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Organized Crime?
The Rise of Nazi Germany

By William P. Litynski

From the Grassy Knoll in Berlin:

Lone Gunman or Patsy?

The Assassination of German Jewish bureaucrat Walther Rathenau, Foreign Minister of Germany, on June 24, 1 22

Foreign Minister of Germany Walther Rathenau !left, hol"ing a cane# was assassinate" on June 24, 1 22$ The German go%ernment signe" the Treaty of Ra&allo with the 'o%iet (nion in )taly on A&ril 1*, 1 22$ +uring Rathenau,s tri& to the Foreign Ministry in -erlin, his car &asse" by another car, with .rnst Werner Techow as the "ri%er an" assassins .rwin /ern an" 0ermann Fischer in the rear$ 12one gunman3 .rwin /ern o&ene" fire with a M4 156submachine gun, 7illing Rathenau8 0ermann Fischer threw a han" grena"e into Rathenau,s car before Techow 9uic7ly "ro%e away$

Walther Rathenau !'e&tember 2 , 15*: ; June 24, 1 22# Foreign Minister of Germany <Weimar Re&ublic= !February 1, 1 22 ; June 24, 1 22#

An )talian maga>ine re&orts on the assassination of Foreign Minister of Germany Walther Rathenau$

Warburg Family & The stablishment of the Weimar !Banana" Re#ubli$: %e&ish 'ons#ira$y or (rganize) 'rime?

Warburg Brothers: 'or#orate *#onsors of the %e&ish +olo$aust?: German6American Jewish ban7er 4aul Warburg !far left, seate"# an" his brothers !from left to right# Feli? Warburg, Ma? Warburg, Frit> Warburg, an" Aby Warburg &ose for a formal &ortrait on August 21, 1 2 $ Paul Warburg &as the Go)father of the Fe)eral Reser,e -.meri$an $entral ban/0 an) ser,e) as the 1i$e Go,ernor 2'hairman3 of the Fe)eral Reser,e from .ugust 456 4748 until .ugust 76 4749: 4aul Warburg an" his brother Feli? Warburg were members of the 'oun$il on Foreign Relations, a &ri%ate foreign affairs organi>ation in @ew Aor7 Bity, "uring the -eer 0all 4utsch in @o%ember 1 2C$ ;a< Warburg &as a )ire$tor of =:G: Farben $hemi$al $artel6 a German $or#oration that s#onsore) .)olf +itler an) his !Bro&n *hirts": The 'econ" -attle of the Marne laste" from July 1D, 1 15 until August *, 1 158 the -attle of Bhateau6Thierry was fought on July 15, 1 15$ !4hotoE The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow#

4hotogra&h of a Fe"eral Reser%e -oar" meeting in circa 1 1:$ Bloc7wise, beginning from leftE William G$ McA"oo !'ecretary of the Treasury#, John '7elton Williams !Bom&troller of the Burrency#, A"ol&h B$ Miller, Fre"eric A$ +elano, un7nown, W$4$G$ 0ar"ing !Go%ernor of the Fe"eral Reser%e#, Paul Warburg -1i$e Go,ernor of the Fe)eral Reser,e0 , an" Bharles '$ 0amlin$ !4hotoE 0arris F .wing BollectionG2ibrary of Bongress#

A ban7 run occurs in -erlin, Germany in @o%ember 1 C1$ The ;u/)en =n$i)ent o$$urre) on *e#tember 496 47>4: The British m#ire &ent off the gol) stan)ar) on *e#tember ?46 47>4:

Disgruntled and unemployed German men wait in a bread line in Berlin, Germany in November 19 !. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

1)n A&ril 1 21, 4aul, encourage" by Ma?, launche" the )nternational Acce&tance -an7 in @ew Aor7$ The )A-,s blue6ribbon sharehol"ers range" from /uhn, 2oeb to the 2on"on Rothschil"s$ 4aul, Feli?, an" M$M$ Warburg also hel" large bloc7s of stoc7$ -an7 was a misnomer for the )A-, which "i"n,t ta7e "e&osits$ )t s&eciali>e" in a form of tra"e finance calle" ban7er,s acce&tances, which ha" long e?iste" in .uro&e, but only became &ossible in America un"er the Fe"$ An acce&tance was a short6 term cre"it e?ten"e" by a ban7 to a customer$ With these cre"its, 4aul ho&e" to rebuil" a shattere" Germany an" by July he was financing German grain im&orts$ 'ince the @a>i s later accuse" Jewish ban7ers of sabotaging the economy, it is worth noting that 4aul an" Ma? acte" as a critical con"uit of Wall 'treet money at a time when cre"it was scarce$ Alrea"y in 1 2H, the Warburgs &ulle" off a big transatlantic "eal for the German electrical com&any, A.G, selling a 9uarter of its new loan issue to the Guggenheims$ 4erha&s 4aul,s most com&elling moti%e in forming the )A- was to hel& Ma? an" the 0amburg firm$ The )A- ga%e uni9ue a"%antages to M$M$ Warburg, which ser%e" as its .uro&ean agent an" e?ecute" much of its .uro&ean business$ -olstere" by the @ew Aor7 connection, Ma? &artici&ate" in share issues for Frie"rich /ru&& an" +aimler Motors in 1 21$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ 224 1The inflation e?acerbate" social tensions in Germany, &ro"ucing a han"ful of winners an" legions of embittere" losers$ (ne"ucate" &eo&le fantasi>e" that Jewish ban7ers orchestrate" this com&le? monetary &henomenon for their gain$ +is&ro&ortionately re&resente" in &ri%ate ban7ing, well6to6"o Jews were generally better e9ui&&e" to "eal with inflation, while el"erly &eo&le on &ensions an" "e&ositors with small ban7 accounts fare" worst$ 4eo&le ra%age" by inflation resentfully watche" financiers shuffle money into foreign currencies or tangible assets to &reser%e their ca&italIWith his Wall 'treet connections, Ma? was courte" by -erlin an" the Foreign Jffice &ro""e" him to tra%el to @ew Aor7 to lobby for an international loan$ Agreeing that only such a loan coul" &ro& u& the &lunging German currency, he &ursue" this theme with Bolonel <."war" Man"ell= 0ouse at the American embassy in -erlin in June 1 21$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ 22* 1Afterwar", 4aul <Warburg= an" Ma? <Warburg= went to Washington, 4aul arranging meetings for his brother with 'ecretary <0erbert= 0oo%er at Bommerce, <Bharles .%ans= 0ughes at 'tate, an" <An"rew= Mellon at Treasury$ These tal7s booste" Ma?,s ho&es that a conference of e?&erts might be con%ene" to re"uce re&arations$ 4aul circulate" a &ri%ate memo "escribing the 1"anse macabre3 of the reichsmar7, with hy&erinflation alrea"y wi&ing out the sa%ings of an alienate" German mi""le classI -y the time he returne", the mar7 was in an alarming free fall$ The French accuse" the Germans of engineering this "ro& to sabotage re&arations, a %iew&oint Ma? <Warburg= an" <Barl= Melchior shar&ly conteste"$ A new go%ernment was hea"e" by Wilhelm Buno, -allin,s successor at 0A4AGIThe new chancellor &lea"e" with France for a re&arations moratorium$ )nstea", France "eclare" Germany in "efault on some timber "eli%eries$ The u&shot was that on January 11, 1 2C, si?ty thousan" French an" -elgian sol"iers too7 o%er the Ruhr to enforce &ayment, by force if necessary$ When the Buno go%ernment calle" for &assi%e resistance in the Ruhr, the French "eci"e" to o&erate the local coal mines an" iron foun"ries themsel%es$ Ma? a&&lau"e" Germany,s though, morale6boosting resistance$ When American lawyer John Foster +ulles "iscusse" the Ruhr with Ma? an" Bhancellor Buno aboar" the '' Albert Ballin, Ma? "efen"e" the 1s&ontaneous resistance of the &o&ulation against %iolence$3 At the same time, Ma? feare" its economic conse9uences$ To sustain stri7ing wor7ers, -erlin ha" to ma7e su&&ort &ayments that woul" further fuel inflation$ )n February, Ma? warne" Buno that the bur"en of su&&orting the "efiant Ruhr wor7ers woul" com&lete Germany,s ruin$ .%erything now hastene" the u&war" s&iral of &rices$ Germany &rinte" money to &ay Ruhr wor7ers while France &ut sei>e" reichsmar7s bac7 into circulation, swelling the money su&&ly$ At M$M$ Warburg, inflation create" a frenetic tem&o that clashe" with the Kictorian formality$ As soon as em&loyees were &ai", they crosse" the street to the /arsta"t "e&artment store an" s&ent the money before &rices rose$ The chea&er mar7 create" a bonan>a for foreign in%estors who bought German &ro&erties at bargain &rices, arousing resentment against the ban7ers who e?ecute" these "eals$ M$M$ Warburg switche" much of its ca&ital into foreign currencies$ With blac7 humor, Ma? Lo7e" that the staff in 1 2C s&ent its time scribbling >eroes in le"gers$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ 2CH62C1 1The moo" brightene" further in Germany when the Allies re"uce" re&arations at the 1 24 +awes conference in 2on"on, but economic relief came at a stee& &olitical &rice$ )n e?change for lower &ayments, the Allies too7 as security a first mortgage on German go%ernment re%enues from ta?es on beer, tobacco, an" other items an" gaine" some control o%er the Reichsban7 an" German railways$ An agent general was a&&ointe" to gauge Germany,s ca&acity to &ay re&arations$ As a sweetener for -erlin, the +awes &lan en%isione" an international loan of un&rece"ente" si>e that woul" ultimately allow Germany to &ay re&arations with borrowe" money, thus starting the fatal carousel of global len"ing that woul" s&in "i>>ily for a "eca"e then colla&se$ After the Reichstag a"o&te" the +awes scheme ami" fierce contro%ersy, J$4$ Morgan an" Bom&any mounte" a giant loan for Germany$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ 2:C

1With Germany the maLor "ebtor of the 1 2Hs an" America the maLor cre"itor, the Warburgs again occu&ie" a &i%otal &lace in transatlantic finance ; &robably the last time the stars were &erfectly aligne" for them$ 4aul,s )nternational Acce&tance -an7 !)A-# organi>e" the American an" Bontinental Bor&oration to e?ten" me"ium6term cre"its to .uro&ean ; es&ecially German ; in"ustry$ 4aul an" Ma? funnele" foreign money into 0amburg state loans an" hel&e" to rebuil" the German merchant marine, confiscate" at war,s en"$ As one 0amburg official later sai", 1Ma? Warburg must get the cre"it, beyon" anyone else, for the re6 emergence of an im&ortant German merchant fleet$3 4aul,s )A- ga%e cre"it to 0A4AG, while Ma? courte" A%erell 0arriman, &ressing him to form a Loint %enture with -allin,s ol" firm$ (n"er the "eal struc7, 0arriman woul" initially &ro%i"e American shi&s, while 0A4AG woul" offer route structures an" ort facilities$ The %enture got 0A4AG u& an" running again, but was fiercely critici>e" by Americans who allege" that 0A4AG shi&s ha" harbore" s&ies an" saboteurs "uring the war$ 4aul ha" a"%ise" +r$ 'chacht on how to tame inflation an" ha" been in%ol%e" in the +awes loan$ As a rewar", the )A- became the American agent for the Reichsban7 an" its Gol" +iscount -an7 subsi"iary, &ro%i"ing the latter with a twenty6fi%e6million6"ollar cre"it that strengthene" Germany at a critical Luncture$ Ma? was now a&&ointe" to the &restigious Generalrat, the Reichsban7 a"%isory boar", a &osition he woul" hol" until 0itler,s a"%ent$ The Wall 'treet money that re%i%e" Germany also carrie" hi""en &erils for the Warburgs$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ 2:4 1Foreign cre"it was a "rug that fostere" a short but artificial &ros&erity in Germany an" Ma? later referre" to the Scheinblte or 1illusory boom3 of 1 2D$ The foreign money, he feare", only mas7e" un"erlying economic &roblems, such as high German ta?es an" the bloate" Weimar bureaucracyIAwash with foreign money, German in"ustry embar7e" on a merger wa%e that &ro"uce" huge trusts an" cartels$ +aimler an" -en> merge"$ The new (nite" 'teel Wor7s arose, secon" only in si>e to ($'$ 'teel$ )n 1 2D, si? large chemical cor&orations forme" the most massi%e trust, )$G$ Farben, which ran7e" as .uro&e,s largest cor&oration$ )t woul" &ro"uce the bul7 of "yes, &harmaceuticals, &hotogra&hic film, nitrogen, an" magnesium ma"e in Germany$ Though a staunch free mar7eter, Ma? fa%ore" in"ustrial mergers an" e?ecute" se%eral of them, inclu"ing that of two @orth 'ea fishing concerns$ As so often in the &ast, Jewish financiers were catalysts of changes that embittere" the losers$ They ai"e" the "e&artment store tren", for instance, which hurt small sho&7ee&ers, who later Loine" @a>i ca"res in "is&ro&ortionate numbers$ Ma? <Warburg= a""e" a boar" seat on )$G$ Farben to twenty6si? others he now hel"$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ 2:462:D 1Jne &ara"o? of the Warburg story is that while the family figure" &rominently in a ma" farrago of @a>i allegations, M$M$ Warburg F Bo$ enLoye" a relati%ely &ri%ilege" &lace in the Thir" Reich$ The same Jewish ban7ers who starre" in the &ages of Der Sturmer enLoye", in &ractice, a certain immunity from attac7$ 0owe%er fierce the @a>i rhetoric against them, they were accor"e" more &ri%ileges than almost any other Jewish grou&, as the @a>is ha&&ily e?&loite" the financial &ower that they so eagerly "enounce"$ They got away with this because &ri%ate ban7s o&erate" in an elite uni%erse foreign to the street hoo"lums an" small sho&7ee&ers who com&rise" the &arty faithful$ With eighteen million reichsmar7s of ca&ital, M$M$ Warburg F Bo$ was &robably the largest an" most eminent &ri%ate ban7 in Germany, ri%ale" only by Men"elssohn F Bo$ in -erlin$ That Germany benefite" from Jewish ban7ers who allege"ly &lun"ere" the Volk was one of @a>ism,s "irty secrets$ The ban7ers ha" something Germany "es&erately nee"e"$ A lot of foreign tra"e floate" through 0amburg on Warburg cre"its an" the @a>is were short of foreign e?change nee"e" to rearm Germany$ An" without strong e?&orts, 0itler coul"n,t create ra&i" Lob growth nee"e" to buttress his regime$ Thus, he grante" a s&ecial "is&ensation to the %ery &eo&le he most re%ile"$ )f this belie" the &arty worl"%iew about the Jews, it ne%er seeme" to "isturb the committe"$ Another factor gi%ing Jewish ban7ers some immunity from attac7 was their international connections$ The Warburgs were a showcase family well 7nown abroa"$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ C:D

Britis* +ield ,ars*al -dmund .llenby enters /erusalem on De0ember 11, 1911, a2ter 0apturing t*e 0ity 2rom t*e %ttoman 3urks. 3*e %ttoman -mpire administered /erusalem 2rom 1411 to 1911.

Le2t to rig*t5 +eli6 Warburg, 7era Wei8mann, +rieda (0*i22 Warburg, and $*aim Wei8mann appear at a Boston 0on2eren0e 2or t*e 9nited Palestine .ppeal in 19 :. +eli6 Warburg, along wit* *is brot*er Paul Warburg, was a member o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations and a partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. banking 2irm in New =ork $ity. "P*oto5 The Warburgs by &on $*ernow)

+eli6 Warburg and *is brot*er ,a6 Warburg visit /erusalem on .pril :, 19 9. +rom rig*t to le2t5 +eli6 Warburg o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. in New =ork $ity and $*airman o2 t*e /oint Distribution $ommittee> ,a6 Warburg o2 t*e ,.,. Warburg bank in ?amburg, Germany> Dr. $yrus .dler, member o2 t*e -6e0utive $ommittee o2 t*e /oint Distribution $ommittee> &ev. ?. Pereira ,endes> ,orris -ngelman, ,ember o2 t*e -6e0utive $ommittee o2 t*e /D$. ,a6 Warburg was a dire0tor o2 '.G. +arben.

Prime ,inister o2 Great Britain Neville $*amberlain meets wit* $*aim Wei8mann, David Ben@Gurion "later Prime ,inister o2 'srael), ,os*e (*arrett "later Prime ,inister o2 'srael), and ot*er members o2 t*e /ewis* Lobby at (t. /amesAs Pala0e in London in 19!9. 3*is p*otograp* was publis*ed in Barnet Litvino22Bs book Weizmann: Last of the Patriarchs.

A"olf 0itlerE Bommunity Jrgani>erM

.)olf +itler@s ;eeting &ith +erbert +oo,er in Berlin Four Aays before .ns$hluss

From Prussia With Lo,e -Vom Preuen Mit Lieben0: 0erbert 0oo%er, former 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates !1 2 61 CC#, %isits A"olf 0itler, Bhancellor of !@a>i# Germany an" +er Fuhrer of the Thir" Reich, in -erlin, Germany on March 5, 1 C5$ From left to rightE 0erbert 0oo%er, A"olf 0itler, +r$ 4aul 'chmi"t !the chief translator an" 0itler,s secretary#, an" 0ugh Robert Wilson !($'$ Ambassa"or to @a>i Germany#$ !4hotoE Aa" Kashem 4hoto Archi%eG-il"archi% 4reussischer /ulturbesit>GA4 4hoto# 0erbert 0oo%er was a member of the 'oun$il on Foreign Relations !a &ri%ate organi>ation in @ew Aor7 Bity#, a member of the Bohemian Gro,e !a 1gentleman,s club3 in northern Balifornia#, an" a member of the Re&ublican 4arty at the time this &hoto was ta7en$ 0ugh Robert Wilson, who ser%e" as the ($'$ Ambassa"or to @a>i Germany from March C, 1 C5 to @o%ember 1*, 1 C5, was a member of */ull & Bones, a secret society at Aale (ni%ersity in @ew 0a%en, Bonnecticut, ($'$A$ Nazi Germany anne<e) .ustria on ;ar$h 4?6 47>96 Bust four )ays after +oo,er met &ith +itler in Berlin:

1For the first time since he ha" "e&arte" from .uro&e in a bla>e of &ersonal glory nineteen years before, 0erbert 0oo%er returne" to that continent early in 1 C5$ The &reci&itous "ecline of his &o&ularity at home ha" no effect on his shining re&utation o%erseas$ )n .uro&e he was still the best67nown an" &erha&s the most a"mire" American$ Aear after year, he ha" "ecline" "o>ens of in%itations from go%ernments, uni%ersities, scientific an" &hilanthro&ic bo"ies eager to e?ten" their hos&itality an" homage$ Finally he "eci"e" to ma7e the tri&$ A 1sentimental Lourney,3 he calle" it, an" that it was in large measure$ 0is %isits to fourteen countries6among them -elgium, France, Austria, B>echoslo%a7ia, Germany, 4olan", an" Finlan"6were for him re&lete with memories of stirring battles against famine an" &lague$ -ut his o%erri"ing &ur&ose went far beyon" sentiment$ )t was a "esire to assay the &ile"6u& &olitical an" i"eological conflicts that clearly hel" the threat of a terrible war$ 0oo%er "iscusse" local an" worl" affairs with about a hun"re" lea"ers whose frien"shi& he ha" enLoye" in the &ast, an" with as many more whom he now met for the first time6inclu"ing twenty6two 4resi"ents, /ings, an" 4rime Ministers, fifteen Foreign Ministers, many Babinet officers, in"ustrial ca&tains, labor lea"ers, &rofessors, an" Lournalists$ .%erywhere e?ce&t in @a>i Germany, 0oo%erNs arri%al "rew &o&ular an" &ress o%ations, o%er an" abo%e the official rece&tions an" eulogies$ 0e was loa"e" with "octorates an" me"als from lea"ing uni%ersities, illumine" Oa""ressesO from "istinguishe" societies$ 'treets were name" for him in -russels, 2ille, 4rague, an" Kalenciennes$ .%en an asteroi", newly "isco%ere" by the -russels Jbser%atory, was name" O0erbertaO in his honor, only to ha%e the name annulle" by an )nternational Astronomical (nion ruling that asteroi"s must be name" for Gree7 go"s$ This was the secon" time he faile" to ma7e the gra"e of Gree7 go"hoo"8 nearly a generation earlier a new asteroi" christene" O0oo%eraO by .uro&ean astronomers was similarly cancele" out by the )nternational (nion$ 'o, 0oo%er remar7e" "ryly, O) lost two &lanets an" ha" to mo%e off of Jlym&us$O At a large welcome6home gathering in 'an Francisco on A&ril 5, 1 C5, 0oo%er e?&resse" a&&reciation of the warmth of his rece&tion in .uro&e$ 0e calle" it Oa uni9ue hos&itality which sel"om comes to men,O e?&resse" in Ogreat "emonstrations of affection an" res&ect for AmericaONE No American can remain unmoved when tens of thousands of school children line the streets with their cheerful ells of !"ong live America#! with the frantic waving of thousands of American $ags% No American can remain unmoved when tens of thousands of the common &eo&le gather in cit s'uares and remove their hats to the American National Anthem% +is meeting &ith .)ol#h +itler6 un)erstan)ably6 &as the one that #ro,o/e) most #ress e<$itement ba$/ home: .$tually Germany ha) not been on the #lanne) itinerary6 e<$e#t as a rail&ay sto#o,er in Berlin: But the .meri$an .mbassa)or6 +ugh R: Wilson6 informe) +oo,er at the station that the Fuhrer &ishe) to see him an) urge) that he a$$e)e to the reCuest: The ambassa)or6 ha,ing arri,e) at the Berlin #ost only re$ently6 &as )elighte) by his o&n o##ortunity to meet +itler for the first time: The meeting too/ #la$e on ;ar$h 9: .lthough s$he)ule) as merely a brief $ourtesy ,isit6 the Fuhrer #rolonge) it to nearly an hour: =n a Collier's arti$le many years later6 a)a#te) from notes ma)e the same )ay in Berlin6 +oo,er sai) that the Nazi )i$tator !&as for$eful6 highly intelligent6 ha) a remar/able an) a$$urate memory6 a &i)e range of information an) a $a#a$ity for lu$i) e<#osition:" .ll of &hi$h6 he in)i$ate)6 &as $ontrary to his !#re$on$e#tions base) on boo/s &hi$h trie) to ma/e him out a )ummy:" =n )is$ussing most subBe$ts6 +itler seeme) entirely rational an) selfD$ontrolle)6 but6 +oo,er &rote6 he ha) !trigger s#ots in his min) &hi$h6 &hen tou$he)6 set him off li/e a man in furious anger:" (ne of these6 of $ourse6 &as 'ommunism: .nother fury button &as )emo$ra$y6 &hi$h +oo,er )efen)e) &ith Cuiet ,igor: +e )i) not /no& then !that +itler ha) alrea)y )etermine) u#on his barbarous in,asion of .ustria four )ays later6" the e<DPresi)ent &rote: !+e $ertainly )i) not $onfi)e in me:" A consi"erably e?aggerate" %ersion of the argument on "emocracy reache" the American &ress$ @a>i officials thereu&on &resse" the %isitor to issue a "enial or, at least, to say a cor"ial wor" about 0itler$ 0oo%er withhel" all comment$ When the (ni%ersity of -erlin offere" to confer a "egree, he &olitely "ecline" the honor$ The following "ay 0oo%er, again accom&anie" by the American Ambassa"or, calle" on the number two @a>i, 0ermann Goering, at his urgent in%itation$ The scene was /arin 0all, the @a>i lea"erNs fabulous resi"ence6cum6museum outsi"e -erlin$ This so6calle" hunting lo"ge woul" ha%e humble" the wil"est 0ollywoo" imagination, with its outsi>e s&len"ors, me"ie%al costumes, gau"y trum&eters, an" %ast art treasures$ Among other things, in tal7ing to the best6informe" men in .uro&e, 0oo%er sought information on the origins of the "e&ression in their countries$ Kiews "iffere" but not one of these men, 0oo%er coul" re&ort, thought that the (nite" 'tates was to blame, as was still being charge" by his "etractors$ OThere has been general reco%ery in .uro&e from that "e&ression,O he tol" his 'an Francisco au"ience$ O)n the "emocracies there is no unem&loyment$ They are in"ee" &ros&erous$ France is, of course, ha%ing trouble because she a"o&te" the @ew +eal two years ago$O 0e was referring to 2oon -lumNs 4o&ular Front go%ernment$ 0oo%er returne" to @ew Aor7 on March 1 $ )n a newsreel inter%iew ten "ays later he state" his con%iction that American &olicy shoul" be one of Oinfle?ible "etermination to 7ee& out of other &eo&leNs wars an" .uro&eNs age6ol" 9uarrels$O 0e ha", &robably 7nowingly, struc7 the 7eynote of his consistent cam&aign, from then until 4earl 0arbor, to 7ee& his country out of war$ )n se%eral s&eeches, he summe" u& the im&ressions he ha" gleane" in his Osentimental Lourney$O 0is con"emnation of @a>ism, of course, was un9ualifie"$ GermanyNs material accom&lishments were consi"erableE reborn military might, nearly full em&loyment, a "egree of security for the masses$ -ut none of this, he cautione", shoul" influence Oa lo%er of human liberty$O The "emocracies, e?ce&t France an" the (nite" 'tates, ha" ma"e e%en larger an" certainly soun"er economic &rogress$ OThe "ar7est &ictureO in Germany, he sai", is &resente" Oin the heart6brea7ing &ersecution of hel&less Jews$O The ine%itable results of the system were Ointellectual sterility an" "ea"ene" initiati%e an" in"i%i"uality$O 0is o%er6all conclusion was that America must remain su&remely strong, an" clear6hea"e" enough to hel& the free &eo&les without becoming embroile" in wars$ We must maintain, he sai", Oabsolute in"e&en"ence of &olitical action$O We must Ocoo&erate in e%ery sane international effort to a"%ance the economic an" social welfare of the worl",O while concentrating on ma7ing the Western 0emis&here in%ulnerable ; the OFortress AmericaO conce&t that was to bring him, "eser%e"ly in the o&inion of most military e?&erts, a continuing hail of bric7bats$ 0oo%er ha" foun" in .uro&e, as of the s&ring of 1 C5, Oan alarming an" "isheartening &icture$O Aet he "enie" that a general war was imminent$ 2ater he, too, went along with the &eace6in6our6time &osition brought bac7 by Bhamberlain from Munich$3 ; $erbert $oover( A Biogra&h by .ugene 2yons !1 *4#, Bha&ter PP)P !Another Worl" War#, &$ CD*6CD5

0erbert 0oo%er,s +escri&tion of 0is 1 C5 Meeting with A"olf 0itlerE )n 0is Jwn Wor"s
1)n -erlin we e?&ecte" to remain only a "ay, but were "etaine" by urgent in%itations of the @a>is, inclu"ing 0itler$ ) was not enthusiastic about seeing 0itler, as ) ha" long since forme" a great &reLu"ice against the whole @a>i faith$ The American ambassa"or, 0ugh Wilson, felt, howe%er, that there was no esca&e8 in fact he was "elighte", as he ha" ne%er seen 0itler e?ce&t in &ara"es$ We were su&&ose" to be with him for a few moments, formal call, but he 7e&t us for consi"erably o%er the hour$ ;y im#ressions &ere that he &as for$eful6 highly intelligent6 ha) a remar/able an) a$$urate memory6 a &i)e range of information an) a $a#a$ity for lu$i) e<#osition: .ll this &as $ontrary to my #re$on$e#tions base) on boo/s &hi$h trie) to ma/e him out a )ummy: = &as soon $on,in$e) that this &as the boss himself: ;y a),erse rea$tions to his totalitarian as#e$ts &ere6 ho&e,er6 $onfirme) by minor items: From his $lothing an) hair)o he &as ob,iously a great )eal of an e<hibitionist: +e seeme) to ha,e trigger s#ots in his min) &hi$h &hen tou$he) set him off li/e a man in furious anger: The con%ersation touche" on Bommunism, whereu&on he e?&lo"e" an" orate"$ ) silently agree" with his conclusions so "i" not min"$ A moment later the "iscussion s&rea" to "emocracy, an" he began to e?&lo"e again, whereu&on ) remar7e" that ) coul" not be e?&ecte" to agree as ) was one of those myself$ The subLect was "ro&&e" an" we went on to some less contro%ersial to&ics$ ) of course "i" not then 7now that 0itler ha" alrea"y "etermine" u&on his barbarous in%asion of Austria four "ays later$ 0e certainly "i" not confi"e in me$ 2ater we went to lunch at the American ambassa"orNs with a number of high German officials an" Americans$ 1 sat ne?t to -aron %on @eurath who, until recently, ha" been the German Minister of Foreign Affairs$ A few chairs "own was an (n"ersecretary of 'tate, 4aul $'chmi"t, who ha" chec7e" the inter&retation at the 0itler inter%iew$ This gentleman &rocee"e" in un"ertones to gi%e Kon @eurath an a&&arently amusing account of the minor clash between these two Ohigh &riestsO of ri%al faiths$ ) notice" two American news&a&er corres&on"ents at the o&&osite si"e of the table, listening intently$ They har"ly waite" to be ci%il in their e?cuses for "e&artureI ) recei%e" an urgent in%itation from Fiel" Marshal Goering to atten" a luncheon at his hunting lo"ge, /arin 0all, some miles from -erlin$ The American ambassa"or was all for it, for he ha" ne%er seen the @o$ 2 @a>i either, e?ce&t in &ara"es$ The only affinity of /arin 0all to a shooting lo"ge was the imitation shingles on the roof$ )t was an immense structure, with rooms half as large as a Wal"orf "ining room, cramme" with hun"re"s of thousan"s of "ollarsN worth of furniture, &aintings an" art, inclu"ing two or three busts of @a&oleon$ Goering came from an im&ecunious military family an" ha" ne%er legitimately enLoye" more than a generalNs salary$ When our cars entere" the courtyar" we were sto&&e" by a sentry for no a&&arent reason$ )n a few moments there emerge" from a si"e "oor 12 or 1* men "resse" as huntsmen an" arme" with French horns$ They &laye" the 'iegfrie"Ns 0unting Ball the most beautifully ) ha%e e%er hear" it$ ) certainly 7new we were in a Wagnerian atmos&here$ We went to lunch each atten"e" by at least one butler an" a footman$3 ; 0erbert 0oo%er, from The 2ife of an .?64resi"ent by 0erbert 0oo%er, March 24, 1 D1 e"ition of )ollier*s maga>ine, &$ D* 'ourceE htt&EGGwww$un>$orgG4ubGBolliers61 D1mar246HHHCH

7i0tims o2 t*e Nig*t o2 t*e Long ;nives "/une !C@/uly , 19!D)

Karl Ernst Na8i (. stormtrooper and (. leader in Berlin> Assassinated in Berlin on June 30, 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives

Ernst Rohm Na8i (. stormtrooper and 0o@2ounder o2 t*e Na8i Party> Assassinated on Jul !, 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives

Kurt von "#hlei#her $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19! @19!!)> ,inister o2 De2ense "19! @19!!)> Assassinated on June 30, 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives

$ustav Ritter von Kahr ,inister@President o2 Bavaria "19 C@19 1)> parti0ipated in Beer ?all Puts0* in ,uni0* in November 19 !> Assassinated in %uni#h on June 30, 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives

$regor "trasser ,ember o2 t*e &ei0*stag EGerman ParliamentF "19 D@19! )> Na8i Party Gauleiter o2 Lower Bavaria "19 4@19 9)> Assassinated in Berlin on June 30, 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives

Note5 Nig*t o2 t*e Long ;nives was a politi0al purge in w*i0* an estimated :C German government o22i0ials were e6e0uted> .dol2 ?itler *imsel2 issued orders and deat* warrants 2or some o2 t*e vi0tims, in0luding *is politi0al rivals -rnst &o*m, ;urt von (0*lei0*er, and Gregor (trasser.

0erbert Blar7 0oo%er an" ($'$ Ambassa"or to @a>i Germany 0ugh Robert Wilson arri%e at A"olf 0itler,s office in -erlin on March 5, 1 C5$ !4hotoE -un"esarchi%GGerman Fe"eral Archi%es#

0ugh Robert Wilson !left#, the ($'$ Ambassa"or to @a>i Germany, meets with Joachim %on Ribbentro& !right#, the Foreign Minister of @a>i Germany in -erlin on @o%ember :, 1 C5$ The !Rei$hs/ristallna$ht" -Kristallna$ht06 also /no&n as !Night of the Bro/en Glass"6 o$$urre) on the night of No,ember 76 47>98 the /ristallnacht was a state6s&onsore" terrorist attac7 against Jewish businesses, Jewish communities, an" Jewish synagogues$ +ugh Robert Wilson &as a member of */ull & Bones6 a se$ret so$iety at Eale Fni,ersity in Ne& +a,en6 'onne$ti$ut6 F:*:.: !4hotoE -un"esarchi%GGerman Fe"eral Archi%es#

Thomas J$ Watson !2n" left#, the 4resi"ent of )nternational -usiness Machines Bor&$ !)-M#, meets with A"olf 0itler, Bhancellor of Germany an" Fuhrer of the Thir" Reich, in July 1 C:$ Thomas %: Watson &as a 'lass B Aire$tor of the Fe)eral Reser,e Ban/ of Ne& Eor/ -lo$ate) in Ne& Eor/ 'ity0 from 47>> to 47G5 an) a member of the 'oun$il on Foreign Relations -lo$ate) in Ne& Eor/ 'ity0 in 47>H: Thomas J$ Watson an" his )-M &ro%i"e" A"olf 0itler an" the @a>i German regime with &unch6car" machines$ The @a>i German go%ernment, military, an" cor&orations use" &unch6car" machines to create an" assign serial numbers for &risoners wor7ing as sla%e laborers in &rominent concentration cam&s such as Auschwit>, Treblin7a, an" +achau$

12i7e his father, <Fran7= Altschul ha" numerous interests outsi"e of 2a>ar", one of which was international affairs$ )n 1 2H, he hel&e" to foun" the 'oun$il on Foreign Relations in @ew Aor7 <Bity=, an" from the start he ho&e" the council woul" be able to influence ($'$ foreign &olicy ; one of the organi>ation,s continuing goals$ An in"ication of how im&ortant 2a>ar" an" Altschul ha" become in the worl" financial mar7ets arose in 1 2C, when the French occu&ation of the Ruhr, .)olf +itler@s faile) Beer +all Puts$h, an" the resultant international uncertainty le" to ha%oc in the mar7et$ France foun" itself in a full6blown financial crisis$ The %alue of the French franc fell by some DH &ercent$ )n January 1 24, the French Ministry of Finance summone" Altschul to 4aris to hear his %iews on sol%ing the French currency crisis$ )n a carefully &re&are" s&eech, which Altschul "eli%ere" in 4aris on January 24, he calle" for the French go%ernment to un"erta7e what he calle" an 1e?&eriment3 "esigne" to stabili>e the &lunging currency$ 1This woul" in%ol%e arranging cre"its for the go%ernment in the (nite" 'tates an" &erha&s in .nglan", in roun" amounts,3 he tol" the French$ 1)t is felt that a ban7ing grou& coul" rea"ily be forme" in @ew Aor7 to e?ten" the necessary facilities un"er a&&ro&riate guarantees on reasonable terms$ The &resent ease in the @ew Aor7 money mar7et an" the fun"amental frien"shi& for an" confi"ence in France ma7e this a&&ear li7ely$3 0e a%erre" that with the coo&eration of the me"ia ; an" without being able to Lu"ge its &olitical feasibility ; 1the e?&eriment coul" be ma"e to succee"$3 Altschul, though, was a"amant about one thingE that Lazar) Freres & 'o: be /e#t out of the #ress$ 1As we "o not "esire &ublicity for oursel%es, it must be un"erstoo" that our name is not to be mentione" un"er any circumstances in connection with the following,3 he sai"$ 1)f you care to, you may say that you ha%e been informe" by an influential ban7ing house that they ha%e a"%ices from abroa" to the effect that ste&s ha%e been ta7en in 4aris which seem a"e9uate to restore confi"ence in France an" to &rotect the French e?change, an" the situation a&&ears well in han"$3 The French go%ernment 9uic7ly a"o&te" Altschul,s &lanI3 ; The "ast T coons( The Secret $istor of "a+ard ,reres - )o% by William +$ Bohan, &$ 2C624

The Jrigins of A"olf 0itler an" @ational 'ocialism !1 1 #

The Bouncil on Foreign Relations, an American foreign affairs organi>ation, was incor&orate" in @ew Aor7 Bity on %uly ?76 47?4$ A"olf 0itler was a&&ointe" Fuhrer of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty at a beer hall in Munich, Germany on %uly ?76 47?4$ The @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty was establishe" at the 0ofbrauhaus -eer 0all in "owntown Munich on February 24, 1 2H$ 1 Jn February 24th, 1 2H, the first great mass meeting un"er the aus&ices of the new mo%ement too7 &lace$ )n the -an9uet 0all of the 0ofbrQuhaus in Munich the twenty6fi%e theses which constitute" the &rogramme of our new &arty were e?&oun"e" to an au"ience of nearly two thousan" &eo&le an" each thesis was enthusiastically recei%e"$3 ; .ein /am&f by A"olf 0itler, Kolume Two 6 The @ational 'ocialist Mo%ement, Bha&ter )E 4hiloso&hy an" 4arty

Adolf Hitlers First Antisemitic Writing September 1 ! 1"1"

2+itler returne) from a military hos#ital to ;uni$h in early 4747: There he un)er&ent a Rei$hs&ehr s#onsore) $ourse of systemati$ #oliti$al e)u$ation for )emobilizing sol)iers that feature) PanD German nationalism6 antisemitism6 an) antiDso$ialism: These same themes &ere #rominent in Ba,arian #oliti$s follo&ing the re#ression of the ;uni$h re,olution of 4749D47: Be$ause antisemitism ha) not #laye) a notable #art in Ba,arian #oliti$s #rior to the re,olutionary )isturban$es6 a +err .)olf Gemli$h &as #rom#te) to sen) an inCuiry about the im#ortan$e of the I%e&ish CuestionI to 'a#tain Karl ;ayr6 the offi$er in $harge of the Rei$hs&ehr Ne&s an) nlightenment Ae#artment in ;uni$h: ;ayr referre) him to +itler6 &ho ha) )istinguishe) himself in the abo,eDmentione) $ourse by the ,ehemen$e of his ra)i$al nationalist an) antisemiti$ ,ie&s6 an) by his oratori$al talents: +itler &as alrea)y feeling his &ay to&ar) a #oliti$al $areerJ four )ays before res#on)ing to Gemli$h in the letter translate) belo&6 he ha) #ai) his first ,isit to the German Wor/ersK Party -e,entually rename)6 the National *o$ialist Wor/ersK Party0 as a $onfi)ential agent of the Rei$hs&ehr: =n the letter to Gemli$h he a##ears an<ious to establish his $re)entials as a /no&le)geable an) sober antisemite: 'om#are) to the inflammatory massDmeeting oratory that he &as soon to ma/e his s#e$ialty6 +itlerKs rhetori$ here is Cuite tame6 stressing the nee) for a IrationalI an) Is$ientifi$I antisemitism: *ome historians ha,e inter#rete) the letterKs $all for the Iirre,o$able remo,al 2#ntfernung3I of the %e&s from German life as a #refiguring of the +olo$aust: But it is $lear from the $onte<t an) from later statements that6 at this #oint6 +itler meant segregation or e<#ulsion rather than systemati$ liCui)ation: The letter6 +itlerKs first e<#li$itly #oliti$al &riting6 im#resse) his Rei$hs&ehr su#eriors an) he soon gaine) a re#utation among ra)i$al rightist an) so$ially res#e$table nationalist $onser,ati,e grou#s as a man &ho $oul) hel# ino$ulate the masses against re,olution an) &hose antisemiti$ rhetori$ $oul) hel# )is$re)it the )emo$rati$ Weimar Re#ubli$: The letter may thus be seen as the laun$hing of his #oliti$al $areer: *our$e: berhar) %L$/el -e):06 Hitler$ S%mtlic&e Auf'eic&nungen 1"()*1"+, -*tuttgart6 479506 ##: 99D75: Translate) by Ri$har) *: Le,y:3 TEXT -September 1 ! 1"1". +ear 0err Gemlich, The "anger &ose" by Jewry for our &eo&le to"ay fin"s e?&ression in the un"eniable a%ersion of wi"e sections of our &eo&le$ The cause of this a%ersion is not to be foun" in a clear recognition of the consciously or unconsciously systematic an" &ernicious effect of the Jews as a totality u&on our nation$ Rather6 it arises mostly from #ersonal $onta$t an) from the #ersonal im#ression &hi$h the in)i,i)ual %e& lea,esDDalmost al&ays an unfa,orable one: For this reason6 antisemitism is too easily $hara$terize) as a mere emotional #henomenon: .n) yet this is in$orre$t: .ntisemitism as a #oliti$al mo,ement may not an) $annot be )efine) by emotional im#ulses6 but by re$ognition of the fa$ts: The fa$ts are these: First6 %e&ry is absolutely a ra$e an) not a religious asso$iation: .%en the Jews ne%er "esignate themsel%es as Jewish Germans, Jewish 4oles, or Jewish Americans but always as German, 4olish, or American Jews$ Jews ha%e ne%er yet a"o&te" much more than the language of the foreign nations among whom they li%e$ A German who is force" to ma7e use of the French language in France, )talian in )taly, Bhinese in Bhina "oes not thereby become a Frenchman, )talian, or Bhinaman$ )t,s the same with the Jew who li%es among us an" is force" to ma7e use of the German language$ 0e "oes not thereby become a German$ @either "oes the Mosaic faith, so im&ortant for the sur%i%al of this race, settle the 9uestion of whether someone is a Jew or non6Jew$ There is scarcely a race whose members belong e?clusi%ely to Lust one "efinite religion$ Through thousan"s of years of the closest 7in" of inbree"ing, Jews in general ha%e maintaine" their race an" their &eculiarities far more "istinctly than many of the &eo&les among whom they ha%e li%e"$ An" thus comes the fact that there li%es amongst us a non6German, alien race which neither wishes nor is able to sacrifice its racial character or to "eny its feeling, thin7ing, an" stri%ing$ @e%ertheless, it &ossesses all the &olitical rights we "o$ )f the ethos of the Jews is re%eale" in the &urely material realm, it is e%en clearer in their thin7ing an" stri%ing$ Their "ance aroun" the gol"en calf is becoming a merciless struggle for all those &ossessions we &ri>e most highly on earth$ The ,alue of the in)i,i)ual is no longer )e$i)e) by his $hara$ter or by the signifi$an$e of his a$hie,ements for the totality but e<$lusi,ely by the size of his fortune6 by his money: The loftiness of a nation is no longer to be measure" by the sum of its moral an" s&iritual &owers, but rather by the wealth of its material &ossessions$

This thin/ing an) stri,ing after money an) #o&er6 an) the feelings that go along &ith it6 ser,e the #ur#oses of the %e& &ho is uns$ru#ulous in the $hoi$e of metho)s an) #itiless in their em#loyment: =n auto$rati$ally rule) states he &hines for the fa,or of !+is ;aBesty" an) misuses it li/e a lee$h fastene) u#on the nations: =n )emo$ra$ies he ,ies for the fa,or of the masses6 $ringes before the !maBesty of the #eo#le6" an) re$ognizes only the maBesty of money: 0e "estroys the character of &rinces with by>antine flattery, national &ri"e !the strength of a &eo&le#, with ri"icule an" shameless bree"ing to "e&ra%ity$ 0is metho" of battle is that &ublic o&inion which is ne%er e?&resse" in the &ress but which is nonetheless manage" an" falsifie" by it$ +is #o&er is the #o&er of money6 &hi$h multi#lies in his han)s effortlessly an) en)lessly through interest6 an) &hi$h for$es #eo#les un)er the most )angerous of yo/es: =ts gol)en glitter6 so attra$ti,e in the beginning6 $on$eals the ultimately tragi$ $onseCuen$es: ,erything men stri,e after as a higher goal6 be it religion6 so$ialism6 )emo$ra$y6 is to the %e& only means to an en)6 the &ay to satisfy his lust for gol) an) )omination: )n his effects an" conse9uences he is li7e a racial tuberculosis of the nations$ The "e"uction from all this is the followingE an antisemitism base" on &urely emotional groun"s will fin" its ultimate e?&ression in the form of the &ogrom$<1= An antisemitism base" on reason, howe%er, must lea" to systematic legal combatting an" elimination of the &ri%ileges of the Jews, that which "istinguishes the Jews from the other aliens who li%e among us !an Aliens 2aw#$ The ultimate obLecti%e <of such legislation= must, howe%er, be the irre%ocable remo%al of the Jews in general$ For both these en"s a go%ernment of national strength, not of national wea7ness, is necessary$ The Re&ublic in Germany owes its birth not to the uniform national will of our &eo&le but the sly e?&loitation of a series of circumstances which foun" general e?&ression in a "ee&, uni%ersal "issatisfaction$ These circumstances howe%er were in"e&en"ent of the form of the state an" are still o&erati%e to"ay$ )n"ee", more so now than before$ Thus, a great &ortion of our &eo&le recogni>es that a change" state6form cannot in itself change our situation$ For that it will ta7e a rebirth of the moral an" s&iritual &owers of the nation$ An" this rebirth cannot be initiate" by a state lea"ershi& of irres&onsible maLorities, influence" by certain &arty "ogmas, an irres&onsible &ress, or internationalist &hrases an" slogans$ <)t re9uires= instea" the ruthless installation of nationally min"e" lea"ershi& &ersonalities with an inner sense of res&onsibility$ -ut these facts "eny to the Re&ublic the essential inner su&&ort of the nationNs s&iritual forces$ An" thus to"ay,s state lea"ers are com&elle" to see7 su&&ort among those who "raw the e?clusi%e benefits of the new formation of German con"itions, an" who for this reason were the "ri%ing force behin" the re%olution66the Jews$ .%en though !as %arious statements of the lea"ing &ersonalities re%eal# to"ay,s lea"ers fully reali>e" the "anger of Jewry, they !see7ing their own a"%antage# acce&te" the rea"ily &roffere" su&&ort of the Jews an" also returne" the fa%or$ An" this &ay6off consiste" not only in e%ery &ossible fa%oring of Jewry, but abo%e all in the hin"rance of the struggle of the betraye" &eo&le against its "efrau"ers, that is in the re&ression of the antisemitic mo%ement$ Res&ectfully, A"olf 0itler NA (F T MT 'ourceE htt&EGGwww$h6net$orgGRgermanGgte?tG7aiserreichGhitler2$html

&itler s'ea(s in %uni#h

The Speech: . . . ECONOMICS is a secondary matter. World history teaches us that no people became great through economics: it was economics that brought them to their ruin. people died when its race was disintegrated. !ermany" too" did not become great through economics. people that in its own li#e $%ol&isch' has lost honor becomes politically de#enseless" and then becomes ensla%ed also in the economic sphere. Internationalization today means only Judaization. We in Germany have come to this: that a sixty-million people sees its destiny to lie at the will of a few dozen Jewish bankers. his was possible only because our civilization had first been Judaized. he underminin! of the German conception of personality by catchwords had be!un lon! before. Ideas such as "#emocracy$" "%a&ority$" "'onscience of the World$" "World (olidarity$" "World )eace$" "Internationality of *rt$" etc.$ disinte!rate our race-consciousness$ breed cowardice$ and so today we are bound to say that the simple urk is more man than we are. No sal%ation is possible until the bearer o# disunion" the (ew" has been rendered powerless to harm. ). We must call to account the No%ember criminals o# )*)+. It cannot be that two million !ermans should ha%e #allen in %ain and that a#terwards one should sit down as #riends at the same table with traitors. No" we do not pardon" we demand , -engeance. /. The dishonoring o# the nation must cease. 0or betrayers o# their 0atherland and in#ormers the gallows is the proper place. Our streets and s1uares shall once more bear the names o# our heroes2 they shall not be named a#ter (ews. In the 3uestion o# !uilt we must proclaim the truth. 4. The administration o# the State must be cleared o# the rabble which is #attened at the stall o# the parties. 5. The present la6ity in the #ight against usury must be abandoned. 7ere the #itting punishment is the same as that #or the betrayers o# their 0atherland. 8. WE M9ST :EM N: !;E T EN<I!7TENMENT ON T7E S9=(ECT O0 T7E >E CE T;E T?. WIT7 T7O9!7TS O0 <O-E@ NO. =9T IN 7O<? 7 T;E: ! INST T7OSE W7O 7 -E ;9INE: 9S. A. The lies which would %eil #rom us cur mis#ortunes must cease. The #raud o# the present money,madness must be shown up. That will sti##en the nec&s o# us all. B. S 0O9N: TION 0O; NEW C9;;ENC? T7E >;O>E;T? O0 T7OSE W7O ;E NOT O0 O9; =<OO: M9ST :O SE;-ICE. I# #amilies who ha%e li%ed in !ermany #or a thousand years are now e6propriated" we must do the same to the (ewish usurers. +. WE :EM N: IMME:I TE EC>9<SION O0 << (EWS W7O 7 -E ENTE;E: !E;M N? SINCE )*)5" and o# all those" too" who through tric&ery on the Stoc& E6change or through other shady transactions ha%e gained their wealth. *. The housing scarcity must be relie%ed through energetic action2 houses must be granted to those who deser%e them. Eisner said in )*)+ that we had no right to demand the return o# our prisoners , he was only saying openly what all (ews were thin&ing. >eople who so thin& must #eel how li#e tastes in a concentration camp. E6tremes must be #ought by e6tremes. gainst the in#ection o# materialism" against the (ewish pestilence we must hold alo#t a #laming ideal. nd i# others spea& o# the World and 7umanity we say the 0atherland , and only the 0atherland.
(our0e5 *ttp5##www.**ow0ase#0*ronograp*y#spee0*es#19 @C9@1:.*tml

'+ (F * PT ;B R 496 47??

Ge2reiter .dol2 ?itler is ordered by army intelligen0e o22i0er )a'tain Karl %a r *left+ to attend army@sponsored politi0al indo0trination 0ourses at t*e 9niversity o2 ,uni0* 2rom /une 4@1 , 1919. 3*e purpose o2 t*e 0ourses is to give returning soldiers a 2oundation o2 politi0al p*ilosop*y 2avored by t*e Reichswehr, but t*e various instru0tors are a rat*er e0le0ti0 bun0*, and one 0an *ardly 0*ara0teri8e t*e s0*ool as *aving an organi8ed 0urri0ulum. 3wo instru0tors in parti0ular in2luen0e ?itler5 3*e 2irst is Gott2ried +eder, an e0onomist, w*o will be0ome ?itlerGs mentor in 2inan0e and e0onomi0s. +eder, a member o2 t*e 3*ule (o0iety, will s0*ool ?itler in H/ewis* 2inan0e 0apitalism.H W*en ?itlerGs 4 Point Party Program is eventually dra2ted, t*e H(o0ialistH planks will be +ederGs. 3*e ot*er instru0tor is ,rofessor Karl Ale-ander von %ueller *right+ , a nationalist *istorian w*o taug*t t*at t*e Germans are a master ra0e. "(our0e5 *ttp5##tr*2aI.tripod.0om#*tC9.*tml)

$orporal .dol2 ?itler o22i0ially Joins t*e D.P in early %0tober 1919, by order o2 $aptain ,ayr, and is given members*ip 0ard K444 "t*e numbering *ad started at 4CC). "(in0e ?itler is still in t*e army, t*is is all te0*ni0ally illegal.) ,ayr will 0ontinue to support ?itler, to t*e tune o2 C gold marks a week, until *is dis0*arge on ,ar0* !1, 19 C. ?itler will also 0ontinue to live and eat in t*e List &egiment Barra0ks, and 0ontinue to re0eive speaking 2ees, all o2 w*i0* will greatly assist *im in *is ne6t task> to build up t*e D.P into a respe0table party. Adolf &itler, a #iti.en of Austria until A'ril 19!/, 0as offi#iall dis#harged from the 41st Rifle Regiment of the Rei#hs0ehr on %ar#h 31, 19!01 "(our0e5 *ttp5##tr*2aI.tripod.0om#*tC9.*tml)

The @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty was establishe" in Munich on February 24, 1 2H$

A"olf 0itler "eli%ers a s&eech at a @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty meeting in Munich in the early 1 2Hs$

0ofbrauhaus -eer 0all in Munich, Germany, the site of early @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty !@'+A4# meetings$ Bor&oral A"olf 0itler &ublici>e" the @'+A4 &rogram !12D 4oints3 &rogram# at the 0ofbrauhaus on February 24, 1 2H$ The National *o$ialist German Wor/ers@ Party &as establishe) at the +ofbrauhaus in ;uni$h on February ?G6 47?5: Bor&oral A"olf 0itler atten"e" his first German Wor7ers, 4arty meeting in Munich on 'e&tember 12, 1 1 while ser%ing in the Wehrmacht !German army#8 0itler was initially assigne" by the Wehrmacht to s&y on the German Wor7ers, 4arty $ The German Wor7ers, 4arty was foun"e" in Munich by Anton +re?ler on January D, 1 1 $

A"olf 0itler an" his comra"es atten" a memorial ser%ice commemorating the ninth anni%ersary of the establishment of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty !Nationalso+ialistische Deutsche Arbeiter&artei# at the 0ofbrQuhaus -eer 0all in Munich, Germany on February 24, 1 2 $ !S 4hotoE 'T 4hoto G 'cherl# htt&EGGwww$sue""eutsche$"eG&oliti7G%or6Lahren6ns"a&6gruen"ung6hitlers6wurf6im6hofbraeuhaus61$1CH1H

1The Munich of 1 1 , the city in which the real history of @ational 'ocialism began when 0itler Loine" the +A4, offere" e?ce&tionally fertile soil for the "e%elo&ment of right6wing e?tremism$ After the assassination of /urt .isner, the 4rime Minister of the -a%arian re%olutionary go%ernment, an" after the bloo"y su&&ression of the Munich 0atere&ublik !accom&lishe" with the hel& of counterre%olutionary an" anti"emocratic forces#, the &olitical &ressures brought to bear by military an" &aramilitary grou&s in Munich was greater than anywhere else in Germany$ Feeling threatene" by the Kersailles Treaty &ro%isions for the re"uction of the Army, numerous officers an" &rofessional sol"iers grown unaccustome" to ci%ilian life turne" to what they calle" O&olitics$O Their ser%ice in the transitional forces affor"e" them leisure for s&eeches, "iscussions, an" for nationalistic in"octrination8 military6&olitical grou&s forme" aroun" Free Bor&s officers li7e Bolonel Ritter %on .&&, who won renown for his crushing of the 0atere&ublik1 an" MaLor .rnst Rohm, who, as chief of staff of the Munich Bity Bomman"ant, wor7e" for the &romotion of OnationalO associations$ 'ecret wea&ons caches &roliferate", an" a far6flung cons&iracy of right6wing an" militarist e?tremists came into being$ Bountless ra"ical grou&s an" grou&lets, in which the military ha" its liaison men an" informers, were organi>e", flourishe", an" "issol%e" again$ The /ol0isc& PanD German Thule *o$iety mentione) earlier $onstitute) an im#ortant fo$al #oint: .s the front organization of the #re&ar Germani$ (r)er6 it enBoye) a measure of #rominen$eJ its $onta$ts rea$he) into broa) $ir$les of ;uni$h so$iety6 an) its $lub rooms in the fashionable +otel 1ierBahreszeiten ser,e) as a gathering #la$e for other Inational $lubs:I The Thule *o$iety ha) its o&n #a#er6 the anti$leri$al6 antiD*emiti$ Munc&ener 1eob2c&ter 3Munic& 4bser/er5 foun)e) in 4989 -after 47556 it &as #ublishe) by the Franz her 1erlag0: =ts lea)ing figure &as a nationalist a),enturer going by the name of Ru)olf 'ount ,on *ebotten)orff6 a man of rather obs$ure #ro,enan$e: 0is reminiscences, with the significant title Bevor $itler kam 2Before $itler )ame3 1 CC#, in which he stresses the role &laye" by the Thule 'ociety in the birth of @ational 'ocialism, seem to contra"ict 0itlerNs claim to &arentage8 0itler ha" ne%er ac7nowle"ge" any O&recursors,O let alone com&etitors8 at best, he tolerate" a han"ful of &rominent &ro&hets$ 'ebotten"orff !whose real name &resumably was Ru"olf Glauer#, the son of a 'ilesian railway engineer, ha" a&&arently been con%icte" for frau" in 1 H 8 he turne" u& in 1 1C with a newly ac9uire" title of nobility !which he owe" to his a"o&tion by an Austrian# as well as a bran"6new Tur7ish &ass&ort$ After his &olitical %enture in -a%aria !1 1:61 #, he "isa&&eare" in )stanbul8 he then s&ent some time in Me?ico an" the (nite" 'tates, only to rea&&ear in Munich in 1 CC with the ho&e of reacti%ating the Thule 'ociety$ 0is subse9uent fate remains un7nown8 he may &ossibly ha%e been eliminate" by the @ational 'ocialists as an embarrassing witness out of the &ast$ Accor"ing to his own testimony, 'ebotten"orff was influence" by such volkisch &ioneers as Fritsch, Gui"o %on 2ist, 2an> %on 2iebenfels, an" -aron %on Wittgenberg ; the same Austro6German sectarian &ro&onents of Germanomanic, anti6'emitic, somewhat occult theories whose writings &resumably also influence" the young 0itler in Kienna$ 'losely $onne$te) &ith these ten)en$ies &as the foun)ing in Lei#zig in 474? of the Germani$ -Thule0 (r)er6 &hi$h &as in $onta$t &ith Frits$hKs antiD *emiti$ +ammer League -+ammerbun)6 foun)e) in 47450 as &ell as &ith the PanDGerman League an) the German National .sso$iation of 'ommer$ial m#loyees: The members of the (r)er ha) to be of I.ryan bloo)I an) #le)ge themsel,es to fight against %e&s6 a,enge treason6 an) era)i$ate all enemies: The a)mission #ro$e)ure in,ol,e) an absur) ritual: filling out a form in)i$ating the )egree of hairiness of ,arious #arts of the bo)y an)6 as #roof of I.ryanI )es$ent6 #utting a foot#rint on a se#arate #ie$e of #a#er: The (r)erKs organization an) terminology &as reminis$ent of the Freemasons6 e<$e#t that the #ur#ose an) aims of the Germani$ Lo)ge &ere )iametri$ally o##ose): .s in many other grou#s of this ty#e6 Germani$ runes an) s&asti/as &ere use) as symbols: .t first the &ar &as some&hat of a )eterrent to this ty#e of a$ti,ityJ #ersons an) grou#ings $ontinue) to alternate in $onfusing su$$ession: . turning #oint &as rea$he) aroun) 'hristmas of 474H6 &hen *ebotten)orff too/ o,er lea)ershi# in Ba,aria an) unleashe) an intensi,e antiD*emiti$ an) antiDliberal #ro#agan)a $am#aign &ith antiD %e&ish leaflets: =n .ugust6 47496 the Germani$ (r)er reDforme) as the Thule *o$iety at a meeting at the +otel 1ierBahreszeiten6 &here *ebotten)orff ha) lease) the rooms of the Na,al (ffi$ersK 'lubJ on ($tober ?G6 47496 the *o$iety hel) a Boint meeting &ith the PanDGermans6 at &hi$h the #ossibility of a rightD&ing $ou# as #ro#ose) by the nationalist #ublisher %: F: Lehmann &as )is$usse): The Thule *o$iety res#on)e) to the re,olution an) the Ba,arian go,ernmental $risis &ith e<hortations against I%e&ryI an) ne& #lans for a $ou#J sur,eillan$e an) arrests tem#orarily for$e) them to a)o#t the $o,er name I*tu)y Grou# of German .ntiCuity6I &hi$h &as entere) in the ;uni$h organization register in ;ar$h6 4747: .t the same time6 they &ere engage) in organizing a I$ombat leagueI 362mpfbund5! &hi$h sought to unify the Free 'or#s for a mar$h on ;uni$h an) &hi$h #arti$i#ate) in an aborti,e #uts$h on Palm *un)ay -.#ril 4>0 of 4747J ho&e,er6 the grou# &as ,ery small: While 'ebotten"orff was courting the Free Bor&s in -amberg, the seat of the -a%arian go%ernment6in6e?ile, su&&orters of the 0atere&ublik occu&ie" the rooms of the 'ociety in Munich on A&ril 2* an" arreste" se%en of its members, inclu"ing the secretary, Bountess 0eila Westar&8 they were shot four "ays later, &robably in re&risal for the mur"er of Bommunists in nearby 'tarnberg$ Whate%er oneNs o&inion about the 9uestionable "etails of the e?ecutions ; an" on this matter there was "isagreement among the members of the re%olutionary go%ernment6they stirre" u& far greater &ublic in"ignation than all the &ast mur"ers of Bommunists an" 'ocialists committe" by the Free Bor&s an" combat leagues, beginning with the assassination of Rosa 2u?emburg an" /arl 2ieb7necht$ The lamentable Ohostage mur"er of Munich,O blown u& by &ro&agan"a an" embellishe" with gruesome "etails, furnishe" another effecti%e &latform for a ra"ical anti6'emitic cam&aign which now was assure" a sym&athetic hearing by the &eo&le of Munich$ The %icious retaliation of the Free Bor&s an" the re&risals against Bommunists an" left6wing 'ocialists were followe" by a %iolent anti6 Jewish cam&aign against the "e&ose" Oracially alien go%ernment,O in which &ortions of the -K4 an" the Bhurch Loine" in$ The 0atere&ublik was re%ile" as a Jewish un"erta7ing, an" the fact that the actual terrorists were not Jews, but that one of the %ictims was, &ro%e" of little conse9uence ami" this atmos&here$ 2eaflets "istribute" by newly organi>e" &ro&agan"a centers of the ra"ical Right, such as the OBommittee for 4o&ular .nlightenmentO !whose name may ha%e furnishe" the ins&iration for GoebbelsN later &ro&agan"a ministry#, "e&icte" the "oubtlessly un&o&ular short6li%e" re%olutionary go%ernment as a &ogrom against the German &eo&le stage" by Jews, a &hase in the Jewish cons&iracy for worl" "omination$ The &ro&agan"a resorte" to ancient, oft6re&eate" "iatribes, but now there was the a""e" bonus of wi"es&rea" &o&ular resentment against the 0ate e?&eriment an" the bloo"y e%ents surroun"ing it$ )t was a

climate of o&inion fa%oring the "e%elo&ment of @ational 'ocialism, an" 0itlerNs career as an agitator may be sai" to ha%e begun here$ )n this, too, the Thule 'ociety &laye" a 7ey role$ Jn May C1, 1 1 , the .ilnchener Beobachter &ublishe" the twel%e &oints of 'ebotten"orffNs O&olitical &rogramO8 his new tac7 was that ty&ical combination of anti6'emitic an" anti6ca&italist catchwor"s which was to become the hallmar7 of the @ational 'ocialist &rogram$ As the center of ol" an" new volkisch &ro&hets, the Thule 'ociety ga%e many of the future i"eologists of @ational 'ocialism their first &ublic &latform$ Gathere" here were Alfre" Rosenberg, 0ans Fran7, Gottfrie" Fe"er, +ietrich .c7art, who in +ecember, 1 15, ha" begun to &ublish the anti6'emitic Lournal Auf gut deutsch 24n 5lain "anguage61 as well as a volkisch Batholic &riest, Father -ernhar" 'tem&fle, who hel&e" 0itler in the writing of .ein /am&f% !As a rewar", he was among those mur"ere" in the &urge of June CH, 1 C4$# The Thule 'ocietyNs .ilnchener Beobachter &ro%e" of in%aluable hel& by &ublishing a stream of anti6'emitic O"ocumentary e%i"enceO an" acting as a clearing house for the innumerable %ol7isch6ra"ical Right e%ents in an" aroun" Munich$ -ut the 'ociety an" the influential tools at its "is&osal ser%e" not only as a &latform for numerous nationalist s&linter grou&s, with lin7s to such organi>ations as the 4an6German Volkisch +efense an" Jffense 2eague !+eutsch%ol7ischer 'chut> un" Trut>bun"# or the Munich branch of the Jstara 2eague, but also as the organi>er of volkisch wor7ersN clubs fighting the 2eft$ Jne such effort was the 4olitical Wor7ersN Bircle foun"e" by the s&ortswriter /arl 0arrer !15 H61 2*# in the fall of 1 15$ =n Ae$ember6 47496 +arrer intro)u$e) his $ollaborators6 a railroa) me$hani$ in the ;uni$h muni$i#al &or/s6 .nton Are<ler -499GD47G?06 an) his $olleague ;i$hael Lotter to the Thule *o$iety: Are<ler in turn6 together &ith t&entyDfi,e railroa) &or/ers from his sho#6 foun)e) the ne& German Wor/ersK Party -A.P0 at a $onferen$e at the Fiirstenfel)er +of on %anuary ?DN6 4747: The #artyKs early history &as mar/e) by a nationalism &ith antiD*emiti$ an) so$ialist o,ertones: The A.P thus )iffere) from the Thule *o$iety &hi$h6 &ith its ra$ial theories an) elitism6 $ontinue) to be a small6 $ons#iratorial #restige organization: +itler himself later s#o/e &ith )erisi,e s$orn of 7/ol0isc& slee#&al/ersI an) Iitinerant #rea$hers:I This )ifferen$e in organization an) #ro#agan)a #laye) an im#ortant role from the ,ery outset: The National *o$ialists6 going beyon) an e<$lusi,e )o$trinaire se$t &ithout a mass basis an) &ithout the #ros#e$t of #oliti$al #o&er6 sought to be$ome a strategi$6 broa)ly base) mass #arty: But at the same time6 the antiD'ommunist6 antiD*emiti$ e<$itement stirre) u# in the aftermath of the 82terepubli0 offere) an o##ortunity for the full in$or#oration of the ra$ist arguments into the so$ialistD nationalist i)eology of the #arty: Li/e other grou#s hat$he) in the &omb of the Thule *o$iety6 the A.P enBoye) the bene,olent a##ro,al of militaristi$ $ir$les: .s a )elegate an) fun$tionary of the )efense an) #oliti$al #ro#agan)a #rogram of the ;uni$h ;ilitary Grou# 'omman)o6 .)olf +itler ha) also $ome into $onta$t &ith the ne& #arty: +e &as an a,i) rea)er of the Munc&ener 1eob2c&ter! though his offer to be$ome a $ontributor ha) been turne) )o&n: (n *e#tember 4?6 47476 he6 as mentione) earlier6 &ent to one of the &ee/ly A.P meetings in the *terne$/erbrau beer hallJ these meetings &ere generally atten)e) by any&here from ten to forty follo&ers: =ns#ire) by a s#ee$h by Fe)er about the abolition of $a#italism6 +itler a##arently effe$ti,ely rebutte) an allege) #ro#onent of Ba,arian se#aratism6 an) after returning home rea) a #am#hlet entitle) Mein politisc&es #r92c&en 3M: Politic2l A920ening5 gi,en him by Are<ler: *oon thereafter6 he let himself be re$ruite) as I#ro#agan)a $hairmanI 3Werbeobm2nn5 of the #arty: This #ro,e) a stro/e of lu$/: before the feare) )is$harge into $i,ilian life in ;ar$h6 47?56 he ha) manage) to fin) an outlet for his ne&ly )is$o,ere) agitational talents: )t is significant that 0itler ha" ne%er been a member of any of the numerous volkisch sects$ 0e won his s&urs an" ac9uire" the &ro&agan"a tools for his &olitical rise not among racist theorists but in the concrete situation of local an" national issues, &articularly in the fight against OKersailles,O howe%er "ee&ly roote" the anti6'emitism that ultimately "etermine" his &olicies$ )n line with his unbri"le" ambition to "ominate, 0itler came to belie%e that by ta7ing this roa" into &olitics, he coul" establish his claim to unlimite" &ower$ 0a%ing at long last foun" an outlet for his long6frustrate" gigantomania, 0itler, in the narrow circle of this small &arty, "e%elo&e" organi>ational an" s&ea7ing talents which within a short s&an of time car%e" out a s&ecial &lace for his &arty among the ra"ical Right sectarians of Munich$ The self6"esignate" OartistO now calle" himself OwriterO8 in the unattainable, "reame"6of mi""le6class scale of %alues, these two &rofessions ran7e" e9ually, regar"less of the meagerness of his writings an" the ina"e9uacy of his stylistic gifts$ -ut abo%e all he was a s&ea7erE after a brief a&&renticeshi& as &ro&agan"a chairman of the &arty, he became aware of this essential talent$ The s7ills ac9uire" in his "ebates in the menNs home at Kienna an" while "eli%ering the &atriotic monologues of the war years were now &ut to the test an" &erfecte" in acti%ities which ga%e him an into?icating feeling of &ower$ To be sure, the +A4 was a small, un&retentious starting &oint$ Aet this %ery fact ma"e 0itlerNs &osition less com&etiti%e, an" the su&&ort gi%en him, a useful an" &resumably harmless &ro&agan"ist an" O"rummerO for the OnationalO cause, by influential military an" social circles was, accor"ingly, in"ulgent$ 0is closer collaborators ; .rnst Rohm, Alfre" Rosenberg, +ietrich .c7art, Ru"olf 0ess ; came from %arious grou&s ami" the welter of volkisch organi>ations$ -ut 0itlerNs &rimary concern6the reorgani>ation an" broa"ening of the +A4 through the recruitment of e?6sol"iers an" Free Bor&s members grown unaccustome" to ci%ilian life6soon brought him into conflict with the ol" lea"ershi&$ There began the tre7 from the small &olitic7ing "ebating society to the &olitical combat organi>ation which came on the scene with noisy mass agitation$ A month after Loining the &arty, on Jctober 1*, 1 1 , 0itler was one of the s&ea7ers at a meeting in the 0ofbrauhaus before an au"ience of a hun"re"$ 'oon he was also in%ite" to s&ea7 before volkisch grou&s outsi"e of Munich, as, for e?am&le, in May, 1 2H, when he a""resse" a rally of the German Volkisch +efense an" Jffense 2eague in 'tuttgart$ The first real mass meeting, hel" on February 24, 1 2H, at MunichNs 0ofbrauhaus, &ro%e" to be a milestone$ -y then, 0itler ha" begun to ma7e a name for himself as the &artyNs foremost &ro&agan"a s&ea7er$ The nominal main s&ea7er, a &hysician, ha" been furnishe" by another volkisch grou&, but it was 0itler who &laye" the lea"ing role in the organi>ation of this meeting an" who announce" the two maLor e%entsE the new O2D6&ointO &arty &rogram, an" the change of name to @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ersN 4arty6a name which betraye" the Austrian influence an" at the same time was inten"e" to "ifferentiate the German Wor7ersN 4arty from the socialist &arties$ )ts OsocialismO was meant to combat -olshe%ism among the wor7ing class in an attem&t to win the su&&ort of the Reichswehr an" &olitically influential social circles$ The same hol"s true for the claim that 0itler was a 1goo" Batholic3 acce&table to the tra"itional establishment of Batholic -a%aria$ The mass meetings were the true beginnings of the O0itler mo%ement,O the consoli"ation of 0itlerNs "ictatorial &osition within the &arty an"

beyon" its confines$ Moreo%er, +re?ler, the &artyNs foun"er an" nominal chairman, hel" an outsi"e Lob an" therefore coul" not "e%ote as much time either to the &arty or to his career as &ro&agan"ist as his in"efatigable colleague 0itler, who, as a Lobless &olitician, ha" nothing to lose an" much to gain$ +itler atten)e) almost e,ery im#ortant meeting6 turne) u# at the Ka## Puts$h in Berlin -together &ith $/art06 an)6 in the summer an) fall of 47?56 &ent to $onferen$es of the .ustrian National *o$ialists: The ne& #rogram6 &hi$h re#la$e) the gui)elines &hi$h Are<ler ha) lai) )o&n at the A.PKs foun)ing in %anuary6 47476 ha) been $om#ile) by Are<ler in Ae$ember6 47476 from a Bumble of /ol0isc& i)eologi$al sour$es an) e)ite) by +itler: .##en)e) to this #rogram &as a s#e$ifi$ referen$e to Ibrea/ing the sha$/les of finan$e $a#ital6I Fe)erKs #et theory &hi$h ha) strongly im#resse) +itler6 though it &as an ol) i)ea foun) in the #rograms of many nationalDso$ial reform mo,ements: The other #arts of the #rogram also &ere har)ly ne&J German6 .ustrian6 an) Bohemian #ro#onents of antiD$a#italist6 nationalistDim#erialist6 antiD*emiti$ mo,ements &ere resorte) to in its $om#ilation: The in)i,i)ual #oints &ere #hrase) li/e slogansJ they lent themsel,es to the $on$ise6 sensational )issemination of the IantiI #osition on &hi$h the #arty thri,e)6 &hile its #ositi,e goals remaine) as ,ague as the #rograms of its #re$ursors: But t&o of its ne& an) basi$ features $learly betraye) +itlerKs influen$e: the ra)i$al re,isionism &ith its militant stan$e against 1ersailles an) the out$ome of the &ar in general6 an) the em#hasis on the IunalterableI nature of the #rogram6 reminis$ent of +itlerKs rigi) insisten$e on the Igranite foun)ationI of his youthful IWeltans$hauung:I +itlerKs a))ress at the +ofbrauhaus meeting &as ty#i$al of those uninhibite)6 for$eful )iatribes against ;ar<ists an) )emo$rats6 INo,ember $riminalsI an) %e&s6 1ersailles an) the I&orl) of enemiesI en$ir$ling Germany &ith &hi$h the Iun/no&n frontline sol)ierI &as beginning to stir u# #ubli$ enthusiasm an) ,iolent hostility in ;uni$h: =n a))ition to its negati,e slogans6 the ne& #rogram $ontaine) a $onfuse) $olle$tion of highDflo&n #ostulates an) #romises for all: =ts Cuintessen$e &as the unifi$ation of the nation un)er a Inational so$ialismI &hi$h6 unli/e the ;ar<ist $lass struggle6 #romise) to abolish the inBusti$es of $a#italism by uniting the &or/ers an) all other $lasses in one mighty6 unifie)6 #o&erful I#eo#leKs $ommunity:I =)eologi$ally s#ea/ing6 it &as a &oolly6 e$le$ti$ mi<ture of #oliti$al6 so$ial6 ra$ist6 nationalDim#erialist &ishful thin/ing of the ty#e &hi$h after the nineteenth $entury6 an) more #arti$ularly sin$e the une<#e$te) $atastro#he of the &ar6 ha) ins#ire) the Inational Right6I ranging from )isa##ointe) 'onser,ati,es an) PanDGermans to the nationalDre,olutionary a),enturists of the Free 'or#s: The .rmy6 &hi$h in many #arts of the ne& Re#ubli$ ser,e) only relu$tantly6 also &as in full sym#athy6 #arti$ularly in Ba,aria: Thus6 the organizationKs ne& star s#ea/er &as gi,en a )ouble o##ortunity to #ro,e his effe$ti,eness an) #romote his $areer: he $oul) offer a )es#airing #o#ulation torn by &ar an) re,olution an) ,i$timize) e$onomi$ally by mounting inflation a sim#le e<#lanation for their misery -%e&s6 ;ar<ists6 1ersailles6 an) )emo$rats06 an) in ;uni$h6 a $ity $aught in the ferment of re,olution an) se#aratism6 rea$tion an) monar$hism6 he $oul) form a I$ell of national or)erI )ra&ing from all &al/s of life6 thereby attra$ting noti$e an) gaining the su##ort of ;uni$hKs not o,erly )emo$rati$ military guar)ians of or)er: There $an be no )oubt that +itler6 unli/e many of his gullible $ohorts6 ha) little feeling for the #rogram of Inational so$ialism6I e<$e#t for its intense antiD*emiti$ nationalism: To him6 it &as little more than an effe$ti,e6 #ersuasi,e #ro#agan)a &ea#on for mobilizing an) mani#ulating the masses: (n$e it ha) brought him to #o&er6 it be$ame #ure )e$oration: Iunalterable6I yet unrealize) in its )eman)s for nationalization an) e<#ro#riation6 for lan) reform an) Ibrea/ing the sha$/les of finan$e $a#ital:I Eet it nonetheless fulfille) its role as ba$/)ro# an) #seu)oDtheory6 against &hi$h the future )i$tator $oul) unfol) his rhetori$al an) )ramati$ talents: After only a few months in his new role, 0itler began to be recei%e" in the salons of influential members of the volkisch literary, economic, social, an" military establishment$ 0ere was manifeste" for the first time that fatal belief of his intellectual, social, an" economic su&eriors that they coul" ma7e use of the energies an" talents of the Omass "rummerO an" that, ha%ing ser%e" their &ur&oses, he coul" be tame" an" fitte" into their scheme of things$ This "elusion figure" in the &utsch of 1 2C, in the un"erta7ings of %on 4a&en an" 'chleicher at the en" of the Weimar Re&ublic, in the formation of the 0itler Babinet in 1 CC with 0in"enburg, 0ugenberg, an" hea%y in"ustry, an" finally, also in the a&&easement &olicies of the Western &owers an" the 'o%iet (nion !1 C #8 it &ro%e" to be the most im&ortant &acema7er in 0itlerNs forwar" march, for "es&ite all his energy an" luc7, he woul" &robably ne%er ha%e crashe" the gates of &ower without outsi"e hel&8 he woul" ha%e remaine" a woul"6be tyrant, Lust as he always remaine" a woul"6be artist$ .%en though the @'+A4 7e&t aloof from volkisch sects, it saw itself not merely as Lust another &olitical &arty, but as a truly uni9ue Omo%ementO abo%e the usual O&oliticalO organi>ations$ O4arty &oliticsO was an" remaine" a term of "is"ain in the @ational 'ocialist %ocabulary$ -ut it was not only in this res&ect that the @'+A4 was tie" to the anti"emocratic an" antiliberal grou&s outsi"e the tra"itional &arty system8 it also "e%elo&e" the structure of a male6 oriente" re%olutionary or"er an" elitist mo%ement see7ing mass su&&ort yet not consi"ering the masses sufficiently 7nowle"geable &olitically to share in the "ecision6ma7ing &rocess$ The minor role assigne" to women was ty&ical of this, an" e%en more so the resolution a"o&te" by the first general membershi& meeting, inclu"ing the han"ful of women &resent, in January, 1 21E OA woman can ne%er be a"mitte" into the lea"ershi& of the &arty an" into the e?ecuti%e committee$33 ; The German Dictatorshi&( The 7rigins1 Structure1 and 8ffects of National Socialism by /arl +ietrich -racher !1 :H#, &$ : 65:

1Jf greater initial im&ortance than i"eology was the "e%elo&ment of a strong organi>ational structure through which the &arty ho&e" to be able to e?tricate itself from the Lungle of com&eting organi>ations$ )n this, the intro"uction of an all6encom&assing symbolism &ro%e" highly effecti%e$ )n their a&&eal to irrational emotions, the volkisch grou&s ha" "e%elo&e" a rich store of fre9uently scurrilous signs an" symbols, an" the new &arty ma"e more "efiniti%e, &ur&oseful, an" cohesi%e use of them than its com&etitors$ To begin with, there was the sign of the swasti7a, which as sun circle or sun wheel was to be foun" in many ancient cultures !inclu"ing Onon6AryanO ones in Bentral America#, but which, since the turn of the century, through a characteristic misun"erstan"ing an" misa&&lication of newly "e%elo&e" scientific theories, ha" been a"o&te" by volkisch sects as the symbol of OAryanO anti6'emitic re%i%al mo%ements$ That the literary circle aroun" 'tefan George with its elitist i"eology contribute" to this symbolism, e%en though well67nown Jewish writers an" intellectuals belonge" to it, is one of the trage"ies of the early history of @ational 'ocialism$ 2an> %on 2iebenfels, the Germanic Jr"er, an" the Thule 'ociety all use" the swasti7a as a symbol$ Jne of the &artyNs members, a "entist by the name of Frie"rich /rohn, in May, 1 1 , wrote a memoran"um about the swasti7a as the symbol of national6socialist grou&s$ An" he was &robably the first to use it in its later form6against a blac76white6an"6re" bac7groun"6at the foun"ing meeting of the 'tarnberg &arty local, where it was "ra&e" aroun" the s&ea7erNs lectern$ )n .ein /am&f1 0itler inaccurately claims the in%ention for himself, though "oubtlessly he was instrumental in the "ecision to ma7e the swasti7a the official &arty emblem$ 0e ob%iously recogni>e" 9uite early the im&ortance of symbolism an" its unifying &otential force for a young, aggressi%e &arty as well as for a future mass &arty, an" then systematically nurture" an" e?&loite" it$ @o other &arty was so astutely aware of the unifying force of symbols in mass "emonstrations an" as an e?&ression of soli"arity$ )n the early years there was a confusion of symbols$ The brown shirt "i" not come into general use until 1 24, %ia RossbachNs Free Bor&s8 before that time the &arty units wore win"brea7ers an" s7i ca&s$ The use of a ceremonial stan"ar" in 1 2262C ob%iously was ta7en from the )talian Fascists$ -ut the 0eil salute, then of course still without the attribute 10itler,3 alrea"y came into use in 1 2H, ha%ing originate" with Austrian vollcisch grou&s$ An" the man"atory wearing of ba"ges an" uniforms, as well as the glittering abun"ance of symbols at meetings, un"eniably a""e" to the Omo%ementNsO a&&eal an" its much6 toute" feeling of community, e%en though the &seu"o6military tra&&ings an" &seu"o6religious i"oli>ation of symbols more an" more re&elle" its o&&onents$ The earliest collaborators of 0itler contribute" materially to this ra&i" transformation of the insignificant +re?ler grou& into an organi>ationally an" i"eologically taut &arty, which as early as 1 2H stoo" out among the grou&s of the ra"ical Right an" by the en" of that year boaste" a membershi& of C,HHH$ .rnst Rohm !155:61 C4#, who Loine" the +A4 in @o%ember, 1 1 , at the latest, is first among these$ The son of a railroa" em&loyee an" himself an acti%e officer, Rohm tol" the story of his life as a volkisch monarchist an" mercenary sol"ier in his autobiogra&hy, elo9uently entitle" Die Geschichte eines $ochverraters 2The Stor of a Traitor3 1 25#$ To commit OtreasonO against a "es&ise" Re&ublic that also threatene" his military career seeme" to him a self6e%i"ent "uty$ 0e &laye" a most im&ortant role as the right han" of the Free Bor&s General %on .&& an" as the first &romoter of the &olitical career of Bor&oral 0itler$ -y intro"ucing the un7nown 0itler, a man without a &ast an" without contacts, to O&atrioticO officers an" &oliticians, Rohm furnishe" the s&ringboar" for 0itlerNs entry into &olitics$ 0e lent acti%e su&&ort to ra"ical right6wing arme" organi>ations !Wehrverbande61 gi%ing fully of his talents as a military organi>er, a"%enturer, an" cons&irator, an" it was he who built the &arty troo&s, the 'turmabteilung !'A#, into an instrument of fear an" terror$ Aet for these %ery reasons, he again an" again came into conflict with 0itler, a conflict which in 1 2D resulte" in a fi%e6yearlong estrangement, some of which Rohm s&ent as a military instructor in -oli%ia$ After being calle" bac7 in 1 CH to hea" the 'A, new conflicts arose, en"ing with his e?ecution in 1 C4$ )n fact, Rohm was the only one 0itler truly res&ecte", the only one with whom he was on familiar !du! terms8 but he also was a ri%al whose i"ea of a &owerful fighting organi>ation &arallel to the &arty again an" again ran u& against 0itlerNs i"ea of total &arty control$ 0itlerNs early encounter with +ietrich .c7art !15*561 2C# was e9ually im&ortant$ A lawyerNs son from @eumar7t in -a%aria, .c7art ha" trie" his han" at writing in -erlin where, a&&arently out of &i9ue o%er his literary failure, he became an anti6'emite an" finally lan"e" in the +A4 %ia the Thule 'ociety$ 0is intellectual influence on 0itler !he was 0itlerNs first e"ucate" an" socially a"e&t ac9uaintance# a&&arently was 9uite consi"erable, e%en gi%en the assum&tion that 0itler came out of the war with firm basic i"eas$ )t was "ue to .c7artNs military an" social connections that the @'+A4 was able to ac9uire the .unchener Beobachter in +ecember, 1 2H, which, rename" Volkischer Beobachter1 became the official &arty &a&er$ .c7art was its first &ublisher until his &remature "eathI3 ; The German Dictatorshi&( The 7rigins1 Structure1 and 8ffects of National Socialism by /arl +ietrich -racher !1 :H#, &$ 5:655

1+es&ite his e?traor"inary "ri%e, 0itler in 1 2H ha" not yet gaine" com&lete control of the e?&an"ing &arty$ Though as an in"is&ensable &ro&agan"ist he enLoye" great &restige an" was able to influence the structure an" acti%ities of the &arty, he still ha" not &enetrate" into its innermost councils when, in the summer of 1 21, he &re&are" for his gran" cou&, by ousting +re?ler as chairman, assuming near6"ictatorial &ower, an" ma7ing himself largely in"e&en"ent of the e?ecuti%e committee$ This turn of e%ents becomes com&rehensible if one stu"ies the tactics he em&loye"$ 0e was "etermine" to out"o all ri%al &arties in acti%ity an" forcefulness$ -y turning shar&ly against bourgeois6romantic sectarian grou&s an" their &seu"o6"emocratic organi>ational tactics, he sought to cash in on the tren" of the times towar" a Ostrong man,O towar" the rema7ing of the shattere" &ostwar worl" by a O"ictatorshi& of or"er$O More than any of the other &arty functionaries, 0itler 7new how to ma7e himself in"is&ensable by wor7ing without letu&, &ushing the more se"ate +re?ler, hobble" by his Lob, into the bac7groun"$ When it came to a test of strength, it became ob%ious that most of the &arty e?ecuti%es, though sym&athetic to +re?ler ; an" e%en +re?ler himself6felt that that they coul" not "is&ense with the "ri%ing force of 0itler$ )t was a "emonstration of the tactics which 0itler was to a&&ly successfully again an" again, as for e?am&le "uring the final &arty "is&ute with Gregor 'trasser in +ecember, 1 C2$ Jn July 11, 1 21, 0itler in a "ramatic gesture announce" his resignation from the @'+A4, an" at the same time Lust as "ramatically ma"e 7nown his con"itions for reLoiningE absolute &rimacy for the Munich &arty local an" its &rogram o%er all other @ational 'ocialist local grou&s which ha" s&rung u& in an" outsi"e -a%aria8 the e?&ulsion of a number of un"esirable in"i%i"uals an" grou&s, &articularly one local in Augsburg which was critical of his &ower as&irations an" ha" &ro&ose" fusion with the German 'ocialist 4arty !+eutschso>ialistische 4artei, or +'4#, a similarly oriente" &arty, with future hea"9uarters in -erlin$ 0itler calle" for &ursuing a ra"ical course an" 7ee&ing aloof from any nationalist grou&s inclining towar" com&romise$ The ultimatum he lai" "own for his lea"ershi& ga%e unmista7able hints of what the future hel" in store$ Among his s&ecific "eman"s were the election of a new e?ecuti%e committee within a wee7, the conferral on him of the O&ost of first chairman with "ictatorial &owers,O an" the continuance in &er&etuity of Munich as the Oseat of the mo%ement$O 0e furthermore insiste" on the e?&ulsion of any member who attem&te" to change the name of the &arty or its &rogram$ Also, he rule" out union with ri%al grou&s8 only uncon"itional affiliation on their &art was acce&table, an" any negotiations on that were to be con"ucte" by him Oe?clusi%ely$O )t soon became a&&arent that this strategy was boun" to be successful, for 0itler ha" ma"e himself in"is&ensable to the life an" wor7 of the &arty$ Again .c7art became the liaison man who &ersua"e" the &arty lea"ershi&, inclu"ing +re?ler, to ca&itulate to 0itlerNs "eman"s with some minor reser%ations$ 0owe%er, in the ne?t few "ays new &roblems arose which almost le" to a s&lit, when the 0itler wing, acting on its own, calle" a s&ecial membershi& meeting to seal its %ictory$ A countercam&aign was launche" within the &arty, an" han"bills were "istribute" casting "oubt on 0itlerNs an" his frien" .sserNs integrity, as7ing embarrassing 9uestions about the source of their Oincome,O castigating the maintenance of a &ri%ate 0itler army !ma"e u& of unem&loye"#, an" calling for the foun"ing of a @ational 'ocialist organi>ation without 0itler$ -ut once again +re?ler, at the urging of .c7art, ga%e in at the last moment$ The e<traor)inary membershi# meeting of %uly ?76 47?46 atten)e) by only NN5 members6 an) $haire) by sser6 en)e) in a rhetori$al ,i$tory for +itler: The assemblage ,ote) to ma/e Are<ler honorary $hairman an) to re,ise the statutes so as to reorganize the #arty6 in,ol,ing #seu)oDele$tions to the e<e$uti,e $oun$il but in fa$t instituting )i$tatorial lea)ershi# &ith an Ia$tion $ommitteeI un)er +itler: +itlerKs men mo,e) into the /ey #ositions: This &as the beginning of the myth of the ILea)erI +itler6 at first $ons$iously #romote) by $/art in the Vol0isc&e 1eob2c&ter an) alrea)y hinting at the mysti$al i)ealization ty#i$al of the future: Ru"olf 0ess, a stu"ent of the Munich geo&olitician /arl 0aushofer, furnishe" the first e?am&le of these &anegyrics$ 0itlerNs &rou" assertion that he ha" won the O&osition of first chairman with "ictatorial &owersO ma"e the Olea"er &rinci&leO into the central organi>ational &rinci&le of the &arty$ As the Olea"er of the @'+A4,O as he now calle" himself, 0itler "eman"e" not only unlimite" control o%er the &arty hierarchy but increasingly also the uncon"itional loyalty an" almost &seu"o6 religious allegiance of the membershi&$ This ty&e of lea"er &rinci&le was in line with the wi"es&rea" cra%ing for security, or"er, authority, an" hero worshi& unfulfille" since the o%erthrow of the monarchy$3 ; The German Dictatorshi&( The 7rigins1 Structure1 and 8ffects of National Socialism by /arl +ietrich -racher !1 :H#, &$ 16 2

<$er#ts from ;emesis< =&e Stor: of 4tto Str2sser by Aouglas Ree) -47G506 'ha#ter G -Belate) +ome$oming0 1'oon after, /urt .isner was shot in Munich by Bount Arco$ Thereu&on the Re" Re&ublic was &roclaime"8 until then, there ha" been a 2eft Boalition Go%ernment of 'ocialists$ )n"e&en"ent 'ocialists, an" Bommunists$ 2e%ine, a Russian Jew an" emissary from Moscow, was the mo%ing s&irit in the Munich 'o%iet8 other Jews in it were .rnst Toller an" .rich MUhsam$ The most famous -a%arian sol"ier, General %on .&&, began to recruit men to oust the Re" Go%ernment in Munich$ 0e ha" seen colonial ser%ice, an" in the war was, first, Bolonel of the -a%arian Guar" an" later general officer comman"ing the -a%arian Al&ine Bor&s, Vlite troo&s$ 0e ha" fle" to Jhr"ruf in Thuringia an", with one Ba&tain .rnst RWhm as his chief6of6staff, forme" the .&& Free Bor&s, which all &atriotic -a%arians trie" to Loin$ )n Munich, the Re" Go%ernment, fearing the attac7, arreste" hun"re"s of hostages, chiefly officers, an" now a %ery sinister thing ha&&ene", which "eser%es a much greater &lace in the history of the Jews in &olitics than it has recei%e"$ Among the hostages were twenty6two members of the NTulle 'ocietyN, a small an" unim&ortant bo"y which fostere" the cult of ol" German literature, tra"itions, fol7lore, legen"s, an" the li7e$ Anti6'emitism was an integral &art of its teaching8 so was anti6Bhristianity$ )t was an insignificant grou& without any &ower or &ossibility of &utting its theories into &ractice$ )t ha" no single &olitician among its members, only a few ol" &rofessors an" noblemen$ Jf all the hun"re"s of hostages &recisely these twenty6two &eo&le, inclu"ing se%eral women, among them Bountess Westar&, were ta7en out an" shot by the alien Jewish Go%ernment of MunichX The .&& Free Bor&s too7 sha&e for the e?&e"ition against Re" Munich$ All the figures who later &laye" a big &art in the .uro&ean "rama gathere" for this smaller one 6 sa%e 0itlerX 0itler was in Munich$ 0e was still a sol"ier$ 0e ha", as he tells in Mein /am&f, ta7en that fearsome anti6-olshe%ist oath in hos&ital at 4asewal7$ 0e was alrea"y resol%e" to sa%e the worl" from -olshe%ism$ Aet he "i" not s&ring to sa%e Munich from -olshe%ism$ 0e "i" not ma7e his way out an" Loin the .&& Free Bor&s, although he a%owe"ly burne" to fight$ 0e was in Munich, an" he was a sol"ier$ -ut the sol"iers in Munich were un"er the or"ers of the Re" Go%ernment, the Jewish Go%ernment rule" from Moscow$ )f he was in barrac7s, he must ha%e been 6 a Re"X There was much muttering an" murmuring among the @ational 'ocialist lea"ers, much sha7ing of &u>>le" hea"s, in later years, about this, but not the hint of an e?&lanation of his "oings in Munich at that time e%er came from 0itler$ This is a com&lete ga& in Mein /am&f$ )t is one of the "ar7est things in all his "ar7 history$ ) woul" gi%e almost anything ) ha%e to 7now for whom that man really wor7e", not only then, but at all times later$ Jtto 'trasser first "rew my &articular attention to this remar7able e&iso"e in 0itlerNs life$ Although ) ha" closely stu"ie" these things, ) ha" o%erloo7e" it, an" ) "o not thin7 any other writer has notice" its significance or "iscusse" it$ )n"ee", a man who was u& to the nec7 in the &olitical turmoil of those "ays, as was Jtto 'trasser, is nee"e" to &ut it in its true &ro&ortion, an" future historians will be in"ebte" to him for this, because it is one of the most im&ortant of the things we 7now, an" they are too few, about the man 0itler$ 2ater, when we 7now more of him, an" the "ouble or tri&le game he always &laye" is clearer to see, it may &ro%e to be the missing &iece in the Ligsaw &u>>le$ )t is worth e?&laining more fully, for this reason$ The Re" regime in Munich laste" from @o%ember 1 15 until May 1st, 1 1 $ 0itler, accor"ing to his own account in Mein /am&f, was fille" with the most %iolent hatre" of the Jewish6Bommunist re%olution in Germany from the moment it bro7e out, in the first "ays of @o%ember$ =n the last )ays of No,ember6 $ure) an) )is$harge) from hos#ital6 he re#orte) to his regimental )e#ot D in that ,ery ;uni$h &here the Re)s &ere most #o&erful: 0is own battalion was un"er the or"ers of the re%olutionary N'ol"iersN BouncilN$ This so "isguste" him, he says, that by some means he contri%e" to be sent to a cam& at Traunstein, a few miles away$ 0e says that he returne" to Munich Nin MarchN$ The Re"s were "ri%en out by %on .&& an" the 4russian troo&s at the en" of A&ril$ For about two months, therefore,N 0itler, a ser%ing sol"ier, was in Munich when the Re" regime was at its height, un"er the rule of a Russian Jew sent from Moscow, when the hostages were being shot$ Goo" -a%arians who were there at the same time contri%e", by hoo7 or by croo7, to get out of Munich an" ma7e their way to %on .&&, returning with him to "ri%e the Re"s out$ Jtto 'trasser "i" this, at the ris7 of his life an" after surmounting many "ifficulties$

0itler, who "e%otes so many &ages in his boo7 to win"y abuse of the Re"s in Moscow an" of )nternational -olshe%ism in general, staye" 9uietly in Munich$ 0e says no wor" of his life in Munich "uring those two months$ 0e gi%es no "escri&tion of the horrors he saw 66 he, who later rails for &ages at a time about the wholesale massacres in Moscow 66 or of con"itions in Munich at all$ -ut, an" this is the %ital &oint, he was a sol"ier, an" sol"iers who staye" in Munich were un"er the or"ers of that Re" Go%ernment8 if they "i"nNt li7e it, they "eserte" by night to %on .&&, in Thuringia, an" 0itler "i" not "o that$ 0e was then 6 a Re"X 0e &robably wore the re" arm6ban"$ 4resumably, with the rest of the Munich garrison, he too7 &art in the fighting against %on .&&Ns troo&s$ What other lea"er of such a &arty as the @ational 'ocialist 4arty woul" in a boo7 &ass o%er in silence such a &erio" as thisM All 0itler has to say about it is the %ague an" unintelligible remar7 that he was Nnearly arreste"N three "ays before the Re"s were "ri%en out$ From that he calmly &asses on to a sentence beginningE NA few "ays after the liberation of Munich ) was $$$N @othing about his reasons for staying in Munich, nothing about the horrors of a Re" regime which he actually 7new, nothing about the se%ere fighting that &rece"e" the liberation of Munich, nothing about the trium&hal entry of %on .&&Ns troo&s$ .%ery other notable @ational 'ocialist lea"er or 'torm Troo& comman"er, in those "ays, fought with one or other of the Free Bor&s somewhere in Germany8 this was the %ery thing that ga%e them a claim to subse9uent a"%ancement in the 4arty$ -ut the FUhrer himself, the arch anti6Re" 6 was in Munich$ 0e, who was always fille" with a religious horror an" hatre" of the -olshe%ists, retaine" from these months s&ent un"er their rule in a city that he regar"e" as his a"o&te" birth&lace no single memory worth &utting on &a&er$ ) belie%e that future historians will nee" to start their researches into his life in Munich, in the &erio" between March an" May 1 1 , an" unless all the trac7s ha%e fa"e" they will "isco%er some strange things$ Jtto 'trasser says that for many years afterwar"s 66 until the a"%ent to &ower &lace" 0itler on a &e"estal ele%ate" abo%e all such "oubts, which woul" ha%e cost the au"ible "oubter his life 66 the @ational 'ocialist lea"ers, when they were tal7ing together of this an" that, always returne" to the 9uestion KWhat &as .)olf )oing in ;uni$h in ;ar$h an) .#ril 4747?K an" the answer was always a &er&le?e" shrug of the shoul"ers or sha7e of the hea"$3

