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Dheeraj Kumar 1. Definitions: • Slope Distance - the straight-line distance between two points which may be at different elevations. The standard information needed for a site plan is the horizontal distance. The horizontal distance is the projection of the sloped distance on the horizontal plane. Therefore, if the vertical angle to the point is measured, the horizontal distance can be calculated using the following simple geometry: Horizontal Distance = Slope Distance × Cosine of Vertical Angle • (1)

Horizontal Angle - to specify the position of an object requires the sloped distance and vertical angle. In addition, the horizontal angle from a known reference direction (such as the Geodetic or Magnetic North) is required to complete a set of coordinates for that object in relation to a grid system. Units for Measuring Angles - In many countries the sexagesimal system is used in which the circumference of circles is divided into 360 degrees. The degrees are further divided into minutes and seconds (1o = 60’ and 1’ = 60”). For example, 12.345o = 12o 20’ 42” (see below). Minutes: 0.345 × 60 = 20.70, (Minutes is the value before the decimal point = 20’) Seconds: 0.70 × 60 = 42”

•

2. Direction of a Line - Azimuth and Bearing • Azimuth - the clockwise angle from the north end of the reference meridian. An azimuth can fall anywhere between 0o 00’ 00” and 360o 00’ 00”. For example, the azimuth of AB (i.e., A to B) shown below is 111o 10’ 26” (while the azimuth of BA is 291o 10’ 26” Note, the azimuth of BA is often called the Back Azimuth of AB). Adding or subtracting 180 degrees will determine the back azimuth.

North

•

111.174° A

B

Bearing - the smallest angle, which makes with the reference meridian. It cannot be greater than 90o. Bearing is measured in relation to the north or south end of the reference meridian, and is placed in one of the quadrants so that it has values of NE, NW, SE, or SW. For example, the bearing of AB is S68o 49’ 34”E (while the bearing of BA is N68o 49’ 34”W). Again the Bearing BA is often called the Back Bearing of AB. The Back Bearing will have the same degrees, just a switch in the N-S and E-W directions.

3. Closed Traverse - A traverse is a series of successive straight lines that are connected together. They may be closed (e.g., the boundary lines of a property) or open (e.g., the centerline of a roadway). The process of measuring the lengths and directions of the sides of a traverse is called “traversing.” Its purpose is to find the positions of certain points. A closed traverse is one that begins and ends at the same point.

This means that for a closed traverse the sum of latitudes should equal to zero (i. For example.an angle that is formed by the two adjacent sides at a given point.29 m (The “+” sign represents the positive or East direction) North Similarly. when the latitude and departures are calculated and summed.If you begin a traverse at one point and walk around the complete traverse and return back to the original point that you started. instrumental.the sum of the interior angles of a closed polygon (or a perfectly measured closed traverse) is given by the following. The departure of a line is its projection on the east-west line and equals its length times the sine of its azimuth.826° B L AB =210. we are confident that those measurements are reasonably accurate. in which n is the number of sides: ∑ Interior Angles = (n − 2)(180 ) o (2) Thus if all the measured interior angles of a closed traverse are added and the total is very close to (n-2)x(180o).5 m × sin (111.5 m × cos (111.5 m × cos (291.e..174o) = -196.174o) = 196.03 m Departure (BA) = 210. a measure of error in closed-traverse is the error of closure defined as E closure = ( E L ) 2 + ( E D ) 2 Where: EL = total error in latitude ED = total error in departure (3) .e.. the sum of departures should equal zero (i. Latitude (BA) = 210.29 m 111. the result will never be exactly zero (unless you are really good – you’re not). For a closure.03 m. Therefore.5' C D • Error of Closure and Precision . for BA (its azimuth is 291o 10’ 26”).the closure of a traverse is checked by computing the latitudes and departures of each of its sides. • Latitude and Departure . Angle Misclosure . Therefore. and its departure is AC as follows: Latitude (AB) = 210. the latitude of AB is AD. the northerly latitudes (+) plus the southerly latitudes (-) add up to zero).174o) = +76.174o) = . However. However. the easterly departures (+) plus the westerly departures (-) add up to zero). The latitude of a line is its projection on the north-south meridian and equals its length times the cosine of its azimuth. Similarly. and natural. the sum of the latitudes and departures should equal zero.76. the azimuth of AB was earlier determined to be 111o 10’ 26”. (The “-“sign represent the negative or South direction) Departure (AB) = 210. and the above calculation must be made in the field to validate the survey data.174° A 68.5 m × sin (291.• • Interior Angle . you will have walked as far north (+) as you have walked south (-) and as far east (+) as you have walked west (-). The difference is called the angle misclosure. there will always be some errors that are associated with personal.

