Welding

Principles and Applications
Fifth Edition

Welding Principles and Applications Fifth Edition Larry Jeffus A u s t r a l i a C a n a d a M e x i c o S i n g a p o r e S p a i n U n i t e d K i n g d o m U n i t e d S t a t e s .

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...................................................................................................................................76 Square Butt Joint..........................................................................................43 Review....38 Work Area....................................................................................................................xiv Acknowledgments...........................................................................................................................................................................................75 Stringer Beads ........................................................30 Electrical Safety..................99 v ................................................................................xi Features of the Text .......52 Arc Blow ...................................................................................48 Welding Current...................................................................................................81 Outside Corner Joint ............................................................................................................................78 Edge Weld..................................................................................................................42 Heads Up on Safety: Use Proper Head and Eye Protection ...............38 Power Tools .........................................................................52 Types of Power Sources .........................................................Contents Preface ...............................................................30 Material Specification Data Sheets (MSDS) ................. and Operation Introduction..............................................................33 Handling and Storing Cylinders ........................................................................19 Review..59 Electrode Holders .........................................................................................................................................69 Arc Length ...70 Electrode Manipulation .........8 Occupational Opportunities in Welding ......................................67 Electrode Size and Heat ..............12 Training for Welding Occupations .............40 Material Handling ........................................................................................................................................58 Welding Cables.........................................63 Review..........34 Fire Protection ....xvi About the Author...............31 General Work Clothing ................21 Chapter 2 Safety in Welding Introduction......................................................................................................................................49 Types of Welding Power............................................xviii SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION Chapter 1 Introduction to Welding Introduction....................60 Work Clamps........................53 Generators and Alternators.................22 Burns....................................................................56 Rectifiers ........96 Keeping Shipshape through Underwater Welding......62 Experienced Welders Make a Difficult Offshore Weld Run Smoothly ..........75 Practice Welds .............................................24 Respiratory Protection .............................................. Setup..................................61 Setup .......................................................93 Summary..........................45 SECTION 2 SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING Chapter 3 Shielded Metal Arc Equipment..................................................................................14 Experiments and Practices.........................................................86 Lap Joint .........................................30 Waste Material Disposal ..................................................................................................................................................41 Summary............................................................................................................28 Ventilation ............................................................xvii Index of Experiments and Practices ........................64 Chapter 4 Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Plate Introduction..........6 Welding Processes ..........................................61 Summary.............96 Review..................89 Tee Joint...........................................4 Welding Defined.............................................................................................5 Uses of Welding.....................39 Metal Cutting Machines ..................36 Equipment Maintenance..........57 Duty Cycle ........................................16 Metric Units .....................................................................................14 Welding Video Series.............................69 Electrode Angle...................................51 Open Circuit Voltage .............................52 Operating Voltage ..................................................................................................................................31 Special Protective Clothing.............16 Welding at the Bottom of the World .23 Eye and Ear Protection .............38 Hand Tools .73 Positioning of the Welder and the Plate ...........................65 Effect of Too High or Too Low Current Settings ......................................................

......................................................118 Orbital Welding Helps NASA’s X-34 Rocket Soar ....................179 Plasma Torch .............176 Review............................200 Laser Beam Cutting (LBC) and Laser Beam Drilling (LBD) ................203 Laser Beam Drilling ..........................................................................................................151 Cutting Torches .................................225 Wire Melting and Deposition Rates..................178 Plasma..........115 6G 45° Inclined Position..............................................134 Restarting a Weld Bead ................................213 Lasers: The New Wave in Ship Construction................151 Cutting Tips..225 Molten Weld Pool Control ..........................................................................113 5G Horizontal Fixed Position .............................................................................................................................................150 Metals Cut by the Oxyfuel Process..........................121 Root Pass............................189 Machine Cutting .............................................215 SECTION 4 GAS SHIELDED WELDING Chapter 10 Gas Metal Arc Welding Equipment....145 Review..........204 Laser Equipment.............................131 Plate Preparation..............................................................173 Summary................106 1G Horizontal Rolled Position..........................................179 Arc Plasma ...........................................................177 Chapter 8 Plasma Arc Cutting Introduction...........................117 Summary.............................................................................................................................................................184 Distortion.......................................................165 The Physics of a Cut ..........196 Weld Shop Keeps U............................190 Manual Cutting...105 Practice Welds ......................................................................................................................................................................................................132 Preparing Specimens for Testing .......................................................................................163 The Chemistry of a Cut ...153 Oxyfuel Cutting...........................................................................................................................................197 Review..........................................................204 Manual Torch Design ...............................................................................................................................................................................S...........................................180 Power and Gas Cables ..............................................................................................................................................................................................129 Cover Pass........................................................................................168 Cutting Table .......212 Summary.166 Plate Cutting .......................................159 Layout ..............191 Summary....... Coast Guard Ready .......................................................................101 Preparation and Fitup.................................151 Eye Protection for Flame Cutting.......................................................................................................169 Distortion...............135 Poor Fit ................................. Setup.............................184 Applications ...................................................120 Chapter 6 Advanced Shielded Metal Arc Welding Introduction............. and Operation....................................................213 Review..................................................................................................................................228 .................182 Power Requirements............................................................................................203 Laser Beam Cutting.......183 Heat Input..............201 Lasers ...................147 SECTION 3 CUTTING AND GOUGING Chapter 7 Flame Cutting Introduction..................................................................191 Plasma Arc Gouging ....................................175 Oxygen Cutting .............................................208 Oxygen Lance Cutting ..........211 Applications ........119 Review.......................................220 Filler Metal Specifications .........................................................157 Hand Cutting .........................................................................218 Metal Transfer............................................................163 Selecting the Correct Tip and Setting the Pressure......................................122 Hot Pass .......................................................................................212 Applications .........185 Gases...... Setup...............................................204 Air Carbon Arc Cutting ..............................................................127 Filler Pass........................100 Pipe and Tubing....................191 Safety..................145 Artists Honored at International Institute of Welding (IIW) Assembly ......................201 Applications ...........199 Chapter 9 Related Cutting Processes Introduction.............................135 Preheating and Postheating ....................................................................................................................................................205 Safety......................vi Contents Chapter 5 Shielded Metal Arc Welding of Pipe Introduction...........................................................225 Welding Power Supplies.......................... and Operation Introduction.................................172 Pipe Cutting..........................110 2G Vertical Fixed Position..................................................................................................................................211 Water Jet Cutting........................................170 Cutting Applications......................................143 Summary.....168 Torch Guides ....................................................

.......................256 Flat Position..344 Review...............335 Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)................253 Practices...........................................372 Tungsten Contamination.236 Summary.................................... and Operation Introduction..347 Types of Tungsten .............................372 Filler Rod Manipulation .............................294 Practices..........................375 Practice Welds ........332 Welding Lends Architectural Flair to Airport Expansion..Contents Equipment ..............................................................................................................280 Flux .......................................................................................354 Types of Welding Current .362 Summary............................................................................358 Shielding Gases...........................336 Weld Travel ...................262 Horizontal 2G and 2F Positions ......................................................................367 Review...................................................................................................................377 Summary......334 Chapter 14 Other Constant-potential Welding Processes Introduction.............................................................. and Filler Metals Introduction.............................267 Axial Spray......................................................................239 Simple Steps to Achieving Better Gas Metal Arc Welding ..................................................................339 Arc Starting ....................276 Equipment .............................................................256 Vertical Up 3G and 3F Positions .......................................................................................................................285 Welding Techniques ..........275 Principles of Operation................271 Aluminum Ferries Rely on Inverter Technology.........336 Electrode Feed .318 Overhead-position Welds .......308 Vertical Welds................374 Gas Flow .............................360 Remote Controls ...............................................278 Advantages..........................................................................................................260 Vertical Down 3G and 3F Positions ............................................................................................402 ...........................339 Weld Backing..........336 Contact Tip .............................................................231 Spot Welding ..........................................................................................255 Metal Preparation .......................................242 Gas Density and Flow Rates ..........................................................343 High-performance Steel Increasingly Used for Bridge Building ...326 vii Summary........274 Chapter 12 Flux Cored Arc Welding Equipment...........290 Ultrasonic Plastics Welding Basics ....................................340 Electroslag Welding (ESW) ...............................................................371 Torch Angle ................264 Overhead 4G and 4F Positions ...........................................................................................................................339 Hand-held SAW ...................................................293 Chapter 13 Flux Cored Arc Welding Introduction.......................................................................338 Disadvantages of SAW .............................................................................................336 Flux ..............................................................291 Review................................................299 Square-groove Welds ........................................................ Setup......374 Experiments.................................................................................................................................323 Thin-gauge Welding ......................................................................370 Chapter 16 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Plate Introduction................................................................................................................................239 Review........................................................................251 Welding Gun Angle .....................399 Review...............................................................295 Flat-position Welds .....................................................................................346 Chapter 15 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Equipment.............................242 Setup ...................................301 Fillet Welds.............................................................................................................................337 Advantages of SAW.................. 1G Position..........................................350 Shaping the Tungsten ............................................281 Shielding Gas ............300 V-groove and Bevel-groove Welds..................................313 Horizontal Welds......241 Chapter 11 Gas Metal Arc Welding Introduction..........272 Review....................................351 GTA Welding Equipment ...........................................................................................................................................................................332 Review.............................................................................. Setup...............................................................340 Electrogas Welding (EGW) ...................................................................................................................................252 Effect of Shielding Gas on Welding ...........................................................249 Electrode Extension.......................................................................... Operation................270 Summary...........339 Experiments...................367 Welding a Pathway to the Stars ..................279 Electrodes .....................279 Limitations.342 Summary..................................................................399 The Great Master’s Horse Returns Home after 500 Years...............................................................265 Pulsed-arc Metal Transfer......336 Electrode......248 Arc-voltage and Amperage Characteristics...................................................373 Current Setting ................................286 Summary........................................................................................ 1G and 1F Positions ....................................................................................