1When A"olf 0itler became chancellor of the German Reich on January CH, 1 CC, he was not yet forty6four years ol"$ From his birth in Austria in 155 to the outbrea7 of war in 1 14, his life ha" been a succession of failures, the se%en years 1 H:61 14 being &asse" as a social "erelict in Kienna an" Munich$ There he ha" become a fanatical 4an6German anti6'emite, attributing his own failures to the Ointrigues of international Jewry$O The outbrea7 of war in August 1 14 ga%e 0itler the first real moti%ation of his life$ 0e became a su&er6&atriot, Loine" the 'i?teenth Kolunteer -a%arian )nfantry, an" ser%e" at the front for four years$ )n his way he was an e?cellent sol"ier$ Attache" to the regimental staff as messenger for the First Bom&any, he was com&letely ha&&y, always %olunteering for the most "angerous tas7s$ Although his relations with his su&eriors were e?cellent an" he was "ecorate" with the )ron Bross, secon" class, in 1 14 an" with the )ron Bross, first class, in 1 15, he was ne%er &romote" beyon" 4ri%ate, First Blass, because he was inca&able of ha%ing any real relationshi&s with his fellow sol"iers or of ta7ing comman" of any grou& of them$ 0e remaine" on acti%e ser%ice at the front for four years$ +uring that &erio" his regiment of C,DHH suffere" C,2*H 7ille" in action, an" 0itler himself was woun"e" twice$ These were the only two occasions on which he left the front$ )n Jctober 1 15 he was blin"e" by mustar" gas an" sent to a hos&ital at 4asewal7, near -erlin$ When he emerge" a month later he foun" the war finishe", Germany beaten, an" the monarchy o%erthrown$ 0e refuse" to become reconcile" to this situation$ (nable to acce&t either "efeat or the re&ublic, remembering the war as the secon" great lo%e of his life !the first being his mother#, he staye" with the army an" e%entually became a &olitical s&y for the Reichswehr, statione" near Munich$ )n the course of s&ying on the numerous &olitical grou&s in Munich, 0itler became fascinate" by the rantings of Gottfrie" Fe"er against the 1interest sla%ery of the Jews$3 At some meetings 0itler himself became a &artici&ant, attac7ing the 1Jewish &lot to "ominate the worl"3 or ranting about the nee" for 4an6German unity$ As a result he was as7e" to Loin the German Wor7ersN 4arty, an" "i" so, becoming one of about si?ty regular members an" the se%enth member of its e?ecuti%e committee$ The German Wor7ersN 4arty ha" been foun"e" by a Munich loc7smith, Anton +re?ler, on January D, 1 1 , as a nationalist, 4an6German, wor7ersN grou&$ )n a few months Ba&tain .rnst Rohm of Fran> %on .&&Ns cor&s of the -lac7 Reichswohr Loine" the mo%ement an" became the con"uit by which secret Reichswehr fun"s, coming through .&&, were con%eye" to the &arty$ 0e also began to organi>e a strong6 arm militia within the grou& !the 'torm Troo&s, or 'A#$ When 0itler Loine" in 'e&tember 1 1 , he was &ut in charge of &arty &ublicity$ 'ince this was the chief e?&ense, an" since 0itler also became the &artyNs lea"ing orator, &ublic o&inion soon came to regar" the whole mo%ement as 0itlerNs, an" Rohm &ai" the ReichswehrNs fun"s to 0itler "irectly$ +uring 1 2H the &arty grew from D4 to C,HHH members8 it change" its name to @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ersN 4arty, &urchase" the KWl7ischer -eobachter with *H,HHH mar7s of General %on .&&Ns money, an" "rew u& its 1Twenty6fi%e64oint 4rogram$3 The &arty &rogram of 1 2H was &rinte" in the &arty literature for twenty6fi%e years, but its &ro%isions became more remote from attainment as years &asse"$ .%en in 1 2H, many of its clauses were &ut in to win su&&ort from the lower classes rather than because they were sincerely "esire" by the &arty lea"ers$ These inclu"e" !1# 4an6Germanism8 !2# German international e9uality, inclu"ing the abrogation of the Treaty of Kersailles8 !C# li%ing s&ace for Germans, inclu"ing colonial areas8 !4# German citi>enshi& to be base" on bloo" only, with no naturali>ation, no immigration for non6Germans, an" all Jews or Oother aliensO eliminate"8 !D# all unearne" incomes to be abolishe", the state to control all mono&olies, to im&ose an e?cess6&rofits ta? on cor&orations, to Ocommunali>eO the large "e&artment stores, to encourage small business in the allotment of go%ernment contracts, to ta7e agricultural lan" for &ublic &ur&oses without com&ensation, an" to &ro%i"e ol"age &ensions8!*# to &unish all war &rofiteers an" usurers with "eath8 an" !:# to see that the &ress, e"ucation, culture, an" religion conform to Othe morals an" religious sense of the German race$O As the &arty grew, a""ing members an" s&rea"ing out to lin7 u& with similar mo%ements in other &arts of Germany, 0itler strengthene" his control of the grou&$ 0e coul" "o this because he ha" control of the &arty news&a&er an" of the chief source of money an" was its chief &ublic figure$ )n July 1 21, he ha" the &arty constitution change" to gi%e the &resi"ent absolute &ower$ 0e was electe" &resi"ent8 +re?ler was ma"e honorary &resi"ent8 while Ma? Amann, 0itlerNs sergeant in the war, was ma"e business manager$ As a conse9uence of this e%ent, the 'A was reorgani>e" un"er RWhm, the wor" O'ocialismO in the &arty name was inter&rete" to mean nationalism !or a society without class conflicts#, an" e9uality in &arty an" state was re&lace" hy the Olea"ershi& &rinci&leO an" the "octrine of the elite$ )n the ne?t two years the &arty &asse" through a series of crises of which the chief was the attem&te" 4utsch of @o%ember , 1 2C$ +uring this &erio" all 7in"s of %iolence an" illegality, e%en mur"er, were con"one" by the -a%arian an" Munich authorities$ As a result of the failures of this &erio", es&ecially the aborti%e 4utsch, 0itler became con%ince" that he must come to &ower by legal metho"s rather than by force8 he bro7e with 2u"en"orff an" cease" to be su&&orte" by the Reichswehr8 he began to recei%e his chief financial su&&ort from the in"ustrialists8 he ma"e a tacit alliance with the -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty by which 4rime Minister 0einrich 0el" of -a%aria raise" the ban on the @a>i 4arty in return for 0itlerNs re&u"iation of 2u"en"orff,s anti6Bhristian teachings8 an" 0itler forme" a new arme" militia !the ''# to &rotect himself against RohmNs control of the ol" arme" militia !the 'A#$ =n the #erio) 47?GD47>5 the #arty $ontinue)6 &ithout any real gro&th6 as a Ilunati$ fringe6I subsi)ize) by the in)ustrialists: .mong the $hief $ontributors to the #arty in this #erio) &ere 'arl Be$hstein -Berlin #iano manufa$turer06 .ugust Borsig -Berlin lo$omoti,e manufa$turer06 mil Kir)orf -general manager of the RhenishDWest#halian 'oal *yn)i$ate06 Fritz Thyssen -o&ner of the Fnite) *teel Wor/s an) #resi)ent of the German =n)ustrial 'oun$il0 an) .lbert 1Ogler -general manager of the Gelsen/ir$hen =ron an) *teel 'om#any an) formerly general manager of Fnite) *teel Wor/s0: +uring this &erio" neither 0itler nor his su&&orters were see7ing to create a mass mo%ement$ That "i" not come until 1 CH$ -ut "uring this earlier &erio" the &arty itself was stea"ily centrali>e", an" the 2eftish elements !li7e the 'trasser brothers# were wea7ene" or eliminate"$ )n A&ril 1 2:, 0itler s&o7e to 4HH in"ustrialists in .ssen8 in A&ril 1 25, he a""resse" a similar grou& of lan"lor"s from east of the .lbe8 in January 1 C2 came one of his greatest trium&hs when he s&o7e for C hours to the )n"ustrial Blub of +Ussel"orf an" won

su&&ort an" financial contributions from that &owerful grou&$ -y that "ate he was see7ing to buil" his mo%ement into a mass &olitical &arty ca&able of swee&ing him into office$ This &roLect faile"$ As we ha%e in"icate", by the en) of 47>? mu$h of the finan$ial su##ort from in)ustry ha) been $ut off by Pa#en6 an) #arty membershi# &as falling a&ay6 $hiefly to the 'ommunists: To sto# this )e$line6 +itler agree) to be$ome $han$ellor in a 'abinet in &hi$h there &oul) be only three Nazis among ele,en members: Pa#en ho#e) in this &ay to $ontrol the Nazis an) to obtain from them the #o#ular su##ort &hi$h Pa#en ha) so sorely la$/e) in his o&n $han$ellorshi# in 47>?: But Pa#en &as far too $le,er for his o&n goo): +e6 +ugenberg6 +in)enburg6 an) the rest of the intriguers ha) un)erestimate) +itler: The latter6 in return for +ugenbergKs a$$e#tan$e of ne& ele$tions on ;ar$h N6 47>>6 #romise) that there &oul) be no 'abinet $hanges &hate,er the out$ome of the ,oting: =n s#ite of the fa$t that the Nazis obtaine) only GG #er $ent of the ballots in the ne& ele$tion6 +itler be$ame )i$tator of Germany &ithin eighteen months: Jne of the chief reasons for this success rests on the &osition of 4russia within Germany$ 4russia was the greatest of the fourteen states of Germany$ Bo%ering almost two6thir"s of the country, it inclu"e" both the great rural areas of the east an" the great in"ustrial areas of the west$ Thus it inclu"e" the most conser%ati%e as well as the most &rogressi%e &ortions of Germany$ While its influence was almost as great un"er the re&ublic as it ha" been un"er the em&ire, this influence was of 9uite a "ifferent character, ha%ing change" from the chief bulwar7 of conser%atism in the earlier &erio" to the chief area of &rogressi%ism in the later &erio"$ This change w as ma"e &ossible by the large numbers of enlightene" grou&s in the Rhenish areas of 4russia, but chiefly by the fact that the so6calle" Weimar Boalition of 'ocial +emocrats, Benter 4arty, an" 2iberal +emocrats remaine" unbro7en in 4russia from 1 15 to 1 C2$ As a conse9uence of this alliance, a 'ocial +emocrat, Jtto -raun, hel" the &osition of &rime minister of 4russia for almost the whole &erio" 1 2H 1 C2, an" Prussia &as the $hief obsta$le in the #ath of the Nazis an) of rea$tion in the $riti$al )ays after 47>5: .s #art of this mo,ement the Prussian 'abinet in 47>5 refuse) to allo& either 'ommunists or Nazis to hol) muni$i#al offi$es in Prussia6 #rohibite) Prussian $i,il ser,ants from hol)ing membershi# in either of these t&o #arties6 an) forba)e the use of the Nazi uniform: This obstacle to e?tremism was remo%e" on July 2H, 1 C2, when 0in"enburg, by &resi"ential "ecree base" on Article 45, a&&ointe" 4a&en commissioner for 4russia$ 4a&en at once "ismisse" the eight members of the 4russian &arliamentary Babinet an" grante" their go%ernmental functions to men name" by himself$ The "ismisse" ministers were remo%e" from their offices by the &ower of the army, but at once challenge" the legality of this action before the German 'u&reme Bourt at 2ei&>ig$ -y its %er"ict of Jctober 2D, 1 C2, the court "eci"e" for the remo%e" officials$ =n s#ite of this )e$ision6 +itler6 after only a &ee/ in the $han$ellorshi#6 &as able to obtain from +in)enburg a ne& )e$ree &hi$h remo,e) the Prussian ministers from offi$e on$e more an) $onferre) their #o&ers on the fe)eral ,i$eD$han$ellor6 Pa#en: 'ontrol of the #oli$e a)ministration &as $onferre) on +ermann Goring: The Nazis alrea)y hel)6 through Wilhelm Fri$/6 $ontrol of the Rei$h ;inistry of =nterior an) thus of the national #oli$e #o&ers: Thus +itler6 by February Hth6 ha) $ontrol of the #oli$e #o&ers both of the Rei$h an) of Prussia: Fsing this a),antage6 the Nazis began a t&ofol) assault on the o##osition: Goring an) Fri$/ &or/e) un)er a $loa/ of legality from abo,e6 &hile 'a#tain Rohm in $omman) of the Nazi Party storm troo#s &or/e) &ithout #retense of legality from belo&: .ll un$oo#erati,e #oli$e offi$ials &ere retire)6 remo,e)6 or gi,en ,a$ations an) &ere re#la$e) by Nazi substitutes6 usually *torm Troo# lea)ers: (n February G6 47>>6 +in)enburg signe) an emergen$y )e$ree &hi$h ga,e the go,ernment the right to #rohibit or $ontrol any meetings6 uniforms6 or ne&s#a#ers: =n this &ay most o##osition meetings an) ne&s#a#ers &ere #re,ente) from rea$hing the #ubli$: This atta$/ on the o##osition from abo,e &as a$$om#anie) by a ,iolent assault from belo&6 $arrie) out by the *.: )n "es&erate attac7s in which eighteen @a>is an" fifty6one o&&osition were 7ille", all Bommunist, most 'ocialist, an" many Benter 4arty meetings were "isru&te"$ )n s&ite of all this, it was e%i"ent a wee7 before the election that the German &eo&le were not con%ince"$ .$$or)ingly6 un)er $ir$umstan$es &hi$h are still mysterious6 a #lot &as &or/e) out to burn the Rei$hstag buil)ing an) blame the 'ommunists: ;ost of the #lotters &ere homose<uals an) &ere able to #ersua)e a )egenerate moron from +ollan) name) 1an )er Lubbe to go &ith them: .fter the buil)ing &as set on fire6 1an )er Lubbe &as left &an)ering about in it an) &as arreste) by the #oli$e: The go,ernment at on$e arreste) four 'ommunists6 in$lu)ing the #arty lea)er in the Rei$hstag - rnst Torgler0: The )ay follo&ing the fire -February ?96 47>>0 +in)enburg signe) a )e$ree sus#en)ing all $i,il liberties an) gi,ing the go,ernment #o&er to in,a)e any #ersonal #ri,a$y6 in$lu)ing the right to sear$h #ri,ate homes or $onfis$ate #ro#erty: .t on$e all 'ommunist members of the Rei$hstag6 as &ell as thousan)s of others6 &ere arreste)6 an) all 'ommunist an) *o$ialDAemo$rat #a#ers &ere sus#en)e) for t&o &ee/s: The true story of the Rei$hstag fire &as /e#t se$ret only &ith )iffi$ulty: *e,eral #ersons &ho /ne& the truth6 in$lu)ing a Nationalist Rei$hstag member6 Ar: (berfohren6 &ere mur)ere) in ;ar$h an) .#ril to #re,ent their $ir$ulating the true story: ;ost of the Nazis &ho &ere in on the #lot &ere mur)ere) by Goring )uring the Ibloo) #urgeI of %une >56 47>G: The four 'ommunists &ho &ere )ire$tly $harge) &ith the $rime &ere a$Cuitte) by the regular German $ourts6 although 1an )er Lubbe &as $on,i$te): )n s&ite of these "rastic measures, the election of March D, 1 CC, was a failure from the @a>i &oint of %iew$ 0itlerNs &arty recei%e" only 255 of *4: seats, or 4C$ &ercent of the total %ote$ The @ationalists obtaine" only 5 &ercent$ The Bommunists obtaine" 51 seats, a "ecrease of 1 , but the 'ocialists obtaine" 12D, an increase of 4$ The Benter 4arty fell from 5 to :4, an" the 4eo&leNs 4arty from 11 to 2$ The @ationalists staye" at D1 seats$ )n the simultaneous election to the 4russian +iet, the @a>is obtaine" 211 an" the @ationalists 4C out of 4:4 seats$ The &erio" from the election of March D, 1 CC, to the "eath of 0in"enburg on August 2, 1 C4, is generally calle" the 4erio" of Boor"ination !Gleichschaltung#$ The &rocess was carrie" on, li7e the electoral cam&aign Lust finishe", by illegal actions from below an" legalistic actions from abo%e$ From below, on March :th throughout Germany, the 'A swe&t away much of the o&&osition by %iolence, "ri%ing it into hi"ing$ They

marche" to most offices of tra"e unions, &erio"icals, an" local go%ernments, smashing them u&, e?&elling their occu&ants, an" raising the swasti7a flag$ Minister of the )nterior Wilhelm Fric7 con"one" these actions by naming @a>is as &olice &resi"ents in %arious German states !-a"en, 'a?ony, WUrttemburg, -a%aria#, inclu"ing General %on .&& in -a%aria$ These men then &rocee"e" to use their &olice &owers to sei>e control of the a&&aratus of state go%ernment$ The ne& Rei$hstag met on ;ar$h ?>r) at the Kroll (#era +ouse: =n or)er to se$ure a maBority6 the Nazis e<$lu)e) from the session all of the 'ommunist an) >5 *o$ialist members6 about 457 in all: The rest &ere as/e) to #ass an !enabling a$t" &hi$h &oul) gi,e the go,ernment for four years the right to legislate by )e$ree6 &ithout the nee) for the #resi)ential signature6 as in .rti$le G96 an) &ithout $onstitutional restri$tions e<$e#t in res#e$t to the #o&ers of the Rei$hstag6 the Rei$hsrat6 an) the #resi)en$y: *in$e this la& reCuire) a t&oDthir) maBority6 it $oul) ha,e been beaten if only a small grou# of the 'enter Party ha) ,ote) against it: To be sure6 +itler ma)e it ,ery $lear that he &as #re#are) to use ,iolen$e against all &ho refuse) to $oo#erate &ith him6 but his #o&er to )o so on a $learD$ut $onstitutional issue in ;ar$h 47>> &as mu$h less than it be$ame later6 sin$e ,iolen$e from him on su$h a Cuestion might &ell ha,e arraye) the #resi)ent an) the Rei$hs&ehr against him: =n s#ite of +itlerKs intimi)ating s#ee$h6 (tto Wels of the *o$ial Aemo$rats rose to e<#lain &hy his #arty refuse) to su##ort the bill: +e &as follo&e) by ;onsignor Kaas of the 'enter Party &ho e<#laine) that his 'atholi$ Grou# &oul) su##ort it: The ,ote in fa,or of the bill &as more than suffi$ient6 being GG4D7G6 &ith the *o$ial Aemo$rats forming the soli) minority: Thus6 this &ea/6 timi)6 )o$trinaire6 an) ignorant grou# re)eeme) themsel,es by their $ourage after the ele,enth hour ha) #asse): Fn)er this I nabling .$tI the go,ernment issue) a series of re,olutionary )e$rees in the ne<t fe& months: The )iets of all the German states6 e<$e#t Prussia -&hi$h ha) ha) its o&n ele$tion on ;ar$h Nth0 &ere re$onstitute) in the #ro#ortions of ,otes in the national ele$tion of ;ar$h Nth6 e<$e#t that the 'ommunists &ere thro&n out: a$h #arty &as gi,en its Cuota of members an) allo&e) to name the in)i,i)ual members on a #urely #arty basis: . similar #ro$e)ure &as a##lie) to lo$al go,ernments: Thus the Nazis re$ei,e) a maBority in ea$h bo)y: A "ecree of A&ril :th ga%e the Reich go%ernment the right to name a go%ernor of each German state$ This was a new official em&owere" to enforce the &olicies of the Reich go%ernment e%en to the &oint of "ismissing the state go%ernments, inclu"ing the &rime ministers, "iets, an" the hitherto irremo%able Lu"ges$ This right was use" in each state to ma7e a @a>i go%ernor an" a @a>i &rime minister$ )n -a%aria, for e?am&le, the two were .&& an" Rohm, while in 4russia the two were 0itler an" Goring$ )n many states the go%ernor was the "istrict lea"er of the @a>i 4arty, an" where he was not, he was subLect to that lea"erNs or"ers$ -y a later law of January CH, 1 C4, the "iets of the states were abolishe"8 the so%ereign &owers of the states were transferre" to the Reich8 an" the go%ernors were ma"e subor"inates of the Reich Ministry of the )nterior$ All the &olitical &arties e?ce&t the @a>is were abolishe" in May, June, an" July 1 CC$ The Bommunists ha" been outlawe" on February 25th$ The 'ocial +emocrats were enLoine" from all acti%ities on June 22n", an" were e?&elle" from %arious go%erning bo"ies on July :th$ The German 'tate 4arty !+emocratic 4arty# an" the German 4eo&leNs 4arty were "issol%e" on June 25th an" July 4th$ The -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty was smashe" by the 'torm Troo&ers on June 22n", an" "isban"e" itself on July 4th$ The Benter 4arty "i" the same on the following "ay$ A series of &itche" battles between the 'A an" the 'tahlhelm in A&ril6June 1 CC en"e" with the absor&tion of the latter into the @a>i 4arty$ The @ationalists were smashe" by %iolence on June 21st8 0ugenberg was unable to &enetrate the 'A guar" aroun" 0in"enburg to &rotest8 an" on June 25th his &arty was "issol%e"$ Finally, on July 14, 1 CC, the @a>i 4arty was "eclare" to be the only recogni>e" &arty in Germany$ The mi""le classes were coor"inate" an" "isa&&ointe"$ Wholesale an" retail tra"e associations were consoli"ate" into a Reich Bor&oration of German Tra"e un"er the @a>i +r$ %on Renteln$ Jn July 22n" the same man became &resi"ent of the German )n"ustrial an" Tra"e Bommittee, which was a union of all the chambers of commerce$ )n Germany these last ha" been semi&ublic legal cor&orations$ The brea7u& of the great "e&artment stores, which ha" been one of the @a>i &romises to the &etty bourgeoisie since Gottfrie" Fe"erNs Twenty6fi%e64oint &rogram of 1 2H, was aban"one", accor"ing to 0essNs announcement of July :th$ Moreo%er, li9ui"ation of the coo&erati%e societies, which ha" also been a &romise of long "uration, was aban"one" by an announcement of July 1 th$ This last re%ersal resulte" from the fact that most of the coo&erati%es ha" come un"er @a>i control by being ta7en o%er by the 2abor Front on May 1* 1 CC$ 2abor was coor"inate" without resistance, e?ce&t from the Bommunists$ The go%ernment "eclare" May 1st a national holi"ay, an" celebrate" it with a s&eech by 0itler on the "ignity of labor before a million &ersons at Tem&elhof$ The ne?t "ay the 'A sei>e" all union buil"ings an" offices, arreste" all union lea"ers, an" sent most of these to concentration cam&s$ The unions themsel%es were incor&orate" into a @a>i German 2abor Front un"er Robert 2ey$ The new lea"er, in an article in the KWl7ischer -eobachter, &romise" em&loyers that henceforth they coul" be masters in their own houses as long as they ser%e" the nation !that is, the @a>i 4arty#$ Wor7 was su&&lie" for labor by re"ucing the wor7 wee7 to forty hours !with a corres&on"ing wage cut#, by &rohibiting aliens to wor7, by enforce" 1labor ser%ice3 for the go%ernment, by grants of loans to marrie" &ersons, by ta? cuts for &ersons who s&ent money on re&airs, by construction of military automobile roa"s, an" so forth$ Agriculture was coor"inate" only after 0ugenberg left the go%ernment on June 2 th an" was re&lace" hy Richar" +arrV as Reich minister of foo" an" 4russian minister of agriculture$ The %arious lan" an" &easant associations were merge" into a single association of which +arrV was &resi"ent, while the %arious lan"lor"sN associations were unite" into the German -oar" of Agriculture of which +arrV was &resi"ent also$ Religion was coor"inate" in %arious ways$ The .%angelical Bhurch was reorgani>e"$ When a non6@a>i, Frie"rich %on -o"elschwing, was electe" Reich bisho& in May 1 CC, he was forcibly remo%e" from office, an" the @ational 'yno" was force" to elect a @a>i, 2u"wig MUller, in his &lace !'e&tember 2:th#$ At the elections for Bhurch assemblies in July 1 CC, go%ernment &ressure was so great that a maLority of @a>is was chosen in each$ )n 1 CD a Ministry of Bhurch Affairs un"er 0ans /errl was set u& with &ower to issue Bhurch or"inances ha%ing the force of law an" with com&lete control o%er

Bhurch &ro&erty an" fun"s$ 4rominent 4rotestant lea"ers, li7e Martin @iemWller, who obLecte" to these ste&s, were arreste" an" sent to concentration cam&s$ The 'atholi$ 'hur$h ma)e e,ery effort to $oo#erate &ith the Nazis6 but soon foun) it &as im#ossible: =t &ith)re& its $on)emnation of Nazism on ;ar$h ?96 47>>6 an) signe) a 'on$or)at &ith ,on Pa#en on %uly ?5th: By this agreement the state re$ognize) free)om of religious belief an) of &orshi#6 e<em#tion of the $lergy from $ertain $i,i$ )uties6 an) the right of the 'hur$h to manage its o&n affairs an) to establish )enominational s$hools: Go,ernors of the German states &ere gi,en a right to obBe$t to nominations to the highest $leri$al #ostsJ bisho#s &ere to ta/e an oath of loyalty6 an) e)u$ation &as to $ontinue to fun$tion as it ha) been )oing: This agreement &ith the 'hur$h began to brea/ )o&n almost at on$e: Within ten "ays of the signing of the Boncor"at, the @a>is began to attac7 the Batholic Aouth 2eague an" the Batholic &ress$ 'hur$h s$hools &ere restri$te)6 an) members of the $lergy &ere arreste) an) trie) on $harges of e,a)ing the monetary foreignDe<$hange regulations an) of immorality: The 'hur$h $on)emne) the efforts of Nazis li/e Rosenberg to re#la$e 'hristianity by a re,i,e) German #aganism an) su$h la&s as that #ermitting sterilization of so$ially obBe$tionable #ersons: RosenbergNs boo7, The . th of the Twentieth )entur , was &ut on the )n"e?8 Batholic scholars e?&ose" its errors in a series of stu"ies in 1 C48 an" finally, on March 14, 1 C:, 4o&e 4ius P) con"emne" many of the tenets of @a>ism in the encyclical Mit brennen"er 'orge$ Attem&ts to coor"inate the ci%il ser%ice began with the law of A&ril :, 1 CC an" continue" to the en" of the regime without e%er being com&letely successful because of the lac7 of ca&able &ersonnel who were loyal @a>is$ O@on6AryansO !Jews# or &ersons marrie" to Onon6Aryans,O &olitically unreliable &ersons, an" OMar?istsO were "ischarge", an" loyalty to @a>ism was re9uire" for a&&ointment an" &romotion in the ci%il ser%ice$ Jf the chief elements in German society, only the &resi"ency, the army, the Batholic Bhurch, an" in"ustry were not coor"inate" by 1 C4$ )n a""ition, the bureaucracy was only &artially controlle"$ The first of these, the &resi"ency, was ta7en o%er com&letely in 1 C4 as the result of a "eal with the army$ -y the s&ring of 1 C4 the &roblem of the 'A ha" become acute, since this organi>ation was "irectly challenging two members of the Yuartet, the army an" in"ustry$ )n"ustry was being challenge" by the "eman" of the 'A for the Osecon" re%olutionOZ that is, for the economic reforms which woul" Lustify the use of the wor" O'ocialismO in the name O@ational 'ocialism$O The army was being challenge" by the "eman" of Ba&tain Rohm that his 'A be incor&orate" into the Reichswehr with each officer hol"ing the same ran7 in the latter as he alrea"y hel" in the former$ 'ince the Reichswehr ha" only CHH,HHH men while the 'A ha" three million, this woul" ha%e swam&e" the JfficersN Bor&s$ 0itler ha" "enounce" this &roLect on July 1, 1 CC, an" Fric7 re&eate" this ten "ays later$ @e%ertheless, RWhm re&eate" his "eman" on A&ril 15, 1 C4, an" was echoe" by ."mun" 0eines an" /arl .rnst$ )n full Babinet meeting Minister of War General %on -lomberg refuse"$ . tense situation )e,elo#e): =f +in)enburg )ie)6 the Rei$hs&ehr might ha,e liCui)ate) the Nazis an) restore) the monar$hy: (n %une ?4st +in)enburg or)ere) Blomberg to use the army6 if ne$essary6 to restore or)er in the $ountry: This &as regar)e) as a threat to the *.: .$$or)ingly6 +itler ma)e a )eal to )estroy the *. in return for a free han) to )eal &ith the #resi)en$y &Dhen it be$ame ,a$ant: This &as )one: . meeting of *. lea)ers &as $alle) by +itler for %une >56 47>G6 at Ba) Wiessee in Ba,aria: The **6 un)er +itlerKs #ersonal $omman)6 arreste) the *. lea)ers in the mi))le of the night an) shot most of them at on$e: =n Berlin6 GOring )i) the same to the *. lea)ers there: Both +itler an) GOring also /ille) most of their #ersonal enemiesJ the Rei$hstag in$en)iaries6 Gregor *trasser6 General an) ;rs: ,on *$hlei$her6 all of ,on Pa#enKs $lose asso$iates6 Gusta, ,on Kahr6 all those &ho ha) /no&n +itler in the early )ays of his failure6 an) many others: Pa#en es$a#e) only by a narro& margin: =n all6 se,eral thousan)s &ere eliminate) in this Ibloo) #urge:I Two e?cuses were gi%en for this %iolent actionE that the mur"ere" men were homose?uals !something which ha" been 7nown for years# an" that they were members of a cons&iracy to mur"er 0itler$ That they were in a cons&iracy was 9uite true, but it was by no means mature in June 1 C4, an" it was aime" at the army an" hea%y in"ustry, an" not at 0itler$ )n fact, 0itler ha" been wa%ering until the last moment whether he woul" throw in his lot with the Osecon" re%olutionO or with the Yuartet$ 0is "ecision to Loin the latter an" e?terminate the former was an e%ent of great significance$ =t irre,o$ably ma)e the Nazi mo,ement a $ounterre,olution of the Right6 using the #arty organization as an instrument for #rote$ting the e$onomi$ status Cuo: The su&&orters of the Osecon" re%olutionO were "ri%en un"ergroun", forming a O-lac7 FrontO un"er the lea"ershi& of Jtto 'trasser$ This mo%ement was so ineffectual that the only choice facing the a%erage German was the choice between the reactionary mo"e of life built about the sur%i%ing members of the Yuartet !army an" in"ustry# an" the com&letely irrational nihilism of the inner cli9ue of the @a>i 4arty$ Jnly as the regime a&&roache" its en" "i" a thir" &ossible way a&&earE a re%i%e" &rogressi%e an" coo&erati%e Bhristian humanism which s&rang from the reaction engen"ere" within the Yuartet by the reali>ation that @a>i nihilism was merely the logical outcome of the YuartetNs customary metho"s of &ursuing its customary goals$ Many of the &ersons associate" with this new thir" way were "estroye" by the @a>is in the systematic "estructi%eness which followe" the attem&t to assassinate 0itler on June 2H, 1 44$ =n return for +itlerKs )e$isi,e ste#Pthe )estru$tion of the *. on %une >56 47>GPthe army #ermitte) +itler to be$ome #resi)ent follo&ing +in)enburgKs )eath in .ugust: By $ombining the offi$es of #resi)ent an) $han$ellor6 +itler obtaine) the #resi)entKs legal right to rule by )e$ree6 an) obtaine) as &ell the su#reme $omman) of the army6 a #osition &hi$h he soli)ifie) by reCuiring a #ersonal oath of un$on)itional obe)ien$e from ea$h sol)ier -La& of .ugust ?56 47>G0: From this time on6 in the min)s of the Rei$hs&ehr an) the bureau$ra$y6 it &as both legally an) morally im#ossible to resist +itler@s or)ers: Thus, by August 1 C4, the @a>i mo%ement ha" reache" its goalZthe establishment of an authoritarian state in GermanyIThe @a>i mo%ement, in its sim&lest analysis, was an aggregation of gangsters, neurotics, mercenaries, &sycho&aths, an" merely "iscontente", with a small intermi?ture of i"ealists$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, 4art , Bha&ter 25 !The @a>i Regime#

'ommunism in ;uni$h: The Rise an) Fall of the Ba,arian *o,iet Re#ubli$ -47470

A ma& of the -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic, the worl",s thir" Bommunist state, in 1 1 $ The so%iet re&ublic is shown in re", the Weimar Re&ublic is shown in "ar7 grey an" other nations are shown in light grey$ The -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic laste" from A&ril *, 1 1 to May C, 1 1 , when the German army entere" Munich an" reinstalle" the &ro%incial go%ernment$

.ugen 2e%ine !May 1H, 155C ; July D, 1 1 #, a Jewish Bommunist born in 't$ 4etersburg, Russia, was the lea"er of the -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic from A&ril 12, 1 1 to May C, 1 1 $ 2e%ine was e?ile" to 'iberia for his &artici&ation in the Russian Re%olution of 1 HD$ 2e%ine was arreste" by German authorities, foun" guilty, an" was shot by firing s9ua" in 'ta"elheim 4rison in Munich on July D, 1 1 $

Lone Gunman or Patsy?: /urt .isner !left, 14 May 15*: ; 21 February 1 1 #, Minister 4resi"ent of -a%aria an" a Jewish &olitician, was assassinate" in Munich when Anton Graf %on Arco auf Kalley !right, February D, 15 :;June 2 , 1 4D#, an Austrian6born German nationalist of Jewish "escent, shot .isner in the bac7 on February 21, 1 1 $ .isner was on his way to &resent his resignation to the -a%arian &arliament in Munich$ The assassination of /urt .isner woul" result in the establishment of the -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic, a communist state$

Members of the Bommunist 4arty march together in a &ara"e in Munich, -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic in A&ril6May 1 1 $

. delegation o2 t*e WorkersG and (oldiers $oun0il be2ore Brauns0*weiger (0*loss in Germany 0ir0a 1919 during t*e establis*ment o2 t*e Bavarian (oviet &epubli0. 3*e t*ird 2rom le2t is .ugust ,erges, t*e 0*airman o2 t*e $oun0il.

-rnst 3oller, a /ewis* $ommunist poet and playwrig*t w*o served as a 0ommander o2 t*e Bavarian &ed .rmy and as t*e *ead o2 t*e separatist Bavarian (oviet &epubli0 2or si6 days in .pril 1919 ".pril L@1 , 1919), poses 2or a p*otograp* at t*e Nieder@(0*oen2eld Prison in Germany on .ugust D, 19 L. -rnst 3oller died in New =ork $ity on ,ay 19!9. "M Bettmann#$%&B'()

Members of the Frei7or&s enter Munich in May 1 1 to o%erthrow the -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic$

Members of the Frei7or&s in Germany &ose in front of a truc7 that is "ecorate" with s7ull an" crossbone$

German Frei7or&s sol"iers a&&ear in Munich on May 162, 1 1 as they attem&t to remo%e the Bommunist rebels from &ower$ The communist -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic laste" from A&ril *, 1 1 to May C, 1 1 $

A &hotogra&h of Bommunist G Re" Guar" &risoners on the streets of Munich in May 1 1 , "uring the %iolent 'trassen7am&f or Nstreet battlesN that too7 &lace between the left wing '&arta7ists G communists an" the center6right !'ocialists, )m&erialists, an" Frei7or&s in an uneasy alliance#$ !4hotoE htt&EGGwww$gothicstam&s$comG&h&G%iewitem$&h&Mitemi"[D2CD2Fgermany\2Hco%er[searchF#

-eer 0all 4utschE Jrgani>e" BrimeM

@a>i German stormtroo&ers "resse" in military uniforms a&&ear in front of the Marien&lat> in Munich, Germany "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch on @o%ember , 1 2C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

The J"eons&lat> in Munich "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch on @o%ember , 1 2C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

.ustrian 0iti8en and 0ommunity organi8er .dol2 ?itler appears wit* *is early 2ollowers in an automobile during t*e ,uni0* propaganda tour in 19 !. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

.dol2 ?itler addresses a rally in Nuremberg, Germany on German Day in 19 !. "P*oto by ;eystone#Getty 'mages)

A"olf 0itler !center#, @a>i 4arty &hiloso&her Alfre" Rosenberg !left#, an" +r$ Frie"rich Weber of the Frei7or&s Jberlan" !Jberlan" Free Bor&s# re%iew the march of 'A an" other &aramilitary grou&s to celebrate the laying of the foun"ation stone at a war memorial in Munich, Germany on No,ember G6 47?>$ .)olf +itler6 an .ustrian $itizen until .#ril 47?N6 li,e) in ;uni$h6 the $a#ital of the Ba,arian *o,iet Re#ubli$6 in ;ar$h an) .#ril 4747: !'ourceE )an /ershaw, 0itler, 155 61 C*E 0ubris !@ew Aor7E W$W$ @orton, 1 ## htt&EGGwww$thehistoryblog$comGarchi%esG"ateG2H1CGH*G14

.rnst Roehm an" 0einrich 0immler stan" behin" a barrica"e in Munich "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch on @o%ember , 1 2C$

A large crow" gathers in front of the Rathaus to hear the e?hortations of Julius 'treicher "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch in Munich, Germany on @o%ember , 1 2C$

@ational 'ocialist 'A men arrest 'ocialist city councilmen in Munich, Germany "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch on @o%ember , 1 2C$ !German Fe"eral Archi%es#

Parti0ipants o2 t*e 2ailed Beer ?all Puts0* o2 November :@9, 19 ! pose 2or a portrait in ,uni0* on .pril 1, 19 D. +rom le2t to rig*t5 ?ein8 Pernet, Dr. +riedri0* Weber, Wil*elm +ri0k, ?ermann ;riebel, General -ri0* Ludendor22, .dol2 ?itler, Wil*elm Bru0kner, -rnst &N*m, and &obert Wagner. Ludendor22, w*o was a0Iuitted o2 *ig* treason 2or *is role in t*e Beer ?all Puts0*, was a prominent World War ' general. Ludendor22 later 0ondemned .dol2 ?itler as anot*er demagogue> Ludendor22 died on De0ember C, 19!1. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

.ustrian 0iti8en .dol2 ?itler wrote *is politi0al manus0ript Mein Kempf w*ile *e was imprisoned at t*e Landsberg Prison in Landsberg am Le0*, Germany "lo0ated sout*west o2 ,uni0*) in 19 D. Adolf &itler 0as gassed 2 the British arm in the tren#hes of Belgium near 3'res on the night of 4#to2er 13, 19156 &itler 0as as a soldier in the 7m'erial $erman Arm during 8orld 8ar 71

&itler9s "'ee#h Before the %uni#h )ourt

*P '+ (F F BRF.RE ?86 47?G
'3 (--,( strange to me t*at a man w*o, as a soldier, was 2or si6 years a00ustomed to blind obedien0e, s*ould suddenly 0ome into 0on2li0t wit* t*e (tate and its $onstitution. 3*e reasons 2or t*is stem 2rom t*e days o2 my yout*. W*en ' was seventeen ' 0ame to 7ienna, and t*ere ' learned to study and observe t*ree important problems5 t*e so0ial Iuestion, t*e ra0e problem, and, 2inally, t*e ,ar6ist movement. ' le2t 7ienna a 0on2irmed anti@(emite, a deadly 2oe o2 t*e w*ole ,ar6ist world outlook, and pan@ German in my politi0al prin0iples. .nd sin0e ' knew t*at t*e German destiny o2 German@.ustria would not be 2oug*t out in t*e .ustrian .rmy alone, but in t*e German and .ustrian .rmy, ' enlisted in t*e German .rmy.... W*en, on November 1, E191:F it was announ0ed t*at t*e &evolution *ad broken out in ,uni0*, ' at 2irst 0ould not believe it. .t t*at time t*ere arose in me t*e determination to devote mysel2 to politi0s. ' went t*roug* t*e period o2 t*e (oviets, and as a result o2 my opposition to t*em ' 0ame in 0onta0t wit* t*e National (o0ialist German Workers ,ovement, w*i0* at t*at time numbered si6 members. ' was t*e sevent*. ' atta0*ed mysel2 to t*is party, and not to one o2 t*e great politi0al parties w*ere my prospe0ts would *ave been better, be0ause none o2 t*e ot*er parties understood or even re0ogni8ed t*e de0isive, 2undamental problem. By ,ar6ism ' understand a do0trine w*i0* in prin0iple reJe0ts t*e idea o2 t*e wort* o2 personality, w*i0* repla0es individual energy by t*e masses and t*ereby works t*e destru0tion o2 our w*ole 0ultural li2e. 3*is movement *as utili8ed monstrously e22e0tive met*ods and e6er0ised tremendous in2luen0e on t*e masses, w*i0* in t*e 0ourse o2 t*ree or 2our de0ades 0ould *ave no ot*er result t*an t*at t*e individual *as be0ome *is own brot*erGs 2oe, w*ile at t*e same time 0alling a +ren0*man, an -nglis*man, or a Oulu *is brot*er. 3*is movement is distinguis*ed by in0redible terror, w*i0* is based on a knowledge o2 mass psy0*ology.... 3*e German &evolution is a revolution, and t*ere2ore su00ess2ul *ig* treason> it is well known t*at su0* treason is never punis*ed.... +or us it was a 2ilt*y 0rime against t*e German people, a stab in t*e ba0k o2 t*e German nation. 3*e middle 0lass 0ould not take up arms against it be0ause t*e middle 0lass did not understand t*e w*ole revolution. 't was ne0essary to start a new struggle and to in0ite against t*e ,ar6ist despoilers o2 t*e people w*o did not even belong to t*e German ra0e @ w*i0* is w*ere t*e ,ar6ist problem is linked wit* t*e ra0e problem, 2orming one o2 t*e most di22i0ult and pro2ound Iuestions o2 our time.... Personally, at t*e beginning ' *eld a lost position. Nevert*eless, in t*e 0ourse o2 a 2ew years t*ere *as grown 2rom a little band o2 si6 men a movement w*i0* today embra0es millions and w*i0*, above all, *as on0e made t*e broad masses nationalisti0.... 'n 19 ! 0ame t*e great and bitter s0andal. .s early as 19 we *ad seen t*at t*e &u*r was about to be lost. +ran0eGs aim was not merely to weaken Germany, to keep *er 2rom obtaining suprema0y, but to break *er up into small states so t*at s*e E+ran0eF would be able to *old t*e &*ine 2rontier. .2ter all t*e GovernmentGs reiterations o2 our weakness, we knew t*at on top o2 t*e (aar and 9pper (ilesia we would lose our t*ird 0oal region, t*e &u*r> ea0* loss broug*t on t*e ne6t one.... %nly burning, rut*less, brutal 2anati0ism 0ould *ave saved t*e situation. 3*e &ei0* Government s*ould *ave let t*e *undreds o2 t*ousands o2 young men w*o were pouring out o2 t*e &u*r into t*e &ei0* under t*e old 0olors o2 bla0k@w*ite@red 2low toget*er in a mig*ty national wave. 'nstead, t*ese young people were sent ba0k *ome. 3*e resistan0e t*at was organi8ed was 2or wages> t*e national resistan0e was degraded to a paid general strike. 't was 2orgotten t*at a 2oe like +ran0e 0annot be prayed away, still less 0an *e be idled away.... %ur yout* *as @ and may t*is be *eard in Paris @ but one t*oug*t5 t*at t*e day may 0ome w*en we s*all again be 2ree. .. . . ,y attitude is t*is5 ' would rat*er t*at Germany go Bols*evist and ' be *anged t*an t*at s*e s*ould be destroyed by t*e +ren0* rule o2 t*e sword.... 't turned out t*at t*e ba0k@stabbers were stronger t*an ever.... Wit* pride ' admit t*at our men were t*e only ones to really resist in t*e &u*r. We intended to *old 2ourteen meetings and introdu0e a propaganda 0ampaign t*roug*out Germany wit* t*e slogan5 D%WN W'3? 3?- &9?& 3&.'3%&(P, But we were surprised by t*e banning o2 t*ese mass meetings. ' *ad met ?err von ;a*r in 19 C. ;a*r *ad impressed me as being an *onest o22i0ial. ' asked *im w*y t*e 2ourteen mass meetings *ad been banned. 3*e reason *e gave me simply would not *old water. 3?- &-.L &-.(%N W.( (%,-3?'NG 3?.3 $%9LD N%3 B- &-7-.L-D. . @ @ +rom t*e very 2irst day t*e wat0*word was5 9NL','3-D (3&9GGL- .G.'N(3 B-&L'N.... 3*e struggle against Berlin, as Dr. von ;a*r would lead it, is a 0rime> one must *ave t*e 0ourage to be logi0al and see t*at t*e struggle must be in0orporated in t*e German national uprising. ' said t*at all t*at *ad been made o2 t*is struggle was a Bavarian reJe0tion o2 BerlinGs reIuests. But t*e people e6pe0ted somet*ing ot*er t*an a redu0tion in t*e pri0e o2 beer, regulation o2 t*e pri0e o2 milk and 0on2is0ation o2 butter tubs and ot*er su0* impossible e0onomi0 proposals @ proposals w*i0* make you want to

ask5 w*o is t*e genius t*at is advising t*emQ -very 2ailure 0ould only 2urt*er enrage t*e masses, and ' pointed out t*at w*ile t*e people were now only laug*ing at ;a*rGs measures, later on t*ey would rise up against t*em. ' said5 G-it*er you 2inis* t*e Job @ and t*ere is only t*e politi0al and military struggle le2t. W*en you 0ross t*e &ubi0on, you must mar0* on &ome. %r else you do not want to struggle> t*en only 0apitulation is le2t....G 3*e struggle *ad to turn toward t*e Nort*> it 0ould not be led by a purely Bavarian organi8ation . . . ' said5 G3*e only man to *ead it is Ludendor22.G ' *ad 2irst seen Ludendor22 in 191:, in t*e 2ield. 'n 19 C ' 2irst spoke personally wit* *im. ' saw t*at *e was not only t*e outstanding general, but t*at *e *ad now learned t*e lesson and understood w*at *ad broug*t t*e German nation to ruin. 3*at Ludendor22 was talked down by t*e ot*ers was one more reason 2or me to 0ome 0loser to *im. ' t*ere2ore proposed Ludendor22, and Lossow and (eisser *ad no obJe0tions. ' 2urt*er e6plained to Lossow t*at rig*t now not*ing 0ould be a00omplis*ed by petty e0onomi0 measures. 3*e 2ig*t was against ,ar6ism. 3o solve t*is problem, not administrators were needed but 2irebrands w*o would be in a position to in2lame t*e national spirit to t*e e6treme. ;a*r 0ould not do t*at, ' pointed out> t*e yout* were not be*ind *im. ' de0lared t*at ' 0ould Join t*em only on t*e 0ondition t*at t*e politi0al struggle was put into my *ands alone. 3*is was not impuden0e or immodesty> ' believe t*at w*en a man knows *e 0an do a Job, *e must not be modest.... %ne t*ing was 0ertain5 Lossow, ;a*r, and (eisser *ad t*e same goal t*at we *ad5 to get rid o2 t*e &ei0* Government wit* its present international and parliamentary position, and to repla0e it by an anti@parliamentary government. '2 our undertaking was a0tually *ig* treason, t*en during t*is w*ole period Lossow, (eisser, and ;a*r must *ave been 0ommitting *ig* treason along wit* us @ 2or during all t*ose mont*s we talked o2 not*ing but t*e aims o2 w*i0* we now stand a00used.... ?ow 0ould we *ave 0alled 2or a new government i2 we *ad not known t*at t*e gentlemen in power were altoget*er on our sideQ ?ow else 0ould we, two days be2ore, *ave given su0* orders as5 at :5!C oG0lo0k su0* and su0* a government will be pro0laimed.... Lossow talked o2 a 0oup dGetat. ;a*r Iuite openly de0lared t*at *e would give t*e word to strike. 3*e only possible interpretation o2 t*is talk is t*at t*ese men wanted to strike, but ea0* time lost t*eir nerve. %ur last 0onversation, on November L, was 2or me t*e absolute 0on2irmation o2 my belie2 t*at t*ese men wanted to, but @ P.... (our0e5 *ttp5##www.**ow0ase#0*ronograp*y#spee0*es#19 D@C @ L.*tml

A -eer 0all 4utsch leaflet &roclaiming the establishment of a &ro%isional go%ernment le" by 0itler, 2u"en"orff, 2ossow, an" 'eisser !'ourceE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

&itler:s "'ee#h Before the %uni#h )ourt

*P '+ (F ;.R'+ ?H6 47?G
W?-N did t*e ruin o2 Germany beginQ =ou know t*e wat0*word o2 t*e old German system in its 2oreign poli0y5 it ran @ maintenan0e o2 world pea0e, e0onomi0 0onIuest o2 t*e world. Wit* bot* t*ese prin0iples one 0annot govern a people. 3*e maintenan0e o2 world pea0e 0annot be t*e purpose and aim o2 t*e poli0y o2 a (tate. 3*e in0rease and maintenan0e o2 a people @ t*at alone 0an be t*e aim. '2 you are going to 0onIuer t*e world by an e0onomi0 poli0y, ot*er peoples will not 2ail to see t*eir danger. W*at is t*e (tateQ 3oday t*e (tate is an e0onomi0 organi8ation, an asso0iation o2 persons, 2ormed, it would seem, 2or t*e sole purpose t*at all s*ould 0o operate in se0uring ea0* ot*erGs daily bread. 3?- (3.3-, ?%W-7-&, '( N%3 .N -$%N%,'$ %&G.N'O.3'%N, '3 '( . G7%L;'$G %&G.N'(,. 3*e purpose, t*e aim o2 t*e (tate is to provide t*e people wit* its 2ood@supply and wit* t*e position o2 power in t*e world w*i0* is its due. Germany o00upies in -urope per*aps t*e most bitter situation o2 any people, ,ilitarily, politi0ally, and geograp*i0ally it is surrounded by none but rivals5 '3 $.N ,.'N3.'N '3(-L+ %NL= W?-N '3 PL.$-( . P%W-&@P%L'$= ",.$?3P%L'3';) &93?L-((L= 'N 3?- +%&-G&%9ND. 3wo Powers are in a position to determine t*e 2uture development o2 -urope5 -ngland and +ran0e. -nglandGs aim remains eternally t*e same5 to balkani8e -urope and to establis* a balan0e o2 power in -urope so t*at *er position in t*e world will not be t*reatened. -NGL.ND '( N%3 %N P&'N$'PL- .N -N-,= %+ G-&,.N=, '3 '( 3?- P%W-& W?'$? (--;( 3% G.'N 3?- +'&(3 PL.$- 'N -9&%P-. 3*e de0lared enemy o2 Germany is +ran0e. /ust as -ngland needs t*e balkani8ation o2 -urope, so +ran0e needs t*e balkani8ation o2 Germany in order to gain *egemony in -urope. .2ter 2our and a *al2 years o2 bitter struggle at last t*roug* t*e &evolution t*e s0ale o2 vi0tory turned in 2avor o2 t*e 0oalition o2 t*ese two Powers, wit* t*e 2ollowing result5 +ran0e was 2a0ed wit* t*e Iuestion5 Was s*e to reali8e *er eternal war@aim or notQ 3*at means5 $ould +ran0e destroy Germany and deprive it o2 all t*e sour0es w*ereby its people was 2edQ 3oday +ran0e wat0*es t*e ripening to 2ul2illment o2 *er age@old plan5 it matters not w*at Government will be at t*e *elm in +ran0e5 t*e supreme aim will remain @ t*e anni*ilation o2 Germany, t*e e6termination o2 twenty million Germans, and t*e dissolution o2 Germany into separate (tates.... 3*e army w*i0* we *ave 2ormed grows 2rom day to day> 2rom *our to *our it grows more rapidly. -7-N N%W ' ?.7- 3?P&%9D ?%P- 3?.3 %N- D.= 3?- ?%9& '( $%,'NG W?-N 3?-(- 9N3&.'N-D B.ND( W'LL B-$%,- B.33.L'%N(, W?-N 3?- B.33.L'%N( W'LL B-$%,- &-G',-N3( .ND 3?- &-G',-N3( D'7'('%N(, w*en t*e old 0o0kade will be raised 2rom t*e mire, w*en t*e old banners will on0e again wave be2ore us5 and t*en re0on0iliation will 0ome in t*at eternal last $ourt o2 /udgment @ t*e $ourt o2 God @ be2ore w*i0* we are ready to take our stand. 3*en 2rom our bones, 2rom our graves will sound t*e voi0e o2 t*at tribunal w*i0* alone *as t*e rig*t to sit in Judgment upon us. +or, gentlemen, it is not you w*o pronoun0e Judgment upon us, it is t*e eternal $ourt o2 ?istory w*i0* will make its pronoun0ement upon t*e 0*arge w*i0* is broug*t against us. 3*e Judgment t*at you will pass, t*at ' know. But t*at $ourt will not ask o2 us5 G?ave you 0ommitted *ig* treason or notQG 3*at $ourt will Judge us ....w*o as Germans *ave wis*ed t*e best 2or t*eir people and t*eir +at*erland, w*o wis*ed to 2ig*t and to die. =ou may de0lare us guilty a t*ousand times, but t*e Goddess w*o presides over t*e -ternal $ourt o2 ?istory will wit* a smile tear in pie0es t*e 0*arge o2 t*e Publi0 Prose0utor and t*e Judgment o2 t*e $ourt5 2or s*e de0lares us guiltless. (our0e5 *ttp5##www.**ow0ase#0*ronograp*y#spee0*es#19 D@C!@ 1.*tml

Austrian citi>en A"olf 0itler stan"s ne?t to his automobile outsi"e the 2an"sberg 4rison in 2an"sberg am 2ech, Germany on +ecember 2H, 1 24$ .ustrian $itizen .)olf +itler &as arreste) on No,ember 446 47?> an" was trie" in the 4eo&le,s Bourt in Munich for high treason8 the trial laste" from February 2*, 1 24 to A&ril 1, 1 24$ .)olf +itler &as senten$e) to fi,e years in #rison for high treason8 A"olf 0itler recei%e" a &arole an" was release" from &rison on +ecember 2H, 1 24$ A"olf 0itler s&ent 2*4 "ays in &rison, from A&ril 1, 1 24 to +ecember 2H, 1 24, where he wrote his &olitical manuscri&t .ein /am&f$ The German go%ernment ratifie" the +awes 4lan, an economic agreement "esigne" to hel& Germany meet its re&arations obligations, on August 2 , 1 248 the +awes 4lan went into effect on 'e&tember 1, 1 24$ .)olf +itler surren)ere) his .ustrian $itizenshi# in .#ril 47?N:

4olitical &risoners A"olf 0itler !left#, .mil Maurice !2n" left#, an" Ru"olf 0ess !2n" right# &ose for a &ortrait at 2an"sberg 4rison in 1 24$

Austrian citi>en A"olf 0itler a&&ears ne?t to his automobile outsi"e the 2an"sberg 4rison in Germany on +ecember 2H, 1 24$

@ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty !@'+A4# meeting at the -UrgerbrQu7eller !-eer 0all# in Munich, Germany in 1 2C, the site of the -eer 0all 4utsch$ The -eer 0all 4utsch began on the night of @o%ember 5, 1 2C, when A"olf 0itler an" a grou& of @a>i 'A 'tormtroo&ers entere" the -UrgerbrQu7eller an" interru&te" a meeting gi%en by Gusta% Ritter %on /ahr !Minister6 4resi"ent of -a%aria !1 2H61 21##$ !4hotogra&hE 0einrich 0offmannGGerman Fe"eral Archi%es#

The 'tresemann Go%ernment in @o%ember 1 2C

$en1 Johannes ;riedri#h <&ans= von "ee#(t $ommanding General o2 t*e &ei0*swe*r "Weimar German army) "19 C@19 L)

4tto Karl $essler De2ense ,inister o2 Germany "19 C@19 :)> ,ayor o2 Nuremberg, Germany "191!@1919)

$ustav "tresemann $*an0ellor o2 Germany ".ugust 1!, 19 !R November !, 19 !) and +oreign ,inister o2 Germany ".ugust 1!, 19 !R%0tober !, 19 9)

&ans Luther +inan0e ,inister o2 Germany "19 !@19 4)

$ustav Rad2ru#h /usti0e ,inister o2 Germany "%0tober L, 19 1RNovember 1D, 19 , .ugust 1!, 19 !R November !, 19 !)

4rominent 4artici&ants in the -eer 0all 4utsch

-rnst &o*m Na8i (. stormtrooper and 0o@2ounder o2 t*e Na8i Party> Assassinated on Jul ! 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives

&udol2 ?ess Deputy +u*rer o2 Na8i Germany "19!!@19D1)

.dol2 ?itler $*an0ellor and +u*rer o2 Na8i Germany "19!!@19D4)

-rnst SPut8iT ?an2staengl ..B. ?arvard 19C9 .dol2 ?itlerAs personal adviser

?ermann Goering &ei0*sminister o2 .viation "19!!@19D4)> ;led to 7nns2ru#(, Austria after the Beer &all ,uts#h

?einri0* ?immler &ei0*s2U*rer o2 t*e (0*ut8sta22el "(() "L /an. 19 9 R 9 .pril 19D4)

Wil*elm +ri0k &ei0*sminister o2 t*e 'nterior "19!!@19D!)

.l2red &osenberg P*ilosop*er o2 t*e Na8i Party and 2ormer &ei0*sminister 2or t*e %00upied -astern 3erritories

/ulius (trei0*er editor o2 Na8i German propaganda newspaper SDer (turmerT

9lri0* Gra2 "1:1:@194C) .dol2 ?itlerAs personal bodyguard during t*e Beer ?all Puts0*

-mil ,auri0e $o@+ounder o2 t*e (0*ut8sta22el "(()> Na.i ,art mem2er of Je0ish des#ent *<Ar ani.ed= 2 &itler+

/ulius (0*re0k 2irst 0ommander o2 t*e (0*ut8sta22el "(()> died on ,ay 1L, 19!L

Ludwig ,a6imilian -rwin von (0*eubner@&i0*ter Na8i Party member> Walked arm@in@arm wit* .dol2 ?itler and was killed in a0tion during t*e Beer ?all Puts0* in ,uni0* on November 9, 19 !

Gott2ried +eder Na8i Party e0onomist and 2ormer ,ember o2 t*e &ei0*stag

Gen. -ri0* Ludendor22 "9 .pril 1:L4@ C De0. 19!1) German .rmy general during World War '> de2eated t*e &ussian army at Battle o2 3annenberg in .ugust 191D

The J"eons&lat> in Munich was the site of the confrontation between 4utsch members !inclu"ing A"olf 0itler# an" the -a%arian 'tate 4olice "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch$ A total of 4 -a%arian 'tate 4olice officers an" 1* members of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty were 7ille" "uring a stan"off at the J"eons&lat> on @o%ember , 1 2C$ !4hotoE Flic7r#

<$er#ts from .)olf +itler@s ;ein Kam#f -Fore&ar)0

1J@ @JK.M-.R , 1 2C, at 12$CH in the afternoon, in front of the Fel"herrnhalle as well as in the courtyar" of the former War Ministry the following men fell, with loyal faith in the resurrection of their &eo&leE A2FART0, F.2)P, businessman, b$ July D, 1 H1 -A(R).+2, A@+R.A', hatter, b$ May 4, 15: BA'.22A, T0.J+JR, ban7 cler7, a$ August 5, 1 HH .0R2)B0, W)20.2M, ban7 cler7, b$ August 1 , 15 4 FA('T, MART)@, ban7 cler7, b$ January 2:, 1 H1 0.B0.@-.RG.R, A@TJ@, loc7smith, b$ 'e&tember 25, 1 H2 /JR@.R, J'/AR, businessman, b$ January 4, 15:D /(0@, /AR2, hea"waiter, b$ July 2*, )5 : 2AFJRB., /AR2, stu"ent of engineering, b$ Jctober 25, 1 H4 @.(-A(.R, /(RT, %alet, b$ March 2:, 15 4A4., B2A(' KJ@, businessman, b$ August 1*, 1 H4 4FJR+T.@, T0.J+JR 'J@ +.R, Bounty Bourt Bouncillor, b$ May 14, 15:C R)B/M.R', JJ0A@@, retire" Ba%alry Ba&tain, b$ May :, 1551 'B0.(-@.R6R)B0T.R, MAP .RW)@ KJ@, +octor of .ngineering, b$ January , 1554 'TRA@'/A, 2JR.@T, R)TT.R KJ@, engineer, b$ March 14, 155 WJ2F, W)20.2M, businessman, a$ Jctober 1 , 15 5 'o6calle" national authorities "enie" these "ea" heroes a common gra%e$ Therefore ) "e"icate to them, for common memory, the first %olume of this wor7$ As its bloo" witnesses, may they shine fore%er, a glowing e?am&le to the followers of our mo%ement$ A"olf 0itler 2A@+'-.RG AM 2.B0 FJRTR.'' 4R)'J@ Jctober 1*, 1 243

1 AT T0. .@+ of @o%ember, 1 15, ) returne" to Munich$ Again ) went to the re&lacement battalion of my regiment, which was in the han"s of Nsol"iersN councils$N Their whole acti%ity was so re&ellent to me that ) "eci"e" at once to lea%e again as soon as &ossible$ With 'chmie"t .rnst, a faithful war comra"e, ) went to Traunstein an" remaine" there till the cam& was bro7en u&$ )n March, 1 1 , we went bac7 to Munich$ The situation was untenable an" mo%e" ine%itably towar" a further continuation of the re%olution$ .isner,s "eath only hastene" the "e%elo&ment an" finally le" to a "ictatorshi& of the Bouncils, or, better e?&resse", to a &assing rule of the Jews, as ha" been the original aim of the instigators of the whole re%olution$ At this time en"less &lans chase" one another through my hea"$ For "ays ) won"ere" what coul" be "one, but the en" of e%ery me"itation was the sober reali>ation that ), nameless as ) was, "i" not &ossess the least basis for any useful action$ ) shall come bac7 to s&ea7 of the reasons why then, as before, ) coul" not "eci"e to Loin any of the e?isting &arties$ )n the course of the new re%olution of the Bouncils ) for the first time acte" in such a way as to arouse the "isa&&ro%al of the Bentral Bouncil$ .arly in the morning of A&ril 2:, 1 1 , ) was to be arreste", but, face" with my le%ele" carbine, the three scoun"rels lac7e" the necessary courage an" marche" off as they ha" come$ A few "ays after the liberation of Munich, ) was or"ere" to re&ort to the e?amining commission concerne" with re%olutionary occurrences in the 'econ" )nfantry Regiment$ This was my first more or less &urely &olitical acti%ity$ Jnly a few wee7s afterwar" ) recei%e" or"ers to atten" a NcourseN that was hel" for members of the arme" forces$ )n it the sol"ier was su&&ose" to learn certain fun"amentals of ci%ic thin7ing$3 ; .ein /am&f by A"olf 0itler, Kolume Jne 6 A Rec7oning, Bha&ter K)))E The -eginning of My 4olitical Acti%ity

J"eons&lat> in "owntown Munich, with the Fel"herrnhalle in front of J"eons&lat>, the site of the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch

-a%arian 4olitical 2ea"ers in%ol%e" in su&&ressing the -eer 0all 4utsch

Eugen Ritter von Knilling Prime ,inister o2 Bavaria "19 @19 D)

)olonel &ans Ritter von "eisser $*ie2 o2 Bavarian (tate Poli0e "Landespolizei) in 19 !

$ustav Ritter von Kahr $ommissioner General o2 t*e (tate o2 Bavaria "Generalstaatskommissar ) in 19 ! Assassinated in %uni#h on June 30, 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives

$en, 4tto von Losso0 $ommander o2 We*rkreis 7'' ,ilitary Distri0t E,uni0*F in 19 ! Died on November 4, 19!:

$en1 Ja(o2 Ritter von >anner $ommandant o2 t*e ,uni0* Garrison o2 t*e Reichswehr in 19 !

1This conference was the final meeting between the /am&fbun" lea"ers an" the trium%irate, although 2u"en"orff met with /ahr on 5 @o%ember, the "ay of the 4utsch$ 2u"en"orff claims that /ahr, 2ossow, 'eisser, an" he were clearly in general agreement at the en" of their con%ersation, but this is not borne out by the fact that /ahr flatly refuse" to see 0itler$ )t is much more li7ely that the inter%iew en"e" on the same note as the conference of the si?th$ 2u"en"orff "eman"e" action in Munchen <Munich= an", as /ahr maintains, the trium%irate insiste" u&on waiting for action in -erlin$ Further weight is gi%en to this inter&retation by the fact that e%en 2u"en"orff notes the urgency with which /ahr com&laine" of the lac7 of news from the north$ Meanwhile, the -erlin go%ernment ha" also been trying to "eal with both the trium%irate an" the /am&fbun" through unofficial channels, since the official ones were clogge" by the 12ossow affair3 recriminations an" negotiations, an" since the fe"eral go%ernment coul" not affor" "irect an" o&en negotiations with the /am&fbun"$ These negotiations came to nothing, though, for neither /ahr nor the /am&fbun" lea"ers an" 2u"en"orff were rea"y to coo&erate with 'tresemann on any terms$ /ahr refuse" to see one of 'tresemannNs emissaries, "es&ite the urgings of the crown &rince that he "o so, an" "i" not ta7e the other one seriously$ Jn the right ra"ical si"e, while 2u"en"orff tal7e" with A"miral 'cheer, who came to him from 'tresemann, he "i" not bu"ge from his hostility towar"s the ORe"O go%ernment in -erlin$ Jn the thir" si"e of the triangle, tal7s between MaLor Kogts an" 2u"en"orff also ra&i"ly le" to a morass of "isagreement$ Jn the e%e of the 4utsch there was no real sign of agreement among the %arious factions in any 9uarter$ An im&asse ha" been reache"$3 ; $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on, Jr$ !1 :2#, &$ 2D5 1While the last negotiations were still un"erway between the trium%irate </ahr, 2ossow, 'eisser= an" the /am&fbun" <0itler, 2u"en"orff, Goering=, the "ie was alrea"y cast$ 0itler, an" his inner circle of a"%isors, ha" been thin7ing of a 4utsch e%er since the galling failure of their May +ay "emonstration$ They ha" been &lanning this action in a more or less "esultory manner at least since the a&&ointment of the Generalstaats7ommissar$ )t is, howe%er, only in the first "ays of @o%ember that these &lans begin to ta7e on imme"iacy$ There are in"ications, although slim ones, that the /am&fbun" lea"ers, or some of them, may ha%e &lanne" to 7i"na& the lea"ers of the -a%arian state an" arme" forces "uring the &ara"e on 4 @o%ember celebrating the laying of the cornerstone of the memorial to Munchen,s war "ea" in the Resi"en> Gar"ens$ Jne such in"icator of trouble was the absence of 2u"en"orff, who was always careful to be away from the scene of acti%e rebellion when the outcome was unclear$ !0e later e?&laine" that he ha" ha" an auto acci"ent$#3 ; $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on, Jr$ !1 :2#, &$ 2D562D 1Then, on the morning of the se%enth, a meeting of the senior /am&fbun" lea"ers was hel" to confirm this "ecision$ Although he "enie" being &resent an" is not mentione" among the &artici&ants by +r$ Weber, it is almost certain that 2u"en"orff was there$ The others &resent inclu"e" 0itler, +r$ Weber, Goring, +r$ 'cheubner6Richter, an" /riebel$ Rohm a&&arently was missing, an" 4rince Wre"e has suggeste" that Rohm o&&ose" the i"ea of a 4utsch at this time$ This may e?&lain his a&&arent absence$ The #lotters agree) on the #lan that they e<e$ute) on 9D7 No,ember an" also agree", at 0itlerNs insistence, to 7ee& the number of &ersons with &rior 7nowle"ge of the 4utsch to the absolute minimum$ This arrangement ha" the "ouble a"%antage of re"ucing the number of serious offen"ers in case of failure an" of re"ucing the chance of com&romise before the e%ent$ -y noon of : @o%ember, the 4utsch was on, although the or"ers coul" still ha%e been re%o7e" u& till the last minute$ The Puts$histsK #lans $alle) for them to ta/e $ontrol in the maBor $ities an) to&ns of Ba,aria: ;un$hen6 Regensburg6 .ugsburg6 =ngolsta)t -&hi$h they $onsi)ere) alrea)y se$ure06 Nurnberg6 an) Wurzburg: =n ea$h of these to&ns the 1erban)e &ere to seize the railroa) station6 the telegra#h offi$e6 tele#hone offi$e6 the ra)io station6 #ubli$ utilities6 to&n hall6 an) #oli$e hea)Cuarters6 as &ell as the installations of hostile grou#s: 'ommunist an) so$ialist lea)ers &ere to be arreste)6 in$lu)ing tra)e union lea)ers an) sho# ste&ar)s: 3 ; $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on, Jr$ !1 :2#, &$ 2D 62*H

1+r$ Wilhelm Fric7 ha" been chosen well before the 4utsch to succee" Mantel as &olice &resi"ent, while MaLor 0uhnlein, who was a&&arently on terminal lea%e from the Reichswehr, was to re&lace Bolonel -an>er as comman"er of the Munchen 2an"es&oli>ei$ These men were to ensure that the &olice "i" not interfere with the 4utsch in its early stages an" to "irect the &olice thereafter for the new go%ernment$ Fric7 clearly 7new of the coming of the 4utsch although, of course, he later "enie" this 7nowle"ge$O A&&arently, e%en if the authorities went along with the 4utsch, some senior officers an" officials were to be re&lace" by more reliable or more worthy as&irants for their &osts, a sign of how little lo%e an" trust the 4utschists ha" for those they later claime" as allies who ha" fallen away$ Meanwhile, First 2ieutenant !Ret$# Gerhar" Rossbach, a har"bitten %eteran 4utschist, was to ta7e o%er the )nfantry 'chool$ Jther military installations were to be occu&ie" by grou&s of 4utschists in an ob%ious attem&t to neutrali>e the Reichswehr shoul" it &ro%e im&ossible to win o%er 2ossow an" the other generals$ 4lans were also lai" for securing the chief go%ernment buil"ings an" &ublic utilities in accor" with the o%erall scheme$ The secon" battalion of Jberlan" un"er Ba&tain !Ret$# Ma? Ritter %on Muller was assigne" the chief res&onsibility for this tas7$ The collection of arms was one of the most &ressing an" "ifficult 9uestions facing the 4utschists, an" one that they ne%er sol%e" entirely$ They "i" &ossess a %ery consi"erable number of wea&ons an" ha" &lans to confiscate far more$ 'ome wea&ons were brought in from caches in the country, others were ta7en, a&&arently, from other Kerban"e$ Rahm obtaine" some arms for his organi>ation by &reten"ing that his Kerban" was going on a night e?ercise$ 'ince no ammunition was re9ueste", the re9uest arouse" no sus&icion$ 2ieutenant Bolonel 0ofmann of )ngolsta"t sent arms from there, an" &lans were lai" for getting still more from the Reichswehr an" the &olice$ This was one &roblem that ha" been consi"ere" seriously, although not in all of its as&ects as the 4utschists were to learn to their sorrow$ Trans&ortation was su&&lie" by Bhristian WeberNs @ational 'ocialist organi>ation su&&lemente" by rente" truc7s an" e%en ta?icabs$ 'ome of the %ehicles were owne" by the &arty$ Jthers were &lace" at its "is&osal by their "ri%ers, or sim&ly rente"$ Where &o&ulation control was concerne", the 4utschists ha" &re&are" both the carrot an" the stic7$ They ha" &lans for "rumhea" courts martial to "eal with &olitical enemies in summary fashion, but they also set u& a &ro&agan"a office to influence the &o&ulation$3 ; $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on, Jr$ !1 :2#, &$ 2*162*C 1The two blue &olice stations nearest to the beer hall were reinforce" by thirteen a""itional men each to hel& them to &erform security "uties with regar" to the assembly an" a general reser%e force !0au&twache# was &ro%i"e"$ Finally, twel%e officials of the criminal &olice were &lace" in the hall itself an" on the balconies to &re%ent "isor"er an" hec7ling$ After the street outsi"e of the beer hall fille" u& with "isa&&ointe" men who ha" been refuse" a"mittance to the o%erflowing hall, thirty members of the 0au&twache were sent to hel& 7ee& or"er in the small s9uare in front of the beer hall an" in the Rosenheimerstrasse itself$ At least 1DH &olicemen, inclu"ing the mounte" &olice "etachment, were a%ailable to &rotect an" control the meeting, in a""ition to the many &olicemen who were in the au"ience$ Therefore, sufficient measures ha" been ta7en to han"le anything short of a maLor attac7 on the meeting$ @or were the &olice to ha%e the entire res&onsibility for the maintenance of or"er$ Arrangements ha" been ma"e for members of the KKM to &olice the hall itself, but they ne%er a&&eare"$ The crow" in the hall was a sur&risingly large one, although the tal7 ha" originally been inten"e" for a small but select grou&$ As e%ents "e%elo&e", the crow" was a thoroughly mi?e" one$ )t inclu"e" many or"inary members of the &ublic as well as the bul7 of the most im&ortant men in &olitical Munchen$ Most of the members of the -a%arian go%ernment were &resent, as was Graf 'o"en, the Brown 4rinceNs Babinet chief$ The &olice &resi"ent of Munchen was there with se%eral of his "e&uties$ The trium%irs were &resent, each with a small entourage$ -an7ers, businessmen an" manufacturers, news&a&er e"itors, lea"ers of the Kerban"e came to hear /ahr eluci"ate his &rogram, or &erha&s ta7e a more &ositi%e ste& towar"s "ictatorshi&$ The hall was close" to all but a few im&ortant &ersonages by :E 1D &$m$ because it was alrea"y Lam&ac7e"$ 'ome 7ey &ersons were missing, though$ 4erha&s the most significant absentee was General 2u"en"orff, who "i" not want to be &resent "uring the necessarily embarrassing o&ening scene of a 4utsch$ The general later claime" to ha%e 7nown nothing of the 4utsch until it ha" occurre", but his ste&son, 2ieutenant !Ret$# 0ein> 4ernet, an acti%e 4utschist, a"mitte" to a frien" that his fatherO Nha" staye" away from the meeting intentionally$,33 ; $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on, Jr$ !1 :2#, &$ 252625C

1+itler himself6 after a last briefing of his *. lea)ers6 arri,e) at the beer hall a trifle after 9:55 #:m: Fin"ing the street in front of the -urgerbrau7eller clogge" with a milling her" of curious citi>ens, he was worrie" for fear all of his &lans woul" go awry because his troo&s might not be able to get their cars an" truc7s to the hall$ 0e was also worrie" by the &resence of consi"erable numbers of &olicemen$ Therefore, with characteristic im&u"ence, he suggeste" to the &olice that they shoul" clear the streets, since otherwise &anic coul" "e%elo& among the au"ience$ The &olice, who ha" recogni>e" 0itler an" let him in because they ha" or"ers that he shoul" hear /ahr,s s&eech, a"o&te" his suggestion$ (sing the reinforcements that ha" Lust arri%e", they cleare" away the crow"s, which "e&arte" more or less 9uietly$ 'ince all was 9uiet, the reinforcements were then release" an" marche" away$ They were scarcely out of sight when the first truc7s full of 'A men arri%e" at 5E1H &$m$ 'ince the 'tosstru&& was the 7ey element in the action against the -urgerbrau7eller, the 'A men remaine" 9uietly in their truc7s$ At a minute or two after 5ECH, the 'tosstru&& arri%e" an" the @ational 'ocialists &oure" forth from their %ehicles to surroun" the -urgerbrau7eller$ The han"ful of blue &olice who face" them were confuse" an" hel&less$ 'ome of them thought that the newcomers were Reichswehr sol"iers because they wore steel helmets an" carrie" army rifles$ The others, un&re&are" for a fight against hea%y o""s in men an" wea&ons, sim&ly ga%e way$ The first ste& in the 4utsch was a success an" a high &ercentage of -a%ariaNs lea"ers were &risoners$ 0itlerNs bo"yguar", (lrich Graf, informe" his master, who was waiting in the antechamber of the hall in which /ahr was s&ea7ing, as soon as the 'tosstru&& arri%e"$ +itler no& began his famous a$tion: Thro&ing a&ay &ith a gran) gesture the halfDliter beer glass he ha) relu$tantly been nursing6 he )re& his Bro&ning #istol an) a),an$e) into the hall surroun)e) by arme) men: This little &halan? of re%olutionaries was an o"" lot by any stan"ar"s$ Jne was his bo"yguar", the butcher Graf$ @e?t came Ma? Amann, his former sergeant6maLor an" business manager, no stranger to %iolence, but at his other si"e was Putzi +anfstaengl6 Fran/lin Roose,elt@s +ar,ar) $lassmate , who was far more at home with a &iano or a wor7 of art than with the &istol that ha" been thrust into his han"$ Another of the grou& was Josef Gerum, an" Ru"olf 0ess, 0itler,s later "e&uty, ma"e u& the number$ Wel"e" together as much by 0itlerNs &ersonality as by their belief in elements of the "ogmas he &reache", they symboli>e" the brea"th an" "is&arateness of his su&&ort$3 ; $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on, Jr$ !1 :2#, &$ 25C625D 1-y the time 0itler reache" /ahr, the au"ience was in a state of alarm an" confusion$ A number of arme" men an" a machine gun ha" a&&eare" at the entrance to the hall, an" all other e?its were bloc7e"$ Men who trie" to lea%e were turne" bac7 an" some, who were &ersistent, were struc7 or 7ic7e" by the 'torm Troo&ers, accustome" to the rough gi%e an" ta7e of &olitical warfare$ Although 0itler later claime" that the machine gun was entirely for OmoraleO &ur&oses, another was set u& behin" it an" out of sight of those in the hall, which co%ere" the e?it$ To 9uell the tumult, 0itler or one of his entourage, fire" into the ceiling an" silence "escen"e" on the hall$ 0itler claims that /ahr seeme" frightene" an" "eri"e" him for his Ofear,O in %iew of the fact that the hall was largely fille" with /ahrNs followers$ 'ince 0itler an" his men were hea%ily arme" an" almost all of /ahrNs &eo&le were "isarme" an" crow"e" together in a tra&, the allegation of cowar"ice seems unfair, but the accusation is im&ortant since, if /ahr were in fact afrai", the &robability increases that his account of his aims an" moti%ations "uring the e%ening are true an" that 0itlerNs are false$ As usual 0itler wante" to ha%e his ca7e an" eat it, too$ 0itlerNs actions were certainly not such as to gi%e the trium%irate great confi"ence in his frien"shi& an" stability$ @ot only "i" he wa%e his &istol aroun" in a far wil"er manner than usual, but, when MaLor 0unglinger a&&roache" him with his han" in his &oc7et, 0itler himself sai"E O) ha" the feeling that he was "rawing a &istol$ ) hel" my &istol against his forehea" an" sai", ]Ta7e your han" out$,3 0itler then in%ite" the trium%irate to Loin him in a si"e chamber, which 0ess ha" hire" for this &ur&ose earlier in the e%ening, assuring them that he woul" guarantee their security$ 0e le" them into the anteroom, which he or"ere" his men to clear of s&ectators an" &olicemen$ Jnce they were in the si"e chamber, 0itler a&ologi>e" for his actionE O4lease forgi%e me, for &rocee"ing in this, manner, but 1 ha" no other means$ )t is "one now an" cannot be un"one$3 There has been a goo" "eal of "ebate as to what went on in the si"e chamber, much of which centers aroun" the atmos&here$ The 4utschists insist that the atmos&here was frien"ly an" warm, while the trium%irate an" their su&&orters claim that it was threatening on the si"e of the 4utschists an" cool on their own$ We will &robably ne%er 7now &recisely what occurre" or un"erstan" all of the nuances of the attitu"es an" reactions of the &artici&ants, but it is clear e%en from the testimony of the 4utsch lea"ers that the atmos&here was not as frien"ly as they asserte"$ 0itler claims that /ahr was a bro7en man when he went into the si"e chamber8 this scarcely augure" well for frien"ly con%ersations$ 0itler further a"mits that the accusation that he threatene" the trium%irate with his &istol was true, although he e?&lains that he was only LestingE O) answere" /ahr by in"icating the &istol in my han", an", smiling, There are fi%e roun"s in itE four for the traitors, an", if it fails$ Jne for me$,3 These were scarcely reassuring wor"s from an arme" man to his &risoners, e%en if he "i", as he claims, han" o%er the &istol to Graf imme"iately after this little scene$ @or was the &resence of the burly butcher an" his machine &istol an in"ication of a frien"ly an" free con%ersation, an im&ression which was heightene" by the &resence of arme" guar"s at the win"ow$ 'imilarly, although 0itler an" +r$ Weber claime" that they wishe" to &lace no &ressure on the trium%irate an" to let them ma7e their own "ecisions, the 4utschists woul" not let 2ossow tal7 with 0unglinger an" later force" both 0unglinger an" MaLor %on 0osslin to lea%e the room$ For some fifteen minutes 0itler wrestle" with the trium%irate for their &olitical souls$ 0ere, too, the e?act course of the "iscussion is unclear$ 0itler claims that their obLections were &urely tactical$ The members of the trium%irate an" their ai"es claim that they were fun"amental$ -e this as it may, at the en" of fifteen minutes, 0itler ha" not succee"e" in bringing the trium%irate to the &oint of acce&ting his &ro&osals, an" he therefore returne" to the main hall, where the restless crow", which ha" been &romise" that he woul" return with an ac9uiescent trio in ten minutes, were beginning to get out of han", "es&ite, or because of, the attem&ts of Ba&tain Goring an" other 4utschists to win them o%er by &lea or threat$ .nroute, 0itler sto&&e" long enough to say a few encouraging wor"s to his followers at the entrance to the hallE 1)t will succee"$ .%en now the other section of the city will be occu&ie"$,3 The historian /arl6 Ale?an"er %on Muller, an eye6witness, gra&hically "escribes the trium&h of the master orator o%er this "ifficult au"ienceE 1$$$ The wa%ering general attitu"e was, seen from my obser%ation &oint, still against the enter&rise$ OTheaterXO O'outh AmericaXO OMe?icoXO were the commonest cries which one hear"$ A number of members of /ahrNs staff whom ) 7new were

sitting not far from me$ 'chie"t an" Aufsess <were= %ery &ale8 'tauffer e?cite"8 Gerlich stare" grimly an" <was= intros&ecti%e$ The ten minutes must ha%e been Lust &asse" when 0itler returne" ; alone$ 0e ha" not succee"e", as he ha" &romise", in winning o%er the others$ What woul" he sayM A "angerous wa%e of e?citement rolle" u& to him as he again climbe" the &o"ium$ )t "i" not subsi"e as he began to s&ea7$ ) still see clearly how he "rew the -rowning from his rear &oc7et an" now himself fire" a shot into the ceiling$ )f silence is not restore", he shoute" angrily, ) will or"er a machine gun &lace" in the gallery$ What followe" then was an oratorical master&iece, which any actor might well en%y$ 0e began 9uietly, without any &athos$ The enter&rise was not "irecte" against /ahr in any way$ /ahr has his full trust an" shall be regent in -a%aria$ At the same time, howe%er, a new go%ernment must be forme"E 2u"en"orff, 2ossow, 'eisser, an" himself$ ) cannot remember in my entire life such a change in the attitu"e of a crow" in a few minutes, almost a few secon"s$ There were certainly many who were not con%erte" yet$ -ut the sense of the maLority ha" fully re%erse" itself$ 0itler ha" turne" them insi"e out, as one turns a glo%e insi"e out, with a few sentences$ )t ha" almost something of hocus6&ocus, or magic about it$ 2ou" a&&ro%al roare" forth, no further o&&osition was to be hear"$ Jnly now "i" he say, in "ee& earnest, with emotion in his %oiceE OJutsi"e are /ahr, 2ossow, an" 'eisser$ They are struggling har" to reach a "ecision$ May ) say to them that you will stan" behin" themMO OAesX AesXO swelle" out the roaring answer from all si"es$ O)n a free Germany,O he shoute" &assionately out o%er the crow", Othere is also room for an autonomous -a%ariaX ) can say this to youE .ither the German re%olution begins tonight or we will all be "ea" by "awnX3 While 0itler s&o7e, 0ess an" Graf were left, by 0essN own testimony, to 7ee& /ahr, 2ossow, an" 'eisser from lea%ing the si"e chamber$ 0itler, ha%ing won o%er the crow", returne" to the si"e chamber an" wor7e" on the trium%irate, assuring them that the au"ience woul" greet their agreement to Loin the 4utsch with acclaim$ 0ere, though, he "i" not achie%e that instant success which ha" mar7e" his a""ress in the main hall$ Then 2u"en"orff, brought by 'cheubner6Richter, arri%e" in full uniform of the im&erial army$ After a short conference with 0itler, "uring which he agree", accor"ing to his account, to hel& win the trium%irate for the 4utschists, 2u"en"orff entere" the si"e chamber an" a""e" his blan"ishments an" entreaties to those of 0itler$ .rnst 4ohner, who was the -a%arian minister6&resi"ent6"esignate of the new regime, also wor7e" on /ahr, his ol" su&erior$ 0itler s7etches a touching scene of emotional togetherness among the sol"iers, while the trium%irate ta7e the line that the atmos&here remaine" cool an" uneasy$ =n the en)6 first Losso& an) *eisser an) then Kahr agree) to $oo#erate &ith +itler: The secon" roun" was won$ The entire &arty then troo&e" bac7 into the hall, where /ahr, s&ea7ing first, announce" that he ha" agree" to ser%e -a%aria as the regent for the monarchy$ 0ere he was interru&te" by %iolent a&&lause, the lou"est of the e%ening, accor"ing to /arl6Ale?an"er %on Muller$ 0itler ste&&e" forwar" an" &resse" /ahrNs han" in his own in a theatrical clas& which remin"e" many of the witnesses of the ORutli Jath,O as 0itler may well ha%e meant it to "o$ 0itler then too7 u& the threa" of the meeting, announcing that, until the settlement with the criminals who were running Germany, he woul" con"uct the &olicy of the new Reichsregierung ; no in"ication here of the retiring O"rummerO of legen"$ 2u"en"orff then sai" a few wor"s, not forgetting to mention his sur&rise at the entire affair$ Then came 2ossow an" 'eisser, after 0itler &resse" them har" to s&ea7$ 2ossow rose in his &lace an" ma"e a short an" %igorous s&eech, but one which "i" not seem to touch his emotions$ After him came 'eisser, who, on the contrary, was clearly in the gri& of strong e?citement, but who "i" little more than echo 2ossow$ -oth ma"e %ague allusions that coul" be ta7en to refer to a war of liberation, an" 'eisser s&o7e of the 2an"es&oli>ei in clearly military terms$ 4ohner brought u& the rear with a &romise of coo&eration with /ahr$ Then 0itler shoo7 han"s with them all again$ Throughout he ha" "ominate" the scene$ This was his night an" here was its clima?$ 0e was in his element as a &olitical "ramatist$ The au"ience, as a whole, was clearly o%erLoye" with the turn of e%ents an" roare" its a&&ro%al again an" again$ Whate%er they may ha%e thought after they got out of the hot air of the beer hall an" away from the contagious e?citement an" enthusiasm that "ominate" it, the bul7 of the au"ience acce&te" the scene at face %alue an" su&&orte" the Onew go%ernment$O )t was now that 0itler ma"e his first maLor tactical error, although its im&ortance has sometimes been o%erestimate"$ 0earing of "ifficulties between 4utschists an" Reichswehr troo&s at the .ngineer /aserne !which he later confuse" with )$G)$R$1 # 0itler, who ha" Lust gi%en his own forces a &e& tal7, an" +r$ Weber went to straighten out this &roblem, lea%ing General 2u"en"orff in charge at the -urgerbrau7eller$ Lu)en)orff allo&e) the trium,irate their free)om6 an) first Kahr6 then Losso& an) *eisser6 left the beer hall6 #assing out of the /en an) $ontrol of the Puts$hists: Before the au)ien$e &as release)6 Ru)olf +ess6 a$ting on instru$tions from +itler6 arreste) a number of /ey hostages: The #en$ille) list gi,en him by +itler $ontaine) the follo&ing names: Knilling6 Wutzlhofer6 Gurtner6 Bernreuther6 Qetlmeier6 Ber$hem6 an) R line) through R Banzer: The names of Poli$e Presi)ent ;antel an) Graf *o)en &ere a))e) later in in/6 a##arently by +ess: +ess $limbe) u# on a $hair an) $alle) the roll of the hostages6 all of &hom )utifully surren)ere) e<$e#t for %usti$e ;inister Gurtner6 &ho ma)e a ,ague attem#t to es$a#e an) Lieutenant 'olonel ,on Ber$hem an) Qetlmeier &ho &ere not #resent: These hostages were first hel" in an u&stairs room an" then trans&orte", at +r$ WeberNs suggestion, to the %illa of the &ublisher Julius F$ 2ehmann, a member of Jberlan" an" WeberNs father6in6law$ 0ere they were hel" until the late afternoon of the ne?t "ay when their guar"s fle"$ )n this manner most of the members of the legal go%ernment an" a number of the most im&ortant Munchen &olicemen were ta7en out of circulation for the "uration of the 4utsch$ The remain"er of the au"ience was now allowe" to go home, although a %ague control was maintaine" at the "oor to sto& &ersons &robably inimical to the 4utschists$ 'e%eral &olicemen too7 &art in this o&eration, claiming later that they "i" so to &re%ent the 4utschists from "oing it in a much rougher manner$ This fear was not entirely an em&ty one, since the "oor was hel" by -erchtol" an" his 'tosstru&&, who boaste" of the fact that they were not "istinguishe" by gentleness an" consi"eration for their foes$ .%en so, there were com&laints that members of the crow" were roughly treate"$ MaLor %on 0osslin testifie" on this scoreE 1Meanwhile an el"erly white6moustache" man of about si?ty years came out of the hall, who a&&arently e?&resse" his "isa&&ro%al of the sei>ure$ 0e was mishan"le" in the roughest manner by arme" men an" finally thrown against the wall$N3 -y 1HECH &$m$ the hall was em&ty of s&ectators$ There remaine" only the 4utschist lea"ers, who ma"e it one of their two maLor hea"9uarters, fill an" the 4utschist troo&s hel" bac7 to guar" it or as a reser%e force$3 ; $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on, Jr$ !1 :2#, &$ 25D62 1

1'mall 2an"es&oli>ei units marche" criss6cross about the city, gi%ing Minister Jswal" the im&ression they "i" not 7now what they were "oing$ Jther units guar"e" 7ey buil"ings throughout the central city, but the bul7 of the 2an"es&oli>ei troo&s remaine" where they ha" been from the beginning, tuc7e" away out of sight in the com&oun"s of the Ma? )) /aserne an" the Tur7en7aserne$ The Reichswehr was har"ly in e%i"ence at all, e?ce&t for guar"s by the barbe" wire entanglements which ha" s&route" aroun" the gates of their barrac7s com&oun"s in the course of the early hours of the 4utsch$ Most of their buil"ings loo7e" "ar7 an" "eserte" un"er the "ull grey s7ies, but there was acti%ity insi"e an" couriers mo%e" through the night on "eserte" roa"s in the countrysi"e, while far away slee&y troo&s were loa"e" onto trains to s&en" their night lurching towar"s Mtinchen$ The 4utschist lea"ers were o&timistic$ +es&ite the "ifficulties at the 4ionier7aserne an" the @ineteenth )nfantry Regiment, an" the mysterious )isa##earan$e of Kahr6 Losso&6 an) *eisser , they ha" no serious "oubts about the stan" of the 2an"es&oli>ei an" the Reichswehr$ 2u"en"orff was enough of an ol" officer to belie%e that 2ossow woul" ne%er brea7 his wor" to 2u"en"orffZ"es&ite the number of times 2u"en"orff himself ha" bro7en or ba"ly bent his own6while 0itler, too much a member of the century of the common man to &ut any faith in oaths or &romises, was buoye" u& by his belief in the nobility an" infallibility of the instincti%e &olitical Lu"gment of the 1little man$33 ; $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on, Jr$ !1 :2#, &$ C11 12ossow arri%e" in a state of great e?citement at 1HE4D &$m$ an" was imme"iately le" asi"e by the other three generals, accor"ing to an eyewitness$ Their conference laste" about a half hour$ Then 2ossow announce" to the officers &resent that he ha" been threatene" by 0itler with a &istol an" that his &romise was gi%en un"er "uress$ 0e therefore "i" not feel boun" by it$ 0e ha" no "esire to be a follower of 0itler an" thoroughly con"emne" the 4utsch against which he &lanne" to &rocee" with all a%ailable force$ 2ieutenant Bolonel %on 'aur then re&orte" to 2ossow an" 'eisser, who ha" meanwhile arri%e" in his own %ehicle, that, in accor"ance with 2ossowNs e?&licit statements regar"ing his o&&osition to any 0itler62u"en"orff 4utsch, the Munchen garrison ha" been alarme", the Augsburg, /em&ten, an" 2an"sberg garrisons or"ere" to Munchen, an" the other garrisons informe" of the situation$ 2ossow agree" that these were the &ro&er measures to ta7e$ )t was then "eci"e" that hea"9uarters shoul" be mo%e" to the )nfantry -arrac7s because the 'ta"t7omman"antur was a "angerously isolate" out&ost near the Wehr7reis7omman"o$ The four generals, as well as %on 'aur, Bolonel !Ret$# Gusta% %on /ress Ba&tain %on 0anne7en, an" Ba&tain -ergen then "e&arte"$ Ba&tain Ren>, who was left behin", ha" or"ers to hol" the 'ta"t7omman"antur an" to inform all officers who en9uire", that they were to acce&t or"ers only from General %on +anner, so that &ossible misuse of 2ossowNs name by the 4utschists woul" be ren"ere" harmless$ 'eisser se&arate" from the others$ 0e was to go to the Tur7en7aserne to inform the &olice troo&s there of the situation an" then to get /ahr an" bring him to the )nfantry -arrac7s$ 'eisser "i" a&&ear at the Ttir7en7aserne, but, sur&risingly, was %ery uninformati%e about the situation$ 0e sai" that the trium%irate ha" been o%er&owere" at the -tirgerbrau7eller, but sai" nothing about the role of the &olice in the 4utsch, merely or"ering the troo&s to remain on the alert an" to "efen" their installations against all comers$ The reason for his reticence is &robably to be foun" in the "ecision that ha" been ta7en not to re%eal the "efection of the trium%irate from the 4utschist cam& until the balance of &ower in the city was in fa%or of the loyal go%ernment forces$3 ; $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on, Jr$ !1 :2#, &$ C156C1 1At mi"night the 4utschists ha" still been confi"ent, or, at least, ho&eful$ -y mi"6afternoon their %enture was a thing of the &ast ; although this was not entirely clear to the -a%arian authorities$ The rebels, main ho&e ha" lain in controlling the trium%irate or in a brea7"own of the "isci&line of the arme" forces, an" neither of these bets on which they ha" &lace" so much &olitical ca&ital &ai" off$ Jnce out from un"er 0itlerNs thumb, the members of the trium%irate ha" returne" to business as usual, an" the fon" belief that the arme" forces woul" ne%er fire on men le" by 2u"en"orff ha" "ie" in the gunsmo7e that rolle" across the J"eons&lat>$ 0itler,s first serious attem&t to sei>e &ower ha" been a one6"ay won"er, an illustration of the ra&i"ity of tem&o that later enable" him to cram a thousan"6year Reich into twel%e years$3 ; $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on, Jr$ !1 :2#, &$ C*D 1The trial itself, which laste" from 2* February to 1 A&ril <1 24=, soon became a @ational 'ocialist &ro&agan"a "is&lay as 0itler too7 control of the &rocee"ings again an" again, "ominating the Lu"ges an" the courtroom with his oratory$ There is no 9uestion that 0itler,s gras& of the tactical situation an" his s&ell6bin"ing gifts woul" ha%e ma"e for "ifficulties un"er any circumstances, but there was no nee" for the entire trial to ha%e gone the way that it "i"$ Much of the fault was to be foun" on the bench an" some among the &rosecutors$ The &resi"ing Lu"ge was absolutely "etermine" not to fin" 2u"en"orff guilty$3 ; $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on, Jr$ !1 :2#, &$ 4:

1'o 0itler summe" u& his "ri%e for &ower to the thun"ering a&&lause of his au"ience in the Tir7us /rone on CH Jctober, an" here is embalme" his essential aim ; the attainment of #o&er in Germany by his #arty an) therefore himself: All other aims were subor"inate to this one an", in fairness to him, most of them were attainable only if he "i" come to &ower$ These other aims were, if one cuts through forests of %erbiage an" analy>es the %arious theoretical an" &ractical &lans of the 4utschists, few, sim&le, an" "rastic$ (n$e #o&er &as attaine) the ne<t ste# &oul) be to Is&ee# out the #igsty6I &hi$h in #ra$ti$al terms meant the elimination from offi$e of a$ti,e #oliti$al o##onents6 men sus#e$te) of la$/ of #atriotism or of #rofiteering6 an) the assum#tion of their #ositions an) other /ey #osts by men )ra&n from the #arty an) its allie) organizations: The ne<t ste# &as the $reation of a tightlyDorganize)6 $entralize) German state res#onsi,e to the $omman)s of its ne& master or masters: The final ste#6 as it &as $learly en,isage) at that time6 &as the $reation of IGross)euts$hlan)6I a Germany that &oul) in$lu)e *trasbourg an) 1ienna an) &oul) therefore ha,e s&ee#ing o,ertones for the future of uro#e: This ne& state &oul) be $hara$terize) by )i$tatorial rule from the $enter -&hi$h later $ame to be /no&n as the Fuhrer#rinzi#06 in)e#en)ent of #arliamentary interferen$e: The e$onomy &as to be im#ro,e)6 sim#lifie)6 an) free) of international6 I#arasiti$I elements: *o$ial se$urity &oul) be e<ten)e) an) liberalize): 'itizenshi# &oul) be limite) to Germans of !Nor)i$" sto$/: *trong em#hasis &oul) be #la$e) on the maintenan$e an) e<#ansion of a strong #easantry: %usti$e &oul) be faster6 more honest6 an) mu$h more stringent: . #o&erful arme) for$e &oul) #rote$t the system an) the German #eo#le: =n or)er to $arry out this #rogram +itler an) his entourage ha) alrea)y &or/e) out a system of $ontrols: The basi$ i)eas behin) the te$hniCues they &ere to use &hen they $ame to #o&er a )e$a)e later &ere alrea)y formulate) in 47?>: . first #re,enti,e measure &as the e<$lusion of %e&s from #oliti$al life6 an) these %e&s &ere alrea)y seen as a #ossible hostage grou# &hi$h $oul) an) &oul) be )estroye) in time of &ar: +ermann sser sai) at a meeting in Ae$ember 47??: !N556555 %e&s as hostages $arefully guar)e)6 &ho &ill be ruthlessly )is#at$he)6 if e,en a single enemy $rosses the German frontier:@" While it woul" &robably be incorrect to ta7e literally wor"s s&o7en in a beer hall by a wil" an" flamboyant youth, it is e9ually true that the germ of i"eas later carrie" into &ractice is foun" here an" that "oubtless countless re&etitions of this sort of oratory ma"e the a"o&tion of the 1final solution3 sim&ler an" almost natural for har"6bitten, %eteran @ational 'ocialists$3 ; $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on, Jr$ !1 :2#, &$ 2*462*D 1First $lean u# Germany an) $reate a ne& or)er: Then settle &ith her enemies6 es#e$ially the ar$hDenemy6 %e&ishD Bolshe,ism: This &as the situation as +itler sa& it throughout his #oliti$al $areer6 an)6 seen in this light6 many other&ise ine<#li$able mo,es be$ome natural an) logi$al: Few men follow a single goal unswer%ingly throughout an entire &olitical lifetime$ Those who "o are rarely 9uite sane an" nonetheless are often ama>ingly successful$ 0itler was such a man, an" the @'+A4 was his tool for accom&lishing his en"s$ 0itler was ne%er in any "oubt as to how his goal must be reache"$ 0e "i" not belie%e that a miracle woul" bring him to &ower an" his i"eas to fruition$ 0e was "ee&ly scornful of a -a%arian crown &rince who woul" only ta7e bac7 his throne by acclamation$ +itler e<#e$te) to ha,e to ta/e anything he &ante) by for$e an) &as Cuite #re#are) to )o so: +e belie,e) fully an) #assionately in the !trium#h of the &ill" as e<#resse) in ,iolent a$tion: The en) Bustifie) any an) all means that he might use: +ere6 then6 &as a #oli$y an) a &ill that6 gi,en the #ro#er instrument6 $oul) an) &oul) sha/e the &orl): =n 47?>6 as later6 +itler use) #rimarily t&o &ea#ons: The first &as #ro#agan)a6 &hi$h &as one of the main tas/s of the !$i,ilian a##aratus" of the #arty6 an) the se$on) &as for$e6 &hi$h &as the #ro,in$e of the !military a##aratus:" 0itler himself &ut the matter succinctly at his trialE 1Jur %iew&oint isE for those who are min"e" to fight with intellectual wea&ons, we ha%e the struggle of the intellect, an" for those who are min"e" to fight with the fist, we ha%e the fist$ The mo%ement has two instruments, the &ro&agan"a machine an" at its si"e the 'AI3 These two wea&ons he use" brutally an" more effecti%ely than "i" any of his o&&onents or com&etitors$3 ; $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on, Jr$ !1 :2#, &$ D4

1I0itler, acting more an" more in"e&en"ently, wor7e" towar" a German "ictatorshi&6with or without a monarch$ The i"ea of a march on -erlin, with MussoliniNs theatrical but successful March on Rome as the great e?am&le, "aily too7 on more concrete form$ An" in fact, in mi"6Jctober the &lans of the /am&fbun" too7 on firm sha&e$ An or"er of the German Fighting 2eague for the 'oli"ification of the O-or"er 4rotectionO in the @orth, issue" on Jctober 1* an" signe" by its comman"er Bolonel !ret$# 0ermann /riebel !of the Jberlan" -riga"e#, though in the guise of O&olice emergency assistanceO against ORe"O Thuringia, o&ene" u& the chance for offensi%e action, an" abo%e all &ro%i"e" the le%erage for the mobili>ation of forces for a ci%il war$ The wor" was &asse" that the march on -erlin was to begin on @o%ember 1D$ Ami" the confusion of rumors, ho&es, an" ambitions, 0itler was busy consoli"ating his in"e&en"ent &osition an" strengthening his lea"ershi&$ Therefore, when wor" reache" him that /ahr an" 2ossow were &lanning a &olitical mo%e for @o%ember , the fifth anni%ersary of the hate" re%olution, &ossibly without him an" in conLunction with 'eec7t, whom they still ho&e" to win o%er he "eci"e" to forge ahea"$ 0owe%er, if as in the &ast they "eci"e" to &ost&one matters, then it was im&erati%e to &ro" them into action$ Jn Jctober 2C, Goring, as the hea" of the 'A, announce" the &lanne" &utsch an" "ictatorshi& at a military conference of @ational 'ocialist organi>ations an" as7e" for a list of O&ersonalities who will ha%e to be eliminate" <an"= at least one will ha%e to be shot imme"iately after the issuance of the &roclamation <announcing the ta7eo%er= as an e?am&le$O The ne?t "ay 2ossow, at a meeting hel" at the Munich +efense Ministry with &olice an" hea"s of &atriotic organi>ations, came out in su&&ort of a march on -erlin an" the Oerection of the national "ictatorshi&$O 0owe%er, the O&ossible march,O he sai", necessitate" the Oincor&oration of all &atriotic organi>ations into the Reichswehr or state &olice$O OAll of us ha%e but one goal6to free Germany from Mar?ism, un"er the blac7, white, an" re" flag$O Reactions to this a&&eal for unity were "i%i"e"$ /riebel an" the maLority fa%ore" it but the @ational 'ocialists "i" not &artici&ate in this conference$ 0itler, for his &art, was &re&aring a sur&rise cou& to win the hol"ers of &ower for his &lans or force them, nolens volens1 to go along with him once he got matters un"er way$ Jn @o%ember *, ami" the chaos of inflation an" the -erlin6 Munich conflict, the /ahr62ossow6'eisser Otrium%irateO an" re&resentati%es of &atriotic organi>ations hel" a meeting at which /ahr "eman"e" their loyalty in his fight against -erlin, an" 2ossow, though warning against &reci&itate actions li7e the /a&& an" /iistrin cou&s, &romise" to su&&ort the setting u& of a central right6wing "ictatorshi& if this hel" the &romise of success$ -oth /ahr an" 2ossow o&&ose" isolate" action an" se&aratism$ The fact that 0itler ha" not been in%ite" to this gathering may ha%e been the catalyst &rom&ting his "ecision to stri7e out$ An" other members of the /am&fbun" nursing "oubts about the will an" ability of the /ahr grou& to carry out its &lans also were "etermine" to act$ Jn @o%ember :, /riebel issue" a "eclaration of war on the trium%irate$ )n %ain 2u"en"orff, as late as the afternoon of @o%ember 5, trie" to &ersua"e the trium%irate to bring 0itler into their fol"$ /ahr refuse"$ They were aware of 0itlerNs &utsch &lans but "i" not ta7e them seriously$ They 7new him as an able &ro&agan"ist but "i" not belie%e him ca&able of this swee&ing an" in"e&en"ent action against the hol"ers of &ower$ The great o&&ortunity came on @o%ember 5, with a O&atriotic "emonstrationO in su&&ort of /ahr hel" in the crow"e" main room of the -iirgerbrau beer hall, atten"e" by Babinet members an" other high officials, military lea"ers, an" well67nown economists, among them 4rofessor of 0istory /arl Ale?an"er %on Muller$ )n commemoration of the outbrea7 of the re%olution fi%e years earlier, /ahr rea" an a""ress against OMar?ism$O *hortly before 7:55 P:;:6 +itler6 a$$om#anie) by an arme) grou# of men le) by *. $hief Goring6 bro/e into this gathering of Nationalist )ignitaries: =n a )ramati$ gesture he fire) a shot into the $eiling to attra$t the attention of the assemblage R the o#ening shot of his attem#te) $ou#6 &hi$h &as to en) ignominiously by noon of the follo&ing )ay: .$$ounts of &hat follo&e) are $ontra)i$toryJ #ro#agan)a an) a#ologies ser,e to $onfuse the #i$ture6 an) the subseCuent +itler trial also left many Cuestions unans&ere): it a,oi)e) e<#osing embarrassing ties an) treate) the #arti$i#ants gently: The main #oints6 ho&e,er6 are $lear: +itler6 &a,ing his #istol6 announ$e) from the #latform that the Inational re,olutionI ha) begun6 that the hall &as o$$u#ie) by hea,ily arme) men6 that the Ba,arian Go,ernment ha) been o,erbro&n6 an) that a #ro,isional $entral go,ernment &as being forme): +e then as/e) Kahr6 Losso&6 an) *eisser to a$$om#any him to an a)Boining room6 &here he informe) them that Poli$e Presi)ent Pohner ha) been a##ointe) ;inister Presi)ent of Ba,aria an) in,este) &ith )i$tatorial #o&ers6 that Kahr ha) been ma)e Regent of Ba,aria6 &hile he himself &oul) hea) a ne& Rei$h go,ernment6 &hile Lu)en)orff &as to $omman) the ne& INational .rmyI built aroun) the Kam#fbun) -&hi$h &oul) mar$h on Berlin0: Losso& &oul) be$ome Rei$h Aefense ;inister6 an) *eisser the ne& Rei$h Poli$e ;inister: ;ean&hile6 Goring too/ $harge of the meeting: +e6 too6 began his s#ee$h &ith a #istol shot to the $eiling: +itler hurrie) ba$/ into the hall an) informe) the initially $riti$al an) later Bubilant assemblage of his ne& go,ernmental a##ointments6 &hile6 in the ne<t room6 the (berlan) lea)er -an) ,eterinarian0 Frie)ri$h Weber sought to #ersua)e the &ellDguar)e) trium,irate to a$Cuies$e: Finally6 Lu)en)orff a##eare)6 ami) shouts of +eilS6 an) announ$e) his &illingness to #arti$i#ateJ he &as follo&e) by Pohner: =n ,ie& of this6 the trium,irate $a#itulate) an) returne) to the hall6 no& the s$ene of great fraternization: There &ere more s#ee$hes an) the #laying of the national anthem: .fter that6 ho&e,er6 some of those #resent &ere #ut un)er arrest: ;inister Presi)ent ,on Knilling an) a number of Ba,arian 'abinet ;inisters &ere le) a&ay by Ru)olf +ess an) his *. stu)ents: But Kahr6 Losso&6 an) *eisser &ere #ermitte) to lea,e the s$ene of the #uts$h on their o&n: Lu)en)orff guarantee) their &or) as offi$ers: Then began that strange night in &hi$h the #uts$hists faile) to ta/e a),antage of their o##ortunity an) instea) left their ri,als6 &hom they ha) $aught una&ares6 free to gather their for$es: )n the e%ent, 0itler &ro%e" to be as &oor a &utschist as the organi>ers of the /a&& an" /iistrin cou&s$ Although a series of arbitrary acts against &olitical o&&onents an" anti6'emitic outbursts ga%e an in7ling of what a successful @ational 'ocialist ta7eo%er woul" hol" in store, the night &asse" an" 0itler an" the /am&fbun", assiste" by the infantry training school un"er the e?6 lieutenant an" Free Bor&s man Rossbach, faile" to consoli"ate the &ower they ha" &roclaime" as theirs$ They ha" relie" on the &roclamation that, in a""ition to 2u"en"orff, they ha" the trium%irate on their si"e, an" thus they won the su&&ort of sym&athi>ers in the state ci%il ser%ice an" Army$ -ut their calculation that /ahr an" 2ossow, themsel%es so "ee&ly committe", coul" be swe&t along by a fait accom&li &ro%e" to be wrong, e%en though some /am&fbun" units were gi%en arms by Munich Army "e&ots an" e%en though the energetic MaLor Rohm an" some Free Bor&s men "i" occu&y the local Army hea"9uarters at 11EHH 4$M$ 2u"en"orff, 0itler, /riebel, an" other organi>ers of the &utsch were gathere" at the Army hea"9uarters$ -ut when 4ohner an" Fric7, who a&&arently ha"

&re%ente" the state &olice from inter%ening at the -iirgerbrau, arri%e" at &olice hea"9uarters, they were &ut un"er arrest by 2ossowNs men$ An" no real effort was ma"e to occu&y %ital go%ernment an" telegra&h offices or railroa" stations$ The trium%irate was able to get to the barrac7s of a loyal regiment an" mobili>e military an" &olice units$ The -a%arian Go%ernment itself remaine" in hi"ing8 a few Babinet ministers went to Regensburg$ +uring the night, a number of /am&fbun" units were "isarme"8 the general confusion in the ran7s of the Right now began to wor7 against 0itler$ 'hortly before CEHH A$M$ the ne?t morning, wor" went out to all ra"io stations in Germany that the trium%irate ha" been "ecei%e" an" that it o&&ose" the 0itler &utsch$ This announcement came rather late, an" it is an o&en 9uestion whether /ahr an" 2ossow "i" not, "es&ite their later e?&lanations, %acillate for a while$ Were they &erha&s o&&ose" only to 0itlerNs claim to lea"ershi& but not to the &utsch itselfM -ut at any rate, a maLor "ecision ha" been reache"$ The morning of @o%ember foun" Munich in a state of e?treme agitation$ /ahr ha" not been able to &re%ent the a&&earance of the morning &a&ers carrying news about the &utsch$ The city was co%ere" with &osters &roclaiming the start of the re%olution$ A &roclamation by /ahr also ha" been &oste" an" han"e" to the &ress$ -ut the @ational 'ocialists ha" succee"e" in arousing &ublic o&inion against /ahr, e%en though the &utschists ha" met with little success in the rest of -a%aria an" e%en though the man on the street an" most of the &artici&ants were not at all clear about the alignments$ While Army units were assembling shortly before noon to reca&ture the +efense Ministry, the &utschists were con"ucting their now famous march through Munich, which en"e" at the Fel"herrnhalle at about 1EHH 4$M$ At 2EHH 4$M$, Rohm surren"ere" at the +efense Ministry$ A long column of arme" @ational 'ocialists an" /am&fbun" members !&ossibly aroun" two thousan"# hea"e" by 0itler, 2u"en"orff, Goring, /riebel, an" Weber ha" manage" to o%er&ower the &olice guar" at the )sar -ri"ge an" then ha" marche" through the inner city to the go%ernment offices$ 'ensation6hungry onloo7ers ha" gathere" at the narrow &assageway to the Fel"herrnhalle8 the state &olice trie" to seal off the a&&roaches, an" "isor"ers bro7e out$ Who fire" the first shot is still not clear$ There were some casualties in the brief e?change of shots that followe", among them 'cheubner6Richter, who ha" been marching ne?t to 0itler$ When the shooting began, the crow"s scattere" wil"ly8 the whole affair too7 less than one minute$ 2u"en"orff continue" to march until he was arreste" at the J"eons&lat>$ 0itler, who a&&arently "islocate" his shoul"er when he threw himself on the groun", manage" to esca&e ignobly in an 'A ambulance ami" the confusion, later metamor&hose" into a heroic battle$ Bontrary to his "ramatic &romise in the -urgerbrau cellar, @o%ember "i" not fin" him either Oin &ower or "ea"O8 "eath was a fate he left to others$ 0e too7 refuge in nearby (ffing, in a %illa belonging to one of his early &atrons, the art critic .rnst 0anfstaengl$ An" there, on the afternoon of @o%ember 11, he was arreste", cla" in his &yLamas$ -efore being ta7en away, he "ramatically ha" his )ron Bross &inne" to his chest$ At 2an"sberg &rison, Bount Arco, .isnerNs assassin, was as7e" to %acate his room for 0itler, who at this Luncture still Obelie%e" that he woul" be shot$O This was the -a%arian trium%irateNs re%enge for ha%ing been ta7en by sur&rise$ To be sure, /ahr an" his frien"s "i" not stay in office %ery long after this, "es&ite all their e?&lanations an" efforts to co%er u& what ha" ha&&ene"$ They ha" &laye" a 9uestionable "ouble game, an" the ill feelings arouse" on both si"es6re&ublican as well as nationalist ; were too strong$ )n mi"6February, 1 24, after a &rotracte" tug of war an" the stabili>ation of relations between Munich an" -erlin, they ha" to go$ 'eec7t ha" been s&are" "irect inter%ention8 the unity of the Army ha" been &reser%e" "es&ite the -a%arian "ebacle, an" the "ilemma of its attitu"e towar" the Re&ublic tem&orarily sol%e", without 'eec7tNs ha%ing ha" to ta7e too e?&ose" a &osition against the nationalists an" the military Ocomra"esO in their cam&$3 ; The German Dictatorshi&( The 7rigins1 Structure1 and 8ffects of National Socialism by /arl +ietrich -racher !1 :H#, &$ 114611: 1The significance of the 0itler trial of February6March, 1 24, cannot therefore be stresse" too strongly$ GermanyNs "omestic situation was beginning to show signs of im&ro%ement$ The inflation was halte", the Bentral Go%ernment gaine" a firmer foothol", an" the search for a more rational solution to the re&arations issue was showing &rogress in the "eliberations of the +awes Bommission$ There 'tresemann, in his first meeting with the Western &owers, set forth the i"ea of a security agreement, which ultimately too7 sha&e as the 2ocarno Treaty !1 2D#$ )n the course of the "omestic stabili>ation, /ahrNs ba"ly com&romise" authoritarian regime in -a%aria was re&lace" by a mo"erate go%ernment un"er 0einrich 0el", the lea"er of the -K48 /ress, a su&&orter of 'eec7t, re&lace" 2ossow as military comman"er, an" the rebellious infantry training school of Munich was transferre" to Thuringia an" sternly "isci&line" by 'eec7t$ This was the setting in which the treason trial against 0itler, 2u"en"orff, 4ohner, Rohm, Fric7, an" fi%e others began on February 2*, 1 24, in the 4eo&leNs Bourt of Munich$ Goring an" other &artici&ants in the &utsch ha" manage" to get out of Germany with the hel& of frien"ly &ublic officials$ The matter seeme" close", but 0itler ha" learne" to e?&loit e%ery situation$ Thus at the trial he "i" not &roclaim his innocence, as the /a&& &utschists ha" "one8 instea", he use" the o&&ortunity to great a"%antage, s&elling out his &rogram an" the &olitical intentions which ha" moti%ate" him on @o%ember , 1 2C$ 0is "efense s&eeches, in"ictments of the OsystemO of the O@o%ember criminalsO an" Osla%es of the "ictate of Kersailles,O were wi"ely &ublici>e" by the &ress throughout the country an" mo%e" him into the center of the Onational re%olution,O hitherto a "iffuse mi?ture of assorte" ambitions an" certainly no clear6cut master &lan$ At the same time, he sought to reforge his ties to the military lea"ershi& by e?onerating the Reichswehr an" assigning blame &artly to 2ossow an" /ahr &ersonally an" &artly to the OsystemO of the "emocratic Re&ublic collecti%ely$ )n this 0itler was &artially successful$ To begin with, the court itself was by no means unres&onsi%e to his arguments$ An" no won"er$ )n it sat men who only a little while bac7 ha" sym&athi>e" with him, or at least with /ahrNs &lans$ Thus the 'tate 4rosecutor, 'tenglein, went so far as to &reface his &lea on March 21, 1 24, with a &aean to the nobility of 0itlerNs &ur&oseE 0itler came of a sim&le bac7groun"8 in the big war as a bra%e sol"ier he showe" a German s&irit, an" afterwar", beginning from scratch an" wor7ing har", he create" a great &arty, the O@ational 'ocialist German Wor7ersN 4arty,O which is &le"ge" to fighting international Mar?ism an" Jewry, to settling accounts with the @o%ember criminals, an" to "isseminating the national i"ea among all layers of the &o&ulation, in &articular the wor7ers$ ) am not calle" to &ass Lu"gment on his &arty &rogram, but his honest en"ea%or to reawa7en the belief in the German cause among an o&&resse" an" "isarme" &eo&le is most certainly to his cre"it$ 0ere, hel&e" by his uni9ue oratorical gift, he has ma"e a significant contribution$ .%en though the aggressi%e moo"

in the ran7s of his followers le" him into a one6si"e" &osition, it woul" nonetheless be unfair to call him a "emagogue8 against this charge he is &rotecte" by the sincerity of his beliefs an" the unselfish "e"ication to his chosen tas7$ 0is &ri%ate life has always been clean, which "eser%es s&ecial a&&robation in %iew of the tem&tations which naturally came to him as a celebrate" &arty lea"er$$$0itler is a highly gifte" man who, coming out of a sim&le bac7groun", has, through serious an" har" wor7, won for himself a res&ecte" &lace in &ublic life$ 0e "e"icate" himself to the i"eas which ins&ire" him to the &oint of self6sacrifice, an" as a sol"ier he fulfille" his "uty in the highest measure$ 0e cannot be blame" for e?&loiting the &osition which he create" for himself to his own &ur&oses$ -ut more was to comeE -y s7illfully em&hasi>ing /ahrNs, 2ossowNs, an" 'eisserNs cores&onsibility, 0itler cause" further embarrassment for the court$ The in%ol%ement of high &ublic officials an" &olitical lea"ers in the &lanning of the cou& ma"e for some courtroom taboos an" softene" the stan" of both &rosecutors an" Lu"ges$ 0itler &ut the maLor blame for the failure of the Onational re%olutionO an" at the same time for the "anger of a "i%i"e" Reichswehr on 2ossow$ 0is arguments re%ol%e" aroun" the assurance that the actions of the @'+A4 were in the best interests of the nation, &articularly of the Reichswehr$ Thus 0itler, ha%ing learne" by e?&erience that he coul" come to &ower only with the su&&ort of the Army, not by acting against it, began to woo the Army$ 0e followe" this &olicy consistently through January CH, 1 CC, an" until June CH, 1 C4, the "ate of the full consoli"ation of his "ictatorshi&$ As for the rest, 0itler 7new how to transform his "efense into a &ublic "emonstration in su&&ort of his act, to stray from the theme of the trial, an" with national &assion an" &ro&hecies of %ictory, to arouse the &artisan au"ience to a&&lause$ The court, ob%iously im&resse" by the amount of &ublic notice 0itler was attracting, tolerate" this$ Bonse9uently 0itler was not gi%en a se%ere sentence nor was he, still an Austrian subLect, e?&elle" from Germany$ The -a%arian Minister of the )nterior, Fran> 'chweyer, ha" been trying to ha%e 0itler e?&elle" since 1 22, but he met with resistance from the Minister of Justice, Fran> Gurtner, a German @ational who was to &lay a role in 0itlerNs &remature amnesty an" who, in 1 CC, was to become 0itlerNs own Minister of Justice$ The sentencing by the court, in A&ril, 1 24, turne" into a social e%ent$ Again, as often before in the course of the trial, the accuse" men were be"ec7e" with flowers an" nationalist symbols, while officers in full "ress uniform "emonstrate" their sym&athy, if not with 0itler at least with 2u"en"orff$ These were the sentences mete" outE Rohm an" Fric7 were ac9uitte", as was 2u"en"orff, an" 0itler recei%e" the lowest &ossible sentence for high treasonE fi%e yearsN im&risonment, with the e?&resse" &robability of an early &ar"on$ An era of unrest ha" come to an en", but at the same time the see"s ha" been sown for future u&hea%als$ 4resently the state of emergency was lifte" without 'eec7tNs ha%ing li%e" u& to the "ictatorial e?&ectations of the Right, "es&ite his many "ifferences with .bert an" 'tresemann$ 'eec7t was unwilling to "o more than wait for the "ictator to whom he might &ossibly ha%e han"e" o%er his &ower$ )n letters written in @o%ember, 1 2C, the &osition which gui"e" the GeneralNs con"uct is mace clearE %acillation between the wish for a "ictatorshi& an" the restraint of the sol"ier awaiting the a&&earance of the successful "ictator$ )t was a &osition that woul" characteri>e the future attitu"e of the Reichswehr towar" the Re&ublic an" its enemies$3 ; The German Dictatorshi&( The 7rigins1 Structure1 and 8ffects of National Socialism by /arl +ietrich -racher !1 :H#, &$ 11 6121

.dol2 ?itler "!rd le2t, standing), ?ermann Goering "le2t), Wil*elm +ri0k " nd le2t), and Gregor (trasser "0enter) appear at a Na8i Party meeting during t*e late 19 Cs. Gregor (trasser, a ,ember o2 t*e &ei0*stag "19 D@19! ) and Na8i Party Gauleiter o2 Lower Bavaria "19 4@19 9) was assassinated in Berlin on /une !C, 19!D during t*e Nig*t o2 t*e Long ;nives.

