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This experiment is carried out to study the properties of liquid and gas. The experiment is basically divided into two parts, Part A and Part B. The first part, which is Part A is conducted to study the properties of gas which is to determine the viscosity of the gas. The experiment is done by determining the pressure drop by reading the mercury level of manometer at both sides. This part consist of closing the vacuum pump valve for every 10 seconds after letting the control tap to exhaust the atmosphere. The viscosity of air, which in this experiment, is the viscosity of air, is determined by using the Poiseuille formula which has been calculated to give the value of 9.911 x 10-6 Ns/m2 which is 46.65 percentage of error. It is proved that the viscosity of gas is dependent of pressure. The second part, which is part B is conducted to study the properties of liquid and is divided into two parts. The first part is to determine the viscosity of liquid and the second part is to determine the density of liquid. The first part is to determine the viscosity of the liquid, where in this part glycerine was used. It is done by recording the time taken for the ball bearing which is denser than the glycerine to fall at the bottom of the viscometer. Stoke law of drag force is used to determine the viscosity of the liquid and is calculated to give the value of 14.9878 Ns/m2. It is also proved that the viscosity of liquid is temperature dependent, it increase as the temperature decreases. The second part is done to determine the density of liquid, which in this experiment, methanol is used. This part is basically done by measuring the weight of the pycnometer tube containing distilled water and alcohol before and after it is submerged into the viscometer. The buoyancy correction formula is used to determine the density of distilled water and methanol which then will be compared with the theoretical value. The calculated density of distilled water is 993.319 kg/m3 while the calculated density of methanol is 766.79 kg/m3. The experiment is successfully conducted and completed.
Viscosity is a measure of a fluid's resistance to flow and it describes the internal friction of a moving fluid. A fluid with large viscosity resists motion because its molecular makeup gives it a lot of internal friction. A fluid with low viscosity flows easily because its molecular makeup results in very little friction when it is in motion. The word viscosity drives from the Latin word viscum which is a type of a glue that made from berries and used to coat lime-twigs to catch birds. Viscosity is denoted as µ (mu) is actually represent a fluid property that indicates the resistance of fluid to flow. In industrial, many plant operations involved gases and liquids and because of that engineer very concerns with the transformation and distribution of materials in bulk. Engineers need to design a plant that can achieve not only final product but high quality final product by take into account the physical and chemical properties of these materials. Hence, engineer need to understand and know the physical and chemical properties of these materials. Even though it is supposed the thermodynamic properties of gases and liquids are known with accuracy sufficient for practically all technological purposes, this is not in fact the case. As an expert in this field, they need to know the basic concept how this properties will affect the process. Although such properties can sometimes be estimated from thermodynamic models, it is often essential to measure key properties in order to confirm or optimize the available models. Furthermore, the development to a large extent upon the availability of appropriate experimental data.
Aims / Objective
This experiment is divided into two parts which area Part A and Part B. For Part A, the objective is to determine the viscosity of gases and also to observe the effect of pressure on the properties of gases. Meanwhile for Part B, the objective is to (i) determine the viscosity and (ii) the density of liquid with different temperature and to observe the effect of temperature on the properties of liquid. Besides that, the experiment is conducted to compare the theoretical value of viscosity of gases and liquids with experimental value obtained.
Viscosity is a measurement of how resistant a fluid is to attempts to move through it. A fluid with a low viscosity is said to be "thin," while a high viscosity fluid is said to be "thick." It is easier to move through a low viscosity fluid than a high viscosity fluid. When two layers of fluids move past one another with a certain relative velocity, both layers experience a force which tends to oppose their relative motions. The magnitude of this force is reliant on two variable, which are the area of the plane of contact between the layers and the velocity gradient normal to it, because of that total of force (f) required is assumed to be directly proportional to the area (A) of the layers in contact and the velocity difference (v) between the layers. However, the force is inversely proportional to the distance (d) between the layers. Mathematically, equation of viscosity (n) is derived from equation below; 𝑓
η = viscosity ( ) 𝑚𝑠
A = area (A) of the layers in contact (m) V = velocity difference (m/s) D = distance between the layers F = total force (N/m) The SI Units for viscosity of kg m-1 s-1. However, the unit that is typically used in industrial is called the poise (P), where P = 1 gram cm-1 s-1. For gas viscosity, it usually used micropoise (µP) as it units, meanwhile for liquid viscosity is centipoise (cP).