.............................................................................................................................................443 Seam Welds........ Standards...........................................539 Welding Skill Development ...................................516 Nondestructive Testing.......................................................................606 Heat........................................................................................506 Resistance Seam Welding Benefits Stainless Application................viii Contents Chapter 17 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Pipe Introduction..468 Finishing........597 Thermite Welding (TW)..............439 Weld Location.........................................................................................424 SECTION 5 RELATED PROCESSES Chapter 18 Welding Joint Design.....................412 Filler Pass........428 Weld Joint Design......................................................................................................442 Spot Welds...........................................................585 Chapter 22 Railroad Welding Introduction........ Procedures.....475 Codes........................................................................................537 Chapter 21 Welder Certification Introduction. Standards......554 Performance Qualification Test Record.......595 Arc Welding (AW)....................................587 Rail Types ..........................................................................................477 General Information ...467 Tack Welding...............439 Indicating Types of Welds .................................. Assembly....................................................................................600 Challenges of Starting Your Own Welding Shop .........................................................................473 Chapter 19 Welding Codes............404 Joint Preparation...........................................607 ................................................................................................446 Nondestructive Testing Symbols ...........................................548 Layout..................................................................................................................423 Review........................595 Flash Welding (FW)........................................................................ and Costs Introduction.........422 Hot Tap Weld Prevents Offshore Piping System from Shutting Down ......................443 Backing ...........538 Qualified and Certified Welders ....................................................471 Metal Cored Welding Wire Comes through on Heavy Weldments .........................454 Material Shapes......................... and Fabrication Introduction......................................... and Specifications....................................................534 Development of Titanium Inspection Tools Based on Weld Color ...583 Welder Certification: Many Thrusts..........476 Welding Procedure Qualification .................................. Welding Symbols............................................................................................................................................509 Quality Control........................................... Few Agree.................................408 Hot Pass ......538 AWS Entry-level Welder Qualification and Welder Certification .................. and Energy..............................583 Review..................................................................525 Summary..508 Chapter 20 Testing and Inspection of Welds Introduction.........................................403 Practices................506 Review.......................407 Filler Metal.................................................................405 Backing Gas .................................464 Assembly Tools.......................................................................................................... Temperature..............................................471 Review....................448 Layout .....460 Assembly..............................................................................................................................591 Rail Repairs ...............................446 Flanged Welds ...................................................................588 Continuous Welded Track ........................................................416 Summary................................................480 Welding Costs.................547 Welder Qualification and Certification Test Instructions for Practices .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................603 SECTION 6 RELATED PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGY Chapter 23 Welding Metallurgy Introduction.....469 Summary.....443 Groove Welds ....................................................................................429 Mechanical Drawings............................................. and Fabrication of Weldments ........404 Root .............................................................534 Review..............465 Fitting ....................................................................................................................................510 Destructive Testing .........................................434 Welding Symbols ................................................................................594 Rail Ends.................................597 Summary.................441 Fillet Welds............................................467 Welding ...........................................................................................................................................594 Cracks ........................................510 Discontinuities and Defects ......................489 Summary..448 Fabrication....................................................................................................................591 Gouging .......441 Plug Welds...................601 Review...............................................415 Cover Pass.....................................................................................................................................................................................582 Summary.......440 Location Significance of Arrow.........................

...622 Thermal Effects Caused by Arc Welding.................................................732 Backfires and Flashbacks .............................................................................................................................................................................694 Electron Beam Welding (EBW) .......................................... High Tensile Strength Steels.....................................630 Review.635 Tool Steel ....................................638 Low Alloy..............657 Functions of the Flux Covering.......734 Leak Detection ...............655 Data Resulting from Mechanical Tests ........................................638 High Manganese Steel......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................741 Review..........................733 Types of Flames ...................................................721 Welding and Cutting Torches Design and Service .690 Improving Productivity with Robotic Welding...............................715 Review............739 Summary........................677 ix Automatic Joining Processes................................................655 Carbon Equivalent (CE) ................................................693 Resistance Welding (RW).............656 SMAW Operating Information ..............................................................................................................................................................................734 Manifold Systems....717 SECTION 7 OXYFUEL Chapter 28 Oxyfuel Welding and Cutting Equipment................................708 Thermal Spraying (THSP) .667 Summary............................743 Chapter 29 Oxyfuel Gases and Filler Metals Introduction............................................................659 Carbon Steel............................699 Ultrasonic Welding (USW)............................................................753 .......746 Acetylene (C2H2) .640 Cast Iron ......................................................................720 Pressure Regulators .........702 Inertia Welding Process.........726 Welding and Heating Tips .........................................................642 Titanium .................................612 Strengthening Mechanisms.................................679 Future Automation ........................................................................................................................................632 Chapter 24 Weldability of Metals Introduction....................643 Summary....748 Liquefied Fuel Gases.........................................617 Heat Treatments Associated with Welding...706 Plasma-arc Welding Process (PAW)...................................................750 Propane and Natural Gas..................................646 Review.........744 Uses of the Oxyful Flame ........................................................................655 Understanding the Electrode Data...........................................................................................................................658 AWS Filler Metal Classifications .................................................... and Operation Introduction..........648 Chapter 25 Filler Metal Selection Introduction.......639 Stainless Steels ................................... Setup..............................745 Characteristics of the Fuel-gas Flame.................................729 Reverse Flow and Flashback Valves .............................................................................745 Fuel Gases...........................................639 Chromium-molybdenum Steel ..630 Shot Peening and Heat Treatment Reduce Stress ..........................................745 Flame Rate of Burning ...................................671 Review............................................................................635 Carbon and Alloy Steels......657 Filler Metal Selection ...............................................672 Chapter 26 Welding Automation and Robotics Introduction..........627 Metallurgical Defects .....678 Industrial Robots ..................................................................................................................................................................611 Phase Diagrams..................................................659 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys .........................................................................................................................611 Crystalline Structures of Metal ......................634 Steel Classification and Identification ........714 Extending the Life of Resistance Welding Electrodes...707 Stud Welding (SW)......676 Machine Joining Processes ...........................656 Core Wire .........................................649 Manufacturers’ Electrode Information.......................................................................................................................................730 Hoses and Fittings ..................................................................................................................703 Laser Welding (LBW) ....................645 Welding Offers Answers about New Chrome-Moly Steel ..................................................713 Summary........................642 Repair Welding ..............................................670 Filler Metal Made Easy .....................624 Gases in Welding ...........655 Data Resulting from Chemical Analysis .............................................690 Review..........................................................674 Manual Joining Process ..............675 Semiautomatic Joining Processes......................................741 Steel Center Consolidates Cutting Operations to Cut Costs ...................................642 Magnesium..................................................685 Summary............................................692 Chapter 27 Other Welding Processes Introduction..............................................................628 Summary........................................................................................Contents Mechanical Properties of Metal ..........................677 Automated Joining................................................................641 Aluminum Weldability ......708 Hardfacing ........................................641 Copper and Copper Alloys ..609 Structure of Matter.........................................................711 Cold Welding (CW) ...................................................................

............................................819 Summary....781 Mild Steel Pipe and Tubing ................................881 .................830 V........................................................ Welding Codes and Specifications .....................................................................786 45° Fixed Position 6G....... and Composites............781 Tee Joint............758 Welding with the Right Shielding Gas ....................787 Thin-wall Tubing............................. Conversion of Decimal Inches to Millimeters and Fractional Inches to Decimal Inches and Millimeters ..778 Tee Joint..........................................................768 Butt Joint....................................................................................................................782 Horizontal Rolled Position 1G............823 Review............................................798 Filler Metals .................................................756 Mild Steel .........................................................................831 VII....................................779 Horizontal Welds....................................................S.....833 Glossary .............792 Advantages of Soldering and Brazing .................. Metric Conversions Approximations ........................................826 II................................789 Review.....780 Butt Joint.......................................780 Lap Joint ...................................... Ceramics....................776 Vertical Welds.............................777 Lap Joint ......................788 Confined Space Monitors: Tough Choices for Tight Spots.........................................................................................785 Vertical Fixed Position 2G.......................806 Building Up Surfaces and Filling Holes ........................................ Welding Associations and Organizations ............. Student Welding Report ............................................................. Conversion Factors: U.................................815 Soldering ................................... Brazing....................................................................772 Tee Joint.760 Outside Corner Joint ............................................759 Chapter 30 Oxyacetylene Welding Introduction...............................................781 Stringer Bead...............................................................................................................................831 VI............835 Index .............................................................................................................. Pressure Conversion...................824 Appendix I..............................................................758 Review..............................791 Chapter 31 Soldering............760 Mild Steel Welds ....832 VIII....................................................................................................................776 Butt Joint.................................................................828 IV................x Contents Hydrogen ............................754 Filler Metals .....................................................................788 Summary.............795 Fluxes ................................................................. and Braze Welding Introduction....774 Out-of-position Welding ............. Abbreviations and Symbols .............................793 Physical Properties of the Joint...............801 Joint Design .......................783 Horizontal Fixed Position 5G ..................................................................................................822 Active Solder Joining of Metals.................................................................................................................................................... Customary (Standard) Units and Metric Units (SI)...................814 Silver Brazing ..........................780 Horizontal Stringer Bead..............................................769 Lap Joint .........781 Overhead Welds.........796 Soldering and Brazing Methods ...............757 Summary.....................827 III.......

