Organized Crime?
The Rise of Nazi Germany

By William P. Litynski

From the Grassy Knoll in Berlin:

Lone Gunman or Patsy?
The Assassination of German Jewish bureaucrat Walther Rathenau, Foreign Minister of Germany, on June 24, 1 22

Foreign Minister of Germany Walther Rathenau !left, hol"ing a cane# was assassinate" on June 24, 1 22$ The German go%ernment signe" the Treaty of Ra&allo with the 'o%iet (nion in )taly on A&ril 1*, 1 22$ +uring Rathenau,s tri& to the Foreign Ministry in -erlin, his car &asse" by another car, with .rnst Werner Techow as the "ri%er an" assassins .rwin /ern an" 0ermann Fischer in the rear$ 12one gunman3 .rwin /ern o&ene" fire with a M4 156submachine gun, 7illing Rathenau8 0ermann Fischer threw a han" grena"e into Rathenau,s car before Techow 9uic7ly "ro%e away$

Walther Rathenau !'e&tember 2 , 15*: ; June 24, 1 22# Foreign Minister of Germany <Weimar Re&ublic= !February 1, 1 22 ; June 24, 1 22#

An )talian maga>ine re&orts on the assassination of Foreign Minister of Germany Walther Rathenau$

Warburg Family & The stablishment of the Weimar !Banana" Re#ubli$: %e&ish 'ons#ira$y or (rganize) 'rime?

Warburg Brothers: 'or#orate *#onsors of the %e&ish +olo$aust?: German6American Jewish ban7er 4aul Warburg !far left, seate"# an" his brothers !from left to right# Feli? Warburg, Ma? Warburg, Frit> Warburg, an" Aby Warburg &ose for a formal &ortrait on August 21, 1 2 $ Paul Warburg &as the Go)father of the Fe)eral Reser,e -.meri$an $entral ban/0 an) ser,e) as the 1i$e Go,ernor 2'hairman3 of the Fe)eral Reser,e from .ugust 456 4748 until .ugust 76 4749: 4aul Warburg an" his brother Feli? Warburg were members of the 'oun$il on Foreign Relations, a &ri%ate foreign affairs organi>ation in @ew Aor7 Bity, "uring the -eer 0all 4utsch in @o%ember 1 2C$ ;a< Warburg &as a )ire$tor of =:G: Farben $hemi$al $artel6 a German $or#oration that s#onsore) .)olf +itler an) his !Bro&n *hirts": The 'econ" -attle of the Marne laste" from July 1D, 1 15 until August *, 1 158 the -attle of Bhateau6Thierry was fought on July 15, 1 15$ !4hotoE The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow#

4hotogra&h of a Fe"eral Reser%e -oar" meeting in circa 1 1:$ Bloc7wise, beginning from leftE William G$ McA"oo !'ecretary of the Treasury#, John '7elton Williams !Bom&troller of the Burrency#, A"ol&h B$ Miller, Fre"eric A$ +elano, un7nown, W$4$G$ 0ar"ing !Go%ernor of the Fe"eral Reser%e#, Paul Warburg -1i$e Go,ernor of the Fe)eral Reser,e0 , an" Bharles '$ 0amlin$ !4hotoE 0arris F .wing BollectionG2ibrary of Bongress#

A ban7 run occurs in -erlin, Germany in @o%ember 1 C1$ The ;u/)en =n$i)ent o$$urre) on *e#tember 496 47>4: The British m#ire &ent off the gol) stan)ar) on *e#tember ?46 47>4:

Disgruntled and unemployed German men wait in a bread line in Berlin, Germany in November 19 !. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

1)n A&ril 1 21, 4aul, encourage" by Ma?, launche" the )nternational Acce&tance -an7 in @ew Aor7$ The )A-,s blue6ribbon sharehol"ers range" from /uhn, 2oeb to the 2on"on Rothschil"s$ 4aul, Feli?, an" M$M$ Warburg also hel" large bloc7s of stoc7$ -an7 was a misnomer for the )A-, which "i"n,t ta7e "e&osits$ )t s&eciali>e" in a form of tra"e finance calle" ban7er,s acce&tances, which ha" long e?iste" in .uro&e, but only became &ossible in America un"er the Fe"$ An acce&tance was a short6 term cre"it e?ten"e" by a ban7 to a customer$ With these cre"its, 4aul ho&e" to rebuil" a shattere" Germany an" by July he was financing German grain im&orts$ 'ince the @a>i s later accuse" Jewish ban7ers of sabotaging the economy, it is worth noting that 4aul an" Ma? acte" as a critical con"uit of Wall 'treet money at a time when cre"it was scarce$ Alrea"y in 1 2H, the Warburgs &ulle" off a big transatlantic "eal for the German electrical com&any, A.G, selling a 9uarter of its new loan issue to the Guggenheims$ 4erha&s 4aul,s most com&elling moti%e in forming the )A- was to hel& Ma? an" the 0amburg firm$ The )A- ga%e uni9ue a"%antages to M$M$ Warburg, which ser%e" as its .uro&ean agent an" e?ecute" much of its .uro&ean business$ -olstere" by the @ew Aor7 connection, Ma? &artici&ate" in share issues for Frie"rich /ru&& an" +aimler Motors in 1 21$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ 224 1The inflation e?acerbate" social tensions in Germany, &ro"ucing a han"ful of winners an" legions of embittere" losers$ (ne"ucate" &eo&le fantasi>e" that Jewish ban7ers orchestrate" this com&le? monetary &henomenon for their gain$ +is&ro&ortionately re&resente" in &ri%ate ban7ing, well6to6"o Jews were generally better e9ui&&e" to "eal with inflation, while el"erly &eo&le on &ensions an" "e&ositors with small ban7 accounts fare" worst$ 4eo&le ra%age" by inflation resentfully watche" financiers shuffle money into foreign currencies or tangible assets to &reser%e their ca&italIWith his Wall 'treet connections, Ma? was courte" by -erlin an" the Foreign Jffice &ro""e" him to tra%el to @ew Aor7 to lobby for an international loan$ Agreeing that only such a loan coul" &ro& u& the &lunging German currency, he &ursue" this theme with Bolonel <."war" Man"ell= 0ouse at the American embassy in -erlin in June 1 21$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ 22* 1Afterwar", 4aul <Warburg= an" Ma? <Warburg= went to Washington, 4aul arranging meetings for his brother with 'ecretary <0erbert= 0oo%er at Bommerce, <Bharles .%ans= 0ughes at 'tate, an" <An"rew= Mellon at Treasury$ These tal7s booste" Ma?,s ho&es that a conference of e?&erts might be con%ene" to re"uce re&arations$ 4aul circulate" a &ri%ate memo "escribing the 1"anse macabre3 of the reichsmar7, with hy&erinflation alrea"y wi&ing out the sa%ings of an alienate" German mi""le classI -y the time he returne", the mar7 was in an alarming free fall$ The French accuse" the Germans of engineering this "ro& to sabotage re&arations, a %iew&oint Ma? <Warburg= an" <Barl= Melchior shar&ly conteste"$ A new go%ernment was hea"e" by Wilhelm Buno, -allin,s successor at 0A4AGIThe new chancellor &lea"e" with France for a re&arations moratorium$ )nstea", France "eclare" Germany in "efault on some timber "eli%eries$ The u&shot was that on January 11, 1 2C, si?ty thousan" French an" -elgian sol"iers too7 o%er the Ruhr to enforce &ayment, by force if necessary$ When the Buno go%ernment calle" for &assi%e resistance in the Ruhr, the French "eci"e" to o&erate the local coal mines an" iron foun"ries themsel%es$ Ma? a&&lau"e" Germany,s though, morale6boosting resistance$ When American lawyer John Foster +ulles "iscusse" the Ruhr with Ma? an" Bhancellor Buno aboar" the '' Albert Ballin, Ma? "efen"e" the 1s&ontaneous resistance of the &o&ulation against %iolence$3 At the same time, Ma? feare" its economic conse9uences$ To sustain stri7ing wor7ers, -erlin ha" to ma7e su&&ort &ayments that woul" further fuel inflation$ )n February, Ma? warne" Buno that the bur"en of su&&orting the "efiant Ruhr wor7ers woul" com&lete Germany,s ruin$ .%erything now hastene" the u&war" s&iral of &rices$ Germany &rinte" money to &ay Ruhr wor7ers while France &ut sei>e" reichsmar7s bac7 into circulation, swelling the money su&&ly$ At M$M$ Warburg, inflation create" a frenetic tem&o that clashe" with the Kictorian formality$ As soon as em&loyees were &ai", they crosse" the street to the /arsta"t "e&artment store an" s&ent the money before &rices rose$ The chea&er mar7 create" a bonan>a for foreign in%estors who bought German &ro&erties at bargain &rices, arousing resentment against the ban7ers who e?ecute" these "eals$ M$M$ Warburg switche" much of its ca&ital into foreign currencies$ With blac7 humor, Ma? Lo7e" that the staff in 1 2C s&ent its time scribbling >eroes in le"gers$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ 2CH62C1 1The moo" brightene" further in Germany when the Allies re"uce" re&arations at the 1 24 +awes conference in 2on"on, but economic relief came at a stee& &olitical &rice$ )n e?change for lower &ayments, the Allies too7 as security a first mortgage on German go%ernment re%enues from ta?es on beer, tobacco, an" other items an" gaine" some control o%er the Reichsban7 an" German railways$ An agent general was a&&ointe" to gauge Germany,s ca&acity to &ay re&arations$ As a sweetener for -erlin, the +awes &lan en%isione" an international loan of un&rece"ente" si>e that woul" ultimately allow Germany to &ay re&arations with borrowe" money, thus starting the fatal carousel of global len"ing that woul" s&in "i>>ily for a "eca"e then colla&se$ After the Reichstag a"o&te" the +awes scheme ami" fierce contro%ersy, J$4$ Morgan an" Bom&any mounte" a giant loan for Germany$3 ; The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow, &$ 2:C

for the re6 emergence of an im&ortant German merchant fleet$3 4aul. who later Loine" @a>i ca"res in "is&ro&ortionate numbers$ Ma? <Warburg= a""e" a boar" seat on )$G$ Farben to twenty6si? others he now hel"$3 . es&ecially German . M$M$ Warburg F Bo$ enLoye" a relati%ely &ri%ilege" &lace in the Thir" Reich$ The same Jewish ban7ers who starre" in the &ages of Der Sturmer enLoye".ga%e cre"it to 0A4AG. Jewish financiers were catalysts of changes that embittere" the losers$ They ai"e" the "e&artment store tren". such as high German ta?es an" the bloate" Weimar bureaucracyIAwash with foreign money. which hurt small sho&7ee&ers. )$G$ Farben.s )A. while Ma? courte" A%erell 0arriman. he feare". The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow. &ro%i"ing the latter with a twenty6fi%e6million6"ollar cre"it that strengthene" Germany at a critical Luncture$ Ma? was now a&&ointe" to the &restigious Generalrat. which ran7e" as . &ressing him to form a Loint %enture with -allin. si? large chemical cor&orations forme" the most massi%e trust. it ne%er seeme" to "isturb the committe"$ Another factor gi%ing Jewish ban7ers some immunity from attac7 was their international connections$ The Warburgs were a showcase family well 7nown abroa"$3 .uro&e. only mas7e" un"erlying economic &roblems. 1Ma? Warburg must get the cre"it. &$ 2:462:D 1Jne &ara"o? of the Warburg story is that while the family figure" &rominently in a ma" farrago of @a>i allegations. the Warburgs again occu&ie" a &i%otal &lace in transatlantic finance . &$ C:D . &robably the last time the stars were &erfectly aligne" for them$ 4aul. &$ 2:4 1Foreign cre"it was a "rug that fostere" a short but artificial &ros&erity in Germany an" Ma? later referre" to the Scheinblüte or 1illusory boom3 of 1 2D$ The foreign money. &harmaceuticals. they were accor"e" more &ri%ileges than almost any other Jewish grou&. German in"ustry embar7e" on a merger wa%e that &ro"uce" huge trusts an" cartels$ +aimler an" -en> merge"$ The new (nite" 'teel Wor7s arose. while 0A4AG woul" offer route structures an" ort facilities$ The %enture got 0A4AG u& an" running again. Ma? fa%ore" in"ustrial mergers an" e?ecute" se%eral of them.uro&ean . The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow. &hotogra&hic film. but was fiercely critici>e" by Americans who allege" that 0A4AG shi&s ha" harbore" s&ies an" saboteurs "uring the war$ 4aul ha" a"%ise" +r$ 'chacht on how to tame inflation an" ha" been in%ol%e" in the +awes loan$ As a rewar". the )A.t create ra&i" Lob growth nee"e" to buttress his regime$ Thus. as the @a>is ha&&ily e?&loite" the financial &ower that they so eagerly "enounce"$ They got away with this because &ri%ate ban7s o&erate" in an elite uni%erse foreign to the street hoo"lums an" small sho&7ee&ers who com&rise" the &arty faithful$ With eighteen million reichsmar7s of ca&ital.1With Germany the maLor "ebtor of the 1 2Hs an" America the maLor cre"itor. 0arriman woul" initially &ro%i"e American shi&s. M$M$ Warburg F Bo$ was &robably the largest an" most eminent &ri%ate ban7 in Germany. a certain immunity from attac7$ 0owe%er fierce the @a>i rhetoric against them.s ol" firm$ (n"er the "eal struc7. in &ractice. for instance.s )nternational Acce&tance -an7 !)A-# organi>e" the American an" Bontinental Bor&oration to e?ten" me"ium6term cre"its to . secon" only in si>e to ($'$ 'teel$ )n 1 2D. ri%ale" only by Men"elssohn F Bo$ in -erlin$ That Germany benefite" from Jewish ban7ers who allege"ly &lun"ere" the Volk was one of @a>ism.s en"$ As one 0amburg official later sai". beyon" anyone else. an" magnesium ma"e in Germany$ Though a staunch free mar7eter. confiscate" at war.became the American agent for the Reichsban7 an" its Gol" +iscount -an7 subsi"iary. in"ustry$ 4aul an" Ma? funnele" foreign money into 0amburg state loans an" hel&e" to rebuil" the German merchant marine. inclu"ing that of two @orth 'ea fishing concerns$ As so often in the &ast. 0itler coul"n.s a"%ent$ The Wall 'treet money that re%i%e" Germany also carrie" hi""en &erils for the Warburgs$3 .s largest cor&oration$ )t woul" &ro"uce the bul7 of "yes. the Reichsban7 a"%isory boar". nitrogen.s "irty secrets$ The ban7ers ha" something Germany "es&erately nee"e"$ A lot of foreign tra"e floate" through 0amburg on Warburg cre"its an" the @a>is were short of foreign e?change nee"e" to rearm Germany$ An" without strong e?&orts. The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow. he grante" a s&ecial "is&ensation to the %ery &eo&le he most re%ile"$ )f this belie" the &arty worl"%iew about the Jews. a &osition he woul" hol" until 0itler.

a2ter 0apturing t*e 0ity 2rom t*e %ttoman 3urks.llenby enters /erusalem on De0ember 11.ars*al -dmund . . 1911. 3*e %ttoman -mpire administered /erusalem 2rom 1411 to 1911.Britis* +ield .

. was a member o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations and a partner o2 . Pereira . "P*oto5 The Warburgs by &on $*ernow) +eli6 Warburg and *is brot*er .pril :. 7era Wei8mann. +rom rig*t to le2t5 +eli6 Warburg o2 . .ppeal in 19 :. Loeb < $o. Loeb < $o.. 19 9.ember o2 t*e -6e0utive $ommittee o2 t*e /D$.u*n. Warburg bank in ?amburg.Le2t to rig*t5 +eli6 Warburg.endes> . +eli6 Warburg. +rieda (0*i22 Warburg.u*n.a6 Warburg o2 t*e .a6 Warburg visit /erusalem on . $yrus .G.. Germany> Dr. +arben. ..a6 Warburg was a dire0tor o2 '. and $*aim Wei8mann appear at a Boston 0on2eren0e 2or t*e 9nited Palestine . banking 2irm in New =ork $ity. ?.orris -ngelman. along wit* *is brot*er Paul Warburg.dler. member o2 t*e -6e0utive $ommittee o2 t*e /oint Distribution $ommittee> &ev. in New =ork $ity and $*airman o2 t*e /oint Distribution $ommittee> .

and ot*er members o2 t*e /ewis* Lobby at (t. 3*is p*otograp* was publis*ed in Barnet Litvino22Bs book Weizmann: Last of the Patriarchs. .Prime .os*e (*arrett "later Prime .inister o2 Great Britain Neville $*amberlain meets wit* $*aim Wei8mann. .inister o2 'srael).inister o2 'srael). David Ben@Gurion "later Prime . /amesAs Pala0e in London in 19!9.

ns$hluss From Prussia With Lo.ustria on . %isits A"olf 0itler. 1 C5. Germany on March 5. Bhancellor of !@a>i# Germany an" +er Fuhrer of the Thir"$h 4?6 47>96 Bust four )ays after +oo. an" 0ugh Robert Wilson !($'$ Ambassa"or to @a>i Germany#$ !4hotoE Aa" Kashem 4hoto Archi%eG-il"archi% 4reussischer /ulturbesit>GA4 4hoto# 0erbert 0oo%er was a member of the 'oun$il on Foreign Relations !a &ri%ate organi>ation in @ew Aor7 Bity#. who ser%e" as the ($'$ Ambassa"or to @a>i Germany from March C.)olf +itler@s .e !a 1gentleman. A"olf 0itler. in Berlin Four Aays before .er met &ith +itler in Berlin: .s club3 in northern Balifornia#. +r$ 4aul 'chmi"t !the chief translator an" 0itler. former 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates !1 2 61 CC#. 1 C5$ From left to rightE 0erbert 0oo%er.s secretary#. ($'$A$ Nazi Germany anne<e) .e -Vom Preußen Mit Lieben0: 0erbert 0oo%er.A"olf 0itlerE Bommunity Jrgani>erM . was a member of */ull & Bones.eeting &ith +erbert +oo. in -erlin. 1 C5 to @o%ember 1*. a member of the Bohemian Gro. a secret society at Aale (ni%ersity in @ew 0a%en. an" a member of the Re&ublican 4arty at the time this &hoto was ta7en$ 0ugh Robert Wilson.

he summe" u& the im&ressions he ha" gleane" in his Osentimental Lourney$O 0is con"emnation of @a>ism.1For the first time since he ha" "e&arte" from .ing arri. shoul" influence Oa lo%er of human liberty$O The "emocracies. /ings. the OFortress AmericaO conce&t that was to bring him. fifteen Foreign Ministers. thought that the (nite" 'tates was to blame.isit6 the Fuhrer #rolonge) it to nearly an hour: =n a Collier's arti$le many years later6 a)a#te) from notes ma)e the same )ay in Berlin6 +oo.O e?&resse" in Ogreat "emonstrations of affection an" res&ect for AmericaONE No American can remain unmoved when tens of thousands of school children line the streets with their cheerful ells of !"ong live America#! with the frantic waving of thousands of American $ags% No American can remain unmoved when tens of thousands of the common &eo&le gather in cit s'uares and remove their hats to the American National Anthem% +is meeting &ith . again accom&anie" by the American Ambassa"or. 0ermann Goering. labor lea"ers. 0oo%er remar7e" "ryly.uro&eNs age6ol" 9uarrels$O 0e ha". ha%ing trouble because she a"o&te" the @ew +eal two years ago$O 0e was referring to 2oon -lumNs 4o&ular Front go%ernment$ 0oo%er returne" to @ew Aor7 on March 1 $ )n a newsreel inter%iew ten "ays later he state" his con%iction that American &olicy shoul" be one of Oinfle?ible "etermination to 7ee& out of other &eo&leNs wars an" . newly "isco%ere" by the -russels Jbser%atory. calle" on the number two @a>i. a continuing hail of bric7bats$ 0oo%er ha" foun" in . gau"y trum&eters. in tal7ing to the best6informe" men in . an" Lournalists$ .O he tol" his 'an Francisco au"ience$ O)n the "emocracies there is no unem&loyment$ They are in"ee" &ros&erous$ France is. with its outsi>e s&len"ors. 1 C5.ugene 2yons !1 *4#. me"ie%al costumes. scientific an" &hilanthro&ic bo"ies eager to e?ten" their hos&itality an" homage$ Finally he "eci"e" to ma7e the tri&$ A 1sentimental Lourney. $erbert $oover( A Biogra&h by . an" Kalenciennes$ . an" %ast art treasures$ Among other in Berlin: But the . 2ille. 0oo%er sought information on the origins of the "e&ression in their countries$ Kiews "iffere" but not one of these men. in"ustrial ca&tains. Bha&ter PP)P !Another Worl" War#. many Babinet officers. ha" ma"e e%en larger an" certainly soun"er economic &rogress$ OThe "ar7est &ictureO in Germany.%erywhere e?ce&t in @a>i Germany. O) lost two &lanets an" ha" to mo%e off of Jlym&us$O At a large welcome6home gathering in 'an Francisco on A&ril 5. e?ce&t France an" the (nite" 'tates.$h 9: . an" with as many more whom he now met for the first time6inclu"ing twenty6two 4resi"ents. an" Finlan"6were for him re&lete with memories of stirring battles against famine an" &lague$ -ut his o%erri"ing &ur&ose went far beyon" sentiment$ )t was a "esire to assay the &ile"6u& &olitical an" i"eological conflicts that clearly hel" the threat of a terrible war$ 0oo%er "iscusse" local an" worl" affairs with about a hun"re" lea"ers whose frien"shi& he ha" enLoye" in the &ast.3 he calle" it.uro&ean astronomers was similarly cancele" out by the )nternational (nion$ 'o. was un9ualifie"$ GermanyNs material accom&lishments were consi"erableE reborn military might.lthough s$he)ule) as merely a brief $ourtesy .uro&e. to 7ee& his country out of war$ )n se%eral s&eeches. as of the s&ring of 1 C5. nearly full em&loyment. at his urgent in%itation$ The scene was /arin 0all. too. 0oo%erNs arri%al "rew &o&ular an" &ress o%ations. Germany. from then until 4earl 0arbor.)ol#h +itler6 un)erstan)ably6 &as the one that #ro.%en an asteroi". &$ CD*6CD5 .o/e) most #ress e<$itement ba$/ home: .uro&e from that "e&ression. &robably 7nowingly. Oan alarming an" "isheartening &icture$O Aet he "enie" that a general war was imminent$ 2ater he. he sai".meri$an . B> )efen)e) &ith Cuiet . he sai".ll of &hi$h6 he in)i$ate)6 &as $ontrary to his !#re$on$e#tions base) on boo/s &hi$h trie) to ma/e him out a )ummy:" =n )is$ussing most subBe$ts6 +itler seeme) entirely rational an) selfD$ontrolle)6 but6 +oo. 0oo%er e?&resse" a&&reciation of the warmth of his rece&tion in .er sai) that the Nazi )i$tator !&as for$eful6 highly intelligent6 ha) a remar/able an) a$$urate memory6 a &i)e range of information an) a $a#a$ity for lu$i) e<#osition:" .er at the station that the Fuhrer &ishe) to see him an) urge) that he a$$e)e to the reCuest: The ambassa)or6 ha.uro&e he was still the best67nown an" &erha&s the most a"mire" American$ Aear after year.uro&e. as was still being charge" by his "etractors$ OThere has been general reco%ery in . 0erbert 0oo%er returne" to that continent early in 1 C5$ The &reci&itous "ecline of his &o&ularity at home ha" no effect on his shining re&utation o%erseas$ )n . the @a>i lea"erNs fabulous resi"ence6cum6museum outsi"e -erlin$ This so6calle" hunting lo"ge woul" ha%e humble" the wil"est 0ollywoo" imagination. uni%ersities. to say a cor"ial wor" about 0itler$ 0oo%er withhel" all comment$ When the (ni%ersity of -erlin offere" to confer a "egree.igor: +e )i) not /no& then !that +itler ha) alrea)y )etermine) u#on his barbarous in. illumine" Oa""ressesO from "istinguishe" societies$ 'treets were name" for him in -russels. of course. is &resente" Oin the heart6brea7ing &ersecution of hel&less Jews$O The ine%itable results of the system were Ointellectual sterility an" "ea"ene" initiati%e an" in"i%i"uality$O 0is o%er6all conclusion was that America must remain su&remely &rote6 he ha) !trigger s#ots in his min) &hi$h6 &hen tou$he)6 set him off li/e a man in furious anger:" (ne of these6 of $ourse6 &as 'ommunism: .e) at the Berlin #ost only re$ently6 &as )elighte) by his o&n o##ortunity to meet +itler for the first time: The meeting too/ #la$e on . 0oo%er coul" re&ort. an" that it was in large measure$ 0is %isits to fourteen countries6among them -elgium. a "egree of security for the masses$ -ut none of this. 4olan". he ha" "ecline" "o>ens of in%itations from go%ernments.asion of . went along with the &eace6in6our6time &osition brought bac7 by Bhamberlain from Munich$3 .O while concentrating on ma7ing the Western 0emis&here in%ulnerable .uro&e in a bla>e of &ersonal glory nineteen years before. o%er an" abo%e the official rece&tions an" eulogies$ 0e was loa"e" with "octorates an" me"als from lea"ing uni%ersities. &rofessors. was name" O0erbertaO in his honor. France. he cautione". an" 4rime Ministers.nother fury button &as )emo$ra$y6 &hi$h +oo.ustria four )ays later6" the e<DPresi)ent &rote: !+e $ertainly )i) not $onfi)e in me:" A consi"erably e?aggerate" %ersion of the argument on "emocracy reache" the American &ress$ @a>i officials thereu&on &resse" the %isitor to issue a "enial or. at least. "eser%e"ly in the o&inion of most military e?&erts. of course. struc7 the 7eynote of his consistent cam&aign. only to ha%e the name annulle" by an )nternational Astronomical (nion ruling that asteroi"s must be name" for Gree7 go"s$ This was the secon" time he faile" to ma7e the gra"e of Gree7 go"hoo"8 nearly a generation earlier a new asteroi" christene" O0oo%eraO by .mbassa)or6 +ugh R: Wilson6 informe) +oo.uro&e$ 0e calle" it Oa uni9ue hos&itality which sel"om comes to men. Oabsolute in"e&en"ence of &olitical action$O We must Ocoo&erate in e%ery sane international effort to a"%ance the economic an" social welfare of the worl". 4rague.$tually Germany ha) not been on the #lanne) itinerary6 e<$e#t as a rail&ay sto#o. an" clear6hea"e" enough to hel& the free &eo&les without becoming embroile" in wars$ We must maintain. he &olitely "ecline" the honor$ The following "ay 0oo%er.

but were "etaine" by urgent in%itations of the @a>is.?64resi"ent by 0erbert 0oo%er.er6 $onfirme) by minor items: From his $lothing an) hair)o he &as ob. March 24. 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives $ustav Ritter von Kahr . 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives Kurt von "#hlei#her $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19! @19!!)> . some miles from -erlin$ The American ambassa"or was all for it.urt von (0*lei0*er. but he 7e&t us for consi"erably o%er the hour$ .dol2 ?itler *imsel2 issued orders and deat* warrants 2or some o2 t*e vi0tims. felt. that there was no esca&e8 in fact he was "elighte". 4aul $'chmi"t. inclu"ing 0itler$ ) was not enthusiastic about seeing 0itler. 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives Ernst Rohm Na8i (.y a). cramme" with hun"re"s of thousan"s of "ollarsN worth of furniture. whereu&on he e?&lo"e" an" orate"$ ) silently agree" with his conclusions so "i" not min"$ A moment later the "iscussion s&rea" to "emocracy. e?ce&t in &ara"es$ The only affinity of /arin 0all to a shooting lo"ge was the imitation shingles on the roof$ )t was an immense structure. whereu&on ) remar7e" that ) coul" not be e?&ecte" to agree as ) was one of those myself$ The subLect was "ro&&e" an" we went on to some less contro%ersial to&ics$ ) of course "i" not then 7now that 0itler ha" alrea"y "etermine" u&on his barbarous in%asion of Austria four "ays later$ 0e certainly "i" not confi"e in me$ 2ater we went to lunch at the American ambassa"orNs with a number of high German officials an" Americans$ 1 sat ne?t to -aron %on @eurath who. until recently.s +escri&tion of 0is 1 C5 Meeting with A"olf 0itlerE )n 0is Jwn Wor"s 1)n -erlin we e?&ecte" to remain only a "ay. as he ha" ne%er seen 0itler e?ce&t in &ara"es$ We were su&&ose" to be with him for a few moments.nives "/une !C@/uly . in0luding *is politi0al rivals -rnst &o*m. leader in Berlin> Assassinated in Berlin on June 30. 19!D) Karl Ernst Na8i (. for he ha" ne%er seen the @o$ 2 @a>i either. &aintings an" art.e trigger s#ots in his min) &hi$h &hen tou$he) set him off li/e a man in furious anger: The con%ersation touche" on Bommunism. stormtrooper and 0o@2ounder o2 t*e Na8i Party> Assassinated on Jul !.inister@President o2 Bavaria "19 C@19 1)> parti0ipated in Beer ?all Puts0* in .0erbert 0oo%er.inister o2 De2ense "19! @19!!)> Assassinated on June 30. 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives Note5 Nig*t o2 t*e Long . and Gregor (trasser. . 0ugh$e) that this &as the boss himself: . stormtrooper and (.nives was a politi0al purge in w*i0* an estimated :C German government o22i0ials were e6e0uted> . listening intently$ They har"ly waite" to be ci%il in their e?cuses for "e&artureI ) recei%e" an urgent in%itation from Fiel" Marshal Goering to atten" a luncheon at his hunting lo"ge. ha" been the German Minister of Foreign Affairs$ A few chairs "own was an (n"ersecretary of 'tate. &$ D* 'ourceE htt&EGGwww$un>$orgG4ubGBolliers61 D1mar246HHHCH 7i0tims o2 t*e Nig*t o2 t*e Long . .uni0* in November 19 !> Assassinated in %uni#h on June 30. as ) ha" long since forme" a great &reLu"ice against the whole @a>i faith$ The American ambassa"or. who ha" chec7e" the inter&retation at the 0itler inter%iew$ This gentleman &rocee"e" in un"ertones to gi%e Kon @eurath an a&&arently amusing account of the minor clash between these two Ohigh &riestsO of ri%al faiths$ ) notice" two American news&a&er corres&on"ents at the o&&osite si"e of the table. 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives $regor "trasser . from The 2ife of an .y im#ressions &ere that he &as for$eful6 highly intelligent6 ha) a remar/able an) a$$urate memory6 a &i)e range of information an) a $a#a$ity for lu$i) e<#osition: . 1 D1 e"ition of )ollier*s maga>ine.ll this &as $ontrary to my #re$on$e#tions base) on boo/s &hi$h trie) to ma/e him out a )ummy: = &as soon $on. 0erbert 0oo%er. formal call.erse rea$tions to his totalitarian as#e$ts &ere6 ho&e.iously a great )eal of an e<hibitionist: +e seeme) to ha. with rooms half as large as a Wal"orf "ining room. an" he began to e?&lo"e again. howe%er.ember o2 t*e &ei0*stag EGerman ParliamentF "19 D@19! )> Na8i Party Gauleiter o2 Lower Bavaria "19 4@19 9)> Assassinated in Berlin on June 30. inclu"ing two or three busts of @a&oleon$ Goering came from an im&ecunious military family an" ha" ne%er legitimately enLoye" more than a generalNs salary$ When our cars entere" the courtyar" we were sto&&e" by a sentry for no a&&arent reason$ )n a few moments there emerge" from a si"e "oor 12 or 1* men "resse" as huntsmen an" arme" with French horns$ They &laye" the 'iegfrie"Ns 0unting Ball the most beautifully ) ha%e e%er hear" it$ ) certainly 7new we were in a Wagnerian atmos&here$ We went to lunch each atten"e" by at least one butler an" a footman$3 . /arin 0all.

: !4hotoE -un"esarchi%GGerman Fe"eral Archi%es# .en6 'onne$ti$ut6 F:*:.0erbert Blar7 0oo%er an" ($'$ Ambassa"or to @a>i Germany 0ugh Robert Wilson arri%e at A"olf 0itler. meets with Joachim %on Ribbentro& !right#.s office in -erlin on March 5.ember 76 47>98 the /ristallnacht was a state6s&onsore" terrorist attac7 against Jewish businesses. the ($'$ Ambassa"or to @a>i Germany. 1 C5$ !4hotoE -un"esarchi%GGerman Fe"eral Archi%es# 0ugh Robert Wilson !left#.ersity in Ne& +a. the Foreign Minister of @a>i Germany in -erlin on @o%ember :. 1 C5$ The !Rei$hs/ristallna$ht" -Kristallna$ht06 also /no&n as !Night of the Bro/en Glass"6 o$$urre) on the night of No. an" Jewish synagogues$ +ugh Robert Wilson &as a member of */ull & Bones6 a se$ret so$iety at Eale Fni. Jewish communities.

when the French occu&ation of the Ruhr. <Fran7= Altschul ha" numerous interests outsi"e of 2a>ar". an" from the start he ho&e" the council woul" be able to influence ($'$ foreign &olicy . 1the e?&eriment coul" be ma"e to succee"$3 Altschul.e Ban/ of Ne& Eor/ -lo$ate) in Ne& Eor/ 'ity0 from 47>> to 47G5 an) a member of the 'oun$il on Foreign Relations -lo$ate) in Ne& Eor/ 'ity0 in 47>H: Thomas J$ Watson an" his )-M &ro%i"e" A"olf 0itler an" the @a>i German regime with &unch6car" machines$ The @a>i German go%ernment.3 he sai"$ 1)f you care to.)o% by William +$ Bohan. it must be un"erstoo" that our name is not to be mentione" un"er any circumstances in connection with the following. you may say that you ha%e been informe" by an influential ban7ing house that they ha%e a"%ices from abroa" to the effect that ste&s ha%e been ta7en in 4aris which seem a"e9uate to restore confi"ence in France an" to &rotect the French e?change. in roun" amounts.)olf +itler@s faile) Beer +all Puts$h. though. one of the organi>ation.s continuing goals$ An in"ication of how im&ortant 2a>ar" an" Altschul ha" become in the worl" financial mar7ets arose in 1 2C.s &lanI3 . the French Ministry of Finance summone" Altschul to 4aris to hear his %iews on sol%ing the French currency crisis$ )n a carefully &re&are" s&eech. military.reres .3 he tol" the French$ 1)t is felt that a ban7ing grou& coul" rea"ily be forme" in @ew Aor7 to e?ten" the necessary facilities un"er a&&ro&riate guarantees on reasonable terms$ The &resent ease in the @ew Aor7 money mar7et an" the fun"amental frien"shi& for an" confi"ence in France ma7e this a&&ear li7ely$3 0e a%erre" that with the coo&eration of the me"ia .Thomas J$ Watson !2n" left#. an" +achau$ 12i7e his father. . &$ 2C624 . an" without being able to Lu"ge its &olitical feasibility . one of which was international affairs$ )n 1 2H. Treblin7a. The "ast T coons( The Secret $istor of "a+ard . an" the situation a&&ears well in han"$3 The French go%ernment 9uic7ly a"o&te" Altschul. in July 1 C:$ Thomas %: Watson &as a 'lass B Aire$tor of the Fe)eral Reser. he calle" for the French go%ernment to un"erta7e what he calle" an 1e?&eriment3 "esigne" to stabili>e the &lunging currency$ 1This woul" in%ol%e arranging cre"its for the go%ernment in the (nite" 'tates an" &erha&s in . the 4resi"ent of )nternational -usiness Machines Bor&$ !)-M#. which Altschul "eli%ere" in 4aris on January 24. he hel&e" to foun" the 'oun$il on Foreign Relations in @ew Aor7 <Bity=. an" the resultant international uncertainty le" to ha%oc in the mar7et$ France foun" itself in a full6blown financial crisis$ The %alue of the French franc fell by some DH &ercent$ )n January 1 24. meets with A"olf 0itler. an" cor&orations use" &unch6car" machines to create an" assign serial numbers for &risoners wor7ing as sla%e laborers in &rominent concentration cam&s such as Auschwit>. Bhancellor of Germany an" Fuhrer of the Thir" Reich. was a"amant about one thingE that Lazar) Freres & 'o: be /e#t out of the #ress$ 1As we "o not "esire &ublicity for oursel%es.nglan".

Bha&ter )E 4hiloso&hy an" 4arty . 1 2H$ 1 Jn February 24th. 4arty at a beer hall in Munich. 1 2H. 4arty was establishe" at the 0ofbrauhaus -eer 0all in "owntown Munich on February 24. Germany on %uly ?76 47?4$ The @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers.The Jrigins of A"olf 0itler an" @ational 'ocialism !1 1 # The Bouncil on Foreign Relations. an American foreign affairs organi>ation. was incor&orate" in @ew Aor7 Bity on %uly ?76 47?4$ A"olf 0itler was a&&ointe" Fuhrer of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers. Kolume Two 6 The @ational 'ocialist Mo%ement.ein /am&f by A"olf 0itler. . the first great mass meeting un"er the aus&ices of the new mo%ement too7 &lace$ )n the -an9uet 0all of the 0ofbrQuhaus in Munich the twenty6fi%e theses which constitute" the &rogramme of our new &arty were e?&oun"e" to an au"ience of nearly two thousan" &eo&le an" each thesis was enthusiastically recei%e"$3 .

arian #oliti$s #rior to the re.esDDalmost al&ays an unfa.olutionary )isturban$es6 a +err . so im&ortant for the sur%i%al of this race. an" stri%ing$ @e%ertheless.ehemen$e of his ra)i$al nationalist an) antisemiti$ . alien race which neither wishes nor is able to sacrifice its racial character or to "eny its feeling. )talian. it is e%en clearer in their thin7ing an" stri%ing$ Their "ance aroun" the gol"en calf is becoming a merciless struggle for all those &ossessions we &ri>e most highly on earth$ The .uni$h: .al 2#ntfernung3I of the %e&s from German life as a #refiguring of the +olo$aust: But it is $lear from the $onte<t an) from later statements that6 at this #oint6 +itler meant segregation or e<#ulsion rather than systemati$ liCui)ation: The letter6 +itlerKs first e<#li$itly #oliti$al &riting6 im#resse) his Rei$hs&ehr su#eriors an) he soon gaine) a re#utation among ra)i$al rightist an) so$ially res#e$table nationalist $onser. +ear 0err Gemlich. or Jewish Americans but always as German.i)ual is no longer )e$i)e) by his $hara$ter or by the signifi$an$e of his a$hie. 4olish.isit to the German Wor/ersK Party -e.orable one: For this reason6 antisemitism is too easily $hara$terize) as a mere emotional #henomenon: .uni$h in early 4747: There he un)er&ent a Rei$hs&ehr s#onsore) $ourse of systemati$ #oliti$al e)u$ation for )emobilizing sol)iers that feature) PanD German nationalism6 antisemitism6 an) antiDso$ialism: These same themes &ere #rominent in Ba. an) by his oratori$al talents: +itler &as alrea)y feeling his &ay to&ar) a #oliti$al $areerJ four )ays before res#on)ing to Gemli$h in the letter translate) belo&6 he ha) #ai) his first .arian #oliti$s follo&ing the re#ression of the . Jewish 4oles. or Bhinaman$ )t.o$able remo.)olf Gemli$h &as #rom#te) to sen) an inCuiry about the im#ortan$e of the I%e&ish CuestionI to 'a#tain Karl . it &ossesses all the &olitical rights we "o$ )f the ethos of the Jews is re%eale" in the &urely material realm. The "anger &ose" by Jewry for our &eo&le to"ay fin"s e?&ression in the un"eniable a%ersion of wi"e sections of our &eo&le$ The cause of this a%ersion is not to be foun" in a clear recognition of the consciously or unconsciously systematic an" &ernicious effect of the Jews as a totality u&on our nation$ Rather6 it arises mostly from #ersonal $onta$t an) from the #ersonal im#ression &hi$h the in)i. settle the 9uestion of whether someone is a Jew or non6Jew$ There is scarcely a race whose members belong e?clusi%ely to Lust one "efinite religion$ Through thousan"s of years of the closest 7in" of inbree"ing.%en the Jews ne%er "esignate themsel%es as Jewish Germans.y:3 TEXT -September 1 ! 1"1".entually rename)6 the National *o$ialist Wor/ersK Party0 as a $onfi)ential agent of the Rei$hs&ehr: =n the letter to Gemli$h he a##ears an<ious to establish his $re)entials as a /no&le)geable an) sober antisemite: 'om#are) to the inflammatory massDmeeting oratory that he &as soon to ma/e his s#e$ialty6 +itlerKs rhetori$ here is Cuite tame6 stressing the nee) for a IrationalI an) Is$ientifi$I antisemitism: *ome historians ha.ely by the size of his fortune6 by his money: The loftiness of a nation is no longer to be measure" by the sum of its moral an" s&iritual &owers.olution an) &hose antisemiti$ rhetori$ $oul) hel# )is$re)it the )emo$rati$ Weimar Re#ubli$: The letter may thus be seen as the laun$hing of his #oliti$al $areer: *our$e: berhar) %L$/el -e):06 Hitler$ S%mtlic&e Auf'eic&nungen 1"()*1"+.ement may not an) $annot be )efine) by emotional im#ulses6 but by re$ognition of the fa$ts: The fa$ts are these: First6 %e&ry is absolutely a ra$e an) not a religious asso$iation: .ntisemitism as a #oliti$al mo.eDmentione) $ourse by the .e inter#rete) the letterKs $all for the Iirre.s the same with the Jew who li%es among us an" is force" to ma7e use of the German language$ 0e "oes not thereby become a German$ @either "oes the Mosaic faith. Bhinese in Bhina "oes not thereby become a Frenchman.ati.ayr referre) him to +itler6 &ho ha) )istinguishe) himself in the abo. but rather by the wealth of its material &ossessions$ .i)ual %e& lea.alue of the in)i.olution of 4749D47: Be$ause antisemitism ha) not #laye) a notable #art in Ba.ements for the totality but e<$lusi.Adolf Hitler’s First Antisemitic Writing September 1 ! 1"1" 2+itler returne) from a military hos#ital to .ayr6 the offi$er in $harge of the Rei$hs&ehr Ne&s an) nlightenment Ae#artment in .n) yet this is in$orre$t: . or American Jews$ Jews ha%e ne%er yet a"o&te" much more than the language of the foreign nations among whom they li%e$ A German who is force" to ma7e use of the French language in France. )talian in )taly. Jews in general ha%e maintaine" their race an" their &eculiarities far more "istinctly than many of the &eo&les among whom they ha%e li%e"$ An" thus comes the fact that there li%es amongst us a non6German. -*tuttgart6 479506 ##: 99D75: Translate) by Ri$har) *: Le.uni$h re.e grou#s as a man &ho $oul) hel# ino$ulate the masses against re.

an" who for this reason were the "ri%ing force behin" the re%olution66the Jews$ . howe%er. more so now than before$ Thus.This thin/ing an) stri.or of !+is .erything men stri.%en though !as %arious statements of the lea"ing &ersonalities re%eal# to"ay.or of the masses6 $ringes before the !maBesty of the #eo#le6" an) re$ognizes only the maBesty of money: 0e "estroys the character of &rinces with by>antine flattery. an irres&onsible &ress.aBesty" an) misuses it li/e a lee$h fastene) u#on the nations: =n )emo$ra$ies he . howe%er. A"olf 0itler NA (F T MT 'ourceE htt&EGGwww$h6net$orgGRgermanGgte?tG7aiserreichGhitler2$html . but abo%e all in the hin"rance of the struggle of the betraye" &eo&le against its "efrau"ers. national &ri"e !the strength of a &eo&le#. is necessary$ The Re&ublic in Germany owes its birth not to the uniform national will of our &eo&le but the sly e?&loitation of a series of circumstances which foun" general e?&ression in a "ee&. they !see7ing their own a"%antage# acce&te" the rea"ily &roffere" su&&ort of the Jews an" also returne" the fa%or$ An" this &ay6off consiste" not only in e%ery &ossible fa%oring of Jewry. or internationalist &hrases an" slogans$ <)t re9uires= instea" the ruthless installation of nationally min"e" lea"ershi& &ersonalities with an inner sense of res&onsibility$ -ut these facts "eny to the Re&ublic the essential inner su&&ort of the nationNs s&iritual forces$ An" thus to"ay. must lea" to systematic legal combatting an" elimination of the &ri%ileges of the Jews. a great &ortion of our &eo&le recogni>es that a change" state6form cannot in itself change our situation$ For that it will ta7e a rebirth of the moral an" s&iritual &owers of the nation$ An" this rebirth cannot be initiate" by a state lea"ershi& of irres&onsible maLorities.s state lea"ers are com&elle" to see7 su&&ort among those who "raw the e?clusi%e benefits of the new formation of German con"itions. with ri"icule an" shameless bree"ing to "e&ra%ity$ 0is metho" of battle is that &ublic o&inion which is ne%er e?&resse" in the &ress but which is nonetheless manage" an" falsifie" by it$ +is #o&er is the #o&er of money6 &hi$h multi#lies in his han)s effortlessly an) en)lessly through interest6 an) &hi$h for$es #eo#les un)er the most )angerous of yo/es: =ts gol)en glitter6 so attra$ti. that which "istinguishes the Jews from the other aliens who li%e among us !an Aliens 2aw#$ The ultimate obLecti%e <of such legislation= must.e in the beginning6 $on$eals the ultimately tragi$ $onseCuen$es: . be the irre%ocable remo%al of the Jews in general$ For both these en"s a go%ernment of national strength.s lea"ers fully reali>e" the "anger of Jewry. that is in the re&ression of the antisemitic mo%ement$ Res&ectfully. uni%ersal "issatisfaction$ These circumstances howe%er were in"e&en"ent of the form of the state an" are still o&erati%e to"ay$ )n"ee".ies for the fa.e after as a higher goal6 be it religion6 so$ialism6 )emo$ra$y6 is to the %e& only means to an en)6 the &ay to satisfy his lust for gol) an) )omination: )n his effects an" conse9uences he is li7e a racial tuberculosis of the nations$ The "e"uction from all this is the followingE an antisemitism base" on &urely emotional groun"s will fin" its ultimate e?&ression in the form of the &ogrom$<1= An antisemitism base" on reason.e the #ur#oses of the %e& &ho is uns$ru#ulous in the $hoi$e of metho)s an) #itiless in their em#loyment: =n auto$rati$ally rule) states he &hines for the after money an) #o&er6 an) the feelings that go along &ith it6 ser. not of national wea7ness. influence" by certain &arty "ogmas.

We must call to account the No%ember criminals o# )*)+. NEW C9.E T EN<I!7TENMENT ON T7E S9=(ECT O0 T7E >E CE T. WIT7 T7O9!7TS O0 <O-E@ NO. . +. -engeance. /. WE :EM N: IMME:I TE EC>9<SION O0 << (EWS W7O 7 -E ENTE. people that in its own li#e $%ol&isch' has lost honor becomes politically de#enseless" and then becomes ensla%ed also in the economic sphere. 7ere the #itting punishment is the same as that #or the betrayers o# their 0atherland. E6tremes must be #ought by e6tremes. No" we do not pardon" we demand . Internationalization today means only Judaization.madness must be shown up.*tml '+ (F * PT . >eople who so thin& must #eel how li#e tastes in a concentration camp. Our streets and s1uares shall once more bear the names o# our heroes2 they shall not be named a#ter (ews.B R 496 47?? .. *. S 0O9N: TION 0O.E: !E. !ermany" too" did not become great through*ow0ase#0*ronograp*y#spee0*es#19 @C9@1:. B. In the 3uestion o# !uilt we must proclaim the truth. he underminin! of the German conception of personality by catchwords had be!un lon! before. ).T? O0 T7OSE W7O . World history teaches us that no people became great through economics: it was economics that brought them to their ruin. 4. No sal%ation is possible until the bearer o# disunion" the (ew" has been rendered powerless to harm. 0or betrayers o# their 0atherland and in#ormers the gallows is the proper place.M N? SINCE )*)5" and o# all those" too" who through tric&ery on the Stoc& E6change or through other shady transactions ha%e gained their wealth. The administration o# the State must be cleared o# the rabble which is #attened at the stall o# the parties.ENC? T7E >. he was only saying openly what all (ews were thin&ing. The lies which would %eil #rom us cur mis#ortunes must cease. and only the 0atherland.O>E. gainst the in#ection o# materialism" against the (ewish pestilence we must hold alo#t a #laming ideal. I# #amilies who ha%e li%ed in !ermany #or a thousand years are now e6propriated" we must do the same to the (ewish usurers. =9T IN 7O<? 7 T. . Ideas such as "#emocracy$" "%a&ority$" "'onscience of the World$" "World (olidarity$" "World )eace$" "Internationality of *rt$" etc.-ICE.&itler s'ea(s in %uni#h *P The Speech: . The #raud o# the present money. The housing scarcity must be relie%ed through energetic action2 houses must be granted to those who deser%e them. That will sti##en the nec&s o# us all.E NOT O0 O9. nd i# others spea& o# the World and 7umanity we say the 0atherland . A.$ disinte!rate our race-consciousness$ breed cowardice$ and so today we are bound to say that the simple urk is more man than we are. ECONOMICS is a secondary matter. =<OO: M9ST :O SE. Eisner said in )*)+ that we had no right to demand the return o# our prisoners . 5.*umanitas@international.E: ! INST T7OSE W7O 7 -E . The present la6ity in the #ight against usury must be abandoned. 8. people died when its race was disintegrated. (our0e5 *ttp5##www. his was possible only because our civilization had first been Judaized. The dishonoring o# the nation must cease. We in Germany have come to this: that a sixty-million people sees its destiny to lie at the will of a few dozen Jewish bankers. It cannot be that two million !ermans should ha%e #allen in %ain and that a#terwards one should sit down as #riends at the same table with traitors.9INE: 9S. WE M9ST :EM N: !.E T?.

ar0* !1.P in early %0tober 1919.P into a respe0table party.0om#*tC9.ayr.rofessor Karl Ale-ander von %ueller *right+ . w*o will be0ome ?itlerGs mentor in 2inan0e and e0onomi0s. and 0ontinue to re0eive speaking 2ees. but t*e various instru0tors are a rat*er e0le0ti0 bun0*.ayr will 0ontinue to support ?itler. a member o2 t*e 3*ule (o0iety.) . 1919.en of Austria until A'ril 19!/. "(our0e5 *ttp5##tr*2aI. t*is is all te0*ni0ally illegal. 19 C. to t*e tune o2 C gold marks a week. by order o2 $aptain . all o2 w*i0* will greatly assist *im in *is ne6t task> to build up t*e D. 3wo instru0tors in parti0ular in2luen0e ?itler5 3*e 2irst is Gott2ried +eder.0om#*tC9.*tml) . and one 0an *ardly 0*ara0teri8e t*e s0*ool as *aving an organi8ed 0urri0ulum. will s0*ool ?itler in H/ewis* 2inan0e 0apitalism. 3*e ot*er instru0tor is . ?itler will also 0ontinue to live and eat in t*e List &egiment Barra0ks.dol2 ?itler is ordered by army intelligen0e o22i0er )a'tain Karl %a r *left+ to attend army@sponsored politi0al indo0trination 0ourses at t*e 9niversity o2 .H W*en ?itlerGs 4 Point Party Program is eventually dra2ted.uni0* 2rom /une 4@1 . an e0onomist.tripod.Ge2reiter . Adolf &itler. +eder. 3*e purpose o2 t*e 0ourses is to give returning soldiers a 2oundation o2 politi0al p*ilosop*y 2avored by t*e Reichswehr.*tml) $orporal . a nationalist *istorian w*o taug*t t*at t*e Germans are a master ra0e. "(in0e ?itler is still in t*e army. t*e H(o0ialistH planks will be +ederGs. a #iti. 19!01 "(our0e5 *ttp5##tr*2aI. until *is dis0*arge on . and is given members*ip 0ard K444 "t*e numbering *ad started at 4CC).dol2 ?itler o22i0ially Joins t*e D.tripod. 0as offi#iall dis#harged from the 41st Rifle Regiment of the Rei#hs0ehr on %ar#h 31.

4arty meeting in Munich in the early 1 2Hs$ . 1 2H$ A"olf 0itler "eli%ers a s&eech at a @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers. 4arty was establishe" in Munich on February 24.The @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers.

1 1 while ser%ing in the Wehrmacht !German army#8 0itler was initially assigne" by the Wehrmacht to s&y on the German Wor7ers. 1 2H$ The National *o$ialist German Wor/ers@ Party &as establishe) at the +ofbrauhaus in . 4arty !Nationalso+ialistische Deutsche Arbeiter&artei# at the 0ofbrQuhaus -eer 0all in Munich. 1 2 $ !S 4hotoE 'T 4hoto G 'cherl# htt&EGGwww$sue""eutsche$"eG&oliti7G%or6Lahren6ns"a&6gruen"ung6hitlers6wurf6im6hofbraeuhaus61$1CH1H . Germany on February 24. 4arty was foun"e" in Munich by Anton +re?ler on January D. 1 1 $ A"olf 0itler an" his comra"es atten" a memorial ser%ice commemorating the ninth anni%ersary of the establishment of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers. the site of early @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers. Germany.uni$h on February ?G6 47?5: Bor&oral A"olf 0itler atten"e" his first German Wor7ers. 4arty !@'+A4# meetings$ Bor&oral A"olf 0itler &ublici>e" the @'+A4 &rogram !12D 4oints3 &rogram# at the 0ofbrauhaus on February 24. 4arty meeting in Munich on 'e&tember 12.0ofbrauhaus -eer 0all in Munich. 4arty $ The German Wor7ers.

uni$h an) &hi$h #arti$i#ate) in an aborti.e) an absur) ritual: filling out a form in)i$ating the )egree of hairiness of .ryanI )es$ent6 #utting a foot#rint on a se#arate #ie$e of #a#er: The (r)erKs organization an) terminology &as reminis$ent of the Freemasons6 e<$e#t that the #ur#ose an) aims of the Germani$ Lo)ge &ere )iametri$ally o##ose): .s the front organization of the #re&ar Germani$ (r)er6 it enBoye) a measure of #rominen$eJ its $onta$ts rea$he) into broa) $ir$les of . only to rea&&ear in Munich in 1 CC with the ho&e of reacti%ating the Thule 'ociety$ 0is subse9uent fate remains un7nown8 he may &ossibly ha%e been eliminate" by the @ational 'ocialists as an embarrassing witness out of the &ast$ Accor"ing to his own testimony. an" -aron %on Wittgenberg . an" on this matter there was "isagreement among the members of the re%olutionary go%ernment6they stirre" u& far greater &ublic in"ignation than all the &ast mur"ers of Bommunists an" 'ocialists committe" by the Free Bor&s an" combat leagues. the city in which the real history of @ational 'ocialism began when 0itler Loine" the +A4.ityJ #ersons an) grou#ings $ontinue) to alternate in $onfusing su$$ession: .al (ffi$ersK 'lubJ on ($tober ?G6 47496 the *o$iety hel) a Boint meeting &ith the PanDGermans6 at &hi$h the #ossibility of a rightD&ing $ou# as #ro#ose) by the nationalist #ublisher %: F: Lehmann &as )is$usse): The Thule *o$iety res#on)e) to the re.t the same time6 they &ere engage) in organizing a I$ombat leagueI 362mpfbund5! &hi$h sought to unify the Free 'or#s for a mar$h on .#ril 4>0 of 4747J ho&e.s in many other grou#s of this ty#e6 Germani$ runes an) s&asti/as &ere use) as symbols: . anti6'emitic.1The Munich of 1 1 . he tolerate" a han"ful of &rominent &ro&hets$ 'ebotten"orff !whose real name &resumably was Ru"olf Glauer#. the &olitical &ressures brought to bear by military an" &aramilitary grou&s in Munich was greater than anywhere else in Germany$ Feeling threatene" by the Kersailles Treaty &ro%isions for the re"uction of the Army. in which he stresses the role &laye" by the Thule 'ociety in the birth of @ational 'ocialism.t first the &ar &as some&hat of a )eterrent to this ty#e of a$ti. an" the fact that the actual terrorists were not Jews.O let alone com&etitors8 at best. oft6re&eate" "iatribes. turning #oint &as rea$he) aroun) 'hristmas of 474H6 &hen *ebotten)orff too/ o. su&&orters of the 0atere&ublik occu&ie" the rooms of the 'ociety in Munich on A&ril 2* an" arreste" se%en of its members.ryan bloo)I an) #le)ge themsel.rnst Rohm.&&.O blown u& by &ro&agan"a an" embellishe" with gruesome "etails.aria an) unleashe) an intensi. a &hase in the Jewish cons&iracy for worl" "omination$ The &ro&agan"a resorte" to to fight against %e&s6 a.sso$iation of 'ommer$ial m#loyees: The members of the (r)er ha) to be of I. furnishe" another effecti%e &latform for a ra"ical anti6'emitic cam&aign which now was assure" a sym&athetic hearing by the &eo&le of Munich$ The %icious retaliation of the Free Bor&s an" the re&risals against Bommunists an" left6wing 'ocialists were followe" by a %iolent anti6 Jewish cam&aign against the "e&ose" Oracially alien go%ernment.er6 the grou# &as . he "isa&&eare" in )stanbul8 he then s&ent some time in Me?ico an" the (nite" 'tates. who.arious #arts of the bo)y an)6 as #roof of I.ntiCuity6I &hi$h &as entere) in the . inclu"ing the secretary. an" a far6flung cons&iracy of right6wing an" militarist e?tremists came into being$ Bountless ra"ical grou&s an" grou&lets. seem to contra"ict 0itlerNs claim to &arentage8 0itler ha" ne%er ac7nowle"ge" any O&recursors.e) as a gathering #la$e for other Inational $lubs:I The Thule *o$iety ha) its o&n #a#er6 the anti$leri$al6 antiD*emiti$ Munc&ener 1eob2c&ter 3Munic& 4bser/er5 foun)e) in 4989 -after 47556 it &as #ublishe) by the Franz her 1erlag0: =ts lea)ing figure &as a nationalist a). in which the military ha" its liaison men an" informers.enan$e: 0is reminiscences. but that one of the %ictims was. an" for nationalistic in"octrination8 military6&olitical grou&s forme" aroun" Free Bor&s officers li7e Bolonel Ritter %on .on *ebotten)orff6 a man of rather obs$ure #ro.ugust6 47496 the Germani$ (r)er reDforme) as the Thule *o$iety at a meeting at the +otel 1ierBahreszeiten6 &here *ebotten)orff ha) lease) the rooms of the Na.olution an) the name I*tu)y Grou# of German .uni$h so$iety6 an) its $lub rooms in the fashionable +otel 1ierBahreszeiten ser. flourishe".uni$h organization register in . numerous officers an" &rofessional sol"iers grown unaccustome" to ci%ilian life turne" to what they calle" O&olitics$O Their ser%ice in the transitional forces affor"e" them leisure for s&eeches. offere" e?ce&tionally fertile soil for the "e%elo&ment of right6wing e?tremism$ After the assassination of /urt . the son of a 'ilesian railway engineer.e #uts$h on Palm *un)ay -. "iscussions. an" after the bloo"y su&&ression of the Munich 0atere&ublik !accom&lishe" with the hel& of counterre%olutionary an" anti"emocratic forces#.enturer going by the name of Ru)olf 'ount .ol. as chief of staff of the Munich Bity Bomman"ant. were organi>e"$h6 4747: . the 4rime Minister of the -a%arian re%olutionary go%ernment. beginning with the assassination of Rosa 2u?emburg an" /arl 2ieb7necht$ The lamentable Ohostage mur"er of Munich. with the significant title Bevor $itler kam 2Before $itler )ame3 1 CC#. the same Austro6German sectarian &ro&onents of Germanomanic. 'ebotten"orff was influence" by such volkisch &ioneers as Fritsch.enge treason6 an) era)i$ate all enemies: The a)mission #ro$e)ure in. &ro%e" of little conse9uence ami" this atmos&here$ 2eaflets "istribute" by newly organi>e" &ro&agan"a centers of the ra"ical Right.O in which &ortions of the -K4 an" the Bhurch Loine" in$ The 0atere&ublik was re%ile" as a Jewish un"erta7ing.eillan$e an) arrests tem#orarily for$e) them to a)o#t the $o. 2an> %on 2iebenfels. the seat of the -a%arian go%ernment6in6e?ile. ha" a&&arently been con%icte" for frau" in 1 H 8 he turne" u& in 1 1C with a newly ac9uire" title of nobility !which he owe" to his a"o&tion by an Austrian# as well as a bran"6new Tur7ish &ass&ort$ After his &olitical %enture in -a%aria !1 1:61 #. Gui"o %on 2ist. Bountess 0eila Westar&8 they were shot four "ays later.e antiD*emiti$ an) antiDliberal #ro#agan)a $am#aign &ith antiD %e&ish leaflets: =n . &robably in re&risal for the mur"er of Bommunists in nearby 'tarnberg$ Whate%er oneNs o&inion about the 9uestionable "etails of the e?ecutions . but now there was the a""e" bonus of wi"es&rea" &o&ular resentment against the 0ate e?&eriment an" the bloo"y e%ents surroun"ing it$ )t was a . such as the OBommittee for 4o&ular .ernmental $risis &ith e<hortations against I%e&ryI an) ne& #lans for a $ou#J sur. wor7e" for the &romotion of OnationalO associations$ 'ecret wea&ons caches &roliferate". an" "issol%e" again$ The /ol0isc& PanD German Thule *o$iety mentione) earlier $onstitute) an im#ortant fo$al #oint: .nlightenmentO !whose name may ha%e furnishe" the ins&iration for GoebbelsN later &ro&agan"a ministry#.ery small: While 'ebotten"orff was courting the Free Bor&s in -amberg.arian go. somewhat occult theories whose writings &resumably also influence" the young 0itler in Kienna$ 'losely $onne$te) &ith these ten)en$ies &as the foun)ing in Lei#zig in 474? of the Germani$ -Thule0 (r)er6 &hi$h &as in $onta$t &ith Frits$hKs antiD *emiti$ +ammer League -+ammerbun)6 foun)e) in 47450 as &ell as &ith the PanDGerman League an) the German National . "e&icte" the "oubtlessly un&o&ular short6li%e" re%olutionary go%ernment as a &ogrom against the German &eo&le stage" by lea)ershi# in Ba. who won renown for his crushing of the 0atere&ublik1 an" MaLor .

by influential military an" social circles was. when he a""resse" a rally of the German Volkisch +efense an" Jffense 2eague in 'tuttgart$ The first real mass meeting. the Thule 'ociety ga%e many of the future i"eologists of @ational 'ocialism their first &ublic &latform$ Gathere" here were Alfre" Rosenberg. 1 1 .ilian life in . &ro%e" to be a milestone$ -y then. 0ans Fran7. "reame"6of mi""le6class scale of %alues.O the consoli"ation of 0itlerNs "ictatorial &osition within the &arty an" .ilnchener Beobachter &ublishe" the twel%e &oints of 'ebotten"orffNs O&olitical &rogramO8 his new tac7 was that ty&ical combination of anti6'emitic an" anti6ca&italist catchwor"s which was to become the hallmar7 of the @ational 'ocialist &rogram$ As the center of ol" an" new volkisch &ro&hets. Ru"olf 0ess . came from %arious grou&s ami" the welter of volkisch organi>ations$ -ut 0itlerNs &rimary concern6the reorgani>ation an" broa"ening of the +A4 through the recruitment of e?6sol"iers an" Free Bor&s members grown unaccustome" to ci%ilian life6soon brought him into conflict with the ol" lea"ershi&$ There began the tre7 from the small &olitic7ing "ebating society to the &olitical combat organi>ation which came on the scene with noisy mass agitation$ A month after Loining the &arty. but also as the organi>er of volkisch wor7ersN clubs fighting the 2eft$ Jne such effort was the 4olitical Wor7ersN Bircle foun"e" by the s&ortswriter /arl 0arrer !15 H61 2*# in the fall of 1 15$ =n Ae$ember6 47496 +arrer intro)u$e) his $ollaborators6 a railroa) me$hani$ in the . 1 15.ilitary Grou# 'omman)o6 . "e%elo&e" organi>ational an" s&ea7ing talents which within a short s&an of time car%e" out a s&ecial &lace for his &arty among the ra"ical Right sectarians of Munich$ The self6"esignate" OartistO now calle" himself OwriterO8 in the unattainable. as. ha" been furnishe" by another volkisch grou&.uni$h muni$i#al &or/s6 .ertones: The A.P thus )iffere) from the Thule *o$iety &hi$h6 &ith its ra$ial theories an) elitism6 $ontinue) to be a small6 $ons#iratorial #restige organization: +itler himself later s#o/e &ith )erisi.ein /am&f% !As a rewar". accor"ingly. at MunichNs 0ofbrauhaus. 0itler came to belie%e that by ta7ing this roa" into &olitics.nton Are<ler -499GD47G?06 an) his $olleague .olent a##ro. Gottfrie" Fe"er. these two &rofessions ran7e" e9ually. in"ulgent$ 0is closer collaborators . with lin7s to such organi>ations as the 4an6German Volkisch +efense an" Jffense 2eague !+eutsch%ol7ischer 'chut> un" Trut>bun"# or the Munich branch of the Jstara 2eague.s a )elegate an) fun$tionary of the )efense an) #oliti$al #ro#agan)a #rogram of the . 0itler ha" begun to ma7e a name for himself as the &artyNs foremost &ro&agan"a s&ea7er$ The nominal main s&ea7er. an" the su&&ort gi%en him. the +A4 was a small.O howe%er "ee&ly roote" the anti6'emitism that ultimately "etermine" his &olicies$ )n line with his unbri"le" ambition to "ominate.i$hael Lotter to the Thule *o$iety: Are<ler in turn6 together &ith t&entyDfi.e s$orn of 7/ol0isc& slee#&al/ersI an) Iitinerant #rea$hers:I This )ifferen$e in organization an) #ro#agan)a #laye) an im#ortant role from the .c7art.P0 at a $onferen$e at the Fiirstenfel)er +of on %anuary ?DN6 4747: The #artyKs early history &as mar/e) by a nationalism &ith antiD*emiti$ an) so$ialist o. in May. he became aware of this essential talent$ The s7ills ac9uire" in his "ebates in the menNs home at Kienna an" while "eli%ering the &atriotic monologues of the war years were now &ut to the test an" &erfecte" in acti%ities which ga%e him an into?icating feeling of &ower$ To be sure. on Jctober 1*. an" 0itlerNs career as an agitator may be sai" to ha%e begun here$ )n this.rnst Rohm. Alfre" Rosenberg. ha" begun to &ublish the anti6'emitic Lournal Auf gut deutsch 24n 5lain "anguage61 as well as a volkisch Batholic &riest. +ietrich . but it was 0itler who &laye" the lea"ing role in the organi>ation of this meeting an" who announce" the two maLor e%entsE the new O2D6&ointO &arty &rogram. he was among those mur"ere" in the &urge of June CH.ely rebutte) an allege) #ro#onent of Ba.e) a stro/e of lu$/: before the feare) )is$harge into $i.arian se#aratism6 an) after returning home rea) a #am#hlet entitle) Mein politisc&es #r92c&en 3M: Politic2l A920ening5 gi. regar"less of the meagerness of his writings an" the ina"e9uacy of his stylistic gifts$ -ut abo%e all he was a s&ea7erE after a brief a&&renticeshi& as &ro&agan"a chairman of the &arty.climate of o&inion fa%oring the "e%elo&ment of @ational 'ocialism. Father -ernhar" 'tem&fle. who in +ecember.P meetings in the *terne$/erbrau beer hallJ these meetings &ere generally atten)e) by any&here from ten to forty follo&ers: =ns#ire) by a s#ee$h by Fe)er about the abolition of $a#italism6 +itler a##arently effe$ti.i) rea)er of the Munc&ener 1eob2c&ter! though his offer to be$ome a $ontributor ha) been turne) )o&n: (n *e#tember 4?6 47476 he6 as mentione) earlier6 &ent to one of the &ee/ly A. 1$h6 47?56 he ha) manage) to fin) an outlet for his ne&ly )is$o. 0itler. a useful an" &resumably harmless &ro&agan"ist an" O"rummerO for the OnationalO cause.ery outset: The National *o$ialists6 going beyon) an e<$lusi. 1 2H. a &hysician. . hel" on February 24. the .uni$h . for e?am&le. +ietrich .P enBoye) the bene. in the narrow circle of this small &arty.e railroa) &or/ers from his sho#6 foun)e) the ne& German Wor/ersK Party of militaristi$ $ir$les: . who hel&e" 0itler in the writing of . 0itler was one of the s&ea7ers at a meeting in the 0ofbrauhaus before an au"ience of a hun"re"$ 'oon he was also in%ite" to s&ea7 before volkisch grou&s outsi"e of Munich. 1 1 .)olf +itler ha) also $ome into $onta$t &ith the ne& #arty: +e &as an a.en him by Are<ler: *oon thereafter6 he let himself be re$ruite) as I#ro#agan)a $hairmanI 3Werbeobm2nn5 of the #arty: This #ro.ere) agitational talents: )t is significant that 0itler ha" ne%er been a member of any of the numerous volkisch sects$ 0e won his s&urs an" ac9uire" the &ro&agan"a tools for his &olitical rise not among racist theorists but in the concrete situation of local an" national issues. the Thule 'ociety &laye" a 7ey role$ Jn May C1. 1 C4$# The Thule 'ocietyNs . too.c7art. an" the change of name to @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ersN 4arty6a name which betraye" the Austrian influence an" at the same time was inten"e" to "ifferentiate the German Wor7ersN 4arty from the socialist &arties$ )ts OsocialismO was meant to combat -olshe%ism among the wor7ing class in an attem&t to win the su&&ort of the Reichswehr an" &olitically influential social circles$ The same hol"s true for the claim that 0itler was a 1goo" Batholic3 acce&table to the tra"itional establishment of Batholic -a%aria$ The mass meetings were the true beginnings of the O0itler mo%ement. &articularly in the fight against OKersailles. un&retentious starting &oint$ Aet this %ery fact ma"e 0itlerNs &osition less com&etiti%e.e )o$trinaire se$t &ithout a mass basis an) &ithout the #ros#e$t of #oliti$al #o&er6 sought to be$ome a strategi$6 broa)ly base) mass #arty: But at the same time6 the antiD'ommunist6 antiD*emiti$ e<$itement stirre) u# in the aftermath of the 82terepubli0 offere) an o##ortunity for the full in$or#oration of the ra$ist arguments into the so$ialistD nationalist i)eology of the #arty: Li/e other grou#s hat$he) in the &omb of the Thule *o$iety6 the A. he coul" establish his claim to unlimite" &ower$ 0a%ing at long last foun" an outlet for his long6frustrate" gigantomania.ilnchener Beobachter &ro%e" of in%aluable hel& by &ublishing a stream of anti6'emitic O"ocumentary e%i"enceO an" acting as a clearing house for the innumerable %ol7isch6ra"ical Right e%ents in an" aroun" Munich$ -ut the 'ociety an" the influential tools at its "is&osal ser%e" not only as a &latform for numerous nationalist s&linter grou&s.

Lust as he always remaine" a woul"6be artist$ .e goals remaine) as . an" hea%y in"ustry.e slogans6 the ne& #rogram $ontaine) a $onfuse) $olle$tion of highDflo&n #ostulates an) #romises for all: =ts Cuintessen$e &as the unifi$ation of the nation un)er a Inational so$ialismI &hi$h6 unli/e the .e his effe$ti. but as a truly uni9ue Omo%ementO abo%e the usual O&oliticalO organi>ations$ O4arty &oliticsO was an" remaine" a term of "is"ain in the @ational 'ocialist %ocabulary$ -ut it was not only in this res&ect that the @'+A4 was tie" to the anti"emocratic an" antiliberal grou&s outsi"e the tra"itional &arty system8 it also "e%elo&e" the structure of a male6 oriente" re%olutionary or"er an" elitist mo%ement see7ing mass su&&ort yet not consi"ering the masses sufficiently 7nowle"geable &olitically to share in the "ecision6ma7ing &rocess$ The minor role assigne" to women was ty&ical of this. in the un"erta7ings of %on 4a&en an" 'chleicher at the en" of the Weimar Re&ublic. hel" an outsi"e Lob an" therefore coul" not "e%ote as much time either to the &arty or to his career as &ro&agan"ist as his in"efatigable colleague 0itler.ements &ere resorte) to in its $om#ilation: The in)i.ery im#ortant meeting6 turne) u# at the Ka## Puts$h in Berlin -together &ith $/art06 an)6 in the summer an) fall of 47?56 &ent to $onferen$es of the .PKs foun)ing in %anuary6 47476 ha) been $om#ile) by Are<ler in Ae$ember6 47476 from a Bumble of /ol0isc& i)eologi$al sour$es an) e)ite) by +itler: .ustrian National *o$ialists: The ne& #rogram6 &hi$h re#la$e) the gui)elines &hi$h Are<ler ha) lai) )o&n at the A.aria: Thus6 the organizationKs ne& star s#ea/er &as gi. ha%ing ser%e" their &ur&oses. ha" nothing to lose an" much to gain$ +itler atten)e) almost e. 1 21E OA woman can ne%er be a"mitte" into the lea"ershi& of the &arty an" into the e?ecuti%e committee$33 .en a )ouble o##ortunity to #ro. inclu"ing the han"ful of women &resent.uni$hKs not o. it saw itself not merely as Lust another &olitical &arty.e6 #ersuasi.ague as the #rograms of its #re$ursors: But t&o of its ne& an) basi$ features $learly betraye) +itlerKs influen$e: the ra)i$al re. an" economic su&eriors that they coul" ma7e use of the energies an" talents of the Omass "rummerO an" that. an" finally.enturists of the Free 'or#s: The . he woul" &robably ne%er ha%e crashe" the gates of &ower without outsi"e hel&8 he woul" ha%e remaine" a woul"6be tyrant.olutionary a).%en though the @'+A4 7e&t aloof from volkisch sects.e)6 &hile its #ositi. as a Lobless &olitician. 0ugenberg.olution an) se#aratism6 rea$tion an) monar$hism6 he $oul) form a I$ell of national or)erI )ra&ing from all &al/s of life6 thereby attra$ting noti$e an) gaining the su##ort of . &$ : 65: .es an) PanDGermans to the nationalDre.erly )emo$rati$ military guar)ians of or)er: There $an be no )oubt that +itler6 unli/e many of his gullible $ohorts6 ha) little feeling for the #rogram of Inational so$ialism6I e<$e#t for its intense antiD*emiti$ nationalism: To him6 it &as little more than an effe$ti. in January. he coul" be tame" an" fitte" into their scheme of things$ This "elusion figure" in the &utsch of 1<ist $lass struggle6 #romise) to abolish the inBusti$es of $a#italism by uniting the &or/ers an) all other $lasses in one mighty6 unifie)6 #o&erful I#eo#leKs $ommunity:I =)eologi$ally s#ea/ing6 it &as a &oolly6 e$le$ti$ mi<ture of #oliti$al6 so$ial6 ra$ist6 nationalDim#erialist &ishful thin/ing of the ty#e &hi$h after the nineteenth $entury6 an) more #arti$ularly sin$e the une<#e$te) $atastro#he of the &ar6 ha) ins#ire) the Inational Right6I ranging from )isa##ointe) 'onser. who. in the formation of the 0itler Babinet in 1 CC with 0in"enburg.ements: The other #arts of the #rogram also &ere har)ly ne&J German6 .ar<ists6 1ersailles6 an) )emo$rats06 an) in .rmy6 &hi$h in many #arts of the ne& Re#ubli$ ser. social. for "es&ite all his energy an" luc7. +re?ler.uni$h6 a $ity $aught in the ferment of re. an" e%en more so the resolution a"o&te" by the first general membershi& meeting. 0itler began to be recei%e" in the salons of influential members of the volkisch literary.ati.##en)e) to this #rogram &as a s#e$ifi$ referen$e to Ibrea/ing the sha$/les of finan$e $a#ital6I Fe)erKs #et theory &hi$h ha) strongly im#resse) +itler6 though it &as an ol) i)ea foun) in the #rograms of many nationalDso$ial reform to the $on$ise6 sensational )issemination of the IantiI #osition on &hi$h the #arty thri.e #ro#agan)a &ea#on for mobilizing an) mani#ulating the masses: (n$e it ha) brought him to #o&er6 it be$ame #ure )e$oration: Iunalterable6I yet unrealize) in its )eman)s for nationalization an) e<#ro#riation6 for lan) reform an) Ibrea/ing the sha$/les of finan$e $a#ital:I Eet it nonetheless fulfille) its role as ba$/)ro# an) #seu)oDtheory6 against &hi$h the future )i$tator $oul) unfol) his rhetori$al an) )ramati$ talents: After only a few months in his new role. economic.ember $riminalsI an) %e&s6 1ersailles an) the I&orl) of enemiesI en$ir$ling Germany &ith &hi$h the Iun/no&n frontline sol)ierI &as beginning to stir u# #ubli$ enthusiasm an) .isionism &ith its militant stan$e against 1ersailles an) the out$ome of the &ar in general6 an) the em#hasis on the IunalterableI nature of the #rogram6 reminis$ent of +itlerKs rigi) insisten$e on the Igranite foun)ationI of his youthful IWeltans$hauung:I +itlerKs a))ress at the +ofbrauhaus meeting &as ty#i$al of those uninhibite)6 for$eful )iatribes against . also in the a&&easement &olicies of the Western &owers an" the 'o%iet (nion !1 C #8 it &ro%e" to be the most im&ortant &acema7er in 0itlerNs forwar" march.e) only relu$tantly6 also &as in full sym#athy6 #arti$ularly in Ba. The German Dictatorshi&( The 7rigins1 Structure1 and 8ffects of National Socialism by /arl +ietrich -racher !1 :H#.uni$h: =n a))ition to its negati.beyon" its confines$ Moreo%er.iolent hostility in .i$timize) e$onomi$ally by mounting inflation a sim#le e<#lanation for their misery -%e&s6 .olution an) .i)ual #oints &ere #hrase) li/e slogansJ they lent themsel.ustrian6 an) Bohemian #ro#onents of antiD$a#italist6 nationalistDim#erialist6 antiD*emiti$<ists an) )emo$rats6 INo. an" military establishment$ 0ere was manifeste" for the first time that fatal belief of his intellectual. the &artyNs foun"er an" nominal chairman. social.eness an) #romote his $areer: he $oul) offer a )es#airing #o#ulation torn by &ar an) re.

Rohm was the only one 0itler truly res&ecte". through a characteristic misun"erstan"ing an" misa&&lication of newly "e%elo&e" scientific theories. a&&arently out of &i9ue o%er his literary failure. 1 1 . a conflict which in 1 2D resulte" in a fi%e6yearlong estrangement. an" cons&irator.c7art was its first &ublisher until his &remature "eathI3 .1Jf greater initial im&ortance than i"eology was the "e%elo&ment of a strong organi>ational structure through which the &arty ho&e" to be able to e?tricate itself from the Lungle of com&eting organi>ations$ )n this. . where it was "ra&e" aroun" the s&ea7erNs lectern$ )n . ha%ing originate" with Austrian vollcisch grou&s$ An" the man"atory wearing of ba"ges an" uniforms. he became an anti6'emite an" finally lan"e" in the +A4 %ia the Thule 'ociety$ 0is intellectual influence on 0itler !he was 0itlerNs first e"ucate" an" socially a"e&t ac9uaintance# a&&arently was 9uite consi"erable. at the latest.HHH$ . though "oubtlessly he was instrumental in the "ecision to ma7e the swasti7a the official &arty emblem$ 0e ob%iously recogni>e" 9uite early the im&ortance of symbolism an" its unifying &otential force for a young. some of which Rohm s&ent as a military instructor in -oli%ia$ After being calle" bac7 in 1 CH to hea" the 'A. which. 1 2H. an" it was he who built the &arty troo&s. a man without a &ast an" without contacts. elo9uently entitle" Die Geschichte eines $ochverraters 2The Stor of a Traitor3 1 25#$ To commit OtreasonO against a "es&ise" Re&ublic that also threatene" his military career seeme" to him a self6e%i"ent "uty$ 0e &laye" a most im&ortant role as the right han" of the Free Bor&s General %on .c7artNs military an" social connections that the @'+A4 was able to ac9uire the . The German Dictatorshi&( The 7rigins1 Structure1 and 8ffects of National Socialism by /arl +ietrich -racher !1 :H#. is one of the trage"ies of the early history of @ational 'ocialism$ 2an> %on 2iebenfels. rename" Volkischer Beobachter1 became the official &arty &a&er$ . e%en though the &seu"o6military tra&&ings an" &seu"o6religious i"oli>ation of symbols more an" more re&elle" its o&&onents$ The earliest collaborators of 0itler contribute" materially to this ra&i" transformation of the insignificant +re?ler grou& into an organi>ationally an" i"eologically taut &arty. since the turn of the century. in May. an" cohesi%e use of them than its com&etitors$ To begin with. un"eniably a""e" to the Omo%ementNsO a&&eal an" its much6 toute" feeling of community. which as sun circle or sun wheel was to be foun" in many ancient cultures !inclu"ing Onon6AryanO ones in Bentral America#.ein /am&f1 0itler inaccurately claims the in%ention for himself. which as early as 1 2H stoo" out among the grou&s of the ra"ical Right an" by the en" of that year boaste" a membershi& of C. an" the Thule 'ociety all use" the swasti7a as a symbol$ Jne of the &artyNs members. who Loine" the +A4 in @o%ember. he again an" again came into conflict with 0itler. wrote a memoran"um about the swasti7a as the symbol of national6socialist grou&s$ An" he was &robably the first to use it in its later form6against a blac76white6an"6re" bac7groun"6at the foun"ing meeting of the 'tarnberg &arty local. into an instrument of fear an" terror$ Aet for these %ery reasons. is first among these$ The son of a railroa" em&loyee an" himself an acti%e officer. the only one with whom he was on familiar !du! terms8 but he also was a ri%al whose i"ea of a &owerful fighting organi>ation &arallel to the &arty again an" again ran u& against 0itlerNs i"ea of total &arty control$ 0itlerNs early encounter with +ietrich . e%en though well67nown Jewish writers an" intellectuals belonge" to it. a "entist by the name of Frie"rich /rohn.c7art !15*561 2C# was e9ually im&ortant$ A lawyerNs son from @eumar7t in -a%aria. %ia RossbachNs Free Bor&s8 before that time the &arty units wore win"brea7ers an" s7i ca&s$ The use of a ceremonial stan"ar" in 1 2262C ob%iously was ta7en from the )talian Fascists$ -ut the 0eil salute. 1 1 . then of course still without the attribute 10itler. &ur&oseful. an" the new &arty ma"e more "efiniti%e.rnst Rohm !155:61 C4#.unchener Beobachter in +ecember. en"ing with his e?ecution in 1 C4$ )n fact. &$ 5:655 . a"%enturer. the intro"uction of an all6encom&assing symbolism &ro%e" highly effecti%e$ )n their a&&eal to irrational emotions.c7art ha" trie" his han" at writing in -erlin where. to O&atrioticO officers an" &oliticians. an" then systematically nurture" an" e?&loite" it$ @o other &arty was so astutely aware of the unifying force of symbols in mass "emonstrations an" as an e?&ression of soli"arity$ )n the early years there was a confusion of symbols$ The brown shirt "i" not come into general use until 1 24.&& an" as the first &romoter of the &olitical career of Bor&oral 0itler$ -y intro"ucing the un7nown 0itler. as well as the glittering abun"ance of symbols at meetings. there was the sign of the swasti7a. new conflicts arose. the volkisch grou&s ha" "e%elo&e" a rich store of fre9uently scurrilous signs an" symbols. the 'turmabteilung !'A#. e%en gi%en the assum&tion that 0itler came out of the war with firm basic i"eas$ )t was "ue to . Rohm tol" the story of his life as a volkisch monarchist an" mercenary sol"ier in his autobiogra&hy. the Germanic Jr"er. aggressi%e &arty as well as for a future mass &arty. ha" been a"o&te" by volkisch sects as the symbol of OAryanO anti6'emitic re%i%al mo%ements$ That the literary circle aroun" 'tefan George with its elitist i"eology contribute" to this symbolism. Rohm furnishe" the s&ringboar" for 0itlerNs entry into &olitics$ 0e lent acti%e su&&ort to ra"ical right6wing arme" organi>ations !Wehrverbande61 gi%ing fully of his talents as a military organi>er. but which.3 alrea"y came into use in 1 2H.

an" any negotiations on that were to be con"ucte" by him Oe?clusi%ely$O )t soon became a&&arent that this strategy was boun" to be successful.ote) to ma/e Are<ler honorary $hairman an) to re. an" e%en +re?ler himself6felt that that they coul" not "is&ense with the "ri%ing force of 0itler$ )t was a "emonstration of the tactics which 0itler was to a&&ly successfully again an" again.e $oun$il but in fa$t instituting )i$tatorial lea)ershi# &ith an Ia$tion $ommitteeI un)er +itler: +itlerKs men mo. he &re&are" for his gran" cou&. 0itler in 1 2H ha" not yet gaine" com&lete control of the e?&an"ing &arty$ Though as an in"is&ensable &ro&agan"ist he enLoye" great &restige an" was able to influence the structure an" acti%ities of the &arty. 0itler "eman"e" not only unlimite" control o%er the &arty hierarchy but increasingly also the uncon"itional loyalty an" almost &seu"o6 religious allegiance of the membershi&$ This ty&e of lea"er &rinci&le was in line with the wi"es&rea" cra%ing for security. an" ma7ing himself largely in"e&en"ent of the e?ecuti%e committee$ This turn of e%ents becomes com&rehensible if one stu"ies the tactics he em&loye"$ 0e was "etermine" to out"o all ri%al &arties in acti%ity an" forcefulness$ -y turning shar&ly against bourgeois6romantic sectarian grou&s an" their &seu"o6"emocratic organi>ational tactics. a stu"ent of the Munich geo&olitician /arl 0aushofer. he still ha" not &enetrate" into its innermost councils when. an" hero worshi& unfulfille" since the o%erthrow of the monarchy$3 . he sought to cash in on the tren" of the times towar" a Ostrong man. or +'4#. as7ing embarrassing 9uestions about the source of their Oincome.sserNs integrity.e) into the /ey #ositions: This &as the beginning of the myth of the ILea)erI +itler6 at first $ons$iously #romote) by $/art in the Vol0isc&e 1eob2c&ter an) alrea)y hinting at the mysti$al i)ealization ty#i$al of the future: Ru"olf 0ess.c7art. assuming near6"ictatorial &ower. in the ne?t few "ays new &roblems arose which almost le" to a s&lit. ga%e in at the last moment$ The e<traor)inary membershi# meeting of %uly ?76 47?46 atten)e) by only NN5 members6 an) $haire) by sser6 en)e) in a rhetori$al . an" at the same time Lust as "ramatically ma"e 7nown his con"itions for reLoiningE absolute &rimacy for the Munich &arty local an" its &rogram o%er all other @ational 'ocialist local grou&s which ha" s&rung u& in an" outsi"e -a%aria8 the e?&ulsion of a number of un"esirable in"i%i"uals an" grou&s. furnishe" the first e?am&le of these &anegyrics$ 0itlerNs &rou" assertion that he ha" won the O&osition of first chairman with "ictatorial &owersO ma"e the Olea"er &rinci&leO into the central organi>ational &rinci&le of the &arty$ As the Olea"er of the @'+A4. though sym&athetic to +re?ler . acting on its own.1+es&ite his e?traor"inary "ri%e.O towar" the rema7ing of the shattere" &ostwar worl" by a O"ictatorshi& of or"er$O More than any of the other &arty functionaries. &$ 16 2 . 1 C2$ Jn July 11. 0itler in a "ramatic gesture announce" his resignation from the @'+A4.c7art became the liaison man who &ersua"e" the &arty lea"ershi&.ise the statutes so as to reorganize the #arty6 in. calle" a s&ecial membershi& meeting to seal its %ictory$ A countercam&aign was launche" within the &arty. when the 0itler wing. hobble" by his Lob. an" calling for the foun"ing of a @ational 'ocialist organi>ation without 0itler$ -ut once again +re?ler. to ca&itulate to 0itlerNs "eman"s with some minor reser%ations$ 0owe%er.ol. at the urging of .O castigating the maintenance of a &ri%ate 0itler army !ma"e u& of unem&loye"#. &articularly one local in Augsburg which was critical of his &ower as&irations an" ha" &ro&ose" fusion with the German 'ocialist 4arty !+eutschso>ialistische 4artei. by ousting +re?ler as chairman. The German Dictatorshi&( The 7rigins1 Structure1 and 8ffects of National Socialism by /arl +ietrich -racher !1 :H#. &ushing the more se"ate +re?ler. 1 21. into the bac7groun"$ When it came to a test of strength. he rule" out union with ri%al grou&s8 only uncon"itional affiliation on their &art was acce&table. authority. or"er. the conferral on him of the O&ost of first chairman with "ictatorial &owers. with future hea"9uarters in -erlin$ 0itler calle" for &ursuing a ra"ical course an" 7ee&ing aloof from any nationalist grou&s inclining towar" com&romise$ The ultimatum he lai" "own for his lea"ershi& ga%e unmista7able hints of what the future hel" in store$ Among his s&ecific "eman"s were the election of a new e?ecuti%e committee within a wee7. inclu"ing +re?ler.i$tory for +itler: The assemblage . as for e?am&le "uring the final &arty "is&ute with Gregor 'trasser in +ecember. it became ob%ious that most of the &arty e?ecuti%es.O an" the continuance in &er&etuity of Munich as the Oseat of the mo%ement$O 0e furthermore insiste" on the e?&ulsion of any member who attem&te" to change the name of the &arty or its &rogram$ Also. a similarly oriente" &arty. in the summer of 1 21.O as he now calle" himself. 0itler 7new how to ma7e himself in"is&ensable by wor7ing without letu&. for 0itler ha" ma"e himself in"is&ensable to the life an" wor7 of the &arty$ Again .ing #seu)oDele$tions to the e<e$uti. an" han"bills were "istribute" casting "oubt on 0itlerNs an" his frien" .

&& an" the 4russian troo&s at the en" of A&ril$ For about two months. a few miles away$ 0e says that he returne" to Munich Nin MarchN$ The Re"s were "ri%en out by %on .&& Free Bor&s too7 sha&e for the e?&e"ition against Re" Munich$ All the figures who later &laye" a big &art in the . about this. the Jewish Go%ernment rule" from Moscow$ )f he was in barrac7s.rnst Toller an" . Vlite troo&s$ 0e ha" fle" to Jhr"ruf in Thuringia an". a ser%ing sol"ier.N 0itler. a small an" unim&ortant bo"y which fostere" the cult of ol" German literature. an" ) "o not thin7 any other writer has notice" its significance or "iscusse" it$ )n"ee". tra"itions.&& Free Bor&s. it may &ro%e to be the missing &iece in the Ligsaw &u>>le$ )t is worth e?&laining more fully. therefore. were ta7en out an" shot by the alien Jewish Go%ernment of MunichX The . 1 1 $ 0itler. an" he was a sol"ier$ -ut the sol"iers in Munich were un"er the or"ers of the Re" Go%ernment. he says. Bolonel of the -a%arian Guar" an" later general officer comman"ing the -a%arian Al&ine Bor&s. forme" the . about the man 0itler$ 2ater. by hoo7 or by croo7. the Re" Go%ernment. was in Munich when the Re" regime was at its height. there ha" been a 2eft Boalition Go%ernment of 'ocialists$ )n"e&en"ent 'ocialists.<$er#ts from . in later years. was fille" with the most %iolent hatre" of the Jewish6Bommunist re%olution in Germany from the moment it bro7e out.uro&ean "rama gathere" for this smaller one 6 sa%e 0itlerX 0itler was in Munich$ 0e was still a sol"ier$ 0e ha". as he tells in Mein /am&f. when the hostages were being shot$ Goo" -a%arians who were there at the same time contri%e". is nee"e" to &ut it in its true &ro&ortion. but not the hint of an e?&lanation of his "oings in Munich at that time e%er came from 0itler$ This is a com&lete ga& in Mein /am&f$ )t is one of the "ar7est things in all his "ar7 history$ ) woul" gi%e almost anything ) ha%e to 7now for whom that man really wor7e". chiefly officers. inclu"ing se%eral women. an" the "ouble or tri&le game he always &laye" is clearer to see. at the ris7 of his life an" after surmounting many "ifficulties$ . a Russian Jew an" emissary from Moscow. as was Jtto 'trasser. to get out of Munich an" ma7e their way to %on . General %on .&&. when we 7now more of him.ember6 $ure) an) )is$harge) from hos#ital6 he re#orte) to his regimental )e#ot D in that . first. ) ha" o%erloo7e" it.&& Free Bor&s. an" the li7e$ Anti6'emitism was an integral &art of its teaching8 so was anti6Bhristianity$ )t was an insignificant grou& without any &ower or &ossibility of &utting its theories into &ractice$ )t ha" no single &olitician among its members.emesis< =&e Stor: of 4tto Str2sser by Aouglas Ree) -47G506 'ha#ter G -Belate) +ome$oming0 1'oon after. began to recruit men to oust the Re" Go%ernment in Munich$ 0e ha" seen colonial ser%ice. accor"ing to his own account in Mein /am&f. fearing the attac7. for this reason$ The Re" regime in Munich laste" from @o%ember 1 15 until May 1st. among them Bountess Westar&.isner was shot in Munich by Bount Arco$ Thereu&on the Re" Re&ublic was &roclaime"8 until then. which "eser%es a much greater &lace in the history of the Jews in &olitics than it has recei%e"$ Among the hostages were twenty6two members of the NTulle 'ocietyN. an" they are too few. an" future historians will be in"ebte" to him for this.rnst RWhm as his chief6of6staff. that by some means he contri%e" to be sent to a cam& at Traunstein. legen" MUhsam$ The most famous -a%arian sol"ier.uni$h &here the Re)s &ere most #o&erful: 0is own battalion was un"er the or"ers of the re%olutionary N'ol"iersN BouncilN$ This so "isguste" him. fol7lore. in the first "ays of @o%ember$ =n the last )ays of No. an" now a %ery sinister thing ha&&ene". a man who was u& to the nec7 in the &olitical turmoil of those "ays. he must ha%e been 6 a Re"X There was much muttering an" murmuring among the @ational 'ocialist lea"ers. which all &atriotic -a%arians trie" to Loin$ )n Munich. was the mo%ing s&irit in the Munich 'o%iet8 other Jews in it were . but at all times later$ Jtto 'trasser first "rew my &articular attention to this remar7able e&iso"e in 0itlerNs life$ Although ) ha" closely stu"ie" these things. only a few ol" &rofessors an" noblemen$ Jf all the hun"re"s of hostages &recisely these twenty6two &eo&le. returning with him to "ri%e the Re"s out$ Jtto 'trasser "i" this. although he a%owe"ly burne" to fight$ 0e was in Munich. with one Ba&tain . ta7en that fearsome anti6-olshe%ist oath in hos&ital at 4asewal7$ 0e was alrea"y resol%e" to sa%e the worl" from -olshe%ism$ Aet he "i" not s&ring to sa%e Munich from -olshe%ism$ 0e "i" not ma7e his way out an" Loin the . arreste" hun"re"s of hostages. not only then. because it is one of the most im&ortant of the things we 7now. /urt .&&. an" in the war was. much sha7ing of &u>>le" hea"s. an" Bommunists$ 2e%ine.ery . un"er the rule of a Russian Jew sent from Moscow.

who "e%otes so many &ages in his boo7 to win"y abuse of the Re"s in Moscow an" of )nternational -olshe%ism in general. nothing about the horrors of a Re" regime which he actually 7new. they "eserte" by night to %on .&&Ns troo&s$ What other lea"er of such a &arty as the @ational 'ocialist 4arty woul" in a boo7 &ass o%er in silence such a &erio" as thisM All 0itler has to say about it is the %ague an" unintelligible remar7 that he was Nnearly arreste"N three "ays before the Re"s were "ri%en out$ From that he calmly &asses on to a sentence beginningE NA few "ays after the liberation of Munich ) was $$$N @othing about his reasons for staying in Munich. an" sol"iers who staye" in Munich were un"er the or"ers of that Re" Go%ernment8 if they "i"nNt li7e it. who later rails for &ages at a time about the wholesale massacres in Moscow 66 or of con"itions in Munich at all$ -ut. an" unless all the trac7s ha%e fa"e" they will "isco%er some strange things$ Jtto 'trasser says that for many years afterwar"s 66 until the a"%ent to &ower &lace" 0itler on a &e"estal ele%ate" abo%e all such "oubts. in those "ays. nothing about the trium&hal entry of %on .#ril 4747?K an" the answer was always a &er&le?e" shrug of the shoul"ers or sha7e of the hea"$3 . in Thuringia. an" this is the %ital &oint.uni$h in .&&. he too7 &art in the fighting against %on . who was always fille" with a religious horror an" hatre" of the -olshe%ists. in the &erio" between March an" May 1 1 . he was a sol"ier. with the rest of the Munich garrison. retaine" from these months s&ent un"er their rule in a city that he regar"e" as his a"o&te" birth&lace no single memory worth &utting on &a&er$ ) belie%e that future historians will nee" to start their researches into his life in Munich. when they were tal7ing together of this an" that. always returne" to the 9uestion KWhat &as .%ery other notable @ational 'ocialist lea"er or 'torm Troo& comman"er. nothing about the se%ere fighting that &rece"e" the liberation of Munich.0itler. staye" 9uietly in Munich$ 0e says no wor" of his life in Munich "uring those two months$ 0e gi%es no "escri&tion of the horrors he saw 66 he. the arch anti6Re" 6 was in Munich$ 0e.&&Ns troo&s$ . fought with one or other of the Free Bor&s somewhere in Germany8 this was the %ery thing that ga%e them a claim to subse9uent a"%ancement in the 4arty$ -ut the FUhrer himself. an" 0itler "i" not "o that$ 0e was then 6 a Re"X 0e &robably wore the re" arm6ban"$ 4resumably. which woul" ha%e cost the au"ible "oubter his life 66 the @ational 'ocialist lea"$h an) .)olf )oing in .

in 1 15. remembering the war as the secon" great lo%e of his life !the first being his mother#.s anti6Bhristian teachings8 an" 0itler forme" a new arme" militia !the ''# to &rotect himself against RohmNs control of the ol" arme" militia !the 'A#$ =n the #erio) 47?GD47>5 the #arty $ontinue)6 &ithout any real gro&th6 as a Ilunati$ fringe6I subsi)ize) by the in)ustrialists: . an" all Jews or Oother aliensO eliminate"8 !D# all unearne" incomes to be abolishe". his life ha" been a succession of failures. becoming one of about si?ty regular members an" the se%enth member of its e?ecuti%e committee$ The German Wor7ersN 4arty ha" been foun"e" by a Munich loc7smith. statione" near Munich$ )n the course of s&ying on the numerous &olitical grou&s in Munich. e"ucation. to Ocommunali>eO the large "e&artment stores.&&.HHH mar7s of General %on . attributing his own failures to the Ointrigues of international Jewry$O The outbrea7 of war in August 1 14 ga%e 0itler the first real moti%ation of his life$ 0e became a su&er6&atriot.lbe8 in January 1 C2 came one of his greatest trium&hs when he s&o7e for C hours to the )n"ustrial Blub of +Ussel"orf an" won . he ha" the &arty constitution change" to gi%e the &resi"ent absolute &ower$ 0e was electe" &resi"ent8 +re?ler was ma"e honorary &resi"ent8 while Ma? Amann.DHH suffere" C. secon" class. an" 0itler himself was woun"e" twice$ These were the only two occasions on which he left the front$ )n Jctober 1 15 he was blin"e" by mustar" gas an" sent to a hos&ital at 4asewal7. in 1 14 an" with the )ron Bross.ssen8 in A&ril 1 25. an" the 2eftish elements !li7e the 'trasser brothers# were wea7ene" or eliminate"$ )n A&ril 1 2:. he was ne%er &romote" beyon" 4ri%ate. Loine" the 'i?teenth Kolunteer -a%arian )nfantry. es&ecially the aborti%e 4utsch. to encourage small business in the allotment of go%ernment contracts. an" religion conform to Othe morals an" religious sense of the German race$O As the &arty grew. to im&ose an e?cess6&rofits ta? on cor&orations.&&Ns money. 0itler became fascinate" by the rantings of Gottfrie" Fe"er against the 1interest sla%ery of the Jews$3 At some meetings 0itler himself became a &artici&ant. the state to control all mono&olies. he was not yet forty6four years ol"$ From his birth in Austria in 155 to the outbrea7 of war in 1 14.e manufa$turer06 mil Kir)orf -general manager of the RhenishDWest#halian 'oal *yn)i$ate06 Fritz Thyssen -o&ner of the Fnite) *teel Wor/s an) #resi)ent of the German =n)ustrial 'oun$il0 an) . Anton +re?ler. he was &ut in charge of &arty &ublicity$ 'ince this was the chief e?&ense. was ma"e business manager$ As a conse9uence of this e%ent. to ta7e agricultural lan" for &ublic &ur&oses without com&ensation. the wor" O'ocialismO in the &arty name was inter&rete" to mean nationalism !or a society without class conflicts#. the se%en years 1 H:61 14 being &asse" as a social "erelict in Kienna an" Munich$ There he ha" become a fanatical 4an6German anti6'emite. were con"one" by the -a%arian an" Munich authorities$ As a result of the failures of this &erio". no immigration for non6Germans. 1 1 . culture. Germany beaten. but its &ro%isions became more remote from attainment as years &asse"$ .ugust Borsig -Berlin lo$omoti. with no naturali>ation. always %olunteering for the most "angerous tas7s$ Although his relations with his su&eriors were e?cellent an" he was "ecorate" with the )ron Bross.%en in 1 2H. he staye" with the army an" e%entually became a &olitical s&y for the Reichswehr. an" "rew u& its 1Twenty6fi%e64oint 4rogram$3 The &arty &rogram of 1 2H was &rinte" in the &arty literature for twenty6fi%e years. wor7ersN grou&$ )n a few months Ba&tain . &urchase" the KWl7ischer -eobachter with *H. an" e9uality in &arty an" state was re&lace" hy the Olea"ershi& &rinci&leO an" the "octrine of the elite$ )n the ne?t two years the &arty &asse" through a series of crises of which the chief was the attem&te" 4utsch of @o%ember . 0itler became con%ince" that he must come to &ower by legal metho"s rather than by force8 he bro7e with 2u"en"orff an" cease" to be su&&orte" by the Reichswehr8 he began to recei%e his chief financial su&&ort from the in"ustrialists8 he ma"e a tacit alliance with the -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty by which 4rime Minister 0einrich 0el" of -a%aria raise" the ban on the @a>i 4arty in return for 0itlerNs re&u"iation of 2u"en"orff. he was com&letely ha&&y.mong the $hief $ontributors to the #arty in this #erio) &ere 'arl Be$hstein -Berlin #iano manufa$turer06 . 0itler s&o7e to 4HH in"ustrialists in . coming through .2*H 7ille" in action. an" to &ro%i"e ol"age &ensions8!*# to &unish all war &rofiteers an" usurers with "eath8 an" !:# to see that the &ress. a""ing members an" s&rea"ing out to lin7 u& with similar mo%ements in other &arts of Germany. an" since 0itler also became the &artyNs lea"ing orator. because he was inca&able of ha%ing any real relationshi&s with his fellow sol"iers or of ta7ing comman" of any grou& of them$ 0e remaine" on acti%e ser%ice at the front for four years$ +uring that &erio" his regiment of C.lbert 1Ogler -general manager of the Gelsen/ir$hen =ron an) *teel 'om#any an) formerly general manager of Fnite) *teel Wor/s0: +uring this &erio" neither 0itler nor his su&&orters were see7ing to create a mass mo%ement$ That "i" not come until 1 CH$ -ut "uring this earlier &erio" the &arty itself was stea"ily centrali>e". he a""resse" a similar grou& of lan"lor"s from east of the . 0itler strengthene" his control of the grou&$ 0e coul" "o this because he ha" control of the &arty news&a&er an" of the chief source of money an" was its chief &ublic figure$ )n July 1 21. an" Rohm &ai" the ReichswehrNs fun"s to 0itler "irectly$ +uring 1 2H the &arty grew from D4 to C.HHH members8 it change" its name to @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ersN 4arty. 0itlerNs sergeant in the war. as a nationalist. an" "i" so. inclu"ing the abrogation of the Treaty of Kersailles8 !C# li%ing s&ace for Germans. the 'A was reorgani>e" un"er RWhm. on January D.&&Ns cor&s of the -lac7 Reichswohr Loine" the mo%ement an" became the con"uit by which secret Reichswehr fun"s. attac7ing the 1Jewish &lot to "ominate the worl"3 or ranting about the nee" for 4an6German unity$ As a result he was as7e" to Loin the German Wor7ersN 4arty.1When A"olf 0itler became chancellor of the German Reich on January CH. many of its clauses were &ut in to win su&&ort from the lower classes rather than because they were sincerely "esire" by the &arty lea"ers$ These inclu"e" !1# 4an6Germanism8 !2# German international e9uality. or 'A#$ When 0itler Loine" in 'e&tember 1 1 . an" ser%e" at the front for four years$ )n his way he was an e?cellent sol"ier$ Attache" to the regimental staff as messenger for the First Bom&any. First Blass. e%en mur"er. near -erlin$ When he emerge" a month later he foun" the war finishe". were con%eye" to the &arty$ 0e also began to organi>e a strong6 arm militia within the grou& !the 'torm Troo&s. an" the monarchy o%erthrown$ 0e refuse" to become reconcile" to this situation$ (nable to acce&t either "efeat or the re&ublic. 1 CC. 4an6German.rnst Rohm of Fran> %on . inclu"ing colonial areas8 !4# German citi>enshi& to be base" on bloo" only. first class. &ublic o&inion soon came to regar" the whole mo%ement as 0itlerNs. 1 2C$ +uring this &erio" all 7in"s of %iolence an" illegality.

ing the go. but at once challenge" the legality of this action before the German 'u&reme Bourt at 2ei&>ig$ -y its %er"ict of Jctober 2D.$$or)ingly6 un)er $ir$umstan$es &hi$h are still mysterious6 a #lot &as &or/e) out to burn the Rei$hstag buil)ing an) blame the 'ommunists: .e &as a$$om#anie) by a . or 4C$ &ercent of the total %ote$ The @ationalists obtaine" only 5 &ercent$ The Bommunists obtaine" 51 seats. it was e%i"ent a wee7 before the election that the German &eo&le were not con%ince"$ . it inclu"e" both the great rural areas of the east an" the great in"ustrial areas of the west$ Thus it inclu"e" the most conser%ati%e as well as the most &rogressi%e &ortions of Germany$ While its influence was almost as great un"er the re&ublic as it ha" been un"er the em&ire. 1 C4.a)e any #ersonal #ri. by the en) of 47>? mu$h of the finan$ial su##ort from in)ustry ha) been $ut off by Pa#en6 an) #arty membershi# &as falling a&ay6 $hiefly to the 'ommunists: To sto# this )e$line6 +itler agree) to be$ome $han$ellor in a 'abinet in &hi$h there &oul) be only three Nazis among ele. a&&ointe" 4a&en commissioner for 4russia$ 4a&en at once "ismisse" the eight members of the 4russian &arliamentary Babinet an" grante" their go%ernmental functions to men name" by himself$ The "ismisse" ministers were remo%e" from their offices by the &ower of the army. but chiefly by the fact that the so6calle" Weimar Boalition of 'ocial +emocrats. Jtto -raun.s #art of this$h an) .ll un$oo#erati. was a failure from the @a>i &oint of %iew$ 0itlerNs &arty recei%e" only 255 of *4: seats. but the 'ocialists obtaine" 12D. ha%ing change" from the chief bulwar7 of conser%atism in the earlier &erio" to the chief area of &rogressi%ism in the later &erio"$ This change w as ma"e &ossible by the large numbers of enlightene" grou&s in the Rhenish areas of 4russia.oting: =n s#ite of the fa$t that the Nazis obtaine) only GG #er $ent of the ballots in the ne& ele$tion6 +itler be$ame )i$tator of Germany &ithin eighteen months: Jne of the chief reasons for this success rests on the &osition of 4russia within Germany$ 4russia was the greatest of the fourteen states of Germany$ Bo%ering almost two6thir"s of the country. an" 2iberal +emocrats remaine" unbro7en in 4russia from 1 15 to 1 C2$ As a conse9uence of this alliance. an" the 4eo&leNs 4arty from 11 to 2$ The @ationalists staye" at D1 seats$ )n the simultaneous election to the 4russian +iet. 1 C2.t on$e all 'ommunist members of the Rei$hstag6 as &ell as thousan)s of others6 &ere arreste)6 an) all 'ommunist an) *o$ialDAemo$rat #a#ers &ere sus#en)e) for t&o &ee/s: The true story of the Rei$hstag fire &as /e#t se$ret only &ith )iffi$ulty: *e.e the go. is generally calle" the 4erio" of Boor"ination !Gleichschaltung#$ The &rocess was carrie" on. "ri%ing it into hi"ing$ They .ent their $ir$ulating the true story: .ants from hol)ing membershi# in either of these t&o #arties6 an) forba)e the use of the Nazi uniform: This obstacle to e?tremism was remo%e" on July the out$ome of the .#ril to #re.ost of the #lotters &ere homose<uals an) &ere able to #ersua)e a )egenerate moron from +ollan) name) 1an )er Lubbe to go &ith them: .eral #ersons &ho /ne& the truth6 in$lu)ing a Nationalist Rei$hstag member6 Ar: (berfohren6 &ere mur)ere) in . li7e the electoral cam&aign Lust finishe". the court "eci"e" for the remo%e" officials$ =n s#ite of this )e$ision6 +itler6 after only a &ee/ in the $han$ellorshi#6 &as able to obtain from +in)enburg a ne& )e$ree &hi$h remo.e6 &hile 'a#tain Rohm in $omman) of the Nazi Party storm troo#s &or/e) &ithout #retense of legality from belo&: . a 'ocial +emocrat.ernment #o&er to in. Benter 4arty.ement the Prussian 'abinet in 47>5 refuse) to allo& either 'ommunists or Nazis to hol) muni$i#al offi$es in Prussia6 #rohibite) Prussian $i.e #oli$e offi$ials &ere retire)6 remo. 1 CC.a$ations an) &ere re#la$e) by Nazi substitutes6 usually *torm Troo# lea)ers: (n February G6 47>>6 +in)enburg signe) an emergen$y )e$ree &hi$h ga. the @a>is obtaine" 211 an" the @ationalists 4C out of 4:4 seats$ The &erio" from the election of March D.ernment the right to #rohibit or $ontrol any meetings6 uniforms6 or ne&s#a#ers: =n this &ay most o##osition meetings an) ne&s#a#ers &ere #re. by &resi"ential "ecree base" on Article 45. 1 C2. the election of March ser.e)6 or for his o&n goo): +e6 +ugenberg6 +in)enburg6 an) the rest of the intriguers ha) un)erestimate) +itler: The latter6 in return for +ugenbergKs a$$e#tan$e of ne& ele$tions on .su&&ort an" financial contributions from that &owerful grou&$ -y that "ate he was see7ing to buil" his mo%ement into a mass &olitical &arty ca&able of swee&ing him into office$ This &roLect faile"$ As we ha%e in"icate".ate homes or $onfis$ate #ro#erty: .antage6 the Nazis began a t&ofol) assault on the o##osition: Goring an) Fri$/ &or/e) un)er a $loa/ of legality from abo.rnst Torgler0: The )ay follo&ing the fire -February ?96 47>>0 +in)enburg signe) a )e$ree sus#en)ing all $i. the 'A swe&t away much of the o&&osition by %iolence. by illegal actions from below an" legalistic actions from abo%e$ From below.ente) from rea$hing the #ubli$: This atta$/ on the o##osition from abo.inistry of =nterior an) thus of the national #oli$e #o&ers: Thus +itler6 by February Hth6 ha) $ontrol of the #oli$e #o&ers both of the Rei$h an) of Prussia: Fsing this a). hel" the &osition of &rime minister of 4russia for almost the whole &erio" 1 2H 1 C2. on March :th throughout Germany. a "ecrease of 1 .ost of the Nazis &ho &ere in on the #lot &ere mur)ere) by Goring )uring the Ibloo) #urgeI of %une >56 47>G: The four 'ommunists &ho &ere )ire$tly $harge) &ith the $rime &ere a$Cuitte) by the regular German $ourts6 although 1an )er Lubbe &as $on. an" Prussia &as the $hief obsta$le in the #ath of the Nazis an) of rea$tion in the $riti$al )ays after 47>5: .i$te): )n s&ite of these "rastic measures.iolent assault from belo&6 $arrie) out by the *. all Bommunist. 1$h N6 47>>6 #romise) that there &oul) be no 'abinet $hanges &hate. most ' liberties an) gi.en .i$eD$han$ellor6 Pa#en: 'ontrol of the #oli$e a)ministration &as $onferre) on +ermann Goring: The Nazis alrea)y hel)6 through Wilhelm Fri$/6 $ontrol of the Rei$h . an increase of 4$ The Benter 4arty fell from 5 to :4.a$y6 in$lu)ing the right to sear$h #ri.e) the Prussian ministers from offi$e on$e more an) $onferre) their #o&ers on the fe)eral .: )n "es&erate attac7s in which eighteen @a>is an" fifty6one o&&osition were 7ille". an" many Benter 4arty meetings were "isru&te"$ )n s&ite of all this.fter the buil)ing &as set on fire6 1an )er Lubbe &as left &an)ering about in it an) &as arreste) by the #oli$e: The go. this influence was of 9uite a "ifferent character. to the "eath of 0in"enburg on August 2. when 0in"enburg.en members: Pa#en ho#e) in this &ay to $ontrol the Nazis an) to obtain from them the #o#ular su##ort &hi$h Pa#en ha) so sorely la$/e) in his o&n $han$ellorshi# in 47>?: But Pa#en &as far too $le.ernment at on$e arreste) four 'ommunists6 in$lu)ing the #arty lea)er in the Rei$hstag .

ar$h Nth6 e<$e#t that the 'ommunists &ere thro&n out: a$h #arty &as gi. the @a>i 4arty#$ Wor7 was su&&lie" for labor by re"ucing the wor7 wee7 to forty hours !with a corres&on"ing wage cut#. an" the @ational 'yno" was force" to elect a @a>i. li9ui"ation of the coo&erati%e societies. an" local go%ernments.iolen$e from him on su$h a Cuestion might &ell ha. Frie"rich %on -o"elschwing. while the %arious lan"lor"sN associations were unite" into the German -oar" of Agriculture of which +arrV was &resi"ent also$ Religion was coor"inate" in %arious ways$ The . an" raising the swasti7a flag$ Minister of the )nterior Wilhelm Fric7 con"one" these actions by naming @a>is as &olice &resi"ents in %arious German states !-a"en. was aban"one". was electe" Reich bisho& in May 1 CC. by ta? cuts for &ersons who s&ent money on re&airs. by &rohibiting aliens to wor7. which ha" been one of the @a>i &romises to the &etty bourgeoisie since Gottfrie" Fe"erNs Twenty6fi%e64oint &rogram of 1 2H. by enforce" 1labor ser%ice3 for the go%ernment.e) a maBority in ea$h bo)y: A "ecree of A&ril :th ga%e the Reich go%ernment the right to name a go%ernor of each German state$ This was a new official em&owere" to enforce the &olicies of the Reich go%ernment e%en to the &oint of "ismissing the state go%ernments. similar #ro$e)ure &as a##lie) to lo$al go.$tI the go. he was forcibly remo%e" from office. was aban"one" by an announcement of July 1 th$ This last re%ersal resulte" from the fact that most of the coo&erati%es ha" come un"er @a>i control by being ta7en o%er by the 2abor Front on May 1* 1 CC$ 2abor was coor"inate" without resistance.ernments: Thus the Nazis re$ei.onsignor Kaas of the 'enter Party &ho e<#laine) that his 'atholi$ Grou# &oul) su##ort it: The .ote) against it: To be sure6 +itler ma)e it . "iets. smashing them u&. an" the hitherto irremo%able Lu"ges$ This right was use" in each state to ma7e a @a>i go%ernor an" a @a>i &rime minister$ )n$h 47>> &as mu$h less than it be$ame later6 sin$e . in an article in the KWl7ischer -eobachter. inclu"ing General %on .ernment issue) a series of re.e been beaten if only a small grou# of the 'enter Party ha) . an" so forth$ Agriculture was coor"inate" only after 0ugenberg left the go%ernment on June 2 th an" was re&lace" hy Richar" +arrV as Reich minister of foo" an" 4russian minister of agriculture$ The %arious lan" an" &easant associations were merge" into a single association of which +arrV was &resi"ent.iolen$e against all &ho refuse) to $oo#erate &ith him6 but his #o&er to )o so on a $learD$ut $onstitutional issue in . an" sent most of these to concentration cam&s$ The unions themsel%es were incor&orate" into a @a>i German 2abor Front un"er Robert 2ey$ The new lea"er. arreste" all union lea"ers. an" were e?&elle" from %arious go%erning bo"ies on July :th$ The German 'tate 4arty !+emocratic 4arty# an" the German 4eo&leNs 4arty were "issol%e" on June 25th an" July 4th$ The -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty was smashe" by the 'torm Troo&ers on June 22n". WUrttemburg.rti$le G96 an) &ithout $onstitutional restri$tions e<$e#t in res#e$t to the #o&ers of the Rei$hstag6 the Rei$hsrat6 an) the #resi)en$y: *in$e this la& reCuire) a t&oDthir) maBority6 it $oul) ha. for e?am&le.i)ual members on a #urely #arty basis: . an" celebrate" it with a s&eech by 0itler on the "ignity of labor before a million &ersons at Tem&elhof$ The ne?t "ay the 'A sei>e" all union buil"ings an" offices. e?&elling their occu&ants. inclu"ing the &rime ministers.e the go.%angelical Bhurch was reorgani>e"$ When a non6@a>$h Nth0 &ere re$onstitute) in the #ro#ortions of . while in 4russia the two were 0itler an" Goring$ )n many states the go%ernor was the "istrict lea"er of the @a>i 4arty.or of the bill &as more than suffi$ient6 being GG4D7G6 &ith the *o$ial Aemo$rats forming the soli) minority: Thus6 this &ea/6 timi)6 )o$trinaire6 an) ignorant grou# re)eeme) themsel.&& in -a%aria$ These men then &rocee"e" to use their &olice &owers to sei>e control of the a&&aratus of state go%ernment$ The ne& Rei$hstag met on .es by their $ourage after the ele.marche" to most offices of tra"e unions. he was subLect to that lea"erNs or"ers$ -y a later law of January CH. the "iets of the states were abolishe"8 the so%ereign &owers of the states were transferre" to the Reich8 an" the go%ernors were ma"e subor"inates of the Reich Ministry of the )nterior$ All the &olitical &arties e?ce&t the @a>is were abolishe" in May.ery $lear that he &as #re#are) to use .enth hour ha) #asse): Fn)er this I nabling . e?ce&t from the Bommunists$ The go%ernment "eclare" May 1st a national holi"ay.olutionary )e$rees in the ne<t fe& months: The )iets of all the German states6 e<$e#t Prussia -&hi$h ha) ha) its o&n ele$tion on .en its Cuota of members an) allo&e) to name the in)i. -a%aria#. which was a union of all the chambers of commerce$ )n Germany these last ha" been semi&ublic legal cor&orations$ The brea7u& of the great "e&artment stores.ernment for four years the right to legislate by )e$ree6 &ithout the nee) for the #resi)ential signature6 as in . an" "isban"e" itself on July 4th$ The Benter 4arty "i" the same on the following "ay$ A series of &itche" battles between the 'A an" the 'tahlhelm in A&ril6June 1 CC en"e" with the absor&tion of the latter into the @a>i 4arty$ The @ationalists were smashe" by %iolence on June 21st8 0ugenberg was unable to &enetrate the 'A guar" aroun" 0in"enburg to &rotest8 an" on June 25th his &arty was "issol%e"$ Finally. 1 CC. by grants of loans to marrie" &ersons. 2u"wig MUller. by construction of military automobile roa"s. in his &lace !'e&tember 2:th#$ At the elections for Bhurch assemblies in July 1 CC. the two were . &erio"icals.ote in fa. an" July 1 CC$ The Bommunists ha" been outlawe" on February 25th$ The 'ocial +emocrats were enLoine" from all acti%ities on June 22n". which ha" also been a &romise of long "uration. on July 14. 1$h ?>r) at the Kroll (#era +ouse: =n or)er to se$ure a maBority6 the Nazis e<$lu)e) from the session all of the 'ommunist an) >5 *o$ialist members6 about 457 in all: The rest &ere as/e) to #ass an !enabling a$t" &hi$h &oul) gi. the @a>i 4arty was "eclare" to be the only recogni>e" &arty in Germany$ The mi""le classes were coor"inate" an" "isa&&ointe"$ Wholesale an" retail tra"e associations were consoli"ate" into a Reich Bor&oration of German Tra"e un"er the @a>i +r$ %on Renteln$ Jn July 22n" the same man became &resi"ent of the German )n"ustrial an" Tra"e Bommittee. accor"ing to 0essNs announcement of July :th$ Moreo%er. 'a?ony. an" where he was not.&& an" Rohm. go%ernment &ressure was so great that a maLority of @a>is was chosen in each$ )n 1 CD a Ministry of Bhurch Affairs un"er 0ans /errl was set u& with &ower to issue Bhurch or"inances ha%ing the force of law an" with com&lete control o%er .otes in the national ele$tion of .e arraye) the #resi)ent an) the Rei$hs&ehr against him: =n s#ite of +itlerKs intimi)ating s#ee$h6 (tto Wels of the *o$ial Aemo$rats rose to e<#lain &hy his #arty refuse) to su##ort the bill: +e &as follo&e) by . June. &romise" em&loyers that henceforth they coul" be masters in their own houses as long as they ser%e" the nation !that is.

1 C4. 1 CC. lea)ers there: Both +itler an) GOring also /ille) most of their #ersonal enemiesJ the Rei$hstag in$en)iaries6 Gregor *trasser6 General an) . an" Fric7 re&eate" this ten "ays later$ @e%ertheless.i. but it was by no means mature in June 1 C4. in its sim&lest analysis. an" not at 0itler$ )n fact. tense situation )e. was ta7en o%er com&letely in 1 C4 as the result of a "eal with the army$ -y the s&ring of 1 C4 the &roblem of the 'A ha" become acute. the &resi"ency.O &olitically unreliable &ersons. The . lea)ers in the mi))le of the night an) shot most of them at on$e: =n Berlin6 GOring )i) the same to the *. an" was echoe" by . lea)ers &as $alle) by +itler for %une >56 47>G6 at Ba) Wiessee in Ba.ugust: By $ombining the offi$es of #resi)ent an) $han$ellor6 +itler obtaine) the #resi)entKs legal right to rule by )e$ree6 an) obtaine) as &ell the su#reme $omman) of the army6 a #osition &hi$h he soli)ifie) by reCuiring a #ersonal oath of un$on)itional obe)ien$e from ea$h sol)ier -La& of . for the economic reforms which woul" Lustify the use of the wor" O'ocialismO in the name O@ational 'ocialism$O The army was being challenge" by the "eman" of Ba&tain Rohm that his 'A be incor&orate" into the Reichswehr with each officer hol"ing the same ran7 in the latter as he alrea"y hel" in the former$ 'ince the Reichswehr ha" only CHH. li7e Martin @iemWller. on %une >56 47>GPthe army #ermitte) +itler to be$ome #resi)ent follo&ing +in)enburgKs )eath in .HHH men while the 'A ha" three million. Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley.e liCui)ate) the Nazis an) restore) the monar$hy: (n %une ?4st +in)enburg or)ere) Blomberg to use the army6 if ne$essary6 to restore or)er in the $ountry: This &as regar)e) as a threat to the *. on March 14. with a small intermi?ture of i"ealists$3 . 1 44$ =n return for +itlerKs )e$isi. who obLecte" to these ste&s.ernors of the German states &ere gi. RWhm re&eate" his "eman" on A&ril 15. . the army.eral thousan)s &ere eliminate) in this Ibloo) #urge:I Two e?cuses were gi%en for this %iolent actionE that the mur"ere" men were homose?uals !something which ha" been 7nown for years# an" that they were members of a cons&iracy to mur"er 0itler$ That they were in a cons&iracy was 9uite true. mercenaries.: .ement a $ounterre.a$ant: This &as )one: .ugust ?56 47>G0: From this time on6 in the min)s of the Rei$hs&ehr an) the bureau$ra$y6 it &as both legally an) morally im#ossible to resist +itler@s or)ers: Thus.aria: The **6 un)er +itlerKs #ersonal $omman)6 arreste) the *. was &ut on the )n"e?8 Batholic scholars e?&ose" its errors in a series of stu"ies in 1 C48 an" finally. an" OMar?istsO were "ischarge".o$ably ma)e the Nazi mo. since this organi>ation was "irectly challenging two members of the Yuartet.ery effort to $oo#erate &ith the Nazis6 but soon foun) it &as im#ossible: =t &ith)re& its $on)emnation of Nazism on .rnst$ )n full Babinet meeting Minister of War General %on -lomberg refuse"$ . the @a>is began to attac7 the Batholic Aouth 2eague an" the Batholic &ress$ 'hur$h s$hools &ere restri$te)6 an) members of the $lergy &ere arreste) an) trie) on $harges of e. an" in"ustry were not coor"inate" by 1 C4$ )n a"" .a)ing the monetary foreignDe<$hange regulations an) of immorality: The 'hur$h $on)emne) the efforts of Nazis li/e Rosenberg to re#la$e 'hristianity by a re. an" loyalty to @a>ism was re9uire" for a&&ointment an" &romotion in the ci%il ser%ice$ Jf the chief elements in German society. th of the Twentieth )entur . 1 C:.Bhurch &ro&erty an" fun"s$ 4rominent 4rotestant lea"ers. only the &resi"ency."mun" 0eines an" /arl .$$or)ingly6 +itler ma)e a )eal to )estroy the *.e ste#Pthe )estru$tion of the *.e) German #aganism an) su$h la&s as that #ermitting sterilization of so$ially obBe$tionable #ersons: RosenbergNs boo7. in return for a free han) to )eal &ith the #resi)en$y &Dhen it be$ame . the army an" in"ustry$ )n"ustry was being challenge" by the "eman" of the 'A for the Osecon" re%olutionOZ that is.elo#e): =f +in)enburg )ie)6 the Rei$hs&ehr might ha. 4o&e 4ius P) con"emne" many of the tenets of @a>ism in the encyclical Mit brennen"er 'orge$ Attem&ts to coor"inate the ci%il ser%ice began with the law of A&ril :.on Pa#en on %uly ?5th: By this agreement the state re$ognize) free)om of religious belief an) of &orshi#6 e<em#tion of the $lergy from $ertain $i. 4art . this woul" ha%e swam&e" the JfficersN Bor&s$ 0itler ha" "enounce" this &roLect on July 1.i$ )uties6 an) the right of the 'hur$h to manage its o&n affairs an) to establish )enominational s$hools: Go. Bha&ter 25 !The @a>i Regime# .on Kahr6 all those &ho ha) /no&n +itler in the early )ays of his failure6 an) many others: Pa#en es$a#e) only by a narro& margin: =n all6$h ?96 47>>6 an) signe) a 'on$or)at &ith . an" merely "iscontente". 0itler ha" been wa%ering until the last moment whether he woul" throw in his lot with the Osecon" re%olutionO or with the Yuartet$ 0is "ecision to Loin the latter an" e?terminate the former was an e%ent of great significance$ =t irre. an" it was aime" at the army an" hea%y in"ustry. forming a O-lac7 FrontO un"er the lea"ershi& of Jtto 'trasser$ This mo%ement was so ineffectual that the only choice facing the a%erage German was the choice between the reactionary mo"e of life built about the sur%i%ing members of the Yuartet !army an" in"ustry# an" the com&letely irrational nihilism of the inner cli9ue of the @a>i 4arty$ Jnly as the regime a&&roache" its en" "i" a thir" &ossible way a&&earE a re%i%e" &rogressi%e an" coo&erati%e Bhristian humanism which s&rang from the reaction engen"ere" within the Yuartet by the reali>ation that @a>i nihilism was merely the logical outcome of the YuartetNs customary metho"s of &ursuing its customary goals$ Many of the &ersons associate" with this new thir" way were "estroye" by the @a>is in the systematic "estructi%eness which followe" the attem&t to assassinate 0itler on June 2H. the bureaucracy was only &artially controlle"$ The first of these. neurotics. the Batholic Bhurch. was an aggregation of gangsters.on Pa#enKs $lose asso$iates6 Gusta.olution of the Right6 using the #arty organization as an instrument for #rote$ting the e$onomi$ status Cuo: The su&&orters of the Osecon" re%olutionO were "ri%en un"ergroun". the @a>i mo%ement ha" reache" its goalZthe establishment of an authoritarian state in GermanyIThe @a>i mo%ement.on *$hlei$her6 all of . meeting of *.en a right to obBe$t to nominations to the highest $leri$al #ostsJ bisho#s &ere to ta/e an oath of loyalty6 an) e)u$ation &as to $ontinue to fun$tion as it ha) been )oing: This agreement &ith the 'hur$h began to brea/ )o&n almost at on$e: Within ten "ays of the signing of the Boncor"at. by August 1 C4. &sycho&aths. were arreste" an" sent to concentration cam&s$ The 'atholi$ 'hur$h ma)e e. 1 CC an" continue" to the en" of the regime without e%er being com&letely successful because of the lac7 of ca&able &ersonnel who were loyal @a>is$ O@on6AryansO !Jews# or &ersons marrie" to Onon6Aryans.

155C . 1 1 to May C.iet Re#ubli$ -47470 A ma& of the -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic. an" was shot by firing s9ua" in 'ta"elheim 4rison in Munich on July D. the Weimar Re&ublic is shown in "ar7 grey an" other nations are shown in light grey$ The -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic laste" from A&ril *. 1 1 $ . in 1 1 $ The so%iet re&ublic is shown in re". Russia. foun" guilty. the worl". July D. was the lea"er of the -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic from A&ril 12. 1 1 $ 2e%ine was e?ile" to 'iberia for his &artici&ation in the Russian Re%olution of 1 HD$ 2e%ine was arreste" by German authorities. 1 1 to May C.arian *o.ugen 2e%ine !May 1H.uni$h: The Rise an) Fall of the Ba. 1 1 #. when the German army entere" Munich an" reinstalle" the &ro%incial go%ernment$ .s thir" Bommunist state.'ommunism in . a Jewish Bommunist born in 't$ 4etersburg. 1 1 .

isner !left.Lone Gunman or Patsy?: /urt . Minister 4resi"ent of -a%aria an" a Jewish &olitician. a communist state$ Members of the Bommunist 4arty march together in a &ara"e in Munich. 1 4D#. 1 1 $ .isner woul" result in the establishment of the -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic. shot .isner in the bac7 on February 21. 14 May 15*: . -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic in A&ril6May 1 1 $ . was assassinate" in Munich when Anton Graf %on Arco auf Kalley !right. an Austrian6born German nationalist of Jewish "escent. 15 :.June 2 . 21 February 1 1 #. February D.isner was on his way to &resent his resignation to the -a%arian &arliament in Munich$ The assassination of /urt .

rmy and as t*e *ead o2 t*e separatist Bavarian (oviet &epubli0 2or si6 days in . delegation o2 t*e WorkersG and (oldiers $oun0il be2ore Brauns0*weiger (0*loss in Germany 0ir0a 1919 during t*e establis*ment o2 t*e Bavarian (oviet &epubli0.erges.ugust .ay 19!9. a /ewis* $ommunist poet and playwrig*t w*o served as a 0ommander o2 t*e Bavarian &ed . "M Bettmann#$%&B'() . 19 L. t*e 0*airman o2 t*e $oun0il.pril L@1 . 3*e t*ird 2rom le2t is . -rnst 3oller died in New =ork $ity on .pril 1919 ". poses 2or a p*otograp* at t*e Nieder@(0*oen2eld Prison in Germany on . -rnst 3oller.ugust D. 1919)..

Members of the Frei7or&s enter Munich in May 1 1 to o%erthrow the -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic$ Members of the Frei7or&s in Germany &ose in front of a truc7 that is "ecorate" with s7ull an" crossbone$ .

1 1 $ A &hotogra&h of Bommunist G Re" Guar" &risoners on the streets of Munich in May 1 1 .German Frei7or&s sol"iers a&&ear in Munich on May 162. "uring the %iolent 'trassen7am&f or Nstreet battlesN that too7 &lace between the left wing '&arta7ists G communists an" the center6right !'ocialists. 1 1 to May C. 1 1 as they attem&t to remo%e the Bommunist rebels from &ower$ The communist -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic laste" from A&ril *. an" Frei7or&s in an uneasy alliance#$ !4hotoE htt&EGGwww$gothicstam&s$comG&h&G%iewitem$&h&Mitemi"[D2CD2Fgermany\2Hco%er[searchF# . )m&erialists.

1 2C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# The J"eons&lat> in Munich "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch on @o%ember . Germany "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch on @o%ember . 1 2C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# .-eer 0all 4utschE Jrgani>e" BrimeM @a>i German stormtroo&ers "resse" in military uniforms a&&ear in front of the Marien&lat> in Munich.

"P*oto5 German +ederal .ustrian 0iti8en and 0ommunity organi8er . "P*oto by .uni0* propaganda tour in 19 !.eystone#Getty 'mages) .dol2 ?itler appears wit* *is early 2ollowers in an automobile during t*e . Germany on German Day in 19 !.r0*ives) ..dol2 ?itler addresses a rally in Nuremberg.

Germany on No. 1 2C$ .A"olf 0itler !$h an) .#ril 47?N6 li.ustrian $itizen until . an" +r$ Frie"rich Weber of the Frei7or&s Jberlan" !Jberlan" Free Bor&s# re%iew the march of 'A an" other &aramilitary grou&s to celebrate the laying of the foun"ation stone at a war memorial in Munich. 1 ## htt&EGGwww$thehistoryblog$comGarchi%esG"ateG2H1CGH*G14 .#ril 4747: !'ourceE )an /ershaw.uni$h6 the $a#ital of the Ba.e) in .iet Re#ubli$6 in . @a>i 4arty &hiloso&her Alfre" Rosenberg !left#.)olf +itler6 an .ember G6 47?>$ . 0itler.rnst Roehm an" 0einrich 0immler stan" behin" a barrica"e in Munich "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch on @o%ember . 155 61 C*E 0ubris !@ew Aor7E W$W$ @orton.arian *o.

1 2C$ @ational 'ocialist 'A men arrest 'ocialist city councilmen in Munich. Germany on @o%ember . 1 2C$ !German Fe"eral Archi%es# . Germany "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch on @o%ember .A large crow" gathers in front of the Rathaus to hear the e?hortations of Julius 'treicher "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch in Munich.

+rom le2t to rig*t5 ?ein8 Pernet.riebel. Wil*elm +ri0k.r0*ives) . Germany "lo0ated sout*west o2 . Dr. 19 ! pose 2or a portrait in . Wil*elm Bru0kner.dol2 ?itler as anot*er demagogue> Ludendor22 died on De0ember C. 19!1.pril 1.dol2 ?itler. and &obert Wagner. was a prominent World War ' general. Ludendor22.ustrian 0iti8en . w*o was a0Iuitted o2 *ig* treason 2or *is role in t*e Beer ?all Puts0*. +riedri0* Weber. ?ermann . .Parti0ipants o2 t*e 2ailed Beer ?all Puts0* o2 November :@9. Adolf &itler 0as gassed 2 the British arm in the tren#hes of Belgium near 3'res on the night of 4#to2er 13.uni0* on . General -ri0* Ludendor22. "P*oto5 German +ederal .uni0*) in 19 D.dol2 ?itler wrote *is politi0al manus0ript Mein Kempf w*ile *e was imprisoned at t*e Landsberg Prison in Landsberg am Le0*. 19 D. Ludendor22 later 0ondemned . 19156 &itler 0as as a soldier in the 7m'erial $erman Arm during 8orld 8ar 71 . -rnst &N*m.

w*i0* at t*at time numbered si6 members. %nly burning. rut*less. Personally. . ' at 2irst 0ould not believe it. . . on November 1.. 3*is movement *as utili8ed monstrously e22e0tive met*ods and e6er0ised tremendous in2luen0e on t*e masses. ' enlisted in t*e German . brutal 2anati0ism 0ould *ave saved t*e situation.. a stab in t*e ba0k o2 t*e German nation.rmy.ustrian . and as a result o2 my opposition to t*em ' 0ame in 0onta0t wit* t*e National (o0ialist German Workers . was 2or si6 years a00ustomed to blind obedien0e.RE ?86 47?G '3 (--.. or a Oulu *is brot*er. an -nglis*man. +ran0eGs aim was not merely to weaken Germany. ' was t*e sevent*... 3*e struggle against Berlin. .&-7-. W*en. 'n 19 ! 0ame t*e great and bitter s0andal.rmy alone...ar6ist world outlook. @ @ +rom t*e very 2irst day t*e wat0*word was5 9NL'.ustria would not be 2oug*t out in t*e .a*r would lead it. 't turned out t*at t*e ba0k@stabbers were stronger t*an ever. t*e &u*r> ea0* loss broug*t on t*e ne6t one.ovement.t t*at time t*ere arose in me t*e determination to devote mysel2 to politi0s.L-D. still less 0an *e be idled away.'N(3 B-&L'N. but in t*e German and .. 'nstead.. We intended to *old 2ourteen meetings and introdu0e a propaganda 0ampaign t*roug*out Germany wit* t*e slogan5 D%WN W'3? 3?.. Nevert*eless. But t*e people e6pe0ted somet*ing ot*er t*an a redu0tion in t*e pri0e o2 beer.ustrian . . and t*ere ' learned to study and observe t*ree important problems5 t*e so0ial Iuestion... 3*e reasons 2or t*is stem 2rom t*e days o2 my yout*..uni0*. w*ile at t*e same time 0alling a +ren0*man.ar6ist movement. +or us it was a 2ilt*y 0rime against t*e German people.. but to break *er up into small states so t*at s*e E+ran0eF would be able to *old t*e &*ine 2rontier. and t*ere2ore su00ess2ul *ig* treason> it is well known t*at su0* treason is never punis*ed.. as a soldier. and.a*r in 19 C. above all. ' atta0*ed mysel2 to t*is party. von ..( strange to me t*at a man w*o. W*en ' was seventeen ' 0ame to 7ienna. a deadly 2oe o2 t*e w*ole .rmy.'3-D (3&9GGL. 2orming one o2 t*e most di22i0ult and pro2ound Iuestions o2 our time.. 3*e German &evolution is a revolution. we knew t*at on top o2 t*e (aar and 9pper (ilesia we would lose our t*ird 0oal region.L &-. ' le2t 7ienna a 0on2irmed anti@(emite.. 2inally. 3?.'3%&(P.. . . s*ould suddenly 0ome into 0on2li0t wit* t*e (tate and its $onstitution.. %ur yout* *as @ and may t*is be *eard in Paris @ but one t*oug*t5 t*at t*e day may 0ome w*en we s*all again be 2ree. 3*e middle 0lass 0ould not take up arms against it be0ause t*e middle 0lass did not understand t*e w*ole revolution. regulation o2 t*e pri0e o2 milk and 0on2is0ation o2 butter tubs and ot*er su0* impossible e0onomi0 proposals @ proposals w*i0* make you want to .. Wit* pride ' admit t*at our men were t*e only ones to really resist in t*e &u*r. But we were surprised by t*e banning o2 t*ese mass meetings.&itler9s "'ee#h Before the %uni#h )ourt *P '+ (F F BRF.a*r *ad impressed me as being an *onest o22i0ial. . ' said t*at all t*at *ad been made o2 t*is struggle was a Bavarian reJe0tion o2 BerlinGs reIuests. . 't was ne0essary to start a new struggle and to in0ite against t*e .-3?'NG 3?. 3*is movement is distinguis*ed by in0redible terror.G. w*i0* repla0es individual energy by t*e masses and t*ereby works t*e destru0tion o2 our w*ole 0ultural li2e. . be0ause none o2 t*e ot*er parties understood or even re0ogni8ed t*e de0isive... w*i0* in t*e 0ourse o2 t*ree or 2our de0ades 0ould *ave no ot*er result t*an t*at t*e individual *as be0ome *is own brot*erGs 2oe.. is a 0rime> one must *ave t*e 0ourage to be logi0al and see t*at t*e struggle must be in0orporated in t*e German national uprising.. *as on0e made t*e broad masses nationalisti0. in t*e 0ourse o2 a 2ew years t*ere *as grown 2rom a little band o2 si6 men a movement w*i0* today embra0es millions and w*i0*. and pan@ German in my politi0al prin0iples.y attitude is t*is5 ' would rat*er t*at Germany go Bols*evist and ' be *anged t*an t*at s*e s*ould be destroyed by t*e +ren0* rule o2 t*e sword. 3*e reason *e gave me simply would not *old water.ar6ist despoilers o2 t*e people w*o did not even belong to t*e German ra0e @ w*i0* is w*ere t*e .(%N W. as Dr. and not to one o2 t*e great politi0al parties w*ere my prospe0ts would *ave been better.&-. w*i0* is based on a knowledge o2 mass psy0*ology.. ' went t*roug* t*e period o2 t*e (oviets. at t*e beginning ' *eld a lost position.. E191:F it was announ0ed t*at t*e &evolution *ad broken out in . 3*e resistan0e t*at was organi8ed was 2or wages> t*e national resistan0e was degraded to a paid general strike. t*e ra0e problem.ar6ist problem is linked wit* t*e ra0e problem. 2undamental problem. ' asked *im w*y t*e 2ourteen mass meetings *ad been banned.nd sin0e ' knew t*at t*e German destiny o2 German@. 3*e &ei0* Government s*ould *ave let t*e *undreds o2 t*ousands o2 young men w*o were pouring out o2 t*e &u*r into t*e &ei0* under t*e old 0olors o2 bla0k@w*ite@red 2low toget*er in a mig*ty national wave.( (%. 't was 2orgotten t*at a 2oe like +ran0e 0annot be prayed away..s early as 19 we *ad seen t*at t*e &u*r was about to be lost.. to keep *er 2rom obtaining suprema0y. ' *ad met ?err von ... t*e . By .2ter all t*e GovernmentGs reiterations o2 our weakness..ar6ism ' understand a do0trine w*i0* in prin0iple reJe0ts t*e idea o2 t*e wort* o2 personality.3 $%9LD N%3 B.&9?& 3&. t*ese young people were sent ba0k *ome.

*umanitas@international. ' said5 G-it*er you 2inis* t*e Job @ and t*ere is only t*e politi0al and military struggle le2t.. ... ' de0lared t*at ' 0ould Join t*em only on t*e 0ondition t*at t*e politi0al struggle was put into my *ands alone.a*r 0ould not do t*at. 2ossow.a*r must *ave been 0ommitting *ig* treason along wit* us @ 2or during all t*ose mont*s we talked o2 not*ing but t*e aims o2 w*i0* we now stand a00used. 3*e 2ig*t was against . 3o solve t*is problem. (our0e5 *ttp5##www.a*rGs measures. 3*at Ludendor22 was talked down by t*e ot*ers was one more reason 2or me to 0ome 0loser to *im. ' saw t*at *e was not only t*e outstanding general.. .. Lossow talked o2 a 0oup dGetat. but ea0* time lost t*eir nerve. was 2or me t*e absolute 0on2irmation o2 my belie2 t*at t*ese men wanted to.ask5 w*o is t*e genius t*at is advising t*emQ -very 2ailure 0ould only 2urt*er enrage t*e masses.a*r Iuite openly de0lared t*at *e would give t*e word to strike.G 3*e struggle *ad to turn toward t*e Nort*> it 0ould not be led by a purely Bavarian organi8ation . %ne t*ing was 0ertain5 Lossow. . 3*e only possible interpretation o2 t*is talk is t*at t*ese men wanted to strike. %ur last 0onversation. t*en during t*is w*ole period Lossow.. and . and (eisser *ad t*e same goal t*at we *ad5 to get rid o2 t*e &ei0* Government wit* its present international and parliamentary position. 3*is was not impuden0e or immodesty> ' believe t*at w*en a man knows *e 0an do a Job.*tml A -eer 0all 4utsch leaflet &roclaiming the establishment of a &ro%isional go%ernment le" by 0itler. %r else you do not want to struggle> t*en only 0apitulation is le2t. W*en you 0ross t*e &ubi0on. 'n 19 C ' 2irst spoke personally wit* **ow0ase#0*ronograp*y#spee0*es#19 D@C @ L. later on t*ey would rise up against t*em..ar6ism. ' t*ere2ore proposed Ludendor22. ' 2urt*er e6plained to Lossow t*at rig*t now not*ing 0ould be a00omplis*ed by petty e0onomi0 measures. . an" 'eisser !'ourceE German Fe"eral Archi%es# .a*r. (eisser. . you must mar0* on &ome.. *ave given su0* orders as5 at :5!C oG0lo0k su0* and su0* a government will be pro0laimed. not administrators were needed but 2irebrands w*o would be in a position to in2lame t*e national spirit to t*e e6treme.. ?ow 0ould we *ave 0alled 2or a new government i2 we *ad not known t*at t*e gentlemen in power were altoget*er on our sideQ ?ow else 0ould we.. but @ P. and to repla0e it by an anti@parliamentary government. ' said5 G3*e only man to *ead it is Ludendor22. but t*at *e *ad now learned t*e lesson and understood w*at *ad broug*t t*e German nation to ruin. two days be2ore.. '2 our undertaking was a0tually *ig* treason. ' pointed out> t*e yout* were not be*ind *im.. and ' pointed out t*at w*ile t*e people were now only laug*ing at ...G ' *ad 2irst seen Ludendor22 in 191:. on November L. and Lossow and (eisser *ad no obJe0tions. 2u"en"orff. in t*e 2ield. *e must not be modest.

'N -9&%P-. t*at ' know.'NG W?-N 3?-(.P%W-& W?'$? (*ow0ase#0*ronograp*y#spee0*es#19 D@C!@ 1.'$ %&G.N -N-.$-( .N'O.*tml .'N '3(-L+ %NL= W?-N '3 PL.w*o as Germans *ave wis*ed t*e best 2or t*eir people and t*eir +at*erland.B. ?%W-7-&.= %+ G-&..?%9& '( $%. '3 '( 3?.D.N . t*e e6termination o2 twenty million Germans. -nglandGs aim remains eternally t*e same5 to balkani8e -urope and to establis* a balan0e o2 power in -urope so t*at *er position in t*e world will not be t*reatened.= 3?. =ou may de0lare us guilty a t*ousand times. gentlemen. 2ormed. e0onomi0 0onIuest o2 t*e world.+'&(3 PL. 3*e purpose.3?P&%9D ?%P.( 3% G.'N-D B. 2or t*e sole purpose t*at all s*ould 0o operate in se0uring ea0* ot*erGs daily bread. P%W-&@P%L'$= ".2ter 2our and a *al2 years o2 bitter struggle at last t*roug* t*e &evolution t*e s0ale o2 vi0tory turned in 2avor o2 t*e 0oalition o2 t*ese two Powers.ND '( N%3 %N P&'N$'PL. w*en t*e old banners will on0e again wave be2ore us5 and t*en re0on0iliation will 0ome in t*at eternal last $ourt o2 /udgment @ t*e $ourt o2 God @ be2ore w*i0* we are ready to take our stand. 3*e Judgment t*at you will pass. 3*e maintenan0e o2 world pea0e 0annot be t*e purpose and aim o2 t*e poli0y o2 a (tate.. W*at is t*e (tateQ 3oday t*e (tate is an e0onomi0 organi8ation.9N3&..ND( W'LL B-$%. an asso0iation o2 persons. Wit* bot* t*ese prin0iples one 0annot govern a people.R'+ ?H6 47?G W?-N did t*e ruin o2 Germany beginQ =ou know t*e wat0*word o2 t*e old German system in its 2oreign poli0y5 it ran @ maintenan0e o2 world pea0e. '2 you are going to 0onIuer t*e world by an e0onomi0 poli0y. G7%L. '3 '( . .33.L'%N(.$?3P%L'3'.3?.'$G %&G. -7-N N%W ' ?.7..ND 3?.. but t*e Goddess w*o presides over t*e -ternal $ourt o2 ?istory will wit* a smile tear in pie0es t*e 0*arge o2 t*e Publi0 Prose0utor and t*e Judgment o2 t*e $ourt5 2or s*e de0lares us guiltless.'N3.'N 3?. 2rom our graves will sound t*e voi0e o2 t*at tribunal w*i0* alone *as t*e rig*t to sit in Judgment upon us. t*e aim o2 t*e (tate is to provide t*e people wit* its 2ood@supply and wit* t*e position o2 power in t*e world w*i0* is its due. 3?.N -$%N%. 3*e de0lared enemy o2 Germany is +ran0e.-N3( ...(3. Germany o00upies in -urope per*aps t*e most bitter situation o2 any people.3'%N. /ust as -ngland needs t*e balkani8ation o2 -urope..&-G'. 3*e army w*i0* we *ave 2ormed grows 2rom day to day> 2rom *our to *our it grows more rapidly...N=. w*o wis*ed to 2ig*t and to die.) &93?L-((L= 'N 3?. .&itler:s "'ee#h Before the %uni#h )ourt *P '+ (F ..N'(. w*en t*e old 0o0kade will be raised 2rom t*e mire.$.L'%N( W'LL B-$%.3-. it is t*e eternal $ourt o2 ?istory w*i0* will make its pronoun0ement upon t*e 0*arge w*i0* is broug*t against us.B. politi0ally. it is not you w*o pronoun0e Judgment upon us. '( N%3 . and geograp*i0ally it is surrounded by none but rivals5 '3 $.+%&-G&%9ND. (our0e5 *ttp5##www. W?-N 3?. so +ran0e needs t*e balkani8ation o2 Germany in order to gain *egemony in -urope.. and t*e dissolution o2 Germany into separate (tates. +or. 3*en 2rom our bones.-N3( D'7'('%N(. 3*e in0rease and maintenan0e o2 a people @ t*at alone 0an be t*e aim.&-G'. 3wo Powers are in a position to determine t*e 2uture development o2 -urope5 -ngland and +ran0e. But t*at $ourt will not ask o2 us5 G?ave you 0ommitted *ig* treason or notQG 3*at $ourt will Judge us . ot*er peoples will not 2ail to see t*eir danger.ilitarily. wit* t*e 2ollowing result5 +ran0e was 2a0ed wit* t*e Iuestion5 Was s*e to reali8e *er eternal war@aim or notQ 3*at means5 $ould +ran0e destroy Germany and deprive it o2 all t*e sour0es w*ereby its people was 2edQ 3oday +ran0e wat0*es t*e ripening to 2ul2illment o2 *er age@old plan5 it matters not w*at Government will be at t*e *elm in +ran0e5 t*e supreme aim will remain @ t*e anni*ilation o2 Germany.*umanitas@international. -NGL. it would seem.3 %N.

#ril 47?N: . an economic agreement "esigne" to hel& Germany meet its re&arations obligations. Germany on +ecember 2H. 1 24$ .s Bourt in Munich for high treason8 the trial laste" from February 2*.ustrian $itizen . where he wrote his &olitical manuscri&t . 1 24$ . from A&ril 1.ein /am&f$ The German go%ernment ratifie" the +awes 4lan. 1 248 the +awes 4lan went into effect on 'e&tember 1.e years in #rison for high treason8 A"olf 0itler recei%e" a &arole an" was release" from &rison on +ecember 2H.Austrian citi>en A"olf 0itler stan"s ne?t to his automobile outsi"e the 2an"sberg 4rison in 2an"sberg am 2ech. 1 24$ .)olf +itler surren)ere) his . on August 2 .)olf +itler &as arreste) on No. 1 24 to A&ril 1.ustrian $itizenshi# in . 1 24$ A"olf 0itler s&ent 2*4 "ays in &rison.ember 446 47?> an" was trie" in the 4eo&le.)olf +itler &as senten$e) to fi. 1 24 to +ecember 2H. 1 24.

an" Ru"olf 0ess !2n" right# &ose for a &ortrait at 2an"sberg 4rison in 1 24$ Austrian citi>en A"olf 0itler a&&ears ne?t to his automobile outsi"e the 2an"sberg 4rison in Germany on +ecember 2H. .4olitical &risoners A"olf 0itler !left#. 1 24$ .mil Maurice !2n" left#.

19 1RNovember 1D. 19 .ayor o2 Nuremberg.inister o2 Germany ". when A"olf 0itler an" a grou& of @a>i 'A 'tormtroo&ers entere" the -UrgerbrQu7eller an" interru&te" a meeting gi%en by Gusta% Ritter %on /ahr !Minister6 4resi"ent of -a%aria !1 2H61 21##$ !4hotogra&hE 0einrich 0offmannGGerman Fe"eral Archi%es# The 'tresemann Go%ernment in @o%ember 1 2C $en1 Johannes . 19 !) . 19 9) &ans Luther +inan0e .ugust 1!. Germany in 1 2C. 19 !) and +oreign . the site of the -eer 0all 4utsch$ The -eer 0all 4utsch began on the night of @o%ember 5.inister o2 Germany "%0tober L. 1 2C. 19 !R November !. 4arty !@'+A4# meeting at the -UrgerbrQu7eller !-eer 0all# in Munich. . 19 !R November !.ugust 1!. 19 !R%0tober !.inister o2 Germany "19 C@19 :)> .ugust 1!. Germany "191!@1919) $ustav "tresemann $*an0ellor o2 Germany ".riedri#h <&ans= von "ee#(t $ommanding General o2 t*e &ei0*swe*r "Weimar German army) "19 C@19 L) 4tto Karl $essler De2ense .inister o2 Germany "19 !@19 4) $ustav Rad2ru#h /usti0e .@ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers.

dol2 ?itlerAs personal bodyguard during t*e Beer ?all Puts0* -mil .ed= 2 &itler+ /ulius (0*re0k 2irst 0ommander o2 t*e (0*ut8sta22el "(()> died on .a6imilian -rwin von (0*eubner@&i0*ter Na8i Party member> Walked arm@in@arm wit* .4rominent 4artici&ants in the -eer 0all 4utsch -rnst &o*m Na8i (.uts#h ?einri0* ?immler &ei0*s2U*rer o2 t*e (0*ut8sta22el "(() "L /an.B. -ri0* Ludendor22 "9 .ay 1L. stormtrooper and 0o@2ounder o2 t*e Na8i Party> Assassinated on Jul ! 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives &udol2 ?ess Deputy +u*rer o2 Na8i Germany "19!!@19D1) .dol2 ?itlerAs personal adviser ?ermann Goering &ei0*sminister o2 . Austria after the Beer &all . 19 ! Gott2ried +eder Na8i Party e0onomist and 2ormer .rmy general during World War '> de2eated t*e &ussian army at Battle o2 3annenberg in .ugust 191D .dol2 ?itler and was killed in a0tion during t*e Beer ?all Puts0* in .i .pril 19D4) Wil*elm +ri0k &ei0*sminister o2 t*e 'nterior "19!!@19D!) .pril 1:L4@ C De0.dol2 ?itler $*an0ellor and +u*rer o2 Na8i Germany "19!!@19D4) -rnst SPut8iT ?an2staengl .viation "19!!@19D4)> .art mem2er of Je0ish des#ent *<Ar ani. 19 9 R 9 .l2red &osenberg P*ilosop*er o2 t*e Na8i Party and 2ormer &ei0*sminister 2or t*e %00upied -astern 3erritories /ulius (trei0*er editor o2 Na8i German propaganda newspaper SDer (turmerT 9lri0* Gra2 "1:1:@194C) . 19!L Ludwig .auri0e $o@+ounder o2 t*e (0*ut8sta22el "(()> Na.uni0* on November 9.. 19!1) German .ember o2 t*e &ei0*stag Gen.led to 7nns2ru#(. ?arvard 19C9 .

1 2C$ !4hotoE Flic7r# . 4arty were 7ille" "uring a stan"off at the J"eons&lat> on @o%ember .The J"eons&lat> in Munich was the site of the confrontation between 4utsch members !inclu"ing A"olf 0itler# an" the -a%arian 'tate 4olice "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch$ A total of 4 -a%arian 'tate 4olice officers an" 1* members of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers.

J+JR 'J@ +. ) returne" to Munich$ Again ) went to the re&lacement battalion of my regiment.22A. but the en" of e%ery me"itation was the sober reali>ation that ). 1 H4 @. with loyal faith in the resurrection of their &eo&leE A2FART0. MAP . as ha" been the original aim of the instigators of the whole re%olution$ At this time en"less &lans chase" one another through my hea"$ For "ays ) won"ere" what coul" be "one. F. ) was to be arreste". Kolume Jne 6 A Rec7oning. +octor of . hea"waiter.R'.ein /am&f by A"olf 0itler.B0. which was in the han"s of Nsol"iersN councils$N Their whole acti%ity was so re&ellent to me that ) "eci"e" at once to lea%e again as soon as &ossible$ With 'chmie"t . b$ May 4. 1 243 1 AT T0. 15:C R)B/M.R6R)B0T. ) coul" not "eci"e to Loin any of the e?isting &arties$ )n the course of the new re%olution of the Bouncils ) for the first time acte" in such a way as to arouse the "isa&&ro%al of the Bentral Bouncil$ . R)TT.R. Bounty Bourt Bouncillor. 1 HH . 155 WJ2F.@T. 1 H1 0. ban7 cler7. better e?&resse". b$ August 1*. b$ July 2*.2M.M-.R. a faithful war comra"e.RG AM 2. Bha&ter K)))E The -eginning of My 4olitical Acti%ity . 15: BA'. nameless as ) was. 1 2C.. stu"ent of engineering. /AR2. retire" Ba%alry Ba&tain. b$ Jctober 25.2M. b$ January .R.ngineering. b$ January 4. a$ August 5. loc7smith. %alet. at 12$CH in the afternoon. 1 H4 4FJR+T.2)P. businessman. b$ March 2:. 2JR. a glowing e?am&le to the followers of our mo%ement$ A"olf 0itler 2A@+'-. may they shine fore%er. for common memory. MART)@. the first %olume of this wor7$ As its bloo" witnesses.@-.+2. ban7 cler7. 1551 'B0. A@+R. /(RT. JJ0A@@.(-A(.)olf +itler@s . or. b$ May 14. b$ July D. W)20.(-@.ein Kam#f -Fore&ar)0 1J@ @JK.RG. ) was or"ere" to re&ort to the e?amining commission concerne" with re%olutionary occurrences in the 'econ" )nfantry Regiment$ This was my first more or less &urely &olitical acti%ity$ Jnly a few wee7s afterwar" ) recei%e" or"ers to atten" a NcourseN that was hel" for members of the arme" forces$ )n it the sol"ier was su&&ose" to learn certain fun"amentals of ci%ic thin7ing$3 .0R2)B0.R KJ@. b$ January 2:.. we went bac7 to Munich$ The situation was untenable an" mo%e" ine%itably towar" a further continuation of the re%olution$ . 15 5 'o6calle" national authorities "enie" these "ea" heroes a common gra%e$ Therefore ) "e"icate to them. 1 H2 /JR@.A'. engineer. ) went to Traunstein an" remaine" there till the cam& was bro7en u&$ )n March. 15:D /(0@. as before. . hatter.arly in the morning of A&ril 2:. 15 4 FA('T. 1 1 .s "eath only hastene" the "e%elo&ment an" finally le" to a "ictatorshi& of the Bouncils.RW)@ KJ@. T0.B0 FJRTR. /AR2.isner. B2A(' KJ@.R . but.rnst. to a &assing rule of the Jews.@. )5 : 2AFJRB. in front of the Fel"herrnhalle as well as in the courtyar" of the former War Ministry the following men fell. 1 1 . the three scoun"rels lac7e" the necessary courage an" marche" off as they ha" come$ A few "ays after the liberation of Munich. T0. 1554 'TRA@'/A. b$ March 14. businessman.'' 4R)'J@ Jctober 1*. 1 H1 -A(R).J+JR. 1 15.R. . b$ May :. 15 4A4. "i" not &ossess the least basis for any useful action$ ) shall come bac7 to s&ea7 of the reasons why then.R.@+ of @o%ember. a$ Jctober 1 . b$ August 1 . J'/AR.<$er#ts from . ban7 cler7. A@TJ@. b$ 'e&tember 25. businessman. W)20. face" with my le%ele" carbine. businessman.

19!: $en1 Ja(o2 Ritter von >anner $ommandant o2 t*e . 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives $en.inister o2 Bavaria "19 @19 D) )olonel &ans Ritter von "eisser $*ie2 o2 Bavarian (tate Poli0e "Landespolizei) in 19 ! $ustav Ritter von Kahr $ommissioner General o2 t*e (tate o2 Bavaria "Generalstaatskommissar ) in 19 ! Assassinated in %uni#h on June 30.J"eons&lat> in "owntown Munich.ilitary Distri0t E.uni0* Garrison o2 t*e Reichswehr in 19 ! . with the Fel"herrnhalle in front of J"eons&lat>. the site of the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch -a%arian 4olitical 2ea"ers in%ol%e" in su&&ressing the -eer 0all 4utsch Eugen Ritter von Knilling Prime .uni0*F in 19 ! Died on November 4. 4tto von Losso0 $ommander o2 We*rkreis 7'' .

although 2u"en"orff met with /ahr on 5 @o%ember. an" 4rince Wre"e has suggeste" that Rohm o&&ose" the i"ea of a 4utsch at this time$ This may e?&lain his a&&arent absence$ The #lotters agree) on the #lan that they e<e$ute) on 9D7 No. $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on.ugsburg6 =ngolsta)t -&hi$h they $onsi)ere) alrea)y se$ure06 Nurnberg6 an) Wurzburg: =n ea$h of these to&ns the 1erban)e &ere to seize the railroa) station6 the telegra#h offi$e6 tele#hone offi$e6 the ra)io station6 #ubli$ utilities6 to&n hall6 an) #oli$e hea)Cuarters6 as &ell as the installations of hostile grou#s: 'ommunist an) so$ialist lea)ers &ere to be arreste)6 in$lu)ing tra)e union lea)ers an) sho# ste&ar)s: 3 . an" since the fe"eral go%ernment coul" not affor" "irect an" o&en negotiations with the /am&fbun"$ These negotiations came to nothing. although the or"ers coul" still ha%e been re%o7e" u& till the last minute$ The Puts$histsK #lans $alle) for them to ta/e $ontrol in the maBor $ities an) to&ns of Ba. &$ 2D562D 1Then. he "i" not bu"ge from his hostility towar"s the ORe"O go%ernment in -erlin$ Jn the thir" si"e of the triangle. while 2u"en"orff tal7e" with A"miral 'cheer. or some of them. only in the first "ays of @o%ember that these &lans begin to ta7e on imme"iacy$ There are in"ications. Jr$ !1 :2#. 2u"en"orff. an" his inner circle of a"%isors. an" he were clearly in general agreement at the en" of their con%ersation. &$ 2D 62*H . an" "i" not ta7e the other one seriously$ Jn the right ra"ical si"e. 2ossow. tal7s between MaLor Kogts an" 2u"en"orff also ra&i"ly le" to a morass of "isagreement$ Jn the e%e of the 4utsch there was no real sign of agreement among the %arious factions in any 9uarter$ An im&asse ha" been reache"$3 . Goering=. 'eisser= an" the /am&fbun" <0itler. who came to him from 'tresemann. for neither /ahr nor the /am&fbun" lea"ers an" 2u"en"orff were rea"y to coo&erate with 'tresemann on any terms$ /ahr refuse" to see one of 'tresemannNs emissaries. 'eisser. the "ie was alrea"y cast$ 0itler. 2ossow. at 0itlerNs insistence. on the morning of the se%enth. the -erlin go%ernment ha" also been trying to "eal with both the trium%irate an" the /am&fbun" through unofficial channels. though.1This conference was the final meeting between the /am&fbun" lea"ers an" the trium%irate. &$ 2D5 1While the last negotiations were still un"erway between the trium%irate </ahr. Jr$ !1 :2#. the trium%irate insiste" u&on waiting for action in -erlin$ Further weight is gi%en to this inter&retation by the fact that e%en 2u"en"orff notes the urgency with which /ahr com&laine" of the lac7 of news from the north$ Meanwhile. +r$ Weber. that the /am&fbun" lea"ers. +r$ 'cheubner6Richter.s war "ea" in the Resi"en> Gar"ens$ Jne such in"icator of trouble was the absence of 2u"en"orff. an" /riebel$ Rohm a&&arently was missing. the "ay of the 4utsch$ 2u"en"orff claims that /ahr. since the official ones were clogge" by the 12ossow affair3 recriminations an" negotiations. as /ahr maintains. "es&ite the urgings of the crown &rince that he "o so. howe%er. may ha%e &lanne" to 7i"na& the lea"ers of the -a%arian state an" arme" forces "uring the &ara"e on 4 @o%ember celebrating the laying of the cornerstone of the memorial to Munchen. who was always careful to be away from the scene of acti%e rebellion when the outcome was unclear$ !0e later e?&laine" that he ha" ha" an auto acci"ent$#3 . a meeting of the senior /am&fbun" lea"ers was hel" to confirm this "ecision$ Although he "enie" being &resent an" is not mentione" among the &artici&ants by +r$ Weber. although slim ones. ha" been thin7ing of a 4utsch e%er since the galling failure of their May +ay "emonstration$ They ha" been &lanning this action in a more or less "esultory manner at least since the a&&ointment of the Generalstaats7ommissar$ )t is.aria: . the 4utsch was on. Jr$ !1 :2#.ember an" also agree". it is almost certain that 2u"en"orff was there$ The others &resent inclu"e" 0itler.un$hen6 Regensburg6 . $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on. to 7ee& the number of &ersons with &rior 7nowle"ge of the 4utsch to the absolute minimum$ This arrangement ha" the "ouble a"%antage of re"ucing the number of serious offen"ers in case of failure an" of re"ucing the chance of com&romise before the e%ent$ -y noon of : @o%ember. Goring. but this is not borne out by the fact that /ahr flatly refuse" to see 0itler$ )t is much more li7ely that the inter%iew en"e" on the same note as the conference of the si?th$ 2u"en"orff "eman"e" action in Munchen <Munich= an". $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on.

as was Graf 'o"en. First 2ieutenant !Ret$# Gerhar" Rossbach. Jr$ !1 :2#. Jr$ !1 :2#. inclu"ing the mounte" &olice "etachment. in a""ition to the many &olicemen who were in the au"ience$ Therefore. who "i" not want to be &resent "uring the necessarily embarrassing o&ening scene of a 4utsch$ The general later claime" to ha%e 7nown nothing of the 4utsch until it ha" occurre". lea"ers of the Kerban"e came to hear /ahr eluci"ate his &rogram. an acti%e 4utschist. but his ste&son. of course. but they also set u& a &ro&agan"a office to influence the &o&ulation$3 . $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on. were a%ailable to &rotect an" control the meeting. while MaLor 0uhnlein. an" one that they ne%er sol%e" entirely$ They "i" &ossess a %ery consi"erable number of wea&ons an" ha" &lans to confiscate far more$ 'ome wea&ons were brought in from caches in the country. a"mitte" to a frien" that his fatherO Nha" staye" away from the meeting intentionally$. $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on. a har"bitten %eteran 4utschist. although the tal7 ha" originally been inten"e" for a small but select grou&$ As e%ents "e%elo&e". the 4utschists ha" &re&are" both the carrot an" the stic7$ They ha" &lans for "rumhea" courts martial to "eal with &olitical enemies in summary fashion. sufficient measures ha" been ta7en to han"le anything short of a maLor attac7 on the meeting$ @or were the &olice to ha%e the entire res&onsibility for the maintenance of or"er$ Arrangements ha" been ma"e for members of the KKM to &olice the hall itself. he later "enie" this 7nowle"ge$O A&&arently. others were ta7en. twel%e officials of the criminal &olice were &lace" in the hall itself an" on the balconies to &re%ent "isor"er an" hec7ling$ After the street outsi"e of the beer hall fille" u& with "isa&&ointe" men who ha" been refuse" a"mittance to the o%erflowing hall. or &erha&s ta7e a more &ositi%e ste& towar"s "ictatorshi&$ The hall was close" to all but a few im&ortant &ersonages by :E 1D &$m$ because it was alrea"y Lam&ac7e"$ 'ome 7ey &ersons were missing. businessmen an" manufacturers. e%en if the authorities went along with the 4utsch. was to re&lace Bolonel -an>er as comman"er of the Munchen 2an"es&oli>ei$ These men were to ensure that the &olice "i" not interfere with the 4utsch in its early stages an" to "irect the &olice thereafter for the new go%ernment$ Fric7 clearly 7new of the coming of the 4utsch although. an" &lans were lai" for getting still more from the Reichswehr an" the &olice$ This was one &roblem that ha" been consi"ere" seriously. 2ieutenant !Ret$# 0ein> 4ernet. who was a&&arently on terminal lea%e from the Reichswehr. the crow" was a thoroughly mi?e" one$ )t inclu"e" many or"inary members of the &ublic as well as the bul7 of the most im&ortant men in &olitical Munchen$ Most of the members of the -a%arian go%ernment were &resent. each with a small entourage$ -an7ers.1+r$ Wilhelm Fric7 ha" been chosen well before the 4utsch to succee" Mantel as &olice &resi"ent. news&a&er e"itors. some senior officers an" officials were to be re&lace" by more reliable or more worthy as&irants for their &osts. was to ta7e o%er the )nfantry 'chool$ Jther military installations were to be occu&ie" by grou&s of 4utschists in an ob%ious attem&t to neutrali>e the Reichswehr shoul" it &ro%e im&ossible to win o%er 2ossow an" the other generals$ 4lans were also lai" for securing the chief go%ernment buil"ings an" &ublic utilities in accor" with the o%erall scheme$ The secon" battalion of Jberlan" un"er Ba&tain !Ret$# Ma? Ritter %on Muller was assigne" the chief res&onsibility for this tas7$ The collection of arms was one of the most &ressing an" "ifficult 9uestions facing the 4utschists.33 . or sim&ly rente"$ Where &o&ulation control was concerne". but they ne%er a&&eare"$ The crow" in the hall was a sur&risingly large one. &$ 252625C . &$ 2*162*C 1The two blue &olice stations nearest to the beer hall were reinforce" by thirteen a""itional men each to hel& them to &erform security "uties with regar" to the assembly an" a general reser%e force !0au&twache# was &ro%i"e"$ Finally. a&&arently. thirty members of the 0au&twache were sent to hel& 7ee& or"er in the small s9uare in front of the beer hall an" in the Rosenheimerstrasse itself$ At least 1DH &olicemen. the Brown 4rinceNs Babinet chief$ The &olice &resi"ent of Munchen was there with se%eral of his "e&uties$ The trium%irs were &resent. though$ 4erha&s the most significant absentee was General 2u"en"orff. although not in all of its as&ects as the 4utschists were to learn to their sorrow$ Trans&ortation was su&&lie" by Bhristian WeberNs @ational 'ocialist organi>ation su&&lemente" by rente" truc7s an" e%en ta?icabs$ 'ome of the %ehicles were owne" by the &arty$ Jthers were &lace" at its "is&osal by their "ri%ers. a sign of how little lo%e an" trust the 4utschists ha" for those they later claime" as allies who ha" fallen away$ Meanwhile. from other Kerban"e$ Rahm obtaine" some arms for his organi>ation by &reten"ing that his Kerban" was going on a night e?ercise$ 'ince no ammunition was re9ueste". the re9uest arouse" no sus&icion$ 2ieutenant Bolonel 0ofmann of )ngolsta"t sent arms from there.

an". 0itler a&ologi>e" for his actionE O4lease forgi%e me. ma"e u& the number$ Wel"e" together as much by 0itlerNs &ersonality as by their belief in elements of the "ogmas he &reache". but 1 ha" no other means$ )t is "one now an" cannot be un"one$3 There has been a goo" "eal of "ebate as to what went on in the si"e chamber. he suggeste" to the &olice that they shoul" clear the streets. if /ahr were in fact afrai". which co%ere" the e?it$ To 9uell the tumult. although 0itler an" +r$ Weber claime" that they wishe" to &lace no &ressure on the trium%irate an" to let them ma7e their own "ecisions. the 'tosstru&& arri%e" an" the @ational 'ocialists &oure" forth from their %ehicles to surroun" the -urgerbrau7eller$ The han"ful of blue &olice who face" them were confuse" an" hel&less$ 'ome of them thought that the newcomers were Reichswehr sol"iers because they wore steel helmets an" carrie" army rifles$ The others. a"o&te" his suggestion$ (sing the reinforcements that ha" Lust arri%e". (lrich Graf.%en now the other section of the city will be occu&ie"$. but.nroute. assuring them that he woul" guarantee their security$ 0e le" them into the anteroom. with characteristic im&u"ence. which "e&arte" more or less 9uietly$ 'ince all was 9uiet.O in %iew of the fact that the hall was largely fille" with /ahrNs followers$ 'ince 0itler an" his men were hea%ily arme" an" almost all of /ahrNs &eo&le were "isarme" an" crow"e" together in a tra&. which he or"ere" his men to clear of s&ectators an" &olicemen$ Jnce they were in the si"e chamber. sim&ly ga%e way$ The first ste& in the 4utsch was a success an" a high &ercentage of -a%ariaNs lea"ers were &risoners$ 0itlerNs bo"yguar". an". ]Ta7e your han" out$. which 0ess ha" hire" for this &ur&ose earlier in the e%ening.s later "e&uty. han" o%er the &istol to Graf imme"iately after this little scene$ @or was the &resence of the burly butcher an" his machine &istol an in"ication of a frien"ly an" free con%ersation. no stranger to %iolence. an eye6witness. his former sergeant6maLor an" business manager. seen from my obser%ation &oint. an" all other e?its were bloc7e"$ Men who trie" to lea%e were turne" bac7 an" some. but at his other si"e was Putzi +anfstaengl6 Fran/lin Roose. they cleare" away the crow"s. who were &ersistent. 0itler himself sai"E O) ha" the feeling that he was "rawing a &istol$ ) hel" my &istol against his forehea" an" sai". the 'A men remaine" 9uietly in their truc7s$ At a minute or two after 5ECH. he was worrie" for fear all of his &lans woul" go awry because his troo&s might not be able to get their cars an" truc7s to the hall$ 0e was also worrie" by the &resence of consi"erable numbers of &olicemen$ Therefore. who was waiting in the antechamber of the hall in which /ahr was s&ea7ing. e%en if he "i". 0itler. or because of. as soon as the 'tosstru&& arri%e"$ +itler no& began his famous a$tion: Thro&ing a&ay &ith a gran) gesture the halfDliter beer glass he ha) relu$tantly been nursing6 he )re& his Bro&ning #istol an) a). the au"ience was in a state of alarm an" confusion$ A number of arme" men an" a machine gun ha" a&&eare" at the entrance to the hall. the e?act course of the "iscussion is unclear$ 0itler claims that their obLections were &urely tactical$ The members of the trium%irate an" their ai"es claim that they were fun"amental$ -e this as it may.s s&eech.e) at the beer hall a trifle after 9:55 #:m: Fin"ing the street in front of the -urgerbrau7eller clogge" with a milling her" of curious citi>ens. but it is clear e%en from the testimony of the 4utsch lea"ers that the atmos&here was not as frien"ly as they asserte"$ 0itler claims that /ahr was a bro7en man when he went into the si"e chamber8 this scarcely augure" well for frien"ly con%ersations$ 0itler further a"mits that the accusation that he threatene" the trium%irate with his &istol was true.3 0itler then in%ite" the trium%irate to Loin him in a si"e chamber. who was far more at home with a &iano or a wor7 of art than with the &istol that ha" been thrust into his han"$ Another of the grou& was Josef Gerum. who ha" recogni>e" 0itler an" let him in because they ha" or"ers that he shoul" hear /ahr. smiling. were beginning to get out of han". Jr$ !1 :2#. accustome" to the rough gi%e an" ta7e of &olitical warfare$ Although 0itler later claime" that the machine gun was entirely for OmoraleO &ur&oses. lea)ers6 arri. too$ 0itlerNs actions were certainly not such as to gi%e the trium%irate great confi"ence in his frien"shi& an" stability$ @ot only "i" he wa%e his &istol aroun" in a far wil"er manner than usual. much of which centers aroun" the atmos&here$ The 4utschists insist that the atmos&here was frien"ly an" warm. the reinforcements were then release" an" marche" away$ They were scarcely out of sight when the first truc7s full of 'A men arri%e" at 5E1H &$m$ 'ince the 'tosstru&& was the 7ey element in the action against the -urgerbrau7eller. 0itler or one of his entourage. for &rocee"ing in this. at the en" of fifteen minutes. an" Ru"olf 0ess. the allegation of cowar"ice seems unfair. while the trium%irate an" their su&&orters claim that it was threatening on the si"e of the 4utschists an" cool on their own$ We will &robably ne%er 7now &recisely what occurre" or un"erstan" all of the nuances of the attitu"es an" reactions of the &artici& $lassmate . informe" his master. they symboli>e" the brea"th an" "is&arateness of his su&&ort$3 . 0itler ha" not succee"e" in bringing the trium%irate to the &oint of acce&ting his &ro&osals. gra&hically "escribes the trium&h of the master orator o%er this "ifficult au"ienceE 1$$$ The wa%ering general attitu"e was. where the restless crow". if it fails$ Jne for me$. the 4utschists woul" not let 2ossow tal7 with 0unglinger an" later force" both 0unglinger an" MaLor %on 0osslin to lea%e the room$ For some fifteen minutes 0itler wrestle" with the trium%irate for their &olitical souls$$e) into the hall surroun)e) by arme) men: This little &halan? of re%olutionaries was an o"" lot by any stan"ar"s$ Jne was his bo"yguar". another was set u& behin" it an" out of sight of those in the hall. too. "es&ite. $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on.1+itler himself6 after a last briefing of his *. fire" into the ceiling an" silence "escen"e" on the hall$ 0itler claims that /ahr seeme" frightene" an" "eri"e" him for his Ofear. un&re&are" for a fight against hea%y o""s in men an" wea&ons.3 The historian /arl6 Ale?an"er %on Muller. were struc7 or 7ic7e" by the 'torm Troo&ers. when MaLor 0unglinger a&&roache" him with his han" in his &oc7et. the attem&ts of Ba&tain Goring an" other 4utschists to win them o%er by &lea or threat$ .3 These were scarcely reassuring wor"s from an arme" man to his &risoners. an" he therefore returne" to the main hall. although he e?&lains that he was only LestingE O) answere" /ahr by in"icating the &istol in my han". which ha" been &romise" that he woul" return with an ac9uiescent trio in ten minutes. still against the enter&rise$ OTheaterXO O'outh AmericaXO OMe?icoXO were the commonest cries which one hear"$ A number of members of /ahrNs staff whom ) 7new were . the &robability increases that his account of his aims an" moti%ations "uring the e%ening are true an" that 0itlerNs are false$ As usual 0itler wante" to ha%e his ca7e an" eat it. but the accusation is im&ortant since. There are fi%e roun"s in itE four for the traitors. &$ 25C625D 1-y the time 0itler reache" /ahr. as he claims. an im&ression which was heightene" by the &resence of arme" guar"s at the win"ow$ 'imilarly.elt@s +ar. since otherwise &anic coul" "e%elo& among the au"ience$ The &olice. manner. the butcher Graf$ @e?t came Ma? Amann. 0itler sto&&e" long enough to say a few encouraging wor"s to his followers at the entrance to the hallE 1)t will succee"$ .

without any &athos$ The enter&rise was not "irecte" against /ahr in any way$ /ahr has his full trust an" shall be regent in -a%aria$ At the same time. with emotion in his %oiceE OJutsi"e are /ahr. until the settlement with the criminals who were running Germany. not forgetting to mention his sur&rise at the entire affair$ Then came 2ossow an" 'eisser. arri%e" in full uniform of the im&erial army$ After a short conference with 0itler. by 0essN own testimony. who. on the contrary. was clearly in the gri& of strong e?citement. who a&&arently e?&resse" his "isa&&ro%al of the sei>ure$ 0e was mishan"le" in the roughest manner by arme" men an" finally thrown against the wall$N3 -y 1HECH &$m$ the hall was em&ty of s&ectators$ There remaine" only the 4utschist lea"ers. also wor7e" on /ahr. an" himself$ ) cannot remember in my entire life such a change in the attitu"e of a crow" in a few minutes. with a few sentences$ )t ha" almost something of hocus6&ocus. as one turns a glo%e insi"e out. s&ea7ing first. there were com&laints that members of the crow" were roughly treate"$ MaLor %on 0osslin testifie" on this scoreE 1Meanwhile an el"erly white6moustache" man of about si?ty years came out of the hall. in winning o%er the others$ What woul" he sayM A "angerous wa%e of e?citement rolle" u& to him as he again climbe" the &o"ium$ )t "i" not subsi"e as he began to s&ea7$ ) still see clearly how he "rew the -rowning from his rear &oc7et an" now himself fire" a shot into the ceiling$ )f silence is not restore". "uring which he agree". an" 'eisser from lea%ing the si"e chamber$ 0itler. lea%ing General 2u"en"orff in charge at the -urgerbrau7eller$ Lu)en)orff allo&e) the trium. 'eisser. or magic about it$ 2ou" a&&ro%al roare" forth. 0ess an" Graf were left. no in"ication here of the retiring O"rummerO of legen"$ 2u"en"orff then sai" a few wor"s. no further o&&osition was to be hear"$ Jnly now "i" he say. he shoute" angrily. who boaste" of the fact that they were not "istinguishe" by gentleness an" consi"eration for their foes$ .ngineer /aserne !which he later confuse" with )$G)$R$1 # 0itler. accor"ing to his account. he "i" not achie%e that instant success which ha" mar7e" his a""ress in the main hall$ Then 2u"en"orff. announcing that. brought by 'cheubner6Richter. in "ee& earnest. alone$ 0e ha" not succee"e".inister Gurtner6 &ho ma)e a . although a %ague control was maintaine" at the "oor to sto& &ersons &robably inimical to the 4utschists$ 'e%eral &olicemen too7 &art in this o&eration. the lou"est of the e%ening. who ma"e it one of their two maLor hea"9uarters. he woul" con"uct the &olicy of the new Reichsregierung .sitting not far from me$ 'chie"t an" Aufsess <were= %ery &ale8 'tauffer e?cite"8 Gerlich stare" grimly an" <was= intros&ecti%e$ The ten minutes must ha%e been Lust &asse" when 0itler returne" . which any actor might well en%y$ 0e began 9uietly. 2ossow.antel an) Graf *o)en &ere a))e) later in in/6 a##arently by +ess: +ess $limbe) u# on a $hair an) $alle) the roll of the hostages6 all of &hom )utifully surren)ere) e<$e#t for %usti$e .O as 0itler may well ha%e meant it to "o$ 0itler then too7 u& the threa" of the meeting. while the trium%irate ta7e the line that the atmos&here remaine" cool an" uneasy$ =n the en)6 first Losso& an) *eisser an) then Kahr agree) to $oo#erate &ith +itler: The secon" roun" was won$ The entire &arty then troo&e" bac7 into the hall.ither the German re%olution begins tonight or we will all be "ea" by "awnX3 While 0itler s&o7e. as a whole.on Ber$hem an) Qetlmeier &ho &ere not #resent: These hostages were first hel" in an u&stairs room an" then trans&orte". after 0itler &resse" them har" to s&ea7$ 2ossow rose in his &lace an" ma"e a short an" %igorous s&eech. an" +r$ Weber went to straighten out this &roblem. Jr$ !1 :2#. at +r$ WeberNs suggestion. an" 'eisser s&o7e of the 2an"es&oli>ei in clearly military terms$ 4ohner brought u& the rear with a &romise of coo&eration with /ahr$ Then 0itler shoo7 han"s with them all again$ Throughout he ha" "ominate" the scene$ This was his night an" here was its clima?$ 0e was in his element as a &olitical "ramatist$ The au"ience. as he ha" &romise". a new go%ernment must be forme"E 2u"en"orff. assuring them that the au"ience woul" greet their agreement to Loin the 4utsch with acclaim$ 0ere.%en so. was clearly o%erLoye" with the turn of e%ents an" roare" its a&&ro%al again an" again$ Whate%er they may ha%e thought after they got out of the hot air of the beer hall an" away from the contagious e?citement an" enthusiasm that "ominate" it. to the %illa of the &ublisher Julius F$ 2ehmann.O he shoute" &assionately out o%er the crow". claiming later that they "i" so to &re%ent the 4utschists from "oing it in a much rougher manner$ This fear was not entirely an em&ty one.en him by +itler $ontaine) the follo&ing names: Knilling6 Wutzlhofer6 Gurtner6 Bernreuther6 Qetlmeier6 Ber$hem6 an) R line) through R Banzer: The names of Poli$e Presi)ent . the bul7 of the au"ience acce&te" the scene at face %alue an" su&&orte" the Onew go%ernment$O )t was now that 0itler ma"e his first maLor tactical error. returne" to the si"e chamber an" wor7e" on the trium%irate. almost a few secon"s$ There were certainly many who were not con%erte" yet$ -ut the sense of the maLority ha" fully re%erse" itself$ 0itler ha" turne" them insi"e out. who was the -a%arian minister6&resi"ent6"esignate of the new regime. announce" that he ha" agree" to ser%e -a%aria as the regent for the monarchy$ 0ere he was interru&te" by %iolent a&&lause. Othere is also room for an autonomous -a%ariaX ) can say this to youE . although its im&ortance has sometimes been o%erestimate"$ 0earing of "ifficulties between 4utschists an" Reichswehr troo&s at the . ha%ing won o%er the crow".irate their free)om6 an) first Kahr6 then Losso& an) *eisser6 left the beer hall6 #assing out of the /en an) $ontrol of the Puts$hists: Before the au)ien$e &as release)6 Ru)olf +ess6 a$ting on instru$tions from +itler6 arreste) a number of /ey hostages: The #en$ille) list gi. to hel& win the trium%irate for the 4utschists.ague attem#t to es$a#e an) Lieutenant 'olonel . an" 'eisser$ They are struggling har" to reach a "ecision$ May ) say to them that you will stan" behin" themMO OAesX AesXO swelle" out the roaring answer from all si"es$ O)n a free Germany. though. howe%er.rnst 4ohner. &$ 25D62 1 . since the "oor was hel" by -erchtol" an" his 'tosstru&&. who ha" Lust gi%en his own forces a &e& tal7. 2ossow. but who "i" little more than echo 2ossow$ -oth ma"e %ague allusions that coul" be ta7en to refer to a war of liberation. but one which "i" not seem to touch his emotions$ After him came 'eisser. $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on. a member of Jberlan" an" WeberNs father6in6law$ 0ere they were hel" until the late afternoon of the ne?t "ay when their guar"s fle"$ )n this manner most of the members of the legal go%ernment an" a number of the most im&ortant Munchen &olicemen were ta7en out of circulation for the "uration of the 4utsch$ The remain"er of the au"ience was now allowe" to go home. where /ahr. to 7ee& /ahr. accor"ing to /arl6Ale?an"er %on Muller$ 0itler ste&&e" forwar" an" &resse" /ahrNs han" in his own in a theatrical clas& which remin"e" many of the witnesses of the ORutli Jath. 2ossow. his ol" su&erior$ 0itler s7etches a touching scene of emotional togetherness among the sol"iers. fill an" the 4utschist troo&s hel" bac7 to guar" it or as a reser%e force$3 . 2u"en"orff entere" the si"e chamber an" a""e" his blan"ishments an" entreaties to those of 0itler$ . ) will or"er a machine gun &lace" in the gallery$ What followe" then was an oratorical master&iece.

the members of the trium%irate ha" returne" to business as usual. an illustration of the ra&i"ity of tem&o that later enable" him to cram a thousan"6year Reich into twel%e years$3 . /em&ten. merely or"ering the troo&s to remain on the alert an" to "efen" their installations against all comers$ The reason for his reticence is &robably to be foun" in the "ecision that ha" been ta7en not to re%eal the "efection of the trium%irate from the 4utschist cam& until the balance of &ower in the city was in fa%or of the loyal go%ernment forces$3 . at least. although this was not entirely clear to the -a%arian authorities$ The rebels. accor"ing to an eyewitness$ Their conference laste" about a half hour$ Then 2ossow announce" to the officers &resent that he ha" been threatene" by 0itler with a &istol an" that his &romise was gi%en un"er "uress$ 0e therefore "i" not feel boun" by it$ 0e ha" no "esire to be a follower of 0itler an" thoroughly con"emne" the 4utsch against which he &lanne" to &rocee" with all a%ailable force$ 2ieutenant Bolonel %on 'aur then re&orte" to 2ossow an" 'eisser. an" the mysterious )isa##earan$e of Kahr6 Losso&6 an) *eisser . was %ery uninformati%e about the situation$ 0e sai" that the trium%irate ha" been o%er&owere" at the -tirgerbrau7eller. but there was no nee" for the entire trial to ha%e gone the way that it "i"$ Much of the fault was to be foun" on the bench an" some among the &rosecutors$ The &resi"ing Lu"ge was absolutely "etermine" not to fin" 2u"en"orff guilty$3 . &$ C11 12ossow arri%e" in a state of great e?citement at 1HE4D &$m$ an" was imme"iately le" asi"e by the other three generals. but there was acti%ity insi"e an" couriers mo%e" through the night on "eserte" roa"s in the countrysi"e. was buoye" u& by his belief in the nobility an" infallibility of the instincti%e &olitical Lu"gment of the 1little man$33 . they ha" no serious "oubts about the stan" of the 2an"es&oli>ei an" the Reichswehr$ 2u"en"orff was enough of an ol" officer to belie%e that 2ossow woul" ne%er brea7 his wor" to 2u"en"orffZ"es&ite the number of times 2u"en"orff himself ha" bro7en or ba"ly bent his own6while 0itler. Jr$ !1 :2#. Jr$ !1 :2#. gi%ing Minister Jswal" the im&ression they "i" not 7now what they were "oing$ Jther units guar"e" 7ey buil"ings throughout the central city. Bolonel !Ret$# Gusta% %on /ress Ba&tain %on 0anne7en. $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on. an" the other garrisons informe" of the situation$ 2ossow agree" that these were the &ro&er measures to ta7e$ )t was then "eci"e" that hea"9uarters shoul" be mo%e" to the )nfantry -arrac7s because the 'ta"t7omman"antur was a "angerously isolate" out&ost near the Wehr7reis7omman"o$ The four generals. who ha" meanwhile arri%e" in his own %ehicle. the Munchen garrison ha" been alarme". an" 2an"sberg garrisons or"ere" to Munchen.1'mall 2an"es&oli>ei units marche" criss6cross about the city. &$ 4: . who was left behin". ha" or"ers to hol" the 'ta"t7omman"antur an" to inform all officers who en9uire". but the bul7 of the 2an"es&oli>ei troo&s remaine" where they ha" been from the beginning. while far away slee&y troo&s were loa"e" onto trains to s&en" their night lurching towar"s Mtinchen$ The 4utschist lea"ers were o&timistic$ +es&ite the "ifficulties at the 4ionier7aserne an" the @ineteenth )nfantry Regiment.s first serious attem&t to sei>e &ower ha" been a one6"ay won"er. $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on. that. tuc7e" away out of sight in the com&oun"s of the Ma? )) /aserne an" the Tur7en7aserne$ The Reichswehr was har"ly in e%i"ence at all. or. &$ C*D 1The trial itself. main ho&e ha" lain in controlling the trium%irate or in a brea7"own of the "isci&line of the arme" forces. too much a member of the century of the common man to &ut any faith in oaths or &romises.s gras& of the tactical situation an" his s&ell6bin"ing gifts woul" ha%e ma"e for "ifficulties un"er any circumstances. which laste" from 2* February to 1 A&ril <1 24=. an" neither of these bets on which they ha" &lace" so much &olitical ca&ital &ai" off$ Jnce out from un"er 0itlerNs thumb. an" Ba&tain -ergen then "e&arte"$ Ba&tain Ren>. that they were to acce&t or"ers only from General %on +anner. $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on. ho&eful$ -y mi"6afternoon their %enture was a thing of the &ast . an" the fon" belief that the arme" forces woul" ne%er fire on men le" by 2u"en"orff ha" "ie" in the gunsmo7e that rolle" across the J"eons&lat>$ 0itler. Jr$ !1 :2#. $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on. soon became a @ational 'ocialist &ro&agan"a "is&lay as 0itler too7 control of the &rocee"ings again an" again. but sai" nothing about the role of the &olice in the 4utsch. in accor"ance with 2ossowNs e?&licit statements regar"ing his o&&osition to any 0itler62u"en"orff 4utsch. e?ce&t for guar"s by the barbe" wire entanglements which ha" s&route" aroun" the gates of their barrac7s com&oun"s in the course of the early hours of the 4utsch$ Most of their buil"ings loo7e" "ar7 an" "eserte" un"er the "ull grey s7ies. Jr$ !1 :2#. but. "ominating the Lu"ges an" the courtroom with his oratory$ There is no 9uestion that 0itler. so that &ossible misuse of 2ossowNs name by the 4utschists woul" be ren"ere" harmless$ 'eisser se&arate" from the others$ 0e was to go to the Tur7en7aserne to inform the &olice troo&s there of the situation an" then to get /ahr an" bring him to the )nfantry -arrac7s$ 'eisser "i" a&&ear at the Ttir7en7aserne. sur&risingly. as well as %on 'aur. the Augsburg. &$ C156C1 1At mi"night the 4utschists ha" still been confi"ent.

ism: This &as the situation as +itler sa& it throughout his #oliti$al $areer6 an)6 seen in this light6 many other&ise ine<#li$able mo. in fairness to him. #o&erful arme) for$e &oul) #rote$t the system an) the German #eo#le: =n or)er to $arry out this #rogram +itler an) his entourage ha) alrea)y &or/e) out a system of $ontrols: The basi$ i)eas behin) the te$hniCues they &ere to use &hen they $ame to #o&er a )e$a)e later &ere alrea)y formulate) in 47?>: . sim&le.e measure &as the e<$lusion of %e&s from #oliti$al life6 an) these %e&s &ere alrea)y seen as a #ossible hostage grou# &hi$h $oul) an) &oul) be )estroye) in time of &ar: +ermann sser sai) at a meeting in Ae$ember 47??: !N556555 %e&s as hostages $arefully guar)e)6 &ho &ill be ruthlessly )is#at$he)6 if e.en the #ro#er instrument6 $oul) an) &oul) sha/e the &orl): =n 47?>6 as later6 +itler use) #rimarily t&o &ea#ons: The first &as #ro#agan)a6 &hi$h &as one of the main tas/s of the !$i.e #oliti$al o##onents6 men sus#e$te) of la$/ of #atriotism or of #rofiteering6 an) the assum#tion of their #ositions an) other /ey #osts by men )ra&n from the #arty an) its allie) organizations: The ne<t ste# &as the $reation of a tightlyDorganize)6 $entralize) German state res#onsi.e) fully an) #assionately in the !trium#h of the &ill" as e<#resse) in . $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on. the attainment of #o&er in Germany by his #arty an) therefore himself: All other aims were subor"inate to this one an".en a single enemy $rosses the German frontier:@" While it woul" &robably be incorrect to ta7e literally wor"s s&o7en in a beer hall by a wil" an" flamboyant$e of the !military a##aratus:" 0itler himself &ut the matter succinctly at his trialE 1Jur %iew&oint isE for those who are min"e" to fight with intellectual wea&ons. it is e9ually true that the germ of i"eas later carrie" into &ractice is foun" here an" that "oubtless countless re&etitions of this sort of oratory ma"e the a"o&tion of the 1final solution3 sim&ler an" almost natural for har"6bitten. few.ertones for the future of uro#e: This ne& state &oul) be $hara$terize) by )i$tatorial rule from the $enter -&hi$h later $ame to be /no&n as the Fuhrer#rinzi#06 in)e#en)ent of #arliamentary interferen$e: The e$onomy &as to be im#ro. an" "rastic$ (n$e #o&er &as attaine) the ne<t ste# &oul) be to Is&ee# out the #igsty6I &hi$h in #ra$ti$al terms meant the elimination from offi$e of a$ti. $itler and the Beer $all 5utsch by 0arol" J$ Gor"on. an" here is embalme" his essential aim . first #re. &$ D4 .e)6 sim#lifie)6 an) free) of international6 I#arasiti$I elements: *o$ial se$urity &oul) be e<ten)e) an) liberalize): 'itizenshi# &oul) be limite) to Germans of !Nor)i$" sto$/: *trong em#hasis &oul) be #la$e) on the maintenan$e an) e<#ansion of a strong #easantry: %usti$e &oul) be faster6 more honest6 an) mu$h more stringent: .1'o 0itler summe" u& his "ri%e for &ower to the thun"ering a&&lause of his au"ience in the Tir7us /rone on CH Jctober. %eteran @ational 'ocialists$3 . &$ 2*462*D 1First $lean u# Germany an) $reate a ne& or)er: Then settle &ith her enemies6 es#e$ially the ar$hDenemy6 %e&ishD Bolshe. Jr$ !1 :2#. if one cuts through forests of %erbiage an" analy>es the %arious theoretical an" &ractical &lans of the 4utschists. we ha%e the fist$ The mo%ement has two instruments.e to ta/e anything he &ante) by for$e an) &as Cuite #re#are) to )o so: +e belie. the &ro&agan"a machine an" at its si"e the 'AI3 These two wea&ons he use" brutally an" more effecti%ely than "i" any of his o&&onents or com&etitors$3 . most of them were attainable only if he "i" come to &ower$ These other aims were. an" the @'+A4 was his tool for accom&lishing his en"s$ 0itler was ne%er in any "oubt as to how his goal must be reache"$ 0e "i" not belie%e that a miracle woul" bring him to &ower an" his i"eas to fruition$ 0e was "ee&ly scornful of a -a%arian crown &rince who woul" only ta7e bac7 his throne by acclamation$ +itler e<#e$te) to ha.enti. we ha%e the struggle of the intellect.isage) at that time6 &as the $reation of IGross)euts$hlan)6I a Germany that &oul) in$lu)e *trasbourg an) 1ienna an) &oul) therefore be$ome natural an) logi$al: Few men follow a single goal unswer%ingly throughout an entire &olitical lifetime$ Those who "o are rarely 9uite sane an" nonetheless are often ama>ingly successful$ 0itler was such a man.e to the $omman)s of its ne& master or masters: The final ste#6 as it &as $learly en. Jr$ !1 :2#. an" for those who are min"e" to fight with the fist.iolent a$tion: The en) Bustifie) any an) all means that he might use: +ere6 then6 &as a #oli$y an) a &ill that6 gi.ilian a##aratus" of the #arty6 an) the se$on) &as for$e6 &hi$h &as the #ro.e s&ee#ing o.

$$ounts of &hat follo&e) are $ontra)i$toryJ #ro#agan)a an) a#ologies ser.irate $a#itulate) an) returne) to the hall6 no& the s$ene of great fraternization: There &ere more s#ee$hes an) the #laying of the national anthem: . ami" the chaos of inflation an" the -erlin6 Munich conflict.arian Go. the O&ossible march.er6 some of those #resent &ere #ut un)er arrest: . nolens volens1 to go along with him once he got matters un"er way$ Jn @o%ember *.ernment6 &hile Lu)en)orff &as to $omman) the ne& INational . the fifth anni%ersary of the hate" re%olution.este) &ith )i$tatorial #o&ers6 that Kahr ha) been ma)e Regent of Ba. as late as the afternoon of @o%ember 5.antage of their o##ortunity an) instea) left their ri.inister Presi)ent of Ba.O he sai". $hief Goring6 bro/e into this gathering of Nationalist )ignitaries: =n a )ramati$ gesture he fire) a shot into the $eiling to attra$t the attention of the assemblage R the o#ening shot of his attem#te) $ou#6 &hi$h &as to en) ignominiously by noon of the follo&ing )ay: . "aily too7 on more concrete form$ An" in his #istol6 announ$e) from the #latform that the Inational re. the night &asse" an" 0itler an" the /am&fbun".inister: . stu)ents: But Kahr6 Losso&6 an) *eisser &ere #ermitte) to lea. as the hea" of the 'A. for his &art. &ossibly without him an" in conLunction with 'eec7t. with a O&atriotic "emonstrationO in su&&ort of /ahr hel" in the crow"e" main room of the -iirgerbrau beer hall. in mi"6Jctober the &lans of the /am&fbun" too7 on firm sha&e$ An or"er of the German Fighting 2eague for the 'oli"ification of the O-or"er 4rotectionO in the @orth.ernment &as being forme): +e then as/e) Kahr6 Losso&6 an) *eisser to a$$om#any him to an a)Boining room6 &here he informe) them that Poli$e Presi)ent Pohner ha) been a##ointe) .als6 &hom they ha) $aught una&ares6 free to gather their for$es: )n the e%ent.aria an) in. the /ahr62ossow6'eisser Otrium%irateO an" re&resentati%es of &atriotic organi>ations hel" a meeting at which /ahr "eman"e" their loyalty in his fight against -erlin.:6 +itler6 a$$om#anie) by an arme) grou# of men le) by *. o&ene" u& the chance for offensi%e action. necessitate" the Oincor&oration of all &atriotic organi>ations into the Reichswehr or state &olice$O OAll of us ha%e but one goal6to free Germany from Mar?ism.isional $entral go. trie" to &ersua"e the trium%irate to bring 0itler into their fol"$ /ahr refuse"$ They were aware of 0itlerNs &utsch &lans but "i" not ta7e them seriously$ They 7new him as an able &ro&agan"ist but "i" not belie%e him ca&able of this swee&ing an" in"e&en"ent action against the hol"ers of &ower$ The great o&&ortunity came on @o%ember 5. un"er the blac7. with MussoliniNs theatrical but successful March on Rome as the great e?am&le. an" thus they won the su&&ort of sym&athi>ers in the state ci%il ser%ice an" Army$ -ut their calculation that /ahr an" 2ossow.er6 are $lear: +itler6 &a. came out in su&&ort of a march on -erlin an" the Oerection of the national "ictatorshi&$O 0owe%er. 0itler was busy consoli"ating his in"e&en"ent &osition an" strengthening his lea"ershi&$ Therefore. an" other organi>ers of the &utsch were gathere" at the Army hea"9uarters$ -ut when 4ohner an" Fric7. among them 4rofessor of 0istory /arl Ale?an"er %on Muller$ )n commemoration of the outbrea7 of the re%olution fi%e years earlier. military lea"ers.inister6 an) *eisser the ne& Rei$h Poli$e . ho&es. issue" on Jctober 1* an" signe" by its comman"er Bolonel !ret$# 0ermann /riebel !of the Jberlan" -riga"e#. e%en though some /am&fbun" units were gi%en arms by Munich Army "e&ots an" e%en though the energetic MaLor Rohm an" some Free Bor&s men "i" occu&y the local Army hea"9uarters at 11EHH 4$M$ 2u"en"orff. though in the guise of O&olice emergency assistanceO against ORe"O Thuringia.arian 'abinet . 0itler. an" 2ossow.ernmental a##ointments6 &hile6 in the ne<t room6 the (berlan) lea)er -an) .ily arme) men6 that the Ba. at a meeting hel" at the Munich +efense Ministry with &olice an" hea"s of &atriotic organi>ations.inister Presi)ent . /riebel issue" a "eclaration of war on the trium%irate$ )n %ain 2u"en"orff. /riebel. coul" be swe&t along by a fait accom&li &ro%e" to be wrong. announce" the &lanne" &utsch an" "ictatorshi& at a military conference of @ational 'ocialist organi>ations an" as7e" for a list of O&ersonalities who will ha%e to be eliminate" <an"= at least one will ha%e to be shot imme"iately after the issuance of the &roclamation <announcing the ta7eo%er= as an e?am&le$O The ne?t "ay 2ossow. atten"e" by Babinet members an" other high officials.fter that6 ho&e. &romise" to su&&ort the setting u& of a central right6wing "ictatorshi& if this hel" the &romise of success$ -oth /ahr an" 2ossow o&&ose" isolate" action an" se&aratism$ The fact that 0itler ha" not been in%ite" to this gathering may ha%e been the catalyst &rom&ting his "ecision to stri7e out$ An" other members of the /am&fbun" nursing "oubts about the will an" ability of the /ahr grou& to carry out its &lans also were "etermine" to act$ Jn @o%ember :. whom they still ho&e" to win o%er he "eci"e" to forge ahea"$ 0owe%er. an" abo%e all &ro%i"e" the le%erage for the mobili>ation of forces for a ci%il war$ The wor" was &asse" that the march on -erlin was to begin on @o%ember 1D$ Ami" the confusion of rumors.eterinarian0 Frie)ri$h Weber sought to #ersua)e the &ellDguar)e) trium. though warning against &reci&itate actions li7e the /a&& an" /iistrin cou&s. an" re" flag$O Reactions to this a&&eal for unity were "i%i"e"$ /riebel an" the maLority fa%ore" it but the @ational 'ocialists "i" not &artici&ate in this conference$ 0itler. white. an" ambitions.irate to a$Cuies$e: Finally6 Lu)en)orff a##eare)6 ami) shouts of +eilS6 an) announ$e) his &illingness to #arti$i#ateJ he &as follo&e) by Pohner: =n .ean&hile6 Goring too/ $harge of the meeting: +e6 too6 began his s#ee$h &ith a #istol shot to the $eiling: +itler hurrie) ba$/ into the hall an) informe) the initially $riti$al an) later Bubilant assemblage of his ne& of this6 the trium. an" well67nown economists. who a&&arently ha" . faile" to consoli"ate the &ower they ha" &roclaime" as theirs$ They ha" relie" on the &roclamation that. Goring.erbro&n6 an) that a #ro.e to $onfuse the #i$ture6 an) the subseCuent +itler trial also left many Cuestions unans&ere): it a. assiste" by the infantry training school un"er the e?6 lieutenant an" Free Bor&s man Rossbach.olutionI ha) begun6 that the hall &as o$$u#ie) by hea. if as in the &ast they "eci"e" to &ost&one matters. wor7e" towar" a German "ictatorshi&6with or without a monarch$ The i"ea of a march on -erlin. then it was im&erati%e to &ro" them into action$ Jn Jctober 2C.1I0itler. was &re&aring a sur&rise cou& to win the hol"ers of &ower for his &lans or force them. in a""ition to 2u"en"orff.on Knilling an) a number of Ba. acting more an" more in"e&en"ently.ernment ha) been o. themsel%es so "ee&ly committe". when wor" reache" him that /ahr an" 2ossow were &lanning a &olitical mo%e for @o%ember .inisters &ere le) a&ay by Ru)olf +ess an) his *.e the s$ene of the #uts$h on their o&n: Lu)en)orff guarantee) their &or) as offi$ers: Then began that strange night in &hi$h the #uts$hists faile) to ta/e a).rmyI built aroun) the Kam#fbun) -&hi$h &oul) mar$h on Berlin0: Losso& &oul) be$ome Rei$h Aefense . /ahr rea" an a""ress against OMar?ism$O *hortly before 7:55 P:. they ha" the trium%irate on their si"e. 0itler &ro%e" to be as &oor a &utschist as the organi>ers of the /a&& an" /iistrin cou&s$ Although a series of arbitrary acts against &olitical o&&onents an" anti6'emitic outbursts ga%e an in7ling of what a successful @ational 'ocialist ta7eo%er woul" hol" in store.oi)e) e<#osing embarrassing ties an) treate) the #arti$i#ants gently: The main #oints6 ho&e.aria6 &hile he himself &oul) hea) a ne& Rei$h go.

@o%ember "i" not fin" him either Oin &ower or "ea"O8 "eath was a fate he left to others$ 0e too7 refuge in nearby (ffing. among them 'cheubner6Richter. the &utschists were con"ucting their now famous march through Munich. in his first meeting with the Western &owers. an" the rebellious infantry training school of Munich was transferre" to Thuringia an" sternly "isci&line" by 'eec7t$ This was the setting in which the treason trial against 0itler. on the afternoon of @o%ember 11. who a&&arently "islocate" his shoul"er when he threw himself on the groun". hel&e" by his uni9ue oratorical gift. "es&ite all their e?&lanations an" efforts to co%er u& what ha" ha&&ene"$ They ha" &laye" a 9uestionable "ouble game. Rohm.rnst 0anfstaengl$ An" there. 1 24. wor" went out to all ra"io stations in Germany that the trium%irate ha" been "ecei%e" an" that it o&&ose" the 0itler &utsch$ This announcement came rather late. but 0itler ha" learne" to e?&loit e%ery situation$ Thus at the trial he "i" not &roclaim his innocence. an" the "ilemma of its attitu"e towar" the Re&ublic tem&orarily sol%e". he was arreste". without 'eec7tNs ha%ing ha" to ta7e too e?&ose" a &osition against the nationalists an" the military Ocomra"esO in their cam&$3 . he sought to reforge his ties to the military lea"ershi& by e?onerating the Reichswehr an" assigning blame &artly to 2ossow an" /ahr &ersonally an" &artly to the OsystemO of the "emocratic Re&ublic collecti%ely$ )n this 0itler was &artially successful$ To begin with.O hitherto a "iffuse mi?ture of assorte" ambitions an" certainly no clear6cut master &lan$ At the same time. Bount Arco.isnerNs assassin. manage" to esca&e ignobly in an 'A ambulance ami" the confusion. the O@ational 'ocialist German Wor7ersN 4arty. in &articular the wor7ers$ ) am not calle" to &ass Lu"gment on his &arty &rogram. the art critic . in"ictments of the OsystemO of the O@o%ember criminalsO an" Osla%es of the "ictate of Kersailles. 1 24. beginning from scratch an" wor7ing har".O were wi"ely &ublici>e" by the &ress throughout the country an" mo%e" him into the center of the Onational re%olution. but his honest en"ea%or to reawa7en the belief in the German cause among an o&&resse" an" "isarme" &eo&le is most certainly to his cre"it$ 0ere. re&lace" 2ossow as military comman"er.&re%ente" the state &olice from inter%ening at the -iirgerbrau. /riebel. 1 24. Rohm surren"ere" at the +efense Ministry$ A long column of arme" @ational 'ocialists an" /am&fbun" members !&ossibly aroun" two thousan"# hea"e" by 0itler. was as7e" to %acate his room for 0itler. went so far as to &reface his &lea on March 21. arri%e" at &olice hea"9uarters. an" fi%e others began on February 2*. . an" to "isseminating the national i"ea among all layers of the &o&ulation. the lea"er of the -K48 /ress. 2u"en"orff. an" Weber ha" manage" to o%er&ower the &olice guar" at the )sar -ri"ge an" then ha" marche" through the inner city to the go%ernment offices$ 'ensation6hungry onloo7ers ha" gathere" at the narrow &assageway to the Fel"herrnhalle8 the state &olice trie" to seal off the a&&roaches. an" afterwar". Fric7. or at least with /ahrNs &lans$ Thus the 'tate 4rosecutor. to settling accounts with the @o%ember criminals. he "ramatically ha" his )ron Bross &inne" to his chest$ At 2an"sberg &rison. later metamor&hose" into a heroic battle$ Bontrary to his "ramatic &romise in the -urgerbrau cellar. he has ma"e a significant contribution$ . the crow"s scattere" wil"ly8 the whole affair too7 less than one minute$ 2u"en"orff continue" to march until he was arreste" at the J"eons&lat>$ 0itler. &$ 114611: 1The significance of the 0itler trial of February6March. "es&ite their later e?&lanations. cla" in his &yLamas$ -efore being ta7en away. set forth the i"ea of a security agreement. The German Dictatorshi&( The 7rigins1 Structure1 and 8ffects of National Socialism by /arl +ietrich -racher !1 :H#. cannot therefore be stresse" too strongly$ GermanyNs "omestic situation was beginning to show signs of im&ro%ement$ The inflation was halte".O which is &le"ge" to fighting international Mar?ism an" Jewry. an" the search for a more rational solution to the re&arations issue was showing &rogress in the "eliberations of the +awes Bommission$ There 'tresemann. 1 2C$ 0is "efense s&eeches. 4ohner. a su&&orter of 'eec7t. /ahrNs ba"ly com&romise" authoritarian regime in -a%aria was re&lace" by a mo"erate go%ernment un"er 0einrich 0el". 2u"en"orff. an" the ill feelings arouse" on both si"es6re&ublican as well as nationalist . he create" a great &arty. an" it is an o&en 9uestion whether /ahr an" 2ossow "i" not. 1 24. in the 4eo&leNs Bourt of Munich$ Goring an" other &artici&ants in the &utsch ha" manage" to get out of Germany with the hel& of frien"ly &ublic officials$ The matter seeme" close". as the /a&& &utschists ha" "one8 instea". were too strong$ )n mi"6February. %acillate for a while$ Were they &erha&s o&&ose" only to 0itlerNs claim to lea"ershi& but not to the &utsch itselfM -ut at any rate. which en"e" at the Fel"herrnhalle at about 1EHH 4$M$ At 2EHH 4$M$. with a &aean to the nobility of 0itlerNs &ur&oseE 0itler came of a sim&le bac7groun"8 in the big war as a bra%e sol"ier he showe" a German s&irit. who at this Luncture still Obelie%e" that he woul" be shot$O This was the -a%arian trium%irateNs re%enge for ha%ing been ta7en by sur&rise$ To be sure. after a &rotracte" tug of war an" the stabili>ation of relations between Munich an" -erlin. who ha" been marching ne?t to 0itler$ When the shooting began. they were &ut un"er arrest by 2ossowNs men$ An" no real effort was ma"e to occu&y %ital go%ernment an" telegra&h offices or railroa" stations$ The trium%irate was able to get to the barrac7s of a loyal regiment an" mobili>e military an" &olice units$ The -a%arian Go%ernment itself remaine" in hi"ing8 a few Babinet ministers went to Regensburg$ +uring the night. s&elling out his &rogram an" the &olitical intentions which ha" moti%ate" him on @o%ember . a number of /am&fbun" units were "isarme"8 the general confusion in the ran7s of the Right now began to wor7 against 0itler$ 'hortly before CEHH A$M$ the ne?t morning. 'tenglein. he use" the o&&ortunity to great a"%antage. which ultimately too7 sha&e as the 2ocarno Treaty !1 2D#$ )n the course of the "omestic stabili>ation. a maLor "ecision ha" been reache"$ The morning of @o%ember foun" Munich in a state of e?treme agitation$ /ahr ha" not been able to &re%ent the a&&earance of the morning &a&ers carrying news about the &utsch$ The city was co%ere" with &osters &roclaiming the start of the re%olution$ A &roclamation by /ahr also ha" been &oste" an" han"e" to the &ress$ -ut the @ational 'ocialists ha" succee"e" in arousing &ublic o&inion against /ahr. they ha" to go$ 'eec7t ha" been s&are" "irect inter%ention8 the unity of the Army ha" been &reser%e" "es&ite the -a%arian "ebacle. e%en though the &utschists ha" met with little success in the rest of -a%aria an" e%en though the man on the street an" most of the &artici&ants were not at all clear about the alignments$ While Army units were assembling shortly before noon to reca&ture the +efense Ministry. Goring. an" "isor"ers bro7e out$ Who fire" the first shot is still not clear$ There were some casualties in the brief e?change of shots that followe". /ahr an" his frien"s "i" not stay in office %ery long after this. in a %illa belonging to one of his early &atrons.%en though the aggressi%e moo" . the Bentral Go%ernment gaine" a firmer foothol". the court itself was by no means unres&onsi%e to his arguments$ An" no won"er$ )n it sat men who only a little while bac7 ha" sym&athi>e" with him.

it woul" nonetheless be unfair to call him a "emagogue8 against this charge he is &rotecte" by the sincerity of his beliefs an" the unselfish "e"ication to his chosen tas7$ 0is &ri%ate life has always been clean. an" 'eisserNs cores&onsibility.nives. The German Dictatorshi&( The 7rigins1 Structure1 and 8ffects of National Socialism by /arl +ietrich -racher !1 :H#. &$ 11 6121 . through serious an" har" wor7. not by acting against it. tolerate" this$ Bonse9uently 0itler was not gi%en a se%ere sentence nor was he. has. 1 24. began to woo the Army$ 0e followe" this &olicy consistently through January CH. with the e?&resse" &robability of an early &ar"on$ An era of unrest ha" come to an en". the &osition which gui"e" the GeneralNs con"uct is mace clearE %acillation between the wish for a "ictatorshi& an" the restraint of the sol"ier awaiting the a&&earance of the successful "ictator$ )t was a &osition that woul" characteri>e the future attitu"e of the Reichswehr towar" the Re&ublic an" its enemies$3 . Fran> Gurtner. 1 CC. an" as a sol"ier he fulfille" his "uty in the highest measure$ 0e cannot be blame" for e?&loiting the &osition which he create" for himself to his own &ur&oses$ -ut more was to comeE -y s7illfully em&hasi>ing /ahrNs. but at the same time the see"s ha" been sown for future u&hea%als$ 4resently the state of emergency was lifte" without 'eec7tNs ha%ing li%e" u& to the "ictatorial e?&ectations of the Right. but he met with resistance from the Minister of Justice. "es&ite his many "ifferences with . which "eser%es s&ecial a&&robation in %iew of the tem&tations which naturally came to him as a celebrate" &arty lea"er$$$0itler is a highly gifte" man who. was to become 0itlerNs own Minister of Justice$ The sentencing by the court.dol2 ?itler "!rd le2t. an" 0itler recei%e" the lowest &ossible sentence for high treasonE fi%e yearsN im&risonment. in A&ril. 19!D during t*e Nig*t o2 t*e Long . e?&elle" from Germany$ The -a%arian Minister of the )nterior. 1 C4. as often before in the course of the trial. to stray from the theme of the trial. Wil*elm +ri0k " nd le2t). 0itler cause" further embarrassment for the court$ The in%ol%ement of high &ublic officials an" &olitical lea"ers in the &lanning of the cou& ma"e for some courtroom taboos an" softene" the stan" of both &rosecutors an" Lu"ges$ 0itler &ut the maLor blame for the failure of the Onational re%olutionO an" at the same time for the "anger of a "i%i"e" Reichswehr on 2ossow$ 0is arguments re%ol%e" aroun" the assurance that the actions of the @'+A4 were in the best interests of the nation. 0itler 7new how to transform his "efense into a &ublic "emonstration in su&&ort of his act. ha%ing learne" by e?&erience that he coul" come to &ower only with the su&&ort of the Army. still an Austrian subLect. an" with national &assion an" &ro&hecies of %ictory. in 1 the ran7s of his followers le" him into a one6si"e" &osition. the accuse" men were be"ec7e" with flowers an" nationalist symbols. Gregor (trasser. coming out of a sim&le bac7groun". if not with 0itler at least with 2u"en"orff$ These were the sentences mete" outE Rohm an" Fric7 were ac9uitte".bert an" 'tresemann$ 'eec7t was unwilling to "o more than wait for the "ictator to whom he might &ossibly ha%e han"e" o%er his &ower$ )n letters written in @o%ember. won for himself a res&ecte" &lace in &ublic life$ 0e "e"icate" himself to the i"eas which ins&ire" him to the &oint of self6sacrifice. while officers in full "ress uniform "emonstrate" their sym&athy. an" until June CH. and Gregor (trasser "0enter) appear at a Na8i Party meeting during t*e late 19 Cs. to arouse the &artisan au"ience to a&&lause$ The court. Fran> 'chweyer. a German @ational who was to &lay a role in 0itlerNs &remature amnesty an" who. turne" into a social e%ent$ Again. standing). 2ossowNs.ember o2 t*e &ei0*stag "19 D@19! ) and Na8i Party Gauleiter o2 Lower Bavaria "19 4@19 9) was assassinated in Berlin on /une !C. &articularly of the Reichswehr$ Thus 0itler. as was 2u"en"orff. a . ?ermann Goering "le2t). ob%iously im&resse" by the amount of &ublic notice 0itler was attracting. ha" been trying to ha%e 0itler e?&elle" since 1 22. . the "ate of the full consoli"ation of his "ictatorshi&$ As for the rest. 1 2C.

$erman on Januar 14. $erman on .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire 2rom De0ember 11.. Loeb.inister to t*e %ttoman -mpire 2rom /uly 1.(. "LL1B1 )olum2ia 15@@) was t*e 9.pril C. "19CC@19!1) Born in Ne0 3or( )it on June /.u*n. Ebank in New =ork $ityF "191L@19D4) Born in "an . 191L@. .(.mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "191!@191L)> -lder (tatesman Born in %annheim.lbert (trauss . -lkus 9. . Le*man Partner o2 Le*man Brot*ers Ebank in New =ork $ityF "19C:@191D. < W. 1919@19 :) Born in Ne0 3or( )it on %ar#h !5.u*n. Loeb < $o. 19 1@19 9) Born in Ne0 3or( )it on August !?.u*n. . $erman on August 10. Ebank in New =ork $ityF "1:91@19!D) Born in %annheim. 15/? .. "1:9L@19!1) Born in &am2urg.ortimer L. $erman on A'ril !?. ?enry .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire 2rom %0tober .bram 'saa0 -lkus "LL1B1 )olum2ia 1555) was t*e 9.mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire 2rom %0tober D. (traus 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@ 19 L)> -lder (tatesman Born in 4tter2erg. (eligman . Ebank in New =ork $ityF "19C1@191:. 15?5 +eli6 Warburg Partner o2 . 15@@ George Blument*al (enior Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. 1:9:@De0ember C. . "19CD@19 4) Born in .a*n Partner o2 . 15/5 +rank . 1911. 19 !.(.bram '. 1::1@/une 1L.(.pril C. .(. $erman on A'ril @. . .orgent*au (r. 9. and 9. 191!@+ebruary 1. (eligman < $o. (0*i22 Partner o2 . )alifornia on A'ril !1. 15?@ -dwin &. 1911) Born in Ne0 3or( )it on August ?.embers of the 'oun$il on Foreign Relations )uring the Beer +all Puts$h %s0ar (.orgent*au (r. 19C9@(eptember !.ran(furt am %ain.ember o2 /. 1::9 and %0tober 14. 191C. < $o. Loeb < $o.mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "%0tober . 15?4 Note5 %s0ar (olomon (traus "LL1B1 )olum2ia 15@3) was t*e 9. $erman on >e#em2er !3.%e&ish . . 191L@.ran#is#o. 15@5 . 15?1 %tto ?.07i0kar Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy and +inan0e at $olumbia 9niversity "19CD@19!1) Born in Ne0 3or( )it on A'ril !/.(. 15?@ Paul Warburg Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19! )> 7i0e $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "191L@191:) Born in &am2urg. 155@ ?erbert ?. 3*e 0apital o2 t*e %ttoman -mpire was $onstantinople "'stanbul)> t*e %ttoman -mpire was su00eeded by t*e &epubli0 o2 3urkey on %0tober 9. 15/0 ?enry . .lts0*ul Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. 1:99. 15@1 .e2ruar !1. 191L.

Polk . Beaty President o2 3e6a0o "19 C@19 L) William Butterwort* President o2 Deere < $o.ember o2 Davis. international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:) .P.llen Wardwell . $otton . Polk < Wardwell "19C9@194!) ?enry Waters 3a2t Partner o2 $adwalader.organ < $o. "19C1@19 :) %wen D.ember o2 Davis.ember o2 $urtis. 19D @19DD) Guy -.ember o2 $ravat*. Lamont Partner o2 /. . =oung $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $o.allet@ Prevost < $olt Elaw 2irmF "1:91@19D:) +rederi0 &..(. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "1:99@19D4) George W. Wi0kers*am . "19 !@194C) .ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "1911@ 19D9) . Polk < Wardwell "19 1@1944) +rank L.ember o2 $adwalader. Polk. (waine and Wood Elaw 2irmF /osep* P. ..%t*er . Wiggin $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $*ase National Bank "191:@19!C) /ules (. +ranklin Dire0tor o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "191L@19!9) /o*n W. Le22ingwell Partner o2 /. $ravat* . Elaw 2irmF "1:94@1944) Paul D.allet@Prevost . . 3ripp $*airman o2 t*e board o2 Westing*ouse -le0tri0 $orp. "19 @19!9. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "191D@19!L) (evero . $oudert .ember o2 $otton < +ranklin Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 1@19 9) /o*n +oster Dulles .(..organ < $o.lbert ?. 'n0. de Gersdor22.ember o2 Davis.embers o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations during t*e Beer ?all Puts0* 3*omas W. Davis .mos L. Wardwell "191D@19D!) . Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9 @19DD) (amuel &. "191 @19 1) P. Gris0om < $ompany. Ba0*e ?ead o2 /. Ba0*e < $o.ember o2 $oudert Bros. Bertron President o2 Bertron. "1911@19D:) &ussell $.P.

. ?askins Dean o2 t*e Graduate (0*ool o2 ..ars*all Brown Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at Prin0eton 9niversity "1914@19 9) .P.llyn . +aun0e President o2 Brown 9niversity "1:99@19 9) (idney -.. (everan0e 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191:@19 4) -dward . 'n0. Greene 3reasurer o2 . . ?ouston Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@ 19 1)> (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19 C@19 1) (tep*en P.sso0iation "19 C@19! ) &aymond B.Norman ?.rts and (0ien0e at ?arvard 9niversity "19C:@19 D) -lmer -.. "1919@19!!) $*arles ?. Duggan Dire0tor o2 'nstitute o2 'nternational -du0ation "1919@19DL) /erome D. Gar2ield President o2 Williams $ollege "19C:@19!D) William ?. +osdi0k 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 1@19D:) /ames G.0Donald $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +oreign Poli0y . Brown President o2 New =ork 9niversity "1911@19!!) ?arry .meri0an (o0ial ?ygiene .andell ?ouse -lder (tatesman> $o@ +ounder o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations -li*u &oot President o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19 4) /ames Brown (0ott (e0retary o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19DC) David +.e8es President o2 $ollege o2 t*e $ity o2 New =ork "191D@19 1) . =oung Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at ?arvard 9niversity "19 C@19 1) . Davis Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DD) $ordenio . (eager Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at $olumbia 9niversity "19C4@19!C) P*ilip .r0*ibald $ary $oolidge Pro2essor o2 ?istory at ?arvard 9niversity "19C:@19 :) $*arles (eymour Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "191:@19!1) ?enry &.sso0iation.

ation E-e#utivesB -li*u &oot 19 1@19!L /ames Brown (0ott 19 1@19DC .u*n. Polk . Lamont &ussell $. Loeb < $o.ember o2 $adwalader.ember o2 Davis. 9.(. Polk. and Belknap Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 C@19!L) 3rustee o2 3*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 1@19D:) . $oudert &oland (.ember o2 $urtis.lba B. "191 @19 1) President o2 Westing*ouse -le0tri0 $orp. Wardwell. Patterson < ?adley Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 @19 9) .a*n +eli6 Warburg .ar0* 14. .ingsbury $urtis (evero .organ < $o.lbert (trauss /ames ?.meri0an (o0iety o2 'nternational Law "19C1@19 D) (e0retary o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19DC) 19 1. Le22ingwell %tto ?.ember o2 Davis.ember o2 Webb. . Wi0kers*am /osep* P. Bertron . +osdi0k +rederi0 &. "19 1@19 9) 7i0e President o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "191D@1919) .(. Wardwell.uts#h in %uni#h. .allet@Prevost < $olt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:91@19D:) . E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:91@19!D) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!D) Partner o2 .orris 19 1@19D! 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 1@194! 1@1949 1@19!L 1@19D: 1@19!: 1@19DC 1@19!L 19 1@19 9 19 1@1944 19 1@1911 19 @19DC 19 1@19! . 19!!@De0ember !1.)oun#il on .P. Wiggin . Perkins P. .ember o2 $oudert Bros. Es0*ool te6tbook publis*ing 0ompanyF "1911@19 :) . 19 L) President o2 Deere < $o.oreign Relations %em2ers and Aheir 4##u'ation during the Beer &all .ar0* 1L. Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19 1@1944) 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "19 1@0. =oung Guy -. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19D4) Partner o2 Le*man Brot*ers E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C:@191D. Wardwell.. 3ripp -dwin . 'n0. Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "191D@19D!) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19D!) 9nder 9. 19 C@ . .ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "1911@19D9) . $otton 7anderbilt Webb &aymond B. Loeb < $o.ember o2 Davis.llen Wardwell /o*n +oster Dulles +.ember o2 $otton < +ranklin Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 1@19 9) .ember o2 de+orest Brot*ers Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9!@19! ) . 1919@ :) ?ead o2 /.mos L.ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "191L@19!9) . 19 1) . 19!!) . "1911@19 9) President o2 3e6a0o Eoil 0ompanyF ". Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9 @19DD) President o2 Bertron. Woodin La0 ersB /o*n W.meri0a "1919@19 9) $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 !@19 4) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 Westing*ouse -le0tri0 $orp.(.mbassador to 'mperial /apan "1911@19 C) President o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19 4) President o2 3*e . Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4) . (eligman < $o.lbert ?. . .u*n. Ba0*e < $o.ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "1:9:@19!:) $lass B "191D@19 L) and $lass $ "19 1@19!D) Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 P*iladelp*ia $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $o.(. < W. Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19C9@194!) . +ranklin /ames ?. 19 C) President o2 +armers 3rust < Loan $o.(. +inley William ?. 191:@. 19!3+ Name Ban(ersB 3*omas W.rmy o2 %00upation) "Nov.allet@Prevost ?enry W. international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:) $*airman o2 $*ase National Bank Ebank in New =ork $ityF "191:@19!C) . 19D @19DD) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 &adio $orporation o2 ..orris < ?e0ks0*er Elaw 2irm in P*iladelp*iaF "19CD@19D4) Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "19 D@19D4) 9. 191:@/an. Davis .. Loeb < $o.. Ebank in New =ork $ityF "19C1@191:.mbassador to Great Britain "De0ember 1:. ?err . Post .ortimer L.ar0* !. de +orest ?enry Waters 3a2t George W. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 !@194C) Partner o2 . /o*nson BusinessmenB %wen D.ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 &emington .ssistant $*ie2 o2 (ta22. +osdi0k.osle Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1::9@19 L) . Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19D:) Partner o2 /. Beaty William Butterwort* &oy -.allet@Prevost.ember o2 Duane.19 L@19DC 19 1@19!9 19 1@19!: 19 1@19 L 19 1@19DC 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 1@19 1 1@19! 1@19!L 1@19! 1@19L 1@19!! 1@19DC 19 1@19 9 19 1@1944 +rank L. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CD@19 4) Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. "19 @19!9. 191:@. 19!:@D4 4rgani. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9L@19!1) Partner o2 .ember o2 /.sso0iate -ditor o2 The New Yor Times "19 1@19!1) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19 9) President o2 . Polk. 19 1@19 9) 7i0e $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "%0tober L. . Le*man /ules (.ember o2 $adwalader. (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury ". "19C1@19 :) President o2 National Bis0uit $ompany ENabis0oF "1911@19 9) President o2 .0Graw@?ill $o.ember o2 $urtis. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191D@19!L) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!L) . Gris0om < $ompany. 'n0. 1919) . $erman *Novem2er 9. "191L@19 ) .organ < $o.embers*ip "=ear) 19 1@19D1 19 1@1949 19 1@19!D 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 1@19!1 1@19!1 1@19DC 1@191! 1@19L! 1@19! . (e0retary o2 (tate "1919@19 C) . Ba0*e (amuel &..ar0* 9. . !rd . . . 3omlinson /ames ?. 19!D@DD 1@19!D 1@19 4 1@19 9 Primary %00upation Partner o2 /.meri0an $ar < +oundry $o.19 9) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 @19!:) President o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!!) 9. Polk.rmy ".(.0Graw /o*n ?.ar0* 4.lts0*ul ?erbert ?.rms $o.ember o2 $urtis. Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:94@1944) .P. $olt < .u*n.(. (0*i22 George Blument*al +rank . 9. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CC@19!1) (enior Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o.

lbert (*aw (tep*en P. 1919@.. $ravat* -dwin +.ember o2 t*e General -du0ation Board "19C @19 9) Dire0tor o2 'nstitute o2 'nternational -du0ation "1919@19DL) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19 C@19D1) Dire0tor o2 t*e National $ommittee 2or .ember o2 Lee.a6 Warburg. .. 3e6as .ay .P. Gay )ollege .G.sso0iation "19 C@19! ) 3rustee o2 t*e General -du0ation Board "191 @19!9) 9. 19 D) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $orning Glass Works "191:@19D1) 9nited (tates .sso0iation... +arben 0*emi0al 0ompany be2ore World War ''. ..ars*all Brown .ellon ?erbert ?oover Elder "tatesmenB -dward .r0*ibald $ary $oolidge $overnment 4ffi#ialsB ?ug* Gibson .$ordenio . (enator "&epubli0an Party@Delaware> 19 1@19 .dministration at New =ork 9niv.mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "191L@1911) 19 1@19 9 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 1@19!D 1@19D 1@19DL 1@19 : 1@19DL 1@19!1 1@19!9 1@19!9 1@19!C 1@1941 1@19L1 1@19DC 1@19 9 1@19 : 19 1@194D 19!C@19DC 19!C@19DL 19!!@19!L 19!:@19L 19 1@19!: 19 1@19!C 19 1@19 L 19 1@19DC 19 1@19D1 Note5 German /ewis* banker .07i0kar Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy and +inan0e at $olumbia 9niv.&.rts and (0ien0e at ?arvard 9niversity "19C:@19 D) .lanson B. .meri0an (o0ial ?ygiene . (traus ?enry ..bram '. ?ouse Gen.ugust 9.(.ember o2 t*e &epubli0an National $ommittee "19C:@19!C) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19 1) (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19 C@19 1) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19! ) 7i0e $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve ".. Warburg < $o.0$une Lindsay ?enry &.ay !. ?askins -.. (eager $live Day $*arles (eymour P*ilip . . ?igginson < $o. Germany and dire0tor o2 '. (e0retary o2 $ommer0e and Labor "19CL@19C9) 9. Duggan 19 19 19 19 19 1@19 4 1@19D1 1@19L! 1@19D1 1@194C /erome D.ustin.. Greene 3.orgent*au . "19CD@19!1) Pro2essor o2 (o0ial Legislation at $olumbia 9niversity "19C1@19!9) Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at $olumbia 9niversity "19C4@19!C) . was t*e brot*er o2 Paul Warburg "7i0e $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve during World War ') and +eli6 Warburg. '. t*e *ead o2 . .ugust 1C. Warburg Norman ?. Bliss %s0ar (. du Pont de Nemours $ompany "19C @1914) .no6 Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "19 @19!L) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "191:@19!1) Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at Prin0eton 9niversity "1914@19 9) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at ?arvard 9niversity "19 C@19 1) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at ?arvard 9niversity "19C:@19 :) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19 :) -ditor o2 #oreign $ffairs maga8ine "19 @19 :) 9nited (tates . banking 2irm in ?amburg.ndrew W.(.llyn .e8es .rmy $*ie2 o2 (ta22 "1911@191:) 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19 L) 9.mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "191!@191L) 9. (eligman (amuel . 19 4@19 :) President o2 -. Gar2ield William . 191L@. 'n0. (everan0e William $*ur0* %sborn /ames G. =oung . Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191:@19! ) 3reasurer o2 .(. Neilson (idney -.. $oleman du Pont David +.(. ?oug*ton $*arles -vans ?ug*es . (*ep*erd Paul D. . "1919@19!!) . (*epardson William &. +aun0e -lmer -.inister to Poland ". -lkus 19 1@194C 19 1@19 4 19 1@19 : 19 1@19! 19 19 19 19 19 19 1@19DD 1@194C 1@19LL 1@19!D 1@19DC 1@19DL 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191:@19 4) $*airman o2 3*e -0onomi0 $lub o2 New =ork "19 @19 D) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +oreign Poli0y .(.rofessorsB William ?. Wellington 3aylor $*arles ?..ental ?ygiene Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@194C) Pro2essor o2 Politi0al (0ien0e at $ollege o2 t*e $ity o2 New =ork "1:9L@19 :) . 191:) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DD) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@194C) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19LL) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19 1) 7i0e President o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!!) 3reasurer and (e0retary o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!!) President o2 New Yor !"ening Post "19 C@19 !) President o2 Brown 9niversity "1:99@19 9) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "191C@19!C) President o2 New =ork 9niversity "1911@19!!) President o2 Williams $ollege "19C:@19!D) President o2 (mit* $ollege EwomenAs 0ollegeF "1911@19!9) President o2 $ollege o2 t*e $ity o2 New =ork "191D@19 1) Dean o2 Graduate (0*ool o2 Business . Brown ?arry . Davis 'saia* Bowman W*itney ?. ?ouston Paul .mbassador to Germany "19 @19 4) 9.0Donald . (e0retary o2 (tate "19 1@19 4) (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19 1@19! ) (e0retary o2 $ommer0e "19 1@19 :) $o@+ounder o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations> powerbroker 2rom . 3asker ?. "1919@19DD) Dean o2 Graduate (0*ool o2 ..

B.mbrose Gallivan ". 19 !@. 19C ) R 9.. 19C:) R Distri0t ... bankers. 3ink*am ".organ ". . $ongressman "Demo0rati0 Party@. (enator "Demo0rati0 Party@&*ode 'sland. Grew ".meri0an 3rust $ompany Ebanking 2irm in BostonF "19C1@19 1) Bernard Walton 3ra22ord ". 191L) R (e0retary o2 t*e 9.B. LL.B.organ < $o.(. 1:91) R /udge o2 t*e 9. Perkins ".. 19C!@191!. (a0*s < $o.B.aine.assa0*usetts. 1914@19 4.. 19C1> LL.(.B.assa0*usetts. 19C!..B..B.(. (enator "&epubli0an Party@.B.?arvard 9niversity Graduates and 3*eir %00upation during t*e Beer ?all Puts0* in . ".ugustus /ay ". $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@New Gunt*er ". ".(. 1::9) R 9. 'taly "19 C@19 D) (tokeley W. 1:::.P.organ < $o. ".ssistant (e0retary o2 (tate "19 @19 1) William &. 19C1) R $ounselor o2 t*e .B... 19CC) R $*ie2 o2 Division o2 Western -urope . 19 1@19 :) Walter Warren . LL. ..B. 1:9C.. LL. 9.B. LL. 1:9!) R 9. ..B. 1:9L) R /udge o2 t*e 9.tlanti0 National Bank EBostonF "19 !@19! ) &ussell Green +essenden ".assa0*usetts "1:9!@19 !)> .eyes "..assa0*usetts. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@New =ork.B.. .pril ..ember o2 Goldman. 19 D) &obert Woods Bliss ". 19 @+ebruary 1. 1:11) R 9..P.B.. .. 1:9C) R President and $*airman o2 .. 1:: ) R 9.lbert $arpenter ". .B. Germany "19 4@19 1) +ranklin . .. 1:9 . . 1::1) R 9. 1:9D) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. (0*weppe ". 19C:) R .. 1::9) R /usti0e o2 t*e 9. 191D@19 :) +rederi0k William Dallinger ". 1:9!) R 7i0e President o2 +irst National Bank o2 Boston "191 @19 :) $*arles ?.. ".B.B. 19C1) R Partner o2 /.. 1914@19!1) (amuel -llswort* Winslow ".(. 1:9:) R President o2 +armers 3rust < Loan $o. "19 1@19 9) George (altonstall . ?oug*ton ".B. . 1::C) R 9. 19 1@. 1:1L) R 9. Germany "November 9. 'taly "1911@19 D) $*arles Boyd $urtis ".lanson B.(. .B. 1:91.(. 1::1) R 9.P.inister to &omania "19 1@19 4) -dwin 7.mbassador to Bra8il "191 @19!!) /o*n W. 1:9L) R 9.22airs. 19C1.(.B. 19CC) R 9.(. /ames ?. 'n0. 1:9!@Nov.B.P.ttorney 2or t*e Distri0t o2 .B. 191!@19 4) /ames . $onsul General in &ome.B.B.um2ord ". 1:LL) R /usti0e o2 t*e 9. 19 !) Government %22i0ials5 . &iddle "B.B. 1:19) R /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New /ersey "19C!@19 D) &obert Grant "...(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@.organ < $o.B. 191C) R 9..B.(.ar0* 14.B..B. 1:::) R 9..assa0*usetts EBostonF "19 @19 1) +ran0is /osep* (way8e ".(.B.B.B.organ ".P.(. 19CD) R .B. 19CL) R 9.B.(. . ?igginson < $o. LL.(.uni0*.B. 191C) R 9..B.assa0*usetts Board o2 Bar -6aminers "19C!@19!1)> Demo0rat 3*omas $*arles %ABrien ".(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@. 1:99) R . Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e (out*ern Distri0t o2 New =ork "191D@19 1) George .ugust :.(. 191!@19 4) /o*n /a0ob &ogers ". 191D) R Partner o2 /. "191:@19!C)> Dire0tor o2 Warner Brot*ers Pi0tures. 19C1) R . $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@. Department o2 (tate "19 1@19 1) Dwig*t +.. . 1:91...B..B.. 19 L@19! ) George ?.(. 1:1D.assa0*usetts "191 @19! ) /ames .inister to (wit8erland "November 1. P*. 1::4) R 9. .(. 19CD> LL.uni0*.. . 1:1:) R $*airman o2 . "19 C@1944) /unius (. "1919@19DC)> grandson o2 banker /.. 19C ) R Partner o2 Lee. ..assa0*usetts "19 @19!!) Learned ?and "..(. 1:91) R 9.mbassador to 'taly "/uly :. Gerry ". Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 .(.B. .. Lamont ".B. (enator "&epubli0an Party@. 1::1) R President o2 .assa0*usetts "19 1@19 D) ?erbert Putnam ". 19CC) R 9.P. LL. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@%*io.rnold Lowell ".B. 19 !@(eptember 1 . 1914@19!!) %liver Wendell ?olmes /r.D. New =ork $ity "1:9C@19 D) /o*n Pierpont S/a0kT . 1::9) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 /.ssistant (e0retary o2 t*e Navy "19 1@19 D) -liot Wadswort* ". LL. 1919@19!1) Ni0*olas Longwort* ". Davis ".B. 1:9D) R /udge o2 t*e 9.B.ugust Belmont < $o. 1:19) R /udge o2 t*e Probate $ourt and $ourt o2 'nsolven0y 2or (u22olk $ounty EBostonF. 19CC) R 9.(. $onsul General in . .B.ills "B. 19C1) R 9.rgentina "19 @19 4) +ran0is Bowler .ar0* D. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@.eene ". 19!1@19D1) Louis .ugust Belmont /r.B.ember o2 Goldman.organ 3*omas W. 1:9D) R /udge o2 t*e 9.B. (a0*s ". 19CD) R .B. 1:9 ) R Partner o2 /.dams +rot*ing*am ". "1911@19D:)> %verseer o2 ?arvard 9niversity "191 @19 4) George W*itney ".assa0*usetts..(.B.(.(.(. 19!:) &i0*ard Patri0k +reeman ".(. 1911@19D1) Peter G.orton /r.B. .B. 19 4) &i0*ard Was*burn $*ild ". LL.assa0*usetts. LL. LL. ". 19CC) R 9nder (e0retary o2 (tate "19 @19 D) Leland ?arrison ". . 1:L1.B.organ < $o. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@. .organ "... $ongressman "&epubli0an@New =ork. 1911@19 9> 19!4@19D1) ?enry W..B.B.B. 19 D) +rederi0k ?ale ".B.organ /r.ar0* :.B..B.. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@.B. 9.ar0* .B. 1:1L. $ongressman "&epubli0an@New =ork.. 1:1D) R ?ead o2 .assa0*usetts.. "191!@19D!)> son o2 banker /.B.(. 19C1) R 9. P*..(.(. 19 1@19 1) &obert Low Ba0on "..assa0*usetts. LL. (upreme $ourt "19C @19! ) -dward 3..ugustus Noble ?and ". "191C@1949) Waddill $at0*ings ".inister to (weden ".adison . 19C1) R 9.ttorney o2 (u22olk $ounty.... 1:11. Per0ival Dodge "..B.B..ember o2 t*e 9nited (tates 3ari22 $ommission "1911@19 :) &obert %rr ?arris "B...inister to . 1:9C) R 9. LL.. 1914@19D!) &obert Lu0e "..B. 19 1) /osep* $. 19!C) /ames . 1:91) R 9.. 1:91) R 9. ". $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@$onne0ti0ut.ember o2 (a00o@7an8etti $ommission "19 1) Bankers5 .. 19 C@19D4) %gden L.(. 1:9!. 19CD.B.. 1914@19 1) ?amilton +is* ". Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Nort*ern Distri0t o2 'llinois E$*i0agoF "191C@19!!) ?ollis &ussell Bailey ". . -mbassy at &iga.organ Walter -.B. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 .B. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e (out*ern Distri0t o2 New =ork "19C9@19 D) .(. 1919@19!4.B.B. 1:9:) R . 19 !@.B.B.(.ssistant (e0retary o2 War "19 !@19 4) 3*eodore &oosevelt /r.(.B..meri0an -mbassy in &ome.B.. 1:11> LL. (an2ord "B. .inister to (erbia E=ugoslaviaF "1919@19 L) $*arles (tetson Wilson ".(. . . LL. 1::L) R 9.1::4. (a0*s < $o. Latvia "19 @19 D) William P*illips ". Ebanking 2irm in Boston#New =ork $'tyF "191!@19D1) . 1:9!. 1:1!. 1:9L) R 9. ". 19CC) R . ...(. 19 1@/anuary C. (enator "&@New ?amps*ire.ar0* D. 'n0.. 1:94) R 9.inister to Bulgaria "19 1@19 :) Peter . (upreme $ourt "/anuary 9.ssistant (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19 1@19 4) -dward Prentiss $ostigan ". $astle /r..B. 19 D) ?.mbassador to Germany ".B. LL.agee ". 1::!) R Librarian o2 $ongress "1:99@19!9) ?enry $abot Lodge (r.B.(.assa0*usetts.D. 1:9D) R 9.

.meri0an (o0ial ?ygiene .00eptan0e Bank ENew =ork $ityF "19 1@19!1) &oger Pier0e ". 19C ) R (e0ond 7i0e President o2 Prudential 'nsuran0e $o. LL.B. 19C!) R Dean o2 ?arvard Graduate (0*ool o2 -du0ation "19 C@19DC) -ugene Wambaug* ". 1:LL) R President o2 t*e National .B.B.B. Delano ". 1:11) R 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@0.ember o2 $*oate.a07eag* ".. 19C9) R ....B. 1:9C) R 3rustee and (e0retary o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19DC) &oger Nas* Baldwin ". 1:9!) R -ditor and %wner o2 New Yor Nation "191:@19! ) +ran0is Gano Benedi0t "...George $abot Lee ".orse $ole ". 191D) R ..$. Was*burn ".B. 1::1) R . 1:::...B. 1::9) R Pro2essor o2 Latin at ?arvard 9niversity "19C4@19!1) William . +ollansbee. banking 2irm in ?amburg..B..B.. 1::!. 1919@19 4) $*arles . Greene "..B. 1:1L.B.dol2 ?itler +ranklin Delano &oosevelt ". 1:9L) R . 1:: ) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 Boston < .B.. "19CC@0.a6 . 1::1) R Pro2essor o2 P*ilosop*y at ?arvard 9niversity "191!@19!4) 'rving Babbitt ". Warburg..ember o2 $otton < +ranklin Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 1@19 9) $*arles %liver Pengra ". 19CD) R +ounder and Dire0tor o2 . 1:9C.. 1:9!) R Dire0tor o2 Nutrition Laboratory o2 t*e $arnegie 'nstitution o2 Was*ington "19C1@19!1) $*arles Benedi0t Davenport ".B.B.B..19DL) (amuel .B.. &owley < (torey Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 C@1919) %rgani8ation -6e0utives and $ommunity %rgani8ers5 -rnst +ran8 SPut8iT ?an2staengl ".B.B.B.B.. &*inelander ". Burlington < Vuin0y &ailroad $o.B.B.B. /o*n . ?igginson < $o. . 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 $*emistry at ?arvard 9niversity "19C1@19 :) .ember o2 $arter.inister o2 %ld (out* $*ur0* in Boston "1::D@19 1) -dward $ummings "..00ounting at ?arvard 9niversity "191L@19LC) . .B.B. Goodwin ". ".B..dams ". .B.B. 1:: . ..D. 1:: ) R .B. 1:94) R Dire0tor o2 Publi0ations.ilburn Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CD@19 L) George &ublee ".. 9... New =ork George . Dire0tor o2 +ederal &eserve Bank o2 Boston "191D@19 !)> President o2 (e0ond National Bank o2 Boston "19 !@194C) . 1::C) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 +ederal &eserve Bank o2 Boston "191D@19 :) 3*omas Prin0e Beal ". 1::1) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at ?arvard 9niversity "19C:@19 :) Byron (atterlee ?urlbut ".B. Ledyard < .B.. 1:1 ....B.. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191:@19! )> 3reasurer o2 ....B.. 1:L9. 19CD) R Dire0tor o2 $*i0ago.assa0*usetts "1:9!@19 L) P*ilip ..B.dams ''' ".dams -dward ?i0kling Brad2ord ".. P*.oor2ield (torey ". 1:9D) R .ember o2 Lee..ssistant General $ounsel o2 9. LL.... 1:::) R 7i0e $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "19 C@19!C) $*arles (.... $otton ". 1:91) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Pennsylvania "1911@19 !) /ames DeWol2 Perry ".. 1::L) R &e0tor o2 t*e $*ur0* o2 t*e .B. 1:9C) R Pro2essor o2 . LL.ngier Gordon ".B. +o6 ". 1:19.sso0iation "19 C@19! ) +. 1:LD) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 3*e Pullman $o. Germany -dmund Platt ". D. (teel $orporation "19C1@19 4) -dmund Lin0oln Baylies ".bbot Good*ue ". 1:94) R .sso0iation 2or t*e . 1:19.. 1::9) R Pro2essor o2 +ren0* Literature at ?arvard 9niversity "191 @19!!) $li22ord ?ers0*el .. Was*ington "1914@19 !) $ollege . 1:9 ) R 3reasurer o2 ?arvard 9niversity "1:9:@19 9)> great@great@grandson o2 Pres. 1:9L) R President o2 %ld $olony 3rust $o. 1:::) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (pokane.. ?awley < (*orey Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "191!@19 4) /osep* P.ember o2 . . LL..bra*am Lin0oln ?erbert $onrad Lakin ". 1::!) R . 7ogel ".oor2ield (torey ". 1:9:) R President o2 $uba &ailroad "1919@19 4) P*ilip (to0kton ". Brown.B.. "191 @19 C) %swald Garrison 7illard ".B. 1911) R 7i0e President o2 'nternational . 1::1) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at ?arvard 9niversity "19CL@19 9) /ames ?aug*ton Woods ". 1::1) R General (oli0itor and .B.B. 1::C) R President o2 ?arvard 9niversity "19C9@19!!) $*arles +ran0is . 19CC) R .. 1:11. 1:L9) R $lass ..B. "191:@19 D) $*arles -lliott Perkins /r. 1:91..B.B.(. 19CD) R %verseer o2 ?arvard 9niversity "1911@19 !) . ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 C@19LC) $*arles .F "19 1@0. 1:9C.$P) "191C@19 9) William -dward Burg*ardt Du Bois ".B.19 9) /ames Brown (0ott ". N. P*. 1:9D> LL. 1:9 ) R . 19CL) R President o2 'nternational .B. 1::4) R $lass $ Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 &i0*mond "19 1@19!L) Businessmen5 &obert 3odd Lin0oln ". 1:9:> LL. LL. Warburg < 0o..r0*ibald $ary $oolidge ".. 1:L9.D..B...s0ension in New =ork $ity "1:9!@19 D) William Lawren0e ".dol2 ?itlerAs personal adviser> parti0ipated in t*e Beer ?all Puts0* wit* .B. 19C9) R Partner o2 Blodget < $o.B..edi0al (0*ool "191 @19 L) Walla0e Brett Don*am "... LL.. 1:9 ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 &*ode 'sland "1911@19DL) ?erman Page ".D. 191 > LL.(. 1:9L> LL..D.B. Warburg and nep*ew o2 /ewis* banker . 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "191D@19 9) +rederi0 .bbott Lawren0e Lowell "..B.ember o2 +ederal &eserve Board "191D@19!L) $*arles G. 1:11) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 . 1::1) R &oyall Pro2essor o2 Law at ?arvard 9niversity "191 @19!1) /ames &i0*ard /ewett ". President .B.dvan0ement o2 $olored People "N.rabi0 at ?arvard 9niversity "1911@19!!) 3*eodore William &i0*ards ". 1::C) R Pro2essor o2 Law at ?arvard 9niversity "1:9 @19 4) /osep* ?enry Beale "..B. 1:1!) R Dean o2 ?arvard .. 1:9 ) R Dire0tor o2 (tation 2or -6perimental -volution "19CD@19!D) and Dire0tor o2 -ugeni0s &e0ord %22i0e "191C@19!D) o2 $arnegie 'nstitution at $old (pring ?arbor. 191 > LL. 1::L. P*.dams. EBostonF "191C@19!D) /o*n Weiss (tedman ".oore ".B.B. *ead o2 .B.B.B.inister o2 (out* $ongregational $*ur0* in Boston "19CC@19 4) Per0y (ti0kney Grant ". 1::9. Burling < &ublee Elaw 2irm in Was*ington.dministrators and Pro2essors5 .B.ember o2 $ovington..B. ?amlin ". "191:@19 1) Lawyers5 Woodward ?udson "..19!:) /erome D...B.B.ember o2 Lee ?igginson < $o. "1911@19 L)> son o2 2ormer 9.B. 1914) R Partner o2 Peabody..B..ugustus ?.B.. 1:94) R General (e0retary o2 t*e $*amber o2 $ommer0e.usten G.B.. 1::D) R Pro2essor o2 .. "191D@19 :) Bayard +oster Pope ". LL.B.$P "191C@19! ) -lliot ?.. 1::!) R .meri0an $ivil Liberties 9nion "1911@194C) .B..B.B.(.B. LL.. 19C1) R Dean o2 ?arvard Business (0*ool "1919@19D ) ?enry Wyman ?olmes ". 19CD) R 7i0e President o2 New -ngland 3rust $ompany "1919@19 1) /ames Paul Warburg ".00eptan0e Bank ENew =ork $ityF "19 1@19 9)> son o2 /ewis* banker Paul .B.aine &ailroad "191L@191:..

edi0ine "19C1@19!4) +rederi0 Palmer /r... 19CD.B.194D) ?arold 'nman Gosline ". 191!) R Dean o2 ?aver2ord $ollege "19C:@19 9) Leon $.D. 1:9C. 19C1) R Pro2essor o2 .. $om2ort ". . P*. .B. ..B..B. 19C!) R ..B. 1:91.D. 19CD) R Pro2essor o2 Government at ?arvard 9niversity..rt*ur Lyon $ross ". 19CL) R Dean o2 (tate 9niversity o2 'owa (0*ool o2 Law "19 @19 9) &alp* ?ayward . 1:91) R -dmund $ogswell $onverse Pro2essor o2 Banking and +inan0e at ?arvard 9niversity "191!@19D1) Prin0e Lu0ien $ampbell ". ..B. 1::1) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at .D. LL.. 1:91..i0*igan "1914@194:) 'saia* Leo (*ar2man ". 19CL) R Pro2essor o2 Law at 3ulane 9niversity "191C@19 9) David . 19C1. LL. 1:9!) R Dean o2 9niversity o2 Wis0onsin (0*ool o2 . 1:1:) R Dean o2 (0*ool o2 $ommer0e. 1:91.. P*.D. P*... 1:9D) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* Language and Literature at Dartmout* $ollege "1911@19DL) William 3enney Brewster "... 1:9C.onte2iore .mos (*artle ?ers*ey ".. 19CD.D..B. 1:9L. 19CD) R Dean o2 t*e $ollege o2 Law at 9niversity o2 Nebraska "19 C@19 L) (tuart Daggett "... 1:91) R Pro2essor o2 +ren0* Language and Literature at ?arvard 9niversity "191!@19!L) /eremia* Denis ...ssistant Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at ?arvard 9niversity "19 @19 4) ..B.B.B. 19CL) R Pro2essor o2 Geology at Dartmout* $ollege "1911@19D1) -dmund .B. 19CD.meri0an ?istory at 9niversity o2 .B. 1::9.B.B.B.. .rt*ur L.B. 191C) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at 9niversity o2 . 1:91. 19C!. . 1:91) R Dean o2 $ollege o2 (0ien0e at 9niversity o2 Was*ington "191 @19!L) .lbert Bliss ". 1:9!) R Dean o2 t*e Graduate (0*ool at 9niversity o2 . LL. Dean ". 1:99) R Pro2essor o2 P*ysi0al $*emistry at 9niversity o2 $ali2ornia at Berkeley "191 @19DL) -dward Lee 3*orndike ". P*.. /o*ns ?opkins 19C9) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at Prin0eton 9niversity "1919@194 ) -dgar Noble Dur2ee ". 1:9C) R Pro2essor o2 Law at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "1:91@19!L) $urtis ?idden Page ".D.B.... 1:9!) R President o2 t*e $ity $ollege o2 New =ork "191D@19 1) William W.B. 1:9L. 19CL.innesota "19C9@19 1) /ames Walter Goldt*wait ".D. P*. 19C1) R Dean o2 $ollege o2 $ommer0e and . 19C ) R President o2 ?aver2ord $ollege "1911@19DC) George 3*omas ". 1:9L. LL. . P*. 1:94.. 1:9C.. 19CD) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at ?arvard 9niversity "1914@19!:) ?enry .B.B. . 19CL) R Dean o2 t*e $ollege o2 $ommer0e at 9niversity o2 $ali2ornia at Berkeley "19 C@19 1) ?enry $raig /ones ".B. 1:9 ) R Dean o2 (0*ool o2 . 1:94.. 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19C9@19!L) . =eomans ".B... 19CD) R Pro2essor o2 Law at 9niversity o2 .ental ?ygiene at Baylor 9niversity E3e6asF "19 !@19 L) .i0*igan "191D@0.B. 1::1) R Dean o2 Nort*western 9niversity (0*ool o2 Law "19C1@19 9) . P*. 1::L.assa0*usetts 'nstitute o2 3e0*nology "19C1@19!!) Wilder Dwig*t Ban0ro2t ". 19CC.issouri "19C1@19D4) &oswell Parker .D.bner (eavey ".B.i0*igan "1914@19 1) ?enry Landes ". 19CC.B..D.e8es ".. 1:9:. 1:99) R ?udson Pro2essor o2 -nglis* ?istory at 9niversity o2 ..B.D.ugustus Bigelow ". P*..B.D. 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 P*ysi0s at /o*ns ?opkins 9niversity "19C1@19 :) George ?erbert .D..D. LL. 19C .orde0ai Lemann ". LL..B.l2red ?enry Lloyd ". 1::!) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at 9nion $ollege "1:94@19! ) /o*n %sborne (umner ".. 1:9!) R Pro2essor o2 Law at 9niversity o2 'llinois "19CD@0. ".B.dministration at 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19C9@19 D) Warren . 19C4) R Pro2essor o2 -uropean ?istory at 9niversity o2 .D.B.D.orss Lovett ".. ... 1:9D) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at Brown 9niversity "1911@19!L) ..B.. 191C) R . 1911) R Dean o2 t*e Graduate (0*ool at $ornell 9niversity "19 !@19 4) -dward -verett ?ale ".B. LL.ars*all ".organ /r. 1:91.. P*... 19C4) R Pro2essor o2 ?ygiene at ?arvard 9niversity "191D@19 D) %liver .D... 19C1) R Pro2essor o2 Law at =ale 9niversity "1919@19 9) William (tearns Davis ".0$abe ".. P*.ssistant Pro2essor "19C:@1911) and Pro2essor "1911@19D1) o2 Psy0*ology at =ale 9niversity -dward (ampson 3*urston ". .B...bbott Payson 9s*er ".D.. 19C .B. 1:9L) R Pro2essor o2 German at Bowdoin $ollege "19C9@19D4) Gilbert Newton Lewis ".B. P*. ..B.B. LL... 1:9 . 1:91.att*ias +ord ". 1:9L..B. 1:99) R Pro2essor o2 $*emistry at ?arvard 9niversity "1914@19DD) /osep* Warren ". P*.D. P*. LL. LL.. 1:91) R Pro2essor o2 +ren0* and (panis* Languages at ?arvard 9niversity "19C1@19D!) Gregory Paul Ba6ter ".B... 19C1.ead ".B.ngier "..B. 19CC) R President o2 t*e 9niversity o2 ?awaii "191D@19 1) /osep* +ren0* /o*nson "..B. .B.B. 19C!... P*.B.19 :) William Ni0kerson Bates ". 1:9D.ndrew ?enry Patterson ".B..i0*igan "191L@19DC) ?arry .B.B.B.. 19C4) R Pro2essor o2 Law at =ale 9niversity "1911@19 4) .B. 1:9L. P*.B.. . 1:9D. P*.B. . 19C . 19CC. 1:::. 1:91) R Pro2essor o2 -du0ational Psy0*ology at $olumbia 9niversity "19CD@19DC) /onas 7iles ".B. 1:9L.. LL. 1:99) R Pro2essor o2 Law at 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19C9@19!9) &os0oe /ames ?am ". 19CC) R Pro2essor o2 Law at ?arvard 9niversity "191!@19D ) $*ester Noyes Greenoug* "..it0*ell Wentwort* (prague "..B. 19CD) R Pro2essor o2 P*ilosop*y at ?arvard 9niversity "191D@19D!) &oger 'rving Lee ".. 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 Politi0al (0ien0e and 'nternational Law at 'ndiana 9niversity "19C4@19!!) Lindsay 3odd Damon ".. 1:9L.B.B..B.... 19C1) R Pro2essor o2 Law at $olumbia 9niversity "191D@19 4) &obert .. P*. P*. 19CD.pplied (0ien0e at 9niversity o2 Nort* $arolina "1911@19 :) $*arles &ussell Bardeen "..D.. 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 P*ysi0al $*emistry at $ornell 9niversity "19C!@19!1) William /ulian . 1:91.... P*.B..D.D..B. 1:9:. 19C . 1:9!) R Pro2essor o2 Greek at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "19C1@19!9) &eynolds Driver Brown ". P*. 1:94.. .B...D. "1911@19D!) William -rnest ?o0king ".B. 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 P*ilosop*y at 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19C1@19!1) +rederi0k Green "..B. 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at $olumbia 9niversity "19CL@19D!) &alp* Waldo Gi22ord ". "..... 19C!.B. 191D) R Pro2essor o2 .B.. .1::L) R President o2 9niversity o2 %regon "19C @19 4) (idney -dward . LL.$*arles ?enry $onrad Wrig*t ".B. 19C9.B. 1:9L) R President o2 9niversity o2 9ta* "19 1@19D1) . 1::!. P*.D.eniston "..B. .B..B.00ounts and +inan0e at New =ork 9niversity "19C!@19 4) /o*n ?enry Wigmore ".orris ...

Webber < $o. (<. ?urd "B..... (<B 19C9) R*attan BankF "191L@19! ). (<. (<... 1::9... . 19C4.ember o2 Davis. 19D4@194C) George &oberts "B. "1919@19!!) +ran0is Ward Paine "B. (<. o2 New =ork "1:99@19!C) Per0y &o0ke2eller "B. Polk < Wardwell "19C9@194!) Lansing P... (<.lots "B.allet@Prevost.. 191!@19 1. 1:9C) R President o2 3oledo 3erminal &ailroad $ompany "191D@194C) Louis Warren ?ill "P*....ember o2 Wint*rop. 1:9C) R President o2 3*e . (<. (<. 19C:) R Partner o2 (*earman < (terling "1911@191!) ?enry Waters 3a2t "B.... 1:9!) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 Great Nort*ern &ailway E(t. $olumbia 1:1L) R . "191!@19!1) .s*bel Barney Newell "B. 19C:.. .ember o2 $urtis.... (<. (<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $o.. 1::!) R President o2 $olgate < $ompany "19 C@19 4) ?oward ?ein8 "B. (<B 1::1) R Partner o2 (impson. 19C:) R Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o.. "19 1@1944) ?arry -. 1::D) R . $losson < .llen Wardner -varts "B... Ward "B. 1::4.. 1:99) R Partner o2 /. 1:9!) R President o2 $in0innati Gas < -le0tri0 $ompany "1914@19 :) (olomon . 1914) R 7i0e President o2 Bankers 3rust $o. 19C1) R President o2 'rving 3rust $o..rt*ur ?urd "B..nderson "B.. 19CD. (<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "191D@19 L) /o*n Perrin "B. 1::9) R President o2 $onne0ti0ut General Li2e 'nsuran0e $o.. (<. 1:9 .. 191!. 1:9L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $leveland "1911@19D9) Businessmen5 /ames $. LL.ars*all /ewell Dodge "B. 1:L9) R . 19C9. &*ode 'slandF "19 @19DD) . 1::4) R Partner o2 .ember o2 -varts. Putnam < &oberts "19 1@19L4) Douglas .organ B. "B.uni0*.. (<B 1:9C) R President o2 (out*ern &ailway $o.ember o2 . 1:9!..0llvaine Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:94@19 4) ?enry Burr Barnes. 3*a0*er "B. 1:9C.ortimer Norton Bu0kner "B. 1:9:..nderson < ..B.lbert (mit* "B. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19!L) . 19CD.P..B. .organ < $o. 1:14) R Partner "1::D@191:) and (enior Partner "191:@19!L) o2 (*earman < (terling $*aun0ey Brewster Garver "B.. $*oate < (*erman Eand prede0essor 2irmsF "1:14@19!1)> great@ grandson o2 &oger (*erman ?enry Burrall . Day < Lord "19CC@19D1) . 19CC.oore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191!@194L) $*arles W*eeler Pierson "B. international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:) . (<B 191C) R Deputy Governor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 C@19 :) Pierre /ay "B... "B. (<B 19CD) R ... (<B 1::4) R . ?arvard 19C:) R Partner o2 Wint*rop. $*oate < (*erman Eand prede0essor 2irmsF "1:1D@19!9) 3*omas 3ownsend (*erman "B.. "1911@19 9) &obert W.B... (<B 1:9D) R ... ?err "P*. Gardiner < &eed "1914@19!1) ?enry L. 1::D..iken "B...B. &eed "B.. Einvestment banking 2irm in BostonF "1919@19DC) .. 19C!) R President o2 ./. LL. 1:1:) R President o2 .l2red Lawren0e &ipley "B. 1::D) R President o2 Westing*ouse -le0tri0 < . 3*a0*er < Bartlett "191D@19 4. .etna Li2e 'nsuran0e $o.ortgage@Bond $ompany o2 New =ork Ebusiness 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191C@19 9) &i0*ard .ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1:99@19D4) George $oggill "B.... 19C9) R 7i0e President o2 Bonbrig*t < $o..oen < Dwig*t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19 :) ..ans2ield "B. (<B 1:11) R (enior Partner o2 Lord. 19C:) R . Germany "November 9.. (<. 1:9!.. o2 $*i0ago "191D@1941) $laren0e $li22ord ?armstad "B. E?art2ord.P.ember o2 Lord. 19C:.... (<. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 !@194C) 3*omas $o0*ran "B. 1:91) R $*airman o2 t*e board "19 !@19 D) and President "191:@19 !) o2 National (*awmut Bank in Boston Wilson Gordon Wing "B.ember o2 $urtis. (<B 1:91) R .=ale 9niversity Graduates and 3*eir %00upation during t*e Beer ?all Puts0* in ...ortgage $orporation E0ompany in New =ork $ityF "19C!@19!!) /ames Norman ?ill "B. 19C1) R Partner o2 $adwalader. Paul. "19D @19D9) ... (timson.a6well ..B. 1:9D) R Partner o2 /. . Wardwell. Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 Boston "19 !@19!1) George L. 1:99) R President o2 Nort*ern 3rust $o.. "1919@19D1) +air2a6 ?arrison "B.. o2 New =ork "191L@19 :) ?arry Payne W*itney "B...l2red Lee Loomis "B.. Day < Lord "19C:@19!:) ?enry De+orest Baldwin "B. 1::9) R . 1::C..lts0*ul "B... Le22ingwell "B.ember o2 de+orest Brot*ers Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9!@19! ) +rederi0k ... 19C:.o22at "B. ?arrison "B.B.ingsbury $urtis "B.ember o2 Davis. ... o2 New =ork "1914@19!C) W. $olt < .. 'n0. .ember o2 -varts. 19C!. 1914. (<. ... Gris0om < $ompany. LL. 1::4. 19!!@19DC.. ?ein8 $o. Guarantee < 3rust $ompany Ebusiness 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19 D) George .organ < $o.innesotaF "191 @19 9) $*arles Davies /ones "B.. (waine < . (<B 19CC) R .. 1:::. 1:9!) R Dire0tor o2 $*ase National Bank o2 New =ork Elater $*ase .. (<B 19C:) R 7i0e President o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. 1:91. (<B 1::4) R President o2 Bertron.. 1:9!) R 3reasurer o2 3itle. (<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $adwalader. 1:1L.. 1:14.nson Garver "B..ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 Guaranty 3rust $o.ember o2 $adwalader. "19 1@19D ) (amuel &.. 1::1. (<.. Gris0om < $ompany..... 1::L.. 1:9:) R Partner o2 Bertron. o2 New =ork "191L@19D1) Boylston .er0*ants National Bank o2 Boston "1911@19 9)> $lass .. ?arvard 19C1) R Partner o2 $ravat*. 1:::. 1:9D. 1::1. $onne0ti0utF "19 @1941) Gilbert $olgate "B. 1:19.ember o2 (impson. 1:94.ember o2 t*e board o2 governor o2 t*e New =ork (to0k -60*ange "19 1@19!:) -dwin . LL. 1:94) R .. /r. Wrig*t "P*. (timson "B.. 1:1D. (timson. (<B 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "19 @19!:) &oss P. $olumbia 1::L) R . 19CC) R President o2 ?... LL. (<.dams 3ompkins "B.. 19C!) R President o2 Providen0e 'nstitution 2or (avings Ebank in Providen0e. 1::9. Bartlett "B. dire0tor o2 3*e 3e6as $ompany E3e6a0oF "191!@19! ) Lawyers5 /o*n . international 2inan0iers "19C1@19!C) ?arold (tanley "B..... Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1911@1941) P*ilip G. Bertron "B. (timson.B. 19CC. 1:1:. (<B 191!) R ... (<.anu2a0turing $o. 'n0. 1::4. Polk.llen 3. 191C) R . ?untington /r.verell ?arriman "B. 1:94.... 1:9C. 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19CD@19DL) 3*omas D... 191C.... ..B. 1:9C) R .. 19!!@19D!) ?oward .llen Wardwell "B.ember o2 Paine. 1:9!) R Partner o2 .ember o2 Parsons. 1:11. 1:1L) R .ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 Guaranty 3rust $o.l2red L.u0*in0loss "B. "19C1@19!L) . "1919@19D )> $*airman o2 'rving 3rust $o. 3*a0*er < Bartlett "1:9C@19!1) Gra*am (umner "B.le6ander < Green Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CC@19 9) ?enry W*eeler de +orest "B. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "191:@19!4) Walbridge (mit* 3a2t "B. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19D4) &ussell $. 1::1) R (enior Partner o2 (*e22ield and Betts Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19!:) ?erbert Parsons "B.allet@Prevost < $olt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF> died in 1949 .. 1::L. 1:9C. (<B 1:19) R $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 (an +ran0is0o "191D@19 4) (tan2ord 3appan $rapo "B. Putnam < &oberts "1:91@19CL. (<B 19CD) R Partner o2 (impson.. (<B 1::L) R . Brainard "B.osle Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1::9@19 L) ?arris Duns0omb $olt "B. (<B 1:::) R President o2 Lawyers .. (<B 1:::) R $ounsel o2 Wint*rop. Putnam < &oberts "191D@19L:) .. (<. 19 !) Bankers5 +rank .nderson Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9:@19 :) /ames &o0kwell (*e22ield "B.

Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 New /ersey "/an. 19CL.. (out* . 19 !@19 4) /ames ... 1::1..0$ormi0k "B. 1914@19! ) .(. (<B 191C) R . 1914) R .. 1:91) R 9.. 19 @19 9) . -mbassy in Paris.. (<B 1:94) R .ember o2 ?alsey.l2red N. 19 1@19 :..ember o2 $onne0ti0ut (tate Board o2 -du0ation "1919@19 9) Walter Deyo ?ood "B. $onne0ti0ut "+ebruary@.. /r. 1:99) R .ee22e Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191D@19 :) . (<B 1:1:) R $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e 9.oor*ead < . (<.(. 3ilson "B. 1:1!) R 9. . 1:9L. 19CL) R 9.(. 19 !) William Warner ?oppin "B..agee "B...ssistant 9. $onsul in /o*annesburg.. 19C4@19 D) LeBaron Brad2ord $olt "B. (enator "&@$onne0ti0ut.B 1::!) R General $ounsel o2 . 1::D.(..(. (enator "D@Delaware. LL. New =ork $ityF "1911@19 L) Government %22i0ials5 William ?oward 3a2t "B. .B. $onsul@General in Genoa. 19C1) R ( EBritis* -mpireF "19 C@19 D) George ..ayer. 19 !@Nov. 9. (<..s*bel Parmelee +it0* "B. 1:91) R 9.(. 19!!@19!1) William Newell 7aile "B.. 'taly "19 1@19 L) William ?olt Gale "P*. 1:9C) R 9.0Dowell "B.. (enator "&@New =ork.F "19 1@19!!.iernan < %A. 1::!) R $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e $onne0ti0ut (upreme $ourt o2 -rrors "19 C@19!C) ?iram Bing*am ''' "B.ennet* Donald "B. 1911) R .naebel "B.B. 19 1@19 D) . 19 !@19!!) Parker $orning "B.meri0an Brake (*oe < +oundry $ompany "191D@19! ) &alp* -rnest &ogers "B... $ongressman "&epubli0an@Pennsylvania.sso0iate General $ounsel o2 (tandard %il $ompany o2 New /ersey E-66onF "19 1@19!4) George .ott < Grant Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CD@19 L) Walter +rederi0k $arter "B... 1:9:) R Partner o2 Wilson < ..ember o2 Webb.dams "B.. New =ork "19 !@19 L) /o*n Ball %sborne "B. 1::1) R $orporation $ounsel o2 New Britain. 1:9D) R .. 1::1. 1:91) R .. 1914. 19!1) /o*n +oster (ymes "P*.utual 3rust $ompany ENewark.ember o2 &osent*al. . $onne0ti0ut "19 1@19!!) /o*n Gardner 3al0ott "B. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Nort*ern Distri0t o2 . Poole < .. (<.(. 1914@19 1) (elden Palmer (pen0er "B. 1::!) R /udge o2 t*e 9.... +ran0e "19 1@19 D) Garrard B..ember o2 3a2t. (<B 1:14) R /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New =ork "1:9:@19 D) /o*n Pro0tor $larke "B. 191L) R (e0retary o2 t*e 9. 1:L:) R 9. Winston "B. 1:99.(. $onsul General in ?ong .. 1:1C) R General $ounsel o2 $entral &ailroad o2 New /ersey "1:1D@19 D) Louis ?ood "B.(. New /erseyF "191D@19! ) Guy Wellman "B.. 1:1C. 1:9:) R . 1:9 > (<.ustrian < Platt Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19 @19L1) +rederi0 Burn*am "B. 1914@19 4) +rederi0k &eimold Le*lba0* "B. 1:9 ) R /udge o2 t*e 9.. 1:9D.(. 1::D) R /udge o2 t*e 9..(. 1::D) R 9. $ongressman "Demo0rat@New =ork. Patterson < ?adley Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 @19 9) /o*n Loomer ?all "B. Boland < $*nstin Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "191:@19D!) William (inger . 1:9 ) R /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New =ork "191:@19DC) (ylvester Baker (adler "B. "B. 19 !@November 19. (<...0'lvaine Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "1919@19DD) 'saa0 ?enry . $ongressman "&epubli0an@&*ode 'sland.. 1:14.(.oor*ead "B. (<B 19CL) R .ember o2 ?art2ord Board o2 -du0ation "19C1@19C:...ay 11. 1L. 1::1.(. 1:19) R . 1::D. +ran0e "19 1@19 4) Lauren0e ?arper Norton "B.. 1::9> (<B 1::9) R ..ember o2 $*oate. (<B 1::1) R . 1:9!... ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) William +rederi0k Poole "B.. (tettinius < ?ollister Elaw 2irm in $in0innati.. (<. $ongressman "Demo0rat@$onne0ti0ut. 1::D) R (enior . 19 !@November !C..(.. 191C.ars* /udd "B. . (<B 1:91) R Partner o2 $urtin... LL.... $onne0ti0ut "19 !@19 D. 1:9D. 1::D) R .. 191!) R . . Bisbee < (tern Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 1@19 4)> .innesota "191D@19 4) ?enry $lay . 1::1) R (e0retary and . 3ittmann /r. 19C:) R 9. . $ongressman "&epubli0an@New /ersey....(..labama "19C9@19!4) Wilbur +ranklin Boot* "B. "B.(.. 1:19> (<B 1:19) R /udge o2 $onne0ti0ut (upreme $ourt o2 -rrors "19 1@19 D) George Wakeman W*eeler "B. 1:9 ... 1::9.irk*am "B. 1:91) R 9..rnon .eyer.(. 1911@19!1. 191 ) R 9...ttorney 2or t*e Distri0t o2 $onne0ti0ut "19 C@19 !) ?enry ?astings $urran "B.. "B.. 3reasurer. (<B 1:9D) R .(.ugustus ....ember o2 $onne0ti0ut (tate Board o2 -du0ation "1919@19!4) /ulian W*eeler $urtiss "B.... Woodru22 "B. %*ioF "19 !@19!9) Dean G.B. 1::D. LL.ember o2 .0*eson "B. .ssistant General $ounsel 2or . 19 D.ember o2 ?ug*es..ustrian < Platt Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "1911@19D ) &obert .llen Elaw 2irm in BostonF "1914@19 L) $*arles ?ump*rey ?amill "B..B..lmet +ran0is /enks "B.. 19C9@191!. (*erman < $ompany Eiron ore and pig iron.. (<.(.ayer "B. (enator "&@.eyer. $ongressman "&epubli0an@$onne0ti0ut.(. P*illips "B.nig*t "B. 19C ) R Partner o2 ..... (<. 19CD) R . 19C1) R . D.. 1:1!.....ember o2 &us*more.... "B.ttorney General in 0*arge o2 0ustoms 0ases "19 1@19 4) +rank Boswort* Brandegee "B.erritt "B.. 1:9C) R . Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 .ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 -nglis*@(peaking 9nion o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19 C@19 4) Nat*aniel 3aylor Guernsey "B. 19!D@19D1) (amuel . 19!1@19!4) George W..(.. 1:94. 1:::.$. 1:9L) R 9.ayor o2 (tam2ord....no6 Elaw 2irm in Pittsburg*F "1911@194 ) $*arles P. 1919@19 4) 3*omas +ran0is Bayard /r. 19 !@19 4) /o*n ?enry . ?amill < Wormser Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19CL@19D1) William Browne ?ale "B. 1:1:. LL..(. (0*urman < Dwig*t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9:@19!L) 7anderbilt Webb "B.. 1::4) R 9. 1:9:) R Lieutenant Governor o2 $onne0ti0ut "19 @19 D) . 1914@19!1) (0*uyler . 191!. 1:94) R 9.B..2ri0a "19 @19 :) ?arold ?. 19 !@19 1) &i0*ard (teere . 19!4@19!L) ?arrison ?ewitt "B. ...ldri0* "B.. 1:1:) R General $ounsel o2 +idelity .....errill ...ember o2 New ?aven Board o2 -du0ation "19 @19 9) +ran0is Parsons "B. 1:1:) R 9. 1:9:) R 9. 1::9) R 9..ay 191:..ember o2 . 1:99) R . . -mbassy in Paris. ENew =ork $ityF "191D@19 L) &obert Weeks de +orest "B. (upreme $ourt &eporter o2 De0isions "191L@19DD) -dward Lauren0e (mit* "B.0Devitt . 1:9C.. (<B 1:9!) R . Burpee "B..oores "B.. ..(. (<B 1::D) R /udge o2 t*e 9..ember o2 $*ristin. 191!@19 D) /ames Wol0ott Wadswort* /r.ttorney General o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1) . $ongressman "&epubli0an@$olorado. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 $olorado "19 @194C) -rnest . LL....(.(. 1:91.iling "B. (enator "&@&*ode 'sland. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Western Distri0t o2 7irginia "19C1@19!1) William Nelson &unyon "B. and General $ounsel o2 Wit*erbee. 1:9L) R 9. LL. (<B 1:99) R 9. (<.... 1:9:) R 9...ember o2 +it0*.meri0an 3elegrap* < 3elep*one $o. 19C ) R 9. 191:@19 4) /osep* ... 1919@19 1) Patri0k Brett %A(ullivan "B.. 191C) R 3*ird (e0retary o2 t*e 9.. (enator "&@'llinois.(.issouri..(.. ... ?owland "B.. 19 !@19L!) Gi22ord Pin0*ot "B.B. 1:19.(. 1:9L) R /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 Pennsylvania "19 1@19!1) Lu0ien +.. . 19 !@19!1) /o*n 3aber "B.(.(.. $ongressman "&epubli0an@New =ork.(. 1:9:) R 9.nig*t.. 19CC) R /udge o2 t*e 9. (upreme $ourt "19 1@19!C)> President o2 t*e -nglis*@(peaking 9nion o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19 1@19!C) William 'rwin Grubb "B. 1::4) R 9. $ongressman "&epubli0an@'ndiana.. 1:1:) R /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New =ork "19C1@19 L) $*arles Brown (ears "B.. 1:9L.B.. $ommissioner o2 'mmigration at -llis 'sland..ember o2 $onne0ti0ut (tate Board o2 -du0ation "1919@19!1) . 19! @19D1) /o*n V.ssistant (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "/uly 9.ember o2 $ovington < Burling Elaw 2irm in Was*ington. 1:94) R .lva B. 19CC) R 9. (<. $ongressman "&epubli0an@$onne0ti0ut. 1:91) R $orporation $ounsel o2 New ?aven./o*n &ogers ?alsey. (enator "D@$olorado. (<B 1::9) R Governor o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1.(.. 3a2t "B.. .ayer.

. (<B 1:1D) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 1@19!C) $*arles +ranklin Bliss "B. LL.. (<B 1:1C) R President o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 &o0ke2eller 'nstitute 2or .mos Pin0*ot "B.. valedi0torian) R Dean o2 New =ork Law (0*ool "1:91@19 D) William Di0k $utter "B.. 1:99) R General Dire0tor o2 3*e $ommonwealt* +und "19 1@19D1) Daniel Davenport "B. 1:91. P*.D. P*. 1:99. 1:99. Lu0e "B.. (<B 1:1C) R President o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 &o0ke2eller 'nstitute 2or . 1:1C...arble $ollegiate $*ur0* in New =ork $ity "1:91@19 L) ?oward $*andler &obbins "B... 1:9 . (<B 19C:) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "191:@19!1) $live Day "B... P*. 7in0ent "B. 1:9 .. (<. 1:L1) R Pastor o2 .. /o*n t*e Divine ENew =ork $ityF "1911@19 9) Dwig*t ?untington Day "B. LL...ember o2 t*e 0oun0il o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 !@19! ) Lewis (*eldon Wel0* "B..ilitary . 1:1C.edi0al (0*ool "19 !@19 :) Warren . 1::1.. .0ademy "1919@19!C) Etaug*t wit* rank o2 lieutenant 0olonel and 0olonelF 3*omas Walter (wan "B.ustin . 19C4) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s. Davies "B. 1:9!.. 1::4) R President o2 3*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "1911@19 9) /ames &o0kwell (*e22ield "B. 1:1C... 1:91) R .. 1::9. 'n0.-dwin +. 1:91) R Woolsey Pro2essor o2 Bibli0al Literature at =ale 9niversity "19C1@19 4) George Da*l "B.. 1::9.sso0iate 3reasurer and $omptroller o2 =ale 9niversity "19 @19D ) $*arles (eymour "B.. 3rubee Davison "B. (<. Wel0* "B. (<B 1911) R . 1:94) R Pro2essor o2 German at Dartmout* $ollege "19CD@19DD) .adison.. 1:L1) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (out*ern %*io "19CD@19 9) (idney $. 1:99... (<B 1:11) R . P*.. Partridge "B..... Government. 1::L.. 1911.. Board o2 +oreign . 19C!) R Pro2essor o2 -du0ation at $olumbia 9niversity 3ea0*ers $ollege "19 1@19D ) George Was*ington Patterson ''' "B. 19 1@19 1) . (<B 1::D) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "191:@19!C) (amuel $larke Bus*nell "B.edi0al &esear0* "19C1@19!D) Barry $ongar (mit* "B... 1911) R . 1:9L) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "191C@19!C) ?arlan Page Bea0* "B..mos Parker Wilder "B. (<. (<B 1:9 ) R Dean o2 =ale (0*ool o2 +orestry "19CC@19!9) Wilbur L.. (<. $olumbia 19C1) R Pro2essor o2 P*arma0ology at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "191C@19DL) ?oward Brown Woolston "B.lbert Beebe W*ite "B.D.issions o2 t*e Presbyterian $*ur0* in t*e 9.D. 1::C) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 %lympia.lbert Lee "B.D..... 1:: . (<... 1::C.. 1:1!.ent "B.. (<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL) $*arles ?opkins $lark "B.assa0*usetts "1911@19!L) BenJamin Brewster "B.. (<B 1::1) R Pro2essor o2 German at =ale 9niversity "1:99@19!!) ?enry ?allam 3weedy "B. Wa. 19C1.i0*igan "1914@19!C) .iddlebury $ollege "19 1@19D ) George $*ase "B.sso0iation ELeague 2or 'ndustrial &ig*tsF "19C:@19!C) William ?..sso0iated Press "19 !@19! ) . 1::D.oody "B. 1:91.B..D. 1::D) R President o2 9niversity o2 'llinois "19 C@19!C) Paul Dwig*t . P*. 1:9:) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at 9niversity o2 .edill Patterson "B. 1:94) R Pro2essor o2 Law at Nort*western 9niversity Law (0*ool "19C1@19 4) Ni0kolaus Louis -ngel*ardt "B. P*.ember o2 t*e Board o2 -du0ation o2 Grand &apids.anaging -ditor o2 %ur World "19 @19 D) $ollege Pro2essors5 David .D.edi0al &esear0* "19C1@19!D) . (<B 1:9D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Western ....... 1::D) R Pro2essor o2 -ngineering . .. (<. 19C . (<B 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "1:9!@19!4)> +ounder and inaugural President o2 . (<B 1:91) R Pro2essor o2 Pra0ti0al 3*eology at =ale Divinity (0*ool "19C9@19!1) $*arles +oster ...ssembly "19 @19 L) /ournalists5 -dward .nti@Boy0ott . (<B 1::1) R . 19CD.eator "B... P*. 1911) R . 1:91) R 3reasurer o2 =ale 9niversity "191C@19D ) 3*omas Wells +arnam "B.issouri "1911@19!C) 3*omas +.. 1:L1. "19CL@19 D) -ugene . 1:: . 1:1!) R .(. (<. (<.. 19C1) R President o2 .... 1:::.. 1:1C.B.. Davis "B.(. 1::9) R Dean o2 t*e Graduate (0*ool at =ale 9niversity "191L@19!C) George Parmly Day "B. (<B 1::C) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Western .. 1::1. 1:9 ..i0*igan "1:99@19CL.D. Graves "B.... 191:..eyer "B. 1:19) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 trustees o2 =ale@in@$*ina "1911@19 :) -dward Bliss &eed "B. (<B 1:: ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 . 1:1 . 1::C.. (<. 19CC) R Dean o2 =ale Law (0*ool "191L@19 1) ?enry (. 19 C.al0olm W. and ?istory at 9.meri0an -ugeni0s (o0iety "19 !@19 L) Gustav Gruener "B. 1:11. 1:1:) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "191L@19! ) &obert ?askell $ory "B. 19C ) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "191L@19D1) . 1::4. 19 !@19 L) /o*n Baker ?ollister "B.e0*ani0s at 9niversity o2 ... P*.. P*.meri0an $ivil Liberties 9nion +rederi0k Wells Williams "B.....D.aine "191L@19D1) David /ames Burrell "B... 1:1!) R General $ounsel o2 . (<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 3ime...nt*ony Brad2ord "B.D. 1:11.... 1::C) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 @19D ) Dan2ord Newton Barney "B.ember o2 t*e 0oun0il o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19C:@19!D) $*aun0ey B. "19C @19 D) -dwin (tevens Lines "B. 1:L1. 1:9:) R Pro2essor o2 (o0iology at 9niversity o2 Was*ington "1919@19D1) Lu0ius ?udson ?olt "B..innesota "19C1@19DC) $*arles $*eney ?yde "B.. (<B 1::D) R Pro2essor o2 German at =ale 9niversity "1:9 @19 :) &obert Nelson $orwin "B. 1:99) R . 1:99) R Dean o2 New =ork Post Graduate ..ember o2 t*e 0oun0il o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 1@19!!) -llery (..ember o2 t*e New =ork (tate . 1:9D) R (uperintendent o2 (0*ools o2 ..... 1911..D. (<B 1:99) R 3reasurer. (<..... 1:L:. (<B 191:) R ... 1:94) R . 1::D.. 1::1.. 1:1 ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Newark. 1:1!.. 1::L.. /ames "B. 19C1) R $o@-ditor and Publis*er o2 The %hicago Tribune "191D@19 4) ?enry &.dams "B. 1911..1:99) R Dean o2 $at*edral o2 (t.. New /ersey "19C!@19 1) Boyd 7in0ent "B. (<B 19C:) R Pro2essor o2 ?ebrew Language and Literature at =ale Divinity (0*ool "191D@19 9) $*arles -dward $lark "B.anaging Dire0tor o2 War +inan0e $orporation "1919@19 C.D... (<B 1:91) R $o@+ounder and Dire0tor "1911@19!C) o2 t*e .anager o2 2oreign editions o2 )ogue maga8ine "1919@19!!) BenJamin ?arris . 191!) R Pro2essor o2 Law at =ale Law (0*ool "1919@19 9) %rgani8ation -6e0utives5 George -... (<. Wis0onsin "19 1@19 :) +. 1:9D.meri0an . 1:1D..... (weet "B. 19C:. (<B 1::L) R Dire0tor o2 t*e . (<B 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "19C1@19!L) 'rving +is*er "B.. Brewster "B.... $owles "B. "19 !@19LD)> 2ounder o2 Time and Life maga8ines William ?... 1::1) R 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "1919@19!:) &obert Weeks de +orest "B... 1::4. P*. (<B 1:11) R President and -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 (artford %ourant "1:9C@19 L) . 1:91.inley "B.. 1:91.ember o2 $in0innati Board o2 -du0ation "19 1@19 9) 3*omas Warrington Gosling "B.nt*ony "B.. (<.. 1::1... .l2red Newton &i0*ards "B. 1:9D.. $ross "B... 1::9) R .. Wel0* "B. (<B 1:L:) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 $onne0ti0ut "1:99@19 :) +rederi0 W. P*.. 1:1C) R President o2 &ussell (age +oundation "191:@19!1) William ?.. 19C:. (<. 1:91... ...ember o2 t*e sta22 o2 The New Yor Times "1:1D@19 :) /osep* .


.. . =ale 19 C -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD) ?arold (tanley B.. Wel0* B. (timson B.(kull < Bones . 1914@19 1) 3*omas +.... B. Brandegee B.. 19D4@194C) 3*omas D.. =ale 1:9 $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "191D@19 L) William ?oward 3a2t B.mos Pin0*ot $o@+ounder and Dire0tor "1911@19!C) o2 t*e ..P. 191!@19 D) +rank B. =ale 1::4 9...(.. (enator "&@&*ode 'sland.. Bayard /r.meri0an -ugeni0s (o0iety> Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "1:9:@19!4) William ?...(. (timson.. =ale 1::: $ounsel o2 Wint*rop.. 19 @19 9) /ames .0Devitt .(. Lu0e B.(.agee B.. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4) George L. 3*a0*er < Bartlett "191D@ 19 4.organ < $o. (enator "&@New =ork. Putnam < &oberts "1:91@19CL.. =ale 1:9C 9..(.. =ale 1:99 9. ?arrison B. =ale 1::C Partner o2 $adwalader.... =ale 1:9: 9. =ale 1:19 $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 (an +ran0is0o "191D@19 4) Pierre /ay B. =ale 1::: +ounder o2 .edi0al &esear0* "19C1@19!D) . =ale 1:1C President o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 &o0ke2eller 'nstitute 2or . (enator "D@Delaware...embers and 3*eir %00upation during t*e Beer ?all Puts0* /o*n Perrin B.$L9) ?enry &. 3*a0*er B. 19 !@19 1) Gi22ord Pin0*ot B. =ale 1:9D Partner o2 /. 191!@19 1.meri0an $ivil Liberties 9nion ". 19!!@19D!) $*arles (eymour B. (enator "&@$onn.. Wadswort* /r... =ale 191C Deputy Governor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 C@19 :) LeBaron Brad2ord $olt B. (upreme $ourt "19 1@19!C) ?enry Waters 3a2t B.. =ale 19C: Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "191:@19!1) 'rving +is*er B...(. =ale 1:L: 9. =ale 1:1: $*ie2 /usti0e o2 9. =ale 19CD Partner o2 (impson. 19!!@19DC. "1911@19!L) ?enry L.... =ale 19C: 7i0e President o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. 19C4@19 D) /ames W. B... 19!1@19!4) .... $ongressman "&@Penn. o2 New =ork "191L@19 :) 3*omas $o0*ran B. =ale 1::9 Governor o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1.

. o2 New =ork "191L@19D1) (amuel &.ember o2 . (timson.0Devitt . o2 New =ork "191L@19 :) Elater merged wit* /P .no6 Elaw 2irm in Pittsburg*F "1911@194 ) /ournalists.(. ?urd "(<B 1:::) R President o2 Lawyers .ember o2 (age. Davies "(<B 1:9D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Western . 3odd < (ims Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C4@19D!) Lee /ames Perrin "(<B 19CL) R Partner o2 .ember o2 $*oate.ember o2 Lord. Lu0e "(<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 3ime. 'n0. 3*a0*er < Bartlett "1:9C@19!1) Gra*am (umner "(<B 1:91) R . 19!!@19DC. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@Pennsylvania.meri0an -mbassy in Paris. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 . 'n0. &eed "(<B 19CD) R . &ogers.ember o2 Davis. (enator "&epubli0an Party@&*ode 'sland.ember o2 Lord. ?arrison "(<B 191C) R Deputy Governor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 C@19 :) (tan2ord 3appan $rapo "(<B 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "19 @19!:) 3*omas $o0*ran "(<B 1:9D) R Partner o2 /.errill "(<B 1:L4) R .(. o2 New =ork "1:99@19!C) Per0y &o0ke2eller "(<B 19CC) R Dire0tor o2 Guaranty 3rust $o.sso0iated Press "19 !@19! ) $*arles ?opkins $lark "(<B 1:11) R President and -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 (artford %ourant "1:9C@19 L) 'rving +is*er "(<B 1:::) R +ounder and inaugural President o2 . (*eldon W*ite*ouse "(<B 19C4) R $ounselor o2 t*e . "19 !@19LD) William ?.ans2ield "(<B 1:11) R . Putnam < &oberts "19 1@19L4) Lansing P. 19 @19 9) /ames .organ $*aseF ?arry Payne W*itney "(<B 1:9D) R Dire0tor o2 Guaranty 3rust $o.verell ?arriman "(<B 191!) R Dire0tor o2 Guaranty 3rust $o..P. 191!@19 D) /ames Wol0ott Wadswort* /r. "(<B 1:9C) R 9. 19!1@19!4) George W. 3wombly.organ < $o.. Day < Lord "19C1@19!:) ?enry De+orest Baldwin "(<B 1::4) R . Putnam < &oberts "1:91@19CL.ppleton.ember o2 Wor0ester. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1:99@19D4)> President o2 t*e New =ork $ity Bar .(. (timson "(<B 1:::) R $ounsel o2 Wint*rop. Gi22ord < Woody Eand prede0essorsF Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1::!@19 D) -dwin Dean Wor0ester "(<B 1:1L) R .ember o2 Wint*rop. Bartlett "(<B 1::1) R Partner o2 (impson. /ones "(<B 1::D) R Dean o2 =ale 9niversity "19C9@19 1) . 19 !@19 1) Gi22ord Pin0*ot "(<B 1::9.(.ember o2 (impson.sso0iated Press "191 @19DD) BenJamin ?arris .(. ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) (amuel . . Wel0* "(<B 1:1C) R President o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 &o0ke2eller 'nstitute 2or . 3*a0*er < Bartlett "191D@19 4.ttorney General o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1) -.. (enator "&epubli0an Party@New =ork.oor*ead < .ortgage $orporation E0ompany in New =ork $ityF "19C!@19!!) Gustav Gruener "(<B 1::D) R Pro2essor o2 German at =ale 9niversity "1:91@19 D) &obert Nelson $orwin "(<B 1::1) R Pro2essor o2 German at =ale 9niversity "1:99@19!!) $live Day "(<B 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "19C1@19!L) $*arles (eymour "(<B 19C:) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "191:@19!1) George Da*l "(<B 19C:) R Pro2essor o2 ?ebrew Language and Literature at =ale Divinity (0*ool "191D@19 9) +rederi0k (. international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:) Lawyers5 ?enry Waters 3a2t "(<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $adwalader. Day < Lord "19CC@19D1) William Lloyd .lots "(<B 19C9) R .meri0an -ugeni0s (o0iety "19 !@19 L)> Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "1:9:@19!4) $*aun0ey B. (enator "&epubli0an Party@$onne0ti0ut. Williams < (a6e Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C9@19 9) Wint*rop -dwards Dwig*t "(<B 1:9!) R Partner o2 Dwig*t < (0oville Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19DD) Dean (age "(<B 1:91) R . (timson. and $ollege Pro2essors5 ?enry &.ember o2 . . Gray.ember o2 .(. $erman *Novem2er 9. (enator "Demo0rati0 Party@Delaware. &epubli0an) R Governor o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1.mos Pin0*ot "(<B 1:91) R $o@+ounder and Dire0tor "1911@19!C) o2 t*e . +ran0e "19 1@19 :) Bankers5 Pierre /ay "(<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "191D@19 L) /o*n Perrin "(<B 1:19) R $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 (an +ran0is0o "191D@19 4) George L. 19!!@19D!) ?oward .issions o2 t*e Presbyterian $*ur0* in t*e 9. o2 New =ork "1914@19!C) W. 1914@19 1) 3*omas +ran0is Bayard /r. Woodru22 "(<B 1::9) R . 19D4@194C) . 19C4@19 D) LeBaron Brad2ord $olt "(<B 1:L:) R 9.it0*el "(<B 1:9 ) R Partner o2 $adwalader. . Perrin < ?oyt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19DL) -dward Ban0ro2t 3wombly "(<B 191 ) R Partner o2 Putney. 3*a0*er "(<B 19CD) R Partner o2 (impson.meri0an $ivil Liberties 9nion> brot*er o2 Gi22ord Pin0*ot &i0*ard .nig*t. Polk. Bertron "(<B 1::4) R President o2 Bertron. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "191D@19D4) $*arles W*eeler Pierson "(<B 1::L) R . Wardwell."(ull C Bones and Beer &all . 19!3+ Government %22i0ials5 William ?oward 3a2t "(<B 1:1:) R $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19 1@19!C)> President o2 t*e -nglis*@(peaking 9nion o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19 1@19!C) Wilbur +ranklin Boot* "(<B 1::D) R /udge o2 t*e 9. 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19CD@19DL) 3*omas D. Gardiner < &eed "1914@19!1) P*ilip G.sso0iation "19 !@19 4)> brot*er o2 William ?oward 3a2t ?enry L.(.aine "191L@19D1) 3*omas +.agee "(<B 1:99) R 9.uts#h in %uni#h. Partridge "(<B 1::C) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Western .issouri "1911@19!C) BenJamin Brewster "(<B 1:: ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 . Boland < $*nstin Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "191:@19D!) William (inger .nt*ony "(<B 1::L) R Dire0tor o2 t*e .nig*t "(<B 1::1) R . ?all < (kidmore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1919@19LL) /o*n Loomer ?all "(<B 1:9D) R . 191!@19 1.ember o2 $*ristin. $owles "(<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL)> Dire0tor o2 t*e .ortimer Norton Bu0kner "(<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19 1@19D ) ?arold (tanley "(<B 19C:) R 7i0e President o2 Guaranty 3rust $o.oor*ead "(<B 19CL) R .edi0al &esear0* "19C1@19!D) ..errill.llen 3. Brewster "(<B 1:L:) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 $onne0ti0ut "1:99@19 :) (idney $.innesota "191D@19 4) +rank Boswort* Brandegee "(<B 1::4) R 9.assa0*usetts "1911@19!L) Dwig*t ?untington Day "(<B 1:99) R 3reasurer o2 t*e Board o2 +oreign . Gris0om < $ompany.le6ander < Green Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CC@19 9) Payson . "1911@19!L) . "19CL@19 D) William ?. "(<B 1:9:) R 9. %rgani8ation -6e0utives.

(kull < Bones initiation rituals allegedly in0lude individuals resting naked in a 0o22in and revealing t*eir se6 li2e to 1D 2ellow Bonesmen. nothing ha''ens 2 a##ident1 7f it ha''ens. ou #an 2et it 0as 'lanned that 0a 1= D . Prussian (atani0 (e0ret (o0ietyQ 3*e %rder o2 (kull < Bones is a se0ret so0iety at =ale 9niversity. 3*e %rder o2 (kull < Bones is also known as t*e SBrot*er*ood o2 Deat*.League+ and the (idden Paths of Power by .ran(lin >elano Roosevelt .".T 3*e number S! T is a mysterious number known only to members o2 3*e %rder o2 (kull < Bones.le6andra &obbins) <7n 'oliti#s. "(our0e5 &ecrets of the Tomb: & ull and *ones+ the .(kull < Bones5 .

3*e Na8i Deat* ?ead symbol is a repli0a o2 t*e symbol o2 (kull < Bones.ichmann !left# an" 0einrich 0immler !right# wear a s7ull an" crossbone emblem on their hat$ . a se0ret so0iety lo0ated at =ale 9niversity. A"olf .

T a German 0avalry regiment. William ?untington &ussell "rig*t) studied in Prussia 2or a year be2ore establis*ing (kull < Bones. 191:. t*e .aiser Wil*elm '' was t*e grandson o2 Vueen 7i0toria. $onne0ti0ut.aiser o2 Germany and . 3*e 3omb.aiser o2 Germany and . 9. 191:. wears t*e uni2orm o2 t*e SDeat*As ?ead ?ussars.(. a se0ret so0iety at =ale o2 Prussia during World War '> *e abdi0ated t*e t*rone on November 9. o22i0ial *eadIuarters o2 3*e %rder o2 (kull < o2 Prussia. 3*e skull and 0rossbone emblem o2 (kull < Bones "0enter) is a repli0a o2 t*e SDeat*As ?eadT symbol t*at appears on t*e .aiser Wil*elm ''As great@granddaug*ter is Vueen (o2ia o2 (pain. . two days be2ore Germany "Weimar &epubli0) announ0ed an armisti0e on November 11. .aiser Wil*elm '' was t*e .. Vueen o2 Great Britain and 'reland and -mpress o2 'ndia.aiserAs *at.Wil*elm '' "le2t). . . is lo0ated at =ale 9niversity on ?ig* (treet in New ?aven..

#Getty 'mages) . President ?erbert ?oover. an internationalist organi8ation in New =ork $ity. ?ug* &. ?erbert ?oover and ?ug* &. a se0ret so0iety at =ale 9niversity.ar0* :. (e0retary o2 (tate ?enry L. Wilson was a member o2 (kull < Bones.ustrian . Wilson were members o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations. (timson was a member o2 (kull < Bones. rides in a motorboat wit* 9. 19!:. ?enry L.Le2t to rig*t5 &ei0*sbank President and Na8i German -0onomi0s . a se0ret so0iety at =ale 9niversity.(. Wilson dress 2or t*e o00asion at a re0eption *eld in Berlin on .inister ?Jalmar (0*a0*t.meri0an . and .mbassador to Na8i Germany ?ug* &. "P*oto by New =ork 3imes $o. ".ussolini "le2t). t*e di0tator o2 +as0ist 'taly. (timson in 'taly in /anuary 19!1.(. 2ormer 9.r0*ives#$%&B'() Benito .

...organ..ssistant (e0retary o2 t*e Navy 2or . (po22ord B..4rominent Members of The Jr"er of '7ull F -ones "uring Worl" War )) ?ug* &obert Wilson B.... "19!1@19: ) ...... =ale 1::C Partner o2 $adwalader.a0Leis* B.. "19D1@19D4) $*arles (eymour B.artin 7orys B.nig*t Woolley B. 19!!@1941) &obert "19D1@19D4) &obert . . =ale 19CL 9.. =ale 19 C -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD) Pierre /ay B.. =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. (timson B. &oland ?arriman B.(.. =ale 191: 9. "19D1@19D:) ?enry Waters 3a2t B. "19D1@1944) George L.. Polk < Wardwell Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19DC@194C.mbassador to Na8i Germany "19!:) W. 194 @191!) /ames W.... . 19!9@1949) ... 19DC@19D4) -. "19!C@19D4) . Lu0e B.(. =ale 19C: Partner.. Bus* B. (enator "&@%*io.. 19!9@194!) /o*n .ssistant (e0retary o2 War 2or . =ale 19CD Partner o2 (impson. 3a2t B. =ale 191C President o2 New =ork Li2e 'nsuran0e $o.mbassador to t*e (oviet 9nion "19D!@19DL) ?enry L.. $ongressman "&@%*io.. =ale 1:9: 9. =ale 191: ... =ale 191: . "19!1@191 ) ?arold (tanley B..(.(. . Lovett B.. (tanley < $o. =ale 1::: (e0retary o2 War "1911@191!..verell ?arriman B. =ale 1:9 $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $o. "19!1@191:) Pres0ott (. =ale 19C: President o2 =ale 9niversity "19!1@194C) ... 3*a0*er B.. B..(. 3*a0*er < Bartlett Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!!@19D!) $*arles . =ale 191C 9. ?arrison B.rtemus L. $ongressman "&@New =ork. =ale 1914 Librarian o2 $ongress "19!9@19DD) ?enry &... =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. =ale 19 D ... Gates B. =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. Wadswort* /r.ember o2 Davis.. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4) 3*omas D. =ale 191! 9.r0*ibald .

nt*ony Lee . (timson "(<B 1:::) R "19D1@19D4) &obert .ldri0* "(<B 19 ) R -6e0utor and 3rustee o2 t*e estate o2 -dward (. "(<B 19 1) R General Partner o2 G. ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) . 19D1@194:) o2 . ?all < (kidmore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1919@19LL) /o*n Loomer ?all "(<B 1:9D) R . Gray. (timson.arden Davis "(<B 19!!) R Partner o2 Davis. 3a2t "(<B 191C) R 9.ember o2 t*e New =ork (to0k -60*ange "19D1@19L!) . &oland ?arriman "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1:99@19D4) William Lloyd . 19!!@1941) /o*n .verell ?arriman "(<B 191!) R 9. 3odd < (ims Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C4@19D!) Lee /ames Perrin "(<B 19CL) R Partner o2 ..inneapolis "19DC@194!) Walter (et* Logan "(<B 191C) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@194!) +rank P. (*epard "(<B 1911) R 7i0e President o2 Bankers 3rust $o. 3e6asF "19!C@1911) .mbassador to t*e (oviet 9nion "19D!@19DL)> $*airman o2 t*e board o2 9nion Pa0i2i0 &ailroad $o.ember o2 $*oate. 3weed. 3*a0*er "(<B 19CD) R Partner o2 (impson.orris ?adley "(<B 191L) R Partner o2 .mbassador to Na8i Germany "19!:) ?arvey ?. "19 9@194:) +rank +ord &ussell "(<B 19 L) R President o2 National .artin 7orys "(<B 191:) R 9. "19!D@19LC) $*arles /a0ob (tewart "(<B 191:) R 7i0e President o2 New =ork 3rust $o.it0*el "(<B 1:9 ) R Partner o2 $adwalader. Walker < $o. 'n0. . "19 9@191D) $*aun0ey /erome ?amlin "(<B 19C!) R . "19!1@19DL) .ember o2 Lord.llen 3. -lliott < .ortimer Norton Bu0kner "(<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19 1@19D ) ?arold (tanley "(<B 19C:) R Partner o2 . $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@%*io. .ember o2 Davis.P.ugust (idney Lovett "(<B 191!) R $*aplain o2 =ale 9niversity "19! @194:) ?enry &. Burtt "(<B 1914) R Pro2essor o2 P*ilosop*y at $ornell 9niversity "19!1@19LC) +rederi0 $. (tanley < $o.r0*ibald . Perrin < ?oyt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19DL) -dward Ban0ro2t 3wombly "(<B 191 ) R Partner o2 Putney. ?adley < .ssistant (e0retary o2 t*e Navy 2or . Davison /r. ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 1@1911) George +rederi0k Baer . Gra*am < (tubbs Elaw 2irm in DenverF "19!1@0.19: ) William (inger . Neil .meri0an ./.. "19!1@191:) Pres0ott (. 19!9@194!) /ames Wol0ott Wadswort* /r. $*ilgren < Waud Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19D @19LL) &i0*ard . 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19!!@19D!) .ember o2 (age.ppleton. "(<B 19 C) R Partner "19 9@19DC) and 7i0e President "19DC@19D ) o2 /. "19!4@19D9) ?enry P. "19!1@194L) -. Wilson "(<B 19CL) R 9.. Lovett "(<B 191:) R .ir "19D1@19D4) &obert .oor*ead < . .(.ember o2 . Douglas. "19!9@194D) +rederi0k -.ppel "(<B 19 D) R Partner o2 3ownsend.organ.(.orris ?adley "(<B 191L) R Deputy Dire0tor o2 %22i0e o2 War 'n2ormation "19D1@19D ) . Bus* "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@New =ork. Polk < Wardwell "19DC@194C.(.al0olm Pratt . "19! @19DL)> Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o.lots "(<B 19C9) R . ?arrison "(<B 191C) R President o2 New =ork Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. Weyer*aeuser "(<B 1:9L) R President o2 Weyer*aeuser 3imber $o.194D) Lawyers5 ?enry Waters 3a2t "(<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $*attan ProJe0t "development o2 atomi0 bombs) ?ug* &.organ < $o. (e0retary o2 War "19DC@19D4)> *ead o2 t*e . "(<B 1:9:) R 9..allon "(<B 1911) R President o2 Dresser 'ndustries. . Wal0ott "(<B 1:91) R &egent o2 t*e (mit*sonian 'nstitution "19D1@19D:) .ssistant (e0retary o2 War 2or . $arton.Members of '7ull F -ones an" Their Jccu&ation "uring Worl" War )) Government %22i0ials5 ?enry L.ember o2 Wint*rop.no6 Elaw 2irm in Pittsburg*F "1911@194 ) %t*ers5 $*arles (eymour "(<B 19C:) R President o2 =ale 9niversity "19!1@194C)> 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!9@19D4) Lauren0e G.nig*t Woolley "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o.ember o2 (impson. 194 @191!) . Lu0e "(<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 3ime. "19D1@19D:) ?. (enator "&epubli0an Party@%*io. Bundy "(<B 19C9) R (pe0ial .ember o2 $oke < $oke Elaw 2irm in Dallas.ore*ead Patterson "(<B 19 C) R $*airman "19D!@19L ) and President "19D1@19D!.unson Elaw 2irm in P*iladelp*iaF "19!:@191C) ?enry $orni0k $oke "(<B 19 L) R .ssistant to t*e (e0retary o2 War "19D1@19D4) W.(. &ay . 3ig*e "(<B 191L) R 3reasurer o2 =ale 9niversity "19D @194D) .i0*el "(<B 19 L) R Partner o2 Gardner. "19 !@19LD) William ?. (*epard "(<B 19C:) R $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 . Putnam < &oberts "19 1@19L4) $*arles . Day < Lord "19 9@19L9) Gra*am (umner "(<B 1:91) R . ?arkness "19DC@0.ember o2 $*oate.(.ar0ien /en0kes "(<B 19 1) R . "19!1@191 ) .ssistant (e0retary o2 (tate 2or Publi0 and $ultural &elations "19DD@19D4)> Librarian o2 $ongress "19!9@DD) . Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191D@19D4) ?enry De+orest Baldwin "(<B 1::4) R . 3wombly. ?obson "(<B 191D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (out*ern %*io "19!1@1949) ?enry (loane $o22in "(<B 1:91) R President o2 9nion 3*eologi0al (eminary "19 L@19D4) -dwin . "19D1@1944) &oger B. 19!9@1949) Bankers5 Pierre /ay "(<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) .ember o2 Lord. George ?erbert Walker /r.a0*ine < +oundry $o.(.viation $orp. $owles "(<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL) ?enry W.orris "(<B 19C1) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19: ) Businessmen5 George L. ?ein8 $ompany "19D1@1949) .a0Leis* "(<B 1914) R . "19!1@19D4) ?enry /o*n ?ein8 '' "(<B 19!1) R President o2 ?.rtemus L.?. .ilbank.0$loy "19 D@1919) Dean (age "(<B 1:91) R .oor*ead "(<B 19CL) R . 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19CD@19DL) 3*omas D. 'n0. Day < Lord "19CC@19D1) (*erman Baldwin "(<B 1919) R . Gates "(<B 191:) R . (po22ord "(<B 19 D) R .

+$B$ on March 25. a"ministers the oath of office to incoming ($'$ 'ecretary of 'tate 0enry 2$ 'timson in Washington. a secret society at Aale (ni%ersity$ !4hotoE 2ibrary of Bongress# . Bhief Justice of the ($'$ 'u&reme Bourt.William 0owar" Taft !left#. 1 2 $ William 0owar" Taft an" 0enry 2$ 'timson were members of '7ull F -ones.

'taly on /uly D. 3*e 0ity o2 &ome on0e served as t*e 0apital o2 t*e &oman -mpire. t*ird 2rom le2t)..inister 7ya0*eslav . in blue suit). .ydans#3ime Li2e) .rmy General . and ot*er . and a member o2 (kull < Bones...(.meri0an o22i0ers and o22i0ials salute to t*e . sits beside Britis* Prime . ?enry L. (oviet +oreign . (timson "2ront row..verell ?arriman "se0ond 2rom le2t). 19DD. "P*oto5 Library o2 $ongress) .ark $lark "2ront row. =ale 1:::).olotov is seated on t*e 2ar rig*t. 9. (timson was a graduate o2 =ale 9niversity "B. a member o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 D@ 19 9.inister Winston $*ur0*ill "le2t) and (oviet $ommissar /ose2 (talin in 19D . 19!D@194C).meri0an 2lag in t*e pla8a in 2ront o2 t*e Pia88a 7ene8ia during an o22i0ial 2lag lowering 0eremony s*ortly a2ter t*eir arrival in &ome. 2ar le2t. "P*oto by $arl . t*e $*airman o2 t*e board o2 9nion Pa0i2i0 &ailroad and Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. Snew world orderT in t*e -ternal $ity5 (e0retary o2 War ?enry L.

191: and 2or0es t*e abdi0ation o2 t*e . 0rowd gat*ers outside t*e &ei0*stag in Berlin as German statesman P*ilipp (0*eidemann pro0laims t*e German &epubli0 outside t*e &ei0*stag on November 9.Armistice & Political Turmoil in Germany >e#laration of the $erman Re'u2li#B . following the Franco64russian War .aiser Wil*elm ''. Germany in 15:1.

1 15. Wilhelm "efiantly with"rew to the army. 1 15$ Wilhelm )) was force" to go into e?ile in the @etherlan"s the ne?t morning$ The &hotogra&h shows Wilhelm )) an" his entourage waiting for the royal train at the station in the +utch bor"er town of . the "ay after the announcement of his ab"ication$ +uring an e?change of notes between Germany an" the (nite" 'tates on the subLect of a ceasefire.bert. an" Yuartermaster General Wilhelm Groener !. "eman"e" Wilhelm.s "eath while lea"ing his troo&s into battle or of gi%ing u& the title of ./aiser Wilhelm )) of Germany !fourth from left# crosses the +utch bor"er an" goes into e?ile on @o%ember 1H. it became clear that the Allies regar"e" the ab"ication of Wilhelm )) as a &rere9uisite for the sus&ension of hostilities$ )nternally. the 'ocial +emocrats . who were now &art of the &arliamentary go%ernment un"er Reich Bhancellor Ma? %on -a"en .m&eror an" continuing his reign as /ing of 4russia 1only$3 Face" with a mass re%olutionary mo%ement an" an ultimatum by Frie"rich .s successor in the 'u&reme Army Bomman"# also urge" Wilhelm to ste& "own$ )n late Jctober 1 15. he in"ulge" in "elusionsE he thought of "ying a hero. Ma? %on -a"en too7 the liberty of announcing the /aiser.iLs"en !&hotogra&he" by an un7nown +utch stu"ent#$ !'ourceE htt&EGGgermanhistory"ocs$ghi6"c$orgGsub^image$cfmMimage^i"[C:C:# . Foreign Minister Wilhelm ' 2u"en"orff.s ab"ication$ The chancellor himself. -elgium8 he refuse" to acce&t the realities of the situation until the bitter en"$ )nstea".s ab"ication on @o%ember .s main hea"9uarters in '&a.

&ose for a grou& &hotogra&h before recei%ing the German Armistice in France on @o%ember 11. 1 15$ . inclu"ing Marshal Foch.French officers.

an" Foreign Minister of )taly -aron 'i"ney Bostantino 'onnino meet &ri%ately at 1H +owning 'treet in 2on"on on +ecember 2. 4rime Minister of France Georges Blemenceau. 4rime Minister of )taly Kittorio Jrlan"o. 4rime Minister of Great -ritain +a%i" 2loy" George.From left to rightE French army officer Marshal Fer"inan" Foch. 1 15$ !4hotoE 2ibrary of Bongress# Allie" occu&ie" troo&s enter the German city of Trier !Tre%es# in +ecember 1 15$ .

German delegates in +ran0e are es0orted to t*e Western 2ront in +ran0e to sign t*e armisti0e on November 11, 191:. ,att*ias -r8berger "0enter) served as t*e German ,inister o2 +inan0e 2rom 1919 to 19 C. -r8berger was assassinated in Germany on .ugust L, 19 1.

3*e German delegation meets privately at t*e Paris Pea0e $on2eren0e at 7ersailles Pala0e in 1919. +rom le2t to rig*t5 Pro2. Dr. Walt*er (0*U0king, /o*annes Giesberts, %tto Landsberg, 9lri0* Gra2 von Bro0kdor22@&ant8au, &obert Leinert, and Dr. ;arl ,el0*ior. German delegate ,a6 Warburg does not appear in t*is p*otograp*. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv)

The German "elegation &oses for a grou& &ortrait at the 4aris 4eace Bonference in Kersailles, France on May :, 1 1 $

Georges Blemenceau, the 4rime Minister of France, "eli%ers a s&eech to the German "elegates at the Trianon 4alace 0otel in Kersailles, France on May :, 1 1 "uring the ongoing 4aris 4eace Bonference$

German "elegates atten" the 4aris 4eace Bonference at the Kersailles 4alace in France in early 1 1 $

'&ectators watch the German "elegates sign the Kersailles Treaty on June 25, 1 1 $ !4hotoE 0ulton Getty 4icture Bollection 2imite"#

Ma& of the Western Front in 1 15, inclu"ing the Jccu&ation Tones an" "esignate" routes of German with"rawal

(mas*ed gro0ery store windows in *ungry Berlin in 1919. "P*oto5 9nderwood and 9nderwood)

1The (nite" 'tates &roteste" %iolently against the submarine warfare while brushing asi"e German arguments base" on the -ritish bloc7a"e$ )t was so irreconcilable in these &rotests that Germany sent Wilson a note on May 4, 1 1*, in which it &romise" that 1in the future merchant %essels within an" without the war >one shall not be sun7 without warning an" without safeguar"ing human li%es, unless these shi&s attem&t to esca&e or offer resistance$3 )n return the German go%ernment ho&e" that the (nite" 'tates woul" &ut &ressure on -ritain to follow the establishe" rules of international law in regar" to bloc7a"e an" free"om of the sea$ Wilson refuse" to "o so$ Accor"ingly, it became clear to the Germans that they woul" be star%e" into "efeat unless they coul" "efeat -ritain first by unrestricte" submarine warfare$ 'ince they were aware that resort to this metho" woul" &robably bring the (nite" 'tates into the war against them, they ma"e another effort to negotiate &eace before resorting to it$ When their offer to negotiate, ma"e on +ecember 12, 1 1*, was reLecte" by the .ntente 4owers on +ecember 2:th, the grou& in the German go%ernment which ha" been a"%ocating ruthless submarine warfare came into a &osition to control affairs, an" or"ere" the resum&tion of unrestricte" submarine attac7s on February 1, 1 1:$ Wilson was notifie" of this "ecision on January C1st$ 0e bro7e off "i&lomatic relations with Germany on February Cr", an", after two months of in"ecision, as7e" the Bongress for a "eclaration of war A&ril C, 1 1:$ The final "ecision was influence" by the constant &ressure of his closest associates, the realization that Britain &as rea$hing the en) of her resour$es of men6 money6 an) shi#s , an" the 7nowle"ge that Germany was &lanning to see7 an alliance with Me?ico if war began$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, &$ 2D1 1While the "i&lomacy of neutrality an" inter%ention was mo%ing along the lines we ha%e "escribe", a &arallel "i&lomatic effort was being "irecte" towar" efforts to negotiate &eace$ These efforts were a failure but are, nonetheless, of consi"erable significance because they re%eal the moti%ations an" war aims of the belligerents$ They were a failure because any negotiate" &eace re9uires a willingness on both si"es to ma7e those concessions which will &ermit the continue" sur%i%al of the enemy$ )n 1 1461 15, howe%er, in or"er to win &ublic su&&ort for total mobili>ation, each countryNs &ro&agan"a ha" been "irecte" towar" a total %ictory for itself an" total "efeat for the enemy$ )n time, both si"es became so enmeshe" in their own &ro&agan"a that it became im&ossible to a"mit &ublicly oneNs rea"iness to acce&t such lesser aims as any negotiate" &eace woul" re9uire$ Moreo%er, as the ti"e of battle wa?e" an" wane", gi%ing alternate &erio"s of elation an" "iscouragement to both si"es, the si"e which was tem&orarily elate" became increasingly attache" to the fetish of total %ictory an" unwilling to acce&t the lesser aim of a negotiate" &eace$ Accor"ingly, &eace became &ossible only when war weariness ha" reache" the &oint where one si"e conclu"e" that e%en "efeat was &referable to continuation of the war$ This &oint was reache" in Russia in 1 1: an" in Germany an" Austria in 1 15$ )n Germany this &oint of %iew was greatly reinforce" by the reali>ation that military "efeat an" &olitical change were &referable to the economic re%olution an" social u&hea%al which woul" accom&any any effort to continue the war in &ursuit of an increasingly unattainable %ictory$ From the %arious efforts to negotiate &eace it is clear that -ritain was unwilling to acce&t any &eace which woul" not inclu"e the restoration of -elgium or which woul" lea%e Germany su&reme on the Bontinent or in a &osition to resume the commercial, na%al, an" colonial ri%alry which ha" e?iste" before 1 148 France was unwilling to acce&t any solution which "i" not restore Alsace62orraine to her8 the German 0igh Bomman" an" the German in"ustrialists were "etermine" not to gi%e u& all the occu&ie" territory in the west, but were ho&ing to retain 2orraine, &art of Alsace, 2u?embourg, &art of -elgium, an" 2ongwy in France because of the mineral an" in"ustrial resources of these areas$ The fact that Germany ha" an e?cellent su&&ly of co7ing coal with an ina"e9uate su&&ly of iron ore, while the occu&ie" areas ha" &lenty of the latter but an ina"e9uate su&&ly of the former, ha" a great "eal to "o with the German obLections to a negotiate" &eace an" the ambiguous terms in which their war aims were "iscusse"$ Austria was, until the "eath of .m&eror Francis Jose&h in 1 1*, unwilling to acce&t any &eace which woul" lea%e the 'la%s, es&ecially the 'erbs, free to continue their nationalistic agitations for the "isintegration of the 0absburg .m&ire$ Jn the other han", )taly was "etermine" to e?clu"e the 0absburg .m&ire from the shores of the A"riatic 'ea, while the 'erbs were e%en more "etermine" to reach those shores by the ac9uisition of 0absburg6rule" 'la% areas in the Western -al7ans$ After the Russian re%olutions of 1 1:, many of these obstacles to a negotiate" &eace became wea7er$ The Katican, wor7ing through Bar"inal 4acelli !later 4o&e 4ius P))# sought a negotiate" &eace which woul" &re%ent the "estruction of the 0absburg .m&ire, the last Batholic Great 4ower in .uro&e$ 4rominent men in all countries, li7e 2or" 2ans"owne !-ritish foreign secretary before 1 14#, became so alarme" at the s&rea" of 'ocialism that they were willing to ma7e almost any concessions to sto& the "estruction of ci%ili>e" ways of life by continue" warfare$ 0umanitarians li7e 0enry For" or Romain Rollan" became increasingly alarme" at the continue" slaughter$ -ut, for the reasons we ha%e alrea"y mentione", &eace remaine" elusi%e until the great German offensi%es of 1 15 ha" been bro7en$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, &$ 2D162DC

1After what 2u"en"orff calle" Othe blac7 "ay of the German ArmyO !August 5, 1 15#, a German Brown Bouncil, meeting at '&a, "eci"e" %ictory was no longer &ossible, an" "eci"e" to negotiate for an armistice$ This was not "one because of a contro%ersy between the crown &rince an" 2u"en"orff in which the former a"%ise" an imme"iate retreat to the O0in"enburg 2ineO twenty miles to the rear, while the latter wishe" to ma7e a slow with"rawal so that the .ntente coul" not organi>e an attac7 on the 0in"enburg 2ine before winter$ Two .ntente %ictories, at 'aint6Yuentin !August C1st# an" in Flan"ers !'e&tember 2n"# ma"e this "is&ute moot$ The Germans began an in%oluntary retreat, "renching the groun" they e%acuate" with 1mustar" gas3 in or"er to slow u& the .ntente &ursuit, es&ecially the tan7s$ The German 0igh Bomman" remo%e" the chancellor, 0ertling, an" &ut in the more "emocratic 4rince Ma? of -a"en with or"ers to ma7e an imme"iate armistice or face military "isaster !'e&tember 2 6Jctober 1, 1 15#$ Jn Jctober Dth a German note to 4resi"ent Wilson as7e" for an armistice on the basis of the Fourteen 4oints of January 5, 1 15, an" his subse9uent &rinci&les of 'e&tember 2:, 1 15$ These statements of Wilson ha" ca&ture" the imaginations of i"ealistic &ersons an" subLect &eo&les e%erywhere$ The Fourteen 4oints &romise" the en" of secret "i&lomacy8 free"om of the seas8 free"om of commerce8 "isarmament8 a fair settlement of colonial claims, with the interests of the nati%e &eo&les recei%ing e9ual weight with the titles of im&erialist 4owers8 the e%acuation of Russia8 the e%acuation an" restoration of -elgium8 the e%acuation of France an" the restoration to her of Alsace62orraine as in 15:H8 the rea"Lustment of the )talian frontiers on nationality lines8 free an" autonomous "e%elo&ment for the &eo&les of the 0absburg .m&ire8 the e%acuation, restoration, an" guarantee of Romania, Montenegro, an" 'erbia, with the last6name" securing free access to the sea8 international guarantees to 7ee& the 'traits &ermanently o&ene" to the shi&s an" commerce of all nations8 free"om for the autonomous "e%elo&ment of the non6Tur7ish nationalities of the Jttoman .m&ire, along with a secure so%ereignty for the Tur7s themsel%es8 an in"e&en"ent 4olish state with free access to the sea an" with international guarantees8 a 2eague of @ations to affor" 1mutual guarantees of &olitical in"e&en"ence an" territorial integrity to great an" small states ali7e38 an" no "estruction of Germany or e%en any alteration of her institutions e?ce&t those necessary to ma7e it clear when her s&o7esmen s&o7e for the Reichstag maLority an" when they 1s&ea7 for the military &arty an" the men whose cree" is im&erial "omination$3 )n a series of notes between Germany an" the (nite" 'tates, Wilson ma"e it clear that he woul" grant an armistice only if Germany woul" with"raw from all occu&ie" territory, ma7e an en" to submarine attac7s, acce&t the Fourteen 4oints, establish a res&onsible go%ernment, an" acce&t terms which woul" &reser%e the e?isting .ntente military su&eriority$ 0e was most insistent on the res&onsible go%ernment, warning that if he ha" to "eal 1with military masters or monarchical autocrats3 he woul" "eman" 1not negotiations but surren"er$3 The German constitution was change" to gi%e all &owers to the Reichstag8 2u"en"orff was fire"8 the German @a%y at /iel mutinie", an" the /aiser fle" from -erlin !Jctober 25th#$ )n the meantime, the .ntente 'u&reme War Bouncil refuse" to acce&t the Fourteen 4oints as the basis for &eace until Bolonel 0ouse threatene" that the (nite" 'tates woul" ma7es a se&arate &eace with Germany$ They then "eman"e" an" recei%e" a "efinition of the meaning of each term, ma"e a reser%ation on 1the free"om of the seas,3 an" e?&an"e" the meaning of 1restoration of in%a"e" territory3 to inclu"e com&ensation to the ci%ilian &o&ulation for their war losses$ Jn this basis an armistice commission met German negotiators on @o%ember :th$ The German Re%olution was s&rea"ing, an" the /aiser ab"icate" on @o%ember 5th$ The German negotiators recei%e" the .ntente military terms an" as7e" for an imme"iate en"ing of hostilities an" of the economic bloc7a"e an" a re"uction in the .ntente "eman" for machine guns from CH,HHH to 2D,HHH on the groun"s that the "ifference of D,HHH was nee"e" to su&&ress the German Re%olution$ The last &oint was conce"e", but the other two refuse"$ The armistice was signe" on @o%ember 11, 1 15, at DEHH a$m$ to ta7e effect at 11EHH a$m$ )t &ro%i"e" that the Germans must e%acuate all occu&ie" territory !inclu"ing Alsace62orraine# within fourteen "ays, an" the left ban7 of the Rhine &lus three bri"gehea"s on the right ban7 within thirty6one "ays, that they surren"er huge s&ecifie" amounts of war e9ui&ment, truc7s, locomoti%es, all submarines, the chief na%al %essels, all &risoners of war, an" ca&ture" merchant shi&s, as w6ell as the -altic fortresses, an" all %aluables an" securities ta7en in occu&ie" territory, inclu"ing the Russian an" Romanian gol" reser%es$ The Germans were also re9uire" to renounce the treaties of -rest62ito%s7 an" of -ucharest, which they ha" im&ose" on Russia an" on Romania, an" to &romise to re&air the "amage of occu&ie" territories$ This last &oint was of consi"erable im&ortance, as the Germans ha" systematically loote" or "estroye" the areas they e%acuate" in the last few months of the war$ The negotiations with Wilson lea"ing u& to the Armistice of 1 15 are of great significance, since they forme" one of the chief factors in subse9uent German resentment at the Treaty of Kersailles$ )n these negotiations Wilson ha" clearly &romise" that the &eace treaty with Germany woul" be negotiate" an" woul" be base" on the Fourteen 4oints8 as we shall see, the Treaty of Kersailles was im&ose" without negotiation, an" the Fourteen 4oints fare" %ery &oorly in its &ro%isions$ An a""itional factor connecte" with these e%ents lies in the subse9uent claim of the German militarists that the German Army was ne%er "efeate" but was 1stabbe" in the bac73 by the home front through a combination of international Batholics, international Jews, an" international 'ocialists$ There is no merit whate%er in these contentions$ The German Army was clearly beaten in the fiel"8 the negotiations for an armistice were commence" by the ci%ilian go%ernment at the insistence of the 0igh Bomman", an" the Treaty of Kersailles itself was subse9uently signe", rather than reLecte", at the insistence of the same 0igh Bomman" in or"er to a%oi" a military occu&ation of Germany$ -y these tactics the German Army was able to esca&e the military occu&ation of Germany which they so "rea"e"$ Although the last enemy forces "i" not lea%e German soil until 1 C1, no &ortions of Germany were occu&ie" beyon" those signifie" in the armistice itself !the Rhinelan" an" the three bri"gehea"s on the right han7 of the Rhine# e?ce&t for a brief occu&ation of the Ruhr "istrict in 1 2C$3 ; Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley, &$ 2DC62DD

Benson. and . (tanding 2rom le2t to rig*t5 3*omas W. and ?enry . ?eads o2 state appear at t*e Paris Pea0e $on2eren0e o2 1919 in 7ersailles.embers o2 t*e &eparations $ommission appear toget*er at t*e Paris Pea0e $on2eren0e in 1919.. Gen. 3*e S. Benson were members o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations. &obinson. +ran0e. 3asker Bliss.u0*in0loss. Bernard Baru0*.inister David Lloyd George. Norman ?. (*epardson.lliesT o2 World War ' demanded t*at Germany pay *uge reparations payment to +ran0e 2ollowing t*e end o2 World War '. -dward .inister 7ittorio %rlando. Lamont " . W*itney ?. Davis. "Bettmann#$%&B'() .meri0aAs President Woodrow Wilson.0$ormi0k.artner of J1. (. W. (.1 %organ C )o1). +rom le2t to rig*t5 'talyAs Prime . Gordon . Britis* Prime . and 7an0e . -veryone in t*is p*oto e60ept 2or Bernard Baru0* and W... ?ouse. (eated 2rom le2t to rig*t5 ?erbert ?oover. +ren0* President Georges $lemen0eau.

1 1 $ RightE Article 2C1 of the Kersailles Treaty !The War Guilt Blause# . France on June 25.Ma& of Germany an" its territorial losses 1 1 61 21 2eftE +elegates from aroun" the worl" watch German "i&lomats sign the Treaty of Kersailles at Kersailles 4alace near 4aris.

must not e?cee" three hun"re" in number an" are inclu"e" in the ma?imum strength of four thousan" lai" "own in the thir" sub6&aragra&h of &aragra&h !1# of this Article$ ART)B2.BT)J@ )$ M)2)TARA B2A('.R )$ .alry: .ely to the maintenan$e of or)er &ithin the territory an) to the $ontrol of the frontiers: The total effecti%e strength of officers. 1*H$ -40 By a )ate &hi$h must not be later than .fter that )ate the total number of effe$ti.4eace Treaty of Kersailles Articles 159-213 Military. na%al an" air clauses which follow$ '. engineers.' JF T0.ote) e<$lusi.$h >46 47?56 the German .rmy must not $om#rise more than se. whate%er their com&osition.' A@+ BA+R.'$ B0A4T.en )i. inclu"ing the &ersonnel of staffs.'$ )n or"er to ren"er &ossible the initiation of a general limitation of the armaments of all nations. in the Ministries of War in the "ifferent 'tates in Germany an" in the A"ministrations attache" to them.FF.rmy shall be )e. 1*1$ .BT)K. or &ersons in the &osition of officers. technical ser%ices an" troo&s lai" "own in the aforesai" Table constitute ma?ima which must not be e?cee"e"$ The following units may each ha%e their own "e&otE An )nfantry regiment8 A Ba%alry regiment8 A regiment of Fiel" Artillery8 A battalion of 4ioneers$ !C# The "i%isions must not be grou&e" un"er more than two army cor&s hea"9uarters staffs$ The maintenance or formation of forces "ifferently grou&e" or of other organisations for the comman" of troo&s or for &re&aration for war is forbi""en$ The Great German General 'taff an" all similar organisations shall be "issol%e" an" may not be reconstitute" in any form$ The officers.isions of infantry an) three )i. artillery. @AKA2 A@+ A)R B2A('.es in the . 1D $ The German military forces shall be "emobilise" an" re"uce" as &rescribe" hereinafter$ ART)B2. Naval and Air Clauses 4ART K$ M)2)TARA.isions of $a. Germany un"erta7es strictly to obser%e the military. must not e?cee" four thousan"$ !2# +i%isions an" Army Bor&s hea"9uarters staffs shall be organise" in accor"ance with Table @o$ 1 anne?e" to this 'ection$ The number an" strengths of the units of infantry.rmy of the *tates $onstituting Germany must not e<$ee) one hun)re) thousan) men6 in$lu)ing offi$ers an) establishments of )e#ots: The .RMA@ ARMA$ ART)B2.

1 2H. 1*4$ (& till the time at which Germany is a"mitte" as a member of the 2eague of @ations the German Army must not &ossess an armament greater than the amounts fi?e" in Table @o$ )) anne?e" to this 'ection. 1 2H.E 1*C$ The re"uction of the strength of the German military forces as &ro%i"e" for in Article 1*H may be effecte" gra"ually in the following mannerE Within three months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the total number of effecti%es must be re"uce" to 2HH.R)A2$ ART)B2. shall bear the same &ro&ortion to the amount authori>e" in Table @o$ ))) anne?e" to this 'ection as the strength of the German Army as re"uce" from time to time in accor"ance with Article 1*C bears to the strength &ermitte" un"er Article 1*H$ ART)B2. M(@)T)J@' A@+ MAT. 1*D$ The ma?imum number of guns.HHH an" the number of units must not e?cee" twice the number of those lai" "own in Article 1*H$ At the e?&iration of this &erio". at the latest the total number of German effecti%es "oes not e?cee" the ma?imum number of lHH. shall not e?cee" that of the em&loyees or officials functioning in these ca&acities in 1 1C$ The number of gen"armes an" em&loyees or officials of the local or munici&al &olice may only be increase" to an e?tent corres&on"ing to the increase of &o&ulation since 1 1C in the "istricts or munici&alities in which they are em&loye"$ These em&loyees an" officials may not be assemble" for military training$ ART)B2. the stoc7 of munitions which the German Army may ha%e at its "is&osal shall not e?cee" the amounts fi?e" in Table @o$ ))) anne?e" to this 'ection$ Within the same &erio" the German Go%ernment will store these stoc7s at &oints to be notifie" to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ The German Go%ernment is forbi""en to establish any other stoc7s. which shall be e?clusi%ely use" to &ro%i"e for such e%entual re&lacements as may be necessary$ Germany agrees that after she has become a member of the 2eague of @ations the armaments fi?e" in the sai" Table shall remain in force until they are mo"ifie" by the Bouncil of the 2eague$ Furthermore she hereby agrees strictly to obser%e the "ecisions of the Bouncil of the 2eague on this subLect$ ART)B2. so that by March C1. a Bonference of military e?&erts of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers will fi? the re"uctions to be ma"e in the ensuing three months. machine guns.R ))$ ARMAM. with the e?ce&tion of an o&tional increase not e?cee"ing one6 twentyfifth &art for small arms an" one6fiftieth &art for guns. rifles an" the amount of ammunition an" e9ui&ment which Germany is allowe" to maintain "uring the &erio" between the coming into force of the &resent Treaty an" the "ate of March C1. an" between the %arious 7in"s of units. shall be maintaine" as is lai" "own in that Article$ B0A4T. trench6mortars. referre" to in Article 1*H. 1*:$ . an" at the en" of each subse9uent &erio" of three months.Army a"ministrati%e ser%ices consisting of ci%ilian &ersonnel not inclu"e" in the number of effecti%es &rescribe" by the &resent Treaty will ha%e such &ersonnel re"uce" in each class to one6tenth of that lai" "own in the -u"get of 1 1C$ ART)B2. 1*2$ The number of em&loyees or officials of the German 'tates such as customs officers. "e&ots or reser%es of munitions$ ART)B2. 1** At the "ate of March C1. 1 2H. forest guar"s an" coastguar"s.HHH men lai" "own in Article 1*H$ )n these successi%e re"uctions the same ratio between the number of officers an" of men.@T.

an" any lan" or coast forts which Germany is allowe" to retain must be notifie" imme"iately by the German Go%ernment to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers. an" will constitute ma?imum amounts which may not be e?cee"e"$ Within two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty. tan7s an" all similar constructions suitable for use in war are also &rohibite"$ ART)B2. fortresses. all other establishments for the manufacture. inclu"ing anti6aircraft material. munitions an" war material of e%ery 7in" shall be strictly &rohibite"$ The same a&&lies to the manufacture for. an" maintaine" at. shall only be carrie" out in factories or wor7s the location of which shall be communicate" to an" a&&ro%e" by the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers. 1:2$ Within a &erio" of three months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty. 1*5$ The manufacture of arms.R ))) . of origin other than German. or any war material. inclu"ing anti6aircraft material. 1:1 The use of as&hy?iating. who will "eci"e as to their "is&osal$ Arms an" munitions which on account of the successi%e re"uctions in the strength of the German army become in e?cess of the amounts authorise" by Tables )) an" ))) anne?e" to this 'ection must be han"e" o%er in the manner lai" "own abo%e within such &erio"s as may be "eci"e" by the Bonferences referre" to in Article 1*C$ ART)B2. to?ic substances or other li7e chemical &re&arations use" by them in the war or &re&are" by them for the &ur&ose of being so use"$ B0A4T. an" e?&ort to. will be "eli%ere" to the sai" Go%ernments. storage an" use of the sai" &ro"ucts or "e%ices$ The manufacture an" the im&ortation into Germany of armoure" cars. e?ce&t such as may be recognise" as necessary for e9ui&&ing the authorise" strength of the German army$ The surren"er in 9uestion will be effecte" at such &oints in German territory as may be selecte" by the sai" Go%ernments$ Within the same &erio" arms.The number an" calibre of the guns constituting at the "ate of the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the armament of the fortifie" wor7s. or any war material whate%er shall be close" "own$ The same a&&lies to all arsenals e?ce&t those use" as "e&ots for the authorise" stoc7s of munitions$ Within the same &erio" the &ersonnel of these arsenals will be "ismisse"$ ART)B2. munitions an" war material of e%ery 7in"$ ART)B2. munitions an" war material. the following uniform ratesE fifteen hun"re" roun"s &er &iece for those the calibre of which is 1H$D cm$ an" un"erE fi%e hun"re" roun"s &er &iece for those of higher calibre$ ART)B2. an" the number of which they retain the right to restrict$ Within three months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty. foreign countries of arms. in whate%er state they may be. the German Go%ernment will "isclose to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers the nature an" mo"e of manufacture of all e?&losi%es. munitions. 1:H$ )m&ortation into Germany of arms. storage or "esign of arms. materials or "e%ices being &rohibite". the ma?imum stoc7 of ammunition for these guns will be re"uce" to. &oisonous or other gases an" all analogous li9ui"s. e?isting in Germany in e?cess of the 9uantities allowe". 1* $ Within two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty German arms. &re&aration. their manufacture an" im&ortation are strictly forbi""en in Germany$ The same a&&lies to materials s&ecially inten"e" for the manufacture. munitions an" war material. munitions. must be surren"ere" to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers to be "estroye" or ren"ere" useless$ This will also a&&ly to any s&ecial &lant inten"e" for the manufacture of military material.

1:D$ The officers who are retaine" in the Army must un"erta7e the obligation to ser%e in it u& to the age of forty6fi%e years at least$ Jfficers newly a&&ointe" must un"erta7e to ser%e on the acti%e list for twenty6fi%e consecuti%e years at least$ Jfficers who ha%e &re%iously belonge" to any formations whate%er of the Army. an" will not be un"er any military obligations whate%er$ The number of officers "ischarge" for any reason before the e?&iration of their term of ser%ice must not e?cee" in any year fi%e &er cent$ of the total effecti%es of officers &ro%i"e" for in the thir" sub6&aragra&h !)# of Article 1*H of the &resent Treaty$ ART)B2.R.BR()T)@G A@+ M)2)TARA TRA)@)@G ART)B2. associations. l:5$ All measures of mobilisation or a&&ertaining to mobilisation are forbi""en$ )n no case must formations."ucational establishments. the uni%ersities. a"ministrati%e ser%ices or General 'taffs inclu"e su&&lementary ca"res$ . whate%er be the age of their members. must not ta7e &art in any military e?ercise whether theoretical or &ractical. other than the schools abo%e &ro%i"e" for. will be abolishe"$ ART)B2. societies of "ischarge" sol"iers. an" "uring the &erio" fi?e" abo%e. all military aca"emies or similar institutions in Germany. an" who are not retaine" in the units allowe" to be maintaine". in the &ro&ortion of one school &er arm$ The number of stu"ents a"mitte" to atten" the courses of the sai" schools will be strictly in &ro&ortion to the %acancies to be fille" in the ca"res of officers$ The stu"ents an" the ca"res will be rec7one" in the effecti%es fi?e" by the secon" an" thir" sub&aragra&hs of &aragra&h !)# of Article 1*H of the &resent Treaty$ Bonse9uently. ca"ets. 1:4 The &erio" of enlistment for non6commissione" officers an" &ri%ates must be twel%e consecuti%e years$ The number of men "ischarge" for any reason before the e?&iration of their term of enlistment must not e?cee" in any year fi%e &er cent$ of the total effecti%es fi?e" by the secon" sub&aragra&h of &aragra&h !)# of Article 1*H of the &resent Treaty$ ART)B2. e"ucational establishments an" uni%ersities must ha%e no connection with the Ministries of War or any other military authority$ ART)B2. shooting or touring clubs an". 1::$ . non6commissione" officers or stu"ent non6 commissione" officers !As&iranten#. stu"ent officers !As&iranten#. 1:C$ (ni%ersal com&ulsory military ser%ice shall be abolishe" in Germany$ The German Army may only be constitute" an" recruite" by means of %oluntary enlistment$ ART)B2. 1:*$ Jn the e?&iration of two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty there must only e?ist in Germany the number of military schools which is absolutely in"is&ensable for the recruitment of the officers of the units allowe"$ These schools will be e?clusi%ely inten"e" for the recruitment of officers of each arm. must not occu&y themsel%es with any military matters$ )n &articular they will be forbi""en to instruct or e?ercise their members or to allow them to be instructe" or e?ercise". generally s&ea7ing associations of e%ery "escri&tion. as well as the "ifferent military schools for officers. in the &rofession or use of arms$ These societies.

or to be attache" to such Army. @a%y or Air ser%ice for the &ur&ose of assisting in the military. 15H$ All fortifie" wor7s. howe%er. whate%er its nature an" im&ortance. an" within a further &erio" of four months they shall be "ismantle"$ Those which are situate" in territory occu&ie" by Allie" an" Associate" troo&s shall be "isarme" an" "ismantle" within such &erio"s as may be fi?e" by the Allie" 0igh Bomman"$ The construction of any new fortification. or otherwise to em&loy any such German national as military. 1: $ Germany agrees. na%al or air training thereof. na%al or air mission. not to enroll in nor to attach to their armies or na%al or air forces any German national for the &ur&ose of assisting in the military training of such armies or na%al or air forces. 15C . 151$ After the e?&iration of a &erio" of two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the German na%al forces in commission must not e?cee"E * battleshi&s of the +eutschlan" or 2othringen ty&e. an" Germany further agrees to ta7e a&&ro&riate measures to &re%ent German nationals from lea%ing her territory to become enrolle" in the Army. from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty. e?ce&t where there is &ro%ision to the contrary in the &resent Treaty. nor to allow any such mission to lea%e her territory. na%al or aeronautic instructor$ The &resent &ro%ision "oes not. is forbi""en in the >one referre" to in the first &aragra&h abo%e$ The system of fortifie" wor7s of the southern an" eastern frontiers of Germany shall be maintaine" in its e?isting state$ '. or otherwise for the &ur&ose of gi%ing military.'$ ART)B2.ART)B2. from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty. must be &lace" in reser%e or "e%ote" to commercial &ur&oses$ ART)B2. fortresses an" fiel" wor7s situate" in German territory to the west of a line "rawn fifty 7ilometres to the east of the Rhine shall be "isarme" an" "ismantle"$ Within a &erio" of two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty such of the abo%e fortifie" wor7s.R )K$ FJRT)F)BAT)J@' ART)B2. 12 tor&e"o boats. affect the right of France to recruit for the Foreign 2egion in accor"ance with French military laws an" regulations$ B0A4T. na%al or air instruction in any foreign country$ The Allie" an" Associate" 4owers agree. 152 (ntil the com&letion of the mineswee&ing &rescribe" by Article 1 C Germany will 7ee& in commission such number of mineswee&ing %essels as may be fi?e" by the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ ART)B2. fortresses an" fiel" wor7s as are situate" in territory not occu&ie" by Allie" an" Associate" troo&s shall be "isarme". 12 "estroyers.BT)J@ ))$ @AKA2 B2A('. * light cruisers. not to accre"it nor to sen" to any foreign country any military. @a%y or Air ser%ice of any foreign 4ower. so far as they are concerne". or an e9ual number of shi&s constructe" to re&lace them as &ro%i"e" in Article l H$ No submarines are to be in$lu)e): All other warshi&s.

forty6two mo"ern "estroyers an" fifty mo"ern tor&e"o boats. 15*$ Jn the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the German Go%ernment must un"erta7e.'E -erlin$ 'anta Fe$ 'ey"lit>$ Aorc7$ )@ G. in a""ition.'0)4'$ Jl"enburg$ Thuringen$ Jstfrieslan"$ 0elgolan"$ 4osen$ Westfalen$ Rheinlan"$ @assau$ 2)G0T BR()'. inclu"ing officers an" men of all gra"es an" cor&s. 154 From the "ate of the coming into force of the &resent Treaty all the German surface warshi&s which are not in German &orts cease to belong to Germany.R'$ 'tettin$ +an>ig$ Munchen$ 2ubec7$ 'tralsun"$ Augsburg$ /olberg$ 'tuttgart$ an".RMA@AE . 1 15$ @e%ertheless they must ha%e all their guns on boar"$ -ATT2. are now interne" in the &orts of the Allie" an" Associate" 4owers are "eclare" to be finally surren"ere"$ Kessels which are now interne" in neutral &orts will be there surren"ere" to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ The German Go%ernment must a""ress a notification to that effect to the neutral 4owers on the coming into force of the &resent Treaty$ ART)B2. The total strength of officers an" warrant officers must not e?cee" fifteen hun"re"$ Within two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the &ersonnel in e?cess of the abo%e strength shall be "emobilise"$ @o na%al or military cor&s or reser%e force in connection with the @a%y may be organise" in Germany without being inclu"e" in the abo%e strength$ ART)B2.R@. 15D$ Within a &erio" of two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the German surface warshi&s enumerate" below will be surren"ere" to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers in such Allie" &orts as the sai" 4owers may "irect$ These warshi&s will ha%e been "isarme" as &ro%i"e" in Article PP))) of the Armistice of @o%ember 11. the total &ersonnel of the German @a%y. inclu"ing the manning of the +eet. who renounces all rights o%er them$ Kessels which. signal stations. coast "efences. the brea7ing u& of all the German surface warshi&s now un"er construction$ ART)B2. a"ministration an" other lan" ser%ices. un"er the su&er%ision of the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers.+ )@ @.After the e?&iration of a &erio" of two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty.(TRA2 BJ(@TR). must not e?cee" fifteen thousan". in com&liance with the Armistice of @o%ember 11. as chosen by the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ ART)B2. 15: $ The German au?iliary cruisers an" fleet au?iliaries enumerate" below will be "isarme" an" treate" as merchant shi&s$ )@T. 1 15.

1 2$ The warshi&s in commission of the German fleet must ha%e on boar" or in reser%e only the allowance of arms. whether surface %essels or submarines. munitions an" war material will be "estroye" or ren"ere" useless$ All other stoc7s. munitions an" war material fi?e" by the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ Within a month from the fi?ing of the 9uantities as abo%e. submarine sal%age %essels an" "oc7s for submarines. inclu"ing the tubular "oc7. an" fifteen years in the case of "estroyers an" tor&e"o boats. shall be surren"ere" to the Go%ernments of the sai" 4owers at &laces to be in"icate" by them$ 'uch arms. an" their e?&ort to. munitions or na%al war material of all 7in"s are forbi""en$ The manufacture of these articles in German territory for. now in the han"s of the German Go%ernment an" in e?cess of the sai" 9uantities. shall be forbi""en in Germany$ ART)B2. 1 1$ The construction or ac9uisition of any submarine. shall be bro7en u& entirely by the German Go%ernment un"er the su&er%ision of the sai" Go%ernments$ The brea7ing6u& must be com&lete" within three months at the most after the coming into force of the &resent Treaty$ ART)B2. Georg %on 'trauss$ 0absburg$ Meteor$ Waltraute$ 'charnhorst$ ART)B2. must ha%e been han"e" o%er to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ 'uch of these submarines.HHH tons 2ight cruisers *. machinery an" material arising from the brea7ing6u& of German warshi&s of all 7in"s.Ammon$ Answal"$ -osnia$ Bor"oba$ Bassel$ +ania$ Rio @egro$ Rio 4ar"o$ 'anta Bru>$ 'chwaben$ 'olingen$ 'teigerwal"$ Fran7en$ Gun"omar$ Furst -ulow$ Gertru"$ /igoma$ Rugia$ 'anta . 1 H$ Germany is forbi""en to construct or ac9uire any warshi&s other than those inten"e" to re&lace the units in commission &ro%i"e" for in Article l51 of the &resent Treaty The warshi&s inten"e" for re&lacement &ur&oses as abo%e shall not e?cee" the following "is&lacementE Armoure" shi&s 1H. munitions an" war material of all 7in"s. 155$ Jn the e?&iration of one month from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty all German submarines. inclu"ing mines an" tor&e"oes. foreign countries shall be forbi""en$ . counting from the launching of the shi&$ ART)B2. e%en for commercial &ur&oses. l5 $ Articles. an" also those in course of construction. may not be use" e?ce&t for &urely in"ustrial or commercial &ur&oses$ They may not be sol" or "is&ose" of to foreign countries$ ART)B2.lena$ 'chleswig$ Mowe$ 'ierra Kentana$ Bhemnit>$ .?ce&t where a shi& has been lost.HHH tons +estroyers 5HH tons Tor&e"o boats 2HH tons . %essels an" "oc7s as are consi"ere" by the sai" Go%ernments to be fit to &rocee" un"er their own &ower or to be towe" shall be ta7en by the German Go%ernment$ into such Allie" &orts as ha%e been in"icate" The remain"er. units of the "ifferent classes shall only be re&lace" at the en" of a &erio" of twenty years in the case of battleshi&s an" cruisers. "e&ots or reser%es of arms.

$ of GreenwichE !1# -etween &arallels of latitu"e DC_ HHN.ART)B2. those in &osition at the "ate of the coming into force of the &resent Treaty$ The German Go%ernment shall communicate forthwith &articulars thereof to all the .$ an" 1*_ HHN .uro&ean Go%ernments$ Jn the e?&iration of a &erio" of two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the stoc7s of ammunition for these guns shall be re"uce" to an" maintaine" at a ma?imum figure of fifteen hun"re" roun"s &er &iece for calibres of 4$16inch an" un"er. unless "ischarge" for sufficient reasons$ @o officer or man of the German mercantile marine shall recei%e any training in the @a%y$ ART)B2. nor install any guns comman"ing the maritime routes between the @orth 'ea an" the -altic$ The fortifications now e?isting in this area shall be "emolishe" an" the guns remo%e" un"er the su&er%isions of the Allie" Go%ernments an" in &erio"s to be fi?e" by them$ The German Go%ernment shall &lace at the "is&osal of the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers all information now in its &ossession concerning the channels an" a"Loining waters between the -altic an" the @orth 'ea$ ART)B2. other than those mentione" in 'ection P))) !0eligolan"# of 4art ))) !4olitical Blauses for . military or &olitical 9uestions of interest to Germany or any 'tate which has been allie" to Germany in the war. @$ an" D _ HHN. without the assent of the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al .$ of the meri"ian of Greenwich. . 1 D$ )n or"er to ensure free &assage into the -altic to all nations. 1 *$ All fortifie" wor7s an" fortifications. as regar"s the number an" calibre of guns. now establishe" within fifty 7ilometres of the German coast or on German islan"s off that coast shall be consi"ere" as of a "efensi%e nature an" may remain in their e?isting con"ition$ @o new fortifications shall be constructe" within these limits$ The armament of these "efences shall not e?cee". 1 C$ Jn the coming into force of the &resent Treaty Germany will forthwith swee& u& the mines in the following areas in the @orth 'ea to the eastwar" of longitu"e 4_ HHN. an" fi%e hun"re" roun"s &er &iece for higher calibres$ ART)B2.uro&e# an" in Article 1 D. @$8 !2# To the northwar" of latitu"e *H_ CHN @$ Germany must 7ee& these areas free from mines$ Germany must also swee& an" 7ee& free from mines such areas in the -altic as may ultimately be notifie" by the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ ART)B2. 1 :$ +uring the three months following the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the German high6&ower wireless telegra&hy stations at @auen. 0ano%er an" -erlin shall not be use" for the transmission of messages concerning na%al. 1 4$ The &ersonnel of the German @a%y shall be recruite" entirely by %oluntary engagements entere" into for a minimum &erio" of twenty6 fi%e consecuti%e years for officers an" warrant officers8 twel%e consecuti%e years for &etty officers an" men$ The number engage" to re&lace those "ischarge" for any reason before the e?&iration of their term of ser%ice must not e?cee" fi%e &er cent$ &er annum of the totals lai" "own in this 'ection !Article 15C#$ The &ersonnel "ischarge" from the @a%y must not recei%e any 7in" of na%al or military training or un"erta7e any further ser%ice in the @a%y or Army$ Jfficers belonging to the Germany @a%y an" not "emobilise" must engage to ser%e till the age of forty6fi%e. Germany shall not erect any fortifications in the area com&rise" between latitu"es DD_ 2:N @$ an" D4_ HHN @$ an" longitu"es _ HHN .

BT)J@ )))$ A)R B2A('. 2H2$ Jn the coming into force of the &resent Treaty. -ulgaria or Tur7ey$ '. 0ungary. an" shall in no case carry arms. flying an" non6flying.'$ ART)B2. 2H1$ +uring the si? months following the coming into force of the &resent Treaty. howe%er. &arts of aircraft. 2HH$ (ntil the com&lete e%acuation of German territory by the Allie" an" Associate" troo&s. Germany may 7ee& an" maintain a total number of one thousan" men. 1 1 .Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ These stations may be use" for commercial &ur&oses. an" &arts of engines for aircraft. 1 1 . 1 5$ The arme" forces of Germany must not inclu"e any military or na%al air forces$ Germany may. re&aire" or assemble"$ 4lant for the manufacture of hy"rogen$ +irigible she"s an" shelters of e%ery 7in" for aircraft$ . but only un"er the su&er%ision of the sai" Go%ernments. free"om of transit an" of lan"ing$ ART)B2. of all formations an" establishments$ ART)B2. 1 $ Within two months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty the &ersonnel of air forces on the rolls of the German lan" an" sea forces shall be "emobilise"$ (& to Jctober 1. the aircraft of the Allie" an" Associate" 4owers shall enLoy in Germany free"om of &assage through the air. shall be furnishe" with the necessary e9ui&ment for this &ur&ose. maintain a ma?imum number of one hun"re" sea&lanes or flying boats. the manufacture an" im&ortation of aircraft. which shall be e?clusi%ely em&loye" in searching for submarine mines. this material will inclu"e all items un"er the following hea"s which are or ha%e been in use or were "esigne" for warli7e &ur&osesE Bom&lete aero&lanes an" sea&lanes. re&aire" or assemble"$ +irigibles able to ta7e the air. "uring a &erio" not e?ten"ing beyon" Jctober 1. shall be forbi""en in all German territory$ ART)B2. e?ce&t the machines mentione" in the secon" an" thir" &aragra&hs of Article 1 5. engines for aircraft. as well as those being manufacture". an" must be com&lete" within three months$ )n &articular. one s&are engine may be &ro%i"e" for each engine of each of these craft$ @o "irigible shall be 7e&t$ ART)B2. being manufacture". who will "eci"e the wa%elength to be use"$ +uring the same &erio" Germany shall not buil" any more high6&ower wireless telegra&hy stations in her own territory or that of Austria. munitions or bombs of any nature whate%er$ )n a""ition to the engines installe" in the sea&lanes or flying boats abo%e mentione". for the whole of the ca"res an" &ersonnel. inclu"ing officers. all military an" na%al aeronautical material. must be "eli%ere" to the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ +eli%ery must be effecte" at such &laces as the sai" Go%ernments may select.

shall be e?ecute" by Germany un"er the control of )nter6Allie" Bommissions s&ecially a&&ointe" for this &ur&ose by the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers$ ART)B2. or which the e?ecution of the military. "emolition an" ren"ering things useless to be carrie" out at the e?&ense of the German Go%ernment in accor"ance with the &resent Treaty$ They will communicate to the German authorities the "ecisions which the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers ha%e reser%e" the right to ta7e. "estruction. shells.BT)J@ )K$ )@T. as well as the she"s for "irigibles may at the "iscretion of the sai" 4owers. or to sen" subcommissions. at the e?&ense of Germany.4en"ing their "eli%ery. 2HC$ All the military. be maintaine" inflate" with hy"rogen8 the &lant for the manufacture of hy"rogen. light machine guns. bombs loa"e" or unloa"e". 2HD$ The )nter6Allie" Bommissions of Bontrol may establish their organisations at the seat of the central German Go%ernment$ They shall be entitle" as often as they thin7 "esirable to &rocee" to any &oint whate%er in German territory. tor&e"o6"ro&&ing a&&aratus. machine guns. na%al an" air clauses may necessitate$ ART)B2. na%al an" air clauses containe" in the &resent Treaty. or to authorise one or more of their members to go. aiming a&&aratus#$ Munitions !cartri"ges. "emolition. stoc7s of e?&losi%es or of material for their manufacture#$ )nstruments for use on aircraft$ Wireless a&&aratus an" &hotogra&hic or cinematogra&h a&&aratus for use on aircraft$ Bom&onent &arts of any of the items un"er the &rece"ing hea"s$ The material referre" to abo%e shall not be remo%e" without s&ecial &ermission from the sai" Go%ernments$ '.R6A22). an" of ren"ering things useless. 2H*$ The German Go%ernment must gi%e all necessary facilities for the accom&lishment of their missions to the )nter6Allie" Bommissions of Bontrol an" to their members$ )t shall attach a 9ualifie" re&resentati%e to each )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol for the &ur&ose of recei%ing the communications which the Bommission may ha%e to a""ress to the German Go%ernment an" of su&&lying or &rocuring for the Bommission all information or "ocuments which may be re9uire"$ The German Go%ernment must in all cases furnish at its own cost all labour an" material re9uire" to effect the "eli%eries an" the wor7s of "estruction. synchronisation a&&aratus. "irigibles will. for the e?ecution of which a time6limit is &rescribe". "ismantling. 2H4$ The )nter6Allie" Bommissions of Bontrol will be s&ecially charge" with the "uty of seeing to the com&lete e?ecution of the "eli%ery. bomb"ro&&ing a&&aratus. be left to Germany until the time when the "irigibles are han"e" o%er$ . to any such &oint$ ART)B2.ngines for aircraft$ @acelles an" fuselages$ Armament !guns.+ BJMM)'')J@' JF BJ@TRJ2$ ART)B2. &ro%i"e" for in the &resent Treaty$ .

2H5$ The Military )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol will re&resent the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers in "ealing with the German Go%ernment in all matters concerning the e?ecution of the military clauses$ )n &articular it will be its "uty to recei%e from the German Go%ernment the notifications relating to the location of the stoc7s an" "e&ots of munitions. of their &ositions. she"s. to %isit all aero"romes. to authorise. an" of ren"ering things useless. balloon an" motor manufactories. an" in &articular all legislati%e an" a"ministrati%e "ocuments an" regulations$ ART)B2. an" a list of all establishments wor7ing for a%iation. where necessary. munitions an" war material an" their o&erations$ )t will ta7e "eli%ery of the arms. 211$ . an" factories &ro"ucing arms. "emolition. in &articular the "esigns of the warshi&s. an" the location of the wor7s or factories for the &ro"uction of arms.@. munitions. to ta7e "eli%ery of all surface shi&s or submarines. in general. the armament of the fortifie" wor7s.RA2 ART)B2. a"ministrati%e or other "ocuments which the Bommission may consi"er necessary to ensure the com&lete e?ecution of the air clauses. &ar7s an" "e&ots. fortresses an" forts which Germany is allowe" to retain. "oc7s an" the tubular "oc7s. will select the &oints where such "eli%ery is to be effecte".BT)J@ K$ G. as well as all legislati%e or a"ministrati%e "ocuments or regulations$ ART)B2. which are to be carrie" out in accor"ance with the &resent Treaty$ The German Go%ernment must furnish to the Military )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol all such information an" "ocuments as the latter may "eem necessary to ensure the com&lete e?ecution of the military clauses. an" of all she"s an" lan"ing groun"s$ '. munitions an" war material. an" will su&er%ise the wor7s of "estruction.ART)B2. an" to su&er%ise the "estruction an" brea7ing6u& &ro%i"e" for$ The German Go%ernment must furnish to the @a%al )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol all such information an" "ocuments as the Bommission may "eem necessary to ensure the com&lete e?ecution of the na%al clauses. to ins&ect aero&lane. 2H:$ The u&7ee& an" cost of the Bommissions of Bontrol an" the e?&enses in%ol%e" by their wor7 shall be borne by Germany$ ART)B2.'$ ART)B2. the "etails an" mo"els of the guns. a remo%al of material an" to ta7e "eli%ery of such material$ The German Go%ernment must furnish to the Aeronautical )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol all such information an" legislati%e. munitions an" e?&losi%es ca&able of being use" by aircraft. the com&osition of their armaments. e?&losi%es. 2H $ The @a%al )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol will re&resent the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers in "ealing with the German Go%ernment in all matters concerning the e?ecution of the na%al clauses$ )n &articular it will be its "uty to &rocee" to the buil"ing yar"s an" to su&er%ise the brea7ing6u& of the shi&s which are un"er construction there. e%erything relating to na%al war material. mines. sal%age shi&s. as well as of that in &rocess of manufacture or on or"er. an" of the e?isting material. 21H$ The Aeronautical )nter6Allie" Bommission of Bontrol will re&resent the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers in "ealing with the German Go%ernment in all matters concerning the e?ecution of the air clauses$ )n &articular it will be its "uty to ma7e an in%entory of the aeronautical material e?isting in German territory. an" in &articular a list of the &ersonnel belonging to all the German Air 'er%ices. tor&e"oes. lan"ing groun"s. wireless telegra&hic a&&aratus an".

acting if nee" be by a maLority %ote. an" the German Go%ernment un"erta7es thereu&on forthwith to ma7e a s&ecial issue of bearer bon"s to an e9ui%alent amount &ayable in mar7s gol". alrea"y gi%en. at the o&tion of the German Go%ernment.@. that she will ma7e com&ensation for all "amage "one to the ci%ilian &o&ulation of the Allie" an" Associate" 4owers an" to their &ro&erty "uring the &erio" of the belligerency of each as an Allie" or Associate" 4ower against Germany by such aggression by lan". 212$ The following &ortions of the Armistice of @o%ember 11. by sea an" from the air. the form of such bon"s shall be "etermine" by the Re&aration Bommission$ 'uch bon"s shall be han"e" o%er to the Re&aration Bommission. the first two an" the si?th an" se%enth &aragra&hs of Article K))8 Article )P8 Blauses ). 1 1 . remain in force so far as they are not inconsistent with the abo%e sti&ulations$ ART)B2. 1 15. on the 1st of May in any year u& to 1 2*$ 'ubLect to the foregoing. 2CC$ .E 2C2$ The Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments recognise that the resources of Germany are not a"e9uate. on May 1. Germany un"erta7es to gi%e e%ery facility for any in%estigation which the Bouncil of the 2eague of @ations. to ma7e com&lete re&aration for all such loss an" "amage$ The Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments. after ta7ing into account &ermanent "iminutions of such resources which will result from other &ro%isions of the &resent Treaty. or. 1 15. may consi"er necessary$ 'ourceE htt&EGGnet$lib$byu$e"uGRr"h:GwwiG%ersaG%ersa4$html Articles 231-247 and Annexes e!arati"ns 4ART K)))$ R. "ate" A&ril 4. in a""ition to the com&ensation for "amage elsewhere in this 4art &ro%i"e" for. )) an" K of Anne? n_ 2.After the e?&iration of a &erio" of three months from the coming into force of the &resent Treaty. as a conse9uence of the %iolation of the Treaty of 15C . which has authority to ta7e an" ac7nowle"ge recei&t thereof on behalf of -elgium$ ART)B2. re9uire.BT)J@ l$ G. howe%er. Germany un"erta7es. 21C$ 'o long as the &resent Treaty remains in force. the German laws must ha%e been mo"ifie" an" shall be maintaine" by the German Go%ernment in conformity with this 4art of the &resent Treaty$ Within the same &erio" all the a"ministrati%e or other measures relating to the e?ecution of this 4art of the Treaty must ha%e been ta7en$ ART)B2. 2C1$ The Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments affirm an" Germany acce&ts the res&onsibility of Germany an" her allies for causing all the loss an" "amage to which the Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments an" their nationals ha%e been subLecte" as a conse9uence of the war im&ose" u&on them by the aggression of Germany an" her allies$ ART)B2. to ma7e reimbursement of all sums which -elgium has borrowe" from the Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments u& to @o%ember 11. an" Germany un"erta7es. an" the 4rotocol. an" in general all "amage as "efine" in Anne? l hereto$ )n accor"ance with GermanyNs &le"ges.RA2 4RJK)')J@'$ ART)B2. as to com&lete restoration for -elgium. together with interest at the rate of fi%e &er cent !D\# &er annum on such sums$ This amount shall be "etermine" by the Re&aration Bommission. 1 15 Article K).4ARAT)J@$ '. 1 2*. su&&lementing the Armistice of @o%ember 11.

Germany fails to "ischarge her obligations. with the a&&ro%al of the sai" Go%ernments. shall first be met. &en"ing the full "etermination of their claims. obLects of e%ery nature an" securities ta7en away. shall ha%e "iscretion to e?ten" the "ate. 2C*$ Germany further agrees to the "irect a&&lication of her economic resources to re&aration as s&ecifie" in Anne?es. K). shall be rec7one" in the same manner as cash &ayments effecte" in that year$ ART)B2. shall "etermine$ ART)B2. 1 15. an" to "yestuffs an" other chemical &ro"ucts8 &ro%i"e" always that the %alue of the &ro&erty transferre" an" any ser%ices ren"ere" by her un"er these Anne?es. in the cases in which it &ro%es &ossible to i"entify them in territory belonging to Germany or her allies$ (ntil this &roce"ure is lai" "own. restitution in cash of cash ta7en away. K. an" to mo"ify the form of &ayments.HHH gol" mar7s$ Jut of this sum the e?&enses of the armies of occu&ation subse9uent to the Armistice of @o%ember 11.HHH. or may be han"le" otherwise in such manner as the Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments. sei>e" or se9uestrate". an" also restitution of animals. 1 15. )K. ))). such as are to be &ro%i"e" for in accor"ance with Article 2CC8 but not to cancel any &art. relating res&ecti%ely to merchant shi&&ing. acting in accor"ance with the &roce"ure lai" "own in this 4art of the &resent Treaty. an" K)). The Bommission shall concurrently "raw u& a sche"ule of &ayments &rescribing the time an" manner for securing an" "ischarging the entire obligation within a &erio" of thirty years from May 1. assesse" in the manner therein &rescribe" shall be cre"ite" to her towar"s li9ui"ation of her obligations un"er the abo%e Articles$ ART)B2. 1 2H an" the first four months Jf 1 21 . howe%er. be &ost&one" for settlement in subse9uent years.The amount of the abo%e "amage for which com&ensation is to be ma"e by Germany shall be "etermine" by an )nter6Allie" Bommission. the e9ui%alent of 2H. )K. to coal an" "eri%ati%es of coal. within the "iscretion of the Bommission. e?ce&t with the s&ecific authority of the se%eral Go%ernments re&resente" u&on the Bommission$ ART)B2. as re&resenting the e?tent of that Go%ernmentNs obligations$ . an" K). 2CD$ )n or"er to enable the Allie" an" Associate" 4owers to &rocee" at once to the restoration of their in"ustrial an" economic life. restitution will continue in accor"ance with the &ro%isions of the Armistice of @o%ember 11. "uring 1 1 . 2C:$ The successi%e installments. an" un"er Anne?es ))). any balance remaining un&ai" may. within the &erio" mentione". an". 2C5$ )n a""ition to the &ayments mentione" abo%e Germany shall effect.HHH. to &hysical restoration. from time to time. inclu"ing the abo%e sum. &ai" o%er by Germany in satisfaction of the abo%e claims will be "i%i"e" by the Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments in &ro&ortions which ha%e been "etermine" u&on by them in a"%ance on a basis of general e9uity an" of the rights of each$ For the &ur&oses of this "i%ision the %alue of &ro&erty transferre" an" ser%ices ren"ere" un"er Article 24C. 1 21. an" its renewals an" the 4rotocols thereto$ . in accor"ance with the &roce"ure lai" "own by the Re&aration Bommission. shi&s. securities or otherwise# as the Re&aration Bommission may fi?. an" such su&&lies of foo" an" raw materials as may be Lu"ge" by the Go%ernments of the 4rinci&al Allie" an" Associate" 4owers to be essential to enable Germany to meet her obligations for re&aration may also. be &ai" for out of the abo%e sum$ The balance shall be rec7one" towar"s li9ui"ation of the amounts "ue for re&aration$ Germany shall further "e&osit bon"s as &rescribe" in &aragra&h 12 !c# Jf Anne? )) hereto$ ART)B2. Germany shall &ay in such installments an" in such manner !whether in gol". K. 1 21. to be calle" the Re&aration Bommission an" constitute" in the form an" with the &owers set forth hereun"er an" in Anne?es )) to K)) inclusi%e hereto$ This Bommission shall consi"er the claims an" gi%e to the German Go%ernment a Lust o&&ortunity to be hear"$ The fin"ings of the Bommission as to the amount of "amage "efine" as abo%e shall be conclu"e" an" notifie" to the German Go%ernment on or before May 1. 1 21$ )f. 2C4$ The Re&aration Bommission shall after May 1 . sei>e" or se9uestrate". commo"ities. consi"er the resources an" ca&acity of Germany. after gi%ing her re&resentati%es a Lust o&&ortunity to be hear".

uro&e#. rights an" interests referre" to in 'ections ))) an" )K of 4art P !. an" agrees irre%ocably to the &ossession an" e?ercise by such Bommission of the &ower an" authority gi%en to it un"er the &resent Treaty$ The German Go%ernment will su&&ly to the Bommission all the information which the Bommission may re9uire relati%e to the financial situation an" o&erations an" to the &ro&erty. 4art )P Financial Blauses#. 242$ The &ro%isions of this 4art of the &resent Treaty "o not a&&ly to the &ro&erty. &ro"ucti%e ca&acity.conomic Blauses# of the &resent Treaty8 !b# Amounts "ue to Germany in res&ect of transfers un"er 'ection )K !'aar -asin# of 4art ))) !4olitical Blauses for . shall cre"it be gi%en for &ro&erty restore" in accor"ance with Article 2C5 of the &resent 4art$ ART)B2. 24H$ The German Go%ernment recognises the Bommission &ro%i"e" for by Article 2CC as the same may be constitute" by the Allie" an" Associate" Go%ernments in accor"ance with Anne? )). rights. 2C4. an" stoc7s an" current &ro"uction of raw materials an" manufacture" articles of Germany an" her nationals. 2C $ The German Go%ernment un"erta7es to ma7e forthwith the restitution contem&late" by Article 2C5 an" to ma7e the &ayments an" "eli%eries contem&late" by Articles 2CC. Waterways an" Railways#8 !c# Amounts which in the Lu"gment of the Re&aration Bommission shoul" be cre"ite" to Germany on account of any other transfers un"er the &resent Treaty of &ro&erty.conomic Blauses# of the &resent Treaty. 241$ Germany un"erta7es to &ass. 2CD an" 2C*$ ART)B2. 244 The transfer of the German submarine cables which "o not form the subLect of &articular &ro%isions of the &resent Treaty is regulate" by Anne? K)) hereto$ 'ourceE htt&EGGnet$lib$byu$e"uGRr"h:GwwiG%ersaG%ersa:$html . issue an" maintain in force any legislation. nor to the &ro"uct of their li9ui"ation. e?ce&t so far as concerns any final balance in fa%our of Germany un"er Article 24C !a#$ ART)B2.ART)B2. an" further any information relati%e to military o&erations which in the Lu"gment of the Bommission may be necessary for the assessment of GermanyNs liability for re&aration as "efine" in Anne? )$ The German Go%ernment will accor" to the members of the Bommission an" its authorise" agents the same rights an" immunities as are enLoye" in Germany by "uly accre"ite" "i&lomatic agents of frien"ly 4owers$ Germany further agrees to &ro%i"e for the salaries an" e?&enses of the Bommission an" of such staff as it may em&loy$ ART)B2. or"ers an" "ecrees that may be necessary to gi%e com&lete effect to these &ro%isions$ ART)B2. an" 4art P)) !4orts. howe%er.uro&e# an" 'ections ))) an" )K of 4art P !. 24C The following shall be rec7one" as cre"its to Germany in res&ect of her re&aration obligationsE !a# Any final balance in fa%our of Germany un"er 'ection K !Alsace6 2orraine# of 4art ))) !4olitical Blauses for . concessions or other interests$ )n no case.

1 C .mblem of the 2eague of @ations RightE Flag of the Free Bity of +an>ig !1 2H61 C # .2eague of @ations F )ts A"ministration J%er 'aar -asin F Free Bity of +an>ig A"olf 0itler. %isits +an>ig on 'e&tember 1 .s ongoing in%asion an" anne?ation of western 4olan"$ 2eftE Flag of the Territory of the 'aar -asin !1 2H61 CD# BenterE . the Fuhrer of @a>i Germany. "uring @a>i Germany.

1 C461 C*# Barl Ja7ob -urc7har"t !'wit>erlan". 1 C261 C4# 'e`n 2ester !)rish Free 'tate. 1 2C61 2D# Joost A"riaan %an 0amel !@etherlan"s. 1 2 61 C2# 0elmer Rosting !+enmar7. 1 2H# Richar" Byril -yrne 0a7ing !(nite" /ing"om.Ma& of the Free Bity of +an>ig Free Bity of +an>ig !G"ans7# in 1 C League of Nations +igh 'ommissioners of the Free 'ity of Aanzig Reginal" Thomas Tower !(nite" /ing"om."war" 2isle 'trutt !(nite" /ing"om. 1 C:61 C # . 1 1 61 2H# . 1 2161 2C# Mer%yn 'orley Mc+onnell !(nite" /ing"om. 1 2D61 2 # Manfre"i "i Gra%ina !)taly. 1 2H# -ernar"o Attolico !)taly.

15 +ecember 1 CD#$ 'ahm "ie" in Jslo. an" Mayor of -erlin !14 A&ril 1 C1 .German lawyer 0einrich 'ahm ser%e" as Presi)ent of the *enate of the Free 'ity of Aanzig !* +ecember 1 2H . January 1 C1#. Mayor of +an>ig !1 1 #. 1 C $ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# . @orway on Jctober C.

1 CD8 the Germans %ote" o%erwhelmingly in fa%or of unification with Germany$ Germany assumes control o%er the Go%ernment of the 'aar Territory on March 1. Bana"a !1 A&ril 1 2* . 1 CD$ Bhairmen of the Bommission of Go%ernment of the Territory of the 'aar -asinE Kictor Rault. (nite" /ing"om ! June 1 2: . France !2* February 1 2H . C1 March 1 C2# 'ir Geoffrey George /no?. 25 February 1 CD# . (nite" /ing"om !1 A&ril 1 C2 .rnest Bol%ille Bollins Wilton.Ma& of the Territory of the 'aar -asin 'aarbruc7en. the ca&ital of 'aar &ro%ince of Germany in the early 2Hth century$ The German &eo&le in 'aar &artici&ate" in a &lebiscite regar"ing their &olitical future on January 1C. C1 March 1 2*# George Washington 'te&hens. June 1 2:# 'ir .

er6 the $ity of Aanzig6 at the mouth of the 1istula6 &as $learly a German $ity: 2British Prime . the area was s&lit. its failure to materiali>e en"e" his &olitical career$ The Rhinelan" settlement as it stoo" ha" two 9uite se&arate &ro%isions$ Jn the one han".e it to Polan): =nstea)6 it &as ma)e a Free 'ity un)er the #rote$tion of the League of Nations: The French wishe" to "etach the whole of Germany west of the Rhine !the so6calle" Rhinelan"# to create a se&arate state an" increase French security against Germany$ They ga%e u& their se&aratist agitation in return for WilsonNs &romise of March 14. where the com&arable figures were *D &ercent an" 4H &ercent. after an a"mirable 2eague a"ministration. fi%e years ahea" of sche"ule$ This ma"e it &ossible for 0itler to "estroy the secon" &ro%ision. but fell through when the (nite" 'tates 'enate "i" not ratify the agreement$ 'ince Blemenceau ha" been able to &ersua"e Foch an" 4oincarV to acce&t the Rhine settlement only because of this guarantee. legal &ower.ast 4russia aroun" Memel to the Allie" 4owers$ This last area was gi%en to the new state of 2ithuania in 1 24 by the Bonference of Ambassa"ors$ The $hief territorial )is#utes arose o. while about H &ercent wishe" to Loin Germany. only 4H &ercent wante" to Loin Augosla%ia. Foch wante" to gi%e all of . by remilitari>ing the area in March 1 C*$ The last "is&ute" territorial change of the Treaty of Kersailles was concerne" with the 'aar -asin. 1 1 to gi%e a Loint Anglo6American guarantee against a German attac7$ This &romise was signe" in treaty form on June 25. the remain"er in"icating their "esire to continue un"er 2eague rule$3 . only about 2. Germany ha" to return Alsace an" 2orraine to France. &uniti%e.uro&e$ With the colla&se of Russia in 1 1:. the great in"ustrial region of the Ruhr on the right ban7 of the =&is 92s t&e most import2nt cl2use of t&e =re2t: of Vers2illes$ 'o long as it remaine" in effect. the "emilitari>ation of western Germany.inister3 Lloy) George refuse) to gi. but the area was se&arate" &olitically from both countries to be rule" by the 2eague of @ations for fifteen years an" then gi%en a &lebiscite$ When the &lebiscite was hel" in 1 CD. the e?&erts !who were %ery &ro64olish# ga%e 4olan" access to the sea by se%ering . only 2 &ercent %ote" to Loin 4olan". economic. was e?&ose" to a 9uic7 French military thrust from the west. the Rhinelan" an" three bri"gehea"s on the right ban7 of the Rhine were to be occu&ie" by Allie" troo&s for from fi%e to fifteen years$ (n the other han) the Rhinelan) an) a zone fifty /ilometers &i)e along the right ban/ &ere to be #ermanently )emilitarize) an) any . an" German commerce with .uro&e by see7ing allies in eastern . the more in"ustrial eastern &ortion going to 4olan". but not in northern 'chleswig. which %ote" to Loin +enmar7$ )n each case. rich in in"ustry an" coal$ Although its &o&ulation was clearly German.ast 4russia to 4olan"$ )nstea".1All the original &eace treaties consiste" of fi%e chief &artsE !a# the Bo%enant of the 2eague of @ations8 !b# the territorial &ro%isions8 !c# the "isarmament &ro%ision8 !"# the re&arations &ro%isions8 an" !e# &enalties an" guarantees$ The first of these must be reser%e" until later.3 e?ce&t in the Jttoman . or com&ensation$ -y 1self6"etermination3 the &eacema7ers usually meant 1nationality. so the area was left in Austria$ 'omewhat similar results occurre" in Marienwer"er. the military occu&ation of the Rhinelan" an" the bri"gehea"s was en"e" in 1 CH.ast 4russia from the rest of Germany by creating a 4olish Borri"or in the %alley of the Kistula$ Most of the area was 4olish6s&ea7ing. the French claime" most of it in 1 1 on the groun"s that two6thir"s of it ha" been insi"e the French frontiers of 1514 an" that they shoul" obtain the coal mines as com&ensation for the French mines "estroye" by the Germans in 1 15$ They "i" get the mines. the area was returne" to Germany8 in (&&er 'ilesia.3 an" by 1nationality3 they usually meant 1language. an" Germany coul" not threaten France or mo%e eastwar" against B>echoslo%a7ia or 4olan" if France obLecte"$ Jf these two clauses. chose to Loin the economically more &ros&erous state rather than the one sharing the same language$ )n a""ition to the areas mentione". the %oters.iolation of this $oul) be regar)e) as a hostile a$t by the signers of the treaty: This meant that any German troo#s or fortifi$ations &ere e<$lu)e) from this area fore.m&ire where OnationalityO usually meant 1religion$3 The si? cases where self6 "etermination !that is. &robably for economic reasons. the economic bac7bone of GermanyNs ability to wage warfare. gi%e three small "istricts to -elgium.3 but in fact they were usually base" on other consi"erationsE strategic. the territorial &ro%isions of the treaties were base" on 1self6"etermination. where 4olish6s&ea7ing &eo&le were 4H &ercent of the &o&ulation. &lebiscites# was actually use" showe" that the &eo&les of these areas were not so nationalistic as the &eacema7ers belie%e"$ -ecause in Allenstein. Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley. an" aban"on the northern e"ge of .er the Polish 'orri)or6 the Rhinelan)6 an) the *aar: The Fourteen 4oints ha" &romise" to establish an in"e&en"ent 4olan" with access to the -altic 'ea$ )t ha" been French &olicy. but the others shoul" be mentione" here$ )n theory. 1 1 . to o&&ose any strong state in central .HHH out of about D25. the French sought a substitute ally in 4olan"$ Accor"ingly.HHH %ote" to Loin France. while the more rural western &art was returne" to Germany8 in /lagenfurt. since about 1DHH. &$ 2:*62:5 . where 'lo%ene6s&ea7ers forme" *5 &ercent of the &o&ulation.ast 4russia was largely by sea$ +o&e.

"P*oto5 German +ederal .arl Liebkne0*t 0ame 2rom middle@0lass /ewis* 2amilies.'&artacist (&rising F German Re%olution !1 1561 1 # German army soldiers o00upy t*e (ilesian &ailway (tation in Berlin. . 19191 Bot* &osa Lu6emburg and . Germany during t*e (parta0ist uprisingin early 1919.r0*ives) $erman <"'arta#ist= )ommunist re2els Rosa Lu-em2urg *left+ and Karl Lie2(ne#ht 0ere e-e#uted 2 the $erman arm in Berlin during the failed "'arta#us u'rising in Berlin on Januar 1/. &osa Lu6emburg met &ussian $ommunist 7ladimir Lenin at t*e &ussian (o0ial Demo0ratsA +i2t* Party Day in London in 19C1.

aiser Wil*elm '' o2 Germany and t*e German .rmisti0e. wit* &osa Lu6emburg "0enter) in attendan0e &ig*t5 . Le2t5 3*e (parta0us League.arl Liebkne0*t "le2t) and &osa Lu6emburg "rig*t) are seen walking toget*er in an undated p*oto.&evolutionary (parta0ists mar0* into t*e Berlin $astle in November 191: s*ortly a2ter t*e abdi0ation o2 . .

Germany in @o%ember 1 15 "uring the /iel Mutiny$ The /iel Mutiny began on @o%ember C.German sailors of the /riegsmarine !)m&erial German @a%y# &rotest at Wilhelmsha%en. Germany$ Jur &icture shows the sol"iersN council of the 5rin+regent "uit&old$3 . the @o%ember Re%olution begins$ Jn * @o%ember 1 15. 1 15$ German sailors of the /riegsmarine &ose for a grou& &hoto "uring the /iel Mutiny in @o%ember 1 15$ Te?t su&&lie" by the German Fe"eral Archi%e together with the &hotoE 1With the rebellion of the sailors an" wor7ers on C @o%ember 1 15 in /iel. the re%olutionary mo%ement reaches Wilhelmsha%en.

German soldiers mar0* past t*e Brandenburg Gate in Berlin in De0ember 191: 2ollowing t*e November 11 armisti0e. De2eated German soldiers mar0* t*roug* Berlin. Germany in De0ember 191:. .

1919. German soldier aims *is ri2le at a group o2 protestors during t*e (parta0us 9prising in Berlin in 1919.German /ewis* $ommunist rebel . several days prior to *is assassination in Berlin on /anuary 14. .arl Liebkne0*t addresses a 0rowd o2 pro@(oviet $ommunist (parti0ists in Berlin in /anuary 1919. "Bettmann#$%&B'() .

(parta0ist guards lead an uprising in Berlin in /anuary 1919 against t*e newly establis*ed German government EWeimar &epubli0F. German troops remained loyal to t*e new Weimar government and 0rus*ed t*e (parta0ist uprising. "Bettmann#$%&B'() . 0alling 2or a so0ialist@0ommunist republi0. "?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'() German soldiers guard an interse0tion wit* barbed wires during t*e German &evolution o2 1919.

le6anderplat8 in Berlin as t*ey prepare to 2ig*t t*e 0ommunist (parta0an rebels wit* tanks and 2lame t*rowers on .pril 1:. "&yko22 $olle0tion#$%&B'() German army soldiers mar0* towards . 1919. "9nderwood < 9nderwood#$%&B'() .German soldiers *old t*eir positions during some o2 t*e street 2ig*ting t*at a22e0ted Germany in 1919 2ollowing its de2eat in World War '.

"9nderwood < 9nderwood#$%&B'() .lsa0e Lorraine.ay 1919. 1919. 1919. 3*is demonstration was made by t*e Germans driven 2rom . Germany on /une 1 .German $*an0ellor P*ilipp (0*eidemann. speaks to a 0rowd in Berlin in . w*o served as $*an0ellor o2 Germany 2rom +ebruary 1!. 1919 R /une C. 3*ousands o2 Germans protest against t*e 7ersailles treaty on t*e .oenigsplat8 in Berlin.

Ma& of Germany !1Weimar Re&ublic3# from 1 1 61 C: .

.app Puts0* "also known as .rmy General Walt*er von LUttwit8. F French Military Jccu&ation of the Ruhr !1 2C# 3*e German army led by German .ar0* 19 Puts0*) in ./a&& 4utsch !1 2H#. 0y&erinflation !1 2C#. 3*e . o00upies Berlin during t*e .embers o2 t*e Weimar &epubli0 0abinet eva0uated Berlin and temporarily establis*ed its seat o2 government in Dresden and later in ( Puts0* was a s*ort@lived military rebellion led by t*e German army a2ter t*e Weimar &epubli0 government attempted to redu0e t*e si8e o2 t*e German armed 2or0es as reIuired by t*e 7ersailles treaty. "P*oto5 German +ederal . 0ommander o2 t*e Berlin Reichswehr. . general strike led by German workers eventually 2or0ed t*e rebellious 2a0tions o2 t*e German army to end t*e rebellion. 4olitical Assassinations.r0*ives) . -eer 0all 4utsch !1 2C#.

1 22 . was assassinate" in southwest Germany on August 2*. 1 21$ . the Foreign Minister of Germany !February 1. w*osoever pro0eeds will be s*otH.r>berger an" Rathenau$ 3*e German army o00upies Berlin during t*e .app Puts0* in .ar0* 19 C. 3*e banner says5 H(top.2eftE Matthias .r>berger was mur"ere" because he was one of the German re&resentati%es who signe" the 1 15 armistice$ RightE Walter Rathenau. the Finance Minister of Germany. were allege"ly in%ol%e" in the assassination of . . was assassinate" in -erlin on June 24. June 24.r>berger. an ultra6nationalist German gang organi>ation. 1 22$ Members of the Jrganisation Bonsul. 1 22# an" a &rominent German Jewish businessman.

r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv) . "Bettmann#$%&B'() Germans wait in line to buy s0ar0e meat in 19 ! "P*oto5 German +ederal .Disgruntled and unemployed German men wait in a bread line in Berlin. Germany in November 19 !.

Le2t p*oto5 . . Le2t p*oto5 . w*i0* burn longer t*an t*e amount o2 2irewood t*ey 0an buy. German man uses a w*eelbarrow to 0arry *is 0olle0tion o2 German marks. &ig*t p*oto5 . &ig*t p*oto5 German 0*ildren build a pyramid using a bundle o2 German bank notes during t*e *yperin2lation in 19 !. German woman prepare to use *er 0olle0tion o2 &ei0*sbank bank notes "German mark) 2or 0ooking 2uel in *er *ome during t*e *yperin2lation t*at a22e0ted Germany in 19 !. German woman 2eeds a stove wit* 0urren0y notes.

. 19 ! and wort* about W1 at t*e time. "Note5 3*e ba0k side was le2t blank to keep printing 0osts down.pril 19 1. Germany during t*e German *yperin2lation in 19 ! t*at was initiated by t*e &ei0*sbank.) . W!! billion) on Germany in . "Bettmann#$%&B'() German 4C million . group o2 businessmen 0arry gold to t*e bank in Berlin. . GermanyAs 0entral bank.(. 3*e . 2ew weeks later it would be totally wort*less.llies imposed a reparations payment o2 1! billion gold marks "9.ark banknote printed on (eptember 1.

Dawes and %wen D. Wil*elm $uno 2ailed to pay reparation payments to +ran0e in a timely manner.r0*ives) . "Bettmann#$%&B'() +ren0* soldiers o00upy t*e &u*r region o2 Germany in 19 ! a2ter t*e German government under $*an0ellor Dr. "P*oto5 German +ederal . 3*e German government under $uno approved o2 *yperin2lation t*at led to GermanyAs e0onomi0 0ollapse in 19 ! and later a00epted loans 2rom .+ren0* army soldiers in t*e &u*r in Germany disarm t*e German Green Poli0e in t*eir e22ort to maintain pea0e in t*e o00upied area. =oung in 19 !> t*e loans were known as t*e Dawes Plan.meri0an 2inan0iers led by $*arles G.

Military occu&ie" >ones of western Germany by the en" of 1 2C .

French occu&ation troo&s lea%e +ortmun". Germany in Jctober 1 24$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# .

was the Bhancellor of Germany from @o%ember %on 2u"en"orff a&&ears on the front co%er of the @o%ember 1 . the attem&t was futile an" it was o%er within 24 hours$ Rebels storme" 24 &olice stations. 1 2C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# . 1 22 to August 12.German troops enter Dresden to put down $ommunist riots on Novem2er !. Germany on Jctober 2C. $ommunist uprising o00urred in ?amburg on 4#to2er !3. . 1: in 0amburg an" se%en in 'chleswig60olstein 4ro%ince in 4russia$ J%er 1HH &eo&le "ie" "uring the 0amburg (&rising$ 2eftE General . 19!3. the /5 Wasserkante$ From a military &oint of %iew. 1 2C e"ition of Time maga>ine$ RightE +r$ Wilhelm Buno. "Bettmann#$%&B'() The 0amburg (&rising was a Bommunist &olitical insurrection that began in 0amburg. 19!3. 1 2C by the one of the most militant sections of the 0amburg "istrict Bommunist 4arty !/4+#. who once ser%e" as a member of the boar" of "irectors of 0amburg6Ameri7a 2ine !0A4AG#.

Germany "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch on @o%ember . 1 2C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# . 1 2C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# The J"eons&lat> in Munich "uring the faile" -eer 0all 4utsch on @o%ember .@a>i German stormtroo&ers "resse" in military uniforms a&&ear in front of the Marien&lat> in Munich.

+awes 4lan !1 24# an" Aoung 4lan !1 2 #E Jrgani>e" BrimeM .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv) Dawes $ommittee member %wen D. 3*e Dawes $ommittee settled some o2 GermanyAs reparation payment problems in t*e early 19 Cs. =oung "se0ond 2rom le2t) appears wit* *is assistant &u2us $.ll t*ree men were members o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations. =oung "le2t). +rom le2t to rig*t5 %wen D. Dawes "0enter. $*arles G. "P*oto5 German +ederal . Dawes served as t*e 7i0e President o2 t*e 9nited (tates 2rom 19 4 to 19 9. wit* pipe in mout*) at a reparations 0on2eren0e in Berlin. "P*oto5 German +ederal .meri0an members o2 t*e Dawes $ommittee "0ommittee to settle GermanyAs war debts and reparation payments) stand toget*er 2or a portrait in 19 D. $*arles G. Germany in /anuary 19 D. Dawes "0enter).. an internationalist organi8ation in New =ork $ity. and ?enry .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv) . &obinson. .

Jwen Aoung !right# a&&ears with Bharles G$ +awes. Germany in 'e&tember 1 24$ The German go%ernment ratifie" the +awes 4lan. 1 248 the +awes 4lan went into effect on 'e&tember 1. an economic agreement "esigne" to hel& Germany meet its re&arations obligations. brother Rufus B$ +awes !left# at the re&arations conference in -erlin. on August 2 . 1 24$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%esG-un"esarchi%# .

. +ran0e.mbassador to Na8i Germany ". (a0kett 9.(.(. 19 9@ ..ristide Briand rela6 during t*e Lo0arno negotiations in Lo0arno.ar0* :. 19!!) William -.mbassador to Na8i Germany ".ar0* D.inister o2 Germany Gustav (tresemann "le2t). . "19 4@19 9) %wen D..mbassador to Germany "19 4@19 9) George L.. =ale 191C President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) ?enry L. . Gerard 9. Britain.lanson B.ar0* !. 19!CR . and 'taly.inister o2 +ran0e .. . (wit8erland in %0tober 19 4. . and +oreign . Dawes were awarded t*e Nobel Pea0e Pri8e in 19 4> Gustav (tresemann and +ren0* +oreign .(.usten $*amberlain and . =oung $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $o. (e0retary o2 (tate ".. (ir . ?arrison B.mbassador to 'mperial Germany "191!@1911) .ugust !C.. . 19!!R De0ember 9. +oreign (e0retary o2 Britain (ir .inister .meri0an 7i0e President $*arles G.(.mbassador to Germany "19 @19 4) +rederi0 . Wilson B. 19!1) ?ug* &. a series o2 e0onomi0 and de2ense agreements made by Germany. =ale 19CL 9. "P*oto5 German +ederal . 19!:) $*arles G.usten $*amberlain "0enter).mbassador to Germany "+ebruary 1 . 19!!) . =ale 1::: 9. (timson B. 19!:@ November 1L. Dodd 9. Belgium. "19 @19!9. Dawes 7i0e President o2 t*e 9.(.(. 3*e t*ree men agreed to t*e Lo0arno Pa0t "Lo0arno 3reaties). 19D @19DD) /a0ob Gould (0*urman 9.(.ristide Briand were awarded t*e Nobel Pea0e Pri8e in 19 L.+oreign .(..ar0* D.r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv) Enited "tates Am2assadors to $erman *8eimar Re'u2li# and Ahird Rei#h+ /ames W. ?oug*ton 9.

+ren0* +oreign .inister Gustav (tresemann delivers a spee0* in t*e S7NlkerbundT a2ter t*e admission o2 Germany on (eptember :.inister . "P*oto5 German +ederal . wearing a mono0le).inister Gustav (tresemann "2ront row.German +oreign .ristide Briand "2ront row. 0enter).r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv) German +oreign . and t*eir entourage attend a 0on2eren0e in Geneva in (eptember 19 L. Belgian +oreign .22airs (ir . "P*oto5 German +ederal . t*ird 2rom le2t).inister -mile 7andervelde. 19 L.r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv) .usten $*amberlain "2ront row. 2ar rig*t. and Britis* (e0retary o2 (tate 2or +oreign .

+oreign . -enLamin 'trong !4resi"ent of the Fe"eral Reser%e -an7 of @ew Aor7#. +oreign . "P*oto5 German +ederal . 19 9. Gustav (tresemann died o2 a stroke in Berlin on %0tober !.nglan"#.inister o2 +ran0e .inister o2 Germany Gustav (tresemann "rig*t).ristide Briand " nd rig*t). Montagu @orman !Go%ernor of the -an7 of . and 2ormer $*an0ellor o2 Germany and German envoy ?ans Lut*er "0enter) attend a 0on2eren0e in Geneva. (wit8erland in (eptember 19 L. from left to rightE 0Lalmar 'chacht !4resi"ent of the Reichsban7#.r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv) Bentral ban7ers meet in "owntown Manhattan. an" Mr$ Rist a&&ear on the roofto& of the Fe"eral Reser%e -an7 of @ew Aor7 hea"9uarters in @ew Aor7 Bity in July 1 2:$ .

and Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@ 19DC). =oung was t*e $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $ompany "19 @19!9.oreau "le2t). ?Jalmar (0*a0*t was tried in Nuremberg..Governor o2 t*e Bank o2 +ran0e. Germany 2or war 0rimes and 0ollaboration wit* t*e Na8is a2ter World War ''. >e'ut )hairman of the . )hairman of the . =oung wat0*es -mile . President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "GermanyAs 0entral bank). "P*oto5 . in 19 9 a2ter t*ey a00epted t*e terms o2 t*e =oung Plan.ederal Reserve Ban( of Ne0 3or( *19!@F 193@+. %wen D. s*ake *ands wit* ?Jalmar (0*a0*t "rig*t).ederal Reserve Ban( of Ne0 3or( *1935F1940+ .%wen D.ndustrial Leader by 'da .wen /0 Young: $ New T-pe of . 3arbell) . 19D @19DD).

P.meri0a. +ran0e on +ebruary C. "P*oto5 M Bettmann#$%&B'() %wen D. Lord &evelstoke o2 -ngland was in attendan0e during t*e opening o2 t*e German &eparations $ommittee. =oung "0enter).&eparations e6perts meet to dis0uss German war debt in Paris.meri0a. 19 9. .meri0a. Lamont "se0ond 2rom rig*t) wat0* ?Jalmar (0*a0*t "rig*t).ulturbesit8) . Lamont were members o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations. "P*oto5 M Bildar0*iv PreuXis0*er . seated5 %wen D. Lamont o2 . banker 3*omas W. Deputy $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 1@19!1).organ < $o. %wen D. +ran0e on /une 1. t*e President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank. (tanding in t*e rear is 3*omas W. . =oung "0*airman o2 General -le0tri0 $o. (ir /osia* (tamp o2 -ngland. and /. 19 9.organ o2 . . /. +rom le2t to rig*t.organ < $o.P. partner 3*omas W.P. sign t*e =oung Plan at t*e ?otel George 7 in Paris.) and /. =oung o2 .

+ran0e on /une 1D.meri0an $ommission and ?Jalmar (0*a0*t. brings &eparations $on2eren0e to a su00ess2ul 0on0lusion in Paris. as t*ey appeared outside t*e 0on2eren0e *all a2ter t*e su00ess2ul 0on0lusion o2 t*e 0on2eren0e to settle GermanyGs war debt. =oung. =oung. ?Jalmar (0*a0*t. =oung.(. t*e Deputy $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork. w*i0* 0arried *im to t*e 9nited (tates. German delegate. +ran0e on /une 11. +ren0* 0ommitteeman> %wen D. "P*oto5 M Bettmann#$%&B'() . 2rom t*e window o2 a train w*i0* 0arried *im to t*e (. -mile . s*akes *ands wit* Dr. at a train station in Paris.%wen D. German delegate to t*e &eparations $on2eren0e and President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "GermanyAs 0entral bank). +rom le2t to rig*t. "P*oto5 M Bettmann#$%&B'() %wen D. .oreau.meri0an reparation e6pert and Deputy $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork. 19 9. 19 9. Vuitania. 0*airman o2 t*e .

Germany "eman"e" a moratorium on all cash &ayments of re&arations for the ne?t thirty months$ Although the -ritish were willing to yiel" at least &art of this. as followsE 1$ The &reliminary &ayments. it is not sur&rising that the 2on"on 'che"ule of re&arations &ayments was ne%er fulfille"$ This failure was regar"e" by -ritain as &roof of Germany. 1 1 61 21 2$ The 2on"on 'che"ule. an" to 2H billion to the &oun" in +ecember 1 2C$ )n July 1 22. &$ CHD6CH5 . the Germans ma7ing little or no effort to re"uce their &urchases abroa" !an" thus re"uce their own stan"ar"s of li%ing#.1@o subLect occu&ie" a larger &ortion of statesmenNs energies than re&arations "uring the "eca"e after the war$ For this reason. -elgium. in fact.s than it ha" been in the %ery &ros&erous year 1 1C$ )nstea" of ta?ing an" retrenching. that is. mines.s inability to &ay. the whole matter was "ro&&e" in May when the Germans were &resente" with the total re&arations bill of 1C2. although it was generally ruinous to the mi""le classes. the Re&arations Bommission %ote" C to 1 !with -ritain o&&osing France. ha" a fa%orable balance of tra"e#$ (n"er the first con"ition there woul" accumulate in the han"s of the German go%ernment a 9uantity of German currency beyon" the amount nee"e" for current e?&enses$ (n"er the secon" con"ition.1HH woun"e"Zmost of the casualties !CHH an" 2. the German go%ernment &ermitte" an unbalance" bu"get to continue year after year. but was regar"e" by France as &roof of GermanyNs unwillingness to &ay$ -oth were correct. the history of re&arations "eman"s a certain &ortion of our attention$ This history can be "i%i"e" into si? stages. to 2H million to the &oun" in August 1 2C.HHH to the &oun" in January 1 2C. June 1 C l6July 1 C2 *$ The 2ausanne Bon%ention. to obtain incomes which coul" be a&&lie" to re&arations$ Jn January . ma"e no real effort to &ay an" that the moratorium woul" be acce&table to France only if it were accom&anie" by O&ro"ucti%e guarantees$O This meant that the cre"itors shoul" ta7e &ossession of %arious forests. Germany coul" not. the French un"er 4oincarV &ointe" out that the Germans ha". e%en going so far as to threaten to occu&y the Ruhr in March 1 21 in an effort to enforce &ayment. while the foreign cre"itors refuse" to allow a free flow of German goo"s into their own countries on the argument that this woul" "estroy their "omestic mar7ets for locally &ro"uce" goo"s$ Thus it can be sai" that the Germans were unwilling to &ay re&arations.HHH Germans were "e&orte" from the area$ The German resistance in the Ruhr was a great strain on Germany. an" the cre"itors were unwilling to acce&t &ayment in the only way in which &ayments coul" honestly be ma"e. 'e&tember 1 246January 1 CH 4$ The Aoung 4lan. an" sent Germany numerous "eman"s an" ultimatums in regar" to these &ayments. either in lan" or in in"ustrial &lant. fell in %alue from CHD to the &oun" in August 1 21 to 1. Germany woul" recei%e from abroa" an e?cess of foreign e?change !either gol" or foreign money# as &ayment for the e?cess of her e?&orts o%er her im&orts$ -y e?changing its bu"getary sur&lus in mar7s for the foreign6e?change sur&lus hel" by her citi>ens. was the most com&le? in the worl"$ The occu&ation forces trie" to run this system with only 12. an" a great &sychological strain on the French an" -elgians$ At the same time that the German mar7 was being ruine".ntente 4owers conten"e" that only about 5. but the Anglo6Americans. both economically an" financially. more accurately. &ay re&arations$ The failure to obtain a bu"getary sur&lus was solely the res&onsibility of the German go%ernment. an" the Ruhr was e%acuate"$ The only %ictors in the e&iso"e were the -ritish. July 1 C2 The &reliminary &ayments were su&&ose" to amount to a total of 2H. who ha" "emonstrate" that the French coul" not use force successfully without -ritish a&&ro%al$3 .DHH troo&s an" 1. 1 2C. which refuse" to re"uce its own e?&en"itures or the stan"ar"s of li%ing of its own &eo&le or to ta? them sufficiently hea%ily to yiel" such a sur&lus$ The failure to obtain a fa%orable balance of tra"e was the res&onsibility e9ually of the Germans an" of their cre"itors.HHH million mar7s by May 1 21$ Although the . ma7ing u& the "eficits by borrowing from the Reichsban7$ The result was an acute inflation$ This inflation was not force" on the Germans by the nee" to &ay re&arations !as they claime" at the time# but by the metho" they too7 to &ay re&arations !or. not hesitating to use mur"er for the &ur&ose$ (n"er these con"itions it is a miracle that the out&ut of the area was brought u& to one6thir" its ca&acity by the en" of 1 2C$ German re&risals an" Allie" countermeasures resulte" in about 4HH 7ille" an" o%er 2. o&erate" by 1:H. which at &ar was worth about 2H to the &oun".HHH million of this ha" been &ai". iron. were benefitte" by the inflation which increase" the %alue of their &ro&erties an" wi&e" away their "ebts !chiefly mortgages an" in"ustrial bon"s#$ The German mar7.C5H coo&erating Germans$ The non6coo&erating Germans trie" to &re%ent this. to a%oi" &ayment#$ The inflation was not inLurious to the influential grou&s in German society. by acce&ting German goo"s an" ser%ices$ (n"er these con"itions.HHH &ersons. cease" all re&arations &ayments. also refuse" to acce&t German goo"s to the amount necessary to o%ercome German inability to &ay$ As early as 1 21. an" thus encourage" the e?tremist elements$ Those grou&s whose &ro&erty was in real wealth. Germany acce&te" this bill an" ga%e the %ictors bon"s of in"ebte"ness to this amount$ Jf these. as well as the German customs. as yet.HHH res&ecti%ely# being inflicte" by Germans on Germans$ )n a""ition almost 1DH. an" because of the im&act which re&arations ha" on other issues !such as financial or economic reco%ery an" international amity#. the go%ernment su&&orting the stri7ers by &rinting more &a&er money$ The area occu&ie" was no more than *H miles long by CH miles wi"e but containe" 1H &ercent of GermanyNs &o&ulation an" &ro"uce" 5H &ercent of GermanyNs coal. a com&romise was reache" by which Germany acce&te" the +awes 4lan for re&arations.HHH million mar7s$ (n"er &ressure of another ultimatum. -ritain. although it ha" threatene" the same thing on less %ali" groun"s in 1 21$ Germany "eclare" a general stri7e in the area. &lace" a 2* &ercent ta? on all im&orts from Germany$ That Germany coul" ha%e &ai" in real goo"s an" ser%ices if the cre"itors ha" been willing to acce&t such goo"s an" ser%ices can be seen in the fact that the real &er ca&ita income of the German &eo&le was about one6si?th higher in the mi""le 1 2H. an" a"o&te" a &rogram of &assi%e resistance. an" factories of western Germany. May 1 216'e&tember 1 24 C$ The +awes 4lan. who refuse" to allow France to use the "uress necessary to o%ercome German unwillingness to &ay. January 1 CH6June 1 C1 D$ The 0oo%er Moratorium. Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley. for e?am&le. an" steel an" :H &ercent of her freight traffic$ )ts railway system. 52 billions were set asi"e an" forgotten$ Germany was to &ay on the other DH billion at a rate of 2$D billion a year in interest an" H$D billion a year to re"uce the total "ebt$ Germany coul" &ay these obligations only if two con"itions &re%aile"E !a# if it ha" a bu"getary sur&lus an" !b# if it sol" abroa" more than it bought abroa" !that is. an" )taly# that Germany was in "efault of her &ayments$ Arme" forces of the three nations began to occu&y the Ruhr two "ays later$ -ritain "enounce" this act as illegal. the occu&ying countries were not obtaining the re&arations they "esire"$ Accor"ingly.H2H in @o%ember 1 21$ From that &oint it "ro&&e" to 5H. the German go%ernment woul" be able to ac9uire this foreign e?change an" be able to gi%e it to its cre"itors as re&arations$ 'ince neither of these con"itions generally e?iste" in the &erio" 1 2161 C1.

who ser%e" as chairman of the committee which "rew u& the new agreements !February to June 1 2 #$ Twenty go%ernments signe" these agreements in January 1 CH$ The agreement with Germany &ro%i"e" for re&arations to be &ai" for D years at rates rising from )$: billion mar7s in 1 C1 to a &ea7 of 2$4 billion mar7s in 1 ** an" then "eclining to less than a billion mar7s in 1 55$ The earmar7e" sources of fun"s in Germany were abolishe" e?ce&t for **H million mar7s a year which coul" be 1commerciali>e". which ha" fun"e" her war "ebts to the (nite" 'tates at 4$* billion "ollars in 1 2C. an" "eci"e" that this woul" reach a rate of 2$D billion mar7s a year after four years of reconstruction$ +uring the first four years Germany woul" be gi%en a loan of a5HH million an" woul" &ay a total of only D$1: billion mar7s in re&arations$ This &lan "i" not su&erse"e the German re&arations obligation as establishe" in 1 21. because the +awes 4lan &ayments were less than the &ayments re9uire" by the 2on"on 'che"ule8 that the German foreign6e?change mar7et ha" to be free" in or"er that Germany might face the conse9uences of her orgy of borrowing. to 7ee& u& her &ros&erity an" her stan"ar" of li%ing in s&ite of the "efeat an" re&arations. or other non&ro"ucti%e e9ui&ment$ With these American loans Germany was able to rebuil" her in"ustrial system to ma7e it the secon" best in the worl" by a wi"e margin. was "rawn u& by an international committee of financial e?&erts &resi"e" o%er by the American ban7er Bharles G$ +awes$ )t was concerne" only with GermanyNs ability to &ay. an" the "ifference between the +awes &ayments an" the &ayments "ue on the 2on"on 'che"ule were a""e" to the total re&arations "ebt$ Thus Germany &ai" re&arations for fi%e years un"er the +awes 4lan !1 2461 2 # an" owe" more at the en" than it ha" owe" at the beginning$ The +awes 4lan also establishe" guarantees for re&arations &ayments. &$ CH56CH 1The +awes 4lan was re&lace" by the Aoung 4lan at the beginning of 1 CH for a %ariety of reasons$ )t was recogni>e" that the +awes 4lan was only a tem&orary e?&e"ient. ho&e" to commerciali>e the costs of the latter in or"er to obtain -ritish su&&ort in refusing to re"uce re&arations below the total of both items$ The &roblem was how to obtain German an" -ritish &ermission to Ocommerciali>eO &art of the re&arations$ )n or"er to obtain this &ermission France ma"e a gross error in tacticsE she &romise" to e%acuate all of the Rhinelan" in 1 CH. that GermanyNs total re&arations obligation was increasing e%en as she &ai" billions of mar7s. France. -an73 an" allow international &ayments to be ma"e by merely shifting cre"its from one countryNs account to another on the boo7s of the ban7$3 . Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley. -elgium. a swimming &ool. without the normal slum& in the %alue of the mar7 which woul" ha%e sto&&e" such loans un"er normal circumstances$ )t is worthy of note that this system was set u& by the international ban7ers an" that the subse9uent len"ing of other &eo&leNs money to Germany was %ery &rofitable to these ban7ers$ (sing these American loans. the -an7 for )nternational 'ettlements was to ser%e as 1a Bentral -an7ers. in return for &ermission to commerciali>e &art of the re&arations &ayments$ This "eal was embo"ie" in the Aoung 4lan. the agent6general sto&&e" selling mar7s$ This allowe" Germany to begin a career of wil" financial e?tra%agance without suffering the conse9uences which woul" ha%e resulte" un"er a system of free international e?change$ '&ecifically.3 an" ail &rotection of GermanyNs foreign6e?change &osition was en"e" by &lacing the res&onsibility for transferring re&arations from mar7s to foreign currencies s9uarely on Germany$ To assist in this tas7 a new &ri%ate ban7 calle" the -an7 for )nternational 'ettlements was establishe" in 'wit>erlan" at -asle$ Jwne" by the chief central ban7s of the worl" an" hol"ing accounts for each of them. an" almost e%ery German munici&ality was &ro%i"e" with a &ost office. un"er a rain of fees an" commissions$3 . coul" not affor" to wait for a generation or more for Germany to re&ay the cost of this reconstruction through re&arations &ayments$ France ho&e" to obtain a larger imme"iate income by 1commerciali>ing3 some of GermanyNs re&arations obligations$ (ntil this &oint all the re&arations obligations were owe" to go%ernments$ -y selling bon"s !bac7e" by GermanNs &romise to &ay re&arations# for cash to &ri%ate in%estors France coul" re"uce the "ebts she ha" incurre" for reconstruction an" coul" &re%ent -ritain an" Germany from ma7ing further re"uctions in the re&arations obligations !since "ebts to &ri%ate &ersons woul" be less li7ely to be re&u"iate" than obligations between go%ernments#$ -ritain. s&orts facilities. which was largely a J$ 4$ Morgan &ro"uction. an" finally bac7 to the (nite" 'tates as &ayments on war "ebts$ The only things wrong with the system were !a# that it woul" colla&se as soon as the (nite" 'tates cease" to len". fi%e years before the "ate fi?e" in the Treaty of Kersailles. which ha" war "ebts of 4 billion "ollars as well as reconstruction e?&enses. GermanyNs in"ustry was largely ree9ui&&e" with the most a"%ance" technical facilities. Germany &ai" 1H$D billion mar7s in re&arations but borrowe" abroa" a total of 15$* billion mar7s$ @othing was settle" by all this. but the international ban7ers sat in hea%en.1The +awes 4lan. Germany was able to borrow abroa" beyon" her ability to &ay. &$ CH 6C1H . name" after the American Jwen +$ Aoung !a Morgan agent#.nglan" an" to the (nite" 'tates without sen"ing goo"s or ser%ices$ Foreign e?change went to Germany as loans. an" !b# in the meantime "ebts were merely being shifte" from one account to another an" no one was really getting any nearer to sol%ency$ )n the &erio" 1 2461 C1. an" to &ay re&arations without either a balance" bu"get or a fa%orable balance of tra"e$ -y these loans GermanyNs cre"itors were able to &ay their war "ebts to . since e%ery time the %alue of the mar7 ten"e" to fall. an" that Germany Ocoul" not &ayO the stan"ar" +awes &ayment of 2$D billion mar7s a year which was re9uire" in the fifth an" following years of the +awes 4lan$ )n a""ition. which ha" been force" to &ay for the reconstruction of her "e%astate" areas in the &erio" 1 1 61 2*. bac7 to )taly. an" -ritain as re&arations. Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley. setting asi"e %arious sources of income within Germany to &ro%i"e fun"s an" shifting the res&onsibility for changing these fun"s from mar7s into foreign e?change from the German go%ernment to an agent6general for re&arations &ayments who recei%e" mar7s within Germany$ These mar7s were transferre" into foreign e?change only when there was a &lentiful su&&ly of such e?change within the German foreign6e?change mar7et$ This meant that the %alue of the German mar7 in the foreign6e?change mar7et was artificially &rotecte" almost as if Germany ha" e?change control. was 9uite &re&are" to re"uce German re&arations to the amount necessary to meet the &ayments on this war "ebt$ France. France.

to "iscourage such attem&ts at union.3 selling this currency for other monies in which they ha" greater confi"ence$ This create" a great "rain on the German gol" reser%e$ As the gol" reser%e "win"le". the largest Austrian ban7. in A&ril 1 C1. acce&tance by Germany of her eastern frontiers. an" gol" flowe" outwar"$ Jn 'e&tember 2lst . in 1 CC. an" Germany. but the crisis became worse. e?clusi%e of re&arations$ Germany coul" &ay re&arations only so long as her "ebts continue" to grow because only by increasing "ebts coul" the necessary foreign e?change be obtaine"$ 'uch foreign loans almost cease" in 1 CH.nglan" was force" off the gol" stan"ar"$ +uring this crisis the Reichsban7 lost 2HH million mar7s of its gol" reser%e an" foreign e?change in the first wee7 of June an" about 1. re&arations. an" s&rea" to 2on"on$ -y @o%ember 1 C1 all the . almost control. but &ublic confi"ence ha" been "estroye"$ A run began on the ban7$ To meet this run the Austrian ban7s calle" in all the fun"s they ha" in German ban7s$ The German ban7s began to colla&se$ These latter began to call in all their fun"s in 2on"on$ The 2on"on ban7s began to fall. the 4resi"ent suggeste" a moratorium on inter6go%ernmental "ebts for one year$ '&ecifically. Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley. laste" for less than eighteen months$ The crash of the @ew Aor7 stoc7 mar7et in Jctober 1 2 mar7e" the en" of the "eca"e of reconstruction an" o&ene" the "eca"e of "estruction between the two wars$ This crash en"e" the American loans to Germany an" thus cut off the flow of foreign e?change which ma"e it &ossible for Germany to a&&ear as if it were &aying re&arations$ )n se%en years. 1 C1. sus&ension of buil"ing on the secon" &oc7et battleshi&. Germany announce" a customs union with Austria$ France &roteste" that such a union was illegal un"er the Treaty of 'aint6Germain. the %olume of money an" cre"it erecte" on that reser%e ha" to be re"uce" by raising the interest rate$ 4rices fell because of the re"uce" su&&ly of money an" the re"uce" "eman". with e?tensi%e interests. more terrible. recalle" French fun"s from both Austria an" Germany$ -oth countries were %ulnerable$ Jn May 5.uro&e. both &ublic an" &ri%ate. in :H &ercent of Austria. who was in . an" by 1 C1 Germans an" others ha" begun a 1flight from the mar7. &$ C1H6C12 . Germany obtaine" little assistance$ 'e%eral committees of international ban7ers "iscusse" the &roblem. but her cre"itors were reluctant to act unless they obtaine" similar relief on their war6"ebt &ayments to the (nite" 'tates$ The (nite" 'tates ha" an un"erstan"able reluctance to become the en" of a chain of re&u"iation. but no real effort was ma"e to restore it an".uro&ean 4owers e?ce&t France an" her su&&orters were "etermine" to en" re&arations$ At the 2ausanne Bonference of June 1 C2 German re&arations were cut to a total of only C billion mar7s. &roblems$3 . the Bre"it6Anstalt !a Rothschil" institution#. 1 C1. the "ebt of the German fe"eral go%ernment went u& *$* billion mar7s while the "ebts of German local go%ernments went u& 11$* billion mar7s$ GermanyNs net foreign "ebt.1The Aoung 4lan.s in"ustry. which ha" &oisone" international relations for so many years. re&orte" to 4resi"ent 0oo%er that unless relief was gi%en to Germany imme"iately on her &ublic obligations. an" restrictions on training of O&ri%ateO military organi>ations in Germany$ These "eman"s were reLecte" by the (nite" 'tates. 0itler re&u"iate" all re&arations$ -y that "ate. 1 2461 C1.uro&ean countries shoul" be able to &ay war "ebts if they coul" fin" money for armaments !which was not true#$ When 'ecretary of the Treasury Mellon. by which Austria ha" &romise" to maintain its in"e&en"ence from Germany$ The "is&ute was referre" to the Worl" Bourt.HHH million in the secon" wee7 of June$ The "iscount rate was raise" ste& by ste& to 1D &ercent without sto&&ing the loss of reser%es but "estroying the acti%ities of the German in"ustrial system almost com&letely$ Germany begge" for relief on her re&arations &ayments. but "uring the "elay the German crisis became more acute$ The Reichsban7 ha" its worst run on July :th8 on the following "ay the @orth German Wool Bom&any faile" with a loss of 2HH million mar7s8 this &ulle" "own the 'chrW"er -an7 !with a loss of 24 million mar7s to the city of -remen where its office was# an" the +armstQ"ter -an7 !one of GermanyNs O-ig Four -an7sO# which lost 2H million in the Wool Bom&any$ . America offere" to &ost&one all &ayments owe" to it for the year following July 1. -ritain. an" the ban7 ha" really been insol%ent for years$ The Rothschil"s an" the Austrian go%ernment ga%e the Bre"it6Anstalt 1*H million to co%er the loss. if its "ebtors woul" e?ten" the same &ri%ilege to their "ebtors$ Acce&tance of this &lan by the many nations concerne" was "elaye" until the mi""le of July by French efforts to &rotect the &ayments on commerciali>e" re&arations an" to secure &olitical concessions in return for acce&ting the moratorium$ )t sought a renunciation of the Austro6German customs union. were being swallowe" u& in other. so that it became almost im&ossible for the ban7s to sell collateral an" other &ro&erties in or"er to obtain fun"s to meet the growing "eman" for money$ At this &oint. was increase" in the same &erio" by 15$* billion mar7s.?ce&t for a cre"it of 4HH million mar7s from the -an7 for )nternational 'ettlements an" a Ostan"still agreementO to renew all short6term "ebts as they came "ue. which was to ha%e been a final settlement of the re&arations 9uestion. but in the meantime the French. but the agreement was ne%er ratifie" because of the refusal of the (nite" 'tates Bongress to cut war "ebts e9ually "rastically$ Technically this meant that the Aoung 4lan was still in force. announce" that it ha" lost 14H million schillings !about D2H million#$ The true loss was o%er a billion schillings. the whole financial system of the country woul" colla&se with %ery great loss to hol"ers of &ri%ate claims against Germany. an" insiste" that there was no connection between war "ebts an" re&arations !which was true# an" that the .

in .ar0* 19!C.?Jalmar ?ora0e Greeley (0*a0*t "le2t).r0*ives) . stands ne6t to %wen D. =oung "0enter). t*e President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank. "P*oto5 German +ederal . t*e Deputy $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork.

a ?arvard graduate and a member o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations. 3*omas ?. Na8i German Walt*er +unk served on t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 Bank 2or 'nternational (ettlements be2ore World War ''. . 3*e Bank 2or 'nternational (ettlements was establis*ed on . 19!C. (wit8erland.ay 11.0. "P*oto5 +li0kr) . was t*e President o2 t*e Bank 2or 'nternational (ettlements 2rom 19DC to 19DL.3*e Bank 2or 'nternational (ettlements "B'() *eadIuarters in Basel.ittri0k.

. 3*e 19!1 -uropean banking 0risis 0ontributed dire0tly to t*e breakdown o2 demo0ra0y.ustriaAs $reditanstalt bank. a bank owned by t*e &ot*s0*ilds. .People line up outside t*e Posts0*e0kamt in Berlin to wit*draw t*eir deposits in /uly 19!1. 0rowd o2 s*are*olders gat*er in 2ront o2 t*e Darmstaetder and National Bank in Berlin in 19!1. s*ortly a2ter t*e bankrupt0y o2 .

waiting to wit*draw t*eir money. A ban7 run occurs in -erlin.German 0iti8ens stand outside a bank in Berlin. Germany in @o%ember 1 C1$ The .u/)en =n$i)ent o$$urre) on *e#tember 496 47>4: The British m#ire &ent off the gol) stan)ar) on *e#tember ?46 47>4: . Germany in /uly 19!1.

0*aritable organi8ation 0olle0ts donations in Berlin %0tober 19!1 2or t*e unemployed and t*e war disabled.9nemployed do0k workers 0ongregate in t*e ?amburg ?arbor Distri0t in /anuary 19!1. . "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives) .

(. "P*oto5 German +ederal .9.(. a se0ret so0iety at =ale 9niversity. . ?enry L.mbassador to Germany +rederi0 . (timson "le2t) and 9. (timson and +rederi0 . (a0kett "0enter) stand in 2ront o2 t*e +riedri0*strasse 3rain (tation in Berlin.. (timson was a member o2 (kull < Bones.. (e0retary o2 (tate ?enry L. ?enry L. Germany in /une 19!1. (a0kett were members o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations.r0*ive) .

.i . "P*oto5 German +ederal . held 10@ seats in the Rei#hstag in %ar#h 193!1 "P*oto5 German +ederal .ar0* 19! . (e0retary o2 (tate ?enry (timson in Berlin in /uly 19! *Na.mbassador to Germany +rederi0 . . Germany in .. (a0kett addresses t*e &ei0*stag in Berlin.mbassador to Germany +rederi0 . (a0kett "le2t) walks wit* 9. Ahe National "o#ialist $erman 8or(ers9 . the se#ond largest 'oliti#al 'art in $erman .art +.9. .r0*ives) .(.(.r0*ive) 9.(.

Germany on Germany.s .lection +ay on March D. 1 CC.A -erlin city &olice officer an" a 'chut>staffel !''# man stan" together on &atrol in -erlin. si? "ays after the Reichstag Fire$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# .

inister Georgy $*i0*erin.dol2 /o22e "2ar rig*t) meet in &apallo.inister Georgy $*i0*erin "se0ond 2rom rig*t). 19 9.pril 19 s*ortly a2ter signing t*e 3reaty o2 &apallo. 'taly in . . "German +ederal . le2t). (oviet +oreign . (oviet +oreign . and Nikolai .iet Relations )uring the 47?5s an) arly 47>5s $*an0ellor o2 Germany /osep* Wirt* "se0ond 2rom le2t) appears wit* (oviet trade envoy Leonid . Gustav (tresemann was GermanyAs $*an0ellor during t*e Beer ?all Puts0* in 19 ! and GermanyAs +oreign . "German +ederal .r0*ives) GermanyAs +oreign .inister 2rom 19 ! until *is deat* on %0tober !.inister Gustav (tresemann "seated.restinsky pose 2or a group portrait in Berlin in 0ir0a /anuary 19 :.GermanD**ives) . and (oviet envoy .rasin "0enter). (tresemann.

inclu"ing the 9uestion of the treatment of tra"ing %essels which ha%e fallen into the han"s of either 4arty. u& to the &resent. "eclares its rea"iness to gi%e all &ossible su&&ort to these arrangements an" to facilitate their being carrie" into effect$ .rti$le ? Germany wai%es all claims against Russia which may ha%e arisen through the a&&lication.rti$le N The two Go%ernments shall co6o&erate in a s&irit of mutual goo"will in meeting the economic nee"s of both countries$ )n the e%ent of a fun"amental settlement of the abo%e 9uestion on an international basis. shall be settle" on a basis of reci&rocity$ <c= Germany an" Russia mutually agree to wai%e their claims for com&ensation for e?&en"iture incurre" by either &arty on behalf of &risoners of war$ Furthermore the German Go%ernment agrees to forego com&ensation within regar" to the e?&en"iture incurre" by it on behalf of members of the Re" Army interne" in Germany$ The Russian Go%ernment agrees to forego the restitution of the &rocee"s of the sale carrie" out in Germany of the army stores brought into Germany by the interne" members of the Re" Army mentione" abo%e$ . not a&&ly to the &ri%ileges an" facilities which the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic may grant to a 'o%iet Re&ublic or to any 'tate which in the &ast forme" &art of the former Russian . shall be effecte" on the &rinci&le of the most fa%oure" nation$ This &rinci&le shall. an" also for war "amages.German-Russian Agreement. 4eo&leNs Bommissary. of the laws an" measures of the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic to German nationals or their &ri%ate rights an" the rights of the German Reich an" states. inclu"ing all re9uisitions in enemy country$ -oth 4arties li7ewise agree to forego com&ensation for any ci%ilian "amages. an" the general regulation of mutual. which may ha%e been suffere" by the nationals of the one 4arty on account of so6calle" e?ce&tional war measures or on account of emergency measures carrie" out by the other 4arty$ <b= 2egal relations in &ublic an" &ri%ate matters arising out of the state of war. an" the remaining &ro%isions shall come into force imme"iately$ Jriginal te?t "one in "u&licate at Ra&allo on A&ril 1*.rti$le G -oth Go%ernments ha%e furthermore agree" that the establishment of the legal status of those nationals of the one 4arty. 1922 (Treaty of Rapallo) The German Go%ernment. any "amages which may ha%e been suffere" by them an" by their nationals in war >ones on account of military measures. April 16. ha%e agree" u&on the following &ro%isionsE . an e?change of o&inions shall &re%iously ta7e &lace between the two Go%ernments$ The German Go%ernment. an" also claims which may ha%e arisen owing to any other measures ta7en by the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic or by their agents against German nationals or the &ri%ate rights.rti$le > +i&lomatic an" consular relations between the German Reich an" the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic shall be resume" imme"iately$ The con"itions for the a"mission of the Bonsuls of both 4arties shall be "etermine" by means of a s&ecial agreement$ .rti$le 8 Articles 1<b= an" 4 of this Agreement shall come into force on the "ay of ratification.rti$le 4 The two Go%ernments are agree" that the arrangements arri%e" at between the German Reich an" the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic. commercial an" economic relations. that is to say. on con"ition that the go%ernment of the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic "oes not satisfy claims for com&ensation of a similar nature ma"e by a thir" 4arty$ . ha%ing lately been informe" of the &ro&ose" agreements of &ri%ate firms. with regar" to 9uestions "ating from the &erio" of war between Germany an" Russia. howe%er. re&resente" by +r Walther Rathenau. shall be "efinitely settle" u&on the following basisE <a= The German Reich an" the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic mutually agree to wai%e their claims for com&ensation for e?&en"iture incurre" on account of the war. Minister of 'tate.m&ire$ . re&resente" by M$ Tchitcherin. 1 22 'igne"E Rathenau 'igne"E Tchitcherin 'ourceE htt&EGGa%alon$law$yale$e"uG2Hth^centuryGra&allo^HH1$as& . which li%e within the territory of the other 4arty. an" the Go%ernment of the Russian 'ocialist Fe"eral 'o%iet Re&ublic.

r0*ives) . Germany in /une 19 1.r0*ives) $ommunist leaders -rnst 3*Ylmann "le2t) and Willy Leow "rig*t) appear in 2ront o2 parading troops o2 &ot2rontkYmp2erbund "&ed +ront +ig*tersG League) during t*eir national meeting in Berlin. "German +ederal .German sta22 at 3omka 0*emi0al weapons 2a0ility poses 2or a group portrait in t*e (oviet 9nion in 0ir0a 19 :. "German +ederal .

before being shot in -uchenwal" Boncentration Bam& on A"olf 0itlerNs or"ers on August 15.. 1 44$ .rnst ThQlmann !1* A&ril 155* . 15 August 1 44# was the lea"er of the Bommunist 4arty of Germany !/4+# "uring much of the Weimar Re&ublic$ ThQlmann was arreste" by the Gesta&o in -erlin on March C. 1 CC an" hel" in solitary confinement for ele%en years.

os0ow. a trial involving German 0ommunists w*o allegedly 0ollaborated wit* t*e (oviet &ussian $ommunists in . . *eld in Leip8ig. 3*e German 0ommunist salute in t*e 19 Cs is similar to t*e Bla0k Pant*er salute in t*e 9nited (tates o2 .r0*ives) -mblem o2 t*e &ot2rontkYmp2erbund "&+B). Germany in 19 4.German poli0e o22i0ers prepare to attend a $*eka 3rial. "German +ederal .meri0a.

Germany ha" few frien"s or allies to "raw on for su&&ort$ 'imilarly. was force" to gi%e u& German territory. the German Reichswehr an" the 'o%iet Re" Army signe" a "ocument which allowe" the Germans to establish military bases on 'o%iet soil$ The co%ert as&ects of the German6'o%iet military co6o&eration agreement all inclu"e" &ro%isions for Loint wor7 on armor matters. +>er>hins7i. . MaLor Fischer of the Reichswehr was selecte" to hea" a s&ecial wor7ing grou& within the Reichswehr Ministry$ Their tas7 was to wor7 out a basic foun"ation for future German6'o%iet co6o&eration efforts with their 'o%iet counter&arts$ )t all culminate" with the Ra&ollo Treaty of A&ril.ilitary in the *o. one6by6one. one must first loo7 at both nations as they stoo" in 1 1561 1 $ Germany was humiliate" in by the Treaty of Kersailles$ Germany was force" to re"uce her military ca&abilities to a to7en force of limite" troo&s. no submarines.nglan" also hel&e" by &ublishing a number of articles on the subLect#. in fact.stonia. the whole worl" was almost entirely shiel"e" from GermanyNs clan"estine military buil"6u& an" military "e%elo&ment efforts in the 'o%iet (nion$ A &olitical fla& "i" occur in 1 2* when the 'ocial6+emocrats of Germany &ublicly announce" some as&ects of the German6'o%iet military co6o&eration efforts !the Manchester Guar"ian in . 2at%ia an" 2ithuania all "eclare" their in"e&en"ence8 the 'o%iet (nion now only controlle" the &ort of 2eningra" in the -altic 'ea$ The Allie" inter%ention forces were in Archangel an" Kla"i%osto7$ The military limitations of the new 'o%iet (nion were often the laughing stoc7 of the worl"$ )nternationally. Frun>e an" a host of others$ German su&&orters for wor7ing with the 'o%iet (nion inclu"e" %on 'eec7t. 'talin. 2ithuania#$ /o&&Ns official tas7 was to wor7 on re&atriation issues of Russian 4JWNs an" interne" Russian ci%ilians in German custo"y !one of his &ro&osals was to con%ert 'o%iet 4JW commissions into "e facto consular missions#$ 0is more co%ert assignment was to wor7 on im&ro%ing German an" 'o%iet relations$ /o&& was successful in getting the +eruluft an" +eru6metall com&anies establishe". an" more$ )nternationally.stonia8 a thir" in Riga. a%iation matters an" chemical warfare issues$ The following gui"ing &rinci&les were 7ey German goalsE b +e%elo&ment of a"%ance" military technologies. . both nations 9uic7ly reali>e" that their best chances for growth an" success in military matters was to rely on each other$ The start. theoretical stu"y efforts an" training &rograms free from thir"6&arty interference$ b +e%elo&ment of tactical a&&lications for wea&ons systems &rohibite" by the Kersailles treaty$ b +e%elo&ment an" e"ucation of an e?&erience" ca"re of s&ecialists in all military fiel"s$ This ca"re grou& can then be use" to establish more formal military ca&abilities in Germany at a later time$ b +e%elo&ment of wea&ons systems &rohibite" by Kersailles8 "e%elo&ment of wea&ons systems a%ailable in Germany$ b +e%elo&ment of new strategies an" tactics base" on the lessons learne" in the abo%e categories$ . as well as a number of other 'o%iet6German Loint %entures$ 'o%iet su&&orters for a secret !or at least not a &ublici>e"# &artnershi& inclu"e" 2enin !only after he became ill#. to ha%e no ca&ital shi&s. (nter "en 2in"en @r$ 11 !a secon" R'F'R co%er office was locate" in Tallinn. the 'o%iet (nion also foun" itself in a &oor &ost6Worl" War situation$ The Russian Bi%il War was still going on$ The military cam&aign against 4olan" ha" faile"$ The -altic 'tates of .German . was &roscribe" from manufacturing a wi"e range of military goo"s. occurre" 9uite early$ )n August of 1 2H. Rathenau an" many other ci%ilian an" military lea"ers$ Kon 'eec7t was in fact one of the most %ociferous &ro&onents of the &rogram$ 0e "i" not so much wish to see the 'o%iet military increasing "rastically in strength. to gi%e u& all colonial &ossessions. but it went on largely un"etecte"$ After the %ictory of the @ationalist 'ocialists in 1 CC. Trots7y. to wor7 with the Germans$ 0e establishe" a co%er office in -erlin.n%er 4asha wor7e" as an interme"iary between %on 'eec7t an" Moscow$ 0e &ro&ose" that Germany &ro%i"e the 'o%iet (nion with information regar"ing the 4olish military as a gesture of goo" faith$ Jn their si"e. 1 22$ /o&&Ns behin" the scenes efforts in wor7ing with %on 'eec7t. the R'F'R selecte" Ki7tor /o&& !a %ery ca&able "i&lomat an" of . the %eils or remilitari>ation were lifte" until 1 CD when the formation of the Wehrmacht was offically announce" an" the %arious measures "esigne" to co%er u& their reformation were "ro&&e"$ To more o&timally un"erstan" how it is that the Germans an" 'o%iets were "rawn to each other in the &ost Worl" War Jne era.iet Fnion 4749D47>> by Ar%o Kercamer an" Jason 4i&es For 11 years !1 22 to 1 CC#. %on 0asse an" other lea"ing German officials ha" &ai" "i%i"en"s$ While the worl" was 9uite sur&rise" at this e%ent. %on -lomberg. 2at%ia an" a fourth in /aunas. was force" to &ay war re&arations realistically outsi"e of its means to "o so.stonian heritage#. the 'o%iet (nion was essentially isolate"$ Gi%en the abo%e. but he "i" see the benefits of wor7ing closely with 'o%iet in"ustry$ Kon 'eec7t belie%e" that the 'o%iet (nion was an e?cellent source of many har" to obtain metals an" minerals necessary for the creation of a mo"ern military force$ The German ReichswehrNs counter&art at that time was the 'o%iet Wor7ers an" 4easantNs Re" Army !R//A# an" the ties that bin" mo%e" %ery 9uic7ly in the early "ays$ -oth agree" that they ha" a goo" co6o&eration future together$ )n early 1 21. the Germans an" 'o%iets were not$ )t merely legitimi>e" the many &lans the Germans an" 'o%iets ha" regar"ing their future economies$ The most im&ortant result of the Ra&ollo accor"s was the German6'o%iet military co6o&eration effort$ Jn 11 August 1 22.

o&erate" a number of o%ert an" co%ert boo7 7ee&ing systems$ J%ert recor" boo7s were shown to the many Allie" Bontrol Bouncils an" to the less reliable an" wea7er &olitical &arties of the Reichstag$ These were for the most &art "octore" to show the Allies an" most Germans e?actly what they wante" to see$ All co%ert financing was "one through the blue boo7 of the Reichswehr an" only selecte" members of the German go%ernment were &ri%y to its contents$ -ecause the 'o%iet Rouble was not con%ertible on the international mar7et an" because the German Reichsmar7 fluctuate" greatly in the 1 2HNs it was agree" to calculate all financial issues on a set e?change rate for the entire &erio" 6 1 ruble to 2$1* Reichsmar7$ )t is estimate" that Germany s&ent a&&ro?imately 1H million Reichsmar7 &er year in the 'o%iet (nion !1HH million in total#$ A%iation issues re9uire" the greatest amounts of financing8 the &urchase of air&lanes ta7ing a large chun7 of the bu"get$ For e?am&le. it must be note" that at that time. in reality. the &olitical bomb fa"e" from &ublic %iew as other. coul" /ru&& buil" ammunition &ro"uction &lants. Germany woul" allow the Re" Army to con"uct military e?ercises alongsi"e the Reichswehr an" it woul" also agree to share in"ustrial an" military technology a"%ances as a&&licable$ The 'o%iet (nion agree" to the abo%e cite" sti&ulations$ -y 1 24. etc. the '4+ circulate" a &ress release stating that 'o%iet han"6grena"es were 7illing hun"re"s of innocent Germans$ Jn H2 +ecember 1 2*. more &ressing social an" economic issues grabbe" the hea"lines$ @aturally. which officially as7e" the Reichswehr to close all of its facilities an" "e&art the 'o%iet (nion in August of 1 CC$ The Germans ha" left by 'e&tember$ -y that time. a clan"estine German military "e%elo&ment an" training effort establishe" in the 'o%iet (nion re9uire" a %ery efficiently organi>e" a"ministrati%e base$ German military an" ci%ilian com&anies wor7e" together to a"Lu"icate all nee"e" co%er issues$ )t nee" be note" that &er the agreement. the en" of German6'o%iet military co6o&eration efforts were in clear sight$ 0itler an" his @ationalist 'ocialists were not in a moo" to co6o&erate with the 'o%iets in secret on military matters$ Bommunism was after all seen as one of the main enemyNs of the German &eo&le$ )n the en". the office was calle" T6C to "enote that it was a &art of the Tru&&enamt$ The control of more s&ecific military issues was subor"inate" to %arious Waffenins&e7tionen$ Armor issues "e%elo&e" in /a>an were un"er the co%er of the )ns&e7tion "es /raftwesens !)n *#. this res&onsibility was transferre" to the Bhef "es Tru&&enamts !the illegal Bhief of the General 'taff# of the Reichswehrministry$ )t nee" be note" that the General 'taff concerne" itself &rimarily with &olitical an" economic matters8 issues that affecte" both the Germans an" the 'o%iets as they Lointly ran these secret military bases$ 4olitical &roblems were wor7e" in concert with the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs$ The General 'taff also a"Lu"icate" all co%er an" front com&any issues$ For co%er &ur&oses. tactical training. a%iation an" chemical warfare issues$ b Free"om of action to &ursue military "e%elo&ment issues$ b Free e?change of i"eas an" "e%elo&e" technologies as learne" from these sites$ )n short. it was the 'o%iet (nion.ach training class shoul" not last more than one year$ To accom&lish these goals8 the Germans &resente" the 'o%iets with the following re9uirementsE b The use of military facilities suitable for wor7 on armor. "uring their years in . in &art to balance the loss of the German connection$ German A"ministrati%e an" Jrgani>ational )ssuesE The German Bhef "er 0eeresleitung was the focal &oint officer of the Reichswehr for coor"inating all negotiate" matters with the 'o%iet (nion$ 2ater. &ersonnel an" o&erational "e%elo&ment issues$ )n terms of financing issues. as a nation. that the Germans encountere" a maLor &olitical &roblem with their clan"estine relationshi& with the 'o%iet (nion it was no longer so clan"estine$ As the Reichswehr was secretly im&orting 'o%iet munitions !those which Germany was forbi""en to &ro"uce or im&ort "ue to the Kersailles agreement#.F( an" W)/J were wor7ing with the 'o%iet (nion on German re6 armament issues$ This article really hel&e" stir the &ot of intrigue an" s&eculation$ Jn 1* +ecember 1 2*. a number of 'o%iet military technology e?&erts an" military officers were being secretly traine" in Germany$ 0owe%er. the Germans too7 far more from the 'o%iets than they were willing to gi%e in return$ )t was at about this time.b . an" certainly by 1 CC. the Russians a&&roache" the Germans to see which ty&es of in"ustrial ca&abilities coul" be 9uietly transferre" to the 'o%iet (nion$ Boul" the Albatros Wer7e buil" air&lanes in the 'o%iet (nion8 coul" -lohm an" Koss buil" submarines. the 'o%iet (nion was alrea"y e?&an"ing its contacts with the -ritish an" the French. 1 2*. the German '4+ &arty reali>e" that the 'o%iets were also e?&orting han"6grena"es to German communist front organi>ations$ This was not acce&table$ +uring the summerGfall of 1 2*. &ersonnel e%aluation. the German communist &arty countere" the '4+ &osition by stating that the '4+ was full of lies. German bases o&erating in the 'o%iet (nion were to be &rimarily use" for RF+ efforts. a%iation issues in 2i&ets7 were un"er the co%er of the )ns&e7tion "er Flieger !)n 1# an" chemical warfare issues "e%elo&e" at Tom7a were un"er the co%er of the )ns&e7tion "er Artillerie !)n 4#$ Jf note is that each German )ns&e7tion was res&onsible for its own bu"get. Germany agree" to bear all o&erating costs for their bases in the 'o%iet (nion$ -y 1 C2. etc$ Jf 7ey im&ortance to the argument of the '4+ was that three 'o%iet munitions shi&s ha" "oc7e" in 'tettin to unloa" their cargo of han"6grena"es for the communists$ 'lowly. Germany. etc$ Bo6o&eration was su&&ose" to be a two6way street$ As German military units were gaining e?&eriences in the 'o%iet (nion. in those "isci&lines which were e?&ressly &rohibite" for Germany by the Kersailles treaty$ )n return for these &ri%ileges. -ritainNs Manchester Guar"ian &ublishe" an article stating that 'on"ergru&&e6R of the Reichswehrministerium an" G. a Moscow Benter office ha" been o&ene" by the Reichswehr in Moscow$ )n March of 1 24.

'o%iet offices ha" to a&&ear to be trans&arent to e%eryone$ Jfficially they "i" not e%en e?ist$ Their &rimary function was to ensure that all co%er issues insi"e of the 'o%iet (nion were o&timally &rotecte" an" that the %isiting Germans ha" am&le access to all of the nee"e" economic an" military su&&lies they re9uire"$ German -ases in the 'o%iet (nion 1 2261 CCE )n 1 2*. though on occasion. the German school o&erate" un"er the co%er of the 'o%iet Fourth Air '9ua"ron$ At its ince&tion. the basic infrastructure ha" been built at the base an" the first 4an>ers starte" arri%ing8 si? 2C6ton tan7s !-MW engines8 :Dmm main gun# an" three 126ton tan7s arme" with C:mm guns$ The 'o%iet Army ga%e the Reichswehr a number of -ritish Bar"en62loy" light tan7s$ )n return for those. the 'o%iets who traine" there as well let the Germans borrow their uniforms for a while$ )n terms of a%iation matters. high6altitu"e flights were also e?&erimente" with$ )t was in 1 2D that the Germans fiel"e" their first Jag"lehrstaffel at 2i&ets7$ Flight training too7 &lace "uring the hot summer seasons an" on the col"est of winter "ays$ The following structure &re%aile"E b 'ingle aGc b /ette !C aGc# b 'taffel%erban" ! aGc# While the 'taffel was the largest o&erational element at 2i&ets7 !in fact. Reichswehr officers were traine" to become &ilots an" flight lea"ers$ )n 1 25. Germany &ro%i"e" the 'o%iet (nion with a number of in"ustrial an" manufacturing tools the 'o%iets were not yet ca&able of fabricating$ General 2ut> of the Reichswehr was the Bomman"ing Jfficer of the Motor Trans&ort )ns&ection @r$ *$ Jne of the schools most famous teachers was 0ein> Gu"erian$ @o German uniforms were worn8 only ci%ilian clothing was &ermitte". the following a&&ro?imate timetable a&&lie"E )n 1 21 Germans wor7e" on establishing a%iation manufacturing ca&abilities in the 'o%iet (nion$ )n 1 24. the arri%ing German only ha" to show his &ass&ort an" ha%e his alias name chec7e" off a roster$ 4oliteness was the wor" of the "ay8 this in contrast to the "raconian welcome the few regular tourists an" business tra%elers were subLecte" to at the non6German control &oints on the 2at%ian6'o%iet bor"er$ Jnce the training was com&lete". the Germans establishe" a 4an>erschule name" /ama in /a>an$ )t was to teach both the &ractical an" the theoretical$ -y 1 2 . the Germans establishe" their flight6school in 2i&ets7 !com&lementing the one they o&ene" u& in )taly#$ For nine years. the 'o%iets now offere" 2i&ets7 !north of Korone>h# to the Germans. which ha" a regular ser%ice from 4aris.?&ress train. the 'o%iet (nion at first &ro&ose" a military aero"rome in J"essa$ These facilities were not only &ractical from a meteorological &oint of %iew8 they also satisfie" a number of re9uirements le%ie" by the Reichsmarine !na%al a%iation issues#$[ -ut then the Reichsmarine with"rew itself from wor7ing with the 'o%iets$ -ecause this eliminate" the nee" for a na%al a%iation base. the German either returne" %ia the same route or he too7 a cruiseGmerchant shi& %ia 2eningra" bac7 to Germany !usually being off6loa"e" at night so as not to raise the attention le%els$ 'o%iet A"ministrati%e an" Jrgani>ationsl )ssuesE The 'o%iets han"le" their co%er an" bu"get issues in ty&ical 'o%iet fashion they "i" not "i%ulge anything to anyone$ )n 1 2C. more mo"ern aGc ty&es became a%ailable !at 'o%iet insistence because the Germans were "ragging their feet here somewhat#$ That same year. only one German 'taffel e%er o&erate" there at one time#. JungmQr7e !young &ilots# were now acce&te" into the training &rogram$ This laste" until 1 CC$ The aerial obser%ation &rogram was starte". the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs issue" alias &ass&orts$ To minimi>e co%er &roblems. German &ilots !ol" an" new# recei%e" refresher courses base" on the e?isting flight school curriculum$ -oth &ilots an" instructors were familiari>e" with e9ui&ment an" with flight strategiesGtactics$ )n 1 2*. a false i"entity was assume"$ For this. but "ro&&e" in 1 CH$ @umerous technical inno%ations in military a%iation were also teste" an" e%aluate" while battle strategies an" tactics e%ol%e"$ )n 1 CC the 2i&ets7 school was close"$ GermanyNs first efforts in wor7ing with Moscow resulte" in the construction of the Jun7ers factory in Fili !near Moscow#$ @egotiations "ragge" on for nearly a year before the Germans an" the 'o%iets coul" agree on a signe" "ocument !Jctober 1 21 to +ecember 1 22#$ CHH metal6s7inne" aGc were su&&ose" to be built at the &lant &er year8 ne%er reache"$ 4olitics interce"e" !on both si"es#. France to Riga in 2at%ia$ Jnce in Riga.# his bo"y was shi&&e" bac7 to 'tettin un" the co%er of a bo? mar7e" machine &arts or the li7e$ For most tra%el into an" out of the 'o%iet (nion. in"i%i"ual tra%el to the 'o%iet (nion was encourage"8 large grou&s of German tourists were to be a%oi"e"$ Bo%er concerns were so strict that e%en their clothing allowances were "ictate" by regulation$ Jfficers who were transferre" to the 'o%iet bases for longer &erio"s of time were retire" from their home units8 their names were ta7en off of all acti%e "uty lists$ This ha" the benefit of allowing for a greater number of officers to rotate in an" out of the officers cor&s. which too7 him to +auga%&ils an" from there to the 2at%ian6Russian bor"er$ At the bor"er. the German flight school containe" close to *H aGc8 mostly Fo77er +6P))) %ariants !DH were gi%en to the 'o%iet (nion in 1 CC when 0itler or"ere" the base to close#$ -y 1 C1.2i&ets7. non6&ersonnel a%iation e?&en"itures alone totale" close to 2H million Reichsmar7$ When tra%eling to the 'o%iet (nion. which was also limite" in si>e by the Treaty of Kersailles$ )n case a German "ie" while in the 'o%iet (nion !a%iation acci"ent. the 'o%iets "i" erect a Moscow Bentral office$ This office was interestingly subor"inate" to its German counter&art in -erlin$ As with the German offices. etc$. 2i&ets7 . German &ersonnel an" German material su&&ort built the 2i&ets7 facility$ From 1 2D to 1 2:. the Jun7ers concession in Fili was li9ui"ate"$ )n terms of gi%ing the Germans a military a%iation base. training "eath. the German tra%eler boar"e" a local train. which they acce&te" with no &roblems$ )n 1 24. though the 'o%iets also stole many items from the &lant a n" that "i" not ma7e the Germans ha&&y cam&ers$ )n the en". German troo&s boar"e" the @or"6.

he woul" rise to become RommelNs last Bhief of 'taff an" a General in the West German 2uftwaffe$ The German facility for chemical warfare "e%elo&ment issues in the 'o%iet (nion was co"e6name" Tom7a$ This base was locate" near 4o"osin7y !)%shchen7o%o# in 1 2* !in the 'amara Region of the Kolga#$ The location was not by chance$ The base woul" nee" to "raw on German s&ea7ing in"i%i"uals for many su&&ort functions thus regions close to German colonies in the 'o%iet (nion were always high on the site6selection list of the Reichswehr$ +uring the months of August an" 'e&tember of 1 2C. G. a 'o%iet na%al "elegation %isite" -erlin$ They offere" to buil" German "esigne" submarines an" tor&e"oes in the 'o%iet (nion in return for German assistance in a number of na%al fiel"s$ The German na%y re%iewe" the &ro&osal an" "ecline" to acce&t it$ )t was of the o&inion that German co%ert na%al efforts currently in &lace in the @etherlan"s. &recision tools.F( !Gesellschaft fUr FWr"erung gewerblicher (nternehmungen# create" a Loint6%enture com&any with its 'o%iet counter&art. 'talinNs &urges of the 1 CHNs 7ille" the maLority of the 'o%iets who now ha" uni9uely learne" military s7ills an" the German in%asion of 1 41. etc$# but which were always in short su&&ly in the 'o%iet (nion$ The following 'o%iet military in"i%i"uals recei%e" e?tensi%e training in Germany8 .F( became W)/J !Wirtschafts7ontor#$ The Germans brought in many chemical warfare e?&erts an" establishe" a %ery com&rehensi%e BW &rogram there$ )n May of 1 2*. the German com&any of G. Mannstein an" Mo"el$ 'o%iet . o%er 1. the Germans always seeme" to fin" an e?cuse as to why this or that coul" not be accom&lishe"$ -erlin always ha" to be consulte" with$ Jften the 'o%iets were of the feeling that the Germans were hol"ing bac7 on their sharing efforts8 but in many cases. the Germans were not hol"ing bac7 what they showe" the 'o%iets was really the latest in German technology !the 'o%iets "i" not tell the Germans for e?am&le that their T6C4 was light years ahea" of any German 4an>er#$ The Germans also "i" not trust the 'o%iets8 in &art because they 7e&t stealing so many of the little things of life which were common in Germany !soa&. an" CH secon"s later.often o&erate" two 'taffeln when &racticing moc7 "ogfights with their 'o%iet ounter&arts$ +uring the summer of 1 C1. -ersol$ Two hea"9uarters were create"8 one in -erlin an" one in Moscow$ )n 1 2D. 0elm '&ei"el. &artici&ate" in a%iation matters there$ 2ater. 'we"en an" in Finlan" were su&erior to what the 'o%iets coul" offer$ They also "i" not wish to u&set the Royal @a%y who the Germans 7new were monitoring Germany %ery closely$ Jnly in 1 C5 an" 1 C "i" the /riegsmarine ta7e a more serious interest in 'o%iet na%al matters. 'o%iet ci%ilian e?&erts were also "etaile" to 2i&ets7$ Throughout their stays in Germany !u& to 1 C2GCC#. many other ty&es of gasses were also being &ro"uce" at Tom7a !co"e" yellow cross. but by then it was alrea"y too late to establish reliable contacts$ )n terms of a%iation issues.fimo% !+e&uty to hea" of Armaments#8 /uibishe% !Re" Army 'taff#. green cross. foo"stuffs.2HH 2uftwaffe &ilots ha" been traine" at 2i&ets7$ Jf note is that many of the early RF+ efforts of the Ju65: were carrie" out at 2i&ets7$ General "er Flieger. tooth&aste. the first batch of gas !"i&hosgene# was rea"y$ 2arge6scale tests were con"ucte" near 2uga$ Within a short &erio" of time. there were no set re9uirements$ The "ri%ing i"ea was to allow creati%e thin7ing. etc$# Jfficer Training 'choolE A small officer training school was establishe" in Moscow$ /nown gra"uates inclu"e" /eitel. though they &robably learne" a great "eal in terms of in"ustry an" technology$ This is because in all &robability. 'o%iet military %isitors continuously &raise" German technological a"%ancements an" their &enchant for &ro"ucing a 9uality &ro"uct$ The 'o%iets were e?&ose" to nearly all facets of the German military buil"6u& effort$ They were im&resse" with the fact that a German hea%y MG coul" fire at a groun" target in one moment. German an" 'o%iet s9ua"rons &artici&ate" in moc7 attac7s against "aylight bombers "e%ising the most o&timal attac7 an" "efense techni9ues$ The Germans in the 'o%iet (nion ne%er wore military uniforms8 they always wore ci%ilian clothing to &rotect their co%er as much as &ossible$ The training &rogram was a %ery fle?ible one.?&ectations 1 2261 CCE )n 1 2*. most li7ely too7 care of those who sur%i%e" the &urges$ 'ourceE htt&EGGwww$fel"grau$comGger6so%$html . be a"Luste" for use as an anti6aircraft machine gun !"esigne" by @$ %on +reise#$ The German :Dmm F2A/ gun was nearly twice as goo" !coul" fire twice the "istance# as the current 'o%iet %ersion$ 'iemens an" Teiss military o&tics were unsur&asse" for their %ersatility$ The 'o%iets also gaine" 9uite a bit of tactical an" o&erational 7nowle"ge from the Germans as they were obser%ing German Reichswehr maneu%ers in an" aroun" the Weimar Re&ublic$ Much to the "ismay of the 'o%iets. blue cross. the 'o%iets maintaine" a large &resence at 2i&ets7$ They were es&ecially 7een on wor7ing closely with the Germans on technical "e%elo&ment an" manufacturing ca&abilities$ @ot only "i" KK' &ersonnel wor7 with the Germans. among others$ )t is highly unli7ely that the 'o%iets really gaine" large amounts of a&&licable military lea"ershi& s7ills by wor7ing si"e6by6si"e with the Germans "uring this era. &encils. to e?&eriment an" to inno%ate$ -y 1 CC. that is.

s 4resi"ent Generalissimo Bhiang /ai6she7 from 1 C4 to 1 CD$ !(4) &hoto# .s growing armies in %iolation of the Kersailles Treaty limiting Germany to a 1HH.HHH6man army$ This also fortifie" the German military as an in"e&en"ently6o&erating state within the state$ General 0ans %on 'eec7t ser%e" as a military a"%iser to Re&ublic of Bhina.General 0ans %on 'eec7t mastermin"e" the secret treaty by which Germany an" 'o%iet Russia traine" an" e9ui&&e" each other.

a military e?ercise that conforme" to Kersailles restrictions$ !4hotoE Margaret -our7e6White# .s man&ower an" wea&onry$ !4hotoE Margaret -our7e6White 0 German sol"iers o&erate a 1tan73 with car"boar" armor.German sol"iers in the 1 2Hs engage in a military e?ercise using a cannon ma"e out of a woo"en barrel$ The Kersailles Treaty restricte" the German army.

:. 19 9) &ans Luther $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19 4@19 L)> +inan0e . 19! RNov. 1919R .hili'' "#heidemann $*an0ellor o2 Germany "+ebruary 1!. 19 !R November !. 19 4)> died in o22i0e on +ebruary :.ugust 1. :.ugust 1 .ugust 1!.mbassador to . 19 C) )onstantin .inister o2 Germany "1919@19 C) &einri#h BrGning $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19!C@19! )> +oreign .ar0* 19 CR : /une 19 C.inister o2 Germany " . 11. Germany "19 C@19 4) $ustav Bauer $*an0ellor o2 Germany "/une 1. 19! )> 3ransportation .inister o2 Germany "1 /une 19! R ! . 1919R +ebruary :.riedri#h E2ert $*an0ellor o2 Germany "November 9.inister o2 Germany "19 C@19 !)> $*ie2 o2 t*e German General (ta22 "! /uly 1919R1 /uly 1919) . 19 !R%0tober !. 19!!)> .Prominent $*an0ellors and .inister o2 De2ense "/anuary C. 19 4 . !. 19! @/an.ar0* L.a'en $*an0ellor o2 Germany "/une 1.inister o2 Germany "19 !@19 4)> President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19!C@ 19!!)> German .ay 19D4 R ! .ehren2a#h $*an0ellor o2 Germany "/une 1.mbassador to 3urkey "19!9@19DD) Kurt von "#hlei#her $*an0ellor o2 Germany "De0. 1919R /une C.mbassador to . : /une 19 :R 1 . 1919)> President o2 Germany "+ebruary 11. 19 1R November 1D.ran. 19 :R .inisters o2 Germany "Weimar &epubli0) . 19! R /an.assel.meri0a "19!!@19!1) 8ilhelm %ar$*an0ellor o2 Germany "19 !@19 4. 19!! R.ustria "19!D@19!:)> German .ugust 1!.ay 19D4)> +oreign . 19!D during t*e Nig*t o2 t*e Long .ay !C. 19 1) Jose'h 8irth $*an0ellor o2 Germany ". 19!!)> assassinated on /une !C. 19! )> 7i0e $*an0ellor o2 Germany "/anuary !C.inister o2 Germany "19!1@19! )> went into e6ile in 19!D> Pro2essor o2 Politi0al (0ien0e at ?arvard 9niversity .ay 19D4) 8ilhelm $roener . 19 !)> +oreign . 19 C R . 19 ) 8ilhelm )uno $*an0ellor o2 Germany "November .ar0* 19!C)> +oreign . 19 )> +oreign .inister o2 Germany ". 1919)> . 191:R +ebruary 11. 19!D)> German . von .ay 1C.ay 1C. 19 R .ayor o2 .nives Johann Lud0ig $raf "#h0erin von Krosig( +inan0e . 19 L@19 :) &ermann %Gller $*an0ellor o2 Germany " 1 .inister o2 De2ense "/une 1. 19 !) $ustav "tresemann $*an0ellor o2 Germany ".inister o2 Germany "19 1@19 .

they still faile" to gain a clear maLority. the &arty recei%e" less than C\ of the %ote an" won Lust 12 seats in the Reichstag$ This was "ue to 0itler. com&leting a thorough %ictory of the left6wing$ 0owe%er. resulting in another coalition go%ernment le" by 0ermann MUller$ Following his a&&ointment. was &lague" by internal "i%isions right from the beginning. rather than its electability$ 'ourceE htt&EGGen$wi7i&e"ia$orgGwi7iGGerman^election. 1 25 Fe)eral ele$tions were hel" in Germany on May 2H. MUller.German Fe"eral . Bentre 4arty an" the German 4eo&leNs 4arty$ The coalition though. create" a Gran" Boalition of members of the '+4. MUller resigne". with each &arty more concerne" with their self6interest than the interest of the go%ernment an" e%entually MUller as7e" 4resi"ent 4aul Kon 0in"enburg for emergency &owers$ When 0in"enburg refuse". who ha" alrea"y been GermanyNs Bhancellor for 4 months in 1 2H. who ha" been incarcerate" in 2an"sberg &rison for his in%ol%ement in the -eer 0all 4utsch until Bhristmas 1 24. German +emocratic 4arty.^1 25 .lection Results on May 2H. although the '4+ now ha" 1DC seats. an" the Bommunist 4arty of Germany. 1 25$ The 'ocial +emocratic 4arty !'4+# remaine" the largest &arty in the Reichstag after winning 1DC of the 4 1 seats$ Koter turnout was :D$*\$ The only two &arties to gain significantly were the '4+. who &olle" almost a thir" of %otes. mar7ing the en" of the Nlast genuinely "emocratic go%ernment of the Weimar Re&ublicN on 2: March 1 CH$ The recently reforme" @a>i 4arty conteste" the elections after their ban en"e" the &re%ious year$ 0owe%er. concentrating on re6establishing himself as the lea"er of the &arty following his release.

* 5 .1 @ew H . H$ 5 4 German 'tate 4arty CC4.1C*.DD2 2$:C 1 German 4eo&leNs 4arty 4C2.1 cC .11H H$HH H )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes C11.1 .*2 15$2D 12H Bommunist 4arty of Germany 4.242 H$5D D German FarmersN 4arty 114. 1 CC !*4: seats in the Reichstag8 C24 seats nee"e" for a maLority# . . 'ourceE Gonschior$"e UVR U7? .ar$h N6 47>> German Fe)eral le$tion Results Party 1otes T *eats National *o$ialist German Wor/ers Party 4H6?HH6495 G>:74 ?99 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany :.1 .1 . HD 11$2D :C <a= -lac76White6Re" 'truggle Front !+@K4# C.C12 1$1 2 Bhristian 'ocial 4eo&leNs 'er%ice C5C.1 cC .545. D4 H$H1 H /am&fgemeinschaft "er Arbeiter un" -auern 1.1 .:*H :$ : D2 -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty 1. .:4C H$12 H 'ocialist 'truggle Bommunity C.German Fe"eral . .HD5 12$C2 51 Bentre 4arty 4.H:C. U8> .*5D.H45 H$2 2 Agricultural 2eague 5C.424.151.1 .:*4 :1$*H . Total >768NN65?7 455 8GH Registere" %otersGturnout 44.5C H$21 1 German60ano%erian 4arty 4:.lection Results on March D.

*: . R? .CH .C:C H$1 H German 0ouse an" 4ro&erty JwnersN 4arty CD.4: .D*2 H$H H +eutscher Reichsbloc7 "er GeschQ"igten :.51D H$1 H . : 2 $5 1DC German @ational 4eo&leNs 4arty 4.D45 H$: C German60ano%erian 4arty 1 D.C:4 4$51 2D Reich 4arty of the German Mi""le Blass 1..D2: H$H H Aufwertungs6 un" Aufbau&artei 5.5 1 1$ Reich 4arty for Bi%il Rights an" +eflation DH .4:1 1$: 2 German FarmersN 4arty 451.*H2 4$D 2C -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty 4D.5 c .D42 .C:H H$ H Agricultural 2eague 1 . 'ourceE Gonschior$"e UVR c22 .* .C51. 0an"el un" Gewerbe *.111 H$H H 4arty for Justice an" Tenant 4rotection 2.C5:. .4CD H$H H German Bhristian Fol7 4arty H1 H$H H 2ebensinteressen "er 2e"igen 5:C H$H H Masurian 4eo&leNs 4arty 2 D H$H H 2ithuanian 4eo&leNs 4arty 25 H$H H Frieslan" 25* H$H H )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes 412.D*C 14$2 :C Bentre 4arty C.: c11 .:HC 5$: 4D German +emocratic 4arty 1.:HH H$4 2 Bhristian 'ocial Reich 4arty 11H.4HD H$C H Jl" 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany *D.5C1 H$H H 'chleswig Blub 2.H:1 H$H H FrQn7isches 2an"%ol7 C.ay ?56 47?9 German Fe)eral le$tion Results Party 1otes T *eats 'ocial +emocratic 4arty .:DC H$2 H .%angelical 4arty of Germany D2.2 R? @ew @ew @ew @ew .*14 H$H H 4eo&leNs Welfare 4arty *. Total >4648N6H97 455 G74 Registere" %otersGturnout 41.455 H$2 H German 'ocial 4arty 4*.4C: H$H H Reichs&artei fUr 0an"wer7.1D2 12$1 *1 Bommunist 4arty of Germany C.224.2*4.41: H$H H Wen"ish 4eo&leNs 4arty C.DDD H$* 4 'a?on 4easants 12:.H4: H$2 H General 4eo&leNs 4arty C:.2D4 1$* 5 KWl7ischnationaler -loc7 2**. D: H$H H 4astor Greber 4arty .1D2.: C 1H$* D4 German 4eo&leNs 4arty 2.*:5 :D$* .:H H$H H Bhristian @ational Mi""le Blass 4arty .::D H$2 H 4olish 4eo&leNs 4arty *4.%angelical Bommunity '&irit 1H.:12.:H4 H$4 H 2eft Bommunists 5H. .D H @ew @ew @ew @ew H @ew H @ew @ew H @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew H @ew H @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew .54* H$1 H )n"e&en"ent 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany 2H.*44 C$1 1: National *o$ialist German Wor/ers Party 94564?H ?:8 4? Bhristian6@ational 4easantsN an" FarmersN 4arty D:1.

1H5.2* CC .215 11.DCH 22. H @ew @ew @ew H @ew H H H H H H H H H H H . NHH .12:. /leinhan"els un" Gewerbes Ra"ical German 'tate 4arty +eutsche .1:1 H: *** *DC 255 2C: 2*5.151 C.*e#tember 4G6 47>5 German Fe)eral le$tion Results Party 'ocial +emocratic 4arty National *o$ialist German Wor/ers Party Bommunist 4arty of Germany Bentre 4arty German @ational 4eo&leNs 4arty German 4eo&leNs 4arty German 'tate 4arty Reich 4arty of the German Mi""le Blass Bhristian6@ational 4easantsN an" FarmersN 4arty -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty Bhristian 'ocial 4eo&leNs 'er%ice German FarmersN 4arty Bonser%ati%e 4eo&leNs 4arty Reich 4arty for Bi%il Rights an" +eflationGBhristian 'ocial Reich 4arty Agricultural 2eague German60ano%erian 4arty Bhristian 'ocial 4eo&les Bommunity 4olish 4eo&leNs 4arty 'chmali? Greater German 2ist 0ouse an" 4ro&erty Jwners Bonser%ati%e 4eo&leNs 4artyGGerman60ano%erian 4arty )n"e&en"ent 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany Freibun" "es 0an"wer7s.1H U7N c2C c: .D H c1H c2 @ew .2 H .DC1 5.:5D 1.HD5.:H4 *.2 @ew .%angelical %oters 4arty against Alcohol Arbeiter64artei fUr "as arbeiten"e un" schaffen"e Kol7 4russian62ithunanian 4eo&leNs 4arty Renter an" 4eo&leNs Reich 4arty 4eo&leNs 4arty of the 2usatian 'orbs Frieslan" )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes Total Registere" %otersGturnout 'ourceE Gonschior$"e 1otes 5. 1C 2*. 0an"wer7.C2 .D H.C2* 1.1D .*2* 1.1 @ew H @ew H . Angestellten un" -eamten 0an"el.HHH 2.*C: 5*5. 455 52$H UVR .D::.DDH :2. .*44 1.:*2 1.HC4 1.1*H 4. 0ausbesit> 'chleswig Blub Menschheits&artei un" neue Kol7sgemeinschaft .541 *.25* 51.2 1 1 C.C1*.H25 >N6??G6G77 42.H4C 1.inheits&artei fUr wahre Kol7swirtschaft /riegsbeschQ"igten6 un" 0interbliebenen&artei "er "eutschen Mannschaft einschliedlich "er Abgefun"enen +eutsche /ultur&artei "er geistigen -erufe. @ew @ew H @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew H . 12 T *eats 24$DC 14C 49:?N 45H 1C$1C :: 11$51 *5 :$HC 41 4$D1 CH C$:5 2H C$ H 2C C$1: 1 C$HC 1 2$45 14 H$ : * H$5C 4 H$:5 H H$DD C H$41 C H$2C H H$21 H H$H5 H H$H: H H$H* H H$HC H H$HC H H$HC H H$H2 H H$H2 H$H2 H$H1 H$H1 H$H H$H H$H H$H H$H H$H H$H H$H .244 86>H768H? 4. U98 .4D:.C22. 52.D: 2:1.4C4 2 H.C*D 1.D:D. 2* 144. 1D *.*5* 1.:H: 2D.* H .

DD1 H H$H1 @ew )nteressengemeinschaft "er /leinrentner un" )nflationsgeschQ"igten 2.*54 22 C$2C cC German 4eo&leNs 4arty 4C*.:12 1CC 21$D5 .5HH 4 1$H1 .C41 H H$HH @ew 0Wchstgehalt "er -eamten DHHH M$ FUr "ie Arbeitslosen un" bis Let>t abgewiesenen /riegsbeschQ"igten 1.inheits&artei fUr wahre Kol7swirtschaft. D .D5 .221 H H$H1 @ew @ationalso>ialistische /riegsteilnehmer. 1* H H$H1 @ew +eutsche .141 H H$HH @ew German 'ocialist 'truggle Mo%ement 4: H H$HH @ew 2iste gegen /Ur>ung "er )n%ali"en6.15* H H$H1 @ew Gerechtig7eitsbewegung fUr 4arteien%erbot . C2 H H$H1 @ew @ational 'ocialist 4eo&leNs Alliance for Truth an" Justice 2.C 4eo&leNs Justice 4arty 4H.252.1H Bommunist 4arty of Germany D.21 German FarmersN 4arty 1C:.1* Bhristian 'ocial 4eo&leNs 'er%ice C*4.conomy 4arty of Germany 12.24: H H$HC @ew Farmers.1 2. 0ausbesit> un" 2an"wirtschaft CC4 H H$HH @ew General 'ocial6@ational (nity Wor7er 4arty of Germany 2:: H H$HH @ew Freiwirtschaftsbewegung fUr Freilan".*CH H H$2H @ew German60ano%erian 4arty 4*.DD4 1 H$2D . 0aus6 un" Grun"besit> un" 2an"wirtschaft D:: H H$HH @ew /am&fgemeinschaft "er Rentner.4CH :D 12$44 c: German @ational 4eo&leNs 4arty 2.4 -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty 1.1CC 2 H$C: . DH H H$H4 @ew Free .1 German Bountry 4eo&le H.15 'ocialist Wor7ers 4arty of Germany :2. 0ouse an" 4ro&erty Jwners .5:* 2 H$4H . FestwQhrung 2:H H H$HH @ew . )nflationsgeschQ"igte un" Kor7riegsgel"besit>er 14.4C* H H$H @ew @ationalso>ialistische /leinrentner.21C H H$H1 @ew @ationalso>ialistischer enteigneter Mittelstan" 2. Gewerbe.%uly >46 47>? German Fe)eral le$tion Results Party 1otes *eats T UVR National *o$ialist German Wor/ers Party 4>6HGN6895 ?>5 >H:?H U4?> 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany :. Freigel". Gehalts6 un" Renten7Ur>ungen .D11 H H$HH @ew 4artei "er (n>ufrie"enen 1.H24 C: D$ 1 .5D1 2 H$2* .HH2 : 1$15 .11 Reich 4arty of the German Mi""le Blass 14*.HCD H H$H1 @ew Arbeitsbeschaffung German Free .D4C C H$ .4 Agricultural 2eague *. '&arer un" )nflationsgeschQ"igte D22 H H$HH @ew 4arty of the (nem&loye" for Wor7 an" -rea" 4 2 H H$HH @ew Freiheitliche @ational6'o>iale +eutsche Mittelstan"sbewegung 45H H H$HH @ew @ational Free"om 4arty of Germany C 2 H H$HH @ew @ational6'o>iale 4artei gegen "ie 0aus>inssteuer C:* H H$HH @ew @ationalso>iale /am&fgemeinschaft fUr 0an"wer7.4*D H H$HC @ew Ra"ical Mi""le Blass 5.4C* H H$H1 @ew @ationalso>ialistische 0an"wer7er. (nterstUt>ungsem&fQnger6 4artei +eutschlan"s 1. /riegsbeschQ"igte un" /riegshinterbliebene 2.52D H H$11 @ew 4olan" 2ist CC.*C* 5 14$C2 c12 Bentre 4arty 4. 'o>ial6 un" /riegsbeschQ"igtenrenten 55: H H$HH @ew (nem&loye" Front 5DC H H$HH @ew /am&fbun" gegen 0aus>inssteuer : H H H$HH @ew German 4eo&leNs Bommunity *15 H H$HH @ew Greater Germany 'chmali? 2ist *1H H H$HH H 'chlesiens 0an"wer7 un" Gewerbe D 5 H H$HH @ew +er ernste e%angelisch6lutherische Bhrist !Gerechtig7eits6-ewegung# D5: H H$HH @ew -un" -ayerisches 0an"wer7 un" Gewerbe.51* H H$H4 @ew Wor7er an" Farmer 4arty of GermanyGBhristian Ra"ical 4eo&leNs Front 1C. '&arer un" )nflationsgeschQ"igten DC2 H H$HH @ew @ationale Rentner.conomy 4arty 1.*C: H H$H2 @ew /am&fgemeinschaft "er Arbeiter un" -auern 4. 0an"els6 un" Gewerbetreiben"e 2. fUr 2.2C German 'tate 4arty C:1. gegen 2ohn6. 2: H H$1C .:H H H$HH @ew 'chleswig 0ome 1.1:5.

C52 H$1C H 4eo&leNs Justice 4arty 4*. 55 H$H H For 0in"enberg an" 4o&e 2:.24:.D c14 . @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew @ew .1 H H @ew H H @ew @ew H @ew H @ew H H H H H @ew @ew @ew @ew .2CH.1 .ember 86 47>? German Fe)eral le$tion Results Party 1otes T *eats National *o$ialist German Wor/ers Party 446H>H65?4 >>:57 478 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany :.German Wor7ers 4arty @ationaler -Urger6 un" Wirtschaftsbloc7 /am&fbun" "er 2ohn6 un" Gehaltsabgebauten un" Auslan"sgeschQ"igten Ra"ical 4arty /am&fgemeinschaft "er 2ohn6 un" Gehaltsabgebauten (nitarianist (nion of Germany Mieter6 un" Kol7s6Reichs&artei German 'ocial Monarchist 4arty German Reform 4arty )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes Total Registere" %otersGturnout 'ourceE Gonschior$"e 2D: H 22* H 1:: H 1D4 H 125 H 51 H * H ** H D H 2: .rwerbslosen. U>4 .1 c1 H @ew .D : C$H 2H German 4eo&leNs 4arty **H.:5 H$H1 H /am&fgemeinschaft "er Arbeiter un" -auern C.:2: H$H4 H Free .CH H$C1 1 German60ano%erian 4arty *C.12 c11 .C D H$H2 H 0an"wer7er.21* 54$1 H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH .55 1$5* 11 Bhristian 'ocial 4eo&leNs 'er%ice 4HC.:D2 H$H5 H /leinrentner.2H1 H$1C H 4olan" 2ist C2.D4D 11$ C :H German @ational 4eo&leNs 4arty 2.HDC 5$C4 D1 -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty 1.2 c4 c2 . ** H$15 1 Ra"ical Mi""le Blass *H.HH2 H$HC H 'chic7salsgemeinschaft "eutscher .211.* 4 H$HH H Greater Germany 4eo&leNs 4arty 1.CH5 H$H1 H @ational 'ocial 4arty of the Mi""le Blass C.:C: H$H1 H @ational Free"om 4arty of Germany 1.HD2 H$H1 H . >H648?6594 859 44.H*2 H$1: 1 Bhristian6@ational 4easantsN an" FarmersN 4arty 4*.44: H$ D 2 German FarmersN 4arty 14 . 455 . No.conomy 4arty of Germany 11.24* H$1: H Thuringian Agricultural 2eague *H.H 4.22H H$CH 2 Reich 4arty of the German Mi""le Blass 11H.nteigneter Mittelstan" 2.2C 1*$5* 1HH Bentre 4arty 4. /leinhan"el un" Gewerbe .2DH H$HC H 'ocial Re&ublican 4arty of Germany 5. H1 2H$4C 121 Bommunist 4arty of Germany D.2H2 H$1C H 'ocialist Wor7ers 4arty of Germany 4D.2 c1 H .C11 H$HH H )nteressengemeinschaft "er /leinrentner un" )nflationsgeschQ"igten 1.15 H$H1 H Ra"ical +emocratic 4arty C. )nflationsgeschQ"igte un" Kor7riegsgel"besit>er 1D.51H H$H1 H 'chleswig 0ome 1.H5* H$HH H @ationalist 4arty D55 H$HH H 4eo&leNs 'ocialists D15 H$HH H 0aus6 un" 2an"wirte&artei 4*1 H$HH H @ational Bommunist 4arty of Germany C51 H$HH H UVR R>G .H2* H$42 C Agricultural 2eague 1HD. 5H.:2: .*** 1$14 D German 'tate 4arty CC*. D . 0an"el6 un" Gewerbetreiben"e D.

4:1 >N6HN96?N7 44. R?G . 455 5H$D H H H H H H H H H H H H H H .C:4.German 'ocial Monarchist 4arty German Reform 4arty German Wor7ers 4arty (nitarianist (nion of Germany Greater German Mi""le Blass 4arty for Mi""le Blass +ictatorshi& Gerechtig7eits6-ewegung6Meidner German @ational Biti>en -loc 4arty for the (nem&loye" for Wor7 an" -rea" @ational German Batholic Reich 4arty German 'ocialist 'truggle Mo%ement German Reich against )nterest Rate Mo%ement Freiheitsbewegung 'chwar>6Weid6Rot Mi""le Blass 4arty /am&fbun" "er 2ohn6 un" Gehaltsabgebauten )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes Total Registere" %otersGturnout 'ourceE Gonschior$"e CDD CD2 CH5 2 H 25* 25H 1 2 14H 1C: 1H1 : 2 5D *C 25:. N9G . H H H H @ew @ew @ew H @ew H @ew @ew @ew @ew . .H5D H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH H$HH .

19 9) $ustav "tresemann ". 1:D9@ %0tober :.inister o2 /apan ".ugust L. 19 !R%0tober !.ar0* 14. 19 C) *$en1+ $ii#hi Aana(a "/une . 1L November 1911 R C /anuary 19 C) . 19 !) and +oreign .Deat* o2 Gustav (tresemann "%0tober 19 9)5 %rgani8ed $rimeQ German "ignitaries atten" the funeral of the late Gusta% 'tresemann. 1:LD@ (eptember 9. 19 9) Bernhard von BGlo0 ".inister o2 +ran0e " : %0tober 19CL R D /uly 19C9. 19 9) 7i0e $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "%0tober L.ar0* :. 191:@ . 19 9) Prime .pril C. 1:1:@ %0tober !. 19 9) $*an0ellor o2 Germany ". in front of the Reichstag in -erlin. 19 9) $*an0ellor o2 Germany "%0tober 1L. 1:D1 R November D. 19 9)> +oreign .inister o2 Prussia "1:91@19C9) $eorges )lemen#eau "(eptember :.ay 1C.ay !. 19C9)> +oreign .pril C. Germany on Jctober *. 19 9) Prime .lbert (trauss ".ugust 1!.ugust 1!. 19 !R November !. 19 1@/uly . 19 1@/uly .inister o2 /apan ". 19CC@/uly 1!.inister o2 Germany ". Foreign Minister of Germany. 1:LD@ . 1 2 $ !4hotoE -un"esarchi%GGerman Fe"eral Archi%es# 19 9 %bituaries .

bal"6hea"e". moustache# is seen stan"ing on the roa" with his right han" on his hi&$ !4hoto by /eystoneGGetty )mages# . Germany in 1 2 $ @a>i 4arty member Julius 'treicher !left. 4arty.A"olf 0itler. Germany in 1 2 $ !4hoto by 0ulton Archi%eGGetty )mages# A"olf 0itler "ri%es along a flower6strewn roa" after a rally at @uremberg. lea"er of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers. salutes to his su&&orters "uring a %isit to Munich.

rnst ThQlmann. 1 C2 !first roun"# an" A&ril 1H.)olf +itler be$ame a naturalize) German $itizen on February ?N6 47>?.ustrian $itizenshi# in .rnst 14ut>i3 0anfstaengl !left# a&&ears with A"olf 0itler !center# an" 0ermann Goering in the summer of 1 C2$ .August 2. A"olf 0itler of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers.rnst ThQlmann of the German Bommunist 4arty$ . 4arty. GermanyNs hea" of state un"er the Weimar Re&ublic$ Among the &resi"ential can"i"ates in the 1 C2 German &resi"ential elections were Gen$ 4aul %on 0in"enburg. 1 2D. less than a year before he woul" be a&&ointe" Bhancellor of Germany$ . an" .3*e 19! German Presidential -le0tions5 +austian BargainQ 0ar%ar"6e"ucate" @a>i 4arty member . 4resi"ent of Germany !May 12.#ril 47?N: The 1 C2 German &resi"ential election was hel" on March$h 4>6 47>?$ They were the secon" an" final "irect elections to the office of 4resi"ent of the Reich !Reichs&rQsi"ent#. 1 C2 !secon" roun"#$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# 2eftE 4aul %on 0in"enburg. Member of the German Bommunist 4arty The 1 C2 German &resi"ential elections was hel" on . 1 C4#8 Bhief of the German General 'taff !1 1*61 1 # RightE .)olf +itler surren)ere) his .

1 C2$ From left to rightE Wilhelm -rUc7ner. Jose&h Goebbels. Wolf60einrich %on 0ell"orf.A"olf 0itler "eli%ers a s&eech in the -erlin 2ustgarten in -erlin "uring his &resi"ential cam&aign on A&ril 4. an" A"olf 0itler$ A"olf 0itler.s &resi"ential cam&aign &oster .

47>? German Presi)ential le$tion Result -*e$on) Roun)0 First roun) *e$on) roun) 'an)i)ate Party 1otes T 1otes T 4aul %on 0in"enburg )n"e&en"ent 15.:*1 T C5$5 2 $H 14$D :$H D$5 C$: 1$1 H$1 .*D1.:D1.51D 1. Total >H685>6>4H 455 >86G756H84 455 Registere" %otersGturnout 4C. ++4 .D*5.C1* ::$H .rnst ThQlmann Bommunist 4arty Willy 0ell&ach German +emocratic 4arty 0einrich 0el" -a%arian 4eo&leNs 4arty . German @ational 4eo&leNs 4arty Jtto -raun 'ocial +emocratic 4arty Wilhelm Mar? Bentre 4arty . 4 .4 : C. C1. D5 52$ 47?N German Presi)ential le$tion Result -First Roun)0 'an)i)ate Party /arl Jarres German 4eo&leNs 2u"en"orff German KWl7isch Free"om 4arty Jther can"i"ates )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes Total Registere" %otersGturnout 47?N German Presi)ential le$tion Result -*e$on) Roun)0 'an)i)ate Party *u##orte) by 4aul %on 0in"enburg )n"e&en"ent +K4.415.4 : 4 $* 1 .1C5 *5$D T 45$C 4D$C *$4 H$H .:C4 1.1D1 1C.HH:. 5C DC$H A"olf 0itler @a>i 4arty 11.41*.rnst ThQlmann Bommunist 4arty 4.CD .H*C.5H2.: C 2D.4:4 H$H )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes .C41 1C$2 C.5:1.:2 *$5 Jther can"i"ates 11*.rnst ThQlmann Bommunist 4arty Jther can"i"ates )n%ali"Gblan7 %otes Total Registere" %otersGturnout 1otes 14.22*. .41* 1otes 1H. >56>N4694> 455 C .DD:. +@K4.:D 1H$2 Theo"or +uesterberg 'tahlhelm 2. -K4 Wilhelm Mar? Bentre 4arty '4+.*HD 1.44* CH$1 1C.*41 1C.C 5 1.4DH 25D.CH4 H$C D.D4: C*$5 .414. ?869886458 455 C .*DD.*D5 :.:H*.*51 5D$* 44. C5.CC .

from left to rightE 0ermann Goering !the Reich Bommissioner for Air an" the 4russian )nterior Ministry#. Wilhelm Fric7 !Reichsminister#.nives Bhancellor A"olf 0itler meets with his Babinet on his first "ay in office in -erlin.$*an0ellor ?itler. an" Alfre" 0ugenberg !. 1 CC$ A"olf 0itler was inaugurate" Bhancellor of Germany on January CH. Werner %on -lomberg !Minister of +efense#. 2ut> Graf 'chwerin %on /rosig7 !Finance Minister#. an" Fran> %on 4a&en !Kice Bhancellor#$ 'tan"ing. +r$ GUnther Gere7e. A"olf 0itler !Bhancellor#.conomic an" Foo" Minister#$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# . left to rightE Fran> 'el"te !2abor Minister#. 1 CC$ 'eate". Germany on January CH. Burning o2 t*e &ei0*stag < Nig*t o2 t*e Long .

1 CC$ 'eate".conomic an" Foo" Minister#$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# . Werner %on -lomberg !Minister of +efense#. left to rightE Fran> 'el"te !2abor Minister# !hi""en#. an" Fran> %on 4a&en !Kice Bhancellor#$ 'tan"ing. Germany on January CH. A"olf 0itler !Bhancellor#. from left to rightE 0ermann Goering !the Reich Bommissioner for Air an" the 4russian )nterior Ministry#. an" Alfre" 0ugenberg !. Wilhelm Fric7 !Reichsminister#. 2ut> Graf 'chwerin %on /rosig7 !Finance Minister#. +r$ GUnther Gere7e.Bhancellor A"olf 0itler meets with his Babinet on his first "ay in office in -erlin. 1 CC$ A"olf 0itler was inaugurate" Bhancellor of Germany on January CH.

A"olf 0itler recei%es an o%ation on the e%ening of his inauguration as Bhancellor of Germany on January CH. 1 CC in -erlin$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# .

Rolan" 0arriman. inclu"ing 4rescott '$ -ush. 4arty stormtroo&ers !informally 7nown as the 1-rown 'hirts3# on January 22. an" German financiers an" in"ustrialists such as the /ru&& family. 4rescott '$ -ush. 4arty an" the Thir" Reich. +eutsche6Ameri7anische 4etroleum A$G$ !+A4AG# !'tan"ar" Jil subsi"iary in Germany#. left# an" Jose&h Goebbels !center. left to rightE Frit> Thyssen. an" sharehol"ers of the 0amburg Ameri7a 2ine !0A4AG#. A%erell 0arriman. Frit> Thyssen.4ri%ate citi>ens A"olf 0itler !center. 4arty an" 0itler.s -rown 'hirt !'A stormtroo&er# &ri%ate army was finance" &rimarily by &rominent American businessmen from @ew Aor7 Bity . 4aul Warburg. Feli? Warburg. American 'hi& an" Bommerce Bom&any. an" &artners of J$4$ Morgan F Bo$ . 'ilesian6American Bor&oration. 1 CC$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# A"olf 0itler an" his @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers. 'teamless 'teel Bor&oration. 0enry For". Bonsoli"ate" 'ilesian 'teel Bor&oration. Jwen +$ Aoung. right# meet with @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers. 0ollan"6American Tra"ing Bom&any. 4arty maintaine" a &ri%ate army in "irect %iolation of the Weimar Bonstitution8 The @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers. an" Thomas J$ Watson . Rolan" 0arriman. an" 0arriman )nternational Bom&any$ Bor&orate s&onsors an" su&&orters of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers.

1 CC .Burning o2 t*e &ei0*stag5 %rgani8ed $rimeQ The -urning of the Reichstag in -erlin. Germany occurre" on the night of February 2:.

1 CC.German citi>ens obser%e the Reichstag buil"ing in -erlin. Germany on the morning of February 25. hours after the Reichstag was set on fire the &re%ious night$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# Marinus %an "er 2ubbe stan"s on trial in -erlin in 1 CC for the Reichstag Fire$ !'tefan 2orant Bollection# .

Boland < $*nstin Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "191:@19D!) &obert .. .inister to (wit8erland "19 1@19!1) Gardner &i0*ardson "(<B 19C4) R $ommer0ial .ar0ien /en0kes "(<B 19 1) R .rtemus L. &eed "(<B 19CD) R . international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:) +ran0is +it8 &andolp* "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 /<W (eligman < $o. 19!!) ?oward .e2ruar !@.organ < $o. 19!1@.nig*t "(<B 1::1) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 (tate "19!1@19!!) ?ug* &. 19!!) Gi22ord Pin0*ot "(<B 1::9. 194!@19:L) Pierre /ay "(<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) .ember o2 Lord. o2 New =ork "19 9@19!D) (amuel &.assa0*usetts "1911@19!L) ?enry W. ?adley < . &oland ?arriman "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. $ongressman "Demo0rati0 Party@New /ersey.nig*t Woolley "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o.P.ember o2 (impson. ENew =ork $ityF "19 C@19DL) Lawyers5 ?enry Waters 3a2t "(<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $adwalader. ?arrison "(<B 191C) R President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) Walter (et* Logan "(<B 191C) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@194!) (tan2ord 3appan $rapo "(<B 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "19 @19!:) 3*omas $o0*ran "(<B 1:9D) R Partner o2 /. . and %rgani8ation -6e0utives5 ?enry &.sso0iated Press "191 @19DD) $*arles (eymour "(<B 19C:) R Provost o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@19!1) $arl .ossgrove Beard "(<B 1:9L) R 7i0e President o2 9nion $arbide < $arbon $orporation E0*emi0al 0ompanyF "19!1@19!1) +oster ?arry &o0kwell "(<B 19CL) R General Partner o2 (mit*. .organ < $o. (timson "(<B 1:::) R 9. Davies "(<B 1:9D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Western . Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "191D@19D4) Gra*am (umner "(<B 1:91) R . Bus* "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o.ar0* !. 7irginiaF "19!1@19DC) ?enry (loane $o22in "(<B 1:91) R President o2 9nion 3*eologi0al (eminary "19 L@19D4) BenJamin Brewster "(<B 1:: ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 . &epubli0an) R Governor o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1. ?all < (kidmore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1919@19LL) /o*n Loomer ?all "(<B 1:9D) R .ar0* D. . . (e0retary o2 (tate ". "19!1@191:) Pres0ott (. Day < Lord "19C1@19!:) ?enry De+orest Baldwin "(<B 1::4) R . "1911@19!L) ?arold (tanley "(<B 19C:) R Partner o2 /.ppleton. 3a2t "(<B 191C) R . 19DL@19D1. Gris0om < $ompany.ustria "19 9@19!!) +.ember o2 $*oate. Gra*am < &o0kwell Ebrokerage 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 L@19!L) .P.ember o2 t*e -ditorial (ta22 o2 The New Yor Times "19 L@19!1) William ?. "19 :@19!4) ?arry E?enryF P. .ans2ield "(<B 1:11) R . (enator "&epubli0an Party@$onne0ti0ut.orris ?adley "(<B 191L) R Partner o2 . . 19!1@.verell ?arriman "(<B 191!) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o.ilbank. ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 1@1911) (amuel . .ire *. 19!1@19!4) Bankers5 George L. De0ember 1.ar0* D. (timson. Putnam < &oberts "19 1@19L4) ?oward . "19!1@19: ) &obert . (tettinius < ?ollister Elaw 2irm in $in0innati. "19 L@19!!) 3*omas D. 19D9@194C. Pro2essors.(. Gray. Davison /r. "19!1@19DL) -. Bundy "(<B 19C9) R .ember o2 Lord.rt*ur ?owe "(<B 191 ) R President o2 ?ampton 'nstitute Elater ?ampton 9niversity.ember o2 (age. Lovett "(<B 191:) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. $owles "(<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL)> Dire0tor o2 t*e . Wal0ott "(<B 1:91) R 9. "19!1@191 ) .ember o2 $*ristin. Wilson "(<B 19CL) R 9.. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1:99@19D4) William Lloyd . Perrin < ?oyt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19DL) -dward Ban0ro2t 3wombly "(<B 191 ) R Partner o2 Putney.(. Lu0e "(<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD) . 19 9@. 1933+ Government %22i0ials5 ?enry L. %*ioF "19 !@19!9) /ournalists. Bertron "(<B 1::4) R President o2 Bertron.(. Gardiner < &eed "1914@19!1) . Day < Lord "19CC@19D1) (*erman Baldwin "(<B 1919) R .ar0* :. "19 9@19DC) &ay . (*epard "(<B 1911) R 7i0e President o2 Guaranty 3rust $o.ortimer Norton Bu0kner "(<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19 1@19D ) .r0*ibald ..tta0*Z at t*e . 3rubee Davison "(<B 191:) R .(.P. "19!1@19DC. 3wombly. Gates "(<B 191:) R President o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19 9@19D1) +rank P. "19!1@194L) W. "(<B 19 C) R Partner o2 /.organ < $o. 3*a0*er "(<B 19CD) R (oli0itor General o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19!C@19!!) +rederi0 $.(.lots "(<B 19C9) R . ?obson "(<B 191D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (out*ern %*io "19!1@1949) +rederi0k (. 'n0.ember o2 $*oate.ember o2 3a2t. 3odd < (ims Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C4@19D!) Lee /ames Perrin "(<B 19CL) R Partner o2 .ember o2 Lord.it0*el "(<B 1:9 ) R Partner o2 $adwalader. Lo*mann "(<B 191C) R (e0retary o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@194!) .llen 3.ember o2 Davis.ar0* !.ember o2 Wint*rop. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@Nebraska. 3weed.0$loy "19 D@1919) .ugust (idney Lovett "(<B 191!) R $*aplain o2 =ale 9niversity "19! @194:) .al0olm Baldrige "(<B 191:) R 9. . Day < Lord "19 9@19L9) Wint*rop -dwards Dwig*t "(<B 1:9!) R Partner o2 Dwig*t < (0oville Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19DD) Dean (age "(<B 1:91) R . Wardwell.nig*t. 19!!) ?arvey ?. 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19CD@19DL) Lansing P.a0Leis* "(<B 1914) R -ditor o2 #ortune maga8ine "19 9@19!:) ?arold P*elps (tokes "(<B 19C9) R . ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) ..orris "(<B 19C1) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19 !@19DC) ?enry $*andler ?olt "(<B 19C!) R 7i0e President o2 $entral ?anover Bank < 3rust $o. /ones "(<B 1::D) R $*airman o2 t*e $onne0ti0ut (tate Board o2 -du0ation "1919@19!4) 'rving +is*er "(<B 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "1:9:@19!4) $live Day "(<B 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "19C1@19!L) William .meri0an Legation in 7ienna. 19 9@19!4) Per0y ?amilton (tewart "(<B 1:9C) R 9.%em2ers of "(ull C Bones and Aheir 4##u'ation during the Rei#hstag .aine "191L@19D1) 3*omas +.ssistant (e0retary o2 War 2or .

Gates B... . . "19!1@19: ) Pierre /ay B.inister to (wit8erland "19 1@19!1) 3*omas D... =ale 191: President o2 New =ork 3rust $o. =ale 1::9 Governor o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4) 3*omas $o0*ran B.....rtemus L.P. =ale 1:9 $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany "19!C@19D4) ... =ale 191: Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o.. "19!1@ 19DC. =ale 19CL 9. Wal0ott B... 19!!) ?ug* &obert Wilson B.embers and 3*eir %00upation during t*e &ei0*stag +ire ?arold (tanley B. 19 9@19!4) ?enry &.. =ale 1:91 9.. "19!1@19DL) &obert .organ < $o. =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o.. =ale 191! Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o.. (enator "&@$onn.. "1911@19!L) (amuel &. 19DL@19D1.. "19!1@191:) . .. =ale 1::: 9.(kull < Bones . international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:) Gi22ord Pin0*ot B. =ale 191C President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) ?enry L.. =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191 ) -. Lovett B. Gris0om < $ompany..... =ale 1::: Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "1:9:@19!4) . (e0retary o2 (tate ". =ale 19CD (oli0itor General o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19!C@19!!) W.organ < $o. &oland ?arriman B. 3*a0*er B.. "19 :@19!4) George L.. ?arrison B..ar0* D.. =ale 19C: Partner o2 /. 19 9@ . =ale 1:9D Partner o2 /. Bus* B.(.. Bertron B.P.. "19 9@19D1) ?enry Waters 3a2t B. =ale 1::C Partner o2 $adwalader.. 19D9@ 194C. =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. =ale 1::4 President o2 Bertron.. (timson B.. .. =ale 19 C -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD) $*arles (eymour B.ar0* :. =ale 19C: Provost o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@19!1) 'rving +is*er B.(..nig*t Woolley B.. Lu0e B...(..verell ?arriman B. 19!1@19!4) +rederi0 $... 'n0.. 194!@19:L) Pres0ott (.

=ale 9niversity Graduates and 3*eir %00upation during t*e &ei0*stag +ire "+ebruary 1, 19!!) Government %22i0ials5 [?enry L. (timson "B... 1:::, (<B 1:::) R 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate ",ar0* :, 19 9@,ar0* D, 19!!) [?ug* &. Wilson "B... 19CL, (<B 19CL) R 9.(. ,inister to (wit8erland "19 1@19!1) +erdinand Lammot Belin "P*.B. 19C1) R 9.(. .mbassador to Poland "De0ember 1!, 19! @,ar0* D, 19!!) 'rwin B. Laug*lin "B... 1:9!, (<; 1:9!) R 9.(. .mbassador to (pain "De0ember D, 19 9@ .pril 1 , 19!!) $*arles ?. (*errill "B... 1::9) R 9.(. .mbassador to 3urkey ",ay C, 19! @,ar0* !, 19!!) $*arles ,ontgomery ?at*away /r. "B... 1:99, ,... 19C1, P*.D. 19C ) R 9.(. $onsul General in ,uni0*, Germany "19 1@19!:) Louis G. Drey2us /r. "B... 191C) R 9.(. $onsul General in $open*agen, Denmark "19!1@19!!) /o*n Ball %sborne "B... 1::9) R 9.(. $onsul General in Budapest, ?ungary "19!1@19!!) ?arold ?. 3ittmann /r. "B... 191L) R (e0retary o2 t*e 9.(. -mbassy in &ome, 'taly "19 4@19!L) Gardner &i0*ardson "B... 19C4, (<B 19C4) R $ommer0ial .tta0*Z at t*e .meri0an Legation in 7ienna, .ustria "19 9@19!!) [3*omas D. 3*a0*er "B... 19CD, (<B 19CD) R (oli0itor General o2 t*e 9.(. "19!C@19!!) [+. 3rubee Davison "B... 191:, (<B 191:) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 War 2or .ir "19 L@19!!) [?arvey ?. Bundy "B... 19C9, (<B 19C9) R .ssistant (e0retary o2 (tate "/uly 1!, 19!1@,ar0* D, 19!!) /ames Gra2ton &ogers "B... 19C4) R .ssistant 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate ",ar0* 1C, 19!1@,ar0* L, 19!!) George ;ennet* Donald "B... 191 ) R 9.(. $onsul General in (t. /o*nAs, New2oundland, $anada "19!!@19!D) [.rt*ur Bliss Lane "B... 191L) R $ounselor o2 t*e 9.(. -mbassy in ,e6i0o $ity, ,e6i0o "19!C@19!!) [-. (*eldon W*ite*ouse "B... 19C4, (<B 19C4) R 9.(. ,inister to Guatemala ",ar0* 1, 19!C@/uly !, 19!!) Brig. Gen. Preston Brown "B... 1:9 ) R $ommanding General o2 Panama $anal Department "November D, 19!C@November 1D, 19!!) /o*n ?all Pa6ton "B... 19 ) R 9.(. $onsul in $anton, $*ina "19! @19!D) ?oward Donovan "P*.B. 19 C) R 9.(. $onsul in ;obe, /apan "19 9@19!L) .lva B. .dams "B... 1:9L) R 9.(. (enator "D@$olorado, 19 !@19 D, 19! @19D1) ?iram Bing*am ''' "B... 1:9:) R 9.(. (enator "&@$onne0ti0ut, 19 D@19!!) [+rederi0 $. Wal0ott "B... 1:91, (<B 1:91) R 9.(. (enator "&@$onne0ti0ut, 19 9@19!4) &i0*ard (teere .ldri0* "B... 19CL) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an@&*ode 'sland, 19 !@19!!) Parker $orning "B... 1:94) R 9.(. $ongressman "Demo0rat@New =ork, 19 !@19!1) Per0y ?amilton (tewart "B... 1:9C, (<B 1:9C) R 9.(. $ongressman "Demo0rati0 Party@New /ersey, De0ember 1, 19!1@,ar0* !, 19!!) ?oward ,al0olm Baldrige "B... 191:, (<B 191:) R 9.(. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@Nebraska, ,ar0* D, 19!1@,ar0* !, 19!!) 3*omas Walter (wan "B... 19CC) R /udge o2 9.(. $ourt o2 .ppeals 2or t*e (e0ond $ir0uit ENew =ork $ityF "19 L@194!) /o*n ,unro Woolsey "B... 1:9:, (<; 1:9:) R /udge o2 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e (out*ern Distri0t o2 New =ork "19 9@19D!) .l2red $onkling $o6e /r. "B... 19C1) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e (out*ern Distri0t o2 New =ork "19 9@1941) $arroll $lark ?in0ks "B... 1911) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 $onne0ti0ut "19!1@194!) William 'rwin Grubb "B... 1::!) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Nort*ern Distri0t o2 .labama "19C9@19!4) /o*n +oster (ymes "P*.B. 19CC) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 $olorado "19 @194C) William /osia* 3ilson "B... 1:9D) R /udge o2 t*e 9.(. $ustoms $ourt "19 :@19D9) Wilbur L. $ross "B... 1::4, P*.D. 1::9) R Governor o2 $onne0ti0ut "19!1@19!9) Gi22ord Pin0*ot "B... 1::9, (<B 1::9) R Governor o2 Pennsylvania "19 !@19 1, 19!1@19!4) David (*olt8 "B... 191D) R Governor o2 +lorida "/anuary D, 19!!@/anuary 4, 19!1) $*arles Brown (ears "B... 1:9 , (<; 1:9 ) R Presiding /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New =ork "19 9@19DC) William ,. ,altbie "B... 19C1, LL.B. 19C4) R $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e $onne0ti0ut (upreme $ourt o2 -rrors "19!C@194C) +rederi0 ;erno0*an "B... 1:9:, (<B 1:9:) R $*ie2 /usti0e o2 $ourt o2 (pe0ial (essions o2 New =ork $ity "191L@19!1) Businessmen5 .l2red L. .iken "B... 1:91) R 7i0e President o2 New =ork Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. "19 4@19!L) &obert W. ?untington /r. "B... 1::9, (<; 1::9) R President o2 $onne0ti0ut General Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. "19C1@19!L) ,organ B. Brainard "B... 19CC, LL.B. 19C!) R President o2 .etna Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. E?art2ord, $onne0ti0utF "19 @1941) .r0*ibald .. Wel0* "B... 1:: ) R President o2 P*oeni6 ,utual Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. E?art2ord, $onne0ti0utF "19 D@19!4) (olomon .lbert (mit* "B... 1:99) R President o2 Nort*ern 3rust $o. o2 $*i0ago "191D@1941) +air2a6 ?arrison "B... 1:9C, (<B 1:9C) R President o2 (out*ern &ailway $o. "191!@19!1) ?. Neil ,allon "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R President o2 Dresser 'ndustries, 'n0. "19 9@194:) [/uan 3erry 3rippe "P*.B. 19 1) R President o2 Pan .meri0an World .irways, 'n0. "19 1@19LD) George ?erbert Walker /r. "B... 19 1, (<B 19 1) R General Partner o2 G.?. Walker < $o. "19 9@191D) ?oward ?ein8 "B... 19CC) R President o2 ?./. ?ein8 $o. "1919@19D1)> 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "19 L@19D1) .ndrew 7ari0k (tout, /r. "B... 19 L, (<; 19 L) R Governor o2 New =ork (to0k -60*ange "19!C@19!L) .s*bel Barney Newell "B... 1:9C, (<; 1:9C) R President o2 3oledo 3erminal &ailroad $ompany "191D@194C) $*arles Davies /ones "B... 1:9!, (<; 1:9!) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $in0innati Gas < -le0tri0 $ompany "19 :@19!4) ?enry W*eeler de +orest "B... 1:1L, (<; 1:1L) R ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 3*e Guaranty 3rust $ompany "19C9@19!:) William ,ossgrove Beard "B... 1:9L, (<B 1:9L) R 7i0e President o2 9nion $arbide < $arbon $orporation E0*emi0al 0ompanyF "19!1@19!1) +oster ?arry &o0kwell "B... 19CL, (<B 19CL) R General Partner o2 (mit*, Gra*am < &o0kwell Ebrokerage 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 L@19!L) /ames $. .u0*in0loss "B... 19C:, (<; 19C:) R ,ember o2 t*e board o2 governor o2 t*e New =ork (to0k -60*ange "19 1@19!:) +rank $ourtenay Dodd "B... 1:91) R President o2 Dodd, ,ead < $o., 'n0. Epublis*ing 0ompany in New =ork $ityF "19!1@19D ) /ournalists5 [?enry &. Lu0e "B... 19 C, (<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 3ime, 'n0. "19 !@19LD)> 2ounder o2 Time and Life maga8ines [.r0*ibald ,a0Leis* "B... 1914, (<B 1914) R -ditor o2 #ortune maga8ine "19 9@19!:) ?arold P*elps (tokes "B... 19C9, (<B 19C9) R ,ember o2 t*e -ditorial (ta22 o2 The New Yor Times "19 L@19!1) William ?. $owles "B... 1::1, (<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL) /osep* ,edill Patterson "B... 19C1, (<; 19C1) R Publis*er o2 New Yor /ail- News "1919@19DL) %gden ,ills &eid "B... 19CD, LL.B. 19C1) R -ditor o2 New Yor (erald Tribune "191!@19D1) George ?enry (oule /r. "B... 19C:) R -ditor o2 The New Republic "19 D@19D1) $*arles Latimer (tillman "B... 19 L) R 3reasurer o2 3ime, 'n0. E3ime maga8ineF "19!C@19LC)

Bankers5 [-ugene ,eyer "B... 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "(eptember 1L, 19!C@,ay 1C, 19!!) [George L. ?arrison "B... 191C, (<B 191C) R President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) Walter (et* Logan "B... 191C, (<B 191C) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@194!) (tan2ord 3appan $rapo "B... 1::L, (<B 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "19 @19!:) &oss P. Wrig*t "P*.B. 1:9L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $leveland "1911@19D9) Willard Deere ?os2ord "B... 19CL) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 ;ansas $ity "19!C@1941) .l2red Lawren0e &ipley "B... 1:1:, (<; 1:1:) R $lass . Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 Boston "19 !@19!1)> $*airman o2 t*e board o2 ,er0*ants National Bank o2 Boston "19 9@19D!) [+rank .lts0*ul "B... 19C:) R Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19D4) .l2red -rnest ?amill "B... 19C4) R Partner o2 Goldman, (a0*s < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19! @19D:) [&obert Le*man "B... 191!) R Partner o2 Le*man Brot*ers E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 4@19L9) [/o*n ,. (0*i22 "B... 19 4) R Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@1911) +ran0is +it8 &andolp* "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 /<W (eligman < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 !@19DC) [&ussell $. Le22ingwell "B... 1:99) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 !@194C)> Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19LC) [?enry P. Davison /r. "B... 19 C, (<B 19 C) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 9@19DC) [?arold (tanley "B... 19C:, (<B 19C:) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 :@19!4) 3*omas $o0*ran "B... 1:9D, (<B 1:9D) R Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1911@19!L) [$*arles (. ,0$ain "B... 19CD) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $*ase National Bank "19!C@19!D) [Pierre /ay "B... 1:9 , (<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) ,ortimer Norton Bu0kner "B... 1:94, (<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $o. "19 1@19D ) [.rtemus L. Gates "B... 191:, (<B 191:) R President o2 New =ork 3rust $o. "19 9@19D1) (amuel (loan $olt "B... 191D, (<; 191D) R President o2 Bankers 3rust $o. "19!1@1941) [Boylston .dams 3ompkins "B... 1914, (<; 1914) R 7i0e President o2 Bankers 3rust $o. "19 1@1944) 3*omas Wilson Bowers "B... 191C) R 7i0e President o2 Bank o2 t*e ,an*attan $ompany "19!C@19D ) +rank P. (*epard "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R 7i0e President o2 Guaranty 3rust $o. o2 New =ork "19 9@19!D) 3*a0*er ,. Brown "B... 1:91) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@194D) [&ay ,orris "B... 19C1, (<B 19C1) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@194L) [W. .verell ?arriman "B... 191!, (<B 191!) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DL)> $*airman o2 t*e Board o2 9nion Pa0i2i0 &ailroad $o. "19! @19DL) Pres0ott (. Bus* "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191 ) [-. &oland ?arriman "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191:) [;nig*t Woolley "B... 1911, (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19: ) Lauren0e G. 3ig*e "B... 191L, (<B 191L) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19!D) [&obert .. Lovett "B... 191:, (<B 191:) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DC, 19DL@19D1, 19D9@194C, 194!@19:L) [(amuel &. Bertron "B... 1::4, (<B 1::4) R President o2 Bertron, Gris0om < $ompany, 'n0., international 2inan0iers "191 @19!:) Wilson Gordon Wing "B... 19C!) R President o2 Providen0e 'nstitution 2or (avings Ebank in Providen0e, &*ode 'slandF "19 @19DD) Wirt Davis "B... 1:91) R 7i0e $*airman "19 4@19!D) and $*airman "19!D@19D4) o2 &epubli0 National Bank in Dallas, 3e6as ?enry $*andler ?olt "B... 19C!, (<B 19C!) R 7i0e President o2 $entral ?anover Bank < 3rust $o. ENew =ork $ityF "19 C@19DL) [?arry -. Ward "B... 19C1) R President o2 'rving 3rust $o. "1919@19D )> $*airman o2 'rving 3rust $o. "19D @19D9) +ran0is Ward Paine "B... 191C) R ,ember o2 Paine, Webber < $o. Einvestment banking 2irm in BostonF "1919@19DC) -dward ?oward =ork /r. "B... 191 ) R Partner o2 Dre6el < $o. Einvestment bank in P*iladelp*iaF "19!1@19!4, 19D!@19L1) William ,0$*esney ,artin /r. "B... 19 :) R Partner o2 ..G. -dwards < (ons E(t. LouisF "19!1@19!:)> ,ember o2 New =ork (to0k -60*ange "19!1@19!:) Lawyers5 ?oward ,ans2ield "B... 1:11, (<B 1:11) R (enior Partner o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19C:@19!:) [?enry De+orest Baldwin "B... 1::4, (<B 1::4) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19CC@19D1) .llen -varts +oster "B... 19CL) R Partner o2 Lord, Day < Lord "1919@0.191C) (*erman Baldwin "B... 1919, (<B 1919) R ,ember o2 Lord, Day < Lord "19 9@19L9) [+rank L. Polk "B... 1:9D, (<; 1:9D) R ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed "191D@19D!)> Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19D!) [.llen Wardwell "B... 1:94, (<; 1:94) R ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed "19C9@194!) Lansing P. &eed "B... 19CD, (<B 19CD) R ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell, Gardiner < &eed "1914@19!1) %tis 3reat Bradley "B... 1914> LL.B. ?arvard 1919) R Partner o2 Davis, Polk < Wardwell "19!C@194C) [George &oberts "B... 19C4, LL.B. ?arvard 19C:) R Partner o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "191D@19L:) [.llen 3. ;lots "B... 19C9, (<B 19C9) R ,ember o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "19 1@19L4) ?amilton ?adley "B... 1919, (<B 1919) R Partner o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "19 9@19DC) /ames William ?usted "B... 191:) R Partner o2 Wint*rop, (timson, Putnam < &oberts "19!C@19L9) /o*n .nson Garver "B... 1:14, (<; 1:14) R Partner "1::D@191:) and (enior Partner "191:@19!L) o2 (*earman < (terling $*aun0ey Brewster Garver "B... 19C:, (<; 19C:) R Partner o2 (*earman < (terling "1911@191!) [?enry Waters 3a2t "B... 1::C, (<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4) George $oggill "B... 1::9, (<; 1::9) R ,ember o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "191:@19!4) Walbridge (mit* 3a2t "B... 19C1) R Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1911@1941) Gra*am (umner "B... 1:91, (<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (impson, 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19CD@19DL) Douglas ,a6well ,o22at "B... 19C!, LL.B. ?arvard 19C1) R Partner o2 $ravat*, (waine < ,oore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191!@194L) /ames &o0kwell (*e22ield "B... 1::1, (<; 1::1) R (enior Partner o2 (*e22ield and Betts Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19!:) +rederi0k 3rowbridge ;elsey "B... 19C1) R ,ember o2 Lewis < ;elsey Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191!@19DC) Walter +rederi0k $arter "B... 1:94, (<B 1:94) R ,ember o2 ?ug*es, (0*urman < Dwig*t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9:@19!L) .llen Wardner -varts "B... 1:L9) R ,ember o2 -varts, $*oate < (*erman Eand prede0essor 2irmsF Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:1D@19!9) Louis (. Weiss "B... 1914, LL.B. $olumbia 19 C) R Partner o2 Paul, Weiss, &i2kind, W*arton < Garrison Eand prede0essor 2irmsF "19 1@194C) Dean (age "B... 1:91, (<B 1:91) R ,ember o2 (age, Gray, 3odd < (ims Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C4@19D!)

Lee /ames Perrin "B... 19CL, (<B 19CL) R Partner o2 .ppleton, Perrin < ?oyt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19DL) -dward Ban0ro2t 3wombly "B... 191 , (<B 191 ) R Partner o2 Putney, 3wombly, ?all < (kidmore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1919@19LL) 7anderbilt Webb "B... 191!, (<; 191!) R ,ember o2 ,ilbank, 3weed, ?ope < Webb Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@19!:) /o*n Loomer ?all "B... 1:9D, LL.B. 1:9L, (<B 1:9D) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) ,ar0ien /en0kes "B... 19 1, (<B 19 1) R ,ember o2 $*oate, ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 1@1911) [Dean G. .0*eson "B... 1914, (<; 1914) R ,ember o2 $ovington < Burling "19 1@19!!, 19!D@19D1)> 9nder (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19!!) (amuel ;nig*t "B... 1::1, (<B 1::1) R ,ember o2 $*ristin, ;nig*t, Boland < $*nstin Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "191:@19D!) /o*n 3*omas Pigott "B... 19C:) R Partner o2 ,0$ut0*en, 3*omas, ,att*ew, Gri22it*s < Greene Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "19 !@19DL) &obert .. 3a2t "B... 191C, (<B 191C) R ,ember o2 3a2t, (tettinius < ?ollister Elaw 2irm in $in0innati, %*ioF "19 !@19!9) 'saa0 ?enry ,ayer "B... 1::D) R (enior ,ember o2 ,ayer, ,eyer, .ustrian < Platt Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19 @19L1) +rederi0 Burn*am "B... 19C ) R Partner o2 ,ayer, ,eyer, .ustrian < Platt Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "1911@19D ) $*arles ?ump*rey ?amill "B... 1:9C, (<; 1:9C) R ,ember o2 &osent*al, ?amill < Wormser Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19CL@19D1) William Browne ?ale "B... 1:9:) R Partner o2 Wilson < ,0'lvaine Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "1919@19DD) William (out*wort* ,iller "B... 1:9L, (<; 1:9L) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 Nort*ern 3rust $ompany E$*i0agoF "191:@19D4) .ugustus Wilson $lapp "B... 1:9:) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 Weyer*aeuser 3imber $ompany E3a0oma, Was*.F "19! @19DL) Darius -dward Pe0k "B... 1:9:) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 General -le0tri0 $ompany "19 9@19DD) Loren8o Dibble .rmstrong "B... 1:99) R General $ounsel o2 West 'ndies (ugar $orporation "19! @19D1) (amuel Woodson (awyer "B... 1:99) R General $ounsel o2 ;ansas $ity 3erminal &ailway $ompany "191:@19D9) [Guy Wellman "B... 1:99) R .sso0iate General $ounsel o2 (tandard %il $ompany o2 New /ersey "19 1@19!4) BenJamin &obbins $urtis Low "B... 19C ) R General $ounsel o2 ?ome Li2e 'nsuran0e $ompany "19 :@19D1) .bel $ary 3*omas "B... 19C4) R General $ounsel and (e0retary o2 Warner Brot*ers Pi0tures, 'n0. "19 !@19!L) /ames Benton Grant "B... 19C9, (<; 19C9) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 .meri0an $rystal (ugar $ompany "19! @19D1) $*andler P. .nderson "B... 1::1, (<; 1::1) R 9nited (tates $ommissioner on ,i6ed $laims $ommission between 9nited (tates and Germany "19 !@19!L) (tanley +. &eed "B... 19CL) R General $ounsel o2 &e0onstru0tion +inan0e $orporation E9.(. governmentF "19! @19!4) %rgani8ation -6e0utives5 /ames &o0kwell (*e22ield "B... 1::1, (<; 1::1) R 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "1919@19!:)> 7i0e President o2 3*e Pilgrims (o0iety "19!C@19!:) /o*n (*illito &ogers "B... 1:9:) R 3reasurer o2 3*e Pilgrims o2 t*e 9nited (tates EPilgrims (o0ietyF "19 9@19!4) -dwin &. -mbree "B... 19CL) R President o2 /ulius &osenwald +und "19 :@19D:) William ?. Wel0* "B... 1:1C, (<B 1:1C) R President o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 &o0ke2eller 'nstitute 2or ,edi0al &esear0* "19C1@19!D) Barry $ongar (mit* "B... 1:99) R General Dire0tor o2 3*e $ommonwealt* +und "19 1@19D1) ,al0olm W. Davis "B... 1911) R &epresentative 2or t*e $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e in Geneva, (wi8erland "19!1@19!4) &obert ?askell $ory "B... 19C ) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "191L@19D1) $*arles +ranklin Bliss "B... 1::C) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 @19D ) Lansing P. &eed "B... 19CD, (<B 19CD) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 :@19!1) ?enry Wal0ott +arnam "B... 1:1D, (<B 1:1D) R ,ember o2 t*e 0oun0il o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 D@19!!) Dan2ord Newton Barney "B... 1::1, (<B 1::1) R ,ember o2 t*e 0oun0il o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 1@19!!) Lewis (*eldon Wel0* "B... 1::9, (<; 1::9) R ,ember o2 t*e 0oun0il o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19C:@19!D) BenJamin Brewster "B... 1:: , (<B 1:: ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 ,aine "191L@19D1) -dward Lambe Parsons "B... 1::9, (<; 1::9) R Protestant -pis0opalian Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 $ali2ornia "19 D@19D1) 3*omas +. Davies "B... 1:9D, (<B 1:9D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 Western ,assa0*usetts "1911@19!L) ?enry W. ?obson "B... 191D, (<B 191D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (out*ern %*io "19!1@1949) $ollege .dministrators and Pro2essors5 &obert ,. ?ut0*ins "B... 19 1) R President o2 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19 9@19D4) [/ames L. ,0$onaug*y "B... 19C9) R President o2 Wesleyan 9niversity "19 4@19D!) Paul Dwig*t ,oody "B... 19C1) R President o2 ,iddlebury $ollege "19 1@19D ) .rt*ur ?owe "B... 191 , (<B 191 ) R President o2 ?ampton 'nstitute Elater ?ampton 9niversity, 7irginiaF "19!1@19DC) $*arles -dward $lark "B... 1911, LL.B. 191!) R Dean o2 =ale Law (0*ool "19 9@19!9) ?enry (. Graves "B... 1:9 , (<B 1:9 ) R Dean o2 =ale (0*ool o2 +orestry "19CC@19!9) [$*arles (eymour "B... 19C:, P*.D. 1911, (<B 19C:) R Provost o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@19!1) George Parmly Day "B... 1:91, (<; 1:91) R 3reasurer o2 =ale 9niversity "191C@19D ) 3*omas Wells +arnam "B... 1:99, (<; 1:99) R .sso0iate 3reasurer and $omptroller o2 =ale 9niversity "19 @19D ) .ugust (idney Lovett "B... 191!, (<B 191!) R $*aplain o2 =ale 9niversity "19! @194:) &oland George Dwig*t &i0*ardson "B... 19C!, P*.D. 19CL) R Dean o2 t*e Graduate (0*ool at Brown 9niversity "19 L@19D:) George ?oyt W*ipple "B... 19CC) R Dean o2 (0*ool o2 ,edi0ine and Dentistry at 9niversity o2 &o0*ester "19 1@194!) 'rving +is*er "B... 1:::, P*.D. 1:91, (<B 1:::) R Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "1:9!@19!4) $live Day "B... 1:9 , P*.D. 1:99, (<B 1:9 ) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "19C1@19!L) [.rnold W*itridge "B... 191!, (<; 191!) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "19! @19D ) [$*arles $*eney ?yde "B... 1:94) R ?amilton +is* Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law and Diploma0y at $olumbia 9niversity "19 4@19D4) ;arl N. Llewellyn "B... 1914, LL.B. 191:) R Betts Pro2essor o2 /urispruden0e at $olumbia 9niversity "19!C@1941) Warren .ustin .dams "B... 1::L, P*.D. 1:94) R Pro2essor o2 German at Dartmout* $ollege "19CD@19DD) .lbert Beebe W*ite "B... 1:9!, P*.D. 1:9:) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at 9niversity o2 ,innesota "19C1@19DC) Ni0kolaus Louis -ngel*ardt "B... 19C!) R Pro2essor o2 -du0ation at $olumbia 9niversity 3ea0*ers $ollege "19 1@19D ) (tanley ,orrison "B... 1914) R Pro2essor o2 Law at (tan2ord 9niversity "19 9@1944)> ,ember o2 t*e Bo*emian $lub in (an +ran0is0o ?oward Brown Woolston "B... 1:9:) R Pro2essor o2 (o0iology at 9niversity o2 Was*ington "1919@19D1) .l2red Newton &i0*ards "B... 1:91, P*.D. $olumbia 19C1) R Pro2essor o2 P*arma0ology at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "191C@19DL) Lewis ?ill Weed "B... 19C:, (<; 19C:) R Dire0tor o2 /o*ns ?opkins 9niversity (0*ool o2 ,edi0ine "19 9@19DL) (enJiro 3akagi "B... 19C1, ,... 19C:, P*.D. 191C) R Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at ;eio 9niversity E3okyo, /apanF "1911@19!D) [\,ember o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations> (<B\(kull < Bones> (<;\(0roll < ;ey

,embers o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations during t*e &ei0*stag +ire "19!!)

&ussell $. Le22ingwell B... =ale 1:99 Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 !@194C)

?arold (tanley B... =ale 19C: Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 :@19!4)

-ugene ,eyer B... =ale 1:94 $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "(eptember 1L, 19!C@,ay 1C, 19!!)

George L. ?arrison B... =ale 191C President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC)

+rank .lts0*ul B... =ale 19C: Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. "191L@19D4)

?enry (. ,organ ..B. ?arvard 19 ! Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 :@19!4)> Grandson o2 /.P. ,organ

3*omas W. Lamont ..B. ?arvard 1:9 Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1911@19D:)

George W*itney ..B. ?arvard 19C1 Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 C@1944)

3*omas (. Lamont ..B. ?arvard 19 1 Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 9@19DC)

(. Parker Gilbert /r. LL.B. ?arvard 1914 Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19!1@19!:)

Wint*rop W. .ldri0* ..B. ?arvard 19C1 President o2 $*ase National Bank "19!C@19!D)

$*arles G. Dawes $*airman o2 t*e board, $ity National Bank < 3rust $o. E$*i0agoF "19! @1941)

%tto ?. ;a*n Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. "1:91@19!D)

+eli6 Warburg Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. "1:9L@19!1)

+rederi0k ,. Warburg ..B. ?arvard 1919 Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. "19!1@191!)

/ames ?. Perkins ..B. ?arvard 1:9: $*airman o2 t*e board o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19!!@19DC)

Gordon (. &ents0*ler President o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 9@19DC)

P...(. +ranklin Dire0tor o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "191L@19!9)

%wen D. =oung $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $o. "19 @19!9, 19D @19DD)

3*omas /. Watson (r. President o2 'nternational Business ,a0*ines $orp. "191D@19D9)

.lanson B. ?oug*ton ..B. ?arvard 1::L $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $orning Glass Works "191:@19D1)> 9.(. .mbassador to Germany "19 @19 4)

Gerard (wope President o2 General -le0tri0 $o. "19 @19DC, 19D @19D4)

.l2red P. (loan /r. President o2 General ,otors $orp. "19 !@19!1)

-ugene G. Gra0e President o2 Bet*le*em (teel $orp. "191L@19D4)

,yron $. 3aylor $*airman o2 t*e board o2 9nited (tates (teel $orporation "19! @19!:)

/o*n W. Davis ,ember o2 Davis, Polk < Wardwell "19 1@1944)

+rank L. Polk B... =ale 1:9D ,ember o2 Davis, Polk, Wardwell "191D@19D!)

.llen Wardwell B... =ale 1:94 ,ember o2 Davis, Polk < Wardwell "19C9@194!)

/o*n +oster Dulles ..B. Prin0eton 19C: ,ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "1911@19D9)

.llen W. Dulles ..B. Prin0eton 191D ,ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "19 L@1941, 19L @19L9)

(evero ,allet@Prevost ,ember o2 $urtis, ,allet@ Prevost < $olt Elaw 2irmF "1:91@19D:)

+rederi0 &. $oudert ,ember o2 $oudert Bros. Elaw 2irmF "1:94@1944)

?enry Waters 3a2t B... =ale 1::C Partner o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "1:99@19D4)

George W. Wi0kers*am ,ember o2 $adwalader, Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "191D@19!L)

/ames Brown (0ott ..B. ?arvard 1:9C (e0retary o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19DC)

Norman ?. Davis Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DD)

(tep*en P. Duggan Dire0tor o2 'nstitute o2 'nternational -du0ation "1919@19DL)

/erome D. Greene ..B. ?arvard 1:9L 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "191!@1911, 19 :@19!9)

&aymond B. +osdi0k 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 1@19D:)

/ames G. ,0Donald $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +oreign Poli0y .sso0iation, 'n0. "1919@19!!)

/o*n W. Garrett 9.(. .mbassador to +as0ist 'taly "19 9@19!!)

/osep* $. Grew ..B. ?arvard 19C 9.(. .mbassador to 'mperial /apan "19! @19D1)

$*arles -vans ?ug*es $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e 9.(. (upreme $ourt "19!C@19D1)

%gden L. ,ills ..B. ?arvard 19CD (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19! @19!!)

?erbert ?. Le*man Governor o2 New =ork "/anuary 1, 19!!@ De0ember !, 19D )

-li*u &oot 9.(. (e0retary o2 (tate "19C4@19C9)> -lder (tatesman

?enry ,orgent*au (r. 9.(. .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "191!@191L)> -lder (tatesman

-dward ,andell ?ouse -lder (tatesman> $o@ +ounder o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations

Newton D. Baker 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19! @19!:)> (e0retary o2 War "191L@19 1)

/o*n D. &o0ke2eller ''' 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19! @1911)> Grandson o2 (tandard %il baron /o*n D. &o0ke2eller

Walter (. Gi22ord ..B. ?arvard 19C4 President o2 .meri0an 3elep*one and 3elegrap* $o. E.3<3F "19 4@19D:)

/esse 'sidor (traus President o2 &.?. ,a0y < $o. E,a0yAs department storeF "1919@19!!)

(olomon &. Guggen*eim ,ember o2 Guggen*eim Brot*ers Emining 0ompanyF

/o*n ?. +inley .sso0iate -ditor o2 t*e New Yor Times "19 1@19!1)

Daniel Willard President o2 Baltimore < %*io &ailroad $o. "191C@19D1)

/ames &. .ngell President o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@19!L)

.bbott Lawren0e Lowell ..B. ?arvard 1:11> LL.B. ?arvard 1::C President o2 ?arvard 9niversity "19C9@19!!)

+eli6 +rank2urter Byrne Pro2essor o2 .dministrative Law at ?arvard 9niversity "191D@1911, 19 C@19!9)

&ay Lyman Wilbur President o2 (tan2ord 9niversity "191L@19D!)> (e0retary o2 t*e 'nterior "19 9@19!!)

Walla0e Brett Don*am ..B. ?arvard 1:9:> LL.B. ?arvard 19C1 Dean o2 ?arvard Business (0*ool "1919@19D )

)oun#il on ;oreign Relations %em2ers and Aheir 4##u'ation during the %u(den 7n#ident in %an#huria *"e't1 15, 1931+ and Rei#hstag ;ire in Berlin, $erman *;e21 !@, 1933+
Name Ban(ersB -ugene ,eyer George L. ?arrison George W. Davison $laren0e ,. Woolley Leon +raser 3*omas W. Lamont &ussell $. Le22ingwell (. Parker Gilbert /r. ?arold (tanley George W*itney ?enry (. ,organ ?enry P. Davison /r. 3*omas (. Lamont %tto ?. ;a*n +eli6 Warburg +rederi0k ,. Warburg +rank .lts0*ul $*arles -dwin ,it0*ell /ames ?. Perkins Gordon (. &ents0*ler Wint*rop W. .ldri0* +. .bbot Good*ue .rtemus L. Gates W. .verell ?arriman -. &oland ?arriman /o*n L. (impson /ules (. Ba0*e Pierre /ay (amuel &. Bertron $*arles Gates Dawes New0omb $arlton P*ilip ..(. +ranklin /ames ?. Post (ost*enes Be*n $leveland -. Dodge (*epard ,organ +rederi0k /. Lisman BusinessmenB %wen D. =oung ,ember "=ear) 19!C@194: 19 9@194! 19 D@194 19 L@1944 19 :@19D4 19 1@19D1 19 1@1949 19 D@19!: 19 4@1949 19 1@19!9 19 :@19:1 19 :@19DC 19!1@19LL 19 1@19!D 19 1@19!1 19!!@191C 19 1@191! 19 D@19!! 19 1,19 L@19DC 19!C@19D1 19 1@191! 19 4@19DC 19 9@19DC 19 !@19:L 19!!@19L9 19 1@191 19 1@19! , 19!D@19DD 19!1@19DC, 19D4@19D1 19 1@19!D 19 :@194C 19 D@19!D 19 1@19!9 19 1@19!: 19!C@194! 19!1@19: 19! @19L! 19 D@19!: 19 1@19DC Primary %00upation $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve "(eptember 1L, 19!C@,ay 1C, 19!!) President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) $lass . Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!!@19!1) $lass $ Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 1@19!L) $*airman and President, Bank 2or 'nternational (ettlements EBasel, (wit8erlandF "19!!@19!4) 7i0e President, Bank 2or 'nternational (ettlements EBasel, (wit8erlandF "19!C@19!!) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "1911@19D:) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 !@194C)> Dire0tor, $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@LC) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19!1@19!:) .gent General 2or &eparation Payments in Germany "%0tober !C, 19 D@,ay 11, 19!C) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 :@19!4) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 C@1944) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 :@19!4) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 9@19DC) Partner o2 /.P. ,organ < $o. "19 9@19DC) Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. "1:91@19!D)> Dire0tor, $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@!D) Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. "1:9L@19!1)> brot*er o2 German banker ,a6 Warburg Partner o2 ;u*n, Loeb < $o. "19!1@191!) Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. "191L@19D4) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 9@19!!) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19!!@19DC) President o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 9@19DC) President o2 $*ase National Bank "19!C@19!D) President o2 Bank o2 ,an*attan "19!1@19D:) President o2 New =ork 3rust $o. "19 9@19D1) Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@19DL) Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191:) -6e0utive 7i0e President o2 /. ?enry (0*roeder Banking $orp. "19 4@1941) ?ead o2 /.(. Ba0*e < $o. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9 @19DD) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) President o2 Bertron, Gris0om < $ompany, 'n0., international 2inan0iers ENew =ork $ity, P*iladelp*ia, and ParisF "191 @19!:) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $ity National Bank < 3rust $o. Ebank in $*i0agoF "19! @1941) $*airman o2 Western 9nion 3elep*one < 3elegrap* $o. "19!!@19D!) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 $*ase National Bank "1911@19D:) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "191L@19!9) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "1:9:@19!:) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 4@194L) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 L@19LC) 7i0e President o2 $*ase National Bank "19!C@19D9) ,ember o2 New =ork (to0k -60*ange "1:94@19!C)> ?ead o2 +./. Lisman < $o. "1:94@19!C) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $o. "19 @19!9, 19D @19DD) $lass $ Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 L@19DC) Deputy $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 1@19!1) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 :@19!9) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DC) President o2 General -le0tri0 $o. "19 @19DC, 19D @19D4) ,ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 9@194 ) President o2 'nternational Business ,a0*ines $orp. "191D@19D9) $*airman o2 3*e -0onomi0 $lub o2 New =ork "19! @19!D) $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!!@19DC) President o2 .meri0an 3elep*one and 3elegrap* $o. E.3<3F "19 4@19D:) 7i0e President o2 .meri0an 3elep*one and 3elegrap* $o. E.3<3F "19 1@19D1) President o2 General ,otors $orp. "19 !@19!1) 7i0e President o2 $*rysler $orp. "19 4@194!) President o2 Baltimore < %*io &ailroad $o. "191C@19D1) President o2 Pan .meri0an World .irways, 'n0. "19 1@19LD) President o2 Bet*le*em (teel $orp. "191L@19D4) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 9nited (tates (teel $orp. "19! @19!:) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $orning Glass Works "191:@19D1) President o2 &.?. ,a0y < $o. E,a0yAs department storeF "1919@19!!) (enior Partner o2 Pri0e, Water*ouse < $o. publi0 a00ountants "1911@19L1)

Gerard (wope 3*omas /. Watson Walter (. Gi22ord .rt*ur W. Page .l2red P. (loan /r. B. -dwin ?ut0*inson Daniel Willard /uan 3erry 3rippe -ugene G. Gra0e ,yron $. 3aylor .lanson B. ?oug*ton /esse 'sidor (traus George %. ,ay

19 D@194C 19 D@1944 19 :@19L4 19! @1949 19!!@19L4 19 1@19LC 19!C@19DC 19!!@191L 19 4@194: 19 4@194: 19!C@19DC 19 D@19!L 19 D@19LC

(wi8erland "19!1@19!4) Dire0tor o2 'nstitute o2 'nternational -du0ation "1919@19DL)> 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19 C@19D1)> Dire0tor o2 t*e National $ommittee 2or . Plimpton -vans $lark ?erbert L. "19 !@0. Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irmF "191D@19L:) .19DC) Note5 . 'n0. Polk. D. General .llen W. Davis 19 1@19DC 19 !@19:4 19 1@191 19 1@194D.F "19 1@0. Polk. . Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "191D@19D!) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19D!) .ember o2 $oudert Brot*ers Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:94@1944) . .ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "1911@19D9) . +osdi0k +rederi0 &. Baker George . (timson.al0olm W.19DL) Wall (treet lawyer> dire0tor o2 $*ase National Bank 7i0e President o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!!) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DD) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@194C) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!C@19!!) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19LL) President o2 $arnegie $orporation o2 New =ork "19 !@19D1) President o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!C@19DL) (e0retary General o2 t*e 'nstitute o2 Pa0i2i0 &elations "19!!@19DL) (e0retary o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19DC) President o2 3*e .ooney (olomon &. Wardwell.ilburn Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 4@1944) . Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "1914@19!1) .ar0* D. "1919@19!!) +rank L. Debevoise 4rgani. 19D:@194L 19!C@19!D 19 1@19L! . Day < Lord Elaw 2irmF "19CC@19D1) .ember o2 $urtis.sso0iation. "19 !@0. . 19DC and wit* Goering on .ember o2 $urtis.ember o2 Davis.otors $orp. 194L@191C 19!1@191C 19 9@19DC 19!1@19DC. Blakeslee -dward $. Davis (tep*en P. Wardwell. (upervisory Board o2 League o2 Nations "19!!@Q) $ounselor to t*e ?ig* $ommissioner 2or &e2ugees 2rom Germany "19!!@19!4) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +oreign Poli0y . and Belknap Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 C@19!L) 3rustee o2 3*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 1@19D:) .ember.ember o2 $adwalader.ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "19 !@191L) .ember o2 Wint*rop.ember o2 Davis.otors -6port $o. $arter /ames Brown (0ott . +inley $ass $an2ield ?amilton +is* . Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "191D@19!L) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!L) ./o*n ?. Wardwell. 19 :@19!9)> 3rustee o2 t*e General -du0ation Board "191 @19!9)> 3rustee o2 t*e Brookings 'nstitution "19 :@19D4) Dire0tor 2or t*e so0ial s0ien0es 2or t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 :@19!1) Dire0tor o2 general edu0ation 2or t*e General -du0ation Board "19!C@19!1) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19! @1911) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19!1@194C) Dire0tor o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19 1@19!L) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19! @19!:)> (e0retary o2 War "191L@19 1) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "191C@191:. (tewart &aymond 3. 'n0. (timson.ember o2 $ovington.ation E-e#utiveB Paul D.ember o2 Davis. $ravat* Norman ?.allet@Prevost ?enry de +orest Baldwin George W. Wardwell.. . Polk . Greene -dmund -. &o0ke2eller ''' Walter W. Day /o*n D. Polk.ooney met wit* ?itler on .$. Guggen*eim La0 ersB /o*n W. &i0* Newton D. &eed /o*n +oster Dulles -usta0e (eligman . $oudert &oland L. 19 C@19!L) -6e0utive Dire0tor o2 Ct* $entury +und.ay /ames G.F "19!!@19D:) -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 (0ripps@?oward Newspapers ENew =ork $ityF "19 1@19D9) President o2 General . Dulles (evero .ember o2 Lord.rmstrong Walter Lippmann David Lawren0e George B.ember o2 t*e permanent 0entral board o2 t*e League o2 Nations "19 9@Q) . "19 :@194!) . Davis 'saia* Bowman W*itney ?.ental ?ygiene 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "191!@1911. 19DC .ember o2 Davis. Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19C9@194!) .llen Wardwell Lansing P.$. 19DL@194L 19 :@19D9 19 1@1944 Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@194!) . Polk.sso0iate -ditor o2 t*e New Yor Times "19 1@19!1) President o2 ?arper < Brot*ers Elater ?arper < &owF "19!1@19D4) -ditor o2 #oreign $ffairs maga8ine "19 :@191 ) -ditor o2 t*e New Yor World Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19! @19!1) President and -ditor o2 9nited (tates News Enewspaper in Was*ington. . Ledyard < . Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "Q@19DD) Partner o2 Wint*rop. Parker /ames D. +osdi0k.ember o2 $arter.eppel George ?. Wi0kers*am ?enry Waters 3a2t &aymond B. D. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "1:99@19D4) .ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "19 L@1941)> Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19L9) .0Donald 19 1@19D! 19 1@194! 19!C@19!L 19 1@1949 19 L@191L 19 1@19L9 19 1@19D: 19 :@19D1 19 1@19!L 19 1@19DC 19 1@1911 19 1@19DC 19 D@19L! 19! @19DD 19! @19L1 19 4@1941 19! @194: 19 1@19DC 19 1@19DD 19 1@194C 19 19 19 19 19 1@19LL L@19D D@194! 1@194D 1@19DC 19 1@194! 19 1@194C 19 1@194C 19! @19DD 19!1@191: 19! @19!: 19!1@194! 19 1@19!L 19 D@19!L 19!1@19!:.meri0an (o0iety o2 'nternational Law "19 9@19!9) &epresentative 2or $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'ntAl Pea0e in Geneva. Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19 1@1944) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 @19!:) President o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!!) President o2 t*e -nglis*@(peaking 9nion o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19!C@19!:) President o2 t*e New =ork $ity Bar .19DC) 7i0e President in 0*arge o2 overseas operations. Duggan /erome D.ember o2 Guggen*eim Brot*ers Emining 0ompanyF> Dire0tor o2 9ta* $opper $ompany> Dire0tor o2 =ukon Gold $ompany . (*epardson +rederi0k P.sso0iation "19!1@19!!) .ember o2 $adwalader..ar0* 1.allet@Prevost < $olt Elaw 2irmF "1:91@19D:) . &edmond Bronson Wint*rop George &oberts George &ublee 3*omas . Burling < &ublee Elaw 2irm in Was*ington.

(. 19!C@. 19! ) 9.&.oon Lindsay &ogers &obert L. 19!!) 9nder (e0. 19!!) 9. 19! @. (enator "&epubli0an@. 19!!) 9. 19!!) (oli0itor General o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19!C@19!!) . &eeves (amuel N..meri0an ?istory and -0onomi0s at ?arvard 9niversity "19 !@194!) Byrne Pro2essor o2 .mbassador to Great Britain ". (0*mitt /esse (.mbassador to +as0ist 'taly "November C. Lawren0e Lowell /ames &. 19!!@De0ember !.(. . 19!C@ . 19 9@. ?ouse )ollege .W.(. (upreme $ourt "19!C@19D1) /udge o2 t*e 9.(.ppeals 2or t*e (e0ond $ir0uit ENew =ork $ityF "19 D@1941) /udge o2 t*e 9.it0*ell Parker 3.essersmit* +rederi0 .(. .0$une Lindsay Wesley $. .mbassador to Germany "+ebruary 1 . $olumbia 9niversity "19!1@19!L) &egional dire0tor. . 1 . Wellington 3aylor $arlton /. Germany "19!C@19!D) 9. 3rubee Davison $*arles /.. Le*man 19 1@19!: 19 4@19D 19 :@19D: 19 9@19D: 19!C@194! 19 1@19D 19 1@19DL 19 1@19!D 19 L@191: 19 1@19L1 19!!@194D 19 1@19DL 19 4@1941 19 L@1941 19 1@19!9 19 D@19D: 19 4@19!L 19 1@191C 19 :@19D9 19 1@19!9 19 1@19DL 19 1@194L 19 :@194L 19 9@194C 19!1@194D 19! @19LD 19 1@1941 19 L@194C 19 1@19D4 19 9@19D9 19 L@194D 19 1@194! 19!1@19DC 19 9@19D 19! @19DC 19 4@19!L ?ig* 0ommissioner 2or re2ugees 0oming 2rom Germany "19!!@19!4) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!!@19!4) $o@+ounder o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations> powerbroker 2rom . ?ayes $*arles $*eney ?yde (amuel .mbassador to Belgium ".22airs "19 9@19!!) . $ourt o2 . ?ouseAs $ommission o2 'nIuiry "1911@191:) .(. 19 1@ . 19 1@/une 11.. $ook Pro2essor o2 .(. Distri0t $ourt 2or New /ersey "19 4@19!:) 9. ?enry (0attergood $*arles -vans ?ug*es Learned ?and William $lark .. Grew Ni0*olas &oosevelt &obert Woods Bliss 3*omas D. Garrett W..meri0an $ommission to Negotiate Pea0e "191:@1919) President o2 t*e 9nited (tates ". 19 C@19!9) .ssistant $ommissioner o2 'ndian .. 19!D@194C 19 D@19!L 19 1@1949 19!:@1949 19!D@19DC 19!!@19!L 19 1@194D 19 1@19DC 19!C@1949 19 :@1949 19 D@19L1 19 :@19L1 19!4@194C 19 1@19! 19 1@1944 19 9@19!! 19!C@19DL 19 4@19DD 19 L@19DC 19!1@19!: 19 1@19L! . 19!!) 9.?.22airs "19 9@19!!) $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e 9. 19!!) 9.ppleton. . Ballantine George (.(.ar0* !.meri0an 'nstitutions at 9niversity o2 . 19!1@19!:) 9.ar0* D.. 19!!. $olumbia 9niv.-dward ... ?opkins ?arry . 19 9@. .ar0* 11. .ay ..ember o2 t*e sta22. .mbassador to 'mperial /apan "19! @19D1) 9. Brown ?enry . &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 :@19D ) President o2 Williams $ollege "19C:@19!D)> 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!C@19D ) President o2 (mit* $ollege "1911@19!9) President o2 New =ork 9niversity "1911@19!!) President o2 Lawren0e 9niversity E.rgentina "(eptember 9.(. 19D ) 19!:@19L 19 D@19 9. 1919@19D9) Governor o2 New =ork "/anuary 1. (e0retary o2 (tate ". $ameron +orbes /osep* $. 19!!) 9.rt*ur .07i0kar Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy and +inan0e at $olumbia 9niversity "19CD@19!1) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0 ?istory at ?arvard 9niversity "19 D@19!L) 3reasurer and (e0retary o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19!!) Bemis Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at ?arvard Law (0*ool "19 !@19LC) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19 !@19LC) Pro2essor o2 Law at ?arvard 9niversity "1919@194L) Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at ?arvard 9niversity "191C@19!L) Pro2essor o2 Latin .(.inister to ?ungary "November 1 . Gay . Bor0*ard -dwin W. &*oads /.ngell &ay Lyman Wilbur -rnest .(.ansas.(. .pril 9. Neilson -lmer -. ?arper Parker 3. ?udson Oe0*aria* $*a2ee /r..ar0* D.ar0* .ar0* D. 19! @. . 19 9@. ?arper ?eber &.rt*ur $apper ?erbert ?. 3*a0*er +. (timson %gden L.mbassador to .ssistant (e0retary o2 War 2or .rofessorsB .. Wis0onsinF "19 4@19!1) Provost o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@19!1) Dean o2 ?arvard Business (0*ool "1919@19D ) Dean o2 Graduate (0*ool o2 Business .(. $onsul General in Berlin. World Pea0e +oundation "191C@19D ) President o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@19!L)> 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 :@19!4) President o2 (tan2ord 9niversity "191L@19D!)> (e0retary o2 t*e 'nterior "19 9@19!!) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 !@19DC) President o2 Dartmout* $ollege "191L@19D4)> 3rustee.anley %. 19!!) 9nder (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19! @19!!) 9..ndrew W. .ay 9. 3e6as President o2 ?arvard 9niversity "19C9@19!!)> 3rustee. o2 t*e 3reasury "19 1@19! )> (e0. . .ar0* :. 19!C@.ills .ustin.dministration at New =ork 9niversity "1919@19DD) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at $olumbia 9niversity "1919@194C) ?amilton +is* Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law and Diploma0y. George Gra2ton Wilson $laren0e ?. .i0*igan "19!1@19D ) Pro2essor o2 &ussian Language and 'nstitutions at 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19CL@19D!) Pro2essor o2 -du0ation at 3ea0*ers $ollege. .ar0* D. "19 4@19D4) Pro2essor o2 (o0ial Legislation at $olumbia 9niversity "19C1@19!9) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at $olumbia 9niversity "191D@1919. Gar2ield William . . Wriston $*arles (eymour Walla0e Brett Don*am .ellon ?ug* Gibson /o*n W. (a0kett . (eligman -dwin +.ay 9.oon $overnment 4ffi#ialsB ?erbert ?oover ?enry "19 L@19!!) $ommissioner o2 'ndian . 19 @19DD) Pro2essor o2 'nternational &elations at $olumbia 9niversity "19!1@19!L) Burgess Pro2essor o2 Publi0 Law at $olumbia 9niversity "19 9@1949) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at $olumbia 9niversity "19 D@1941) . ?aring +eli6 +rank2urter $live Day -dwin .0Laren Bernadotte -.pril 9.no6 Pro2essor o2 Politi0al -0onomy at =ale 9niversity "19 @19!L) Pro2essor o2 Law at =ale Law (0*ool "1911@1941) Walker Pro2essor o2 'nternational +inan0e at Prin0eton 9niversity "19 :@19D!) Pro2essor o2 'nternational &elations at Prin0eton 9niversity "19!1@19!D) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at Williams $ollege "191D@19D4) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at t*e 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19 4@19DL) W. o2 t*e 3reasury "+eb. .emmerer 3yler Dennett Walter W.dministrative Law at ?arvard 9niversity "191D@1911. (0*uyler -. . (o0ial (e0urity Board "19!L@19D:) Pro2essor o2 'nternational &elations at $olumbia 9niversity "19!1@19!L) (erved on S$olonelT -dward .(.mbassador to 'mperial /apan "(eptember 14.

0om#sear0*#label#. 3*e &ei0*stag +ire 3rial. 3*e -nabling . w*i0* was *eld 2rom (eptember 1 to De0ember !. 19!!. 19!!. was a 2ailure 2or t*e Na8i leaders*ip.arinus van der Lubbe was 0onvi0ted o2 *ig* treason and arson.0t in t*e new &ei0*stag building in Berlin on . 3o ensure t*e desired out0ome mont*s be2ore t*e trial even started.0t was promulgated on . "P*oto5 *ttp5##german*istorydo0s.ar0* 9. 0ondemned to deat*. "P*oto5 German +ederal . 'n 19DL. 19!!. Dimitrov be0ame t*e se0ond Bulgarian prime minister.00ording to t*is law. Popov. and 3anev were guilty as 0*arged. Dimitrov. %nly . 19!!. rig*t in t*e image o2 t*e government bank.ar0* D. and all 2our were a0Iuitted. retroa0tive to /anuary !1.arinus van der Lubbe "19C9@19!D) wit* *is 'nterpreter on (eptember^image.t] C&ei0*stag Be2ore t*e &ei0* $ourt in Leip8ig5 3*e de2endant . 3*e Bulgarian $ommunists were deported to t*e (oviet 9nion.02mQimage^id\ L4) .$*an0ellor . 0rimes su0* as arson and *ig* treason were punis*able by deat*.blogspot. 19!!. t*e &ei0* $ourt emp*asi8ed its 0onvi0tion t*at t*e &ei0*stag 2ire was indeed part o2 a $ommunist Party plot and signaled its support 2or t*e H&ei0*stag +ire De0reeH o2 +ebruary :. 19!!.dol2 ?itler delivers a spee0* on t*e -nabling . w*i0* it viewed as Justi2iable. 3orgler remained in Hprote0tive 0ustodyH until 19!4. and e6e0uted. But it 0ould not be proven t*at 3orgler.g*i@d0. ?itler *ad persuaded &ei0* President ?indenburg to pass t*e H&ei0* Law &egarding t*e 'mposition and -6e0ution o2 $apital Punis*mentH o2 . 19!!. .r0*ives) *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures. Nonet*eless.ar0* !.

&$ CD*6CD5 . the 0itler go%ernment banne" the '4+. Jtto Wels. on March 2C. A"olf 0itler$ German Bommunists clum&e" the Kersailles system with a broa"er criti9ue of international ca&italism an" bourgeois "emoracy an" s9uare" off to fight the @a>is for control of the German go%ernment$ As the "e&ression set in. first in 4rague. which &rocee"e" at once to awar" the chancellor near6"ictatorial &owers$ )n a first fle?ing.s &ostwar e?&eriment in "emocracy was almost guarantee" to fail an" that Germans woul" blame their troubles on the Kersailles system$ The @ational 'ocialists certainly "i" so "uring the 1 2Hs.nabling Act. on March 2C.ranklin Delano 0oosevelt by 0$W$ -ran"s. then in 4aris.nabling Act !the O2aw for Remo%ing the +istress of 4eo&le an" ReichO#$ The %ote too7 &lace "uring the last session of the multi6&arty Reichstag. which formally too7 the &ower of legislation away from the Reichstag an" han"e" it o%er to the Reich cabinet for a &erio" of four years$ All * '4+ members of &arliament %ote" against the act$ The Bommunists were not &resent an" coul" not an) our free)om6 but you 2+itler3 $annot ta/e our honor: We are "efenseless but not honorless$3 .nabling Act. we German 'ocial +emocrats &le"ge oursel%es to the &rinci&les of humanity an" Lustice. which at the time was un"er 2eague of @ations control8 in August 1 CC.s business an" &ro&ertie" classes foun" the argument a&&alling an" leane" right8 ha%ing to choose.s &le"ge to lea%e their business interests untouche"$ A short while later 0itler. was sur%i%ing the "e&ression 9uite well8 its socialist &olitical economy shoul" ser%e as a mo"el for Germany. 'e&tember 1*. where he &romise" the su&&ort of German in"ustrialists in e?change for 0itler. but it ha"n. "ue to ha%ing been banne"$ The rest of the Reichstag %ote" in fa%our$ The &assage of the . Lust as Roose%elt was inter%iewing &otential cabinet secretaries . un"er their strangely charismatic an" brilliantly shrew" lea"er.s sou& lines foun" the argument a&&ealing an" leane" left$ Germany. 1 C # was the chairman of the 'ocial +emocratic 4arty of Germany !'4+# !1 1 6 1 C # an" a Member of the Reichstag !1 2H61 CC#$ Jn March 2C. where he "ie" in 1 C $ 1At this historic hour. 1 CC$ -ecause the Reichstag buil"ing itself ha" suffere" hea%y fire "amage in February. "estroying such &ros&erity as the Germans ha" manage" to achie%e un"er the re&arations6an"6"ebt regime.nabling 2aw can gi%e you the &ower to "estroy i"eas which are eternal an" in"estructible $$$ From this new &ersecution too German 'ocial +emocracy can "raw new strength$ We sen" greetings to the &ersecute" an" o&&resse"$ We greet our frien"s in the Reich$ Their stea"fastness an" loyalty "eser%e a"miration$ The courage with which they maintain their con%ictions an" their unbro7en confi"ence guarantee a brighter futureIEou $an ta/e our li. was as7e" by 4resi"ent 4aul %on 0in"enburg to form a go%ernmentIWithin the month of 0itler.t been crushe"8 the result was that Germany. he was "e&ri%e" of his citi>enshi&$ 0e then wor7e" to buil" the e?&atriate '4+. 0itler launche" a national boycott of Jewish businesses an" Jews in the &rofessions$3 . Member of the Reichstag. while the other German &olitical &arties chose to "issol%e to a%oi" &rosecution. new German elections ga%e 0itler. as hea" of the now6maLority @a>i &arty. Traitor to $is )lass( The 5rivileged "ife and 0adical 5residenc of . between the @a>is an" the Bommunists. the Bommunists gaine" su&&ort among the German &eo&le$ The 'o%iet (nion. they si"e" with the former$ )n January 1 CC . he ma"e an outs&o7en s&eech o&&osing the . 15:C .s ta7eo%er . of free"om an" 'ocialism$ @o .s coalition a maLority. ban7er /urt %on 'chroe"er in%ite" 0itler to his Bologne home. the Bommunists sai". 1 CC Wels was the only member of the Reichstag to s&ea7 against A"olf 0itlerNs .nabling Act mar7e" the en" of &arliamentary "emocracy in Germany an" forme" the legal authority for 0itlerNs "ictatorshi&$ Within wee7s of the &assage of the . 1 CC 1Germany ha" been humilitate" by the war6guilt &ro%ision of the Kersailles treaty an" bur"ene" by the o&en6en"e" re&arations &ayments. as they saw it. Wels went into e?ile in the Territory of the 'aar -asin. an" Lust "ays before Roose%elt. the Nazis burne) the Rei$hstag6 the German #arliament buil)ing$ They blame" the Bommunists con%incingly enough that the go%ernment an" the German &eo&le went along with legislation outlawing the Bommunist &arty$ Jn March D.s inauguration .(tto Wels !'e&tember 1D. the "ay Roose%elt close" the ban7s in the (nite" 'tates. the March session was hel" in -erlinNs /roll J&era 0ouse$ +es&ite the inci&ient &ersecution of leftist an" o&&osition &oliticians an" the &resence of the 'A.s own$ The millions in Germany. ma7ing the @a>i &arty the only legal &olitical &arty in Germany$ )n June 1 CC.

society.otes through )e$e#tion an) threat &as illegal6 the *. 1 CC$ The li9ui"ation of the "emocratic constitutional state !the second stage6 calle" for the O&urgeO of the ci%il ser%ice an" Lu"iciary.iolation of all restri$ti. too. resulte" in the legal establishment of the one6&arty state !July 14.e #ro. monolithic. Gauleiter. total rule "oes not necessarily mean a close". an" the em&hatic "eclarations about Ounity of &arty an" stateO in +ecember. 1 CC. which continue" to e?ist in the one6&arty state as well$ Bontrary to a wi"es&rea" stereoty&e. in which a national assembly )raft a ne& $onstitution: Though the Weimar 'onstitution &as ne. &luralistic entities into &illars of the untrammele" rule of one &arty an" a go%ernmental a&&aratus subor"inate to it$ @either goal was e%er fully reali>e". either then or in later years$ -ut the "ecisi%e shifts too7 &lace between the &assage of the @ational 'ocialist Bi%il 'er%ice Act in A&ril.O as on the susce&tibility of the ci%il ser%ice for non&arliamentary. an" all reforms an" &lans only ser%e" as a &rete?t for the total encom&assing an" &enetration of &ublic life in the sense of @ational 'ocialist "ictatorial rule$ The terrorist.irtue of the nabling . they seale" the fate of any &arliamentary6constitutional rule in the member states as well$ At the same time. &rofoun"ly unconstitutional intensification of the &ower thrust6the first stage of the sei>ure of &ower6reache" its acme in the . 1 CC#$ Finally. an" Minister 4resi"ent$ )nstea" of sim&lifying the a"ministration. hierarchical rule . one fact remainsE 0itler was able to rely on the smooth functioning of a machinery of go%ernment still largely non6@ational 'ocialist "es&ite numerous OMarch casualtiesO by combining the a&&eal to the national an" anti"emocratic. &seu"o6"emocratic self6a&&robation$ The abo%e re%iew is in effect a list of the most im&ortant "ates of the first year of the Thir" Reich$ Rule by )e$ree6 &hi$h rea$he) its highest #oint on February ?96 an) the $onCuest of the states &ere follo&e) by the #ermanent sus#ension of the )i. 1 CC# an" the "issolution of all other &olitical &arties. instea" of the &romise" go%ernmental reform. the sham alliance with the German @ationals became su&erfluous$ -y %oting for the . by a monocratic a"ministrati%e state that ha" mar7e" its ambi%alence towar" the Weimar Re&ublic$ Whate%er one may thin7 about the thesis that the "etermine" resistance of the ci%il ser%ants an" Obureaucratic sabotage36 might ha%e im&e"e" the success of such re%olutionary change. 1 CC. the 4resi"ential "ecree$ To the e?tent to which 0itler coul" "o without the hel& of 0in"enburg an" his go6between %on 4a&en. that the re%olution woul" be Ocarrie" outO a"ministrati%ely. too. the coo&eration of the maLority of ci%il ser%ants was won through firings an" threats$ Moreo%er. the states were turne" into a %ast system of satra&ies in which fre9uently as many as three "ifferent go%erning bo"ies claime" &rimacyE Reich Go%ernor.e of the states &as illegal6 the subseCuent . e%erything was seen from the %antage &oint of &ower. s7illful han"ling of the fiction of the legal an" national re%olution woul" in itself not ha%e suffice" to smooth the transition from constitutional state to totalitarian "ictatorshi&$ This re9uire" yet another as&ect of the techni9ue of &ower sei>ure an" rule. but now the obLecti%e was to "iscar" the instrument hitherto utili>e" with such %irtuosity.$t6 &hi$h en)e) the Presi)ential )i$tatorshi# an) mar/e) the beginning of the oneDman )i$tatorshi#: 'ontrary to the illusions an) a#ologies of #rofessors of #ubli$ la& then an) no&6 the oneDman )i$tatorshi# ha) as little legal .$t an) the grotesCue selfD#rolongation of the #o&ers +itler grante) himself in 47>H6 47G46 an) finally in 47G> &as illegal: +itler ne.ali)ity as the rule by )e$ree: The arrest of numerous leftD&ing Rei$hstag )e#uties &as illegal6 the mani#ulation of . an" culture through coor"ination an" su&er%ision were to be transforme" from free. mar$h into #arliament &as illegal6 the #oliti$al $oor)ination of the Rei$hsrat -the instrument of ratifi$ation0 as the re#resentati. the reorgani>ation of the &ersonnel an" a"ministrati%e a&&aratus &rocee"e" a&ace$ )n %iew of the shortage of 9ualifie" &ersonnel. only some 7ey &ositions were initially fille" by @ational 'ocialists8 for the rest.nabling Act of March 2C.nabling Act. an" 0itler now ma"e use of itE the "ualism of state an" &arty. abolishing the Reichstag an" firmly establishing the "ictatorshi& of the OnationalO go%ernment$ This was yet another instance of the symbiosis of OlegalityO an" terror. . so to s&ea7$ )n fact. an".isions of the nabling . which was gi%en e?&ression by the infiltration an" OalignmentO of organi>ations an" the creation of all6inclusi%e mono&oly organi>ations in the economic sector !German 2abor Front# as well as in the cultural sector !Reich Bultural Bhamber#$ abrogate)6 the Thir) Rei$h from beginning to en) &as in effe$t rule) by emergen$y )e$ree ignoring all $onstitutional restri$tions: What this IlegalizationI of )i$tatorshi# meant &as sho&n by its first maBor la&6 &hi$h &as base) solely on the reality of #o&er: March C1 an" A&ril : saw the &romulgation of laws Ofor the coor"ination of the states with the Reich$O As &ost facto Lustification of cou&s an" as the basis for the future rule of the Gauleiter as Reich go%ernor. the new rulers were able to rely as much on o&&ortunism. was the technical term use"$ The &lebiscite of the one6&arty state on @o%ember 12. together with the smashing of the tra"e unions an" "emocratic &rofessional organi>ations !A&ril6May. the misgui"e" Benter 4arty as well as the 0ugenberg64a&en grou& relin9uishe" the base of its e?istence$ )n its forwar" march to total &ower. authoritarian tra"itions of the ci%il ser%ice with the &romise that &arty an" state woul" continue to coe?ist as the two &illars of the Thir" Reich.1I<@=o clear6cut solution was e%er foun" for the &roblem of the structure of the Reich showe" the lac7 of concern of the @ational 'ocialist rulers with the cru? of the matter$ )n this conte?t. on concern for the safeguar"ing of Owell6earne" rights. 1 CC. Gleichschaltung1 this eu&hemistic an" telling name for the im&lementation of the total claim of a "ictatorial &arty in state an" society. was the first of a series of OyesO &lebiscites which in totalitarian "ictatorshi&s are among the &referre" means of &seu"o6legal. the creation of the total state !the third stage6 in%ol%e" the alliance with the ra&i"ly e?&an"ing Army an" the ta7ing o%er of the &olice an" its incor&oration into the ''$ 'imultaneous with this mobili>ation of &ower came that OengagementO of the &o& inten)e) to /ee# his #romise of ha. an" !2# the creation of a total lea"er state. 0itler refraine" from a com&lete fusion of &arty an" state$ Ri%al agencies continue" to e?ist or e%en were newly set u& at all le%els of &ublic life$ Thus. for e?am&le.ision of #o&ers by . single6trac7 go%ernmental structure$ )t is also not true that it o&erates more efficiently an" effecti%ely or that it is su&erior to the com&licate" &luralism of "emocracy$ As a matter of fact. the @'+A4 concentrate" on two maLor &oints E !1# the li9ui"ation of the remnants of the "emocratic constitutional state insofar as their functions coul" not be accommo"ate" in the new &ower structure.

alongsi"e the sur%i%ing system of law an" Lustice. we are "ealing with a largely conscious techni9ue of rule which fulfille" an im&ortant function.dol2 ?itler t*e prete6t to a0Iuire absolute power over t*e German government and t*e German people and to ignore t*e Weimar $onstitution.0t was promulgated. but later on as well$ This a&&roach facilitate" the recruitment of technicians who were assure" the continuation of the e?isting or"er$ As in the case of the legal re%olution.the e?&ansion of the &rinci&le of one6man rule only ser%e" to com&licate Luris"ictional relations$ Friction. greets GermanyAs President Gen.dol2 ?itler "le2t). "u&lication were the result. Paul von ?indenburg in Berlin. which coul" be rescin"e" at any time. 19!!. 19!! gave . t*ree days be2ore t*e -nabling . &articularly "uring the ta7eo%er &hase. @ational 'ocialists an" non6@ational 'ocialists ali7e. 0itler use" this &rinci&le of ma7ing all "e&en"ent on him with matchless %irtuosity$ )t is a matter of "is&ute to what e?tent this was conscious intention or the e?&ression of the erratic moo" of the 2ea"er an" his mo%ement. "P*oto5 German +ederal . ha" the "ecisi%e %oice on all %ital 9uestions8 thus. all conflicts between state an" &arty. this fre9uently multifarious nature of the go%ernmental structure e%en in the ta7eo%er &hase$ The 2ea"er was the sole figure stan"ing abo%e the confusion of Luris"ictions an" comman" chains8 on him reste" the ho&es of almost all concerne". an" this tie" them to the regime$ 0e was the su&reme arbiter whose omni&otent &osition was fore%er reaffirme". economy an" a"ministration8 by &laying u& one against the other an" a&&arently su&&orting each. an" that the 2ea"er. The German Dictatorshi&( The 7rigins1 Structure1 and 8ffects of National Socialism by /arl +ietrich -racher !1 :H#. an" it soon became a&&arent that this was not a chil"hoo" "isease of the new system but intrinsic to it$ )n fact. which was chaotic rather than or"erly$3 .r0*ives) . Army an" 'A. an" concentration cam&s "e%elo&e" beyon" the reach of any court$ This hints at the secon" function inherent in this "ualism. through all the ri%alries of &arty officials. Germany on . waste. t*e $*an0ellor o2 Germany.ar0* 1. in comman" of the tools of coercion an" terror. their satisfaction o%er their own im&ortance in the new system blin"e" them to the fact that this "uality grante" them only relati%e free"om. the system of &rotecti%e custo"y. that "ece&ti%e faca"e. Gesta&o. he was able to &reser%e an" strengthen his &osition of &ower$ As in the early years of struggle. &$ 21H6 21C . 3*e Burning o2 t*e &ei0*stag on +ebruary 1@ :.

President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank. chats with Brown 4rince Wilhelm of 4russia !2n" right# "uring the celebration in front of the Garrison Bhurch in 4ots"am. and War . German $*an0ellor .A"olf 0itler !left#.ar0* 1 .dol2 ?itler"le2t). Bhancellor of Germany. appears wit* . 19!! 2or German soldiers killed in World War '. &ig*t5 German politi0ian +ran8 von Papen "0enter). 1 CC$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# Le2t5 ?Jalmar (0*a0*t. Germany on March 21.dol2 ?itler. "M ?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'() .ars*al Werner von Blomberg "rig*t) appear in Berlin on a day o2 general mourning on .inister +ield .

A"olf 0itler !left#. an" 0ermann Goering !right# atten" a ceremony at the site of the Tannenberg battlefiel" in eastern 4russia on August 2:. 4resi"ent of Germany !Gen$# 4aul %on 0in"enburg !center#. 1 CC$ General 4aul %on 0in"enburg an" his German army "efeate" the Russian army at Tannenberg on August CH. 1 14 "uring the beginning of Worl" War )$ .

1 C4$ !4hotoE -un"esarchi%GGerman Fe"eral Archi%es# . Germany on February 2D.Bhancellor of Germany A"olf 0itler !center# a&&ears with 4ro&agan"a Minister Josef Goebbels !left# an" War Minister Fiel" Marshal Werner %on -lomberg !right# in -erlin.

1 C4 "uring the @ight of the 2ong /ni%es. a @a>i 4arty &urge le" by A"olf 0itler in an attem&t to re"uce the &olitical an" military influence of the 'A$ .rnst Rohm in @uremberg.s &olitical ambition threatene" A"olf 0itler. a&&ears with @a>i 'A lea"er .s "esire to consoli"ate &olitical &ower$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%e# . the Bhancellor of Germany.rnst Rohm.rnst Rohm wante" to create an elite @a>i army that was in"e&en"ent of 0itler8 .rnst Rohm was mur"ere" on July 2.@ight of the 2ong /ni%es A"olf 0itler !left#. Germany in August 1 CC$ .

GWring.rnst Rohm !right# a&&ears with /urt +aluege !left# an" @a>i '' chief 0einrich 0immler !center# in August 1 CC$ . a @a>i 4arty &urge le" by A"olf 0itler in an attem&t to re"uce the &olitical an" military influence of the 'A$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%e# The architects of the @ight of the 2ong /ni%es in June6July 1 C4E 0itler. an" 0ess$ Jnly 0immler an" 0ey"rich are missing$ .rnst Rohm was mur"ere" on July 2. Goebbels. 1 C4 "uring the @ight of the 2ong /ni%es.'A lea"er .

19!D. t*e President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank.conomic +octrine of the Thir" Reich . an" RearmamentE The . "P*oto5 *ttp5##german*istorydo0s. walks wit* ?Jalmar (0*a0*t "rig*t).02mQimage^id\19LD<language\german) . t*e $*an0ellor o2^image. in Germany on .ay 4. !'us&ension of# Re&arations.g*i@d0.Reichsban7.dol2 ?itler "le2t).

&oosevelt s*akes *ands wit* &ei0*sbank president ?Jalmar (0*a0*t in 19!!.dol2 ?itler. . President +ranklin D.(. +ranklin &ooseveltAs de0ision to stop 0olle0ting reparation payments 2rom Germany gave ?itler. &oosevelt was a member o2 t*e Demo0rati0 Party. and t*e Na8is t*e opportunity to rebuild t*eir military ma0*ine in a very s*ort time. (0*a0*t. President +ranklin D. Na8i GermanyAs 0entral bank under .9. (0*a0*t was t*e President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank.

dol2 ?itler.pril 19!! to meet wit* GermanyAs new 0*an0ellor .gen0y 2rom 194! to 19L1. Davis "0enter) arrives in Berlin. . Prin0eton 9niversity Library) .llen Dulles was t*e Dire0tor o2 t*e $entral 'ntelligen0e . "(our0e5 1entleman &p-: The Life of $llen /ulles by Peter Grose#. Germany in .llen Dulles "2ar le2t) and Norman ?.llen Dulles Paper.$oun0il on +oreign &elations dire0tors .

Germany !1 2461 CC# an" first Jewish mayor of Fran7furt$ 2an"mann was remo%e" from office in 1 CC by the @a>is$ RightE /onra" A"enauer. March D. 15*5. Mayor of Bologne. 1 4D# an" later Bhancellor of West Germany after Worl" War ))$ A"enauer was remo%e" from office in 1 CC by the @a>is$ . Mayor of Fran7furt am Main.W.=oung Na8i =out* members sing in 2ront o2 a +.ar0* 19!! 2eftE +r$ 2u"wig 2an"mann !May 15. department store during a movement to boy0ott /ewis* presen0e in Germany in . 1 4D#. Germany !1 1:61 CC. Woolwort* $o.

19!!. 19!D.r0*ives) Paul von ?indenburg "2ront) and .pril 1.dol2 ?itler "ba0kground) appear in 2ront o2 t*e &ei0*stag in Berlin on +ebruary 4. "P*oto5 German +ederal .Na8i Party stormtroopers display signs on a store window t*at en0ourage Germans to boy0ott /ewis*@owned stores on .r0*ives) . "P*oto5 German +ederal .

uno&&ose" by the French who were su&&ose" to 7ee& the Rhinelan" area "emilitari>e" !Associate" 4ress# German troo&s cross the Rhine Ri%er at the 0ohen>ollern -ri"ge in Bologne. 1 C*. in %iolation of the Kersailles Treaty$ . Germany on March :. Germany in 1 C* un"er 0itlerNs or"ers.German troo&s enter +ussel"orf.

'n t*e 19 Cs.lbert 7Ngler "at le2t. a2ter . *e *ad already provided t*e N(D. 7Ngler was a long@time supporter o2 ?itler and *eld a variety o2 publi0 o22i0es starting in 19!!. *e Joined ot*er important representatives o2 industry and t*e banking system in signing a petition to &ei0* President ?indenburg t*at demanded ?itlerGs appointment as &ei0* $*an0ellor. most industrial leaders 0ooperated e6tensively wit* a government t*at e6er0ised enormous pressure on t*e one *and but promised unpre0edented pro2its on t*e ot*er. w*o was t*en dire0tor o2 9nited (teelworks . 3*e industrialist +rit8 3*yssen "be*ind ?itler.rmaments and War Produ0tion .P wit* 2inan0ial support. ?e 0ommitted sui0ide on . 7Ngler played an important role in t*e organi8ation o2 t*e armaments e0onomy. middle rig*t) represented an e60eption. *aving grown even more disillusioned wit* t*e 0ountryAs violent. During t*e war. 19D4. 3*e p*oto also s*ows . w*ere *e was interned in 0on0entration 0amps until t*e end o2 t*e war. w*i0* was pursuing greater state regulation. But it was also t*e pla0e w*ere 0on2li0ts arose between t*e Na8i regime. ?owever.meri0an troops *ad mar0*ed into t*e &u*r region.A"olf 0itler %isits a Thyssen Factory in the Ruhr Region in 1 CD$ 'teel baron an" @a>i 4arty member Frit> Thyssen !secon" from right# is seen stan"ing behin" 0itler$ !4hotoE htt&EGGgermanhistory"ocs$ghi6"c$orgGsub^image$cfmMimage^i"[2H22# German *eavy industry reaped greater bene2its 2rom t*e National (o0ialist armaments program t*an any ot*er se0tor o2 t*e e0onomy.2ter 19!!. 'n 19DC.pril 1D. !'ourceE htt&EGGgermanhistory"ocs$ghi6"c$orgGsub^image$cfmMimage^i"[2H22# . w*o reJe0ted t*e governmentGs unort*odo6 and o2ten irrational produ0tion demands. 3*e 2ollowing year.lbert (peer. ?e Joined t*e party in 19!1 and began mediating between ?itler and ot*er industrial leaders. 3*e 3*yssen $orporation was nationali8ed. 'n 19!9. despite o00asional disagreements.G E)ereinigte &tahlwer e $1F. bot* in *is initial ent*usiasm 2or t*e Na8i regime and *is later disillusionment wit* it. *e *eld a series o2 publi0 o22i0es and was involved in t*e 2ormulation and implementation o2 National (o0ialist e0onomi0 poli0y. ne6t to ?itler). *e was arrested by t*e 7i0*y government and sent ba0k to Germany. anti@(emiti0 0limate and wit* ?itlerGs warmongering. 3*yssen 0ame into in0reasing 0on2li0t wit* t*e Na8i government. and t*e industrialists. But a2ter t*e adoption o2 t*e +our@=ear Plan and t*e asso0iated es0alation o2 state intervention into t*e e0onomy. *e emigrated to +ran0e. as *ead o2 t*e military e0onomy and later as 0*ie2 representative o2 &ei0* . .inister o2 .

A co&y of the @uremberg 2aws &asse" by the @a>i regime on 'e&tember 1D. 1 CD .

Bhart to "escribe @uremberg 2aws.he gestattetO# an" forbi""en marriages !O. 1 CD$ The O@uremberg 2awsO establishe" a &seu"o6scientific basis for racial i"entification$ Jnly &eo&le with four German gran"&arents !four white circles in to& row left# were of OGerman bloo"O$ A Jew is someone who "escen"s from three or four Jewish gran"&arents !blac7 circles in to& row right#$ )n the mi""le stoo" &eo&le of Omi?e" bloo"O of the Ofirst or secon" "egree$O A Jewish gran"&arent was "efine" as a &erson who is or was a member of a Jewish religious community$ Also inclu"es a list of allowe" marriages !O.he %erbotenO#$ !'ourceE (nite" 'tates 0olocaust Memorial Museum Bollection# .

General Werner %on Fritsch !center#. 0ermann GWring !2n" left#. 1 C5 after 0ermann Goering an" 0einrich 0immler wrongly accuse" General Werner %on Fritsch of homose?uality$ The resignations of Fiel" Marshal Werner %on -lomberg an" General Werner %on Fritsch in early 1 C5 were 7nown as the BlombergDFrits$h . Bomman"er6in6Bhief of the Army Werner %on Fritsch !2n" right#. resigne" from office on January 2:. an" A"olf 0itler a&&ear at the OReich 4arty Rally for Wor7O in @uremberg.Minister of War Fiel" Marshal Werner %on -lomberg !left#. an" Fiel" Marshal Werner %on -lomberg !right# in 1 C4$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%esG-un"esarchi%# Fiel" Marshal Werner %on -lomberg. Germany in 'e&tember 1 C:. two months before the secret conference that mar7e" the beginning of the en" of the military careers of -lomberg an" Fritsch$ !4hotoE S -il"archi% 4reudischer /ulturbesit># Fiel" Marshal Ger" %on Run"ste"t !left#.s &ri%ate life$ General Werner %on Fritsch resigne" from the German Army on February 4. Bomman"er6in6Bhief of the Arme" Forces !Wehrmacht# an" +efense Minister of Germany un"er Bhancellor A"olf 0itler. 1 C5 "ue to a contro%ersy regar"ing his wife.ffair$ .

19 ! &Halmar "#ha#ht President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19 !@19!C.Reichs an!" Central #an! o$ the Third Reich The Reichsban7 in -erlin in 1 CC8 the Reichsban7 was Germany.s central ban7 from 15:* to 1 4D$ 4resi"ents of the Reichsban7 Ri#hard Ko#h President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "1:9C@19C1) Rudolf &avenstein President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19C:@19 !) died in o22i0e on November C. 19!!@19!9) &ans Luther President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19!C@19!!) >r1 8alther .un( President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19!9@19D4)> &ei0*sminister o2 -0onomi0s "19!:@19D4) .

mil 4uhl !Kice 4resi"ent of the Reichsban7#. +r$ . an" 0err %on We"el A Weimar Re&ublic German Reichsban7note "ate" 22 August 1 2C with a face %alue of 1HH.Reichsban7 ban7ers meet in Germany in 1 C4$ From left to rightE 0Lalmar 'chacht !4resi"ent of the Reichsban7#.HHH Mar7s$ !'ourceE htt&EGGwww$sny"erstreasures$comG&agesGgermancurrency$htm# .HHH. 0err 4lessing.

A grou& of German wor7ers salute @a>i Germany.HHH.HHH Mar7s$ !'ourceE htt&EGGwww$sny"erstreasures$comG&agesGgermancurrency$htm# .s "ictator A"olf 0itler !center# an" Reichsban7 &resi"ent 0Lalmar 'chacht !right# "uring a &ara"e in Germany in 1 CD$ !4hotoE Time 2ife# A Weimar Re&ublic German Reichsban7note "ate" 2C July 1 2C with a face %alue of 2.

seal of the note an" the significantly higher 9uality &rinting an" &a&er use"$ !'ourceE htt&EGGwww$sny"erstreasures$comG&agesGgermancurrency$htm# Presi)ents of the Rei$hsban/ -49H8D47GN0: 0ermann %on +echen" !January 1. 15:*6A&ril CH. 1 H:# Ru"olf 0a%enstein !January *. 1 C # Walther Fun7 !January 2H. 1 CH6March 1*. 1 2C6A&ril 2. 1 CH# 0ans 2uther !A&ril C. 15 H# Richar" /och !May 1. 15 H6+ecember C1. &$ CCD . 1 CC# 0Lalmar 'chacht !March 1:. 1 4D# 'ourceE $andbook on the $istor of 8uro&ean Banks by Manfre" 4ohl.This is a German Reichsban7note "ate" 1 August 1 42 with a face %alue of D Mar7s$ @ote the a&&earance of the swasti7a on the +R. . 1 2C#8 "ie" in office on @o%ember 2H. 1 C 6May 5.uro&ean Association for -an7ing 0istory e$K$. 1 CC6January 1 . 1 2C 0Lalmar 'chacht !+ecember 22. 1 H56@o%ember 2H.

Germany !-an7haus Warburg#.M$M$ Warburg F Bo$. foun"e" in 1: 5 . Germany 0ea"9uarters of M$M$ Warburg F Bo$ in 0amburg. Jewish ban7ing firm in 0amburg.

eral . he sai" he thought it might be O&ossible to gui"e this man into the &ath of righteousness$O When the . 'chachtNs a&&ointment &romise" some small rationality in financial affairs instea" of weir" @a>i e?&eriments or a %icious &urge of Jewish ban7ers$ 0is relationshi& with 'chacht at first "u&e" Ma? into a sense of security$ )t ga%e him high6le%el access to the @a>i bureaucracy of a sort enLoye" by few Jews$ Ma? felt he shoul" use this influence for the Jewish community. Ma? tol" Jimmy that e%erything "e&en"e" u&on Owhat 'chacht &lans to "o in general with &ri%ate ban7s an" ban7ers an" in &articular. Ma? Warburg$$$always claime" that 'chacht was "oing the best he coul" to &rotect the Jews$ ) ne%er belie%e" him$ ) thin7 <'chacht= tal7e" out of one si"e of his face to &eo&le who were anti6'emitic an" out of the other si"e of his face to &eo&le who were &ro6'emitic. +r$ 'chacht ste&&e" forth.ryan" &ho $oul) outs&in)le the %e&s: )n a totalitarian state where e%ery human bo"y seeme" e?&en"able$ +r$ 'chacht alone enLoye" s&ecial free"oms. bolstere" his im&ortance in the community$ For Jews who felt bereft of any court of a&&eals in a Germany gone ma". which re9uire" cost6cutting$ . lea%e it to 'chacht$O As his &olicies lifte" Germany from the +e&ression. Goring &re"icte" that the March D elections woul" be Othe last for the ne?t fi%e years. Ma? #ri.meri$an international ban/ers: . then a"ministere" the fun" himself$ This o&&ortunist fancie" himself the one sane man who coul" mo"erate @a>i e?cesses from within$ Watching 0itler "eli%er his first ra"io a""ress in 1 CC. ne%er Loine" the &arty an" regar"e" many @a>is as coarse ruffians$ 2ater "isclaiming 7nowle"ge of the Final 'olution. cigars.embershi# in this bo)y foreign e<$hangeDthe lifebloo) of any international ban/: *$ha$ht $oul) obliterate the 4>NDyear history of .i)e) the Warburg ban/ &ith #rote$tion an) #ermitte) lea)ing in)ustrial firms to $ontinue )oing business &ith it safely: =f .ely $orre$t that *$ha$ht get this #ost: for his #ersonal influen$e o. he now stoo" alone or with his em&loyees$ 0e was sha"owe" by the secret &olice.: Warburg & 'o: . &robably e%en for the ne?t hun"re" years$O Jnce the crow" was warme" u&.ilish %e&ish ban/ers: *$ha$ht ha) not only been a /ey emissary to big business at a time &hen in)ustrialists still feare) the Nazis6 but also$h 48 meeting6 telling %immy after&ar)6 IFn)er $urrent $on)itions6 = $onsi)er it obBe$ti.a< ma)e out6 it ha) mu$h to )o &ith the #atronage of Ar: +Balmar *$ha$ht: .er nearly so moribun) as . an" wire6rimme" glasses.a< also ha) ne. he is the har"est &erson to bring into moral focus. with his go%ernment contacts. he ha" one i"ea an" a %ery goo" one$ )t was.a< Boine) t&o other %e&ish ban/ers in a##en)ing his signature to the .ernment issues6 of fifty member ban/s &hen the Nazis seize) #o&er6 a thir) &ere %e&ish6 an) *$ha$ht resiste) the #artyKs efforts to e<#el some of them: Gra)ually almost all %e&ish ban/s &ere #rune) an) only three manage) to stay until 47>96 in$lu)ing . it was all a nightmarish re%ersal$ M$M$ forgi. 0itler grante" 'chacht unusual autonomy in @a>i official"om$ Jnce as7e" whether 0itler ha" financial i"eas$ 'chacht boaste"$ OAes.mong the many fa$tors hol)ing .er +itler@s e$onomi$ boom6 he ha) to transmit to the Fu&rer the un#leasant ne&s that Germany nee)e) these )e. raise" three million mar7s for the @a>is.ate ban/s: *in$e the 47>4 $risis6 the Rei$hsban/ enBoye) )i$tatorial $ontrol o.a<Ks business life hung from a threa) after 47>>6 it &as Ar: *$ha$ht &ho $oul) &iel) the shears: for he hel) lifeDan)D)eath #o&er o. which. who s&eciali>e" in foreign tra"e$ Also.: .s slow"own "i"nNt entirely result from the @a>is$ The moratorium on re&ayment of German loans fro>e international ca&ital flows$ When the Reichsban7 clam&e" more controls on ca&ital mo%ements. he woul" yet mastermin" the German economic re%i%al that ma"e 0itler omni&otent$ Jn February 2H.a< #arti$i#ate) in the .: . +r$ 'chacht &rofesse" to belie%e him$ Ma? woul" hear these s&ecious &romises from 'chachtNs own li&s$ When +itler )eman)e) the resignation of Ar: Luther6 the hea) of the Rei$hsban/6 in .: Warburg enBoye) the im#rimatur of the Rei$h Loan 'onsortium6 ho& $oul) it be $onsi)ere) a traitorous firm? Besi)es *$ha$ht6 se.: Warburg in one stro/e: Recogni>ing this.:.1Ma? stubbornly 7e&t u& "aily %isits to the stoc7 e?change$ -ut where frien"s once crow"e" aroun"$h 4H a##ointment )o$ument signe) by +itler an) +in)enburg: The a"%isory boar" was "issol%e" in Jctober 1 CC: =f .ote) for him de plein coeur an) am gla) that Luther himself )i) the same:I .isory boar) sin$e 47?G6 . who &hotogra&he" &eo&le a&&roaching him at the e?change or %isiting the ban7$ For a man once "ubbe" the uncrowne" 7ing of 0amburg. with his &instri&es.erestimate) his talentsJ . how a &ri%ate Jewish ban7 can "o business in future$O For Ma?. 1 CC. the ban7 still suffere" from the 1 C1 "ebacle. coul" ren"er uni9ue ser%ice$ 0e ha" an o&en "oor to 'chacht an" &erio"ically "iscusse" with him to&ics of mutual concern$ Jimmy an" Feli? thought Ma? was mani&ulate" by the wily 'chacht$ As Jimmy later sai". for he e?hibite" both &atent hy&ocrisy an" un9uestionable courage$ )f Ma? &ro%e" gullible.e) him of a $han$e to restore his glory: =f business at the Warburg ban/ &as ne.a< thought *$ha$ht a smart6 o##ortunisti$ blo&har) &ho$h 47>>6 he #ro#ose) Ar: *$ha$ht in his stea): .el$hior after the 47?7 Eoung $onferen$e: Ne. it han"ica&&e" the Warburgs.s a member of the Rei$hsban/ a).n) that is &hy =6 too6 thin/ highly of him:I +itler bragge) that *$ha$ht &as the only !.ote: +e an) t&o other %e&ish ban/ers on the eightDmember $oun$il &ere $aught in a tou$hy #osition: . he shiel"e" the ban7ersN tra"e association from &arty me""ling an" it confirme" Ma? an" two other Jews as boar" members$ The most startling #roof of *$ha$htKs free)om from #arty stri$tures &as seen in the Rei$h Loan 'onsortium6 the august ban/ syn)i$ate that mar/ete) German go. an" this woul" e%en e?ten" to &rotesting the abuse of Jewish businessmen$ This ol"6school ban7er.ernment is so im#ortant that mista/es6 &hi$h he &ill unCuestionably ma/e6 &ill be offset: = . at a meeting of business lea"ers at his home.a< in Germany &as )oubtless his )esire to regain the eminen$e he ha) enBoye) before 47>4: The Nazis ha) )e#ri.ote) for *$ha$ht at the . but ) ha%e no &roof of that$O Aet at moments 'chacht buc7e" the @a>is at great &ersonal ris7$ )n the rogues gallery of the Thir" Reich. 'chacht enLoye" immunity from &arty criticism$ )n May 1 CC. OMy uncle.ssigne) to ) the go. he ha" some reason to trust 'chacht$ -eing ignorant of financial matters.en his $yni$al betrayal of 'arl .ertheless6 he .e some finan$ial legitima$y to a #arty that attra$te) a large number of monetary Cua$/s: +itler #rize) *$ha$ht as a res#e$table figure &ho $oul) hoo)&in/ foreign finan$iers: =n 47>4 +itler sai) of him6 I+e is6 in fa$t6 enormously s/ille) an) enBoys great res#e$t6 e. in turn.en among the foreign6 an) es#e$ially among the %e&ishD.uhrer sai" the Jews coul" continue wor7ing as before.

the grou& en"orse" lower tariffs an" an en" to e?change controls$ 0itler let them frolic in this fool.m a &olitician an" no economist$ ) rely u&on your better Lu"gment an" wi"e e?&erience$3 +rawn hea%ily from the 0amburg tra"ing worl". the Warburgs turne" to the /e&&ler Bircle$ )n May 1 0elfferich. &oint6blan7. a sil%er6haire" man with roun" s&ectacles an" a white. 0itler a&&ointe" /e&&ler as his &ersonal economic a"%iser$ The following year. Ma? as7e". 0err /unert.businessmen trie) to gui)e +itler to&ar) e$onomi$ sanity6 an) he &as only too #lease) to e<#loit their nai.ric met with the grou& at the -erlin branch of the /ommer>ban7$ )nfuriate" by all the snubs an" rebuffs. at Ma?Ns behest. notably Jimmy. an" 0itler res&on"e" enthusiastically when the grou& acce&te" +r$ 'chacht$ 0itler assure" them that he was the soul of mo"eration on economic matters$ 1).ric ne%er forgot the &aine" e?&ression of his father. wor7e" aroun" the corner from the Warburg ban7. he tol" colleagues that they shoul" "efen" the ban7 as a fortress an" that 1no -oar" seat that is ta7en from us shoul" be regar"e" as "efinitely lost an" e%ery o&&ortunity shoul" be sei>e" to regain these &ositions. 0itler "is&atche" Wilhelm /e&&ler.t sa%e his seat$3 . to court 0amburg business chieftains$ 0e recruite" . insincere o&&ortunist. who ha".m no "octrinaire. thought Ma? shoul" resign from boar"s instea" of waiting to be boote" out. an" others into a select grou& of economic a"%isers to 0itler$ For a time. but he refuse" to go 9uietly or surren"er his economic &ower$ )n his 1 CC annual re&ort. &$ C:*6C: .O he tol" them$ 1). in a telltale shift. e?&laine" that the ministry wante" Jewish boar" members to resign$ With a no" to Ma? an" others. The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow. "oing business with the +utch West )n"ies$ The Warburgs ha" finance" an" e%en in%este" in some of his colonial enter&rises$ .etW: )n early 1 C2. Ma? an" . coul"n. /unert insiste" no offense was meant$ OThere was no obLection &ersonally to the Jewish gentlemen in 9uestion$ Jn the contrary. 0elfferich sai" the matter shoul" be "eci"e" on a case6by6case basis an" %aguely tol" Ma? to yiel" seats where the &ressure was most intense$ . the owner of a small chemical factory. reflecting the close ties between German ban7s an" in"ustry$ As they were e?&elle" from boar"s an" lost customers through subtle @a>i &ressures. which boar" seats shoul" be aban"one" an" which 7e&t$ +iscomfite" by this bluntness. e%en if success may yet be far off$3 This combati%e attitu"e coinci"e" with his belief in the transitory nature of the @a>is$ The manner in which Ma? was houn"e" from cor&orate boar"s range" from the absur"ly correct to the wantonly cruel$ At a May 1 CC boar" meeting of the German Atlantic Telegra&h Bom&any. who cra%e" clarity in this wil"erness of fear an" innuen"o$ That July.s &ara"ise as long as it suite" his &ur&ose$ Few Jewish businessmen ha" better access to the /e&&ler Bircle than the Warburgs$ .ric later "escribe" 0elfferich as a cunning. the /e&&ler Bircle was su&&lante" by the 0immler Bircle$ 'ome Warburgs. this /e&&ler Bircle &ro%i"e" a bri"ge between the business worl" an" the @a>is. finance" a transatlantic cable for the com&any in 1 21 . the Warburg &artners hel" 1H5 seats on cor&orate boar"s. against which no one coul" &re%ail$O Ma? e?&resse" astonishment that the ministry of the &ost coul" &ro&ose something of such "ubious legality$ . but no @a>i$ When 0itler too7 & 0elfferich.%en a forceful &rotest from A%erell 0arriman . the commissar of the ministry of the &ost. Barl Kincent /rogmann. their ser%ices in the rebuil"ing of the com&any were highly esteeme"$ -ut these were new times. Jl" Testament bear".

but ) canNt 7ee& your firm in the <Reich 2oan= Bonsortium any longer$O Ma? was Lolte" from his trance$ At once he 7new that he ha" lost his &rotecti%e co%er$ OThen weNll ha%e to li9ui"ate the firm$O Ma? sai"$ 'chacht re&lie" that he ha" e?&ecte" that$ As Ma? recalle".a< belie. German businesses too7 a tougher line with Jewish ban7ers$ Wor" filtere" "own from -erlin that com&anies shoul" &urge their boar"s of Jews or lose go%ernment contracts8 many were stam&e"e" into "ro&&ing Jewish firms$ The number of M$ M$ Warburg clients now s7i""e" from almost C. J$ +reyfus F Bo$. he wante" Germany to bolster its foreign e?change reser%es through e?&orts$ 0e also thought economic growth ha" reache" a &oint where further arms s&en"ing woul" be inflationary$ For a long time.HHH in 1 C* to about 2$2HH in 1 C:$ -etween 1 C* an" 1 C5.ate bureau$ra$y6 the (ffi$e for Ra& an) *yntheti$ . for his successors "rastically curtaile" the raw material an" foreign e?change 9uotas that were essential for many Jewish firms$ 'chachtNs "ownfall came ami" a huge wa%e of so6calle" Aryani>ations that transforme" the German economy$ The Warburg ban7. 0immler. Ma? foun" the city a wash with rumors that M$ M$ Warburg wanted to li9ui"ate66rumors he thought fanne" by the @a>is$ Along with Feli?Ns "eath in Jctober. in fact.: Warburg &as one of Bust three %e&ish ban/s left in the grou#J &hen the ban/ ha) Boine) the 'onsortium in 475N6 one thir) of the fifty member ban/s ha) %e&ish o&ners: . a fact the Warburgs woul" &ointe"ly bring u& later$ Another substitute was +r$ /urt 'ie%e7ing. an" 0itler began to brush asi"e this &ighea"e" man who ha" outli%e" his usefulness$ First +itler ga. we ha" in all &ossible ways wor7e" together$O -ac7 in 0amburg.al6 Goring6 in . o&inionate" central ban7er cause" offense on se%eral fronts$ 0e re&eate"ly grumble" to 0itler that Goebbels.aterials6 manne) by a staff of fi. o%ernight ele%ation in status . 'chacht slowly she" his strange glow of &olitical immunity. not the first$ )f his firm were li9ui"ate". '$ -leichro"er. which left them with a meager eighteen$ 'iegmun" was e?&elle" from two boar"s in 1 C:E the 0otel Atlantic !0itlerNs fa%orite haunt in 0amburg# an" the Bameroun Railroa" Bom&any$ )n many cases.en)elssohn6I sai) . Warburg &artners lost eighty boar" seats. if surroun"e" by enemies$ -ut by 1 C*. the new na>ifie" ministry tol" Ma? he ha" to transfer his ban7 to Aryans$ 'chachtNs "ownfall was a general "isaster for Jewish ban7ers an" businessmen. he surren"ere" a lucrati%e law &ractice an" too7 a Lob with M$M$ Warburg$ 0e was later a mayor of 0amburg$ )t ran7le" &arty >ealots that +r$ 'chacht ha" 7e&t the Warburg ban7 in the Reich 2oan Bonsortium.ugust 446 47>H6 &hen Ar: *$ha$ht met &ith +itler on a sunD)ren$he) terra$e on the (bersalzberg: *$ha$htKs boisterous ro&s &ith Goring no& threatene) to )isru#t the &hole rearmament #rogram: . an" nearly two hun"re" other &ri%ate ban7s . a strategy that ha" at first &ai" off han"somely.fter *$ha$ht a)Bourne) &ith +itler into his stu)y6 a furious )ialogue ensue): The &in)o&s &ere o#en an) guests on the terra$e hear) the t&o men raging at ea$h other: *$ha$ht &as one of the fe& offi$ials &ho )are) to holler at +itler: +e no& ten)ere) his resignation6 $iting irre$on$ilable )ifferen$es &ith Goring: When +itler insiste) that he re$onsi)er6 *$ha$ht only sai) he &oul) thin/ about it: From then on6 *$ha$htKs #o&er ero)e)6 an) on *e#tember N6 47>H6 he too/ a lea.: Warburg got a minute 4:N #er$ent sli.inistry: The Ministry of Justice &romulgate" new rules that ma"e it illegal for @a>i &arty members an" go%ernment em&loyees to &atroni>e Jewish sho&s$ The last Jewish war %eterans were boote" from the Reichsban7 staff$ That 'e&tember. a ghoulish acti%ity that became a sta&le of its wor7 by 1 C:$ As "istinguishe" names in Jewish ban7ing "isa&&eare" .en though . for whom this &ro"uce" a stunning. OWe more an" more became the confi"ential ban7ers of the Jewish business worl"$3 With many large Aryan ban7s financing these ta7eo%ers$ Jewish businessmen truste" M$ M$ Warburg to bro7er their "eals an" the &artners scoure" the worl" for foreign firms that might &urchase Jewish businesses with bloc7e" mar7 accounts$ These in%oluntary sales to &re"atory Aryans were con"ucte" in an e?tremely tense atmos&here$ Many Jewish businessmen awaite" entry %isas elsewhere an" "i"nNt 7now whether .eile) a fourDyear #lan to rearm Germany an) again assigne) the su#er. &rotecte" by in%isible barriers.i. who came from a "istinguishe" legal family$ )n 1 C*.#ril 47>8: That same year6 he un.: . an" e?change controls$ -ut 0itler grew tire" of his warnings about inflation$ )n conse9uence. barter "eals.1All illusions woul" soon be o%er$ The cloc7 was now a&&roaching mi"night$ Ma? ha" hitche" his star to +r$ 'chachtNs.or: =f bullie) by Nazis6 in)ustrial $om#anies $oul) $ite the Rei$h Loan 'onsortium as their Bustifi$ation for )oing business &ith the Warburgs: *o long as Ar: *$ha$ht $lung to #o&er6 .e su#er. enabling him to sur%i%e in a charme" s&here. negotiate" force" sales for many Jewish businesses. Mr$ Warburg.ision of foreign e<$hange an) ra& material matters to *$ha$htKs ar$ of $onsortium issues6 the mere fa$t of its membershi# mattere) greatly: I2Ar: *$ha$ht3 /ne& the im#ortan$e in the matter of loan flotations of at least our firm an) that of . the o&timal solution$ . as a way of e?&ressing soli"arity with the Jews.conomics Ministry to Goring in +ecember !while 7ee&ing the Reichsban7 &resi"ency#. +r$ 'chacht as7e" Ma? to %isit him in -erlin$ The somber central ban7er sai". the Warburgs sli&&e" in a substitute$ Most often it was +r$ Ru"olf -rinc7mann. this strategy miscarrie" as 'chachtNs own &ower wane"$ The blustery. OWe sai" goo"bye after. an" other @a>is 'i&hone" off foreign e?change for their own use$ An" for all his elastic morals.e: 0e often sai" that he wante" his firm to be the last one out of Germany.e) he $oul) sur. these e%ents ha" a crushing im&act u&on him$ When 'chacht yiel"e" the . but who are now losing their &ower$3 Jn cue. their clients shifte" to the Warburgs$ As Ma? note". the august bo"y that mar7ete" go%ernment "ebt$ By 47>H6 . he feare" that it woul" throw Jewish em&loyees on the street an" so "ismay the entire Jewish community that it woul" flee66in retros&ect.inistry: Goring ere$te) his o&n #ri.a<: The $a$het &as of immense #ra$ti$al .e of absen$e from the $onomi$s . the highest6ran7ing non6Jewish em&loyee. the Warburgs 7new they might soon forfeit their go%ernment &atronage$ As Feli? tol" the Joint in A&ril 1 C:. for thirty years.e hun)re): =t &oul) be$ome the tutelary s#irit behin) German &ar #re#arations an) #romulgate a militaristi$ #oli$y of autar/y instea) of free tra)e: As 'chachtNs &ower "i&&e".isory role to Goring: Right ne<t )oor to *$ha$htKs $onomi$s . +r$ 'chacht hewe" to an ol"6fashione" ban7erNs faith in soun" finance$ )nstea" of fa%oring autar7y. O)Nm sorry.alue6 for it signifie) that the firm still enBoye) some offi$ial fa. he %iolate" his own &rinci&les an" a"%ance" rearmament through his Mefo6bills.a< WarburgKs )estiny &as )etermine) on . 1We ha" a few frien"s o%er there who were in high &ositions. Gebru"er Arnhol".

which 7e&t ali%e the slim chance of some"ay returning to Germany$ At first.conomics Ministry$ Jn March 1 . an" other s&oils$ -aron 2ouis Rothschil" was arreste" an" hel" hostage until his family sol" off their &ro&erties at scan"alously low &rices$ The @a>is carte" off masses of Jews to the +achau an" -uchenwal" concentration cam&s in an orgy of anti6'emitic e?cess$ Jne of Ma?Ns Kiennese cousins. later a con%icte" war criminal$ With a cru"e steel em&ire that by 1 C2 ri%ale" that of /ru&&. 1 C5. 0itler trium&hantly entere" Kienna to celebrate the Anschluss with Austria$ After brea7ing into the Rothschil" mansion. The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow. &$ 4** . Richar" Rosenbacher. Goring issue" a "ecree that classifie" those firms with e%en one69uarter Jewish ownershi& as subLect to Aryani>ation$ A wholesale transfer of the firm now became ine%itable$ @egotiations too7 &lace at the -erlin office of M$M$ Warburg un"er the close scrutiny of the Reich .uhrer also christene" a new shi& the 0obert "e 1 honoring Ma?Ns ol" nemesis from the 1 2Hs$ The &ace of Aryani>ations 9uic7ene". &aintings. which woul" finally culminate with their e?&loitation of sla%e labor "uring the 0olocaust$ A fierce Aryani>ation battle rage" o%er the &i&e an" blast furnace com&any controlle" by the family of 2olaNs husban". most Jewish businessmen were battere" an" bro7e$ Jutright theft might ha%e been 7in"er$ The @a>is rationali>e" these coerci%e mo%es by saying that the Jews ha" built their businesses through tric7ery an" cheating$ As German firms &rofite" from the Aryani>ation "ri%e. Flic7 ha" la%ishly subsi"i>e" 0einrich 0immler an" the ''$ -y 1 C:. the Warburgs ho&e" to bring in D1 &ercent non6Jewish &artners an" 7ee& a minority sta7e for themsel%es$ -ut on January 4. it im&licate" them more "ee&ly in @a>i machinations. The Warburgs by Ron Bhernow. Ma? hunte" for frien"ly &arties to buy his ban7$ The negotiations too7 &lace ami" a stifling. +r$ Gustab 'chlotterer of the Foreign .conomics "e&artment was tol" to 7ee& M$M$ Warburg intact to safeguar" its foreign6e?change cre"its an" o%erseas connections for the Thir" Reich$3 . '' men emerge" bearing sil%er. 0itler a""resse" a huge throng before the 0amburg 0athaus% The . the choices were 'im&le$ )t coul" li9ui"ate8 sell out to an Aryan ban78 or be Aryani>e" . intolerable gloom$ )n mi"6March 1 C5. es&ecially in mining an" metals. &$ 4*H64*C 1With M$ M$ Warburg e%icte" from the Reich 2oan Bonsortium. Jews might get 1H62H &ercent of the remaining &ittance out of Germany$ -y the en". he foun" an enthusiastic su&&orter in Frie"rich Flic7.they woul" esca&e$ They sol" their shares base" on Jriginal cost. which le" to staggering ca&ital losses of as much as :H &ercent$ The notaries han"ling these contracts nee"e" to get a&&ro%al from the local @a>i office$ )f the &arty thought the terms too generous. the Jewish &artners coul" sell their sta7es to non6Jews an" &reser%e the firm$ )t was fully consistent with Ma?Ns beliefs that he chose Aryani>ation. not mar7et %alue. he sat ato& the largest &ri%ately owne" iron an" steel combine in Germany$3 . an" recei%e" nothing for goo"will. Ru"olf 0ahn. they were sent bac7 for further negotiation$ Jnce this legal e?tortion was com&lete". businessmen ha" to &ay the 2D &ercent Flight Ba&ital Ta?$ After more "uties an" &uniti%e e?change rates. lea&e" to his "eath from the thir"6floor win"ow of his home$ Jews in Kienna were committing suici"e at the rate of two hun"re" &er "ay$ Returning from Austria. 1 C5. an" his brother$ /urt$ As Goring trie" to e?&el Jewish owners from in"ustries of strategic im&ortance. as a 9uarter of the remaining forty thousan" Jewish businesses un"erwent force" sales "uring the ne?t year$ This "estroye" the last %estiges of the Jewish economic &ower that ha" figure" so largely in @a>i cosmology$ For a Jewish ban7. that is.

s %isit to -erchtesga"en.s army "uring the 1 CHs8 Generalissimo Bhiang /ai6she7. Germany in 1 C:$ 0$0$ /ung was marrie" to 'oong Ai6ling.oreign Affairs of $erman *Ahird Rei#h+ A"olf 0itler. the Bhancellor of @a>i Germany an" +er Fuhrer of the Thir" Reich. the sister of Ma"ame Bhiang /ai6she7 !'oong Mei6ling#$ @a>i German officers traine" Generalissimo Bhiang /ai6she7.s Minister of Finance !1 CC61 44# an" Go%ernor of the Bentral -an7 of Bhina !1 CC61 4D#.. "uring /ung. @ationalist Bhina.s a"o&te" son Bhiang Wei67uo ser%e" in the Wehrmacht an" &artici&ate" in the Anschluss$ 0$0$ /ung earne" a -achelor of Arts "egree at Jberlin Bollege in 1 H* an" a Master of Arts "egree at Aale (ni%ersity in 1 H:$ !Time 2ife &hoto# . stan" on a &atio with 0$0$ /ung !left#.

both countries &le"ge" to resol%e their &roblems through bilateral negotiations an" to forgo arme" conflict for a &erio" of ten years$ Jo>ef 4ilsu"s7i "ie" in Warsaw. 4olan" on May 12. 1 CD$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%esG-un"esarchi%# . fi%e months after signing the 4olish6German @on6Aggression 4act$ The German64olish @on6Aggression 4act was signe" on January 2*.2eft to rightE 0ans6A"olf %on Molt7e !German Ambassa"or to 4olan"#. 1 C48 accor"ing to the German64olish @on6Aggression 4act. Jose&h Goebbels !German 4ro&agan"a Minister#. 4olish lea"er Je>ef 4ifsu"s7i. an" Je>ef -ec7 !Foreign Minister of 4olan"# meet in Warsaw. 4olan" on June 1D. 1 C4.

1 4C6A&ril 2D. 1 2D6July 2D. 1 4C#. 1 22 . 1 4D#$ . 1 C4. )taly on June 1461D. an" +uce of the )talian 'ocial Re&ublic !'e&tember 2C.Bhancellor of Germany A"olf 0itler !left# an" 4rime Minister of )taly -enito Mussolini !right# a&&ear in Kenice. 0ea" of Go%ernment of )taly an" +uce of Fascism !+ecember 24.July 2D. 1 4C#. two wee7s before the @ight of the 2ong /ni%es$ -enito Mussolini ser%e" as 4rime Minister of )taly !Jctober C1.

3*e Duke o2 Windsor "2ormer . "P*oto5 London 3elegrap*) .ing -dward 7''' o2 Great Britain) and *is wi2e Du0*ess o2 Windsor "Wallis (impson) visit . $*an0ellor o2 ENa8iF Germany and Der +u*rer o2 t*e 3*ird &ei0*.dol2 ?itler in Germany.3*e Duke and Du0*ess o2 Windsor visit .dol2 ?itler. in 19!1.

group o2 Na8i German army o22i0ers 0elebrate a toast wit* a group o2 'mperial /apanese army o22i0ers during World War ''. .Britis* diplomat Lord ?ali2a6 "0enter) is seen riding in a 0arriage wit* ?ermann Goering "rig*t) in %0tober 19!1.r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv) . "P*oto5 German +ederal .

and . 2ormer 9. ?erbert ?oover and ?ug* &.dol2 ?itler "0enter). in Berlin. Wilson dress 2or t*e o00asion at a re0eption *eld in Berlin on .(.mbassador to Na8i Germany.inister ?Jalmar (0*a0*t "le2t). .ar0* :.ar0* :. t*e 9.ustrian . ".r0*ives#$%&B'() Private 0iti8en ?erbert ?oover "le2t). ?ug* &.(.4RE7$N RELAA74N". visits ?is -60ellen0y . Germany on .meri0an .mbassador to Na8i Germany ?ug* &. $*an0ellor o2 ENa8iF Germany and Der +u*rer o2 t*e 3*ird &ei0*. ?ug* &obert Wilson. 19!:. is seated on t*e 2ar rig*t. 2ormer President o2 t*e 9nited (tates. President ?erbert ?oover "0enter).&ei0*sbank President and Na8i German -0onomi0s . Wilson were members o2 t*e )4EN)7L 4N . Wilson was a member o2 "KELL C B4NE" at =ale 9niversity> ?erbert ?oover was a member o2 t*e B4&E%7AN $R4IE in $ali2ornia. "$%&B'( p*oto) . 19!:.

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9. 3*e 9nderse0retary is s0*eduled to sail 2rom 'taly tomorrow.mbassador to Great Britain "19!:@19!9) &ans Luther $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19 4@19 L)> +inan0e .mbassador to /apan "19!!@19!:)> German .ar0* 19.a'en $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19! )> 7i0e $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19!!@19!D)> German .inister o2 Germany "19 !@19 4)> President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19!C@ 19!!)> German . on t*e o00asion w*en t*e latter visited Berlin on *is 2a0t 2inding tour on . "Bettmann#$%&B'() +ield . 19DC.mbassador to . 9nder (e0retary o2 (tate (umner Welles 0on2ers wit* Na8i German +oreign . bringing ba0k to President &oosevelt. von . a 0omplete report o2 *is 2indings in war@torn -urope. t*e 9nited (tates 9nderse0retary o2 (tate.mbassador to (oviet 9nion "19!D@19D1)> ?anged in Berlin on November 1C.mbassador to 3urkey "19!9@19DD) Konstanin von Neurath +oreign . .ran.meri0a "19!!@19!1) . Welles was GoeringGs guest at t*e . outside Berlin.ars*al ?ermann Wil*elm Goering is s*own e6*ibiting some o2 *is treasured paintings in Berlin to (umner Welles.mbassador to Great Britain "19!C@19! ) .(.inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop in Berlin.arin*all.mbassador to . "Bettmann#$%&B'() Prominent Diplomats o2 Na8i Germany &er2ert von >ir(sen German .ars*alGs estate. (umner Welles was a member o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations.inister o2 Germany "19! @19!:)> German .riedri#h 8erner von der "#hulen2urg German .ustria "19!D@19!:)> German . 19DD "due to /uly C Plot) .mbassador to (oviet 9nion "19 :@ 19!!)> German .

appears wit* . .dol2 ?itler "rig*t).dol2 ?itler and David Lloyd George.ar0* 1D.inister o2 Great Britain during World War '. t*e +oreign . Dodd "rig*t) attends a meeting wit* $*ie2 Na8i Propagandist /ose2 Goebbels in Berlin on . 19!L.mbassador to Na8i Germany William -. Le2t p*oto5 David Lloyd George "le2t).(. Prime . is seen standing in t*e rear between .inister o2 Germany. /oa0*im von &ibbentrop. Dodd was a member o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations. $*an0ellor o2 Germany and Der +u*rer o2 t*e 3*ird &ei0*. .9. 19!D. at t*e %bersal8burg during David Lloyd GeorgeGs se0ond visit wit* ?itler on /une 1.

0om#sear0*#label#..dol2 ?itler s*akes *ands wit* . Germany on /uly 1D. 19! PraJad*ipok o2 (iam Ealso known as .irport in Berlin.s] Ca] CDiplomat) . "'nternational News P*oto 0redit) "P*oto5 *ttp5##adol2* &ama 7'' o2 3*ailandF at 3emple*o2 .blogspot.

also 7nown as /ing Rama K)) of Thailan"# an" Yueen Ram&hai&hanni of 'iam a&&ear with /onstantin %on @eurath !thir" from right#. Foreign Minister of Germany. in -erlin. Germany in July 1 C4$ /ing 4raLa"hi&o7 of 'iam ab"icate" his throne the following year$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# ./ing 4raLa"hi&o7 of 'iam !center.

.dol2 ?itler and Benito . Germany in /une 19DC. Le2t to rig*t..aiser*o2 ?otel in Berlin. 19DC were taken 2rom t*e personal album o2 /oa0*im 7on &ibbentrop and released 2or t*e 2irst time. an interpreter.r0*ives) Pi0tures o2 (oviet +oreign .olotov. 3*is is t*e re0eption at t*e . and (( 0*ie2 ?einri0* ?immler. Na8i GermanyAs +oreign .uni0*. "National .inister 7ya0*eslav . "Bettmann#$%&B'() .inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop.ussolini ride toget*er in .olotovGs state visit to Berlin on November 1 . -ri0k.

0ungarian Foreign Minister Bount Bsa7y. an" Ja&anese ambassa"or 'aburo /urusu$ . while other "i&lomats loo7 on after the ceremony on +ecember CH.A"olf 0itler !right# chats with Bount Tele7i. )talian Foreign Minister Bount Galea>>o Biano. one of the signers of the &act aligning 0ungary with the A?is &owers. 1 4H$ From left to rightE Bount Tele7i of 0ungary.

osley .osley .it2ord.osley . .it2ord "rig*t) appear wit* (( (tormtroopers at t*e Nuremberg Na8i Party rally in (eptember 19!1.it2ordAs *usband %swald .it2ord would be imprisoned by t*e Britis* during World War ''. Lady Diana .Britis* so0iety *ostess 9nity .osley was a Britis* .ember o2 Parliament "?ouse o2 $ommons) w*o 2ounded t*e Britis* 9nion o2 +as0ists. . Lady Diana .it2ord "le2t) and *er sister Lady Diana .dol2 ?itler "le2t) appears wit* Britis* Na8i sympat*i8er 9nity .

..dol2 ?itler walks wit* +inlandAs .ing Boris o2 Bulgaria in Germany in 19DC.anner*eim.dol2 ?itler greets .ars*al $arl Gustav +rei*err von . .

u&on his arri%al at the -erghof in -erchtesga"en. lea"er of the )n"e&en"ent 'tate of Broatia.A"olf 0itler meets with Ante 4a%elic. 1 41$ !4hotoE Mu>eL Re%oluciLe @aro"nosti Jugosla%iLeGAugosla%ian @ational Re%olutionary Museum# Ante 4a%elig !left# meets with German Foreign Minister Joachim %on Ribbentro& in June 1 41$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# . @a>i Germany for a state %isit on June . -a%aria.

0om#0ategory#vati0an@and@2as0ism#) . t*e . &ig*t p*oto5 .inister President o2 Norway 7idkun Vuisling "le2t) meets wit* .wordpress.dol2 ?itler visits NorwayAs Na8i 0ollaborator 7idkun Vuisling. "(our0e5 *ttp5##ivar2Jeld. 19D ..inister President o2 Norway. 0ir0a 19D @19D4. Le2t p*oto5 7idkun Vuisling "0enter).dol2 ?itler. visits Na8i (( 0*ie2 ?einri0* ?immler "le2t) and .lbert 7ilJam ?agelin "(e0retary o2 (tate 2or t*e ?ome %22i0e 19DC@19DD) in Berlin on +ebruary 1D.

1 4C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# +e&ose" )talian "ictator -enito Mussolini !wearing a blac7 hat an" blac7 coat# wal7s with @a>i German ''6JbersturmbannfUhrer Jtto '7or>eny after '7or>eny.s men rescue" Mussolini from a local hotel in Gran 'asso region of central )taly on 'e&tember 12.+e&ose" )talian "ictator -enito Mussolini !wearing a blac7 hat an" blac7 coat# stan"s besi"e @a>i German ''6JbersturmbannfUhrer Jtto '7or>eny after '7or>eny. 'e&tember 12.s men rescue" Mussolini from a local hotel !also a tem&orary &rison# in Gran 'asso region of central )taly on 'un"ay. 1 4C$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# .mmanuel ))) of )taly on July 2D. 1 4C$ Mussolini was "e&ose" from &ower an" later arreste" by /ing %ictor .

. .otor $o. 0*ie2 ?enry +ord "rig*t) re0eive an award 2rom t*e Na8i German regime.$*arles Lindberg* s*akes *ands wit* a Na8i German o22i0er in Na8i Germany in 19!1.meri0an aviator $*arles Lindberg* "le2t) and +ord .

nne .?erman Goering "rig*t) presents a 0eremonial sword to . 19!L> *is wi2e . "Bettmann#$%&B'() Lu2twa22e 0ommander ?ermann Goering "0enter) stands wit* $*arles Lindberg* "le2t o2 Goering) at a re0eption during t*e .meri0an aviatorGs visit to Na8i Germany on /uly :. in w*ite Ja0ket and print dress. "$%&B'() .meri0an aviator $*arles Lindberg* in Berlin on .orrow Lindberg* is to t*e rig*t. 19!L.ugust !.

.orrow Lindberg*As 2at*er was Dwig*t W.nne . .orrow Lindberg* visit ?ermann Goering in Na8i Germany.meri0an aviator $*arles Lindberg* and *is wi2e .orrow. a member o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations. $*arles Lindberg* visits Na8i Germany. ..nne .

dol2 ?itler provided military support to Gen.adrid. "'mage5 M -+-#$orbis) . +ran0is0o +ran0o and *is Nationalist insurgents during t*e (panis* $ivil War> t*e Na8i German Lu2twa22e engaged in numerous bombing raids. possibly a group o2 &ebels "Nationalists) were killed by t*e &epubli0an militias. killing t*ousands o2 (panis* 0ivilians and destroying (panis* 0ities and towns during t*e (panis* $ivil War. +ran0is0o +ran0o during t*e (panis* $ivil War.ilitary $onIuest o2 -urope Na8i German .aJor +rei*err 7on &i0*t*o2en dire0ts members o2 t*e German $ondor Legion as t*ey 2oug*t on t*e 2ront wit* t*e 2as0ist Nationalist 2or0es o2 Gen.onta_a in . 19!L> t*ese individuals. "'mage5 M Bettmann#$%&B'() Dead bodies lie on t*e ground at t*e $uartel de la .rmy General .(panis* $ivil War R Dress &e*earsal 2or Na8i German . (pain on /uly C. .

group o2 (panis* soldiers "+ran0o#NationalistQ) in (pain salute 2or a p*otograp*er during t*e (panis* $ivil War..G-5 M ?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'( .(panis* Nationalist soldiers es0ort a 0ontingent o2 (panis* &epubli0an "Loyalist) 2ig*ters w*o *ave surrendered t*eir position on t*e (omosierra +ront in (pain during t*e (panis* $ivil War "19!L@19!9) in 19!L. '. "'mage5 M ?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'( .

/ey an" General ma& of the '&anish Bi%il War !1 C*61 C # )nitial @ationalist >one 6 July 1 C* @ationalist a"%ance until 'e&tember 1 C* @ationalist a"%ance until Jctober 1 C: @ationalist a"%ance until @o%ember 1 C5 @ationalist a"%ance until February 1 C 2ast area un"er Re&ublican control Main @ationalist centers Main Re&ublican centers 2an" battles @a%al battles -ombe" cities Boncentration cam&s Massacres Refugee cam&s .

ussolini "rig*t). '&ain in 1 C $ !4hotoE +e%erG2)F. .# (painAs 2as0ist di0tator +ran0is0o +ran0o "0enter) meets wit* 'talyAs 2as0ist di0tator Benito .Generalissimo Francisco Franco re%iews his Falangist troo&s after ta7ing Ma"ri".

s fascist "ictator Francisco Franco in Jctober 1 4H$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# .@a>i '' chief 0einrich 0immler !secon" from left# a&&ears alongsi"e '&ain.

dol2 ?itler "rig*t). . +ran0e on %0tober !.dol2 ?itler wat0*es (painAs strongman Generalissimo +ran0is0o +ran0o salutes to a group o2 Na8i German soldiers in 19DC. 19DC. t*e strongman o2 +as0ist (pain. $*an0ellor o2 Germany and Der +u*rer o2 t*e 3*ird &ei0*. in ?endaye. "P*oto5 3ime Li2e) .. greets Generalissimo +ran0is0o +ran0o "se0ond 2rom le2t).

19DC as an unidenti2ied German o22i0er looks on. "P*oto5 3ime Li2e) . greets +as0ist (painAs di0tator Generalissimo +ran0is0o +ran0o "rig*t) during ?itlerAs only o22i0ial meeting wit* +ran0o in ?endaye.dol2 ?itler "le2t). +ran0e on %0tober !.. $*an0ellor o2 Germany and Der +u*rer o2 t*e 3*ird &ei0*.

June 22. Bhancellor of Germany an" +er Fuhrer of the Thir" Reich. "eli%ers a s&eech in Kienna. F Anne?ation . 1 4H )n%asion of Augosla%ia an" Greece .asion an) anne<ation of foreign nations -47>9D47GN0: Anne?ation of Austria !Anschluss# . A&&easement. March 12.Anschluss. 'e&tember 1. 1 C )n%asion of 4olan" . 1 4H )n%asion of France. @a>i German Bon9uest of . 1 C )n%asion of @orway an" +enmar7 . 1 C5$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# Nazi German in. Jctober 1 C5 )n%asion of B>echoslo%a7ia . A&ril . 1 4H Anne?ation of northern France an" recognition of Kichy France . May 1H. June 22. 1 C5 Anne?ation of 'u"etenlan" !B>echoslo%a7ia# .uro&e A"olf 0itler. March 1D. an" @etherlan"s . A&ril *. Austria on March 1D. 1 41 . 1 41 )n%asion of Russia . -elgium.

1 C5$ /urt 'chuschnigg. who ser%e" as Bhancellor of Austria !2 July 1 C4611 March 1 C5# before the Anschluss. o&&ose" A"olf 0itler.Resi"ents of Kienna cheer as @a>i German troo&s enter Kienna on March 12.s in%asion an" anne?ation of Austria$ /urt 'chuschnigg was im&risone" at +achau Boncentration Bam& near Munich. Germany "uring most of Worl" War ))$ .

Austrian Bhancellor . was assassinate" in Kienna. 1 C4 by a grou& of Austrian @a>is in a faile" attem&t to o%erthrow the Austrian go%ernment$ !4hotoE Time 2ife# The Wehrmacht troo&s encountere" no resistance when they entere" Austria on March 12. motori>e" units are shown.ngelbert +ollfuss. 1 C5$ )n this &icture. who ble" to "eath in his Kienna office. with sol"iers smo7ing a cigarette$ !4hoto by 0einrich 0offmann# . Austria on July 2D.

a&&ears with Arthur 'eyss6)n9uart in Kienna in 1 C5$ 0einrich 0immler !@a>i '' Bhief# an" Reinhar" 0ey"rich are seen stan"ing to the right of 0itler$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# .A"olf 0itler !center#. Bhancellor of Germany an" +er Fuhrer of the Thir" Reich.

.ar0* 19!:.dol2 ?itler salutes in an automobile in 2ront o2 a triump*ant 0rowd assembled near t*e ?o2burg in 7ienna to 0elebrate t*e . 19!:.ns0*luss in .ar0* L. "'mage5 M Bettmann#$%&B'() . "'mage5 M ?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'() ?einri0* ?immler inspe0ts Gestapo units in 7ienna on .

.Munich Bonference F Anne?ation of 'u"etenlan" an" B>echoslo%a7ia . Germany in (eptember 19!:.uni0*. 19!:.uni0* $on2eren0e in .inister Neville $*amberlain "le2t) s*akes *ands wit* . .dol2 ?itler greets Britis* Prime . Germany on (eptember 9. 'e&tember 1 C5 Britis* Prime .dol2 ?itler in .inister Neville $*amberlain at t*e .uni0*.

an" -ritish 4rime Minister @e%ille Bhamberlain$ !4hotoE 0ugo JaegerGTime F 2ife 4icturesGGetty )mages# -ritish 4rime Minister @e%ille Bhamberlain !front row. foregroun"#. in brown uniform an" glasses#.0onor rece&tion for -ritish 4rime Minister @e%ille Bhamberlain. on the way to a meeting with A"olf 0itler o%er the latterNs threats to in%a"e B>echoslo%a7ia$ Kisible are German &olitician Gauleiter /arl Fiehler !1 CC61 4D# !at left. 1 C5$ !4ictureE 0ugo Jaeger$GTime F 2ife 4icturesGGetty )mages# . Gauleiter A"olf Wagner !15 H61 44# !brown uniform. 1 C5. German 'A6Jbergru&&enfUhrer Fran> Ritter %on . secon" right# wal7s &ast a @a>i honor guar" on the way to a meeting with A"olf 0itler on 'e&tember 25. u&on his arri%al at Jberwiesenfel" air&ort on 'e&tember 25.&& !15*561 4:# !o%er WagnerNs left shoul"er#.

-ritish 4rime Minister @e%ille Bhamberlain %isits Munich.# . Germany in 'e&tember 1 C5$ !4hotoE 0ugo Jaeger G 2)F.

inister Neville $*amberlain "le2t) meets wit* .dol2 ?itler at t*e . .uni0* $on2eren0e in (eptember 19!:. 1 C5$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# htt&EGGwww$euro&a6uni%ersalis$comGforumGshowthrea"$&h&Mt[4D24*CF&age[C Britis* Prime .-ritish 4rime Minister @e%ille Bhamberlain !center# an" @a>i German Foreign Minister %on Ribbentro& !secon" from right# con%erse at Munich on 'e&tember 1*.

0om#sear0*#label#.uni0* .]$!]B$ni0*] C$on2eren0e .blogspot. "P*oto5 German +ederal .Bad Godesberg @ Preparation o2 t*e .greement> .r0*ives) *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.dol2 ?itler "0enter) meets wit* Neville $*amberlain "rig*t) and /oa0*im von &ibbentrop "le2t) in (eptember 19!:.

inister $*amberlain a2ter t*e nig*tly talks in t*e ?otel Dreesen.blogspot.uni0* .@ Preparation o2 t*e .Bad Godesberg .0om#sear0*#label#. ?itler led Prime . 2ollowed by +oreign .]$!]B$ni0*] C$on2eren0e .inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures. 0enter5 'nterpreting Paul %tto Gustav (0*midt.greement.

0om#sear0*#label#.ussolini s*akes *ands wit* Great BritainAs Prime . and .blogspot. Germany. Germany on (eptember !C.uni0*. "?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'() . Germany on 9@!C (eptember 19!:.uni0* $on2eren0e # . and +ran0e gat*er a2ter t*e signing o2 t*e .greement w*i0* allowed Na8i German anne6ation o2 t*e (udetenland "$8e0*oslovakia). "P*oto5 German +ederal .]$!]B$ni0*] C$on2eren0e Na8i GermanyAs +ield .r0*ives) *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop.inister Neville $*amberlain in . 19!: as leaders 2rom 'taly.inister Neville $*amberlain.uni0* .+rom le2t to rig*t5 Na8i GermanyAs +oreign . Britis* Prime .ars*al ?ermann Goering "le2t) smiles as 'talyAs 2as0ist di0tator Benito . -ngland.uni0* .uni0*.greement in .dol2 ?itler 0onverse at t*e .

B>echoslo%a7ia.ussolini. "P*oto5 German +ederal . and Britis* Prime . GermanyAs $*an0ellor . 3*e man between ?itler and $*amberlain was ?itlerGs interpreter Paul %tto Gustav (0*midt.dol2 ?itler. a bor"er town near Germany in 'e&tember6Jctober 1 C5$ .uni0* $on2eren0e in .inister Benito .uni0*.'talyAs Prime . 19!:.inister $*amberlain appear at t*e .r0*ive) B>echoslo%a7 sol"iers a&&ear in /r`sn` 2h&a. Germany on (eptember 9.

irport near London on (eptember !C. +ren0* Prime . 19!:.inister -douard Daladier.ussolini and t*e +oreign .greement t*e previous day. Daladier.uni0* $on2eren0e in . and .ussolini.inister Neville $*amberlain talks to 'talyAs 2as0ist di0tator Benito .dol2 ?itler 0on0luded agreements aut*ori8ing t*e Na8i German anne6ation o2 t*e (udeten area o2 $8e0*oslovakian territory. ?itler.inister o2 'taly $ount Galea88o $iano. a2ter returning 2rom signing t*e . 19!: and announ0es. von &ibbentrop and von Wei8sY0ker.0om#sear0*#label#.ussolini w*ile . .Parti0ipants stand toget*er at t*e .]$!]B$ni0*] C$on2eren0e) Le2t5 Britis* Prime . SPea0e in our 3imeT.inister Neville $*amberlain.uni0*. Germany on (eptember 9. 'n t*e ba0kground. 'talyAs di0tator Benito .dol2 ?itler signs a treaty. &ig*t5 Britis* Prime .uni0* . +rom le2t to rig*t5 $*amberlain.inister Neville $*amberlain waves to t*e 0rowd at ?eston . . "P*oto5 *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot. Britis* Prime .

r0*ives) .inister o2 'taly $ount Galea88o $iano is at 0enter. 19!:.. %n t*e 2ar le2t are ?einri0* ?immler and ?ermann Goering.uni0*.dol2 ?itler " nd rig*t) and Benito . Germany on (eptember 9. between Goering and ?itler. +oreign . "P*oto5 German +ederal .ussolini "rig*t) walk toget*er in .

inister Neville $*amberlain.ns0*luss o2 t*e (udetenlandT in %0tober 19!:.r0*ives) . "'mage5 M $%&B'() . 19!: a2ter t*e (udetenland was 0eded to t*e Na8is by Britis* Prime . $8e0*oslovakia salute t*e Na8i German troops entering t*e town during t*e S. "P*oto5 German +ederal .People o2 $*eb.dol2 ?itler and ?ermann Goering lead a vi0tory pro0ession t*roug* a $8e0*oslovakian 0ity in t*e (udetenland on %0tober 1C.

ar0* 19!9. "P*oto5 M $%&B'() .dol2 ?itler and ?ermann Goering meets wit* $8e0*oslovakiaAs President -mil ?a0*a "se0ond 2rom le2t) in Berlin. several mont*s prior to t*e 0ommen0ement o2 t*e -uropean War Elater World War ''F. 19D4. "P*oto5 German +ederal . 19!9 to .rmy enters Prague.ay 9..ar0* 14. w*en *e was arrested by t*e (oviet &ed .oravia 2rom . Germany in . $8e0*oslovakia wit* a pro0ession o2 motor0y0les in . -mil ?a0*a was reported to *ave su22ered a *eart atta0k during *is meeting wit* ?itler.r0*ives) 3*e Na8i German .ar0* 19!9. -mil ?a0*a be0ame t*e SPresidentT o2 t*e German Prote0torate o2 Bo*emia and .rmy during its liberation o2 Prague.

'hoc7e" an" angry B>echs react to the @a>i German ta7eo%er of B>echoslo%a7ia an" its ca&ital city 4rague on March 1D. 1 C $ .

t*e *ead o2 t*e (( Guards and t*e Gestapo. residen0e o2 t*e old Bo*emian kings and o2 t*e $8e0*oslovak presidents. ?itler "0enter. "P*oto5 M Bettmann#$%&B'() . 19!9 a2ter t*e establis*ment o2 German Prote0torate o2 Bo*emia and . inspe0ts *is soldiers during *is visit to Prague $astle in Prague.r0*ives) . $8e0*oslovakia on . 19!9.dol2 ?itler was greeted by leaders o2 t*e German 0olony in Prague. $*an0ellor .t 2ar le2t is (enior Group Leader &ein*ard ?eydri0*. $8e0*oslovakia on .. "P*oto5 German +ederal . and beside *im "wearing spe0ta0les) is ?einri0* ?immler.ar0* 14. t*e Na8i German se0ret poli0e.ar0* !.dol2 ?itler "0enter). 2a0ing 0amera) is s*own being wel0omed by *is 2ollowers.2ter installing *imsel2 in ?rad0any $astle. di0tator o2 Na8i Germany. .oravia.

t least 91 /ews were killed and many stores and synagogues were vandali8ed. 1 C5# F -eer 0all -ombing !@o%ember 5. 3*e . "P*oto5 German +ederal . Germany.ats J -rnst vom &at* "le2t). -rnst vom &at* allegedly *ad a *omose6ual relations*ip wit* ?ers0*el Gryns8pan. .ristallna0*t). a Na8i German diplomat w*o worked at t*e Na8i German -mbassy in Paris. . 19!: by a lone gunman R a 11@year@old /ewis* SpatsyT named ?ers0*el Gryns8pan "rig*t).ristallna0*t was t*e Na8i German governmentAs response to t*e assassination. ?ers0*el Gryns8pan entered +ran0e illegally 2rom Belgium in (eptember 19!L w*ile possessing a Polis* passport. +ran0e in November 19!:. 19!: during t*e S&ei0*skristallna0*tT ". 1 C # /ewis*@owned s*ops were vandali8ed in .agdeburg. was assassinated in Paris on November :. also known as SNig*t o2 t*e Broken GlassT. Germany on t*e nig*t o2 November 9. a /ewis* ZmigrZ and illegal alien w*o was born in ?anover.r0*ives) Lone $unman or .4olitical AssassinationsE /ristallnacht !@o%ember .

19!:.ristallna0*t. 1 C5$ !@ational Archi%es# . w*i0* took pla0e on November 9@1C.Na8i German military o22i0ers and (( o22i0ers es0ort /ewis* men during t*e . Germany on +ecember 1 . 4risoners stan" in line insi"e a concentration cam& at 'achsenhausen.

uni0*. Germany on /une :. "P*oto5 German +ederal .Na8i German guards keep a 0lose eye on prisoners at Da0*au $on0entration $amp near .r0*ives) Jewish &ersecution begins in Austria as Jews are ma"e to scrub &ro6Austrian slogans from streets in March 1 C5$ !+ocumentation Benter of Austrian Resistance# . 19!:.

The @ew Aor7 Times article on the /ristallnacht .

e9ui&&e" the bomb with a timer an" &lace" it behin" the s&ea7er.lsner was arreste" that %ery same e%ening an" &ut into O&rotecti%e custo"y$O 0e was shot to "eath in +achau on A&ril . a bomb e6ploded in .02mQimage^id\19!C) . but was acting alone in this instance$ -y assassinating 0itler.g*i@d0. mainly by lone in"i%i"uals$ @a>i &ro&agan"a e?&loite" these attem&ts by &resenting them as e%i"ence of 0itlerNs enLoyment of "i%ine &rotection$ "(our0e5 *ttp5##german*istorydo0s. 19!9.lsner ha" been lin7e" to a few Bommunist organi>ations in the 1 2Hs.German workers e6amine t*e destroyed Beer ?all in . 1 4D$ -y^image. the &er&etrator of the attac7.lsner. 0itler ha" sur%i%e" a series of assassination attem&ts. "P*oto5 German +ederal . 19!9 a2ter t*e assassination attempt on ?itler. -eer 0all= "uring a celebration mar7ing the 1*th anni%ersary of 0itlerNs -eer 0all 4utsch$ 'e%eral &eo&le were 7ille" or inLure"$ 0itler himself was not hurt$ 0e ha" left the e%ent a few minutes earlier than &lanne"$ Georg .uni0* on November 9.s lectern in a &illar that he s&ent wee7s hollowing out$ . a "ictatorshi& he ha" strongly o&&ose" for years on &olitical an" moral groun"s$ . he ho&e" not only to 7ill one man but to "estroy the entire @a>i regime.uni0*As Bürgerbr9ukeller <Biti>ens.r0*ives) %n t*e evening o2 November :.

ReichsfUhrer6'' 0einrich 0immler. an" then four of the &eo&le most res&onsible for the 0olocaustE Arthur @ebe. "uring the 1*th anni%ersary of the -eer 0all 4utsch$ . ''6Gru&&enfUhrer Reinhar" 0ey"rich un" ''6JberfUhrer <0einrich= MUller 2:$11$1 C <0erausgabe"atum= !'ourceE Wi7i&e"iaGGerman Fe"eral Archi%es# .%ohann Georg lser -%anuary G6 475>D. Reinhar"t 0ey"rich an" MUller himself$ Accor"ing to the a&&arently 1 C archi%al ca&tion. 1 C . 1 C $ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# A+@6T-6Archi% +er ReichsfUhrer '' 0einrich 0immler bes&richt <in MUnchen= mit "em Bhef "er 'icherheits&oli>ei Reinhar" 0ey"rich un" "essen Mitarbeitern "as bisherige . ''6JberfUhrer <Arthur= @ebe. 1 C &hotogra&h. 0einrich 0immler.lser was shot "ea" in the +achau Boncentration Bam& near Munich on A&ril . these men are &lanning the in%estigation of the bomb assassination attem&t on A"olf 0itler that occurre" in Munich on @o%ember 5. a&&arently ta7en for &ro&agan"a &ur&oses$ 'hown from left to right are a minor '' functionary !0uber#.#ril 76 47GN0 was a German o&&onent of @a>ism who attem&te" to assassinate A"olf 0itler an" his entourage with a homema"e bomb &lante" insi"e the -UrgerbrQu7eller in Munich on the night of @o%ember 5. 1 4D$ 0einrich MUller is at the e?treme right in this @o%ember 2:.rmittlungsergebnis Uber "en -ombenanschlag im -UrgerbrQu7eller in MUnchen am 5$11$1 C un" legt "ie Grun"linien fUr "ie weitere -earbeitung fest$ (->E %$l$n$r$E ''6JbersturmbannfUhrer 0uber.

"19 9@19DC) Partner o2 /. "19 @19DC.3<3F "19 1@19D1) President o2 Baltimore < %*io &ailroad $o. "19 9@19DC) $o@+ounder o2 . E.rtemus L. . .)oun#il on .otors -6port $o. 19DL@19D1. ?arrison . "19 1@19LD) President o2 Bet*le*em (teel $orp. Ba0*e < $o. Page Daniel Willard /uan 3erry 3rippe -ugene G. 19D9@194C. "19!1@194L) 7i0e $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General .. Guggen*eim .19 L@19DC 19!C@19D1 19 4@19DC 19 9@19DC 19 !@19:L 19!!@19L9 19 1@19!1.ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 9@194 ) President o2 'nternational Business .ar0* D. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!!@194C) Partner o2 . 'n0. Donaldson Brown B. "19 9@19D1) Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. 3*omas (.a0y < $o. . "19!1@191:) Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19 @19!9. Lovett /o*n L. "19 4@1941) ?ead o2 /. 19DC and wit* Goering on .u*n.meri0an 3elep*one and 3elegrap* $o. "19!4@19D1) Partner o2 . E. ?oug*ton George %.bbot Good*ue .rt*ur W.ar0* 1.a0yAs department storeF "19!!@19D1) .ember "=ear) 19 9@194! 19!4@1944 19 1@19D1 19 1@1949 19 1@19!9 19 :@19DC 19!1@19LL 19 :@19:1 19 4@1949 19 1@194C 19!!@191C 19!:@19:L 19 1@191! 19 1@191! 19!L@19L: 19! @19L! 19 1. ?enry (0*roeder Banking $orp.ooney (olomon &.organ.organ < $o.ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 4@194L) . 19D @19DD) $lass $ Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 L@19DC) $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!:@19DC) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19 :@19!9) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DC) President o2 General -le0tri0 $o. 1935+ Name Ban(ersB George L.meri0an 3elep*one and 3elegrap* $o. Lamont &ussell $. Lamont ?enry (.u*n. . "19 !@0. Loeb < $o. Gra0e . Wardwell. E. (traus (ost*enes Be*n $leveland -. "191D@19D9) $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!!@19DC) President o2 . (loan /r. "19! @19!:) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $orning Glass Works "191:@19D1) (enior Partner o2 Pri0e.19DC) 7i0e President in 0*arge o2 overseas operations.P. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:9 @19DD) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) $*airman o2 t*e board. "19!1@19DL) Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. Water*ouse < $o.P. 1935+ and Kristallna#ht *Novem2er 9. 194!@19:L) -6e0utive 7i0e President o2 /. Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19 1@1944) Gerard (wope 3*omas /. 19D @19D4) . Loeb < $o. "19!1@19DC. Watson Walter (.?.(.ember o2 Davis. Loeb < $o.organ < $o. . Gi22ord .llan .ooney met wit* ?itler on .otors $orp.19DC) Note5 . &ents0*ler +.otors $orp. Ba0*e Pierre /ay $*arles Gates Dawes .organ < $o.irways.organ ?arold (tanley -lis*a Walker +rederi0k .3<3F "19 4@19D:) 7i0e President o2 . 19DC . -dwin ?ut0*inson Beardsley &uml &alp* '.organ < $o.oreign Relations %em2ers and Aheir 4##u'ation during Ans#hluss *%ar#h 1!. 19DL@194L 19 :@19D9 19!!@19L4 19!!@19DL 19 1@19LC 19 1@1949 19!D@199 19!C@194! 19!1@19: 19 1@1944 .otors $orp. Warburg /o*n .. "19 !@0. General . (impson /ules (.meri0an World . . . "191L@19D4) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 9nited (tates (teel $orp.ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 L@19LC) . (tanley < $o. . Perkins Gordon (. 19!:@19DC 19 1@191 19 1@19! . Gates W. (0*i22 +rank . E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@1911) Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o.?. "19!1@19DL) 7i0e President o2 $*rysler $orp.a0*ines $orp. "1911@19D:) Partner o2 /.a0y < $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@191!) Partner o2 .l2red P. Pope BusinessmenB %wen D. "19 C@1944) Partner o2 /.an*attan "19!1@19D:) President o2 New =ork 3rust $o. "19!4@Q)> Dire0tor. General -le0tri0 $o. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19D4) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $*ase National Bank "19!D@194!) President o2 $*ase National Bank "19!D@19DL) 7i0e President o2 $*ase National Bank "19!C@19D9) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19!!@19DC) President o2 National $ity Bank o2 New =ork "19 9@19DC) President o2 Bank o2 .ldri0* ?.. 3aylor . Davis 19 D@194C 19 D@1944 19 :@19L4 19! @1949 19!C@19DC 19!!@191L 19 4@194: 19 4@194: 19!C@19DC 19 D@19LC 19!1@19DC.lts0*ul Wint*rop W. .lanson B. .verell ?arriman -. 19D4@19D1 19 :@194C 19!!@19D1 19 1@19DC Primary %00upation President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) +irst 7i0e President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!L@19DC) Partner o2 /. "19 4@194!) 3reasurer o2 &.organ < $o.ember o2 Guggen*eim Brot*ers Emining 0ompanyF> Dire0tor o2 9ta* $opper $ompany> Dire0tor o2 =ukon Gold $ompany $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General .organ /ames ?.u*n.P. 19!D@19DD 19!1@19DC.. Davison /r. "19!D@19: ) $o@+ounder and President o2 . E$*i0agoF "19! @1941) President o2 3*e +irst o2 Boston $orporation EbankF "19!D@19D1) $*airman o2 t*e board o2 General -le0tri0 $o.P. Donald $ampbell (*epard . . publi0 a00ountants "1911@19L1) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@194!) President o2 General . =oung . Dodge Attorne sB /o*n W. "19 !@194C) Partner o2 /. Polk. . Le22ingwell George W*itney ?enry P.organ.P. &oland ?arriman &obert .yron $.ay /ames D. . "191C@19D1) President o2 Pan .a0yAs department storeF "19!D@19D4) Deputy $*airman o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!:@19DC) (e0retary o2 &.llan (proul 3*omas W. $ity National Bank < 3rust $o. E. (tanley < $o.

$ravat* Walter ?.sso0iate -ditor "19 1@19!1) and -ditor@in@$*ie2 "19!1@19!:) o2 t*e New Yor Times . Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irmF "1:99@19D4) .ental ?ygiene 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "191!@1911. Blakeslee +rederi0k P. Lu0e Geo22rey Parsons George B. 19!D@194C 19 1@19DC 19!4@1919 19 1@19DC 19 1@19D: 19!4@194C 19 :@19D1 19 D@19L! 19! @194: 19 4@1941 19!D@19L 19 D@19L4 19!L@19:9 19!C@194: 19 1@19L: 19 1@19DC 19 1@19L! 19!D@19LL 19 4@194! 19 9@19DC 19!1@191C 19 !@19:4 19 1@191 19!D@19LD 19 19 19 19 19 19 1@1911 1@19DD D@194! L@19D 1@194D 1@19DC . . Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "191D@19D!) . 194!@19L1) . $arter /ames Brown (0ott (tep*en P. Day ?arry Woodburn $*ase &ay Lyman Wilbur (tanley . Wardwell.ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "1911@19D9) .meri0an (o0iety o2 'nternational Law "19 9@19!9) Dire0tor o2 'nstitute o2 'nternational -du0ation "1919@19DL)> 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19 C@19D1)> Dire0tor o2 t*e National $ommittee 2or . Davis George ?.ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "19 !@191L) .ary "19!D@19D ) President o2 /o*ns ?opkins 9niversity "19!4@19D:) President o2 $ornell 9niversity "19!1@19D9) President o2 New =ork 9niversity "19!!@1941) President o2 (tan2ord 9niversity "191L@19D!) President o2 . Polk.ember o2 $urtis.eyer . +inley /ames G. Duggan /erome D. 19!!@ 19DC. . "19!1@1941) President o2 $olumbia Broad0asting (ystem E$B(F "19 :@19DL) Publis*er o2 The Washington Post "19!!@19DL) Publis*er o2 The New Yor Times "19!4@19L1) . D.ember o2 Lord.allet@Prevost < $olt Elaw 2irmF "1:91@19D:) Partner o2 (impson.rmstrong -dward &. Gar2ield Bru0e $. $arson /o*n +oster Dulles -usta0e (eligman .allet@Prevost 3*omas D. 19D4@19L!) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!D@19L!) 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 $*rysler $orp. (timson. Greene /o*n D. Burling < &ublee Elaw 2irm in Was*ington..rt*ur ?ays (ul8berger /o*n ?.$. 19D4@194C)> 9.urrow 4rgani. Day < Lord Elaw 2irmF "19CC@19D1) . Dulles -li W*itney Debevoise +ran0is 3.lots ?enry L.llen Wardwell &alp* . 19DD@194C.elley )or'orate %ediaB William (..rofessorsB $*arles (eymour /ames B.. +inletter ?enry Waters 3a2t (evero .ember o2 $arter.+rank L.. Wriston -rnest . Polk ..ember o2 Wint*rop. 19!!@19D!) . D. (timson +rederi0 &. &o0ke2eller ''' W*itney ?.eppel -dward $.P. 19L4@19:!) .ember o2 Davis. 3*a0*er < Bartlett Elaw 2irmF "191D@19 4. Polk.0Donald ?enry &.F "19!!@19D:) President o2 ?arper < Brot*ers Elater ?arper < &owF "19!1@19D4) -ditor o2 #oreign $ffairs maga8ine "19 :@191 ) $B( Journalist "19!4@19L1) President o2 3*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19!L@19D:) President o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19!L@19DD) President o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!C@19DL) President o2 $arnegie $orporation o2 New =ork "19 !@19D1) (e0retary General o2 t*e 'nstitute o2 Pa0i2i0 &elations "19!!@19DL) (e0retary o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "191C@19DC) President o2 3*e .llen 3. Wardwell. Paley -ugene . . 19 :@19!9)> 3rustee o2 t*e General -du0ation Board "191 @19!9)> 3rustee o2 t*e Brookings 'nstitution "19 :@19D4) 3rustee o2 t*e &o0ke2eller +oundation "19! @1911)> 3rustee o2 Prin0eton 9niv. . Plimpton Bronson Wint*rop George &oberts . Debevoise George &ublee ?arvey Bundy Ni0*olas .ember o2 Davis.$. (timson.(.ing 19 1@19D! 19 1@194! 19!:@19L9 19 1@1949 19 L@191L 19 1@19L9 19!4@19:9 19!!@19:! 19! @19DD 19! @19L1 19!D@19LD 19 D@19 9. $onant ?arold W. (timson.allory . Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irmF "Q@19DD) Partner o2 Wint*rop. . (timson.ember o2 t*e editorial sta22 o2 t*e New Yor Times "19!L@19!:) -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD) $*ie2 -ditorial Writer 2or New =ork ?erald@3ribune "19 D@194 ) -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 (0ripps@?oward Newspapers ENew =ork $ityF "19 1@19D9) President and -ditor o2 9nited (tates News Enewspaper in Was*ington. Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19!4@1911) . +osdi0k Norman ?.ilburn Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 4@1944) Wall (treet lawyer> dire0tor o2 $*ase National Bank .ember o2 Davis. Polk. . Gardiner < &eed Elaw 2irmF "19C9@194!) . $oudert 3*omas .ember o2 $*oate.ember o2 $ovington. Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irmF "191D@19L:) .. Lawren0e Lowell ?arry . (e0retary o2 (tate "19 9@19!!) . Ledyard < .ember o2 (ullivan < $romwell Elaw 2irmF "19 L@1941) Partner o2 Debevoise < Plimpton Elaw 2irmF "19!1@199C) Partner o2 Debevoise < Plimpton Elaw 2irmF "19!!@19L1.ember o2 $adwalader.ember o2 $oudert Brot*ers Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:94@1944) Partner o2 $oudert Brot*ers Elaw 2irmF "19 L@19D1.ationsB &aymond B. Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irmF "1:91@19CL. Parker David Lawren0e $ass $an2ield ?amilton +is* . ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19!!@19D1. 3*a0*er ?enry de +orest Baldwin &oland L.. ?opkins /o*n (tewart Bryan 'saia* Bowman -dmund -.F "19 1@0.ember o2 Wint*rop. Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irmF "19 1@19L4) $ounsel o2 Wint*rop. Dodds ?enry .19DL) . 191!@19 1.llen W. "19!1@19L1) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19LL) Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19DC) -6e0utive Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@1949) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "191C@19D ) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!C@19D ) 3rustee o2 World Pea0e +oundation "19!1@19L9) President o2 =ale 9niversity "19!1@194C) President o2 ?arvard 9niversity "19!!@194!) President o2 Prin0eton 9niversity "19!!@1941) President o2 Brown 9niversity "19!1@1944) President o2 Dartmout* $ollege "191L@19D4) President o2 $ollege o2 William and . ?opper )ollege . (*epardson Paul D. &edmond 3*omas .m*erst $ollege "19! @19DL) 19 1@194C 19 1@194C 19!1@191: 19 1@19LL 19 1@19DC 19 :@1919 19 4@19D 19 1@19D 19!C@191 19 1@19L1 19!D@191L 19!D@19L: 19 L@191: 19!C@194! 19!!@19DC 19 1@194C 19! @19DD 19!:@194C 19 9@19D: 19!D@194C . Wardwell.

William ?.(.inister to =ugoslavia "19!1@19D1) 9. .rgentina "(eptember 1:.rmour . Grew William P*illips /o*n 7an . 19D ) President o2 t*e 9nited (tates "19 9@19!!) 9. $ameron +orbes .(.le6ander W.(.(. .meri0an ?istory and -0onomi0s at ?arvard 9niversity "19 !@194!) Byrne Pro2essor o2 . 19!:) 9.rt*ur /.rt*ur Bliss Lane /o*n $uda*y . Leo Wolman ?uger W. (o0ial (e0urity Board "19!L@19D:) Governor o2 New =ork "/anuary 1.dministration at New =ork 9niversity "1919@19DD) Dean o2 +let0*er (0*ool o2 Law and Diploma0y at 3u2ts 9niversity "19!!@19DD) Pro2essor o2 (o0ial Legislation at $olumbia 9niversity "19C1@19!9) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at $olumbia 9niversity "191D@1919. 19!!) 9. 19D!) 9nder (e0retary o2 (tate "19!1@19D!) .ar0* D..(. -lkus W. 19!C@ .ydelotte William .(. (tandley 19!:@1911 19!:@194! 19!:@194D 19 1@19DL 19!L@194! 19!!@194D 19!D@191 19 1@19DL 19!:@19LL 19 1@19!9 19 D@19D: 19 4@1941 19 L@1941 19 1@191C 19 :@19D9 19 :@19:1 19!D@194: 19!:@19D: 19 1@194L 19 1@1911 19 :@194L 19!1@194D 19! @19LD 19 L@194C 19 1@19D4 19 L@194D 19 1@194! 19 9@19D 19!1@19DC 19 1@19! .mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "191!@191L) 9. ?arper /esse (.orgent*au (r.(.orris $overnment 4ffi#ialsB $*arles -vans ?ug*es Learned ?and William $lark (umner Welles George (.mbassador to Na8i Germany "19!!@19!1) 9.mbassador to . $ook Pro2essor o2 .dm. /uly :.(.. Ba6ter ''' .mbassador to 'mperial /apan "19! @19D1) 9.(. . 19 @19DD) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at $olumbia 9niversity "1919@194C) ?amilton +is* Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law and Diploma0y.(. $laren0e ?. 19!:@19D4 19!C@19DL 19 4@19DD 19 L@19DC 19!D@1949 19!:@1949 19!:@19L4 19!1@19D: 19!C@1911 19! @19LL 19 :@1949 19!1@19L1 19!1@1949 19!4@194C 19!4@1911 19!L@194D 19 1@194D 19!:@19DC 19!L@1944 19!L@19!9 19!4@19DD 19!:@1911 19!D@1941 19!:@194: 19!D@19DC 19! @19DC 19 1@19L! 19!:@19L 19!D@19DC 19!L@19!9 19 1@19DC 19 1@19D1 19!C@1949 19!:@19D1 President o2 Williams $ollege "19!1@19L1) President o2 Bowdoin $ollege "191:@194 ) President o2 (wart*more $ollege "19 1@19DC)> 3rustee.(. . . 19!!@De0ember !.(.mbassador to $*ile ".(.it0*ell $arlton /. ?ayes $*arles $*eney ?yde Lindsay &ogers &obert L. .ssistant (e0retary o2 (tate "19!1@19DC) $*ie2 o2 t*e Division o2 +oreign (ervi0e Personnel E(tate DepartmentF "19!1@19D1) (tate Department $*ie2 o2 Division o2 t*e . /essup (r.(. .(.ppeals 2or t*e (e0ond $ir0uit ENew =ork $ityF "19 D@1941) /udge o2 t*e 9.W.dministration at ?arvard 9niversity "19!1@19D1) 7i0e President o2 +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19!L@19D1) Dean o2 Graduate (0*ool o2 Business . Bor0*ard -dwin W.inister to 'reland "19!1@19DC) 9. Dodd ?enry . ?aring +eli6 +rank2urter -dwin .ar0* . . Langer Oe0*aria* $*a2ee /r.mbassador to Belgium ". Distri0t $ourt 2or New /ersey "De0ember 11.0$une Lindsay Wesley $. . 19!:) /udge o2 t*e 9.mbassador to t*e %ttoman -mpire "191L@1911) 9..22airs "19!1@19D!) (tate Department . 19 1@/une 11.. .ppeals 2or t*e 3*ird $ir0uit "/une 4.ines "19!D@19DC) &egional dire0tor. .assa0*usetts 'nstitute o2 3e0*nology "19!C@19D:) Dean o2 ?arvard Business (0*ool "1919@19D ) Dean o2 Graduate (0*ool o2 Publi0 .pril 1. Neilson .. . .(. . Le*man Elder "tatesmenB ?erbert ?oover +rederi0 . . &eeves &oland (.ay 9. ?arper ?erbert ?.emmerer Walter W.dviser on 'nternational -0onomi0 .meri0an &epubli0s "19!4@19DD) (tate Department .mbassador to 'mperial /apan "(eptember 14. 19!9) $ommander@in@$*ie2 o2 t*e 9nited (tates +leet "19!L@19!:)> $ommandant o2 1 t* Naval Distri0t E(an +ran0is0oF "19!:@19D1) $ommandant o2 Brooklyn Navy =ard "19!1@19D1) $*ie2 o2 -0onomi0s Bureau.inister to Gree0e "19!!@19D1. 19!C@.dviser on Politi0al &elations "19!1@19D!) 9.mbassador to +as0ist 'taly "19!L@19D1) 9. Williams .arl 3.. $lark Woodward /. Weddell Norman .(..?. $ourt o2 . ?epburn &@.bram '. 19! ) $*ie2 o2 Naval %perations "19!!@19!1) . . Wilson +urness ?eber &. /ervey .ar0* D.mbassador to 3urkey "19!L@19D1) 9.(.anley %. 19 C@19!9) Pro2essor o2 Law at =ale Law (0*ool "1911@1941) Walker Pro2essor o2 'nternational +inan0e at Prin0eton 9niversity "19 :@19D!) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at Williams $ollege "191D@19D4) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at t*e 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19 4@19DL) Pro2essor o2 &ussian Language and 'nstitutions at 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19CL@19D!) W. (upreme $ourt "19!C@19D1) /udge o2 t*e 9. 19!:) 9.0Laren Bernadotte -. . .a07eag* William $. $olumbia 9niv. 19!:@/une 1C. .essersmit* G. Bureau o2 .(. World Pea0e +oundation "19 1@4L) President o2 (mit* $ollege "1911@19!9) President o2 . 19!1@/une 14. 19!!@%0tober 9.meri0an 'nstitutions at 9niversity o2 . $ourt o2 .inister to $8e0*oslovakia "19!1@19!9) 9. Wellington 3aylor ?al2ord L. 9. . $arr . 19D!@19D1) 9./ames (0*mitt (amuel N. ?ornbe0k /osep* $..(. . 19!!.ember o2 Duane.ennet* $. .(. ?udson William L. "19 4@19D4) Burgess Pro2essor o2 Publi0 Law at $olumbia 9niversity "19 9@1949) Pro2essor o2 ?istory at $olumbia 9niversity "19 D@1941) Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at $olumbia 9niversity "19!D@19DL) Pro2essor o2 -0onomi0s at $olumbia 9niversity "19!1@194:) Pro2essor o2 Law at $olumbia 9niversity Law (0*ool "19 D@19D9) Bemis Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at ?arvard Law (0*ool "19 !@19LC) $oolidge Pro2essor o2 ?istory at ?arvard 9niversity "19!L@19LD) Pro2essor o2 Law at ?arvard 9niversity "1919@194L) Pro2essor o2 Latin . . . .inister to (wit8erland "19!1@19D1) 9. ?oskins (amuel . $ompton Walla0e Brett Don*am /o*n ?. 19!:@. ?owland (*aw Lauren0e Duggan ?erbert +eis (tanley .dm. (0*uyler P*ilip $. (ills +rank .dministrative Law at ?arvard 9niversity "191D@1911.a0.i0*igan "19!1@19D ) . (a0kett William -. 19 4@/une 4. Bullitt ?ug* Gibson Wilbur /.mbassador to +ran0e "19!L@19DC) 9. .mbassador to Germany "+ebruary 1 .urray Leland ?arrison Lin0oln .orris < ?e0ks0*er Elaw 2irm in P*iladelp*iaF "19CD@19D4) Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "19 D@19D4) $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e 9.

inneapolis "19!L@194 ) (tan2ord 3appan $rapo "B.. 19 4.(. LL. 19 C.. "B. 19DL@19D1. 1:9D) R /udge o2 t*e 9... 191L..os0ow.lts0*ul "B. 1914) R General 3reasurer o2 t*e (tate o2 &*ode 'sland "19!:@19DC) $*arles P. 1944@1911) Bankers5 . $onsul in ?ong ...unro Woolsey "B..(. 191 ) R 7i0e President and Partner o2 .. 1:9:. . 1:9L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $leveland "1911@19D9) Willard Deere ?os2ord "B.... 1:91.ember o2 t*e $in0innati $ity $oun0il "19!:@19D . Wilson "B. "19!1@19DL)> $*airman o2 t*e Board o2 9nion Pa0i2i0 &ailroad $o. LL. 19!:) Government %22i0ials5 [?ug* &. .(. 1911) R /udge o2 t*e 9.. (<B 191!) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. P*..sst. 19C:) R President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 . $onsul General in ..(. 19CC) R /udge o2 t*e 9.. 1:1:.. 19CL. 191:> LL. "19!1@191 ) [-... 19 :. $ourt o2 ..ndrew (*anley "B. "19 9@19DC) [?arold (tanley "B.. $ongressman "Demo0rat@$onne0ti0ut.(. 1:94. Germany "19 1@19!:) .nig*t Woolley "B. Lovett "B. 1:9!) R 9.D. (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. 19!:@+ebruary 4.. (<. 1911. 194!@19:L) [George L..(.B. 19!1@19!9) ?ora0e /eremia* "/erry) 7oor*is "B.er0*ants National Bank o2 Boston "19 9@19D!) [Pierre /ay "B. 19C1. 19C4) R $*airman o2 $ivil .. (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19!:) [Wayne $*at2ield@3aylor "B.. . $ustoms $ourt "19 :@19D9) Wilbur L. 1:99.l2red Lawren0e &ipley "B. ?anes "B. (tanley < $o. 19 !) R 9.B.ttorney General "19!!@19!9) /o*n W..D. "19!1@194D) [&ay . 19C1. 3ig*e "B... 19C1. $onsul General in (out*ampton. 191!. 3a2t '' "B.. 1911.. 1:9 . 1:9L) R 9... 1:91) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. -ngland "19!1@19D1) ?oward Donovan "P*.. 191C. . E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19! @19D:) [+rank ... $ross "B. 19C ) R 9.. $ongressman "Demo0rat@$ali2ornia. ?arrison "B. Le22ingwell "B. (<B 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "19 @19!:) &oss P. . (0*i22 " "19!L@19!9) ?omer (.ppeals 2or t*e (e0ond $ir0uit ENew =ork $ityF "19 L@194!) /o*n . "19! @19DL) Pres0ott (... (<B 1911) R Partner o2 /<W (eligman < $o.. (tanley < $o.. 19 1> (<B 191:) R ..ontgomery ?at*away /r. $ongressman "&epubli0an@New =ork..(.le6ander $.lva B. "19!4@19D!) 3*a0*er .dams "B.. (<.(.(.ut*ority "19!:@19!9) /ames Lawren0e ?oug*teling "B.B.irk "B. Peyton "P*. 191 . (a0*s < $o. (<B 19C1) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. "19!1@191:) [.(. 19C1) R /udge o2 t*e 9.organ < $o.(.. 19C ) R 9. 19D1) /ames .. 19! @19D1) /o*n 3aber "B. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e (out*ern Distri0t o2 New =ork "19 9@19D!) . (e0urities and -60*ange $ommission "19!:)> .verell ?arriman "B. "B. . "19 1@19D ) ..ennet* %ABrien "B.. 1:9 ) R Presiding /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New =ork "19 9@19DC) .. (<B 191C) R President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) Walter (et* Logan "B.=ale 9niversity Graduates and 3*eir %00upation during . Loeb < $o.. Brown "B. 19!4@November D.(. 19C4) R Partner o2 Goldman. (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o...l2red -rnest ?amill "B.(... E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 !@19DC) [&ussell $. 19!:) and . "19!1@19: ) Lauren0e G.. (<B 191C) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@194!) /o*n N... "19!1@19!D) [&obert . 1:1:) R $lass .. (<.(. (oviet 9nion "19!:@19!9) George .ns0*luss ". P*illips "B.. (upreme $ourt "/anuary 1..orris "B.. "19!1@19DC.. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 $olorado "19 @194C) William /osia* 3ilson "B. .P. 19D:@1941..(.(. (<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) .ansas $ity "19!C@1941) . (<. (<. 19C:) R Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. Davison /r.. 191 ) R 9. 1:9:. (<B 19C:) R President o2 . 191:.ortimer Norton Bu0kner "B. "B.(. (<B 19 C) R Partner o2 /. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19D4) [&obert Le*man "B.. 191!) R Partner o2 Le*man Brot*ers E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 4@19L9) /osep* .. . LL. 19!4@19D!) ... "19 !@194C)> Dire0tor o2 $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19LC) [?enry P... (<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $o. 19C4) R 9. 1::L... 191L) R 9. $ongressman "Demo0rat@$onne0ti0ut.....(.(.... 1911) R /usti0e o2 t*e (upreme $ourt o2 New =ork "19!D@194D) William . "19!4@19D1) -dward ?oward =ork /r. 1911. .u*n. (<B 191L) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. Loeb < $o..inister to =ugoslavia "19!1@19D1) $*arles . Donald "B. $ommissioner o2 'mmigration and Naturali8ation "19!1@19DC) . 19C:. 19D9@194C.altbie "B. Bus* "B..... 19 !@19 D.mbassador to Na8i Germany "..organ. 19!:) William $*ristian Bullitt "B. 191 ) R 9....B.organ < $o.B. 191L) R .rt*ur Bliss Lane "B. "19!1@194L) [W. (<. 19!1@19D1) (tanley +.ar0* 1 .organ.... 19CL) R /usti0e o2 t*e 9. 1:9:) R /udge o2 9. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e Distri0t o2 $onne0ti0ut "19!1@194!) /o*n +oster (ymes "P*. (<B 191:) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o..uni0*. (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o.. 19!!@1941) /o*n /osep* (mit* "B. (<B 19CL) R 9.B.ristallna0*t "November 9. $onsul General in . .B.(.. 1::9) R Governor o2 $onne0ti0ut "19!1@19!9) $*arles Brown (ears "B.ssistant (e0retary o2 t*e 3reasury "19!L@19!9) -dward /o*n Noble "B... 1914... "B.lbert 3*omas "B. 1941) 3*omas Walter (wan "B.. (<B 1:9:) R 9. . 19CC) R Partner o2 .. &eed "B. &oland ?arriman "B.. 19 4) R Partner o2 .P. 1:99) R Partner o2 /. Wrig*t "P*. $ummings "P*.. 191C.. $ongressman "Demo0rat@$onne0ti0ut.(.eronauti0s .(. "B..B. 19CC) R /udge o2 9. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@1911) +ran0is +it8 &andolp* "B. 19!:@November 1L.... /anuary !.l2red $onkling $o6e /r. 19 :) R Partner o2 Le*man Brot*ers E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@1911) [-lis*a Walker "B... 1914) R $ommissioner. 19 C) R 9. (enator "Demo0rat@$olorado.. 19 C) R 9. E/ewis* banking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!!@194C) [/o*n .. P*.u*n. 1911.B. $ongressman "&epubli0an@New =ork. 19C4) R $*ie2 /usti0e o2 t*e $onne0ti0ut (upreme $ourt o2 -rrors "19!C@194C) 3*omas Pierrepont ?a8ard "B. 1:9 . (<.mbassador to +ran0e "19!L@19DC) . Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 Boston "19 !@19!1)> $*airman o2 t*e board o2 . 19 1) R 9. 19C9) R 9.. Distri0t $ourt 2or t*e (out*ern Distri0t o2 New =ork "19 9@1941) $arroll $lark ?in0ks "B.. 1911) R 9.l2red N.(...... 19 !@19L!) /ames Wol0ott Wadswort* /r.ar0* !. 1::4.. 191L. 19CL) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 .

"B... 19 ) R Partner o2 Dre6el < $o. 19C1) R .. 3weed. 19CL) R Partner o2 Lord.. ENew =ork $ityF "19!:@19DL) $*arles Lanier Lawran0e "B. 19C ) R President o2 .. "19!L@19D9) ?enry W*eeler de +orest "B. 1919. 1::4. 1:91) R President o2 New =ork Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. (<B 1:9D) R ... 19C1) R President o2 'rving 3rust $o... LL.. 3*a0*er < Bartlett "19CD@19DL) Douglas . Webber < $o. $olumbia 19 C) R Partner o2 Paul. . &*ode 'slandF "19 @19DD) Wirt Davis "B.iken "B. Putnam < &oberts "19 9@19DC) [?enry De+orest Baldwin "B. 1914....B..ember o2 Lord. 1:1L.. 19C1) R -ditor o2 New Yor (erald Tribune "191!@19D1) George ?enry (oule /r.. 1914. Gardiner < &eed "19C9@194!) %tis 3reat Bradley "B.etna Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. "19!1@19D4) &euben Bu0k &obertson "B. (<B 1911) R President o2 Dresser 'ndustries.l2red L. 3wombly.elsey Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191!@19DC) . 191 ) R 7i0e President o2 $ommer0ial (olvents $orp. 'n0. 19C1) R Publis*er o2 New Yor /ail. 1::9) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 $onne0ti0ut General Li2e 'nsuran0e $o.. 1:99) R President o2 Nort*ern 3rust $o. 1:91. W*arton < Garrison Eand prede0essor 2irmsF "19 1@194C) Dean (age "B./. "19 9@19D1) (amuel (loan $olt "B. 19C:. ENew =ork $ityF "19 C@19DL) ?arry -... Putnam < &oberts "1:91@19CL. Bundy "B.ilbank... Day < Lord "19CC@19D1) .. (<B 19C9) R . "19 1@1944) 3*omas Wilson Bowers "B. "19!L@19DC) Leroy .elsey "B.ead < $o. (*epard "B.. 19CL. (<. (<. 19C:) R -ditor o2 The New Republic "19 D@19D1) $*arles Latimer (tillman "B.. (timson "B. 19C4) R +ounder and President o2 Lawran0e . 1:L9) R .anu2a0turing $o. Weiss "B. 19 !) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 t*e -merson -le0tri0 ... 1914) R 7i0e President o2 Bankers 3rust $o.News "1919@19DL) %gden . (<B 19C!) R 7i0e President o2 $entral ?anover Bank < 3rust $o. Weyer*aeuser "B. 191!.. 1:91.llen 3.. "B. 1:9C. Wardwell.. Lu0e "B. 19CC) R -6e0utive 7i0e President o2 $*ampion Papers. 1:94) R . "19 !@19LD)> 2ounder o2 Time and Life maga8ines [*attan $ompany "19!C@19D ) +rank P. (<B 1911) R 7i0e President o2 Guaranty 3rust $o.ember o2 (impson. 1::1.rtemus L.llen -varts +oster "B. 19C9. ENew =ork $ityF "1911@19 !)> President and $*ie2 -ngineer o2 Lawran0e -ngineering < &esear0* $orp.. 'n0.19LL) Wilson Gordon Wing "B. . Day < Lord "19 9@19L9) [+rank L..o22at "B.B.B... 19CC. "19!:@19D4) George ?erbert Walker /r. (<B 1:91) R . (<B 191 ) R Partner o2 Putney. Polk. 191C) R . Lin0oln "B. "19 9@194:) [/uan 3erry 3rippe "P*. 1:9D.... Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4) Walbridge (mit* 3a2t "B. Gates "B. "19 1@19LD) [W.llen Wardwell "B. (<B 1::4) R .. Gray.. "19!4@19DL) ?enry -ldredge Perry "B. LL.. (<. Wardwell. 19 C..... Wardwell. 19 1.... (<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL) /osep* . 19!!@19DC... ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 1@1911) .irways. 1:91) R $*airman o2 &epubli0 National Bank in Dallas. 19C1..lbert (mit* "B. Ebanking 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@19L:) -dward (tarr. (<B 19C9) R .B. Einvestment bank in P*iladelp*ia "19!1@0. 1:9C) R President o2 3oledo 3erminal &ailroad $ompany "191D@194C) +rederi0k -. o2 $*i0ago "191D@1941) ?.meri0an World . "B... (<. . 191C) R 7i0e President o2 Bank o2 t*e .dams 3ompkins "B. LL..s*bel Barney Newell "B.. (<B 1919) R . "19!L@1941) . 19C!..... $*oate < (*erman Eand prede0essor 2irmsF Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:1D@19!9) Louis (.ember o2 Lord. ?arvard 19C1) R Partner o2 $ravat*. o2 New =ork "19 9@19!D) &obert /ames Lewis "B.. (tuart (ymington "B. 1:9D.. (<.ember o2 .. 1914> LL. (<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $adwalader.ember o2 Davis.. 1:9L. 'n0..... (<. 1:94) R Publis*er o2 The Washington Post "19!!@19DL) [?enry &. ?arvard 19C:) R Partner o2 Wint*rop. Putnam < &oberts "191D@19L:) [. (<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 3ime. ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19!!@19D1. 'n0. 19C9.191C) (*erman Baldwin "B..B. 191!@19 1. "19 9@191D) ?oward ?ein8 "B. LL.. 1::C.edill Patterson "B..ar0ien /en0kes "B. Polk "B. 3e6as "19!D@19D4) ?enry $*andler ?olt "B. 19C!.. Neil ... (<. 1::1.. (<B 1:::) R $ounsel o2 Wint*rop. (timson.. (<B 1:91) R . $onne0ti0utF "19 @1941) &obert W.oore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191!@194L) /ames &o0kwell (*e22ield "B... 19C1) R Partner o2 $adwalader. (timson. Gardiner < &eed "191D@19D!)> Dire0tor o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations "19 1@19D!) [. 19C!) R President o2 Providen0e 'nstitution 2or (avings Ebank in Providen0e... 19D4@ 194C)> President o2 t*e New =ork $ity Bar .allon "B. Day < Lord "1919@0. ?arvard 1919) R Partner o2 Davis.ember o2 $*oate.[.. Polk. Walker < $o. 1:94. 1:::.. 1914.. Gardiner < &eed "19!C@194C) $*aun0ey Brewster Garver "B. 1:9D) R .ember o2 Davis.ero -ngine $orp. 19C!) R President o2 . "B. 191 . 1911.sso0iation "19!1@19!9) [George &oberts "B.. 19CD. "19!1@1941) [Boylston .... 19 L) R 3reasurer o2 3ime. LL. "1919@19D1)> 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "19 L@19D1) ..... (waine < ... E3ime maga8ineF "19!C@19LC) Lawyers5 [?enry L. $owles "B.ppleton..B.... 1::9.B. "1919@19D ) +ran0is Ward Paine "B.etropolitan Li2e 'nsuran0e $o. (<B 19 1) R General Partner o2 G. "19!C@19DD) +rank $ourtenay Dodd "B. (<. 19 1) R President o2 Pan . 1:9L. 1::1) R (enior Partner o2 (*e22ield and Betts Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19!:) +rederi0k 3rowbridge ...eyer "B. Perrin < ?oyt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19DL) -dward Ban0ro2t 3wombly "B.a6well . 191D.ember o2 (age. Weiss. (<B 1919) R Partner o2 Wint*rop. Einvestment banking 2irm in BostonF "1919@19DC) Businessmen5 [.ember o2 -varts.ember o2 Lewis < .. 191!) R . 19C4... 19 ... ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) [?arvey ?. (<. 1:1L) R . /r. 19C:) R Partner o2 (*earman < (terling "1911@191!) [?enry Waters 3a2t "B.organ B. E?art2ord. 1919. LL.. (<.. Epublis*ing 0ompany in New =ork $ityF "19!1@19D ) /ournalists5 [-ugene .. 19 1) R Partner o2 -stabrook < $o..?. (<B 19CL) R Partner o2 . 191D) R President o2 Bankers 3rust $o.. 19D4@19L!) .ills &eid "B. Brainard "B...llen Wardner -varts "B... (<B 19 1) R . Putnam < &oberts "19 1@19L4) ?amilton ?adley "B..ember o2 Paine. &i2kind. 19 1..B.. 19CC) R President o2 ?.. 1911. 3odd < (ims Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C4@19D!) Lee /ames Perrin "B.ember o2 Wint*rop.. Polk.. (<B 191:) R President o2 New =ork 3rust $o. (timson. ?ein8 $o. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t "1911@1941) Gra*am (umner "B.a0Leis* "B. ?all < (kidmore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1919@19LL) 7anderbilt Webb "B. ?ope < Webb Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!1@19!:) /o*n Loomer ?all "B..... (<. 'n0. (timson..ember o2 $*oate.....lots "B. (<. 'n0. 191:.r0*ibald . ?untington /r. (<B 1:9L) R President o2 Weyer*aeuser 3imber $o. (<B 1914) R -ditor o2 #ortune maga8ine "19 9@19!:) William ?.ember o2 $*oate. 1:91) R President o2 Dodd. Ward "B.ember o2 t*e board o2 dire0tors o2 3*e Guaranty 3rust $ompany "19C9@19!:) (olomon .

sso0iation "19!4@19DD) &obert ?askell $ory "B. 1914) R Pro2essor o2 Law at (tan2ord 9niversity "19 9@1944)> .F "19! @19DL) Darius -dward Pe0k "B. 1::9) R Protestant -pis0opalian Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 $ali2ornia "19 D@19D1) ?enry W. 1:9D) R General $ounsel o2 ...le6ander ?amilton +rey "B... tool.. (<B 191C) R ..ore "B.ayer...inott (*elton "B.... (<. (<. (anders < Dempsey Elaw 2irm in $leveland. 19C ) R Partner o2 ..0'lvaine Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "1919@19DD) &i0*ard Bentley "B.ugust (idney Lovett "B. 19C!.. 191!) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at =ale 9niversity "19! @19D ) /ames Gra2ton &ogers "B. steel manu2a0turers) "19 1@19D!) William (out*wort* . P*. 19C ) R General $ounsel o2 ?ome Li2e 'nsuran0e $ompany "19 :@19D1) /ames Benton Grant "B..\(0roll < .. 1:9!.'saa0 ?enry .edi0ine "19 9@19DL) [\. 1:9C) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 $*i0ago.ansas $ityF "19!L@194L) [Dean G. $olumbia 19C1) R Pro2essor o2 P*arma0ology at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania "191C@19DL) Lewis ?ill Weed "B. 1:9:) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 Weyer*aeuser 3imber $ompany E3a0oma.. (<.. LL. 19C9) R President o2 Wesleyan 9niversity "19 4@19D!) Paul Dwig*t . 1:9:) R Partner o2 Wilson < ..ember o2 $assels.l2red Newton &i0*ards "B. (kogstad and Powell Elaw 2irm in .nig*t "B.... (<.ansas $ity 3erminal &ailway $ompany "191:@19D9) [Guy Wellman "B... (<.0*eson "B. Boland < $*nstin Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "191:@19D!) /o*n 3*omas Pigott "B.ember o2 $ovington < Burling Elaw 2irm in Was*ington. 1:99) R General $ounsel o2 . (<. 19 D) R Partner o2 3a2t. 19C4) R Pro2essor o2 Law at =ale 9niversity "19!4@19D ) &oland George Dwig*t &i0*ardson "B.... 3*omas. 191:) R Betts Pro2essor o2 /urispruden0e at $olumbia 9niversity "19!C@1941) Warren . 1911.lbert Beebe W*ite "B.. 1:91...ember o2 t*e $oun0il on +oreign &elations> (<B\(kull < Bones> (<. 1:9:) R Pro2essor o2 ?istory at 9niversity o2 .... .. 1911. 1:91. Gri22it*s < Greene Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "19 !@19DL) &obert .anaging Dire0tor and General $ounsel o2 3*e National .. 19CL) R President o2 /ulius &osenwald +und "19 :@19D:) Barry $ongar (mit* "B. 19 1) R President o2 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19 9@19D4) [/ames L.edi0ine and Dentistry at 9niversity o2 &o0*ester "19 1@194!) [$*arles $*eney ?yde "B....ayer....ember o2 $*ristin.. (<. .att*ew. %*ioF "19!4@19L!) ?oward 3allmadge +oulkes "B. 1914) R ... (<... &obertson. 19C9. 7irginiaF "19!1@19DC) $*arles -dward $lark "B.lvin ?uey Lane "B..ilwaukeeF "191!@191!) .meri0an $an $ompany "19!!@19DL) /ames -arnest $ooper "B. 3a2t "B. 19C1) R President o2 . (<B 191!) R $*aplain o2 =ale 9niversity "19! @194:) [. ?ut0*ins "B. 1911.D...arl N.. 1::1.eyer.. 1:9:) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 General -le0tri0 $ompany "19 9@19DD) Loren8o Dibble . 1::1. ?arvard 19 C) R Partner o2 Lane < (avage "and prede0essor) Elaw 2irm in Dallas.... Debevoise "B..rt*ur ?owe "B...ugustus Wilson $lapp "B. . LL.aine "191L@19D1) -dward Lambe Parsons "B.ember o2 t*e Bo*emian $lub in (an +ran0is0o ?oward Brown Woolston "B.. -mbree "B. 19C ) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "191L@19D1) $*arles +ranklin Bliss "B.. D.. . ?amill < Wormser Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19CL@19D1) William Browne ?ale "B.. 1::L.dministrators and Pro2essors5 [$*arles (eymour "B. 191C.. 1::1) R 3rustee o2 $arnegie -ndowment 2or 'nternational Pea0e "1919@19!:)> 7i0e President o2 3*e Pilgrims (o0iety "19!C@19!:) -dwin &.. 19C:) R Partner o2 .ustrian < Platt Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19 @19L1) +rederi0 Burn*am "B.iddlebury $ollege "19 1@19D ) .. 1::D) R (enior .... Graves "B.0$ut0*en.D..... 19CL) R Dean o2 t*e Graduate (0*ool at Brown 9niversity "19 L@19D:) George ?oyt W*ipple "B. 19C:) R Dire0tor o2 /o*ns ?opkins 9niversity (0*ool o2 .. P*. 1919. 19C!) R Pro2essor o2 -du0ation at $olumbia 9niversity 3ea0*ers $ollege "19 1@19D ) (tanley ..nig*t.. 1:99) R General $ounsel o2 (tandard %il $ompany o2 New /ersey E-66onF "19!4@19D1) BenJamin &obbins $urtis Low "B.D. 191D. 1:94) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 (tanley Works "*ardware. 1911.F "19 1@19!!.oody "B.B.. 191C.ey ... P*.eyer. 191!. 1:94) R Pro2essor o2 German at Dartmout* $ollege "19CD@19DD) .dams "B. (<B 1::1) R ...meri0an $rystal (ugar $ompany "19! @19D1) &oger Benton ?ull "B. 1911. 1914. 19!D@19D1) 3*omas . 1:9L) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 Nort*ern 3rust $ompany E$*i0agoF "191:@19D4) .innesota "19C1@19DC) Ni0kolaus Louis -ngel*ardt "B. Borgelt.. %*ioF "19 !@19!9) /o*n ?erron . 1:94) R ?amilton +is* Pro2essor o2 'nternational Law and Diploma0y at $olumbia 9niversity "19 4@19D4) ... 1::D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op o2 t*e Dio0ese o2 $entral New =ork "19!L@19D ) $ollege . (<B 191C) R Dean o2 =ale (0*ool o2 . Lombardi "B. (tettinius < ?ollister Elaw 2irm in $in0innati.. Potter < Bentley Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "19 !@1941) (amuel .ember o2 &osent*al. ..rmstrong "B... 1:9L. ?obson "B. (<B 1:9 ) R Dean o2 =ale (0*ool o2 +orestry "19CC@19!9) (tan*ope Bayne@/ones "B.. 1:9 .iller "B. 1:99) R .. 1914. 1:91) R 3reasurer o2 =ale 9niversity "191C@19D ) 3*omas Wells +arnam "B.orrison "B.sso0iate 3reasurer and $omptroller o2 =ale 9niversity "19 @19D ) $arl . 191 .. 1:9:) R Pro2essor o2 (o0iology at 9niversity o2 Was*ington "1919@19D1) . (tettinius <?ollister Elaw 2irm in $in0innati. (<. 1:99.... 1911) R ... 1:: . 19 1) R Pro2essor o2 Law at 9niversity o2 Pennsylvania Law (0*ool "19! @19L:) .. 191!.edi0ine "19!4@19DC) George Parmly Day "B. 1::C) R 3rustee o2 =ale@in@$*ina "19 @19D ) BenJamin Brewster "B.... %*ioF "19!4@191C) /o*n Bourne Dempsey "B.B.0Lean Elaw 2irm in . 1:94) R Wall (treet lawyer> dire0tor o2 $*ase National Bank -dward .. .ember o2 3a2t..B.0$onaug*y "B... 19C:...ustin .. LL. 1914> LL.. 3e6asF "19!L@1941) $ornelius -. 191!) R Dean o2 =ale Law (0*ool "19 9@19!9) ?enry (. 1::9... (<. 19CC) R Dean o2 (0*ool o2 . .. (<B 1911) R Partner o2 (Iuire. 1:94) R President o2 =ale@in@$*ina .D.B. 19C1) R . Llewellyn "B.... (<B 191D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (out*ern %*io "19!1@1949) -dward ?untington $oley "B.rnold W*itridge "B.. 1:99) R General $ounsel o2 West 'ndies (ugar $orporation "19! @19D1) (amuel Woodson (awyer "B.. +ligg < . P*. Burlington < Vuin0y &ailroad $ompany "19!1@19!:) Leonard Ba0on (mit* "B.. (<B 191 ) R President o2 ?ampton 'nstitute Elater ?ampton 9niversity. (<B 19C:) R President o2 =ale 9niversity "19!1@194C) &obert .ustrian < Platt Elaw 2irm in $*i0agoF "1911@19D ) $*arles ?ump*rey ?amill "B.sso0iation o2 Li2e 9nderwriters "19 1@19D ) %rgani8ation -6e0utives5 /ames &o0kwell (*e22ield "B.ayer "B..... (<B 191C) R (e0retary o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@194!) .. (<B 1911) R Partner o2 Lombardi. (<B 1:: ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 .ember o2 . Lo*mann "B.. 1:9C. 191C.$.... Was*.. 19C:. (<..D.. .. 1:9C) R . 19C9) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 .... P*. 1911) R Partner o2 Wi0k*am. 1:99) R General Dire0tor o2 3*e $ommonwealt* +und "19 1@19D1) -dwin $arlyle Lobenstine "B.

3*a0*er < Bartlett Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CD@19DL) 3*omas D.a0Leis* "(<B 1914) R -ditor o2 #ortune maga8ine "19 9@19!:) William ?.oor*ead < . "19!D@19LC) +ran0is +it8 &andolp* "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 /<W (eligman < $o.0Lean Elaw 2irm in . %*ioF "19 !@19!9) ?enry $orni0k $oke "(<B 19 L) R .ember o2 Lord. $owles "(<B 1::1) R Publis*er o2 &po ane &po esman'Re"iew "1:9!@19DL)> Dire0tor o2 t*e . 1935+ and Kristallna#ht *Nov1 9.rtemus L. "(<B 19 1) R General Partner o2 G. 19D9@194C. Burtt "(<B 1914) R Pro2essor o2 P*ilosop*y at $ornell 9niversity "19!1@19LC) .useum o2 Natural ?istory "19!!@1941) . Weyer*aeuser "(<B 1:9L) R President o2 Weyer*aeuser 3imber $o.. 3rubee Davison "(<B 191:) R President o2 t*e . 3*a0*er < Bartlett Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!!@19D!) ?enry De+orest Baldwin "(<B 1::4) R . "19!1@191 ) . "19 9@19DC) ?arold (tanley "(<B 19C:) R President o2 . Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 9@19DC) ?enry Waters 3a2t "(<B 1::C) R Partner o2 $adwalader.ansas $ity. ?all < (kidmore Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1919@19LL) /o*n Loomer ?all "(<B 1:9D) R . 3a2t "(<B 191C) R . (timson.ember o2 $*oate.lots "(<B 19C9) R .ppleton. Bundy "(<B 19C9) R .orris ?adley "(<B 191L) R Partner o2 .meri0an .organ < $o. 3e6asF "19!C@1911) $ornelius -nnis Lombardi "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Lombardi.ember o2 Lord. ENew =ork $ityF "19 C@19DL) Lyon $arter "(<B 1914) R Partner o2 -stabrook < $ompany Einvestment bankers and brokers in BostonF "19 9@194C) Lawyers5 ?enry L.ortimer Norton Bu0kner "(<B 1:94) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19 1@19D ) . 19D4@19L!) .orris "(<B 19C1) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o.nig*t Woolley "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. (tettinius < ?ollister Elaw 2irm in $in0innati. "19 !@19DC) ?enry $*andler ?olt "(<B 19C!) R 7i0e President o2 $entral ?anover Bank < 3rust $o.ugust (idney Lovett "(<B 191!) R $*aplain o2 =ale 9niversity "19! @194:) (tan*ope Bayne@/ones "(<B 191C) R Pro2essor o2 Ba0teriology at =ale (0*ool o2 . (*epard "(<B 1911) R 7i0e President o2 Bankers 3rust $o.oor*ead "(<B 19CL) R . 194!@19:L) Pierre /ay "(<B 1:9 ) R $*airman o2 t*e board o2 +idu0iary 3rust $ompany ENew =ork $ityF "19!C@19D4) . ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19 1@1911) (amuel . .?. Perrin < ?oyt Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191L@19DL) -dward Ban0ro2t 3wombly "(<B 191 ) R Partner o2 Putney. Lovett "(<B 191:) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. Plimpton < Page Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19!L@19D1) Wint*rop -dwards Dwig*t "(<B 1:9!) R Partner o2 Dwig*t < (0oville Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1911@19DD) Dean (age "(<B 1:91) R .ember o2 (age. Gray.ember o2 $*oate. 3weed.sso0iated Press "191 @19DD) $ollege Pro2essors and %rgani8ation -6e0utives5 $*arles (eymour "(<B 19C:) R President o2 =ale 9niversity "19!1@194C) $arl . ?adley < .nig*t.ar0* !. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4) William Lloyd .nig*t "(<B 1::1) R . "19!1@19D4) George ?erbert Walker.llen 3. (timson. 1935+ Government %22i0ials5 ?ug* &. 19DL@19D1. $ongressman "&epubli0an Party@New =ork. +ligg < . Davison /r.ember o2 Debevoise.ember o2 .ember o2 $*oate. "19!4@19D1) &ay .0$loy Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 D@1919) &obert Gut*rie Page "(<B 19 ) R . 19!!@19DC.. "(<B 1:9:) R 9.issouriF "19!L@194L) $*arles Pas0al +ran0*ot "(<B 191C) R General $ounsel o2 &emington &and 'n0."(ull C Bones and Aheir 4##u'ation during the Ans#hluss *%ar#h 1!. 7irginiaF "19!1@19DC) ?enry (loane $o22in "(<B 1:91) R President o2 9nion 3*eologi0al (eminary "19 L@19D4) BenJamin Brewster "(<B 1:: ) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 . 191!@19 1. "19!1@194L) W. . 3wombly. Lo*mann "(<B 191C) R (e0retary o2 =ale 9niversity "19 1@194!) . (tevenson. 19!:@November 1L. (timson. ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19!!@19D1. 19D4@194C) . "19!1@19DL) -.ar0ien /en0kes "(<B 19 1) R . &obertson. Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "191D@19D4) Gra*am (umner "(<B 1:91) R .it0*el "(<B 1:9 ) R Partner o2 $adwalader. Day < Lord Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 9@19L9) . 19!!@1941) Bankers5 George L.ember o2 3a2t.aine "191L@19D1) ?enry W.edi0ine "19! @19D1) &obert D. . "19!1@19: ) &obert .ember o2 Wint*rop. Putnam < &oberts Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19 1@19L4) ?amilton ?adley "(<B 1919) R Partner o2 Wint*rop. . ?obson "(<B 191D) R Protestant -pis0opal Bis*op 2or t*e -pis0opal Dio0ese o2 (out*ern %*io "19!1@1949) +.ember o2 $*ristin.(. ?all < (tewart Elaw 2irm in BostonF "19CD@19LC) ?arvey ?. +ren0* "(<B 191C) R Pro2essor o2 -nglis* at =ale 9niversity "19!C@194!) -dwin . (timson "(<B 1:::) R $ounsel o2 Wint*rop.ember o2 $oke < $oke Elaw 2irm in Dallas. 19!:) /ames Wol0ott Wadswort* /r.P.. Gates "(<B 191:) R President o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19 9@19D1) $*arles /a0ob (tewart "(<B 191:) R 7i0e President o2 New =ork 3rust $ompany "19!4@19D9) +rank P.ilbank. 3*a0*er "(<B 19CD) R Partner o2 (impson. (tanley < $o. Boland < $*nstin Elaw 2irm in (an +ran0is0oF "191:@19D!) William (inger . Walker < $o.no6 Elaw 2irm in Pittsburg*F "1911@194 ) &obert . "19!1@191:) Pres0ott (.organ.mbassador to Na8i Germany ".. "19 9@191D) ?enry &. Putnam < &oberts "1:91@19CL. ?arrison "(<B 191C) R President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) Walter (et* Logan "(<B 191C) R 7i0e President and General $ounsel o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@194!) (tan2ord 3appan $rapo "(<B 1::L) R $lass B Dire0tor o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 $*i0ago "19 @19!:) ?arry E?enryF P.ember o2 (impson. . "(<B 19 C) R Partner o2 /. 3odd < (ims Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19C4@19D!) Lee /ames Perrin "(<B 19CL) R Partner o2 . Bus* "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o.verell ?arriman "(<B 191!) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. Wilson "(<B 19CL) R 9.(. /r. &oland ?arriman "(<B 1911) R Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o. . Day < Lord Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "19CC@19D1) (*erman Baldwin "(<B 1919) R .rt*ur ?owe "(<B 191 ) R President o2 ?ampton 'nstitute Elater ?ampton 9niversity.r0*ibald . "19!1@19DC. "19 1@19D4) Businessmen and /ournalists5 +rederi0k -. Lu0e "(<B 19 C) R -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD) .

Polk B. =ale 1911 Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o... $ongressman "&@New =ork... "191L@19D4) /ames W.. Polk < Wardwell "19C9@194!) ?enry L. =ale 19C:.... =ale 1:94 Publis*er o2 The Washington Post "19!!@19DL) ?arold (tanley B..ember o2 Davis.. "19!1@19DL) Pres0ott (.0*eson B.P.mbassador to Na8i Germany "...ember o2 $ovington < Burling Elaw 2irmF "19 1@ 19!!. (tanley < $o... 19!:@ November 1L. =ale 1911 President o2 =ale 9niversity "19!1@194C) &obert .(. 19!D@19D1) ?enry Waters 3a2t B.ar0* !. =ale 19 C -ditor@in@$*ie2 o2 Time maga8ine "19 !@19LD) . =ale 1::C Partner o2 $adwalader.mbassador to +ran0e "19!L@19DC) ?ug* &....ember o2 Davis. Wilson B... =ale 1::: President o2 t*e New =ork $ity Bar . 1935+ and Kristallna#ht *Novem2er 9.(... =ale 19C: Partner o2 La8ard +reres < $o. B. . . .sso0iation "19!1@19!9) Dean G. ?arrison B. . =ale 191C President o2 t*e +ederal &eserve Bank o2 New =ork "19 :@19DC) -ugene . =ale 1:99 Partner o2 /. =ale 1:9: 9.. =ale 191! Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o..3ale Eniversit $raduates and Aheir 4##u'ation during Ans#hluss *%ar#h 1!. 194!@19:L) $*arles (eymour B. Wadswort* /r. . =ale 1:9D . =ale 19 1 President o2 9niversity o2 $*i0ago "19 9@19D4) +rank L.D. =ale 1:91 President o2 New =ork Li2e 'nsuran0e $o.eyer B. (timson B.. Lu0e B..l2red L. "19!1@191 ) &obert . Wi0kers*am < 3a2t Elaw 2irm in New =ork $ityF "1:99@19D4) .verell ?arriman B.... 19DL@19D1....organ..iken B.. Lovett B.. 1935+ &ussell $.. "19!1@ 19DC. Polk.. Wardwell "191D@19D!) .. "19!L@19DC) W. =ale 1914 . Bus* B.llen Wardwell B.. 19!!@1941) William $*ristian Bullitt B.. 19D9@ 194C. ?ut0*ins B.organ < $o. =ale 19C: President o2 . "19!4@19D1) +rank .lts0*ul B. . =ale 191 9. Le22ingwell B.. P*. 19!:) ?enry &. =ale 191: Partner o2 Brown Brot*ers ?arriman < $o.(. =ale 19CL 9. =ale 1:94 ... "19 !@194C) George L.

os0ow.maga8ine) .ugust !. 19!9 as Na8i German +oreign . "Dever#L'+.inister 7ya0*eslav .inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop "0enter) and (oviet $ommissar /ose2 (talin are seen smiling.German%&o'iet (onaggression Pact & Partition o$ Poland" )austian #argain? (oviet &ussian +oreign .olotov signs t*e German@(oviet Nonaggression Pa0t in . (oviet 9nion on .

inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop "0enter) and (oviet $ommissar /ose2 (talin stand be*ind .olotov. 19!9 as Na8i German +oreign .(oviet &ussian +oreign .os0ow. (oviet 9nion on .r0*ives) . "National .olotov signs t*e German@(oviet nonaggression pa0t in .ugust !.inister 7ya0*eslav .

'o%iet Russia on August 2C.s Bommunist "ictator Joe 'talin sha7es han"s with @a>i German Foreign Minister Joachim %on Ribbentro& in Moscow. 1 C $ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# .'o%iet Russia.

inister 7ya0*eslav .(oviet +oreign . 19DC. 19DC. (oviet +oreign .olotov "le2t) and . .dol2 ?itler *ave a pleasant 0onversation in Berlin on November 1!.dol2 ?itler *ave a pleasant 0onversation in Berlin on November 1!.inister 7ya0*eslav .olotov and .

inister 7ya0*eslav .(oviet +oreign . "P*oto5 German +ederal . "Bettmann#$%&B'() .inister 7ya0*eslav . 19DC.n*alter (tation in Berlin as *e leaves to return to .os0ow a2ter most re0ent o2 *is H*istory makingH visits wit* .inister /oa0*im 7on &ibbentrop "le2t to rig*t) es0ort (oviet &ussian +oreign . 19DC as Gustav ?ilger "0enter) serves as a translator 2or /oa0*im von &ibbentrop.olotov greets Na8i German +oreign .ars*al /o*ann .r0*ives) Na8i German +ield .eitel and Na8i German +oreign .olotov to *is train at t*e .inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop in Berlin on November 1D.dol2 ?itler on De0ember D.

elo#ment the foun)ation of a hegemony &hi$h &oul) &ea/en nglan): nglan) is therefore our enemy6 an) the $onfli$t &ith nglan) &ill be a lifeDan)D)eath struggle:" )n the face of this misun"erstan"ing an" hatre" on the &art of 0itler.antageous: We shall be able to e<#e$t e<$ellent har. an" on May 1 .i$tory there: There is6 therefore6 no Cuestion of s#aring Polan)6 an) &e are left &ith the )e$ision: To atta$/ Polan) at the first suitable o##ortunity: We $annot e<#e$t a re#etition of the 'ze$h affair: There &ill be &ar: (ur Bob is to isolate Polan): The su$$ess of this isolation &ill be the )e$isi. economic. in ina"e9uate amounts.ailable as a sour$e of labor: The Polish #roblem is inse#arable from $onfli$t &ith the West:::: Polan) sees )anger in a German . 4olan" guarantee" -ritainNs Oin"e&en"enceO in e?actly the same terms as -ritain ha" guarantee" that of 4olan" on March C1st$ @o -ritish64olish alliance was signe" until August 2Dth.e the )e$ision to gi. the same "ay on which 0itler or"ere" the attac7 on 4olan" to begin on August 2*th$ Worse than this. Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley.HHH. who ha" been 7e&t com&letely in the "ar7 by the Germans. in the ho&e that this woul" force 4olan" to negotiate with 0itler$ )f so. 9uite %ainly. -ritain ma"e no real effort to buil" u& a &eace front. but in all cases$ At the signing. ha" no military con%ersations with 4olan" after 1 2D. an" seems to ha%e entere" the war on 'e&tember 1st in the belief that a full6scale offensi%e woul" be ma"e against Germany in the west "uring 'e&tember$ The failure to su&&ort 4olan" by bin"ing &olitical. the )talian foreign minister.ests e. &$ *4 6*D1 .i$e an) &ill be a.3 as Mussolini calle" it$ for the $onfli$t: nglan) sees in our ) s#a$e in the ast an) of se$uring our foo) su##lies6 an) the settlement of the Balti$ #roblems: Foo) su##lies $an be e<#e$te) only from thinly #o#ulate) areas: (. it was a com&lete failure$ 4olan" was so encourage" by the -ritish guarantee that it not only refuse" to ma7e concessions but also &re%ente" the reo&ening of negotiations by one e?cuse after another until the last "ay of &eace$ This was 9uite agreeable to 0itler an" Ribbentro&$ When Bount Biano. an" s&ent two "ays trying.e areas in the ast &ill be a).1*C.3 as was customary.i$tory in the West an) &ill attem#t to rob us of a . an" continue" to try to ma7e concessions to 0itler$ Although the -ritish unilateral guarantee to 4olan" was ma"e into a mutual guarantee on A&ril *. not against 1un&ro%o7e" attac7. no military agreements were ma"e as to how -ritain an" 4olan" woul" coo&erate in war$ A -ritish military mission "i" manage to get to Warsaw on July 1 th.HHH francs as a rearmament loan !Rambouillet Agreement#. an" a full6scale offensi%e on the si?teenth "ay$ Jn August 2Cr" General Gamelin informe" his go%ernment that no military su&&ort coul" be gi%en to 4olan" in the e%ent of war until the s&ring of 1 4H an" that a full6scale offensi%e coul" not be ma"e by France before 1 4161 42$ 4olan" was ne%er informe" of this change. %isite" Ribbentro& on August 11th he as7e" his hostE 1What "o you wantM The Borri"or or +an>igM $ $ $ ]@ot any longer$. the 14act of 'teel. 0itler hel" a secret conference with his generals$ )n the course of a lengthy s&eech he sai"E !Aanzig is not the subBe$t of this )is#ute at all: =t is a Cuestion of e<#an)ing our li.CHH at a time when all 2on"on was bu>>ing about a secret loan of i1. the wor"ing was im&ortant$ )t was a clearly aggressi%e alliance. which ha" ha" an alliance with 4olan" since 1 21. Germany was tol" flatly that )taly coul" not ma7e war before 1 4C an" that the a&&roaching war woul" be a 1war of e?haustion$3 The %ery ne?t "ay.e fa$tor: Therefore6 the FXhrer must reser. 1 C .3 Biano was shoc7e". 1 C .e the foo) #roblem: RememberP blo$/a)e: =f fate brings us into $onfli$t &ith the West6 #ossession of e<tensi.e only a $re)it to ma/e sure that Polan) buys in nglan)6 although nglan) $annot )eli. to &ersua"e Ribbentro& an" 0itler that war was im&ossible for se%eral years$3 . an" military obligations in the &erio" before August 2Cr" was &robably "eliberate.e to atta$/ nglan) an) Fran$e &ith a fe& annihilating blo&s: = )oubt the #ossibility of a #ea$eful settlement &ith nglan): We must #re#are oursel. economic su&&ort to rearm 4olan" was gi%en late. since the &arties &romise" to su&&ort each other.HHH.er6 ga. but it "i" nothing$ Furthermore. an" in the full 7nowle"ge that he ha" e%ery intention of attac7ing 4olan".e the final or)er to atta$/: There must be no simultaneous $onfli$t &ith the Western Po&ers 2Fran$e an) nglan)3:::: =f there &ere an allian$e of Fran$e6 nglan)6 an) Russia6 = &oul) This means that nglan) )oes not really &ant to su##ort Polan):" 4erha&s e%en more sur&rising is the fact that France. again. e?ce&t that in August 1 C* 4olan" was gi%en 2. an" in an unwor7able form$ There was tal7 of a -ritish loan to 4olan" of i1HH million in May8 on August 1st 4olan" finally got a cre"it for a5.1Jn May 22 a German6)talian alliance was signe".en less in &artime than in time of #ea$e: The #o#ulation of these nonDGerman areas &ill #erform no military ser. May 2C.e the natural fertility6 thoroughgoing German e<#loitation &ill in$rease #ro)u$tion enormously: There is no other #ossibility in uro#e: Be&are of gifts of $olonial territory: These )o not sol. local s7irmishing by the thir" "ay.HHH.HHH. the 4olish minister of war signe" an agreement in 4aris by which France &romise" full air su&&ort to 4olan" on the first "ay of an) abo.HHH from -ritain to Germany$ The effects of such actions on Germany can be seen in the minutes of a secret conference between 0itler an" his generals hel" on August 22n"$ The Fuhrer sai"E !The follo&ing is $hara$teristi$ of nglan): Polan) &ante) a loan from nglan) for rearmament: nglan)6 ho&e. An" he fi?e" on me those col" $ $ $ eyes of his$ ]We want war$.

1 C # Na8i German soldiers dismantle a Polis* border 0*e0kpoint on (eptember 1. 'e&tember 1. . 19!9 during t*e Na8i German invasion o2 Poland.Front &age of the @ew Aor7 Times !Fri"ay.

$*an0ellor . outlining *is Hpea0e o22ensiveH. ?itler spoke t*at evening 2or an *our and a Iuarter in a brig*tly illuminated Dan8ig. Poland on (eptember 19.0om#sear0*#label#. 19!9. "P*oto5 *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures. a2ter Polis* resistan0e to t*e German 2or0es *ad been 0rus*ed.dol2 ?itler salutes as *e re0eives an ent*usiasti0 wel0ome upon *is entran0e into Dan8ig.] C$olle0tion] Co2] C$ars) .blogspot.

A"olf 0itler salutes to the @a>i German army in Warsaw. 4olan" on Jctober D. &ublishe" also in O/rasnaya T%e>"aO in 'e&tember 1 4H# . 1 C $ !German Fe"eral Archi%e# A German an" a 'o%iet officer sha7e han"s at the en" of the )n%asion of 4olan" in 'e&tember 1 C $ !TA'' &ress agency . Jctober 1 C .

4olish &risoners of war ca&ture" by the Re" Army "uring the 'o%iet in%asion of 4olan" in 'e&tember 1 C are seen marching to a &risoner6of6war cam&$ .

Ma& of @a>i German occu&ation of 4olan" "uring Worl" War )) .

Ma& of &artition of 4olan" "uring Worl" War ))

3&'P.&3'3- P.$3 $%N+-&-N$- R (-P3-,B-& 19DC

Le2t to rig*t5 Na8i German +oreign ,inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop, 'mperial /apanese .mbassador to Na8i Germany (aburo ;urusu, and Na8i GermanyAs di0tator .dol2 ?itler negotiate t*e 3ripartite Pa0t in (eptember 19DC. "'mage 0ourtesy o2 .meri0an ,emory at t*e Library o2 $ongress)

Le2t to rig*t5 (aburo ;urusu, .l2ieri, Buti, $iano, (0*midt, (ta*mer, Weis8Y0ker, ,a0kensen, ?itler, ,eissner and Woermann appear at t*e 3ripartite Pa0t 0on2eren0e on (eptember 1, 19DC. "P*oto5 *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot.0om#sear0*#label#.s] Ca] CDiplomat)

The @a>i German flag !left#, )m&erial Ja&anese flag !center#, an" Fascist )talian flag !right# are "is&laye" in front of the Ja&anese .mbassy on Tiergartenstrasse in -erlin, Germany "uring the Tri&artite 4act conference hel" in -erlin in 'e&tember 1 4H$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es#

Le2t to rig*t5 ,artin Bormann, /apanAs +oreign ,inister =osuke ,atsuoka, (0*midt, .dol2 ?itler, ?ermann Goering, and ,eissner attend a meeting on ,ar0* :, 19D1. Goering is seen wearing a mono0le. "P*oto5 *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot.0om#sear0*#label#.s] Ca] CDiplomat)

.dol2 ?itler talks to 'mperial /apanAs +oreign ,inister =osuke ,atsuoka at t*e &ei0* $*an0ellery in Berlin on ,ar0* 1, 19D1. 3*e man on t*e le2t is interpreter Dr. Paul (0*midt.

(aburo ;usuru "le2t), /apanese .mbassador to Germany, .dol2 ?itler "0enter), and 'talian +oreign ,inister $ount $iano "rig*t) arrive 2or t*e re0ent signing o2 t*e &ome@Berlin@3okyo pa0t in Berlin, Germany on %0tober 11, 19DC. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

Le2t to rig*t5 .dol2 ?itler, /apanese +oreign ,inister =osuke ,atsuoka, and /apanese .mbassador ?iros*i %s*ima wave 2rom ?itlerGs bal0ony in Berlin, Germany in 19D1. "?ulton@Deuts0* $olle0tion#$%&B'()

+oreign ,inister o2 /apan =osuke ,atsuoka "le2t) appears wit* +ield ,ars*al Wil*elm ;eitel "0enter) and ?einri0* Georg (ta*mer "rig*t), t*e Na8i German .mbassador to /apan, at t*e /apanese -mbassy in Berlin, Na8i Germany on ,ar0* :, 19D1. "P*oto5 German +ederal .r0*ives#Bundesar0*iv)

.dol2 ?itler meets wit* /apanese military o22i0ials. "P*oto5 3ime Li2e) *ttp5##adol2*itlerbestpi0tures.blogspot.0om#sear0*#label#.s] Ca] CDiplomat

.gainst a ba0kground o2 t*eir respe0tive 2lags, Na8i German and 'mperial /apanese o22i0ials toast t*e new .6is Pa0t in 3okyo in 19D1. .t e6treme rig*t is ?einri0* (ta*mer, mysterious German agent w*o 2or0ed t*roug* t*e signing o2 t*e pa0t. +rom rig*t to le2t are (ta*mer, -ugen %tt, German .mbassador> 'talian .mbassador 'ndelli, +oreign ,inister =osuke ,atsuoka, and ,inister wit*out Port2olio Naoki ?os*ino. Ne6t to ?os*ino in uni2orm is War ,inister Gen. ?ideki 3oJo, be*ind mi0rop*one is 3os*io (*iratori. "Bettmann#$%&B'()

=ugoslavia. 19DC and ending in t*e early *ours o2 /une !. . Norway.nne6ation o2 +ran0e. +ran0e in . Britis* and +ren0* soldiers Jump onto boats at Dunkirk.ay@/une 19DC.. and (oviet 9nion Britis* and +ren0* army troops prepare to eva0uate to Great Britain on t*e bea0*es o2 Dunkirk. 19DC. Denmark. Net*erlands. +ran0e. Gree0e. beginning on . Belgium.ay 1.

Winston Bhurchill. inclu"ing the (nite" 'tates. inclu"ing all that we ha%e 7nown an" care" that if the British m#ire an) its 'ommon&ealth last for a thousan) years6 men &ill still say6 YThis &as their finest hour:@3 . ma"e more sinister. by the lights of &er%erte" science$ Let us therefore bra$e oursel. in a s&eech in the 0ouse of Bommons on June 15. the "ay of the French ca&itulation to @a>i Germany .uro&e may be free" an" the life of the worl" may mo%e forwar" into broa". an" &erha&s more &rotracte". 4rime Minister of Great -ritain. 1 4H.A ma& of France. sunlit u&lan"s$ -ut if we fail then the whole worl". inclu"ing Kichy France !Free ToneG'outhern Tone# an" German6occu&ie" France !Jccu&ie" ToneG@orthern Tone# "uring Worl" War )) 10itler 7nows that he will ha%e to brea7 us in this islan" or lose the war$ )f we can stan" u& to him all . will sin7 into the abyss of a new "ar7 to our )uty6 an) so bear oursel.

ars*al Wil*elm .rmy General $*arles ?unt8inger inside a railroad 0ar at $ompi`gne.ars*al Wil*elm . and Walt*er von Brau0*its0* meet in 2ront o2 a railroad 0ar at $ompi`gne. &udol2 ?ess. . 19DC. +ran0e on /une .dol2 ?itler. +ield .eitel.r0*ives) Le2t to rig*t5 Na8i German +oreign .Na8i German +ield . "P*oto5 German +ederal .eitel "le2t) a00epts t*e +ren0* surrender 2rom +ren0* .dmiral -ri0* &aeder. +ran0e on /une . ?ermann Goering.r0*ives) . "P*oto5 German +ederal . 19DC. .inister /oa0*im von &ibbentrop.

during t*e (e0ond World War.dol2 ?itler demanded +ran0eGs surrender in t*e same railway 0ar. +ran0e. ?itler 0*ose t*is site 2or t*e armisti0e in an attempt to *umiliate +ran0e. 191:..ars*al +erdinand +o0*. +ield . +ran0e on November 11.llied supreme 0ommander "0enter). on /une .rmisti0e ending t*e war in a railway 0ar near $ompi`gne. "3ime Li2e p*oto) (enior German and . stands to a00ept t*e German surrender.llied 0ommanders and politi0ians sign t*e .dol2 ?itler meets wit* *is subordinates in 2ront o2 a railroad 0ar in t*e 2orests near $ompi`gne. 'n 19DC. early on t*e morning o2 November 11. . . 19DC to wat0* t*e +ren0* army sign an armisti0e and 2ormally surrender +ran0e to Na8i Germany. 191:. 3*e German army signed an armisti0e ending World War ' at $ompi`gne. t*e . +ran0e. lo0ated nort* o2 Paris.

dol2 ?itler s*akes *ands wit* 7i0*y +ren0* leader . .dol2 ?itler.7i0*y +ran0eAs puppet di0tator Pierre Laval "le2t) meets wit* . .ontroire. 19DC. 7i0*y +ran0e on %0tober D.ars*al P*ilippe Petain at .

19DC.ay :.r0*ives) . and Lu6embourg on .r0*ives) 3*e Belgian government negotiates t*e 0apitulation o2 Belgium wit* t*e Na8i German regime on .ay 1D. "P*oto5 German +ederal . 19DC.ay 1C. "P*oto5 German +ederal . Net*erlands. Na8i Germany invaded +ran0e. Net*erlands on . Belgium.German troops advan0e t*roug* a destroyed se0tion o2 &otterdam. 19DC.

1-ut with the &lanne" in%asion of the 'o%iet (nion. The Balkans( Nationalism1 War and the Great 5owers1 . 0itler "eci"e" to "estroy the 'o%iet (nion once an" for all$ The great gamble was begun$3 .uhrer had advised% But 0ome is incorrigible% By this time6 GermanyKs nee) to inter.ely an)6 ha. then they woul" control the main na%al an" aerial staging &ost in the Me"iterranean$ They coul" monitor an" regulate traffic along an east6 west an" a north6south a?is$ 0itler acce&te" an" e%en su&&orte" )talyNs Gree7 o&eration within the conte?t of the N&eri&heral strategyN against . with the )talians. the "ay of the attac7 on Greece$ Far from a"monishing Mussolini.ite the *o. .e)iterranean to the Pa$ifi$: +itler ha) hit u#on the i)ea of in$or#orating the *o. to bring new countries into the war without our a"%ice an" consent as allies$ Ribbentro& a&&ro%e" this. an" 0itler ha" "ro&&e" the i"ea of a secon" attem&t$ 0e ha" switche" instea" to the so6calle" N&eri&heral strategyN which in%ol%e" cutting communications between Great -ritain an" its im&erial out&osts$ At the time of the )talian in%asion. his casual announcement of the in%asion ha" not ta7en 0itler by sur&rise$ The FuhrerNs information6gathering networ7 was too goo" for that$ Jn recei%ing the same intelligence.ering half the globe6 .iet Fnion to Boin Germany6 =taly an) %a#an in the Tri#artite Pa$t: Were *talin to a$$e#t the offer to Boin the . 4olan" an" Romania but he also raise" for the first time the 9uestion of -ulgaria$ Moloto% claime" that -ritain was threatening the security of the -lac7 'ea 'traits.iet Foreign . the hea" of AmericaNs intelligence ser%ice.e him a $on$rete ans&erJ it has been assume) that it meant =n)ia6 'entral . most of the northern battle6line on the continent of .sia an) =ran: . in a memo to Roose%elt sent from the -al7ans a month after the )talian offensi%e ha" begun$ N)t shoul" be thought of &rimarily as a no6manNs lan" between .os$o& by su##orting *o. &$ 4*564:H .tlanti$ an) . (n"ersecretary of 'tate at the Aussenamt1 Nset about ma7ing a %ery clear "emarche$ ) "rew u& an unambiguous instruction to Rome that we shoul" not allow our ally. the in%asion of -ritain. which ha" &rom&te" the 'o%iet (nion to consi"er an offer Nof a Russian guarantee to -ulgariaN$ Moloto%Ns inter%ention threatene" Wehrmacht &lans to in%a"e Greece.iet Fnion into his s$heme #artly to #reDem#t a future allian$e of the *o.ision of the ne& or)er6 $o. .oloto.iet influen$e in the Bal/ans: Berlin offere) to $om#ensate .DRibbentro# a$$or) of .@@@ by Misha Glenny.6 the *o.oloto.ean&hile6 ho&e. 0itler was &lanning an assault on Gibraltar an" a &ush.ely re$ognize) the Bal/ans as a Russian s#here of interest: . ha" faile".er6 GermanyKs interest in the region ha) be$ome more urgent: By #ersua)ing the *o.sian s#a$e0: When . he wante" to &re%ent -ritain from establishing an airbase in Thessaloni7i from which -ritish bombers coul" reach the oil fiel"s in 4lo9ti$ -ut he ha" a still gran"er reason$ J&eration N'eeloweN. either "irectly or in"irectly. 0itler coul" not affor" to ha%e his rear threatene" by -ritish forces$ MussoliniNs failure to subLugate Greece &ro%o7e" the @a>i military swee& through the -al7ans$ Mussolini was able to &ay 0itler bac7 Nin his own coinN at their summit meeting in Florence on 25 Jctober. who was wea7 enough in any case.eile) his .ene in the Bal/ans ha) be$ome still more #ressing: 1ya$hesla.ina: =n the .rnst %on Wei>sac7er. as )l +uce ha" e?&ecte". fulminate" Goebbels in +ecember when the e?tent of )talyNs failure became clear$ The 4talians have ruined the militar &restige of the A:is% This is wh the Balkans have become such a stubborn &roblem %%%So we must now intervene% Not to hel& them but to run the 8nglish out of )rete where the have installed themselves% The must get out of there% The .iet Fnion through Finlan)6 the Balti$s6 Bessarabia an) northern Bu/o.iet Fnion6 Britain an)6 #ossibly6 the Fnite) *tates6 an) #artly be$ause he ha) be$ome an<ious about the gra)ual &est&ar) e<#ansion of the *o.uro&e$ )t is im&erati%e for the -ritish 6 or the -ritish an" the Americans 6 to control the southern front along the Me"iterranean shore of Africa$N +ono%an ha" not 9uite rea" 0itlerNs min".iet e<#ansion in &hat +itler terme) the '>rofl2si2tisc&er 82um' -greater .<is6 this &oul) $reate the mightiest #oliti$al allian$e in history6 stret$hing from the .ember 47G5 for t&o )ays of tal/s: +itler &ishe) to in. which inclu"e" sen"ing its "i%isions through -ulgaria$ 'talinNs res&onse to the Tri&artite &ro&osal arri%e" by letter two wee7s after Moloto%Ns %isit$ The 'o%iet lea"er was a"amant on the issue of -ulgariaE ]I4ro%i"e" that within the ne?t few months the security of the 'o%iet (nion in the 'traits is assure" by the conclusion of a mutual assistance &act between the 'o%iet (nion an" -ulgaria $$$ an" by the establishment of a base for lan" an" na%al forces of the (''R within range of the -os&horus an" +ar"anelles by means of a long6term lease$N 0itler nee"e" the -al7ans for economic reasons$ 0e coul" not tolerate 'o%iet interference in the region.e) in Berlin on the afternoon of 4? No.&irus Lust 24 7ilometres from their base cam&$ NA matchless "ilettantismN.s +itler un.uhrer would &refer to see a &eace deal between 0ome and Athens but it is a difficult &olic to sell% . with two great forces facing each other from the north an" the south$ Germany controls.<=>?. as/e) &hat '>rofl2si2tisc&er 82um' a$tually meant6 the Germans &ere unable to gi. the J''.nglan"$ -ut his mo"est enthusiasm for the offensi%e soon soure" when he reali>e" it ha" been &lanne" an" e?ecute" by a clown$ The -ritish occu&ie" Brete on * @o%ember while the )talians were still bogge" "own in the mu" of .inister6 arri.iet Fnion to sign u# to the Tri#artite Pa$t6 +itler ho#e)6 among other things6 to e<tinguish *o.ussolini has reall messed this one u& %%% 4f onl he had occu&ied )rete straight awa as the .ugust 47>76 +itler ha) effe$ti. 0itler congratulate" him briefly an" a"%ise" him to concentrate on grabbing Brete$ Mussolini ignore" the a"%ice$ Although he "i" not 7now it. towar"s 'ue>$ )f Germany an" )taly coul" sei>e Brete.oloto. but 0itler sai" he "i" not want to cross Mussolini$ 0itlerNs silence meant in"irectly gi%ing )taly the sign to go ahea" with her $$$ ste& in the -al7ans$N 0itler e%en offere" Mussolini &aratroo& su&&ort for an o&eration against Brete$ N4eo&le are too &rone to thin7 of the Me"iterranean as an east6west channel for shi&&ingN. but it was a &assable summary of what the Fuhrer was thin7ing$ 0itler coul" ha%e bloc7e" the )talian in%asion of Greece but "i" not$ hear) the Fuhrer out6 state) he agree) Kin #rin$i#leK to the i)ea: 0e then &rocee"e" to raise "ifficulties about all the in"i%i"ual issues that 0itler ha" ho&e" to resol%e in GermanyNs fa%our$ The Foreign Minister mentione" Finlan". sat im#assi. an" certainly not a 'o%iet military &resence there$ 4ersua"e" that 'talin was becoming too conceite" an" "angerous as an ally.oloto.uro&e an" Africa. obser%e" NWil" -illN +ono%an.

s Fascist )talian army in%a"e" Greece on Jctober 25. Greece in May 1 41$ -enito Mussolini.@a>i German army sol"iers raise the @a>i German flag at the Acro&olis in Athens. 1 4H but was "efeate" by the Gree7 army$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%es# .

A ma& of @a>i German in%asion of Greece an" -ritish army e%acuation of Greece in A&ril 1 41 .

The A?is Jccu&ation of Greece "uring Worl" War )) .

Prin0e Paul o2 =ugoslavia "le2t) rides wit* Na8i GermanyAs di0tator . "P*oto5 *!C1!D!) German an" )talian occu&ation of Augosla%ia !1 4161 4C# .dol2 ?itler in Germany in 19!9.a0ademi0.

lea"er of the )n"e&en"ent 'tate of Broatia. -a%aria. 1 41. @a>i Germany for a state %isit on June .s "ictator -enito Mussolini !right# in Rome. an" to agree u&on BroatiaNs bor"ers with )taly$ A"olf 0itler meets with Ante 4a%elic. wal7s with Fascist )taly. "uring the ceremony of )talyNs recognition of Broatia as a so%ereign state un"er official )talian &rotection.Ante 4a%elic !left#. the "esignate" lea"er of the )n"e&en"ent 'tate of Broatia. )taly on May 15. u&on his arri%al at the -erghof in -erchtesga"en. 1 41$ !4hotoE Mu>eL Re%oluciLe @aro"nosti Jugosla%iLeGAugosla%ian @ational Re%olutionary Museum# .

Ma& of @a>i Germany an" 'o%iet (nion in May 1 41 &rior to J&eration -arbarossa .

1 41$ !A4GWi"e Worl" 4hoto# @a>i German infantry an" armore" %ehicles battle the 'o%iet "efen"ers on the streets of /har7o%. 'o%iet (7raine in Jctober 1 41$ !4hotoE German Fe"eral Archi%e# .Beginning of (#eration Barbarossa: The @a>i German army begins its sur&rise in%asion of the 'o%iet (nion on June 22.

'o%iet (nion in late 1 41$ !4hotoE 0assa"ar$ htt&EGGwww$oli%e6"rab$comGo"^history^ww2^o&s^battles^1 41leningra"$&h&# .rmy prisoners@o2@war 0aptured near . 19D1..r0*ives) +ea" ci%ilians 7ille" by German artillery are seen lying in the streets of 2eningra" <'t$ 4etersburg=.insk EBelarusF is mar0*ed to a prison 0amp on /uly . "German +ederal . 0olumn o2 (oviet &ed .

@a>i German sol"iers fire their guns at si? 'o%iet &artisans <guerillas= an" e?ecute them %ia firing s9ua" in 1 41$ A @a>i German sol"ier wal7s towar" a "ea" Russian sol"ier an" a burning tan7 in a battle that occurre" in the 'o%iet (nion in 1 41 "uring J&eration -arbarossa$ .

llie) &ith Finnish )i. rooms "i%i"e". was also slee&ing &eacefully that night. re"6car&ete". e%en whole floors a""e" an" remo%e" again$ 'talin was ne%er satisfie" with any house for long$ All his homes. celebrating the whitest of the Nwhite nightsN.ilisation an) $ultureK from the threat of bolshe. an" left the buil"ing$ 'ettle" in the bac7 of his blac7 armoure" seen is no& $om#lete: . "ar7 highway on to a si"e roa". 'o%iet frontier forces must not allow themsel%es to be &ro%o7e" into firing at the GermansE un"er no circumstances was 0itler to be gi%en the o&&ortunity of bran"ing the 'o%iets as aggressors$ The e%ening of 21 June ha" therefore been almost e?actly li7e any other summer 'atur"ay. '%etlana. or at their clubs. e%en in the frontier "istricts$ Free from the fear of attac7.i$tor of Nar. li7e a colony of amoeba$ )n s&ite of his obsession with buil"ing an" rebuil"ing. he ha" s&ecifically forbi""en the Re" Army to ta7e more than the most tentati%e &recautions against &ossible incursions by German troo&s$ Whate%er ha&&ene". were no fewer than C. &ast a security barrier manne" by arme" guar"s in a clum& of young fir trees. so 'talin retire" early$ 0e was fast aslee& on his sofa soon after 2$CH am. but since then he ha" change" it continuously.ism: -etween the -altic an" the -lac7 'ea. cocoone" in smo7e from the "ar7 N0er>ego%ina FlorN cigarettes which he smo7e" constantly. se%eral chairs an" a large table which was usually &ile" high with "ocuments. German officers assemble" their troo&s an" began gi%ing them their final or"ers. inclu"ing nineteen 4an>er "i%isions an" twel%e motorise" infantry "i%isions.isions6 our $omra)es are stan)ing si)e by si)e &ith the . &reface" by the rea"ing of a &roclamation from their Fuhrer. the 'o%iet (nionNs inner Babinet.i/ on the shores of the . new rooms built on.2HH. an" the stern eyes of 2enin. always remembers it with affectionE in summer the roof was a %ast sun "ec7 where she lo%e" to run an" &lay as a chil"$ Bli+hn was a won"erful house for chil"ren$ 'talin ha" ha" it "esigne" to his own s&ecifications in 1 C4. an" its front half set with all 7in"s of Russian an" Georgian "ishes on warme" sil%er &latters$ Jn 22 June there was no one to entertain. com&rising se%en armies. or &articularly fa%oure" %isiting "ignitaries . the huge. ha%ing rooms 7noc7e" together. better 7nown as 'talin. s9uare6shoul"ere" @/K+ General @i7olai Klasi7. in well un"er half an hour$ There. he use" a couch in a small office beyon" the Babinet room$ The other furnishings of the Bli+hn "ining room were sim&leE a si"eboar". 'talin &ersonally li%e" almost entirely in one room of the house at /untse%o. too7 the little. when the sun barely "i&&e" below the hori>on$ +es&ite the ominous rumours which see&e" in from the outsi"e worl". for ha" not 'talin himself assure" the nation there woul" be no German in%asionM )n"ee". of all nights. ami" cornfiel"s an" &astures. but Bli+hn in &articular. ne%er in a be"8 when he "i" stay in the /remlin. controlle" by his &ersonal security chief. until about D am$ As the first light of "ay glimmere" on the gol"en onion "omes of the cathe"rals o&&osite his win"ow an" coloure" the rosy re" bric7s of the crenellate" outer walls of the ancient city within a city. a mighty in%asion force mo%e" stealthily forwar" into the &ositions from which it was to attac7 at "awn$ )n forest clearings. wal7e" along the corri"or from room number one. :DH.e our entire uro#ean $i. sometimes bro7en u& into tobacco for his . A"olf 0itler$ K*ol)iers of the eastern frontK D +itlerKs &or)s e$hoe) through $om#anies an) regiments6 batteries an) sCua)rons D Kan assembly of strength on a size an) s$ale su$h as the &orl) has ne.ntones$u:K This &as6 +itler )e$lare)6 Kthe biggest front line in historyK6 an) it &as about to go into a$tion6 Kto sa. A$ @$ 4os7rebyshe%. German6 occu&ie" 4olan" an" Romania. Mar? an" . with the %arious tele&hones that 7e&t him in touch with the outsi"e worl" line" u& on a low table besi"e it$ 'talin always sle&t on sofas. slee&ing streets an" out of Moscow$ 0e ha" rarely sle&t in his a&artment in the /remlin since his wife committe" suici"e there in 1 C2. he was whis7e" away through the still warm. with *HH. which were all further away from Moscow$ 't was not a gran" house. was the whole table cleare". boo7s an" news&a&ers$ When "ining alone. he wor7e" in the long Babinet room in the 4raesi"ium buil"ing. absolute ruler of the (nion of 'o%iet 'ocialist Re&ublics. an" after clearing one or two outstan"ing items with his secretary. four 4an>er grou&s an" three air fleets$ 4oise" on the frontiers. the "ining room$ 0e sle&t on a sofa there. he ha" or"ere". certainly no &alace$ 'talinNs "aughter.HHH horses. the troo&s rela?e" an" enLoye" the warm sunny weather$ Most senior officers were at home with their families. in the long grasses of ri%er ban7s where the croa7ing of thousan"s u&on thousan"s of amorous bullfrogs im&rinte" itself for e%er on the memories of the waiting men. he finishe" wor7 well before 2 am.nglish +unhill &i&e$ -ut that night. the summer solstice. where thousan"s still &romena"e" ha&&ily through the streets. or watching shows in garrison theatres or cinemas$ Kery few in"ee" were aware that they were in fact sitting on an immense &ow"er 7eg6 an" that the fuse ha" alrea"y been lit$ Jn the other si"e of the 'o%iet (nionNs CH6mile6long western frontier with Germany.HHH men 6 145 "i%isions. howe%er. then a small %illage in the &ine an" birch forests to the east of Moscow. an" on through a gate.r$ti$ ($ean in the north: German sol)iers un)er the $omman) of the $onCueror of Nor&ay6 an) the Finnish heroes of free)om un)er their o&n marshal6 are #rote$ting Finlan): (n the eastern front6 you stan): =n Romania6 on the ban/s of the Pruth6 on the Aanube6 )o&n to the shores of the Bla$/ *ea6 German an) Romanian troo#s are stan)ing unite) un)er the hea) of state6 . e?ce&t in the northern cities li7e 2eningra". members of the 4olitburo. also hea%ily guar"e". to "istinguish the &lace from his other houses. with its green6bai>e6co%ere" conference table in the centre. the &icture was %ery "ifferent$ As the brief "ar7ness of the shortest night of the year "escen"e". both ci%il an" military. left his office in the /remlin earlier than usual "uring the night of 21622 June 1 41$ @ormally. few were concerne" about the threat of war. gilt ele%ator "own one floor to groun" le%el. it turne" left off the broa". "ro%e as always "own the mi""le of the roa" at full s&ee"$ 't co%ere" the twenty miles to /untse%o. an" he a&&arently saw no reason to ma7e this night an e?ce&tion$ The motorca"e surroun"ing his car. into the "ri%eway of a single6storey. the German forces were arrange" in three massi%e army grou&s. were in a &ermanent state of structural flu?. seemingly untrouble" by the cares of the worl"$ The great maLority of the 'o%iet &o&ulation.ngels staring out from their &ortraits on the oa7&anelle" walls.D5H armoure" fighting . he ha" one en" cleare" an" ate there$ Jnly when he was entertaining &eo&le .HHH truc7s. waiting for "awn to brea7.1Josef Kissariono%ich +Lugash%ili. an" for a further 5HH miles with Finlan" in the north. rambling white house set ami"st gar"ens an" terraces$ This was 'talinNs "acha Bli+hn A the name sim&ly means NnearbyN. C. he coul" regularly be foun" at his cluttere" "es7.

an" the Re" ArmyNs Bhief of 'taff. were ta7ing the re&orts seriouslyE they begge" 'talin to allow them to &ut their frontier forces on full alert. the 'o%iet lea"er "ismisse" the story as a German &ro%ocation$ -y that time. as o&&ose" to one of nearly 1. 'talin still refuse" to belie%e that this was really war$ 0e "i" not gi%e Thu7o% the authorisation he wante". in se%eral cases. the clin7 of e9ui&ment an" the unmista7able screech an" clatter of tan7 trac7s$ From 2on"on. he ha" ma"e both their &resence an" their &ur&ose e%en more ob%ious$ To Winston Bhurchill. un"er fa7e loa"s of gra%el or other freight cargo.N Thu7o% wrote later. accom&anie" in many &laces by s&ecially &re&are" submersible tan7s. who tol" him Thu7o% was on the tele&hone from Moscow.HHH$ )t woul" clearly ha%e been im&ossible to conceal the &resence of such a %ast force$ 0itler ha" been assembling it since shortly after the beginning of the year. "ee&ly shoc7e"$ Thu7o% re&eate" his message. CDH miles away. but by returning them to the regions bor"ering the 'o%iet (nion as soon as they ha" finishe" in the -al7ans. since 'talin ha" forbi""en the construction of any &ermanent "efences or fortifications for fear they might u&set 0itlerX Jn . these German troo& mo%ements Nilluminate" the scene li7e a lightning flashN. airfiel"s.DHH s&ecial trains ha" rolle" eastwar"s from Germany.lsewhere. as garble" re&orts raine" in$ The chaos an" confusion among nearly all the 'o%iet frontier forces was com&oun"e" by the fact that un"erco%er units from the Germans. as though to tal7. an" to issue li%e ammunition$ -ut he refuse"$ All he woul" agree to was a watere""own "irecti%e stating that it was thought the Germans might stage attac7s in or"er to incite 'o%iet troo&s to fight.154 artillery &ieces an" 1. as the final hours before the attac7 sli&&e" away$ From frontier guar"s along the entire bor"er came re&orts of increase" acti%ity on the German si"eE they coul" hear engines being re%%e". for the Re" Army an" Air Force to fight bac7$ )nstea". rail Lunctions. Marshal 'emen Timoshen7o. bombing them with a &in&oint accuracy ma"e &ossible by months of aerial reconnaissance an" &hotogra&hy which they ha" ne%er bothere" to conceal or "eny$ The bombers encountere" little resistance anywhere$ 'o un&re&are" were the 'o%iets that few of the %ital bri"ges across the broa" ri%ers that form much of the frontier were mine" with "emolition charges. 'o%iet Ambassa"or )%an Mais7y sent a message saying he ha" been calle" bac7 from a wee7en" in the country to be tol" by 'ir 'taffor" Bri&&s. an" went on to list re&orts of air rai"s on towns an" cities. Nfor his "isinformationN$ 't was shortly after this that he left his office an" went home.%ehicles. an" by mi"6May. an" then gunne" them "own8 in other &laces German s9ua"s were hi""en in rail wagons. when 0itler ha" been force" to with"raw some of the troo&s in or"er to crush Augosla%ia an" Greece. an" those that were remaine" unblown$ They were all ca&ture" intact by the Germans.5CH aircraft$ )t was in"ee" an awesome array of force 6 by com&arison. as the German artillery o&ene" u& its massi%e barrage$ -y the time he reache" his office. a gran" total of nine "i%isions containing some :D. when most units were in their &reliminary &ositions. he lifte" the recei%er$ At the other en". an" ha" e%en been gi%en the correct "ate an" time$ Bhurchill ha" sent him. though the ambassa"or there ha" tol" his staff to forget it an" &re&are for a 'un"ay &icnic$ 'till 'talin brushe" the warnings asi"e$ When a German "eserter left his unit an" crosse" the lines s&ecifically to alert the 'o%iets after hearing the or"ers for the attac7. along . he calle" a meeting of the 4olitburo to "iscuss what was ha&&ening an" what shoul" be "one$ As he was being "ri%en bac7 to the /remlin. remo%ing any "oubts he may ha%e ha" about 0itlerNs intentions$ -ut their significance "i" not seem to ha%e been a&&reciate" by 'talin$ The 'o%iet lea"er ha" in fact been 7e&t fully informe" of the German buil"6u&$ 0e ha" been "eluge" with warnings for se%eral months. both "irectly an" through clan"estine channels which he thought the sus&icious 'talin might acce&t more rea"ily. CE1D am Bentral . to slee&$ 0e was still con%ince" that the threatening attitu"e of the German forces was nothing more than a &loy by 0itler to blac7mail him into gi%ing &olitical an" economic concessions$ 'talin was awa7ene" shortly after C$4D am by General Klasi7. was torn a&art by gigantic flashes of artificial lightning an" the groun" beneath shu""ere" to the roar of man6ma"e thun"er. from 'e%asto&ol in the "ee& south to Tallinn in the north$ N) re&orte" the situation. '&ecial Regiment 5HH. 'talin or"ere" the man to be shot. from his own intelligence sources an" from frien"ly foreign go%ernments. German guar"s sim&ly calle" their 'o%iet o&&osite numbers into the centre of the bri"ge. the "awn s7y along the western frontier of his em&ire. Nan" re9ueste" &ermission to or"er our troo&s to start fighting bac7$ 'talin was silent$ The only thing ) coul" hear was the soun" of his breathing$ O+o you un"erstan" meMO ) as7e"$ There was silence again$N )ncre"ibly. German armour was able to &our unhin"ere" across the bri"ges$ . &orts. in 2on"on.HHH -ritish an" Bana"ian troo&s an" D:. the Allie" in%asion of @orman"y on * June 1 44 lan"e" a first wa%e of si? seaborne "i%isions an" three airborne. notably the -ritish an" American$ 0e ha" been tol" re&eate"ly that 0itler &lanne" to attac7 him. "eman"ing to s&ea7 to him$ 'lee&ily. either by force or by tric7ery . the com&lete German or"er of battle an" 0itlerNs &lan of attac7. no fewer than 1 . the Bhief of 'taff was agitate"$ NThe Germans are bombing our townsXN he shoute"$ 'talin was silent. the 'o%iet +efence Bommissar.uro&ean Time. :.nigma interce&ts$ 'talin ha" chosen to ignore them all$ The last warnings were still &ouring into the /remlin "uring that fateful 'atur"ay night an" 'un"ay morning. in the face of only rifle an" light wea&on fire from the 'o%iet bor"er guar"s$ They ha" no serious obstacles to o%ercome. ha" cut the tele&hone cables on which they "e&en"e" for most of their communications$ German aircraft ha" com&lete" the tas7 of "isru&tion by "estroying ra"io stations an" signals centres. the -ritish ambassa"or to Moscow who was then in 2on"on for consultations. all clearly %isible from the groun" an" from the air$ There ha" been a hiatus in the buil"6u& for a few wee7s in March an" A&ril. lea&ing out from co%er an" o%er&owering the guar"s after rolling across to the 'o%iet si"e$ At >ero hour. harbours. General Georgi Thu7o%. but that such &ro%ocations were to be resiste"$ When Thu7o% calle" him at 12$CH am on the 'un"ay morning. obtaine" through . a front of less than fifty miles. that the -ritish go%ernment ha" reliable information that 0itler inten"e" to attac7 the 'o%iet (nion ne?t "ay$ A similar message came from the military attaches at the 'o%iet embassy in -erlin. infantry an" other units crosse" the ri%ers in rubber "inghies or flat6bottome" boats.HHH Americans. along with railway trac7s an" Lunctions. German groun" forces ha" crosse" the frontiers to begin the actual in%asion$ -ut still he refuse" to belie%e what was ha&&ening. which ha" been o&erating behin" the 'o%iet lines wearing Re" Army uniforms for some "ays. to re&ort that a secon" German "eserter ha" swum the ri%er 4ruth to bring a re&etition of the warning.

were statione" in the western frontier "istricts$ -earing in min" the ol" military "ictum strictly a"here" to by Allie" comman"ers of the "ay such as General -ernar" Montgomery. by Anthony Rea" an" +a%i" Fisher. the Re" Army shoul" ha%e ha" no "ifficulty in hol"ing off the Wehrmacht. must in the en" be lai" at the "oor of Josef 'talin$ N'talin was so afrai" of war. ha" it been &re&are"$ The fact that it was not &re&are". an" in the "ea"ly embrace into which they entere" when their Foreign Ministers signe" a nonaggression &act on their behalf in Moscow on 2C August 1 C . an embrace which coul" only en" in the total "estruction of one of them$3 . an" the &oint he was constantly trying to ma7e after he came to &ower was to "enigrate e%erything about his &re"ecessor$ -ut in this case. only three sur%i%e" &hysically unharme" to the en"$ )t was a terrible &rice to &ay for the blin"ness of one man.N @i7ita '$ /hrushche%. but still ser%iceable.HHH men. then. against all e%i"ence an" e?&erience. wrote in his memoirs.DHH guns an" mortars !'o%iet figures "o not "ifferentiate between the two ty&es of wea&on#. the number ha" reache" 2. :HH combat aircraft Nof new ty&esN. the Germans ha" "estroye" some 1. 1.@B@?. at least 5HH of them on the groun"$ Within forty6eight hours. which ha" also been thoroughly reconnoitre" by the 2uftwaffe. to the insatiable gree" of one other.*5H. ol"er mo"els$ Jf these forces. few aircraft were either camouflage" or un"er co%er$ Most were neatly &ositione".C:C. an" o%er 2.@>. ammunition for the Re" Army was 7e&t un"er se&arate control. not only were the 'o%iet &lanes sitting "uc7s.5*1 tan7s. at least on &a&er.HHH fiel" guns an" mortars.'o%iet airfiel"s. i"eally "is&laye" for "estruction$ Many were actually &egge" "own to the groun". an" claims that after the fall of France in 1 4H. &$ 16: . an" the Re" Air Force in the west was wi&e" out as a fighting force$ 2i7e the attac7 itself.D4H mo"ern combat aircraft. they were also unable to ta7e off to "efen" themsel%es or their bases$ -y noon on 22 June. well away from the wea&ons it was inten"e" for$ The result was that when the Germans swoo&e" "own from the s7ies. an" huge areas of the country were lai" waste$ Jut of e%ery hun"re" young 'o%iet sol"iers who went to the front. that a numerical su&eriority of CE1 is necessary to ensure the success of an attac7. Josef 'talin. the 'o%iet (nion was. The Deadl 8mbrace( $itler1 Stalin and the Na+i?Soviet 5act1 . there is un"oubte"ly a great "eal of truth in what he says$ Why.4:D tan7s an" 1. Nthat e%en when the Germans trie" to ta7e us by sur&rise $$$ <he= con%ince" himself that 0itler woul" 7ee& his wor" an" woul"nNt really attac7 us$N A goo" many of /hrushche%Ns &ronouncements nee" to be ta7en with large "oses of saltE he was always &re&are" to ben" or stretch the facts in or"er to ma7e a &oint. in s&ite of all the warnings that were gi%en. in full &ara"e formation. then first secretary of the Bommunist 4arty in the (7raine. was 'talin so afrai" of warM Why was he willing. so that they coul" not easily be mo%e". arme" with o%er *:.HHH. an" %ery few were either arme" or fuelle"$ This was the normal con"ition in 'o%iet fiel"s.2HH 'o%iet aircraft. militarily stronger than @a>i Germany$ Jfficial 'o%iet figures gi%e the si>e of the Re" Army in June 1 41 as D. no fewer than 1:H "i%isions with a total strength of 2.HHH men. to trust 0itlerM What was the wor" which he belie%e" 0itler woul" 7ee&M /hrushche% himself su&&lies &art of the answer to the first 9uestion$ 0e says 'talin Nha" ob%iously lost all confi"ence in the ability of our army to &ut u& a fightN. the sheer si>e of the catastro&he unleashe" on the 'o%iet (nion that "ay was un&arallele" in history$ 't was to ta7e the 'o%iet (nion four long years of sa%age fighting to a%enge 0itlerNs treacherous blow$ The cost was enormousE at least twenty million 'o%iet citi>ens "ie" in the war. A"olf 0itler$ (nli7e the other countries which 0itler ha" attac7e" since 'e&tember 1 C . 1. a further twenty6fi%e million were mutilate" or cri&&e". arme" with C:. to &re%ent &ilots "eci"ing either to abscon" or to &ose an arme" threat to the regime$ For the same reason. &lus e%en larger numbers of out"ate". 'talin ha" tol" himE N0itler is sure to beat our brains in$N The answers to the other 9uestions lie in the com&le? &ersonal attitu"es of the two "ictators to each other.

. 1 42 +uring Worl" War )). the war is lost$3 .dol2 ?itler < Baku %il +ields Baku oil 2ields near Baku. A"olf 0itler.8erbaiJan) 1)t is a 9uestion of the &ossession of -a7u$ (nless we get the -a7u oil.s oil was &ro%i"ing almost the entire su&&ly of fuel for the 'o%iet resistance$ 0itler. 1 42$ Antici&ating the u&coming %ictory.s &lan was to attac7 -a7u on 'e&tember 2D. -a7u an" the Bas&ian 'ea$ +elighte". his generals &resente" him a ca7e of the region . 0itler was set on ca&turing the -a7u oil fiel"s to fuel his own efforts of the war$ At that time -a7u. (oviet 9nion "present@day . 0itler too7 the choice &iece for himself . -a7u$ The attac7 ne%er occurre" an" German forces were "efeate" before they coul" reach -a7u$ !4hoto from a "ocumentary film# .

The city of -a7u is locate" ne?t to the Bas&ian 'ea. near the eastern si"e of the Baucasus Mountains$ A ma& of A>erbaiLan. Armenia. an" Georgia .

most coal mines !* &ercent of total out&ut# were owne" subsi"iaries of other cor&orations which use" coal. an" 2 controlle" 4 &ercent$ An" finally. &lastics. an" 1 ha" 14 &ercent$ These mines were organi>e" into fi%e cartels of which 1 controlle" 51 &ercent of the out&ut.CC2$5 million reichsmar7s in assets an" 1. &ri%ate control of the economic system was assure" by releasing it from its subser%ience to the ban7s$ This was achie%e" by legislation such as that curtailing interloc7ing "irectorates an" the new cor&oration law of 1 C:. e?&losi%es. which ha" maLority control of the (nite" 'teel Wor7s$ 0e sol" his control to the German go%ernment for 1*: &ercent of its %alue by threatening to sell it to a French firm$ After 0itler came into &ower. cartels wor7ing between cor&orations fi?e" &rices. an" out&ut 9uotas for all im&ortant in"ustrial &ro"ucts$ An e?am&le of thisZnot by any means the worstZcoul" be foun" in the German coal in"ustry in 1 C:$ There were 2*H mining com&anies$ Jf the total out&ut. &ro"ucers either of metals !D4 &ercent of total coal out&ut# or of chemicals !1H &ercent of total out&ut#$ 'imilar concentration e?iste" in most other lines of economic acti%ity$ )n ferrous metals in 1 2 . gi%en a s&ecial legal status an" a s&ecial court the following year$ -y the time of the financial colla&se of 1 C1 there were 2. by the 0aber &rocess for e?tracting nitrogen from the air. "rugs. concentrating chiefly on "yes !in which it ha" 1HH &ercent mono&oly#. an" these were closely interwo%en$ Flic7 remaine" as "irector of (nite" 'teel Wor7s an" was chairman of the boar"s of four other great steel combines$ )n a""ition. one firm !(nite" 'teel Wor7s# &ro"uce" 4H &ercent of all German steel &ro"uction. mar7ets. it &ro%i"e" su&&lies of e?&losi%es an" fertili>ers when the natural sources in Bhile were cut off$ )n the secon" war. &ro"uction. but abo%e all by the economic fact that the growth of large enter&rises an" of cartels ha" &ut in"ustry in a &osition where it was able to finance itself without see7ing hel& from the ban7s$ This new &ri%ately manage" mono&oly ca&italism was organi>e" in an intricate hierarchy whose "etails coul" be unra%ele" only by a lifetime of stu"y$ The si>e of enter&rises ha" grown so big that in most fiel"s a relati%ely small number were able to "ominate the fiel"$ )n a""ition. &$ D1H6D12 .nother famous e<am#le $an be foun) in the gro&th of =: G: Farbenin)ustrie6 the German $hemi$al organization: This &as forme) in 475G of three $hief firms6 an) gre& stea)ily until after its last reorganization in 47?8 it $ontrolle) about t&oDthir)s of GermanyKs out#ut of $hemi$als: )t s&rea" into e%ery branch of in"ustry. of which artificial rubber an" synthetic motor fuels were the most im&ortant$ This com&any by the 'econ" Worl" War was the largest enter&rise in Germany$ )t ha" o%er 2. Traged and $o&e by Barroll Yuigley. enforcing their "ecisions by means of fines or boycotts$ They were also members of the )nternational 'teel Bartel. this ownershi& by the go%ernment was 1re6&ri%ati>e"3 so that go%ernment ownershi& was re"uce" to 2D &ercent$ Four other grou&s ha" 41 &ercent among them. 21 com&anies ha" H &ercent. an" mono&oly ca&italism ha" grown to such an e?tent that it was &re&are" to ta7e o%er com&lete control of the German economic system$ As the ban7s fell un"er go%ernment control.HHH &ersons in those in which it was "irectly concerne"$ )t ha" interests in about :HH cor&orations outsi"e Germany an" ha" entere" into o%er DHH restricti%e agreements with foreign concerns$3 . as well as of numerous other im&ortant enter&rises$ )t is %ery li7ely that the steel in"ustry of Germany in 1 C: was controlle" by no more than fi%e men of whom Flic7 was the most im&ortant$ These e?am&les of the growth of mono&oly ca&italism in Germany are merely &ic7e" at ran"om an" are by no means e?ce&tional$ . accor"ing to the Fe"eration of German )n"ustrialists$ They were. an" em&loye" CDH. which began about 15 H. but in a""ition the steel in"ustry was organi>e" into a series of steel cartels !one for each &ro"uct#$ These cartels.s steel cartel an" "ominate" by it$ The )nternational Bartel controlle" two6fifths of the worl"Ns steel &ro"uction an" fi%e6si?ths of the total foreign tra"e in steel$ The ownershi& of iron an" steel enter&rises in Germany is obscure but ob%iously highly concentrate"$ )n 1 C2. Frie"rich Flic7 ha" maLority ownershi& of Gelsen6/irchner -ergwer7e.DHH cartels. mo"ele" on Germany. while 12 firms &ro"uce" o%er H &ercent$ Bom&etition coul" ne%er e?ist with concentration as com&lete as this. an" mar7ets within Germany. as we ha%e seen. D ha" DH &ercent.1)n 1 2C there were 1.DHH cartels. it &ro%i"e" numerous absolute necessities. there was a %ery consi"erable amount of interloc7ing "irectorates an" ownershi& by one cor&oration of the ca&ital stoc7 of another$ Finally. he was "irector or chairman of the boar"s in si? iron an" coal mines. C firms out of 2* accounte" for *5$5 &ercent of all German &ig6iron &ro"uction8 4 out of 4 &ro"uce" *5$C &ercent of all cru"e steel8 C out of D &ro"uce" DD$5 &ercent of all rolling mill &ro"ucts$ )n 1 4C.1*D million in ca&itali>ation in 1 42$ )t ha" about 1HH im&ortant subsi"iaries in Germany. an" light metals$ )t ha" been sai" that Germany coul" not ha%e fought either of the worl" wars without )$ G$ Farben$ )n the first war. by 1 CH ha" control of 1HH &ercent of the German out&ut of ferrous metal &ro"ucts$ Member firm ha" achie%e" this figure by buying u& the nonmembers in the years before 1 CH$ These cartels manage" &rices.

@>. of the current -ritish 4rime Minister <Bhurchill=$ . the entire German nation shoul" also re%iew what has ha&&ene" an" ta7e note of the "ecisions re9uire" by the &resent an" the future$ After the re&eate" reLection of my &eace &ro&osal in 1 4H by the -ritish 4rime Minister <Bhurchill= an" the cli9ue that su&&orts an" controls him. which ha" to be sur%eye". not only of our German history.1 reviewed the dramatic course of the war thus far1 and dealt at length with 5resident .ranklin 0oosevelt*s hostile &olicies toward German % $itler detailed the increasingl belligerent actions of 0oosevelt*s government and then dramaticall announced that German was now Doining Ea&an in war against the Cnited States% The da after it wasFdelivered1 a ver inaccurate and misleading translation of &ortions of the address a&&eared in the New Gork Times% But although it should be of &articular interest to Americans1 a com&lete te:t of this im&ortant historical document has a&&arentl never before been made available to the 8nglish?s&eaking world% This translation is m own1 as are the brief clarifications given in brackets% . inclu"ing some in the far north which were blaste" out of granite$ The number an" strength of the &rotecte" submarine shelters that "efen" na%al bases are such that they are &ractically im&regnable from both the sea an" the air$ They are "efen"e" by more than one an" a half thousan" gun battery em&lacements. 1 41E 0itlerNs "eclaration of war against the (nite" 'tates 4t has often been said that $itler*s greatest mistakes were his decisions to go to war against the Soviet Cnion and the Cnited States% Whatever the truth ma be1 it*s worth noting his own detailed Dustifications for these grave decisions% 7n Thursda afternoon1 . strategic an" economic areas that ha" been won$ Bonse9uently.@B@1 e:&lained wh he decided to strike against the Soviet Cnion in Eune . abo%e all.uro&ean front im&regnable against any enemy attac7$ This "efensi%e wor7 which continue" "uring the &ast winter. but also for many generations to come$ A historical tas7 of uni9ue "imensions has been entruste" to us by the Breator which we are now oblige" to carry out$ The western armistice which was &ossible shortly after the conclusion of the conflict in @orway <in June 1 4H= com&elle" the German lea"ershi&. December . to militarily secure the most im&ortant &olitical. but also of the history of . it was clear by the fall of that year that this war woul" ha%e to be fought through to the en". 7now that ) ha%e always "eteste" half6hearte" or wea7 "ecisions$ )f 4ro%i"ence has "eeme" that the German &eo&le are not to be s&are" this struggle.ollowing the s&eech1 4 have included German *s formal note to the C%S% government declaring war and a short list of items for suggested further reading% 6 Mar7 Weber +e&utiesX Men of the German ReichstagX A year of worl"6historical e%ents is coming to an en"$ A year of great "ecisions is a&&roaching$ )n this gra%e &erio" ) s&ea7 to you. &lanne" an" built$ A networ7 of roa"s an" rail lines has been lai" out so that the lines of communication between the '&anish frontier an" 4etsamo <in the far @orth= can be "efen"e" in"e&en"ently from the sea$ The installations built by the 4ioneer an" construction battalions of the na%y. the German air force hel&s to "estroy enemy shi&&ing an" in countless retaliation air attac7s to gi%e the -ritish a better i"ea of the reality of the so6calle" Oe?citing warO which is the creation. my ol" 4arty comra"es.1 four da s after the Ea&anese attack on 5earl $arbor1 $itler s&oke to the 0eichstag in Berlin% The <<?minute address1 which he had written himself1 was broadcast to the nation% 4n it the German leader recounted the reasons for the outbreak of war in Se&tember .The Reichstag s&eech of +ecember 11. "e&uties of the Reichstag. the "efense ca&abilities of the lan"s which were con9uere" at that time ha%e change"$ From /ir7enes <in northern @orway= to the '&anish frontier stretches the most e?tensi%e belt of great "efense installations an" fortresses$ Bountless air fiel"s ha%e been built. contrary to all logic an" necessity$ Aou. as the re&resentati%es of the German nation$ )n a""ition. army an" air force in coo&eration with the To"t Jrgani>ation are not at all inferior to those of the Westwall <along the German frontier with France=$ The wor7 to further strengthen all this continues without &ause$ ) am "etermine" to ma7e this .uro&e an" e%en of the entire worl"$ The German &eo&le an" its sol"iers wor7 an" fight to"ay not only for themsel%es an" their own age. was com&lemente" by military offensi%es insofar as seasonal con"itions &ermitte"$ German na%al forces abo%e an" below the wa%es continue" their stea"y war of annihilation against the na%y an" merchant marine of the -ritish an" their subser%ient allies$ Through reconnaissance flights an" air attac7s. then ) am than7ful that 'he has entruste" me with the lea"ershi& in a historic conflict that will be "ecisi%e in "etermining the ne?t fi%e hun"re" or one thousan" years. first of all.@>..

an" where the flame first burne" which slowly but stea"ily enlightene" humanity$ An" when these Gree7s fought against the in%asion of the 4ersian con9uerors. e%en to this "ay$ An" when the . of all of .ast meant that we were not in a &osition to hel&$ When it became clear to us that 'o%iet Russia conclu"e" that the <German6'o%iet= "elineation of &olitical s&heres of influence <in August 1 C = ga%e it the right to &ractically e?terminate foreign nations. much less sur&asse". Germans an" )talians stan" together against the same enemy$ While these "aring actions were again securing the @orth African front with the bloo" of German an" )talian sol"iers.uro&e$ Bom&elle" by bitter necessity. claiming that Germany inten"e" to in%a"e them an" rob them of their free"om$ 0owe%er. an" thus the "estruction.uro&e. which ha" been reache" by @or"ic tribes. the countries in%ol%e" reali>e" %ery 9uic7ly 6 which was unfortunate for the German Reich as well 6 that the best an" strongest guarantee against the <'o%iet= threat from the . which was Greece. Germany actually ha" only economic interests$ ) may remin" you. an" -ar"ia was occu&ie" on 12 A&ril$ The achie%ement of the German Afri7a /or&s is all the more outstan"ing because this fiel" of battle is com&letely alien an" unfamiliar to the Germans. when these countries. Rumania an" so forth were incline" to acce&t the -ritish offers of military alliance an" thereby ma"e clear that they also belie%e" themsel%es to be threatene" <by Germany=. abo%e all. the fate of these countries arouse" the strongest sym&athy of the German &eo&le$ The winter war of the Finns <against the (''R. but rather only to attac7 that which seeme" inca&able of "efense$ The 9uic7 conclusion of the cam&aign in the West <May6June 1 4H= meant that those in &ower in Moscow were not able to count on the imme"iate e?haustion of the German Reich$ 0owe%er. on their own initiati%e. there was the sober military reali>ation that in case of a war which might be force" u&on the German nation by -ritish "i&lomacy. cut their ties with the German Reich an" instea" &ut their trust in &romises of ai" from a &ower <-ritain= which. Tobru7 was encircle" on the 11th. he now tries to "eny that "uring a secret meeting in the -ritish 0ouse of Bommons in 1 4H he sai" that an im&ortant factor for the successful continuation an" conclusion of this war woul" be the 'o%iet entry into the war. "e&uties an" men of the German Reichstag. in its &ro%erbial egotism. as a sol"ierly nation. ) "eci"e" in the fall of 1 C to at least try to create the &rere9uisite con"itions for a general &eace by eliminating the acute tension between Germany an" 'o%iet Russia <with the German6'o%iet non6aggression &act of 2C August 1 C =$ This was &sychologically "ifficult because of the basic attitu"e towar"s -olshe%ism of the German &eo&le an". the im&ortance an" creati%e &ower of which has ne%er been matche". but only &ost&one" the timing of their attac7$ The summer of 1 41 seeme" li7e the i"eal moment to stri7e$ A new Mongol in%asion was rea"y to &our across . they "i" not Lust "efen" their own small homelan". but rather the line that "i%i"es the Western outloo7 on life from that of the . of the <@ational 'ocialist= 4arty$ JbLecti%ely. we ha%e a sym&athetic heart for heroism an" sacrifice. has for centuries ne%er gi%en hel& but has always "eman"e" it. 1 C 61 4H= arouse" in us a feeling of a"miration mi?e" with bitternessE a"miration because.ast$ At one time.uro&e$ ) ha%e alrea"y tol" the nation of the buil"6u& of 'o%iet Russian military &ower in the . but only a racial <%ollcliche= an" cultural one$ The frontier of this continent is not the (ral mountains.uro&e$ What is .ast was Germany$ Thus. but <also= that conce&t which is now . this was a sim&le matter because in all the countries that -ritain sai" were threatene" by us an" which were offere" military alliances.uro&e shifte" from 0ellas to Rome$ Roman thought an" Roman statecraft combine" with Gree7 s&irit an" Gree7 culture$ An em&ire was create". that throughout the s&ring an" summer of 1 C -ritain offere" military alliances to a number of countries. the <German6'o%iet= relationshi& was maintaine" only for utilitarian reasons.uro&e was confine" to the Gree7 isles. it was not only the right but also the "uty of the German Reich go%ernment to "elineate the <geogra&hical= limits of German interests <between Germany an" the (''R=$ All the same. the struggle coul" be fought on two fronts only with %ery great sacrifices$ An" after the -altic states. climatically an" otherwise$ As once in '&ain <1 C*61 C =. they "i" not change their &lans at all. an" bitterness because our concern for the enemy threat in the West an" the "anger in the . but by 24 March of this &ast year a small combine" force of German an" )talian units un"er the comman" of General <. though.rwin= Rommel began a counterattac7$ Age"abia fell on 2 A&ril$ -engha>i was reache" on the 4th$ Jur combine" forces entere" +erna on the 5th. contrary to reason an" sentiment$ Alrea"y in 1 4H it became increasingly clear from month to month that the &lans of the men in the /remlin were aime" at the "omination. the threatening clou"s of terrible "anger were gathering o%er . which woul" come "uring 1 41 at the latest. we obser%e" the military buil"6u& of a worl" &ower this last s&ring which seeme" to ha%e ine?haustible reser%es of human an" material resources$ +ar7 clou"s began to gather o%er .uro&e$ An" then <the s&irit of . so now in @orth Africa.uro&e$ Mr$ Bhurchill also &romise" that there woul" be a change in the -ritish war against Germany at this same time$ )n a cowar"ly way. the German Reich an" its go%ernment coul" assure them with a clear conscience that these insinuations "i" not corres&on" to the truth in any way$ Moreo%er. my "e&utiesM There is no geogra&hical "efinition of our continent. . they were lost All the same.Germany was su&&orte" in this struggle "uring the &ast summer abo%e all by its )talian ally$ For many months our ally )taly bore on its shoul"ers the main weight of a large &art of -ritish might$ Jnly because of the enormous su&eriority in hea%y tan7s were the -ritish able to bring about a tem&orary crisis in @orth Africa. an" which woul" also ma7e it &ossible for -ritain to ta7e the offensi%e$ Bonscious of our "uty.ast "uring a &erio" when Germany ha" only a few "i%isions in the &ro%inces bor"ering 'o%iet Russia$ Jnly a blin" &erson coul" fail to see that a military buil"6u& of uni9ue worl"6historical "imensions was being carrie" out$ An" this was not in or"er to &rotect something that was being threatene".

uro&ean nations that they &artici&ate in this struggle. ne%ertheless together constitute a racially an" culturally unifie" an" com&lementary whole$ An" from this . also greatly transcen"s the interests of our own &eo&le an" nation$ When the Gree7s once stoo" against the 4ersians.uro&e against a &rofoun"ly alien outsi"e worl"$ Just as Rome once ma"e her immortal contribution to the buil"ing an" "efense of the continent.uro&e may seem worthy of a"miration to a Jewifie" mi?e" race. they "efen"e" more than Lust Rome$ When the Roman an" Germanic &eo&les stoo" together against the 0uns.uro&e is the geogra&hic territory of the Jcci"ent. a fact which anyone reali>es who is willing to ac7nowle"ge the truth rather than "eny it$ Thus. it was not America that "isco%ere" . they "efen"e" more than Lust Greece$ When the Romans stoo" against the Barthaginians. or others &ushing bac7 Africa from '&ain o%er a &erio" of many years.ast$ A horrific storm of cultureless hor"es s&rang from the center of Asia "ee& into the heart of the . burning. abo%e all. it was not .Roman legions "efen"e" )taly in three terrible wars against the attac7 of Barthage from Africa. but for our entire continent$ An" it is an aus&icious sign that this reali>ation is to"ay so "ee&ly roote" in the subconscious of most . an" which the German Reich. but .uro&e ha" mature"$ The Jcci"ent arose from 0ellas an" Rome. motori>e" an" infantry "i%isions$ The human an" material resources for them were abun"antly a%ailable$ <)n this regar"= ) can ma7e only one &romise to you. either with o&en e?&ressions of su&&ort or with streams of %olunteers$ When the German an" )talian armies too7 the offensi%e against Augosla%ia an" Greece on the *th of A&ril of this year. Germany "oes not fight to"ay Lust for itself. my "e&uties. &asse" on to the Romans. an" finally battle" to %ictory. so now ha%e the Germanic &eo&les ta7en u& the "efense an" &rotection of a family of nations which. but intellectual <geistig= an" cultural fertili>ation as well. but all of . ins&ire" by the &owerful heritage of the Roman em&ire. which became ob%iously una%oi"able in the early months of this year. is calle" u&on this time to lea". an" to the entire German nationE while &eo&le in "emocratic countries un"erstan"ably . ra%aging an" mur"ering as a true scourge of Go"$ Roman an" Germanic men fought together for the first time on the Batalaunian battle fiel"s in a "ecisi%e conflict <4D1 A$+$= of tremen"ous im&ortance for a culture which ha" begun with the Gree7s. an" then encom&asse" the Germanic &eo&les$ . ) was not able to re%eal that we were %ery 9uic7ly a&&roaching a confrontation with a state <'o%iet Russia= which "i" not attac7 at the time of the cam&aign in the -al7ans only because its military buil"6u& was not yet com&lete an" because it was not able to use its air fiel"s as a result of the mu" from melting snow at this time of year which ma"e it im&ossible to use the runways$ My +e&utiesX Men of the ReichstagX When ) became aware of the &ossibility of a threat to the east of the Reich in 1 4H through <secret= re&orts from the -ritish 0ouse of Bommons an" by obser%ations of 'o%iet Russian troo& mo%ements on our frontiers. but the other way aroun"$ An" all that which America "i" not get from . the &ro"uct of Jewish or @egroi" bloo" mi?ture$ My +e&utiesX Men of the German ReichstagX ) ha%e to ma7e these remar7s because this struggle. they "efen"e" more than Lust the West$ When German em&erors stoo" against the Mongols they "efen"e" more than Lust Germany$ An" when '&anish heroes stoo" against Africa.uro&e$ The ne?t in%asion against the home soil of this new culture of humanity came from the wi"e e?&anses of the .nglan" which culti%ate" the continent. 'talin belie%e" he coul" obtain in"irectly against our will by re%olutionary acti%ity$ Without regar" for the treaties they ha" signe". which is certainly uni9ue in history$ )n the same way. in DD=. the -olshe%i7 rulers e?&an"e" their ambitions$ The <'o%iet= treaty of frien"shi& with the new re%olutionary regime <in -elgra"e= showe" %ery 9uic7ly Lust how threatening the "anger ha" become$ The achie%ements of the German arme" forces in this cam&aign were honore" in the German Reichstag on 4 May 1 41$ At that time.uro&e as well$ )n the same way. but rather Anglo6'a?on an" @orman branches of the Germanic nation from our continent which mo%e" to the <-ritish= islan" an" ma"e &ossible her "e%elo&ment. they "efen"e" not Lust '&ain. that was the &relu"e to the great struggle in which we now fin" oursel%es$ That is because the re%olt in -elgra"e <on 2* March 1 41= which le" to the o%erthrow of the former &rince regent an" his go%ernment "etermine" the further "e%elo&ment of e%ents in that &art of .ast by the (nstrut or on the 2echfel" <near Augsburg. it was always a struggle of a "e%elo&ing . its territory enlarge" by Germanic coloni>ation$ Whether it was the German em&erors fighting bac7 in%asions from the . but abo%e all of the Germanic &eo&les$ What we call .uro&ean continent.uro&e there ha%e not only been settlements in other &arts of the worl". though. ) imme"iately or"ere" the formation of many new armore". although they may "iffer an" "i%erge in their &olitical structure an" goals.uro&e$ Although -ritain &laye" a maLor role in that cou&. enlightene" by Gree7 culture.uro&e regar"s that merely as sym&tomatic of "ecay in artistic an" cultural life.uro&e. 'o%iet Russia &laye" the main role$ What ) ha" refuse" to Mr$ Moloto% <the 'o%iet Foreign Minister= "uring his %isit to -erlin <in @o%ember 1 4H=. an" for many centuries its "efense was the tas7 not only of the Romans. but <also= for the Greco6 Roman worl" which then encom&asse" . in this case as well Rome fought not Lust for herself.

another C1H. Flemish.2HD tan7s an" C. in a few sentences ) woul" li7e to say something about what has been achie%e" <so far= in this greatest conflict in history$ -ecause of the enormous area in%ol%e" as well as the number an" si>e of the e%ents. an" it is not any "ifferent now$ Whene%er "ecisi%e action has to be ta7en. +utch. %olunteers ha%e come from northern an" western .uro&ean worl". 0ungarians an" Rumanians ha" not also acte" to "efen" this . in @ational 'ocialist Germany all the more will actually be &ro"uce"$ )t has been that way in the &ast.uro&ean balance of &ower in all its intellectual &aucity an" tra"itional stu&i"ity$ )f the 'lo%a7s. to ta7e u& wea&ons.HHH &risoners as well as 144 tan7s an" 545 artillery &ieces either ca&ture" or "estroye"$ The 'o%iet Russian &ositions between the )lmen an" 4ei&us <2a7es= were bro7en through on 21 August.HHH &risoners of war. then the -olshe%i7 hor"es woul" ha%e &oure" o%er the +anube countries as "i" once the swarms of AttilaNs 0uns. an" German an" Rumanian units were able to force their way across the +niester <Ri%er= on 1 July$ The -attle of 'molens7 en"e" on * August after many encircling o&erations$ As a result.tal7 a lot about armaments.uro&ean "efense front woul" not ha%e arisen which &roclaims the conce&t of a new .uro&e which woul" ha%e eliminate" once an" for all time the laughable -ritish i"ea of the . ha" not stoo" against this o&&onent.12H artillery &ieces were counte" 6 either "estroye" or ca&ture"$ Just three "ays later the fate of another 'o%iet Russian army grou& was seale"$ Jn August in the battle of (man.HHH Russians were ta7en as &risoners$ Moreo%er. for the secon" time.uro&e an" thereby effecti%ely ins&ires all other nations as well$ -ecause of this awareness of "anger.stonia= after hea%y fighting. -elgians an" e%en French$ They ha%e all gi%en the struggle of the allie" forces of the A?is the character of a . the fortress <there= was ta7en in combat. then a . +anes. . then the comfortable bourgeois life of the other @or"ic countries woul" ha%e been 9uic7ly en"e"$ )f the German Reich.uro&e.HHH tan7s.uro&e for its e?istence$ ) may say this to"ayE )f this wa%e of more than 2H.uro&eE @orwegians. with its sol"iers an" wea&ons. in the truest sense of the wor"$ This is not yet the right time to s&ea7 of the &lanning an" "irection of this cam&aign$ 0owe%er.uro&ean crusa"e. abo%e all.1HH artillery &ieces were either "estroye" or ca&ture"$ @i7olaye% <in the (7raine= fell on 1C August.5H artillery &ieces$ -y 1C July the 'talin 2ine ha" been bro7en through at almost e%ery "ecisi%e &lace$ 'molens7 fell on 1* July after hea%y fighting. an" /herson was ta7en on the 21st$ Jn the same "ay the battle near Gomel en"e". while the bri"gehea" aroun" +ne&ro&etro%s7 fell into our han"s on 2* August$ Jn the 25th of that month German troo&s entere" Tallinn an" 4al"is7i <. ) ha%e "one e%erything to a%oi" conflict$ -ut ) woul" forget my "uty an" my conscience if ) were to "o nothing in s&ite of the reali>ation that a conflict ha" become una%oi"able$ -ecause ) regar"e" 'o%iet Russia as a "anger not only for the German Reich but for all of . to gi%e the or"er myself to attac7 a few "ays before the outbrea7 of this conflict$ A truly im&ressi%e amount of authentic material is now a%ailable which confirms that a 'o%iet Russian attac7 was inten"e"$ We are also sure about when this attac7 was to ta7e &lace$ )n %iew of this "anger. along with more than 1H. an" Kilnius an" /aunas <in 2ithuania= were also ta7en$ +auga%&ils <in 2at%ia= fell on 2* June$ The first two great encirclement battles near -ialysto7 an" Mins7 were com&lete" on 1H July$ We ca&ture" C24. C. resulting in 54.CC2 tan7s an" 1. an" C1: tan7s an" 1. we will ha%e more an". in"i%i"ual im&ressions may be lost an" forgotten$ The attac7 began at "awn on 22 June <1 41=$ With "auntless "aring. a storm woul" ha%e burne" o%er . they show that they "o not un"erstan" either the situation or me$ ) ha%e not sought war$ To the contrary. hun"re"s of "i%isions. while the . the e?tent of which we are &erha&s only now truly aware. ) "eci"e". tens of thousan"s of artillery &ieces.HHH 'o%iet Russian &risoners of war were ta7en. the "ecision in this case <to attac7 the (''R= was a %ery "ifficult one$ When the writers for the "emocratic news&a&ers now "eclare that ) woul" ha%e thought twice before attac7ing if ) ha" 7nown the strength of the -olshe%i7 a"%ersaries. ha" not been 7e&t from being set into motion against the Reich. better 9uality wea&ons with each &assing year$ We reali>e" %ery clearly that un"er no circumstances coul" we allow the enemy the o&&ortunity to stri7e first into our heart$ @e%ertheless.uro&e woul" ha%e been lost$ 'e%eral nations ha%e been "estine" to &re%ent or &arry this blow through the sacrifice of their bloo"$ )f Finlan" <for e?am&le= ha" not imme"iately "eci"e".HHH air&lanes. an" <'o%iet= Tatars an" Mongols woul" <then= force a re%ision of the Treaty of Montreu? <of July 1 C*= on the o&en country by the )onian 'ea$ )f )taly. the frontier fortifications which were meant to &rotect the 'o%iet Russian buil"6u& against us from sur&rise attac7 were bro7en through$ Gro"no fell by 2C June$ Jn 24 June. another 1HC. '&ain an" Broatia ha" not sent their "i%isions. if &ossible. an" all of . ) can only than7 the 2or" Go" that 0e enlightene" me in time an" has gi%en me the strength to "o what must be "one$ Millions of German sol"iers may than7 0im for their li%es. following the ca&ture of -rest62ito%s7. C.

15H tons$ Altogether. 554 tan7s an" C. the German army has lost in this heroic struggleE 1D5. so also to"ay. 5. the sol"iers of the . 2C2 woun"e" an" 11D missing$ For the German arme" forces altogetherE 1*2. the greatest bur"en of battle is born by our e%er6&resent infantry sol"iers$ From 22 June to 1 +ecember <1 41=.HHH &risoners. e?&ose" to the har"shi&s of a climate that %aries between the White an" -lac7 'eas from the intense heat of July an" August "ays to the winter storms of @o%ember an" +ecember.C14 "ea". but somewhat less than half the number of missing in that battle 6 all the same.*11 gross registere" tons of shi&&ing.D41.4DC woun"e" an" 2.242 tan7s an" D. *. free>ing in snow an" ice.4D2 artillery &ieces that were either "estroye" or ca&ture"$ The ca&ture of +agoe was com&lete" on 21 Jctober$ The in"ustrial center of /har7o% was ta7en on 24 Jctober$ After %ery hea%y fighting. D:1.Finns too7 Kyborg on the 2Hth$ With the ca&ture of 4etro7re&ost on 5 'e&tember. are best 9ualifie" to com&are this loss of life with that of the &resent war$ The military cam&aign in the . the )talians.1 1 missing$ The air force has lostE C.HHH &risoners of war marche" to the west$ )n the encircle" area.1 1 -ritish air&lanes were shot "own$ The na%y san7 4.C4*. &erha&s.:*: woun"e" an" CC.::C "ea".n"less columns of **D. an" on 22 'e&tember the con9uest of <the -altic islan" of= 'aaremaa was crowne" by the ca&ture of its ca&ital$ The battle near /ie% was com&lete" on 2: 'e&tember$ . ) attem&te" to eliminate the unen"urable con"itions by means of a Lust agreement$ For a certain time it seeme" as if the 4olish go%ernment was seriously consi"ering gi%ing its a&&ro%al to a reasonable solution$ ) may also a"" here that in all of these German &ro&osals. an" of air&lanes 1:. whereas "uring Lust a few months of &eace <in 1 C = more than *2. Rumanians an" Broatians. the number of "ea" an" woun"e" is somewhat more than "ouble the number of those lost in the <four month long= battle of the 'omme of the <First= Worl" War <in 1 1*=.1:5 artillery &ieces were ca&ture"$ The battle to brea7 through the central area of the .5H*. often bogge" "own with "es&air in the mu" of bottomless "irt roa"s. they fought 6 the Germans an" the Finns. suffering from "irt an" &ests.2C1 "ea".HHH ethnic Germans were 7ille". torture" by heat an" thirst. D*C. of all of our German fighting men in uniform. the total number of ca&ture" 'o%iet Russian &risoners was C.1:H.CC4 missing$ That is. German an" Rumanian units were able to enter J"essa on 1* Jctober$ The battle to brea7 through the center of the .C22$ +uring this same &erio" of time. 2eningra" was finally cut off from the south$ -y 1* 'e&tember bri"gehea"s across the +nie&er were forme". if for no other reason than for its own security. sacrifices an" sufferings. the %olunteers from the northern an" western . we were willing to gi%e u& much which ha" belonge" to Germany before the <First= Worl" War$ Aou will recall the "ramatic e%ents of that &erio" 6 the stea"ily increasing numbers of %ictims among the ethnic Germans <in 4olan"=$ Aou. "ry figures$ -ut may they ne%er be forgotten by history or %anish from the memory of our own German nationX For behin" these figures are the achie%ements.HHH "eaths.astern front that ha" begun on 2 Jctober en"e" on 15 Jctober with a success that is uni9ue in worl" history$ The result was **C.C 1. truth an" Lustice re9uires that something be mentione" againE As in the &ast. &articularly .H52 woun"e" an" C1.astern frontX To"ay ) will not single out s&ecific branches of the arme" forces or &raise s&ecific lea"ers 6 they ha%e all "one their best$ An" yet. an" on 2 @o%ember the ca&ital of 'imfero&ol was storme"$ Jn 1* @o%ember the Brimea was o%errun as far as /erch$ As of 1 +ecember. 0ungarians. of artillery &ieces C2. as well as 1.H25 missing$ The na%yE C1H "ea". 'lo%a7s. the heroism an" rea"iness to "ie of millions of the best men of our own &eo&le an" of the countries allie" with us$ . tormente" by insects.astern front began on 2 Jctober. an" through struggle such as those bac7 in the homelan" can har"ly imagine$ They ha%e marche" en"less "istances.5*D$ The number of "estroye" or ca&ture" tan7s was 21.D1*.: 1 gross registere" tons were "estroye"$ My +e&utiesX My German &eo&leX These are sober facts an".HHH &risoners. 2. the man who is &rimarily res&onsible for this war$ When the nationality &roblem in the former 4olish state was growing e%er more intolerable in 1 C .uro&ean countries 6 in short.%erything ha" to be fought for at the cost of health an" life. an" the air force san7 2. inclu"ing some who were horribly torture"$ There is no 9uestion that the German Reich ha" the right to &rotest against this situation on its bor"er an" to &ress for its elimination. 212 tan7s an" *:2 artillery &ieces were counte"$ After hea%y fighting. my "e&uties. an" on 15 'e&tember 4olta%a fell into the han"s of our sol"iers$ German units storme" the fortress of /ie% on 1 'e&tember. nothing was "eman"e" which ha" not &re%iously belonge" to Germany$ )n fact. the Brimea was finally reache". while the battle of the A>o% 'ea was successfully com&lete" on 11 Jctober$ Another 1H:. fathers an" sons of our German &eo&le$ An" now let me s&ea7 about another worl" which is re&resente" by a man <4resi"ent Fran7lin Roose%elt= who li7es to chat nicely at the firesi"e while nations an" their sol"iers fight in snow an" iceE abo%e all.ast has so far cost the entire German arme" forces about 1*H.

who li%e" in this territory on that "ate or were born there before that "ate are also entitle" to %ote$ Those Germans who were e?&elle" from this territory will return to %ote in the &lebiscite$ To insure an obLecti%e &lebiscite an" to ma7e sure that all necessary &reliminary &re&aration wor7 is com&letely carrie" out. all 4oles. similar to the one organi>e" in the 'aar territory$ This commission is to be organi>e" imme"iately by the four great &owers of )taly. 4olish sol"iers. which is regar"e" as fun"amentally so%ereign 4olish territory.ast 4russia. the German Reich was mo%e" to ma7e one final &ro&osal$ We were &re&are" to enter into negotiations with 4olan" on the basis of this &ro&osal. the intolerable treatment of the minority &o&ulations in the lost territories$ )n ma7ing this &ro&osal.ast 4russia an" the rest of the Reich$ Jf much greater concern were the brutal &ersecutions of the Germans in 4olan"$ )n a""ition. it regar"s this obligation as bin"ing on both si"es$ Jn the basis of these consi"erations. which woul" mean that not only eastern . an" so forth. Grau"en>.s blan7 chec7 of unlimite" bac7ing. /uhn an" -romberg 6 inclu"ing these towns 6 an" then westwar"s to 'choenlan7e$ C$ For this &ur&ose a &lebiscite will be con"ucte" in this territory$ All Germans who li%e" in this territory on 1 January 1 15 or were born there before that "ate are entitle" to %ote in the &lebiscite$ 'imilarly. we ma7e the following &ractical &ro&osalsE 1$ The Free Bity of +an>ig returns imme"iately to the German Reich on the basis of its &urely German character an" the unanimous "esire of its &o&ulation$ 2$ The territory of the so6calle" <4olish= Borri"or will "eci"e for itself whether it wishes to belong to Germany or to 4olan"$ This territory consists of the area between the -altic 'ea <in the north= to a line mar7e" <in the south= by the towns of Marienwer"er. secon".since we li%e in an age in which <some= other countries <notably. 4olish &olice an" 4olish authorities are to clear out of this territory as soon as &ossible. the &lebiscite will not ta7e &lace until after at least 12 months ha%e &asse"$ *$ )n or"er to guarantee unhin"ere" traffic between Germany an" . an" which will sol%e the minority &roblem. to the e?tent of <ethnic= 4olish settlement The s&ecific bor"er of this 4olish harbor city will be negotiate" by Germany an" 4olan" an". Bashubians. the other minority &o&ulation grou&s <notably the (7rainians= were subLect to a fate that was no less se%ere$ +uring those "ays in August <1 C =. will at least insure a tolerable life for the minority &o&ulations with secure guarantees of their rights$ The German Reich go%ernment is con%ince" that it is absolutely necessary to ac7nowle"ge the economic an" &hysical "estruction that has occurre" since 1 15 an" to com&letely com&ensate for it Jf course. an". roa"s an" rail lines may be built to insure free transit$ The only tolls that may be im&ose" are those necessary for the maintenance of the transit routes or for trans&ort itself$ :$ A sim&le maLority of the %otes cast will "eci"e whether the territory will go to Germany or to 4olan"$ . the 'o%iet (nion. the &roblems to be resol%e" were not %ery im&ortant$ . an" if not. first. the intolerable bor"er that was s&ecifie" by the "ictate" &eace of Kersailles <of 1 1 =. when the 4olish attitu"e stea"ily har"ene". an" between 4olan" an" the <-altic= 'ea "uring this &erio" <before the &lebiscite=.uro&e but other areas as well woul" be subLect to the same tensions$ The causes of this situation are roote" in. than7s to -ritain. the German Reich go%ernment is moti%ate" by the "esire to achie%e a &ermanent solution which will insure that both si"es ha%e %itally im&ortant connecting roa"s. the ('A an" -ritain= regar" their security at sta7e e%en in foreign continents$ )n geogra&hical terms. "etermine" by an international court of arbitration$ D$ )n or"er to insure sufficient time for the &re&arations necessary in or"er to con"uct a Lust &lebiscite.ssentially they in%ol%e" +an>ig <G"ans7= an" a connecting lin7 between the torn6away &ro%ince of . by a "ate to be agree" u&on$ 4$ This territory "oes not inclu"e the 4olish harbor of G"ynia. France an" -ritain$ This commission will ha%e all so%ereign authority in the territory$ Accor"ingly. if necessary. an" we %erbally informe" the -ritish ambassa"or of the &ro&osal te?t$ To"ay ) woul" li7e to recall that &ro&osal an" re%iew it with you$ <Te?t of the German &ro&osal of 2 August 1 C E= 4ro&osal for a settlement of the +an>ig6Borri"or &roblem an" the German64olish minority 9uestionE The situation between the German Reich an" 4olan" is now such that one more inci"ent coul" lea" to action by the military forces which ha%e ta7en &osition on both si"es of the frontier$ Any &eaceful solution must be such that the basic causes of this situation are eliminate" so that it "oes not sim&ly re&eat itself. insofar as that is &ossible. this territory will come un"er the authority of an international commission.

in a""ition. as well as between 4olan" an" the <-altic= 'ea$ )f the &lebiscite "etermines that the territory belongs to 4olan".n" of the te?t of the German &ro&osal= The former 4olish go%ernment refuse" to res&on" to these &ro&osals in any way$ )n this regar". a&&ro?imately along the line of -uetow6+an>ig an" +irschau$ The highway an" the rail line will be built in such a way that the 4olish transit lines are not "isturbe". 4olan" will ha%e free an" unrestricte" transit to its harbor of G"ynia with the same right to an e?traterritorial roa" an" rail line that Germany woul" ha%e$ $ )n case the Borri"or returns to Germany. an" abo%e all. a&art from the emigration of many millions of Germans with their s7ills. the 9uestion &resents itselfE 0ow is it &ossible that such an unim&ortant state coul" "are to sim&ly "isregar" such &ro&osals an". from which the American continent. an" regar"less of the result. consisting of an auto su&er6highway <Reichsautobahn= an" a four6 trac7 rail line. freely "e%elo& an" carry on their national6cultural life$ )n &articular. has only benefite"$ . that is. use" all of his influence to strengthen 4olan"Ns resistance an" to &re%ent any &ossibility of un"erstan"ing$ These re&orts were sent by the former 4olish ambassa"or in Washington. the 4olish go%ernment also belie%es itself calle" u&on to register &rotests against Germany$ Accor"ingly. Germany an" 4olan" "eclare that they will imme"iately or"er an" carry out the "emobili>ation of their arme" forces$ 1*$ Germany an" 4olan" will agree to whate%er measures are necessary to im&lement the abo%e &oints as 9uic7ly as &ossible$ <. which means that they will &ass either abo%e or un"erneath$ This >one will be one 7ilometer wi"e an" will be so%ereign German territory$ )n case the &lebiscite is in GermanyNs fa%or. with "iabolical lac7 of &rinci&le. with no military installations or military fortifications$ 12$ The &eninsula of 0ela. or to annul all e?&ro&riations an" &ro%i"e for com&lete re&aration for the %ictims of these an" other economic measures$ 14$ )n or"er to eliminate the feeling of "e&ri%ation of international rights of the Germans who will remain in 4olan". as well as of the 4oles who will remain in Germany. the German Reich "eclares that it is rea"y too carry out an e?change of &o&ulation with 4olan" to the e?tent that this woul" be suitable for the Borri"or$ 1H$ The s&ecial rights "esire" by 4olan" in the harbor of +an>ig will also be gi%en to Germany in the harbor of G"ynia on the basis of &arity$ 11$ )n or"er to eliminate all fear of threat from either si"e. will also be "emilitari>e" in any case$ 1C$ The German Reich go%ernment has &roteste" in the strongest terms against the 4olish treatment of its minority &o&ulations$ For its &art. they will be allowe" to maintain organi>ations for these &ur&oses$ -oth si"es agree that members of their minority &o&ulations will not be "rafte" for military ser%ice$ 1D$ )f agreement is reache" on the basis of these &ro&osals. an" e%en or"er the general mobili>ation of its arme" forcesM A loo7 at the "ocuments from the <4olish= Foreign Ministry in Warsaw later &ro%i"e" the sur&rising e?&lanation$ They tol" of the role of a man <Roose%elt= who. Bount <Jer>y= 4otoc7i. Germany an" 4olan" agree to guarantee the rights of the minority &o&ulations on both si"es through com&rehensi%e an" bin"ing agreements$ These will insure the right of these minority grou&s to maintain. +an>ig an" G"ynia will be &urely commercial centers.ast 4russia. the following shoul" be sai"E 1$ Germany is &erha&s the only great &ower which has ne%er ha" a colony in either @orth or 'outh America$ @or has it been otherwise &olitically acti%e there. Germany will obtain an e?traterritorial transit >one. the &eo&le who ha%e gi%en this lan" its entire culture.5$ After the &lebiscite has been con"ucte". which will go to either 4olan" or Germany on the basis of the &lebiscite. to insure that they are not force" to act contrary to their ethnic6national feelings. carry out further cruelties against the Germans. both si"es agree to submit these com&laints to an international in%estigation commission which will be res&onsible for in%estigating all com&laints of economic an" &hysical "amage as well as other acts of terror$ Germany an" 4olan" &le"ge to com&ensate for all economic an" other harm inflicte" on minority &o&ulations on both si"es since 1 15. an" &articularly the (nite" 'tates. to his go%ernment in Warsaw$ These "ocuments clearly an" shoc7ingly re%eal the e?tent to which one man an" the &owers behin" him are res&onsible for the 'econ" Worl" War$ Another 9uestion arisesE Why ha" this man <Roose%elt= "e%elo&e" such a fanatic hostility against a country which. ha" ne%er harme" either America or himM With regar" to GermanyNs relationshi& with America. free transit will be guarantee" between Germany an" its &ro%ince of +an>ig6. in its entire history.

must be more significant than those between an America le" by a 4resi"ent an" a Germany le" by a Fuehrer$ )t is a fact that the two historical conflicts between Germany an" the (nite" 'tates were stimulate" by two Americans. chaire" by 'en$ Geral" @ye$= This commission to in%estigate the reasons for AmericaNs entry into the <First Worl"= war clearly establishe" that the (nite" 'tates entere" the war in 1 1: solely for the ca&italist interests of a small grou&. why is there now another American &resi"ent who is "etermine" to incite wars an". ) trie" to "o my "uty in the face of the enemy$ Jf course. many Germans ha%e gi%en their li%es to "efen" the ('A$ C$ The German Reich has ne%er &artici&ate" in wars against the (nite" 'tates. an" ha" to &ay for this faith with &olitical an" economic ruin$ After such a bitter e?&erience. an" that Germany itself ha" no "esire or intention to come into conflict with America$ Furthermore. an" that of 4resi"ent Roose%elt$ Roose%elt came from an e?tremely wealthy family$ -y birth an" origin he belonge" to that class of &eo&le which is &ri%ilege" in a "emocracy an" assure" of a"%ancement$ ) myself was only the chil" of a small an" &oor family. but among the %ictors as well$ -ecause of this bro7en &le"ge. ) was the lea"er of a &o&ular national mo%ement. as long as one form of go%ernment "oes not try to interfere with another. while Mr$ Roose%elt share" his with the so6calle" u&&er ten thousan"$ After the war. he only 7new the agreeable conse9uences of a conflict between nations from which some &rofite" while others lost their li%es$ +uring this same &erio". 1 C461 CD. Roose%elt then finally chose a career in &olitics$ +uring this same &erio".en million . from the misfortune of others. which ) ha" create" myself$ The &owers which su&&orte" Mr$ Roose%elt were the same &owers that ) fought against out of "ee&est inner con%iction an" because of the fate of my &eo&le$ The 1brain trust3 which ser%e" the new American &resi"ent was ma"e u& of members of the same national grou& which we fought against in Germany as a &arasitical e?&ression of humanity. to stir u& hostility against Germany to the &oint of warM @ational 'ocialism came to &ower in Germany in the same year that Roose%elt came to &ower in the (nite" 'tates <1 CC=$ At this &oint it is im&ortant to e?amine the factors behin" the current "e%elo&ments$ First of all. if these terms ha%e any meaning at all. an" ) ha" to struggle through life by wor7 an" effort in s&ite of immense har"shi&s$ As a member of the &ri%ilege" class. the "ifferences between ca&italist America an" -olshe%i7 Russia. outsi"e of its naturally or"aine" s&here$ America is a re&ublic le" by a &resi"ent with wi"e6ranging &owers of authority$ Germany was once rule" by a monarchy with limite" authority. Roose%elt e?&erience" the <First= Worl" War in a &osition un"er WilsonNs sha"ow <as assistant secretary of the @a%y=$ As a result. ) still lay in a military hos&ital along with many hun"re"s of thousan"s of others$ . an" then by a "emocracy which lac7e" authority$ To"ay it is a re&ublic of wi"e6ranging authority$ -etween these two countries is an ocean$ )f anything.?&erience" in business. en"orse"= to in%estigate this issue$ <This was the s&ecial ($'$ 'enate in%estigating committee.elt too/ $ontrol of a $ountry &ith an e$onomy &hi$h ha) been ruine) as a result of )emo$rati$ influen$es6 an) = assume) the lea)ershi# of a Rei$h &hi$h &as also on the e)ge of $om#lete ruin6 than/s to )emo$ra$y: There &ere 4> million unem#loye) in the Fnite) *tates6 &hile Germany ha) se. although each was ins&ire" by the same forces$ 0istory has gi%en its %er"ict about Wilson$ 0is name will always be associate" with the most base betrayal of a &le"ge <WilsonNs 114 &oints3= in history$ The result was the "isru&tion of national life. not only in the so6calle" %an9uishe" countries. that is.n) yet6 &e also ha) something in $ommon: Fran/lin Roose. by 4resi"ents Woo"row Wilson an" Fran7lin Roose%elt. the German Reich has ne%er been hostile or e%en &olitically unfrien"ly towar"s the (nite" 'tates$ To the contrary. there are no territorial or &olitical conflicts between the American an" German nations which coul" &ossibly in%ol%e the e?istence or e%en the <%ital= interests of the (nite" 'tates$ The forms of go%ernment ha%e always been "ifferent$ -ut this cannot be a reason for hostility between "ifferent nations.2$ )n the entire history of the "e%elo&ment an" e?istence of the (nite" 'tates. ) struggle" as a nameless an" un7nown man for the rebirth of my nation. which hel&s those who ser%e it$ When ) became the Bhancellor of the German Reich. which alone ma"e the im&ose" Treaty of Kersailles <1 1 = &ossible. financially secure an" enLoying the &atronage of his class. the &ersonal si"e of thingsE ) un"erstan" %ery well that there is a worl" of "ifference between my own outloo7 on life an" attitu"e. ) li%e" %ery "ifferently$ ) was not one of those who ma"e history or &rofits. cultures were "estroye" an" the economic life of all was ruine"$ To"ay we 7now that a grou& of self6ser%ing financiers stoo" behin" Wilson$ They use" this &aralytic &rofessor in or"er to lea" America into a war from which they ho&e" to &rofit$ The German nation once belie%e" this man. abo%e all. which was the %ictim of the greatest inLustice in its entire history$ Two "ifferent &aths in lifeX Fran7lin Roose%elt too7 &ower in the (nite" 'tates as the can"i"ate of a thoroughly ca&italistic &arty. but rather one of those who carrie" out or"ers$ As an or"inary sol"ier "uring those four years. e?ce&t when the (nite" 'tates went to war against us in 1 1:$ )t "i" so for reasons which were com&letely e?&laine" by a commission which 4resi"ent Roose%elt himself establishe" <or rather. that is. ) returne" from the war Lust as &oor as when ) entere" in the fall of 1 14$ ) thus share" my fate with millions of others. while Mr$ Roose%elt teste" his s7ills in financial s&eculation in or"er to &rofit &ersonally from the inflation. an" which we began to remo%e from &ublic life$ . countries were torn a&art.

e all6 to /ee# $onfli$ts from being resol. an" conse9uently the greatest error e%er e?&erience" by anyone$ )f his economic &olicies ha" continue" in"efinitely "uring &eace time. 2on"on.elt &as not able to bring about e. he refuse" to recogni>e go%ernments he "i"nNt li7e. calling in loans. he began a series of s&eeches.meri$an #resi)ent in$reasingly use) his influen$e to $reate $onfli$ts6 intensify e<isting $onfli$ts6 an)6 abo. an" he relie" on them$ The . but &referably in . who a&&ointe" him. refuse" to "ismiss ambassa"ors of non6e?istent countries. that he coul" use to create &olitical entanglements with American economic obligations to one of the conten"ing si"es. gathere" aroun" this man. the re&orts of the 4olish ambassa"ors in Washington.e years6 the e$onomi$ #roblems &ere sol.ements in his o&n $ountry: This tas/ shoul) ha.uro&e. e%en if he "i" un"erstan" them an" a&&reciate" the historical circumstances.en limite) im#ro. as Jews. he began to systematically an" consciously sabotage e%ery &ossibility of a . in all of their satanic baseness.e) in Germany an) unem#loyment &as eliminate): Auring this same #erio)6 Presi)ent Roose.alue) the )ollar6 further )isru#te) the e$onomy an) maintaine) the same number of unem#loye): -ut this is har"ly remar7able when one reali>es that the intellects a&&ointe" by this man. are intereste" only in "isru&tion an" ne%er in or"er$ While we in @ational 'ocialist Germany too7 measures against financial s&eculation. with which this man systematically incite" the American &ublic against Germany$ 0e threatene" to establish a 7in" of 9uarantine against the so6calle" authoritarian countries$ As &art of this stea"y an" growing cam&aign of hate an" incitement.uro&ean affairs which were no concern of the 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates$ )n the first &lace. he has no more right to concern himself with central .uro&ean &eace &olicy$ )n &ublic he hy&ocritically claime" to be intereste" in &eace while at the same time he threatene" e%ery country that was rea"y to &ursue a &olicy of &eaceful un"erstan"ing by bloc7ing cre"its. 4aris an" -russels &ro%i"e a shoc7ing insight$ This man increase" his cam&aign of incitement in January 1 C $ )n a message to the ($'$ Bongress <of 4 Jan$ 1 C = he threatene" to ta7e e%ery measure short of war against the authoritarian countries$ 0e re&eate"ly claime" that other countries were trying to interfere in American affairs an" he tal7e" a lot about u&hol"ing the Monroe +octrine$ 'tarting in March 1 C he began lecturing about internal . which re&eate"ly &oint out that Roose%elt was fully aware of the "anger that his entire economic house of car"s coul" colla&se an" that therefore he absolutely ha" to "i%ert attention to foreign &olicy$ The circle of Jews aroun" Roose%elt encourage" him in this$ With Jl" Testament %in"icti%eness they regar"e" the (nite" 'tates as the instrument which they an" he coul" use to &re&are a secon" 4urim <slaughter of enemies= against the nations of . there is no "oubt that sooner or later they woul" ha%e brought "own this &resi"ent. which le" him to thin7 that he coul" sa%e himself only by "i%erting &ublic attention from his "omestic &olicies to foreign affairs$ )n this regar" it is interesting to stu"y the re&orts of 4olish Ambassa"or 4otoc7i from Washington.uro&ean country his career woul" certainly ha%e en"e" in front of a national court for rec7lessly s9uan"ering the nationNs wealth$ An" he woul" har"ly ha%e a%oi"e" a &rison sentence by a ci%il court for criminally incom&etent business management$ Many res&ecte" Americans also share" this %iew$ A threatening o&&osition was growing all aroun" this man. which woul" then stea"ily in%ol%e America in the conflict an" thus "i%ert attention from his own confuse" "omestic economic &olicies$ 0is actions against the German Reich in this regar" ha%e been &articularly blunt$ 'tarting in 1 C:. woul" not acce&t new ones.uro&ean affairs than the German hea" of state has to ta7e &ositions on or ma7e Lu"gments about con"itions in the (nite" 'tates$ Mr$ Roose%elt went e%en beyon" that$ Bontrary to the rules of international law. 4resi"ent Roose%elt ma"e another insulting statement <on 1D @o%$ 1 C5= an" then calle" the American ambassa"or in -erlin bac7 to Washington for consultations$ 'ince then the two countries ha%e been re&resente" only by charges "Naffaires$ 'tarting in @o%ember 1 C5. economic re&risals. are members of that same grou& who. which then ga%e him the right to sim&ly occu&y foreign territories <Greenlan" an" )celan"=$ . in s&ite of all his "ialectical cle%erness$ )n a . an" secon"ly. things "e%elo&e" in the (nite" 'tates an" in the German Reich in such a way that future generations will ha%e no "ifficulty in ma7ing a "efiniti%e e%aluation of the two "ifferent socio6&olitical theories$ Whereas the German Rei$h e<#erien$e) an enormous im#ro.ement in so$ial6 e$onomi$6 $ultural an) artisti$ life in Bust a fe& years un)er National *o$ialist lea)ershi#6 Presi)ent Roose.unem#loye) an) another se. an" e%en recogni>e" them as legal go%ernments$ 0e went so far as to conclu"e treaties with these ambassa"ors. inclu"ing a &articularly contem&tible one on D Jctober 1 C: in Bhicago.uro&e.en million #artDtime &or/ers: =n both $ountries6 #ubli$ finan$es &ere in $haos6 an) it seeme) that the s#rea)ing e$onomi$ )e#ression $oul) not be sto##e): From then on.e) #ea$efully: For years this man loo7e" for a "is&ute anywhere in the worl". it flourishe" tremen"ously un"er Roose%elt$ The @ew +eal legislation of this man was s&urious.elt enormously in$rease) his $ountryKs national )ebt6 )e. an" so forth$ )n this regar".e been mu$h easier in the Fnite) *tates6 &ith barely 4N #eo#le #er sCuare /ilometer6 as $om#are) to 4G5 in Germany: =f e$onomi$ #ros#erity is not #ossible in that $ountry6 it must be the result of either a la$/ of &ill by the ruling lea)ershi# or the $om#lete in$om#eten$e of the men in $harge: =n Bust fi. which were increasingly anti6Jewish$ 'o it was that the Jews. or more accurately. he "oesnNt un"erstan" these &roblems.

at least for a few months. it ha" to be scuttle"$ Jn the same "ay. the German go%ernment will not be concerne" about whether or not the 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates recogni>es a bor"er in . to 7ee& them from being sei>e" by Germany. the only &olitical basis of which was a few million 4olish gol" &ieces which were ta7en away from Warsaw$ Jn A&ril <1 4H= he fro>e all @orwegian an" +anish assets <in the (nite" 'tates= on the lying &rete?t of wanting to 7ee& them from falling into German han"s. my +e&uties. the storm of chatter from this staunch warmonger$ -ut now the honorable wife <. (' military forces hel&e" in an effort to ca&ture the German merchant shi& Arauca$ Again contrary to international law.ast$ . for e?am&le. the reta7ing of territories which ha" been stolen from Germany$ ) "o not nee" to em&hasi>e that now an" in the future.leanor Roose%elt= too7 his &lace$ 'he an" her sons <she sai"= refuse" to li%e in a worl" such as ours$ That is at least un"erstan"able. com&letely contrary to international law$ )n @o%ember 1 4H he &ermitte" (' warshi&s to &ursue the German merchant shi&s 5hr gia. on 2: January 1 4H the (' cruiser Trenton re&orte" the mo%ements of the German merchant shi&s Arauca. who hy&ocritically tal7s about &eace while at the same time he incites to war$ An" now he feare" that if &eace were to come about in .s financial affairs$ Along with the other go%ernments in e?ile. for ours is worl" of wor7 an" not one of "eceit an" rac7eteering$ After a short rest. for e?am&le. Roose%elt &erio"ically in%ente" crises an" acte" as if America was threatene" by imme"iate attac7$ 0e woul" su""enly cancel tri&s an" 9uic7ly return to Washington an" "o similar things in or"er to em&hasi>e the seriousness of the situation to his followers. that ) then ga%e a &olite but straightforwar" answer to this obtrusi%e gentleman <on 25 A&ril 1 C =. because no one woul" attac7 America unless America itself &ro%o7e" the attac7$ Jn 1: June 1 4H the 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates fro>e French assets <in the ('A= in or"er. which inclu"e". an" in return too7 control of military bases on -ritish &ossessions in @orth an" Bentral America$ Future generations will "etermine the e?tent to which. the "esire to easily an" safely ta7e control of the -ritish em&ire in its hour of "isintegration may ha%e also &laye" a role$ After -ritain was no longer able to &ay cash for American "eli%eries he im&ose" the 2en"62ease Act on the American &eo&le <in March 1 41=$ As 4resi"ent. though. Roose%elt now recogni>e" one for @orway$ Jn 1D May 1 4H. e%en though he 7new full well. +utch an" -elgian go%ernments in e?ile were also recogni>e". he thereby obtaine" the authority to furnish len"6lease military ai" to countries which he. an" at the same time +utch an" -elgian assets <in the ('A= were fro>en$ This man re%eale" his true attitu"e in a telegram of 1D June <1 4H= to French 4remier <4aul= Reynau"$ Roose%elt tol" him that the American go%ernment woul" "ouble its ai" to France. he &ushe" for economic entanglements with Bhina which woul" e%entually lea" to effecti%e common interests$ That same month he recogni>e" a small grou& of 4olish emigrants as a so6calle" go%ernment in e?ile. such as &ermitting the ser%ice of American citi>ens in the -ritish air force an" the training of -ritish air force &ersonnel in the (nite" 'tates$ )n August 1 4H a Loint military &olicy for the (nite" 'tates an" Bana"a was establishe"$ )n or"er to ma7e the establishment of a Loint American6Bana"ian "efense committee &lausible to at least the stu&i"est &eo&le. which succee"e" in sto&&ing. who really "eser%e &ity$ 0e mo%e" still closer to war in 'e&tember 1 4H when he transferre" fifty American na%al "estroyers to the -ritish fleet. he "eclare" that the American go%ernment woul" not recogni>e ac9uisitions brought about by con9uest. which was a mi?ture of geogra&hical an" &olitical ignorance combine" with the arrogance of a member of the millionaire class$ We were calle" u&on to ma7e "eclarations an" to conclu"e non6aggression &acts with a number of countries many of which were not e%en in"e&en"ent because they ha" either been anne?e" or turne" into subor"inate &rotectorates by countries allie" with Mr$ Roose%elt <-ritain an" France=$ Aou will recall.uro&e.uro&e$ ) mention this case because it is characteristic of the systematic incitement of this man. this man too7 another ste& forwar" in March 1 41$ As early as 1 +ecember 1 C . the +anish go%ernmentNs a"ministration of it.Jn 1D A&ril 1 C Roose%elt ma"e his famous a&&eal to me an" the +uce <Mussolini=. that Germany has not interfere" with. Roose%elt. an American cruiser within the safety >one <the Tuscaloosa= maneu%ere" the <German= &assenger liner )olumbus into the han"s of -ritish warshi&s$ As a result. much less ta7en control of. "eci"e" it was in AmericaNs %ital interests to "efen"$ After it became clear that Germany woul" not res&on" un"er any circumstances to his continue" boorish beha%ior. so he sai". "a 5lata an" Wangoni to enemy na%al forces$ Jn 2: June 1 4H he announce" a limitation on the free mo%ement of foreign merchant shi&s in (' harbors. 4darwald an" 0hein until they finally ha" to scuttle themsel%es to 7ee& from falling into enemy han"s$ Jn 1C A&ril 1 41 American shi&s were &ermitte" to &ass freely through the Re" 'ea in or"er to su&&ly -ritish armies in the Mi""le . on the con"ition that France continue the war against Germany$ )n or"er to gi%e s&ecial em&hasis to his "esire that the war continue. along with all this hatre" against socialist Germany. the billions he ha" s9uan"ere" on military s&en"ing woul" soon be recogni>e" as an ob%ious case of frau". but in reality to get hol" of the gol" that was being brought from Basablanca on an American cruiser$ )n July 1 4H Roose%elt began to ta7e many new measures towar"s war. he was bac7 at it$ Jn 4 @o%ember 1 C the @eutrality Act was re%ise" an" the arms embargo was re&eale" in fa%or of a one6si"e" su&&ly <of wea&ons= to GermanyNs a"%ersaries$ )n the same way in eastern Asia.

in %iolation of international law. ) sim&ly cannot feel insulte" by Mr$ Roose%elt because ) regar" him. German assets in the (nite" 'tates were fro>en. acting on or"ers. he fro>e Augosla% an" Gree7 assets$ 'tarting in mi"6A&ril <1 41= (' na%al &atrols began e?&an"e" o&erations in the western Atlantic. &ut un"er tra%el restrictions. since this term "i" not originate in . -ritish na%al shi&s were routinely being re&aire" in (' harbors$ Jn 12 May. regar" this with "ee& a&&reciation$ We 7now the &ower behin" Roose%elt$ )t is the same eternal Jew that belie%es that his hour has come to im&ose the same fate on us that we ha%e all seen an" e?&erience" with horror in 'o%iet Russia$ We ha%e gotten to 7now the Jewish &ara"ise on earth first han"$ Millions of German sol"iers ha%e &ersonally seen the lan" where this international Jewry has "estroye" an" annihilate" &eo&le an" &ro&erty$ 4erha&s the 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates "oes not un"erstan" this$ )f so. too7 it to an American harbor. finally force Germany into war <against the ('A= an". which was in the area of German military o&erations$ 0e ho&e" that this action woul" certainly. an" on * @o%ember (' arme" forces sei>e" the German shi& 7denwald in %iolation of international law. an" im&risone" its crew$ ) will o%erloo7 as meaningless the insulting attac7s an" ru"e statements by this so6calle" 4resi"ent against me &ersonally$ That he calls me a gangster is &articularly meaningless. ) belie%e. Roose%elt "eli%ere" twenty 4$T$ boats to -ritain$ At the same time. acting on or"ers from 4resi"ent Roose%elt. on the basis of a lying &rete?t. also neutrali>e the effecti%eness of the German submarines. 4resi"ent Roose%elt ha" sent <J'' chief= Bolonel +ono%an. all German shi&s were confiscate" by the American authorities in March <1 41=$ )n the &rocess. ha" attac7e" a German submarine near Greenlan" with "e&th charges$ Jn 14 June. the German 2ibrary of )nformation <in @ew Aor7= an"6 the German Reichsbahn <national railway= office$ Jn * an" : July <1 41=. again in %iolation of international law$ Jn 1: June. attac7e" a German submarine with "e&th charges. first. @a%y 'ecretary <Fran7= /no? su""enly announce" the e?istence of an American or"er to fire against A?is warshi&s$ Jn 4 'e&tember the (' "estroyer Greer. while at the same time slowly but %ery stea"ily lea"ing humanity into war$ An" finally. re&orting their obser%ations to the -ritish$ Jn 2* A&ril. an" he re&eate" the or"er$ Jn 2 'e&tember. with his Jewish su&&orters. as an ol" Freemason. o&erating as an escort for the -ritish. that only s&ea7s for his intellectual narrow6 min"e"ness$ . the Ja&anese go%ernment finally ha" its fill of being treate" in such a humiliating way$ All of us. secon". 4resi"ent Roose%elt "eman"e" the recall of the German consuls an" the closing of the German consulates$ 0e also "eman"e" the closing "own of the German OTransoceanO &ress agency. an" then he lies about its causes an" ma7es baseless allegations$ )n an offensi%e way. contrary to international law$ Jn 4 June. he wra&s himself in a cloa7 of Bhristian hy&ocrisy. or"ere" to certain locations in %iolation of international law. the German &eo&le an".)n the meantime. but in America$ An" asi"e from that. has o&erate" against Ja&an in the same way$ ) "onNt nee" to go into that here$ The same metho"s were use" in this case as well$ This man first incites to war. who ha" come to &ower in -elgra"e <Augosla%ia= after the o%erthrow of the legal go%ernment$ 'e%eral months earlier. a %ery inferior character. li7e his &re"ecessor Woo"row Wilson. where such characters are uncommon. (' &atrols attac7e" a German submarine east of Greenlan" with "e&th charges$ Jn 1: Jctober the (' "estroyer /earn . Roose%elt at last &ersonally confirme" that he ha" gi%en the or"er to fire against all A?is shi&s. @orwegian shi&s o&erating for -ritain were arme" an" re&aire" <in the ('A=. he calls u&on Go" as his witness that his actions are honorable$ 0is shameless misre&resentations of truth an" %iolations of law are un&arallele" in history$ ) am sure that all of you ha%e regar"e" it as an act of "eli%erance that a country (a&an= has finally acte" to &rotest against all this in the %ery way that this man ha" actually ho&e" for. an" which shoul" not sur&rise him now <the 4earl 0arbor attac7 of : +ecember 1 41=$ After years of negotiating with this "ecei%er.uro&e. he &romise" military ai" to the 'o%iet (nion$ Jn 1H July. li7ewise com&letely contrary to international law$ Jn 2: March <1 41= the same &resi"ent who is <su&&ose"ly= against all aggression announce" su&&ort for <General +usan= 'imo%ic an" his cli9ue of usur&ers. an" so forth$ Two German officers who ha" esca&e" <to the (nite" 'tates= from Bana"ian ca&ti%ity were shac7le" an" returne" to the Bana"ian authorities. o&erate" together with -ritish air&lanes against German submarines in the Atlantic$ Fi%e "ays later. to the -al7ans with or"ers to hel& organi>e an u&rising against Germany an" )taly in 'ofia <-ulgaria= an" -elgra"e$ )n A&ril he <Roose%elt= &romise" len"6lease ai" to Augosla%ia an" Greece$ At the en" of A&ril he recogni>e" Augosla% an" Gree7 emigrants as go%ernments in e?ile$ An" once again. much as in 1 1D61 1*$ At the same time. all other "ecent &eo&le aroun" the worl" as well. American arme" forces acting on or"ers from Roose%elt occu&ie" )celan". as mentally unsoun" <geistes7ran7=$ We 7now that this man. a German submarine i"entifie" (' "estroyers as escort %essels with a -ritish con%oy$ )n a s&eech "eli%ere" on 11 'e&tember <1 41=. German Reich citi>ens were treate" in the most "egra"ing way. American troo& trans&orts arri%e" in Greenlan" to buil" air fiel"s$ An" on June came the first -ritish re&ort that a (' war shi&.

we woul" still reali>e that the Jews an" their Fran7lin Roose%elt inten" to "estroy one country after another$ The German Reich of to"ay has nothing in common with the Germany of the &ast$ For our &art. an" he was informe" of the followingE 4resi"ent Roose%eltNs stea"ily e?&an"ing &olicy has been aime" at an unlimite" worl" "ictatorshi&$ )n &ursuing this goal. German an" )taly ha%e conse9uently now finally been force" to Loin together on the si"e of Ja&an in the struggle for the "efense an" &reser%ation of the free"om an" in"e&en"ence of our nations an" em&ires against the (nite" 'tates of America an" -ritain$ The three &owers ha%e accor"ingly conclu"e" the following agreement which was signe" to"ay in -erlinE <Agreement te?tE= With an unsha7able "etermination not to lay "own arms until the common war against the (nite" 'tates of America an" -ritain has been fought to a successful conclusion. these efforts ha%e faile"$ Faithful to the &ro%isions of the Tri&artite 4act of 2: 'e&tember 1 4H. Germany has &erha&s ne%er been as clear6sighte" an" sel"om as conscious of honor$ Accor"ingly. the German. to"ay ) ha" the &ass&orts returne" to the American charge "Naffaires. Mr$ Roose%elt or <-ritish foreign secretary= Mr$ . the American 4resi"ent Roose%elt has stea"ily committe" e%er more serious crimes against international law$ Along with illegal attac7s against shi&s an" other &ro&erty of German an" )talian citi>ens. &erha&s for all time$ What this other worl" has in store for us is clear$ They were able to bring the "emocratic Germany of the &ast <1 1561 CC= to star%ation. for both the &resent an" the future$ 'ince the beginning of the war <in 'e&tember 1 C =. but it "oes "eman" its rights$ An" it will "o what it must to insure its right to life. we will now "o what this &ro%ocateur has been trying to achie%e for years$ An" not Lust because we are allie" with Ja&an. the (nite" 'tates an" -ritain ha%e use" e%ery means to "eny the German. Germany an" )taly sincerely an" %ery &atiently trie" to &re%ent the e?&ansion of this war an" to maintain relations with the (nite" 'tates$ -ut as a result of his cam&aign. )taly an" Ja&an &le"ge not to conclu"e an armistice or ma7e &eace with either the (nite" 'tates of America or -ritain unless by com&lete mutual agreement$ Article C$ Germany. )taly an" Ja&an will also wor7 %ery closely together after a %ictorious conclusion of the war for the &ur&ose of bringing about a Lust new or"er in accor" with the Tri&artite 4act conclu"e" by them on 2: 'e&tember 1 4H$ . )talian an" Ja&anese nations the &rere9uisites for their %ital natural e?istence$ For this reason.uro&e by 1 4C at the latest was ma"e &ublic in the (nite" 'tates <by the )hicago Tribune an" se%eral other &a&ers on 4 +ec$ 1 41=. 4resi"ent Roose%eltNs &lan to attac7 Germany an" )taly with military forces in .%en if we were not allie" with Ja&an. there ha%e been threats an" e%en arbitrary "e&ri%ations of &ersonal free"om by internment an" such$ The increasingly hostile attac7s by the American 4resi"ent Roose%elt ha%e reache" the &oint that he has or"ere" the American na%y to imme"iately attac7. shoul" worry about their own unem&loye" &eo&le rather than incite war$ They ha%e enough misery an" &o%erty in their own countries to 7ee& themsel%es busy insuring a Lust "istribution of foo" there$ As far as the German nation is concerne"."en. who li%e in the most socially bac7war" countries. an" the American go%ernment ma"e no effort to "eny it$ +es&ite the years of intolerable &ro%ocations by 4resi"ent Roose%elt. )taly an" Ja&an will together con"uct the war which has been force" u&on them by the (nite" 'tates of America an" -ritain with all the means at their comman" to a %ictorious conclusion$ Article 2$ Germany. )talian an" Ja&anese go%ernments ha%e agree" to the followingE Article 1$ Germany. that.HHH years$ @e%er in this long &erio" has it been so unite" an" "etermine" as it is to"ay. it "oesnNt nee" charity from either Mr$ Bhurchill. in com&lete %iolation of international law$ American officials ha%e e%en boaste" about "estroying German submarines in this criminal manner$ American cruisers ha%e attac7e" an" ca&ture" German an" )talian merchant shi&s.s about the same as a barber with a bal" hea" recommen"ing a tonic guarantee" to ma7e hair grow$ These gentlemen.-ut we 7now that their entire effort is aime" at this goalE . but rather because Germany an" )taly with their &resent lea"ershi&s ha%e the insight an" strength to reali>e that in this historic &erio" the e?istence or non6e?istence of nations is being "etermine". fire u&on an" sin7 all German an" )talian shi&s. the go%ernments of -ritain an" the (nite" 'tates of America ha%e o&&ose" e%ery effort to create a new an" better or"er in the worl". an" they see7 to "estroy the @ational 'ocialist Germany of to"ay$ When Mr$ Bhurchill an" Mr$ Roose%elt "eclare that they want to buil" a ne& so$ial or)er later on. an" their &eaceful crews were ta7en away to im&risonment )n a""ition. an" than7s to the @ational 'ocialist mo%ement it will always be that way$ At the same time. e%en if a thousan" Bhurchills an" Roose%elts cons&ire together to &re%ent it$ Jur nation has a history of almost 2.

then we are really conscious of the magnitu"e of the "uty which is ours$ -ut whoe%er tries to shir7 this "uty has no right to be regar"e" as a fellow German$ Just as we were &itilessly har" in the struggle for &ower. the most &owerful air force an" a &rou" na%y$ -ehin" an" aroun" me is a sacre" community 6 the <@ational 'ocialist= 4arty. the guilty &erson will "ie$ -ut with this "ifferenceE The sol"ier at the front who ma7es this sacrifice will be hel" in the greatest honor.orris% . wor7ing har" to fee" our homelan" an" su&&ly wea&ons to the front$ Allie" with us are strong nations which ha%e suffere" the same misery an" face the same enemies$ The American 4resi"ent an" his &lutocratic cli9ue ha%e calle" us the Oha%e notO nations$ That is correctX -ut the Oha%e notsO also want to li%e. that along with those in earlier an" coming generations of the German nation. ) was a nameless.HHH years of recor"e" German history. an" after 14 years of struggle for &ower we were finally able to annihilate our enemies$ When ) "eci"e" 2C years ago to enter &olitical life in or"er to lea" the nation u& from ruin. our "ee"s of honor may also be recor"e" in the eternal boo7 of German historyX Germany@s Formal Ae$laration of War . un"ermine the will to resist of our &eo&le.Article 4$ This agreement is effecti%e imme"iately u&on signing an" is %ali" for the same &erio" as the Tri&artite 4act of 2: 'e&tember 1 4H$ The high contracting &arties shall inform each other in "ue time before the e?&iration of this term of %ali"ity of their &lans for coo&eration as lai" out in Article C of this agreement$ <. the fathers an" sons of our &eo&le. 7now of my relentless "etermination to carry out to a successful conclusion any struggle which has alrea"y begun$ Aou 7now of my "etermination in such a struggle to "o e%erything necessary to brea7 all resistance that must be bro7en$ )n my first s&eech <of this war= on 1 'e&tember 1 C . un7nown sol"ier$ Many of you here 7now Lust how "ifficult those first years of that struggle really were$ The way from a small mo%ement of se%en men to the ta7ing of &ower on CH January 1 CC as the res&onsible go%ernment is so miraculous that only the blessing of 4ro%i"ence coul" ha%e ma"e it &ossible$ To"ay ) stan" at the hea" of the mightiest army in the worl".%er since my &eace &ro&osal of July 1 4H was reLecte". my 4arty comra"es. ha%e gi%en their li%es.gainst the Fnite) *tates About two hours before $itler began his s&eech to the 0eichstag1 German formall declared war against the Cnited States when 0eich . then e%ery sacrifice of <those here in= the homelan" is com&letely insignificant an" unim&ortant$ An" when we consi"er the number of all those in &ast generations who ga%e their li%es for the sur%i%al an" greatness of the German nation.n" of Agreement te?t= +e&utiesX Men of the German ReichstagX . we ha%e clearly reali>e" that this struggle must be fought through to the en"$ We @ational 'ocialists are not at all sur&rise" that the Anglo6American. are in the factories an" offices.inister Eoachim von 0ibbentro& delivered a di&lomatic note to the American )harge d*Affaires in Berlin1 "eland B% .oreign . wea7en the authority of the regime. in a""ition no internal uncertainty will wea7en us in the fulfillment of our "uty$ When we thin7 of the sacrifice an" effort of our sol"iers. an" German women an" girls. anyone in the homelan" who betrays the sacrifice on the front will forfeit his life$ Regar"less of the &rete?t with which an attem&t is ma"e to "isru&t the German front. in the fiel"s an" farm lan"s. an" they will certainly ma7e sure that what little they ha%e to li%e on is not stolen from them by the Oha%es$O Aou. whereas the &erson who "ebases this sacrifice of honor will "ie in "isgrace$ Jur o&&onents shoul" not "ecei%e themsel%es$ )n the 2. with which ) ha%e become great an" which has become great through me$ Jur o&&onents to"ay are the same familiar enemies of more than 2H years$ -ut the &ath before us cannot be com&are" with the roa" we ha%e alrea"y ta7en$ To"ay the German &eo&le fully reali>es that this is a "ecisi%e hour for our e?istence$ Millions of sol"iers are faithfully "oing their "uty un"er the most "ifficult con"itions$ Millions of German farmers an" wor7ers. our &eo&le ha%e ne%er been more "etermine" an" unite" than to"ay$ The 2or" of the uni%erse has been so generous to us in recent years that we bow in gratitu"e before a 4ro%i"ence which has &ermitte" us to be members of such a great nation$ We than7 0im. so also will we be Lust as ruthless in the struggle for the sur%i%al of our nation$ +uring a time in which thousan"s of our best men. or sabotage the achie%ements of the homelan". Jewish an" ca&italist worl" is unite" together with -olshe%ism$ )n our country we ha%e always foun" them in the same community$ Alone we successfully fought against them here in Germany. ) &le"ge" that neither force of arms nor time woul" "efeat Germany$ ) want to assure my o&&onents that while neither force of arms nor time will "efeat us.

consi"ers herself as being in a state of war with the (nite" 'tates of America$ 'ourceE htt&EGGwww$%ho$orgGG-GJournalsGJ0RG5G4G0itlerC5 641*$html (ome o2 t*e most prominent statesmen in t*e world gat*ered to await t*e result o2 t*e (aar Plebis0ite in Geneva. 3*ey determined t*e date w*en t*e (aar territory was to be restored to Germany.inister (ir . un"er or"er of their go%ernment an" contrary to international law. the Greer. (wit8erland on /anuary 19!4. ha%e o&ene" fire on German submarines accor"ing to &lan$ The American 'ecretary of the @a%y. +ren0* +oreign . has finally resorte" to o&en military acts of aggression$ Jn 11 'e&tember 1 41. .uro&ean war.inister Pierre Laval. American war %essels ha%e systematically attac7e" German na%al forces since early 'e&tember 1 41$ Thus. the na%al forces of the (nite" 'tates of America. ha%e treate" an" sei>e" German merchant shi&s on the high seas as enemy shi&s$ The German go%ernment therefore establishes the following factsE Although Germany on her &art has strictly a"here" to the rules of international law in her relations with the (nite" 'tates of America "uring e%ery &erio" of the &resent war. as from to"ay. +rom le2t to rig*t5 Britis* Lord Privy (eal . he once more e?&ressly affirme" that this or"er was in force$ E Acting un"er this or"er. "P*oto5 M Bettmann#$%&B'() . the 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates of America &ublicly "eclare" that he ha" or"ere" the American @a%y an" Air Force to shoot on sight any German war %essel$ )n his s&eech of 2: Jctober 1 41.At almost the same time1 the German )harge d*Affaires in Washington1 $ans Thomsen1 &resented a co& of this note to the )hief of the 8uro&ean Division of the De&artment of State1 0a Atherton% $ere is the te:t of the note( The go%ernment of the (nite" 'tates of America. the /earn an" the 0euben Eames. Germany too.. ha%ing %iolate" in the most flagrant manner an" in e%er increasing measure all rules of neutrality in fa%or of the a"%ersaries of Germany an" ha%ing continually been guilty of the most se%ere &ro%ocations towar" Germany e%er since the outbrea7 of the . himself confirme" that the American "estroyers attac7e" German submarines$ Furthermore. Mr$ /no?. as for instance.nt*ony -den. American "estroyers. and Britis* +oreign . the go%ernment of the (nite" 'tates of America from initial %iolations of neutrality has finally &rocee"e" to o&en acts of war against Germany$ )t has thereby %irtually create" a state of war$ The go%ernment of the Reich conse9uently brea7s off "i&lomatic relations with the (nite" 'tates of America an" "eclares that in these circumstances brought about by 4resi"ent Roose%elt. brought on by the -ritish "eclaration of war against Germany on C 'e&tember 1 C . /o*n (imon.

r. . "Bettmann#$%&B'() A ma& of the 1integral3 territory of the Thir" Reich "uring Worl" War )) .ing at Bu0king*am Pala0e. 0alled at No. /osep* P.. t*e +oreign (e0retary> . Neville $*amberlain. 19DC. .meri0an .pril . (umner Welles> . 1C Downing (treet in London on .pril 1. 19DC a2ter a busy day in t*e 0ourse o2 w*i0* *e *ad also 0alled at t*e +oreign %22i0e and *ad an audien0e wit* t*e . Lord ?ali2a6. p*otograp*ed in No. Le2t to rig*t.mbassador to Great Britain. (umner Welles. 1C. Prime .r.inister o2 Great Britain> and . President +ranklin &ooseveltGs personal envoy w*o arrived in London on .r.ennedy.r.

A ma& of the 1integral3 territory of the Thir" Reich "uring Worl" War )) .

. "Bettmann#$%&B'() . 19D1 and ordered an oil embargo on 'mperial /apan on .ar0* . 9.ars*all ?ermann Goering.(. 19!:. ?itlerGs rig*t *and.ugust 1.(. President +ranklin Delano &oosevelt ordered an e0onomi0 embargo on 'mperial /apan on /uly D.dol2 ?itler in t*e &ei0*stag in Berlin. is s*own in t*e ba0kground a0ting as President o2 t*e &ei0*stag. Germany on .embers o2 t*e Na8i Party salute to S$*an0ellorT . 19DC a2ter t*e (enate 0on2irmed *is nomination as (e0retary o2 War. President +ranklin Delano &oosevelt s*akes *ands wit* ?enry L. 19D1. "Bettmann#$%&B'() 9. (timson at t*e W*ite ?ouse on /uly 1C. +ield .

gestures "uring a Jac7son +ay +inner s&eech at the Mayflower 0otel in Washington.0om .rupp *ead o2 .ir Base.. Budingen)> *e was deployed to 'raI "near Bag*dad) 2rom .. the 4resi"ent of the (nite" 'tates. ..rmy 2rom CC1 to CCD. and *is grand2at*er was dra2ted twi0e by t*e 'mperial /apanese Navy during World War ''.pril CC! to /uly CCD. 19!!@19!9) . primarily in t*e +irst .7.B%93 3?.. "?is mot*er is 2rom /apan.l2ried . ..rupp industries . /apan near 3okyo 2rom 19:1 to 199!. +lorida 2or several years and lived at =okota . +arben> *ead o2 .Fran7lin +elano Roose%elt. Warburg < $o.G. 1 C5$ !4hotoE S -ettmannGBJR-)'# -usiness 2ea"ers of Germany "uring the 1 2Hs an" 1 CHs +riedri0* +li0k steel baron and Na8i German 2inan0ier> des0ribed as wealt*iest man in Germany +rit8 3*yssen Na8i German 2inan0ier and businessmen ?Jalmar (0*a0*t President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19 !@19!C.) -@mail5 wpl!1Daya*oo.(. Warburg Dire0tor o2 '. ?e lived in $restview. +$B$.rmored Division in Germany "1@1 $. Litynski served in t*e 9.a6 . ($'$A$ on January .93?%&5 William P.

astern . or e%en ruine" farmers themsel%es. moreNs the &ity. into West . an" are without e?ce&tion.nglan" 6 there was har"ly that number in . small in numbers an" therefore com&letely hi""en in the bo"y of the -ritish &eo&le. as was the fact.FN='+ $ $ $ )T )' a battle which began nearly 12H years ago. the whole "esigne" to ta7e account of a human characteristic 6 that the longer a man &ossesses an obLect.nglan" to foun" the great mo"el &arties$ Alrea"y in those early "ays they saw to it shrew"ly that here were always two or three grou&s a&&arently hostile to each other. at the moment when the Jew was grante" citi>en rights in the .uro&e an" Bentral an" . NFree"omN an" N+emocracy. the mastery o%er true energy through the "ea" weight of masse" numbers$ )n other wor"sE it must be su&remely easy for the Jewish intelligentsia. ) might say. "i" not come into imme"iate contact with this alien nation. an" thus bit by bit the 'toc7 . at least amongst those in authority who in fact carry on the Go%ernment. but in fact all hanging on a gol" threa". in the en" "i" but ser%e the &ur&oses of this small stratum of society$ Through the &ress &ro&agan"a. it was &ossible in . 9uite unconscious of whom they were obeying.uro&e$ At first Western . etc$ A bitter "ece&tionX . streame" into the towns an" there forme" a new fourth estate$ -ut here one fact is of more im&ortance than we are accustome" to a"mitE this .s&ecially in . Jews$ ) say Nwithout e?ce&tion.nglan" crow"s of farm laborers.uro&e began to "i%i"e into two hal%es. an" the &arty which has ha" its "ay is now in its turn the o&&osition$ After twenty years the new &arty itself has once more &laye" itself out an" the game begins afresh$ )n truth this is a highly ingenious mill in which the interests of a nation are groun" %ery small$ As e%eryone 7nows. then a secon" an" a thir". so to wor7 u&on the masses that the latter. an" thus feelings of a%ersion which must otherwise necessarily ha%e arisen "i" not fin" sufficient nourishment for their "e%elo&ment$ )n the en" the fifty or si?ty thousan" Jews in . sho&6win"ow Bhristians. li7e France. then the o&&osition &arty comes into &ower. as signboar"s$ NFree"omNE un"er that term is un"erstoo". the other in o&&osition$ When the one has &laye" itself out.nglan" then 6 with su&reme ease were able so to N. they coul" a&&ear no longer as foreigners but themsel%es became . whom one nee"s in or"er. an" these. that has always forme" an" will form a 'tate within the 'tate$ That "i" not ha&&en &erha&s at one blow. but it came about as things come about to"ay an" always "o come aboutE first a little finger. an" were not.N an" es&ecially as re&resentati%es of ca&ital on a large scale. ha" relati%ely few Jews$ An" the conse9uence of that was that the great masses.uro&eani>eN themsel%es that they remaine" hi""en from the &rimiti%e eye of the or"inary member of the &ublic an" as NBa&tains of )n"ustry.N for the few non6Jews who ha" a share in them are in the last resort nothing but screens. this system is gi%en some such name as N'elf6Go%ernment of a 4eo&le$N -esi"es this we always fin" two great catchwor"s. free"om to mo%e about the streets.?change came to control the whole national economy$ The "irectors of these institutions were. institutions which corres&on" only with the essential characteristics of the Jewish &eo&le an" are the outcome of those characteristics$ Then . the more rea"ily he grows tire" of it$ 0e cra%es something newE therefore one nee"s two &arties$ The one is in office.uro&e stoo" at the &arting of the ways$ .nglishmen$ This accounts for the fact that anti6'emitism in these 'tates coul" ne%er attain to any nati%e %igor8 for the same is true of France$ An" &recisely for this reason in these countries it was &ossible to intro"uce the system which we ha%e to re&resent to oursel%es un"er the conce&t of N+emocracy$N There it was &ossible to create a 'tate6form whose meaning coul" only be the mastery of the her" o%er the intelligentsia. concentrate" in the towns.. the &ossibility of an unchec7e" &lun"ering of the masses of the &eo&le to which no resistance can be offere"$ The masses themsel%es naturally belie%e that un"er the term Nfree"omN they &ossess the right to a 9uite &eculiar free"om of motion 6 free"om to mo%e the tongue an" to say what they choose. an" so bit by bit until at last a &eo&le that in the eighteenth century still a&&eare" com&letely alien ha" won e9ual citi>en6rights with oursel%es$ An" it was &recisely the same in the economic s&here$ The %ast &rocess of the in"ustriali>ation of the &eo&les meant the confluence of great masses of wor7men in the towns$ Thus great hor"es of &eo&le arose. were not &ro&erly "ealt with by those whose moral "uty it was to concern themsel%es for their welfare$ 4arallel with this was a gra"ual NmoneyficationN of the whole of the nationNs labor6strength$ N'hare6ca&italN was in the ascen"ant.uro&e too7 the lea" in the &rocess of in"ustriali>ation$ .uro&ean 'tates$ The &olitical emanci&ation of the Jews was the beginning of an attac7 of "elirium$ For thereby they were gi%en full citi>en rights an" e9uality to a &eo&le which was much more clearly an" "efinitely a race a&art than all others.N use". sons of farmers. for the sa7e of the masses. to 7ee& u& the a&&earance that these institutions were after all foun"e" as a natural outcome of the nee"s an" the economic life of all &eo&les ali7e.nglan".A(LF +=TL R@* *P %FLE ?96 47?? '+ =N . through the use of the organs of information.

too. a bra>en security these 'tates are fettere" with Jewish chains$$$$ )n conse9uence of this wi"es&rea" a%ersion it was more "ifficult for the Jew to s&rea" infection in the &olitical s&here. if the liberation of the "ifferent estates ha" followe" ste& by ste& in an organic "e%elo&ment an" the 'tate ha" later loo7e" to them for su&&ort. as in"ustry grew. marches o%er cor&ses$N An" the Jew attac7e" the &arties of the Right$ Jews worme" their way into the families of the u&&er classesE it was from the Jews that the latter too7 their wi%es$ The result was that in a short time it was &recisely the ruling class which became in its character com&letely estrange" from its own &eo&le$ An" this fact ga%e the Jew his o&&ortunity with the &arties of the 2eft$ 0ere he &laye" the &art of the common "emagogue$ Two means enable" him to "ri%e away in "isgust the whole intelligentsia of the nation from the lea"ershi& of the wor7ers$ FirstE his international attitu"e. it is &ossible to raise u& a &eo&le an" ma7e it ha&&y$ That it cannot "o. big business an" the new in"ustries were in German han"s. the bureaucracy. but that the Jewish &eo&le in itself stan"s against us as our "ea"ly foe an" so will stan" against us always an" for all time$ The master6stro7e of the Jew was to claim the lea"ershi& of the fourth estateE he foun"e" the Mo%ement both of the 'ocial +emocrats an" the Bommunists$ 0is &olicy was twofol"E he ha" his Na&ostlesN in both &olitical cam&s$ Amongst the &arties of the Right he encourage" those features which were most re&ugnant to the &eo&le 6 the &assion for money. it will "o anything for the life of the &eo&le. imme"iately the economic intelligentsia with its nationalist outloo7 coul". an" similarly he ma"e it a&&ear to those of the 2eft that the faults of the Right were sim&ly the faults of the so6calle" N-ourgeois. which is utterly harmful to the nature of the Aryan. %i>$. as in -ran"enburg. together with our German Fichte an" many another 6 they are all without e?ce&tion unite" in their recognition that the Jew is not only a foreign element "iffering in his essential character. while the last reser%oir of a &eo&leNs strength. an" es&ecially so since tra"itionally loyalty was centere" in a &ersonE the form of the 'tate was a monarchy. 1 15. through a refusal to "efen" the rights of oneNs own &eo&le. there was the "anger that this fourth estate might ally itself with the monarchy. an" so it remaine" at a "istance$ An" the JewNs secon" instrument was the Mar?ist theory in an" for itself$ For "irectly one went on to assert that &ro&erty as such is theft.?change Jews shoul" become the lea"ers of a Wor7ers Mo%ement$ )t is a gigantic frau"E worl" history has sel"om seen its li7e$ An" then we must as7 oursel%esE what are the final aims of this "e%elo&mentM . a national social 'tate$ For 'ocialism in itself is anything but an international creation$ As a noble conce&tion it has in"ee" grown u& e?clusi%ely in Aryan heartsE it owes its intellectual glories only to Aryan brains$ )t is entirely alien to the Jew$ The Jew will always be the born cham&ion of &ri%ate ca&ital in its worst form. no longer co6o&erateE for this intelligentsia was boun" to say to itself that this theory meant the colla&se of any human ci%ili>ation whate%er$ Thus the Jew succee"e" in isolating this new mo%ement of the wor7ers from all the nationalist elements$$$$ More an" more so to influence the masses that he &ersua"e" those of the Right that the faults of the 2eft were the faults of the German wor7man.nglan" an" France ha" alrea"y been boun" with the fetters of sla%ery$ With. for the nati%e intelligence of the country is &re&are" to ma7e sacrifices. was throughout healthy$ )n such con"itions if. an" thus with its su&&ort there might arise a &o&ular monarchy or a &o&ular N/aisertumN which woul" be rea"y an" willing to gi%e a mortal blow to those &owers of international su&ra6'tate finance which were at that time beginning to grow in influence$ This was not im&ossibleE in the history of Germany &rinces ha" from time to time foun" themsel%es force". "irectly one "eserte" the ob%ious formula that only the natural wealth of a country can an" shoul" be common &ro&erty. through the brea7ing "own of the national resistance to the foreigner. here too. but it cannot belie%e in the ma" %iew that through the "enial of that national life. that of unchec7e" e?&loitation$$$$ Koltaire. as well as Rousseau. an" &ower "i" not lie with an irres&onsible maLority$ Thus the Jew saw that here it was &ossible for an enlightene" "es&otism to arise base" u&on the army. to turn against the nobility an" see7 &o&ular su&&ort$ -ut this &ossibility constitute" a gra%e "anger for Jewry$ )f the great masses of the new in"ustriali>e" wor7men ha" come into @ationalist han"s an" li7e a true social lea%en ha" &enetrate" the whole nation.An" the same is true of "emocracy$ )n general e%en in the early "ays both .N an" neither si"e notice" that on both si"es the faults were the result of a scheme &lanne" by alien "e%ilish agitators$ An" only so is it &ossible to e?&lain how this "irty Lo7e of worl" history coul" come to be that 'toc7 . a fourth estate was forme" in the towns. unscru&ulous metho"s in tra"e which were em&loye" so ruthlessly as to gi%e rise to the &ro%erb N-usiness. the &easantry. an" the masses of the &eo&le still unaffecte" by the Jewish &oison$ The intelligentsia at that time was almost e?clusi%ely German. then there woul" ha%e been create" what many ho&e" for in @o%ember. ) might say. but that that which a man creates or gains through his honest labor is his own.

a colony ri&e for "e%elo&ment through alien ca&ital. but who s&en" the night in the 0otel . it is foreigners who create an" wor7 for himE it is foreigners who she" their bloo" for him$ 0e 7nows no N&eo&leNs armyNE he has only hire" mercenaries who are rea"y to go to "eath on his behalf$ 0e has no art of his ownE bit by bit he has stolen it all from the other &eo&les or has watche" them at wor7 an" then ma"e his co&y$ 0e "oes not e%en 7now how merely to &reser%e the &recious things which others ha%e create"E as he turns the treasures o%er in his han" they are transforme" into "irt an" "ung$ 0e 7nows that he cannot maintain any 'tate for long$ That is one of the "ifferences between him an" the Aryan$ True. the national e?istence must cease altogether$ An" one can see constantly how won"erfully the 'toc7 . he is all ra&acity. though he has "estroye" ci%ili>ations by the hun"re"$ 0e &ossesses nothing of his own creation to which he can &oint$ .?change organ an" the Lournal of the wor7ers. therefore all his re%olutions must be Ninternational$N They must s&rea" as a &estilence s&rea"s$ 0e can buil" no 'tate an" say N'ee here. rea"y to gi%e it its &rotection. foreign wor7men buil" him his tem&les. an" the Jew can meet it in one way only 6 by "estroying the hostile national intelligentsia$ That is the ine%itable ultimate goal of the Jew in his re%olution$ An" this aim he must &ursue8 he 7nows well enough his economics brings no blessingE his is no master &eo&leE he is an e?&loiterE the Jews are a &eo&le of robbers$ 0e has ne%er foun"e" any ci%ili>ation.'o soon as millions of men ha%e ha" it hammere" into them that they are so o&&resse" an" ensla%e" that it matters not what their &ersonal attitu"e may be to their &eo&le. the Aryan also has "ominate" other &eo&les$ -ut howM 0e entere" on the lan". the &eo&le is not to &rofit.?change Jew an" the lea"er of the wor7ers.%erything that he has is stolen$ Foreign &eo&les. N2oo7 at themX they only want to o&&ress youX 'ha7e off your fetters$$$$N 0is brother ta7es care that the fetters are well an" truly forge"$ The 'toc7 . 0ere stan"s the 'tate. that it may the more surely rela&se into the gol"en fetters of the &er&etual interest6sla%ery of the Jewish race$ An" this &rocess will en" when su""enly out of the masses someone arises who sei>es the lea"ershi&. how the 'toc7 . but of the &eo&le$ )t is clear that all these a&ostles who tal7 their tongues out of their hea"s. which sooner or later will "o fatal "amage to the national economy$ Through the &reaching of the Mar?ist economic theory the national economy must go to ruin$ We see the results in RussiaE the en" of the whole economic life of the 'tateE the han"ing o%er of the community to the international worl" of finance$ An" the &rocess is furthere" through the organi>ation of the N&olitical stri7e$N Jften there are no a"e9uate economic groun"s for a stri7e. incor&orate" them into his 'tate an" through him art an" science were brought to flower$ )n the last resort it was the Aryan an" the Aryan alone who coul" form 'tates an" coul" set them on their &ath to future greatness$ All that the Jew cannot "o$ An" because he cannot "o it.?celsior. or else in a short time this &lague6hearth woul" burn itself out$ 'o he is force" to bring e%ery mortal thing to an international e?&ansion$ For how longM (ntil the whole worl" sin7s in ruins an" brings him "own with it in the mi"st of the ruins$ That &rocess to"ay in Russia is &ractically com&lete$ The whole of &resent6"ay Russia has nothing to show beyon" a ruine" ci%ili>ation. since the thought of the in"i%i"ual is concentrate" on the i"ea of international soli"arity$ )t is clear that a nationNs economic life "e&en"s u&on the strength of a national 'tateE it "oes not li%e on such &hrases as NA&&easement of the &eo&lesN or NFree"om of the 4eo&les$N At the moment when no &eo&le su&&orts the economic life of a nation. while his brother )saac in the factory incites the masses an" shouts. is to be "estroye". at that moment economic life colla&ses$ The brea7ing in &ieces of a nationNs strength is the en" of a nationNs &ros&erity. an" e%en this ca&ital in or"er to su&&ly resources in labor for its &ractical wor7 must intro"uce Aryan intellects. their 'tate. an" the other is "earerE u& 4roletariansX en"ure it no longer6"own with $ $ $ 0ow long can this &rocess lastM )t means the utter "estruction not only of economic life. that. it shall merely be brought into "e&en"ence on these men$ The bac7bone of its in"e&en"ence. an" he has not use" the others for his own interests. while the wor7menNs news&a&er lets off all its guns on the masses. fin"s other comra"es an" fans into flame the &assions which ha%e been hel" in chec7 an" looses them against the "ecei%ers$ That is the lur7ing "anger. too. or economic life. tra%el in e?&ress trains. that it is not limite" to one &lace. he cleare" the forests8 out of wil"ernesses he has create" ci%ili>ations. he has. then a 7in" of &assi%e resistance must result. co6o&erate$ They both &ursue one common &olicy an" a single aim$ Moses /ohn on the one si"e encourages his association to refuse the wor7ersN "eman"s. its own economic life. a mo"el for all$ @ow co&y usXN 0e must ta7e care that the &lague "oes not "ie.?change organ see7s without intermission to encourage fe%ere" s&eculation an" un&arallele" corners in grain an" in the foo" of the &eo&le. an" s&en" their lea%e for their health in @ice 6 these &eo&le "o not e?ert their energies for lo%e of the &eo&le$ @o. so far as their ca&acities &ermitte". but there are always &olitical groun"s an" &lenty of them$ An" to this must be a""e" the &ractical &olitical sabotage of the 'tate. since for this again the Jew is useless$ 0ere. ne%er . telling them that brea" is "earer an" this.

4. but what "i" mo%e them ha" nothing to "o with reason$ For here there is no 9uestion of the thought of reasonable &eo&lesE it is the thought of a wil" beast. an" we see how this scourge is threatening Germany.M W. cautiously. but.A'.J42. )@ T0)' JT0.T 4JW. 0JW JK. one can still bring men out of the factories. com&letely lost$ Aet here an" there &eo&le are beginning to get some &ractice in criticism$ 'lowly. yes almost in the whole worl".4T T0. an" yet with a certain accuracy the finger is being &lace" on the real woun" of our &eo&le$ An" thus one comes to reali>eE if only this "e%elo&ment goes on for a time. a monarchist.@ T0RJ(G0 MA@A T0)@G'. )T )' T0. but not to fee" the &eo&leE oh noX . 0J'T)2. tearing.. some by machine guns $ $ $ millions u&on millions through star%ation$$$$ A whole &eo&le is "ying. that "ri%es all of them to the same ruin as that to which we oursel%es are "ri%en$ 'o the masses of the &eo&le in Germany are becoming.BR. -(T WJ(2+ 0AK.(RJ4. )T )' @JT T0.RW)'.(RJ4. (@FJRT(@AT.2. if one critici>es the state of affairs to which we ha%e been brought to"ay. )T WJ(2+ 2J@G AGJ 0AK. rather whate%er honesty is still left to us. howe%er. JRGA@)T.ast thirty million human beings are being slowly martyre" 6 "one to "eath.ART' JF T0. but it is "oubtful if in the en" e%en a German will acce&t a milliar" of mar7s for his "ayNs wage if in the last resort with his milliar"6wage he must still star%e$ )t is a 9uestion whether one will be able to 7ee& u& this great frau" u&on the nation$ There will come a "ay when this must sto& 6 an" therefore one must buil" for that "ay. for the reasons which ) ha%e state". an" how with us our own &eo&le in ma" infatuation is contributing to bring u&on itself the same yo7e. where%er you go. that one is a reactionary. far too little criticism$ J(R 4.2A )' M(B0 TJJ (@BR)T)BA2. 4.R JF T0.+ 4R. '. 'W. an" that they will "o the more ra&i"ly the more clearly they see that the masses are beginning to un"erstan" one thing 6 @ational 'ocialist teaching$ Whether for the moment it comes to them un"er that name or un"er another. but only by means of terrorism$ )f you as7 for an honest answer the wor7er will confess that he no longer belie%es in this international soli"arity$ An" the belief in the so6calle" reasonableness of the other &eo&les has gone too$ 0ow often ha%e we been tol" that reason will lea" them not to be too har" with usE true..'$ An" who are then these ban"its of the &ressM The brothers an" the relati%es of the &ublishers of our own news&a&ers$ An" the ca&ital source which &ro%i"es the energy which here 6 an" there 6 "ri%es them forwar" is the Jewish "ream of Worl" 'u&remacy$ To"ay the i"ea of international soli"arity has lost its force. in Germany. raging in its unreason. the fact is that e%erywhere more an" more it is ma7ing hea"way$ To"ay all these fol7 cannot yet belong to a single &arty.uro&e which is so hostile to GermanyM A@+ W0A )' . it might be &ossible that from Germany the light shoul" come which is "estine" to light both Germany an" the htt&EGGwww$hitler$orgGs&eechesGH:6256 22$htmlworl" to their sal%ation$ An" at that &oint the e%erlasting lie begins to wor7 against us with e%ery means in its &ower$$$$ )t is sai".' W0)B0 AG)TAT. too. an" so he himself colla&ses with the treasure that he has "estroye"$ )t is a tragic fateE we ha%e often grown e?cite" o%er the "eath of a criminalE if an anarchist is shot in '&ain we raise a mighty howl o%er Nthe sacrifice of %aluable human bloo"N $ $ $ an" here in the . reason shoul" ha%e mo%e" them thus. an" now we can &erha&s un"erstan" how it was &ossible that formerly all the ci%ili>ations of Meso&otamia "isa&&eare" without a trace so that one can only with "ifficulty fin" in the "esert san" the remains of these cities$ We see how in our own "ay whole countries "ie out un"er this scourge of Go".satisfie"$ 0e 7nows no or"ere" economy.''2A 4J(R' @. before it comes$ An" so now Germany is reaching that stage which Russia has "run7 to the lees$ @ow in one last stu&en"ous assault they will finally crush all criticism. no. @JT J@2A '. the e%er6 growing "istress. the same misery$ We 7now that the Re%olution which began in 1 15 has co%ere" &erha&s but the first thir" of its course$ Two things. there are which must scourge it forwar" u&on its wayE economic causes an" &olitical causes$ Jn the economic si"e. in the &olitical s&here.M AWAA W)T0 )T' F)'TX The crisis is "e%elo&ing towar"s its culmination$ The "ay is not far "istant when.'.R T0.J42. some on the scaffol". 0.R . a &an6 German$ ) as7 you what woul" &robably ha%e been the state of Germany to"ay if "uring these three years there ha" been no criticism at allM ) belie%e that in fact there has been far. JR JT0.W 4J)'J@ )@TJ T0. an" in the &olitical s&here. are not nearly all Germans in their hearts 6 let each one a"mit it 6 in "es&air when they consi"er the situation which lea%es us 9uite "efenseless in face of a . he 7nows no or"ere" bo"y of a"ministrators$ J%er there in Russia he is laying his han"s on e%erything$ They ta7e the nobleNs "iamon"s to hel& Nthe 4eo&le$N The "iamon"s then stray into foreign societies an" are no more seen$ 0e sei>es to himself the treasures of the churches. the German Re%olution must be carrie" forwar" another ste&$ The lea"ers 7now all too well that things cannot always go on as they are going to"ay$ Jne may raise &rices ten times by 1HH &er cent. AGA)@'T ('.%erything wan"ers away an" lea%es not a trace behin"$ )n his gree" he has become 9uite senselessE he can 7ee& hol" of nothingE he has only within him the instinct for "estruction. '. you fin" alrea"y millions of thin7ing men who 7now that a 'tate can be built only on a social foun"ation an" they 7now also that the "ea"ly foe of e%ery social conce&tion is the international Jew$ . all o&&osition.'' W0)B0 B.R.J42.

with humanity. an" who recogni>es that this community can flourish only when it is forme" not of rulers an" o&&resse" but when all accor"ing to their ca&acities fulfill their "uty to their Fatherlan" an" the community of the &eo&le an" are %alue" accor"ingly. an" who abo%e all is concerne" that our &recious &ossession. we ha" to lan" in &rison$ -ut in s&ite of e%erything there is one thing we woul" sayE We "o ma7e a "istinction between a Go%ernment an" the German Fatherlan"$ When to"ay here in the 2an"tag or in the Reichstag at -erlin some lousy half6Asiatic youth casts in our teeth the charge that we ha%e no loyalty to the Reich. he who has so ta7en to heart the meaning of our great song N+eutschlan". but the masses are to be incite" against their &ersons$ Just as the Jew coul" once incite the mob of Jerusalem against Bhrist. yes. an" that in the last resort is our one great faith. the most "e%ote" of all men to our German Fatherlan"$ For three years we ha%e wage" a war.N that nothing in this worl" stan"s for him higher than this Germany. our youth. abo%e all the arrest of the e%il NagitatorsN 6 that is the name they gi%e to those who "are to tell the &eo&le the truth$ @ot only are their organi>ations to be 7nown to all. ) beg you "o not "istress yoursel%es$ The -a%arian &eo&le has seale" its loyalty to the Reich with its countless regiments which fought for the Reich an" often san7 un"er the earth two or three times$ We are con%ince". a real Fatherlan" of the whole German &eo&le an" not an asylum for alien swin"lers$ There is to"ay constant tal7 about . the mu>>ling of the s&irit. the nation is no longer "angerous$ An" within Germany they ha%e seen to it that arms shoul" be ta7en away from the "ecent elements of the &eo&le an" that in their stea" Russian6Jewish6bolshe%ist ban"s shoul" be arme"$ Jnly one thing remains still to "oE %i>$. 'tresemann an" the rest of them$ They are in"ee" not "angerous$ They ne%er go to the roots of the e%ilE they all still thin7 that with forbearance. if ) only hol" my tongue.. the strength. but always only for our German Fatherlan"$ We got so far that at the last. Go"Ns truthX &erha&s the most loyal. that out of this bitterest "istress an" this utter misery the German Reich will rise again. +eutschlan" uber alles. then ) shall be safe in case they come into &ower$ @o. he is a 'ocialistX An" he who in this &eo&le sym&athi>es with the &oorest of its citi>ens. but not as now. Russia can gi%e us countless e?am&les. but he is also @ational in the highest sense of that wor"$ )t is the teaching of these facts which a&&ears to the Jews as lea"ers of the Re%olution to"ay to constitute a threatening "anger$ An" it is &recisely this which more than anything else ma7es the Jew wish to get in his blow as soon as &ossible$ For one thing he 7nows 9uite wellE in the last resort there is only one "anger which he has to fear6an" that "anger is this young Mo%ement$ 0e 7nows the ol" &arties$ They are easily satisfie"$ Jnly en"ow them with a few seats as ministers or with similar &osts an" they are rea"y to go along with you$ An" in es&ecial he 7nows one thingE they are so innocently stu&i"$ )n their case the truth of the ol" saying is &ro%e" afresh e%ery "ayE NThose whom the go"s wish to "estroy. &eo&le an" lan". too.%ery truly national i"ea is in the last resort social. of thousan"s$ For they thin7. they first stri7e with blin"ness$N They ha%e been struc7 with blin"nessE therefore it follows that the go"s wish to "estroy them$ Jnly loo7 at these &arties an" their lea"ers. an" with us it will be the same story$ We 7now that the so6calle" N2aw for the 4rotection of the Re&ublicN which comes from -erlin to"ay is nothing else than a means for re"ucing all criticism to silence$ We 7now. an" he 7nows that this &ressure in itself is enough to shut the mouths of hun"re"s. as crown of all our labors. my frien"$ The only "ifference will be that ) may hang &erha&s still tal7ing. that no effort will be s&are" so that the last outstan"ing &ersonalities 6 those who within Germany foresee the coming of "isaster 6 shall in goo" time "isa&&ear$ An" to that en" the &o&ulation of @orth Germany will be scourge" into o&&osition to -a%aria with e%ery lie an" e%ery misre&resentation that comes to han"$ (& there they ha%e the feeling that in one corner of the Reich the s&irit of the German &eo&le is not yet bro7en$ An" that is the &oint to which we @ational 'ocialists ha%e to gra&&le oursel%es$ We @ational 'ocialists are. lan" an" &eo&le. with accommo"ation they can fight a battle which has not its e9ual in this worl"$ Through gentleness they thin7 that they must "emonstrate to the enemy of the 2eft that they are rea"y for a&&easement so as to stay the "ea"ly cancerous ulcer through a &olicy of mo"eration$ @oX A thousan" times @oX 0ere there are only two &ossibilitiesE either %ictory or "efeatX What to"ay is the meaning of these great &re&arations for the "ecisi%e battle on the &art of bolshe%ist Ju"aismM6 To ma7e the nation "efenseless in arms an" to ma7e the &eo&le "efenseless in s&irit$ Two great aimsX Abroa" Germany is alrea"y humiliate"$ The 'tate trembles before e%ery French @egro6ca&tain. who in this &eo&le sees in e%ery in"i%i"ual a %aluable member of the whole community. while you will hang 6 in silence$ 0ere. Go"Ns truthX see7 to "eal with this &eo&le in utter honesty an" sincerity$ An" so he begins to intimi"ate them. shoul" not before its time be use" u& in unhealthy harmful wor7 6 he is not merely a 'ocialist. so to"ay he must succee" in inciting fol7 who ha%e been "u&e" into ma"ness to attac7 those who. i$e$. too. an" the youthful energy of the millions of wor7ing men. not as the offs&ring of wretche"ness an" misery 6 we shall &ossess once again a true German Reich of free"om an" of honor. often against "eath an" "e%il. he who is &re&are" so com&letely to a"o&t the cause of his &eo&le that he really 7nows no higher i"eal than the &ros&erity of this 6 his own 6 &eo&le. he who see7s to &reser%e the nati%e %igor.

T0J(G0T T0AT T0. we surren"er to such a Jewish Bommission ne%erX We ha%e the con%iction. goo" luc7 to you. ('. falls as a &iece of luc7 into your la& while you are but youths$ Aou can be assure" that the more they re%ile you. none of us woul" ma7e another s&eech$ We 7now.NFe"eralism. if only for the reason that he lea"s those against whom it woul" seem that e%erything has cons&ire"$ -ut in that %ery fact there lies an ine?haustible source of strength$ The con%iction that our Mo%ement is not sustaine" by money or the lust for gol". the more we res&ect you$ We 7now that if you were not there. but for the &rotection of a Germany that is to be$ )f you are re%ile" an" insulte". this highest gift of "istinguishing between the honest man an" the brigan".J42.@T 2A@G(AG. an" strength$ 'o as ) come to the en" of my s&eech ) want to as7 something of those among you who are young$ An" for that there is a %ery s&ecial reason$ The ol" &arties train their youth in the gift of the gab.' BJ(2+ -. J@ T0)' '(-J.R T0RJ(G0 MAJJR)TA +. then you will ha%e on your si"e in the whole of Germany millions an" millions of Germans. but only through treaties$ -)'MARB/ J@B. only stu"ies &hiloso&hy an" in a time li7e this buries himself behin" his boo7s or sits at home by the fire. he is no German youthX ) call u&on youX Join our 'torm +i%isionsX An" howe%er many insults an" slan"ers you may hear if you "o Loin. an" at the same time not merely for the &rotection of the Mo%ement. for your &rotection. a German Re&ublic$ . or Germans of Austria$ @ow is the hour to stan" stiff6nec7e" an" resist to the lastX We @ational 'ocialists who for three years ha%e "one nothing but &reach 6 abuse" an" insulte" by all.BTE 0. by some moc7e" an" scorne".+ @. whether they be 4russians or men of -a"en. firm as a roc7. by others tra"uce" an" slan"ere" 6 we cannot retreatX For us there is only one &ath which lea"s straight ahea"$ We 7now that the fight which now is bla>ing will be a har" struggle$ )t will not be fought out in the court of the Reich at 2ei&>ig.'T)@).' JF 4. but show yoursel%es stiff6nec7e" against the fol7 of -erlin$ An" if you "o that. my boysX Aou ha%e the goo" fortune alrea"y at eighteen or nineteen years of age to be hate" by the greatest of scoun"rels$ What others can win only after a lifetime of toil. far less can he win great material goo"s 6 it is more li7ely that he will en" u& in Lail$ 0e who to"ay is lea"er must be an i"ealist. we &refer to train them to use their bo"ily strength$ For ) tell youE the young man who "oes not fin" his way to the &lace where in the last resort the "estiny of his &eo&le is most truly re&resente". men of 'a?ony. is a symbol of &ower. what Germany longs for ar"ently. to the Germany of the German &eo&leX 'ourceE htt&EGGwww$hitler$orgGs&eechesGH:625622$html . -(T J@2A T0RJ(G0 -2JJ+ A@+ )RJ@$ Jn one &oint there shoul" be no "oubtE we will not let the Jews slit our gullets an" not "efen" oursel%es$ To"ay in -erlin they may alrea"y be arranging their festi%al6"inners with the Jewish hangmen of 'o%iet Russia 6 that they will ne%er "o here$ They may to"ay begin to set u& the Bhe7a 6 the . so far as in us lies.B)')J@' @JR T0RJ(G0 TR.)T0. you all 7now that the 'torm +i%isions ha%e been forme" for our &rotection. Go"Ns truthX he has nothing to win but &erha&s only e%erything to lose$ 0e who to"ay fights on our si"e cannot win great laurels. ta7e with you this assuranceE if this battle shoul" not come. if in this 'tate se%en million men are "etermine" to stan" by their N@oN to the %ery last.?traor"inary Bommission 6 in Germany.AT).'. ne%er woul" Germany win &eace$ Germany woul" "ecay an" at the best woul" sin7 to ruin li7e a rotting cor&se$ -ut that is not our "estiny$ We "o not belie%e that this misfortune which to"ay our Go" sen"s o%er Germany has no meaningE it is surely the scourge which shoul" an" shall "ri%e us to a new greatness. but only by our lo%e for the &eo&le. that must e%er gi%e us fresh heart. it will not be fought out in a cabinet at -erlin.%ery battle must be fought to the en" 6 better that it come early than late$ An" he e%er stan"s most securely who from the first goes to the fight with the greatest confi"ence$ An" this highest confi"ence we can carry with us in our hearts$ For he who on our si"e is to"ay the lea"er of the German &eo&le. that.R. Wurttembergers. to a Germany which for the first time shall fulfill that which in their hearts millions of the best of our fellow countrymen ha%e ho&e" for through the centuries an" the millennia.N etc$ ) beg you not to abuse the 4russians while at the same time you gro%el before the Jews.+ +)FF. the e%il s&ecter will colla&se into nothingness in the rest of the Reich$ For what Germany nee"s to"ay.RM)@. +. it will be fought out through those factors which in their har" reality ha%e e%er u& to the &resent time ma"e worl" history$ ) hear" recently in the s&eech of a minister that the rights of a 'tate cannot be set asi"e through sim&le maLority "ecisions. we see clearly that our Mo%ement woul" be cu"gelle" "own if you "i" not &rotect itX Aou are the "efense of a Mo%ement that is calle" one "ay to remo"el Germany in re%olutionary fashion from its %ery foun"ations in or"er that there may come to birth what &erha&s so many e?&ecte" on the ninth of @o%emberE a German Reich an" a Germanic an".T. +. they may gi%e it free sco&e. that must e%er fill us with courage for the fray$ An" as my last wor". to a new &ower an" glory.

it is &erfectly clear to the national Go%ernment that the final remo%al of the "istress both in agricultural business an" in that of the towns "e&en"s on the absor&tion of the army of the unem&loye" in the &rocess of &ro"uction$ This constitutes .G *P '+ (F . an" business "oes not e?ist for ca&ital8 but ca&ital ser%es business. means the "estruction of the basis of a &ossible communal life$$$$ )t is only the creation of a real national community. the theater. for the elimination of $ommunism in Germany is a #urely )omesti$ German affair$ 'imultaneously with this &olitical &urification of our &ublic life. an" so for Germany. systematically brought about by the false "octrines of Mar?ism. that is to say the wor7ing classes of the German &eo&le.B RL=N6 R ='+*T.M-.R'+ ?>6 47>> )@ @JK. that can &ermanently remo%e the source of nourishment of these aberrations of the human min"$ The establishment of such a soli"arity of %iews in the German bo"y cor&orate is all the more im&ortant. howe%er. the 4ress. literature. the cinema. these untrue accusations in the interest of our former enemies le" to the se%erest o&&ression of the entire German nation an" to the breach of the assurances gi%en to us in WilsonNs fourteen &oints. 1 15. being resol%e" to un"erta7e the &olitical an" moral &urification of our &ublic life. Mar?ist organi>ations sei>e" the e?ecuti%e &ower by means of a re%olution$ The monarchs were "ethrone". rising abo%e the interests an" "ifferences of ran7 an" class. be treate" with the same res&ect$$$$ Great are the tas7s of the national Go%ernment in the s&here of economic life$ 0ere all action must be go%erne" by one lawE the &eo&le "oes not li%e for business. the Go%ernment of the Reich will un"erta7e a thorough moral &urging of the bo"y cor&orate of the nation$ The entire e"ucational system. an" business ser%es the &eo&le$ )n &rinci&le. the Go%ernment will not &rotect the economic interests of the German &eo&le by the circuitous metho" of an economic bureaucracy to be organi>e" by the 'tate. for it is only thereby that the &ossibility is &ro%i"e" of maintaining frien"ly relations with foreign 4owers without regar" to the ten"encies or general &rinci&les by which they are "ominate".. to a time of infinite misfortune$$$$ The s&litting u& of the nation into grou&s with irreconcilable %iews.R. an" thereby a breach of the Bonstitution was committe"$ The success of the re%olution in a material sense &rotecte" the guilty &arties from the han"s of the law$ They sought to Lustify it morally by asserting that Germany or its Go%ernment bore the guilt for the outbrea7 of the War$ This assertion was "eliberately an" actually untrue$ )n conse9uence. on the other han". the authorities of the Reich an" of the 'tates remo%e" from office. is creating an" securing the con"itions necessary for a really &rofoun" re%i%al of religious life$ The a"%antages of a &ersonal an" &olitical nature that might arise from com&romising with atheistic organi>ations woul" not outweigh the conse9uences which woul" become a&&arent in the "estruction of general moral basic %alues$ The national Go%ernment regar"s the two Bhristian confessions as the weightiest factors for the maintenance of our nationality$ )t will res&ect the agreements conclu"e" between it an" the fe"eral 'tates$ Their rights are not to be infringe"$ -ut the Go%ernment ho&es an" e?&ects that the wor7 on the national an" moral regeneration of our nation which it has ma"e its tas7 will. but by the utmost furtherance of &ri%ate initiati%e an" by the recognition of the rights of &ro&erty$$$$ The Go%ernment will systematically a%oi" currency e?&eriments$ We are face" abo%e all by two economic tas7s of the first magnitu"e$ The sal%ation of the German farmer must be achie%e" at all costs$$$$ Furthermore. an" the wireless 6 all these will be use" as means to this en" an" %alue" accor"ingly$ They must all ser%e for the maintenance of the eternal %alues &resent in the essential character of our &eo&le$ Art will always remain the e?&ression an" the reflection of the longings an" the realities of an era$ The neutral international attitu"e of aloofness is ra&i"ly "isa&&earing$ 0eroism is coming forwar" &assionately an" will in future sha&e an" lea" &olitical "estiny$ )t is the tas7 of art to be the e?&ression of this "etermining s&irit of the age$ -loo" an" race will once more become the source of artistic intuition$$$$ Jur legal institutions must ser%e abo%e all for the maintenance of this national community$ The irremo%ableness of the Lu"ges must ensure a sense of res&onsibility an" the e?ercise of "iscretion in their Lu"gments in the interests of society$ @ot the in"i%i"ual but the nation as a whole alone can be the center of legislati%e solicitu"e$ +igh treason an) trea$hery to the nation &ill be ruthlessly era)i$ate) in the future: The foun"ations of the e?istence of Lustice cannot be other than the foun"ations of the e?istence of the nation$ The Go%ernment.

elihoo) for many millions of our fello&D$ountrymen: We also 7now what are the con"itions necessary for a soun" e?change of ser%ices between the nations of the worl"$ For Germany has been com&elle" for years to &erform ser%ices without recei%ing an e9ui%alent. unfortunately.ery nation that is rea)y finally to ma/e an en) of the tragi$ #ast: The international e$onomi$ )istress $an only )isa##ear &hen the basis has been #ro.i)es a li.the secon" of the great economic tas7s$ )t can only be sol%e" by a general a&&easement. an" also a general release from re&arations an" im&ossible liabilities for "ebts an" interest$ We are unfortunately face" by the fact that the Gene%a Bonference. at the time. only in"i%i"ual measures within the sco&e of the entire action &ro&ose"$$$$ We are a&are that the geogra#hi$ #osition of Germany6 &ith her la$/ of ra& materials6 )oes not fully #ermit of e$onomi$ selfDsuffi$ien$y for the Rei$h: =t $annot be too often em#hasize) that nothing is further from the thoughts of the Go. only been carrie" out to a small e?tent$ For years Germany has been waiting in %ain for the fulfillment of the &romise of "isarmament ma"e to her by the others$ )t is the sincere "esire of the national Go%ernment to be able to refrain from increasing our army an" our wea&ons. has so far reache" no &ractical result$ The "ecision regar"ing the securing of a real measure of "isarmament has been constantly "elaye" by the raising of 9uestions of technical "etail an" by the intro"uction of &roblems that ha%e nothing to "o with "isarmament$ This &roce"ure is useless$ The illegal state of one6si"e" "isarmament an" the resulting national insecurity of Germany cannot continue any longer$ .ernment of the Rei$h than hostility to e<#orting: We are fully a&are that &e ha. e%en the re&lacement of shi&s for our fleet then sanctione" has. for that reason. the honor of our army an" the i"eal of free"om must once more become sacre" to the German &eo&leX The German nation wishes to li%e in &eace with the rest of the worl"$ -ut it is for this %ery reason that the Go%ernment of the Reich will em&loy e%ery means to obtain the final remo%al of the "i%ision of the nations of the worl" into two categories$ The 7ee&ing o&en of this woun" lea"s to "istrust on the one si"e an" hatre" on the other. also com&elle" to maintain the restrictions on the efflu? of ca&ital across the frontiers of Germany$$$$ The &rotection of the frontiers of the Reich an" thereby of the li%es of our &eo&le an" the e?istence of our business is now in the han"s of the Reichswehr. in this connection. with a %iew to restoring the confi"ence of the nations in each other$ C$ The final %ictory of the &rinci&les of common sense in the organi>ation an" con"uct of business. they cannot rec7on with any "egree of &o&ularity$ The &ro%i"ing of wor7 an" the com&ulsory labor ser%ice are. in a&&lying soun" natural economic &rinci&les an" all measures necessary. e%en if. insofar as the rest of the worl" is now also rea"y to fulfill its obligations in the matter of ra"ical "isarmament$ For Germany "esires nothing e?ce&t an e9ual right to li%e an" e9ual free"om$ )n any case the national Go%ernment will e"ucate the German &eo&le in this s&irit of a "esire for free"om$ The national honor.e regaine) $onfi)en$e in ea$h other: For the o%ercoming of the economic catastro&he three things are necessaryE 1$ Absolutely authoritati%e lea"ershi& in internal affairs. which.e nee) of the $onne$tion &ith the outsi)e &orl)6 an) that the mar/eting of German $ommo)ities in the &orl) #ro. in s&ite of lengthy negotiations. ) may &erha&s be allowe" to say. in"ee". in accor"ance with the terms im&ose" u&on us by the Treaty of Kersailles.i)e) by stable #oliti$al relations an) &hen the nations ha. an" thus to a general feeling of insecurity$ The national Go. is to be regar"e" as the only really "isarme" army in the worl"$ )n s&ite of its enforce" smallness an" entirely insufficient armament. in or"er to create confi"ence in the stability of con"itions$ 2$ The securing of &eace by the great nations for a long time to come. the German &eo&le may regar" their Reichswehr with &rou" satisfaction$ This little instrument of our national self6"efence has come into being un"er the most "ifficult con"itions$ The s&irit imbuing it is that of our best military tra"itions$ The German nation has thus fulfille" with &ainful conscientiousness the obligations im&ose" u&on it by the 4eace Treaty. we are unfortunately com&elle" to maintain our foreign6e?change control$ The Go%ernment of the Reich is.ernment is rea)y to e<ten) a han) in sin$ere un)erstan)ing to e. with the result that the tas7 of maintaining Germany as an acti%e &artner in the e?change of commo"ities is not so much one of commercial as of financial &olicy$ 'o long as we are not accor"e" a reasonable settlement of our foreign "ebts corres&on"ing to our economic ca&acity.

France. )taly. to cause the Bonference finally to arri%e at s&ee"y "ecisions$ The Go%ernment of the Reich will su&&ort e%ery en"ea%or aime" at really carrying out general "isarmament an" securing the fulfillment of GermanyNs long6o%er"ue claim for "isarmament$ For fourteen years we ha%e been "isarme". an" we are rea"y to co6o&erate with absolute sincerity on the basis it &ro%i"es. if the Go%ernments will attac7 the &roblems affecting them on both si"es in a really broa"min"e" way$ The Go%ernment of the Reich is rea"y to culti%ate with the 'o%iet (nion frien"ly relations &rofitable to both &arties$ )t is abo%e all the Go%ernment of the @ational Re%olution which feels itself in a &osition to a"o&t such a &ositi%e &olicy with regar" to 'o%iet Russia$ The fight against communism in Germany is our internal affair in which we will ne%er &ermit interference from outsi"e$$$$ We ha%e &articularly at heart the fate of the Germans li%ing beyon" the frontiers of Germany who are allie" with us in s&eech.We recogni>e it as a sign of the feeling of res&onsibility an" of the goo" will of the -ritish Go%ernment that they ha%e en"ea%ore". culture. an" customs an" ha%e to ma7e a har" fight to retain these %alues$ The national Go%ernment is resol%e" to use all the means at its "is&osal to su&&ort the rights internationally guarantee" to the German minorities$ We welcome the &lan for a Worl" . by means of their "isarmament &ro&osal. attaches the greatest %alue to frien"ly relations with the 0oly 'ee.%en more far6reaching is the &lan of the hea" of the )talian Go%ernment.conomic Bonference an" a&&ro%e of its meeting at an early "ate$ The Go%ernment of the Reich is rea"y to ta7e &art in this Bonference. which regar"s Bhristianity as the unsha7able foun"ation of the morals an" moral co"e of the nation. we shall en"ea%or to arri%e at a settlement$ -ut in any case the basis for an un"erstan"ing can ne%er be the "istinction between %ictor an" %an9uishe"$ We are con%ince" that such a settlement is &ossible in our relations with France. the Go%ernment of the Reich. which ma7es a broa"6min"e" an" far6seeing attem&t to secure a &eaceful an" consistent "e%elo&ment of the whole of . an" is en"ea%oring to "e%elo& them$ We feel sym&athy for our brother nation in Austria in its trouble an" "istress$ )n all their "oings the Go%ernment of the Reich is conscious of the connection between the "estiny of all German races$ Their attitu"e towar" the other foreign 4owers may be gathere" from what has alrea"y been sai"$ -ut e%en in cases where our mutual relations are encumbere" with "ifficulties. an" Germany. . in frien"ly co6o&eration in attac7ing with courage an" "etermination the &roblems u&on the solution of which the fate of . in or"er to arri%e at &ositi%e results at last$ $ $ $ 'ourceE htt&EGGwww$hitler$orgGs&eechesGHC62C6CC$html .uro&ean &olicy$ We attach the greatest weight to this &lan.nglan". in or"er to unite the four Great 4owers.uro&e "e&en"s$ )t is for this reason that we are &articularly grateful for the a&&reciati%e heartiness with which the national renaissance of Germany has been greete" in )taly$$$$ )n the same way. an" for fourteen months we ha%e been waiting for the results of the +isarmament Bonference$ .

1 15E The Treaty of -rest62ito%s7 was signe" by Russia !'o%iet -olshe%i7 regime#$ July 1D. 1 21E A"olf 0itler was a&&ointe" Fuhrer of the @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers. 1 2*E Germany is a"mitte" to the 2eague of @ations 'e&tember 14.Timeline of the Weimar Re&ublic !1 1561 CC# March C. 1 1 E The Treaty of Kersailles is signe" by German "i&lomats at the Kersailles 4alace near 4aris$ February 24. 1 1 E The -a%arian 'o%iet Re&ublic is establishe" in Munich June 25. 4arty at a beer hall in Munich August 2*. 1 24E -eer 0all 4utsch Trial con%enes at the 4eo&le. 1 2CE Bommunist u&rising occurs in +res"en.August *. 1 15E 'econ" -attle of the Marne Jctober 1C. 1 CHE German Fe"eral . 1 15. 1 1 E The German Wor7ers.lection is hel"8 the @a>i 4arty !largest &arty# gains 1 * seats in the Reichstag .lection is hel"8 the @a>i 4arty gains 12 seats in the Reichstag June 14. 1 2CE -eer 0all 4utsch in Munich8 A"olf 0itler is arreste" on @o%ember 11. 1 2 E Aoung 4lan is finali>e" at 4aris Jctober C. 1 21E Matthias . 1 C2E A"olf 0itler became a naturali>e" German citi>en July C1. 1 24E The German go%ernment ratifies the +awes 4lan A&ril 1 2DE A"olf 0itler renounces his Austrian citi>enshi& Jctober D61*. 1 24E Austrian citi>en A"olf 0itler s&en"s 2*4 "ays at 2an"sberg 4rison an" writes . was assassinate" in southwest Germany$ June 24. 1 1 E /urt . 1 246A&ril 1. is assassinate" in Munich by Anton Graf %on Arco auf Kalley A&ril *.isner. 1 2CE Bommunist u&rising occurs in 0amburg. France. 4arty was foun"e" in Munich by Anton +re?ler February 21. Germany @o%ember 56 . the Foreign Minister of Germany an" Jewish businessman. was assassinate" in -erlin January 11. Minister 4resi"ent of -a%aria. Germany. 1 15E /aiser Wilhelm )) of Germany ab"icates January D. 1 25E German Fe"eral . 'wit>erlan" 'e&tember 5. 1 15E German army cor&oral A"olf 0itler is gasse" by the -ritish army in the trenches of -elgium near A&res @o%ember :. 1 2HE A"olf 0itler is officially "ischarge" from the 41st Rifle Regiment of the Reichswehr July 2 . Gen$ . "ies in office Jctober 2562 1 2 E 'toc7 mar7et crash in @ew Aor7 Bity an" beginning of the Great +e&ression 'e&tember 14. the Finance Minister of Germany. an" others are trie" for high treason A&ril 1. 1 15E /ing 2u"wig ))) of -a%aria ab"icates @o%ember . 1 2*E 2ocarno Treaties went into effect !in Gene%a. 1 C2E German Fe"eral .lection is hel"8 the @a>i 4arty !2n" largest &arty# gains 1H: seats in the Reichstag February 2D. 4arty was establishe" at the 0ofbrauhaus in Munich March 1 2HE /a&& 4utsch in -erlin !also 7nown as /a&&62Uttwit> 4utsch# March C1. an" -ritain in 2ocarno.lection is hel"8 the @a>i 4arty !largest &arty# gains 2CH seats in the Reichstag @o%ember *. 1 2HE The @ational 'ocialist German Wor7ers. 1 22E Walter Rathenau.r> %on 2u"en"orff. 1 2CE The Jccu&ation of the Ruhr !1 2C61 2D# by the French army Jctober 2C.ein /am&f in &rison after he was con%icte" for high treason an" sentence" initially to D years in &rison August 2 . 1 246+ecember 2H. 1 2DE 2ocarno Treaties are signe" by Germany. the Foreign Minister of Germany an" @obel 4eace 4ri>e reci&ient. 1 2C February 2*. 1 C2E German Fe"eral . Germany @o%ember 2. 1 2 E Gusta% 'tresemann. 1 1 6May C. where A"olf 0itler.s Bourt in Munich. 'wit>erlan"# 1 2*E German Foreign Minister Gusta% 'tresemann an" French Foreign Minister Aristi"e -rian" are awar"e" the @obel 4eace 4ri>e May 2H.

Timeline of the Thir" Reich !until +ecember 1 41# January CH. 1 C E The ca&itulation of the city of Warsaw. 4olan" 'e&tember 1D. -elgium. 1 4HE @a>i German Anne?ation of northern France an" recognition of Kichy France 'e&tember 2:. 1 CDE Germany ceases to be a Member of the 2eague of @ations March C. 1 CDE @uremberg 2aws are &romulgate" Jctober 21.rnst %om Rath was assassinate" in 4aris by 1:6year6ol" Jewish alien 0erschel Gryns>&an @o%ember . 1 C5E /ristallnacht !@ight of the -ro7en Glass# January 1 . 1 4HE The Tri&artite 4act is signe" by )m&erial Ja&an. )taly June CH. 1 CCE German Fe"eral . 1 CDE The Franco6'o%iet Treaty of Mutual Assistance. 1 C4E German 4resi"ent !Gen$# 4aul %on 0in"enburg "ies in office 'e&tember 15. 1 C E @a>i German )n%asion of 4olan" an" the city of +an>ig 'e&tember 2:. 1 CDE 4olish lea"er Gen$ Jo>ef 4ilsu"s7i "ies in Warsaw. 1 C4E /ing Ale?an"er ) of Augosla%ia is assassinate" by lone gunman Kla"o Bherno>ems7i in Marseille. 1 C46July 2. 1 CDE 4lebiscite hel" in the 2eague of @ations6a"ministere" 'aar Territory8 Germans in 'aar %ote in fa%or of unification March 1. 1 CCE Germany with"raws from the 2eague of @ations January 2*. 2at%ia. 1 C E @a>i German )n%asion of B>echoslo%a7ia an" the city of 4rague August 2C. 4olan" to the @a>i German arme" forces @o%ember 5. is assassinate" "uring the @ight of the 2ong /ni%es July 2D. 1 C E Assassination attem&t on A"olf 0itler at -UrgerbrQu7eller -eer 0all in Munich by German citi>en Johann . Fascist )taly. 1 C4E @ight of the 2ong /ni%es June CH.nabling Act is &romulgate" August CH. was signe" in 4aris May 12. 1 C5E @a>i German "i&lomat . 1 CC6+ecember 2 .ngelbert +ollfuss is assassinate" in Kienna. 1 CDE Germany ta7es o%er the Go%ernment of the 'aar Territory$ May 2. 1 C4E /urt %on 'chleicher. 1 C4E A"mission of the (nion of 'o%iet 'ocialist Re&ublics to the 2eague of @ations Jctober .lection is hel"8 the @a>i 4arty !largest &arty# gains 255 seats in the Reichstag March 1:. former Bhancellor of Germany. 1 CCE The . 1 CCE 0Lalmar 'chacht is a&&ointe" 4resi"ent of the Reichsban7 for the secon" time March 24. 1 C56@o%ember 1*.$ +o"" ser%es as the (nite" 'tates Ambassa"or to @a>i Germany Jctober 21. 1 C E 0Lalmar 'chacht resigns as 4resi"ent of the Reichsban7 March 1D. 1 C4E Bhancellor of Austria . 1 4HE 'o%iet (nion occu&ies an" later anne?es 2ithuania. 1 C5E Munich Agreement is signe" at Munich Jctober 1 C5E @a>i German Anne?ation of 'u"etenlan" !B>echoslo%a7ia# @o%ember 5. France January 1C. Austria August 2. 1 41E @a>i German )n%asion of Russia +ecember 11. 1 4HE @a>i German )n%asion of France. 1 C5E 0ugh Robert Wilson ser%es as the (nite" 'tates Ambassa"or to @a>i Germany March 5.stonia June 22. 1 41E The +eath of /aiser Wilhelm )) of Germany in the @etherlan"s June 22. a bilateral &act with the aim of encircling Germany. an" . 1 41E @a>i Germany "eclares war on the (nite" 'tates of America . 1 C4E The German64olish @on6Aggression 4act is signe" June 1461D. 1 C5E @a>i German Anne?ation of Austria !Anschluss# 'e&tember CH. 1 CCE Reichstag !German 4arliament# is set on fire at night March D. 1 C:E William . an" @a>i Germany in -erlin A&ril *. 1 C E The German6'o%iet @onaggression 4act is signe" in Moscow 'e&tember 1. 1 41E @a>i German )n%asion of Augosla%ia an" Greece June 4. 1 CCE A"olf 0itler is inaugurate" Bhancellor of Germany February 2:.lser A&ril . 1 C5E A"olf 0itler meets with former ($'$ 4resi"ent 0erbert 0oo%er in -erlin March 12. 1 C4E Bhancellor of Germany A"olf 0itler meets with 4rime Minister of )taly -enito Mussolini in Kenice. 1 4HE @a>i German )n%asion of @orway an" +enmar7 May 1H. an" @etherlan"s June 1D.

W*oAs W*o o2 t*e 3*ird &ei0*

?ermann Goering &ei0*sminister o2 .viation "19!!@19D4)

?einri0* ?immler &ei0*s2U*rer o2 t*e (0*ut8sta22el "(() "L /an. 19 9 R 9 .pril 19D4)

.dol2 ?itler $*an0ellor and +u*rer o2 Na8i Germany "19!!@19D4)

/osep* Goebbels ,inister o2 Publi0 -nlig*tenment and Propaganda "19!!@ 19D4)> Gauleiter o2 Berlin "19 L@19D4)

,artin Bormann .dol2 ?itlerAs assistant

/oa0*im von &ibbentrop +oreign ,inister o2 Na8i Germany "19!:@19D4)> Na8i German .mbassador to Great Britain "19!L@19!:)

.lbert (peer ,inister o2 .rmaments and War Produ0tion "19D @19D4)> ?itlerAs personal ar0*ite0t

Wil*elm +ri0k &ei0*sminister o2 t*e 'nterior "19!!@19D!)

&udol2 ?ess Deputy +u*rer o2 Na8i Germany "19!!@19D1)

&ein*ard ?eydri0* $*airman o2 t*e Wannsee $on2eren0e in 19D > Prote0tor o2 Bo*emia and ,oravia "19D1@19D )

Grand .dmiral -ri0* &aeder $ommander@in@$*ie2 o2 t*e German Navy "19 :@19D!)

Grand .dmiral ;arl Doenit8 $ommander@in@$*ie2 o2 t*e German Navy "19D!@ 19D4)> President o2 Germany "19D4)

+ield ,ars*al Wil*elm ;eitel $*ie2 o2 t*e (upreme $ommand o2 t*e .rmed +or0es "19!:@19D4)

Gen. .l2red /odl +ield ,ars*al ;eitelAs 0*ie2 o2 sta22

-rnst ;altenbrunner (( Brigade2u*rer and *ead o2 t*e Gestapo

Dr. .rt*ur (eyss@'nIuart Na8i German ?ig* $ommissioner o2 t*e Net*erlands "19DC@19D4)

&obert Ley ?itlerAs spokesman> 2ormer '.G. +arben employee

.l2red &osenberg P*ilosop*er o2 t*e Na8i Party and 2ormer &ei0*sminister 2or t*e %00upied -astern 3erritories

/ulius (trei0*er editor o2 Na8i German propaganda newspaper SDer (turmerT

%tto (kor8eny Na8i (( $ommando

?ans +rank Na8i German Governor@ General o2 Poland "19!9@19D4)

Baldur von (0*ira0* Gauleiter o2 7ienna "19DC@19D4)> *ead o2 (itler'2ugend E?itler =out*F "19!1@19DC)

+ran8 von Papen $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19! )> 7i0e $*an0ellor o2 Germany "19!!@19!D)> German .mbassador to .ustria "19!D@19!:)> German .mbassador to 3urkey "19!9@19DD)

;onstanin von Neurat* Gauleiter o2 Bo*emia and ,oravia "19!9@19D1)> +oreign ,inister o2 Germany "19! @19!:)> German .mbassador to Great Britain "19!C@19! )

Dr. Walt*er +unk President o2 t*e &ei0*sbank "19!9@19D4)> &ei0*sminister o2 -0onomi0s "19!:@19D4)

;arl ;au2mann Gauleiter o2 ?amburg "19 9@19D4)

+rit8 (au0kel Gauleiter o2 3*uringia "19 1@19D4)

.lois Brunner Na8i German (( o22i0er and ?einri0* ?immlerAs assistant

/ose2 ,engele Na8i German (( do0tor w*o engaged in s0ienti2i0 e6periments on 0*ildren in 0on0entration 0amps

Dr. Leonard $onti Na8i German (tate ?ealt* $ommissioner

Nikolaus S;lausT Barbie SBut0*erT o2 Lyon, +ran0e

.dol2 -i0*mann (( o22i0er w*o was 0aptured by 'sraelAs ,ossad agents w*ile living in e6ile in .rgentina

,aJor General &ein*ard Ge*len Na8i German intelligen0e o22i0er> $ommander o2 +oreign .rmies -ast during World War ''

+ield ,ars*al -r*ard ,il0* Lu2twa22e o22i0er> 2ormer $*airman o2 Lu2t*ansa> Na.i ,art mem2er of Je0ish des#ent

-mil ,auri0e $o@+ounder o2 t*e (0*ut8sta22el "(()> Na.i ,art mem2er of Je0ish des#ent

;arl@%tto ;o0* 2irst $ommandant o2 Bu0*enwald $on0entration $amp "19!1@19D1)> (( o22i0er

&udol2 ?Nss 2irst $ommandant o2 .us0*wit8 $on0entration $amp "19DC@19D!, 19DD)

.rt*ur Liebe*ens0*el $ommandant o2 .us0*wit8 $on0entration $amp "19D!@19DD)

3* eodor -i0ke $ommandant o2 Da0*au $on0entration $amp "19!!@19!D)

+ran8 (tangl $ommandant o2 3reblinka $on0entration $amp "19D @19D!)

Germany *in$e the War
-y /arl /auts7y ,oreign Affairs maga>ine +ecember 1D, 1 22 !Kolume ), @o$ 2#
) W0.@ the armistice between the Allie" 4owers an" Germany went into effect in @o%ember, 1 15, the whole worl" "rew a breath of relief$ The slaughter, the sus&ension of intercourse between nations, was at an en"8 &eace was boun" to come, an" with it a resuscitation of the afflicte" &eo&les$ To imagine that the &eace treaties woul" without further a"o &ro%e guarantees of e%erlasting &eace woul" ha%e been a (to&ian "ream$ -ut it was reasonable to e?&ect that the conclusion of &eace in 1 1 woul" bring about a &acific state of affairs which woul" last at least as long as that effecte" by the Bongress of Kienna in 1514 an" 151D, to which, until 15DC, no .uro&ean war succee"e"$ )nstea", howe%er, we fin" an uninterru&te", nay, in many cases a constantly increasing unrest66war in the east, a series of &olitical an" economic crises in the west$ .uro&e is unable to free herself from the fear of new "isru&tions which threaten to in%ol%e in ruin the entire ci%ili>e" worl"$ Why "i" this latest Worl" War come to a close so "ifferent from that which terminate" the @a&oleonic warsM We are able to loo7 bac7 u&on the century since the @a&oleonic wars as one of most brilliant economic growth, of fabulous &rogress in science an" technology, of uninterru&te" a"%ance in "emocracy$ Were not the con9uerors of 151D narrow6min"e" an" reactionaryM Were not those of 1 15, on the contrary, &rogressi%e an" enlightene"M Bertainly$ -ut for the %ery reason that narrow, absolutist go%ernments were ma"e &ossible by the &olitical an" economic con"itions of a hun"re" years ago, the &roblems of such go%ernments, whene%er they came to ma7e &eace, were of an e?tremely sim&le nature$ The &eo&les ha" no recourse sa%e &assi%ely to acce&t the "ictates of their go%ernments$ An", e?ce&t in rare instances, they were still economically "e&en"ent one on another$ @owa"ays all the &eo&les of .uro&e are ins&ire" with an intense &assion for self6"etermination, an" e%en the &eo&les of the Jrient are to"ay har"er to hol" in leash than were those of the continent of .uro&e a century ago$ At the same time international intercourse has so increase" that, collecti%ely, nations are li%ing in close economic community$ They are not always aware of this soli"arity, an" it is often interru&te" by the antagonisms of com&etition or of mono&oli>ation$ Aet e%ery maLor %iolation of this soli"arity not only inLures those against whom it is "irecte", but in the en" a%enges itself e%en on its authors, no matter how &owerful they may be$ The &roblems atten"ing the laying of a foun"ation for worl" &eace were in 1 1 , therefore, far more com&licate" than ha" been those facing the Bongress of Kienna$ They were such as coul" be sol%e" only by the wi"est a&&lication of "emocratic &rinci&les an" by the calmest consi"eration of economic 9uestions, scrutini>e" in the light of all their conse9uences$ -ut, as a matter of fact, the &eace terms were e%ol%e" by metho"s an" on &rinci&les suggesti%e of the era of absolutism an" commercialism rather than those of an era of "emocracy an" international intercourse$ )n many res&ects the authors of the Kersailles &eace terms &ro%e" e%en less a"%ance" than ha" been the statesmen at the Bongress of Kienna$ The latter ha" ma"e a clear "istinction between @a&oleon an" the French &eo&le$ )t was against @a&oleon alone that they ha" wage" war, not against his nation$ @a&oleon they "e&ose" an" banishe", but to France they left the same frontiers she ha" ha" in 1: 2, an" they im&ose" no war in"emnity u&on her$ .%en after @a&oleon ha" returne" from .lba an", to the great e?ultation of &art of the French &eo&le, ha" recommence" the war, the &eace con"itions offere" to France after he ha" succumbe" a secon" time were only slightly more harsh$ France ha" to ce"e a few communities an" to &ay a small war in"emnity of se%en hun"re" million francs66far less than the sum which the new France tosse" to her nobles on their return from banishment by way of in"emnity for the confiscation of their estates by the Re%olution$ French &atriotism was so little aggrie%e" by the rea"Lustment of the French frontiers in 151D that e%en the Treaty of Kersailles faile" to e?ten" them in 1 1 $ @or was this &eace one6si"e"ly "ictate" to the French by the %ictors$ At the Bongress of Kienna, where the &eace was negotiate" an" where its con"itions were "etermine", France herself ha" a seat an" a %oice, on a footing of national e9uality8 an" she was, as an e9ual, abun"antly able to "efen" her interests, than7s to the su&erior "i&lomacy of her re&resentati%e, Talleyran"$ There were goo" reasons for this concession$ The reactionary monarchs of 1514 were well able to "istinguish between the go%ernment an" the &eo&le$ They ha" not wage" war against the French nation, but against @a&oleon$ )t was he whom they ha" wishe" to ren"er &owerless$ -ut they reali>e" %ery &lainly that to attain their en"s it was not only necessary to con9uer him by the &ower of their armies, but also to see that the new go%ernment erecte" in France in o&&osition to him shoul" win the fa%or of the country generally$ )t was &ossible to accom&lish this only if the new go%ernment were successful in efficiently "efen"ing the interests of France against her con9uerors$

-ut the Allies of 1 15 were far from gi%ing weight to these consi"erations of the Allies of 1514$ )t is true that 4ar$ 22: of the Treaty of Kersailles in"icts OWilliam )) of 0ohen>ollern, formerly German .m&eror, for a su&reme offence against international morality an" the sanctity of treaties$O -ut in 4ar$ 2C1 William )) is no longer name" as res&onsible for the war8 it is Germany$ @ow one may estimate as highly as one li7es WilliamNs res&onsibility for the war8 ) myself "o not consi"er it to ha%e been small$ -ut it was not he who signe" the treaty of &eace66it was the go%ernment of the German Re&ublic$ An" the latter certainly bore not the least res&onsibility for the war$ Moreo%er, in 1 15 Germany ha" re&u"iate" her war6guilty em&eror far more "ecisi%ely than France "i" her @a&oleon in 1514$ The German &eo&le ha" risen in irresistible re%olt against William$ France, on the other han", left it to the Allies to remo%e @a&oleon from his throne$ The great bul7 of the German &o&ulation ha" turne" from the .m&eror as from the author of the war who was therefore the author of all its misery$ When, howe%er, the re&ublic came to be charge" with as full a res&onsibility for the war as was that attribute" to the em&eror, when it was "e&ri%e" of &ower to guar" the &eo&leNs interests against the con9ueror, then the i"ea of the em&ire again began gra"ually to gain groun"$ )f to"ay Germany is confronte" with the &ossibility of a monarchist cou& d*etat1 if she faces the threat of ci%il war, it is the fault of the 4eace of Kersailles, which is com&elling the re&ublic to "o &enance for the sins of the em&eror$ The monarchs of the 0oly Alliance of 1514 un"erstoo" better how to &rotect the interests of the -ourbons against @a&oleon in France than "i" the "emocracies which too7 the fiel" against the military monarchy of Germany in 1 15 7now how to guar" those of the "emocratic re&ublic against /aiserism$ +es&ite their intentions, they ha%e, by the Treaty of Kersailles, wor7e" O&our le roi "e 4russe$O Furthermore, by their refusal to "iscuss the terms of &eace with the con9uere" they ha%e inLure" themsel%es in yet another way$ The economic an" &olitical con"itions of a mo"ern state are so com&licate" that no contem&orary statesman, no matter how great his genius, is ca&able of foreseeing the conse9uences of e%ery legislati%e &ro&osal, e%en in his own country$ Kictors as well as %an9uishe" ha%e suffere" se%erely as a result of numerous re9uirements of the &eace treaties which were either inca&able of fulfillment or which brought about economic confusion for them as well as for us$ )t is not by chance that simultaneously a cry is being soun"e" in Russia for the re%ision of the Bommunist system of a"ministration an" in the countries of the %ictors for the re%ision of the &eace treaties$ -oth were e%ol%e" simultaneously an" by the same metho"s, metho"s which are incom&atible with the con"itions an" the necessities of mo"ern e?istence$ @e%ertheless, let it not be "enie" that, Lust as in the 'o%iet a"ministrati%e system, so in the &eace treaties there are a number of e?cellent re9uirements$ -ut these treaties were unable to "o Lustice to their tas7 of creating a &ermanent state of &eace because their authors "i" not ta7e counsel with the re&resentati%es of the &eo&les affecte" an" because they "i" not consistently follow the course of mo"ern social "e%elo&ment$ )) )t was a goo" thing that Germany was com&elle" to "isarm by lan" an" by sea$ (nfortunately, the act was not followe" by conse9uences corres&on"ingly goo"$ )t was sai" before the war that German armament was forcing all the nations to increase their fleets an" armies$ -ut this incitement to the e?tension of armaments has now "isa&&eare"$ France might re"uce her army, thereby reme"ying her finances$ What she is "oing in this res&ect, howe%er, is altogether insufficient$ 4olan", also, feels oblige" to maintain in ser%ice a great an" e?tra%agant army at the e?&ense of her economic welfare$ This is not e?actly the way to strengthen the &acifist i"ea in Germany an" to ma7e German "isarmament lasting$ The whole business is nothing but an imitation of the "isarming of 4russia after Jena by a -ona&artism bristling with wea&ons66an act by which the &eace of the worl" was in no way assure"$ +isarmament can only become a lasting institution, a source of economic &ros&erity an" an instrument of &eace, when it is general, not one6si"e"$ When it is only an in"i%i"ual affair it "oes nothing but e?cite the &re"atory an" belligerent &assions of the strong$ While "isarming the %an9uishe", the &eace treaties also brought about numerous alterations of frontiers, among them se%eral of an e?cellent character which re&resent a &ermanent a"%ance$ 'uch are the brea7ing6u& of moribun" Austria, the restoration of 4olan", the return of @orthern 'chleswig to +enmar7 an" the return of Alsace62orraine to France$ The %iolent se%erance of the inhabitants of Alsace62orraine from France, to which they remaine" "e%ote"ly attache", was the original sin with which the new German .m&ire entere" u&on its e?istence in 15:1$ Therewith commence" the "isli7e of the "emocracies of the worl" for the German .m&ire8 an" thereby was the French Re&ublic "ri%en into the arms of the Russian B>ar$ Thus was e%ol%e" the concatenation of circumstances which le" to the Worl" War of 1 14 an" to the colla&se of the 0ohen>ollern "ynasty, an" for which the German Re&ublic is now "oing such sore &enance$ -ut the 4eace of Kersailles set about cutting Germany to &ieces$ The 'aar -asin, with *HH,HHH inhabitants, was se&arate" from Germany for fifteen years, its &urely German &o&ulation being robbe" of their ci%ic rights for this &erio" an" subLecte" to an alien rule which owes them not the least res&onsibility$ @ominally the go%ernment of the 'aar -asin is a&&ointe" by the 2eague

of @ations$ Actually it go%erns in the interest of France$ Matters were not im&ro%e" by the "ecision that the &o&ulation shoul", after the la&se of fifteen years, be &olle" on the 9uestion of whether or not they woul" &refer union with France$ This "ecision merely constitutes an incitement to the French6controlle" a"ministration to torment as much as &ossible inhabitants of &ro6 German &rocli%ities, in or"er either to intimi"ate them or to "ri%e them out, thus establishing a &o&ulation in agreement with the %iews of France$ Furthermore, as a guarantee for the &erformance of the terms of the &eace treaty, there is the occu&ation by the %ictorsN troo&s of the German territory west of the Rhine, with its si? an" a half million inhabitants$ This comes near to being go%ernment of those regions by a military "ictatorshi&$ This con"ition of affairs is to last for fifteen years$ -ut it may be e?ten"e" by the con9uerors e%en beyon" that &erio", if they shoul" be of the o&inion that Germany ha" not gi%en them sufficient guarantees against un&ro%o7e" attac7$ This authori>es an interminable stay of foreign troo&s in the occu&ie" territory$ -ut besi"es this, the treaty of &eace gi%es the %ictors the right, if they belie%e themsel%es able to establish a O"eliberate non6fulfillmentO of the treaty by Germany, to ta7e all such measures Oas the res&ecti%e go%ernments may "etermine to be necessary in the circumstances$O This clause is being construe", by France at least, in a manner which "eli%ers Germany wholly o%er to the o&tion of the con9uerors$ )n"ee", French troo&s ha%e alrea"y occu&ie" "istricts eastwar" of the Rhine, near +Ussel"orf an" Fran7furt$ @o less &ro%ocati%e are the frontiers lai" "own in the east$ The authors of the &eace treaty attem&te" to re&lace the Austrian state with a series of nationalistic states$ That was a great ste& in a"%ance$ The obLect was not easy to achie%e, for in the east the %arious nationalist grou&s were not "efinitely se&arate" territorially, but were much intermingle"$ )t was ine%itable that each of the 'uccession 'tates car%e" from the bo"y of the ol" Austria60ungary shoul" contain not only its "ominating race but also fragmentary grou&s of other nationalities$ -ut, e?ce&t in the cases of German6Austria an" of 0ungary, the establishment of the frontiers of these new states was carrie" far beyon" the limits in"icate" by the circumstances$ .ach of the new states sought to embrace not only the entire bo"y of the nationality which ga%e it its name, but also, for reasons of strategy or from a "esire for im&ortant traffic routes or rich "istricts, to e?&an" its bor"ers as much further as was &ossible$ 0ence, with the aforementione" e?ce&tions of German6Austria an" 0ungary, e%ery one of the 'uccession 'tates has become a new little Austria$ The o&&ression of the Germanic &eo&le by the &eace treaties reache" its clima? in the "etermination to forbi" Austria from attaching herself to Germany$ (ntil 15** Austria ha" belonge" to the German confe"eration$ The Germans of Austria ha" ne%er cease" to loo7 u&on themsel%es as Germans$ Jnly the antagonism between the 0ohen>ollern an" 0a&sburg "ynasties ha" e?clu"e" them from the German .m&ire$ These "ynasties were o%erthrown by the %ictory of the .ntente, which ha" ta7en the fiel" for the liberation of subLugate" &eo&les8 an" now it celebrate" its %ictory by ensla%ing an" "ismembering the German nation, alrea"y gi%en o%er to ruin by the 0ohen>ollerns an" 0a&sburgers, to an e%en greater "egree than ha" been "one by those guilt6bur"ene" "ynasties$ The %ictors "i" not &ercei%e that by acting in this manner they were merely continuing the wor7 of one of the %an9uishe"$ )t was -ismarc7 who in 15** threw the German6Austrians out of the German Bonfe"eration in or"er to secure the su&remacy of 4russia in truncate" Germany$ The &re&on"erance of 4russia in Germany will come to an en" Lust as soon as the union of the latter with German6Austria is accom&lishe"$ ))) ) ha%e alrea"y referre" to the fact that in 1514 the Allies refraine" from im&osing any war in"emnity u&on %an9uishe" France$ -ut e%en though the &rinci&al intention of the %ictorious monarchs may ha%e been to gi%e the new French go%ernment a goo" stan"ing in the o&inion of its &eo&le, their mo"eration also &ro%e" economically a"%antageous to the whole worl"$ )f that &olicy ha" not been followe" .uro&e woul" ne%er ha%e calme" "own an" reco%ere" so 9uic7ly after the "ownfall of @a&oleon, nor, without it, woul" &eace ha%e en"ure" four "eca"es$ )t is true that the return of @a&oleon from .lba le" to the im&osition u&on France, after his o%erthrow, of a charge for war costs, but it was inconsi"erable66:HH million francs$ )t was a long time before large war in"emnities again ma"e their a&&earance$ The terms of the 4eace of 4aris, which terminate" the Brimean War in 15D*, im&ose" u&on Russia no &ayment of in"emnity$ @or "i" the %an9uishe" Austria ha%e to &ay any war com&ensation in 15D 8 an" in 15** she ha" to &ay only thirty million gul"en to 4russia while she recei%e" thirty6fi%e millions from )taly in &art &ayment for the cession of Kenice$ 0ence the astonishment was all the greater when that same -ismarc7 who in 15** ha" shown himself in such a mo"erate light, bro7e four years later with all the tra"itions of the &ast few "eca"es in his "ealings with %an9uishe" France an" "eman"e" fi%e billion francs as a war in"emnity$ To be sure, France cause" e%en greater astonishment by &ro"ucing this sum through loans so 9uic7ly that within two years she was able to &ay her con9uerors an" ri" French territory of foreign troo&s$ From that time until the Worl" War Russia alone of all the .uro&ean &owers was engage" in great conflicts$ )n 15::615:5, she "efeate" Tur7ey an" at the Bongress of -erlin im&ose" u&on her a war in"emnity of three hun"re" million rubles$ An e%en greater war, that between

Russia an" Ja&an, came to an en" in 1 HD, the 9uarrel being settle" through the me"iation of America, who sa%e" Russia from the &ayment of any in"emnity$ A few years before, in 15 5, the (nite" 'tates ha" con"ucte" a %ictorious war against '&ain$ -y the treaty of &eace the %ictors not only "is&ense" with the &ayment of any "amages or war in"emnity, but e%en &ai" the %an9uishe" twenty million "ollars as com&ensation for the cession of the 4hili&&ines$ )n the face of such &rece"ents the &roce"ure of the con9uerors at the conclusion of &eace in 1 1 coul" not but seem astonishing$ +uring the whole century following the @a&oleonic wars there ha" been conclu"e" only one &eace by the terms of which a huge war in"emnity ha" been im&ose"$ The %ictor66Germany66ha" not only suffere" therefor the stern con"emnation of the %an9uishe"66France66but also that of the greater &art of the ci%ili>e" worl"$ An" yet, what were the four billion mar7s "eman"e" by -ismarc7 in 15:1 com&are" to the re&aration claims of the .ntente half a century laterM )K Jn the &resent occasion the "eman" for an in"emnity was ne%ertheless 9uite com&rehensible$ For four long years France an" -elgium ha" been force" to submit to a horrible in%asion which, es&ecially in the north of France, resulte" in wi"es&rea" "e%astation$ .nglan" ha" suffere" se%erely from the new wea&ons, the air&lane an" the submarine$ Were they finally to be %ictorious in the bloo"y conflict, only to bear alone the "amages which ha" been sustaine"M Germany not only e?&ecte" but was also willing, after her military colla&se, to &ay an enormous war in"emnity out of which the %ictors woul" be able to ma7e goo" a large &ortion of their "amage$ 0a" negotiations with the German go%ernment been o&ene", an" on the basis of these negotiations ha" there been fi?e" a sum of such si>e that Germany woul" ha%e been able to &ay it without o%erste&&ing the limits of her ca&acity66Germany herself figure" this sum in 1 21 at fifty billions of gol" mar7s66this amount might long ago ha%e been raise" through international loans$ @orthern France woul" ha%e been restore", Germany woul" ha%e been free" from foreign troo&s an" foreign control, worl" commerce woul" ha%e been again in full swing an" general &ros&erity restore"$ (nfortunately, the %ictors were unable to a"o&t this sim&le, farsighte" &roce"ure$ They wante" no &ayments ma"e on the basis of military law, but an in"emnification on that of higher morality8 the Germans were to &ay not because they ha" been con9uere", but because they were wic7e" rascals, criminals who ha" brought on the war$ ) ha%e alrea"y &ointe" out the inLustice of hol"ing a &eo&le res&onsible for the "ee"s of a go%ernment which it has "ri%en out$ 'ubse9uent go%ernments are un"oubte"ly legally boun" by the obligations with other lan"s entere" into by their &re"ecessors8 but they are not morally res&onsible for the acts of those &re"ecessors$ 'houl" such a res&onsibility be a"mitte", howe%er, the Germans an" the 0ungarians shoul" not alone be hel" res&onsible$ There were 4olish members, too, in the Austrian go%ernment which "eclare" war on 'erbia, an" a large &ortion of the 4olish &o&ulation greete" with Loy a war against Russia$ )t was only after the outbrea7 of the Russian Re%olution that they turne" to the .ntente$ )f the Germans are to be hel" res&onsible for the war an" all its "e%astation, then the same treatment shoul" be accor"e" the 4oles$ -ut the latter, instea" of being &unishe" by the %ictors, ha%e been rewar"e"$ 0owe%er, if the re&ublic was su&&ose" to be res&onsible for the misery brought about by the em&ire, it shoul" ha%e suffice" for the %ictors to ha%e announce" this as their con%iction$ They coul", furthermore, ha%e calle" to witness the fact that the "ecisi%e "eclarations of war were ma"e by Germany an" ha%e cou&le" with this the in%asion of -elgium$ -ut that was not enough for the authors of the Treaty of Kersailles$ They "eman"e" that the re&resentati%es of Germany shoul" themsel%es recogni>e her res&onsibility66e%en her sole res&onsibility66for the war$ Without this confession there was not to be any &eace, the war was to continue66no longer against the armies of the Bentral 4owers, for these ha" been "issol%e", but against star%ing chil"ren, women, ol" men, whose e%ery a%enue of sustenance ha" been cut off by the %ictors$ @e%ertheless, the German signature to a confession of guilt was e?acte"$ An" to"ay many statesmen e%en "are to &roclaim this signature as the e%i"ence of German guilt an" as a legal title to com&lete in"emnification by Germany for all "amages$ The re&aration charges which were im&ose" u&on Germany were "i%i"e" into two grou&s$ Jn one si"e they were "efinite an" e?act$ They consiste" of the "eli%ery of the most wi"ely "i%erse materials, inclu"ing the transfer of the entire German fleet to the %ictors$ The han"ing o%er of the war fleet was not a ba" thing$ )t relie%e" Germany of a hea%y loa" an" rescue" her from the false &osition into which she ha" been brought by her na%al armaments, which, without &ur&ose an" without the &ossibility of success, ha" calle" forth the enmity of .nglan" an" the mistrust of America$ -ut the surren"er of the merchant fleet was another matter$ Germany ha" to "eli%er nearly fi%e million tons of shi&&ing, gross register$ That was a har" blow to German commerce$ 2i7e blows to German in"ustry were the loss of the 'aar coal "istrict, together with a great &ortion of the (&&er 'ilesian coal "istrict, an" the annual loss of the great 9uantities of coal66in roun" figures about forty million tons a year66which Germany ha" to "eli%er to -elgium, France an" )taly$ Along with all this countless "eli%eries of chemical &ro"ucts, li%e6stoc7, etc$, were re9uire"$

)n a""ition there must be figure" the e?&enses, annually renewe", of maintaining the con9uerorsN troo&s in the occu&ie" territory$ (& to the &resent they ha%e alrea"y cost four billions of gol" mar7s, nearly as much as the entire war in"emnity which France ha" to &ay in 15:1$ The occu&ation is to last another 9uarter of a century$ 0ow many billions are in this way going to be nee"lessly waste" in the name of re&arations, to which not e%en a &enny of them is a&&lie"M All these re9uirements ser%e the &ur&ose of restoring the "e%astate" regions an" re&airing the "amages of the war far less than they ser%e that of creating, year in, year out, e%er6renewe" sources of friction with Germany$ K Worst of all, howe%er, are those re&aration charges which ha%e to be &ai" straight6out in cash, for by the treaty of &eace their amount is in no way "efinitely sti&ulate"$ To "etermine them there was a&&ointe" a Bommission on which Germany is not re&resente", which is not e%en re9uire" to negotiate with the German Go%ernment, which consults in camera1 an" which Oshall not be boun" by any &articular co"e or rules of law or by any &articular rule of e%i"ence or of &roce"ure, but shall be gui"e" by Lustice, e9uity an" goo" faith$O This is unrestricte" "ictatorshi&, after the 7in" of the -olshe%i7s, an" it is e?ten"e" o%er a %ery wi"e territory$ OThe Bommission shall in general ha%e wi"e latitu"e as to the control of the &resent treaty an" the han"ling of the whole re&aration &roblem$O (nbelie%able sums were s&o7en of as to be raise" in the sha&e of re&arations by the Bommission$ Mention was ma"e of more than three hun"re" billions66about as much as the national wealth of Germany before the war$ This wealth, too, has been consi"erably re"uce" since by the "eman"s of the war, by the loss of territory an" by the "eli%eries of raw materials$ Kery conser%ati%e estimates &ut this "iminution at one6thir" of the whole$ At the 4aris Bonference in January, 1 21, the total amount of re&arations to be &ai" in money to the Allie" go%ernments was fi?e" at 22* billion gol" mar7s$ This was to be &ai" in full within forty6two years, in annual installments which, commencing with one of two billions in 1 21, were to be ma"e at the rate of si? billions a year from 1 C2 to 1 *C$ )n a""ition to this there was to be &ai" twel%e &er cent of the %alue of German e?&orts o%er a &erio" of forty6two years, which might amount in all to between 4H an" *H billions$ Altogether, nearly CHH billions$ Messrs$ -rian", 2loy" George, an" the others who formulate" this mar%elous "eman", seeme" to belie%e it &ossible that Germany coul" 7ee& on &aying, one year after another, about twice the sum which France, in 15:1, ha" to &ay but once, an" which she was then enable" to get together merely in the form of a loan on which she ha" only to &ay the annual interest$ An" this ma" state of affairs was to last for o%er forty yearsX For that length of time Germany an" the worl" were not to be allowe" to 9uiet "ownX .%en the Re&arations Bommission itself was startle" at such ma"ness$ A few months later it set the sum of GermanyNs re&aration obligations at one hun"re" an" thirty6two billions, less than half of what the lea"ers of the .ntente ha" shortly before "eman"e"$ @othing can more clearly in"icate the fri%olity with which such "eman"s were concei%e"66a fri%olity fully e9ual to that with which the German Go%ernment set going a Worl" War in 1 14$ )t is also a %ery &lain in"ication of the rationality an" &recision of a treaty which left such enormous sums hanging absolutely in the air$ The authors of the Treaty of Kersailles can not say that they wan"ere" on to the wrong roa" unwarne"$ /eynes early &ointe" out its &erils with a"mirable clearness, a"%ising that there be fi?e" a "efinite total for the war in"emnities which woul" not o%erta? the &ower of Germany$ To"ay this "eman" is being reechoe" e%erywhere$ )n the meanwhile, howe%er, GermanyNs affairs ha%e become so thoroughly entangle" that their reclamation is much more "ifficult$ They coul" ne%ertheless be im&ro%e" in time to &re%ent catastro&he in .uro&e if the re&arations "eman"s were to be so mo"ifie" that German cre"it coul" be reestablishe" in the money mar7ets of the worl"$ That Germany has no such cre"it at the &resent moment is the most stri7ing &roof of the fact that in the o&inion of the worl"Ns ban7ers the re&arations "eman"s as at &resent concei%e" sur&ass GermanyNs ca&acity to &ay$ A moratorium, whate%er relief it might ha%e affor"e" earlier, woul" no longer suffice to"ay$ )t seems to be imagine" that GermanyNs failure to comman" cre"it is "ue to her financial "isorgani>ation, that she shoul" first rectify her bu"get "eficiency by higher ta?ation, an" that then she woul" be able to get cre"its$ As a matter of fact, the case is Lust the other way aroun"$ GermanyNs financial "isability is &rinci&ally occasione" by the ra&i" an" &ersistent fall of e?change, a result of the ban7note inflation$ -ut the latter is the conse9uence not only of the "eficit in the bu"get, but also of the a"%erse balance of international &ayments$ This last is being enormously increase" by the re&aration "eman"s$ Aet e%en "isregar"ing the re&arations, the German &ayments balance is for the moment on the wrong si"e of the boo7$ Germany is an in"ustrial nation, &ro"ucing an insufficient amount of foo" su&&lies an" raw materials$ 'uch nations, as a rule, ha%e a balance of tra"e against them8 .nglan" has, Germany ha" e%en before the war$ The war wi&e" out GermanyNs reser%e stoc7s of foo" an" raw materials, an" &eace "e&ri%e" Germany of a

an" that %ery soon$ Jne shoul" not be le" astray by mislea"ing tales of comfort an" swollen lu?ury "isco%ere" by foreign obser%ers in Germany$ Moscow. among other matters. for the moment.O out of an estimate of e?&en"itures totaling CD2 billion mar7s not less than 22* billions66si?ty6four &er cent66were "esignate" as e?&en"itures in connection with the e?ecution of the &eace treaty$ Jnly thirty6si? &er cent were to be use" for German &ur&oses$ That a bu"get of this sort shoul" constantly be bro7en "own by the force of circumstances is e%i"ent. an" that in this way the German wor7ing classes are constantly becoming more miserable$ -ut now e%en these shortsighte" ca&italists are beginning to groan o%er the "ecline of e?change %alue. of course. Bhancellor of the German Re&ublic. the &rocee"s from which flowe" bac7 to Germany$ The war. might ser%e to &ay interest an" amorti>ation charges on the re&arations "ebt$ As to getting a loan that woul" sa%e us. if their &ro"ucts become inca&able of &urchasing foo" from abroa". ca&italists in Germany who ha%e been intereste" in the fall of the rate of e?change because they belie%e" that it woul" ma7e German in"ustry ca&able of more effecti%e com&etition$ 'uch a belief is base" on the fact that wages rise more slowly than the %alue of money "eclines. those %ultures who always foregather where%er a &eo&le is "ying$ They ma7e their &rofits from the uncertainty of circumstances. at the same time forcing German ca&italists to see7 cre"it abroa" or to sell their hol"ings to foreigners$ Thus the flow of interest is hea"e" away from Germany$ All this has combine" to ma7e the "eficit of GermanyNs &ayments balance e%en larger than that of her balance of tra"e$ The only way of com&ensating for this "eficit remains. has similar &ictures to offer$ -ut no one woul" %enture to assert for that reason that the Russian &eo&le were li%ing in comfort$ German con"itions so far are naturally not as ba" as those of 'o%iet Russia$ -ut each a&&ro?imation to the latter must here in Germany ha%e a far more "isintegrating effect than in Russia. there will be a terrible mortality$ There are. they ne%er thin7 of accumulating their winnings. far greater than her in"ustrial e?&orts$ GermanyNs s&ecial tra"e in 1 2H consiste" of im&orts to the total %alue of billions of &a&er mar7s an" e?&orts to the %alue of * billions$ The im&orts of raw materials an" foo" stuffs amounte" to :2 billion mar7s. the e?&orts of in"ustrial &ro"ucts only to D2 billions$ The balance of tra"e "eficit which in the last years before the war amounte" annually to a roun" two billions !in gol" mar7s# was in those "ays co%ere" by the recei&ts of the mercantile marine on the one han" an" on the other by the interest &ayments on German ca&ital in%estments abroa". while in France the ratio was but fifteen &er cent$ Accor"ing to the &ro&osal of the German national bu"get. "estroye" both these means of com&ensating for the "eficit of the balance of tra"e. but s9uan"er them in the most fri%olous an" &ro"igal fashion$ 'uch are the elements that gi%e rise to the a&&earance of wellbeing an" of lu?ury in Germany$ That the consum&tion of cham&agne within the customs Luris"iction of Germany has not "ecrease" is to be lai" at their "oor$ )n 1 1C this consum&tion . the %alue of the ta? may be at a minimum$ )t is 9uite ho&eless to e?&ect to rehabilitate GermanyNs finances an" to &ut an en" to money inflation until Germany is grante" cre"its that will &ermit her for a time to meet her obligations without issuing further notes$ Then such issuance can be forbi""en8 then it will be &ossible to construct a stable an" &ro%i"ent system of ta?ation8 then the ta?es can be so or"ere" that they will suffice to co%er e?&en"itures66unless re&arations ma7e further senseless "eman"s$ An" then we shoul" be gi%en time to "raw our breath an" an o&&ortunity of attaining a sur&lus of e?&orts.number of "istricts &ro"ucing such su&&lies an" materials$ The result is that to"ay GermanyNs nee" for foreign raw materials an" foo" stuffs is greater than e%er. there are %arious means of accom&lishing that en"$ This is not the &lace for me to "iscuss them$ ) can only em&hasi>e here once more that such a loan is an urgent necessity. they become rich not by any &ro"ucti%e acti%ity but through "ealings that are the counter&art of gambling$ An". it was rec7one" that in Germany roughly thirty &er cent of the &o&ular income was being &ai" in ta?es. note inflation$ The foes of Germany are fon" of asserting that she is less hea%ily loa"e" with ta?ation than are the %ictorious countries$ This assertion is conteste" by the German Go%ernment$ )n January. nor is it any less &lain that the falling rate of e?change shoul" ma7e it im&ossible to calculate with certainty in a"%ance either in the commercial or the &olitical fiel"$ A ta? le%y may a&&ear enormously high at the moment of its establishment an" by the time of its collection its money %alue may ha%e shrun7 materially$ When its &rocee"s are a&&lie" to the com&ensation of e?&en"itures. which. gambler6li7e. for it constantly is increasing their "ifficulty in obtaining foreign raw materials an" foreign cre"its$ The only ones who still ha%e a &ersonal interest in the "ecline of the e?change an" in inflation are the s&eculators. &resente" to the Re&arations Bommission a memorial in which.%en emigration is to"ay o&en to but few of them$ )f their in"ustrial labor fails them. that easy but uni%ersally "estructi%e &rocess. a&&earing in the recently &ublishe" O'tatistical Aear6-oo7 of the German Reich. +r$ Wirth. because there the agricultural element is &re&on"erant an" many in"ustrial laborers can become sim&le &easants$ That way out is close" to the mass of German wor7men$ . together with the income from a growing mercantile marine an" from ca&italistic accumulations. with its conse9uences. 1 22. also.

they were com&letely unite" for the first time since the outbrea7 of the war$ They con"emne" them with a single %oice$ -ut a new "isagreement arose as to whether or not. either by "esign or through incom&etence. it seeme" to us that there was no &ossibility that a refusal woul" influence them to reconsi"eration an" to negotiation$ Refusal woul" ha%e been ta7en as a "efiant "enial of any sort of re&aration8 it woul" ha%e rouse" the %ictors to unmeasure" fury. the criminal war6res&onsibility of Germany was more or less matche" by the criminal &eace6res&onsibility of the authors of the treaty &ro%isions$ We hel" it to be our "uty to critici>e this &eace6guilt as shar&ly as we ha" critici>e" that war6guilt$ When the German &eo&le learne" the con"itions of &eace in May. e%en the most "etermine" "enouncers of GermanyNs military &olicy. but also in her &hysical ability to wor7 an" in the fiel" of scientific 9ualifications$ @early a hun"re" years ago Bharles +ic7ens showe". manifeste" among a few of the organs of the go%ernment an" a few grou&s of the &o&ulation. get along for a while$ -ut nowhere. is the &ri%ation of scholars an" artists so "istressingly manifest as in Germany$ Many of them are literally star%ing$ An" they are star%ing not only &hysically8 they are fin"ing it more an" more im&ossible to satisfy their intellectual hunger. it becomes &lain that many of the actual laborers. but this was not e?&ecte" as the result of &assi%e resistance$ -y that our o&&onents woul" only be irritate" an" ma"e still more im&lacable$ The re%ision was ho&e" for as the result of a change of min" on the &art of the con9uerors$ -ut this change of min" was to be e?&ecte" only in the e%ent that the most loyal fulfillment of the terms of the treaty was contem&late"$ +es&ite some o&&osition here an" there. whose acti%ities cannot for a moment be "is&ense" with. when we loo7 into the use of lu?uries by the lower classes$ The consum&tion of beer within the German e?cise Luris"iction "ecline" from * million hectoliters in the year 1 1C to 2C million in the year 1 2H$ The intellectual wor7ers are hit e%en har"er than are the manual laborers by the results of the fall in e?change$ . without the slightest a"%antage to the cre"itor an" to the "isa"%antage of society as a whole$ The German nation is now un"ergoing im&risonment for "ebt$ )t is wasting away an" is more an" more losing in the &rocess the ca&acity to ma7e its labors &ay its "ebts$ K) When the con"itions of the Treaty of Kersailles became 7nown in Germany we were all horrifie"$ The German &eo&le ha" been far from unanimous in their attitu"e towar" the war$ Those of us who Lu"ge" the war to ha%e been brought about by the German Go%ernment. "eman"e" that it be signe" because he "eeme" it tolerable or &racticable8 the reason of e%eryone who ma"e the "eman" was merely that there was nothing else to "o$ After the e%i"ence we ha" recei%e" from the %ictors.%erywhere. were not. "es&ite all con"emnation. that is what occurre"$ )n reality the &olicy of fulfilling the treaty is much more generally recogni>e" as necessary than the &arty ratios in &arliament woul" seem to in"icate$ )t met with "ecisi%e o&&osition only from the Bommunists. in case of nee".instruments an" other scientific means of su&&ort$ )n this wise Germany is stea"ily becoming more an" more im&o%ishe" by the fall in the e?change %alue of her currency$ 'he is losing not only in material %alues. to &urchase boo7s. therefore. howe%er. an" that.reache" a total of twel%e an" a half million bottles8 in 1 2H !) ha%e at han" no later figures# ten an" one6tenth million$ The &er ca&ita consum&tion. the treaty shoul" be signe"$ We who "eman"e" that it be signe" were at first %ery few in number$ -ut as the "ecisi%e moment a&&roache" the maLority came o%er to us$ @o one. to "ee"s of %iolence which woul" ha%e im&arte" to GermanyNs "es&erate situation an e%en more "rea"ful as&ect an" which woul" not ha%e sa%e" us in the en" from ha%ing to sign un"er e%en more unfa%orable circumstances$ -ut although nobo"y in Germany who a"%ocate" the signing of the treaty regar"e" its com&lete e?ecution as &ossible. were fully agree" that the Kersailles Treaty was terrific an" im&racticable. merely an isolate" &ortion of the &o&ulation. are much better able to &rotect themsel%es against the conse9uences of the rise than are the intellectual wor7ers. e?ce&t &erha&s still in Austria. e%en from the beginning. 1 1 . of the &o&ulation since the war is &ractically the same as in the "ays that &rece"e" it$ )t might be fair to in%estigate to what "egree e?change6fa%ore" foreigners an" officers of the armies of occu&ation are concerne" in this consum&tion$ -ut in any case. with masterly "elineation. without whose labor the worl" can. an" the longer the war continue" the larger became the number of those who o&&ose" its continuation an" who "eman"e" of the German Go%ernment that it e?&ress its rea"iness to enter into a &eace of un"erstan"ing$ -ut all of us. if mention were to be ma"e of moral guilt. the figures relating to the consum&tion of cham&agne testify to a notable looseness of con"uct among certain higher elements of the &o&ulation$ The statistics tell 9uite a "ifferent story. who ho&e" that the re&u"iation . whene%er there is a rise in &rices. howe%er. that must not be ta7en to mean that the treaty was signe" with a reservatio mentalis1 with the intention of not carrying it out$ )t was signe" with the firm "etermination to fulfill all of its obligations as far as shoul" &ro%e &ossible$ A re%ision was consi"ere" ine%itable. how im&risonment for "ebt "e&ri%es the "ebtor of e%ery ca&acity for an" enLoyment in labor an" "emorali>es him to the utmost.

about 15**6 15:H. "ay by "ay. &rinci&ally former officers.of the treaty woul" be a cause of renewe" chaos in Germany. smallest an" &oorest of the great &owers in the eighteenth century was only able to assert herself by ma7ing sure that her army was e9ual to that of any other im&ortant state. the German nation will soon be twice as numerous as the French$ For France that is a %ery alarming outloo7$ An" it goes far towar" e?&laining her &resent &olicy$ There is no "oubt that a rehabilitate" Germany coul" become terrible to France as an enemy$ -ut one woul" thin7 that a reali>ation of this fact woul" lea" her to consi"er the necessity of &ursuing a &olicy which woul" not isolate her from the worl" an" which woul" ren"er it &ossible for her to li%e on frien"ly terms with Germany$ Jtherwise she is left with no alternati%e but to stri%e from now until eternity to &re%ent GermanyNs recu&eration. an" when later from 15** to 15:H 4russian militarism succee"e" by its own metho"s an" by the e?&ulsion of Austria in bringing about unification. Germany allowe" herself to be influence" in her "ecisions by that ally$ An" the . the &rocess of mo"ification is going on all too slowly an" too ina"e9uately. which to"ay constitute a maLority of the German &eo&le$ The &olicy of 4russia increase" the a%ersion towar" Germany in the most influential .ast 4russia$ The go%ernments committe" to the &olicy of fulfillment ha%e been not only wea7. to tear o&en afresh. the two &arties o&&ose" to 4russian militarism. the most fateful of all$ -eing able to fin" only a single ally whom she truste" un"er all circumstances. "i" this militarism win o%er the sym&athies of the &ortion of the German &eo&le li%ing outsi"e of ol" 4russia66an" e%en then not without e?ce&tions$ )n that %ery &erio". the woun"s inflicte" on her by both war an" &eace. full of sym&athy for the France of the great re%olution.66from the intellectuals. namely that a natural enmity e?iste" between . such as for instance the occu&ation of the Ruhr "istrict$ 'ince the German &o&ulation is growing while that of France scarcely increases at all. security an" welfare66a &olicy which woul" finally rally all . namely the 'ocial +emocrats an" the Batholic Benterists. while the ruin which the &eace terms brought in their train a"%ances swiftly$ )t is not always enough to "o the right thing8 it must be "one at the right time$ The wor"s Otoo lateO ha%e &laye" a fateful role in e%ery great historical catastro&he$ K)) For all this hol"ing off an" hanging bac7 an" &ost&oning of the ine%itable the French Go%ernment is &rinci&ally to blame$ )t is a well 7nown fact. an" one that nee"s no further elaboration. e%en of Germany. there came into being. an" ha%e thus interfere" with their own obLecti%esE the cooling of the war hatre" against Germany an" the growth of a reali>ation that un"er &resent con"itions of international intercourse the economic colla&se of any great ci%ili>e" nation. too. woul" create uncertainties all o%er the worl"$ This &olicy of fulfillment has not yet accom&lishe" its aim of stabili>ing con"itions in Germany$ -ut "uring the &ast year there has been unmista7ably a softening of the &re%ious attitu"e of GermanyNs late o&&onents$ They ha%e begun to aban"on the -olshe%istic metho" of "ictation an" to a"o&t the "emocratic one of negotiation between &arties e9ually entitle" to Lustice$ For all that.66from the 4an6Germans.nglan" felt herself threatene"$ Finally German &olicy committe" still a thir" error. thus &ermanently "e&ri%ing all . an achie%ement re9uiring of her that more than any other state she shoul" "e%ote all her energies to her army$ +uring the whole of the first half of the nineteenth century what was then the most culti%ate" &ortion of Germany. whereby . they ha%e also been res&onsible for many blun"ers. only a &ortion of the agricultural &o&ulation imagine" that the German Go%ernment coul" act li7e that of Angora$ )t is worthy of remar7 that the "istricts from which the strongest o&&osition to the &olicy of fulfillment emanates are the most bac7war" agrarian ones of Germany. her west an" south. stro%e against 4russian militarism$ Jnly when the attem&t of 1545 faile" to unite Germany by "emocratic metho"s. such as 'outhern -a%aria an" .uro&e in su&&ort of Germany an" lea" to a catastro&he for herself$ There coul" be an e?cuse for this suici"al &olicy only if Germans an" Frenchmen were fashione" by nature to be as hostile towar"s each other as cats an" "ogs.uro&ean nations$ We ha%e alrea"y "esignate" the %iolent anne?ation of Alsace62orraine as the original sin of the new German . that it is the French Go%ernment which most bitterly o&&oses e%ery suggestion of "iscussion or of alle%iation of the re&aration terms an" which is first in the fiel" to threaten fresh %iolence. though from %ery "ifferent causes.uro&e of tran9uility. a state of affairs which coul" ne%er be altere"$ This conce&tion is as senseless as was the one which counte" for so much throughout the eighteenth century an" into the beginning of the nineteenth.nglishmen an" Frenchmen$ .m&ire$ With this mista7e of -ismarc7Ns William )) associate" the secon" an" far greater one of a com&etition in na%al armament.66an" from "VclassVs of all sorts$ Among the &ro"ucti%e elements.nmity between two nations always is only the result of historical circumstance an" it &asses with the historic causes which occasione" it$ The historic causes which brought France as well as many other nations into o&&osition with Germany are &ractically &asse"$ This o&&osition was fun"amentally an o&&osition to 4russian militarism$ 4russia as the youngest.

but on the "ecrease of the armies of others$ The role that she woul" &lay in the society of nations is the e?act o&&osite of what it has hitherto been$ From a menace she is becoming a &romise8 from a martial &eril she is turning into a &le"ge of worl" &eace$ )n many 9uarters the sincerity of this intention is not truste"$ 4eo&le seem to thin7 that it woul" %anish again u&on the economic rehabilitation of Germany$ )t must be a"mitte" that this new intention is not yet uni%ersal. but one to which all nations woul" belong. un"er the circumstances.m&ire ma"e all the worl" its enemy an" conse9uently it ha" in the en" to fight against almost all the worl"$ Along with the German . an" will root itself e%er more "ee&ly in the min"s of the young generation which is growing u& un"er its influence an" is no longer being "a>>le" by militaristic stage6shows$ The strengthening of GermanyNs economic life will not im&e"e but will further a &acifistic "e%elo&ment$ The stronger the &eaceably incline" bo"y of wor7men becomes. an" which woul" be in a &osition to sol%e &eacefully all the &roblems which ha%e grown out of the &eace &acts conclu"e" in 1 1 $ 'ourceE htt&EGGwww$foreignaffairs$comGarticlesG*5C**G7arl67auts7yGgermany6since6the6war . the less numerous will be those "VclassVs who are bent on "es&erate schemes$ )t is not GermanyNs economic resuscitation but her economic colla&se which means "anger to her neighbors$ )f the %ictors &ursue a &olicy ten"ing to &lunge the German &eo&le e%er "ee&er into misery.m&ire.m&ire of Austria. they will be a"o&ting the best means of bringing again to life i"eas of arme" o&&osition an" re%enge$ What the German nation &ants an) nee)s is #ea$eDDlasting6 a$tual #ea$e6 &ith $om#lete selfD)etermination for all its #arts an) &ith no sla. Alsace62orraine has been gi%en bac7 to France$ At the same time the root of all the e%il.nglan" Lust as urgently as it nee"s &eace an" frien"shi& between these two an" Germany$ 'houl" these three become unite" an" Loin in a hearty un"erstan"ing with the great transatlantic Re&ublic. but on a general "isarmament8 not on the increase of her own army. although it alrea"y ins&ires a maLority of the nation$ The ol" generation cannot easily ri" itself of inherite" trains of thought$ -ut the new i"ea is being "e%elo&e" by the new con"itions themsel%es. which all nations woul" trust. the &eace of the worl" woul" be assure"8 then woul" be &ossible a 2eague of @ations which woul" not be a gen"arme of the con9uerors.nglan" an" France$ 'uch a conflict woul" only &ut the clima? to .uro&e e%er ha" such an almost unbro7en series of %ictories to &oint to as "i" the 4russian army$ True.e labor to #erform for the benefit of its $onCuerors: =t )eman)s nothing but that these shall at last #ro$ee) to ma/e goo) &hat they #romise) in WilsonKs Fourteen Points: The &rinci&al obstruction in the matter u& to the &resent has been offere" by France$ -ut it is not from outsi"e that this obstruction can be o%ercome$ )t is wholly mista7en to e?&ect GermanyNs rescue to result from a conflict between . all the more &araly>ing because it was not "ue to any lac7 of stoutness in the troo&s but to the incom&etent &olicy of the military comman". has cease" to e?ist$ @or was it o%ercome only from outsi"e by the act of com&ulsory "isarmament8 it was %an9uishe" also from within$ )t has lost the comman"ing influence that it use" to e?ert on the min" of the German &eo&le$ @o great army in . 4russo6 German militarism. at the conclusion of the Worl" War. this army which belie%e" itself almost in%incible was "isastrously smitten in 15H* at Jena8 but in 1 1C it ha" irone" out this "ent in its shiel"$ From 15:H on the confi"ence of the entire German &eo&le in its army reache" almost unbelie%able heights$ An" was the . woul" but lea" to renewe". came crushing "efeat. which ha" ta7en u&on itself to lea" the German nation into the fiel" against an o%erwhelmingly su&erior force$ From the heights of wealth an" glory Germany was cast "own by the war into the "e&ths of bitter &o%erty an" in"ignity$ 0ereafter only absolute "es&air coul" ma7e it try once more a &assage at arms.uro&eNs ha&less situation an" woul" not im&ro%e French relations with Germany$ The worl" nee"s &eace an" frien"shi& between France an" . the German war fleet has been surren"ere". with the growing -al7an states an" e%en with her ol" associate )taly$ )t was not in "efense of a German but of an Austrian claim that the Worl" War bro7e out$ Thus the German . which ha" become wholly moribun"$ For AustriaNs sa7e Germany came into o&&osition with Russia. which. to absolutely crushing "isaster$ The German &eo&le are therefore becoming more an" more con%ince" that GermanyNs sal%ation no longer "e&en"s on com&etiti%e armaments. all these stumbling bloc7s ha%e been remo%e"$ The ol" Austria has %anishe".