The viscosity reliant on pressure, temperature, and density. The viscosity increases when the temperature increase and for most liquids, however, the temperature dependence is opposite, where the viscosity decreases with temperature. The concept of laminar flow and viscosity in fact is basically the same because both related to resistance to surface layer. The molecules of fluid will have zero speed when it flow over next to the surface. The speed increases with the distance from the molecules to the surface. This change in speed effect shows the friction exerted on the gas and liquid, where each molecules being pushed past each other. Thus, viscosity determines the amount of friction, which in turn determines the amount of energy absorbed by the flow. As the temperature of the liquid fluid increases its viscosity decreases. In the liquids the cohesive forces between the molecules predominates the molecular momentum transfer between the molecules, mainly because the molecules are closely packed. When the liquid is heated the cohesive forces between the molecules reduce thus the forces of attraction between them reduce, which eventually reduces the viscosity of the liquids. A considerable amount of research has been carried out in an attempt to verify the effect of temperature to viscosity and they found that the viscosity obeys an Arrhenius-like equation;
Where; K = Chemical Rate Reaction A = Pre-exponential factor Ea = Activation Energy R = Gas Constant T = Temperature (K)
Liquid has a unique viscosity behavior, where it exhibits different behavior compare to other ordinary liquids. Many empirical equations which were applied to liquid water failed to predict the exact value of the viscosity. However, some reference books show that the value of viscosity of liquid is 0.3 Ns/m2 (0.03 P). Meanwhile, the value of viscosity of air is 1.87 x 10- 5 Ns/m2 (1.87 x 10- 6 P).
The liquids used as the lubrication fluid and for number of other applications should be selected properly considering the operating temperatures. At high temperatures the liquids loose viscosity; hence 4
in the engine the fluid used for lubrication should be such that it should be able maintain its viscosity even at the high temperatures. At low temperatures the viscosity of the fluid increases, hence in the refrigerating compressor the fluid selected for the lubrication should be such that it is able to maintain value of viscosity at the lowest and highest temperatures inside the compressor. Poiseuille’s Law is used to calculate the viscosity of a liquid that flows in a cylindrical tube (in this case manometer) and when rearrange the equation the relationship between time, t, and change in manometer level can be calculated by using the following expression; 𝑡
Where; t = time of experiment (s) µ = viscosity (Ns/m2) L = length of tube (0.5 m)
8𝐿𝑉°𝜇 (𝑃𝐴 + 𝑃2)(𝑃𝐴 − 𝑃1) 𝑙𝑛 𝑃𝐴 𝑟^4 𝜋 (𝑃𝐴 − 𝑃2)(𝑃𝐴 + 𝑃1)
V0 = volume of the vessel (0.0193 m3) r = radius of tube (0.000575 m) P1= initial pressure (N/ m2) P2= final pressure (N/ m2) PA= Atmospheric pressure (N/ m2)
For pressure, it can be calculated by using the following expression;
P = ⍴gh
Where; ⍴ = density of manometer fluid (kg/ m3) g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2) h = height of mercury (m) 5
George Gabriel Stokes, an Irish-born mathematician, worked most of his professional life describing fluid properties. Perhaps his most significant accomplishment was the work describing the motion of a sphere in a viscous fluid. The Strokes’ Law describe that, the force required to move a sphere through a quiescent, viscous fluid at specific velocity. This law will form the basis of this laboratory investigation. As a matter of fact, the total forces on a particle moving in a fluid consist of two parts, which are skin friction and also drag formation. Skin friction occurs due to the shearing of a liquid whereas drag formation is a result from the formation of a wake behind the particle and corresponding dissipation of energy. Both forces depend upon rate at which the particle is travelling. Skin friction is predominant in viscous range while drag formation is predominant in turbulent range. The viscosity of fluid can be calculate by using formula;
Where; d = diameter of sphere (m) g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s2) µ = viscosity of fluid (kg/s.m) ps = density of sphere (kg/ m3) p = density of fluid (kg/m3) The velocity is terminal velocity the sphere will attain falling through the liquid or gas. The equation above works if the motion is slow enough to keep the flows in laminar domain. Once the speeds increase past a limit, the drag grows at large rates. Sometimes it is necessary to figure out if the dominant variable is the viscous flow or inertial flow. When a spherical particle moves in a fluid, it will accelerate until the net downward force is balanced by the upward drag force.