with in-depth explanations of their operation and function. The student who is preparing for a career in welding will need to ■ have excellent eye-hand coordination ■ work well with tools and equipment ■ know the theory and application of the various welding and cutting processes ■ be able to follow written and verbal instructions ■ work with or without close supervision ■ have effective written and verbal communication skills ■ be able to resolve basic mathematical problems ■ work well individually and in groups ■ read and interpret welding drawings and sketches ■ be able to operate a computer and use software programs ■ be alert to possible problems to be able to work safely A thorough study of Welding: Principles and Applications in a classroom/shop setting will help students prepare for the opportunities in modern welding technology. The extensive descriptions of equipment and supplies. certification. The remaining chapters for the specific process concentrate on the actual welding techniques in various applications and positions. and experiments coupled with actual performance teach the critical fabrication and welding skills required on the job. and on to the related areas of welding metallurgy. and welding joint design. and welding symbols. The welding processes in the text are presented in a manner that allows the student to begin with any section. new welders are needed in every area of welding such as small shops. The text also discusses occupational opportunities in welding and explains the training required for certain welding occupations. through critical safety information. Even with economic fluctuations. It is not necessary to learn all of the processes if only one or two are required of your job. to details of specific welding processes. specialty fabrication shops. Each section of the text introducing a welding process or processes begins with an introduction to the equipment and materials to be used in the process(es). Organization The text is organized to guide the student’s learning from an introduction to welding. weldability of metals. The skills and personal traits recommended by the American Welding Society for their Certified Welder program are included within the text. fabrication. and large industries.Preface Introduction The welding industry today presents a continually growing and changing series of opportunities for skilled welders. there is a positive job outlook in welding. The process descriptions. the student is able to quickly master new welding tasks or processes. The comprehensive technical content provides the basis for the welding processes. familiarize students with the tools of the trade. Once this technology is understood. practices. including setup in preparation for welding. Students wishing to become certified under the AWS program must contact the American Welding Society for specific details. testing and inspection of welds. Due to a steady growth in the demand for goods fabricated by welding. xi . The content progresses from basic concepts to the more complex welding technology. costs.

published by Lincoln Electric Company. such as Microsoft Word. By completing the Experiments. In the experiments. The end of the experiments are identified by the (♦) and the end of the practices are identified by the (♦) symbol. Real World Features have been expanded and appear in every chapter. A chapter-end summary recaps the significant material covered in the chapter. resulting in better. The use of quality graphics make it much easier for the student to see what is expected to produce a quality weld. because it is hard both to perform the experiment and to observe the results closely. A large selection of Practices are included to enable the student to develop the required manipulative skills. Some of the basic programs provide a crossreference to welding filler metals. the new terms are listed at the beginning of the chapter to enable students to recognize the terms when they appear. computers are becoming more commonly used in welding. the student learns the parameters of each welding process. In addition. The Review questions at the end of each chapter can be used as indicators of how well the student has learned the material in each chapter. Materials specified in the practices may be varied in both thickness and length to accommodate those supplies that students have in their lab. Often. the student will still learn all essential information needed for a thorough understanding of all processes studied. However. and plans illustrate concepts and clarify the discussions. The unique photographs in this book were taken from the welder’s viewpoint. Numerous full-color photographs. Computers in Welding As in every skilled trade in today’s ever changing world. the student changes the parameters to observe the effect on the process. but the most popular ones use a version of Microsoft Windows. Terms and definitions used throughout the text are based on the American Welding Society’s standards. more cost–effective construction. the student learns to manipulate the variables to obtain the desired welding outcome for given conditions. In this edition there are all-new. Cautions for the student are given throughout the text. The metric equivalent in most cases has been rounded to the nearest whole number. This will aid you in producing high-quality reports both in school and later on the job. students will do most of the experiments in a small group. and many definitions feature additional drawings to assist all learners in gaining a complete understanding of the new term. . These programs aid in proper design and make more effective use of materials. The most commonly used programs are ones such as Arc Works™. the student may choose an area of specialization. In this way. The Success Story vignettes of real welders have been updated to provide motivation to students considering welding as a career. They are designed to allow the student to learn the operating limitations or the effects of changes that may occur during the welding process. Procedure Qualification Records (PQR). Approximately one-third of the photos were taken from a left-handed view to aid the left-handed students. after the basics are learned. Most of the chapters contain learning activities in the form of Experiments and Practices. Each major process is presented in such a way that the instructor can eliminate processes having little economic value in the market served by the program. This will allow students both to perform the activity and to observe the reactions. In each chapter. depending upon the topics selected for the program. A sufficient number of practices is provided so that.xii Preface Each chapter begins with a list of learning objectives that tell the student and instructor what is to be learned while studying the chapter. Metric equivalents are listed in parentheses for dimensions. Key Terms are highlighted in color and defined. This summary will help the student more completely understand the chapter material and will serve as a handy study tool. Most of the welding programs operate on a variety of platforms. and Welder Qualification Test Records (WQTR). Industry jargon has also been included where appropriate. Having a good basic understanding of the Windows operating platform will give you a great start with these programs. In addition you should become familiar with one of the commonly used word processing programs. A survey of the objectives will show that the student will have the opportunity to develop a full range of welding skills. Revision The fifth edition of Welding: Principles and Applications has been thoroughly revised and reorganized to reflect the latest welding technologies. The Bilingual Glossary includes a Spanish equivalent for each term. full-color photos and detailed colored line art. The experiments provided in the chapters do not have right or wrong answers. line drawings. These documents are extensively used throughout the welding industry. whereas others aid in weld symbol selection. Changes within a limited range of both thickness and length will not affect the learning process designed for the practice. More complex programs allow welding engineers to design structures and test them for strength without ever building them. which are used to help write Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS). using different materials and material thicknesses in different positions.

a Study Guide/Lab Manual. Video series on Flux Cored Arc Welding (ISBN 0-76682292-3). The Study Guide/Lab Manual (ISBN 1-4018-1048-9) has been updated to reflect the changes made in this edition. as well as a selection of video clips. including samples of typical certification tests from certifying agencies. Transparency masters have also been included to assist in the classroom. Program activity sheets based on the videos and some CD-ROM versions of the series are also available. Oxyacetylene Welding (ISBN 0-7668-2306-7). and a videotape series showing in detail many of the setups and welding practices. It contains material and links about careers in welding. Gas Metal Arc Welding (ISBN 0-7668-2299-0). Chapters that contain Video Frame references are noted on the section openers. along with additional questions and answers for testing. Video Frames throughout the text indicate that more material is available on one of the tape series. Each chapter starts with a review of the important topics dis- xiii cussed in the text. Throughout the text are figures with a Video Frame around them. Supplementary references will direct the instructor to additional sources of information for specific content areas. The Study Guide/Lab Manual is designed to test student understanding of the concepts presented in the text. These are skills that are demonstrated in the video series. Certification information is also provided in the Instructor’s Guide.com/welding/jeffus.delmarlearning. . while learning about welding processes. Artwork and safety precautions are included throughout the manual. The Instructor’s Guide contains lesson plan outlines for each chapter.Preface Supplements Accompanying the text are an Instructor’s Guide. so students can see welders in action. Answers to the questions in the textbook and the Study Guide/Lab Manual are also included. Shielded Metal Arc Welding (ISBN 0-7668-2313-X) and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (ISBN 0-8064-1592-4) are also available to enhance the presentation of these topics. The Online Companion is a free weblink to motivate students to learn more about professional opportunities in the welding workforce. and each set is a fourpart video series that shows the fundamentals of the process. Lab exercises are included in those chapters (as appropriate) to reinforce the primary objectives of the lesson. Students can then test their knowledge by answering additional questions. Visit the Online Companion at www.