%e&ish ;embers of the 'oun$il on Foreign Relations )uring the Beer +all Puts$h

%s0ar (. (traus 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@ 19 L)> -lder (tatesman Born in 4tter2erg, $erman on >e#em2er !3, 15/0

?enry ,orgent*au (r. 9.(. .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "191!@191L)> -lder (tatesman Born in %annheim, $erman on A'ril !?, 15/?

.bram '. -lkus 9.(. .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "%0tober , 191L@.pril C, 1911) Born in Ne0 3or( )it on August ?, 15?@

-dwin &... (eligman ,07i0kar Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy and +inan0e at $olumbia 9niversity "19CD@19!1) Born in Ne0 3or( )it on A'ril !/, 15?1

%tto ?. ;a*n Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. Ebank in New =ork $ityF "1:91@19!D) Born in %annheim, $erman on ;e2ruar !1, 15?@

Paul Warburg Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19! )> 7i0e $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "191L@191:) Born in &am2urg, $erman on August 10, 15?5

+eli6 Warburg Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. "1:9L@19!1) Born in &am2urg, $erman on Januar 14, 15@1

,ortimer L. (0*i22 Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb, < $o. "19CC@19!1) Born in Ne0 3or( )it on June /, 15@@

George Blument*al (enior Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. "19CD@19 4) Born in ;ran(furt am %ain, $erman on A'ril @, 15/5

+rank .lts0*ul Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. Ebank in New =ork $ityF "191L@19D4) Born in "an ;ran#is#o, )alifornia on A'ril !1, 155@

?erbert ?. Le*man Partner o2 Le*man Brot*ers Ebank in New =ork $ityF "19C:@191D, 1919@19 :) Born in Ne0 3or( )it on %ar#h !5, 15@5

.lbert (trauss ,ember o2 /. < W. (eligman < $o. Ebank in New =ork $ityF "19C1@191:, 19 1@19 9) Born in Ne0 3or( )it on August !?, 15?4

Note5 %s0ar (olomon (traus "LL1B1 )olum2ia 15@3) was t*e 9.(. ,inister to t*e %ttoman -mpire 2rom /uly 1, 1::1@/une 1L, 1::9 and %0tober 14, 1:9:@De0ember C, 1:99, and 9.(. .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire 2rom %0tober D, 19C9@(eptember !, 191C. ?enry ,orgent*au (r. "LL1B1 )olum2ia 15@@) was t*e 9.(. .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire 2rom De0ember 11, 191!@+ebruary 1, 191L. .bram 'saa0 -lkus "LL1B1 )olum2ia 1555) was t*e 9.(. .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire 2rom %0tober , 191L@.pril C, 1911. 3*e 0apital o2 t*e %ttoman -mpire was $onstantinople "'stanbul)> t*e %ttoman -mpire was su00eeded by t*e &epubli0 o2 3urkey on %0tober 9, 19 !.

%t*er ,embers o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations during t*e Beer ?all Puts0*

3*omas W. Lamont Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1911@19D:)

&ussell $. Le22ingwell Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 !@194C)

.lbert ?. Wiggin $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $*ase National Bank "191:@19!C)

/ules (. Ba0*e ?ead o2 /.(. Ba0*e < $o. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9 @19DD)

(amuel &. Bertron President o2 Bertron, Gris0om < $ompany, 'n0., international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:)

.mos L. Beaty President o2 3e6a0o "19 C@19 L)

William Butterwort* President o2 Deere < $o. "19C1@19 :)

%wen D. =oung $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $o. "19 @19!9, 19D @19DD)

Guy -. 3ripp $*airman o2 t*e board o2 Westing*ouse -le0tri0 $orp. "191 @19 1)

P...(. +ranklin Dire0tor o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "191L@19!9)

/o*n W. Davis ,ember o2 Davis, Polk < Wardwell "19 1@1944)

+rank L. Polk ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell "191D@19D!)

.llen Wardwell ,ember o2 Davis, Polk < Wardwell "19C9@194!)

?enry Waters 3a2t Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "1:99@19D4)

George W. Wi0kers*am ,ember o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "191D@19!L)

(evero ,allet@Prevost ,ember o2 $urtis, ,allet@ Prevost < $olt Elaw 2irmF "1:91@19D:)

+rederi0 &. $oudert ,ember o2 $oudert Bros. Elaw 2irmF "1:94@1944)

Paul D. $ravat* ,ember o2 $ravat*, de Gersdor22, (waine and Wood Elaw 2irmF

/osep* P. $otton ,ember o2 $otton < +ranklin Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 1@19 9)

/o*n +oster Dulles ,ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "1911@ 19D9)

Norman ?. Davis Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DD)

$ordenio .. (everan0e 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191:@19 4)

-dward ,andell ?ouse -lder (tatesman> $o@ +ounder o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations

-li*u &oot President o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19 4)

/ames Brown (0ott (e0retary o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19DC)

David +. ?ouston Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@ 19 1)> (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19 C@19 1)

(tep*en P. Duggan Dire0tor o2 'nstitute o2 'nternational -du0ation "1919@19DL)

/erome D. Greene 3reasurer o2 .meri0an (o0ial ?ygiene .sso0iation "19 C@19! )

&aymond B. +osdi0k 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 1@19D:)

/ames G. ,0Donald $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +oreign Poli0y .sso0iation, 'n0. "1919@19!!)

$*arles ?. ?askins Dean o2 t*e Graduate (0*ool o2 .rts and (0ien0e at ?arvard 9niversity "19C:@19 D)

-lmer -. Brown President o2 New =ork 9niversity "1911@19!!)

?arry .. Gar2ield President o2 Williams $ollege "19C:@19!D)

William ?.P. +aun0e President o2 Brown 9niversity "1:99@19 9)

(idney -. ,e8es President o2 $ollege o2 t*e $ity o2 New =ork "191D@19 1)

.llyn .. =oung Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at ?arvard 9niversity "19 C@19 1)

.r0*ibald $ary $oolidge Pro2essor o2 ?istory at ?arvard 9niversity "19C:@19 :)

$*arles (eymour Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "191:@19!1)

?enry &. (eager Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at $olumbia 9niversity "19C4@19!C)

P*ilip ,ars*all Brown Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at Prin0eton 9niversity "1914@19 9)

)oun#il on ;oreign Relations %em2ers and Aheir 4##u'ation during the Beer &all ,uts#h in %uni#h, $erman *Novem2er 9, 19!3+
Name Ban(ersB 3*omas W. Lamont &ussell $. Le22ingwell %tto ?. ;a*n +eli6 Warburg ,ortimer L. (0*i22 George Blument*al +rank .lts0*ul ?erbert ?. Le*man /ules (. Ba0*e (amuel &. Bertron .lbert ?. Wiggin .lbert (trauss /ames ?. Perkins P...(. +ranklin /ames ?. Post .lba B. /o*nson BusinessmenB %wen D. =oung Guy -. 3ripp -dwin ,. ?err .mos L. Beaty William Butterwort* &oy -. 3omlinson /ames ?. ,0Graw /o*n ?. +inley William ?. Woodin La0 ersB /o*n W. Davis ,embers*ip "=ear) 19 1@19D1 19 1@1949 19 1@19!D 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 1@19!1 1@19!1 1@19DC 1@191! 1@19L! 1@19! , 19!D@DD 1@19!D 1@19 4 1@19 9 Primary %00upation Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19D:) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 !@194C) Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:91@19!D) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!D) Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9L@19!1) Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CC@19!1) (enior Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CD@19 4) Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19D4) Partner o2 Le*man Brot*ers E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C:@191D, 1919@ :) ?ead o2 /.(. Ba0*e < $o. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9 @19DD) President o2 Bertron, Gris0om < $ompany, 'n0., international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:) $*airman o2 $*ase National Bank Ebank in New =ork $ityF "191:@19!C) ,ember o2 /. < W. (eligman < $o. Ebank in New =ork $ityF "19C1@191:, 19 1@19 9) 7i0e $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "%0tober L, 191:@,ar0* 14, 19 C) President o2 +armers 3rust < Loan $o. "19 1@19 9) 7i0e President o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "191D@1919) .ssistant $*ie2 o2 (ta22, 9.(. !rd .rmy ".rmy o2 %00upation) "Nov. 191:@/an. 1919) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "191L@19!9) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "1:9:@19!:) $lass B "191D@19 L) and $lass $ "19 1@19!D) Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 P*iladelp*ia $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $o. "19 @19!9, 19D @19DD) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 &adio $orporation o2 .meri0a "1919@19 9) $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 !@19 4) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 Westing*ouse -le0tri0 $orp. "191 @19 1) President o2 Westing*ouse -le0tri0 $orp. "1911@19 9) President o2 3e6a0o Eoil 0ompanyF ",ar0* !, 19 C@ ,ar0* 1L, 19 L) President o2 Deere < $o. "19C1@19 :) President o2 National Bis0uit $ompany ENabis0oF "1911@19 9) President o2 ,0Graw@?ill $o., 'n0. Es0*ool te6tbook publis*ing 0ompanyF "1911@19 :) .sso0iate -ditor o2 The New Yor Times "19 1@19!1) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19 9) President o2 .meri0an $ar < +oundry $o. "191L@19 ) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 &emington .rms $o. 9.(. (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury ",ar0* 4, 19!!@De0ember !1, 19!!) ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19 1@1944) 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "19 1@0.19 9) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 @19!:) President o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!!) 9.(. .mbassador to Great Britain "De0ember 1:, 191:@,ar0* 9, 19 1) ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "191D@19D!) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19D!) 9nder 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate "1919@19 C) ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19C9@194!) ,ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "1911@19D9) ,ember o2 $urtis, ,allet@Prevost, $olt < ,osle Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1::9@19 L) ,ember o2 $urtis, ,allet@Prevost < $olt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:91@19D:) ,ember o2 de+orest Brot*ers Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9!@19! ) ,ember o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4) ,ember o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191D@19!L) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!L) ,ember o2 $otton < +ranklin Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 1@19 9) ,ember o2 Webb, Patterson < ?adley Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 @19 9) ,ember o2 $urtis, +osdi0k, and Belknap Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 C@19!L) 3rustee o2 3*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 1@19D:) ,ember o2 $oudert Bros. Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:94@1944) ,ember o2 Duane, ,orris < ?e0ks0*er Elaw 2irm in P*iladelp*iaF "19CD@19D4) Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "19 D@19D4) 9.(. .mbassador to 'mperial /apan "1911@19 C) President o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19 4) President o2 3*e .meri0an (o0iety o2 'nternational Law "19C1@19 D) (e0retary o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19DC)

19 1,19 L@19DC 19 1@19!9 19 1@19!: 19 1@19 L 19 1@19DC 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 1@19 1 1@19! 1@19!L 1@19! 1@19L 1@19!! 1@19DC

19 1@19 9

19 1@1944

+rank L. Polk .llen Wardwell /o*n +oster Dulles +. ;ingsbury $urtis (evero ,allet@Prevost ?enry W. de +orest ?enry Waters 3a2t George W. Wi0kers*am /osep* P. $otton 7anderbilt Webb &aymond B. +osdi0k +rederi0 &. $oudert &oland (. ,orris

19 1@19D! 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 1@194! 1@1949 1@19!L 1@19D: 1@19!: 1@19DC 1@19!L

19 1@19 9 19 1@1944 19 1@1911 19 @19DC 19 1@19! , 19!:@D4

4rgani.ation E-e#utivesB -li*u &oot 19 1@19!L /ames Brown (0ott 19 1@19DC

$ordenio .. (everan0e William $*ur0* %sborn /ames G. ,0Donald .lbert (*aw (tep*en P. Duggan

19 19 19 19 19

1@19 4 1@19D1 1@19L! 1@19D1 1@194C

/erome D. Greene 3. $oleman du Pont David +. ?ouston Paul ,. Warburg Norman ?. Davis 'saia* Bowman W*itney ?. (*epardson William &. (*ep*erd Paul D. $ravat* -dwin +. Gay )ollege ,rofessorsB William ?.P. +aun0e -lmer -. Brown ?arry .. Gar2ield William .. Neilson (idney -. ,e8es .. Wellington 3aylor $*arles ?. ?askins -.&... (eligman (amuel ,0$une Lindsay ?enry &. (eager $live Day $*arles (eymour P*ilip ,ars*all Brown .llyn .. =oung .r0*ibald $ary $oolidge $overnment 4ffi#ialsB ?ug* Gibson .lanson B. ?oug*ton $*arles -vans ?ug*es .ndrew W. ,ellon ?erbert ?oover Elder "tatesmenB -dward ,. ?ouse Gen. 3asker ?. Bliss %s0ar (. (traus ?enry ,orgent*au .bram '. -lkus

19 1@194C 19 1@19 4 19 1@19 : 19 1@19! 19 19 19 19 19 19 1@19DD 1@194C 1@19LL 1@19!D 1@19DC 1@19DL

3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191:@19 4) $*airman o2 3*e -0onomi0 $lub o2 New =ork "19 @19 D) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +oreign Poli0y .sso0iation, 'n0. "1919@19!!) ,ember o2 t*e General -du0ation Board "19C @19 9) Dire0tor o2 'nstitute o2 'nternational -du0ation "1919@19DL) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19 C@19D1) Dire0tor o2 t*e National $ommittee 2or ,ental ?ygiene Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@194C) Pro2essor o2 Politi0al (0ien0e at $ollege o2 t*e $ity o2 New =ork "1:9L@19 :) ,ember o2 Lee, ?igginson < $o. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191:@19! ) 3reasurer o2 .meri0an (o0ial ?ygiene .sso0iation "19 C@19! ) 3rustee o2 t*e General -du0ation Board "191 @19!9) 9.(. (enator "&epubli0an Party@Delaware> 19 1@19 , 19 4@19 :) President o2 -. '. du Pont de Nemours $ompany "19C @1914) ,ember o2 t*e &epubli0an National $ommittee "19C:@19!C) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19 1) (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19 C@19 1) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19! ) 7i0e $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve ".ugust 1C, 191L@.ugust 9, 191:) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DD) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@194C) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19LL) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19 1) 7i0e President o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!!) 3reasurer and (e0retary o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!!) President o2 New Yor !"ening Post "19 C@19 !) President o2 Brown 9niversity "1:99@19 9) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "191C@19!C) President o2 New =ork 9niversity "1911@19!!) President o2 Williams $ollege "19C:@19!D) President o2 (mit* $ollege EwomenAs 0ollegeF "1911@19!9) President o2 $ollege o2 t*e $ity o2 New =ork "191D@19 1) Dean o2 Graduate (0*ool o2 Business .dministration at New =ork 9niv. "1919@19DD) Dean o2 Graduate (0*ool o2 .rts and (0ien0e at ?arvard 9niversity "19C:@19 D) ,07i0kar Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy and +inan0e at $olumbia 9niv. "19CD@19!1) Pro2essor o2 (o0ial Legislation at $olumbia 9niversity "19C1@19!9) Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at $olumbia 9niversity "19C4@19!C) ;no6 Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "19 @19!L) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "191:@19!1) Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at Prin0eton 9niversity "1914@19 9) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at ?arvard 9niversity "19 C@19 1) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at ?arvard 9niversity "19C:@19 :) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19 :) -ditor o2 #oreign $ffairs maga8ine "19 @19 :) 9nited (tates ,inister to Poland ",ay , 1919@,ay !, 19 D) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $orning Glass Works "191:@19D1) 9nited (tates .mbassador to Germany "19 @19 4) 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate "19 1@19 4) (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19 1@19! ) (e0retary o2 $ommer0e "19 1@19 :) $o@+ounder o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations> powerbroker 2rom .ustin, 3e6as .rmy $*ie2 o2 (ta22 "1911@191:) 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19 L) 9.(. (e0retary o2 $ommer0e and Labor "19CL@19C9) 9.(. .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "191!@191L) 9.(. .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "191L@1911)

19 1@19 9 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 1@19!D 1@19D 1@19DL 1@19 : 1@19DL 1@19!1 1@19!9 1@19!9 1@19!C 1@1941 1@19L1 1@19DC 1@19 9 1@19 :

19 1@194D 19!C@19DC 19!C@19DL 19!!@19!L 19!:@19L 19 1@19!: 19 1@19!C 19 1@19 L 19 1@19DC 19 1@19D1

Note5 German /ewis* banker ,a6 Warburg, t*e *ead o2 ,.,. Warburg < $o. banking 2irm in ?amburg, Germany and dire0tor o2 '.G. +arben 0*emi0al 0ompany be2ore World War '', was t*e brot*er o2 Paul Warburg "7i0e $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve during World War ') and +eli6 Warburg.

?arvard 9niversity Graduates and 3*eir %00upation during t*e Beer ?all Puts0* in ,uni0*, Germany "November 9, 19 !) Government %22i0ials5 .lanson B. ?oug*ton "..B. 1::L) R 9.(. .mbassador to Germany ".pril , 19 @+ebruary 1, 19 4) &i0*ard Was*burn $*ild "..B. 19C!, LL.B. 19CL) R 9.(. .mbassador to 'taly "/uly :, 19 1@/anuary C, 19 D) &obert Woods Bliss "..B. 19CC) R 9.(. ,inister to (weden ".ugust :, 19 !@,ar0* 14, 19 1) /osep* $. Grew "..B. 19C ) R 9.(. ,inister to (wit8erland "November 1, 19 1@,ar0* , 19 D) ?. Per0ival Dodge "..B. 1:9 , LL.B. 1:94) R 9.(. ,inister to (erbia E=ugoslaviaF "1919@19 L) $*arles (tetson Wilson "..B. 1:91) R 9.(. ,inister to Bulgaria "19 1@19 :) Peter .ugustus /ay "..B. 19CC) R 9.(. ,inister to &omania "19 1@19 4) -dwin 7. ,organ "..B. 1:9C) R 9.(. .mbassador to Bra8il "191 @19!!) /o*n W. &iddle "B... 1::1) R 9.(. ,inister to .rgentina "19 @19 4) +ran0is Bowler ;eene "..B. 1::C) R 9.(. $onsul General in &ome, 'taly "1911@19 D) $*arles Boyd $urtis "..B. 19CC) R 9.(. $onsul General in ,uni0*, Germany "19 4@19 1) +ranklin ,ott Gunt*er "..B. 19C1) R $ounselor o2 t*e .meri0an -mbassy in &ome, 'taly "19 C@19 D) (tokeley W. ,organ "..B. 191L) R (e0retary o2 t*e 9.(. -mbassy at &iga, Latvia "19 @19 D) William P*illips "..B. 19CC) R 9nder (e0retary o2 (tate "19 @19 D) Leland ?arrison "..B. 19C1) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 (tate "19 @19 1) William &. $astle /r. "..B. 19CC) R $*ie2 o2 Division o2 Western -urope .22airs, 9.(. Department o2 (tate "19 1@19 1) Dwig*t +. Davis "..B. 19CC) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 War "19 !@19 4) 3*eodore &oosevelt /r. "..B. 19C:) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 t*e Navy "19 1@19 D) -liot Wadswort* "..B. 1:9:) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19 1@19 4) -dward Prentiss $ostigan "..B. 1:99) R ,ember o2 t*e 9nited (tates 3ari22 $ommission "1911@19 :) &obert %rr ?arris "B... 1:11) R 9.(. .ttorney 2or t*e Distri0t o2 ,assa0*usetts "19 1@19 D) ?erbert Putnam "..B. 1::!) R Librarian o2 $ongress "1:99@19!9) ?enry $abot Lodge (r. "..B. 1:11, LL.B. 1:1D, P*.D. 1:1L) R 9.(. (enator "&epubli0an Party@,assa0*usetts, ,ar0* D, 1:9!@Nov. 9, 19 D) +rederi0k ?ale "..B. 1:9L) R 9.(. (enator "&epubli0an Party@,aine, 1911@19D1) Peter G. Gerry "..B. 19C1) R 9.(. (enator "Demo0rati0 Party@&*ode 'sland, 1911@19 9> 19!4@19D1) ?enry W. ;eyes "..B. 1::1) R 9.(. (enator "&@New ?amps*ire, 1919@19!1) Ni0*olas Longwort* "..B. 1:91) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@%*io, 19C!@191!, 1914@19!1) (amuel -llswort* Winslow "..B. 1::4) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@,assa0*usetts, 191!@19 4) /o*n /a0ob &ogers "..B. 19CD, LL.B. 19C1) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@,assa0*usetts, 191!@19 4) /ames .mbrose Gallivan "..B. 1:::) R 9.(. $ongressman "Demo0rati0 Party@,assa0*usetts, 191D@19 :) +rederi0k William Dallinger "..B. 1:9!) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@,assa0*usetts, 1914@19 4, 19 L@19! ) George ?. 3ink*am "..B. 1:9D) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@,assa0*usetts, 1914@19D!) &obert Lu0e "..B. 1:: ) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@,assa0*usetts, 1919@19!4, 19!1@19D1) Louis .dams +rot*ing*am "..B. 1:9!, LL.B. 1:9L) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@,assa0*usetts, 19 1@19 :) Walter Warren ,agee "..B. 1::9) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@New =ork, 1914@19 1) ?amilton +is* "..B. 191C) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@New =ork, 19 C@19D4) %gden L. ,ills "B... 19CD> LL.B. 19C1) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@New =ork, 19 1@19 1) &obert Low Ba0on "..B. 19C1, LL.B. 191C) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@New =ork, ,ar0* D, 19 !@(eptember 1 , 19!:) &i0*ard Patri0k +reeman "..B. 1:91) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@$onne0ti0ut, 1914@19!!) %liver Wendell ?olmes /r. "..B. 1:L1, LL.B. 1:LL) R /usti0e o2 t*e 9.(. (upreme $ourt "19C @19! ) -dward 3. (an2ord "B...1::4, LL.B. 1::9) R /usti0e o2 t*e 9.(. (upreme $ourt "/anuary 9, 19 !@,ar0* :, 19!C) /ames ,adison ,orton /r. "..B. 1:91, LL.B. 1:9D) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 ,assa0*usetts "191 @19! ) /ames .rnold Lowell "..B. 1:91, LL.B. 1:9D) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 ,assa0*usetts "19 @19!!) Learned ?and "..B. 1:9!, LL.B. 1:9L) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e (out*ern Distri0t o2 New =ork "19C9@19 D) .ugustus Noble ?and "..B. 1:9C, LL.B. 1:9D) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e (out*ern Distri0t o2 New =ork "191D@19 1) George .lbert $arpenter "..B. 1:::, LL.B. 1:91) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Nort*ern Distri0t o2 'llinois E$*i0agoF "191C@19!!) ?ollis &ussell Bailey "..B. 1:11> LL.B. 1:1:) R $*airman o2 ,assa0*usetts Board o2 Bar -6aminers "19C!@19!1)> Demo0rat 3*omas $*arles %ABrien "..B. 19C:) R Distri0t .ttorney o2 (u22olk $ounty, ,assa0*usetts EBostonF "19 @19 1) +ran0is /osep* (way8e "..B. 1:19) R /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New /ersey "19C!@19 D) &obert Grant "..B. 1:1!, P*.D. 1:1L, LL.B. 1:19) R /udge o2 t*e Probate $ourt and $ourt o2 'nsolven0y 2or (u22olk $ounty EBostonF, ,assa0*usetts "1:9!@19 !)> ,ember o2 (a00o@7an8etti $ommission "19 1) Bankers5 .ugust Belmont /r. "..B. 1:1D) R ?ead o2 .ugust Belmont < $o., bankers, New =ork $ity "1:9C@19 D) /o*n Pierpont S/a0kT ,organ /r. "..B. 1::9) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "191!@19D!)> son o2 banker /.P. ,organ 3*omas W. Lamont "..B. 1:9 ) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1911@19D:)> %verseer o2 ?arvard 9niversity "191 @19 4) George W*itney "..B. 19C1) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o., 'n0. "19 C@1944) /unius (. ,organ "..B. 191D) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1919@19DC)> grandson o2 banker /.P. ,organ Walter -. (a0*s "..B. 19CD) R ,ember o2 Goldman, (a0*s < $o. "191C@1949) Waddill $at0*ings "..B. 19C1> LL.B. 19CD) R ,ember o2 Goldman, (a0*s < $o. "191:@19!C)> Dire0tor o2 Warner Brot*ers Pi0tures, 'n0. /ames ?. Perkins "..B. 1:9:) R President o2 +armers 3rust < Loan $o. "19 1@19 9) George (altonstall ,um2ord "..B. 1::1) R President o2 .tlanti0 National Bank EBostonF "19 !@19! ) &ussell Green +essenden "..B. 1:9C) R President and $*airman o2 .meri0an 3rust $ompany Ebanking 2irm in BostonF "19C1@19 1) Bernard Walton 3ra22ord "..B. 1:9!) R 7i0e President o2 +irst National Bank o2 Boston "191 @19 :) $*arles ?. (0*weppe "..B. 19C ) R Partner o2 Lee, ?igginson < $o. Ebanking 2irm in Boston#New =ork $'tyF "191!@19D1)

George $abot Lee "..B. 1:9D) R ,ember o2 Lee ?igginson < $o. "19CC@0.19!:) /erome D. Greene "..B. 1:9L) R ,ember o2 Lee, ?igginson < $o. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191:@19! )> 3reasurer o2 .meri0an (o0ial ?ygiene .sso0iation "19 C@19! ) +. .bbot Good*ue "..B. 19CL) R President o2 'nternational .00eptan0e Bank ENew =ork $ityF "19 1@19!1) &oger Pier0e "..B. 19CD) R 7i0e President o2 New -ngland 3rust $ompany "1919@19 1) /ames Paul Warburg "..B. 1911) R 7i0e President o2 'nternational .00eptan0e Bank ENew =ork $ityF "19 1@19 9)> son o2 /ewis* banker Paul ,. Warburg and nep*ew o2 /ewis* banker ,a6 ,. Warburg, *ead o2 ,.,. Warburg < 0o. banking 2irm in ?amburg, Germany -dmund Platt "..B. 1:::) R 7i0e $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "19 C@19!C) $*arles (. ?amlin "..B. 1::!) R ,ember o2 +ederal &eserve Board "191D@19!L) $*arles G. Was*burn "..B. 1::C) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 +ederal &eserve Bank o2 Boston "191D@19 :) 3*omas Prin0e Beal "..B. 1:L9) R $lass . Dire0tor o2 +ederal &eserve Bank o2 Boston "191D@19 !)> President o2 (e0ond National Bank o2 Boston "19 !@194C) .ugustus ?. 7ogel "..B. 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "191D@19 9) +rederi0 .. Delano "..B. 1::4) R $lass $ Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 &i0*mond "19 1@19!L) Businessmen5 &obert 3odd Lin0oln "..B. 1:LD) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 3*e Pullman $o. "1911@19 L)> son o2 2ormer 9.(. President .bra*am Lin0oln ?erbert $onrad Lakin "..B. 1:9D> LL.B. 1:9:) R President o2 $uba &ailroad "1919@19 4) P*ilip (to0kton "..B. 1:9L) R President o2 %ld $olony 3rust $o. EBostonF "191C@19!D) /o*n Weiss (tedman "..B. 19C ) R (e0ond 7i0e President o2 Prudential 'nsuran0e $o. "191:@19 D) $*arles -lliott Perkins /r. "..B. 19CD) R Dire0tor o2 $*i0ago, Burlington < Vuin0y &ailroad $o. "191D@19 :) Bayard +oster Pope "..B. 19C9) R Partner o2 Blodget < $o. "191:@19 1) Lawyers5 Woodward ?udson "..B. 1:19, LL.B. 1:: ) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 Boston < ,aine &ailroad "191L@191:, 1919@19 4) $*arles ,a07eag* "..B. 1::1) R General (oli0itor and .ssistant General $ounsel o2 9.(. (teel $orporation "19C1@19 4) -dmund Lin0oln Baylies "..B. 1:19, LL.B. 1:: ) R ,ember o2 $arter, Ledyard < ,ilburn Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CD@19 L) George &ublee "..B. 1:9C, LL.B. 1:94) R ,ember o2 $ovington, Burling < &ublee Elaw 2irm in Was*ington, D.$.F "19 1@0.19DL) (amuel .dams "..B. 1:9 ) R ,ember o2 .dams, +ollansbee, ?awley < (*orey Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "191!@19 4) /osep* P. $otton "..B. 1:9L> LL.B. 19CC) R ,ember o2 $otton < +ranklin Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 1@19 9) $*arles %liver Pengra "..B. 191 > LL.B. 191D) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 C@19LC) $*arles ,oor2ield (torey "..B. 191 > LL.B. 1914) R Partner o2 Peabody, Brown, &owley < (torey Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 C@1919) %rgani8ation -6e0utives and $ommunity %rgani8ers5 -rnst +ran8 SPut8iT ?an2staengl "..B. 19C9) R .dol2 ?itlerAs personal adviser> parti0ipated in t*e Beer ?all Puts0* wit* .dol2 ?itler +ranklin Delano &oosevelt "..B. 19CD) R %verseer o2 ?arvard 9niversity "1911@19 !) .usten G. +o6 "..B. 1:L9, LL.B. 1:11) R 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@0.19 9) /ames Brown (0ott "..B. 1:9C) R 3rustee and (e0retary o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19DC) &oger Nas* Baldwin "..B. 19CD) R +ounder and Dire0tor o2 .meri0an $ivil Liberties 9nion "1911@194C) ,oor2ield (torey "..B. 1:LL) R President o2 t*e National .sso0iation 2or t*e .dvan0ement o2 $olored People "N..$P) "191C@19 9) William -dward Burg*ardt Du Bois "..B. 1:9C, ..,. 1:91, P*.D. 1:94) R Dire0tor o2 Publi0ations, N..$P "191C@19! ) -lliot ?. Goodwin "..B. 1:94) R General (e0retary o2 t*e $*amber o2 $ommer0e, 9.(... "191 @19 C) %swald Garrison 7illard "..B. 1:9!) R -ditor and %wner o2 New Yor Nation "191:@19! ) +ran0is Gano Benedi0t "..B. 1:9!) R Dire0tor o2 Nutrition Laboratory o2 t*e $arnegie 'nstitution o2 Was*ington "19C1@19!1) $*arles Benedi0t Davenport "..B. 1::9, P*.D. 1:9 ) R Dire0tor o2 (tation 2or -6perimental -volution "19CD@19!D) and Dire0tor o2 -ugeni0s &e0ord %22i0e "191C@19!D) o2 $arnegie 'nstitution at $old (pring ?arbor, New =ork George .ngier Gordon "..B. 1::1) R ,inister o2 %ld (out* $*ur0* in Boston "1::D@19 1) -dward $ummings "..B. 1::!) R ,inister o2 (out* $ongregational $*ur0* in Boston "19CC@19 4) Per0y (ti0kney Grant "..B. 1::!, ..,. 1::L) R &e0tor o2 t*e $*ur0* o2 t*e .s0ension in New =ork $ity "1:9!@19 D) William Lawren0e "..B. 1:11) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 ,assa0*usetts "1:9!@19 L) P*ilip ,. &*inelander "..B. 1:91) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Pennsylvania "1911@19 !) /ames DeWol2 Perry "..B. 1:9 ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 &*ode 'sland "1911@19DL) ?erman Page "..B. 1:::) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (pokane, Was*ington "1914@19 !) $ollege .dministrators and Pro2essors5 .bbott Lawren0e Lowell "..B. 1:11, LL.B. 1::C) R President o2 ?arvard 9niversity "19C9@19!!) $*arles +ran0is .dams ''' "..B. 1:::, LL.B. 1:9 ) R 3reasurer o2 ?arvard 9niversity "1:9:@19 9)> great@great@grandson o2 Pres. /o*n .dams -dward ?i0kling Brad2ord "..B. 1:L9, ..,. 1:1 , ,.D. 1:1!) R Dean o2 ?arvard ,edi0al (0*ool "191 @19 L) Walla0e Brett Don*am "..B. 1:9:> LL.B. 19C1) R Dean o2 ?arvard Business (0*ool "1919@19D ) ?enry Wyman ?olmes "..B. 19C!) R Dean o2 ?arvard Graduate (0*ool o2 -du0ation "19 C@19DC) -ugene Wambaug* "..B. 1:1L, LL.B. 1::C) R Pro2essor o2 Law at ?arvard 9niversity "1:9 @19 4) /osep* ?enry Beale "..B. 1:: , LL.B. 1::1) R &oyall Pro2essor o2 Law at ?arvard 9niversity "191 @19!1) /ames &i0*ard /ewett "..B. 1::D) R Pro2essor o2 .rabi0 at ?arvard 9niversity "1911@19!!) 3*eodore William &i0*ards "..B. 1::L, P*.D. 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 $*emistry at ?arvard 9niversity "19C1@19 :) .r0*ibald $ary $oolidge "..B. 1::1) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at ?arvard 9niversity "19C:@19 :) Byron (atterlee ?urlbut "..B. 1::1) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at ?arvard 9niversity "19CL@19 9) /ames ?aug*ton Woods "..B. 1::1) R Pro2essor o2 P*ilosop*y at ?arvard 9niversity "191!@19!4) 'rving Babbitt "..B. 1::9) R Pro2essor o2 +ren0* Literature at ?arvard 9niversity "191 @19!!) $li22ord ?ers0*el ,oore "..B. 1::9) R Pro2essor o2 Latin at ?arvard 9niversity "19C4@19!1) William ,orse $ole "..B. 1:9C) R Pro2essor o2 .00ounting at ?arvard 9niversity "191L@19LC)

$*arles ?enry $onrad Wrig*t "..B. 1:91) R Pro2essor o2 +ren0* Language and Literature at ?arvard 9niversity "191!@19!L) /eremia* Denis ,att*ias +ord "..B. 1:9D, P*.D. 1:91) R Pro2essor o2 +ren0* and (panis* Languages at ?arvard 9niversity "19C1@19D!) Gregory Paul Ba6ter "..B. 1:9L, ..,. 1:91, P*.D. 1:99) R Pro2essor o2 $*emistry at ?arvard 9niversity "1914@19DD) /osep* Warren "..B. 1:91, LL.B. 19CC) R Pro2essor o2 Law at ?arvard 9niversity "191!@19D ) $*ester Noyes Greenoug* "..B. 1:9:, P*.D. 19CD) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at ?arvard 9niversity "1914@19!:) ?enry .. =eomans "..B. 19CC, LL.B. 19CD) R Pro2essor o2 Government at ?arvard 9niversity. "1911@19D!) William -rnest ?o0king "..B. 19C1, P*.D. 19CD) R Pro2essor o2 P*ilosop*y at ?arvard 9niversity "191D@19D!) &oger 'rving Lee "..B. 19C , ,.D. 19C4) R Pro2essor o2 ?ygiene at ?arvard 9niversity "191D@19 D) %liver ,it0*ell Wentwort* (prague "..B. 1:9D, ..,. 1:94, P*.D. 1:91) R -dmund $ogswell $onverse Pro2essor o2 Banking and +inan0e at ?arvard 9niversity "191!@19D1) Prin0e Lu0ien $ampbell "..B.1::L) R President o2 9niversity o2 %regon "19C @19 4) (idney -dward ,e8es "..B. 1:9C, ..,. 1:91, P*.D. 1:9!) R President o2 t*e $ity $ollege o2 New =ork "191D@19 1) William W. $om2ort "..B. 1:94, ..,. 1:9L, P*.D. 19C ) R President o2 ?aver2ord $ollege "1911@19DC) George 3*omas "..B. 1:9L) R President o2 9niversity o2 9ta* "19 1@19D1) .rt*ur L. Dean "..B. 19CC) R President o2 t*e 9niversity o2 ?awaii "191D@19 1) /osep* +ren0* /o*nson "..B. 1:1:) R Dean o2 (0*ool o2 $ommer0e, .00ounts and +inan0e at New =ork 9niversity "19C!@19 4) /o*n ?enry Wigmore "..B. 1::!, LL.B. 1::1) R Dean o2 Nort*western 9niversity (0*ool o2 Law "19C1@19 9) .l2red ?enry Lloyd "..B. 1::L, ..,. 1:::, P*.D. 1:9!) R Dean o2 t*e Graduate (0*ool at 9niversity o2 ,i0*igan "1914@19 1) ?enry Landes "..B. 1:91) R Dean o2 $ollege o2 (0ien0e at 9niversity o2 Was*ington "191 @19!L) .ndrew ?enry Patterson "..B. 1:9 ) R Dean o2 (0*ool o2 .pplied (0ien0e at 9niversity o2 Nort* $arolina "1911@19 :) $*arles &ussell Bardeen "..B. 1:9!) R Dean o2 9niversity o2 Wis0onsin (0*ool o2 ,edi0ine "19C1@19!4) +rederi0 Palmer /r. "..B. 19CC, ..,. 19CD, P*.D. 191!) R Dean o2 ?aver2ord $ollege "19C:@19 9) Leon $. ,ars*all "..B. 19C1) R Dean o2 $ollege o2 $ommer0e and .dministration at 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19C9@19 D) Warren .bner (eavey "..B. 19C , LL.B. 19CD) R Dean o2 t*e $ollege o2 Law at 9niversity o2 Nebraska "19 C@19 L) (tuart Daggett "..B. 19C!, P*.D. 19CL) R Dean o2 t*e $ollege o2 $ommer0e at 9niversity o2 $ali2ornia at Berkeley "19 C@19 1) ?enry $raig /ones "..B. 19C!, LL.B. 19CL) R Dean o2 (tate 9niversity o2 'owa (0*ool o2 Law "19 @19 9) &alp* ?ayward ;eniston "..B. 19CD, P*.D. 1911) R Dean o2 t*e Graduate (0*ool at $ornell 9niversity "19 !@19 4) -dward -verett ?ale "..B. 1::!) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at 9nion $ollege "1:94@19! ) /o*n %sborne (umner "..B. 1::1) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at ,assa0*usetts 'nstitute o2 3e0*nology "19C1@19!!) Wilder Dwig*t Ban0ro2t "..B. 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 P*ysi0al $*emistry at $ornell 9niversity "19C!@19!1) William /ulian .lbert Bliss "..B. 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 P*ysi0s at /o*ns ?opkins 9niversity "19C1@19 :) George ?erbert ,ead "..B. 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 P*ilosop*y at 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19C1@19!1) +rederi0k Green "..B. 1::9, LL.B. 1:9!) R Pro2essor o2 Law at 9niversity o2 'llinois "19CD@0.19 :) William Ni0kerson Bates "..B. 1:9C, ..,. 1:91, P*.D. 1:9!) R Pro2essor o2 Greek at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "19C1@19!9) &eynolds Driver Brown "..B. 1:9C) R Pro2essor o2 Law at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "1:91@19!L) $urtis ?idden Page "..B. 1:9C, ..,. 1:91, P*.D. 1:9D) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* Language and Literature at Dartmout* $ollege "1911@19DL) William 3enney Brewster "..B. 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at $olumbia 9niversity "19CL@19D!) &alp* Waldo Gi22ord "..B. 1:9 , LL.B. 19C1) R Pro2essor o2 Law at $olumbia 9niversity "191D@19 4) &obert ,orss Lovett "..B. 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19C9@19!L) .mos (*artle ?ers*ey "..B. 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 Politi0al (0ien0e and 'nternational Law at 'ndiana 9niversity "19C4@19!!) Lindsay 3odd Damon "..B. 1:9D) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at Brown 9niversity "1911@19!L) .rt*ur Lyon $ross "..B. 1:94, ..,. 1:9L, P*.D. 1:99) R ?udson Pro2essor o2 -nglis* ?istory at 9niversity o2 ,i0*igan "191L@19DC) ?arry .ugustus Bigelow "..B. 1:9L, LL.B. 1:99) R Pro2essor o2 Law at 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19C9@19!9) &os0oe /ames ?am "..B. 1:9L) R Pro2essor o2 German at Bowdoin $ollege "19C9@19D4) Gilbert Newton Lewis "..B. 1:9L, P*.D. 1:99) R Pro2essor o2 P*ysi0al $*emistry at 9niversity o2 $ali2ornia at Berkeley "191 @19DL) -dward Lee 3*orndike "..B. 1:9L, ..,. 1:91) R Pro2essor o2 -du0ational Psy0*ology at $olumbia 9niversity "19CD@19DC) /onas 7iles "..B. 1:9L, ..,. 1:91, P*.D. 19C1) R Pro2essor o2 .meri0an ?istory at 9niversity o2 ,issouri "19C1@19D4) &oswell Parker .ngier "..B. 1:91, P*.D. 19C!) R .ssistant Pro2essor "19C:@1911) and Pro2essor "1911@19D1) o2 Psy0*ology at =ale 9niversity -dward (ampson 3*urston "..B. 1:9:, LL.B. 19C1) R Pro2essor o2 Law at =ale 9niversity "1919@19 9) William (tearns Davis "..B. 19CC, P*.D. 19C4) R Pro2essor o2 -uropean ?istory at 9niversity o2 ,innesota "19C9@19 1) /ames Walter Goldt*wait "..B. 19C , P*.D. 19CL) R Pro2essor o2 Geology at Dartmout* $ollege "1911@19D1) -dmund ,orris ,organ /r. "..B. 19C , LL.B. 19C4) R Pro2essor o2 Law at =ale 9niversity "1911@19 4) ,onte2iore ,orde0ai Lemann "..B. 19C!, LL.B. 19CL) R Pro2essor o2 Law at 3ulane 9niversity "191C@19 9) David .. ,0$abe "..B. 19CD, P*.D. /o*ns ?opkins 19C9) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at Prin0eton 9niversity "1919@194 ) -dgar Noble Dur2ee "..B. 19CD) R Pro2essor o2 Law at 9niversity o2 ,i0*igan "1914@194:) 'saia* Leo (*ar2man "..B. 19C1, LL.B. 191C) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at 9niversity o2 ,i0*igan "191D@0.194D) ?arold 'nman Gosline "..B. 19C9, ,.D. 191D) R Pro2essor o2 ,ental ?ygiene at Baylor 9niversity E3e6asF "19 !@19 L) .bbott Payson 9s*er "..B. 19CD, ..,. 19CL, P*.D. 191C) R .ssistant Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at ?arvard 9niversity "19 @19 4)

=ale 9niversity Graduates and 3*eir %00upation during t*e Beer ?all Puts0* in ,uni0*, Germany "November 9, 19 !) Bankers5 +rank .lts0*ul "B... 19C:) R Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19D4) &ussell $. Le22ingwell "B... 1:99) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 !@194C) 3*omas $o0*ran "B... 1:9D) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19!L) ,ortimer Norton Bu0kner "B... 1:94, (<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $o. "19 1@19D ) (amuel &. Bertron "B... 1::4, (<B 1::4) R President o2 Bertron, Gris0om < $ompany, 'n0., international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:) ,ars*all /ewell Dodge "B... 1:9:, (<; 1:9:) R Partner o2 Bertron, Gris0om < $ompany, 'n0., international 2inan0iers "19C1@19!C) ?arold (tanley "B... 19C:, (<B 19C:) R 7i0e President o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. o2 New =ork "191L@19 :) ?arry Payne W*itney "B... 1:9D, (<B 1:9D) R ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. o2 New =ork "1:99@19!C) Per0y &o0ke2eller "B... 19CC, (<B 19CC) R ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. o2 New =ork "1914@19!C) W. .verell ?arriman "B... 191!, (<B 191!) R ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. o2 New =ork "191L@19D1) Boylston .dams 3ompkins "B... 1914, (<; 1914) R 7i0e President o2 Bankers 3rust $o. "19 1@1944) ?arry -. Ward "B... 19C1) R President o2 'rving 3rust $o. "1919@19D )> $*airman o2 'rving 3rust $o. "19D @19D9) .l2red Lee Loomis "B... 19C9) R 7i0e President o2 Bonbrig*t < $o. "1919@19!!) +ran0is Ward Paine "B... 191C) R ,ember o2 Paine, Webber < $o. Einvestment banking 2irm in BostonF "1919@19DC) .l2red L. .iken "B... 1:91) R $*airman o2 t*e board "19 !@19 D) and President "191:@19 !) o2 National (*awmut Bank in Boston Wilson Gordon Wing "B... 19C!) R President o2 Providen0e 'nstitution 2or (avings Ebank in Providen0e, &*ode 'slandF "19 @19DD) .l2red Lawren0e &ipley "B... 1:1:, (<; 1:1:) R President o2 ,er0*ants National Bank o2 Boston "1911@19 9)> $lass . Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 Boston "19 !@19!1) George L. ?arrison "B... 191C, (<B 191C) R Deputy Governor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 C@19 :) Pierre /ay "B... 1:9 , (<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "191D@19 L) /o*n Perrin "B... 1:19, (<B 1:19) R $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 (an +ran0is0o "191D@19 4) (tan2ord 3appan $rapo "B... 1::L, (<B 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "19 @19!:) &oss P. Wrig*t "P*.B. 1:9L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $leveland "1911@19D9) Businessmen5 /ames $. .u0*in0loss "B... 19C:, (<; 19C:) R ,ember o2 t*e board o2 governor o2 t*e New =ork (to0k -60*ange "19 1@19!:) -dwin ,. ?err "P*.B. 1::D) R President o2 Westing*ouse -le0tri0 < ,anu2a0turing $o. "1911@19 9) &obert W. ?untington /r. "B... 1::9, (<; 1::9) R President o2 $onne0ti0ut General Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. "19C1@19!L) ,organ B. Brainard "B... 19CC, LL.B. 19C!) R President o2 .etna Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. E?art2ord, $onne0ti0utF "19 @1941) Gilbert $olgate "B... 1::!) R President o2 $olgate < $ompany "19 C@19 4) ?oward ?ein8 "B... 19CC) R President o2 ?./. ?ein8 $o. "1919@19D1) +air2a6 ?arrison "B... 1:9C, (<B 1:9C) R President o2 (out*ern &ailway $o. "191!@19!1) .s*bel Barney Newell "B... 1:9C, (<; 1:9C) R President o2 3oledo 3erminal &ailroad $ompany "191D@194C) Louis Warren ?ill "P*.B. 1:9!) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 Great Nort*ern &ailway E(t. Paul, ,innesotaF "191 @19 9) $*arles Davies /ones "B... 1:9!, (<; 1:9!) R President o2 $in0innati Gas < -le0tri0 $ompany "1914@19 :) (olomon .lbert (mit* "B... 1:99) R President o2 Nort*ern 3rust $o. o2 $*i0ago "191D@1941) $laren0e $li22ord ?armstad "B... 1:9!) R 3reasurer o2 3itle, Guarantee < 3rust $ompany Ebusiness 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19 D) George .rt*ur ?urd "B... 1:9C) R President o2 3*e ,ortgage@Bond $ompany o2 New =ork Ebusiness 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191C@19 9) &i0*ard ,. ?urd "B... 1:::, (<B 1:::) R President o2 Lawyers ,ortgage $orporation E0ompany in New =ork $ityF "19C!@19!!) /ames Norman ?ill "B... 1:9!) R Dire0tor o2 $*ase National Bank o2 New =ork Elater $*ase ,an*attan BankF "191L@19! ), dire0tor o2 3*e 3e6as $ompany E3e6a0oF "191!@19! )
Lawyers5 /o*n .nson Garver "B... 1:14, (<; 1:14) R Partner "1::D@191:) and (enior Partner "191:@19!L) o2 (*earman < (terling $*aun0ey Brewster Garver "B... 19C:, (<; 19C:) R Partner o2 (*earman < (terling "1911@191!) ?enry Waters 3a2t "B... 1::C, (<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1:99@19D4) George $oggill "B... 1::9, (<; 1::9) R ,ember o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "191:@19!4) Walbridge (mit* 3a2t "B... 19C1) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1911@1941) P*ilip G. Bartlett "B... 1::1, (<B 1::1) R Partner o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett "1:9C@19!1) Gra*am (umner "B... 1:91, (<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19CD@19DL) 3*omas D. 3*a0*er "B... 19CD, (<B 19CD) R Partner o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett "191D@19 4, 19!!@19D!) ?oward ,ans2ield "B... 1:11, (<B 1:11) R (enior Partner o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19C:@19!:) ?enry De+orest Baldwin "B... 1::4, (<B 1::4) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19CC@19D1) .llen Wardwell "B... 1:94, (<; 1:94) R ,ember o2 Davis, Polk < Wardwell "19C9@194!) Lansing P. &eed "B... 19CD, (<B 19CD) R ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed "1914@19!1) ?enry L. (timson "B... 1:::, (<B 1:::) R $ounsel o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "1:91@19CL, 191!@19 1, 19!!@19DC, 19D4@194C) George &oberts "B... 19C4, LL.B. ?arvard 19C:) R Partner o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "191D@19L:) .llen 3. ;lots "B... 19C9, (<B 19C9) R ,ember o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "19 1@19L4) Douglas ,a6well ,o22at "B... 19C!, LL.B. ?arvard 19C1) R Partner o2 $ravat*, (waine < ,oore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191!@194L) $*arles W*eeler Pierson "B... 1::L, (<B 1::L) R ,ember o2 .le6ander < Green Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CC@19 9) ?enry W*eeler de +orest "B... 1:1L, (<; 1:1L) R ,ember o2 de+orest Brot*ers Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9!@19! ) +rederi0k ;ingsbury $urtis "B... 1::D) R ,ember o2 $urtis, ,allet@Prevost, $olt < ,osle Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1::9@19 L) ?arris Duns0omb $olt "B... 1::D, LL.B. $olumbia 1::L) R ,ember o2 $urtis, ,allet@Prevost < $olt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF> died in 1949 .llen Wardner -varts "B... 1:L9) R ,ember o2 -varts, $*oate < (*erman Eand prede0essor 2irmsF "1:1D@19!9) 3*omas 3ownsend (*erman "B... 1:1D, LL.B. $olumbia 1:1L) R ,ember o2 -varts, $*oate < (*erman Eand prede0essor 2irmsF "1:14@19!1)> great@ grandson o2 &oger (*erman ?enry Burrall .nderson "B... 1::4, (<; 1::4) R Partner o2 .nderson < .nderson Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9:@19 :) /ames &o0kwell (*e22ield "B... 1::1, (<; 1::1) R (enior Partner o2 (*e22ield and Betts Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19!:) ?erbert Parsons "B... 1:9C, (<; 1:9C) R ,ember o2 Parsons, $losson < ,0llvaine Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:94@19 4) ?enry Burr Barnes, /r. "B... 1:9!, (<; 1:9!) R Partner o2 ,oen < Dwig*t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19 :)

/o*n &ogers ?alsey, /r. "B... 1::D, (<; 1::D) R ,ember o2 ?alsey, ;iernan < %A;ee22e Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191D@19 :) .s*bel Parmelee +it0* "B... 1:9:) R ,ember o2 +it0*, ,ott < Grant Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CD@19 L) Walter +rederi0k $arter "B... 1:94, (<B 1:94) R ,ember o2 ?ug*es, (0*urman < Dwig*t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9:@19!L) 7anderbilt Webb "B... 191!, (<; 191!) R ,ember o2 Webb, Patterson < ?adley Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 @19 9) /o*n Loomer ?all "B... 1:9D, LL.B. 1:9L, (<B 1:9D) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) William +rederi0k Poole "B... 1:91, (<B 1:91) R Partner o2 $urtin, Poole < .llen Elaw 2irm in BostonF "1914@19 L) $*arles ?ump*rey ?amill "B... 1:9C, (<; 1:9C) R ,ember o2 &osent*al, ?amill < Wormser Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19CL@19D1) William Browne ?ale "B... 1:9:) R Partner o2 Wilson < ,0'lvaine Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "1919@19DD) 'saa0 ?enry ,ayer "B... 1::D) R (enior ,ember o2 ,ayer, ,eyer, .ustrian < Platt Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19 @19L1) +rederi0 Burn*am "B... 19C ) R Partner o2 ,ayer, ,eyer, .ustrian < Platt Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "1911@19D ) &obert .. 3a2t "B... 191C, (<B 191C) R ,ember o2 3a2t, (tettinius < ?ollister Elaw 2irm in $in0innati, %*ioF "19 !@19!9) Dean G. .0*eson "B... 1914, (<; 1914) R ,ember o2 $ovington < Burling Elaw 2irm in Was*ington, D.$.F "19 1@19!!, 19!D@19D1) (amuel ;nig*t "B... 1::1, (<B 1::1) R ,ember o2 $*ristin, ;nig*t, Boland < $*nstin Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "191:@19D!) William (inger ,oor*ead "B... 19CL, (<B 19CL) R ,ember o2 ,oor*ead < ;no6 Elaw 2irm in Pittsburg*F "1911@194 ) $*arles P. ?owland "B... 1:91) R ,ember o2 &us*more, Bisbee < (tern Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 1@19 4)> ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 -nglis*@(peaking 9nion o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19 C@19 4) Nat*aniel 3aylor Guernsey "B... 1::1, LL.B 1::!) R General $ounsel o2 .meri0an 3elegrap* < 3elep*one $o. ENew =ork $ityF "191D@19 L) &obert Weeks de +orest "B... 1:1C, (<; 1:1C) R General $ounsel o2 $entral &ailroad o2 New /ersey "1:1D@19 D) Louis ?ood "B... 1:1:) R General $ounsel o2 +idelity ,utual 3rust $ompany ENewark, New /erseyF "191D@19! ) Guy Wellman "B... 1:99) R .sso0iate General $ounsel o2 (tandard %il $ompany o2 New /ersey E-66onF "19 1@19!4) George ,ars* /udd "B... 1::1) R (e0retary and .ssistant General $ounsel 2or .meri0an Brake (*oe < +oundry $ompany "191D@19! ) &alp* -rnest &ogers "B... 19C1) R (e0retary, 3reasurer, and General $ounsel o2 Wit*erbee, (*erman < $ompany Eiron ore and pig iron, New =ork $ityF "1911@19 L) Government %22i0ials5 William ?oward 3a2t "B... 1:1:, (<B 1:1:) R $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e 9.(. (upreme $ourt "19 1@19!C)> President o2 t*e -nglis*@(peaking 9nion o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19 1@19!C) William 'rwin Grubb "B... 1::!) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Nort*ern Distri0t o2 .labama "19C9@19!4) Wilbur +ranklin Boot* "B... 1::D, LL.B. 1:::, (<B 1::D) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 ,innesota "191D@19 4) ?enry $lay ,0Dowell "B... 1::D, (<; 1::D) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Western Distri0t o2 7irginia "19C1@19!1) William Nelson &unyon "B... 1:9 , (<; 1:9 ) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 New /ersey "/an. 1L, 19 !@Nov. 9, 19!1) /o*n +oster (ymes "P*.B. 19CC) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 $olorado "19 @194C) -rnest ;naebel "B... 1:9D, LL.B. 1:9L) R 9.(. (upreme $ourt &eporter o2 De0isions "191L@19DD) -dward Lauren0e (mit* "B... 1:91) R 9.(. .ttorney 2or t*e Distri0t o2 $onne0ti0ut "19 C@19 !) ?enry ?astings $urran "B... 1:9:) R 9.(. $ommissioner o2 'mmigration at -llis 'sland, New =ork "19 !@19 L) /o*n Ball %sborne "B... 1::9) R 9.(. $onsul@General in Genoa, 'taly "19 1@19 L) William ?olt Gale "P*.B. 1::4) R 9.(. $onsul General in ?ong ;ong EBritis* -mpireF "19 C@19 D) George ;ennet* Donald "B... 191 ) R 9.(. $onsul in /o*annesburg, (out* .2ri0a "19 @19 :) ?arold ?. 3ittmann /r. "B... 191L) R (e0retary o2 t*e 9.(. -mbassy in Paris, +ran0e "19 1@19 4) Lauren0e ?arper Norton "B... 191C) R 3*ird (e0retary o2 t*e 9.(. -mbassy in Paris, +ran0e "19 1@19 D) Garrard B. Winston "B... 19CD) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "/uly 9, 19 !@November 19, 19 !) William Warner ?oppin "B... 19C1) R .ssistant 9.(. .ttorney General in 0*arge o2 0ustoms 0ases "19 1@19 4) +rank Boswort* Brandegee "B... 1::4) R 9.(. (enator "&@$onne0ti0ut, 19C4@19 D) LeBaron Brad2ord $olt "B... 1:L:) R 9.(. (enator "&@&*ode 'sland, 191!@19 D) /ames Wol0ott Wadswort* /r. "B... 1:9:) R 9.(. (enator "&@New =ork, 1914@19 1) (elden Palmer (pen0er "B... 1::D) R 9.(. (enator "&@,issouri, 191:@19 4) /osep* ,. ,0$ormi0k "B... 19CC) R 9.(. (enator "&@'llinois, 1919@19 4) 3*omas +ran0is Bayard /r. "B... 1:9C) R 9.(. (enator "D@Delaware, 19 @19 9) .lva B. .dams "B... 1:9L) R 9.(. (enator "D@$olorado, ,ay 11, 19 !@November !C, 19 D, 19! @19D1) /o*n V. 3ilson "B... 1:91) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@$onne0ti0ut, 19C9@191!, 1914@19! ) ,errill ,oores "B... 1:1:) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@'ndiana, 1914@19 4) +rederi0k &eimold Le*lba0* "B... 1:91) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@New /ersey, 1914@19!1) (0*uyler ,erritt "B... 1:1!, (<; 1:1!) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@$onne0ti0ut, 1911@19!1, 19!!@19!1) William Newell 7aile "B... 1:9:) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@$olorado, 1919@19 1) Patri0k Brett %A(ullivan "B... 19C:) R 9.(. $ongressman "Demo0rat@$onne0ti0ut, 19 !@19 4) /ames ,0Devitt ,agee "B... 1:99, (<B 1:99) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@Pennsylvania, 19 !@19 1) &i0*ard (teere .ldri0* "B... 19CL) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@&*ode 'sland, 19 !@19!!) Parker $orning "B... 1:94) R 9.(. $ongressman "Demo0rat@New =ork, 19 !@19!1) /o*n 3aber "B... 19C ) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@New =ork, 19 !@19L!) Gi22ord Pin0*ot "B... 1::9, (<B 1::9) R Governor o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1, 19!1@19!4) George W. Woodru22 "B... 1::9> (<B 1::9) R .ttorney General o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1) .lmet +ran0is /enks "B... 1:14, (<B 1:14) R /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New =ork "1:9:@19 D) /o*n Pro0tor $larke "B... 1:1:) R /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New =ork "19C1@19 L) $*arles Brown (ears "B... 1:9 > (<; 1:9 ) R /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New =ork "191:@19DC) (ylvester Baker (adler "B... 1:9L) R /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 Pennsylvania "19 1@19!1) Lu0ien +. Burpee "B... 1:19> (<B 1:19) R /udge o2 $onne0ti0ut (upreme $ourt o2 -rrors "19 1@19 D) George Wakeman W*eeler "B... 1::1, LL.B. 1::!) R $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e $onne0ti0ut (upreme $ourt o2 -rrors "19 C@19!C) ?iram Bing*am ''' "B... 1:9:) R Lieutenant Governor o2 $onne0ti0ut "19 @19 D) .l2red N. P*illips "B... 1911) R ,ayor o2 (tam2ord, $onne0ti0ut "19 !@19 D, 19 1@19 :, 19!4@19!L) ?arrison ?ewitt "B... 1:91) R $orporation $ounsel o2 New ?aven, $onne0ti0ut "+ebruary@,ay 191:, 19 !@19 4) /o*n ?enry ;irk*am "B... 1::1) R $orporation $ounsel o2 New Britain, $onne0ti0ut "19 1@19!!) /o*n Gardner 3al0ott "B... 1:94) R ,ember o2 $onne0ti0ut (tate Board o2 -du0ation "1919@19 9) Walter Deyo ?ood "B... 1:9D) R ,ember o2 $onne0ti0ut (tate Board o2 -du0ation "1919@19!4) /ulian W*eeler $urtiss "B... 1:19, (<; 1:19) R ,ember o2 $onne0ti0ut (tate Board o2 -du0ation "1919@19!1) .rnon .ugustus .iling "B... 1:9L, LL.B. 1:99) R ,ember o2 New ?aven Board o2 -du0ation "19 @19 9) +ran0is Parsons "B... 1:9!, (<B 1:9!) R ,ember o2 ?art2ord Board o2 -du0ation "19C1@19C:, 19 1@19 D)

-dwin +. (weet "B... 1:11, (<B 1:11) R ,ember o2 t*e Board o2 -du0ation o2 Grand &apids, ,i0*igan "1:99@19CL, 19 !@19 L) /o*n Baker ?ollister "B... 1911) R ,ember o2 $in0innati Board o2 -du0ation "19 1@19 9) 3*omas Warrington Gosling "B... 1:9D) R (uperintendent o2 (0*ools o2 ,adison, Wis0onsin "19 1@19 :) +. 3rubee Davison "B... 191:, (<B 191:) R ,ember o2 t*e New =ork (tate .ssembly "19 @19 L) /ournalists5 -dward .nt*ony Brad2ord "B... 1:1!, (<; 1:1!) R ,ember o2 t*e sta22 o2 The New Yor Times "1:1D@19 :) /osep* ,edill Patterson "B... 19C1, (<; 19C1) R $o@-ditor and Publis*er o2 The %hicago Tribune "191D@19 4) ?enry &. Lu0e "B... 19 C, (<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 3ime, 'n0. "19 !@19LD)> 2ounder o2 Time and Life maga8ines William ?. $owles "B... 1::1, (<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL) $*arles ?opkins $lark "B... 1:11, (<B 1:11) R President and -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 (artford %ourant "1:9C@19 L) .lbert Lee "B... 1:91) R ,anager o2 2oreign editions o2 )ogue maga8ine "1919@19!!) BenJamin ?arris .nt*ony "B... 1::L, (<B 1::L) R Dire0tor o2 t*e .sso0iated Press "19 !@19! ) ,al0olm W. Davis "B... 1911) R ,anaging -ditor o2 %ur World "19 @19 D) $ollege Pro2essors5 David ;inley "B... 1::D) R President o2 9niversity o2 'llinois "19 C@19!C) Paul Dwig*t ,oody "B... 19C1) R President o2 ,iddlebury $ollege "19 1@19D ) George $*ase "B... 1:1C, valedi0torian) R Dean o2 New =ork Law (0*ool "1:91@19 D) William Di0k $utter "B... 1:99) R Dean o2 New =ork Post Graduate ,edi0al (0*ool "19 !@19 :) Warren .ustin .dams "B... 1::L, P*.D. 1:94) R Pro2essor o2 German at Dartmout* $ollege "19CD@19DD) .lbert Beebe W*ite "B... 1:9!, P*.D. 1:9:) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at 9niversity o2 ,innesota "19C1@19DC) $*arles $*eney ?yde "B... 1:94) R Pro2essor o2 Law at Nort*western 9niversity Law (0*ool "19C1@19 4) Ni0kolaus Louis -ngel*ardt "B... 19C!) R Pro2essor o2 -du0ation at $olumbia 9niversity 3ea0*ers $ollege "19 1@19D ) George Was*ington Patterson ''' "B... 1::D) R Pro2essor o2 -ngineering ,e0*ani0s at 9niversity o2 ,i0*igan "1914@19!C) .l2red Newton &i0*ards "B... 1:91, P*.D. $olumbia 19C1) R Pro2essor o2 P*arma0ology at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "191C@19DL) ?oward Brown Woolston "B... 1:9:) R Pro2essor o2 (o0iology at 9niversity o2 Was*ington "1919@19D1) Lu0ius ?udson ?olt "B... 19C , ,... 19CD, P*.D. 19C4) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s, Government, and ?istory at 9.(. ,ilitary .0ademy "1919@19!C) Etaug*t wit* rank o2 lieutenant 0olonel and 0olonelF 3*omas Walter (wan "B... 19CC) R Dean o2 =ale Law (0*ool "191L@19 1) ?enry (. Graves "B... 1:9 , (<B 1:9 ) R Dean o2 =ale (0*ool o2 +orestry "19CC@19!9) Wilbur L. $ross "B... 1::4, P*.D. 1::9) R Dean o2 t*e Graduate (0*ool at =ale 9niversity "191L@19!C) George Parmly Day "B... 1:91, (<; 1:91) R 3reasurer o2 =ale 9niversity "191C@19D ) 3*omas Wells +arnam "B... 1:99, (<; 1:99) R .sso0iate 3reasurer and $omptroller o2 =ale 9niversity "19 @19D ) $*arles (eymour "B... 19C:, P*.D. 1911, (<B 19C:) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "191:@19!1) $live Day "B... 1:9 , P*.D. 1:99, (<B 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "19C1@19!L) 'rving +is*er "B... 1:::, P*.D. 1:91, (<B 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "1:9!@19!4)> +ounder and inaugural President o2 .meri0an -ugeni0s (o0iety "19 !@19 L) Gustav Gruener "B... 1::D, (<B 1::D) R Pro2essor o2 German at =ale 9niversity "1:9 @19 :) &obert Nelson $orwin "B... 1::1, (<B 1::1) R Pro2essor o2 German at =ale 9niversity "1:99@19!!) ?enry ?allam 3weedy "B... 1:91, (<B 1:91) R Pro2essor o2 Pra0ti0al 3*eology at =ale Divinity (0*ool "19C9@19!1) $*arles +oster ;ent "B... 1::9, P*.D. 1:91) R Woolsey Pro2essor o2 Bibli0al Literature at =ale 9niversity "19C1@19 4) George Da*l "B... 19C:, (<B 19C:) R Pro2essor o2 ?ebrew Language and Literature at =ale Divinity (0*ool "191D@19 9) $*arles -dward $lark "B... 1911, LL.B. 191!) R Pro2essor o2 Law at =ale Law (0*ool "1919@19 9) %rgani8ation -6e0utives5 George -. 7in0ent "B... 1::4, (<; 1::4) R President o2 3*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "1911@19 9) /ames &o0kwell (*e22ield "B... 1::1, (<; 1::1) R 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "1919@19!:) &obert Weeks de +orest "B... 1:1C, (<; 1:1C) R President o2 &ussell (age +oundation "191:@19!1) William ?. Wel0* "B... 1:1C, (<B 1:1C) R President o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 &o0ke2eller 'nstitute 2or ,edi0al &esear0* "19C1@19!D) Barry $ongar (mit* "B... 1:99) R General Dire0tor o2 3*e $ommonwealt* +und "19 1@19D1) Daniel Davenport "B... 1:1!, (<; 1:1!) R General $ounsel o2 .meri0an .nti@Boy0ott .sso0iation ELeague 2or 'ndustrial &ig*tsF "19C:@19!C) William ?. Wel0* "B... 1:1C, (<B 1:1C) R President o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 &o0ke2eller 'nstitute 2or ,edi0al &esear0* "19C1@19!D) .mos Pin0*ot "B... 1:91, (<B 1:91) R $o@+ounder and Dire0tor "1911@19!C) o2 t*e .meri0an $ivil Liberties 9nion +rederi0k Wells Williams "B... 1:19) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 trustees o2 =ale@in@$*ina "1911@19 :) -dward Bliss &eed "B... 1:9D, P*.D. 1:9L) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "191C@19!C) ?arlan Page Bea0* "B... 1:1:) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "191L@19! ) &obert ?askell $ory "B... 19C ) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "191L@19D1) .mos Parker Wilder "B... 1::D, P*.D. 1:9 , (<B 1::D) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "191:@19!C) (amuel $larke Bus*nell "B... 1:1D, (<B 1:1D) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 1@19!C) $*arles +ranklin Bliss "B... 1::C) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 @19D ) Dan2ord Newton Barney "B... 1::1, (<B 1::1) R ,ember o2 t*e 0oun0il o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 1@19!!) -llery (. /ames "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R ,ember o2 t*e 0oun0il o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 !@19! ) Lewis (*eldon Wel0* "B... 1::9, (<; 1::9) R ,ember o2 t*e 0oun0il o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19C:@19!D) $*aun0ey B. Brewster "B... 1:L:, (<B 1:L:) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 $onne0ti0ut "1:99@19 :) +rederi0 W. ;eator "B... 1::C, LL.B. 1:: , (<; 1::C) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 %lympia, Wa. "19C @19 D) -dwin (tevens Lines "B... 1:1 , (<; 1:1 ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Newark, New /ersey "19C!@19 1) Boyd 7in0ent "B... 1:L1, (<; 1:L1) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (out*ern %*io "19CD@19 9) (idney $. Partridge "B... 1::C, (<B 1::C) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Western ,issouri "1911@19!C) 3*omas +. Davies "B... 1:9D, (<B 1:9D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Western ,assa0*usetts "1911@19!L) BenJamin Brewster "B... 1:: , (<B 1:: ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 ,aine "191L@19D1) David /ames Burrell "B... 1:L1, (<; 1:L1) R Pastor o2 ,arble $ollegiate $*ur0* in New =ork $ity "1:91@19 L) ?oward $*andler &obbins "B...1:99) R Dean o2 $at*edral o2 (t. /o*n t*e Divine ENew =ork $ityF "1911@19 9) Dwig*t ?untington Day "B... 1:99, (<B 1:99) R 3reasurer, Board o2 +oreign ,issions o2 t*e Presbyterian $*ur0* in t*e 9.(... "19CL@19 D) -ugene ,eyer "B... 1:94) R ,anaging Dire0tor o2 War +inan0e $orporation "1919@19 C, 19 1@19 1)

(kull < Bones ,embers and 3*eir %00upation during t*e Beer ?all Puts0*

/o*n Perrin B... =ale 1:19 $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 (an +ran0is0o "191D@19 4)

Pierre /ay B... =ale 1:9 $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "191D@19 L)

William ?oward 3a2t B... =ale 1:1: $*ie2 /usti0e o2 9.(. (upreme $ourt "19 1@19!C)

?enry Waters 3a2t B... =ale 1::C Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4)

George L. ?arrison B... =ale 191C Deputy Governor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 C@19 :)

LeBaron Brad2ord $olt B... =ale 1:L: 9.(. (enator "&@&*ode 'sland, 191!@19 D)

+rank B. Brandegee B... =ale 1::4 9.(. (enator "&@$onn., 19C4@19 D)

/ames W. Wadswort* /r. B... =ale 1:9: 9.(. (enator "&@New =ork, 1914@19 1)

3*omas +. Bayard /r. B... =ale 1:9C 9.(. (enator "D@Delaware, 19 @19 9)

/ames ,0Devitt ,agee B... =ale 1:99 9.(. $ongressman "&@Penn., 19 !@19 1)

Gi22ord Pin0*ot B... =ale 1::9 Governor o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1, 19!1@19!4)

.mos Pin0*ot $o@+ounder and Dire0tor "1911@19!C) o2 t*e .meri0an $ivil Liberties 9nion ".$L9)

?enry &. Lu0e B... =ale 19 C -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD)

?arold (tanley B... =ale 19C: 7i0e President o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. o2 New =ork "191L@19 :)

3*omas $o0*ran B... =ale 1:9D Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1911@19!L)

?enry L. (timson B... =ale 1::: $ounsel o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "1:91@19CL, 191!@19 1, 19!!@19DC, 19D4@194C)

3*omas D. 3*a0*er B... =ale 19CD Partner o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett "191D@ 19 4, 19!!@19D!)

$*arles (eymour B... =ale 19C: Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "191:@19!1)

'rving +is*er B... =ale 1::: +ounder o2 .meri0an -ugeni0s (o0iety> Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "1:9:@19!4)

William ?. Wel0* B... =ale 1:1C President o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 &o0ke2eller 'nstitute 2or ,edi0al &esear0* "19C1@19!D)

"(ull C Bones and Beer &all ,uts#h in %uni#h, $erman *Novem2er 9, 19!3+
Government %22i0ials5 William ?oward 3a2t "(<B 1:1:) R $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19 1@19!C)> President o2 t*e -nglis*@(peaking 9nion o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19 1@19!C) Wilbur +ranklin Boot* "(<B 1::D) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 ,innesota "191D@19 4) +rank Boswort* Brandegee "(<B 1::4) R 9.(. (enator "&epubli0an Party@$onne0ti0ut, 19C4@19 D) LeBaron Brad2ord $olt "(<B 1:L:) R 9.(. (enator "&epubli0an Party@&*ode 'sland, 191!@19 D) /ames Wol0ott Wadswort* /r. "(<B 1:9:) R 9.(. (enator "&epubli0an Party@New =ork, 1914@19 1) 3*omas +ran0is Bayard /r. "(<B 1:9C) R 9.(. (enator "Demo0rati0 Party@Delaware, 19 @19 9) /ames ,0Devitt ,agee "(<B 1:99) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@Pennsylvania, 19 !@19 1) Gi22ord Pin0*ot "(<B 1::9, &epubli0an) R Governor o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1, 19!1@19!4) George W. Woodru22 "(<B 1::9) R .ttorney General o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1) -. (*eldon W*ite*ouse "(<B 19C4) R $ounselor o2 t*e .meri0an -mbassy in Paris, +ran0e "19 1@19 :) Bankers5 Pierre /ay "(<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "191D@19 L) /o*n Perrin "(<B 1:19) R $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 (an +ran0is0o "191D@19 4) George L. ?arrison "(<B 191C) R Deputy Governor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 C@19 :) (tan2ord 3appan $rapo "(<B 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "19 @19!:) 3*omas $o0*ran "(<B 1:9D) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1911@19!L) ,ortimer Norton Bu0kner "(<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19 1@19D ) ?arold (tanley "(<B 19C:) R 7i0e President o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. o2 New =ork "191L@19 :) Elater merged wit* /P ,organ $*aseF ?arry Payne W*itney "(<B 1:9D) R Dire0tor o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. o2 New =ork "1:99@19!C) Per0y &o0ke2eller "(<B 19CC) R Dire0tor o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. o2 New =ork "1914@19!C) W. .verell ?arriman "(<B 191!) R Dire0tor o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. o2 New =ork "191L@19D1) (amuel &. Bertron "(<B 1::4) R President o2 Bertron, Gris0om < $ompany, 'n0., international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:) Lawyers5 ?enry Waters 3a2t "(<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1:99@19D4)> President o2 t*e New =ork $ity Bar .sso0iation "19 !@19 4)> brot*er o2 William ?oward 3a2t ?enry L. (timson "(<B 1:::) R $ounsel o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "1:91@19CL, 191!@19 1, 19!!@19DC, 19D4@194C) .llen 3. ;lots "(<B 19C9) R ,ember o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "19 1@19L4) Lansing P. &eed "(<B 19CD) R ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed "1914@19!1) P*ilip G. Bartlett "(<B 1::1) R Partner o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett "1:9C@19!1) Gra*am (umner "(<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19CD@19DL) 3*omas D. 3*a0*er "(<B 19CD) R Partner o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett "191D@19 4, 19!!@19D!) ?oward ,ans2ield "(<B 1:11) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19C1@19!:) ?enry De+orest Baldwin "(<B 1::4) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19CC@19D1) William Lloyd ;it0*el "(<B 1:9 ) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "191D@19D4) $*arles W*eeler Pierson "(<B 1::L) R ,ember o2 .le6ander < Green Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CC@19 9) Payson ,errill "(<B 1:L4) R ,ember o2 ,errill, &ogers, Gi22ord < Woody Eand prede0essorsF Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1::!@19 D) -dwin Dean Wor0ester "(<B 1:1L) R ,ember o2 Wor0ester, Williams < (a6e Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C9@19 9) Wint*rop -dwards Dwig*t "(<B 1:9!) R Partner o2 Dwig*t < (0oville Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19DD) Dean (age "(<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (age, Gray, 3odd < (ims Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C4@19D!) Lee /ames Perrin "(<B 19CL) R Partner o2 .ppleton, Perrin < ?oyt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19DL) -dward Ban0ro2t 3wombly "(<B 191 ) R Partner o2 Putney, 3wombly, ?all < (kidmore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1919@19LL) /o*n Loomer ?all "(<B 1:9D) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) (amuel ;nig*t "(<B 1::1) R ,ember o2 $*ristin, ;nig*t, Boland < $*nstin Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "191:@19D!) William (inger ,oor*ead "(<B 19CL) R ,ember o2 ,oor*ead < ;no6 Elaw 2irm in Pittsburg*F "1911@194 ) /ournalists, %rgani8ation -6e0utives, and $ollege Pro2essors5 ?enry &. Lu0e "(<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 3ime, 'n0. "19 !@19LD) William ?. $owles "(<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL)> Dire0tor o2 t*e .sso0iated Press "191 @19DD) BenJamin ?arris .nt*ony "(<B 1::L) R Dire0tor o2 t*e .sso0iated Press "19 !@19! ) $*arles ?opkins $lark "(<B 1:11) R President and -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 (artford %ourant "1:9C@19 L) 'rving +is*er "(<B 1:::) R +ounder and inaugural President o2 .meri0an -ugeni0s (o0iety "19 !@19 L)> Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "1:9:@19!4) $*aun0ey B. Brewster "(<B 1:L:) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 $onne0ti0ut "1:99@19 :) (idney $. Partridge "(<B 1::C) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Western ,issouri "1911@19!C) BenJamin Brewster "(<B 1:: ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 ,aine "191L@19D1) 3*omas +. Davies "(<B 1:9D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Western ,assa0*usetts "1911@19!L) Dwig*t ?untington Day "(<B 1:99) R 3reasurer o2 t*e Board o2 +oreign ,issions o2 t*e Presbyterian $*ur0* in t*e 9.(... "19CL@19 D) William ?. Wel0* "(<B 1:1C) R President o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 &o0ke2eller 'nstitute 2or ,edi0al &esear0* "19C1@19!D) .mos Pin0*ot "(<B 1:91) R $o@+ounder and Dire0tor "1911@19!C) o2 t*e .meri0an $ivil Liberties 9nion> brot*er o2 Gi22ord Pin0*ot &i0*ard ,. ?urd "(<B 1:::) R President o2 Lawyers ,ortgage $orporation E0ompany in New =ork $ityF "19C!@19!!) Gustav Gruener "(<B 1::D) R Pro2essor o2 German at =ale 9niversity "1:91@19 D) &obert Nelson $orwin "(<B 1::1) R Pro2essor o2 German at =ale 9niversity "1:99@19!!) $live Day "(<B 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "19C1@19!L) $*arles (eymour "(<B 19C:) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "191:@19!1) George Da*l "(<B 19C:) R Pro2essor o2 ?ebrew Language and Literature at =ale Divinity (0*ool "191D@19 9) +rederi0k (. /ones "(<B 1::D) R Dean o2 =ale 9niversity "19C9@19 1)

(kull < Bones5 . Prussian (atani0 (e0ret (o0ietyQ

3*e %rder o2 (kull < Bones is a se0ret so0iety at =ale 9niversity. 3*e %rder o2 (kull < Bones is also known as t*e SBrot*er*ood o2 Deat*.T 3*e number S! T is a mysterious number known only to members o2 3*e %rder o2 (kull < Bones. (kull < Bones initiation rituals allegedly in0lude individuals resting naked in a 0o22in and revealing t*eir se6 li2e to 1D 2ellow Bonesmen. "(our0e5 &ecrets of the Tomb: & ull and *ones+ the ,"- League+ and the (idden Paths of Power by .le6andra &obbins)

<7n 'oliti#s, nothing ha''ens 2 a##ident1 7f it ha''ens, ou #an 2et it 0as 'lanned that 0a 1= D ;ran(lin >elano Roosevelt

3*e Na8i Deat* ?ead symbol is a repli0a o2 t*e symbol o2 (kull < Bones, a se0ret so0iety lo0ated at =ale 9niversity.

A"olf .ichmann !left# an" 0einrich 0immler !right# wear a s7ull an" crossbone emblem on their hat$

Wil*elm '' "le2t), t*e ;aiser o2 Germany and ;ing o2 Prussia, wears t*e uni2orm o2 t*e SDeat*As ?ead ?ussars,T a German 0avalry regiment. William ?untington &ussell "rig*t) studied in Prussia 2or a year be2ore establis*ing (kull < Bones, a se0ret so0iety at =ale 9niversity. 3*e skull and 0rossbone emblem o2 (kull < Bones "0enter) is a repli0a o2 t*e SDeat*As ?eadT symbol t*at appears on t*e ;aiserAs *at. ;aiser Wil*elm '' was t*e ;aiser o2 Germany and ;ing o2 Prussia during World War '> *e abdi0ated t*e t*rone on November 9, 191:, two days be2ore Germany "Weimar &epubli0) announ0ed an armisti0e on November 11, 191:. ;aiser Wil*elm '' was t*e grandson o2 Vueen 7i0toria, Vueen o2 Great Britain and 'reland and -mpress o2 'ndia. ;aiser Wil*elm ''As great@granddaug*ter is Vueen (o2ia o2 (pain.

3*e 3omb, o22i0ial *eadIuarters o2 3*e %rder o2 (kull < Bones, is lo0ated at =ale 9niversity on ?ig* (treet in New ?aven, $onne0ti0ut, 9.(...

Le2t to rig*t5 &ei0*sbank President and Na8i German -0onomi0s ,inister ?Jalmar (0*a0*t, 2ormer 9.(. President ?erbert ?oover, and .meri0an .mbassador to Na8i Germany ?ug* &. Wilson dress 2or t*e o00asion at a re0eption *eld in Berlin on ,ar0* :, 19!:. ?erbert ?oover and ?ug* &. Wilson were members o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations, an internationalist organi8ation in New =ork $ity. ?ug* &. Wilson was a member o2 (kull < Bones, a se0ret so0iety at =ale 9niversity. ".ustrian .r0*ives#$%&B'()

Benito ,ussolini "le2t), t*e di0tator o2 +as0ist 'taly, rides in a motorboat wit* 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate ?enry L. (timson in 'taly in /anuary 19!1. ?enry L. (timson was a member o2 (kull < Bones, a se0ret so0iety at =ale 9niversity. "P*oto by New =ork 3imes $o.#Getty 'mages)

4rominent Members of The Jr"er of '7ull F -ones "uring Worl" War ))

?ug* &obert Wilson B... =ale 19CL 9.(. .mbassador to Na8i Germany "19!:)

W. .verell ?arriman B... =ale 191! 9.(. .mbassador to t*e (oviet 9nion "19D!@19DL)

?enry L. (timson B... =ale 1::: (e0retary o2 War "1911@191!, 19DC@19D4)

-. &oland ?arriman B... =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191:)

Pres0ott (. Bus* B... =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191 )

?arold (tanley B... =ale 19C: Partner, ,organ, (tanley < $o. "19D1@1944)

George L. ?arrison B... =ale 191C President o2 New =ork Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. "19D1@19D:)

?enry Waters 3a2t B... =ale 1::C Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4)

3*omas D. 3*a0*er B... =ale 19CD Partner o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!!@19D!)

$*arles ,. (po22ord B... =ale 19 D ,ember o2 Davis, Polk < Wardwell Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19DC@194C, 194 @191!)

/ames W. Wadswort* /r. B... =ale 1:9: 9.(. $ongressman "&@New =ork, 19!!@1941)

&obert .. 3a2t B... =ale 191C 9.(. (enator "&@%*io, 19!9@194!)

/o*n ,artin 7orys B... =ale 191: 9.(. $ongressman "&@%*io, 19!9@1949)

.rtemus L. Gates B... =ale 191: .ssistant (e0retary o2 t*e Navy 2or .ir "19D1@19D4)

&obert .. Lovett B... =ale 191: .ssistant (e0retary o2 War 2or .ir "19D1@19D4)

$*arles (eymour B... =ale 19C: President o2 =ale 9niversity "19!1@194C)

.r0*ibald ,a0Leis* B... =ale 1914 Librarian o2 $ongress "19!9@19DD)

?enry &. Lu0e B... =ale 19 C -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD)

Pierre /ay B... =ale 1:9 $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $o. "19!C@19D4)

;nig*t Woolley B... =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19: )

Members of '7ull F -ones an" Their Jccu&ation "uring Worl" War ))

Government %22i0ials5 ?enry L. (timson "(<B 1:::) R 9.(. (e0retary o2 War "19DC@19D4)> *ead o2 t*e ,an*attan ProJe0t "development o2 atomi0 bombs) ?ug* &. Wilson "(<B 19CL) R 9.(. .mbassador to Na8i Germany "19!:) ?arvey ?. Bundy "(<B 19C9) R (pe0ial .ssistant to t*e (e0retary o2 War "19D1@19D4) W. .verell ?arriman "(<B 191!) R 9.(. .mbassador to t*e (oviet 9nion "19D!@19DL)> $*airman o2 t*e board o2 9nion Pa0i2i0 &ailroad $o. "19! @19DL)> Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DL) .r0*ibald ,a0Leis* "(<B 1914) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 (tate 2or Publi0 and $ultural &elations "19DD@19D4)> Librarian o2 $ongress "19!9@DD) ,orris ?adley "(<B 191L) R Deputy Dire0tor o2 %22i0e o2 War 'n2ormation "19D1@19D ) .rtemus L. Gates "(<B 191:) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 t*e Navy 2or .ir "19D1@19D4) &obert .. Lovett "(<B 191:) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 War 2or .ir "19D1@19D4) &obert .. 3a2t "(<B 191C) R 9.(. (enator "&epubli0an Party@%*io, 19!9@194!) /ames Wol0ott Wadswort* /r. "(<B 1:9:) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@New =ork, 19!!@1941) /o*n ,artin 7orys "(<B 191:) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@%*io, 19!9@1949) Bankers5 Pierre /ay "(<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) ,ortimer Norton Bu0kner "(<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19 1@19D ) ?arold (tanley "(<B 19C:) R Partner o2 ,organ, (tanley < $o. "19D1@1944) &oger B. (*epard "(<B 19C:) R $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 ,inneapolis "19DC@194!) Walter (et* Logan "(<B 191C) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@194!) +rank P. (*epard "(<B 1911) R 7i0e President o2 Bankers 3rust $o. "19!D@19LC) $*arles /a0ob (tewart "(<B 191:) R 7i0e President o2 New =ork 3rust $o. "19!4@19D9) ?enry P. Davison /r. "(<B 19 C) R Partner "19 9@19DC) and 7i0e President "19DC@19D ) o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. &ay ,orris "(<B 19C1) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@194L) -. &oland ?arriman "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191:) Pres0ott (. Bus* "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191 ) ;nig*t Woolley "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19: ) Businessmen5 George L. ?arrison "(<B 191C) R President o2 New =ork Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. "19D1@19D:) ?. Neil ,allon "(<B 1911) R President o2 Dresser 'ndustries, 'n0. "19 9@194:) +rank +ord &ussell "(<B 19 L) R President o2 National .viation $orp. "19!9@194D) +rederi0k -. Weyer*aeuser "(<B 1:9L) R President o2 Weyer*aeuser 3imber $o. "19!1@19D4) ?enry /o*n ?ein8 '' "(<B 19!1) R President o2 ?./. ?ein8 $ompany "19D1@1949) ,ore*ead Patterson "(<B 19 C) R $*airman "19D!@19L ) and President "19D1@19D!, 19D1@194:) o2 .meri0an ,a0*ine < +oundry $o. George ?erbert Walker /r. "(<B 19 1) R General Partner o2 G.?. Walker < $o. "19 9@191D) $*aun0ey /erome ?amlin "(<B 19C!) R ,ember o2 t*e New =ork (to0k -60*ange "19D1@19L!) ,al0olm Pratt .ldri0* "(<B 19 ) R -6e0utor and 3rustee o2 t*e estate o2 -dward (. ?arkness "19DC@0.194D) Lawyers5 ?enry Waters 3a2t "(<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1:99@19D4) William Lloyd ;it0*el "(<B 1:9 ) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191D@19D4) ?enry De+orest Baldwin "(<B 1::4) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19CC@19D1) (*erman Baldwin "(<B 1919) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19 9@19L9) Gra*am (umner "(<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19CD@19DL) 3*omas D. 3*a0*er "(<B 19CD) R Partner o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19!!@19D!) .llen 3. ;lots "(<B 19C9) R ,ember o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "19 1@19L4) $*arles ,. (po22ord "(<B 19 D) R ,ember o2 Davis, Polk < Wardwell "19DC@194C, 194 @191!) ,orris ?adley "(<B 191L) R Partner o2 ,ilbank, 3weed, ?adley < ,0$loy "19 D@1919) Dean (age "(<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (age, Gray, 3odd < (ims Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C4@19D!) Lee /ames Perrin "(<B 19CL) R Partner o2 .ppleton, Perrin < ?oyt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19DL) -dward Ban0ro2t 3wombly "(<B 191 ) R Partner o2 Putney, 3wombly, ?all < (kidmore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1919@19LL) /o*n Loomer ?all "(<B 1:9D) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) ,ar0ien /en0kes "(<B 19 1) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 1@1911) George +rederi0k Baer .ppel "(<B 19 D) R Partner o2 3ownsend, -lliott < ,unson Elaw 2irm in P*iladelp*iaF "19!:@191C) ?enry $orni0k $oke "(<B 19 L) R ,ember o2 $oke < $oke Elaw 2irm in Dallas, 3e6asF "19!C@1911) .nt*ony Lee ,i0*el "(<B 19 L) R Partner o2 Gardner, $arton, Douglas, $*ilgren < Waud Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19D @19LL) &i0*ard ,arden Davis "(<B 19!!) R Partner o2 Davis, Gra*am < (tubbs Elaw 2irm in DenverF "19!1@0.19: ) William (inger ,oor*ead "(<B 19CL) R ,ember o2 ,oor*ead < ;no6 Elaw 2irm in Pittsburg*F "1911@194 ) %t*ers5 $*arles (eymour "(<B 19C:) R President o2 =ale 9niversity "19!1@194C)> 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!9@19D4) Lauren0e G. 3ig*e "(<B 191L) R 3reasurer o2 =ale 9niversity "19D @194D) .ugust (idney Lovett "(<B 191!) R $*aplain o2 =ale 9niversity "19! @194:) ?enry &. Lu0e "(<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 3ime, 'n0. "19 !@19LD) William ?. $owles "(<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL) ?enry W. ?obson "(<B 191D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (out*ern %*io "19!1@1949) ?enry (loane $o22in "(<B 1:91) R President o2 9nion 3*eologi0al (eminary "19 L@19D4) -dwin .. Burtt "(<B 1914) R Pro2essor o2 P*ilosop*y at $ornell 9niversity "19!1@19LC) +rederi0 $. Wal0ott "(<B 1:91) R &egent o2 t*e (mit*sonian 'nstitution "19D1@19D:)

William 0owar" Taft !left#, Bhief Justice of the ($'$ 'u&reme Bourt, a"ministers the oath of office to incoming ($'$ 'ecretary of 'tate 0enry 2$ 'timson in Washington, +$B$ on March 25, 1 2 $ William 0owar" Taft an" 0enry 2$ 'timson were members of '7ull F -ones, a secret society at Aale (ni%ersity$ !4hotoE 2ibrary of Bongress#

. Snew world orderT in t*e -ternal $ity5 (e0retary o2 War ?enry L. (timson "2ront row, 2ar le2t, in blue suit), 9.(. .rmy General ,ark $lark "2ront row, t*ird 2rom le2t), and ot*er .meri0an o22i0ers and o22i0ials salute to t*e .meri0an 2lag in t*e pla8a in 2ront o2 t*e Pia88a 7ene8ia during an o22i0ial 2lag lowering 0eremony s*ortly a2ter t*eir arrival in &ome, 'taly on /uly D, 19DD. 3*e 0ity o2 &ome on0e served as t*e 0apital o2 t*e &oman -mpire. ?enry L. (timson was a graduate o2 =ale 9niversity "B... =ale 1:::), a member o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 D@ 19 9, 19!D@194C), and a member o2 (kull < Bones. "P*oto by $arl ,ydans#3ime Li2e)

.verell ?arriman "se0ond 2rom le2t), t*e $*airman o2 t*e board o2 9nion Pa0i2i0 &ailroad and Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o., sits beside Britis* Prime ,inister Winston $*ur0*ill "le2t) and (oviet $ommissar /ose2 (talin in 19D . (oviet +oreign ,inister 7ya0*eslav ,olotov is seated on t*e 2ar rig*t. "P*oto5 Library o2 $ongress)

Armistice & Political Turmoil in Germany

>e#laration of the $erman Re'u2li#B . 0rowd gat*ers outside t*e &ei0*stag in Berlin as German statesman P*ilipp (0*eidemann pro0laims t*e German &epubli0 outside t*e &ei0*stag on November 9, 191: and 2or0es t*e abdi0ation o2 t*e ;aiser Wil*elm ''.

Germany in 15:1, following the Franco64russian War

/aiser Wilhelm )) of Germany !fourth from left# crosses the +utch bor"er an" goes into e?ile on @o%ember 1H, 1 15, the "ay after the announcement of his ab"ication$ +uring an e?change of notes between Germany an" the (nite" 'tates on the subLect of a ceasefire, it became clear that the Allies regar"e" the ab"ication of Wilhelm )) as a &rere9uisite for the sus&ension of hostilities$ )nternally, the 'ocial +emocrats ; who were now &art of the &arliamentary go%ernment un"er Reich Bhancellor Ma? %on -a"en ; "eman"e" Wilhelm,s ab"ication$ The chancellor himself, Foreign Minister Wilhelm 'olf, an" Yuartermaster General Wilhelm Groener !.rich 2u"en"orff,s successor in the 'u&reme Army Bomman"# also urge" Wilhelm to ste& "own$ )n late Jctober 1 15, Wilhelm "efiantly with"rew to the army,s main hea"9uarters in '&a, -elgium8 he refuse" to acce&t the realities of the situation until the bitter en"$ )nstea", he in"ulge" in "elusionsE he thought of "ying a hero,s "eath while lea"ing his troo&s into battle or of gi%ing u& the title of .m&eror an" continuing his reign as /ing of 4russia 1only$3 Face" with a mass re%olutionary mo%ement an" an ultimatum by Frie"rich .bert, Ma? %on -a"en too7 the liberty of announcing the /aiser,s ab"ication on @o%ember , 1 15$ Wilhelm )) was force" to go into e?ile in the @etherlan"s the ne?t morning$ The &hotogra&h shows Wilhelm )) an" his entourage waiting for the royal train at the station in the +utch bor"er town of .iLs"en !&hotogra&he" by an un7nown +utch stu"ent#$ !'ourceE htt&EGGgermanhistory"ocs$ghi6"c$orgGsub^image$cfmMimage^i"[C:C:#

French officers, inclu"ing Marshal Foch, &ose for a grou& &hotogra&h before recei%ing the German Armistice in France on @o%ember 11, 1 15$

From left to rightE French army officer Marshal Fer"inan" Foch, 4rime Minister of France Georges Blemenceau, 4rime Minister of Great -ritain +a%i" 2loy" George, 4rime Minister of )taly Kittorio Jrlan"o, an" Foreign Minister of )taly -aron 'i"ney Bostantino 'onnino meet &ri%ately at 1H +owning 'treet in 2on"on on +ecember 2, 1 15$ !4hotoE 2ibrary of Bongress#

Allie" occu&ie" troo&s enter the German city of Trier !Tre%es# in +ecember 1 15$

German delegates in +ran0e are es0orted to t*e Western 2ront in +ran0e to sign t*e armisti0e on November 11, 191:. ,att*ias -r8berger "0enter) served as t*e German ,inister o2 +inan0e 2rom 1919 to 19 C. -r8berger was assassinated in Germany on .ugust L, 19 1.

3*e German delegation meets privately at t*e Paris Pea0e $on2eren0e at 7ersailles Pala0e in 1919. +rom le2t to rig*t5 Pro2. Dr. Walt*er (0*U0king, /o*annes Giesberts, %tto Landsberg, 9lri0* Gra2 von Bro0kdor22@&ant8au, &obert Leinert, and Dr. ;arl ,el0*ior. German delegate ,a6 Warburg does not appear in t*is p*otograp*. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv)

The German "elegation &oses for a grou& &ortrait at the 4aris 4eace Bonference in Kersailles, France on May :, 1 1 $

Georges Blemenceau, the 4rime Minister of France, "eli%ers a s&eech to the German "elegates at the Trianon 4alace 0otel in Kersailles, France on May :, 1 1 "uring the ongoing 4aris 4eace Bonference$

German "elegates atten" the 4aris 4eace Bonference at the Kersailles 4alace in France in early 1 1 $

'&ectators watch the German "elegates sign the Kersailles Treaty on June 25, 1 1 $ !4hotoE 0ulton Getty 4icture Bollection 2imite"#

Ma& of the Western Front in 1 15, inclu"ing the Jccu&ation Tones an" "esignate" routes of German with"rawal

(mas*ed gro0ery store windows in *ungry Berlin in 1919. "P*oto5 9nderwood and 9nderwood)

1The (nite" 'tates &roteste" %iolently against the submarine warfare while brushing asi"e German arguments base" on the -ritish bloc7a"e$ )t was so irreconcilable in these &rotests that Germany sent Wilson a note on May 4, 1 1*, in which it &romise" that 1in the future merchant %essels within an" without the war >one shall not be sun7 without warning an" without safeguar"ing human li%es, unless these shi&s attem&t to esca&e or offer resistance$3 )n return the German go%ernment ho&e" that the (nite" 'tates woul" &ut &ressure on -ritain to follow the establishe" rules of international law in regar" to bloc7a"e an" free"om of the sea$ Wilson refuse" to "o so$ Accor"ingly, it became clear to the Germans that they woul" be star%e" into "efeat unless they coul" "efeat -ritain first by unrestricte" submarine warfare$ 'ince they were aware that resort to this metho" woul" &robably bring the (nite" 'tates into the war against them, they ma"e another effort to negotiate &eace before resorting to it$ When their offer to negotiate, ma"e on +ecember 12, 1 1*, was reLecte" by the .ntente 4owers on +ecember 2:th, the grou& in the German go%ernment which ha" been a"%ocating ruthless submarine warfare came into a &osition to control affairs, an" or"ere" the resum&tion of unrestricte" submarine attac7s on February 1, 1 1:$ Wilson was notifie" of this "ecision on January C1st$ 0e bro7e off "i&lomatic relations with Germany on February Cr", an", after two months of in"ecision, as7e" the Bongress for a "eclaration of war A&ril C, 1 1:$ The final "ecision was influence" by the constant &ressure of his closest associates, the realization that Britain &as rea$hing the en) of her resour$es of men6 money6 an) shi#s , an" the 7nowle"ge that Germany was &lanning to see7 an alliance with Me?ico if war began$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, &$ 2D1 1While the "i&lomacy of neutrality an" inter%ention was mo%ing along the lines we ha%e "escribe", a &arallel "i&lomatic effort was being "irecte" towar" efforts to negotiate &eace$ These efforts were a failure but are, nonetheless, of consi"erable significance because they re%eal the moti%ations an" war aims of the belligerents$ They were a failure because any negotiate" &eace re9uires a willingness on both si"es to ma7e those concessions which will &ermit the continue" sur%i%al of the enemy$ )n 1 1461 15, howe%er, in or"er to win &ublic su&&ort for total mobili>ation, each countryNs &ro&agan"a ha" been "irecte" towar" a total %ictory for itself an" total "efeat for the enemy$ )n time, both si"es became so enmeshe" in their own &ro&agan"a that it became im&ossible to a"mit &ublicly oneNs rea"iness to acce&t such lesser aims as any negotiate" &eace woul" re9uire$ Moreo%er, as the ti"e of battle wa?e" an" wane", gi%ing alternate &erio"s of elation an" "iscouragement to both si"es, the si"e which was tem&orarily elate" became increasingly attache" to the fetish of total %ictory an" unwilling to acce&t the lesser aim of a negotiate" &eace$ Accor"ingly, &eace became &ossible only when war weariness ha" reache" the &oint where one si"e conclu"e" that e%en "efeat was &referable to continuation of the war$ This &oint was reache" in Russia in 1 1: an" in Germany an" Austria in 1 15$ )n Germany this &oint of %iew was greatly reinforce" by the reali>ation that military "efeat an" &olitical change were &referable to the economic re%olution an" social u&hea%al which woul" accom&any any effort to continue the war in &ursuit of an increasingly unattainable %ictory$ From the %arious efforts to negotiate &eace it is clear that -ritain was unwilling to acce&t any &eace which woul" not inclu"e the restoration of -elgium or which woul" lea%e Germany su&reme on the Bontinent or in a &osition to resume the commercial, na%al, an" colonial ri%alry which ha" e?iste" before 1 148 France was unwilling to acce&t any solution which "i" not restore Alsace62orraine to her8 the German 0igh Bomman" an" the German in"ustrialists were "etermine" not to gi%e u& all the occu&ie" territory in the west, but were ho&ing to retain 2orraine, &art of Alsace, 2u?embourg, &art of -elgium, an" 2ongwy in France because of the mineral an" in"ustrial resources of these areas$ The fact that Germany ha" an e?cellent su&&ly of co7ing coal with an ina"e9uate su&&ly of iron ore, while the occu&ie" areas ha" &lenty of the latter but an ina"e9uate su&&ly of the former, ha" a great "eal to "o with the German obLections to a negotiate" &eace an" the ambiguous terms in which their war aims were "iscusse"$ Austria was, until the "eath of .m&eror Francis Jose&h in 1 1*, unwilling to acce&t any &eace which woul" lea%e the 'la%s, es&ecially the 'erbs, free to continue their nationalistic agitations for the "isintegration of the 0absburg .m&ire$ Jn the other han", )taly was "etermine" to e?clu"e the 0absburg .m&ire from the shores of the A"riatic 'ea, while the 'erbs were e%en more "etermine" to reach those shores by the ac9uisition of 0absburg6rule" 'la% areas in the Western -al7ans$ After the Russian re%olutions of 1 1:, many of these obstacles to a negotiate" &eace became wea7er$ The Katican, wor7ing through Bar"inal 4acelli !later 4o&e 4ius P))# sought a negotiate" &eace which woul" &re%ent the "estruction of the 0absburg .m&ire, the last Batholic Great 4ower in .uro&e$ 4rominent men in all countries, li7e 2or" 2ans"owne !-ritish foreign secretary before 1 14#, became so alarme" at the s&rea" of 'ocialism that they were willing to ma7e almost any concessions to sto& the "estruction of ci%ili>e" ways of life by continue" warfare$ 0umanitarians li7e 0enry For" or Romain Rollan" became increasingly alarme" at the continue" slaughter$ -ut, for the reasons we ha%e alrea"y mentione", &eace remaine" elusi%e until the great German offensi%es of 1 15 ha" been bro7en$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, &$ 2D162DC

1After what 2u"en"orff calle" Othe blac7 "ay of the German ArmyO !August 5, 1 15#, a German Brown Bouncil, meeting at '&a, "eci"e" %ictory was no longer &ossible, an" "eci"e" to negotiate for an armistice$ This was not "one because of a contro%ersy between the crown &rince an" 2u"en"orff in which the former a"%ise" an imme"iate retreat to the O0in"enburg 2ineO twenty miles to the rear, while the latter wishe" to ma7e a slow with"rawal so that the .ntente coul" not organi>e an attac7 on the 0in"enburg 2ine before winter$ Two .ntente %ictories, at 'aint6Yuentin !August C1st# an" in Flan"ers !'e&tember 2n"# ma"e this "is&ute moot$ The Germans began an in%oluntary retreat, "renching the groun" they e%acuate" with 1mustar" gas3 in or"er to slow u& the .ntente &ursuit, es&ecially the tan7s$ The German 0igh Bomman" remo%e" the chancellor, 0ertling, an" &ut in the more "emocratic 4rince Ma? of -a"en with or"ers to ma7e an imme"iate armistice or face military "isaster !'e&tember 2 6Jctober 1, 1 15#$ Jn Jctober Dth a German note to 4resi"ent Wilson as7e" for an armistice on the basis of the Fourteen 4oints of January 5, 1 15, an" his subse9uent &rinci&les of 'e&tember 2:, 1 15$ These statements of Wilson ha" ca&ture" the imaginations of i"ealistic &ersons an" subLect &eo&les e%erywhere$ The Fourteen 4oints &romise" the en" of secret "i&lomacy8 free"om of the seas8 free"om of commerce8 "isarmament8 a fair settlement of colonial claims, with the interests of the nati%e &eo&les recei%ing e9ual weight with the titles of im&erialist 4owers8 the e%acuation of Russia8 the e%acuation an" restoration of -elgium8 the e%acuation of France an" the restoration to her of Alsace62orraine as in 15:H8 the rea"Lustment of the )talian frontiers on nationality lines8 free an" autonomous "e%elo&ment for the &eo&les of the 0absburg .m&ire8 the e%acuation, restoration, an" guarantee of Romania, Montenegro, an" 'erbia, with the last6name" securing free access to the sea8 international guarantees to 7ee& the 'traits &ermanently o&ene" to the shi&s an" commerce of all nations8 free"om for the autonomous "e%elo&ment of the non6Tur7ish nationalities of the Jttoman .m&ire, along with a secure so%ereignty for the Tur7s themsel%es8 an in"e&en"ent 4olish state with free access to the sea an" with international guarantees8 a 2eague of @ations to affor" 1mutual guarantees of &olitical in"e&en"ence an" territorial integrity to great an" small states ali7e38 an" no "estruction of Germany or e%en any alteration of her institutions e?ce&t those necessary to ma7e it clear when her s&o7esmen s&o7e for the Reichstag maLority an" when they 1s&ea7 for the military &arty an" the men whose cree" is im&erial "omination$3 )n a series of notes between Germany an" the (nite" 'tates, Wilson ma"e it clear that he woul" grant an armistice only if Germany woul" with"raw from all occu&ie" territory, ma7e an en" to submarine attac7s, acce&t the Fourteen 4oints, establish a res&onsible go%ernment, an" acce&t terms which woul" &reser%e the e?isting .ntente military su&eriority$ 0e was most insistent on the res&onsible go%ernment, warning that if he ha" to "eal 1with military masters or monarchical autocrats3 he woul" "eman" 1not negotiations but surren"er$3 The German constitution was change" to gi%e all &owers to the Reichstag8 2u"en"orff was fire"8 the German @a%y at /iel mutinie", an" the /aiser fle" from -erlin !Jctober 25th#$ )n the meantime, the .ntente 'u&reme War Bouncil refuse" to acce&t the Fourteen 4oints as the basis for &eace until Bolonel 0ouse threatene" that the (nite" 'tates woul" ma7es a se&arate &eace with Germany$ They then "eman"e" an" recei%e" a "efinition of the meaning of each term, ma"e a reser%ation on 1the free"om of the seas,3 an" e?&an"e" the meaning of 1restoration of in%a"e" territory3 to inclu"e com&ensation to the ci%ilian &o&ulation for their war losses$ Jn this basis an armistice commission met German negotiators on @o%ember :th$ The German Re%olution was s&rea"ing, an" the /aiser ab"icate" on @o%ember 5th$ The German negotiators recei%e" the .ntente military terms an" as7e" for an imme"iate en"ing of hostilities an" of the economic bloc7a"e an" a re"uction in the .ntente "eman" for machine guns from CH,HHH to 2D,HHH on the groun"s that the "ifference of D,HHH was nee"e" to su&&ress the German Re%olution$ The last &oint was conce"e", but the other two refuse"$ The armistice was signe" on @o%ember 11, 1 15, at DEHH a$m$ to ta7e effect at 11EHH a$m$ )t &ro%i"e" that the Germans must e%acuate all occu&ie" territory !inclu"ing Alsace62orraine# within fourteen "ays, an" the left ban7 of the Rhine &lus three bri"gehea"s on the right ban7 within thirty6one "ays, that they surren"er huge s&ecifie" amounts of war e9ui&ment, truc7s, locomoti%es, all submarines, the chief na%al %essels, all &risoners of war, an" ca&ture" merchant shi&s, as w6ell as the -altic fortresses, an" all %aluables an" securities ta7en in occu&ie" territory, inclu"ing the Russian an" Romanian gol" reser%es$ The Germans were also re9uire" to renounce the treaties of -rest62ito%s7 an" of -ucharest, which they ha" im&ose" on Russia an" on Romania, an" to &romise to re&air the "amage of occu&ie" territories$ This last &oint was of consi"erable im&ortance, as the Germans ha" systematically loote" or "estroye" the areas they e%acuate" in the last few months of the war$ The negotiations with Wilson lea"ing u& to the Armistice of 1 15 are of great significance, since they forme" one of the chief factors in subse9uent German resentment at the Treaty of Kersailles$ )n these negotiations Wilson ha" clearly &romise" that the &eace treaty with Germany woul" be negotiate" an" woul" be base" on the Fourteen 4oints8 as we shall see, the Treaty of Kersailles was im&ose" without negotiation, an" the Fourteen 4oints fare" %ery &oorly in its &ro%isions$ An a""itional factor connecte" with these e%ents lies in the subse9uent claim of the German militarists that the German Army was ne%er "efeate" but was 1stabbe" in the bac73 by the home front through a combination of international Batholics, international Jews, an" international 'ocialists$ There is no merit whate%er in these contentions$ The German Army was clearly beaten in the fiel"8 the negotiations for an armistice were commence" by the ci%ilian go%ernment at the insistence of the 0igh Bomman", an" the Treaty of Kersailles itself was subse9uently signe", rather than reLecte", at the insistence of the same 0igh Bomman" in or"er to a%oi" a military occu&ation of Germany$ -y these tactics the German Army was able to esca&e the military occu&ation of Germany which they so "rea"e"$ Although the last enemy forces "i" not lea%e German soil until 1 C1, no &ortions of Germany were occu&ie" beyon" those signifie" in the armistice itself !the Rhinelan" an" the three bri"gehea"s on the right han7 of the Rhine# e?ce&t for a brief occu&ation of the Ruhr "istrict in 1 2C$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, &$ 2DC62DD

,embers o2 t*e &eparations $ommission appear toget*er at t*e Paris Pea0e $on2eren0e in 1919. (eated 2rom le2t to rig*t5 ?erbert ?oover, Gen. 3asker Bliss, W. (. Benson, Bernard Baru0*, and ?enry ,. &obinson. (tanding 2rom le2t to rig*t5 3*omas W. Lamont " ,artner of J1,1 %organ C )o1), W*itney ?. (*epardson, Norman ?. Davis, -dward ,. ?ouse, Gordon .u0*in0loss, and 7an0e ,0$ormi0k. -veryone in t*is p*oto e60ept 2or Bernard Baru0* and W. (. Benson were members o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations.