Part A: Determination of Viscosity of Gas 1. The Armfield Properties of gases and liquid apparatus i. ii. iii. iv. v. Manometer Vacuum control valve Vacuum vessel Capillary tube Control tab
Part B (i): Determination Viscosity of Liquid 1. Viscometer 2. Thermostatic bath 3. Vernier scale 4. Stopwatch 5. Ball bearing 6. Glycerol 7. Weighing scale
Part B (ii): Determination of Density of Liquid 1. Pycnometer 2. Thermostatic bath 3. Methanol 4. Distilled water 5. Weighing scale
Part A: Determination of Viscosity of Gas 1. Vacuum was switch on. 2. The pressure valve was fully opened. 3. When mercury inside manometer reach maximum height, the pressure valve was closed. 4. The pressure difference on the manometer in mm Hg was recorded by taking the readings on differential height of the mercury inside manometer tube. 5. Vacuum pump valve was closed and the control tap was exhausted to atmosphere, this was closed at 10 seconds intervals and manometer reading was recorded.
Part B (i): Determination Viscosity of Liquid 1. Ball bearing was weighed and diameter of the ball bearing was measured by vernier scale. 2. The glycerol was filled inside viscometer until it was reached neck of cell. 3. The bath switch was opened to circulate water inside thermostatic bath. The viscometer was submerged inside thermostatic bath. The temperature was set at 30 according to the experiment
and was waited until 10 minutes to stabilize the temperature inside viscometer tube. 4. The ball bearing was inserted into the top of the viscometer tube. 5. The stopwatch was started when the ball passes the top mark on the column and was stopped when the ball passes the bottom mark. The time for the ball passes at different height of the viscometer tube was recorded.
Part B (ii): Determination of Density of Liquid 1. Empty pycnometer was weighed. 2. Pycnometer was filled with methanol and was weighed again. 3. The bath switch was opened to circulate water inside thermostatic bath. The pycnometer was submerged inside thermostatic bath. 4. After 10 minutes, the pycnometer was removed from thermostatic bath and pycnometer was weighed again. 5. The procedure was repeated by replacing methanol with distilled water.
Part A: Determination of Viscosity of Gas Time (s) Pressure, P1 (h1) (mmHg) Pressure, P2 (h2) (mmHg) Pressure Difference, ΔP (mmHg) O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 414 374 351 333 322 315 310 306 304 304 186 226 249 267 278 289 292 295 297 297 228 148 102 66 44 29 18 11 7 7 0.8 0.504 0.343 0.221 0.147 0.096 0.060 0.037 0.023 0.023 ln(h1/h2)
Viscosity, μ = 9.977 x 10-6 N.s/m2
Part B (i): Determination Viscosity of Liquid Height of Ball Bearing (mm) 250 – 220 = 30 250 – 200 = 50 250 – 175 = 75 250 – 100 = 150 250 – 25 = 225 250 – 0 = 250 271 286 321 340 180 199 257.33 275 0.000874 0.000909 Time 1st Reading (s) 42 65 94 186 Time 2nd Reading 62 91 125 222 Time 3rd Reading 36 48 67 127 Time Average (s) 46.67 68 95.33 178.33 Velocity, v (m/s) 0.000643 0.000735 0.000787 0.000841
Viscosity, μ = 14.9878 N.s/m
Part B (ii): Determination of Density of Liquid Weight of Pycnometer = 37.57 g Before Submerged into Viscometer Tube Weight of Pycnometer + Distilled Water Weight of Pycnometer + Methanol 65.44 g 63.37 g 71.10 g After Submerged into Viscometer Tube 70.98 g
Theoretical Density, ρH2O = 997 kg/m3 ρmethanol = 791.80 kg/m3
Buoyancy Correction Equation Density, ρH2O = 993.319 kg/m3 ρmethanol = 766.79 kg/m3 10
Sample of calculation
Part A: Determination of Viscosity of Gas
Time of experiment Length of tube Volume of vessel Radius of tube
: : : :
70 s 0.5 m 0.0193 m3 0.000575 m pgh (13534 kg/m3)(9.81 m/s2)(0.76m) 100904.09 N/m2
Atmospheric pressure :
PA - pgh 100904.09 N/m2 - (13534 kg/m3)(9.81 m/s2)(0.148m) 81254.35 N/m2
PA - pgh 100904.09 N/m2 - (13534 kg/m3)(9.81 m/s2)(0.007m) 99974.71 N/m2
(8 L Vo u / PA r4 3.14) x ln [(PA + P2)(PA - P1)/(PA - P2) (PA + P1)]
[(8 x 0.5 m x 0.0193 m3 x u) / (100904.09 N/m2 x
0.0005754 m x 3.14)] x ln [(100904.09 N/m2 + 99974.71 N/m2)(100904.09 N/m2 - 81254.35 N/m2)/(100904.09 N/m2 - 99974.71 N/m2)(100904.09 N/m2 + 81254.35 N/m2)] u : 9.977 x 10-6 Ns/m2
Part B (i): Determination Viscosity of Liquid
Density of glycerol Density of ball Diameter of ball Mass of ball p v