which makes it difficult to detect leaks. Check all connections to be sure they are tight. Hydrogen has the fastest burning velocity of any of the fuel gases at 36 ft/s (10. an active leak-checking schedule must be followed to find small problems before they develop into disasters. This text covers nine of the most commonly used processes that require the welder to have a special skill. without having excessive carbon to contaminate the weld. yet it does not flashback. The flame can be made reducing (needing oxygen) to help protect the aluminum from oxidation. supplies. Check the tip seals for nicks or O rings. if the torch does not have them built in. The chance of large quantities of hydrogen exploding is limited. Attach a reverse flow valve or flashback arrestor. thick Over 5 in. Courtesy of ESAB Welding & Cutting Products. (B) (C) F IGURE 28-41 Nonadjustable wrenches for acetylene cylinders. Figure 28-44. The nuts can be started by hand and then tightened with a wrench. Experiments are designed to allow you to see what effect changes in the process settings. its limited availability. Occasionally test each reverse flow valve by blowing through it to make sure it works properly. dust. KEY TERMS electrical resistance electron beam welding (EBW) evacuated (vacuum) chamber flash welding (FW) hardfacing inertia welding laser welding (LBW) optical viewing system percussion welding (PEW) plasma-arc welding (PAW) resistance welding (RW) stud welding (SW) thermal spraying (THSP) ultrasonic welding (USW) upset welding (UW) Cautions summarize critical safety rules. hydrogen cannot be made to react without the presence of sufficient oxygen. The specific settings also change from one material to another. Figure 28-42A. Figure 28-46. the gas rises into the flame. Figure 29-20. Attach the regulators to the cylinder valves. such as electron beam welding (EBW). Some of these processes require less skill or knowledge to set up and operate. thick 5/8 in to 5 in. reducing the possibility of accidental combustion. you are going to observe the flame as each fuel gas is safely lit. Many are group activities and will help you learn as a team. For example. compared with an oxygen consumption of as little as 50% for the oxyacetylene flame. Attach the torch to the hoses.xiv Features of the Text FEATURES OF THE TEXT Chapter 27 Objectives. 7. 5. See OFW video series. which can explosively decompose without oxygen. thick Cutting dirty or scaled surfaces Repetitive cutting Stack cutting Cutting low alloy specialty steels Beveling Cutting rounds Piercing Blind-hole piercing Rivet washing Gouging Wire metallizing Powder metallizing Heating. when it is released. / / / C AU T I O N \ \ \ Tightening a tip the incorrect way may be dangerous and might damage the equipment. and tools you will need to complete the exercise. Most other gases burn in a downward direction. operation. and tips that have metalto-metal seals are wrench tightened. unlike hydrocarbon gases. In most cases tips that have O rings–type seals are hand tightened. Propane requires 85% of the flame’s oxygen from the cylinder. for damage. which can trap people in an area. This means it burns in an upward direction. Complete a copy of the “Student Welding Report” listed in Appendix I or provided by your instructor.9 m/s). 3. is that both gases consume a large amount of oxygen. which have both primary and secondary combustion. 4. no explosion occurred. Hydrogen Oxyhydrogen produces only a primary combustion flame. Because of these factors. but you will find them throughout the text when they apply to the discussion. Practices are hands-on exercises designed to build your welding skills. the student should be able to explain the operating principles for the different special welding processes. Not only are they covered in the safety chapter. the molecule is extremely small so that it leaks easily. ◆ PRACTICE 28-2 Turning On and Testing a Torch Using the oxyfuel equipment that was properly assembled in Practice 28-1. and most of the people on board the airship survived. or experiment. Second. procedures. Courtesy of BOC Gases. or a supplier. found at the beginning of each chapter. are a brief list of the most important topics to study in the chapter. Set all fuel and oxygen regulators at approximately 5 psig (35 kPag). and applications are discussed in this chapter. EXPERIMENT 29-2 Oxyfuel Flames Using an identical torch set with each available fuel gas. Therefore. or techniques have on the type of weld produced. The skill needed to operate this equipment can be learned quickly on the job or in classes taught by the specific equipment manufacturer. list the reasons that a particular process should be selected to make a special weld. and Operation the Hindenburg. Connect both hose nuts fingertight before using a wrench to tighten either one. Acetylene has a burn rate of less than one-half that of hydrogen. hydrogen has no smell. First. More information can be obtained from the AWS or directly from the manufacturer of the equipment being operated. and natural gas requires 95% of its oxygen from the cylinder. away from people in an area. to determine if the torch tip should be tightened. If a large quantity of hydrogen is allowed to burn uncontrolled. adjusted. stress relief. OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter. depending on the type of reverse flow valve in the set. Back out the regulator pressure adjusting screws until they are loose. Two major safety problems exist when hydrogen is used as a fuel gas. list the operational limitations of each special welding process explained in this chapter. Place the torches on a table with the tips pointed up. Hydrogen is much lighter than air. (B) Large Combination Wrench. (A) Small Combination Wrench. and extinguished. Setup. INTRODUCTION Chapter 28 More than eighty different welding and allied processes are listed by the American Welding Society. F IGURE 28-40 Cracking the oxygen and fuel cylinder valves to blow out any dirt lodged in the valves. it diffuses quickly. if used. Only one-quarter of the flame oxygen comes from the cylinder. Unlike acetylene. The red hose has a lefthand grooved nut and attaches to the fuel-gas regulator. because the hydrogen flame is almost invisible. caught fire and burned in 1931. Figure 28-42B. The hydrogen flame is almost colorless and can be seen only when dirt. only the general theory. H2O. The tip should have an orifice equal to a number 53 to 60 drill. to the hose connection on the regulator or to the hose connection on the torch body. Courtesy of Larry Jeffus. Each practice describes in detail what skill you will learn and what equipment. Each torch should have the same-size tip. They alert you to operations that could hurt you or someone else. When using hydrogen. The low-flame temperature restricts the use of the oxyhydrogen flame to cutting. (C) T-Wrench. The oxyfuel equipment is now assembled and ready for use. you will pressurize the system and test for leaks. and other contaminants from the air glow while burning in the flame. Figure 28-43. This chapter covers seventeen additional processes that call for special equipment and techniques. Hydrogen is not widely used in welding because of its expense. when the hydrogen-filled airship. Section 7 Application Cutting Under 3/8 in. Hydrogen has a very slight tendency to backfire. These terms are also defined in the glossary at the end of the book. such as resistance spot welding (RSW). 1. These are listed at the beginning of each chapter following the objectives and appear in color print where they are first defined. and a leak-detecting solution. Other Welding Processes Key terms are the most important technical words you will learn in the chapter. a nonadjustable tank wrench. bending Deep flame hardening Shallow flame hardening Cobalt-base hardsurfacing Other alloy hardsurfacing Welding Braze welding Brazing Oxyfuel Acetylene MAPP® Gas Propylene 100 95 80 100 100 90 100 100 95 100 100 100 100 80 100 70 90 95 100 100 100 100 100 95 100 100 95 100 100 90 100 100 100 90 95 100 100 0 100 100 100 0 85 70 90 100 90 95 95 80 80 95 80 85 85 85 80 80 85 90 0 90 90 80 0 70 0 70 90 T ABLE 29-6 Average Performance Ratings of Some Oxyfuel Flames. Figure 28-45. Others demand a great deal of technical information and training. It is possible for a leak to be on fire and not be noticed. The finished flame product is water. The green hose has a right-hand nut without grooves and attaches to the oxygen regulator. Connect the hoses. and to gas welding and brazing on low-temperature metals such as aluminum. The actual operating procedures vary greatly from one manufacturer’s machine to another. 735 (A) 693 754 Oxyfuel Welding and Cutting Equipment. usually underwater. practice. and some myths about its safety. 6. but it is best to check the owner’s manual. .