?eads o2 state appear at t*e Paris Pea0e $on2eren0e o2 1919 in 7ersailles, +ran0e. +rom le2t to rig*t5 'talyAs Prime ,inister 7ittorio %rlando, Britis* Prime ,inister David Lloyd George, +ren0* President Georges $lemen0eau, and .meri0aAs President Woodrow Wilson. 3*e S.lliesT o2 World War ' demanded t*at Germany pay *uge reparations payment to +ran0e 2ollowing t*e end o2 World War '. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

Ma& of Germany an" its territorial losses 1 1 61 21

2eftE +elegates from aroun" the worl" watch German "i&lomats sign the Treaty of Kersailles at Kersailles 4alace near 4aris, France on June 25, 1 1 $ RightE Article 2C1 of the Kersailles Treaty !The War Guilt Blause#

4eace Treaty of Kersailles

Articles 159-213 Military, Naval and Air Clauses 4ART K$ M)2)TARA, @AKA2 A@+ A)R B2A('.'$ )n or"er to ren"er &ossible the initiation of a general limitation of the armaments of all nations, Germany un"erta7es strictly to obser%e the military, na%al an" air clauses which follow$ '.BT)J@ )$ M)2)TARA B2A('.'$ B0A4T.R )$ .FF.BT)K.' A@+ BA+R.' JF T0. G.RMA@ ARMA$ ART)B2. 1D $ The German military forces shall be "emobilise" an" re"uce" as &rescribe" hereinafter$ ART)B2. 1*H$ -40 By a )ate &hi$h must not be later than ;ar$h >46 47?56 the German .rmy must not $om#rise more than se,en )i,isions of infantry an) three )i,isions of $a,alry: .fter that )ate the total number of effe$ti,es in the .rmy of the *tates $onstituting Germany must not e<$ee) one hun)re) thousan) men6 in$lu)ing offi$ers an) establishments of )e#ots: The .rmy shall be )e,ote) e<$lusi,ely to the maintenan$e of or)er &ithin the territory an) to the $ontrol of the frontiers: The total effecti%e strength of officers, inclu"ing the &ersonnel of staffs, whate%er their com&osition, must not e?cee" four thousan"$ !2# +i%isions an" Army Bor&s hea"9uarters staffs shall be organise" in accor"ance with Table @o$ 1 anne?e" to this 'ection$ The number an" strengths of the units of infantry, artillery, engineers, technical ser%ices an" troo&s lai" "own in the aforesai" Table constitute ma?ima which must not be e?cee"e"$ The following units may each ha%e their own "e&otE An )nfantry regiment8 A Ba%alry regiment8 A regiment of Fiel" Artillery8 A battalion of 4ioneers$ !C# The "i%isions must not be grou&e" un"er more than two army cor&s hea"9uarters staffs$ The maintenance or formation of forces "ifferently grou&e" or of other organisations for the comman" of troo&s or for &re&aration for war is forbi""en$ The Great German General 'taff an" all similar organisations shall be "issol%e" an" may not be reconstitute" in any form$ The officers, or &ersons in the &osition of officers, in the Ministries of War in the "ifferent 'tates in Germany an" in the A"ministrations attache" to them, must not e?cee" three hun"re" in number an" are inclu"e" in the ma?imum strength of four thousan" lai" "own in the thir" sub6&aragra&h of &aragra&h !1# of this Article$ ART)B2. 1*1$

Army a"ministrati%e ser%ices consisting of ci%ilian &ersonnel not inclu"e" in the number of effecti%es &rescribe" by the &resent Treaty will ha%e such &ersonnel re"uce" in each class to one6tenth of that lai" "own in the -u"get of 1 1C$ ART)B2. 1*2$ The number of em&loyees or officials of the German 'tates such as customs officers, forest guar"s an" coastguar"s, shall not e?cee" that of the em&loyees or officials functioning in these ca&acities in 1 1C$ The number of gen"armes an" em&loyees or officials of the local or munici&al &olice may only be increase" to an e?tent corres&on"ing to the increase of &o&ulation since 1 1C in the "istricts or munici&alities in which they are em&loye"$ These em&loyees an" officials may not be assemble" for military training$ ART)B2.E 1*C$ The re"uction of the strength of the German military forces as &ro%i"e" for in Article 1*H may be effecte" gra"ually in the following mannerE Within three months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the total number of effecti%es must be re"uce" to 2HH,HHH an" the number of units must not e?cee" twice the number of those lai" "own in Article 1*H$ At the e?&iration of this &erio", an" at the en" of each subse9uent &erio" of three months, a Bonference of military e?&erts of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers will fi? the re"uctions to be ma"e in the ensuing three months, so that by March C1, 1 2H, at the latest the total number of German effecti%es "oes not e?cee" the ma?imum number of lHH,HHH men lai" "own in Article 1*H$ )n these successi%e re"uctions the same ratio between the number of officers an" of men, an" between the %arious 7in"s of units, shall be maintaine" as is lai" "own in that Article$ B0A4T.R ))$ ARMAM.@T, M(@)T)J@' A@+ MAT.R)A2$ ART)B2. 1*4$ (& till the time at which Germany is a"mitte" as a member of the 2eague of @ations the German Army must not &ossess an armament greater than the amounts fi?e" in Table @o$ )) anne?e" to this 'ection, with the e?ce&tion of an o&tional increase not e?cee"ing one6 twentyfifth &art for small arms an" one6fiftieth &art for guns, which shall be e?clusi%ely use" to &ro%i"e for such e%entual re&lacements as may be necessary$ Germany agrees that after she has become a member of the 2eague of @ations the armaments fi?e" in the sai" Table shall remain in force until they are mo"ifie" by the Bouncil of the 2eague$ Furthermore she hereby agrees strictly to obser%e the "ecisions of the Bouncil of the 2eague on this subLect$ ART)B2. 1*D$ The ma?imum number of guns, machine guns, trench6mortars, rifles an" the amount of ammunition an" e9ui&ment which Germany is allowe" to maintain "uring the &erio" between the coming into force of the &resent Treaty an" the "ate of March C1, 1 2H, referre" to in Article 1*H, shall bear the same &ro&ortion to the amount authori>e" in Table @o$ ))) anne?e" to this 'ection as the strength of the German Army as re"uce" from time to time in accor"ance with Article 1*C bears to the strength &ermitte" un"er Article 1*H$ ART)B2. 1** At the "ate of March C1, 1 2H, the stoc7 of munitions which the German Army may ha%e at its "is&osal shall not e?cee" the amounts fi?e" in Table @o$ ))) anne?e" to this 'ection$ Within the same &erio" the German Go%ernment will store these stoc7s at &oints to be notifie" to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ The German Go%ernment is forbi""en to establish any other stoc7s, "e&ots or reser%es of munitions$ ART)B2. 1*:$

The number an" calibre of the guns constituting at the "ate of the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the armament of the fortifie" wor7s, fortresses, an" any lan" or coast forts which Germany is allowe" to retain must be notifie" imme"iately by the German Go%ernment to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers, an" will constitute ma?imum amounts which may not be e?cee"e"$ Within two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty, the ma?imum stoc7 of ammunition for these guns will be re"uce" to, an" maintaine" at, the following uniform ratesE fifteen hun"re" roun"s &er &iece for those the calibre of which is 1H$D cm$ an" un"erE fi%e hun"re" roun"s &er &iece for those of higher calibre$ ART)B2. 1*5$ The manufacture of arms, munitions, or any war material, shall only be carrie" out in factories or wor7s the location of which shall be communicate" to an" a&&ro%e" by the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers, an" the number of which they retain the right to restrict$ Within three months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty, all other establishments for the manufacture, &re&aration, storage or "esign of arms, munitions, or any war material whate%er shall be close" "own$ The same a&&lies to all arsenals e?ce&t those use" as "e&ots for the authorise" stoc7s of munitions$ Within the same &erio" the &ersonnel of these arsenals will be "ismisse"$ ART)B2. 1* $ Within two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty German arms, munitions an" war material, inclu"ing anti6aircraft material, e?isting in Germany in e?cess of the 9uantities allowe", must be surren"ere" to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers to be "estroye" or ren"ere" useless$ This will also a&&ly to any s&ecial &lant inten"e" for the manufacture of military material, e?ce&t such as may be recognise" as necessary for e9ui&&ing the authorise" strength of the German army$ The surren"er in 9uestion will be effecte" at such &oints in German territory as may be selecte" by the sai" Go%ernments$ Within the same &erio" arms, munitions an" war material, inclu"ing anti6aircraft material, of origin other than German, in whate%er state they may be, will be "eli%ere" to the sai" Go%ernments, who will "eci"e as to their "is&osal$ Arms an" munitions which on account of the successi%e re"uctions in the strength of the German army become in e?cess of the amounts authorise" by Tables )) an" ))) anne?e" to this 'ection must be han"e" o%er in the manner lai" "own abo%e within such &erio"s as may be "eci"e" by the Bonferences referre" to in Article 1*C$ ART)B2. 1:H$ )m&ortation into Germany of arms, munitions an" war material of e%ery 7in" shall be strictly &rohibite"$ The same a&&lies to the manufacture for, an" e?&ort to, foreign countries of arms, munitions an" war material of e%ery 7in"$ ART)B2. 1:1 The use of as&hy?iating, &oisonous or other gases an" all analogous li9ui"s, materials or "e%ices being &rohibite", their manufacture an" im&ortation are strictly forbi""en in Germany$ The same a&&lies to materials s&ecially inten"e" for the manufacture, storage an" use of the sai" &ro"ucts or "e%ices$ The manufacture an" the im&ortation into Germany of armoure" cars, tan7s an" all similar constructions suitable for use in war are also &rohibite"$ ART)B2. 1:2$ Within a &erio" of three months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty, the German Go%ernment will "isclose to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers the nature an" mo"e of manufacture of all e?&losi%es, to?ic substances or other li7e chemical &re&arations use" by them in the war or &re&are" by them for the &ur&ose of being so use"$ B0A4T.R )))

R.BR()T)@G A@+ M)2)TARA TRA)@)@G ART)B2. 1:C$ (ni%ersal com&ulsory military ser%ice shall be abolishe" in Germany$ The German Army may only be constitute" an" recruite" by means of %oluntary enlistment$ ART)B2. 1:4 The &erio" of enlistment for non6commissione" officers an" &ri%ates must be twel%e consecuti%e years$ The number of men "ischarge" for any reason before the e?&iration of their term of enlistment must not e?cee" in any year fi%e &er cent$ of the total effecti%es fi?e" by the secon" sub&aragra&h of &aragra&h !)# of Article 1*H of the &resent Treaty$ ART)B2. 1:D$ The officers who are retaine" in the Army must un"erta7e the obligation to ser%e in it u& to the age of forty6fi%e years at least$ Jfficers newly a&&ointe" must un"erta7e to ser%e on the acti%e list for twenty6fi%e consecuti%e years at least$ Jfficers who ha%e &re%iously belonge" to any formations whate%er of the Army, an" who are not retaine" in the units allowe" to be maintaine", must not ta7e &art in any military e?ercise whether theoretical or &ractical, an" will not be un"er any military obligations whate%er$ The number of officers "ischarge" for any reason before the e?&iration of their term of ser%ice must not e?cee" in any year fi%e &er cent$ of the total effecti%es of officers &ro%i"e" for in the thir" sub6&aragra&h !)# of Article 1*H of the &resent Treaty$ ART)B2. 1:*$ Jn the e?&iration of two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty there must only e?ist in Germany the number of military schools which is absolutely in"is&ensable for the recruitment of the officers of the units allowe"$ These schools will be e?clusi%ely inten"e" for the recruitment of officers of each arm, in the &ro&ortion of one school &er arm$ The number of stu"ents a"mitte" to atten" the courses of the sai" schools will be strictly in &ro&ortion to the %acancies to be fille" in the ca"res of officers$ The stu"ents an" the ca"res will be rec7one" in the effecti%es fi?e" by the secon" an" thir" sub&aragra&hs of &aragra&h !)# of Article 1*H of the &resent Treaty$ Bonse9uently, an" "uring the &erio" fi?e" abo%e, all military aca"emies or similar institutions in Germany, as well as the "ifferent military schools for officers, stu"ent officers !As&iranten#, ca"ets, non6commissione" officers or stu"ent non6 commissione" officers !As&iranten#, other than the schools abo%e &ro%i"e" for, will be abolishe"$ ART)B2. 1::$ ."ucational establishments, the uni%ersities, societies of "ischarge" sol"iers, shooting or touring clubs an", generally s&ea7ing associations of e%ery "escri&tion, whate%er be the age of their members, must not occu&y themsel%es with any military matters$ )n &articular they will be forbi""en to instruct or e?ercise their members or to allow them to be instructe" or e?ercise", in the &rofession or use of arms$ These societies, associations, e"ucational establishments an" uni%ersities must ha%e no connection with the Ministries of War or any other military authority$ ART)B2. l:5$ All measures of mobilisation or a&&ertaining to mobilisation are forbi""en$ )n no case must formations, a"ministrati%e ser%ices or General 'taffs inclu"e su&&lementary ca"res$

ART)B2. 1: $ Germany agrees, from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty, not to accre"it nor to sen" to any foreign country any military, na%al or air mission, nor to allow any such mission to lea%e her territory, an" Germany further agrees to ta7e a&&ro&riate measures to &re%ent German nationals from lea%ing her territory to become enrolle" in the Army, @a%y or Air ser%ice of any foreign 4ower, or to be attache" to such Army, @a%y or Air ser%ice for the &ur&ose of assisting in the military, na%al or air training thereof, or otherwise for the &ur&ose of gi%ing military, na%al or air instruction in any foreign country$ The Allie" an" Associate" 4owers agree, so far as they are concerne", from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty, not to enroll in nor to attach to their armies or na%al or air forces any German national for the &ur&ose of assisting in the military training of such armies or na%al or air forces, or otherwise to em&loy any such German national as military, na%al or aeronautic instructor$ The &resent &ro%ision "oes not, howe%er, affect the right of France to recruit for the Foreign 2egion in accor"ance with French military laws an" regulations$ B0A4T.R )K$ FJRT)F)BAT)J@' ART)B2. 15H$ All fortifie" wor7s, fortresses an" fiel" wor7s situate" in German territory to the west of a line "rawn fifty 7ilometres to the east of the Rhine shall be "isarme" an" "ismantle"$ Within a &erio" of two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty such of the abo%e fortifie" wor7s, fortresses an" fiel" wor7s as are situate" in territory not occu&ie" by Allie" an" Associate" troo&s shall be "isarme", an" within a further &erio" of four months they shall be "ismantle"$ Those which are situate" in territory occu&ie" by Allie" an" Associate" troo&s shall be "isarme" an" "ismantle" within such &erio"s as may be fi?e" by the Allie" 0igh Bomman"$ The construction of any new fortification, whate%er its nature an" im&ortance, is forbi""en in the >one referre" to in the first &aragra&h abo%e$ The system of fortifie" wor7s of the southern an" eastern frontiers of Germany shall be maintaine" in its e?isting state$ '.BT)J@ ))$ @AKA2 B2A('.'$ ART)B2. 151$ After the e?&iration of a &erio" of two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the German na%al forces in commission must not e?cee"E * battleshi&s of the +eutschlan" or 2othringen ty&e, * light cruisers, 12 "estroyers, 12 tor&e"o boats, or an e9ual number of shi&s constructe" to re&lace them as &ro%i"e" in Article l H$ No submarines are to be in$lu)e): All other warshi&s, e?ce&t where there is &ro%ision to the contrary in the &resent Treaty, must be &lace" in reser%e or "e%ote" to commercial &ur&oses$ ART)B2. 152 (ntil the com&letion of the mineswee&ing &rescribe" by Article 1 C Germany will 7ee& in commission such number of mineswee&ing %essels as may be fi?e" by the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ ART)B2. 15C

After the e?&iration of a &erio" of two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty, the total &ersonnel of the German @a%y, inclu"ing the manning of the +eet, coast "efences, signal stations, a"ministration an" other lan" ser%ices, must not e?cee" fifteen thousan", inclu"ing officers an" men of all gra"es an" cor&s, The total strength of officers an" warrant officers must not e?cee" fifteen hun"re"$ Within two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the &ersonnel in e?cess of the abo%e strength shall be "emobilise"$ @o na%al or military cor&s or reser%e force in connection with the @a%y may be organise" in Germany without being inclu"e" in the abo%e strength$ ART)B2. 154 From the "ate of the coming into force of the &resent Treaty all the German surface warshi&s which are not in German &orts cease to belong to Germany, who renounces all rights o%er them$ Kessels which, in com&liance with the Armistice of @o%ember 11, 1 15, are now interne" in the &orts of the Allie" an" Associate" 4owers are "eclare" to be finally surren"ere"$ Kessels which are now interne" in neutral &orts will be there surren"ere" to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ The German Go%ernment must a""ress a notification to that effect to the neutral 4owers on the coming into force of the &resent Treaty$ ART)B2. 15D$ Within a &erio" of two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the German surface warshi&s enumerate" below will be surren"ere" to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers in such Allie" &orts as the sai" 4owers may "irect$ These warshi&s will ha%e been "isarme" as &ro%i"e" in Article PP))) of the Armistice of @o%ember 11, 1 15$ @e%ertheless they must ha%e all their guns on boar"$ -ATT2.'0)4'$ Jl"enburg$ Thuringen$ Jstfrieslan"$ 0elgolan"$ 4osen$ Westfalen$ Rheinlan"$ @assau$ 2)G0T BR()'.R'$ 'tettin$ +an>ig$ Munchen$ 2ubec7$ 'tralsun"$ Augsburg$ /olberg$ 'tuttgart$ an", in a""ition, forty6two mo"ern "estroyers an" fifty mo"ern tor&e"o boats, as chosen by the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ ART)B2. 15*$ Jn the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the German Go%ernment must un"erta7e, un"er the su&er%ision of the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers, the brea7ing u& of all the German surface warshi&s now un"er construction$ ART)B2. 15: $ The German au?iliary cruisers an" fleet au?iliaries enumerate" below will be "isarme" an" treate" as merchant shi&s$ )@T.R@.+ )@ @.(TRA2 BJ(@TR).'E -erlin$ 'anta Fe$ 'ey"lit>$ Aorc7$ )@ G.RMA@AE

Ammon$ Answal"$ -osnia$ Bor"oba$ Bassel$ +ania$ Rio @egro$ Rio 4ar"o$ 'anta Bru>$ 'chwaben$ 'olingen$ 'teigerwal"$ Fran7en$ Gun"omar$ Furst -ulow$ Gertru"$ /igoma$ Rugia$ 'anta .lena$ 'chleswig$ Mowe$ 'ierra Kentana$ Bhemnit>$ .mil Georg %on 'trauss$ 0absburg$ Meteor$ Waltraute$ 'charnhorst$ ART)B2. 155$ Jn the e?&iration of one month from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty all German submarines, submarine sal%age %essels an" "oc7s for submarines, inclu"ing the tubular "oc7, must ha%e been han"e" o%er to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ 'uch of these submarines, %essels an" "oc7s as are consi"ere" by the sai" Go%ernments to be fit to &rocee" un"er their own &ower or to be towe" shall be ta7en by the German Go%ernment$ into such Allie" &orts as ha%e been in"icate" The remain"er, an" also those in course of construction, shall be bro7en u& entirely by the German Go%ernment un"er the su&er%ision of the sai" Go%ernments$ The brea7ing6u& must be com&lete" within three months at the most after the coming into force of the &resent Treaty$ ART)B2. l5 $ Articles, machinery an" material arising from the brea7ing6u& of German warshi&s of all 7in"s, whether surface %essels or submarines, may not be use" e?ce&t for &urely in"ustrial or commercial &ur&oses$ They may not be sol" or "is&ose" of to foreign countries$ ART)B2. 1 H$ Germany is forbi""en to construct or ac9uire any warshi&s other than those inten"e" to re&lace the units in commission &ro%i"e" for in Article l51 of the &resent Treaty The warshi&s inten"e" for re&lacement &ur&oses as abo%e shall not e?cee" the following "is&lacementE Armoure" shi&s 1H,HHH tons 2ight cruisers *,HHH tons +estroyers 5HH tons Tor&e"o boats 2HH tons .?ce&t where a shi& has been lost, units of the "ifferent classes shall only be re&lace" at the en" of a &erio" of twenty years in the case of battleshi&s an" cruisers, an" fifteen years in the case of "estroyers an" tor&e"o boats, counting from the launching of the shi&$ ART)B2. 1 1$ The construction or ac9uisition of any submarine, e%en for commercial &ur&oses, shall be forbi""en in Germany$ ART)B2. 1 2$ The warshi&s in commission of the German fleet must ha%e on boar" or in reser%e only the allowance of arms, munitions an" war material fi?e" by the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ Within a month from the fi?ing of the 9uantities as abo%e, arms, munitions an" war material of all 7in"s, inclu"ing mines an" tor&e"oes, now in the han"s of the German Go%ernment an" in e?cess of the sai" 9uantities, shall be surren"ere" to the Go%ernments of the sai" 4owers at &laces to be in"icate" by them$ 'uch arms, munitions an" war material will be "estroye" or ren"ere" useless$ All other stoc7s, "e&ots or reser%es of arms, munitions or na%al war material of all 7in"s are forbi""en$ The manufacture of these articles in German territory for, an" their e?&ort to, foreign countries shall be forbi""en$

ART)B2. 1 C$ Jn the coming into force of the &resent Treaty Germany will forthwith swee& u& the mines in the following areas in the @orth 'ea to the eastwar" of longitu"e 4_ HHN, .$ of GreenwichE !1# -etween &arallels of latitu"e DC_ HHN, @$ an" D _ HHN, @$8 !2# To the northwar" of latitu"e *H_ CHN @$ Germany must 7ee& these areas free from mines$ Germany must also swee& an" 7ee& free from mines such areas in the -altic as may ultimately be notifie" by the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ ART)B2. 1 4$ The &ersonnel of the German @a%y shall be recruite" entirely by %oluntary engagements entere" into for a minimum &erio" of twenty6 fi%e consecuti%e years for officers an" warrant officers8 twel%e consecuti%e years for &etty officers an" men$ The number engage" to re&lace those "ischarge" for any reason before the e?&iration of their term of ser%ice must not e?cee" fi%e &er cent$ &er annum of the totals lai" "own in this 'ection !Article 15C#$ The &ersonnel "ischarge" from the @a%y must not recei%e any 7in" of na%al or military training or un"erta7e any further ser%ice in the @a%y or Army$ Jfficers belonging to the Germany @a%y an" not "emobilise" must engage to ser%e till the age of forty6fi%e, unless "ischarge" for sufficient reasons$ @o officer or man of the German mercantile marine shall recei%e any training in the @a%y$ ART)B2. 1 D$ )n or"er to ensure free &assage into the -altic to all nations, Germany shall not erect any fortifications in the area com&rise" between latitu"es DD_ 2:N @$ an" D4_ HHN @$ an" longitu"es _ HHN .$ an" 1*_ HHN .$ of the meri"ian of Greenwich, nor install any guns comman"ing the maritime routes between the @orth 'ea an" the -altic$ The fortifications now e?isting in this area shall be "emolishe" an" the guns remo%e" un"er the su&er%isions of the Allie" Go%ernments an" in &erio"s to be fi?e" by them$ The German Go%ernment shall &lace at the "is&osal of the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers all information now in its &ossession concerning the channels an" a"Loining waters between the -altic an" the @orth 'ea$ ART)B2. 1 *$ All fortifie" wor7s an" fortifications, other than those mentione" in 'ection P))) !0eligolan"# of 4art ))) !4olitical Blauses for .uro&e# an" in Article 1 D, now establishe" within fifty 7ilometres of the German coast or on German islan"s off that coast shall be consi"ere" as of a "efensi%e nature an" may remain in their e?isting con"ition$ @o new fortifications shall be constructe" within these limits$ The armament of these "efences shall not e?cee", as regar"s the number an" calibre of guns, those in &osition at the "ate of the coming into force of the &resent Treaty$ The German Go%ernment shall communicate forthwith &articulars thereof to all the .uro&ean Go%ernments$ Jn the e?&iration of a &erio" of two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the stoc7s of ammunition for these guns shall be re"uce" to an" maintaine" at a ma?imum figure of fifteen hun"re" roun"s &er &iece for calibres of 4$16inch an" un"er, an" fi%e hun"re" roun"s &er &iece for higher calibres$ ART)B2. 1 :$ +uring the three months following the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the German high6&ower wireless telegra&hy stations at @auen, 0ano%er an" -erlin shall not be use" for the transmission of messages concerning na%al, military or &olitical 9uestions of interest to Germany or any 'tate which has been allie" to Germany in the war, without the assent of the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al

Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ These stations may be use" for commercial &ur&oses, but only un"er the su&er%ision of the sai" Go%ernments, who will "eci"e the wa%elength to be use"$ +uring the same &erio" Germany shall not buil" any more high6&ower wireless telegra&hy stations in her own territory or that of Austria, 0ungary, -ulgaria or Tur7ey$ '.BT)J@ )))$ A)R B2A('.'$ ART)B2. 1 5$ The arme" forces of Germany must not inclu"e any military or na%al air forces$ Germany may, "uring a &erio" not e?ten"ing beyon" Jctober 1, 1 1 , maintain a ma?imum number of one hun"re" sea&lanes or flying boats, which shall be e?clusi%ely em&loye" in searching for submarine mines, shall be furnishe" with the necessary e9ui&ment for this &ur&ose, an" shall in no case carry arms, munitions or bombs of any nature whate%er$ )n a""ition to the engines installe" in the sea&lanes or flying boats abo%e mentione", one s&are engine may be &ro%i"e" for each engine of each of these craft$ @o "irigible shall be 7e&t$ ART)B2. 1 $

Within two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the &ersonnel of air forces on the rolls of the German lan" an" sea forces shall be "emobilise"$ (& to Jctober 1, 1 1 , howe%er, Germany may 7ee& an" maintain a total number of one thousan" men, inclu"ing officers, for the whole of the ca"res an" &ersonnel, flying an" non6flying, of all formations an" establishments$ ART)B2. 2HH$ (ntil the com&lete e%acuation of German territory by the Allie" an" Associate" troo&s, the aircraft of the Allie" an" Associate" 4owers shall enLoy in Germany free"om of &assage through the air, free"om of transit an" of lan"ing$ ART)B2. 2H1$ +uring the si? months following the coming into force of the &resent Treaty, the manufacture an" im&ortation of aircraft, &arts of aircraft, engines for aircraft, an" &arts of engines for aircraft, shall be forbi""en in all German territory$ ART)B2. 2H2$ Jn the coming into force of the &resent Treaty, all military an" na%al aeronautical material, e?ce&t the machines mentione" in the secon" an" thir" &aragra&hs of Article 1 5, must be "eli%ere" to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ +eli%ery must be effecte" at such &laces as the sai" Go%ernments may select, an" must be com&lete" within three months$ )n &articular, this material will inclu"e all items un"er the following hea"s which are or ha%e been in use or were "esigne" for warli7e &ur&osesE Bom&lete aero&lanes an" sea&lanes, as well as those being manufacture", re&aire" or assemble"$ +irigibles able to ta7e the air, being manufacture", re&aire" or assemble"$ 4lant for the manufacture of hy"rogen$ +irigible she"s an" shelters of e%ery 7in" for aircraft$

4en"ing their "eli%ery, "irigibles will, at the e?&ense of Germany, be maintaine" inflate" with hy"rogen8 the &lant for the manufacture of hy"rogen, as well as the she"s for "irigibles may at the "iscretion of the sai" 4owers, be left to Germany until the time when the "irigibles are han"e" o%er$ .ngines for aircraft$ @acelles an" fuselages$ Armament !guns, machine guns, light machine guns, bomb"ro&&ing a&&aratus, tor&e"o6"ro&&ing a&&aratus, synchronisation a&&aratus, aiming a&&aratus#$ Munitions !cartri"ges, shells, bombs loa"e" or unloa"e", stoc7s of e?&losi%es or of material for their manufacture#$ )nstruments for use on aircraft$ Wireless a&&aratus an" &hotogra&hic or cinematogra&h a&&aratus for use on aircraft$ Bom&onent &arts of any of the items un"er the &rece"ing hea"s$ The material referre" to abo%e shall not be remo%e" without s&ecial &ermission from the sai" Go%ernments$ '.BT)J@ )K$ )@T.R6A22).+ BJMM)'')J@' JF BJ@TRJ2$ ART)B2. 2HC$ All the military, na%al an" air clauses containe" in the &resent Treaty, for the e?ecution of which a time6limit is &rescribe", shall be e?ecute" by Germany un"er the control of )nter6Allie" Bommissions s&ecially a&&ointe" for this &ur&ose by the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ ART)B2. 2H4$ The )nter6Allie" Bommissions of Bontrol will be s&ecially charge" with the "uty of seeing to the com&lete e?ecution of the "eli%ery, "estruction, "emolition an" ren"ering things useless to be carrie" out at the e?&ense of the German Go%ernment in accor"ance with the &resent Treaty$ They will communicate to the German authorities the "ecisions which the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers ha%e reser%e" the right to ta7e, or which the e?ecution of the military, na%al an" air clauses may necessitate$ ART)B2. 2HD$ The )nter6Allie" Bommissions of Bontrol may establish their organisations at the seat of the central German Go%ernment$ They shall be entitle" as often as they thin7 "esirable to &rocee" to any &oint whate%er in German territory, or to sen" subcommissions, or to authorise one or more of their members to go, to any such &oint$ ART)B2. 2H*$ The German Go%ernment must gi%e all necessary facilities for the accom&lishment of their missions to the )nter6Allie" Bommissions of Bontrol an" to their members$ )t shall attach a 9ualifie" re&resentati%e to each )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol for the &ur&ose of recei%ing the communications which the Bommission may ha%e to a""ress to the German Go%ernment an" of su&&lying or &rocuring for the Bommission all information or "ocuments which may be re9uire"$ The German Go%ernment must in all cases furnish at its own cost all labour an" material re9uire" to effect the "eli%eries an" the wor7s of "estruction, "ismantling, "emolition, an" of ren"ering things useless, &ro%i"e" for in the &resent Treaty$

ART)B2. 2H:$ The u&7ee& an" cost of the Bommissions of Bontrol an" the e?&enses in%ol%e" by their wor7 shall be borne by Germany$ ART)B2. 2H5$ The Military )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol will re&resent the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers in "ealing with the German Go%ernment in all matters concerning the e?ecution of the military clauses$ )n &articular it will be its "uty to recei%e from the German Go%ernment the notifications relating to the location of the stoc7s an" "e&ots of munitions, the armament of the fortifie" wor7s, fortresses an" forts which Germany is allowe" to retain, an" the location of the wor7s or factories for the &ro"uction of arms, munitions an" war material an" their o&erations$ )t will ta7e "eli%ery of the arms, munitions an" war material, will select the &oints where such "eli%ery is to be effecte", an" will su&er%ise the wor7s of "estruction, "emolition, an" of ren"ering things useless, which are to be carrie" out in accor"ance with the &resent Treaty$ The German Go%ernment must furnish to the Military )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol all such information an" "ocuments as the latter may "eem necessary to ensure the com&lete e?ecution of the military clauses, an" in &articular all legislati%e an" a"ministrati%e "ocuments an" regulations$ ART)B2. 2H $ The @a%al )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol will re&resent the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers in "ealing with the German Go%ernment in all matters concerning the e?ecution of the na%al clauses$ )n &articular it will be its "uty to &rocee" to the buil"ing yar"s an" to su&er%ise the brea7ing6u& of the shi&s which are un"er construction there, to ta7e "eli%ery of all surface shi&s or submarines, sal%age shi&s, "oc7s an" the tubular "oc7s, an" to su&er%ise the "estruction an" brea7ing6u& &ro%i"e" for$ The German Go%ernment must furnish to the @a%al )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol all such information an" "ocuments as the Bommission may "eem necessary to ensure the com&lete e?ecution of the na%al clauses, in &articular the "esigns of the warshi&s, the com&osition of their armaments, the "etails an" mo"els of the guns, munitions, tor&e"oes, mines, e?&losi%es, wireless telegra&hic a&&aratus an", in general, e%erything relating to na%al war material, as well as all legislati%e or a"ministrati%e "ocuments or regulations$ ART)B2. 21H$ The Aeronautical )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol will re&resent the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers in "ealing with the German Go%ernment in all matters concerning the e?ecution of the air clauses$ )n &articular it will be its "uty to ma7e an in%entory of the aeronautical material e?isting in German territory, to ins&ect aero&lane, balloon an" motor manufactories, an" factories &ro"ucing arms, munitions an" e?&losi%es ca&able of being use" by aircraft, to %isit all aero"romes, she"s, lan"ing groun"s, &ar7s an" "e&ots, to authorise, where necessary, a remo%al of material an" to ta7e "eli%ery of such material$ The German Go%ernment must furnish to the Aeronautical )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol all such information an" legislati%e, a"ministrati%e or other "ocuments which the Bommission may consi"er necessary to ensure the com&lete e?ecution of the air clauses, an" in &articular a list of the &ersonnel belonging to all the German Air 'er%ices, an" of the e?isting material, as well as of that in &rocess of manufacture or on or"er, an" a list of all establishments wor7ing for a%iation, of their &ositions, an" of all she"s an" lan"ing groun"s$ '.BT)J@ K$ G.@.RA2 ART)B2.'$ ART)B2. 211$

After the e?&iration of a &erio" of three months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty, the German laws must ha%e been mo"ifie" an" shall be maintaine" by the German Go%ernment in conformity with this 4art of the &resent Treaty$ Within the same &erio" all the a"ministrati%e or other measures relating to the e?ecution of this 4art of the Treaty must ha%e been ta7en$ ART)B2. 212$ The following &ortions of the Armistice of @o%ember 11, 1 15 Article K), the first two an" the si?th an" se%enth &aragra&hs of Article K))8 Article )P8 Blauses ), )) an" K of Anne? n_ 2, an" the 4rotocol, "ate" A&ril 4, 1 1 , su&&lementing the Armistice of @o%ember 11, 1 15, remain in force so far as they are not inconsistent with the abo%e sti&ulations$ ART)B2. 21C$ 'o long as the &resent Treaty remains in force, Germany un"erta7es to gi%e e%ery facility for any in%estigation which the Bouncil of the 2eague of @ations, acting if nee" be by a maLority %ote, may consi"er necessary$ 'ourceE htt&EGGnet$lib$byu$e"uGRr"h:GwwiG%ersaG%ersa4$html Articles 231-247 and Annexes e!arati"ns 4ART K)))$ R.4ARAT)J@$ '.BT)J@ l$ G.@.RA2 4RJK)')J@'$ ART)B2. 2C1$ The Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments affirm an" Germany acce&ts the res&onsibility of Germany an" her allies for causing all the loss an" "amage to which the Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments an" their nationals ha%e been subLecte" as a conse9uence of the war im&ose" u&on them by the aggression of Germany an" her allies$ ART)B2.E 2C2$ The Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments recognise that the resources of Germany are not a"e9uate, after ta7ing into account &ermanent "iminutions of such resources which will result from other &ro%isions of the &resent Treaty, to ma7e com&lete re&aration for all such loss an" "amage$ The Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments, howe%er, re9uire, an" Germany un"erta7es, that she will ma7e com&ensation for all "amage "one to the ci%ilian &o&ulation of the Allie" an" Associate" 4owers an" to their &ro&erty "uring the &erio" of the belligerency of each as an Allie" or Associate" 4ower against Germany by such aggression by lan", by sea an" from the air, an" in general all "amage as "efine" in Anne? l hereto$ )n accor"ance with GermanyNs &le"ges, alrea"y gi%en, as to com&lete restoration for -elgium, Germany un"erta7es, in a""ition to the com&ensation for "amage elsewhere in this 4art &ro%i"e" for, as a conse9uence of the %iolation of the Treaty of 15C , to ma7e reimbursement of all sums which -elgium has borrowe" from the Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments u& to @o%ember 11, 1 15, together with interest at the rate of fi%e &er cent !D\# &er annum on such sums$ This amount shall be "etermine" by the Re&aration Bommission, an" the German Go%ernment un"erta7es thereu&on forthwith to ma7e a s&ecial issue of bearer bon"s to an e9ui%alent amount &ayable in mar7s gol", on May 1, 1 2*, or, at the o&tion of the German Go%ernment, on the 1st of May in any year u& to 1 2*$ 'ubLect to the foregoing, the form of such bon"s shall be "etermine" by the Re&aration Bommission$ 'uch bon"s shall be han"e" o%er to the Re&aration Bommission, which has authority to ta7e an" ac7nowle"ge recei&t thereof on behalf of -elgium$ ART)B2. 2CC$

The amount of the abo%e "amage for which com&ensation is to be ma"e by Germany shall be "etermine" by an )nter6Allie" Bommission, to be calle" the Re&aration Bommission an" constitute" in the form an" with the &owers set forth hereun"er an" in Anne?es )) to K)) inclusi%e hereto$ This Bommission shall consi"er the claims an" gi%e to the German Go%ernment a Lust o&&ortunity to be hear"$ The fin"ings of the Bommission as to the amount of "amage "efine" as abo%e shall be conclu"e" an" notifie" to the German Go%ernment on or before May 1, 1 21, as re&resenting the e?tent of that Go%ernmentNs obligations$ , The Bommission shall concurrently "raw u& a sche"ule of &ayments &rescribing the time an" manner for securing an" "ischarging the entire obligation within a &erio" of thirty years from May 1, 1 21$ )f, howe%er, within the &erio" mentione", Germany fails to "ischarge her obligations, any balance remaining un&ai" may, within the "iscretion of the Bommission, be &ost&one" for settlement in subse9uent years, or may be han"le" otherwise in such manner as the Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments, acting in accor"ance with the &roce"ure lai" "own in this 4art of the &resent Treaty, shall "etermine$ ART)B2. 2C4$ The Re&aration Bommission shall after May 1 , 1 21, from time to time, consi"er the resources an" ca&acity of Germany, an", after gi%ing her re&resentati%es a Lust o&&ortunity to be hear", shall ha%e "iscretion to e?ten" the "ate, an" to mo"ify the form of &ayments, such as are to be &ro%i"e" for in accor"ance with Article 2CC8 but not to cancel any &art, e?ce&t with the s&ecific authority of the se%eral Go%ernments re&resente" u&on the Bommission$ ART)B2. 2CD$ )n or"er to enable the Allie" an" Associate" 4owers to &rocee" at once to the restoration of their in"ustrial an" economic life, &en"ing the full "etermination of their claims, Germany shall &ay in such installments an" in such manner !whether in gol", commo"ities, shi&s, securities or otherwise# as the Re&aration Bommission may fi?, "uring 1 1 , 1 2H an" the first four months Jf 1 21 , the e9ui%alent of 2H,HHH,HHH,HHH gol" mar7s$ Jut of this sum the e?&enses of the armies of occu&ation subse9uent to the Armistice of @o%ember 11, 1 15, shall first be met, an" such su&&lies of foo" an" raw materials as may be Lu"ge" by the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers to be essential to enable Germany to meet her obligations for re&aration may also, with the a&&ro%al of the sai" Go%ernments, be &ai" for out of the abo%e sum$ The balance shall be rec7one" towar"s li9ui"ation of the amounts "ue for re&aration$ Germany shall further "e&osit bon"s as &rescribe" in &aragra&h 12 !c# Jf Anne? )) hereto$ ART)B2. 2C*$ Germany further agrees to the "irect a&&lication of her economic resources to re&aration as s&ecifie" in Anne?es, ))), )K, K, an" K), relating res&ecti%ely to merchant shi&&ing, to &hysical restoration, to coal an" "eri%ati%es of coal, an" to "yestuffs an" other chemical &ro"ucts8 &ro%i"e" always that the %alue of the &ro&erty transferre" an" any ser%ices ren"ere" by her un"er these Anne?es, assesse" in the manner therein &rescribe" shall be cre"ite" to her towar"s li9ui"ation of her obligations un"er the abo%e Articles$ ART)B2. 2C:$ The successi%e installments, inclu"ing the abo%e sum, &ai" o%er by Germany in satisfaction of the abo%e claims will be "i%i"e" by the Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments in &ro&ortions which ha%e been "etermine" u&on by them in a"%ance on a basis of general e9uity an" of the rights of each$ For the &ur&oses of this "i%ision the %alue of &ro&erty transferre" an" ser%ices ren"ere" un"er Article 24C, an" un"er Anne?es ))), )K, K, K), an" K)), shall be rec7one" in the same manner as cash &ayments effecte" in that year$ ART)B2. 2C5$ )n a""ition to the &ayments mentione" abo%e Germany shall effect, in accor"ance with the &roce"ure lai" "own by the Re&aration Bommission, restitution in cash of cash ta7en away, sei>e" or se9uestrate", an" also restitution of animals, obLects of e%ery nature an" securities ta7en away, sei>e" or se9uestrate", in the cases in which it &ro%es &ossible to i"entify them in territory belonging to Germany or her allies$ (ntil this &roce"ure is lai" "own, restitution will continue in accor"ance with the &ro%isions of the Armistice of @o%ember 11, 1 15, an" its renewals an" the 4rotocols thereto$

ART)B2. 2C $ The German Go%ernment un"erta7es to ma7e forthwith the restitution contem&late" by Article 2C5 an" to ma7e the &ayments an" "eli%eries contem&late" by Articles 2CC, 2C4, 2CD an" 2C*$ ART)B2. 24H$ The German Go%ernment recognises the Bommission &ro%i"e" for by Article 2CC as the same may be constitute" by the Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments in accor"ance with Anne? )), an" agrees irre%ocably to the &ossession an" e?ercise by such Bommission of the &ower an" authority gi%en to it un"er the &resent Treaty$ The German Go%ernment will su&&ly to the Bommission all the information which the Bommission may re9uire relati%e to the financial situation an" o&erations an" to the &ro&erty, &ro"ucti%e ca&acity, an" stoc7s an" current &ro"uction of raw materials an" manufacture" articles of Germany an" her nationals, an" further any information relati%e to military o&erations which in the Lu"gment of the Bommission may be necessary for the assessment of GermanyNs liability for re&aration as "efine" in Anne? )$ The German Go%ernment will accor" to the members of the Bommission an" its authorise" agents the same rights an" immunities as are enLoye" in Germany by "uly accre"ite" "i&lomatic agents of frien"ly 4owers$ Germany further agrees to &ro%i"e for the salaries an" e?&enses of the Bommission an" of such staff as it may em&loy$ ART)B2. 241$ Germany un"erta7es to &ass, issue an" maintain in force any legislation, or"ers an" "ecrees that may be necessary to gi%e com&lete effect to these &ro%isions$ ART)B2. 242$ The &ro%isions of this 4art of the &resent Treaty "o not a&&ly to the &ro&erty, rights an" interests referre" to in 'ections ))) an" )K of 4art P !.conomic Blauses# of the &resent Treaty, nor to the &ro"uct of their li9ui"ation, e?ce&t so far as concerns any final balance in fa%our of Germany un"er Article 24C !a#$ ART)B2. 24C The following shall be rec7one" as cre"its to Germany in res&ect of her re&aration obligationsE !a# Any final balance in fa%our of Germany un"er 'ection K !Alsace6 2orraine# of 4art ))) !4olitical Blauses for .uro&e# an" 'ections ))) an" )K of 4art P !.conomic Blauses# of the &resent Treaty8 !b# Amounts "ue to Germany in res&ect of transfers un"er 'ection )K !'aar -asin# of 4art ))) !4olitical Blauses for .uro&e#, 4art )P Financial Blauses#, an" 4art P)) !4orts, Waterways an" Railways#8 !c# Amounts which in the Lu"gment of the Re&aration Bommission shoul" be cre"ite" to Germany on account of any other transfers un"er the &resent Treaty of &ro&erty, rights, concessions or other interests$ )n no case, howe%er, shall cre"it be gi%en for &ro&erty restore" in accor"ance with Article 2C5 of the &resent 4art$ ART)B2. 244 The transfer of the German submarine cables which "o not form the subLect of &articular &ro%isions of the &resent Treaty is regulate" by Anne? K)) hereto$ 'ourceE htt&EGGnet$lib$byu$e"uGRr"h:GwwiG%ersaG%ersa:$html

2eague of @ations F )ts A"ministration J%er 'aar -asin F Free Bity of +an>ig

A"olf 0itler, the Fuhrer of @a>i Germany, %isits +an>ig on 'e&tember 1 , 1 C , "uring @a>i Germany,s ongoing in%asion an" anne?ation of western 4olan"$

2eftE Flag of the Territory of the 'aar -asin !1 2H61 CD# BenterE .mblem of the 2eague of @ations RightE Flag of the Free Bity of +an>ig !1 2H61 C #

Ma& of the Free Bity of +an>ig

Free Bity of +an>ig !G"ans7# in 1 C

League of Nations +igh 'ommissioners of the Free 'ity of Aanzig

Reginal" Thomas Tower !(nite" /ing"om, 1 1 61 2H# ."war" 2isle 'trutt !(nite" /ing"om, 1 2H# -ernar"o Attolico !)taly, 1 2H# Richar" Byril -yrne 0a7ing !(nite" /ing"om, 1 2161 2C# Mer%yn 'orley Mc+onnell !(nite" /ing"om, 1 2C61 2D# Joost A"riaan %an 0amel !@etherlan"s, 1 2D61 2 # Manfre"i "i Gra%ina !)taly, 1 2 61 C2# 0elmer Rosting !+enmar7, 1 C261 C4# 'e`n 2ester !)rish Free 'tate, 1 C461 C*# Barl Ja7ob -urc7har"t !'wit>erlan", 1 C:61 C #

German lawyer 0einrich 'ahm ser%e" as Presi)ent of the *enate of the Free 'ity of Aanzig !* +ecember 1 2H ; January 1 C1#, Mayor of +an>ig !1 1 #, an" Mayor of -erlin !14 A&ril 1 C1 ; 15 +ecember 1 CD#$ 'ahm "ie" in Jslo, @orway on Jctober C, 1 C $ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

Ma& of the Territory of the 'aar -asin

'aarbruc7en, the ca&ital of 'aar &ro%ince of Germany in the early 2Hth century$ The German &eo&le in 'aar &artici&ate" in a &lebiscite regar"ing their &olitical future on January 1C, 1 CD8 the Germans %ote" o%erwhelmingly in fa%or of unification with Germany$ Germany assumes control o%er the Go%ernment of the 'aar Territory on March 1, 1 CD$

Bhairmen of the Bommission of Go%ernment of the Territory of the 'aar -asinE Kictor Rault, France !2* February 1 2H ; C1 March 1 2*# George Washington 'te&hens, Bana"a !1 A&ril 1 2* ; June 1 2:# 'ir .rnest Bol%ille Bollins Wilton, (nite" /ing"om ! June 1 2: ; C1 March 1 C2# 'ir Geoffrey George /no?, (nite" /ing"om !1 A&ril 1 C2 ; 25 February 1 CD#

1All the original &eace treaties consiste" of fi%e chief &artsE !a# the Bo%enant of the 2eague of @ations8 !b# the territorial &ro%isions8 !c# the "isarmament &ro%ision8 !"# the re&arations &ro%isions8 an" !e# &enalties an" guarantees$ The first of these must be reser%e" until later, but the others shoul" be mentione" here$ )n theory, the territorial &ro%isions of the treaties were base" on 1self6"etermination,3 but in fact they were usually base" on other consi"erationsE strategic, economic, &uniti%e, legal &ower, or com&ensation$ -y 1self6"etermination3 the &eacema7ers usually meant 1nationality,3 an" by 1nationality3 they usually meant 1language,3 e?ce&t in the Jttoman .m&ire where OnationalityO usually meant 1religion$3 The si? cases where self6 "etermination !that is, &lebiscites# was actually use" showe" that the &eo&les of these areas were not so nationalistic as the &eacema7ers belie%e"$ -ecause in Allenstein, where 4olish6s&ea7ing &eo&le were 4H &ercent of the &o&ulation, only 2 &ercent %ote" to Loin 4olan", the area was returne" to Germany8 in (&&er 'ilesia, where the com&arable figures were *D &ercent an" 4H &ercent, the area was s&lit, the more in"ustrial eastern &ortion going to 4olan", while the more rural western &art was returne" to Germany8 in /lagenfurt, where 'lo%ene6s&ea7ers forme" *5 &ercent of the &o&ulation, only 4H &ercent wante" to Loin Augosla%ia, so the area was left in Austria$ 'omewhat similar results occurre" in Marienwer"er, but not in northern 'chleswig, which %ote" to Loin +enmar7$ )n each case, the %oters, &robably for economic reasons, chose to Loin the economically more &ros&erous state rather than the one sharing the same language$ )n a""ition to the areas mentione", Germany ha" to return Alsace an" 2orraine to France, gi%e three small "istricts to -elgium, an" aban"on the northern e"ge of .ast 4russia aroun" Memel to the Allie" 4owers$ This last area was gi%en to the new state of 2ithuania in 1 24 by the Bonference of Ambassa"ors$ The $hief territorial )is#utes arose o,er the Polish 'orri)or6 the Rhinelan)6 an) the *aar: The Fourteen 4oints ha" &romise" to establish an in"e&en"ent 4olan" with access to the -altic 'ea$ )t ha" been French &olicy, since about 1DHH, to o&&ose any strong state in central .uro&e by see7ing allies in eastern .uro&e$ With the colla&se of Russia in 1 1:, the French sought a substitute ally in 4olan"$ Accor"ingly, Foch wante" to gi%e all of .ast 4russia to 4olan"$ )nstea", the e?&erts !who were %ery &ro64olish# ga%e 4olan" access to the sea by se%ering .ast 4russia from the rest of Germany by creating a 4olish Borri"or in the %alley of the Kistula$ Most of the area was 4olish6s&ea7ing, an" German commerce with .ast 4russia was largely by sea$ +o&e,er6 the $ity of Aanzig6 at the mouth of the 1istula6 &as $learly a German $ity: 2British Prime ;inister3 Lloy) George refuse) to gi,e it to Polan): =nstea)6 it &as ma)e a Free 'ity un)er the #rote$tion of the League of Nations: The French wishe" to "etach the whole of Germany west of the Rhine !the so6calle" Rhinelan"# to create a se&arate state an" increase French security against Germany$ They ga%e u& their se&aratist agitation in return for WilsonNs &romise of March 14, 1 1 to gi%e a Loint Anglo6American guarantee against a German attac7$ This &romise was signe" in treaty form on June 25, 1 1 , but fell through when the (nite" 'tates 'enate "i" not ratify the agreement$ 'ince Blemenceau ha" been able to &ersua"e Foch an" 4oincarV to acce&t the Rhine settlement only because of this guarantee, its failure to materiali>e en"e" his &olitical career$ The Rhinelan" settlement as it stoo" ha" two 9uite se&arate &ro%isions$ Jn the one han", the Rhinelan" an" three bri"gehea"s on the right ban7 of the Rhine were to be occu&ie" by Allie" troo&s for from fi%e to fifteen years$ (n the other han) the Rhinelan) an) a zone fifty /ilometers &i)e along the right ban/ &ere to be #ermanently )emilitarize) an) any ,iolation of this $oul) be regar)e) as a hostile a$t by the signers of the treaty: This meant that any German troo#s or fortifi$ations &ere e<$lu)e) from this area fore,er: =&is 92s t&e most import2nt cl2use of t&e =re2t: of Vers2illes$ 'o long as it remaine" in effect, the great in"ustrial region of the Ruhr on the right ban7 of the Rhine, the economic bac7bone of GermanyNs ability to wage warfare, was e?&ose" to a 9uic7 French military thrust from the west, an" Germany coul" not threaten France or mo%e eastwar" against B>echoslo%a7ia or 4olan" if France obLecte"$ Jf these two clauses, the military occu&ation of the Rhinelan" an" the bri"gehea"s was en"e" in 1 CH, fi%e years ahea" of sche"ule$ This ma"e it &ossible for 0itler to "estroy the secon" &ro%ision, the "emilitari>ation of western Germany, by remilitari>ing the area in March 1 C*$ The last "is&ute" territorial change of the Treaty of Kersailles was concerne" with the 'aar -asin, rich in in"ustry an" coal$ Although its &o&ulation was clearly German, the French claime" most of it in 1 1 on the groun"s that two6thir"s of it ha" been insi"e the French frontiers of 1514 an" that they shoul" obtain the coal mines as com&ensation for the French mines "estroye" by the Germans in 1 15$ They "i" get the mines, but the area was se&arate" &olitically from both countries to be rule" by the 2eague of @ations for fifteen years an" then gi%en a &lebiscite$ When the &lebiscite was hel" in 1 CD, after an a"mirable 2eague a"ministration, only about 2,HHH out of about D25,HHH %ote" to Loin France, while about H &ercent wishe" to Loin Germany, the remain"er in"icating their "esire to continue un"er 2eague rule$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, &$ 2:*62:5

'&artacist (&rising F German Re%olution !1 1561 1 #

German army soldiers o00upy t*e (ilesian &ailway (tation in Berlin, Germany during t*e (parta0ist uprisingin early 1919. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

$erman <"'arta#ist= )ommunist re2els Rosa Lu-em2urg *left+ and Karl Lie2(ne#ht 0ere e-e#uted 2 the $erman arm in Berlin during the failed "'arta#us u'rising in Berlin on Januar 1/, 19191 Bot* &osa Lu6emburg and ;arl Liebkne0*t 0ame 2rom middle@0lass /ewis* 2amilies. &osa Lu6emburg met &ussian $ommunist 7ladimir Lenin at t*e &ussian (o0ial Demo0ratsA +i2t* Party Day in London in 19C1.

&evolutionary (parta0ists mar0* into t*e Berlin $astle in November 191: s*ortly a2ter t*e abdi0ation o2 ;aiser Wil*elm '' o2 Germany and t*e German .rmisti0e.

Le2t5 3*e (parta0us League, wit* &osa Lu6emburg "0enter) in attendan0e &ig*t5 ;arl Liebkne0*t "le2t) and &osa Lu6emburg "rig*t) are seen walking toget*er in an undated p*oto.

German sailors of the /riegsmarine !)m&erial German @a%y# &rotest at Wilhelmsha%en, Germany in @o%ember 1 15 "uring the /iel Mutiny$ The /iel Mutiny began on @o%ember C, 1 15$

German sailors of the /riegsmarine &ose for a grou& &hoto "uring the /iel Mutiny in @o%ember 1 15$ Te?t su&&lie" by the German Fe"eral Archi%e together with the &hotoE 1With the rebellion of the sailors an" wor7ers on C @o%ember 1 15 in /iel, the @o%ember Re%olution begins$ Jn * @o%ember 1 15, the re%olutionary mo%ement reaches Wilhelmsha%en, Germany$ Jur &icture shows the sol"iersN council of the 5rin+regent "uit&old$3

German soldiers mar0* past t*e Brandenburg Gate in Berlin in De0ember 191: 2ollowing t*e November 11 armisti0e.

De2eated German soldiers mar0* t*roug* Berlin, Germany in De0ember 191:.

German /ewis* $ommunist rebel ;arl Liebkne0*t addresses a 0rowd o2 pro@(oviet $ommunist (parti0ists in Berlin in /anuary 1919, several days prior to *is assassination in Berlin on /anuary 14, 1919.

. German soldier aims *is ri2le at a group o2 protestors during t*e (parta0us 9prising in Berlin in 1919. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

(parta0ist guards lead an uprising in Berlin in /anuary 1919 against t*e newly establis*ed German government EWeimar &epubli0F, 0alling 2or a so0ialist@0ommunist republi0. German troops remained loyal to t*e new Weimar government and 0rus*ed t*e (parta0ist uprising. "?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'()

German soldiers guard an interse0tion wit* barbed wires during t*e German &evolution o2 1919. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

German soldiers *old t*eir positions during some o2 t*e street 2ig*ting t*at a22e0ted Germany in 1919 2ollowing its de2eat in World War '. "&yko22 $olle0tion#$%&B'()

German army soldiers mar0* towards .le6anderplat8 in Berlin as t*ey prepare to 2ig*t t*e 0ommunist (parta0an rebels wit* tanks and 2lame t*rowers on .pril 1:, 1919. "9nderwood < 9nderwood#$%&B'()

German $*an0ellor P*ilipp (0*eidemann, w*o served as $*an0ellor o2 Germany 2rom +ebruary 1!, 1919 R /une C, 1919, speaks to a 0rowd in Berlin in ,ay 1919.

3*ousands o2 Germans protest against t*e 7ersailles treaty on t*e ;oenigsplat8 in Berlin, Germany on /une 1 , 1919. 3*is demonstration was made by t*e Germans driven 2rom .lsa0e Lorraine. "9nderwood < 9nderwood#$%&B'()

Ma& of Germany !1Weimar Re&ublic3# from 1 1 61 C:

/a&& 4utsch !1 2H#, -eer 0all 4utsch !1 2C#, 0y&erinflation !1 2C#, 4olitical Assassinations, F French Military Jccu&ation of the Ruhr !1 2C#

3*e German army led by German .rmy General Walt*er von LUttwit8, 0ommander o2 t*e Berlin Reichswehr, o00upies Berlin during t*e ;app Puts0* "also known as ;app@LUttwit8 Puts0*) in ,ar0* 19 C. 3*e ;app Puts0* was a s*ort@lived military rebellion led by t*e German army a2ter t*e Weimar &epubli0 government attempted to redu0e t*e si8e o2 t*e German armed 2or0es as reIuired by t*e 7ersailles treaty. ,embers o2 t*e Weimar &epubli0 0abinet eva0uated Berlin and temporarily establis*ed its seat o2 government in Dresden and later in (tuttgart. . general strike led by German workers eventually 2or0ed t*e rebellious 2a0tions o2 t*e German army to end t*e rebellion. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

2eftE Matthias .r>berger, the Finance Minister of Germany, was assassinate" in southwest Germany on August 2*, 1 21$ .r>berger was mur"ere" because he was one of the German re&resentati%es who signe" the 1 15 armistice$ RightE Walter Rathenau, the Foreign Minister of Germany !February 1, 1 22 ; June 24, 1 22# an" a &rominent German Jewish businessman, was assassinate" in -erlin on June 24, 1 22$ Members of the Jrganisation Bonsul, an ultra6nationalist German gang organi>ation, were allege"ly in%ol%e" in the assassination of .r>berger an" Rathenau$

3*e German army o00upies Berlin during t*e ;app Puts0* in ,ar0* 19 C. 3*e banner says5 H(top, w*osoever pro0eeds will be s*otH.

Disgruntled and unemployed German men wait in a bread line in Berlin, Germany in November 19 !. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

Germans wait in line to buy s0ar0e meat in 19 ! "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv)

Le2t p*oto5 . German woman prepare to use *er 0olle0tion o2 &ei0*sbank bank notes "German mark) 2or 0ooking 2uel in *er *ome during t*e *yperin2lation t*at a22e0ted Germany in 19 !. &ig*t p*oto5 . German man uses a w*eelbarrow to 0arry *is 0olle0tion o2 German marks.

Le2t p*oto5 . German woman 2eeds a stove wit* 0urren0y notes, w*i0* burn longer t*an t*e amount o2 2irewood t*ey 0an buy. &ig*t p*oto5 German 0*ildren build a pyramid using a bundle o2 German bank notes during t*e *yperin2lation in 19 !.

. group o2 businessmen 0arry gold to t*e bank in Berlin, Germany during t*e German *yperin2lation in 19 ! t*at was initiated by t*e &ei0*sbank, GermanyAs 0entral bank. 3*e .llies imposed a reparations payment o2 1! billion gold marks "9.(. W!! billion) on Germany in .pril 19 1. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

German 4C million ,ark banknote printed on (eptember 1, 19 ! and wort* about W1 at t*e time. "Note5 3*e ba0k side was le2t blank to keep printing 0osts down. . 2ew weeks later it would be totally wort*less.)

+ren0* army soldiers in t*e &u*r in Germany disarm t*e German Green Poli0e in t*eir e22ort to maintain pea0e in t*e o00upied area. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

+ren0* soldiers o00upy t*e &u*r region o2 Germany in 19 ! a2ter t*e German government under $*an0ellor Dr. Wil*elm $uno 2ailed to pay reparation payments to +ran0e in a timely manner. 3*e German government under $uno approved o2 *yperin2lation t*at led to GermanyAs e0onomi0 0ollapse in 19 ! and later a00epted loans 2rom .meri0an 2inan0iers led by $*arles G. Dawes and %wen D. =oung in 19 !> t*e loans were known as t*e Dawes Plan. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

Military occu&ie" >ones of western Germany by the en" of 1 2C

French occu&ation troo&s lea%e +ortmun", Germany in Jctober 1 24$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

German troops enter Dresden to put down $ommunist riots on Novem2er !, 19!3. . $ommunist uprising o00urred in ?amburg on 4#to2er !3, 19!3. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

The 0amburg (&rising was a Bommunist &olitical insurrection that began in 0amburg, Germany on Jctober 2C, 1 2C by the one of the most militant sections of the 0amburg "istrict Bommunist 4arty !/4+#, the /5 Wasserkante$ From a military &oint of %iew, the attem&t was futile an" it was o%er within 24 hours$ Rebels storme" 24 &olice stations, 1: in 0amburg an" se%en in 'chleswig60olstein 4ro%ince in 4russia$ J%er 1HH &eo&le "ie" "uring the 0amburg (&rising$

2eftE General .rich %on 2u"en"orff a&&ears on the front co%er of the @o%ember 1 , 1 2C e"ition of Time maga>ine$ RightE +r$ Wilhelm Buno, who once ser%e" as a member of the boar" of "irectors of 0amburg6Ameri7a 2ine !0A4AG#, was the Bhancellor of Germany from @o%ember 22, 1 22 to August 12, 1 2C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

@a>i German stormtroo&ers "resse" in military uniforms a&&ear in front of the Marien&lat> in Munich, Germany "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch on @o%ember , 1 2C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

The J"eons&lat> in Munich "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch on @o%ember , 1 2C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

+awes 4lan !1 24# an" Aoung 4lan !1 2 #E Jrgani>e" BrimeM

.meri0an members o2 t*e Dawes $ommittee "0ommittee to settle GermanyAs war debts and reparation payments) stand toget*er 2or a portrait in 19 D. +rom le2t to rig*t5 %wen D. =oung "le2t), $*arles G. Dawes "0enter), and ?enry ,. &obinson. .ll t*ree men were members o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations, an internationalist organi8ation in New =ork $ity. $*arles G. Dawes served as t*e 7i0e President o2 t*e 9nited (tates 2rom 19 4 to 19 9. 3*e Dawes $ommittee settled some o2 GermanyAs reparation payment problems in t*e early 19 Cs. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv)

Dawes $ommittee member %wen D. =oung "se0ond 2rom le2t) appears wit* *is assistant &u2us $. Dawes "0enter, wit* pipe in mout*) at a reparations 0on2eren0e in Berlin, Germany in /anuary 19 D. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv)

Jwen Aoung !right# a&&ears with Bharles G$ +awes, brother Rufus B$ +awes !left# at the re&arations conference in -erlin, Germany in 'e&tember 1 24$ The German go%ernment ratifie" the +awes 4lan, an economic agreement "esigne" to hel& Germany meet its re&arations obligations, on August 2 , 1 248 the +awes 4lan went into effect on 'e&tember 1, 1 24$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%esG-un"esarchi%#

+oreign ,inister o2 Germany Gustav (tresemann "le2t), +oreign (e0retary o2 Britain (ir .usten $*amberlain "0enter), and +oreign ,inister o2 +ran0e .ristide Briand rela6 during t*e Lo0arno negotiations in Lo0arno, (wit8erland in %0tober 19 4. 3*e t*ree men agreed to t*e Lo0arno Pa0t "Lo0arno 3reaties), a series o2 e0onomi0 and de2ense agreements made by Germany, +ran0e, Britain, Belgium, and 'taly. (ir .usten $*amberlain and .meri0an 7i0e President $*arles G. Dawes were awarded t*e Nobel Pea0e Pri8e in 19 4> Gustav (tresemann and +ren0* +oreign ,inister .ristide Briand were awarded t*e Nobel Pea0e Pri8e in 19 L. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv)

Enited "tates Am2assadors to $erman *8eimar Re'u2li# and Ahird Rei#h+

/ames W. Gerard 9.(. .mbassador to 'mperial Germany "191!@1911)

.lanson B. ?oug*ton 9.(. .mbassador to Germany "19 @19 4)

+rederi0 ,. (a0kett 9.(. .mbassador to Germany "+ebruary 1 , 19!CR ,ar0* D, 19!!)

William -. Dodd 9.(. .mbassador to Na8i Germany ".ugust !C, 19!!R De0ember 9, 19!1)

?ug* &. Wilson B... =ale 19CL 9.(. .mbassador to Na8i Germany ",ar0* !, 19!:@ November 1L, 19!:)

$*arles G. Dawes 7i0e President o2 t*e 9.(. "19 4@19 9)

%wen D. =oung $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $o. "19 @19!9, 19D @19DD)

/a0ob Gould (0*urman 9.(. .mbassador to Germany "19 4@19 9)

George L. ?arrison B... =ale 191C President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC)

?enry L. (timson B... =ale 1::: 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate ",ar0* :, 19 9@ ,ar0* D, 19!!)

German +oreign ,inister Gustav (tresemann "2ront row, 0enter), +ren0* +oreign ,inister .ristide Briand "2ront row, t*ird 2rom le2t), and Britis* (e0retary o2 (tate 2or +oreign .22airs (ir .usten $*amberlain "2ront row, 2ar rig*t, wearing a mono0le), Belgian +oreign ,inister -mile 7andervelde, and t*eir entourage attend a 0on2eren0e in Geneva in (eptember 19 L. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv)

German +oreign ,inister Gustav (tresemann delivers a spee0* in t*e S7NlkerbundT a2ter t*e admission o2 Germany on (eptember :, 19 L. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv)

+oreign ,inister o2 Germany Gustav (tresemann "rig*t), +oreign ,inister o2 +ran0e .ristide Briand " nd rig*t), and 2ormer $*an0ellor o2 Germany and German envoy ?ans Lut*er "0enter) attend a 0on2eren0e in Geneva, (wit8erland in (eptember 19 L. Gustav (tresemann died o2 a stroke in Berlin on %0tober !, 19 9. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv)

Bentral ban7ers meet in "owntown Manhattan, from left to rightE 0Lalmar 'chacht !4resi"ent of the Reichsban7#, -enLamin 'trong !4resi"ent of the Fe"eral Reser%e -an7 of @ew Aor7#, Montagu @orman !Go%ernor of the -an7 of .nglan"#, an" Mr$ Rist a&&ear on the roofto& of the Fe"eral Reser%e -an7 of @ew Aor7 hea"9uarters in @ew Aor7 Bity in July 1 2:$

%wen D. =oung wat0*es -mile ,oreau "le2t),Governor o2 t*e Bank o2 +ran0e, s*ake *ands wit* ?Jalmar (0*a0*t "rig*t), President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "GermanyAs 0entral bank), in 19 9 a2ter t*ey a00epted t*e terms o2 t*e =oung Plan. ?Jalmar (0*a0*t was tried in Nuremberg, Germany 2or war 0rimes and 0ollaboration wit* t*e Na8is a2ter World War ''. %wen D. =oung was t*e $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $ompany "19 @19!9, 19D @19DD), >e'ut )hairman of the ;ederal Reserve Ban( of Ne0 3or( *19!@F 193@+, )hairman of the ;ederal Reserve Ban( of Ne0 3or( *1935F1940+ , and Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@ 19DC). "P*oto5 .wen /0 Young: $ New T-pe of ,ndustrial Leader by 'da ,. 3arbell)

&eparations e6perts meet to dis0uss German war debt in Paris, +ran0e on +ebruary C, 19 9. +rom le2t to rig*t, seated5 %wen D. =oung o2 .meri0a, /.P. ,organ o2 .meri0a, (ir /osia* (tamp o2 -ngland. (tanding in t*e rear is 3*omas W. Lamont o2 .meri0a. Lord &evelstoke o2 -ngland was in attendan0e during t*e opening o2 t*e German &eparations $ommittee. %wen D. =oung "0*airman o2 General -le0tri0 $o.) and /.P. ,organ < $o. partner 3*omas W. Lamont were members o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations. "P*oto5 M Bettmann#$%&B'()

%wen D. =oung "0enter), Deputy $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 1@19!1), and /.P. ,organ < $o. banker 3*omas W. Lamont "se0ond 2rom rig*t) wat0* ?Jalmar (0*a0*t "rig*t), t*e President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank, sign t*e =oung Plan at t*e ?otel George 7 in Paris, +ran0e on /une 1, 19 9. "P*oto5 M Bildar0*iv PreuXis0*er ;ulturbesit8)

%wen D. =oung, .meri0an reparation e6pert and Deputy $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork, s*akes *ands wit* Dr. ?Jalmar (0*a0*t, German delegate to t*e &eparations $on2eren0e and President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "GermanyAs 0entral bank), at a train station in Paris, +ran0e on /une 11, 19 9, 2rom t*e window o2 a train w*i0* 0arried *im to t*e (.(. Vuitania, w*i0* 0arried *im to t*e 9nited (tates. "P*oto5 M Bettmann#$%&B'()

%wen D. =oung, t*e Deputy $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork, brings &eparations $on2eren0e to a su00ess2ul 0on0lusion in Paris, +ran0e on /une 1D, 19 9. +rom le2t to rig*t, -mile ,oreau, +ren0* 0ommitteeman> %wen D. =oung, 0*airman o2 t*e .meri0an $ommission and ?Jalmar (0*a0*t, German delegate, as t*ey appeared outside t*e 0on2eren0e *all a2ter t*e su00ess2ul 0on0lusion o2 t*e 0on2eren0e to settle GermanyGs war debt. "P*oto5 M Bettmann#$%&B'()

1@o subLect occu&ie" a larger &ortion of statesmenNs energies than re&arations "uring the "eca"e after the war$ For this reason, an" because of the im&act which re&arations ha" on other issues !such as financial or economic reco%ery an" international amity#, the history of re&arations "eman"s a certain &ortion of our attention$ This history can be "i%i"e" into si? stages, as followsE 1$ The &reliminary &ayments, 1 1 61 21 2$ The 2on"on 'che"ule, May 1 216'e&tember 1 24 C$ The +awes 4lan, 'e&tember 1 246January 1 CH 4$ The Aoung 4lan, January 1 CH6June 1 C1 D$ The 0oo%er Moratorium, June 1 C l6July 1 C2 *$ The 2ausanne Bon%ention, July 1 C2 The &reliminary &ayments were su&&ose" to amount to a total of 2H,HHH million mar7s by May 1 21$ Although the .ntente 4owers conten"e" that only about 5,HHH million of this ha" been &ai", an" sent Germany numerous "eman"s an" ultimatums in regar" to these &ayments, e%en going so far as to threaten to occu&y the Ruhr in March 1 21 in an effort to enforce &ayment, the whole matter was "ro&&e" in May when the Germans were &resente" with the total re&arations bill of 1C2,HHH million mar7s$ (n"er &ressure of another ultimatum, Germany acce&te" this bill an" ga%e the %ictors bon"s of in"ebte"ness to this amount$ Jf these, 52 billions were set asi"e an" forgotten$ Germany was to &ay on the other DH billion at a rate of 2$D billion a year in interest an" H$D billion a year to re"uce the total "ebt$ Germany coul" &ay these obligations only if two con"itions &re%aile"E !a# if it ha" a bu"getary sur&lus an" !b# if it sol" abroa" more than it bought abroa" !that is, ha" a fa%orable balance of tra"e#$ (n"er the first con"ition there woul" accumulate in the han"s of the German go%ernment a 9uantity of German currency beyon" the amount nee"e" for current e?&enses$ (n"er the secon" con"ition, Germany woul" recei%e from abroa" an e?cess of foreign e?change !either gol" or foreign money# as &ayment for the e?cess of her e?&orts o%er her im&orts$ -y e?changing its bu"getary sur&lus in mar7s for the foreign6e?change sur&lus hel" by her citi>ens, the German go%ernment woul" be able to ac9uire this foreign e?change an" be able to gi%e it to its cre"itors as re&arations$ 'ince neither of these con"itions generally e?iste" in the &erio" 1 2161 C1, Germany coul" not, in fact, &ay re&arations$ The failure to obtain a bu"getary sur&lus was solely the res&onsibility of the German go%ernment, which refuse" to re"uce its own e?&en"itures or the stan"ar"s of li%ing of its own &eo&le or to ta? them sufficiently hea%ily to yiel" such a sur&lus$ The failure to obtain a fa%orable balance of tra"e was the res&onsibility e9ually of the Germans an" of their cre"itors, the Germans ma7ing little or no effort to re"uce their &urchases abroa" !an" thus re"uce their own stan"ar"s of li%ing#, while the foreign cre"itors refuse" to allow a free flow of German goo"s into their own countries on the argument that this woul" "estroy their "omestic mar7ets for locally &ro"uce" goo"s$ Thus it can be sai" that the Germans were unwilling to &ay re&arations, an" the cre"itors were unwilling to acce&t &ayment in the only way in which &ayments coul" honestly be ma"e, that is, by acce&ting German goo"s an" ser%ices$ (n"er these con"itions, it is not sur&rising that the 2on"on 'che"ule of re&arations &ayments was ne%er fulfille"$ This failure was regar"e" by -ritain as &roof of Germany,s inability to &ay, but was regar"e" by France as &roof of GermanyNs unwillingness to &ay$ -oth were correct, but the Anglo6Americans, who refuse" to allow France to use the "uress necessary to o%ercome German unwillingness to &ay, also refuse" to acce&t German goo"s to the amount necessary to o%ercome German inability to &ay$ As early as 1 21, -ritain, for e?am&le, &lace" a 2* &ercent ta? on all im&orts from Germany$ That Germany coul" ha%e &ai" in real goo"s an" ser%ices if the cre"itors ha" been willing to acce&t such goo"s an" ser%ices can be seen in the fact that the real &er ca&ita income of the German &eo&le was about one6si?th higher in the mi""le 1 2H,s than it ha" been in the %ery &ros&erous year 1 1C$ )nstea" of ta?ing an" retrenching, the German go%ernment &ermitte" an unbalance" bu"get to continue year after year, ma7ing u& the "eficits by borrowing from the Reichsban7$ The result was an acute inflation$ This inflation was not force" on the Germans by the nee" to &ay re&arations !as they claime" at the time# but by the metho" they too7 to &ay re&arations !or, more accurately, to a%oi" &ayment#$ The inflation was not inLurious to the influential grou&s in German society, although it was generally ruinous to the mi""le classes, an" thus encourage" the e?tremist elements$ Those grou&s whose &ro&erty was in real wealth, either in lan" or in in"ustrial &lant, were benefitte" by the inflation which increase" the %alue of their &ro&erties an" wi&e" away their "ebts !chiefly mortgages an" in"ustrial bon"s#$ The German mar7, which at &ar was worth about 2H to the &oun", fell in %alue from CHD to the &oun" in August 1 21 to 1,H2H in @o%ember 1 21$ From that &oint it "ro&&e" to 5H,HHH to the &oun" in January 1 2C, to 2H million to the &oun" in August 1 2C, an" to 2H billion to the &oun" in +ecember 1 2C$ )n July 1 22, Germany "eman"e" a moratorium on all cash &ayments of re&arations for the ne?t thirty months$ Although the -ritish were willing to yiel" at least &art of this, the French un"er 4oincarV &ointe" out that the Germans ha", as yet, ma"e no real effort to &ay an" that the moratorium woul" be acce&table to France only if it were accom&anie" by O&ro"ucti%e guarantees$O This meant that the cre"itors shoul" ta7e &ossession of %arious forests, mines, an" factories of western Germany, as well as the German customs, to obtain incomes which coul" be a&&lie" to re&arations$ Jn January , 1 2C, the Re&arations Bommission %ote" C to 1 !with -ritain o&&osing France, -elgium, an" )taly# that Germany was in "efault of her &ayments$ Arme" forces of the three nations began to occu&y the Ruhr two "ays later$ -ritain "enounce" this act as illegal, although it ha" threatene" the same thing on less %ali" groun"s in 1 21$ Germany "eclare" a general stri7e in the area, cease" all re&arations &ayments, an" a"o&te" a &rogram of &assi%e resistance, the go%ernment su&&orting the stri7ers by &rinting more &a&er money$ The area occu&ie" was no more than *H miles long by CH miles wi"e but containe" 1H &ercent of GermanyNs &o&ulation an" &ro"uce" 5H &ercent of GermanyNs coal, iron, an" steel an" :H &ercent of her freight traffic$ )ts railway system, o&erate" by 1:H,HHH &ersons, was the most com&le? in the worl"$ The occu&ation forces trie" to run this system with only 12,DHH troo&s an" 1,C5H coo&erating Germans$ The non6coo&erating Germans trie" to &re%ent this, not hesitating to use mur"er for the &ur&ose$ (n"er these con"itions it is a miracle that the out&ut of the area was brought u& to one6thir" its ca&acity by the en" of 1 2C$ German re&risals an" Allie" countermeasures resulte" in about 4HH 7ille" an" o%er 2,1HH woun"e"Zmost of the casualties !CHH an" 2,HHH res&ecti%ely# being inflicte" by Germans on Germans$ )n a""ition almost 1DH,HHH Germans were "e&orte" from the area$ The German resistance in the Ruhr was a great strain on Germany, both economically an" financially, an" a great &sychological strain on the French an" -elgians$ At the same time that the German mar7 was being ruine", the occu&ying countries were not obtaining the re&arations they "esire"$ Accor"ingly, a com&romise was reache" by which Germany acce&te" the +awes 4lan for re&arations, an" the Ruhr was e%acuate"$ The only %ictors in the e&iso"e were the -ritish, who ha" "emonstrate" that the French coul" not use force successfully without -ritish a&&ro%al$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, &$ CHD6CH5

1The +awes 4lan, which was largely a J$ 4$ Morgan &ro"uction, was "rawn u& by an international committee of financial e?&erts &resi"e" o%er by the American ban7er Bharles G$ +awes$ )t was concerne" only with GermanyNs ability to &ay, an" "eci"e" that this woul" reach a rate of 2$D billion mar7s a year after four years of reconstruction$ +uring the first four years Germany woul" be gi%en a loan of a5HH million an" woul" &ay a total of only D$1: billion mar7s in re&arations$ This &lan "i" not su&erse"e the German re&arations obligation as establishe" in 1 21, an" the "ifference between the +awes &ayments an" the &ayments "ue on the 2on"on 'che"ule were a""e" to the total re&arations "ebt$ Thus Germany &ai" re&arations for fi%e years un"er the +awes 4lan !1 2461 2 # an" owe" more at the en" than it ha" owe" at the beginning$ The +awes 4lan also establishe" guarantees for re&arations &ayments, setting asi"e %arious sources of income within Germany to &ro%i"e fun"s an" shifting the res&onsibility for changing these fun"s from mar7s into foreign e?change from the German go%ernment to an agent6general for re&arations &ayments who recei%e" mar7s within Germany$ These mar7s were transferre" into foreign e?change only when there was a &lentiful su&&ly of such e?change within the German foreign6e?change mar7et$ This meant that the %alue of the German mar7 in the foreign6e?change mar7et was artificially &rotecte" almost as if Germany ha" e?change control, since e%ery time the %alue of the mar7 ten"e" to fall, the agent6general sto&&e" selling mar7s$ This allowe" Germany to begin a career of wil" financial e?tra%agance without suffering the conse9uences which woul" ha%e resulte" un"er a system of free international e?change$ '&ecifically, Germany was able to borrow abroa" beyon" her ability to &ay, without the normal slum& in the %alue of the mar7 which woul" ha%e sto&&e" such loans un"er normal circumstances$ )t is worthy of note that this system was set u& by the international ban7ers an" that the subse9uent len"ing of other &eo&leNs money to Germany was %ery &rofitable to these ban7ers$ (sing these American loans, GermanyNs in"ustry was largely ree9ui&&e" with the most a"%ance" technical facilities, an" almost e%ery German munici&ality was &ro%i"e" with a &ost office, a swimming &ool, s&orts facilities, or other non&ro"ucti%e e9ui&ment$ With these American loans Germany was able to rebuil" her in"ustrial system to ma7e it the secon" best in the worl" by a wi"e margin, to 7ee& u& her &ros&erity an" her stan"ar" of li%ing in s&ite of the "efeat an" re&arations, an" to &ay re&arations without either a balance" bu"get or a fa%orable balance of tra"e$ -y these loans GermanyNs cre"itors were able to &ay their war "ebts to .nglan" an" to the (nite" 'tates without sen"ing goo"s or ser%ices$ Foreign e?change went to Germany as loans, bac7 to )taly, -elgium, France, an" -ritain as re&arations, an" finally bac7 to the (nite" 'tates as &ayments on war "ebts$ The only things wrong with the system were !a# that it woul" colla&se as soon as the (nite" 'tates cease" to len", an" !b# in the meantime "ebts were merely being shifte" from one account to another an" no one was really getting any nearer to sol%ency$ )n the &erio" 1 2461 C1, Germany &ai" 1H$D billion mar7s in re&arations but borrowe" abroa" a total of 15$* billion mar7s$ @othing was settle" by all this, but the international ban7ers sat in hea%en, un"er a rain of fees an" commissions$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, &$ CH56CH 1The +awes 4lan was re&lace" by the Aoung 4lan at the beginning of 1 CH for a %ariety of reasons$ )t was recogni>e" that the +awes 4lan was only a tem&orary e?&e"ient, that GermanyNs total re&arations obligation was increasing e%en as she &ai" billions of mar7s, because the +awes 4lan &ayments were less than the &ayments re9uire" by the 2on"on 'che"ule8 that the German foreign6e?change mar7et ha" to be free" in or"er that Germany might face the conse9uences of her orgy of borrowing, an" that Germany Ocoul" not &ayO the stan"ar" +awes &ayment of 2$D billion mar7s a year which was re9uire" in the fifth an" following years of the +awes 4lan$ )n a""ition, France, which ha" been force" to &ay for the reconstruction of her "e%astate" areas in the &erio" 1 1 61 2*, coul" not affor" to wait for a generation or more for Germany to re&ay the cost of this reconstruction through re&arations &ayments$ France ho&e" to obtain a larger imme"iate income by 1commerciali>ing3 some of GermanyNs re&arations obligations$ (ntil this &oint all the re&arations obligations were owe" to go%ernments$ -y selling bon"s !bac7e" by GermanNs &romise to &ay re&arations# for cash to &ri%ate in%estors France coul" re"uce the "ebts she ha" incurre" for reconstruction an" coul" &re%ent -ritain an" Germany from ma7ing further re"uctions in the re&arations obligations !since "ebts to &ri%ate &ersons woul" be less li7ely to be re&u"iate" than obligations between go%ernments#$ -ritain, which ha" fun"e" her war "ebts to the (nite" 'tates at 4$* billion "ollars in 1 2C, was 9uite &re&are" to re"uce German re&arations to the amount necessary to meet the &ayments on this war "ebt$ France, which ha" war "ebts of 4 billion "ollars as well as reconstruction e?&enses, ho&e" to commerciali>e the costs of the latter in or"er to obtain -ritish su&&ort in refusing to re"uce re&arations below the total of both items$ The &roblem was how to obtain German an" -ritish &ermission to Ocommerciali>eO &art of the re&arations$ )n or"er to obtain this &ermission France ma"e a gross error in tacticsE she &romise" to e%acuate all of the Rhinelan" in 1 CH, fi%e years before the "ate fi?e" in the Treaty of Kersailles, in return for &ermission to commerciali>e &art of the re&arations &ayments$ This "eal was embo"ie" in the Aoung 4lan, name" after the American Jwen +$ Aoung !a Morgan agent#, who ser%e" as chairman of the committee which "rew u& the new agreements !February to June 1 2 #$ Twenty go%ernments signe" these agreements in January 1 CH$ The agreement with Germany &ro%i"e" for re&arations to be &ai" for D years at rates rising from )$: billion mar7s in 1 C1 to a &ea7 of 2$4 billion mar7s in 1 ** an" then "eclining to less than a billion mar7s in 1 55$ The earmar7e" sources of fun"s in Germany were abolishe" e?ce&t for **H million mar7s a year which coul" be 1commerciali>e",3 an" ail &rotection of GermanyNs foreign6e?change &osition was en"e" by &lacing the res&onsibility for transferring re&arations from mar7s to foreign currencies s9uarely on Germany$ To assist in this tas7 a new &ri%ate ban7 calle" the -an7 for )nternational 'ettlements was establishe" in 'wit>erlan" at -asle$ Jwne" by the chief central ban7s of the worl" an" hol"ing accounts for each of them, the -an7 for )nternational 'ettlements was to ser%e as 1a Bentral -an7ers, -an73 an" allow international &ayments to be ma"e by merely shifting cre"its from one countryNs account to another on the boo7s of the ban7$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, &$ CH 6C1H

1The Aoung 4lan, which was to ha%e been a final settlement of the re&arations 9uestion, laste" for less than eighteen months$ The crash of the @ew Aor7 stoc7 mar7et in Jctober 1 2 mar7e" the en" of the "eca"e of reconstruction an" o&ene" the "eca"e of "estruction between the two wars$ This crash en"e" the American loans to Germany an" thus cut off the flow of foreign e?change which ma"e it &ossible for Germany to a&&ear as if it were &aying re&arations$ )n se%en years, 1 2461 C1, the "ebt of the German fe"eral go%ernment went u& *$* billion mar7s while the "ebts of German local go%ernments went u& 11$* billion mar7s$ GermanyNs net foreign "ebt, both &ublic an" &ri%ate, was increase" in the same &erio" by 15$* billion mar7s, e?clusi%e of re&arations$ Germany coul" &ay re&arations only so long as her "ebts continue" to grow because only by increasing "ebts coul" the necessary foreign e?change be obtaine"$ 'uch foreign loans almost cease" in 1 CH, an" by 1 C1 Germans an" others ha" begun a 1flight from the mar7,3 selling this currency for other monies in which they ha" greater confi"ence$ This create" a great "rain on the German gol" reser%e$ As the gol" reser%e "win"le", the %olume of money an" cre"it erecte" on that reser%e ha" to be re"uce" by raising the interest rate$ 4rices fell because of the re"uce" su&&ly of money an" the re"uce" "eman", so that it became almost im&ossible for the ban7s to sell collateral an" other &ro&erties in or"er to obtain fun"s to meet the growing "eman" for money$ At this &oint, in A&ril 1 C1, Germany announce" a customs union with Austria$ France &roteste" that such a union was illegal un"er the Treaty of 'aint6Germain, by which Austria ha" &romise" to maintain its in"e&en"ence from Germany$ The "is&ute was referre" to the Worl" Bourt, but in the meantime the French, to "iscourage such attem&ts at union, recalle" French fun"s from both Austria an" Germany$ -oth countries were %ulnerable$ Jn May 5, 1 C1, the largest Austrian ban7, the Bre"it6Anstalt !a Rothschil" institution#, with e?tensi%e interests, almost control, in :H &ercent of Austria,s in"ustry, announce" that it ha" lost 14H million schillings !about D2H million#$ The true loss was o%er a billion schillings, an" the ban7 ha" really been insol%ent for years$ The Rothschil"s an" the Austrian go%ernment ga%e the Bre"it6Anstalt 1*H million to co%er the loss, but &ublic confi"ence ha" been "estroye"$ A run began on the ban7$ To meet this run the Austrian ban7s calle" in all the fun"s they ha" in German ban7s$ The German ban7s began to colla&se$ These latter began to call in all their fun"s in 2on"on$ The 2on"on ban7s began to fall, an" gol" flowe" outwar"$ Jn 'e&tember 2lst .nglan" was force" off the gol" stan"ar"$ +uring this crisis the Reichsban7 lost 2HH million mar7s of its gol" reser%e an" foreign e?change in the first wee7 of June an" about 1,HHH million in the secon" wee7 of June$ The "iscount rate was raise" ste& by ste& to 1D &ercent without sto&&ing the loss of reser%es but "estroying the acti%ities of the German in"ustrial system almost com&letely$ Germany begge" for relief on her re&arations &ayments, but her cre"itors were reluctant to act unless they obtaine" similar relief on their war6"ebt &ayments to the (nite" 'tates$ The (nite" 'tates ha" an un"erstan"able reluctance to become the en" of a chain of re&u"iation, an" insiste" that there was no connection between war "ebts an" re&arations !which was true# an" that the .uro&ean countries shoul" be able to &ay war "ebts if they coul" fin" money for armaments !which was not true#$ When 'ecretary of the Treasury Mellon, who was in .uro&e, re&orte" to 4resi"ent 0oo%er that unless relief was gi%en to Germany imme"iately on her &ublic obligations, the whole financial system of the country woul" colla&se with %ery great loss to hol"ers of &ri%ate claims against Germany, the 4resi"ent suggeste" a moratorium on inter6go%ernmental "ebts for one year$ '&ecifically, America offere" to &ost&one all &ayments owe" to it for the year following July 1, 1 C1, if its "ebtors woul" e?ten" the same &ri%ilege to their "ebtors$ Acce&tance of this &lan by the many nations concerne" was "elaye" until the mi""le of July by French efforts to &rotect the &ayments on commerciali>e" re&arations an" to secure &olitical concessions in return for acce&ting the moratorium$ )t sought a renunciation of the Austro6German customs union, sus&ension of buil"ing on the secon" &oc7et battleshi&, acce&tance by Germany of her eastern frontiers, an" restrictions on training of O&ri%ateO military organi>ations in Germany$ These "eman"s were reLecte" by the (nite" 'tates, -ritain, an" Germany, but "uring the "elay the German crisis became more acute$ The Reichsban7 ha" its worst run on July :th8 on the following "ay the @orth German Wool Bom&any faile" with a loss of 2HH million mar7s8 this &ulle" "own the 'chrW"er -an7 !with a loss of 24 million mar7s to the city of -remen where its office was# an" the +armstQ"ter -an7 !one of GermanyNs O-ig Four -an7sO# which lost 2H million in the Wool Bom&any$ .?ce&t for a cre"it of 4HH million mar7s from the -an7 for )nternational 'ettlements an" a Ostan"still agreementO to renew all short6term "ebts as they came "ue, Germany obtaine" little assistance$ 'e%eral committees of international ban7ers "iscusse" the &roblem, but the crisis became worse, an" s&rea" to 2on"on$ -y @o%ember 1 C1 all the .uro&ean 4owers e?ce&t France an" her su&&orters were "etermine" to en" re&arations$ At the 2ausanne Bonference of June 1 C2 German re&arations were cut to a total of only C billion mar7s, but the agreement was ne%er ratifie" because of the refusal of the (nite" 'tates Bongress to cut war "ebts e9ually "rastically$ Technically this meant that the Aoung 4lan was still in force, but no real effort was ma"e to restore it an", in 1 CC, 0itler re&u"iate" all re&arations$ -y that "ate, re&arations, which ha" &oisone" international relations for so many years, were being swallowe" u& in other, more terrible, &roblems$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, &$ C1H6C12

?Jalmar ?ora0e Greeley (0*a0*t "le2t), t*e President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank, stands ne6t to %wen D. =oung "0enter), t*e Deputy $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork, in ,ar0* 19!C. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

3*e Bank 2or 'nternational (ettlements "B'() *eadIuarters in Basel, (wit8erland. 3*e Bank 2or 'nternational (ettlements was establis*ed on ,ay 11, 19!C. Na8i German Walt*er +unk served on t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 Bank 2or 'nternational (ettlements be2ore World War ''. 3*omas ?. ,0;ittri0k, a ?arvard graduate and a member o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations, was t*e President o2 t*e Bank 2or 'nternational (ettlements 2rom 19DC to 19DL. "P*oto5 +li0kr)

People line up outside t*e Posts0*e0kamt in Berlin to wit*draw t*eir deposits in /uly 19!1, s*ortly a2ter t*e bankrupt0y o2 .ustriaAs $reditanstalt bank, a bank owned by t*e &ot*s0*ilds. 3*e 19!1 -uropean banking 0risis 0ontributed dire0tly to t*e breakdown o2 demo0ra0y.

. 0rowd o2 s*are*olders gat*er in 2ront o2 t*e Darmstaetder and National Bank in Berlin in 19!1.

German 0iti8ens stand outside a bank in Berlin, Germany in /uly 19!1, waiting to wit*draw t*eir money.

A ban7 run occurs in -erlin, Germany in @o%ember 1 C1$ The ;u/)en =n$i)ent o$$urre) on *e#tember 496 47>4: The British m#ire &ent off the gol) stan)ar) on *e#tember ?46 47>4:

9nemployed do0k workers 0ongregate in t*e ?amburg ?arbor Distri0t in /anuary 19!1. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

. 0*aritable organi8ation 0olle0ts donations in Berlin %0tober 19!1 2or t*e unemployed and t*e war disabled.

9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate ?enry L. (timson "le2t) and 9.(. .mbassador to Germany +rederi0 ,. (a0kett "0enter) stand in 2ront o2 t*e +riedri0*strasse 3rain (tation in Berlin, Germany in /une 19!1. ?enry L. (timson and +rederi0 ,. (a0kett were members o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations. ?enry L. (timson was a member o2 (kull < Bones, a se0ret so0iety at =ale 9niversity. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ive)

9.(. .mbassador to Germany +rederi0 ,. (a0kett "le2t) walks wit* 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate ?enry (timson in Berlin in /uly 19!1. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ive)

9.(. .mbassador to Germany +rederi0 ,. (a0kett addresses t*e &ei0*stag in Berlin, Germany in ,ar0* 19! . Ahe National "o#ialist $erman 8or(ers9 ,art *Na.i ,art +, the se#ond largest 'oliti#al 'art in $erman , held 10@ seats in the Rei#hstag in %ar#h 193!1 "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

A -erlin city &olice officer an" a 'chut>staffel !''# man stan" together on &atrol in -erlin, Germany on Germany,s .lection +ay on March D, 1 CC, si? "ays after the Reichstag Fire$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

GermanD*o,iet Relations )uring the 47?5s an) arly 47>5s

$*an0ellor o2 Germany /osep* Wirt* "se0ond 2rom le2t) appears wit* (oviet trade envoy Leonid ;rasin "0enter), (oviet +oreign ,inister Georgy $*i0*erin "se0ond 2rom rig*t), and (oviet envoy .dol2 /o22e "2ar rig*t) meet in &apallo, 'taly in .pril 19 s*ortly a2ter signing t*e 3reaty o2 &apallo. "German +ederal .r0*ives)

GermanyAs +oreign ,inister Gustav (tresemann "seated, le2t), (oviet +oreign ,inister Georgy $*i0*erin, ,rs. (tresemann, and Nikolai ;restinsky pose 2or a group portrait in Berlin in 0ir0a /anuary 19 :. Gustav (tresemann was GermanyAs $*an0ellor during t*e Beer ?all Puts0* in 19 ! and GermanyAs +oreign ,inister 2rom 19 ! until *is deat* on %0tober !, 19 9. "German +ederal .r0*ives)

German-Russian Agreement; April 16, 1922 (Treaty of Rapallo)

The German Go%ernment, re&resente" by +r Walther Rathenau, Minister of 'tate, an" the Go%ernment of the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic, re&resente" by M$ Tchitcherin, 4eo&leNs Bommissary, ha%e agree" u&on the following &ro%isionsE .rti$le 4 The two Go%ernments are agree" that the arrangements arri%e" at between the German Reich an" the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic, with regar" to 9uestions "ating from the &erio" of war between Germany an" Russia, shall be "efinitely settle" u&on the following basisE <a= The German Reich an" the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic mutually agree to wai%e their claims for com&ensation for e?&en"iture incurre" on account of the war, an" also for war "amages, that is to say, any "amages which may ha%e been suffere" by them an" by their nationals in war >ones on account of military measures, inclu"ing all re9uisitions in enemy country$ -oth 4arties li7ewise agree to forego com&ensation for any ci%ilian "amages, which may ha%e been suffere" by the nationals of the one 4arty on account of so6calle" e?ce&tional war measures or on account of emergency measures carrie" out by the other 4arty$ <b= 2egal relations in &ublic an" &ri%ate matters arising out of the state of war, inclu"ing the 9uestion of the treatment of tra"ing %essels which ha%e fallen into the han"s of either 4arty, shall be settle" on a basis of reci&rocity$ <c= Germany an" Russia mutually agree to wai%e their claims for com&ensation for e?&en"iture incurre" by either &arty on behalf of &risoners of war$ Furthermore the German Go%ernment agrees to forego com&ensation within regar" to the e?&en"iture incurre" by it on behalf of members of the Re" Army interne" in Germany$ The Russian Go%ernment agrees to forego the restitution of the &rocee"s of the sale carrie" out in Germany of the army stores brought into Germany by the interne" members of the Re" Army mentione" abo%e$ .rti$le ? Germany wai%es all claims against Russia which may ha%e arisen through the a&&lication, u& to the &resent, of the laws an" measures of the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic to German nationals or their &ri%ate rights an" the rights of the German Reich an" states, an" also claims which may ha%e arisen owing to any other measures ta7en by the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic or by their agents against German nationals or the &ri%ate rights, on con"ition that the go%ernment of the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic "oes not satisfy claims for com&ensation of a similar nature ma"e by a thir" 4arty$ .rti$le > +i&lomatic an" consular relations between the German Reich an" the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic shall be resume" imme"iately$ The con"itions for the a"mission of the Bonsuls of both 4arties shall be "etermine" by means of a s&ecial agreement$ .rti$le G -oth Go%ernments ha%e furthermore agree" that the establishment of the legal status of those nationals of the one 4arty, which li%e within the territory of the other 4arty, an" the general regulation of mutual, commercial an" economic relations, shall be effecte" on the &rinci&le of the most fa%oure" nation$ This &rinci&le shall, howe%er, not a&&ly to the &ri%ileges an" facilities which the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic may grant to a 'o%iet Re&ublic or to any 'tate which in the &ast forme" &art of the former Russian .m&ire$ .rti$le N The two Go%ernments shall co6o&erate in a s&irit of mutual goo"will in meeting the economic nee"s of both countries$ )n the e%ent of a fun"amental settlement of the abo%e 9uestion on an international basis, an e?change of o&inions shall &re%iously ta7e &lace between the two Go%ernments$ The German Go%ernment, ha%ing lately been informe" of the &ro&ose" agreements of &ri%ate firms, "eclares its rea"iness to gi%e all &ossible su&&ort to these arrangements an" to facilitate their being carrie" into effect$ .rti$le 8 Articles 1<b= an" 4 of this Agreement shall come into force on the "ay of ratification, an" the remaining &ro%isions shall come into force imme"iately$ Jriginal te?t "one in "u&licate at Ra&allo on A&ril 1*, 1 22 'igne"E Rathenau 'igne"E Tchitcherin 'ourceE htt&EGGa%alon$law$yale$e"uG2Hth^centuryGra&allo^HH1$as&

German sta22 at 3omka 0*emi0al weapons 2a0ility poses 2or a group portrait in t*e (oviet 9nion in 0ir0a 19 :. "German +ederal .r0*ives)

$ommunist leaders -rnst 3*Ylmann "le2t) and Willy Leow "rig*t) appear in 2ront o2 parading troops o2 &ot2rontkYmp2erbund "&ed +ront +ig*tersG League) during t*eir national meeting in Berlin, Germany in /une 19 1. "German +ederal .r0*ives)

.rnst ThQlmann !1* A&ril 155* ; 15 August 1 44# was the lea"er of the Bommunist 4arty of Germany !/4+# "uring much of the Weimar Re&ublic$ ThQlmann was arreste" by the Gesta&o in -erlin on March C, 1 CC an" hel" in solitary confinement for ele%en years, before being shot in -uchenwal" Boncentration Bam& on A"olf 0itlerNs or"ers on August 15, 1 44$

German poli0e o22i0ers prepare to attend a $*eka 3rial, a trial involving German 0ommunists w*o allegedly 0ollaborated wit* t*e (oviet &ussian $ommunists in ,os0ow, *eld in Leip8ig, Germany in 19 4. "German +ederal .r0*ives)

-mblem o2 t*e &ot2rontkYmp2erbund "&+B). 3*e German 0ommunist salute in t*e 19 Cs is similar to t*e Bla0k Pant*er salute in t*e 9nited (tates o2 .meri0a.

German ;ilitary in the *o,iet Fnion 4749D47>> by Ar%o Kercamer an" Jason 4i&es
For 11 years !1 22 to 1 CC#, the whole worl" was almost entirely shiel"e" from GermanyNs clan"estine military buil"6u& an" military "e%elo&ment efforts in the 'o%iet (nion$ A &olitical fla& "i" occur in 1 2* when the 'ocial6+emocrats of Germany &ublicly announce" some as&ects of the German6'o%iet military co6o&eration efforts !the Manchester Guar"ian in .nglan" also hel&e" by &ublishing a number of articles on the subLect#, but it went on largely un"etecte"$ After the %ictory of the @ationalist 'ocialists in 1 CC, one6by6one, the %eils or remilitari>ation were lifte" until 1 CD when the formation of the Wehrmacht was offically announce" an" the %arious measures "esigne" to co%er u& their reformation were "ro&&e"$ To more o&timally un"erstan" how it is that the Germans an" 'o%iets were "rawn to each other in the &ost Worl" War Jne era, one must first loo7 at both nations as they stoo" in 1 1561 1 $ Germany was humiliate" in by the Treaty of Kersailles$ Germany was force" to re"uce her military ca&abilities to a to7en force of limite" troo&s, to ha%e no ca&ital shi&s, no submarines, to gi%e u& all colonial &ossessions, was &roscribe" from manufacturing a wi"e range of military goo"s, was force" to &ay war re&arations realistically outsi"e of its means to "o so, was force" to gi%e u& German territory, an" more$ )nternationally, Germany ha" few frien"s or allies to "raw on for su&&ort$ 'imilarly, the 'o%iet (nion also foun" itself in a &oor &ost6Worl" War situation$ The Russian Bi%il War was still going on$ The military cam&aign against 4olan" ha" faile"$ The -altic 'tates of .stonia, 2at%ia an" 2ithuania all "eclare" their in"e&en"ence8 the 'o%iet (nion now only controlle" the &ort of 2eningra" in the -altic 'ea$ The Allie" inter%ention forces were in Archangel an" Kla"i%osto7$ The military limitations of the new 'o%iet (nion were often the laughing stoc7 of the worl"$ )nternationally, the 'o%iet (nion was essentially isolate"$ Gi%en the abo%e, both nations 9uic7ly reali>e" that their best chances for growth an" success in military matters was to rely on each other$ The start, in fact, occurre" 9uite early$ )n August of 1 2H, .n%er 4asha wor7e" as an interme"iary between %on 'eec7t an" Moscow$ 0e &ro&ose" that Germany &ro%i"e the 'o%iet (nion with information regar"ing the 4olish military as a gesture of goo" faith$ Jn their si"e, the R'F'R selecte" Ki7tor /o&& !a %ery ca&able "i&lomat an" of .stonian heritage#, to wor7 with the Germans$ 0e establishe" a co%er office in -erlin, (nter "en 2in"en @r$ 11 !a secon" R'F'R co%er office was locate" in Tallinn, .stonia8 a thir" in Riga, 2at%ia an" a fourth in /aunas, 2ithuania#$ /o&&Ns official tas7 was to wor7 on re&atriation issues of Russian 4JWNs an" interne" Russian ci%ilians in German custo"y !one of his &ro&osals was to con%ert 'o%iet 4JW commissions into "e facto consular missions#$ 0is more co%ert assignment was to wor7 on im&ro%ing German an" 'o%iet relations$ /o&& was successful in getting the +eruluft an" +eru6metall com&anies establishe", as well as a number of other 'o%iet6German Loint %entures$ 'o%iet su&&orters for a secret !or at least not a &ublici>e"# &artnershi& inclu"e" 2enin !only after he became ill#, Trots7y, +>er>hins7i, 'talin, Frun>e an" a host of others$ German su&&orters for wor7ing with the 'o%iet (nion inclu"e" %on 'eec7t, %on -lomberg, Rathenau an" many other ci%ilian an" military lea"ers$ Kon 'eec7t was in fact one of the most %ociferous &ro&onents of the &rogram$ 0e "i" not so much wish to see the 'o%iet military increasing "rastically in strength, but he "i" see the benefits of wor7ing closely with 'o%iet in"ustry$ Kon 'eec7t belie%e" that the 'o%iet (nion was an e?cellent source of many har" to obtain metals an" minerals necessary for the creation of a mo"ern military force$ The German ReichswehrNs counter&art at that time was the 'o%iet Wor7ers an" 4easantNs Re" Army !R//A# an" the ties that bin" mo%e" %ery 9uic7ly in the early "ays$ -oth agree" that they ha" a goo" co6o&eration future together$ )n early 1 21, MaLor Fischer of the Reichswehr was selecte" to hea" a s&ecial wor7ing grou& within the Reichswehr Ministry$ Their tas7 was to wor7 out a basic foun"ation for future German6'o%iet co6o&eration efforts with their 'o%iet counter&arts$ )t all culminate" with the Ra&ollo Treaty of A&ril, 1 22$ /o&&Ns behin" the scenes efforts in wor7ing with %on 'eec7t, %on 0asse an" other lea"ing German officials ha" &ai" "i%i"en"s$ While the worl" was 9uite sur&rise" at this e%ent, the Germans an" 'o%iets were not$ )t merely legitimi>e" the many &lans the Germans an" 'o%iets ha" regar"ing their future economies$ The most im&ortant result of the Ra&ollo accor"s was the German6'o%iet military co6o&eration effort$ Jn 11 August 1 22, the German Reichswehr an" the 'o%iet Re" Army signe" a "ocument which allowe" the Germans to establish military bases on 'o%iet soil$ The co%ert as&ects of the German6'o%iet military co6o&eration agreement all inclu"e" &ro%isions for Loint wor7 on armor matters, a%iation matters an" chemical warfare issues$ The following gui"ing &rinci&les were 7ey German goalsE b +e%elo&ment of a"%ance" military technologies, theoretical stu"y efforts an" training &rograms free from thir"6&arty interference$ b +e%elo&ment of tactical a&&lications for wea&ons systems &rohibite" by the Kersailles treaty$ b +e%elo&ment an" e"ucation of an e?&erience" ca"re of s&ecialists in all military fiel"s$ This ca"re grou& can then be use" to establish more formal military ca&abilities in Germany at a later time$ b +e%elo&ment of wea&ons systems &rohibite" by Kersailles8 "e%elo&ment of wea&ons systems a%ailable in Germany$ b +e%elo&ment of new strategies an" tactics base" on the lessons learne" in the abo%e categories$

b .ach training class shoul" not last more than one year$ To accom&lish these goals8 the Germans &resente" the 'o%iets with the following re9uirementsE b The use of military facilities suitable for wor7 on armor, a%iation an" chemical warfare issues$ b Free"om of action to &ursue military "e%elo&ment issues$ b Free e?change of i"eas an" "e%elo&e" technologies as learne" from these sites$ )n short, German bases o&erating in the 'o%iet (nion were to be &rimarily use" for RF+ efforts, tactical training, &ersonnel e%aluation, etc, in those "isci&lines which were e?&ressly &rohibite" for Germany by the Kersailles treaty$ )n return for these &ri%ileges, Germany woul" allow the Re" Army to con"uct military e?ercises alongsi"e the Reichswehr an" it woul" also agree to share in"ustrial an" military technology a"%ances as a&&licable$ The 'o%iet (nion agree" to the abo%e cite" sti&ulations$ -y 1 24, a Moscow Benter office ha" been o&ene" by the Reichswehr in Moscow$ )n March of 1 24, the Russians a&&roache" the Germans to see which ty&es of in"ustrial ca&abilities coul" be 9uietly transferre" to the 'o%iet (nion$ Boul" the Albatros Wer7e buil" air&lanes in the 'o%iet (nion8 coul" -lohm an" Koss buil" submarines, coul" /ru&& buil" ammunition &ro"uction &lants, etc$ Bo6o&eration was su&&ose" to be a two6way street$ As German military units were gaining e?&eriences in the 'o%iet (nion, a number of 'o%iet military technology e?&erts an" military officers were being secretly traine" in Germany$ 0owe%er, in reality, the Germans too7 far more from the 'o%iets than they were willing to gi%e in return$ )t was at about this time, 1 2*, that the Germans encountere" a maLor &olitical &roblem with their clan"estine relationshi& with the 'o%iet (nion it was no longer so clan"estine$ As the Reichswehr was secretly im&orting 'o%iet munitions !those which Germany was forbi""en to &ro"uce or im&ort "ue to the Kersailles agreement#, the German '4+ &arty reali>e" that the 'o%iets were also e?&orting han"6grena"es to German communist front organi>ations$ This was not acce&table$ +uring the summerGfall of 1 2*, the '4+ circulate" a &ress release stating that 'o%iet han"6grena"es were 7illing hun"re"s of innocent Germans$ Jn H2 +ecember 1 2*, -ritainNs Manchester Guar"ian &ublishe" an article stating that 'on"ergru&&e6R of the Reichswehrministerium an" G.F( an" W)/J were wor7ing with the 'o%iet (nion on German re6 armament issues$ This article really hel&e" stir the &ot of intrigue an" s&eculation$ Jn 1* +ecember 1 2*, the German communist &arty countere" the '4+ &osition by stating that the '4+ was full of lies, etc$ Jf 7ey im&ortance to the argument of the '4+ was that three 'o%iet munitions shi&s ha" "oc7e" in 'tettin to unloa" their cargo of han"6grena"es for the communists$ 'lowly, the &olitical bomb fa"e" from &ublic %iew as other, more &ressing social an" economic issues grabbe" the hea"lines$ @aturally, a clan"estine German military "e%elo&ment an" training effort establishe" in the 'o%iet (nion re9uire" a %ery efficiently organi>e" a"ministrati%e base$ German military an" ci%ilian com&anies wor7e" together to a"Lu"icate all nee"e" co%er issues$ )t nee" be note" that &er the agreement, Germany agree" to bear all o&erating costs for their bases in the 'o%iet (nion$ -y 1 C2, an" certainly by 1 CC, the en" of German6'o%iet military co6o&eration efforts were in clear sight$ 0itler an" his @ationalist 'ocialists were not in a moo" to co6o&erate with the 'o%iets in secret on military matters$ Bommunism was after all seen as one of the main enemyNs of the German &eo&le$ )n the en", it was the 'o%iet (nion, which officially as7e" the Reichswehr to close all of its facilities an" "e&art the 'o%iet (nion in August of 1 CC$ The Germans ha" left by 'e&tember$ -y that time, the 'o%iet (nion was alrea"y e?&an"ing its contacts with the -ritish an" the French, in &art to balance the loss of the German connection$ German A"ministrati%e an" Jrgani>ational )ssuesE The German Bhef "er 0eeresleitung was the focal &oint officer of the Reichswehr for coor"inating all negotiate" matters with the 'o%iet (nion$ 2ater, this res&onsibility was transferre" to the Bhef "es Tru&&enamts !the illegal Bhief of the General 'taff# of the Reichswehrministry$ )t nee" be note" that the General 'taff concerne" itself &rimarily with &olitical an" economic matters8 issues that affecte" both the Germans an" the 'o%iets as they Lointly ran these secret military bases$ 4olitical &roblems were wor7e" in concert with the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs$ The General 'taff also a"Lu"icate" all co%er an" front com&any issues$ For co%er &ur&oses, the office was calle" T6C to "enote that it was a &art of the Tru&&enamt$ The control of more s&ecific military issues was subor"inate" to %arious Waffenins&e7tionen$ Armor issues "e%elo&e" in /a>an were un"er the co%er of the )ns&e7tion "es /raftwesens !)n *#, a%iation issues in 2i&ets7 were un"er the co%er of the )ns&e7tion "er Flieger !)n 1# an" chemical warfare issues "e%elo&e" at Tom7a were un"er the co%er of the )ns&e7tion "er Artillerie !)n 4#$ Jf note is that each German )ns&e7tion was res&onsible for its own bu"get, &ersonnel an" o&erational "e%elo&ment issues$ )n terms of financing issues, it must be note" that at that time, Germany, as a nation, o&erate" a number of o%ert an" co%ert boo7 7ee&ing systems$ J%ert recor" boo7s were shown to the many Allie" Bontrol Bouncils an" to the less reliable an" wea7er &olitical &arties of the Reichstag$ These were for the most &art "octore" to show the Allies an" most Germans e?actly what they wante" to see$ All co%ert financing was "one through the blue boo7 of the Reichswehr an" only selecte" members of the German go%ernment were &ri%y to its contents$ -ecause the 'o%iet Rouble was not con%ertible on the international mar7et an" because the German Reichsmar7 fluctuate" greatly in the 1 2HNs it was agree" to calculate all financial issues on a set e?change rate for the entire &erio" 6 1 ruble to 2$1* Reichsmar7$ )t is estimate" that Germany s&ent a&&ro?imately 1H million Reichsmar7 &er year in the 'o%iet (nion !1HH million in total#$ A%iation issues re9uire" the greatest amounts of financing8 the &urchase of air&lanes ta7ing a large chun7 of the bu"get$ For e?am&le, "uring their years in

2i&ets7, non6&ersonnel a%iation e?&en"itures alone totale" close to 2H million Reichsmar7$ When tra%eling to the 'o%iet (nion, a false i"entity was assume"$ For this, the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs issue" alias &ass&orts$ To minimi>e co%er &roblems, in"i%i"ual tra%el to the 'o%iet (nion was encourage"8 large grou&s of German tourists were to be a%oi"e"$ Bo%er concerns were so strict that e%en their clothing allowances were "ictate" by regulation$ Jfficers who were transferre" to the 'o%iet bases for longer &erio"s of time were retire" from their home units8 their names were ta7en off of all acti%e "uty lists$ This ha" the benefit of allowing for a greater number of officers to rotate in an" out of the officers cor&s, which was also limite" in si>e by the Treaty of Kersailles$ )n case a German "ie" while in the 'o%iet (nion !a%iation acci"ent, training "eath, etc$,# his bo"y was shi&&e" bac7 to 'tettin un" the co%er of a bo? mar7e" machine &arts or the li7e$ For most tra%el into an" out of the 'o%iet (nion, German troo&s boar"e" the @or"6.?&ress train, which ha" a regular ser%ice from 4aris, France to Riga in 2at%ia$ Jnce in Riga, the German tra%eler boar"e" a local train, which too7 him to +auga%&ils an" from there to the 2at%ian6Russian bor"er$ At the bor"er, the arri%ing German only ha" to show his &ass&ort an" ha%e his alias name chec7e" off a roster$ 4oliteness was the wor" of the "ay8 this in contrast to the "raconian welcome the few regular tourists an" business tra%elers were subLecte" to at the non6German control &oints on the 2at%ian6'o%iet bor"er$ Jnce the training was com&lete", the German either returne" %ia the same route or he too7 a cruiseGmerchant shi& %ia 2eningra" bac7 to Germany !usually being off6loa"e" at night so as not to raise the attention le%els$ 'o%iet A"ministrati%e an" Jrgani>ationsl )ssuesE The 'o%iets han"le" their co%er an" bu"get issues in ty&ical 'o%iet fashion they "i" not "i%ulge anything to anyone$ )n 1 2C, the 'o%iets "i" erect a Moscow Bentral office$ This office was interestingly subor"inate" to its German counter&art in -erlin$ As with the German offices, 'o%iet offices ha" to a&&ear to be trans&arent to e%eryone$ Jfficially they "i" not e%en e?ist$ Their &rimary function was to ensure that all co%er issues insi"e of the 'o%iet (nion were o&timally &rotecte" an" that the %isiting Germans ha" am&le access to all of the nee"e" economic an" military su&&lies they re9uire"$ German -ases in the 'o%iet (nion 1 2261 CCE )n 1 2*, the Germans establishe" a 4an>erschule name" /ama in /a>an$ )t was to teach both the &ractical an" the theoretical$ -y 1 2 , the basic infrastructure ha" been built at the base an" the first 4an>ers starte" arri%ing8 si? 2C6ton tan7s !-MW engines8 :Dmm main gun# an" three 126ton tan7s arme" with C:mm guns$ The 'o%iet Army ga%e the Reichswehr a number of -ritish Bar"en62loy" light tan7s$ )n return for those, Germany &ro%i"e" the 'o%iet (nion with a number of in"ustrial an" manufacturing tools the 'o%iets were not yet ca&able of fabricating$ General 2ut> of the Reichswehr was the Bomman"ing Jfficer of the Motor Trans&ort )ns&ection @r$ *$ Jne of the schools most famous teachers was 0ein> Gu"erian$ @o German uniforms were worn8 only ci%ilian clothing was &ermitte", though on occasion, the 'o%iets who traine" there as well let the Germans borrow their uniforms for a while$ )n terms of a%iation matters, the following a&&ro?imate timetable a&&lie"E )n 1 21 Germans wor7e" on establishing a%iation manufacturing ca&abilities in the 'o%iet (nion$ )n 1 24, German &ersonnel an" German material su&&ort built the 2i&ets7 facility$ From 1 2D to 1 2:, German &ilots !ol" an" new# recei%e" refresher courses base" on the e?isting flight school curriculum$ -oth &ilots an" instructors were familiari>e" with e9ui&ment an" with flight strategiesGtactics$ )n 1 2*, Reichswehr officers were traine" to become &ilots an" flight lea"ers$ )n 1 25, JungmQr7e !young &ilots# were now acce&te" into the training &rogram$ This laste" until 1 CC$ The aerial obser%ation &rogram was starte", but "ro&&e" in 1 CH$ @umerous technical inno%ations in military a%iation were also teste" an" e%aluate" while battle strategies an" tactics e%ol%e"$ )n 1 CC the 2i&ets7 school was close"$ GermanyNs first efforts in wor7ing with Moscow resulte" in the construction of the Jun7ers factory in Fili !near Moscow#$ @egotiations "ragge" on for nearly a year before the Germans an" the 'o%iets coul" agree on a signe" "ocument !Jctober 1 21 to +ecember 1 22#$ CHH metal6s7inne" aGc were su&&ose" to be built at the &lant &er year8 ne%er reache"$ 4olitics interce"e" !on both si"es#, though the 'o%iets also stole many items from the &lant a n" that "i" not ma7e the Germans ha&&y cam&ers$ )n the en", the Jun7ers concession in Fili was li9ui"ate"$ )n terms of gi%ing the Germans a military a%iation base, the 'o%iet (nion at first &ro&ose" a military aero"rome in J"essa$ These facilities were not only &ractical from a meteorological &oint of %iew8 they also satisfie" a number of re9uirements le%ie" by the Reichsmarine !na%al a%iation issues#$[ -ut then the Reichsmarine with"rew itself from wor7ing with the 'o%iets$ -ecause this eliminate" the nee" for a na%al a%iation base, the 'o%iets now offere" 2i&ets7 !north of Korone>h# to the Germans, which they acce&te" with no &roblems$ )n 1 24, the Germans establishe" their flight6school in 2i&ets7 !com&lementing the one they o&ene" u& in )taly#$ For nine years, the German school o&erate" un"er the co%er of the 'o%iet Fourth Air '9ua"ron$ At its ince&tion, the German flight school containe" close to *H aGc8 mostly Fo77er +6P))) %ariants !DH were gi%en to the 'o%iet (nion in 1 CC when 0itler or"ere" the base to close#$ -y 1 C1, more mo"ern aGc ty&es became a%ailable !at 'o%iet insistence because the Germans were "ragging their feet here somewhat#$ That same year, high6altitu"e flights were also e?&erimente" with$ )t was in 1 2D that the Germans fiel"e" their first Jag"lehrstaffel at 2i&ets7$ Flight training too7 &lace "uring the hot summer seasons an" on the col"est of winter "ays$ The following structure &re%aile"E b 'ingle aGc b /ette !C aGc# b 'taffel%erban" ! aGc# While the 'taffel was the largest o&erational element at 2i&ets7 !in fact, only one German 'taffel e%er o&erate" there at one time#, 2i&ets7

often o&erate" two 'taffeln when &racticing moc7 "ogfights with their 'o%iet ounter&arts$ +uring the summer of 1 C1, German an" 'o%iet s9ua"rons &artici&ate" in moc7 attac7s against "aylight bombers "e%ising the most o&timal attac7 an" "efense techni9ues$ The Germans in the 'o%iet (nion ne%er wore military uniforms8 they always wore ci%ilian clothing to &rotect their co%er as much as &ossible$ The training &rogram was a %ery fle?ible one, that is, there were no set re9uirements$ The "ri%ing i"ea was to allow creati%e thin7ing, to e?&eriment an" to inno%ate$ -y 1 CC, o%er 1,2HH 2uftwaffe &ilots ha" been traine" at 2i&ets7$ Jf note is that many of the early RF+ efforts of the Ju65: were carrie" out at 2i&ets7$ General "er Flieger, 0elm '&ei"el, &artici&ate" in a%iation matters there$ 2ater, he woul" rise to become RommelNs last Bhief of 'taff an" a General in the West German 2uftwaffe$ The German facility for chemical warfare "e%elo&ment issues in the 'o%iet (nion was co"e6name" Tom7a$ This base was locate" near 4o"osin7y !)%shchen7o%o# in 1 2* !in the 'amara Region of the Kolga#$ The location was not by chance$ The base woul" nee" to "raw on German s&ea7ing in"i%i"uals for many su&&ort functions thus regions close to German colonies in the 'o%iet (nion were always high on the site6selection list of the Reichswehr$ +uring the months of August an" 'e&tember of 1 2C, the German com&any of G.F( !Gesellschaft fUr FWr"erung gewerblicher (nternehmungen# create" a Loint6%enture com&any with its 'o%iet counter&art, -ersol$ Two hea"9uarters were create"8 one in -erlin an" one in Moscow$ )n 1 2D, G.F( became W)/J !Wirtschafts7ontor#$ The Germans brought in many chemical warfare e?&erts an" establishe" a %ery com&rehensi%e BW &rogram there$ )n May of 1 2*, the first batch of gas !"i&hosgene# was rea"y$ 2arge6scale tests were con"ucte" near 2uga$ Within a short &erio" of time, many other ty&es of gasses were also being &ro"uce" at Tom7a !co"e" yellow cross, blue cross, green cross, etc$# Jfficer Training 'choolE A small officer training school was establishe" in Moscow$ /nown gra"uates inclu"e" /eitel, Mannstein an" Mo"el$ 'o%iet .?&ectations 1 2261 CCE )n 1 2*, a 'o%iet na%al "elegation %isite" -erlin$ They offere" to buil" German "esigne" submarines an" tor&e"oes in the 'o%iet (nion in return for German assistance in a number of na%al fiel"s$ The German na%y re%iewe" the &ro&osal an" "ecline" to acce&t it$ )t was of the o&inion that German co%ert na%al efforts currently in &lace in the @etherlan"s, 'we"en an" in Finlan" were su&erior to what the 'o%iets coul" offer$ They also "i" not wish to u&set the Royal @a%y who the Germans 7new were monitoring Germany %ery closely$ Jnly in 1 C5 an" 1 C "i" the /riegsmarine ta7e a more serious interest in 'o%iet na%al matters, but by then it was alrea"y too late to establish reliable contacts$ )n terms of a%iation issues, the 'o%iets maintaine" a large &resence at 2i&ets7$ They were es&ecially 7een on wor7ing closely with the Germans on technical "e%elo&ment an" manufacturing ca&abilities$ @ot only "i" KK' &ersonnel wor7 with the Germans, 'o%iet ci%ilian e?&erts were also "etaile" to 2i&ets7$ Throughout their stays in Germany !u& to 1 C2GCC#, 'o%iet military %isitors continuously &raise" German technological a"%ancements an" their &enchant for &ro"ucing a 9uality &ro"uct$ The 'o%iets were e?&ose" to nearly all facets of the German military buil"6u& effort$ They were im&resse" with the fact that a German hea%y MG coul" fire at a groun" target in one moment, an" CH secon"s later, be a"Luste" for use as an anti6aircraft machine gun !"esigne" by @$ %on +reise#$ The German :Dmm F2A/ gun was nearly twice as goo" !coul" fire twice the "istance# as the current 'o%iet %ersion$ 'iemens an" Teiss military o&tics were unsur&asse" for their %ersatility$ The 'o%iets also gaine" 9uite a bit of tactical an" o&erational 7nowle"ge from the Germans as they were obser%ing German Reichswehr maneu%ers in an" aroun" the Weimar Re&ublic$ Much to the "ismay of the 'o%iets, the Germans always seeme" to fin" an e?cuse as to why this or that coul" not be accom&lishe"$ -erlin always ha" to be consulte" with$ Jften the 'o%iets were of the feeling that the Germans were hol"ing bac7 on their sharing efforts8 but in many cases, the Germans were not hol"ing bac7 what they showe" the 'o%iets was really the latest in German technology !the 'o%iets "i" not tell the Germans for e?am&le that their T6C4 was light years ahea" of any German 4an>er#$ The Germans also "i" not trust the 'o%iets8 in &art because they 7e&t stealing so many of the little things of life which were common in Germany !soa&, &encils, tooth&aste, &recision tools, foo"stuffs, etc$# but which were always in short su&&ly in the 'o%iet (nion$ The following 'o%iet military in"i%i"uals recei%e" e?tensi%e training in Germany8 .fimo% !+e&uty to hea" of Armaments#8 /uibishe% !Re" Army 'taff#, among others$ )t is highly unli7ely that the 'o%iets really gaine" large amounts of a&&licable military lea"ershi& s7ills by wor7ing si"e6by6si"e with the Germans "uring this era, though they &robably learne" a great "eal in terms of in"ustry an" technology$ This is because in all &robability, 'talinNs &urges of the 1 CHNs 7ille" the maLority of the 'o%iets who now ha" uni9uely learne" military s7ills an" the German in%asion of 1 41, most li7ely too7 care of those who sur%i%e" the &urges$ 'ourceE htt&EGGwww$fel"grau$comGger6so%$html

General 0ans %on 'eec7t mastermin"e" the secret treaty by which Germany an" 'o%iet Russia traine" an" e9ui&&e" each other,s growing armies in %iolation of the Kersailles Treaty limiting Germany to a 1HH,HHH6man army$ This also fortifie" the German military as an in"e&en"ently6o&erating state within the state$ General 0ans %on 'eec7t ser%e" as a military a"%iser to Re&ublic of Bhina,s 4resi"ent Generalissimo Bhiang /ai6she7 from 1 C4 to 1 CD$ !(4) &hoto#

German sol"iers in the 1 2Hs engage in a military e?ercise using a cannon ma"e out of a woo"en barrel$ The Kersailles Treaty restricte" the German army,s man&ower an" wea&onry$ !4hotoE Margaret -our7e6White 0

German sol"iers o&erate a 1tan73 with car"boar" armor, a military e?ercise that conforme" to Kersailles restrictions$ !4hotoE Margaret -our7e6White#

Prominent $*an0ellors and ,inisters o2 Germany "Weimar &epubli0)

;riedri#h E2ert $*an0ellor o2 Germany "November 9, 191:R +ebruary 11, 1919)> President o2 Germany "+ebruary 11, 1919R +ebruary :, 19 4)> died in o22i0e on +ebruary :, 19 4

,hili'' "#heidemann $*an0ellor o2 Germany "+ebruary 1!, 1919R /une C, 1919)> ,ayor o2 ;assel, Germany "19 C@19 4)

$ustav Bauer $*an0ellor o2 Germany "/une 1, 1919R ,ar0* L, 19 C)

)onstantin ;ehren2a#h $*an0ellor o2 Germany "/une 1, 19 C R ,ay 1C, 19 1)

Jose'h 8irth $*an0ellor o2 Germany ",ay 1C, 19 1R November 1D, 19 )> +oreign ,inister o2 Germany "19 1@19 , 19 )

8ilhelm )uno $*an0ellor o2 Germany "November , 19 R .ugust 1 , 19 !)

$ustav "tresemann $*an0ellor o2 Germany ".ugust 1!, 19 !R November !, 19 !)> +oreign ,inister o2 Germany ".ugust 1!, 19 !R%0tober !, 19 9)

&ans Luther $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19 4@19 L)> +inan0e ,inister o2 Germany "19 !@19 4)> President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19!C@ 19!!)> German .mbassador to .meri0a "19!!@19!1)

8ilhelm %ar$*an0ellor o2 Germany "19 !@19 4, 19 L@19 :)

&ermann %Gller $*an0ellor o2 Germany " 1 ,ar0* 19 CR : /une 19 C, : /une 19 :R 1 ,ar0* 19!C)> +oreign ,inister o2 Germany "1919@19 C)

&einri#h BrGning $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19!C@19! )> +oreign ,inister o2 Germany "19!1@19! )> went into e6ile in 19!D> Pro2essor o2 Politi0al (0ien0e at ?arvard 9niversity

;ran. von ,a'en $*an0ellor o2 Germany "/une 1, 19! RNov. 11, 19! )> 7i0e $*an0ellor o2 Germany "/anuary !C, 19!! R.ugust 1, 19!D)> German .mbassador to .ustria "19!D@19!:)> German .mbassador to 3urkey "19!9@19DD)

Kurt von "#hlei#her $*an0ellor o2 Germany "De0. !, 19! @/an. :, 19!!)> ,inister o2 De2ense "/une 1, 19! R /an. :, 19!!)> assassinated on /une !C, 19!D during t*e Nig*t o2 t*e Long ;nives

Johann Lud0ig $raf "#h0erin von Krosig( +inan0e ,inister o2 Germany "1 /une 19! R ! ,ay 19D4)> +oreign ,inister o2 Germany " ,ay 19D4 R ! ,ay 19D4)

8ilhelm $roener ,inister o2 De2ense "/anuary C, 19 :R ,ay !C, 19! )> 3ransportation ,inister o2 Germany "19 C@19 !)> $*ie2 o2 t*e German General (ta22 "! /uly 1919R1 /uly 1919)

German Fe"eral .lection Results on May 2H, 1 25 Fe)eral ele$tions were hel" in Germany on May 2H, 1 25$ The 'ocial +emocratic 4arty !'4+# remaine" the largest &arty in the Reichstag after winning 1DC of the 4 1 seats$ Koter turnout was :D$*\$ The only two &arties to gain significantly were the '4+, who &olle" almost a thir" of %otes, an" the Bommunist 4arty of Germany, com&leting a thorough %ictory of the left6wing$ 0owe%er, although the '4+ now ha" 1DC seats, they still faile" to gain a clear maLority, resulting in another coalition go%ernment le" by 0ermann MUller$ Following his a&&ointment, MUller, who ha" alrea"y been GermanyNs Bhancellor for 4 months in 1 2H, create" a Gran" Boalition of members of the '+4, German +emocratic 4arty, Bentre 4arty an" the German 4eo&leNs 4arty$ The coalition though, was &lague" by internal "i%isions right from the beginning, with each &arty more concerne" with their self6interest than the interest of the go%ernment an" e%entually MUller as7e" 4resi"ent 4aul Kon 0in"enburg for emergency &owers$ When 0in"enburg refuse", MUller resigne", mar7ing the en" of the Nlast genuinely "emocratic go%ernment of the Weimar Re&ublicN on 2: March 1 CH$ The recently reforme" @a>i 4arty conteste" the elections after their ban en"e" the &re%ious year$ 0owe%er, the &arty recei%e" less than C\ of the %ote an" won Lust 12 seats in the Reichstag$ This was "ue to 0itler, who ha" been incarcerate" in 2an"sberg &rison for his in%ol%ement in the -eer 0all 4utsch until Bhristmas 1 24, concentrating on re6establishing himself as the lea"er of the &arty following his release, rather than its electability$ 'ourceE htt&EGGen$wi7i&e"ia$orgGwi7iGGerman^election,^1 25

German Fe"eral .lection Results on March D, 1 CC !*4: seats in the Reichstag8 C24 seats nee"e" for a maLority# ;ar$h N6 47>> German Fe)eral le$tion Results Party 1otes T *eats National *o$ialist German Wor/ers Party 4H6?HH6495 G>:74 ?99 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany :,151,*2 15$2D 12H Bommunist 4arty of Germany 4,545,HD5 12$C2 51 Bentre 4arty 4,424, HD 11$2D :C <a= -lac76White6Re" 'truggle Front !+@K4# C,1C*,:*H :$ : D2 -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty 1,H:C,DD2 2$:C 1 German 4eo&leNs 4arty 4C2,C12 1$1 2 Bhristian 'ocial 4eo&leNs 'er%ice C5C, H$ 5 4 German 'tate 4arty CC4,242 H$5D D German FarmersN 4arty 114,H45 H$2 2 Agricultural 2eague 5C,5C H$21 1 German60ano%erian 4arty 4:,:4C H$12 H 'ocialist 'truggle Bommunity C, D4 H$H1 H /am&fgemeinschaft "er Arbeiter un" -auern 1,11H H$HH H )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes C11,* 5 ; ; Total >768NN65?7 455 8GH Registere" %otersGturnout 44,*5D,:*4 :1$*H ; 'ourceE Gonschior$"e
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;ay ?56 47?9 German Fe)eral le$tion Results Party 1otes T *eats 'ocial +emocratic 4arty ,1D2, : 2 $5 1DC German @ational 4eo&leNs 4arty 4,C51,D*C 14$2 :C Bentre 4arty C,:12,1D2 12$1 *1 Bommunist 4arty of Germany C,2*4,: C 1H$* D4 German 4eo&leNs 4arty 2,*: ,:HC 5$: 4D German +emocratic 4arty 1,4: ,C:4 4$51 2D Reich 4arty of the German Mi""le Blass 1,C5:,*H2 4$D 2C -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty 4D,*44 C$1 1: National *o$ialist German Wor/ers Party 94564?H ?:8 4? Bhristian6@ational 4easantsN an" FarmersN 4arty D:1,5 1 1$ Reich 4arty for Bi%il Rights an" +eflation DH ,4:1 1$: 2 German FarmersN 4arty 451,2D4 1$* 5 KWl7ischnationaler -loc7 2**,C:H H$ H Agricultural 2eague 1 ,D45 H$: C German60ano%erian 4arty 1 D,DDD H$* 4 'a?on 4easants 12:,:HH H$4 2 Bhristian 'ocial Reich 4arty 11H,:H4 H$4 H 2eft Bommunists 5H,4HD H$C H Jl" 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany *D,::D H$2 H 4olish 4eo&leNs 4arty *4,:DC H$2 H .%angelical 4arty of Germany D2,455 H$2 H German 'ocial 4arty 4*,H4: H$2 H General 4eo&leNs 4arty C:,C:C H$1 H German 0ouse an" 4ro&erty JwnersN 4arty CD,54* H$1 H )n"e&en"ent 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany 2H,51D H$1 H .%angelical Bommunity '&irit 1H,:H H$H H Bhristian @ational Mi""le Blass 4arty , D: H$H H 4astor Greber 4arty ,D2: H$H H Aufwertungs6 un" Aufbau&artei 5,D*2 H$H H +eutscher Reichsbloc7 "er GeschQ"igten :,4C: H$H H Reichs&artei fUr 0an"wer7, 0an"el un" Gewerbe *,*14 H$H H 4eo&leNs Welfare 4arty *,H:1 H$H H FrQn7isches 2an"%ol7 C,41: H$H H Wen"ish 4eo&leNs 4arty C,111 H$H H 4arty for Justice an" Tenant 4rotection 2,5C1 H$H H 'chleswig Blub 2,4CD H$H H German Bhristian Fol7 4arty H1 H$H H 2ebensinteressen "er 2e"igen 5:C H$H H Masurian 4eo&leNs 4arty 2 D H$H H 2ithuanian 4eo&leNs 4arty 25 H$H H Frieslan" 25* H$H H )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes 412,D42 ; ; Total >4648N6H97 455 G74 Registere" %otersGturnout 41,224,*:5 :D$* ; 'ourceE Gonschior$"e

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*e#tember 4G6 47>5 German Fe)eral le$tion Results Party 'ocial +emocratic 4arty National *o$ialist German Wor/ers Party Bommunist 4arty of Germany Bentre 4arty German @ational 4eo&leNs 4arty German 4eo&leNs 4arty German 'tate 4arty Reich 4arty of the German Mi""le Blass Bhristian6@ational 4easantsN an" FarmersN 4arty -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty Bhristian 'ocial 4eo&leNs 'er%ice German FarmersN 4arty Bonser%ati%e 4eo&leNs 4arty Reich 4arty for Bi%il Rights an" +eflationGBhristian 'ocial Reich 4arty Agricultural 2eague German60ano%erian 4arty Bhristian 'ocial 4eo&les Bommunity 4olish 4eo&leNs 4arty 'chmali? Greater German 2ist 0ouse an" 4ro&erty Jwners Bonser%ati%e 4eo&leNs 4artyGGerman60ano%erian 4arty )n"e&en"ent 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany Freibun" "es 0an"wer7s, /leinhan"els un" Gewerbes Ra"ical German 'tate 4arty +eutsche .inheits&artei fUr wahre Kol7swirtschaft /riegsbeschQ"igten6 un" 0interbliebenen&artei "er "eutschen Mannschaft einschliedlich "er Abgefun"enen +eutsche /ultur&artei "er geistigen -erufe, Angestellten un" -eamten 0an"el, 0an"wer7, 0ausbesit> 'chleswig Blub Menschheits&artei un" neue Kol7sgemeinschaft .%angelical %oters 4arty against Alcohol Arbeiter64artei fUr "as arbeiten"e un" schaffen"e Kol7 4russian62ithunanian 4eo&leNs 4arty Renter an" 4eo&leNs Reich 4arty 4eo&leNs 4arty of the 2usatian 'orbs Frieslan" )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes Total Registere" %otersGturnout 'ourceE Gonschior$"e

1otes 5,D:D,244 86>H768H? 4,D H,1*H 4,12:,HHH 2,4D:,*5* 1,D::,C*D 1,C22,HC4 1,C1*,:*2 1,1H5,H4C 1,HD5,*C: 5*5,2* CC ,4C4 2 H,D: 2:1,2 1 1 C, 2* 144,25* 51,DDH :2, 1C 2*,:H: 2D,DCH 22,215 11,* H ,DC1 5,541 *, 1D *,:H4 *,151 C,*44 1,:5D 1,*2* 1,C2* 1,1:1 H: *** *DC 255 2C: 2*5,H25 >N6??G6G77 42, 52, 12

T *eats 24$DC 14C 49:?N 45H 1C$1C :: 11$51 *5 :$HC 41 4$D1 CH C$:5 2H C$ H 2C C$1: 1 C$HC 1 2$45 14 H$ : * H$5C 4 H$:5 H H$DD C H$41 C H$2C H H$21 H H$H5 H H$H: H H$H* H H$HC H H$HC H H$HC H H$H2 H H$H2 H$H2 H$H1 H$H1 H$H H$H H$H H$H H$H H$H H$H H$H ; 455 52$H

UVR ;1H U7N c2C c: ;C2 ;1D ;D H c1H c2 @ew ;2 @ew ;2 H ;1 @ew H @ew H ; H @ew @ew @ew

H @ew H H H H H H H H H H H ; NHH ; @ew @ew H @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew H ; U98 ;

%uly >46 47>? German Fe)eral le$tion Results Party 1otes *eats T UVR National *o$ialist German Wor/ers Party 4>6HGN6895 ?>5 >H:?H U4?> 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany :, D ,:12 1CC 21$D5 ;1H Bommunist 4arty of Germany D,252,*C* 5 14$C2 c12 Bentre 4arty 4,D5 ,4CH :D 12$44 c: German @ational 4eo&leNs 4arty 2,1:5,H24 C: D$ 1 ;4 -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty 1,1 2,*54 22 C$2C cC German 4eo&leNs 4arty 4C*,HH2 : 1$15 ;2C German 'tate 4arty C:1,5HH 4 1$H1 ;1* Bhristian 'ocial 4eo&leNs 'er%ice C*4,D4C C H$ ;11 Reich 4arty of the German Mi""le Blass 14*,5:* 2 H$4H ;21 German FarmersN 4arty 1C:,1CC 2 H$C: ;4 Agricultural 2eague *,5D1 2 H$2* ;1 German Bountry 4eo&le H,DD4 1 H$2D ;15 'ocialist Wor7ers 4arty of Germany :2,*CH H H$2H @ew German60ano%erian 4arty 4*, 2: H H$1C ;C 4eo&leNs Justice 4arty 4H,52D H H$11 @ew 4olan" 2ist CC,4C* H H$H @ew @ationalso>ialistische /leinrentner, )nflationsgeschQ"igte un" Kor7riegsgel"besit>er 14,51* H H$H4 @ew Wor7er an" Farmer 4arty of GermanyGBhristian Ra"ical 4eo&leNs Front 1C, DH H H$H4 @ew Free .conomy 4arty of Germany 12,24: H H$HC @ew Farmers, 0ouse an" 4ro&erty Jwners ,4*D H H$HC @ew Ra"ical Mi""le Blass 5,*C: H H$H2 @ew /am&fgemeinschaft "er Arbeiter un" -auern 4,DD1 H H$H1 @ew )nteressengemeinschaft "er /leinrentner un" )nflationsgeschQ"igten 2, C2 H H$H1 @ew @ational 'ocialist 4eo&leNs Alliance for Truth an" Justice 2,4C* H H$H1 @ew @ationalso>ialistische 0an"wer7er, 0an"els6 un" Gewerbetreiben"e 2,221 H H$H1 @ew @ationalso>ialistische /riegsteilnehmer, /riegsbeschQ"igte un" /riegshinterbliebene 2,21C H H$H1 @ew @ationalso>ialistischer enteigneter Mittelstan" 2,15* H H$H1 @ew Gerechtig7eitsbewegung fUr 4arteien%erbot ; gegen 2ohn6, Gehalts6 un" Renten7Ur>ungen ; fUr 2,HCD H H$H1 @ew Arbeitsbeschaffung German Free .conomy 4arty 1, 1* H H$H1 @ew +eutsche .inheits&artei fUr wahre Kol7swirtschaft, (nterstUt>ungsem&fQnger6 4artei +eutschlan"s 1,:H H H$HH @ew 'chleswig 0ome 1,D11 H H$HH @ew 4artei "er (n>ufrie"enen 1,C41 H H$HH @ew 0Wchstgehalt "er -eamten DHHH M$ FUr "ie Arbeitslosen un" bis Let>t abgewiesenen /riegsbeschQ"igten 1,141 H H$HH @ew German 'ocialist 'truggle Mo%ement 4: H H$HH @ew 2iste gegen /Ur>ung "er )n%ali"en6, 'o>ial6 un" /riegsbeschQ"igtenrenten 55: H H$HH @ew (nem&loye" Front 5DC H H$HH @ew /am&fbun" gegen 0aus>inssteuer : H H H$HH @ew German 4eo&leNs Bommunity *15 H H$HH @ew Greater Germany 'chmali? 2ist *1H H H$HH H 'chlesiens 0an"wer7 un" Gewerbe D 5 H H$HH @ew +er ernste e%angelisch6lutherische Bhrist !Gerechtig7eits6-ewegung# D5: H H$HH @ew -un" -ayerisches 0an"wer7 un" Gewerbe, 0aus6 un" Grun"besit> un" 2an"wirtschaft D:: H H$HH @ew /am&fgemeinschaft "er Rentner, '&arer un" )nflationsgeschQ"igten DC2 H H$HH @ew @ationale Rentner, '&arer un" )nflationsgeschQ"igte D22 H H$HH @ew 4arty of the (nem&loye" for Wor7 an" -rea" 4 2 H H$HH @ew Freiheitliche @ational6'o>iale +eutsche Mittelstan"sbewegung 45H H H$HH @ew @ational Free"om 4arty of Germany C 2 H H$HH @ew @ational6'o>iale 4artei gegen "ie 0aus>inssteuer C:* H H$HH @ew @ationalso>iale /am&fgemeinschaft fUr 0an"wer7, Gewerbe, 0ausbesit> un" 2an"wirtschaft CC4 H H$HH @ew General 'ocial6@ational (nity Wor7er 4arty of Germany 2:: H H$HH @ew Freiwirtschaftsbewegung fUr Freilan", Freigel", FestwQhrung 2:H H H$HH @ew

German Wor7ers 4arty @ationaler -Urger6 un" Wirtschaftsbloc7 /am&fbun" "er 2ohn6 un" Gehaltsabgebauten un" Auslan"sgeschQ"igten Ra"ical 4arty /am&fgemeinschaft "er 2ohn6 un" Gehaltsabgebauten (nitarianist (nion of Germany Mieter6 un" Kol7s6Reichs&artei German 'ocial Monarchist 4arty German Reform 4arty )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes Total Registere" %otersGturnout 'ourceE Gonschior$"e

2D: H 22* H 1:: H 1D4 H 125 H 51 H * H ** H D H 2: ,:2: ; >H648?6594 859 44,211,21* 54$1


@ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew ; U>4 ;

No,ember 86 47>? German Fe)eral le$tion Results Party 1otes T *eats National *o$ialist German Wor/ers Party 446H>H65?4 >>:57 478 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany :,24:, H1 2H$4C 121 Bommunist 4arty of Germany D, 5H,2C 1*$5* 1HH Bentre 4arty 4,2CH,D4D 11$ C :H German @ational 4eo&leNs 4arty 2, D ,HDC 5$C4 D1 -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty 1,H 4,D : C$H 2H German 4eo&leNs 4arty **H,55 1$5* 11 Bhristian 'ocial 4eo&leNs 'er%ice 4HC,*** 1$14 D German 'tate 4arty CC*,44: H$ D 2 German FarmersN 4arty 14 ,H2* H$42 C Agricultural 2eague 1HD,22H H$CH 2 Reich 4arty of the German Mi""le Blass 11H,CH H$C1 1 German60ano%erian 4arty *C, ** H$15 1 Ra"ical Mi""le Blass *H,24* H$1: H Thuringian Agricultural 2eague *H,H*2 H$1: 1 Bhristian6@ational 4easantsN an" FarmersN 4arty 4*,C52 H$1C H 4eo&leNs Justice 4arty 4*,2H2 H$1C H 'ocialist Wor7ers 4arty of Germany 4D,2H1 H$1C H 4olan" 2ist C2, 55 H$H H For 0in"enberg an" 4o&e 2:,:D2 H$H5 H /leinrentner, )nflationsgeschQ"igte un" Kor7riegsgel"besit>er 1D,:2: H$H4 H Free .conomy 4arty of Germany 11,HH2 H$HC H 'chic7salsgemeinschaft "eutscher .rwerbslosen, /leinhan"el un" Gewerbe ,2DH H$HC H 'ocial Re&ublican 4arty of Germany 5,C D H$H2 H 0an"wer7er, 0an"el6 un" Gewerbetreiben"e D,15 H$H1 H Ra"ical +emocratic 4arty C,:5 H$H1 H /am&fgemeinschaft "er Arbeiter un" -auern C,CH5 H$H1 H @ational 'ocial 4arty of the Mi""le Blass C,HD2 H$H1 H .nteigneter Mittelstan" 2,:C: H$H1 H @ational Free"om 4arty of Germany 1,51H H$H1 H 'chleswig 0ome 1,* 4 H$HH H Greater Germany 4eo&leNs 4arty 1,C11 H$HH H )nteressengemeinschaft "er /leinrentner un" )nflationsgeschQ"igten 1,H5* H$HH H @ationalist 4arty D55 H$HH H 4eo&leNs 'ocialists D15 H$HH H 0aus6 un" 2an"wirte&artei 4*1 H$HH H @ational Bommunist 4arty of Germany C51 H$HH H

UVR R>G ;12 c11 ;D c14 ;2 c4 c2 ;2 c1 H ;1 c1 H @ew ;1 ;1 H H @ew H H @ew @ew H @ew H @ew H H H H H @ew @ew @ew @ew

German 'ocial Monarchist 4arty German Reform 4arty German Wor7ers 4arty (nitarianist (nion of Germany Greater German Mi""le Blass 4arty for Mi""le Blass +ictatorshi& Gerechtig7eits6-ewegung6Meidner German @ational Biti>en -loc 4arty for the (nem&loye" for Wor7 an" -rea" @ational German Batholic Reich 4arty German 'ocialist 'truggle Mo%ement German Reich against )nterest Rate Mo%ement Freiheitsbewegung 'chwar>6Weid6Rot Mi""le Blass 4arty /am&fbun" "er 2ohn6 un" Gehaltsabgebauten )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes Total Registere" %otersGturnout 'ourceE Gonschior$"e

CDD CD2 CH5 2 H 25* 25H 1 2 14H 1C: 1H1 : 2 5D *C 25:,4:1 >N6HN96?N7 44,C:4,H5D


H H H H H H H H H H H H H H ; N9G ;

H H H H @ew @ew @ew H @ew H @ew @ew @ew @ew ; R?G ;

Deat* o2 Gustav (tresemann "%0tober 19 9)5 %rgani8ed $rimeQ

German "ignitaries atten" the funeral of the late Gusta% 'tresemann, Foreign Minister of Germany, in front of the Reichstag in -erlin, Germany on Jctober *, 1 2 $ !4hotoE -un"esarchi%GGerman Fe"eral Archi%es#

19 9 %bituaries

.lbert (trauss ".ugust L, 1:LD@ ,ar0* :, 19 9) 7i0e $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "%0tober L, 191:@ ,ar0* 14, 19 C)

*$en1+ $ii#hi Aana(a "/une , 1:LD@ (eptember 9, 19 9) Prime ,inister o2 /apan ".pril C, 19 1@/uly , 19 9)> +oreign ,inister o2 /apan ".pril C, 19 1@/uly , 19 9)

$ustav "tresemann ",ay 1C, 1:1:@ %0tober !, 19 9) $*an0ellor o2 Germany ".ugust 1!, 19 !R November !, 19 !) and +oreign ,inister o2 Germany ".ugust 1!, 19 !R%0tober !, 19 9)

Bernhard von BGlo0 ",ay !, 1:D9@ %0tober :, 19 9) $*an0ellor o2 Germany "%0tober 1L, 19CC@/uly 1!, 19C9)> +oreign ,inister o2 Prussia "1:91@19C9)

$eorges )lemen#eau "(eptember :, 1:D1 R November D, 19 9) Prime ,inister o2 +ran0e " : %0tober 19CL R D /uly 19C9, 1L November 1911 R C /anuary 19 C)

A"olf 0itler, lea"er of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty, salutes to his su&&orters "uring a %isit to Munich, Germany in 1 2 $ !4hoto by 0ulton Archi%eGGetty )mages#

A"olf 0itler "ri%es along a flower6strewn roa" after a rally at @uremberg, Germany in 1 2 $ @a>i 4arty member Julius 'treicher !left, bal"6hea"e", moustache# is seen stan"ing on the roa" with his right han" on his hi&$ !4hoto by /eystoneGGetty )mages#

3*e 19! German Presidential -le0tions5 +austian BargainQ

0ar%ar"6e"ucate" @a>i 4arty member .rnst 14ut>i3 0anfstaengl !left# a&&ears with A"olf 0itler !center# an" 0ermann Goering in the summer of 1 C2$ .)olf +itler be$ame a naturalize) German $itizen on February ?N6 47>?, less than a year before he woul" be a&&ointe" Bhancellor of Germany$ .)olf +itler surren)ere) his .ustrian $itizenshi# in .#ril 47?N: The 1 C2 German &resi"ential election was hel" on March 1C, 1 C2 !first roun"# an" A&ril 1H, 1 C2 !secon" roun"#$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

2eftE 4aul %on 0in"enburg, 4resi"ent of Germany !May 12, 1 2D;August 2, 1 C4#8 Bhief of the German General 'taff !1 1*61 1 # RightE .rnst ThQlmann, Member of the German Bommunist 4arty The 1 C2 German &resi"ential elections was hel" on ;ar$h 4>6 47>?$ They were the secon" an" final "irect elections to the office of 4resi"ent of the Reich !Reichs&rQsi"ent#, GermanyNs hea" of state un"er the Weimar Re&ublic$ Among the &resi"ential can"i"ates in the 1 C2 German &resi"ential elections were Gen$ 4aul %on 0in"enburg, A"olf 0itler of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty, an" .rnst ThQlmann of the German Bommunist 4arty$

A"olf 0itler "eli%ers a s&eech in the -erlin 2ustgarten in -erlin "uring his &resi"ential cam&aign on A&ril 4, 1 C2$ From left to rightE Wilhelm -rUc7ner, Wolf60einrich %on 0ell"orf, Jose&h Goebbels, an" A"olf 0itler$

A"olf 0itler,s &resi"ential cam&aign &oster

47>? German Presi)ential le$tion Result -*e$on) Roun)0 First roun) *e$on) roun) 'an)i)ate Party 1otes T 1otes T 4aul %on 0in"enburg )n"e&en"ent 15,*D1,4 : 4 $* 1 ,CD , 5C DC$H A"olf 0itler @a>i 4arty 11,CC ,44* CH$1 1C,415,D4: C*$5 .rnst ThQlmann Bommunist 4arty 4, C5,C41 1C$2 C,:H*,:D 1H$2 Theo"or +uesterberg 'tahlhelm 2,DD:,:2 *$5 Jther can"i"ates 11*,CH4 H$C D,4:4 H$H )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes ; ; Total >H685>6>4H 455 >86G756H84 455 Registere" %otersGturnout 4C, 4 ,*51 5D$* 44,H*C, D5 52$

47?N German Presi)ential le$tion Result -First Roun)0 'an)i)ate Party /arl Jarres German 4eo&leNs 4arty, German @ational 4eo&leNs 4arty Jtto -raun 'ocial +emocratic 4arty Wilhelm Mar? Bentre 4arty .rnst ThQlmann Bommunist 4arty Willy 0ell&ach German +emocratic 4arty 0einrich 0el" -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty .rich 2u"en"orff German KWl7isch Free"om 4arty Jther can"i"ates )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes Total Registere" %otersGturnout 47?N German Presi)ential le$tion Result -*e$on) Roun)0 'an)i)ate Party *u##orte) by 4aul %on 0in"enburg )n"e&en"ent +K4, +@K4, -K4 Wilhelm Mar? Bentre 4arty '4+, ++4 .rnst ThQlmann Bommunist 4arty Jther can"i"ates )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes Total Registere" %otersGturnout 1otes 14,*DD,*41 1C,:D1,*HD 1, C1,1D1 1C,41*

1otes 1H,41*,*D5 :,5H2,4 : C,55:,:C4 1,5:1,51D 1,D*5,C 5 1,HH:,4DH 25D,: C 2D,:*1

T C5$5 2 $H 14$D :$H D$5 C$: 1$1 H$1 ; ?869886458 455 C ,22*,1C5 *5$D

T 45$C 4D$C *$4 H$H ; >56>N4694> 455 C ,414,C1* ::$H

$*an0ellor ?itler, Burning o2 t*e &ei0*stag < Nig*t o2 t*e Long ;nives

Bhancellor A"olf 0itler meets with his Babinet on his first "ay in office in -erlin, Germany on January CH, 1 CC$ A"olf 0itler was inaugurate" Bhancellor of Germany on January CH, 1 CC$ 'eate", from left to rightE 0ermann Goering !the Reich Bommissioner for Air an" the 4russian )nterior Ministry#, A"olf 0itler !Bhancellor#, an" Fran> %on 4a&en !Kice Bhancellor#$ 'tan"ing, left to rightE Fran> 'el"te !2abor Minister#, +r$ GUnther Gere7e, 2ut> Graf 'chwerin %on /rosig7 !Finance Minister#, Wilhelm Fric7 !Reichsminister#, Werner %on -lomberg !Minister of +efense#, an" Alfre" 0ugenberg !.conomic an" Foo" Minister#$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

Bhancellor A"olf 0itler meets with his Babinet on his first "ay in office in -erlin, Germany on January CH, 1 CC$ A"olf 0itler was inaugurate" Bhancellor of Germany on January CH, 1 CC$ 'eate", from left to rightE 0ermann Goering !the Reich Bommissioner for Air an" the 4russian )nterior Ministry#, A"olf 0itler !Bhancellor#, an" Fran> %on 4a&en !Kice Bhancellor#$ 'tan"ing, left to rightE Fran> 'el"te !2abor Minister# !hi""en#, +r$ GUnther Gere7e, 2ut> Graf 'chwerin %on /rosig7 !Finance Minister#, Wilhelm Fric7 !Reichsminister#, Werner %on -lomberg !Minister of +efense#, an" Alfre" 0ugenberg !.conomic an" Foo" Minister#$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

A"olf 0itler recei%es an o%ation on the e%ening of his inauguration as Bhancellor of Germany on January CH, 1 CC in -erlin$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

4ri%ate citi>ens A"olf 0itler !center, left# an" Jose&h Goebbels !center, right# meet with @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty stormtroo&ers !informally 7nown as the 1-rown 'hirts3# on January 22, 1 CC$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# A"olf 0itler an" his @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty maintaine" a &ri%ate army in "irect %iolation of the Weimar Bonstitution8 The @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty an" 0itler,s -rown 'hirt !'A stormtroo&er# &ri%ate army was finance" &rimarily by &rominent American businessmen from @ew Aor7 Bity ; inclu"ing 4rescott '$ -ush, Rolan" 0arriman, A%erell 0arriman, 4aul Warburg, Feli? Warburg, an" &artners of J$4$ Morgan F Bo$ ; an" German financiers an" in"ustrialists such as the /ru&& family, Frit> Thyssen, an" sharehol"ers of the 0amburg Ameri7a 2ine !0A4AG#, +eutsche6Ameri7anische 4etroleum A$G$ !+A4AG# !'tan"ar" Jil subsi"iary in Germany#, Bonsoli"ate" 'ilesian 'teel Bor&oration, 'ilesian6American Bor&oration, American 'hi& an" Bommerce Bom&any, 0ollan"6American Tra"ing Bom&any, 'teamless 'teel Bor&oration, an" 0arriman )nternational Bom&any$

Bor&orate s&onsors an" su&&orters of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty an" the Thir" Reich, left to rightE Frit> Thyssen, Jwen +$ Aoung, Rolan" 0arriman, 4rescott '$ -ush, 0enry For", an" Thomas J$ Watson

Burning o2 t*e &ei0*stag5 %rgani8ed $rimeQ

The -urning of the Reichstag in -erlin, Germany occurre" on the night of February 2:, 1 CC

German citi>ens obser%e the Reichstag buil"ing in -erlin, Germany on the morning of February 25, 1 CC, hours after the Reichstag was set on fire the &re%ious night$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

Marinus %an "er 2ubbe stan"s on trial in -erlin in 1 CC for the Reichstag Fire$ !'tefan 2orant Bollection#

%em2ers of "(ull C Bones and Aheir 4##u'ation during the Rei#hstag ;ire *;e2ruar !@, 1933+
Government %22i0ials5 ?enry L. (timson "(<B 1:::) R 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate ",ar0* :, 19 9@,ar0* D, 19!!) ?arvey ?. Bundy "(<B 19C9) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 (tate "19!1@19!!) ?ug* &. Wilson "(<B 19CL) R 9.(. ,inister to (wit8erland "19 1@19!1) Gardner &i0*ardson "(<B 19C4) R $ommer0ial .tta0*Z at t*e .meri0an Legation in 7ienna, .ustria "19 9@19!!) +. 3rubee Davison "(<B 191:) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 War 2or .ir "19 L@19!!) 3*omas D. 3*a0*er "(<B 19CD) R (oli0itor General o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19!C@19!!) +rederi0 $. Wal0ott "(<B 1:91) R 9.(. (enator "&epubli0an Party@$onne0ti0ut, 19 9@19!4) Per0y ?amilton (tewart "(<B 1:9C) R 9.(. $ongressman "Demo0rati0 Party@New /ersey, De0ember 1, 19!1@,ar0* !, 19!!) ?oward ,al0olm Baldrige "(<B 191:) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@Nebraska, ,ar0* D, 19!1@,ar0* !, 19!!) Gi22ord Pin0*ot "(<B 1::9, &epubli0an) R Governor o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1, 19!1@19!4) Bankers5 George L. ?arrison "(<B 191C) R President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) Walter (et* Logan "(<B 191C) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@194!) (tan2ord 3appan $rapo "(<B 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "19 @19!:) 3*omas $o0*ran "(<B 1:9D) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1911@19!L) ?arold (tanley "(<B 19C:) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 :@19!4) ?arry E?enryF P. Davison /r. "(<B 19 C) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 9@19DC) &ay ,orris "(<B 19C1) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@194L) W. .verell ?arriman "(<B 191!) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DL) -. &oland ?arriman "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191:) Pres0ott (. Bus* "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191 ) ;nig*t Woolley "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19: ) &obert .. Lovett "(<B 191:) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DC, 19DL@19D1, 19D9@194C, 194!@19:L) Pierre /ay "(<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) ,ortimer Norton Bu0kner "(<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19 1@19D ) .rtemus L. Gates "(<B 191:) R President o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19 9@19D1) +rank P. (*epard "(<B 1911) R 7i0e President o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. o2 New =ork "19 9@19!D) (amuel &. Bertron "(<B 1::4) R President o2 Bertron, Gris0om < $ompany, 'n0., international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:) +ran0is +it8 &andolp* "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 /<W (eligman < $o. "19 !@19DC) ?enry $*andler ?olt "(<B 19C!) R 7i0e President o2 $entral ?anover Bank < 3rust $o. ENew =ork $ityF "19 C@19DL) Lawyers5 ?enry Waters 3a2t "(<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1:99@19D4) William Lloyd ;it0*el "(<B 1:9 ) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "191D@19D4) Gra*am (umner "(<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19CD@19DL) Lansing P. &eed "(<B 19CD) R ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed "1914@19!1) ,orris ?adley "(<B 191L) R Partner o2 ,ilbank, 3weed, ?adley < ,0$loy "19 D@1919) .llen 3. ;lots "(<B 19C9) R ,ember o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "19 1@19L4) ?oward ,ans2ield "(<B 1:11) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19C1@19!:) ?enry De+orest Baldwin "(<B 1::4) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19CC@19D1) (*erman Baldwin "(<B 1919) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19 9@19L9) Wint*rop -dwards Dwig*t "(<B 1:9!) R Partner o2 Dwig*t < (0oville Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19DD) Dean (age "(<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (age, Gray, 3odd < (ims Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C4@19D!) Lee /ames Perrin "(<B 19CL) R Partner o2 .ppleton, Perrin < ?oyt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19DL) -dward Ban0ro2t 3wombly "(<B 191 ) R Partner o2 Putney, 3wombly, ?all < (kidmore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1919@19LL) /o*n Loomer ?all "(<B 1:9D) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) ,ar0ien /en0kes "(<B 19 1) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 1@1911) (amuel ;nig*t "(<B 1::1) R ,ember o2 $*ristin, ;nig*t, Boland < $*nstin Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "191:@19D!) &obert .. 3a2t "(<B 191C) R ,ember o2 3a2t, (tettinius < ?ollister Elaw 2irm in $in0innati, %*ioF "19 !@19!9) /ournalists, Pro2essors, and %rgani8ation -6e0utives5 ?enry &. Lu0e "(<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD) .r0*ibald ,a0Leis* "(<B 1914) R -ditor o2 #ortune maga8ine "19 9@19!:) ?arold P*elps (tokes "(<B 19C9) R ,ember o2 t*e -ditorial (ta22 o2 The New Yor Times "19 L@19!1) William ?. $owles "(<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL)> Dire0tor o2 t*e .sso0iated Press "191 @19DD) $*arles (eymour "(<B 19C:) R Provost o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@19!1) $arl .. Lo*mann "(<B 191C) R (e0retary o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@194!) .ugust (idney Lovett "(<B 191!) R $*aplain o2 =ale 9niversity "19! @194:) .rt*ur ?owe "(<B 191 ) R President o2 ?ampton 'nstitute Elater ?ampton 9niversity, 7irginiaF "19!1@19DC) ?enry (loane $o22in "(<B 1:91) R President o2 9nion 3*eologi0al (eminary "19 L@19D4) BenJamin Brewster "(<B 1:: ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 ,aine "191L@19D1) 3*omas +. Davies "(<B 1:9D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Western ,assa0*usetts "1911@19!L) ?enry W. ?obson "(<B 191D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (out*ern %*io "19!1@1949) +rederi0k (. /ones "(<B 1::D) R $*airman o2 t*e $onne0ti0ut (tate Board o2 -du0ation "1919@19!4) 'rving +is*er "(<B 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "1:9:@19!4) $live Day "(<B 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "19C1@19!L) William ,ossgrove Beard "(<B 1:9L) R 7i0e President o2 9nion $arbide < $arbon $orporation E0*emi0al 0ompanyF "19!1@19!1) +oster ?arry &o0kwell "(<B 19CL) R General Partner o2 (mit*, Gra*am < &o0kwell Ebrokerage 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 L@19!L)

(kull < Bones ,embers and 3*eir %00upation during t*e &ei0*stag +ire

?arold (tanley B... =ale 19C: Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 :@19!4)

George L. ?arrison B... =ale 191C President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC)

?enry L. (timson B... =ale 1::: 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate ",ar0* :, 19 9@ ,ar0* D, 19!!)

?ug* &obert Wilson B... =ale 19CL 9.(. ,inister to (wit8erland "19 1@19!1)

3*omas D. 3*a0*er B... =ale 19CD (oli0itor General o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19!C@19!!)

W. .verell ?arriman B... =ale 191! Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DL)

&obert .. Lovett B... =ale 191: Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@ 19DC, 19DL@19D1, 19D9@ 194C, 194!@19:L)

Pres0ott (. Bus* B... =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191 )

-. &oland ?arriman B... =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191:)

;nig*t Woolley B... =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19: )

Pierre /ay B... =ale 1:9 $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany "19!C@19D4)

.rtemus L. Gates B... =ale 191: President o2 New =ork 3rust $o. "19 9@19D1)

?enry Waters 3a2t B... =ale 1::C Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4)

3*omas $o0*ran B... =ale 1:9D Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1911@19!L)

(amuel &. Bertron B... =ale 1::4 President o2 Bertron, Gris0om < $ompany, 'n0., international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:)

Gi22ord Pin0*ot B... =ale 1::9 Governor o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1, 19!1@19!4)

+rederi0 $. Wal0ott B... =ale 1:91 9.(. (enator "&@$onn., 19 9@19!4)

?enry &. Lu0e B... =ale 19 C -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD)

$*arles (eymour B... =ale 19C: Provost o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@19!1)

'rving +is*er B... =ale 1::: Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "1:9:@19!4)

=ale 9niversity Graduates and 3*eir %00upation during t*e &ei0*stag +ire "+ebruary 1, 19!!) Government %22i0ials5 [?enry L. (timson "B... 1:::, (<B 1:::) R 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate ",ar0* :, 19 9@,ar0* D, 19!!) [?ug* &. Wilson "B... 19CL, (<B 19CL) R 9.(. ,inister to (wit8erland "19 1@19!1) +erdinand Lammot Belin "P*.B. 19C1) R 9.(. .mbassador to Poland "De0ember 1!, 19! @,ar0* D, 19!!) 'rwin B. Laug*lin "B... 1:9!, (<; 1:9!) R 9.(. .mbassador to (pain "De0ember D, 19 9@ .pril 1 , 19!!) $*arles ?. (*errill "B... 1::9) R 9.(. .mbassador to 3urkey ",ay C, 19! @,ar0* !, 19!!) $*arles ,ontgomery ?at*away /r. "B... 1:99, ,... 19C1, P*.D. 19C ) R 9.(. $onsul General in ,uni0*, Germany "19 1@19!:) Louis G. Drey2us /r. "B... 191C) R 9.(. $onsul General in $open*agen, Denmark "19!1@19!!) /o*n Ball %sborne "B... 1::9) R 9.(. $onsul General in Budapest, ?ungary "19!1@19!!) ?arold ?. 3ittmann /r. "B... 191L) R (e0retary o2 t*e 9.(. -mbassy in &ome, 'taly "19 4@19!L) Gardner &i0*ardson "B... 19C4, (<B 19C4) R $ommer0ial .tta0*Z at t*e .meri0an Legation in 7ienna, .ustria "19 9@19!!) [3*omas D. 3*a0*er "B... 19CD, (<B 19CD) R (oli0itor General o2 t*e 9.(. "19!C@19!!) [+. 3rubee Davison "B... 191:, (<B 191:) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 War 2or .ir "19 L@19!!) [?arvey ?. Bundy "B... 19C9, (<B 19C9) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 (tate "/uly 1!, 19!1@,ar0* D, 19!!) /ames Gra2ton &ogers "B... 19C4) R .ssistant 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate ",ar0* 1C, 19!1@,ar0* L, 19!!) George ;ennet* Donald "B... 191 ) R 9.(. $onsul General in (t. /o*nAs, New2oundland, $anada "19!!@19!D) [.rt*ur Bliss Lane "B... 191L) R $ounselor o2 t*e 9.(. -mbassy in ,e6i0o $ity, ,e6i0o "19!C@19!!) [-. (*eldon W*ite*ouse "B... 19C4, (<B 19C4) R 9.(. ,inister to Guatemala ",ar0* 1, 19!C@/uly !, 19!!) Brig. Gen. Preston Brown "B... 1:9 ) R $ommanding General o2 Panama $anal Department "November D, 19!C@November 1D, 19!!) /o*n ?all Pa6ton "B... 19 ) R 9.(. $onsul in $anton, $*ina "19! @19!D) ?oward Donovan "P*.B. 19 C) R 9.(. $onsul in ;obe, /apan "19 9@19!L) .lva B. .dams "B... 1:9L) R 9.(. (enator "D@$olorado, 19 !@19 D, 19! @19D1) ?iram Bing*am ''' "B... 1:9:) R 9.(. (enator "&@$onne0ti0ut, 19 D@19!!) [+rederi0 $. Wal0ott "B... 1:91, (<B 1:91) R 9.(. (enator "&@$onne0ti0ut, 19 9@19!4) &i0*ard (teere .ldri0* "B... 19CL) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@&*ode 'sland, 19 !@19!!) Parker $orning "B... 1:94) R 9.(. $ongressman "Demo0rat@New =ork, 19 !@19!1) Per0y ?amilton (tewart "B... 1:9C, (<B 1:9C) R 9.(. $ongressman "Demo0rati0 Party@New /ersey, De0ember 1, 19!1@,ar0* !, 19!!) ?oward ,al0olm Baldrige "B... 191:, (<B 191:) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@Nebraska, ,ar0* D, 19!1@,ar0* !, 19!!) 3*omas Walter (wan "B... 19CC) R /udge o2 9.(. $ourt o2 .ppeals 2or t*e (e0ond $ir0uit ENew =ork $ityF "19 L@194!) /o*n ,unro Woolsey "B... 1:9:, (<; 1:9:) R /udge o2 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e (out*ern Distri0t o2 New =ork "19 9@19D!) .l2red $onkling $o6e /r. "B... 19C1) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e (out*ern Distri0t o2 New =ork "19 9@1941) $arroll $lark ?in0ks "B... 1911) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 $onne0ti0ut "19!1@194!) William 'rwin Grubb "B... 1::!) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Nort*ern Distri0t o2 .labama "19C9@19!4) /o*n +oster (ymes "P*.B. 19CC) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 $olorado "19 @194C) William /osia* 3ilson "B... 1:9D) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. $ustoms $ourt "19 :@19D9) Wilbur L. $ross "B... 1::4, P*.D. 1::9) R Governor o2 $onne0ti0ut "19!1@19!9) Gi22ord Pin0*ot "B... 1::9, (<B 1::9) R Governor o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1, 19!1@19!4) David (*olt8 "B... 191D) R Governor o2 +lorida "/anuary D, 19!!@/anuary 4, 19!1) $*arles Brown (ears "B... 1:9 , (<; 1:9 ) R Presiding /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New =ork "19 9@19DC) William ,. ,altbie "B... 19C1, LL.B. 19C4) R $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e $onne0ti0ut (upreme $ourt o2 -rrors "19!C@194C) +rederi0 ;erno0*an "B... 1:9:, (<B 1:9:) R $*ie2 /usti0e o2 $ourt o2 (pe0ial (essions o2 New =ork $ity "191L@19!1) Businessmen5 .l2red L. .iken "B... 1:91) R 7i0e President o2 New =ork Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. "19 4@19!L) &obert W. ?untington /r. "B... 1::9, (<; 1::9) R President o2 $onne0ti0ut General Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. "19C1@19!L) ,organ B. Brainard "B... 19CC, LL.B. 19C!) R President o2 .etna Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. E?art2ord, $onne0ti0utF "19 @1941) .r0*ibald .. Wel0* "B... 1:: ) R President o2 P*oeni6 ,utual Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. E?art2ord, $onne0ti0utF "19 D@19!4) (olomon .lbert (mit* "B... 1:99) R President o2 Nort*ern 3rust $o. o2 $*i0ago "191D@1941) +air2a6 ?arrison "B... 1:9C, (<B 1:9C) R President o2 (out*ern &ailway $o. "191!@19!1) ?. Neil ,allon "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R President o2 Dresser 'ndustries, 'n0. "19 9@194:) [/uan 3erry 3rippe "P*.B. 19 1) R President o2 Pan .meri0an World .irways, 'n0. "19 1@19LD) George ?erbert Walker /r. "B... 19 1, (<B 19 1) R General Partner o2 G.?. Walker < $o. "19 9@191D) ?oward ?ein8 "B... 19CC) R President o2 ?./. ?ein8 $o. "1919@19D1)> 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "19 L@19D1) .ndrew 7ari0k (tout, /r. "B... 19 L, (<; 19 L) R Governor o2 New =ork (to0k -60*ange "19!C@19!L) .s*bel Barney Newell "B... 1:9C, (<; 1:9C) R President o2 3oledo 3erminal &ailroad $ompany "191D@194C) $*arles Davies /ones "B... 1:9!, (<; 1:9!) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $in0innati Gas < -le0tri0 $ompany "19 :@19!4) ?enry W*eeler de +orest "B... 1:1L, (<; 1:1L) R ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 3*e Guaranty 3rust $ompany "19C9@19!:) William ,ossgrove Beard "B... 1:9L, (<B 1:9L) R 7i0e President o2 9nion $arbide < $arbon $orporation E0*emi0al 0ompanyF "19!1@19!1) +oster ?arry &o0kwell "B... 19CL, (<B 19CL) R General Partner o2 (mit*, Gra*am < &o0kwell Ebrokerage 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 L@19!L) /ames $. .u0*in0loss "B... 19C:, (<; 19C:) R ,ember o2 t*e board o2 governor o2 t*e New =ork (to0k -60*ange "19 1@19!:) +rank $ourtenay Dodd "B... 1:91) R President o2 Dodd, ,ead < $o., 'n0. Epublis*ing 0ompany in New =ork $ityF "19!1@19D ) /ournalists5 [?enry &. Lu0e "B... 19 C, (<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 3ime, 'n0. "19 !@19LD)> 2ounder o2 Time and Life maga8ines [.r0*ibald ,a0Leis* "B... 1914, (<B 1914) R -ditor o2 #ortune maga8ine "19 9@19!:) ?arold P*elps (tokes "B... 19C9, (<B 19C9) R ,ember o2 t*e -ditorial (ta22 o2 The New Yor Times "19 L@19!1) William ?. $owles "B... 1::1, (<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL) /osep* ,edill Patterson "B... 19C1, (<; 19C1) R Publis*er o2 New Yor /ail- News "1919@19DL) %gden ,ills &eid "B... 19CD, LL.B. 19C1) R -ditor o2 New Yor (erald Tribune "191!@19D1) George ?enry (oule /r. "B... 19C:) R -ditor o2 The New Republic "19 D@19D1) $*arles Latimer (tillman "B... 19 L) R 3reasurer o2 3ime, 'n0. E3ime maga8ineF "19!C@19LC)

Bankers5 [-ugene ,eyer "B... 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "(eptember 1L, 19!C@,ay 1C, 19!!) [George L. ?arrison "B... 191C, (<B 191C) R President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) Walter (et* Logan "B... 191C, (<B 191C) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@194!) (tan2ord 3appan $rapo "B... 1::L, (<B 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "19 @19!:) &oss P. Wrig*t "P*.B. 1:9L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $leveland "1911@19D9) Willard Deere ?os2ord "B... 19CL) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 ;ansas $ity "19!C@1941) .l2red Lawren0e &ipley "B... 1:1:, (<; 1:1:) R $lass . Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 Boston "19 !@19!1)> $*airman o2 t*e board o2 ,er0*ants National Bank o2 Boston "19 9@19D!) [+rank .lts0*ul "B... 19C:) R Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19D4) .l2red -rnest ?amill "B... 19C4) R Partner o2 Goldman, (a0*s < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19! @19D:) [&obert Le*man "B... 191!) R Partner o2 Le*man Brot*ers E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 4@19L9) [/o*n ,. (0*i22 "B... 19 4) R Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@1911) +ran0is +it8 &andolp* "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 /<W (eligman < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 !@19DC) [&ussell $. Le22ingwell "B... 1:99) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 !@194C)> Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19LC) [?enry P. Davison /r. "B... 19 C, (<B 19 C) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 9@19DC) [?arold (tanley "B... 19C:, (<B 19C:) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 :@19!4) 3*omas $o0*ran "B... 1:9D, (<B 1:9D) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1911@19!L) [$*arles (. ,0$ain "B... 19CD) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $*ase National Bank "19!C@19!D) [Pierre /ay "B... 1:9 , (<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) ,ortimer Norton Bu0kner "B... 1:94, (<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $o. "19 1@19D ) [.rtemus L. Gates "B... 191:, (<B 191:) R President o2 New =ork 3rust $o. "19 9@19D1) (amuel (loan $olt "B... 191D, (<; 191D) R President o2 Bankers 3rust $o. "19!1@1941) [Boylston .dams 3ompkins "B... 1914, (<; 1914) R 7i0e President o2 Bankers 3rust $o. "19 1@1944) 3*omas Wilson Bowers "B... 191C) R 7i0e President o2 Bank o2 t*e ,an*attan $ompany "19!C@19D ) +rank P. (*epard "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R 7i0e President o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. o2 New =ork "19 9@19!D) 3*a0*er ,. Brown "B... 1:91) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@194D) [&ay ,orris "B... 19C1, (<B 19C1) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@194L) [W. .verell ?arriman "B... 191!, (<B 191!) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DL)> $*airman o2 t*e Board o2 9nion Pa0i2i0 &ailroad $o. "19! @19DL) Pres0ott (. Bus* "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191 ) [-. &oland ?arriman "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191:) [;nig*t Woolley "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19: ) Lauren0e G. 3ig*e "B... 191L, (<B 191L) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19!D) [&obert .. Lovett "B... 191:, (<B 191:) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DC, 19DL@19D1, 19D9@194C, 194!@19:L) [(amuel &. Bertron "B... 1::4, (<B 1::4) R President o2 Bertron, Gris0om < $ompany, 'n0., international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:) Wilson Gordon Wing "B... 19C!) R President o2 Providen0e 'nstitution 2or (avings Ebank in Providen0e, &*ode 'slandF "19 @19DD) Wirt Davis "B... 1:91) R 7i0e $*airman "19 4@19!D) and $*airman "19!D@19D4) o2 &epubli0 National Bank in Dallas, 3e6as ?enry $*andler ?olt "B... 19C!, (<B 19C!) R 7i0e President o2 $entral ?anover Bank < 3rust $o. ENew =ork $ityF "19 C@19DL) [?arry -. Ward "B... 19C1) R President o2 'rving 3rust $o. "1919@19D )> $*airman o2 'rving 3rust $o. "19D @19D9) +ran0is Ward Paine "B... 191C) R ,ember o2 Paine, Webber < $o. Einvestment banking 2irm in BostonF "1919@19DC) -dward ?oward =ork /r. "B... 191 ) R Partner o2 Dre6el < $o. Einvestment bank in P*iladelp*iaF "19!1@19!4, 19D!@19L1) William ,0$*esney ,artin /r. "B... 19 :) R Partner o2 ..G. -dwards < (ons E(t. LouisF "19!1@19!:)> ,ember o2 New =ork (to0k -60*ange "19!1@19!:) Lawyers5 ?oward ,ans2ield "B... 1:11, (<B 1:11) R (enior Partner o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19C:@19!:) [?enry De+orest Baldwin "B... 1::4, (<B 1::4) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19CC@19D1) .llen -varts +oster "B... 19CL) R Partner o2 Lord, Day < Lord "1919@0.191C) (*erman Baldwin "B... 1919, (<B 1919) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19 9@19L9) [+rank L. Polk "B... 1:9D, (<; 1:9D) R ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed "191D@19D!)> Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19D!) [.llen Wardwell "B... 1:94, (<; 1:94) R ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed "19C9@194!) Lansing P. &eed "B... 19CD, (<B 19CD) R ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed "1914@19!1) %tis 3reat Bradley "B... 1914> LL.B. ?arvard 1919) R Partner o2 Davis, Polk < Wardwell "19!C@194C) [George &oberts "B... 19C4, LL.B. ?arvard 19C:) R Partner o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "191D@19L:) [.llen 3. ;lots "B... 19C9, (<B 19C9) R ,ember o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "19 1@19L4) ?amilton ?adley "B... 1919, (<B 1919) R Partner o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "19 9@19DC) /ames William ?usted "B... 191:) R Partner o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "19!C@19L9) /o*n .nson Garver "B... 1:14, (<; 1:14) R Partner "1::D@191:) and (enior Partner "191:@19!L) o2 (*earman < (terling $*aun0ey Brewster Garver "B... 19C:, (<; 19C:) R Partner o2 (*earman < (terling "1911@191!) [?enry Waters 3a2t "B... 1::C, (<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4) George $oggill "B... 1::9, (<; 1::9) R ,ember o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "191:@19!4) Walbridge (mit* 3a2t "B... 19C1) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1911@1941) Gra*am (umner "B... 1:91, (<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19CD@19DL) Douglas ,a6well ,o22at "B... 19C!, LL.B. ?arvard 19C1) R Partner o2 $ravat*, (waine < ,oore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191!@194L) /ames &o0kwell (*e22ield "B... 1::1, (<; 1::1) R (enior Partner o2 (*e22ield and Betts Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19!:) +rederi0k 3rowbridge ;elsey "B... 19C1) R ,ember o2 Lewis < ;elsey Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191!@19DC) Walter +rederi0k $arter "B... 1:94, (<B 1:94) R ,ember o2 ?ug*es, (0*urman < Dwig*t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9:@19!L) .llen Wardner -varts "B... 1:L9) R ,ember o2 -varts, $*oate < (*erman Eand prede0essor 2irmsF Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:1D@19!9) Louis (. Weiss "B... 1914, LL.B. $olumbia 19 C) R Partner o2 Paul, Weiss, &i2kind, W*arton < Garrison Eand prede0essor 2irmsF "19 1@194C) Dean (age "B... 1:91, (<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (age, Gray, 3odd < (ims Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C4@19D!)

Lee /ames Perrin "B... 19CL, (<B 19CL) R Partner o2 .ppleton, Perrin < ?oyt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19DL) -dward Ban0ro2t 3wombly "B... 191 , (<B 191 ) R Partner o2 Putney, 3wombly, ?all < (kidmore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1919@19LL) 7anderbilt Webb "B... 191!, (<; 191!) R ,ember o2 ,ilbank, 3weed, ?ope < Webb Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@19!:) /o*n Loomer ?all "B... 1:9D, LL.B. 1:9L, (<B 1:9D) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) ,ar0ien /en0kes "B... 19 1, (<B 19 1) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 1@1911) [Dean G. .0*eson "B... 1914, (<; 1914) R ,ember o2 $ovington < Burling "19 1@19!!, 19!D@19D1)> 9nder (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19!!) (amuel ;nig*t "B... 1::1, (<B 1::1) R ,ember o2 $*ristin, ;nig*t, Boland < $*nstin Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "191:@19D!) /o*n 3*omas Pigott "B... 19C:) R Partner o2 ,0$ut0*en, 3*omas, ,att*ew, Gri22it*s < Greene Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "19 !@19DL) &obert .. 3a2t "B... 191C, (<B 191C) R ,ember o2 3a2t, (tettinius < ?ollister Elaw 2irm in $in0innati, %*ioF "19 !@19!9) 'saa0 ?enry ,ayer "B... 1::D) R (enior ,ember o2 ,ayer, ,eyer, .ustrian < Platt Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19 @19L1) +rederi0 Burn*am "B... 19C ) R Partner o2 ,ayer, ,eyer, .ustrian < Platt Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "1911@19D ) $*arles ?ump*rey ?amill "B... 1:9C, (<; 1:9C) R ,ember o2 &osent*al, ?amill < Wormser Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19CL@19D1) William Browne ?ale "B... 1:9:) R Partner o2 Wilson < ,0'lvaine Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "1919@19DD) William (out*wort* ,iller "B... 1:9L, (<; 1:9L) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 Nort*ern 3rust $ompany E$*i0agoF "191:@19D4) .ugustus Wilson $lapp "B... 1:9:) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 Weyer*aeuser 3imber $ompany E3a0oma, Was*.F "19! @19DL) Darius -dward Pe0k "B... 1:9:) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 General -le0tri0 $ompany "19 9@19DD) Loren8o Dibble .rmstrong "B... 1:99) R General $ounsel o2 West 'ndies (ugar $orporation "19! @19D1) (amuel Woodson (awyer "B... 1:99) R General $ounsel o2 ;ansas $ity 3erminal &ailway $ompany "191:@19D9) [Guy Wellman "B... 1:99) R .sso0iate General $ounsel o2 (tandard %il $ompany o2 New /ersey "19 1@19!4) BenJamin &obbins $urtis Low "B... 19C ) R General $ounsel o2 ?ome Li2e 'nsuran0e $ompany "19 :@19D1) .bel $ary 3*omas "B... 19C4) R General $ounsel and (e0retary o2 Warner Brot*ers Pi0tures, 'n0. "19 !@19!L) /ames Benton Grant "B... 19C9, (<; 19C9) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 .meri0an $rystal (ugar $ompany "19! @19D1) $*andler P. .nderson "B... 1::1, (<; 1::1) R 9nited (tates $ommissioner on ,i6ed $laims $ommission between 9nited (tates and Germany "19 !@19!L) (tanley +. &eed "B... 19CL) R General $ounsel o2 &e0onstru0tion +inan0e $orporation E9.(. governmentF "19! @19!4) %rgani8ation -6e0utives5 /ames &o0kwell (*e22ield "B... 1::1, (<; 1::1) R 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "1919@19!:)> 7i0e President o2 3*e Pilgrims (o0iety "19!C@19!:) /o*n (*illito &ogers "B... 1:9:) R 3reasurer o2 3*e Pilgrims o2 t*e 9nited (tates EPilgrims (o0ietyF "19 9@19!4) -dwin &. -mbree "B... 19CL) R President o2 /ulius &osenwald +und "19 :@19D:) William ?. Wel0* "B... 1:1C, (<B 1:1C) R President o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 &o0ke2eller 'nstitute 2or ,edi0al &esear0* "19C1@19!D) Barry $ongar (mit* "B... 1:99) R General Dire0tor o2 3*e $ommonwealt* +und "19 1@19D1) ,al0olm W. Davis "B... 1911) R &epresentative 2or t*e $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e in Geneva, (wi8erland "19!1@19!4) &obert ?askell $ory "B... 19C ) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "191L@19D1) $*arles +ranklin Bliss "B... 1::C) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 @19D ) Lansing P. &eed "B... 19CD, (<B 19CD) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 :@19!1) ?enry Wal0ott +arnam "B... 1:1D, (<B 1:1D) R ,ember o2 t*e 0oun0il o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 D@19!!) Dan2ord Newton Barney "B... 1::1, (<B 1::1) R ,ember o2 t*e 0oun0il o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 1@19!!) Lewis (*eldon Wel0* "B... 1::9, (<; 1::9) R ,ember o2 t*e 0oun0il o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19C:@19!D) BenJamin Brewster "B... 1:: , (<B 1:: ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 ,aine "191L@19D1) -dward Lambe Parsons "B... 1::9, (<; 1::9) R Protestant -pis0opalian Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 $ali2ornia "19 D@19D1) 3*omas +. Davies "B... 1:9D, (<B 1:9D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Western ,assa0*usetts "1911@19!L) ?enry W. ?obson "B... 191D, (<B 191D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (out*ern %*io "19!1@1949) $ollege .dministrators and Pro2essors5 &obert ,. ?ut0*ins "B... 19 1) R President o2 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19 9@19D4) [/ames L. ,0$onaug*y "B... 19C9) R President o2 Wesleyan 9niversity "19 4@19D!) Paul Dwig*t ,oody "B... 19C1) R President o2 ,iddlebury $ollege "19 1@19D ) .rt*ur ?owe "B... 191 , (<B 191 ) R President o2 ?ampton 'nstitute Elater ?ampton 9niversity, 7irginiaF "19!1@19DC) $*arles -dward $lark "B... 1911, LL.B. 191!) R Dean o2 =ale Law (0*ool "19 9@19!9) ?enry (. Graves "B... 1:9 , (<B 1:9 ) R Dean o2 =ale (0*ool o2 +orestry "19CC@19!9) [$*arles (eymour "B... 19C:, P*.D. 1911, (<B 19C:) R Provost o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@19!1) George Parmly Day "B... 1:91, (<; 1:91) R 3reasurer o2 =ale 9niversity "191C@19D ) 3*omas Wells +arnam "B... 1:99, (<; 1:99) R .sso0iate 3reasurer and $omptroller o2 =ale 9niversity "19 @19D ) .ugust (idney Lovett "B... 191!, (<B 191!) R $*aplain o2 =ale 9niversity "19! @194:) &oland George Dwig*t &i0*ardson "B... 19C!, P*.D. 19CL) R Dean o2 t*e Graduate (0*ool at Brown 9niversity "19 L@19D:) George ?oyt W*ipple "B... 19CC) R Dean o2 (0*ool o2 ,edi0ine and Dentistry at 9niversity o2 &o0*ester "19 1@194!) 'rving +is*er "B... 1:::, P*.D. 1:91, (<B 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "1:9!@19!4) $live Day "B... 1:9 , P*.D. 1:99, (<B 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "19C1@19!L) [.rnold W*itridge "B... 191!, (<; 191!) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "19! @19D ) [$*arles $*eney ?yde "B... 1:94) R ?amilton +is* Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law and Diploma0y at $olumbia 9niversity "19 4@19D4) ;arl N. Llewellyn "B... 1914, LL.B. 191:) R Betts Pro2essor o2 /urispruden0e at $olumbia 9niversity "19!C@1941) Warren .ustin .dams "B... 1::L, P*.D. 1:94) R Pro2essor o2 German at Dartmout* $ollege "19CD@19DD) .lbert Beebe W*ite "B... 1:9!, P*.D. 1:9:) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at 9niversity o2 ,innesota "19C1@19DC) Ni0kolaus Louis -ngel*ardt "B... 19C!) R Pro2essor o2 -du0ation at $olumbia 9niversity 3ea0*ers $ollege "19 1@19D ) (tanley ,orrison "B... 1914) R Pro2essor o2 Law at (tan2ord 9niversity "19 9@1944)> ,ember o2 t*e Bo*emian $lub in (an +ran0is0o ?oward Brown Woolston "B... 1:9:) R Pro2essor o2 (o0iology at 9niversity o2 Was*ington "1919@19D1) .l2red Newton &i0*ards "B... 1:91, P*.D. $olumbia 19C1) R Pro2essor o2 P*arma0ology at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "191C@19DL) Lewis ?ill Weed "B... 19C:, (<; 19C:) R Dire0tor o2 /o*ns ?opkins 9niversity (0*ool o2 ,edi0ine "19 9@19DL) (enJiro 3akagi "B... 19C1, ,... 19C:, P*.D. 191C) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at ;eio 9niversity E3okyo, /apanF "1911@19!D) [\,ember o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations> (<B\(kull < Bones> (<;\(0roll < ;ey

,embers o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations during t*e &ei0*stag +ire "19!!)

&ussell $. Le22ingwell B... =ale 1:99 Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 !@194C)

?arold (tanley B... =ale 19C: Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 :@19!4)

-ugene ,eyer B... =ale 1:94 $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "(eptember 1L, 19!C@,ay 1C, 19!!)

George L. ?arrison B... =ale 191C President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC)

+rank .lts0*ul B... =ale 19C: Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. "191L@19D4)

?enry (. ,organ ..B. ?arvard 19 ! Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 :@19!4)> Grandson o2 /.P. ,organ

3*omas W. Lamont ..B. ?arvard 1:9 Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1911@19D:)

George W*itney ..B. ?arvard 19C1 Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 C@1944)

3*omas (. Lamont ..B. ?arvard 19 1 Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 9@19DC)

(. Parker Gilbert /r. LL.B. ?arvard 1914 Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19!1@19!:)

Wint*rop W. .ldri0* ..B. ?arvard 19C1 President o2 $*ase National Bank "19!C@19!D)

$*arles G. Dawes $*airman o2 t*e board, $ity National Bank < 3rust $o. E$*i0agoF "19! @1941)

%tto ?. ;a*n Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. "1:91@19!D)

+eli6 Warburg Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. "1:9L@19!1)

+rederi0k ,. Warburg ..B. ?arvard 1919 Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. "19!1@191!)

/ames ?. Perkins ..B. ?arvard 1:9: $*airman o2 t*e board o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19!!@19DC)

Gordon (. &ents0*ler President o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 9@19DC)

P...(. +ranklin Dire0tor o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "191L@19!9)

%wen D. =oung $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $o. "19 @19!9, 19D @19DD)

3*omas /. Watson (r. President o2 'nternational Business ,a0*ines $orp. "191D@19D9)

.lanson B. ?oug*ton ..B. ?arvard 1::L $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $orning Glass Works "191:@19D1)> 9.(. .mbassador to Germany "19 @19 4)

Gerard (wope President o2 General -le0tri0 $o. "19 @19DC, 19D @19D4)

.l2red P. (loan /r. President o2 General ,otors $orp. "19 !@19!1)

-ugene G. Gra0e President o2 Bet*le*em (teel $orp. "191L@19D4)

,yron $. 3aylor $*airman o2 t*e board o2 9nited (tates (teel $orporation "19! @19!:)

/o*n W. Davis ,ember o2 Davis, Polk < Wardwell "19 1@1944)

+rank L. Polk B... =ale 1:9D ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell "191D@19D!)

.llen Wardwell B... =ale 1:94 ,ember o2 Davis, Polk < Wardwell "19C9@194!)

/o*n +oster Dulles ..B. Prin0eton 19C: ,ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "1911@19D9)

.llen W. Dulles ..B. Prin0eton 191D ,ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "19 L@1941, 19L @19L9)

(evero ,allet@Prevost ,ember o2 $urtis, ,allet@ Prevost < $olt Elaw 2irmF "1:91@19D:)

+rederi0 &. $oudert ,ember o2 $oudert Bros. Elaw 2irmF "1:94@1944)

?enry Waters 3a2t B... =ale 1::C Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "1:99@19D4)

George W. Wi0kers*am ,ember o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "191D@19!L)

/ames Brown (0ott ..B. ?arvard 1:9C (e0retary o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19DC)

Norman ?. Davis Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DD)

(tep*en P. Duggan Dire0tor o2 'nstitute o2 'nternational -du0ation "1919@19DL)

/erome D. Greene ..B. ?arvard 1:9L 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "191!@1911, 19 :@19!9)

&aymond B. +osdi0k 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 1@19D:)

/ames G. ,0Donald $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +oreign Poli0y .sso0iation, 'n0. "1919@19!!)

/o*n W. Garrett 9.(. .mbassador to +as0ist 'taly "19 9@19!!)

/osep* $. Grew ..B. ?arvard 19C 9.(. .mbassador to 'mperial /apan "19! @19D1)

$*arles -vans ?ug*es $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e 9.(. (upreme $ourt "19!C@19D1)

%gden L. ,ills ..B. ?arvard 19CD (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19! @19!!)

?erbert ?. Le*man Governor o2 New =ork "/anuary 1, 19!!@ De0ember !, 19D )

-li*u &oot 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate "19C4@19C9)> -lder (tatesman

?enry ,orgent*au (r. 9.(. .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "191!@191L)> -lder (tatesman

-dward ,andell ?ouse -lder (tatesman> $o@ +ounder o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations

Newton D. Baker 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19! @19!:)> (e0retary o2 War "191L@19 1)

/o*n D. &o0ke2eller ''' 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19! @1911)> Grandson o2 (tandard %il baron /o*n D. &o0ke2eller

Walter (. Gi22ord ..B. ?arvard 19C4 President o2 .meri0an 3elep*one and 3elegrap* $o. E.3<3F "19 4@19D:)

/esse 'sidor (traus President o2 &.?. ,a0y < $o. E,a0yAs department storeF "1919@19!!)

(olomon &. Guggen*eim ,ember o2 Guggen*eim Brot*ers Emining 0ompanyF

/o*n ?. +inley .sso0iate -ditor o2 t*e New Yor Times "19 1@19!1)

Daniel Willard President o2 Baltimore < %*io &ailroad $o. "191C@19D1)

/ames &. .ngell President o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@19!L)

.bbott Lawren0e Lowell ..B. ?arvard 1:11> LL.B. ?arvard 1::C President o2 ?arvard 9niversity "19C9@19!!)

+eli6 +rank2urter Byrne Pro2essor o2 .dministrative Law at ?arvard 9niversity "191D@1911, 19 C@19!9)

&ay Lyman Wilbur President o2 (tan2ord 9niversity "191L@19D!)> (e0retary o2 t*e 'nterior "19 9@19!!)

Walla0e Brett Don*am ..B. ?arvard 1:9:> LL.B. ?arvard 19C1 Dean o2 ?arvard Business (0*ool "1919@19D )

)oun#il on ;oreign Relations %em2ers and Aheir 4##u'ation during the %u(den 7n#ident in %an#huria *"e't1 15, 1931+ and Rei#hstag ;ire in Berlin, $erman *;e21 !@, 1933+
Name Ban(ersB -ugene ,eyer George L. ?arrison George W. Davison $laren0e ,. Woolley Leon +raser 3*omas W. Lamont &ussell $. Le22ingwell (. Parker Gilbert /r. ?arold (tanley George W*itney ?enry (. ,organ ?enry P. Davison /r. 3*omas (. Lamont %tto ?. ;a*n +eli6 Warburg +rederi0k ,. Warburg +rank .lts0*ul $*arles -dwin ,it0*ell /ames ?. Perkins Gordon (. &ents0*ler Wint*rop W. .ldri0* +. .bbot Good*ue .rtemus L. Gates W. .verell ?arriman -. &oland ?arriman /o*n L. (impson /ules (. Ba0*e Pierre /ay (amuel &. Bertron $*arles Gates Dawes New0omb $arlton P*ilip ..(. +ranklin /ames ?. Post (ost*enes Be*n $leveland -. Dodge (*epard ,organ +rederi0k /. Lisman BusinessmenB %wen D. =oung ,ember "=ear) 19!C@194: 19 9@194! 19 D@194 19 L@1944 19 :@19D4 19 1@19D1 19 1@1949 19 D@19!: 19 4@1949 19 1@19!9 19 :@19:1 19 :@19DC 19!1@19LL 19 1@19!D 19 1@19!1 19!!@191C 19 1@191! 19 D@19!! 19 1,19 L@19DC 19!C@19D1 19 1@191! 19 4@19DC 19 9@19DC 19 !@19:L 19!!@19L9 19 1@191 19 1@19! , 19!D@19DD 19!1@19DC, 19D4@19D1 19 1@19!D 19 :@194C 19 D@19!D 19 1@19!9 19 1@19!: 19!C@194! 19!1@19: 19! @19L! 19 D@19!: 19 1@19DC Primary %00upation $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "(eptember 1L, 19!C@,ay 1C, 19!!) President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) $lass . Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!!@19!1) $lass $ Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 1@19!L) $*airman and President, Bank 2or 'nternational (ettlements EBasel, (wit8erlandF "19!!@19!4) 7i0e President, Bank 2or 'nternational (ettlements EBasel, (wit8erlandF "19!C@19!!) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1911@19D:) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 !@194C)> Dire0tor, $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@LC) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19!1@19!:) .gent General 2or &eparation Payments in Germany "%0tober !C, 19 D@,ay 11, 19!C) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 :@19!4) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 C@1944) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 :@19!4) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 9@19DC) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 9@19DC) Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. "1:91@19!D)> Dire0tor, $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@!D) Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. "1:9L@19!1)> brot*er o2 German banker ,a6 Warburg Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. "19!1@191!) Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. "191L@19D4) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 9@19!!) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19!!@19DC) President o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 9@19DC) President o2 $*ase National Bank "19!C@19!D) President o2 Bank o2 ,an*attan "19!1@19D:) President o2 New =ork 3rust $o. "19 9@19D1) Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DL) Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191:) -6e0utive 7i0e President o2 /. ?enry (0*roeder Banking $orp. "19 4@1941) ?ead o2 /.(. Ba0*e < $o. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9 @19DD) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) President o2 Bertron, Gris0om < $ompany, 'n0., international 2inan0iers ENew =ork $ity, P*iladelp*ia, and ParisF "191 @19!:) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $ity National Bank < 3rust $o. Ebank in $*i0agoF "19! @1941) $*airman o2 Western 9nion 3elep*one < 3elegrap* $o. "19!!@19D!) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 $*ase National Bank "1911@19D:) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "191L@19!9) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "1:9:@19!:) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 4@194L) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 L@19LC) 7i0e President o2 $*ase National Bank "19!C@19D9) ,ember o2 New =ork (to0k -60*ange "1:94@19!C)> ?ead o2 +./. Lisman < $o. "1:94@19!C) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $o. "19 @19!9, 19D @19DD) $lass $ Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 L@19DC) Deputy $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 1@19!1) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 :@19!9) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DC) President o2 General -le0tri0 $o. "19 @19DC, 19D @19D4) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 9@194 ) President o2 'nternational Business ,a0*ines $orp. "191D@19D9) $*airman o2 3*e -0onomi0 $lub o2 New =ork "19! @19!D) $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!!@19DC) President o2 .meri0an 3elep*one and 3elegrap* $o. E.3<3F "19 4@19D:) 7i0e President o2 .meri0an 3elep*one and 3elegrap* $o. E.3<3F "19 1@19D1) President o2 General ,otors $orp. "19 !@19!1) 7i0e President o2 $*rysler $orp. "19 4@194!) President o2 Baltimore < %*io &ailroad $o. "191C@19D1) President o2 Pan .meri0an World .irways, 'n0. "19 1@19LD) President o2 Bet*le*em (teel $orp. "191L@19D4) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 9nited (tates (teel $orp. "19! @19!:) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $orning Glass Works "191:@19D1) President o2 &.?. ,a0y < $o. E,a0yAs department storeF "1919@19!!) (enior Partner o2 Pri0e, Water*ouse < $o. publi0 a00ountants "1911@19L1)

Gerard (wope 3*omas /. Watson Walter (. Gi22ord .rt*ur W. Page .l2red P. (loan /r. B. -dwin ?ut0*inson Daniel Willard /uan 3erry 3rippe -ugene G. Gra0e ,yron $. 3aylor .lanson B. ?oug*ton /esse 'sidor (traus George %. ,ay

19 D@194C 19 D@1944 19 :@19L4 19! @1949 19!!@19L4 19 1@19LC 19!C@19DC 19!!@191L 19 4@194: 19 4@194: 19!C@19DC 19 D@19!L 19 D@19LC

/o*n ?. +inley $ass $an2ield ?amilton +is* .rmstrong Walter Lippmann David Lawren0e George B. Parker /ames D. ,ooney (olomon &. Guggen*eim La0 ersB /o*n W. Davis

19 1@19DC 19 !@19:4 19 1@191 19 1@194D, 194L@191C 19!1@191C 19 9@19DC 19!1@19DC, 19DL@194L 19 :@19D9 19 1@1944

Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@194!) .sso0iate -ditor o2 t*e New Yor Times "19 1@19!1) President o2 ?arper < Brot*ers Elater ?arper < &owF "19!1@19D4) -ditor o2 #oreign $ffairs maga8ine "19 :@191 ) -ditor o2 t*e New Yor World Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19! @19!1) President and -ditor o2 9nited (tates News Enewspaper in Was*ington, D.$.F "19!!@19D:) -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 (0ripps@?oward Newspapers ENew =ork $ityF "19 1@19D9) President o2 General ,otors -6port $o. "19 !@0.19DC) 7i0e President in 0*arge o2 overseas operations, General ,otors $orp. "19 !@0.19DC) Note5 ,ooney met wit* ?itler on ,ar0* D, 19DC and wit* Goering on ,ar0* 1, 19DC ,ember o2 Guggen*eim Brot*ers Emining 0ompanyF> Dire0tor o2 9ta* $opper $ompany> Dire0tor o2 =ukon Gold $ompany ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19 1@1944) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 @19!:) President o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!!) President o2 t*e -nglis*@(peaking 9nion o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19!C@19!:) President o2 t*e New =ork $ity Bar .sso0iation "19!1@19!!) ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "191D@19D!) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19D!) ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19C9@194!) ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "1914@19!1) ,ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "1911@19D9) ,ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "19 !@191L) ,ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "19 L@1941)> Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19L9) ,ember o2 $urtis, ,allet@Prevost < $olt Elaw 2irmF "1:91@19D:) ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord Elaw 2irmF "19CC@19D1) ,ember o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "191D@19!L) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!L) ,ember o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "1:99@19D4) ,ember o2 $urtis, +osdi0k, and Belknap Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 C@19!L) 3rustee o2 3*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 1@19D:) ,ember o2 $oudert Brot*ers Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:94@1944) ,ember o2 $arter, Ledyard < ,ilburn Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 4@1944) ,ember o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "Q@19DD) Partner o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irmF "191D@19L:) ,ember o2 $ovington, Burling < &ublee Elaw 2irm in Was*ington, D.$.F "19 1@0.19DL) Wall (treet lawyer> dire0tor o2 $*ase National Bank 7i0e President o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!!) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DD) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@194C) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!C@19!!) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19LL) President o2 $arnegie $orporation o2 New =ork "19 !@19D1) President o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!C@19DL) (e0retary General o2 t*e 'nstitute o2 Pa0i2i0 &elations "19!!@19DL) (e0retary o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19DC) President o2 3*e .meri0an (o0iety o2 'nternational Law "19 9@19!9) &epresentative 2or $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'ntAl Pea0e in Geneva, (wi8erland "19!1@19!4) Dire0tor o2 'nstitute o2 'nternational -du0ation "1919@19DL)> 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19 C@19D1)> Dire0tor o2 t*e National $ommittee 2or ,ental ?ygiene 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "191!@1911, 19 :@19!9)> 3rustee o2 t*e General -du0ation Board "191 @19!9)> 3rustee o2 t*e Brookings 'nstitution "19 :@19D4) Dire0tor 2or t*e so0ial s0ien0es 2or t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 :@19!1) Dire0tor o2 general edu0ation 2or t*e General -du0ation Board "19!C@19!1) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19! @1911) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19!1@194C) Dire0tor o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19 1@19!L) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19! @19!:)> (e0retary o2 War "191L@19 1) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "191C@191:, 19 C@19!L) -6e0utive Dire0tor o2 Ct* $entury +und, 'n0. "19 :@194!) ,ember o2 t*e permanent 0entral board o2 t*e League o2 Nations "19 9@Q) ,ember, (upervisory Board o2 League o2 Nations "19!!@Q) $ounselor to t*e ?ig* $ommissioner 2or &e2ugees 2rom Germany "19!!@19!4) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +oreign Poli0y .sso0iation, 'n0. "1919@19!!)

+rank L. Polk .llen Wardwell Lansing P. &eed /o*n +oster Dulles -usta0e (eligman .llen W. Dulles (evero ,allet@Prevost ?enry de +orest Baldwin George W. Wi0kers*am ?enry Waters 3a2t &aymond B. +osdi0k +rederi0 &. $oudert &oland L. &edmond Bronson Wint*rop George &oberts George &ublee 3*omas ,. Debevoise 4rgani.ation E-e#utiveB Paul D. $ravat* Norman ?. Davis 'saia* Bowman W*itney ?. (*epardson +rederi0k P. ;eppel George ?. Blakeslee -dward $. $arter /ames Brown (0ott ,al0olm W. Davis (tep*en P. Duggan /erome D. Greene -dmund -. Day /o*n D. &o0ke2eller ''' Walter W. (tewart &aymond 3. &i0* Newton D. Baker George .. Plimpton -vans $lark ?erbert L. ,ay /ames G. ,0Donald

19 1@19D! 19 1@194! 19!C@19!L 19 1@1949 19 L@191L 19 1@19L9 19 1@19D: 19 :@19D1 19 1@19!L 19 1@19DC 19 1@1911 19 1@19DC 19 D@19L! 19! @19DD 19! @19L1 19 4@1941 19! @194: 19 1@19DC 19 1@19DD 19 1@194C 19 19 19 19 19 1@19LL L@19D D@194! 1@194D 1@19DC

19 1@194! 19 1@194C 19 1@194C 19! @19DD 19!1@191: 19! @19!: 19!1@194! 19 1@19!L 19 D@19!L 19!1@19!:, 19D:@194L 19!C@19!D 19 1@19L!

-dward ,. ?ouse )ollege ,rofessorsB .. Lawren0e Lowell /ames &. .ngell &ay Lyman Wilbur -rnest ,. ?opkins ?arry .. Gar2ield William .. Neilson -lmer -. Brown ?enry ,. Wriston $*arles (eymour Walla0e Brett Don*am .. Wellington 3aylor $arlton /.?. ?ayes $*arles $*eney ?yde (amuel ,0$une Lindsay Wesley $. ,it0*ell Parker 3. ,oon Lindsay &ogers &obert L. (0*uyler -.&... (eligman -dwin +. Gay ,anley %. ?udson Oe0*aria* $*a2ee /r. George Gra2ton Wilson $laren0e ?. ?aring +eli6 +rank2urter $live Day -dwin ,. Bor0*ard -dwin W. ;emmerer 3yler Dennett Walter W. ,0Laren Bernadotte -. (0*mitt /esse (. &eeves (amuel N. ?arper ?eber &. ?arper Parker 3. ,oon $overnment 4ffi#ialsB ?erbert ?oover ?enry L. (timson %gden L. ,ills .rt*ur .. Ballantine George (. ,essersmit* +rederi0 ,. (a0kett .ndrew W. ,ellon ?ug* Gibson /o*n W. Garrett W. $ameron +orbes /osep* $. Grew Ni0*olas &oosevelt &obert Woods Bliss 3*omas D. 3*a0*er +. 3rubee Davison $*arles /. &*oads /. ?enry (0attergood $*arles -vans ?ug*es Learned ?and William $lark .rt*ur $apper ?erbert ?. Le*man

19 1@19!: 19 4@19D 19 :@19D: 19 9@19D: 19!C@194! 19 1@19D 19 1@19DL 19 1@19!D 19 L@191: 19 1@19L1 19!!@194D 19 1@19DL 19 4@1941 19 L@1941 19 1@19!9 19 D@19D: 19 4@19!L 19 1@191C 19 :@19D9 19 1@19!9 19 1@19DL 19 1@194L 19 :@194L 19 9@194C 19!1@194D 19! @19LD 19 1@1941 19 L@194C 19 1@19D4 19 9@19D9 19 L@194D 19 1@194! 19!1@19DC 19 9@19D 19! @19DC 19 4@19!L

?ig* 0ommissioner 2or re2ugees 0oming 2rom Germany "19!!@19!4) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!!@19!4) $o@+ounder o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations> powerbroker 2rom .ustin, 3e6as President o2 ?arvard 9niversity "19C9@19!!)> 3rustee, World Pea0e +oundation "191C@19D ) President o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@19!L)> 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 :@19!4) President o2 (tan2ord 9niversity "191L@19D!)> (e0retary o2 t*e 'nterior "19 9@19!!) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 !@19DC) President o2 Dartmout* $ollege "191L@19D4)> 3rustee, &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 :@19D ) President o2 Williams $ollege "19C:@19!D)> 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!C@19D ) President o2 (mit* $ollege "1911@19!9) President o2 New =ork 9niversity "1911@19!!) President o2 Lawren0e 9niversity E.ppleton, Wis0onsinF "19 4@19!1) Provost o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@19!1) Dean o2 ?arvard Business (0*ool "1919@19D ) Dean o2 Graduate (0*ool o2 Business .dministration at New =ork 9niversity "1919@19DD) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at $olumbia 9niversity "1919@194C) ?amilton +is* Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law and Diploma0y, $olumbia 9niv. "19 4@19D4) Pro2essor o2 (o0ial Legislation at $olumbia 9niversity "19C1@19!9) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at $olumbia 9niversity "191D@1919, 19 @19DD) Pro2essor o2 'nternational &elations at $olumbia 9niversity "19!1@19!L) Burgess Pro2essor o2 Publi0 Law at $olumbia 9niversity "19 9@1949) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at $olumbia 9niversity "19 D@1941) ,07i0kar Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy and +inan0e at $olumbia 9niversity "19CD@19!1) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0 ?istory at ?arvard 9niversity "19 D@19!L) 3reasurer and (e0retary o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!!) Bemis Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at ?arvard Law (0*ool "19 !@19LC) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19 !@19LC) Pro2essor o2 Law at ?arvard 9niversity "1919@194L) Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at ?arvard 9niversity "191C@19!L) Pro2essor o2 Latin .meri0an ?istory and -0onomi0s at ?arvard 9niversity "19 !@194!) Byrne Pro2essor o2 .dministrative Law at ?arvard 9niversity "191D@1911, 19 C@19!9) ;no6 Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "19 @19!L) Pro2essor o2 Law at =ale Law (0*ool "1911@1941) Walker Pro2essor o2 'nternational +inan0e at Prin0eton 9niversity "19 :@19D!) Pro2essor o2 'nternational &elations at Prin0eton 9niversity "19!1@19!D) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at Williams $ollege "191D@19D4) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at t*e 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19 4@19DL) W.W. $ook Pro2essor o2 .meri0an 'nstitutions at 9niversity o2 ,i0*igan "19!1@19D ) Pro2essor o2 &ussian Language and 'nstitutions at 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19CL@19D!) Pro2essor o2 -du0ation at 3ea0*ers $ollege, $olumbia 9niversity "19!1@19!L) &egional dire0tor, (o0ial (e0urity Board "19!L@19D:) Pro2essor o2 'nternational &elations at $olumbia 9niversity "19!1@19!L) (erved on S$olonelT -dward ,. ?ouseAs $ommission o2 'nIuiry "1911@191:) ,ember o2 t*e sta22, .meri0an $ommission to Negotiate Pea0e "191:@1919) President o2 t*e 9nited (tates ",ar0* D, 19 9@,ar0* D, 19!!) 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate ",ar0* :, 19 9@,ar0* D, 19!!) 9nder (e0. o2 t*e 3reasury "19 1@19! )> (e0. o2 t*e 3reasury "+eb. 1 , 19! @,ar0* !, 19!!) 9nder (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19! @19!!) 9.(. $onsul General in Berlin, Germany "19!C@19!D) 9.(. .mbassador to Germany "+ebruary 1 , 19!C@,ar0* D, 19!!) 9.(. .mbassador to Great Britain ".pril 9, 19! @,ar0* 11, 19!!) 9.(. .mbassador to Belgium ",ay 9, 19 1@/une 11, 19!!, 19!1@19!:) 9.(. .mbassador to +as0ist 'taly "November C, 19 9@,ay , 19!!) 9.(. .mbassador to 'mperial /apan "(eptember 14, 19!C@ ,ar0* , 19! ) 9.(. .mbassador to 'mperial /apan "19! @19D1) 9.(. ,inister to ?ungary "November 1 , 19!C@,ay 9, 19!!) 9.(. .mbassador to .rgentina "(eptember 9, 19 1@ .pril 9, 19!!) (oli0itor General o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19!C@19!!) .ssistant (e0retary o2 War 2or .ir "19 L@19!!) $ommissioner o2 'ndian .22airs "19 9@19!!) .ssistant $ommissioner o2 'ndian .22airs "19 9@19!!) $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e 9.(. (upreme $ourt "19!C@19D1) /udge o2 t*e 9.(. $ourt o2 .ppeals 2or t*e (e0ond $ir0uit ENew =ork $ityF "19 D@1941) /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or New /ersey "19 4@19!:) 9.(. (enator "&epubli0an@;ansas, 1919@19D9) Governor o2 New =ork "/anuary 1, 19!!@De0ember !, 19D )

19!:@19L 19 D@19 9, 19!D@194C 19 D@19!L 19 1@1949 19!:@1949 19!D@19DC 19!!@19!L 19 1@194D 19 1@19DC 19!C@1949 19 :@1949 19 D@19L1 19 :@19L1 19!4@194C 19 1@19! 19 1@1944 19 9@19!! 19!C@19DL 19 4@19DD 19 L@19DC 19!1@19!: 19 1@19L!

$*an0ellor .dol2 ?itler delivers a spee0* on t*e -nabling .0t in t*e new &ei0*stag building in Berlin on ,ar0* !, 19!!, rig*t in t*e image o2 t*e government bank. 3*e -nabling .0t was promulgated on ,ar0* D, 19!!. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives) *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot.0om#sear0*#label#.t] C&ei0*stag

Be2ore t*e &ei0* $ourt in Leip8ig5 3*e de2endant ,arinus van der Lubbe "19C9@19!D) wit* *is 'nterpreter on (eptember D, 19!!. 3*e &ei0*stag +ire 3rial, w*i0* was *eld 2rom (eptember 1 to De0ember !, 19!!, was a 2ailure 2or t*e Na8i leaders*ip. 3o ensure t*e desired out0ome mont*s be2ore t*e trial even started, ?itler *ad persuaded &ei0* President ?indenburg to pass t*e H&ei0* Law &egarding t*e 'mposition and -6e0ution o2 $apital Punis*mentH o2 ,ar0* 9, 19!!. .00ording to t*is law, 0rimes su0* as arson and *ig* treason were punis*able by deat*, retroa0tive to /anuary !1, 19!!. But it 0ould not be proven t*at 3orgler, Dimitrov, Popov, and 3anev were guilty as 0*arged, and all 2our were a0Iuitted. Nonet*eless, t*e &ei0* $ourt emp*asi8ed its 0onvi0tion t*at t*e &ei0*stag 2ire was indeed part o2 a $ommunist Party plot and signaled its support 2or t*e H&ei0*stag +ire De0reeH o2 +ebruary :, 19!!, w*i0* it viewed as Justi2iable. 3orgler remained in Hprote0tive 0ustodyH until 19!4. 3*e Bulgarian $ommunists were deported to t*e (oviet 9nion. 'n 19DL, Dimitrov be0ame t*e se0ond Bulgarian prime minister. %nly ,arinus van der Lubbe was 0onvi0ted o2 *ig* treason and arson, 0ondemned to deat*, and e6e0uted. "P*oto5 *ttp5##german*istorydo0s.g*^image.02mQimage^id\ L4)

(tto Wels !'e&tember 1D, 15:C ; 'e&tember 1*, 1 C # was the chairman of the 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany !'4+# !1 1 6 1 C # an" a Member of the Reichstag !1 2H61 CC#$ Jn March 2C, 1 CC Wels was the only member of the Reichstag to s&ea7 against A"olf 0itlerNs .nabling Act !the O2aw for Remo%ing the +istress of 4eo&le an" ReichO#$ The %ote too7 &lace "uring the last session of the multi6&arty Reichstag, on March 2C, 1 CC$ -ecause the Reichstag buil"ing itself ha" suffere" hea%y fire "amage in February, the March session was hel" in -erlinNs /roll J&era 0ouse$ +es&ite the inci&ient &ersecution of leftist an" o&&osition &oliticians an" the &resence of the 'A, he ma"e an outs&o7en s&eech o&&osing the .nabling Act, which formally too7 the &ower of legislation away from the Reichstag an" han"e" it o%er to the Reich cabinet for a &erio" of four years$ All * '4+ members of &arliament %ote" against the act$ The Bommunists were not &resent an" coul" not %ote, "ue to ha%ing been banne"$ The rest of the Reichstag %ote" in fa%our$ The &assage of the .nabling Act mar7e" the en" of &arliamentary "emocracy in Germany an" forme" the legal authority for 0itlerNs "ictatorshi&$ Within wee7s of the &assage of the .nabling Act, the 0itler go%ernment banne" the '4+, while the other German &olitical &arties chose to "issol%e to a%oi" &rosecution, ma7ing the @a>i &arty the only legal &olitical &arty in Germany$ )n June 1 CC, Wels went into e?ile in the Territory of the 'aar -asin, which at the time was un"er 2eague of @ations control8 in August 1 CC, he was "e&ri%e" of his citi>enshi&$ 0e then wor7e" to buil" the e?&atriate '4+, first in 4rague, then in 4aris, where he "ie" in 1 C $ 1At this historic hour, we German 'ocial +emocrats &le"ge oursel%es to the &rinci&les of humanity an" Lustice, of free"om an" 'ocialism$ @o .nabling 2aw can gi%e you the &ower to "estroy i"eas which are eternal an" in"estructible $$$ From this new &ersecution too German 'ocial +emocracy can "raw new strength$ We sen" greetings to the &ersecute" an" o&&resse"$ We greet our frien"s in the Reich$ Their stea"fastness an" loyalty "eser%e a"miration$ The courage with which they maintain their con%ictions an" their unbro7en confi"ence guarantee a brighter futureIEou $an ta/e our li,es an) our free)om6 but you 2+itler3 $annot ta/e our honor: We are "efenseless but not honorless$3 ; Jtto Wels, Member of the Reichstag, on March 2C, 1 CC

1Germany ha" been humilitate" by the war6guilt &ro%ision of the Kersailles treaty an" bur"ene" by the o&en6en"e" re&arations &ayments, but it ha"n,t been crushe"8 the result was that Germany,s &ostwar e?&eriment in "emocracy was almost guarantee" to fail an" that Germans woul" blame their troubles on the Kersailles system$ The @ational 'ocialists certainly "i" so "uring the 1 2Hs, un"er their strangely charismatic an" brilliantly shrew" lea"er, A"olf 0itler$ German Bommunists clum&e" the Kersailles system with a broa"er criti9ue of international ca&italism an" bourgeois "emoracy an" s9uare" off to fight the @a>is for control of the German go%ernment$ As the "e&ression set in, "estroying such &ros&erity as the Germans ha" manage" to achie%e un"er the re&arations6an"6"ebt regime, the Bommunists gaine" su&&ort among the German &eo&le$ The 'o%iet (nion, the Bommunists sai", was sur%i%ing the "e&ression 9uite well8 its socialist &olitical economy shoul" ser%e as a mo"el for Germany,s own$ The millions in Germany,s sou& lines foun" the argument a&&ealing an" leane" left$ Germany,s business an" &ro&ertie" classes foun" the argument a&&alling an" leane" right8 ha%ing to choose, as they saw it, between the @a>is an" the Bommunists, they si"e" with the former$ )n January 1 CC ; Lust as Roose%elt was inter%iewing &otential cabinet secretaries ; ban7er /urt %on 'chroe"er in%ite" 0itler to his Bologne home, where he &romise" the su&&ort of German in"ustrialists in e?change for 0itler,s &le"ge to lea%e their business interests untouche"$ A short while later 0itler, as hea" of the now6maLority @a>i &arty, was as7e" by 4resi"ent 4aul %on 0in"enburg to form a go%ernmentIWithin the month of 0itler,s ta7eo%er ; an" Lust "ays before Roose%elt,s inauguration ; the Nazis burne) the Rei$hstag6 the German #arliament buil)ing$ They blame" the Bommunists con%incingly enough that the go%ernment an" the German &eo&le went along with legislation outlawing the Bommunist &arty$ Jn March D, the "ay Roose%elt close" the ban7s in the (nite" 'tates, new German elections ga%e 0itler,s coalition a maLority, which &rocee"e" at once to awar" the chancellor near6"ictatorial &owers$ )n a first fle?ing, 0itler launche" a national boycott of Jewish businesses an" Jews in the &rofessions$3 ; Traitor to $is )lass( The 5rivileged "ife and 0adical 5residenc of ,ranklin Delano 0oosevelt by 0$W$ -ran"s, &$ CD*6CD5

1I<@=o clear6cut solution was e%er foun" for the &roblem of the structure of the Reich showe" the lac7 of concern of the @ational 'ocialist rulers with the cru? of the matter$ )n this conte?t, too, e%erything was seen from the %antage &oint of &ower, an" all reforms an" &lans only ser%e" as a &rete?t for the total encom&assing an" &enetration of &ublic life in the sense of @ational 'ocialist "ictatorial rule$ The terrorist, &rofoun"ly unconstitutional intensification of the &ower thrust6the first stage of the sei>ure of &ower6reache" its acme in the .nabling Act of March 2C, 1 CC, abolishing the Reichstag an" firmly establishing the "ictatorshi& of the OnationalO go%ernment$ This was yet another instance of the symbiosis of OlegalityO an" terror, but now the obLecti%e was to "iscar" the instrument hitherto utili>e" with such %irtuosity, the 4resi"ential "ecree$ To the e?tent to which 0itler coul" "o without the hel& of 0in"enburg an" his go6between %on 4a&en, the sham alliance with the German @ationals became su&erfluous$ -y %oting for the .nabling Act, the misgui"e" Benter 4arty as well as the 0ugenberg64a&en grou& relin9uishe" the base of its e?istence$ )n its forwar" march to total &ower, the @'+A4 concentrate" on two maLor &oints E !1# the li9ui"ation of the remnants of the "emocratic constitutional state insofar as their functions coul" not be accommo"ate" in the new &ower structure, an" !2# the creation of a total lea"er state, in which economy, society, an" culture through coor"ination an" su&er%ision were to be transforme" from free, &luralistic entities into &illars of the untrammele" rule of one &arty an" a go%ernmental a&&aratus subor"inate to it$ @either goal was e%er fully reali>e", either then or in later years$ -ut the "ecisi%e shifts too7 &lace between the &assage of the @ational 'ocialist Bi%il 'er%ice Act in A&ril, 1 CC, an" the em&hatic "eclarations about Ounity of &arty an" stateO in +ecember, 1 CC$ The li9ui"ation of the "emocratic constitutional state !the second stage6 calle" for the O&urgeO of the ci%il ser%ice an" Lu"iciary, an", together with the smashing of the tra"e unions an" "emocratic &rofessional organi>ations !A&ril6May, 1 CC# an" the "issolution of all other &olitical &arties, resulte" in the legal establishment of the one6&arty state !July 14, 1 CC#$ Finally, the creation of the total state !the third stage6 in%ol%e" the alliance with the ra&i"ly e?&an"ing Army an" the ta7ing o%er of the &olice an" its incor&oration into the ''$ 'imultaneous with this mobili>ation of &ower came that OengagementO of the &o&ulation, which was gi%en e?&ression by the infiltration an" OalignmentO of organi>ations an" the creation of all6inclusi%e mono&oly organi>ations in the economic sector !German 2abor Front# as well as in the cultural sector !Reich Bultural Bhamber#$ 0ere, too, Gleichschaltung1 this eu&hemistic an" telling name for the im&lementation of the total claim of a "ictatorial &arty in state an" society, was the technical term use"$ The &lebiscite of the one6&arty state on @o%ember 12, 1 CC, was the first of a series of OyesO &lebiscites which in totalitarian "ictatorshi&s are among the &referre" means of &seu"o6legal, &seu"o6"emocratic self6a&&robation$ The abo%e re%iew is in effect a list of the most im&ortant "ates of the first year of the Thir" Reich$ Rule by )e$ree6 &hi$h rea$he) its highest #oint on February ?96 an) the $onCuest of the states &ere follo&e) by the #ermanent sus#ension of the )i,ision of #o&ers by ,irtue of the nabling .$t6 &hi$h en)e) the Presi)ential )i$tatorshi# an) mar/e) the beginning of the oneDman )i$tatorshi#: 'ontrary to the illusions an) a#ologies of #rofessors of #ubli$ la& then an) no&6 the oneDman )i$tatorshi# ha) as little legal ,ali)ity as the rule by )e$ree: The arrest of numerous leftD&ing Rei$hstag )e#uties &as illegal6 the mani#ulation of ,otes through )e$e#tion an) threat &as illegal6 the *. mar$h into #arliament &as illegal6 the #oliti$al $oor)ination of the Rei$hsrat -the instrument of ratifi$ation0 as the re#resentati,e of the states &as illegal6 the subseCuent ,iolation of all restri$ti,e #ro,isions of the nabling .$t an) the grotesCue selfD#rolongation of the #o&ers +itler grante) himself in 47>H6 47G46 an) finally in 47G> &as illegal: +itler ne,er inten)e) to /ee# his #romise of ha,ing a national assembly )raft a ne& $onstitution: Though the Weimar 'onstitution &as ne,er abrogate)6 the Thir) Rei$h from beginning to en) &as in effe$t rule) by emergen$y )e$ree ignoring all $onstitutional restri$tions: What this IlegalizationI of )i$tatorshi# meant &as sho&n by its first maBor la&6 &hi$h &as base) solely on the reality of #o&er: March C1 an" A&ril : saw the &romulgation of laws Ofor the coor"ination of the states with the Reich$O As &ost facto Lustification of cou&s an" as the basis for the future rule of the Gauleiter as Reich go%ernor, they seale" the fate of any &arliamentary6constitutional rule in the member states as well$ At the same time, the reorgani>ation of the &ersonnel an" a"ministrati%e a&&aratus &rocee"e" a&ace$ )n %iew of the shortage of 9ualifie" &ersonnel, only some 7ey &ositions were initially fille" by @ational 'ocialists8 for the rest, the coo&eration of the maLority of ci%il ser%ants was won through firings an" threats$ Moreo%er, the new rulers were able to rely as much on o&&ortunism, on concern for the safeguar"ing of Owell6earne" rights,O as on the susce&tibility of the ci%il ser%ice for non&arliamentary, hierarchical rule ; by a monocratic a"ministrati%e state that ha" mar7e" its ambi%alence towar" the Weimar Re&ublic$ Whate%er one may thin7 about the thesis that the "etermine" resistance of the ci%il ser%ants an" Obureaucratic sabotage36 might ha%e im&e"e" the success of such re%olutionary change, one fact remainsE 0itler was able to rely on the smooth functioning of a machinery of go%ernment still largely non6@ational 'ocialist "es&ite numerous OMarch casualtiesO by combining the a&&eal to the national an" anti"emocratic, authoritarian tra"itions of the ci%il ser%ice with the &romise that &arty an" state woul" continue to coe?ist as the two &illars of the Thir" Reich, that the re%olution woul" be Ocarrie" outO a"ministrati%ely, so to s&ea7$ )n fact, s7illful han"ling of the fiction of the legal an" national re%olution woul" in itself not ha%e suffice" to smooth the transition from constitutional state to totalitarian "ictatorshi&$ This re9uire" yet another as&ect of the techni9ue of &ower sei>ure an" rule, an" 0itler now ma"e use of itE the "ualism of state an" &arty, which continue" to e?ist in the one6&arty state as well$ Bontrary to a wi"es&rea" stereoty&e, total rule "oes not necessarily mean a close", monolithic, single6trac7 go%ernmental structure$ )t is also not true that it o&erates more efficiently an" effecti%ely or that it is su&erior to the com&licate" &luralism of "emocracy$ As a matter of fact, 0itler refraine" from a com&lete fusion of &arty an" state$ Ri%al agencies continue" to e?ist or e%en were newly set u& at all le%els of &ublic life$ Thus, for e?am&le, instea" of the &romise" go%ernmental reform, the states were turne" into a %ast system of satra&ies in which fre9uently as many as three "ifferent go%erning bo"ies claime" &rimacyE Reich Go%ernor, Gauleiter, an" Minister 4resi"ent$ )nstea" of sim&lifying the a"ministration,

the e?&ansion of the &rinci&le of one6man rule only ser%e" to com&licate Luris"ictional relations$ Friction, waste, "u&lication were the result, an" it soon became a&&arent that this was not a chil"hoo" "isease of the new system but intrinsic to it$ )n fact, we are "ealing with a largely conscious techni9ue of rule which fulfille" an im&ortant function, &articularly "uring the ta7eo%er &hase, but later on as well$ This a&&roach facilitate" the recruitment of technicians who were assure" the continuation of the e?isting or"er$ As in the case of the legal re%olution, their satisfaction o%er their own im&ortance in the new system blin"e" them to the fact that this "uality grante" them only relati%e free"om, which coul" be rescin"e" at any time, an" that the 2ea"er, in comman" of the tools of coercion an" terror, ha" the "ecisi%e %oice on all %ital 9uestions8 thus, alongsi"e the sur%i%ing system of law an" Lustice, that "ece&ti%e faca"e, the system of &rotecti%e custo"y, Gesta&o, an" concentration cam&s "e%elo&e" beyon" the reach of any court$ This hints at the secon" function inherent in this "ualism, this fre9uently multifarious nature of the go%ernmental structure e%en in the ta7eo%er &hase$ The 2ea"er was the sole figure stan"ing abo%e the confusion of Luris"ictions an" comman" chains8 on him reste" the ho&es of almost all concerne", @ational 'ocialists an" non6@ational 'ocialists ali7e, an" this tie" them to the regime$ 0e was the su&reme arbiter whose omni&otent &osition was fore%er reaffirme", through all the ri%alries of &arty officials, all conflicts between state an" &arty, Army an" 'A, economy an" a"ministration8 by &laying u& one against the other an" a&&arently su&&orting each, he was able to &reser%e an" strengthen his &osition of &ower$ As in the early years of struggle, 0itler use" this &rinci&le of ma7ing all "e&en"ent on him with matchless %irtuosity$ )t is a matter of "is&ute to what e?tent this was conscious intention or the e?&ression of the erratic moo" of the 2ea"er an" his mo%ement, which was chaotic rather than or"erly$3 ; The German Dictatorshi&( The 7rigins1 Structure1 and 8ffects of National Socialism by /arl +ietrich -racher !1 :H#, &$ 21H6 21C

.dol2 ?itler "le2t), t*e $*an0ellor o2 Germany, greets GermanyAs President Gen. Paul von ?indenburg in Berlin, Germany on ,ar0* 1, 19!!, t*ree days be2ore t*e -nabling .0t was promulgated. 3*e Burning o2 t*e &ei0*stag on +ebruary 1@ :, 19!! gave .dol2 ?itler t*e prete6t to a0Iuire absolute power over t*e German government and t*e German people and to ignore t*e Weimar $onstitution. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

A"olf 0itler !left#, Bhancellor of Germany, chats with Brown 4rince Wilhelm of 4russia !2n" right# "uring the celebration in front of the Garrison Bhurch in 4ots"am, Germany on March 21, 1 CC$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

Le2t5 ?Jalmar (0*a0*t, President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank, appears wit* .dol2 ?itler. &ig*t5 German politi0ian +ran8 von Papen "0enter), German $*an0ellor .dol2 ?itler"le2t), and War ,inister +ield ,ars*al Werner von Blomberg "rig*t) appear in Berlin on a day o2 general mourning on ,ar0* 1 , 19!! 2or German soldiers killed in World War '. "M ?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'()

A"olf 0itler !left#, 4resi"ent of Germany !Gen$# 4aul %on 0in"enburg !center#, an" 0ermann Goering !right# atten" a ceremony at the site of the Tannenberg battlefiel" in eastern 4russia on August 2:, 1 CC$ General 4aul %on 0in"enburg an" his German army "efeate" the Russian army at Tannenberg on August CH, 1 14 "uring the beginning of Worl" War )$

Bhancellor of Germany A"olf 0itler !center# a&&ears with 4ro&agan"a Minister Josef Goebbels !left# an" War Minister Fiel" Marshal Werner %on -lomberg !right# in -erlin, Germany on February 2D, 1 C4$ !4hotoE -un"esarchi%GGerman Fe"eral Archi%es#

@ight of the 2ong /ni%es

A"olf 0itler !left#, the Bhancellor of Germany, a&&ears with @a>i 'A lea"er .rnst Rohm in @uremberg, Germany in August 1 CC$ .rnst Rohm was mur"ere" on July 2, 1 C4 "uring the @ight of the 2ong /ni%es, a @a>i 4arty &urge le" by A"olf 0itler in an attem&t to re"uce the &olitical an" military influence of the 'A$ .rnst Rohm wante" to create an elite @a>i army that was in"e&en"ent of 0itler8 .rnst Rohm,s &olitical ambition threatene" A"olf 0itler,s "esire to consoli"ate &olitical &ower$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%e#

'A lea"er .rnst Rohm !right# a&&ears with /urt +aluege !left# an" @a>i '' chief 0einrich 0immler !center# in August 1 CC$ .rnst Rohm was mur"ere" on July 2, 1 C4 "uring the @ight of the 2ong /ni%es, a @a>i 4arty &urge le" by A"olf 0itler in an attem&t to re"uce the &olitical an" military influence of the 'A$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%e#

The architects of the @ight of the 2ong /ni%es in June6July 1 C4E 0itler, GWring, Goebbels, an" 0ess$ Jnly 0immler an" 0ey"rich are missing$

Reichsban7, !'us&ension of# Re&arations, an" RearmamentE The .conomic +octrine of the Thir" Reich

.dol2 ?itler "le2t), t*e $*an0ellor o2 Germany, walks wit* ?Jalmar (0*a0*t "rig*t), t*e President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank, in Germany on ,ay 4, 19!D. "P*oto5 *ttp5##german*istorydo0s.g*^image.02mQimage^id\19LD<language\german)

9.(. President +ranklin D. &oosevelt s*akes *ands wit* &ei0*sbank president ?Jalmar (0*a0*t in 19!!. +ranklin &ooseveltAs de0ision to stop 0olle0ting reparation payments 2rom Germany gave ?itler, (0*a0*t, and t*e Na8is t*e opportunity to rebuild t*eir military ma0*ine in a very s*ort time. (0*a0*t was t*e President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank, Na8i GermanyAs 0entral bank under .dol2 ?itler. President +ranklin D. &oosevelt was a member o2 t*e Demo0rati0 Party.

$oun0il on +oreign &elations dire0tors .llen Dulles "2ar le2t) and Norman ?. Davis "0enter) arrives in Berlin, Germany in .pril 19!! to meet wit* GermanyAs new 0*an0ellor .dol2 ?itler. .llen Dulles was t*e Dire0tor o2 t*e $entral 'ntelligen0e .gen0y 2rom 194! to 19L1. "(our0e5 1entleman &p-: The Life of $llen /ulles by Peter Grose#.llen Dulles Paper, Prin0eton 9niversity Library)

=oung Na8i =out* members sing in 2ront o2 a +.W. Woolwort* $o. department store during a movement to boy0ott /ewis* presen0e in Germany in ,ar0* 19!!

2eftE +r$ 2u"wig 2an"mann !May 15, 15*5; March D, 1 4D#, Mayor of Fran7furt am Main, Germany !1 2461 CC# an" first Jewish mayor of Fran7furt$ 2an"mann was remo%e" from office in 1 CC by the @a>is$ RightE /onra" A"enauer, Mayor of Bologne, Germany !1 1:61 CC, 1 4D# an" later Bhancellor of West Germany after Worl" War ))$ A"enauer was remo%e" from office in 1 CC by the @a>is$

Na8i Party stormtroopers display signs on a store window t*at en0ourage Germans to boy0ott /ewis*@owned stores on .pril 1, 19!!. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

Paul von ?indenburg "2ront) and .dol2 ?itler "ba0kground) appear in 2ront o2 t*e &ei0*stag in Berlin on +ebruary 4, 19!D. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

German troo&s enter +ussel"orf, Germany in 1 C* un"er 0itlerNs or"ers, uno&&ose" by the French who were su&&ose" to 7ee& the Rhinelan" area "emilitari>e" !Associate" 4ress#

German troo&s cross the Rhine Ri%er at the 0ohen>ollern -ri"ge in Bologne, Germany on March :, 1 C*, in %iolation of the Kersailles Treaty$

A"olf 0itler %isits a Thyssen Factory in the Ruhr Region in 1 CD$ 'teel baron an" @a>i 4arty member Frit> Thyssen !secon" from right# is seen stan"ing behin" 0itler$ !4hotoE htt&EGGgermanhistory"ocs$ghi6"c$orgGsub^image$cfmMimage^i"[2H22#
German *eavy industry reaped greater bene2its 2rom t*e National (o0ialist armaments program t*an any ot*er se0tor o2 t*e e0onomy. But it was also t*e pla0e w*ere 0on2li0ts arose between t*e Na8i regime, w*i0* was pursuing greater state regulation, and t*e industrialists, w*o reJe0ted t*e governmentGs unort*odo6 and o2ten irrational produ0tion demands. ?owever, despite o00asional disagreements, most industrial leaders 0ooperated e6tensively wit* a government t*at e6er0ised enormous pressure on t*e one *and but promised unpre0edented pro2its on t*e ot*er. 3*e industrialist +rit8 3*yssen "be*ind ?itler, middle rig*t) represented an e60eption, bot* in *is initial ent*usiasm 2or t*e Na8i regime and *is later disillusionment wit* it. 'n t*e 19 Cs, *e *ad already provided t*e N(D.P wit* 2inan0ial support. ?e Joined t*e party in 19!1 and began mediating between ?itler and ot*er industrial leaders. 3*e 2ollowing year, *e Joined ot*er important representatives o2 industry and t*e banking system in signing a petition to &ei0* President ?indenburg t*at demanded ?itlerGs appointment as &ei0* $*an0ellor. .2ter 19!!, *e *eld a series o2 publi0 o22i0es and was involved in t*e 2ormulation and implementation o2 National (o0ialist e0onomi0 poli0y. But a2ter t*e adoption o2 t*e +our@=ear Plan and t*e asso0iated es0alation o2 state intervention into t*e e0onomy, 3*yssen 0ame into in0reasing 0on2li0t wit* t*e Na8i government. 'n 19!9, *aving grown even more disillusioned wit* t*e 0ountryAs violent, anti@(emiti0 0limate and wit* ?itlerGs warmongering, *e emigrated to +ran0e. 'n 19DC, *e was arrested by t*e 7i0*y government and sent ba0k to Germany, w*ere *e was interned in 0on0entration 0amps until t*e end o2 t*e war. 3*e 3*yssen $orporation was nationali8ed. 3*e p*oto also s*ows .lbert 7Ngler "at le2t, ne6t to ?itler), w*o was t*en dire0tor o2 9nited (teelworks .G E)ereinigte &tahlwer e $1F. 7Ngler was a long@time supporter o2 ?itler and *eld a variety o2 publi0 o22i0es starting in 19!!. During t*e war, as *ead o2 t*e military e0onomy and later as 0*ie2 representative o2 &ei0* ,inister o2 .rmaments and War Produ0tion .lbert (peer, 7Ngler played an important role in t*e organi8ation o2 t*e armaments e0onomy. ?e 0ommitted sui0ide on .pril 1D, 19D4, a2ter .meri0an troops *ad mar0*ed into t*e &u*r region.

!'ourceE htt&EGGgermanhistory"ocs$ghi6"c$orgGsub^image$cfmMimage^i"[2H22#

A co&y of the @uremberg 2aws &asse" by the @a>i regime on 'e&tember 1D, 1 CD

Bhart to "escribe @uremberg 2aws, 1 CD$ The O@uremberg 2awsO establishe" a &seu"o6scientific basis for racial i"entification$ Jnly &eo&le with four German gran"&arents !four white circles in to& row left# were of OGerman bloo"O$ A Jew is someone who "escen"s from three or four Jewish gran"&arents !blac7 circles in to& row right#$ )n the mi""le stoo" &eo&le of Omi?e" bloo"O of the Ofirst or secon" "egree$O A Jewish gran"&arent was "efine" as a &erson who is or was a member of a Jewish religious community$ Also inclu"es a list of allowe" marriages !O.he gestattetO# an" forbi""en marriages !O.he %erbotenO#$ !'ourceE (nite" 'tates 0olocaust Memorial Museum Bollection#

Minister of War Fiel" Marshal Werner %on -lomberg !left#, 0ermann GWring !2n" left#, Bomman"er6in6Bhief of the Army Werner %on Fritsch !2n" right#, an" A"olf 0itler a&&ear at the OReich 4arty Rally for Wor7O in @uremberg, Germany in 'e&tember 1 C:, two months before the secret conference that mar7e" the beginning of the en" of the military careers of -lomberg an" Fritsch$ !4hotoE S -il"archi% 4reudischer /ulturbesit>#

Fiel" Marshal Ger" %on Run"ste"t !left#, General Werner %on Fritsch !center#, an" Fiel" Marshal Werner %on -lomberg !right# in 1 C4$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%esG-un"esarchi%# Fiel" Marshal Werner %on -lomberg, Bomman"er6in6Bhief of the Arme" Forces !Wehrmacht# an" +efense Minister of Germany un"er Bhancellor A"olf 0itler, resigne" from office on January 2:, 1 C5 "ue to a contro%ersy regar"ing his wife,s &ri%ate life$ General Werner %on Fritsch resigne" from the German Army on February 4, 1 C5 after 0ermann Goering an" 0einrich 0immler wrongly accuse" General Werner %on Fritsch of homose?uality$ The resignations of Fiel" Marshal Werner %on -lomberg an" General Werner %on Fritsch in early 1 C5 were 7nown as the BlombergDFrits$h .ffair$

Reichs an!" Central #an! o$ the Third Reich

The Reichsban7 in -erlin in 1 CC8 the Reichsban7 was Germany,s central ban7 from 15:* to 1 4D$

4resi"ents of the Reichsban7

Ri#hard Ko#h President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "1:9C@19C1)

Rudolf &avenstein President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19C:@19 !) died in o22i0e on November C, 19 !

&Halmar "#ha#ht President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19 !@19!C, 19!!@19!9)

&ans Luther President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19!C@19!!)

>r1 8alther ;un( President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19!9@19D4)> &ei0*sminister o2 -0onomi0s "19!:@19D4)

Reichsban7 ban7ers meet in Germany in 1 C4$ From left to rightE 0Lalmar 'chacht !4resi"ent of the Reichsban7#, 0err 4lessing, +r$ .mil 4uhl !Kice 4resi"ent of the Reichsban7#, an" 0err %on We"el

A Weimar Re&ublic German Reichsban7note "ate" 22 August 1 2C with a face %alue of 1HH,HHH,HHH Mar7s$ !'ourceE htt&EGGwww$sny"erstreasures$comG&agesGgermancurrency$htm#

A grou& of German wor7ers salute @a>i Germany,s "ictator A"olf 0itler !center# an" Reichsban7 &resi"ent 0Lalmar 'chacht !right# "uring a &ara"e in Germany in 1 CD$ !4hotoE Time 2ife#

A Weimar Re&ublic German Reichsban7note "ate" 2C July 1 2C with a face %alue of 2,HHH,HHH Mar7s$ !'ourceE htt&EGGwww$sny"erstreasures$comG&agesGgermancurrency$htm#

This is a German Reichsban7note "ate" 1 August 1 42 with a face %alue of D Mar7s$ @ote the a&&earance of the swasti7a on the +R- seal of the note an" the significantly higher 9uality &rinting an" &a&er use"$ !'ourceE htt&EGGwww$sny"erstreasures$comG&agesGgermancurrency$htm#

Presi)ents of the Rei$hsban/ -49H8D47GN0: 0ermann %on +echen" !January 1, 15:*6A&ril CH, 15 H# Richar" /och !May 1, 15 H6+ecember C1, 1 H:# Ru"olf 0a%enstein !January *, 1 H56@o%ember 2H, 1 2C#8 "ie" in office on @o%ember 2H, 1 2C 0Lalmar 'chacht !+ecember 22, 1 2C6A&ril 2, 1 CH# 0ans 2uther !A&ril C, 1 CH6March 1*, 1 CC# 0Lalmar 'chacht !March 1:, 1 CC6January 1 , 1 C # Walther Fun7 !January 2H, 1 C 6May 5, 1 4D# 'ourceE $andbook on the $istor of 8uro&ean Banks by Manfre" 4ohl, .uro&ean Association for -an7ing 0istory e$K$, &$ CCD

M$M$ Warburg F Bo$, Jewish ban7ing firm in 0amburg, Germany

0ea"9uarters of M$M$ Warburg F Bo$ in 0amburg, Germany !-an7haus Warburg#, foun"e" in 1: 5

1Ma? stubbornly 7e&t u& "aily %isits to the stoc7 e?change$ -ut where frien"s once crow"e" aroun" him, he now stoo" alone or with his em&loyees$ 0e was sha"owe" by the secret &olice, who &hotogra&he" &eo&le a&&roaching him at the e?change or %isiting the ban7$ For a man once "ubbe" the uncrowne" 7ing of 0amburg, it was all a nightmarish re%ersal$ M$M$ Warburg,s slow"own "i"nNt entirely result from the @a>is$ The moratorium on re&ayment of German loans fro>e international ca&ital flows$ When the Reichsban7 clam&e" more controls on ca&ital mo%ements, it han"ica&&e" the Warburgs, who s&eciali>e" in foreign tra"e$ Also, the ban7 still suffere" from the 1 C1 "ebacle, which re9uire" cost6cutting$ .mong the many fa$tors hol)ing ;a< in Germany &as )oubtless his )esire to regain the eminen$e he ha) enBoye) before 47>4: The Nazis ha) )e#ri,e) him of a $han$e to restore his glory: =f business at the Warburg ban/ &as ne,er nearly so moribun) as ;a< ma)e out6 it ha) mu$h to )o &ith the #atronage of Ar: +Balmar *$ha$ht: .ssigne) to )eli,er +itler@s e$onomi$ boom6 he ha) to transmit to the Fu&rer the un#leasant ne&s that Germany nee)e) these )e,ilish %e&ish ban/ers: *$ha$ht ha) not only been a /ey emissary to big business at a time &hen in)ustrialists still feare) the Nazis6 but also ga,e some finan$ial legitima$y to a #arty that attra$te) a large number of monetary Cua$/s: +itler #rize) *$ha$ht as a res#e$table figure &ho $oul) hoo)&in/ foreign finan$iers: =n 47>4 +itler sai) of him6 I+e is6 in fa$t6 enormously s/ille) an) enBoys great res#e$t6 e,en among the foreign6 an) es#e$ially among the %e&ishD.meri$an international ban/ers: .n) that is &hy =6 too6 thin/ highly of him:I +itler bragge) that *$ha$ht &as the only !.ryan" &ho $oul) outs&in)le the %e&s: )n a totalitarian state where e%ery human bo"y seeme" e?&en"able$ +r$ 'chacht alone enLoye" s&ecial free"oms, an" this woul" e%en e?ten" to &rotesting the abuse of Jewish businessmen$ This ol"6school ban7er, with his &instri&es, cigars, an" wire6rimme" glasses, ne%er Loine" the &arty an" regar"e" many @a>is as coarse ruffians$ 2ater "isclaiming 7nowle"ge of the Final 'olution, he woul" yet mastermin" the German economic re%i%al that ma"e 0itler omni&otent$ Jn February 2H, 1 CC, at a meeting of business lea"ers at his home, Goring &re"icte" that the March D elections woul" be Othe last for the ne?t fi%e years, &robably e%en for the ne?t hun"re" years$O Jnce the crow" was warme" u&, +r$ 'chacht ste&&e" forth, raise" three million mar7s for the @a>is, then a"ministere" the fun" himself$ This o&&ortunist fancie" himself the one sane man who coul" mo"erate @a>i e?cesses from within$ Watching 0itler "eli%er his first ra"io a""ress in 1 CC, he sai" he thought it might be O&ossible to gui"e this man into the &ath of righteousness$O When the ,uhrer sai" the Jews coul" continue wor7ing as before, +r$ 'chacht &rofesse" to belie%e him$ Ma? woul" hear these s&ecious &romises from 'chachtNs own li&s$ When +itler )eman)e) the resignation of Ar: Luther6 the hea) of the Rei$hsban/6 in ;ar$h 47>>6 he #ro#ose) Ar: *$ha$ht in his stea): .s a member of the Rei$hsban/ a),isory boar) sin$e 47?G6 ;a< #arti$i#ate) in the ,ote: +e an) t&o other %e&ish ban/ers on the eightDmember $oun$il &ere $aught in a tou$hy #osition: ;a< thought *$ha$ht a smart6 o##ortunisti$ blo&har) &ho o,erestimate) his talentsJ ;a< also ha) ne,er forgi,en his $yni$al betrayal of 'arl ;el$hior after the 47?7 Eoung $onferen$e: Ne,ertheless6 he ,ote) for *$ha$ht at the ;ar$h 48 meeting6 telling %immy after&ar)6 IFn)er $urrent $on)itions6 = $onsi)er it obBe$ti,ely $orre$t that *$ha$ht get this #ost: for his #ersonal influen$e o,er the go,ernment is so im#ortant that mista/es6 &hi$h he &ill unCuestionably ma/e6 &ill be offset: = ,ote) for him de plein coeur an) am gla) that Luther himself )i) the same:I ;a< Boine) t&o other %e&ish ban/ers in a##en)ing his signature to the ;ar$h 4H a##ointment )o$ument signe) by +itler an) +in)enburg: The a"%isory boar" was "issol%e" in Jctober 1 CC: =f ;a<Ks business life hung from a threa) after 47>>6 it &as Ar: *$ha$ht &ho $oul) &iel) the shears: for he hel) lifeDan)D)eath #o&er o,er #ri,ate ban/s: *in$e the 47>4 $risis6 the Rei$hsban/ enBoye) )i$tatorial $ontrol o,er foreign e<$hangeDthe lifebloo) of any international ban/: *$ha$ht $oul) obliterate the 4>NDyear history of ;:;: Warburg in one stro/e: Recogni>ing this, Ma? tol" Jimmy that e%erything "e&en"e" u&on Owhat 'chacht &lans to "o in general with &ri%ate ban7s an" ban7ers an" in &articular, how a &ri%ate Jewish ban7 can "o business in future$O For Ma?, 'chachtNs a&&ointment &romise" some small rationality in financial affairs instea" of weir" @a>i e?&eriments or a %icious &urge of Jewish ban7ers$ 0is relationshi& with 'chacht at first "u&e" Ma? into a sense of security$ )t ga%e him high6le%el access to the @a>i bureaucracy of a sort enLoye" by few Jews$ Ma? felt he shoul" use this influence for the Jewish community, which, in turn, bolstere" his im&ortance in the community$ For Jews who felt bereft of any court of a&&eals in a Germany gone ma", Ma? Warburg, with his go%ernment contacts, coul" ren"er uni9ue ser%ice$ 0e ha" an o&en "oor to 'chacht an" &erio"ically "iscusse" with him to&ics of mutual concern$ Jimmy an" Feli? thought Ma? was mani&ulate" by the wily 'chacht$ As Jimmy later sai", OMy uncle, Ma? Warburg$$$always claime" that 'chacht was "oing the best he coul" to &rotect the Jews$ ) ne%er belie%e" him$ ) thin7 <'chacht= tal7e" out of one si"e of his face to &eo&le who were anti6'emitic an" out of the other si"e of his face to &eo&le who were &ro6'emitic, but ) ha%e no &roof of that$O Aet at moments 'chacht buc7e" the @a>is at great &ersonal ris7$ )n the rogues gallery of the Thir" Reich, he is the har"est &erson to bring into moral focus, for he e?hibite" both &atent hy&ocrisy an" un9uestionable courage$ )f Ma? &ro%e" gullible, he ha" some reason to trust 'chacht$ -eing ignorant of financial matters, 0itler grante" 'chacht unusual autonomy in @a>i official"om$ Jnce as7e" whether 0itler ha" financial i"eas$ 'chacht boaste"$ OAes, he ha" one i"ea an" a %ery goo" one$ )t was, lea%e it to 'chacht$O As his &olicies lifte" Germany from the +e&ression, 'chacht enLoye" immunity from &arty criticism$ )n May 1 CC, he shiel"e" the ban7ersN tra"e association from &arty me""ling an" it confirme" Ma? an" two other Jews as boar" members$ The most startling #roof of *$ha$htKs free)om from #arty stri$tures &as seen in the Rei$h Loan 'onsortium6 the august ban/ syn)i$ate that mar/ete) German go,ernment issues6 of fifty member ban/s &hen the Nazis seize) #o&er6 a thir) &ere %e&ish6 an) *$ha$ht resiste) the #artyKs efforts to e<#el some of them: Gra)ually almost all %e&ish ban/s &ere #rune) an) only three manage) to stay until 47>96 in$lu)ing ;: ;: Warburg & 'o: ;embershi# in this bo)y #ro,i)e) the Warburg ban/ &ith #rote$tion an) #ermitte) lea)ing in)ustrial firms to $ontinue )oing business &ith it safely: =f ;: ;: Warburg enBoye) the im#rimatur of the Rei$h Loan 'onsortium6 ho& $oul) it be $onsi)ere) a traitorous firm? Besi)es *$ha$ht6 se,eral

businessmen trie) to gui)e +itler to&ar) e$onomi$ sanity6 an) he &as only too #lease) to e<#loit their nai,etW: )n early 1 C2, 0itler "is&atche" Wilhelm /e&&ler, the owner of a small chemical factory, to court 0amburg business chieftains$ 0e recruite" .mil 0elfferich, Barl Kincent /rogmann, an" others into a select grou& of economic a"%isers to 0itler$ For a time, this /e&&ler Bircle &ro%i"e" a bri"ge between the business worl" an" the @a>is, an" 0itler res&on"e" enthusiastically when the grou& acce&te" +r$ 'chacht$ 0itler assure" them that he was the soul of mo"eration on economic matters$ 1),m no "octrinaire,O he tol" them$ 1),m a &olitician an" no economist$ ) rely u&on your better Lu"gment an" wi"e e?&erience$3 +rawn hea%ily from the 0amburg tra"ing worl", the grou& en"orse" lower tariffs an" an en" to e?change controls$ 0itler let them frolic in this fool,s &ara"ise as long as it suite" his &ur&ose$ Few Jewish businessmen ha" better access to the /e&&ler Bircle than the Warburgs$ .mil 0elfferich, a sil%er6haire" man with roun" s&ectacles an" a white, Jl" Testament bear", wor7e" aroun" the corner from the Warburg ban7, "oing business with the +utch West )n"ies$ The Warburgs ha" finance" an" e%en in%este" in some of his colonial enter&rises$ .ric later "escribe" 0elfferich as a cunning, insincere o&&ortunist, but no @a>i$ When 0itler too7 &ower, the Warburg &artners hel" 1H5 seats on cor&orate boar"s, reflecting the close ties between German ban7s an" in"ustry$ As they were e?&elle" from boar"s an" lost customers through subtle @a>i &ressures, the Warburgs turne" to the /e&&ler Bircle$ )n May 1 CC, Ma? an" .ric met with the grou& at the -erlin branch of the /ommer>ban7$ )nfuriate" by all the snubs an" rebuffs, Ma? as7e", &oint6blan7, which boar" seats shoul" be aban"one" an" which 7e&t$ +iscomfite" by this bluntness, 0elfferich sai" the matter shoul" be "eci"e" on a case6by6case basis an" %aguely tol" Ma? to yiel" seats where the &ressure was most intense$ .ric ne%er forgot the &aine" e?&ression of his father, who cra%e" clarity in this wil"erness of fear an" innuen"o$ That July, 0itler a&&ointe" /e&&ler as his &ersonal economic a"%iser$ The following year, in a telltale shift, the /e&&ler Bircle was su&&lante" by the 0immler Bircle$ 'ome Warburgs, notably Jimmy, thought Ma? shoul" resign from boar"s instea" of waiting to be boote" out, but he refuse" to go 9uietly or surren"er his economic &ower$ )n his 1 CC annual re&ort, he tol" colleagues that they shoul" "efen" the ban7 as a fortress an" that 1no -oar" seat that is ta7en from us shoul" be regar"e" as "efinitely lost an" e%ery o&&ortunity shoul" be sei>e" to regain these &ositions, e%en if success may yet be far off$3 This combati%e attitu"e coinci"e" with his belief in the transitory nature of the @a>is$ The manner in which Ma? was houn"e" from cor&orate boar"s range" from the absur"ly correct to the wantonly cruel$ At a May 1 CC boar" meeting of the German Atlantic Telegra&h Bom&any, the commissar of the ministry of the &ost, 0err /unert, e?&laine" that the ministry wante" Jewish boar" members to resign$ With a no" to Ma? an" others, /unert insiste" no offense was meant$ OThere was no obLection &ersonally to the Jewish gentlemen in 9uestion$ Jn the contrary, their ser%ices in the rebuil"ing of the com&any were highly esteeme"$ -ut these were new times, against which no one coul" &re%ail$O Ma? e?&resse" astonishment that the ministry of the &ost coul" &ro&ose something of such "ubious legality$ .%en a forceful &rotest from A%erell 0arriman ; who ha", at Ma?Ns behest, finance" a transatlantic cable for the com&any in 1 21 ; coul"n,t sa%e his seat$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ C:*6C:

1All illusions woul" soon be o%er$ The cloc7 was now a&&roaching mi"night$ Ma? ha" hitche" his star to +r$ 'chachtNs, a strategy that ha" at first &ai" off han"somely, enabling him to sur%i%e in a charme" s&here, &rotecte" by in%isible barriers, if surroun"e" by enemies$ -ut by 1 C*, this strategy miscarrie" as 'chachtNs own &ower wane"$ The blustery, o&inionate" central ban7er cause" offense on se%eral fronts$ 0e re&eate"ly grumble" to 0itler that Goebbels, 0immler, an" other @a>is 'i&hone" off foreign e?change for their own use$ An" for all his elastic morals, +r$ 'chacht hewe" to an ol"6fashione" ban7erNs faith in soun" finance$ )nstea" of fa%oring autar7y, he wante" Germany to bolster its foreign e?change reser%es through e?&orts$ 0e also thought economic growth ha" reache" a &oint where further arms s&en"ing woul" be inflationary$ For a long time, he %iolate" his own &rinci&les an" a"%ance" rearmament through his Mefo6bills, barter "eals, an" e?change controls$ -ut 0itler grew tire" of his warnings about inflation$ )n conse9uence, 'chacht slowly she" his strange glow of &olitical immunity, an" 0itler began to brush asi"e this &ighea"e" man who ha" outli%e" his usefulness$ First +itler ga,e su#er,ision of foreign e<$hange an) ra& material matters to *$ha$htKs ar$hri,al6 Goring6 in .#ril 47>8: That same year6 he un,eile) a fourDyear #lan to rearm Germany an) again assigne) the su#er,isory role to Goring: Right ne<t )oor to *$ha$htKs $onomi$s ;inistry: Goring ere$te) his o&n #ri,ate bureau$ra$y6 the (ffi$e for Ra& an) *yntheti$ ;aterials6 manne) by a staff of fi,e hun)re): =t &oul) be$ome the tutelary s#irit behin) German &ar #re#arations an) #romulgate a militaristi$ #oli$y of autar/y instea) of free tra)e: As 'chachtNs &ower "i&&e", the Warburgs 7new they might soon forfeit their go%ernment &atronage$ As Feli? tol" the Joint in A&ril 1 C:, 1We ha" a few frien"s o%er there who were in high &ositions, but who are now losing their &ower$3 Jn cue, German businesses too7 a tougher line with Jewish ban7ers$ Wor" filtere" "own from -erlin that com&anies shoul" &urge their boar"s of Jews or lose go%ernment contracts8 many were stam&e"e" into "ro&&ing Jewish firms$ The number of M$ M$ Warburg clients now s7i""e" from almost C,HHH in 1 C* to about 2$2HH in 1 C:$ -etween 1 C* an" 1 C5, Warburg &artners lost eighty boar" seats, which left them with a meager eighteen$ 'iegmun" was e?&elle" from two boar"s in 1 C:E the 0otel Atlantic !0itlerNs fa%orite haunt in 0amburg# an" the Bameroun Railroa" Bom&any$ )n many cases, the Warburgs sli&&e" in a substitute$ Most often it was +r$ Ru"olf -rinc7mann, the highest6ran7ing non6Jewish em&loyee, for whom this &ro"uce" a stunning, o%ernight ele%ation in status ; a fact the Warburgs woul" &ointe"ly bring u& later$ Another substitute was +r$ /urt 'ie%e7ing, who came from a "istinguishe" legal family$ )n 1 C*, as a way of e?&ressing soli"arity with the Jews, he surren"ere" a lucrati%e law &ractice an" too7 a Lob with M$M$ Warburg$ 0e was later a mayor of 0amburg$ )t ran7le" &arty >ealots that +r$ 'chacht ha" 7e&t the Warburg ban7 in the Reich 2oan Bonsortium, the august bo"y that mar7ete" go%ernment "ebt$ By 47>H6 ;:;: Warburg &as one of Bust three %e&ish ban/s left in the grou#J &hen the ban/ ha) Boine) the 'onsortium in 475N6 one thir) of the fifty member ban/s ha) %e&ish o&ners: ,en though ;: ;: Warburg got a minute 4:N #er$ent sli,er of $onsortium issues6 the mere fa$t of its membershi# mattere) greatly: I2Ar: *$ha$ht3 /ne& the im#ortan$e in the matter of loan flotations of at least our firm an) that of ;en)elssohn6I sai) ;a<: The $a$het &as of immense #ra$ti$al ,alue6 for it signifie) that the firm still enBoye) some offi$ial fa,or: =f bullie) by Nazis6 in)ustrial $om#anies $oul) $ite the Rei$h Loan 'onsortium as their Bustifi$ation for )oing business &ith the Warburgs: *o long as Ar: *$ha$ht $lung to #o&er6 ;a< belie,e) he $oul) sur,i,e: 0e often sai" that he wante" his firm to be the last one out of Germany, not the first$ )f his firm were li9ui"ate", he feare" that it woul" throw Jewish em&loyees on the street an" so "ismay the entire Jewish community that it woul" flee66in retros&ect, the o&timal solution$ ;a< WarburgKs )estiny &as )etermine) on .ugust 446 47>H6 &hen Ar: *$ha$ht met &ith +itler on a sunD)ren$he) terra$e on the (bersalzberg: *$ha$htKs boisterous ro&s &ith Goring no& threatene) to )isru#t the &hole rearmament #rogram: .fter *$ha$ht a)Bourne) &ith +itler into his stu)y6 a furious )ialogue ensue): The &in)o&s &ere o#en an) guests on the terra$e hear) the t&o men raging at ea$h other: *$ha$ht &as one of the fe& offi$ials &ho )are) to holler at +itler: +e no& ten)ere) his resignation6 $iting irre$on$ilable )ifferen$es &ith Goring: When +itler insiste) that he re$onsi)er6 *$ha$ht only sai) he &oul) thin/ about it: From then on6 *$ha$htKs #o&er ero)e)6 an) on *e#tember N6 47>H6 he too/ a lea,e of absen$e from the $onomi$s ;inistry: The Ministry of Justice &romulgate" new rules that ma"e it illegal for @a>i &arty members an" go%ernment em&loyees to &atroni>e Jewish sho&s$ The last Jewish war %eterans were boote" from the Reichsban7 staff$ That 'e&tember, +r$ 'chacht as7e" Ma? to %isit him in -erlin$ The somber central ban7er sai", O)Nm sorry, Mr$ Warburg, but ) canNt 7ee& your firm in the <Reich 2oan= Bonsortium any longer$O Ma? was Lolte" from his trance$ At once he 7new that he ha" lost his &rotecti%e co%er$ OThen weNll ha%e to li9ui"ate the firm$O Ma? sai"$ 'chacht re&lie" that he ha" e?&ecte" that$ As Ma? recalle", OWe sai" goo"bye after, for thirty years, we ha" in all &ossible ways wor7e" together$O -ac7 in 0amburg, Ma? foun" the city a wash with rumors that M$ M$ Warburg wanted to li9ui"ate66rumors he thought fanne" by the @a>is$ Along with Feli?Ns "eath in Jctober, these e%ents ha" a crushing im&act u&on him$ When 'chacht yiel"e" the .conomics Ministry to Goring in +ecember !while 7ee&ing the Reichsban7 &resi"ency#, the new na>ifie" ministry tol" Ma? he ha" to transfer his ban7 to Aryans$ 'chachtNs "ownfall was a general "isaster for Jewish ban7ers an" businessmen, for his successors "rastically curtaile" the raw material an" foreign e?change 9uotas that were essential for many Jewish firms$ 'chachtNs "ownfall came ami" a huge wa%e of so6calle" Aryani>ations that transforme" the German economy$ The Warburg ban7, in fact, negotiate" force" sales for many Jewish businesses, a ghoulish acti%ity that became a sta&le of its wor7 by 1 C:$ As "istinguishe" names in Jewish ban7ing "isa&&eare" ; Gebru"er Arnhol", '$ -leichro"er, J$ +reyfus F Bo$, an" nearly two hun"re" other &ri%ate ban7s ; their clients shifte" to the Warburgs$ As Ma? note", OWe more an" more became the confi"ential ban7ers of the Jewish business worl"$3 With many large Aryan ban7s financing these ta7eo%ers$ Jewish businessmen truste" M$ M$ Warburg to bro7er their "eals an" the &artners scoure" the worl" for foreign firms that might &urchase Jewish businesses with bloc7e" mar7 accounts$ These in%oluntary sales to &re"atory Aryans were con"ucte" in an e?tremely tense atmos&here$ Many Jewish businessmen awaite" entry %isas elsewhere an" "i"nNt 7now whether

they woul" esca&e$ They sol" their shares base" on Jriginal cost, not mar7et %alue, an" recei%e" nothing for goo"will, which le" to staggering ca&ital losses of as much as :H &ercent$ The notaries han"ling these contracts nee"e" to get a&&ro%al from the local @a>i office$ )f the &arty thought the terms too generous, they were sent bac7 for further negotiation$ Jnce this legal e?tortion was com&lete", businessmen ha" to &ay the 2D &ercent Flight Ba&ital Ta?$ After more "uties an" &uniti%e e?change rates, Jews might get 1H62H &ercent of the remaining &ittance out of Germany$ -y the en", most Jewish businessmen were battere" an" bro7e$ Jutright theft might ha%e been 7in"er$ The @a>is rationali>e" these coerci%e mo%es by saying that the Jews ha" built their businesses through tric7ery an" cheating$ As German firms &rofite" from the Aryani>ation "ri%e, it im&licate" them more "ee&ly in @a>i machinations, which woul" finally culminate with their e?&loitation of sla%e labor "uring the 0olocaust$ A fierce Aryani>ation battle rage" o%er the &i&e an" blast furnace com&any controlle" by the family of 2olaNs husban", Ru"olf 0ahn, an" his brother$ /urt$ As Goring trie" to e?&el Jewish owners from in"ustries of strategic im&ortance, es&ecially in mining an" metals, he foun" an enthusiastic su&&orter in Frie"rich Flic7, later a con%icte" war criminal$ With a cru"e steel em&ire that by 1 C2 ri%ale" that of /ru&&, Flic7 ha" la%ishly subsi"i>e" 0einrich 0immler an" the ''$ -y 1 C:, he sat ato& the largest &ri%ately owne" iron an" steel combine in Germany$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ 4*H64*C 1With M$ M$ Warburg e%icte" from the Reich 2oan Bonsortium, Ma? hunte" for frien"ly &arties to buy his ban7$ The negotiations too7 &lace ami" a stifling, intolerable gloom$ )n mi"6March 1 C5, 0itler trium&hantly entere" Kienna to celebrate the Anschluss with Austria$ After brea7ing into the Rothschil" mansion, '' men emerge" bearing sil%er, &aintings, an" other s&oils$ -aron 2ouis Rothschil" was arreste" an" hel" hostage until his family sol" off their &ro&erties at scan"alously low &rices$ The @a>is carte" off masses of Jews to the +achau an" -uchenwal" concentration cam&s in an orgy of anti6'emitic e?cess$ Jne of Ma?Ns Kiennese cousins, Richar" Rosenbacher, lea&e" to his "eath from the thir"6floor win"ow of his home$ Jews in Kienna were committing suici"e at the rate of two hun"re" &er "ay$ Returning from Austria, 0itler a""resse" a huge throng before the 0amburg 0athaus% The ,uhrer also christene" a new shi& the 0obert "e 1 honoring Ma?Ns ol" nemesis from the 1 2Hs$ The &ace of Aryani>ations 9uic7ene", as a 9uarter of the remaining forty thousan" Jewish businesses un"erwent force" sales "uring the ne?t year$ This "estroye" the last %estiges of the Jewish economic &ower that ha" figure" so largely in @a>i cosmology$ For a Jewish ban7, the choices were 'im&le$ )t coul" li9ui"ate8 sell out to an Aryan ban78 or be Aryani>e" ; that is, the Jewish &artners coul" sell their sta7es to non6Jews an" &reser%e the firm$ )t was fully consistent with Ma?Ns beliefs that he chose Aryani>ation, which 7e&t ali%e the slim chance of some"ay returning to Germany$ At first, the Warburgs ho&e" to bring in D1 &ercent non6Jewish &artners an" 7ee& a minority sta7e for themsel%es$ -ut on January 4, 1 C5, Goring issue" a "ecree that classifie" those firms with e%en one69uarter Jewish ownershi& as subLect to Aryani>ation$ A wholesale transfer of the firm now became ine%itable$ @egotiations too7 &lace at the -erlin office of M$M$ Warburg un"er the close scrutiny of the Reich .conomics Ministry$ Jn March 1 , 1 C5, +r$ Gustab 'chlotterer of the Foreign .conomics "e&artment was tol" to 7ee& M$M$ Warburg intact to safeguar" its foreign6e?change cre"its an" o%erseas connections for the Thir" Reich$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ 4**

;oreign Affairs of $erman *Ahird Rei#h+

A"olf 0itler, the Bhancellor of @a>i Germany an" +er Fuhrer of the Thir" Reich, stan" on a &atio with 0$0$ /ung !left#, @ationalist Bhina,s Minister of Finance !1 CC61 44# an" Go%ernor of the Bentral -an7 of Bhina !1 CC61 4D#, "uring /ung,s %isit to -erchtesga"en, Germany in 1 C:$ 0$0$ /ung was marrie" to 'oong Ai6ling, the sister of Ma"ame Bhiang /ai6she7 !'oong Mei6ling#$ @a>i German officers traine" Generalissimo Bhiang /ai6she7,s army "uring the 1 CHs8 Generalissimo Bhiang /ai6she7,s a"o&te" son Bhiang Wei67uo ser%e" in the Wehrmacht an" &artici&ate" in the Anschluss$ 0$0$ /ung earne" a -achelor of Arts "egree at Jberlin Bollege in 1 H* an" a Master of Arts "egree at Aale (ni%ersity in 1 H:$ !Time 2ife &hoto#

2eft to rightE 0ans6A"olf %on Molt7e !German Ambassa"or to 4olan"#, 4olish lea"er Je>ef 4ifsu"s7i, Jose&h Goebbels !German 4ro&agan"a Minister#, an" Je>ef -ec7 !Foreign Minister of 4olan"# meet in Warsaw, 4olan" on June 1D, 1 C4, fi%e months after signing the 4olish6German @on6Aggression 4act$ The German64olish @on6Aggression 4act was signe" on January 2*, 1 C48 accor"ing to the German64olish @on6Aggression 4act, both countries &le"ge" to resol%e their &roblems through bilateral negotiations an" to forgo arme" conflict for a &erio" of ten years$ Jo>ef 4ilsu"s7i "ie" in Warsaw, 4olan" on May 12, 1 CD$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%esG-un"esarchi%#

Bhancellor of Germany A"olf 0itler !left# an" 4rime Minister of )taly -enito Mussolini !right# a&&ear in Kenice, )taly on June 1461D, 1 C4, two wee7s before the @ight of the 2ong /ni%es$ -enito Mussolini ser%e" as 4rime Minister of )taly !Jctober C1, 1 22 ;July 2D, 1 4C#, 0ea" of Go%ernment of )taly an" +uce of Fascism !+ecember 24, 1 2D6July 2D, 1 4C#, an" +uce of the )talian 'ocial Re&ublic !'e&tember 2C, 1 4C6A&ril 2D, 1 4D#$

3*e Duke and Du0*ess o2 Windsor visit .dol2 ?itler in Germany.

3*e Duke o2 Windsor "2ormer ;ing -dward 7''' o2 Great Britain) and *is wi2e Du0*ess o2 Windsor "Wallis (impson) visit .dol2 ?itler, $*an0ellor o2 ENa8iF Germany and Der +u*rer o2 t*e 3*ird &ei0*, in 19!1. "P*oto5 London 3elegrap*)

Britis* diplomat Lord ?ali2a6 "0enter) is seen riding in a 0arriage wit* ?ermann Goering "rig*t) in %0tober 19!1. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv)

. group o2 Na8i German army o22i0ers 0elebrate a toast wit* a group o2 'mperial /apanese army o22i0ers during World War ''.

&ei0*sbank President and Na8i German -0onomi0s ,inister ?Jalmar (0*a0*t "le2t), 2ormer 9.(. President ?erbert ?oover "0enter), and .meri0an .mbassador to Na8i Germany ?ug* &. Wilson dress 2or t*e o00asion at a re0eption *eld in Berlin on ,ar0* :, 19!:. ?erbert ?oover and ?ug* &. Wilson were members o2 t*e )4EN)7L 4N ;4RE7$N RELAA74N". ?ug* &. Wilson was a member o2 "KELL C B4NE" at =ale 9niversity> ?erbert ?oover was a member o2 t*e B4&E%7AN $R4IE in $ali2ornia. ".ustrian .r0*ives#$%&B'()

Private 0iti8en ?erbert ?oover "le2t), 2ormer President o2 t*e 9nited (tates, visits ?is -60ellen0y .dol2 ?itler "0enter), $*an0ellor o2 ENa8iF Germany and Der +u*rer o2 t*e 3*ird &ei0*, in Berlin, Germany on ,ar0* :, 19!:. ?ug* &obert Wilson, t*e 9.(. .mbassador to Na8i Germany, is seated on t*e 2ar rig*t. "$%&B'( p*oto)

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9.(. 9nder (e0retary o2 (tate (umner Welles 0on2ers wit* Na8i German +oreign ,inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop in Berlin. "Bettmann#$%&B'() +ield ,ars*al ?ermann Wil*elm Goering is s*own e6*ibiting some o2 *is treasured paintings in Berlin to (umner Welles, t*e 9nited (tates 9nderse0retary o2 (tate, on t*e o00asion w*en t*e latter visited Berlin on *is 2a0t 2inding tour on ,ar0* 19, 19DC. Welles was GoeringGs guest at t*e ,ars*alGs estate, ;arin*all, outside Berlin. 3*e 9nderse0retary is s0*eduled to sail 2rom 'taly tomorrow, bringing ba0k to President &oosevelt, a 0omplete report o2 *is 2indings in war@torn -urope. (umner Welles was a member o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

Prominent Diplomats o2 Na8i Germany

&er2ert von >ir(sen German .mbassador to (oviet 9nion "19 :@ 19!!)> German .mbassador to /apan "19!!@19!:)> German .mbassador to Great Britain "19!:@19!9)

&ans Luther $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19 4@19 L)> +inan0e ,inister o2 Germany "19 !@19 4)> President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19!C@ 19!!)> German .mbassador to .meri0a "19!!@19!1)

;ran. von ,a'en $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19! )> 7i0e $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19!!@19!D)> German .mbassador to .ustria "19!D@19!:)> German .mbassador to 3urkey "19!9@19DD)

Konstanin von Neurath +oreign ,inister o2 Germany "19! @19!:)> German .mbassador to Great Britain "19!C@19! )

;riedri#h 8erner von der "#hulen2urg German .mbassador to (oviet 9nion "19!D@19D1)> ?anged in Berlin on November 1C, 19DD "due to /uly C Plot)

9.(. .mbassador to Na8i Germany William -. Dodd "rig*t) attends a meeting wit* $*ie2 Na8i Propagandist /ose2 Goebbels in Berlin on ,ar0* 1D, 19!D. Dodd was a member o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations.

Le2t p*oto5 David Lloyd George "le2t), Prime ,inister o2 Great Britain during World War ', appears wit* .dol2 ?itler "rig*t), $*an0ellor o2 Germany and Der +u*rer o2 t*e 3*ird &ei0*, at t*e %bersal8burg during David Lloyd GeorgeGs se0ond visit wit* ?itler on /une 1, 19!L. /oa0*im von &ibbentrop, t*e +oreign ,inister o2 Germany, is seen standing in t*e rear between .dol2 ?itler and David Lloyd George.

.dol2 ?itler s*akes *ands wit* ;ing PraJad*ipok o2 (iam Ealso known as ;ing &ama 7'' o2 3*ailandF at 3emple*o2 .irport in Berlin, Germany on /uly 1D, 19!D. "'nternational News P*oto 0redit) "P*oto5 *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot.0om#sear0*#label#.s] Ca] CDiplomat)

/ing 4raLa"hi&o7 of 'iam !center, also 7nown as /ing Rama K)) of Thailan"# an" Yueen Ram&hai&hanni of 'iam a&&ear with /onstantin %on @eurath !thir" from right#, Foreign Minister of Germany, in -erlin, Germany in July 1 C4$ /ing 4raLa"hi&o7 of 'iam ab"icate" his throne the following year$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

.dol2 ?itler and Benito ,ussolini ride toget*er in ,uni0*, Germany in /une 19DC. "National .r0*ives)

Pi0tures o2 (oviet +oreign ,inister 7ya0*eslav ,olotovGs state visit to Berlin on November 1 , 19DC were taken 2rom t*e personal album o2 /oa0*im 7on &ibbentrop and released 2or t*e 2irst time. 3*is is t*e re0eption at t*e ;aiser*o2 ?otel in Berlin. Le2t to rig*t, ,olotov, -ri0k, an interpreter, Na8i GermanyAs +oreign ,inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop, and (( 0*ie2 ?einri0* ?immler. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

A"olf 0itler !right# chats with Bount Tele7i, one of the signers of the &act aligning 0ungary with the A?is &owers, while other "i&lomats loo7 on after the ceremony on +ecember CH, 1 4H$ From left to rightE Bount Tele7i of 0ungary, )talian Foreign Minister Bount Galea>>o Biano, 0ungarian Foreign Minister Bount Bsa7y, an" Ja&anese ambassa"or 'aburo /urusu$

Britis* so0iety *ostess 9nity ,it2ord "le2t) and *er sister Lady Diana ,osley ,it2ord "rig*t) appear wit* (( (tormtroopers at t*e Nuremberg Na8i Party rally in (eptember 19!1. Lady Diana ,osley ,it2ord would be imprisoned by t*e Britis* during World War ''. Lady Diana ,osley ,it2ordAs *usband %swald ,osley was a Britis* ,ember o2 Parliament "?ouse o2 $ommons) w*o 2ounded t*e Britis* 9nion o2 +as0ists.

.dol2 ?itler "le2t) appears wit* Britis* Na8i sympat*i8er 9nity ,it2ord.

.dol2 ?itler walks wit* +inlandAs ,ars*al $arl Gustav +rei*err von ,anner*eim.

.dol2 ?itler greets ;ing Boris o2 Bulgaria in Germany in 19DC.

A"olf 0itler meets with Ante 4a%elic, lea"er of the )n"e&en"ent 'tate of Broatia, u&on his arri%al at the -erghof in -erchtesga"en, -a%aria, @a>i Germany for a state %isit on June , 1 41$ !4hotoE Mu>eL Re%oluciLe @aro"nosti Jugosla%iLeGAugosla%ian @ational Re%olutionary Museum#

Ante 4a%elig !left# meets with German Foreign Minister Joachim %on Ribbentro& in June 1 41$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

,inister President o2 Norway 7idkun Vuisling "le2t) meets wit* .dol2 ?itler, 0ir0a 19D @19D4.

Le2t p*oto5 7idkun Vuisling "0enter), t*e ,inister President o2 Norway, visits Na8i (( 0*ie2 ?einri0* ?immler "le2t) and .lbert 7ilJam ?agelin "(e0retary o2 (tate 2or t*e ?ome %22i0e 19DC@19DD) in Berlin on +ebruary 1D, 19D . &ig*t p*oto5 .dol2 ?itler visits NorwayAs Na8i 0ollaborator 7idkun Vuisling. "(our0e5 *ttp5##ivar2Jeld.wordpress.0om#0ategory#vati0an@and@2as0ism#)

+e&ose" )talian "ictator -enito Mussolini !wearing a blac7 hat an" blac7 coat# stan"s besi"e @a>i German ''6JbersturmbannfUhrer Jtto '7or>eny after '7or>eny,s men rescue" Mussolini from a local hotel in Gran 'asso region of central )taly on 'e&tember 12, 1 4C$ Mussolini was "e&ose" from &ower an" later arreste" by /ing %ictor .mmanuel ))) of )taly on July 2D, 1 4C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

+e&ose" )talian "ictator -enito Mussolini !wearing a blac7 hat an" blac7 coat# wal7s with @a>i German ''6JbersturmbannfUhrer Jtto '7or>eny after '7or>eny,s men rescue" Mussolini from a local hotel !also a tem&orary &rison# in Gran 'asso region of central )taly on 'un"ay, 'e&tember 12, 1 4C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

$*arles Lindberg* s*akes *ands wit* a Na8i German o22i0er in Na8i Germany in 19!1.

.meri0an aviator $*arles Lindberg* "le2t) and +ord ,otor $o. 0*ie2 ?enry +ord "rig*t) re0eive an award 2rom t*e Na8i German regime.

?erman Goering "rig*t) presents a 0eremonial sword to .meri0an aviator $*arles Lindberg* in Berlin on .ugust !, 19!L. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

Lu2twa22e 0ommander ?ermann Goering "0enter) stands wit* $*arles Lindberg* "le2t o2 Goering) at a re0eption during t*e .meri0an aviatorGs visit to Na8i Germany on /uly :, 19!L> *is wi2e .nne ,orrow Lindberg* is to t*e rig*t, in w*ite Ja0ket and print dress. "$%&B'()

.meri0an aviator $*arles Lindberg* and *is wi2e .nne ,orrow Lindberg* visit ?ermann Goering in Na8i Germany. .nne ,orrow Lindberg*As 2at*er was Dwig*t W. ,orrow, a member o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations.

$*arles Lindberg* visits Na8i Germany.

(panis* $ivil War R Dress &e*earsal 2or Na8i German ,ilitary $onIuest o2 -urope

Na8i German .rmy General ,aJor +rei*err 7on &i0*t*o2en dire0ts members o2 t*e German $ondor Legion as t*ey 2oug*t on t*e 2ront wit* t*e 2as0ist Nationalist 2or0es o2 Gen. +ran0is0o +ran0o during t*e (panis* $ivil War. .dol2 ?itler provided military support to Gen. +ran0is0o +ran0o and *is Nationalist insurgents during t*e (panis* $ivil War> t*e Na8i German Lu2twa22e engaged in numerous bombing raids, killing t*ousands o2 (panis* 0ivilians and destroying (panis* 0ities and towns during t*e (panis* $ivil War. "'mage5 M Bettmann#$%&B'()

Dead bodies lie on t*e ground at t*e $uartel de la ,onta_a in ,adrid, (pain on /uly C, 19!L> t*ese individuals, possibly a group o2 &ebels "Nationalists) were killed by t*e &epubli0an militias. "'mage5 M -+-#$orbis)

(panis* Nationalist soldiers es0ort a 0ontingent o2 (panis* &epubli0an "Loyalist) 2ig*ters w*o *ave surrendered t*eir position on t*e (omosierra +ront in (pain during t*e (panis* $ivil War "19!L@19!9) in 19!L. "'mage5 M ?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'(

. group o2 (panis* soldiers "+ran0o#NationalistQ) in (pain salute 2or a p*otograp*er during t*e (panis* $ivil War. ',.G-5 M ?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'(

/ey an" General ma& of the '&anish Bi%il War !1 C*61 C # )nitial @ationalist >one 6 July 1 C* @ationalist a"%ance until 'e&tember 1 C* @ationalist a"%ance until Jctober 1 C: @ationalist a"%ance until @o%ember 1 C5 @ationalist a"%ance until February 1 C 2ast area un"er Re&ublican control Main @ationalist centers Main Re&ublican centers 2an" battles @a%al battles -ombe" cities Boncentration cam&s Massacres Refugee cam&s

Generalissimo Francisco Franco re%iews his Falangist troo&s after ta7ing Ma"ri", '&ain in 1 C $ !4hotoE +e%erG2)F.#

(painAs 2as0ist di0tator +ran0is0o +ran0o "0enter) meets wit* 'talyAs 2as0ist di0tator Benito ,ussolini "rig*t).

@a>i '' chief 0einrich 0immler !secon" from left# a&&ears alongsi"e '&ain,s fascist "ictator Francisco Franco in Jctober 1 4H$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

.dol2 ?itler wat0*es (painAs strongman Generalissimo +ran0is0o +ran0o salutes to a group o2 Na8i German soldiers in 19DC.

.dol2 ?itler "rig*t), $*an0ellor o2 Germany and Der +u*rer o2 t*e 3*ird &ei0*, greets Generalissimo +ran0is0o +ran0o "se0ond 2rom le2t), t*e strongman o2 +as0ist (pain, in ?endaye, +ran0e on %0tober !, 19DC. "P*oto5 3ime Li2e)

.dol2 ?itler "le2t), $*an0ellor o2 Germany and Der +u*rer o2 t*e 3*ird &ei0*, greets +as0ist (painAs di0tator Generalissimo +ran0is0o +ran0o "rig*t) during ?itlerAs only o22i0ial meeting wit* +ran0o in ?endaye, +ran0e on %0tober !, 19DC as an unidenti2ied German o22i0er looks on. "P*oto5 3ime Li2e)

Anschluss, A&&easement, F Anne?ation ; @a>i German Bon9uest of .uro&e

A"olf 0itler, Bhancellor of Germany an" +er Fuhrer of the Thir" Reich, "eli%ers a s&eech in Kienna, Austria on March 1D, 1 C5$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# Nazi German in,asion an) anne<ation of foreign nations -47>9D47GN0: Anne?ation of Austria !Anschluss# ; March 12, 1 C5 Anne?ation of 'u"etenlan" !B>echoslo%a7ia# ; Jctober 1 C5 )n%asion of B>echoslo%a7ia ; March 1D, 1 C )n%asion of 4olan" ; 'e&tember 1, 1 C )n%asion of @orway an" +enmar7 ; A&ril , 1 4H )n%asion of France, -elgium, an" @etherlan"s ; May 1H, 1 4H Anne?ation of northern France an" recognition of Kichy France ; June 22, 1 4H )n%asion of Augosla%ia an" Greece ; A&ril *, 1 41 )n%asion of Russia ; June 22, 1 41

Resi"ents of Kienna cheer as @a>i German troo&s enter Kienna on March 12, 1 C5$

/urt 'chuschnigg, who ser%e" as Bhancellor of Austria !2 July 1 C4611 March 1 C5# before the Anschluss, o&&ose" A"olf 0itler,s in%asion an" anne?ation of Austria$ /urt 'chuschnigg was im&risone" at +achau Boncentration Bam& near Munich, Germany "uring most of Worl" War ))$

Austrian Bhancellor .ngelbert +ollfuss, who ble" to "eath in his Kienna office, was assassinate" in Kienna, Austria on July 2D, 1 C4 by a grou& of Austrian @a>is in a faile" attem&t to o%erthrow the Austrian go%ernment$ !4hotoE Time 2ife#

The Wehrmacht troo&s encountere" no resistance when they entere" Austria on March 12, 1 C5$ )n this &icture, motori>e" units are shown, with sol"iers smo7ing a cigarette$ !4hoto by 0einrich 0offmann#

A"olf 0itler !center#, Bhancellor of Germany an" +er Fuhrer of the Thir" Reich, a&&ears with Arthur 'eyss6)n9uart in Kienna in 1 C5$ 0einrich 0immler !@a>i '' Bhief# an" Reinhar" 0ey"rich are seen stan"ing to the right of 0itler$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

.dol2 ?itler salutes in an automobile in 2ront o2 a triump*ant 0rowd assembled near t*e ?o2burg in 7ienna to 0elebrate t*e .ns0*luss in ,ar0* 19!:. "'mage5 M ?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'()

?einri0* ?immler inspe0ts Gestapo units in 7ienna on ,ar0* L, 19!:. "'mage5 M Bettmann#$%&B'()

Munich Bonference F Anne?ation of 'u"etenlan" an" B>echoslo%a7ia ; 'e&tember 1 C5

Britis* Prime ,inister Neville $*amberlain "le2t) s*akes *ands wit* .dol2 ?itler in ,uni0*, Germany in (eptember 19!:.

.dol2 ?itler greets Britis* Prime ,inister Neville $*amberlain at t*e ,uni0* $on2eren0e in ,uni0*, Germany on (eptember 9, 19!:.

0onor rece&tion for -ritish 4rime Minister @e%ille Bhamberlain, u&on his arri%al at Jberwiesenfel" air&ort on 'e&tember 25, 1 C5, on the way to a meeting with A"olf 0itler o%er the latterNs threats to in%a"e B>echoslo%a7ia$ Kisible are German &olitician Gauleiter /arl Fiehler !1 CC61 4D# !at left, in brown uniform an" glasses#, Gauleiter A"olf Wagner !15 H61 44# !brown uniform, foregroun"#, German 'A6Jbergru&&enfUhrer Fran> Ritter %on .&& !15*561 4:# !o%er WagnerNs left shoul"er#, an" -ritish 4rime Minister @e%ille Bhamberlain$ !4hotoE 0ugo JaegerGTime F 2ife 4icturesGGetty )mages#

-ritish 4rime Minister @e%ille Bhamberlain !front row, secon" right# wal7s &ast a @a>i honor guar" on the way to a meeting with A"olf 0itler on 'e&tember 25, 1 C5$ !4ictureE 0ugo Jaeger$GTime F 2ife 4icturesGGetty )mages#

-ritish 4rime Minister @e%ille Bhamberlain %isits Munich, Germany in 'e&tember 1 C5$ !4hotoE 0ugo Jaeger G 2)F.#

-ritish 4rime Minister @e%ille Bhamberlain !center# an" @a>i German Foreign Minister %on Ribbentro& !secon" from right# con%erse at Munich on 'e&tember 1*, 1 C5$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# htt&EGGwww$euro&a6uni%ersalis$comGforumGshowthrea"$&h&Mt[4D24*CF&age[C

Britis* Prime ,inister Neville $*amberlain "le2t) meets wit* .dol2 ?itler at t*e ,uni0* $on2eren0e in (eptember 19!:.

Bad Godesberg @ Preparation o2 t*e ,uni0* .greement> .dol2 ?itler "0enter) meets wit* Neville $*amberlain "rig*t) and /oa0*im von &ibbentrop "le2t) in (eptember 19!:. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives) *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot.0om#sear0*#label#,]$!]B$ni0*] C$on2eren0e

Bad Godesberg .@ Preparation o2 t*e ,uni0* .greement, ?itler led Prime ,inister $*amberlain a2ter t*e nig*tly talks in t*e ?otel Dreesen, 0enter5 'nterpreting Paul %tto Gustav (0*midt, 2ollowed by +oreign ,inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot.0om#sear0*#label#,]$!]B$ni0*] C$on2eren0e

+rom le2t to rig*t5 Na8i GermanyAs +oreign ,inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop, Britis* Prime ,inister Neville $*amberlain, and .dol2 ?itler 0onverse at t*e ,uni0* $on2eren0e # ,uni0* .greement in ,uni0*, Germany on 9@!C (eptember 19!:. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives) *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot.0om#sear0*#label#,]$!]B$ni0*] C$on2eren0e

Na8i GermanyAs +ield ,ars*al ?ermann Goering "le2t) smiles as 'talyAs 2as0ist di0tator Benito ,ussolini s*akes *ands wit* Great BritainAs Prime ,inister Neville $*amberlain in ,uni0*, Germany on (eptember !C, 19!: as leaders 2rom 'taly, Germany, -ngland, and +ran0e gat*er a2ter t*e signing o2 t*e ,uni0* .greement w*i0* allowed Na8i German anne6ation o2 t*e (udetenland "$8e0*oslovakia). "?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'()

'talyAs Prime ,inister Benito ,ussolini, GermanyAs $*an0ellor .dol2 ?itler, and Britis* Prime ,inister $*amberlain appear at t*e ,uni0* $on2eren0e in ,uni0*, Germany on (eptember 9, 19!:. 3*e man between ?itler and $*amberlain was ?itlerGs interpreter Paul %tto Gustav (0*midt. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ive)

B>echoslo%a7 sol"iers a&&ear in /r`sn` 2h&a, B>echoslo%a7ia, a bor"er town near Germany in 'e&tember6Jctober 1 C5$

Parti0ipants stand toget*er at t*e ,uni0* $on2eren0e in ,uni0*, Germany on (eptember 9, 19!:. Britis* Prime ,inister Neville $*amberlain, +ren0* Prime ,inister -douard Daladier, 'talyAs di0tator Benito ,ussolini, and .dol2 ?itler 0on0luded agreements aut*ori8ing t*e Na8i German anne6ation o2 t*e (udeten area o2 $8e0*oslovakian territory. +rom le2t to rig*t5 $*amberlain, Daladier, ?itler, ,ussolini and t*e +oreign ,inister o2 'taly $ount Galea88o $iano. 'n t*e ba0kground, von &ibbentrop and von Wei8sY0ker. "P*oto5 *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot.0om#sear0*#label#,]$!]B$ni0*] C$on2eren0e)

Le2t5 Britis* Prime ,inister Neville $*amberlain talks to 'talyAs 2as0ist di0tator Benito ,ussolini w*ile .dol2 ?itler signs a treaty. &ig*t5 Britis* Prime ,inister Neville $*amberlain waves to t*e 0rowd at ?eston .irport near London on (eptember !C, 19!: and announ0es, SPea0e in our 3imeT, a2ter returning 2rom signing t*e ,uni0* .greement t*e previous day.

.dol2 ?itler " nd rig*t) and Benito ,ussolini "rig*t) walk toget*er in ,uni0*, Germany on (eptember 9, 19!:. %n t*e 2ar le2t are ?einri0* ?immler and ?ermann Goering. +oreign ,inister o2 'taly $ount Galea88o $iano is at 0enter, between Goering and ?itler. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

People o2 $*eb, $8e0*oslovakia salute t*e Na8i German troops entering t*e town during t*e S.ns0*luss o2 t*e (udetenlandT in %0tober 19!:. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

.dol2 ?itler and ?ermann Goering lead a vi0tory pro0ession t*roug* a $8e0*oslovakian 0ity in t*e (udetenland on %0tober 1C, 19!: a2ter t*e (udetenland was 0eded to t*e Na8is by Britis* Prime ,inister Neville $*amberlain. "'mage5 M $%&B'()

.dol2 ?itler and ?ermann Goering meets wit* $8e0*oslovakiaAs President -mil ?a0*a "se0ond 2rom le2t) in Berlin, Germany in ,ar0* 19!9. -mil ?a0*a be0ame t*e SPresidentT o2 t*e German Prote0torate o2 Bo*emia and ,oravia 2rom ,ar0* 14, 19!9 to ,ay 9, 19D4, w*en *e was arrested by t*e (oviet &ed .rmy during its liberation o2 Prague. -mil ?a0*a was reported to *ave su22ered a *eart atta0k during *is meeting wit* ?itler. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

3*e Na8i German .rmy enters Prague, $8e0*oslovakia wit* a pro0ession o2 motor0y0les in ,ar0* 19!9, several mont*s prior to t*e 0ommen0ement o2 t*e -uropean War Elater World War ''F. "P*oto5 M $%&B'()

'hoc7e" an" angry B>echs react to the @a>i German ta7eo%er of B>echoslo%a7ia an" its ca&ital city 4rague on March 1D, 1 C $

.dol2 ?itler "0enter), di0tator o2 Na8i Germany, inspe0ts *is soldiers during *is visit to Prague $astle in Prague, $8e0*oslovakia on ,ar0* 14, 19!9 a2ter t*e establis*ment o2 German Prote0torate o2 Bo*emia and ,oravia. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

.2ter installing *imsel2 in ?rad0any $astle, residen0e o2 t*e old Bo*emian kings and o2 t*e $8e0*oslovak presidents, $*an0ellor .dol2 ?itler was greeted by leaders o2 t*e German 0olony in Prague, $8e0*oslovakia on ,ar0* !, 19!9. ?itler "0enter, 2a0ing 0amera) is s*own being wel0omed by *is 2ollowers. .t 2ar le2t is (enior Group Leader &ein*ard ?eydri0*, and beside *im "wearing spe0ta0les) is ?einri0* ?immler, t*e *ead o2 t*e (( Guards and t*e Gestapo, t*e Na8i German se0ret poli0e. "P*oto5 M Bettmann#$%&B'()

4olitical AssassinationsE
/ristallnacht !@o%ember , 1 C5# F -eer 0all -ombing !@o%ember 5, 1 C #

/ewis*@owned s*ops were vandali8ed in ,agdeburg, Germany on t*e nig*t o2 November 9, 19!: during t*e S&ei0*skristallna0*tT ";ristallna0*t), also known as SNig*t o2 t*e Broken GlassT. .t least 91 /ews were killed and many stores and synagogues were vandali8ed. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

Lone $unman or ,ats J -rnst vom &at* "le2t), a Na8i German diplomat w*o worked at t*e Na8i German -mbassy in Paris, +ran0e in November 19!:, was assassinated in Paris on November :, 19!: by a lone gunman R a 11@year@old /ewis* SpatsyT named ?ers0*el Gryns8pan "rig*t), a /ewis* ZmigrZ and illegal alien w*o was born in ?anover, Germany. 3*e ;ristallna0*t was t*e Na8i German governmentAs response to t*e assassination. ?ers0*el Gryns8pan entered +ran0e illegally 2rom Belgium in (eptember 19!L w*ile possessing a Polis* passport. -rnst vom &at* allegedly *ad a *omose6ual relations*ip wit* ?ers0*el Gryns8pan.

Na8i German military o22i0ers and (( o22i0ers es0ort /ewis* men during t*e ;ristallna0*t, w*i0* took pla0e on November 9@1C, 19!:.

4risoners stan" in line insi"e a concentration cam& at 'achsenhausen, Germany on +ecember 1 , 1 C5$ !@ational Archi%es#

Na8i German guards keep a 0lose eye on prisoners at Da0*au $on0entration $amp near ,uni0*, Germany on /une :, 19!:. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

Jewish &ersecution begins in Austria as Jews are ma"e to scrub &ro6Austrian slogans from streets in March 1 C5$ !+ocumentation Benter of Austrian Resistance#

The @ew Aor7 Times article on the /ristallnacht

German workers e6amine t*e destroyed Beer ?all in ,uni0* on November 9, 19!9 a2ter t*e assassination attempt on ?itler. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives) %n t*e evening o2 November :, 19!9, a bomb e6ploded in ,uni0*As Brgerbr9ukeller

<Biti>ens, -eer 0all= "uring a celebration mar7ing the 1*th anni%ersary of 0itlerNs -eer 0all 4utsch$ 'e%eral &eo&le were 7ille" or inLure"$ 0itler himself was not hurt$ 0e ha" left the e%ent a few minutes earlier than &lanne"$ Georg .lsner, the &er&etrator of the attac7, e9ui&&e" the bomb with a timer an" &lace" it behin" the s&ea7er,s lectern in a &illar that he s&ent wee7s hollowing out$ .lsner ha" been lin7e" to a few Bommunist organi>ations in the 1 2Hs, but was acting alone in this instance$ -y assassinating 0itler, he ho&e" not only to 7ill one man but to "estroy the entire @a>i regime, a "ictatorshi& he ha" strongly o&&ose" for years on &olitical an" moral groun"s$ .lsner was arreste" that %ery same e%ening an" &ut into O&rotecti%e custo"y$O 0e was shot to "eath in +achau on A&ril , 1 4D$ -y then, 0itler ha" sur%i%e" a series of assassination attem&ts, mainly by lone in"i%i"uals$ @a>i &ro&agan"a e?&loite" these attem&ts by &resenting them as e%i"ence of 0itlerNs enLoyment of "i%ine &rotection$
"(our0e5 *ttp5##german*istorydo0s.g*^image.02mQimage^id\19!C)

%ohann Georg lser -%anuary G6 475>D.#ril 76 47GN0 was a German o&&onent of @a>ism who attem&te" to assassinate A"olf 0itler an" his entourage with a homema"e bomb &lante" insi"e the -UrgerbrQu7eller in Munich on the night of @o%ember 5, 1 C , "uring the 1*th anni%ersary of the -eer 0all 4utsch$ .lser was shot "ea" in the +achau Boncentration Bam& near Munich on A&ril , 1 4D$

0einrich MUller is at the e?treme right in this @o%ember 2:, 1 C &hotogra&h, a&&arently ta7en for &ro&agan"a &ur&oses$ 'hown from left to right are a minor '' functionary !0uber#, an" then four of the &eo&le most res&onsible for the 0olocaustE Arthur @ebe, 0einrich 0immler, Reinhar"t 0ey"rich an" MUller himself$ Accor"ing to the a&&arently 1 C archi%al ca&tion, these men are &lanning the in%estigation of the bomb assassination attem&t on A"olf 0itler that occurre" in Munich on @o%ember 5, 1 C $ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# A+@6T-6Archi% +er ReichsfUhrer '' 0einrich 0immler bes&richt <in MUnchen= mit "em Bhef "er 'icherheits&oli>ei Reinhar" 0ey"rich un" "essen Mitarbeitern "as bisherige .rmittlungsergebnis Uber "en -ombenanschlag im -UrgerbrQu7eller in MUnchen am 5$11$1 C un" legt "ie Grun"linien fUr "ie weitere -earbeitung fest$ (->E %$l$n$r$E ''6JbersturmbannfUhrer 0uber, ''6JberfUhrer <Arthur= @ebe, ReichsfUhrer6'' 0einrich 0immler, ''6Gru&&enfUhrer Reinhar" 0ey"rich un" ''6JberfUhrer <0einrich= MUller 2:$11$1 C <0erausgabe"atum= !'ourceE Wi7i&e"iaGGerman Fe"eral Archi%es#

)oun#il on ;oreign Relations %em2ers and Aheir 4##u'ation during Ans#hluss *%ar#h 1!, 1935+ and Kristallna#ht *Novem2er 9, 1935+
Name Ban(ersB George L. ?arrison .llan (proul 3*omas W. Lamont &ussell $. Le22ingwell George W*itney ?enry P. Davison /r. 3*omas (. Lamont ?enry (. ,organ ?arold (tanley -lis*a Walker +rederi0k ,. Warburg /o*n ,. (0*i22 +rank .lts0*ul Wint*rop W. .ldri0* ?. Donald $ampbell (*epard ,organ /ames ?. Perkins Gordon (. &ents0*ler +. .bbot Good*ue .rtemus L. Gates W. .verell ?arriman -. &oland ?arriman &obert .. Lovett /o*n L. (impson /ules (. Ba0*e Pierre /ay $*arles Gates Dawes .llan ,. Pope BusinessmenB %wen D. =oung ,ember "=ear) 19 9@194! 19!4@1944 19 1@19D1 19 1@1949 19 1@19!9 19 :@19DC 19!1@19LL 19 :@19:1 19 4@1949 19 1@194C 19!!@191C 19!:@19:L 19 1@191! 19 1@191! 19!L@19L: 19! @19L! 19 1,19 L@19DC 19!C@19D1 19 4@19DC 19 9@19DC 19 !@19:L 19!!@19L9 19 1@19!1, 19!:@19DC 19 1@191 19 1@19! , 19!D@19DD 19!1@19DC, 19D4@19D1 19 :@194C 19!!@19D1 19 1@19DC Primary %00upation President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) +irst 7i0e President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!L@19DC) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1911@19D:) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 !@194C) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 C@1944) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 9@19DC) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 9@19DC) $o@+ounder o2 ,organ, (tanley < $o. "19!4@Q)> Dire0tor, General -le0tri0 $o. "19!D@19: ) $o@+ounder and President o2 ,organ, (tanley < $o. "19!4@19D1) Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!!@194C) Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@191!) Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@1911) Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19D4) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $*ase National Bank "19!D@194!) President o2 $*ase National Bank "19!D@19DL) 7i0e President o2 $*ase National Bank "19!C@19D9) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19!!@19DC) President o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 9@19DC) President o2 Bank o2 ,an*attan "19!1@19D:) President o2 New =ork 3rust $o. "19 9@19D1) Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DL) Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191:) Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DC, 19DL@19D1, 19D9@194C, 194!@19:L) -6e0utive 7i0e President o2 /. ?enry (0*roeder Banking $orp. "19 4@1941) ?ead o2 /.(. Ba0*e < $o. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9 @19DD) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) $*airman o2 t*e board, $ity National Bank < 3rust $o. E$*i0agoF "19! @1941) President o2 3*e +irst o2 Boston $orporation EbankF "19!D@19D1) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $o. "19 @19!9, 19D @19DD) $lass $ Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 L@19DC) $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!:@19DC) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 :@19!9) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DC) President o2 General -le0tri0 $o. "19 @19DC, 19D @19D4) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 9@194 ) President o2 'nternational Business ,a0*ines $orp. "191D@19D9) $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!!@19DC) President o2 .meri0an 3elep*one and 3elegrap* $o. E.3<3F "19 4@19D:) 7i0e President o2 .meri0an 3elep*one and 3elegrap* $o. E.3<3F "19 1@19D1) President o2 Baltimore < %*io &ailroad $o. "191C@19D1) President o2 Pan .meri0an World .irways, 'n0. "19 1@19LD) President o2 Bet*le*em (teel $orp. "191L@19D4) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 9nited (tates (teel $orp. "19! @19!:) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $orning Glass Works "191:@19D1) (enior Partner o2 Pri0e, Water*ouse < $o. publi0 a00ountants "1911@19L1) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@194!) President o2 General ,otors -6port $o. "19 !@0.19DC) 7i0e President in 0*arge o2 overseas operations, General ,otors $orp. "19 !@0.19DC) Note5 ,ooney met wit* ?itler on ,ar0* D, 19DC and wit* Goering on ,ar0* 1, 19DC ,ember o2 Guggen*eim Brot*ers Emining 0ompanyF> Dire0tor o2 9ta* $opper $ompany> Dire0tor o2 =ukon Gold $ompany $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General ,otors $orp. "19!1@194L) 7i0e $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General ,otors $orp. "19!1@19DL) 7i0e President o2 $*rysler $orp. "19 4@194!) 3reasurer o2 &.?. ,a0y < $o. E,a0yAs department storeF "19!D@19D4) Deputy $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!:@19DC) (e0retary o2 &.?. ,a0y < $o. E,a0yAs department storeF "19!!@19D1) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 4@194L) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 L@19LC) ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19 1@1944)

Gerard (wope 3*omas /. Watson Walter (. Gi22ord .rt*ur W. Page Daniel Willard /uan 3erry 3rippe -ugene G. Gra0e ,yron $. 3aylor .lanson B. ?oug*ton George %. ,ay /ames D. ,ooney (olomon &. Guggen*eim .l2red P. (loan /r. Donaldson Brown B. -dwin ?ut0*inson Beardsley &uml &alp* '. (traus (ost*enes Be*n $leveland -. Dodge Attorne sB /o*n W. Davis

19 D@194C 19 D@1944 19 :@19L4 19! @1949 19!C@19DC 19!!@191L 19 4@194: 19 4@194: 19!C@19DC 19 D@19LC 19!1@19DC, 19DL@194L 19 :@19D9 19!!@19L4 19!!@19DL 19 1@19LC 19 1@1949 19!D@199 19!C@194! 19!1@19: 19 1@1944

+rank L. Polk .llen Wardwell &alp* ,. $arson /o*n +oster Dulles -usta0e (eligman .llen W. Dulles -li W*itney Debevoise +ran0is 3.P. Plimpton Bronson Wint*rop George &oberts .llen 3. ;lots ?enry L. (timson +rederi0 &. $oudert 3*omas ;. +inletter ?enry Waters 3a2t (evero ,allet@Prevost 3*omas D. 3*a0*er ?enry de +orest Baldwin &oland L. &edmond 3*omas ,. Debevoise George &ublee ?arvey Bundy Ni0*olas ;elley )or'orate %ediaB William (. Paley -ugene ,eyer .rt*ur ?ays (ul8berger /o*n ?. +inley /ames G. ,0Donald ?enry &. Lu0e Geo22rey Parsons George B. Parker David Lawren0e $ass $an2ield ?amilton +is* .rmstrong -dward &. ,urrow 4rgani.ationsB &aymond B. +osdi0k Norman ?. Davis George ?. Blakeslee +rederi0k P. ;eppel -dward $. $arter /ames Brown (0ott (tep*en P. Duggan /erome D. Greene /o*n D. &o0ke2eller ''' W*itney ?. (*epardson Paul D. $ravat* Walter ?. ,allory .. Lawren0e Lowell ?arry .. Gar2ield Bru0e $. ?opper )ollege ,rofessorsB $*arles (eymour /ames B. $onant ?arold W. Dodds ?enry ,. Wriston -rnest ,. ?opkins /o*n (tewart Bryan 'saia* Bowman -dmund -. Day ?arry Woodburn $*ase &ay Lyman Wilbur (tanley ;ing

19 1@19D! 19 1@194! 19!:@19L9 19 1@1949 19 L@191L 19 1@19L9 19!4@19:9 19!!@19:! 19! @19DD 19! @19L1 19!D@19LD 19 D@19 9, 19!D@194C 19 1@19DC 19!4@1919 19 1@19DC 19 1@19D: 19!4@194C 19 :@19D1 19 D@19L! 19! @194: 19 4@1941 19!D@19L 19 D@19L4 19!L@19:9 19!C@194: 19 1@19L: 19 1@19DC 19 1@19L! 19!D@19LL 19 4@194! 19 9@19DC 19!1@191C 19 !@19:4 19 1@191 19!D@19LD 19 19 19 19 19 19 1@1911 1@19DD D@194! L@19D 1@194D 1@19DC

,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "191D@19D!) ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19C9@194!) ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19!4@1911) ,ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "1911@19D9) ,ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "19 !@191L) ,ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "19 L@1941) Partner o2 Debevoise < Plimpton Elaw 2irmF "19!1@199C) Partner o2 Debevoise < Plimpton Elaw 2irmF "19!!@19L1, 19L4@19:!) ,ember o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irmF "Q@19DD) Partner o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irmF "191D@19L:) ,ember o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irmF "19 1@19L4) $ounsel o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irmF "1:91@19CL, 191!@19 1, 19!!@ 19DC, 19D4@194C)> 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate "19 9@19!!) ,ember o2 $oudert Brot*ers Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:94@1944) Partner o2 $oudert Brot*ers Elaw 2irmF "19 L@19D1, 19DD@194C, 194!@19L1) ,ember o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "1:99@19D4) ,ember o2 $urtis, ,allet@Prevost < $olt Elaw 2irmF "1:91@19D:) Partner o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett Elaw 2irmF "191D@19 4, 19!!@19D!) ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord Elaw 2irmF "19CC@19D1) ,ember o2 $arter, Ledyard < ,ilburn Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 4@1944) Wall (treet lawyer> dire0tor o2 $*ase National Bank ,ember o2 $ovington, Burling < &ublee Elaw 2irm in Was*ington, D.$.F "19 1@0.19DL) ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19!!@19D1, 19D4@19L!) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!D@19L!) 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 $*rysler $orp. "19!1@1941) President o2 $olumbia Broad0asting (ystem E$B(F "19 :@19DL) Publis*er o2 The Washington Post "19!!@19DL) Publis*er o2 The New Yor Times "19!4@19L1) .sso0iate -ditor "19 1@19!1) and -ditor@in@$*ie2 "19!1@19!:) o2 t*e New Yor Times ,ember o2 t*e editorial sta22 o2 t*e New Yor Times "19!L@19!:) -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD) $*ie2 -ditorial Writer 2or New =ork ?erald@3ribune "19 D@194 ) -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 (0ripps@?oward Newspapers ENew =ork $ityF "19 1@19D9) President and -ditor o2 9nited (tates News Enewspaper in Was*ington, D.$.F "19!!@19D:) President o2 ?arper < Brot*ers Elater ?arper < &owF "19!1@19D4) -ditor o2 #oreign $ffairs maga8ine "19 :@191 ) $B( Journalist "19!4@19L1) President o2 3*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19!L@19D:) President o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19!L@19DD) President o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!C@19DL) President o2 $arnegie $orporation o2 New =ork "19 !@19D1) (e0retary General o2 t*e 'nstitute o2 Pa0i2i0 &elations "19!!@19DL) (e0retary o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19DC) President o2 3*e .meri0an (o0iety o2 'nternational Law "19 9@19!9) Dire0tor o2 'nstitute o2 'nternational -du0ation "1919@19DL)> 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19 C@19D1)> Dire0tor o2 t*e National $ommittee 2or ,ental ?ygiene 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "191!@1911, 19 :@19!9)> 3rustee o2 t*e General -du0ation Board "191 @19!9)> 3rustee o2 t*e Brookings 'nstitution "19 :@19D4) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19! @1911)> 3rustee o2 Prin0eton 9niv. "19!1@19L1) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19LL) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DC) -6e0utive Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@1949) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "191C@19D ) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!C@19D ) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!1@19L9) President o2 =ale 9niversity "19!1@194C) President o2 ?arvard 9niversity "19!!@194!) President o2 Prin0eton 9niversity "19!!@1941) President o2 Brown 9niversity "19!1@1944) President o2 Dartmout* $ollege "191L@19D4) President o2 $ollege o2 William and ,ary "19!D@19D ) President o2 /o*ns ?opkins 9niversity "19!4@19D:) President o2 $ornell 9niversity "19!1@19D9) President o2 New =ork 9niversity "19!!@1941) President o2 (tan2ord 9niversity "191L@19D!) President o2 .m*erst $ollege "19! @19DL)

19 1@194C 19 1@194C 19!1@191: 19 1@19LL 19 1@19DC 19 :@1919 19 4@19D 19 1@19D 19!C@191 19 1@19L1 19!D@191L 19!D@19L: 19 L@191: 19!C@194! 19!!@19DC 19 1@194C 19! @19DD 19!:@194C 19 9@19D: 19!D@194C

/ames P. Ba6ter ''' ;ennet* $.,. (ills +rank .ydelotte William .. Neilson ;arl 3. $ompton Walla0e Brett Don*am /o*n ?. Williams .. Wellington 3aylor ?al2ord L. ?oskins (amuel ,0$une Lindsay Wesley $. ,it0*ell $arlton /.?. ?ayes $*arles $*eney ?yde Lindsay &ogers &obert L. (0*uyler P*ilip $. /essup (r. Leo Wolman ?uger W. /ervey ,anley %. ?udson William L. Langer Oe0*aria* $*a2ee /r. $laren0e ?. ?aring +eli6 +rank2urter -dwin ,. Bor0*ard -dwin W. ;emmerer Walter W. ,0Laren Bernadotte -. (0*mitt (amuel N. ?arper /esse (. &eeves &oland (. ,orris $overnment 4ffi#ialsB $*arles -vans ?ug*es Learned ?and William $lark (umner Welles George (. ,essersmit* G. ?owland (*aw Lauren0e Duggan ?erbert +eis (tanley ;. ?ornbe0k /osep* $. Grew William P*illips /o*n 7an .. ,a0,urray Leland ?arrison Lin0oln ,a07eag* William $. Bullitt ?ug* Gibson Wilbur /. $arr .rt*ur Bliss Lane /o*n $uda*y .le6ander W. Weddell Norman .rmour .dm. .rt*ur /. ?epburn & $lark Woodward /. Wilson +urness ?eber &. ?arper ?erbert ?. Le*man Elder "tatesmenB ?erbert ?oover +rederi0 ,. (a0kett William -. Dodd ?enry ,orgent*au (r. .bram '. -lkus W. $ameron +orbes .dm. William ?. (tandley

19!:@1911 19!:@194! 19!:@194D 19 1@19DL 19!L@194! 19!!@194D 19!D@191 19 1@19DL 19!:@19LL 19 1@19!9 19 D@19D: 19 4@1941 19 L@1941 19 1@191C 19 :@19D9 19 :@19:1 19!D@194: 19!:@19D: 19 1@194L 19 1@1911 19 :@194L 19!1@194D 19! @19LD 19 L@194C 19 1@19D4 19 L@194D 19 1@194! 19 9@19D 19!1@19DC 19 1@19! , 19!:@19D4 19!C@19DL 19 4@19DD 19 L@19DC 19!D@1949 19!:@1949 19!:@19L4 19!1@19D: 19!C@1911 19! @19LL 19 :@1949 19!1@19L1 19!1@1949 19!4@194C 19!4@1911 19!L@194D 19 1@194D 19!:@19DC 19!L@1944 19!L@19!9 19!4@19DD 19!:@1911 19!D@1941 19!:@194: 19!D@19DC 19! @19DC 19 1@19L! 19!:@19L 19!D@19DC 19!L@19!9 19 1@19DC 19 1@19D1 19!C@1949 19!:@19D1

President o2 Williams $ollege "19!1@19L1) President o2 Bowdoin $ollege "191:@194 ) President o2 (wart*more $ollege "19 1@19DC)> 3rustee, World Pea0e +oundation "19 1@4L) President o2 (mit* $ollege "1911@19!9) President o2 ,assa0*usetts 'nstitute o2 3e0*nology "19!C@19D:) Dean o2 ?arvard Business (0*ool "1919@19D ) Dean o2 Graduate (0*ool o2 Publi0 .dministration at ?arvard 9niversity "19!1@19D1) 7i0e President o2 +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!L@19D1) Dean o2 Graduate (0*ool o2 Business .dministration at New =ork 9niversity "1919@19DD) Dean o2 +let0*er (0*ool o2 Law and Diploma0y at 3u2ts 9niversity "19!!@19DD) Pro2essor o2 (o0ial Legislation at $olumbia 9niversity "19C1@19!9) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at $olumbia 9niversity "191D@1919, 19 @19DD) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at $olumbia 9niversity "1919@194C) ?amilton +is* Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law and Diploma0y, $olumbia 9niv. "19 4@19D4) Burgess Pro2essor o2 Publi0 Law at $olumbia 9niversity "19 9@1949) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at $olumbia 9niversity "19 D@1941) Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at $olumbia 9niversity "19!D@19DL) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at $olumbia 9niversity "19!1@194:) Pro2essor o2 Law at $olumbia 9niversity Law (0*ool "19 D@19D9) Bemis Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at ?arvard Law (0*ool "19 !@19LC) $oolidge Pro2essor o2 ?istory at ?arvard 9niversity "19!L@19LD) Pro2essor o2 Law at ?arvard 9niversity "1919@194L) Pro2essor o2 Latin .meri0an ?istory and -0onomi0s at ?arvard 9niversity "19 !@194!) Byrne Pro2essor o2 .dministrative Law at ?arvard 9niversity "191D@1911, 19 C@19!9) Pro2essor o2 Law at =ale Law (0*ool "1911@1941) Walker Pro2essor o2 'nternational +inan0e at Prin0eton 9niversity "19 :@19D!) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at Williams $ollege "191D@19D4) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at t*e 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19 4@19DL) Pro2essor o2 &ussian Language and 'nstitutions at 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19CL@19D!) W.W. $ook Pro2essor o2 .meri0an 'nstitutions at 9niversity o2 ,i0*igan "19!1@19D ) ,ember o2 Duane, ,orris < ?e0ks0*er Elaw 2irm in P*iladelp*iaF "19CD@19D4) Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "19 D@19D4) $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e 9.(. (upreme $ourt "19!C@19D1) /udge o2 t*e 9.(. $ourt o2 .ppeals 2or t*e (e0ond $ir0uit ENew =ork $ityF "19 D@1941) /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or New /ersey "De0ember 11, 19 4@/une 4, 19!:) /udge o2 t*e 9.(. $ourt o2 .ppeals 2or t*e 3*ird $ir0uit "/une 4, 19!:@,ar0* D, 19D!) 9nder (e0retary o2 (tate "19!1@19D!) .ssistant (e0retary o2 (tate "19!1@19DC) $*ie2 o2 t*e Division o2 +oreign (ervi0e Personnel E(tate DepartmentF "19!1@19D1) (tate Department $*ie2 o2 Division o2 t*e .meri0an &epubli0s "19!4@19DD) (tate Department .dviser on 'nternational -0onomi0 .22airs "19!1@19D!) (tate Department .dviser on Politi0al &elations "19!1@19D!) 9.(. .mbassador to 'mperial /apan "19! @19D1) 9.(. .mbassador to +as0ist 'taly "19!L@19D1) 9.(. .mbassador to 3urkey "19!L@19D1) 9.(. ,inister to (wit8erland "19!1@19D1) 9.(. ,inister to Gree0e "19!!@19D1, 19D!@19D1) 9.(. .mbassador to +ran0e "19!L@19DC) 9.(. .mbassador to Belgium ",ay 9, 19 1@/une 11, 19!!, /uly :, 19!1@/une 14, 19!:) 9.(. ,inister to $8e0*oslovakia "19!1@19!9) 9.(. ,inister to =ugoslavia "19!1@19D1) 9.(. ,inister to 'reland "19!1@19DC) 9.(. .mbassador to .rgentina "(eptember 1:, 19!!@%0tober 9, 19!:) 9.(. .mbassador to $*ile ".pril 1, 19!:@/une 1C, 19!9) $ommander@in@$*ie2 o2 t*e 9nited (tates +leet "19!L@19!:)> $ommandant o2 1 t* Naval Distri0t E(an +ran0is0oF "19!:@19D1) $ommandant o2 Brooklyn Navy =ard "19!1@19D1) $*ie2 o2 -0onomi0s Bureau, 9.(. Bureau o2 ,ines "19!D@19DC) &egional dire0tor, (o0ial (e0urity Board "19!L@19D:) Governor o2 New =ork "/anuary 1, 19!!@De0ember !, 19D ) President o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19 9@19!!) 9.(. .mbassador to Germany "+ebruary 1 , 19!C@,ar0* D, 19!!) 9.(. .mbassador to Na8i Germany "19!!@19!1) 9.(. .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "191!@191L) 9.(. .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "191L@1911) 9.(. .mbassador to 'mperial /apan "(eptember 14, 19!C@ ,ar0* , 19! ) $*ie2 o2 Naval %perations "19!!@19!1)