: : : : : : : :
1261 kg/m3 2139.04 kg/m3 0.5 cm 0.14 g m/v 4/3 x 3.14 x r3 4/3 x 3.14 x (2.5 x 10-2 m)3 6.545 x 10-8 m3 1.4 x 10-4 kg / 6.545 x 10-8 m3 2139.04 kg/m3 (0.000643 + 0.000735 + 0.000787 + 0.000841 + 0.000874 + 0.000909) / 6
7.98167 x 10-4 m/s
[d2 g (ps - p)] / 18 u
7.98167 x 10-4 m/s u
[(5 x 10-3)2 x 9.81 x (2139.04 - 1261)] / 18 u 14.9878 Ns/m2
Part B (ii): Determination of Density of Liquid
Bouyancy correction : m1 m2 Density of water : : : :
(m1 / m2) x density (H2O / methanol) + 1.2 [1 - (m1 /m2)] mass of pycnometer + liquid after submerge mass of pycnometer + liquid before submerge (70.98 g / 71.10 g) x 977 kg/m3 + 1.2 [1 - (70.98 g / 71.10 g) 993.319 kg/m3
Based on the result in Part A, it shows that the longer the time taken, the lower the pressure difference between pressure 1 (h1) and pressure 2 (h2). At the starting point, pressure 1 is 414 mmHg while pressure 2 is 186 mmHg. The pressure difference is the highest which is 228 mmHg. When the time goes on until 90 seconds, pressure 1 is 304 mmHg and pressure 2 is 297 mmHg. The pressure difference at this point is the lowest which is 7 mmHg. This pressure difference is decreasing throughout the experiment. This is due to pressure in atmosphere has entered the manometer tube. At the beginning of this experiment, the manometer tube is in vacuum condition. Then after the pressure 1 and pressure 2 stabilized, the control tap is opened to let the atmospheric pressure enter the manometer tube. Due to this situation, the viscosity of the gas is varies. At the beginning of the experiment, the ln (h1/h2) is 0.8 while at the end of this experiment; the ln (h1/h2) is decrease to 0.023. The viscosity obtained is 9.977×10-6 N.s/m2. This value is less compared to the theoretical value. Therefore, there must have a lot of errors while the experiment was conducted. First, the manometer is old and the scale cannot be seen clearly due to corrosion thus make the readings cannot be accurately taken. Second, the reading taken is once for each 10 seconds. So, the average value for each reading cannot be obtained. The valve supposedly closed after every 10 seconds before reading the pressure indicated on the manometer. If the valve not closed accurately at every 10 seconds, it also will make the readings varies. The viscosity of the gas is increased when temperature increase. The molecules of gas is already far apart and move freely, when the temperature increase, it will make the molecules of gas tend to rapidly move thus make the kinetic energy increase. The molecules are colliding each other and make the intermolecular forces are no longer negligible. But, based on the Poiseuille’s Law, viscosity of gas is depending on the pressure drop. For the Part B (1), the result obtained is used to find the viscosity. In this experiment, the velocity will be obtained, and then it will be used to find the viscosity of the liquid by using the formula. Based on the result, the velocity of the ball to goes down the tube obtained is almost the same. The velocity should not be so varies because the temperature is kept constant. Besides that, the velocity also depends on the height of the ball bearing against time as the ball bearing goes down the cell. The time taken obtained is varies a little bit. This is due to the viscosity of the fluid at certain area is low or high viscous but the difference not so high. For example, at first test, the ball bearing is placed in the middle of the cell, and then the time taken for it to goes down the cell is shorter. Meanwhile, for the second
test, the ball bearing is place near to the wall of cell; the time taken for it to goes down the cell is longer. From this, it can be seen that viscosity at certain area of the fluid is varies a little bit thus make the ball bearing to go down in short or long time. When the viscosity is higher, the time taken will be longer thus make the velocity is low. The viscosity obtained from this part is 14.9878 N.s/m2. Based on the theory above, the viscosity of fluid is difficult to be calculated and the exact value is difficult to be predicted. This value is different compared to theoretical value. This is due to some errors while conducting