and metal matrix composites (MMCs) need to be joined. and lots of welding outdoors in near-zero temperatures. Consumer Applications Applications in the consumer market that involve the joining of aluminum. join. South Carolina. and article courtesy of the American Welding Society. and it’s a privilege to teach. Asia. stay for six months. so he researched all the skills the Navy taught and discovered that CB Units. 12. such as home and farm work. acetylene is not always the most appropriate gas for a number of reasons. and brazing has offered the welder some unique challenges in determining the most appropriate fuel gas for their processes. South Korea. ceramics. From welding assignments all over Europe. Zinc-based active solders have the potential to meet such needs in housewares. carbon (graphite/diamond). Additional line art in the glossary will also help you gain a greater understanding of challenging terms. Jr. most ceramics. “I think welding is exciting. “Welding is not a dead-end job. 8. Sampson.32. radiation shields. Real-world features at the ends of all chapters present a xv In many applications. hen award-winning Navy welder SW1 Moses E. such packages use metallic materials for good thermal conductivity but then need to have electrically insulating materials joined to them. copper. Research on active solders showed a capability to join this range of electronic materials. consistent shielding gas supply that conforms to AWS A5. How does the induction brazing method heat the part being brazed? 6. electrode extension. 2. and last year Sampson knew he had finally made his mark when he was selected to teach recruits. similar to the way AWS 5.” says Sampson.1 states that a procedure qualification record (PQR) requires requalification when there is “a change in shielding gas from a single gas to any other single gas or mixture of gases. “If you’ve got that drive. The label on your gas cylinders should state whether your supplier is complying with the AWS specification on shielding gases. joints of dissimilar or composite materials are often required for new golf club designs. It is the responsibility of your gas supplier to ensure you receive an accurate. What soldering or brazing process uses a machine similar to a spot welder to produce the heat required to make a joint? Success STORY W Success stories are found at the beginning of each of the seven sections in the text. was deployed to Po-Hang. something you’ve created with your own hands. This significantly increases the cost of acetylene and has made other fuel gases more desirable. the Middle East. The wide variety of fuel gases available for oxyfuel welding. but it is difficult because of the differing oxide films. glasses. power devices. “Plus welders make pretty good money after leaving the military. Golf and tennis equipment increasingly use titanium that could benefit from soldering fabrication. many variables must be taken into account. copper. “When you’re done. photo. Pots and pans are fabricated from aluminum or copper due to the high thermal conductivity of these metals. AWS A5. and even metallurgically interact with various structural and conductor metals. How can liquid fluxes be delivered to the joint through the torch? 3. offers advantages when joining mismatched materials. AWS D1. but one message is repeated by all story contributors: welding can be a rich and rewarding career.” As a high-school senior in Summerville. Active solders provide metallic. Specification for Welding Shielding Gases. “Welding is nothing but patience and motivation. he faced plenty of challenges—a language barrier. ready for the United States to defend South Korea—or itself—against North Korea. prescribes a classification system for identifying carbon steel electrodes and rods. Art. magnesium alloys. Active solders have the potential. Electronic Packaging Electronic packages contain electronic devices and require material combinations that manage thermal and electrical conductivity while having low thermal expansion. Thirteen years in the Navy as a steelworker has taught Sampson a lot about the importance of his welding jobs. Typically. compared to brazing (for example. These stories are about real people who have become successful by using their welding skills.” says Sampson. primarily cost. The Classification System With respect to shielding gases. including aluminum. at age seventeen. nickel alloys.1. time after time. we can feel proud that we contributed. Aluminum and/or copper joining to stainless steel has been done by brazing.” says Sampson. metals. Specification for Carbon Steel Electrodes and Rods for Gas Metal Arc Welding. semiconductors. but such treatments can be expensive.18. amperage. such joining needs. Some have outside welding experience. unfamiliar equipment. These and other variables are called “essential variables” as defined in AWS D1. You must look at the advantages and disadvantages of all the gases before selecting the fuel gas that will be most appropriate for your applications. In what forms are fluxes available? 10. “We hope the buildings never come into play. Each question is designed to help you apply and understand the information in the chapter. Filler metal selection for the oxyfuel welding processes used in a home hobby application is not often given much thought. cutting. Sampson did not have that kind of focus.” says Sampson. “It’s important to somebody else’s life. Active solder alloys can join many materials. Review 1. computers. using essentially the same active soldering process used in other metal joining. which incorporate carbides and even diamonds for club faces. These factors will keep this process in the forefront of welding for the foreseeable future. and move on. Active solders have been able to wet. to assist in building headquarters facilities. Review questions help measure the skills and knowledge you learned in the chapter.32 sets the standards for the classification of shielding gases. or to no gas. But Sampson knew right off the bat that he did not like ships. Additionally. and ceramic. He joined the Navy when he graduated. Why can brazing be both a permanent and a temporary joining method? 11. and refractory metals. Each gas has unique advantages and disadvantages. Sampson has seen first-hand how much quality. stainless steel. microwave/radar. consistent welding process and ensure repeatable results. Each story is different. Why is it less likely that a semiskilled worker would damage a part with brazing than with welding? 13. the construction units that house the welders. Explain the difference between brazing and soldering. Other fuel gases do not have all of the characteristics of acetylene.Features of the Text 758 Section 7 Summaries review the important points in the chapter and story that describes a real-world application of the theory learned in the chapter. You will see how particular knowledge and skills are important to the world. What is the effect of joint spacing on joint tensile strength? 15. but if they do. Bilingual glossary definitions provide a Spanish equivalent for each new term. Why are braze joints subject to fatigue failure? 16. How are soldering and brazing methods grouped? 14. and shielding gas. and are being considered for. Oxyfuel In electronic and electrical applications. you have something you can see. There is also an increased use of materials such as carbides and diamond. Although acetylene and oxygen are the most common. and cost. including all metals. In developing a WPS for gas metal arc or gas tungsten arc welding. you should implement a welding specification (WPS). and power interconnections. others are completely new to the trade. or ceramic joints). titanium. in joining aluminum alloys. such as voltage. Structural Welding Code—Steel. Now his toughest welding assignment has turned into his biggest accomplishment—two troop-processing facilities in South Korea.” Therefore. and teamwork matter. What are the three primary functions that a flux must perform? Welding with the Right Shielding Gas Quality and consistency are key to any quality assurance program..” And Sampson knows how hard it is to be a welding student trying to learn to be consistent.” explains Sampson. “The area I grew up in didn’t have anything to offer as far as jobs.” ✪ . stainless steel. it is essential that your shielding gas composition be accurate and consistent to ensure WPSs are being followed and the desired weld quality is maintained. When treated properly the waste product from acetylene production has little or no envi- ronmental impact. Its low-temperature joining. What are the advantages of torch soldering? 5. metal matrix composites. To maintain a stable. avionics. you can be a perfect welder—because practice makes perfect. You must be confident your processes are consistent and repeatable and that the products being used in production meet specific requirements and specifications. fly to their assignments. portability. the oxyacetylene welding process is by far the most desirable because of its flexibility. “But our team worked together to overcome those challenges. and I wanted to do some traveling and learn a trade. metal-to-glass. How does capillary action separate brazing? 9. consistency. Applications include satellite electronics. thermally and electrically conductive joints that are tough but have sufficient ductility to effectively join many dissimilar material combinations. What are the advantages of furnace brazing? 17. High-density refractory metals such as tungsten have also been added to modify swing stability.” Sampson explains. especially during Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield. 824 Section 7 Oxyfuel Summary serve as a useful study tool. Learning to weld was tough but rewarding. and titanium range from cooking utensils to sports equipment. just as Sampson was. which must be removed by chemical fluxes.” says Sampson. In industrial applications the proper selection of an oxyfuel filler metal is critical to the success of your product. What soldering process can be used to join parts and provide a protective coating to the part at the same time? 7. A WPS gives the welder or welding operator the recipe for producing acceptable welds on a given application. Applications The advantages and capabilities of active solder technology enable it to be considered for a wide range of applications. and Central America. Do all braze joints resist corrosion? Give an example. or in the specified nominal percentage composition of a gas mixture. How do fluxes react with the base metal? 4.

Ben Eisley. Oregon City. Rexarc.. they are valuable contributors to the textbook and an inspiration for those entering the welding industry: Kevin Aucompaugh. and his daughters. Inc. Sciaky Brothers.. who are featured in the Success Stories in the text and Online Companion.. Thermadyne Holdings. American Torch Tip. Magnaflux Corp. Franklin. Philips Gmbh. for all of the general office help they provided ■ His wife.. Concoa Controls Corp. E.. Welding Department chairman at Mountain View College. Stanley Works. Northwest Technical Institute. and Randy Zajic The author also would like to express his deepest appreciation to: ■ Tina Ivey. MN. Alexander Binzel Corp. CA. Northampton Community College. ARC Machines.. Camp Community College. who worked with the author for many long hours to perfect the photographic techniques required to achieve the action photos ■ Larry Maupin for his effort and determination in producing many of the welding photographs in this text ■ Dewayne Roy. Mine Safety Appliances. Ben Burris.. CRC-Evans Automatic Welding. OR. Liquid Air Corp. Aluminum Co. DuPont de Nemours & Co. J. Miller Electric Co. Clackamas Community College. Paul H.. Bethlehem. T. National Machine Co. Kenneth Setzer. Caroline Gatten. Victor Equipment. Merrick Engineering. Hunter Ivey. and the author and publisher would like to thank the following for their unique contributions to this and/or prior editions: ■ John L.. Manchester. Paula Kmetz. Jackson Products/Thermadyne. Jennie Rothenberg. Hornell Speedglas. Moses E.. VA. Sonobond Ultrasonics. Paul D. Inc.. for his many contributions to this text ■ Special thanks are due to the following companies for their contributions to the text: Skills USA-VICA. Leonard Valaitis. NH. Jordan Ivey. Buehler Ltd.. and The Prince & Izant Company ■ ■ The American Welding Society. who reviewed the fourth edition in anticipation of the fifth... Hobart Brothers Co. Lincoln Electric. GWS Welding Supply Co. FANUX Robotics North America. Mount San Antonio College. Brian Muenchau. Penaz.. David Schnalzer. PA The following individuals. Plourde. Chastain. Cherry Point Refinery. Carol. Marilyn Burris. Jonathan Yount... Sam Burris. Jr. for all of her moral support ■ This book is dedicated to two very special people. Dallas Texas. Their recommendations have been invaluable to the author: Russ Carpenter. . ESAB Welding & Cutting Products.. Dunwoody Institute. I. William Heins. Springdale. Caterpillar.. PA. of America. Wilkes-Barre Area Vocational-Technical School. Sampson. Inc. my daughters Wendy and Amy. John R./Automotive & Light Truck Group. The Aluminum Assoc. AR. Clay Corey. Praxair. Wendy and Amy..O. Inc. Inc. Co.xvi Acknowledgments Acknowledgments To bring a book of this size to publication requires the assistance of many individuals. Wilkes-Barre. Alphagaz Div. Snow Co. Reynolds Metals Co. Paton Electric Welding Institute. whose Welding Journal was an invaluable source of many of the special-interest articles The following individuals. Jon Cookson. Inc. Charles Sarcia. Technical Systems. Leybold Heraeus Vacuum Systems. Inc. John Didziulis.. NASA Media Research Center. Inc... Walnut. E. Minneapolis. Foster Instruments. Stuart Strader.. and Bernice Nolan for all the hours spent helping in the preparation of this edition ■ Kristi Webb. Frommelt Safety Products. New Hampshire Community Technical College. Inc.