The meridian distance of a line is the distance.” Section 12-8. the length and bearing of the sides of a traverse will be slightly changed. and it states that “the error in latitude (or departure) in a particular side is to the total error in latitude (departure) as the length of that side is to the perimeter of the traverse. from the midpoint of the line to the reference meridian (usually the north arrow placed at the most easterly point of the traverse). The X and Y coordinates for each point on the traverse are determined using a reference point and adding the latitudes and departures to the next point as you go around the traverse.” That is Correction in Latitude ( AB) = −EL L AB ∑ (5) (6) Perimeter L AB Perimeter Correction in Departure ( AB) = − ED ∑ After the latitudes and departures are balanced. Another method to determine the area is to use Coordinate Geometry. the coordinates for each point are as follows: . It can be shown that the DMD of any side equals the DMD of the last side plus the departure of the last side plus the departure of the present side. the latitudes and departures must be corrected. Area Computation . if the latitudes and departures for each leg of a traverse are given below. parallel to the east-west direction. the area can be calculated. For example.For a given closed traverse. However. the sum of departures in the east (+) and west (-) directions must be equal or very close. must be equal if the angle and distance measurements are obtained perfectly. due to the inherent errors present. Once each point’s coordinates are determined.Double Meridian Distance The best known procedure for calculating a land area with a calculator is the Double Meridian Distance (DMD) method. The corrected length of each side can be now calculated L AB = ( Dep AB ) 2 + ( Lat AB ) 2 (7) And the adjusted bearing may be determined by trigonometry tan ( Bearing) = Adjusted Departure Adjusted Latitude (8) 4. often called the COGO method. For the exact procedures for area computation using DMD see “Surveying. respectively. The method of the compass or Bowditch rule is adopted herein. the sum of latitudes in the north (+) and south (-) directions.The precision of the measurement is also defined as Precision = E closure ∑ Perimeter (4) • Balancing Latitudes and Departures . Similarly.

49 1000.12*1130.00 1120.76 C -12. you can use trapezoids and sum up the whole area and subtract out those trapezoids not included in the area. the area of the previous traverse would be determined by: X – Coordintate 1000.49*2000) = 8646469.21*2345. The benefit of this method is realized when determining the area inside the traverse.00 2023.56 D -333.49 + 2333.12 Point A B X-Coord 1000.88 2333.21 1130.00 2023.12 2345. Sum 1 = (1000*2030.88*675. if you went around the traverse the other way.36*2333.00 1120.21 1130.36 + 2345.32*1000) = 8445212. To determine the area.15 -454. You would then sum up the cross multiplication in the opposite direction.49 1000.51 Lat (m) 23. divided by 2.87 324.12 + 1120.36 675. it would turn out to be positive) .4)/2 = 201257 square meter Note: If the answer comes up negative.88 + 1130.4 Area = (8646469.00 Y-Coord 2000.21 10. Another method is to cross-multiply each X-coordinate by the Y-Coordinate of the next point on the traverse and sum them up.32 2000.0 It should be noted that the summation of the Latitudes and Departures are equal to zero and also the X and Y coordinates for Point A are the original coordinates.00 Area = (Sum 1 – Sum 2)/2 in square meter. The area would be the difference of the two sums.12 2345.00 Y-Coordinate 2000.88 2333.21 + 2023.32 2000.32 + 675.1 Sum 2 = (2000*1120.LEG AB BC CD DA Dep (m) 120.36 675.32 A SUM 0. take the positive value (ie. The 1000 and 2000 were arbitrarily chosen and any can be used.1 – 8445212.00 322.0 0. For example.