=ale 9niversity Graduates and 3*eir %00upation during .ns0*luss ",ar0* 1 , 19!:) and ;ristallna0*t "November 9, 19!:) Government %22i0ials5 [?ug* &. Wilson "B... 19CL, (<B 19CL) R 9.(. .mbassador to Na8i Germany ",ar0* !, 19!:@November 1L, 19!:) William $*ristian Bullitt "B... 191 , (<; 191 ) R 9.(. .mbassador to +ran0e "19!L@19DC) .rt*ur Bliss Lane "B... 191L) R 9.(. ,inister to =ugoslavia "19!1@19D1) $*arles ,ontgomery ?at*away /r. "B... 1:99, ,... 19C1, P*.D. 19C ) R 9.(. $onsul General in ,uni0*, Germany "19 1@19!:) .le6ander $. ;irk "B... 19C9) R 9.(. $onsul General in ,os0ow, (oviet 9nion "19!:@19!9) George ;. Donald "B... 191 ) R 9.(. $onsul General in (out*ampton, -ngland "19!1@19D1) ?oward Donovan "P*.B. 19 C) R 9.(. $onsul in ?ong ;ong "19!L@19!9) ?omer (. $ummings "P*.B. 1:91, LL.B. 1:9!) R 9.(. .ttorney General "19!!@19!9) /o*n W. ?anes "B... 1914, (<; 1914) R $ommissioner, (e0urities and -60*ange $ommission "19!:)> .sst. (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19!:) [Wayne $*at2ield@3aylor "B... 191L, (<; 191L) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19!L@19!9) -dward /o*n Noble "B... 19C4) R $*airman o2 $ivil .eronauti0s .ut*ority "19!:@19!9) /ames Lawren0e ?oug*teling "B... 19C4) R 9.(. $ommissioner o2 'mmigration and Naturali8ation "19!1@19DC) .lva B. .dams "B... 1:9L) R 9.(. (enator "Demo0rat@$olorado, 19 !@19 D, 19! @19D1) /o*n 3aber "B... 19C ) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@New =ork, 19 !@19L!) /ames Wol0ott Wadswort* /r. "B... 1:9:, (<B 1:9:) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@New =ork, 19!!@1941) /o*n /osep* (mit* "B... 19 4, LL.B. 19 1) R 9.(. $ongressman "Demo0rat@$onne0ti0ut, /anuary !, 19!4@November D, 19D1) /ames .ndrew (*anley "B... 19 C) R 9.(. $ongressman "Demo0rat@$onne0ti0ut, 19!4@19D!) .l2red N. P*illips "B... 1911) R 9.(. $ongressman "Demo0rat@$onne0ti0ut, 19!1@19!9) ?ora0e /eremia* "/erry) 7oor*is "B... 19 !) R 9.(. $ongressman "Demo0rat@$ali2ornia, 19!1@19D1) (tanley +. &eed "B... 19CL) R /usti0e o2 t*e 9.(. (upreme $ourt "/anuary 1, 19!:@+ebruary 4, 1941) 3*omas Walter (wan "B... 19CC) R /udge o2 9.(. $ourt o2 .ppeals 2or t*e (e0ond $ir0uit ENew =ork $ityF "19 L@194!) /o*n ,unro Woolsey "B... 1:9:, (<; 1:9:) R /udge o2 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e (out*ern Distri0t o2 New =ork "19 9@19D!) .l2red $onkling $o6e /r. "B... 19C1) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e (out*ern Distri0t o2 New =ork "19 9@1941) $arroll $lark ?in0ks "B... 1911) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 $onne0ti0ut "19!1@194!) /o*n +oster (ymes "P*.B. 19CC) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 $olorado "19 @194C) William /osia* 3ilson "B... 1:9D) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. $ustoms $ourt "19 :@19D9) Wilbur L. $ross "B... 1::4, P*.D. 1::9) R Governor o2 $onne0ti0ut "19!1@19!9) $*arles Brown (ears "B... 1:9 , (<; 1:9 ) R Presiding /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New =ork "19 9@19DC) ;ennet* %ABrien "B... 1911) R /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New =ork "19!D@194D) William ,. ,altbie "B... 19C1, LL.B. 19C4) R $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e $onne0ti0ut (upreme $ourt o2 -rrors "19!C@194C) 3*omas Pierrepont ?a8ard "B... 1914) R General 3reasurer o2 t*e (tate o2 &*ode 'sland "19!:@19DC) $*arles P. 3a2t '' "B... 191:> LL.B. 19 1> (<B 191:) R ,ember o2 t*e $in0innati $ity $oun0il "19!:@19D , 19D:@1941, 1944@1911) Bankers5 .l2red -rnest ?amill "B... 19C4) R Partner o2 Goldman, (a0*s < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19! @19D:) [+rank .lts0*ul "B... 19C:) R Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19D4) [&obert Le*man "B... 191!) R Partner o2 Le*man Brot*ers E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 4@19L9) /osep* .lbert 3*omas "B... 19 :, (<; 19 :) R Partner o2 Le*man Brot*ers E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@1911) [-lis*a Walker "B... 19CC) R Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!!@194C) [/o*n ,. (0*i22 "B... 19 4) R Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@1911) +ran0is +it8 &andolp* "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 /<W (eligman < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 !@19DC) [&ussell $. Le22ingwell "B... 1:99) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 !@194C)> Dire0tor o2 $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19LC) [?enry P. Davison /r. "B... 19 C, (<B 19 C) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 9@19DC) [?arold (tanley "B... 19C:, (<B 19C:) R President o2 ,organ, (tanley < $o. "19!4@19D1) -dward ?oward =ork /r. "B... 191 ) R 7i0e President and Partner o2 ,organ, (tanley < $o. "19!4@19D!) 3*a0*er ,. Brown "B... 1:91) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@194D) [&ay ,orris "B... 19C1, (<B 19C1) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@194L) [W. .verell ?arriman "B... 191!, (<B 191!) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DL)> $*airman o2 t*e Board o2 9nion Pa0i2i0 &ailroad $o. "19! @19DL) Pres0ott (. Bus* "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191 ) [-. &oland ?arriman "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191:) [;nig*t Woolley "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19: ) Lauren0e G. 3ig*e "B... 191L, (<B 191L) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19!D) [&obert .. Lovett "B... 191:, (<B 191:) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DC, 19DL@19D1, 19D9@194C, 194!@19:L) [George L. ?arrison "B... 191C, (<B 191C) R President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) Walter (et* Logan "B... 191C, (<B 191C) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@194!) /o*n N. Peyton "P*.B. 19C:) R President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 ,inneapolis "19!L@194 ) (tan2ord 3appan $rapo "B... 1::L, (<B 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "19 @19!:) &oss P. Wrig*t "P*.B. 1:9L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $leveland "1911@19D9) Willard Deere ?os2ord "B... 19CL) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 ;ansas $ity "19!C@1941) .l2red Lawren0e &ipley "B... 1:1:, (<; 1:1:) R $lass . Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 Boston "19 !@19!1)> $*airman o2 t*e board o2 ,er0*ants National Bank o2 Boston "19 9@19D!) [Pierre /ay "B... 1:9 , (<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) ,ortimer Norton Bu0kner "B... 1:94, (<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $o. "19 1@19D )

[.rtemus L. Gates "B... 191:, (<B 191:) R President o2 New =ork 3rust $o. "19 9@19D1) (amuel (loan $olt "B... 191D, (<; 191D) R President o2 Bankers 3rust $o. "19!1@1941) [Boylston .dams 3ompkins "B... 1914, (<; 1914) R 7i0e President o2 Bankers 3rust $o. "19 1@1944) 3*omas Wilson Bowers "B... 191C) R 7i0e President o2 Bank o2 t*e ,an*attan $ompany "19!C@19D ) +rank P. (*epard "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R 7i0e President o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. o2 New =ork "19 9@19!D) &obert /ames Lewis "B... 19 1) R Partner o2 -stabrook < $o. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@19L:) -dward (tarr, /r. "B... 19 , (<; 19 ) R Partner o2 Dre6el < $o. Einvestment bank in P*iladelp*ia "19!1@0.19LL) Wilson Gordon Wing "B... 19C!) R President o2 Providen0e 'nstitution 2or (avings Ebank in Providen0e, &*ode 'slandF "19 @19DD) Wirt Davis "B... 1:91) R $*airman o2 &epubli0 National Bank in Dallas, 3e6as "19!D@19D4) ?enry $*andler ?olt "B... 19C!, (<B 19C!) R 7i0e President o2 $entral ?anover Bank < 3rust $o. ENew =ork $ityF "19 C@19DL) ?arry -. Ward "B... 19C1) R President o2 'rving 3rust $o. "1919@19D ) +ran0is Ward Paine "B... 191C) R ,ember o2 Paine, Webber < $o. Einvestment banking 2irm in BostonF "1919@19DC) Businessmen5 [.l2red L. .iken "B... 1:91) R President o2 New =ork Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. "19!L@19DC) Leroy .. Lin0oln "B... 19C ) R President o2 ,etropolitan Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. "19!L@1941) ,organ B. Brainard "B... 19CC, LL.B. 19C!) R President o2 .etna Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. E?art2ord, $onne0ti0utF "19 @1941) &obert W. ?untington /r. "B... 1::9, (<; 1::9) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $onne0ti0ut General Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. "19!L@19D9) ?enry W*eeler de +orest "B... 1:1L, (<; 1:1L) R ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 3*e Guaranty 3rust $ompany "19C9@19!:) (olomon .lbert (mit* "B... 1:99) R President o2 Nort*ern 3rust $o. o2 $*i0ago "191D@1941) ?. Neil ,allon "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R President o2 Dresser 'ndustries, 'n0. "19 9@194:) [/uan 3erry 3rippe "P*.B. 19 1) R President o2 Pan .meri0an World .irways, 'n0. "19 1@19LD) [W. (tuart (ymington "B... 19 !) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 t*e -merson -le0tri0 ,anu2a0turing $o. "19!:@19D4) George ?erbert Walker /r. "B... 19 1, (<B 19 1) R General Partner o2 G.?. Walker < $o. "19 9@191D) ?oward ?ein8 "B... 19CC) R President o2 ?./. ?ein8 $o. "1919@19D1)> 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "19 L@19D1) .s*bel Barney Newell "B... 1:9C, (<; 1:9C) R President o2 3oledo 3erminal &ailroad $ompany "191D@194C) +rederi0k -. Weyer*aeuser "B... 1:9L, (<B 1:9L) R President o2 Weyer*aeuser 3imber $o. "19!1@19D4) &euben Bu0k &obertson "B... 19CC) R -6e0utive 7i0e President o2 $*ampion Papers, 'n0. "19!4@19DL) ?enry -ldredge Perry "B... 191 ) R 7i0e President o2 $ommer0ial (olvents $orp. ENew =ork $ityF "19!:@19DL) $*arles Lanier Lawran0e "B... 19C4) R +ounder and President o2 Lawran0e .ero -ngine $orp. ENew =ork $ityF "1911@19 !)> President and $*ie2 -ngineer o2 Lawran0e -ngineering < &esear0* $orp. "19!C@19DD) +rank $ourtenay Dodd "B... 1:91) R President o2 Dodd, ,ead < $o., 'n0. Epublis*ing 0ompany in New =ork $ityF "19!1@19D ) /ournalists5 [-ugene ,eyer "B... 1:94) R Publis*er o2 The Washington Post "19!!@19DL) [?enry &. Lu0e "B... 19 C, (<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 3ime, 'n0. "19 !@19LD)> 2ounder o2 Time and Life maga8ines [.r0*ibald ,a0Leis* "B... 1914, (<B 1914) R -ditor o2 #ortune maga8ine "19 9@19!:) William ?. $owles "B... 1::1, (<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL) /osep* ,edill Patterson "B... 19C1, (<; 19C1) R Publis*er o2 New Yor /ail- News "1919@19DL) %gden ,ills &eid "B... 19CD, LL.B. 19C1) R -ditor o2 New Yor (erald Tribune "191!@19D1) George ?enry (oule /r. "B... 19C:) R -ditor o2 The New Republic "19 D@19D1) $*arles Latimer (tillman "B... 19 L) R 3reasurer o2 3ime, 'n0. E3ime maga8ineF "19!C@19LC) Lawyers5 [?enry L. (timson "B... 1:::, (<B 1:::) R $ounsel o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "1:91@19CL, 191!@19 1, 19!!@19DC, 19D4@ 194C)> President o2 t*e New =ork $ity Bar .sso0iation "19!1@19!9) [George &oberts "B... 19C4, LL.B. ?arvard 19C:) R Partner o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "191D@19L:) [.llen 3. ;lots "B... 19C9, (<B 19C9) R ,ember o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "19 1@19L4) ?amilton ?adley "B... 1919, (<B 1919) R Partner o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "19 9@19DC) [?enry De+orest Baldwin "B... 1::4, (<B 1::4) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19CC@19D1) .llen -varts +oster "B... 19CL) R Partner o2 Lord, Day < Lord "1919@0.191C) (*erman Baldwin "B... 1919, (<B 1919) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19 9@19L9) [+rank L. Polk "B... 1:9D, (<; 1:9D) R ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed "191D@19D!)> Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19D!) [.llen Wardwell "B... 1:94, (<; 1:94) R ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed "19C9@194!) %tis 3reat Bradley "B... 1914> LL.B. ?arvard 1919) R Partner o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed "19!C@194C) $*aun0ey Brewster Garver "B... 19C:, (<; 19C:) R Partner o2 (*earman < (terling "1911@191!) [?enry Waters 3a2t "B... 1::C, (<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4) Walbridge (mit* 3a2t "B... 19C1) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1911@1941) Gra*am (umner "B... 1:91, (<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19CD@19DL) Douglas ,a6well ,o22at "B... 19C!, LL.B. ?arvard 19C1) R Partner o2 $ravat*, (waine < ,oore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191!@194L) /ames &o0kwell (*e22ield "B... 1::1, (<; 1::1) R (enior Partner o2 (*e22ield and Betts Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19!:) +rederi0k 3rowbridge ;elsey "B... 19C1) R ,ember o2 Lewis < ;elsey Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191!@19DC) .llen Wardner -varts "B... 1:L9) R ,ember o2 -varts, $*oate < (*erman Eand prede0essor 2irmsF Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:1D@19!9) Louis (. Weiss "B... 1914, LL.B. $olumbia 19 C) R Partner o2 Paul, Weiss, &i2kind, W*arton < Garrison Eand prede0essor 2irmsF "19 1@194C) Dean (age "B... 1:91, (<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (age, Gray, 3odd < (ims Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C4@19D!) Lee /ames Perrin "B... 19CL, (<B 19CL) R Partner o2 .ppleton, Perrin < ?oyt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19DL) -dward Ban0ro2t 3wombly "B... 191 , (<B 191 ) R Partner o2 Putney, 3wombly, ?all < (kidmore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1919@19LL) 7anderbilt Webb "B... 191!, (<; 191!) R ,ember o2 ,ilbank, 3weed, ?ope < Webb Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@19!:) /o*n Loomer ?all "B... 1:9D, LL.B. 1:9L, (<B 1:9D) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) [?arvey ?. Bundy "B... 19C9, (<B 19C9) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19!!@19D1, 19D4@19L!) ,ar0ien /en0kes "B... 19 1, (<B 19 1) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 1@1911)

'saa0 ?enry ,ayer "B... 1::D) R (enior ,ember o2 ,ayer, ,eyer, .ustrian < Platt Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19 @19L1) +rederi0 Burn*am "B... 19C ) R Partner o2 ,ayer, ,eyer, .ustrian < Platt Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "1911@19D ) $*arles ?ump*rey ?amill "B... 1:9C, (<; 1:9C) R ,ember o2 &osent*al, ?amill < Wormser Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19CL@19D1) William Browne ?ale "B... 1:9:) R Partner o2 Wilson < ,0'lvaine Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "1919@19DD) &i0*ard Bentley "B... 1911, (<; 1911) R ,ember o2 $assels, Potter < Bentley Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19 !@1941) (amuel ;nig*t "B... 1::1, (<B 1::1) R ,ember o2 $*ristin, ;nig*t, Boland < $*nstin Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "191:@19D!) /o*n 3*omas Pigott "B... 19C:) R Partner o2 ,0$ut0*en, 3*omas, ,att*ew, Gri22it*s < Greene Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "19 !@19DL) &obert .. 3a2t "B... 191C, (<B 191C) R ,ember o2 3a2t, (tettinius < ?ollister Elaw 2irm in $in0innati, %*ioF "19 !@19!9) /o*n ?erron ,ore "B... 19 D) R Partner o2 3a2t, (tettinius <?ollister Elaw 2irm in $in0innati, %*ioF "19!4@191C) /o*n Bourne Dempsey "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 (Iuire, (anders < Dempsey Elaw 2irm in $leveland, %*ioF "19!4@19L!) ?oward 3allmadge +oulkes "B... 1911) R Partner o2 Wi0k*am, Borgelt, (kogstad and Powell Elaw 2irm in ,ilwaukeeF "191!@191!) .lvin ?uey Lane "B... 1914> LL.B. ?arvard 19 C) R Partner o2 Lane < (avage "and prede0essor) Elaw 2irm in Dallas, 3e6asF "19!L@1941) $ornelius -. Lombardi "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Lombardi, &obertson, +ligg < ,0Lean Elaw 2irm in ;ansas $ityF "19!L@194L) [Dean G. .0*eson "B... 1914, (<; 1914) R ,ember o2 $ovington < Burling Elaw 2irm in Was*ington, D.$.F "19 1@19!!, 19!D@19D1) 3*omas ,. Debevoise "B... 1:94) R Wall (treet lawyer> dire0tor o2 $*ase National Bank -dward ,inott (*elton "B... 1:9C) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 $*i0ago, Burlington < Vuin0y &ailroad $ompany "19!1@19!:) Leonard Ba0on (mit* "B... 1:9D) R General $ounsel o2 .meri0an $an $ompany "19!!@19DL) /ames -arnest $ooper "B... 1:94) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 (tanley Works "*ardware, tool, steel manu2a0turers) "19 1@19D!) William (out*wort* ,iller "B... 1:9L, (<; 1:9L) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 Nort*ern 3rust $ompany E$*i0agoF "191:@19D4) .ugustus Wilson $lapp "B... 1:9:) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 Weyer*aeuser 3imber $ompany E3a0oma, Was*.F "19! @19DL) Darius -dward Pe0k "B... 1:9:) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 General -le0tri0 $ompany "19 9@19DD) Loren8o Dibble .rmstrong "B... 1:99) R General $ounsel o2 West 'ndies (ugar $orporation "19! @19D1) (amuel Woodson (awyer "B... 1:99) R General $ounsel o2 ;ansas $ity 3erminal &ailway $ompany "191:@19D9) [Guy Wellman "B... 1:99) R General $ounsel o2 (tandard %il $ompany o2 New /ersey E-66onF "19!4@19D1) BenJamin &obbins $urtis Low "B... 19C ) R General $ounsel o2 ?ome Li2e 'nsuran0e $ompany "19 :@19D1) /ames Benton Grant "B... 19C9, (<; 19C9) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 .meri0an $rystal (ugar $ompany "19! @19D1) &oger Benton ?ull "B... 19C1) R ,anaging Dire0tor and General $ounsel o2 3*e National .sso0iation o2 Li2e 9nderwriters "19 1@19D ) %rgani8ation -6e0utives5 /ames &o0kwell (*e22ield "B... 1::1, (<; 1::1) R 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "1919@19!:)> 7i0e President o2 3*e Pilgrims (o0iety "19!C@19!:) -dwin &. -mbree "B... 19CL) R President o2 /ulius &osenwald +und "19 :@19D:) Barry $ongar (mit* "B... 1:99) R General Dire0tor o2 3*e $ommonwealt* +und "19 1@19D1) -dwin $arlyle Lobenstine "B... 1:94) R President o2 =ale@in@$*ina .sso0iation "19!4@19DD) &obert ?askell $ory "B... 19C ) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "191L@19D1) $*arles +ranklin Bliss "B... 1::C) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 @19D ) BenJamin Brewster "B... 1:: , (<B 1:: ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 ,aine "191L@19D1) -dward Lambe Parsons "B... 1::9, (<; 1::9) R Protestant -pis0opalian Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 $ali2ornia "19 D@19D1) ?enry W. ?obson "B... 191D, (<B 191D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (out*ern %*io "19!1@1949) -dward ?untington $oley "B... 1::D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op o2 t*e Dio0ese o2 $entral New =ork "19!L@19D ) $ollege .dministrators and Pro2essors5 [$*arles (eymour "B... 19C:, P*.D. 1911, (<B 19C:) R President o2 =ale 9niversity "19!1@194C) &obert ,. ?ut0*ins "B... 19 1) R President o2 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19 9@19D4) [/ames L. ,0$onaug*y "B... 19C9) R President o2 Wesleyan 9niversity "19 4@19D!) Paul Dwig*t ,oody "B... 19C1) R President o2 ,iddlebury $ollege "19 1@19D ) .rt*ur ?owe "B... 191 , (<B 191 ) R President o2 ?ampton 'nstitute Elater ?ampton 9niversity, 7irginiaF "19!1@19DC) $*arles -dward $lark "B... 1911, LL.B. 191!) R Dean o2 =ale Law (0*ool "19 9@19!9) ?enry (. Graves "B... 1:9 , (<B 1:9 ) R Dean o2 =ale (0*ool o2 +orestry "19CC@19!9) (tan*ope Bayne@/ones "B... 191C, (<B 191C) R Dean o2 =ale (0*ool o2 ,edi0ine "19!4@19DC) George Parmly Day "B... 1:91, (<; 1:91) R 3reasurer o2 =ale 9niversity "191C@19D ) 3*omas Wells +arnam "B... 1:99, (<; 1:99) R .sso0iate 3reasurer and $omptroller o2 =ale 9niversity "19 @19D ) $arl .. Lo*mann "B... 191C, (<B 191C) R (e0retary o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@194!) .ugust (idney Lovett "B... 191!, (<B 191!) R $*aplain o2 =ale 9niversity "19! @194:) [.rnold W*itridge "B... 191!, (<; 191!) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "19! @19D ) /ames Gra2ton &ogers "B... 19C4) R Pro2essor o2 Law at =ale 9niversity "19!4@19D ) &oland George Dwig*t &i0*ardson "B... 19C!, P*.D. 19CL) R Dean o2 t*e Graduate (0*ool at Brown 9niversity "19 L@19D:) George ?oyt W*ipple "B... 19CC) R Dean o2 (0*ool o2 ,edi0ine and Dentistry at 9niversity o2 &o0*ester "19 1@194!) [$*arles $*eney ?yde "B... 1:94) R ?amilton +is* Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law and Diploma0y at $olumbia 9niversity "19 4@19D4) ;arl N. Llewellyn "B... 1914, LL.B. 191:) R Betts Pro2essor o2 /urispruden0e at $olumbia 9niversity "19!C@1941) Warren .ustin .dams "B... 1::L, P*.D. 1:94) R Pro2essor o2 German at Dartmout* $ollege "19CD@19DD) .lbert Beebe W*ite "B... 1:9!, P*.D. 1:9:) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at 9niversity o2 ,innesota "19C1@19DC) Ni0kolaus Louis -ngel*ardt "B... 19C!) R Pro2essor o2 -du0ation at $olumbia 9niversity 3ea0*ers $ollege "19 1@19D ) (tanley ,orrison "B... 1914) R Pro2essor o2 Law at (tan2ord 9niversity "19 9@1944)> ,ember o2 t*e Bo*emian $lub in (an +ran0is0o ?oward Brown Woolston "B... 1:9:) R Pro2essor o2 (o0iology at 9niversity o2 Was*ington "1919@19D1) .le6ander ?amilton +rey "B... 1919, LL.B. 19 1) R Pro2essor o2 Law at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania Law (0*ool "19! @19L:) .l2red Newton &i0*ards "B... 1:91, P*.D. $olumbia 19C1) R Pro2essor o2 P*arma0ology at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "191C@19DL) Lewis ?ill Weed "B... 19C:, (<; 19C:) R Dire0tor o2 /o*ns ?opkins 9niversity (0*ool o2 ,edi0ine "19 9@19DL) [\,ember o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations> (<B\(kull < Bones> (<;\(0roll < ;ey

"(ull C Bones and Aheir 4##u'ation during the Ans#hluss *%ar#h 1!, 1935+ and Kristallna#ht *Nov1 9, 1935+
Government %22i0ials5 ?ug* &. Wilson "(<B 19CL) R 9.(. .mbassador to Na8i Germany ",ar0* !, 19!:@November 1L, 19!:) /ames Wol0ott Wadswort* /r. "(<B 1:9:) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@New =ork, 19!!@1941) Bankers5 George L. ?arrison "(<B 191C) R President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) Walter (et* Logan "(<B 191C) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@194!) (tan2ord 3appan $rapo "(<B 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "19 @19!:) ?arry E?enryF P. Davison /r. "(<B 19 C) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 9@19DC) ?arold (tanley "(<B 19C:) R President o2 ,organ, (tanley < $o. "19!4@19D1) &ay ,orris "(<B 19C1) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@194L) W. .verell ?arriman "(<B 191!) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DL) -. &oland ?arriman "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191:) Pres0ott (. Bus* "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191 ) ;nig*t Woolley "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19: ) &obert .. Lovett "(<B 191:) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DC, 19DL@19D1, 19D9@194C, 194!@19:L) Pierre /ay "(<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) ,ortimer Norton Bu0kner "(<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19 1@19D ) .rtemus L. Gates "(<B 191:) R President o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19 9@19D1) $*arles /a0ob (tewart "(<B 191:) R 7i0e President o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19!4@19D9) +rank P. (*epard "(<B 1911) R 7i0e President o2 Bankers 3rust $o. "19!D@19LC) +ran0is +it8 &andolp* "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 /<W (eligman < $o. "19 !@19DC) ?enry $*andler ?olt "(<B 19C!) R 7i0e President o2 $entral ?anover Bank < 3rust $o. ENew =ork $ityF "19 C@19DL) Lyon $arter "(<B 1914) R Partner o2 -stabrook < $ompany Einvestment bankers and brokers in BostonF "19 9@194C) Lawyers5 ?enry L. (timson "(<B 1:::) R $ounsel o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "1:91@19CL, 191!@19 1, 19!!@19DC, 19D4@194C) .llen 3. ;lots "(<B 19C9) R ,ember o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 1@19L4) ?amilton ?adley "(<B 1919) R Partner o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 9@19DC) ?enry Waters 3a2t "(<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4) William Lloyd ;it0*el "(<B 1:9 ) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191D@19D4) Gra*am (umner "(<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CD@19DL) 3*omas D. 3*a0*er "(<B 19CD) R Partner o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!!@19D!) ?enry De+orest Baldwin "(<B 1::4) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CC@19D1) (*erman Baldwin "(<B 1919) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 9@19L9) ,orris ?adley "(<B 191L) R Partner o2 ,ilbank, 3weed, ?adley < ,0$loy Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 D@1919) &obert Gut*rie Page "(<B 19 ) R ,ember o2 Debevoise, (tevenson, Plimpton < Page Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!L@19D1) Wint*rop -dwards Dwig*t "(<B 1:9!) R Partner o2 Dwig*t < (0oville Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19DD) Dean (age "(<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (age, Gray, 3odd < (ims Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C4@19D!) Lee /ames Perrin "(<B 19CL) R Partner o2 .ppleton, Perrin < ?oyt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19DL) -dward Ban0ro2t 3wombly "(<B 191 ) R Partner o2 Putney, 3wombly, ?all < (kidmore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1919@19LL) /o*n Loomer ?all "(<B 1:9D) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) ?arvey ?. Bundy "(<B 19C9) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19!!@19D1, 19D4@19L!) ,ar0ien /en0kes "(<B 19 1) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 1@1911) (amuel ;nig*t "(<B 1::1) R ,ember o2 $*ristin, ;nig*t, Boland < $*nstin Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "191:@19D!) William (inger ,oor*ead "(<B 19CL) R ,ember o2 ,oor*ead < ;no6 Elaw 2irm in Pittsburg*F "1911@194 ) &obert .. 3a2t "(<B 191C) R ,ember o2 3a2t, (tettinius < ?ollister Elaw 2irm in $in0innati, %*ioF "19 !@19!9) ?enry $orni0k $oke "(<B 19 L) R ,ember o2 $oke < $oke Elaw 2irm in Dallas, 3e6asF "19!C@1911) $ornelius -nnis Lombardi "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Lombardi, &obertson, +ligg < ,0Lean Elaw 2irm in ;ansas $ity, ,issouriF "19!L@194L) $*arles Pas0al +ran0*ot "(<B 191C) R General $ounsel o2 &emington &and 'n0. "19 1@19D4) Businessmen and /ournalists5 +rederi0k -. Weyer*aeuser "(<B 1:9L) R President o2 Weyer*aeuser 3imber $o. "19!1@19D4) George ?erbert Walker, /r. "(<B 19 1) R General Partner o2 G.?. Walker < $o. "19 9@191D) ?enry &. Lu0e "(<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD) .r0*ibald ,a0Leis* "(<B 1914) R -ditor o2 #ortune maga8ine "19 9@19!:) William ?. $owles "(<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL)> Dire0tor o2 t*e .sso0iated Press "191 @19DD) $ollege Pro2essors and %rgani8ation -6e0utives5 $*arles (eymour "(<B 19C:) R President o2 =ale 9niversity "19!1@194C) $arl .. Lo*mann "(<B 191C) R (e0retary o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@194!) .ugust (idney Lovett "(<B 191!) R $*aplain o2 =ale 9niversity "19! @194:) (tan*ope Bayne@/ones "(<B 191C) R Pro2essor o2 Ba0teriology at =ale (0*ool o2 ,edi0ine "19! @19D1) &obert D. +ren0* "(<B 191C) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at =ale 9niversity "19!C@194!) -dwin .. Burtt "(<B 1914) R Pro2essor o2 P*ilosop*y at $ornell 9niversity "19!1@19LC) .rt*ur ?owe "(<B 191 ) R President o2 ?ampton 'nstitute Elater ?ampton 9niversity, 7irginiaF "19!1@19DC) ?enry (loane $o22in "(<B 1:91) R President o2 9nion 3*eologi0al (eminary "19 L@19D4) BenJamin Brewster "(<B 1:: ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 ,aine "191L@19D1) ?enry W. ?obson "(<B 191D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (out*ern %*io "19!1@1949) +. 3rubee Davison "(<B 191:) R President o2 t*e .meri0an ,useum o2 Natural ?istory "19!!@1941)

3ale Eniversit $raduates and Aheir 4##u'ation during Ans#hluss *%ar#h 1!, 1935+ and Kristallna#ht *Novem2er 9, 1935+

&ussell $. Le22ingwell B... =ale 1:99 Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 !@194C)

George L. ?arrison B... =ale 191C President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC)

-ugene ,eyer B... =ale 1:94 Publis*er o2 The Washington Post "19!!@19DL)

?arold (tanley B... =ale 19C: President o2 ,organ, (tanley < $o. "19!4@19D1)

+rank .lts0*ul B... =ale 19C: Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. "191L@19D4)

/ames W. Wadswort* /r. B... =ale 1:9: 9.(. $ongressman "&@New =ork, 19!!@1941)

William $*ristian Bullitt B... =ale 191 9.(. .mbassador to +ran0e "19!L@19DC)

?ug* &. Wilson B... =ale 19CL 9.(. .mbassador to Na8i Germany ",ar0* !, 19!:@ November 1L, 19!:)

?enry &. Lu0e B... =ale 19 C -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD)

.l2red L. .iken B... =ale 1:91 President o2 New =ork Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. "19!L@19DC)

W. .verell ?arriman B... =ale 191! Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DL)

Pres0ott (. Bus* B... =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191 )

&obert .. Lovett B... =ale 191: Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@ 19DC, 19DL@19D1, 19D9@ 194C, 194!@19:L)

$*arles (eymour B... =ale 19C:, P*.D. =ale 1911 President o2 =ale 9niversity "19!1@194C)

&obert ,. ?ut0*ins B... =ale 19 1 President o2 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19 9@19D4)

+rank L. Polk B... =ale 1:9D ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell "191D@19D!)

.llen Wardwell B... =ale 1:94 ,ember o2 Davis, Polk < Wardwell "19C9@194!)

?enry L. (timson B... =ale 1::: President o2 t*e New =ork $ity Bar .sso0iation "19!1@19!9)

Dean G. .0*eson B... =ale 1914 ,ember o2 $ovington < Burling Elaw 2irmF "19 1@ 19!!, 19!D@19D1)

?enry Waters 3a2t B... =ale 1::C Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4)

German%&o'iet (onaggression Pact & Partition o$ Poland" )austian #argain?

(oviet &ussian +oreign ,inister 7ya0*eslav ,olotov signs t*e German@(oviet Nonaggression Pa0t in ,os0ow, (oviet 9nion on .ugust !, 19!9 as Na8i German +oreign ,inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop "0enter) and (oviet $ommissar /ose2 (talin are seen smiling. "Dever#L'+- maga8ine)

(oviet &ussian +oreign ,inister 7ya0*eslav ,olotov signs t*e German@(oviet nonaggression pa0t in ,os0ow, (oviet 9nion on .ugust !, 19!9 as Na8i German +oreign ,inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop "0enter) and (oviet $ommissar /ose2 (talin stand be*ind ,olotov. "National .r0*ives)

'o%iet Russia,s Bommunist "ictator Joe 'talin sha7es han"s with @a>i German Foreign Minister Joachim %on Ribbentro& in Moscow, 'o%iet Russia on August 2C, 1 C $ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

(oviet +oreign ,inister 7ya0*eslav ,olotov and .dol2 ?itler *ave a pleasant 0onversation in Berlin on November 1!, 19DC.

(oviet +oreign ,inister 7ya0*eslav ,olotov "le2t) and .dol2 ?itler *ave a pleasant 0onversation in Berlin on November 1!, 19DC.

(oviet +oreign ,inister 7ya0*eslav ,olotov greets Na8i German +oreign ,inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop in Berlin on November 1D, 19DC as Gustav ?ilger "0enter) serves as a translator 2or /oa0*im von &ibbentrop. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

Na8i German +ield ,ars*al /o*ann ;eitel and Na8i German +oreign ,inister /oa0*im 7on &ibbentrop "le2t to rig*t) es0ort (oviet &ussian +oreign ,inister 7ya0*eslav ,olotov to *is train at t*e .n*alter (tation in Berlin as *e leaves to return to ,os0ow a2ter most re0ent o2 *is H*istory makingH visits wit* .dol2 ?itler on De0ember D, 19DC. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

1Jn May 22 a German6)talian alliance was signe", the 14act of 'teel,3 as Mussolini calle" it$ 0ere, again, the wor"ing was im&ortant$ )t was a clearly aggressi%e alliance, since the &arties &romise" to su&&ort each other, not against 1un&ro%o7e" attac7,3 as was customary, but in all cases$ At the signing, Germany was tol" flatly that )taly coul" not ma7e war before 1 4C an" that the a&&roaching war woul" be a 1war of e?haustion$3 The %ery ne?t "ay, May 2C, 1 C , 0itler hel" a secret conference with his generals$ )n the course of a lengthy s&eech he sai"E !Aanzig is not the subBe$t of this )is#ute at all: =t is a Cuestion of e<#an)ing our li,ing s#a$e in the ast an) of se$uring our foo) su##lies6 an) the settlement of the Balti$ #roblems: Foo) su##lies $an be e<#e$te) only from thinly #o#ulate) areas: (,er an) abo,e the natural fertility6 thoroughgoing German e<#loitation &ill in$rease #ro)u$tion enormously: There is no other #ossibility in uro#e: Be&are of gifts of $olonial territory: These )o not sol,e the foo) #roblem: RememberP blo$/a)e: =f fate brings us into $onfli$t &ith the West6 #ossession of e<tensi,e areas in the ast &ill be a),antageous: We shall be able to e<#e$t e<$ellent har,ests e,en less in &artime than in time of #ea$e: The #o#ulation of these nonDGerman areas &ill #erform no military ser,i$e an) &ill be a,ailable as a sour$e of labor: The Polish #roblem is inse#arable from $onfli$t &ith the West:::: Polan) sees )anger in a German ,i$tory in the West an) &ill attem#t to rob us of a ,i$tory there: There is6 therefore6 no Cuestion of s#aring Polan)6 an) &e are left &ith the )e$ision: To atta$/ Polan) at the first suitable o##ortunity: We $annot e<#e$t a re#etition of the 'ze$h affair: There &ill be &ar: (ur Bob is to isolate Polan): The su$$ess of this isolation &ill be the )e$isi,e fa$tor: Therefore6 the FXhrer must reser,e the )e$ision to gi,e the final or)er to atta$/: There must be no simultaneous $onfli$t &ith the Western Po&ers 2Fran$e an) nglan)3:::: =f there &ere an allian$e of Fran$e6 nglan)6 an) Russia6 = &oul) ha,e to atta$/ nglan) an) Fran$e &ith a fe& annihilating blo&s: = )oubt the #ossibility of a #ea$eful settlement &ith nglan): We must #re#are oursel,es for the $onfli$t: nglan) sees in our )e,elo#ment the foun)ation of a hegemony &hi$h &oul) &ea/en nglan): nglan) is therefore our enemy6 an) the $onfli$t &ith nglan) &ill be a lifeDan)D)eath struggle:" )n the face of this misun"erstan"ing an" hatre" on the &art of 0itler, an" in the full 7nowle"ge that he ha" e%ery intention of attac7ing 4olan", -ritain ma"e no real effort to buil" u& a &eace front, an" continue" to try to ma7e concessions to 0itler$ Although the -ritish unilateral guarantee to 4olan" was ma"e into a mutual guarantee on A&ril *, 4olan" guarantee" -ritainNs Oin"e&en"enceO in e?actly the same terms as -ritain ha" guarantee" that of 4olan" on March C1st$ @o -ritish64olish alliance was signe" until August 2Dth, the same "ay on which 0itler or"ere" the attac7 on 4olan" to begin on August 2*th$ Worse than this, no military agreements were ma"e as to how -ritain an" 4olan" woul" coo&erate in war$ A -ritish military mission "i" manage to get to Warsaw on July 1 th, but it "i" nothing$ Furthermore, economic su&&ort to rearm 4olan" was gi%en late, in ina"e9uate amounts, an" in an unwor7able form$ There was tal7 of a -ritish loan to 4olan" of i1HH million in May8 on August 1st 4olan" finally got a cre"it for a5,1*C,CHH at a time when all 2on"on was bu>>ing about a secret loan of i1,HHH,HHH,HHH from -ritain to Germany$ The effects of such actions on Germany can be seen in the minutes of a secret conference between 0itler an" his generals hel" on August 22n"$ The Fuhrer sai"E !The follo&ing is $hara$teristi$ of nglan): Polan) &ante) a loan from nglan) for rearmament: nglan)6 ho&e,er6 ga,e only a $re)it to ma/e sure that Polan) buys in nglan)6 although nglan) $annot )eli,er: This means that nglan) )oes not really &ant to su##ort Polan):" 4erha&s e%en more sur&rising is the fact that France, which ha" ha" an alliance with 4olan" since 1 21, ha" no military con%ersations with 4olan" after 1 2D, e?ce&t that in August 1 C* 4olan" was gi%en 2,HHH,HHH,HHH francs as a rearmament loan !Rambouillet Agreement#, an" on May 1 , 1 C , the 4olish minister of war signe" an agreement in 4aris by which France &romise" full air su&&ort to 4olan" on the first "ay of war, local s7irmishing by the thir" "ay, an" a full6scale offensi%e on the si?teenth "ay$ Jn August 2Cr" General Gamelin informe" his go%ernment that no military su&&ort coul" be gi%en to 4olan" in the e%ent of war until the s&ring of 1 4H an" that a full6scale offensi%e coul" not be ma"e by France before 1 4161 42$ 4olan" was ne%er informe" of this change, an" seems to ha%e entere" the war on 'e&tember 1st in the belief that a full6scale offensi%e woul" be ma"e against Germany in the west "uring 'e&tember$ The failure to su&&ort 4olan" by bin"ing &olitical, economic, an" military obligations in the &erio" before August 2Cr" was &robably "eliberate, in the ho&e that this woul" force 4olan" to negotiate with 0itler$ )f so, it was a com&lete failure$ 4olan" was so encourage" by the -ritish guarantee that it not only refuse" to ma7e concessions but also &re%ente" the reo&ening of negotiations by one e?cuse after another until the last "ay of &eace$ This was 9uite agreeable to 0itler an" Ribbentro&$ When Bount Biano, the )talian foreign minister, who ha" been 7e&t com&letely in the "ar7 by the Germans, %isite" Ribbentro& on August 11th he as7e" his hostE 1What "o you wantM The Borri"or or +an>igM $ $ $ ]@ot any longer$, An" he fi?e" on me those col" $ $ $ eyes of his$ ]We want war$,3 Biano was shoc7e", an" s&ent two "ays trying, 9uite %ainly, to &ersua"e Ribbentro& an" 0itler that war was im&ossible for se%eral years$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, &$ *4 6*D1

Front &age of the @ew Aor7 Times !Fri"ay, 'e&tember 1, 1 C #

Na8i German soldiers dismantle a Polis* border 0*e0kpoint on (eptember 1, 19!9 during t*e Na8i German invasion o2 Poland.

$*an0ellor .dol2 ?itler salutes as *e re0eives an ent*usiasti0 wel0ome upon *is entran0e into Dan8ig, Poland on (eptember 19, 19!9, a2ter Polis* resistan0e to t*e German 2or0es *ad been 0rus*ed. ?itler spoke t*at evening 2or an *our and a Iuarter in a brig*tly illuminated Dan8ig, outlining *is Hpea0e o22ensiveH. "P*oto5 *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot.0om#sear0*#label#.] C$olle0tion] Co2] C$ars)

A"olf 0itler salutes to the @a>i German army in Warsaw, 4olan" on Jctober D, 1 C $ !German Fe"eral Archi%e#

A German an" a 'o%iet officer sha7e han"s at the en" of the )n%asion of 4olan" in 'e&tember 1 C $ !TA'' &ress agency , Jctober 1 C , &ublishe" also in O/rasnaya T%e>"aO in 'e&tember 1 4H#

4olish &risoners of war ca&ture" by the Re" Army "uring the 'o%iet in%asion of 4olan" in 'e&tember 1 C are seen marching to a &risoner6of6war cam&$

Ma& of @a>i German occu&ation of 4olan" "uring Worl" War ))

Ma& of &artition of 4olan" "uring Worl" War ))

3&'P.&3'3- P.$3 $%N+-&-N$- R (-P3-,B-& 19DC

Le2t to rig*t5 Na8i German +oreign ,inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop, 'mperial /apanese .mbassador to Na8i Germany (aburo ;urusu, and Na8i GermanyAs di0tator .dol2 ?itler negotiate t*e 3ripartite Pa0t in (eptember 19DC. "'mage 0ourtesy o2 .meri0an ,emory at t*e Library o2 $ongress)

Le2t to rig*t5 (aburo ;urusu, .l2ieri, Buti, $iano, (0*midt, (ta*mer, Weis8Y0ker, ,a0kensen, ?itler, ,eissner and Woermann appear at t*e 3ripartite Pa0t 0on2eren0e on (eptember 1, 19DC. "P*oto5 *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot.0om#sear0*#label#.s] Ca] CDiplomat)

The @a>i German flag !left#, )m&erial Ja&anese flag !center#, an" Fascist )talian flag !right# are "is&laye" in front of the Ja&anese .mbassy on Tiergartenstrasse in -erlin, Germany "uring the Tri&artite 4act conference hel" in -erlin in 'e&tember 1 4H$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

Le2t to rig*t5 ,artin Bormann, /apanAs +oreign ,inister =osuke ,atsuoka, (0*midt, .dol2 ?itler, ?ermann Goering, and ,eissner attend a meeting on ,ar0* :, 19D1. Goering is seen wearing a mono0le. "P*oto5 *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot.0om#sear0*#label#.s] Ca] CDiplomat)

.dol2 ?itler talks to 'mperial /apanAs +oreign ,inister =osuke ,atsuoka at t*e &ei0* $*an0ellery in Berlin on ,ar0* 1, 19D1. 3*e man on t*e le2t is interpreter Dr. Paul (0*midt.

(aburo ;usuru "le2t), /apanese .mbassador to Germany, .dol2 ?itler "0enter), and 'talian +oreign ,inister $ount $iano "rig*t) arrive 2or t*e re0ent signing o2 t*e &ome@Berlin@3okyo pa0t in Berlin, Germany on %0tober 11, 19DC. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

Le2t to rig*t5 .dol2 ?itler, /apanese +oreign ,inister =osuke ,atsuoka, and /apanese .mbassador ?iros*i %s*ima wave 2rom ?itlerGs bal0ony in Berlin, Germany in 19D1. "?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'()

+oreign ,inister o2 /apan =osuke ,atsuoka "le2t) appears wit* +ield ,ars*al Wil*elm ;eitel "0enter) and ?einri0* Georg (ta*mer "rig*t), t*e Na8i German .mbassador to /apan, at t*e /apanese -mbassy in Berlin, Na8i Germany on ,ar0* :, 19D1. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv)

.dol2 ?itler meets wit* /apanese military o22i0ials. "P*oto5 3ime Li2e) *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot.0om#sear0*#label#.s] Ca] CDiplomat

.gainst a ba0kground o2 t*eir respe0tive 2lags, Na8i German and 'mperial /apanese o22i0ials toast t*e new .6is Pa0t in 3okyo in 19D1. .t e6treme rig*t is ?einri0* (ta*mer, mysterious German agent w*o 2or0ed t*roug* t*e signing o2 t*e pa0t. +rom rig*t to le2t are (ta*mer, -ugen %tt, German .mbassador> 'talian .mbassador 'ndelli, +oreign ,inister =osuke ,atsuoka, and ,inister wit*out Port2olio Naoki ?os*ino. Ne6t to ?os*ino in uni2orm is War ,inister Gen. ?ideki 3oJo, be*ind mi0rop*one is 3os*io (*iratori. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

.nne6ation o2 +ran0e, Belgium, Net*erlands, Norway, Denmark, =ugoslavia, Gree0e, and (oviet 9nion

Britis* and +ren0* army troops prepare to eva0uate to Great Britain on t*e bea0*es o2 Dunkirk, +ran0e, beginning on ,ay 1, 19DC and ending in t*e early *ours o2 /une !, 19DC.

Britis* and +ren0* soldiers Jump onto boats at Dunkirk, +ran0e in ,ay@/une 19DC.

A ma& of France, inclu"ing Kichy France !Free ToneG'outhern Tone# an" German6occu&ie" France !Jccu&ie" ToneG@orthern Tone# "uring Worl" War ))

10itler 7nows that he will ha%e to brea7 us in this islan" or lose the war$ )f we can stan" u& to him all .uro&e may be free" an" the life of the worl" may mo%e forwar" into broa", sunlit u&lan"s$ -ut if we fail then the whole worl", inclu"ing the (nite" 'tates, inclu"ing all that we ha%e 7nown an" care" for, will sin7 into the abyss of a new "ar7 age, ma"e more sinister, an" &erha&s more &rotracte", by the lights of &er%erte" science$ Let us therefore bra$e oursel,es to our )uty6 an) so bear oursel,es that if the British m#ire an) its 'ommon&ealth last for a thousan) years6 men &ill still say6 YThis &as their finest hour:@3 ; Winston Bhurchill, 4rime Minister of Great -ritain, in a s&eech in the 0ouse of Bommons on June 15, 1 4H, the "ay of the French ca&itulation to @a>i Germany

Na8i German +ield ,ars*al Wil*elm ;eitel "le2t) a00epts t*e +ren0* surrender 2rom +ren0* .rmy General $*arles ?unt8inger inside a railroad 0ar at $ompi`gne, +ran0e on /une , 19DC. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

Le2t to rig*t5 Na8i German +oreign ,inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop, +ield ,ars*al Wil*elm ;eitel, ?ermann Goering, &udol2 ?ess, .dol2 ?itler, .dmiral -ri0* &aeder, and Walt*er von Brau0*its0* meet in 2ront o2 a railroad 0ar at $ompi`gne, +ran0e on /une , 19DC. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

.dol2 ?itler meets wit* *is subordinates in 2ront o2 a railroad 0ar in t*e 2orests near $ompi`gne, +ran0e, lo0ated nort* o2 Paris, on /une , 19DC to wat0* t*e +ren0* army sign an armisti0e and 2ormally surrender +ran0e to Na8i Germany. 3*e German army signed an armisti0e ending World War ' at $ompi`gne, +ran0e on November 11, 191:. ?itler 0*ose t*is site 2or t*e armisti0e in an attempt to *umiliate +ran0e. "3ime Li2e p*oto)

(enior German and .llied 0ommanders and politi0ians sign t*e .rmisti0e ending t*e war in a railway 0ar near $ompi`gne, +ran0e, early on t*e morning o2 November 11, 191:. +ield ,ars*al +erdinand +o0*, t*e .llied supreme 0ommander "0enter), stands to a00ept t*e German surrender. 'n 19DC, during t*e (e0ond World War, .dol2 ?itler demanded +ran0eGs surrender in t*e same railway 0ar.

7i0*y +ran0eAs puppet di0tator Pierre Laval "le2t) meets wit* .dol2 ?itler.

.dol2 ?itler s*akes *ands wit* 7i0*y +ren0* leader ,ars*al P*ilippe Petain at ,ontroire, 7i0*y +ran0e on %0tober D, 19DC.

German troops advan0e t*roug* a destroyed se0tion o2 &otterdam, Net*erlands on ,ay 1D, 19DC. Na8i Germany invaded +ran0e, Belgium, Net*erlands, and Lu6embourg on ,ay 1C, 19DC. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

3*e Belgian government negotiates t*e 0apitulation o2 Belgium wit* t*e Na8i German regime on ,ay :, 19DC. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives)

1-ut with the &lanne" in%asion of the 'o%iet (nion, 0itler coul" not affor" to ha%e his rear threatene" by -ritish forces$ MussoliniNs failure to subLugate Greece &ro%o7e" the @a>i military swee& through the -al7ans$ Mussolini was able to &ay 0itler bac7 Nin his own coinN at their summit meeting in Florence on 25 Jctober, the "ay of the attac7 on Greece$ Far from a"monishing Mussolini, as )l +uce ha" e?&ecte", 0itler congratulate" him briefly an" a"%ise" him to concentrate on grabbing Brete$ Mussolini ignore" the a"%ice$ Although he "i" not 7now it, his casual announcement of the in%asion ha" not ta7en 0itler by sur&rise$ The FuhrerNs information6gathering networ7 was too goo" for that$ Jn recei%ing the same intelligence, .rnst %on Wei>sac7er, (n"ersecretary of 'tate at the Aussenamt1 Nset about ma7ing a %ery clear "emarche$ ) "rew u& an unambiguous instruction to Rome that we shoul" not allow our ally, who was wea7 enough in any case, to bring new countries into the war without our a"%ice an" consent as allies$ Ribbentro& a&&ro%e" this, but 0itler sai" he "i" not want to cross Mussolini$ 0itlerNs silence meant in"irectly gi%ing )taly the sign to go ahea" with her $$$ ste& in the -al7ans$N 0itler e%en offere" Mussolini &aratroo& su&&ort for an o&eration against Brete$ N4eo&le are too &rone to thin7 of the Me"iterranean as an east6west channel for shi&&ingN, obser%e" NWil" -illN +ono%an, the hea" of AmericaNs intelligence ser%ice, the J'', in a memo to Roose%elt sent from the -al7ans a month after the )talian offensi%e ha" begun$ N)t shoul" be thought of &rimarily as a no6manNs lan" between .uro&e an" Africa, with two great forces facing each other from the north an" the south$ Germany controls, either "irectly or in"irectly, most of the northern battle6line on the continent of .uro&e$ )t is im&erati%e for the -ritish 6 or the -ritish an" the Americans 6 to control the southern front along the Me"iterranean shore of Africa$N +ono%an ha" not 9uite rea" 0itlerNs min", but it was a &assable summary of what the Fuhrer was thin7ing$ 0itler coul" ha%e bloc7e" the )talian in%asion of Greece but "i" not$ First, he wante" to &re%ent -ritain from establishing an airbase in Thessaloni7i from which -ritish bombers coul" reach the oil fiel"s in 4lo9ti$ -ut he ha" a still gran"er reason$ J&eration N'eeloweN, the in%asion of -ritain, ha" faile", an" 0itler ha" "ro&&e" the i"ea of a secon" attem&t$ 0e ha" switche" instea" to the so6calle" N&eri&heral strategyN which in%ol%e" cutting communications between Great -ritain an" its im&erial out&osts$ At the time of the )talian in%asion, 0itler was &lanning an assault on Gibraltar an" a &ush, with the )talians, towar"s 'ue>$ )f Germany an" )taly coul" sei>e Brete, then they woul" control the main na%al an" aerial staging &ost in the Me"iterranean$ They coul" monitor an" regulate traffic along an east6 west an" a north6south a?is$ 0itler acce&te" an" e%en su&&orte" )talyNs Gree7 o&eration within the conte?t of the N&eri&heral strategyN against .nglan"$ -ut his mo"est enthusiasm for the offensi%e soon soure" when he reali>e" it ha" been &lanne" an" e?ecute" by a clown$ The -ritish occu&ie" Brete on * @o%ember while the )talians were still bogge" "own in the mu" of .&irus Lust 24 7ilometres from their base cam&$ NA matchless "ilettantismN, fulminate" Goebbels in +ecember when the e?tent of )talyNs failure became clear$ The 4talians have ruined the militar &restige of the A:is% This is wh the Balkans have become such a stubborn &roblem %%%So we must now intervene% Not to hel& them but to run the 8nglish out of )rete where the have installed themselves% The must get out of there% The ,uhrer would &refer to see a &eace deal between 0ome and Athens but it is a difficult &olic to sell% .ussolini has reall messed this one u& %%% 4f onl he had occu&ied )rete straight awa as the ,uhrer had advised% But 0ome is incorrigible% By this time6 GermanyKs nee) to inter,ene in the Bal/ans ha) be$ome still more #ressing: 1ya$hesla, ;oloto,6 the *o,iet Foreign ;inister6 arri,e) in Berlin on the afternoon of 4? No,ember 47G5 for t&o )ays of tal/s: +itler &ishe) to in,ite the *o,iet Fnion to Boin Germany6 =taly an) %a#an in the Tri#artite Pa$t: Were *talin to a$$e#t the offer to Boin the .<is6 this &oul) $reate the mightiest #oliti$al allian$e in history6 stret$hing from the .tlanti$ an) ;e)iterranean to the Pa$ifi$: +itler ha) hit u#on the i)ea of in$or#orating the *o,iet Fnion into his s$heme #artly to #reDem#t a future allian$e of the *o,iet Fnion6 Britain an)6 #ossibly6 the Fnite) *tates6 an) #artly be$ause he ha) be$ome an<ious about the gra)ual &est&ar) e<#ansion of the *o,iet Fnion through Finlan)6 the Balti$s6 Bessarabia an) northern Bu/o,ina: =n the ;oloto,DRibbentro# a$$or) of .ugust 47>76 +itler ha) effe$ti,ely re$ognize) the Bal/ans as a Russian s#here of interest: ;ean&hile6 ho&e,er6 GermanyKs interest in the region ha) be$ome more urgent: By #ersua)ing the *o,iet Fnion to sign u# to the Tri#artite Pa$t6 +itler ho#e)6 among other things6 to e<tinguish *o,iet influen$e in the Bal/ans: Berlin offere) to $om#ensate ;os$o& by su##orting *o,iet e<#ansion in &hat +itler terme) the '>rofl2si2tisc&er 82um' -greater .sian s#a$e0: When ;oloto, as/e) &hat '>rofl2si2tisc&er 82um' a$tually meant6 the Germans &ere unable to gi,e him a $on$rete ans&erJ it has been assume) that it meant =n)ia6 'entral .sia an) =ran: .s +itler un,eile) his ,ision of the ne& or)er6 $o,ering half the globe6 ;oloto, sat im#assi,ely an)6 ha,ing hear) the Fuhrer out6 state) he agree) Kin #rin$i#leK to the i)ea: 0e then &rocee"e" to raise "ifficulties about all the in"i%i"ual issues that 0itler ha" ho&e" to resol%e in GermanyNs fa%our$ The Foreign Minister mentione" Finlan", 4olan" an" Romania but he also raise" for the first time the 9uestion of -ulgaria$ Moloto% claime" that -ritain was threatening the security of the -lac7 'ea 'traits, which ha" &rom&te" the 'o%iet (nion to consi"er an offer Nof a Russian guarantee to -ulgariaN$ Moloto%Ns inter%ention threatene" Wehrmacht &lans to in%a"e Greece, which inclu"e" sen"ing its "i%isions through -ulgaria$ 'talinNs res&onse to the Tri&artite &ro&osal arri%e" by letter two wee7s after Moloto%Ns %isit$ The 'o%iet lea"er was a"amant on the issue of -ulgariaE ]I4ro%i"e" that within the ne?t few months the security of the 'o%iet (nion in the 'traits is assure" by the conclusion of a mutual assistance &act between the 'o%iet (nion an" -ulgaria $$$ an" by the establishment of a base for lan" an" na%al forces of the (''R within range of the -os&horus an" +ar"anelles by means of a long6term lease$N 0itler nee"e" the -al7ans for economic reasons$ 0e coul" not tolerate 'o%iet interference in the region, an" certainly not a 'o%iet military &resence there$ 4ersua"e" that 'talin was becoming too conceite" an" "angerous as an ally, 0itler "eci"e" to "estroy the 'o%iet (nion once an" for all$ The great gamble was begun$3 ; The Balkans( Nationalism1 War and the Great 5owers1 ;<=>?;@@@ by Misha Glenny, &$ 4*564:H

@a>i German army sol"iers raise the @a>i German flag at the Acro&olis in Athens, Greece in May 1 41$ -enito Mussolini,s Fascist )talian army in%a"e" Greece on Jctober 25, 1 4H but was "efeate" by the Gree7 army$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

A ma& of @a>i German in%asion of Greece an" -ritish army e%acuation of Greece in A&ril 1 41

The A?is Jccu&ation of Greece "uring Worl" War ))

Prin0e Paul o2 =ugoslavia "le2t) rides wit* Na8i GermanyAs di0tator .dol2 ?itler in Germany in 19!9. "P*oto5 *!C1!D!)

German an" )talian occu&ation of Augosla%ia !1 4161 4C#

Ante 4a%elic !left#, the "esignate" lea"er of the )n"e&en"ent 'tate of Broatia, wal7s with Fascist )taly,s "ictator -enito Mussolini !right# in Rome, )taly on May 15, 1 41, "uring the ceremony of )talyNs recognition of Broatia as a so%ereign state un"er official )talian &rotection, an" to agree u&on BroatiaNs bor"ers with )taly$

A"olf 0itler meets with Ante 4a%elic, lea"er of the )n"e&en"ent 'tate of Broatia, u&on his arri%al at the -erghof in -erchtesga"en, -a%aria, @a>i Germany for a state %isit on June , 1 41$ !4hotoE Mu>eL Re%oluciLe @aro"nosti Jugosla%iLeGAugosla%ian @ational Re%olutionary Museum#

Ma& of @a>i Germany an" 'o%iet (nion in May 1 41 &rior to J&eration -arbarossa

Beginning of (#eration Barbarossa: The @a>i German army begins its sur&rise in%asion of the 'o%iet (nion on June 22, 1 41$ !A4GWi"e Worl" 4hoto#

@a>i German infantry an" armore" %ehicles battle the 'o%iet "efen"ers on the streets of /har7o%, 'o%iet (7raine in Jctober 1 41$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%e#

. 0olumn o2 (oviet &ed .rmy prisoners@o2@war 0aptured near ,insk EBelarusF is mar0*ed to a prison 0amp on /uly , 19D1. "German +ederal .r0*ives)

+ea" ci%ilians 7ille" by German artillery are seen lying in the streets of 2eningra" <'t$ 4etersburg=, 'o%iet (nion in late 1 41$ !4hotoE 0assa"ar$ htt&EGGwww$oli%e6"rab$comGo"^history^ww2^o&s^battles^1 41leningra"$&h&#

@a>i German sol"iers fire their guns at si? 'o%iet &artisans <guerillas= an" e?ecute them %ia firing s9ua" in 1 41$

A @a>i German sol"ier wal7s towar" a "ea" Russian sol"ier an" a burning tan7 in a battle that occurre" in the 'o%iet (nion in 1 41 "uring J&eration -arbarossa$

1Josef Kissariono%ich +Lugash%ili, better 7nown as 'talin, absolute ruler of the (nion of 'o%iet 'ocialist Re&ublics, left his office in the /remlin earlier than usual "uring the night of 21622 June 1 41$ @ormally, he wor7e" in the long Babinet room in the 4raesi"ium buil"ing, with its green6bai>e6co%ere" conference table in the centre, an" the stern eyes of 2enin, Mar? an" .ngels staring out from their &ortraits on the oa7&anelle" walls, until about D am$ As the first light of "ay glimmere" on the gol"en onion "omes of the cathe"rals o&&osite his win"ow an" coloure" the rosy re" bric7s of the crenellate" outer walls of the ancient city within a city, he coul" regularly be foun" at his cluttere" "es7, cocoone" in smo7e from the "ar7 N0er>ego%ina FlorN cigarettes which he smo7e" constantly, sometimes bro7en u& into tobacco for his .nglish +unhill &i&e$ -ut that night, of all nights, he finishe" wor7 well before 2 am, an" after clearing one or two outstan"ing items with his secretary, A$ @$ 4os7rebyshe%, wal7e" along the corri"or from room number one, too7 the little, re"6car&ete", gilt ele%ator "own one floor to groun" le%el, an" left the buil"ing$ 'ettle" in the bac7 of his blac7 armoure" limousine, he was whis7e" away through the still warm, slee&ing streets an" out of Moscow$ 0e ha" rarely sle&t in his a&artment in the /remlin since his wife committe" suici"e there in 1 C2, an" he a&&arently saw no reason to ma7e this night an e?ce&tion$ The motorca"e surroun"ing his car, controlle" by his &ersonal security chief, the huge, s9uare6shoul"ere" @/K+ General @i7olai Klasi7, "ro%e as always "own the mi""le of the roa" at full s&ee"$ 't co%ere" the twenty miles to /untse%o, then a small %illage in the &ine an" birch forests to the east of Moscow, in well un"er half an hour$ There, it turne" left off the broa", "ar7 highway on to a si"e roa", &ast a security barrier manne" by arme" guar"s in a clum& of young fir trees, an" on through a gate, also hea%ily guar"e", into the "ri%eway of a single6storey, rambling white house set ami"st gar"ens an" terraces$ This was 'talinNs "acha Bli+hn A the name sim&ly means NnearbyN, to "istinguish the &lace from his other houses, which were all further away from Moscow$ 't was not a gran" house, certainly no &alace$ 'talinNs "aughter, '%etlana, always remembers it with affectionE in summer the roof was a %ast sun "ec7 where she lo%e" to run an" &lay as a chil"$ Bli+hn was a won"erful house for chil"ren$ 'talin ha" ha" it "esigne" to his own s&ecifications in 1 C4, but since then he ha" change" it continuously, ha%ing rooms 7noc7e" together, rooms "i%i"e", new rooms built on, e%en whole floors a""e" an" remo%e" again$ 'talin was ne%er satisfie" with any house for long$ All his homes, but Bli+hn in &articular, were in a &ermanent state of structural flu?, li7e a colony of amoeba$ )n s&ite of his obsession with buil"ing an" rebuil"ing, howe%er, 'talin &ersonally li%e" almost entirely in one room of the house at /untse%o, the "ining room$ 0e sle&t on a sofa there, with the %arious tele&hones that 7e&t him in touch with the outsi"e worl" line" u& on a low table besi"e it$ 'talin always sle&t on sofas, ne%er in a be"8 when he "i" stay in the /remlin, he use" a couch in a small office beyon" the Babinet room$ The other furnishings of the Bli+hn "ining room were sim&leE a si"eboar", se%eral chairs an" a large table which was usually &ile" high with "ocuments, boo7s an" news&a&ers$ When "ining alone, he ha" one en" cleare" an" ate there$ Jnly when he was entertaining &eo&le ; members of the 4olitburo, the 'o%iet (nionNs inner Babinet, or &articularly fa%oure" %isiting "ignitaries ; was the whole table cleare", an" its front half set with all 7in"s of Russian an" Georgian "ishes on warme" sil%er &latters$ Jn 22 June there was no one to entertain, so 'talin retire" early$ 0e was fast aslee& on his sofa soon after 2$CH am, seemingly untrouble" by the cares of the worl"$ The great maLority of the 'o%iet &o&ulation, both ci%il an" military, was also slee&ing &eacefully that night, e?ce&t in the northern cities li7e 2eningra", where thousan"s still &romena"e" ha&&ily through the streets, celebrating the whitest of the Nwhite nightsN, the summer solstice, when the sun barely "i&&e" below the hori>on$ +es&ite the ominous rumours which see&e" in from the outsi"e worl", few were concerne" about the threat of war, for ha" not 'talin himself assure" the nation there woul" be no German in%asionM )n"ee", he ha" s&ecifically forbi""en the Re" Army to ta7e more than the most tentati%e &recautions against &ossible incursions by German troo&s$ Whate%er ha&&ene", he ha" or"ere", 'o%iet frontier forces must not allow themsel%es to be &ro%o7e" into firing at the GermansE un"er no circumstances was 0itler to be gi%en the o&&ortunity of bran"ing the 'o%iets as aggressors$ The e%ening of 21 June ha" therefore been almost e?actly li7e any other summer 'atur"ay, e%en in the frontier "istricts$ Free from the fear of attac7, the troo&s rela?e" an" enLoye" the warm sunny weather$ Most senior officers were at home with their families, or at their clubs, or watching shows in garrison theatres or cinemas$ Kery few in"ee" were aware that they were in fact sitting on an immense &ow"er 7eg6 an" that the fuse ha" alrea"y been lit$ Jn the other si"e of the 'o%iet (nionNs CH6mile6long western frontier with Germany, German6 occu&ie" 4olan" an" Romania, an" for a further 5HH miles with Finlan" in the north, the &icture was %ery "ifferent$ As the brief "ar7ness of the shortest night of the year "escen"e", a mighty in%asion force mo%e" stealthily forwar" into the &ositions from which it was to attac7 at "awn$ )n forest clearings, ami" cornfiel"s an" &astures, in the long grasses of ri%er ban7s where the croa7ing of thousan"s u&on thousan"s of amorous bullfrogs im&rinte" itself for e%er on the memories of the waiting men, German officers assemble" their troo&s an" began gi%ing them their final or"ers, &reface" by the rea"ing of a &roclamation from their Fuhrer, A"olf 0itler$ K*ol)iers of the eastern frontK D +itlerKs &or)s e$hoe) through $om#anies an) regiments6 batteries an) sCua)rons D Kan assembly of strength on a size an) s$ale su$h as the &orl) has ne,er seen is no& $om#lete: .llie) &ith Finnish )i,isions6 our $omra)es are stan)ing si)e by si)e &ith the ,i$tor of Nar,i/ on the shores of the .r$ti$ ($ean in the north: German sol)iers un)er the $omman) of the $onCueror of Nor&ay6 an) the Finnish heroes of free)om un)er their o&n marshal6 are #rote$ting Finlan): (n the eastern front6 you stan): =n Romania6 on the ban/s of the Pruth6 on the Aanube6 )o&n to the shores of the Bla$/ *ea6 German an) Romanian troo#s are stan)ing unite) un)er the hea) of state6 .ntones$u:K This &as6 +itler )e$lare)6 Kthe biggest front line in historyK6 an) it &as about to go into a$tion6 Kto sa,e our entire uro#ean $i,ilisation an) $ultureK from the threat of bolshe,ism: -etween the -altic an" the -lac7 'ea, the German forces were arrange" in three massi%e army grou&s, com&rising se%en armies, four 4an>er grou&s an" three air fleets$ 4oise" on the frontiers, waiting for "awn to brea7, were no fewer than C,2HH,HHH men 6 145 "i%isions, inclu"ing nineteen 4an>er "i%isions an" twel%e motorise" infantry "i%isions, with *HH,HHH truc7s, :DH,HHH horses, C,D5H armoure" fighting

%ehicles, :,154 artillery &ieces an" 1,5CH aircraft$ )t was in"ee" an awesome array of force 6 by com&arison, the Allie" in%asion of @orman"y on * June 1 44 lan"e" a first wa%e of si? seaborne "i%isions an" three airborne, a gran" total of nine "i%isions containing some :D,HHH -ritish an" Bana"ian troo&s an" D:,HHH Americans, along ; a front of less than fifty miles, as o&&ose" to one of nearly 1,HHH$ )t woul" clearly ha%e been im&ossible to conceal the &resence of such a %ast force$ 0itler ha" been assembling it since shortly after the beginning of the year, an" by mi"6May, when most units were in their &reliminary &ositions, no fewer than 1 ,DHH s&ecial trains ha" rolle" eastwar"s from Germany, all clearly %isible from the groun" an" from the air$ There ha" been a hiatus in the buil"6u& for a few wee7s in March an" A&ril, when 0itler ha" been force" to with"raw some of the troo&s in or"er to crush Augosla%ia an" Greece, but by returning them to the regions bor"ering the 'o%iet (nion as soon as they ha" finishe" in the -al7ans, he ha" ma"e both their &resence an" their &ur&ose e%en more ob%ious$ To Winston Bhurchill, in 2on"on, these German troo& mo%ements Nilluminate" the scene li7e a lightning flashN, remo%ing any "oubts he may ha%e ha" about 0itlerNs intentions$ -ut their significance "i" not seem to ha%e been a&&reciate" by 'talin$ The 'o%iet lea"er ha" in fact been 7e&t fully informe" of the German buil"6u&$ 0e ha" been "eluge" with warnings for se%eral months, from his own intelligence sources an" from frien"ly foreign go%ernments, notably the -ritish an" American$ 0e ha" been tol" re&eate"ly that 0itler &lanne" to attac7 him, an" ha" e%en been gi%en the correct "ate an" time$ Bhurchill ha" sent him, both "irectly an" through clan"estine channels which he thought the sus&icious 'talin might acce&t more rea"ily, the com&lete German or"er of battle an" 0itlerNs &lan of attac7, obtaine" through .nigma interce&ts$ 'talin ha" chosen to ignore them all$ The last warnings were still &ouring into the /remlin "uring that fateful 'atur"ay night an" 'un"ay morning, as the final hours before the attac7 sli&&e" away$ From frontier guar"s along the entire bor"er came re&orts of increase" acti%ity on the German si"eE they coul" hear engines being re%%e", the clin7 of e9ui&ment an" the unmista7able screech an" clatter of tan7 trac7s$ From 2on"on, 'o%iet Ambassa"or )%an Mais7y sent a message saying he ha" been calle" bac7 from a wee7en" in the country to be tol" by 'ir 'taffor" Bri&&s, the -ritish ambassa"or to Moscow who was then in 2on"on for consultations, that the -ritish go%ernment ha" reliable information that 0itler inten"e" to attac7 the 'o%iet (nion ne?t "ay$ A similar message came from the military attaches at the 'o%iet embassy in -erlin, though the ambassa"or there ha" tol" his staff to forget it an" &re&are for a 'un"ay &icnic$ 'till 'talin brushe" the warnings asi"e$ When a German "eserter left his unit an" crosse" the lines s&ecifically to alert the 'o%iets after hearing the or"ers for the attac7, the 'o%iet lea"er "ismisse" the story as a German &ro%ocation$ -y that time, the 'o%iet +efence Bommissar, Marshal 'emen Timoshen7o, an" the Re" ArmyNs Bhief of 'taff, General Georgi Thu7o%, were ta7ing the re&orts seriouslyE they begge" 'talin to allow them to &ut their frontier forces on full alert, an" to issue li%e ammunition$ -ut he refuse"$ All he woul" agree to was a watere""own "irecti%e stating that it was thought the Germans might stage attac7s in or"er to incite 'o%iet troo&s to fight, but that such &ro%ocations were to be resiste"$ When Thu7o% calle" him at 12$CH am on the 'un"ay morning, to re&ort that a secon" German "eserter ha" swum the ri%er 4ruth to bring a re&etition of the warning, 'talin or"ere" the man to be shot, Nfor his "isinformationN$ 't was shortly after this that he left his office an" went home, to slee&$ 0e was still con%ince" that the threatening attitu"e of the German forces was nothing more than a &loy by 0itler to blac7mail him into gi%ing &olitical an" economic concessions$ 'talin was awa7ene" shortly after C$4D am by General Klasi7, who tol" him Thu7o% was on the tele&hone from Moscow, "eman"ing to s&ea7 to him$ 'lee&ily, he lifte" the recei%er$ At the other en", the Bhief of 'taff was agitate"$ NThe Germans are bombing our townsXN he shoute"$ 'talin was silent, "ee&ly shoc7e"$ Thu7o% re&eate" his message, an" went on to list re&orts of air rai"s on towns an" cities, &orts, harbours, airfiel"s, rail Lunctions, from 'e%asto&ol in the "ee& south to Tallinn in the north$ N) re&orte" the situation,N Thu7o% wrote later, Nan" re9ueste" &ermission to or"er our troo&s to start fighting bac7$ 'talin was silent$ The only thing ) coul" hear was the soun" of his breathing$ O+o you un"erstan" meMO ) as7e"$ There was silence again$N )ncre"ibly, 'talin still refuse" to belie%e that this was really war$ 0e "i" not gi%e Thu7o% the authorisation he wante", for the Re" Army an" Air Force to fight bac7$ )nstea", he calle" a meeting of the 4olitburo to "iscuss what was ha&&ening an" what shoul" be "one$ As he was being "ri%en bac7 to the /remlin, the "awn s7y along the western frontier of his em&ire, CDH miles away, was torn a&art by gigantic flashes of artificial lightning an" the groun" beneath shu""ere" to the roar of man6ma"e thun"er, as the German artillery o&ene" u& its massi%e barrage$ -y the time he reache" his office, German groun" forces ha" crosse" the frontiers to begin the actual in%asion$ -ut still he refuse" to belie%e what was ha&&ening, as garble" re&orts raine" in$ The chaos an" confusion among nearly all the 'o%iet frontier forces was com&oun"e" by the fact that un"erco%er units from the Germans, '&ecial Regiment 5HH, which ha" been o&erating behin" the 'o%iet lines wearing Re" Army uniforms for some "ays, ha" cut the tele&hone cables on which they "e&en"e" for most of their communications$ German aircraft ha" com&lete" the tas7 of "isru&tion by "estroying ra"io stations an" signals centres, along with railway trac7s an" Lunctions, bombing them with a &in&oint accuracy ma"e &ossible by months of aerial reconnaissance an" &hotogra&hy which they ha" ne%er bothere" to conceal or "eny$ The bombers encountere" little resistance anywhere$ 'o un&re&are" were the 'o%iets that few of the %ital bri"ges across the broa" ri%ers that form much of the frontier were mine" with "emolition charges, an" those that were remaine" unblown$ They were all ca&ture" intact by the Germans, either by force or by tric7ery ; in se%eral cases, German guar"s sim&ly calle" their 'o%iet o&&osite numbers into the centre of the bri"ge, as though to tal7, an" then gunne" them "own8 in other &laces German s9ua"s were hi""en in rail wagons, un"er fa7e loa"s of gra%el or other freight cargo, lea&ing out from co%er an" o%er&owering the guar"s after rolling across to the 'o%iet si"e$ At >ero hour, CE1D am Bentral .uro&ean Time, German armour was able to &our unhin"ere" across the bri"ges$ .lsewhere, infantry an" other units crosse" the ri%ers in rubber "inghies or flat6bottome" boats, accom&anie" in many &laces by s&ecially &re&are" submersible tan7s, in the face of only rifle an" light wea&on fire from the 'o%iet bor"er guar"s$ They ha" no serious obstacles to o%ercome, since 'talin ha" forbi""en the construction of any &ermanent "efences or fortifications for fear they might u&set 0itlerX Jn

'o%iet airfiel"s, which ha" also been thoroughly reconnoitre" by the 2uftwaffe, few aircraft were either camouflage" or un"er co%er$ Most were neatly &ositione", in full &ara"e formation, i"eally "is&laye" for "estruction$ Many were actually &egge" "own to the groun", so that they coul" not easily be mo%e", an" %ery few were either arme" or fuelle"$ This was the normal con"ition in 'o%iet fiel"s, to &re%ent &ilots "eci"ing either to abscon" or to &ose an arme" threat to the regime$ For the same reason, ammunition for the Re" Army was 7e&t un"er se&arate control, well away from the wea&ons it was inten"e" for$ The result was that when the Germans swoo&e" "own from the s7ies, not only were the 'o%iet &lanes sitting "uc7s, they were also unable to ta7e off to "efen" themsel%es or their bases$ -y noon on 22 June, the Germans ha" "estroye" some 1,2HH 'o%iet aircraft, at least 5HH of them on the groun"$ Within forty6eight hours, the number ha" reache" 2,HHH, an" the Re" Air Force in the west was wi&e" out as a fighting force$ 2i7e the attac7 itself, the sheer si>e of the catastro&he unleashe" on the 'o%iet (nion that "ay was un&arallele" in history$ 't was to ta7e the 'o%iet (nion four long years of sa%age fighting to a%enge 0itlerNs treacherous blow$ The cost was enormousE at least twenty million 'o%iet citi>ens "ie" in the war, a further twenty6fi%e million were mutilate" or cri&&e", an" huge areas of the country were lai" waste$ Jut of e%ery hun"re" young 'o%iet sol"iers who went to the front, only three sur%i%e" &hysically unharme" to the en"$ )t was a terrible &rice to &ay for the blin"ness of one man, Josef 'talin, to the insatiable gree" of one other, A"olf 0itler$ (nli7e the other countries which 0itler ha" attac7e" since 'e&tember 1 C , the 'o%iet (nion was, at least on &a&er, militarily stronger than @a>i Germany$ Jfficial 'o%iet figures gi%e the si>e of the Re" Army in June 1 41 as D,C:C,HHH men, arme" with o%er *:,HHH fiel" guns an" mortars, 1,5*1 tan7s, an" o%er 2, :HH combat aircraft Nof new ty&esN, &lus e%en larger numbers of out"ate", but still ser%iceable, ol"er mo"els$ Jf these forces, no fewer than 1:H "i%isions with a total strength of 2,*5H,HHH men, arme" with C:,DHH guns an" mortars !'o%iet figures "o not "ifferentiate between the two ty&es of wea&on#, 1,4:D tan7s an" 1,D4H mo"ern combat aircraft, were statione" in the western frontier "istricts$ -earing in min" the ol" military "ictum strictly a"here" to by Allie" comman"ers of the "ay such as General -ernar" Montgomery, that a numerical su&eriority of CE1 is necessary to ensure the success of an attac7, the Re" Army shoul" ha%e ha" no "ifficulty in hol"ing off the Wehrmacht, ha" it been &re&are"$ The fact that it was not &re&are", in s&ite of all the warnings that were gi%en, must in the en" be lai" at the "oor of Josef 'talin$ N'talin was so afrai" of war,N @i7ita '$ /hrushche%, then first secretary of the Bommunist 4arty in the (7raine, wrote in his memoirs, Nthat e%en when the Germans trie" to ta7e us by sur&rise $$$ <he= con%ince" himself that 0itler woul" 7ee& his wor" an" woul"nNt really attac7 us$N A goo" many of /hrushche%Ns &ronouncements nee" to be ta7en with large "oses of saltE he was always &re&are" to ben" or stretch the facts in or"er to ma7e a &oint, an" the &oint he was constantly trying to ma7e after he came to &ower was to "enigrate e%erything about his &re"ecessor$ -ut in this case, there is un"oubte"ly a great "eal of truth in what he says$ Why, then, was 'talin so afrai" of warM Why was he willing, against all e%i"ence an" e?&erience, to trust 0itlerM What was the wor" which he belie%e" 0itler woul" 7ee&M /hrushche% himself su&&lies &art of the answer to the first 9uestion$ 0e says 'talin Nha" ob%iously lost all confi"ence in the ability of our army to &ut u& a fightN, an" claims that after the fall of France in 1 4H, 'talin ha" tol" himE N0itler is sure to beat our brains in$N The answers to the other 9uestions lie in the com&le? &ersonal attitu"es of the two "ictators to each other, an" in the "ea"ly embrace into which they entere" when their Foreign Ministers signe" a nonaggression &act on their behalf in Moscow on 2C August 1 C ; an embrace which coul" only en" in the total "estruction of one of them$3 ; The Deadl 8mbrace( $itler1 Stalin and the Na+i?Soviet 5act1 ;@B@?;@>; by Anthony Rea" an" +a%i" Fisher, &$ 16:

.dol2 ?itler < Baku %il +ields

Baku oil 2ields near Baku, (oviet 9nion "present@day .8erbaiJan)

1)t is a 9uestion of the &ossession of -a7u$ (nless we get the -a7u oil, the war is lost$3 ; A"olf 0itler, 1 42

+uring Worl" War )), 0itler was set on ca&turing the -a7u oil fiel"s to fuel his own efforts of the war$ At that time -a7u,s oil was &ro%i"ing almost the entire su&&ly of fuel for the 'o%iet resistance$ 0itler,s &lan was to attac7 -a7u on 'e&tember 2D, 1 42$ Antici&ating the u&coming %ictory, his generals &resente" him a ca7e of the region ; -a7u an" the Bas&ian 'ea$ +elighte", 0itler too7 the choice &iece for himself ; -a7u$ The attac7 ne%er occurre" an" German forces were "efeate" before they coul" reach -a7u$ !4hoto from a "ocumentary film#

The city of -a7u is locate" ne?t to the Bas&ian 'ea, near the eastern si"e of the Baucasus Mountains$

A ma& of A>erbaiLan, Armenia, an" Georgia

1)n 1 2C there were 1,DHH cartels, accor"ing to the Fe"eration of German )n"ustrialists$ They were, as we ha%e seen, gi%en a s&ecial legal status an" a s&ecial court the following year$ -y the time of the financial colla&se of 1 C1 there were 2,DHH cartels, an" mono&oly ca&italism ha" grown to such an e?tent that it was &re&are" to ta7e o%er com&lete control of the German economic system$ As the ban7s fell un"er go%ernment control, &ri%ate control of the economic system was assure" by releasing it from its subser%ience to the ban7s$ This was achie%e" by legislation such as that curtailing interloc7ing "irectorates an" the new cor&oration law of 1 C:, but abo%e all by the economic fact that the growth of large enter&rises an" of cartels ha" &ut in"ustry in a &osition where it was able to finance itself without see7ing hel& from the ban7s$ This new &ri%ately manage" mono&oly ca&italism was organi>e" in an intricate hierarchy whose "etails coul" be unra%ele" only by a lifetime of stu"y$ The si>e of enter&rises ha" grown so big that in most fiel"s a relati%ely small number were able to "ominate the fiel"$ )n a""ition, there was a %ery consi"erable amount of interloc7ing "irectorates an" ownershi& by one cor&oration of the ca&ital stoc7 of another$ Finally, cartels wor7ing between cor&orations fi?e" &rices, mar7ets, an" out&ut 9uotas for all im&ortant in"ustrial &ro"ucts$ An e?am&le of thisZnot by any means the worstZcoul" be foun" in the German coal in"ustry in 1 C:$ There were 2*H mining com&anies$ Jf the total out&ut, 21 com&anies ha" H &ercent, D ha" DH &ercent, an" 1 ha" 14 &ercent$ These mines were organi>e" into fi%e cartels of which 1 controlle" 51 &ercent of the out&ut, an" 2 controlle" 4 &ercent$ An" finally, most coal mines !* &ercent of total out&ut# were owne" subsi"iaries of other cor&orations which use" coal, &ro"ucers either of metals !D4 &ercent of total coal out&ut# or of chemicals !1H &ercent of total out&ut#$ 'imilar concentration e?iste" in most other lines of economic acti%ity$ )n ferrous metals in 1 2 , C firms out of 2* accounte" for *5$5 &ercent of all German &ig6iron &ro"uction8 4 out of 4 &ro"uce" *5$C &ercent of all cru"e steel8 C out of D &ro"uce" DD$5 &ercent of all rolling mill &ro"ucts$ )n 1 4C, one firm !(nite" 'teel Wor7s# &ro"uce" 4H &ercent of all German steel &ro"uction, while 12 firms &ro"uce" o%er H &ercent$ Bom&etition coul" ne%er e?ist with concentration as com&lete as this, but in a""ition the steel in"ustry was organi>e" into a series of steel cartels !one for each &ro"uct#$ These cartels, which began about 15 H, by 1 CH ha" control of 1HH &ercent of the German out&ut of ferrous metal &ro"ucts$ Member firm ha" achie%e" this figure by buying u& the nonmembers in the years before 1 CH$ These cartels manage" &rices, &ro"uction, an" mar7ets within Germany, enforcing their "ecisions by means of fines or boycotts$ They were also members of the )nternational 'teel Bartel, mo"ele" on Germany,s steel cartel an" "ominate" by it$ The )nternational Bartel controlle" two6fifths of the worl"Ns steel &ro"uction an" fi%e6si?ths of the total foreign tra"e in steel$ The ownershi& of iron an" steel enter&rises in Germany is obscure but ob%iously highly concentrate"$ )n 1 C2, Frie"rich Flic7 ha" maLority ownershi& of Gelsen6/irchner -ergwer7e, which ha" maLority control of the (nite" 'teel Wor7s$ 0e sol" his control to the German go%ernment for 1*: &ercent of its %alue by threatening to sell it to a French firm$ After 0itler came into &ower, this ownershi& by the go%ernment was 1re6&ri%ati>e"3 so that go%ernment ownershi& was re"uce" to 2D &ercent$ Four other grou&s ha" 41 &ercent among them, an" these were closely interwo%en$ Flic7 remaine" as "irector of (nite" 'teel Wor7s an" was chairman of the boar"s of four other great steel combines$ )n a""ition, he was "irector or chairman of the boar"s in si? iron an" coal mines, as well as of numerous other im&ortant enter&rises$ )t is %ery li7ely that the steel in"ustry of Germany in 1 C: was controlle" by no more than fi%e men of whom Flic7 was the most im&ortant$ These e?am&les of the growth of mono&oly ca&italism in Germany are merely &ic7e" at ran"om an" are by no means e?ce&tional$ .nother famous e<am#le $an be foun) in the gro&th of =: G: Farbenin)ustrie6 the German $hemi$al organization: This &as forme) in 475G of three $hief firms6 an) gre& stea)ily until after its last reorganization in 47?8 it $ontrolle) about t&oDthir)s of GermanyKs out#ut of $hemi$als: )t s&rea" into e%ery branch of in"ustry, concentrating chiefly on "yes !in which it ha" 1HH &ercent mono&oly#, "rugs, &lastics, e?&losi%es, an" light metals$ )t ha" been sai" that Germany coul" not ha%e fought either of the worl" wars without )$ G$ Farben$ )n the first war, by the 0aber &rocess for e?tracting nitrogen from the air, it &ro%i"e" su&&lies of e?&losi%es an" fertili>ers when the natural sources in Bhile were cut off$ )n the secon" war, it &ro%i"e" numerous absolute necessities, of which artificial rubber an" synthetic motor fuels were the most im&ortant$ This com&any by the 'econ" Worl" War was the largest enter&rise in Germany$ )t ha" o%er 2,CC2$5 million reichsmar7s in assets an" 1,1*D million in ca&itali>ation in 1 42$ )t ha" about 1HH im&ortant subsi"iaries in Germany, an" em&loye" CDH,HHH &ersons in those in which it was "irectly concerne"$ )t ha" interests in about :HH cor&orations outsi"e Germany an" ha" entere" into o%er DHH restricti%e agreements with foreign concerns$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, &$ D1H6D12

The Reichstag s&eech of +ecember 11, 1 41E 0itlerNs "eclaration of war against the (nite" 'tates
4t has often been said that $itler*s greatest mistakes were his decisions to go to war against the Soviet Cnion and the Cnited States% Whatever the truth ma be1 it*s worth noting his own detailed Dustifications for these grave decisions% 7n Thursda afternoon1 ;; December ;@>;1 four da s after the Ea&anese attack on 5earl $arbor1 $itler s&oke to the 0eichstag in Berlin% The <<?minute address1 which he had written himself1 was broadcast to the nation% 4n it the German leader recounted the reasons for the outbreak of war in Se&tember ;@B@1 e:&lained wh he decided to strike against the Soviet Cnion in Eune ;@>;1 reviewed the dramatic course of the war thus far1 and dealt at length with 5resident ,ranklin 0oosevelt*s hostile &olicies toward German % $itler detailed the increasingl belligerent actions of 0oosevelt*s government and then dramaticall announced that German was now Doining Ea&an in war against the Cnited States% The da after it wasFdelivered1 a ver inaccurate and misleading translation of &ortions of the address a&&eared in the New Gork Times% But although it should be of &articular interest to Americans1 a com&lete te:t of this im&ortant historical document has a&&arentl never before been made available to the 8nglish?s&eaking world% This translation is m own1 as are the brief clarifications given in brackets% ,ollowing the s&eech1 4 have included German *s formal note to the C%S% government declaring war and a short list of items for suggested further reading% 6 Mar7 Weber

+e&utiesX Men of the German ReichstagX A year of worl"6historical e%ents is coming to an en"$ A year of great "ecisions is a&&roaching$ )n this gra%e &erio" ) s&ea7 to you, "e&uties of the Reichstag, as the re&resentati%es of the German nation$ )n a""ition, the entire German nation shoul" also re%iew what has ha&&ene" an" ta7e note of the "ecisions re9uire" by the &resent an" the future$ After the re&eate" reLection of my &eace &ro&osal in 1 4H by the -ritish 4rime Minister <Bhurchill= an" the cli9ue that su&&orts an" controls him, it was clear by the fall of that year that this war woul" ha%e to be fought through to the en", contrary to all logic an" necessity$ Aou, my ol" 4arty comra"es, 7now that ) ha%e always "eteste" half6hearte" or wea7 "ecisions$ )f 4ro%i"ence has "eeme" that the German &eo&le are not to be s&are" this struggle, then ) am than7ful that 'he has entruste" me with the lea"ershi& in a historic conflict that will be "ecisi%e in "etermining the ne?t fi%e hun"re" or one thousan" years, not only of our German history, but also of the history of .uro&e an" e%en of the entire worl"$ The German &eo&le an" its sol"iers wor7 an" fight to"ay not only for themsel%es an" their own age, but also for many generations to come$ A historical tas7 of uni9ue "imensions has been entruste" to us by the Breator which we are now oblige" to carry out$ The western armistice which was &ossible shortly after the conclusion of the conflict in @orway <in June 1 4H= com&elle" the German lea"ershi&, first of all, to militarily secure the most im&ortant &olitical, strategic an" economic areas that ha" been won$ Bonse9uently, the "efense ca&abilities of the lan"s which were con9uere" at that time ha%e change"$ From /ir7enes <in northern @orway= to the '&anish frontier stretches the most e?tensi%e belt of great "efense installations an" fortresses$ Bountless air fiel"s ha%e been built, inclu"ing some in the far north which were blaste" out of granite$ The number an" strength of the &rotecte" submarine shelters that "efen" na%al bases are such that they are &ractically im&regnable from both the sea an" the air$ They are "efen"e" by more than one an" a half thousan" gun battery em&lacements, which ha" to be sur%eye", &lanne" an" built$ A networ7 of roa"s an" rail lines has been lai" out so that the lines of communication between the '&anish frontier an" 4etsamo <in the far @orth= can be "efen"e" in"e&en"ently from the sea$ The installations built by the 4ioneer an" construction battalions of the na%y, army an" air force in coo&eration with the To"t Jrgani>ation are not at all inferior to those of the Westwall <along the German frontier with France=$ The wor7 to further strengthen all this continues without &ause$ ) am "etermine" to ma7e this .uro&ean front im&regnable against any enemy attac7$ This "efensi%e wor7 which continue" "uring the &ast winter, was com&lemente" by military offensi%es insofar as seasonal con"itions &ermitte"$ German na%al forces abo%e an" below the wa%es continue" their stea"y war of annihilation against the na%y an" merchant marine of the -ritish an" their subser%ient allies$ Through reconnaissance flights an" air attac7s, the German air force hel&s to "estroy enemy shi&&ing an" in countless retaliation air attac7s to gi%e the -ritish a better i"ea of the reality of the so6calle" Oe?citing warO which is the creation, abo%e all, of the current -ritish 4rime Minister <Bhurchill=$

Germany was su&&orte" in this struggle "uring the &ast summer abo%e all by its )talian ally$ For many months our ally )taly bore on its shoul"ers the main weight of a large &art of -ritish might$ Jnly because of the enormous su&eriority in hea%y tan7s were the -ritish able to bring about a tem&orary crisis in @orth Africa, but by 24 March of this &ast year a small combine" force of German an" )talian units un"er the comman" of General <.rwin= Rommel began a counterattac7$ Age"abia fell on 2 A&ril$ -engha>i was reache" on the 4th$ Jur combine" forces entere" +erna on the 5th, Tobru7 was encircle" on the 11th, an" -ar"ia was occu&ie" on 12 A&ril$ The achie%ement of the German Afri7a /or&s is all the more outstan"ing because this fiel" of battle is com&letely alien an" unfamiliar to the Germans, climatically an" otherwise$ As once in '&ain <1 C*61 C =, so now in @orth Africa, Germans an" )talians stan" together against the same enemy$ While these "aring actions were again securing the @orth African front with the bloo" of German an" )talian sol"iers, the threatening clou"s of terrible "anger were gathering o%er .uro&e$ Bom&elle" by bitter necessity, ) "eci"e" in the fall of 1 C to at least try to create the &rere9uisite con"itions for a general &eace by eliminating the acute tension between Germany an" 'o%iet Russia <with the German6'o%iet non6aggression &act of 2C August 1 C =$ This was &sychologically "ifficult because of the basic attitu"e towar"s -olshe%ism of the German &eo&le an", abo%e all, of the <@ational 'ocialist= 4arty$ JbLecti%ely, though, this was a sim&le matter because in all the countries that -ritain sai" were threatene" by us an" which were offere" military alliances, Germany actually ha" only economic interests$ ) may remin" you, "e&uties an" men of the German Reichstag, that throughout the s&ring an" summer of 1 C -ritain offere" military alliances to a number of countries, claiming that Germany inten"e" to in%a"e them an" rob them of their free"om$ 0owe%er, the German Reich an" its go%ernment coul" assure them with a clear conscience that these insinuations "i" not corres&on" to the truth in any way$ Moreo%er, there was the sober military reali>ation that in case of a war which might be force" u&on the German nation by -ritish "i&lomacy, the struggle coul" be fought on two fronts only with %ery great sacrifices$ An" after the -altic states, Rumania an" so forth were incline" to acce&t the -ritish offers of military alliance an" thereby ma"e clear that they also belie%e" themsel%es to be threatene" <by Germany=, it was not only the right but also the "uty of the German Reich go%ernment to "elineate the <geogra&hical= limits of German interests <between Germany an" the (''R=$ All the same, the countries in%ol%e" reali>e" %ery 9uic7ly 6 which was unfortunate for the German Reich as well 6 that the best an" strongest guarantee against the <'o%iet= threat from the .ast was Germany$ Thus, when these countries, on their own initiati%e, cut their ties with the German Reich an" instea" &ut their trust in &romises of ai" from a &ower <-ritain= which, in its &ro%erbial egotism, has for centuries ne%er gi%en hel& but has always "eman"e" it, they were lost All the same, the fate of these countries arouse" the strongest sym&athy of the German &eo&le$ The winter war of the Finns <against the (''R, 1 C 61 4H= arouse" in us a feeling of a"miration mi?e" with bitternessE a"miration because, as a sol"ierly nation, we ha%e a sym&athetic heart for heroism an" sacrifice, an" bitterness because our concern for the enemy threat in the West an" the "anger in the .ast meant that we were not in a &osition to hel&$ When it became clear to us that 'o%iet Russia conclu"e" that the <German6'o%iet= "elineation of &olitical s&heres of influence <in August 1 C = ga%e it the right to &ractically e?terminate foreign nations, the <German6'o%iet= relationshi& was maintaine" only for utilitarian reasons, contrary to reason an" sentiment$ Alrea"y in 1 4H it became increasingly clear from month to month that the &lans of the men in the /remlin were aime" at the "omination, an" thus the "estruction, of all of .uro&e$ ) ha%e alrea"y tol" the nation of the buil"6u& of 'o%iet Russian military &ower in the .ast "uring a &erio" when Germany ha" only a few "i%isions in the &ro%inces bor"ering 'o%iet Russia$ Jnly a blin" &erson coul" fail to see that a military buil"6u& of uni9ue worl"6historical "imensions was being carrie" out$ An" this was not in or"er to &rotect something that was being threatene", but rather only to attac7 that which seeme" inca&able of "efense$ The 9uic7 conclusion of the cam&aign in the West <May6June 1 4H= meant that those in &ower in Moscow were not able to count on the imme"iate e?haustion of the German Reich$ 0owe%er, they "i" not change their &lans at all, but only &ost&one" the timing of their attac7$ The summer of 1 41 seeme" li7e the i"eal moment to stri7e$ A new Mongol in%asion was rea"y to &our across .uro&e$ Mr$ Bhurchill also &romise" that there woul" be a change in the -ritish war against Germany at this same time$ )n a cowar"ly way, he now tries to "eny that "uring a secret meeting in the -ritish 0ouse of Bommons in 1 4H he sai" that an im&ortant factor for the successful continuation an" conclusion of this war woul" be the 'o%iet entry into the war, which woul" come "uring 1 41 at the latest, an" which woul" also ma7e it &ossible for -ritain to ta7e the offensi%e$ Bonscious of our "uty, we obser%e" the military buil"6u& of a worl" &ower this last s&ring which seeme" to ha%e ine?haustible reser%es of human an" material resources$ +ar7 clou"s began to gather o%er .uro&e$ What is .uro&e, my "e&utiesM There is no geogra&hical "efinition of our continent, but only a racial <%ollcliche= an" cultural one$ The frontier of this continent is not the (ral mountains, but rather the line that "i%i"es the Western outloo7 on life from that of the .ast$ At one time, .uro&e was confine" to the Gree7 isles, which ha" been reache" by @or"ic tribes, an" where the flame first burne" which slowly but stea"ily enlightene" humanity$ An" when these Gree7s fought against the in%asion of the 4ersian con9uerors, they "i" not Lust "efen" their own small homelan", which was Greece, but <also= that conce&t which is now .uro&e$ An" then <the s&irit of .uro&e shifte" from 0ellas to Rome$ Roman thought an" Roman statecraft combine" with Gree7 s&irit an" Gree7 culture$ An em&ire was create", the im&ortance an" creati%e &ower of which has ne%er been matche", much less sur&asse", e%en to this "ay$ An" when the

Roman legions "efen"e" )taly in three terrible wars against the attac7 of Barthage from Africa, an" finally battle" to %ictory, in this case as well Rome fought not Lust for herself, but <also= for the Greco6 Roman worl" which then encom&asse" .uro&e$ The ne?t in%asion against the home soil of this new culture of humanity came from the wi"e e?&anses of the .ast$ A horrific storm of cultureless hor"es s&rang from the center of Asia "ee& into the heart of the .uro&ean continent, burning, ra%aging an" mur"ering as a true scourge of Go"$ Roman an" Germanic men fought together for the first time on the Batalaunian battle fiel"s in a "ecisi%e conflict <4D1 A$+$= of tremen"ous im&ortance for a culture which ha" begun with the Gree7s, &asse" on to the Romans, an" then encom&asse" the Germanic &eo&les$ .uro&e ha" mature"$ The Jcci"ent arose from 0ellas an" Rome, an" for many centuries its "efense was the tas7 not only of the Romans, but abo%e all of the Germanic &eo&les$ What we call .uro&e is the geogra&hic territory of the Jcci"ent, enlightene" by Gree7 culture, ins&ire" by the &owerful heritage of the Roman em&ire, its territory enlarge" by Germanic coloni>ation$ Whether it was the German em&erors fighting bac7 in%asions from the .ast by the (nstrut or on the 2echfel" <near Augsburg, in DD=, or others &ushing bac7 Africa from '&ain o%er a &erio" of many years, it was always a struggle of a "e%elo&ing .uro&e against a &rofoun"ly alien outsi"e worl"$ Just as Rome once ma"e her immortal contribution to the buil"ing an" "efense of the continent, so now ha%e the Germanic &eo&les ta7en u& the "efense an" &rotection of a family of nations which, although they may "iffer an" "i%erge in their &olitical structure an" goals, ne%ertheless together constitute a racially an" culturally unifie" an" com&lementary whole$ An" from this .uro&e there ha%e not only been settlements in other &arts of the worl", but intellectual <geistig= an" cultural fertili>ation as well, a fact which anyone reali>es who is willing to ac7nowle"ge the truth rather than "eny it$ Thus, it was not .nglan" which culti%ate" the continent, but rather Anglo6'a?on an" @orman branches of the Germanic nation from our continent which mo%e" to the <-ritish= islan" an" ma"e &ossible her "e%elo&ment, which is certainly uni9ue in history$ )n the same way, it was not America that "isco%ere" .uro&e, but the other way aroun"$ An" all that which America "i" not get from .uro&e may seem worthy of a"miration to a Jewifie" mi?e" race, but .uro&e regar"s that merely as sym&tomatic of "ecay in artistic an" cultural life, the &ro"uct of Jewish or @egroi" bloo" mi?ture$ My +e&utiesX Men of the German ReichstagX ) ha%e to ma7e these remar7s because this struggle, which became ob%iously una%oi"able in the early months of this year, an" which the German Reich, abo%e all, is calle" u&on this time to lea", also greatly transcen"s the interests of our own &eo&le an" nation$ When the Gree7s once stoo" against the 4ersians, they "efen"e" more than Lust Greece$ When the Romans stoo" against the Barthaginians, they "efen"e" more than Lust Rome$ When the Roman an" Germanic &eo&les stoo" together against the 0uns, they "efen"e" more than Lust the West$ When German em&erors stoo" against the Mongols they "efen"e" more than Lust Germany$ An" when '&anish heroes stoo" against Africa, they "efen"e" not Lust '&ain, but all of .uro&e as well$ )n the same way, Germany "oes not fight to"ay Lust for itself, but for our entire continent$ An" it is an aus&icious sign that this reali>ation is to"ay so "ee&ly roote" in the subconscious of most .uro&ean nations that they &artici&ate in this struggle, either with o&en e?&ressions of su&&ort or with streams of %olunteers$ When the German an" )talian armies too7 the offensi%e against Augosla%ia an" Greece on the *th of A&ril of this year, that was the &relu"e to the great struggle in which we now fin" oursel%es$ That is because the re%olt in -elgra"e <on 2* March 1 41= which le" to the o%erthrow of the former &rince regent an" his go%ernment "etermine" the further "e%elo&ment of e%ents in that &art of .uro&e$ Although -ritain &laye" a maLor role in that cou&, 'o%iet Russia &laye" the main role$ What ) ha" refuse" to Mr$ Moloto% <the 'o%iet Foreign Minister= "uring his %isit to -erlin <in @o%ember 1 4H=, 'talin belie%e" he coul" obtain in"irectly against our will by re%olutionary acti%ity$ Without regar" for the treaties they ha" signe", the -olshe%i7 rulers e?&an"e" their ambitions$ The <'o%iet= treaty of frien"shi& with the new re%olutionary regime <in -elgra"e= showe" %ery 9uic7ly Lust how threatening the "anger ha" become$ The achie%ements of the German arme" forces in this cam&aign were honore" in the German Reichstag on 4 May 1 41$ At that time, though, ) was not able to re%eal that we were %ery 9uic7ly a&&roaching a confrontation with a state <'o%iet Russia= which "i" not attac7 at the time of the cam&aign in the -al7ans only because its military buil"6u& was not yet com&lete an" because it was not able to use its air fiel"s as a result of the mu" from melting snow at this time of year which ma"e it im&ossible to use the runways$ My +e&utiesX Men of the ReichstagX When ) became aware of the &ossibility of a threat to the east of the Reich in 1 4H through <secret= re&orts from the -ritish 0ouse of Bommons an" by obser%ations of 'o%iet Russian troo& mo%ements on our frontiers, ) imme"iately or"ere" the formation of many new armore", motori>e" an" infantry "i%isions$ The human an" material resources for them were abun"antly a%ailable$ <)n this regar"= ) can ma7e only one &romise to you, my "e&uties, an" to the entire German nationE while &eo&le in "emocratic countries un"erstan"ably

tal7 a lot about armaments, in @ational 'ocialist Germany all the more will actually be &ro"uce"$ )t has been that way in the &ast, an" it is not any "ifferent now$ Whene%er "ecisi%e action has to be ta7en, we will ha%e more an", abo%e all, better 9uality wea&ons with each &assing year$ We reali>e" %ery clearly that un"er no circumstances coul" we allow the enemy the o&&ortunity to stri7e first into our heart$ @e%ertheless, the "ecision in this case <to attac7 the (''R= was a %ery "ifficult one$ When the writers for the "emocratic news&a&ers now "eclare that ) woul" ha%e thought twice before attac7ing if ) ha" 7nown the strength of the -olshe%i7 a"%ersaries, they show that they "o not un"erstan" either the situation or me$ ) ha%e not sought war$ To the contrary, ) ha%e "one e%erything to a%oi" conflict$ -ut ) woul" forget my "uty an" my conscience if ) were to "o nothing in s&ite of the reali>ation that a conflict ha" become una%oi"able$ -ecause ) regar"e" 'o%iet Russia as a "anger not only for the German Reich but for all of .uro&e, ) "eci"e", if &ossible, to gi%e the or"er myself to attac7 a few "ays before the outbrea7 of this conflict$ A truly im&ressi%e amount of authentic material is now a%ailable which confirms that a 'o%iet Russian attac7 was inten"e"$ We are also sure about when this attac7 was to ta7e &lace$ )n %iew of this "anger, the e?tent of which we are &erha&s only now truly aware, ) can only than7 the 2or" Go" that 0e enlightene" me in time an" has gi%en me the strength to "o what must be "one$ Millions of German sol"iers may than7 0im for their li%es, an" all of .uro&e for its e?istence$ ) may say this to"ayE )f this wa%e of more than 2H,HHH tan7s, hun"re"s of "i%isions, tens of thousan"s of artillery &ieces, along with more than 1H,HHH air&lanes, ha" not been 7e&t from being set into motion against the Reich, .uro&e woul" ha%e been lost$ 'e%eral nations ha%e been "estine" to &re%ent or &arry this blow through the sacrifice of their bloo"$ )f Finlan" <for e?am&le= ha" not imme"iately "eci"e", for the secon" time, to ta7e u& wea&ons, then the comfortable bourgeois life of the other @or"ic countries woul" ha%e been 9uic7ly en"e"$ )f the German Reich, with its sol"iers an" wea&ons, ha" not stoo" against this o&&onent, a storm woul" ha%e burne" o%er .uro&e which woul" ha%e eliminate" once an" for all time the laughable -ritish i"ea of the .uro&ean balance of &ower in all its intellectual &aucity an" tra"itional stu&i"ity$ )f the 'lo%a7s, 0ungarians an" Rumanians ha" not also acte" to "efen" this .uro&ean worl", then the -olshe%i7 hor"es woul" ha%e &oure" o%er the +anube countries as "i" once the swarms of AttilaNs 0uns, an" <'o%iet= Tatars an" Mongols woul" <then= force a re%ision of the Treaty of Montreu? <of July 1 C*= on the o&en country by the )onian 'ea$ )f )taly, '&ain an" Broatia ha" not sent their "i%isions, then a .uro&ean "efense front woul" not ha%e arisen which &roclaims the conce&t of a new .uro&e an" thereby effecti%ely ins&ires all other nations as well$ -ecause of this awareness of "anger, %olunteers ha%e come from northern an" western .uro&eE @orwegians, +anes, +utch, Flemish, -elgians an" e%en French$ They ha%e all gi%en the struggle of the allie" forces of the A?is the character of a .uro&ean crusa"e, in the truest sense of the wor"$ This is not yet the right time to s&ea7 of the &lanning an" "irection of this cam&aign$ 0owe%er, in a few sentences ) woul" li7e to say something about what has been achie%e" <so far= in this greatest conflict in history$ -ecause of the enormous area in%ol%e" as well as the number an" si>e of the e%ents, in"i%i"ual im&ressions may be lost an" forgotten$ The attac7 began at "awn on 22 June <1 41=$ With "auntless "aring, the frontier fortifications which were meant to &rotect the 'o%iet Russian buil"6u& against us from sur&rise attac7 were bro7en through$ Gro"no fell by 2C June$ Jn 24 June, following the ca&ture of -rest62ito%s7, the fortress <there= was ta7en in combat, an" Kilnius an" /aunas <in 2ithuania= were also ta7en$ +auga%&ils <in 2at%ia= fell on 2* June$ The first two great encirclement battles near -ialysto7 an" Mins7 were com&lete" on 1H July$ We ca&ture" C24,HHH &risoners of war, C,CC2 tan7s an" 1,5H artillery &ieces$ -y 1C July the 'talin 2ine ha" been bro7en through at almost e%ery "ecisi%e &lace$ 'molens7 fell on 1* July after hea%y fighting, an" German an" Rumanian units were able to force their way across the +niester <Ri%er= on 1 July$ The -attle of 'molens7 en"e" on * August after many encircling o&erations$ As a result, another C1H,HHH Russians were ta7en as &risoners$ Moreo%er, C,2HD tan7s an" C,12H artillery &ieces were counte" 6 either "estroye" or ca&ture"$ Just three "ays later the fate of another 'o%iet Russian army grou& was seale"$ Jn August in the battle of (man, another 1HC,HHH 'o%iet Russian &risoners of war were ta7en, an" C1: tan7s an" 1,1HH artillery &ieces were either "estroye" or ca&ture"$ @i7olaye% <in the (7raine= fell on 1C August, an" /herson was ta7en on the 21st$ Jn the same "ay the battle near Gomel en"e", resulting in 54,HHH &risoners as well as 144 tan7s an" 545 artillery &ieces either ca&ture" or "estroye"$ The 'o%iet Russian &ositions between the )lmen an" 4ei&us <2a7es= were bro7en through on 21 August, while the bri"gehea" aroun" +ne&ro&etro%s7 fell into our han"s on 2* August$ Jn the 25th of that month German troo&s entere" Tallinn an" 4al"is7i <.stonia= after hea%y fighting, while the

Finns too7 Kyborg on the 2Hth$ With the ca&ture of 4etro7re&ost on 5 'e&tember, 2eningra" was finally cut off from the south$ -y 1* 'e&tember bri"gehea"s across the +nie&er were forme", an" on 15 'e&tember 4olta%a fell into the han"s of our sol"iers$ German units storme" the fortress of /ie% on 1 'e&tember, an" on 22 'e&tember the con9uest of <the -altic islan" of= 'aaremaa was crowne" by the ca&ture of its ca&ital$ The battle near /ie% was com&lete" on 2: 'e&tember$ .n"less columns of **D,HHH &risoners of war marche" to the west$ )n the encircle" area, 554 tan7s an" C,1:5 artillery &ieces were ca&ture"$ The battle to brea7 through the central area of the .astern front began on 2 Jctober, while the battle of the A>o% 'ea was successfully com&lete" on 11 Jctober$ Another 1H:,HHH &risoners, 212 tan7s an" *:2 artillery &ieces were counte"$ After hea%y fighting, German an" Rumanian units were able to enter J"essa on 1* Jctober$ The battle to brea7 through the center of the .astern front that ha" begun on 2 Jctober en"e" on 15 Jctober with a success that is uni9ue in worl" history$ The result was **C,HHH &risoners, as well as 1,242 tan7s an" D,4D2 artillery &ieces that were either "estroye" or ca&ture"$ The ca&ture of +agoe was com&lete" on 21 Jctober$ The in"ustrial center of /har7o% was ta7en on 24 Jctober$ After %ery hea%y fighting, the Brimea was finally reache", an" on 2 @o%ember the ca&ital of 'imfero&ol was storme"$ Jn 1* @o%ember the Brimea was o%errun as far as /erch$ As of 1 +ecember, the total number of ca&ture" 'o%iet Russian &risoners was C,5H*,5*D$ The number of "estroye" or ca&ture" tan7s was 21,C 1, of artillery &ieces C2,D41, an" of air&lanes 1:,C22$ +uring this same &erio" of time, 2,1 1 -ritish air&lanes were shot "own$ The na%y san7 4,1:H,*11 gross registere" tons of shi&&ing, an" the air force san7 2,C4*,15H tons$ Altogether, *,D1*,: 1 gross registere" tons were "estroye"$ My +e&utiesX My German &eo&leX These are sober facts an", &erha&s, "ry figures$ -ut may they ne%er be forgotten by history or %anish from the memory of our own German nationX For behin" these figures are the achie%ements, sacrifices an" sufferings, the heroism an" rea"iness to "ie of millions of the best men of our own &eo&le an" of the countries allie" with us$ .%erything ha" to be fought for at the cost of health an" life, an" through struggle such as those bac7 in the homelan" can har"ly imagine$ They ha%e marche" en"less "istances, torture" by heat an" thirst, often bogge" "own with "es&air in the mu" of bottomless "irt roa"s, e?&ose" to the har"shi&s of a climate that %aries between the White an" -lac7 'eas from the intense heat of July an" August "ays to the winter storms of @o%ember an" +ecember, tormente" by insects, suffering from "irt an" &ests, free>ing in snow an" ice, they fought 6 the Germans an" the Finns, the )talians, 'lo%a7s, 0ungarians, Rumanians an" Broatians, the %olunteers from the northern an" western .uro&ean countries 6 in short, the sol"iers of the .astern frontX To"ay ) will not single out s&ecific branches of the arme" forces or &raise s&ecific lea"ers 6 they ha%e all "one their best$ An" yet, truth an" Lustice re9uires that something be mentione" againE As in the &ast, so also to"ay, of all of our German fighting men in uniform, the greatest bur"en of battle is born by our e%er6&resent infantry sol"iers$ From 22 June to 1 +ecember <1 41=, the German army has lost in this heroic struggleE 1D5,::C "ea", D*C,H52 woun"e" an" C1,1 1 missing$ The air force has lostE C,2C1 "ea", 5,4DC woun"e" an" 2,H25 missing$ The na%yE C1H "ea", 2C2 woun"e" an" 11D missing$ For the German arme" forces altogetherE 1*2,C14 "ea", D:1,:*: woun"e" an" CC,CC4 missing$ That is, the number of "ea" an" woun"e" is somewhat more than "ouble the number of those lost in the <four month long= battle of the 'omme of the <First= Worl" War <in 1 1*=, but somewhat less than half the number of missing in that battle 6 all the same, fathers an" sons of our German &eo&le$ An" now let me s&ea7 about another worl" which is re&resente" by a man <4resi"ent Fran7lin Roose%elt= who li7es to chat nicely at the firesi"e while nations an" their sol"iers fight in snow an" iceE abo%e all, the man who is &rimarily res&onsible for this war$ When the nationality &roblem in the former 4olish state was growing e%er more intolerable in 1 C , ) attem&te" to eliminate the unen"urable con"itions by means of a Lust agreement$ For a certain time it seeme" as if the 4olish go%ernment was seriously consi"ering gi%ing its a&&ro%al to a reasonable solution$ ) may also a"" here that in all of these German &ro&osals, nothing was "eman"e" which ha" not &re%iously belonge" to Germany$ )n fact, we were willing to gi%e u& much which ha" belonge" to Germany before the <First= Worl" War$ Aou will recall the "ramatic e%ents of that &erio" 6 the stea"ily increasing numbers of %ictims among the ethnic Germans <in 4olan"=$ Aou, my "e&uties, are best 9ualifie" to com&are this loss of life with that of the &resent war$ The military cam&aign in the .ast has so far cost the entire German arme" forces about 1*H,HHH "eaths, whereas "uring Lust a few months of &eace <in 1 C = more than *2,HHH ethnic Germans were 7ille", inclu"ing some who were horribly torture"$ There is no 9uestion that the German Reich ha" the right to &rotest against this situation on its bor"er an" to &ress for its elimination, if for no other reason than for its own security, &articularly

since we li%e in an age in which <some= other countries <notably, the ('A an" -ritain= regar" their security at sta7e e%en in foreign continents$ )n geogra&hical terms, the &roblems to be resol%e" were not %ery im&ortant$ .ssentially they in%ol%e" +an>ig <G"ans7= an" a connecting lin7 between the torn6away &ro%ince of .ast 4russia an" the rest of the Reich$ Jf much greater concern were the brutal &ersecutions of the Germans in 4olan"$ )n a""ition, the other minority &o&ulation grou&s <notably the (7rainians= were subLect to a fate that was no less se%ere$ +uring those "ays in August <1 C =, when the 4olish attitu"e stea"ily har"ene", than7s to -ritain,s blan7 chec7 of unlimite" bac7ing, the German Reich was mo%e" to ma7e one final &ro&osal$ We were &re&are" to enter into negotiations with 4olan" on the basis of this &ro&osal, an" we %erbally informe" the -ritish ambassa"or of the &ro&osal te?t$ To"ay ) woul" li7e to recall that &ro&osal an" re%iew it with you$ <Te?t of the German &ro&osal of 2 August 1 C E= 4ro&osal for a settlement of the +an>ig6Borri"or &roblem an" the German64olish minority 9uestionE The situation between the German Reich an" 4olan" is now such that one more inci"ent coul" lea" to action by the military forces which ha%e ta7en &osition on both si"es of the frontier$ Any &eaceful solution must be such that the basic causes of this situation are eliminate" so that it "oes not sim&ly re&eat itself, which woul" mean that not only eastern .uro&e but other areas as well woul" be subLect to the same tensions$ The causes of this situation are roote" in, first, the intolerable bor"er that was s&ecifie" by the "ictate" &eace of Kersailles <of 1 1 =, an", secon", the intolerable treatment of the minority &o&ulations in the lost territories$ )n ma7ing this &ro&osal, the German Reich go%ernment is moti%ate" by the "esire to achie%e a &ermanent solution which will insure that both si"es ha%e %itally im&ortant connecting roa"s, an" which will sol%e the minority &roblem, insofar as that is &ossible, an" if not, will at least insure a tolerable life for the minority &o&ulations with secure guarantees of their rights$ The German Reich go%ernment is con%ince" that it is absolutely necessary to ac7nowle"ge the economic an" &hysical "estruction that has occurre" since 1 15 an" to com&letely com&ensate for it Jf course, it regar"s this obligation as bin"ing on both si"es$ Jn the basis of these consi"erations, we ma7e the following &ractical &ro&osalsE 1$ The Free Bity of +an>ig returns imme"iately to the German Reich on the basis of its &urely German character an" the unanimous "esire of its &o&ulation$ 2$ The territory of the so6calle" <4olish= Borri"or will "eci"e for itself whether it wishes to belong to Germany or to 4olan"$ This territory consists of the area between the -altic 'ea <in the north= to a line mar7e" <in the south= by the towns of Marienwer"er, Grau"en>, /uhn an" -romberg 6 inclu"ing these towns 6 an" then westwar"s to 'choenlan7e$ C$ For this &ur&ose a &lebiscite will be con"ucte" in this territory$ All Germans who li%e" in this territory on 1 January 1 15 or were born there before that "ate are entitle" to %ote in the &lebiscite$ 'imilarly, all 4oles, Bashubians, an" so forth, who li%e" in this territory on that "ate or were born there before that "ate are also entitle" to %ote$ Those Germans who were e?&elle" from this territory will return to %ote in the &lebiscite$ To insure an obLecti%e &lebiscite an" to ma7e sure that all necessary &reliminary &re&aration wor7 is com&letely carrie" out, this territory will come un"er the authority of an international commission, similar to the one organi>e" in the 'aar territory$ This commission is to be organi>e" imme"iately by the four great &owers of )taly, the 'o%iet (nion, France an" -ritain$ This commission will ha%e all so%ereign authority in the territory$ Accor"ingly, 4olish sol"iers, 4olish &olice an" 4olish authorities are to clear out of this territory as soon as &ossible, by a "ate to be agree" u&on$ 4$ This territory "oes not inclu"e the 4olish harbor of G"ynia, which is regar"e" as fun"amentally so%ereign 4olish territory, to the e?tent of <ethnic= 4olish settlement The s&ecific bor"er of this 4olish harbor city will be negotiate" by Germany an" 4olan" an", if necessary, "etermine" by an international court of arbitration$ D$ )n or"er to insure sufficient time for the &re&arations necessary in or"er to con"uct a Lust &lebiscite, the &lebiscite will not ta7e &lace until after at least 12 months ha%e &asse"$ *$ )n or"er to guarantee unhin"ere" traffic between Germany an" .ast 4russia, an" between 4olan" an" the <-altic= 'ea "uring this &erio" <before the &lebiscite=, roa"s an" rail lines may be built to insure free transit$ The only tolls that may be im&ose" are those necessary for the maintenance of the transit routes or for trans&ort itself$ :$ A sim&le maLority of the %otes cast will "eci"e whether the territory will go to Germany or to 4olan"$

5$ After the &lebiscite has been con"ucte", an" regar"less of the result, free transit will be guarantee" between Germany an" its &ro%ince of +an>ig6.ast 4russia, as well as between 4olan" an" the <-altic= 'ea$ )f the &lebiscite "etermines that the territory belongs to 4olan", Germany will obtain an e?traterritorial transit >one, consisting of an auto su&er6highway <Reichsautobahn= an" a four6 trac7 rail line, a&&ro?imately along the line of -uetow6+an>ig an" +irschau$ The highway an" the rail line will be built in such a way that the 4olish transit lines are not "isturbe", which means that they will &ass either abo%e or un"erneath$ This >one will be one 7ilometer wi"e an" will be so%ereign German territory$ )n case the &lebiscite is in GermanyNs fa%or, 4olan" will ha%e free an" unrestricte" transit to its harbor of G"ynia with the same right to an e?traterritorial roa" an" rail line that Germany woul" ha%e$ $ )n case the Borri"or returns to Germany, the German Reich "eclares that it is rea"y too carry out an e?change of &o&ulation with 4olan" to the e?tent that this woul" be suitable for the Borri"or$ 1H$ The s&ecial rights "esire" by 4olan" in the harbor of +an>ig will also be gi%en to Germany in the harbor of G"ynia on the basis of &arity$ 11$ )n or"er to eliminate all fear of threat from either si"e, +an>ig an" G"ynia will be &urely commercial centers, that is, with no military installations or military fortifications$ 12$ The &eninsula of 0ela, which will go to either 4olan" or Germany on the basis of the &lebiscite, will also be "emilitari>e" in any case$ 1C$ The German Reich go%ernment has &roteste" in the strongest terms against the 4olish treatment of its minority &o&ulations$ For its &art, the 4olish go%ernment also belie%es itself calle" u&on to register &rotests against Germany$ Accor"ingly, both si"es agree to submit these com&laints to an international in%estigation commission which will be res&onsible for in%estigating all com&laints of economic an" &hysical "amage as well as other acts of terror$ Germany an" 4olan" &le"ge to com&ensate for all economic an" other harm inflicte" on minority &o&ulations on both si"es since 1 15, or to annul all e?&ro&riations an" &ro%i"e for com&lete re&aration for the %ictims of these an" other economic measures$ 14$ )n or"er to eliminate the feeling of "e&ri%ation of international rights of the Germans who will remain in 4olan", as well as of the 4oles who will remain in Germany, an" abo%e all, to insure that they are not force" to act contrary to their ethnic6national feelings, Germany an" 4olan" agree to guarantee the rights of the minority &o&ulations on both si"es through com&rehensi%e an" bin"ing agreements$ These will insure the right of these minority grou&s to maintain, freely "e%elo& an" carry on their national6cultural life$ )n &articular, they will be allowe" to maintain organi>ations for these &ur&oses$ -oth si"es agree that members of their minority &o&ulations will not be "rafte" for military ser%ice$ 1D$ )f agreement is reache" on the basis of these &ro&osals, Germany an" 4olan" "eclare that they will imme"iately or"er an" carry out the "emobili>ation of their arme" forces$ 1*$ Germany an" 4olan" will agree to whate%er measures are necessary to im&lement the abo%e &oints as 9uic7ly as &ossible$ <.n" of the te?t of the German &ro&osal= The former 4olish go%ernment refuse" to res&on" to these &ro&osals in any way$ )n this regar", the 9uestion &resents itselfE 0ow is it &ossible that such an unim&ortant state coul" "are to sim&ly "isregar" such &ro&osals an", in a""ition, carry out further cruelties against the Germans, the &eo&le who ha%e gi%en this lan" its entire culture, an" e%en or"er the general mobili>ation of its arme" forcesM A loo7 at the "ocuments from the <4olish= Foreign Ministry in Warsaw later &ro%i"e" the sur&rising e?&lanation$ They tol" of the role of a man <Roose%elt= who, with "iabolical lac7 of &rinci&le, use" all of his influence to strengthen 4olan"Ns resistance an" to &re%ent any &ossibility of un"erstan"ing$ These re&orts were sent by the former 4olish ambassa"or in Washington, Bount <Jer>y= 4otoc7i, to his go%ernment in Warsaw$ These "ocuments clearly an" shoc7ingly re%eal the e?tent to which one man an" the &owers behin" him are res&onsible for the 'econ" Worl" War$ Another 9uestion arisesE Why ha" this man <Roose%elt= "e%elo&e" such a fanatic hostility against a country which, in its entire history, ha" ne%er harme" either America or himM With regar" to GermanyNs relationshi& with America, the following shoul" be sai"E 1$ Germany is &erha&s the only great &ower which has ne%er ha" a colony in either @orth or 'outh America$ @or has it been otherwise &olitically acti%e there, a&art from the emigration of many millions of Germans with their s7ills, from which the American continent, an" &articularly the (nite" 'tates, has only benefite"$

2$ )n the entire history of the "e%elo&ment an" e?istence of the (nite" 'tates, the German Reich has ne%er been hostile or e%en &olitically unfrien"ly towar"s the (nite" 'tates$ To the contrary, many Germans ha%e gi%en their li%es to "efen" the ('A$ C$ The German Reich has ne%er &artici&ate" in wars against the (nite" 'tates, e?ce&t when the (nite" 'tates went to war against us in 1 1:$ )t "i" so for reasons which were com&letely e?&laine" by a commission which 4resi"ent Roose%elt himself establishe" <or rather, en"orse"= to in%estigate this issue$ <This was the s&ecial ($'$ 'enate in%estigating committee, 1 C461 CD, chaire" by 'en$ Geral" @ye$= This commission to in%estigate the reasons for AmericaNs entry into the <First Worl"= war clearly establishe" that the (nite" 'tates entere" the war in 1 1: solely for the ca&italist interests of a small grou&, an" that Germany itself ha" no "esire or intention to come into conflict with America$ Furthermore, there are no territorial or &olitical conflicts between the American an" German nations which coul" &ossibly in%ol%e the e?istence or e%en the <%ital= interests of the (nite" 'tates$ The forms of go%ernment ha%e always been "ifferent$ -ut this cannot be a reason for hostility between "ifferent nations, as long as one form of go%ernment "oes not try to interfere with another, outsi"e of its naturally or"aine" s&here$ America is a re&ublic le" by a &resi"ent with wi"e6ranging &owers of authority$ Germany was once rule" by a monarchy with limite" authority, an" then by a "emocracy which lac7e" authority$ To"ay it is a re&ublic of wi"e6ranging authority$ -etween these two countries is an ocean$ )f anything, the "ifferences between ca&italist America an" -olshe%i7 Russia, if these terms ha%e any meaning at all, must be more significant than those between an America le" by a 4resi"ent an" a Germany le" by a Fuehrer$ )t is a fact that the two historical conflicts between Germany an" the (nite" 'tates were stimulate" by two Americans, that is, by 4resi"ents Woo"row Wilson an" Fran7lin Roose%elt, although each was ins&ire" by the same forces$ 0istory has gi%en its %er"ict about Wilson$ 0is name will always be associate" with the most base betrayal of a &le"ge <WilsonNs 114 &oints3= in history$ The result was the "isru&tion of national life, not only in the so6calle" %an9uishe" countries, but among the %ictors as well$ -ecause of this bro7en &le"ge, which alone ma"e the im&ose" Treaty of Kersailles <1 1 = &ossible, countries were torn a&art, cultures were "estroye" an" the economic life of all was ruine"$ To"ay we 7now that a grou& of self6ser%ing financiers stoo" behin" Wilson$ They use" this &aralytic &rofessor in or"er to lea" America into a war from which they ho&e" to &rofit$ The German nation once belie%e" this man, an" ha" to &ay for this faith with &olitical an" economic ruin$ After such a bitter e?&erience, why is there now another American &resi"ent who is "etermine" to incite wars an", abo%e all, to stir u& hostility against Germany to the &oint of warM @ational 'ocialism came to &ower in Germany in the same year that Roose%elt came to &ower in the (nite" 'tates <1 CC=$ At this &oint it is im&ortant to e?amine the factors behin" the current "e%elo&ments$ First of all, the &ersonal si"e of thingsE ) un"erstan" %ery well that there is a worl" of "ifference between my own outloo7 on life an" attitu"e, an" that of 4resi"ent Roose%elt$ Roose%elt came from an e?tremely wealthy family$ -y birth an" origin he belonge" to that class of &eo&le which is &ri%ilege" in a "emocracy an" assure" of a"%ancement$ ) myself was only the chil" of a small an" &oor family, an" ) ha" to struggle through life by wor7 an" effort in s&ite of immense har"shi&s$ As a member of the &ri%ilege" class, Roose%elt e?&erience" the <First= Worl" War in a &osition un"er WilsonNs sha"ow <as assistant secretary of the @a%y=$ As a result, he only 7new the agreeable conse9uences of a conflict between nations from which some &rofite" while others lost their li%es$ +uring this same &erio", ) li%e" %ery "ifferently$ ) was not one of those who ma"e history or &rofits, but rather one of those who carrie" out or"ers$ As an or"inary sol"ier "uring those four years, ) trie" to "o my "uty in the face of the enemy$ Jf course, ) returne" from the war Lust as &oor as when ) entere" in the fall of 1 14$ ) thus share" my fate with millions of others, while Mr$ Roose%elt share" his with the so6calle" u&&er ten thousan"$ After the war, while Mr$ Roose%elt teste" his s7ills in financial s&eculation in or"er to &rofit &ersonally from the inflation, that is, from the misfortune of others, ) still lay in a military hos&ital along with many hun"re"s of thousan"s of others$ .?&erience" in business, financially secure an" enLoying the &atronage of his class, Roose%elt then finally chose a career in &olitics$ +uring this same &erio", ) struggle" as a nameless an" un7nown man for the rebirth of my nation, which was the %ictim of the greatest inLustice in its entire history$ Two "ifferent &aths in lifeX Fran7lin Roose%elt too7 &ower in the (nite" 'tates as the can"i"ate of a thoroughly ca&italistic &arty, which hel&s those who ser%e it$ When ) became the Bhancellor of the German Reich, ) was the lea"er of a &o&ular national mo%ement, which ) ha" create" myself$ The &owers which su&&orte" Mr$ Roose%elt were the same &owers that ) fought against out of "ee&est inner con%iction an" because of the fate of my &eo&le$ The 1brain trust3 which ser%e" the new American &resi"ent was ma"e u& of members of the same national grou& which we fought against in Germany as a &arasitical e?&ression of humanity, an" which we began to remo%e from &ublic life$ .n) yet6 &e also ha) something in $ommon: Fran/lin Roose,elt too/ $ontrol of a $ountry &ith an e$onomy &hi$h ha) been ruine) as a result of )emo$rati$ influen$es6 an) = assume) the lea)ershi# of a Rei$h &hi$h &as also on the e)ge of $om#lete ruin6 than/s to )emo$ra$y: There &ere 4> million unem#loye) in the Fnite) *tates6 &hile Germany ha) se,en million

unem#loye) an) another se,en million #artDtime &or/ers: =n both $ountries6 #ubli$ finan$es &ere in $haos6 an) it seeme) that the s#rea)ing e$onomi$ )e#ression $oul) not be sto##e): From then on, things "e%elo&e" in the (nite" 'tates an" in the German Reich in such a way that future generations will ha%e no "ifficulty in ma7ing a "efiniti%e e%aluation of the two "ifferent socio6&olitical theories$ Whereas the German Rei$h e<#erien$e) an enormous im#ro,ement in so$ial6 e$onomi$6 $ultural an) artisti$ life in Bust a fe& years un)er National *o$ialist lea)ershi#6 Presi)ent Roose,elt &as not able to bring about e,en limite) im#ro,ements in his o&n $ountry: This tas/ shoul) ha,e been mu$h easier in the Fnite) *tates6 &ith barely 4N #eo#le #er sCuare /ilometer6 as $om#are) to 4G5 in Germany: =f e$onomi$ #ros#erity is not #ossible in that $ountry6 it must be the result of either a la$/ of &ill by the ruling lea)ershi# or the $om#lete in$om#eten$e of the men in $harge: =n Bust fi,e years6 the e$onomi$ #roblems &ere sol,e) in Germany an) unem#loyment &as eliminate): Auring this same #erio)6 Presi)ent Roose,elt enormously in$rease) his $ountryKs national )ebt6 )e,alue) the )ollar6 further )isru#te) the e$onomy an) maintaine) the same number of unem#loye): -ut this is har"ly remar7able when one reali>es that the intellects a&&ointe" by this man, or more accurately, who a&&ointe" him, are members of that same grou& who, as Jews, are intereste" only in "isru&tion an" ne%er in or"er$ While we in @ational 'ocialist Germany too7 measures against financial s&eculation, it flourishe" tremen"ously un"er Roose%elt$ The @ew +eal legislation of this man was s&urious, an" conse9uently the greatest error e%er e?&erience" by anyone$ )f his economic &olicies ha" continue" in"efinitely "uring &eace time, there is no "oubt that sooner or later they woul" ha%e brought "own this &resi"ent, in s&ite of all his "ialectical cle%erness$ )n a .uro&ean country his career woul" certainly ha%e en"e" in front of a national court for rec7lessly s9uan"ering the nationNs wealth$ An" he woul" har"ly ha%e a%oi"e" a &rison sentence by a ci%il court for criminally incom&etent business management$ Many res&ecte" Americans also share" this %iew$ A threatening o&&osition was growing all aroun" this man, which le" him to thin7 that he coul" sa%e himself only by "i%erting &ublic attention from his "omestic &olicies to foreign affairs$ )n this regar" it is interesting to stu"y the re&orts of 4olish Ambassa"or 4otoc7i from Washington, which re&eate"ly &oint out that Roose%elt was fully aware of the "anger that his entire economic house of car"s coul" colla&se an" that therefore he absolutely ha" to "i%ert attention to foreign &olicy$ The circle of Jews aroun" Roose%elt encourage" him in this$ With Jl" Testament %in"icti%eness they regar"e" the (nite" 'tates as the instrument which they an" he coul" use to &re&are a secon" 4urim <slaughter of enemies= against the nations of .uro&e, which were increasingly anti6Jewish$ 'o it was that the Jews, in all of their satanic baseness, gathere" aroun" this man, an" he relie" on them$ The .meri$an #resi)ent in$reasingly use) his influen$e to $reate $onfli$ts6 intensify e<isting $onfli$ts6 an)6 abo,e all6 to /ee# $onfli$ts from being resol,e) #ea$efully: For years this man loo7e" for a "is&ute anywhere in the worl", but &referably in .uro&e, that he coul" use to create &olitical entanglements with American economic obligations to one of the conten"ing si"es, which woul" then stea"ily in%ol%e America in the conflict an" thus "i%ert attention from his own confuse" "omestic economic &olicies$ 0is actions against the German Reich in this regar" ha%e been &articularly blunt$ 'tarting in 1 C:, he began a series of s&eeches, inclu"ing a &articularly contem&tible one on D Jctober 1 C: in Bhicago, with which this man systematically incite" the American &ublic against Germany$ 0e threatene" to establish a 7in" of 9uarantine against the so6calle" authoritarian countries$ As &art of this stea"y an" growing cam&aign of hate an" incitement, 4resi"ent Roose%elt ma"e another insulting statement <on 1D @o%$ 1 C5= an" then calle" the American ambassa"or in -erlin bac7 to Washington for consultations$ 'ince then the two countries ha%e been re&resente" only by charges "Naffaires$ 'tarting in @o%ember 1 C5, he began to systematically an" consciously sabotage e%ery &ossibility of a .uro&ean &eace &olicy$ )n &ublic he hy&ocritically claime" to be intereste" in &eace while at the same time he threatene" e%ery country that was rea"y to &ursue a &olicy of &eaceful un"erstan"ing by bloc7ing cre"its, economic re&risals, calling in loans, an" so forth$ )n this regar", the re&orts of the 4olish ambassa"ors in Washington, 2on"on, 4aris an" -russels &ro%i"e a shoc7ing insight$ This man increase" his cam&aign of incitement in January 1 C $ )n a message to the ($'$ Bongress <of 4 Jan$ 1 C = he threatene" to ta7e e%ery measure short of war against the authoritarian countries$ 0e re&eate"ly claime" that other countries were trying to interfere in American affairs an" he tal7e" a lot about u&hol"ing the Monroe +octrine$ 'tarting in March 1 C he began lecturing about internal .uro&ean affairs which were no concern of the 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates$ )n the first &lace, he "oesnNt un"erstan" these &roblems, an" secon"ly, e%en if he "i" un"erstan" them an" a&&reciate" the historical circumstances, he has no more right to concern himself with central .uro&ean affairs than the German hea" of state has to ta7e &ositions on or ma7e Lu"gments about con"itions in the (nite" 'tates$ Mr$ Roose%elt went e%en beyon" that$ Bontrary to the rules of international law, he refuse" to recogni>e go%ernments he "i"nNt li7e, woul" not acce&t new ones, refuse" to "ismiss ambassa"ors of non6e?istent countries, an" e%en recogni>e" them as legal go%ernments$ 0e went so far as to conclu"e treaties with these ambassa"ors, which then ga%e him the right to sim&ly occu&y foreign territories <Greenlan" an" )celan"=$

Jn 1D A&ril 1 C Roose%elt ma"e his famous a&&eal to me an" the +uce <Mussolini=, which was a mi?ture of geogra&hical an" &olitical ignorance combine" with the arrogance of a member of the millionaire class$ We were calle" u&on to ma7e "eclarations an" to conclu"e non6aggression &acts with a number of countries many of which were not e%en in"e&en"ent because they ha" either been anne?e" or turne" into subor"inate &rotectorates by countries allie" with Mr$ Roose%elt <-ritain an" France=$ Aou will recall, my +e&uties, that ) then ga%e a &olite but straightforwar" answer to this obtrusi%e gentleman <on 25 A&ril 1 C =, which succee"e" in sto&&ing, at least for a few months, the storm of chatter from this staunch warmonger$ -ut now the honorable wife <.leanor Roose%elt= too7 his &lace$ 'he an" her sons <she sai"= refuse" to li%e in a worl" such as ours$ That is at least un"erstan"able, for ours is worl" of wor7 an" not one of "eceit an" rac7eteering$ After a short rest, though, he was bac7 at it$ Jn 4 @o%ember 1 C the @eutrality Act was re%ise" an" the arms embargo was re&eale" in fa%or of a one6si"e" su&&ly <of wea&ons= to GermanyNs a"%ersaries$ )n the same way in eastern Asia, he &ushe" for economic entanglements with Bhina which woul" e%entually lea" to effecti%e common interests$ That same month he recogni>e" a small grou& of 4olish emigrants as a so6calle" go%ernment in e?ile, the only &olitical basis of which was a few million 4olish gol" &ieces which were ta7en away from Warsaw$ Jn A&ril <1 4H= he fro>e all @orwegian an" +anish assets <in the (nite" 'tates= on the lying &rete?t of wanting to 7ee& them from falling into German han"s, e%en though he 7new full well, for e?am&le, that Germany has not interfere" with, much less ta7en control of, the +anish go%ernmentNs a"ministration of it,s financial affairs$ Along with the other go%ernments in e?ile, Roose%elt now recogni>e" one for @orway$ Jn 1D May 1 4H, +utch an" -elgian go%ernments in e?ile were also recogni>e", an" at the same time +utch an" -elgian assets <in the ('A= were fro>en$ This man re%eale" his true attitu"e in a telegram of 1D June <1 4H= to French 4remier <4aul= Reynau"$ Roose%elt tol" him that the American go%ernment woul" "ouble its ai" to France, on the con"ition that France continue the war against Germany$ )n or"er to gi%e s&ecial em&hasis to his "esire that the war continue, he "eclare" that the American go%ernment woul" not recogni>e ac9uisitions brought about by con9uest, which inclu"e", for e?am&le, the reta7ing of territories which ha" been stolen from Germany$ ) "o not nee" to em&hasi>e that now an" in the future, the German go%ernment will not be concerne" about whether or not the 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates recogni>es a bor"er in .uro&e$ ) mention this case because it is characteristic of the systematic incitement of this man, who hy&ocritically tal7s about &eace while at the same time he incites to war$ An" now he feare" that if &eace were to come about in .uro&e, the billions he ha" s9uan"ere" on military s&en"ing woul" soon be recogni>e" as an ob%ious case of frau", because no one woul" attac7 America unless America itself &ro%o7e" the attac7$ Jn 1: June 1 4H the 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates fro>e French assets <in the ('A= in or"er, so he sai", to 7ee& them from being sei>e" by Germany, but in reality to get hol" of the gol" that was being brought from Basablanca on an American cruiser$ )n July 1 4H Roose%elt began to ta7e many new measures towar"s war, such as &ermitting the ser%ice of American citi>ens in the -ritish air force an" the training of -ritish air force &ersonnel in the (nite" 'tates$ )n August 1 4H a Loint military &olicy for the (nite" 'tates an" Bana"a was establishe"$ )n or"er to ma7e the establishment of a Loint American6Bana"ian "efense committee &lausible to at least the stu&i"est &eo&le, Roose%elt &erio"ically in%ente" crises an" acte" as if America was threatene" by imme"iate attac7$ 0e woul" su""enly cancel tri&s an" 9uic7ly return to Washington an" "o similar things in or"er to em&hasi>e the seriousness of the situation to his followers, who really "eser%e &ity$ 0e mo%e" still closer to war in 'e&tember 1 4H when he transferre" fifty American na%al "estroyers to the -ritish fleet, an" in return too7 control of military bases on -ritish &ossessions in @orth an" Bentral America$ Future generations will "etermine the e?tent to which, along with all this hatre" against socialist Germany, the "esire to easily an" safely ta7e control of the -ritish em&ire in its hour of "isintegration may ha%e also &laye" a role$ After -ritain was no longer able to &ay cash for American "eli%eries he im&ose" the 2en"62ease Act on the American &eo&le <in March 1 41=$ As 4resi"ent, he thereby obtaine" the authority to furnish len"6lease military ai" to countries which he, Roose%elt, "eci"e" it was in AmericaNs %ital interests to "efen"$ After it became clear that Germany woul" not res&on" un"er any circumstances to his continue" boorish beha%ior, this man too7 another ste& forwar" in March 1 41$ As early as 1 +ecember 1 C , an American cruiser within the safety >one <the Tuscaloosa= maneu%ere" the <German= &assenger liner )olumbus into the han"s of -ritish warshi&s$ As a result, it ha" to be scuttle"$ Jn the same "ay, (' military forces hel&e" in an effort to ca&ture the German merchant shi& Arauca$ Again contrary to international law, on 2: January 1 4H the (' cruiser Trenton re&orte" the mo%ements of the German merchant shi&s Arauca, "a 5lata an" Wangoni to enemy na%al forces$ Jn 2: June 1 4H he announce" a limitation on the free mo%ement of foreign merchant shi&s in (' harbors, com&letely contrary to international law$ )n @o%ember 1 4H he &ermitte" (' warshi&s to &ursue the German merchant shi&s 5hr gia, 4darwald an" 0hein until they finally ha" to scuttle themsel%es to 7ee& from falling into enemy han"s$ Jn 1C A&ril 1 41 American shi&s were &ermitte" to &ass freely through the Re" 'ea in or"er to su&&ly -ritish armies in the Mi""le .ast$

)n the meantime, all German shi&s were confiscate" by the American authorities in March <1 41=$ )n the &rocess, German Reich citi>ens were treate" in the most "egra"ing way, or"ere" to certain locations in %iolation of international law, &ut un"er tra%el restrictions, an" so forth$ Two German officers who ha" esca&e" <to the (nite" 'tates= from Bana"ian ca&ti%ity were shac7le" an" returne" to the Bana"ian authorities, li7ewise com&letely contrary to international law$ Jn 2: March <1 41= the same &resi"ent who is <su&&ose"ly= against all aggression announce" su&&ort for <General +usan= 'imo%ic an" his cli9ue of usur&ers, who ha" come to &ower in -elgra"e <Augosla%ia= after the o%erthrow of the legal go%ernment$ 'e%eral months earlier, 4resi"ent Roose%elt ha" sent <J'' chief= Bolonel +ono%an, a %ery inferior character, to the -al7ans with or"ers to hel& organi>e an u&rising against Germany an" )taly in 'ofia <-ulgaria= an" -elgra"e$ )n A&ril he <Roose%elt= &romise" len"6lease ai" to Augosla%ia an" Greece$ At the en" of A&ril he recogni>e" Augosla% an" Gree7 emigrants as go%ernments in e?ile$ An" once again, in %iolation of international law, he fro>e Augosla% an" Gree7 assets$ 'tarting in mi"6A&ril <1 41= (' na%al &atrols began e?&an"e" o&erations in the western Atlantic, re&orting their obser%ations to the -ritish$ Jn 2* A&ril, Roose%elt "eli%ere" twenty 4$T$ boats to -ritain$ At the same time, -ritish na%al shi&s were routinely being re&aire" in (' harbors$ Jn 12 May, @orwegian shi&s o&erating for -ritain were arme" an" re&aire" <in the ('A=, contrary to international law$ Jn 4 June, American troo& trans&orts arri%e" in Greenlan" to buil" air fiel"s$ An" on June came the first -ritish re&ort that a (' war shi&, acting on or"ers from 4resi"ent Roose%elt, ha" attac7e" a German submarine near Greenlan" with "e&th charges$ Jn 14 June, German assets in the (nite" 'tates were fro>en, again in %iolation of international law$ Jn 1: June, on the basis of a lying &rete?t, 4resi"ent Roose%elt "eman"e" the recall of the German consuls an" the closing of the German consulates$ 0e also "eman"e" the closing "own of the German OTransoceanO &ress agency, the German 2ibrary of )nformation <in @ew Aor7= an"6 the German Reichsbahn <national railway= office$ Jn * an" : July <1 41=, American arme" forces acting on or"ers from Roose%elt occu&ie" )celan", which was in the area of German military o&erations$ 0e ho&e" that this action woul" certainly, first, finally force Germany into war <against the ('A= an", secon", also neutrali>e the effecti%eness of the German submarines, much as in 1 1D61 1*$ At the same time, he &romise" military ai" to the 'o%iet (nion$ Jn 1H July, @a%y 'ecretary <Fran7= /no? su""enly announce" the e?istence of an American or"er to fire against A?is warshi&s$ Jn 4 'e&tember the (' "estroyer Greer, acting on or"ers, o&erate" together with -ritish air&lanes against German submarines in the Atlantic$ Fi%e "ays later, a German submarine i"entifie" (' "estroyers as escort %essels with a -ritish con%oy$ )n a s&eech "eli%ere" on 11 'e&tember <1 41=, Roose%elt at last &ersonally confirme" that he ha" gi%en the or"er to fire against all A?is shi&s, an" he re&eate" the or"er$ Jn 2 'e&tember, (' &atrols attac7e" a German submarine east of Greenlan" with "e&th charges$ Jn 1: Jctober the (' "estroyer /earn , o&erating as an escort for the -ritish, attac7e" a German submarine with "e&th charges, an" on * @o%ember (' arme" forces sei>e" the German shi& 7denwald in %iolation of international law, too7 it to an American harbor, an" im&risone" its crew$ ) will o%erloo7 as meaningless the insulting attac7s an" ru"e statements by this so6calle" 4resi"ent against me &ersonally$ That he calls me a gangster is &articularly meaningless, since this term "i" not originate in .uro&e, where such characters are uncommon, but in America$ An" asi"e from that, ) sim&ly cannot feel insulte" by Mr$ Roose%elt because ) regar" him, li7e his &re"ecessor Woo"row Wilson, as mentally unsoun" <geistes7ran7=$ We 7now that this man, with his Jewish su&&orters, has o&erate" against Ja&an in the same way$ ) "onNt nee" to go into that here$ The same metho"s were use" in this case as well$ This man first incites to war, an" then he lies about its causes an" ma7es baseless allegations$ )n an offensi%e way, he wra&s himself in a cloa7 of Bhristian hy&ocrisy, while at the same time slowly but %ery stea"ily lea"ing humanity into war$ An" finally, as an ol" Freemason, he calls u&on Go" as his witness that his actions are honorable$ 0is shameless misre&resentations of truth an" %iolations of law are un&arallele" in history$ ) am sure that all of you ha%e regar"e" it as an act of "eli%erance that a country (a&an= has finally acte" to &rotest against all this in the %ery way that this man ha" actually ho&e" for, an" which shoul" not sur&rise him now <the 4earl 0arbor attac7 of : +ecember 1 41=$ After years of negotiating with this "ecei%er, the Ja&anese go%ernment finally ha" its fill of being treate" in such a humiliating way$ All of us, the German &eo&le an", ) belie%e, all other "ecent &eo&le aroun" the worl" as well, regar" this with "ee& a&&reciation$ We 7now the &ower behin" Roose%elt$ )t is the same eternal Jew that belie%es that his hour has come to im&ose the same fate on us that we ha%e all seen an" e?&erience" with horror in 'o%iet Russia$ We ha%e gotten to 7now the Jewish &ara"ise on earth first han"$ Millions of German sol"iers ha%e &ersonally seen the lan" where this international Jewry has "estroye" an" annihilate" &eo&le an" &ro&erty$ 4erha&s the 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates "oes not un"erstan" this$ )f so, that only s&ea7s for his intellectual narrow6 min"e"ness$

-ut we 7now that their entire effort is aime" at this goalE .%en if we were not allie" with Ja&an, we woul" still reali>e that the Jews an" their Fran7lin Roose%elt inten" to "estroy one country after another$ The German Reich of to"ay has nothing in common with the Germany of the &ast$ For our &art, we will now "o what this &ro%ocateur has been trying to achie%e for years$ An" not Lust because we are allie" with Ja&an, but rather because Germany an" )taly with their &resent lea"ershi&s ha%e the insight an" strength to reali>e that in this historic &erio" the e?istence or non6e?istence of nations is being "etermine", &erha&s for all time$ What this other worl" has in store for us is clear$ They were able to bring the "emocratic Germany of the &ast <1 1561 CC= to star%ation, an" they see7 to "estroy the @ational 'ocialist Germany of to"ay$ When Mr$ Bhurchill an" Mr$ Roose%elt "eclare that they want to buil" a ne& so$ial or)er later on, that,s about the same as a barber with a bal" hea" recommen"ing a tonic guarantee" to ma7e hair grow$ These gentlemen, who li%e in the most socially bac7war" countries, shoul" worry about their own unem&loye" &eo&le rather than incite war$ They ha%e enough misery an" &o%erty in their own countries to 7ee& themsel%es busy insuring a Lust "istribution of foo" there$ As far as the German nation is concerne", it "oesnNt nee" charity from either Mr$ Bhurchill, Mr$ Roose%elt or <-ritish foreign secretary= Mr$ ."en, but it "oes "eman" its rights$ An" it will "o what it must to insure its right to life, e%en if a thousan" Bhurchills an" Roose%elts cons&ire together to &re%ent it$ Jur nation has a history of almost 2,HHH years$ @e%er in this long &erio" has it been so unite" an" "etermine" as it is to"ay, an" than7s to the @ational 'ocialist mo%ement it will always be that way$ At the same time, Germany has &erha&s ne%er been as clear6sighte" an" sel"om as conscious of honor$ Accor"ingly, to"ay ) ha" the &ass&orts returne" to the American charge "Naffaires, an" he was informe" of the followingE 4resi"ent Roose%eltNs stea"ily e?&an"ing &olicy has been aime" at an unlimite" worl" "ictatorshi&$ )n &ursuing this goal, the (nite" 'tates an" -ritain ha%e use" e%ery means to "eny the German, )talian an" Ja&anese nations the &rere9uisites for their %ital natural e?istence$ For this reason, the go%ernments of -ritain an" the (nite" 'tates of America ha%e o&&ose" e%ery effort to create a new an" better or"er in the worl", for both the &resent an" the future$ 'ince the beginning of the war <in 'e&tember 1 C =, the American 4resi"ent Roose%elt has stea"ily committe" e%er more serious crimes against international law$ Along with illegal attac7s against shi&s an" other &ro&erty of German an" )talian citi>ens, there ha%e been threats an" e%en arbitrary "e&ri%ations of &ersonal free"om by internment an" such$ The increasingly hostile attac7s by the American 4resi"ent Roose%elt ha%e reache" the &oint that he has or"ere" the American na%y to imme"iately attac7, fire u&on an" sin7 all German an" )talian shi&s, in com&lete %iolation of international law$ American officials ha%e e%en boaste" about "estroying German submarines in this criminal manner$ American cruisers ha%e attac7e" an" ca&ture" German an" )talian merchant shi&s, an" their &eaceful crews were ta7en away to im&risonment )n a""ition, 4resi"ent Roose%eltNs &lan to attac7 Germany an" )taly with military forces in .uro&e by 1 4C at the latest was ma"e &ublic in the (nite" 'tates <by the )hicago Tribune an" se%eral other &a&ers on 4 +ec$ 1 41=, an" the American go%ernment ma"e no effort to "eny it$ +es&ite the years of intolerable &ro%ocations by 4resi"ent Roose%elt, Germany an" )taly sincerely an" %ery &atiently trie" to &re%ent the e?&ansion of this war an" to maintain relations with the (nite" 'tates$ -ut as a result of his cam&aign, these efforts ha%e faile"$ Faithful to the &ro%isions of the Tri&artite 4act of 2: 'e&tember 1 4H, German an" )taly ha%e conse9uently now finally been force" to Loin together on the si"e of Ja&an in the struggle for the "efense an" &reser%ation of the free"om an" in"e&en"ence of our nations an" em&ires against the (nite" 'tates of America an" -ritain$ The three &owers ha%e accor"ingly conclu"e" the following agreement which was signe" to"ay in -erlinE <Agreement te?tE= With an unsha7able "etermination not to lay "own arms until the common war against the (nite" 'tates of America an" -ritain has been fought to a successful conclusion, the German, )talian an" Ja&anese go%ernments ha%e agree" to the followingE Article 1$ Germany, )taly an" Ja&an will together con"uct the war which has been force" u&on them by the (nite" 'tates of America an" -ritain with all the means at their comman" to a %ictorious conclusion$ Article 2$ Germany, )taly an" Ja&an &le"ge not to conclu"e an armistice or ma7e &eace with either the (nite" 'tates of America or -ritain unless by com&lete mutual agreement$ Article C$ Germany, )taly an" Ja&an will also wor7 %ery closely together after a %ictorious conclusion of the war for the &ur&ose of bringing about a Lust new or"er in accor" with the Tri&artite 4act conclu"e" by them on 2: 'e&tember 1 4H$

Article 4$ This agreement is effecti%e imme"iately u&on signing an" is %ali" for the same &erio" as the Tri&artite 4act of 2: 'e&tember 1 4H$ The high contracting &arties shall inform each other in "ue time before the e?&iration of this term of %ali"ity of their &lans for coo&eration as lai" out in Article C of this agreement$ <.n" of Agreement te?t= +e&utiesX Men of the German ReichstagX .%er since my &eace &ro&osal of July 1 4H was reLecte", we ha%e clearly reali>e" that this struggle must be fought through to the en"$ We @ational 'ocialists are not at all sur&rise" that the Anglo6American, Jewish an" ca&italist worl" is unite" together with -olshe%ism$ )n our country we ha%e always foun" them in the same community$ Alone we successfully fought against them here in Germany, an" after 14 years of struggle for &ower we were finally able to annihilate our enemies$ When ) "eci"e" 2C years ago to enter &olitical life in or"er to lea" the nation u& from ruin, ) was a nameless, un7nown sol"ier$ Many of you here 7now Lust how "ifficult those first years of that struggle really were$ The way from a small mo%ement of se%en men to the ta7ing of &ower on CH January 1 CC as the res&onsible go%ernment is so miraculous that only the blessing of 4ro%i"ence coul" ha%e ma"e it &ossible$ To"ay ) stan" at the hea" of the mightiest army in the worl", the most &owerful air force an" a &rou" na%y$ -ehin" an" aroun" me is a sacre" community 6 the <@ational 'ocialist= 4arty, with which ) ha%e become great an" which has become great through me$ Jur o&&onents to"ay are the same familiar enemies of more than 2H years$ -ut the &ath before us cannot be com&are" with the roa" we ha%e alrea"y ta7en$ To"ay the German &eo&le fully reali>es that this is a "ecisi%e hour for our e?istence$ Millions of sol"iers are faithfully "oing their "uty un"er the most "ifficult con"itions$ Millions of German farmers an" wor7ers, an" German women an" girls, are in the factories an" offices, in the fiel"s an" farm lan"s, wor7ing har" to fee" our homelan" an" su&&ly wea&ons to the front$ Allie" with us are strong nations which ha%e suffere" the same misery an" face the same enemies$ The American 4resi"ent an" his &lutocratic cli9ue ha%e calle" us the Oha%e notO nations$ That is correctX -ut the Oha%e notsO also want to li%e, an" they will certainly ma7e sure that what little they ha%e to li%e on is not stolen from them by the Oha%es$O Aou, my 4arty comra"es, 7now of my relentless "etermination to carry out to a successful conclusion any struggle which has alrea"y begun$ Aou 7now of my "etermination in such a struggle to "o e%erything necessary to brea7 all resistance that must be bro7en$ )n my first s&eech <of this war= on 1 'e&tember 1 C , ) &le"ge" that neither force of arms nor time woul" "efeat Germany$ ) want to assure my o&&onents that while neither force of arms nor time will "efeat us, in a""ition no internal uncertainty will wea7en us in the fulfillment of our "uty$ When we thin7 of the sacrifice an" effort of our sol"iers, then e%ery sacrifice of <those here in= the homelan" is com&letely insignificant an" unim&ortant$ An" when we consi"er the number of all those in &ast generations who ga%e their li%es for the sur%i%al an" greatness of the German nation, then we are really conscious of the magnitu"e of the "uty which is ours$ -ut whoe%er tries to shir7 this "uty has no right to be regar"e" as a fellow German$ Just as we were &itilessly har" in the struggle for &ower, so also will we be Lust as ruthless in the struggle for the sur%i%al of our nation$ +uring a time in which thousan"s of our best men, the fathers an" sons of our &eo&le, ha%e gi%en their li%es, anyone in the homelan" who betrays the sacrifice on the front will forfeit his life$ Regar"less of the &rete?t with which an attem&t is ma"e to "isru&t the German front, un"ermine the will to resist of our &eo&le, wea7en the authority of the regime, or sabotage the achie%ements of the homelan", the guilty &erson will "ie$ -ut with this "ifferenceE The sol"ier at the front who ma7es this sacrifice will be hel" in the greatest honor, whereas the &erson who "ebases this sacrifice of honor will "ie in "isgrace$ Jur o&&onents shoul" not "ecei%e themsel%es$ )n the 2,HHH years of recor"e" German history, our &eo&le ha%e ne%er been more "etermine" an" unite" than to"ay$ The 2or" of the uni%erse has been so generous to us in recent years that we bow in gratitu"e before a 4ro%i"ence which has &ermitte" us to be members of such a great nation$ We than7 0im, that along with those in earlier an" coming generations of the German nation, our "ee"s of honor may also be recor"e" in the eternal boo7 of German historyX

Germany@s Formal Ae$laration of War .gainst the Fnite) *tates About two hours before $itler began his s&eech to the 0eichstag1 German formall declared war against the Cnited States when 0eich ,oreign .inister Eoachim von 0ibbentro& delivered a di&lomatic note to the American )harge d*Affaires in Berlin1 "eland B% .orris%

At almost the same time1 the German )harge d*Affaires in Washington1 $ans Thomsen1 &resented a co& of this note to the )hief of the 8uro&ean Division of the De&artment of State1 0a Atherton% $ere is the te:t of the note( The go%ernment of the (nite" 'tates of America, ha%ing %iolate" in the most flagrant manner an" in e%er increasing measure all rules of neutrality in fa%or of the a"%ersaries of Germany an" ha%ing continually been guilty of the most se%ere &ro%ocations towar" Germany e%er since the outbrea7 of the .uro&ean war, brought on by the -ritish "eclaration of war against Germany on C 'e&tember 1 C , has finally resorte" to o&en military acts of aggression$ Jn 11 'e&tember 1 41, the 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates of America &ublicly "eclare" that he ha" or"ere" the American @a%y an" Air Force to shoot on sight any German war %essel$ )n his s&eech of 2: Jctober 1 41, he once more e?&ressly affirme" that this or"er was in force$ E Acting un"er this or"er, American war %essels ha%e systematically attac7e" German na%al forces since early 'e&tember 1 41$ Thus, American "estroyers, as for instance, the Greer, the /earn an" the 0euben Eames, ha%e o&ene" fire on German submarines accor"ing to &lan$ The American 'ecretary of the @a%y, Mr$ /no?, himself confirme" that the American "estroyers attac7e" German submarines$ Furthermore, the na%al forces of the (nite" 'tates of America, un"er or"er of their go%ernment an" contrary to international law, ha%e treate" an" sei>e" German merchant shi&s on the high seas as enemy shi&s$ The German go%ernment therefore establishes the following factsE Although Germany on her &art has strictly a"here" to the rules of international law in her relations with the (nite" 'tates of America "uring e%ery &erio" of the &resent war, the go%ernment of the (nite" 'tates of America from initial %iolations of neutrality has finally &rocee"e" to o&en acts of war against Germany$ )t has thereby %irtually create" a state of war$ The go%ernment of the Reich conse9uently brea7s off "i&lomatic relations with the (nite" 'tates of America an" "eclares that in these circumstances brought about by 4resi"ent Roose%elt, Germany too, as from to"ay, consi"ers herself as being in a state of war with the (nite" 'tates of America$ 'ourceE htt&EGGwww$%ho$orgGG-GJournalsGJ0RG5G4G0itlerC5 641*$html

(ome o2 t*e most prominent statesmen in t*e world gat*ered to await t*e result o2 t*e (aar Plebis0ite in Geneva, (wit8erland on /anuary 19!4. 3*ey determined t*e date w*en t*e (aar territory was to be restored to Germany. +rom le2t to rig*t5 Britis* Lord Privy (eal .nt*ony -den, +ren0* +oreign ,inister Pierre Laval, and Britis* +oreign ,inister (ir ,. /o*n (imon. "P*oto5 M Bettmann#$%&B'()

,r. (umner Welles, President +ranklin &ooseveltGs personal envoy w*o arrived in London on .pril 1, 19DC, 0alled at No. 1C Downing (treet in London on .pril , 19DC a2ter a busy day in t*e 0ourse o2 w*i0* *e *ad also 0alled at t*e +oreign %22i0e and *ad an audien0e wit* t*e ;ing at Bu0king*am Pala0e. Le2t to rig*t, Lord ?ali2a6, t*e +oreign (e0retary> ,r. (umner Welles> ,r. Neville $*amberlain, Prime ,inister o2 Great Britain> and ,r. /osep* P. ;ennedy, .meri0an .mbassador to Great Britain, p*otograp*ed in No. 1C. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

A ma& of the 1integral3 territory of the Thir" Reich "uring Worl" War ))

A ma& of the 1integral3 territory of the Thir" Reich "uring Worl" War ))

,embers o2 t*e Na8i Party salute to S$*an0ellorT .dol2 ?itler in t*e &ei0*stag in Berlin, Germany on ,ar0* , 19!:. +ield ,ars*all ?ermann Goering, ?itlerGs rig*t *and, is s*own in t*e ba0kground a0ting as President o2 t*e &ei0*stag. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

9.(. President +ranklin Delano &oosevelt s*akes *ands wit* ?enry L. (timson at t*e W*ite ?ouse on /uly 1C, 19DC a2ter t*e (enate 0on2irmed *is nomination as (e0retary o2 War. 9.(. President +ranklin Delano &oosevelt ordered an e0onomi0 embargo on 'mperial /apan on /uly D, 19D1 and ordered an oil embargo on 'mperial /apan on .ugust 1, 19D1. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

Fran7lin +elano Roose%elt, the 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates, gestures "uring a Jac7son +ay +inner s&eech at the Mayflower 0otel in Washington, +$B$, ($'$A$ on January , 1 C5$ !4hotoE S -ettmannGBJR-)'# -usiness 2ea"ers of Germany "uring the 1 2Hs an" 1 CHs

+riedri0* +li0k steel baron and Na8i German 2inan0ier> des0ribed as wealt*iest man in Germany

+rit8 3*yssen Na8i German 2inan0ier and businessmen

?Jalmar (0*a0*t President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19 !@19!C, 19!!@19!9)

,a6 ,. Warburg Dire0tor o2 '.G. +arben> *ead o2 ,.,. Warburg < $o.

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.B%93 3?- .93?%&5 William P. Litynski served in t*e 9.(. .rmy 2rom CC1 to CCD, primarily in t*e +irst .rmored Division in Germany "1@1 $.7, Budingen)> *e was deployed to 'raI "near Bag*dad) 2rom .pril CC! to /uly CCD. ?e lived in $restview, +lorida 2or several years and lived at =okota .ir Base, /apan near 3okyo 2rom 19:1 to 199!. "?is mot*er is 2rom /apan, and *is grand2at*er was dra2ted twi0e by t*e 'mperial /apanese Navy during World War ''.) -@mail5 wpl!1Daya*oo.0om

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$ $ $ )T )' a battle which began nearly 12H years ago, at the moment when the Jew was grante" citi>en rights in the .uro&ean 'tates$ The &olitical emanci&ation of the Jews was the beginning of an attac7 of "elirium$ For thereby they were gi%en full citi>en rights an" e9uality to a &eo&le which was much more clearly an" "efinitely a race a&art than all others, that has always forme" an" will form a 'tate within the 'tate$ That "i" not ha&&en &erha&s at one blow, but it came about as things come about to"ay an" always "o come aboutE first a little finger, then a secon" an" a thir", an" so bit by bit until at last a &eo&le that in the eighteenth century still a&&eare" com&letely alien ha" won e9ual citi>en6rights with oursel%es$ An" it was &recisely the same in the economic s&here$ The %ast &rocess of the in"ustriali>ation of the &eo&les meant the confluence of great masses of wor7men in the towns$ Thus great hor"es of &eo&le arose, an" these, moreNs the &ity, were not &ro&erly "ealt with by those whose moral "uty it was to concern themsel%es for their welfare$ 4arallel with this was a gra"ual NmoneyficationN of the whole of the nationNs labor6strength$ N'hare6ca&italN was in the ascen"ant, an" thus bit by bit the 'toc7 .?change came to control the whole national economy$ The "irectors of these institutions were, an" are without e?ce&tion, Jews$ ) say Nwithout e?ce&tion,N for the few non6Jews who ha" a share in them are in the last resort nothing but screens, sho&6win"ow Bhristians, whom one nee"s in or"er, for the sa7e of the masses, to 7ee& u& the a&&earance that these institutions were after all foun"e" as a natural outcome of the nee"s an" the economic life of all &eo&les ali7e, an" were not, as was the fact, institutions which corres&on" only with the essential characteristics of the Jewish &eo&le an" are the outcome of those characteristics$ Then .uro&e stoo" at the &arting of the ways$ .uro&e began to "i%i"e into two hal%es, into West .uro&e an" Bentral an" .astern .uro&e$ At first Western .uro&e too7 the lea" in the &rocess of in"ustriali>ation$ .s&ecially in .nglan" crow"s of farm laborers, sons of farmers, or e%en ruine" farmers themsel%es, streame" into the towns an" there forme" a new fourth estate$ -ut here one fact is of more im&ortance than we are accustome" to a"mitE this .nglan", li7e France, ha" relati%ely few Jews$ An" the conse9uence of that was that the great masses, concentrate" in the towns, "i" not come into imme"iate contact with this alien nation, an" thus feelings of a%ersion which must otherwise necessarily ha%e arisen "i" not fin" sufficient nourishment for their "e%elo&ment$ )n the en" the fifty or si?ty thousan" Jews in .nglan" 6 there was har"ly that number in .nglan" then 6 with su&reme ease were able so to N.uro&eani>eN themsel%es that they remaine" hi""en from the &rimiti%e eye of the or"inary member of the &ublic an" as NBa&tains of )n"ustry,N an" es&ecially as re&resentati%es of ca&ital on a large scale, they coul" a&&ear no longer as foreigners but themsel%es became .nglishmen$ This accounts for the fact that anti6'emitism in these 'tates coul" ne%er attain to any nati%e %igor8 for the same is true of France$ An" &recisely for this reason in these countries it was &ossible to intro"uce the system which we ha%e to re&resent to oursel%es un"er the conce&t of N+emocracy$N There it was &ossible to create a 'tate6form whose meaning coul" only be the mastery of the her" o%er the intelligentsia, the mastery o%er true energy through the "ea" weight of masse" numbers$ )n other wor"sE it must be su&remely easy for the Jewish intelligentsia, small in numbers an" therefore com&letely hi""en in the bo"y of the -ritish &eo&le, so to wor7 u&on the masses that the latter, 9uite unconscious of whom they were obeying, in the en" "i" but ser%e the &ur&oses of this small stratum of society$ Through the &ress &ro&agan"a, through the use of the organs of information, it was &ossible in .nglan" to foun" the great mo"el &arties$ Alrea"y in those early "ays they saw to it shrew"ly that here were always two or three grou&s a&&arently hostile to each other, but in fact all hanging on a gol" threa", the whole "esigne" to ta7e account of a human characteristic 6 that the longer a man &ossesses an obLect, the more rea"ily he grows tire" of it$ 0e cra%es something newE therefore one nee"s two &arties$ The one is in office, the other in o&&osition$ When the one has &laye" itself out, then the o&&osition &arty comes into &ower, an" the &arty which has ha" its "ay is now in its turn the o&&osition$ After twenty years the new &arty itself has once more &laye" itself out an" the game begins afresh$ )n truth this is a highly ingenious mill in which the interests of a nation are groun" %ery small$ As e%eryone 7nows, this system is gi%en some such name as N'elf6Go%ernment of a 4eo&le$N -esi"es this we always fin" two great catchwor"s, NFree"omN an" N+emocracy,N use", ) might say, as signboar"s$ NFree"omNE un"er that term is un"erstoo", at least amongst those in authority who in fact carry on the Go%ernment, the &ossibility of an unchec7e" &lun"ering of the masses of the &eo&le to which no resistance can be offere"$ The masses themsel%es naturally belie%e that un"er the term Nfree"omN they &ossess the right to a 9uite &eculiar free"om of motion 6 free"om to mo%e the tongue an" to say what they choose, free"om to mo%e about the streets, etc$ A bitter "ece&tionX

An" the same is true of "emocracy$ )n general e%en in the early "ays both .nglan" an" France ha" alrea"y been boun" with the fetters of sla%ery$ With, ) might say, a bra>en security these 'tates are fettere" with Jewish chains$$$$ )n conse9uence of this wi"es&rea" a%ersion it was more "ifficult for the Jew to s&rea" infection in the &olitical s&here, an" es&ecially so since tra"itionally loyalty was centere" in a &ersonE the form of the 'tate was a monarchy, an" &ower "i" not lie with an irres&onsible maLority$ Thus the Jew saw that here it was &ossible for an enlightene" "es&otism to arise base" u&on the army, the bureaucracy, an" the masses of the &eo&le still unaffecte" by the Jewish &oison$ The intelligentsia at that time was almost e?clusi%ely German, big business an" the new in"ustries were in German han"s, while the last reser%oir of a &eo&leNs strength, the &easantry, was throughout healthy$ )n such con"itions if, as in"ustry grew, a fourth estate was forme" in the towns, there was the "anger that this fourth estate might ally itself with the monarchy, an" thus with its su&&ort there might arise a &o&ular monarchy or a &o&ular N/aisertumN which woul" be rea"y an" willing to gi%e a mortal blow to those &owers of international su&ra6'tate finance which were at that time beginning to grow in influence$ This was not im&ossibleE in the history of Germany &rinces ha" from time to time foun" themsel%es force", as in -ran"enburg, to turn against the nobility an" see7 &o&ular su&&ort$ -ut this &ossibility constitute" a gra%e "anger for Jewry$ )f the great masses of the new in"ustriali>e" wor7men ha" come into @ationalist han"s an" li7e a true social lea%en ha" &enetrate" the whole nation, if the liberation of the "ifferent estates ha" followe" ste& by ste& in an organic "e%elo&ment an" the 'tate ha" later loo7e" to them for su&&ort, then there woul" ha%e been create" what many ho&e" for in @o%ember, 1 15, %i>$, a national social 'tate$ For 'ocialism in itself is anything but an international creation$ As a noble conce&tion it has in"ee" grown u& e?clusi%ely in Aryan heartsE it owes its intellectual glories only to Aryan brains$ )t is entirely alien to the Jew$ The Jew will always be the born cham&ion of &ri%ate ca&ital in its worst form, that of unchec7e" e?&loitation$$$$ Koltaire, as well as Rousseau, together with our German Fichte an" many another 6 they are all without e?ce&tion unite" in their recognition that the Jew is not only a foreign element "iffering in his essential character, which is utterly harmful to the nature of the Aryan, but that the Jewish &eo&le in itself stan"s against us as our "ea"ly foe an" so will stan" against us always an" for all time$ The master6stro7e of the Jew was to claim the lea"ershi& of the fourth estateE he foun"e" the Mo%ement both of the 'ocial +emocrats an" the Bommunists$ 0is &olicy was twofol"E he ha" his Na&ostlesN in both &olitical cam&s$ Amongst the &arties of the Right he encourage" those features which were most re&ugnant to the &eo&le 6 the &assion for money, unscru&ulous metho"s in tra"e which were em&loye" so ruthlessly as to gi%e rise to the &ro%erb N-usiness, too, marches o%er cor&ses$N An" the Jew attac7e" the &arties of the Right$ Jews worme" their way into the families of the u&&er classesE it was from the Jews that the latter too7 their wi%es$ The result was that in a short time it was &recisely the ruling class which became in its character com&letely estrange" from its own &eo&le$ An" this fact ga%e the Jew his o&&ortunity with the &arties of the 2eft$ 0ere he &laye" the &art of the common "emagogue$ Two means enable" him to "ri%e away in "isgust the whole intelligentsia of the nation from the lea"ershi& of the wor7ers$ FirstE his international attitu"e, for the nati%e intelligence of the country is &re&are" to ma7e sacrifices, it will "o anything for the life of the &eo&le, but it cannot belie%e in the ma" %iew that through the "enial of that national life, through a refusal to "efen" the rights of oneNs own &eo&le, through the brea7ing "own of the national resistance to the foreigner, it is &ossible to raise u& a &eo&le an" ma7e it ha&&y$ That it cannot "o, an" so it remaine" at a "istance$ An" the JewNs secon" instrument was the Mar?ist theory in an" for itself$ For "irectly one went on to assert that &ro&erty as such is theft, "irectly one "eserte" the ob%ious formula that only the natural wealth of a country can an" shoul" be common &ro&erty, but that that which a man creates or gains through his honest labor is his own, imme"iately the economic intelligentsia with its nationalist outloo7 coul", here too, no longer co6o&erateE for this intelligentsia was boun" to say to itself that this theory meant the colla&se of any human ci%ili>ation whate%er$ Thus the Jew succee"e" in isolating this new mo%ement of the wor7ers from all the nationalist elements$$$$ More an" more so to influence the masses that he &ersua"e" those of the Right that the faults of the 2eft were the faults of the German wor7man, an" similarly he ma"e it a&&ear to those of the 2eft that the faults of the Right were sim&ly the faults of the so6calle" N-ourgeois,N an" neither si"e notice" that on both si"es the faults were the result of a scheme &lanne" by alien "e%ilish agitators$ An" only so is it &ossible to e?&lain how this "irty Lo7e of worl" history coul" come to be that 'toc7 .?change Jews shoul" become the lea"ers of a Wor7ers Mo%ement$ )t is a gigantic frau"E worl" history has sel"om seen its li7e$ An" then we must as7 oursel%esE what are the final aims of this "e%elo&mentM

'o soon as millions of men ha%e ha" it hammere" into them that they are so o&&resse" an" ensla%e" that it matters not what their &ersonal attitu"e may be to their &eo&le, their 'tate, or economic life, then a 7in" of &assi%e resistance must result, which sooner or later will "o fatal "amage to the national economy$ Through the &reaching of the Mar?ist economic theory the national economy must go to ruin$ We see the results in RussiaE the en" of the whole economic life of the 'tateE the han"ing o%er of the community to the international worl" of finance$ An" the &rocess is furthere" through the organi>ation of the N&olitical stri7e$N Jften there are no a"e9uate economic groun"s for a stri7e, but there are always &olitical groun"s an" &lenty of them$ An" to this must be a""e" the &ractical &olitical sabotage of the 'tate, since the thought of the in"i%i"ual is concentrate" on the i"ea of international soli"arity$ )t is clear that a nationNs economic life "e&en"s u&on the strength of a national 'tateE it "oes not li%e on such &hrases as NA&&easement of the &eo&lesN or NFree"om of the 4eo&les$N At the moment when no &eo&le su&&orts the economic life of a nation, rea"y to gi%e it its &rotection, at that moment economic life colla&ses$ The brea7ing in &ieces of a nationNs strength is the en" of a nationNs &ros&erity, the national e?istence must cease altogether$ An" one can see constantly how won"erfully the 'toc7 .?change Jew an" the lea"er of the wor7ers, how the 'toc7 .?change organ an" the Lournal of the wor7ers, co6o&erate$ They both &ursue one common &olicy an" a single aim$ Moses /ohn on the one si"e encourages his association to refuse the wor7ersN "eman"s, while his brother )saac in the factory incites the masses an" shouts, N2oo7 at themX they only want to o&&ress youX 'ha7e off your fetters$$$$N 0is brother ta7es care that the fetters are well an" truly forge"$ The 'toc7 .?change organ see7s without intermission to encourage fe%ere" s&eculation an" un&arallele" corners in grain an" in the foo" of the &eo&le, while the wor7menNs news&a&er lets off all its guns on the masses, telling them that brea" is "earer an" this, that, an" the other is "earerE u& 4roletariansX en"ure it no longer6"own with $ $ $ 0ow long can this &rocess lastM )t means the utter "estruction not only of economic life, but of the &eo&le$ )t is clear that all these a&ostles who tal7 their tongues out of their hea"s, but who s&en" the night in the 0otel .?celsior, tra%el in e?&ress trains, an" s&en" their lea%e for their health in @ice 6 these &eo&le "o not e?ert their energies for lo%e of the &eo&le$ @o, the &eo&le is not to &rofit, it shall merely be brought into "e&en"ence on these men$ The bac7bone of its in"e&en"ence, its own economic life, is to be "estroye", that it may the more surely rela&se into the gol"en fetters of the &er&etual interest6sla%ery of the Jewish race$ An" this &rocess will en" when su""enly out of the masses someone arises who sei>es the lea"ershi&, fin"s other comra"es an" fans into flame the &assions which ha%e been hel" in chec7 an" looses them against the "ecei%ers$ That is the lur7ing "anger, an" the Jew can meet it in one way only 6 by "estroying the hostile national intelligentsia$ That is the ine%itable ultimate goal of the Jew in his re%olution$ An" this aim he must &ursue8 he 7nows well enough his economics brings no blessingE his is no master &eo&leE he is an e?&loiterE the Jews are a &eo&le of robbers$ 0e has ne%er foun"e" any ci%ili>ation, though he has "estroye" ci%ili>ations by the hun"re"$ 0e &ossesses nothing of his own creation to which he can &oint$ .%erything that he has is stolen$ Foreign &eo&les, foreign wor7men buil" him his tem&les, it is foreigners who create an" wor7 for himE it is foreigners who she" their bloo" for him$ 0e 7nows no N&eo&leNs armyNE he has only hire" mercenaries who are rea"y to go to "eath on his behalf$ 0e has no art of his ownE bit by bit he has stolen it all from the other &eo&les or has watche" them at wor7 an" then ma"e his co&y$ 0e "oes not e%en 7now how merely to &reser%e the &recious things which others ha%e create"E as he turns the treasures o%er in his han" they are transforme" into "irt an" "ung$ 0e 7nows that he cannot maintain any 'tate for long$ That is one of the "ifferences between him an" the Aryan$ True, the Aryan also has "ominate" other &eo&les$ -ut howM 0e entere" on the lan", he cleare" the forests8 out of wil"ernesses he has create" ci%ili>ations, an" he has not use" the others for his own interests, he has, so far as their ca&acities &ermitte", incor&orate" them into his 'tate an" through him art an" science were brought to flower$ )n the last resort it was the Aryan an" the Aryan alone who coul" form 'tates an" coul" set them on their &ath to future greatness$ All that the Jew cannot "o$ An" because he cannot "o it, therefore all his re%olutions must be Ninternational$N They must s&rea" as a &estilence s&rea"s$ 0e can buil" no 'tate an" say N'ee here, 0ere stan"s the 'tate, a mo"el for all$ @ow co&y usXN 0e must ta7e care that the &lague "oes not "ie, that it is not limite" to one &lace, or else in a short time this &lague6hearth woul" burn itself out$ 'o he is force" to bring e%ery mortal thing to an international e?&ansion$ For how longM (ntil the whole worl" sin7s in ruins an" brings him "own with it in the mi"st of the ruins$ That &rocess to"ay in Russia is &ractically com&lete$ The whole of &resent6"ay Russia has nothing to show beyon" a ruine" ci%ili>ation, a colony ri&e for "e%elo&ment through alien ca&ital, an" e%en this ca&ital in or"er to su&&ly resources in labor for its &ractical wor7 must intro"uce Aryan intellects, since for this again the Jew is useless$ 0ere, too, he is all ra&acity, ne%er

satisfie"$ 0e 7nows no or"ere" economy, he 7nows no or"ere" bo"y of a"ministrators$ J%er there in Russia he is laying his han"s on e%erything$ They ta7e the nobleNs "iamon"s to hel& Nthe 4eo&le$N The "iamon"s then stray into foreign societies an" are no more seen$ 0e sei>es to himself the treasures of the churches, but not to fee" the &eo&leE oh noX .%erything wan"ers away an" lea%es not a trace behin"$ )n his gree" he has become 9uite senselessE he can 7ee& hol" of nothingE he has only within him the instinct for "estruction, an" so he himself colla&ses with the treasure that he has "estroye"$ )t is a tragic fateE we ha%e often grown e?cite" o%er the "eath of a criminalE if an anarchist is shot in '&ain we raise a mighty howl o%er Nthe sacrifice of %aluable human bloo"N $ $ $ an" here in the .ast thirty million human beings are being slowly martyre" 6 "one to "eath, some on the scaffol", some by machine guns $ $ $ millions u&on millions through star%ation$$$$ A whole &eo&le is "ying, an" now we can &erha&s un"erstan" how it was &ossible that formerly all the ci%ili>ations of Meso&otamia "isa&&eare" without a trace so that one can only with "ifficulty fin" in the "esert san" the remains of these cities$ We see how in our own "ay whole countries "ie out un"er this scourge of Go", an" we see how this scourge is threatening Germany, too, an" how with us our own &eo&le in ma" infatuation is contributing to bring u&on itself the same yo7e, the same misery$ We 7now that the Re%olution which began in 1 15 has co%ere" &erha&s but the first thir" of its course$ Two things, howe%er, there are which must scourge it forwar" u&on its wayE economic causes an" &olitical causes$ Jn the economic si"e, the e%er6 growing "istress, an" in the &olitical s&here, are not nearly all Germans in their hearts 6 let each one a"mit it 6 in "es&air when they consi"er the situation which lea%es us 9uite "efenseless in face of a .uro&e which is so hostile to GermanyM A@+ W0A )' .(RJ4. 0J'T)2.M W. '.. 0JW JK.R T0.R. )@ T0)' JT0.R .(RJ4. )T )' @JT T0. 4.J42.' W0)B0 AG)TAT. AGA)@'T (', )T )' T0. '.BR.T 4JW.R JF T0. JRGA@)T.+ 4R.'' W0)B0 B.A'.2.''2A 4J(R' @.W 4J)'J@ )@TJ T0. 0.ART' JF T0.'. 4.J42.'$ An" who are then these ban"its of the &ressM The brothers an" the relati%es of the &ublishers of our own news&a&ers$ An" the ca&ital source which &ro%i"es the energy which here 6 an" there 6 "ri%es them forwar" is the Jewish "ream of Worl" 'u&remacy$ To"ay the i"ea of international soli"arity has lost its force, one can still bring men out of the factories, but only by means of terrorism$ )f you as7 for an honest answer the wor7er will confess that he no longer belie%es in this international soli"arity$ An" the belief in the so6calle" reasonableness of the other &eo&les has gone too$ 0ow often ha%e we been tol" that reason will lea" them not to be too har" with usE true, reason shoul" ha%e mo%e" them thus, but what "i" mo%e them ha" nothing to "o with reason$ For here there is no 9uestion of the thought of reasonable &eo&lesE it is the thought of a wil" beast, tearing, raging in its unreason, that "ri%es all of them to the same ruin as that to which we oursel%es are "ri%en$ 'o the masses of the &eo&le in Germany are becoming, in the &olitical s&here, com&letely lost$ Aet here an" there &eo&le are beginning to get some &ractice in criticism$ 'lowly, cautiously, an" yet with a certain accuracy the finger is being &lace" on the real woun" of our &eo&le$ An" thus one comes to reali>eE if only this "e%elo&ment goes on for a time, it might be &ossible that from Germany the light shoul" come which is "estine" to light both Germany an" the htt&EGGwww$hitler$orgGs&eechesGH:6256 22$htmlworl" to their sal%ation$ An" at that &oint the e%erlasting lie begins to wor7 against us with e%ery means in its &ower$$$$ )t is sai", if one critici>es the state of affairs to which we ha%e been brought to"ay, that one is a reactionary, a monarchist, a &an6 German$ ) as7 you what woul" &robably ha%e been the state of Germany to"ay if "uring these three years there ha" been no criticism at allM ) belie%e that in fact there has been far, far too little criticism$ J(R 4.J42. (@FJRT(@AT.2A )' M(B0 TJJ (@BR)T)BA2, JR JT0.RW)'. )T WJ(2+ 2J@G AGJ 0AK. @JT J@2A '..@ T0RJ(G0 MA@A T0)@G', -(T WJ(2+ 0AK. 'W.4T T0.M AWAA W)T0 )T' F)'TX The crisis is "e%elo&ing towar"s its culmination$ The "ay is not far "istant when, for the reasons which ) ha%e state", the German Re%olution must be carrie" forwar" another ste&$ The lea"ers 7now all too well that things cannot always go on as they are going to"ay$ Jne may raise &rices ten times by 1HH &er cent, but it is "oubtful if in the en" e%en a German will acce&t a milliar" of mar7s for his "ayNs wage if in the last resort with his milliar"6wage he must still star%e$ )t is a 9uestion whether one will be able to 7ee& u& this great frau" u&on the nation$ There will come a "ay when this must sto& 6 an" therefore one must buil" for that "ay, before it comes$ An" so now Germany is reaching that stage which Russia has "run7 to the lees$ @ow in one last stu&en"ous assault they will finally crush all criticism, all o&&osition, no, rather whate%er honesty is still left to us, an" that they will "o the more ra&i"ly the more clearly they see that the masses are beginning to un"erstan" one thing 6 @ational 'ocialist teaching$ Whether for the moment it comes to them un"er that name or un"er another, the fact is that e%erywhere more an" more it is ma7ing hea"way$ To"ay all these fol7 cannot yet belong to a single &arty, but, where%er you go, in Germany, yes almost in the whole worl", you fin" alrea"y millions of thin7ing men who 7now that a 'tate can be built only on a social foun"ation an" they 7now also that the "ea"ly foe of e%ery social conce&tion is the international Jew$

.%ery truly national i"ea is in the last resort social, i$e$, he who is &re&are" so com&letely to a"o&t the cause of his &eo&le that he really 7nows no higher i"eal than the &ros&erity of this 6 his own 6 &eo&le, he who has so ta7en to heart the meaning of our great song N+eutschlan", +eutschlan" uber alles,N that nothing in this worl" stan"s for him higher than this Germany, &eo&le an" lan", lan" an" &eo&le, he is a 'ocialistX An" he who in this &eo&le sym&athi>es with the &oorest of its citi>ens, who in this &eo&le sees in e%ery in"i%i"ual a %aluable member of the whole community, an" who recogni>es that this community can flourish only when it is forme" not of rulers an" o&&resse" but when all accor"ing to their ca&acities fulfill their "uty to their Fatherlan" an" the community of the &eo&le an" are %alue" accor"ingly, he who see7s to &reser%e the nati%e %igor, the strength, an" the youthful energy of the millions of wor7ing men, an" who abo%e all is concerne" that our &recious &ossession, our youth, shoul" not before its time be use" u& in unhealthy harmful wor7 6 he is not merely a 'ocialist, but he is also @ational in the highest sense of that wor"$ )t is the teaching of these facts which a&&ears to the Jews as lea"ers of the Re%olution to"ay to constitute a threatening "anger$ An" it is &recisely this which more than anything else ma7es the Jew wish to get in his blow as soon as &ossible$ For one thing he 7nows 9uite wellE in the last resort there is only one "anger which he has to fear6an" that "anger is this young Mo%ement$ 0e 7nows the ol" &arties$ They are easily satisfie"$ Jnly en"ow them with a few seats as ministers or with similar &osts an" they are rea"y to go along with you$ An" in es&ecial he 7nows one thingE they are so innocently stu&i"$ )n their case the truth of the ol" saying is &ro%e" afresh e%ery "ayE NThose whom the go"s wish to "estroy, they first stri7e with blin"ness$N They ha%e been struc7 with blin"nessE therefore it follows that the go"s wish to "estroy them$ Jnly loo7 at these &arties an" their lea"ers, 'tresemann an" the rest of them$ They are in"ee" not "angerous$ They ne%er go to the roots of the e%ilE they all still thin7 that with forbearance, with humanity, with accommo"ation they can fight a battle which has not its e9ual in this worl"$ Through gentleness they thin7 that they must "emonstrate to the enemy of the 2eft that they are rea"y for a&&easement so as to stay the "ea"ly cancerous ulcer through a &olicy of mo"eration$ @oX A thousan" times @oX 0ere there are only two &ossibilitiesE either %ictory or "efeatX What to"ay is the meaning of these great &re&arations for the "ecisi%e battle on the &art of bolshe%ist Ju"aismM6 To ma7e the nation "efenseless in arms an" to ma7e the &eo&le "efenseless in s&irit$ Two great aimsX Abroa" Germany is alrea"y humiliate"$ The 'tate trembles before e%ery French @egro6ca&tain, the nation is no longer "angerous$ An" within Germany they ha%e seen to it that arms shoul" be ta7en away from the "ecent elements of the &eo&le an" that in their stea" Russian6Jewish6bolshe%ist ban"s shoul" be arme"$ Jnly one thing remains still to "oE %i>$, the mu>>ling of the s&irit, abo%e all the arrest of the e%il NagitatorsN 6 that is the name they gi%e to those who "are to tell the &eo&le the truth$ @ot only are their organi>ations to be 7nown to all, but the masses are to be incite" against their &ersons$ Just as the Jew coul" once incite the mob of Jerusalem against Bhrist, so to"ay he must succee" in inciting fol7 who ha%e been "u&e" into ma"ness to attac7 those who, Go"Ns truthX see7 to "eal with this &eo&le in utter honesty an" sincerity$ An" so he begins to intimi"ate them, an" he 7nows that this &ressure in itself is enough to shut the mouths of hun"re"s, yes, of thousan"s$ For they thin7, if ) only hol" my tongue, then ) shall be safe in case they come into &ower$ @o, my frien"$ The only "ifference will be that ) may hang &erha&s still tal7ing, while you will hang 6 in silence$ 0ere, too, Russia can gi%e us countless e?am&les, an" with us it will be the same story$ We 7now that the so6calle" N2aw for the 4rotection of the Re&ublicN which comes from -erlin to"ay is nothing else than a means for re"ucing all criticism to silence$ We 7now, too, that no effort will be s&are" so that the last outstan"ing &ersonalities 6 those who within Germany foresee the coming of "isaster 6 shall in goo" time "isa&&ear$ An" to that en" the &o&ulation of @orth Germany will be scourge" into o&&osition to -a%aria with e%ery lie an" e%ery misre&resentation that comes to han"$ (& there they ha%e the feeling that in one corner of the Reich the s&irit of the German &eo&le is not yet bro7en$ An" that is the &oint to which we @ational 'ocialists ha%e to gra&&le oursel%es$ We @ational 'ocialists are, Go"Ns truthX &erha&s the most loyal, the most "e%ote" of all men to our German Fatherlan"$ For three years we ha%e wage" a war, often against "eath an" "e%il, but always only for our German Fatherlan"$ We got so far that at the last, as crown of all our labors, we ha" to lan" in &rison$ -ut in s&ite of e%erything there is one thing we woul" sayE We "o ma7e a "istinction between a Go%ernment an" the German Fatherlan"$ When to"ay here in the 2an"tag or in the Reichstag at -erlin some lousy half6Asiatic youth casts in our teeth the charge that we ha%e no loyalty to the Reich, ) beg you "o not "istress yoursel%es$ The -a%arian &eo&le has seale" its loyalty to the Reich with its countless regiments which fought for the Reich an" often san7 un"er the earth two or three times$ We are con%ince", an" that in the last resort is our one great faith, that out of this bitterest "istress an" this utter misery the German Reich will rise again, but not as now, not as the offs&ring of wretche"ness an" misery 6 we shall &ossess once again a true German Reich of free"om an" of honor, a real Fatherlan" of the whole German &eo&le an" not an asylum for alien swin"lers$ There is to"ay constant tal7 about

NFe"eralism,N etc$ ) beg you not to abuse the 4russians while at the same time you gro%el before the Jews, but show yoursel%es stiff6nec7e" against the fol7 of -erlin$ An" if you "o that, then you will ha%e on your si"e in the whole of Germany millions an" millions of Germans, whether they be 4russians or men of -a"en, Wurttembergers, men of 'a?ony, or Germans of Austria$ @ow is the hour to stan" stiff6nec7e" an" resist to the lastX We @ational 'ocialists who for three years ha%e "one nothing but &reach 6 abuse" an" insulte" by all, by some moc7e" an" scorne", by others tra"uce" an" slan"ere" 6 we cannot retreatX For us there is only one &ath which lea"s straight ahea"$ We 7now that the fight which now is bla>ing will be a har" struggle$ )t will not be fought out in the court of the Reich at 2ei&>ig, it will not be fought out in a cabinet at -erlin, it will be fought out through those factors which in their har" reality ha%e e%er u& to the &resent time ma"e worl" history$ ) hear" recently in the s&eech of a minister that the rights of a 'tate cannot be set asi"e through sim&le maLority "ecisions, but only through treaties$ -)'MARB/ J@B. ('.+ +)FF.R.@T 2A@G(AG. J@ T0)' '(-J.BTE 0. T0J(G0T T0AT T0. +.'T)@).' JF 4.J42.' BJ(2+ -. +.T.RM)@.+ @.)T0.R T0RJ(G0 MAJJR)TA +.B)')J@' @JR T0RJ(G0 TR.AT).', -(T J@2A T0RJ(G0 -2JJ+ A@+ )RJ@$ Jn one &oint there shoul" be no "oubtE we will not let the Jews slit our gullets an" not "efen" oursel%es$ To"ay in -erlin they may alrea"y be arranging their festi%al6"inners with the Jewish hangmen of 'o%iet Russia 6 that they will ne%er "o here$ They may to"ay begin to set u& the Bhe7a 6 the .?traor"inary Bommission 6 in Germany, they may gi%e it free sco&e, we surren"er to such a Jewish Bommission ne%erX We ha%e the con%iction, firm as a roc7, that, if in this 'tate se%en million men are "etermine" to stan" by their N@oN to the %ery last, the e%il s&ecter will colla&se into nothingness in the rest of the Reich$ For what Germany nee"s to"ay, what Germany longs for ar"ently, is a symbol of &ower, an" strength$ 'o as ) come to the en" of my s&eech ) want to as7 something of those among you who are young$ An" for that there is a %ery s&ecial reason$ The ol" &arties train their youth in the gift of the gab, we &refer to train them to use their bo"ily strength$ For ) tell youE the young man who "oes not fin" his way to the &lace where in the last resort the "estiny of his &eo&le is most truly re&resente", only stu"ies &hiloso&hy an" in a time li7e this buries himself behin" his boo7s or sits at home by the fire, he is no German youthX ) call u&on youX Join our 'torm +i%isionsX An" howe%er many insults an" slan"ers you may hear if you "o Loin, you all 7now that the 'torm +i%isions ha%e been forme" for our &rotection, for your &rotection, an" at the same time not merely for the &rotection of the Mo%ement, but for the &rotection of a Germany that is to be$ )f you are re%ile" an" insulte", goo" luc7 to you, my boysX Aou ha%e the goo" fortune alrea"y at eighteen or nineteen years of age to be hate" by the greatest of scoun"rels$ What others can win only after a lifetime of toil, this highest gift of "istinguishing between the honest man an" the brigan", falls as a &iece of luc7 into your la& while you are but youths$ Aou can be assure" that the more they re%ile you, the more we res&ect you$ We 7now that if you were not there, none of us woul" ma7e another s&eech$ We 7now, we see clearly that our Mo%ement woul" be cu"gelle" "own if you "i" not &rotect itX Aou are the "efense of a Mo%ement that is calle" one "ay to remo"el Germany in re%olutionary fashion from its %ery foun"ations in or"er that there may come to birth what &erha&s so many e?&ecte" on the ninth of @o%emberE a German Reich an" a Germanic an", so far as in us lies, a German Re&ublic$ .%ery battle must be fought to the en" 6 better that it come early than late$ An" he e%er stan"s most securely who from the first goes to the fight with the greatest confi"ence$ An" this highest confi"ence we can carry with us in our hearts$ For he who on our si"e is to"ay the lea"er of the German &eo&le, Go"Ns truthX he has nothing to win but &erha&s only e%erything to lose$ 0e who to"ay fights on our si"e cannot win great laurels, far less can he win great material goo"s 6 it is more li7ely that he will en" u& in Lail$ 0e who to"ay is lea"er must be an i"ealist, if only for the reason that he lea"s those against whom it woul" seem that e%erything has cons&ire"$ -ut in that %ery fact there lies an ine?haustible source of strength$ The con%iction that our Mo%ement is not sustaine" by money or the lust for gol", but only by our lo%e for the &eo&le, that must e%er gi%e us fresh heart, that must e%er fill us with courage for the fray$ An" as my last wor", ta7e with you this assuranceE if this battle shoul" not come, ne%er woul" Germany win &eace$ Germany woul" "ecay an" at the best woul" sin7 to ruin li7e a rotting cor&se$ -ut that is not our "estiny$ We "o not belie%e that this misfortune which to"ay our Go" sen"s o%er Germany has no meaningE it is surely the scourge which shoul" an" shall "ri%e us to a new greatness, to a new &ower an" glory, to a Germany which for the first time shall fulfill that which in their hearts millions of the best of our fellow countrymen ha%e ho&e" for through the centuries an" the millennia, to the Germany of the German &eo&leX 'ourceE htt&EGGwww$hitler$orgGs&eechesGH:625622$html

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)@ @JK.M-.R, 1 15, Mar?ist organi>ations sei>e" the e?ecuti%e &ower by means of a re%olution$ The monarchs were "ethrone", the authorities of the Reich an" of the 'tates remo%e" from office, an" thereby a breach of the Bonstitution was committe"$ The success of the re%olution in a material sense &rotecte" the guilty &arties from the han"s of the law$ They sought to Lustify it morally by asserting that Germany or its Go%ernment bore the guilt for the outbrea7 of the War$ This assertion was "eliberately an" actually untrue$ )n conse9uence, howe%er, these untrue accusations in the interest of our former enemies le" to the se%erest o&&ression of the entire German nation an" to the breach of the assurances gi%en to us in WilsonNs fourteen &oints, an" so for Germany, that is to say the wor7ing classes of the German &eo&le, to a time of infinite misfortune$$$$ The s&litting u& of the nation into grou&s with irreconcilable %iews, systematically brought about by the false "octrines of Mar?ism, means the "estruction of the basis of a &ossible communal life$$$$ )t is only the creation of a real national community, rising abo%e the interests an" "ifferences of ran7 an" class, that can &ermanently remo%e the source of nourishment of these aberrations of the human min"$ The establishment of such a soli"arity of %iews in the German bo"y cor&orate is all the more im&ortant, for it is only thereby that the &ossibility is &ro%i"e" of maintaining frien"ly relations with foreign 4owers without regar" to the ten"encies or general &rinci&les by which they are "ominate", for the elimination of $ommunism in Germany is a #urely )omesti$ German affair$ 'imultaneously with this &olitical &urification of our &ublic life, the Go%ernment of the Reich will un"erta7e a thorough moral &urging of the bo"y cor&orate of the nation$ The entire e"ucational system, the theater, the cinema, literature, the 4ress, an" the wireless 6 all these will be use" as means to this en" an" %alue" accor"ingly$ They must all ser%e for the maintenance of the eternal %alues &resent in the essential character of our &eo&le$ Art will always remain the e?&ression an" the reflection of the longings an" the realities of an era$ The neutral international attitu"e of aloofness is ra&i"ly "isa&&earing$ 0eroism is coming forwar" &assionately an" will in future sha&e an" lea" &olitical "estiny$ )t is the tas7 of art to be the e?&ression of this "etermining s&irit of the age$ -loo" an" race will once more become the source of artistic intuition$$$$ Jur legal institutions must ser%e abo%e all for the maintenance of this national community$ The irremo%ableness of the Lu"ges must ensure a sense of res&onsibility an" the e?ercise of "iscretion in their Lu"gments in the interests of society$ @ot the in"i%i"ual but the nation as a whole alone can be the center of legislati%e solicitu"e$ +igh treason an) trea$hery to the nation &ill be ruthlessly era)i$ate) in the future: The foun"ations of the e?istence of Lustice cannot be other than the foun"ations of the e?istence of the nation$ The Go%ernment, being resol%e" to un"erta7e the &olitical an" moral &urification of our &ublic life, is creating an" securing the con"itions necessary for a really &rofoun" re%i%al of religious life$ The a"%antages of a &ersonal an" &olitical nature that might arise from com&romising with atheistic organi>ations woul" not outweigh the conse9uences which woul" become a&&arent in the "estruction of general moral basic %alues$ The national Go%ernment regar"s the two Bhristian confessions as the weightiest factors for the maintenance of our nationality$ )t will res&ect the agreements conclu"e" between it an" the fe"eral 'tates$ Their rights are not to be infringe"$ -ut the Go%ernment ho&es an" e?&ects that the wor7 on the national an" moral regeneration of our nation which it has ma"e its tas7 will, on the other han", be treate" with the same res&ect$$$$ Great are the tas7s of the national Go%ernment in the s&here of economic life$ 0ere all action must be go%erne" by one lawE the &eo&le "oes not li%e for business, an" business "oes not e?ist for ca&ital8 but ca&ital ser%es business, an" business ser%es the &eo&le$ )n &rinci&le, the Go%ernment will not &rotect the economic interests of the German &eo&le by the circuitous metho" of an economic bureaucracy to be organi>e" by the 'tate, but by the utmost furtherance of &ri%ate initiati%e an" by the recognition of the rights of &ro&erty$$$$ The Go%ernment will systematically a%oi" currency e?&eriments$ We are face" abo%e all by two economic tas7s of the first magnitu"e$ The sal%ation of the German farmer must be achie%e" at all costs$$$$ Furthermore, it is &erfectly clear to the national Go%ernment that the final remo%al of the "istress both in agricultural business an" in that of the towns "e&en"s on the absor&tion of the army of the unem&loye" in the &rocess of &ro"uction$ This constitutes

the secon" of the great economic tas7s$ )t can only be sol%e" by a general a&&easement, in a&&lying soun" natural economic &rinci&les an" all measures necessary, e%en if, at the time, they cannot rec7on with any "egree of &o&ularity$ The &ro%i"ing of wor7 an" the com&ulsory labor ser%ice are, in this connection, only in"i%i"ual measures within the sco&e of the entire action &ro&ose"$$$$ We are a&are that the geogra#hi$ #osition of Germany6 &ith her la$/ of ra& materials6 )oes not fully #ermit of e$onomi$ selfDsuffi$ien$y for the Rei$h: =t $annot be too often em#hasize) that nothing is further from the thoughts of the Go,ernment of the Rei$h than hostility to e<#orting: We are fully a&are that &e ha,e nee) of the $onne$tion &ith the outsi)e &orl)6 an) that the mar/eting of German $ommo)ities in the &orl) #ro,i)es a li,elihoo) for many millions of our fello&D$ountrymen: We also 7now what are the con"itions necessary for a soun" e?change of ser%ices between the nations of the worl"$ For Germany has been com&elle" for years to &erform ser%ices without recei%ing an e9ui%alent, with the result that the tas7 of maintaining Germany as an acti%e &artner in the e?change of commo"ities is not so much one of commercial as of financial &olicy$ 'o long as we are not accor"e" a reasonable settlement of our foreign "ebts corres&on"ing to our economic ca&acity, we are unfortunately com&elle" to maintain our foreign6e?change control$ The Go%ernment of the Reich is, for that reason, also com&elle" to maintain the restrictions on the efflu? of ca&ital across the frontiers of Germany$$$$ The &rotection of the frontiers of the Reich an" thereby of the li%es of our &eo&le an" the e?istence of our business is now in the han"s of the Reichswehr, which, in accor"ance with the terms im&ose" u&on us by the Treaty of Kersailles, is to be regar"e" as the only really "isarme" army in the worl"$ )n s&ite of its enforce" smallness an" entirely insufficient armament, the German &eo&le may regar" their Reichswehr with &rou" satisfaction$ This little instrument of our national self6"efence has come into being un"er the most "ifficult con"itions$ The s&irit imbuing it is that of our best military tra"itions$ The German nation has thus fulfille" with &ainful conscientiousness the obligations im&ose" u&on it by the 4eace Treaty, in"ee", e%en the re&lacement of shi&s for our fleet then sanctione" has, ) may &erha&s be allowe" to say, unfortunately, only been carrie" out to a small e?tent$ For years Germany has been waiting in %ain for the fulfillment of the &romise of "isarmament ma"e to her by the others$ )t is the sincere "esire of the national Go%ernment to be able to refrain from increasing our army an" our wea&ons, insofar as the rest of the worl" is now also rea"y to fulfill its obligations in the matter of ra"ical "isarmament$ For Germany "esires nothing e?ce&t an e9ual right to li%e an" e9ual free"om$ )n any case the national Go%ernment will e"ucate the German &eo&le in this s&irit of a "esire for free"om$ The national honor, the honor of our army an" the i"eal of free"om must once more become sacre" to the German &eo&leX The German nation wishes to li%e in &eace with the rest of the worl"$ -ut it is for this %ery reason that the Go%ernment of the Reich will em&loy e%ery means to obtain the final remo%al of the "i%ision of the nations of the worl" into two categories$ The 7ee&ing o&en of this woun" lea"s to "istrust on the one si"e an" hatre" on the other, an" thus to a general feeling of insecurity$ The national Go,ernment is rea)y to e<ten) a han) in sin$ere un)erstan)ing to e,ery nation that is rea)y finally to ma/e an en) of the tragi$ #ast: The international e$onomi$ )istress $an only )isa##ear &hen the basis has been #ro,i)e) by stable #oliti$al relations an) &hen the nations ha,e regaine) $onfi)en$e in ea$h other: For the o%ercoming of the economic catastro&he three things are necessaryE 1$ Absolutely authoritati%e lea"ershi& in internal affairs, in or"er to create confi"ence in the stability of con"itions$ 2$ The securing of &eace by the great nations for a long time to come, with a %iew to restoring the confi"ence of the nations in each other$ C$ The final %ictory of the &rinci&les of common sense in the organi>ation an" con"uct of business, an" also a general release from re&arations an" im&ossible liabilities for "ebts an" interest$ We are unfortunately face" by the fact that the Gene%a Bonference, in s&ite of lengthy negotiations, has so far reache" no &ractical result$ The "ecision regar"ing the securing of a real measure of "isarmament has been constantly "elaye" by the raising of 9uestions of technical "etail an" by the intro"uction of &roblems that ha%e nothing to "o with "isarmament$ This &roce"ure is useless$ The illegal state of one6si"e" "isarmament an" the resulting national insecurity of Germany cannot continue any longer$

We recogni>e it as a sign of the feeling of res&onsibility an" of the goo" will of the -ritish Go%ernment that they ha%e en"ea%ore", by means of their "isarmament &ro&osal, to cause the Bonference finally to arri%e at s&ee"y "ecisions$ The Go%ernment of the Reich will su&&ort e%ery en"ea%or aime" at really carrying out general "isarmament an" securing the fulfillment of GermanyNs long6o%er"ue claim for "isarmament$ For fourteen years we ha%e been "isarme", an" for fourteen months we ha%e been waiting for the results of the +isarmament Bonference$ .%en more far6reaching is the &lan of the hea" of the )talian Go%ernment, which ma7es a broa"6min"e" an" far6seeing attem&t to secure a &eaceful an" consistent "e%elo&ment of the whole of .uro&ean &olicy$ We attach the greatest weight to this &lan, an" we are rea"y to co6o&erate with absolute sincerity on the basis it &ro%i"es, in or"er to unite the four Great 4owers, .nglan", France, )taly, an" Germany, in frien"ly co6o&eration in attac7ing with courage an" "etermination the &roblems u&on the solution of which the fate of .uro&e "e&en"s$ )t is for this reason that we are &articularly grateful for the a&&reciati%e heartiness with which the national renaissance of Germany has been greete" in )taly$$$$ )n the same way, the Go%ernment of the Reich, which regar"s Bhristianity as the unsha7able foun"ation of the morals an" moral co"e of the nation, attaches the greatest %alue to frien"ly relations with the 0oly 'ee, an" is en"ea%oring to "e%elo& them$ We feel sym&athy for our brother nation in Austria in its trouble an" "istress$ )n all their "oings the Go%ernment of the Reich is conscious of the connection between the "estiny of all German races$ Their attitu"e towar" the other foreign 4owers may be gathere" from what has alrea"y been sai"$ -ut e%en in cases where our mutual relations are encumbere" with "ifficulties, we shall en"ea%or to arri%e at a settlement$ -ut in any case the basis for an un"erstan"ing can ne%er be the "istinction between %ictor an" %an9uishe"$ We are con%ince" that such a settlement is &ossible in our relations with France, if the Go%ernments will attac7 the &roblems affecting them on both si"es in a really broa"min"e" way$ The Go%ernment of the Reich is rea"y to culti%ate with the 'o%iet (nion frien"ly relations &rofitable to both &arties$ )t is abo%e all the Go%ernment of the @ational Re%olution which feels itself in a &osition to a"o&t such a &ositi%e &olicy with regar" to 'o%iet Russia$ The fight against communism in Germany is our internal affair in which we will ne%er &ermit interference from outsi"e$$$$ We ha%e &articularly at heart the fate of the Germans li%ing beyon" the frontiers of Germany who are allie" with us in s&eech, culture, an" customs an" ha%e to ma7e a har" fight to retain these %alues$ The national Go%ernment is resol%e" to use all the means at its "is&osal to su&&ort the rights internationally guarantee" to the German minorities$ We welcome the &lan for a Worl" .conomic Bonference an" a&&ro%e of its meeting at an early "ate$ The Go%ernment of the Reich is rea"y to ta7e &art in this Bonference, in or"er to arri%e at &ositi%e results at last$ $ $ $ 'ourceE htt&EGGwww$hitler$orgGs&eechesGHC62C6CC$html

Timeline of the Weimar Re&ublic !1 1561 CC#

March C, 1 15E The Treaty of -rest62ito%s7 was signe" by Russia !'o%iet -olshe%i7 regime#$ July 1D, 1 15;August *, 1 15E 'econ" -attle of the Marne Jctober 1C, 1 15E German army cor&oral A"olf 0itler is gasse" by the -ritish army in the trenches of -elgium near A&res @o%ember :, 1 15E /ing 2u"wig ))) of -a%aria ab"icates @o%ember , 1 15E /aiser Wilhelm )) of Germany ab"icates January D, 1 1 E The German Wor7ers, 4arty was foun"e" in Munich by Anton +re?ler February 21, 1 1 E /urt .isner, Minister 4resi"ent of -a%aria, is assassinate" in Munich by Anton Graf %on Arco auf Kalley A&ril *, 1 1 6May C, 1 1 E The -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic is establishe" in Munich June 25, 1 1 E The Treaty of Kersailles is signe" by German "i&lomats at the Kersailles 4alace near 4aris$ February 24, 1 2HE The @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty was establishe" at the 0ofbrauhaus in Munich March 1 2HE /a&& 4utsch in -erlin !also 7nown as /a&&62Uttwit> 4utsch# March C1, 1 2HE A"olf 0itler is officially "ischarge" from the 41st Rifle Regiment of the Reichswehr July 2 , 1 21E A"olf 0itler was a&&ointe" Fuhrer of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers, 4arty at a beer hall in Munich August 2*, 1 21E Matthias .r>berger, the Finance Minister of Germany, was assassinate" in southwest Germany$ June 24, 1 22E Walter Rathenau, the Foreign Minister of Germany an" Jewish businessman, was assassinate" in -erlin January 11, 1 2CE The Jccu&ation of the Ruhr !1 2C61 2D# by the French army Jctober 2C, 1 2CE Bommunist u&rising occurs in 0amburg, Germany @o%ember 2, 1 2CE Bommunist u&rising occurs in +res"en, Germany @o%ember 56 , 1 2CE -eer 0all 4utsch in Munich8 A"olf 0itler is arreste" on @o%ember 11, 1 2C February 2*, 1 246A&ril 1, 1 24E -eer 0all 4utsch Trial con%enes at the 4eo&le,s Bourt in Munich, Germany, where A"olf 0itler, Gen$ .rich %on 2u"en"orff, an" others are trie" for high treason A&ril 1, 1 246+ecember 2H, 1 24E Austrian citi>en A"olf 0itler s&en"s 2*4 "ays at 2an"sberg 4rison an" writes .ein /am&f in &rison after he was con%icte" for high treason an" sentence" initially to D years in &rison August 2 , 1 24E The German go%ernment ratifies the +awes 4lan A&ril 1 2DE A"olf 0itler renounces his Austrian citi>enshi& Jctober D61*, 1 2DE 2ocarno Treaties are signe" by Germany, France, an" -ritain in 2ocarno, 'wit>erlan" 'e&tember 5, 1 2*E Germany is a"mitte" to the 2eague of @ations 'e&tember 14, 1 2*E 2ocarno Treaties went into effect !in Gene%a, 'wit>erlan"# 1 2*E German Foreign Minister Gusta% 'tresemann an" French Foreign Minister Aristi"e -rian" are awar"e" the @obel 4eace 4ri>e May 2H, 1 25E German Fe"eral .lection is hel"8 the @a>i 4arty gains 12 seats in the Reichstag June 14, 1 2 E Aoung 4lan is finali>e" at 4aris Jctober C, 1 2 E Gusta% 'tresemann, the Foreign Minister of Germany an" @obel 4eace 4ri>e reci&ient, "ies in office Jctober 2562 1 2 E 'toc7 mar7et crash in @ew Aor7 Bity an" beginning of the Great +e&ression 'e&tember 14, 1 CHE German Fe"eral .lection is hel"8 the @a>i 4arty !2n" largest &arty# gains 1H: seats in the Reichstag February 2D, 1 C2E A"olf 0itler became a naturali>e" German citi>en July C1, 1 C2E German Fe"eral .lection is hel"8 the @a>i 4arty !largest &arty# gains 2CH seats in the Reichstag @o%ember *, 1 C2E German Fe"eral .lection is hel"8 the @a>i 4arty !largest &arty# gains 1 * seats in the Reichstag

Timeline of the Thir" Reich !until +ecember 1 41#

January CH, 1 CCE A"olf 0itler is inaugurate" Bhancellor of Germany February 2:, 1 CCE Reichstag !German 4arliament# is set on fire at night March D, 1 CCE German Fe"eral .lection is hel"8 the @a>i 4arty !largest &arty# gains 255 seats in the Reichstag March 1:, 1 CCE 0Lalmar 'chacht is a&&ointe" 4resi"ent of the Reichsban7 for the secon" time March 24, 1 CCE The .nabling Act is &romulgate" August CH, 1 CC6+ecember 2 , 1 C:E William .$ +o"" ser%es as the (nite" 'tates Ambassa"or to @a>i Germany Jctober 21, 1 CCE Germany with"raws from the 2eague of @ations January 2*, 1 C4E The German64olish @on6Aggression 4act is signe" June 1461D, 1 C4E Bhancellor of Germany A"olf 0itler meets with 4rime Minister of )taly -enito Mussolini in Kenice, )taly June CH, 1 C46July 2, 1 C4E @ight of the 2ong /ni%es June CH, 1 C4E /urt %on 'chleicher, former Bhancellor of Germany, is assassinate" "uring the @ight of the 2ong /ni%es July 2D, 1 C4E Bhancellor of Austria .ngelbert +ollfuss is assassinate" in Kienna, Austria August 2, 1 C4E German 4resi"ent !Gen$# 4aul %on 0in"enburg "ies in office 'e&tember 15, 1 C4E A"mission of the (nion of 'o%iet 'ocialist Re&ublics to the 2eague of @ations Jctober , 1 C4E /ing Ale?an"er ) of Augosla%ia is assassinate" by lone gunman Kla"o Bherno>ems7i in Marseille, France January 1C, 1 CDE 4lebiscite hel" in the 2eague of @ations6a"ministere" 'aar Territory8 Germans in 'aar %ote in fa%or of unification March 1, 1 CDE Germany ta7es o%er the Go%ernment of the 'aar Territory$ May 2, 1 CDE The Franco6'o%iet Treaty of Mutual Assistance, a bilateral &act with the aim of encircling Germany, was signe" in 4aris May 12, 1 CDE 4olish lea"er Gen$ Jo>ef 4ilsu"s7i "ies in Warsaw, 4olan" 'e&tember 1D, 1 CDE @uremberg 2aws are &romulgate" Jctober 21, 1 CDE Germany ceases to be a Member of the 2eague of @ations March C, 1 C56@o%ember 1*, 1 C5E 0ugh Robert Wilson ser%es as the (nite" 'tates Ambassa"or to @a>i Germany March 5, 1 C5E A"olf 0itler meets with former ($'$ 4resi"ent 0erbert 0oo%er in -erlin March 12, 1 C5E @a>i German Anne?ation of Austria !Anschluss# 'e&tember CH, 1 C5E Munich Agreement is signe" at Munich Jctober 1 C5E @a>i German Anne?ation of 'u"etenlan" !B>echoslo%a7ia# @o%ember 5, 1 C5E @a>i German "i&lomat .rnst %om Rath was assassinate" in 4aris by 1:6year6ol" Jewish alien 0erschel Gryns>&an @o%ember , 1 C5E /ristallnacht !@ight of the -ro7en Glass# January 1 , 1 C E 0Lalmar 'chacht resigns as 4resi"ent of the Reichsban7 March 1D, 1 C E @a>i German )n%asion of B>echoslo%a7ia an" the city of 4rague August 2C, 1 C E The German6'o%iet @onaggression 4act is signe" in Moscow 'e&tember 1, 1 C E @a>i German )n%asion of 4olan" an" the city of +an>ig 'e&tember 2:, 1 C E The ca&itulation of the city of Warsaw, 4olan" to the @a>i German arme" forces @o%ember 5, 1 C E Assassination attem&t on A"olf 0itler at -UrgerbrQu7eller -eer 0all in Munich by German citi>en Johann .lser A&ril , 1 4HE @a>i German )n%asion of @orway an" +enmar7 May 1H, 1 4HE @a>i German )n%asion of France, -elgium, an" @etherlan"s June 1D, 1 4HE 'o%iet (nion occu&ies an" later anne?es 2ithuania, 2at%ia, an" .stonia June 22, 1 4HE @a>i German Anne?ation of northern France an" recognition of Kichy France 'e&tember 2:, 1 4HE The Tri&artite 4act is signe" by )m&erial Ja&an, Fascist )taly, an" @a>i Germany in -erlin A&ril *, 1 41E @a>i German )n%asion of Augosla%ia an" Greece June 4, 1 41E The +eath of /aiser Wilhelm )) of Germany in the @etherlan"s June 22, 1 41E @a>i German )n%asion of Russia +ecember 11, 1 41E @a>i Germany "eclares war on the (nite" 'tates of America

W*oAs W*o o2 t*e 3*ird &ei0*

?ermann Goering &ei0*sminister o2 .viation "19!!@19D4)

?einri0* ?immler &ei0*s2U*rer o2 t*e (0*ut8sta22el "(() "L /an. 19 9 R 9 .pril 19D4)

.dol2 ?itler $*an0ellor and +u*rer o2 Na8i Germany "19!!@19D4)

/osep* Goebbels ,inister o2 Publi0 -nlig*tenment and Propaganda "19!!@ 19D4)> Gauleiter o2 Berlin "19 L@19D4)

,artin Bormann .dol2 ?itlerAs assistant

/oa0*im von &ibbentrop +oreign ,inister o2 Na8i Germany "19!:@19D4)> Na8i German .mbassador to Great Britain "19!L@19!:)

.lbert (peer ,inister o2 .rmaments and War Produ0