corporate America. I learned in SkillsUSA the value of integrity. I was able to get a job in a small welding shop in Madisonville. My first welding assignment was on a barge. As a vocational teacher. now SkillsUSAVICA. military landing crafts. In my sophomore year I joined the Vocational Industrial Clubs of America (VICA). and learned the value of performing quality work. PT boats. established goals. In the afternoons I worked as a welder. In addition. and attended Hiwassee Junior College. During my career as a welder. responsibility. He has been actively involved in the American Welding Society. With my welding skills. I developed leadership skills.T. farm equipment. trade associations. schools for special education. and building the projects allowed me to start developing some fabrication skills. Koonce’s first class in a new program called Industrial Cooperative Training (ICT). Larry Jeffus is a recognized welding instructor with many years of experience teaching welding technology at the community college level. labor organizations. In my senior year at New Bern High School. SkillsUSA brings together educators. Through my involvement in SkillsUSA. citizenship. I have also been a consultant to the welding industry. pressure vessels. having served on the General Education Committee and as the chairman of the North Texas Section of the American Welding Society. We were also taught skills that would help us get a job—such as how to fill out a job application. I have taught in high schools. ICT is a cooperative work experience program that coordinates school experiences with real jobs. There I was taught basic welding principles and applications. and other academic courses for graduation. schools for the deaf. race cars. There my welding skills were refined. and so on. . and more. and brazing. and others. administrators. small tankers. my supervisor allowed me to apply my new welding skills to more difficult jobs. skilled workforce. Tennessee. These are all things that I still use in my life today. Z. I have welded on tanks.About the Author xvii About the Author During my junior year of high school. This is how I earned money toward my college education. I found other welding jobs that allowed me to continue my education at the University of Tennessee. shielded metal arc welding. I was given an opportunity to join Mr. how to interview. This allowed me to attend high school in the morning. After graduation I started a full-time job as a welder at Barbour Boat Works. I had become a fairly skilled welder. and I was allowed to work with the other welders in the shipyard. tugboats. I had both a college degree and four years of industrial experience. where I completed my required English. As my welding skills improved. After four years. oil well drilling equipment. The practice welds helped me develop welding skills. math. where I earned a bachelor’s degree. and respect. which together qualified me for my job as a vocational teacher. service. By the end of my junior year. buildings. and three colleges. and I was able to build a number of projects in shop using oxyacetylene welding. The mission of SkillsUSA is to help our students become world-class workers and responsible American citizens. I learned to weld in metal shop. I welded on barges. After graduating from Hiwassee. I learned a great deal about industry and business. making intermittent welds to attach the deck to the barge’s ribs. and government in a coordinated effort to address America’s need for a globally competitive.

. . . 68 Excessive Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . It should be noted that not all chapters have Experiments and Practices. . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Reading Duty Cycle Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . 77 Horizontal Stringer Beads Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . 76 Stringer Beads in the Vertical Up Position Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Welded Horizontal (2G) Square Butt Weld Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . 89 . . . . . . . . . . 87 Outside Corner Joint in the Overhead Position Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Outside Corner Joint in the Horizontal Position Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . 70 Effect of Changing the Electrode Angle on a Weld . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . 84 Edge Joint in the Overhead Position Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Outside Corner Joint in the Flat Position Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Edge Joint in the Vertical Up Position Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . 69 Effect of Changing the Arc Length on a Weld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Outside Corner Joint in the Vertical Up Position Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . 67 Effects of Amperage Changes on a Weld Bead . . . . . . . 59 Repairing Electrode Holders. . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . 82 Edge Joint in the Vertical Down Position Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . 80 Edge Weld in the Flat Position Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . 58 Determining Welding Lead Sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Welded Square Butt Joint in the Flat Position (1G) Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Estimating Amperages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Chapter 4 Practice 4-1 Experiment 4-1 Experiment 4-2 Experiment 4-3 Experiment 4-4 Experiment 4-5 Experiment 4-6 Practice 4-2 Practice 4-3 Practice 4-4 Practice 4-5 Practice 4-6 Practice 4-7 Practice 4-8 Practice 4-9 Practice 4-10 Practice 4-11 Practice 4-12 Practice 4-13 Practice 4-14 Practice 4-15 Practice 4-16 Practice 4-17 Shielded Metal Arc Welding Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Straight Stringer Beads in the Flat Position Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Edge Joint in the Horizontal Position Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . 66 Striking the Arc Accurately. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Striking the Arc. . . . . . . 86 Outside Corner Joint in the Vertical Down Position Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes .xviii Index of Experiments and Practices Index of Experiments and Practices The following Experiments and Practices are listed in the order in which they appear in the chapter. . . 54 Calculating the Amperage Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . 79 Vertical (3G) Up-Welded Square Butt Weld Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 Experiment 3-1 Experiment 3-2 Practice 3-1 Practice 3-2 Practice 3-3 Practice 3-4 Practice 3-5 Estimating Amperages . . . . . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Calculating Amperages . . . .

. . . . . . . 166 Effect of Flame. . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Chapter 5 Practice 5-1 Practice 5-2 Practice 5-3 Practice 5-4 Practice 5-5 Practice 5-6 Practice 5-7 Practice 5-8 Practice Practice Practice Practice 5-9 5-10 5-11 5-12 Beading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . 117 Chapter 6 Practice 6-1 Practice 6-2 Practice 6-3 Experiment 6-1 Practice 6-4 Practice 6-5 Practice 6-6 Practice 6-7 Practice 6-8 Practice 6-9 Practice 6-10 Practice 6-11 Root Pass on Plate with a Backing Strip in All Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes for the Root Pass and E7018 Electrodes for the Filler and Cover Passes . . . . . . . Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes for the Root Pass with E7018 Electrodes for the Filler and Cover Passes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1G Position. . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5G Position. . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes for the Root Pass and E7018 Electrodes for the Filler and Cover Passes . . . . . 115 Stringer Bead. . . . . 167 Effect of Flame. 130 Cover Bead in All Positions . 114 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Open Root Weld on Plate Using the Step Technique in All Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Tee Joint in the Flat Position (1F) Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Hot Pass to Repair a Poor Weld Bead . . . . . . . 5G Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes for the Root Pass and E7018 Electrodes for the Filler and Cover Passes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Index of Experiments and Practices Practice 4-18 Practice 4-19 Practice 4-20 Practice 4-21 Practice 4-22 Practice 4-23 Practice 4-24 Practice 4-25 Welded Lap Joint in the Flat Position (1F) Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Straight Cut in Thick Plate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6G Position. . . . . 92 Lap Joint in the Overhead Position (4F) Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . 170 xix . . . . Straight Cut in Thin Plate . . . 114 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Cleaning a Cutting Tip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. 116 Butt Joint. and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . 92 Lap Joint in the Vertical Position (3F) Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . 6G Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5G Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Root Pass on Plate with an Open Root in All Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1G Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2G Position. . Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Flat. . 94 Tee Joint in the Horizontal Position (2F) Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . and Pressure on a Machine Cut . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . 137 Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Single V-groove Open Root Butt Joint with an Increasing Root Opening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . 2G Position. . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Lighting the Torch . . 90 Welded Lap Joint in the Horizontal Position (2F) Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes and E7018 Electrodes . . . . 1G Position. and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . and Pressure on a Hand Cut . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . 110 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Setting the Gas Pressures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes and E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . 116 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Single V-groove Open Root Butt Joint with a Decreasing Root Opening. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes and E7018 Electrodes . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2G Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes and E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Stringer Bead. . . . . . 129 Multiple Pass Filler Weld on a V-joint in All Positions . . . . . Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . 144 Chapter 7 Practice 7-1 Practice 7-2 Practice 7-3 Practice 7-4 Experiment 7-1 Experiment 7-2 Experiment 7-3 Practice 7-5 Practice 7-6 Setting Up a Cutting Torch . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . 94 Tee Joint in the Vertical Position (3F) Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Observing Heat Produced during a Cut . . . 117 Butt Joint. . . 94 Tee Joint in the Overhead Position (4F) Using E6010 or E6011 Electrodes. . . 138 Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) . . . . . . Speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Flat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) . . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . E6012 or E6013 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Stringer Bead. . . . . . . . . . . . . 6G Position. . . . . . . . . . and E7016 or E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Multiple Pass Filler Weld on a V-joint in All Positions Using E7018 Electrodes . . . . . . . . .

