o m p u t e r s " i n t h e a b s t r a c t , a n d s t a r t b e in g m ad a t th e p e o p le w h o m a k e in ­ c o n v e n ie n t s y s te m s . It i s n o t " th e c o m p u te r," w h ic h h a s n o I n t r i n s i c s t y l e o r c h a r a c t e r , w h ic h i s a t f a u lt ; il i s p e o p le w h o u s e " lh e c o m p u te r" a s a n e x c u s e to in c o n v e n i e n c e y o u , w h o a r e a t f a u l t . T h e m e c h a n i s m s of l e g i t i m a t e p u b l i c p r o t e s t - - . s i t - i n s a n d so o n - - s h o u ld p e r h a p s so o n b e tu r n e d to c o m p la in t o v e r b a d and in h u m a n c o m p u te r s y s te m s .

T h e q u e s t i o n i s , w ill t h e c r u m m i e r t r e n d s c o n t i n u e ? O r c a n th e p u b l i c l e a r n , i n t i m e , w h a t g o o d a n d b e a u ti f u l th in g s a r e p o s s i b l e , a n d t r a n s la t e th is re a liz a ti o n in to d n e ffec tiv e d e m a n d ? I do not b e lie v e th is i s a n o b s c u r e o r s p e c ia liz e d i s s u e . Its sh a d o w falls a c r o s s th e f u t u r e of m a n k in d , i f a n y , lik e a g ia n t se q u o ia . E ith e r c o m p u te r s y s te m s a r e g o in g lo g o o n in c o n v e n ie n c in g o u r l i v e s , o r t h e y a r e g o i n g t o b e t u r n e d a r o u n d to m a k e l i f e b e t t e r . T h is i s o n e o f lh e d ire c tio n s th a t c o n s u m e ris m s h o u ld t u r n . 1 h a v e a n a x e to g r in d : I w an t to s e e c o m p u te rs u s e fu l to i n d i v i d u a l s , a n d l h e s o o n e r t h e b e l t e r , w i t h o u t n e c e s s a r y c o m p lic atio n o r h u m a n s e r v i lity b e in g r e q u i r e d . A n y o n e w h o a g r e e s w ith th e s e p r i n c i p l e s is o n m y s i d e , a n d a n y o n e w ho does n o t, is n o t. T H I S B O O K IS F O R P E R S O N A L F R E E D O M . A N D A G A I N S T R E S T R I C T IO N A N D C O E R C IO N , T h a t 's r e a lly a l l i t 's a b o u t. M any p e o p le , fo r r e a s o n s of th e ir o w n , e n jo y a n d b e lie v e in r e s t ric tin g a n d c o e r c in g p e o p le; th e r e a d e r m ay d e cid e w h e th e r h e is fo r o r a g a in s t th is p r in c ip le . A c h a n l y o u c a n t a k e to t h e s t r e e t s : C O M P U T E R PO W ER T O T H E PE O P LE ! DOWN W ITH C Y B E R C R U D !

T H E F U T U R E , IF ANY T H E S O C IE T Y W h ic h b r i n g s u s to o u r n e x t t o p i c . T h e r e I s no q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r t h e c o m p u t e r w i l l r e m a k e s o c i e t y ; it h a s . Y ou d e a l w i t h c o m p u t e r s p e r h a p s m an y tim es a d a y - - o r w o rs e , c o m p u te rs d e a l w ith y o u , t h o u g h y o u m a y n o t k n o w i t . C o m p u t e r s a r e g o i n g i n to e v e r y t h i n g , a re in te rtw in e d w ith e v e r y t h i n g , a n d it's g o in g to g e t m o r e a n d m o r e s o . T h e r e a d e r s h o u l d h a v e a s e n s e of th e d a n c e o f o p tio n s , th e r e m a r k a b ly d if f e r e n t w a y s th a t c o m p u te rs may b e u s e d : b y e x t e n s i o n , h e s h o u ld c om e to s e e t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y r a n g e o f o p t i o n s w h i c h c o n f r o n t u s a s a s o c i e t y in o u r f u t u r e u s e o f t h e m . I n d e e d , c o m p u t e r s h a v e w ith a sw oop e x p a n d e d th e o p tio n s of e v e r y t h i n g S i m p l y a s a m a t t e r o f c i t i z e n s h i p , i t i s e s s e n t i a l lo u n d e rs t a n d th e im p a c t an d u s e s of c o m p u te rs i n th e w o rld o f th e f u t u r e , i f a n y : a n d to h a v e a s e n s e o f th e is s u e s a b o u t c o m p u te rs lh a l co n fro n t u s a s a p e o p le-- e sp e c ia lly p r iv a c y a n d d a t a b a n k s , b u t a l s o s t r a n g e ne w a d d i t i o n s lo o u r e conom ic s y s te m (" th e c h e c k le s s so c ie ty ") , o u r p o litica l s y ste m ( h a lf - b a k e d v o te -a t-h o m e p r o p o s a l s ) , a n d s o o n . I r e g r e t th a t t h e r e i s not room to c o v e r th e s e h e r e . V a rio u s c o m p an ies o r e s e e k in g w id e p u b lic s u p p o r t fo r th e s o r t s o f t h i n g s th e y a r e t r y i n g to b r i n g a b o u t . L e g is la tio n w ill b e p r o p o s e d o n w h ic h th e v ie w s o f th e p u b lic s h o u ld h a v e a b e a r i n g . II i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e s e b e u n d e r s t o o d s e n s ib ly b y so m e p a r t of th e e le c to ra te b e fo re th e y a r e m ade to o p e r m a n e n t , r a t h e r l h a n m a d e m a i l e r s o f d u m b a s s e n t . F in a lly , an d moat so le m n ly , c o m p u te rs a r e h e lp in g u s u n d e r s t a n d l h e u n p r e c e d e n t e d d a n g e r of o u r f u t u r e ( s e e " T h e C lu b of R o m e p .^ fl) . T he h u m an r a c e m ay h a v e o n ly a s h o r l tim e le ft o n e a r t h , e v e n if t h e r e i s n o w a r . T h e s e s tu d ie s m ust b e se e n a n d u n d e rsto o d b y a s m any in te l l i g e n t m en of good w ill a s p o s s ib l e .

B u t a v a rie ty o f in c o n v e n ie n t s y s te m s a lre a d y to u c h o n o u r l i v e s , n u i s a n c e s w e m u s t d e a l w i t h a ll t h e tim e ; a n d I f e a r t h a t w o r s e i s t o c o m e , I w o u l d l i k e lo a l e r t t h e r e a d e r , i n n o u n c e r t a i n t e r m s , t h a t t h e ti m e h a s c o m e t o b e o p e n l y a tte n tiv e a n d c r i t i c a l i n o b s e r v i n g a n d d e a li n g w ith c o m p u te r s y s t e m s ; a n d to t r a n s f o r m c r i t i c i s m i n t o a c t i o n . I f s y s t e m s a re b a d , a n n o y in g a n d d e m e a n in g , th e s e m a tte rs s h o u ld b e b r o u g h t to t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e p e r p e t r a t o r s . P o l i t e l y a t f i r s t . B u t j u s t a s th e a tm o s p h e ri c p o llu tio n fo s te re d b y GM h a s b e c o m e a m a t t e r f o r c i t i z e n c o n c e r n a n d a t t a c k t h r o u g h l e g i t i m a t e c h a n n e l s o f p r o t e s t , s o too s h o u l d t h e p r o c e d u r a l p o llu tio n o f in c o n s i d e r a t e c o m p u te r s y s te m s b ecom e a m a tte r fo r th e sa m e k i n d s o f c o n c e r n . T h e r e a d e r s h o u ld r e a l i z e h e can c ritic iz e and dem and; T H E P U B L IC D O E S N O T H A VE T O T A K E W H A T 'S B E IN G D IS H E D O U T .

TH ER EFO R E W e lc o m e t o t h e c o m p u t e r w o r l d , t h e d a m n d e s t a n d c r a z ie s t th i n g th a t h a s e v e r h a p p e n e d . But w e , th e c o m p u te r p e o p l e . a r e n o t c r a z y . I t i s y o u o t h e r s w h o a r e c r a z y to le t u s h a v e a l l th i6 f u n a n d p o w e r to o u r s e l v e s .

C O M P U T E R S B E L O N G TO ALL M A N KIN D .

B .A ., p h ilo s o p h y . S w a rth m o re; g ra d u a te s tu d y U. o f C hicago: M . A . , so c io lo g y , H a r v a r d . M o s t l y s e l f - t a u g h t in c o m p u t e r s , M e m b e r o f e d i t o r i a l b o a r d , C o m p u t e r D e c i s i o n s m a g a z i n e ; l i s t e d i n N e w Y o r k T i m e s ’ W h o 'a W h o i n C o m p u t e r s ; m e m b e r o f A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C o m p u t i n g M a c h i n e r y s i n c c 196 4 . R e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t . C o m m u n ic atio n R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e , 196 2 -3 . I n s tr u c to r in s o c io lo g y , V a s s a r C o lle g e , 1964-6. S e n i o r s t a f f r e s e a r c h e r , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e » W o r ld P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 6 6 - 7 . C o n s u l t a n t lo B e ll T e l e p h o n e L a b o r a t o r i e s , W h i p p a n y , N . J . , 1 9 6 7 - 8 . C o n s u l t a n t to C B S L a b o r a t o r i e s , S t a m f o r d , C t . , 1 9 6 0 - 9 . P r o p r i e t o r o f T h e N e l s o n O r g a n i z a t i o n , I n c . , N e w Y o r k C i t y , 1 9 6 9 - 7 2 . L e c t u r e r i n a r t , U . o f I l l i n o i s a t C h i c a g o C i r c l e , s p r i n g 1973. L e c t u r e r i n c o m p u t e r e d u c a t i o n , O f f ic e o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l R e s o u r c e s D e v e l o p m e n t , U . o f I l l i n o i s a t C h i c a g o C i r c l e , 1 9 7 3 - 4 . P hoto b y R oger F ie ld .

The obvious consequence Is simply for the computer people to be allowed to take over altogether. It may Indeed be that computer people -- the more well-informed and visionary ones, anyway— can see the farthest, and appreciate most deeply the better ways things can g o , and the steps that have to be taken to get th e r e . (And Boards of Managers can at least be partially assured that hanky-panky at the lower levels will be prevented, If men In charge know where the bodies are burled. ) That seems to be how It's going. Examples: The president of Dartmouth College, John Kemeny, is a respected computerman and a devel­ oper of one of the important computing languages, BASIC (see p . \(, ). The new president of the Russell Sage Foun­ dation, Hugh Cline, used to teach computing at Columbia. It's probably the same in Industry. In other words, more and m ore, for better and for w o rse, things are b eing ru n by people who know how to use com puters, and this trend is probsbly ir r e ­ versible. In some w ays, of course, this la s sinister portent. In private industry It's not so b ad, since the danger is more of embezzlement and botch-up than of public menace. But then th ere's the problem of the government. The men who manage the Information tools s re more and more In charge of government, loo. And If we can have a Watergate without computers, just w ait. (See "Burning Issue s," p . 5g)

But while computers and th eir combinations grow bigger and b igger, they also grow smaller and sm aller. A complete computer the size of an OreoTwolde Is now available, guaranteed for twentyflve years (and very expensive). But its actual h eart, the Intel m icroprocessor. Is only sixty bucks now, and just wait (see M icroprocessors, p . */ ^ ) . By 19B0 there should be as many pro­ grammed and programmable objects In your house as you now have TVs, radios and typewriters; that's s conservative estimate. But just what these devices will all be doing— ah ■ th ere's the question that has many people talking to themselvea. OTHER COMING THINGS? There are a lot of tall stories about what computers will do for the world. Among lhe most threatening, I think, are glowing reporta of "scientific" politics (don't you believe i t ) . We hear how computers will bring "science” to govern­ m ent, helping, for example, to redraw the lines of election districts. (See C ybercrud, p . $ .) Then you may also have heard that computers are going to be our new mentors and companions, tutoring u s , chatting with us and perhaps lulling us to sleep— like Hal in 2001. Worried? Good. (See "The God-Builders," nip s id e .) (t. '^ )

6)o tz ta h i m t n p i r
A college student broke through the security of the Pacific Telephone computer system from a terminal an d , according to Computerworld (6 June 73), stole over s million dollars worth of equipment by ordering it delivered to him! (Penthouse, December 73, claims he was in hlghschool and it was only nine hundred thousand, but you gel the idea.) After serving a few weeks In j a il, he has formed his own computer-securlty consulting compsny. More power to him.

*moe£ IT'S AT
Computers are where It's at. Recently a bank employee was accused of embezzling a million and a hall dollars by clever computer programming. Hie programs shifted funds from hundreds of people's accounts to his own. but apparently kept things looking Innocent by clever programming trick s. According to the pape rs, the program kept up appearances by redeposltlng lhe stolen amount in each account just as interest payments were about to be calculated, then withdrawing It again just after. ("Chief Teller la Accused of Theft of S i. 5 Million at a Bank Here." New York Times, 23 March 73, p. 1.) The alleged embezzlement was discovered, not by bank audit, but by records found on the premises of a raided bookmaker. In a recent scandal that has rocked the insurance w orld, an Insurance company appears to have generated thousands of fictitious customers and accounts by computer, then bilked other inaurance companies-- those who re-insured the original fictitious policies-- by fictitious claims on the fictitious misfortunes of the fictitious policy-holders. In April of 1673, according to the Chicsgo radio, a burglary ring had a "computerized" list of a thousand prospective victim s. There have been Instances where dishonest university students, nevertheless sble programmers, were able to change their course grades. stored on a central university computer. It is not unheard of for ace programmers to create grand incomprehensible systems that run whole companies, systems they can personally play like a piano, and then blackmail their Arms. A friend of a friend of the author Is an ace programmer at the Pentagon ■ supposedly a private supervising colonels. On days he Is mad at his boss, he s a y s , the army cannot find out Ha strength within 300,000 men. Or three million if he so chooses.

The way to defend ourselves sgalnst computer people la to become computer people ourse lv e s. Which of course Is the point. We must all become computer people, at least to the extent that we have already become Automobile People and Camera People— that is , Informed enough to tell when one goes by o r when someone points one at y o u . MANY MANSIONS The future is going to be full of com puters, for good o r ill. Many computer systems are being prepsred by a variety of lunatics, idealists and dream ers, as well as profit-hungry companies and unimaginative clods, all for the benefit of m snklnd. Which ones will work and which ones we will like is another matter. The grand and dreamy ones bid fair to reorganize drastically the lives of mankind. For Instance, Doug Engelbart at Stanford Research Institute has a beautiful system, called N I£, that will allow us to use computers aa a generalized postoffice and publication system. From your com­ puter terminal you just sign onto Engelbart's System, and you're at once In touch with lots of w ritings by other su b s c rib e rs . which you may call to your screen and w rite replies to. (These grander and dreamier applications are discussed on the other side of this book.) But the plain computer visions are grand enough. The great world of tim e-sharing, for Instance. ("Time-sharing" means thst the computer's time is shared by a variety of u sers simultaneously. See p . i ? . ) If you have an account on a time-sharing computer, you can sign on from your terminal (see p. I'f) over any telephone, no matter w here you are, and at once do anylhlng that particular computer allows— calling up programs in a variety of computer languages, dipping into data on a variety of subjects as easily as one now consults a chart. For instance, at Dartmouth College-- where time-sharing is perhaps farthest advanced as a way of life— the user (any Dartmouth student, for instance) can just sit down at a terminal and write a simple program (In Dartmouth's BASIC language, for Instance) to analyze cenaus data. Since Dart­ mouth has a complete file on its tim e-shsrlng system of the detailed sample from the 1070 census, the program can buzz through that and report almost immediately the numbers of divorced Aleuts or boy millionaires in the sample, or (more signifi­ cantly) the relative Incomes of different ethnic groups when categorized according to the queationer's interests. But simple time-sharing la only the beginning. Networks of computers are now coming into being. Most significant of these is the ARPANET (financed by AAPA, the Defense Department's Advanced Research Projects Agency, it is nonetheless nonmtlitary In c h a ra cter). Dozens of large tim e-shsring computers around the country are being tied into the Arpanet. and a user of any of these can reach d ir­ ectly into the olher computers of the n etw o rk using their program s, data or other facilities. Arpanet enthusiasts see this aa the wave of the future.

The new breed has got to be watched. This is the urgency of this book. Remember that the man who writes lhe payroll program can write himself some pretty amazing checks-- perhaps to be mailed out to Switzerland, next y ear. From here on it's computer politics, computer dirty tric k s , computer wonderlands, computer everything. For anyone concerned to be w here it's a t , then, this book will provide a few suggestions. Now is the Ume you either know or you don't. Enough power talk. Knowledge Is power. Here you go. Dig in.

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The greatest hurdle for the beginner (or "layman") is making an effort to grasp particulars of that which he hears about. A. WHAT IS ITS NAME? Every system o r proposal o r project has a name of some so rt. Make an effort to learn i t , or y ou're stuck try in g to refer to "that computerish thing." (And don't be a snob about acronym s, those all-cap names snd terms sprung from the foreheads of other words, like ILLIAC and PLATO and CAI. T here's a need for them. Short w ords are too general to use for names, and long phra ses are too unw ieldy.) B. IN WHAT PARTICULAR WAY DOBS IT EMPLOY THE COMPUTER? For record-keeping? For looking stuff up quickly or fancily? For sesrchlng out combinations? For making up combi­ nations and testing their properties? For enacting complex phenomena? As automatic typewriters? To play m usic, or just to store the written notes? It is hoped thst you will become sensitive to these distinctions, and be able to understand and remember them after somebody explains them. Otherwise you're stuck just referring to "that computer business," and y ou're In with the rest of the sheep.

This awkward state of affairs, obviously spanning both the American continent and most realms of endeavor, has come about for various reasons. First, the climate of uncomprehenalon leads men in management to treat computer matters as "mere technicalities"— a myth as sinister as the public notion that computers are "scientific"-* and abandon the kind of scrutiny they sensibly apply to any other company activities. Second ■ most of today's computer systems are Inherently leaky and Insecure— and likely lo stay that way awhile. Getting things to work on them Involves giving people extraordinary and Invisible powers. (Eventually this will change, but watch out for the meantime.)

s

People a s k me often w here th ey can lea rn about " s c ie n c e ." As In all fie ld s , m aga­ zines a re u su a lly th e b e s t s o u rc es of g e n e ra l orie n ta tio n . Science D igest Is k in d of h elpful for a s t a r t . alth o u g h unfortunately they p rin t sum m aries of e v e ry fool s tudy that g e n e ra liz es to the h e a rts of all hum anity from two dozen Iowa State fresh m en . Scientific Am erican is the fa v o rite. Some stuff Is h a r d to re a d b u t som e .isn 't; the p ic ­ t u re s and diagram s a r e t e r r i f i c .

T he ex p la n atio n s— not y e t fully d eb ugge d— are intended for an y b o d y . T he lis tin g s of e x p e n siv e p roducts and se rv ic e s a r e in tended not only as c o rro b o ra tiv e d e ta il, for a gen e ra l s e n s e of w h a t's av a ila b le , b u t also for b u s in e s s people who m ight find them h e lp fu l, for affluent individua ls and Qlubs who w ant to try th e ir h a n d , and finally as a b o x s c o re of how the p ric es a re coming do w n . Because we a re all going to b e able to afford these things p re tty soon.

«
2 4 f i 5 9 10 11

IT'S AT IH T*|IJ
INTRO " W here I t ’s At" So u rces of Inf o r ma t i o n CY B ERCRUD Tills MYTH OF T H E C O M PUTER T he Power and the Glory T HE DEEP DARK SECR ET (Computer B a sics Reduced to One Easy Page) T H E NEW ER A INTERACTIVE S Y STEMS TERMINALS C O M PU T E R LANGUAGES: Prelude 1. BASIC 2. T R A C ® Language 3. APL DAT A S T RU CTURES Binary Patterns C O M PU T E R LANGUAGES: Postscript ROC K BOTTOM: Inner Languages of Computers; Comput e r A r c h i te c t u re BUCKY'S WRISTWATCII, a sample m a ch i n e - l a n g u a g e p r o gram T h e A s s embler Y o u r Basic C om p u t e r Structure: T H E M I NI C O M P U T E R B IG COMPUTERS G R EAT COMPUTERS: Sketches of Some S pe c i fi c Machines List of Mini M a kers M IC R O P R O C E S S O R S (The New T h i r d Kind of Computer) A DV A N C E D P R O GRAMS O P E R AT I N G S Y S TEMS TIM E- S H A RI N G C O M PU T E R PE OPLE Pr ogram N eg o t i a t i o n S u gg estions for W r iters Fun and Games H ow C om puter S t uf f is Bought and Sold H ow C o m pu t e r C o m p a ni e s are Financed, So me t i m es IBM Digital E q u i p m e n t C o r po r a t io n Peripherals for Yo u r Mini S IM U LATION O P E R A TI O N S R ES EARCH GREAT ISSUES MILIT A RY USES OF CO MP U T E RS T h e ABM S y s t e m DNA DAMN THA T COMPUTER! S TUFF YO U M AY RUN INTO T H E CLUB OF ROME

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h s ,o ° Q ( w - i) Science t T echnology m agazine seem s to me one of th e b e tte r o n e s - - b re e z y , inform a­ tiv e , not triv ia l. Science m agazine is re a d by most actual s c ie n ­ ti s ts , and if you h av e a lively curiosity an d can g u e s s at the m e a n in g s’of w o rd s, w ill tell you an in c re d ib le am ount. (This is a main s o u rc e for th e science artic le s in the New York T im e s , w hich in t u r n . . . ) T h e ir a r tic le s on politics of scie n ce, and the fu tu re , a re v e ry in te re s tin g , im portant, an d d e p r e s s in g . You have to Join Am. A ssn . for th e A dvancem ent of S cience. W ashington, D .C . Daniel S . G r e e n b e rg 's S cience and Governm ent R eport ( s o r r y — $35 a y e a r) is w hat re ally tells i t . G re e n b e rg is the man who k now s, both what is s h a p in g up in scie n ce and the in s a n e governm ental confusions and flo u n d e rin g re s p o n s e s and g ra n d s ta n d in g an d p o r k - b a r r e l i n i ti a ti v e s ... G re e n b e rg i s , in cid en ta lly , one of th e finest w r ite rs of o u r time and a gre at h u m o ris t. Science a n d G overnm ent Repor t , Kaloram a S tation (r e a lly ? ) , Box 21123, W ashington, D .C . 20009. T h is is th e w all that th e h a n d w ritin g is o n .

T h is diagram show s the amazing and un iq u e way p ric e s drop in the com puter field. The p ric e s shown a re for the f irs t m inicom puter, th e PDP-5 (a nd its hugely p o p u lar o ffsp rin g , the PDP-8); b u t the p rin c ip le h as held th roughout the field, a n d the dow nw ard tre n d w ill p ro b a b ly accelerate due to the new big Integrated c ir c u its . Another exam ple: an IBM 7090, a v e ry decent m illion-dollar com puter in 1960, was put up for s ale at a m odish P ark e -B ern e t "used com puter auction" in 1970. If I rem em ber a r ig h t, they could not get a $1000 b i d , becau se tod ay 's m achines a re so much sm a lle r, fa s te r and m ore depe n d ab le.

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THE BUCK STOPS HERE 0 E v e ry w h ere in th e w o rld people c a n p re ten d that y o u r ig n o ra n c e , o r p o s itio n , o r c r e d e n tia ls , or p o v e r ty , o r g e n e ra l u n w o rth in e ss , are th e re asons you a r e b e in g p u s h e d a ro u n d o r m ade to feel sm all. And b e c au se you c a n 't t e l l , you have to ta k e it. A nd of c o u rs e w e can do th e same th in g with co m p u ters . Y e s, we ca n do it in s p a d e s . (See " C y b e r c r u d ," p . 8 . ) B ut m any of u s do not want t o . T h e re h a s to b e a b e tte r w a y . T h e re h a s to be a b e tte r w o rld .

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C o m p u t e r . ( F o r m e r l y IEEE C o m p u t e r G r o u p N e w s .) $ 1 2 /y r . T h o u g h tf u l, c le a rly w ritte n a rti c le s on h ig h - le v e l to p ic s . Q u ite a b it o n A rtif ic ia l I n te l lig e n c e ( s e e f l i p s i d e ) . IE EE C o m p u t e r S o c i e t y , 16400 V en tU T a B l v d . , E n c i n o CA 9 1 3 1 6 .

H e re a r e som e o th e r m a g a z in e s th a t m ay in te r e s t y o u . No p a r ti c u la r o r d e r . PC C . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l m a jo r p la c e s y o u g e t in f o r ­ m a tio n i n t h e c o m p u t e r f ie l d : f r i e n d s , m a g a z i n e s , b in g o c a r d s , c o n fe re n ce s an d c o n fe re n c e p r o c e e d in g s . D e lig h tfu l e d u c a tio n a l/c o u n te r c u l tu r e ta b lo id e m p h a s iz in g c o m p u te r g a m es a n d f u n . O r i e n t e d to B A S IC l a n g u a g e . $ 4 / y r . f r o m P e o p l e 's C o m p u t e r C o m ­ p a n y , P . O . B o x 3 1 0 , M e n lo P a r k , CA 94 0 2 5 .

FRIENDS.
F r ie n d s w e c a n 't h e lp w ith . B ut y o u m ig h t m ake som e a t c o n fe re n c e s . O r jo in a c o m p u te r c lu b ?

T h e b e s t r e v ie w o f w h a t 's h a p p e n i n g l a te ly , b y n o n e o t h e r t h a n M r . W h o le E a r t h C a t a l o g h im s e l f : S t e w a r t B r a n d , " S p a c e w a r : F a n a t i c L ife a n d S y m b o l i c D e a th a m o n g th e C o m p u te r B u m s ." R o llin g S t o n e . 2 D ecem b er 72, 5 0 -5 6 . He v is i te d th e m ost h o ts h o t p la c e s a n d r e p o r t s e s p e c ia l ly o n th e f u n - a n d - g a m e s s id e o f t h i n g s . G ilb e rt B u rc k a n d th e E d ito rs o f F o r t u n e , T h e C o m p u te r A g e . H a r p e r a n d R o w . I g n o re t h e r i d i c u l o u s f u ll t i t l e . T h e C o m p u t e r A g e a n d I ts P o t e n t i a l f o r M a n a g e m e n t ; t h i s b o o k h a s n o t h i n g to d o w i t h m a n a g e m e n t , b u l i s a n i c e g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n to t h e f i e l d . T h o m as H . C ro w le y , U n d e r s ta n d in g C o m p u te r s . M c G ra w -H ill. T h is is th e m o st r e a d a b le a n d s tr a ig h tf o rw a rd in tr o d u c tio n to th e te c h n i­ c a litie s a ro u n d . J e re m y B e r n s te i n , T h e A n a ly tic a l E n g in e . Random H o u s e , 19 6 4 . H i s t o r y o f c o m p u t e r s , w e l l t o l d , a n d th e w ay th in g s lo o k e d in 1964, w h ic h w a s n 't re a lly v e ry d if f e r e n t. D o n ald E . K n u th . T h e A rt of P r o g r a m m in g , ( 7 v o l s . ) A m o n u m e n ta l s e r i e s , e x c e lle n tly w r i tte n a nd w i d e l y p r a i s e d , f o r a n y o n e w h o w a n t s to d i g in a n d b e a s e rio u s p r o g ra m m e r. T h r e e of (h e s e v e n v o lu m e s a r e o u t s o f a r . a t a b o u t t w e n t y b u c k s a p i e c e . V o l . 1: F u n d a m e n t a l A l g o r i t h m s . V o l . 2: S e m i n u m e r i c a l A l g o r i t h m s . V o l . 3: S o r t i n g a n d S e a r c h i n g . A d d is o n -W e s le y .

MAGAZINES.
T h e p r i n c i p a l m a g a z in e s a r e ( f i r s t few lis te d r o u g h ly b y degT ee o f g e n eral in te r e s t ): D a t a m a t i o n ■ $1 5 a y e a r o r f r e e . T h e m a i n c o m p u te r m a g a z in e , a b re e z y . c le v e r m o n t h l y . L o ts o f a d s . i n t e r e s t i n g a r t i ­ c l e s t h e la y m a n c a n r e a d w i t h n o t m u c h e f f o r t . T w i t s IBM . S u b s c r i p t i o n s a r e $15 i f y o u ' r e n o t a c o m p u te r p e r s o n , f re e if y o u a r e . D a t a m a t i o n . 35 M a s o n S t . , G r e e n w i c h C T 06 8 3 0 . C o m p u t e r D e c i s i o n s . S o m e $7 a y e a r o r f r e e . Som e n ic e lig h t a r t i c l e s . a s w e l l a s h e lp fu l r e v ie w a r ti c le s on d if f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . A v o id s t e c h n i c a l i t i e s . C o m p u t e r D e c i s i o n s . 50 E s s e x S t . . R o s e l l e P a r k N J 0 76 6 2 . C o m p u te r s a n d A u to m a tio n . A v o id s t e c h n i­ c a litie s b u t q u ite a b it o f s o c ia l -i n te r e s t s tu f f . N obody g e ts it f re e ; s o m e th in g l i k e $ 7 .5 0 a y e a r . B e r k e le y E n t e r ­ p r i s e s , I n c . , 0 1 5 W a s h in g t o n S t . , N e w t o n v i l l e , M a s s . 02 1 6 0 . C o m p u te r w o rld (a c tu a lly a w e e k ly ta b lo id p a p e r ) . Not fre e: $9 a y e a r . M o re u p -to -th e -m in u te th a n m ost p e o p le h a v e lim e to b e . C o m p u t e r w o r l d , C i r c . D e p t . , 797 W a s h in g t o n S t . , N e w t o n , M a s s . 0 21 6 0 . C o m p u tin g S u r v e y s . E x c e lle n t, c le a rl y w ritte n in tro d u c to ry a rtic le s o n a v a rie ty of s u b je c ts . A ny s e rio u s b e g i n n e r sh o u ld d e fin ite ly s u b s c r i b e to C o m p u t i n g S u r v e y s . ( S e e A C M . b e lo w .) C o m m u n ic a tio n s of th e A C M . H ig h - c la s s M i r * *a 1' jo u r n a l a b o u t th e o re tic a l m a tte rs a n d e v e n t s o n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l s i d e o f th e H eld . (S ee ACM, b e lo w .) C o m p u te r D e s i g n . $ 1 0 / y r . o r f re e . C o n c e n ­ tr a t e s on p a r ts f o r c o m p u te rs , b u t a lso te lls te ch n ica l d e ta ils o f new c o m p u te rs a n d p e r i p h e r a l s . C o m p u te r D e s i g n . C irc u la tio n D e p t .. P .O . Box A , W in c h e s te r. M a ss. 01890. D a ta P r o c e s s i n g m a g a z i n e . O r i e n t e d to c o n v en tio n al b u s in e s s a p p lic a tio n s o f c o m p u te r s . $10. N o rth A m e ric a n P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 134 N . 13 th S t . , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P a . 191 07 .

C o m p u tin g R e v ie w s . P r in t s r e v i e w s , b y i n d i v i d u a l s in t h e f i e l d , o f m o s t o f t h e s e ri o u s c o m p u te r a r t i c l e s . U sefu l, b u t s u b j e c t to i n d i v i d u a l b i a s e s a n d g a p s . (S ee ACM, b e lo w .) T h e N ew E d u c a t i o n a l T e c h n o l o g y . $ 5 / y r . P re s u m a b ly c o n c e n tra te s o n a c tiv itie s o f its p u b lis h e r : G e n e ra l T u r t l e , I n c . , 545 T e c h n o l o g y S q u a r e , C a m b r i d g e . MA 02139: w o n d e r f u l c o m p u t e r t o y s f o r sc h o o ls a n d th e w e l l- h e e l e d . T h e H o n e y w e ll C o m p u te r J o u r n a l . S o m e th in g l i k e $1 0 a y e a r . H o n e y w e ll I n f o r m a tio n S y s te m s , I n c ., P h o e n ix . A riz o n a . S h o w c a se m a g a z in e o t m is c e lla n e o u s c o n te n t; r e a d a b le , n ic e ly e d i t e d . H as u n u s u a l p r a c tic e o f i n c lu d in g m ic ro fic h e ( m ic r o f ilm c a r d ) o f e n t i r e i s s u e i n a p o c k et. IBM S y s t e m s J o u r n a l . S h o w c a s e t e c h n i c a l jo u r n a l of m is c e lla n e o u s c o n te n t , e s p e c i a l l y a r c a n a a b o u t IBM p r o d u c t s . $ 5 / y r . IB M . A r m o n k , NY 1 0 5 0 4 . IBM J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h a n d D e v e l o p m e n t . S h o w case te ch n ica l jo u r n a l o f m is ce l­ l a n e o u s c o n t e n t . $ 7 . 5 0 / y e a r . IB M , A r m o n k . NY 10S04 .

BUMMERS T h is is p e r h a p s a m in o r ity v ie w , b u t I th in k a n y i n t r o d u c t i o n to c o m p u t e r s w h i c h m a k e 6 th e m se e m in tr in s i c a lly m a th e m a tic a l i s m is le a d in g . H is to r ic a lly th e y b e g a n a s m a th e m a tic a l, b u t now t h i s i s s i m p l y t h e w r o n g w a y to t h i n k a b o u t t h e m . S a m e g o e s f o r e m p h a s i z i n g b u s i n e s s u s e s a s if th a t w ere a ll. We w i l l n o t n a m e h e r e a n y o f t h e v a r i o u s d is a g r e e a b le p a m p h le ts a n d b o o k s w h ic h s tr e s s t h e s e a s p e c ts a n d d o n 't m a k e t h i n g s v e r y c l e a r .

J o u r n a l o f t h e A C M . A h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l , m a lh ( " j A C - K 'A o r ie n le d jo u r n a l . H eavy o n g r a p h th e o ry V / a n d p a tte rn r e c o g n itio n . (S ee ACM, b e lo w .) D ig i t a l D e s i g n . $ 15 o r f r e e . A b o u t c o m p u t e r p a r t s a n d d e s i g n s . D ig ita l D e s i g n . C i r c . D e p t . , 167 C o r e y R o a d , B r o o k l i n e , M a s s . 02 1 4 6 . I n f o s y s t e m s . A s p i r i n g m a g . $20 o r f r e e . H it c h c o c k P u b l i c s t o n s , P . O . B o x 30 07 , W h e a to n , 111. 6 0 1 87 . T h i n k . T h i s i s t h e IBM h o u s e o r g a n . P r e s u m a b l y f r e e to IBM c u s t o m e r s o r p r o s p e c t s . IB M . A r m o n k , NY 105 04 . T h e r e a r e a lso e x p e n s iv e (sn o b ?) m a g a z in e s , b ou gh t b y e x e c u tiv e s. C o m p u te r A g e , $ 9 5 /y r . EDP N ew s S e r v ic e s I n c . , 514 1 0th S t . N . W . , W a s h in g t o n D C 20 0 0 4 . C o m p u te r D ig e s t. $ 3 6 /y r . In fo rm a tio n G r o u p , 1309 C h e r r y S t . , P h i l a d e l p h i a PA 191 07 . D a ta P r o c e s s i n g D i g e s t . $ 5 1 / y r . 6 82 0 l a T i j e r a B l v d . . L o s A n g e l e s C A 90 0 4 5 .

*

K > A B O U T FR E E S U B S C R I P T I O N S . M a n y o f t h e m a g a z i n e s a r e f r e e to " q u a l i f i e d ” r e a d e r s , u s u a l l y ( h o s e w i l l i n g to s l a t e o n a s i g n e d f o r m t h a t th e y i n f lu e n c e th e p u r c h a s e o f c o m p u t e r s . c o m p u te r s e r ­ v i c e s , p u n c h c a r d s , o r th e lik e . (T h e y a s k o th e r q u e s tio n s o n th e fo r m , b u t w h e t h e r y o u in f lu e n c e p u r c h a s e is u s u a lly w h a t d e c id e s w h e t h e r th e y s e n d y o u t h e m a g a z i n e . ) It i s a l s o h e l p f u l to h a v e a g o o d - s o u n d in g tid e o r c o m p an y a ffiliatio n . B INGO C A R D S . T h e s e a r e little p o s tc a r d s y o u fin d in a ll th e m a g a z i n e s e x c e p t t h e ACM a n d c o m p a n y o n e s . F i ll in y o u r n am e a n d an a ttr a c tiv e title ("S y ste m s C o n su lta n t" o r " c o n s u lta n t" is g o o d - - a fte r a ll, so m e d a y som e o n e may a s k y o u r a d v ic e ) a n d c irc le t h e n u m b e r s c o r r e s p o n d i n g to t h e a d s t h a t e n t i c e y o u . Y o u 'l l b e f lo o d e d w i t h i n t e r e s t i n g , e x p e n s i v e l y p r i n t e d , c o lo rfu l, e d u c a tio n a l m a te ria l on d iffe re n t p e o p le 's c o m p u te rs a n d a c c e s s o r i e s . A n d n o te th a t s e n d e r s d o n 't lo s e : a n y c o m p a n y w a n t s i t s p r o d u c t s know n. H o w e v e r, a p o sto ffice b o x is g o o d , a s it h e lp s to a v o i d c a l l s a t h o m e f r o m s a l e s m e n , w a s t i n g t h e i r tim e a s m u c h a s y o u r s . If y o u a r e in a r u r a l - t y p e a re a w h e re yo u c a n a s s u m e a co m p an y n am e w ith no le g a l d if f ic u l tie s , so m u c h th e b e t t e r .

H e y n o w , h e r e ' s a m a g a z i n e c a l l e d C o m p u t o p i a . O n l y $ 15 a y e a r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y i n J a p a n e s e . C o m p u t e r A g e C o . L t d . , K a s u m i g a s e k l B l d g . , B o x 12 2 , C h i y o d a - K u , T o k y o , J a p a n .

W O s f c C fc ^ fO ^ S '
T h a t t h e f ie l d h a s n o t b e e n p o p u l a r i z e d b y i t s b e tte r w r i t e r s m ay s im p ly c o m e fro m a n h o n e s t d o u b i th a t o r d in a r y p e o p le c a n u n d e rs t a n d c o m p u te rs . I d is p u t e th a t. T h r o u g h m a g a z in e s , m illio n s o f A m e ric an s h a v e le a r n e d a b o u t p h o to g r a p h y . T h ro u g h th e p o p u la r s c ie n c e - a n d -m e c h a n ic s ty p e m a g a z in e s , a n d m o re r e c e n tly th e e le c tro n ic s m a g a z in e s , v a rio u s o th e r te ch n ica l s u b je c ts h a v e b e co m e w id e ly u n d e rs t o o d . So fa r nobo dy has o p en ed u p c o m p u te rs. T h is i s a f i r s t a t t e m p t . If t h i s b o o k w o n 't d o i t a n o t h e r o n e w ill. A n d yo u b e tte r b e lie v e th at P o p u la r C o m p u ters m a g a z in e is n o t v e r y f a r a w a y . Soon a f u lly - lo a d e d m i n i c o m p u t e r w ill c o s t l e s s t h a n t h e b e s t h i - f i s e t s . I n a c o u p l e o f y e a r s . t h o u s a n d s o f i n d i v i d u a l s w ill o w n c o m p u t e r s , a n d m il l i o n s m o r e w i l l w a n t t o . L o o k o u t, h e re we g o .

A n u m b e r o f i n e x p e n s i v e g a d g e t s p u r p o r t to le ac h y o u c o m p u te r p r in c i p le s . M any p e o p le h a v e b e e n d i s a p p o i n t e d , o r w o r s e , m a d e lo f e e l s t u p i d , w h e n th e y l e a r n n o t h i n g f ro m t h e s e . A c t u a l l y t h e b e s t t h e s e t h i n g s r e a l l y c a n d o i s g i v e y o u a n id e a o f w h a t c a n b e d o n e w ith c o m b i n a t i o n s o f s w i t c h e s . F r o m t h a t to l e a r n i n g w h a t c o m p u te r p e o p le re a lly th in k a b o u t i s a lo n g , lo n g w ay.

W o o p s , h e r e it i s . P o p u l a r C o m p u t i n g , $15 a y e a r ( $ 1 2 i f p r e p a i d ) , B o x 2 7 2 , C a J a b a s a s , C A 91 30 2

ACM, the Association fo r Com puting M achinery. T h is is the main com puter professional society; the title only h as m eaning h is to r­ ically , as m any m em bers a r e conc erned not w ith m achinery its elf, but w ith softw are, la n g u a g e s , th eo rie s an d so o n . If you have any p lan s to s tick with th e s u b je c t, m em bership in the Association for Com puting M achinery is highly recom ­ m ende d. ACM ca lls its e lf "The Society of th e Com puting Com m unity." T h u s it p ro p e rly em braces both professionals and fa ns. Dues fo r official stu d e n ts a r e $0 a y e a r, $35 for o th e r s , w hich includes a s u b s crip tio n to Communications of the ACM, th e official m ag. T h e ir a d d re s s for m em berships and m agazines is ACM, P .O . Box 12105, C h u rch S t. S tation, New Y ork, NY 10249. (T he actual ACM HQ is at 1133 A ve. of the A m ericas, New Y ork. N .Y . 10036.) They h av e stacked th e deck so that if you want to s u b s c r ib e to any ACM m aga­ zines y o u 'd b e tte r join anyw ay. H ere are th e y e a r pric es: Member Non-Member Communications of the ACM free $35 Com puting S u rv ey s $7 $25 Com puting R eview s $12.50 $35 J o u rn a l of the ACM $7 $30 T he one dra w bac k lo join in g th e ACM is a ll the doggoned m ailing lists it gets you o n . It's u n c le a r w h e th e r th e r e 's an y th in g you can do to p re v e n t th is , b u t th e re oughta b e. SIGs and S IC s. For ACM m em bers with sp ec ial in te re s ts (and we all have th e m ), th e ACM contains s u b d iv isio n s -- c lu b s within th e c lu b , of people who keep in touch to s h a r e th e ir in te re s ts . T he se a r e called SICs (S pecial In te rest Committees) and SIGs (S pecial In te rest G ro u p s). T h e re a r e such c lu b s -- SICs and SIGs— in num erous a r e a s , in clu d in g P rogram m ing L anguages, Com puter Usage in Education, e tc . E ncouraging these s u b in te re s ts lo stay within ACM save s a lot of tro u b le for eve ry b o d y and keeps ACM the c e n tral society. AFIPS. AFIPS is th e UN of com puting. They spon so re d th e Joints , and now s p o n s o r the NCC. J u s t as in d iv id u a ls c a n 't join th e UN, they ca n 't join AFIPS, w hich sta n d s for Am erican F ederation of Inform ation P roces­ s in g S o c ieties. D epending on y o u r special in te r e s ts , tho u g h , you can join a member s o c ie ty . T he constituent societies of AFIPS a r e , a s of J u n e 1973: (If any tu rn you o n , w rite AFIPS for ad d re s s e s : AFIPS, 210 Summit A ve. M ontvale NJ 07645.) ft* ACM: the Association for Com puting M ac h in ery . IEEE, th e Institute of E lectrical and Electronics E n g in e e rs . T h is is the pro fessio n al society of e le ctro n ics g uys. Sim ulation C ouncils. T his is the professional society for th o se in te re s te d in Simulation (se e p . 5 3 ). Association for Com putational L in g u is tic s . (Where lan g u a g e and com puter ty p e s g a t h e r .) Am erican Association of A e ronautics and A s tro n a u tic s . Am erican S tatistical A sso ciation. Instrum e nt Society of A m erica. Society for Inform ation D isplay. (See flip s id e .) Am erican In stitu te of C ertified P ublic A ccountants. A m erican Society fo r Inform ation S cien c e. (This gro u p is m ainly for electronified lib ra ria n s a n d inform ation re trie v a l ty p e s -- see flip s i d e . ) Society for In d u s tria l and Applied M athematics. S pecial L ib ra ries A ssociation. Association for Educational Data S ystem s. IFIP. T his is the intern a tio n a l com puter society. Like AFIPS, its m em bers a re s o c ie tie s , so jo in in g ACM makes you an IFIP p artic ip a n t. IFIP holds conferences a ro u n d the w o rld . F un. E xpense.

CONFERENCES. C onferences in any field a r e e x c itin g , at lea st till you re ac h a ce rta in d eg ree of boredom w ith the fie ld . Com puter conferences have th e ir own heady a tm osphere, com pounded of a se n s e of elitism , of b e in g in the w itc h e s ' c a u ld ro n , and th e s u re sen se of t h e im pact ev e ry th in g you see will have as it all g row s and g ro w s. Plus you get to look at g adge ts. Usually to go for one day d o esn 't cost m u c h , and at th e b ig g e r ones you get lots of free l ite ra tu r e , have salesm en explain th e ir th in g s to y o u , see m ovies, h ea r fascinaling (som etim es) sp e a k e rs . THE JOINTS! The p rin c ip a l com puter confer­ e n c es have alw ays bee n the S p rin g Joint C om puter C on feren c e, h eld in an E a ste rn city in M ay, and the Fall Joint C om puter C onference, held in a W estern city in November (the infamous S p rin g J o in t and Fall J o i n t , o r SJCC and F J C C ). In 1973, because of poor b u s in e s s the p re v io u s y e a r , the two w ere collapsed into one National Com puter Conference (NCC) in J u n e (U niversal Joint?) The J o in ts have alw ays bee n sponsored by AFIPS (see belo w ). The National Com puter C onference w ill henceforth b e a n n u a l, at least for a w hile. T he cost of atten d in g is h ig h -w hile it's ju s t a couple of d o llars lo look at the e x h ib its , this r is e s to p e r h a p s fifteen d o llars to go to th e d a y 's technical sess io n s o r fifty for the week (not counting lodging and e a t s ) - - but i t 's v e r y m uch w orth it. The lower age limit for attendees is som ething like tw elv e , unfortunately for those with in te re s te d ch ild re n . O ther im portant conferences: the annual ACM conference in the sum m er; BEMA (B usiness Equipm ent M frs. A s s n .) in the fall and s p r in g (no th e o ry , but lots of g ad g e ts); a n d o th er conferencs on special s u b je c ts . held all the time all o v e r . Lists of c onferences and th e ir w hereabouts a re in most of the m agazines; Communications of the ACM an d Com puter Design have the b ig g est lis ts .

CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS. As you may k n o w , conferences la rg ely con­ sis t of s e p a ra te " s e s s io n s " in w hich d iffe re n t people talk on specific to p ic s , u su ally re a d in g out loud from th e ir notes a n d s h o w in g slid es . C onference p ro c e e d in g s a r e b ooks w hich re s u lt from c o n fe re n c e s . S upposedly th ey contain w hat ea ch guy s a id ; in p ra c tic e p eople say one thing a n d p u b lis h a n o th e r, m ore formal than the actual p re s e n ta tio n . T h is leads to a c u rio u s phenom enon at the main com puter co n fere n ce s (S JC C ,F JC C , ACM and now NCC) . When yo u re g is te r they g iv e you a book (you’r e actually p a y in g p e rh a p s $15 fo r i t ) , contain­ in g all the p a p e rs th a t a r e about lo b e g iv e n , nicely tric k e d out by th e ir a u th o r s . If you r u s h to a co rn er a n d look at the book it may change y o u r notion of w hich s e s s io n s to go to. Anyway , th e r e s u ltin g v olum es of conference p ro c e e d in g s a r e a tr e a s u r e trove of i n te re s tin g p a p e rs on an immense v a r ie ty of com puterish an d n o t-so co m p u terish s u b je c ts . G reat for b ro w sin g . E x pe nsive b u t w o n d e rfu l. (H orrible w hen y o u 're m o v in g , th o u g h , as th ey are b ig and h e a v y .) JOINT PROCEEDINGS. P ro ce ed in g s for the S p rin g J o in t and Fall J o in t, from the fifties to 1972. a re ava ila b le from AFIPS P re s s , a s a r e p ro c ee d in g s of th e 1973 NCC. (AFIPS P r e s s , 210 Summit A venue, M ontvale NJ 07645.) T hey cost $20-26 each afte r the conference is o v er; les s in m icrofilm . (At th e Jo in t C onferences, AFIPS P re s s often g iv es d is c o u n ts , at th e ir b o o th , on back Jo in t p r o c e e d in g s .) t > > l f you w ant to sp e n d money to lea rn about the fie ld . P ro ce ed in g s of the Jo in t C onferences a r e a fine b u y . Back ACM P ro c e e d in g s . From the ACM. O ther P ro ce ed in g s ■ Often sold a t co u n te rs at c o n fe re n c e s . Or availa b le from v a rio u s p u b lis h e r s . Join the ACM and y o u ’ll find out soon enough.

TRY TO GET TO THE NATIONAL JOIN T. J u s t as e v e ry Muslim should go to Mecca, e v e ry com puter fan sh o u ld go to a National Jo in t (National C om puter C o nferenc e, o r N C C ). T h e n ex t two a r e (check the m agazines): May 1974, C hicago May 1975,— Son P ranoitao-.

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Kiddie s e t u p s , rum ored to ex is t in Boston and S an F ra n c isc o , a r e g ea re d lo lettin g g ra d e-sc h o o l c h ild re n se e and play with co m p u ters. Also one com pany (G eneral T u r t l e , see p . '5 7 ) is s e llin g com puter toys Inte n d ed to e n c o u ra g e ac tu al pro g ram m in g b y c h ild re n .

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M ore a g g r e s s i v e l y , c y b e r c r u d Is a t e c h n i q u e f o r m a k in g p e o p l e d o w h a t y o u w a n t . " T h e c o m ­ p u te r r e q u i r e s i t , " y ou say , and s o p e o p le c a n be m a d e to h a n d o v e r p e r s o n a l I n fo r m a tio n , s e c r e t a r i e s c a n b e in ti m i d a t e d in to s c o u r i n g t h e f i l e s , p a y m e n t s c h ed u le s can b e artificia lly e n fo r c e d . TH E G ENERAL ST A T U S TRICK S t a t u e t r i c k s , c o m b in in g t h e p u t d o w n a n d t h e s e l f - b o o s t , d a t e b a c k to tim es I m m e m o r ia l. B u t t o d a y th e y ta k e new f o r m s . T h e b i g g e s t t r i c k is to e l e v a t e y o u r s e l f a n d d e m e a n lh e l i s t e n e r a t t h e s a m e t i m e , o r , m o r e g e n e r a l l y , th e t e c h n i q u e is m a k in g p e o p le feel s t u p i d w h ile a c t i n g l i k e a b i g c h e e s e . T h u s s o m e o n e o n e m ig h t s a y , " P e o p le m u st b e g in to ge l u s e d to t h e o b j e c ­ tiv e sc ien tific w a y s of d o in g th in g s t h a t c o m p u t e r s now m a k e n e c e s s a r y . ” But t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s e e m s lo be : " P e o p le m u s t g e t u s e d to t h e I n f l e x i b l e , b a d ly thought o u t, I n co n v e n ien t a n d u n k in d sy ste m s that 1 a nd o th e r s e lf -r ig h te o u s in d iv id u a ls a n d com ­ p a n ie s a r e in flic tin g on th e w o rld ." YOU DO N ’T ALWAYS G OTTA T h e unin fo rm ed a re b u lld o z e d . a nd e v e n t h e i n f o r m e d a r e p r e s s u r e d , b y th e f o o lis h m y th s of t h e c l e v e r , im p l a c a b l e a n d s c i e n t i f i c c o m p u t e r t o w h ic h t h e y m u s t a d a p t. P e o p le a r e told t h e y h a v e to " r e l a t e to th e c o m p u t e r . " B ut a c t u a l l y t h e y a r e b e i n g m a d e to r e la te lo s y s t e m s h u m a n s h a v e d e s i g n e d a r o u n d I t, in m uc h th e s a m e w a y a s w o r d d a n c e Is d e s i g n e d a r o u n d t h e s w o r d . When e s t a b l i s h m e n t c o m p u te r p e o p le s a y th a t th e c o m p u t e r r e q u i r e s y o u to b e s y s t e m a t i c , t h e y g e n e r a l l y m e an y o u h a v e to l e a r n t h e i r s y s t e m . But a n y o n e w h o t e l l s y o u a m e th o d " h a s to b e c h a n g e d f o r th e c o m p u t e r ” is u s u a l l y f i b b i n g H e p r e f e r s to c h s n g e th e m e th o d f o r th e c o m p u t e r , T h e r e a s o n s m a y b e b a d o r g o o d . O fte n th e c o m p u te r s a l e s m a n o r I n d o c t r i n a l o r w ill p r e s e n t as "scien tific " te c h n iq u e s w h ic h w e r e d o p e d out o r w h o m p e d u p b y a c o u p le of g u y s i n t h e b a c k room . H e r e i s an e x a m p l e , a s told to m e . A f r i e n d o f m in e w o r k e d in a d r e s s f a c to r y w h e r e ih e y h a d a p e r f e c t l y g o o d s y s te m for b i l l i n g a n d b o o k k e e p i n g . C u a to m e r s w e r e lis te d by nam e a n d k e p t i n a l p h a ­ b e tic a l o r d e r . T h e fast p a c e of th e g a r m e n t i n d u s ­ t r y m e a n t t h a t c o m p a n i e s often c h a n g e d n a m e s , a n d SO v a r i o u s c o m p a n i e s h a d a n u m b e r of d i f f e r e n t n a m e s in th e f i l e . T h i s b o t h e r e d n o b o d y b e c a u s e th e p e o p le u n d e r s t o o d th e s y s te m . T h e n m a n a g e m e n t b o u g h t a s m a ll c o m p u t e r , n e v e r m in d w h a t b r a n d , a n d h i r e d a c o u p le o f g u y s lo come in a n d p u t th e b o o k k e ep in g sy ste m o n it. S t i l l o k a y . I n d e e d , sm a ll p r o g r a m m i n g f ir m s c a n so m e tim e s d o t h i s s o r t o f t h i n g v e r y w e l l , b e c a u s e t h e y c a n w o r k f le x i b ly w i l h t h e p e o p le a n d d o n 't n e c e s s a r i l y fee l c om m itted lo m a k in g it w o rk a c e r ta in w ay.

"If it c a n 't b e d o n e In COBOL, I j u s t te ll p e o p le It c a n 't b e d o n e b y c o m p u t e r . It s a v e s a lo t o f t r o u b l e - " A ttr ib u te d to s o m e b o d y in R o c h e s t e r ( S e e CO BO L , p ^ | . )

A n u m b e r o f p e o p l e h a v e g o tte n m ad a t m e fo r c o i n i n g t h e te rm " c y b e r c r u d , " w h ic h 1 d e fin e a s " p u t t i n g t h i n g s o v e r o n p e o p le u s i n g c o m p u t e r s . ” B u t a s lo n g a s it g o e s o n w e ' l l n e e d th e w o r d . At e v e r y c o r n e r o f o u r s o c i e t y , p e o p le a r e i s s u i n g p r o n o u n c e m e n t s a n d m a k i n g o th e r p e o p le d o t h i n g s a n d s a y i n g i t ’s b e c a u s e o f t h e c o m p u t e r . T h e f u n c tio n o f c y b e r c r u d i s th u s lo c o n f u s e . i n ti m i­ d a te o r p r e s s u r e . We h a v e all got to ge t w i s e to t h i s i f i t i s g o in g to b e c u r t a i l e d . C y b e r c r u d l a k e s n u m e r o u s f o rm s . A ll o f t h e m , h o w e v e r , s h a r e th e p a d n a o f " s c i e n c e " t h a t c o m p u te rs h a v e f o r th e la y m a n . l a ) COMPUTER A S MAGIC WORD T h e m ost d e l i c a t e , a n d s e e m i n g ly i n n o c e n t , t e c h n i q u e I s t h e p r a c d c e o r n a m in g t h i n g s SO a s s p u r i o u s l y to s u g g e s t t h a t t h e y i n v o lv e c o m p u te r s . T h u s t h e r e Is a m a n u f a c t u r e r o f p o t - p i p e s w ith "D a ta " I n Its n a m e . e n d a p p a r e n t l y a p o r n o g r a p h y h o u se w ith a " C y b e r - " . l b ) COMPUTER AS MAGIC INGREDIENT T h e a b o v e s e a m s s i l l y , b u t It i s n o l e s s s il ly th a n t a l k i n g a b o u t " c o m p u t e r p r e d i c t i o n s " a n d " c o m p u t e r s t u d i e s " o f t h i n g s . T h e m e r e f a c t th a t a c o m p u te r i s I n v o l v e d i n s o m e th in g h a s n o b e a r i n g o n its c h a r a c t e r o r v a l i d i t y . T h e w ay t h i n g s a re d o n e w ith c o m p u te r s a ff e c ts t h e i r c h a r a c t e r a n d v a l i d i t y . Ju a t l i k e t h e w a y t h i n g s a r e d o n e w ith o u t c o m p u t e r s . ( I n d e e d , m e r e ly u s i n g a c o m p u te r o f te n h a s no b e a r i n g o n th e w a y t h i n g s a r e d o n e . ) T h i s sa m e t e c h n i q u e i s e a s il y m a g n if ie d to s u g g e s t , n o t m e r e ly t h a t s o m e th in g in v o lv e s c o m p u t e r s , b u t is w h o lly d o n e b y c o m p u t e r s . T h e w o rd " c o m p u t e r iz e ” p e r f o r m s this fata l f u n c ti o n . When u s e d sp e c if ic a l ly , a s i n c o m p u te r iz e th e b illin g o p e ra tio n , it can be fa irly c le a r: b u t m ake it v a g u e , a s i n c o m p u t e r i z e l h e o f f i c e , a n d it c a n mean a n y t h i n g , " F u ll y c o m p u t e r i z e " i s w o r s e . T h u s w e h e a r a b o u t a " fu l ly c o m p u t e r i z e d " p r i n t s h o p , w h i c h t u r n s o u t to b e o n e w h o s e c o m p u t e r s d o t h e t y p e ­ se ttin g : b u t th e y c o u ld a lso r u n th e p r e 6 6 e s . p a y th e b ill s a n d w o rk t h e c o ff e e m a c h i n e - F o r p r a c ­ tic al p u r p o s e s , t h e r e i s no s u c h t h i n g a s " f u l ly " c o m p u te r iz e d - T h e r e i s a l w a y s o n e m o re t h i n g c o m p u te r s c o u ld do.

In th e movie " F a i l - S a f e , " t h e y s h o w e d y o u l o t s o f f a k e ta p e d r i v e s w i l h l h e r e e l s c o n s t a n t l y t u r n i n g in o n e d i r e c t i o n . T h i s t h e y c a l l e d a " c o m p u t e r . " C a l l i n g a n y s i n i s t e r b o x "a c o m p u te r " i s a w i d e s p r e a d t r i c k . G iv e s p e o p le t h e w illleB , K e e p s 'e m i n l in e .

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P u b l i c t h i n k i n g a b o u t c o m p u t e r s i s h e a v il y t i n g e d b y a p e c u l i a r im a g e w h i c h w e m a y c a l l th e M y th o f t h e M a c h in e . It g o e s a s fo llo w s: ( h e r e i s s o m e t h i n g c s l l e d t h e M a c h in e , w h i c h i s T a k i n g O v e r T h e W o r ld . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s p o i n t o f v ie w T h e M a c h in e i s a r e l e n t l e s s , p e r e m p t o r y , r e p e t i t i v e , i n v a r i a b l e , m o n o to n o u s , i n e x o r a b l e , i m p l a c a b l e , r u t h l e s s . In h u m a n , d e h u m a n iz in g , im p e rso n a l J u g g e r n a u t , b r a in l e s s l y c a r ry i n g o u t re p e titiv e ( a n d o f te n v i o l e n t ) a c t i o n s . S y m b o lic o f t h i s i s o f c o u r s e C h a r l i e C h a p l i n , d o d g i n g th e r e l e n t ­ l e s s . r e p e t i t i v e , m o n o to n o u s , i m p l a c a b l e , d e h u m a n i z i n g g e a r s o f a m a c h i n e h e m u s t d e a l w ith i n t h e film M o d e rn T i m e s . O r d i n a r i l y t h i s v ie w o f T h e M a c h in e i s c o n t r a s t e d w ith a n id e a o f a W arm H u m a n B e in g , u s u a l l y a n id e a l i z e d v e r s i o n o f t h e p e r s o n t h i n k i n g th e s e th o u g h ts . W arm Hum an B e in g B u t c o n s i d e r s o m e t h i n g . T h e m o d e ) o f te n g o e s f u r t h e r t h a n I h i s . T h e M a c h in e i s c o l d , the H u m a n B e in g e m o tio n a l a n d w a r m . Y et t h e r e i s s u c h a t h i n g a s b e i n g to o e m o tio n a l a n d w a r m . T h e r e i s in fac t a t h i r d t y p e i n I h e s c h e m a , th e b e i n g w h o g o e s to o f a r o n t h e s a m e s c a l e . S t r a n g e l y , h e h a s a t l e a s t t h r e e d i f f e r e n t n a m e s , t h o u g h th e p i c t u r e o f him i s a b s t r a c t l y t h e sa m e : ^

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" T h e c o m p u te r i s t h e u lti m a t e R o r s c h a c h t e s t , ” F r e e d B a le s Ba ld to me t w e l v e y e a r s a g o . D r. B a le s, a H arv ard p sy c h o lo g ist, w as som ew hat p e r t u r b e d b y th e p a p e r s h e w a s g e t t i n g i n h is s e m i n a r o n c o m p u t e r m o d e llin g in t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . S o m e w h a t n u t t y p e o p le I n t h e s e m i n a r w e r e w r i t i n g s o m e w h a t n u t t y p a p e r s f o r h im . A nd tr u e r w o rd s w ere n e v e r sp o k e n . On t h i s p o i n t I f i n d B a le s h a s b e e n t e r r i b l y , t e r r i b l y r i g h t . T h e c o m p u te r is a n In c r e d ib le p r o je c tiv e te 6t: w h a t y o u s e e In t h e c o m p u te r c o m e s r i g h t o ff t h e b a c k w a l l o f y o u r p s y c h e . In o v e r a d e c a d e i n I h e f ie l d I h a v e n o t c e a s e d to m a r v e l a t i h e w a y p e o p l e ' s p e r s o n a l i t i e s e n tw i n e w ilh t h e c o m p u t e r , e a c h m a k i n g il h i s o w n - - o r r e j c c l i n g i t - - In Ills o w n , o f te n u n i q u e a n d p e c u l i a r w a y , d e e p l y r e ­ f l e c t i n g h i6 c o n c e r n s e n d w h a t I s i n h i s h e a r t . Y e s , o d d p e o p l e a r e a t t r a c t e d to ( h e c o m p u t e r , e n d t h e b o n d s th a t h o ld th e m a r e n o t t h o s e o f casual in te r e s t. In f a c t . p e o p le t e n d lo i d e n lif y w ilh i l . In ( h is l i g h t w e m a y c o n s i d e r ( h e o f te n h e a r d re m a r k s a b o u t c o m p u te rs b e in g r ig id , n a r r o w , a n d i n f l e x i b l e . T h i s i s o f c o u r s e t r u e in a s e n s e , b u t I h e f a c t ( h a t so m e p e o p l e s t r e s s it o v e r a n d o v e r i s a n i m p o r t a n t c l u e lo s o m e t h i n g a b o u t t h e m . My o w n i m p r e s s i o n i s t h a l t h e p e o p le w h o s t r e s s t h i s a s p e c t a r e th e c o m p a r a t i v e l y r i g i d , n a rr o w a n d in fle x ib le p e o p le . O th e r c o m p u te r e x p e r ts , no le s s w o r t h y . ( e ll u s t h e c o m p u te r i s a s u p e r t o y . t h e g r a n d e s t p l a y m a c h i n e e v e r to b e d i s c o v e r e d . T h e s e p e o p l e le n d to b e t h e m o r e o u t g o i n g , g e n e r o u s a n d p l a y f u l ty p e s . In a c l a s s i c s t u d y , p s y c h i a t r i s t B r u n o B e tte lh e im e x a m i n e d a c h i l d w h o th o u g h t h e w a s a m a c h i n e , w h o t a l k e d in s la c c a t o m o n o s y l l a b l e s , w a lk e d je rk ily a n d d e c o ra te d th e s id e of h is b e d w ith g e a r s . We w i l l n o t d i s c u s s h e r e t h e p r o b ­ a b l e o r i g i n s a n d c u r e o f t h i s c o m p le x ; b u t w e m u s l c o n s i d e r lh a t i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h m a c h i n e s is a c r u c i a l c u l t u r a l th e m e in A m e r ic a n s o c i e t y , a n a v a i l a b l e th e m e f o r a l l of u s . A n d it w e l l m a y b e l h a t c o m p u te r p e o p l e a r e p a r t a k i n g o f t h i s s a m e s e l f - i m a g e : in a m o r e b e n i g n f o r m , p e r h a p s , a s h i f t o f g e a r s ( a s it w e r e ) from B e t t e l h e i m 's m e c h a n ic a l c h ild , b u l s till on th e sa m e tr a c k .

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O u t s i d e r s a r e o f te n p r e y to c y b e r c r u d th e y d r e a m u p t h e m s e l v e 6 . I o n c e k n e w a c o lle g c r e g i s t r a r ' s o f fic e w h e r e t h e y h a d b e e n g e t t i n g a l o n g f i n e f o r y e a r s w ith p a p e r f o r m s . T h e y e a r b e f o r e t h e c o m p u t e r w a s s t a t e d to a r r i v e , ( h e y s t a r t e d u s i n g file c a r d s Tilled o u t b y h a n d , i n s t e a d . W hy? " W e ll, w e t h o u g h t t h a t w o u ld m a k e i t e a s i e r f o r t h e c o m p u t e r . C o m p u te r s u s e c a r d 9 , d o n 't t h e y ? '

Now , " b u m s , " " n i g g e r s " a n d " h i p p i e s " a r e not re a l p e o p le . T h e w o rd s a r e d e ro g a to ry s la n g f o r ( h e d e s t i t u t e , f o r p e r s o n s w ith a n y A f r ic a n a n c e s t r y , e n d f o r p e o p l e d r e s s i n g in c c r l a i n s t y l e s . B u t t h e r e m a r k a b l e t h i n g a b o u t t h e s l a n g i s th a t a ll t h r e e o f th e s e d e r o g a t o r y t e r m s s e e m to h a v e th e s a m e c o n n o ta t io n i n o u r c u l t u r e : so m e o n e w ho i s d i r t y . la z y a n d l a s c i v i o u s . In o t h e r w o r d s , w h a t e v e r d i s t i n g u i s h e s T h e M a c h in e f ro m th e W arm H u m a n B e in g i s c a r r i e d loo f a r b y th e b u n c h al th e o th e r e n d . In o t h e r w o r d s , t h i s c o n c e p t u a l c o n tin u u m i s a s i n g l e , f u n d a m e n t a l s c a l e in o u r c u l t u r e ; w h y i s u n c l c a r . S i n c e m o st p e o p le c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s - - n a t u r a l l y ! - - lo b e in t h e m id d l e c a t e g o r y , it a c t s a s a 9 o r t o f r e f e r e n c e c o n tin u u m o f tw o b a d t h i n g s o n e i t h e r s i d e . It a l s o h a s a n o t h e r e ff e c t: it s u p p l i e s a d e ro g a to ry w ay of s e e in g . On th e r ig h t- h a n d s id e , it a llo w s m a n y A m e r i c a n s n o t lo s e e , o r to se e o n ly w i t h d i s g u s t , t h e d e s t i t u t e a n d t h o s e w ilh A f r ic a n a n c e s t r y a n d th o s e d r e s s i n g in h i p p i e s t y l e . B u t t h i s b o o k i s n ' t a b o u t th a l. T h e le ft s i d e o f ( h e c o n tin u u m i s o u r p r e s e n t c o n c e r n . T h e r e , t o o . p e o p l e r e f u s e to s e e . W hat p e o p le m a in ly r e f u s e to s e e i s t h a t m a c h i n e s m g e n e r a l a r e n 't lik e t h a t , r e le n tle s s , r e p e titi v e , m o n o to n o u s , i m p l a c a b l e , d e h u m a n i z i n g . O h . t h e r e a r e s o m e m a c h i n e s l i k e t h a t , p a r t i c u l a r l y th e a u to m o b ile a s s e m b l y l i n e . B u t t h e a s s e m b l y lin e w a a d e s i g n e d t h e w a y i t i s b e c a u s e It g e t s ( h e mo6l w o r k o u t o f p e o p l e . It g e t s t h e w o r k it d o e s o u t o f p e o p le b y i h e w a y i t e x e r t s p r e s s u r e . S o h e r e w e s e e t h e s a m e o l d t r i c k : p e o p le b u i l d i n g a s y s t e m a n d s a y i n g it h a s to w o r k t h a t w a y b e c a u s e i t ' s a m a c h i n e , r a t h e r ( h a n b e c a u s e t h a t 's ho w I d e s i g n e d i t . T o m a k e th e p o i n t c l e a r e r , l e t ' s c o n s i d e r so m e o t h e r m a c h i n e s . T h e a u to m o b ile I s a m a c h i n e , b u t it i s h a r d l y th e r e p e titi v e , " d e h u m a n iz e d " th in g w e u su a lly h e a r a b o u t . It g o e s u p h i l l , d o w n h i l l , le ft a n d r i g h t , f a s t a n d s lo w . It m a y b e d e c o r a t e d . It i s th e s c e n e of m a n y w arm h u m a n a c tiv itie s . A nd m ost im p o r­ t a n t l y , a u lo m o b ile s a r e v e r y m u c h t h e e x t e n s i o n of th e i r o w n e r s , e x e m p l i f y i n g l i f e - s t y l e , p e r s o n a l i t y , a n d id e o l o g y . C o n s i d e r th e B a ja B u g g y V o lk s w a g e n a n d Ih e o s t e n t a t i o u s c u s h y C a d i l l a c . C o n s i d e r th e d a s h b o a r d o rn a m e n t a n d (he b u m p e r s ti c k e r . T h e M a c h in e , in d e e d .

N o te th a t r e f e r r i n g to a c o m p u t e r a s i f it w e r e a l i v i n g c r e a t u r e i s n o t c y b e r c r u d ; to 6 a y t h a t a p r o g r a m " lo o k s a t" a d e v i c e . " I r i e s to ” e f f e c t a p r o c e d u r e , a n d " g o e s to s l e e p . " a r e a l l c o lo r f u l b r ie f w a y s of d e s c r ib in g w h a t re a lly h a p p e n s . ( S e e G u id e l i n e s f o r W r it e r s a n d S p o k e s m e n . p . V7 )

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Some of the computer high-chool kids I've known. because of Iheir youth. have been even more up-fronl about this than adults. 1 know one bo y . for instance, whose dream was to put a 33ASR Teletype on wheels under radio control, and alarm people at the computer conference by having it roll up to them and clatter out questions impersonally. (If you knew the kid -- aloof and haughty-seeming-- you might think that's how he approaches people in real life.) I know a high-school boy (nol a computer expert) who programmed a computer to type out a love story • using the BASIC "print" command, the only one he knew. He could not bring himself lo write the love story on paper. The besi example I can think of. though, took place at the kids' booth (see p .H - 'J ) at a computer conference. One of the more withdrawn girls was silting al an off-line video terminal, idly typing things onto the screen. When she had gone a sentence remained. It said: I love you all. but at a distance.

Cybercrud is, of course, just one branch of THE GREAT GAME OF TECHNOLOGICAL PRETENSE that has the whole world in Its gTasp.

T h e c a m e r a la a m a c h i n e , b u t o n e lh a l a llo w s I ts u s e r to f r e e z e a n d p r e s e r v e t h e v i e w s a n d im a g e s o f th e w o rld he w a n ts . T h e b ic y c le is a m a c h in e , b u l o n e th a t b r in g s y o u i n t o p e r s o n a l a n d n o n - p o l l u t i n g c o n ta c t w ilh n a t u r e , o r a( l e a s t t h a t s t y l i z e d k i n d o f n a t u r e a c c e s s i b l e to b i c y c l e p a t h s .

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(On the other side of Ihis book, Dream Machines, we will carry this matter further. The most exciting things in the computer field are coming from people trying to realize their wildest dreams by computer: artificial Intel­ ligence. computer music, computer picture* making and so o n .)

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F o rg e t w h a t y o u 'v e e v e r h e a r d o r im a g in e d a b o u t c o m p u t e r s . J u s t c o n s i d e r th is: T he com puter is the most g en er a l m achin e man h as e v e r d e v e lo p e d . I n d e ed , it sh o u ld b e called th e A ll-P u r p o s e M achine, but i s n ’t , for re a so n s of h is to r ic a l accident ( s e e n e a r b y ) . Computers can c o n tr o l, and r e c e iv e inform ation from , v irtu a lly any oth er m achin e. T he com puter is not lik e a bomb or a g u n , w h ich can o n ly d e s ­ troy , but more lik e a ty p e w r ite r , w h olly n o n ­ committal b etw een good and bad in its n a tu re. T he sco p e of w h at com puters can do i s b r e a th ­ ta k in g . Illustrated are some exam ples (alth ou gh h a v in g all th is h ap p en on on e com puter w o u ld b e u n u s u a l). It can tu rn th ings on and o ff , r i n g b e l l s , put out f i r e s , typ e out on p rin tin g m a c h in e s . Com puters are in c re d ib ly d o g g e d . Com pulers can do th in gs re p e a te d ly fo r e v e r , or an e x a c t, immense num ber of tim es (lik e 4 ,9 0 1 ,2 2 3 ) , d oin g som eth in g o v e r and o v e r , d e p en d in g on w h eth e r it's fin ish ed o r n o t. A com pu ter's a ctiv itie s can b e com bined in rem arkable w a y s . One a c t i v it y , repeated o v er and o v e r , can b e part of an oth er activity repeated o v e r and o v e r , w h ich can b e a part of s till an oth er a c t iv it y , w h ich can b e repeated ad in fin itu m . THERE ARE DEFINITE LIMITATIONS on what com puters can d o , but they are not e a s y to d escr ib e b r i e f ly . A l s o , som e o f them are a rg u e d about among com puter p e o p le .

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C o m p u te rs a r e COMPLETELY GENERAL, w ith n o fix e d p u r p o s e o r s t y l e of o p e r a tio n . In s p i t e of t h i s , th e s t r a n g e m y th h a s e v o lv e d t h a t c o m p u te r s a r e som ehow " m a th e m a tic a l." A c tu a lly v o n N e u m a n n , w ho got th e g e n e ra l i d e a a b o u t a s so o n as a n y b o d y ( 1 9 4 0 s ) , ca lle d th e c o m p u te r THE ALL-PURPOSE MACHINE. ( I n d e e d , the f i r s t b a c k e r of c o m p u te rs a f te r World W ar II w a s a m a k e r of m u l ti - li g h l b u l b s i g n s . It i s a n i n t e r e s ti n g p o s s i b il i t y th a t if h e h ad not b e e n k i l le d in an a i r p la n e c r a s h , c o m p u te rs w o u ld h a v e b e e n s e e n f i r s t a s te x t - h a n d l in g and p i c t u r e - m a k i n g m a c h in e s , a n d o n ly la t e r d eve loped fo r m a th e m a tic s a n d b u s i n e s s . ) We w ould c a ll i t th e A ll- P u r p o s e M achine h e r e , e x c e p t th a t for h i s t o r i c a l r e a s o n s i t h as b e e n s l a p p e d w ith the o th e r n a m e . B u t th a t d o e s n 't m ean i t h a s a fix e d w ay of o p e r a tin g . On the c o n t r a r y . COMPUTERS HAVE NO NATURE AND NO CHARACTER, s a v e t h a t w h ic h h a s b e e n p u t in to them b y w h o e v e r is c r e a ti n g th e p ro g r a m fo r a p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e . C o m p u te rs a r e , u n lik e a n y o t h e r p ie c e of e q u ip m e n t, p e r f e c t ly B LANK. A nd th a t is h ow w e h a v e p ro je c te d on i t s o m an y d iffe re n t fa ce s .

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A HELPFUL COMPARISON It h e lp s som etim es to com pare com pu ters with ty p e w r ite r s . Both h and le information a c c o rd in g to so m e b o d y 's own v iew p o in t. N ervou s Q uestion "Can a Computer Write a Poem?" "Can't C om puters Only B eh ave M echanistically?' H elpful Parallel "Can a T yp ew riter Write a Poem?" (S u r e . Your p o em .) "Can't T y p e w r ite r s O nly B eh a v e M ech anistically?” (Y e s , but ca r r y in g ou t y o u r in t e n t.) "Aren't T y p e w rite rs Com pletely Impersonal?" (W ell, i t's not lik e h a n d w ritin g , b u t i t's s till what y ou s a y .)

Many ord in a r y p eo p le fin d com pu lers in t u itiv e ly o b v io u s and u n d er stan d ab le ; on ly th e com plication s e lu d e th em . P erh aps th e s e in tu itiv e ly h elp fu l d e fin itio n s may help y o u r intuition as w e l l . 1. T hin k o f th e com pu ter as a WIND-UP CROSSWORD PUZZLE. 2. A COMPUTER IS A DEVICE FOR TWIDDLING INFORMATION. (S o . w h al k in d s o f inform ation are th ere? A n d what are th e tw id d lin g op tion s? T h e s e m atters are what th e com pu ter fie ld c o n s is ts o f . ) 3. A com pu ter i s a com p letely g en er al d e v i c e , w h o s e method o f op eration may b e c h a n g e d , for h a n d lin g s y m b o ls in any s p e c ific w a y .

"Aren't C om puters Com pletely Impersonal?'

THE MAGIC OF THE COMPUTBR PROGRAM The basic, central magical Interior device of the computer we shall call a program follower. A program follower ia an electronic device (usually) which reads symbols specifying operations, carries out the step each specifies and goes on to the n e x t. The program follower reads down the list of instructions In the program , taking each Instruction In turn and carrying It out before It goes on to the next. Now , there are program followers that Just do that and nothing more; they have to stop when they get to the end of the list of Instructions.

The computer does things over and over by changing a stored count, then testing the stored count against another number which Is what the count should get to , and going to the beginning If th e desired count has not been re s c h e d . This is called a loop. (If th ere's no way 11 can ever get out, that's an endless loop.) (Actually, the program loop Is done the same way as a program branch: IF a certain count has not been reac h ed , It branches BACK to the start of the loop.) Other things besides program s msy be stored In the memory. Anything besides program s are usually called d a ta .

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A true computer, however, can do several things m ore.
11 can Jump back to an earlier point In the program and go on from there. Repeating the program In this fashion Is called a loop.

The Instructions of programs use the data in different w ays. Some program s use a lot of data, some use a little, some don't use any. It is one of the fascinating and powerful things about the computer that both the instructions of a program . and the data they work o n , are stored as patterns of bits in Ihe same memory, where they can be modified as needed. Indeed, the program can modify its own patterns of b its, a very Important feature. WHAT DO PROGRAMS LOOK LIKE? In what forms are these programs s to red , you ask? Well, they are written by people in computer languages, which are then stored in some form in the computer's fast core memory, where the program follower can act on them. But what does a computer language look lik e , you ask? A h a ...

It can perform tests on symbols In the memory— for Instance. to see if a loop has been done enough times, or If some other part of the Job has been finished— and Jump to some other program depending on these symbols. This la called a b ra n ch . Finally, the computer can change the Information stored in memory. For Instance, It can place an answer In a specific part of memory. WHAT, THEN. IS A (Digital) COMPUTER? A device holding stored symbols In a changeable memory, performing operations on some of those symbols in the memory. In s sequence specified by other symbols In the memory. able to change the sequence based on tests of symbols In the memory, and able to change symbols in the memory. (For example, do arithmetic and store the result In the memory.) Rather than try to slip It to you o r prove it In some fancy w ay, let's Just state baldly: the power of such a machine to do almost anything surpasses all previous technical tricks in human histo ry . HOW CAN A COMPUTER CONTROL SO MANY DIFFERENT THINGS? Answer. Different as they may seem, all devices are controlled In the same way. Every device has an Interface, that la, its own special connection setup, and In this Interface a re the device re g iste rs . These device re g iste rs look the same to the computer: the computer program simply moves Information patterns Into them o r moves information patterns from them to see what they contain.

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(If you want to see what the bottom-most level looks lik e, with all the bits and things, skip ahead to p.ST.)

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WHATEVER IT MAY DO tN THE REAL WORLD, to the computer program it’s just another device.

ANALOG COMPUTERS DISPOSED OF T here are two kinds of computers: analog and digital. (Also h y b rid . meaning a combination.) Analog computers are so unimportant compared to digital computers that we will polish them ofT In a couple of paragraphs. "Analog" Is a shortened form of the w ord "analogy." Originally an "analog" computer was one that represented something In the real w orld by some other sort of physical enactment— for Instance, building a model of an economic system with tubes and liquids: this can demonstrate Keynesian economic principles remarkably w ell. However, the term "analog" haa come to mean almost exclusively pertaining to measurable electrical signals, and an "analog computer" is a device that creates or modifies measurable electric sig n als. Thus a hi-fi amplifier Is an analog computer (It multiplies the s ig n al), a music synthesizer is an analog computer (it generates snd reshapes analog s ig n als). Thus the term has deteriorated: almost anything with wires is an analog computer. Analog computers cannot be truly programmed, only rew ired. Analog equipment le useful, important and Indispensable. But it is simply not In the same class with digital com puters, henceforth called "computers" In this book, which manipulate symbols on the basis of changeable symbolic program s. "Analog computer" also means any way of calculating that involves measuring approximate re ad in g s, like a slide r u l e .

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particular symbolic signals the device needs

r heart patient oil refinery musical Instrument display screen disk memory

The computer, being a machine, doesn't know or care that device register 17 (say) controls a hog feeder, or device register 23 (aay) receives Information from smog detectors. But what you choose, in your program, to put Into device register 17, controls what the hogs eat, and what comes into device register 29 w ill tell your program, you hope, about smog conditions. Choosing how to handle these things in your program la your business.

12
j FICTIONS ABOUT WHAT COMPUTERS DO

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It'* awfully «aay to tool p o ^ l* wlUl w ord*. let olona buffalo them with w eird taehnlcal-«*undlng g a b . The thing about tach talk la that II can rea lly be applied to any a n a . { Ill tric k 11— In th i arrangem ent of b o ic a r adjective noun*. and In the vague uae of windy term * Ihtf have connotation* In ana* p a rticu la r .- .►■■.I- .) a n a - - e ay , th e apaca prJgTUD. Ju ai s m l d t r . o r garden sp ad e-H* might call e common

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Many p e o p l e s u p p o se t h e r e I s n o t h i n g c o m p u te rs c a n n o t do ( s e e p . 4 S ) ; s o a e p e o ­ p l e , in d e e d , t h i n k t h e r e i s n o t h i n g com­ p u t e r s do n o t a l r e a d y do. A c o u p l e o f y e a r s a g o , a le a d i n g p i c t u r e m a g a z in e c a r r i e d a p i e c e a b o u t S t a n f o r d 's A r t i f i c i a l I n t e l l i ­ g e n ce L a b o r a t o r y , c l a i a i n g t h a t one " S h a k e y th e R ob ot” h a d b e e n d e v e lo p e d t o n e a r - h u o a n i n t e l l i g e n c e an d c a p a ­ b ilitie s. T h is was p u r e b o s h , s i n c e r e p u d i a t e d i n Cho c o m p u te r m a g a z in e s , b u t a l o t o f p e o p le O ut T h e r e i n R e a d e r la n d b e l i e v e d I t . (S e e "The G o d -B u ild e rs ," f l i p s i d e . ) Once I had a lo n g d i s c u s s i o n w ith a som ew hat w i l d - e y e d young woaan who b e l i e v e d t h a t th e g o v e r n a e n t was n o n it o r l n g h e r b r a i n w ith c o m p u te r s . I t h i n k I p e r s u a d e d h e r t h a t e ven I f t h i s w ere f e a s i b l e i t w ou ld c o s t th e g o v e rn m e n t t e n s o f th o u s a n d s o f d o l l a r s t o do i t , an d t h a t p r o b a b ly no e x i s t i n g g o v e r n a e n t a g en c y was t h a t i n t e r e s t e d in h e r th o u g h ts . I ' a n o t su re she vas p e rsu a d e d .

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A new e r a i n c o m p u te rs i s dawning. The f i r s t , o r C l a s s i c , co m p u te r era i s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d eq u ip m e n t and voTk* >n s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d p r o b le m s .

A PERSONALIZED BARTH-MOVDIG BQUIWENT MODULB A UINHHAIOOICAL MINI-TRANSPORT A PBHSONALIZHD STRATEGIC TELLURIAN COMMAND AND CONTROL MODULB AN AIR-TO-OROUND DfTBRFACB CONTOUR ADJUSTMENT PROBB A LEVRRAQBD TACTILE-FEEDBACK OEOUAS8 DELIVERY SYSTEM A MAN-MACHINE ENERGY-TO-STRUCTURB CONVERTER A ONE-TO-ONE INDIVIDUALIZED GEOPHYSICAL RESTflUCrURJZER A PORTABLE UNTT(ZED EARTHWORK SYNTHES 13 SYSTEM AN ENTRENCHING TOOL (Ftraetgn T beatar A ZBRO-8UM DIRT LEVEL ADJUSTER A FBEDBACK-ORIENTED CONTOUR MANAGEMENT PROBE AND DIOQtNQ SYSTEM A 0 RADIBNT DISEQUIUBRATOR A MASS DISTRIBUTION N8CBNTROPR1ZHB

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The s e c o n d , o r B a r o q u e , c om pu ter e r a u se d i n t r i c a t e e q u ip m e n t f o r hard* to - u n d e rs ta n d p u r p o s e s , ti e d to g e th e r w ith th e g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y by com­ p u t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s who c o u l d n ' t o r w o u ld n ’ t e x p l a i n v e r y w e l l w hat th e y

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Cowputar oparatora turn '« ■ on and o f f. changa prograas. change d isk s and tspaa, s sla c t aodaa of operation* for prograas th a t can do aora than on« thing. (Sea p. 36.)

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Input typ la ta (als o called keypunch operators) are clerka who copy I n to n a t io n Into lha computer (on te n t n a l a ) (punch cards, aegnetlc d is k , e tc . ) nOTt: thaaa Job* way end in a few yeerm whan nothing ele e haa to be coplad anywor becauee usera put things In t h ^ e l v e e .

bvnnci m v m .

But a change i s c o a i n g . No one coa* pany o r f a c t i o n i s b r in g in g i t a b o u t, a l ­ th o u g h s o a e a a y f e e l I t i s n o t i n t h e i r in te re s t. I w ou ld l i k e to c a l l i t h e re t h e DIAPHANOUS ag e o f th e c o a p u t e r . Coaputer p r o g c sm re By " d ia p h a n o u s " I r e f e r b o th to the tr a n s p a r e n t , u n d e rs ta n d a b le c h a r a c t e r of th e s y s t e a s t o c o a e , and t o t h e l i k e l i ­ hood t h a t e o n p u t e r s w i l l b e sh ow ing us e v e r y th in g ( d l a - . a c ro s s e v e ry th in g , p h a l n e i n . to sh o w ). I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , COMPUTERS RILL DISAPPEAR CONCEPTUALLY, w i l l b eco ae " t r a n s p a r e n t " , i n t h e s e n s e o f b v in g p a r t s o f u n d e r s t a n d a b l e w h o le s . More­ o v e r, th e " p a r t s " o f a c o m p u te r s y s t e a w i l l hav e CLEAR CONCEPTUAL HEANING. In o t h e r w o r d s , COMPUTER SYSTEMS WILL BE UNDERSTANDABLE. I n s t e a d o f t h i n g s b e in g c o m p l i c a t e d , th e y w i l l b e co a e Now, many p e o p le t h i n k c o a p u t e r s a r e by t h e i r n a t u r e in c o m p r e h e n s ib le and c o a p l l c a t e d - u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h a t ' s b e c a u s e th e y h a v e be en M ADE TO BE. U s u a l ly t h i s i s u n i n t e n t i o n a l , b u t I f e a r n o t a lw a y s . EXAMPLE. I n s t e a d o f b e in g t o l d , " t h i s i s t h e m y s t e r i o u s XYZ c o n p u t ­ e r , i t h as to have t h i n g s J u s t s o , y ou h a v e t o f i l l o u t th e s e DM f o r a s t o go i n t o t h e V 3 4 . . . " { Q you w i l l h e a r s u c h s u r p r i s i n g l y s i n p l e t h i n g s a s " T h is s y s t e a i s s e t up f o r k e e p in g t r a c k o f who owes w h a t to t h e c o a p a n y . On th e s c r e e n you c a n g e t l i s t s o f a c c o u n ts and o u t s t a n d i n g b i l l s and who owes t h e a ; i f you p o i n t a t one w ith th e l i g h t p e n , t h e p r i n t i n g a a c h i n e o v e r h e r e w i l l p r i n t a b i l l a l l s e t t o go in t h e e n v e l o p e .' In o t h e r w o rd s , s y s t e a s w i l l i n c r e a s i n g l y h a v e UNDERSTANDABLE PARTS WITH UNDERSTANDABLE INTERCONNECTIONS.-

S p ad ai. not w o rd * . ih M ld be uaed for •Iw e llln g . But v o rd a ahould help ua unearth Co^mter repairwan, or " f i e ld engin eer*," f l a c o a p u tt n and chair accesaorlee whan soaathlng goaa wrong e le c tr ic a lly or In the gears. Th«r alwaya wear t i e c lip s , ao aa not to get pulled Into r o ta tin g »achln«ry.

f™ w h *"*h* Pl*n" than chlngc ehcs t i l l thay work.

In lhe com puter H eld, the earn* thing* a n often called by d ifferen t o aaee (for Inatanee. the IBM 1B00, a (airly o rdinary m lnlcanpuler, la called by them lhe *1BM 1B00 Data A cquisition and Control System ”) , d ifferin ' thing* a re often called by the aame nam es, and things can be Inalde-out and upalde-dow n versions of each other In ex trao rd in ary v a rie ty . (Indeed, compu* le r people mey find Ihla book Inslde-out. which la okay with me. Life Is e Klein b o ttle.) Sorting th in g s o u t. th en , means having a few basic concepts c lea r In your m ind, and knowing when you see eiam plea and variations of there.

A NAIVE USER (no elfanaa) Is an ordin ary parson who doamn’t naad to know any of th .a a ehlnga In ordar to do aoMthlng uaaful wlch th* r — Creating programs to halp h U la lha from oF ccacuttna.

Computt r p t o p l t o f t t n t a y t h a t to u n d e r s t a n d o o m p u t t r t you h a o t t o h a v t a ’ l o g i c a l m i n d . “ T h t r t ' t no t uo h t h i n g . Bu t t a y i n g su e h t hi ng * i n t i m i d a c t t many, t t p t e i a l l y t h o t t who h av t b u n t o l d t h t y do n o t havt, " l o g i e a l m i n d t . " W ist i s s e a n e , a c t u a l l y , i s i n d t t d i m p o r t a n t : i n w o rk in g u ie h a o m p u t t r t yo u m u t t o f t t n uo rk o u t t h t t x a o t r a m i f i e a t i o n t o f t p t e i f i e oombin a tio n i o f th i n g t , w ith o u t tk i p p i n g s te p s . But t h t o t h t r modi o f th im k in p , t h t i n t u i t i u t , ha s i c e p l a c t i n th e a o m p u t t r f i t l d t o o . V h i a h t v t r y o u r h a b i t u a l t t y l t o f mi nd , oewpute; o f f t r yo u f o o d - - a n d u t t n t i l t - - f o r t h o u g h t . WHAT YOU’VB SEEN PROBABLY WASN'T -A COMPUTER.." 0*1 out of y our head th e notion thal eotne one *yalem you've seen showed you what Computer* A n Really L ike. Computer a y eim e can be as different e ite m a lly a s bat* and whalea (Yet It'* lha aame kind of h a artb aa l, b u t Uial'e no halp In daaling with them .) Then what la It com puiar people know . you may a sk , that leada them lo understand new ay stem* quickly? A ha. Computer people eliiipty adjuat faster to w hole new w orlda. THE AUTOMOBILE ANALOGY ( a o r e ) "The I n t e r s t a t e w*s b u a p e r > to - b u a p e r , b u t a f t e r we h ad lu n c h a t th e r e s t s t o p i t c l e a r e d up t i l l we g o t to th e t o l l b o o t n . Then H a r r y g o t l o s t on t h e I n t e r c h a n g e , a n J we had t o d o u b le b a c k on th e s e r v i c e How in c o m p r e h e n s ib le to so a eo n e f r e a 19 05 . Y et how s i a p l e - a l n d e d when you u n ­ de rstan d i t . T h a t ' s how ± t i s w ith com­ p u te rs . C o n p u t e r t a l k so u n d s s o s t r a n g e and i n c o a p r e h e n s i b l e to y ou f o l k s o u t th e re * * y e t t o us i n h e r e I t ' s o f t e n as s im p le a s t h e l i n e s above** i_f y ou knew t h e fund** m e n ta l c o n c e p t s . And n o t h i n g in th e n o r a a l e v e ry d a y w o rld w i l l h a v e p r e p a r e d you f o r t h e a . I t ’ s n o t ja rg o n , b u t th e s i a p l e s t way t o e x p r e s s th o u g h ts in t h e s e a r e a s .

HORRIBLE MISUNDERSTANDING!} Sana people think of o o a p id an aa thing* ihow m yatarl^ualy d lg w t and aaabnllale ed g e. *Ju a t lead ll (o lha o x n p u ta r, * 1 j Ihem o o o . But w hal you faad into th a computer fuat ails th e n u nlcaa th a ra 'i a p r a g r a a . "How would you do that by a m p u ta r? * I* a q u aetlai p v p la o ftu i a ak. Th* quactkm should b* . *how would you do that ai all?* If lh a ra la a method fo r doing aoaw lhlng which can be broken down Into sim ple a tap * , a id n q v l M no human Judgment, than mayba we c a t take thoaa n e p a ■ t d program th a n on * m p u t e r . But mayba we can also Ihlnk of * d m p U r way to gat th a n d o n a. Than Uwra i* Lha Ida* th al a eo D p n lif la — Bathing you aak q u a rta n * . This aaaum as, I g u w , th e e arlla r prvm laa, thal th e computer ha* altaady dlgaeU d and aaaimllatad * lot of stuff and c o t elin g it b ack al you In

USINd A COMPUTER SHOULD ALWAYS BE EASIER THAN NOT USING A COMPUTER. U It la n 'l. you (o r y our s m p a n y , o r your stale) may have been aold a bill of good*. OR ihay may have decided yo u r Inconvenience I* l« * t Im portant than acn ath ln g alee. In any c a se , you have a rig h t to aak •h a rp queation*.

WHAT IS THIS SYSTEM ABOUT? Handy queationa to *ls* up whai a c o o p u tar la aupptmad to be doing. Whai daia doe* It eon la in ' W hen I* th* data stored? What o ther data w ill II link up to? Whai Information do you auppoae can raaaoiubly be derived from thal? Whai a n the key Input and output device*? In whai fora* doe* information go In and oul? Whai do you auppoae Ihay m ight want to know?

Fo r on e t h i n g , s m a l l e r a n d s m a l l e r com­ p a n i e s a r e b u y in g c o a p u t e r s e r v i c e s , and t h e y w o n 't s t a n d f o r r i d i c u l o u s c o m p l i c a t i o n s . F o r a n o t h e r t h i n g , a number o f p e o p l e i n t h e c o a p u t e r f i e l d h a v e g o t t e n s i c k o f s y ste m s t h a t Bake t h i n g s h a r d f o r p e o p l e . F in a lly , t h e p r i c e o f c o m p u te r s , e s p e c i a l l y m ic r o ­ p r o c e s s o r s ( s e e p . f ' j ) a r e c o n in g down s o f a s t t h a t th e y c a n b e t a i l o r e d t o f i t p e o p l e , r a th e r th a n v ic e v e r s a . B u t m ost o f a l l , i t ' s ) u s t vt i a e , t h a t ' s a l l .

Vji.

BIBLIOGRAPHY C .L . F r e i t a s , "M aking t h e B e s t Buy f o r th e S m a ll B u s i n e s s . " C o a p u te r D e c i s i o n * . March 7 3 , 2 2 - 2 6 . Compares t h e r e l a t i v e c o s t s o f m in ic o m p u te r s a n d tim e * s h * T ln g ; c o n c lu d e s t h a t m in i* a r e t h a b a s t b u y . B u r to n L. K a t i , "M akin g M in ic o m p u te r s Work i n a M t d l u m - s l t e d B u s i n e s s . " D ata P r o c e s s i n g . W i n te r 19 7 1 , 9 - 1 1 . S tre s s e s th e p o in t t h a t w e ll-d e s ­ i g n e d c o m p u te r s y s t e a s c a n be u s e d by e x i s t i n g p e r s o n n e l o f * f i n , w i th o u t e x ce ssiv e c o m p lic atio n . F r e d e r i c G. u i t h i n g t o n , " C o sm e tic Pro gram m ing ." D a t a m a tio n . Mar 7 0 , 9 1 - 9 S . How to a ak* s y s t e a s f r i e n d l y on t h e o u t s i d e .

Actually w hat n u * l hap p an, to get ’quasU ais* an sw e rad , la thla: tb e ra must be program thal pu ta Input m aterial into a data a tru c tu n . (Baa "Data B tru c tu rw .') Than you need program * th a l w ill m uni and trw * . o r w h alaw r, th ro u g h th e data stru c tu re In way* T ^ d M ir a . T h a i you na*d a way to M art tlwaa trad n g -a n d -a aa rc h ln g program a going through th e dMa atru ctu ro In w ay* you w ant. So you n * d a program accap d ag Input b o n a keyboard, * , h l t *Tg ' atartln g th* o th er p i^ w n n
mo*

THE DAWED LIE " C o o p u te rs a r e r i g i d and Inh um an ." A BETTER APPROXIMATION P e o p le a r e so m e tim es ( a l l {o o o f t e n ) r i g i d and Inhum an. (M ac h in e s and • n l a a l s a r e nonhu a a n - - t h e t a r a " i n ­ human" a p p l i e s o n ly t o p e o p l e . ) " R i g i d a n d in h u a a n " c o m p u te r sy ste m s a r e t h e c r e a t i o n o f r i g i d a nd In h u a a n pe o p le .

THE MOST IMPORTANT COMPUTER TERMS FOR THE '7 0 s

X m E ltf c C fiV C S Y S 1 E M 5
Used to b a t h a t o r d i n a r y p e o p le had to d e a l w i t h c o m p u te rs by f i l l i n g o u t i n t r i c a t e f o rm s, w h ic h w ere t h e n t r a n s l a t e d i n t o pu nch c a r d s . T h e f o rm s p u t t h i n g s i n w e i r d c a t e ­ g o r i e s ( s e e "Cod ed-Down D a t a , " p .T v .'- V .) No l o n g e r . Anyway, n o l o n g e r n e c e s s a r y . C o a p u t e r s y s te m s c a n now j i v e y o u a c t i o n , e x c ite m e n t- - and e x p la n a tio n s . T h i s i s d o n e t h r o u g h t h e m a gic o f th e TERMINAL. T e r m i n a l s c o n e i n tw o c o n s p ic u o u s f l a v o r s ( t y p e w r i t e r and s c r e e n o r "bo o b tu b e " ) and a l s o h a v e tw o l e s s - n o t i c e a b l e d i v i s i o n s ( " T e l e t y p e " o r " i n d u s t r y " v e r s u s "IBM t y p e . " ) Anyway, a t e r m i n a l i s s o m e th in g t h a t a llo w s a p e r s o n a n d a c o a p u t e r to ty p e a t eac h o th e r. Now, c o m p u te rs a r e a e r e l y g a d g e ts f o r t w i d d l i n g i n f o r n a t i o n . They no more u n d e r ­ s t a n d E n g l i s h , o r human p s y c h o l o g y , th a n p u p p ie s c an r e a d a u s i c . (S e e " A r t i f i c i a l I n ­ te llig e n c e ,” p .l t - I D But t h e c o m p u t e r ' s p r o g ­ ram c a n , f o r i n s t a n c e , d i r e c t t h e c o m p u te r to t y p e o u t a s im p le q u e s t i o n , and com pare th e u s e r ' s a n s w e r w i t h a s im p le s e t o f a l t e r n a t i v e s . Fo r e x a n p l e , s u p p o s e th e u s e r i s v i s i t i n g a h o s ­ p ita l. A c o m p u te r c an s i g n h im in w i t h o u t th e a b r a s i v e n e s s o f a r e c e i v i n g n u r s e , and w i t h f a r a o r e p a t i e n c e . The f o l l o w i n g m ig h t be a sa m ple d ia lo g u e . (H e r e t h e c o m p u te r t y p e s w h a t 's in c a y s , a n d t h e use rt> r e p l i e s a r e in lo w e r - c a s e - ) DO YOU JIAVE AN ACUTE PAIN? ( t , N, DX) dk YOUR ANSWER I S : DK FOR "DON'T KNOW." DOES THAT MEAN YOU'RE NOT SURE WHAT 'ACUTE' MEANS? (ANSWER A) A PAIN COMES AND GOES? (ANSWER fl) YOU HAVE A PAIN SORT OF ON THE BORDER? (ANSWER C) IS THIS PAIN IN AN EXACT PLACE YOU CAN IDENTIFY? (Y,N,DK) An i n t e r a c t i v e s y s te m o f t h i s k in d i s c a l l ­ ed a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s y s t e m , i n t h a t i t " c o n v e r s e s " w ith th e u s e r . The s e c r e t i s t h a t t h e a l t e r n a ­ t i v e s i n t h e c o m p u te r p r o g ra m a r e few and c a r e ­ f u l l y w ork ed o u t b e f o r e h a n d : t h e r e a r e g r e a t p i t ­ f a l l s when t h e r e a r e to o many a l t e r n a t i v e s , as when su c h c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s y s te m s a r e u se d f o r te ac h in g (see pp. tC -i1 ) . H ere i s a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d e x am p le: a s y s t e n I w ish I h ad f o r b a l a n c i n g a c h e c k b o o k . Note t h a t t h e i n n e r p r o g ra m f o r t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n a l s y s te m c o u l d b e w r i t t e n ’ I n any o f t h e t h r e e l a n ­ g u a g es p r e s e n t e d l a t e r . W IIAT PROGRAM WOULD YOU LIKE TO RUN? ckbk CHECKBOOK PROGRAM STARTS. DO YOU W ANT TO PROOF THE NEW STATEMENT FOR MARCH? y PLEASE LIST T1IE CHECKS TIIAT HAVE COME IN. 2 3 1 , 2 3 9 , 2 4 0 , 24 2 , 24 4 , 245. SUM OF INCOMING CHECKS IS $ 3 4 5 .7 2 . DO YOU WANT BREAKDOWN? n PRESUMABLY BANX IS CHARGING YOU .6 0 FOR SIX CHECKS. ALSO MONTHLY CHARGE OF FIFTY CENTS (PLEASE CONFIRM), y ARE THERE ANY OTHER BANX CHARGES T1IIS MONTH? n ARE THE FOLLOWING DEPOSITS ON THIS STATE­ MENT-- MARCH I SALARY, *8 5 4 .0 0 ? y GIFT FROM AUNT AGATHA, 14 MARCH, $ 2 5 .0 0 ? n TOTAL ON STATEMENT SHOULD BE I 1 7 S 3 .2 1 . PLEASE CONFIRM, y YOUR CURRENT FLOAT IS 1 6 5 6 . 7S. DO YOU W ANT BREAKDOWN? y CURRENT FLOAT AS FOLLOWS-NO. 241 IRVING'S RECORDS 7 MARCH $ 6 .7 5 NO. 243 SINISTER « MALADROIT (LEGAL FEES) 12 MARCH $ 6 0 0.0 0 NO. 246 DOGGIE HAIRDRESSERS 12 MARCH 5 20.0 0 NO. 247 SAM GRONK (REPAYMENT) 14 MARCH i 30.0 0 TOTAL $ 6 5 6.7 5 ARE YOU DONE WITH CHECKBOOK PROGRAM? y (T h e p a r t show n above i s e a s y . T h in k in g o u t t h e w ays f o r t h e u s e r t o c o r r e c t h i s r e ­ c o r d s , a n d / o r t h e b a n k , i s t h e to u g h p a r t . ) I I ™

H ere a r e some p h r a s e s t h a t w i l l c o u n t i n t h e new e r a o f c o m p u tin g , when we w i l l r u n i n t o a o r e and more c o m p u te r s y s te m s s e t up f o r p a rti c u la r purposes. c o n n c c t e d t o a f u n c t i o n i n g c om pute i ( N o t e t h a t t h e c o m p u te r may be i n 1 ty p e w rit e r o r desk i t s e l f . ) M o tto 1 f o r t h e new o r a : USING A COMPUTER SHOULD ALWAYS BE EASIER THAN NOT USING A COMPUTER. M ott o 2 f o r t h e new e r a : THE NEW FRONTIER IN COMPUTERS IS CONCEPTUAL SIMPLICITY AND CLARITY.------------------------------P e o p le who d e l i g h t i n i n t r i c a c y a r e g o in g to h a v e t o l e a r n some new t r i c k s . I n t e r n a l i n ­ t r i c a c y i s f i n e , a s long a s th e u s e r d o e s n ' t have to d e a l w ith i t . M ott o 3 f o r t h e new e r a ( t o c om pute r p e o p le ): MAKING THINGS KASY IS HARD. M ott o 4 f o r t h e new e r a ; ANY SYSTEM FOR A SPECIFIC PURPOSE SHOULD HE TEACHABLE IX TEN MINUTES OR LESS. t e r m in a l o r k e y s c o p e ( s e e p . DM 104 >. I t a l i e n s th e c o m p u te r p l a y games u i t h y o u , q u i a you f o r i n f o r A "COOB-Gl-Y SYSTEM1 Anyone who h a s b e e n t a u g h t t h e u s e o f some f i x e d - p u r p o s e c o m p u te r s y s t e n , su c h as an a i r l i n e r e s e r v a t i o n s y s t e n , may d o u b t t h i s . B ut p e rh a p s t h i s bo ok w i l l c l a r i f y t h i n g s som ew hat.

T ttfV N A L S

T) t h i n g s up f o r pr< ra c tiv e ___ ____ __ . . . i c c t e d , b u t r e s p o n d i n g to you. I n t e r a c t i v e s y s te m s a n d p r o g ra m * c a n r e s p o n d t o y o u r c h o i c e s an<l r e q u e s t : c l a r i f y w hat t h e y w ant from y o u , e t c , rem ote r e f e r r i n g t o s o m e th in g f a r a w a y, a s d i s t i n c t fro m 1 _ 1, A compui sk. e .g ., f r o n t end ( n . ) , f r o n t - e n d l a d j . ) w h a t e v e r s t a n d s b e tw e e n you and a s y s te m . A f r o n t end c a n b e th e t e r i a i n a l i n y o u r o f f i c e , f o r e x a m p l e , A f r o n t - e n d p ro g ra m i s one w hic h m e d i a t e s b e tw e e n a u s e r and some o t h e r s y s t e m o r p r o g r a m , p e r h a p s c o l l e c t i n g d a t a f o r i t by q u i i i i n g y o u . d e d ica te d s e t up f o r o n l y one u s e . A b ig c o a p u te r a t a c o m p u tin g c e n t e r h a s to h a v e many u s e s ; a l i t t l e c o m p u te r in y o u r o f f i c e c a n be d e d i c a t e d . D e d i c a t e d c o m p u te rs a r e now h i d d e n i n a l l s o r t s o f t h i n g s : c a s h r e g i s t e r s , f o r exam ple ( s e e " M ic r o ­ p ro c e s s o rs ," p. 4 4 ) . tu rn k ey ( a d j.) t u r n e d on w i t h a ke y . E s p e c i a l l y , t u r n k e y s y s t e m s , sm a ll c o a p u t e r s y s te m s t h a t c a n j u s t be tu r n e d on (k e y o r n o t ) a nd a r e f u l l y s e t u p , r e a d y t o r u n ,

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(or c a ll o u control (discussed THU HAW THI K g ’TO VSDl P.STAHD: u * a t i h e i do i s d e c i d e d by huni b e in g s . not " e c i e n t i ; p r i n c i p l e s . ’ Hunan

ANY M AN OF COM ON SENSE CAN M DESIGN A COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR A PURPOSE IMPORTANT TO HIM: th e d a t a s t r u c t u r e , t a r n s of in f o r n a ti o n , g e n e ra l o p e ra ­ t i o n s , r c c o rd - k e c [ iin p ., and B ut f o r some r e a s o n t h i s g e n erally kepi a s c c r c l. is

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on th e mighty Dartmouth tlne-ah* rln g sys­ tem, dtss . (s.< p . y r . i r e s p o n d i n g t o e v e n t s in t h e w o r l d a s n c c d c t w ith o u t d e la y s . Com puter s y s te m s t h a t c o n ­ t r o l m a c h i n e r y , make a i r l i n e r e s e r v a t i o n s , p r e d i c t th e w e a t h e r o r r e s p o n d to n a i v e use arc re a l-tim e . Syste m s l h a t c a n c a t c h up o v e rn ig h t a re n o n - r e a l - l i n e . ''in te lli g e n t te rm in al” s t u p i d te rm r e f e r r i n g t o any o b j e c t t h a t d o e s more t h a n a c t l i k e a p l a i n t e r m i n a l . The te rm i s s t u p i d b e c a u s e i t c o n f u s e s d istin ctio n s. Some " i n t e l l i g e n t t e r m i n a l s ' have e x t r a c i r c u i t s f o r v a r i o u s p u r p o s e s ; o t h e r s c o n t a i n t h e i r own m i n i c o m p u t e r s ; s t i l l o th e rs a rc o rd in ary te rm in a ls con­ n e c t e d to f r o n t - e n d p r o g r a m s , u se r-o rie n te d s e t up Tor " u s e r s " - - p e o p l e who a r e n o t progra m m e rs o r i n p u t t y p i s t s , b u t who a c t u a l l y n e e d s o m e th in g d o n e , u se r level ( n .) . u s e r- le v e l ( a d j.) " w h e r e th e u s e r i s " m e n t a l l y ; h i s l e v e l o f in v o l v e m e n t . U se r - l e v e l s y s t e m , s y s te m s e t up f o r p e o p l e who a r e n o t t h i n k i n g a b o u t c o m p u te rs b u t a b o u t t h e s u b j e c t o r a c t i v i t y t h e c o m p u te r i s s u p ­ posed to h e lp w ith , n a iv e u s e r ( n . ) , n a iv c - u s e r ( a d j . ) e r s o n who d o e s n ' t know a b o u t c o m p u te r s u t i s g o in g t o u s e t h e s y s t e m . N a i v c u s e r s y s te m s a r e t h o s e s e t up t o make t h i n g s e a s y and c l e a r f o r s u c h p e o p l e .

in div idual n m J Jo* Turkey User. This e s­ timable personage knows hardly anything think* hr undaratanda what you t e l l hin whon ha d o e sn 't. tends to h i t Che wrong keys on iho term in al, and in general tends But cha motto up th ere ia : “ I f i t ' s not aimple enough for Joe Turkey User— i t ’a too complicated. “ DTSS la a good-guy syatea.

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V O FIRST COM OR PUTER CONTACT COMPANIES THAT WILL SET UP NIIOLE LITTLE BUSINESS SYSTEMS A nu m b er o f c o m p a n ie s make m in i c o m p u t e r s ( p a r t i a l l i s t on p . 4 } ) ; h o w e v e r, com panies who w an t b u s i n e s s s y s te m s b u i l t a ro u n d m i n i ­ c o m p u te rs may w a n t t o i n v e s t i g a t e com panies t h a t w i l l p u t t o g e t h e r w hole b u s i n e s s s y ste m s f o r them a ro u n d m i n i s . ( I t i s hoped t h a t one c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s book w i l l b e t o g i v e th e r e a d e r a b e t t e r i d e a o f w h a t t o a sk f o r . ) Two co m p an ies t h a t seem t o be i n t h i s b u sin e ss a re : G e n e s is One C o m pute r C o r p o r a t i o n , 99 P a r k A v e . , NY 10016. A ppea rs t o u s e BASIC l a n g u a g e ( s e e p p . 1 6 - 1 7 ) . Q a n t e l C o rp . ( o f f i c e s i n f i v e m a jo r c i t ­ ie s ). S e l l s a m in ic o m p u te r o f t h e i r own m a n u f a c t u r e , u s i n g a la n g u a g e c a l l e d QIC ( Q a n te l I n t e r a c t i v e C o d e ) , w h ic h a s a le s m a n t e l l s me i s " j u s t l i k e BASIC" ( s e e p p . 1 6 - 1 7 ) . M in i­ mum s e t u p i n c l u d e s a d i s p l a y t e r m i n a l , p r i n t e r , c o m p u te r and 6-mi 1l i o n - c h a r a c t e r d i s k , a t 5 3 1 ,0 0 0 . Whan you f i r s t a l t a t a ccvputer term inal, tin fe e lin g ia on* o f sh ear te r r o r . S w a t and c h ills , jun>lneaa and sudden c liauy nervous potions, lu n a tic abaentsdndadneaa and s i m r i n f fear and awkwardness in te r f e r e with your a b ility t o function or underatand the persen who Is helping you. I t ' s p e rfec tly normal.

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t i n e o r o t h e r ; i t ' s n o t h i n g t o be ash am ed o f . T hough some c om pute r p e o p l e se em to th in k It i s . ) id io t-p ro o f n o t s u s c e p t i b l e to b e i n g l o u s e d up by a n a iv e u s e r . The h o s t i l i t y in t h i s te r m may in some c a s e s be r e a l . C om pute r p e o p l e som e tim es f o r g e t , o r do n o t w is h t o t o l ­ e r a t e , t h e d e g r e o o f c o n f u s i o n t h a t n a iv e u s e rs b r in g to th e k e yboard. T h is a t t i ­ tu d e i s n o t j u s t t h e i r p r o b le m b u t e v e r y ­ b o d y ’ s , s i n c e th e y l a y i t on u s . goo d -g u y s y s te m te rm to be u s e d h e r o f o r n a i v e - u s e r s y s ­ tems t h a t a r e f r i e n d l y , h e l p f u l , s im p le a nd c l e a r , s t a n d - a l o n e s y s te m s y s te m ( r o g a r d l e s s o f p u r p o s e ) w h ic h d o e s n ' t h a v e t o be a t t a c h e d t o a n y t h i n g e lse . (May c o n t a i n i t s own c o m p u t e r . )

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You would think t h e fu ndam enta l dichotomy among compu ter terminal* w as betw een th ose that p r in t o n p»p«r and thoae lh a t ahow you muff on . s c r e e n . Bul It l a n 't. (T h at's lik e th e difference between people and w halea -- much g r e a le r outside lhan In eld e.) Actually the fu ndam enta l d is tinction between term inals la between ASCII (pro nounced "Aakey") and IBM te rm in als. ASCII is a code and scheme o f organization which was a d opte d by "the Indus­ try un d er th e b le aslng of th e National Bureau o f Standard s. But IBM ha s poin te dly Ignored ihlB s ta n d a r d . T h e prin ci pal te rm in al o f th e ASCII ty p e . In sh e er n um bers , Is Ihe model 33-ASR Teletype (trademark of Tel etype C o r p . ) . so th is k in d of terminal Is called th e "33 ASR ty p e ," o r "Teletypet y p e . ” o r We ev en sa y a g iv e n te rm inal "looks to the computer like a T e l e ty p e ."

All are ASCII-type unle ss oth e rw is e noted. Nole: th e re a r e hundreds of ty pes and b r an d s of te rm inals a vail able . T h ese a r e Just some th oughts.

If you'r e seri ous about keeping u p with developm ents In th e te rm inal a re a, you might wanl lo su bsc ribe to T erm inals Review (1 2 6 /y r.). highly apoken of by Datamation. (GML C o r p . . 594 Marrotl Rd. . Lexington. MA 02173.) A "CRT S urvey" Listing cha racte ristic s of 110 CRT dis plays (in cludin g both video te r ­ minals and fancier picto ria l dla pla ya-- see flip side □ ! this book) Is available for len bucks postpaid from Dalapro R esearch Corp. , One Corporate C e n te r, Route 38, Moorestown, NJ 08057.

PRINTING TERMINALSMISCELLANEOUS BEST BUY? The model 38 ASR Teletype giv es you uppe r and lower case, and la oth erw is e sim ilar to the standard model 33. $70 a month from RCA Servic e Company . Data Communications Dlv, (offices in major c itie s ) ; SlS/m o. f o r th e couple r. 30- day cancellable but cosls $50 to p u t In , $24 to ta k e out. T h ere i s a c u te le rm lnal thal be have s Just I lka (he 33 ASR, bul Is faster and u s e s NCR p r e ssu r e pa per o r a r ib b o n , Interc hange ably. T h e Emlel S e rie s A te le prin ter from Exte l C o r p . , 310 Anthony T r a il , N ort hbro ok. III. 60062. If you like Sele ctrlcs, b u t want t o go to ASCII, the re Is o ne weird possib ility . A firm called Tycom System s Corporation (26 Ju st Road, Fairfield NY 07006) of fe rs an Inte resting alte rna tive , it happen s thal a ll SelecI rlcs ( anyw ay. Model 1 and Mbdel 11) ha ve a seam a ro und the midriff a t which I he ly p e w rli e r can be unsc re w ed into two se ctions. C lev e r Tycom! They make s devic e which fils b e tw e e n , looks io the bottom lik e the top of ihe S e le c tric , and looks to (he top like th e bottom. A ls o, it t u r n s the S ele ctric into a term in al, receiv ing ASCII codes from whatever com puter you attach it to and c au sin g th e compuier to type th e m , o r a endln g out whal you ty pe lo Ihe com puter In ASCII. Vario us firms r e n t term in al s, some on a Short- lc rm ba sis. (Some term inal companies are ba d new s, keepin g up their equipment ba dly and offeri ng poor s e rv i c e , so watch i t.) (T he day will come, le t's hope it's so on, th al you c a n r e n t a term in al o ve rnig ht o r for a w eekend lik e a movie earners. But till people get a se nse of how far and fast th in gs a r e m ovin g, we'll co n tin u e to sc hlock along h a p h a z a r d ly ,) U nfortunately renta l people a re ha rd io fin d, since (hey a re usually lo cal , and th e Yellow Pages idiotically lum p togeth er every possib le form of com puie r sa les and s e rv ic e unde r "Dala Processing E quipment and Supplie s." and few firms f u rth er sp ecify th e i r b usin e ss In the lis ting. Here are some names (n either e ndorse d nor criticize d): Com pute r P lannin g I Supply, Chicago T T S Syste m s, LA Vardon k A ssociates. Dallas A good outfit, lhal r enis both ASCII and IBM -type term in als of the ir own m a nufa cture , is A nderson Ja cobson Co. (1065 Morse A v e ,, Sunnyvale . Calif. 94066. and major c itie s ) . They have a Se le ctric term in al, for in stan c e, which r e n ts for about $100 a month (about th e same as Ihe s ta n d a r d IBM 2741) but is porta bleT o pro v id e a memory with y o u r ASCII o r JBMIBM-type term in al, an odd machine c alled the T e c h tr a n 4100 (about $1000 from T echtr an Indus­ tr ie s, 580 Jeff erson Rd. . Roc hester. NY 14623) can be used for offline storage. It use s s magnetic c asse tte , Here are some th in gs you c an do with il: t y p e stu ff into Ihe Techtr an. la te r squirt It lo a computer a t high sp eed r e c eiv e stuff from a computer at high sp e ed , la ter ty pe It back automatically on t h e terminal ty p e into ( h e T e c h tr a n . c orrec t it, a nd ihen have It typed back automatically-no com pute r, T he question of whet her the T echtr an can be used with Ihe Digi-Log has noi been publicly resolved. It ha ppens lhal Anderson Ja cobso n (above) will r e n t you ih e ir 2741-type Sele ct ric te rm in al, with a T ec h tran , for about $220 a monlh lotal. But they w on't rent th e Tec htr an s e p a r a t e ly , A 2741-type Selectric te rm inal with memor y, offe ring th e se same capabilit ie s, is now availab le from IBM! II is th e Communicaling Mag Card Executive (CMC). Since Ihe Mag Card Executive, to which they have added Ihe communication featu re, c o sis ove r $200 a monlh, fig ure ihe communication feature could cost an oth er $100 o r 30 m onth ly, o r pr obably half again a s much as the Anderso n-Jacobso n . Honeywell (Honeywell Information Syste m s, Wellesley H ills, M aas.) ha s recentl y made a vailable a Braille program to be used with " sta n d ard te rm in al s" In their syste m s. (T his may be Ihe ada plslio n developed at MIT lo do Braille on the 33 ASR.) i f you have no objection to IT T . they offer a porta ble video term inal wilh b u ilt -i n modem and couple r, the Asciecope. for $65/monlh. Supposed ly ih e re 's a long w alling lis t. (ITT Data Equipment and System s D iv is ion, East Union A v e . . East Rutherfo rd, NJ 07073.) For th ose of us lit erary type s who warn uppe r and lower case bul are Stuck with 33ASRS. a LOWER-CASE CONVERSION KIT is avail able from Dala Term inals and Communications. Campbell, C a lifornia .

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VIDEO TERMINALS WITHOUT THE VIDEO A ve ry hot Item r lg h i now Is a terminal called Ihe "Digi- Log"-- a ctu ally se v er al different models-- available from Digi-Log Sysie m s, I n c ., 666 Davisvllle Rd. , Willow G ro ve, P*. 19090. T h is de vice fits in a br ie fcase. Basically Il is a keyboard with a socket for ihe phone, and an antenna w ire. You phone the compu ter, drop ihe phone handsel In th e slo t, and clip the w ire lo (he an tenna of a TV s e l , Presto! On ihe TV set appears whal you and Ihe computer type at each oth e r. T his is especia lly good for trav elling salesmen (to communicate wilh their offices and orderin g system via tim e-sharin g computer) and executives who do compuier work from the r o a d . Also for people who want to show off remote computer sysiems. Disadvantage: on ly 42 c h arac ters p e r line, which is awkw ard for some th in g s , suc h a s programming In F o r tr a n . Price: $1200 to $1400, They ala o le ase , al rates as low a s $40/month (3 y e a r s ).

IBM. how ever, aeema to l ik e ch an gin g Its syste m s aro u n d a lot. for In sta n ce c hangin g Its codes when It b r in g s out s new compuier, (Fortunstely. It Just happens lhat they a lso Sell sd aple rs between them. W hew.) So IBM-type term inals are different by de sign . T h ere Is on e main ty p e , how ev er, exem­ plified by the IBM model 2741 te rm in al. T hus we say a terminal Is an "IBM-type" o r "2741-type" term in al.

Curio usly, IBM ha s giv e n its b le ssin g to th is a rrangem ent, meaning you can have (h is sa ndwich deal done to a Sele ct ric you r e n t from IBM , and se rv iced unde r beefed-up IBM mainten­ ance a gre em ents ($72 per y e a r , o r $16.50 p e r hour, as of 1970).

DISPLAY TERMINALS ( s e c r P - l,M 2 0 - 1 ) T lie r e a r e n a n y b r a a . l s . Sn tic .is c v i d e o . T he e a rlie r video te rm inals camo wilh dr ea dfu l s ty lin g , like a 1940s science-fic tio n movie. But as an exam ple of how th e market Is develo ping, one of the handsomes t video te rm inals I s th e $1300 Mini-Tec from TEC Incorpora te d. 9800 North Oracle R o a d , T u c s o n . A rl*. 85704. It comes covered with w ood-g rain contact pa per a nd looks ve ry nic e. (You sh o u ld have seen the ir e a r ly models.) The Hazeltlne 1000 video te rm in al rents for $4 9/mo. on s l - y e a r c ontra ct. LOWER-CASE OPTION; modem and c ouple r ap p aren tly nol inclu ded. (Ha zelline, G re en la w n. NY 11740, wilh offices all o v e r .)

Also available on ren ta l, suppose dly , from Westwood Associates, Inc. . 50 Washington T e r r a c e , East Orange, NJ 07017. Ann A rbor T erm inals , Inc. (Ann Arb or. Mich.7) is said lo offer a sim ilar unit lhal i s

Both T elety pe- an d IBM-type terminals coma In e ith er vld eo-a creen o r p r in ting models, from a v a rie ty Of m a n ufa cture rs . Indeed, even th e S e le ctric (IBM trademarly. ? - [' ty p in g mechanism a ppears in some T elety p e-ty p e te rm inals T h e r e Is s ve ry Impo rtant performance difference between ASCII a n d IBM terminals. The ASCII terminal can se n d each charac te r typed by the u se r- - eac h " k ey stro k e ”- - lo th e o>mpuier immediately. T h is means lhat highly responsive prog rams can be w ritte n , w h ic h examine the u s e r 's Input and can r e p ly In sta n tan e o u sly . It need b e , after anyth in g th e u ser ty p e s. IBM-type te rm in als. h o w eve r, requir e » "line feed" ch arac te r o r an "end of transm is sio n” ch arac te r lo be typed b y th e u s e r to make it Ihe compu ter'a t u r n , This lo cks th e keyboard so (he person can 't use 11. T h e n the computer must type some)hing, e n d in g with lla o w n "unlock" signal thal makes It the p e rso n 's tu r n aga in . Why this unw ie ld y de sig n ? Supposedly it r esults from the c urious d e c is i o n . in the design of IBM's 380 com puier. to make a ll devices r—emble th e c a r d rea d e r a s far as ih e computer Is conce rned. Ju st as ih e c a r d r e a d er rea ds punched carda till the la st one Is d o ne , the IBM terminal la designed to se n d and rec eive charac te rs until a "finished" condition Is reached.

T he equival ent IBM-type te rm in al-- key b o ard , coupler a nd d i p to the T V -- Is the IPSA-100, offered by I.P . Sharp Associates, Inc. (Brid ge Administration Building, Bridge Plaza, O g d e n sb u r g , NY 13669). Unfortunately it's much la rg e r than the Digi-Log-- ll comes In a medium-size su ll csse -- end more expensive ($1700 up), How ev er, they offer ihe APL c h arac ter-ae t (see APL un der "Magic Languages ," «s an option— even a model with bolh normal and APL c harac ter-sela as a switch-selectable option (costs even more). Re cently, of all th ings , pla ns for a do-ityourself unit of rhis ty pe w ere announced in a popular electronics magazine (Don L ancas ter, "TV T ypew rite r," Radio-Electron Ice, Se p t. 1973, 43-52), Thia does nol in clude the full p la n s, which a re available for $2 from TV TYPEWRITER , Radio-Electronic s , 45 E. I7lh S i . . New York . NY 10003Supposedly this can b e built tor "around $120"-- probab ly a deal more- - if you a r e a skil le d ele ctronics builder or te chnicia n. But lhal looks to include a great deal of labor. T he finished unit holds up to 32 charac ters pe r line and up to 16 lines on the sc re en ; a second memory can be added , lo hold a second altern ative sc reen ful.

see Kustom E le ctronics, Inc. ( a r e n 't they the rock -am p pe ople ? ). Data Communications Division, 1010 West Chesln ut, Chanute , Kanss s $6720. T h ey 'v e already sel up tr avelling term in als (or the mobile constab ulary of Kansas City (M o.), Palm Beach and Nashville. (Communications. J a n . 73, ad p. 47. ) Now . of c o u r s e , you'll need a whole stationary radio se tu p to ru n t h a t , ..

TVPE R IG H T E fL
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A num ber o f d i f f e r e n t s y s t e m s a r e c o n in g on t h e m a r k e t t o a i d y o u i n e r r o r - f r e e t y p i n g . IBM w o u ld h a v e y o u c a l l t h e s e " w o r d p r o ­ c e s s i n g s y s t e m s , ” s i n c e t h a t makes them s o u n d o f - a - p i e c e w i t h t h e i r d i c t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t . Ac­ tu a lly th e y ’ re t e x t r e g u r g ita tio n sy ste m s, but l e t ' s j u s t c a l l th e m M a g ic T y p e w r i t e r s . P r i c e s o f t h e s e t h i n g s t e n d t o r u n b e tw e e n $100 and $250 a m o n th . G en e ra lly t h e s e a r e b e in g so ld a s s e c r e ­ t a r i a l a i d s , p a r t l y b e c a u s e t h e y t e n d t o b e to o u n g a in ly f o r u se b y w r i t e r s th e m se lv es . A p r i n c i p a l u s e h a s b e e n i n l a r g e law o f f i c e s , w h ere c o n t r a c t s , w i l l s a n d s u c h a r e s t o r e d a s " b o i l e r p l a t e " ( s t a n d a r d s e c t i o n s o f D ocum ent) and th e n m o d i f i e d s l i g h t l y by t h e l a w y e r t o j u s t i f y th e le g a l f e e s . Such sy ste m s a l l b a s i c a l l y c o n s i s t o f th re e th in g s : A t y p e w r i t e r , c o n n e c t e d t o sotae s o r t o f m a g n e tic m em ory. su c h as a t a p e , c o a te d c a r d o r d i s k , and e d i t i n g c i r c u i t r y , w h ic h r e s p o n d s t o v a r i o u s a c t s by t h e u s e r . W HAT THEY DO: a l l o w y o u t o t y p e s t u f f i n , w h ic h i s b o t h t y p e d o n t h e papeT a nd a t t h e s a n e t i m e s to re d t h e m a g n e t i c w h a t e v e r . S m a ll e r r o r s yo u c o r r e c t a s y o u t y p e a l o n g , g e n e r a l l y by backspacing.

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When y o u w a n t a c l e a n c o p y - - P r e s t o W a i t - o ! P u t in c l e a n p a p e r , s t a r t th e m a g n e tic w h a te v e r a t th e b e g i n n i n g , and th e t y p e w r i t e r r e t y p e s i t w ith o u t a m is ta k e . I f y o u ' re lucky. U n f o r t u n a t e l y sotae o f t h e s e s y s t e m s a r e q u i t e b a d ly th o u g h t o u t. I n o n e o r tw o c a s e s I an n o t s u r e w h e t h e r t h e y a r e d e s i g n e d a s t h e y a re a c c i d e n t a l l y o r on p u rp o se . N e ith e r i n t e r p r c t a t i o n T s n a t t e r i n g t o th e m a n u f a c t u r e r . I h a v e h a d e x t e n s i v e e x p e r i e n c e w i t h tw o o f t h e s e s y s t e m s , t h e IBM Hag T a p e S e l e c t r i c a n d t h e IBM Mag C a r d E x e c u t i v e . S u ffic e i t to s a y t h a t i f I b e lie v e d t h a t th e s e sy ste m s w ere a s c um bersom e a s t h e y a r e by a c c i d e n t , t h e n t h e s e c t i o n s i n t h i s b o o k o n IBM a n d i t s p r o d u c t s m ig h t ha v e a v e ry d i f f e r e n t s l a n t . As i t i s , th e s e s y ste m s r e q u ir e a t r a i n i n g p e rio d o f (say ) a w eek, and r e q u i r e su c h c o n tin u o u s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e i r c u r i o u s ta c c h a n i c s t h a t t h e u s e r i s g iv en l i t t l e o p p o r tu n ity to t h in k o f a n y th in g e lse . In b o t h c a s e s , i n my o p i n i o n , t h e s u p e r ­ f i c i a l p l a u s i b i l i t y o f th e i n i t i a l d e s ig n prem ­ i s e s k n o ts i n t o ta n g l e d r a t i f i c a t i o n s w h ic h v e r g e on t h e p r e p o s t e r o u s . Much o f t h i s b o o k w as w r i t t e n o n a Mag C a r d E x e c u t i v e - - a n d I * n da mned s o r r y I b o t h e r e d . Some s y s t e m s o f t h i s ty p e a re :

T he IBM Mag T ape S e l e c t r i c C om poser (MT/SC. MTSC) . P r o d u c e s l o v e l y r e s u l t s w i t h t h e S c l c c t r i c Com poser, a very fancy S e l e c t r i c . But has c o m p l i c a t i o n s w e l l be y o n d t h o s e o f t h e Mag T a p e S e le c tric . liv e n n o r e v a r i a b l e w i j t h s t h a n Mag Card E x e c u tiv e . U ses same n a g - f i l m c a r t r i d g e s a s MTST. K ( N o t e : f o r t h o s e who l i k e t h e o u t p u t from th e above d e v i c e s , b u t a p p r e c ia te a ls o th e r e l a ­ tiv e d i f f i c u l t y o f th e i r u s e , th e re is A v ailab le a c o m p u t e r p e r i p h e r a l d e v i c e w h ic h r e a d s a n d w r i t e s t h e s e 16mm mag t a p e c a r t r i d g e s . I d o n 't know who m a k e s i t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y . ) IBM's l a t e s t i s c a l l e d t h e M a g n e t i c Memory T y p e w r i t e r , a n d se e m s t o s t o r e up t o o n e p a g e i n a h i d d e n memory. A p p a r e n t l y you c a n ' t s e t i t a s id e , lik e th e c ard s o r ta p es. A f i r m c a l l c d R e d a c t r o n makes m a g ic t y p e ­ w r i te r s u sin g e i t h e r c a s s e tte s (a u d io -ty p e ) o r mag c a r d s ( l i k e t h e Mag C a r d E x e c u t i v e ) . A f i r m c a l l e d S a v i n d o e s t h e sa m e t h i n g , u s i n g a T ycom S e l e c t r i c S a n d w ic h ( s e c u n d e r " P r in tin g T e r m in a ls ," ne arb y ). O l i v e t t i h a s one c a l l e d t h e S - 1 4 W ord P r o ­ c e s s i n g S y s tem . T h eir c a r tr id g e (a d is k ? ) s t o r e s , t h e y s a y , ISO p a g e s o f t y p i n g . Two o t h e r o u t f i t s a nd Q u i n t y p e . N oops! R e m in g t o n ? ) in t h e f i e l d a r e T r e n d o t a (S p e rry

T he IBM Mag T a p e S e l e c t r i c (MT/ST o r MTST). R e c o r d s o n s p r o c k e t e d 16mm n a g f i l m o f t h e t y p e u s e d f o r m o v ie s o u n d r e c o r d i n g , a n d y o u h a v e two d i f f e r e n t t a p e s t o g e t c o n fu s e d b e tw e e n . The IBM Mag C a r d E x e c u t i v e . R ecords on a p l a s t i c H o l l e r i t h c a r d ( s e e p . 2 & ) c o a te d w ith m a g n e tic o x i d e . V a ria b le w id th o f c h a r a c te r s p rese n ts f a s c in a tin g d if f i c u l t i e s .

H e r e com es S p e r r y R e m in g t o n ! T hey h a v e one to o .

For th o s e in te r e s t e d in t h i s s o r t o f th in g , t h e r e i s a n I n t e r n a t i o n a l Word P r o c e s s i n g A s s o c i a ­ t i o n ( M a r y l a n d R o a d , AHS B u i l d i n g , W illo w G r o v e , PA 1 9 0 9 0 .) S e e a l s o t h e F l i p S i d e o f t h e b o o k f o r more h ig h -p e rfo rm a n c e te x t sy ste m s.

are what make compute rs go 'r o u n d . IF you r c om pute r only did one th in g , then to s ta r t It y o u 'd o n ly ne ed one button to press. If y o u r c om pute r only did th in g s , without va ria tio n s , then let each operation bo sta rte d by one o f th e Keys o f th e te rm inal, would be lhat. two dozen you could pressin g and thal

T h e s e la n g u a g e s h a v e b e e n c h o s e n b e ­ c au se th e y a re im p o r ta n t, v e ry d i f f e r e n t from e a c h o t h e r , v e r y p o w e r f u l , i n f l u e n t i a l and h i g h l y r e g a r d e d i n t h e f i e l d , i n t e r a c ­ t i v e f ro m t i m e - s h a r i n g s y s t e n s , a n d v e r y s u i t a b l e f o r m a k in g i n t e r a c t i v e p r o g r a m s and " g o o d -g u y s y s t e n s . " Each u ay b e u se d t o c r e a t e p ro g ra m s m e [QUICKIE] B ecause th e s e la n g u a g e s can be u sed fro m a t e r m i n a l , a n d t h u s l e a r n e d q u i c k l y , we m ig h t c a l l th e m Q u i c k i e l a n g u a g e s . N o t e : i n t e r a c t i v e l a n g u a g e s m e an y o u , th e p ro g ra m m e r, can c h an g e y o u r p ro g ra m from t h e t e r m i n a l ; i n t e r a c t i v e w ro c r a m s a r e t h o s e w h ic h i n t e r a c t w i t h u s e r s , w h ic h is d iffe re n t. H o w ev e r, t h e s e l a n g u a g e s a r e q u i t e s u i t a b l e T or b o t h . Another reason for these three: they r e p r e s e n t. In a w ay. se veral major ty p e s, BASIC is a widesp read and fairly sta n d ard la nguage -- lhal i s , it is available on c om pute rs e v ery w h e re. Mor eove r, ll looks r a th e r like F o r tr a n , which is th e most im portant "scienti fic" computer language. TRAC Language, though w ell-know n among re se a r c h e r s, ha s mighty p o w ers that a re not so well know n. Moreover, it a ch ie v es it s pow ers th rough lha simple and highly consis te nt following ot a few simple p rin cip les , a n d is th u s b oth v e ry eaay to le a r n and an elega nt inte llectu al triu m p h for Its in vento r. Moreove r, il ia a so-ca lle d "lisi la n g u a g e ." meaning thal it can handle Information havin g extremely varied and c hangin g form -- a v e ry Important feature lo those of ua in te rested in computer applications like p ic ture-m a king and text handling, which use am orphous and busy types of data. (See "Data S t r u c tu r e s .” p p - 2 & - > APL i s a noth er elegant la n g u ag e , a ls o worked oul handsomely from certa in ba sic ide as by a v e ry th oughtful and in sp ire d inve ntor. In the contemplation of these th r e e la n ­ gua ges you may be gin lo see th e influ ence o f th e Individual human min d in th e com p u te r fie ld, q uite c o n tra r y to th e s te r e o ty p e . I w ould like lo str e s s h e r e lhal each of th e s e th r e e la n g u ag e s r e p r e s e n ts somebody's I ndiv id ua l p e rso n a l a c h ­ ievem ent. and i s in t u r n a foundation upon which o th e r s , w riting p r o g r a m s , c a n b u ild Two o f t h e s e l a n g u a g e s p e r m i t t h e c r e a t i o n o f i n t e r a c t i v e p r o g r a m s t h o t w ork o n a l i n e - b y - l i n e b a s i s ; i n a d d i t i o n , TRAC L an g u a g e ( p p . 1 8 - 2 1 ) p e r m i t s t h e c r e a t i o n o f sy ste m s t h a t r e a c t t o a ny c h a r a c t e r th e u s e r ty p e s i n , r a t h e r t h a n w a i t i n g f o r th e c a r r i a g e r e t u r n a t th e en d o f a l i n e . T h is p e rm i ts y ou t o p ro g ra m u s e r - l e v e l sy ste m s t h a t a r e e v e n more r e s p o n s i v e . IF YOU'RE SCARED. Don't w o r r y , ll'a not a te s t. Flip the pa ges a n d look a t lh e exam ­ ple s. (In p a rti c u la r , you mig ht look for lhe same program which a ppea rs in e ach la ng uage: a program to cause th e com pute r to prin t "HELP, I AM TRAPPED IN A LOOP" f o r e v e r . ) This book Is org an iz ed s o you c an look al It or sk ip ll In any o r d e r , s o th e r e is no pa rti cula r reason you have lo f ig ht th r o u g h the next th ree c hapte rs If you wani to p r e s s o n . But if you w ant to s tu d y these I s n g u a g o s , b y all means do 80. Languages lhal can be use d from a te rm in al are called o n -lin e la n g u a g e s , T h e r e a rc a n u m ­ ber of o th e r popular o n -lin e la n g u ag e s: JOSS (lhe o r ig in a l) . FOCAL. LOGO. SPEAKEASY. I’m ju sl s o r ry th e re 's no room for the m h e r e . Some p o p u l a r n o n - i n t e r a c t i v e la n g u a g e s a r e b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d on p p . 3 0 - 3 1 .

But th a t's not what i f a about. We ha v e lots of different th in gs lhAt we want compute rs 10 d o . and we want one com­ mand lo w o rk on d if feren t v arieties of d ala . o r on the r e s u l ts o f a p rev io u s command. or even lo chew on a noth er command Itself; a n d so e computer la n g u ag e Is a c o n lr lv ed method of g iv in g commands to a com puter lha t allows th e commands lo b e en lw ln ed In a complex fashion, E veryone 9hould have some b r u s h with computer pr ogra mming, ju s l lo see what it Is and is n 't, Whai ii is: c asti ng mystical spe lls in arc ane te rm inology, whose exac t de ta ils have exact ramifi ca tions. Whai II is n ' t : ta lk in g o r typing to the computer in some way that re­ q uir es Intelligence by lh e machine. Whai ll la: an in tr ic ate technical a n . Whai it isn 'l: sc ie nce. Why th r e e la ng uage s? Because one would look loo much alik e . Only by p e ru s i n g several do you get any se nse of th e v a rie ty th e y ta ke. T h is means h a v in g basic o pe ra tions that can b e bu ilt into b ig g e r o p e ra tions (routin es, su b ro u tin e s, su b p r o g ra m s, p ro g ra m s). T h u s a c o m p u t e r la n g u a g e i s r e a l l y a m e th o d b y w h i c h a u s e r c a n t i e t h e s e p ro g ra m s t o g e t h e r . C o m p u te r la n g u a g e s a re b u i l t a cc o rd in g to c o n triv e d s e t s o f r u l e s f o r t y in g p ro g ra m s t o g e t h e r . Such r u l e s a r c l i m i t e d o n ly by th e im a g in a ­ tio n of t h e i r c o n t r i v e r s . Each co m p u ter la n g u a g e h a s i t s own c o n t r i v e d s y s t e m o f r u l e s , a n d i t may b e c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t from t h e c o n t r i v e d r u l e s t y i n g t o g e t h e r any o t h e r c o m p u t e r l a n g u a g e . ( T h a t ' s one reason lo r h e re p r e s e n tin g th r e e d i f f e r ­ e n t c o n p u t e r l a n g u a g e s , t o show so me o f t h e mad v a r i e t y t h a t c a n e x i s t . ) C o m p u te r l a n g u a g e s t e n d t o l o o k l i k e n o t h i n g e l s e y o u ’ ve e v e r s e e n . T hus c o n ­ p u t e r p r o g r a m s , w h ic h o f c o u r s e h a v e t o be w r i t t e n i n t h e s e c o m p u te r l a n g u a g e s , look p r e t t y w e i r d . Some p r o g r a m s lo o k lik e o ld t r a i n sc h e d u le s ( in n u l t i p l e c o lu m n s). Some l o o k a l i t t l e l i k e p r i n ­ te d p o e t r y . I n a n y c a s e , a COMPUTER PRO­ GRAM NO MORI: LOOKS LIKE IT S RESULT THAN THAN THE WORD "COW" LOOKS LIKE A COW. One o f t h e c e n t r a l c o n c e p t s o f t h i s boo k i s t h a t o f a ' " p r o g r a m f o l l o w e r , ” a d y n a m ic e n t i t y w h ic h somehow f o l l o w s a p r o g ra m . ' . f e l l , EVERY LANCUAGE HAS A PRO­ GRAM FOLLOWER FOLLOWING ITS OWN PARTI­ CULAR RULES. T h e s e r u l e s a r e c o n t r i v e d fo r c o n v en ie n ce , s u i t a b i l i t y to a p u rp o se, and " a e s t h e t i c s " o f a s o r t - - o f t e n s o a e fo rm o f s t a r k c o m p r e s s i o n . (T h e p r o g r a m f o l l o w e r s w i r e d i n t o c o m p u t e r s a r c some w hat m o re a k i n t o o n e a n o t h e r ; s e e "R o c k B o t to m , " p . 3 2 . ) A b o u t a l l we c a n s a y la n g u a g e s h a v e i n common i s : EVERY COMPUTER LANGUAGE ALLOWS LOOPS. TESTS AND BRANCHES, AND COMMUNICATION WITH EXTERNAL DEVICES, a s m e n t i o n e d on p . 1 1 . Beyond th a t th e d i f f e r e n c e s a re i n c r e d i b l e . So t h e b a s i c s e c r e t o f c o m p u te r p e o ­ p le is t h i s : i t ' s n o t th a t th e n e c e s s a r ­ i l y know s o m u c h , b u t t h e y c a n a d a p t t o a w h o le new w o r l d o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s more T h e s e t h r e e l a n g u a g e s make i t p o s s i b l e i n p r i n c i p l e f o r you t o l e a r n c o m p u te rs w i t h no c o a c h i n g . A ll you n e ed ( i n p r i n c i ­ p l e ) i s y o u r own t e r m i n a l , a n d t i m e - s h a r i n g a c c o u n t s w i t h f i r m s r u n n i n g BASIC (M o st o f t h e n d o ) , TRAC L an g u a g e ( f o r a v a i l a b i l i t y s e e p , 2 1 ) , a n d / o r APL ( f o r p a r t i a l l i s t o f so u rces see p . 25). Why theae three? Severa l good r ea so n s. One, they can be use d from a te rm in a l, which means lhal you could in p rin cip le g e t a te rm inal In yo ur home and play wilh th e c om pute r from ove r lhe tele phone. Bui this is e x p en siv e , and al worsl fra ught with accidental financial lia bilities, so th e possibi lity Is minor r ig ht now, N eve rthele ss, il should be practical a n d in e x­ pensiv e fairly soon.

T i l l more and so re you g e l th e f e e l of I t . Anil f in d yo urself w ritin g proKraa» lh a t work

T E to r U V ’to H A

to g e t h e r th e f u n d am e n ta l o p e r a t i o n s o[ la n g u a g e f i t s t o g e th e r a c c o rd in g to i t s

s o n a l l t y and p r e o c c u p a tio n s o f t h e p e rs o n o r p e o p l e who d e s i g n e d i t . Mo dern c o m p u te r l a n g u a g e s g e n e r a l l y c a n h a n d l e a l l t h e m a in k i n d s o f p r o g r a n m i n g s c o a t h a n d l i n g , n u .a ber c r u n c h i n g , s t o r i n g f i l e a on d i s k memory a n d g e t t i n g th e m b a c k ,

PROGRAMS VS. SYSTEMS: A Vague Guideline lo a Vague Distinction A " pro gram '- r u n s on an o rd in ary compute r, without n e ce ssarily in te rac tin g with lhe oulalde world; a "sy ste m " Inv o lv es a whole se tu p , o f which th e co mpute r and a p rogra m In It are Jusl th e c entr al th in g s .

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In th is sim p lifie d i l l u s t r a t i o n , th e p o in ­ t e r c a n b e moved f o r w a r d a n d b a c k w a r d i n t h e t e x t b y v a r i o u s commands. T y p in g " B " m oves t h e p o i n t e r t o th e b e g in n in g . "Ii " t a k e s i t t o t h e end. " L " moves i t t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e l i n e i t ' s p r e s e n t l y o n , a n d t h e commands ” C" a n d " L , ” w hen g i v e n w i t h n u m b e r s , t e l l t h e p o i n t e r t o move f o r w a r d o r b a c k t h e s p e c i f i e d n u m b e r o f p o sitio n s. For i n s t a n c e : 3C • 4C 2L -2L Move Move Move Move f o rw a rd 3 c h a r a c t e r s backw ard I c h a r a c t c r s f o rw a rd 2 l i n e s backw ard 2 l i n e s

and s o o n . N o te t h a t t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s a r e n o t g o d - g i v e n , b u t t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f how t h e y b e h a v e a n d w ork t o g e t h e r a r e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e p e r s o n a l q u i r k s o f who progra m m e d th e m . A n o t h e r f e a t u r e many o f t h e s e p r o g r a m s h a v e i s c a ll e d a "c o n te x t e d ito r ” f e a tu r e . S o -c alled c o n t e x t e d i t i n g moves t h e p o i n t e r f r o m i t s p r e ­ s e n t p o s i t i o n to th e n e x t o c c u rre n c e o f a s p e c i ­ f i c s t r i n g o f c h a r a c t e r s : f o r i n s t a n c e , th e n e x t o c c u r r e n c e o f t h e w o rd CHIAROSCURO. O f t e n s u c h commands p e r m i t y o u , by g i v i n g t h e command p r o p ­ e r l y , t o r e p l a c e any g i v e n w ord o r p h r a s e w i t h an y o t h e r . I t w as d r i l y r e m a r k e d j t a r e c e n t c o n f e r e n c e t h a t t h i s w o u ld a l l o w a w r i t e r t o change e v e r y o c c u rre n c e o f " o r" in h i s w r i t i n g to " a n d ." Y e t p r o g r a m m e r s se em t o t h i n k t h i s i s a f e a tu r e w r i te r s w an t. (F o r p rogram m ers' p u rp o se s t h i s i s a v e ry g o o d f a c i l i t y ; i n d e e d , a w h o le c o m p u t e r la n g u a g e SNOBOL, i s b u i l t a r o u n d i t ; - - s e e p . 3 1 . But i t h a s n o th in g to do w ith norm al t e x t . ) T h is ty p e o f t h in g i s t o t a l l y u n s u i t e d f o r t h e l i t e r a r y t y p e s o f p e o p l e who c a r e m o s t a b o u t t e x t and i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( c o n n o t a t i o n s , t w i s t s ) w h i c h c a n n o t b e f o u n d by d e f i n a b l e stru c tu re d search , ftnd who s h o u l d n o t b e f o r c e d t o d e a l w i t h e x p l i c i t co m p u te r la n g u a g e s b e c a u se i t te n d s to in t e r f e r e w ith th e th o u g h t p ro c e sse s t h e y a r e s u p p o s e d t o b e p u r s u i n g , i f n o t make th e m p h y s i c a l l y i l l .

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T h e BASIC l a n g u a g e , a ls o c a ll e d D a r t m o u t h - B u t e , » u i n t r o d u c e d In th e s i x t i e s a t D a r tm o u th C o lleg e b y J o h n K a n e n y a n d T h o m a s K u r t * . I t w a a I n te n d e d to b e a s im p le a n d e a s y - t o - l e * m I n tr o d u c t i o n to c o m p u te r p r o g r a m m i n g , y e t p o w e r f u l e n o u g h to d o u s e f u l t h i n g s . It h a s g r o w n i n u s e , I n r e c e n t y e a r s , b o th a s th e f o re m o s t b e g i n n e r 's l a n g u a g e , a n d a s a p e r f e c tly fine l a n g u a g e f o r d o in g m a n y s im p le k i n d * of w o r k — lik e c u s to m b u s i n e s s a p p l i c a t i o n s , s t a t i s t i c s , a n d " g o o d - g u y " s y s te m s f o r nfliv« u s e r s os d i s c u s s e d e l s e w h e r e In t h i s b o o k . K snvsny Is no w p r e s i d e n t of D a r tm o u th , a n d K u r t z r u n s t h e i r h lg h - p o w e r t i m e - s h a r i n g c o m p u te r c e n t e r , so BASIC h a s ■ p e r m a n e n t h o m e b a s e t h e r e . Note lh a t th e n am e BA SIC d o e s n o l r e f e r to t h e b o tto m l e v e l o r e lo n e n t a l la n g u a g e s o f c o m p u te r s . BA SIC h a s b e e n c o n t r i v e d s p e c if ic a l ly to m a k e p r o g r a m m i n g q u i c k e r a n d e a s i e r . II la n ot " b a s i c " to a ll c o m p u te rs ; s u c h b otto m la n g u a g e s a r e c a ll e d " m a c h in e l a n g u a g e ” o r " a s s e m b le r la n g u a g e " ( se e P P . j 2 .-_jl T h e sim p lic ity o f t h e l a n g u a g e b e g in s s t th e p r o g r a m I n p u t , o r e d i t i n g , l e v e l . E a c h c o m m a n d r f BASIC m u s t b e o n a s e p a r a t e l i n e , a n d e a c h l i n e m u st h a v e s s e p a r a t e lin e n u m b e r . S u p p o s e y o u a c c id e n t a ll y ty p e in SO IMPUGN Y

w h ic h m e a n s th a l w h e n a p r o g r a m f o llo w e r g e t s to command #02, i t m u s t n e x t Jum p lo 06 a n d g o o n f ro m t h e r e , u n le s s th a l h a p p e n s to b e t h e END s ta t e m e n t . A SIMPLE SAMPLE PROGRAM T h e s e a r e e n o u g h c o m m a n d s lo w r i t e a sa m p le p r o g r a m . 43 87 ee PR INT "HELP , I AM CAUGHT IN A LOOP" GOTO 43
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T h e p r o g r a m w ill s t a r t a t t h e f i r s t I n s t r u c t i o n , w h ic h h a p p e n s in t h is c a s e to b e i n s t r u c t i o n n u m b e r 43. T h a t one p r in ts a m e s s a g e . T he n e x t c o m m a n d , b y lin e n u m b e r, i s 67. T h i s te lle th e p r o g r a m f o llo w e r lo g o b a c k to 43, w h ic h i t d o e s . 43 67 08 PRIN T GOTO END "HELP , I AM CAUGHT IN A LOOP" < -1 4 3 --------------------------------------------------------- 1

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T h e s e tw o b o y s h a d n e v e r s e e n a c o m p u t e r b e f o r e , b u t I lo a d e d It u p w ilh t h e BASIC l a n g u a g e p r o c e s s o r , s h o w e d th e m a few b a s i c c o m m a n d s a n d to ld th e m to t u r n It off w h e n t h e y w e r e th r o u g h . 1 got b a c k te n h o u r* la t e r a n d t h e y w e r e S t ill a t i t . T oo b a d k i d s h a v e s u c h s h o r t a t te n tio n S p a n 9 .

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w h ic h a u to m a tic a lly r e p l a c e s th e p r e v io u a ly lin e 5 0 . if yo u w o nt to g e t r i a of th e l i n e e n t i r e l y , y o u ty p e 50 a n d a n e n d - o f - l i n e c o d e , a n d th e w h o le lin e I s g o n e . E x am p le o f a BA SIC c o m m a n d : 153 LBTX=Y VARIABLES T h e BA S IC l a n g u a g e , lik e a n u m b e r of o t h e r la n g u a g e s , a l l o w s y o u lo s e t a s id e p la c e s in c o re m e m o ry a n d g iv e th e m n a m e s . T h e s e p la c e s m a y h o ld n u m b e r s . T h e y c a n be u s e d to c o u n t th e n u m b e r of tim e s th a t t h i n g s a r e d o n e (o r n o t d o n e ) , to h old o n s w e r s , n u m b e r s to t e s t a g a i n s t , n u m b e r s to m u ltip ly by a n d so o n . I n B A S IC , th e s e p la c e s a r e g iv e n n a m e s of o n e a l p h a b e t i ­ c a l l e t t e r . T h a i m e a n s you c a n h a v e up to 20 of th em . E x a m p le s : A E I 0 U so m e tim es Y even X

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Whal Is on the r ig h t sid e of th e e q u a l s s i g n in t h e l o s t s t a t e m e n t , In t h i s c a se 2 .3 . Is s tu f f e d Into w h a t e v e r l o c a t io n of c o r e m em ory Is d e s ig n a t e d on th e le ft s i d e . I n t h i s c a s e a p la c e know n to y o u o n ly a s R . With th e r e s u l t t h a t s o m e p la c e In c o r e m em ory i s

THE SETTING T o b e g in w i l h . t h e r e m u s t b e a c o m p u t e r , a n d it m u s t h a v e a p r o c e s s o r f o r th e BASIC la n g u a g e , th a t i s , a p r o g r a m f o r c a r r y i n g o u l th e o p e r a tio n s o f D a r tm o u t h BASIC We w ill a s s u m e th a t t h i s BASIC p r o c e s s o r i s a ll s a t u p in c a r e m e m o ry r e a d y to g o .

B e c a u s e th e s e n a m ed s p a c e s in m e m o r y m a y b e u s e d s o m e th in g l i k e th e w ay l e t t e r s a r e u s e d i n a l g e b r a , w e ^■11 th e m v a r i a b l e s . In f a c t , e a c h o n e I s a p l a c e w ith a

T he LET s ta te m e n t i s a n e x a m p l e of a n a s s i g n m e n t s t a t e m e n t , w h ic h m o st c o m p u te r la n g u a g e s h a v e ; a n a s s i g n m e n t s ta te m e n t a s s i g n s a s p e c if ic p ie c e of I n fo r m a tio n ( o fte n a n u m b e r , b u t o f te n o t h e r t h i n g s ) to so m e n a m e ( o fte n s t a n d i n g f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p la c e In c o r e m e m o r y ) . T h e LET c om m a nd Ln BA S IC c a n a ls o b e u s e d t o d o a r i t h m e t i c . E x am p le; 14 LET M = 2 .3 + (1 2 * 7 0 0 9 .1 )

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CMklrvb if y o u u s e the n a m es B ,C a n d D f o r v a r i a b l e s in y o u r p r o g r a m , t h e BASIC p r o c e s s o r w ill a u to m a tic a ll y s e t u p p la c e s f o r th e m to b e s t o r e d .

(T h e a s t e r i s k h a s to b e u s e d f o r m u l t i p l i c a t i o n b e c a u s e tr a d i tio n a lly te r m i n a l s d o n 't h a v e a t i r o e s - s i g n .) BASIC w ill w o r k t h is o u t from r i g h t to le ft a n d s t o r e th e r e s u l t In M. T h e INPUT c om m and T h e INPUT s ta te m e n t a s k a th e p e r s o n s t t h e t e r m in a l for a n u m b e r a n d th e n s h o v e s it in to a v a r i a b l e . E x am p le: 41 INPUT Z

w h ic h c a u s e s t h e t e r m in a l to t y p e a q u e s t i o n m a r k , a n d w a i t . W hen th e u s e r h a s t y p e d ln a n u m b e r fo llo w e d b y a c a r r i a g e r e t u r n , th e BASIC p r o c e s s o r s tu f f s the n u m b e r in to t h e v a r i a b l e a n d p r o c e e d s w ith th e p r o g r a m . H e r e Is a p r o g r a m u s i n g th e INPUT s ta t e m e n t .

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P ro g r a m ty p e s : YOUR AGE IS .5 TIMES THE AGE OP THE EMPIRE STA TE BUILDING. T h e IF command T h e IF command Is a w a y of t e s tin g w h a t 's s to r e d In a v a r i a b l e . E xam ple:

BASIC i s a v e r y se ri o u s la n g u a g e . A d v an c ed v e rs i o n s o f BASIC h a v e in s t r u c tio n s t h a t allow u a e r s to p u t In a lp h a b e tic a l I n fo rm a tio n , an d s to r e and r e t r ie v e a ll k in d s of Inform ation from d is k s o r ta p e . In o th e r w o r d s , BASIC c a n b e u se d fo r t h e f a ir ly sim p le p ro g ra m m in g of a v a a t r a n g e o f p ro b le m s a n d " g o o d -g u y s y s te m s " m e ntio ne d e ls e w h e r e . Com plete BASIC sy ste m s a llo w in g comple x a l c u l a t i o n s c a n be had for p e r h a p s 63000; a g e n e r a l- p u r p o s e c o m p u te r r u n n in g BASIC w ith c a s s e tte o r o th e r m a ss s to r a g e , f o r b u a ln e e a o r o th e r p u r p o s e s , c a n now b e had for some 66000. A llow ing a few th o u sa n d d o lla r s for p r o g ra m m in g sp e cific a p p lic a tio n s In BASIC , sim p le s y s te m s c an b e c re a te d for a v a rie ty o f p u r p o s e s th a t som e c o m p an ies m ight s a y y o u n e ed e d a h u n d r e d - th o u a a n d - d o lla r sy s te m f o r. T h is Is s e r i o u s b u s i n e s s . L an g u a g ea lik e BASIC m u st b e c o n s id e r e d b y pe op le w ho w a n t s im p le sy ste m s to d o u n d e r s t a n d a b le th in g s In d ir e c t w a y s th a t a r e m e anin gfu l to t h e m . a n d lh a t d o n 't d ie ru p t Ih e lr c o m p an ies o r th e ir liv e s. T h is h a s b e e n a v e ry h a s ty a n d b r i e f p r e s e n ta tio n In w h ic h I h a v e t r ie d lo c o nv ey the fee lin g o f Ih ls Im p ortan t l a n g u a g e . If y o u h a v e the c h an c e lo le a r n I I . b y all m eans do. SOME FUN THINGS TO TRY IN BASIC

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(av a ila b le n BASIC, APL a n d m a n y o t h e r la n g u a g e s) A r r a y s a r e In form a tio n s e t u p s w ith n u m b e re d p o s it io n s . T h e p o sitio n s c a n c o n ta in a ll s o r t s of d iffe re n t t h i n g s , h o w ev e r: n u m b e r s , le tte r s o r o th e r d a ta , d e p e n d in g o n th e d a ia s t r u c t u r e s a llo w ed in th e I s n g u a g e .

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T h la le ate v a r ia b le M to s e e If i t c o n ta in s the n u m b e r 40. If M la in d e e d 4 0. th e p r o g ra m follow er ju m p s to lin e 63. If n o t , It g o e s r ig h t o n a n d ta k e e the n e z l h ig h e r I n stru c tio n a f te r 88. T h e IF c an te et o th e r r e la tio n s lh a n e q u a li ty , I n c lu d in g " le a s l h a t . " " g r e a t e r t h a n . " " n o t e q u a l , " " le s s th a n o r e q u a l t o , ” e tc . Fo r in s t a n c e . 89 IF Q 7 th e n 102

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W rite a p r o g ra m th at p r i n t s c a l e n d a r s . w ill s e n d th e p r o g ra m f o llo w er to command 75 If v a r ia b le q c o n ta in s a n u m b e r le s s t h a n 7. (Note th a l d if f e r e n t BASICS fo r d if f e r e n t c o m p u te rs may h a v e s lig h tly d if f e r e n t r u le s h e re .) W rite a p r o g r a m lh at c o n v e r ts a n I n p u t nu m b e r to Rom an N u m e ra ls. W rite a d ia lo g u e e y s to n th a t w elcom es the u s e r to the s a n ita r i u m , a s k s him q u e s tio n s , Ig n o re s the a n s w e r s a n d I n s u lts him . (Use lhe INPUT stste m e n t for r e c e iv in g n u m e ric a l a n s w e r s . Since th e a n a w e r a a r e I g n o re d th ey c a n a ll b e s to r e d In o n e v a r i s b l e .) WHERE TO GET IT (F e a tu r e s o f t h e BASIC la n g u a g e v a r y c o n a ld e ra b ly from sy s te m lo s y s t e m . W hich o n e s offe r the h ig h ly d e s ir a b le a lp h a b e tic c o m m and s a n d m a ss s lo r s g e h a v e to b e c h ec k ed o ul I n d iv id u a lly . ) BASIC i s o ffe re d on many If not m ost lim e - s h a rin g s e r v i c e s , so y o u c a n u s e il from y o u r home on a t e r m in a l. (Bui n ote Ihst th ia c a n b e e x p e n s iv e an d e v e n d a n g e r o u s . If y o u ’re p a y in g y o u r s e l f ; th e r e a r e n o t p r e se n tly a d e q u a te cost s a f e g u a r d s lo p r e v e n t y o u from r u n n in g u p h u g e b i l l s .) T H U E 6 - .b 1 M I M ln o N H

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BEST BUY? Rum ors p e r s i s t of a tim e - s h a r in g s e r v i c e so m e w h e r e th s t o f fe rs BASIC for $5 an h o u r , to ts l, w ith d isk sto r a g e th r o w n I n . I ha v e not b e e n a b le to v e rify I h ls . DEC o f fe rs m in ic o m p u te r - b a se d s y s te m s w h ic h llm es h a r e BASIC am on g s e v e r a l te rm in a ls sim u lta n e o u s ly . (Bui y o u h a v e to b u y th e w hole b ig s y s te m . ) T h e o n e s th at r u n o n th e PD P-8 a r e m a rk e te d m a inly to a c h o o ls, and fo r th la r e a s o n a r e c a l l e d , som ew hat p e c u li a r ly . EDUSYSTEMS T h a l r m ultlle rm ln a l syste m for lh e PDP-11 Is c a lle d R5TS (p ro n o u n c e d " R l a s t l a s ," ) a n d Is m a rk e te d m ainly to b u s i n e s s e s . H e w le tt- P a c k a r d o ffe rs BA SIC, I b e lie v e , on all of Its m in ic o m p u te r s. Of sp e c ia l I n te r e s t Is s n o dd co m p u te r c a lle d th e S e r ie s 8800 Model 3 0. Y o u 'r e o n ly allow ed to p r o g ra m In BASIC. ( It's a ctu a lly a m ic r o p ro c e s s o r; se e p .iv .) Many o th e r m inicom p uter m a n u fa c t u re rs now offer BASIC . D sta G e n e r a l's NOVA Is o n e . S u p p o s e you h a v e a o n e -d im e n s i o n a l a r r a y n am ed SAM. T h e n in a p r o g r a m y o u c a n usu a lly a sk for th e t h i r d elem ent In SAM b y r e f e r r i n g lo SA M (3). B e tte r th a n lh a l: y ou c a n r e f e r b y tu r n s to e v e r y e lem en t of SAM b y u s i n g a c o u n tin g v a ria b le a n d c h a n g in g its v a l u e . SAM (JO E) c a n be a ny on e o f th e e lem ents of th e a r r a y , if we s e t the v a lu e of JO E . th e c o u n tin g v a r i a b l e , lo ihe nu m b e r o f th e p o sitio n we w ant to p o in t to . F o r a r r a y s h s v in g m o re lh a n o n e d im e n sio n . Ih e p r in c i p le i s lhe s a m e . You m ay r e f e r in a p r o g ra m to a n y sp a c e in th e a r r a y b y g iv in g a n u m b e r in p a r e n t h e s e s , o r s u b s c r i p t . s p e c if y in g th e s p a c e 's po sitio n in e a c h d i m e n s io n . S u p p o s e y ou h a v e a n a r r a y n am ed PR ICES , w h ic h g iv e s Ihe p r ic e s o f . s a y . v a r io u s s iz e s a n d b r a n d s of TV s e t s .

T h e p r o g ra m w ill s t a r t ty p in g th u sly :

n . u n t i l Z h a s r e a c h e d 0; th e n It w ill ty p e

A o n e -d im e n s io n a l a r r a y i s lik e a r o w , a tw od im e n sio n a l a r r a y is lik e a la b le to p , a th r e e d im e n sio n a l a r r a y Is lik e a b o x , a n d for m ore d im e n sio n s yo u c a n 't v is u a liz e . A r r a y s a r e h a n d y f o r w o r k i n g w ilh a lot of d ifferen t t h i n g s one al a lim e. T h e y c a n b e give n n am es j u s t lik e v a r ia b le s .

a n d th e n it w ill sto p . You w ill no te th a t t h is p r o g r a m , lik e th e o n e th a t p r in t e d "HELP. 1 AM CAUGHT IN A LO OP." h a s a lo o p , th a t i s , a r e p e a te d se q u e n c e of o p e ra tio n s . T h e f ir s t one w a s a n e n d l e s s lo o p , w h ic h r e p e a te d f o r e v e r . T h la lo o p , h o w e v e r . Is m ore w e l l-b e h a v e d (b y som e p s p l e ' s s t a n d a r d s ) . In th a t it a llo w s a n e s c a p e w h e n a c e r ta i n c r it e r i o n ha s b e e n r e a c h e d - * In th is c a e e , p r in tin g a lin e o f t e a t 25 tim es w ith v a r i a n l e . T h e r e a s o n w e a r e a b le lo e sc a p e from th la lo op is th a t w e h a v e s te s t I n s tr u c ti o n , IF slste m e n t n u m b e r 62. It Is v e r y im p o rta n t f o r lh e p r o g ra m m e r lo In clud e te s ta w h ic h allow th e p r o g ra m to g e l o u t o f a l o o p . T h is may b e c o u c h e d aa a m otto, v i z .: LEAK BEFORE YOU LOOP.

BIBLIOGRAPHY K em eny s n d K u r t c , BASIC P r o g r a m m in g . W iley, 1967. DEC'S E d u sy sie m Handbook la a v e r y nic e Introd uctio n to BASIC, q u ite ple asa n t a n d w h im sica l; It may be a good I n tro d u ctio n e v e n 1/ y o u 'r e u s i n g o th e r p e o p le 's BASIC s y s te m s . I t's $5 from D EC, C om m unic ations S e r v lc e a . P a r k e r S t . . M a y n a r d , M a sa. 01754. T h e r e ia a lso a p r o g ra m m e d te x t o n BASIC b y A lbrec h t ( p u b lis h e d b y W ile y ) . F o r th o se o f u s w ho fre ez e a t n u m e ric a l- lo o k in g m a n u a l s , p r o g ra m m e d te x ts c a n ta k e aw a y a lot o f a n x i e t y .

AN AUTOMATIC LOOP I n d e e d , for p e o p le w h o a r e b ig on p r o g ra m lo o p s. BASIC p r o v i d e s a p a ir of I n s tr u c ti o n s w h ic h h a n d le th e p r o g ra m lo op c o m p le te ly . T h e s e a r e th e FOR a n d NEXT I n s t r u c t i o n s . We w o n 't sh ow th em h e r e , b u t t h e y 'r e not v e r y h a r d . U s in g th e FOR c o m m a n d . y o u c a n eaaU y d ir e c t th e c o m p u te r lo do so m e th in g a m illion a n d o n e lim e s, a ay . T h la c a n b e e i h l l a r a t l n g . Y ou c an e v e n d ir e c t it lo In clu de th a t p r o g ra m in so m e th in g to b e d o n e a b illio n tim e s . r e s u l tin g In s p r o g ra m lo op lh a t w o u ld b e c a r r i e d o u t o v e r a tr ill io n l i m e s . A ll In a s h o r t p r o g ra m ! Bui of c o u r s e th is i s J u st p o w e r o n p a p e r ; w e w a n t o u r p r o g ra m s lo b e u s e f u l , and f in la h t h e ir jo b a In lhe p r e s e n t c e n t u r y , a n d so s u c h flig h ts a r e J u s t m e n ia l e x e r c i s e s . FAST ANSWERBACK WITH BASIC (In some v e r s i o n s ) If y o u w e n t a te at a n s w e r to a n u m e ric a l q u e s t i o n . y o u c a n do It w itho ut th e lin e n u m b e r s . t y p in g In PR INT 3 .1 4 1 6 * 7 1 2 4

M f r . M f r . M fr. M fr. MY COMPUTER LIKES ME (when I s p e a k In BASIC) . T h is book h a s e v id e n tly b e e n p u l to g e th e r by th e P e o p le 's C o m p uter Com pany , a n d h a s som e Id ea listic f e r v o r b e h in d i t . $1 .1 9 from D y m a x , Box 310. Menlo P a r k , C a l. 94025.

T h i s is P R IC E S(3 ,2 ) b e c a u s e il 's th e item in row 3. colum n 2. S u p p o s e you h a v e a tw o - d im e n sio n a l a r r a y g iv in g t h e te le p h o n e n u m b e r s , s a la r ie a a n d a g es o f s e v e r a l d if f e r e n t e m p lo y e e s of a c o m p a n y . You h a v e d e c id e d lo call t h e a r r a y WHAM.

w ill c a u s e BASIC to p r i n t lh e a n s w e r r ig h t o u l a n d fo rge t th e w to l e t h in g .

TEXT STRINGS IN BASIC T h e d e l u i e v e r s i o n s o f th e D artm ou th BASIC l a n g u a g e h a v e o p e ra tio n s f o r h a n d lin g te x l- o r w h at co m p u te rfo lk c all " s t r i n g s , ” th a t la . s t r i n g s of a lp h a b e tic c h a r a c t e r s a n d p u n c tu a t io n . T h e s e o p e r a tio n s le n d to b e g in w ith $ (s ta n d in g f o r " S tr in g ”? ) a n d I h e r e 'a n o room f o r th em h e r e . Bui w h a t th e y m ean i s th a t BASIC c a n ty p e l e t t e r s , c o u n t the n o u n s In G one With T h e W in d, o r p r i n t o ut th e n in e h u n d r e d m illion n a m es o f G od. If y o u w rite

BASIC Is a good e x am p le o f a n " a lg e b r a ic " ty p e o f la n g u a g e , th a t I s. o n e f o rm u lated m o re o r le s s to lo ok lik e h lg h - sc h o o l a l g e b r a an d p e rm it e a sy c o n v e r s io n o f c e r ta i n a lg e b r a i c fo rm u las in to a c tu a l r u n n a b le p r o g r a m s . T h e m osl w l d e ly - u s e d la n g u a g e o f t h i s ty p e is FORTRAN ( s e e p .3 l ) . T h u s BASIC Is ofte n r e f e r r e d to a s a " F o r tr a n - ty p e la n g u a g e . T h e k lc k e r o o — a n d If y ou u n d e r s t a n d th is I t's ha lf lh e b a ttle — Is th a t a lin e of BASIC o r FORTRAN d i r e c ts a c e r t a i n e v e n t to ta k e p la c e , w hile a sta te m e n t In a lg e b r a J ust d e s c r i b e s r e la tio n s . T h e s l r a n g e r e s e m b la n c e b e tw e e n th e d e a c rip tlv e l a n g u a g e ( a lg e b r a ) a n d th e p r e s c r i p tiv e I s n g u a g e ( F o r tr a n o r B a sic ) Is th a t a lg e b r a i c o p e ra tio n s (w h ich a r e J u s t re c o m b in a tio n s a n d r e s t a te m e n ts ) c a n b e m im ick e d b y the c o m p u te r la n g u a g e , a n d th is e a r ly o b a e ssio n o f m a thy co m p u le rfo lk le d to m a k in g the c o m p u te r la n g u a g e look lik e a d e s c r ip ti v e a l g e b r a . E sp e cia lly w ith th e w e i r d u s e o f th e e q u a l e - s l g n to m ean " Is r e p la c e d now b y . " In h i n d s i g h t th is w a s s r id ic u lo u s id ea; som e of lh e m o re r e c e n t la n g u a g e a ( s u c h a s APL) u s e a le ft-p o in tin g a rr o w In ste ad o f a n e q u a l s - a l g n . s h o w in g th a t a n a c tio n Is b e in g c a lle d f o r . r a l h e r th a n a r e la tio n s h ip b e in g d e scrib e d .

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You c a n r e f e r lo a n y s in g l e e n t r y In t h i s a r r a y aa W HAM(IR V,JO E), w h e r e IRV a n d JO E a r e two c o u n tin g v a r ia b le s y o u 'v e d e c id e d to s e t u p . If y o u s e t IRV a n d JO E b o th to 1, WHAM (IR V , JO E ) is re a lly W H A M ( l.l) , w h ic h r e f e r s y o u lo th e te le p h o n e n u m b e r o f e m ploy e e A. If y ou c h a n g e JO E lo 2 . lh a t g iv e s y o u WHAM ( 1 ,2 ) . g iv in g y o u B ’s p hone; w h ile WHAM( 2 .1 ) w ou ld be A 's s a l a r y . T h e s e a r e J u s t th e m e c h a n ic s . What you ch o o se to d o w ilh th is s o r t of t h i n g Is y o u r ow n afTalr. C o u n tin g a r o u n d in a r r a y a ( a n d c o re m e m o ry , w h e r e t h e y 'r e s t o r e d ) Is c a lle d in d e x in g .

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In th e w e ll-th o u g h t-o u t ra m ifica tio n s of its b a s ic concept, th e TRAC L anguage is s o elegan t a s to c on stitu te a w ork of art. It b eautifully fu l f i l ls th is rule: . . th e f a c i li t i e s p rovid ed by the language sh ould be con stru cted fr o m a s few b a s ic ideas as p o s s ib le , and . . . th e s e sh o u ld b e g e n e r a l-p u r p o s e and In terrelated ln the language ln a w ay which avoided s p e c i a l c a s e s w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e . " (H arrison, D a ta -S tru ctu re s and P r o g ra m m in g , pub. Scott, F o r esm a n , p. 2 5 1 .) The fu n dam ental id e a of TRAC L anguage, which has b een worked out in d e ta il with the d eep est c a r e , thought and c o n s is te n c y , Is th is:

A m ild -m an n ered m an ln C am bridge, M a s s a c h u s e tts , who owns his own very s m a l l b u s in e s s , i s th e c r e a t o r o f on e o f the m o st extraordin ary and pow erful com pu ter langu ages th e r e Is, ttough lots of p e o p le ln th e fie ld don't r e a l iz e It. T h e language Is fa ir ly w ell-k n ow n am ong p r o f e s s io n a ls , but i t s re a l power Is hardly s u sp e c te d . If BASIC Is a fa ir ly con ven tion al p r ogram m in g langu age, s tr o n g ly r e s em b lin g FORTRAN, TRAC (Text R eck onin g and C om piling) Language i s fa ir ly unusual. The n am e o f it is "TRAC L a n g u a g e," not ju st TRAC — b e c a u s e It's a r e g is te r e d brand nam e (like K leen ex T i s s u e s ). Within the r u le s , th e w ord ’T R A C " is an a d jective and not a noun. Thus TRAC i s its f i r s t n am e, Language is its la s t; s o w e can r e fe r to "TRAC L anguage" instead of having to p r e c e d e it with th e. It is included h ere fo r s e v e r a l re a s o n s . 1) It is e x tre m ely e a s y to lear n , at l e a s t fo r b e g in n e r s . E x p erien ced p ro g ra m m er s often have troub le with It. 2) It is ex tre m ely p ow erfu l fo r n on-nu m eric ta s k s . In fa c t, it is ideal fo r b uildin g you r own p erso n a l langu age. 3) It o ffers p erh ap s the b est con trol of m a s s s to r a g e , and your own s t y l e of input-output, of any language. 4) It Is su perb ly d ocu m en ted and explained with th e new "The B egin ner's Manual fo r TRAC Language" which is now available. 5) It is likely to ca tc h on on e of th e s e d ays. (S ome la r g e corporations have b een in vestigatin g it e x t e n s i v e l y .)

A L L IS TEXT. That Is, a ll p ro g r a m s and data a r e sto r e d as s tr in g s of c h a r a c te r s , in th e s a m e m an n er. They are la b e lle d , s to r ed , r e tr ie v e d , and o th e r w is e treated in the s a m e w a y , as s tr in g s of text c h a r a c te r s . Data and p r o g r a m s a r e not kept in binary fo r m , but r e m a in s to r e d in c h a r a c te r fo r m , much the way they w e r e o r ig in a lly put in. T he p r o g r a m s are exam ined fo r execu tion a s text s tr in g s , and th ey c a ll data In th e form of te x t s tr in g s . T his g iv e s r i s e to ce rta in in ter estin g k in d s of com patib ility. a) C om plete c o m p atib ility e x is ts in th e com m and s tr u c tu re: th e r e s u l t s o f on e com m and can b e co m e another com m and o r can b e c o m e data for another com m an d. ALMOST NOTHING CREATES AN ERROR CONDITION. If enough Inform ation Is not su pplied to e x e cu te a com m and, th e com m and is ig n o r ed . If too much inform ation i s su pp lied, th e e x tra i s ignored . b) C om plete c o m p atib ility e x is ts in the data: l e t te r s and n um bers and s p a c e s m ay be fr e e ly interm ixed . S p e cia l te rm in a l c h a r a c te r s (like ca r r ia g e returns and b a ck s p a c es ) a r e handled ju s t lik e o th e r ch a ra c te r s , giving th e program * m e r co m p le te co n tr o l of th e arrangem ent of output on the p age. c ) C om plete com p atib ility a lso e x is ts fr o m o n e com puter to another, s o that w ork on on e com puter can b e m oved to an oth er with e a s e . By th e tradem ark TRAC, M ooers g u aran tees it — an Innovation. COMMAND FORMAT

It is not so much the b asic idea of TRAC L an g u ag e, bul the neatness with which th e idea h as beerr^elaborated, thal is so nice. As a s id e p o in t, h e re is an im portant motto for thinking in general about com puters (and about o ther things in general): MAKING THINGS FIT TOGETHER WELL TAKES A LOT OF WORK AND THOUGHT. Let C alvin M ooers' TRAC Language be a sh in in g exam ple.

A TRAC com m and has the follow in g form . T he c r o s s hatch o r s h a r p -s ig n is th e way th is language id e n tifies a com m an d's beginning. #(NM, arg2, a rg 3 , a r g 4 , . . ) NM is the nam e of any TRAC com m and. It counts a s the f i r s t " arg u m en t," o r p ie c e o f information su pp lied. A rg2, arg3, etc. a r e w h a te v er e l s e th e command n eed s to know to be c a r ried out. We w ill look f i r s t at ex a m p le s that u s e the a rith m e tic com m ands of TRAC L anguage, not b ecau se It is p a rtic u larly good at arith m e tic, w h ich it isn 't, but b ecau se th ey 'r e the s i m p le s t com m an ds. T he arithm etic com m ands a r e AD (add), SU (subtract, M L (m ultiply), DV (divide). Each a rith m e tic com mand ta k es th ree argum ents, th e com mand nam e and two n u m b e rs. E xam ples: # (A D ,1 ,2 ) is a com mand to add th e n um bers 1 and 2. #(SU, 4 ,3 ) i s a com mand to su b tr a c t th e num ber 3 from th e num ber 4. #(ML, 6 3 2 ,5 2 1 ) Is a com m and to m u ltiply 632 by 521. #(DV, 1 0 0 ,1 0 ) Is a com mand to d iv id e 100 by 10. Now c o m e s the I n ter estin g part. The w ay TRAC com m an ds may be com bin ed p ro v id e s th e langu age's e x traor d in ary p ow er. T his i s b a s e d on the way that th e TRAC p r o c e s s o r ex a m in e s the p r o g r a m , which Is a s tr in g of c h a r a c te r c o d e s . Watch as w e co m b in e two AD in stru ction s: #(AD, 3, #(AD, 2 ,5 ) ) T he an sw er i s 10. M ir a c u lo u s !

TRAC Language i s g r e a t fo r cr ea tin g highly In teractive s y s t e m s fo r s p e c i a l p u r p o s e s, Including turnkey s y s t e m s for inexperien ced u s e r s and "good-guy" s y s t e m s . It com b in es th is with good fa c i li t i e s fo r handling text, and what i s needed along with that, te r r if ic con trol o v er m a s s s to r a g e . It is a ls o e x c ellen t for s im u la tin g com plex o n -o ff s y s t e m s ; rum or h as it that TRAC L anguage w as u sed for sim u la tin g a m ajor com pu ter b efore it w a s built. Again st th e s e ad vantages w e m ust b alance TRAC L anguage's l e s s fortunate c h a r a c te r is tic s . F o r n u m eric a l o p eration s it is e x t r e m e ly s lo w , If not te r r ib le , com pared to the m o st popular la n g u a g es . The s a m e ap plies to handling n u m eric al a rrays and co n tr o llin g loop s, which a r e co m p a r a ­ tiv e ly awkward in TRAC L anguage. Fin ally, m any p r o g r a m m e r s are in cen sed by the num ber of p a ren th ese s that turn up in TRAC p ro g ra m s ; ln th is it r e s e m b le s the lan gu age LISP. But th is is an a esth e tic judgem ent. The TRAC L anguage has b een thought out in g re a t d eta il for total c o m p atib ility of a ll p a rts. (M oreover, by stan dardizin g the lan gu age e x a c tly , M ooers h e r o ic a lly a s s u r e s that p r o g ra m s can be m oved from com p u te r to com pu ter without d if f i c u l t y .)

How can th is b e? * TRAC is a r e g is te r e d s e r v i c e marie of R ockford R e s e a r c h , Inc. D escrip tion of T R A C Language p r im itiv e s adapted by p e r m iss io n from "TRAC, A P r o c e d u r e - D e s c r ib in g Language f o r the R eactive T y p e w rite r" , copyright © 1966 by Rockford R e s e a r c h , Inc. r I am grateful t o C . A . R . K agan, of W estern E lec tric Engineering R esearch C e n te r , for h is extensive (and finally su cc es s fu l) efforts to in te re s t me in TRAC Language. A comma ends an argum ent in the TRAC language? A h , that all argum ents could b e ended so e a s i ly . —My g ra n d fa th e r.

T h e s e c r e t o l co m b in in g T RA C c om m a n ds Is lhat e v ery co m m a n d , w h en e x ec u ted , la re p la c e d by its a n s w e r : and w h a te v e r m a y r e s u l t Is In tu r n e xec u ted . T h e r e Is an e x a c t p r o c e d u r e f o r th is :

f e l t s Ojfgh i t s f ilr h M lti/j

SCAN FROM L E F T T O RIGHT U N TIL A RIGHT PARENTHESIS; [— RE SOLVE TH E CONTENTS O F TH E * PA IRED COMMAND PARENTHESES I (ex ecu te an d r e p la c e by th e c o m m a n d 's re su lt); | STARTING AT THE BEGINNING O F T H E RESULT, K E E P SCANNING L E F T -T O -R IG H T |______ UN TIL A RIGHT PAREN TH ESIS. — j WHEN YOU G E T TO TH E END, WHAT’S L E F T . PRIN T OUT

#

(

P

O

W

f

)

IT SU 'S KKliM Xf evM
H E L P; I AM T R A P P E D IN A PROGRAM LOOP so It p r in ts th a t. If It had sa id H E L P , I AM T R A P P E D IN A PROGRAM LOOP ihe PR IN T STRIN G com m and w ould only have p r in te d H ELP s in c e a c o m m a e n d s an a rg u m e n t In TRAC language. Chugga chu gg a. Now, th e PR IN T STRING c o m m a n d le a v e s no r e s u l t, so 1116 v a p o rU e d ; a ll we have le fl In th e w ork a r e a Is »(CL, PROGRAM) T h is Im p lic it c all Is the t r ic k th at a llow s p e o p le lo c r e a t e t h e i r ow n la n g u ag e s v e ry q u ic k ly . In not v e iy long, you c ould c r e a t e y o u r ow n c o m m a nd s — s a y Z A PP , M ELVIN and s o m e m o r e ; and w hile at f i r s t ll Is m o r e convenie nt lo typ e In the T RA C f o rm a t whic h Is now sc an n e d . But t h a l 's a n o th e r C A L L , and when It Is e x ec u ted by f etc h in g the o b je c t c alled PROGRAM, Its re p la c e m e n t In (he w o rk a r e a Is »(PS, H E L P; 1 AM T R A P P E D IN A PROGRAM L O O P W C L , PROGRAM) a nd g u e ss w hat. We done It again . *(Z A P P , »(MELVIN)) ll Is v e ry U tile tro u b le In TRAC L anguage to c r e a t e new s y n ta x e s o f y o u r own Ukc Z A P P ! MELVIN th a l a r e I n te r p r e te d by (he T RA C p r o c e s s o r a s m e an in g th e s a m e thin g. 2B. F IL L IN G IN HOLES. T h is language is m arvelously su ited lo data ba se management. management information sy ste m s, in teractive q u e ry system s, and the b ro ad spectrum of "b usin ess" program m ing. For la rg e -sca le scientific num ber c ru n c h in g , not so good. With one exception: "Infinite p recisio n" a rithm etic, when people w ant thin gs to h u n d re d s of decimal places.

T h e b eauty p a r t Is how It a ll w o rk s so good. An a r it h m e t ic e x a m p le — s o you get the p r o c e d u re . *(AD ,2, MAD, 3 ,4 )) ___________ f i r s t r ig ht p a re n th e s is found. e x ec u te w h a t's In lhe c o m m an d p a re n th e s e s & rep la ce w ith th e ir a n s w e r , le avin g; s c a n to next r ig ht p a re n th e s is

*7 *(AD, 2 ,7 )

1

e x ec u te & r e p la c e fin d no m o r e p a re n th e s e s p r i n t oul w h a t's le ft.

You m igh t tr y th is y o u r se lf o n a lo n g e r exam ple: ((AD, *(SU, *(AD, 3 ,4 ) , *(SU, 7 , 3 ) ) , 1) H ere la an I n te r e s tin g c a se : »(AD,1) T h e r e 's r o th ir d arg u m e n t to a dd to th e 1 — tw t th a t’s okay In TRAC L an gu age. 1 It r e m a in s . PULLING IN O T H E R ST U F F T he c o r e m e m o r y a v ailab le lo th e u se Is d ivided Into two a r e a s , w hic h w e may c a ll WORKSPACE and STANDBY.

(Another e x am p le of TRAC L an g u a g e's c o n siste n cy : su p p o se 11 e x e c u te s the com m an d »(CL, EBE N E Z E R) w hen th e r e Is no s tr i n g c a lle d E B E N E Z E R . T he r e s u l t Is nothing; so th at com m an d d is a p p e a r s , le avin g no r e s i d u e . )

»(ML,*(AD,7,3),#(SU,ie,9))

WORKSPACE STANDBY S trin g s with N am es ~|

A

A n o th e r (hln g the C A LL c o m m a n d In TRAC L anguage d o e s Is fill In h ole s th al e xls( in f o rm s . L et u s r e p r e s e n t a h ole a s follow s:

T H E FORM COMMANDS L et u s b e a U tile m o r e p r e c i s e . T h e Standby a re a Is re a lly c alled by M o oe rs " form s s to r a g e , ” and a s tr in g w lth -n am e lh at is kept th e re Is c a lle d a lo r m , O ne r e a s o n f o r th is te rm in o lo g y Is th al th e s e s t r in g s c a n c o n s is t of p r o g r a m s o r a rr a n g e m e n ts th a t we may want to fit to g e th e r and c om b in e . T h u s (hey a r e " f o r m s " . 1. CREATING A FORM

I I
Now s u p p o se ( h e r e is a TRAC f o rm with a hole In l(, like t h is .

j

Cw0RDN « i

it!

The Standby a r e a c o n tain s slrln gB of c h a r a c te r s w ith n a m e s. Here could b e s o m e e xam p les: na m es [ haroldI \5 4 3 2 I 1 s tr in g s

A ddition al a rg u m e n ts in (he c a ll get plugged into h o le s In th e f o r m . E x am p les : c a ll result HT HOT HAT HOOT

To c r e a t e a fo rm , you u s e the D EFIN E STRING com m and: *(DS, fo rm n a m e , c o n te n ts ) T h e a rg u m e n ts u s e d by DS giv e a n am e to (he f o rm and sp e cify wha( you want (o have s ( o r e d in II. E xam ple:

«(CL, WORD) •(C L . WORD.O ) •(WORD, A ) • (W ORD.O O)

Now, a f o r m can have a n u m b e r of d ifferen t h o le s. L c( us de n o te th e s e by

[program )-!
(/( P S . H E L P: 1 AM T R A P P E D IN A LOOP)#(C L, PR OGRA m T] [GALOSH E S | |I MUS T N 'T FORG E T MY G A L O S H E sJ T h e r e Is an I n str u c tio n th a t m o v e s things f ro m the Standby a r e a to th e W o rk sp a ce . T h is Is th e C A LL In struction . »(CL, w h a te v e r) The C A L L I n s tr u c tio n p u lls In a copy of the n am ed s tr i n g to r e p la c e 11, the c a ll I n stru ctio n , In the w o rk a r e a . T h e s tr in g n a m ed In the c all I n stru c tio n a lso s ta y s In th e Standby a re a until you w ant to get rid of It. E xam ple: *(CL, HAROLD) would b e r e p la c e d by 54321 Suppose w e s a y In a p r o g ra m # ( A D ,1 ,» (C L , HAROLD))

*(DS, ELVIS, 1234) c r e a te s a form na m ed ELVIS w ith contents 1234. ( e l v Is L

(11 [21 [3| HJ . ..
Now su p p o se w c have a form [ W Q R D > - ^ r ------------------ n ---------- 7 U )H |2 )T 1 3 )] w h ich w e m igh t c all n u m e ro u s w ays: c a ll • (WORD, W, I, E) re su lt WHITE

_ ,^ ‘4l234[
(Note lha l (o gel a p r o g ra m into a fo rm without Its bein g ex ec u ted o n the way r e q u ir e s s o m e p r e p a ra tio n . F o r th is , " p ro te c tio n " Is u se d ; s e e end o l a r t i c l e . ) It tu r n s oul lh a t D EFIN E STRIN G is the c lo s e s t TRAC L anguage h as to an a ssig n m e n t sta te m e n t (as In BASIC, L E T A - W HATEVER). If you want to u s e a v a r ia b le A, s a y , to s t o r e the c u r r e n t r e s u l t of so m e th in g , In TRAC L anguage you c r e a t e a f o rm n a m e d A. *(DS, A, WHATEVER) W henever the va lue of A Is c h an g e d , you re d e fin e f o rm A. 2. CA LLING A FORM.

*(WORD, , OO, OWL) HOOTOWL (Note lh al p u llin g n o th in g b etw een (wo c o m m a s m a d e noth in g the a rg u m e n t. ) *(WORD, « ( W 0 R D , .0 ) S , 0 ) HOTSHOT

P e r h a p s you c a n think of o t h e r e x am p les. T h is f ll l - l n technique is o b viou sly u se fu l f o r p r o g r a m ­ min g. If a f o rm c on tain s a p r o g r a m , Its ho le s c a n b e m ade to a c c e p t v a ry in g n u m b e rs , f o rm n a m e s, te x t s t r i n g s , o th e r p r o g r a m s . E x am p le: Su pp ose we w ant to c r e a t e a new TRAC co m m a n d , ADD, lh a t adds th r e e n u m b e rs in stea d of Just tw o. F a i r enough:

As note d a lre a d y , #(CL, ELVIS) w ill th e n b e r e p la c e d by

T hen the r e s u l t Is: 54322 Now l e t 's do a p r o g ra m lo op u sin g th e CA LL. ty pe In to o u r TRAC p r o c e s s o r «(CL, PROGRAM ) It sh o u ld ty pe H E L P ; I AM T R A P P E D IN A PROGRAM LOOP H E L P ; I AM T R A P P E D IN A PROGRAM LOOP H E L P ; I AM T R A P P E D IN A PROGRAM LOOP In defin it ely . W hy Is t h i s ? L e t 's go th ro u g h th e s te p s . If we

1234 B ut a w ond erfu l ex ten sio n of th is , lh at h a s n 't b e en m e ntio ne d y e t, Is 2A. THE IM PL IC IT CA LL.

[ddK a ^

______
and t h e r e you a re .

^ S^"*)*IAP»U ]i *(A D ,| 2 | , jjijl)]

T h is b r in g s up a n o th e r e x a m p le o l how n ic ely TRAC L an gu age w o r k s out. S uppose you have th e follow in g In l o r m s s to r a g e :

You d o n 't e v e n have lo s a y C L lo c a ll a f o rm . If the f i r s t a rg u m e n t of a c om m an d — th a l Is, th e f i r s t s tr i n g In side the c o m m a n d p a r e n th e s e s — Is not^ a c o m m a n d known to TRAC L ang uag e, why, the T R A C p r o c e s s o r conclu des lh a t the f i r s t a rg u m e n t may b e the nam e of a f o rm . So row 11 y ou ty pe *(AD, * (HAROLD), * (ELVIS)) T r y a c tin g lhl6 on e o ul w ith p e n c il and p a p e r . typ e In *(ZOWIE, 5 ,7 ) It h a ppens th a l the a rg u m e n ts 5 and 7 w ill b e p a s s e d neatl y f ro m ZOWIE to Z IP to ZA P to th e fin al e x ec u tion of th e AD; a ll th ro u g h the s m o o th plu g ging of t o le s by the im p licit call and the M agic S can p r o c e d u r e of th e TRAC p r o c e s s o r . Su pp ose you

We note d th a l In o u r Standby a r e a w e had a s tr i n g nam ed PR OGRAM w h ic h c o n siste d o l '( P S , H E L P ; I AM T R A P P E D IN A PROGRAM LO OP)»(C L, PROGRAM) The T RA C p r o c e s s o r s c a n s a c r o s s It to th e f i r s t r igh t p a re n th e s is . »(PS, H E L P j J AM T R A P P E D tW A PR OGRAM LO OP)*(C L. PROGRAM) and now e x e c u te s thllsT ~~~ ^

It w ill f i r s t no te, on rea c h in g lh e r l g h t- p a r e n o f the HAROLD co m m a n d , th a t s i n c e HAROLD Is 54321, you evid en tly w anted th is : »(AD, 54321, I (ELVIS))

V *

I

r e s c a n of r e s u l t

and th en w ill do th e s a m e w ith ELVIS: #(AD, 543 21,1 234)

II ha pp ens th a t PS Is th e P R IN T STRING in stru c tio n . PR IN T STRIN G p r in ts out Its se c o n d a rg u m e n t, and forg e ts Ihe r e s t . But th e o nly a rg u m e n t a f te r P S Is

so th a t p r e tt y so o n I t'll ty pe f o r you 55555

\

an interpretive language (each step carried out directly by the processor without conversion to another form first); an extensible language (you can add your own commands for your own purposes); a list-processing language (for handling complex and amorphous forms of data that don't fit in boxes and arrays). It Is one of the few such lan­ guages that fits ln little computers.

TEST COMMANDS IN TRAC LANGUAGE There are te s t commands In TRAC Language, but like everything e l s e they work on strings of characters. Thus they may work on numbers o r text. Consider the EQ command (test if equal): #(EQ, firstth in g, secondthlng, Uso, ifnot) where "firstthing'’ and "secondthlng" are the strin gs being compared, and Uso and if not are the alternatives. II fir st­ thing is the s a m e as secondthlng, then Uso Is what the TRAC p ro ce sso r d oes, and if not Is forgotten. Example: #(EQ, 3, #(SU, 5, 2), HOORAY, NUTS) If it turns out that 3 Is equal to #(SU, 5,2), which It is, then all that would be left of the whole strin g would be

3.

DRILLING THE HOLES

HOORAY while oth erw ise the TRAC p rocessor would produce NUTS. To most com puter people this looks com pletely insldeout, with the thing to do next appearing at the center of the test instruction. Others find this feature a t-trac-tlve.

The holes (called by M ooers segm ent gaps) are created by the SEGMENT STRING Instruction. #(SS,form nam e,w hateverl, whatever2 . . . ) where 'Yormname" Is the form you want to put holes in and th e whatevers are things you want to replace by holes. Example: Suppose you have a form I INSULTf— ^ ______________________ jYOU ARE A CREEP]

DISK OPERATIONS Now for the juicy disk operations. Storing things on disk can occur as an ordinary TRAC command. #(SB, n a m e .fo r m l, form 2,form 3 . . . ) creates a p lace out som ewhere on disk with the name you give it, and puts in It the forms you've sp ecified. Example: #(SB, JUNK, TOM, DICK, HARRY)

You make this more general by means of the SEGMENT STRING instruction: #(SS, INSULT, CREEP) resulting in flNSULTk _______________ _ ^ YOU ARE A [ ]|

and they're stored . #(FB, JUNK)

If you want them later you say

which can be filled in at a m ore appropriate tim e. and they’re back. Fuller example. Suppose w e type into the TRAC p roce ssor the following: #(DS, THINGY, ONE FOR THE MONEY AND TWO FOR THE SHOW) #(SS, THINGY, ONE, TWO, ) ^-------note space We have now created a form THINGY and replaced parts of it with segm ent gaps. Since each of the later arguments of SEGMENT STRING s p ecifie s a differently numbered gap, w e will have gaps numbered [ l j , [2], and [3j. The gap [1] will have replaced the word ONE, the gap [2] will have replaced the word TWO, and a lot of gaps numbered [9] will have replaced all the sp aces ln the form (since the fifth argument of SS was a sp ace). The resulting form Is: [t h i n g y J ([ ll [ ^ F b Ri3iTHE[3]MONEYr3]ANDf3][2][3lFORf3lTHE[3jSTOW^ We can get It to print out Interestingly by typing #(CL, THINGY, RUN, HIDE) (since after the call, the plugged-ln form will s till be in the form s s to r a g e .) This is printed: RUNFORTHEMONEYANDHIDEFORTHESHOW o r perhaps, if w e u se a carriage return for the last argument , we can get funny resu lts. The call # (THINGY, NOT A FIG, THAT, [carriage return] should result in NOT A FIG FOR THE MONEY AND THAT FOR THE SHOW TEMP. (I (RESTART]))! Ifvfkt FI. __ _ 1---------^ N*(DA)*(FB,MARVEL)i>fPS. WELCOME O MASTER)! In this example, however, you may have noticed more parentheses than you expected. Now for why. PROTECTION AND ONE-SHOT The last thing we'll talk about is the other two syntactic layouts. We've already told you about the main syn tactic layout of TRAC Language, which Is
#( )

B ecause you can mix the disk operations In with every* thing e ls e s o n icely, you can chain programs and changing environments with great ea se to travel smoothly among different s y s te m s , circum stances, setups. Here Is a stupid program that scans all incoming text for the word SHAZAM. If the word SHAZAM appears, It cle a rs out everything, calls a whole nother disk block, and welcom es its new master. Otherwise nothing happens. If you have a c c ess to a TRAC system (or really want to work on it), you may be able to figure It out. (RESTART must be In the w orkspace to b eg in .) /RESTART I .________________________________________ . ------------ 1 — |»(DS, TEMP, *(RS))*(SS. TEMP. )*(RPT)| IrptT ^ ^ ^ ,____________________________________________ |*(EQ. SHAZAM. *(TEST). (#(EVENT)))#(RPT)1

_

It turns out that two more layouts are needed, which w e may call PROTECTION and ONE-SHOT. Protection is simply
( )

which prevents the execution of anything between the p arentheses. The TRAC p rocessor str ip s off these plain parentheses and moves on, leaving behind what was in them but not having executed it. (But it may com e back. ) An obvious u se Is to put around a program you 're designing: # (DS, PROG, (#(AD,A, B))) stripped In TRAC Language, every command is replaced by Us result as the program’s execution proceeds. This is ingenious, weird and highly effective. stripped

but other u s es turn up after you've experimented a little. The last TRAC command arrangement looks like this
**( )

and you can put any command in it, except that Its result w ill only be ca r ried one level l#(CL, ZOWIE, 3 ,4 ) results In (using the form s we defined ea r lie r),

# (Z IP ,3 ,4 )

m. e®
INPUT. RS

P R im n v 1s f

which Is allowed to s u rv iv e as Is, because the moving finger of the TRAC sca n n e r does not r e - s c a n the r e s u lt . It Is left to the v e ry curious to try to fig u re out why this Is needed.

OUTPUT. P S ,s trin g PRINT STRING: prints out th e s econd argum ent.

V
W h a te v e r c a n b e e x e c u t e d Is r e p la c e d by Its r e s u l t . T h is m ay o r m ay not y ie ld s o m e th in g w h ic h is In t u r n e x e c u ta b le . W h en n o t h i n g le f t I s e x e c u t a b l e , w h a t ' s le ft is p rin te d o u t. T h a t ’s t h e T R A C l a n g u a g e ,

READ STRING: this com m and is re p la c e d by a s t r i n g of c h a ra c te rs typed ln by the u s e r , w hose end is sig n alled by a changeable "m eta" c h a ra c te r. CM, arg2 CHANGE META: f i r s t c h a ra c te r of second arg u m en t becom es new m eta c h a ra c te r. May be c a r r l a g e - r e t u r n code. RC READ CHARACTER: this com m and Is re p lace d by the next c h a ra c te r the u s e r types in. P e r m its highly re s p o n siv e i n t e r ­ active s y s te m s . DISK COMMANDS. S B ,b lo c k n a m e ,fo rm l,fo rm 2 . . . STORE BLOCK: under block nam e supplied, s t o r e s fo rm s llstc FB , blockname FETCH BLOCK: contents of nam ed block a r e quietly brought in to form s s to ra g e from disk. MAIN FORM COMMANDS. DS, form nam e, contents DEFINE STRING. D iscu sse d In text. CL, form nam e, plu g l,p lu g 2 , plug3 . . . CALL: brings form from fo rm s s to ra g e to w orking p rogram . P lu g l is fitted Into every hole (segm ent gap) num bered 1, plug2 Into e v e ry hole num bered 2, and so on. SS, form nam e,punchoutl, punchout2 . . . SEGMENT STRING: this com m and re p la c e s e v e ry o cc u rre n ce o f punchoutl with a hole (segm ent gap) num bered 1, and so on. INTERNAL FORM COMMANDS. (All of these use a little p o in ter, o r fo rm p o in te r, that m ark s a plac« In the form . If th e r e is no fo rm re m ain in g a fte r the pointer, these instructions act on th eir la s t argum ent, which is o th erw ise i g n o re d .) IN, form nam e, s trin g , default Looks for specified s trin g IN the fo rm , s ta rtin g a t pointer. If not found, pointer unm oved. (NOTE: s trin g s e a r c h can also be done nicely with the SS c o m m a n d .) CC, form nam e, default CALL CHARACTER: brings up next c h a ra c te r In form , moves poin ter to a f te r it. C N ,fo rm n a m e,n o .o f c h a ra c te rs ,d e fa u lt CALL N: brings up next N c h a r a c t e r s , m oves p o in ter to a fte r them . CS, form nam e, default CALL SEGMENT: b r i n ^ up everything to next segm ent gap, m oves poin ter to it. CR, form nam e CALL RESTORE: m oves p o in ter back to beginning of form . MANAGING FORMS STORAGE LN, divider LIST NAMES: replaced by a ll fo rm nam es In fo rm s s to rag e , with any d iv id er between them . D ivider is optional. DD, n a m e l, nam e2 . .. DELETE DEFINITION: d e s tro y s nam ed fo r m s In fo rm s s to ra g DA DELETE ALL: gets rid of a ll fo rm s In fo rm s s to rag e . TEST COMMANDS. EQ, firstthing, secondthlng, If so, Ifnot T e s ts if EQual: If firs tth in g Is s a m e as secondthlng, w hat’s lefi is Ifso; If not equal, w h a t's left Is ifnot. GR, firstthing, secondthlng, ifso, Ifnot T e s ts w hether firstth in g is n u m eric ally G R eater than sec o n d thing. If so , w hat's left is ifs o ; if not, w h a t's left Is ifnot. OH YEAH, ARITHMETIC. (All these a re handled in decim al a r ith m e tic , a c h a ra c te r al a tim e, and defined only fo r two in te g e rs . E verything e ls e you w rite y o u r­ s e lf as a shorty p r o g r a m .) AD -v > m entioned In text. DI

\
FAST ANSWERBACK IN TRAC LANGUAGE TRAC Language can be used fo r fa s t answ erback to s im p le pro b le m s. Typing ln long executable TRAC e x p r e s ­ sions c a u s e s the re s u lt, If any, to be p rin ted back out Im m ediately. F o r naive u s e r s , however, the s p ec ial advantage is In how e a s ily TRAC Language m ay be u sed to pro g ram la s t a nsw erback environm ents of any kind. A SERIOUS LANGUAGE; BUT BE WILLING TO BELIEVE WHAT YOU SEE TRAC Language .Is, besides being an easy language to le a rn , v ery powerful fo r text and s to ra g e applications. Conventional com puter people do n 't n e c e s s a rily believe o r like It. F o r instance, as a consultant I once had p rogram m ed, ln TRAC Language, a s y stem fo r a ce rta in Intricate form of b u sin ess application. It w orked. It ra n . Anybody could be taught to u se It In five m inutes. T he client was c o n sid e rIng expanding It and installing a com plete sy stem . They asked another consultant. It couldn't be done In TRAC Language, s a id the o ther consultant; th at's so m e kind of a " u n iv ersity " language. End of p ro je c t. HOW TO GET IT T h e re have been, until recently, ce rta in difficulties about getting acce ss to a TRAC p ro c e s s o r. O ver the y ea rs, M ooers has worked with his own p ro c e s s o rs in C am bridge. E x p e rim e n te rs h ere and there have trie d th e ir hands at pro g ram m in g It, w ith little com patibility In th eir re s u lts . M ooers has worked with s e v e ra l la rg e c o rp o ratio n s, who said s a id they wanted to try p ro c e s s o rs to a s s e s s the value of the the language, but those endeavors brought nothing oul to th e public. FINALLY, how ever, TRAC Language s e r v ic e is publlcally available, In a fastidiously ac cu rate p ro c e s s o r and with M ooers' blessing, on C om putility™ tim esharlng serv ic e . They run P D P-10 s e r v ic e ln the B oston-to-W ashington a r e a . (From e lse w h ere you have to pay long d i s t a n c e .) The c h a rg e should ru n $12 to $15 p e r hour In business hours, le s s elsew hen. But this depends to so m e extent on what y o u r p ro g ram does, and Is hence unpredictable. A licensed TRAC Language p ro c e s s o r m ay be obtained from M ooers fo r y o u r own favorite P D P-10. P ro c e s s o rs fo r o th e r com ­ p u te r s , including m in is , a r e In the p lanning s tage. TRAC Language is now nicely docum ented ln two new books by M ooers, a beg in n e r's m anual and a standardization book (see B ibliography). Since M ooers o p e ra te s a s m a ll busin ess, and m ust m ake a livelihood from It, he has adopted the standa rd b u sin ess techniques of s e r v ic e m a rk and copyright to p ro te c t h is In te re s ts. The s e r v ic e m a rk "T R A C " s e r v e s to Identify his product in the m ark etp lace , and Is an a s s u r a n c e to the public that the product exactly m ee ts the p ublished s tan d a rd s By law, th e " T R A C m ark may not be used on p ro g ram s o r p roducts which do not com e from R ockford R esea rc h , Inc. Follow ing IBM, he is using copyright to p ro te c t his docum entation and p ro g ra m s from copying and adaptation w ithout authority. M ooers also sta n d s ready to accom m odate academ ic s tu d en ts and e x p e rim en ters who w ish to try th e ir hands at p ro g ra m m in g a TRAC p ro c e s s o r. An ex p e rim e n te r's lice n s e fo r u se of the copyright m a te ria l m ay be obtained fo r a few d o lla rs , provided you do not Intend to u s e the r e s u ltin g p ro g ram s com m ercially. F o r Inform ation o f all kinds, Including lis ts of lates t li te r a tu r e and application n otes, contact: Calvin N. M ooers R ockford R es ea rc h , Inc. 1 40-1/2 Mount Auburn S tree t C am bridge, M ass. 02136 T el. (617)676-0776

J

BOOLEAN COMMANDS. (Several exist ln the language, but could ro t p ossibly be understood from this w r ite u p .)

* D escription of TRAC language p rim itiv e s adapted by p e r m is s io n from "TRAC, A P ro c e d u re-D esc rib in g Language f o r the R ea ctiv e T y p e w riter, " copyright © 1 9 6 6 by R ockford R e s e a rc h , Inc.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Calvin N. M ooers, The B eginner's Manual fo r TRAC® Language. 300 p ages, $10.00, from R ockford R e s e a rc h , Inc. (See "W here to Get I t . ") Calvin N. M ooers, Definition and S tandard f o r TRAC® T -64 Language, 86 p ages, $5.00, from Rockford R e s e a rc h , Inc. Calvin N. M ooers, "TRAC, A P ro ce d u re -D e s c rib in g Language fo r the R eactive T y p e w rite r," C om m unications of the ACM. v .9 , n .3 , pp. 215-219 (M arch 1966). H is to ric p a p e r, out of p rin t. This p ap e r is copyrighted, and the copyright is owned by R ockford R esea rc h , I n c ., through leg a l assig n m e n t from the A ssociation fo r Computing M achinery, Inc. And fo r those who want to understand the depth o f the s ta n d a rd iz a ­ tion pro b le m , M ooers o ffers freeb ie r e p rin ts of: C alvin N. M ooers, "Accom m odating S tandards and Identification of P ro g ra m m in g L an g u ag es," C om m unications of the ACM. v . l l , n. 8, pp. 574-576 (August 1968).

22

TWO-SIDED OPERATORS In old-fashioned notations, such as o rdinary arithm etic, we a re u sed to the idea of an operator between two t h in g s . Like 2+ 2 o r in a lg e b r a ,
t X y

SAME SYMBOLS WORK BOTH WAYS Now, one of the fascinating kickers of APL is the fact that most of the symbols have both a one-sided meaning and a two-sided meaning; but, thank goodness, they can be easily kept straight Here is a concrete example: the symbol T or "ceiling." Used o n e-sid ed , the result of o perator |" applied to something numerical is the in teg er ju st above the num ber it is applied to: p 7.2 is B. Used tw o-sid e d , the result is which­ ever of the num bers it's between i£ larger: 10 f 6 is 10. (There is also , floor, which you can su rely figure o u t.) Now, when you s tr in g things out into a long APL e x p re ssio n , Iv erso n 's notation determines exactly when an operato r is one-sided and when it is two-sided: As you go from rig h t to le ft, another thing?) OP THING another op? I*^___ _____________ _

sta rk. «r i-ic v e ie ^

AfL
Some people call it a "scientific" language. Some people call it a "mathematical" language. Some people a re most s tru c k by its use for in te r­ active system s, so to them it1s an interactive language. But most of u s ju st think of it as THE LANGUAGE WITH ALL THE FUNNY SYMBOLS, and here they are:
» p u n a c iw t£ |a \= 0 ;r ° V M " - <K fi2 := >)v: i _ ( + T - m ~ 0 ? 1 -

T h e se , too, occur in APL; in d ee d , APL can also n est tw o-sided op erato rs— that is , put them one in sid e the other, like the leaves of a cabbage. Old-fashioned notations nest with p a re n th e s e s . But APL nests leftw ard . It works according to a v e ry simple rig h t-to -left r u l e .

i x

y

X

2

*

2

the resu lt of this^, is operated on by th e next thing and o p e ra to r, y ielding another resu lt which is in tu rn operated on by the next thing and o p e ra to r, yielding final re s u lt. ONE-SIDED OPERATORS We a re also u sed to some o n e -sid ed operators in our prev io u s life. For instance:

123B46S7]9.BF[ UN+ITOQD-t
PRVC AZ* WYE MQ /XL,S JG KH

Enthusiasts see it a s a language of incon­ ceivable power with extraord in ary u s e s , Cynics rem ark that it has all k in d s of extraordinary powers for inconceivable u s e s — that is, a weird eleg an ce, much of which h as no use at a ll , and some of which gets in the w a y . This is probably w rong. APL is a terrific and beautiful triumph of the m ind, and a very useful programming language. It is not for every ­ body , but neither is c h e s s . It is for brig h t chil­ d re n , mathematicians, a nd companies who want to build interactive system s b u t feel they should stick with IBM. APL is one of IBM's better products, probably because it is principally the creation of one m an, Kenneth Iverso n . It is mainly ru n on 360 and 370 com puters, though implementations exist for the DEC PDP-10 and p erh ap s other popular machines. (Actually iverson designed the lan­ guage at Harvard and programmed it on his own initiative after moving to IBM; added to the p ro­ duct line by popular demand, it was not a planned product and might in fact be a hazard to the firm , should it catch on b ig .) APL ia a language of a r r a y s , with a fascinat­ ing notation. The a rra y system and the notation can be explained s e p a ra te ly , and bo they w ill. Let's ju st say the language works on things modified successively by o p e ra to rs. Their ord er and result is based upon those fiendish chicken scratches, Iverson notation. THAT NIFTY NOTATION The first thing to und erstan d about APL is the fiendishly clever system of notation that Iverson has worked out. T h is system (sometimes called Iverson notation) allows extremely complex relations and com puter-type events to be expressed sim ply, densely and co n sisten tly . (Of c o u rse , you c a n 't even type it without an IBM Selectric ty p ew riter and an APL ball. Note the product-line t ie - in .) The notation is b ased on operators modifying th in g s . Let's use alphabetic symbols for things and play with p ictures for a minute.

you generally start with a thing on the right. Then comes an o p e rato r. If the next symbol is another th in g , then the o perator is io be treated as a twosided operator (because it’s between two th in g s). If the object beyond the firs t operator is another o p erato r, however, that means APL is supposed lo stop and c a rry out the f ir s t operator on a one-sided b a s is . Example:

means the negation of 1; - ( - 1) means negating th a t. APL can also nest one-sided o p e ra to r s . Conclusion: It’s tw o-sided. Interpretation: "su b tract B from A." A + - B ■rator is

<> ^A

Bs

resu lt is worked on by fourth o p e ra to r, yielding final result.

* th in g, op, op— stop . Conclusion: The firs t op erato r is o n e -s id e d . Interpretation: "negate B ." Then take n ex t s y m b o l.

A U tlR J) e x w t e , T» HEif* w i t h r u e K .w io V«
Ju st for k ic k s , let us make up a notation having nothing to do with computers, u sin g these Iverson principles: 1) If an operator o r symbol ia between two names of th in g s , c a rry it out tw o-sidedly. If not, c a rry it out o n e-sidedly. Go from rig h t to left. A
a
0)

B

’ r-

^ ___ | -I
.

90} b

A

90} 90}

rj
B

[jl ~ ]

2)

90} A 90} B

The best sim ple example I can think of involves file cards on the table (named A, B, C . . . ) and operators looking like this: 0) 45} 90} 180) 455 90T 1005

455 A 90) B

:c
1

455 A 90} 90) B ^

z >

o-A

to which we may assig n the following meanings: B 0 ) 45) A
A r

ONE-SIDED: 0} A 451 A 90^ A

ROTATION OPERATORS do nothing to A rotate A clockwise 45* rotate A clockwise 90° e tc .

C 45) B 0) 90) A

t au/ f t i f -

In considering the su c ce ssiv e meanings of thiB reb u s we a re proceeding from right to left, aa you note, and each new symbol adds meaning. This is the general id ea. You will note, in th is example, the curious arrangement w hereby you can have several p ictu res, or o p e rato rs, in a row. This is one of the fun features of the language.

TWO-SIDED: STAPLING OPERATORS B 451 A staple A (thing named on the right) to B (thing named on th e left) at a position 45* clockw ise from middle of B’s c e n terline.

It's h ard to believ e, but th e re you a re . This notation seems adequate to make a whole lot of different stapled p a tte rn s . Exercise! Use this nutty file c a rd notation to program the making of funny p a tte rn s . Practice with a friend and Bee if you can communicate patterns through these p ro g ra m s , one person uncomprehendingly c a rry in g out the o th er’s program and being s u r p r i s e d . The point of all th is has been to show the powerful but somewhat s ta rtlin g way that b rief s c rib b les in notations of t h i B type can have all sorts of r e s u lts .

W -T
sllp/t (o» -

*

And equivalently for other angleB. Now, u sin g these r u le s , and lettin g o ur things be any file c a rd s that a re h a n d y , h e re a re some resu lts:

H e r e la a n o t h e r e x a m p l e s h o w in g h o w w e c h u g a lo n g t h e r o w o f s y m b o l s a n d t a k e i t a p a r t . A g a i n , th e a lp h a b e tic a l e n title s r e p r e s e n t t h i n g s .

SOME A PL O PERATORS It w o u ld b e i n s a n e to e n u m e r a t e th e m a l l , b u t h e r e I s a s a m p l i n g o f A P L 's o p e r a t o r s . T h e y ' r e a ll on th e pocket c a r d s ( s e e B ib lio g ra p h y ) . F o r o ld t i m e s ' s a k e , h e r e a r e o u r f r i e n d s : (A n d a c o u s i n t h r o w n i n f o r s y m m e t r y . ) +A A+B p la in A ( w h a t e v e r A s h o u l d h a p p e n to b e ) A p lu s B ( w h a t e v e r A s h o u l d h a p p e n to B . heh heh) n e g a ti o n of B A m in u s B th e s ig n of B ( e x p r e s s e d a s - 1 .0 o r 1) A ti m e s B A PL T H IN G S , T O GO W IT H Y OUR O PE R A T O R S A s w e s a i d , A PL h a s o p e ra to r s ( a lr e a d y e x p la in e d ) a n d t h in g s ■ T h e th in g s c a n b e p la in n u m b e r s , o r A r r a y s ( a l r e a d y m e n tio n e d u n d e r B A S IC ). T h i n k o f th e m a s r o w s , b o x e s a n d su p e rb o x e s of n u m b e rs : 2 4 6 8 10 a o n e -d im e n sio n a l th in g

E (Ǥ| >
^ ______ f i r s t o p e r a t i o n (o n e - s i d e d ), s e c o n d o p e ra tio n (tw o -sid ed ) T r y d i v i d i n g u p th e s e e x a m p l e s :

2 4
3 5 a tw o - d i m e n s i o n a l th i n g

( p ROMEO ELEANOR < 2 > SAM SUSIB

-B A -B aB A iB

X •
0 8 a th re e -d im e n s io n a l th in g , s e e n f ro m t h e f r o n t . M ayb e w e b e t t e r lo o k a t t h e l e v e l a s i d e b y sid e : 13 2 4 5 7 6 6

O n e m o r e t h i n g n e e d s to b e n o t e d . N ot o n ly c a n w e w o r k o u t th e s e q u e n c e s o f o p e r s t l o n s . fro m l i g h t to l e f t . b e t w e e n th e s y m b o l s ; t h e c o m p u te r c a n c a r r y th s m o u t i n a s t a b le f a s h i o n . W hich i s o f c o u rse e s s e n tia l.

A n d h e re a re som e g n io v le s: !A A! B fa c to ria l A ( 1 * 2 * 3 . . . u p to A ) th e n u m b e r o f p o ssib le c o m b in a tio n s y o u c a n g e t f ro m B ■ ta k e n A a t a tim e a ra n d o m I n te g e r ta k e n f ro m a r r a y A ta k e s o m e I n t e g e r s a t r a n d o m f r o m B . How m a n y ? A .

A PL c a n h a v e T h i n g s w i t h f o u r d i m e n s i o n s , f iv e a n d s o o n , b u t w e w o n 't t r o u b l e y o u h e r e w i t h p i c t u r e s . O h y s s . a n d A n a l ly a n o - d l m e n s l o n a l t h i n g . E x a m p le : 7 5 .2 It i s c a l l e d n o - d ltn e n s t o n a l b e c a u s e t h e r e I s o n ly o n e o f i t , s o i t Is n o t a r o w o r a b o x . S e r i o u s l y , t h e s e a r e a r r a y s , a n d I v e r s o n 's A PL w o r k s th e m o v e r , t u r n s th s m I n s i d e o u t , t w i s t s a n d s a p s t h r o u g h to w h s t e v e r t h e a n s w e r s a r e . A s In BA SIC a n d T R A C , t h e a r r a y s o f A PL a r e r e a l l y s t o r e d l n th e c o m p u t e r 's c o r e m e m o r y , a s s o c i a t e d w ith t h e n a m e y o u g i v e t h e m . T h e a r r a y s m ay b e o f a l l d i f f e r e n t s i t e s s n d d im e n ­ s i o n a lit y : ________________ H oe/ , --------' l 2 . 5 7 .1 8 8 .0 0 6 ^ /n o ra ] [ w o o p s l e l } ^ * 1 •* » ) [ab cd efl [ ( (««. W“ ) ISA M ’

INSIDE T h e t r u t h o f t h e m a tte r i s th a t A PL l n th e co m ­ p u te r Is a c o n tin u in g su c c e s s io n of th in g s b e in g o p e ra te d o n a n d re p la c e d In th e w o rk a r e a . firs t th in g . . . UG ^ I [ I jZf ' y A R G ^ th in g w h ic h r e s u lts f ro m o p e r a t o r $ d o n e o n YAAOH,

?A A ?B

B u t, of c o u rs e . A PL goes o n a n d o n . T h e r e a r e d o z e n s m o r e ( I n c l u d i n g s y m b o l s m a d e o f m o re t h a n o n e w e i r d APL s y m b o l , p r i n t e d o n to p o f e a c h o t h e r to m a k e a n e w s y m b o l ) . C o n s i d e r t h e I n c r e d i b l e p o w e r . S i n g l e APL s y m b o l s g i v e y o u l o g a r i t h m s , tr ig o n o m e t r i c fu n c tio n s , m a trix fu n c tio n s , n u m b e r sy ste m c o n v e r­ s i o n s , l o g s to a n y a r b i t r a r y b a s e , a n d p o w e r s o f e (a m y ste rio u s n u m b e r o f w h ic h e n g in e e r s a r e f o n d ) . O t h e r w e i r d t h i n g s . Y ou c a n a p p l y a n o p e r ­ a tio n to a l l t h e e l e m e n ts o f s n a r r a y u s i n g t h e / o p e r a t o r : + /A I s t h e s u m o f e v e r y t h i n g I n A , >/A i s t h e c o m b in e d p r o d u c t o f e v e r y t h i n g In A . A n d so o n . W h e w . A s y o u m a y s u s p e c t , A PL p r o g r a m s c a n b e I n c r e d i b l y c o n c i s e . ( T h i s Is a f r e q u e n t l y - h e a r d c r i t i c i s m : th a t th e c o n c i s e n e s s m a k e s th e m h a r d to u n d e r s t a n d a n d h a r d to c h a n g e . ) MAKE YOUR OWN F i n a ll y a n d g l o r i o u e l y . t h e u s e r m a y d e f in e h is ow n fu n c tio n s , e ith e r o n e -s id e d o r tw o - s id e d , w ith a l p h a b e t i c a l n a m e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , y o u c a n c r e a t e y o u r o w n o n e - s i d e d o p e r a t o r Z O N K . a s ln ZONK B

t h i n g t h a t r e s u l t s f ro m o p e r a t i o n Lv d o n e to th a t b y UG V a n d ao o n . W hat le e f f e c tiv e ly h a p p e n i n g i s t h a t t h e APL p r o c e s s o r i s h o l d i n g w h a t i t ' s w o r k i n g o n in a h o l d i n g a r e a . T h e w a y It c a r r i e s o u t t h e B ean o f t h e A PL l a n g u a g e , t h e r e o n l y h a s to b e o n e t h i n g in th e re a t a lim e .

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(a z e r o - d i m e n s i o n a l a r r a y , s i n c e i t ' s o n ly o n e n u m b e r . ) E a c h a r r a y I s r e a l l y a s e r i e s o f m e m o r y l o c a t io n s w ith I ts l a b e l a n d b o x i n g I n f o r m a tio n — d i m e n s i o n s a n d l e n g t h s — s t o r e d s e p a r a t e l y . O n e v e r y n ic e t h i n g a b o u t A PL i s t h a t a r r a y s c a n k e e p c h a n g i n g th e ir s iz e s f re e ly , a n d th is n e e d b e of no c o n c e rn to t h e A PL p r o g r a m m e r . ( T h e a r r a y s c a n a l s o b e b o x e d a n d r e b o x e d l n d if f e r e n t d i m e n s i o n s j u s t b y c h a n g i n g t h e b o x i n g in f o r m a t io n — w ith a n o p e r a t o r c a lle d " ra v e l ." )

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S t a r l i n g a t t h e t i g h t o f t h i s u s e r p r o g r a m , th e m a in A PL p r o g r a m p u t s Z i n t o t h e w o r k a r e a . T h a t 's th e f i r s t t h i n g . T h e n , s t e p p i n g le ft l n th e u s e r p r o g r a m , t h e A PL p r o c e s s o r f o llo w s t h e r u l e s a n d d i s c o v e r s t h a t t h e n e x t o p e r a t i o n m a k e s It

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A n A PL m a c h i n e . a m in i t h a t d o e s n o t h i n g b u t A P L . I s n o w a v a i l a b l e f ro m a C a n a d i a n f ir m f o r th e m e r e p i t t a n c e o f TH RBE THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED DOLLARS , th e p r i c e o f m a n y a m e r e te r m i n a l . T h is a c c o r d i n g to C o m p u t e r w o r l d . 10 O ct 7 9 . R u n , d o n 't w a l k , to M ic ro C o m p u te r M a c h i n e s , I n c . , 4 i A n s l n g S q . . W illow d a l e . M2J 1 T 1 . O n t a r i o , C a n a d a . T h a t $3500 g e t s y o u a 16K m e m o r y , t h e A PL p r o g r a m , k e y b o a r d a n d n u m e r i c a l k e y b o a r d , a n d p la s m a d i s p l a y . C a s s e t t e ( w h i c h a p p a r e n tly s to r e s a n d r e tr ie v e s a r r a y s b y nam e w h e n c a lle d b y th e p r o g r a m ) i s $1500 e x l r a . RUNS ON B A T T E R I E S . S o r r y , n o g r e e n s t a m p s . (Note th a t t h e A PL p r o c e s s o r t a k e s u p m o st o f t h e 16 K , b u t y o u c a n g e t m o r e . )

w h i c h h a p p e n s to m e a n , " t h e n e g a ti o n o f Z . " S o it c a r r i e s th is o u t on Z a n d r e p la c e s Z w ith th e r e s u l t , - Z . T h e n , c o n t i n u i n g to s c a n l e f t w a r d , t h e APL p r o c e s s o r c o n t i n u e s to r e p l a c e w h a t w a s l n t h e w o r k a re a w ith th e r e s u l t of e ac h o p e ra tio n in th e s u c ­ c e s s i v e l i n e s o f t h e u s e r p r o g r a m , tLU t h e p r o g r a m i s c o m p le te d . A PL Prt>cV S V r

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T h e r u m o r t h a l IBM h a s A PL o n a c h i p , i n s i d e a S e l e c t r i c — w h i c h t h e r e f o r e d o e s a l l t h e s e t h i n g s w ith n o e x t e r n a l c o n n e c tio n to a n y ( e x t e r n a l ) c o m p u te r - * r e m a i n s u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d . T h e r u m o r h a s b e e n a r o u n d f o r s o m e tim e. B ut i t 's q u ite p o ssib le . T h e t h i n g i s , It w o u ld p r o b a b l y d e s t r o y I B M 's e n t i r e p r o d u c t l i n e - - s n d p r i c i n g e d if i c e .

Few p e o p le Know a ll of APL. o r w ould w an t to . T h e o p e r a tio n s a r e d lv e re e a n d o b e c u r e . a n d m a n y o f them a r e c o m p re h e n s ib le o nly to p e o p le In m ath em atical field s. H ow ev e r, if y o u know a dozen o r so y ou c an r e a l l y g e t off Ihe g r o u n d .

H ere is a n APL p r o g r a m th a l ty p e s o u t b a c k w a r d s w hat y o u ty p e I n . F i r s t lo ok a t the p r o g r a m , th e n th e e x p la n a tio n be lo w . V REV

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I v e r s o n 's nota tion is built around the c u r io u s p r in c i p le o f h a v in g the same symbols mean tw o th in g s d e p e n d in g on c o n tex t. (Goodness k n o w s h e u s e s en o u g h d ifferent symbols; doubling u p s i le ast m e an s h e d o e sn ’t need any more.) It t u r n s o u t th a t ih ia nota tion r ep rese n tsT c on sisie ni s e r i e s o f o p e r a tio n s in a sto un ding combinations. T h e o v e ra ll APL la n g u ag e , rea lly , la the c a r r y i n g t h r o u g h of th is nota tion to create an Im­ m e n sely p o w e r f u l p rog ram m in g la nguage. The im p e tu s o b v io u s l y came from the de sire lo make v a r io u s i n tr ic a t e m athematical operations easy to c o m m a n d. T h e r e s u l t , h o w ev e r, le a programming l a n g u a g e w ith g r e a t pow er for sim pler tasks as well. N ow . t h e c o n se q u e n c e s o f ihls o verall Idea w e r e nol d e te r m in e d b y God. They w ere worked o u l b y I v e r a o n . v e r y th o u g h tfu lly , so a s lo come o ul s y m m e tr ic a l-lo o k ln g a n d e asy lo remember. What we se e i s th e c le v e r exploitation o f apparent b u t Inex a ct s y m m e lr le s In the Id ea s. Often APL'a o n e - s i d e d a n d tw o - s id e d p a ir s o f operato rs a re m ore s u g g e s tiv e ly sim ila r th a n really th e same I h in g . When I v e r s o n s sslg n 6 on e -a ld ed an d twos id e d m e a n i n g s to a sy m b ol, often the two meanings m ay look n a t u r a l o n ly b e ca u se Iverson Is su c h sn a r t i s t . E xsm ple: tw o - s id e d AX B A tim es B o n e -sid ed a B the sig n o f B

A* In BASIC , y ou c an u s e s u b s c r i p t s to get a t s p e c if ic e lem en ts In a r r a y s . R e f e r r i n g to th e e x a m p le s a b o v e . If yo u typ e JO E [ 2] yo u get b a c k o n y o u r t y p e w rit e r Its va lu e 7 .1 a n d If y ou ty p e NORA

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E x p la n a ti o n . T h e d o w n - p o l n lln g tr ia n g le s ( " d e ls " ) sy m b o lize t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d e n d o f a p r o g rs m . w h ic h In th is c a a e w e h a v e c a lle d REV. On L in e 1. th e " Q u o te -Q u a d " sy m bo l (on th e r ig h t ) c a u s e s th e APL p r o c e s s o r to w all for a lp h a b e tic a l i n p u t. P re su m a b ly Ih e u s e r w ill ty p e so m e th in g . T h e u s e r ' s lin e o f I n p u t Is stu f f e d Into th in g o r a r r a y 1. T h e u s e r ' s c a r r i a g e r e t u r n te lls th e APL p r o c e s s o r h e h a a f i n is h e d , s o It c o n tin u e s in th e p r o g ra m . On Ihe s e c o n d l i n e . APL la k e s a r r a y 1 a n d doea a o n e - s i d e d £ to II. w h ic h h a p p e n s to m ean tu r n in g il a r o u n d . L e f t- a r r o w in to Ihe q u o te -q u a d sy m bo l m e an s p r i n t II ou t. B e ca u se of A PL 'a c o m p a c tn e s s , in d e e d . Ihls m a g nifice n t p r o g ra m c sn e ll g o o n o ne line: ^ REV

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T h e r e a r e b a sic a lly fou r k ln d a of In fo rm atio n u se d b y A PL . a n d a ll of them c a n be p u t In a r r a y s . T h r e e o f th e s e ty p e s a r e n u m e ric a l, a n d a r r a y s of th em look lik e Ih ls o n pa per: I n te g e r a r r a y e ; 2 4 - 6 6 10 2040

S c a la r a r r a y s : 2 .5 -3 .1 4 16 0.0 01 2705333.1 (a e c s la r Is som e th ing th a l c a n b e m e a su r e d on a r u l e r - l t k e s c a le , w h e r e th e re a r e a lw ay s p o in ts i n b e tw e e e n .) L og ical a r r a y e ; 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 ( th es e a r r a y s of o n e s s n d z e r o e s a r e c a lle d "lo gic al" fo r a v a rie ty of r e a s o n s ; In Ih ls caa e we c o uld c a ll them " lo g ic a l" sim ply b e c a u se th e y a r e u se d fo r p ic k in g a n d e ho oaln g a n d d e c i d i n g .) T h ea e t h r e e n u m e ric a l ty p e s o f I nform ation may be fre ely In te r m ix e d In y o u r a r r a y e . One m o re ty p e , h o w e v e r. Is a llo w e d . It’s h a rd to f ig u r e o u t from the m s n u a la . b u t e v id e n tly th ia ty p e c a n 't b e mixed In w ith th e o th e r s too f r e e l y . We r e f e r lo Ihe a lp h a b e tic a l o r "lite r a l" a r r a y , a s in T h e q u ic k b r o w n fox Jumped o v e r th e la zy d o g . Now . p r e - w r i t t e n APL p ro g ra m s c an p r in t out lite r a l In fo rm a tio n , a n d acc ep t It from a u s e r a t a te r m in a l. w h ic h Is why APL Is good for th e c re atio n of s y s te m s fo r na iv e u e e r s (see "Good-G uy S y s te m s .” p . i j ) . L ite ra l v e c to r s may b e p ic k ed a p a r t . r e a r r a n g e d a n d assem b led b y all th e r e g u l a r APL o p e r a to r s . T h a t 's how we tw idd le o u r te n t. CRASHING THE SYMBOLS TOGETHER

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F irst th e in p u t g o e s in to I . t h e n Ih e p r o c e s s o r d oes s 1 ( r e v e r s a l) a n d p u ts it o u l. A nd h e re Is o u r o ld f r i e n d . th e fo rtu n e - c o o k ie

T h is m ak es s e n s e . T o a r g u e th a l It ia in h e re n t in " ta k i n g a w a y h a lf th e id ea o f m u ltiplic ation ." h o w e v e r, i s d u b io u s . 1 0 0 • - 'H ELP. I AM CAUGHT IN A LOOP1 1 Some sy m m e tr ie s I v e r so n h s s m anaged to come up w ith a r e tr u ly r e m a r k a b le . T h e a r r o w , f or I n sta n c e . T h e le ft a rro w :

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On lin e 1 th e p r o g ra m p r i n t s o u t w h a l e v c r 's In q u o te s. And lin e 2 c a u s e s It to go b a c k a n d do lin e 1 a g a in . F o r e v e r .

A aaig nm ent sta te m ent; B (w hich m ay hav e b e e n com pute d d u r i n g Ih e le ftw a rd sc a n ) ia a s s ig n e d the name o f A: a n d Ihe r lg h l a rr o w :

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II sh o u ld b e m e n tio n e d a t th is p o in t tha t b ra n c h in g te s t s a r e c o n d u c te d in APL p r o g ra m s b y sp e c if y in g c o n d itio n s w h ic h a r e e ilh c r tr u e or f als e, a n d A PL's a n s w e r is 1 if i r u e . 0 if f als e. (T h is is s n o lh e r th in g th e s e log ic a l a r r a y s a r e f o r . ) Exam ple:

T h e Jump sta te m en t, w h e r e B (w hich may h a v e b e e n com ­ p u te d d u r i n g th e le ftw a r d s c a n ) Is a sta te m ent n u m b e r: th e p r o g ra m now go e s a n d e x e c u t e s th a t lin e . T h is sy m m etry Is m y stica lly i n t e r e s t in g b e c a u s e the a saig n m en l a n d Jum p sta te m en ts a r e so b a s i c to pro g ra m m in g O r c o n s id e r this :

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It w o r k s o n a r r a y s , sin g ly a n d In p a i r a . a c c o rd in g to th o s e fu n n y -lo o k in g sy m b o l s . a s th e APL p r o c e s s o r s e a n a r l g h t- to - le f t. IVERSON'S TAFF Y-PULL A n u m b e r o f b a sic APL o p e ra to r s h e lp yo u a tr e tc h . a q u le h a n d p u ll a p a r t y o u r a r r a y a . C o n sid er th e low ly comma (called " r a v e l , " w h ic h m eans t h e aam e a s " u n r a v e l " ) . •A A .B f o rg e l A 's o ld d im e n s io n s , m ake It o n e -d lm e n a lo n a l. m ake A an d B on e long o n e -d im en sio n al a r r a y .

T h is o p e ra tio n le s v e s th e n u m b e r 1. b e c a u s e 3 is g r e a te r th a n 2. So yo u c o u ld b r a n c h o n a test w ith som e thing lik e

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THE APL ENVIRONMENT A sid e from th e APL la n g u a g e its e lf , to p r o g ra m in APL y ou m ust le a r n a lo t of " sy ste m " c om m ands, a lp h a b e tic a l c om m a nd s b y w hic h lo tell t h e APL p r o c e s s o r w h a t y o u w a n t to do ln g e n eral — w hal to s to r e , w hat lo b r i n g forth from a to ra g e . a n d so o n. O rd in a rily yo u h a v e a w o r k s p a c e , a co lle c ­ tion o f p r o g ra m s a n d d a ta w h ic h y o u may summon b y nam e. When il c o m e s- - th a t i s . w h en th e com­ p u te r haa fetc h ed th ia m a te ria l a n d a n n o u n ce d on y o u r te rm in al lh a t It ia r e a d y - - y o u c an r u n the p ro g ra m s a n d u s e th e d a ta ln y o u r w o rk s p s c e . You c a n a lso h a v e p a s s w o r d s f o r y o u r d ifferen t w o rk s p a c e a , so o th e r s a t o th e r te rm in a ls c an no t ta m p e r w ilh y o u r stu ff. T hia i s not th e p ie c e to g o in to the sy ste m co m m and s. If y o u 'r e s e r i o u s , y o u c a n le a r n them from th e b o ok o r t h e APL s a le s m a n . T h e r e a r e m a n y . m an y d if f e r e n t e r r o r m e saa g es th a t th e APL p r o c e s s o r c s n se n d y o u . d e p e n d in g o n th e c ir c u m s t a n c e s . It Is p o a slb le lo m ake m a n y , m any m is ta k e s in APL. a n d th e r e a r e e r r o r m e s s a g e s for a ll o f I h e m . All of th e m , th a t I s , lh a t lo ok to th e c o m p u te r like e r r o r s ; If y o u d o so m e th in g p e r m i s s ib le th a t's n ot w h at y ou i n te n d e d , th e c o m p u ie r w ill not te ll y o u . But It is a te rm in a l l a n g u a g e . d e s ig n e d to h e lp p e o ple m u d d le t h r o u g h . (one way of w ri t i n g . "Jum p lo A if B Is t r u e " ) Is a sp e cia l c a s e o f th e '' c o m p re s s io n " o p e r a t o r . ( B e rr y 360 p r i m e r . 72 a n d 16 5 .) T h is i s v e r y h a r d to u n d e r s t a n d , a lth o u g h it se em s c l e a r w h i l e y o u 'r e r e a d in g il. On Ihe o th e r h a n d , th e r e i s e v e r y in d i c a t i o n th a l APL la ao d e e p y o u k e e p f in d in g new t r u t h s i n i l . (L ike th e a b o v e p a r a g r a p h . ) T h e w h o le th in g is Just u n b e lie v a b le . H ooray fo r a ll t h a t .

H ere la how w e m ake t h in g s a p p e a r a n d d is a p p e a r . ( " C o m p r e s s i o n .") A /B A must be a o n e -d lm en a lo n al a r r a y o f on e s and t e r o e s . T h e r e s u l t l a t h o s e e le m e n ts o f B s e lec te d b y th e o n e s . Exam ple: 1 0 1 / c a 1 r e s u l ts In c t

T he o p p o s ite s l a s h h a s th e o p p o site e ff e c t. I n s e r tin g e x t r a n ull e lem ents w h ere th e re a r e zaroea: 1 1 0 l\3 r e s u l ts in 3 5 0 9

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APL FOR USER-LEVEL SYSTEMS (See "Good-G uy S y a te m e ." p .

)

H e r e 's a n o th e r se le c to r . T h is o p e ra to r ta k e s th e f i r s t o r la s t few o f A. d e p e n d in g o n siz e and sig n o f B: Bt A an d B ^ A Is th e o p p o site. If y o u w a n l to know Ihe re la tiv e p o s itio n s of n u m b e rs o f d if f e r e n t s iz e s In s o n e -d im e n sio n a l a rra y . ^ (nam e o f a r r a y )

B e ca u se APL c a n s o licit te x t Inp ut from a u s e r a n d a n a ly z e I t. th e la n g u a g e ia p o w erfu l fo r Ih e c re a ti o n of u s e r - l e v e l e n v iro n m e n ts a n d s y s te m s - - w ith the d r s w b a c k , u n i v e r s a l to a ll IBM te r m in a l s , th a t in p u l linea m u st e n d w ith s p e c if ic c h a r a c t e r s . In o th e r w o rd s , It c a n 't b e aa fully I n te r a c tiv e a s c o m p u te r la n g u a g e s th a t u a e ASCII t e rm in a ls . N ee d le ss to s a y . Ih e m athe m atica l e le g a n c e and p o w e r of the s y ste m Is com p le tely u n n e c e s s a r y fo r most u s e r - le v e l s y s te m s . But I t 's n ic e to know i t ' s t h e r e . APL Is p r o b a b ly b e s t f o r s y s te m s w ith w e ll-d e fin e d a n d s e g ­ r e g a te d fileB-* " a r r a y - t y p e p r o b le m s ," lik e p a y ro ll , a cc o u n ts an d s o o n . Il Is not s u ite d fo r m u c h l a r g e r a m o rp ho us and e v olutio na ry stu ff, the w ay lis t la n g u a g e s lik e TRAC a r e . D on't u se APL If y o u 'r e g o in g 10 s to r e la r g e e v o lv in g te x ts o r h u g e b ro k e r a g e data b a s e s , lik e w hal ta n k e r a a r e f r e e in th e M e d ite rran e an . T h e q u ic k e s t p ay oR may lie in u s in g APL to r e p la c e b u s in e s s form s s n d h a ate n the flow o f I n fo rm a tion th r o u g h a c o m p a n y . A sa le s m a n on the r o a d w ith an APL te r m in a l. fo r In sta n c e . c an a t once e n te r h is o r d e r s in th e c o m p u te r from the c u sto m e r's o ffice, c hecking in v e n to r y d i r e c t l y . If th e p r o g ra m i s u p ■

w ill te ll y o u . It g iv e s y ou th e p o s it io n s . In o r d e r of s iz e , o f t h e n u m b e r s . And 4 d o e s It fo r d e s c e n d in g o r d e r .

T hese a re Just sam ples. The lin g o e s on

WHERE TO GET IT IBM d oe sn 't se ll APL s e rv i c e s . T h e ir time* sh a ri n g APL is a v a ila b le . h o w e v e r. from v a rio u s s u p p li e r s . Of c o u r s e , lh at meana you pro bably hav e to have an IBM-type te rm in a l. u n le ss you find a s e rv ic e lh at offers APL to Ihe o th e r h in d - - an add itio n whic h seem s to be becoming fashionable . Usual c h arg e la about te n bucke a n hour o>nnect c h a r g e , g lu e p ro c e ssin g , whic h de pends on w hai y o u 'r e ckilng. It can easily r u n o v e r $15 an h o u r , th ou gh , a n d more for heavy c ru n c h in g o r p r in to u t. eo watch I t. T h e aale sm an w ill come lo y o u r ho use o r o fn c e . ve rify th at y o u r te rm inal w ill w o rk (or te ll y o u w h ere you c an ren l o n e ) . p atiently show yo u how to sign o n . le ach you th e la n gu ag e (or maybe an h ou r if h e 's a nice g u y . sn d proffer ihe c o n tra ct. — P L s e rv ic e s a r e prob ab ly sa fe r lo sig n ^A o n to . In lerm e of r is k e d e x p en se s. tha n moat oth er tim e - sh a rin g s y ste m s. (Though of co u rse ell tim e - sh a rin g Involves financia l r i s k . ) Because th e syste m is r e s tric te d only an d exactly to APL. y o u 'r e not pa ying for capabilities you w on 't be u s in g , o r for m assive d isk s to ra g e (which y o u 'r e not allow ed In moel APL a erv lce s a n y w a y ) . or for a c r e s of co re memory you mlghl b e temple d to f ill. — ]n o th e r w o rd a . APL is a comparatively » str a ig h t p rop ositio n, sn d h ighly recom mended if you ha v e a lol of tnalh o r sta tistics y o u'd like lo do on a fairly small n u m b e r of e s s e s . Also good for a v a rle ly of o the r th ln g a . th ou gh . Inclu ding fun . Different v e n d o rs offer in te resting v srlslio n s on IBM's baalc A P L \ 360 p ackag e, as note d b e lo w . In o th e r w o rd s. th e y \o m p e le with each olhe r in p a rt by a d ding fea tu res lo the baalc A P L \3 8 0 p r o ­ g r a m , v ying for y o u r b u sln e e s . Each of Ihe v e n ­ d o r s lis ted also o ffe rs v a rio us p ro gra m s In APL you can u se interactiv ely al an IBM-type te rm inal, In many c ase s u s in g a n o rd in ary lypeball and not se e in g the funny c h a r a c te r ! ; though how c le a r and e asy iheBe p ro gra m s a r e will v a ry . And r em e m b e r. of c o u rse , th at yo u can do y o u r own th in g . o r h a v e o lh e rs do II for y o u , u sin g APL. APL Is also a vailable o n the PD P-10. and presum ably o th e r non-IBM b ig m achines. THE VENDORS and the same goes for far le aa com prehensible stuff like 1 ^ ^ ^ ? 1 2 3 4 (ca rria ge r e tu r n ) Scie ntific T im e -S h a rin g C orporation (7316 Wiscon­ s in A v e .. Belh eada MD 20014) call s He v e rsion A PL'PLUS. T hey 'll se n d you a nic e pocket c a r d summ ariz ing the commends. APL*PLUS offers o ver tw entyflve co ncentrators a ro un d th e c o u n try , p e r ­ mitting lo cal-call se rvice s In suc h m etr o­ politan c e n te rs aa Kalamazoo a nd R ochester. (Firms with offices In both c itie s . ple ase n ote.) T hey also have en "AUTOSTART" featu re w hic h perm lis Ihs c hainin g of pro­ gram s Into g r a n d comple xes, so you don't have lo call them all Individually. APL*PLUS charges the following for sto ra g e, if you can dig It: $10 PER MILLION BYTE-DAYS. (A byte Is usually one c h a r a c te r .) T he census Is pro bably taken o nce a d a y . T h is firm also se rv ice s ASCII te r ­ m in als. w hic h some people will con sider to b e a b ig h e lp . Thai means you can have Inte racli ve u a era of APL p rog ra m s at ASCII te rm inals, and that you ean also program from (he few APL terminelB lh at a r e n 't of th e IBM t y p e . Tim e Sha ring R e sou rce s. Inc. (17? N orthern B l v d .. Great N eck. N .Y . 11022) offers a lot of APL s e rv ic e . Includ ing text syetem s and verlo us k in ds of file hen d lln g , u n d e r lhe name TOTAL/APL. Among the Interesting featu res Time S h a rin g Reaourcee. Inc. have added ia a n EXECUTE command, whic h allow s an APL sir in g e n tered al the k e y bo ard In u a a r o n -lin e mode to be executed as alraig ht APL. T hla I b heavy. P e rh ap s the most v e re atile-a o un dlng APL se rvice rig h t now is offered b y . of all p e o p le . a su b sid iary of th e American Can Com pany. American Information Serv ices (Am erican Lane. G re enw ic h CT 06630) c alls Iheir v e rsio n VIRTUAL APL. meaning lh at It can ru n In " v ir tu a l mem ory"-- a p opula r mienomer for virtually unlim ited memory— and c onsequently lhe program m er Is h a rdly subje ct to spa ee lim itations at a l l . M oreover, f iles on th e A1S system a re com patible with o the r IBM la n g u a g e s, so you c an use APL lo iry things oul q uickly and th e n c o nv ert lo Fortran, Cobol o r w h atev e r. ( O r. c o nv ersely , a company may go from those o lh e r la nguages to APL wllhoul chang in g Ihe way th e ir files a re sto red on th is s e r v i c e . ) APL may Indeed In term it w ith th ese oth e r la n g u ag e s, how is u n c lea r. And th e p ric e s look especially good: $8.75 a n h o u r c o n n ec t. f IS a m onlh minimum (actu ally th e ir minimum d isk spa ce ren tal - - 1 IBM c y lin d e r — so for lhat am ount you get a lot of s to r a g e ) . But rem em ber the re a re etill c o re c h a r g e e , a nd $1 p e r thouaand c h a r a c te r s prin te d o r tr a n s fe rr e d lo sto ra g e. In the Weei. a b ig v e n d o r la P ro p rie tary Computer Syste m s. I n c . . Van N u y s. California. Power a nd sim plicity do not oflen go t o g e th e r . APL Ib an extrem ely powerful language for methemallca, p h y sic s, sta tistic s , simulation a n d so o n . H ow ever, It Is not exactly sim ple. It's not easy to d e b u g . Indeed. APL p ro gra m s s r e h a rd to u n d e rsta n d becauee of th e ir d e n s ity . And th e APL language doea not fit ve ry well on TERMINALS F o r an APL term inal, yo u m ight Juat w anl a 2741 from IBM (about a h u n d r e d a m o n lh . b u t on a y e a r c o n tra c t ) . O r se e Ihe lis t u n d e r " T erm in a ls" ( p . \ H ) . o r aak y o u r f rien d ly APL com pany when y ou s ig n u p . Tw o m ore APL te rm inals ■ m entioned he re Inste ad of u n d e r "T erm inals" fo r no apeclal reason: T ek tro n ix offers one o f ils gree n le g r a p h ic s term inals (Bee n ip sid e ) to r APL (the model 4013). T h is perm its APL to d raw p ic tu r e s for y o u . 11 seems lo be an ASCII-type u n i l . Com puter D evices. Inc. su pp ose d ly makes an an APL te rm in al u sin g the nic e NCR th erm al p r i n t e r . w hic h Is much faster a n d q u ie te r lh an a mechanical ty p e w rit e r . Spo o k ier, th o u g h . And lhe special pa p er coals a lo t of money.

ROUND («n o b sc u re a n d d onnish Joke) p , th e G re ek le tte r " rh o ," Is an APL operato r / for (eating th« else of a rr a y s . Whan used In the o ne -e lded form at. II f iv e s lha s it e s of e ach dim ension of an a r r a y . T hu s M . when A Is Is 2 2 . And now n 'YOUR BOAT' I equala 0, sin c e th e re a re 9 letters in the a rr a y 'YOUR BOAT': 'YOUR BOAT' Is 1, since p 9 la 1. and M 'YOUR BOAT' ' Is likewise 1.

*[;}]

If'

BIBLIOGRAPHY Iverson h a s a formal bo ok . Ig no re ll un le ss y o u 'r e a mathematician: Kenneth E. Iverson. A Program min g L ang uag e. Wiley. 1662. Paul B e r r y . A P L \3 6 0 P r im e r . Slu dent T e n t. A vailable "thro ug h IBM b r a n c h o ffices." or IBM Technic al Publications Department. 112 East Post Road. While P lain s . NY 10601. No IBM p ub lication nu m b er on It. whic h Is so rt of o d d . 1966. - + T h ls Is o ne o f lhe most beautifully w ritte n , sim ple, clea r com pute r manuale lhat Is lo be found. Such a sta te ment may a stound r e a d e r s who have se en o lhe r IBM m a n u als, but I t's Iru e . A .D . Falkoff a nd K .E . I v e rso n . A P L \3 6 0 U sers' M anual, AIbo a vailable from IBM. no p ub lication num ber. POCKET CARDS (giving v e ry com pressed sum­ m a ries) a r e available from both: Scie ntific Time S h a r in g Corp. (see WHERE TO GET IT) Technic al Publications D e p t., IBM, 112 Eesi Post Road. While P lain s. N .Y . 10601. ABk for APL Reference Data card S210-0007-0. May cost a q u a r te r o r something. Paul B e r ry . A P L \ l l 3 0 P r im e r . Adeplcd from 360 m e n u al. Same p u b . Bui (o r v e rsion of APL th a t r u n s on the IBM 1130 minicomputer. Roy A . S y k e s . "The Use an d Mieuse of APL." $2 from Scientific T im e -S h a ring C o r p . , 7316 Wisconsin A v e .. Belheada MD 20014. A Joker for you msth ( re e k s. T re n c h a rd More. J r . . "Axioms and T heorem e for a T heory o( A r r a y s ." IBM J o u rn al o( Reach- 4 D evi. . MBi-ch 73. U S-157. T h is Is a h igh-le vel th in g , a so rt of m assiv e eel theory of APL. Intended lo make APL o p e ra to rs apply lo a r r a y s of a r r a y s , and le ad ultim ately to the prov ab ility o( p ro gram s. "Get o n T arg e t with APL." A sug ge stiv e c irc u la r sa les t h ln g y . IBM GS20-2439-0. IBM has a vid eota ped c ourse In APL by A ,J . Rose. (Done 1966.) £ ^ > W h a l you really need to gel elerted la B e r ry 's Prim er. Felkoff end Iv erso n 's m anual, an d a pocket c a r d . PIub of c ou rse lhe syetem an d the (riend to

T h is la n gu ag e Is su p e rb for "scientific" program m ing, Inclu ding heavy n u m b er c ru n c h in g a n d exp er­ im entation with dif ferent formulae on small dale b a se s. (Big d sia ba ses s r e a p ro blem .) It Is a lso not b ad for s v a rie ty of simple b u sine ss a p p lic atio n s, suc h a s p a y ro ll, accounting, b illin g a n d In v en to ry .

PAST ANSWERBACK IN APL If you want quic k a n a w e rs. the APL term inal Just g iv e s you Ihe r e iu l t o f w hatever you typ e In. For In slsn c e. 3i 4 will cause It to p r in t oul 12

ty pe d-ln array PROGRAMS IN APL But lhe -larg er function of APL Is lo create p ro g ra m s th a t ean be e to re d . named and c arried oul at a la te r lime. For t h i s . APL allow s you to define p r o g ra m s. a line al a tim e. The p ro g ra m s rem ain sto red In the system s s lo ng sb you w anl. Using the "Del” o p e ra to r ( V ) • you tell the system th al you wanl lo p u t In a p rog ra m . Del cauaes the te rm in al to help you alo ng In v a rio u s w a y s . A nic e feetu re is lh al you can lock y ou r APL p r o g ra m s, lh at Is, make them Inaccessible and u n rea d ab le by o lh e re . w hether Ihey are p ro g ra m m e rs o r n o t. In th la case y ou define a p rog ra m s ta r tin g w ilh ihe mystical sig n del-tlld e ( l ^ i ) Instead of del ( V ) • an d Invoke Ihe names of d a rk s p ir its .

APL, like BASIC, can b e c lassed a a a n "algebraic" la n g u a g e -- but ih le one la bulll to pleeee rea l mathematicians, wilh high -lev el stuff only th ey know abo u t, like Inn er an d O ute r Prod uc ts. P a rad o x ic ally , Ihls makea APL te rrific for teachin g the ae de ep e r mathematical c on ce pts, help in g y ou se e the c onsequences of o pe ra do ns and tha un d e rly in g s tr u c tu re of mathematical th ln g a . Matrla a la e b ra . for Insta nce , c an be v lau allced a lol b e tte r b y w orking u p to It w ith le ase r concepta (like v e ctors and Inn er p ro d u cts ) en acted on an APL te rm inal. It w ould b e really sw ell If eomeone would p u t to­ g e th e r a tou r-gu id e book of h ig h e r mathem­ a tic s a t the gTad e/h lg hschool level for people w ith access to APL. In te r e stin g ly . Alfred Bork (U. o f C a l. a t I rvin e) is tsk ln g a sim ilar approach to teachin g p h y s ic s , u sin g APL a a a fundamental la ng uage In his ph y sic s c o u rse s.

APL ia not Just a prog ram m in g lang uage. It le a lso u se d by some people a s a definition o r deecrlpllon la n g u ag e , th at la , a form of notation for sta lin g how thlnga w o rk (la w s of n a tu re , algeb raic sy ste m s, com pu lers o r w h s le v e r ) . For In sta n c e , w hen IBM's 360 compute r came o u l . Iv erson a n d his f rie n d s did a v e ry h lg h -clae a a rtic le d e s c r ib in g formally in APL Juat w hat 360s do (the m a chln e'e a rc h ite c tu r e ). Bui of c o u rs e th is w as e v en le s s com prehensib le lhan the 360 program m ing m a n u a l. Falkoff. A . D .. K .E . Iv erao n and E ,H . S u sae n gu lh . "A Formal Deecrtp don o f S yete m /3 60." IBM System s J o u r n a l. v . 3 no. 3, 1964. The form al de scrip tio n in APL. IBM System /3 60 O p eratin g System: A ssem ble r ta n g u a g e . Document Number C26-6S14-X ( w h e re X Is a num ber sig nify in g th e la te st e d itio n ) . IBM Technic al P u b lica tio ns, While Plalne New Y o rk . The M anual.

SNEAKY REPEATER STATEMENT IN APL? O ne o f th e APL o p e ra to r s . "lota" ( i ) . seeme lo make Its own pro gra m loop w ithin a line. When u se d o n e -sid ed , ll fu rn ish es a se rie s of a sce n d in g n um b e rs u p to lh e n um ber I t's operating o n . T h is u n til th e laat o n e la reach ed. You typ e : I n APL r e p lie s : 3 T 6 9 12 15 18 21

In o th e r w o rd s , o n e -sid ed lota looks to be d o in g Its ow n little lo op, Increasing Its sta rtin g nu m b er b y 1. u n til II g e ts to th e va lu e on Us r i g h t . a n d chug* o n down th e line with each. V ary sneaky way of d oin g a lo op. However! II isn 't rea lly loopin g, e x ac tly . What the Iota doea Is croa ie a one-dim ensional a r r a y . a row o f Integ ers from 1 u p lo th* n um ber o n Its r ig h t . T hla rea ult la what the n moves on le ftw a rd .

FAST-CHANCING DATA An a r r a y (a ls o c a ll e d a t a b l e ) la a se ctio n or co r. m w . 1 * * 0 » P W « ™ " < “ “ “ »” = lo r I I* P " * ™ " <° P>» f * m “ ' P“ lh “ s P ^ C E H Cl) SPENCER is th e n am e o f I h e a r r a y , th e n SPENCER (1) f ™ . T . . m e m o ry . l o , in I I. S P ^ C E » < 2 , I . Ihe c ec o n tl. a n d . o o n u p lo h o w e v e r b ig it I . . O ne o f t h e u s e s of s u c h slr u c lu re s is in s t r a n g e ty p e s o f p r o g ra m s w h ere Ihe Interconnec­ tio n s o f in fo rm atio n a r e c h an g in g quic kly and u n p r e d i c t a b l y . S u c h o p e ra tio n s happen fast In c o r e m e m o ry . In t h i s k in d o f programming (for w h ic h l a n g u a g e s lik e LISP. SNOBOL and TRAC L a n g u a g e a r e e sp e c ia l ly c o n v e n ie n t), th e pointers a r e c h a n g e d b a c k a n d forth In c ore memory, every w h ic h w a y , all th e lim e . Presum ably according to Ihe p r o g r a m m e r 's fie n d ish m a ste r plan -- if he's go tte n th e b u g s o u t . (See D eb ug gin g, p . 3 0 ,)

jW A ^ T P O C T O ^
IM F O R M P 0 * 1 i c t v r s
O n e o f th e commonest a n d most d e s tr u c ti v e rov t h . a b o u t c o m p u te rs Is the Idea th a t th e y "o nly " e l w ith n u m b e r s . " T h is Is TOTALLY FA L S E . Not o nly Is i t a gh a stly m is u n d e r s ta n d in g , b u t It is often an I n ten tio n al m is re p re s e n ta tio n , a n d a s s u c h , not o nly i s It s m is re p re se n ta tio n b u t It Is s d sm n e d l ie . a n d a n y o n e w h o telle il Is u s in g " m ath em a tic s" a s s w et n oo dle to b e at th e r e s d e r w ith . C o m p u te r s deal w ith sy m bo ls s n d p a t t e r n s . C o m p u te r s de al w ith sym b ols o f a n y K ind-* l e t t e r s , m u sic a l n o te s . C h in ese id e o g ra m s , a r r o w s . le e c re a m f la v o r s , an d of c o u rs e n u m b e r s . (Num ­ b e r s com e a lso In v a rio u s f la v o r s , s im p le e n d b a r o q u e . S e e choeola te b o a , p. 2.1 . Data s t r u c t u r e m eans a n y sym b o ls s n d p a t­ t e r n s Bet u p f o r u se In a c o m p u te r. It m e an s w hat t h in g s a r e b e in g ta k e n in to a cc o u n t b y a c o m p u te r p r o g ra m , a n d how th e se t h in g s a re se t u p — w h at sy m b o ls a n d a rr a n g e m e n ts a r e u s e d to r e p r e s e n t them . T h e p r o b le m , obvio u sly . Is R e p r e s e n tin g T h e In fo rm a tio n You Want J u s t T h e Way Y ou Want ft. In all Us t r u e c o m p le x itie s. T h e c o n te n ts o f a r e c o r d , o r un ifie d s e l of fieldB . c a n ge t p u l in to a n s r r s y . T he p r o g ra m c a n th e n p ic k in to it f o r s e p a r a t e v a r ia b le s , 1 d e s i r e d , o r j u s t le a v e them / t h e r e to b e w o rk e d o n . T h e n y o u tw id d le y o u r v a r ia b le s w ith y o u r pro g ra m s s d e s i r e d . When y o u 'v e d o n e o n e r e c o r d , yo u r e p e s l. T h a i’s how lots of b u s i n e s s p r o g ra m s g o. Some o th e r r o u tin e k i n d s , too. FANCY STRUCTURES Many form s o f a d v a n c e d p ro g ra m m i n g are b a s e d on Ihe id e a th a t t h i n g s d o n ’t h a v e lo be s to r e d n e x t lo e ac h o t h e r , o r In a n y p a r t i c u l a r o r d e r . If th in g s a r e n 't n e m to e a c h o l h e r . we n e ed a n o th e r w ay Ih e p r o g ra m c a n te ll how th e y b e lon g t o g e th e r. A p o in te r . t h e n - - so m e tim e s c a lle d a lln k - 1s s pie ce of d a ta th a t te lle w h e r e a n o th e r p ie c e of d a ta I s, In som e form of m em ory . P o i n te r s often c on nec t p ie ce s o f d a la . P o inter (You c an g e t a feel f o r ho w t h is o r d in s r i l y r e la te s lo in p u t from o u t s i d e - - s e e "How D ata C o m e s. C o e s , s n d S i t s , " n e a r b y . ) T h e c o n te n ls of a n u m e r i c a l f i e l d , o r p ie c e o f d a ta c o m in g I n , c a n sim p ly b e stu ffed b y Ihe p r o g ra m m e r in to a v a r i a b l e .

FANCY FILES But th e s e s t r u c t u r e s a r e not restric te d to d a ta in c o re m e m o r y . C om plex a n d changeable f iles c an b e k e p t o n d i s k in v a rio u s ways by the sam e k in d o f th r e a d i n g (called "chaining " on mass s to r a g e ) . CHAINED FILE ON DISK

A n o th e r w ay o f h a n d lin g c h an g e ab le file s is th r o u g h s ao -c aJJe d d i r e c t o r y b lo c k , which keeps t r s c k o f w h e r e a ll t h e o lh e r b lo c k s a re sto r e d . ifo tt

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B ut th e se te c h n i q u e s , y o u s e e . may be used In b o th fast a n d slo w o p e r a t i o n s , a n d for any pur* p o s e . so t r y in g lo c a te g o ri z e th e m te n d s not to be h e lp fu l. (Note a lso th a t ih e se te c h n iq u e s w ork w h e t h e r y o u 'r e d e a li n g w ith b i t s , o r c h a r a c te r s , o r a n y o lh e r form o f d a t a .)

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( T h is Is often f o rb id d in g ly s ta te d a s "m ak ing a m athe m atica l model"*- b u t t h a t 's u s u a lly in lite r h e t o r i c a l , fa r -f e tc h e d a n d s s t r s l s e n s e in w h ich a ll r e la tio n s a r e " m athem atical” a n d l e t t e r s of Ihe a lp h a b e t a r e c o n sid e r e d lo be s sp e cia l d is to rte d k in d of n u m b e r . ) Now it h a p p e n s th at th e re a re m an y k in d s of d a ta s t r u c t u r e , a n d th e y a r e In te r c h a n g e a b le in in tr ic a t e w a y s. T h e sam e d s ta . w ith a ll its r e la tio n s h ip s s n d i n t r i c a c i e s , c s n be se l up in a v a st v a r i e t y o f a r ­ ra n g e m e n t s a n d a ty le s w h ich a r e i n s i d e - o u t and u p s id e - d o w n v e rs io n s o f e s c h o th e r. T h e sam e th in g ( s a y . th e s e ri a l n u m b e r. 24965, of a n a uto­ m o b ile) may be r e p r e s e n te d in o n e d s ta s tr u c t u r e by a s e t o f sy m bo ls (such a s Ihe de cim al d ig its 2. 4 , 9 . 6 . S in Ih st o r d e r ) , sn d in a n o th e r d sla s t r u c t u r e b y th e position of so m e th in g e ls e (su ch as t h e 24965th n am e in a iis l of autom ob ile o w n e r s r e g i s t e r e d w ith Ihe m a n u fa c tu re r) . F u r t h e r m o r e . many d ifferen t form s o f d a ta may b e co m b in e d o r tw isted to g e th e r in th e sam e o v e ra ll s e t u p . T h e d s ta s tr u c tu r e c h o s e n g oe s a lo n g w ay in im p o s in g te c h n iq u e s a n d s ty l e s o f o p e r a tio n on Uie p r o g r a m . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , th e co m p u te r la n g u a g e you u s e h a s a c o n sid e r a b le efTect u po n t h e d a ta s t r u c t u r e s y o u may ch o o se. L an g u a g es t e n d to Impose s ty l e s o f h a n d lin g In fo rm a tio n . T h e d e c i­ sio n to p r o g r a m a give n p ro b lem in a s p e c if ic la n ­ g u a g e . s u c h a s BASIC o r COBOL o r APL o r TRAC L a n g u a g e . e ith e r locks y ou in to s p e c if ic ty p e s of d s ta s t r u c t u r e , o r e n e r is c o n s id e r a b le p r e s s u r e lo do it s c e r t a i n w a y . In most c ase a y ou c a n 't s e t It u p Ju st a n y w ay yo u w a n t, b u t h a v e to a d ju a t to Ihe l a n g u a g e y ou a re u s in g - - a ltho ug h to d a y 's la n g u a g e s te n d to allow more a n d m o re t y p e s of d a ta. P l a i n l y . t h e n , It is th e s e o v e ra ll s t r u c t u r e s th a l w e r e a lly c a r e about; b u t to u n d e r s t a n d o v e r ­ all s t r u c t u r e s , we n e e d an Id ea o f all th e d ifferen t form s o f d a ta th a t may be p u t in th e m . VARIABLES AND ARRAYS □ T h e e a r lie a t d a ta s tr u c t u r e s in c o m p u t e r s , a n d s ti ll th e p re d o m in a tin g o n e a , e r e v a r ia b le s a n d a r r a y s . (We met them e a r l i e r u n d e r BASIC , s e e {P-lfc-17' a n d A P L , s e e q . ) A v a r i a b l e i s a sp a c e o r lo catio n in c o re m e m ory. ( F o r c o n v e n ie n c e , m ost p r o g ra m m in g l a n g u a g e s allow th e p r o g ra m m e r to c all a v a r ia b le b y a n a m e , s o th a t h e d o e sn 't h a v e to k e e p t r a c k of ita n u m e r i c a l a d d r e a s .) □ □ o n n _ n

' p ie c e ] ) a ta |

A p o in te r c a n b e a n a d d r e s s in c o r e m em ory; il c a n b e an a d d r e s s on d is k (d l s k p o i n l e r )i It can p o in t to a w hole s t r i n g e t d a ta . s u c h s s a n a m e . w hen th e re is n o w ay o f k n o w in g in a d v s n c e how lo ng ihe s tr i n g may b e (s l r i n g p o l n t e r ) . A s e r i e s of p ie c e s o f d a ta w h ic h point to each o th e r in s c o n tin u in g s e q u e n c e i s c a lle d s th r e a d e d

F or th is r e a s o n Ihe h a n d lin g o f d a ta h e ld to g e th e r by p o in te r s - - e v e n th o u g h it m ay m ake all s o r ts of d ifferen t p s l t e r n s - ' is c alled l is t p r o c e s s i n g . (The (T h e te rm " list p r o c e s s in g ” m ig h t seem to go ag a in sl common s e n s e , a s it m igh t su g g e s t som e th in g lik e . s a y . a la u n d ry li s t , w h ic h is s t r u c t u r e d in a v e ry sim ple b lo c k lik e form . But th a t 's w h al we calf i t . ) Prom inent l i s t- p r o c e s s i n g la n g u a g e s inc lu de SNOBOLi I 6 a nd LISP ( se e p - 3 1 > • T h e r e i s s r g u m enl a s to w h e th e r TRAC L a n g u a g e ia a l is t- p r o c ­ e s s in g la n g u ag e .

Note: By d e c e n t s t a n d a r d s Of E n g lis h , the w o rd da la sh o u ld be p lu r a l , datu m s i n ­ g u la r. Bul ihe m a tte r i s too far gone: d a ta is now u tte rly s in g u l a r , lik e " c o r n ” an d " in fo rm a tio n." a g r a n u la r co llective w hic h may b e sco o ped, p o u r e d o r co u n ted . But I d raw Ih e lin e al m e d ia . a re m a ny , "m edia" i s plural! Media

H ere a r e some I n te r e s tin g s t r u c t u r e s th a t p r o g ra m m e rs c re a te b y lis t p r o c e s s in g : RINGS (o r c y c le s ) . T h e s e a r e a rr a n g e m e n ts o f p o in te r s th a t go a ro u n d in a c ir c l e to th e ir f irst item a g a in .

" C om p ute rs p u t e v e r y t h i n g into p i g e o n h o le s .'' W rong. Pe op le p u t t h in g s into p i g e o n ­ h o le s. And d e s i g n e r s o f c o m p u te r p r o g r a m s c a n se t u p lo usy p ig e o n h o le s . If y o u le t 'e m . More s o p h is tic a te d p ro g ra m m i n g c a n often a v oid p ig e o n h o le s e n t i r e l y .

T RE E S. T h e s e a r e s t r u c t u r e s lh a t fan o u t . ( T h e r e a r e n o r in g s in a tr e e s t r u c t u r e , te ch n ica lly sp e a k in g .)

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□ People w ho w a n t to feel With It o c ca sio n ally u s e th e te rm "bU " for a n y old c h u n k of in fo rm atio n , lik e a n am e o r a d d r e a s . T h i s is W ron g. A Bit i s th e s m a lle s t p ie e e of b in a ry I n fo rm a tio n , an Item lh a t c a n b e one of tw o th in g B , lik e h e a d s o r t a ils , X o r O , o n e o r ze ro ; a n d a ll o lh e r in fo rm ation c a n b e p a c k e d in to a c o u n tab le n u m b e r o f b i t s . (How many may d e p e n d o n t h e d a ta s t r u c t u r e c h o s e n .) A s a h a n d y r u l e of thumb: e v e r y le tte r of th e a lp h ab e t o r p u n c ­ tu a tio n m a rk la e ig h t b its (ae e ASCII b o x ) ; f o r h e a v y s to r a g e of e v er y d a y decim al n u m b e r s , e v e r y nu m e rica l d ig it c a n b e f u r t h e r p a c k e d d ow n (to f o u r b its in BCD c o d e ) .

GRAPH STRUCTURES ( so m e tim e s c alled p l e x e s ) . H ere the w o rd " g r a p h ” i s n ot u s e d in the o r d i n a r y w a y , to m ean a d ia g ra m m a tic s o r t o f p ic ­ tu r e , b u t to m ean a n y s t r u c t u r e o f c o n n e c te d p o in ts . R ing s a nd t r e e s a r e s p e c ia l c a s e s of g r a p h s tru c tu re s.

G ra p h s t r u c t u r e s c a n go a n y w h ic h w a y .

A CONCRETE EXAMPLE. S u p p o s e we w an t to r e p r e s e n t th e g e n e a lo g y o f (he m o n a rc h s o f Eng* E n g la n d , bo f a r a s Is k n o w n . In a c o m p u te r da ta S t r u c t u r e . NOTE THAT A DATA STRUCTURE IS DIFFERENT FROM A PROGRAM: If s e v e r a l p r o g ra m m e re a g r e e b e fo r e h a n d o n a d a ta s t r u c t u r e . th e n ( h e y c a n go s e p a r a t e w a y s a n d e a c h c a n w rite a p r o g ra m (o d o so m e th in g d if f e r e n t w ith it— If th e y h a v e r e a lly a g r e e d o n a com plete a n d e x a c t la y o u t, w h ic h th e y may o n ly th in k th e y 'v e do n e .
F i r s t we c o n s id e r th e s u b je c t m a tte r . G en ­ e alo g y Is c o n c e p tu a lly sim p le to u s , b u t a s d a ta i s n o l a s tr iv i a l a s It m ig h t se em a t f i r s t . E v ery p e r s o n h a s tw o p a r e n ts a n d a s p e c if ic d a te of b i r t h . Each p a i r o f p a r e n ts c a n h a v e m o re th a n o ne c h ild , an d In d iv id u a l p a r e n ts c a n at d iffe re n t tim es a h a r e p a re n th o o d w ith d if f e r e n t o th e r I n d iv id u a ls . P r e s u m a b ly we w o u ld like a d a ta s tr u c tu r e th a l allo w s a p r o g ra m to f ln d o u t w ho w as a g iv e n p e r s o n 's p a r e n t , w ho w e r e a g iv e n p e r s o n 'a c h il­ d r e n , w hat b ro th e rs a n d s iste rs each p e rso n h a d , a n d s im ila r m a tte rs (so f a r a s is kn ow n b y h is t o r ­ ia n s - - a n o th e r d if f ic u lty ). Note th a t Juat b e c a u s e It ia sim p le to p u t th is In form a tio n in a w all c h a r t , lh at d o e s n ot m ean ll la s im p le to f ig u r e out a n a d e q u a te d a ta s t r u c t u r e . N ote to o . th a l a n y a s p e c t o f th e d a ta w h ic h Is le ft o u t c a n n o t th e n b e h a n d le d b y Ihe p r o g r a m . W hat's n ot th e r e i s nol t h e r e . T h e e a s y w ay o u l Is to u se a la n g u a g e lik e , s a y , TRAC L an g u a g e , a n d u se Its b a s ic u n its (In t h is c a s e , "fo rm a 1 ) lo m ak e u p a d a ta s tr u c t u r e 1 w h o se i n d iv i d u a l s e c tio n s w ou ld sh ow p a r e n ta g e , d a l e a , b r o t h e r s a n d s l a t e r s an d s o o n . T h e b r a v e r a p p r o a c h ie to tr y to a et it up f o r so m e th in g lik e FORTRAN o r BASIC, la n g u a g e s w h ic h t r e a t c o re m em ory m ore lik e a n u m e ric a lly a d d r e s s e d a r r a y o r b l o c k , a s doee ro ck -b otto m m a ch in e la n g u a g e . Let ue assu m e th a t we h a v e d e c id e d to u s e an a r r a y - t y p e da ta s t r u c t u r e , f o r In sta n c e to go w ith a p r o g r a m In th e BASIC la n g u a g e on a 16b lt m in ic o m p u te r . We d o not h a v e m u ch room in c o re m e m o r y , so for e ac h p e rs o n In o u r da ta s t r u c t u r e w e a r e g o in g lo ha ve to s to r e a s e p a ­ r a te r e c o r d on a d i s k m e m o r y , a n d call It into c o re m em o ry a s r e q u i r e d . A fte r m uch h e a d - s c r a t c h i n g , we m igh t come u p w ith so m e th in g lik e th e fo llo w in g . It la n o t a v e r y good d a la s t r u c t u r e . It la no t a v e ry g oo d d a la s t r u c t u r e o n p u r p o a e . It u s e s a bloc k o f 28 w o r d s , o r 448 b its , p e r i n d i v i d u a l , not c o u n lin g th e le n g th o f h is n a m e , w h ic h Is an a d d itio n a l 6 b its p e r c h a r ­ a c te r o r s p a c e . H o w e v e r, th is In I tse lf Is n e i­ t h e r go od n o r b a d . I t's more lh a n y o u might e x p e c t, b u t le s s th a n y o u m ight n e e d . ( I n c id e n ta lly , o ut o f c o n ce rn for sto r a g e s p a c e , some d a ta flelda s r e p a c k e d more th a n on e lo e 16-blt c o m p u te r w o rd . T h is Is s c o r n ­ f u lly c a lle d b it- f id d lin g b y c o m pu te rfo lk who w o rk o n b ig m a chln ea a n d d o n 't h a v e to w o rr y a b o u t s u c h m a tte r s .) 1 2 3, 4 5 6 7 6 9 10 ll 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 m o na rc h n o . (If a n y ) se rial ho. a tri n g p o in te r ------------(tw o 16-b it w o rd s lo n g ) 0 . s e r i a l no.. _ 1 a e r ia l n o . _ ^ s e r ia l no. 1

H era a r e some a ae u m p tio n s 1 h a v e e m b od ied I n th ia d a la s t r u c t u r e . T h a t i s , I h a d th e m In m in d . ( T h e p a r t s y o u d i d n 't h a v e In m in d a re w h at get y o u l a t e r . ) P a r e n ts a n d c h ild r e n o f m o n a rc h a a r e in c lu d e d , a s w ell a s m o n a rc h a . All m o n a rc h s ha ve a s e p a r a t e m o n­ a rc h n u m b e r. No m o n a rc h r e ig n e d m o re th a n tw ic e . (?) No m o n a rc h o r p a r e n t of a m o n a rc h h a d m o re th a n flv e c h ild r e n of one sex . (Note th e d a n g e r o f th e s e a s s u m p tio n s .) We a r e no t i n te r e s t e d In g r a n d c h i l ­ d r e n o f m o n a rc h s u n le s s th e y a r e a lso m o n a rc h a . o r a lb lin g s . o r p a r e n t s o f m o n a rc h a . T h e in fo rm atio n a bo ut the d iffe re n t p e o p le c an b e I n p u t in an y o r d e r , a s th e y e a r s o f r e ig n c a n b e ste p p e d t h r o u g h b y a p r o g r a m lo And the o r d e r of re ig n . If th ia se em s lik e too much b o th e r , th a l is In a w ay the p o in t. D ata s tr u c tu r e s m ust be th o u g h t o u t . S in c e c o m p u le rs h a v e no I n tr in s ic w ay of o p e r a tin g o r of h a n d lin g d a ta (tho ug h p a r t i c u l a r la n g u a g e s w ill r e s t r ic t y ou in p a r t i c ­ u l a r w a y s ) , yo u w ill h a v e to w o rk a ll Ih ls o u t, a n d a c a r e l e s s l y c h o s e n d a la s t r u c t u r e w ill le a v e s o m e th in g o u t. o r fail to d is t in g u is h am o ng im ­ p o r ta n t d if f e r e n c e s , o r o th e rw is e h a v e Its r e v e n g e . (F o r i n s t a n c e , if y o u h a v e n 't n o tic e d yel: we le ft o u t le g itim a c y . F o r many p u r p o s e s we w an t lo know w h ic h k i n g s w ere b a s t a r d s . ) (Self-teBl: i s flv e b its lo n g e n o u g h to e x ­ p r e s s Ihe g r e a te s t n u m b e r of m o nths a n y E n g lish m o n a rc h r e ig n e d ? - - se e " B in a ry P a t t e r n s . " O r do we h a v e to fix t h is d a ta s t r u c t u r e on th a t s c o re a lso ? )

" T h e r a is a g r o w in g fee lin g th at d a ta p r o c e s s in g p e o ple w o u ld b e n efit if th e y w e r e to a cc ep t a r a d ic a l ly new p o in t of v ie w , on e th a t w ou ld lib e r a te Ihe a p p lic a tio n p r o g r a m m e r 's th in k i n g from the c e n tr a l is m o f c o re s t o r a g e a n d allow him th e freedom lo a ct a s a n a v ig a ­ to r w ith in a d a ta b a s e . T h la r e o r le n ta l lo n w ill c a u s e a s much a n g u is h am ong p r o g ra m m e rs a6 th e h e lio c e n tr ic th e o ry d id am on g a ncie n t a s tr o n o m e r s a nd t h e o lo g i a n s .” C h a r le s W. Bachm an (p iec e c ite d in B i b lio g r a p h y )

R em em ber th e s o n g th a t had a p o in te r d a ta s tr u c tu re ? ( in a lp h a b e tic a l o r d e r )

T o g iv e yo u a s e n s e of the s o r t of p r o g ra m th is d a la s tr u c t u r e allow s: A p r o g ra m lo a s c e r t a in how many k in g s w ere th e s o n s of k in g s w ould look a l e ac h e n try th a t h a d a m o n a rc h n u m b e r , te at w h e t h e r th e m o n a rc h w as m a le , a n d i f m ale, w ould look al th e m ale p a r e n t 's s e r i a l n u m b e r. T h e n It w ould look u p lh a t p a re n t'B e n t r y , a n d se e w h e t h e r il in tu r n h a d a m o n a rc h n u m b e r , a nd if s o . add on e lo t h e c o u n t it w as m a k in g . T h e n il would go b a c k to the e n lry il h a d b e e n loo king a l. a n d s te p on to the o n e a fte r th a t. T h i s is a ctu a lly a p re tty lo u sy d a la s t r u c ­ t u r e . T h e c lu m s in e s s o f th is a p p ro a c h to s u c h d a ta - - a n d y ou a r e w elcome to th in k o f a b e tte r o n e - - s h o w s some o f Ih e d ifficu ltie s of h a n d lin g com plex d a la a bo ut th e r e a l w o rl d . T h in g s like le n g th s o f na m es a n d n u m b e rs o f r e la tiv e s p r o ­ d u c e g r e a t i r r e g u l a r i t i e s , bu t m ake th e s e k in d s of d a ta n o le s s w o rth o f o u r a tte n tio n . We c o uld a d d lotB o f th in g s to o u r da la s t r u c t u r e (a n d so m ak e il more u n w ie ld y ) . For , a e In - ta(n c el, we m igh t w a n t to m a rk e ach s e r i a l x s- lb n u m b e r sp e c ia lly if it r e f e r r e d to som eone w ho w as Ihe o f fs p r in g o f a m o n a rc h . We c ou ld s im ­ p ly s e l a p a r t i c u l a r b it to 1 in th e s e r i a l n u m b e r for th em (ca lle d a f la g o r la g ) . We c o u ld a lso fla g d a le s a n d g e n e a lo g ie s lh a l a r e r e g a r d e d a s u n ­ c e r ta i n . T h e r e is n o lim it lo th e e x a c tn e s s an d c o m p le x ilv w ith w h ic h in form ation may b e r e p ­ r e s e n te d , But d o in g ll rlg h l c a n . a s a lw a y s , b e tr o u b le so m e . A lo t o f c o m p u te r pe o ple w an l to avoid d e a li n g w ith c om plex d a ta ; p e r h a p s y ou c a n b e ­ g in to s e e w h y . o u t w e m ust d e al w ith lh e tr u e c o m p le x itie s o f in fo rm atio n ; th e re f o re la n ­ g u a g e s a n d s y ste m s lh a l allow c om ple x in fo rm a ­ tio n s t r u c t u r e s m ust becom e b e lte r - k n o w n a n d e a s ie r lo u s e . THE FRONTIER: COMPLEX FILE STRUCTURE T h e a rr a n g e m e n ts o f w hole f lie s— g r o u p s o f r e c o r d s o r o lh e r info c h u n k s - - s r e u p to th e p r o g r a m m e r . T h e s t r u c t u r e o f flleB I s c a ll e d , nol s u r p r i s i n g l y , file s t r u c t u r e , a n d It Is u p lo th e p r o g ra m m e r to d e c id e how hla file s sh o u ld be a r r a n g e d . H a b its d ie h a r d . T h e notion of s e q u e n c e - e v e n f a l s e , im p o s ed s e q u e n c e — Is d e e p In Ihe r a c ia l u n c o n s c io u s of c o m p u te r p e o p le . An i n t e r ­ e s t i n g c o n c r e te te rm sh o w s th is n ic e l y . B e ca use c o m p u te r p e o p le o f te n th in k an y file s h o u ld h ave a b a s ic s e q u e n c e , (h ey u s e Ihe te rm in v e r t e d f ile fo r a file th a t h a s b e e n c h a n g e d from its b a s ic s e q u e n c e (o a n o th e r s e q u e n c e . B ut in c r e a s ­ i n g l y , a ll th e s e q u e n c e s a r e fala e a n d a r ti f i c i a l . W here now a r e I n v e r te d flies? All flle a s r e In­ v e r te d If t h e y 'r e a n y th in g . F o r t u n a t e l y , th e f in al f ro n t ie r o f d a ta s t r u c t u r e la now I n c r e a s in g ly r e c o g n iz e d a s th e c o n tro l o f com plex s t o r a g e o f f lie s on d i s k mem­ o r y . T h e la te st fa n c y te rm f o r th is Is d a ta b a se s y a le m . m e an in g p la n n e d - o u t o v e ra ll s to r a g e lh al yo u c a n se n d y o u r p r o g r a m s to lik e m e s s e n g e r s . T h e facl th a t IBM now h a s moved in to th is a r e a (w ith Its I n tr ic a te " a c c e s s m e th o d s" a n d all t h e i r I n itia la ) m e an s c o m p lex s to r a g e c o n tro l has filia lly a r r i v e d , a lth o u g h th e p io n e e r in g w o rk w aa d o n e b y B achm an at GE som e y e a r 6 ag o (ae e b ib li o g r a p h y ) . T ill th e la s t few y e a r a , e x te r n a l s to r a g e , w ith p o in te r s a n d e v e r y th in g , h a s n o t b e e n c o n v e n ie n tly u n d e r the p r o g ra m m e r's c o n tro l e x c e p t in c r u d e w a y s . F inally we a r e s e e in g s y s te m s b e g in n in g lo ge l a ro u n d th a t a u to m a tic ally h a n d le c om plex file s t r u c t u r e s in v e r s a t i l e w ay s th a t p r o g ra m m e ra c a n u s e more e a s il y .

ANKLE BONE BACK BONE FOOT BONE ----- > H t A U BONE HIP BONE KNEE BONE NECK BONE SHIN BONE SHOULDEII B< THIGH BONE

Malcolm C . H a r r is o n , D s ia -S tr u c tu r e s a n d P r o g r a m m in g . S c o n , F o r e sm a n . 1973. - » T h is book c a n be r ec o m m e n ded to a m b itio u s b e g i n n e r s . It h a s u se fu l s u m ­ m a ri e s o f d iffe re n t la n g u a g e s , a s w ell as fu n d am e n ta l tre a tm e n t of d a ta s t r u c t u r e s a s Ihey In te r tw in e w ith s p e c if ic ls n g u e g e s . An o b s c u r e a n d in tr ic a t e stud y of th e in t e r c h a n g e a b ility o f d a la s t r u c t u r e s - - how Ihey fu n d am e n ta lly in te r c o n v e r t— h a s b e e n th e lon gtim e r e s e a r c h o f one A nalol H o lt, who callB h is w o rk M e m -T h e o ry , Mem la from m e m o r y . a nd a ls o , c o n v e n ie n tly , s H eb rew l e tte r . T h is Is an e x tre m e ly a m bitiou s s t u d y , a s it in p r in c ip le e m b ra c e s n o l Ju s t m u ch o r a ll of c o m p u te r s c ie n c e , b u t p e r h a p s m a the m atics Itse lf. Math f r e a k s a tte n tio n : Holt h a s sa id he in te n d e d to d e riv e a ll of sy m b o lic logic a n d m ath em atics from r e la tio n a a n d p o in te r s t r u c t u r e s . L e t's h e a r It for t u r n in g R u ss ell on h is h e a d . I d o n 't know if Holt h a s p u b lis h e d a n y th in g on it in t h e op en l i t e r a t u r e o r n o t. H o w ev e r, h e d oe s h a v e a gam e a v a ila b le w h ic h se em s w e ird ly to em body th e s e p r in c i p le s . T h e game o f Mem Is a v a ila b le for $6.5 0 p o stp a id ($ 6 .8 6 to P e n n s y lv a n ia n s ) from S t e ll e d a r, I n c . . 1700 Walnut S t . . P h lla . PA 19103. It h a s b e a u ti fu ll y c o lo re d p le c e a , lo o ks d e c e p tiv e ­ ly s im p le , a n d Is u n lik e a n y th in g , e x c e p t d i s c r e t e a b a lr a c tiv e th in k in g its e lf . Recom­ m e n d ed . C h a r le s W. B a chm an. " T h e P ro g ram m er a s N av i­ g a t o r . " CACM Nov 1973. Bachm an w a s th e p rim e m o v e r In the d e v elo p m en t of l a r g e lin k e d d i s k d a la s y s ­ te m s at G e n e ra l E le ctric ; h e la th e P io n e e r. T h i s is a bout b ig n - d lm e n slo n a l s tu f f . D av id L efk o v itz. F ile S t r u c tu r e s to r O n-L in e S y s te m s . S p a r ta n - H a y d e n Bo ok s, $12. A lfonso F . C a r d e n a s . "E valu a tio n of File O r g a n ­ iz a t io n - - a Model a n d S y s te m ." CACM S e p 7 3. 540-548. Not s u r p r i s i n g l y , it t u r n s o ut th a l d if f e r e n t file o rg a n iz a t io n s h a v e d if f e r e n t a d v a n ta g e s . E d g a r H . Sibley a n d R o b e rt W. T a y l o r . "A D ata D efin it io n a n d M app in g L a n g u a g e ." CACM D ec 73. 750-759. E xam ple of c u r r e n t so p h is t ic a te d a p p ro a c h e s : a w h ole la n g u a g e fo r n a ilin g t h e d a ta Ju sl th e w ay it sh o u ld b e . H as h e lp fu l f u r t h e r c ita tio n s.

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D a l a Is p u n c h e d Into c a r d s a c c o r d i n g to so m e p l a n a s s o c i a t e d w ith th e p r o g r a m . B e y o n d th o s e s im p le m a tte r s t h e r e I h no p r e o r d a i n e d a r r a n g e m e n t f o r In fo rm a tio n on a p u n c h c a r d ; It ail d e p e n d s on w h a l th e p r o g r a m c a l l s f o r - B ut e a c h a e P 8 r a le p i e c e o r se c ti o n o f I n f o r m a tio n - - e a c h b u n c h o f c o n s e c u tiv e c h a r a c t e r s t h a l t o g e t h e r h a v e a s p e c if ic m e a n i n g - - a re c alled a f ie l d . A f ie ld c a n b e a n a m e , a n u m b e r , an a m o u n t o f m o n e y , a n a lp h a b e tic a l c o d e r e p r e ­ s e n tin g so m e th in g , a n u m e rica l code r e p r e s e n t­ i n g s o m e th in g , o r o l h e r s tu f f . When th e c a r d s go Into t h e p r o g r a m , i h e p r o g r a m c an p ic k ofT th e In fo r m a tio n it n e e d a o n e f ie ld a t a ti m e — p u l l i n g t h e f ie ld ln c o lu m n s 1 lo 17 In to one p r o g r a m v a r i a b l e , t h e f ie ld from c o lu m n s n in e to te n Into a n o t h e r p r o g r a m v a r i a b l e , a n d so

MAGNETIC STORAGE T h e s e m e p r i n c i p l e of fie lds applies in o t h e r d a ta m e d ia , e s p e c ia l ly magnet ic ta pe and d i s k . We m ay e x t e n d th e notion of a field to e x p la i n r e c o r d s a n d f ile s . A f i e l d , g e n e r a ll y s p e a k i n g , Is a section of p o s i t i o n s o n so me mediu m r e s e r v e d for one p a r t i c u l a r p ie c e o f in f o r m a t io n , o r lha data In || , A r e c o r d i s a b u n c h of fie lds stored on som e m e diu m w h ic h h a v e so me organiz ed use. ( F o r I n s ta n c e , t h e a c c o u n tin g Information held b y a n e l e c t r i c u til ity com pany a bout a particula r c u s to m e r Is lik e ly to b e s to r e d a s a r ec o rd with a t l e a s t th e s e fie l d s : a c c o u n t n u m b e r; Iasi name; I n itia ls ; a d d r e s s ; a m o u n t c u r r e n t l y ow ed.) A Ole i s a w h o le b i g com ple te b u n c h of in f o r m a tio n lha l Is Bt o re d s o m e p la c e . In many a p p lic a ti o n s a file I s co m p o sed o f num ero us s i m i l a r , c o n s e c u tiv e r e c o r d s . F o r I nsta nce, a n e l e c t r i c c o m p a n y m a y well s to r e ihe re c o rd s f o r a l l o f i t s c u s to m e r s o n a m a g n etic la p e, o r d e r e d b y a c c o u n t n u m b e r ( ac co u n t 000001 firs t). S t o r i n g s e q u e n c e s of sim ila r r e c o rd s In lo n g f ile s is ty p ic a l o f b u s i n e s s p r o g r a m s , th o u g h p e r h a p s t h i s sh o u ld b e g in lo change. I t 's e s p e c ia l ly s u i t e d to b a tc h p r o c e s s in g , t h a t i s , h a n d lin g m a n y r e c o r d s In ihe same w ay a t th e sa m e tim e . (S e e " S y ste m P ro g r a m s.") N ow , th e d i v i s i o n s o f f i e l d , r e c o r d and f ile a r e c o n c e p tu a l: th e y a r e w h a t th e p r o g ra m ­ m e r t h i n k s a b o u t, b a a e d on th e Information n e e d s o f a s p e c if ic c o m p u te r p r o g r a m . ftt-t

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D ata u s u a lly h a s to b e m a r s h a l l e d Into r o w s , o r e v e n r e g im e n ts a n d b a t t a l i o n s , be fo r e It c a n g o In to a c o m p u te r. (So m e p e o p le Ju s t g e t t h e i r d a t a i n to a c o m p u te r b y s it tin g a t a te rm in a l s n d ty p i n g it I n . p e r h a p s a n s w e r in g q u e s tio n s t y p e d to them b y a f r o n t - e n d p r o g r a m . But t h e y 'r e th e lu c k y o n e s . Most o f u s h a v e lo ge l th e d a t a s e l up on so m e Kin d o f h o ld in g s u r f a c e b e f o r e i l g e ts fed I n . T h a t 's an I n p u t m e d iu m . ) DATA MEDIA A d a l a m edium ( "m ediu m " Is t h e s i n g u l a r o f " m e d i a " ) Is a n y th in g th a l h o ld s Ihe m a r k s of d a ta o u t s i d e Ihe c o re m em ory of a c o m p u i e r . T h u s p u n c h e d c a r d s a n d p u n c h e d p a p e r lape may b e u s e d aa In p u t m e d i a . u s e d f o r p u tti n g In fo r m a tio n Into a c o m p u te r. (E ach m e diu m n e e d s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g I n p u t o r o u tp u t d e v i c e , to w h i s k a c r o s s th e a u rf a c e a n d I r a n a l a le it s m a r k s o r h o le s Into t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g e le c tr o n ic p u lse s.) T h e r e a r e th r e e t y p e s of d a ta m edia ; In p u t, o u t p u t a n d s to r a g e m e d ia . A n in p u t m e d iu m c a r r i e s th e d a la I n . A n o u tp u t m ediu m r e c e i v e s th e r e s u l ts o f a p r o g r a m ; f o r i n s t a n c e , a s h e e t o f p a p e r coin in g o u t o f a p r i n t i n g d e v ic e Is a n o u t p u t m ed iu m , a s Is a p u n c h e d c a r d o r p u n c h e d p a p e r tap e. S t o r a g e media a r e o u tp u t m e d ia t h a t may be u s e d a s in p u t media la t e r o n . T h u s p u n c h e d c a r d s a n d p u n c h e d p a p e r la p e c a n b e s to r a g e m e d ia . B u l Ih e b e t t e r s to r a g e m e dia u s e m a g ­ n e tic r e c o r d i n g (w h ich Is f a s t e r a n d l e s s b u l k y ) , lik e m a g n e t ic ta p e a n d d i s k s , o r Ju s t p la in " d i s k s " a s w e g e n e r a ll y call the m . (S e e f u lle r lis t o f m a g m e d ia u n d e r " P e r i p h e r a l s . " p . 5 7 ■) T h e u n i t s a n d a r r a n g e m e n ts of d a l a u s e d fo r i n p u t . o u tp u t an d s to r a g e a r e In p r i n c i p l e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y ih e tr u e o n e s of th e d a l a s t r u c t u r e u s e d b y th e p r o g r a m . T h e b lo c k s a n d r e c o r d s o f s t o r a g e , f o r i n s t a n c e , may h a v e i r r e g u l a r d a ta w i t h p o in le r e sit tin g in th e m . ( U n f o r tu n ­ a te ly t h e r e i s so m e c a r r y o v e r , in t h a t p r o g r a m ­ m e r s a r e te m p te d to u se d s t a s t r u c t u r e s w h ic h a r e e a s y lo s lo r e a n d r u n in a n d o u t . r a t h e r th a n h a n d l i n g th e tr u e co m p le x itie s o f t h e s u b ­ je c t . T h i s i s a lw a y s a te m p ta tio n .) L et u s c o n s i d e r th e u n its a n d a r r a n g e m e n t s □ f d a ta u s e d l o r In p u t a n d o u tp u t a n d s t o r a g e . T h e s e a r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , f ie l d s , r e c o r d s , f lie s an d b lo c k s . THE PUNCH CARD L e t 's b e g in w ilh a fun e xam ple; th a t h o a r y o ld m e d iu m for i n p u t a n d o u t p u t , th e pu n c h ed (or "p u n ch ") c a r d . T h e p u n c h c a r d w ill s h o w u s w h at a field i s . T h e p u n c h c a r d Is g e n e r a ll y b e l i e v e d lo h a v e b e e n I n v e n te d b y H erm an H o lle rith ( a l­ th o u g h t h e a u t h o r ' s I n -l a w s h a d b i t t e r r e c o l l e c ­ tio n s io th e c o n t r a r y ) . It w a s f ir s t u s e d o n a b r o a d s c a le to c o u n t u p th e c e n s u s o f I9 6 0 , a n d la t e r b e c a m e a n e a r ly c o r n e r s t o n e o f IBM, b u t t h a t’s a n o t h e r s t o r y . T h e p u n c h e s o n a c a r d r e p r e s e n t s row o f In fo r m a tio n ( s u c h aa a row o f ty p e d l e t t e r s ) , th i s la n o t o b v io u s b e c a u s e th e c a r d la a r e c ­ ta n g le r a t h e r lh a n a li n e . H o w e v e r, t h e le n g th o f ih e c a r d 1b a c tu a lly d iv id e d in to e i g h t y p o sl b o n a , e a c h o f w h ic h may h o ld o n e n u m b e r , a lp h a b e tic c h a r a c t e r o r p u n c tu a t io n m a r k . T h e s e p o s it io n s a r e a c tu a lly n a r r o w c o l u m n s , e ig h ty o f th e m , w ith d if f e r e n t p o s it io n s I n w h ic h h o le s m a y b e p u n c h e d . O ne ho le In a c o lu m n r e p r e s e n t s a n u m e ra l; w h ic h p o s itio n i n th e co lu m n s p e c i f i e s w h a t n u m b e r . T w o h o le s In a c o lu m n g e n e r a l l y mean a le tte r of th e a l p h a b e t , th r e e h o le s i n a c o lu m n m e an a p u n c tu a t io n m a rk .

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C o d e s a r e p a l l e m e o r s y m b o ls w h ic h a r e a s s ig n e d m e a n i n g s . Som etim es we m ake u p s p e c ia l c o d e s lo c u t d o w n Ih e s m ount o f in f o r m a tio n tha t h a s to be s t o r e d . On y o u r d r i v e r ' s L ic ense, f o r i n s t a n c e . Ihey m ay r e d u c e y o u r h a i r c o lo r lo on e d e cim al d ig i. ( fo u r b its o f in f o r m a t io n ), s in c e t h e r e a r e le a s lh a n n in e p o s s ib i liti e s fo r q u ic k id e n tif ic a ti o n of h a ir - c o lo r a n y w s y . O b v i o u s l y . c o d e s c a n b e an y d a r n thing*, an y s e l o f s y m b o ls lh a t i s l e s s th a n w h a i y o u s t a r t e d w i t h . But b y c o m p re a s ln g In fo rm a tio n th e y lose in f o r m a tio n , s o th a t s u b tl e ti e s d is a p p e a r ( c o n s i d e r th e u s e of le lte re A lo F to g r a d e s t u d e n t s ) . When y ou d iv id e a c o n tin u u m in to c a t e g o r i e s , not Ju st lh e f e w n e s s o f th e c a t e g o r i e s , b u t the p la c e s y o u d r a w th e lin e - - c a lle d " b r e a k s " o r " c u t l l n g - p o i n t s " - - p r e s e n t p r o b le m s . Suc h c h o p p in g f re q u e n t ly b l u r s o u l I m p o rtan t d i s ­ tin c tio n s . C o d in g Is a lw a y s a r b i t r a r y , f r e ­ q u e n tly d e s t r u c t i v e a n d s t u p i d .

T r o u b le I s , th e a rit h m e t ic Is h a r d e r to w ir e f o r th is k i n d , b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e tw o z e r o e s ( p lu s a n d m in u s ) b e tw e e n 1 and -1 . ADDABLE NEGATIVE— t h i s sy s te m d o e s s s o r t of Q lp a n d b e g in s a n e g a ti v e n u m b e r w ith a il o n e s . It m e an s th a l th e m a­ c h in e d o e s n 'l h a v e to h a v e s u b ­ t r a c tio n c ir c u itr y : y o u J u s t a d d t h e Q lp p e d n e g a ti v e v e r s i o n of a n u m b e r , a n d th a l a c tu a lly s u b t r a c t s I t. T h is h a s now c a u g h t o n g e n e r a ll y . ( I t 's u s u a lly c a lle d " tw o s co m p lem en t n e g a t i v e , " w h ic h h a s som e o b ­ s c u r e m a th e m atica l m e a n in g .) BCD ( B in a r y - C o d e d D e c im a l) -- lh e a c c o u n ­ t a n t 's n u m b e r i n g s y s te m . U se d b y COBOL ( se e p . 3 1 ) . I t 's p la in o ld d e c im a l, w ith e v e r y n u m e ra l s to r e d i n f o u r b its ; t h e m a ch in e o r la n g u a g e h a s to a d d th e m one n u m e r s l a t a t im e . I n s te a d o f c r u n c h in g to g e th e r full b i n a r y w o r d s . FLOATING P O IN T -- t h e s c i e n t i s t 's n u m b e r t e c h n i q u e f o r a n y th in g th a t m a y not com e o u t e v e n . E x p r e s s e s a n y q u a n tity s s a n am o un t a n d a s iz e .

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D ata h a s to g e t I n s id e Ih e m a ch in e so m e h o w , a n d r e s u l t s h a v e to g e t b a c k o u l. T w o m a in ty p e s of c o d e s - - th a t I s , s t a n ­ d a r d i z e d p a t t e r n s - - e x i s t , a lth o u g h w h s l fo rm s o f d a ta p r o g r a m s w o rk o n in s i d e v a rie s c o n sid e ra b ly . ( T h e I n p u t d a ta c an b e c o m p le te ly tr a n s fo r m e d b e f o r e I n te r n a l w o rk a l a r t s . ) 1. A SCII ( p r o n o u n c e d " A s k e y ," A m e ric a n S t a n d a r d C od e fo r I n fo rm a tio n E x c h a n g e . T h i s allo w s a ll th e k i n d s o f n u m b e r s a n d a lp h a b e ts y o u c o u ld p o s s ib l y w a n t (fo r in s t a n c e , S w a h ili) f o r g e ttin g I n fo rm a tio n In a n d o u t o f c o m p u te r s . ASCII i s u s e d lo a n d from m ost T e l e ty p e t e r m l n s l s a n d k e y s c o p e a . H o w e v e r , ASCII Is a ls o u s e d for I n t e r n a l s t o r a g e o f a lp h a b e tic a l d a la In m a n y no n -IB M s y s te m s , a n d lt Is a ls o the r u n n i n g f o rm o f a n u m b e r of p r o g ra m m i n g l a n g u a g e s , s u c h a s TRAC l a n g u a g e (see p . \ 3 ) , TBCO a n d GRASS (see p .* 3 i) . IB M 's d e lib e r a te u n d e r m i n in g o f the A SC II c o d e Is a s o u r c e o f w i d e s p r e a d a n g e r . (S e e IB M , p . 5*2..) 2 . EBCDIC ( p r o n o u n c e d " E b s a d lc k , " ) E x te n d e d B i n a r y C od e d D ec im a l. T h i s w as th e c o d e IBM b r o u g h t o u t w ith th e 360, p a s s i n g A SCII b y . (IBM s e e m s to th in k of c o m p e t lb llll y a s a p r i v i l e g e th a t m u sl be e a r n e d , i . e . . p a id f o r . ) EBCDIC a lso a l­ low s n u m b e r s , Ihe E n g lis h a lp h a b e t , a n d v a r i o u s p u n c tu a t io n m a r k s . T h i s i s u s e d to a n d f ro m m o st IBM t e r m in a l s ("2741 ty p e " ) .

Lola o f w a y s now e x i s t to h a n d le w r i t­ te n In fo rm a tio n b y c o m p u te r. T h e s e often p r e s e n t b e t t e r w a y s lo o p e r a te lh a n b y u s in g c o d e s of t h i s ty p e . Bui m a n y c o m p u te r p r o ­ g r a m m e r s p r e f e r to m ake y o u u s e c o d e s . (NOTE: t h e r e s r e tw o o th e r s e n s e s o f " c o d e ” u s e d h e r e a b o u ls : 1) th e b i n a r y p a t ­ t e r n s m ad e to s ta n d for a n y I n fo r m a tio n , e s p e c ia l ly on in p u t a n d o u tp u t; 2) w h a t c o m p u te r p r o g r a m s c o n s is t o f. lh at i s , lin e s of c o m m a n d s .)

T h e " a m o u n t" p a r t c o n ta i n s Ihe a c ­ tu a l b i n a r y n u m e r a l s . Ih e " e ls e " Is Ih e n u m b e r o f p la c e s In f ro n t o f o r a fte r th e d e c im a l p o in t lh a t th e n u m ­ b e r s t a r t s . V e r y im p o r ta n t f o r a s ­ tro n o m ic a l a n d in f in ite sim a l m a tte r s , s in c e s f lo a t in g - p o in t n u m b e r c a n be b i g g e r , s s y , th a n 9 ,8 7 6 ,5 4 3 ,2 1 0 .0 0 0 o r s m a lle r th a n .00000001234S67 F o r some p e o p le e v e n t h is i s n ' t p r e ­ c is e e n o u g h , s o I h sy p r o g r a m u p " in f in ite p r s c l s l o n a r i t h m e t i c ." w h ic h c a r r i e s o u t a rith m e tic to a s m any p la c e s a s th e y w a n t. II la k e s m ue h l o n g e r , th o u g h .

"L o gica l d e d u c ti o n " r e a lly c o n s is ts of te c h ­ n iq u e s f o r f in d in g o u l w h a t 's a lr e a d y i n a d a la s t r u c t u r e . "L o gica l I n c o n s i s te n c y " m e a n s a da ta s t r u c t u r e c o n tr a d ic ts i t s e l f . R a r e ly d o e s It h a p p e n I J u t • c o m p u te r h e lp s y o u d is c o v e r so m e th in g n e w a b o u t a su b je c t th a l y o u d i d n 't s u s p e c t o r s e e c o m in g w ith o u t lh e c o m p u te r; a fte r a l l . y o u h a v e lo s e l u p a stu d y In s u c h a w a y a s to m a k e room to find th in g s o u l . a n d y o u c a n o n ly m ak e ro om to f in d some t h i n g s o u l .

WHAT'S AVAILABLE IN MACHINES AND LANGUAGES Som e m a c h i n e s . lik e th e 360 . a r e m o r e - o r - l e s s w i r e d u p lo h a n d le s e v e r s l n u m b e r ty p e s : b i n a r y , f lo a tin g p o i n t , BCD. L ittle m a c h in e s u s u a l l y o n ly h a v e p la in b i n ­ a r y . s o o t h e r ty p e s h a v e to b e h a n d le d b y p r o g r a m s b u ilt u p from th a l fu n d am e n ta l b in a ry . L a n g u a g e s m a k e u p f o r th le b y p r o v i d i n g p r o g r a m s to h a n d le n u m b e r s in s o m e o r a ll o f t h e s e f o rm a ts. T h e r e a r e l a n g u a g e a th a t o f fe r e v e n m o re k i n d s of n u m b e rs-IMAGINARY n u m b e rs (tw o -p a rt n u m b e rs f o llo w in g c e r t a i n r u l e s ) QUATBRNIONS (U ke I m a g in a r y n u m b e r s b u t w o rs e) a n d goo d n ess know s w hat e lse . O n lhe o t h e r h a n d , so m e la n g u a g e s r e s t r i c t w h a t n u m b e r f a c ilitie s a r e a v a il­ a b le fo r s im p li c i t y 's s a k e . B A 9 IC , for i n s t a n c e , d o e s n 't d i s t i n g u i s h b e tw e e n i n t e g e r s (c o u n ti n g n u m b e r s ) a n d th o s e w ith d e c im a l p o in ts ; a ll n u m b e r s m ay h a v e d e cim al p o in ts . TRAC L a n g u a g s o nly g i v e s y o u I n t e g e r s to s t s r t , s in c e I t 's e a sy e n o u g h to p r o g r a m o th e r k i n d s o f n u m b e r b e h a v i o r In ( lik e in f in it e p r e c i s i o n ) .

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P u n c h c a r d s a r e n o t in lr in s l c a U y e v il. T h ey h a v e s e rv e d many u se fu l p u r p o s e s . B ut t h e p u n c h - c s r d m e n ta lity i s s till a r o u n d . T h i s w ill b e s e e n In (he p r o g r a m m e r w ho h a b itu a lly s e t s t h in g s u p s o w e h a v e to u se p u n c h c a r d s ( w h e n o t h e r m e d ia , o r I n t e r ­ a c ti v e t e r m i n a l s , w o u ld b e b e t t e r ) ; w h o in ­ s i s t s o n t h e u s e r o r v ic tim p u tti n g d o w n n u m b e r s ( w h e n w ith a lit tle m ore e ff o rt th e p r o g r a m c o u ld h a n d le t e x t , w h ic h i s e a s ie r t o r t h e h u m a n , o r e v e n lo ok u p lh e I n fo r ­ m ation in d a ta It h a s a l r e a d y ) ; w h o I n s is ts t h s t p e o p le ’s l a s t n a m e s b e c u t do w n to e le v e n l e t t e r s b e c a u s e h e d o e s n 't fee l lik e l e a v i n g a lo n g e r f ie ld o r h a n d lin g e x c e p tio n s i n h i s p r o g r a m ; w h o I n s is ts o n Ihe o u t s i d e r c u t t i n g h i s in fo rm atio n in to s n a r f y lit tle c o d e s , w h e n s u c h d i g e s t i o n , i f n e e d e d a t a l l , c o u ld b e b e t t e r d o n e b y th e p r o g r a m ; a n d s o o n . T h e p u n c h c a r d m e n ta lity i s r e s p o n s i b le f o r m a n y o f t h e w o e s th a t h a v e b e e n b la m e d on " c o m p u te rs ."

HOLLERIT H, m e a n i n g l h e c olu m n p a t l e m s t h s t g o in o n p u n c h e d c a r d s . ( T h e y c a n a ls o come o u t th a t w a y , If yo u w a n t th e m lo .) CARD-IMAGE BINARY. If f o r some rea so n yo u w anl exact b in a ry p a tle m s fro m y o u r p r o g r a m , th e y c a n b e p u n c h e d o u t a s r o w s o r c o lu m n s on p u n c h c a r d s . ST E R LIN G . J u s t lo sh o w y o u how c o m ic al t h i n g s c a n g e t , I h s o r i g i n a l PL/I s p e c if ic a t io n s ( se e p - 3 p a llo w ed n u m b e r s to b e I n p u l a n d o u tp u t in t e r m s of P o u n d s , S h i llin g s a n d P e n c e (12 p e n c e to t h e s h i l ­ l i n g , 20 s h i l l i n g s to t h e p o u n d ) . No p r o ­ v is i o n w a s m a d e f o r G u in e a s (th e 2 1 - a h llU n g u n i t ) , o r f s r t h l n g s . u n f o r t u n a te ly .

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A c o m p u te r l a n g u a g e ia • sya iepi for c a s t i n g s p e lls . T h i s ! ■ n o l « m e t a p h o r b u t t n e x a c tly t r u e s ta te m e n t . Each la n g u a g e h w a v o c a b u l a r y of c o m m a n d s, lh a l I s , d if f e r e n t o r d e r * y o u c a n g i v e t h a t a r e fundam e nta l lo lhe I s n g u a g e , a n d a i y n l » , t h a l i s . r u l e s a bout h o w to g iv e th e c om m ands r i g h t , a n d h o w y o u m ay fit them to g e th e r a n d e n t w i n e ih e m . L e a r n in g to w o r k w ilh o n e la n g u a g e d o e s n 't m e an y o u 'v e le a r n e d a n o t h e r . You le a r n th e m one a l a rim e, bu t a lte r to m e e x p e r i e n c e il g e ls e a s i e r . T h e r e a r e c o m p u te r l a n g u a g e s f o r te s tin g r o c k e ts h ip s an d c o n tro llin g o il r e f i n e r i e s a n d m a k in g p i c t u r e s . T h e r e a r e c o m p u te r l a n g v - g e s for so c io lo gic al s t a t i s t i c s a n d d e s ig n in g a u to m o b ile s. A n d t h e r e a r e c om pute r l a n g u a g e s w h ic h will d o a n y o f th e s e t h i n g s , and m o r e , b u l w ilh m o r e difficu lty b e c a u s e th e y h a v e n o p u r p o s e b u ilt i n . (D ul e a c h o f th e se g e n e r a l - p u r p o s e la n g u a g e a le n d s to h a v e its ow n o u tlo o k .) Most p r o g r a m m e r s h a v e a f a v o r ite la n g u a g e o r Iw c, an d th is i s n o t o r a t i o n a l m i l l e r . T h e r e a r e m a n y d if f e r e n t co m p u te r l a n g u a g e s — in fact th o u s a n d s — b u t w h a t th e y all h a v e In c om m on i s a ctin g on Beries of i n s t r u c t i o n s . Be y o n d lh a t , e v e r y la n g u a g e i s d if f e r e n t. S o f o r e a c h la n g u a g e , lhe q u e stio n * a r e WHAT ARE THE INSTRUCTIONS? HOW DO THEY FIT TOGETHER? Most c o m p u te r la n g u a g e s in v o lv e som ehow ty p in g in th e co m m a n d s o f y o u r s p e ll lo a com pute r s e t u p f o r tha t la n g u a g e . ( T h e c o m p u te r i s se l u p b y p u ttin g i n a b i g g e r p r o g r a m , called th e p r o c e s s o r for lha l l a n g u a g e ■) 1 W A»>

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O r i g in a l ly th ia la n g u a g e w a s c a ll e d IAL. for I n te r n a tio n a l A l g e b r a i c L a n g u a g e , b u t th e n a s It g r e w a n d g o t p o l i s h e d b y v a r i o u s i n t e r ­ n a tio n a l c o m m ittee s i t w a s g iv e n I ts n e w n a m e . 0 d o n 't k n o w I f a n y o n e c o n s c io u s ly n a m ed It a f te r A lg o l, th e s l a r . ) It h a s g o n e t h r o u g h s e v e r a l v e r s i o n s . Algol 6 2, th e p u b lic a t i o n l a n g u a g e , Is on e th in g ; A lg ol 7 0 . th e 1070 v e r s i o n . I s m u c h more c o m p lic a te d a n d s t r a n g e . S e v e r a l v e r s i o n s o f ALGOL h a v e g o tte n p o p u la r In th ia c o u n t r y . O n e , d e v e lo p e d a t th e U n iv e r s i ty o f M ic h ig a n , i s c a ll e d MAD (M ic hig an A lg o r ith m D e c o d e r ) ; Its s y m b o l Is of c o u r s e A lf r e d B . N e w m a n . A n o th e r f a v o r ite (for i t s n a m e , a n y w a y ) i s JO VIAL ( J u l e s ' O w n V ersio n o f t h e I n te r n a t i o n a l A lg e b r a ic L a n g u a g e ) , d e v e lo p e d u n d e r J u l e s S c h w a r t s ( a n d s u p p o s e d ly na m ed w ith o u t h i s c o n s u lta tio n ) a t S y s te m D e v e l­ op m e n t C o r p o r a ti o n . When IBM a n n o u n c e d i t s S y s te m 360 h a c k In 1904. t h e r e h a d b e e n h o p e t h a t t h e y w o u ld s u p p o r t th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l la n g u a g e c o m m ittee s an d m a k e A lg o l t h e b a s i c l a n g u a g e o f t h e i r new c o m p u te r l i n e . No s u c h l u c k . I n s te a d th e y announced PL /I (P ro g ra m m in g L an g u a g e I ) , a c o m p u te r la n g u a g e l h a t w a s g o in g to b e all th in g s to a l l m e n . ln p r o g r a m m i n g s t y l e i t r e s e m b l e d COBOL, b u t h a d f a c ilit ie s f o r v a r i e t i e s o f " s c i e n ti f ic " n u m b e rs a n d s o m e g o o d d a ta s t r u c t u r e s y s te m s , it Is a v a il a b le f o r th e 360 a n d f o r c e r t a i n b i g H oney w e ll c o m p u t e r s ; i n d e e d , t h e o p e r a t i n g s y s ­ te m f o r MULTICS ( a e e p . ‘{ S ) w a s w r i tte n l n P L / I . W h e th e r t h e r e a r e p e o p le w h o lo v e t h e la n g u a g e 1 d o n 't k n o w ; t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n l y p e o p le w ho h a te I t.

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a re basic a . Ignore Ihelr l A X W aJ W Computersroomful of ally r inlik ecabinet* may S ppearances: a roa g have a g r e a t deal In common with a sm all blin king bo a; Indeed, Ihey may have the aame arc hite cture , o r s tr u c tu re , and there fore be Ihe same com puter. T he stru c tu re of c om pute r* , In ih e lr glorious sim ila rities and fiu d n a t in g dif ferenc e*, is called computer a rc h ite ctu re . (For the a rc hitectu re of a b e g in n e r 's com­ p u te r , see p . J * ; to r (he a rc h ite ctu r e of some famous com pule rs, se e f p .1 ® -} .) Computer a rc hitectu re c o v ers th ree main th ings: register* (place* w here so meth in g ha ppen s to Information); memories (pla ces w here nothing ha ppens to Information); th e ir Interconnections; and machine la nguage, oil lhe bottom -l ev el I n stru c ­ tio ns (for (hi* la st see "Rock Bottom," p . 3 2 , ) . REGISTERS AND MEMORIES Com puters are ma de, ba sic a lly , of two thing*: regis te r* snd m em orie s. A r eg is ter is where som ething happens to Information: a memory is w here nothing ha ppens lo inform atio n. Let's go ov e r lhal alowly. A r e g is te r 1* a pla ce w h e r e som ething h appens to Information: lhe information ean be flippe d aro u n d , te ste d, c hanged by arithm etic, o r w h atever. (We noted e a r lie r lhal r egis te rs a re whai connect a computer 10 it s a cc essorie s. T hey a re also prin cipal p a rts of the computer its e lf .) A memory la a pla ce w here nothin g hap­ pens to Information. A progra m pula the Infor­ mation th e re , end th e re ll a lays IUI some p r o ­ gram pulls 11 out again o r r ep la ce s it. A main or general r e g is te r (often called lhe acc um ula to r, for no good r ea so n ) Is w here the program b rin g s Ihings lo b e w orke d o n . t e ste d , compared , added lo and so o n . T here can be se veral of them In a co mpute r. Oth er regis te r* perform oth e r functions In the computer; * giv en c om pute r's d e sig n , o r a rc hi­ t e c t u r e . is larg ely lhe arr ange m e nt of r egis te rs a nd lha operations lhal lake pla ce betw een them. The reason we do n't Juat ha v e aU regis te r* — a nd no memories *t a il— 1 thal r e g is te r s tr a d i­ * tiona lly coal more lhan memories. (However, some machines a re bein g trie d lhat have aU working r e g is te r s Inste ad of memory. See ST ARAN. p . H J . ) Memories come In all s iz e s and apee da . So lola of compulers have big slow memories , su ch a s d is k memories, along with Ihelr small faat memories.

B asic ally II co nsist* o f two •pacific regis ­ te rs , th e Program C ounter (usually abbreviated PC) and th e I nstr ucti on R e gis te r (usually abbre­ via te d IR ), and o th e r electr onic R uff, loosely te rm ed " d e o id l n g lo g ic .” (Sinc e we a re a lr e ady visual icing the progra m fo llow er aa a Uttle h a n d . 1*1'* think of the in de x f in g e r aa the progra m counter and Imagine tha t th e thum b e a n (Up an Instruction inlo a little c u p . the Instr ucti on R e g u la r o r CR. Whai lhe h e c k .)

Bre ry e m p u l a r U w ir e d to accept • *p«m «»» *yn*m o f command*. When lh**e commands i n rto r*d In th* c o m pute r'* memor y, *nd lh® c m p u t a r ' r p n g r m follower gala lo th«m. Ihay cause U to resp o n d direc tly by electr onic refle x. Thi* la caUed mac h in t la n g u ag e ■ lhe v a ry la n­ gua ge of (ha machine Itaalf. in moat available m m p u le r e th« machine lang uage * are b in a ry , m e an in g composed of only two *lt*m*liv* symbol*- B in ary because It’* * sensible w*y o f o rg anis in g th a machine'* str u c ­ ture; It p a m i l * progrero* lo b e reduced to * •Ingle common form of Information, sn d permits pr ogra ms to be *iored In b in a r y memory- Each Individual ln*1ruction o r command ordin aril y occupies ana memory *lot. th o u g h some compu­ ter* have ann manda of v a ry in g length . Different romp u t e r i ha v e different machine la n g u ag es, b u t th* in stru c tio n s of all computers are basically sim ila r. Big cxnnputer* have more commands, with more v a ria tio n s . and carry them out Faaler; b u t Ihoee v a r i a t i o n are Jusl e x tra way* of sa v in g ste p * , n o t qualitatively d ifferent feature*. Th«s« deep-down o p e ra tion* ARE ALL THE TKINO3 THE COMPUTER HVER DOES. However. In th e ir comblnallcst* lhe*e lnatr ucti one can be woven Into chain s and d isd a in s of complex a cti ons. ALL COMPUTER PROGRAMS ARB EVEN­ TUALLY WRITTEN OR ENACTED IN THE MACHINE'S PARTICULAR BINARY LANGUAGE, Now, ll Is en tirely p o ssib le lo write your prog ram* si th is leva], c o n sid e r in g aAd a rr a n ­ ging rock-bottom commands. T h is Is called machine-language p ro g ra m m in g (an d assembly pr ogramming: see eaam ple s a little la le r on). In dee d, working al this le vel Is v e ry highly reapeeted In some quart e r a . Other* avoid ll. Thla Is a v e ry se rio u s m a ile r o f ta ste and whsl y o u 'r e working on. Hig her-le vel la n g u a g e s , se en on e a r li a r p a g es, have more convenient form s for people, but must be ir m s U te d , e ith e r ahead of lima or on a ru n n in g b a s is , lo Ih e bottom-m ost codes thal make things happen lh th e machine. All of them are built out of machine la n g u ag e. Writ­ in g (he lang uage p r o c e s s o r s , p rogra m s lhal enact o r transla te these h ig h e r- le v e l la nguag es. Is considered a black a r t . (Bee p . J O . )

i*o*r*W 71 A core memory ha s a defin ite rhyth m or c y c le . Into which tl div ide* the p a s s in g time. T h e memory cycle of a core memory Is s o Im­ p orta nt that it s durati on is often called the c ycle lime of (he c o n fe r. A reque st lo ih e core memory m»de a t lhe begin n in g of th e cycle i s honored al lhe end of the c ycle . Core cycles a re v e ry fast, bein g th ese day* about one m ic rosecond, o r millionth of * second. A core memory can on ly pe rform one act ( sto re o r fetch) d u r in g one memory c y cle . Core cycle* d u r in g which n o th in g la r e q u e s te d of Ihe memory sim ply go b y . One la st point about core mem orie s. T he n u m b e r which specifies an a d d re s s to lh e mem­ o r y i s a b in a ry p a tte rn - - Jusl like all th e olh e r Information (see "Bin ary P a tle m s ," p , 3 } ) . (Or more ex ac tly , w hateve r bina ry p a tte rn Is su p ­ p lie d lo Ihe memory as th e a d d re ss to sto r e or from which to fetch, thal pattern will be tr eate d a s the a d d re ss to sto re o r from w hic h to fetch, t h a t p a tte rn will be tr eate d as a b in a ry num be r w h eth er it w as suppose d to be o r n o t. It could be (he a lphabetic w ord ORINCH w hic h got there by mis take (see "Debuggin g." p . ) . bul Ihe memory will tr ea t 11 a s an a d d re s s n u m b e r and go to the a d d re ss specified by lhat p a tte rn .

WHEN a progra m la se t into ope ration, tiw bina ry p a tte rn spe cif yin g Ha Ural addreaa in memory 1* p u t Into lhe progra m counter. T h e n the in stru c tio n *1 lhal addre ss Is fetched lo the progra m follower (lhal 1*. pul in the I nstr ucti on r e g i s t e r ) , decoded and carri ed

THEN THE PROGRAM COUNTER AUTOMAT­ ICALLY HAS ONE ADDED TO IT , SO IT POINTS TO THB NEXT INSTRUCTION. T he in struc tion p ulle d from memory ia held in th e command o r Instruction regis te r and th e re decoded by the syste m 's electronic*. II Is of no conce rn to lhe programmer how thia la d o n e ele c in x ilca U y . (And Indeed elec­ tronic s Is g e n erally of little conce rn lo computer pe ople , u n le s s ihey a re tr y in g to desig n o r o p ­ timise c om pule rs o r o th e r device* themselve*. In dee d, lh e e le c tr onic technique* a re constantly c h a n g in g .) All we ne ed lo know Is that an electrical decodin g sy ste m (called th e logic c ir c u its) c a r r i e s out lhe spe cif ic in stru c tio n — for In stance, by ■h u tti n g off th e pa th to Ihe memory, tu rn in g on the a d d in g c irc u it, and ope nin g path* th rou gh Ihe a d d in g c irc u it and back lo the main r e g is te r . Now lhat th e progra m c ounte r ho lds (he number o f th e n e a t Instr ucti on it In tu r n 1* accord in gly retched and execute d.

T he w ord length (num ber of b it-sp a ce s In a main r e g is te r and memory slot) T he num be r of main r e g is te r s and what (hey can do; i . e . . how th e y a re se l up and w hat o pe ra tions can lake pla ce In and among them: i.e ., the Instruction Sel (see n e a r b y ); T he amount of memory; T he accessorie s o r p e rip he rals ; T he cycle time.

And so It continues. When an in struc tion call s for a Jump o r branc h In th e pr o g ra m , whai ha ppens? T h e ju mp command c au se s a new nu m b e r lo be stu ffed Into the progra m cou n te r, th at's w hat, and so ( h at's w here Ihe program goes n e x t. ALTERNATING CYCLES Many Instr ucti ons (ell the program follower (o take a da ta w ord (also a bin ary p a tte rn ) from memory a n d p u t It In a main r egis te r o r vice

Every programmable de v ic e h as a "machine la n g u ag e." o r rock bottom code system thal acti­ vate* the th in g directly; ita p ro g ra m follower responds ele ctr ic ally 10 th e se co d es, and enacts them m e in stru ctio n al a tim e . T ru e compulers a re programmable devices th al can modify th e ir own Inal r u c ti o n s , change Ih elr se quen ce of op era tio n s an d do olh er ve rsa ­ tile stuff.

A memory consis ts of num e rous holding places o r stor age location*, each holdin g one s ta n d ard pie ce of Information f o r Ihe co mpute r, a word ha vin g a specific num be r of b its (eee p . .) We must Blress: a "COMPUTER WORD" HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH ENGLISH WORDS OR ALPHABETICAL CHARACTERS. T he term refer* to * specific machine's sta n d ard memory slot, havin g a Axed num ber of bit position*. One Important reason (or I h ls sta n d ard isa ­ tion I* lhal each hold in g p la ce , o r memory loca­ tio n , can bo given a num ber o r a d d re * * . If e v e r y slot in the memory ha* an a d d r e s s , Infor­ mation can be stored In sp ecific place*:

Su ch an Instructi on Is tr ansla ted by the decoding logic Into a reque st to (he memory. H ere's the com pute r, Ihen. in ail Its glory: a de vic e with a symbolic pr o g ra m , sto r e d In a memory, b e in g ste pped th rough by a progra m f o llo w er, T he commands of the progra m c a u se the progra m follower to c a r ry oul th e in div idual s te p s req u e ste d by each command of th e program . Instr ucti on cycle (fetch (he next) Dala cycle (d ala goes to o r from m e m o r y ) , Instr ucti on cycle , Data cycle, Since a core memory can only d o one thin g d u r i n g one of Its c y c le * , th e n e x t in s t r u c ­ tion In lh e p ro g ra m cannot be fetched un lll the date ha s moved to o r from lh e memory.

R J^tM lA rL of T MmM X A0«W
V AS c 9 T T o O ftJ ? O l£ , YOUR BASIC COMMANDS. NOW ( C o a p u ta n exist which d o Uttle more lhan th ese, and yet they can In p rin cip le do any th in g f o n d e r computer* can d o . ) TO BE BHOWN; Th* ta llowing a r e the rock-bonotn basic op eration* of co m p u te r* , available aa a pacific Inal ructi ons In a ll computers (with some v ariation). The Br*t se v en lis te d below will be use d in th* e xte nded example In the next s p rea d . LOAD a b in ary p a tte rn from co re memory to a main reg la te r.

NOT TO BE SHOWN: Here a r e th e r e s t of lhe utterly fundamental commands o f computer*. (T hese are not use d In th e forthcoming

SUBROUTINE JUMP— "Go to a noth er p a r t of th e progra m b u t remeroernber th is pla ce because y o u ’ll be coming back on y o u r ow n." RETURN FROM SUBROUTINE"Oo ba ck lo w h e r e v e r it w as in lhe progra m thal you la st came fro m ." PUSH (on Stack mach ines o n ly , see p . )— ta k e * b in a ry pa tte rn and pul It on top o f the Stack. POP (an Stack machine* only , aea p . ) —ta k e w hateve r bin ary p a tte rn la now on th e lop of (he Slack. ADD ONE ( o r "INCREMENT")— (Useful w hen y o u 'r e c ounting the num ber of time* so me­ th in g ha* be en d one .) SUBTRACT ONE (or "DECREMENT." nol " e x c re ­ m e n t" )- - (Also useful when y o u 'r e c ount­ ing the num ber of time* som ething has beei d o n e .) ASTRONOMICAL/INFIN1TBSIMAL ARITHMETIC (or "FLOATING POINT" a rit hm etic )-- o p e ra tes on a certa in num ber of Significant Digits and keepa se parat e tr ac k of lhe decimal poin t- - actually a Binary Point, sin ce ll'a r a r e l y If e v e r don* decimally. “ ► V e r y Important In the ph ysical s c ie n c e s. Almost any opera tions can be "buill i n " ." T he s k y is of c ourse the lim it, sin ce any elec ­ tr onic opera tion ean be added to a compu­ t e r ' s In structi on-set If d e s ir e d — * a y , " tu rn o n Ihe ele ctr ic b le nder" o r "m ulti ply q u a t­ e rn io n s " — but the form er is mere eaaUy do ne aa an output instruc tion, and lhe la tte r aa p a rt of a p r o g ra m .

TEST ONE SPECIFIC b ln sry p a tte r n , and branc h in lhe program dependin g on th e result. SET AN ACCESSORY IN OPERATION/TURN IT OFF. REVERSE ( o r "COMPLEMENT") a b in a ry p a t t e r n c hsngln g aU lh* X‘* to O'* a n d vice v e rsa . SLIDE (or "SHIFT") a bina ry p a tte rn eldelong th rough a r e g i s t e r . FLIPPER (or "LOGICAL") o pe ra tions betw een (wo b in a ry pa tte rn*, esp ec ially -OR ( o r "INCLUSIVE OR" o r "tOR” ) ~ r esu lt Is an X w h ere e ithe r orig in al pa tte rn w aa an X. AND (or "MASK")— r e s u l t 1* an X

Somehow LOADING. STORING, MODIFYING AND TESTING BINARY PATTERNS DOESN'T SEEM TERRIBLY FRAUGHT WITH POSSIBILITIES: bul the e ndle s* variation* and ramifications make chea s look like ll c - tac - to e.

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A nd p a r t of the p ow er, of c o u rs e , la in \ Ihe grea t s p e e d , Ihe te eny fract io n o f a second \ e ach alep ta kes; five h u n d r e d operation* y e( 1 lake only a bout a th ou sa n d th of * se co n d . So I no matter how Intr ic ate th e enactment lo w hic h / th ese liny ste p s a re buU t. It atill h a p p en s J awfully f a s t. /

FANCY OPERATIONS STORE a b in a ry p attern in c o re memory from a main reg is ter. T he following opera tions a re d e sir a b le bul nol atrlcUy n e ce ssary , and many com pute rs , e s ­ pe cially minicomputer*, d o n 't have them all. SUBTRACT. (Can also be do ne If n e ce ssary with combination of a dds and f lip s .) ADD TWO b in a ry pa ttern * to g e th e r. (Thl* cause* them to be tr e a te d a* n u m be r*, w hether they w ere lo b e g in with o r no t.) MULTIPLY. (Can also be do ne if ne ce ssary wilh combination of a d d s, shifts and te sla .) DIVIDE, (Con also be done if n e c e ssa r y with combination of s u b tr a c ts , ahlft* a n d te a l s .) MORE FLIPPER ("LOGICAL") opera tions: XOR - (or "EXCLUSIVE O R ")— resu lt la a n X only w h e r e one pattern had an X, but not both. NAND-- reve rse d AND. NOR-- reve rse d OR.

A c o m p u te r, the n, in te m a U y Ju st c o n sis ts of certa in pla c e s to w ork on information (main r e g i s t e r s ) . c e r ta i n places lo ke ep ll lhe rea l o f the time (m em ories), c ertain pa th w ay s and in t e r ­ connections betw een th em , a n instru c tio n -se t havin g c e r ta i n p o w er s w hose Instruction* c an b e o pera te d on oul of memory, a n d * p ro g ra m fol­ lower that c a r r i e s oul th e I nstr ucti o n * o f th a t In struct ( o n -s e t.

INSTRUCTION-SET. T ha sy stem o f command p a tte rn * d e sig ned and w ir e d into a p a r ti c u la r c o n p u te r , each with its exac t r e su lt* . (The in stru c tio n s In th* se l a r e th* v o c a b u la ry of a m a chine l a n g u a g e .)

Go to a noth er p a r t o f (he pr ogram end forget you w ere h e r e . TEffT TWO b in a ry p a tte rn s a g ain st each oth er, a n d b r a d i o r not in (he p rogra m depen­ d in g on th a resu lt.

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. .. pattsm pattern selecting selecting w h e n to perform operation) operation) OPCODE y j ADDRESS OPBRATION CALLED FOR

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U yv u want Information on lha machine language and aaaanb ly Language of m y given machine, w rite Ihe manufacturer for Uie g n r arammlng ma nual. T h ar a may also be a pockel c a r d .

We look at l u t at whal really bap pa n t Im M* • given computer. It mult be a specific computer because tha ra la no single Innar l«i guage tor all computer*. For simplicity's aaka Olka moat Introductory te ats) we hereby pre­ sent a fictitious machine.

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CLEAR AC Thia instruction causes the AC to be filled with eeroes. 0 0 XO 0 C ADD (from memory lo AC) This adda Ihe contents of Ihe speci­ fied memory location io the conlenta of lha AC. Reaull remains In the AC. Whatever was In the memory before Is etlll there. This Instruction is also used lo brin g e new psttem to the AC. copying 1 from ihe 1 specified memory location; bul you have to CLEAR the AC fi rs t, ao you’re adding II to

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An occult asp ect of compuier deaign la the matter of how lo pack Into the so-many bi ts of an Inaiructlon word all the options Ihe [

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(Faithful Instrument. Domesticated and Obliging). Tha FIDO la a Iwelve-bll macKin*. The main ragla ier (ll haa only ona) la twalva blia long, and ever y memory slot la twalva blls l n g . Bvary Inaiructlon la twelve blia long; •va ry dala word la twalva blta long, though of course mu«h longar placaa of data can be pul Bge tber by taking n o n lhan ona twelve-bll word. Some rudlmantary inalmctlone of lha FIDO a n Uatad In a nearby box. Tha Inelmcllone of lha FIDO a r t of two types: plain onee thal Just uaa tha main raglalar (like CLBAR). and Ihe divided onea, which select a memory alot or output device. On the FIDO lhaee a re divided Into an operation code (opcode) of Ave blta— lha blta thal tell (lie program follower whal Ihe operation Is to be; and an addreaa of le ven blta. specifying which memory elot (or ei le m al device) la lo be operated on. These a tv sn blta allow exactly 120 differ­ ent p a tle m a, (from OOOOOOO lo XXXXXXX). which means we can s e ls d among exactly 128 different memory alow. (See Binary Patterns,

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STORE This Instruction copies ihe contents of Ihe AC lo lha specified memory toc al lm. Whatever waa In Ihe memory location Is destroyed. Whatever ■ X X0 0 0 o address goes here n the AC Is silll there

For no pa rti cu la r reason the Instruction select bits sr e usually on the left, the address bits on Ihe ri g h t. and option blls (no room for them In this book, unfortunately) In the middle. The number of bits In the address d et er­ mines the numbe r o f places In Ihe memory lhat the programmer can choose among. IS bite in the addreaa means a choice of 32,768 memory lo­ cations. 7 bits meane a choice of only 128, (See "Binary P st te rn s." p . 3 3 .) Generally a specific n m p u ie r haa more lhan one instruction layout. Deciding what the Instruction layouts are lo be hinges on the architectural deaign of the computer (eee p . 72. ) and ihe In slr ucllon-sel. It all gets worked out together, It’s ultimately a matter of deaign elegance, bul Ihe consequences a re very concrete. An elegant Inslrucllon-sel Is easy lo use and the re­ fore savea a lot of time and money. (Anyone Inlereated in studying the matter might want lo compare the PDP-11, a 16-bll compuier wilh a brilliantly designed inslrucllon-sel. wilh some other 16-blt computer,)

INPUT* Thle Instruction copies the contents of a specified device regis ter io Ihe AC. OUTPUT* This Inaiructlon copies Ihe contents of Ihe AC lo a specified device register. JUMP This Instruction makee the program follower lake Its nexl Instruction al ihe specified addreas and go on from there. TEST. SKIP IF EQUAL** This la a common leal Inaiructlon, permitting the program lo branch depen­ ding on various conditions. The contents of the AC are compared wilh the specified core memory location. If they are not the eame. Ihe program continues snd takes ihe neat Instruction In Ihe normal fashion. IP Ihe two patterns are Ihe ti m e , the pro­ gram follower SKIPS the next Inaiructlon and goea on lo the one after. Whatever the noxl Instruction is. the n, determines Ihe course of events If the two pstterns l u m oul to be Ihe For Instance, lhat middle Inatrucan be a JUMP Inaiructlon. taking i whole nother part of lory and s new aeries of even's

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Tha Fide cornea wilh one row of llghta and switches; the row of lights can ehow the conlenta of any speclAe working regis ter or memory alot. When Ihe computer la slopped, Ihls la helpful for debugging programs (sa Ah, if only we could lell you all about lh< FIDO here! lie many more Instructions. The option blta In the commands lhal allow fancy varlatlona, or ihe option bits In the Inlerfeces. spoken of e ar lie r, which allow Ihe program to give different commands lo external devices.

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GUESS WHAT! The FIDO is nothing bul a stripped-down version of lhat beloved family pooch of compulerdc

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If you buy a PDP-8 from Digital Equipment Corporation, you get all Ihls and more. (Except for the external d e v ic e s. ) And ihc PDP-8. of co urs e, allows much bigge r memories ihsn 128 slola. bul that's too complicated for h e r e . ) Arf.

efficient

Thl* br in g s up some Iniereellng f a c u . Actually computers with small ward lengths like these sr<i called mlnlcomputera. Big computers have much bigger word lengths. The IBM 360 ha* a 32-bll word la ngth. The Control Dala 6600 haa a 60-bll word. Now, It is an Interesting facl lhat nol only •r e co np uie r memories divided up Inlo *loit, or locations, of equal length. CERTAIN NUMBERS ARE SPECIAL because they a re Ihe number of things lhal can be specified by a cer tain number of b its. Special number 2 4 0 10 32 64 one bit Q two bite cm thr ee bll* rm four blls n i t ~j five bit* r r i I r*\ six bits seven blls 128 tk eight blls 250 nine blls 612 1024 len bits ("ONE K" Is 1024: memories and everything else c-amo in K's. o r multiples of 1024.)

a re what Ihe computer operatee on deep down. "Binary* Just mean* (bat only two symbols a re uaed (Just as "decimal’1 Beau* lhal ten symbols a re u a e d ) . Patterns of binary symbol* ha ppe n lo be electrically omve nle nl. t o that’s how computers are bulli . bul that would change If tome mere convenient a«t of symbols came Binary patte rns a re va ry systematic and May to deal with. Consider Ihe number of bina ry symbols you csn have In Just four sp aces. «LET'S USB THE LETTERS X AND 0 . AND PUT THEM IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER. SO YOU'LL SEE THAT WE'RE TALKING ABOUT PATTERNS , RATHER THAN NUMBERS. O O O O O 0 |Q X

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0 X X 0 X can b e found. And these numbe rs a re bina ry.

However, we will have lo stop u sin g these X's and 0 ' s . It's not really done, so we will switch to Ihe more usual way of writing binary patterns with l ' s and ta ro e s. (Apologies to reader* who hate numbers; but remember that these patterns while we may write them cu t a* l ' s and zeroes, may repr ese nt wholly non-numerical kind s of Information.) Thai means the letter Q is

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but It's n l l l the letter Q. Of co urse, blta may alao rep resent numerical Information. And so we pa ss on te BINARY NUMBERS. These a re the same old binary paiterne, bul when we decide to treat them as numbers, they a re binary numb era . Let's count. Note thal these a re Ihe eame atmblnahona of bit* as be fo re . merely pul In the more usual notation

lw 0o ,'0
o o X 0X 0 0 X X X 0 o X 0 X X X o XXX You csn see thal the pattern repe ats In certain fntarestlng w a y s . Each column repe ats Itself a s you r v d down; add ing a new position lo the left doubles ll* number of possible pattern* you can have in the Th es e a re lha Infamoua "blia" you have heard of. Aa you a n see. the re 1* nothing h a rd or compli­ cated about them. The number of bit* In a thing i n the number of space s which can b e either X or

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Many forma of Information a re kepi In binary patterns which a ra nol numb ers . For Instance, letters of the alphabet a re usually stored aa 8bit p stt er ns .

Actually Ihs term " k ." standing for " k i l o - s h o u l d mean one thou sa n d , and the term BK, o r Binary K, 1a used by fuss y people to sta nd for Ihe ve ry Important near by num be r 1024. Bul computer people generally use ex pr e ss io n s ending In K (or th e following special numbera: THAT'S HOW MANY NUMBER COMBINATIONS FIT IN 2048 ("2K” ) eleven blls 4000 ("4K") twelve bits 8102 ("OK") thirt een bits 16,304 ("16K") fourteen bile 32,708 ("32K") (lfleen b lls. Abovs thl* nu mber they Increase v e ry fast , and we generally hav e to look th a n u p , bul Ihe Idea la Ihls: the num be r of bits us e d lo select something limits the nu mb er of thing s £ou can select among. For I n sta n ce, If you have a computer memory wilh 32K dUTereni locations, you need fifteen bit* eiaclly ID specify a location Ln memory. Hare ai • him ramifications:

U I « |o |» |o |o |o M

All compute™ can In principle do Ihe eame things, eotne (eater. However, some a n loo alow or too small ever lo do whal olher* can. though Ihe types of Ihelr operations a re slmllsr. Some computers (and Ihelr languages and fadlltlee) are much mere convenient for programmer* lhan o i h e n . because ihelr InMruction-set* Th is Is no small mailer. (But ll'e a big matter of laata and argument among computer people.)

Now, the moat basic facl about an y computer Is He word len gth; thal I s . Ihe number of spaces In a stan dar d momory elot of thal computer. IZ -V T O '- t 'V

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A *11-1111 conp utar* u i u lha PDP-8) haa moaery v o t f a that are all twelve blta long. A "16-bll o m p u tc r ” (like lha PDP-11) haa memory word* thal are all l e b l t a U*ig-

decimal number binary number 0 000 1 001 2 010 3 Oil 4 100 6 101 6 110 7 111 08 1000 00 1001 10 1010 11 1011 12 1100 13 1101 14 1110 15 1111 A> y o u o bse rve , the highe r n u m w n need more and n o r * blls lo hold l h a n .

• T he wo rd length of a compuier determines hew la rge a number ll can hold. A compuier wilh a twelve -bit w o rd can only hold • number up to 4006 tn one memory location (since we u se 000 000 000 000. the fi r st combination, to stand (or zero); If wo want lo u s e longer numbe rs we have lo set • si de two or more word locellons per number. (A 16-bll com pute r can hold • number up lo 6S.63S In one memory location.) • ln de sig nin g dala s tr u c tu re s . If you use bina ry cod es (rBlher tha n, s a y, alphabetical ch ar ac te r s) . you hav e to allow enough bi ts (or all ihe allemaUve* lhal might tu r n up. • In Ihe des ign of Ihe wir ed- In Instructions for a c o m p u ie r , there fo re. Ihs number of bits sel aside to s pecify an a d d re ss In core determines whether thal Ins tr uct io n can select from ihe whole memory. o r Juat a p a ri of It.

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T h e r e ia a c e r ta i n folk h e ro w hom the pe op le a ll c a ll B u c k y . It le e a ld th a l h e w e a r s th r e e w rla tw a tc h e a : o ne to r w h e r e h e ‘a n o w . on e f o r w h e r e h e w ill b e n e x t, a n d o n e th a t M ils w h a t tim e It i s a t blfl h o m e Well n o w . H e r e 's a n e x a m p le o f a lit tle p ro b le m o n w h ic h to tr y o u r FIDO c o m p u te r . L e t 's w ir e u p a magic w rl e tw a tc h to r B uck y t h e F o lk H e r e , o n e th a t w ill u s e a te e n y FIDO o n a c h i p ( th e c om in g t h i n g ) . a tta c h e d to th r e e r o w s o f n u m e ric a l r e a d o u ts (lik e th o s e on p o c k e t c a lc u la to r s ) . T h i s a p p lic a tio n le n o l so a b s u r d a s y o u m igh t t h i n k . It ia o b v io u s l y qu it e si m p le In p r i n c i p l e . It * u i le t u a s e e ew oe o f th e w a y s th a t th e ro c k - b o tto m m ach ine l a n g u a g e s of c o m p u te rs a re u s e d . Note t h a t I n t h i s f lo w c h a r t

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N a t u ra lly th is got s a v e d fo r l a s t , a n d w h at la p r e s e n t e d h e r e sh o w s ll. T h e e x a m p le waa m eant to be a c a s e o f n o t- v e r y - n u m e r ic a l p r o g ra m m in g th a t w o u ld ahow th e a b s t r a c u i e a e o f it e l l . T h e p r o g r a m I tse lf h a s n o in tr i n s i c q u a lity r e la te d to th e problem ; lh a t m u ch sh o u ld be v is i b le . A n y h o w . I p ro g ra m m e d t h i s m y se lf a few w eek e a g o in th e FIDO la n g u a g e , a n d w a s v e r y p le a se d w ith I t , b u l the n d is c o v e r e d a c o u p le o f a p p a ll in g b u g s . As dm e c lo sed In on t h is p r o je c t I a s k e d my f rie n d Mike O 'B rie n t o cod e t h s p r o g r a m , a n d h e k in d ly c o n s e n te d , t a k in g tim e o ut o f h ie p r e v io u s w ee k en d p la n s . H e r e Is M ik e 's p r o g r a m , fo r w hich I am g r a te f u l. H ow E V e r, a fte r ll w a s e et In t y p e , Mike r e a ll t e d th a l 11 loo ha a some g r o s s flaw s a n d w ould n o l w o rk aa h e r e p r e s e n te d . We th o u g h t of h a v in g • c h o co la te c h ip cookie c o n te st f o r c o r r e c tio n s , e e n d in g o ul ch oco late c h ip c o o k ie s lo e n t r a n t s f ix in g ll u p , b u l w e d o n 't h a v e e u c h a c o m p u te r a n d we w o u ld n 't r u n th e p r o ­ g ram U w e h a d o ne an yw a y . s o se e If y o u c a n gel lh e b a s i c ■ id e a o f i t . an d If y o u a r e a r e a l w le e gu y Ax t h e p r o g ra m for y o u r ow n s a tie fac tio n, a n d th a t w ill be th a t. T h e b a s i c Id e a le th a t w e h ave a FID O . p r e s u m a b ly on a s in g le I n te g r a te d c ir c u it c h ip , a tta c h e d to t h i r t e e n e x te r n a l d e v ic e s ( o r p e r i p h ­ e r a l s , o r I n p u t- o u tp u t d e v ic e s , o r I/O d e v ic e s o r w h a t e v e r ) . T h e s e de v ice s a r e a tim e r o r c lo c k , w h ie h r e a c h e s zero on c e p e r m in u te — th le Is a c o m p u te r c lo c k , m e a n in g a ti m e r , not som e th in g lh a l p e o p le c an r e a d - - a n d th e t h r e e ro w s of n u m e r i c a l rea d o u ts th a t a r e th e d e s i r e d S u p e r w a tc h . F o r s im p lic ity 's sa k e w e assu m e h e r e th a t e ach n u m e ra l le in te r fa c e d to d o e ith e r In p u l o r o u tp ul; t h u s ih e FIDO com p ute r c a n a s k an y g iv e n n u m e r a l w h a t i t s a y s , a n d c h a n g e Its c o n ­ te n ts . T h e f in is h e d W rlstw atc h Is g o in g to g iv e d m e o n a t w e n ty f o u r - h o u r b a s i s , nol tw e lv e , lik e a l NASA a n d s u c h lik e p la c e s . A fter 12: $9 com es 13:0 0. A ft e r 2 3:59 comes 01:0 0.

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neans, ' s t u f f the n ia b e r 3 i n t o th e v a r i a b l e A.* A v a ria b le la a n a n d lo c atio n In co re M n r y .

t e s tin g w h e t h e r t h e rig h tm o s t d igit 1b a nin e. (ll o n ly h a s lo le s t o n e . s in c e m lnules a r e lhe sam e r o u n d th e w o r l d . ) If I t's nol n in e , il j u s t a d d s o n e lo e a c h — a p a r i o f Ihe program c a lle d ADMIN, s t a r t i n g a l XXO 0 X 0 . If il's n in e , h o w e v e r, ll s e ls t h e lln a l d ig its all to z e r o , a n d th e n te s ts Ihe le n s d ig it to se e If Il's a f i v e , m e a n in g th e e n d of a n h o u r . (The num­ b e r f iv e h a s b e e n I n g e n u o u s ly s to r e d in a loca­ tio n w h ic h M ik e h a s c a ll e d FIVE, w hic h assem ­ b le d lo slo t n u m b e r X 0 X 0 0 X 0 . If you look ( h e r e , y ou w ill s e e lh a l Ih e slo t d o e s . Indeed, c o n ta in Ihe b in a r y p a tte r n to r th e n u m b e r S.) Whai a p ily t h e r e is n o lime to la ke you on a g u id e d lo u r o f th is p r o f o u n d , m agnif icenl p r o ­ g r a m . If y o u d ig th is s o r t of th in g , h ow ev er, yo u m ig hl J u s l b e a b le to d o p e il outA n y w a y , y o u 'v e h a d y o u r ta s te . w ant m o re. Hope yo u

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T h e b u l k o r lh e p r o g ra m la o c c u p ie d w ith te s tin g th e n u m e ra l* a n d c h a n g in g th e m . How­ e v e r , in p r o p o r t io n s of a c ti v ity , th e p o o r th in g la g o in g to s p e n d m ost o f its d m e s a y in g . "la ll lime ye t? I s li d m e yet? Ia It d ise y e t? " ( T h a i's th e s e c o n d , t h ir d a n d fou rth I n s t r u c t i o n .) B e c a u se t h e FIDO se le c ts th e p a r t i c u l a r in p u t- o u lp u t d e v ic e w ith th e la at se v en b its of a n in p u t o r o u tp u t in s t r u c tio n , th is haa b e e n d o n e w ith " a d d r e a s m odif ic atio n" a rithm etic: c r e a ti n g a n o u tp u t I n str u c tio n to a d d r e s s a p a r ­ tic u la r d e v ic e b y a d d in g (he I n str u c tio n to th e nam e o f th e d e v i c e . T h is ia an a n c ie n t a n d - h o n o rab le p ro g ra m m i n g tr i c k . In s e v e r a l c a s e s , the p r o g ra m c h o o s e s a d e v ice lo e x a m i n e , o r f ill, b y ta k in g a b la n k i n p u t o r o u tp u t I n str u c tio n (k ep t al lo c atio n s X OXO XOX a n d X OXO XXO. re a p e c tlv e ly ) a n d j d g j i t . In t h e A C , to a c o u n tin g n u m b e r th a t la b e in g u s e d to e te p a ro u n d In th e a r r a y o f n u m e ra ls . ( T h is c o u n tin g n u m b e r la " N ," « o r e d in lo c a tio n X OXO X X X.) ( T h ese I n a tr u c d o n s w e r e p u l In to th e slo ts In o c tal fo rm , aa 60MB" a n d "6 2M B " r e s p e c t iv e l y . T h e s la s h e s a w m e an t lo d is t i n g u i s h z ero es from O h s The endw.(ln “ ** aM em bly U siln g ) m e an s '» tr a n s la t e t b . s e n n n b .™ to B l n u y . u u , th .m i h r e , b l i . , , , ttM - H l l cm n ea o u t to XXO OOO OOO O O O .)

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Thl® *• whal O'® p ro g ra m looks lik e in Ihs com p u te r's co re memory. (A prlnloul like th e following la called a machlnelaniruagB H atin g . ) Since all ihe a d d re s s e s a r e filled I n , thia p ro g ra m la sa id lo be In absolute b i n a r y . Lf they w e r e n 't filled I n , It would be call ed relo catable b i n a r y . H ac hin e-language lis tin g s come In different f la v o r s. A b in a ry lis tin g (or dump) Ifl ge n erall y In o n e s and z e r o e s. An octal lis tin g g r o u p s (he bits by threea and s u b stitu te s the n um bers zero th ro u g h se v en fo r ihe different com­ bination a of th r e e b lls . T he olh e r main k in d , Ihe hexad ecim al listing o r dump (an IBM th in g ) , groups Ihe blls b y fo u rs a n d substi tu te s th e num­ be r* 0-9 an d the le tte rs A to P. for the six tee n differen t combinations of fo ur b lia.

T hia la What the progra m looks like when you sel ii up for ihe A sse m b le r , which la the easie r w ay. A progra m laid oul like Ihle la call ed an Assembly L isting. S tudyin g ll may he lp you de bug (see p . J O ) . An easy-lo -re m e m ber alphabetical code i s use d to r ep rese n t each final I n str u c ­ tion dee 1red . Such an abbreviation Is called a mnemonic; usually th e y 'r e more c ry ptic. The mnemonics arc tu r n e d by Ihe assem ble r Into the bina ry opcode. You do n'l have lo know ihe actu al a d d re s s e s In core memor y. you ju s t use a lp h a ­ betical names o r la b e l s , and th e Ag­ ue mbler fig ures oul w here th e y r e a lly go and pu t* in the bin a ry a d d re s s e s . D esire d num bers , su c h as B, a re plugged Into Ihe a d d re ss p a rts o f In structi ons. YOUR OWN COMMENTS (here se t off with sla shea) can stay he re too. ln Ihls FIDO exam ple, ihe Assembler follows two common practices: il recogniz es a label because II ends In a comma, and rec ognizes a comment be ca use It begin s with a slash .

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CLEAR INPUT 0 TEST ZERO JUMP CHKCL INPUT 1 TEST NINE JUMP ADMIN L a y ? CLEAR M TT ^ 5 3 OUTPUT 1 — — -O' OUTPUT 4 T OUTPUT 8 INPUT 2 TEST FIVE JUMP AD2TEN CLEAR OUTPUT 2 OUTPUT 6 OUTPUT 10 ROUND. ADD N ADD INPUT STORE INI ADD ONE STORE IN2 STORE IN2P1 CLEAR ADD N ADD OUTPUT STORE OUT1 STORE 0UT1P1 STORE 0UT1P2 ADD ONE STORE 0U T2 STORE OUT2P1 IN I,# TEST NINE JUMP PAST JUMP AD10HR PAST. TEST THREE JUMP INCHR 1N2.0 TEST TWO JUMP INCHR CLEAR OUT2.0 ADD ONE OUT1.0 JUMP INCN INCHR. ADD ONE OUT1P1.0 JUMP INCN ADMIN, ADD ONE OUTPUT 1 OUTPUT 5 OUTPUT 9 JUMP CHKCL AD2TEN. ADD ONE OUTPUT 2 OUTPUT 6 OUTPUT 10 JUMP CHKCL AD10HR, CLEAR 0UT1P 2, 0 1N2P1, 0 ADD ONE OUT2P1.0 INCN. CLEAR ADD N ADD FOUR TEST FTEEN JUMP STORN CLEAR ADD N ADD THREE STORE N JUMP CHKCL STORN, STORE N JUMP ROUND ZERO, 0 ONE. 1 TWO. 2 THREE. 3 FOUR, 4 FIVE. $ NINE. 9 FTEEN, IS INPUT. 6000B OUTPUT, 6200B N, 0

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/CLOCK IS I/O SLOT IOOOOOOO. /A NEW MINUTE? /N O, CHECK CLOCK AGAIN. /Y ES. READ MINUTE SLOT OF 1ST WATCH. / i s IT A 9? /N O . GO TO MINUTE INCREMENTEH /Y ES. SET EACH /TEN-MINUTE DIGIT /TO ZERO, /CHECK TEN-MINUTE DIGIT, /NEW HOUR? /NO. GO TO TEN-MINUTE INCREMENTER, /Y ES. SET EACH /TEN-MINUTE DIGIT /TO ZERO. /GET CLOCK-NUMBER COUNTER /AND FORM INPUT INSTRUCTION /PUT IT WHERE IT BELONGS. /FORM OTHER INPUT INSTRUCTION. /P UT IT WHERE IT BELONGS. /HERE TOO. /GET COUNTER AGAIN. /AND FOHM OUTPUT INSTRUCTION. /PUT fT HERE WHERE IT BELONGS. /AND HERE. /HERE TOO. /FORM OTHER OUTPUT INSTRUCTION. /PUT IT WHERE IT BELONGS. /HERE TOO . /BECOMES "INPUT N" /IS HOUR DIGIT A 9? /N O . TEST AGAIN /Y ES. GO FLIP IO-HOUR DIGIT /IS HOUR DIGIT A 3? /N O . GO INCREMENT HOUB. /BECOMES "INPUT N *l." /IS TEN-HOUR COUNTER A TWO? /NO, INCREMENT HOUR NORMALLY /Y ES, IT WAS 23: S9. SO SET /TIME TO 01: 00. ''OUTPUT N »ln IS HERE. /S ET AC TO 1. /AND "OUTPUT Nn HERE. /GO INCREMENT CLOCK-NUMBER COUNTER /ADD 1 TO HOUR /BECOMES "OUTPUT N". /GO INCREMENT CLOCK-NUMBER COUNTER /ADD 1 TO MINUTE DIGIT. /AND PUT IT /IN ALL /THE MINUTE DIGITS. /THEN GO BACK TO CLOCK-WATCHING. /ADD 1 TO TEN-MINUTE DIGIT /AND PUT IT /IN ALL /THE TEN-MINUTE DIGITS. /THEN GO BACK TO CLOCK-WATCHING, /FIRST CLEAR /HOUR DIGIT (BECOMES "OUTPUT N") /THEN GET TEN-HOUR DIGIT /AND ADD 1 TO IT. /BECOMES "OUTPUT N+l". /ROUTINE TO GET NEXT CLOCK NUMBER. /ADDING FOUR TO CLOCK NUMBER /TAKES US TO NEXT CLOCK. /HAVE WE RUN OUT OF CLOCKS (N=1S)? /NO. GO STORE N AND RETURN /Y ES. SET /N=3 /AND RETURN /TO START OF PROGRAM /(WE'VE DONE CHECKING CLOCKS). /STORE NEW CLOCK-NUMBER COUNTER /AND SERVICE NEXT CLOCK . END OF MAIN PROGRAM . / THESE ARE CONSTANTS.

T en m in utes aftor sta rling 10 progra m In Machine Lan guage you will pr obab ly want Assem­ bly Language. It’s a pain tr y in g 10 tJe< 811 lhe o nc s and zeroes r ig h t. (£x«j Ot} H* It's a p a in tr y in g to keep track of bin a ry num be rs for w here th in g s a r e slored. SO: le l'9 giv e Ihetn alphabelical names. That’s assem bly la nguage . (And the conversion program we p u l o u r a lp h a b e tic a l Into, 10 tu rn them back into ih e b in a ry p a tte rns lhat really r u n ih e m achine-- lhal conversion progra m ia call ed ihe A sse m ble r.) An a ssem ble r is a dir ect and n on-tr ic ky tr an s lato r, inte nded mainly lo ha ndle the details of exact tr anspositio n betw een inst ru ction code­ w ord s and th e ex actly c orresponding machinela nguage progra m tha t you inte nd. IT WORKS LIKE THIS: T he a ssem ble r s c a n s through th e assem bly -l an guage p r o g ra m , te stin g th e su c ce ssiv e alp hab etical c h a r a c te r s. A fter finding the key punctu at io n m ark s o r d elim it ers (sh ow n as comma and sla sh for the FIDO a sse m b le r ) , it sc a n s for the alphabelical in stru ction mnemonics, and tran ala le a the m by a ta ble in c o re memory Into the c orresponding b in ary c o d e s . (It Ignore s e veryth in g on a line after a s l a s h , w hic h i s luc ky, sin c e ln the comments you may u se w ord s which a r e the same as in stru c tio n mnemonic s.) T he a ssem ble r also counts th e instruc tions, and ( sta rtin g w h e r e v e r yo u say) f ig ures where in core me mory th e Instr ucti ons (an d any data o r sp a ce s you put In) g o . Then it makes a Hat of the se a d d re sse s , called a symbol ta ble (also called e name Hal al le s s elega nt pla c e s) . An assem ble r Is ih e simplest form of co mpiler (see p . 3 o ) . Basically it tr anslates an ss sem bly -la nguage program , which cannot be ru n d ir e c tly . Into a bina ry program which can, Then from th is symbol table ll fills Ihe resu ltin g b in a ry a d d re sses Into Iho b in a ry com­ mands of th e program. A re n 't you glad you do n'l have lo? Cenerally the assem ble r then se n d s oul the b in a ry program lo some external d e vice , suc h as a dlak memory o r paper tape punch. Than It c an be pul Into core memory when you wanl to ru n l l , (You c an pul a pr ogram Into core memory one bit at a lime through lha fro nt-p anel sw itches; but nobody likes doing th is except for le eny p r o -

(Nole: an a ssem ble r for one co mpute r (say th e PDP-B) lhat ru ns on a different com puter ( s a y . ihe 380) Is called a c ross a sse m b le r . )

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Minicomputers are now being found in highschools; active marketing to highschools is now being done by both DEC and Hewlett-Packard. Children's museums in Brooklyn and Boston have recently obtained PDP11s for the kids to interact with. In the Brooklyn case, the computer will even demonstrate the exhibit and help the child discover things about it, in ways worked out by Gordon Pask (see p.
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In the future, networks of minis may be the systems to offer low-cost information services to the home (for speculations, see 51). But minis will alsA start to make big­ ger and bigger incursions on the terri­ tory of the big machines. For instance, one group proposes a time-sharing sys­ tem which will simply consist of Novas interconnected in a ring, the so-called STAR-RING, which will supposedly com­ pete with big time-sharing.

Thia is a PDP-11, one of the world's best-designed minicomputers (see p. I f£*). The PDP-11 is a 16-bit machine. Shown ie Model 45, the fastest PDP-11, which has various special features. Stripped, with 4K of core memory (that's 4096 locations), it costs about $13 grand. A smaller PDP-11 goes for some $5000.

A minicomputer simply means a small computer, no different in principle from the big ones (see next spread), and it can do all the same things except as limited by speed and memory capacity. (Mind, we are talking about real computers, not the little calculators you "hold in your hand that just do arithmetic. A real compu­ ter is one which works on stored programs and all kinds of data, working not merely on numbers but on such other things as text, m u ­ sic and pictures if supplied with appropriate programs; see flip side.) There is some argument over what constitutes a minicomputer; basically we will say it's any com­ puter with a word length of.18 bits or less (see "Binary Patterns,1 p. * 27). (Some companies, like Datacraft and Interdata, are trying to peddle their worthy computers as "minicomputers" even though they're 24 and 32 bits, respectively, but that's very odd. Interdata says any computer under ten thousand is a mini-- which means all computers will be minis by and by; a vexing thing to do to the term.) Traditionally minicomputers come with much less. In the old days pretty much all the programs you got with it were an assembler (see p, 35) and' a debugger (see p. J o ) and a Fortran compiler (see p. £5 - if you were lucky. Today, 4) though, with minis having highly built-up software like (see pp. Y0 -y£ for descriptions) the PDP-8, the PDP-11 and the Nova, you can get a lot of different assemblers, to­ gether with Fortran, BASIC, and a little disk or cassette operating system (see p . t fS') to make your life a little easier.

The idea of owning a computer may* seem strange to some people, but with prices falling as they are it makes perfect sense. Numerous individuals own minis, and as the price continues to drop the number will shoot up. For several families with children to pool together and buy one for the kids makes a lot of sense. One friend of mine has an 8 , another is contemplating an 1 1 . (I've been trying to get ray own for years; perhaps this book...) A n y ­ how, the general price range is now $3000 to $6000 plus accessories, and that's dropping fast. Rental is usually a great mistake: prices are very high and after six months or so you'll have paid for it with­ out owning it. (But names of rental places will be found in this book, and some of them may offer good ar­ rangements.) Minis may now be had in quantity for $1000 each-- price of the PDP-8A in May 1974-- and soon that will be the consumer price. Unfortunately, the price of the computer itself is dropping faster than that of the accessories, such as the basic terminal you'll need, which still weighs in at $1000-5000. Moreover, as soon as you want to do anything serious you'll need a disk (starting around $4 500) or at least a cassette memory (starting around $1500). But these prices too will come way down as the consumer market opens. Some of us minicomputer freaks see little real need for big computers. Minicomputers are splendid for inter­ active and "good-guy" systems (see P* 13)» as personal machines, to han­ dle typing and bookkeeping; even for business systems, if you recognize the value of working out your own in BASIC or, say, TRAC Language. Minicomputers are being put in­ side all manner of other equipment to handle complex control. (However, for repetitive simple tasks, the lat­ est thing is microprocessors (see p. t l , which cost less but are harder f f) to program.)

Here's that selfsame PDP-11 in its overall setting. With peripherals shown, plus the magnificent Vector General display (shown later on in book, & elsewhere), this setup cost well over a hundred grand. (This is the Circle Graphics Habitat, oth­ erwise known as the Chemistry Department Computer, U. Illi­ nois at Chicago Circle. Why do chemists need such things? See p. 1.)

The good o V PDP-8, perhaps the most popular minicomputer (12 bits). Full PDP-8b now cost about $3000, "kits" less. Shown here with a Sykes cas­ sette tape deck— a nice, rather reliable unit— and a screen display (see ppPn2Z~3) • Courtesy Princeton University , & H.E.S.I.S.T.O.R.S. (see p.

Kids love computers. They belong together. This lad flips panel switches on a Nova, perhaps the third most popular mini after the 8 and 11 (26 bits; see P . * ij . f

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There is g r e a t co nfusion as between various types of small computer, with the latest stupid term, "microcomputer," a dd­ ing to the confusion. We have: minicomputer or mini Tradit ion all y, any computer hav­ ing an a rch itecture (memory and mai n registers) of 18 bits or less. Lately, unfortunately, some p eop le hav e been adver­ tising their 24-bit and even 32-bit c omp ute rs as minis. This is just confusing. (They bas e this on the fact that "minicomputer" has also re ­ fe rred to a machine sold without a lot of programs. But that's re ally a se par ate issue.) microprocessor Tw o - l e v e l c omputer (see p. )• microcomputer Cr umm y t e r m apparently being used to m e a n any t iny computer, rega rd­ less o f its structure. Thus all com put ers w i l l be "microcomputers" in a fe w years. This clarifies no t h i n g as to their structure or use. midi c omputer R e m e m b e r m i d i skirts? Well, this term h a s b e e n used for computers larger tha n 16 bits or faster than u s u a l , b y p eo ple seeking to give the i m p r e s s i o n that their machines are b i g g e r than minis and less than bi ggies. E v e n the PDP-10 (a genuwine biggie) h a s sometimes been called a midi.

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H E Y , SOME MINI RENTALS MAY BE REASONABLE N o v a m in ic o m p u t e r s a r e l e a s a b l e from: R e n ta l E l e c t r o n i c s , I n c . (a s u b s i d i a r y o f P e p s i c o ) 99 H a r t w e ll A v e . L e x i n g t o n , MA 02173 fo r a s l ittle a s $ 2 5 0 / m o . , l o n g - t e r m .

A long but incomplete list of minicomputer manufacturers is at the bottom of p. L 5 j

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Operator's c onsole of this particular setup. The operator m a y use the keyboard or light^-pen (see p. J M 2 3 ) to select among w aiting programs, submitted by various programmers a nd d epa rt­ ments .

The parts of a computer are set up to be gotten at, to be refilled and repaired. Their innards swing open like refrigerators. Similarly, the wiring of computers is in separate sec­ tions or modules ("module" merely be ­ ing today's stylish term for "unit”), having very orderly connections among them. Individual circuits are on cir­ cuit sheets or “cards" which plug in sideways and may be replaced easily. T h e r e ’s nothing really computerish about this, i t ’s merely sensible con­ struction; but it is traditional in other fields to build something as a tangle of wires. (When TV makers fo l ­ low these rational practices, they call it "space age construction.")
The operator muses at the console of the main computer at the University of Illinois at Chicago Circle. It is an IBM 370 model 156, which rents for about $50,000 a month, including all accessories and a d oze n o r so terminals — in the parlanc e of big-computer people, a "medium-sized installation."

Why are the different parts so far apart? So there's room to swing them open, refill or change them, sit down and repair them. Refrigerators could, and perhaps should, also be built in separate sections, but it's not traditional. Automobiles can't be spread out because they have to e n ­ dure the jostles of the road. But computers like this baby aren't going anywhere. Also intimidating is the fact that you have to step up as you enter a computer room. That"^ because co m ­ puter rooms ordinarily have raised floors, permitting cables to be run around among the pieces of equipment without your tripping. Computer rooms are generally lit by millions of fluorescent bulbs, making them garishly bright. This is simply tradition. Big computers can have millions of words of core memory. Moreover, there are usually several disk drives and tape drives, as seen in the p i c ­ tures, used to hold data and programs. (Some of the programs are the system programs, especially the language p r o ­ cessors and the operating system-see p. ^5*-- but o t h e T programs and most of the data belong to the users.)

This is a big computer. In principle i t’s no different from a small one; but it has bigger memories, more registers, more program followers. There are more specialized parts.and more things happening at once. (Thus the term "digital computer complex” is sometimes used for a big computer.) It comes supplied with a monitor program or operating system (see p. ^5) and a variety of other utility pr o ­ grams and language processors. Biggies have many ominous and seemingly incomprehensible things to scare the layman. For one thing, where is the computer? of roaring cabinets. Whicli is it"? All you see is a lot

Answer: all of them. "The computer" is divided among the different cabinets (note diagram and cluster of pictures locating the operator among them, below).. The external devices or peri­ pherals (see p. 5*7) are usually in separate housings. Usually there is one single box or "mainframe" containing core memory, mafn registers, program-following circuitry, etc., as in the m a ­ chine illustrated, but these things d o n ’t have to be in one box, and sometimes aren't.

AN OPERATOR IS N OT A PROGRAMMER Cindy W oe lfe r is the day-shift operator of Circle's big computer. The job mainly consists of changing dinks and tapes, starting and stop­ ping different jobs listed on the scope, and restarting the computer when the system crashes (gratuitously ceases oper ati on) . Ms. Woelfer, a thoughtful person, says she very stimulating. S he can program, b u t the job gramming. It's also a lonely job. Non-systems Daley, aren't ordinarily allowed around. About to are the systems programmers who stop through and see whether their programs are up next. does n o t find h er job doesn't in volve p r o ­ people, e x cep t Mayor the only p e o p l e to talk to look at the scope

C o a t m em o ry

Ii used to be traditional for machines like this to have many many rows of blinking lights, showing what was in all the main registers at any fraction of a second. But there's really no point in seeing all that, since about all you can tell from it is whether the computer is going or not (if it's not, the lights are stop­ ped) and other high-level impressions. For that reason some big computers, beginning with the CDC 6600, started doing away with the fancy lights and bringing written messages to the op­ erator on a CRT scope instead (for lots more on the glories of CRTs, see the flip side, pp. |)P\ 2.1<
u ^ lo sg - - p ------1 T o r i, B i g computers can have multiple program followers and sets of regis­ ters (a program follower and its main registers are together called a C P U , Central Processing Unit). A computer with two CPUs, i.‘ e., two sets of program followers and regis­ ters to carry the program§^5ut, is called a dual processor; a computer with more than two CPUs is called a multi-processor.

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Separate independent sections of core memory may be put in one computer, allowing separate program followers and data channels to work at the same time. (Note: a "bank" of core memory is an independent section. Except in this sense of "core memory bank" or "core bank," there is no other correct usage of the layman's vague term "memory bank." Computer people only say "memories," and distinguish fur­ ther among core, disk, tape, etc. Note that "<Iata banks" are a separate issue-- see "Issues," p .J? .) DINOSAURS? Many computer people, the author included, entertain certain doubts about the long-term usefulness of big computers, since minicomputers are cheaper, especially in the long run, and can actually be in the offices and homes where people create and use the information. Big computers are neces­ sary for time-sharing (see p. 45) and huge "number-crunching" jobs (see "Grosch's Law," nearby). However, it will soon be cheaper to put standard­ ized number-crunching jobs in stand­ alone or accessory hardware; see "Mi­ croprocessors," p. 4^. Fans of big computers also argue that they are necessary for business programming, but that only means tra­ ditional business programming-- nonmteractive and batch-oriented. For tomorrow's friendly and clear business systems, networks of minis may be pref­ erable. But makers of big computers may be unwilling to adroit this possibillty.

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M i n i c o m p u t e r s a r e s o n i f t y l h a t w e may a s k w h y h a v e b i g c o m p u t e r s at a l l . T h e a n s w e r ie th a t t h e r e a r e c o n s i d e r a b l e e c o n o m i e s , e s p e c i a l l y In a p p l i c a t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e m a n y r e p e t i t i v e O p e r ­ a tio n s a n d d o n 't n e e d I n t e r a c t i o n w ith u s e r s . A h y p o th e s is a b o u t th e e c o n o m y o f b ig c o m p u t e r s w a s f o r m u la t e d a l o n g tim e a g o b y H e r b e r t J . R . G r o s c h , o n e tim e d i r e c t o r of IB M 's W ats on Lab a n d now a h e a v y d e t r a c t o r of IBM . T h u s I t i s c a ll e d G r o s c h 's L a w . T h e id e a is b a s i c a l l y th a t t h e r e i s a e q u a r e - I a w r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n a m a c h i n e 's s i z e a n d Its p o w e r ( n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d in t e r m s o f th e c o s t o f m il lio n s o f o p e r a t i o n s , a n d w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g th e a d v a n t a g e s o f i n t e r a c t i v e s y s t e m s o r o t h e r f e a t u r e s w h i c h m a y b e o f m o re u lti m a t e valu^). A n y w a y , w h e n I a a k e d h im r e c e n t l y f o r h i s fo rm u la tio n o f G r o s c h ' s Law , I got th e f o l­ l o w in g : "G r o s c h ' s Law ( fo r m a l) : E c o n o m y in c o m p u t i n g i s a s t h e s q u a r e r o o t o f th e s p e e d . ( i n f o r m a l) : I f y o u w a n t t o d o it te n lim e s a s c h e a p , y o u h a v e t o do it a h u n d r e d tim e s a s fast. ( i n t e r p r e t i v e ) : N o m a t t e r how c l e v e r t h e h a r d w a r e b o y s a r e , th e s o f t w a r e boys p i s s It a w a y ! "

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H e r e , t h e n , a r e som e th u m b n a i l d e s c r i p ­ t i o n s o f som e g r e a t , c l a s s i c o r p o p u l a r c o m p u t e r s , e x p a n d in g o u r b a s i c d ia g ra m s a s n e e d e d . In d iv id u a l o f th e p a tte r n s c o m p u te rs r e p r e s e n t v a r i a t i o n s show n so f a r .

T h e P D P -1 0 i s e x c e l l e n t f o r m a k i n g h i g h l y i n t e r a c t i v e s y s te m s , s in c e i t can resp o n d to e v ery in p u t c h a ra c te r ty p e d by th e u s e r . I t i s a f a v o r i t e b i g c o m p u t e r am on g r e s e a r c h p e o p l e and th e w e ll-in fo rm e d . T h e ARPANET, w h i c h c o n n e c t s b i g c o m p u t e r s a t so m e o f t h e h o t t e s t r e s e a r c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , i s l a r g e l y b u i l t w i t h P D P - l O s . T h e r e a r e PD P * 10 s a t MIT, II. o f U t a h , S t a n f o r d , Y a l e , P r i n c e t o n a n d E n g e l b a r t ’ s s h o p (see p . ) • T h e W a t k i n s B ox ( s e e p . ^ -* } ) h o o k s t o a 1 0 . D i g i t a l E q u ip m e n t C o r p o r a t i o n , a w a re t h a t i t s c o m p u te r t r a d e m a r k "PD P" c o n n o t e s m i n i c o m p u t e r s t o t h e u n in f o r m e d , now w a n t s t h e 10 t o b e c a l l e d D E C s y s t e r n - 10 r a t h e r t h a n PDP. W e 'l l s e e i f t h a t c a tc h e s o n . Who d e s i g n e d i t i s n o t e n t i r e l y c l e a r . I 'v e he ard p e o p l e a t t r i b u t e i t v a r i o u s l y t o t h e M o d e l R a i l r o a d i n g C lu b a t M IT , t o G o rd o n B e l l , a n d o n e A la n K o to k . O r i g i n a l l y i t w as t h e P D P -6 , w h ic h a p p e a r e d a b o u t 1964, a nd w as th e f i r s t c o m p u te r to b e s u p p li e d w ith a tim e - s h a r in g s y s t e m , w h ic h w o rk e d fro m t h e b e g i n n i n g , i f r o c k i l y . Now i t ' s g o o d and s o l i d . D E C 's o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m f o r i t ( s e e p . 4 5 ) i s c a l l e d T O P S , b u t DBN s e l l s o n e c a l l e d TENEX, a l s o h ig h ly re g a rd e d . T h e 10 d o e s t i m e - s h a r i n g , r e a l - t i m e p r o ­ g ra m m in g a n d b a t c h p r o c e s s i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , s w a p p in g to c h a n g e a b l e a r e a s o f c o r e m em ory. (T h is f e a tu r e sh o u ld soon b e a v a i l a b l e , a t l a s t , o n IBM c o m p u t e r s ( " V S 2 - 2 " ) . ) PD P -1 0 t i m e - s h a r i n g w o rk s e v e n i f y o u d o n ' t h a v e a d i s k , u s i n g D E C ta p e ( D E C 's c u t e l i t t l e t a p e s ) . Of c o u rs e , w ith o u t d is k i t ’ s r e a lly h o b b lin g , b u t t h i s c a p a c ity is n e v e rth e le s s n o te w o rth y . T h e P D P -1 0 h a s d e b u g g i n g c o m m a n d s w h i c h w o r k u n d e r t i m e ­ s h a r i n g a n d w ith a l l la n g u a g e s , a n d h u g e ly s im p lif y p ro g ra m ­ m in g . U n l i k e t h e IBM 3 6 0 , w h o s e h a r d w a r e p r o t e c t i o n c o m e s i n o p t i o n s , t h e 10 h a s s e v e n l e v e l s o f p r o t e c t i o n : t h e u s e r c a n s p e c i f y w h o may r o a d h i s f i l e s , r u n t h e m , c h a n g e t h e m , a n d d o fo u r o th e r th in g s . T h e P D P -1 0 d o e s h a v e j o b c o n t r o l c o m m a n d s , b u t t h e y a r e n o t e v e n c o m p a r a b l e i n c u m b e r o s i t y t o IBM’ s JCL L a n g u a g e ( s e e p . 3 1 ) , a n d t h e y a r e t h e sa m e f o r a l l t h r e e m odes o f o p e r a t i o n : t i m e - s h a r i n g , r e a l - t i m e and b a t c h .

The p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e o f r e g i s t e r s , m e m o r i e s a n d p a t h w a y s am o n g th e m i s c a l l e d t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f a c o m p u te r ( s e e p . O Z, ) . The b in a ry i n s t r u c t i o n s a v a il a b le to th e p ro g ra m ­ m er a re c a l l e d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n - s e t o f th e p a r t i c u l a r c o m p u te r ( s e e p . 3 3 ) . (T he w o rd " a r c h i te c tu r e " i s o f t e n ^ s e d to c o v er b o th , in c lu d in g th e i n s t r u c t i o n - s e t as w e l l.) T h e p r i n c i p a l v a r i a t i o n s am o n g c o m p u t e r s a r e t h e w o rd l e n g t h ( i n b i t s - - s e e " b i n a r y p a t t e r n s , " p . 3 ^ ) * n d t *'e n u m b e r a n d a r r a n g e ­ m e n t o f m a in r e g i s t e r s . T h e n com e t h e d e t a i l s o f th e i n s t r u c t i o n - s e t , e s p e c i a l l y t h e w ays i n w h i c h i t e m s a r e s e l e c t e d f r o m c o r e m e m ory - - th e a d d re s s in g s t r u c t u r e . Then th e i n s t r u c ­ t i o n - s e t , w hose c o m p l i c a t i o n s and s u b t l e t i e s can be c o n s id e r a b le in d e e d . T he i n d i v i d u a l c o m p u te r i s t h e c o m p le x r e s u lt o f a ll o f th e s e . I f th e y f i t t o g e t h e r w e ll, i t is a good d e s ig n . I f th e y f i t to g e th e r p o o T ly , i t i s a bad d e s ig n . A bad d e ­ s i g n i s u s u a l l y n o t s o m u ch a m a t t e r o f o v e r t s t i n k y f e a t u r e s a s o f r a m i f i c a t i o n s w h ic h f i t to g e th e r d i s a p p o in ti n g ly . ( G litc h i s a te rm o fte n used fo r such s tin k y fe a tu r e s o r r e l a ­ ti o n s h i p s .) The p o s s i b l e w ays o f o r g a n iz in g c o m p u tin g h a rd w are a re v a s t , a n d o n ly p a r t l y e x p lo r e d . (A n a s i d e t o c o m p u t e r g u y s : o n t h e I n t e l c h i p d e b u g g in g c o n s o le s th e y hav e an a d d r e s s t r a p ( t r a p p i n g on a p r e s e t t a b l e e f f e c t i v e a d d r e s s ) and a p a ss c o u n te r (tr a p p in g a f t e r n p a s s e s ) . How co m e we h a v e n ’ t s e e n t h e s e s o o n e r ? ) The m a c h i n e s m e n t i o n e d h e r e a r e a n a r b i ­ tr a r y s e le c tio n . Som e o f th e m a r e t h e G r e a t N u m b e rs, c o m p u te rs s o i m p o r t a n t t h a t f o l k s u s e t h e i r n u m b e rs a s p r o p e r n o u n s , w i t h no b r a n d nam e: "D o y o u h a v e a 360 u p th e re ? "

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S t L1J) The I B M 7090 was the classic computer. Introduced about I960 and mostly gorte by '66, it was s imple and powerful, with cle a n and decent instructions. With its daughter the 7094, it b e c a m e virtually standard at u n i ­ versities, research institutions and scien­ tific establishment*. At man y installations that went on t-» 3 6 0 s they long for those clearminded days. The 90 h a d three index registers and fifteen b i t s to specify core addresses. (Thia mesnt, of course, that core memory could o r dinarily be no longer than 32,768 word* (a3 2 K B— see "Binary patterns,* p. 7 3.) A later m odel, the 94, went up to 7 index registere, sin c e there were three bit * to eelect t h e m with.

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Though these were million-dollar a a . chinee ten year* ago, you now hear of them being offered free to anyone who'll cart them away) p artly because they needed a lot of power, airconditioning and oso on. But they were great number crunchers. (If you want a 90, 1 believe that 90 lookalikes are still available from Standard Machines in California.)

U n i v a c 's 1106 a n d 1108 a r e f a s t , h i g h l y reg a rd e d m a c h in e s. In d e s i g n i n g th e c o m p u te r U n iv a c d i d a c l e v e r t h i n g : t h e y b u i l t a n u p ­ g rad ed 7094. T h is m eant (a s I u n d e r s ta n d i t ) t h a t a l l t h e p ro g ra m s fro m th e o l d 7094 w i l l ru n on i t . B u t i n s t e a d o f tw o m a in r e g i s t e r s t h e y h a v e 2B . ( W h e re t h e y f o u n d t h e b i t s i n t h e i n s t r u c ­ t i o n w o r d t o s e l e c t am o n g a l l t h o s e r e g i s t e r s I c a n 't t e l l y o u .) The PDP-8 warn d esigned by Gordon Bell (in it* original version, the PDF-5) about I960. Originally it c ost about $25,000| am of May 1974'that p r i c e ia d o n to about $ 3 0 0 0 , or learn than a th o u s a n d dollar* lf you want to buf t he eircuita a n d wire It all up your■•If* Top, her* come* that Bsathkit. The PDP-8 b aa b o o n D E C * hottest seller) you'll find t h a in industrial plant* and ■ M o a i , or oven h i d d e n in the weirdest eq u i p — ■•at, from typesetting devices to b i g disk drive*. At univer s i t i e s all over the r e are kids who loo« t h a I nside out. Today the PDP-8 s e w archaic, with its ons a e c w l a t o r a nd awkward addressing ickeatti you can only get to ZS6 different addresses in core a a o r y directly, a n d it's chopped u p into page*. But for i ts t i m e it was a brilliant design, packed l ike a parachute, and even t o ­ day there are p e ople w h o swear by it. (But look at what B e l l ’s d o n e latelyi the PDP-11.) So m a n y p rograms exist for the FDP-fl, tlwwigh , and so m e h sentimental fondness, that It will be with u s f or the foreseeable future. Ttaa the ■teclcy's W r i s t v s t c h 1 example ( s e e n , dl-ft is not t o t ally frivolousi we m a y aeaume that a PDP-8 on o n e o r two wristwatch-sized chips is only a y e a r o r so away. But let's hope t hey do t h e 1 1 first. (Look*likes a v a i l a b l e f rom Digital Coa p u t e r Controls and Pabrl-Tek.) The 1108 i s a l a r g e r v e r s i o n , w i t h a s m any m a i n r e g i s t e r s . tw ic e

T h e P D P -1 0 h a s 36 b i t s b u t h a s i n s t r u c t i o n s t o o p e r a t e on c h u n k s , o r b y t e s , o f an y l e n g t h . I t h a s s i x t e e n m a in r e g ­ i s t e r s , a s J o e s th e 3 6 0 , b u t u s e s th e m m ore e f f i c i e n t l y . T h e P D P -1 0 a l s o h a s u n l i m i t e d i n d i r e c t a d d r e s s i n g : a n I n s t r u c t i o n c an ta k e i t s e f f e c t i v e a d d r e s s fro m a n o t h e r l o ­ c a t i o n , w h ic h c a n in t u r n s a y t o ta k e i t s e f f e c t i v e a d d r e s s e ls e w h e re , ad in fin itu m . For your heavy tig h t e le g a n t s t u f f . P e r h a p s m o st im p o r t a n t , t h e 10 h a s a f u l l s e t o f s t a c k i n s t r u c t i o n s ( s e e "T h e M a g ic o f t h e S t a c k , " p . 4 2 ) , a l l o w i n g pro g ra m m e rs to u se m u l t i p l e s t a c k s f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h e i r ow n. ( T h e o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m ' s ow n s t a c k s a r e p r o t e c t e d . ) Program * m e rs d o n o t h a v e t o sa v e e a c h o t h e r ' s r e g i s t e r s , a s o n t h e 3 6 0 . P ro g ram m ers a r e r e l a t i v e l y s a f e fro m e a c h o t h e r .

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So m e t h i n k o f t h e P D P -6 a n d 1 0 a s a g l o r i f i e d 7 0 9 4 ( w i t h IB a d d r e s s i n g b i t s , i n s t e a d o f 1 5 ) . I n t h i s c a s e we m i g h t c o n s i d e r t h e 3 6 0 a s t r i p p e d - d o w n v e r s i o n o f t h e 6 , s i n c e IBM t h r e w o u t t h e s t a c k a n d i n m o s t m o d e l s t h e m e m o ry n a p p i n g . P D P -lO s a r e o r d i n a r i l y s o l d w h e r e t h e v ie w s o f s c i e n t i s t s an d e n g i n e e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t , an d c o m p t r o l l e r s do n o t have f i r s t c h o ic e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , so m e s a y t h a t i t s b u s i n e s s - p r o g r a m m i n g f a c i l i t i e s ( i . e . , COBOL, d u h ) a r e j u s t a s g o o d a s t h o s e o f c o m p a n ie s w ho c l a i m t o h a v e d e s i g n e d c o m p u te rs " f o r a l l p u r p o s e s ." F i r s t N a t i o n a l C i t y B a n k o f New Y o r k h a s f o u n d t h a t t h e P D P -1 0 m a k e s a s p l e n d i d b a n k i n g c o m p u t e r f o r i n t e r n a l u s e , p r o f i t a b l e a t an i n t e r n a l c h a r g e o f J 3 .7 S an h o u r p l u s p r o c e s s in g c h a rg e s. P r i c e s f o r a P D P -1 0 s y s t e m w i t h d i s k s t a r t s t a r t a b o u t $s00,000, o r $ 1 5 g r a n d a m o n t h , a n d g o u p i n t o t-he m illio n s . H o w e v e r , DEC s a l e s m e n a r e n o t l i k e I B M ' s , w ho c a n r e p u t e d ­ l y s e l l E sk im o s to i c e b o x e s . F o t o n e t h i n g , DEC s a l e s m e n a r e on s a l a r y . T h a t f i t s D E C 's d e m u r e , a w - s h u c k s i m a g e , b u t i t d o e s n 't e x a c t l y s e l l b ig c o m p u te rs . (F o r you F ire s ig n T h e a te r f a n s , th e m u tte rin g s o f th e d y i n g c o m p u t e r o n t h e " B o z o s " a l b u m a r e v a r i o u s P D P -1 0 s y s t e m th in g i e s , a r t i s t i c a l l y ju x ta p o s e d .)

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The IBM 360 (now c a l l e d 370 beca use we’ r e In th e 70s) is th e c o B o n w t and most s u c c e s s f u l l i n e o f c o a p u te r In t h e world T hi s d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean I t Is th e b a s t . Th er e a r e th o se who a p p r e c i a t e IBM t y p e w r it e r s b u t no t t h e i r c o ^ u t o r s . 360s a r e bought beca use th e r e p a i r s e r v i c e 1s g r e e t i be* c a u se IBM h a s v e ry tough sa le s m en ; and p o s s i b l y f o r o t h e r r e a ­ so ns { s e e pp . S Z - 6 ) . A s t r a n g a un se en c u rse seems to ha u n t th e 360 s e r i e s ; I n ­ d e e d , s o u c y n i c s even th in k i t r e s u l t s f r o a d e l i b e r a t e p o l i ­ c i e s o f IBM! Yet th e 360 (and i t s s o f tw a r e ) s e e n soaehow or* f a n ! t e d t o s a k e p r o g r a a s I n e f f i c i e n t and slo w ; t o aa ke p r og ra as b i g , n e e d i n g l o t s o f co re memory (w it h n ua ero us e n t i c e a e n t s f o r th e pro gramm er t o te k e up mor e); to p r e v e n t th e c o a p a t i b i l i t i e s t h a t a r e so w id e ly a d v e r t i s e d , ex ce pt thr ou gh e x p e n si v e o p t i o n s ; t o » a i e th i n g * e x c e s s i v e l y c om p li c a t e d , thus J o c l i n g in froth I t s c u st o m e rs an d th e employees o f I t s c u s t o a e r s t o p r a c t i c e s and i n t r i c a c i e s t h a t a r e somehow un ne ce ssa ry on o t h e r b ra nd s of c oapute r. ~

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A c o a p u t e r named the L1NC, no* u s u a l l y l i n e , " was pe rh a ps was an im p o r ta n t f o r e r u n n e r o f out h ig h l y I n t e r a c t ! ' e s y s t e a s of t o d a y , n o t a b l y In c lu d i n g t o d a y 's gi a p h ic d i s p la y s w i t h do ub le p r o g r a a f o l i c ----. . « • \ >.L> . CCar .V . k i . k . i t« a c t? ie Pe rh ap s a o s t i a p o r t a n t l y , i t was d e si g n ed w it h none of tb e b i a s e s t h a t c re e p in f r o a the t r a d i t i o n s o f b u s i n e s s computing. I t was c a l l e d th e Line be ca us e i t was d e s ig n e d a t Lin c ol n L a b o r a to ri e s (a bo ut i 9 6 0 ) , f o r "b io m e d ic a l r e s e a r c h ” - - a c t u a l l y i t was t h e s o r t o f computer you’ d wan*, f o r hoo king up to a l l s o r t s o f in p u ts and o > t p u t s , t o a ake a u s i c , t o run y o u r d a rk r o o a , b u t o n ly a e d i c a l s c i e n t i s t s c e u ld a f f o r d I t , so t h a t ' s what th e y s a i d i t was f or . The UNC had two ire s tin g in n ova tions. c o ap ut e r to be des* I t was p r o b a b ly th e f 1: d i s p l a y ( see f l i p Igned w it h a b u i l t - i n i side ). I t a l s o c aae wj a funny l i t t l e ta p e > i l i t y and h ig h r c s d r i v e , d e s ig n e d f o r re: p on se , t h a t was suppos< is k and be r e l i a b l e even in d u s ty o r 'B e s s y e n v l r o n a e n t s . T hi s was th e LINCtape, s t i l l o f f e r e d as an a c c e ss o r y by one coap an y. DEC ad ap te d i t soaewhat and Bade i t th e DECtape, handy po c ke t ta pe u n i t of th e PDP com pu ter l i n e . I t was nev er s o l d c o a a e r c i a l l y . A do ie n o r so wer e Bade up s p e c i a l l y o u t o f DEC n o d ­ u l e s and d e a l t ou t t o va ri o u s s c i e n t i s t s , and th e g e n e r a l hope was t h a l DEC would ta k e the n a ch in e up as p a r t o f i t s p ro d u ct l i n e , b u t t h a t ’s no t what ha ppened. DEC I n s t e a d pushed i t s PDP-8 and aave us i n s t e a d , by and by,

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n tn g s p e ed , nuch f a s t e r than th e u su a l Micro­ se con d or t o . However, s in c e c o re a ea o ry is nuch slow er tha n th e a a l n r e g i s t e r s , a t r i c k i s us ed : p r o g r a a i n s t r u c t i o n s a re drawn f ro a c o r e I n t o a s u p e r f a s t i n s t r u c t i o n l i s t f o ft e n c a l l e d a c a c h e ) , and any Juap s or lo op s w l t h ­ in t h i s se ven-word cache can be e x ec u te d a t u n t h i n k a b l e s p e e d s - - pe rha ps te n s o f a i l l i o n s of t i n e s p e r secon d. The d e s i g n o f th e 360, which was b a s i c a l l y d e c e n t , Is gen­ e r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d t o Amdahl, Blaauw and Brooks. Those who ha te i t , and t h e r e a r e many, base t h e i r co m pl a in ts l a r g e l y on the r e s t r i c t i o n s and c o m p li c a t io n s a s s o c i a t e d w ith i t s o p e r a t i n g s y s t e a OS, wh ic h i s n o t o r i o u s l y I n e f f i c i e n t ( s e e p . <15 ) . The a r c h i t e c t u r e o f th e 360 was q u i t e s i a l l a r t o th e PDP-6 (now t h e PD P -1 0) , d e si gn ed ab o u t th e sa a e t i a e : s i x t e e n a a ln g e n e r a l - p u r p o s e r e g i s t e r s o f over t h i r t y b i t s , and u s in g the 16 a a l n r e g i s t e r s as e i t h e r a c c u a u la to r s or inde x r e g i s t e r s . A c u r i o u s f o r a o f a d d re s s in g was a do p te d , c a l l e d "b as e r e g l s t e r a d d r e s s i n g . 1 Th is had c e r t a i n a d v an ta ge s f o r th e o p e r ­ ’ a t i n g s y s t e a t h a t waa p la nn ed , and was th ou gh t to be s u f f i c i e n t ­ ly p o w e r f u l t h a t you w o u ld n 't need I n d i r e c t A d d re ss in g . Two a a l n r e g i s t e r s w er e r e q u i r e d , one ho ld in g a " b a se " a o r e o r le s s e qu al t o t h e p r o g r a a ' s s t a r t i n g a d d r e s s , end an " l n d e i r e g i s t e r , " whose c o n t e n t s a r e added to th e base t o s p e c if y an a d d r e s s . O ft en a t h i r d n u a b e r , o r ’’o f f s e t , " la added a s w e l l . The machine i s e s p e c i a l l y ge ar ed f o r f l o a t i n g - p o i n t numbrrs ( see p . 9 S )• Because I o f th e i n te n s e spe ed o f th e f a s t i n s t r u c t i o n c a c h e , aany i n s t r u c t i o n s (su ch as n u l t t p l i e a p l i s h e d ( a s t e r by a sh o r t p r o g ra a tha n i f They 6600 beca ae ilie s t a r t of a whole l i n e , in c lu d in g th e 6400, 6800 and o th e rs * The 6400 i s u se d by PLATO ( se e p.JMI ifl.

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( i t i^ i) DEC was o f f e r e d th e o p ti o n of b u i l d i n g Lin c ol n L a b o r a t o r i e s ’ c l a s s i c LINC, b u t d e c i ­ ded I n s t e a d to c o at u n e i t , in th e n l d - s k x t i e s , w it h th e a l r e a d y - s u c c e s s f u l PDP-8. Th at way a l l th e PDP-8 p r o g ra n s and n o s l of th e LINC p r o g ra a s would work on i t . The r e s u l t i s kind o f s t r a n g e , b u t very po p u la r in b i o a e d i c a l r e ­ s e a r c h : two c o a p u te r s in on e, ha nd ing c o n t r o l back and f o r t h a s ne ede d. You can w r i t e p r o ­ g r a a s on th e Line w it h s e c t i o n s f o r Ihe 8, and v e r s i o n i s c a l l e d th e PDP-12. H h il e you e i g h t h a l f - t h l n k t h a t both s i d e s o f th e comput er cou ld » o r i j l m u l t a o e o u s l y , g iv i n g you doublo s p e e d . I t d o e s n ' t work t h a t way. T n e r e ' s o n ly one core a e a o r y , and t h a t s e t s th e b a s i c sp e ed ; e i t h e r a PDP-9 i n s t r u c ­ t i o n o r a Line i n s t r u c t i o n can be underway a t o n c e, b u t no t b o th . N e v e r t h e l e s s , we se e he re th e double s t r u c t u r e t h a t p la y s such an im po r ta nt p a r t In h ig h l y i n t e r a c t i v e c o ap ut e r d i s p l a y s (s ee P< )* I nd eed , Line p r o g r a a n e r s o f t e n use th e n a c h in e J u s t t h a t way: th e PDP-8 r u n ­ nin g an a c t u a l p r o g r a a , th e Line p a r t ru nn in g th e CRT d i s p l a y in c o n ju n c t io n w it h i t .

Tli* i d e a o f t h i s te ch n iq u e I s t h a t p r o g r a a s c an be " r e l o ­ c a t a b l e , ' 1 o p e r a t i n g anywhere In co re a e a o ry . A few i n s t r u c t i o n s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f each program can a s c e r t a i n where i t i s run* Ding f r o a , and e s t a b l i s h th e Base a c c o rd in g l y . The b a s i c i d e a o f the. 360 se ea s t o have been doped ou t fo r B u l t i p r o g r a n i n g , o r th e sim u lta n eo us ru n n in g o f s e v e r a l p r o ­ grams i n c o r e , a f e a t u r e IBM h as pushed h e a v i l y w i t h t h i s coa■HAT'S W RONG HITH THE 360T The m a in d i f f e r e n c e s be tween th e 360 and th e PDP-6 sn d 10 r e p r e s e n t c o n s c i o u s and l e g i t i m a t e and a rg u a b le d e s i g n d e c i s i o n s . To f a n s o f t h e PDP-6 and 10, he re a re th e 3 6 0 's a a l n drawbacks: NO INDIRECT ADDRESSING. T hi s was b e c a u s e , w i t h i n t h e ad­ d r e s s i n g sc hem e a d o p t e d , i n d i r e c t a d d re ss e s co u ld n o t b e a d j u s t e d a u to m a tic ally . (But i t a l s o makes p r og ra as more i n e f f i c i e n t , th us more p r o f i t a b l e to IBM.) NO STACK. Why? Too e x p e n si v e , s a i d Amdahl, Blaauw and Brook* I n t h * IBM S y s te a s J o u r n a l . Funny, the y hav e s t a c k s on ISOOO P D P - l l s - - an d i t wouia nave saved everybody a l o t o f money on pro gra mm in g. HO MEM ORY MAPP1NC ( ex c ep t on c e r t a i n a o d e l s ) . Where the PD P -6 's s u c c e s s o r , t h e PDP-lo, a u t o a a t l c a l l y ta k e s c a r e o f r e ­ d i s t r i b u t i n g a d d r e s s e s i n c o re t o s e r v i c e ev er y prog ram a* i f i t w er e o p e r a t i n g f r o a l o c a t i o n t e r o on up , th e 360 l e f t t h i s g e n e r a l p r o b le m t o l o c a l p r o g r a n e r s and (on c e r t a i n l e v e l s ) to o p e ra tin g system s. H a n d l i n g t h i s a u t o a a t l c a l l y i n th e PDP-10’ s he rd w ar e ob­ v i a t e s t h e c o m p l i c a t i o n s o f b a s e - ln d e c a d d r e s s in g and makes p o s ­ s i b l e t h e e f f i c i e n c i e s o f I n d i r e c t a d d re s s in g . The beaic design of tha and alaple ■ four maio r«(Ul well-designed Inetructiooa. ■■ think) the flret eo«put< • Grand Bus (■•o’ , < d e a ig a wbich haa caught an rather widely. Data General (the coapuj mentioned) haa used a vary Interesting marketing atrate*y. Inatead of bringing oat a variety of new eonputere aa tine gone on, they eoaceatr<t« on makiitf tk* leva /»#ter aad jaaJler. They began by competing against PEC — es­ pecially In *the OgM Market,■ purchasers «4 o t are burying minicomputers In larger equipment they ia turn eake— but more recently they here actually started to market asalnat IBM w ith taislaeaa eyateaa. la reeeat a»D tk«, Data General ado have ridiculed tbe complex* Ity and mystery of IBM aystws, arguing quite rightly that minicomputers progressed la BASIC are a reaaonable alternative for a wide variety of business applioatons. Tbe lova's instructloo-set Is oleaa tad straightforward. Hey examples (first bits only)! 00000 00001 OOOIO OOOIX OOI 0X0 X Jump (thus an all»aero inatruetloa Jumpe to loo 4) Su b r o u ti n e Jump lacraait, skip if aero Doormasnt, skip if aero Load AC Stare AC Instructions among registers.

A h o r r i f y i n g and w e i rd p i c t u r e o f an e x p e r i ­ m e nt a l monkey s i t t i n g on a PDP-12 and making l i k e th e C r e a tu r e f r o a the Black Lagoon i s to be s e e n in Time. 14 Ja n 74, p . S4. I t lo o k s v e ry s c i e n t i f i c . BIBLIOGRAPHY The c l a s s i c book: C. Gordon B e ll and A ll e n N ewe ll, Computer S t r u c t u r e s : Readings and E xaa ple s . RcGraw-lll 11 , I TTT Note t h a t Be ll de si g n ed v a r i o u s o f th e PDPs, and Newell p io n e e r e d In l i s t p r o c e s s i n g ( see p . Z f c ) . Computer C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Review keeps you in tou c n w u n in a t r a i t s o f a v a i l a b l e c omputers and p e r i p h e r a l s . $Z S/y ear (3 I s s u e s ) GH. C o r p ., S94 M a r r e t t Rd., L ex in gt o n , M 02173. A O th er f i r a s , such a s Au erb aeh , o f f e r s o r e ex pe n siv e s e r v i c e s o f th e sa ae n a t u r e . B. B e l t e r , The A r c h i t e c t u r e and E n a l n e e rl n a of D l a l t a l iQBPUter~CoBpTe»esT t*ienua T'tbss T 2 v o T s . 7 J*0 . H ea v ie r than B e ll and N ew e ll. A c a t a l o g o f th ou sa nds o f s t r u c t u r e s and t r i c k s , s a p h a s l t i n g th e t r a d e o f f s among them.

360 l o e k a l l k e s were s o l d by RCA and Un iva c. Now t h a t RCA no l o n g e r makes co m p u te rs , Univac i s s e r v i c i n g th e on es they made. And Amdahl, no l m g e r w it h IBM and no* he ad o f th e Amdahl C o r p . . 1* co ming down th e p i k e w it h a s u p e r - 360 o f h i s own. in p a r t b a c k e d by J a p a n e s e n ose y, i t w i l l be b i g g e r th a n IBM's b i g g e s t - - a n d c h e a p e r . (See Heah N ie n e r , "Ou td oin g IBM: th e Amdahl C h a l l e n g e , ” Computer D e c i s i o n s . March 73, 1 0 -2 0 .)

One competitor, Distal C<»pnter Con­ trols, aella a Bora looksLike. Whether Data taertl will soil yon its profrana to run os it is another «ae*tioo.

6000
' 1,5*00The S t a c k i s a m e ch a ni sm - - e i t h e r b u i l t in to th e c o ap u te r ("h a rd w a re ") o r In c o r p o ra ­ t e d i n a p r o g r a a ( " s o f t w a r e ” ) w h ic h a l l o w s a c o a p u t e r t o keep t r a c k o f a v a s t n u a b e r of d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s , I n t e r r u p t i o n s and c o a p l i c a t i o n s a t the s a ae tim e. B a s i c a l l y , I t I s a a e c h a n i s a w h ic h a ll o w s a p r o g r a a t o th ro w s o a o t h i n g o v e r I t s s h o u l d e r i n o r d e r t o do s o a e t h i n g e l s e , t h e n r e a c h hack o v e r i t s s h o u l d e r t o g e t b a c k w h at I t was p r e v i o u s l y w or k in g o n . B ut no n a t t e r how aany t h i n g s i t th ro w s o v e r i t s s h o u l d e r , e v e r y t h i n g s t a y s o r d e r l y an d c o n t i n u e s t o wo rk s a o o t h l y , t i l l i t ha s r e s u a e d e v e r y t h i n g and f i n i s h e d thea a l l . p r a i s e d aa on g co mp ute r p e o p l e t h a n Che Bur­ ro u g h s 5000 ( r e p l a c e d by th e 5 5 0 0 ) . The 5000 v a s d e s i g n e d a b o u t 1960 by Edward G l a s e r and Bob BaY ton . I t was d e s i g n e d t o be u s e d o n ly w ith h ig h e r la nguage s. not a llow ing p ro g ra aE 7 7 a c c e s s t o th e B i n a r y I n s t r u c t i o n s them­ se lv es . I n d e e d , I t was p a r t i c u l a r l y d e s i g n e d to be u s e d w i t h ALGOL, wh ich wo uld h a v e been th e s t a n d a r d la n g u ag e I f IBH ha d a l l o w e d i t ( s e e p . S t ) *»d i s s t i l l th e " i n t e r n a t i o n a l " language. B e ca u se o f t h i s a p p r o a c h , i t s s a i n r e g i s ­ t e r s w er e t o be h id d e n f r o a t h e p r o g r a n e r , and a t t e n t i o n c e n t e r e d i n s t e a d upo n Che s t a c k , a h i g h - l e v e l p r o g r a a a i n g d e v i c e ( s e e box on S t a c k s ) . However, in d e x r e g i s t e r s w e r e added t o a a k e i t b e t t e r foT F o r t r a n . The S000 was a a r k e t e d a s an " a l l - p u r p o s e " c o a p u t e r w i t h an o p e r a t i n g s y s t e a , a n t i c i p a t i n g IBM's 360 o f a few y e a r s l a t e r . Indeed, a fte r th e 360 was ann o u n ced , Bu rr ou gh s s a l e s p ic k e d up , b e c a u s e IBH s a l e s a e n wer e a t l a s t - p r o a o t i n g th e c o n c e p t s t h a t c u s t o a e r s h a d n ’ t u n d e r s t o o d when th e y h e a r d a b o u t t h e a f r o a B u r r o u g h s s a le s a e n y ears be fore. 6500, When a p r o g r a a i s r e a d y t o r e s u a e a io u s a c t i v i t y , i t s u b t r a c t s on e f r o a t h e s t a c k p o i n t e r and f e t c h e s w h a t e v e r t h a t j p o i n t e r p o i n t s t o . T h is i s c a l l e d a POP. I t goe s l i k e t h i s : i f t h e p r o g r a a has t o s e c a s i d e one t h i n g , i t p u t s t h a t one t h i n g i n c o r e a e a o r y a t a p l a c e s p e c i f i e d by a n u a b e r c a l l e d a s t a c k p o i n t e r . Then i t adds one t o t h e s t a c k p o i n t e r , t o be Teady i n e a se s o a e t h i n g e l s e h a s t o go o n t h e s t a c k . T h is i s c a l l e d a PUSH. T h is Bakes p o s s i b l e " r e - e n t r a n t " p r o g ra a s a e a n i n g s u‘b — u t i n e s t h a t c a n be u se d s i a u * r o •*' —' ’ t a n e o u s l y by d i f f e r e n t p r o g r a a s w i t h o u t b I xud and r e c u r s i v e " p r o g r a a s . Meaning p r o g r a r t h a t a a n a g e t o c a l l t h e a s e l v e s when the y th e a se lv e s are in n r D i r x c

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S tacks a re a ls o used for h a n d lin g " in te rr u p ts " • • s i g n a l s f r o a o u t s i d e t h a t r e q u i r e th e c o a p u t e r t o s e t a s i d e one Jo b f o r a n o t h e r . Havi ng a b u i l t - i n ha rd w ar e s t a c k e n a b l e s th e i n t e r r u p t s t o p i l e up w i t h o u t c o n f u s i o n :

F i n a l l y , s t a c k a r i t h m e t i c , l i k e t h a t done on th e B u r r ou gh s S55B, e n a b l e s a r i t h m e t i c (and o t h e r a l g e b r a i c t y p e s o f a c t i v i t y ) t o be h a n ­ d l e d w i t h o u t s e t t i n g a s i d e r e g i s t e r s o r s p a ee i n c o r e a e a o r y . As a s i m p l e - a l n d e d e x a a p le on a h y p o t h e t i c a l a a e h i n e , s u p p o s e we wan te d t o h a n d le 2 ♦ 7 « 3 t h i s g e ts c o ap lled

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The B ur ro ug hs C o r p o r a t i o n c o n t i n u e s to be an ack no w le dg ed l e a d e r i n c o a p u te T d e s i g n . A p p aren tly t h e i r s a le s fo rc e i s s o a e th i n g e l s e , u n fo rtu n ately . 1 once s p e n t so a e t i a e w i t h a B u r r o u g h s sa le s m a n who n o t o n l y knew n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e M a g n i f i c e n t s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a a c h ln e he r e p r e s e n t e d , b u t would n o t g e t a e f u r t h e r I n f o r a a t i o n u n l e s s I d e a o n s t r a t e d t h a t th e c oa pa ny' I r e p r e s e n t e d (a l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n ) was s e r i o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d . He wore v e r y fan c y

I t aa y n o t b e l a a e d i a t e l y o b v i o u s , b u t t h i s t r i c k h a s i a a e n s e p ow er . Fo r i n s t a n c e , we a a y s t a c k any n u a b er o f t h i n g s t o g e t h e r - th e a d d r e s s e s o f p r o g ra m s , d a t a we a r e moving b e tw ee n p r o g r a a s , i n t e r m e d i a t e r e s u l t s , and c o d e s t h a t show wh at th e c o a p u t e r was d o in g prev io u sly . Using s t a c k s , p r o g r a a s Bay u s e e ach o t h e r v ery f r e e l y . I t is p o ssib le , for instance, t o j u a p aao ng s u b r o u t i n e s - - in d e p e n d e n t l i t t l e p r o g r a a s - - w i l l y - n i l l y , u s i n g a s t a c k t o keep t r a c k o f where y o u 'v e b e e n .

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I? I M T E ^ i U G L t D .
I n t h i s c a s e th e s t a c k h o ld s t h e p r e v i l o c a t i o n s and i n t e r m e d i a t e d a t a , so t> p r o g r a a f o l l o w e r ca n go ba ck w h er e i t f r o a a t th e end o f e a c h s u b r o u t i n e .

S t a c k p r o g r a a a i n g te n d s t o be e f f i c i e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y in i t s u s e o f c o r e a e a o r y . Soa e l a n g u a g e s , su ch a s A l g o l and TRAC L an g u a g e, r e q u i r e s t a c k s . Soa e c o a p u t e r c o a p a n l e s , s u c h a s IBM, r e s o l u t e l y Ig n o re s t a c k a r c h i t e c t u r e , tho ugh h a rd w a r e s t a c k s ha v e be co a e w i d e l y a d o p te d i n th e f i e l d .

The PDP-11 i s n o t a b e g i n n e r ' s c o a p u t c r . But th e power an d e l e g a n c e o f i t s a r c h i t e c t u r e have e s t a b l i s h e d i t , s i n c e i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n 19 70, a s p e r h a p s t h e f o r e a o s t sm a ll com pu ter in th e w o r l d . A c t u a l l y , th o u g h , we c a n ' t b e to o s u r e a b o u t th e word " s a a l l . " Because a s s u c c e s s i v e p a r t s o f th e l i n e a r e u n v e i l e d , i t b e co a es i n ­ c re asin g ly c l e a r th a t t h i s lin e of " s a a ll" co m p u te rs h a s b e e n d e s i g n e d t o I n c lu d e soa e v e ry p o w e r f u l a a c h i n e s and c o u p l i n g te c h n i q u e s aaon g t h e a ; an d i t would s e e a t h a t we h a v e n ' t se e n e v e r y t h i n g y e t .

B a s i c a l l y i l i s a 1 6 - b i t M ach in e, w i t h most i n s t r u c t i o n s o p e r a t i n g on 8 - b i i d a t a a s w ell.

In e l e c t r o n i c s , a " b u s " i s a co aa on c o n n e e to r t h a t s u p p l i e s power o r s i g n a l s t o and f r o a s e v e r a l d e s t i n a t i o n s . In c o a p u te rs , a " b u s " I s a c o aa o n c o n n e c t i o n aao ng s e v e r a l p o i n t s , u s i n g c a r r y i n g a c o a p le x p a r a l l e l s ig n a l. The Gra nd Bu s, a new id e a aao ng c o a p u t e r s , is catch in g on. (The t e r i I s u s e d h e r e b e ­ cau se t h e c o l l o q u i a l t e r a , " U n i b u s , " i s a DEC trad e aa rk .) B a s i c a l l y t h e Grand Bus i s a c o n n e c t o r o f M u l t i p l e w i r e s t h a t goes aao ng s e v e r a l le c e s o f e q u l p a e n t . So f a r t h a t ' s j u s t a u s . But a Grand Bus i s one t h a t a l l o w s t h e d i f f e r e n t p i e c e s o f e q u l p a e n t t o be ch an g e d and r e p l a c e d e a s i l y , be c a u s e s i g n a l s any c o n o n p i e c e o f e q u l p a e n t j u s t go o u t on th e bus.

11
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T h e r e a re e i g h t a a i n r e g i s t e r s . Two, th o u g h , f u n c t i o n s p e c i a l l y - t h e p r o g r a a c o u n ­ t e r ( t h a t p a rt o f the p r o g ra a fo llo w er t h a t h o ld s th e nu a be r o f th e n e x t i n s t r u c t i o n ) , and th e ha rd w ar e s t a c k p o i n t e r , b o t h f o ll o w th e sa a e p r o g r a a a i n g r u l e s a s t h e a a i n r e g i s t e r s - an u n u s u a l t e c h n i q u e . Thu s a j u a p i n t h e p r o ­ g r a a i s s i a p l y a na o v e" I n s t r u c t i o n , i n w h ic h th e n e x t p r o g r e a a d d r e s s i s " a o v e d ” i n t o a a i n r e g i s t e r 17, t h e p r o g r a a c o u n t e r . In a d d i t i o n , a l l e x t e r n a l d e v i c e s s e e a t o th e p r o g r a a t o be s t o r e d i n c o r e a e a o r y . T h at I s , th e I n t e r f a c e r e g i s t e r s o f a c c e s s o r i e s have " a d d r e s s e s " n u a e r i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o c o r e l o c a t i o n s - - so th e p r o g r a a j u s t " a o v e s " d a t a , w ith M OVE i n s t r u c t i o n s , t o do or wa ys i n c o r e . ( T h is I s f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e a u t o a a t l c h a n d l i n g o f p r e v i o u s l y b o t h e r s o a e s t u f f , l i k e R ead y, H a l t and Done b i t s . ) P h y s ic a lly a l l d e v ice s a re s la p ly a tta c h e d to a g r e a t sash of w ires c a l l e d a Unibus. (See Grand Bus b o x . ) BIBLIOBRAPHY ........ ........... , _________ Ming F u n d a m e n t a l s . (. F r o g ra aa ed work­ b oo k. no p r i c e l i s t e d . ) A lg o n ­ q u i n C o l l e g e B o o k s t o r e , 138S Koodr o f f e A v en ue , O t ta w a , O n t a r i o , Canada 12G-1VB.

E

T h is Beans t h a t th e i n t e r f a c e p r o b l e a I s d e e p ly s i a p l i f i e d , b e ca us e any d e v i c e w i t h a p r o p e r bus I n t e r f a c e c a n s l a p l y be p l u g g e d on to t h e b u s . I t d o e s k b d a l o t a o r e c o m p le x it y o f s i g n a l s . The U nl bua , f o r e x a a p l e , h a s a b o u t f i f t y p a r a l l e l s t r a n d s . But t h a t a e a n s v a r ­ io u s t r i c k y e l e c t r i c a l d i a l o g u e s c an r a p i d l y g i v e i n s t r u c t i o n s t o d e v i c e s and c o n s i d e r r e ­ p l i e s a b o u t t h e i r s t a t u s , i n q u i c k and s t a n ­ d a r d i z e d w ays . P r o a l n e n t g r a n d b u se s i n c l u d e : The Nova bus ( n a a e l e s s ; th e f i r s t ? ) PDP-1 l ' s Unibus Lo ck he ed SUE'S I n f i b u s P D P -S 's Omnibus. n e r a l. For your t t a n c e , Gra nd Bus a r c h i t e c t u r e w oul d s i m p l i f y e v e r y t h i n g . Not o n l y t h a t , b u t D e t r o i t i s s u p p o s e d l y g o in g t o p u t y o u r c a r ' s e l e c t r i c a l s y s t e a on a Grand B u s. T h i s w i l l a e a n you ca n t e l l a t once w ha t I s an d I s n ' t w o rk i n g , and hoo k up mw goodies e a s i l y .

I n o t h e r w o r d s , DEC's PDP-11, which ha s a l r e a d y c u t i n t o s a l e s o f t h e i r PDP-8 1 2 - b i t s e r i e s and PDP-15 1 8 - b l t s e r i e s , aa y soon c u t i n t o i t s PDP-10 3 6 - b i t s e r i e s - - as d e sig n e r B e ll u n v e ils (perhaps) a o n s t e r P D P -l ls i n a r r a y s o r do ub le w o rd -len g th o r w h atev e r. The PDP-11 was d e s i g n e d by C. Gordon B e l l and h i s a s s o c i ; # s a t C a r n e g ie -M e ll o n U n iv e r ­ sity . I n d e s i g n i n g th e a r c h i t e c t u r e , and e s ­ p e c i a l l y th e I n s t r u c t i o n - s e t , th e y s i a u l a t e d a wide v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s b e f o r e th e f i n a l d e s i g n was d e c i d e d . The r e s u l t i n g a r ­ c h i t e c t u r e i s e x t r e a e l y e f f i c i e n t an d p o w e r f u l ( s e e bo x, "The l l ' s Modes” ) .

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PDP-11 l o o k a l i k e s a re s o l d by C a l D a t a . O t h e r f i n s have be en s c a r e d o f f b y DEC's s t e n t , b u t Cal D a t a s a y th e y ave a p a t e n t t o o .

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NiniOMputere a re crasi p r o b la in a in l a rc h lte c tu r the In stru ctio n enough chol In daal^ninq the POP-11, Gordon t e l l and hU eo-^rorkere sy stem atically sought a powerful molution. lim ile tin q varloue peaalble stru c tu re s by c ^ u t a r program, try in g out a v a rie ty of d if f e r ­ ent r f felnatlonm and e tru c tu ree . The elegance and pornr o f tha aolutlon are l i t t l e ehort o f hroath tah ln g . Basically the PDP11, the f in a l design, provides aeven d iffe re n t type* o f In d irect addreaaing. The e c ^ u te r 'e main re g ls ta r e may be ueed both to ooarata on Information (the usual technique, here ealled mode s e re ) . or to p o in t to location* to b . o p treted < (In d ire ct medee 1 through 7). Thee* a> provide eatrem ely e f f l e l . n t means for atepplng t h r a s h ta b la s , TUSH and POP, dlapatch ta ble*, and various other p rogram ing technique*. The following dlagra 1* a ia n t for handy reference.

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*Blg flaaa have U t t l e fleae th a t b it* 'em And a t forth. I n f i n i t e .* Proverb M ic r o p ro c e s s o r s e re w h a t 's h a p p e n in g . C o a p u te r) c o s t s e v e r a l th o u sa n d buc ks on up. Microprocessors c o s t s e v e r a l hundred on u p , and t h a t p r i c e ra n g e I s f a l l i n g f a s t . So ae a lc r o p r o c e s s o r s a re a l r e a d y on I n t e g r a ­ t e r i r c u l t s . p o sta g e s t a a p - s i z e d e l e c t r o n i c F a n c ie s t h a t a r e s l a p l y p r i n t e d and b a k e d , r a t h e r th a n w ir e d up; t h i s a e a n s th e r e i s e f f e c t i v e l y no b o t t o a l l a i t to th e p r i c e of a l c r o p r o c e s s o r s . B f F T K I T w e l l " I t Beans t h a t in a few y e a r s t h e r e w i l l be a m i c r o p ro c e s s o r in y o u r r e f r i g e r ­ a t o r y o u r t y p e w r i t e r , y o u r la w nao w er, y o u r c a r , and p o s s i b l y yo u r w a l l e t . ( I f you d o n ' t b e l i e v e t h i s , lo o k w hat happened lo poc ket c a l c u l a t o r s in th e l a s t c o u p le o f y e a r s . The c h ip t h o s e a re b u i l t a ro u n d c o a t* f iv e b u c ks. But n e x t coae th e n r o a r a a a a b l e c h i p s , th e a l c r o p r o c e s s o r s .) M ic r o p r o c e s s o r s sh o u ld not be c a l l e d a l c r o r o a n u t e r a . a t e n t h a t se e a s to have c a p t i v a t e d Wall S t r e e t l a t e l y . " M lc ro c o a p u te r " j u s t aeans any te e n y c o a p u t e r ; b u t t h e r e i s an e a a c t and c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e b e ta e e n an o r d i n a r y c o a p u te r (w h a te v e r i t s s i i e ) and a a l c r o p r o c e s e o r (w ha t­ ever i t s s i t e ) . A a i c r o p r o c e s s o r i s a tw o - le v e l c o a p u t e r . You w i l l re a e a b e r f r o a th e "Rock B o tto a " s e c t i o n (p p . 32-3) t h a t e v e r y c o a p u te r has an I n t e r n a l la n g u ag e o f b i n a r y p a t t e r n a o r " n ac h in e la n g u ag e " ( I l l u s t r a t e d In horre n d o u s d e t a i l tn th e p r o g r a a c a l l e d "Bucky’s R r l s t w a t c h , " p p . 3 5 - 4 ) . But s i n c e a l c r o p r o c e s s o r s ha ve two s e p a r a t e l e v e l s , th e y o f t e n have two s e p a r a t e word l e n g th s i th e u p p e r- l................................l o w e r - l e v e l . - e v e l and th e

The h i s t o r y books te n y e a r s f r o a now, i f any, w i l l n o te t h a t th e f i r s t c o a p u te r - o n - a - c h i p was pro­ duced by I n t e l . I n t e l , an a s t u t e l y aanaged coapany, chose to sa k e a a i c r o p r o c e s s o r t h a t would be s u it e d to p la c e a e n t i n o t h e r s ' a a c h in e s a t low c o s t. This a e a n s t h a t i f you aake a fanc y b u l l d o z e r or bakeo v e n, and want i t to have soae f o r a of i n t r i c a t e p r e - p la n n e d b e h a v io r , y o u ' l l p u t " t h e I n t e l chip" A c t u a ll y th e I n t e l c h ip Is a n u a b er of se p arate c h i p s , which s t a r t low in c o s t - - a f a i r l y c oople to s e t can be had f o r u n d e r $S00-- and can be assea ble d i n to a f u ll co ap u te r. ( In d e e d , v a r io u s f i r a s do o f ­ f e r c o a p l e t e c o a p u te r s b u i l t o u t o f I n t e l e h ip s . In ­ c lu d in g one th e s i z e o f an Oreo c o o k ic , guara nteed f o r 2$ y e a r s . ) The o r i g i n a l I n t e l c h ip s a re th e MCS-4 and MCS-S, v i z . : The t r i c k t h a t Bakes t h i s a l l w ork-- w hether f o r th e hld den-a w ey ty p e o r t h e c o a p u te r ty pe of a i c r o p r o c e s s o r - - I s t h a t th e low er l e v e l has a nuch f a s t e r a ea o ry th a n th e u p p e r l e v e l . T h is Beans t h a t an u p p e r - l e v e l word c a n be ta k e n , and looked up in th e low er l e v e l , and a l l th e lo w e r - l e v e l s te p s c a r r i e d o u t , v e ry f a s t c o a p a r e d to th e u p p e r - l e v e l a e a o r y . Many suc h a a c h i n e s , f o r i n s t a n c e , havo l o w e r - l e v e l spe eds In th e na nosec onds ( b i l l i o f a s e c o n d ) , w h ile th e u p p e r»— ■»<•■ • ly in th e a ic r o a e c o n d s ( a i ‘ ip o r t a n t c h a r A l a s t p o i n t . One o f t h e a o s t : t e r i s t l c s of an a r d l n a r y c o a p u te r ■ n g th , t h a t i s , I lie n u a b er o f b i n a r y pos u s u a l chunk o f 1t s I n f o r m a tio n . Upper l e v e l MCS-4 MCS-8 Lower l e v e l b its nanoseconds) b its nanoseconds)

4 b its B o r 16 (1 0 .8 (900 a ic r o s e c o n d s ) 8 b its 8 to 24 (12.& (900 a ic r o s e c o n d s )

W hile th e s e i n d i v i d u a l c h ip s c o s t under a hundred d o l l a r s e a c h , a c a o r i e s and o t h e r n c c e s s a r y s e c ti o n s c o s t e x t r a . For p e o p le who want to de velo p s y s te a s around th e s e c h i p s , I n t e l has c a n n il y p r e p a re d a nuab e r o f se tu p s. I f you want to go 4 - b i t , you ge t the " I n t c l l e c 4 , " {2200, whic h a l s o needs a T e l e ty p e . T h is g iv e s yo u v a r io u s d i s p l a y l i g h t s and debugging f e a t u r e s . M eanwhile, you c an a s s e a b le and s i o u l a t e on s i n u l a t l o n p r o g ra a s o f f e r e d on n a t i o n a l t i o e - s h a r in g . I f you want to go 8 - b i t , you g e t th e " I n t e l l e c 8" f o r $2400 ( a l s o w i t h o u t T e l e t y p e ) , and b e n e f i t ad­ d i t i o n a l l y f r o a th e f a c t t h a t you c an p r e p a re the undcrw are in P L / I . and c o a p i l e i t on n a t i o n a l t i a e C r a f ty and c l e v e r I n t e l , which has c a p tu r e d ouch o f th e o v e r a l l a a r k e t a l r e a d y , has now b ro u g h t out au ch f a s t e r v e r s i o n s o f th e s e c h i p s . Rail.

W e ll , a a i c r o p r o c e s s o r has two l e v e l s . It has an u n p o r - l o v e l p r o g ra a f o llo w e r w i t h i t s r b in a r y p r o g r a n ; b u t each I n s t r u c t i o n o: u p p e r - l e v e l p r o g r a a i s in tu r n c a r r i e d p r o g r a a f o l l o w e r runnin g a p r o g ra a a t i l e v e l - - c a l l e d a a ic r o p r o g r a a . M ic r o p ro c e s s o r s a r e u s u a l l y s o ld in q u a n t i t y , to pe ople who a r e b u i l d i n g s u p e r - c a s h - r c g i s t c r s or p i n b a l l a a c h in e s o r th e l i k e . So t h e i r n c n o r ic s coae In aany s i z e s and s p e e d s , to be t a i l o r e d to an a p p l i c a t i o n . You sh o u ld know th e d i f f e r e n c e s b e tw een-ROM-* Read-Only Menory. C o n te n ts c a n ' t be changed, c o s 's l e s s th a n c h an g e ab le ( a t any g iv e n S p e e d ). RAM ■ Rapid -A ccess Menory. A ls o c a l l e d re a d -w r i te n e n o ry . Saco as c o re acniory: May have I t s c o n t e n t s c hange d. NOTt: I f you s i a u l a t e so a e c o a p u t e r w ith a a i c r o p rogra B , i t s s i n u l a t e d " r e g i s t e r s ” are u s u a l l y lo c a t i o n s in th e lo w e r - l e v e l RAM . RMM-- Read-Mostly Meaory. You can (jet out i t s c o n te n t s f a s t , h u t change th e n o nly ve ry Slowly. F i r s t o f a l l , i t aeans t h a t th e u p p e r - l e v e l b in a r y la n g u ag e can be a n y th in g you w a n t- - t h a t I s , any f e a s i b l e c o a p u te r la n g u a g e - - b e c a u s e each of I t s i n s t r u c t i o n * , in t u r n , w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t by T h is a e a n s , f o r I n s t a n c e , t h a t a a c h in e s can be c r e a t e d which aay be pr o g ra a a e d d i r e c t l y in soa e h i g h e r - l e v e l la n g u ag e , such a s APL ( n o te Canad ian a a c h in e d e s c r i b e d on p . 2 . 1 ) o r BASIC ( n o te one of th e H e w le tt- P a c k a r d a a c h in e s d e s c r ib e d on p . J 7 )• The c h a r a c t e r s in th e u p p e r - l e v e l p r o g r a a (APL or BASIC), s te p p e d th ro ugh by th e u p p e r - l e v e l p r o g ra a f o l l o w e r , c a u s e th e l o w e r - le v e l p r o g r a a f o llo w e r to c a r r y o u t th e o p e r a tio n s o f th e la nguage . S e c o n d , th e a a c h in e c o s t s l e s s t o a a k e th a n an o r d in a r y c o a p u t e r . The r ea so n Is t h a t t h e a r c h i ­ t e c t u r e o f o r d i n a r y c o a p u te rs i s d e s ig n e d now ( a t l a s t ) f o r n r o a r a a a e r c o n v e n ie n c e . Thus a a a c h in e l i k e th e P u r - u , wnicIT in p r i n c i p l e doe s n o th in g any o t h e r c o a p u t e r d o e s n 't d o , Is s t i l l a o re d e s i r ­ a b le th a n n o s t , be ca use I t s I n s t r u c t i o n s a r e so w e ll d e s i g n e d . I t i s c l e a r and s e n s i b l e to th e prog r a a a e r , w i t h th a r e s u l t t h a t p r o g r a a a in g I t ta k e s l e s s t l a e and c o s t s l e s s aoney . M ic r o p r o c e s s o r s r e v e r s e t h i s t r e n d . The lowerle v e l s t r u c t u r e o f r e g i s t e r s and i n s t r u c t i o n s can be a n y th in g t h a t i s c o n v en ie n t t o a a n u f a c t u r e , w hether o r n o t p r o g r a a a e r a l i k e I t . Low a a n u f a c t u r i n g c o s t la one o f t h e B a in d e s ig n c r i t e r i a . The p u r p o s e o f a l c r o p r o c e s s o r s , you s e e , la g e n e r a l l y t o be h id d e n In o t h e r e q u lp a e n t and do s o m s i a p l e t h i n g over and o v e r; n o t t o have t h e i r p r o g ra a s ch an g e d aro und a l l th e t t a e a s on an o r d i ­ n a ry c o a p u t e r . t t i e r e a r e e x c e p t i o n s , c o a p u te r s w hic h have a second l e v e l down where you c an p u t a i c r o p r o g r a a s ; and th e s e a r e c a l l e d , s e n s i b l y enough, a i c r o p r o g r a a a a b le c o a p u t e r s . They a re b ought and s e t up w ith r e g u l a r c o a p u t e r a c c e s s o r i e s , p lu s f a c i l i t i e s to change th e a i c r o p r o g r a a s . Thus th e y c o s t a l o t a o r e ; b u t oh, th e y do so Mich a o re f o r you. You c an d e s ig n y o u r own c o a p u t e r - - i . e . , i t s I n s t r u c t i o n - s e t - - and t n e s c r e a t e I t , w ith a a i c r o p r o g r a a . (S e a th * Stan* d a rd C o a p u te r and th e M eta -4, n e a r b y .) (The l o w e r - le v e l a en o ry i s s o a e t i n e s c a l l e d " p r o g r a a a e a o ry " and th e u p p e r - l e v e l n c ao ry i s o f te n c a l l e d " d a t a a e a o ry , b u t t h i s i s a c o n fu s i o n r e s u l t ­ ing f r o a c e r t a i n t y p i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f th e d e v ic e s , r a t h e r th a n t h e i r i n h e r e n t n a t u r e . You can have p r o g ra a s a t b oth l e v e l s . ) BIBLIOGRAPHY Rayaond M H olt and Manuel R. L ea as , " C u r re n t . M lc rocoa puter A r c h i t e c t u r e . " C oapute r D esig n . Feb 74, 6 5 -73. S u a a a r iz e s n i n e te eny a a c h in e s now on th e a a r k e t ( s o a e 1 - l e v e l ) . Good bib l io g r a p h y a l s o .

A ijo u p j te r w i t t i l y c a l l e d th e Meta 4 (heh heh) i s a f a i r l y n e a t a a c h in e aade by D i g i t a l S c i e n t i f i c C o r p ., 1 MS5 S o r r e n t o V a l le y R d., San Diego CA 92121. I.ower a e a o ry : 16 h i t s , 90 na nosec onds ( o r 35 n a n o sec o n d s, p r o g r a m e d by a c a r d ( on which you d a rk e n th e sq u a re s .) Upper menory: 16 b i t s , 900 nan o sec o n d s. What t h i s i s i s a v e ry hig h -p o w er n i n i c o a p u t e r : i t c an be t u r n e d i n t o a lo o k a l i k e f o r any o t h e r 1 6 - b i t n i n i c o a p u t e r . For i n s t a n c e , th e y c an s e l 1 I t t o you l i v e l y i n t o an IBM l l J o ! Froa a a a r k e t i n g p o i n t o f v ie w , t h i s e f f e c t i v e l y means a f i r a owning an IBM 1130 can r e p l a c e i t w ith a Meta 4 which r u n s th e s a a e p r o g r a a s , sa ves aoney and g iv e s you in a d d i t i o n th e o o tt o n - l e v e l f e a t u r e s o f a f a r n o r e po w erfu l c o a p u t e r . (Such an u n d e r - l e v e l p r o g r a a t h a t a a k e s one a a c h in e e f f e c t i v e l y i a i t a t e a n o t h e r computer i s c a l l e d an e a u l a t o r . ) T h is c a p a c it y to c a u l a t c o l h e r c o a p u t e r s i s th e "a e tn p h o r " a llu d e d to i n th e a a c h i n e ' s n a a e .

The Lockheed SUE ("Byetem Uaer-Englnaered Conputer") Is a very Inlenating and dealrable machine. The central proceealng unit coala a little over els hundrvd and forty doUare! (Thal'a without menory. power aupply or card cage.) It ueea a Grand Bus ayaten of lntarannection (aeia p . H Z ) ■ ll'a a microproceaaor. The tower-lev«l cycle time la 90 nenoaeconda. eo ll can be programmed to Imitate any microsecond mini.

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d p fc fo re a s .* Big ( Lxpensive. Up to 32 ha rdware r e g i s t e r s . Coaes w ith c a s s e t t e h o ld in g v a rio u s e m ula to rs. *650 s t r i p p e d . Already a lc r o p r o graa ac d to be l i k e o t h e r IIP c o a p u te r s -- but th e r e 's space f o r y o u r s . as w e l l . )7$00. $8000 up (110,0 00 f o r a o d e l 32/S , sta ck -o rien ted ). $15,000 to 1100,000 (heavy upgrade o f V aria n 62 0 ).

19 b i t s 36 b i t s 16 b i t s 16 b i t s 90 or 3S nsec 900 nsec 16 b i t s 24 b i t s 60 nse c 666 nse c 36 b i t s ? 16 b i t s 16 b i t s

One nice thing la lhat you can put together eaveral cpu'e and different memoriae-- c o re , eemlconductor and ROM-- aala din g with aw Itches which epua have what prleritlee In what memories. as well aa Interrupts, etc. Darn nice-- eapedally coisldering the upper-level InetnicUon-eel. The microprogram it comes with makee the Lockheed SUB Into a eo n of copy (??) of ihe PDP-11. Including Its eight reflelera and similar address modes ( e e e p . r U . Was the name SUB actually Lockheed's impudent challenge to DEC? DEC did aue. bul no outcome haa been publicised,

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32 b i t s 135 nsec

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64 b i t s 16 b i t s 16S nsec, 660 n se c (190 r e a d - w r l t e ) ? 16? 64 b i t s 16 b i t s 160 nse c 7S0 nse c 32 b i t s 16 b i t s 160 nsec 320 nse c

123,000 A a i c r o p r o g r a a a a b l e b i g g i e has be en a v a i l a b l e ' f o r so a e t i a e . I t ’ s a 3 6 - b i t c o a p u t e r o a n u f a c tu r e d by S ta n d a rd C o a p u te r C o r p o r a t i o n , 1411 W O ly a p lc . B o u le v a rd , Los A n g eles, CA 90015. T h is coapute r. I s a s e r i o u s a a c h i n e , in th e a a n y - h u n d r e d - t h o u s a n d - d o lla r c l a s s , which c an be s e t up to a i a i c any o t h e r 3 6 - b i t a a c h i n e . I t has been s o l d In two v e r s i o n s : one a pure FORTRAN e a ­ ch in e ( t h a t ' s r i g h t , i t s u p p e r la n g u ag e i s pure F o r tr a n .') and a lo o k a l i k e fOT th e IBM 7094. Lowerl e v e l word le n g th i s 18 b i t s . (An i n t e r e s t i n g p u z z le i s why t h i s o u t f i t has n o t g o t t e n to g e th e r w ith L in c o ln L a b o r a t o r i e s . L in­ c o ln L a b o r a t o r i e s , o u t s i d e B o sto n , ha s a 3 6 - b l t exp e r l n e n t a l a a c h in e c a l l e d th e TX-2 which h a s be en u se d f o r c o a p u te r g r a p h i c s , su ch as S u t h e r l a n d 's SKETCHPAD s y s t e a ( se e p . JUsZ?) and B a e c k e r ’ s GENESYS ( s e e p . > h 2 ? ) . How, p r e s u a a b l y L in c o ln Labs, l i k e a o s t o t h e r r e s e a r c h o u t f i t s , i s h u r t i n g for a o nay. Why c o u l d n 't they aake an a r r a n g e a e n t f o r S t a n d a rd to s e l l i t s a a c h in e w i t h a TX-2 e a u l a t o r , th u s a e k l n g - a v a i l a b l e suc h p r o g r a a s as Sketc hpad (which h a s n e v e r been e q u a l l e d ) t o a w id e r p u b l i c ?

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6 to 24 b i t s 8 b its S t a c k - o r i e n t e d (now 900 n se c 12 .5 usee / a s t e r a o d e l). 8 o r 16 b i t s 4 b its Basic c h ip $60. 900 n se c 1 0 .8 usee SYS 500 (H e lr d b u t I n t e r e s t i n g wid e a i c r o p r o c e s s o r - • c i r c u l a t e s aaong aany s e p a r a t e a c t i v l t e s , r a t h e r th a n b r a n c h i n g .) M lc r o d a ta 16 F iT s 8 b its Mic ro goo 220 n se c 1 .1 use e Mic ro 1600 200 n se c 1 use e ( re a d -w rlte) AES-80 (A u to . E l e c t r i c 12 b i t s 8 b its $9S0 w/o a ea o ry S y s t e a s , M o n tr e a l) 240 n se c 240 n se c o r 1 usee N a t io n a l S e a ic o n d u c to r $1380 s t r i p p e d IMP-16C (8 1/2 x 11-- odd s i z e f o r c o a p u t e r , c o n v e n ie n t f o r n o te b o o k .) DEC PDP-16M 8 b its 16 b i t s $2000. ( C om pa tible w. PDP-11 U n ib u e .) A tr on 601 16 b i t s 16 b i t s 260 n s e e 1 use e ^ ( A b b r e v i a t i o n s : nse c ( n a n o s e c o n d s , o r b i l l i o n t h s ) ; usee (alc ro sec o n d s, B i l l i o n t h s ; usual v e ird a b b r e v i a t i o n ) .)

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B a s i c a l l y , an o p e r a t i n g ays t e a i s a p r o g r a a t h a t s u p e r v i s e s a l l tn e o t h e r p r o ­ grams Ln a c o o p u t e r . For t h i s r e a s o n l l i s a l s o c a l l e d a su£^rv l_so r o r a n o n i t o r . Because t h e o p e r a t i n g s y s t e a i s suppose d to be In c h a r g e , aan y c o a p u te r s now o f f e r s p e ­ c i a l w i r e d - i n i n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t o n ly th e o p e r a t i n g s y s t e a can u s e . T h is p r e v e n ts o t h e r p r o g r a a s f r o a ta k in g c o a p l e t e c o n t r o l o f t h e a a e h in e . O p e r a t in g s y s t e a s cone in a l l s i z e s . The b i g g e r one s ta k e up a l o t o f c o a p u te r t l o e b e ca u se th e y have to do a l o t . The s a a l l e s t k in d ,w h ic h a r e r e a l l y k in d of d i f f e r e n t , a r e J u s t to h e l p a s i n g l e pro* i r i n e r aove q u ic k ly betw een h i s b a s i c progra as. (A t y p i c a l such s y s t e o i s DEC's DOS, o r D is k O p e r a t in g S y s t e a , whic h you c an g e t w ith th e PDP-11.) T his s y s t e a is r e a l l y a k in d o f b u t l e r t h a t ke eps t r a c k of where your b a s i c p r o g r a a s a r e s t o r e d on d is k and b r i n g s t h e a in f o r you q u i c k l y . A s t e p up i s th e Batc h M o n it o r, o r op­ e r a t i n g s y s t e a s e t up f o r Batc h P r o c e s s i n g ( s e e p.&~!!>tr). In b a tc h p r o c e s s i n g , p r o ­ g r a a s go th r o u g h th e c o a p u te r as i f on a co n v ey e r b e l t , one a t a t i n e ( o r in soa e • y s t e a s s e v e r a l a t a t i n e ) . The o p e r a t i n g s y s t e a sh e p h e r d s th e a . Uatch p r o c e s s in g i s use d when p r o g ra a s d o n ' t need any i n t e r a c t i o n w ith huaan u s e r s . (O r, and t h i s i s a o r e c o a a o n , when huaan u s e r s want t i n e - s h a r i n g b u t c a n ' t g e t i t ; se e b e lo w .) A a u l t i p r o e r a a a l n e o p e r a t i n g s y s t e a i s one t h a t a llo w s s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t ro g ra n s ( o r e o n v e y o r - b e lt se q u en c es of a tc h p r o g r a u s ) to o p e r a t e a t one t i n e . (T h is Is how b o s t IBH 160s a re u s e d .) W HERE TO GET IT No way c an we h e re g e t i n t o th e pro se and cons ( both s e n s e s ) o f th e a y r i a d t i a e - s h a r i n g s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e . An e x c e l l e n t suamary o f f i f t y s i i d i f f e r e n t t i a e - s h a r i n g s e r v i c e s ( v a r i o u s l y u s i n g c o n p u to rs by Honey­ w e l l , IBM, DEC, U niva c, CDC, X e r o i and Burroughs) appea re d in th e F e b r u a r y , 1973 Conputer D e c is io n s ( " P i e c i n g Out th e T in e sh a r in c Puz z le " by Jolin R. I l i l l e g a s s , pp. 24- 32). T h is s u a n a r i t e s i n f o r n a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f r o a D atapro Re se arch C o r p ., M oor estow n, NJ. The a r t i c l e c a u ti o n s a g a i n s t th e p o t e n t i a l high c o s t of t i n e - s h a r i n g s e r v i c e s , and urges you to g e t a l l th e a d v ic c you c an b e f o r e commit­ t i n g to a t i n e - s h a r i n g s e r v i c e .

I q th e eaTly th r o e s o f c o a p u te r e p th u a i a s a , i t i s easy to supp ose t h a t a n y th in g c an be done by c o a p u t e r ' - t h a t I s , a n y th in g In v o lv in g th e chew ing o r d id d l i n g o f in f o r m a t io n . T his I s d e c id e d ly n o t so . Fo r I n s ta n c e , i t I s e a sy enough, and o f t e n p r a c t i c a l , to have a c o a p u te r do s o a e th i n g a few a l l l i o n t l a e s . But I t i s a l a o s t n e v er p r a c t i c a l to h av e a c b a p u te r do s o a e t h i n g a t r i l l i o n t l a e s . Why? W ell , l e t ' s sa y ( f o r th e sa ke of s l a p l l c i t y ) t h a t a c e r t a i n p r o g r a a loop ta k e s 1/1000 o f a seco n d . To do i t a th o u sa n d t l a e s , th e n , -would ta k e one se co n d , and t o do I t a B i l l i o n t i a e s would tak e a th o u sa n d s e c o n d s , o r a bout se v e n te e n a l n u t e s . . But to do i t a t r i l l i o n tia e s now, would p eaa doin g I t IT j O j OOO a l n u t e s , o r OO ov e r t h i r t y y e a r s . Now, you w i l l n o te t h a t even i f you spe ed uj t h a t loop to 1/ 1 , 000,000 o f a se co n d , a t r i l l i o n r e p e t i t i o n s w i l l ta k e a l a o a t tw e lv e d a y s , which i s o b v io u sly goin g to need so a e j u s t i f y i n g , even assumin g t h a t I t I s o th e rw is e f e a s i b l e . (Fo r p r o b le a s o f t h i s ty p e p e o p le b e g in t h i n k i n g a b o u t b u il d i n g s p e c i a l h a rd w a r e , any­ way. I t w i l l be n o te d , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t the PDP-16-- see p . y \ “ l e t s you c o a p i l e y o u r own s p e c i a l e q u lp a e n t f o r p r o b l e a s t h a t ne ed e t e r ­ nal re p e titi o n s . COMBINATORIAL EXPLOSIONS One k in d o f th in g t h a t ' s to o auch to do I s g e n e r a ll y c a l l e d a c o a b i n a t o r l a l e i p l o s l o n - t h a t I s , a p r o b le a t h a t " e x p lo d e s " i n t o to o aan y th in g s to do. Fo r i n s t a n c e , c o n s i d e r the g aae o f c n e s s . J u s t b e ca u ae you can w r i t e a p r o g r a a to look ahead a t a l l th e p o s s i b l e outco a e s o f , s a y , t i c - t a c - t o e , t h a t d o e s n 't aean you c an c o n s id e r a l l th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f c h e s s . To lo o k a t " a l l " th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s j u s t a few a o v es ahead In v o lv es you i n t r i l l i o n s o f c a l c u l a t i o n s . Reneaber a b o u t t r i l l i o n s ? And i t tu r n s o u l t h a t th e r e a r e a l o t o f p r o b le a s lik e th a t.

BIBLIOGRAPHY M.V. W iik e s , T i n e - S h a r in g Co nputer S y s t e a s , M a cD onald/A nencan E l s e v i e r p udi is h i n g C A l1 About T l n e s h a r i n e S e r v ic e Conganie ^. D atap ro Re se arch (1 C o rp o rate c e n t e r , Moorestown, NJ 0 0 0 5 ? ). $10.

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\\ \\n n H H u i ||| UTSS i s th e D artn o u th T in e -S h a r in g S y s to n , and l e t i t be an example to us a l l . • , * y f I I t was c r e a t e d by Keneny and K u r t : , who c r e a t e d th e BASIC la nguag e to be use d on i t ( se e p. It, ) . T h e i r c o o p u te r a r r i v e d in f a l l '6 3 , T h e i r t i a e - s h a r i n g s y s i e n w e n t in to op e ra t i o n in s p r i n g ' 6 J , pr o e r a a n e d n o s t l y by Dartmouth s t u d e n t s . and nas grown and lmproved c o n tin u o u s ly s i n c e Chen. On t h a t b a s i s : p ro g ra a n e d by s t u d e n t s .

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MULTICS was announced in 196S as the T im e -Sha rin g S y s te n o f A ll T in e , to be c r e a te d j o i n t l y by MIT, G enera l L l e c t r i c and Bell Labs. Il took a l o t lo n g e r to g e t going th a n they e x p e c te d - - I hnvc a 1968 (?) b u tto n t h a t s a y s , YOU NHVER OUTC.ROH YOUR FOR MULTICS - - b u t now i t ' s a v a i l a b l e f r o n Jloncywcl 1. Tcople sa y i t ' s the g r e a te s t, a l l r ig h t- - i t s fasc in a tin g f a c i l i t i e s in c lu d e th e a b i l i t y to cxccutc p a r t s of o th e r p e o p l e ' s p rogra m s, i f you have p e r m i s s io n - - b u t i t ' s a l s o s a i d to be aw f u lly e x p e n siv e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , th e MULTICS o p e ra tin g sy ste m i s l u r g v ly programmed in th e PL/1 languag e ( se e p. ). Sys te n s ,^200 Sm ith S t r e e t , M 06 1 . K a l th a a , Mass. 0 J1 J4 . S

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Then t h e r e i s t i a e - s h a r i n g . .Then th e r e Is th e p r o b l e a o f " T u rin g la p o s s l b l l l t y . ” T urin g was a a a t h e a a t i c i a n who d ls c o v e i e d t h a t so a e t h i n g s c an be done s e ­ q u e n t i a l l y In a f i n i t e a a o u n t o f t i a e , and soae th in g s c a n ' t , su ch a s p ro v in g c e r t a i n ty p e s o f a a t h e a a t i c a l t h e o r e a . In o t h e r w ord s, a n y th in g t h a t ha s to do t h i n g s in se q u e n c e - w hether a c o a p u te r o r a a i n d o f God, I f any-cannot p o s s ib l y know a n y th in g which i s n o t T u r in g -c o a p u t a b le . A n o th e r I a p o r t a n t l l m i t a tlo n . On a a o r e p r a c t i c a l l e v e l , th ough, th e r e a re J u s t l o t s o f t h i n g s w hic h nobody has f i g u r ­ ed o u t how to do In any f e a s i b l e way, o r are J u s t now f i g u r i n g o u t d i f f e r e n t s y s t e a a t i c ways o f do in g . (For a f a v o r i t e su ch a r e a o f n i n e , co ap a re th e d i f f e r e n t c o a p u te r h a l f - t o n e ia a g e sy n th e s is s y s t e a s d e s c r i b e d on pp. DM H to ON M .) Thus you s e e t h a t f l g g e r l n g o u t wavs of doing s t u f f i s s t i l l one o r th e p r i n c i p a l a s ­ p e c ts 01 th e c o a p u te r f i e l d . (Vnole j o u r n a l s a re d e vote d to I t , such a s CACM, JACM and so o n .) But th e n o f c o u r s e , e v e r y few y e a r s th e re coae s a new a o v e a e n t i n t h e f i e l d t h a t bodes to aake us s t a r t a l l o v e r. One su ch tr e n d I s c a l l e d s t r u c t u r e d p r o g ­ r a a a in g . b e in g p r o a u lg a te d by a Dutch r e s e a r c h e r named D l j k s t r a , aaong o t h e r s . The I d e a of s t r u c t u r e d p r o g ra a a in g I s t o r e s t r i c t c o a p u tln g langu ages In c e r t a i n ways and " e l l a l n a t e th e G TO," i . e . , no lo n g e r ha v e lu a p s to l a b e l e d O p la ce * l a p r o g r a a s . By d i v i d i n g c o a p u te r progr a a s up o n ly I n c e r t a i n w ay s, goes t k l s sc h o o l o f th o u g h t, th e p r o g r a a s c an p e rh a p s be proven w o rk ab le , I d th e a a t h e a a t i c a l s e n s e , r a t h e r th a n J u s t d e m o n strated to w o rk , as th e y a r e now-a n o to rio u sly e rro r-p ro n e s i t u a t i o n . I f th e D l j k s t r a sc h o o l la c o r r e c t , we aay ha ve to s t a r t a l l ov e r a g a in w ith a new bunch o f p r o g ­ r a m i n g la n g u ag e s. These r e a a r k s g iv e you th e f l a v o r o f soae r e s t r i c t i o n s and l i n e s o f d e v e lo p a e n t . The r e s t o f t h i s page i s d e v o te d to The G re a t S oftw are P r o b le a - - t h e O p e r a t in g Syste m . T i n e - s h a r i n g means th e s i u u l t a n c o u s use o f one c o a p u te r by s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t u s e r s a t o n c e. I t ' s b a s ic a lly a c o n p lci fo ra of a u ltip ro g ra n n in g . In p r i n c i p l e t h i s is l i k e a la z y su sa n . The c e n t r a l c o o p u te r works on one u s e r ' s p r o ­ g r a a f o r a w h i l e , th e n on a n o t h e r ' s . . . u n t i l i t i s back to the f i r s t u s e r . There a r e b a s i c a l l y two k in d s o f t i a e s h a r i n g : t i n o - s h a r i n g where you can o nly use c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s o r l a n g u a g e s , snd t i u c s h a r i n g where you c an use a l l th e f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e c o n p u te r ( i n c l u d i n g p r o g r a a a in g in th e c o m p u te r's a ssem bly la n g u a g e ). E x aa p le s o f r e s t r i c t e d t i a e - s h a r i n g a re th e v a r io u s a i n i c o a p u t e r s y s t e n s t h a t arc a v a i l a b l e whic h l i n e - s h a r e th e BASIC la nguage. (Nova and PDP-11 and H e w le tt- P a c k a r d , for Soae examples o f u n r e s t r i c t e d t i a e s h a r i n g a r e t h e PDP-10 ( s e e p. i o ) , D a r t­ m o u th 's DTSS, H oneyw ell'S MULTICS, IBM’s TSO, and G ene ra l E l e c t r i c ' s HARK I I I . Bigger I s not n e c e s s a r i l y b e t t e r . For in s t a n c e , t h e r e a r e t i n e - s h a r e d v e r s i o n s o f BASIC t h a t run on b i g IBM c o a p u t e r s . How­ e v e r , i t a ay ve ry w e l l be t h a t b ig IBM i n ­ s t a l l a t i o n s c an sa ve noney by e l i a i n a t l n g t h i s f u n c ti o n and buyin g I n s t e a d a s a a l l H ew le tt- P a c k a r d a i n i c o a p u t e r to run t h e i r BASIC o n , th e re b y s u p p ly i n g BASIC t o a o re u s e r s a t l e s s c o s t and f r e e i n g th e 160 f o r w h a te v e r i t I s IBM s y s t e a s do b e t t e r . R e s t r i c t e d t i a e - s h a r i n g , w ith o nly one o r a few la nguage s o f f e r e d , i s auch e a s i e r to p r o v id e f o r th a n f u l l t l a e - s h a r l n g . P u l l t i a e - s h a r i n g Is a lw ays s h a re d w ith b a t c h , ln o t h e r w ords , th e c o a p u t e r , d a r t i n g aaong u s e r s , s t i l l f in d s so a e t i a e to de vote t o th e b a tc h s t r e a a . T l a e - s h a r l n g i s s e l f - l l a l t i n g . T hat i s , th e a o re u s e r s a re sig n e d o n to a t l n e - s h a r l n g s y s t e a a t a g iv e n a o o e n t , th e a o r e slo w ly th e s y s t e a r e sp o n d s to a l ] o f th e a . O p e r a t in g s y s t e a s a r e b i s and ha rd to p r o g r a a . They ta k e a l o t o T t t i e c om pute r7* t i n e : l o r I n s t a n c e , D a r t a o u t h 's t l a e - s h a r l n g o p e r a t i n g s y s t e a , ta k in g a s auch a s 211 o f th e c o a p u t e r ' s t l a e . I s c o n s id e r e d e f f i c i e n t . The la p o r t a n c e o f t i a e - s h a r i n g Is n o t In t e r a s o f "ra w " e f f i c i e n c y , t h a t i s , th e c o s t o f each o i l l i o n o p e r a t i o n s , b u t In t e r n s o f huaan e f f i c i e n c y , th e a b i l i t y o f eac h u s e r to g e t so auch a o r e o u t o f th e c o a p u te r by u s in g I n t e r a c t i v e p r o g ra a s and la n g u a g e s. OPERATING SYSTEMS TRICKERY Swapping aeans t r a n s f e r r i n g one u s e r ' s r o g r a a o u t o f c o re a e a o ry In o r d e r t o aove n soaeb ody e l s e ' s p r o g r a a . T h is c an happen v e ry r a p i d l y , and even when i t ' s done to you e v e r y t u r n , y o u r t e r a i n a l a ay s e e a to respond a s though you are In c o n tin u o u s p o s s e s s io n o f th e e n t i r e c o a p u te r

i s l i k e a l i b r a r y : i t s s e r v i c e s sh o u ld be T ree lo a i l in a community, p a id for th rough so a e g e n e r a l fund. S t u d e n ts and f a c u l t y a t D artn outh use i t f r e e . (U nless they have g r a n t s . ) You csn use i t to o , i f you pa y. The r e s u l t : eve rybody a t D artn o u th uso s th e c o a p u t e r . I t ’ S always ru nnin g, (alien) s i x days a week. There a re a lm ost two hundrod t e r n i n a l s around th e campus; peak a f t e r n o o n usa ge i s about a hundred and f i f t y . F rc shnen le a r n BASIC f i r s t t h i n g , a f t e r which th e c o a p u te r i s a sta n d in g f a c i l i t y , to be used in c o u rs e s e n g in e e r i n g o r w h a t e v e r; f o r inde pende nt r e s e a r c h ; o r j u s t f o r fun and ganes and The e n t i r e Dartmouth s y s t e o i s b u i l t f o r s i a p l i c i t y and c l a r i t y , w ith e x p la n a ­ t i o n s o f a l l th e f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e a t te rn i n a ls . (The command e x p la i n JCK c a u s ­ e s th e t e r a i n a l to ty p e out a p i c t u r e of K eneny.) Many f u d d y -d u d d ie s i n s i s t t h a t c o a p u te r usa ge sh o u ld be b i l l e d , as i t i s on most c o l l e g e c a n p u s e s . T h a t i s e s s e n t i a l l y th e C a l v i n i s t v ie w . But what i f we t r e a t e d l i ­ b r a r i e s l i k e t h a t ? I t would p r o b a b ly c o s t S10 j u s t to borrow any book. The p o i n t i s t h a t 11 w e ^ e l i e v e tK a l c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a re a s o c i a l good, th e n >e should be f l e x ­ i b l e a b o u t how to i s p l e n e n t th e a . (See Art h H. Luehraann and John M. N evison, " C onpute r Use unde r a P re e-A cc ess P o l ic y , S c i e n c e . 31 May 7 i , 9S7-961. T h is a r t i c l e c o n tin u e s th i l i n e o f a rg u n e n t and f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e s th e Dartmouth b i l l i n g s y s t e a . ) Anyway, Dartmouth w i l l s e l l you i t s t i l s h a r i n g s y s t e a f o r a b o u t S7S00 a a o n th (an d y o u ' l l ne ed a c o a p u te r s e tu p t h a t b e g in s a t $ 1 7 ,S00 a a o n t h ) . T h a t ' l l run SO t e r a l n a l s . A b i g g e r s e t u p w i l l c o s t a o r e . Bul t h a l gel you F o r t r a n , COBOL, SNOBOL, e t c . , H i b e s t BASIC In th e whole w o r l d , g a a e s , f i n a n c i a l s y s t e a s , and a y r i a d o t h e r p r o g ra a s t h e y 'v e b u i l t a t D a r ta o u th . F u r t h e r a o r e , Mr. A doini t r a t o r , i t a e a n s t h e s y s t e a w i l l be a v a l l a b l to u s e r s w ith a a i n i a u n of c o a p l i c s l i o n and b o th e r. A n u a b er o f c o a p a n ie s have b o u g h t. In­ c lu d in g t h e U.S. Naval Acadeny a t A n n a p o l is , which o f f e r s D a r t n o u t h - s t y l e computing to i t s a id sh ip n e n . Connect c h arg e i s $2 to $9 an hour de pendin g on yo ur t e r a i n a l s p e e d , p l u s p r o c e s s in g c h a r g e s . C o n t a c t: DTSS, INC., Hanover Nil 037SS. ( S e v e r a l com mercial f i r a s a l s o o f f e r DTSS t e u s e r s , In c lu d i n g C onputer S h a r in g S e r ­ v i c e s , I n c . Denve r; Gruanan Data S y s t e n s , Woodbury, NY; PolyCoa S y s te n s L t d . , T o r o n to .)

Soae t i a e - s h a r i n g s y s t e n s a rc l o c a l , o th e rs c i t i e s lo log i n t o th e a w ith lo c a l te le p h o n e calls. Perhap s th e a o s t f a r - r e a c h i n g t i n e - s h a r i n g s y s t e n , though, i s G enera l [ i l c c t r i c ' s M ARK I I I , w ith c o n c e n t r a t o r s in many o f th e majo r c i t i e s o f t h e w orl d ( n o s t l y L u r o p c) . The n a in com­ p u t e r i s in O hio , b u t th e o v e r a l l s y s t e a aay be th o u g h t of as an oc to p u s a ro und th e g lo b e , b e­ s i d e s hundreds o f c i t i e s in th e USA, The Gb sy ste m o f f e r s l o c a l a c c e s s in A u s t r a l i a , A u s t r i a , nc lgium , Canada, D cnaark, F i n la n d , Fran ce, I t a l y , J a p a n , N e t h e r la n d s , Norway, P u e rto R ico, Sweden, S w i t z e r l a n d , U n ite d Kingdom and West Germany. What t h i s b a s i c a l l y nc ans i s t h a t i f a conpany has o f f i c e s in th e s e p l a c e s , i t can do i t s i n t e r n a l com m unic atio n thTouch C e n tr a l E T e c t r i c ' s c o a n m c r sys t e a . T his p r e s e n t s ob v io u s m e r i t s and d i f f i c u l ­ t i e s , which t h e r e i s no roon to d i s c u s s h e r e . The s e r v i c e i s s a i d to be e x p e n s iv e . They a l s o o f f e r a t o l l - f r e e n u a b er fo r C o n t a c t: G en e ra l E l e c t r i c I n fo r n a ­ t i o n S e r v ic e s B u sin e ss D iv is i o n , 401 N ort h W ashington SI., R o c k v i l l e , Md. 208S0.

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' o r O S/3 60, o r OS He have no sp a c e h e r e to d i s c u s s OS, th e o p e r a t i n g s y s t e a o f t h e IBM 360 and 370, whic h i s J u s t as w e l l : i t l a a n o t o r i o u s l y h eavy-handed s y s t e a , e l a b o r a t e d w ith what so a e would c a l l d e v a s t a t i n g a e s s l n e s s . Kinds o f co n v en ie n ce ta k e n f o r g r a n t e d by u s e r s of su c h c o a p u te r s y s t e a s a s t h e Burroughs S000, t h e PDP-10, DTSS and o t h e r s a r e n ' t t h e r e . The p r o g r a a a e r h as t o c o n ce rn h i a s e l f w ith i n t r i c a c i e s h a v in g n a a e s l i k e ACONs, VCONs, TCBs, ECBs, and t h e c o a p l l c a t i o n s of JCL. (While th e s e o t h e r s y s t e a s a ay have e q u i v a l e n t c o m p l i c a t i o n s , th e p r o g r a a a e r ne ed n o t a e s s w ith t h e a t o c r e a t e e f f i c i e n t p r o g r a a s , a s th e 360 d e a a n d s . ) The p r o g r a a a e r a u s t even s e t a s i d e t h e p r e v io u s p r o g r a n e r ' s I n fo r m a tio n i o "SAVE AREAS," w h ic h i s l i k e a r e s t a u r a n t g u e s t h a v in g to c l e a r th e d i t t y d i s h e s o n s i t t i n g down-and r e t u r n t h e a when he l e a v e s . S e v e r a l of th e 3 6 0 's s i x t e e n g e n e r a l r e g i s t e r s a r e con­ f i s c a t e d . T i a e - s h a r i n g r e q u i r e s i t s own JC L -ty p e le o g u a g e . Ana s o on. IBM sa y * i t s f o rth co m in g o p e r a t i n g s y s ­ t e a , OS/VS2-2, w i l l be b e t t e r . BIBLIOG&APKY A .L . S c h e r r , "The D esign o f IBM OS/VS2 Re­ le a s e 2 . " P r o c NCC 7 3 , 3B7-394.

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IBM's "TSO", f o r T in e -S h a r e d O p eratin g S y s te n , i s an odd s o r t o f t i n e - s h a r i n g they have cone up w ith f o r th e 370. I t i s a s o r t o f i n t e r a c t i v e b a tc h pro g r a n a ln g . T hat I s , i t a llo w s t h e u s e r a t a t e r a i n a l to c o a a u n lc a te w ith p r o g r a a s r u n n in g in b a tc h node . While t h i s i s a f o r a o f t r u e t i a e - s h a r i n g , (th ough i t s d e t r a c t o r s te nd to c o ap a re i t w ith what they c a l l " t r u e " t i n e - s h a r i n g , such as t h a t on th e PDP-10) , i t ha s a number o f draw ­ b a c k s. For i n s t a n c e , on t h e nodeL 1SS, a f a i r ­ ly la rg e n a c h ln e ( c a . 150,000 a a o n th - - see p . 3 8 ) , TSO n o r n a l l y a llo w s o n ly twenty The bad f e a t u r e o f TSO n o s t o f t e n nentio n e d i s i t s slow r e s p o n s e t i n e . That i s , r e s p o n s e nay be s o n e t i n e s good, s o a e ti n e s e x ec ra b le. IBM i s u r g in g i t s f a n s to b e l i e v e t h a t i t s n e i t o p e r a t i n g s y s t e a , c a l l e d OS/VS2-2, w i l l be auch b e t t e r .

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Tha nest enjoyable aaaalon a t tha 197* National Coaputar Conference vaa tha Noitalgla session on tha Dartaouth Syataa, DTSS. The Old Hande w«ra th tr a - luye who »* kids workad on tha original tlaa-aharlng systea, and have now become grewmp* of one sort or An elaralng statement wee aada a t that eaealon by Jerome B. Wiener, who said he had been tha liaison man between the Dartwuth e ffort aad the c v p u ttr manufacturer (net I1H). He steted that ha had been ordered by hie company te atop the Dartmouth "eapert* aant" any way he could, or lea« his Job in three months. Re did no auch thin g, and (he said) a fte r being fired continued to help the Derianath e ff o rt , holding weekend aaetlnge with ethers ir oa th a t com­ pany ln hie b < » . Ke deserves the Prencee O. Kelsey we-de-owr-rnal-Job a d e l .

P a e ln a i s one o f t h e G re a t A b str u se P r o b le a s o t aodern o p e r a t i n g s y s t e a s . The p r o b l e a i s t h i s : y o u 'v e always g o t f a s t e x ­ p e n s iv e a e a o r y and c heap slow a e a o r y . How can th e o p e r a t i n g s y s t e a s t o r e a o s t o f your p r o g r a a in c heap slow a e a o ry and s t i l l p r e d i c t w hic h p a r t s y o u ' l l need soon enough to g e t th e a In t h e r e f o r you? I n t h e h o t t e r s y s t e a s , in d e e d , t h e o p e r a t i n g s y s t e a t r i e s to p r e d i c t w h a t 's a o s t i a p o r t a n t and aove i t to a f a s t l i t t l e a e a o ry c a l l e d a c a c h e . T h is a r e a i s so b i i a r r e and c o a p l l c a t e a i p r e f e r n o t to t h i n k a b o u t i t . "M ln la f o r a e , " s a y s Mr. N atu ral.

"For M I t always coses dw n to a personal c h allenge: noC j u s t to c re a te a prograa th a t ae« ti the sp e c if ic a tio n s , but to do I t In a way that I fin d a e s th e tic a lly p le a sin g ."

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C o a p u te r p e o p le a re a a y s t e r y to o t h e r s , who s e e t h e a a s s o a e v h a t f r i g h t e n i n g , s o a e w h a t r id ic u lo u s. T h e ir c oncerns se e a s o ' p e c u l i a r , t h e i r h o u rs so b l i a r r e , t h e i r lan g u ag e s o i n ­ c o m p re h e n s ib le . C o a p u t e r p e o p l e a a y b e s t be t h o u g h t o f ■ s a new . e t h n i c g r o u p , v e i y a u c h u n t o th e m ­ s e l v e s . Now, i t i s v e r y h a r d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e e t h n i c g r o u p s I n w o r d s , and c e r t a i n t o g i v e o f f e n s e , b u t i f I h ad t o c h o o s e one w o rd f o r t h e a i t w o u ld b e e l f i n . Ife a r e l i k e t h o s e l i t t l e p e o p l e down aaong t h e a u s h r o o a s , s k i t ­ t e r i n g a ro u n d c o a p le te ly p re o c c u p ie d w ith u n f a t h o a a b l e c o n c e r n s and s e e a i n g l y i n d i f ­ f e r e n t t o n o r a a l h u m a n ity . In th e a o o n l i g h t ( i . e . , p r e t t y l a t e , w i t h s n a c k s a ro u n d t h e e q u ip m e n t) y o u Bay h e a r o u r a u s l c . M ost l a p o r t a n t l y , t h e f i r s t r u l e I n d e a l ­ in g w i t h l e p r e c h a u n s a p p l i e s e* h y p o t h e s l t o c o a p u t e r p e o p l e : when one p r o a i s e s t o 00 you a a a g i c a l f a v o r , k e e p y o u r e y e s f i x e d on h i a u n t i l h e h a s d e l i v e r e d , ffr you w i n g e l wHat you d e s e r v e . P ro g raa ae rs' p ro ais es a re n o to r­ io u s l y u n k e p t. But th e d ip p y g l o r i e s o f t h i s w o r l d , th e e a r n e s t n e s s a n d w h i a s y , a r e s o m e th in g e l s e . A r e a l c o a p u t e r f r e a k , i f you a s k h i a f o r a p ro g ra a to p r i n t c a le n d a rs , w i l l w rite a prog r a a t h a t g i v e s you y o u r c h o ic e o f G re g o r i a n , J u l i a n , O ld R u s s i a n and F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n a r y , i n e i t h e r s a a l l re fe re n c e p r i n t o u t s o r b ig o n e s you c a n w r i t e i n . C o a p u t e r p e o p l e ha ve a a n y o r d i n a r y t r a i t s t h s t show u p i n e x t r a o r d i n a r y w a y s - - l o y a l t y , They dogged­ n e s s and c o n s t r a i n e d f a n t a s y t h a t e n a b l e t h e a t o p r o d u c e i n t h e i r w o rk . (Onc e a t l u n c h I asked a t a b l e f u l l o f p r o g ra a a e r s w hat p la n e f i g u r e s t h e y c o u l d g e t o u t o f one c u t th r o u g h a cube. 1 g o t about th re e t ia e s as aany a n s ­ w ers .a s I t h o u g h t t h e r e w e r e . ) U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e i s no r o o a o r t l a e t o go on a b o u t a l l t h e s e t h i n g s - - s e e B i b l i o ­ graphy-- b u t In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a re a o f f a n ­ t a s y an d e a o t i o n I h a v e o b s e r v e d s o a e i n t e r e s ­ tin g th in g s . One c o a a o n t r a i t o f o u r t i a e s - - t h e t e c h ­ n i q u e o f o b s c u r i n g o n e s e l f - - n a y be a o r e com» a o n a ao n g c o a p u t e r p e o p l e t h a n o t h e r s ( s e e " T he Myth o f t h e M a c h in e ,” p . ? , and a l s o " C y b e rc ru d ," p . J ). Perhaps a c e r t a i n d l s g r u n t l e a e n t w i t h t h e w o rl d o f p e o p l e f u s e s w i t h f a s c i n a t i o n f o r (and e nvy o f ? ) a a c h i n e s . Anyway, a t n y o f u s who h a v e g o t t e n a l o n g b a d l y w ith p e o p le f i n d h e re a r e a l a o f a b s t r a c t i o n s to in v e n t and c h o re o g ra p h , p r i v a t e l y and w ith c o n tin u in g c o n t r o l . A s t r a n g e h o u se f o r t h e e ao tio n s, t h i s . L ik e H e g e l, who b e c a a e a o s t e l o q u e n t a n d a r d e n t when he w as l e c t u r i n g a t h i s a o s t t h e o r e t i c a l , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o be a ao n g c o a p u t e r f r e a k s b o i s t e r o u s l y e x p l a i n i n g th e c r o s s - ta n g le d r a t i f i c a t i o n s o f soae s y s te a t h e y h av e s e e n o r w o uld l i k e t o b u i l d . (A s y n d r o a e t o p o n d e r . I ha v e s e e n I t a o r e th a n o n c e : t h e t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n w ho, w i t h soaeone he c a r e s a b o u t, can n o t s to p t a l k i n g •bout h is Id ea s f o r a p r o je c t. A p o ig n a n t ty p e o f F r e u d i a n d i s p l a c e n e n t .) A s a d a s p e c t o f i h l s , i n c i d e n t a l l y , i s by no a e a n s o b v i o u s . T h i s i s t h a t t h e s a a e com­ p u t e r f o l k s who c h a t t e r e l o q u e n t l y a b o u t s y s ­ t e a s t h a t f a s c i n a t e t h e a te n d t o f a l l d a r k and s i l e n t w h i l e sott 'e one e l s e i s e x p o u n d in g h i s own fasc in a tio n s. You w ould e x p e c t t h a t t h e p e r s o n w i t h e f f u l g e n t t e c h n i c a l e n t h u s i a s a s w o u ld r e a l l y c l i c k w ith k in d red s p i r i t s . In ay e x ­ p e r i e n c e t h i s o n l y h a p p en s b r i e f l y : h o s t i l i ­ t i e s an d d i s a g r e e m e n t s b o i l o u t o f no w h ere t o c u t t h e g o o d a o o d . My o n l y c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t t h e s a a e s p i r i t t h a t o r i g i n a l l y d r i v e s u s m u t­ t e r i n g i n t o t h e c lo c k w o r k f e e l s t h r e a t e n e d when o t h e r s s t a r t a o n k e y in g w i t h w h a t h a s b e e n c o n tro lle d and p r iv a te fan ta sy . T h i s c a n b e summed up as f o l l o w s : NOBODY WANTS TO HEAR ABOUT ANOTHER GUY'S SYSTEM. H ere a s e l s e w h e r e , t h i n g s f u s e t o b l o c k h u a a n c o a a u n i c a t i o n : e n v y , d i s l i k e o f b e i n g d o m in a ­ t e d , r e f u s a l t o r e l a t e e a o t i o n a l l y , and w h a t ­ ever e ls e . W h a te v e r c o a p u t e r p e o p l e h e a r a b o u t, i t s e e a s th e y i a a e d i a t e l y t r y t o to p . Which i s n o t to sa y t h a t c o a p u t e r p e o p l e a r e s e r e c l o c k w o r k le a o n s o r B e t t e l h e i a i a n ro b o t-c h lld re n . But th e t e n d e n c ie s a r e t h e r e .

Robert B. Jones IV, a heavy p r o g ra a e r a t ChrysleT P r a c t i c e s a y i n g t h e a l o u d l y and f i r a l y to y o u rself. T h a t way you w o n 't f r e e z e when t h e y ' r e p u l l e d o n y o u . THAT’ S NOT HOW YOU DO IT THAT'S NOT HOW YOU USE COMPUTERS THAT'S NOT WHAT YOU DO WITH COMPUTERS THAT'S NOT HON I T 'S DONE THAT'S NOT PRACTICAL HOW M UCH DO YOU KNOW ABOUT COMPUTERS? WITH YOUR BACKGROUND, YOU COULDN'T UNDERSTAND IT LE T 'S CALL IN SOMEONE W HO KNOWS THIS APPLICATION ( g e n e r a l l y a s h i l l ) IT ISN 'T DONE (you know t h e a n s w e r t o t h a t o n e ) a nd t h e one I ' v e b e e n w a i t i n g to h e a r , I F GOD HAD INTENDED COMPUTERS TO BE USED THAT WAY, HE WOULD HAVE DESIGNED THEM DIFFERENTLY. U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e r e i s no r o o a h e r e to c o a c h you on how t o r e p l y t o a l l t h e s e . Be a s s u r e d t h a t t h e r e i s a lw a y s a r e p l y . The b r u te - f o rc e b razen coaeb ack , e q u a lly d ir ty , i s j u s t to say s o a e th i n g l i k e DIDN'T YOU SEE THE LAST JOINT PROCEEDINGS? OH YEAH7 W HAT ABOUT THE x W ORK USING A y? ( w h e re k i s a n y p l a c e on t h e map on p . S" , a n d y i s any c u r r e n t c o a p u t e r , s u c h a s a P D P -10. )

f |E G 0 H T » e U
A very im portant kind of d iscu ssion takes place between people who want c o ^ j t a r p r o ^ a s , b u t c a n 't w rite th e a , and people who can write t h w . b u t d o n 't want to . Or. th a t I s , who don 't want to g e t caught having to do a l o t o f unneces­ sary work i f i t could be done «or« s la p ly . P r o g f n e g o tia tio n , then, Is where the ac u i t s a c " ~ he aay a c tu a lly be the boss-* saye, *1 want a prograa ch at w ill do s ^ a n d - s o , ' ‘and th e p r o g ra n e r sa ys. ' I ’d ra th e r do i t th is way.* In a s e rie s of req u e sts and c o u n te r o f fe rs th e e u stea er e x plain s what he wants and the prog r in r e sp la ln s why he would ra th e r do I t a d i f ­ f e re n t way. I £ l £ e s s e n t ia l fo r both elde£ to aake theaselves c a s p le te lv c l e a r . Often the cust«ner thinks he wants one th ing but would be q u ite s a tis f ie d w ith ano ther th a t I s auch e asie r to prograa. Often the p ro g ra m e r can aake help­ f u l suggestions o f b e tte r ways to do I t th a t w ill be e a s ie r fo r h ia . Very bad thin gs csn happen i f prograa nego­ tia tio n I s n e t done c a r e f u lly and h on estly enough. The p r o g ra n e r can a isu nd erstand and c re a te s e e ­ th ing th a t was not wanted, o r the c u i t a s r can c a r e le s s ly a is s ta te h ia a e lf and ash for tha wrong th in g . Or w orst o f a l l — the p r o g r a m r can de­ lib e r a te ly k lsh e ar and do so w th ing d if f e r e n t, saying, 'T h e re , t h a t 's what you w an ted,' a s he hands ever s o u th i n g th a t i s n ' t what was r e a lly asked f o r. And the poor custoswr nay even believe I t (see ‘Cybercrud,’ p, 8 ) . Prograa n e g o tia tio n should be B r a widely acknowledged aa a d i f f i c u l t and p a in fu l business. I t is exhausting and fra u g h t with s t r e s s i people (on both sid es) g e t a l l k inds o f p sy c h o so u tic s y s p to n (lik e a b d n ln a l p a in s, t i c s and c h ills ) . The fa c t th a t p e o p le's c a r e e rs o ften depend on

r , e n Clvde e p atretai cp ue lr a, r v q nugaelfiut il n es s, s aas n d eslol , o 6 f. a e w

. . . p r o g ra m m e rs, in my ex p erien c e . te nd lo be p a in sta k in g . lo gical. Inhib ited, cauti ous, restra ined, defe nsiv e, methodical, and rit u a listic.” Ken Know lton, ” Collaborations with Art iste -A Program m er's Reflections," In Nake a Roeenfeld ( e d s.) . G ra phic Languages (North-Holiand Pub. C o .) . p . 396.

than fo ste rin g the thorough and sym pathetic coop­ e ra tio n which is e s s e n t ia l . If t

USEFUL. AND POSSIBLY EMBARRASSING QUESTIONS If lhe Computer P n e sls s u r t to pick on yo u. he re are seme hclplul ph rase s that w ill give you stre n g th . I do not wanl to give the im pression thal the G uardians ol the Machine arc alw ays bad g uy s. N evertheless, sad to relale, they a rc not always good g uy s. Like everyone oul 10 bo lster his position, including the plum ber and ihe elec trician , Ihe compuierman haa learned how easy it is to intimidate the layman. Now. these people a re often rig h l. Bul if

a consumer advocale o r w h atev e r-- you are probably cnlitied to slrsig h i answ ers thal w ill help settle the m atter honestly . without puldow ns , Any honest man will a g re e . Now, iheae helplul q u estion s, honesily answ ered, may elicil long m ysterious a n sw e rs. Be patienl and conlident. Write down w hai’s aaid and sil down wiih ihe glossary in this book until you understand the answ er. Then you can ask more questions, I am not inviting the read er to make irouble flippantly. 1 am suggesting lhal many people have th ere may be some discomfort al f ir s t. HOW DOES IT WORK? (T his question may have to be backed up as follows: 'T h e re are no computer systems whose w orkings cannoi be clearly described to someone who u nd e rstan d s Ihe basics, I INSIST THAT YOU MAKE A SINCERE ATTEMPT.- ) WHY DO YOU CLAIM IT HAS TO BE THIS WAY? (SPEAK MORE SLOWLY , PLEASE.) WHAT IS THE DATA STRUCTURE? COULD YOU EXPLAIN THAT IN TERMS OF THE DATA STRUCTURE? WHO DESIGNED THIS DATA STRUCTURE? And can I talk 10 him? WHAT IS THE ALGORITHM? WHO IS THE PROGRAMMER? And can I talk to him? WHY DO WE HAVE TO USE A CANNED PROGRAM FOR THIS? WHY IS THE INPUT LANGUAGE SO COMPLICATED? WHY DO WE NEED CARDS? WHY CAN'T PEOPLE TYPE IN THEIR OWN INPUT? WHY NOT HAVE A SIMPLE-MINDED FRONT END THAT LETS USERS CONTROL IT THEMSELVES? WHY HAVE FORMS TO FILL OUT? WHY NOT HAVE A DIALOGUE FRONT-END ON A MINI? WHY CAN T IT BE ON-UNE? AvJ «*. O C T J f c w k . f r / l O M L O '^ ) T WHY DOES IT HAVE TO BE THAT BRAND OF COMPUTER? WHY NOT GET A SYSTEM WITH LESS OVERHEAD? WHY SHOULD ALL COMPUTER OPERATIONS BE CENTRALIZED’ DON'T THEY GET IN EACH OTHER’S WAY? WHY DOES IT ALL HAVE TO BE ON ONE COMPUTER? WHY NOT PUT PART OF IT ON A DEDICATED MINI? WHY CAN’T WE DO THIS PARTICULAR THING ALL ON A MINI? WOULDN’T IT COST LESS IF WE GOT A MINICOMPUTER FOR THIS TASK? WHY CAN'T THIS BE PROGRAMMED IN SOME LANGUAGE LIKE BASIC? YOU KNOW AND I KNOW THAT COMPUTERS DONY HAVE TO WORK THAT WAY. WHY DO YOU CHOOSE TO DO IT THAT WAY? If these suggestions seem u n n e ce ssarily contentious, il is because m t of these guys like to pick on people, and you may have is be re a d y . And you may need all the su pp ort you can g e l, if. s a y . you lake a stand like one of Ihese: *U Ihe Information is in th e re , I do n't see why w e c a n 't gel it out." ’ You have no rig h t to aak q u estion s like th is, sn d if the program req u ire s i l , change the program . * Remember. ILLEGITtMIS NON CARBORUNDUM (d on 't lei the b a sta rd s g rin d you down) ' I CANT BEAR HEAT.* REMARKED LAKCW1DERE

THE M EETING OP THE HINDS The CustOHr, Halve Advocate — The ‘E x p e rt'

BIBLIOGRAPHY G e r a l d M. W e i n b e r g , The P s y c h o lo g y o f C o a n u t e r P r ° r * " V T i T N o s t r e n d R e ln E o T T T -------v e in . S y s te m a tic t r e a t a e n t in a r e l a t e d

= ---------------------------------------------------------------1 d o n 't see why What yo u'v e g o tta since I t ' s a c ^ ^ u t e r . . . understand i s th a t th e re These a re n o t d e ta i le a re p ro b lea s in v o lv e d ... th a t eencern a e . . . I t c a n 't be th a t These a re ju s t w a y ... 1 n a n a c a p u ta r can do a l l th ese thin gs, be j u s t what you w a n t...

This ease i s so c la s s ic I t ' s a l n s t a Punch uri Judy shew. One o f the n a s t i e s t people I have ev«r a ct a s the head of s e c u r ity fo r a b lg - c ^ ^ u t e r i s i t a l l a t l o i . Several people agree w ith ae th a t » d e lig h ts la te l l i n g paep le they can ’t de ip e cifle thin gs a t the c e n t e r , M re ly fo r the lake of r e s t r ic tin g th M . Anyway, a t th i s s m in s t a ll a ti o n th e re was ‘ p r o g r a ^ r , l e t ' s c a l l h ia h . wbo d isllk w ) euiharley, and d is lik e d t h i s d ir e c to r of s e c u rity , Let'e c a l l h ia B, w ith a aocdy passion. B spent such o f h is t b a in te n se ly , ^ e e s s ively r n n f p la tin g poesLbls ways th a t uaere ■Ight break in to th e t y i t a , a id e lab o rately jrogram ing defanaee and eoim term asures in to :he sem it a r . Ha» I lino* th is ? I knew th is C ra a , who co n stan tly went through B 's w astelasket. a s t i l l p laits In ce ssan tly fo r tha day 1 w ill g e t a big ta u n tin g p r in to u t, casing una ^ c t a d l y to h ia o f f the aachin e, th a t showe ila a l l h is se c re te a re known. I

C f uppancai the e u sto w r w ill g e t what he deserves. Horali I f you want something, y o u'd b e tte r daan w ell n ego tiate i t a t the d e ta i le d le v e l.

The a trtn g e language of com puter people makes more aenae than laymen necessarily realize. Il's a ge n ersliied analy tic al way of looking at ti n e , spa ce and a cti vity. Co nsi der the following. "THERE 18 INSIGNIFICANT BUFFER SPACE IN THE FRONT HALL." (Buffer; pla ce to put something te m porarily.) "BEFORE 1 ACKNOWLEDGE YOUR INTERRUPT. LET MB TAKE THIS PROCESS TO TERMINATION. ’ "COOKING IS AN ART OF INTERLEAVING TIME-BOUND OPERATIONS." ( I . e . . d o i n g pa rte of se parat a Joba In the r ig ht o r d e r with an eye on Ihe c lo c k .)

R .w .iJ .T -e .iy .

^ tc d « v .

TH«e

w u g i e
to w n of K.B.S.I.S.T.O.R.S. in eza su tiu t ««saion, A tlantia City

lU F O R lh T lK fr

L auren. 14. was talking to another g irl ol lhe ACM 70 con­ feren ce. A p a sserb y h eard h e r explaining lh e differences among lhe languages BASIC. POHTRAN. COBOL and TRAC. "How long have you been programming'’ " h e asked in s u r p ris e . "O h. almost a m onlh." she said .

Their name makes people think iho y' rc a war prtitcal g ro up , but actually lh e R . E .S .1 .S . T . O . H . S . o l Princeton. N . J . a re o bunch of kids who play with compulers. The y're all young; members are purged when ihey finis h hig h school. Their clubroom Is st Princeton U n iv e rs ity , bu t Ihe initiative Is strictly th e ir s. The name sta nds for "Radically Emphatic Students Interested in Science, Technology and Other Research Subj ec ts." Compulers are not all (hey d o —th ey 'v e also golien Inlo aloi rac in g and tho game of Diplomacy — but compulera are whai the y'ro known for. The Reals tor s ( le i's spell ii the shorl way) exhibit reg ularly at lhe computer con fe re nc es, and hi ve startled numerous people wilh the hig h q u a li ty of Ihelr work. T hey 'v e been invited to various conferonces a bro a d . They have built various language pro ce sso rs and done g r a p h ic s; lately Ihelr fad Is working wilh lhe LDS-1 In Princeton’s Che mistry Department.

They have v aried backgrounds. The father of one is s b utcher, lhe father of an o th er is one o f ihe country’9 foremost intellectuals. (None or thal matters to lhe k id s .) I have dined in a number ot their homes, and find (his in common: Iheir p arents show them great r e s p e c t. love and t r u s t, indeed. Resistor p aren ts liuvc expressed some su rp rise lo le arn lhat their c h ild ren 's work is al lhe full-fledged professional le vel. Tho Important ih in g , lo lhe paren ts, ia lhal the k id s a r e w orking on constructing (hings they e njoy.

I was driv in g some Resistors a round Princclon; they were y ellin g contradic tory d riving instructions "I demand triple r e ­ dundancy in th e directions." I sa id . "Right u p oheud you turn rig h t right a w a y ," said a spokesman.

Since (here was a lol of e x cc ss capacity. (he Rcsis(ors got a fre e account on a national tim e-sharing system . Though they d id n 't have to p a y , the system kept ihcm informed on what (hey would have owed. In a y ear o r so they r u n u p funny-m oney bills of severol hundred thousand dollars.

ft.e.S.I.S.T.O.f.S. after infamous Onega cirew m /.

Did (hey ra(e free subscriptions lo computer magazines? I asked, Could Ihey chiim Ihey really "make decisions affecting Iho p urchase of computers"? "Of co u rse we do!" w as lhe r e p ly . "All logc(hcr: shall Resistors (in unison) "NO!"

The iruUe p ress is ambivalent toward th the one hand they moke good copy. (Al one S| had the only working tim e sh a rin g demo-- on a phone booth .) On the o th e r, they Ramclimes pub licity-h u n g ry , like many cclc b rilie s. (At anol Joinl Ihey d u g up an IBM Songbook and serenaded lhe g u y s at lhe IBM pavilion, who had to a ct nice about i l . ) So ihey d on'l got w ritten u p In computer m agazines so much anymore. I first met the R esistors in 1970. aril sto n e d hanging around with them for Iwo reasons, F i rs t. Ihey a rc p crf«:lly d elightful: enth usiastic In the way lhat most Adults forego, and v e ry w itty. To them compute r lulk was nol u thing a p a rt, a s it is fur both out­ sid e rs and m ony professionals. Secondly, and this wos lhe self-seeking n sp c cl. 1 noted that those k id s w ere q uite e x p e rt, and inte rested in giv in g me advice w here computer professionals would nol- They got inte rested in helping me with my (perhaps quixotic) Xuiiudu1 project (see "1 flip s id e ) . T h is w os enough to keep mu v isiting for a vouple of y e a r s , Now, some people a r c loo proud lo ask c h ild ren for Informa­ tion. T h is Is du m b . Information is w here you find il. T h e last I h e ard , the Resistors w ere M work in ,i COUOL l compiler for th e PDP-11. hoping il would snvc the local high school from lhe d isa stro u s (lo Ihcm) p urchase of a n 1IIM 1130. (Since the school's in tent was to leueh business programming, they hoped lhal th e availability of COUOL would cnceurngc lhe school (o buy lhe more powerful and less expensive PDP-11.) T h e Rcsislor6 « re few, bui I think (hey lire v e ry important in p rin cip le, u n existence proof. They show how silly and artificial Is o u r edifice o f pedagogy , with all its scqucnccs and sterilizations, and how onybody c un learn unyIhing in lhe r ight a tm osphere, stripped of ils pomposities. T h e Resistors a r e nol obsessed with computers; Ih eir love of compute rs is purl of Ih eir love of ev ery th in g , ond e v ery th in g is what compute rs a rc for.

Where do Ihey le arn It *11? They loach each other, of c ours e. Newcomera ha ng a ro u n d , learn computor lolk, work on projects, and (ease each o lh e r. T h ey K in use the Informal trade ch an nels, subscribing to magaz ines and filling oul Information request cards un de r su ch company names as Plebnay International Signal Division and Exca ll b u r Wax Fruit. The grea l Ih ing about these klda Is th eir la n y flippancy . They've ne ver failed, th e y'v e never beon afraid for th eir Jobs, snd so the y co mb ine the zest of lhe young wilh Ihoir cupcrtlso. Their forma of e xp re ss io n are as sla n lln g to professionals as they are lo o u ts iders; do n't say anything ponderously If 11 can be said pla yfu lly . Don'l say "bit field” If you can say "funny bits;" do n 'l say "alpha numeric buffer" If you can say "quick brown fai bo*: " don’t say "Interrupt signal" if you can Coll il s "Hey Charlie; " don't say " re ad dr es sing logic" If you can say "whoopco bos."

T heir o riginal advisor, whom we shall call Gaston . is mis­ chievous in h is own rig h t, II w as meeting-lime at G oslon's place o n a b rig h t S a tu rd ay , and I was on the fawn w orking on Xanadu with Nat and Elliou when Gaston in te rru p ted to say lhat an unwelcome salesman of b u rg lar alarms was about lo a rr iv e . "L ei's have a little fun wilh h im ," said Gaslon. The k id s w ere to b e introduced as Gaston's c h ild ren , I was an uncle. We took our stations. T h e salesman may hove realized he w os walking inlo a Irap from a ll the slrangcly beaming adolescents (hot siood in the living room, lie gol oul h is w ares and s ta rted lo demonstrate the burglar alarm , bul il d id n ’t go right- P e te r, stan d in g in fron( o f (he equip­ ment wilh a demonically vacuous g r in , hud rev e rse d a diode behind h is back so that lh e alarm r an g continuously u n less you broke lh e light beam. " I l u m p f s a i d Gaston, "you want to Bee a real security system?" We trooped Inlo lhe kilch o n , w h ere Gaston- kepi a Teletype ru nning, ANY NEWS? typed Goslon. CREAM YEMAW JMJICK PULLED INTO DRIVEWAY . replied lh e T elety p e. JEIISEY LICENSE PLATE . . . (and lhe salesman's license n u m b er), und finally. OWNER OK RECORD NOT KNOWN. John was ty p in g th is from ihe o th e r Teletype in the b a rn . The salesman stared al (he T eletype, lie looked around a l o u r ch eru b ic smiling faces, lie looked al Ihe T eletype. "Thai's all r ig h t.” suid lh e salesman. "Hut now I'd like lo show you a r e a l security system . . ." And it w as back to the old b u rg lar

group lik e you doing a t a Jo in t lik e th is?

4 . A tte m p t Co f i n d o u t how e l s e c o m p u te rs a r e u s e d i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , anH- m e n tio n th e s e t o h e lp o r i e n t t h e re a d e r .

W R IT E R S

Te s a in t e e a f l o K e Sc i et so weh i as/ l\gl fo eha v ea gwhens t weh w antx ctlou sbiavlil syth otoe n d e n ­ so m e th in g . I t i s a n a t t e r o f c o n s c i e n c e , an im p o rta n t one . 5. q u e stio n s to ask: What a r e t h e p r e a i s e s o f y o u r p r o ­ gram? What i f p e o p l e t u r n o u t t o ne ed What c o u l d go wrong? And most I m p o r t a n t : What i s t h a t ? IMPORTANT DISTINCTIONS I t i s o n l y by c l a r i f y i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s th a t p e o p le a r e e v e r g o in g to g e t a n y th in g stra ig h t. 6 . Do n o t s a y " t h e c o m p u te r" when y ou aean " th e syste m " o r " t h e p r o g ra a ." 7 . D o n 't s a y " a a a 1 f u n c t i o n i n g c o n p u t e r " ( h a r d w a r e e r r o r ) i f t h e c o m p u te r f u n c t i o n e d as i t was d i r e c t e d o n an i n c o r r e c t p r o g r a a (so ftw a re e r r o r ) . (And re a em be r t h a t t h e b e s t p r o g r a a a e r s make m i s t a k e s , s o t h a t a c a t a s t r o p h i c bug i n a s y s t e a i s no s i g n t h a t i t was p r o g r a a » e d by a n in c o m p e t e n t , o n ly th a t i t i s n ’ t f in is h e d .) 6. (A p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t a b o u t g r a p h i c s . Se e f l i p s i d e . ) D o n 't s a y "TV s c r e e n " i f a c o n p u t e r s c r e e n I s n o t TV, i . e . , S25 h o r i ­ z o n t a l l i n e s t h a t y ou c a n s e e on t h e s c r e e n i f y o u lo o k f o r th e m . (S e e p . V \ 6 v e r s u s p . £>*21 . ) HOW ABOUT: " v i s u a l d i s p l a y s c r e e n " ? - - you c a n a d d , " o n w h ic h t h e c o a p u t e r c a n draw a o v i n g l i n e s , " o r w h a t e v e r e l s e t h e p a r t i c u l a r syste m does. 9 . D o n ' t assume t h a t y o u r a u d i e n c e i s c o a p u te r-illite ra te . 1 0 . Don’ t assum e t h a t i t c a n ' t a l l be s a i d s i a p l y . O n ly l a 2y o r h a r d - p r e s s e d w r i t e r s a re u n c lea r. 1 1 . Do n o t u s e c u t e s y - t a l k , p a r t i c u l a r t h a t w hic h s u g g e s t s t h a t c o a p u t e r s h a v e a n i n ­ t r i n s i c c h a r a c t e r . By " c u t e s y ” I a e a n s e n ­ te n c e s l i k e " S c i e n t i s t s hav e r e c e n t l y t a u g h t a c o n p u t e r t o p l a y c h e s s , " M is - L e ad s l i k e "Whet d oes a c o m p u te r so un d l i k e ? " (when t a l k ­ i n g a b o u t m u s l e c o n s t r u c t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a a i n a p a r t i c u l a r w a y ) , and a w e - s t r u c k d e s c r i p t i o n s l i k e , " A t l a s t t h e S p a c e Age h a s come t o t h e r e a l e s t a t e b u s i n e s s . . . ” 1 2 . Do n o t u s e t h e g a rb a g e t e r m ^compu­ t e r i z e d , " u n le s s th e re i s a c l e a r sta te m en t o f w h ere t h e c o m p u te r i s i n t h e s y s t e a , w hat th e c o n p u t e r i s d o i n g end how. A " c o m p u t e r ­ iz e d t r a f f i c s y a to m ," f o r i n s t a n c e , c o u ld be any damn t h i n g , b u t a " s y s t e m o f t r a f f i c l i g h t s under c o a p u te r c o n t r o l , u sing v a rio u s tim in g te c h n iq u e s S t i l l unde r dev elo p m en t,” sa y s so a eth in g . 13. D o n 't p u t i n c l i c h e s a s f a c t , f o r exam ple by t h e u s e such t e r a s a s " n ath e n a t l c a l " o r "com puter s c i e n t i s t ” u n le s s th e y r e a l l y a p p ly . Do n o t im p l y an y a a t h e a a t i c a l c h a r a c t e r u n l e s s you know t h e s y s t e m p o s s e s s e s i t : many p r o g ra m s c o n t a i n no o p e r a t i o n s t h a t can f a i r l y be c a l l e d m a t h e a a t i c a l . S i m i l a r l y , a " c o m p u t e r s c i e n t i s t " i s some one w i d e l y o r

de ep ly v e rs e d in co m p u ters o r s o f tw a r e , n o t j u s t a p r o g ra m m e r. (Anyway, i f s o m e th in g h a s b e e n program me d by a n e n t o m o l o g i s t , i t i s p r o b a b l y a o r e i n t e r e s t i n g t o r e f e r t o him a s i n e n to m o lo g is t th a n a s a " c o a p u te r s c i e n t i s t . " ) 14 . Do n o t r e f e r t o a p p a r e n t i n t e l l i g e n c e o f t h e c o m p u te r ( u n l e s s t h a t i s a n i n t e n d e d f e a t u r e o f t h e p r o g ra r^ . C r e d i t r a t h e r t h e i n ­ g e n u i t y o f t h e s y s t e m ’s c r e a t o r . Do n o t s a y " t h e c l e v e r c o m p u t e r . " I f any body i s c l e v e r i t i s t h e prog ra m m e r o r p r o g ra m d e s i g n e r , and i f you t h i n k s o , s a y s o . T hese g uy s d o n ' t g e t th e r e c o g n itio n th e y d e s e r v e . 1$. N ev e r, n e v er sa y " te a c h th e c o n p u te r" a s an e l l i p t i c a l way o f s a y i n g " w r i t e c o m p u te r p r o g r a m s . ” Prog ram m in g means c r e a t i n g e x a c t and s p e c i f i c p l a n s t h a t c a n b e a u t o m a t i c a l l y f o llo w e d by t h e e q u i p m e n t . To s a y " t e a c h " when yo u mean " p r o g r a m " i s l i k e " p e r s u a d i n g " a c a r i n s t e a d o f d r i v i n g i t , o r making a t o i l e t " c r y ” in stea d o f flu sh in g i t . ( T h e r e a r e s y s t e n s , d e s c r i b e d on t h e f l i p s i d e , w h ic h s i m u l a t e i n t e l l i g e n t p r o c e s s e s and a a y t h u s ' be s a i d t o " l e a r n " o r " b e t a u g h t . " B ut n e i t h e r p ro gra m m in g n o r s i m u l a t e d l e a r n i n g s h o u l d be d e s c r i b e d i n a s l i p s h o d f a s h i o n t h a t s u g g e s t s t h e c o m p u te r i s some s o r t o f t r a i n a b l e b a b y , puppy o r d e a o n . ) 1 6 . Do n o t im p ly t h a t s o a e t h i n g i s " t h e l a s t w o r d , " u n l e s s y ou h a v e c h e c k e d t h a t i t i s .

T h * p u b l i c i s th o r o u g h l y c o n f u s e d a b o u t c o m p u t e r s , an d th o p r e s s a n d p u b l i c i s t s a r e s c a r c e ly fre e fro a b la a e . I T ’S TIME FOR EX­ PLANATIONS. P e o p l e w a n t t o know w h at c o a p u t e r s y s t e a s r e a l l y d o — no a o r e o f t h i s " l a t e s t s p a c e - a g e te c h n o l o g y " g a r b a g e . H r. B u s i n e s s ­ m a n , H r . W r i t e r , a r e y o u a an e nough t o s t a r t t e l l i n g i t stra ig h t? Tho c o a p u t e r p r i e s t h o o d , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , o f t e n w a n t s t o awe p e o p le w i t h , o r u n d u ly s t r e s s , th e n o tio n o f th e c o ap u te r b ein g in ­ v o lv ed in a p a r t i c u l a r th in g a t a l l . I t is t i n e f o r e v e r y b o d y t o s t o p b e i n g i m p r e s s e d by t h i s a n d g e t on w i t h t h i n g s . Don’ t j u s t c o p y e d i t w h a t t h e y g i v e y o u . Hose a ro u n d and r e a l l y f i n d o u t , t h e n w r i t e i t lo u d s n d c l e a r . T hese s ia p le r u l e s a r e ay s u g g e s tio n s f o r b r i n g i n g on a o r e i n t e l l i g e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t w i l l h e lp e n l i g h t e n th e p u b l i c by o s a o s i s . 1. FIND OUT AND DESCRIBE THE FUNDAMEN­ TAL APPROACH AND PHILOSOPHY OF THE PROGRAM. T h i s c a n i n v a r i a b l y be s t a t e d in t h r e e c l e a r E n g lis h sen ten c es o r l e s s , but not n e c e s s a r i l y b y t h e p e r s o n who c r e a t e d I t . THIS I S W HAT WRITERS ARE FOR: i t i s yo u r d u ty to p r o b e un ­ t i l t h e n a t t e r ha s b e co n e c l e a r .

Examples" T h is c h e ss- p la y in g p rogra n e v a lu a te s p o s s i b l e aoves in t e r a s o f v a rio u s c r i t e r i a f o r p a r t i a l s u c c e s s , and makes t h e no v e w h ic h has th e h ig h e s t a e r i t acc o rd in g to th e s e ra tin g s." "T h is n u slc-co ap o sin g p ro g ra a o p e ra te s on a se a l-ra n d o a b a s i s , sc re en in g p o s s ib le n o t e s f o r v a rio u s k in d s o f a t t r a c t i v e n e s s . . . ” "T h is a rc h ae o lo g ic al c a ta lo g u in g keeps tr a c k o f a v a rie ty of ob je ctiv e o f e a c h a r t i f a c t , p l u s i n f o r a a t i a n on i t w as, in c lu d in g lin k a g e s i n d i c a t i n g o t h e r a r t i f a c t s were n e ar i t . " sy ste a fea tu res w here w h at

BIBLIOGRAPHY E r n e s t G o w er s, P l a i n W o rd s. T h i s w o n d e r f u l l i t t l e b oo k sh ow ed E n g lish c i v i l Se rv an ts " b u re a u c ra tic w r i t i n g " was t o t a l l y u n n e c e s s a r y . Its p r e c e p t s - - n a in ly c o n cern ed w ith c a l l i n g a sp a d e a sp a d e ( s e e p . ) - - tran s p o s e e x a c t l y t o th e c o n p u te r w o rld .

What o r whose c o a p u t e r i s u se d t o d o a t h i n g i s o f a l a o s t no c o n c e r n ( u n l e s s i t I s o n e o f u n u s u a l d e s i g n , o f w h ic h t h e r e a r e com­ p a r a t i v e l y few ) . Not t h o n a k e o f t h e c o a p u ­ t e r , b u t t h e GENERAL IDEA OF HOW THE PROGRAM OPERATES, i s t h e a o s t i a p o r t a n t t h i n g . O f c o u r s e , i f yo u a r e b e i n g p a i d by a h a r d w a r e a a n u f a c t u r e r , y o u ' l l h a v e t o name t h e e q u i p m e n t o v e r and o v e r ; b u t r e c o g n i z e t h a t y o u r r e a l d u t y I s p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and p u t the ta c t s acro ss. ( I f you t h i n k i t c a n 't b e d o n e , r e a d t h e s p l e n d i d Kodak a d s i n t h e S c i e n t i f i c A m e ric a n . ) 2. Keep g e e - w h i z z i n g r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a s y s t e a 's p s y c h o lo g ic al e f f e c t on r e a l p e o p l e . (What l a p r e s s e s y ou a a y t u r n o u t t o be o l d h a t . ) 3. Look f o r a n g l e s s p e c i a l t o w h at y o u ' r e rep o rtin g . P ursuing d e t a i l s i s l i k e l y to b r i n g u p b e t t e r s t o r y p e g s and a o r e hu a a n i n ­ te re st. I n s te a d o f s a y in g "co m p u ter s c i e n t i s t s ” h a v e d o n e s o m e t h i n g , you a i g h t f i n d s o m e th in g m o r e i n t e r e s t i n g f o r y o u r l e a d ; how a b o u t "The u n l i k e l y te am o f a b i o p h y s i c i s t and a t e e n - a g e a r t s t u d e n t . . . ” o r - - f i n d i n g w h a t’ s s p e c l a l - '' N e v e r b e f o r e ha s t h i s be en done o n a c o m p u te r s o s m a l l , th e s i z e o f a p o r ta b l e ty p e w r i t e r ( a n d h a v i n g o n l y s o a e 4000 w or ds o f m e n o r y ) . . . ”

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A ll k i n d s r f d u m b J o k e s a n d c a r to o n * c i r c u l a t e a m o n g th e p u b l i c a b o u t o m p u t a r a . T h e n o u r f r i e n d * r e g a l e u a c o D p u tcrfo lK w ilh th e s e J o k e s a n d c a r t o o n s , a n d b e c a u s e w e d o n 't l a u g h th e y s a y w e h a v e n o s e n a e o f h u m o r . O h w e d o , w e d o - B u t w h a t w e l a u g h a t la r a l h o r m o r e c o m p lic a t e d , a n d r e l a t e s to w h a t w e t h i n k of a s th e r e a l s t r u c t u r e o f th i n g * • o f th e b a s t h u m o r In th e f ie ld 1* r u n In D a t a m a tio n ; a n a n th o lo g y c a ll e d F a i t h , H o p e a n d P a r ity r e r a n a lo t of U w lr b e st p i e c e s tr a m t h a e a r l y s i x t i e s . C l a s s i c w a s th e K lu d g e s e r i e s , a r o m p d e s c r i b i n g v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s a n d p r o d u c t s <rf t h e K lu d g e K o m p u te r K o r p o r a tlo n , w h o se f o ib le * d i a illl e d m a n y at th a m o r e Id io tic th in g e t h a t h a v e b e e n d o n e l n t h e f i e l d . ( " K l u d g e . " p r o n o u n c e d " k l c o j . " I s a. c o o p u t e r m a n 'a te r m f o r a r i d i c u l o u s m a c h i n e . ) D a t a m a tio n 's h u m o r o u s t r a d i t i o n h a s c o n t i n u e d In a p o n d e r o u s b u t e x t r e m e l y f u n n y s e r i a l t h a t r a n In '7 2 c a l l e d A ls o S p r s c h v o n N e u m a n n , w h ic h In m e llif lu o u s a n d e l l i p t i c a l e u p h e m i s m s d e s c r i b e d th e a u t h o r ' s a d v e n t u r e s a t t h e " a i r s h i p f o u n d r y " a n d o t h e r c o n f u w d c o m p a n i e s t h a t h a d h im d o in g o n e p r e p o s t e r o u s th i n g w ith c o m p u te r a a f t e r a n o t h e r .

F o r a lo n g lim e th e g u ilt y p r o g r a m c o u ld not be f o u n d . F in a lly it w a s d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e b o m b w aa h i d d e n In a n old a n d v e n e r a b l e s t a t i s t i c s p r o g r a m p r e v i o u s l y b e lie v e d to b e c o m p le te l y r e l i a b l e . T h e r e a s o n th e p h a n to m d i d n ' t a lw a y s s t r i k e w a s t h a t th e B om b p a r t q u e r i e d th e s y s te m c lo c k a n d m a d e a p s e u d o ­ r a n d o m d e c is i o n w h e t h e r (o bom b t h e s y s te m d e p e n d i n g o n th e I n s ta n ta n e o u s s e t t i n g of t h e c l o c k . T h i s i s w hy i t to o k s o lo n g to d i s c o v e r ; th e p r o g r a m u s u a l l y b id e d i l s tim e a n d b e h a v e d p r o p e r l y . A p p a r e n t l y th ia w a s th e r e v e n g e o f a d i s g r u n t l e d p r o g r a m m e r , lo n g s in c e d e p a r t e d . Not o n ly t h a t , but h i s r e v e n g e w a s t h o r o u g h : ih e Bom b p a r t of th e p r o g r a m w a s to ta lly k n itt e d in to th e r e s t o f i t . it w a s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p r o g r a m lha t h a d to b e r u n a lot w ilh d if f e r e n t d a t a , a n d n o d o c u m e n ta tio n e x i s t e d , m a k in g it f o r p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s im p o s s ib le lo c h a n g e . T h e f in a l s o l u t i o n , s o th e a t o r y g o e s , w a s ih ls : w h e n e v e r th e r o w d y p r o g r a m h a d to b e r u n . th e r e s t o f t h e m s c h in e w a s c l e a r e d o r p u t on p r o t e c t , ao il r a n a n d h a d ita fits in m a je alic s o l i t u d e .

A G r a n d F a d a m o n g c o m p u te rf o lk In th e la s t c o u p le of y e a r e h a s b e e n t h e ga m e o f " L ife ," in v e n te d b y J o h n H o rto n C o n w a y . T h e r u l b s a p p e a r e d l n t h e S c ie n tific A m e ric an In O c t o b e r 1970, in M a rtin G a r d n e r ' s ga m es c o lu m n , a n d th e w h o le c o u n t r y w e n t w i l d . G a r d n e r w a s sw am p ed w ith r e s u l t s (m any p u b l i s h e d In F e b . 71); a fte r a c o u p le m o r e i s s u e s G a r d a e r w a s h e d h i s h a n d s of i t , a n d It goea on in I ts o w n m a g a z in e . T h e g a m e Is a s t r a n g e m o d e l of e v o lu tio n , n a tu r a l s e l e c t i o n , q u a n tu m m e c h a n ic s o r p r e t t y m u c h w h a t e v e r e l s e y o u w a n t to s e e in i t . P a r t o f it a in itia l f asc in a tio n w a s t h a t C onw ay d i d n ' t k n o w i t s lo n g - te rm o u tc o m e s, a n d h e ld a c o n te s t ( e v e n tu a l ly w o n b y a g r o u p fro m M I T ) . T h e r u l e s a r e d e c e p t i v e l y sim ple : s u p p o s e y o u h a v e a b i g c h e c k e r b o a r d . E a c h c e ll h a s e ig h t n e ig h b o r s : th e c e ll a n e x t to it u p , d o w n a n d d ia g o n a l ly . T im e flo w s In th e g a m e b y " g e n e r a t i o n s . " T h e p a t t e r n o n th e b o a r d i n e a c h g e n e r a U o n d e l e r m i n e s th e p a tte r n o n th e b o a r d In th e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n . T h e gam e p a r t sim p ly c o n s i s t s of t r y i n g o u t new p a t t e r n s a n d s e e i n g w h a l t h i n g s r e s u l t In th e g e n e r a t i o n s a f t e r i t . E ac h c e l l I s e i t h e r OCCUPIED o r EM PT Y . A c e ll b e c o m e s o c c u p i e d ( o r " i s b o r n " ) i f e x a c tly t h r e e o f l l s n e i g h b o r s w e r e f u ll In th e p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n . A c e l l s t a y s o c c u p ie d if e i t h e r tw o o r t h r e e o f its n e i g h b o r s w e r e o c c u p ie d in th e p r e v i o u s g e n e r a t i o n . A ll o t h e r c e l l s b e co m e e m p ty ( " d i e " ) . T h e s e r u l e s h a v e th e fo llo w in g g e n e r a l e ffect: p a t t e r n s y o u m a k e w ill c h a n g e , r e p e a t , g r o w , d l a a p p e a r In w i l d c o m b i n a t i o n s . Some p a t t e r n s m o v e s c r o s s t h e s c r e e n In s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s ( " g l i d e r s " ) . O lh e r p a t t e r n s p u l s a t e s t r a n g e l y a n d e je c t g l i d e r s r e p e t i t i v e l y ( g i l d e r g u n s ) . Som e p a t t e r n s c r a s h to g e th e r in w a y s t h a t p r o d u c e m o v i n g g l i d e r g u n s . W eird . W hile t h e g a m e of L i f e , aa y o u c a n s e e fro m t h e r u l e s . h a s n o th in g to d o w ith c o m p u t e r s i n t r i n s i c a l l y . o b v i o u s l y c o m p u te r s a r e t h e o n ly w a y to t r y o u t c o m p le x p a t t e r n s in a r e a s o n a b l e le n g th of tim e .

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T h e t i m e - s h a r e a t th e L a b s , n e v e r m in d w h ic h L a b s , k e p t g o in g d o w n . M is c h ie f w a s s u s p e c t e d . Mis­ c h i e f w a a v e r if ie d : a p r o g r a m c a l l e d RH BOMB, s u b ­ m i t t e d . b y a c e r t a i n p r o g r a m m e r w ith t h e in it ia l s R . H . . w a s r e s p o n s i b l e , a n d t u r n e d oul a l w a y s to b e p r e s e n t w h e n t h e te rm in a l s p r i n t e d T S S HAS GONE DOWN. It w a s v e r i f i e d b y ( h e s y s t e m s p e o p le l h a t th e p r o g r a m c a l l e d RHBOMB w aa in fac l a Bom b p r o g r a m , w ith no o l h e r p u r p o a e th a n lo ta k e d o w n t h e l i m e - s h a r i n g s y s t e m . R . H . w a s s p o k e n to s t e r n l y a n d il d id n o t h a p ­ p e n ag a in . H o w e v e r , so m e m o n th s l a l e r a sn o o p y s y s te m s p r o g r a m m e r n o te d th a t a (lie c e ll e d RHBOMB h a d be en s t o r e d o n d i s k . R a l h e r lh a n h a v e R . H . s c a lp e d p r e ­ m a t u r e l y , h e t h o u g h t h e w o u ld c h e c k t h e c o n te n t s . He s a t dow n a t Ihe te rm in a l a n d t y p e d In t h e com ­ m a n d , PR INT RHBOMB. B u t b e f o r e h e c o u ld s e e it s c o n t e n t s , (he t e r m in a l t y p e d I n s te a d T S S HAS GONE DOWN B u t t h i s w a s i n c r e d ib le ! A p r o g r a m s o v i r u l e n t th a t If y o u J u s t t r i e d to r e a d ils c o n t e n t s . w ith o u t r u n n i n g i t . it s t i l l b o m b e d th e s y s te m ! T h e s y s t e m s man r u s h e d from th e ro om to s e e w h a t h a d g o n e w r o n g , He d id ao p r e m a t u r e l y . T h e c o n t e n t s o f th e ne w file RHBOMB w e r e s im p ly T S S HAS GONE DOWN f o llo w e d b y t h o u s a n d s of n u ll c o d e s , w h i c h w e r e s i l ­ e n t l y b e i n g fed (o th e T e l e t y p e , 10 p e r s e c o n d , p r e ­ v e n t i n g it fro m s i g n a l l i n g th a l it w a s r e a d y for th e n e x t I h in g .

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P r a n k s a r e a n i m p o r t a n t b r a n c h o f h u m o r In t h e f ie l d . H e r e a r e so m e th a l w ill g i v e y o u a s e n s e o f it. ZAP THE 94 O ne o f th e m e a n e r p r a n k s w a s a p r o g r a m t h a l r a n oir Ih e o ld 7094. It c o u ld fit o n o n e c a r d (In b i n a r y ) , a n d p u t th e c o m p u te r In a n I n e s c a p a b le l o o p . U n fo r tu n a te ly th e u s u a l "ST O P " b u tto n w a s d is a b le d b y t h i s p r o g r a m , so to sto p Ihe p r o g r a m o n e w o u ld e v e n tu a lly h a v e to p u ll th e b i g e m e r g e n c y b u t t o n . T h i s b u r n t out all th e m a in reg is ters. TIMES SQUARE LIGHTS One o f t h e w e i r d e r p r o g r a m s w aa th e o p e r a l o r - w a k e r u p p e r so m e b o d y w ro t e f o r t h e 7094. It w a s a b i g p r o g r a m , a n d w h a t It d i d w as DISPLAY ALPHABETICAL MESSAGES ON THE CONSOLE L IGH T S, s l i d i n g p s s l l ik e th e n e w s in T im e s S q u a r e . You p u t I n t h i s p r o g r a m a n d f ollow ed it w ith th e m e ea ag e ; th e c o m p u t e r ' s c o n so le b o a r d w o u ld lig h t u p a n d th e n e w s w o u ld g o b y . S in c e th e l i g h t s u s u a l l y b li n k In u n i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n s , t h is w a s v e r y s t a r t l i n g . T h i s p r o g r a m w a s e x tr e m e ly c o m p le x . S i n c e th e 94 d i s p l a y e d th e c o n te n t s o f a ll main r e g i s t e r s a n d t r a p , a rit h m e t ic a n d o v e rf lo w l i g h t s , it w a s n e c e s s a r y to d o v e r y w e i r d th in g s in th e p r o g r a m to t u r n th e s e l i g h t s on a n d off a t (h e r i g h t d m e e .

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NON-OBVIOUS RESULTS OF SOME SIMPLE PA TTERN S: acme d i e . one b l i n k s b a c k a n d f o r t h , o t h e r s b e c o m e s t a b l e . ( C o n w a y 's Game of Life p r o g r a m m e d f o r PL A T O b y D a n n y S l e a t o r . )

BIBLIOGRAPHY D o n ald D . S p e n c e r . G am e P l a y i n g w ith C o m p u t e r * . ( S p a r t a n / H a y d e n , $ 1 3 .) T h i s i n c l u d e s f lo w c h a r ta . p ro g ra m s an d w h at-h a v e-y o u for som e 25 g a m e s , a n d s u g g e s t i o n s f o r m o r e . A c o n tin u in g s e r i e s o f g a m e p r o g r a m s (m o stly o r a ll in BASIC ) a p p e a r s in P C C , a n e w s p a p e r m e n tio n e d e a r l i e r . S t e w a r t B r a n d 's m a r v e l o u s S p a c e w a r p i e c e , a ls o m e n tio n e d e a r l i e r . I s h ig h l y r e c o m m e n d e d . n r i i e r t c . Garmaill, "An e x a m i n a ti o n o f T ic - T a e - T o e l i k e G a m a .* P r o c . NCC 7 4 , 34 9-355. E xamines s t r u c t u r e o f s im p le gamea (e»p. 3D t i e - t a c - t o e o r guBIC) w here f o r c e d w in s a r e p o a B ib le i and progra m s t r u c t u r e ! t o p la y th e a . ■T he Game o f L i f e . " T i n e , 21 J a n 7 4 , 6 6 - 7 . (L i f e l i n e , s a i d t o be p u b l i s h e d by R o b e r t 1 W ain w rlg ht o f W i lto n , C o n n e c t i c u t .)

THE TIME-WASTER In o n e c o m p a n y , f o r so m e r e a s o n , it w a s a r r a n g e d th a l l a r g e a n d l o n g - r u n n i n g p r o g r a m s h a d p r i o r i t y o v e r s h o r t q u ic k o n e s . V e r y w e ll: so m eone w r o t e a c o u n t e r a t t a c k p r o g r a m o c c u p in g s e v e r a l b o x e s o f p u n c h c a r d s , to w h i c h y o u s d d e d th e s h o r t p r o g r a m y o u r e a lly w a n t e d r u n , a n d a c a r d s p e c if y in g h o w l o n g y o u w a n te d ih e f ir s t p a n of th e p r o g r a m to g r i n d b e f o r e y o u r r e a l o n e a c tu a lly s t a r t e d . T h is w o u ld b l i n k l i g h t s a n d s p i n ta p e s I m p r e s s i v e l y a n d le n g th e n t h e r u n o f y o u r p r o g r a m to w h a t e v e r ' y o u w a n t e d . BOMBING THE TIME-SHAAE One o f th e c l a s s i c b a d - b o y p r a n k s la to bom b ti m e ­ s h a r i n g s y s i e m s - - t h a t i s . fo u l th e m u p a n d b r i n g th e m to a h a l t . Many p ro g T am m era h a v e d o n e th is ; o n e h a a t o ld me i t ' s a w o n d e r f u l w a y to g e t r i d of y o u r a g g r e s s i o n s . Of c o u r s e , it c a n d a m a g e o t h e r p e o p l e ' s w o r k ( e s p e c i a ll y if d i s k s a r e b o m b e d ); a n d It a lw a y s g e ts t h e s y s te m p r o g r a m ­ m e r s h o p p i n g m a d , b e c a u a e It ro eana y o u 'v e d e f ie d t h e i r a u th o r i ty a n d m a y b e f o u n d a h o le th e y d o n 't know a b o u t . H e r e a r e a c o u p le o f e x a m o l e a . G am ea w ilh c o m p u te r p r o g r a m * a r e u n i v e r s a l l y e n jo y e d In th e c o m p u te r c o m m u n ity . W h e r e v e r t h e r e a r e g r a p h i c d i s p l a y s t h e r e la u s u a l l y a v e r s i o n o f t h e g a m e S p a c e w a r . ( s e e S t e w a r d B r a n d 's S p a c e w a r p i e c e I n R o l lin g S t o n e , m e n tio n e d e l s e w h e r e . ) S p a c e w a r , l i k e m a n y o t h e r c c o ip u t e r b a s e d g a m e a , I s p la y e d b e tw e e n p e o p l e , u s i n g th e c o m p u te r a s a n a n im a te d b o a r d w h ic h c a n w o r k o u t th e r e s u l t s of c o m p le x r u l e s . S om e I n s ta lla tio n s h a v e c o m p u t e r g a m ea y o u c a n plo y a g a i n s t ; y o u a r e e f f e c tiv e ly " p l a y i n g a g a i n s t t h e h o u s e , " t r y i n g to o u tfo x s p r o g r a m . T h i a i s r a r e l y e a s y . A v a r ie ty o f t e c h n i q u e s . h i d d e n f ro m y o u , c a n b e u s e d . W hen " a c o m p u te r " p l a y s a g a m e , a c t u a l l y s o m e b o d y ’s p r o g r a m la c a r r y i n g o u t a s e t of r u l e s t h a t th e p r o g r a m m e r h a s l a i d o u t ln a d v a n c e . T h e p r o g r a m h a s a n a t u r a l e d g e : i t c a n c h e c k a m u c h l o n g e r s e r i e s o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n lo o k in g f o r th e b e s t m ove ( a c c o r d i n g t e t h e c r i t e r i a In th e p r o g r a m ) . T h e r e Is a m o r e c o m p lic a t e d a p p r o a c h : th e c o m p u te r c a n b e p r o g r a m m e d to te s t f o r t h e b e s t s t r a t e g y i n a g a m e . T h i s la m u c h m o re c o m p lic a t e d , a n d I s o r d i n a r i l y c o n s i d e r e d a n e x a m p l e o f " a r tif ic ia l in te l l i g e n c e " ( s e e " T h e G o d - B u l l d e r s , " e l s e w h e r e in t h i s b o o k ) .

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Each p rogram , o r " a n i m a l c o u l d b e loaded a n yw h ere In its p e n . T he oth er p rogram s knew the s iz e of th e pen but not w h ere the anim al w as in it . Under su p e r v is io n of the s p ecia l m on itor, th e anim als cou ld b y tu rn s b ite into the other p e n s , m eanin g that th e con tents of c o r e at several co n s ec u tiv e lo ca tio n s in th e other pen w as b rou ght b ack , and ch a n g ed to z e r o in its orig in a l p e n . Your anim al cou ld th en "digest" — that i s , a n a ly z e — the contents b itte n . T h e n th e other animal got h is tu rn . If he w as s till a liv e — that i s , i f the program cou ld still function— it cou ld sta y in play; o th erw ise the anim al who had bitten it to d eath cou ld m ultiply its e lf into the other pen. T he w in n e r w a s th e g u y w h ose animal occup ied all pens at the en d of th e r u n . If he won s e v e ra l tim es in a row he had to r e v e a l how h is program w orked. A s the gam e w e n t o n , more and more sop h istication was poured into th e a n a ly tic r o u tin e s , w h ereb y the anim al analyzed the program that w a s its victim ; so the program m er could attack b etter n ex t tim e . T he program s got b ig g e r and b ig g e r . Finally th e gam e cam e to a c l o s e . A cr eatu re em erged who could not b e b e a te n . T h e program mer had re in v e n ted the ger m . H is w in n in g cr ea tu r e w as aU te e th , w ith no diagnostic ro u tin es; and th e first th in g it did w as m u ltiply itself through th e e n tir e ty of its own p e n , a s s u r in g that no matter w h ere It m ight ju st h ave b een b itte n , it w ould s u r v iv e .

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When word got around thal th is n ud e w as in a p ub lic file on the tim e -s h a rin g s y s te m , my o ffice-m ates scram b led to get p rin tou ts of h e r . T he c l e v e r e s t , th o u g h , had a d eck p u n c h e d . As he p red icted , sh e w as throw n off by the sy ste m s p eop le w ith in an hour or s o - - lea v in g th e olher g u y s w ith th eir p rin to u ts, but he had the d e c k . Now he can put her b ack in th e com puter any tim e, b ut th ey ca n 'l.

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For Ihe most p u l . big computer* have always been rented or lo w e d , r a th e r than te u g h t o u trig h t. T hera are v a rio us reaso ns (or thl*. From the customer'* point of vie w. It make* (he whole thing tax-d eductib le without amortization problems, and means lhat It's pos­ sible to change pa rt of the pa cka ge — the model of compuier o r the accessorie s-* more easily. And big amounts of money don't have lo be shelled out st once. Pram the m anufa cture r's point of view (and of course we are speaking mostly of IBM). It Is sdvaniageous to work the le asing game for several reasons. Cash Inflow Is ste ady. The manufacturer is In continuous communication with the customer, and ha s h is e a r for change* and improvements costing more. Competitors are st a disadvantage because th e Immense cspltal base needed lo gel Into the se llln g-andleaslng game makes compelltllion Impossible. Basically, leasing raally may be thought of as having two parts; the sale of the computer, and bank ing a loan on It; essentia lly the lease payments are Installment paym ents, and the real profits come alter the customer ha s effectively paid the real purchase pric e and is still forking

While In prin ciple ihcrc would seem lo be every advantage in b uyin g use d computers, there a re certain draw backs. Service is the main one: the manufacturer Is not ve ry helpful about fixing discontinued machines, and you may have to know how to do it yourself. Even with machines still available, you may have tr ouble getting onto a scrv ice contract from ihe manufacturer, since it "msy have been mis treate d." (American Used Compuit-r, in Boston, will usually guarantee llial ils merchandise will be accepted back into manufa cture r's contract s e rv ic c .) A final draw ­ back is pr ice: a popula r machine may cost as much use d as new. since th ey'r e savin g you the waiting pe riod. It's kind of unfortunate: olherwise usable machinea gel wasted. (Bul h e re 's waste for you: certain well-known laborato rie s, owned by a profit-m aking monopoly, smash their used com­ p u te rs if nobody wants them wilhin the lab. They claim they can't rese ll them becpuse they would then be "competing” wilh the manufacturers. I wish ihe conservationists would gel on thal one.) (Nolis front all over: il sccm6 lhat all the s u rviv in g numbe rs of the Philco compuier. a nlcc machine but ve ry much discontinued, have ei­ th e r gone to ihe slate of Israel or lo Pratt Insti­ tute in Brooklyn. When I spoke at Pralt they showed me Iheir Philco ma chines, chugging hofilIh lly. and said ihey had 0 think) some four more Philcos in crslcs, dona ted by their original owners.) ANNOUNCEMKNTS An ecccntric aspect of ihe computer Held is ihc Announcement, th e statement by a company (or even individual) that he is planning to make o r sell a certain computer o r program. Some v e ry odd things happen wilh announcements In ihis field. (None of (his is unique to computer­ dom, but It goes to unusual extremes h e re .) Under our syslcm il is permissible for any pers on or firm lo announce lhal he will make or sell any particula r th in g , and even If he 's lying thro ugh h is leelh, it's nol ordinarily considered fra ud unle ss money change s hands. Talk is cheap. Thus ii Is common practice In American in dustry for people to say lhat Ihcy will soon be selling hundred-m il c-on-h our automobiles, tapioca-powered rockcis hip s, anligravity bc lu . Okay. In Ihc computer world Ihc same th in g happens. Thi strategy depends on the announcer's market position. The little guys are often bluffing w istfully, hoping someone will gel interested enough lo put up the money lo finish the proje ct, or the like: Ihe big companies a re often "testing Ihe w ater." looking lo sec whether there are potential cuslomcrs for whal they haven'i even aticmptcd lo develop. Announce­ ments by big companios a lto have strategic value: if they announce something a smaller guy has ulrcady announced, lliey muy cut him off at the puss, even 'hough they hi.vc no intention of de livering. T hat's just one example. The anal­ ysis of IBM's announcements is s parlor game in (lie field. II ha s been alleged, for instance, lhal IBM announced ils 360 compuier long befcre it was ready lo cul off in curs io ns on ils c u s ­ tomers by oilier firms; Control Data, in a recent suil . alleged thal the Model 90 numbers of the 160 were announced, and then developed, simply to destroy Control Dalu and ils own big fssl n,Lchines. These a rr just examples.

SOFTWARE Computer program s. o r " softw sre ." used (O come f rie wilh the com pute r. Bul IBM turned sround and " unbundle d." mean ing you ha d io buy It separately , and Ih ere has been some fol­ lowing of this example. H owever, for U6crs who arc buyin g s computer wilh some canne d program for s psrlic u lsr p u rpose, p r ic e s a rc obviously for the whole package: It's people who use Ihe ssmi- compuier for a lot of d if ferent th in gs lhal have to pay for Individual p r ogra m s. There are many smell software companies. For the cost of a le tterhead anyone can sta r t one; the question is w het her he ha s anyth in g special lo se ll. Some people whomp up progra m s on their own which tu rn out lo be qu ite use fu l. (For Insta nce, one Benjamin Pitman offers a magnificent program In Fortr a n lo generate te x­ tu al garbage. It's so good it can be used lo e xpand proposals by h u n d r e d s of p a ges. He calls il Simplified Integrated Modular Prose (SIMP and It sells for 110. His a d d re s s is Compuier Cente r. University of G eorgia , Athens GA 30602?) O bviously, lo cre ele b ig sy stems for in tri­ cate management purposes r e q u ir e s a grea t deal more effort. TradilionHlly these a rc do ne by vast programmer teems w ork in g in COBOL or the like, constantly fighting with monitor program and chewing up millions of d o lla r s. However, the new Quickie Languages (th r ee shown pp. may ofTer great simplification of su ch programmini

Many firms olher than IBM pre f e r to sell Ihelr computers outr ig ht. Minicomputers are almost always sold rath er th a n r ente d. However, for those who believe in renti ng o r leasi ng, ihe so-calle d "leasing firms" have a ppea re d, effec­ tively performing a banking function. They buy the computer, you rent or le ase il from them, and they make the money you would've saved If you'd bought. IBM, now requir ed lo se ll ils computera as well as lease them, keeps making changes In Its syste ms which cynics think s r e done pa nly lo sc are companies sway from le asing, sincc If you've bought the eompuler you can't catch up. (Large computers bought from companies Ihsl like lo sell them, such as DEC and CDC. do not seem lo hsv e this problem .)

A p r a c t i c a l problea of iB en se is f n r ta n c a Is 'a atnce nanc e.’ w an in g r e p a ir and upkeep of coaputers and t h e i r a ccessorie s. I ^ ts o f ?uys in Boston and L.A. are having Cun asking ea^ >utere, bul he re you are stuck in Squeedunk snd i t d o e sn 't work anywore. Trying t e fin d people who w ill fl* these th in gs on a sta ble You can sig n a “aalntananee contract* with the manufacturer, which I s s o r t of lik e breakdown insu rance: whatever happens h e ' l l ( i a . Eventually. I f you own e qulp M nt (row d if f e r e n t have to be maintained too.) Thia i s th a b l u e s t poin t In favor of IBH. superb. Thei r maintenance is

Programs arc protected by c opyrig ht-Ihal's Ihe only way th e re can be a software In­ d ustr y at a ll-- but aincc th e r e has been no court litigation in ihe field, nobody knows what the law really is or wh<.t il c o v e r s. Everybody agre es that traditional c opyrig ht precedent covers a lol of ground-- " deriv ative w ork s" definitely violate copyright, even stu dy guid es lo texlbooks-- bul no one knows how far this goes. Same for pate nts. T he Patent Officc has granted pr ogram pate nts, notably the one on ihe sorting pr ogram of A pplied Data Rese arch , I n c .. but The Patenl Officc has a profound d is ­ taste for this potential e xte nsion of ite. dutie s, an<1 it- telling cvi-rycnc that progra m s a re n 't p alem ab lc . even though Ihcy cle a rly fell wilhin its mandate as uniq ue, o rig in a l p roce sses . People who only road the he adli nes think thal ihe Supreme Court s tr u c k down llic pate nt­ ability of progra m s. No such th in g. In ihis light ihe pate nts ih sl the Unlvereily of Utah ha s gotten on Ihc ha lftone image synth esis programs of Wamock and Wylie and Romney (sec p. ) are of co nsiderable in te r e st. These palcnls use the "softw a rc-as-ha rdw are " ruse : the program is describ ed in de tail as ta king plBcc in a fictitious machine shown in many detailed draw ­ ings whose ne bulous c h a r a c te r Is not rea dily seen by the uninitiated: e vents vaguely taking place in "mlcroprogrammablc mic ropro cess ors" have been neatly foiMed on the Patent Officc as detailed technical d ia closure. It's a gr eat game. The Idea Is lhat the claims a rc so draw n as lo eover n o t j u s l the fictitious machine, bul any program tliat should happen to work the same w ay. Bul su ch a pproaches, th ough common to provto us.pate nt p r actices, have not ye t been litigated In this field.

w h o 'l l c o n tra c t to keep a l l your hardware working. Raytheon are In to th a t.

RCA and

THE SEVEN DWARVES AND THEIR FRIENDS The com pute r companies are often called "Snow White and the Seven D w arves,” even though the se ven keep ch an gin g. Here are some main ones beside IBM. I hope I haven't left anyone oul. Reau iescan l In Face; G en eral Electric Sperry Rand Univac (sold oul lo Honeywell) Honeywell RCA (sold out lo Univac) Burroughs Phllco Control Data Corporation (CDC) G en eral Foods National Cash Re gister (NCR) I o th e rs beyond recollection. Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) Xerom Dala System s (XDS; formerly Scientific Dsta Systems (SDS)) H ewlett-Pa ckard (HP) Data Ocneral I nie rdala . Inc. Vsrlan Data Machines Lockheed

Uatbmation ran several good articles on buyin g compuier stuff In its Septem­ b e r. IS. 1970 issu e. "Software Buying" by Howard Bromberg (35-40) and "Contract Caveals" by Robert P. Bigelow (4144) a re ve ry helpful warnings about nol getting bu rned. Another. "Project Management Gam es," by Wemer W. Leuierl (2434) is an absolutely brilliant, blood­ c urdli ng strategic analysis of the ploys and dangers involved in bu y­ ing and sellin g very expensive things, such as computers and software. ANYONE INVOLVED IN COMPUTER MANAGEMENT SHOULD READ THIS MACIIIAVELUAN PIECE WITH THE GREATEST CARE. Anyone Interes­ ted In the theory of ahowdqwn and negotiation can read 1 with a dlffer1 --------ent slant.

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T h o s e o f u s w h o w e r e a r o u n d w ill n e v e r fo rg e t t h e D a y s o f M a d n e s s (196B -9). C o m p u te r s to c k s w e r e b o o m in g , an d th e i r b u y e r s d i d n 't know w h a t i t w a s a b o u t; b u t e v e r y w h e r e t h e r e were fin a n c ia l p e o p le t r y i n g to b a c k n e w c o m ­ p u te r c o m p a n ie s , a n d e v e r y w h e r e the s m a r t c o m pu te r p e o p le w h o 'd m is s e d o u t on G e ttin g T h e ir s w e r e lo o k i n g f o r a d e a l. D a ta m a tio n f o r N o v e m b e r 1969 w as a n in c h th ic k , th e r e w e r e th a t m any a d s f o r c o m p u le r s an d a c c e s s o r ie s . A t th e F a il J o i n t C o m p u te r C o n f e r e n c e th a t y e a r i n L as V e g a s , I h a d to c o v e r th e h ig h l i g h t s of the e x h i b i t s i n a h u r r y , a n d I t Look me all afte rn o o n , m u c h o f it p r a c tic a l ly a t a t r o t . T h e n , after c lo s in g ti m e , I fo u nd out t h e r e h a d b e e n a w hole o t h e r b u i l d i n g . I t is i m p o r ta n t to look a t how a lo t o f t h e s e co m p an ies w e r e b a c k e d , th e b e t t e r to u n d e r s t a n d how i r r a ti o n a li ty b lo o m e d In th e s y s t e m , a n d made th e co llap B e o f th e s p e c u la t iv e s to c k s in 1970 q u ite I n e v i ta b le . A n u m b e r of c o m p a n ie s w e r e s t a r t e d at the in i ti a t iv e f i t p e o p le w ho knew w h a t t h e y w e r e d oin g a n d h a d a c l e a r i d e a , a n e w te c h n i q u e o r a good m a r k e ti n g s l a n t . T h e s e w e r e in t h e m in o r ity , I f e a r . M ore com m on w e r e c o m p a n ie s s t a r t e d at the in i tia tiv e o f so m e b o d y w ho w a n te d to s t a r t "a n o th e r X " - - a n o t h e r m in ic o m p u te r c o m p a n y , a n o th e r te r m in a l c o m p a n y , e x p e c t in g th e p r o d u c t so mehow to b e s a t i s f a c t o r y w h e n t h r o w n t o g e th e r by h ir e d h e l p . P e r h a p s th e s e p e o p le s a w com ­ p u te r c o m p a n ie s a s s o m e th in g li k e go ld m in e s , p u ttin g o ut a c om m on p r o d u c t w ith i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e commodity v a l u e . T h e d e a l , a s som e of th e s e Wall S t . h a n g e r s on w ou ld e x p l a i n i l , w a s most i n t r i g u i n g . T h e i r id e a w as to c r e a t e a c o m p u te r c o m pa n y on low cap ita l, " b r i n g i t p u b l i c " (g e t c l e a r a n c e f ro m th e SEC to s e ll s t o c k p u b l i c l y ) , an d th e n m a k e a k illin g as t h e s h e e p b o u g h t it a n d the p r i c e w e n t u p . T h e n , i f y o u c o u ld ge t a " t r a c k r e c o r d " b a s e d on a few f a s t s a l e s , th e in c r e a s i n g p r i c e of y o u r s to c k ( th e s e a r e th e d a y s o f m a d n e s s , re m e m b e r) m a k e s it p o s s ib l e to b u y u p o t h e r com p an ies a n d b e c o m e a c o n g lo m e ra te .

It w a s v e r y d iffic u lt t o ta lk lo theB e p e o p l e , j a r t i c u l a r l y if y o u w e r e t r y i n g to g e t s u p p o r t f o r a le g itim a te e n t e r p r i s e b u i l t a r o u n d u n u s u a l i d e a s . ( E v e r y b o d y w a n ts to b e s e c o n d . ) A n d w h a t's w o r s e , th e y t e n d e d t o h a v e th a t m ost r e p r e h e n ­ s ib le q u a lity : t h e y w o u l d n ’t l i s t e n . D id th e y w a n t t o h e a r w h a t y o u r i d e a a c tu a lly w a s ? " I 'l l get m y te c h n ic a l p e o p le to e v a lu a te i t " — a n d t h e y s e n d o v e r Jo e w h o o n c e to o k COBOL. I fin a lly f i g u r e d o ut th a t s u c h p e o p le a r e im p o s s ib le to ta lk to i f y o u 'r e s i n c e r e — i t 's a q u a l i t y t h e y fin d u n f a m i li a r a n d t h r e a t e n i n g . I d o n 't th i n k t h e r e '6 a n y w a y a p e r s o n w ith a g e n u in e id e a c a n c o m m u n ic a te w ith s u c h W h e e le r - D e a le r s ; th e y j u s t fix y o u w ith a p i e r c i n g g l a n c e a n d s a y " Y e a h , b u t a r e w e ta l k i n g ab o u t h a r d w a r e o r s o f tw a r e ? " ( th e two w o r d s th e y k n o w i n t h e fie ld ).

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T h i s i s all lh e s a d d e r b e c a u s e lh e co m ­ p a n ie s lh a t a c h ie v e im p o r ta n t t h i n g s in t h i s fie ld , as f a r a s I c a n s e e , a r e t h o s e w i t h 'a u n i f y i n g id e a , c a r r i e d o u t u n s l i n l i n g l y b y t h e m a n o r m e n w h o b e lie v e in i t . I th in k o f O l s e n 's D igital E q u ip m e n t C o r p o r a ti o n , D ata G e n e r a l , E v a n s an d S u th e r l a n d C o m p u te r C o r p o r a ti o n , V e c to r G e n e r a l. T h is i s n o t to sa y th a t a good id e a s u c c e e d s w ith o u t g oo d m a n a g e m e n t o r go o d b r e a k s : f o r in s t a n c e , V i a t r o n , a firm w h ic h w a s th e d a r l i n g o f lh e c o m p u t e r h ig h - f l y i n g s t o c k s , h a d a p e r ­ f e c tly s o u n d i d e a , if n o l a d e e p o n e : to p r o d u c e a v i d e o t e r m i n a l lh a t c o u ld b e s o l d f o r a s liltle a s $100 a m o n th . But t h e y go t o v e r e x t e n d e d , a n d h a d m a n u f a c tu r in g t r o u b l e s , a n d th a t w a s th a t . (You c a n now g e l a v i d e o te r m i n a l fo r $49 a m o n lh , l h e H a z e l t i n e .) O f c o u r s e , a lol o f id e a s a r e h a r d t o e v a l u a t e . A m a n n a m e d O v s h i n s k y , f o r i n s t a n c e , n a m e d a w h o le n e w b r a n c h o f e l e c t r o n ic s a f t e r h i m s e lf ( " o v o n i c s " ) , a n d c la im e d it w o u ld m a k e i n t e g r a t e d c i r c u i t s c h e a p e r o r b e t t e r th a n a n y b o d y e l s e 's . S co ff, s c o f f . Now O v s h in s k y h a s h a d t h e la st la u g h : w h a t h e d i s c o v e r e d som e n o w c a l l " a m o r p h o u s s e m i c o n d u c to r t e c h n o l o g y ," a n d h i s c i r c u i t s a r e b e in g u s e d b y m a n u f a c tu r e r s o f c o m p u te r e q u ip ­ m e n t , A n o t h e r e x a m p le i s o n e F r a n k M a r c h u k , w h o s e " l a s e r c o m p u te r " w a s a n n o u n c e d s e v e r a l y e a r s a g o b u t h a s n 't b e e n s e e n y e t - M any com ­ p u t e r p e o p le a r e u n d e r s t a n d a b l y s k e p l i c a l . T h i s i s s t il l a fie ld w h e r e i n d i v i d u a l s can h a v e a p r o f o u n d in f lu e n c e . B ut th e w r o n g w ay to t r y it i s th r o u g h c o n v e n ti o n a l c o r p o r a t e f in ­ a n c i n g . G e t y o u r o w n c o m p u te r , d o it i n a g a r r e t , a n d t h e n ta lk a b o u t w a y s o f g e tt in g il o u t to t h e w o r l d .

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T h e j o k e r i s lh a l i f y o u m is s e d o u t o n a ll t h i s y o u w e r e m u c h b e t t e r o ff. A n y o n e w it h a g e n u in e id e a i s b e i n g s e t u p f o r tw o C e e c in g s : th e f i r s t b i g o n e , w h e n t h e y te ll y o u y o u r i d e a s , s k i lls a n d l o n g - t e r m in d e n t u r e a r e w o r th 2J% (if y o u 'r e l u c k y ) c o m p a r e d lo t h e i r im m e n s e c o n ­ tr ib u t i o n s o f " b u s i n e s s k n o w h o w ," a n d lh e s e c o n d , w h e n y o u g o p u b li c a n d th e u n d e r w r i t e r g e t s v a s t ra k e o f f s f o r h i s in c o m p a r a b le s e r v i c e s . Whai is moBt l i k e l y to g e t lo s t in all t h i s i s a n y o r i g ­ in a l o r s t r u c t u r e d c o n tr i b u ti o n to t h e w o r ld th a t th e c o m p a n y w a s in t e n d e d , in y o u r m i n d , to a c h ie v e .

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W e y b r ig h t

Vea, it's real. Life imitates art on Route 46, N.J.

I n p a r t t h i s i s b e c a u s e a n y o n e w i th t e c h ­ n ic a l k n o w le d g e i s a p p a r e n tl y l a b e lle d S illy T e c h n ic ia n i n th e fin a n c ia l c o m m u n ity , o r Im p o s­ s ib le D r e a m e r ; i t is e n t r e n c h e d d o c t r i n e a m o n g m any p e o p le t h e r e th a t t h e man w ith t h e o r i g i n a l id e a c a n n o t b e a llo w e d to c o n tr o l lh e d ir e c tio n of the r e s u l t i n g c o m p a n y . In o n e c a s e k n o w n lo m e , a m an h a d a b e a u ti f u l in v e n ti o n (no t e l e c tr o n ic ) th a t co u ld h a v e d e e p l y im p r o v e d A m e ric a n i n d u s t r y . It w a s in e x p e n s i v e , s im p le to m a n u f a c t u r e , p r o f o u n d ly e f f e c tiv e . H e m ade h is d e a l a n d th e c om p a n y w a s s t a r t e d , u n d e r h ia d i r e c t i o n . B u t i t w a s a t r i c k . When th e s e c o n d i n s ta ll m e n t o f f i n a n c i n g c a m e d u e (no t th e se c o n d r o u n d , m in d y o u ) , th e b a c k e r s c a lle d f o r a n e w d e a l, a n d he w a s s k e w e r e d . R e su lt: n o s a l e s , n o e f f e c t on th e w o r l d , no n o th in g to s p e a k o f.

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ll is Important to note Brat of all thal IBM is In many resp ect s the ve ry model of a ge ner­ ous and dutiful co rporat e c it ii e n . In ’a m m u n ­ ity relatione .* In donations to colleges snd un i­ ve rs iti e s. In generous rele ase of the time of Its onploye es for charitable and civic un de rtakings . It Is almost certainly the most pub lie-sp ir ite d corporation in America, snd pe rh a ps on the face of the ear th. They have been gener ous about many public Interest projects, from Braille tr a n s c r ip ­ tion lo donating photogr ap hers sn d facilit ies for films on child development. The corporation spo nsors worthwhile cul­ tu ral ev en ts, "Don Quixote" wilh Hex H srrls on o n TV was te rrific, Katharine H ep b u r n 's "Glass Menagerie* was marvelous.

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Now for t h e bad ne wa . . . These prog ra m s a te not nece ssa rily set up the way you would want the m. (Bul If you take the tr ouble to adapt to the m, you 'll probably ne ver get b e c k .) The pro grams favor c a r d or car d -l ik e Input and . to da la. strongly dis courag e tim e-sharing sn d widespread convenient terminal use by untr ained people. IBM pro grams are also notoriously Inefficient. (Thai way you have to use bigge r machi nes for lo ng er.)

They offer many com puter p r o gram s (or a v arie ty of p u r p o s e s .

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IBM's enlightenment sn d benevole nce to w ard its employees le pe rh a ps be yond tha t of any company an yw here . They ha ve rigorously up grade d the position of women sn d olh er minor­ ity employees; the opportunities for women may be greater there than an yw here e lae, They have up grade d rep air of their eyelems. at any level, to white-collar sta tus, and tool kite a re disguised as br iefc as es. This innovation, making a r ep a ir ­ man inlo a "field en gin ee r," Is one o f th e cle v e r­ est pu bllc -re la llo ns snd employment policies av er Institut ed. They are openhanded 10 stnployeea who wanl to ru n for office, evidently r e g a r d l e s s of platform. In the a lin e s the re were peace candi­ dates who worked for IBM. and e viden tly got lime off for 11. More rec en tly. Fra n Youngsieln. an IBM marketing Instructo r, was a 1973 cand i­ date for Mayor of New York on the ticket of the Fre e Libertarian Par ty, opposing all laws againal victim lesa crimes ( e .g . prostitution and odd se x ), as wall aa Day Care and welfare. They also rarely fire people. Once yo u're in, and within cer tain broad ou tli ne s, it' s e x ­ trem ely sale employment. For those who tur n out not lo fit in well, they have a tr ad ition of cer ta in gentle pr es a u re -pra ctic e s like moving you around tha country repeatedly at IBM ex ­ pe nse. This encour ages leaving, b ul also e x ­ po se s the lets-w an te d employee lo a varie ty of opp or tuniti es he might nol o therw is e s e e . without the trauma and anxiety of dismissal. (II la said thai th e re a re IBM flrlngB, but they are rar e and formidable. Hey wood Gould's de scription of an IBM firing (Corporati on F r e a k , p p . 113-115). for which he does n ot claim au ­ thenticity, Is ne verthel ess blood curdling .) IBM's Inlernetlonel man ners (In lls 115 co untries) a re likewise prBise worl hy. Compared to the perfidious behavior of some ol ou r other multinational corpor ations, they are sweetness and light and hlghschool civic s. Sens itive to the feelings of people a b ro ad, ihay are Bald to ope rate car efully within a rra ng ements made to satisfy each country. They train nationals for rea l corporat e responsibility rathe r lhan bringing in on ly outside people. And they a re sensitive to issuea: for Instance, they rec entl y refuse d to eel up an A ptr thei d computer in South Africa. ONE THING IS PERFECTLY CLEAR: IBM haa no monopoly on un d e rs tan din g o r sophistication,

A company o r governmental agency The co u rs e s Indoctrinate with the IBM can get Immense amounts of *help* outlook, a n d the planted people spr ead and ■Information" from IBM, which ll . Mor eover, both mechanisms help offers fre e c o urs e s, ev en IBM IBM spot the people they ca n work with people on "released time" lo look to make a big aale- - and (it ie alleged over the pr ob lem s on the p rem ise s. b y some) those who st a nd In the w a y . IBM offe rs varioua k in d s of com­ patibility among Its systems. IBM equipment Is rugged and d urable , and the ir repairmen or 'f ie ld eng inee rs " struggle with gree t diligence and alacrity to ke ep It r u nn in g . It always seems to cnat extr a .

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1. SOCIAL ASPECTS OF IBM . It is pe rh aps In the social realm. Including its Ideological c h ar ac te r . lhal a lot of people a re tur ned off by IBM. IBM ha s tradi tionally bee n th e paternalistic corporation. (Paternalistic corporations w ere some kin d of b ig philosophical Issue lo people In lhe fifties, but nobody cares anymore. Anyway, lhe r e s t were pe rhaps Inconsequential compared to IBM,) Big IBM towns not only have a Country Club (no booze) . but a Homestead for the comfort of important corporate g uests. The re are dresa codes (allhough non-whito s h ir ts and below-thecollar hair are now allowed). and ye s. codes of privat e behsvior (now sub du ed ) . Thes e Irr ita te people with liberlarian c o nce rn s. They do nol bother employees, evidently, be cause employees knew whai they were getting Into. Generalizations about IBM people obviously cannot be ve ry stro ng . Obviously the re Is going to be immense variation among 2E5.000 people. half of whom have college de grees: bul of co urse one of lhe great tr u th s of sociology Is lhal any non-random group haB tend encies. More tha n tha l In IhiB case . In a way IBM people are an ethnic grou p. Im pr essiv e indeed a r e lhe ge ner al en ergy an d slnglemi ndedness of th e people, galvanized by Ih elr cer tainty that IBM is tr u e , good and r ig h t, and lhat the IBM way is lhe w ay . This righte o usn es s Is of course a big tur n-off for a lol of p e o p le . Perhaps 11 leads In tur n to the most -heard s lu r s about IBM people, lhat they are bralnwsBhed or provincial.

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‘ IBM,* ■ ■ everyone knows, is the trade mark of th a Interna tiona l Budns** Machines Corporation, an Immanta company cent*rod in Armonk. N .Y ., bul Extending to over t h un dr ed countries and amploylng vail over a qua rt e r of a million people. IBM dtanlnstes two In du it rla s. computers and a lac tr ie ty pe w riter s. To many people. IBM ta synonymous with computers. Some ol the public. Indeed, be lieves them to be the only coa p ute r manufact urer. In cam era s and film. Uiere Is Kodak. In automobiles. th e re I* General Motors. And In the computer field the re l( IBM. IBM se ll a some 65 to 70% of all lha com­ p u te rs and prog ra m s that s r e so ld . In thla r e s ­ pect. the b alanc ed near-monopoly, Ihay a re like Kodak a n d CM. But th e re a re Important differences. Eveverybod y knows what a camsra 1b. or an auto­ mobile. But to ma ny, If not moat, people, a computer la what IBM say* II Is. The Importsncs of Ihls firm, for good or HI. cannot b e overstated: whose legend 1* so thick, whose stock pr ices have doubled and r e ­ doubled, ten Limes over, to Us mu lliblllion-dollsr mass: whose l e a n i n g Infallibility-- at least, as se en by o u ts i d e r s - - have been the stuff of legend, whose style has prolif erated acro ss the world, a sty le which has In a way Itself become synonymous with 'c omputers:* whose name aymb ollies for many people— rem arkably, both those who love It and those who hate It-- the New Age. T h e r ig id it y associated In the public mind with "the computer* may b e related In some deep way to th la organizat ion. As a corpor ation they are u se d to desig ning systems that people have to uae In Ihelr joba by flat, and thus th e re are few e xter nal limitations on the compiles Ilona to our liv es tha t IBM can create. Many p tn p le mistake IBM for "]ual another big com pan y.’ and he re lies the d sn ge r. IBM's position In the world Is so ex tra or dina ry , go caref ully poise d (aa a result of various anti ­ tr ust pro ce ed in gs snd precsutiona) Just outside of total monopoly of a vitally important snd allpenetrating field, that much of what they do has Implications for all of u s. Ralph Nader' s co n­ tention that Gene ral Motors Is too powerful to function a s a n independent government su rely applies ev en more to IBM. General Motora is not in a position to pers ua de the public thsl ev ery car has Id hav e ten wheals and a snowplow. IBM m a i l in s a n e wsys to hiv e molded compu­ te rs in l u own image, and then pers ua de d tha world tha t th la la th e way they have to be. But IBM la de eply sensitive, in Its w ay . to public r ela tio ns , and has woven an ex ten sive ayatam of political ti e s and legends (if not mythology) which have kept 1 almost completely 1 aaempt from the critical attention of concerned citizens. T h us It i t ne ce ssa ry h e re , simply a s a matter of ro v e rin g the field al an Introductory level , to r ais e some questions and criticism* that oc cu r to p w p le who are concerned about IBM. IBM presu m ab ly will nol mind having these m atte rs raised; their pub lic -aplrlted con­ ce rn in so many a re as as su res lha t when someUUng so p ublic ly important as the c ha rac ter of their own po w er la concerned, occasional sc rutiny ahould be welcane.

THEN WHY SUCH A RANGE OF FEELINGS TOWARD IBM? Among computer people, feelings toward IBM ran ge from wors hip lo furious hale (depen­ ding only In part on whether you w ork th e r e ) . Many, many are of course employed by IBM. and the davotlon with which the y embrace the corporation and lls sp ir it ie a w ond er of the w o rl d . But the spir itual community of IBM extends f u rt h e r . (Jpper-managemeni typos, especially Chairmen of Boards and compiroJIers, seem to ha ve a reverence (or IBM tha l ia no t of this worl d, some amalgamated vision whic h entwines Images of eternal stock and d iv idend growlh with an ideellted nodon of manage ment efficiency. Many others use and live with IBM's equipment, and view IBM as anything from "the g r ea le s t company In the world’ lo "a fact of life" o r even "a n ece ss ar y ev il ." In some pla ce s whole colo­ nie s of use rs mold themselves in ll s image, so lha l a round IBM computers the re a re many "lltile IBMs." full of people who Imitate the p ers onali­ ties and style of IBM people. (RCA. before its computer operation (all to piece s. Imitated not Juat the design of IBM's 380 com puter, bu t a whole ran ge of titles and departmental names from out of IBM. Tho sincer eet form of flat tery .) But outside ihls pa le -- beyond the s p ir i­ tual community of IBM-- the re are quite a few olher computer people. Some simply igno re IBM. being concerned with their own stuff. Some like IBM but happen to be els ew h e re . Othe rs dislike or hale IBM (or a va ri e ty of r ea so ns, bu si n e ss and social. And thia smoldering hatr ed Is surely far different In c h a r a c te r from an yb od y's attitude toward Kodak o r CM. While It is nol the intent h e re to do any kind of an anti-IBM number, it Is ne ve rthe le ss n ece ss ar y to attempt to round oul Ihe one-a ided pic tu re lhal Is projected outside Ihe computer w or ld. In what follows the re ia no room to try to give a balanced pic ture. Because IBM can speak (or Itself, and does so with many voices, It Is me re Important lo Indicate h e re the kinds of criticisms which are commonly made ol IBM by sophisticated people within Ihe in d u s i ry . bo lha t IBM-worshipers will have some Idea ol what bo th e rs people. Bul of co urse no attempt can be made he re to Judge these matters : Ihls Is Jusl intended ae source material foT concerned c iti z en s.

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PROVINCIAL? There would aa«n to be no quaMlon that IBM people are comparatively conservative and convantlHial. Thl* partly because ihai'e who IBM hire* (though they reportedly urge tolerance ol the unusual employee In a trai nin g O la , 'T h e Wild Duek"). A hu ge number of IBH people ne ver worked for anybody elee: obviously thia affects the perspective. like etaylng at one university all your life, o r In one c ity . II a a y aleo be that becauee IBM place* u c h a premium on dependability and obedience, new ideas (and (be ab ilities ne eded to generate them) naturally ru n Into a little tro u b le . Some critics llod among IBM people e heavy concern with con* vantiatal symbols td achievem ent, and (unfor­ tunately) eati ng th a world etuck all over with conventional labels and Middle American stereo*

I hope to be able to report in future edlli« ie of this book lhat IBM has moved firmly and credib ly toward making its sys­ tems clear and simple lo uee. without rerequlr ln g la borious attention to needless complications and oppressive rltuale, I t's still possible. One of the things we often forget Is that public-sp ir ited corporations can be reached, they do listen; and IBM le nothing If not public-spir ited-- except when it comes lo the design of Its systems. I hope that this book will help people who are Inconvenienced by compuier systems to understsn d and pinpoint whal they think Is wrong with the sysiems— In Ihelr dala str uctu re, Interactive properties, or other desig n featu res- - and that they will iry to e ap r ess their discontents Intel­ ligently snd constructively to those res­ ponsible. Including, where appropriate, International Business Mschlnes Corporation. 1 Armonk. NY.

"When we went from IBM to National C u h Re giste r. II was like Ihe difference between nlghl and day." Retired ha rdware executive, talking eboul Inventory programs

(Incidentally. II is amusing to note thal even In Ihis remaining company, in lorm* of "performance pe r d olla r." the managers survey ed (and surviv in g Ihe weedoul) ranked the lop three companies as DEC, Burroughs end Control Uata. IBM was worst oul ol 8. Obviously service counts for e lot.) An Interesting view on IBM's sa le s ethics was expre ssed recently by Ryal R. Poppa, president of Pertec C o r p . "In Ihe past, when Ihere have been sslee situations where 'you can't honor the policy and win the de sl.' IBM ha s violated the policy with the practice, he sa id ."

S u e of the m a t amuelng material on thle o n e * from an odd source: e w ri te r named Haywood Could wbo, all unprepared, bocame a consultant to IBH. e arned unconscionable amount* of money (M0.000 in six m onths). and lived lo write a very funny and obse rv ant book about It (see Bibliogr aphy ). But 11 le necessary on thsse matters to tee bow difficult th in gs can be lor IBH p v p l e . To be Identified t s an IBM pars on is soaeth ing like wear* Ing a ring Id yo ur nose, a yarm ulkaor a halo: an enirapmsnt In a social role lhat makes ths Indi­ v id u a l^ position ewkward among outs ider!. IBM p o p l e often have to take guff i t pa rlies, unless Ihsy are IBM p a rties. Defenslvsnss* n a y account for some of the Overdo, and some of the d a n n lsh -

II i9 IBM's alleged misbehavior in pursuit of sales that has drswn some of the strongest criticism within the in dustry, as well as consid­ erable litigation, Their "predsiory pricing* (a terro use d by the ju dge In the recent Telex decision), and olher mean practices, are (whe­ ther tr ue or false) folklore within the in dustry , These accusations are well summsrited by "Anonymous” In a recent arUcle (see Biblio­ gr aphy). Basically Ihe accusations agalnal IBM's sales pr aciices are that they play dirty: If you, say, the computer manager in b business firm, wanl to buy equipment from Bnother out­ fit. IBM (so the story goes) will go over your head to yo ur boss, accuse you o( incompetence, try to get you fired if you oppose them, and Heaven knows whal e ls e. Anonymous claims lhal various forms of threat, Intimidation, "hard­ sell sc are tactics" snd "behind-the-s cenes man­ ipulation'’ a re actually Blandard practice in IBM sales: he or she alleges various insiancos in c erts in municipalities. Such behsvlor is emphatically denied, though not in relation lo thBt article, by Board Chairman C ary. In a recent teller lo Newsweek (see Bibliography). Cary emphasizes the impor­ tance of IBM's 76-psge business Conducl Guide­ lines. Whether these are publicly examinable is not sta ted. Thes e charges were also taken up con­ cretely in a recent survey ol computing managers done by UalamBlion (summarited by McLaughlin in "Monopoly Is Nol a Came:’ see Bibliography). In Datamation'* analysis oi this survey, the menegera did not seem to agree wilh these charges against IBM. However, il must be noted-- snd ihis se riously calls into question the entire survey as analyzed-- thst oul of 1100 panelists lo the questionnaire. Datamation only considered 389 responses "usable." partly (It is ststed) because many did nol give dais allowing themselves to be identified, Considering the widespread fear of I8M in Ihe field, ihls may have strongly biased the poll in favor ol IBM

However, he believes thal situation Is changing unde r IBM's new management, so that Ihe gu id e­ lines will be obse rved in the lutu re. ("Poppa Seea Several IBM Changes ." Computerworld, 21 Nov 73. 29.) The people who lake these ma ilers ol IBM sa les practices most seriously** IBM's competi­ tors-- now have their own organization, the Computer Industry Association. This Is an a sso­ ciation of computer companies, which has as ils intention ihe "establishment and preservation of a sound and viable U-S. computer in d u stry , ba sed o n . . . free and open competition." Empha­ sis the irs. Translation: ihey're out lo gel IBM. President Dan L. McGurk, iormerly of Xerox Oata Sysiems. has blood In his eye. Member­ ship is open only to compuier companies, bul Ihelr newsletter On Line is available to indivi­ duals (see B ibliography). Anyone se riously interested in these matters is referred to them.

BHAINWASHSD? II I* tr ue that IBM people are essentially In their own worl d, One theory Is thit comparla en u iliatlo n within the firm (ra th er vlelble in tbair deslgne) may tend lo stifle. Indeed, because IBM people can expect lo be briefed and schooled in every technical n a tte r they will need to know for a given aselgnment. Ihe incentive to follow technical d e v elo p m ent through oulslde magazines and societies may be reduced. Between Think magaslne and corp orals brie fin gs, it Is possible for IBM p w p ls to be comparatively (or even com­ pletely) unawere of innovations elsewhe re In the field, except as these new developments are p rw enie d to th e n wilhin the organization, in thle light ll le easy to understand Ihe Ibmere' sense of certainly thet Ihelr flr m invented every* thing and le al the forefront. Of cours e many fine rese arch efforts do go on th sre. In eonelderebie awarenese of what’e hap­ pening elsew he re Particular Individuals st IBM havs done excellent reeearch on everything I n n conputer hidden-l in e imaging to the structu re o( the genetic code and computer-synthesized holog r u n t . APL Itself (see p p . t l . - 3 ) . ss developed by Iverson Bt Harvard and iBter programmed by him at IBM. Is another esample of sophisticated individual creativity th ere. So it'a entirely possible. But IBM certainly has no monopoly on un derstand ing o r c rsstlv lty. and IBM-haters sometimes talk a s If the reve rse is tr ue.

3. TECHNICAL DECISIONS AND DESIGNS A. Prologue. Part of the mylh of lOM's corporate pe rfec­ tion 1s based on ihe notion ihsl technical mailers somehow predominate In IBM's decisions, and thal IBM's product offerings and designa thus emerge naturally and necessarily and inevitably from the se considerations. Thia is rath er lar from the Irulh. IBM presents many d( Ihelr actions as tsc hnical, even as technical breakthroughs, whon in lact they are strategic maneuvers. The an­ nouncement ol a new computer, for example, such as the 360 or 370. is usually made to sound as if they have invented something special, while in (act they have simply made certain de cisions as to "which way they intend lo go" and how they plan to market things in ihe next

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IBM conirole the Industry principally by controlling Its custo mers. Through varioua mechanisms, ii seems lo enforce ihe principle that "Once an IBM customer, always an IBM customer .* With an e atr ao rdln a ry degre e of control, surely poseeeeed In no olher field by any other organize Hon In Ihe free world, 1 1 dictates whal Ils customers may buy. and whal they may do with what they get. More than this: the elections of loyalty levied upon IBM’s cueumers are sim ila r. In kin d and degre e, U whai u damande of Ils own employees. IBM makes the c u s u m e r 's employees more and more like Ils own employees, committing ih e o as Individuals, and eOectively committing the coopany lhat b u y s frno It. to IBM se rv ice In perpetuity. Hare are some of the ways thle systo n of control s e m e to work . He are not saying here thal this Is n ece ssarily how IBM pla ns It: rather, the se are the vir tu al mechanics, virtual 10 lha old sense: this is how it might a s well be working. In Ihe anthropological sense this Is i 'functional* a n aly sis, showing the tie-ins rathe r than Ihs actual detailed thought processes lhal occu r. And even If Iheee ere really the mechanics, perh aps IBM doeen't mean them to be. 11 a lg h t Just somehow be a continuous accident. A. Interconnection and compatibilities.

Now, the re are many m anulacturers who think Ihls Is very wrong o( IBM: who beliove they should have ihe rig ht to sell accessories and p a n s - - especially core and disk memorieB-lo plug onto IBM's computers, ll ha s been generally possible lor the se other manufacturers lo work IheBe Interconnections oul awhile after Ihe computer comes out on Ihe mark et, bul it' s gelling more difficult. Thus tha Telex Decision of September 17. 1S73. in which II was decreed by ihe judge that IBM would have to aupply complete interlace information promptly when Introducing a new computer, was s source of great Jubilation in Ihe computer field. However, lhal pa ri of the Judgment has since been cancelled. Much the same problem exists in ihs soltware area. IBM Is less than in terested In hslplng ils competitors write pr ograma lhal hook up lo IBM programs, to the details of program hookup are not alwsys made c le ar. Here. too. many smaller companies Insist thsy should be made to do It'. B . Control and guidance of what the customer can get. To e remarkable degre e, if you are an fBM cusiomsr, you practically have to buy whst they tell you. This IBM manages by an in tr i­ cate system of fluctuating degre es of salea and suppor t and contractual dealing. The IBM cus­ tomer alwsys ha s several optlone: but the se are like forced c ard s. IBM is alwsys Introducing and discontinuing products, and changing prices snd contractual e rrangoienl* and aofiwere op­ tions in an elaborate choreography, which applies calculated pressure s on the custo m er. IBM has s finely-tuned system of customer inc entives by which il controls product phssln g. to uae the pollle term, or planned obsolescence, as some people call It. (Ryal R. Poppa, presi dent of Pertec Corp.. pred ic ts lhal IBM cuitomere will now be re­ quir ed to switch over to new pr oducts every five or six years, rath er than every seven, which Poppa contende haa been the figure. ("Poppa Sees Several IBM Change*," Computerw orld, 21 Nov 73. 28.) Programs, especially, are available wilh different degre es of approval fr<m IBM. The technique of "support* Is the concrete manifes­ tation of approva l. A supported program le one which IBM promise* to f li when bugs turn up. With an unaupported program, you're on your own, Cod has forgotten yo u. Becauee so much of IBM's virtue lies in the strength and fervor of its aupport, the uee ol unsupported programs, or unsupported features of supported programs, is a difflcull and r is ky mailsr . like driving without a map and a epare tire , or even going Into the Himalayas without gloves. Effec­ tively ihe withdrawal of support le the death knell of any big program, such a s TSS/360. even though c u e im e r e may wanl lo go on using

Availability of products is in general a metier ol exquisite dc gra c. It's nol so much thai you csn or can'l gel a particular thing, bul thal Ihe pricing and available contracts al a given time ^xerl 6lrong pressure to pul you whero they have chosen wilhin their currently featured product line . Moreover, extremely strong hints are Biways available: the salesmsn will tell you whal model of Ihelr computers is likaly lo be a dead end. o r . on the other hand, whet model Is likely lo offer various options and progre ssiv e developments in the near future. Some th ings sre hall-available, eilhor ss "RPQs" (an IBM term for special orders-Hequeet Price Quotation), or available lo sophisticated customers al IBM's discretion. With all the degrees of availability. II Is easy for IBM to open or close by degrees various avenues in which customsrB are inte r­ ested . Also, different siz es of conputer wilt or won't allow given programs or de sirable program features. Many IBM cuatomers have io get bigger computers lhan ihsy would otherwise want becsu se a given program-- for instance, a COBOL compiler with certain capabilities-- is not offered by tBM for the amaller machine. Indeed, an elaborate sizing scheme exis ts for matching the machine to the customsr -- o r. s cynic might say, assu ri ng lhai you can 't get the program features you ought lo be able to get unlesB you gel b la rg er compuier than you wanted. What It boils down to Is that you. ihe customer, have few genuine options, especially if your firm Is alread y committed to doing c e r ­ tain things with e compuier. And when IBM brin gs out a new computer, the prlcee and other Influencea are exaciingly calculated lo make mandatory the Jump they have in mind to the new model. (This planning oi customer transitions does nol always work. When the 370 was intr o­ duced. for Instance. IBM had In mind lhal com­ panies with a certain size of 360 would trade up to a bigge r 370. In some cases u se rs traded down to a amaller 370. which was able to do the same work for lees money, to the acule bother of IBM.)

Elleclively the IBM customer lends to be frequently trapped In a cage of restrictions, whether this cage is intentionally created by IBM or not One is reminded of Ihe mollo of T .ll. white's anthill in The Once and Future King: THAT WHICH IS NOT FOROlDDLN IS COMPULSORY. The degree to which these restrictions are manipulated or intentional Is. ol course, a mailer of debate.

I).

Captive bureaucracies running in place?

Perhaps the most unfortunate Ihlng about IBM (from an outs ider's point o( view) is ihsl effectively their systems can only be use d by bureaucracies whom ihey have tr ained. From koypunch operator up lo installation manager, all are elleclively enslaved to cu rious complex­ ities thal keep ch an gin g. The ever-chsnglng str uc tu re of OS. and Ils quaint access methods. Is Just one example. II might even seem lo ihe oulslde observer lhal IBM's gems, Intentional or not. is to keep things difficult and intricately fluid io retain utter control. In other words, ll Is a s though they fostered s continual turnover ol unne cessary complications to keep a cspllve bureaucracy running In pla ce. People who they have indoctrinated lend nol io buy opponents' computers. People who are Immersed in Ihe peculiarities of IBM sysisms. and busy keeping up with mandatory changes, do not get uppity. They are too bu sy , and the Inveatment of ihelr time and effort is too high for them io went to Anti-IBM cynics say lhat a lot ol Ihe work Involved in working with IBM computers Is se lf 'generate d. arising from the unnecessary complexities ol OS/360. JCL. TCAM and so on. Bul of course lhal cannot bo evaluated here . PROSPECTS Theae rem arks ahould clarify ihe bleakness of the prospect for mBn's luture among computers If IBM's system of control really does work this way, and if it is going to go on doing so . Be­ cause it means Ihe future that some of us hope for-- the simple and cbbubI availability io indi­ vidua ls of cleBr and simple computer systems with extraneous complications edited sw ay-- may be forecloaed II they can help It. Lei's all hope. th en. Ihsl these things turn out not lo be really tr u e . " . . . IBM In Its Infinite wisdom has decreed lhal Ihle is Ihe way we must go." Cynical compuier Installation manager, quoted In Com£ulen*orld, i t Aug 73. p. 4.

IBH acts s s If It does not wanl competitors to be able lo connect ihelr acceeaorles id Its ccmputers. Ii's s s th ou gh CM could design the roede so as lo p revent Ihe peesage of olher vebleles than lia o w n . Thia la done e sv eral w ay s. First. IBM has soBsOmss use d con tractual techniques to prevent such intarconnecllone u l u a y ata sa, either forbidding e th e r th in gs to be attached (or al least clapping on extra se rv ice charges if they a r e ) . or declari ng lhat ll would not be responsible for overall performance of such t se tu p, effectively withdrawing the ha rdware I liar anise lhat le su ch a strong selling point. Secondly. IBM doee not tall all lhat neede lo bfe known In o r d e r to make Iheee intercon­ nection*-- ihe deUUa of the hard w are interfaces. -Finally. IBM can simply d e cree , perbape claiming technical necessity, thst Interconnection la impossible. For Insta nce. IBH sa id for a time thal their latest b ig progra m . "VS.* or Virtual SysjBB, wou ldn't work (translation: would not b e allowed) If competitive memories were used, on the c om pute r.

C.

Having to do things )usl Ihelr way,

IBM sysiems and programs are set up lo do things In perticu la r w ay s. To a remarkable de gre e, it Is difficult io use them In ways not planned or app ro ved by IBM. and difflcull to tie syste ms end programs together. Programs and features which ihe casual obse rv er would suppose ought io be compatible, lend not to be. For some reason compatibility always lends to cost e x tra . II Is s s though Ihe compatibility of equipment end programs w ere planned by IBM as much as Ihelr product line .

Finally, Ih er e Is the popular doctrine of IBM's inf allib ility . T h is , mo. is a ways from the t r u th . T he most conspicu ous example waa something called TSS /3 60 . An I nter esting example ol an IBM nonhro ak th rou gh v u lhe dram atic announcement In 1984 of tho 380 c o m p u te r, |» r tr a y e d aa a machine which would at last c a n bine the function# of both "buBlness" cam p a t a r s and "scientiflc" com­ pu te rs . But oth er compan ie s. such aa B urro u gh s (with tha 5500) had b e en doing thla for some Mm. T h e qu a in t se p aratio n o( power* between scientific co mpute rs (w ith a ll-b in ary itn r a g e of number#) and bu alnea a ccmputBm (decimal ■tcra g e) w a t ba ae d on ly on tr adi tion and ma r­ keting co ns ideratio n*, and waa otherw is e unde­ s ir a b le . in am algamating the "two ty p e * . " IBM was on ly re sc in d in g th e ir own p rev ious u n n « e e s a r y d is tinct ion. The drama of the a n ­ nouncement d e riv e d In la r g e meas ure from the str e s s ihey ha d p rev io u s ly laid on the divis io n, (For tune ran an In te re st in g piece on the decision str u g g le s pr ec w lin g th a Introduction of th e 360 Ct D pu ter , and the Inter nal arg uments a s to w he­ the r th e re should be one line of Mxnputers o r two. See th e flve-b ll ll on -do ll a r gamble piece . Biblio­ g raph y.) Thl* tie* in c lo sely with another I n te r e a ­ tin g aspect of th e IBM im age, th e pub lic notion tha t IBM la a gr ea t in n ov a to r, bringing oul novel technologies all ihe time. It i s well known In th e field tha t th e y a re not: IBM usu ally does not b rin g o ut a new ty p e of p r o d u c t until aoma olh er ax n p an y haa pio neer ed i t . (Again remembe r the e ar li e r point, lh a t the pr oduct offering Is a atrateglc m a n e u v e r.) But of cou rse such facta do not appea r in lhe promotional lit erature , no r a r e they v olu nteere d b y the sa le s m an . The e x pre salo n for thla In the field ia th st IBM ’make* th in g s res pect ab le .* That la , c ustom ers gel thal r e a s s u r e d leallng, when IBM a d d s other peo p le 's in novation* to ihelr pro du ct Ilna. and decide I l' s o k a y to go ahead and ren t o r bu y auch a p r o d u c t. (Thia aleo sometimes kick* bus lneas ba ck to the original m anu fa ct ure r. ) A few e xa m ple s of things that were a lre ad y on the ma rket when IBM bro ug ht them o u t, often making them sound comple tely new: irsn alstorU ed co mpu le rs (first of fered b y Fh ilc o). virtua l mem­ o ry ( B u r ro u g h s ) , mic ro program ming (Introduced com mere [ally by Bu nk er-R am o) . T h is Is not to sa y thst IBM ie Incapab le of Innovation: merely lha l Ihey are ne ver In a h u r ry ab ou t i t . T h e Introduction ol IBM p r o ­ ducts 1 o r ch e str ate d like a military campaign, a and what IBM b r i n g s oul i s alw ay s s carefullyplanned. p r o fi t-or ie nted ste p Intended not lo dislocate it* p roduct li n e . This Is not to say that they don'l h a v e ne w stuff in the back room, a potential arsenal of s u r p r i s e s of many types, But ll Is probable tha t most ol them will ne ve r be seen. T h is Is b e c a u se of IBM's "Impact1 ' problem. TSS/300 w as s tim e-sh arin g s y s ta n - that ia . the control prog ra m to go v e rn one model of the 350 as a tim e-sh arin g computer. Acc ordin g to Datamation (’ IBM Phase s Out Work on Showcase TSS E f fo r t. ' Sept. 1, 1971, 56-9). ove r 400 people wo rked o n It at once for a total of some 2000 m a n -y e a r s of effort. And It was s c ra pp ed , a writeoff of some 100 million do lla ra In lost development c os ts. Tha system never worked well e n ough . Reputedly u se rs had to wait much too long for the compu te r's r e s p o n se s, and the system could not really compete with those offered e ls ew h e re . The fail ure and abandonment of th is p r o ­ gram i s thus r esp o n sib le for IBM's p r e s e n t non­ competitive position In tim e-sharin g; custo mers are now a ssu re d b y IBM that other th in g s are more Im po rtan t. IBM -h at ers thank th eir s ta r s that thla h a p p e n e d . C y n ics think it conce ivable tha t h lg h-po w er tim e-sha ri ng w as dropp ed by IBM i n o r d e r to shoo Its customer base toward areas It controlled more completely. Two oth e r co ns picuous IBM cata stro phes have been specific compute rs: the 360 model 90 in the lste six ties , and a machine call ed the STRETCH Bomewhat e a r lie r . Both of th e se machines worke d and w ere deliv ere d to c u sItaners. (Indeed, the STRETCH Is said b y some to have be en on e of the be st machines e v e r , ) But they were d is c ontinue d by IBM ae no t su f­ ficiently p r o fita b le . T here in la said to have been tho " fa il ure." (Ho wev er. It has be an al­ leged In c ou rt c a se s th a t these w ars ’ knockout" machines de signed to clobb er the competition at a pla nn ed loss .) B. Negative views of IBM systems. In the te chnical rea lm . IBM Is widely u n ­ loved because many people think some o r all of their computers an d prog ra m s a re eith e r p o or, o r far from what they should be , T h e rea so ns S a n e ol th e pe op le feeling th is way a re IBM c u sto m e rs , and for a time they had a n o r ­ ganized lobby, called SHARE (which also facil­ itated sh a ri n g of p r o g ra m s) . Recently, ho wever, SHARE has become IBM-domlna led, a sor t of company union, a c c o rd in g to my source s. T h e de sign of the 380, while wide ly a c ­ cepted as a fact o f li fe . Is s h a rp l y criticized by m any. (See "W ha t's wrong with th e 3807", P- 11-) IBM's p r o g ra m s , while they are avail able for a bro ad va ri e ty of p u r p o s e s , a r e often no to r­ iously cumbersome, a wkw ard and Inefficient, and sometimes dovetai l v e r y b a dly. However, tha le s s efficient a prog ra m la . the more money they make Irom it . A program lhal has lo be ru n for an ho ur g e n e r a te s twice as much rev enu e than if Ii did il s w ork in th ir ty minutes: a p r o ­ gram tha t has to b e r u n o n a computer w ith, sa y . a million sp a ce s of c o re memory gen erate s ten times the rev e n u e it would in two hun dred thou­ sand ,

QUKJnt HISW.1
o f
IBM app ea re d In 1911 aa th e convalidation ol a numbe r of small companies making light e qu ipment, un d e r th e name C-T-H Company ( Compu te r-T abulating R e cord). T h i s waa p r o p h e ti c , co n sid ­ e r in g how ap ti y i t d e scrib e d the com­ p a n y 's fu tu re b u sin e s s , and e spec ially prop hetic c o n sid erin g that to d ay's Btored-program co mp uter was undreamed of at lhat time. Accordin g to Wililsm Rodgers' definitive company blogTBphy T h i n k , the company's c r e a to r w as a sh r ew d ope ra to r named Ch a rle s R. Flint, dash ing e n tre p r e n e u r and former gun r u n n e r to Ihe Soulh Americ an r ep u b li cs, who In his sh r e w d n e ss b ro u g h t In to r u n the company an in c re d ib ly talented, f ir e- b re ath in g an d s e lf -r ig h te o u s in di­ vidua l named Thomes J . Watson, even though Walson st tha t time w as un der p r is o n se ntence for his sa les practicBB at another w el l-k no w n c o m pa ny. The senten ce waa n e v e r se rv e d , a n d Watson went on to p r esid e for many ye a r s ov e r a corpor at ion to which he gave his un ique stamp. Watson a ris e s from lhe pa ges of T h in k ae a sa nctim onious ty r a n t , ha rd as na ils yet r e v e re n tly prin ciple d i n his words; the p il lar of f ervid , aggre ss iv e cor po rate pie ty. IBM was tota lly Watson'a cre at io n. T h e cm npany became what he admired in o th e rs , a mechanism totally obedient to his will and imple ­ menting his forcef ul and ln sp lrl n gly rationalized co nv ictions wilh a l a c r i t y , As the Ch urch is sa id to be the b r id e of Chrla t. IBM m ig ht b e ch ar ac te riz ed aa the B r id e of Watson, molded to th e sty le s of de m an dlng ness. p r e s s u r e , eff iciency and pietism which BO c h a r ­ acteri zed that ma n. B u t the Ideas flowed from Watson a lo ne, exce pt for a few confidantes who r ec eiv e d his nod. T h e company is va st ly big ge r now, and sl ig h tl y mo re co lorfu l, in a muled so rt of way: b u l it i s atill Lhe stiff and deadly e a r n e s t battalion of his dream. Because of Watson 's ba ckg round bb sa les man, he ma de Sales the apeji of the corp orat io n . T h a salesm en had the most p r e s t ig e w it h in the company and could make the most money; below tha t was adm in is tra ti on , below th a l. technical staff. WaLaon elimina ted the meat -slici ng m achi nes, and pu sh e d th e pr o du ct line ba se d on p u n c h ed c a r d s developed by IBM's (Ir sl Chief e n g in e e r . Herman H olle rith. A c c o r d l n g t o R o d g e r s . l t was impetus from lhe D e p r e s sio n , and lha new bookkeep ing r e q u ir e m e n t s of Roosevelt's r e m e d ie s , th a t s k yrock e te d the firm un iq ue ly d u r in g th e d e p th s of ge neral economic c a ta str o p h e , til) Watson came lo d r a w the hi gh e st a a la ry of a n y man i n th e n a tio n . In 1934 h is income was 1364.432 (Will Rog ers, nol the au th o r of T h i n k , w as se co nd wilh S324.314). Watson ha d ne at ly a rr a n g e d to ge l 5% of IBM's net p rofit.

While IBM pa rticipate d In the c re ati on of cer ta in e a r ly c txnp utera. It i s In te re st in g thal Walson dism issed E ck e r t a nd Mauchly whan they came a ro u n d after World War II tr in g to get ba ck in g for their ENIAC de sig n . In c er ta in waya the Aral tr u e elec tronic c om pu te r. Eckert and Mauchly went lo Remington Rand, and tha rea ultin g Univac waa the f lr st canm erc lal c o m p u te r . However, IBM bounced ba ck v a r y w e l l. If th e re was on# ih in g they k ne w how to do It waa aell, and when th e y brou gh t oul their compulers It w as pr ac ti c al ly cle a r sailing . (T he Univac I waa Ihe f ir st of many compu­ t e r s to be delaye d and boggle d in tha completion at It# software, and th is c on sid era b le se tback helped IBM ge t the le ad v a ry quickly; ihey have n e v e r lost It since.) In the early sixties th e IBM 7090 and 7094 w ere virtu a ll y unch allenged aa Lhe le ad in g scientific computers of th e c o u n tr y , But IBM in th e late al xUes almost rel inq uis he d the fi elds of v e r y big computers and lim e- sh ari ng to ot her companies, and th eir compu­ t e r s are not rega rd e d a s In n ov at ive N ev ert h el ess , IBM's Systems 360 and 370. de sp ite va rious crit ic ism s, ha v e be en v e ry suc ce ss fu l; th ou sa nds of them are In ope ratio n a roun d the g lo be , far more than all Ih elr r iv a l s ' big c om pule rs all put to gether. This d e s ­ pite the fact that some of these syst e m s hav e failed, inc luding the big Modal 91 (an economic (all ure) and the TSS /360 tim e-sh a ri n g p ro gra m , a te chnical cat ast ro ph e. They hav e from time to time be en accused of unfair tacd ca. a n d v a rio u s a ntitruat and other actiona ( see "Legal Milestones" boa) have r e q u ir e d IBM to change Its a r r a n g e ­ ments In va rloua w a y s . One d e c r e e r e q u ir e d them lo aell lhe c a n p u te re that before they had only rente d; ano th er deci si on , lo. " u n b u n d le . " or se ll co mpute rs separat ely from th eir prog ra m s ( p revious ly "g iven" away w it h the co mpu te rs th e y ran o n ) , Is widely believed to hav e pr ev e n te d govern m ent acLon on the same m a tte r. Showing char ac te ris tic fin es se . IBM th ere up on lowered the computer p ric e s almost I m pe rcep tibly, th e n sl apped heavy p r ic e - ta g s on th e prog ra m s thal ha d pr ev io u sly b e e n free. Recent movea b y tho go v e rn m e n t ha ve sug ge sted an esp ec ially se rio u s a n d f ar -r e ac h in g a n ti - tr u st su it ag ain st IBM, po ssib ly one that might b r e a k the compan y up . with it s se p arate d iv is io n s g o in g variou s waya. How ever, in t o da y's climate of co ay rela ti o n s be­ tween bu sine ss and g ov e rn m e nt. It is ha rd to imagine that such matters would not be settled lo IBM's li kin g. T h is le n d s a cu rio u s ti n t to a r e m a r k one IBM pe rson haa made to the a u th or, to wit. that maybe IBM want a to be b r o k e n up. That might be on e way of r e d u c in g the unw le ldlness an d I n te r ­ dep en d ency of It# p ro du ct li ne; in a ddition to redu c in g Its vast, u n d e r ­ u til ized pe rs onnel b a se. (Another angle: Acdng Attorney Gene ral Bo rk has e x p re ssed the vie w that IBM Is big only becs use its prod ucts and management are wo nderf ul, so the a n titr u st e ss e ma y simply evap orate d u r in g the rump day s of th e Nixon in c um be ncy .)

Unique In IBM's position is the problem of filling new prod ucts in to the market alo ngsid e Its old o n e s. Its p rob lem Is much w or se, sa y, than thal of Procter 6 Gamble. T he problem is not me rely ita sit e an d Lhe d ive rs it y of Its products, bu t the (set Lhat they may inte rfe re wilh each other (‘ impact" each ot her, th e y say) In v e ry co npllc aied w a y s , A pr og ram like their Datalexl, for ex am p le, which allow s c e r ­ tain kinds of text i n p u t and rev is ion from te rmlnaia, may affect Its type w ri ter Una, Th es e are no small matters: the da nger Is thal some new combination of p r o d u cts will gave the c u s ­ tomers money IBM would otherw is e b e g e nin g, innovstlons must e x p an d the amount IBM la taking In. o r IBM lose s b y making them. T h ese complications of th e p rod uc t line in a way prov id e a counte rbalanc e to IBM's f e a r ­ some power. The c o rp or at ion haa an immense Inertia based on lla exis ti ng pro duct line and cuB tm a r baae. and o n w ay s of th inkin g which have been caref ully p ro mulgated and explai ned th roughout ita huge r a n k s , that cannot be revlaed qu ickly or flip pa ntly. Nevertheleaa it la remark ab le how at every t u r n — noUbly when people think IBM will be sat back -- th e y manage Lo make policy decision* or strategi c moves which f u rt h e r con­ solidate their po sit ion. Often these seem to involve r es tr ic tin g lhe way the ir co np u te rs will be used (see boa. "IBM's C o n t ro l.' ) (The most Ironic su c h countermove b y IBM occu rre d a few y e a r s ago with th e ao-called ■u nb un dli n g" de claion. IBM at last agre ed (on nanp lal nt (ram other so ftware firms) lo stop giving lia pro grams away to people ren ti ng th e hard w ar e. Glee w as w id e sp re ad In th e ln dua lr y. which expected IBM to lo w e r co n p u te r p r ic e s in pr oportion to whai 11 would now c h a r g e for the so ftw are . Mot at a l l . IBM lowered Ita « m putar p r ic e s by a m in uscu le amount and slapped heavy new price a on th e softw ar e- - often c harges of tho usand s of d o lla r s p e r month.)

The complex tr ai ning and r e stri c ti on s that go with IBM p r o g ra m s seem to have in te res ting fu nct ion s. (See box, "IBM's C ontr ol." ) C. T heo rie s of IBM de sig n .

The que stion l e . how could a company like IBM cre ate an y th in g like the 380 (with it s severe defic iencies) and l ls o pera tin g system or control pro gram OS (w ith Its sp raw li n g compli­ cati ons. not p r e s e n t In competitors' sy stems) ? T hree sn sw e rs a r e w idely pr oposed: On Purpose (the consp ir ac y t h e o r y ) , By Accident (the b lu n d e r t h m r y ) , and T h a t 's How T h e y 're Sat Up (the Management Science th e o ry ). Thea e view s are by no mean s mutually exclusive, T h e Management Scie nc e th e ory of IBM de sign is the only one of ihese we ne ed take u p . The e xtens iv e use committee de cisio ns may de sign compromises with a imle ssn ess, r a th e r than simple str u c tu re s. (See c hap te r. ’The M e e ti n g .' of gr o u p d is cus sion and lend lo c re ate a w kw ard a c er ta in intr in sic inc is iv e ly distinct and Gould's marvelous 58-80.)

T h ei r use of imm ense teams m do big pr og ramm in g jo b s, r a t h e r than highly motivated and esp ec ially talented g r o u p s, is widely viewed ae cou n te rp ro du cti v e. For Insta nc e. Barn et A. Wolf/, i n a letter to Datamation (Se pt. 1, 1971. p . 13) sa ys a p a rt icula r pro gram "re ma ina in e f f ic ie n t, pr obab ly be ca u se of IBM's un fo rtunate ha bit of usin g tr ai nee s f re sh out of school to w rite th e ir system s code.* T h ere may aleo be some thing in th e way th a t pr ojects are Initiated and laid out from Ihe top down, ra th e r than a c q u ir in g dir ec tio n from knowledgeable people at the technical le ve l, tha t cre ate s a ten denc y tow ard perf un ct orl n ess and clunk y str u c tu re .

A pe rs ist an t ru mor Is th a t IBM fires all Ita salesmen In a g e o gra p hic a rea if a key or p r e s t i g e sale ia 'l o a i . • as when M . I . T . ' s Project MAC switched over to Genera l Electric e m p u t a r s in the s ix t ie s , o r when Western Ele ctric E ng in e erin g Re se arch Ce nte r pass ed ov e r IBM co mpute rs to get s big PDP-10. Much aa some people w ould like to believe these s t o r i e s , t h e r e seems lo be no d ocumen ta tion. You would think one auch victim would write an article about It U ll w ere t r u e .__ j

T h u s the re may v e r y well be no iniantional po lic y of u n ne ce ssary complication (see Box. "IBM's C o n tro l" ) . B u t the way i n which goals are eel and technical decisi on s delegated may gen erate this u n n e c e ssa r y complication.

lHWfS'K*Y
It la u nfor tu na te tha l Rodgera' remark ab le book doea not follow the de tails of IBM's c om pute r de sign s sn d politics In lha c o n p u t e r ag e, i . e . . since 1955. Lat er w o r k , pe rh a p s helped by some Penta go n P a p e rs , will ha ve to relate th e d ecisi on proce ss es that o c c u r re d in thla un ique nadonal institu tion to lhe ayBtema i t has pr od uced and the stamp It haa p u t on th e w orl d. _________________________

An In te re st in g aspect or IBM pu blicity Is lla s t r e s s on sta tu s. Publici ty photograph# often show s s u b o r d in a te se ek in g a d v ic e from a su p e ri o r. IBM ada appeal lo lh e c orp orat ion p r e s i d e n t in all of u a-- eith e r Going It Alone ( ta k in g a lo n g walk o v e r a n Bxe cut ive Decision) o r so be rly d ir e c tin g a le s s e r em ployee. In one e x tr a o r d in ar y c ase , we saw w ors hip fu l c on vict # a l th e feel of a T ea ch e r Implaualbly aituaied In th e c o rn e r o f a p r is o n yard .

IBH a n n o u n c e d a n u m b e r o f w o r t h y o b j e c t i v e s w h e n t h e 360 l i n e w as a n n o u n c e d i n 1 9 6 4 . IBM s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y b e t h a n k e d f o r a t l e a s t t h e i r l i p s e r v i c e to th e s e n o b le g o a ls . 1. 'O n e m a c h i n e f o r a l l p u r p o s e s , b u s i n e s s a n d s c i e n t i f i c . ' (Thus t h e n a m e ‘ " 3 6 0 , ” f o r t h e " f u l l c i r c l e ” o f a p p l i c a t i o n s . ) By " b u s i n e s s " t h i s m a i n l y m e a n t d e c i m a l . a t f o u r b i t s a d i g i t . A c t u a ll y t h i s m e a n t g r a f t i n g 4 - b i t d e c im a l h a rd w a re to an o th e r* w is e n o r m a l b i n a r y c o m p u te r , a nd m a k in g b o t h t y p e s o f u s e r s s h a r e t h e sa m e f a c i l i t y . 2. ' I n f o r m a t i o n s t o r a g e and d a rd iz e d .' T he 360 w as s e t u p t o a t i a e , 8 b i t s a t a tim e , 16, 32, p r e c e d i n g s t a n d a r d h a d b e e n 6 , 18 tra n sm h a n d le a n d 64 a n d 36 is s io n w i l l b e sta n * in fo rm a tio n 4 b i t s a t b i t s a t a tim e . (T h e b i t s a t a tim e .)

3. ’ 360s w i l l a l l lo o k a l i k e to th e p ro g ra m ; c a n b e m ove d f r e e l y f r o m m a c h i n e t o m a c h i n e . '

th u s

p ro g ra m s

U n f o r t u n a t e l y t h i s c o m p a t i b i l i t y h a s b e e n u n d e r m i n e d by num e rous f a c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y th e v a r i e t y o f o p e r a t i n g s y s te m s , i n c l u d i n g h a l f a d o 2e n m a j o r t y p e s , a n d t h e l a n g u a g e p r o c e s s o r s , i n t r i c a t e l y g r a d e d a c c o r d i n g to c o m p u te r s i z e . D o th t h e s e f a c ­ t o r s t e n d t o m a k e c h a n g e s n e c e s s a r y t o move p r o g r a m s b e t w e e n com ­ p u te rs . W h ile one e f f e c t o f t h i s " s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n " h a s i n d e e d b e e n to f a c i l i t a t e t h e m o v in g o f p r o g ra m s fro m s m a l l c o m p u te rs t o b i g o n e s , a m o r e i m p o r t a n t e f f e c t h a s p e r h a p s b e e n « make i t h a r d t o move f r o m a b i g c o m p u t e r t o a s m a l l e r o n e . N o te th e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s a p p a r e n t p a r a d o x t o IBM’ s n a r k c t i n R . T h e s c c r e t o f i t a l l , o f c o u r s c , l i e s i n ID M 's k e e n u n d e r ­ s t a n d i n g o f how t o s e l l b i g c o m p u t e r s . The c o m p t r o l l e r , o r som ebody l i k e h im , g e n e r a l l y m akes th e f i n a l d e c i s i o n ; a n d i f h e i s t o l d t h a t th e o n e c o m p u te r w i l l ru n " a l l k i n d s " o f p r o ­ g ram s, th a t n a t u r a l l y sounds lik e a s a v in g . S h a d e s o f t h e F111. ( B u s i n e s s m e n ' s t r u s t a n d r e s p e c t f o r IBM i s d i s c u s s e d e lse w h e re in t h i s a r t i c l e . )

I n t h e i r 3 6 0 l i n e , IBH a l s o r e p l a c e d t h e i n d u s t r y ’ s s t a n ­ d a r d A S C II c o d e w i t h a s t r a n g e a l p h a b e t i c a l c o d e c a l l e d EBCDIC ( " E x te n d e d B i n a r y Coded D ec im a l I n f o r m a t i o n C o d e " ) , o s t e n s i b l y b u i l t u p f r o m t h e 4 - b i t d e c i m a l c o d e (B C D ) , b u t b e l i e v e d by* c y n i c s t o h a v e b e e n c r e a t e d c h i e f l y t o m ake t h e 360 i n c o m p a t i b l e w ith o t h e r s y s te m s and t e r m in a l s .

THE FUTURE

THe BKrQOesTioMS
B e tw e e n t h e t r a d e p r e s s a n d d o z e n s of a c q u a in ta n c e s In th e H e ld , a lm o s t e v e r y t h i n g I h e a r a b o u t IBM a n d Its p r o d u c ts le n e g a t i v e ( s a y f iv e o r te n to o n e ) - - e x c e p t from pe o p le w h o w o r k o r h a v e r e la tiv e s t h e r e . P e r h a p s I t 's J u a t s o u r g r a p e s . O r th e a u th o r i ty b a tin g c h a r a c t e r o f r e s e a r c h t y p e s . O r se le c tiv e r e a d i n g . O r p e r h a p a t h e r e r e a l l y le som e th in g s i n i s t e r . T h a m a jo r q u e s t i o n s a r e t h e s e . 1 . How c l e a n la t h e i r s a le s m a n sh ip ? 2. A r e t h e i r s y s t e m s u n n e c e s s a r i l y d ifficu lt or c u m b erso m e o n p urpose? 3 . How d e e p I s t h e i r sy s te m o f e n tr a p m e n t and f a r c e d c o m m itm en t of t h e c u sto m e r? How n e c e s s a r y a r e t h e d e - s t a n d a r d lz a t io n a and th e c o n s t a n t c h a n g e s ? 4 . Do th e y h a v e a f in a l l i b e r a ti n g v is ion? Do th e y r e a l l y , a f t e r a l l . in te n d to b r in g a b o u t a d a y w h e n lif e i s e a s i e r for p e o p le? When th e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f p r e s e n t - d a y c o m p u te r s y s te m s , e e p e c l a l l y t h e i r s , w ith e r aw a y? I th i n k th a t h i s t o r y ' s Ju d g m e n t on IBM in o u r time m a y n a r r o w d o w n to th a t sim p le q u e s tio n .

Whal w ill IBM d o ne xt? S p e c u la tio n I s a lm ost f u tile , b u t n e c e s s a r y a n y h o w . T h e p r o s p e c t s a r e f a s c in a tin g if nol te r r i f y i n g . No o n e c a n e v e r p r e d i c t w h a l IBM will do; b u t t r y i n g to p r e d i c t IBM's a c tl o n e - - IB M -w atc hing is som e th in g lik e K r e m li n - w a tc h i n g - - Is e v e r y b o d y 's h o b b y In th e f ie l d . A nd Its c o n s e q u e n c e s affect e v e r y b o d y . With 60 m a n y th in g s p o s s ib l e , and d e te r m in e d o n ly in th e v a g u e s t w a y by te c h n ic a l c o n s id e r a tio n s , th e q u e s tio n of w h a t IBM c h o o ses to do n e x t Is p r e t t y s c a r y . B e c a u se w h a te v e r th e y do w e 'll b e s lu c k w ith . T h e y c an d e a ig n o u r llv e e for th e f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e . We know ihBt ln th e f u lu r e IBM will a n n o u n c e ne w m a c h in e s e n d s y s t e m s , p r i c e c h a n g e s (both up a n d dow n) In f a s c in a tin g p a t t e r n s , r e a r r a n g e m e n ts of w hat th e y will " s u p p o r t , n a n d c h a n g e s In the c o n tr a c t s th e y of fe r ( s e e b o x . " IB M 's C ontrol" ) . O cc asional h l g h - p u b l l c i t y s p e e c h e s b y IBM h ig h ofllc er6 w ill c o n tin u e to b e w a tc h e d w ith g r e a t c a r e . B ut m a in ly we d o n ’t k n o w . I BM's s li c k m a n u fa c t u ri n g c a p a b ilit ie s mean t h a t p r a c tic a ll y a n y m a ch in e th e y w an ted to m a k e . a n d p u t on a s in g l e c h i p , th e y c o u ld , and in a v e r y s h o r t tim e. ( T h e g r a p e v i n e h a e it lh a t th e C om p onents D iv is i o n , w h ic h m a kee the c om pute r p a r t s , ha6 b r a g g e d w ith in th e c om pany th a t It d o e e n 't r e a l l y n e e d th e o th e r d i v is io n s a n y m ore - - it e ould Ju s t p u l w hole c o m p u te rs on te e n y c h ip s 11 il w an ted t o . ) In th le time of th e 370, t h i n g s a re for th e moment s ta b le . T h e 370 c o m p u te r lin e is sti ll th e ir main m a rk e tin g t h r u s t . H aving s o ld a lot of 370 c o m p u te rs ( b a s i c a lly s p e d - u p 3 6 0 s ) , th e i r Idea is a t th e m om enl to e e ll c o n v e r s io n jo b s to a d a p l th e 370 to r u n Ihe ne w " V i rt u a l S y s tem " c o n lro l p r o ­ g r a m (VS o r O S/V S o r v a r io u s o t h e r n a m e s ) . T h is sy ste m (w h ich i s . I n c id e n ta lly , w id e ly r e s p e c t e d ) m a kes c o re m e m o ry e ffec tiv e ly m u c h l a r g e r lo p r o g r a m s th a t r u n o n i t . T h is eff ecU vely e n c o u r ­ a g e s p r o g r a m m e r s to u s e to n s of c o r e , b y m e an s o f v ir tu a l m e m ory; eeB s n lie lly g e ttin g p e o p le In th e h a b it of p r o g r a m m i n g ae if c o r e w ere in f in it e . T h i s e x te n s i o n of a p p a r e n t m e m o ry siz e d is t r a c t s fro m a n y I n ef ficie n cies of b oth lo c ally w ritte n p r o ­ g r a m s a n d IBM p r o g r a m s , th u s t e n d in g to I n c r e a s e use and ren ta l c h a r g e s . When thBt m a r k e tin g im p e tu s r u n s out w e 'll s ee th e n e x t th in g . T h s o t h e r new IBM I n itia tiv e Is w ith s m a lle r m a c h i n e s , th e S y s tem 3 a n d S y s tem 7, b e in g p u s h e d for r e la tiv e ly sm a ll b u s l n e e s e s . T h s t Is w h e r e th e y s e e a n o th e r new m a r k e t . How e a s y and u s e fu l th e ir p r o g r a m s a r e In t h i s a r e a will b e a n I m porta nt q u e stio n . With th e S y s tem 7 . a 1 6 - b lt m inicom puter l o r $ 17,0 00, IBM h a s a t la s t g e n u in e l y e n t e r e d th e m in ico m p u ter m a r k e t . (.Bala ncin g Its s p e e d a n d c oat a g a i n s t c o m p a r a b l e m a c h i n e s , we c a n f ig u r e t h e IBM m a r k u p ae b e in g a b o u t 50%, w hic h la t y p ic a l.) In a d d itio n . It Is r u m o r e d t h a t IBM m ighl p u l o u t a tin y b u s i n e s s m in i , to s e l l out of OPD. (D atam a tio n . D ec 7 2 . 13 9 .) B ut r e a lly , who k n o w s . In a d d itio n to th is h u g e -m e m o r y s t r a t e g y for I ts b ig m a c h i n e s , a n d t h s s t a r t i n g fora y Into s p e ­ c ia liz e d min i s y s t e m s , th e r e i s th e office s t r a t e g y and "w ord p r o ce ssin g ." IBM h a s c o n c e p tu a l ly c o n s o lid a te d Ils v a rio u s m a g i c - t y p e w r l t e r a n d t e x l s e r v i c e s u n d e r th e na m e of " w o r d p r o c e s s i n g , " w h ic h m e an s a n y h a n d lin g of te x t th a t g o e s th r o u g h th e ir m a c h i n e s . T h is s u p e r f ic ia l ly u n i t e s th e i r OPD e ff o rts ( ty p e ­ w r i t e r s a n d d ic ta tio n m a c h in e s) w ith t h in g s g o in g on In DPD, s u c h a s D a ia te x i. a n d a lla y s i n te r d lv la lo n a l r i v a l r i e s for a w h i le . A lso , b y s t r e s s ­ ing th e u n ity of th e s u b j e c t m a tte r , ll l e a v e s th e d o o r o p e n for la t e r a n d m o r e g la m o r o u s In itia tiv e s , s u c h a s h y p e r t e x t s y s te m s ( se e " C a rm o d y 's S y s te m ." flip s i d e ) . In o th e r w o r d s , th e foot Is i n Ihs d o o r . M r. B u sin e ssm a n h a s th e id e a th a t a uto m a tic ty p in g a n d th in g s lik e t h a t a r e IBM 's s p e c ia l p r o v in c e . H erb G ro e c h . now e d ito r ia l d i r e c t o r of C o m p u te r w o r l d , I s p e r h a p s IBM’s w o rs t e n e m y . O n c e h e w o r k e d for old m an W atson, a n d w a s th e o n ly IBM e m plo yee a llo w e d to ha v e a b e a r d . N ow , am ong o t h e r t h i n g s , h e g i v e s s p e e c h e s a n d te stim o n y w h e r e v e r p o s s ib l e a b o u t th e M enac e of IBM, a t c o n f e r e n c e s , at g o v e r n m e n ta l h e a r i n g s , a n d In l e t t e r s to e d i t o r s . Yet IBM 's m a in c o m p u te r s a l e s s tr a te g y to d a y i s to s l r e s s th e a d v a n ­ ta g e s of big c o m p u te r s w ilh lots of c o r e m em ory ( a n d p e r s u a d e you you d o n 't w a n t h ig h ly I n te r a c ti v e s y s te m s o r I n d e p e n d e n t m in i c o m p u t e r s ) . And th e f u n d a m e n ta l r u l e e la t in g th e a d v a n ta g e s of b i g c o m p u te rs Is c a ll s d G r o s c h 's L aw , f o rm u lated y e a r s ago b y n o n e o t h e r . Se e p .

, Even if ll is t r u e , a s A nonym ous s a y s ( se e B ib lio g r a p h y ) t h a l IBM In tim id a te s p e o p le a n d k e e p s Its e n em ies from g e ttin g Jo b s a t IB M -o rien te d e s ta b l is h m e n ts , t h a t 's n o t th e e n d o f th e w o r l d . I C r o s c h , G o u ld , n o d g e r s a n d M c G urk a r e a liv e a n d w o rk i n g , j E x tr a m u ra l h a r a s s m e n t lik e th a t em p lo y e d b y CM a g a in s t N a d e r, for e x am p le . h a s not been r e p o r te d .

END OF THE’DINOSAURS? T o a v e r y g r e a l e x t e n t , IBM'e c o m p u ie r m a r k e t Is b a s e d on big c o m p u te rs r u n In ba tc h m ode , u n d e r a v e r y o b t r u s i v e o p e r a tin g s y s te m . Many p e o p le a r e b e g in n in g to n o tic e , ih o u g h , th a l m a ny t h i n g s a r e m o re s e n s ib ly d o n e o n sm a ll c o m p u te rs th a n on b ig o n e s , e v e n in c o m p a n ie s t h a t h a v e b ig c o m p u t e r s . T h a i w ay th e y c a n be done r i g h t a w a y r a t h e r th a n h a v in g to w a it in l in e . Is th i s th e mammal tha t will e at th e d i n o s a u r e g g s ? On th e o lh e r h a n d , a v e r y u n f o r t u n a te tr e n d i s b e g in n in g to a p p e a r , a n im plic it feud w ithin l a r g e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w h ic h may b e n e f it IBM 's big c o m p u te r a p p r o a c h . T h o s e who ad v o ca te m in i­ c o m p u te rs a r e b e in g o p p o s e d by m a n a g e r s of th e b ig c o m p u tin g in s t a ll a ti o n s , who s e e th e mini6 a s th r e a t e n i n g th e i r ow n p o w e r a n d b u d g e t e . T h is m a y for a lo n g tim e h old t h e m in is b a c k , p e r h a p s w ilh Ihe h e lp a n d a d v ic e of co m p u ie r s a le s m e n who feel lik e w is e th r e a t e n e d . B u t th e r e will b e no ho ld in g b a c k th e m in is a n d th e ir m y r ia d o f f s p r in g , th e m i c r o p r o c e s s o r s (see p . ^ ) . A nd Ihe i n r o a d s sh o u ld b e g in soo n . ( O t h e r s a r e g r o w i n g to know a n d lo ve tr u e h ig h - c a p B c ity t i m e - s h a r in g a s a w ay of lif e , like lha t o f fe re d f o r DEC. GE a n d H oneywell m a c h i n e s . T h i s , to o, m s y b e g in lo h a v e d e r o g a to r y e ffec ts on IBM 's m a r k s t s . ) F i n a ll y , it m u st b e n o le d th a t a lm ost all big c o m p a n ie s h a v e c o m p u te r s , u s u a lly IBM c o m p u te r s , a n d so an e r a of m a rk e tin g may wel l h a v e e n d e d . It m ay be p o s s ib l e for IBM io go on se llin g b i g g e r a n d b i g g e r c o m p u te rs lo Ihe c u s to m e rs w ho a lr e a d y h a v e th e m , b u t o b v io u s l y t h i s g ro w th c a n no lo n g e r b e e x p o n e n ti a l.

(In t h le l i g h t i t I s not h a r d to u n d e r s t a n d IBM's s t a n d o n s o f t w a r e c o p y r i g h t s v s . p a te n t s . IBM Is a g a l n e t p r o g r a m s b e in g p a te n t a b le , w h ic h w ould c o v e r a b s t r a c t e d p r o p e r t i e s , b u t Brgue s In f a v o r o f c o p y r i g h t , w h o s e p r o te c tio n Is p r o b a b ly m o r e lim ite d to th e p a r t i c u l a r s of a g iv e n p r o g r a m , lf t h e y h a v e th e t r w a y . i t w ould b e a s s u r e d l h a t IBM c o u ld u e e a n y in g e n io u s n ew p r o g r a m m i n g t r i c k s w lth o u l c o m p e n sa tio n , w h s r e a e a ll u n n e c e s s a r y c o m p lic atio n s of b u lk y , c u m b e r so m e s o f t w a r e w o u ld b e c o v e r e d In e n tir e ty b y c o p y r i g h t .) F i n a l l y , i t h a e n o t b e e n d e m o n s tr a t e d th a t IBM ha a a n y g e n e r a l a b l l l l y to m a k e s y ste m s c o n c e p tu a l ly s im p le a n d e a s y to u s e . (Two go od e x a m p l e s o f h a r d s y s te m s a r e ih e Mag T ap e S e le c t r ic a n d D a t a t e x t - - e a s y f o r p r o g ra m m e re , b u t h a r d l y f o r s e c r s l a r i e e . ) T h e r e eee m s to b e n o e m p h a s i s o n e le g a n c e o r c o n c e p tu a l s im p lic ity a t IBM. T h o s e w h o a d o p t s u c h a p h ilo s o p h y ( s u c h s s K e n n e th I v e r s o n ) do so o n th e i r o w n . A s m e n tio n e d e a r l i e r , thle h a e som e th in g to d d w ith th e f a c t t h a t i n d iv i d u a ls g e n e r a ll y u s e IB M 's s y s t e m s b e c a u s e th e y h a v e to , b e in g a m p lo y e ee o r c l i e n t s o f t h e O n u s lh a t r e n l IBM e q u ip m e n t, s o t h e r e le n o Im p etu s to d e s ig n p r o g r a m s o r s y s t e m s to r u n on sim p le or c l e a r m in d e d p r i n c i p l e s , o r d r e s e o u l in tr ic a t e s y s te m s so th e y c a n b e u s e d e a a i l y . 4 . THE IMAGE. It I s h a r d to a n a l y z e im a g e s , c o rp o r a t e o r p e r s o n a l . T h e y a r e o f t e n r e c e iv e d In s u c h d if f e r ­ e n t w a y s b y d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s . B ut th e r e may be a c o m m o n a lity to t h e IBM Im age a s g e n e r a ll y s e e n . T h e Im ag e o f IBM I n v o l v e s so me k i n d of co ld m a gic , a b r o o d in g s e n s e o f s t e r i l e e f f ic ie n c y . B u t o th e r t h in g s a r e p e r c o l a t i n g I n th e r e . If w e s li d e th a t c o n n o ta tio n o f e f f ic ie n c y a s i d e , ih e IBM Im age se e m s to h a v e tw o o t h e r p r i n c i p a l c cm pone nts : a u th o r i t a r i a n i s m a n d c o m p l a c e n c y . It I s this m ix ­ t u r e th a t l o n g h a l r s w ill n a t u r a l l y f in d r e v o l t i n g . T h is sa m e c o m b in a tio n , h o w e v e r , m a y b e e x ac tly w h al It le t h a l a p p e a l s to b u s in e s s - m a n a g e ra e n t ty p e s .

IP YOU REALLY WANT I T . .. you c ap g e t c h arac ter-b y -c h ara cte r re s p o n d in g sy ste m s on D M c o m p u te rs. T h e n e w S t o c k E x c h a n g e sy s te m u s e s a " T e le c o m m u n ic a ti o n s A c c e s s M ethod" p e r m i t t i n g n o n - IB M te rm in a l s to r s s p o n d c h a x a c t e r - b y - c h a r a c t e r . J u s t a s sy ste m s fo r n o n -co m p u ter-p e o p le s h o u ld . T r y i n g to u s e t h i s i n p u t- o u tp u t p r o g r s m o n y o u r lo c a l IBM a m p u t e r 1s a n o t h e r p r o b l e m , t h o u g h . A s id e f r c n p r o g r a m r s n t a l c o s t s , ih e r e Is t h e p r o b ­ le m o f I t s c o m p a t ib ilit y w ith th e whole l i n e o f IBM a o f t w a r e . A d a p t a ti o n s and r e p r o g r a m m i n g w o u ld p r o b a b ly be n e c e s s a r y u p a n d d o w n th a l i n e . I

Few fir m s a n y w h e r e h a v e t h e co n fid e n ce to a d v e r t i s e g e n e r ic a lly a p r o d u c t whic h la m a de b y o t h e r s a s w e l l, a s in IBM'e "T h in k o f t h e c o m p u te r a s e n e r g y " s e r i e s .

A LITTLE GEM FROM THE IBM SOMGBOOK (Who saya IBM doesn't «nc o u rtg « Individualism? To lha lune ol "Pa ck Up Your Trouble* In Your Old Kli Bag.*) ■TO THOMAS J . WATSON. P resid ent. IBM" Pack up your tr ouble *-- Mr. Walaon'e harel And amlle, amlle. smile. He le the geniue In o u r IBM H e'i lha man worth while. He's In sp ir in g *11 the time. And very ve ra atl le -- ohi Ha U our strong and abla Pre sidenil H it amlla'e worth while. *Graal organis er and a fri end eo true.* Say all we boy*. Ever he Ihlnka of Ihlnge to aay and do To Increea* our Joy*. Ha la building e v e r y day In hla outa undln g a ty la -- ao Pack up your trouble *. Mr. Wataon'* bare And Sulla*- Smile-- Smile. (A* a nostalgic public aervies Advanced Computer Technlq uee. I nc., of Boaton. gave away LP* of IBM songa at the '68 SJCC. They might juet hava eoae l a d . ..)

BIBLIOGRAPHY "THERE IS A WORLD ELSEWHERE." -- Corloltnua There Is no way to esca pe IBM enUrely. IBM madialea our contact* with government and medi­ cin e. wilh lib rarl e*. bookkeeping eyaieme, and bank balancaa. Bul thaaa InUueione are etlll lim­ ited. and mo*l of ua don’t have to live th ere. Thera are many computer people who refuse to have anything to do with IBM sy*tem*. Other*, nol ao emphatic, will tell you pointedly that they p r tf e r to elay a* far away from IBM computers a* po*eible. If you aak w hy, they may tell you they don't care to be both ered with reeir lcilv e. unwieldy and unne caaaary conpllcatlon* (Ihe JCL language le ueually m entioned). T hia 1* one reaaon that quite a few people atlck with mlnlcomputa ra. or with flrma using la rg e computare of other brand*. It i* poMlble to work pro ductively In lha c onpute r Held and completely avoid having to work with IBM-atyle aystama. Many people do. Harvey D. Shapiro, "l.B.M . and al) the dw arfa," New York Times Magazine. July 29. 1073, 10-36. An objective, (actual a rti cle , sympa­ thetic lo IBM-- although it drew at leaal one ir ala letter from an Ibmer who d id n’t think It sympathetic enough. "IBM: Time to THINK Small?" ber 1. 1971. 60-64. Neweweek. Octo­

Prank T . C ary, letter to the e ditor. Neweweek. Oct. IS 73. p . 4. A enap pla h reply lo the above by Ihe IBM Board Chelrman, who evldenUy did n't like the article ve ry much. Robert Samuelaon. "IBM'a Melhoda.* New York Times Sunde y financial section, June 3, 1973, p . 1. - ♦T h le article give* a unique glimpse of some ol the Interesting thlnge lhat came to light In the Control Data suit against IBM-- citing tria l documenta never publicly releaaed. a William Rodgare, T h in k , Stein a nd Day, 1990. Subtitled A Biography ol Ihe Waiaone end IBM. Concentrate* on Ihe day* before computera. Fasc inating profile of Waieon. a busin ess tiger: but ihe view of ihe cor­ poration In an evolving nation Is general Americana that tr ansce nds fiction. Would you believe Rodgers aaya Wataon waa the kingmaker wo put General Ike in th e White Houee? Unfortunately, the book hae rele tlvely le es on Ihe computer e ra . *o the Inalde story o( many of the ir msne ntoua de cis ­ ions since then remains to be told. Heywood Gould, Corporation P r e a k . Tower (paper­ back.) Marvelous; ha rd to get; Gould Ihlnke IBM quietly bought up all the copies. The muting* ol a so phis tic ate d. cleve r and obaervant cynic who began knowing nothing about IBM. Gould's w ide-eyed ob se r ­ vation ol Ita corporate sty le and atmoaphere la a jolt Id ihoee ol ue who've gotten ueed to 11. And he thought It w as juet another big company I Anonymoue, "Anti-Trust; A New Persp ec tive." Deiamatlon, Oct 73, 163-196. Richard A. McLaughlin, "Monopoly la Not a Game," Datamation. Sept. 1973. 73-77. Questionnaire eurve y Intended to te st truth ol common accueatlon* against IBM. (Discussed in te at above.) W.David G ardner, "The G overnm ents Four Yeara a nd Four Months In Purault of IBM." Data­ mation. June 1973, 114-11S. Almost any iaaue of Comguterworld o r Datamation, the two main in dualry newa publications, c a r rie s arilclee mentioning c anpla ln ts about IBM from va rious q u a rte rs on varloua la iu e * . DatamaUon'e le ttera a re also aotnetlmee Juicy on the topic. Any lasue ol On Line. * new* sh eet ol the Computer Industry Association, te n buck* a year, (CIA-- no relation to the Intelligence agency - 182SS Venture B lv d .. Encino. CA 01316.) T .A . Wlee. " l.B .M .'s SS.000.000.000 Gamble." Fortu ne. Ocl 1966. Danlal J . S lotn le k, 'U nconventional S y s t« a s .' Proc. SJCC 1967. 477-401. I n t e r t s t l n g , aaeng oth e r reaso ns, for tha heaviness of th e earcaaa d ir e c te d a t IBH and i t a la rge r c ^ ^ u t e r s . 0 N i l l t a a R o d g e r s , "IBH on T r i a l , " H arper' s . May 1974, 7 9 - 8 4 . C o n t i n u e s w h ere T h in k l e f t o f f ; c i a a i n o s s o a e o f t h e d i r t t h a t c a a e out i n th e T o lc x c a s e , a n d o t h e r t h i n g s . T he author regret* n ol bein g able to Hat more article s and books favorable lo IBM, but Ihea* do nol eeem to l u m up to m uch. How ev er. he re a re a few . A Computer Perspective, by th e office of Charles and Ray Eamee, H arvard U. Preaa. S13. Angelina Pantagea, "IBM A broa d," Datamation. December 1972, $4-57. For an example of the kin d of a dula don of IBM baaed on faith, see Henry C. Wall!ch. "T ru st -B ustin g lha U . S . A . , ' Newsweek 1 Ocl 73, p . 90. The IBM Songbook, any y e a r -- they ha ven’t been le iu ed alnce the fifties-- le definitely a collectible.

L G 5 H
T he lamoua Consent Decree of Ja nuary 19S6. (In a conte nt d ecree, an accueed pa tty admit* no gulll bul a gre es id behave In c erta in way* the re e/ter.) In rea ponsa to a federal antl-tr uai suit . IBM agreed to: aell as well aa leese Its compute rs, and repa ir thoae owned by others: permit attachmante lo ita le eeed computera; nol requir e certa in package deal*: llcente va rious patents; not buy up used mechlnea: and ge l oul of Ihe bualn asa ol supply ing computer serv ices. I . e . . programming and hourly renta ls. Unbundling decision, Isle sixtie s. While ihls was nol a government aellon bul a an Internal policy decisi on by the company, It some­ how hBd a publlc-relalions appeara nce of official compulsion. Beset by pressu re s (ram makers of look-alike machines, u se rs of competitive equipment, and ihe th rea t ol a n tl-lr usl action, IBM decided lo change its policy and sell programs without computers and computers without progra m s. Delight amongst the indust ry tu rned to c hagrin as ihis became rec ognized as a pr ic e hike. T he Telex Decielon. September '73: Tele* Cor p. of Tulsa waa awarded S3S2.SOO.OOO In trip le damage* (since reduced) lor loaaea attributed 10 IBM's "predatory" pricing and oth e r marketing practices. Much more important. IBM was requir e d to dlaclose Ihe detailed electronlca requir ed to hook thlnge to their computers a nd acceaeorlea within e iity daya of announcing a n y . Thia w as a great reli ef lor Ihe whole Industr y. E ssentially it meant IBM could no longer dictate whal you attach lo th e ir machlnee. Unfortunately. 11 le not clear whether thia will ata nd. But what w e're waiting to he at about i* w hether ihe Mxon Justice Department la . or ia nol. going to pr ea a the big a n tl-tr uat suit which haa been long brew in g. at the peralatant request of other flrma in the in dua try.

NEW CHIPS... IBM cen pul pr ett y much anything on a aingle chip , to make a functioning machine the size of a po a u g e stamp: but ao can a lot of other companies. The question really become* whether what goes on thal chip I* * worthw hile machine that doea what people went. . . . BUT THE SAME OLD BLOCK? II I* by no meane cle a r thal IBM haa any general ability u make computer aystama easy to Thle Ii i psychological problem . A* e corporation they e r e use d to deelgnlng eyaieme thal people have to uee by Dal. and muet be trained to uaa. contri buting to the captivity and Inertia of tha euatomer b a ae . Thus the notion of making thlnge deeply and conceptually eiralghtforward. without epeclal Jargon or trainin g, may not be e concept the a m p a n p le ready l o r .

"THINK OP THE COMPUTER AS ENERGY." saya a recent aeries of IBM ads. But In term s of monopoly, p r ic e , end the w orl d's convenience. Ih ere would seem only one wey to complete the analogy, via.: "THINK OF THE COMPUTER AS ENERGY. "Think of IBM as King Fu isal."

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For a long tim e, d urin g the alxtlee, IBM'a h ig h pric e* provided an environment tha t m ade i t easy for other campaniee to come Into the field and eel) c tn p u te re and p e riphe rals. Theee high pric e* w ere referred to ea "the IBM umbrella.* However, th ia era haa e nded . IBM now cut* prlc e e In whatever are as It'e th rea te ned. A b r ie f flourlahlng ol c on panlee making a dd-on diak and core memorlea for IBM con p u ter* haa becooe precario us: nol only will IBM now cut p rice s, bul they have ehown lhaaeelvee still dis posed to inve nt new reeir lc ilv e e rran g e n en t* (the recent "virtual memory" announcement (or Ihe 370 claimed tha t the program will only work on IBM dle k and c o r e ) .

SOMB DIVISIONS OP IBM you may h a a r about

Office Product* Division. T ypew rite rs, copier a. Data Proceeding Division. Computera and acceaaorle*. Polar*] System* Dlvtalon, Big government contracts: NASA etuB. and who know* whal. ASDD Advanced Syatame Development Dlvlalon. Vary secret . Components Dlvlalon. Make* pa rt* for tha o th e r g u y a , Including Integrated c lrc u lte . SRA Selene* Reaearch A aaoclatee, Chicago. Publishes textbooks and learnin g kit*. Waiaoii Lab T . J . Wataon Rese arch L aborato ry , Westchester County, north of New York C lly . Theoretical and lookahead re a e a rc h .

OPD DPD PSD

Digital E quipm ent C orporati o n, in r e s p o n s e to th e " B ne rg y C r is i s " ol 1973, d id n 't h i m out th e ir C h r is t m a s t r e e . InBlead they ho ok ed it u p to a w a t e r w h e e l they hap p en e d lo h a v e . T y p ic a l.

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T h is po li c y has made (or alow b u t ste ad y g row th. In e ff ec t. Digital bu il i a nationa l c u s ­ tomer b a se am ong th e most soph is tic a te d c li e n ts , T he k id s who aa u n d e rg r a d u a te s and h a n g e r s -o n b uil t In te r f a c e s and k lu d g e y a r r a n g e m e n ls . now aa pr o je c t h e a d s b uil d b i g fa n c y sy s te m s a ro u n d DEC e q u ip m e n t. T he pla ce s that know c o m p u te rs u su a lly h a v e a v a rie ty of DEC equipment a ro u n d , u su a ll y d r a s t ic a lly modified. B e ca u se of th e grea t s u c c e s s of Its small c o m p u le rs , e sp e c ia lly lh e PD P -0 , ev en ma ny com­ p u t e r pe op le th in k th e y on ly make sm all com pu­ t e r s . in (acl t h e i r b ig c o m p u ie r, th e PD P-10, Is one of th e most su c c e ssf u l tim e - sh a rin g c o m p u le ra . An exam ple o f i ts g e n e r a l estee m in lh e field: It is th e h ost c o m p u te r o f ARPAHET, th e national c ompu te r n e tw o rk among sc ie ntif ic in st al lat ion s funded b y t h e D ep artmen t o f Defens e; ba si ca ll y t h i s me ans ARPANET is a n e tw o rk of PDP -lOs. DEC'S c om p ule rs ha ve alw ay s be en de sig n ed by p r o g r a m m e r s , f o r p r o g r a m m e r s . T h is made for c o n sid er a b le s u s p e n s e w hen th e PDP-11 di d not a p p e a r , e ven th ough th e h ig h e r n u m b e r s d i d , and the- g r a p e v in e had it t h a t Ihe 11 w ou ld be a s ix t e e n -b i t m a ch in e, ll p ro ved to be well w aili ng for ( se e p . 2 2 ) , and has s in c e becom e t h e s ta n d a r d so p h ist ic a te d 16- b lt mach in e In th e ind u stry . An a r e a DEC h a s e m p hasize d from th e f ir st h a s be en co m p u te r d is p l a y ( d is c u sse d at le n g th on th e fl ip s i d e ) . T h u s il i s no s u r p r i s e thal ih e lr in te r a c tiv e anim ated c om puie r d i s p l a y , th e GT40 (see p . M i ) i s an o u ts tan d in g d e sig n and su c c e s s . (And the U n iv e rsity of U ta h, c u r r e n t ly lhe m other c h u r c h of co m p u te r d i s p l a y , r u n s ll s g r a p h i c sys te m s from PD P -l O s.) In t h i s p lu c k y , hom esp un c om pan y, w h er e e v e n p r e s i d e n t O ls e n i s k no w n by h i s f ir st na m e ( K e n ) , It Is u n d e r s t a n d a b le lhal m a rk e ti n g p iz az z ta k es a ba ck se at. T h i s a p p a r e n tl y w as th e view of a g r o u p o f r e b e l s , led by vic e p r e si d e n t Ed d e C a s tr a , w h o b r o k e off In th e lale s ix t ie s to s la r l a new co m p u te r c om pan y a ro u n d a 16-bll com p uie r d e s ig n called Ihe Nova— r u m o r e d lo ha v e b e en a r eje cted d e s i g n for th e PDP-11. T h e c o m pa ny th e y s ia r te d , Daia G en e ra l, h a s not be en afraid lo u s e lh e h a r d s e l l , an d b e tw ee n th e i r h a r d se ll a n d sou nd ma ch in e line t h e y 'v e se ri o u sly c h all eng e d l h e p a r e n t co m pan y . But Digital m a rc h e s o n . tltc O r - p u t e r Kur.'s c om puie r c o m p a n y . If IBM is c o m pu te rd c m 's Kodak, w h ose o v e r p r ic e d b u t q u it e re li a b le go od s h a v e v a rio u s d r a w b a c k s . DEC is N ik o n, w il h u m ix - a n d -m a tc h a sso rt m en t of wlmi th e ho is h ots w an t. T h a t 's p lu r alis m for y ou . P D P -2 , 0 o r 13 .)

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T h e c o m p u te r companies a re of ten r e f e r r e d to In Uie f ie l d aa "Snow White and th e Se v e n D w a r f s " - - a p h r a s e tha t s ta y s the same e v e n as th e l e a s e r o n e s (l ik e RCA and G enera l E le ctr ic ) g«t o u t o f th e b u s in e s s one by one . T h e p h r a s e s u g g e s t s th a t th e y ’r e all a lik e . T o a n exte n t; b u t t h e r e Is o ne company suffi ciently d if f e r e n t, a n d I m p o r ta n t en ou gh both In it s h is to ry a n d Ita c o n t i n u i n g e m in e n c e , to r e q u i r e e x po sitio n h e re , T h i s I s D ig it a l E quipment C o rp orati on , u su a ll y p r o n o u n c e d " D e c k t h e people who f ir st b r o u g h t ou t th e m in i c o m p u t e r and c ontin ue to ma k e One etufT for p e o p le who know w h at th e y are d o in g . O t h e r c o m p u te r compani es hav e mim icked IBM. T h e y h a v e bull! b ig co m p ute rs a n d I tie d to se ll th e m to b ig corp oratio n s (or t h e i r b u s in e s s d a ta p r o c e s s i n g , o r big "s ci en tific " m a ch ines an d t r i e d to se ll the m lo s c ie n tis ts . DEC w anl about il dif f er en tl y , a lw ay s d e ­ s i g n i n g f o r th e people who kn ew w ha t th e y w e r e d o i n g , a n d a lw ay s going lo grea t le n g th s lo te ll y o u e x a c t l y w h a i th e i r eq uipment did. F i r s t th e y made c ir c u it s for pe op le w ho w a n t e d lo tie dig it al eq uipment to ge th e r. T h e n , s i n c e th e y ha d the c ir c u it s any w ay , ih e y manu­ f a c t u r e d a c o m p u te r (the PD P -1 ). T h en more c o m p u t e r s . I n c r e a s in g the lin e slo w ly , b u t a lw ay s t e l l i n g p o te n ti a l u s e r s as muc h ss t h e y co uld p o s s i b l y w a n t lo know. T h e sam e for it s m a n uals. Pe ople w ho w ro t e for Informa tion from Digital would oflen g e l . no t a su m m ar y ahee l r e f e r r i n g you t o a loc al s a l e s o f f i c e , b u l ■ complete manual ( s a y , for th e P D P - 8 ) , In c lu d i n g c h a p te rs on p r o g ra m m in g , ho w lo b u i l d inle rfa ce a lo I t , and th e en ac t t i m i n g a n d d is t r i b u t i o n o f Ih e main I n te r n a l p u l s e s . T h e eff ec t o f Ihls w as tha t soph is tic a te d u a e r s - e s p e c i a l l y in u n iv e rs itie s a nd r e s e a r c h e s t a b ­ l i s h m e n t s — s t a r t e d b uil d in g th e ir o w n . T h e i r o w n in l e r f a c e a , I h e ir ow n modifications to DEC c o m p u t e r s , t h e i r own or ig in a l sy st e m s a ro u n d DEC c o m p u t e r s .

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H o w e v e r. I do ha ve g r ate f u l rec oll e cli o ns of th e w arm th and c o u rte sy w it h w h ic h peo ple from Digital E quipm ent Co rp orati o n h a v e ta k e n p a in s lo e x p la i n th in g s lo m e , h o u r a f lc r h o u r , c on fe re nce a fte r c on fe re nce . In th e e a r ly six t ie s ih e y ha d o n e ma n in on e small office to s e r v i c e an d se ll all of New J e r s e y a n d New York C l ly . But lha t one g u y . D av e D en n isto n , sp e nt c o n s id e r a b le time r e s p o n ­ d i n g to my que sti o n s and r e q u e sts o v e r a p e rio d of a cou p le o ( y e a r s , and i n th e n ic e s t p o ssib l e w a y , ev en th o ug h th e re w a s n o way I co uld bu y a n y th in g . You d o n 't fo rget tr ea tm e n t lik e th at.-

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\ <T 'C 's . ? * * TIKE, 14 Jan 74, 50. \ ^ * a r c u se d (or tru»sa s to r a g e o f symbolic ( d i g i t a l ) o f s to r a g e . movable media") e r e Of a l l s o r t s . EFFECTIVELY STANDARDIZED BY IBM 3 /4 - in c h magnetic ta p e . Pre-1965: 6 t r a c k s d a t a , 1 tr a c k p a rit y . Po st-1 965: 8 trac ks d a t a , 1 tr a c k p a rit y . 2741 d is k St ac k o f remova ble p l a t t e r s s i z e of a la y e r c ak e. 3330 d is k d is k c artridge P l a s t i c c a s e , s i z e o f c o o lie h a t , en­ c l o s in g d i s k , floppy diak F l e x i b l e , c a r d - t h i n d is k e n c lo se d in gquare 8" en v el o pe. th is m o d lT d tsk d riv e . The b r o u n - c o a t e d d i s k i t s e l f i s h i d d e n i n th t p l a s t ic case, never­ t h e l e s s , th e y s o m e t in e i g e t e o ra tc h e d o r break. A d i s k c o s t s $7S a n d h o ld s up to 2 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0 n a tio n ( 1 .2 m i l l i o n PD P-1 1 u o r d s , u h i c h a r e IB b i t s e a c h ) . P r i n t s som e iOO l i n e s a n in u te ( fa s te r i f th e l i n e s a r e n a r r o w ) . P r ic e around S I S , 000. P l a s t i c s t r i p s p u l l e d o u t o f wedgeshaped tu be s arr an g e d In a r o t a t i n g c y lin d o r . S t r i p i s p u lle d o u t o f th i a c a r o u s e l , whipped a roun d a drum t o make temporary drum memory, r e tu r n e d t o c as eEFPECTIVELY STANDARDIZED BY OTHERS LINCtape 3/4 - in c h ta p e on a 4- in c h r e e l ( f i t s in p o c k e t) , s p e c i a l l y c o a te d a g a i n s t f r i c ­ t i o n , deve lope d a t L in c o ln Labs f o r LINC cu n p u te r ( se e p . 41 ). S w s l z s and r e e l b u t d i f f e r e n t l y f o r ­ matted f o r DEC stachinea ( v a r i e s with n d e l ) . Very r e l i a b l e . A p e rs o n a l fav ­ o r i t e o f many p ro g ra c n e rs . JH CARTRIDGE The Sc o tc h -tap e peo ple aay th e c a a s a tt e ia u n r e l i a b l e , and o f f e r aa an a l t e r n a ­ t i v e a b e l t - d r i v e n q u a r t e r - i n c h baby, co s tin g maybe $1000 w i th o u t I n t e r f a c e . CRAM (Card Random Access Memory)— r a r e Big p ie c e s o f p l a s t i c (ab out f o u r Inchea by two f e e t ) p u l l e d by n o tc h e s o ut o f a c a r t r i d g e and whipped around a drua . N atio n al Caah R e g i s t e r . HARDLY STANDARDIZED AT ALL ' C a s s e t t e s ’ — P h i l i p s - t y p e a u d io -t y p e c a a a e tte . Used b y v a r io u a m a nu fa cture rs i n v a rio u s ways, S ykes, S y c o r, DEC, Data General and o t h e r s have s e p a r a t e , and us­ u a l l y in c o m p a ti b le , ayaterns. r i f f l e . T h a t 1s th e o v e r a l l s i z e o f th e memory, which i s u t t e r l y indepen de nt ° f th e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n o r g e n e r a l power o l th e coo pu te r i t s e l f . i r i I l i o n - b i t memories a r c a v a i l a b l e , and you co uld p u t one on a machine a s small as

Some k i n d s o f p e r i p h e r a l d e v i c e s , o r com­ p u te r a c c e s s o r i e s , a r e a lw a y s n e c e s s a r y . O n ly th r o u g h p e r i p h e r a l s c a n y o u l o o k a t o r h e a r r e s u l ts o f w h a t t h e co m p u te r d o e s , s t o r e qu an­ t i t i e s o f in fo rftia t i o n , p r i n t s t u f f o u t and w h atn o t. T ry in g t o p r i n t l i s t s of a v a ila b le s t u f f hare i s h o p e l e s s . T here a re thousands o f p e rip h e r a ls fro m h u n d red s o f m a n u fa c tu re rs . If you b u y a m i n i , f i g u r e t h a t y o u r p e r i p h e r a l s w i l l c o s t $ 1 5 0 0 ( T e l e t y p e ) on u £ . Bu t t a a i n t e n ance ( s e e p . S C ) i s t h e b i g g e s t p r o b l e n . If you buy p e r i p h e r a l s f r o a t h e n a n u f a c t u r e r o f t h e c o a p u t e r , a t l e a s t y o u c a n b e s u r e so m e o ne w i l l be M i l l i n g t o m a i n t a i n t h e w h o l e t h i n g . (In d ep en d en t p e r i p h e r a l M a n u factu rers w i l l o f t e n r e p a i r t h e i r own e q u i p m e n t , b u t n o body w ants t o b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n t e r f a c e . ) I f y o u w a n t a l i s t s e e " T a b l e o f M in i * p e r i p h e r a l S u p p l i e r s , " C o w p u te r D e c i s i o n s . Dec 7 2 , 3 3 - S ; m o r e t h o r o u g h p o o p i s o f f e r e d by D a t a p r o R e s e a r c h C o r p . , 1 C o r p o r a t e C e n t e r , R o ute 3 8 , M o o r e s t o w n NJ 0 8 0 S 7 . As t o t h e s e r i o u s m a t t e r o f d i s k s , a n e x ­ c e ll e n t re v ie w a r t i c l e is "D isc S to ra g e f o r M in ic o m p u te r A p p l i c a t i o n s , " C om p u ter D e sig n June 1 9 7 3 , 5 5 - 6 6 . T h i s rev ie w s b o th p r i n c i p l e s o f d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f d i s k d r i v e s , and w h a t v a rio u s o a n u f a c t u r e r * o f f e r . A l s o h e l p f u l o n d i s k s and t a p e s : " f l a k i n g a Go o f H i n i s t o r a g e , " b y L i n d a U e r ta e r . Com­ p u t e r D e c i s i o n s . Feb 7 4 , 3 2 -3 8 . Best re c e n t

D isk d r i v e f o r th e l l . M o t t s u c h d e v i c e 8 go a t 30 s p i n a a s e c o n d , o r 1800 rp m . The h e a d s th a t re a d and u rC te to be p o s i t i o n e d on th e d i f f e r e n t t r a c k s . (Some d i s k s h a v e a h e a d f o r e v e ry tr a c k , u h ie h I f you have d is k d r iv e s ($SS00 e a c h ) y o u n e e d a c o n t r o l l e r (iS& O O ). S ig h

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BRAILLE jo ke h e r e . People a re s t i l l making B r a i l l e c o p ie s o f th in g s by hand. But th e way to do i t i s by compute r: th e nach ine can punch o u t new c o p le a o f w h a t e v e r's s to r e d i n I t , re p e a te d ly .
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Surely nobody can r e s i s t th e p e r i p h e r a l s o f f e r e d by Gene ral T u r t l e , I n c . , 545 Tec hnology Squ are, Cam­ b r i d g e . Ma ssa chu se tts 021 )9 . Tha T u r t l e 1* a s o r t o f c a s s e r o l e on wheals t h a t ta k e s a p e n c il down the n i il d la . A tta che d to yo ur cca^n itar, I t can be p r o g r a n a d t o r u b l e around draw­ in g p i c t u r e s , o r j u s t do w h eallea on Lha p a r q u e tr y . S800. Then th e Music Bos I s 5600. I t s i n g s i n fo u r v o i c e s , enough f o r a l o t o f V i v a l d i , does f i v e o c ta v e s and look s to th e c o ^ u t e r l i k e a T e l e ty p e . They w i l l p la y you e a g l e s on the phone (6 17/661 -3 773 ). For e i t h e r o f th e ss you need a C o n t r o l l e r (S1300),

A B r a ille - p u n c h in g a d a p te r k i t i s a v a i l ­ a b le f o r t h e p l a i n 33 T e l e ty p e , I b e lie v e f ra n Honeywell, A s i m i l a r a d a p te r k i t t o r I » ' s Syatam 3 i s a v a i l a b l e f m IBM ■ ( I t l e o f i n t e r e s t t h a t an e a r l y u s e of Hooers' TRAC Language was w it h B r a i l l e con ver­ sion.) You never know what y o u ' l l se e n e a t . In 1969 one firm announced a “h ig h - d e n s ity rea d-o nly m e » ry d e v ic e " which anyone co uld s e e was a p la in 45 RPM ph on ogr aph— b ut w ith d i g i t a l e l ­ e c t r o n i c s . And i t made s e n s s - But i t d o e s n 't se ea to ha ve cau gh t on.

The thing Is, any eel of assumptions, no matter how intricate, can be enacted by a compu­ te r modal. Anything you can express exactly can be carre d out. and you can see Ita consequances in Ihe computer'e rea dout— a printout, a acreen display, or some oth er view Into the resulting data structu re. Obvioualy these enactments (or sometimes "predictions") a n wholly fallible, de riving any validity they may have from the soundness of the initial data or model. However, they have another Important function, one which Is going to be very Impor­ tant In education and. I hope, general public understanding, as c om pute n gel spread about more widely and become more usable. Tha availability of simulation models can make things easier lo understand. Well-sel-up almulatlon programs, available eaally through terminals, can be used aa Staged Explanatory Structure* and Theoretical Exploration Tools. The use r can build hie own w ars, his own so­ cieties , his own economic conditions, and eee what follows from the waye he se ts ihem up. Importantly, different theories can be applied lo lha same aetupa. to make more vivid Ihe conse­ quences of one or the other point of view. (Indeed, similar facllltlea ought lo be avail­ able for Congreaa. to allow them to pour a new tax through Ihe population and see who suffers, who g a in s ...) I should point oul h e n thal tor this p u r ­ pose— insightful Simulation-- you don't alweye need a computer. I have In mind Ihe so-called "simulation games.'1 which If wsll designed give extraordinary Insights to ihe players. Allen Calhamer's brilliant game of Diplomacy, for In­ stance (Gamea Research. Boston; available from B nntano's. NYC) teaches more about Iniernstional politics than you could suppose possible. I am alao Intrigued by a game called "Slmaoc," worked out by a sociologist lo demonstrate the develop­ ment of social struc tures from a state of random ereation. but I haven't played It. (Clark C. Abl. of Abt Assoclatea. Boston, haa also done a lol of Interesting design h e n . ) A last point, a very "prectlcal" application. Simulation makes 1 possible to enact things with­ 1 out trying them out in concrete reality. For In­ stance. In Ihe lens-deslgn systems mentioned e arlier. Ihe lenses don'l have to be actually built to find out their detailed characteristics . Nor la 1 necessary to build electronic ciroullry. now. 1 to And out whether 11 will w ork — at least that'a whal the aaleemen ssy . You can slmulsle any clroull from a terminal, and "measure" what It does at any time or In any pa rt wilh slmulaied meters. Slmllsrly, when sny computer Is de s­ igned now, ll's simulated before It'a built, and programs are run on the simulated computer, as enacted wilhin a real computer, lo see If ll behavea as Intended. (Actually the re are some hot-wire types who Insist on building things first, but one aasumes thst the more sensible computer designers do th is .) Wilh sulomoblles It's ha rd er; but 0M, for Instance, simulates the handling characteristic* of Ils c a n be ( o n they're ever built— so thst designer* can redistribute weight, change steer­ ing characteristics and so on, till Ihe handling characieritstics come out the wey Ihs Consumer* seem te like. BIBLIOGRAPHY Simulation magaslne la the official Journal of Simulation Counclla, in c .. the curiouslynamed aiclety of the Simulator*. it coats $18 a year from Simulation Counclla, In c.. Box 2228. Le Jolla CA 82037. For all 1 know you get annual mem­ bership tree with thal. I've always wanted id Join but It waa always the one thing loo many; but their conference programa a n sensational. Where else can you hear paper* on traffic, biology, military hardware, weather prediction and electronic design without changing yo ur seat?

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la an Impoalng term which meana almnt l anything Basically. "almulmtion" meana kny activity thal rep reaenla or ne em b lee tM H lh lnf, Computer d n u lilto n la u i l n | Um c u p u t t r lo mimic aomeihing r w l i o r a o m th ln f that might be, tor any ptirpoee:' to underetend an ongoing p n c t i i batlar o r lo m how aou eth lng Digtil come oul In lha H a n again, thou gh , tha Science mylh atapa In lo myittiy Ihl* proceaa . aa though lha m a n uaa of tha s o p u l a r conferred validity or some kind of truth. (On TV show* tha Spece Voyager* aland in front of lha "computer" and eah in Arm. unnalu n l l y loud wricea whal will ba lha n s u ll * of *oaod-ao. Tha computer’* oracular reply la Infal11bla. On TV.) Lai t h a n ba no mystery about thia. Any uaa of a data str u c tu re on a what-lf baala la Simulation. You can *iaulata in dalall o r cnidaly; f o u r »<m.dart/i e n embody m y theories, *en*ible o r n upld ; and yo ur result* may or b p nol cor* A 'e o o p u la r prediction" 1* tha outcome of a iinitiation that eomaone, evidently. ia willing to atand behind. (Be* "computer election predlcdona." p . 4 « \ ) Thai* polnta have lo be atreaaed becauae If tlu r e la <me c o ap u te r acdvlly which la prelantioualy p re u n le d and str essed , 1 la simulation. 1 Especially to naive cllenta. There la nothing wrong with simulation but the re la nothing supe rAnollier term which mean* more or laaa tha s e n la modeUlng, In the looae aenae, aimuladon or model­ ling consiata of calculatlona about any deecrlbable phoenomena— for Inatance, optical equation*. In optical modelling (and thle la how they deaign today*a gr eat le naea), a data *lructure la creeled which represent* lha c un'elure . mounting, etc. of the se parat e giaaaaa In a lena. Then "simulating" the path* of Individual ray* of light through that len a, ihe computer program teeta lhat lena deaign for how wall tha raye «*ne together, and ao on. Then the deelgn Ii changed and triad a g a in . Another type of e lau lati cn . an Important o u l quite distinct on e -- ia lhal which represents the c m p l e i Interplay of myriad units, finding out tha upahota and coneequence* of Intricate premise*. In traffic almulallona, b r Inatance. ll la eaey enough to represe nt ihouaanda of care In a dala str u c tu re , and have them "react" like d r i v e n - - creating ve ry convincing traffic Jama, again represented somehow within the data structure, Basically simulation require* two things: a representation, o r data structu re , that somehow represents the things yo u're simulating In lha aspect* that concern you; and then a program t o * something to Iheee data, that la In some way Ilka the process yo u 'r e concerned sbout acting n t the (hinge yo u 'r e modelling, And each evenl of significance enacted by the program muat aomehow leave ila Irace In the dala structu re. The line between elmulatkm and other pro­ gramming Is not always c le ar. Thus llw calcu­ lation of the future orbits of the planets could be called "almulatiois." • The moat Intricate cases, though, don't particularly resemble eny olher kinds of programs. The Intricate enactments of phyalcal movements, especially awarma and myrlada with mixed and n lll d ln g populations, are especially Interesting. On a recent 6elentUc American article, simula­ tion helped to unde rstand possible streamer* of stare between galaalae aa resulting from nor­ mal n n ald eratim * of Inertia and gravitation (Alar and Ju ri Toomre. "Violent Tldee between O alaiies." g d . Am. Dec 73, 38-48.)) Models of c m p le x and changing rates are mother Interesting type. Enacting compiea things, whoee amounts are constantly -h»t.gjng in ta rn s of percentage multipliers of each other, m in d easy in prin ci ple, but their omaequencea can be quite s u r p risin g . (gee T h e Club of ■ton*.* p. ( f .) To Imagine the kin ds of mixed-caee myriad models now poaafble, we could on M a y 's big n m p u te n model entire eocletiea. with e separate rao ird describing each Idivftiuai oul of millions and specifying his probabilities of M b m and diffltrwm preference* acc ording lo various theortee lhan fellow through whole sack*ties' behertor In ta m e of educetfem, income, marriage, m F>v*wy. death, and anything else. Talk about tin Kddiera and te a ls In ihe bathtub. Any a n p u t e r language can be used for “ xa* kind of almulatlon. Por simulations Involring relatively tew entitles, but lots of rates or formulas, good old BASIC o r FORTRAN la fine. (MAQI's *9ynlhevteion" ayaton, which ■wild be said to "almulete* csmple i figures In s three-dimensional sp ace, la done In Fortran; P-W X -) For slmulstions involving s lot **P*nte objects. spe cial eeaee and discrete event*. TRAC Language (aae p . | J ) I , jr e e t. if itumeiwa malheaaflca] formulas are Involved end you wanl to change them around nmald er- ’ ably In an e x p erin aita l sort of way. APL ia well suited (eee p p . ). There are a number of special ’aimuladon" languages, notably 91MSCRIPT and GP8S. Thaae hare additional feature* useful, (or Instance In ■ mu tating w an ts ove r lime, auch as "EVENT" cmmands which aynchronlaa o r draw divisionllnae In tima (lha simulated t l o s ) . Simulation tanguages generally allow a g n a t v a n , , data types and ^ t e n d o n s on them. The llst-proceaalng fanatics, of courae. Insist that ihelr own U n g u ag w (such aa LISP and SMOBOL) a n beet. And then th ere 's PLATO (w e p T x i f ). whoM TUTOR language la solandid far boO, (arnulaa and dtacraJTw ork-- but allOTra you only 1500 v a ria b le s, total (80 blia

ia an extension of Simulation in a fairly obvious direction. If simulation means Ihe Enactment of some event by compuier. Operations Re se arch meane doing theae enactments to tr y out dlfTsrenl strat­ egies. and lest the most effective ones. Operations reaearch really be gan during World War n with such problems ae submarine hunting. Given so-and-so many p la nes, whal pattern should they fly in lo make Ihelr catching aubmarlnes moat likely? Building from certain types of known probab il ity, (bul In are as where "true” mathematical answ ers w ere not easily found), operation* rese arche rs could sometimes And Ihe bsst ("optimal") str ate gies for many dUTsrenl kinds of activity. Basically what they do la play the situation oul hundred* or thousands of llmee, enacting II by compuier, and using dice-th row in g techniques to determine the outcomes of all Ihe unpredictable p arts. Thsn, after all entities have done Ihelr thing, the program can report on whal strategies turned out to be most effective. Example, In 1873 the Saturday Review of something-or-o the r printed a pie ce on the solu­ tion. by OR techniques, of the game of Moiopoly. Effectively the game had been pla yed thousand* of llmee, the dice throw n perh eps millions, and Ihe different "playera" had employed various different strategies sgalnsl each oth e r In a va rying mix: Always Buy, Buy Lighl G reen. Utilities and Boardwalk, elc. A complete solution waa found, the strategy which tends (over many pla ys) te work beat. I forget whal II waa. Using another technique, Ihe game of foot­ ball waa analysed by Robert E. Machoi of North­ western and Virgil Carte r, a football peraonege. Their Idea waa to teet various maxims of the game, to find out which common rules sbout bensflclal plays w e n tr ue. Whit they did wae replay Afly-elx big-league football games on a pla y-by-play baala. rate the outcemee. and aee which clrcumatsnces pr oved most advantageous on the a v e n g e . I've mislaid the re p r in t (Operations Re se arch, s recent y e a r ) , and bein g totally Ig­ norant of football can remember none of the AndInga. Anyhow, lhat's where lo look. /i+ J The earlier explanation of Operations Resesrch wasn't quite right. It’s sny systematic study of what works best. Computers csn help. BIBLIOGRAPHY Irvin R. HentMl. "How to Win at Monopoly." Salurdajr Review of Science, Apr 73, 44-8. V irgil C arter and Robert E. Kaehol, "Operation* Raaeareh on F o o tb a ll.’ Operations Beaeacch. nareh 1971, S41-544. A l o t o f p e o p le t h i n k c o a p u t e r s a r e i n s o a e way c r u e l and d e s t r u c t i v e . T h is c o a e s i n p a r t f r o a t h e ia a g e o f t h e com­ p u t e r a s " r i g i d " ( s e e "The Myth o f th e C o a p u te r," p . ^ ) , and p a r t l y b e ca u se t h e a i l l t a r y u se s o a a n y o f t h e a . B ut i t ' s n o t th e n a t u r e o f a c o a ­ p u t e r , any a o r e th a n t n e n a t u r e o f a t y p e w r i t e r i s to ty p e p o e a s o r d e a th w a rra n ts. The p o i n t i s t h a t th e a i l l t a r y p e o ­ p l e a r e gu ng ho on te c h n o l o g y , an d ke en on c h a n g e , and C o n g re ss buys i t f o r t h e a . Ho way i s t h e r e r o o a to c o v e r t h i s su b je c t d e ce n tly . But w e ' l l m e n tio n a few t h i n g s . The P e n ta g o n , f i r s t o f a l l , w i t h i t s p a y r o l l o f a i l l i o n s , w i t h i t s stu p e n d o u s I n v e n t o r i e s o f b l a n k e t s and boa b s and t o i l e t p a p e r , was th e p r i a e a o v e r b e h in d th e d e v e l o p a e n t o f th e Cobol b u s i n e s s c o a p u t l n g la n g u a g e . So a v a s t amou nt i s s p e n t j u s t on c o a p u t e r s t o r u n th e a i l i ta ry e s t a b l i s h a e n t f r o a a b u sin e ss p o in t o f v ie w . r Of c o u r s e t h a t ’ s n o t th e i n t e r e s t i n g stu ff. The r e a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g s t u f f in co ap u t e r s a l l came o u t o f th e m i l i t a r y . The D e p a rtm e n t o f D efen s e ha s s b ran c h c a l l e d ARPA, o r Advanced R e se a r c h and D e v e lo p a e n t Agen cy, whic h f i n a n c e s a l l k in d s o f t e c h n i c a l d e v e lo p m e n ts w ith v a g u e ly a l l i t a r y p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I t I s th u s a suprem e i r o n y t h a t ARPA p a i d f o r t h e d e v e lo p a e n t o f : CONPUTER DISPLAY ( t h e S k e tc h p a d s t u d i e s a t L in c o ln L abs; s e e p . , ! ) * t » ; TIME-SHARING ( e . g . th e CTSS s y s te m , s e e p . S T ) : HALFTONE IMAGE SYNTHESIS ( t h e Uta h a l g o r i t h m s : b u t s e e a l l o f p p . i * , -St. - 3 1 ) ; and l o t s a o r e . S oae f o l k s a i g h t sa y t h a t p r o v e s i t 's a ll e v il. I sa y l e t ’s lo o k a t c a s e s . W hile t h e y ha ve m i l i t a r y a p p l i c a t i o n s , t h a t ’ s s i a p l y b e c a u se th e y ha ve a p p l i ­ c a t i o n s i n e v e r y f i e l d , and t h e a i l i t a r y a r e j u s t w here t h e aoney i s . J u s t t o e n u a e r a t e a few a o r e a i l i ­ ta ry th in g s -Coaaand and c o n t r o l - - th e p r o b l e a o f k e e p in g t r a c k o t w h o 's done what to whoa, and w h a t 's l e f t on b o th s i d e s , Ii i s a sole m n i r o n y t h a t th e g r e a t “ 46SL C oaaand and C o n t r o l S y s t e a " - - e gr a n d r o o a w i t h aany p r o j e c t o r s d r i v e n by c o a p u t e r , o n l y s o a e t h i n g l i k e th o s e in " D r . S t r a n g e l o v e * a nd " F a i l - S a f e " - a ay be a p r o t o t y p e f o r o f f i c e s and c o n ­ fe re n c e rooas o f th e f u tu r e . "A v io n ic s " - - a l l th e e le c tr o n ic g a d g e ts i n a i r p l a n e s , I n c l u d i n g th o s e fo r n a v ig a tio n . (A r e c e n t m agaz in e p i e c e d e s c r i b e d how w o n d e r f u l i t f e l t t o f l y t h e F - 1 1 1 - - whic h h a s a c o a p u t e r a a n a g in g t h e F e e l o f t h e C o n t r o l s f o r y o u .) " T a c t i c a l s y s t e m s " - - c o a p u t e r s to aan a g e b a t t l e f i e l d p r o b le m s , a i a guns and a i s s i l e s , s c ra m b le y o u r v o i c e among v a r i o u s a i r f r e q u e n c i e s o r w h a t e v e r th e y do. " I n t e l l i g e n c e " - - c o a p u t e r s a r e u se d t o c o l l a t e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n in g i n f r o a v a r i o u s s o u r c e s . T h is i s no s im p le p r o b ­ le m -- how to f i n d o u t w hat i s s o f r o a a ta n g l e o f c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n f o r a a t i o n ; th i n k a b o u t i t . D o n 't t h i n k a b o u t how we g e t t h a t i n f o r a a t i o n . " S u r v e i l l a n c e ” - - i t c a n ' t a l l be a u t o a a t i c , b u t v a r i o u s te c h n i q u e s o f p a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i o n ( s e e p . M I ^ . ) a r e no doubt b e in g a p p lie d to th e la a e n se quan­ t i t i e s o f s a t e l l i t e p i c t u r e s t h a t c o ae back. (D id you knew o u r B ig B i r d s a t e l ­ l i t e e i t h e r c h i r p s b a c k i t s p i c t u r e s by r a d i o , o r p a r a c h u t e s t h e a a s D r o p p in g s? ) Of c o u r s e , t h e j o k e r i s t h a t *11 t h i s o b s e s s i o n w i t h g a d g e t s does n o t s e e a t o ha v e h e lp e d us a i l i t a r i l y a t a l l . The arm y s e e a s d e m o r a l i z e d , end th e na vjr l o s i n g g ro u n d t o a c o u n t r y t h a t h a r d l y J e ven h a s c o a p u t e r s . QUIS CUSTOIBT, HUH? Beaton a v l f u e rec ip ie n t* have been e y s to a U e a lly ahert-etan9*d fo r a t l i u t 14 yeara, according to C^gutecw eild (lo k eyetea* anaiyat recently d isc e rn e d th a t the w elfare program *a• not c alcu l­ atin g c o e t-o f-liv in q io o e a e e a on a n pjuM baeia, aa i t should have been, but a* a e i ^ l a Increase baaed each year o \ an obeolate o r ig in a l fig ure. However, i t ' * too la te to aek (or refunds, a id anyway n e t aany e e lf a r a r e e lplen te take C g m m t U .

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U n t i l now, t h e o b s c u r i t y o f c o a p u t e r s ftas Kept th e p u b l i c f r o a u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t a n y t h i n g l i k e p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s were i n v o lv e d in t h e i r u s e . Hut now a l o t o f t h i n g s a r c g oin g t o b r e a k . T or i n s t a n c e —

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J . E dgar H o o v e r 's r e c e n t d e a t h r a i s e d a v e ry s e r i o u s p r o b l e * . What a b o u t a l l th o s e f i l e s he had b e e n k e e p ­ in g ? R e s p o n s ib l e c r i t i c s o f t h e FBI, su c h a s F r e d J . Cook, have c l a i m e d t h a t H o o v e r 's p o l i c y b a s i c a l l y c o n s i s t e d o f c h a s i n g lo n e p unks ( l i k e O i l l i n g e r , Bonnie and C l y d e ) , h a r a s s i n g p o l i t i c a l d i s s e n t e r s , and k e e p in g v a s t u n n e c e s s a r y r e c o r d s on I n n o c e n t c i t i z e n s * - t h u s v i r ­ t u a l l y c r e a t i n g th e v a s t n e tw o rk o f o r ­ g a n iz e d c r T S T l n A m e ric a, w h ic h s t a y s th # p o l i c e b l o t t e r s . T hus t h e qu e s-

"Simulation" means almost anything lhal In any way representa or reaerables something. Whkh Is nrt to say ll's a use less o r improper term. Just s slippery one. Examples, H e n are waya we could "slmulate" a h o n e race: Show dot* moving aro und an oval track on a nm pls la ly random baala. and d e cla n Ihe A n l lo complete the circuit The Winner, Asaign odds to Individual horaee. and Uien uaa a randomlssr lo choose the winner, taking Into account those odda. <Thla ts how the PLATO 'h o r se ra ce ' game worka: see p . ^ t f . ) Give am dltkmal odds to the different h o n e s , based on poaalbla "weather conditions. ” Then flip a w in (or the computer equivalent, weighted randomisation) to teat the "weather conditiona," end assign ihe horse’s performance accordingly. Program an enactment of a h o n e w e . In which the winner ia selected on the ba sis of the Interaction of ihe horoeeopes of horse and rider. Create a data str uctu re representing the three-dimensional hinging of horse 's bones, and the interlaced timing of tha the h o n e 's gall, (Thle haa been done at U. of Pennsylvania on a DEC 338.) Then have theae stick figure* run around a track (or the data structu re equivalent). Ualng a synthetic-photography system such as UAOI'a Synthavlslon (see p .to j^ ) , create the JD data str uctu re for the e n t l n eurface of a runnin g horae over time; lhan make aeveral copies of thle horse run around s track, and make sim­ ulated photographs of ll. And so on. Bo dwi't be anowed by the term "simulation." It meens much, Unis or nothing, depending.

The q u e s t i o n h a s b e e n a n s w e r e d . In J u l y 1973 Nixon a p p o i n t e d C l a r e n c e K e l le y , p o l i c e c h i e f o f K ansas C i t y . A f t e r th e p r e v i o u s g o i n g s - o n - - f o r i n s t a n c e , N ix o n 's s e e a i n g t o o f f e r th e p o s t t o J u d g e Byrne w h i l e he was p r e s i d i n g o v e r t h e E l l s b e r a t r i a l - - t h i s lo o k e d to t h e p r e s s l i k e a s t a i d and u n c o n t r o v e r s l a l r e s o l u t i o n . K e l le y c e r t a i n l y i s aw a re o f t e c h ­ n o lo g y . I t s e e a s to be he t h a t p u t d i s ­ p l a y s c r e e n s i n Kansa s C i t y p o l i c e c a r s , c r e a t e d th e ALERT s y s t e a ( A u t o a a t e d Law E n fo rc em e n t Resp onse T ea a) and C0PPS ( C o a p u te r iz e d P o l i c e P l a n n i n g S y s t e a ) , w hic h f o r y o u r a a u s e a e n t t i e s i n t o MULES ( M is s o u r i U n i f o n Law E n f o r c e a e n t S y s t e a ) . (S e e M e lv in F. B o c k e l a a n , " O n - L in e O * . p u t e r s K eepin g T hin gs S t r a i g h t , " which d e s c r i b e s t h e Kansas C i t y c o a p u t e r s e t u p . C o a a u n i c a t i o n s . J u n e 73, 1 2 - 2 0 . ) in a ■ o r e t h r e a t e n i n g v e i n , s u p p o s e d l y th e Kansa s C i t y d e p a r tm e n t k e p t c o a p u t e r f i l e s on " a i l i t a n t s , a e n t a l s end a c t i ­ v ists." (S c h w a r tz a r t i c l e , p . 1 9 .) ffh at K e l le y d o e s i s t h u s o f I n t e r e s t t o us a l l . The b i g q u e s t i o n i s w h e t h e r , f o r e l l h i s c o n c e rn w ith p o l i c e a u t o a a t l o n , he I s a l s o c o n c e rn e d w i t h t h e f r e e d o a s t h i s c o u n tr y use d to be a b o u t .

Ne c e s s i t y has been EVERY IHFRINGEMENT IT IS THE ARGUHEHT IT IS THE CREED OF

th e excuse for

OF HUM AN FREEDOM. OF TYRANTS! SLAVES, Edmund Burke

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Nol all kids who play with a a ^ u t s r s arm quite aa lew -abldlnf as the B.B.B.l.B-T.O.H .B. And (he lemptatVmis arm very s tr u if One such youngster s a l <n S hlghachnal Held-trip (0 a suburban Philadelphia p o lia ■U tb m . and saw s d a o o strtfJo ii of Ihe police rmoota ln b m e tw i ayalam. The police who wsre defaooatralng It. not being omputm r f n a h s . didn’t rssllrs how simple U s s a Id observe lha dlal-ln numbers, passwords Old protocol Whai this lad got to n e , he merrily went lo his computer term inal In Ihe hsssmsnl and proceeded m H e r Into Phll— telphla'a list <rf most-wanted criminals ih . gamma of all his A few days laler s man came to his bouse Crum the FBI. Ha waa e v ld s tly not a rmgular operative bul a technics) type. He aaked vary nicely If (he boy had a term inal. Then tha FBI man aaked very nicely if be had p u t In theee names. The boy ad m ined, grinning, thal he had. (B verraie in (he sohool knew 11 had to be h e .) The FBI man aaked him v e ry, very niosly not to do It ag ain . "Of course 11 dldn'l do any harm," says the culprit. "I had Uiem down tor crim ss Ilka 'Intellectual m urd er.' (Thai oould happen to lhem for UuiT" Doea (hat make you feel bederT

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The te rm " d a t e bank" d o e s n ' t ha v e any p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n i c a l M a ilin g . It l u s t r e f e r s t o any l a r g e s t o r e o f i n f o r ­ m a ti o n , e s p e c i a l l y so m e th in g a t t a c h e d t o a c o a p u te r . F o r I n s t a n c e , a t Dartmouth C o l l e g e , where t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s hav e be en w or ki ng h a n d -I n -h a n d w ith t h e i r b i g tim e ­ s h a r i n g p r o j e c t , an awesome amount o f d a t a I s a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e o n - l i n e in t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . The l a s t c e n s u s , f o r I n s t a n c e , In d e t a i l e d and u n d ig e s te d f o r a . Suppose y o u ' r e a t Dartmouth and you g e t i n t o an a rg um ent o v e r w h e t h e r , s a y , d i v o r c e d women e a r n a s much o n t h e a v e r a g e as women th e s u e a g e who ha v* n e v er be en m a r r ie d . To s o l v e : you J u s t go t o t h e n e a r e s t t e r m i n a l , b a t I n a q u i c k p r o g r a a In BASIC, an d th e sy ste m a c t u a l l y r e - s n » l y i e s t h e c e n s u s d a ta t o a n sw e r y ou r q u e s t i o n . I f o n l y Congress had t h i s ! The u s e f u l n e s s sh o uld be e v i d e n t . Because o f t h e way c e n s u s d a t a i s ha nd ­ l e d , now. I t I s n o t p o s s i b l e t o a s k f o r th e r e c o r d s o f a s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l . But t h i s k in d o f c a p a b i l i t y le a d s t o some r e a l d a n g e r s . T here i s a l o t o f In fo rm atio n sto re d ab o ut most I n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s c o u n t r y . C r e d i t i n f o r m a t i o n , a r r e s t r e c o r d s , m e d ic al and p s y c h i a t r i c f i l e s , d r i v e r s ' l i c e n s e s , m i l i t a r y s e r v i c e r e c o r d s , and s o o n . Now, i t i s n o t h a r d t o f i n d o u t a b o u t an i n d i v i d u a l , a few phone c a l l s f r o a an o f fic ia l- s o u n d in g perso n can a s c e r t a in h is c r e d i t r a t i n g , f o r in s t a n c e . But t h a t i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from p u t t i n g a l l t h e s e r e ­ c o r d s t o g e t h e r I n one p l a c e . The p o t e n t i a l f o r a l s c h i e f l i e s i n d a n g e r t o i n d i v i d u a l s . Pe r so n s up t o no good c o u ld c a r e f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t e someone th r o u g h th e compu te r and th e n b u r g l a r i z e o r k id n a p . Someone u n s c ru p u l o u s c o u ld look f o r r i c h widows w i t h 3 0 - y e a r - o l d u n­ m a r r i e d d a u g h t e r s . O rg a n iz e d c rim e c o u ld s e a r c h f o r p a t s i e s and s t r o n g - a r m v i c t i m s . In t h e f a c e o f t h i s s o r t o f p o s s i ­ b i l i t y , com p ute r p e o p le ha v e be en w o rr y ­ i n g f o r y e a r s ; n o te w o rt hy i s th e s t u d y by Alan R e s t l n t h a t o r i g i n a l l y so unded t h e a l a r m , and h i s t o o - r e a s s u r i n g f o l l o w up s t u d y o f some d a t a - g a t h e r i n g o r g a n ­ i z a t i o n s ( se e b i b l i o g r a p h y ) . But t h e s c a r y d a ta b a n k s , t h e one s t h a t e v i d e n t l y ke ep t r a c k o f p o l i t i c a l d i s s e n t e r s , a r e n ' t t a l k i n g a b o u t what th e y do (See Sc h w a r tz p i e c e ) .

“And (As rosiest'* r*d glar*. Th* ixmbt b u n tin g in a ir, Gout p roof through th* night That avr fla g waa m cilt th a rs. "Oh, aan, t b t t that tear-tpangU d bam*r y t t uavi 0'tr t a l r d of tha fr and the ht of tht b h a\ tt *m rmitf

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There l a another m issile. I t is called Sp rint. I t is shaped lik s the point of a pencil. I t i s i l m t a l l propellant. W han the greet counters realize that the bad guy has gotten through, up goea Sprint: S p rin t I s elo­ quently called the "terminal defense system. ■ I t cxily has s couple o f elnutss. Brighter than a thousand suns! Sorry, scarsdale. Can'c win ' a a l l . I f you rind th is descrip tio n mindboggling, t h a t's because I t Is . Anybody • to imagines th a t th is p ro jec t, on which b illion s of your d o lla r s havs already been spen t, can work. Is S w ishful thinker Indeed. Even 11 m issiles stsysd lik e they were in the good old days o f 196J, big hslp less Clunkers they had to fu el up ju st before the shoot, ths likelihood of the 5-mlle A»i detonation they count On hoping th a t Spartan and Sprint could be replaced with ultrapower, fry-ln-the-sky with sky-piercing stabs under c ^ ^ u te r c o itr o l— but th a t 1s said to have been abandoned.) But even glv sn, snd only fo r the sake of argument, the f e a s ib il ity of Spartan-Sprint for f ish -ln -s-b a rre l shots, look what's hsppenlng now.

* ®

T

HIKV (Kultiple Independently Tergeted Re-entry Vehicle) basics 1ly n a n s K ultiple warheads. One rocket ean carry s l l these l i t t l e guys, se e , th a t fan out when i t gets near the ta rg e t, and each le t Lon. ptdb, or F ractional O rbital H ebardeent aystea, j u s t eesns th a t they send the th ing In to an o r b it around the world, and Che warheads ccee in f ^ e tha (^jposlte e ld s. An£ side. Meaning th at •11 those radars pointed s t Russls would A M is s o r t of e deed ducki tha one B lace-SAVlng in sta lla tio n I s In North Da­ kota, and th e re won't be »ny o th e rs . But one wonders how such things could ever be funded. But 'then again I rm M ber c a ll a lib e r a l, p o n tific ate on tjiia sub­ je c t. "They describe I t s s a 'th in sh ie ld ,'(h e sold) why c s n 't we ju s t spend a few b l i l i « m re and g e t cc^>lete protection?" Otherwise canny people, i f fooled by th e technologists, w ill believe anything. I ts naM has kept clunking, possibly to lu ll the pub lic, possibly to g u ll tha Congress- Anyhow, would you h*11eve * s y s t » , to ta lly con trolled by e ^ ju t e r a . dssigned to ■hoot down one«sing m iisiles? 1/ you would, read on. I t 's c alled Nlke-X, Safeguard snd goodnema kn«» what. ( I t 's svsn bssn called a "thin s h ie ld " -- masculine, huh? Perhaps Congress would pay more i f they c elled I t the Trojan 4X.1 But generally we r e f e r to I t as the A M (A nti-B allIstic B M iss ile ). I t ' s the a n ti-m issile m issile people have talked about, and in i t l l s ■any In teractin g leorsls. possible c a ­ p ariso ns, etc.* fo r which th ere Is no space here, of top-down planning— like the VIetruss­ es s war. I Imagine th a t th s S p rin t csm about SOMthing lik e th is I "GarfIs Id. our peopls in Operations Research have concluded that Spartan won't w ork.'

PHILADHLPH1ANB AND CROOKS PLEASE NCTTB: Thla happened Ova o r a l l years ago, snd without s doibt Ihs system la by now totally secure and Impenetrable. L ei's bops.

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T hs question of 'privacy* in the abelract lan'I really an laaue. Who csree if Ood eees under your clothes? The problem Is whsl hsppens to you on the b ssls of people's access to your records. Margo Si. James is s csss in pointMs. 91. James 1s s celebrated west coast prostitute, onee well known tor her sctivlties with Pau) K rssensr ss "The Realist N u n ;' she Is now Chalrmadam or an organisation called COYOTE, campaigning tor Ihe decriminalization of prostitution. 9he originally had no Intention of becom­ ing s proelllute. Rether. she learned thal there wss s false record of hsr arrvsl for pros­ titution; and despite her eSorls lo d e a r her name, ihe record followed her w herever she tried (o get a Job- Finally she eald tha hell with It and did become a prostitute. (Membership Is IS s y e sr. COYOTE, Bos 28351, San Francisco CA H 128J

B a s i c a l l y , t h e two g r e a t e s t da n g er s from d a t a ba n ks a r e o r g a n iz e d CTime and t h e E x e c u tiv e b r an c h o f t h e F e d e r a l Gov­ e r n m e n t - - assu ming t h e r e i s s t i l l a d i s ­ tin c tio n .

on I t end find so u th in g addi­ tion al th a t w ill u l e I t work.' Nov goes O arfield to h is cubicle

imagine i f the Watergate had had cm trc n a tlo til data Enough said.

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The phone ay atom la bruised and bleeding from Ihe depredations of people who have found out how lo cheal the plmjne company electronical­ ly. Such people ere called Phone Freaka (or Phresz); a rtld ea on Lhem have appeared in auch places aa R am parti, The Rea lii I and Oul. For no d e a r rmaam, Ihe electronic devices Ihey uae hav« been given various colorful namee: black box: device which, attached to a local telephone, pennlla il to receive an incoming call without billing tlw calling party; ll "looka like" the phone la a till ringing, aa far aa the billing sechaniam la concerned. blue box: device that generates th e magical "Inside" tones thal open up the phone network and atop the billing mechan­ ism. Poaeaalon of a blue box can pul you In p riso n . Aa with ao many th in g s , the phone syeteis was nol designed under Ihe aaaumptlon that (here would be thouaande of e lec tro d e wiae-guys capable of fooling around with It. Thus Ihe phone system is tragically vulnerable to such m essing around. The only th in g they can do is get ferocious law s paased and really try to catch people, both o f which sre apparently happening. Supposedly it Is Illegal lo possess a tone gener­ ator, or to inform anyone aa lo what Ihe magical frequencies are— even though a elide whistle i s such s tone gen erator, and any engineering lib ra ry Is said to have Ihe Informa­ tion. red box; device thal sim u la te the Signals mads try Calling coins. The fact lhal tha names of these devices are given he re la not to be construed ss in any ssisfl approving of lhem, and anybody who n m see around with them la a too1, playing with napalm. Even If p « p le w ere entitled to steal back excess profits from Ihe phone company— Ihe so-called "people's discou nt"-- (hs trouble la lhat Ihey mess things up lo r e veryone. He have s beautiful snd delicate phone system, m i lhal stands reedy lo do wonderful things for you. Including b rin g computer service to your home; even If, for Ihe saks of argum ent, 11 U ru n by dirty r a ta , meselng around with It la lik e p r i­ soning Ihe r u r volr for everybody.

I t may seem odd, b u t N ixon h as s a i d h e i s c o n c e rn e d s b o u t c o a p u t e r s and th e p r i v a c y p r o b le m . C yn ics a a y j o k e a b o u t w hat h i s c o n c e r n a c t u a l l y i s ; b u t a more c r e d i b l e s t a n d was t a k e n by v i c o - p r e a i d e n t Fo rd a t t h e 1974 N a t i o n a l Com puter C o n f e r e n c e , Ford e x p r e s s e d p e r s o n a l c o n c e rn o v e r p r i v a c y , p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n s i d ­ e r i n g a p r o p o se d sy ste m c a l l e d FEDNET, w hic h w ou ld s u p p o s e d ly c e n t r a l i z e g o v e rn ­ ment r e c o r d s o f a b r o a d v a r i e t y . Not me nti o ne d by Ford was t h e m a t t e r o f NC1C, t h e N a t i o n a l Crime I n f o r m a tio n C e n t e r . T h is w i l l be a s y s te m , r u n by th e FBI, t o g iv e p o l i c e anywhere I n t h e c o u n try .a c c e s s to c e n tr a liz e d records. THE QUESTION IS W HAT GETS STORED. A r­ r e s t r e c o r d s ? Anonymous t i p s ? ( I t w ould be p o s s i b l e t o fra me i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r n i c e l y i f a l o t o f lo o se s t u f f c o u ld be slip p ed in to th e f i l e . ) Many p e o p le seem t o be c o n ce rn e d w i t h p r e s e r v i n g some " r i g h t t o p r i v a c y , ' 1 which i s c e r t a i n l y a v e ry n i c e i d e a , b u t i t i s n ' t in th e C o n s t itu ti o n ; g e ttin g su c h a " r i g h t " f o r m a li z e d and a g re e d upon i s g o i n g t o be n o s m a l l m a t t e r . But t h a t i s n ' t w hat b o t h e r s me. C o n s i d e r i n g r e c e n t e v e n t s , and th e c h a r ­ a c t e r o f c e r t a i n e l e c t e d o f f i c i a l s whoK d e v o t i o n t o , and c o n c e p t i o n o f , de moc racy i s l a t e l y i n d o u b t , t h in g s ' a r e s c a r c e l y as a b s t r a c t a s a l l t h a t . C o n s i d e r i n g how h e l p f u l o u r government h a s be en t o b r u t a l r e g ia e s ab ro ad -- n o ta b ly th e C h ile o v e r ­ t h r o w , which so a e s a y was r u n fro m h e r e (and w hic h used s p o r t s a r e n a s f o r d e t e n ­ t i o n j u s t as J o h n M i t c h e l l d i d - - ) we c a n no lo n g e r know w h at u s e an y i n f o r m a t i o n may f i n d i n t h i s g ov e rn m e nt. Tom orro w 's D ata Bank may be n e x t w e e k 's En em ies L i s t , n e x t m o nth ’ s P r o t e c t i v e C u s t o d i a l A d v is ­ o r y - - and n e x t y e a r ' s T e r m i n a ti o n L i s t . ( I d o n ' t know i f you saw R o b e r t M a r x i a n 's e y e s o n t h e W a te rg a te h e a r i n g s , b u t t h e y c h i l l e d my b l o o d . )

i n people who make the Princess*® phono. Of the hundredi of B illio ns o f d o lla rs they sre taking In on th is p ro je c t, ■»ch o f i t has to go back o u t— to On1vac, which Mkes the computers) lo Bell Labs, which guides the p r o je c t, whose Whippany, N .J. f a c i l i t y Is to ta lly given over to I t i to th e rocket-builders and a= The system I s s turkey. note th a t in te llin g you th le 1 am drawing only On information th a t Is publ le ly av ailab le , and drawing conclusions f ro s i t t t a way one usually draws coneluHera i s bow the great abm I s sup­ posed to w rk . ton looking for p o ssible refle ctio n s th a t e ig h t be in terco ntinental m ls sllss. Ths radar imagee are forever con­ s ta n tly analysed c ^ i u t s r s . using every tr ic k o f P attern Recognition (see

the orders go down, and only news of p a rti a l success goes up, rath e r than the

The so ph istica te d argusent ie th at the A M e f f o r t le t s our nation "Veep I ts B thing vaguely lik e th is I s sver really needed-- and p o ssible. But th is overlooks the o v e rsll s tr a te g ic problem. A ll th is foolishness leads away f r « the sta b ility keeps everybody a liv e . (An in te re stin g p o in t to noeei s b iolo gist and population g e n e tic is t n s * l S ternglass claims i t d o e sn 't m a ttsri that radiation poisoning th a t ju s t th e f s llo u t froe the A M defense I t s e l f — a few dozen B around the p la n et. ste rng lass.j But nobody lis te n s to

Aha!

S<^mthing i s c*»ing.

In cid e n ta lly , an ill u s tr io u s c ^ u t a i person, Rov, Dsn McCracken (author of good program ing te s ts on most of ths najor languagea) goea around le ctu rin g on the f u t i l i t y of tits A M ayatem. B Tha main res son c<*^>uter people should take an I n te r e s t in th i s i s sisa ls only we know how funny ths thing r e a lly ii to work p e rfe c tly th e f le e t • ' —

Kss, yes. I'm q u ite sure now, says the coaputer. W have f ifte e n minutes. e C rest doors swing open, and a long p h a llic shape a r is e s . I t haa lagged an­ gular f in s . Inh sritsd trim th* avaller a n ti- a ir c r a f t Hike [we say Nlkey) rockets th a t preceded i t . This m issile I s called the Spartan. I t takes o f f. The cx^jutar s y s c * Is trecking the encasing m issile- Hsrs I t (S S S — I t 'S dodging no.— th e Spartan i s turn ing , going f a s t e r and f a s te r — th e y 're cosing encasing m issile speedi maybe IS .000 m llss an hour. Spartan speedr maybe 10,000, who k m n . In these few minutes the Spartan haa gone 400 miles. KOw's your te n n is 1

Heather M David, "Cowputera, Privacy, sod Secu­ . rity . C<wputer Decisions. Hay 74, 66-48. Also P. Vsstln, Prlvsc r and Freedom. 1947. Alan F. Wei d o and Klchael A. Baker. Databank. In a fre e Society: Computers. Bsj g £ i - Sg E l°» «nd f r l v a c r . Quadrangle, — "Landmark Study of Co^ uter-P rivsc y Problems D eplete d ." CA£H, Dec 72, 1096-7. Co^ilacent review of Vastta 4 Baker. Berman Scbwartt, rsvisw of Weatln t Baker book ITTTl»e Book BsvleW, S July 73, 19-20. Rotes th st tbe opclalaa of W at In e sad Baker la baaed on th e ir Ignoring various "web-feared Information centers" slready ms 1 t slued by t |, , javsrnment. s Stanton Ifhselsr ( ed .) , ta ta co rd : Fi les snd Doaelfre In A-srlcSn t t f s . S ^ i i T l ’ Ssgs Fouadstloo (W TC), S10. “Ia* Records: F i r s t th a P a n e r s ; then?" Datamation. Dec 73, 105-110. "Bow Fair Are Thoaa Fair Crs dlt Culdes?" Datamation lUy 73, 120-12*. Phil Kitsch, " C o u lt e r Sy.t—a and the laaue of Privacy: How Par Away la 198*7" 0 a t a » t l o e . J tt X . f r - t t.

Can xou h i t a tenn is b a ll f ir e d out o f s cannon?

The Spartan goes o ff.

Kay!

I t too

I f I t goes o f f w ithin fiv e m iles of th s a ttack ing m is s ile , ths hops I s th s t ths attacking m is s ile 's th e ro n u c le ar warhead w ill g e t heated on one side snd m is fire . So [t lands in Tiaes Square, ju s t breaks a few buildings and apreada radioactive con task! nation -

What i f Spartan missed. oops, sorry , Montreal. never fea r! Have you forgotten Sergeant York? Have you forg otten the A la n ?

Tie
The focus of attention In genetics and organic chemistry has for a decade now been the rem arkable systems and structures of the molecules of life, DNA and RNA. DNA Is the basic molecule of life, a long and tiny strand of encoded Information. Actually il Is a digital memory, a stored representation of codes necessary to sustain, reproduce, and even duplicate the creature around it. It is literally and exactly a digital memory. Its symbols are nol binary but q u ate rn ary , as each position contains one of four code molecules; however, as it takes three molecules in a row to make up one individual codon, or functioning symbol, Ihe actual number of possible symbols is 6 4 " the number of possible combinations of four different symbols In a row of th re e. (I don't know the adjective for slxtyfourishness, and it's just as w ell.) T he basic mechanism of the system was worked out by Francis Crick and J a n e s Watson, who understsndably got the Nobel Prize for it. The problem was this: how could living ceils transmit their overall plans to the cells they split Into? — and how could these plane be carried out by a mechanical process? The mechanism Is astonishingly elegant. Basically there Is one long molecule, the DNA molecule, which Is really a long tape recording of all the information required to perpetuate the organism and reproduce il. This is a long helix (or corkscrew), as Linus Pauling had guessed years before. The chemical pro­ cesses permit the helix to be duplicated, to become two stitched-together corkscrew s, and then for them to come ap a rt, unwinding to go their separate ways to daughter cella.

One theory about the mechanics of this is that a sort of zipper allde, called the ribosome, chugs down the tape, attaching the called-for~~ amino acids and peeling off the ever-longer result.

Much pressing research In molecular bio­ logy, Ihen, is concerned with searching for whatever it is lhat switches different things on and off at different times in the careers of the ever-splitting cells of o u r bodies. Not to men­ tion those of all other living creatures, including turnips. COMPUTERISH CONJECTURES The guys who specialize in this are usually chemists, and presumably know what they're doing, so Ihe following remarks are not intended as butting into chem istry. However, new p e r­ spectives often give fresh insight; and the matters we've covered so far might seem to hsve a c e r­ tain relevance. DNA and RNA, as already remarked, may without distortion be thought of as a tape. Indeed, on this tspe is a data structure* and indeed It is a dala structure which seems lo be involved with the execution of a program -- the program that occurs as the organism 's cells differentiate.

Now, here are some of the funny things lhat are known about this. One is that there is a particular codon of three bases that is a stop code. Just like a period in ordinary punctuation. This signals the end of a template. Another is that the templates on Ihe tape are in no partic­ ular o rd e r, but distributed higgledy-piggledy. (Geneticists engaged in mapping the genes of a particular species of creature find that the gene for eye color may turn out to be right next to the gene for length of tail— but where those are really. and what the particular molecules do that determine it, are still mysterious sorts of question.) Here Is some more weird stuff about this. Large sections of the ONA strand are "dark." il turns out, just meaningless stretches of random combinations of bases lhat don't mean anything-or ever get used. This ties in, of course, with the notion thal genetic change is random and blind: the general supposition is lhat genetic mutallon takes place a base or two at a time, and Ihen something else activates a chance com­ bination in a dry slretch that turns out to be useful, and thia is somehow perfected through successive 1-base changes during the process of successive mutation and evolution. Amazing U6 e ia made of these mechanisms by some v iru ses. Now, v iruses are often thought of as the most basic form of life, but actually they are usually dependent on aome other form and hence more streamlined than elemental. Well, some viruses (bul not all) have the capacity for inserting themselves ln the genetic material: breezing up lo Ihe DNA or RNA. unhooking it in a certain place and lying down there, then being duplicated as part of the template, then unhooking themselves and toddling away— both parent virus and copy. I can't for the life of me think of an analogy to this, but I keep visualizing it as hap­ pening somehow in a Bugs Bunny cartoon. CONTROL MECHANtSMS

There Is evidently some sort of program follower which Is capable of branching to dif­ ferent selections of (or subprogram s) In the overall program, depending on various factors In the cell's environment** or perhaps its age. Now, It is one thing to look for the p a r­ ticular chemical mechanisms that handle this. That's fine. On the other hand, we can also consider (from ihe top down) whst sort of a program follower It must be to behsve like thle. (This is like the difference between tracing oul particular circuitry and trying to figure out the structure of a program from how 11 behaves.) At any ra te, the following interesting con­ jectures arise: 1. The mechanism of somatic reproduction is a subroutining progrsm follower- - not unlike the second program follower of the subroutining display (see p. That Is. it steps very slowly through a master program somewhere, and with each new step directs the blocking or unblocking of particular stretches of the tape. As the program is ln each cell, presumably it is being separately followed in each cell. (This is sometimes called distributed computing.)
2. In each cell, the master program is d ire c­ ting certain tests, whose results may or may not command program branching— successive steps to new states of the overall program . It may be teating for particular chemical secretions in its environment; it could even be testing a c o u n te r.

As a tape recording, the molecule directs the creation of chemicals and other cells by an intricate series of processes, nol well understood. Basically, though, the Information on the basic DNA tape is transferred to a new t a p e , an active copy c a l l e d " m essen g e r RNA," w hich b e conea an a c t u a l p la y b a c k d e v i c e f o r Che c r e a t i o n o f oav m o le c u le s a c c o r d i n g to th e p l a n s c o r e d on che o r i g i n a l . Some things are known about this process and some a re n 't, and 1 may have this wrong, but basically the DNA-- and its converted copy, the RNA— contain plans for making all the basic protein molecules of the body, and anything else that can be made with amino a d d s . (Those molecules of the body which are not proteins or built of amino acids are later made In chemical processes brought about by these k in d s .) Now well may you ask how this long tape recording makes chemical molecules. The answ er, eo far as Is known, is extremely puzzling. As already mentioned, the basic code molecules (or nitrogenous bases) are arranged In groups of three. When the RNA 1s turned on. these Qriples latch onto the molecules of amino acid that happen to be floating by in the soupy interior of ihe cell. (There are twenty-seven amino acids, and sixty-four possible combinations of three bases; this is fine, because several different codons of three bases can glom onto the same passing amino acid.) Now, the tape recording is divided Into separate sections or templstes; and each template does its own thing. When a template is filled, the strin g of amino acids in that section separate, and the long chain thal results is a particular molecule of significance in some aspect of the critte r's life processes— often a grand long thing that folds up in a certain w a y , exposing only certain active surfaces lo the ongoing chemistry of the cell.

3. (This is the steep o n e.) If this were so, we might suppose that this program too was stored on the DNA, in one or more program areas; and it would therefore be necessary lo postulate some addressing mechanism by which the program fol­ lower can find the templates to open and close. (And perhaps farther sections of the p ro g rsm .) 4. Indeed, it makes sense to suppose that such a program has the form of a dispatch table - - a list of addresses in the tape, perhaps asso ­ ciated with specifications of ihe tests which are to cause the branching.

Now, all cell 6 are not alike. From the first beginning cell of the organism (the zygote), various splits create more and more specialized, differ­ entiated cells. A liver cell is extremely different from a brain cell, bul they both date back by successive splitting from that first zygole. Yet they have different structures and manufacture different chemicals. One simplification may be possible: the "structure" of a cell may really be its chemical composition, since cell walls and other struc­ tures are thought to be special knittinga of certain tricky molecules. Oksy, so that may reduce the question slightly. How then does the cell change from being an Original (undif­ ferentiated. zygotic) cell to the Specialized cells thal manufacture particular other complex chemicals? One hypothesis was that these other cells have different plans ln them, different tapes. But this theory was discarded when John Gurdon at Oxford produced a fresh frog zygote from the Intestinal cell of a frog (which accordingly, ln due lime, became a frog de facto) . This proved, most think, that the whole tape is in eveTy cell. Thus there must be something-or-other that blocks the different templates at different times (You there, now you're a full-fledged epi­ thelial cell, never mind what you did before) and selects among all the subprograms on the tape.

|p r m e .~ r.-t-o

These wild speculations are offered ln the spirit of Interdisciplinary good fellowship and good clean fun. Whether ( 1 ) and (2) have any actual content, or are merely paraphrases of what is already known or diaproven, I don't know; somebody may find the rest suggestive. Two more observations, though. These are not particularly deep, and may indeed be obvious, but they suggest an approach. S. There is definitely a Program Restart: to w it, whatever It Is that turns an old differentiated intesline cell into a fresh zygote.
8.

Cancer is a runaway aubroutlne.

The a b o v e re m a r k s seem to b e o b a o l e t e . The g e n e t i c m ech a n ism r e a l l y te e n s to be a H a t p r o c e s s o r (ee e u s in g a s s o c i a t i v e , r a th e r chan n u m e ric a l a d d r e s s in g . T he g e n e I s now t h o u g h c co b e d i v i d e d i n c c f o u r a e g m e n c s , ' p-«- l‘Vr , c a ll e d P ro m o ter, I n i t i a t o r , gene p ro p e r, and T e rm in a to r. Aa I u n d e r s t a n d _ _ j? l i t, th e p r o m o te r a n d t e r m i n a t o r z o n ea c o n t a i n c o d e a w h ic h m ean, s im p ly , i “ * I S t a r t and S to p . The I n i t i a t o r z o n e , h o w e v e r, l e a c o d ed s e g m e n t w h ic h e f f * f e c t l v e l y fia b e la th e g e n e . T h le I n i t i a t o r a re a c o n ta i n s a c h e m ic a l code u u lJ i ' r f * * , 8 ®0 * ' A8 s u g g e e t e d l n t h e a b o v e a r t i c l e , w e m a y c o n s i d e r b o t h l c s l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e — i c e m e c h . . , 11- ? n ® a c t s , c o n s i d e r e d fro m a c o m p u te r o a n * s p o i n t o f v ie w — a n d i t s c h e m i c a l s t r u c t u r e , o r w h a t i s iy P*PP*“ io g . T h e g e n e s a r e t u r n e d o f f b y g r a b b i n g m o l e c u l e s , o r r e p r e s s o r s , w h i c h g l o m o n t o t h e i n i t i a t o r ( —*1 th . 6 e n « s w h i c h t h e y h a v e b e e n s p e c i f l c a l l v c o d e d c o r e p r e e e . R e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a m u a t now f i n d of . ! ! ! , . c o d l n 8 o f » o l e c u l e e w h i c h b l o c k a n d u n b l o c k s p e c i f i c g e n e e , a n d how c h e s e f i c t o t h e o v e r a l l g r a p h t h a m m ll0 ! ? ’ 1® "u n o l o 8 7 . d e v e lo p m e n t, an d a o o n . I f t h e r e l e a n y t h i n g to make a n o l d a t h e i e t u n e a s y , i t i s th e e x tr a o r d in a r y b e a u ty o f c h ls c lo c k w o rk .

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Ivan S u t h e r l a n d , i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s t r u c ­ ture of s u b r o u t i n i n g d i s p l a y p r o c e s s o r s , hag noted that aa y o u g e t m o r e a n d m o r e s o p h i s t i ­ cated in the d e s i g n o f a d i s p l a y p r o g r a m fol­ lower, you com e f u ll c i r c l e a n d m a k e i t a f u llfledged c o m p u t e r , w it h b r a n c h , t e s t , a n d a r i t h ­ metic o p e r a ti o n s . If the s o m a tic m e c h a n i s m s h o u ld t u r n o u t
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A lm o s t n o t h i n g i9 k n o w n a b o u t t h e b r a i n . O h , th e r e a r e lo ts o f p ic tu r e - b o o k s sh o w in g c r o s s - s e c tio n s o f b r a i n s . . . M aybe you th o u g h t il w a s j u s t a b i g c a u l i f l o w e r , b u t i t ' s f u ll of s t r i n g s a n d s t r a p s a n d lu m p s an d h a r d l y a n y ­ th i n g i s k n o w n a b o u t a n y o f i l . C l in i c a l e v i d e n c e , o f c o u r s e , t e l l s u s th a t i f t h i s o r t h a t p a r t i s c u t o u t , ih e p a t i e n t c a n 't t a l k , o r w a l k , o r s m e l l , o r w h a t e v e r . But th a t d o e s n 't co m e c lo s e to te ll in g u s how th e t h i n g w o r k s w h e n il d o e s w o r k . T h e h i s t o l o g i s t s , th e p e r c e p t u a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s , t h e a n a t o m i s t s , a r e a ll w o r k i n g a t i t — w i th n o c o n v e r g e n c e . B e a u tifu l e x a m p le : ih e s p l i t - b r a i n s t u f f , w h ic h I ju st b e tte r not e v e n b rin g u p h e r e (se e new M aya P i n e s b o o k , H a r c o u r t B r a c e ) . We u s e d to d i 6 s e c t b r a i n s w h e n I w o r k e d d o w n i n D r . L i l l y 's d o l p h i n l a b . D o lp h in b r a i n s a r e a b o u t 1 . 2 t i m e s t h e s i z e o f o u r s , a n d L illy q u ite r e a s o n a b l y p o i n t e d o u t th a t t h i s m ig h t m e a n d o l p h i n s w e r e s m a r t e r th a n u s . A n d , o f c o u r s e , th e b ig g e r w h a le s e v e n sm a rte r. We h a d a k i l l e r - w h a l e b r a i n i n t h e d e e p f r e e z e t h a t w a s a b o u t 2$ fe e t a c r o s s . A n d w h a le s co m e m u c h b i g g e r t h a n th a t; t h e K i l l e r 's m a y b e a q u a r t e r t h e le n g t h o f t h e B lu e . (I s h o u l d p o i n t o u t h e r e th a t L i l l y 's p u b ­ lic ity on th e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f d o l p h i n s w a s a little to o g o o d ; it so m e h o w d i d n 't g e t m e n tio n e d th a t d o l p h i n s a r e j u s t v e r y s m a ll w h a l e s . t h e o n ly o n e s y o u c a n f e a s i b l y k e e p in a l a b . S o th i n k o f w h a le s a s t h e p o s s i b l e s u p e r - s m a r l i e s , n o t ju s t d o l p h i n s . ) W h a t's th a t y o u s a y ? T h a t " b r a i n s i z e i s n 't w h a t c o u n t s " ? T h a t 's a n i n t e r e s t i n g p o i n t . P e o p l e w i th s m a ll h e a d s a r e b y a n d l a r g e j u s t as s m a r t a s p e o p le w i th b i g h e a d s . T h a t 's one a rg u m e n t. H o w e v e r , p e o p l e h a v e m uc h b i g g e r b r a i n s t h a n a lm o s t a n y o t h e r a n im a l s . T h a t i n d i c a t e s s o m e th i n g to o . 1 b e l i e v e t h a t t h e o n ly o t h e r a n i m a ls w it h v e r y b ig b r a i n s a re e le p h a n ts a n d w h a le s , (A n a n a to m ic a l e x p l a n a t i o n : th e w e ig h t i s s u p p o r t e d o n ih e m an b y b a l a n c i n g i t , o n t h e e l e p h a n t b y a h e a v y a n d c o m p a r a t iv e ly in f le x ib l e n e c k o f f s e t b y a g r a p p l i n g t o o l, a n d i n th e w h a le b y p u t t i n g it i n t h e f r o n t o f a t o r p e d o . B u t m o s t o t h e r a n a to m ie s c o u l d n 't m a n a g e a b ig b r a i n , s o t h e y c a n ’t e v o lv e o n e . ^ A n y h o w , s o th e sc ie n tific q u e stio n is w h e th e r b ig - b r a in e d s p e c ie s a r e s m a rt. W ell, dogs a re s m a rte r th a n r a t s . . . But a b o u t t h e s e o t h e r g u y s i n o u r le a g u e a n d b e y o n d . How d o w e k n o w s o i e n t if i c a l ly th a t " t h e s i z e o f t h e b r a i n i s n 'l w h a t c o u n t s " ? B e c a u s e o b v i o u s l y t h e y 'r e n o t a s s m a r t a s w e a r e , p e o p le s a y . T h e r e f o r e it i s n 't b r a i n s i z e th a t c o u n t s . T h e d e p t h o f th i 9 lo g ic s h o u l d b e e v id e n t. (I ’v e e v e n h e a r d p e o p le s a y , " O f c o u r s e t h e y 'r e n o t a s s m a r t . T h e y d o n 't h a v e g u n s . " ) P a y c l o s e a t te n ti o n t o a n e l e p h a n t so m e tim e .

W N H^r eXT?

not much of a s t e p to s u p p o s e t h a t it m ig h t h a v e Ihe traits of a n a c t u a l c o m p u t e r , i . e . , t h e a b i li ty to follow p r o g r a m s , b r a n c h , a n d p e r f o r m m a n ip ­ ulations on d a ta b e a r i n g o n t h o s e o p e r a t i o n s . In o th e r w o r d s , t h e d i g i t a l c o m p u t e r m ay actually h a v e b e e n i n v e n t e d l o n g b e f o r e v o n Neumann, a n d w e m a y h a v e b i l l i o n s o f th em on ou r p e r s o n s a l r e a d y . II m ay s o u n d f a r - f e t c h e d , b u t t h e m e c h a n ­ isms elu c id a te d a t t h i a l e v e l a r e s o f a r - f e t c h e d already that t h i s h a r d l y s e e m s r i d i c u l o u s . THE COMPUTER F R O N T IE R R e g a r d le s s o f w h a t 's a c t u a l l y ln t h e c e l l , 1 ia c le a r lh a t b e i n g a b l e t o a d a p t m o le c u l a r 1 chem istry, e s p e c i a l l y DNA a n d R N A , to c o m p u t e r storage i s a b e c k o n i n g c o m p u t e r f r o n t i e r . T h is w o u ld m a k e p o s s i b l e c o m p u t e r m em ­ ories w hich a r e f a r l a r g e r a n d c h e a p e r t h a n any we now h a v e . B a sic a lly w e c a n s e p a r a t e th i s i n to tw o aspects: T h e DNA R e a d o u t . T h is p a rt of th e s y s ­ tem would c r e a t e l o n g m o l e c u l e s h o l d i n g d ig ita l information. T h e DNA R e a d i n . T h iB w o u l d c o n v e r t i t beck to e le c t r ic a l f o rm a g a i n .

B y b r o w s i n g t h i s b oo k y o u m ay h a v e m o re s e n s e o f w h at c o m p u te rs a re d o in g , c a n d o , s h o u l d do . W hat w il l y o u do now ? B y r e a d i n g t h i s b o ok in s o m e d e t a i l , e s ­ p e c i a l l y t h a t d i f f ic u lt m a c h i n e - l a n g u a g e s t u f f (se e " R o c k B o tto m ” a n d " B u c k y ’s W r i s t w a t c h ," p p . 3 2 - 3 ) . o r t h e p ie c e s o n s p e c i f i c c o m p u t e r la n g u a g e s ( p p . >• y ° u r e a l l y s h o u l d b e m e n ta ll y p r e p a r e d to g e t in to p r o g r a m m i n g , if you d ig it. M a y b e y o u s h o u ld c o n s i d e r b u y i n g y o u r o w n m in i c o m p u t e r , f o r a c o u p l e o f t h o u s a n d . O r ( i f y o u ' r e a p a r e n t ) , c h i p p i n g in w i t h s e v e r a l fa m ilie s to ge t o n e . O r a t e r m i n a l , a n d b u y in g ( o r c a d g i n g a s c a d g e c a n ) tim e o n a l i m e - s h a r i n g s y s t e m . M a y b e y o u s h o u ld s t a r t a c o m p u te r c l u b , w h i c h m a k e s i t e a s i e r lo g e t c a s t - o f f e q u ip m e n t; i f y o u ’r e k i d s , w r it e th e R . E . S . l . S . T . O . R . S . ( p . *7>. I f y o u h a v e a c h a n c e , m a y b e y o u s h o u ld t a k e c o m p u t e r c o u r s e s , b u t r e m e m b e r th e s l a n t t h e s e a r e li k e l y to h a v e . O r p e r h a p s y o u p r e f e r j u s t to s i t a n d w a i t , a n d b e p r e p a r e d to s p e a k u p s h a r p l y i f t h e c o n p u t e r p e o p l e a r r i v e r e a d y to p u s h y o u a r o u n d . R em e m b e r: CO M PU TER POWER T O T H E PEOPLE! DOWN WITH CYBERCRUD! C o m p u t e r s c o u ld d o a ll k i n d s o f t h i n g s fo r i n d i v i d u a l s , if o n l y t h e p r o g r a m s w e r e a v a i l a b l e . F o r i n s t a n c e : h e l p y o u c a lc u la t e y o u r ta x i n t e r ­ a c t i v e l y til l it c o m e s o u l b e s t ; h e l p t h e h a r r i e d c r e d i t - c a r d h o l d e r w ith b i l l - p a y i n g b y a llo w in g h im to t r y o u t d i f f e r e n t p a y m e n ts t o d if f e r e n t c r e d i t o r s till h e s e t t l e s o n t h e m o n t h 's b e s t m ix , t h e n t y p i n g t h e c h e c k s ; WRITING ANGRY LETTERS BACK to t h o s e c o m p a n ie s th a t w r i t e y o u n a s t y l e t t e r s b y c o m p u te r ; h e l p i n g w i th l e t t e r - w r i t i n g i n g e n e r a l . Y o u 'll h a v e to w r i te t h e p r o g r a m s .

Weird p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o l l o w . O n e i s t h a t (if chemical m e m o r y i s g e n e r i c , r a t h e r th a n idiosyncratic to a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s n e u r a l p a th w a y s ) knowledge c o u ld b e s e t u p s o m e h o w in " l e a r n e d " DNA form , w h a t e v e r t h a t m i g h t t u r n o u t t o b e , and in jected o r i m p l a n t e d r a t h e r t h a n t a u g h t . Weird. Aa o u r a b i l i t y to c r e a t e c l o n e s i m p r o v e s , we could clo n e n e w c r e a t u r e s , o r g e n e t i c " im ­ pro v em en ts"-- w h i c h , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r a c e h o r s e and the P e k i n e s e , m e a n e " t h o s e s o r t s o f n o n viable m o d ific a tio n s s u p p o r t e d i n h u m a n s o c i e t y . " And of c o u r s e t h a t g h a s t l y s t u f f a b o u t b u i l d i n g human a , o r s e m i - h u m a n s ; h a v i n g t r a i t s t h a t somebody o r so m e o r g a n i z a t i o n , u l p , t h i n k s ia deB irable... But the r e a l z i n g e r i a t h i s o n e . I t m ig h t juet be a sm all a c c i d e n t a l p r i n t o u t m e a n t to test the f a c i li ty , o r m a y b e j u s t a p r o g r a m b u g — - - b u t th e s y s t e m c o u l d o u t p u t a v i r u s that would d e s t r o y m a n k i n d .

H ow d o y o u t h i n k c o m p u t e r s c a n h e l p th e w o r ld ? W hat a r e y o u w a i t i n g fo r?

HIBLIOGRAPHY James D . W a ts o n , M o l e c u l a r B io lo g y o f t h e G e n e . B e a u tifu lly w r i t t e n ; m e a n t f o r h i g h s c h o o l s cience t e a c h e r s . B u t p o t e n t i a l l y f o r m i­ d a b le ; l f s o , s t a r t ' w i t h h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l T h e D o u b le H e l i x , w h i c h i s a g a s . Mark P ta s h n e a n d W a lt e r G i l b e r t , " G e n e tic Repressors." Scientific American, June 1970, 36-44. S E. L u r ia , L ife: T h e U n f i n i s h e d E x p e r i m e n t . S c r i b n e r 's . Lewis Thomas, T he L i v e s of a C e l l . Viking, S7. Eloquent w r i t i n g to popularize, among other things, the N e w Ge netic view that your m o d e r n a n i m a l cells, and mine, ac­ tually c o n t a i n v a r i o u s fungi and other stray d i n g - a - l i n g s that slid into one of our ancestors and found useful work, j oi n ­ ing the b a si c g e n e t i c program.

W o r k in g e l e p h a n t s in I n d i a r e s p o n d t o so m e 500 d i f f e r e n t o r a l c o m m a n d s . C a n y o u th i n k of a 501st th i n g to a s k an e l e p h a n t to d o ? (1 r a t h e r s u p p o s e i t cou ld - o b l i g e . ) A n y w a y , t h e d o z e n w h a le s I 'v e k n o w n p e r ­ s o n a l ly w e r e s m a r t a s h e l l .

It u s e d t o b e b e l i e v e d lh a l m e m o r y w a s e x c lu s iv e ly a m a tte r of s y n a p tic c o n n e c tio n s — th e g r a d u a l c l o s i n g o f l i l t l e s w i t c h e s b e t w e e n n e r v e c e lls w ith p r a c tic e . It i s n o w k n o w n t h a t te m p o r a r y o r s h o r t - t e r m m e m o ry is s y n a p t i c , b u t s o m e t h in g e l s e t a k e s p l a c e a f te r t h a t . I t 's b e l ie v e d t h a t a f te r a c e r t a i n p e r i o d , a n d il h a s s o m e th in g to do w i th r e s t a n d s l e e p , m e m o r ie s a r e t r a n s ­ f e r r e d to so m e o t h e r f o r m , p r e s u m a b l y c h e m i c a l . B ut how ?

It u s e d to b e f a s h i o n a b l e to s a y , "T he b r a i n Is a c o m p u t e r . " But now p e o p le s a y , "T h e b r a in is a h o l o g r a m . " F a sh io n s c h a n g e .

My f r i e n d A n d r e w J . S i n g e r h a s a b e a u ­ tifu l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t w r a p s it u p . H is g u e s s is t h a t m e m o r ie s a r e m o v e d f ro m s y n a p t i c s to r a g e to DNA ( ! ) s t o r a g e d u r i n g d r e a m i n g , o r m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y REM s l e e p . I l i k e t h a t o n e . IKE COPPER M A N W A L K E D OUT OF T H E R O C K Y CAVERN

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T h e people who s en d it out like to call it personalized a d v e rtis in g and the lik e . But most of u s call it J u n k M ail. And its v a g a rie s are NOT THE POOR COMPpTER'S FAULT. What gets people angry d e r iv e s from the system buill around Ihe poor c om puter. You may w o n d e r why y o u get m ore and more seed ca talogs, o r g ift-h o u s e ca talogs, as time goes o n , even though you n e v e r o rd e r any­ th in g from them. O r why a d ec ea sed member of the household goes on g e ttin g mail y e a r in and y e a r o u t, re g a r d l e s s of y o u r an g ry post­ c a rd s . How does it kee p coming? T hro u g h the m agic of som ething called Ihe Mailing L is t. And especially the p e c u lia r way lhat mailing lists a re b o u g h t and s o l d .

E v e ry b o d y b l a m e s t h e c o m p u t e r . P e o p l e a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o b la m e t h e c o m p u t e r . T he e m p lo y e e s o f a f i r m , by t e l l i n g o u t s i d e .p e o p l e t h a t i t ' s t h e c o m p u t e r 's f a u l t , a r e e n c o u r a g i n g p u b l i c ap a th y th ro u g h p r i v a t e d e c e i t . T he p r e ­ te n s e i s t h a t t h i s th in g , th e c o m p u te r, i s r i g i d a n d in h u m an ( s e e " T h e Myth o f t h e C o m p u te r ," p . ? ) and m akes a l l k in d s o f s t u p i d m is ta k e s . C o m p u te rs T a r e l y make m i s t a k e s . If t h e c o m p u tin g h a r d w a r e m akes a h a r d w a r e e r r o r i n a b i l l i o n o p e r a t i o n s , i t may be n o tic e d and a re p a irm a n c a l l e d . (O f c o u r s e , once i n a b i l l i o n o p e r a tio n s i s o n ce i n a t h o u s a n d s e c o n d s , o r p e r h a p s e v e ry te n m in u te s . That ought to be m e n tio n e d .) A nyhow, i n n o c e n t g a d g e t r y i s n o t w h a t f o r c e s you t o make s t u p i d m u l t i p l e c h o i c e s on b u r e a u c r a t i c f o r m s ; m ere e q u i p m e n t i s n ' t w h a t l o s e s y o u r s u b s c r ip tio n re c o rd s ;
IT'S

Few of u s can help feeling outrage at the book c lu b s , o r s u b s c rip tio n offices, or b illin g d epartm ents, that do n ’t re p ly to o u r le t t e r s . O r re p ly in a p p r o p ria te ly , with a form p rin to u t that doesn't match the problem . F irs t le t's u n d ersta n d how this happens. T h e se outfits a re b a s e d on u s in g the com­ p u te r to handle all co rres p o n d e n c e and tra n s ­ ac tio n s . The "office" may not have any people in it at all— that i s , people w hose job it is to u n d e r s ta n d and deal s en s ib ly with the p ro b ­ lem s of custom ers. In stea d , th e r e may ju s t be key p u n c h op erato rs staffing a Balch S ystem , set up by someone who h as long s in c e moved on. T h e poinl of a b atc h system (see p . f S ”) is to aave money and bo th er b y handling e v e ry ­ th in g in a controlled flow. T h is does not mean in p rin c ip le that things have to b e rig id and r e s tr i c t i v e , bul it usually m eans it in pra c tic e . (See "T he Punch C ard M enta lity," p . •) T he system is set up w ith only a fixed num ber of e v e n t ty p e s , and so only th o se eve nts are re co g n ize d ae o c c u rrin g . Most im portant, your problem is assum ed to be one that will be s tra ig h te n e d out in the c o u rs e of the s y stem 's flow . While th e re may be p ro v isio n for excep­ tio n s -- one c l e r k , p e r h a p s - - y o u r problem has not seem ed to him w orthy of m aking an excep­ tion for. Here is my solution. It h as worked s e v e ra l tim es, p artic u larly on book clu b s that ig n o re d typed letters and kept b illin g me in c o r r e c tl y . Get a roll of white sh elf p a p e r, two or th re e feet wide and twenty o r m ore feet long. Write a le tte r on Ihe s h e lf p a p e r in magic m a r k e r. Make it b ig , p e rh a p s s ix inches to a w o rd . Legibility is n e c e s s a r y , b u t d o n 'l make it too easy to re ad . Explain the problem c l e a r l y . Now lake y o u r p u n ch c a r d - - you d id gel o n e . d id n ’t y o u , a bill o r som ething?-- and m utilate it carefully. T e a r it in q u a r t e r s , or cut it into lac e, o r som ething. But make s u re the s e r ia l nu m b er is still l e g ib le . Staple it lo v in g ly to y o u r nice b ig letter,. Now fold y o u r le tte r , a n d find an envelope b ig en ough for it to fil in , an d s en d i t . r e g i s ­ tered o r certified m ail, to ANY HUMAN BEING, ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT, o r w h a te v e r, and the com pany's a d d r e s s . T h is really works q uite w ell.

THE SYSTEM. By s y s t e m we m ean t h e w h o le s e t u p : t h e c o m p u te r, th e a c c e s s o r i e s t h a t h a v e b ee n chosen f o r i t , i t s p lan o f o p e r a tio n o r p r o g r a m , an d t h e way t i l e s a r e k e p t a n d co m p lain ts h a n d le d . D o n 't b la m e t h e c o m p u t e r . Blame t h e s y s t e m ; b la m e t h e p r o g r a m ­ m er; b la m e t h e p r o c e d u r e s ; b e s t o f a l l , b lam e t h e co m p a n y . L e t them know y o u w i l l ta k e y o u r b u s in e s s to w h e re v e r th e y h a v e human b e i n g s . Same f o r g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c ie s : w r ite your congressm an. And so o n .

Now, a m ailing list is a s e r ie s of names and ad d re s s e s of p o s s ib le cu s to m e rs , s to red on com puter tape o r d i s k . You can buy the u se of a m ailing l i s t . But you cannot b u y the m ailing list itself. Suppose you h av e a b r o c h u r e ad v e rtisin g pum pkin-seed re l is h , w hich you s u g g e s t has re juvenating p o w e rs . You w ant this b ro c h u re to go out to ric h college g r a d u a t e s . You go to a m a ilin g -list h o u s e . "I cannot sell you th is m ailing lis t out­ r i g h t ," say s the jolly p r o p r ie t o r , "for it is my b u s in e s s to sell its u s e again a n d ag a in , so I do not want anybody else to h a v e a copy of i t ." So you leave 2500 p u m p k in -s e e d re lish b ro c h u re s with the m ailing l i s t com pany, and p ay them a lot of m oney. And they sw e a r on a stack of b ibles th a t th ey h av e m ailed the b ro ­ c h u re s to th e ir spec ial list of r i c h college g ra d ­ uates. Well, l e t's say you g et 2S0 sale s from that m ailing. (10% is fan tastic ally g o o d .) But out of curio sity you go to a n o th e r m ailing-list house and have an o th e r m ailing s e n t o u t— this one to people who h av e low incom es an d little e d u c atio n . T h is time you g et 15% o r d e r s . Now g u es s w hat y o u a r e a c q u irin g . A m ailing lis t of y o u r v e r y ow n. ple who ea t p u m p k in -s e e d re l is h . Of peo­

4
we should all p ra ctice and have ready a t the tip of o u r tongues: WHY THE HELL NOT? YOU'RE THE ONES WITH THE COMPUTERS, NOT ME! Let's froth up a little citizen indignation h e r e .

A O T jr k J O i^
In p rin c ip le we no longer need account num bers. Now lhat tex t pro c essin g facilities a r e available in moat (if not all) major com puter langua ges, the o nly excuse for not u s in g these features ia the p ro g ram m er's notion of h is own convenience— not lhat of the outside custom er o r victim. Exam ple. Someone I know got b r a n d new ^ ■^ ■n ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ a n d c re d it c a rd s . He m ade no note of th e ir n u m b e rs. Then he lost them b o th . Duly he re p o rted (he lo s s e s . Neither serv ic e could look him u p . they s a i d , without the n u m b e r s . Not having u s ed th e m , he had no bills to ch e c k . Even though he w as the only perso n at th at a d d re s s with an y th in g like that nam e. And w hy not, pra y tell? E ith e r b e­ cause they w e re fib b in g , o r because th ey had not seen fit to c r e a te a sim ple s tra ig h tfo rw a rd program for the p u rp o s e . (See Basic R ejo in d er, n e a rb y .) I have h e a rd of sim ilar cases in volving major life in s u ra n c e com panies. Don't lose the n u m b e rs . L e t's all dance lo it: When a n y th in g is issu ed to you, Write the n u m b er down.

I am assum ing h e r e , now , that y o u r p ro b ­ lem h as m erit, and you have b e e n denied the attention re q u ire d to settle il. If w e want ju stic e we m ust o u rs e lv e s b e j u s t. T h e re is one f u r th e r s t e p , b u t , ag a in , to be u s ed only in p roportion to th e offense. This step is to be used only if a m eritorious commun­ ica tio n , like thal alread y d e s c r i b e d , has not been p ro p e rly re sponded to in a decent in terv a l. We assum e that th is u n ju s t firm h as sent you a re p ly envelope o r c a rd on which they must pay p ostage. Now ca re fu lly d ra ftin g a follow -up le tte r , explain once ag a in , in civil la n g u a g e , the orig in al problem , y o u r efforts at a tte n tio n , and so o n . Now p u t it in a package with a ten o r tw elve-pound r o c k , affix the re p ly envelope to the o u tsid e, and send it off. T he problem , you s e e , h a s b ee n to get out of the batch stream and b e tre ated a s an e x c e p tio n . F lagrantly d e s tro y in g the punch ca rd s e r v e s to remove you from the flow in that fash­ ion. (H owever, ju s t tea rin g it a little bit p ro b ­ ably w on't: a c a rd that is in tact b u t to m can sim ply b e put in a ce rtain slot of the ca rd -p u n c h and d u p lic a te d . Destroy it good a n d p le n ty .) ln all these ca ses rem em ber: the problem is not th a t you a re "b ein g tre a te d a s a n u m b er," w h a te v e r that m eans, b u t that y o u r case does not c o r re c tly fall in the c a teg o rie s that have bee n s e t up for i t . By forcing attention to your ca se a s an e x c ep tio n , you a re m aking them re alize that m ore categories a re n e e d e d , o r more people to handle exc eptions. If m ore people do th is w hen they have a ju s t com plaint, s ervic e will im prove ra p id ly .

Mailing lis ts a r e , you e e e , g en e ra lly r e n ­ ted b lin d , w ith no c h a n ce to s e e the a d d ressee s o r check as to w h e th e r t h e y 'v e a lr e a d y been mailed to. And thal e x p la in s all th e duplicatio n s. If a n a d v e r t i s e r is go in g a f te r a ce rtain type of cu sto m er, an d goes to s e v e ra l m ailinglist houses a s k in g fo r m ailings to that partic u lar ty p e of custom er, ch a n c e s a r e som e people will be on s e v e ra l of the l i s t s . A nd s in c e th e r e 's no way to in terc o m p are the l i s t s . th e s e poor gu y s get s e v e ra l co p ie s of the m ailing. (A nother way th is can h a p p e n is if some che apska te h as h is own m ailin g lis t an d d oesn't check it for re p ea ts of the sam e nam e. Bul w ritin g the com puter p ro g ram to che ck for re p ea ts of the sam e nam e is not e a s y — there m ight j u s t be a R o b ert J o n e s a n d a Rob Jones at the sam e a d d r e s s — an d t h e s e th in g s a r e not usually checked m an u a lly . T h e y 'r e b i g . ) A nother p o s s ib ility e x is ts fo r elim inating duplications w hen y o u r e n t m a ilin g lia ts . You can b rin g in a m agnetic tap e w ith y o u r mailing lis l on i t , and they can s e n d o u t th e m ailing only to the m em bers of t h e i r ' l is t who a r e nol alread y on y o u r l i s t. T h a t w a y y o u still ca n 't steal th e i r lis t, s in ce th e ta p e ie o n th e ir p re m ise s. T he tro u b le i s , th e y can s tea l y o u r lis t, by m aking a co p y of th e t a p e . Oh d e a r.

O n e p o s s ib ility , nice and e x p e n s iv e , is to r e n t a n u m b e r of mailing lists from a s ingle m a i l i n g - l i s t h o u s e , with them g u aran tee in g that t h e y ’ll c o m p a re all the lists you choose and n o t s e n d to a n y perso n more th an o nce. B ut a s you may be su sp e c tin g , th is costs m o n e y . A ll th is s c re e n in g and inierc o m p arin g r e q u i r e s co m p u te r tim e, and s o , even though y o u a r e g e t t i n g a more and m ore perfect m ailing, y o u a r e p a y i n g reore and more and m ore money f o r i t . So y o u can see why reasonable b u s in e s s ­ m e n a r e w illin g to send out ad s even w hen they k n o w som e re c ip ie n ts will get s e v e ra l d u plicate s. A n o th e r in te re s tin g point. T h e re a re m a ilin g l i s t s fo r all k in d s of different possible c u s t o m e r s . T h e p o ssib ilities a r e e n d le s s. M in o r i t y - g r o u p do cto rs. People In te res ted in b o t h s ta m p collecting and flowers (y o u 'd have to g e t a com pany with both l is ts , and have them go t h r o u g h them for the d u p lic a te s . . . you get th e id ea ). N ote t h a t m ailing lis ts a r e p ric e d according to t h e i r d e s i r a b i li t y . Weeded m ailing l i s t s , fea­ t u r i n g o n ly Live O nes, people w ho've o rd e re d b i g i n r e c e n t tim es, a r e more e x p e n s iv e . Lists o f d o c t o r s , w ho b u y a lo t, .are m ore e x p e n s iv e t h a n l i s t s o f social w o r k e rs . And so o n . T h e n t h e r e ’s the m a tte r.o f the pitch . T h e a d 's p h ra s in g may be b u ilt around t h e m a ilin g p l a n . Some c ir c u la rs come rig h t out a n d t e ll th e re c ip ie n t h e 's going to g et s e v e ra l c o p i e s b e c a u s e h e 's such a wonderful p e r s o n . THEN t h e r e s r e those ad v e rtisem en ts that a r e a c t u a l l y p ri n t e d by the co m p u te r, o r at least c e r t a i n l i n e s a r e filled in with the re c ip ie n t's n a m e a n d p o s s ib ly some snazzy p h ra s e s to make him t h i n k i t 's a p ersonal le tte r. Who re s p o n d s to s u c h t h i n g s 1 d o n 't know. My favorite was t h e o n e - - I w is h I could find it to in clu d e h e re - - t h a t w e n t som ething like Y o u 'll re a l l y look sw e ll, M r. Nelson w a lk i n g dow n Main Street of New York i n y o u r s h a r p -lo o k in g new s l s c k s . . .
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B ut y o u se e how th is w o rk s. T h e re 's t h i s b a t c h - p r o c e s s i n g p ro g ra m , s e e , a n d the n a m e s a n d a d d r e s s e s a r e on one long ta p e , and th e t a p e g o e s th ro u g h , a n d the p ro g ram takes o n e r e c o r d (a name a n d a d d r e s s ) , a n d d ec ides w h e t h e r to c a ll th e a d d r e s s e e " M r .," "M s." or w h a t e v e r , a n d th en p lu g s his nam e into the p r i n t o u t l i n e s th a t giv e it T hat P erso n a l Touch; a n d t h e n t h e m ailing envelope o r s tic k e r is p r i n t e d ; a n d t h e tape moves on to the next re co rd . We m ay look fo rw ard to in c re a s in g en ­ c r o a c h m e n t s on o u r time and tr u s t by the d ire ct m ail i n d u s t r y : esp e cially in b e tte r and b e tte r q u a c k l e t t e r s th a t look as though th e y 'v e really b e e n p e r s o n a l l y ty p e d to you by a re a l hum an b e in g . (It i s a p p a re n tly legal fo r le tte rs to be s i g n e d b y a fic titio u s p e r s o n w ithin a co m p a n y .) In t h e f u t u r e we may expe ct s u ch le tte rs to be s e n t o n fin e p a p e r , ty p ed in dividua lly on good t y p e w r i t e r s , a n d convincingly p h ra s e d to make u s t h i n k a r e a l p e rs o n a l pitch is b e in g ten d e re d . T h e r e i s , h o w e v e r, a final solution.

fr o m maga-riiia-s. t o m u t u a l f u n d s . ------------------ . ----------------- ----Y o u 'v e u n d o u b t e d l y " h e a r d e v c r y t h i n e "
or p r a s e s „ and p r e m i s s . you subscribe to

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YOU CAN GET OFF ALL MAILING LISTS — t h a t i a , the o nes " p artic ip a tin g " in the A s s o c ia tio n — b y w ritin g to D irect Mail A d v e rtisin g A ssociation P u b lic R elations Departm ent 230 P a rk A venue New Y ork, NY 10017 You call u p the b a n k an d a s k y o u r b alance an d they s a y , "I'm afraid I c a n 't g et that i n f o r ­ m ation. You s e e , i t 's on a c o m p u te r .” (See B asic R ejo in d er, n e a r b y . ) Well, the re aso n i t 's th is w ay is that t h e y 'r e h a n d lin g th in g s in B atch (s e e p . * | 5 ) and they a r e n 't s to rin g y o u r ac co u n t on d i s k , o r i f they a r e th ey d on't h av e a term in a l they can q u e r y il w ith. But to aay th at th ey c a n 't g e t th e in fo r­ mation b e c au se i t 's on a co m puter is a typ ical u se of the co m puter as an e x c u s e (s e e C y b e r­ c r u d , p . $ ); a n d sec ond, if th e p e r s o n b e ­ lieves th is to be an ex pla nation, i t 's a s ig n of the intim idation an d obfuscation th a t h a v e bee n sown am ong the c le rk s who d o n 't u n d e r s ta n d com puters. Write them a l e tte r . C h an g e b a n k s . L et's get the b a n k s to p u t on m ore an d m ore citize n s e r v ic e s . Rah!

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E v e r y w h e r e y o u g o c o m p u t e r s l u r k . Yet th e y w e a r s o m a n y fa c e s i t 's im p o s s i b le t o f i g u r e w h a l 's g o in g o n . G u i d e l in e s a r e h a r d to la y d o w n h e r e , b u t if y o u look f o r e x a m p l e s of t h i n g s y o u 'v e a lr e a d y r u n in to in t h i s b o o k , it may h e lp so m e . T e r m in a l s y o u c a n p r e s u m a b ly r e c o g n i z e . M ic r o p r o c e s s o r s a r e h a r d e r , b e c a u s e y o u d o n 't s e e t h e m . G ood r u l e - o f - t h u m b : a n y d e v ic e w h ic h a c ts w i th c o m p le x ity o r a p p a r e n t d i s c r e t i o n p r e s u m a b l y i n c o r p o r a t e s a te r m i n a l , m in i c o m p u t e r o r m ic ro p ro c e sso r. T w o o t h e r t h i n g s to w a tc h for: t r a n s a c t i o n s y s te m s an d d a t a b a s e s y s te m s . A t r a n s a c t i o n s y s t e m i s a n y s y s te m th a t ta k e s n o te o f , a n d p e r h a p s r e q u i r e s v e r i f i c a t i o n o f, t r a n s a c t i o n s . E xa m p le : th e n e w p o i n t - o f - s a l e s y s te m s ( P O S ) . T h is i s w h a t 's a b o u t t o r e p l a c e th e c a s h r e g i s t e r . In th e s u p e r m a r k e t o f th e f u t u r e , e v e r y p a c k a g e w ill h a v e a b a r c o de o n a s t i c k e r , o r p r i n t e d o n th e w r a p p e r . I n s te a d o f th e c h e c k o u t c l e r k lo o k in g a t t h e la b e l a n d p u n c h i n g t h e a m ou n t o f th e s a l e Inlo th e c a s h r e g i s t e r - - a n e r r o r - p r o n e a n d c h e a t - p r o n e t e c h n iq u e w h ic h r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e t r a i n i n g - - y o u r N ew Im­ p r o v e d C h e c k o u t C l e r k w ill w a v e a w a n d o v e r th e b a r c o d e . T h e b a r co d e w ill b e s e n s e d by th e w a n d , a n d t r a n s m i tt e d to a c o n tro l c o m p u t e r , w h ic h w ill r i n g il u p b y a m o u nt a n d c a te g o r y (fo r ta x p u r p o s e s ) , a n d e v e n k e e p t r a c k of i n v e n t o r y , n o t i n g e a c h o b je c t a s it is r e m o v e d from s to c k . H e re i s w h a t y o u r b a r c o d e w ill l o o k l i k e . (A c i r c u l a r c o d e , w h ic h w a s a l r e a d y t u r n i n g u p on som e TV d i n n e r s , h a a b e e n e li m in a te d b y th e b a r c o d e . T h i s i s u n f o r tu n a te , s i n c e t h e s c a n ­ n e r n e c e s s a r y lo r e a d th e b a r c o d e is e l e c t r o n ­ ic a lly m o re c o m p l ic a te d , b u t i h e r e w e a r e . )

T h e p o t e n t ia l d a n g e r s o f t r a n s a c t i o n s y s te m s a r e f a i r l y o b v io u s from t h e s u p e r m a r k e t e x a m p le , b u t t h e y fa n o u t in g r e a t e r c o m p le x ity as th e s y s t e m s g e t m o r e c o m p le x . C r e d it c a r d s , f o r in s t a n c e , w e r e o n ly m a d e p o s s i b l e b y c o m p u te r s a n d c o m p u te r iz e d c r e d i t v e r i f i c a t i o n ; b u t it is o n l y n o w , fifte e n o r s o y e a r s in to lh e c r e d i t - c a r d e r a , th a t la w s p r o te c t th e c a r d h o l d e r a g a in s i u n li m i te d lia b il it y i f h e l o s e s i t . Y et w e p l u n g e a h e a d , a n d it is o b v io u s w h y . T ra n s a c tio n sy s te m s m a n a g e d i n , a n d b y , com ­ p u t e r s allo w m o r e f le x ib le a n d ( i n p r i n c i p l e ) re lia b le o p e ra tio n s. F o r in s ta n c e , in th e s e c u ­ r i t i e s b u s i n e s s , th o u s a n d s o f s to c k c e r t if i c a te s a r e lo st a n d m is la id , a n d th e tra n s a c tio n p a p e r m u s t b e t y p e d , s h u f f le d , p u t i n e n v e l o p e s , s e n t , o p e n e d , s h u f f le d a g a i n , c o m p a r e d . . . a l l b y h a n d . L ittle w o n d e r t h e y 'r e w o r k i n g on a n A u to m ated S to c k E x c h a n g e S y s te m . B u t i f i t 's t a k e n fifte e n y e a r s to g e t th e im p lic it b u g s o u t o f c r e d i t c a r d s , . . n o t lo m e n tio n th e f r e q u e n t a lle g a t io n s th a t m u c h Wall S tr e e t " i n e f f i c i e n c y " ia a c tu a ll y th e d is g u is e d m a ra u d in g o f O rg a n iz e d C r i m e ... u h -o h . (If th e y c a n b u y t h e b e s t l a w y e r s , th e y c a n p ro b a b ly b u y lh e b e s t p r o g r a m m e r s .) T h e n t h e r e i s t h e C h e c k l e s s S o c ie ty . T h i s i s a c a t c h p h r a s e f o r a n o f t- a d v o c a te d s y s t e m lh a l a l lo w s y o u to t r a n s f e r m o n e y i n s t a n t l y b y c o m p u ­ t e r ; s u p p o s e d ly so m e s u c h t h i n g i s w o r k i n g a l ­ r e a d y i n F r a n c e . A g a in , t h e y b e t t e r g e t il p r e t t y s a f e b e f o r e a s a n e m a n w il l g o u p i n i t . T h e s a fe ty o f s u c h s y s te m s is o f c o u rs e a m a t t e r o f im m e n s e g e n e r a l c o n c e r n . IBM p o r t e n t i o u s l y ( s i c ) a n n o u n c e d i ls i n te n t to s p e n d m illio n s o f d o l l a r s o n " c o m p u t e r s e c u r i t y " a few y e a r s a g o . H o w e v e r , a few m illio n d o l l a r s is n o t g o in g to p lu g l h e s e c u r i t y h o le s in t h e IBM 360, a n d e v i d e n t ly t h e 370 is j u s t a b o u t e s v u l ­ n e ra b le . (In i h is l i g h t , e v e n t h e g r e a t e s t IB M - h a te r s w ill h a v e to a d m it lh a t t h e r e m a y b e a p r o p e r m o tiv e b e h in d IBM 's c u r r e n t r e f u s a l to le t o th e r s U6e i t s new o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m l a n g u a g e : th a t w a y t h e y m a y b e a b l e lo p r e v e n t s p e c i a l h o le s i n th e s y s te m from b e c o m in g k n o w n to p r o g r a m m e r s . ) It is in te re s tin g th a t o n e p ro fe s s io n seem s to b e s te p p in g f o rw a rd to t r y to im p ro v e th is s it u a t io n : t h e a u d i t i n g p r o f e s s i o n , d e v o te d lo v e r if ic a t io n o f f i n a n c ia l s i t u a t i o n s o f c o m p a n i e s , s e e m s t o b e b r a n c h i n g i n t o t h e v e r if ic a ti o n o f c o m p u te r p r o g r a m s a n d t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f com ­ p l e x s y s t e m s . T h i s w ill b e g r e a t , i f i t w o r k s . C y n i c s , h o w e v e r , m ay n o t e t h a t a u d i t o r s h a v e p e r m itt e d s o m e r e m a r k a b l e p r a c t i c e s i n lhe " c r e a t i v e " a c c o u n ti n g o f r e c e n t y e a r s . (O b v io u s ­ ly t h e w ay to c h e c k o u t t h e s a f e ty o f b i g s y s te m s is to o f f e r b o u n ty to th o s e w h o c a n b r e a k its se c u rity . B ut w h o is w i ll in g to s u b j e c t a s y s te m to a t e s t lik e th a t? )

s h o u ld o f c o u r s e b e c a lle d M A T C H U P DATING, s in c e t h e r e i s n o t h i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y c o m p u te r is h a b o u t e i t h e r t h e p r o c e s s o r i t s i n t e n d e d re s u lt. But t h e r e w e g o a g a in : w o r d - m a g i c , t h e im pli­ c it a u t h o r i t y o f i n v o k i n g t h e w o r d C o m p u t e r . (S e e " C y b e r c r u d , " p . g . ) In Lhe e a r l y s i x t i e s , a p e r k y y o u n g fella at th e H a r v a r d B - S c h o o l , I b e l i e v e , o n e J e f f Tarr, c a m e u p w ith t h e n o tio n o f a c o m p u t e r i z e d dating s e r v i c e . T h e r e s u l t w a s O p e r a t i o n M a t c h , an im m e n se f in a n c ia l s u c c e s s , w h i c h s o r t o f came a n d w e n t . No fo llo w u p s t u d i e s w e r e e v e r done o r s u c c e s s s ta tis tic s g a th e r e d , u n f o r tu n a te ly , b u t th e y c e r t a i n l y h a d I h e i r f u n . T h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f " c o m p u t e r d a tin g ” is p e r f e c tl y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . A p p l i c a n t s s e n d in d e s c rip tio n s o f th e m se lv e s a n d t h e p r o s p e c tiv e d a te s th e y w o u ld li k e to m e e t . T h e c o m p u te r p r o g r a m s im p ly d o e 9 a u t o m a t i c a l l y t h e s o r t s of t h i n g y o u w o u ld d o if y o u d i d t h i s b y h a n d : It a tt e m p ts to f in d th e " b e s t " m a t c h b e t w e e e n w h a t e v e r y b o d y w a n ts a n d w h a t ’s o n h a n d .

O b v io u s ly t h i s c o u l d b e a m a t t e r f o r s e r i o u s o p e r a t io n s r e s e a r c h : a t t e m p t i n g t o d i s ­ c o v e r t h e b e s t m a t c h u p t e c h n i q u e s a m o n g th in g s t h a t n e v e r r e a l l y fii t o g e t h e r , d e t a i l f o r d e ta il ; t r y i n g to fin d o u t , b y f o llo w u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , w h a t t r a i t - m a t c h i n g s s e e m e d t o p r o d u c e t h e be st r e s u lt, e tc . But a u ch s e r io u s m a tc h u p -fu n c tio n r e s e a r c h r e m a i n s , s o f a r a s I k n o w , t o b e even p e g im . O b v io u s l y t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l p r o b l e m s . D e m o g r a p h ie a lly it i s a lm o s t n e v e r t r u e t h a l " f o r e v e r y m an t h e r e 's a w o m a n 11- - i n e v e r y a g e - b r a c k e t t h e r e 's a lm o s t a l w a y s a n i m b a l a n c e o f th e o p p o s i te s e x in l h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g e lig ib le a g e - b r a c k e t , e i t h e r to o m a n y o r t o o f e w . B ut m o re t h a n t h a t , t h e r e i s l it t l e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h e t r a i t s w om en w a n t a r e a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n ­ t e d a m o n g th e a v a i la b le m a l e s , o r v i c e v e r s a . F o r in t r o d u c ti o n s e r v i c e s i t ’s o b v i o u s l y w o r s e : t h e r e i s n o b a la n c e lik e ly b e t w e e n w h a t c o m e s in o n e d o o r a n d w h a t c o m e s i n t h e o t h e r . The s e r v i c e c a n o n ly d o i ts b e s t w i t h t h e a v a i l a b l e p o o l of p e o p l e - - a n d m a k e b e l i e v e i t ' s s o m e h o w m a d e id e a l b y th e u s e o f t h e c o m p u t e r . I t ’s li k e a n e m p lo y m e n t o ffice: a p p l i c a n t s d o n ’ t m a tc h o p e n i n g s . N u m ero u s o th e r d a tin g s e r v i c e s h a v e a p ­ p e a r e d , so m e o f w h ic h d o n 't e v e n p r e t e n d to u s e th e c o m p u t e r ( a n d o t h e r s w h i c h c l a i m to b e a r e g is tr y fo r n o n s ta n d a rd s e x u a l a p p e tite s ) , b u t n o n e t h a t 's g o tte n th e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e o r i g ­ in a l P r o j e c t M a tc h . B u t t h e r e ’s n o q u e s t io n w h o g o t t h e b e s t d a t e s o u t o f th a t o n e . J e f f T a r r .

( I n c i d e n t a l l y , w h ile t h is d o e s a r r e s t th e c la s s i c c a s h i e r '9 c h e a t - - r i n g i n g u p e x c e s s i v e p u r c h a s e s on t h e c u s t o m e r s , Ih e n h a v i n g a c o n ­ f e d e r a te w a lk t h r o u g h e q u iv a le n t a m o u n ts — t h e c o n s u m e r is s t i l l e n t i r e l y p r o n e to c h e a t i n g b y th e s t o r e in t h e c o m p u te r p r o g r a m . R e m e m b e r , i t ’s 1974. So y o u s t ill m a y h a v e to c h e c k y o u r ta p e s . fo lk s .) D ata b a s e s y s t e m s a r e a n y s y s te m s w h i c h k e e p l r a c k o f a w h o le lot o f s t u f f , ofte n w i th c o m p le x p o i n t e r te c h n iq u e s ( se e "D ata S t r u c t u r e s , " p . Z& ) • A c u t e e x a m p le i s th e m e s s a g e s e r v i c e now o ff e r e d b y S t u c k e y 's s n a c k / s o u v e n i r s t a n d s a ll o v e r th e c o u n t r y . Y ou may l e a v e m e s s a g e s fo r y o u r f r i e n d s o r lo v e d o n e s o n t h e r o a d ; th e y c a n s to p a t a n y S t u c k e y 's a n d a s k f o r t h e i r m e s s a g e s , J u s l a s if il w a s a te le p h o n e a n s w e r i n g s e rv ic e . ( Y o u 'r e l i s l e d b y y o u r p h o n e n u m b e r — Is t h i s to a v o id p r a n k s ? A n d w h a t a b o u t p e o p le w ilh n o p h o n e s ? ) I t ' s f r e e a n d a n e a t id e a . ( O b v io u s ly , t h e m e s s a g e s a r e s to r e d o n t h e d i s k o f a b i g c e n t r a l c o m p u ie r , a n d q u e r i e d f ro m te r m in a ls a t t h e i n d iv id u a l s t a n d s . ) N o w , m ost o f t h e b i g s y s te m s y o u r u n in to l e n d lo b e a c o m b in a tio n o f tr a n s a c t i o n a n d d a ta -b a s e s y s te m . F o r in s ta n c e , s u p p o s e y o u m ake an a ir lin e r e s e r v a tio n . T h e a ir lin e h a s a l a r g e d a la b a s e to k e e p tr a c k of: t h e i n v e n t o r y o f a ll t h o se a r m c h a i r s i t 's f ly i n g a r o u n d th e c o u n t r y , a n d t h e l i s t o f w h o so f a r h a v e a n n o u n c e d p l a n s to s it in t h e m , a n d in so m e c a s e s w h a i th e y in t e n d lo e a t . When y o u b u y your* t i c k e t , • h at tr a n s a c t i o n t h e n g e ts y o u p u t in th e l i s t i n g . Sam e f o r c a r r e n t a l s a n d s o o n .

H e r e a b o u ts a r e a few o t h e r c o m p u te r is h t h i n g s y o u may r u n i n to w h ic h m o r e o r le s s d e f y c a te g o r i z a ti o n .

T H E COMPUTER GRAVEYARD In t h e m id - s i x t i e s t h e r e w a s a j u n k y a r d i n K in g s to n , N .Y . th a t w a s li k e a n a u to m o b ile g r a v e y a r d - - e x c e p t p ile d h i g h w ith d e a d com ­ p u te rs. T h e y w e r e fro m v a r i o u s m a n u f a c t u r e r s . T h e g u y s w o u ld s m a s h th e m w it h s le d g e h a m m e r s , o r o t h e r a w fu l t h i n g s , to m a k e s u r e t h e y c o u ld n e v e r w o r k a g a i n . T h e n y o u c o u l d b u y th e c i r c u i t c a r d s . I s a w 1401s f iv e h i g h , U n iv a c F il e C o m p u te r s , ta p e d r i v e s . . . it w a s a n e l e c ­ t r o n i c n u t 's p a r a d i s e . You c o u l d d e c o r a t e y o u r d e n w ith h u g e o ld c o n lr o l p a n e l s , m a g d i s k s a n d w h a tn o t. It s e e m s to b e g o n e n o w . T h e y fo rb ad e p ic tu re s.

DO YOU GOT RHYTHM? A d e v ic e c a lle d t h e B I O - C O M P U T E R ( tr a d e m a r k ) p u r p o r t e d l y h e l p s y o u p r e d i c t y o u r "bo d y b e a t s ," te llin g y o u w h a t d a y s a r e t h e r i g h t sort o f tim e to d o p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g s i n t e r m s 1 o f y o u r o w n b i o lo g ic a l e n e r g i e s . T h e o b j e c t c o s t s $15 p o s t p a i d fro m BIO -C O M PU T E R , D e p t . C L B /D M ( w h y n o t ? ) , 964 T h i r d A v e . , N Y N Y 1 0 0 2 2 .

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T h e q u e s t io n w ith a ll s u c h s p e c i a l p u r p o s e d e v ic e s — "fish in g c o m p u te r s ," h o r s e - r a c i n g c o m p u l e r s , e t c . , i s a lw a y s w h e t h e r t h e t h e o r y a n d f o r m u la s w h i c h a r e b u i l t i n t o t h e m a r e c o r ­ r e c t . T h e r e is n o r e a d y w a y to t e l l .

A STR O F LAS H . e tc. T h e r e a r e v a r i o u s c o m p u t e r i s e d a s tr o lo g y se rv ice s. G iv e n y o u r d a te o f b i r t h , a n d hour If k n o w n , th e y 'll ty p e o u l y o u r s i g n s , e x p l a n ' a tio n s , e tc. P r e s u m a b l y t h e r e Is a i « * t n e t w o r k w h ic h th e s y ste m s e le c ts a m o n g a c c o rd in g to " r e i n f o rc i n g te n d e n c ie s ," e t c . , am ong th e e n titie s t h o u g h t to b e i n f l u e n t i a l . C o n c e i v a b ly t h i s c o u ld do n in e -l e n th s o f w h a t a ta le n te d h um a n a s tr o lo g e r d o e s , and w ith t h e aaro e v a l i d i t y , w h a t e v e r lh a t m a y b e . In a n y case i l's p r o b a b ly a lot c h ea p er.

Thia is an ou tra g e o u s m isnom er. T he com puter is o n ly c a r r y i n g ou t, most s p e e d ily , what h ard e n e d politocoes have alw ays done: FACTIONAL ANALYSIS, now po ssible with new ­ found pre c isio n on the b a sis of c e rta in election re tu rn s. T h is is b a s e d on the cy n ic a l, and fairly re lia b le , view lhat people vote a c c o rding to what faction of th e g r e a te r popu lace Ih ey belong to-- m id d le -c la ss w hite l ib e r a ls , b lu e -c o lla r non -union m e m b e rs, and so o n . T h e factions change slow ly o v e r tim e, and people move among th e m , b u t th e fact o f factionalism re m a in s unchanged. Well. By the close of a major election cam paign, most faction s can be p re tty w ell p r e ­ dicted, e sp ecially aa lo p re s id e n tia l ch oice, o r w hat p ro p ortion of that faction will go for a given c a nd id ate. But some factions' reactlon a a r e not c e r ­ tain u p to th e d a y of the ballot. So. "C om puter p re d ic tio n s" of elections b asically b re a k th e cou n try in to its factional divisio n s, stale by stale and d istric t by d i s t r ic t, and then tabu late who can be p redicted to vole fo r whom on a factional b a s is . T h e n w h a t's th e su sp en se?

/

COMPUTEROTICA

YOUR AUTOMOBILE COMPUTER DIdja k n ow , h u h , w e 're g o in g to h a v e c o m pu te rs in o u r c a r s ? We r e f e r h e r e to tw o th in g s— a n li - s k id c o n tr o lle r s , w hich a r e r e a lly ju s t spe c ia l c i r c u it s - - y ou k n o w , "analog c o m p u te rs " -- to co m pen sate among s k id d in g w heels. T u r n s oul th a t th is is ap pa re n tly m ore s e n s i­ tiv e an d re lia b le lhan e v e n y o u r good d r i v e r s who enjoy c o n tro llin g s k id s, A lready ad v e rtise d for som e im p o rts. g r a n d b u a e le c tro n ic s ( s e e p . f £ ) . Sin ce lh e e le c tric a l p a rt of th e autom obile is g e llin g ao blamed c o m p lic a te d . th e D etroit Iro nm o n gers h a v e de c ide d to sw itc h to a g ra n d bu6 s tr u c t u r e in ste a d of having all th ose s w itc h e s and th in g s sep a ra te a n y m o r e , Should m ake lh e whole Ih in g f a r e a s i e r to s e r v ic e a n d c u sto m iz e . Presu m ably th ia will all be u n d e r th e control of a m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . (See p - -) Ttlia m eans th a l the c a r can have th in g s lik e a C oldWeather S ta rtu p S e q u e n c e — a p ro g ra m th a l s t a r t s th e c a r . t u r n s o n th e h e a le r , m onitors lhe e n g in e and c ab in te m p e r a tu r e , and b le a ts lh e h o r n , tw ic e , politely w he n i l 's all r e a d y - - all al a lim e p r e s e t b y the d a s h b o a r d clock. P re su m a b ly D etroit is n ot yel p la n n in g lo go th is f a r , But b e c a u se o f th e a u to i n d u s t r y 's anom alously h ug e influ en ce in A m e ric a , som e h a v e e x p r e s s e d the fe a r lh a l t h i s move - - tow ard the i n t e g r a t e d - c i r c u i t , d ig ita lly -c o n tro lle d g r a n d b u s — w ould effectively p u t D e tro it i n con­ tr o l of t h e e n tir e e le c tr o n ic s i n d u s tr y . /

75
I s i t to o soon t o r a c o n p u te r p ornography c o n te s t ? ( I s I t too la te ? ) See p .

T h e s u s p e n s e comes from the u n c e rta in factions— g r o u p s whose final re a c tion s a r e n 't known as th e e lectio n sta r ts .
C e r t a i n e l e c t i o n d i s t r i c t s a r e k n o w n to b e c h o c k f u ll o f t h e t y p e s o f p e o p l e w h o s e r e a c ­ tion i s n ' t k n o w n .

People think computers are rigid and invariant. This (as stated else­ where in this book) is due to the systems which people have imposed, and then blamed, on the computer. The fact is that computers are now being set up to give new flexibility to manufacturing processes. Computers, directly connected to milling machines, grind raetal into any conceivable shape much faster than a human craftsman. To change the result, change the program-in a fraction of a second. Fabric des­ ign has been done on computer screens; the obvious next step is to have the computer control the loom or knitting machine and immediately produce whatever*s been designed. Custom clothing: soon we may look forward to tailoring services that store your ilieasurements and can custom-tailor a suit for you to any new fashion, in minutes. (But will the price beat Hong Kong?) Customized printed matter is already here (see "Me-Books," p-£7). Wherever people want individual varia­ tions of a basic manufacturing process, computers can do it.

T h e fin al " c o m p u t e r p r e d ic tio n " s im p ly c o n s i s t s o f c h e c k i n g o u t ho w t h o s e d i s t r i c t s v o te d , c o n c lu d i n g how those fac tio n s a r e g o in g in th e p r e s e n t e le c tio n , a nd e x te n d i n g th is p r o ­ p o rtio n t h r o u g h th e r e s t of th e c o u n t r y . It'B o f te n p a i n f u l l y a c c u r a t e - - b u t . t h a n k g o d . no t a l w a y s . W hen it i s n ’t d o n ’t b la m e " th e c o m p u t e r - " T h a n k h u m a n c a n t a n k e r o s i t y .

THt

W (WeCKpureooriei^

may o r may not be a re a l com p uter— frie n d s have told m e it is n ’t— b u t it’s c e rta in ly a good Idea. When you p u ll y o u r late -m odel V olkswagen into a d e a le r 's s e r v ic e a re a , the g u y s c a n ju a t roll out a c able and p lu g it inlo the corresponT d in g socket in y o u r v e h ic le , Al the o lh e r en d o f the cable la some so rt of d e v ic e w h ich t e s t 9 a se rie s of sp ecial c ir c u it s th ro u gh o ut th e c a r for Good Co n dition . T h e se c i r c u it s ind icate that th in g s a r e w o rk in g p r o p e r ly — lig h ts , p lu g s , p oints, b r a k e s and so on. T h is i s the same tech n iqu e uaed by NASA up to the final moment of COMMIT LAUNCH-- a system of c irc u its m onitors lh e c on ditions o f w h atev er can be m onitored, to malte s u r e a ll'a functioning w e ll. I t's more e x p e n s iv e to w i r e it up lhat w a y , bu l it m akes ch e c k in g out the rock et— o r th e c a r — lh a t m uch e a sie r.

T h e e v e r - c l e v e r J a p a n e s e a r e c om p ute riz in g f a s t e r , b e lte r a n d more d e e p ly th a n we a r e , T h e y now have a p r o to ty p e ta x i o p e ra tin g u n d e r c o m p u te r co n trol- T h e y ’r e c a llin g i t , al le a st for e x p o r t, C o m p u te r-c o n tro lle d V eh icle S y ste m (C V S ), B asically i l 's lik e an E le v a te d R ailw ay — y o u c lim b up a n d wail— b u l w hen y o u g et in , y ou p u n c h a b u tto n for y o u r d e s tin a tio n . A ccor­ d i n g lo H id eyu k i H ayaahi o f th e M in istry o f In ­ d u s t r y a n d In tern atio n al T r a d e , th e sy ste m will be ope ra tion a l i n Tokyo w ith in th e d e c a d e , and is th e " c le a n e s t, sa fe st, q u ic k e s t t r a n s p o r t s y s ­ tem e v e r d e v is e d by m a n ." T h in k f a s t , D etroit, (A n ic e point: o n e o f th e mosl im portant f e a tu re s of s u c h a system i s th at th e v e h ic le s d o n 't r e a d to ea c h o t h e r , as do v e h ic le s i n th e e x is tin g H u m an -co n trolled V ehicle System (HVS). A w hole lin e o f th e c a r s can be a c c e le r a te d o r slow ed sim u ltan eo usly , a c r u c ia l a s p e c t o f th e i r flex ib ility a n d sa fe ty . N othing can p o 6 sib ry go lo n g .) (Leo C la n c y , "N ow -- C o m p u te r-C o n tro lle d , D r lv e r le s s C a r s , " N ational E n q u ir e r 9 M ar 74, 2 4 - 5 .)

-v v T he T elephone Com pany (at least in I l l i n o i s a n d I n d i a n a ) o f f e r s a s p e a k e r on " T h e S h a d o w y W orl d o f E l e c t r o n i c S n o o p i n g " to in te res ted g r o u p s .

THOSE THINGS ON THE RAILROAD CARS As we lean on the fence a - c h a w in ' an ' a -w a lc h in ' th e tra in s go b y , w e n o te s tr a n g e in s ig n ia on th e i r s id e s , in h ig h ly re fle c tiv e Scotch-L ite all begrim ed by tr a v e l. B a sic a lly i l 's a stack of h o riz o n ta l s tr i p e s In r e d , b lue a n d other c o l o r s . T h i s ia ACI, f o r Automatic C a r Id e n tific a tio n . It may y e t s tr a ig h te n o u t the r a ilro a d s . In th is n e olithic i n d u s t r y , it ia no t k now n at any g iv e n tim e w h e re a ra ilro a d c o m p a n y 's c a r s a r e . and some p e c u lia r e tiq u e tte g o v e rn s th e i r u n r e q u e s le d use b y o t h e r f ir m s in th e in d u s tr y . Yet th e o b viou s s o lu tio n m ay com e about: a r u n n i n g in v e n to ry o f w h e r e a ll t h e c a r s a r e , w h e re e a c h one is g o in g , w h a l’s in It, and who th a t b e lo n gs to , B ul, of c o u r s e , th a t's s till i n th e w o r k s . R e v o lu tio n a ry id e a s t a k e lime.

Modern m en ag e, s h e 2 9 , I n t e r e s t e d i n r e c u r s i v e r e l a t i o n s and r e v e r s e Po lish c u ltu r e . Ph on e a m u s t . C o n t a c t b o* RS -2 32 {& s e e p . J>MW),

SIC TRANSIT Some of the zap pie r new Urban T r a n s i t System s g iv e you a ticket w ith a magnetic s t r ip e on the b a c k . E ach time you r i d e you must p u s h the c a rd into an E n tra n c e M achine, w hich p r e ­ su mably does som ething to th e s lr i p e , till finally the ticket r u n s out and you h a v e to pa y more money. Secrecy of th e r e c o rd in g code is an im p o r­ tant aspect of the th in g . In de e d, w agg ish g o ss ip claims lhat some su c h sy stem s sta rt w ith a b la n k magnetic strip e an d ju s t add stuff to i t, m eaning the c a rd can be w a sh e d clean with a m agnet by larcen ou s com m uters. Bul this seem s u n lik e ly .

BETCHA DIDN'T KNOW ... t h a t th e IRS h a s n 't b e e n a ble to do In s ta n t m a tc h in g o f W-2 forme to ta x r e t u r n s . T h a t'll b e fix e d in fisc a l '7 4 , an d In te re st and d iv id e n d p s y m e n ls i n '7 5 . (TIME, 31 Dec 73, 1 7 .)

■me s s s
T h e n a tio n a l ph o ne co m p an y (u s u a lly c a lle d a ff e c tio n a te ly , "Ma B e ll" ) h a s d r a s t i c a l l y c h a n g e d ita s w i tc h in g m ethods in t h e l a s t few y e a r s . T h e y a r e r e p la c in g th e o ld e le c tr o m e c h ­ a n ic a l s w it c h e s , o r " c r o s s b a r s , " w ith a n e w de v ic e c a lle d th e E S S , o r E le c tro n ic S w itc h in g S y s te m . If t h e r e 's o n e in y o u r a r e a y o u may h e a r ab o u t it I n t h e i r jo lly n e w s s h e e t t h a t y o u jet w ith the b i l l . In th e o ld c r o s s b a r d a y s , a p h o n e c o n ­ n e c tio n w as a p h o n e con n e c tio n a n d th a t w as t h a t . Now. w ith th e ESS, all s o r t s of n e w com ­ b in a tio n s a r e p o s s ib le : th e ESS h a s s t o r e d p r o ­ g r a m s th a t d e t e r m i n e ils o p e r a tio n . If yo u d ia lle d a n o n - w o r k in g n u m b e r , i t ju m ps to a p ro g r a m to ta k e c a r e of lh a l. It d oes all s o r t s of t h i n g s b y s p e c i a l p r o g r a m , a n d new p r o g r a m s c a n b e c r e a te d f o r s p e c ia l p u r p o s e s . Now th e p h o n e c o m p a n y i s t r y i n g to find th e s e r v i c e s lhat p eo p le w ill p a y f o r . H a v in g c a l ls r e r o u t e d te m p o r a r ily lo o t h e r n u m b e r s ? L in k in g u p s e v e r a l p e o p le i n a co n fe re n c e c a ll? S to r in g y o u r m o st-c a lle d n u m b e r s , so you c a n r e a c h th em w ith a s i n g l e o r double d ig it? T h e s e p a r t i c u l a r s e r v ic e s a r e now b e in g offe re d e x p e r i m e n t a l l y , T h e w a y i t w o r k s is th is : th e r e a r e a n u m b e r of p r o g r a m s s to r e d in a c o r e m em ory; th e o n ly " o u tp u t d e v ic e " of the sy ste m c o n s is t s of ils field o f r e e d s w itc h e s , a r r a n g e d to c lo s e c ir c u it s o f t h e te le p h o n e n e tw o rk . T h i s h a s b e e n a ro u n d fo r d e c a d e s , and h a s n o th in g to d o w ith c o m p u te r s , b u t i s n 't it n ic e ? You w rite w ith a pen a tta c h e d b y r o d s to a tr a n s m i tt e r ; so m e w h e re e l s e , a p e n a tta c h e d b y r o d s l o a r e c e i v e r d u p li c a t e s w h a t you h a v e w ritte n . What i s b e in g tr a n s m itte d c o n s is ts o f the m e a s u r e d sid e w a y s motion ( " c h a n g e ln x n) , th e m e a s u r e d u p - a n d - d o w n motion ( " c h a n g e in y " ) , an d th e c o ndition of the p e n ( " u p " o r " d o w n " ) . What w ould th e s e d a y s be c a lle d " th r e e a n a lo g c h a n n e l s , m u ltip le x e d on a 9 in g le lin e . " T h e s e o n ly c o st a cou p le o f h u n d r e d d o ll a r s . Why h a s n o b o d y b e e n u s in g them f o r c o m p u te r in p u t?

M inicom putera h a n d le v a rio u s c o n t r o l f u n c t i o n s i n o u r m ighty new A e r o p l a n e s a n d S h i p s o f

S u g a r C r e e k . T e x a s will h a v e 3000 ho m es w ith a m in ic o m p u te r-b a s e d a la rm s y s te m . E v id e n tly v a r io u s au tom atic s e n s o r s a ro u n d e a c h h o u s e sn if f f o r f ir e s an d b u r g l a r s , ss well a s p r o v id i n g p a n ic b u tto n s fo r m edical e m e r g e n c ie s . T h e sy stem u s e s d ual N o v a s (o n e a b a c k u p ) , a n d p r i n t s o ut the n ew s to fire a n d p o lic e d i s p a t c h e r s on a good o ld 33ASR T e le ty p e . ( D igita l D e s ig n ,
May 73, 16.)

It was a t r u ly s t e l l a r g r o u p th a t r e p o r te d to J u d g e S iric a on 15 Ja n 1974 th a t th e 1 8-m ln u le W atergate ta p e b u z z h a d at l e a s t five s t a r t s a n d a to p s . T h e s i x p a n e lists in c lu d e d ; R ic h a rd B o l t , a f o u n d e r of B o lt, B e r a n e k a n d N e w m a n, In c . F r a n k lin C o o p e r , h e a d of H a s k in s L a b o ra to rie s , ) Thom as S lo c k h a m , a u d io r e s y n t h e s i z e r ex tra o rd in a ry ( s e e p . ^ M ) T he n e w s , h o w e v e r , g e n e r a ll y r e f e r r e d to them a s " te c h n i c i a n s ."

out OF THOSt h W
D e p e n d in g on the n u m b e r s th a t h a v e b e e n d ia lle d , an d w h a tn o t, th e ESS ju m p s to a s p e c if ic p r o g r a m , a n d th a t te lls it to c o n n e c t an in c o m in g call to p a r t i c u l a r o th e r c i r c u i t s , o r to r i n g o th e r lin e s, o r w h a te v e r. I t 's r e a ll y n e a t. T h e r e a r e o n ly a co u ple of th in g s t o w o r r y a b o u t. O ne is th a t it m akes w ir e t a p p i n g , n o t a com plex b o th e r in v o lv in g c lip p e d w ir e s a n d m en h u n c h e d o v e r in c ra m p e d s p a c e s , b u t a s im p le pro g ram . A n o th e r i s lh a t some peo p le t h in k th a t b l u e - b o x e r s (s e e n e a r b y ) may be a b le to p r o g r a m it, from th e c om fort of ih e ir own hom e6. M e a n ­ in g lhat n o t j u s t c o u r t- a u th o r iz e d w i r e ta p s , b u t Joe Schmoe w i r e t a p s , w ould be p o s s ib l e . L e t's h op e n o t. If y ou w a n t to p u t t o g e th e r y o u r o w n c o m p u i e r - o n - a - c h i p , o r an y o t h e r c o m p le x in te g r a te d c i r c u i t , a c om p lete sim u la tio n v e r if i c a t io n - l a y o u t- a n d - f a b r ic a ti o n s e r v i c e i s a v a ila b le from M otorola, S e m ic o n d u c to r P ro d u c ts Div. . P . O . Box 20924, P h o e n ix , A riz o n a . P r e s u m a b ly ii c osts a m in t, b u t a f t e r th a t y o u c a n r o ll oul y o u r c i r c u i t s lik e c o o k ie s . Y o ur c i r c u i t is o v e rla id on th e i r b e e h iv e - c h ip o f lo gical s u b c i r c u i t s , c a lle d a P o ly c e ll. You u s e t h e i r MAGIC la n g u a g e (M otorola A u to m atically G e n e ra te d I n t e g r a te d C i r c u i t s ) , w h ic h th e n fe e d s a r e s u l t i n g c i r c u i t d ata s t r u c t u r e t o a p r o g r a m ca lle d SIMUL8 (y u k y u k ) lo t r y ou t th e c ir c u it w ith o u t b u il d in g it. T h a t w ay y ou c a n s u p p o s e d ly be s u r e b e f o r e th e y m ake t h e fin a l m asks. a sw ell vid eo game n ow in b a r s , p r o b a b l y c o n tr o ls th e f o u r - p l a y e r p i n g p o n g o n t h e s c r e e n w ith a m in ic o m p u te r o r m i c r o p r o c e s s o r . E s p e c ia lly e x c i tin g is th e s o c ia l p o s s i ­ b ility o f ho riz o n ta l s c r e e n s fo r o t h e r f u n i n t e r ­ p e r s o n a l stu ff. A s w ell a s c o lla b o r a ti v e w o r k . (But b o y , l e t 's hope th e r a d ia t io n s h i e l d i n g is g o o d .)
O

" O v e rp a y y o u r p h o n e b i l l b y o n e c e n t. It d r i v e s t h e c o m p u te r c r a z y . " N o p e . T h e amount of p a y m e n t g e ts p u n c h e d i n and g oes t h r o u g h t h e g e a r s q u ite n o r m a lly .

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T h e C o m p u te r D iet b y V in c e n t A n to n e iti (E v a n s P u b . ) e ho w B th e a u th o r s i lt in g o n t h e d e s k p l a t e of a 360 c o n s o le . The m ends fo r c o m p u te r" have been In sid e c o n s is ts p r in c ip a l ly of c h a n s h e re c o m ­ w e ig h t l o s e . " T h e p o w e r o f a m o d e rn d ig it a l I n te rp o la te d t h e t a b l e s . A s li d e r u l e m ig h t h ave sim p le r .

T h e th in g i s , he p r e s e n t s a p a p e r o n t h e t h e r m o ­ d y n a m ic s of w e ig h t lo s s w h i c h may b e im p o r ta n t; i n t h i s he s ts te s th e d iffe re n c e e q u a t io n s w h ic h a r e th e h e a r t o f h i s d ie t. A nd th e s e may in d e e d b e p e r f e c tl y v a l id . So w h y n o t c all it w hat it i a , T h e T h e r m o d y n a m ic D iet? 1 a lw a y s f i g u r e d th a t th e d a y of H o bb y ism w ou ld a r r i v e w h e n t h e fo lk s o ff e r e d a b u i l d - i t - y o u r s e l f c o m p u te r . k now w h a l th e y cam e o u l w ith in s te a d A g e n e r a l in te r f a c e f o r h o o k in g th i n g s C o m pu ter al Healhklt B ut you Iasi y e a r ? to t h e PD P-8.

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K irk B r a in e r d , of L . A . , i s u s i n g c o m p u ­ te r s f o r a r e g i s t r y of p e o p le w ith s o m e t h in g to teach . He h o p e s th a t if p e o p le a r e m u tu a lly a v a ila b le to each o th e r at a d e e p e n o u g h le v e l , p eop le can be g in to act o u t o f a l t r u i s m i n g e n e r a l .

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You w ill note th a t a ll b a n k c h e c k s now h a v e f u n n y -lo o k in g n u m b e r s alo n g th e ir bottom s. T h e y go lik e th is:

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boy s and g i c l s He had a d v e n t u r e s t h a t o t h e r W ould y ou b e l ie v e th a t th e g r e a te s t a v a il­ a b le c o m p u ie r s e r v i c e ia f o r th e k id d ie s ? F o r f o u r b u c k s a n d a h a l f , a n ou tfit called M e -B oo k s w ill s e n d , to a c h i ld y o u d e s ig n a te , a s t o r y o f w h ic h h e is th e h e r o , i n w h ic h h is f r i e n d s a n d s i b li n g s a p p e a r , a n d w ho se ac tion i n v o lv e s h is a d d r e s s a n d b i r t h d a y . K ida a d o r e i t . C h i ld r e n w ho d o n ’t lik e r e a d i n g t r e a s u r e th e v o lu m e s ; c h i ld r e n w ho do lik e r e a d i n g lo v e them Ju s t a s m u c h . 1 c a n p e r s o n a ll y r e p o r t , a t le a s t o n th e b a s is o f t h e o n e 1 o r d e r e d (My F r i e n d ly G ira ffe ) lh at t h e s t o r y i s b e a u tif u lly th o u g h t o u t, w a rm , lo v in g , a n d c l e v e r ly p lo t te d . In o th e r w o r d s , f a r from b e in g a f a s t - b u c k s c h e m e , th is th in g h a s b e e n d o ne r i g h t . I t 's a s p le n d id c h i l d r e n 's sto ry . (1 w o n 't r e v e a l t h e p l o t , b u t the G ira ffe 's b i r t h d a y , n am e a n d ho m e a d d r e s s a r e r e la te d to t h o s e of th e p r o t a g o n i s t . ) M o r e o v e r , it h a s t h r e e - c o l o r i l lu s t r a t io n s , is o n e x t r a - h e a v y p a p e r a n d i s b o u n d i n h a r d
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j u s t d re a a o f * L is is th e s t o r , c ( o*e o i h is a d v e r.tn .e ,. T h e n u m b e rs a r e o d d b u t re c o g n iz a b le . T h e la s t f o u r th in g ie s a r e p u n c tu a tio n m a r k s , w h ic h p re s u m a b ly c a n m ean a n y t h in g th e p r o ­ g ra m m e r w a n ts them to . (In o th e r w o r d s , f r a n k l y , 1 d o n 'l know I h e ir n a m e s o r s ta n d a r d fu n c tio n s.) T h e n a m e o f th e s e n u m b e r s i s w h ic h s ta n d s fo r M agnetic In k C h a r a c te r H ecord i n g . T h e y a r e p r in te d in m a g n e tic in k — nol m a g netic s o 's you cou ld r e c o r d on i t, lik e mag­ n e tic t a p e , b u t chock ‘full o f i r o n an d vitam in s s o th a t a s its blob s w hiz p a s l a sp e c ia l re a d h e a d , Ihey c a u se a sp e c ific s e q u e n c e o f p u ls e s i n th e p a r a lle l c irc u its o f the r e a d h e a d thal can b e dec o d e d a s Ihe s p e c ific n u m b e r o r m a r k . T h e MICE sy ste m w a s d e s i g n e d in th e la te fiftie s, w ith th e te c h n o lo g y c o n v e n ie n t al th a l lim e, a n d would c e r ta in ly n o t be d e s ig n e d th a t way no w . N e v e r th e le s s , th e s e w e ird -lo o k in g sy m b o ls h a v e i n s p ir e d v a r io u s

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As the giraffe caae closer and closer. Tricky DicK started to wonder how in the world he was going to look hia in the eye.

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w h ic h a p p a r e n tly look lo th e p u b l ic lik e th e la te s t ho lc h a w h iz b a n g z ip p ity u p - to - d a t e f u tu r ­ is tic stu ff, e v e n though t o lh e k n o w le d g e a b le p e r s o n th ey b r in g b a c k th e la le fiftie s. (In fact th e r e a r e no le tte r s in th e M1CR c h a r a c t e r se t.) W hat, I hen (you may a s k ) w ould sym bols d e s ig n e d fo r c o m p u te rs look lik e if Ihey had b e e n d e s ig n e d more r e c e n tly ? We w e r e Ju sl g e tt in g to t h a t . In fe c i, th e r e a r e tw o 6ueh a lp h a b e t s , c a lle d OCR (for O p tical C h a r a c te r R e c o g n itio n ). T h e y ha v e be e n s ta n d a r d iz e d so e v e r y b o d y can d e s ig n eq uipm e n t a n d / o r p r o g r a m s to w ork w ith them. T h e y a r e c a lle d the A an d B op tic a l Tonis, o r , fo r c o m p le te n e ss , OCR(A ) an d O C R (B ).

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There would be aany other exciting adventures foe Tricky Dick and his friends. And aaybe, just aaybe, if you're a very good boy, soaeday we'll tell you about tbose, too.

OCR (A ) is a little s e x i e r . At le a s t it lo ok s lik e so m e th in g . (E v id e n tly i t 's s lig h tly e a s ie r to d e a l w ilh a n d d e s ig n f o r . ) B u l th e o th e r o n e . O C R (B ), j u s l lo ok s lik e th e a lph abet n e x t d o o r . H ere they a r e .

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Civilization, and th e b u lk of m ankind, have about forty y e a n to l i v e . accord in g to certa in stu dies (see p . 6 f i ) . The stu dies a re de pre esingly go od, a lth ough unfin ish e d . T h ere a re four p ossib le th in gs lo do. 1. 2. One or the w o r l d 's moA e xclu sive elube la aiao on e of lie meet d is m al. II le The Club a l n o n , , founded b y I U l lm b usinessm an Aurello Peccei. h sv ln g (ss o f 1972) some seven ty mem­ be r* from tw enty -fiv e c o u n tries. • T h eir c oncern th e y cell T he Predicament of Ma nkind. o r the "p ro b lem a tiq u e ." It Is the problem of gro w th , p o llu tio n , population, and Whsi's Happening In g e n e r a l. On fund s frora Volk sw agen. they have s p o n a rM l studies w h ic h th in k in g men can only re g a rd a s the m a t dis m al In p o rts n t of a nyth in g we've se en in y e a n . O r e v e r . BMlcalty the p red ic tio n is lhal mankind h as p e rh a p s forty o r fifty ye ar* left. Not because of w a r . o r bomba , o r dir ty . o r Divine r e tr ib u tio n , b u t (or simple e c o m n l c reaso n s. H o w ev er, th e stu dies are often called "co mputer s tu d i e s . " beca use compuI t n a n Ihe view in g mechanism- by which we have come to eee th e ae coming ev en ts . « V Ignore It. Deny ll. Now b e gin s the win te r of th e w o rld . We a re poisoning e v ery th in g . With so llllle time left, we a re of course e xpandin g and accelerating e v e r y form of pollution sn d destruction. We a re killing Ihe last of o u r beautiful br o th e r * , th e whalea. Jusl to p ro v id e marginal amortization of the whale-ahlp e tha t a re going to be sc ra p p ed anyway. Item: euppcse dly the S a h a rs Desert was m m - m a d e , II Is grow ing fast. Sel down upon this beautiful p la n e t, a ga rd e n spol of the u n iv e rs e , we a re tu rn in g it Into a po isoned p ig s t y . You and 1 may ata rve lo d e a th , de a r r e a d e r . In some y e s r fairly soon n o w , sro u n d the l u m of the c e n tu r y . th e re will no lo nger be ne arly enough food for the teeming b illio n s . T h ai, any way, is whal the p r edic tions Bay. T h e predic tlona are com pelling, nol becauae a computer made them - - anybody can make a com­ p u te r p redic t any th in g -- but be ca use th e prem ­ ise s from which Ihe predic tions grow were ve ry well thou ght out. It is now up to us lo make Ihe predic tions come out wro ng. Not by killin g the b e a r e r of bad tid inga. o r by prele ndin g they were not c lea rly sta te d— but by se eing whal possib le alte rn a tiv e s remain in the few moments of real choice wc may yet h a v e - - sc ant ye ara at besi. Now f o r t h e b a d n e w s . The r u n n i n g r a t i o o f f o o d t o p e o p l e , Food p e r C a p i t a , ta k e s n sudde n n o s e - d i v e . And t h e n so does p o p u la tio n . I To ha ggle now aboul ideology Is like a r ­ g u in g about who is d r iv in g while we a r c headed to w a rd a b r ic k wall with Ihe gas pe dal jammed lo the floor. The public Ihln ks, "science will sa ve u s ." a view al which many scientists sn ic k e r bitterly . Pe rhaps we will be sh r u n k lo an Inch'a heig ht, o r fed on ro ck s, or given gill s and s u p e r- k ld n e y s lo liv e in the ever-m ore -p oisoned s e a . O r p e rhapB we will do whal scien ce sa ys o th e rs have done: die out. This sc ienc e-w lll-sa ve-us ostr ic h-p oslllo n is nic ely exemplified by Albert Rosenfeld. Science Editor of Satu rday Revlew/World. Since ''science" has given us Ihe Boeing 747 and Ihe n e utrino, ne ithe r of which could on c e, he I hlnks. have be en imagined possib le, obviously (to him) science can do a nyth in g else we Ihink is impossible! He fully imagines lhal sc ience will come up wilh so meth in g lo lake c a r e of geometrically in c re asin g num be rs of people. In pcrpetuily? "Take a lesson from the n e u tri n o ." he s a y s . "We can solve o u r p r o b le m s.” ("Look lo th e Neutrino. Thou Doomsayer," Sa tu rday Review/ World . Feb 23 1974, 47.) OTHER FUN The growing d iffis io n of weapons and g r u d g e s , and the great vuln era bility of almost e v e r y th in g , a s s u ie lhal te rroris m and political e xto rtio n will will in cre ase dram atically for Ihe foreseeable futu re. On the o th e r h a nd, whole economic blocs and in d u strie s have late ly mastered and demonstrated by example how to hold Ihc c ountry al bay in o r d e r to ge l tf eil wishes: a s e verybody c an sec w hat's h a ppening, and learn from it, the nu m b e r of w ronc hin g ul'pleasa nlr.c sses cre ate d by te rr o r ists and in d u stri e s und interest blocs will irerc jisi . All these were CHbcntiully fore see n by T homas C. Schelling in his masterly i960 work. T h e S tra te gy of Conflict. Sc hellin g formalizes a th e ory of intimidation as p a ri of h is s lu d y of communicating a d v e r s a r ie s . (His is a s t r u c tu r al r a th e r lhan a psychological s lu d y . examinin g Ihe p ro p ertie s of situations w h eth er o r nol Ihoy a r e psychologically p e rc eive d. R e grett ably , pe rc epti on of sit uations is im provin g all iho

But th e b r e e d e r rea cto rs multiply ihls outp ut. P e r h a p s we could surviv e Ihe ihe waste for a few h u n d r e d y e a r a . till ii comes back out. But the o th e r p a rt of ll is the fissionable material which can be made into ba ckyard bombs. T h a i 's the kic k er. Wilh more and more fis sionable c ru d be in g d isgorge d, Ita availability (or te r r o r is ts who want lo build ihelr own In­ c re a se s. Ralph Lapp pointed out last ye ar lhat the s t u d w a s sh ip p e d In unguarded tr u ck s , and one o r two good hijackin gs would enable any b r ig h t kid to build h is own dirty A-bomb. By the y e a r 2000 it is not inconceivable ihei bootleg atomic weapons will be a s widesp read as ha nd­ guns in D etroit -- and as much used. But now . with th e b r e e d e r .reactors-- ir. lots of c o u n tri e s - - pourin g the stuff out, the era of atomic ple nty Is h e re . The smaller countries who wanl them a re gellin g Ihelr atomic weapons - - though h old in g back assembly of the p a rts , for v srlo u s rea so n s. It la generally believed among b om b-w atc hers, for Inatance. thal India and Isra el have th e ir s anytime they warn. Add this to the grea t avalanche of mlasilee. tall and h o m y In Ihelr slloa, ready to go on two. laier th r e e or four, s id e s. (The U .S . official a rsenal now sta nds at Ihe explosive equivalent of S billion tone of TN T . a ton of TNT for every human b e in g . And th a t's Ju sl the explosive p a rt, nol ihe fallout: a fraction of these bombs could destroy all life on e arth by Us seething re s i d u e .) And now. be ca use of the SALT la lk s. we may expeci a new and d rastic Increase of this Readiness Postu re . Koo boy. Whal Is there li sny. So th e re It ia. folka. merry times ahead. Humanity may end with a bang (thermonuclear e x ch a n g es, o r jusl de sultory firings urlll w e're all po isoned o r s te r ile ), o r a whimper (univ ersa l slb r v a iio n ) . o r . I would antic ip ate, some spaailc combination of Ihe two. and all within Ihe (pos­ sible) lifetime of Ihe a verage re a d e r . This is, al sny r a le , what I think most likely. Except of c ourse we won't see It happen thal w ay. We'll watch Ihe starvations on TV (aa we did B lafra . B a ngla desh, now West Africa, wliai n e x t . . . In d ia? ), and isk aboul ihe poor fo re ig n e rs who can'l take c a r e of ihemaelves. And as Ihe problem s Increase and move toward ouv h e a r tla n d , it'll be blamed on envlronm entallats and on Ihe news media , till bang. O r maybe not. Ju s t maybe.

3. Seek Individual salv atio n somehow. Hide In a remote c o rn e r. Lay in sto re s. 4. The glorio us Oaraeout. Eat. drin k a nd be m e rr y , for tomorrow we d ie . Or apocalyptic occultism, o r w hatever. 5. Work ste r lin g now . in whatever dir ections might, just m lg hl. polm o r con­ tr ib u te to a way oul.______________________

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MALTHUS AGAIN In the ninete enth c e n tu r y , e pessimistic eeononlst named T homas Malthus p redic te d thet th e re would always b e s ta r v in g pe o ple . because people In crease d geo m e t r i c a l l y exp andin g st compound In te re st, with a U se d rale of Increase cre ati n g an e v er-M e ep e r g ro w th -- while a g ric u l­ tu ral p roducti on, w hic h muat feed u s all, e xpands arllhmetlc ally. not a s a r a le b u t a few acrea or improvement* al a tim e. T h is meant. U alih u s th ought, thal there would always b e the e ta r v ln g po o r. For verlous reasons ihls did not h sp p e n In Europe. Bul the reg retta b le so u n d n e ss o f th e g eneral prin ciple pe rsists: when rate a o f food prod uction can'l M a rly keep up with r a le s of po pulation growth, people a re going lo e ta r v e . Thia Is ba sically th e p redic tion. DYNAMIC MODELLING Basically whal haa h a ppened Is th ia . One Jay F o r r ester , of MIT. h as for some ye a r s been studying 'd y n am ic m od els" o f th in g s , a new breed of elmulation w h ic h could n’t have be en done without co m p u te rs. And now dynamic models of the w o rld 's e n tir e economic sysiem can be cre ele d an d tr ie d oul. Basically dynamic models a n mathematical complexes w here th in g s ch an g e al rate s lhal change Ihemaelves o v e r lim e. Fo r instance, the more you e a t, the falt er you get. and the fetter you get. the h u n g r ie r you are go ing lo be . Now, Juat beca use th is Is sim ple lo ssy In w ords , and ■a u n d e aa iho ugh mathematicians would have had aolved ihe whole c lass o f problem s c entu rie s ago. th a t's not how II la . T h e Intricacy of auch models, even for Juat a few v a ria b le a. made It Impossible to foresee w h at h appens In such com­ plexes e i t c l by te ch n iq u es of compuier enactment. F o rrester, who ha s stu d ied su ch syste ms since the fifties, haa become a le r t to th e ir problems and su r p rla e s. The culm in ation of hla work has been a model of Ihe e n tir e w o rld 's economic growth, a g ric u ltu re , p o p u la tio n . Ind ustrialization and pollution; th is Is d e scrib e d In his book World Dynamics (W rlg ht- A llen. 1971). The i n s i d i o u s p o r t e n t s o f F o r r e s ­ t e r ’ s w ork d i d n o t go u n n o t i c e d . The d a n g e r s o f p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s i n g a t com­ p o u n d i n t e r e s t o n a p l a n e t o f u n c h a n g in g s i z e , and f u r t h e r d e r i v a t i v e s o f th e s e c h a n g e s , s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i n g s s i g h t be g e t t i n g w o rs e t h a n a n y b o d y t h o u g h t . An a l e r t I t a l i a n b u sin e ssm a n b ro u g h t to g e th ­ e r a group o f s c h o l a r s f r o a a l l o v er th e w o rld to s tu d y t h e s e p r o b l e a s , and c a l l e d t h e g r o u p The C l u b o f Rome. T h e i r f i r s t w ork i s o u t new, a n d i t i s v e r y s c a r y and a l l to o r e a l . The b o o k i s c a l l e d The -----H a l t s t o G ro w th . B a s i c a l l y w h a t t h e y ha v e done i s a v ery e la b o r a t e c o a p u te r s im u la t io n , a o d e l l i n g t h e e n t i r e economy o f t h e p l a n e t i n t h e y e a r s t o come a s a s t r u c t u r e o f ra te s . They h a v e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t p o p u la tio n , f o o d -g r o w in g c a p a c i t y , in d u s ­ t r i a l g r o w t h , p o l l u t i o n , anil a l o t o f o th e r th in g s . The a o d e l i s p r e c i s e and e la b o ra te . U n fo rtu n a te ly th e fin d in g s a re p r e ­ c i s e and s i m p l e . They t r i e d a l l k i n d s o f a l t e r n a t i v e f u t u r e s u s i n g t h e a o d e l - - w h a t w ould ha p p en i f t h e b i r t h r a t e s w ere d i f f e r e n t 7 W ta t I f t h e r e w e r e no p o l l u t i o n ? What i f r e s o u r c e s were i n f i n i t e ? The r e s u l t s o f t h e s i a u l a t i o n s aTe a lw a y s t h e s a a e . A cc o rd in g to a l l t h e s i a u l a t i o n s , th e h u a a n r a c e w i l l b e w ip e d o u t - - a o s t l y o r c o m p l e t e l y - - b y t h e y e a r 2100. L e t ' s go b r i e f l y t h r o u g h t h e a o d e l . N o te t h a t I t c a n ’ t b e e x a c t , a n d we c a n ' t know w h a t y e a r s t h i n g s a r e g o i n g t o h a p ­ p e n . The c u r v e s t h e a s e l v e s - - t h e s h a p e o f th in g s to c o a e - - t e l l th e s t o r y a l l to o c l e a r l y . ( F o r t h o s e who w o u ld l i k e a l i t t l e a o re d raa a w ith th e i r nu ab ers, f in d in g th e s e a a t t e r s to o a b s t r a c t , I s t r o n g ly r ec o aa en d th e v e ry b e a u t i f u l In d ian f l l a " D i s t a n t T h u n d er," a s o r t o f Mr. S a i t h S t a r v e s t o D e a t h . ” Or j u s t s t i c k a ro u n d a w h i l e . ) HUH? The a o d e l a s s u a e s t h a t b i r t h r a t e s sta y r e la tiv e ly c o n s ta n t in p a r ti c u la r p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d , a n d t h a t new la n d and a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s i n c r e a s e f o o d tIo n in r e l a i i v « ly w ell-u n d e rsto o d Of c o u rs e , p o p u la tio n c o n tin u e s to go u p , on t h e f a m i l i a r b u t d e a d l y c u r v e .

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But w e'v e all got lo g r l occcss lo the Club of Home m odels , and look for holes or str a te gies. If compulcr modelling sy ste m s doing this kind of work are made widely enough available, perhapa some precocio us g r adc -sc hoole r o r owlish hobbyist will find some way out lh a t Ihe oth ers hsve n't hil o n . .. We've gol to ihink h a r d about e verything.

frightening, sin ce the n um be rs plu gged Inio Ihe se parate rune are merely hyp o th e ses , to show Ihe shape of Ihe conseque nce s. II Is the overall sel of r u n s lhat is so g h a s tly , because they el-

BIBLIOGRAPHY Frederic k Pohl and C.M. K ornblulh . The Space M e rc hants. Ballanline. p a p er. Thomas C. Sc he llin g. The Strategy of Conflict.

PAY CLOSE ATTENTION Now. it le important to clarify what is h sppe nln g h e re and what Is nol. Whal Is not happening: an o r ac u lar pron ouncement by "Ihc com pute r." showin g some transce ndenta l p r e d ic ­ tion by a superhum an Intelligence. What is hap­ pening: people are tr y in g out se p arate possible assumptions lo see whsl th e ir consequences are , enacted by the compuier a cc o rd in g to the economic rulea they sel up . Reeull: always Ihe same. Any set of ru le s , played out in the un stable explo ding-population world beyond the se venti es, a p p ea rs to have similarly d ir e resu lts. WHAT HOPE IS THERE? The orig in al model is on ly an app roxim a­ tion. and Ihe basic r e s u l ts , as published in The Limits to Growth (see bo x) refle ct thoBc approx­ imations. One of the th in gs that can be done is lo fill In and expand Ihe model more, to see whether any hopes can be found in the details and fine c ra ck s which don'l a p p e a r from the groas re su lts. A nd. of c o u r s e , lo slu dy and r e - s tu d y ihe basic fin din gs. (Por Instance, a small e r r o r waa recentl y found: a decimal poini was misplaced in the "pollution'’ calc ula tion. le ading lo an overstatement of Ihe pollution In some of Ihe r u n s . (But pollutio n, rem em ber, is only p a rt of Ihe problem .) So th e re you a re . T h is is a stu dy of Ihe greatest Importance. We m ay, Ju sl m ay. be ge l­ ling wind of th in gs In lime lo change Ihe outcome. (If on ly we knew how. Bul a g a in , this sludy Is where se rious dis cussio n must b e g in .)

The Grcel American Bomb Machine (citation nol h a n d y ) . Paperback. A book call ed Cold Dawn (elu tio n not handy: orig in ally published in Ihe New Yorke r) p r e s e n ts a most d is c ouragin g view of Ihls c o u n try 's actions ir Ihe SALT is lk s. One Access Cata lo g, not io be named h e re , gives a rec ip e for an atomic bomb. Very funny, ha h a . "The U-235 we are u s in g , (although Plutonium will work ju s l as well) is a ra dio activ e su bsta nc c and d e serv es some c a r t i» h a ndling. It is NOT radioactive enough lo kill with limited e x p o su re , bul don'l sle ep with II o r any ih in g ." And so on. T h an k a a lo t. fellas. Ralph l.app had a piece in Ihc New York Tim es Magazine Iasi y e a r , pointing oul thal plu lonlum le ship pe d In ungua rde d tr u c k s and l l 's only a matter of lim* before pu r.ks gel Ihcir h a n d s on i l . .. A piccc in a recent E sq u ir e . "Did T h ere Ever Come a Point in Time When There Were Fo r ty - T h r ee Different T heorie s about Watergate? Yes. lo (he Best of Our Re collection." is a v e ry helpful general s o u r c e , especially for those who su sp e et a connection beiw een "Watergate" and Ihe a ssass in atio n s of Ihe K ennedys, Malcolm X, M artin Lulh er Kin g. e tc . But tor a rea l c hill Bee "Mae B r u s s e ll's Consp ira cy N ew sle tter” In Ihe March (?) 1974 Rea l i s t , as well ae ''Who Is Organiz ed Crim e and Why Are T hey Saying Such Awful T h in g s Aboul I t .” same is su e . Glen A. Love and Rhoda M. Love. Ecological C r is i s : Readings for S u r v iv a l. H arcourt. $4 ( p a p e r ) . A quic k way lo catc h u p on some b a d stuff. F our b u e k s well sp e n t. William L eiss. T h e Domination of N atu re . B r a tille r . S7. For a d a z z lin g , romantic and optim istic view of the f u tu r e , see Dimensions of Change by Don Fa bun (Glencoe P r e s s , 15 in p s p e r ) . T he P u lurlsl m agazin e goes oul to m embers of Ihe World F u tu re Socie ty . An Association for T h e Study of A lte rnative F u t u re s . Post Office Box 30369. Beth esda B ra n ch . W ashington. DC 20014. The magazine use d to b e prett y sa p p y and opUmlatlc. bui se em s lo be a c q u ir in g so phis tication. A o n a l d K o t u l a k , ’ The L i f e b o a t b t h i c . * C h i c a g o T r i b u n e M a g a z i n e , 28 A p r 7 4 ,

Cousteau sa ys Ihe oceana a re dyin g a lot f aster th a n he antic ipated - - and giv es mankind fifty y e a r s after life ends Ihere.

IBM IS BULLISH ON THE FUTURE Lewis M. Branscomb. who has the awe­ some lille of Chief Scientist of IBM, ha s been giv in g numerous talk s rec entl y tha l aeem to be dir ec te d against pessimism r e su ltin g from the Club of Rome etu dle s. "'On the s h o u ld e r s of ths Informstlen p roce ssin g community r e s t s Ihe r esponsi­ bility for convin cing th e p ublic thal we have the to ols. If 11 ha s th e wUl. u> addrea a (he complex aysts m a management problem s of Ihe f u t u r e .' Branscomb sa id . "'More than any o lh e r profession o u r community can r esto re Ihe pu b lic 's confidence that from Ihe limited resource s of Ihe world can be fash ioned a life of well-managed a bundance for a l l .' he conclu ded." (Keynote a p e e c h , ACM 73. quoted In C om puierw orld. 5 Sep 73. p . 4 .)

Bul even if e veryth in g e lse w ere all r ig h t, th e Bre ede r Reactors a re su r e to gel u s . 1 re f e r lo those w onder machines lhal Ihe e lec tric com­ p a nies are callin g Clean Energy for the Future. Whal ia nol explained with su ch slo g a n s is that b r e e d e r r ea cio rs nol only cre ate e n e r g y , they c re a te atomic w aate. bree d in g new fias lonable m alarial-* inclu din g plutonium. Plutonium ia well named for the ged of hell. Chemically a pois on and radloacllvely a h o r ro r , il does nol go away; w h erev e r we pul il. it will get back

The mere radiation from ihe atomic crap is h a rd ly the problem . The radio activ e poisons a re g e ttin g Into the oceana. They are gettin g Into Ihe clean waiers of the la nd. (A December 1973 newa re p o r t, for Insls nc e. reve ale d lhal a 1968 lesk of redloactlve chemicals was inlo th e w a te r aupply of Bloomfield, Colorado.) Now. atomic e n th usia sts call ii a Disposal Problem, like th e questio n of where to bury the g a rba ge. But It's a ve ry different problem . W herever we pul It. It will come back. The see? No. that'll be poisoned a lte r the con tainers go. Deep wells? T h e mountains? But Ihere is no place thal can­ not be guara nteed against earth q u ak e and re* c y clin g . It will come back. T hough dozens of ge nerations mlghl surviv e ll, ii will be wailing.

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Donn ella H. Me adow*. Dennis L. M e ado w s. J d r g e n Ra n tie rs an d William W. B e h r en s III, T h e Limits lo Growili: A Report for THE CLUU OF ROME'S Project on th e Pr e d ic a mcfil of M a n k in d . U niv e rs e Bo oks, p a p e r , J2 .7 S . FOLKS DON'T NEED THESE LTL SHMOOS! ’ - THEY ALREADY GOT ONE— TH' BIGGEST SHMOO OK A L L - TIT EAHTH, ITSELF! JE ST LIKE THESE LI'L SIIMOOS. IT 'S READY T'CIVE EV'RYBODY EV'RYTHINO THEY NEED?! EF ONLY FOLKS STOPPED A-FIGHTIN', AN' A-GRABBIN' - THEY'D REE-LIZE THET THIS SHMOO-- T H ' EARTH-GOT PLENTY O' EVERYTHING-FO' EV'RYBODY.'!" - - Li'l A b ner — attr ib ute d lo K urt V onneg ut , J r . (Al C a pp, T h e Life and T im e s of T h e S h m o o , Pocket Bo ok s. 1949, p p . 121-122.)

P, My f e e l i n g f r a n k ly ia t h i s . T h a t y o u know I - « » t h in k i n , t o n i g h t a s I m b making up ny notes f o r t h i s l i t t l e t a l k , you know, w hat t h e h e l l , i t » * » » « ! • « l ° d r a m a t i c , b u t i t n t o t a l l y tr u e t h a t w h at happen# in th i s o ffice i n t h e n e « t f o u r y e a r a w i l l proba­ b l y d e t e r m i n e w h eth er th e r e i t a c h a n c e , a n d i t ' s n e v e r been don, t h . t y o u c o u l d ha v e sow . s o r t o f an u n e aa y p e a c e f o r th e n e x t 25 y e ars. E. Uti h u h . Apr 73.)

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T echnolo gy i s i n e x p re s s io n « f m a n's dream s. I f man did H»t I n d u lg e M s f if r ta S l ^ T . Tils th o u g h ts a lo n e Mould I n h i b i t the develo pm ent o f te ch n o lo g y I t s e l f . A n cien t v i s i o n a r i e s spoke of d i s t a n t ti m es and p l a c e s , where men f le w a ro und and a b o u t, and some c ould s e e each o t h e r a t g r e a t d i s t a n c e . The te c h n o l o g ic a l r e a l i t i e s of to da y a re a lre a d y o b s o l e t e and th e f u t u r e of te c h n o lo g y i s bound o nly by th e l i m i t s o f o u r dreams. Modern communic atio ns media and in p a r t i c u l a r e l e c t r o n i c media a re ou tg ro w th s and e x te n s i o n s of th ose s e n s e s which have become dom in ant in o u r s o c i a l de veloim ent.

F o r e v e r y d r e a m . m a ny d e ta i ls a n d i n t r i ­ c a c i e s h a v e to b e w h ittle d a n d i n t e r l o c k e d . T h e i r jo in t r am ifica tio n s muat b e d e e p ly u n d e r s t o o d b y I h e p e r s o n w ho i s t r y i n g to c r e a t e w h a l e v e r - l t ' i s . E a c h c o nfa bulation of p o s s ib i liti e s t u r n s o u t to h a v e th e most I n trica te a n d e x a c tly d e t a i l e d r e s u l t s . ( T h is i s w h y I am so ir r i t a t e d by t h o s e w h o t h in k " e le c t ro n i c media " a re all a l i k e .) A nd e a c h p o ssib le com b in a tio n y o u ch o o se h a s d if f e r e n t p r e c is e s t r u c t u r e s im p lic it in it, a r r a n g e m e n t s a n d u n its w h ic h (low from th e a e r a m i fi e d d e ta i ls . Im plicit in R a dio l u r k th e T im e S lot a n d th e P r o g r a m . But m a n y o f th e s e p o s s ib i liti e s rem a in u n n o tic e d o r u n s e e n , f o r a v a r i e t y o f soc ia l o r eco nomic r e a s o n s . Why d o e s il m atter? II m a tte rs b e ca u ee w e liv e In m e d i a , a s f is h liv e in w a t e r . (Many p e o p le a r e p r i s o n e r s o f th e m e d ia , many a r e m a n lp u la to r a , a n d m a ny w a n l to u a e them to c om m unic ate a r t i s t i c v i s i o n s . ) B u t to d a y i al thia m om ent, w e c a n a n d m ja t d e s i g n Ihe m e d ia , d e a ig n th e m o le c u le s of o u r n e w w a t e r , a n d I b e lie v e Ihe d e ta i ls of t h ia d e s i g n m a tte r v e r y d e e p ly . T h e y w ill b e w ith u s for a v e r y lo n g tim e, p e r h s p s a s long a s m a n h a s left; p e r h a p s i f th e y a r e a s good aa th e y c a n b e . man m ay e v e n b u y more l i m e ' - o r th e o p e n - e n d e d f u t u r e most s u p p o s e r e m a in s . (Se e " E n d g a m e , ” P . t * .) S o in th e a e p a g e s I hope to o r i e n t y o u so m e ­ w h a t to v a r io u s of th e p r o p o s e d d r e a m s . T h i a ia m e a n t a ls o to r e c o r d th e e ff o rts of a few B r e w s t e r M c C lo u d s, e a c h t i n k e r in g to w a rd som e new flight of fanc y in h is own s e n s o a r iu m . B ut b e a r in min d th a t h a r d - e d g e d f an ta sy i 6 Ihe c o r n e r o f tom orrow . T h e g r e a t A m e ric an d r e a m of te n be com e s th e g r e a t A m e ric a n n o v e lty . A fte r w h ic h i t ' s a c hoic e of s t y l e , s iz e s n d f in ­ a n c in g p la n . T h e most e x c it in g t h in g s h e r e a r c those t h a l in v o lv e c om pute rs: n o ta b ly , b e c a u s e c o m p u ­ t e r s will e m b ra c e d in e v e r y p r e a e n ta tio n a l me dium a n d th o u g h tf u l me dium v e r y s o o n . T h a t 's w h y th is a id e ia w e d d e d lo Ihe o th e r: i f you w a n l to u n d e r s t a n d c o m p u t e r s . y o u c a n take t h e f ir s t s te p by t u r n i n g th e book o v e r . 1 f ig u r e t h a t th e more you know a bout c o m p u te r s — e s p e c ia l­ ly a b o u t m inicom puters a n d Ihe w ay o n - l i n e s y s ­ te m s c an r e s p o n d to o u r s li g h te s t a c t s - - th e b e tte r y o u r im a gin a tion can flow be tw ee n Ihe t e c h n i c a li­ t i e s , c a n a lide th e p a r t s to g e t h e r , c a n d i s c e r n Ihe s h a p e s o f what you w ould ha v e th e s e t h i n g s do . T h e c o m p u te r is nol a lim itle ss p a r t n e r , b u l 11 is d e e p l y v e r s a til e ; to w o rk w ilh il we muat u n d e r ­ s ta n d w hat ll can d o , th e o p tio n s a n d t h e c o sts. My s p e cia l c o n c e r n , all too lig h t ly fra m e d h e r e , i s th e u se of c o m p u te rs lo h e lp p e o p le w r i t e , th in k a n d s how . Bul I th i n k p r e a e n is tlo n b y c o m p u te r is a b r s n c h of show b i s a n d w r i tin g , nol of p sy c h o lo g y , e n g in e e r i n g o r p e d a g o g y . T h i s w ould b e Idle d is p u t a ti o n if It d i d n o l ha v e f a r - r e a c h i n g c o n s e q u e n c e s for th e d e s i g n s of th e s y s ie m s we a r e all g o in g to h a v e to liv e w ith . Al w o r s t , I fe a r th e se may lock u s in ; a t b e s t . I hope Ihey c an f u r t h e r th e in d i v i d u a l i s t i c t r a d i ­ tio n s of lit e r a t u r e , film a n d s c h o l a r s h i p . Bul w e m usl c r e a te o u r b r a v e new w o r l d s w ith a r t . z e s t , in te lli g e n c e , a n d Ihe h ig h e s t p o s s i b l e id e a l6 . I h a v e nol m e ntioned th e e m o tio n s. Movie6 a n d b o o k s . m usic and e v e n a r c h i t e c t u r e h a v e for a ll of u s b e e n p a r t of im p o r ta n t em o tio n a l m om ents . 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One i n d i v i d u a l I k n o w , w ho r e l i s h e s h i s c o u n t e r c u l t u r e I m a g e , t o l d me w i t h a n g r y a n d sh a k in g v o ic e t h a t h e d o e s n ' t b e l i e v e i n copy­ r i g h t and t h a t a n y th in g t h a t g e t s n e a r h i s c o m p u te r b e l o n g s t o h i m . W e ll , d o n 't le av e your m an u scrip ts ne ar a u ch a p e rs o n . (Why i s I t a lw a y s t h e g u y s w i t h c u s h y a n d s e c u r e j o b s who t e l l yo u t w e e d l e d e d e e , i d e a s s h o u l d b e f r e e , an d p a t e n t s a n d c o p y r i g h t s a r e s e l f i s h ? ) A c tu a lly , f o r th e i n d i v i d u a l , on e o f th e s t r o n g e s t f o rm s o f p r o t e c t i o n a v a i l a b l e l a c o p y rig h t. F a r f r o s o b s o l e t e , th e c o p y rig h t makes p u b l i s h i n g , a n d t h e b e t t e r c o m p u te r s o ftw are, p o s s i b l e . ( I t i s n o t g e n erally known t h a t c o p y r i g h t v i o l a t i o n i s a f e l o n y .) (And r i p p i n g o f f a p r o g r a m y o u ' r e s u p p o s e d t o pay f o r i e n o t a b r a v e g u e r r i l l a a f f i r m a t i o n , l i k e h i t t i n g H aro ld G eneen w i t h a p i e , b u t grand la rc e n y .) Now t h a t A l t a i r s a n d L S I - 1 1 6 h a v e g o t a l o t o f yo u g u y s d r e a m i n g a b o u t s e l l i n g s o f t ­ w a r e , a n i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n i s how t o p r o t e c t y o u r w o rk . W e l l , y o u h a v e a c h a m p i o n . C a l v i n M o oe rs ( s e e p p . 1 6 - 2 1 ) i s n o t o n l y a g e n u i n e C c m p u te r P i o n e e r F rom T he F o r t i e s , b u t, a lo n g w ith Herb G ro s c h , p io n e e r e d t h e Co m puter C o u n t e r c u l t u r e . G ro sch fla u n t e d a b e a r d i n f r o n t o f o l d man W a t s o n , W ooers H tr o v e t o make c e m p u t e r s e a s y t o u s e — b a c k when t h a t w as u n h e a r d o f . One o f h i s c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t s i s i n w ay s t h a t sm a ll in d e p e n d e n t u n d e r g r o u n d -t y p e p r o ­ g ram m ers c a n p r o t e c t t h e i r d e v e l o j r o e n t s He a n d sa n e a s s o c i a t e s a r e e x p l o r i n g t h e p o s s i ­ b le fo rm atio n o f a g ro u p f o r t h e l e g a l p r o ­ t e c t i o n o f s m a l l s o f t w a r e p r o d u c e r s and o w n e r s I n c i d e n t a l l y , when y o u t h i n k seme t h i n g y o u 'v e w r i t t e n b e l o n g s t o y o u — a c o m p u te r p r o g r a m , poetn o r w h a t e v e r - - s l a p t h e f o l l o w i n g a t th e b e g in n in g , under t h e t i t l e : @ 19 7S I r v i n g S n e r d

I t be g a n w i t h a b a n g l a s t C h r i s t m a s : t h e c o v e r o f P o p u l a r E l e c t r o n i c s sh ow ed ' a c o m p u te r you c a n b u i l d y o u r s e l f f o r o n l y $ 4 0 0 ' I I t was r e a l . A y o u n g f i r m i n A lb u q u e rq u e c a l l e d M icro I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and T e l m e t r y Sys­ t e m s , o r H IT S , ha d f i n a l l y d o n e i t : a c o m p u te r f o r w ell u n d er $1000. I n a b ox n o t muc h b i g g e r th a n a t y p e w r i t e r , a m ach in e co m parable t o th e U n iv a c I . T h e y c a l l e d i t t h e A l t a i r 88 0 0 . Of c o u r s e , i n a way t h i s was a n o b v i o u s ste p . The MXTS c o m p u t e r w a s s i m p l y t h e p a c k ­ a g in g , a s a co m p u te r, o f a s p e c i f i c In te g ra te d c i r c u i t c h i p t h a t had b e e n o n t h e m a r k e t f o r some m o n th s T h is c h ip , t h e I n t e l 8080, i s a m i c r o p r o c e s s o r , o r t w o - l e v e l c o m p u te r ( s e e p . 4 4 ) , g e n e r a l l y em p lo y e d f o r f i x e d p u r p o s e s i n c as h r e g i s t e r s , p i n b a l l m a c h i n e s , and th e l i k e . H o w ev e r, t o make i t a " g e n e r a l ” c o m p u te r — w i t h t h e e n g i n e e r i n g , h o o k u p s an d a c c e s s o r i e s t h a t e n t a i l e d — w ou ld be no s m a l l n i a t t e r i f t a k e n se rio u sly . ^ ^

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s u b s t i t u t i n g , o f c o u r s e , y o u r own name. And the ye ar c u r r e n t ly in e f f e c t . I f co m p u te r p r i n ­ t i n g i s u s e d , (C>, u s i n g p a r e n t h e s e s , i s c o n s i ­ d e r e d an a c c e p t a b l e s u b s t i t u t e f o r c - l n - a - c i r c l e . T h is n o t o n ly g iv e s n o tic e t o p o te n tia l Borrow ers, b u t i t h a s c e r t a i n s tr o n g m ag ical p ro p ertie s as a le g a l in c a n ta tio n . See your la w yer f o r d e t a i l s , b u t d o n ' t h e s i t a t e t o a p p ly i t l i b e r a l l y t o y o u r own w o r k ; y o u may b e g l a d you d i d .

Next in computer hobbyism i t il l obviously be th e Computer Van. A Iready vane came w ith sn iv e l throne8, fo u r-tra c k stereo, color TV; eo t h i s n ex t step ie obvious. But most important, recreational v e h ic le s can be purchased on very long tim eplane, sometimes seven years. (HITS has a demo van w ith A l­ ta ir , floppy d is k , lin e p rin te r. I t d rives around showing o ff. But th e y 'll s e l l you one lik e i t fo r a t r i f l i n g $29,000.) How fo r m obile operation we redo the power su p p ly ...

1 9 7 5 may b e t h o u g h t o f a s t h e y e a r I n w h ic h th e co m p u te r unde rg ro u n d s u d d e n ly a p p e a re d in f u l l fo rce. The A l t a i r w as p r o b a b l y t h e b i g c r y s t a l l i z i n g e v en t. Not th a t t h e r e w a s n 't a c o u n te r c u l tu r e be­ fo re. T h ere were th e g a m e s - p la y e r s a t e v ery u n i­ v e r s i t y , t h e p r a n k p r o g ra m m e rs ( s e e p . 4 8 - 9 ) , a n d , w h e r e v e r co m p u ters a r e t h e c e n t e r o f t h i n g s , a Shared e x p erien c e o f a i s c h ^ i e f an d b rea k th ro u g h . T h e r e w a s Co m pu te r p e o p l e f o r P e a c e , a c l i q u e y and u n a p p ro a c h a b le g ro u p w ith b o o t h s a t t h e con­ f e r e n c e s ( a t l e a s t , t h e i r b a c k s w e re a lw ays t u r n e d when you w an ted t o a s k q u e s t i o n s ) . T h e r e w as t h e h o h b y f r i n g e . B u t now i t ' s go ne d i f f e r e n t . In ste ad o f p r e t e n t i o u s company na mes m e a n t t o a p p e a l t o o b ­ tu s e b u s in e s s m e n , l i k e P e rfo rm a n c e M easurem ent S y s t o n s C o n s u l t a n t s G ro u p and B o t t o m - L i n e - T r o n i c s , t h e new c o m p a n i e s ha v e r o c k - g r o u p n a m e s l i k e G e n e r a l T u r t l e , I n c . , T h e S p h e r e a n d L o v in g G r a c e C y b e r n e t i c s . I n t h i s new c o m p u t e r c o u n t e r c u l t u r e , t h e m a i n c o m p u te r c a n p a n i e s a r e n o t IBM a n d H o n e y w e ll a n d U n i v a c , b u t DEC a n d H ITS a n d Gen­ e r a l T u r t l e ; t h e s t a n d a r d c o m p u te r i s n o t t h e 370, b u t t h e 11 ( o r p o s s i b l y t h e A l t a i r o r t h e 8 ) . The s t a n d a r d l a n g u a g e i s n o t F o r t r a n o r A l g o l o r P L / I , b u t BASIC. In ste ad o f t h e b ig c o lo r W t h a t m i d d l e A m e ri c a w a n t s , t h e u n d e r g r o u n d co n p u t e r n i k d r e a m s o f h i s own g r a p h i c s e t u p f o r e v e r r u n n i n g The Game o f L i f e i n c o l o r ( s e e p p . 4 8 - 9 a n d p i e p . DM26). (of c o u rse t h a t ' l l a la o re ­ q u i r e t h e c o l o r TV; s e e " B i t M a p s , ” p . Z .) In su c h a w o rld , co m p u te rs a r e n o t a t o o l b u t a way o f l i f e . T hu c o m p u t e r i s t o y , p e t , c h e c k e r b o a r d , m u s i c bo x a n d TV. C o m p u te r s a r e f o r m a k in g m u s i c , c o m p u t e r s a r e f o r g e t t i n g p e o p l e t o g e t h e r v i a c o o m u n ity memor y, c o m p u t e r s a r e f o r l e t t e r - w r i t i n g , c o m p u t e r s a r e f o r a r t a n d m o v ie ­ m a k in g a n d t h e a n i m a t e d d e c o r a t i o n o f t h e heme. C o m p u te r s a r e f o r g a m e s ; a v a s t number o f i n t e r a c t i v e g a m e - p r o g ra m s a r e p u b l i s h e d and sw apped a round. A lm o s t a l l a r e i n t h e BASIC la n g u a g e . (Bob A l b r e c h t ' s W HAT TO DO AFTER YOU HIT RETURN i s s a i d t o b e d e f i n i t i v e - - $ 7 . 5 0 f ro m P e o p l e ' s C om puter Com pany, 1 91 9 M e n a l t o A v e . , M e n lo P a r k CA 9 4 0 2 S . S e e a l s o t h e i r m a g az in e PCC, a s w e l l a s S i m u l a t i o n a n d G am in g N ewa.) PLATO g a m e s , a som ew hat d i f f e r e n t s u b s p e c i e s , a r e d i s c u s s e d o n p . DM27. T he u n d e r g r o u n d c o m p u te r m a g a z i n e s ha v e b e ­ come a b l i z z a r d ( s e e b o x ) . A l b r e c h t ' s s p r i g h t l y a n d s u c c e s s f u l PCC, o r i g i n a l l y o r i e n t e d to w a rd h i g h a n d g r a d e s c h o o l s , h a s now b r a n c h e d I n t o h o b b y i s t s a s w e l l . On t h e h a r d w a r e s i d e t h e r e i s T he C o m p u te r H o b b y i s t , a n d now a s l i c k new ho bb y m a g a z in e . B y te / w i t h a f i r s t p r i n t i n g o f 5 0 ,0 0 0 . On t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s i d e t h e r e i s a s w e l l new m a g az in e c a l l e d C r e a t i v e C o m p u tin g . T h e n t h e r e i s t h e C o n in u n it y Memory m o v a a e n t. T h e b a s i c i d e a o f Com munity Memory i s t o h a v e a co m p u te r re s o u r c e o f in fo rm a tio n and i d e a s , conm anly a v a i l a b l e . I n i t s mo re g l o r i f i e d a n d mys­ t i c a l f o r m , t h e i d e a se e m s t o b e t o h a v e a p l a c e , i n s i d e t h e c o n p u t e r , w h ere in f o r m a t i o n c an be s h a r e d b y The P e o p l e , f r e e o f I n s t i t u t i o n a l o b ­ s t r u c t i o n o r th e p r o f i t m o tiv e. T h is v is io n i s p e rh a p s u n c le a r t o o th e rs b e s id e s the a u th o r, b u t i t a t t r a c t s a v a rie ty o f p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d i n some f o rm o f g r a s s r o o t s r e v i t a l i z a t i o n o f our o o c ie ty . Some o f t h e s e a r e d i s i l l u s i o n e d s i x t i e s r a d i c a l s w ho l o o k t o 'c o m ­ m u n ity o r g a n iz a t io n " a s a b u i l d i n g b lo c k f o r a new s o c i e t y ; o t h e r s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n mo re n u t s a n d - b o l t s a p p l i c a t i o n s , s u c h a s t r y i n g t o make b a r t e r a v i a b l e e c o n o m i c f o rm a g a i n , i n a n u r b a n s o c i e t y w i t h many n o n s t a n d a r d l e f t o v e r s , s k i l l s and w ants( P r e s u m a b ly t h i s w o u l d w o rk b y h a v i n g t h e co m p u te r f i n d p a i r s o f p e o p le w i t h m a tc hing w a n ts a nd t r a d a b l e s ; o r even s e a r c h o u t p o t e n t i a l tr a d e s around m u lti-p e rs o n r i n g s . ) T h e f i r s t o f t h e s e s y s t e m s w as R e s o u r c e O n e, i n S a n F r a n c i s c o ; I saw a n o t h e r C oo nn un ity Memory i n V a n c o u v e r , w h ic h e e a n e d to b e i n p r a c t i c e a s o r t o f a n im a ted c l a s s l f i e d - a d s y s t o n . A u se r s i t t i n g a t t h a t e r m i n a l c a n p u t i n a d s o f h i s own, and c a n s e a r c h th ro u g h th e e n t i r e f i l e f o r key­ w ords o f i n t e r e s t . As t h e r e i s n o c e n s o r s h i p , scone r a t h e r s u r p r i s i n g t h i n g s g e t I n t h e r e , f o r w h i c h I w i s h we had r o a n . (A n e w s l e t t e r o f s u c h p r o j e c t s , C o m n un it y C o n n u n l c a t i o n B , i s b e i n g s t a r t e d b y L ee F e l s e n s t e i n . L o v in g G ra c e C y b e r n e t i c s , 1 8 0 7 D e l a w a r e S t . , B e r k e l e y CA 9 4 7 0 3 .) E v e n f o r t h o bo c o n i n g a new i n t o t h e f i e l d — t h e r a d i o hams a n d a m a t e u r t e l e s c o p e m a k e r s w h o 'v e l a i d t h e i r M a ste r C ha rge c a r d s o n t h e l i n e f o r t h e A l t a i r — c o m p u t e r s r e p r e s e n t a new s o c i a l l i f e . A m a t e u r c o m p u t e r c l u b s h a v e d r a w n s t a r t l i n g num­ b e r s : f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e L os A n g e l e s a n d San F r a n ­ c i s c o g r o u p s a r e c u r r e n t l y p u l l i n g 1 0 0 members to t h e i r w ee kly m e e tin g s . ( In San F r a n c i s c o , con­ t a c t Fred M o o r e , 5 58 S a n t a C r u z A v e n u e , Menlo P a r k CA 9 4 0 2 5 . ) T h i s b o o k ai*3 i t s s u r p r i s e s u c c e s s p r o b a b l y r a t e m e n t i o n o f some s o r t i n t h e w o r l d o f u n d e r ­ g r o u n d c o m p u te rd o m , ' 7 4 - 7 5 ; a l t h o u g h my u n d e r ­ g r o u n d s t a t u s may be i n j e o p a r d y . I had in te n d e d t o b y p a s s t h e co n p u ter e s ta b l is h m e n t, and c e r ­ t a i n l y n o t e x p e c t e d t o becom e a s s i m i l a t e d t h e r e i n ; so t h e d o z e n s o f u n i v e r s i t y c l a s s a d o p t i o n s h a v e come a s a c o n s i d e r a b l e s h o c k , a s h a v e t h e a c c e p ­ t a n c e a n d l e g i t i m a t i o n I ha d l o n g s i n c e g i v e n up on. My h e a r t f e l t t h a n k a f o r t h i s r e s p o n s e , and I ’ l l t r y t o l i v e up t o i t . (How i s d i s c u s s e d o n p . Z , l a s t c o lu m n . ) B u t f o l k s , t h i s a l l i s t h e m e re s t b eg in n in g . A s i t s a y s on d i a m e t r i c a l l y t h e o t h e r s i d e , p . 3, COMPUTERS BELONG TO ALL HANJOND-

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t e l l , tte a n ti- tr u s t t r i a l of IW is undarmy. In an awkmrd s ta r t, opposing lead etto rreys aecuaed each othar e l professional aisconduct. placing both te n 's careers under s cloid as th* fight began. Tte way i t cmes through in th* trade preta th* coverteant a m * to be p ulling punches and Biasing the point e l what Ita own w l t n a a s *ay. A large-scal* boteh aay be in progress. (Tte cmpajter liduatry Association, or IBH-hater’s club, e tfa rs transcripts ef the IW t r i a l , aa m i l aa dally sia asrlss. Tte group's headquartera ere ibw a t 1911 N. Port Heyer Drive, teeel) what is tte point of I t a ll? Th* Ju a tim M pertm nt Is seeking to break up IBM (Aceor. d lte to one theory. I t note* point* a fte r the ITT-Kartford bualneee.I Ttere le a lo t of e i^ e re tltlo n about IW when t te Juatlce Departeent announced i t w uld p io a c u te . But why? Heah wiener, editor ef C oautar Declelona. think a im w ill be broken up: "The Jgatice Department wanta I t . and IW wants I t , and the stockholder* w ill Bake m re money. They've a lra d y drawn tha dotted U nee.' A key queatlon ia what difference I t would make. (Remember what happened e lte r they broke up standard oil? Hot auch.) A phony breakup would a ltely a k e the d ifferen t dlvlalon* into d ifferen t cv^anies. la v in g the product line a p llt tould in l a a way foster c ^ e t l t l e n asong the daughter corporations. But idiat way? overwhela litig ato rs by the quantity of documnte supplied, aany ol whleh are atered on c o ^u te ra in f u ll-ta a t term. To give you en I d a of the hiamgou* magnitudes Involved, a » e flguree Juet caae up in recent lltlgatlo ai with sandara Aaeocieus. sanderc Is suing IW. and recently aeked IB how aany documents IW had M th a t were 'p ertinent' to tte c at*. Tte reply: "Active f lle a , approrinately 906,054,000 pegeai inactive llle s , approalmately 421.6S0.000 pages. altarmath ol a suit byC o ntro l Data, in which m s e ttlt e . m s th* destruction of the g r a t ll deass which had been conatructed to the vaat t il e l IW '* recerd*i the Indaa la gone end unavellTo a lo t ef people thle Juat aema co have

On page S3 of th ia took I aay> *1 hope te te able to rep art in future editlana of thle book th a t IW to* aoved firmly and credibly m a r t aaking it* syetm a c lea r and elaple te use, with­ out raqulrlng laborlou* attentio n te n e e d le a ^ a p llcatlona and oppressive r ltu a la .' Thl* haa ln fac t occurred, and I ao rep ort. In an earth-ehaking anteuncmaat la January, IBM to ta lly reversed the policy e f Ita u ^ n c a i dlvlalon for the le s t ten yeara. Tat te Jaded la tha preea th a t th le event te a not, 1 think, proparly recognised. Aatoundlng aa I t aay te frm tte c^^any that gave the world JCL and the m /ST, In January IW atepperi in to the world ef ea«y eo v u ters, bringing( out tha 6yatm/32, a a i n l e ^ u t e r fer buslnaaa. You een only rent I t ea as Interactive term inal, with a progcaa ereatad by IBH which cannot be mdj fled (called an Industry Application Package or 1 AP). But tte e e l i t t l e png'*** praept users atsp-by-*tep throwfh what they are auppoaad to be doing, and apprently are very clear and helpful This about-face i s In aeny wsys gratlfyLi^ fer them of ua who have teen advocating easy, acreen-tesed *ystm s for y ters and years. At Ion la a t I t give* i n ’* "lagltiaacy" to B inicovuters * for bualneee, and I t helpe co^anies th at already provide such serv ices, such aa Baalc/Four. I t w ill ba in te restin g to a e if IW knows tew te Bake thing* elaple, conaldaring the ezperlenee they have lavished <n the opposite policy. Anyway, with th is aove 1 teuld a y th at IBH haa purged it a e l l of a t l a s t 30% of ita discernible e v il, i f th ia begins a real change. A de lic ate p n b lm w ill r e a trlc t the Im ae t of the }3 l t a e l f , hotever. That is th at IBH wantB I t —— only as a gateway t s I ts big cosaiterei * prssm ably. I f uaers were allowed to progrm I t , they'd find tey* out of having to ua* the biggie.

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Mien Xerox Cerperatlon entered t te c vputar Dutlneie a few yeere ego, i t am uncod that I t a a g e l* to ch allag e IW h*ad-to-l»ad for dmioatKai e f the <*ele broad field of information, whatever **** 1,1 lecoa Bade eeplere. but aaa t t e haodwriting on the driai eventually tha h a id lii^ of w ritten Baterlale w ild croae over in te the « u tlng raalaj fow are cure In what way. (For three luture direetlona that have been propoaad, aee Engelbert, pp. &M46-7, PU tn, pp. U126-7, and Xanadu1*, pp. BK56-7.) Ttw la a t July laeue of C ^ u terw o rld In ' 7S. tCTMver, tolled of Kerox'e ahai^naent ef the cmputer lle ld . Specifically, lo r e i w ill atop Baking ----^Jter* thmaelve*. though they e t l l i w in Bake Y). The news n i preaanted In tha fraaework ef ^ grand tragedy, tha P m t t e a n collapae ef overeatanded otbltlon*. Evidently leros B anag^ nt puehed toe hard ln tte Incmpatible direction building alsoly for the eventual challarqe of la t. ve. ahowlng p rofit* gulekly. The llrm f e ll be­ tween the te a t and tha deck. Joining D A aid Gen­ C eral E lectric and the othar big c m ^ n lee th at found they couldn't Bake i t e e llin j c a r t e r * . But l e r a 1* not a* far out of t te field aa a a a eight think. In a aecret muntain hideaway— t e l l , im UK ••c ra t— Xeroa a t l l l haa parhape tha aharpest tench ef c ^ ^ u te r raaeala in the world. And thay ara planting way tap ahead, ta the t im amputate are practically free. If I arm give* th m tte lr head, aid deean't eut hack, the csrpcracias will have l i t t l e trouble In trli*phantly returning to the field five or ten yeara I rm m , o n c tlfab ly kneeking IW off it* feet In the now aarheta ef th a t day with a karate-like rwvep. Thle Place of Powwr le eallad le ro i Palo Alto Raaarch Cm ter, or lerea PARC, and l u < t e i |M n o f California Mellw ^ n a i a l e ^ the unwary. 1 epeke there e few year* ago and found It buey volleyball gate outalda when I arrived, aid whan I aaked for the poreen I a e goliq to eee. the reeeptlonporeen aald te pull up a baanbag aid wait t i l l he had flnlehed playlr^ v o lle y te ll. lurniehed only with a m untain o l theae hoanbag aacke. Ae people cate in, they would pull beantega o ff the m untain and a it down on th m . So ta r te good 1 California Mellow. So 1 wont Into ay rap, and everybody aat llatOTlng. 1 had nc Idea if 1 wet getting through, since what I try tc te ll people begin* where technology atepe-- m ral precept*, ae i t ware, te r organiring idee* and ryet t e in the world e l the future (eee th le wlsle O H aide)-- I 'a uaed to people looking confuaed, or m rrled , or angry, or even walking e u t. There wa* none of th a t. W 1 getting through? or were they a* everybody following thi*?* There were m ile* end I think eaaeena aald, "We're with you. Ted." And they were. I t waa the oatly pleea I'v e ever spoken where the audience wa* on the U M wavelength, going straight on Into syetma Deaign

■lead coteuter of choice Z n | a p h le tle a tm . (Tte F w -ii ta alao a ttra c tin g considerable LoInatance. r l r i t t a t l m l City Mak ef la a a t l n g a nBteork or U/45a.) lock

ta r to tu q « In i l i t , geiulnely, I r a tha tloy to tha grand. Durin) tha la a t ala rnntha, DK haa brought gut tha m a lla a t ol tha Una, the LSI-11, a ll on • board tha a it* o l a th a n of typteriter paper- lor SIX HIKDKED ATO r i m IXSJARS. That Inclteea tha lu ll c o t t a r u l 4K of volatile feet » » r y . aa a l l aa b u ilt-in daboggar. I t not quit* tha lu ll e tery . Thle LSI-11 la without p o a r aupply aid without unibua. In­ deed, I t h w that tha LSI-11 happme to ha newieed laat ( a ll , which coats »J» 0 with juver supply aid Onltee. ib fro n t panal. Tha enpearana o l a rtely to tha grand MIT5 aixounco. n t of January (aaa p. ■ ) . Capecially whan It a tte a a id . ('Buying clube* a n being (mrnal with tha Ida* ol poollte resources for eha quantity p r i m «aa "Cheap C a r t e r s ,* p. V.) (Sophisticate* In ta r a ta d In putting tha LSI-11 in other equijmant have baan quick to In which you Bay Insert tha B » th at glvee yea floating point la vary cheap optloo), Por tteee of u who diydriH about unumal luactla&a, auch aa H at ( m a u l s ) or graphice or tha llk«, thia 'T*nli»] la vary auggeatlvei with accoas t= tha alcroprogim instruction*. a d lf te rm t KH could te pot in for f u t l ^ l w . t a t l c n e l teatever i t m « n te d -- aad your p r o ^ r a m i d uaa for your nalarloue purpeea tha binary o s a t e a ordlnarlly n a i m d lor flo ating point.) IMille ha aay oot ba abla te deal with that, Danlal 1 Lawi* at DC la Bolling Headews. i l l . ) .. At tha high and of tha lin a , a bl£ R>P-11-tha mdel ?*-- haa boas anvailed, m a ilin g a lu ll 31-bLt a ichlnt, In tha huidred-tteoaanddollar claee, with cacb* am ery and tia a -a te r ite (hit what ol tha «van blggar PDP-11 aodal 65. aaan In the Harltere plant under yet aiethar operating syatte? w ill le Been that a l l tha tiae? Ah. pity that nothing can ha said about Hultlple oparating l y i t w aro. indeed. tha tana e l tha PDP-11 lin a. Hot only ara there Dec'a own. like RSTS, RT-11. DOS and RSa, idileh aufler f rm a lack of f l l a e ate atiblllcy and but m thora haa arlaan a lac grander oparating

But HITS took I t aerloualy, and o lte ra d with tha A ltaic e m a l l te c esaplete llo a of i n f l a l f , dlak*. p r lo ta re , Interface* , aed, m e t Iaportant, a e rrlc e f a c lllt le e . Tbe ( I n bad lm ovated before, notably whao chay brought out tho l l r e t teBd-beld c elcu laco r aoveral yeara te ro r e . Juet ae thay c o rre c tly antlcipB e^ cbat dmaad, tbay foraaaw th le ooe. They alao cteea uo errli^ ly cbe r lfb c a r kat to b q lo 00: e lec tron ic bobbylete aod k l t bulldere. The klt-aakac enjoy* tbe challenge or b ulldlof e m cblaa (roa only a d la ir m and a boa ef p a ita ; aod co be far fro a a ropalraan to Ida m te rre ra for bla, for (>a ^e the r a p a lr Tba price drop waa oot ae d r a m tlc aa 1c a lth t aem to the te o aral public: oor le tha c™puter quite ea cheap a* i t l a m a t f lre c fiance. Contrary to a public lap reaaion. c re a ta j by ISI a a l a Middled preaa over the yeare. chat cmputara ara toga aod coat a llllo o a ef dollara, very food coaputere have been a v a ila ­ ble lately lor e couple ol tbouaaod, oot cmindn g accaeaoilee. hit tha accaaaorlee preaeot a p reb lm . On th et ecere, tbe apparent rock-b ottm p rice of tha A ltalr m y have bees alaleadlng, aapaclally to U c-b u lld e re. A coapuiar I te e ll la a lla ^ dlahrag without eaaory, te ra ina l* aod program*-- a ll of which pad the ceec of tha packaae. By the tia e you’ve added 61 B»arry. a Caroloal aad BASIC aoftware to your k itbullc A lta lr, a tbouaaod d ellare hae (1mm (11400 if you buy I t already aeeeabled). Then 1< you want t te dlak (aad who d o e e e 't), th a t'e at laaat f ifte e n hundred m re. Kow k lt-bu lld era Juat e ta rc ln t my not aaa tha point of a ll cheae Irlp p erlea ; Cbey pu ttr, ae cm le^ to real Ire the laBeeelty of I t a ll aay te a gradual aw kenlni. with aany happy aoldarlo) eaperlaocea 00 the way, Othara aay ba b>ou(hc up abort aa thay aeoae what Ihey're |e t t l n | Into. Thia la p artly e problm ef NITS' cry In* to reach two eonauaer (roupa a t ooce: the k i t builder, who Bay have thought a c ^ ^ u te r waa a who looka at the b o ttm lin e lo r the coat of Indeed, KITS' low prlcea aroo’t that low, W i t come to p rlea . they are about SOI atead hen of tha conventional c e ^ e tltlo n . For Inatanca. th e lr $5000 aetup (with Caraloa) end dlak) olght ba taken aa roughly equivalent te the DEC Claeelc a t around $10,000 (aee p. Y). But what you uaually pay for in th ia H e ld I* earvlce end fringe b m e flle . Tbe fundamnta l eaet, I t eame to ae, le wtather you caa < a « hack co tbe co^any with your problm a. cuetm er*' c ^ u t e r cteublaa.) KITS' p rin c ip a l contribution le rae lly In the tteught they have given co th nlr m rkac. and the depth with which they ara aervlng i t . They no doubt e n tlc lpetad uadariall tb m (tea p. Y). But they aaa tha advantage In tb la : thay even give out th e ir Bailing H at te coapetltere who e a ll A lta lr for a quick buck; they appear co be thoroughly c om itted to full-apeccrm coavutar earvlea. In eight aontha, HITS haa gene frm twancy-flva to a hundred mployeaa and aeld OVOI m il TH U N COHPVmS, whlcb la am aO SA D thlng like t a or three percent ef the cmpucere In Aaerlca. Today, the electronic nut*; to-

H H A T U lU I
Aa I t happan*. t e know what IBK'e biggest neat aove w ill t e . I t 1* scaetM nj to te called tha Future sy stea (PS). PS w ill be a c t^ l e ta line e l ctaputars and c^aunicatlons techjilquas for th te , but th a t's a ll we knowj security 1* very tig h t. Supposedly TS ealata and la running' but what la it? All we know la that l u sched­ uled Introduction haa teen pushed hack f rm 1979 ta aaaetlae e fta r 1980. Anytey, I have acted a lo t e f a n y people what they thought FS m s going to te . and te re A ^ ^ l e t e l y aedular lin e ef c ^^ u tars and term lnala with a unlbua-type architec­ ture. (RUHD th ia would ellainate Ri A mlcrprogramed lin e of equlfvent. whose A to ta lly PL/1 systaa. A lin e of e q ulp un t with evsr-changing aicreprogrmaed "fan-dancs* intarfaeea, auch th a t no a b a t i n g mnufacturar can ever find eut what they are. (A charge by Kerb Creech and nmereu* A om pleta and l^ re g nable t e u l ayatm for a ll e y ate llc Information, which cen only t e keyed in te through IBC terainale proceeted on IBH te ^ u te r e , tranm itte d through I8H s a te llite s , and r a d eut through IBH term inale. (FACTi IBH tea applied fer a s a te llite .) T otally CTaepetible with ealating 370 hardware T utally lnc^te*tible with e alstite 370 hardmkea a le t of mney on edapters aid A lin e of pocket-slcad and p u ta b le aqulpMnt b u ilt around Magnetic Bubble Technology. uaa in te rac tiv e sefewera. (Thle would euddenly e l i a l a t e hundreda of thouaanda

tine; and that ia net a a t t a r of bigneaa. but the atyla of IBH'e control, Coteutere eteuld vete livea. and ehould help lighten our loeds and a lig h te n our ainde, clarifyiD g the ctvepleaItle e of everything- Unfortunately. iW 'e aethe c re atite rigid and oppraaalve and polntleaely c ea p lu systm s, fobbing thea off ae "eelantlflc the tectelquea d ise ased on pp. S2-S6 . People should te free to uee c a p i t a l aa they ouoht to te uaed. each in hla pereenal atyl of optlona and clarifying sereen graphica, rathe than each fm'eon and o ffice worker teing locked Into hie "tternly e llo tte d eandplle," ea ciMlnqe put i t . And that ia the preblm .

fe a iT

im o G W tW
Met re-

C V B e * C * p y 7 r
Cm ^ li-lwae a "cmputer hardw rltite analyals" booth. You wrote your nma on a card (Hollerith, natch) aid thia a a put through a e lo t. A ty p w rlte r (mrke d " IW ) p r ln tte e u t the *analy*l«.‘ I waan't th e re , but i t waa alaoat c ertainly a braaan fake. Preamably the typew rlur waa an ordinary Hag card S electric, Heaory Typewriter or t te lik e . The flatteu a e operator could eiaply chooM what he wanted the printout te say by ths insertion o l a card (on the termer) or the bwlat ol a d ia l (an the la tte r ) . In cid entally , while IW le probably the prin clpal ^ ^ lo y a r ef Dutchess County, we should net aatuae d ire c t coq>llclty. n I

Thie le obviously tha place te te ll you about Alan Kay and the Dynabook. Tte hotteet project a t keraa FAftc la Alan Kay'a Dynabeok, formerly the Kiddy ctsputer. A e lo ta e l pteple w ill te ll you, i t ' e going te ce*t five huidred dellere, be m a ll enovgh to carry erouid on a * heul^r atrap, have a b u ilt-in aciitrt, run on h a tta rle e, aid have a l l tha t e k e a kid wanta to read Irm tte acraen stored on a eaeeette. Aid the d«oe: T te y 'll kiock y^iu out. on a color TV screen, th e y 'll shew you a wildly chaining pageant e l toy soldier*, phetographa, te a u tilu l patterna, a ll generated by the eo^w ter In reel tia e (eee 'B it Maps." p. ? ). And I t you're into eosputere, they’l l aim you how a ll thl* 1* run by the beautiful 9ULLTAU languaga ( it waa previouel> eallad tte Kiddy C ^ iu ta r. rm m ber). which any b right child can learn and which ha* ama awfully Thare have baan a le t o l cena in tha c o ^uter So hsw cme xeroa le leaving tte cm pitar lleld? Answeri they're net te ae tly leavingi they're taking a break u ntil they can a e ll th le beauty for live huidred dollar*. Hhat'* tte delay? The Dynateek. or Kiddy Cteputar. 1* actually You're auppoeed to Laugh. A PDP-10 le a big c ^ iu t e r . tte te a t. (See pege 41.) A PDP-10 sy*t e s e t a hundreds of thouaanda o l d e lla n . But the l**t laugh w ill te K a ra '* . The way coafuter price* are — dam, through Integ rata l c irc u its ever m re powerful end cheap, that POP-10 can te sold lor SS00 in . . . (cheek your Choice) __1»78 _1979 _1980 __1981 __19B2. (Interesting anecdote I the guy* a t xerea PA C R aaked te buy a PDP-10. but aanagmant hr id led, aeeing a* haw la rm wae ln t te eo v u ter bualteea and Bade o a p atltiv e aaehine*. So the te lla a , v th in g daunted, b u ilt tb a lr m , Thay BOdastly (Hotai tte above predictions are baaed, e l court*, on tha a s s ^ t i o n ef Haros aanagmant knowing what i t ' a dolitg. A sat^tlon a of thl* Cypa in t)a o a p u tar field a ll t te often turn eut a te

UNIX-- tha naae'e auggeatlveneea o l harm guard* la deceptive— la raa lly tha eon ol H ITICS Iaaa p. 45). But i t waa flniehed In Mich lese time. Like Hultlcs. i t ' a a teauty. Lika Kultlca, i t waa programed in a hlgter language: tha language i t '* programed In, tn o v a r, la called a itely *C*. Tte language waa c ra te d by Brian Kernlghan. author o l a wldoly-praleed cotract programing exaieplee frta othar p o d ia 's aed in *C" by Xen T ta ^se n and Dennis Ritchie, unla ia a d ® n . Aaida f rm a ll tha usual of s p littin g . Each prograa csn thnw off coplaa ef i t a l f . which mn Independently and t l ^ * ■ogian language eallad S1 WLA. and alae appaara In Alan Kay's m a lw ale languaga a t Xeroa PASO regrettably, there ia no n r a to dleeuaa thaaa hara, (For Simula, aaa Ole-Johan Oahl and C.A.R. Dahl, Dl)kaLra Anl Hoara. structured Programing. Acad^ic Praia.) Thaaa iM turaa affectively change the character ol programing e o ^la te ly . For Inatance, te aivulate a niebtr of objacta I n te r a c t! ^ the p e g ra a can (pin o il a s p y el lta e lf lor every object, and t u h usyy (ilaleking the raal-aorld object). can then reapocd to Ita cvitlnually-changing e n v i n w n t aa required, in other word*. (Me typo of language aoaaa that aioiU ted than they ever did before. SDWU m eta $30,000, and, aa i t happna, tiona). Uolortunataly th ia raiaea certain grave gueetlone. eisea tha eal^hone cmpany (of tdileh M il u be le a branch) la not ruppoaad to ba Ln the c r^ u ta r programing bualnaaaj and theae who are in tbe butloeaa ara dlmayad by tM idea ol

(ob Albrecht, caliph of countarculcura c m puterdm. highly endoreea A ltalr Extended BASIC. Say* 11'a te r r if ic . The nals aarvlce cotter for A lta lr . haa been cbe Albuquerque factory, but tha f l r e t o l th elr regional aervlce eentara ha* now opened in Nathvllle. An A ltalr aaamblar la running on che FLAT0 H i l a (aee pp. B 06-7).

Haney Foy, t t i Sun never Sete on IW .

H ill L u Kedgere' Think ia eut In paperback, wit) Datametlon devoted large a c tio n * ef ita Pebruai

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in

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WeiifrL'e

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HAJOft PRWIS. " C ^ u te r a e re ee c t ^ l i c a only a eo^eny aa large aa IBH can put together the technical teaaa n tc e e a ry te make t h a work TH CO O R . " C ^ u te r e are *e c^teUca E R LLA Y th at thare'a just ao way to a«ka I t pe**lhle fc c ^ ^ e tito ra to heek up th e ir equlpaent to eura. The truthi e lm e t anybody ean aake eenalble am putere th at w i t and t ie together (v isib ly . O n IW a n do I t wrosg and aake i t stick .

^ i

" T * K o F f i t f C F ' T 'H e f U W
A rm arkable l**ue o l Bualna** Weak (June 30. 1975) c arried e 36-te9C a c ti o n a i l e d an "executive b rie fin g ," whatever th at i*. on the Office of the Future, whatever th at 1*. The a rti c le waa actu ally tte thing* aplicad together! ‘fu tu ria tlc * gab around th* t i t l e , aid * repa rt on the ee-ealled ‘word procesalng lnduatry.* te rd procaeelng, a ( Il ly IW term, teana handling te a t by trleky office equljaent ( a e ‘Type U g h te r," p. 14). i n controla the word proeeaaing aarkat. with such aaehine* t* the Hag Card S electrie and the abmlnabla (in ay opinion) KT/ST. Aa rate rted by Bualneee Weak. IM ’a te alc strategy i s ts ta ll bualnesmen th at they have te have a centralized typing pool of specially trained typleta to uae theae things, sc tte office has to te reorganised. The eee re u rlee hate the new organisation because I t aake* t h a into keypunch Operator*— tha pean/eaecutlve dlctetm y ia a trad itio n a l aspect of IM producu. It m i d a m — but t te whole thing is put ovsr ss Modern. Now Xeroa haa a e e up with a c ^ ^ e tltlv e aaehine. tte 800 (aee Diablo, p. Y). aid Bualneee "te* Intone* th a t only tteee two fir m have the a w y and c a p lu l <s succete is coveting te c r a t * tte Office o l t t e Futur*. t e l l , th is is Tbe big Bistake IBM's coepetllore alm ys •am u aake ia to l e t IW define tte preblm , and than go ln te try to c ^ e t a on the te ttl* ground, and In tha term*, th a t IW has laid out. But i t la net eenalbl* te play lellew eh* leader on s il v e r y leg* through a boobytrappte n a i f . Hew xarea haa stepped once the slippery ltet e t th* rig h t th ing w uld te te um**k th* ab­ surd itie s e f the IBM gm e with new in itiativ es which thay cantet possibly m ulata. Th* o ffice e f the future, in th* opinion o t the a u tta r, w ill hav* te th lte te de with the •U ly e c ^ le a iti e a o f autm aU c typing- i t w ill hav* screens, and keytoard*. and peealhly a p rinter for outgoing le t tere, but p a alb ly not. All your business Inlom atlon w ill ba te lla b le te tha screen in sta n tly . An all-mbraelng data a structure w ill to ld ovary farm ef la fon e tla n — a m arle al and te atu al— in a cat*'-sradle ot linkage*! and you, th* u a r , whatever your Job t i t l e , m y gulekly rove your ecreen through tte entire Infesmtleft-cpace you are e n title d te Indeed "programs- w ill Mver te*m o iiciIlv lavokad a t a l i i thay w ill slaply taka effect a* you j e t near. In tha display te*ea, b a th in g whlcb naeda i^date. A dleplay-drivan Inform-

Rather throw Ite corporate weight en­ tire ly behind the POP-11, B C hae carved out B a t t a i n areaa In tfiieh i t la trying te aarkat ita U -b lt aid IS-blt oachlnee. tha PDP-6 and Pnf-15. The POP-8 ia being puahad lor bualaeee a^lico tio o a, with D B'e c oB b-llke lai^uagai alao a vary nice veralen o l the 8 haa appeared, floppy dlake. keyicepe. and wot-printer optioni thia le the 'C laaalc.* a t M2.040. Tba 18-blt TOP-1S lin e le a t l l l balng oaraarkat«l aa a *BadlwaUad* aaehine. with IWCR I K ' a data-taaa eyetm ). with virtu a l huge ■< ■ory, and with hot dleplaye.

HITS prleoa ara qu ite roamnahle. I f you buy a k it lor anything le tha A ltalr lin e , I t 'a gen­ e ra lly about JS* laaa than the eeem fel^ and luJ ly-cbaeked^ut veralon. The te elc e u ^ u ta r k it cneta $ 4 » (C631 *ee«tf>lal), but ignore that 1 i t '* lik e e car without an m gioe. a a u or wteal. A d e l e t e package (tbalr ’Beale 1* e a t) . w ith tha o ^ u ta r , ar of n a o ry . terminal aid 8K BASIC lan­ guage le 11)91. A m r e hlgh-puwered i y e t « v ltb 131 e f fact a m r y aed double eidrov dlak la IMJ4, c o l l a t e with t t e l r to tn d e d M a le. Thare are aany aaparate I t a e , pLana and op­ tional i t la peaaltola, o t eouree, to buy a package eywtm f r m chm lo r aa aueh aa you want te epand.

" ‘ A t U in .f f c n t .v c w u e r
■e tu ra lly i t had te te in Lea Angelee. The f l r a t •e r^ w te r etere,* i t T r * . 1* a t 116S6 Pico (at Sarrin gto a), w*et b.A.. ^ a lle vaat of tha San Diego rraeeayi 21 V 4? e -lie s. Neure are 2 to 8 Milr111iy t s Friday, 10 n 6 on S a t­ urday and Sunday. I t '* c alled the Aro s c k e line ef A ltaire.

IR lW
u a fu l terda for d iacuaaii^ tte IW problem, (thanke te Cceputar D eelalo a aagazl in which n a ef them m re f l r a t publiehad 019 73 . 1975 Tteoder H. Kelten.) ite le g y the etudy e f IW. “•ap h y the wiadm o f IBH, ite e w t e . one wla te IM. U ^ercep tlb le officia lly noticed by IM . m ltea tle puBlUigly lte la h . ltebrogllo IM eeftware. ito o lo g ia cl<my or InapproprUte t e n . asp. < a which a iaip eil* l u e l f , auch a* *ran accaa* te r cyclical aee**a, 'd ire c t Access d avice'fer in d ire ctly acceeali device, and 'v irtu a l systm * for r a J *V*tm Involving v irtu a l huge amory. h a u d e c la l ____ “ »lng a put a eurae en the FDP-10. rw ro w neared forthcoming code fer th* Putt Sy«tm IExtended A lnarlly oodte, DecI a l l y tegaalsed. m t r a r y Klwtoe) lta p h lly * ^ woraip ef OH. ite e ll* a m * Ite a raad u , or Iteaga. Uwpoly

Tte TM^languege le ibw rumlng tlae-eterte, lo r general n a t m f t , on C ^ v u tillty (aa bbth tionad < > p. 21) , and in a fancier version offered Y by Interactive Sclw tae Corp., 66 Brooks Drive. Braintree, Ha**.. 617/84B-2«00. teoera has 11eenmd tte la tte r firm to run both hi a baalc ceseor and ‘Advanced DavelopMita" (ra tte r a e n t l in f ile (yatm a aid c ^ u t a r control. AptareotlT he haa ----- spectacular data-baae atuff in there, but you woe't te able to find A it a t e t I t directly jp^ -1.1 packagea ara tte apealalty e f Interactive Science*, aid with 1 «AC thay mn oflar packagea with both tte data baa* stuff and o tte r uouaual eapabilltle*. Far ljiataiee, thle tia e -atiar ing TMC can lta e lf c a ll vp ether ^ v * t a r a and sign Into thm , respond ing te maaagea aa I f I t m n a Tte te v u tlll c y varalm tern* ta rub far ateat 112 aa te u r, tte Intaractlve Selemea v u e lea t a ^mwbat a n - but tte la tte r flea la iatareatad In « 111e9 wtele package*, net uaer-dlddllng. teeer* haa recm tly received r e g le tr a t ln for

CW PCT1TIVB KXWJktims On f i n , In tara ll. haa put the PUP-8 os a chip for erne #3®. IHoover, aa I t uaually tu n a out. by tfa tiao you gat a ll the porta to­ gether i t ooeta >3000 a lta r a l l , tu t In quan­ tity i t 'a anetboz aeory, and tha individual p ic a will drop b o b o m g b .t Isto rell haa alao lntlaa te d that they are working a a chip to e la ila te tha PDP-11. II ao, thle w ill of cowoe b r l ^ t h m ----- - ^ ag a in n the petaat th a t u a a to have kmrked out the DljlaU C^^otar Control* lookallke, tha Tnrlta ol 8uo (at lM at Ita direc t Barkatisg). anl aagodarod a lewoait ogalnat Cal data, lo t 11 loefeallke, a n t l a r f on p. r.)

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Be haa emly p n la a for t te BkSlC -orlasM bualnaaa ayatm e offered by BAslc-FOOB Corp.. to ba found la m}or c ltle a . Bet only done t te c m e n c t e p o ii oot whet f w g e t La ^ a r k l l t e d a ta ll, but t t e aanual le w x ltt* la t e l l i h . A ^ Aadrvw h lA m lf m a ld a 't a a A tte eyetm . (The Baale-FOor * « t^ - - — a »<■>« f r m 11 cm data terparatlOB. M n A t i I t m l f m U a a f a r in g b a l na t - q ^ a n * c a l M n u n , Mileh 1* highly p n la e d by Jo te b. i«v1m , n a t t e r yowag tfery n b la t t e BUIC la . -V -. thoy o flar e e y n m with U , a BUIC la ta rp r a ta r Ha l l m e n l . dlepU y aad m a m tte fo r w ^ r i u m ■ aag baa cI ovbtI , l«cm d t t e l ^ a l p r = ^ * i _ p r ^ l m n t t t i te em rk of B l t a n t e u a a a , _ h r a p u l b l i ta I ta o u b m h for t t e l r _______

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HITS' new c d ^ u t e r w ill be b a sed on Oil motorola 6800, end s e l l in k i t f e n f o r around $300. But t h e i r a a ln 1* t o th e A lta ir , a lin e based on th * I n t e l SOSO, and the c u a tm e r a a lre ad y in to th a t a a c h in e w ill not be in any way l e t down, they aay. A c « p u t e r k i t based on th a M o u r o la 6800, with 21K b y te s o f c o re , e a e s e tt e r e c o rd e r and TV d isp la y (32 eh ara. by 16 lin e s ) l a o f f e r s fo r $ l a,4S by th e SPHSIE. 96 E aat S00 South, B o u n tifu l, Utah 84010. T w c o p u t a r k l t a , one b u i l t a round th a PACE and a n o th er a Nova lo o k a lik e , )uve eean a n n ou nce by B i l l Godbout E le c tr e n ic e , Box 2355 Oakland A ir p o rt, Oakland CA 94614. Ha a la o p la n a an 11 le o k a lik a . Or you a ig h t g a t an L SI-11. An LSI-11 buying p ool ia taalng fo ra e d by Hal L aahley, Southern c a l Coaputer S o c ie ty , P.O. Box 967, S. Paaadsna CA 91030.

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One o f th a buys o f ctaeputar h i s t o r y I s w aiti r q up a t A aerlcan Used C e ^ u t e r . in B oston, 617/261-1100. H o o re x , fo r t o t u n f a th n a b le re a s o n , b u i l t in th e e a r ly 70a a a ^ u t e r inte n d e d to be upwerdc o n p a tlb le h a th a 360/20. But I t was r o t a 360. W>y d id they do th la ? Th* kin d o f p e o ple who shop around would not buy 360/20e, and th e kind o f p e o ple who buy 360/20* would sc a r c e ly le a v e IBM'a a k l r t e a t upgrade t l a e . Thus th e Meaorex 40 hae, q u ite u n de rstan da bly , be en d ia co n tln u ed . And a l l tha ones th e y had l e f t a r e w aitin g fo r you hrand new up a t A ae riea n Used C oaputer fo r $he h e a rt-sto p p in g p r ic e o f

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The g re a t H aruin Minsky i s reno&isd on fi v e c o n tin e n ts. Dean o f th e ancrphoue f i e l d o f "a r ­ t i f i c i a l in t e l l i g e n c e ," and r e fe r r e d to u ith o u t am biguity ae "Marvin" throughout o c p u te r l a n i, he i e a th e o r e t ic i a n 's th e o re tic ia n . But a t th e h e a rt o f every th e o r e tic ia n , I th in k , burnt th e d r e a t th a t he v i l l scmeday prove th e o u tr ig h t, u o r ld ly vnpcrtance o f h is tto u g h ts. L ike Deaery, a t l a s t he v i l l go to h is su ito a se and g e t ou t h ie g uns, and th e audienae v i l l cheer. The g re a t Marvin Minsky hat come out G eneral T u r t l e , In co rp o ra te d , i s a toy coepany th a t th e te a a o f Hlnaky and P a p e rt put to g e th e r to a a r k e t t h e i r e d u ca tio n a l R a p u ce r a c c e s s o r ie s . (Sse p . 57.1 T hey've s o ld a few, b u t th e ia p a c t has been B d e e t . And, a s a a a l e r e f the p r o je c t p u ts I t , "W* wanted to g e t ou r Ideas fo r e du catio n o u t to the w o rld .' So they d e cid e d to b u ild a te r a i n a l . But i t grew, aa t e r a i n a l dssig n* w i l l , i t i s now th e GTI 2$00. R « n b e r t h s to r t o i s e and th s h ars? T his i s th e h e i r l e s t t o r t o i s e on fou r w heels. F i r s t d s li v e r le s t h i s f e l l . And h e r e 's w het you gee fo r your f iv e thou­ sand d o lla r s —

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The a o e t g la ao ro u s o n p u te r * being b u i l t today a l l H a i to be o p e n ly c a lle d by t h e i r devel°P*r * b“ e e : th e G re e n b ls tt e’mpMKtt. H insky's e—p u te r, th e Aadahl a a c h in e , th s Crsy c oaputer.

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Pro ceaeor Technology, 2465 4 th S t . , Berkeley 94710, Bakes a t e a t d ia p la y k i t f o r th a A lta ir fo r $160 (you supply th a TV a o n lto r and e v id en tly tha key bo ard). 64 c h a r a c te r p a r l i n a , 16 lln a a .

B o o tstrap E n te rp r is e s , Ann A rbo r, a re a l w working on a e i a i l a r u n i t , e a lla d *The Duab Tar* ■ l n a l , ‘ w ith a e o lo r o p tio n . HITS la c ^ s i t t a d now a b u ild in g a video t a n i n a l , th e CT-6096, t h a t w ill p ro v id e both te x t and g ra p h lc e . Follow ing apeea a re n o t f i n a l .

T h at p r ic e in clud ea 4Bk b y te s • How fo r th e bad news. I t c o i l ba re -kc nee , w ith ■» a o ftw a re , and no hardw are su p p o rt. You g e t th e w irin g d ia g ra a w ith i t , and a l i e t o f o th e r owners, and y ou ’r e on your own. AUC does hava spare p a r t s , however. And p e r ip h e r a ls , a o s tly v r e expensive. H r. Honeson o f AUC to ld ae on tlt t phoM th a t i t had 1S8 in s t r u c tio n * , in c lu d in g 6 4 - b lt f lo a tin g p o i n t , 3 2 - b it b in a ry . On stud yin g th e l i t e r a t u r e , however, i t app ears to ae t h a t th e in s t r u c t i o n - s e t he d e e c rit e d i s a lcro p ro g ra aa ed , w ith th e a ic r o code in te n d e d to be read in a t s t a r tu p t i a e . (Thera a r e 6S B ic r o In s tru c tio n * .) Haybe you ean g e t th e alero co d e f o r th e se 1S6 I n s tr u c ti o n s a id Bayba you c a n 't . Haybe you d o n 't c a r e , i f you’re w e ll enough fix e d to handle ona o f th e ee . I t c a e * in b a sic b la c k , 2aSs4 f e e t , f l t e in a v a n , and supposedly does n o t need a irc e n d l tio n in g . Supposedly p l t ^ - c v p a t l b l e w ith 370 p « r ip h e r a le : I t ' s r e a l l y a s ix t e e n - b i t m achine, and i t haa e ig h t s e ts o f e ig h t r e g i s t e r s , having been d e sig n e d to p e tf o t a up t o e ig h t f u n c tio n s s l a u l ta n e o u sly . So. 64 a a ln r e g i s t e r s , 4K dy n a alc a lc r o s to r s , 48K o f a e a o ry , fo r about th a p r ic e o f a uaed n)P1 1 /10 w ith 4K. S a e llin g s a l t s , anyons?

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The Aadahl c o ^ u t e r o r S y a t a 470, a euner« ■ p u te r o f th e 360 a e r ie e by one o f th e e uv iw ho d esigned t h « o r ig i n a l l y — a>* p « i— k* a v a ila b le f n » Aadahl C o rp o ra tio n , 12S0 East Arques Avenue. Sunnyvele CA 94086. (They a re now a d v e rtisin g fo r s y e t m p e o ple who know th e in ­ s id e . o f OS/XVT. VS, e t c . ) . The f i r s t 470 i s up snd n i M i q a t NASA's I n s t l t u t s f e r Space s tu d ie s . C o lw b l. u. But IM i s s a id to be read yirq one o f t h e ir faaous 'k nockout* aac h ln ss to do i t In (D staa stio n, J u ly 75, 94 .)

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"Diabolc" u a s a gwne o f the tu s n tia a t h i t in ­ v o lv e d poking a sp in n in g o b je c t. O ddly, Chat's uhat to d a y ’s D iablo in v o lv e s. Redoubtable Hax Pal eveJcy, who b ro ug ht you S c i e n t i f i c d a ta S y s tv s (which Xerox bo ught and r e c e n tl y sh u t down). R olling Stons and th e a ev ls *Harjoe*— h ss another w inner, which h e 's a lso T his i s th e Diablo c ^ p a n y . which f i r s t a ad e dla ka and now Bakes a se n s a tio n a l p r in tin g a ae h ljie . i t has a w h irling p l a s t i c 'd a ie y wheel* o f ty p e . In terc h an g e ab le , and c an type 30 c h a r a c te r s p e r second in e ith e r d i r e c t i o n , as a s w ell as draw p ic tu r e s — o f a s o r t. The b a sic d if f s re n e s between th e e e p r in ­ t e r s snd conv en tio nal ty p e w rite r s , l i k e th e S e le c t r l c , i s t h e i r use o f a r v o s r a th e r th a n r a t ­ c h e ts . T his aeans t h e i r e h a r a c te r a c an be p o si­ tio n e d In aany In term ed iate p o s it io n s , u n lik e t h e fix ed p o sitio n * a v a ila b le on an o rd in a ry ty p e w rite r . For in s ta n c e , th e D iablo can p o si­ t i o n th e type to 1/60 e f an inch h o r iz o n t a ll y and 1/48 of an inch v e r t i c a l l y . (Hice f o r j u s t i ­ f ie d ty p e s e ttin g .) There a re new a nuaber e f a ac h in es of th i s k in d . F i r s t case th e D iablo p r i n t e r , o f f i c i a l l y th e IlyType I : then the e n gin eers who b u i l t th a t w ent o f f and c re a te d a c n p e t l t l v e p r i n t e r c a lle d th e QUM ( p r o n . 'k y n a ') ; now t h e r e 's an iaproved E D ia b lo HyType H i In te r d a ta aakes a c o m p etitiv e u n i t , th e C aroussl p r i n t e r , w ith a l i t t l e p r i n t c upi and to aake thln ga t o t a l l y c o n fu se d , t h e r e 's a s p e c ia l nodel Diablo c a lle d th e 800, which c a n 't be connected to c o ap u te rs b u t i s s o ld for o f f i c e u a aa a ‘word p r o c e s s o r ." A nuabsr o f eonpanies Bake te rm in a l* In the $5000 hallm ark • b r a c in g one o r th e o th e r o f tlt ts e p r i n t e r s . Gen-Coa S y stea s aakee ona around th e D labloi Afrierson-Jacobson aakee one around th e QUME. Hero* aakes i t s own c o ap u te r te r a i n a l , th e 3010, around th a D iablo I — w hich, i t should be n o t« i, can be ren te d fo r a s l i t t l e a s th re e a e n th s , a t $190/aonth. The one everybody w ants fo r t h e i r c tn p u ta rs I s c a l M th e Xertta 800, b u t eo f a r t h a t i s not a v a il a b le a s a c t ^ u t e r t a n i n a l . i t goea f a s t e r t t a n th e e th e r D iablos and e f f s r s ty p e fa c e s th a t lo o k b e a u tifu l fo r ty p e s e ttin g ) au d \ n i c e r , i t s m s , than th s types e u r r s n tly a v a il a b le fo r th s o th e r D iab los. For tle a a in te r e s t e d in ju e t hooking up th e p r i n t e r a ec hanla n. fo r s u b s ta n tia lly l e s s ■ » y th a n a whole te r a i n a l , in te r f a c e s f o r hooking t l a D iablo o r QUHE p r in te r * to PDP-B o r PDP-11 a r e a v a il a b le f rc a Data S y a t a s D ssig n. I n c ., 1122 U n iv e rsity Avenue, Berkeley CA 94702. SUGGESTIONS TO XBR0X C0RCERNI8G DIABLO PRINTERS. He e>viTQt. . S « ll tt* 800 a s a te rm in a l, f o r goo&isae ta k e. 2. F a ilin g th a t, ”a ke th o se p r e tty ty p e fa c e s a v a ila b l* f o r the o th e rs. 3. Already you o f f e r b la c k and re d ribbona; a blu e and ysll& J ribbon wauId p e rm it p r in l lr y PJCTUIES IX FULL COLOR, a developm ent o f g re a t i n te r e s t tc th s n a n / co n p u ter graphics fre a k s . t , g guever, th a t uould r e q u ire s&neuhat fin e r p o s itio n in g o f the p la te n ; sa y , 1/120 in both d ir e c tio n s . S. . . . f a i l i n g wh ie h , you co u ld p u t o u t a "gt\tp h ta d a isy v i t h in te rm ed ia te d o t p o s itio n s a a u ia a le n t to d o t p o s itio n * b e tu ee n those n a i aoaiiabTe. S. Could tfm D iablo «o*ehtni be mad* to sound le s s l i k e a d e n t i s t '» i r i l l l ?. Bov a b out a porta b le?

a 1 6 - b it a n p u t e r l i k e rone you ever taw. 8 working r e g i s t e r s , in a d d itio n to PC. 32 sc ra tc h p ad r e g ia te r a (70 naieaeco nd ). 2SO-nano second 1/ 0 . 4K o f a a in OMDry, 250 nanosecond. (Expand­ a b le , o f c eu ree .) IK OP M ICROPROGRAM H»0RY, 40 NANOSECOND, DYNAMICALLY ALTERABLE. (Expandable to 4K.) Likewise 16 b i t s .

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se tu p s were fo r ilo p p y a n alog typ es of th in g , b i t h e re tom m hsve THE CHESS MACHINE, unter e tra lg h tf a c e d c o n s tr u c tio n e t th e h it Al u b , which w ill prov ide HARDWIRED THREAT ANALYSIS. Yee, I t s advanced p e rc e p tro n a rc h ite c tu r e w ill siiroossdly be cspable o f a n aly sin g th r e a ta to any given p o s it io n in a GRAND PARALLEL PLASH. The la p ac t o f th le a s to n is h in g d e v e lo ^ a n t on th e world e f E le c tr o n ic C ta e s , or anything a ls s , p r e d ic t. V

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C a se ette ndsw ry, 1 d riv e . A lphafcatical d ia p la y , standard vid e o , with B xl6-dot c h a ra c te r g e n e ra to r, 64 ch ar­ a c t e r , DYNAM ICALLY ALTERABLE. Also expandable. V ectoring g ra p h ic d isp la y w ith 2D r o ta tio n (’ t u r t l e g e o u tr y '* * lin e s a re s p e c i­ f ie d n ot by endpoints h i t by a n g les and le n g th ) . 512x512 re s o lu tio n , 1 B i llio n a n d p o in ts/a e c r e f re s h .

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I t w ill have a keyboard and v id e o a o n ito r , pl<q s t r a i g h t I n to th e A l t a i r , and r e f r e s h f r « A lta ir a ^ n r y a o d u le s - - which a ay d ou ble aa reg ­ u la r i t y , I f you d o n 't Bind garbage on tha sc rse n . I t w i l l hava 24 lln a a o f u p p e r-e a e e charecta r a . SxB d o te to the c h a r a c te r , 80 c h a r a c ta r a to th a lin a on a b u i l t - i n u n i t o r . In a d d itio n i t w ill o f f e r grap hiea f r a b i t a ap a (ae e p . z ) , e ith e r 120x120 o r 240x240. (Tha r a a o lu tlo n w ill be iw itc h - a a le c ta b le , i f you hava enough b u ffe r ■ o o r y j a acraen o f t e x t ta k a a 2K, eo doea a 120x120 p ic tu r e , and 240x240 ta k aa a whola 4K.J Su ffer aM ory w ill a la o be d iv ld a b le I n to eepar a ta 'p ages* o f te x t o r g rap h ic * ; and two pages w ill be su p sria p o a sb ls, I n te r la c i n g a l t e r n a t e video f ie l d a (aee pp. 0H 6-7). Note t h a t r e f re a h a en t l a f r a ran d o a -a cc ess, r a th e r th a n a e r i a l , ■ w r y , so th a t a u l t i p l e f i e l d a e ann ot be o v e rla id .

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I aaked Dan H i l l i s , a mstiln* e f th e grot?), about th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f I n s ta llin g th a 2500 in a van. 'T h in k o f i t a s a r e c re a tio n a l v e h ic le w ith the van o p tio n a l,* ha s a id .

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While none haa b een announced aa y e t , a nualc sy n th s s lre r th a t plugs in to th a A l t a i r w ill a l s i t c e r ta i n ly be a v a ila b le in 1976. (Note th a t th ia could p ro v id e an e n t i r e l y new fora o f in te r a c tiv e t e r a i n a l I f u aed w ith th a H achsprsss e q u l^ a n ti aae n e a r b y .)

OEC'a own floppy d la k , fo r th e 6 and 11, f in a l ly c a n o u t. P r ic e f o r l l s $3000 f o r ona d r iv e , $4000 fo r double. LD ictapa, d ilc h l a v i r t u a l l y th e sa a e as OBCtape b u t un patanted , haa j u s t e v e o u t a t $2000 fo r one d r iv e , In clu d in g c o n t r o l l e r and in te r f a c e t o 11 o r Nova ( I n t e r r u p t - d r iv e n ) . Note th a t th e u n it i a c o n ta c t a id rug ged, and aay be B>r« s u it a b le than d la k o r c a s s e t t e f o r th e se e f u s concerned about p o r ta b l e r i g e and vaneou ntin g. C a p u te r O p eratio n s, I n c . , 10774 Tucker S t . , B e i u v l l l e M 2070S. (The bad newei D softw are c o sta $300 f o r th e d r i v e r , p lu s S7S0 to dec i f you want o p e ra tin g f y i t v RT-11.) o r le s , I n c ., c le v e r l y s e l l s K>ry banks fo r th e 11 which can a tta c h to t o two r u - l L i i t o n e e - - th u s c o n n e c tin g th e two aac h in es w ith ou t uaing DEC'S e x p en siv e Unibus c o up ler. Aleo fo r l l s i P o r a a tio n , I n c . , s e l l s a c u rio us p r e g r a a a e r 's c onsole t h a t t r a p s and d ls playa th e l a a t a lx te e n Unibus a ld r e iM * r e f e r ­ enced; and Fabrl-Tek o f f e r s a c ach e a M o ry fo r th e PDP-11/45.

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A a l a a r p r i n t e r , th e eodal 3600, which p r in ta a t 13,360 l i n e s p e r a ln u te . 1-ike a o a t o f t h e i r p r in tin g a a c h in e s . I t ' s good. I t i s b a s ic a lly aa e l e c t r o s t a t i c dr>» c o p ie r , lik e the o r ig in a l Xerox 914. en which th a p a te n ta have run o u t. (Even T oshibafax new a ak e s o n e .) Anytay, t h i s spec ta c u la r b e a s t w r i te s with a scanning la s e r on th e e l e c t r o s t a t i c d r o . But I K has c le v e rly found th e way around t h s p r o b l a e f s p o ila g e o f th e d n a su r fa c e i in s t e a d o f Juat a p o lis h e d a e ta l su r fa c e , i t ' a a renew able s u r ­ f a c e , which ia I t s e l f changed a u t ^ a t l c a l l y when r a q u lr a l fo r new la ag a s. Moreover, you can hava up to 18 ty p e r e n ts , d s fin a d In 16a24 d o t a a t r i c e s . (THESE ARE H R C A PLCPFT DISK, AND UP TO POUR KAY BE CUMBHT M AT AM OSE TIKE.) P onts a re u a e r -d e s ig n a b ls . Y A f la e h - p ro je c to r can p u t b u s in e s s f e r a s on th e d r w . Now f o r th e bed newsi baaa p r ic e i a $310,000, plu a e xten slT e e x tra c h a rg e s. A lso i t d o e s n 't aake c a r to n e ep lsa , and need* a new t e i o f paper s p li c e d on th e e id e v ery 20 a im ite a . (Canon, o f Ja pan, ha s o u t a v r e a o d e st la s e r p r in te r th a t goes a t only 4000 l i n e s per a io u te . And i t a ls o p l o t s . Burroughs i s sa id to be tr y in g to g e t th a b i^ s o u t e f a a i a l l a r d i v i a .)

M n H i l l l s and Aadia P e rlaa n , o f th e L0GD g ro up a t MIT, e r e working on a s p e c ia l * p r s l l t s r a ta * t e r a i n a l to allow n on -readare ( p o ssib ly in ­ c lu d in g c h ia p s and g e r il la s ) to p r o g ra a in LOB, e s p e c ia l ly on th e G ei»ral T u r tle 2500 (see 'Min­ s k y 's c o ^ u t e r , ' nearb y ). P l a s t ic a e d l t cards w i l l lu v e syahol* fo r th e v a rio u s p ic tu r e and ■ u s l e - b e x fu n c tio n s. To w rite a p r o g ra a , or e c e a te a B v l e on th e scope, th a ua er w i l l lA se rt fu n c tio n eard s in s l o t s . Color ceding w i l l bs u sed f o r prog raa tr a n s f e r i a red s a rd Beans t o th e red su h r m tin e .* Sines t h i s i s MIT, the f u l l re c u rsiv e p a a r o f th e s y s t a t w i l l e f eourse be a v a ila b le - (My hope i s th a t c h i^ a n s e a a and o th e r l i t t l e e lo tn ik s can be ta u g h t re c u re lv s p r o g r a d e f in i tio n . T ten w ill th e p u b lic wake 19 to c x ^ u t e r s being easy?)

Wiat Bakes p o u l b l e the co ep uter co u n ter­ c u ltu r e and e v ery th in g e ls e i e , o f e o u rse , th e sp e c ta c u la r d e v e l o ^ e n t o f e le c tr o n ic ch ip te c h ­ nology, th e te ch n iq u es e f shrinking g r e a t e lec ­ tr o n ic c i r c u i t s to a l » t no s ia s . E le ctro n ic r ig s th a t were sho ebo a-eize te n y e ars ago a re ty p ic a lly now e tch e d on ch ips th s s ic e of your t h t n t e a i l and s o ld fo r s few d o lla r s , no B a tte r what they c o n ta in . A few y e a r s ag o, th e chlpa only co ntain ed b u ild in g b lo c k s, such as r e g is te r s — u n its fo r h olding i n t o n a t i o n t a ^ o r a r l l y . But now in th s a ld -s e v e n tie e they havs co a l to co n tain whole c tv p u te re , o r la rg e s e c tio n s o f th w . (The d i s t i n c t i o n betw een aiero p ro ca eso ra and c oapu tera i a ta k en up en p. 44.) The f i r s t b lg g ls s wars f m I n t e l : th e 8006 snd then th e 8080, a ch ip th a t haa b a c a e the h e a r t s f th a A l t a i r (eea p. X), aa w ell ae r i v a l c c a p u te rs. Hew e ce p u ter c h ip s kssp cealng o u t j p « ip le keep te l l i n g a e to a en tio n s p e c if ic o nes, b u t I c a n 't keep tr a e k o f th e a . Tha Motorola 6800 * • « * pop ular 1 I t w i l l eoon be the h e a r t o f new computers f r a HITS and SPHERE (aee p.W end Y) . (An a u g a a te d and f a a te r copy o f the 6800 la r e ­ p u te d ly being s o ld by H05 Technology fo r $20.) Another I n te r e s tin g e o ^ u t e r ch ip i s th e PACE a ic r o p ro c e sso r f r o N ational S a ic o n d u c to r, w ith fo u r working r e g i s t e r s snd a te n -ie r d sta ck ; w ith 16K a o D r y i t c o s ts $500. (The PACE is h ld dsn in sn a u t m a t i c d rin k a ljia r and booxa In vsn tory c o n t r o l l e r f r a e le c tr o U n its Corp., San Jo se , C a l i f . Adjuata p r ic e s to hours and can svsn w ater th e d rin k s p r s c l s s ly . C laiaed to aake a b a n t e e ownerehip o f h a rs p r a c tic a l.) Becauea o f c h ip s , th e p r ic e e f cca p u ter a s in w r y i s c o lla p s in g apace. S c a th in g l i k e a d o lla r a word in th e a lx tle a , i t i s so aeth in g lik e lik e a din e a word now. t i t I n t e l new o f f e r a a s to ra g e chip h old in g 16X b i t s fo r $55, which is 3« s b i t , and a f rie n d e f a ina e s t i a s t a s th a t aMDry c hip* w i l l c o s t 1/10 e f a c a n t pe r word in 1976. These c o s t e o lla p s s s causa aany to p r e d ic t th e «id of d is k and ta p e . But t h a t ’s p r w a tu r s . W ills th e w s a p p ie r chip s hold a l o t fo r a l i t t l e , t h e i r c o n te n ts d la ap p a ar when th e lig h t a go o u t. U n til la ser-p u n ch e d ta p e ceaes s lo n g , d isk snd a a g n e tie ta p e w i l l be vary auch w ith us a s longt e n a id nackup s to r s g s de vicss. M cauaa o f th e a e tic n in chip te chnology, a p o te n tia l) la p o r t a n t aav^ e n t In e a p u t e r desig n aey hava been p a ssed o v e n th e * a ac ro v d u le s* dev e lo p ^ a t Washington U n iv e rsity lo S t . lo u ts by a s s C lark ( f a th e r o f th e o r ig in a l DEC a o d u le s ) , and a s s o c ia te s . Ths b s s lc id e a o f the a ac R M d u le approach waa to have e n p u t e r su b se ctio n s th a t ware p le te ly in ta r p lu g g a b le . w ith t h « you ean b u ild any c ^ q u t a r , to your own daaig n, in a couple o f d a y s. The s y s t a e x i s t s now snd i t w r k s j u s t f in e i c o u n te rs, r e g i s t e r s , a « e r i s t can be a t ­ tach ed q u ic k ly by c a b le . U n fo rtu n a te ly , th e c o s t i s high and they haven’t fo u n l a a a n u f a c tu r e r . w ith ch ip p r ic e s f s l l i n g , and e h ip know-how w idespread, i t ’a hard to j u s t i f y c h arg in g te n o r so t l a s s a s auch fo r o p p o n e n ts j u a t because they can be plugged to­ g e th e r f e s t a l . ( J u a t a s u n f o rtu n a te ly , every­ t h i n ; in the a a c r v e d u l e « y s t « i s b u i l t en sec­ tio n s e f tw elve b i t s . ) For t h i s reason th e S t. U>uls f o lk a r e having tr o u b le g e ttin g c < B e r c le l spon sorship . Itowaver, perhsp s boh b r ig h t hun­ g ry eh ip c t*p any , rea d ing t h i s , w u ld lik e to g e t In to th e M c r a e d u l e geae. An) p re e w a b ly w h ittl e th s Module down to

Over a very niae luneh a t R oditys in Chicago, P rof. Minsky and I d is ­ cussed p o ssib le s ty lin g f o r h is &*vputer. He p a r tic u la r ly lik e d the a rro n g n g n t suggested in th is sketch: a fo ld down keyboard and the d isp la y s s o r t o f on poles so they could be seen e a s ily through a croud o f ty eto n d ers. The fon­ d le uould only uork, o f course, v i t h the ecopee rtnoved. V e 'll see Li m t uhat i t f i n a l l y looks lik e .

U n ea tia fied w ith th e e tru c tu r e o f no re a l c w p u te r* . they s r e b u ild i n g s t HIT'a Al Lab a c ta p u ta r whoas n a tiv e language le LISP- I t w ill have 32 b i t s w ith v i r t u a l a a o r f , and axscute LISP lik e a b a t o u t o f h a l l . In a re fre a h ln g r e v e r s a l e f tren d s . I t w ill be fo r one ueer a t a t i a e . *T iae-aharlng la an idea w tess t l a s has g on e,* chuckles ons p a r t i ­ c ip a n t. (P ro je c t MAC. where tla e -e h a r ln g grew

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Seyaour Cray, Beater cca p u ter b u ild e r , c re a ­ te d th a 6600 e y s t v f o r C o n tro l D sts. Indeed, he had th a au d ac ity to re« iuire CDC to b u ild the ccap u te r fac to ry on th e p r o p e r ty a djo inin g hi* own s s t a t s In Chippews P a l l s , M innesota. M th a t ow h s ’s broken o f f to e t a r t h ie own ecapany (with aoney f n * CDC, a a n g o t h e r s ) , th e new cosgmter f a c to ry ad jo ln a h ia e e t e t e en the o th e r s id e . The Cray-1, an other su p e rc o sp u te r, is neerln } c ts p le tie n th e re .

P a te n t 13,875,932 haa m been lasu ed for How Machapress' e le c tr o n ic eez aachine o r what­ ever i t ia (you saw i t f i r s t on p . m i ) . In tha i l l u s t r a t i o n we see i t t i c k l i n g a a lK rt. A fter you eend Mecheprsss h is f ifty -b u c k ro y a lty , you can e ith e r buy th e k i t o r a pre­ b u i l t a o d al. Coneava o r convex, a s th a poet sa y s. (Etchinga a re a n te d ilu v ia n and w atarteds a re c tn o n p la c e j as an in v i t a t i o n , what so re ln c la lv a cseu p p e n ce c ou ld be p roffere d?)

Speaking e f M achspress, i t l e a s th a t the unusual 1/0 e q u lp n n t o f f e r e d by th e Federal Screw itorks (Trey, M ich.) i s only s voice outp ut S u r p risin g ly , a v o ic e in p u t deviee i s now c ^ B o r c la l ly a v a ila b le tr im Threshold Technology, I n c ., Cinnaaineen. MJ. r o r $10,500 you g e t a dev iee th a t w ill re c o g n ise 32 spoken w r d s , and ■lc ro p h e n aa . (Each u se r h a s to t r a i n i t on h ia 32 lo r d s , b u t s s p s r a te v o c a b u la rie s asy be s to r s d on th e ^ n t e i f o r d i f f s r s n t u se rs or purposes. T his i s s t i l l a t «ny f ro a the fab le d 't a l k i n g c s p u t e r * — se a pp. D 13-14 f e r M p r c b la is a id o b je c t io n s - - b u t i t ’s undeniably a u se fu l ste p .)

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M i l l i o n s o f p e o p le saw c o n p u te r g r a p h i c s f o r t h e f i r s t tim e on t h e PBS ‘A c c e n t o f Man" s e r i e s , where a s c r e e n draw in g o f E a r l y Ma n's s k u l l was se e n t o r o t a t e and g r a d u a l l y change i n i t s f e a ­ t u r e s . T h is waa s t a r t l i n g even i f you know a b o u t com pute r g r a p h i c s , s in c e it s e o ae d to b e p r o c e e d ­ ing frcsn complex d a t a c o n c e r n in g th e e n t i r e s k u l l s and t h e i r changes. Not so . A c t u a ll y what you saw was a s e r i e s o f s k u l l draw in gs by P a t e r F o l d e s , a P a r i s i a n a r t i s t , w ith th e c o a p u te r g e n e r a t i n g t r a n s i t i o n a l draw in g s betw een t h a n . ( In d e e d , though you saw P r o f . Bronowskl n e x t t o th e s c r e e n , you d i d n o t s e e him n e x t to th e s c r e e n a t t h e same tim e th e draw in g s were c hangin g— b e c a u s e t h a t ha d t o be f ilm e d v e r y s lo w ly .) The s y s ta o was c r e a t e d b y N e s t o r B urtn yk and M a r c e l l l H ein, o f th e N a t io n a l Re se arch C ounc il o f Canada. I t currently r u n s only On a n SEL 840A. ( I t was a l s o used by t h e N a t i o n a l F ilm Boa rd o f Canada f o r c r e a t i n g F o l d e s ' s p l e n d i d f i l m "Hun­ g e r . ” ) They can p r e v ie w b y r o l l i n g t h r o u g h b i t ­ map v id e o on a mov in g-head d i s k . (See Burtnyk and Mein, " Ceoputa r G e n e ra te d Key-Frame Anima­ t i o n , " J . SKPTE, March 71 , 1 4 9 - S 3 .)

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MORE THANKS I n h a n g in g t o g e t h e r t h i s volume o r i g i n a l l y , 1 f i t t e d th a n k in g Heeh W iener, b r a z e n t b r a s h young o l d - f a s h i o n e d new e d i t o r o f Coa pute r D e c is io n s , who h a s ch an ged t h a t p u b l i c a ­ t i o n f r o a s t o l i d to peppery. Than ks a l s o to a y good f r i e n d R o b e r t W. F i d d l e r , E s q . , p a t e n t a t t o r n e y and s t i l l a n e x -p h ilo so p h y p ro fe sso r a t h e a r t , f o r many d e l i g h t f u l and w i t t y c o n v e r s a t i o n s on p r o b lo a s o f p a t e n t , c o p y rig h t and th e v a g a r i e s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l pr op­ e r t y . Any h a re b ra in e d id e a s o n th e s e t o p i c s e x p re ese d h e r e , how ever, a r e alm ost a s s u r e d ly F o r much o f t h e inform a­ t i o n i n t h i s supplement I am g r a t e f u l to Bob A lb r e c h t o f PCC i m e n tio n e d h e re and th e r e F i n a l l y , s p e c ia l th a n ks to Comaander Hugo McCauley, b e t t e r known t o you a s H ugo's Book S e r v i c e , f o r h i s yeaaan p e rf o rm a n c e In sh ip p i n g o u t t h e b o o k s - - n o t to men tion c a r ­ r y in g them up and down s t a i r s , t y p in g t h e m a ilin g l a b e l s , c h e c k in g f o r bad o n e s, and s e n d in g o u t a l l th ose n o te s o f ap o lo g y when we were O ut o f books a g a i n and a g a in and a g a in . And t o l o n g - s u f f e r i n g t o l a amj Megan McCauley, my e s p e c i a l g ra titu d e . WHATEVER T he s e a - t o - s h i n l n g - s e a N elson Empire now c o n s i s t s o f a l o t o f u n s o ld books, a IK Al­ t a i r a n d a second p a i r o f sh o e s. My scheme f o r ta k in g o n Appren­ t i c e G e n e r a l i s t s may have to w a i t a w h i l e . So may C f p u t e r I l h , t h e f i l m . But j u s t w a i t. S p e a k in g o f w hic h, what a b o u t t h i s book, h e y , now? E v e n t u a l l y th e r e w i l l be a new e d i t i o n . Yes, t h e ty p e l e h o r r e n d o u s l y s m a ll, and t h a t w i l l h a v e t o be f i x e d . But t h a t i n v o l v e s new n e g a ti v e s f o r e v e r y p a g e , an e x p e n d it u re o f th o u s a n d s o f d o l l a r s , and some r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of how t h i s s h o u ld a l l be s e t up. T h e r e have been se v er al i n t e r e s t i n g p l a n s . One was to s p l i t t h a c o n te n t * o f t h i s book i n t o t h r e e b o oks, add m a t e r i a l , e n l a r g e t h e ty p e and have them eac h t h i s s i z e and p r i c e . Ten­ t a t i v e t i t l e s were Computer Lib /D ream M a ch in e s, Computers A r i s e !/ C o a p u t e r s A r o u s e , and G u e r r i l l a C o a p u tln q / E l e c tr e n lc M onke yshine s. Sample c o v er, f o r G u e r r i l l a Computing: King Kong c lim b in g th e f r o n t p a n el o f a 37 0 h o ld in g P a tty H e a rs t. ( I a l s o daydreamed a t o u t p u t­ t i n g o u t a 10- v o l i s e en cy c lo ­ p e d ia i n th e same f o rm a t, em­ b r a c i n g p s y c h o lo g y /s o c io lo g y , b i o l o g y / e v o l u t i o n a r y s tr a t e g y , h i s t o r y (as s tr a te g y ) /m o r e h i s ­ t o r y ( a s mood and f e e l i n g ) , r e v o l u t i o n v e rsu s c o n t i n u i t y (a tw o - s id e d p o s i t i o n p a p e r ) . . . th e G o -M a n ia c a l E n cy c lo p e d ia™ . But r e a s o n h a s p r e v a i l e d , and suc h f o r a y s have been po stponed In d e fin ite ly . The p r e s e n t p la n i s f o r C o a p u te r L ib t o be r e w r i t t e n a nd r e s e t in b ig g e r t y p e , a t l e a s t 256 p a g e s , w ith a t l e a s t 8 c o l o r p a g es and c o lo r covtz. (W e're t a l k i n g about f a l l '7 6 o r l a t e r . ) P r i c e w i l l have t o be $15. I f you t h in k t h a t ' s a r l f S f f you c an * t l l l g e t t h i s o n e . (A nua ber o f p e o p le have c t n p l a i n e d to ae about t h e $7 p r i c e ta g o f t h i s volume. Have th ey e v e r b ought o th e r book s? ) La t e r I would l i k e t o p u t Out an a n th o lo g y of By f a v o r i t e a r ­ t i c l e s in th e f i e l d , u s in g th e Computers A rise V C e g u t e r s Arouse I t i t l e and fo rm at, and w ith so a e good 3D I f p o s s i b l e , i n an y c a s e , I want t o s t a y i n th e p u b l i s h i n g gamei I h a v e n 't had so much fun in y e a r s . O th­ e r p r o j e c t e d volumes in c lu d e The I n n e r Beyond, b y S h e ila McKenziei D i r t y D riv in g an d th e S t r a t e g y o f T r a f f i c b y " D riv e r E dr" and The Nelson Co a p u te r G l o s s a r y . Soon I hope to b e a b l e t o t y p e s e t f r o a my own c o ^ u t e r , and p o s s i b l y to sh a re tM s f a c i l i t y T h is has been a most i n ­ t e r e s t i n g y e a r . I have been p l e a s e d to m eet, and o th e rw is e e n jo y , t h e v a r i e t y o f c l e v e r , charmin g a n d / o r lu h r ic o u a p e r ­ s o n s wto have soug h t me o u t s i n c e t h e book f i r s t a p p ea re d ; a s w e ll a s a l l th e sp eakin g en~ g a g m e n t s , s o i r e e s and whatnot. I am d e l i g h t e d to r e c e iv e r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l and communi­ c a t i o n s o f any k in d , a lt h o u g h proble m s o f tim e , d is o r g a n i z a ­ t i o n and B e d o f t e n p r e c lu d e a P e r s o n a l Type Re ply. I t ha s been a r e a l l i f t f o r my m o r a le to sh a re a t o f th e s e I d e a s and enth u sia sm s w ith a w id e r p u b l i c a t l a s t . I t i * y o u , f i n a l l y , who have t o c a r e ; and I am v e r y g la d you do. Aa t o th * e o s t im p o rta n t m a t t e r s , t h e r e i s a news b l a c k ­ o u t f o r th a i n d e f i n i t e f u t u r e . P l e a s e ■ Land by. Next y e a r in Xanadu.

The main de v elo ]K en t in c a i u t e r g r a p h i c s i n th e l a s t y e a r ha s been the sudden u p s u r g e o f th e b it- m a p a ppro ach to c « p u t e r d l e p l a v . While th e a p p ro a ch , and e q u lf n e n t f o r i t - - l i k e t h e Data D isk s y s t m — have be an a round f o r some tim e , th e f a l l i n g p r i c e o f e l e c t r o n i c s , e s p e c i a l l y in t h e maaory a r e a , have made i t a b r u p t l y th e c h e a p e s t and th u s th e most popula r t y p e o f c o a p u te r d i s ­ p la y f o r g rap h ic s. A " b i t map" i s a s e r i e s o f d o t p o s i t i o n s , o r b i t s , r e c o rd e d i n soae form o f f a s t mes»ry and r e a d Out i n sync to a c o n v e n ti o n a l scanned v id e o s y s t n ( se e pp. 0 H 6 -7 ) . Th* one b i t s s ta n d f o r d o ts o r l i t t l s s q u a r e s , th e z e r o e s f o r n o th in g , and th e vid e o s y s t a a b r i g h t e n s th e c o r r e s p o n d i n g z ones on th e s c r e e n . T h i s method h a s c e r t a i n d is a d v a n t a g e s — p a r t s o f p i c t u r e s c a n n o t be a u t o a a t i c a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d o r sepa­ r a t e l y a nim a ted, a s w ith s u b r o u tin ln g d i s p l a y (see "Tha M in d's E y e ," e s p . p . 0 K 2 3 )-- b u t f o r t h e money i t ' s g r e a t - S i z e s g iv e n r e f e r t o th e number o f s q u a re s i n th e r e c t a n g l e o f t h e p i c t u r e . BLACK-AND-WHITE

The h a l f t o n e s y s te m o f KUMRRO, rumored on p . DM36, i s r e a l , c l e v e r in d e ed ! i t d i v i d e s t h e h a l f - t o n e p roble m i n t o two p a r t s , one t h e o r i g ­ in a l p ic tu rin g o f th e sc en e, th e o th e r i t * p res­ e n t a t i o n I n t h e t e r m i n a l . T hat means t h a t t h e i r s y s t a a p e r m i ts o n e c e n t r a l image g e n e r a to r to se nd o u t p i c t u r e s t o a s many t e r m i n a l s a t de­ s i r e d . U n lik e th e W atk ins Box (see p . DM37), whose h a l f - m l l l i o n - d o l l a r op u le n ce c an be poured o n l y on a s i n g l e u s e r a t o n c e , in t h l e s y s te a th e c e n t r a l r e s o u r c e c an b e d i s t r i b u t e d among v a r i o u s u s e r s , w ith each o n e ' s p i c t u r e changed i n t e r m i t t e n t l y , o r p o u r e d o n a s i n g l e u se r f o r f u l l a n im a tio n . C u r r e n t l y i t runs in F o r t r a n , t r a n s m i t t i n g encode d p i c t u r e s t o t h e unusua l t e r ­ m in a ls r e q u ir e d ( b u i l t a ro u n d T r i n i t r o n s ) . But a S p e c ial c e n tr a l p r o c e s s o r l e fo reseen . The ays ta n i s c a l l e d CHARGE, and Ron Swallow, i t s d e v e lo p e r, i s in d e ed a h a rd c h a r g e r . ( S o f t­ ware: B i l l U n d e r h i l l and Roger Gunw ald se n.) S w a llo w 's game I s n ’t m o v ie s o r e n g in e e ri n g g r a ­ p h i c s ; h e w an ts CHARGE to compete h e a d - to - h e a d w ith PLATO (see p p . DM26-7). And a t t h e p r i c e s h e ' s t a l k i n g a b o u t - - $SOQO p e r te r m i n a l and $150,0 00 f o r t h e c e n t r a l p r o c e s s o r - - who knows?

What a b o u t th e a n im a ted f i g u r e t h a t t a l k s to J o e G a r l a g l o l a b e f o r e b a e e h a l l games? Ha ha ■ T h a t 's a rubber p u p p e t m a tte d i n f re s i a b l a c k toX) t h e guy who does th e v o ic e w orks th e mouth.

Many u n lik e ly in d iv id u a te h a ve sto rm e d th a t h e a rtb re a k toon o f H o llyw o o d , le a v in g e a d d e r b u t u ia e r — b u t Iva n S u th e r la n d , d e a n o f e o n p u ts r g ra p h ic s? W ell, h a v in g fo u n d th a t th e n w i e m akere a re n o t rea d y f o r im age s y n th e s is — th e dreamanrithB u n p re p a red , a e i t u e r e , f o r th e T o ta l F orge— he ia s o jo u rn in g a t th e Hand C o rp o ra tio n .

An o f f - t h e - s h e l f b it- m a p s y s t a a f o r the PDP-11 o r th e Nova I s a v a i l a b l e from I n te r m e d ia S y s t o a s , 20430 Town C e nte r L an e , C u p e r tin o CA 95014 (52750 or $2500 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . May be ganged f o r g r e y - e c a l e o r c o l o r . I t ' s 2S6*2S6. Fo r t h e A l t a i r , th e f o r t h c o a i n g 80 96 d i s p l a y ( see p . Y) w i l l have 120*120 o r 240x240 b it- m a p g r a p h i c s , f o r p r i c e s s t a r t i n g a ro und $1 000. COLOR E x tr a b i t maps, p l u s e l e c t r o n i c s , c a n g e t you c o l o r ) I f you double th e number o f b i t * you can double th e nuaber o f a v a i l a b l e r o t o r s on your d i s ­ p l a y , ad i n f i n i t e . On th e sm a ll s i d e , 64x64 c o l o r w l l s h o r t l y be a v a i l a b l e f o r th e A l t a i r f r c a t h e D i g i t a l Group, D enver. A 128x120 e o lo r b it- m a p s y s t a a f o r t h e 11 h a s j u s t been announced by DEC ( f o r " n u c l e a r medi­ c in e " O f a l l t h i n g s — b u t th e y w i l l p a r t w ith i t t o anybody f o r 8 o r 10 th ousa nd ( n o t y e t f i x e d ) ) , 'i hey s t r e s s t h a t t h i s w i l l b e th e f i r s t o f a modu­ l a r s e r i e s o f b it- m a p d i s p l a y s , w ith p l u g i n s f o r d i f f e r e n t d e g re e s o f r e s o l u t i o n and d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r g e n e r a to r s . Ramtek and C oa ta l b o th make 256x256 h it-m a p s y s te m s , p r ic e d i n th e $ 16 ,0 0 0 a r e a . Above t h i s r s s o l u t i o n s p e c i a l TV s y s t o s te nd to b e n e c e s s a r y . Both Ramtek and Comtal make ve ry e x p e n a iv e s y s to a s f o r th e p u r p o s e , u s i n g s o l i d - s t a t e and d i s k r e s p e c t i v e l y . You may o r may n o t have h e ard o f th e Advent TV p r o j e c t o r , t h e most g l o r i o u s TV t h i n g t h e r e i a . I t c o s t s $3500 and p r o j e c t s a f o u r - f o o t p i c t u r e i n t h e b e s t TV c o l o r you c a n f i n d . A l o t o f gu ys a r e b it- m a p p in g t o i t . A t MIT th e y 'v e g o t b it- m a p c o l o r on tho Ad­ v e n t a t b e t t e r t h a n 400*500 r e s o l u t i o n . (An o p tio n p la n n ed f o r th e F l y in g T u r t l e ( se e p . Y) w i l l a l ­ low i t s c o re nOTory t o be use d w ith t h e Adv en t a s a b it- m a p d i s p l a y r e f r e s h e r . ) A t C e o t a l t h e y 'r e g o in g f o r 1000*1000 on th e A dvent, r e j i g g e r i n g t h e e l e c t r o n i c s frcxa s c r a t c h . The most s p e c t a c u l a r d e m o n s tr a t io n o f b it- m a p c o l o r s o f a r ha s no doubt be en th e f i l m done by Dick Shoup e t a l . a t Xerox PARC ( s e e p . X ), show­ ing th e su p e r a nim a tion t h a t ' s p o s s i b l e when b i g compute r r e s o u r c e s are g iv e n ov e r t o b it- m a p a n i ­ m a tio n . T h e i r sy stem i s 600x800.

A f e l l a named C h a r le s McCarthy, o f suburban C hicag o, ta u g h t the " C oa puter Eye* f r o # S p a tia l D at a S y s to n s , and w i l l do m a i l - o r d e r p i c t u r e con­ v e r s i o n s . H e ' l l c o n v e r t yo ur f a v o r i t e sn a p sh o t t o a p r i n t o u t o f th e same s u b j e c t made o f l i g h t a nd da rk l e t t e r s . I f y o u ' r e i n t e r e s t e d i n h aving t h e a c t u a l g r e y - s c a l e d a t a f o r p r o c e s s i n g in your own c o a p u t e r , i n q u i r e . The t £ b i u s Gro up, I n c . , P .O . Box 30 6 , Win­ f i e l d IL 60190.

UHP.F.AL ESTATE: f o r r e la jz '.i o n , Ron uo rka or. th e "dream h o u se ” he kn ep e in ttid e th e e y a te n .

Kant a c o m p u te r - c o n t r o ll e d v i d e o c a s s e t t e r e c o rd e r? The model to a s k f o r i s th e Sony 2850, c o s t i n g (gasp) seme s i x th o u sa n d bu c k s. An i n ­ t e r f a c e t o t h e PDP-11 i s made b y CKX Syste m s, 635 V aqueros, A v e ., S unnyvale CA 94086I n c i d e n t a l l y , sc ale d-dow n CKX e d i t i n g s e tu p s a r e b e g in n in g to g e t a ro u n d . F o r i n s t a n c e , they hava a sm a ll se tu p I n th e p l e a s a n t o f f i c e s o f DJN F ilm & T ape, 4 E a s t 46, NYC: t h r e e o f th e above Sonye and th s D1X Model 50 c o n t r o l s e t u p , u sin g a PDP-11 and key s c o p e . Though p r i c e s a r e by th e j o b , th e b a s i c c h arg e i e $ 7 5 /h o u r . (Nots t h a t t h a b ig o ra se tu p , w ith a d i s k , i s th e model 300.)

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At tho h ig h end o f t h i n g s , a f ir m c a l l e d T hree R i v e r s Coap&ny h a s come i n w i t h a 3D ve c­ t o r i n g s y s t a a (c o m p e tit o rs d i s c u s s e d p . DM30). Supposedly th e y can pa ck a l o t more l i n e s On ths The p r i c e o f t h e GT40 d i s p l a y (see p . DM21), which a l l i n a l l ie one o f t h e b e s t d i s p l a y s on t h e m a r k e t, has j u s t dropped t o $6500. To d i s ­ g u is e t h i s p r i d e d r o p , DEC g i v e s you t h e s m a lle r t u b e and no keyboard. And a t th e low and, a f i r m c a l l e d Hegatek in San D ie go o f f e r s li n e - d r a w i n g COT c o n t r o l l e r s f o r $1000 t o $3000. A l l p e r m i t a n im a tio n . You ha ve t o Supply th e o s c i l l o s c o p e . T h e i r e q u i i n e n t p lu g s i n t o t h e PDP-11 o r th e Nova, o r i n one c a se c o n n e c ts in tandem t o a n ASCII tim e - s h a rin g te rm in al ( ! ] . The 11 and Nova m ode ls w ork d i r e c t l y from BASIC; your program i n B a s ic p u t s l i n e l i s t s in t h a d e v i c e 's b u f f e r m e nory. The tim e - s h a rin g model c o n v e r ts incomin g l i n e l i s t s f r o a ASCII to b i n a r y and s t o r e s them i n t e r n a l l y . 2S6 l i n e s w i t h 8 - b i t r e s o l u t i o n c o s t $19 0 0 , S llcP an d $1600 f o r 1 1 , Nova and t ~ s r e s p e c t i v e l y ; 1024 l i n e s w ith 10- b i t r e s o l u t i o n c o a t S2BO0, $2000 and $2500 r e s p e c t i v e l y . (Nova and 11 m odels c an be c o a p l e t e l y update d i n two r e f r e s h c y c l e s , y i e l ­ d in g a s much an im a tio n a s anyone can d e c e n t l y e x p ec t f o r th e p r i c e . S o f tw a re i s s u p p l i e d to p r o v id e d i s p l a y O u tp u t from Nova, PDP-11 o r tim e ­ s h a ri n g BASIC; a l s o t - * F o r t r a n . ) M eanwhile, f o r th e ha n d s-o n e l s c t r o n i c s guy, O p t i c a l E l e c t r o n i c s , I n c . makes a l l k i n d s o f r o ­ t a t i o n modules. You c a n b u i l d y o u r own 3D r o t a ­ t i o n s e tu p o u t Of t h e i r module s f o r a c o u p le o f th ousa nd) b u t , o f c o u r s e , t h e f a n c y d i g i t a l I/O f o r h ig h - s p e e d r e f r e s h m e n t i s n o t a v a i l a b l e An i n t e r e s t i n g c a p a b i l i t y o f t h e 0E I equip aenl', th o u g h , i s t h a t you c a n b u i l d 4 0 - o r e v e n SPr o t a t l o n a y sto n s o u t o f t h e i r m odule s, w n .

Sin ce th e f o r t i e s , th e r e have been c o n t i n u a l announcements t h a t v id e o d i s k s — movies you p l a y on y o u r TV o f f a r e c o r d — w ere r i g h t a ro und t h e c o r n e r . E a r l i e r t h i s y e a r th e y w ere suppose dly g o in g to be a v a i l a b l e b e f o r e C h r istm a s. Now th e y n i g h t be on s a l e , "on a l i m i t e d b a s i s , " i n 1976. (TV Guid e, 1$ Aug 7 5 , p . 7 . ) Because o f th e g r a v e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f e n g i n e e r i n g - - i n a c c u r a c i e s in pun­ c h in g th e c e n t e r h o le mean th e t r a c k c a n ’t h e l p b e in g o f f c e n t e r , f o r I n s t a n c e — sane o f u s a r e sk e p tic al. Two sy stems ha v e be en c o n f i d e n t l y announced. P h i l i p s , th e f ir m t h a t g ave ua th e a u d io c a s s e t t e , h a s a s y s ta a t h a t w i l l f o llo w th a s p i r a l t r a c k on th e d isk f r a n u n d e rn e a th w i t h a l a s e r . The d i s k t u r n s a t 30 r e v o l u t i o n s p e r s e c o n d , o r one t u r n p e r TV frame, so i t c a n suppo se d ly f r e e z e On one fra me when d e s i r e d . The o t h e r s y s t a a i s from r c a , w hic h h a s a lo n g h i s t o r y o f m e-t oo announcemen ts, b u t a t l e a s t two o f them made i t b i g ( th e 45 re c o rd and t h e c o l o r TV s y s t a a now u se d i n t h e USA), s o RCA sh o u ld n o t b e d is m is s e d o u t o f hand. T h e i r d i s k e y s t m w i l l su p p o se d ly go a t 450 r p s (7 .5 r e v o l­ u t i o n s / second) , b u t t h e y s t i l l mean t o t r a c k i t w ith a n e e d l e . The man fro m TV Guide s a y s h e ' s se en I t and I t w r k l p e r f e c t l y , b u t I 'would p e r ­ s o n a l l y look f o r h id d e n w ir e s . (MCA, an e n t e r t a i n m e n t c o n g lo m e ra te , h a s h i t c h e d up w ith P h i l i p s and p r i n t e d a c a t a l o g o f a l l th e s o v ie s t h e y w i l l s u p p o se d ly make a v a i l a b l e on d is k f o r th e "MCA-Phllips" syste m — Huch a s D e s t ry Rides Again f o r a round te n b u c k s . T h is i s p ro b ab ly j u s t a b l u f f ) w i t h t h o p r i c e o f a u d io r e c o rd s what th e y a r e , no way i s a movie g o in g to c o s t te n bucks- B u t i t makes RCA look weaker, which i s p r o b a b ly th e p u r p o s e .)

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A l l th ose sc o re b o ar d s and w is e c r a c k in g l i g h t g r i d s , now t h a t th e y a r e g j ipu t a r - c o n t r o l l e d , r a i s e a l l k in d s o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r non- fram e a n im a tio n . The b i g ones c o s t in t h e m i l l i o n s ; a s m a ll one f o r shopping c e n t e r s c o s t s a hundred g r a n d (Millenium I n f o Syste m s, S a n ta C l a r a CA). W ithin a y e a r o r so, th ough, you o u g h t t o b e a b le t o g e t a n i c e a n im a ted d i s p l a y - p a n e l of some s o r t f o r th e s id e o f y o u r v a n , a ssum in g y o u 'v e g o t th a c o n p u ter i n s i d e .

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A s u r p r i s e s o a e t h i n g - o r - o t h e r from DEC, th e VT5S, r e p r e s e n t s a b rea k th ro u g h o f some s o r t . But w hat were th e y th in k i n g o f ? " G raphic c a p a b i l i t y " h a s be en added t o an o r d i n a r y up p e r- c a se keysc ope. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the a b i l i t y t o make two g r a p h s , i . e . , two w ig gly l i n e s (no Bxsre) soewwhere between th e l e f t and r i g h t S i d e s o f t h e s c r e e n . You can a l s o shade i n under th em , and add c o o rd in a te g r i d s . I t ’* $2500, and o b v io u s ly g r e a t I f you’r e b o n k e rs f o r 2D grap h s.

The p r o s p e c t s u r p r i s e d th e n , b u t M AGI ( s e e p . DM36) a llo w s aa how th e y m ig h t l e t you make m ovie s on t h e i r o v e r - th e - p h o n e movie-making s e t u p (s k etch e d o n p . DM36). P r i e s t o c a p a b le o u t d e r s , i f th e s o f tw a r e mesh ed, would b e a b o u t $50 an h o u r. (Six h o u r s makes one min ute o f f i l m , n o t c o u n tin g t h e phone b i l l . Cheap i f you know movie e c o i m i c s . ) Me anwhile , Jo hn l^>wry, a t D i g i t a l Video Lab­ o r a t o r i e s i n T o r o n to , h a s be en d e v e lo p in g h i g h q u a l i t y v id e o s u i t a b l e f o r t r a n s f e r to t h e a t r i c a l f ilm . He and t h e y have dev elo p e d a 6 5 5 - lin e c o l o r e y s t « — w i t h heavy d i g i t a l e n h a n c s ttn t (aee " P i c t u r e P r o c e s s i n g ,* p . DM10). I s c a r c e l y b e l i e v e By n o t e s , b u t I saw I t , and wro te down t h a t i t was co m p arab le to 35aaa s t u d i o c o l o r . T he d ay o f " e l e c t r o n i c cam e ra s" — t h a t i s , f i l m q u a l i t y v id e o -- may be upon us soon. AtDUt 197 2, t h e r e wae announced an e l e c t r o n ­ i c a l l y - c o n t r o l l e d c o l o r f i l t e r t h a t c ould chareje t o an y hue i n n a n o s e c o n d s . T hat would t o j u s t ■ h a t we a l l need f o r c o l o r movies f r o a 03Ms— b u t what happened t o i t ?

E x c e l l e n t ma nuals on th e PLATO s y s t a a and TUTOR language a r e now a v a i l a b l e from CERL, Uni­ v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , U rbana. The n e x t g e n e r a ti o n o f PLATO te rm in a l s i s c o o in g down th e l i n e . The m ic r o f i c h e p r o j e c t o r i s w ith e ri n g away, a s was e a s i l y f o r e s e e a b l e ) meantime, s te p s a re b e in g ta k e n toward a s r e h igh-perform anc e t e r m i n a l , b y p u t t i n g a c m p u te r i n I t . T h is i s b e in g done b o th by J a c k S t i f l e , who ha s done i t w ith th s I n t e l c h i p , and Roger Jo h n so n , who has th a p a n e l i n t s r f a c e d to a n 11. (11 f a n s p l e a s e n o t e t h e i m p l i c a t i o n : i t i s pos­ s i b l e t h a t the i n t e r f a c e may ba m a rk e te d .) Meanwhile, PLATO-like te r m i n a l s ( th e model AG-60) a r e a t o u t $5000 (r<m A p p l i c a t i o n s Group, I n c . , P.O . Box 444B, H a w s e , O hio 43S37. Note t h a t th e s e have s ta n d a r d non-PIATO i n t e r f a c e s and s ta n d a r d keyboards, b u t t h e O w e n s - I l lin o is p l a n a p a n e l ( e r ro n e o u s ly c a l l e d C ornin g e l s e ­ where in th e book) b l a z e s in a l l i t s g l o r y .

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IBM, which did not ta k e p a r e i n i t * develo p­ m ent, 1s spon so rin g a $100,000 CHARGE i n s t a l l a t i o n a t t h * U n i v e r s i t y o f W ate rloo, I n Canada.

T h i a b o o k ( b o t h e i d a a ) i a b a s e d l n p a r e on my t a l k s a e o r b e f o r e t h * A m e r ic a n C h e m ic a l S o c i e t y , th a A m e r i c a n D o c u m e n t a t i o n I n s t i t u t e t h a A n a r l e a n Manag emen t A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e A s s o c i a t e d P r e s * , t h e A s s o ­ c i a t i o n f o r C o m puting M a c h i n e r y , t h e C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e A g e n c y , t h l I n a t i t u t e o f E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c s E n g i n e e r * , t h e P r i m i n g a o d Pub I t ah l a g A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e Hand C o r p o r a t i o n , t h * S o c i e t y f o r I n f o r ­ m a t i o n D i s p l a y , t h a S o c i e t y o f M o t i o n P i c t u r e and T e l e v l a l o n E n g l n e e r a , TIME I n c o r p o r a t e d , U nio n T h e o l o g i c a l S e m i n a r y ( t h a A u b u rn l e c t u r e s ) X e r o x P a l o A l t o R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , and v a r i o u s a r t s c h o o l . , c o l l e g e s . ’ u n i v e r s i t i e s aod J o i n t C o a p u t e r C o n f e r e n c e s .

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS E v e r y b o d y a t C h i c a g o C i r c l e Campus has been v e ry s p o r t i n g abour t h i s p r o j e c t . I aa g r a t e f u l n o t o n ly £o t th e e n c o u rag e ­ ment and a s s i s t a n c e o f v a r i o u s i n d i v i d u a l s ( e s p e c i a l l y J o s e p h I . L i p s o n , D a v i d C. M i l l e r and Samuel S c h r a g e ) , b u t f o r th e a t m o s p h e r e o f s u p p o r t w h i c h h a s made t h i s p o ss ib le . My t h a n k s t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A r t a n d t h e O f f i c e o f I n s t r u c t i o n a l Re­ s o u r c e s D e v e l o p m e n t f o r f r e e i n g me fro m l e a c h i n g d u t i e s , t o t h e C o m p u te r C e n t e r and th e D e p a rtm e n t o f C h e m is try f o r l e t ­ t i n g ae u s e p i c t u r e s o f t h e i r e q u ip m e n t, an d e v e r y b o d y f o r t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t . I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e W a lt D i s n e y o r g a n iz a t io n f o r th e iT p e rm issio n to d e ­ p i c t t h e i r w o n d e r f u l c h a r a c t e r s , an d e v e r y o n e e l s e who f u r n i s h e d m a t e r i a l s a n d p e rm issio n s fo r th e th in g s h e re in . T h a n k s a l 9 o t o t h o s e who l o o k e d o v e r some o f t h e m a t e r i a l , e s p e c i a l l y H e r b e r t G r o s c h o f C o m p u t e r w o r l d , Dan McGuTk o f t h e C o m p u t e r I n d u s t r y A s s o c i a t i o n , and W illiam R o d g e rs. 1 am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l t o t h e many who h a v e e x p l a i n e d c o m p u t e r s t o me o v e r t h e y e a r s , e s p e c i a l l y Dave D e n f i i s t o n , R o b e r t F e n i c h e l , A n d re w J . S i n g e r , J o h n R. L e v i n e . My t h a n k s t o T o n B a r n a r d f o r so m e o f th e e a T ly t y p i n g , and f o r th e P o rta -X a n . I am g r a t e f u l t o C o m p u te r D e c i s i o n s m a g a z i n e f o r t h e i r g oo d w i l l , a n d h e l p in r e s e a r c h i n g c o m p u te r im age s y n t h e s i s . My r o o m m a te Tom D e F a n t i , m e n t i o n e d e ls e w h e r e i n t h i s b o o k , h a s been c o n s i d ­ e r a te beyond th e c a l l o f du ty in g iv in g o v e r a l l t h e f i r s t - f l o o r r o om s o f o u r h o u s e to t h i s p r o j e c t f o r s i x m o n t h s . My t h a n k s f i n a l l y t o t h e many o t h e r s w ho se g o o d w i l l h a s k e p t me g o i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r my f o r m e r w i f e an d e t e r n a l fT ien d , D eborah S to n e N elson. S p e c i a l g r e e t i n g s t o my f r i e n d a n d n e i g h b o r , M r s . J o h n R. N e i l l : I h o p e y ou e n jo y th e u s e s w h ich y o u r h u s b a n d 's i l ­ l u s t r a t i o n s o f T i k - T o k t h e M a chin e Man ha v e f o u n d h e r e . L a s tly , f o r h er c o n trib u tio n s to m o rale (an d f o r n o t f o o t p r i n t i n g th e p a s t e u p s ) , l e t ' s ha v e a warn hand f o r Pooky t h e W o nd er Dog. D.W. GRIFFITH-- look th e m ovle -box and cre ste d the photo p la y , no lo n g e r a tw isted stage p r o d u c ti o n . WALT DISNEY— c re ate d a hypnotic pa nth eon of kin d ly and Innocent se m i- a n i m a l s . se nti­ mentally u n iv e rs a l, g e n e r a lly a cc epta ble . JOHN W. CAMPBELL-- aa auth or and th e n editor of A sto u n d in g , tu r n ed A m erican acienceflction from Ihe Buck R o g e rs s p s c e Opera lo th e human s t o r y , b u ilt a r o u n d thought out prem ises and s t r u c t u r e s . IVAN SUTHERLAND-- progra m m e d and syatematlzed a c om pute r se tu p for h e lp in g people think and w ork with d e e p ly - s lr u c l u r e d plclorlal I nformation. (See p .) b ,Z j.) DOUG ENGELBART-- fore saw th e u s e o f computer sc re e n s a s a w ay of e x p a n d in g th e mind, and ove r the la st decade and a h a lf haa brought aboul Ju at th st. r e e d I** A nd m ore, and o n .

Pe rsons of sa gacity have b e e n s a y in g for some time lhat we a re m e ie rie lia U c . In an Important se n se this la not so . The machines, and to y s, a nd Involvementa wa b u y Into , are In but a small prop o rtio n of c a se s owned sim ply aa sc o re s, for th e i r eoet a s consumption symbols. R a th e r, we buy th in g s lha t REPRESENT IDEALS, hopin g o u r se lv e s lo p a rta k e o f some a bstr ac tion or Im age-- th e P layboy ro an , th e Smart B usinessm an, the C lev e r Hom emaker. Each product tr ie s to tell ua It Is lha key­ stone of a way of life, and Ihen, at le ast a t that moment of p u r c h a s e , we ste p In to , w e embrace thal Way of Ufa, co v erin g o u r s e l v e s wilh tha f ee ling, th e a u ra , the magic we sa w In I t a com­ mercia l . T h is Is not m a te ria lis m . It la wishful g r a s p i n g st mi asm a. (Following s e n te n c e op­ tio n a l.) It la communion, with th e o bje ct se ized sim ply ihe Objective C orrela tive of a hoped-for tr a n s a u b sla n d a tlo n . ( S o r r y . ) It’s a se e k in g , not to p o s s e s s ,4 to belo ng. I a lre ad y sa id on the oth e r side t h a t the com puie r Is a R orschach, and you make of It some w ild reflection of what you are y o u r s e l f. T h e r e is more lo It lhan thal. Am erica is the land w here the m a ch in e Is an in ti m ate pa rt of our fantasy life. G erm ans are too lite r a l, th e y c sn g e t off on w ell- oile d cogs. The French are loo v a gue, ( I'v e notic e d that German Bclence-flclion m a ga ­ zin es had covefB of machines and p la nets; French scien c e-fictio n m agazin es, of d ragons and people with w in g s . O u r scle nce-flc tlo n c o v e r s sh ow people w ith m sc hlne s. Intim ately, e m otiona lly.) German fanta sy la Icy end Im perso nal, F r e n c h fanta sy loo p e rsona l, and American f an ta sy le aplat i n th e mid dle, u niting both: man and m achine, means and en d s, emotion and d e ta ils. Men alw ays longed to fly , bul It w a s h e r e lhat th e y f ir st d id , T h is Is the land of Ihe MOVIE. a fanta sy fabric ate d with e n d le s s dif fi­ culty u s in g various kin ds of equip m ent. T h e mad tin k e r e r i s a fabled c h a r a c te r In o u r fiction. T h i s is the land of the kandy kolo r hot ro d , th e Hell's A ngel c h o p p e r , the d r i v e - i n movie. And th e wild ho t- r o d , In fact, la jusl Ihe f lip side o f the deep-ca rpe te d Cadillac: eac h l £ a f a n ta s y . an extension of Ita o w n e r 's im age of h im s elf in th e w o rl d , T h u s It was nol an historical a c c id e n t , but utte r ly p redete rm ined, lhal In th e h a n d s of A m e ric ans th e computer would become s w a y of rea liz in g e v e r y con ceiv able wild fanta sy tha l was d e a r lo th em. T h i s i s pe rfec tly all r ig h t, T his Is a s It should b e . T h is i s the beat pa rt of o u r cuH ureNot "Let a hu n d red flowers bloom.* b u t "Let a h u n d r e d gizmos c lan k ." This has spe d Immeasu r sb ly th e Imaginative development of many dif­ ferent th in g s we might w a n l. I t r y h e r e fairly to e x p lain a few differences among th em. T h er e Is Juat one problem with all th ls . Now that all these th ings e x is t, or come n e a r e r to e x is tin g , which ones will oth e r pe ople want? What will it be po ssible for ev ery o n e to ha ve? And how can we tie all the se th in gs to g e th e r? (N o te: t h i s t h e s i s ia b e in g a dvanced o n ly h a l f - a e r l o u a l y . T here h a v e b een a n u a b e r o f e x a c t l y - d r a a a f u l P r a n c h a n t , and f o r t h i s t h r e e - n a t i o n a l i t y S p l i t to bo r e a l l y t r u e , t h e y w o u ld a l l h a v o t o h a v o c o n e f r o a A ls a c e , n e x t t o G erm anyi J u l o s V e rn e , D a g u e rre , th e b r o th e r s H o n tg o lf l e . ', t h e b r o t h e r a L u w i e r e , t o name a f e w . )

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2 4 6 6 a B 9 10 11 12 12 IS 15 16 20 24 26 28 30 31 32 34 37 39 40 41 42 42 43 43 44 46 48 S2 56 58 59 DREAM MACHINES APPARATUSES OF APPARITION VIDEO LIGHTNING IN A BOTTLE: THE CATHODE-RAY TUBE HOLOGRAPHY S a n d i n ' s Im age P r o c e s s o r 3 0 DY ELECTRONICS PICTURE PROCESSING AUDIO G COMPUTERS THREE COMPUTER DREAMS: Al ( a r t i f i c i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e ) IR ( i n f o r m a t i o n r e t r i e v a l ) CAI ( c o m p u t e r - a s s i s te d in stru c tio n ) "N o M ore T e a c h e r s ' D i r t y L o o k s." Till: MIND'S F.YE (co m p u ter d is p la y ) COMPUTER MOVIES PLATO "L aw s o f th e U n iv e rse H y p er-C o m ic s" THE MIND’ S EYE MOBE: 3D LINE SYSTEMS D c F a n t i ’ s Coup de GRASS HALFTONE IMAGE SYNTHESIS 1. P o l y g o n S y s te m s 2. Shades o f R e a lity ( n lc c r groys) 3. H ard e n in g o f th e A r t i s t r i e s ( s p e c i a l ha rd w are ) 4. C o m p u ie r Im age C o r p . TIIL MIND'S EYE MORE: n D im e n s i o n s The C i r c l e . G r a p h i c s H a b i t a t The T i s s u e o f T hought How t o L e a r n A n y th in g On W r i t i n g The H e r i t a g e HYPERMEDIA, HYPERTEXTS lin g e lb a rt FANTICS TIIINKERTOYS XANADU WHAT NELSON IS REALLY SAYING FL IP OUT

-M Th e o c ca sio n al Oz Illustr ations a re ail b y John R. N eill, from v a rio u s oul- of-c opy right Oz book s b y L . F r a n k B a u m , e specia lly Qzma of O i a n d T lk - T o h o f O t . T U c-T o k . the Ma chine Man, Is the f ig u r e to whom o ccasio n al allegorical s i g ­ nificance Is a tta ch e d h e r e by Juxtaposition. T h e O* p ic tu r e In Ih ls s p rea d Is from The P a tc h w o rk O lr l o f O s. T h o u g h t y o u might w o n d er. ANOTHER QUICKIE Com pare A lice, when she gets to W onderland ("Deary me! C u r io se r and c u r io s e r ’ ") with Dorothy G al e, tr a n s p o rte d to Oz ("How do I ge t ba ck to K a n sa s? ! ! ! " ) F a nta sy ties In with e v e r y th in g , in c lu d in g American gil- o u l- n - d o -H .

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I h a v e w a n t e d t o w r i t e a o i n t r o d u c t i o n t o c o m p u t e r s , a n d a a e p a r a t e b o o k on F a n t l c e , f o r y e e r e . But t h a I d a a o f b i n d i n g cham b a c k - t o - b a c k i n a W hole E a r t h f o r m a t , w i t h l o t * o f m i a c h l e v o u * E n r l c h a a o t m a t e r i a l , d i d n ’ t h i t ma t i l l J a n 7 3 . I h a v e t r i e d t o add a l l t h e s t i m u l a t i n g a n d e x h i l a r a t i n g • t u f f 1 c o u ld f i n d , e s p e c i a l l y p e r s o n a l ( s a t l o n s , as on t h e o t h e r a i d e ; c o m p u te re a re d e e p ly p e rs o n a l ■ S C h l n e a , c o n t r a r y t o l e g e n d , and ao a r e a h o w l n g - a y s t e r n s . I r e g r e t h a v i n g to t h r o w ao many o f my c o n c e r n * i n t o c o m ic r e l i e f , b u t I h o p e t h a t some r e a d e r s w i l l s e n s e e h e * e r l o u e n e t » b e lo w . T h e f i n a l l n * p l r a t l o o f o r t h l e b o o k c am e f r o m a o m e t h l n g e a l l e d c h e D om ebook. t h a t t e l l s you e t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l y how t o m ak e G e o d e e l c Domes. And o f e o u r e e I ' m b l a t a n t l y I m i t a t i n g , l n a w ay , ehe w o n d e r f u l W h o le E a r t h C a t a l o g o f S t e w a r t B r a n d . Ae I t h i n k b a c k , t h o u g h , c h e t o n e a l a o c o a e a l o p a r e fro m P e t e S e a g e r ’ * w o n d e r f u l b a n j o b o o k , a n d Tom M c C a h i l l ’ e a u c o m o b l l e r e v l e w a I n M e c h a n ic I l l u * e r a c e d . Aa co c h e l a e c a e p e c t , c h a t o f t a k i n g my c a a e co t h e p u b l i c b e c a u e e t h e e x p a r t * w o n ' t l i s t e n , t h e o o l y p r e c e d e n t I c a n t h i n k o f l e K s j . A l e x a n d e r d e S e v e r s k y ' e V i c t o r y T h r o u g h A i r P o w e r , t e l l i n g eha c o u n ­ t r y how h e t h o u g h t we a h o u l d w in W o rld War I I . T h l* p r o j e c t , s im p le i n p r i n c i p l e , h aa beeo i n f i n i t e l y b o th e r* o m e . S * 1f - p u b 11 c a t 1 on waa n e c * * * * r y b e c a u s e n o p u b l i s h e r c o u l d h a v e c o m p r e h e n d e d t h e c o n c e p t o f t h i a b o o k ; I h e a r t i l y rec om mand H i l l H en d e rs o n ( e d . ) ' * Tha P u b l l e h - I t ~ Y o u r * a l f H a n d b o o k . $4 f ro m The P u e h c e r e Book P t e e s , Bo* 8 4 5 , Y o n k ers ■T 10701. p r e e e n t p r o d u c t i s o o t th e book I had m eant t o w r i t e . Moat 1* f l r e t - d r e f c ; how eh* e e n e e n c e * do r»N j o . ( B e l i e v e i t o r n o t , 1 do o o t l i k e u n d e r l i n i n g t h i n g s - - e f i r s t - d r a f t e x p e d i e n t . ) Fa c tc h e c k i n g a n d b i b l i o g r a p h i e s h a d t o b* l a r g e l y a b a n d o n e d . B e tte r p la n n in g c o u ld hav e in c rs s e e d ty p e a l i a ; and ao o n . H a l f t h e m e n u e c r i p t , an d t h e g l o e e a r y , had co b e k i c k e d a a l d e ; I n c l u d i n g s e c ­ t i o n * o n m o v i e * , " m u l t i - m a d i a , " m i c r o f i l m , t r a i n i n g e l n u l a c o r a , a u g m e n te d s t a g e p r o d u c t i o n s o f che f u t u r e , a n d g o o d n e * * kno w* w h a t . S o rry f o r a l l e h ac. ... WITH A LITTLE HELP PBOM M FBI ENDS Y

In ihc ruiUMd oi iKeir ubjK ts, which they lad are thr prauraaix of new artritic i n | a lhat will in tom adiuluB thrrmtlm a* amriha f r o of bring, Maalcn and Hnotion n a mrw hoe Ggarc rrw nfiilhy m a n in |. 7>it* m hae Ii b ! ihc old “hero of « lhooi«nd (ana,* lha jndiridailnl who a lie n , die*, and t* iriu u , ■liu th loin | and conquering along lh« way. IbUhq, he is Protean, capable of mfinil* chauum ia appearance and tlylc, a magician, a Bahherar bringing gif la. Ht rnpfom categorin n d cailimm ihe r w . and i n doing ao he holda ooi ihe promis- of fusion m a hignej leaeL If nch a hero were to become Ihc model for tie approaching age. he wmld probably im he the founder 01 a mam rnuitiiiriil or ihe god of a new rrligicai. He wmld he nwtr ekxtvr. m ehangefol lhan hi* p n d o i a i L He wmild be a amieici who treat* ilw mental r a id aad the Internal wtrid on equal ten**, grrmg ^jirit la the T erm and Be*h u> the laner. He weald ba a naata of paradox and a player of gnaw, n a U a a a new language. Hm one payer aright be ihe b n of Sake: Mrr GrJ u inp rnmoM fUwinm Amd VoUa’l tiacp. — K enneth Cavander, ’'Voyage o f th e Psychenaut a . " H a rper‘e . Jan 74, p . 74.

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R e a d i n g P o p u l a r M e ch a n ic s o r th e S a tu r d a y r e v i e w o f p a t e n t s I n t h e N ew Y o r k T i m e s , y o u g e t t h e i d e a o f S o m e t h i n g B i g , N ew a n d W o n d e r ­ f u l A b o u t to H a p p e n , s o w e ' l l a ll h a v e a c c e s s to a n y th in g , a n y tim e , a n y w h e re . But it's b een th at w ay lo r d e c a d e s, a n d w ith c e r t a i n e x c e p tio n s h a s n 't h a p p e n e d y e t . H e r e a r e som e th in g s th a l h a v e c a u g h t o n , a n d a r e m o s t l y f a m i l i a r lo u s a l l . Book. N e w s p a p e r . M a g a z i n e . R a d i o ( A M ). P h o n o g ra p h re c o rd (7 8 ). T a p e r e c o r d e r , t " . B l a c k - a n d - w h it e te le v is io n . R a d io (F M ). P h o n o ­ g ra p h r e c o rd (3 3 ). P h o nogra ph re c o rd (4 5 ). C o lo r te le v is io n . T ap e c a r tr id g e ( 1 " ) . Tape c a sse tte (P h ilip s, c a. 1 /8 " ). S tereo re c o rd s and ta p e s. 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1 o n c e r e a d a m i n d - b l o w i n g r e v i e w a r t i c l e In F i lm s in R e v i e w . e a r l y s i x t i e s 1 t h i n k , o n s c h e m e s lo m a k e t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l m o v ie s b e f o r e 1930. T h e r e w e r e d o z e n s . Thei t h e r e w a s t h a t m u l t i s c r e e n f ilm N a p o le o n — a le g e n d — d o n e in th e n in e te e n -tw e n tie s . (T h s t one rea lly e x is te d .)

P h o n e v i s i o n . a b o u t 1947 o r s o , w a s g o i n g to s to r e a h a lf- h o u r m o v ie on a 12 -in ch d is k . D id t h e y g e l t h e i d e a f r o m t h e LP? D id t h e y r e a l l y t h i n k t h e y c o u l d d o it ? T h e G e r m a n p h o t o - g i z m o , a r o u n d 1950: a s p e c i a l c a m e ra that s u p p o s e d ly c re a te d a s c u lp tu r e o f w h a t it w a s p o i n t e d a l . ( B u t how d i d it k n o w w h a t w a s b e h i n d t h i n g s ? ) A w e i r d l e n s a r o u n d 1950— I t h i n k It w a s d e p i c ­ te d a s h a v i n g a b l u e c e n t e r a n d a r e d p e r i ­ p h e r y , lik e a fif tie s h o o d lu m t a i l - l i g h t — th a t w a s s o m e h o w g o i n g lo f i n d " r e s i d u a l t r a c e s " o f c o lo r in b l a c k - a n d - w h i t e p i c t u r e s , a n d m a k e 'e m in to c o l o r , z o w i e , J u s t b y c o p y i n g th e m . T h e n t h e r e w a s th e P a n a c o l o r C a r t r i d g e . D u rin g t h e D a y s o f M a d n e s s - - 1960, I t h i n k It w a s — a r a t h e r good lit tle m o v ie g a d g e t w a s b e i n g p u s h e d b y a fir m c a l l e d P a n a c o l o r . It h a d te n p a r a l l e l m o v ie a n d a u d i o t r a c k s , 1 b e l i e v e , on a 70mm s t r i p . T h e p r o t o t y p e s w e re b u ilt by Z eiss.

T H R E E CR UC IA L P O I N T S . 1. SY S T EM S "IN T H E H O M E ."

T h e e m p h a s i s h a a c h a n g e d f r o m t r y i n g to s e l l s n a z z y s y s t e m s lo t h e s c h o o l s ( w h i c h d o n 't h a v e I h e m o n e y ) to t h e h o m e . T h i s i n t u r n h a s c o n v in c e d m oat p e o p le th a t th e n e w sy ste m s h a v e to b e v e r y l i m i t e d , l i k e j i m m i e d - u p TV s e t s . (We e a s i l y lo s e t r a c k o f t h e f a c t t h a t y o u c a n h a v e a n y t h i n g ''in t h e h o m e " i f y o u w a n t to p a y f o r i l; a n d a n e c o n o m y in w h i c h M a r a n t z e s a n d sn o w m o b ile s h a v e c a u g h t o n b i g in d ic a te s that s o m e p e o p l e a r e g o i n g to b e w i l l i n g to p a y for r e a lly hot s lu ff.) 2. CA T CH IN G O N .

T h e k e y q u e s t i o n i s n o t h o w g o o d a s y s te m i s i n t h e a b s t r a c t , b u t w h e t h e r i t w ill c a t c h o n . ( O b v i o u s l y I f w e ' r e p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d w e w a n t th e b e a t s y s t e m s to c a t c h o n , o f c o u r s e . ) T h i s m a t t e r o f C a t c h i n g O n i s a f ic k l e a n d cru c ial b u a ln ess. A c c o r d i n g to o n e a n e c d o t e , M r . B e ll c o u l d n ' t I n t e r e s t a n y o n e in h i a I n v e n t i o n , w h ic h h e w a s s h o w i n g a t s o m e t r a d e f a i r . T h e n w ho s h o u ld com e b y b u t th e E m p e ro r of B ra zil ( ! ) . w h o w a s a b o u t to l e a v e w i t h h i e r e t i n u e o f a d ­ v ise rs. "W hat i s t h a l ? " a s k e d l h e E m p e r o r of B ra zil. " N o t h i n g to b o t h e r w i t h , " t h e y s a i d , a n d t r i e d to r u s h h im b y , b u t h e s t o p p e d a n d lo v e d I t, a n d o r d e r e d th e f i r s t p a i r o f te le p h o n e s so ld . T h i s m a d e th e h e a d l i n e s , a n d t h e s a l e o f t e l e ­ phones began. A n o th e r a n e c d o te . It i s l e g e n d a r y t h a t In v en to rs o v e rv a lu e t h e ir ow n w o rk . Y et a / l e r T h o m a s E d iso n h a d I n v e n te d th e k in e m a to g ra p h , o r " m o v i n g p i c t u r e . ” a d e v i c e y o u lo o k e d into t u r n i n g a c r a n k , h e d e c l i n e d to b u i l d a p r o j e c t o r f o r It, s a y in g th a t th e n o v e lty w o u ld w e a r o ff. O b v io u sly h e d ld 't q u ite a e e w h a i " c a tc h in g on" w o u ld m e an h e r e .

p a c t m o v ie p r o j e c t o r . I k e p t t r y i n g to p e r ­ su a d e th e c o m p a n y 's p r e s i d e n t th a t th e y had in a d v e rte n tly d e s ig n e d a s p le n d id d e v ice f o r b r a n c h i n g m o v ie s ( s e e " H y p e r f i l m s , "

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E x e r c i s e f o r th e r e a d e r : m a p o u t p r o p ­ e r t i e s o f th e b r a n c h i n g a n d e x p o s i t o r y s t r u c t u r e s im p l ic i t in s u c h a d e v i c e . ( I t 's o n e - d l r e c l i o n a l . G o tta r e w i n d w h e n y o u g e l lo th e e n d . B ut y ou c a n Jum p b e tw e e n t r a c k s w h e n it s e e m s a p p r o p r i a t e . ) Anyw ay, it's gone now .

3.

STANDARDIZATION

"The Emperor has no clothes on!" Small Boy (name withheld)

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In o rd e r for something to Catch O n, it has to be standa rdized. Unfortunately, th e re is mo­ tivation for different companies to make th e ir own little changes In order to re strict u sers to Its own p ro d u c ts . The best exsmple of how to avoid this: P hilips patented its audio c a rtrid g e to the teeth, b u t then granted everybody free use of the patent provided they adhered to the exact standardization. The re su lt has bee n the system 's spectacular success, and P hilips, rather than dominating a small m arket, has a s h a r e of a far la r g e r m arket, and hence makes more money. T h a t's a virtue-rew arded kind of story. The o th er problem with standardization, though, is th at we tend to standardize too soon. We s tanda rdized on AM radio, even though FM would probably have been better. (One Major A rm strong, a great figure in the development of radio, committed suicide when nobody would accept FM. If he could only have h eard o u r FM of today, he might h a ^ said "Oh. n u ts ," and liv e d .) example. When they designed the Touch-Tone phone pad. the Bell people evidently saw no reason to have ll match the adding ma­ chine panel, so they put " 1" in the u p p e r left ra th e r than (he lower lefl. Now there a r e lols of people who u se both arrangem ents, e v e ry day, and at least one of them cu rses lhe d esig n e rs' lack of consideration. Another interesting example of Catching On: d u rin g the early sixties, it was fun being at places w h ere they were jusl getting Xerox copiers for the first time. Everyone would a r ­ gue that nobody needed a copier. T hen, g ru d ­ gingly, one would be ordered. The firs t month's use invariably would exceed the estimate for the first y e a r, and go up and up from there. The w orst aspect of the confusion among the corporations ie that certain deficiencies and crudities of vision slip into the mix. Unless o u r new media and Iheir exact ramifications and concomitants a re planned with the greatest ca re , everybody stands to lose. We must u n d ersta n d the detailed p rope rties of media. (The first question to a sk . when somebody is showing you the Latest and G reatest, is; "What are the properties and qualities of the medium?" The followup questions come easily with experience: How of­ ten do you have to change It, what are the b ra n ­ ching options, what part could somebody acci­ dentally put in backw ards, are there d istrac ting complications? etc. ) 1 am unpersuaded by McLuhan. His in ­ sights are rem arkable, yet suspicious: he s u p ­ poses thal electronic media are all lhe s am e. How can thia be? Here we may now decide what elec­ tronic media we want in lhe future-- and this de­ cision , I would s a y , is one of lhe most important we have lo face. The en g in e ers seem to be quite the oppo­ site of McLuhan: somehow to them it's alw ays a multiple-choice, mulll-engineerlng problem , dif­ ferent every time; "this technique is good for A, that technique is good for B." But the n et effecl is the sam e: "electronic media are generally the sam e." I would claim that th e 're all differ­ e n t, all ten million of them (TV being only one electronic medium out of the lot), and the dif­ ferences m atter v ery very much, and only a few can catch o n . So it matters very much which. Some are g re a t, some are lousy, some a re s u b ­ tly b ad, having a locked-ln information s tru c tu r e , built deep-down into the system. (Example: the fixed " query modes" built into some sy s tem s .) One last point. Everybody only has a 24-hour d ay. Most people, If they increase con­ sumption of one medium (like magazines o r books) will cut down on anolher (like TV). This d r a s ­ tically reduces the sorts of growth some people have been ex p e c tin g . Except, now , if we can begin to replace some of the Inane paper-ahuffllng and pap e r-lo sin g of the business world, and replace lhe cree p y activitlea of the school (as now generally constituted) with a more golden u s e of time and mind. Read on.

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Last year I actually heard a phone company lecturer say that in the future we will have "Instant Access to Anything, Anytime, Anywhere." What they're pushing ie Picturephone, which it seems to me is u n n ec essary , wasteful and generally unfeasible. (See: Robert J . Robinson, "Picturephone-- Who Needs It?", Datamation 15 Nov 71, 1S2.)

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I n a n y m ediu m — w r i t t e n , v i s u a l , f i l m i c o r w h a te v e r— you g e n e r a t e I n s t a n t a n e o u s l y a n a t m o s p h e r e , a p a t i n a , ,a m ia s m a o f s t y l e , in v o lv e m e n t, p e r s o n a l i t y ( p e r h a p s i m p l i c i t ) , o u tlo o k , p o r te n t. C o n sid er— The c o m p la c e n c y o f t h e S u l z b e r g e r s ' New K ork T i m e s — The c y n ic is m and m i s c h i e f o f K r a a s n e r 's R e a list— The p e r k i n e s s a n d s e n s e o C f re e d o m o f ‘ Sesa m e S t r e e t ” — The p e r s o n a l i z e d , f o c u s s e d f o re b o d in g o f O rs o n W elles f i l m s i a s d i s t i n c t C ron t h e i m p e r s o n a l ! z e d , f o c u s s e d fo re b o d in g o f H i t c h c o c k N e x t t o t h i s m a t t e r o f m ood, a l l e l B e p a l e s : t h e a c t u a l c o n s t r a i n t s a n d s t r u c t u r e s o f m e d ia , th e e x p o s itio n s and c o m p lic a tio n s of p a r ti c u la r c o g n i t i v e w o r k s a n d p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h i n m e d ia , a r e a s n o th in g .

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HARDWARE. SOFTWARE AND WHATNOT (rep ris e) Among the many odd things lhat have re sulte d from ths collision of computer people with e d u c a to rs , pu b lish ers and others has been the respectful Imitation of computer ways by those who d id n 't quite understand them. Again, the cargo cu lt.* The most dismal of these practices has been the adoption of the term "software" for any intel­ lectual o r artistic property .** This wholly loses the d istin c tio n , made on the other side of the b o o k , between: h a rd w a re (programmable equipment) softw are (program s, detailed plans of operation lhat the hardw are c a rrie s out) contents or data (material which is w orked on b y , moved in or p re sented by the hardw are u n d e r control of the software) In o ther w o rd s, hardware and software together make sn environm ent; data o r contents move and a p p e ar in that environment. The publishing-and-picturefolk have missed thle distinction e n tire ly . Not realizing that their productlona are the contents (m aterial, m atter, dala, stuff, m e s s a g e ...) that come and go in the prefabricated hardw are-softw are entlronm ents, they have m ushed this together into a state of self-feeding confusion. (The m atter has not been helped by the com puter-assisted instruction people— see p . DM I 5 — whose bra n ch in g productions seemed to them enough IJke com puter programs lo be called "softw are.")

T im e a f t e r t i n e , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t h a s t h o u g h t s a n e g r e a t r e v o l u t i o n w o u l d cosie th r o u g h g e t t i n g ne w k i n d s o f e q u i p a e n t i n t o t h e c l a s s r o o m . F i r s t I t w as w v i e s , More r e c e n t l y I t ' s b e e n '' a u d i o ­ v i s u a l " s t u f f , t e a c h i n g m a c h i n e s , f i l t f l o o p s and c o m p u t e r a s s is te d in stru c tio n . I n no c a s e s have th e e n t h u s i a s t s f o r th e s e sy stem s s e e n how t h e e q u i p n e n t w o u ld f i t i n t o c o n v e n t i o n a l e d u ­ c a t i o n — o r , m ore l i k e l y , s c r e w t h e t e a c h e r u p . T e a c h e r s a r e e m b a r r a s s e d a n d C l u s t e r e d w h e n t h e y h a v e t o monkey w ith e q u ifin en t In a d d i t i o n t o e v e r y th in g e l s e , and f i t t i n g t h e a v a i l a b l e canned m a t e r i a l s i n t o t h e i r le s s o n p la n s d o e s n ' t w o rk o u t w e l l , e i t h e r . The o n ly r e a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r c hange l i e i n sy ste m s t h a t w i l l e h a n g e t h e I n s t r u c t o r ' s p o s i t i o n f r o a a m a n ag e r to a h e lp e r. Many t e a c h e r s w i l l l i k e t h i s , many w i l l n o t .

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when somebody shows you an electronic or other presentational system , device or whatever. A certain kind of slight-of-hand goes on. It's very easy to get fooled. They may show you one thing and persuade you you've seen another. And if you're canny enough lo ask about a feature you haven't seen they'll always say, "WE'RE WORKING ON IT." It's only dishonest if ihey s a y . "It'll be ready next monlh."

" Primitives exposed to "civilized" man imitat« his ways ridiculously -in religious ritu a ls , hoping for the shipments of canned goods, etc. that his behavior seems to brin g down from parts unknown.
A s e lf - e m p lo y e d re p a irm a n o f m o b ile homes na med D o n a l d W e l l 9 h a s I n v e n t e d a s o l a r - p o w e r e d to m b s t o n e t h a t c a n show m o v ie s a n d s t i l l p i c t u r e s o f th e d e p a r t e d , a lo n g w ith a p p r o p r i a t e o rg an m u s i c a n d a n y l a s t w o rd s o r e u l o g i e s s e l e c t e d by t h e d e c e a s e d . T he d e v i c e l e a c t i v a t e d by a r e m o t e c o n t r o l d e v ic e c a r r i e d by a v i s i t o r to th e g r a v e 9 i t e . T he m o v i e s w o u l d b e show n o n s t w e l v e - i n c h s c r e e n m o u n te d n e x t t o t h e e p i t a p h . "You c o u l d a l s o h a v e p i c t u r e s o f C h r i s t a s ­ c e n d i n g t o h e a v e n o r C h r i s t on t h e c r o s s , w h a t e v e r you w a n t ," s a y s W e ll s . " I t a d d s a w h o le new d i ­ m en sio n t o g o in g t o th e c e m e te ry . . . . " C levela nd P l a in D e a le r (Quoted i n n a t i o n a l Lampoon True F a c t o , 'lay 7 4 , 1 0 . ) b a s i c a l l y c o n s i s t s o f th e m a n ip u la tio n o f r u b b e r p u p p e ts bv m in ico m p u ter, th ro u g h c a b l e s an d p u f f s o f a i r . © H a l t D isn e y P r o d u c tio n s .

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W ould y o u b e l i e v e t h e r e w aa t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t i n g o v e r th e a irw a v e s i n t h e n i n e t e e n - t w e n t i e s ? The t h i n g i s , i t u s e d b i z a r r e s p i n n i n g e q u l p n e n t b e c a u s e t h e r e w e r e no CRTs ( s e e " L i g h t n i n g i n a B o t t l e , " n e a r b y . ) O n ly w i t h t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f r a d a r i n W o rld War I I d i d t h e r e a l s o c a n e a p r a c t i c a b l e C a t h o d e Ray T u b e , m a k in g h o n e t e l e v i s ­ io n f e a s i b l e . But th e b i g c o m p a n ie s w ere a t f i r s t v e r y c o n s e r v a t i v e l n t h e i r m a r k e t i n g , f i g u r i n g t e l e v i s i o n w o u ld b e a l u x u r y ite m o n ly . I t t o o k a man named Madman H u n t s , who c a r i c a ­ t u r e d h i m s e l f i n a N a p o l e o n h a t , t o a e e t h a t m i l l i o n s w ould b u y t e l e v i s i o n l f t h e p r i c e w as r i g h t . S o h e cam e o u t w i t h H u n ts TV I d t h e l a t e f o r t i e s . As I r e c a l l , t h e H u n t s TV c o s t $1 00 a n d h a d o n e t u n i n g k n o b . (T h is w as l e s s I n t i m i ­ d a t i n g t h a n t h e row o f k n o b s on more e x p e n s i v e s e t s . ) I d o n ' t know how H u n t s c a a e o u t on I t a l l , b u t h i s o p e n i n g o f t h e mass m a r k e t made t h e b i g g e r c o r p o r a t i o n ! r e a l i s e i t was th e re . ( T h i s sa m e t h i n g may y e t h a p p e n a g a i n l n n e w e r m e d ia .) O r i g i n a l l y a l l t h e r e w as waa K ra s y K a t a n d F a r m e r Brown c a r t o o n s . But b e h o ld , so o n er th a n you c o u ld say " v e r t i c a l h o l d , ” t h e r e w e r e S i d C a e s a r a n d Im o g en e Coca on t h e A d m ir a l Sh ow , a n d we w e r e o f f . A q u a r t e r o f a c e n tu r y l a t e r , th e b e e t o f t e l e v i s i o n l a no b e t t e r a n d th e b u l k o f t e l e v i s i o n i s a b o u t a s bad a s i t e v e r w as. We " u n d e r s t a n d " t e l e v i s i o n . T h a t i s , we know w h s t a TV show i s , how i t f i t s t o g e t h e r and e o o n . ICECUBES But w h a t p e o p l e d o n ' t r e a l i s e a b o u t TV i s t h a t t h e g o v e r n i n g f e a t u r e i s t h e t i m e - s l o t . I n a n y m ediu m w i t h t i m e - s l o t s , w h e t h e r TV, r a d i o o r c l a s s r o o m e d u c a t i o n , th e tim e -s lo t r u le s b e h a v io r. W h a te v e r c a n h a p p e n i e a s c o n ­ s tr a in e d as ic ec u b es in a tr a y . T h i s l a t h e l i m i t i n g f a c t o r when o p t i m i s t s t r y t o u s e TV f o r t e a c h i n g . I f I t ’ s c om in g o v e r a c a b l e , e v e r y ­ t h i n g h a s t o b e s c h e d u l e d a r o u n d I t , and t h e c o n t e n t s a r e c l i p p e d an d c o n s t r a i n e d t o f i t t h e t i m e - a l o t . I t may be b e t t e r w ith v id e o ta p e . CABLES I n t h e l a s t d o s e n y e a r s , C a b le TV, o r CATV, h a s become b i g b u s i n e s s . A V id e o C s b l e i s a h i g h - c a p a c i t y e l e c t r i c a l c a r r l e T t h a t r u n s th r o u g h a g i v e n n e i g h b o r ­ ho o d o r r e g i o n . B u s i n e s s a n d i n d i v i d u a l s may " s u b ­ s c r i b e " an d g e t t h e i r own s e t s hooke d o n t o t h e c a b l e . What t h i s d o e s f l r e t o f a l l 1s Im p ro v e r e c e p t i o n . The f o u l e d - u p v i d e o p i c t u r e c a u s e d by s u c h e x t r a n e o u s o b j e c t s a s t h e W o rld T r s d e C e n t e r I n New Y o rk c a n be c o r r e c t e d b y h o o k i n g I n t o t h e v i d e o c a b l e : you g e t a n ic e , sharp p ic tu r e . In a d d i t i o n , th o u g h , th e c a b le o f f e r s e x t r a c h a n n e ls . Now, t h e b u s i n e s s m e n who h a v e b e e n t h r o w i n g t o g e t h ­ e r t h e s e v i d e o c a b l e o u t f i t s a r e a im in g f o r s o m e t h i n g . They h a v e b e e n t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e s e e x t r a c h a n n e l s w o u ld n e t them a l o t o f m o n e y : b y s h o w in g t h i n g s on th e m t h a t c a n ' t b e o f f e r e d o n t h e a i r — h ig h b r o w d r a m a , o r p e r h a p s X -ra ted s t u f f — th e y c o u ld g e t e x tra rev e n u e . ( Y o u 'd pa y e x t r a to w atch i t by b u y in g a n u n e c r a m b l e r , o r w h a t e v e r .) T h le I s t u r n i n g i n t o som ew hat o f a d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . T he c a b l e p e o p l e h a d f o r e s e e n , e v i d e n t l y , t h a t p e o p l e w o u ld s t a y home i n d r o v e s t o s e e t h e new o f f e r i n g s o n th e c a b le . I n Show B u s i n e s s I t ' s e a s y t o f o r g e t , t h o u g h , t h a t e verybody h a s o n ly tw e n ty fo u r h o u r s l n a d a y , a n d f a r l e s s t h a n 26 h o u r s t o d i s p o s e o f f r e e l y ; ao e v e r y l e i s u r e o c c u p s t i o i r i s c o m p e t in g w i t h e v e r y o t h e r l e i s u r e o c c u p a t i o n . H o r e o v e r , t h e r e s i d u a l l e i s u r e o c c u p a t i o n , w hen t h e r e ' s n o ­ t h i n g e l s e t o d o , i s TV. I t w o u ld se em t h a t few p e o p l e w o u ld w a t c h m o r e t e l e v i s i o n I f i t w e r e b e t t e r , b u t many w o u ld w a t c h l e a s l f t h e y c o u l d a f f o r d t o g o o u t . EXTRA CHANNELS I n r e c e n t y e a r s , a num be r o f e x t r a c h a n n e l s h a v e b e e n made a v a i l a b l e b y l a w . T h e s e a r e t h e UHF, o r U l t r a H ig h Frequency c h a n n e ls . T hese, lik e c a b le s , r e p r e s e n t a con­ s u l a r b r e a k th r o u g h b u t w i l l ha v e o n ly n e g l i g i b l e im p a c t. THE PROBLEM OF ORGANIZATION W h a te v e r e l s e y o u may s a y a b o u t th e m , t h e n e t w o r k s a n d TV s t a t i o n s a r e a t l e a s t o r g a n i s e d a s g o i n g c o n c e r n s w ith in th e I n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s o f th e c o u n try . Id ea s o f "co m m u n ity t e l e v i s i o n " a n d o t h e r s u c h s c h e m e s w h ic h c a l l f o r some new f o r m o f s o c i a l o r g a n i s a t i o n t o s p r i n g f o r t h a r e a b o u t a s p l a u s i b l e a s " co m m u n ity c o n t r o l " o f s c h o o l s an d p o l i c e — o r a t b e s t l i k e l y t o b e a e I n f l u e n t i a l a s " c o u u n lty s o c ia l c e n te re ." INTERACTIVE TV? Some p e o p l e , I w o n ' t a a y w ho, ha v e g o t t e n a l o t o f money f o r s o m e t h i n g t h e y c a l l " i n t e r a c t i v e t e l e v i s i o n . ” What t h i s t u r n s o u t t o mean I s a n y form o f c o m p u t e r ti m e ­ s h a r i n g t h a t w i l l u s e home TV t e r m i n a l s a n d v i d e o c a b l e s . Th e q u e s t i o n s a r e why u s e home TV t e r m i n a l s a n d v i d e o c a b l e s , i n s o f a r a s t h e y w o u ld se em t o p r o m i s e o n l y com­ p a r a t i v e l y l o w - g r a d e p e r f o r m a n c e ; a nd w h e t h e r t h e s e p e o p l e h s v e th o u g h t o u t a n y t h i n g a b o u t t h e p o t e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s ­ t i c s o f th e v a r i o u s m e d ia th e y pro p o se w i t h s u c h abandon. N oth in g I ha v e s e e n o r h e a r d a b o u t t h i s i s r e a s s u r i n g .

I n r e c e n t y e a r s , many yo u n g f o l k s h a v e ta lc sn t o v i d e o a s a w ay o f l i f e . I n t h e m o s t e x t r e m e c a s e s t h e y s a y t h i n g s l i k e " t h e w r i t t e n w o rd i s d e a d , " p r a p t e d p e r h a p s b y McLuhan. I have found I t r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t t e t a l k to v id e o f r e a k s . ( I t may b e t h a t some o f th e m a r e a g a i n s t s p o k e n w o rd s a a w e l l . ) I r e a l l y j u s t d o n 't k n w w hat t h e y 'r e a b o u t. T h e w o rk o f t h e s e p e o p l e i e a s e x u b e r a n t a a i t i s s t r a n g e . 1 h a v e n ' t s e e n much o f I t o r u n d e r s t o o d much o f w h a t I ha v e

I n so me c a s e s , " a l t e r n a t i v e t e l e v i s i o n " s im p l y means d o c u ­ m e n t a r i e s o u t s i d e t h e n o r m a l fra m e w o r k o f o w n e r s h i p a nd r e p o r t ­ in g . I n o n e e x a o p l e c i t e d b y Sha m be rg ( s e e b i b l i o g r a p h y ) , v i d e o f r e a k s d i d e x c e l l e n t c o v e r a g e o f t h e 1966 R e p u b l i c a n c o n v e n tio n . P e o p le w ere allo w ed to sp e ak f o r th e m s e lv e s , u n lik e " n o r ­ m a l" TV j o u r n a l i s m w h ere " c o m m e n ta to r s " t e l l you w h a t th e y s e e . Now, t h i s i s h a r d l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y ; i t i s j u s t good docum en­ t a r y - m a k i n g t h a t s h u c k s dumb t r a d i t i o n s a r t i s t i c a l l y , much l i k e t h e P e n n e b a k e r f i l m s . H ow ever, v i d e o e n t h u s i a s t s c l a i m I t i s somehcw d i f f e r e n t , a n d in d e e d c l a i m t h a t v i d e o i e d i f f e r e n t i n p r i n c i p l e f ro m f i l m s . I ha v e b e e n u n a b l e t o g e t a s a t i s f a c t o r y c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s id e a . V id e o i s b e i n g u s e d i n o t h e r w a y s , h a r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d , by a r t i s t s ( b e s t d e fin e d a s p e rs o n s c a l l e d " a r t i s t s " w ith in th e a r t w o r l d t o d a y ) . V e r y odd " v i d e o p i e c e s " h a v e b e e n shewn a t a r t s h o w s , w h e r e t h e o b j e c t se em s t o b e t o c o n f u s e t h e v i e w e r — o r k n o c k h im i n t o a c o n d i t i o n o f E n l a r g e d P e r s p e c t i v e , s h a l l we s a y . And a v a r i e t y o f n o n ^ b j e c t i v e v i d e o t a p e s a r e now b e i n g c r e a t e d . (A g a l l e r y sh ow i n 19 69 w as c a l l e d " V i d e o a s a C r e a t i v e Medium" — im p l y i n g s a r c a s t i c a l l y t h a t i t h a d n o t b e e n b e f o r e , on t h e a i r w a v e s .) Saae v id e o fre a k a th in k o f v id e o a s i n t r i n s i c a l l y r a d i c a l o r R e v o lu tio n ary . I n t h i s r e s p e c t th e y d i f f e r i n t e r e s t i n g l y f r c n , s a y , t h e e d i t o r s o f t h e N a t i o n a l | -*mp o o n . T he e d i t o r s o f t h e N a t i o n a l Lampoon a p p e a r t o b e p o l i t i c a l r a d i c a l s , b u t do n o t s u g ­ g e s t t h a t t h e v e r y m e d ia o f c a r t o o n a n d j o k e - p l e c e a r e th e m s e l v e s r e v o l u t i o n a r y . Scute v i d e o f r e a k s a p p e a r t o b e p e r s u a d e d t h a t t h e medium o f t e l e v i s i o n i t a e l f 1 s I n h e r e n t l y a v e h i c l e f o r c h a n g e . I c a n u n d e r s t a n d o n e i n t e r e s t i n g s e n s e i n w h ic h t h i s may b e t r u e s Sh a m b e rg t a l k s a b o u t v i d e o a s a m e th o d o f a e l f - d l a c o v a r v . S e e i n g y o u r s e l f on TV d o e s , o f c o u r s e , c o n f e r c e r t a i n I n s i g h t s . B u t Sh a m b e rg s u g g e s t s i t may e x p a n d p e o p l e ' s c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n l a r g e r w a y s -- a llo w in g p e o p le t o s e e th e b l e a k n e s s o f c e r t a i n p u r s u i t s (h e u s e s t h e ex am p le o f S h o p p i n g ) , f o r I n s t a n c e . B ut i f t h i s d o e s h i t h o n e t o p e o p l e , i t d o e s n ' t se em t o me t o b e t h e n e d iu m t h a t ' s d o i n g i t b u t t h e s e l e c t e d c o n t e n t — a s i n a l l p r e ­ v i o u s m e d i a . Maybe I ' v e m is s e d t h e p o i n t i n seme w ay. T h ese d e v elo p m en ts a r e a l l v e ry i n t e r e s t i n g . I t c an be h o p e d t h a t t h o s e t r y i n g t o d e v e l o p new f o rm s o f c a n u n i c a t i o n w i l l make a n e f f o r t t o c c n a u n i c a t e b e t t e r w i t h t h o s e who, l i k e t h e a u t h o r , o f t e n c a n n o t c o m p re h en d w h a t t h e y a r e d o i n g .

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A c a th o d e -r a y tu b e is a c tu a lly a b o ttle fille d w ith a vacuum an d som e fu n n y e le c tric a l e q u ip m e n t . T h e e q u i p m e n t i n th e n e c k o f t h e b o t t l e s h o o t s a b e a m o f e l e c t r o n s t o w a r d t h e b o tto m o f th e b o ttle.

T h is beam of e le c tro n s is c a ll e d , m o r e o r le s s for h is t o ric a l r e a s o n s , a c a th o d e r a y . T h in k o f it a s a s tra w th a t can be w ig g le d in th e b o ttle . A c t u a l l y t h e b o t t l e i s s h a p e d s o a s to h a v e a l a r g e v i e w i n g a r e a a t t h e b o tto m ( t h e s c r e e n ) , a n d th is sc re e n is co ate d w ilh so m e th in g th a t g lo w s w h e n e l e c t r o n s h it i t . S u c h a c h em ica l i s c a lle d a phosphor.

N o w , tw o u s e f u l t h i n g s c a n b e d o n e w i t h t h i s beam . 1) It c a n b e m a d e b r i g h t e r b y i n c r e a s i n g th e v o lta g e , w h ic h i n c r e a s e s th e n u m b e r o f e le c tr o n s in th e b e a m . T h e be a m c a n b e m o v e d ? T h a t i s . i t can be m ade to p la y a r o u n d th e fac e of th e tu b e Ihe w a y y o u c a n s lo s h th e s t r e a m o f a g a r d e n h o s e b a c k a n d f o rt h o n t h e l a w n ; o r w i g g l e a s t r a w in a c o k e b o t t l e . T h e beam can be m oved w ith e i t h e r m a g n etism o r s ta tic e l e c t r i c i t y . T h is is a p p lie d in Ihe n e c k o f t h e b o t t l e — o r e v e n f ro m o u t s i d e t h e n e c k — b y d e f l e c t i o n p la te s, w hose e le c tric a l p u lsa tio n s d e te rm in e th e p a tte r n t h e be am t r a c e s on t h e s c r e e n . (N ote th a t th e beam c a n b e m o ve d o n (h e s c r e e n at g reat s p e e d .)

2)

B ut d e c e n t r a l i z e d t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u ld b e d o m i n a n t , n o t f u g i ­ tiv e . Eac h c i t i z e n o f M e d ia - A m e ric a s h o u ld g u a ra n tee d a s a b i r t h r i g h t acc ess t o t h e means o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f o r m a ( S h a m b e r g , p . 67) ” W e l l , we w e n t down t h e r e w i t h o u r P o r ta - P a k and t r i e d t o ta k e i t i n s i d e . A g u a r d came o v e r a n d s a i d we c o u l d n ' t a n d e v e n t h r e w o n e o f u s o u t o f t h e b o o th w h i l e t h e o t h e r wae i n s i d e . A gua rd t e l l i n g you w h a t t o d o i n a c y b e r n e t i c e n v ir o n m e n t? " ( S h a m b e r g , p . S3) ( " C y b e r n e t i c " i s e v i d e n t l y a code w ord h e r e f o r w h a t t h e y t h i n k i s goo d, t r u e , b e a u t i f u l and i n e v i ­ t a b l e . C f . p . D/1 | 5 . ) H A b o u t t h e o n l y g e n e r a l i s a t i o n t o be made i s t h a t c o m s u n ity v i d e o w i l l b e s u b v e r s i v e t o a ny g r o u p , b u r e a u c r a c y , o r i n d i v i d u a l w h ic h f e e l s t h r e a t e n e d by a c o a le sc in g o f g ra s s ro o ts c o n scio u a n sss. B e c a u s e n o t o n l y d o e s d e c e n t r a l i s e d TV s e r v e a s an e a r l y w arn in g s y s te m , i t p u ts p e o p le i n to u ch w ith one a n o th e r about connon g r ie v a n c e s ." (S h a m b e r g , p . 57) BIBLIOGRAPHY M ic h a e l S ham berg a n d R a i n d a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n , G u e r r illa T e le v is io n . ( H o l t , 5 4 .) TUBE, a n u n d e r g r o u n d TV m a g a z i n e . $ 8 / y r . TUBE, 1B26 S p a i g h t S t . , M a d is o n , WI 5 3 704. C a b le R e p o rt, $ 7 /y r . 192 N. C l a r k S t . , Rood 6 0 7 . C h i c a g o . S a m p le s $ 1 . "SCANDAL IS RAMPANT i n t h e c a b l e t e l e v i s i o n I n d u s t r y . O nly C a b l e Re ­ p o r t f o l l o w s c a b l e TV d e v e lo p m e n ts from t h e c i t i z e n ’ s p e r s p e c t i v e and t e l l s y o u w h a t ’s h a p p e n i n g a n d w h a t 's g o in g w r o n g ." Ad i n C h i c a g o READER. N i c h o l a s J o h n s o n , How t o T a l k Back t o Your T e le v is io n S e t. B a nta m , 95#

T h e v e rtic a l d e fle c tio n p la te s c a n p u ll th e b e am u p o r down on th e s c r e e n , c o n tro lle d by a s i g n a l to them ;

t h e h o r i z o n t a l d e fle c t io n p l a t e s c a n p u l l t h e b e a m s id e w a y s on th e s c r e e n , c o n tro lle d b y a s ig n a l t o th e m .

B y s e n d i n g c o m b in e d s i g n a l s to b o t h h o r i ­ z o n tal a n d v e rtic a l d efle ctio n p la te s , w e c a n m a k e th e e n d o f th e beam *- a b r ig h t do t o n th e s c r e e n , s o m e tim e s c a ll e d a Q y i n g s p o t — j u m p a r o u n d in a n y p a t t e r n on t h e s c r e e n . A r e p e a t e d p a t t e r n o f t h e b e a m on th e fa c e o f ih e C R T i s c a l l e d a raster. F r o m th e s e tw o c a p a b i l i t i e s - - b r i g h t e n i n g a n d m o v in g t h e b e a m - * a n u m b e r o f v e r y s p e c i a l te ch n o lo g ies em erge: TELEVISIO N u s e s s s i g - s a g s c a n n i n g p a t ­ t e r n w h ic h r e p e a l s o v e r a n d o v e r . T h i s z ig z a g p a t t e r n i s a l w a y s th e s a m e , n ig h t a n d d a y .

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