Distance measured by EDM is the slope distance.9’ AB#2 286.2’ 168.2’ 168.7’ 237.9’ 168.2’ 157.Closed Traverse Horizontal Angle Measurement Point A Internal Angle #1 79o 05’ 30” #2 79o 05’ 30” Average 79o 05’ 30” Point B #1 #2 Average: Point C #1 #2 Average: Point D #1 #2 Average: Distance Measurement1 Side Slope Dist AB#1 285. Example .4’ 168.2’ 237. The above field notebook data is represented in the following figure.8’ 160.2’ 237.9’ 237.5. Table 1: Field Notebook .8’ Internal Angle 65o 16’ 30” 65o 16’ 10” 65o 16’ 20” Internal Angle 93o 25’ 20” 93o 25’ 20” 93o 25’ 20” Internal Angle 122o 12’ 40” 122o 12’ 20” 122o 12’ 30” Vertical Ang +02o 25’ 10” +02o 25’ 30” Average: +04o 15’ 30” +04o 15’ 30” Average: +01o 25’ 20” +01o 25’ 30” Average: -12o 11’ 10” -12o 11’ 20” Average: Horiz Dist 285.5’ 160.3’ 157.2’ 157.8’ 285.2’ 1.3’ 168.6’ 285. . a) The horizontal angle misclosure must be computed in the field to validate the data obtained.1’ BC#1 BC#2 CD#1 CD#2 DA#1 DA#2 237. and it also illustrates the concepts described above and their applications.Closed Traverse The following example is representative of the Total Station field problem.

66 EL = -0. Table 2: Departure and Latitude Calculation of Uncorrected Data Length Latitude Side Azimuth (m) Cosine Sine +North AB 72o 30’ 43” 285.86 BC 187o 14’ 23” 237.47804 Sum = +138.4 = 1/1019.North B 3"E o 0' 4 72 3 ft N 7 285.52 (c) Balancing Latitudes and Departures .2 0.2 f o 122 12' 30" D o 168.31 -235.2 ft o A t 79 05' 30" 157 .3 0.52 272.12602 o CD 273 39’ 03” 168.Eqs.00 ED = +0.15 +272.52 -28. 65)2 + ( +0.7.7 0.99797 +10.06368 0. 65 16' 20" 237.Total Station (Uncorrected Data) (a) The bearing computation of the raw data has been completed and they are shown in the following table for the latitude and departure calculation (note that the bearing of AB is known and the azimuth of AB can be determined to be 72o 30’ 43”).95378 +85.4 0.3 ft 93 25' 20" C o Figure 2: Example Problem . respectively. (b) Departures and latitudes are calculated to determine the error of closure and precision of the measurement. 1/1020 -South -235.96 -75.99203 0.72 DA 331o 26’ 33” Sum = 157.08 +234.31 Departure +East -West +272.89 167.30051 0.832/848.2 848.87834 0.832 m Precision = 0. say.65 Eclosure = ( −0.52 )2 = 0. . (5) And (6) are used to find the correction for latitude and departure.

344 +272.063 -75.625 3.345 (d) Length and Bearing Adjustment .491 DA 157.164 BC 236.175 BC +0.460 7. Table 4: Length and Bearing Adjustment Corrected Length Tan (Bearing) Side (in m).129 +0.182 -0.035 -168.849 +138.307 28.246 -272.544 Bearing (Degrees) 72.120 -0. (8) AB 285.Eqs. respectively. (7) and (8) are used to calculate the corrected length and bearing of each side.200 +235.413 15.Table 3: Balancing Latitudes and Departures Latitude Departure Correction Correction Side +North -South +East -West AB +0.128 235.096 Sum: Balanced Latitudes and Departures North South +86.219 -0.128 +10.123 CD 168.345 West -29.357 0.145 CD DA +0. The corrected lengths and bearings are computed using the Pythagorean theorem and the corrected departures and latitudes in Table 3. (7) Eq.103 -0.914 0.567 Bearing N72o 27’ 36”E S07o 02’ 24”W N86o 18’ 25”W N28o 34’ 01”W (e) Area calculation using Double Meridian Distance (DMD) Method .The reference meridian is first placed at point A since it is the most westerly point of the traverse.079 235.040 86. . Eq.128 East +272.

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