. . . 193 Flat. . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Beveling a Plate . . . . . . . . . . 256 Flat Position Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . 2G (Vertical) Position . . . . Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Stringer Bead at a 45° Vertical Down Angle . . Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Butt Joint and Tee Joint in the Overhead Position with 100% Penetration . . . . . . . . Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Setting the Current . . . . . . 1G (Horizontal Rolled) Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Overhead Straight Cut . . . . . . . 172 Cutting Out Internal and External Shapes . . . . . . . . . 267 . . . . . . . . . . 260 Stringer Bead in the Vertical Up Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Chapter 9 Practice Practice Practice Practice 9-1 9-2 9-3 9-4 Air Carbon Arc Straight Cut in the Flat Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Square Cut on Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Flame Cutting Holes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Stringer Bead in the Vertical Down Position . . 174 Square Cut on Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . and Tee Joint in the Vertical Down Position . . . and Tee Joint. . . . . . . . 175 Chapter 8 Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 Flat. . . . . . . . 262 Butt Joint. . . . . . 1G (Horizontal Rolled) Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welds to Be Tested. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Straight Cuts in Thin Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Butt Joint and Tee Joint in the Overhead Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Tee Joint in the Vertical Up Position at a 45° Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Tee Joint. . . . 5G (Horizontal Fixed) Position. . . . . . . . . . 209 Air Carbon Arc Back Gouging in the Flat Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Minimizing Distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Tee Joint in the Vertical Up Position. . . . . . . . . 264 Stringer Bead in the Horizontal Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Butt Joint and Tee Joint in the Horizontal Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Stringer Beads Using the Short-circuiting Metal Transfer Method in the Flat Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Effect of Shielding Gas Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Straight Cuts in Thick Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Square Cut on Pipe. . . . . . . . . 263 Butt Joint. . . . . . Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . and Tee Joint in the Horizontal Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welds to Be Tested. . . . . . . . . . Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Butt Joint. . . . . . All Welds to Be Tested. Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Tee Joint in the Overhead Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Square Cut on Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . 258 Flat Position Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Air Carbon Arc Edge Cut in the Flat Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Stringer Bead Overhead Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Flat Position Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Vertical Straight Cut . 193 Flat Cutting Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Horizontal Stringer Bead at a 45° Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welds to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Butt Joint and Tee Joint in the Vertical Down Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Chapter 11 Practice 11-1 Practice 11-2 Experiment 11-1 Experiment 11-2 Experiment 11-3 Experiment 11-4 Experiment 11-5 Practice 11-3 Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice 11-4 11-5 11-6 11-7 11-8 11-9 11-10 Practice 11-11 Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice 11-12 11-13 11-14 11-15 11-16 11-17 11-18 11-19 11-20 11-21 11-22 11-23 11-24 11-25 11-26 GMAW Equipment Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All with 100% Penetration. . . . . . and Tee Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Air Carbon Arc Weld Removal in the Flat Position . . . . . . . . . . Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Threading GMAW Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 U-grooving of a Plate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Electrode Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Welding Gun Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Beveling of a Plate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xx Index of Experiments and Practices Practice 7-7 Practice 7-8 Experiment 7-4 Practice 7-9 Practice 7-10 Practice 7-11 Practice 7-12 Practice 7-13 Practice 7-14 Practice 7-15 Practice 7-16 Flat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Stringer Bead at a 45° Vertical Up Angle . . . 267 Stringer Bead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Straight Cut in Sheet Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . All Welds to Be Tested. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Setting Gas Flow Rate. . . . . 265 Butt Joint and Tee Joint in the Horizontal Position with 100% Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Butt Joint and Tee Joint in the Vertical Down Position with 100% Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Tee Joint in the Vertical Up Position with 100% Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Tee Joint 1F 100% to Be Tested . . . 1G Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Butt Joint to Be Tested . . 322 Butt Joint 2G 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Tee Joint and Lap Joint in the 2F Position . . . . . . 320 Tee Joint 2F 100% to Be Tested . . . 315 Butt Joint 3G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 2F 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . 305 Butt Joint 1G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Tee Joint and Lap Joint in the 1F Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Tee Joint 2F . . . . . . . . 315 Butt Joint 3G 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Tee Joint 4F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Tee Joint 3F 100% to Be Tested . . . . . 268 Butt Joint with 100% Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Butt Joint 4G 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Butt Joint 3G 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Stringer Bead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 3F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Butt Joint 1G 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . 317 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 2F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 1F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Tee Joint 3F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Tee Joint Using the Axial Spray Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Butt Joint. . . . . . 271 Chapter 13 Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice 13-1 13-2 13-3 13-4 13-5 13-6 13-7 13-8 13-9 13-10 13-11 13-12 13-13 13-14 13-15 13-16 13-17 13-18 13-19 13-20 13-21 13-22 13-23 13-24 13-25 13-26 13-27 13-28 13-29 13-30 13-31 13-32 13-33 13-34 13-35 13-36 13-37 13-38 13-39 13-40 13-41 13-42 13-43 13-44 13-45 13-46 13-47 13-48 13-49 13-50 13-51 FCAW Equipment Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Fillet Weld Joint at a 45° Vertical Up Angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Butt Joint 4G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Butt Joint 4G 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . 320 Butt Joint 2G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 3F 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Butt Joint 1G 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Butt Joint 1G 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Butt Joint at a 45° Vertical Up Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 Stringer Beads Flat Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 xxi . . . . . . . 322 Butt Joint 2G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 1F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Index of Experiments and Practices Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice 11-27 11-28 11-29 11-30 11-31 11-32 11-33 11-34 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Butt Joint 3G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Butt Joint at a 45° Vertical Up Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Butt Joint 1G 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Butt Joint 2G 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Butt Joint 4G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Butt Joint 1G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Tee Joint 4F 100% to Be Tested . . . . 322 Butt Joint 2G 100% to Be Tested . 325 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 4F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Butt Joint 2G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Butt Joint 3G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320 Stringer Bead at a 45° Horizontal Angle . . . . . . . . 301 Butt Joint 1G. . . . 308 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 1F 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 4F 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Butt Joint 3G 100% to Be Tested . . . . . 311 Tee Joint 1F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Butt Joint 4G 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 1F 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Butt Joint 4G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Butt Joint 1G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Threading FCAW Wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Butt Joint and Tee Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . 386 Tee Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3G Position. . . . . . . 1G Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . on Stainless Steel . . . . . . . 331 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 4F 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . 390 Butt Joint at a 45° Vertical Angle. . 391 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F Position. . . . . . . 3G Position. . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . 388 Stringer Bead at a 45° Vertical Angle. . . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Stringer Bead. . . . . . 365 Chapter 16 Experiment 16-1 Experiment 16-2 Practice 16-1 Practice 16-2 Practice 16-3 Practice 16-4 Practice 16-5 Practice 16-6 Practice 16-7 Practice 16-8 Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice 16-9 16-10 16-11 16-12 16-13 16-14 16-15 16-16 16-17 Practice 16-18 Practice 16-19 Practice 16-20 Practice 16-21 Practice 16-22 Practice 16-23 Practice Practice Practice Practice 16-24 16-25 16-26 16-27 Setting the Welding Current . . . . . . . . . 330 Butt Joint 3G 100% to Be Tested . . . . Using Mild Steel. . Aluminum . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 100% Penetration. . . . . . . . . .xxii Index of Experiments and Practices Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice 13-52 13-53 13-54 13-55 13-56 13-57 13-58 13-59 13-60 13-61 13-62 13-63 Butt Joint 3G. . . 352 Melting the Tungsten End Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flat Position. . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . 384 Butt Joint. . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to Be Tested. . . . . . . . . . . . . to Be Tested. . 395 Stringer Bead at a 45° Reclining Angle. . Aluminum . . . . . . . with 100% Root Penetration. . . . Aluminum . . . . . . . 330 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 3F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . to Be Tested. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. 1G Position. 395 Tee Joint. . . . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to Be Tested. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Chapter 15 Experiment Experiment Experiment Experiment Experiment 15-1 15-2 15-3 15-4 15-5 Grinding the Tungsten to the Desired Shape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . Flat Position. . . Aluminum. . . . . . . . . to Be Tested. . . . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . . . . 383 Butt Joint. . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Stringer Bead. . 380 Stringer Beads. . . . . . 1G Position. . . . . . 3F Position. 393 Lap Joint at a 45° Vertical Angle. . . . . to Be Tested. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Flat Position. . Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . 393 Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 379 Stringer Beads. . . . 1F Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to Be Tested. . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 4F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. 3G Position. . . with 100% Penetration. Using Mild Steel. . . . Aluminum . . . . . . on Mild Steel . . 1G Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 2F . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . 351 Removing a Contaminated Tungsten End by Breaking . . . 374 Setting Gas Flow. . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. 386 Lap Joint. . . Using Mild Steel. . Using Mild Steel. . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . 2G Position. . . . . . 332 Chapter 14 Experiment 14-1 SA Welding . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . 331 Butt Joint 4G. . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Butt Joint 2G. . . . 330 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 2F 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Striking an Arc . . Aluminum . . . . . . . 385 Lap Joint. . . Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . Aluminum. . . . . . with Minimum Distortion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . 3F Position. . . . 353 Setting Up a GTA Welder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3F Position. . . 396 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 388 Tee Joint. . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . 331 Butt Joint 4G 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376 Stringer Beads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2G Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . . . . . with 100% Root Penetration. . . . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381 Outside Corner Joint. . . . . . . . . . 393 Lap Joint. . . . . 331 Butt Joint 2G 100% to Be Tested . Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1F Position. . . Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3F Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . Aluminum . Using Mild Steel. . . . . 396 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . on Aluminum . . . . . . . 330 Lap Joint and Tee Joint 3F 100% to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . with 100% Penetration. . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . Aluminum. . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . . . . 394 Tee Joint at a 45° Vertical Angle. . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . 395 Tee Joint. . . . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2G Position. . . . . . . . . . Flat Position. . 384 Butt Joint. . . . . . . .

Aluminum. . . . . 414 Filler Pass (1G Position). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Stringer Bead. . . . Aluminum. 416 Single-V Butt Joint (5G Position) A. . . . . . . . 459 Chapter 19 Practice Practice Practice Practice 19-1 19-2 19-3 19-4 Writing a Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) . . . . . . . . . 492 Chapter 21 Practice 21-1 Practice 21-2 Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice 21-3 21-4 21-5 21-6 21-7 21-8 21-9 21-10 Welder Qualification Test Plate for Limited Thickness Horizontal 2G Position with E7018 Electrodes. . 398 Chapter 17 Practice 17-1 Practice 17-2 Experiment 17-1 Practice 17-3 Practice 17-4 Practice 17-5 Practice 17-6 Practice 17-7 Practice 17-8 Practice 17-9 Practice 17-10 Practice 17-11 Practice 17-12 Practice 17-13 Tack Welding Pipe . 100% Root Penetration to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2F Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 100% Root Penetration. . 555 Flux Cored Arc Welding—Gas Shielded (FCAW-G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding on Plain Carbon Steel (GTAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2F Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 Single-V Butt Joint (6G Position) A. . . . . . . . . . 4G Position. . 100% Root Penetration to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 Allowing Space for the Kerf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Root Penetration May Vary B. . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458 Bill of Materials. . Horizontal Rolled Position (1G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Root Penetration May Vary B. . Stainless Steel. . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . . . . . 487 Finding Weld Groove Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stainless Steel. . . 421 Chapter 18 Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice 18-1 18-2 18-3 18-4 18-5 Layout Square. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575 Welder and Welder Operator Qualification Test Record (WPS) . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . 100% Root Penetration to Be Tested . . . 4G Position. . . . . . . 416 Stringer Bead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to Be Tested. . 458 Nesting Layout . . Aluminum . . . . to Be Tested. . Stainless Steel. . 491 Calculate the Weight of Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408 Root Pass. . . . . . . . . . 397 Tee Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) . . . . . . 579 xxiii . . . . . . . 418 Stringer Bead. . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Rolled Position (1G). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558 Flux Cored Arc Welding Self-shielded (FCAW) . . . . . . . . . 398 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. 571 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding on Aluminum (GTAW) . . . . . . . 397 Tee Joint. . . . . . . 398 Lap Joint. Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1G Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552 Gas Metal Arc Welding—Short-circuit Metal Transfer (GMAW-S). Stainless Steel. . . . . . Stainless Steel. . 413 Weave and Lace Beads. . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . 420 Stringer Bead on a Fixed Pipe at a 45° Inclined Angle (6G Position) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4F Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . Arcs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415 Cover Pass (1G Position) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Root Penetration May Vary B. . . . . . . . 2F Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 Single-V Butt Joint (2G Position) A. . . Vertical Fixed Position (2G) . . . . . . . . . Rectangular. . . . . . . . . . . 561 Gas Metal Arc Welding Spray Transfer (GMAW) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 100% Root Penetration. . . 567 Gas Tungsten Arc Welding on Stainless Steel (GTAW). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4F Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Curves . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum . . 398 Tee Joint. . . . . . . . . . . 2F Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Using Mild Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Triangular Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Lap Joint. . . . . . . . 548 Welder Qualification Test Plate for Limited Thickness Vertical 3G Position with E7018 Electrodes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to Be Tested . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Fixed Position (5G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Rolled Position (1G) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Index of Experiments and Practices Practice 16-28 Practice 16-29 Practice 16-30 Practice 16-31 Practice Practice Practice Practice 16-32 16-33 16-34 16-35 Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aluminum . . 410 Repairing a Root Pass Using a Hot Pass . Using Mild Steel. . . . . 458 Laying Out Circles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 Single V-groove Pipe Weld. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397 Stringer Bead. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781 Tee Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781 Stringer Bead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 782 Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 782 Effect of Changing Angle on Molten Weld Pool . . . . . 784 5G Position . . . . . . 738 Shutting Off and Disassembling Oxyfuel Welding Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1G Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flat Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Position . . . . . . . Horizontal Position . 767 Stringer Bead. . . . 764 Effect of Torch Angle and Torch Height Changes . . . 607 Temper Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overhead Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786 Chapter 29 Chapter 30 . . . . . . . 770 Butt Joint with Minimum Distortion . . . . . . 735 Lighting and Adjusting an Oxyacetylene Flame. . . . 779 Tee Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786 Stringer Bead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 739 Experiment 29-1 Experiment 29-2 Burn Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783 Stringer Bead. . . . . . . . . . . . Flat Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721 Setting Up an Oxyfuel Torch Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 779 Horizontal Stringer Bead at a 45° Sheet Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 780 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 734 Turning On and Testing a Torch . . . . . . . . . . . 772 Tee Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 774 Stringer Bead at a 45° Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5G Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Position . . . . . 771 Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619 Chapter 24 Experiment 24-1 Identifying Metal Using a Spark Test . . . . 777 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608 Crystal Formation. . . . . . . . . . . Flat Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 781 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . with 100% Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overhead Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784 Stringer Bead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 777 Butt Joint at a 45° Angle . . . . . . 747 Oxyfuel Flames. . . . . . . . . Flat Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overhead Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 784 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 Chapter 28 Experiment 28-1 Practice 28-1 Practice 28-2 Practice 28-3 Practice 28-4 Line Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 779 Tee Joint at a 45° Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 770 Butt Joint with 100% Penetration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1G Position . . . Vertical Position. . . . . . . . 780 Stringer Bead. Horizontal Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778 Lap Joint at a 45° Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 754 Experiment 30-1 Practice 30-1 Experiment 30-2 Practice 30-2 Experiment 30-3 Practice 30-3 Practice 30-4 Practice 30-5 Practice 30-6 Practice 30-7 Practice 30-8 Practice 30-9 Practice 30-10 Practice 30-11 Practice 30-12 Practice 30-13 Practice 30-14 Practice 30-15 Practice 30-16 Practice 30-17 Practice 30-18 Practice 30-19 Practice 30-20 Practice 30-21 Practice 30-22 Practice 30-23 Practice 30-24 Practice 30-25 Practice 30-26 Practice 30-27 Experiment 30-4 Experiment 30-5 Experiment 30-6 Practice 30-28 Practice 30-29 Experiment 30-7 Practice 30-30 Flame Effect on Metal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 783 Stops and Starts. . . . . . 776 Stringer Bead. . . . . . . 782 Tee Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765 Effect of Rod Size on the Molten Weld Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 765 Beading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763 Pushing a Molten Weld Pool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flat Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1G Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 778 Lap Joint. . . . . Vertical Position . . . 618 Effect of Quenching and Tempering on Metal Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . 780 Lap Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 768 Outside Corner Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxiv Index of Experiments and Practices Chapter 23 Experiment Experiment Experiment Experiment 23-1 23-2 23-3 23-4 Latent and Sensible Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overhead Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809 Brazed Lap Joint . . . . 811 Brazed Lap Joint. . . . . . 2G Vertical Down Position . . . . . . . . . Thin to Thick Metal . 820 Soldering Copper Pipe. . . 807 Brazed Stringer Bead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thick Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6G Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814 Round Surface Buildup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 816 Silver Brazing Copper Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787 Stringer Bead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 786 Stringer Bead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809 Brazed Tee Joint . . . . . . . . . 2G Vertical Up Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thick Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 809 Brazed Lap Joint with 100% Penetration . . . . . . 807 Tinning or Phase Temperature . 1G Position . . . . 819 Soldering Copper Pipe. . . . . . . . . . 811 Brazed Tee Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . 813 Braze Welding to Fill a Hole. . . . . . . . . . . 819 Soldering Copper Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819 Soldered Lap Joint . . . . . . . . . . . . . 813 Braze Welded Tee Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4G Vertical Up Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788 Chapter 31 Experiment 31-1 Experiment 31-2 Experiment 31-3 Experiment 31-4 Practice 31-1 Practice 31-2 Practice 31-3 Practice 31-4 Practice 31-5 Practice 31-6 Practice 31-7 Practice 31-8 Practice 31-9 Practice 31-10 Practice 31-11 Practice 31-12 Practice 31-13 Practice 31-14 Practice 31-15 Practice 31-16 Practice 31-17 Practice 31-18 Practice 31-19 Practice 31-20 Practice 31-21 Practice 31-22 Paste Range . . . . . . . . . . . 787 Butt Joint. . . 2G Vertical Down Position. . . . . . . . . . . 815 Silver Brazing Copper Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808 Brazed Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821 xxv . . . 6G Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808 Brazed Butt Joint with 100% Penetration . . . . . 818 Soldered Tee Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812 Braze Welded Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814 Flat Surface Buildup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5G Horizontal Fixed Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Index of Experiments and Practices Practice Practice Practice Practice Practice 30-31 30-32 30-33 30-34 30-35 Butt Joint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 818 Silver Brazing Copper Pipe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2G Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 820 Soldering Aluminum to Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 806 Uniform Heating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2G Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thin to Thick Metal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5G Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 802 Fluxing Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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