the experiment. First reason is related to the time taken for the ball to reach bottom. This is because when the distance between required distances is near, the ball will be faster reaching the required distance. So, the time taken will not accurate. Besides that, the temperature also affects the viscosity of the liquid. When the temperature is increase, the viscosity will be decrease because the molecule of liquid will be move away from each other. In the experiment, this proves that the ball bearing is move faster. In Part B (2), the aim is to find the density of the liquid. In this experiment, there are two types of fluid are used which are distilled water and methanol. In this experiment, weight is needed to be finding. Then, the weight obtained is used to find the density by using the formula. The weight used in this test is weight before submerged in the viscometer tube and after submerged into viscometer tube. Inside the viscometer tube has water with maintained temperature at 30°C. Firstly, the weight of the pycnometer needs to be determined first. The weight of the Pycnometer tube is 37.57 grams. At first test, the distilled water is used. This distilled water is poured into the Pycnometer tube and it is weighed. The weight for this first test is 71.10 grams for before submerged into viscometer tube while weight for after submerged into viscometer tube is 70.98 grams. The second test, distilled water is replaced with methanol. The result shown for this test is 65.44 grams for before submerged into viscometer tube and 63.37 grams for after submerged into viscometer tube. The weight is decrease when submerged into viscometer tube. This is due to the temperature inside the viscometer tube. When the distilled water or methanol submerged into warmer temperature, some amount of the fluid will be condensed thus make the weight is decrease. The weight between distilled water and methanol is difference. This is due to relative molecular weight of these two particles is difference. It also is due to the structure of distilled water more complex compared to the structure of methanol.
The theoretical density for distilled water is 997 kg/m3 and theoretical density for the methanol is 791.80 kg/m3. Density obtained by using the buoyancy correction equation for distilled water and methanol is 993.319 kg/m3 and 766.79 kg/m3 respectively. From these result, it can be seen that the value for buoyancy correction equation is different a little bit compared to theoretical value. This is due to some errors while making the experiment. First error is the weight obtained for each test only one time. So, the average cannot be obtained thus accurate reading cannot be obtained. Second, the pycnometer does not wiped properly until the excess water outside wall of pycnometer is removed.
From the experiment, it can be concluded that the viscosity of gas is 9.977 x 10-6 Ns/m2, the viscosity of liquid is 14.9878 Ns/m2 and both density of distilled water and methanol are 993.319 kg/m3 and 766.79 kg/m3 respectively. Since the value differs a lot from the theoretical value, there must be some technical errors and mistakes done during the experiment was carried out. It is proved that the viscosity of gas is dependent of pressure and it is also proved that the viscosity of liquid is temperature dependent, it increase as the temperature decreases.
While doing the Part A of the experiment, the mercury reading should be taken 3 times in order to get a more accurate result. The eye must be made parallel to the scale so that a more accurate reading can be obtained. The manometer tube is stained from the inside thus is hard for the examiners to take a look at the position of the mercury when the experiment is carried out. So a torchlight is advisable to be brought so that taking the reading of the mercury when it passed through the stained part will not be a problem.
Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles (fourth edition)- Christie John Geankoplis. Fluid mechanics (ninth edition)-Dr. R. K. Bansal. www.scribd.com/doc/.../Properties-of-Gas-and-Liquid-Experiment www.chem.purdue.edu/gchelp/liquids/character.html en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosity