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Part 3: Bombings, Atrocities, & Genocide
By William P. Litynski
From the Grassy Knoll in Prague:
Lone Gunman or Patsy?
The Assassination of Nazi German SS terrorist and Holocaust er etrator !einhard He"drich on #a" $%, &'($
Nazi German SS General !einhard He"drich, acting Protector of Bohemia and #ora)ia and former *irector of the Gesta o, +as assassinated b" ,zech atriots -an .ubi/ and -ozef Gab012 in Prague, ,zechoslo)a2ia 3 resent4da" ,zech !e ublic5 on #a" $%, &'($6 -ozef Gab012 attem ted to assassinate He"drich +ith a Sten sub4machine gun7 ho+e)er, the sub4machine gun 8ammed and failed to fire6 -an .ubi/ then thre+ a bomb 3a con)erted anti4tan2 mine5 at the rear of the car as the car sto ed7 the e9 losion +ounded He"drich6 He"drich died of his +ounds in Prague on -une (, &'($6 ,zech atriots -an .ubi/ and -ozef Gab012 died inside ,hurch of St6 ,"ril and St6 #ethodious in !esslo)a Street in Prague during a shootout +ith the Nazi SS on -une &:, &'($6
!einhard He"drich;s car 3left5 in the streets of Prague, ,zechoslo)a2ia shortl" after the assassination attem t
Nazi SS General !einhard He"drich 3abo)e5 died of his +ounds in Prague on June 4, 19427 the Battle of #id+a" bet+een <m erial -a an and America began on June 4, 19426 !einhard He"drich attended the =annsee ,onference, a conference held to determine the fate of >uro ean -e+s, on -anuar" $?, &'($6
The =annsee ,onference, a conference held to determine the fate of >uro ean -e+s, +as held in suburban Berlin on January 20, 19426 @ifteen high4ran2ing Nazi Part" and German go)ernment officials gathered at a )illa in the Berlin suburb of =annsee to discuss and coordinate the im lementation of +hat the" called the A@inal Solution of the -e+ish Buestion6C Among the indi)iduals +ho attended the conference +ere !einhard He"drich, Adolf >ichmann, and Heinrich #Dller6
Map used to illustrate the Stahlecker's report to Heydrich on January 31, 1 !". #rom the $.S. Holocaust Museum% Map &rom Stahlecker's report entitled 'Je(ish )*ecutions +arried ,ut -y )insat./ruppe 01 and stamped 2Secret 3eich Matter.2 4t sho(s the num-er o& Je(s e*ecuted in the Baltic States and Belarus in 1 !1. 5he le/end at the -ottom states that 2the estimated num-er o& Je(s still on hand is 1"6,777.2 )stonia is marked as 28uden&rei2. Held in the Lat9ian State Historical 0rchi9es, 3i/a. :Source% $nited States Holocaust Memorial Museum;
the -e+s +ill be de lo"ed under a ro riate su er)ision at a suitable form of labor de lo"ment in the >ast6 <n large labor columns. Poland7 SS #a8or !udolf Jange. and re arator" measures for the Ae)acuations6C *es ite the eu hemisms +hich a eared in the rotocols of the meeting.zech -e+s to locations in German4occu ied Poland and the German4occu ied So)iet Lnion. <reland. rior to the in)asion of the So)iet Lnion6 <n late Se tember &'(&.abinet57 State Secretar" Alfred #e"er 3!eich #inistr" for the Fccu ied >astern Territories4German4occu ied LSS!57 #inisterial *irector Georg Jeibrandt 3!eich #inistr" for the Fccu ied >astern Territories57 Lndersecretar" of State #artin Juther 3@oreign Fffice57 State Secretar" =ilhelm Stuc2art 3#inistr" of the <nterior57 State Secretar" >rich Naumann 3Fffice of Pleni otentiar" for the @our4Mear Plan57 State Secretar" -osef BDhler 3Fffice of the Go)ernment of the Go)ernor General4German4 occu ied Poland57 and #inisterial *irector Gerhard .lo fer 3Nazi Part" .=annsee .ra2o+.onference and the E@inal SolutionE Fn -anuar" $?. Hitler had authorized the !eich !ailroads to trans ort German. ros ects for inducing German"Hs A9is artners to gi)e u their -e+ish o ulations.???. the deferment until after the +ar of A@inal SolutionC measures against -e+s married to non4-e+s or ersons of mi9ed descent as defined b" the Nuremberg la+s. the chief of the !eich Securit" #ain Fffice 3Reichssicherheitshauptamt-RSHA5 and one of Reichsführer-SS 3SS chief5 Heinrich HimmlerHs to de uties7 SS #a8or General Heinrich #Dller. but also the -e+ish o ulations of the Lnited . chief of !SHA *e artment <I 3Gesta o57 SS Jieutenant .C and 3$5 to disclose to the artici ants that Hitler himself had tas2ed He"drich and the !SHA +ith coordinating the o eration6 The men at the table did not deliberate +hether such a lan should be underta2en. but instead discussed the im lementation of a olic" decision that had alread" been made at the highest le)el of the Nazi regime6 At the time of the =annsee . commander of the !SHA field office for the Go)ernment General in . h"sical annihilation of the >uro ean -e+s6 At some still undetermined time in &'(&.ommand on the murder of ci)ilians. most artici ants +ere alread" a+are that the National Socialist regime had engaged in mass murder of -e+s and other ci)ilians in the German4occu ied areas of the So)iet Lnion and in Serbia6 Some had learned of the actions of the >insatzgru en and other olice and militar" units.ingdom. since.onference. and >uro ean Tur2e"56 @or -e+s residing in the Greater German !eich and holding the status of sub8ects of the German !eich.ritzinger 3!eich .??? -e+s in >uro e +ould fall under the ro)isions of the E@inal Solution6E <n this figure.olonel Adolf >ichmann. Portugal. de lo"ed in Jat)ia in the autumn of &'(&7 and SS #a8or General Ftto Hofmann.hanceller"56 The E@inal SolutionE +as the code name for the s"stematic. deliberate. commander of !SHA >insatz2ommando $. +hich +ere alread" slaughtering tens of thousands of -e+s in the German4 occu ied So)iet Lnion6 Fthers +ere a+are that units of the German Arm" and the SS and olice +ere 2illing -e+s in Serbia6 None of the officials resent at the meeting ob8ected to the @inal Solution olic" that He"drich announced6 Not resent at the meeting +ere re resentati)es of the German Armed @orces 3 Wehrmacht5 and the !eich !ailroads 3Reichsbahn5 in the German #inistr" of Trans ortation6 The SS and olice had alread" negotiated agreements +ith the German Arm" High . re resenting the fruit of natural selection. in the s ring of &'(&.olonel >berhard SchKngarth. able4bodied -e+s +ill be brought to those regions to build roads. including the establishment of the Theresienstadt cam 4 ghetto as a destination for elderl" -e+s as +ell -e+s +ho +ere disabled or decorated in =orld =ar <. the chief of SS !ace and Settlement #ain Fffice6 !e resenting the agencies of the State +ere: State Secretar" !oland @reisler 3#inistr" of -ustice57 #inisterial *irector =ilhelm . the aim of the =annsee . chief of the !SHA *e artment <I B ( 3-e+ish Affairs57 SS .onference +as clear to its artici ants: to further the coordination of a olic" aimed at the h"sical annihilation of the >uro ean -e+s6 Source: htt :NN+++6ushmm6orgN+lcNenNarticle6 h O#odule<dP&???G(%% . se arated b" gender. he included not onl" -e+s residing in A9is4controlled >uro e. Hitler authorized this >uro ean4+ide scheme for mass murder6 He"drich con)ened the =annsee . &G high4ran2ing Nazi Part" and German go)ernment officials gathered at a )illa in the Berlin suburb of =annsee to discuss and coordinate the im lementation of +hat the" called the E@inal Solution of the -e+ish Buestion6E !e resenting the SS at the meeting +ere: SS General !einhard He"drich. &'($. and the neutral nations 3S+itzerland.onference 3&5 to inform and secure su ort from go)ernment ministries and other interested agencies rele)ant to the im lementation of the A@inal Solution. S+eden. including So)iet -e+s. and . +hereb" a large number +ill doubtlessl" be lost through natural reduction6 An" final remnant that sur)i)es +ill doubtless consist of the elements most ca able of resistance6 The" must be dealt +ith a ro riatel". +here German authorities +ould 2ill the o)er+helming ma8orit" of them6 He"drich indicated that a ro9imatel" &&. the" are to be regarded as the core of a ne+ -e+ish re)i)al6C The artici ants discussed a number of other issues raised b" the ne+ olic". S ain. Austrian. the Nuremberg Ja+s +ould ser)e as a basis for determining +ho +as a -e+6 He"drich announced that Aduring the course of the @inal Solution.
3ussians. Hun/arians. o!es. #rench. includin/ =ermans. 0n estimated si* million Je(s as (ell as millions o& people o& 9arious nationalities.. and ?utch. #ar-en chemical cartel. Poles. and the =estapoASchutsta&&el death sBuads. died in 9arious concentration camps at the hands o& 4.=.Concentration Camps & Extermination of Jews. $kranians. =ermany in 0pril 1 !>. 3eichs-ank :=ermany@s central -ank. . & C"i!dren 0merican soldiers (alkin/ past ro(s and ro(s o& corpses at the <ordhausen concentration camp 8ust a&ter its li-eration in <ordhausen. :Photo -y John #loreaC5ime Li&e. the <ational Socialist =erman Workers@ Party. Bel/ians.
#ar-en chemical cartel. the earl" @arben Iorstand included . 0n estimated si* million Je(s as (ell as millions o& people o& 9arious nationalities. #rench. .arl Bosch. @ritz ter #eer. and Griesheim4>le2tron6 These com anies +ere merged to become <nternationale Gesellschaft @arbenindustrie A6G6 Q or <6G6 @arben for short6 T+ent" "ears later the same Hermann Schmitz +as ut on trial at Nuremberg for +ar crimes committed b" the <6 G6 cartel6 Fther <6 G6 @arben directors +ere laced on trial but the American affiliates of <6 G6 @arben and the American directors of <6 G6 itself +ere Ruietl" forgotten7 the truth +as buried in the archi)es6 <t is these L6S6 connections in =all Street that concern us6 =ithout the ca ital su lied b" =all Street. .6 Sutton. and ?utch. 1 !>. the guiding hand in the creation of the @arben em ire. and the =estapoASchutsta&&el death sBuads. Ma* War-ur/ ser9ed as a director o& 4.hrdru& concentration camp in =otha. Paul =arburg +as also on the board of American <6 G6.=eneral =eor/e S. @arbenHs +holl" o+ned L6S6 subsidiar"6 <n addition to #a9 =arburg and Hermann Schmitz. :<ational 0rchi9es. Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler.=. and the $. 3eichs-ank :=ermany@s central -ank.ha ter $ 3The >m ire of <6G6 @arben5 . died in 9arious concentration camps at the hands o& 4. #ar-enD Ma* War-ur/ (as a Je(ish -anker &rom Ham-ur/. Hun/arians. =eiler4ter4#eer. includin/ =ermans. +ith e9traordinar" olitical and economic o+er and influence +ithin the Hitlerian Nazi state6 <6 G6 has been a tl" described as Ea state +ithin a state6E The @arben cartel dated from &'$G. Patton.S.M. Poles. +hose brother Paul =arburg +as a founder of the @ederal !eser)e S"stem in the Lnited States6 Not coincidentall".=. =eneral ?(i/ht )isenho(er. Hoechst. 0rmy e*amine the corpses inside . 3ussians. the <ational Socialist =erman Workers@ Party. Agfa.. AFn the e)e of =orld =ar << the German chemical com le9 of <6G6 @arben +as the largest chemical manufacturing enter rise in the +orld. Ba"er. =ermany on 0pril 1". =ermany (ho ser9ed as the head o& M. War-ur/ E +o.urt F enheim and George )on Schnitzler6 All e9ce t #a9 =arburg +ere charged as A+ar criminalsC after =orld =ar <<6C S Anton" . Ma* War-ur/@s -rother Paul War-ur/ (as the &ounder o& the #ederal 3eser9e. there +ould ha)e been no <6 G6 @arben in the first lace and almost certainl" no Adolf Hitler and =orld =ar <<6 German ban2ers on the @arben Aufsichsrat 3the su er)isor" Board of *irectors5 in the late &'$?s included the Hamburg ban2er #a9 =arburg. +hen organizing genius Hermann Schmitz 3+ith =all Street financial assistance5 created the su er4giant chemical enter rise out of si9 alread" giant German chemical com anies Q Badische Anilin.
a =estapo concentration camp in =ermany on 0pril 1".hrdru& concentration camp in =otha.S. 1 !>. 0rmy e*amine the corpses inside . . :Photo% <ational 0rchi9es. 3o(s o& -odies o& dead inmates &ill the yard o& La/er <ordhausen. =ermany on 0pril 1". 5his photo sho(s less than hal& o& the -odies o& the se9eral hundred inmates (ho died o& star9ation or (ere shot -y =estapo men.=eneral ?(i/ht )isenho(er and the $. 1 !>.
=ermany in 0pril 1 !>.=erman ci9ilians remo9e piles o& corpses at the <ordhausen concentration camp -y ad9ancin/ 0llied troops in <ordhausen. . :Photo -y John #loreaC5ime Li&e.
in the Buchen(ald concentration camp at Weimar. 5he -odies (ere a-out to -e disposed o& -y -urnin/ (hen the camp (as captured -y troops o& the 3rd $. 1 !>. :Photo -y Pri9ate #irst +lass W.is. 0rmy.S.2 Photo taken on 0pril 1!.S. <ational 0rchi9es. +hichersky. . 0rmy. $.20 truck load o& -odies o& prisoners o& the <a. =ermany.
British soldiers su er)ise a +or2 detail in +hich female Nazi German SS guards bur" the bodies of concentration cam )ictims at Bergen4Belsen .am on A ril $:.oncentration . &'(G6 3Photo: htt :NN+++6mi9edmartialarts6comNmma6cfmOgoPforum6 osts&forumP$&threadP$?G&?$T& ageP&5 .
=ermany are -ein/ &orced -y the 0llies to di/ /ra9es &or the prisoners killed at the <ordhausen concentration camp.4n 0pril 1 !>. =erman male ci9ilians in <ordhausen. :Photo% John #loreaCLi&e 4ma/es. .
=ermany.i leaders. May 1F. 111AS+A"G!6 >. :Photo% <ational 0rchi9es.20 =erman /irl is o9ercome as she (alks past the e*humed -odies o& some o& the 677 sla9e (orkers murdered -y SS /uards near <amerin/.2 :Photo -y +pl.8p/. and laid here so that to(nspeople may 9ie( the (ork o& their <a.i =erman terrorism . :(("H163. 1 !>. )d(ard Bel&er. Iictims o& <ational Socialism and <a.
Nazi German officers forcibl" se arate -e+ish men and +omen at a train station ad8acent to a concentration cam 6 The infamous Ausch+itz4Bir2enau .am in Poland .oncentration .
. on their (ay to the 5re-linka death camp :4P<.Je(s &rom the Warsa( /hetto at the $mschla/plat. Je(s in narro(A/au/e cars on their (ay to the death camp at +heJmno. .
am 6 3!i82sinstituut )oor Forlogsdocumentatie. Amsterdam5 APolitical o+er gro+s out of the barrel of a gun6C S #ao Tse4tung .oncentration .A Buchen+ald SS guard a ears in front of tortured inmates at Buchen+ald .
. $kraine in 1 !1.0 <a. :Photo% Li-rary o& +on/ress.i =erman soldier is seen preparin/ to shoot the last Je( le&t ali9e in Iinica.
i (ar crimes. 5he ori/inal print (as o(ned -y 5adeus.ur and Jer. . 5he photo (as mailed &rom the )astern #ront to =ermany and intercepted at a Warsa( post o&&ice -y a mem-er o& the Polish resistance collectin/ documentation on <a.e(ski and no( resides in Historical 0rchi9es in Warsa(./ruppen. . near 49an/orod $kraine.i =erman occupation &orces han/ So9iet partisans in January 1 !3. '$kraine 1 !".)*ecutions o& Kie9 Je(s -y =erman army mo-ile killin/ units :)insat. 5he ori/inal =erman inscription on the -ack o& the photo/raph reads.y 5omas. Je(ish 0ction LoperationM.1 <a. Ma. 49an/orod. :Photo% =erman #ederal 0rchi9es.
Austria 3Photo: German @ederal Archi)es5 3Note: The &$4hour da"s of hard h"sical labor on a meager diet +ere lethal for man" of the inmates6 But there +ere other more direct methods of 2illing6 The UStairs of *eath. creating a domino effect that 2illed or in8ured dozens65 . in)ol)ed long lines of risoners carr"ing G?2g granite bloc2s u the stairs6 Those +ho stumbled +ould fall on the risoners follo+ing them.am near #authausen.oncentration .The Stairs of *eath at #authausen .
Nazi SS .hief Heinrich Himmler e9amines a grou of risoners at a concentration cam during =orld =ar <<6 Nazi German firing sRuads 2illing a grou of risoners .
A ma of Nazi German concentration cam s in Poland during =orld =ar <<
Warsaw #"etto $prising %&'()*
0 /roup o& Je(s, includin/ (omen and children, is escorted &rom the Warsa( =hetto in Warsa(, Poland -y <a.i =erman soldiers on 0pril 1 , 1 !3, the &irst day o& the Warsa( =hetto $prisin/. 5he Warsa( =hetto $prisin/ lasted &rom 0pril 1 , 1 !3 to May 1G, 1 !3.
Warsa( =hetto $prisin/ N Photo &rom JOr/en Stroop 3eport to Heinrich Himmler &rom May 1 !3. 5he ori/inal =erman caption reads% '0skaris used durin/ the operation1. 5he unit trained in 9illa/e o& 5ra(niki (as made up o& $krainians, 3ussians, Belorussians, Poles, )stonians, Lithuanians, Lat9ians, ethnic =ermans, Ka.akhs and 5artars.
Je(ish ci9ilians surrender to the <a.i =erman army a&ter Je(s attempted to resist the <a.i =erman army in a &ailed uprisin/ durin/ the destruction o& the Warsa( =hetto in Warsa(, Poland in 0prilAMay 1 !3. 0n estimated G million Je(s as (ell as millions o& Poles and =ermans (ere e*terminated in concentration camps durin/ World War 44. :Photo% <ational 0rchi9es;
=affen SS soldier guards -e+s that +ere ca tured during the =arsa+ Ghetto L rising in &'(36 3Photo: Mad Iashem Photo Archi)es5
-e+s that +ere ca tured during the u rising being ta2en to the Lmschlag latz 3transfer oint56 3Photo: Mad Iashem Photo Archi)es5
=affen SS soldiers remo)e -e+s from a building +here the" had ta2en refuge during the =arsa+ Ghetto L rising in &'(36 3Photo: Mad Iashem Photo Archi)es5
-e+s ca tured during the liRuidation of the =arsa+ Ghetto in &'(3 are gathered in the Lmschlag latz 3transfer oint5 on their +a" to being de orted to the death cam 6 3Photo: Mad Iashem Photo Archi)es5 A -e+ish erson lies unconscious on a side+al2 in the =arsa+ Ghetto in &'(&6 .
:Photo% =erman #ederal 0rchi9es. . Warsa( =hetto in June 1 !"% Je(ish police o&&icers /uard an access point &rom outside the /hetto.Warsa( =hetto in June 1 !" :Photo% =erman #ederal 0rchi9es.
Nazi German soldiers o)ersee the de ortation of -e+s from the .ra2o+. Poland in #arch &'(36 >ntrance to the .ra2o+ Ghetto in .ra2o+ Ghetto in circa &'(& .
and (as (as used -y the =ermans to or/anise the selection o& people &or deportation. 0 Je(ish policeman in the Warsa( =hetto salutes the photo/rapher. =hetto :the secondAlar/est Je(ish /hetto located in Lod. . Poland.0n au*iliary Je(ish police &orce kept order in the Lod.. :Photo% Pad Iashem Photo 0rchi9es.
:Photo% Pad Iashem Photo 0rchi9es.0 se/re/ated trolley car reser9ed &or Je(s operate inside the Warsa( =hetto. :Photo% Pad Iashem Photo 0rchi9es. 0 cro(ded street scene in the Warsa( =hetto captured &rom inside a mo9in/ 9ehicle. .
-erschar&uehrer. http%CCresources.0 Je(ish police o&&icer directs tra&&ic in the Warsa( =hetto on May ">.2 :Photo% 5he Stroop 3eportCSS Ma8or =eneral Juer/en Stroop.or/CinBueryCuiaHdoc. 5he ori/inal =erman caption reads% 2Je(ish ra--is. 0n SS Ser/eant :. interro/ates reli/ious Je(s captured durin/ the suppression o& the Warsa( =hetto $prisin/ in 1 !3. 1 !1. :Photo% Bundesarchi9C=erman #ederal 0rchi9es.ushmm.phpCphotosCG!3 QhrRnull .
Jeft hoto: =itold Pilec2i 3#a" &3, &'?&S#a" $G, &'(:5 +as a Polish arm" officer +ho )olunteered to infiltrate Ausch+itz4 Bir2enau ,oncentration ,am in Poland and conduct es ionage inside Ausch+itz during =orld =ar <<6 Pilec2i AinfiltratedC Ausch+itz b" deliberatel" getting himself arrested b" the Nazis during a =arsa+ street roundu on Se tember &', &'(?6 Pilec2i ro)ided the Polish go)ernment4in4e9ile a detailed account of Nazi German atrocities that occurred inside Ausch+itz6 Pilec2i esca ed from Ausch+itz in &'(3 and fought against the Nazi German arm" during the =arsa+ L rising in August &'((6 !ight hoto: AThe #ass >9termination of -e+s in German Fccu ied PolandC +as a re ort ublished b" the #inistr" of @oreign Affairs of the !e ublic of Poland in Jondon in &'($6 The information inside the re ort +as ro)ided b" =itold Pilec2i6
Ausch+itz concentration cam
hotos of =itold Pilec2i in &'(&6
,a tain =itold Pilec2i stands on the doc2et during a ,ommunist Asho+ trialC in =arsa+, ,ommunist Poland in #arch &'(:6 Pilec2i +as sentenced to death for committing crimes against the ,ommunist Polish regime and es ionage7 Pilec2i +as e9ecuted b" the Polish ,ommunist go)ernment on #a" $G, &'(:6
Ausch+itz concentration cam sur)i)or and Polish atriot =itold Pilec2i a in &'(%6
ears in a rison hoto at #o2otV+ rison in Poland
AGerman policy to ar!s the Polish people as simple in its ruthlessness" #t aime! at the complete annihilation o$ the more outstan!ing elements o$ the Polish nation" %he rest as to &e re!uce! to uncon!itional ser'itu!e $or the greater glory o$ the (eich" Pri'ate property as !eli&erately !estroye!" Factories, in!ustry, e'en mo!ern &uil!ings an! &loc)s o$ $lats &elonging to in!i'i!uals ere ta)en o'er &y the Germans" *'ery means o$ e!ucation as a&olishe!" +ni'ersities ere close!, secon!ary schools !is&an!e!" ,nly lo er 'ocational schools ere tolerate! so that &oys an! girls coul! learn some manual tra!eGermany as in nee! o$ traine! or)ers" The "outh of Poland +ould ha)e been entirel" de ri)ed of education if it +ere not for the initiati)e of the Polish eo le themsel)es, +ho, at the ris2 of great sacrifice and danger, had organised clandestine schooling6 +n!er German occupation, a Pole ha! no right to o n property, no right to participate in any sort o$ cultural acti'ity, no right to stu!y" .e as only to s eat an! la&our un!er the super'ision o$ German sla'e-!ri'ers" *'en so he coul! ne'er $eel sa$e or &e sure to sur'i'e" %his inclu!e! e'ery&o!y, not only the mem&ers o$ the +n!ergroun! organisation, &ut also those hose e/istence as per$ectly regular $rom the German point o$ 'ie " %here as no $amily in Polan! that !i! not su$$er, not one that !i! not mourn some&o!y !ear, either )ille! or imprisone! or hel! in a concentration camp" All this is difficult to imagine for an"one +ho +as not then in Poland6 Fnl" those +ho, da" after da", li)ed through the traged" can understand6 =e in Poland ne)er met the so4called Agood Germans6C To+ards us the" +ere al+a"s ruthless t"rants and murderers, into9icated +ith )ictor" and out to drain e)er" dro of rofit from our sub8ugated countr"6C S The Secret Army b" General Tadeusz Bor4.omoro+s2i 3 ublished in &'G?5, 6 3: AThe main to ic of our con)ersations +as, ho+e)er, the Ruestion of the German olic" of hostages6 The Germans had t+o aims in im osing this s"stem of communal res onsibilit"6 <n the first lace, the" tried to force the members of the Lnderground to consider the fight not +orth the a alling cost6 And, secondl", the" e9 ected to dri)e a +edge bet+een the o ulation and the Lnderground7 to discredit the leaders of the latter in the e"es of the nation b" re resenting them as res onsible for the mass re risals6 %error is, ho e'er, a !angerous eapon" 0ass reprisals amounte! to the in!iscriminate use o$ terror hich a$$ecte! e'ery&o!y an! pro!uce! a $eeling o$ uni'ersal !anger in!epen!ent o$ hether the in!i'i!ual as playing an acti'e part in the $ight or not" #t as all a matter o$ luc), since the choice o$ su&1ects $or the arrests, !eportations to concentration camps an! e/ecutions as ma!e ithout the slightest !iscrimination" <n fact, a member of a secret organisation could actuall" feel safer than others in the circumstances6 He had the rotection of his organisation;s intelligence ser)ice, +hich +as often in a osition to +arn him of a roaching danger, and, +ith his false documents, he +as much safer6 The method of im osing mass res onsibilit", stri2ing as it did at the o ulation as a +hole, roduced a result Ruite o osite to the one intended6 <t de)elo ed a strong tendenc" to strengthen the bond uniting the +hole nation, increased the general feeling of solidarit" and o ened all e"es to the necessit" for uni)ersal co4 o eration6 The results thus roduced +ere ideal for the de)elo ment of cons irac"6 Fn the other hand, these articular German methods forced us to act carefull" and to ado t +ides read recautions6 The rule that oison and not re)ol)ers should be used in self4 defence, came as a necessar" conseRuence6 <n such circumstances, a man is not rotecting his o+n life so much as those of the others +hom he might betra" under torture6 The second rinci le +hich had constantl" to be borne in mind +as that e)er" act directed against the Germans had to be of )ital im ortance and be necessitated b" a strong reason clearl" understandable to e)er" Pole6 =e +ere forced to a)oid an" action dictated merel" b" desire for re)enge or ins ired b" hatred and de ri)ed of an" dee er militar" significance6 A re resentati)e t" e of +or2 underta2en b" the Lnderground during the first eriod of occu ation +as sabotage on the rail+a"s6 The number of rail+a" engines to be sabotaged each month +as fi9ed b" headRuarters in =arsa+ in a monthl" rogramme6 <t became necessar" to create s ecial units for that ur ose6 S ecial instructions for this +or2 +ere de)elo ed and rinted +ith the collaboration of engine4dri)ers and engineers6 Fnl" such methods as could not be ro)ed to ha)e been sabotage +ere ado ted, and the" +ere graduall" im ro)ed u on6 <n &'(?, the a)erage eriod of disablement for each engine damaged +as fourteen hours7 in &'($ the eriod had risen to fi)e da"s7 b" &'(3 to fourteen da"s6 A s eciall" re ared chemical roduct +as added to the grease in the greasing4bo96 Fnl" ten da"s later, our obser)ers in rail+a" maintenance sho s all o)er Poland re orted that about $?? engines had had to be +ithdra+n from circulation, some for three da"s, some for three months, according to ho+ soon the engine4dri)er in each case realised that something +as out of order6 The Germans +ere Ruite unable to diagnose the cause6 @or nearl" three +ee2s, rail traffic in Poland +as com letel" disorganised7 a large number of trains had to be +ithdra+n, and dela"s in the timetable often assed the t+ent"4four hour mar26 Another rail+a" ob8ecti)e +as the material being sent b" !ussia across Poland to German"6 At that time !ussia +as hel ing Hitler considerabl" in his fight against the =est6 !ussia;s main e9 orts to German" +ere oil, coal, cotton +astes and ores6 Fne of the regular lines used for this traffic ran through Przem"sl, ,raco+ and Breslau S that is to sa", across m" region6 The Germans had de)elo ed this line and made it ca able of an increased turno)er in order to get the su lies through more Ruic2l"6 Przem"sl Station 3on the demarcation line fi9ed b" the #oloto)4!ibbentro Agreement5 had been rebuilt and enlarged, and here, therefore, the Germans had made s ecial installations for loading su lies6 T+o or three trains of etrol +agons assed along the line e)er" da"6 @or the destruction of these, +e used incendiar" bombs of our o+n roduction6 A container charged +ith e9 losi)e +as fi9ed on a neumatic le)er6 Fne mo)ement of the hand +as sufficient to fi9 the bomb firml" under the tan24car6 A some+hat rimiti)e cloc2+or2 attachment fi9ed the moment of detonation7 it +as +or2ed b" the rh"thm of the train going o)er slee ers6 Thus +e could time the distance from Przem"sl at +hich the e9 losion +ould ta2e lace6 Germans ne)er 2ne+ +here the sabotage had originated, in Poland or German"6C S The Secret Army b" General Tadeusz Bor4.omoro+s2i 3 ublished in &'G?5, 6 3:4(?
AThe rinci le of collecti)e res onsibilit" im osed b" the Germans u on the o ulation for e)er" act of resistance or sabotage +hich +e carried out forced us to ado t methods of attac2 +hich +ould, so far as ossible, a)oiR these German mass re risals on the ci)ilian o ulation6 =e had, too, to establish a balance bet+een our o+n losses and those +e inflicted u on the enem"6 But the end of &'($ mar2ed a turning4 oint in the ci)ilian state of mind6 The change +as not onl" due to the situation on the )arious +ar fronts7 its immediate cause +as in Poland ro er: # re$er to the massacres o$ the Je s" @rom the )er" beginning, German olic" had been mo)ing steadil" and s"stematicall" to+ards the e9termination of the -e+s in Poland4a communit" of about 3W million souls6 <mmediatel" after the Se tember, &'3', cam aign all -e+s +ere obliged to +ear an armband sho+ing the star of *a)id6 <n *ecember, &'3', the" +ere ordered to settle in certain s ecified districts, thus re)i)ing the idea of the medice)al Ghetto6 Fn No)ember &(th, &'(?, the =arsa+ Ghetto +as closed6 2ny Je $oun! &eyon! its con$ines as shot on the spot" %he Je ish !istricts ha! &een surroun!e! &y alls 3 $eet high an! German sentries ere poste! at the $e entrances" Signs +ere erected, bearing the inscri tion: ES otted T" hus6 >ntr" and e9it forbidden6E The ne9t Nazi ste +as the liRuidation of communities of -e+s in the smaller to+ns and their transfer to the Ghettos of the larger to+ns6 At the beginning of &'($, the =arsa+ Ghetto, +hich +as a )er" small area, held o)er (??,??? -e+s6 The houses +ere indescribabl" o)ercro+ded, +ith as man" as fifteen eo le to a room6 The food rations allo+ed them b" the Germans consisted of (W lb6 of bread er month4nothing else6 %hus the Je ish population as con!emne! to !eath &y star'ation" Human life, ho+e)er, is stronger than the most hea)il" armed guards, and food tric2led into the Ghetto b" the most fantastic channels7 through the cellars of ad8oining houses, through the se+ers, and through ga s +hich +ere torn in the Ghetto +alls almost e)er" night6 But all this smuggling in of food +as utterl" insufficient, and a alling miser", +ant and hunger reigned +ithin6 Trams +hich had to ass through the Ghetto +ere allo+ed to 2ee to their route at first, although the" +ere not ermitted to sto in the Ghetto region6 This ga)e me an o ortunit" to see conditions for m"self on se)eral occasions6 The general im ression +as one of s+arming humanit"6 The a earance of a uniformed German among the seething mass roduced indescribable anic6 *ri)en b" fear, the cro+d +ould tr" to rush a+a" and, almost miraculousl", the street became deserted6 The mortalit" rate +as so high that < often sa+ cor ses l"ing in the street, co)ered +ith ne+s a ers6 There the" +ould remain till the munici al rubbish carts came and cleared them a+a" the ne9t morning6 The area +as com letel" blac2ed out at night as the electric current +as cut off6 Before the +ar, the -e+ish districts in Poland had been inhabited b" onl" the oorest -e+s6 The Germans had steadil" increased their miser" and +ant6 And no+ to these districts +ere dri)en -e+ish doctors, attorne"s, industrialists and scholars6 <n the course of months, the Ghetto in =arsa+ became almost hermeticall" sealed from the outside +orld6 Ier" occasionall", under the s ur of star)ation, an indi)idual -e+ +ould succeed in esca ing +hen hunger o)ercame fear of death S for it +as certain death for an" -e+ to fall into German hands outside the Ghetto6C S The Secret Army b" General Tadeusz Bor4.omoro+s2i 3 ublished in &'G?5, 6 'G4'T AThe EliRuidationE of the Ghetto began +ith the a earance of official notices announcing that b" order of the German authorities all -e+s li)ing in =arsa+, regardless of se9 or age, E+ere to be trans orted to the east6E >)er" erson de orted +as ermitted to ta2e all )aluables such as mone", 8e+eller", gold, etc6 This sounded sus icious4doubl" so since, according to re)ious German orders, no -e+ +as allo+ed to be in ossession of an" gold6 The +ild and indiscriminate firing +hich had gone on all night +as designed solel" to terrorise the -e+s into com lete sub8ection6 To+ards noon, mass hunts began6 Small grou s, +hen rounded u , +ere dri)en to the sRuare near Sta+2i Street, ad8oining a rail+a" siding6 Hurried and 8ostled, the -e+s +ere cro+ded into closed lorries, +hich +ere then secured b" barbed +ire6 <n this +a", G,??? eo le +ere ta2en a+a" in one da"6 =e +ere to learn that this +as to be a dail" e)ent6 <n the Ghetto, the anic4stric2en -e+s fled from lace to lace, from street to street, see2ing shelter in the cellars6 #an" thousands s ent the night in the s"nagogues, +ailing and ra"ing6 The horror of it +as increased because the Germans endea)oured to force the s eciall" organised -e+ish olice force to assist in the +or26 The ,hairman of the -e+ish ,ouncil in the Ghetto, ,zernia2o+, +ho +as also chief of the olice force, +as instructed b" the Germans to assemble a certain number of his co4religionists in the so4called Lmschlag Platz, near Sta+2i Street, e)er" da"6 Ln+illing to assist in the e9termination of his fello+ -e+s, ,zernia2o+ oisoned himself +ith otassium c"anide6 The names of concentration cam s such as Belzec, Sobibor and so on, began to be mentioned6 !umours arose among the -e+s that those +ho had alread" left had been gi)en +or2, food and housing accommodation6 These rumours +ere clearl" started b" the Germans in order to reduce their )ictims to docilit"6 As earl" as -ul" $'th +e had learned from the re orts of railroad +or2ers that the trans orts +ere being sent to the concentration cam at Treblin2a and that there the -e+s disa eared +ithout trace6 There could be no further doubt this time that the de ortations +ere but a relude to e9termination6C S The Secret Army b" General Tadeusz Bor4.omoro+s2i 3 ublished in &'G?5, 6 ''
AB" August :th X, &'($Y, &G?,??? -e+s had been de orted from the =arsa+ Ghetto6 Fne month after the beginning of the massacre +e 2ne+ all the details concerning their fate, des ite the e9ce tional measures ta2en b" the Germans to re)ent an" lea2age of information from the concentration cam at Treblin2a6 At first +e onl" recei)ed fragments of ne+s, such as that assenger trains +ere no longer ermitted to sto at Treblin2a Station6 Jater, the +hole stor" reached us6 Train loads of -e+s dre+ u at the cam situated in the forest +here the -e+s +ere dri)en from the +agons and ordered to de osit all their ossessions4in articular, mone" and )aluables6 The" +ere then made to stri and roceed to the Abaths6C An enormous sign board announced that clothing +ould be gi)en out after the bath and that the" +ould then be sent out in batches to their )arious laces of +or26 2s the orl! no )no s the 4&aths5 ere poison gas cham&ers" %he ne/t stage as simply a communal gra'e, hich as e/ten!e! !ay an! night &y t o mechanical e/ca'ators" #nto the pit ere $lung ro upon ro o$ corpses o$ men, omen an! chil!ren" After a time, trains from Treblin2a began to ass through =arsa+6 The" +ere full of enormous stoc2s of clothes for transformation into ra+ materials for the German te9tile mills6 So )anished the last trace of the )ictims6 Polish rail+a"men on the =arsa+ 8unction noted three +agons loaded +ith human hair6 =e had a sam le of this hair anal"sed and found that the Je s ha! &een mur!ere! &y gas $orme! $rom some compoun! o$ cyani!e hy!rogen6 <t +as later re laced b" ordinar" steam, so that the -e+s +ere no longer oisoned, but suffocated6 Se tember &?th +as to be the last da" of the e9termination cam aign6C S The Secret Army b" General Tadeusz Bor4.omoro+s2i 3 ublished in &'G?5, 6 &?$
&'((. Poland on August &. &'((5 A Polish arm" atrol in =arsa+. led b" Jieut6 StanisZa+ -an2o+s2i 3EAgatonE5 from Batalion Pięś . during the beginning of the =arsa+ L rising6 .=arsa+ L rising 3August &. &'((4Fctober $.
5he corpses o& 9ictims o& So9iet <KI? murdered in last days o& June 1 !1 occured 8ust a&ter out-reak o& =ermanASo9iet War :and <KI? prisoner massacres.#embers of the =affen4SS artici ate in street fighting during the =arsa+ L rising of &'(( in =arsa+. . :Photo% Wikipedia.ens o& L(S(. Poland LL9i9. Poland in August &'((6 3Photo: German @ederal Archi)es5 +iti. $kraineM look &or their &riends and relati9es that (ere pre9iously arrested -y So9iet <KI? and detained in prison. and the escape o& So9iet 3ed 0rmy and <KI? troops &rom the 3ussianAoccupied Polish cities.
.General Tadeusz Bor4.ommander of the Polish Home Arm". Poland as he re ares to surrender his ortion of the Home Arm" in Fctober &'((6 .omoro+s2i.ommander of the Polish Home Arm" during the =arsa+ L rising in &'(( and risoner of +ar in Nazi German ca ti)it" General Tadeusz Bor4.omoro+s2i 3left5. . sha2es hands +ith a Nazi German arm" officer 3right5 in =arsa+.
!ife magazine.E . *ecember $'. @ebruar" $:. 6 3335 .s . on Sunda".Aeria! +om. &'(' 3also from Their "inest Hour b" =inston S6 .hurchill.s .hristo herY =ren churches +ere destro"ed or damaged6 The Guildhall +as smitten b" fire and blast. &'(?6 3Photo: National Archi)es5 AThe clima9 raid of these +ee2s came once more to Jondon.hurchill. and St6 Paul.athedral +as onl" sa)ed b" heroic e9ertions6C S British Prime #inister =inston .ing of E-ropean Cities St6 Paul. *ecember $'6 All the ainfull"4gathered German e9 erience +as e9 ressed on this occasion.it" of Jondon itself6 <t +as timed to meet the dead4lo+4+ater hour6 The +ater4 mains +ere bro2en at the outset b" )er" hea)" high4e9 losi)e arachute4mines6 Nearl" fifteen hundred fires had to be fought6 The damage to rail+a" stations and doc2s +as serious6 >ight X.hurchill +rote of the infamous *ec6 $'th raid6 E<t +as an incendiar" classic6 The +eight of the attac2 +as concentrated u on the .athedral in Jondon is ictured during the Nazi German bombing raid on Sunda".
A Jondon bus rests in a massi)e crater left b" a German bomb during an air raid o)er Jondon in &'(?6 Jondon during the Blitz2rieg in *ecember &'(?6 .
!esidents of Jondon rest inside an underground 3sub+a"5 station during an air raid in the summer of &'(?6 3LP<N.orbis4Bettmann5 .
ing George I< of Great Britain and Bueen >lizabeth 3the Bueen #other5 stand amongst the rubble left from the bombing of Buc2ingham Palace in Jondon in &'(?6 3-ac2 Bar2erNTimes Ne+s a ers Jtd5 . encourages them to erse)ere against Nazi German"6 .hurchill.British Prime #inister =inston . +hose mere resence among the eo le.
orbis4Bettmann5 .ommons 3British Parliament5 in Jondon b" Nazi German bombers in #a" &'(&6 3LP<N.hurchill sur)e"s the damage done to the House of .British Prime #inister =inston .
Nazi German air force bombers set the +hole inner cit" of !otterdam ablaze. 2illing :&( of its inhabitants6 The hoto +as ta2en after the remo)al of all debris6 3Photo: National Archi)es5 .The Nazi German ultimatum ordering the *utch commander of !otterdam to cease fire +as deli)ered to him at &?:3?h on &( #a" &'(?6 At &3:$$h.
an estimated $G. &'(G6 According to an in)estigation s onsored b" the *resden cit" council. German" loo2 for their relati)es after the British !o"al Air @orce fire4bombed the cit" from @ebruar" &34&G.??? Germans died in the fire4bombing. although some Germans 3 rimaril" Nazi s"m athizers and neo4Nazis5 claim that an estimated $G?.German sur)i)ors in *resden.??? died in the bombing6 Pile of cor se after the bombing of *resden6 3Source: =i2i edia5 .
?resden in #e-ruary 1 !> a&ter the &ire-om-in/ .
?resden. 0 soldier &rom the So9iet 3ed 0rmy plants the So9iet sickleAandAhammer &la/ on top o& the 3eichsta/ in Berlin on May ". =ermany in #e-ruary 1 !>. 1 !>. . :Photo% =erman #ederal 0rchi9e.
in -ul" &'(G 3Photo: =illiam Iandi)ertNTime Jife5 . including Lnter den Jinden and Pariser Platz.A hoto of Berlin.
=ermany in 1 !>. +olo/ne. . :Photo% =erman #ederal 0rchi9es.ollern-rOcke Brid/e o9er the 3hine 3i9er. and the destroyed Hohen. =ermany in 1 !>% +olo/ne +athedral.5he destruction o& +olo/ne. +entral Station. (ith the +olo/ne +athedral standin/ in the -ack/round.
. =ermany de9asted -y the ra9a/es o& (ar and strate/ic -om-in/. 5he 4= #ar-en Hochhaus :4= #ar-en headBuarters. #ar-en Buildin/ in #rank&urt am Main.=. 5he HeadBuarters o& the 0merican #orces in =ermany in the &ormer 4. =ermany in 1 ! . already in use as HeadBuarters $nited States #orces )uropean 5heater :HT $S#)5. :$nited States 0ir #orce )urope photo.0 midA1 !> aerial 9ie( o& #rank&urt am Main. is clearly 9isi-le on the top..
0 =erman (oman appears (ith all her possessions on the side o& a street amid ruins o& +olo/ne. =ermany in late 1 !>. . :5ime Li&e photo.
ysJa( Smora(iUski :le&t. Miec. =en. So9iet $nion L(estern 3ussiaM in 0pril 1 !3. :Photo% =erman #ederal 0rchi9es. in Katyn. (ere murdered -y the So9iet 3ed 0rmy at Katyn in 1 !7. Bri/. and =eneral BronisJa( Bohatyre(ic.ysJa( Smora(iUski and Polish =eneral BronisJa( Bohatyre(ic. .at/n 0assacre1 Extermination of o!is" Officers %&'(2* Secretary o& State o& the Iichy #rench re/ime #ernand de Brinon appear at the /ra9es o& Polish Bri/adier =eneral Miec..
ross delegation5 .Fne of the mass gra)es at .at"n in &'(36 The &'(3 e9humation at .at"n6 3Photo b" the Polish !ed .
&'(? memo from Ja)renti" Beria to -ose h Stalin.#arch G. ro osing e9ecution of Polish militar" officers6 .
#uslim Tatar. defectors and so on6 All of them are im lacable enemies of So)iet o+er and full of hatred for the So)iet s"stem6 PF= officers and olicemen located in the cam s are attem ting to continue c4r +or2 and are leading anti4So)iet agitation6 >ach of them is sim l" +aiting to be freed so the" can ha)e the o ortunit" to acti)el" 8oin the fight against So)iet o+er6 N.ommittee of the . shot at .alinin and . and at risons in .har2o) risons and else+here6 About :. +as a mass murder of Polish nationals carried out b" the So)iet secret olice N.at"n forest.I* lists of names of Polish risoners to be murdered at )arious locations in Belarus and =estern L2raine6 The modern Polish in)estigation of the . and Belarusian intelligentsia of Polish citizenshi 6 The term E. and other So)iet cities6 The Belorussian and L2rainian .??? +ere officers ta2en risoner during the &'3' So)iet in)asion of Poland. . also 2no+n as the .I*. saboteurs. and the !ussian.at"n @orest in &'(36 The re)elation led to the end of di lomatic relations bet+een #osco+ and the Polish go)ernment4in4e9ile in Jondon6 The So)iet Lnion continued to den" res onsibilit" for the massacres until &''?. former Polish olice officers and em lo"ees of intelligence agencies. at a Smolens2 slaughterhouse.ozels2 risoner4of4+ar cam 6 This +as the largest of the simultaneous e9ecutions of risoners of +ar from geogra hicall" distant Starobels2 and Fstash2o) cam s. including -ose h Stalin6 The number of )ictims is estimated at about $$.I* in A rilS#a" &'(?6 <t +as based on Ja)renti" Beria. as +ell as the subseRuent co)er4u 6 .s ro osal to e9ecute all members of the Polish Ffficer . members of Polish nationalist c4r 3counterre)olutionar"5 arties.at"n[4[decision[of[massacre[ &68 g The .at"n Jists are N. but also the other mass murders mentioned abo)e6 There are Polish organisations such as the . !ussia5. +hen it officiall" ac2no+ledged and condemned the er etration of the 2illings b" the N.at"n @orest massacre.???. Protestant.%T:6 The )ictims +ere murdered in the . the most commonl" cited number being $&. and the e9ecutions of olitical risoners from =est Belarus and =est L2raine.ommunist Part" of the So)iet Lnion to comrade STAJ<N <n the N.omrade .at"n #assacreE originall" referred s ecificall" to the massacre at .alinin 3T)er5.I* +as able to round u much of the Polish intelligentsia.I* PF= cam s and in the risons of the +estern oblasts of L2raine and Belorussia there is currentl" a large number of former officers of the Polish arm". factor" o+ners. and other ublic ser)ants arrested for allegedl" being Eintelligence agents. Georgian.Translation of #emorandum: The acce ted ro osal of Ja)renti" Beria to e9ecute former Polish arm" and olice officers in N.at"n @amilies.at"n massacre.agano)ich 4 <n fa)or65 htt :NNen6+i2i edia6orgN+i2iN@ile:.at"n @orest in !ussia.I* risoner of +ar cam s and risons6 #arch &'(?6 TFP S>.at"n @orest. artici ants in underground c4r rebel organizations. #i2o"an5 3<n margin: .ommittee and the @ederation of . L2rainian. Ioroshilo). officials and riests6E Since PolandHs conscri tion s"stem reRuired e)er" une9em ted uni)ersit" graduate to become a reser)e officer. gendarmes. olice officers.at"n and Gnezdo)o 3about &$ miles +est of Smolens2. #osco+. rofessors.alinin 4 <n fa)or6 . at the N.entral .!>T @rom the . the . of Polish militar" officers in the . #oloto).or s. -e+ish.at"n @orest. the rest being Polish doctors.omrade . la+"ers.I* agents in the +estern oblasts of L2raine and Belorussia ha)e unco)ered a number of c4r rebel organizations6 <n each of these c4r organizations the former officers of the former Polish arm" and former Polish olice officers la"ed an acti)e leadershi role6 Among the detained defectors and )iolators of the state4 3Signatures: <n fa)or 4 Stalin.at"n massacre co)ered not onl" the massacre at . the N.I* headRuarters in Smolens2.har2o). +hich again are inclusi)e of )ictims of the )arious mass murders at the )arious locations6 Nazi German" announced the disco)er" of mass gra)es in the . &'(?6 This official document +as then a ro)ed and signed b" the So)iet Politburo. lando+ners.at"n . near the )illages of . la+ma2ers. dated #arch G.
a de&ense a/reement -et(een 4mperial Japan. Japan in Septem-er 1 !7. :Mainichi Photos. http%CC8ohn.html 5he 3epresentati9es o& the 0*is po(ers cele-rate in 5okyo. and Japanese #orei/n Minister Posuke Matsuoka :ri/ht.auCen9oyCe*pansion.curtin.Imperia! Japanese 0i!itar/ Aggression & Atrocities Minister o& the 0rmy =eneral Hideki 5o8o :center. propose a toast (ith the =erman and 4talian 0m-assadors to Japan and o&&icers &rom the Japanese Ministry o& #orei/n 0&&airs in 5okyo.i =ermany and #ascist 4taly. <a. :Photo% +ourtesy o& 0ustralian War Memorial. . 5he occasion (as the si/nin/ o& the 5ripartite Pact. Japan in 1 !3.edu.
ose for a grou hoto in in &'3G6 The .hinese soldier in . better 2no+n as .en eitai +as <m erial -a an.en eitai 3 憲兵隊5.[[ ia\de\b\Shanghai\[$:[[??&6html5 .en eitai officer 3right5 a ears +ith a ca tured .en eitai +as the eRui)alent of the Gesta o and the Ab+ehr6 3Source: -a anese boo2 ESho+a Histor" Iol6%: @ebruar" $T <ncidentE ublished b" #ainichi Ne+s a ers .hina.s notorious secret olice6 The .om an"65 htt :NNen6+i2i edia6orgN+i2iN@ile:.en ei6-PG A . ossibl" in Shanghai or #anchuria in circa &'3$ or &'3%6 3Photo: htt :NN+++6++$incolor6comN8a anN.The #ilitar" Policemen of the <m erial -a anese Arm".
5he 4mperial Japanese 0rmy e*terminated up to >7. .777 +hinese men durin/ the &irst month o& occupation o& Sin/aporeD the incident is kno(n as the 'Sook +hin/ massacre1.<m erial -a anese Arm" troo s enter Saigon in &'(&6 Le&t% Japanese troops enter Hon/ Kon/ on ?ecem-er "G. 1 !1 led -y Lieutenant =eneral 5akashi Sakai and Iice 0dmiral Masaichi <iimi. 3i/ht% 4mperial Japanese 0rmy soldiers march throu/h do(nto(n Sin/apore in #e-ruary 1 !".
4mperial Japanese troops run &or co9er durin/ mop up operations in Kuala Lumpur :British Malaya.comC&orumChistoryC6>!G FAdayAhistoryA8anuaryA1A31AaA". http%CC(((. in January 1 !". later Malaysia.cityAdata. :Photo courtesy the 4mperial War Museum. issued -y the 4mperial Japanese /o9ernment durin/ World War 44 .html 0 Malayan ?ollar <ote :promissory note.
rubber. &or the ?utch )ast 4ndies issued -y the 4mperial Japanese /o9ernment durin/ World War 44. and !omania6 The ca ital of the *utch >ast <ndies in &'(& +as Bata)ia6 The cit" of Bata)ia +as renamed -a2arta in &'($6 The *utch arm" surrendered the *utch >ast <ndies to the <m erial -a anese Arm" on #arch :. &'(G6 3Photo: =i2i edia5 0 . &'($6 <ndonesia declared its inde endence from the Netherlands on August &%. and oil roduced in #anchuria +as inadeRuate to meet the needs of the -a anese industr"6 <n &'(&.ne =ulden <ote :promissory note. . the *utch >ast <ndies +as the fourth4largest e9 orter of oil in the +orld7 the other three rimar" oil e9 orters in &'(& +ere America. and other ra+ materials that e9isted +ithin the *utch colon"7 etroleum and rubber +ere )ital to the <m erial -a anese militar"4industrial com le96 <m erial -a an ossessed no oil fields +ithin mainland -a an.-a anese militar" forces land on -a)a 3*utch >ast <ndies5 in earl" &'($6 -a an conRuered the *utch >ast <ndies in an attem t to acRuire oil X etroleumY. <ran.
:Photo% Mainichi <e(spaper +ompany. Sara+a2 and North Borneo3British5.The -a anese lines of ad)ance in the *utch >ast <ndies. a pro9ince o& British 4ndia. 1>th 0rmy prepare to march into Burma. and Portuguese Timor Soldiers o& the 4mperial Japanese 0rmy :4J0. in January 1 !". .
&&(.abanatuan6 Source: National Par2 Ser)ice 3L6S6 *e artment of *efense.Ta2en during the #arch of *eath from Bataan to the rison cam march at . LS#. National Archi)es5 htt :NNen6+i2i edia6orgN+i2iN@ile:#arch[of[*eath[from[Bataan[to[the[ rison[cam [4[*ead[soldiers68 g #a of Bataan *eath #arch .G(?.
. Philippines in May 1 !". 5his photo/raph (as captured &rom the Japanese durin/ Japan's threeAyear occupation.0&ter de&endin/ the island &or nearly a month. 0merican and #ilipino soldiers surrender to Japanese in9asion troops on +orre/idor 4sland. :0P Photo.
orregidor in the Phili ines.s Ain)asion mone"C for the Phili ines . near #anila. in &'($ 3Photo: htt :NNblog6ne+so26comN+orld+art+oN$??%N&?N&?Nthe48a anese4had4no4merc"4on4usN5 <m erial -a an.Beginning of Bataan *eath #arch after the fall of .
Prisoners in the rison cam in the Phili ines in #a" &'($. after the Bataan *eath #arch6 3Photo: National Archi)es5 <m erial -a an.s Ain)asion mone"C for Singa ore and British #ala"a 3#ala"sia5 .
American risoners carr" the remains of their comrades on burial detail at .am FH*onnell in the Phili ines in #a" &'($. +ee2s after the Bataan *eath #arch6 This hotogra h. ca tured from the -a anese. sho+s American risoners using im ro)ised litters to carr" those of their comrades +ho. from the lac2 of food or +ater on the march from Bataan. fell along the road6 The <m erial -a anese Arm" rohibited American risoners4of4+ar from resting and eating during the forced march from Bataan to the nearb" rison cam s6 3Photo: National Archi)es5 .
Bataan *eath #arch 3Photo: htt :NNblog6ne+so26comN+orld+art+oN$??%N&?N&?Nthe48a anese4had4no4merc"4on4usN5 .
Bataan *eath #arch 3Photo: htt :NNblog6ne+so26comN+orld+art+oN$??%N&?N&?Nthe48a anese4had4no4merc"4on4usN5 -a anese soldiers are seen shooting Si2h risoners +ho are sitting blindfolded in a rough semi4circle about $? "ards a+a" in circa &'(& or &'($6 3Photo: htt :NNen6+i2i edia6orgN+i2iN-a anese[+ar[crimes5 .
&'(37 from the Australian =ar #emorial. about to be beheaded +ith a s+ord b" Masuno . Ne+ Guinea6 $( Fctober &'(36 A hotogra h found on the bod" of a dead -a anese soldier sho+ing N]&(33&( Sergeant 3Sgt5 Jeonard G6 Siffleet of E#E S ecial Lnit.hinese risoner6 3Source: htt :NN+++6 rinceton6eduN^nan2ingNhtmlNimage[%6html5 .amada.Jeft hoto: The hoto sho+s a ca tured Australian Sergeant Jeonard G6 Siffleet being beheaded b" Masuno .hi2ao6 The e9ecution +as ordered b" Iice Admiral . Ne+ Guinea on Fctober $(. +earing a blindfold and +ith his arms tied. Ambonese members of the Netherlands >ast <ndies @orces. +hilst engaged in reconnaissance behind the -a anese lines6 !ight hoto: <m erial -a anese Arm" soldier re ares to murder a .hi2ao in Aita e. original ca tion: EAita e. the commander of the -a anese Na)al @orces at Aita e6 Sgt6 Siffleet +as ca tured +ith Pri)ate 3Pte5 Patti+ahl and Pte !eharin.
1 3F. Both soldiers (ere e*tradited to +hina a&ter the (ar. tried &or their actions in +hinese court.0 Japanese ne(spaper report o& the +ontest 5o +ut ?o(n 177 People. 5his ne(s (as ori/inally reported -y the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shinbun in ?ecem-er 13. 0n estimated "77.777 +hinese people died in <ankin/ &ollo(in/ the Japanese conBuest o& the capital city. A icture of Acomfort +omenC +ho +ere forced into se9ual sla)er" b" the <m erial -a anese militar" during =orld =ar <<6 3Source: htt :NNenglish6chosun6comN+$&dataNhtmlNne+sN$??T?'N$??T?'&(??&(6html5 . 1 !6. and (ere e*ecuted on January "6.
#ormer 2com&ort (omen. Separated &rom her &amily. mo9e to pass a resolution callin/ &or an 2unam-i/uous2 apolo/y &rom Japan &or the coercion o& (omen into army -rothels durin/ World War 44 (ould not dama/e relations -et(een the t(o allies.#ormer 2com&ort (oman2 Lee Pon/ASoo :L. 5he (omen ha9e (orked since 1 !> 2to hold the Japanese /o9ernment accounta-le &or the Japanese military's actions in World War 44. F6. and Pon/ Soo Lee.'Herne. tortured and raped. . Philippine. 5he (omen are no( seekin/ an o&&icial apolo/y and compensation &rom the Japanese /o9ernment. South Korean and 5ai(anese com&ort (omen (ho (ere se* sla9es &or Japanese soldiers durin/ World War 44. :0#PC=etty 4ma/es. Japan on June "F. "77F in Washin/ton. Her imprisonment lasted t(o years durin/ (hich time she (as /i9en a Japanese name. speak durin/ a ne(s con&erence at the o&&ice o& 0mnesty 4nternational #e-ruary 1G.'Herne. ?+. at a protest held in &ront o& the Japanese parliament in 5okyo. e9en as the &ormer 2com&ort (omen2 rene(ed their demands &or 5okyo to ackno(led/e their pli/ht. :L. (as imprisoned -y the Japanese military (hen she (as "1AyearsAold in 1 !". Pon/ (as kidnapped in her home country o& Korea -y the Japanese at the a/e o& 1! and taken to a ship (here she (as -eaten. :Photo -y +hip Somode9illaC=etty 4ma/es. 5here (ere and estimated "77.2 Jan 3u&& . .'Herne (as taken to a 2com&ort station2 (here she (as a-used.S.2 Jan 3u&& . Japan said the $. appears (ith her supporters holdin/ portraits o& +hinese. in this 1! June "77F &ile photo. "77F -rushed aside calls &rom 0merican la(makers &or a &resh apolo/y to (artime se* sla9es. -orn in (hat is no( 4ndonesia. 63. -eaten and raped day a&ter day &or three months.777 soAcalled 2com&ort (omen2 (ho (ere se*ually ensla9ed -y the 4mperial Japanese 0rmy -e&ore and durin/ World War 44.
S.2 <ear Mariana 4slands. :Photo% <ational 0rchi9es. <a9y photoC<ational 0rchi9es. June 1 !!. :$.cto-er ">.. 1 !!% 4mperial Japanese Kamika.e pilot in a Mitsu-ishi Vero 0GM> Model >" crashAdi9es on escort carrier $SS White Plains :+I)AGG.. . 4mperial Japanese plane shot do(n as it attempted to attack $SS K45K$< B0P. 5he aircra&t is missin/ the &li/ht deck and impacts the (ater 8ust o&& the port Buarter o& the ship a &e( seconds later.
1 !! :Photo% http%CC&orum.comCsho(thread. .cto-er 1G.phpQtR1!3 G!371Epa/eR1 .Bom-in/ o& Hon/ Kon/ -y the $nited States 1!th 0ir #orce.-ody-uildin/. .
3"e Atomic +om,s & 4-c!ear 5o!oca-st
Japanese children in Hiroshima huddle to/ether shortly a&ter the $.S. 0rmy 0ir #orces dropped an atomic -om- on 0u/ust G, 1 !>. 5he photos and &ilms taken immediately a&ter the -last (ere con&iscated and suppressed -y the $.S. /o9ernment &or more than G7 years. 5he 1 !> atomic -om- in the Japanese city o& Hiroshima, one o& the only times that nuclear (eapons (ere used in (ar&are, instantly killed an estimated 177,777 people and in8ured thousands more, (ith the ma8ority o& its 9ictims -ein/ ci9ilians. +asualties o& the atomic -om-s in Hiroshima and <a/asaki included ethnic Korean mi/rant (orkers, 0merican and British prisonersAo&A(ars, 3oman +atholic nuns :primarily in <a/asaki;, and (omen and children. :Source% http%CC(((.&latrock.or/.n.CtopicsChistoryCstalinsH(i&eHandHotherHtales.htm;
5he e*act moment o& detonation o& the atomic -om- at <a/asaki, Japan is captured in this photo/raph on 0u/ust , 1 !>. :Photo% http%CCpicdit.(ordpress.comC"776C7FC"1C6AinsaneAnuclearAe*plosionsC;
5he remains o& $rakami +athedral :le&t; appear on a hill in <a/asaki, Japan in late 1 !>, months a&ter the atomic -om- destroyed most o& <a/asaki. :Photo% $.S. <ational 0rchi9es;
Le&t photo% Japanese -urn 9ictims &rom the atomic -om-s 3i/ht% 0 mushroom cloud produced -y an atomic -om-.
Le&t photo% Japanese -urn 9ictims &rom the atomic -om-s 3i/ht photo% ,nly a small part o& a 3oman +atholic cathedral is le&t standin/ in its o(n ruins a&ter the -om-in/ o& <a/asaki, Japan in 1 !>. +atholic nuns (ere amon/ the casualties o& the atomic -om-in/ o& <a/asaki on 0u/ust , 1 !>. :+,3B4S;
5he 'Ialley o& ?eath1 N <a/asaki, Japan in 1 !> :Photo% http%CC(((.&lickr.comCphotosCa&i/alloC1!G7!"FF31CinCsetAF"1>FG7"13">3>>1 C;
-r6.s second atomic bomb attac26 3Photo b" . National Archi)es5 <a/asaki in 0u/ust 1 !> .or s.or oral J"nn P6 =al2er. si9 +ee2s after the cit" +as destro"ed b" the +orld. &'(G. L6S6 #arine .Battered religious figures stand +atch on a hill abo)e a tattered )alle"6 Nagasa2i. -a an on Se tember $(.
amid the de)astation of Nagasa2i. -a an on Se tember T.harred remains of -a anese ci)ilians after a firebombing . tor edoes and armor.Aerial )ie+ sho+ing ruins of the #itsubishi factor". +hich roduced munitions. &'(G6 3Photo: George Sil2NTime Jife5 .
therefore lea)ing the arch intact6 The bombing 2illed more than %?.A sacred Torii Gate stands erect o)er the com letel" destro"ed area of a Shinto shrine in Nagasa2i in Fctober &'(G. +ith ten thousands d"ing later from effects of the radioacti)e fallout6 3AP Photo5 . the blast of the e9 losion could go around it.??? eo le instantl". after the second atomic bomb e)er used in +arfare +as dro ed b" the L6S6 o)er the -a anese industrial center6 *ue to its structure.
is laid +aste in the aftermath of the detonation of the atom bomb o)er a month ago o)er this cit"6 3AP PhotoNA.The Lra2ami .athedral in Nagasa2i. &'(G. . August %. seen Se tember &3.atholic . the Lnited States dro -a an6 3Photo b" Hulton Archi)eNGett" <mages5 ed the atomic bomb on it during =orld =ar <<.#>NStanle" Troutman5 Aerial )ie+ of Hiroshima the da" after. &'(G.
??? eo le. on Aug6 T.Shortl" after the first atomic bomb e)er used in +arfare +as dro ed b" the Lnited States o)er the -a anese cit" of Hiroshima.olor hotogra h of the ruins of central Hiroshima in autumn of &'(G6 3L6S6 National Archi)es5 . &'(G6 The e9 losion instantl" 2illed more than T?. sur)i)ors are seen as the" recei)e emergenc" treatment b" militar" medics. +ith ten of thousands others d"ing later from effects of the radioacti)e fallout6 3AP Photo5 .
&'(G6 3AP Photo5 A man +heels his bic"cle thorough Hiroshima. about GG? feet from +here the bomb landed. on August T. da"s after the cit" +as le)eled b" an atomic bomb blast. &'(G6 3Photo b" . 2no+n as ].An American corres ondent )ie+s the Atomic *ome in Hiroshima on Se tember :. 2no+n as ]. -a an6 The )ie+ here is loo2ing +est4 north+est. about GG? feet from +here the bomb landed.e"stoneNGett" <mages5 . da"s after the cit" +as le)eled b" an atomic bomb blast. _ moreA man +heels his bic"cle thorough Hiroshima. on August T. -a an6 The )ie+ here is loo2ing +est4north+est.
ishida5 .an 3Trade Promotion Hall5 area of Hiroshima is laid +aste. after an atomic bomb e9 loded +ithin &?? meters of here in &'(G6 3AP Photo5 The shell of a building stands amid acres of rubble in this )ie+ of the -a anese cit" of Hiroshima on August :.The area around the Sang"o4Shorei4. &'(G6 3AP PhotoN#itsugi .
&'(G6 The bomb +as loaded onto the B4$' Su erfortress H>nola Ga"H and dro ed on the -a anese cit" of Hiroshima on August T6 3Photo b" PhotoBuestNGett" <mages5 . codenamed HJittle Bo". North #arianas <slands.Iie+ of the atomic bomb.H as it sits on trailer cradle in a bomb it on the North @ield of Tinian airbase. earl" August.
H on the -a anese cit"6 3Photo b" PhotoBuestNGett" <mages5 . &'(G6 The lane had dro ed an atomic bomb.H on its return from the bombing mission o)er Hiroshima. as it is ta9is on the North @ield of Tinian airbase. codenamed HJittle Bo".Iie+ of the B4$' Su erfortress H>nola Ga". August T. North #arianas <slands.
-a an on #arch &:. -a an in &'(G after a series of American air raids >m eror Hirohito sur)e"s damage from bombing in To2"o. &'(G6 3.arl #"dans NTime Jife5 .To2"o.
Albert S eer 3#inister of <ndustr" and Production5.3"e 6ina! Da/s at 6!ens. and Grand Admiral . center5.arl *oenitz 3foreground. &'(G6 The Nazi German go)ernment and the German High . *r Albert S eer 3center5. and General Alfred -odl 3.hief of F erations Staff of the =ehrmacht5 3Photo: German @ederal Archi)es5 .-rg & Arrest of t"e 73"ree 3ramps8 in 6!ens. German" on #a" $3. are seen handcuffed after their arrest b" the Allies in @lensburg.arl *oenitz 3!eich President and #inister of =ar5.-rg %he 2rrest o$ the %hree %ramps o$ the Flens&urg Go'ernment: General Alfred -odl 3left5.ommand officiall" ceased to e9ist that da"6 Prominent members of the @lensburg Go)ernment included: Grand Admiral .
&'(G6 3Photo: <m erial =ar #useums. Jondon5 htt :NN+++6i+m6org6u2NcollectionsNitemNob8ectN$?G&'(%%: Albert S eer 3left5. . &'(G before the" +ere arrested and handcuffed b" the Allies6 Alfred -odl +as hanged at Nuremberg. German" on Fctober &T. and General Alfred -odl 3(th left5 are arrested b" the British Arm" at @lensburg. and Alfred -odl a ear at a meeting at @lensburg. Grand Admiral . German" on #a" $3.arl *oenitz 3center5.arl *oenitz 33rd left5. German" on #a" $3. &'(T6 .Albert S eer 3$nd left5.
Jondon5 . in #a" &'(G +here members of the German Go)ernment +ere located6 The o eration +as carried out b" men of HAH .Prisoners being led a+a" from the house in #ui)i2.om an".heshire !egiment6 <n total. The . &st Battalion. a fe+ miles from @lensburg. t+el)e HGrade &H risoners +ere ta2en including General -odl6 3Photo: <m erial =ar #useums.
hief of F erations Staff of the =ehrmacht. &'(G6 . signs the German <nstrument of Surrender at !heims. the . @rance on #a" %.General Alfred -odl 3center5.
and So9iet 3ed 0rmy o&&icers meet (ith =eneral 0l&red Jodl at 3heims.i =ermany surrendered to the 0merican and British &orces.0merican 0rmy =en. Walter Bedell Smith :second &rom ri/ht. . 1 !> shortly a&ter <a. and other 0merican. British. =eneral ?(i/ht )isenho(er and other 0llied o&&icers cele-rate in 3heims. #rance on May F. #rance on May F. 1 !> to discuss surrender terms.
&'(G6 3National Archi)es5 .eitel 3center5 surrenders to the Allies in Berlin on #a" :.eitel sign the ratified surrender terms for the German Arm" at !ussian HeadRuarters in Berlin on #a" %.@ield #arshal =ilhelm . &'(G6 @ield #arshal =ilhelm .
arlshorst. and General -ean de Jattre de Tassign" 3@rance56 .The signing the German <nstrument of Surrender at the So)iet headRuarters in . Berlin. &'(G7 from left to right: @ield #arshal Bernard #ontgomer" 3Great Britain5. General *+ight *6 >isenho+er 3America5. So)iet #arshal Georg" `hu2o). &'(G6 Standing in the middle is So)iet #arshal Georg" `hu2o)6 The Su reme .ommanders in Berlin on -une G. German" on #a" :.
orbis4Bettmann5 . and hierlooms +ere traded for mone" or cigarettes. household goods. to then urchase scarce food6 German citizens in Allied4occu ied Berlin loo2ing for an"thing of )alue that can be used for barter6 3LP<N.Blac24mar2et trading bet+een soldiers and ci)ilians at theTiergarten in Berlin in the summer of &'(G6 .ameras.
09!#0 6anks of the 0'0st 6ank /atta ion enter the city of $achau after an a ternate ri)er crossin! is found.' yards. ho ds mornin! ro ca for the !arrison now !uardin! $achau.rd /atta ion H: recei)es orders to ca#ture the cam# at $achau.rd /atta ion is tem#orari y ha ted by a b own brid!e near (m#ermockin!. many of them in hos#ita .run off. 0$!#0 (fter e iminatin! sni#er #ockets. of the 4.rd /atta ion are dis#atched to attack toward *unich.S. 0%1th 2nfantry 3e!iment.S. His ro ca ta ied %&' men. ki in! a ar!e number of +erman so diers who are unab e to cross in time. Skodzensky-s orders were to surrender. had . . 6anks are he d u# by a brid!e o)er the (m#er 3i)er which is b own when armor is within . 10!15 .) Heinrich Skodzensky. Massacre of Waffen SS – April 29. 1945 0 !00 Waffen SS-Obersturmführer (Lt. the day before. a on! with more than a thousand of the ( !emeine and $eath-s Head SS !uards stationed at the cam# #rior to the (merican a##roach.rd /atta ion) are dis#atched in the direction of the concentration cam#. 8um#s off from the )i a!e of +ross 2nzemoos (0' mi es northeast of (u!sbur!) with three rif e com#anies su##orted by tanks. as #art of 6ask 7orce Lo)e. the new.DACHAU CONCENTRATION CAMP – LIBERATION A Documentary – U. ($achau (rchi)e) 0"!#5 . ( mere ieutenant had ne)er before commanded the massi)e concentration cam#. 2 "om#any is he d in reser)e. but the rea SS "ommandant. *artin +ottfried Weiss. 10!#0 2 "om#any and e ements of * "om#any (.rd /atta ion. . 10!00 6wo rif e com#anies (9 and L) of . 5%th (6hunderbird) $i)ision. some four mi es from the city of $achau. hasti y desi!nated "am# "ommandant.
3obert Wi son of L "om#any find a footbrid!e defended by a one +erman machine !unner. 6anks and L "om#any remain behind to c ear $achau and continue the attack toward *unich. Stewart and 0st S!t. (fter firin! one be t of ammunition the +erman retreats and 2 "om#any then crosses.3. but is somehow shot and ki ed in the confusion. 10!55 (n 2nte i!ence < 3econnaissance (2 < 3) #atro reaches the outskirts of the concentration cam# and recei)es enemy fire.10!45 0st Lt. ( 8ee# with four men sent from H: to acce#t the +erman surrender turns around and f ees the scene. Obersturmführer Skodzensky attem#ts to surrender the cam# to the (mericans. L. .
(Avenger) 11!20 (merican so diers reach the inner com#ound where inmates are im#risoned. =andemonium rei!ns and dead bodies are e)erywhere. See ocation ((). =fc.11!00 7orward e ements of 2 "om#any enter the concentration cam# after findin! and ins#ectin! a train oad of dead #risoners. Ohio is be ie)ed to be the first (merican iberator to enter the concentration cam# and come within )iew of the inmates. 11!25 6he crematorium and !as chamber are soon disco)ered at ocation (/). >ohn $e!ro of /urton. .
6he ori!ina cam# crematorium. ("ourtesy of $achau (rchi)e) . Se)era former inmates ha)e said otherwise. was ne)er #ut into use. (ccordin! to most historians. ty#e. was re# aced by the structure abo)e in 0?5. the !as chamber. a !as chamber and four so#histicated incinerators of the so-ca ed ./aracke @. bui t in 0?5' as the death rate in the cam# be!an to increase. which was dis!uised as a shower room. 2t has a ar!er #hysica # ant..
sayin! . =ri)ate >ohn Lee of 2 "om#any ater to d news#a#ers that he was #ersona y in)o )ed in at east &' of the ki in!s. an!er and !ui t !un down some 0. 12!05 ( +2 machine !unner nicknamed . ca#tured +erman so diers most of them Waffen SS. some with their bare hands. $ozens of inmates break out of the #rison enc osure and ki a##roAimate y 5' !uards.' ca iber machine !un.11!#0 6he (merican +2s in a frenzy or horror.What in the He are you doin!C. ../irdeye.6hey-re tryin! to !et away. "o one 7e iA S#arks char!es him from behind and kicks him away from the !un. Order is tem#orari y restored. Lt. ... from * "om#any sudden y ye s. . 12!00 ( resistance is si enced and esca#ed inmates are rounded u#.%B +erman so diers are taken #risoner. many of them wounded Waffen SS men forced from their beds in the mi itary hos#ita . and o#ens u# with his .
of Waffen-SS combat troo#s.'. 6hey are wearin! 6arn8acke. (ccordin! to Ddwin 7. +orak.. 2t ooks as if he saw the bu et comin! and shie ded his eyes. camouf a!e uniforms. DAact ocation unknown. who took this #hoto on (#ri .5% ca iber #isto . ("ourtesy of Ddwin 7. as by machine !un fire. 0?5%. +orak.the way the bodies were #i ed u# seems to indicate they were s ain simu taneous y. 0%Bth 7ie d (rti ery) . .$ead +erman so diers at $achau. 6he head wound on the man in fore!round a##ears to ha)e been made by a 4S .
Lt. Wi iam Wa sh is fourth from eft with back to camera. emotions are bein! brou!ht under contro . S#arks re#orts to 3e!imenta HeadEuarters and describes the e)ents of the day. Shirk tour the cam#. ( moment of re ati)e Euiet ensues.'' ca#tured +ermans so diers bein! marched to a ho din! enc osure in the same hos#ita area where the eAecution wa was ocated. ( !rou# of about .12!15 Order is restored once a!ain. 6he +erman medic with the 3ed "ross f a! is one of the few +erman staffers known to ha)e sur)i)ed the iberation. "o . 12!50 +uards ha)e been #osted. 7i)e inmates can be seen assistin! the (mericans. 12!45 +enera Linden and #arty de#art. 12!25 /ri!adier +enera Hennin! Linden and #arty arri)e. tem#ers ha)e coo ed. ( ady news#a#er re#orter o#ens !ate to inner com#ound and a number of inmates esca#e. 12!#0 *ost inmates are rounded u# and returned to enc osure. 12!#5 ( )erba batt e eru#ts between +enera Linden and "o one S#arks. ("ourtesy of the 5%th $i)ision *useum) 1#!#0 "o one Wa ter O-/rien and "a#tain *inor S. . 6he cam# is fina y secure.
("ourtesy of 5%th $i)ision *useum) .14!#0 "o . +enera 7rederick. S#arks sets u# a command #ost outside of the cam# and awaits the arri)a of his su#erior. Lt. "ha# ain Loy returns to city of $achau. ( !rou# of +erman !uards bein! turned o)er to an (merican so dier by an armed inmate carryin! a +erman rif e. Wa sh and e ements of 2 "om#any withdraw to #re#are for an attack on *unich. *eanwhi e. 6his same man can be seen be ow armed on y with a sho)e .
4S Si!na "or#s. . *usser.". Howard /uechner and Lt. 3a #h 3osa and his #arty of medics arri)e at the site of massacre. Lt. "ourtesy Fationa (rchi)es. >ack /ushyhead. 14!49 *edica S!t. 6he four +erman so diers sti standin! and three or four of their fa en comrades at eft who are sti a i)e were shot on y seconds after this #hoto was taken. ( machine !unner crouches o)er a mode 0?0?(5 machine !un. at ocation ("). /uechner hears the sound of machine !un fire and arri)es at the scene of the massacre 8ust minutes after the #hoto abo)e is taken. Washin!ton $.14!#5 Lt. /oth are medica officers and are the first doctors to arri)e at the scene. 6he #hoto abo)e shows about &' dead or wounded +erman !uards yin! at the base of a on! wa . 3obert 9imsey arri)e outside the cam#. On y about one fourth of the tota en!th of the wa is )isib e. (=hoto by (r and /.) 14!4" Lt. center fore!round. the DAecuti)e Officer of 2 "om#any. 14!45 . /ushyhead was a fu -b ooded Fati)e (merican ("herokee) from Ok ahoma. ( hos#ita bui din! can be seen at ri!ht.5& +erman so diers are machine !unned by 0st Lt.
shown with a##roAimate ines of fire.@s.) . . /uechner. /uechner. *usser. 3osa-s #ath. 6he other is S!t. (/uechner) 6wo inmates #re#arin! to ki a fa en SS !uard with a sho)e . machine !uns are shown as circ es. 6he man on the eft is same indi)idua as abo)e.$rawin! of the eAecution site by Lt. ( ar!e hos#ita bui din! can be seen abo)e ri!ht. #robab y 6G5 (r and /.. by Ferin +un.. b ack dots are (merican so diers. shows the #ath of Lt. 3e#roduced from . indicates the ocation of the two inmates beatin! the +erman !uard with a sho)e be ow.$ay of the (mericans. 4S Si!na "or#s. ( /(3 man stands behind and to the ri!ht of the machine !un on eft.(. (=hoto!ra#her unknown.%. $ead +erman so diers are re#resented by . . 2n back!round rows of machine !unned +erman !uards can be seen yin! in #i es a on! the base of the hos#ita wa .
15!00 Lt. 9imsey #eers o)er the wa (see dia!ram abo)e) and sees that the e imination of the cam# !arrison has been com# eted. . ( ca#tured +ermans so diers are either dead or dyin!. /uechner. S#arks and +en. medica #ersone . /uechner and #arty ins#ect the cam# unti 01''. inc udin! $r. 15!15 "o .S. attem#ts to treat the wounded. 7rederick tour the cam# unti 01''.14!5# Lt. Dach man is shot indi)idua y. Fone of the 4.
SS rif e ran!e at Hebertshausen near $achau where thousands of So)iet #risoners of war were eAecuted in 0?50 and 0?5.%?0 dead amon! the #risoners that were re!istered..) arri)e to assist with !uard duty. 6hese deaths were ne)er re!istered.. ($achau (rchi)e) 1$!00 D ements of the 0st /atta ion (" "om#any) and one # atoon of L "om#any (0%1th 2nf.).S#ecia 6reatment.0. 7rom 0?. . 6he 2nternationa 6racin! Ser)ice in (ro son re#orts . a Fazi eu#hemism which si!nified . So)iet #risoners of war were summari y eAecuted by the thousands. 6he . and 0?5%..ki in!. *any unknown #risoners were a so secret y eAecuted here between 0?. to 0?5%. ci)i ians were assi!ned by the +esta#o to the cam# for Sonderbehandlung (.'& #risoners had been re!istered at $achau. 6he tota number of dead wi ne)er be known. and a !reat many died in e)acuation marches and death marches...'&. 6heir eAact number wi ne)er be known.
tota number of >ews who died at $achau from 0?.. to 0?5% was re ati)e y ow, #robab y no more than %,'''. On the day of iberation, some ;,%'' of the .;,''' remainin! inmates were >ewish. (Avenger)
H2ndi)idua #artici#ants in the iberation ha)e !i)en )arious, conf ictin! re#orts concernin! the actua time of the first (merican arri)a at $achau. 6he eAact time can ne)er be #recise y estab ished e)en with the he # of officia batt e re#orts, most of which are confusin!, contradictory and often based on !uesses, estimates and a##roAimations. 6here is, howe)er, a most !enera a!reement that the cam# was ,c eared, by ;I.' =.*. 6he time ine abo)e is be ie)e to be accurate within no more than a )ariance of one hour and is based ar!e y on the war diary of Lt. Howard (. /uechner, his book ,Hour of the ()en!er, and batt e re#orts of (#ri ;?, 0?5%. 2n Se#tember 0?B&, more than 5' years after the massacre at $achau, retired 4.S. (rmy "o one Howard /uechner #ub ished the first hardco)er edition of his on!-su##ressed book, ,6he Hour of the ()en!er,, detai in! the !ris y e)ents of (#ri ;?, 0?5%. 2t was not unti 0??0 that the 4.S. (rmy Euiet y dec assified its secret re#ort on the ki in!s at $achau. 2t detai s se)era other incidents that dayI a 4.S. ieutenant ordered four +erman so diers into an em#ty boAcar and #ersona y shot each of them. (nother (merican so dier c ubbed and shot those sti moanin!. Se)era +2s turned their backs on two inmates beatin! a +erman !uard to death with a sho)e . 2t was said that one of the inmates had been castrated by the +erman they were murderin!. See #hoto abo)e. D=2LO+4D - ,(76D3 6HD L2/D3(62OF, ( 3i!hts 3eser)ed. Dducationa 4se On y. "o#yri!ht J ;''; 3.H. =erez
Source: htt :NN+++6humanitas4international6orgNarchi)eNdachau4liberationN
War Crimes 3ri,-na!s
Japanese (ar criminals :ri/ht; are tried in a courtroom at the 5okyo 5rials in 1 !G. :Photo% 0l&red )isenstaedtC5ime Li&e;
0 rare color photo/raph o& Hideki 5o8o, a&ter t(o years and more than !77 courtroom days, seated in a courtroom at the 5okyo 5rials in 5okyo, Japan on 0pril 1>, 1 !6, -e&ore recei9in/ the 9erdict o& the Military 5ri-unal &or the #ar )ast. :Photo% W BettmannC+,3B4S;
'Why, o& course the people don't (ant (ar. Why (ould some poor slo- on a &arm (ant to risk his li&e in a (ar (hen the -est that he can /et out o& it is to come -ack to his &arm in one pieceQ <aturally, the common people don@t (ant (arD neither in 3ussia nor in )n/land, nor in 0merica, nor &or that matter in =ermany. 5hat is understood. But, a&ter all, it is the leaders o& the country (ho determine the policy and it is al(ays a simple matter to dra/ the people alon/ (hether it's a democracy, a &ascist dictatorship, a parliament, or a communist dictatorship. X-ut 9oice or no 9oice, the people can al(ays -e -rou/ht to the -iddin/ o& the leaders. 5hat is easy. 0ll you ha9e to do is tell them they are -ein/ attacked, and denounce the paci&ists &or lack o& patriotism and e*posin/ the country to dan/er. 4t (orks the same (ay in any country.2 N Hermann =oerin/, 0pril 16, 1 !G
0n 0merican 0rmy military policeman (atches Hideki 5o8o :le&t;, (artime Prime Minister o& Japan, sit in the (itness chair at a (ar crimes trial in 5okyo, Japan on January >, 1 !6. :BettmannC+,3B4S;
The defendants at the <nternational #ilitar" Tribunal for the @ar >ast <chiga"a ,ourt: Accused -a anese +ar criminals in the risonersH bo9 in #a"4-une &'(T6 @ront ro+ of defendants from left to right: General .en8i *oihara7 @ield #arshal Shunro2u Hata7 .o2i Hirota, former Prime #inister of -a an7 General -iro #inami7 General Hide2i To8o, former Prime #inister of -a an7 Ta2asumi F2a7 General Moshi8iro Lmezu7 General Sadao Ara2i7 General A2ira #uto7 Nao2i Hoshino7 F2inori .aga7 #arRuis .oichi .ido6 Bac2 ro+: ,olonel .ingiro Hashimoto7 General .unia2i .oiso7 Admiral Fsami Nagano7 General Hiroshi Fshima7 General <+ane #atsui7 Shumei F2a+a7 Baron .iichiro Hiranuma7 Shigenori Togo7 Mosu2e #atsuo2a7 #amoru Shigemitsu7 General .enr"o Sato7 Admiral Shigetaro Shimado7 Toshio Shiratori7 Teiichi Suzu2i6
5omoyuki Pamashita :+;, &ormer Japanese 0rmy +ommander in the Philippines, is administered the oath, (ith an interpreter :L;, as he takes the (itness stand in his o(n trial &or (ar crimes in Manila, Philippines on ?ecem-er >, 1 !>. Ma8or 3o-ert M. Kerr :3;, o& Portland, ,re/on, administers the oath. :W BettmannC+,3B4S;
-a an in #a" &'(T6 3Photo: Alfred >isenstaedtNTime Jife5 ed American L6S6 Arm" #ilitar" Police guards stand at attention as -a anese +ar criminal Hide2i To8o +ears a translation headset +hile testif"ing during his trial in To2"o.s shirt after he sla former remier Hide2i To8o 3@ront !o+ $J5 during their arraignment on +ar crimes in To2"o.An American #ilitar" Police officer leans for+ard to fasten a button on e94official Shumei F2a+a. -a an in *ecember &'(:6 3Photo: .arl #"dansNTime Jife5 .
1 3F and #orei/n Minister under Saito. Koki Hirota (as Prime Minister o& 4mperial Japan &rom March . President o& the 4nternational Military 5ri-unal &or the #ar )ast.kada and Konoe. :Photo% <ational 0rchi9es. Koki Hirota and Hideki 5o8o (ere e*ecuted at Su/amo Prison in 5okyo on ?ecem-er "3. listens to death sentence read -y Sir William We-. :not sho(n. Hideki 5o8o reads his 9erdict at the 5okyo 5rials.. 1 !6. at the 5okyo 5rials in 5okyo.:0ustralia. . .Koki Hirota（広田弘毅. 1 !6. 1 3G to #e-ruary ". Japan on <o9em-er 1".
i!e)i %o1o 6thir! $rom right7. Japan in &'(T6 3Photo: Alfred >isenstaedtNTime Jife5 .-a anese +ar criminals. inclu!ing General . eat their meal insi!e the 8ugamo Prison in %o)yo.
arl #"dansNTime Jife5 . -a an in *ecember &'(:6 Hide2i To8o +as e9ecuted at Sugamo Prison in To2"o on *ecember $3.A Time4Jife hotogra h of -a anese +ar criminal Hide2i To8o smo2ing +hat a ears to be a cigarette 3o iumO5 at his 8ail cell in To2"o. &'(:6 3Photo: .
3Photo: *a)id >6 SchermanNJife <mages5 .enri Petain: @ormer Premier of @rance >douard Herriot 3left5 oints an accusing finger at former @rench @ield #arshal Henri Petain. @rance in Se tember &'(G 6 #arshal Petain +as accused of treason. during his trial in a courtroom at Palais de -ustice in Paris. collaboratiang +ith the Nazi German regime. the hero of Ierdun during =orld =ar <. :'. and lotting against the @rench !e ublic before the +ar.%rial o$ .
Hermann =oerin/ is seated on the &ar le&t in the &ront ro( o& the de&endants@ dock. #ormer 3eichs-ank chie& H8almar Schacht is seated on the &ar ri/ht in the &ront ro( o& the de&endants@ dock.5he ?e&endants@ ?ock at the <urem-er/ 5rials circa 1 !>A1 !G. :Photo% <ational 0rchi9es. .
3udolph Hess.i Party leaders :Le&t to ri/ht. . =ermany in March 1 !G. Joachim Ion 3i--entrop and Hermann =oerin/ are seated in the de&endents@ -o* in <urem-er/. :Photo% 3alph MorseCLi&e 4ma/es.?is/raced <a.
. Joachim Ion 3i--entrop :sleepin/. Baldur 9on Schirach.i trials in <urem-er/..3B4S. 4n the -ack ro( are% Karl ?oenit. 5he de&endants at the <urem-er/ <a.5he de&endants at the <urem-er/ <a. Pictured in the &ront ro( are% Hermann =oerin/. :BettmannC+. Pictured in the &ront ro( are% Hermann =oerin/... and #rit. Wilhelm Keitel. Sauckel. Baldur 9on Schirach. 3udol& Hess :sleepin/. :BettmannC+. Wilhelm Keitel and )rnst Kalten-runner. =ermany on January 1.. )rich 3aeder. 3udol& Hess. 1 !G.i trials in <urem-er/. 4n the -ack ro( are% Karl ?oenit.. and #rit. Sauckel. =ermany. and )rnst Kalten-runner :missin/. Joachim Ion 3i--entrop.3B4S. )rich 3aeder.
A A+orld ma of <6G6 @arbenC is on dis la" in a courtroom in Nuremberg. German" during the <6G6 @arben +ar crimes trial in Se tember &'(%6 3Photo: Ton" Jinc2NTime Jife5 .
sits in the dock at the Palace o& Justice in <urem-er/. commuted #lick@s se9enAyear prison term in 1 >1. sei. :Photo -y KeystoneC=etty 4ma/es.i SS durin/ World War 44D #lick (as considered the richest man in =ermany at the time o& his death in 1 F". the $. =ermany durin/ a postA(ar trial in 1 !F. =erman <a. 1 !F. and -elon/in/ to Hitler's '+ircle o& #riends'.S. accused o& usin/ sla9e la-or in his &actories. .=erman <a.in/ pri9ate properties. :Photo -y KeystoneC=etty 4ma/es. #riedrich #lick &unded the <a. John Mc+loy.i industrialist #riedrich #lick is &lanked -y t(o 0merican army /uards in a courtroom in the Palace o& Justice in <urem-er/. =ermany on January 1>.i industrialist #riedrich #lick. Hi/h +ommissioner to =ermany.
5o8o. shot himsel& (hile 0merican o&&icers (aited to take him to Mac0rthur's headBuarters in 5okyo. Le&t photo% #ormer Prime Minister o& 4mperial Japan =en. slated &or possi-le arrest as a (ar criminal. <a. =ermany a&ter World War 44. Hideki 5o8o slumps unconscious in his chair a&ter he attempted to commit suicide in his su-ur-an home in 5okyo. Blood -u--les &rom the /apin/ pistol (ound in his a-domen. . :BettmannC+.3B4S.3B4S. 1 !> a&ter he -it into a 9ial o& poison he had concealed in his mouth. =ermany on May "G. :BettmannC+. 1 !>. Japan on Septem-er 11. John Mc+loy (ould /rant him clemency a&ter the trial.0l&ried Krupp stands on trial in <urem-er/.i SS chie& Heinrich Himmler lies on the &loor o& a 9illa in Luene-er/.
.3udol& Hess lau/hs (hile Hermann =oerin/ tells a 8oke inside the courtroom at <urem-er/.
Karl ?oenit. . and 0l-ert Speer talks to 0dmiral Karl ?oenit. :Photo% 3alph MorseC5ime Li&e.. Joachim Ion 3i--entrop and Hermann =oerin/ sit in the de&endants@ -o* in <urem-er/ in March 1 !G.Le&t to ri/ht% 3udolph Hess.
0ustria on Lin. 9isits the in&amous Mauthausen concentration camp near Lin. 1 !!.. and Joachim 9on 3i--entrop (hile sittin/ in the dockets durin/ the <urem-er/ 5rials. .0l-ert Speer :ri/ht. chats (ith )rnst Kalten-runner :center... 0ll three <a. July 1>.i =erman o&&icers (ere con9icted o& (ar crimes and han/ed to death. Wilhelm Keitel :le&t.
and Wilhelm Keitel.i =erman #orei/n Minister Joachim 9on 3i--entrop. :Photo% =erman #ederal 0rchi9es.i =erman military -rass sit on the docket durin/ the <urem-er/ tri-unal in 1 !G. &ormer <a. 3udol& Hess.5he <a. #ront ro(. &rom le&t to ri/ht% Hermann =oerin/. Heinrich Himmler inspects the ?achau concentration camp in May 1 3G. .
:4srael =o9ernment Press .&&ice :=P.i SS o&&icer (ho committed atrocities in concentration camps durin/ World War 44.<a.i (ar criminal 0dol& )ichmann listens as the 4sraeli 8ud/es announce his 9erdict in a Jerusalem court on ?ecem-er 1>. . Photo. )ichmann (as a <a. 1 G1.. 5he 8ud/es sentenced )ichmann to death.i (ar criminal 0dol& )ichmann is seen sittin/ in a courtroom in 4srael. <a.
:5ime Li&e.)rnst Kalten-runner lies dead a&ter his e*ecution -y han/in/ &or (ar crimes in .cto-er 1 !G.cto-er 1 !G. :5ime Li&e. . 0l&red 3osen-er/ lies dead a&ter his e*ecution -y han/in/ &or (ar crimes in .
. and =eneral o& the Fth SSA?i9ision. 'My &riends don@t (ant me to mention Kurt's name. -ut 4 lo9e him and Maria does too. at an airstrip in &ormer Pu/osla9ia. 4talian commander and +ol. second &rom le&t.i stu&& and the $.ene//er appears (ith his &riend and suspected <a. second &rom ri/ht..ene//er Le&t Photo% 0rnold Sch(ar.<a. Hans Her-ert Macholt.i (ar criminal Kurt Waldheim. =eneral 0rtur Phelps. 1 !3. a =erman o&&icer. le&t A )scola 3onca/li. -ecause o& all the recent <a. :0ssociated Press photo. Kurt. stands at a meetin/ on May "".1 A 0rnold Sch(ar. contro9ersy. Kurt Waldheim (as a &ormer $nited <ations SecretaryA=eneral.i =eneral Kurt Waldheim.<. and so thank you.
1 !!. 3i/ht photo% 3aoul Wallen-er/.detonated inside. Wallen-er/ (as captured -y the So9iet 3ed 0rmy and (as reportedly sent to a prison in Mosco(.Hermann =oerin/ and his henchmen in9esti/ate the con&erence room inside 'Wol&@s Lair1 on July "7.is &or attemptin/ to sa9e =ermany &rom total destruction. . Hun/ary in 1 !!. Le&t photo% +ount +laus Schenk 9on Stau&&en-er/ (as the =erman o&&icer (ho attempted to assassinated 0dol& Hitler on July "7. S(edish diplomat (ho rescued countless Je(s and others in Budapest. :=erman #ederal 0rchi9e. 1 !!D he (as sentenced to death -y the <a. 0dol& Hitler (as in8ured &rom the -om-in/. hours a&ter a -om. 5he cause o& Wallen-er/@s death remains a mystery.
4taly on 0pril " . 4taly on on 0pril " . 4taly@s deceased dictator Benito Mussolini and his mistress lie dead in Milan.ale Loreto in Milan. . 1 !>. 1 !>.Benito Mussolini and his mistress +lara Petacci (ere displayed upsideAdo(n at a /as station on Pia..
1 !3 0ans S holl Mem-er o& the 'White 3ose1 resistance mo9ement )*ecuted in Munich on #e-ruary "".erlin on #e+ruary 2" 1942 Johannes 5o4it3 #inance Minister o& Prussia :1 33A1 !!.Prominent 4ndi9iduals )liminated -y 0dol& Hitler E #riends Ernst Rohm <a. =ermany :1 37A1 3F.i PartyD Assassinated on July 2 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives Kurt von S hlei her +hancellor o& =ermany :1 3"A1 33.D Minister o& ?e&ense :1 3"A1 33.erlin on Novem+er 1!" 1944 /olf10einri h )raf von 0elldorf +hie& o& the Berlin Police :1 3>A1 !!. 1 !3 Rudolf 0ilferding #inance Minister o& =ermany :1 "3.D 4mplicated in the July "7 PlotD 0anged in .D Assassinated on June 3!" 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives #ield $arshal Er%in Rommel 4mplicated in the July "7 PlotD &ommitted 'sui ide( in )ermany on * to+er 14" 1944 &ount &laus S hen. 4mplicated in the July "7 PlotD E-e uted in )ermany on A4ril 9" 1942 &arl #riedri h )oerdeler Mayor o& Leip. 1>AyearAold Je(ish Holocaust 9ictim and author o& her personal diaryD ?ied at Ber/enA Belsen +oncentration +amp in March 1 !> So4hie S holl Mem-er o& the 'White 3ose1 resistance mo9ement )*ecuted in Munich on #e-ruary "".erlin on July 21" 1944 #riedri h /erner von der S hulen+urg =erman 0m-assador to So9iet $nion :1 3!A1 !1.erlin on August 12" 1944 Admiral /ilhelm #ran3 &anaris +hie& o& =erman Military 4ntelli/ence LAbwehrM :1 3>A1 !!.D 4mplicated in the July "7 PlotD 0anged in .D 4mplicated in the July "7 PlotD 0anged in . and Je(ish Mar*ist economistD $urdered +y the )esta4o in 5aris on #e+ruary 11" 1941 .i S0 stormtrooper and coA&ounder o& the <a.D participated in Beer Hall Putsch in Munich in <o9em-er 1 "3D Assassinated in $uni h on June 3!" 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives Anne #ran. 1 "6A 1 " . 1 !3 &hristo4h 5ro+st Mem-er o& the 'White 3ose1 resistance mo9ement )*ecuted in Munich on #e-ruary "". von Stauffen+erg ?esi/nated 0ssassin and Mastermind o& the July "7 PlotD E-e uted in .D 4mplicated in the July "7 PlotD 0anged in .erlin on #e+ruary 2" 1942 )ustav Ritter von Kahr MinisterAPresident o& Ba9aria :1 "7A1 "1.i/.
Enem/ Co!!a.entral <ntelligence Agenc" 3.ru a ears at the third Nuremberg Trials in Nuremberg.orators. & erpetrators of Wor!d War II Nazi German +ar criminal Alfried .War rofiteers.<A5 . later an ad)isor to the . German" in *ecember &'(%6 Nazi German arm" officer !einhard Gehlen.
i =ermany :1 33A1 !1. Ma* M. Joseph =oe--els Minister o& Pu-lic )nli/htenment and Propa/anda :1 33A 1 !>. War-ur/ ?irector o& 4.D Hitler@s personal architect Wilhelm #rick 3eichsminister o& the 4nterior :1 33A1 !3.i =ermany :1 33A1 !>. 3einhard Heydrich +hairman o& the Wannsee +on&erence in 1 !"D Protector o& Bohemia and Mora9ia :1 !1A1 !". )nemy +olla-orators.i =erman 0m-assador to =reat Britain :1 3GA1 36. =rand 0dmiral )rich 3aeder +ommanderAinA+hie& o& the =erman <a9y :1 "6A1 !3. and Perpetrators% #riedrich #lick steel -aron and <a. 3udol& Hess ?eputy #uhrer o& <a.i =erman &inancierD descri-ed as (ealthiest man in =ermany #rit. Martin Bormann 0dol& Hitler@s assistant Joachim 9on 3i--entrop #orei/n Minister o& <a. 0l-ert Speer Minister o& 0rmaments and War Production :1 !"A1 !>. War-ur/ E +o.D President o& =ermany :1 !>. +ommanderAinA+hie& o& the =erman <a9y :1 !3A 1 !>.=erman War Pro&iteers. =en.sta&&el :SS.i =ermany :1 36A1 !>. 1 33A1 3 .M. 0dol& Hitler +hancellor and #uhrer o& <a. LJe(ish -ank in Ham-ur/. #ield Marshal Wilhelm Keitel +hie& o& the Supreme +ommand o& the 0rmed #orces :1 36A1 !>. Heinrich Himmler 3eichs&Ohrer o& the Schut.=. =rand 0dmiral Karl ?oenit. #ar-enD head o& M.i =erman &inancier and -usinessmen H8almar Schacht President o& the 3eichs-ank :1 "3A1 37. =ermanyM 0l&ried Krupp head o& Krupp industries Hermann =oerin/ 3eichsminister o& 09iation :1 33A1 !>. 0l&red Jodl #ield Marshal Keitel@s chie& o& sta&& )rnst Kalten-runner SS Bri/ade&uhrer and head o& the =estapo . 5hyssen <a.D =auleiter o& Berlin :1 "GA1 !>. 1 " N " 0pril 1 !>. :G Jan.D <a.
#ar-en employee 0l&red 3osen-er/ Philosopher o& the <a. 9on Papen +hancellor o& =ermany :1 3".i =erman SS doctor (ho en/a/ed in scienti&ic e*periments on children in concentration camps #ran.D =erman 0m-assador to =reat Britain :1 37A1 3". Sauckel =auleiter o& 5hurin/ia :1 "FA1 !>.D =erman 0m-assador to 5urkey :1 3 A1 !!.i =erman Hi/h +ommissioner o& the <etherlands :1 !7A1 !>.D #orei/n Minister o& =ermany :1 3"A1 36. 3o-ert Ley Hitler@s spokesmanD &ormer 4. Konstanin 9on <eurath =auleiter o& Bohemia and Mora9ia :1 3 A1 !1. Leonard +onti <a.i SS +ommando Hans #rank <a.i =erman intelli/ence o&&icerD +ommander o& #orei/n 0rmies )ast durin/ World War 44 #ield Marshal )rhard Milch Lu&t(a&&e o&&icerD &ormer +hairman o& Lu&thansaD Na3i 5arty mem+er of Je%ish des ent )mil Maurice +oA#ounder o& the Schut. <ikolaus 'Klaus1 Bar-ie 'Butcher1 o& Lyon. 0rthur SeyssA4nBuart <a.tto Skor.ccupied )astern 5erritories Julius Streicher editor o& <a. #ran. ?r.i =erman propa/anda ne(spaper '?er Sturmer1 .?r. Stan/l Kommandant o& 5re-linka +oncentration +amp :1 !"A1 !3.i =erman State Health +ommissioner #rit.D head o& the HitlerAJu/end LHitler PouthM :1 31A1 !7.i =erman =o9ernorA =eneral o& Poland :1 3 A1 !>. Baldur 9on Schirach =auleiter o& Iienna :1 !7A1 !>.i Party and &ormer 3eichsminister &or the .D 3eichsminister o& )conomics :1 36A1 !>. #rance 0dol& )ichmann SS o&&icer (ho (as captured -y 4srael@s Mossad a/ents (hile li9in/ in e*ile in 0r/entina Ma8or =eneral 3einhard =ehlen <a. Walther #unk President o& the 3eichs-ank :1 3 A1 !>.sta&&el :SS.=.D Iice +hancellor o& =ermany :1 33A1 3!. ?r.i =erman SS o&&icer and Heinrich Himmler@s assistant Jose& Men/ele <a.D Na3i 5arty mem+er of Je%ish des ent .D =erman 0m-assador to 0ustria :1 3!A1 36. 0lois Brunner <a.eny <a.
D +ommander o& the +hosen LKoreanM 0rmy :1 !1A1 !>.Japanese War Pro&iteers. <aoki Hoshino Iice Minister o& #inancial 0&&airs o& Manchukuo :circa 1 36.D President o& South Manchuria 3ailroad :1 3>A1 3 .D B. Shi/etaro Shimada Minister o& the <a9y :.D Japanese 0m-assador to the So9iet $nion :1 36A1 !7. =en.D Minister o& the <a9y :1 3GA1 3F. =en. . 1 !1AJuly 1F.D +hie& o& Sta&& o& the +hina )*peditionary 0rmy :1 3 A1 !1.shima Japanese 0m-assador to <a. 1 !!. 0kira Muto +hie& o& Sta&& o& the Japanese #ourteenth 0rea 0rmy under =eneral 5omoyuki Pamashita in the Philippines =en.D Japanese =o9ernorA =eneral o& Korea :1 !"A 1 !!.sami <a/ano +hie& o& the 4mperial Japanese <a9y =eneral Sta&& :1 !1A1 !!.D +ommander o& Japanese >th 0rmy LManchuriaM:1 3 A1 !7. 5oyotaro Puki =o9ernor o& the Bank o& Japan :1 3FA1 !!. Posuke Matsuoka #orei/n Minister o& Japan :1 !7A1 !1. #ield Marshal Shunroku Hata Minister o& War :1 3 A 1 !7. Ken8i ?oihara +ommanderAinA+hie& o& the Japanese Se9enth 0rea 0rmy in Sin/apore :1 !!A1 !>.D =o9ernorA=eneral o& K(antun/ Leased 5erritory :1 3!A1 3G.0. 0pril 1 !>A 0u/ust 1 !>. 0dm.cto-er 16.D War Minister o& Japan :1 !7A 1 !!.D +hie& o& Sta&& o& the K(an/tun/ 0rmy :1 3F. Jiro Minami Japanese =o9ernorA =eneral o& Korea :1 3GA 1 !". 0dm. =en. Kuniaki Koiso Prime Minister o& 4mperial Japan :1 !!A1 !>.D director o& State . )nemy +olla-orators. Hiroshi . 1 3FA1 36.D +ommander o& Pokosuka <a9al Station :1 !1. =en.kinori Kaya #inance Minister o& Japan :1 !1A1 !!. Seishiro 4ta/aki Minister o& War :1 36A 1 3 .i =ermany :1 36A 1 3 . =en. Koichi Kido Lord Keeper o& the Pri9y Seal :1 !7A1 !>. Shi/enori 5o/o #orei/n Minister o& Japan :1 !1A1 !". Hideki 5o8o Prime Minister o& 4mperial Japan :1 !1A1 !!.pium Monopoly Bureau in Manchukuo =en. 1 7> . 1 !1A1 !>. $ni9ersity o& +am-rid/e :Pem-roke +olle/e. 4(ane Matsui +ommander o& the Shan/hai )*peditionary #orce durin/ the Battle o& Shan/hai in 1 3F =en. and Perpetrators% =en. Koyata 4(asaki President o& Mitsu-ishi :1 1GA1 !>. Sadao 0raki War Minister o& Japan :1 31A1 3!.D #orei/n Minister o& Japan :1 33A1 3G. . Koki Hirota Prime Minister o& 4mperial Japan :1 3GA1 3F.D +ommanderAinA +hie& o& the +hina )*peditionary 0rmy :1 !1.
S. Har9ard 1 7! President o& the $nited States :1 33A1 !>. Har9ard 166 +hairman o& the -oard o& J. Mor/an E +o. Henry 3. Pale 1 17 President o& the #ederal 3eser9e Bank o& <e( Pork :1 "6A1 !7. 5homas J. 0ldrich 0. Har9ard 1 7F +hairman o& +hase <ational Bank :1 3!A1 >3. .0. 3o-ert 0. Stanley E +o. Stimson B. Prescott S.0.P. Luce B. Pale 1 7G $.ine :1 "3A1 G!. Pale 1 1F Partner o& Bro(n Brothers Harriman E +o. )nemy +olla-orators.0. 5homas H.i =ermany :1 36. Mor/an. .0. Lamont 0. :1 !1A1 >>. <orman H. 4nc. W. ). Hu/h 3o-ert Wilson B.SS a/ent durin/ World War 44 Henry #ord +hairman o& #ord Motors +o. Pale 1 13 $. +hairman :1 ! A1 >G.0. Pale 1 1F Partner o& Bro(n Brothers Harriman E +o.P. =eor/e L.D . Harold Stanley B. :1 31A1 F". :1 13A1 !3.. Pale 16 Partner o& J. Har9ard 1 11 President o& the Bank &or 4nternational Settlements :1 !7A1 !G.B. and President :1 1!A 1 ! . 3oland Harriman B. Harrison B. and Perpetrators% J. 09erell Harriman B. Pale 1 76 Partner. ?ulles Secretary o& the +ouncil on #orei/n 3elations :1 33A1 !!.. 1 !"A1 !!. :1 !3A1 !6. Le&&in/(ell B.B. ?a9is +hairman o& 0merican 3ed +ross :1 36A1 !!. :1 "3A1 >7. Pale 1 16 0ssistant Secretary o& War &or 0ir :1 !1A1 !>. #ranklin ?. Henry L. Pale 1 "7 )ditorAinA+hie& o& Time ma/a.B.0merican War Pro&iteers. 0m-assador to the So9iet $nion :1 !3A1 !G. Har9ard 16 " +hairman o& the -oard o& J.P.0.(en ?.B. Winthrop W. Bush B.0. McKittrick 0. 5homas W.0. Lo9ett B. :1 31A1 F6. 1 !7A1 !>. Pale 1666 Secretary o& War :1 11A1 13. 3ussell +.B.P. Watson Sr.S. 3oose9elt 0.0. o& 4nternational Business Machines +orp. 0. 'Jack1 Mor/an Jr. Mor/an E +o. 0m-assador to <a. 0llen W. Mor/an E +o. Poun/ +hairman o& the -oard o& =eneral )lectric +o.0. 4nc. :1 ""A1 3 .
i colla-oratorD +hie& o& the #rench State LIichy #ranceM :1 !7A 1 !!.i colla-oratorD antiABritish 4ndian independence acti9ist . Mikhail 49ano9ich Kalinin +hairman o& the Presidium o& the Supreme So9iet o& the So9iet $nion :1 ""A1 !G. )nemy +olla-orators.i =erman o&&icerD $nited <ations SecretaryA =eneral :1 F"A1 61.cto-er 1 3G N "7 <o9em-er 1 F>. 1 >3.i colla-oratorD Minister President o& <or(ay :#e-ruary 1. Philippe Petain #rench <a. 1 !"A1 !!.4nternational War Pro&iteers. and Perpetrators% 0ndrei =romyko So9iet 0m-assador to the $nited States o& 0merica :1 !3A1 !G.i sympathi. 1 !"AMay .ation Stern =an/ :Lehi.<a. La9rentiy Pa9lo9ich Beria So9iet Minister o& 4nternal 0&&airs :1 36A1 !>. ?aniel #.i colla-oratorD Prime Minister o& #rance :1 31A1 3".D ?e&ense Minister o& <or(ay :1 31A1 33. 09raham Stern #ounder o& Vionist terrorist or/ani. Kurt Waldheim <a.er Ha8 0min alAHusseini =rand Mu&ti o& Jerusalem and 0ra.D desi/nated =auleiter o& South 0&rica in the e9ent o& =erman in9asion o& South 0&ricaD =od&ather o& South 0&rican 0partheid Iidkun Tuislin/ <or(e/ian <a. 0nte Pa9eliZ Po/la9nik L+hie&M o& the 4ndependent State o& +roatia :1 !1A1 !>. 1 !7. Iyachesla9 Moloto9 #orei/n Minister o& the So9iet $nion :1 3 A1 ! .i colla-orator Benito Mussolini Prime Minister o& 4taly :1 "3A1 !3. Jose& Stalin +ommissar o& the So9iet $nion :1 "!A1 >3.D Premier o& the So9iet $nion :1 37A1 !1. Pope Pius Y44 head o& Iatican +ity and the 3oman +atholic +hurch :1 3 A1 >6. 1 >3A1 >G. Malan Prime Minister o& South 0&rica :1 !6A1 >!.D in&ormally kno(n as '4l ?uce1 Pierre La9al #rench <a. =eneralissimo #rancisco #ranco +audillo o& :#ascist.D President o& 0ustria :1 6GA1 ".D a Je(ish <a. Su-has +handra Bose 4ndian <a.D People's +ommissar &or ?e&ence :1 !1A1 !F. 1 3>A1 3G. Spain :1 . 1 !>.
?ecem-er 11. 1 >". 1 !>. 0l-ert Iictor 0le*ander #irst Lord o& the 0dmiralty :May 11. 1 !7NJuly "F. 1 !7AJuly "G.D Minister o& ?e&ence o& =reat Britain :May 17. )d(ard #rederick Lindley Wood. Winston +hurchill Prime Minister o& =reat Britain :May 17. 1 !>.D Minister o& 0ircra&t Production :May 1 !7AMay 1 !1. 1 !7A1 !>. 1st )arl o& Hali&a* British 0m-assador to the $nited States :1 !7A1 !G. 1 31A1 3F. 1 3FNMay 17. Kin/ =eor/e I4 o& the $nited Kin/dom :rei/n. 1 !7A July "G.D Minister o& La-our and <ational Ser9ice :1 !7A1 !>. William Ma*(ell 2Ma*2 0itken.&&icials durin/ World War 44 Sir Kin/sley Wood +hancellor o& the )*cheBuer :May 1". 1 !7.D Born to 0merican mother Jeanette Jerome 0nthony )den #orei/n Secretary o& =reat Britain :1 3>A1 36. 1 " A1 31. 1 !>A1 !G. 1 !3. )rnest Be9in #orei/n Secretary o& =reat Britain :1 !>A1 >1. 1st Baron Bea9er-rook Lord Pri9y Seal :1 !3A1 !>. 1 !"A May "3. 1 !7N Septem-er "!. 1st Iiscount Simon Lord Hi/h +hancellor o& =reat Britain :May 17.D Lord President o& the +ouncil :.D +hancellor o& the )*cheBuer :1 "3A1 "!. John 0nderson. "!.D +hancellor o& the )*cheBuer :May "6. <orman =o9ernor o& the Bank o& )n/land :1 "7A1 !!.British =o9ernment . +lement 0ttlee ?eputy Prime Minister o& the $nited Kin/dom :#e-ruary 1 . 1 3GN #e-ruary G. 1 !>. 1 !>. 1 >1A1 >>.ct.cto-er !. . 1 !3. 6ed in offi e on Se4tem+er 21" 1943 Monta/u +. <e9ille +ham-erlain Prime Minister o& =reat Britain :May "6. 1 !7N Septem-er "1. 1 !7N May "3. 1 !>. 1 3FA May 17. John Simon. 1st Iiscount Wa9erley +hancellor o& the )*cheBuer :Sept. 1 !>. Her-ert Morrison Home Secretary :. 1 !7A May ">. 3. 1 !>.D Home Secretary :1 3 A1 !7. 1 !7.D 6ied Novem+er 9" 194! Sir Harold 0l&red MacMichael Hi/h +ommissioner o& LBritishM Palestine :1 36A1 !!. 1 !3AJuly "G.
i Han&staen/l. Put.S.sche.=. Mc+loy N Hi/h +ommissioner to . 0nton ?re*ler.lausC Barbie esca ed to Boli)ia at the end of =orld =ar << through the AratlinesC6 Fther Nazi +ar criminals +ho esca ed >uro e using the AratlinesC +ere Adolf >ichmann 3+ho esca ed to Argentina before he +as arrested b" <sraeli #ossad agents5.D /ranted clemency to 0l&ried Krupp and other <a. Alois Brunner 3Heinrich Himmler.ommander of Treblin2a concentration cam +ho esca ed to Brazil5.ccupied =ermany :1 ! A1 >". and Nazi SS doctor -osef #engele6 5ersons of S4e ial 7nterest8 +arl Bosch. Hans #rit.i1 Han&staen/l N 0dol& Hitler@s pianist and $. John Mc+loy +arl Bosch N ?irector o& 4. 3oose9elt@s ad9isor Hans #rit. @ranz Stangl 3.sche N ?irector o& the 3eich Ministry o& Propa/anda 0nton ?re*ler N 0dol& Hitler@s assistant and coA&ounder o& the <ational Socialist =erman Workers@ Party in Munich in 1 1 John J.i (ar criminals .Nazi +ar criminal Ni2olaus A. President #ranklin ?. #ar-en chemical company in =ermany )rnst 'Put.s assistant and SS officer5.
Hideki 5o8o N Prime Minister o& 4mperial Japan :.i =erman SS o&&icer and Heinrich Himmler@s assistant Jose& Men/ele N <a.i =ermany :"1 0pril 1 33 N 1" May 1 !1.i =ermany% #riedrich #lick N steel -aron and <a. =en. Hans #rank N <a.D President o& =ermany at #lens-ur/ :0prilAMay "3.=. 0l-ert Speer N Minister o& 0rmaments and War Production :#e-ruary 6.ed1 -y Hitler 4mperial Japan% =en.D <a. )rnst Kalten-runner N SS Bri/ade&uhrer and head o& the =estapoD President o& 4nterpol :37 January 1 !3 N 1" May 1 !>.D +ommanderAinA+hie& o& the +hina )*peditionary 0rmy :1 !1.D #orei/n Minister o& 4mperial Japan :1 33A1 3G. =en. Ken8i ?oihara N +ommanderAinAchie& o& the Japanese Se9enth 0rea 0rmy in Sin/apore :1 !!A1 !>.i =ermany :1 36A1 !>. 1 7> .i =erman =o9ernorA=eneral o& Poland :1 3 A1 !>.ed1 -y Hitler )mil Maurice N +oA#ounder o& the Schut.D 3eichsminister o& )conomics :1 36A1 !>. o& Pu-lic )nli/htenment and Propa/anda :13 Mar 1 33A37 0pr 1 !>. Posuke Matsuoka N #orei/n Minister o& 4mperial Japan :1 !7A1 !1. Hermann =oerin/ N 3eichsmarshal and head o& the <a. N +ommanderAinA+hie& o& the =erman <a9y :1 !3A1 !>. War-ur/ N ?irector o& 4. Walther #unk N President o& the 3eichs-ank :1 3 A1 !>.i Party and &ormer 3eichsminister &or the .ct. 1 "G N 1 May 1 !>.M. 5hyssen N <a.D =erman 0m-assador to =reat Britain :1 37A1 3". Koyata 4(asaki :16F A1 !>. Shi/etaro Shimada N Minister o& the <a9y :.sta&&el :SS. 1 !" =rand 0dmiral )rich 3aeder N +ommanderAinA+hie& o& the =erman <a9y :1 "6A 1 !3. 0l&red Jodl N #ield Marshal Keitel@s chie& o& sta&& 0dol& )ichmann N SS o&&icer (ho (as captured -y 4srael@s Mossad a/ents (hile li9in/ in e*ile in 0r/entina . #ar-enD head o& M.i Lu&t(a&&e Heinrich Himmler N Head o& the SS Joseph =oe--els N Min.D Protector o& Bohemia and Mora9ia :1 !3A1 !>. Hideki 5o8oD director o& State .i PartyD assassinated on July " 1 3! :<i/ht o& the Lon/ Kni9es.777.KW.D arrested in Bra. =en. 1 !>. Koki Hirota N Prime Minister o& 4mperial Japan :1 3GA1 3F.i =erman &inancier and -usinessmenD deposited [3. 0dm. 0dm. <aoki Hoshino N Iice Minister o& #inancial 0&&airs o& Manchukuo :circa 1 36.i =erman SS doctor (ho en/a/ed in scienti&ic e*periments on children in concentration camps )rnst 3ohm N <a. o&&icerD &ormer +hairman o& Lu&thansaD mem-er o& the <a. 9on Papen N +hancellor o& =ermany :1 3". 3einhard =ehlen N <a. 0rthur SeyssA4nBuart N <a.-erkommando der Wehrmacht :.eny N <a. 5oyotaro Puki N =o9ernor o& the Bank o& Japan :1 3FA1 !!.D +ommander o& Japanese >th 0rmy LManchuriaM:1 3 A1 !7.ccupied )astern 5erritories Julius Streicher N editor o& <a.D Hitler@s personal architect Wilhelm #rick N 3eichsminister o& the 4nterior :37 January 1 33 N "7 0u/ust 1 !3.pium Monopoly Bureau in Manchukuo . N President o& Mitsu-ishi :1 1GA1 !>.i =erman 0m-assador to =reat Britain :1 3GA1 36.D =auleiter o& Berlin : <o9. & erpetrators of Wor!d War II <a. Seishiro 4ta/aki N Minister o& War :1 36A1 3 .il in 1 GF and tried in West =ermany &or murder #ield Marshal )rhard Milch N <a. =en. =en. Hiroshi .D +ommander o& Pokosuka <a9al Station :1 !1.i =ermany :1 33A1 !>. Baldur 9on Schirach N =auleiter o& Iienna :1 !7A1 !>. 1 3FA1 36. Sauckel N =auleiter o& 5hurin/ia :1 "FA1 !>. ?r. LJe(ish -ankin/ &irm in Ham-ur/. 1 !>. Ma* M. 1 !1AJuly 1F.D Hitler@s personal secretary 3einhard Heydrich N +hairman o& the Wannsee +on&erence in 1 !"D Protector o& Bohemia and Mora9ia :1 !1A1 !".D o&&icer in Manchuria (ho (as in9ol9ed in the Mukden 4ncident in Septem-er 1 31 =en. Enem/ Co!!a.tto Skor.D +hie& o& Sta&& o& the +hina )*peditionary 0rmy :1 3 A1 !1. War-ur/ E +o. Konstanin 9on <eurath N =auleiter o& Bohemia and Mora9ia :1 3 A1 !1. Stan/l N Kommandant o& 5re-linka +oncentration +amp :1 !"A1 !3. 1 !!.=. Sadao 0raki N Minister o& War :1 31A1 3!. 1 33A1 3 . 16. 3udol& Hess N ?eputy #uhrer o& <a.i =erman State Health +ommissioner ?r.D #orei/n Minister o& =ermany :1 3"A1 36.i S0 stormtrooper and coA&ounder o& the <a.cto-er 16.orators.shima N Japanese 0m-assador to <a. 0l&red 3osen-er/ N Philosopher o& the <a.i =erman Hi/h +ommissioner o& the <etherlands :1 !7A1 !>. 4(ane Matsui N +ommander o& the Shan/hai )*peditionary #orce durin/ the Battle o& Shan/hai in 1 3F =en.i =ermany :1 36A1 3 . 1 !!.sami <a/ano N +hie& o& the 4mperial Japanese <a9y =eneral Sta&& :0pril 1 !1A#e-ruary 1 !!.D President o& South Manchuria 3ailroad :1 3>A1 3 .D Iice +hancellor o& =ermany :1 33A1 3!. Martin Bormann N 0dol& Hitler@s assistant Joachim 9on 3i--entrop N #orei/n Minister o& <a. #ar-en employee ?r. =ermanyM 0l&ried Krupp N head o& Krupp industries 0dol& Hitler N +hancellor and #uhrer o& <a.D mem-er o& Kokuhonsha :<ational #oundation Society.D Japanese =o9ernorA=eneral o& Korea :1 !"A1 !!. 1 !" N May "3. 1 !1AJuly "".kinori Kaya N #inance Minister o& Japan :1 !1A1 !!.0. =en. . #ield Marshal Wilhelm Keitel N +hie& o& the Supreme +ommand o& the 0rmed #orces L. Koichi Kido N Lord Keeper o& the Pri9y Seal :1 !7A1 !>.i =erman intelli/ence o&&icerD +ommander o& #orei/n 0rmies )ast durin/ World War 44 3o-ert Ley N Hitler@s spokesmanD &ormer 4. #ran.i =erman Lu&t(a&&e :0ir #orce. $ni9ersity o& +am-rid/e :Pem-roke +olle/e.D War Minister o& Japan :1 !7A1 !!.War rofiteers.i =erman &inancierD descri-ed as (ealthiest man in =ermany #rit. 0lois Brunner N <a.i =erman propa/anda ne(spaper '?er Sturmer1 #rit. 0kira Muto N +hie& o& Sta&& o& the Japanese #ourteenth 0rea 0rmy under =eneral 5omoyuki Pamashita in the Philippines =en.D =erman 0m-assador to 5urkey :1 3 A1 !!.D +hie& o& Sta&& o& the K(an/tun/ 0rmy :1 3F.D assassinated in Pra/ue on May "F.D Japanese Minister o& )ducation :1 3FA1 36.D head o& the HitlerAJu/end LHitler PouthM :1 31A1 !7.M :1 36A1 !>. 1 !1A1 !>. #ield Marshal Shunroku Hata N Minister o& War :1 3 A1 !7. #ran.777 into the $nion Bankin/ +orporation L-ank in <e( Pork +ityD author o& '4 Paid Hitler1 H8almar Schacht N President o& the 3eichs-ank :1 "3A1 37.i PartyD con9icted at <urem-er/ &or crimes a/ainst humanityD Je(ish o&&icer (ho (as '0ryani. 1 !" died in Pra/ue on June !.D =erman 0m-assador to 0ustria :1 3!A1 36. Kuniaki Koiso N Prime Minister o& 4mperial Japan :1 !!A1 !>.D B.i SS +ommando Ma8.D Je(ish o&&icer (ho (as '0ryani. =rand 0dmiral Karl ?oenit.D +hie& +a-inet Secretary under Prime Minister =en. Leonard +onti N <a.D Minister o& the <a9y :1 3GA1 3F.
=en.erland :1 "FA1 3F.i colla-orator Su-has +handra Bose N British 4ndia@s <a. :1 "3A1 >7.cto-er 1 3G N "7 <o9em-er 1 F>. 3oland Harriman N ?irector o& $nion Bankin/ +orporationD Partner o& Bro(n Brothers Harriman E +o. 4nc.SS o&&icer durin/ World War 44D ?irector o& the +ouncil on #orei/n 3elations :1 "FA1 G . 1 !!.D Partner o& J. Iidkun Tuislin/ N <or(e/ian <a. :1 !3A1 !6.i colla-oratorD Minister President o& <or(ay :#e-ruary 1. ). :1 "6A1 3>. Harrison N President o& the #ederal 3eser9e Bank o& <e( Pork :1 "6A1 !7. Watson N President o& 4nternational Business Machines +orp.D desi/nated =auleiter o& South 0&rica in the e9ent o& =erman in9asion o& South 0&ricaD =od&ather o& South 0&rican 0partheid and <a. Pierre La9al N #rench <a. 1 >3A1 >G. John Mc+loy N Hi/h +ommissioner to . 3o-ert 0.D $. 1 !"AMay .% Monta/u +.D Japanese 0m-assador to So9iet $nion :1 36A1 !7. Mor/an E +o. :1 31A1 F". 'Jack1 Mor/an Jr.i =ermany :1 36. <e9ille +ham-erlain N Prime Minister o& =reat Britain :May "6. :1 31A1 !7. Philippe Petain N #rench <a. :1 ""A1 !7. Jose& Stalin N ?ictator o& the So9iet $nion :1 "!A1 >3. 5homas H. Lamont N +hairman o& J. ?ulles N . 1 36A0u/ust 37. :1 1!A1 ! . Mor/an E +o. Luce N )ditorAinA+hie& o& 5ime.ation Ha8 0min alAHusseini N =rand Mu&ti o& Jerusalem Iyachesla9 Moloto9 N Premier o& the So9iet $nion :1 37A1 !1. Bush N ?irector o& $nion Bankin/ +orporationD Partner o& Bro(n Brothers Harriman E +o. #orei/n :4nternational. 09raham Stern N &ounder o& the Stern =an/.(en ?. 4nc. Minister to S(it. 0ldrich N +hairman o& +hase <ational Bank :1 3!A1 >3. Henry 3.. 1 !>. =eor/e L.D #orei/n Minister o& the So9iet $nion :1 3 A1 ! .S.P. =eneralissimo #rancisco #ranco N +audillo o& :#ascist. 1 !7. . Harold Stanley N President o& Mor/an.S.P. Le&&in/(ell N Partner o& J. Sir Harold 0l&red MacMichael A Hi/h +ommissioner o& LBritishM Palestine :March 3. 1 !7. Secretary o& ?e&ense :1 >1A1 >3. 1 !GA1 !F. Mor/an E +o. :4BM. 3ussell +. :1 13A1 !3. <orman N =o9ernor o& the Bank o& )n/land :1 "7A1 !!. Henry L. .P. Hu/h 3. :1 11A1 !6. <orman H.D +hancellor o& the )*cheBuer :1 31A1 3F.D 9isited 4mperial Japan and met (ith )mperor Hirohito in .D Partner o& J. Jiro Minami N Japanese =o9ernorA=eneral o& Korea :1 3GA1 !". Winthrop W.D =o9ernorA=eneral o& K(antun/ Leased 5erritory :1 3!A1 3G. :1 "3A1 G!. Mor/an E +o. :1 3>A1 !1. 0m-assador to <a. N +hairman o& the -oard o& J. 1 3>A1 3G.D author o& the Poun/ Plan 5homas W.D $. Shi/enori 5o/o N #orei/n Minister o& 4mperial Japan :1 !1A1 !".i colla-oratorD +hie& o& the #rench State LIichy #ranceM :11 July 1 !7 N 1 0u/ust 1 !!.P. Lo9ett N 0ssistant Secretary o& War &or 0ir :1 !1A1 !>.D ?irector o& +entral 4ntelli/ence 0/ency :1 >3A1 G1. Stimson N Secretary o& War :1 !7A1 !>. ?aniel #. Henry #ord N +hairman o& #ord Motors +o. Prescott S.i =erman o&&icer &rom 0ustriaD $nited <ations SecretaryA=eneral :1 F"A1 61. a Vionist terrorist or/ani.i colla-oratorD Prime Minister o& #rance :1 31A1 3". 1 !"A1 !!. Wilson N $. 0m-assador to the So9iet $nion :1 !3A1 !G.S. 1 ! A 1 >7. 1 3FAMay 17.D Partner o& Bro(n Brothers Harriman E +o.D ?e&ense Minister o& <or(ay :1 31A1 33.P. Mor/an E +o. 1 !>.ccupied =ermanyD /ranted clemency to 0l&ried Krupp and other <a. 0merican% 5homas J. 09erell Harriman N $. 1 >3A1 6G.P. McKittrick N President o& the Bank &or 4nternational Settlements :1 !7A1 !G. Poun/ N +hairman o& the -oard o& =eneral )lectric +o.D Partner o& Bro(n Brothers Harriman E +o. Kurt Waldheim N <a. 0llen W. Pope Pius Y44 N head o& Iatican +ity and the 3oman +atholic +hurch :1 3 A1 >6. 0pril 1 !>A0u/. ?a9is N President o& the +ouncil on #orei/n 3elations :1 3GA1 !!.i colla-orator 0nte Pa9eliZ N Po/la9nik L+hie&M o& the 4ndependent State o& +roatia :1 !1A1 !>.cto-er 1 "F W.D Minister o& War :0pril 1 31A?ecem-er 1 31. #ranklin ?elano 3oose9elt N President o& the $nited States :1 33A1 !>. Benito Mussolini N ?ictator and 4l ?uce o& #ascist 4taly :1 "3A1 !3.D Secretary o& State :1 " A1 33. Malan N Prime Minister o& South 0&rica :1 !6A1 >!.i (ar criminals J. Spain :1 . Stanley E +o.S.
??? T'.???.&&'.$?? (?.??? $.??? &.%'G.:T3.asualties 3&'3'4&'(G5 Total o ulation &N&N&'3' &.??? G&.G??.$:'.??? 'G.??? (G.??? $.??? 3.3$?.??? $?? 3'.??? $$.T?? &.(?? 3.??? 3.??? 3.??? '??.??? 3%:.???.T?? &$.??? '.??? to $.hina .&?? 3??.??? :.??? $(.%??.??? T'.???.??? to 3G.???.&?? G:?.&$'.3:%.TG3.??? T.???.??? to 3.3??.$3G.??? 3.???.G?? &?? 3?? *eaths as a of &'3' o ulation $6:& ?6G% see table belo+ &6?$ ?6?$ ?63: &6T' ?6(? &6'3 to 36:T ?6?? $6$G ?6?: (63 to G6%T (6G? ?6T $6T$ &63G (6?% to T6& see table belo+ (6$' to &&6&G T63G ?6&% ?6(3 to ?6TT ?6?? ?6?& ?6?? &6?3 36T% to (63% &6T to $6?T &&63: &36%& ?6T: $6$: ?6GT ?6?? ?6?( .??? &.??? &?? 3(G.??? &.??? to &.??? T.??? (G.&%?.??? $G.&$?.??? :?.???.??? :3.??? 3G3.??? to (.??? to (:3.??? &(%.??? (?.??? to &.???.&?? &.??? &&'.(?? $.??? to :.??? $G?.???.G'3.??? 3.T$?.??? %.&$?.G??.??? '%.??? $'G.??? G&%.??? $.??? &.&3(.&?? G??.G33.3?? &??.??? ((.G:%.??? to (:3.??? $$?.3'&.??? $%$.&?? #ilitar" deaths .??? 3?'.??? :&'.??? (&.3(?.??? &G.i)ilian deaths -e+ish Holocaust due to deaths 3see notes5 +ar and re ression 3?.???.3:?.??? $T%.??? &%.??? &.??? $3.$$$.??? (.(??.G?? to :?G.??? $.$T%.T??.'':.??? %.G?? :?.??? $.G??.T?? &.??? to %??.??? &'.??? &?? (3.??? $?? G?? 3?&.$?? 3.??? 'G.??? &??.anada !e ublic of .(?? &?.??? (.??? GT%.??? &(.??? to (.'T?.??? &?? &.%??.??? $G.3'(.%?? ('.G?? G.G:%.??? T'.(?? Total deaths 3?.??? &.??? :%.???.zechoslo)a2i *enmar2 *utch >ast <ndies >stonia 3+ithin &'3' borders5 >thio ia @inland @rance @rench <ndochina Nazi German" Greece Hungar" <celand <ndia 3Britain5 <ran <raR <reland @ascist <tal" <m erial -a an .??? to &.&?? $.??? &T.%?? :T.??? &(&.??? &&.(G:.??? $(.??? $&$.??? $$%.G%G.??? to 3.G?? &?? 3?? &?.''G.G?? $??.(3G.??? 3%:.??? $.GT:.??? 3%:.??? $?? &.??? &??.T':.%??.??? to $.??? &T?.??? T.G?? &$3.=orld =ar << .??? TG.???.?%3.orea 3-a an5 Jat)ia 3+ithin &'3' borders5 Jithuania 3+ithin &'3' borders5 Ju9embourg #ala"a 3Britain5 #alta 3Britain5 #e9ico #ongolia $%%.??? $?.3&?.???.??? 3.??? &.??? G.??? to $?.??? $&%.??? $?? G?? $?? (G%.??? to &T.??? $?? &.??? to (.??? %?? .???.??? %&.uba .:?? %?? G:.??? $?? &(G.??? $$.??? G?.??? $T'.ountr" Albania Australia Austria Belgium Brazil Bulgaria Burma 3Britain5 .G??.??? T.
??? :33.%?? (&:.??? ? to3??.?G%.??? &.??? (.$??.???.(?? &%.??? 3.??? $$.??? T.G%T.??? &'.??? G?? &:?.??? (?.??? (.??? $G.'??.%T?.??? 3(.??? G??.??? T%.$'$.'G$.??? to &.T$?.??? G?.$&?.(?? :.%$'.??? %$:.??? to %?.G?? &.'?? '.??? included +ith L6.??? &&.%??.100 .??? GG%.3:?.6 &&.??? &T.%?? G&(.??? &?.??? 9.'3(.?$:.??? &&.T$'.??? &T:.'G(.G?? &$.1:0 G.Nauru Netherlands Ne+foundland Ne+ `ealand Nor+a" Pa ua and Ne+ Guinea 3Britain5 Phili ines 3L6S6A65 3.??? &G.&TT.??? to %?.??? &?? &(6% 36(G ?6?3 ?6%3 ?63$ &6&% 36(: to T6T &T6& to &T6% :6?? to &(6?? (6$$ ?6??to %6&a T6:% ?6&$ 36?? &(6$& ?6?$ ?6?& ?6?? ?6?( ?6'( ?63$ T6T% 36&% to (6 %?? &&.'?? G%.:?? &G.??? $3.??? (?.G??.&G(.??? $.9<.??? 3??.'?? G%.??? (.??? &.??? &G.'T%.??? to G.%?? to $G.$G(..'?? 3.(??.??? 3??.??? $.G?? &G.??? &.??? &?(.??? G.:$?.??? &3&.G?? to ('.??? &?? G.:?? T%.??? G?.&T?.??? T?? &?? $.%?? (G?.??? ? to 3??.??? to &(.???.293.??? :.ingdom Lnited States Mugosla)ia Totals G??.??? (.&?? &..??? (%.?$3.?$%.???.$?? &.:??.T?? 3:3.3(&.??? $(?.??? G%.??? to &?.G:?.G?? T?? &?? %.:?? ((T.??? to &.'(G.??? G?? 3?&.:9.??? to $.??? Poland 3+ithin &'3' borders5 Portuguese Timor !omania 3+ithin &'3' borders5 !uanda4Lrundi Singa ore 3Britain5 South Africa South Pacific #andate 3-a an5 So)iet Lnion @ascist S ain S+eden S+itzerland Thailand Lnited .??? &.??? 3$.<:0 to :9.T?? (&T.T3%.??? <2.??? (T'.???.??? T(.?'G.:('.('&.
inform this essay 8ust as they did my book.''' were non-combatant ci)i ians. its cities in ruins.. . 6hanks to the work of many #ro!ressi)e historians the ethica dimensions of mi itary history are bein! o#ened u# and eA# ored as ne)er before. before the shy. 6he fo owin! discussion reca#itu ates some of the ar!uments that 2 #resented ear ier when ana yzin! HirohitoKs eadershi# at the #o icy e)e .''' in the =acific #a e in com#arison.0 mi ion >a#anese died in the (sia-=acific War.on! enthronement ceremonies that miAed Western-sty e mi itary re)iews with nati)istic re i!ious rites whi e e e)atin! Hirohito to the status of a i)in! deity. the #erson destined to in)i!orate the im#eria house. Ora history.O 6he same Furember! and 6okyo #rinci# es of indi)idua and state res#onsibi ity for war crimes. massi)e numbers of combatants and non-combatant ci)i ians died.'''. with some estimates of actua deaths runnin! twice as hi!h. there wou d be no #eacefu times in the two decades that fo owed. the unearthin! in >a#an of new information on the (sia-=acific war has #roceeded a#ace. then !oes beyond them to address #rob ems of historica memory. >a#an itse f ay #rostrate. (iro)ito*s ent)ronement portrait HirohitoKs enthronement he #ed to mo)e >a#an in a more nationa istic direction. .&. Officia >a#anese !o)ernment underestimates say that . N. N%O 6he indi)idua who o)ersaw these wars and in whose name they were fou!ht.%. Historica war narrati)es usin! new documentary e)idence and drawin! on the insi!hts of )arious disci# ines continue to a##ear. 6wo decades ear ier. and es#ecia y for the #eo# e of (sia and the =acific.''' ci)i ians for the duration of the war..0 and $ecember .'s and ear y 0?5's inf icted on the #eo# es of (sia and the =acific tremendous human and materia osses. its #eo# e demora ized.''' to more than 05'. womenKs history. Of that number about B''.. N0O /ut in no fundamenta way ha)e these scho ar y efforts a tered the #icture of Hirohito as the acti)ist. studies of war #risoners and internationa aw.'. taciturn Hirohito succeeded his ai in! father. the 6aisho em#eror. #o itica y em#owered em#eror who # ayed a centra ro e in >a#anKs undec ared wars. 6wo years ater the Showa em#eror and his entoura!e stren!thened the monarchyKs inks to state Shinto throu!h year. inc udin! o)er a mi ion 7i i#inos.ntro'uction >a#anKs wars of the 0?. was forty-one-years-o d when >a#an unconditiona y surrendered its armed forces. (iro)ito! /apan*s 0ast 1mpo2ere' 1mperor 2n the years between Fo)ember 0?. u#on ascendin! the throne.M ha)e widened the #ers#ecti)es of >a#anese historians. he had taken the aus#icious rei!n-tit e LShowaM (Li ustrious #eaceM). dynamic. 6ens of thousands of war #risoners fe into >a#anese hands.O (t its end. 2t was based on the theocratic myth of an im#eria house whose destiny was defined by the em#erorPa human in form but actua y a deity ru in! the country in an . he had been dis# ayed to the >a#anese nation as the dynamic re#resentati)e of Lyoun! >a#an.1.M >a#anese forces detained 0. e)en theories of #ostwar Lreconci iation.M the embodiment of >a#anese mora ity. /ut for the em#eror and his sub8ects. 0?. Hirohito. N.War %esponsi&ility an' (istorical Memory! (iro)ito*s Apparition (er&ert +. N5O (merican combat deaths of about 0. *any of them died in ca#ti)ity and many others from 4S Lfriend y fire. O)er ten mi ion "hinese died from the effects of the war that be!an in 0?.iSince the a##earance of Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan in . Within countries occu#ied after 0?50 by >a#anese forces and ater fou!ht o)er by the ( ies. most of them )ictims of (merican fire bombin! and atomic bombin! in the warKs fina months. howe)er.
Dm#eror *ei8i. and nationa !reatness were #rimary. not his i)in! Lsub8ects. he had been trained to make rationa 8ud!ments as both head of state and su#reme commander. his Lsub8ectsM were #resumed and reEuired to be abso ute y oya in Lassistin!M him from be ow. Da!er to assert the #rero!ati)es of im#eria #ower that his own father had been unab e to eAercise. he was firm y committed to #rotectin! >a#anKs estab ished ri!hts and interests abroad e)en in the face of the risin! wor d tide of anti-co onia nationa ism.' o)er the ob8ections of the na)yKs minority faction. Hirohito te s us that o)er time he im#ro)ed his modus o#erandi. He had been carefu y !roomed to eAercise im#eria o)ersi!ht throu!h bui din! and maintainin! consensus so as to achie)e unity in #o icy-makin!. was that 6anaka wanted to #unish two youn! officers who in >une 0?. and inte i!entQ he was a so #hysica y s i!ht and Euite inarticu ate. (fter the eru#tion of the *anchurian 2ncident in Se#tember 0?. nationa defense. cou d dis# ay eadershi# by usin! the techniEue of the substanti)e Euestion that carried the force of a command. ener!etic. who be ie)ed that >a#an had to be ab e to brandish na)a #ower on a #ar with the (n! o-(mericans if it was to achie)e its nationa !oa s. 6he youn! Hirohito was neither be icose nor inte ectua y sha ow. em#ire. 2n other words. he wou d eAtend >a#anKs contro o)er "hina when !i)en the chance. N?O Hirohito #ersisted in inf uencin! from behind the scenes the #o icies and conduct of the two #rime ministers that fo owed. Since chi dhood he had been tau!ht that his ancestors. rather than hush u# their crime as 6anakaKs cabinet ministers wanted. and not mere y ser)e as a #assi)e monarch sanctionin! #o icies #resented to him by the cabinet. institutiona y inde#endent # ayer in an era of #arty cabinets. 7or Hirohito. and mora ity as means to mobi ize his nation for war. . He was a so uniEue in his )iew of >a#anKs co onia and semico onia ri!hts as his !enea o!ica inheritance from his dead ancestors.' his determination to achie)e arms contro in concert with the 4S and /ritain ed him and his c ose ad)isers to !i)e inadeEuate attention to consensus-bui din! amon! the e ites. methodica . 6hey forced throu!h >a#anKs acce#tance of the London Fa)a 6reaty of 0?. desi!ned to #rotect him. the unifier. 6he *ei8i constitution !a)e him !reat #ower and authority which cou d not be restricted by the #o itica #arties in the $iet. 6he back ash from the minority factions in both ser)ices. Hirohito and his "ourt +rou# undermined the tenuous system of #arty cabinet !o)ernment that had be!un to de)e o# around the time of *ei8iKs death.0. 2n news#a#ers and on the radio the messa!e echoed throu!hout the and that >a#an had broken with its immediate #astQ it now had a monarch cast in the mo d of his i ustrious !randfather. in the face of the ! oba +reat $e#ression. Hirohito differed from other contem#orary ru ers in the ty#e of *achia)e ianism that he #racticed in order to maintain the monarchy and eAtend the reach of the >a#anese state. b undered bad y. )irtue. out of #ub ic )iew. and from #o iticians in the $iet who a!reed with them. (bo)e a . so that he cou d eAercise #ositi)e eadershi# at wi . N1O HirohitoKs denia of res#onsibi ity for errors of #o icy and 8ud!ment #er)aded the entire structure of >a#anese co ecti)e decision-makin!. He and the e ites who #rotected him treated internationa aw as a fetter on their freedom of action and they were not a)erse to usin! schemin! and trickery for #ur#oses of nationa defense. /y makin! the "ourt a new. Hirohito was ab e to effecti)e y de# oy the rhetoric of ethics.B had assassinated the "hinese war ord "han! 6so. 2t #ositioned him at the intersection of #o itics and mi itary affairsPa owin! him on occasion to mo)e the entire !o)ernment. howe)er. NBO Ret from the start occasions arose when #assion and ideo o!y intrudedQ on these occasions Hirohito. N0'O *eanwhi e. He was serious.M were the source of his authority and the ob8ect of his res#onsibi ityPthe so e entities to whom he was mora y accountab e. /ut he was a so hi!h y sensiti)e to the interna ba ance of #o itica forces and e)en more tota y dedicated to #reser)in! the monarchy. Fo matter what #ro8ect the em#eror undertook. >a#anKs domestic #o itica situation became increasin! y unstab e. with the stron! encoura!ement of his entoura!e. N&O Hirohito a one. ike most Western heads of state. who (in the words of HirohitoKs first im#eria rescri#t) had Lenhanced the !randeur of our em#ireM and ne)er a owed himse f to be treated as a #u##et. +i)en his stron! y o##ortunistic nature. Hirohito. soon fired his first #rime minister. Like successfu Western im#eria ists. 2n 0?. Hirohito was s ow y formin! his own #o itica s#ace within a com# eA system of institutions and #rocesses.uninterru#ted ine of succession.in (>a#anKs chief co aborator in "hinaKs *anchuria). 6heir main !rie)ance a!ainst #rime minister +enera 6anaka +iichi. came swift y. becomin! more ade#t at #racticin! se f-restraint and a)oidin! actions and comments that cou d incur criticism. as a traditiona im#eria ist and nationa ist.
. >a#an was a si!natory to the 9e o!!/riand =act (0?.. So rather than abandon this hu!e territoria !ain in the face of )ehement 4S and "hinese criticism.). but a so a!ricu tura and and its #roduce. which cou d undermine the monarchy. 6he cabinet that the eAtremists tar!eted for o)erthrow counter-attacked by aunchin! its own cam#ai!n to re#udiate the or!an theory and em#hasize the em#erorKs LdirectM #ersona ru e.. by which they meant main y acce erated rearmament. he not on y fai ed to #unish the wron!doers. N0. dissatisfied with their res#ecti)e bud!etary a ocations. S. he worried e)en more about domestic disorder. Hirohito ent his authority to both mo)es. >a#an forma y reco!nized the #u##et state of L*anchukuo. O)er the neAt four years Hirohito !ro#ed for ways to restore disci# ine amon! a ienated mi itary officers im#atient for domestic #o itica reform. which sti#u ated res#ect for "hinaKs so)erei!nty and territoria inte!rity. wanted a com# ete break with the Washin!ton treaty system and an end to the courtKs #ro-(n! o-(merican ine in di# omacy. 8oined in the co)er-u# of the facts. 6he army and na)y. which had been the core conce#t of the *ei8i 3estoration. #art y to #re)ent his #ower from bein! dwarfed by !rou#s actin! from be ow. ho#ed to be ab e to coo#erate with /ritain and the 4. 2nstead of demandin! the #unishment of insubordinate officers who had sta!ed that incident.B). were not yet under his actua contro . and simu taneous y seek to iso ate "hina di# omatica y. fo owin! the assassination of a #rime minister by youn! na)a officers. Hirohito and the "ourt +rou# abandoned their su##ort for constitutiona !o)ernment conducted by #arty cabinets. Hirohito a owed the mi itary in !enera and army fie d commanders in #articu ar to effecti)e y take o)er >a#anKs "hina #o icy and turn it o#en y a!!ressi)e. Hirohito. continued to effect thinkin! about >a#anKs domestic situation. 2n these ways. N00O 2n s#rin! 0?. thereby Euickenin! the mi itaristic drift in >a#anese #o itics. techno o!y. /ut once he had earned the true facts./apanese forces on t)e marc) in Manc)uria in 19#1 Hirohito and the men surroundin! him then made a series of decisions with disastrous conseEuences for both "hina and >a#an. ( thou!h concerned about the armyKs o)erreach on the continent. 6hen in 0?. On y by im#utation may Hirohito (who was fo owin! his inner circ e) be deemed crimina y iab e for these actions committed by senior and intermediate e)e officers in both 6okyo and *anchuria who. Hirohito acce#ted the armyKs fait accom# i. Letha conf icts in)o )in! mi itary officers had shaken the country and Hirohito was uncertain how to #roceed in the face of mu ti# e #ressures.. Hirohito was # eased that his army had eA#anded the em#ire and #artia y redressed >a#anKs strate!ic weakness in natura resources such as coa and iron. and markets. When in the fa of 0?. he sanctioned >a#anKs withdrawa from the Lea!ue of Fations in *arch 0?.O .% army and ci)i ian eAtremists tried to o)ercome a constitutiona restraints #re)entin! the em#eror from ru in! Ldirect yM without re yin! on his ad)isers. but acti)e y 8oined in aidin! and abettin! the armyKs seizure of *anchuria. and the Fine-=ower 6reaty (0?. keen y aware of >a#anKs economic de#endence on the West for resources..M it )io ated both treaties. and #art y to #rotect his c osest ad)isers whom the radica s had sin! ed out for attack. thou!h under his command. which ob i!ated it to refrain from usin! force a!ainst other states. "abinets of nationa unity headed by admira s mo)ed to the fore. 6heir nationwide cam#ai!n attacked aw #rofessor *inobe 6atsukichiKs or!an theory of the constitution that had been used to e!itimize #arty !o)ernment and od!e the monarchy more firm y within the constitutiona order. 3adica ri!htist #o iticians in the $iet ca ed for the disso ution of #o itica #arties. 6he rhetoric of Lnationa emer!encyM and endan!ered L ife ine. and issued an im#eria rescri#t announcin! the mo)e.M !enerated durin! the *anchurian crisis.. and fai ed to back the efforts of the incumbent #arty cabinet to brin! the 9wantun! (rmy to hee .
When thousands of troo#s had been dis#atched. who sti ima!ined himse f to be a traditiona Lbene)o ent monarch.. did Hirohito sanction a ar!e eA#ansion of the mi itary bud!et. >a#anese troo#s and na)a and army air units be!an con)er!in! on "hinaKs symbo ica y im#ortant ca#ita of Fankin!. >a#anese and "hinese Fationa ist troo#s c ashed brief y at the *arco =o o /rid!e south of =ekin!. students. 2n >u y 0?. Short y afterwards. a threefo d increase in the size of the armyKs sma !arrison force in north "hina. "hinese troo#s. he sanctioned a broad >a#anese offensi)e in the =ekin!-6ientsin area. "hian! sudden y s#read the fi!htin! in north "hina to Shan!hai.O 6hereafter the army and na)y # ayed the !uidin! ro e in sha#in! domestic #o icyQ and Hirohito.&.1. a mi itary insurrection in 6okyo took the ife of HirohitoKs c osest #o itica ad)iser and many others. . 3o7yo after t)e insurrection On y after inter)enin! forcefu y to su##ress the u#risin! and #unish the rebe officers. and nationa #o icies that LreEuired >a#an Sto become the stabi izin! force in Dast (sia. in the ower Ran!tze 3i)er re!ion.2n ate 7ebruary 0?. 6hereafter he was in a better #osition to assess inte i!ence. and workers ki ed the remnants of the >a#anese !arrison force in the city of 6un!chow. Hirohito ur!ed ma8or troo# reinforcements and the strate!ic bombin! of "hinaKs cities. inc udin! many women and chi dren. east of =ekin!. su##orted the territoria eA#ansionists.?-. undec ared war. on >u y . N05O 6hen.M N0&O 2n ate Fo)ember 0?. and a so massacred . !i)in! the )en!efu >a#anese mi itary an eAcuse to massacre "hinese war #risoners and ci)i ians en masse. Fationa ist so diers fai ed to com# ete y e)acuate the city and many donned ci)i ian c othes. on (u!ust 0.M threw off his ear ier indecisi)eness and s ow y be!an to assert LdirectM im#eria ru e in his ca#acity as uniformed commander-in-chief. and #erform as an acti)e su#reme commander !uidin! from behind c osed doors the actua conduct of the war. He a so Lendorsed the NarmyKsO decision to remo)e the constraints of internationa aw on the treatment of "hinese #risoners of war.'. ha)in! seized Shan!hai after a bitter stru!! e. When Fankin! fe .M N0.. Hirohito. Hirohito sanctioned the estab ishment of an 2m#eria HeadEuarters and the reor!anization of the command structure so as to brin! his constitutiona command res#onsibi ities and his rea contro into harmony. 6he different army factions on the +enera Staff di)ided as to how to hand e the fi!htin!. 6he conf ict de)e o#ed into an a -out. where the interests of the forei!n #owers were most hea)i y concentrated.. from the outset. >a#anese and 9orean ci)i ians. authorize and initiate fie d o#erations. 3roops occupy 4a5ata6c)o. N0%O Wantin! to end it Euick y.1. One faction wanted to sett e this minor #ro)ocation oca y in order to concentrate resources on bui din! >a#anKs economic and mi itary mi!htQ the other wanted to use the incident to reso )e at a stroke a the outstandin! issues with "hian! 9ai-shekKs Fationa ist !o)ernment.
/y >anuary 0?50. >a#an attacked the mi itary forces and out#osts of /ritain and the 4nited States. N01O 2n 0?. the 2m#eria HeadEuarters-+o)ernment Liaison "onference. 6hree months ater he ratified a treaty of friendshi# and #eace with the inde#endent. far more destructi)e and on!er astin!.M that one >a#anese scho ar estimates to ha)e ki ed o)er two and a ha f mi ion "hinese noncombatants. each of which was an im#eria ist state ho din! (sian #eo# es in co onia sub8u!ation. which were the authorized ser)ants of the em#erorstate durin! the undec ared >a#an-"hina War. whene)er confronted with the o#tion of #eace. =rime *inister 9onoe 7umimaro. Hirohito fussed o)er different drafts of his fina memorandum to the 4S !o)ernment in order to insure that not a sin! e sentence in it hinted at a decision to dec are war. /y issuin! his war rescri#t without !i)in! #rior notification to the 4S or any other tar!eted country. (s the L"hina 2ncidentM dra!!ed on. shares indirect. mi ion troo#s in "hina by the end of that year. . bore the stron!est share of #o itica . co onia master of the Fether ands Dast 2ndies.50) that ed to the Forth "hina (rea (rmyKs mu ti# e. 6he 4S res#onded by a## yin! economic sanctions. (nd when # ans ca ed for >a#anese armed forces to aunch attacks from shi#s in the South "hina Sea on Sin!ora in southern 6hai and and 9ota /haro in the northernmost *a ay State. on Se#tember %. he re8ected it. and annihi ation cam#ai!ns to wi#e out the entire #o#u ations of contested areas in Forth and "entra "hina. D)en with thirty-ei!ht di)isions and 0.0O O)er the neAt four years. a most ha f a year before the +erman-So)iet war broke out. N0BO /y then. 2n Se#tember 0?5' Hirohito ordered the army to be!in its entry into 7rench 2ndochina in #re#aration for strikin! further south. he de iberate y )io ated internationa aw. who must ha)e earned about these e)ents e)en if he did not !ras# their seriousness. He !a)e #ost-facto sanction to >a#anKs take-o)er of *anchuria in )io ation of internationa treaties and a!reements. and =ear Harbor he was free to choose a ternati)e courses of action rather than acce#t the thinkin! of his mi itary chiefs. as commander-in-chief. 6hen on $ecember B (6okyo time). e!a .0. Hirohito was eAercisin! the fu #rero!ati)es of his #osition. ke#t si ent and a##ears ne)er to ha)e ordered an in)esti!ation into the crimina beha)ior of his armed forces.'O 7or the war crimes and other )io ations of internationa aw committed by >a#anKs mi itary forces after $ecember 1. Lannihi ation cam#ai!ns. He ater #artici#ated acti)e y in the # annin! and wa!in! of >a#anKs tota war of a!!ression in "hina. it was fe t. 0?50. 0?50. forma y neutra state of 6hai and. Hirohito saw no need e)en to bother with a war dec aration. N. (s for the Fether ands. unti mid-0?5%. faci itate the ad)ance southward by force.B the "hina War sta emated. !a)e him the chance to sto# the rush to war a!ainst /ritain and the 4S. for eAam# e./apanese forces enter 4an7in5 Hirohito. the main #rize of the southern ad)ance. had a ready reso )ed on a southern ad)ance to com# ete "hinaKs encirc ement and #osition >a#an to mo)e into resource-rich areas of co onia Southeast (sia. the ar!est share of res#onsibi ity may a!ain be attributed to Hirohito as both commander in chief and head of state. Hirohito then re uctant y assented to the 6ri#artite mi itary a iance with the dictatorshi#s in +ermany and 2ta y. Hirohito did not hesitate to tram# e on the recent y conc uded >a#an-6hai 7riendshi# 6reaty either. He bore more direct res#onsibi ity for sanctionin! >a#anKs use of #oison !as. an inter!o)ernmenta iaison body. its ma8or Western o##onents. >a#anese war atrocities increased. (t e)ery sta!e on the road to Sin!ora. 9ota /haro. N. Hirohito brou!ht em#eror worshi# to fe)er #itch. and mora res#onsibi ity. >a#anKs eaders saw no way to end it Euick y unti Fazi +ermany started Wor d War 22 and occu#ied Western Duro#e. When. N0?O 6o summarizeI 7or war crimes committed by >a#anKs mi itary forces. He a so ordered and monitored the bombin! of "hinese cities. deri)ati)e res#onsibi ity. sti#u atin! res#ect for 6hai so)erei!nty. he chose war. (nd he si!ned off on the order (6airikumei . 7or these atrocities. use of #oison !as. Hirohito. as commander-in-chief. Hirohito. Ha)in! 6hai and on >a#anKs side wou d. with the mi itary refusin! to com# y with internationa aw to "hina. in which Hirohito #artici#ated. (s >a#anKs sacred s#iritua eader and symbo of nationa identity he (and his "ourt +rou#) framed the "hina conf ict as a Lho y war.M Workin! in c ose coo#eration with the mi itary.
did not ref ect rea ity.5O W)y (iro)ito Was 4ot 3rie' When the ( ies #ut on tria for war crimes and crimes a!ainst #eace a sma . the on! war had im#o)erished the nation and #roduced a e)e in! of c asses. senior na)a eaders were eEua y at fau t. in ate >une 0?5%. and the em#eror was mere y its #ower ess #u##et. /ut he insisted that his armed forces first had to achie)e at east one substantia mi itary resu t in order to im#ro)e the surrender terms. Euestioned by 4S occu#ation officia s about his res#onsibi ity for the warC "ertain y the manner in which Westerners understood the monarchy and the #o itica cu ture that su##orted the em#eror had somethin! to do with the fai ure of (mericans to Euestion him. 6o #rotect their state and themse )es. and that he de ayed >a#anKs surrender in order to #reser)e the im#eria throne with himse f on it. Fone of this means that Hirohito #rescribed a #o icy. made a the decisions. 6his ast #oint must be em#hasized. 0?5% (when a recordin! of his )oice announcin! the end of the war was broadcast to the >a#anese nation) and ear y Se#tember (when he to d a s#ecia session of the BBth im#eria $iet that >a#an wou d stri)e to Lbui d a #eace state and contribute to the cu ture of mankind. >a#anKs ru in! e ites astute y inked Hirohito to the idea of #eace and en8oined the #eo# e to b ame themse )es rather than their eaders for the disaster.1O 2n fact. before occu#ation forces took contro and reforms commenced. Hirohito remained stubborn y committed to fi!htin! on. determinin! that Hirohito wou d not be tried or the monarchy abo ished. Fe)erthe ess. and Rasukuni Shrine. N. !i)in! new )oice to indi)idua s from the #oorest socia !rou#s. (nother of their methods was to foist a b ame for the war onto army eaders whi e #retendin! that the em#eror and the #eo# e had done nothin! wron!fu because they had been Ldecei)edM by Lthe mi itary. He wou d de ay surrender unti his future as a #o itica y-em#owered so)erei!n was internationa y !uaranteed.%O /ut more im#ortant factors were a so at work. as we as the em#erorKs ro e in the com# eA bureaucratic #rocess eadin! to war in 0?50 and durin! the war itse f.ast-)ictory. in thinkin! about why Hirohito a)oided a meanin!fu accountabi ity. and as his own brothers and some members of the eAtended im#eria fami y ur!ed. He a so mediated and acted as the fina arbiter of conf icts amon! the hi!h commandersQ read the directi)es of both hi!her and ower e)e officersQ and sent his aides to the front to in)esti!ate what the armies were doin!. 7or ike no other e)ent.M which in the minds of most >a#anese meant the army. he had been tau!ht ne)er to #erform as a Western-sty e dictator eAercisin! #ower arbitrari y. and their own ru e. with the so e aim of #reser)in! and #rotectin! himse f and the monarchy. (dditiona y. the treatment of war #risoners. the myth #ersisted in #ostwar >a#anese cu ture and memory that the senior officers of the im#eria na)y had been ess mi itaristic and had a more rationa #ers#ecti)e on the wor d than the army. one cannot fai to note the #owerfu effect of his war termination rescri#tPthe so-ca ed Lsacred decisionM that brou!ht #eace. /ut he (and other hard iners on the Su#reme War Leadershi# "ounci ) #ersisted in maneu)erin! for #eace throu!h the !ood offices of the sti neutra So)iet 4nion. 6he drafters of this document ne)er used . for they wou d be needed to check the So)iet 4nion and #re)ent the s#read of communism at home. He a so re8ected the idea of a owin! the ( ies to #unish >a#anese war crimina s or abo ish >a#anKs armed forces. >a#anKs decision-makers destroyed and hid massi)e amounts of documentary e)idence.&O $urin! the crucia first two weeks of transition to #eace. (nd on! after mi itary defeat and the massi)e destruction of >a#anese cities stared him in the facePindeed. he was #re#ared to a ow the ( ies to #unish war crimina sQ and e)en contem# ated disarmament. 6hese materia s #ertained to war atrocities. N.O 6he stereoty#ed Western understandin! of this LsystemM as a mi itary dictatorshi# in which the mi itary a ways !ot its way. /y c osin! ranks to concea the em#erorKs hands-on ro e in # annin! and wa!in! war. (ccordin! to the accounts of indi)idua s c ose to Hirohito.M he #ersisted in tryin! to inf uence e)ents. why was >a#anKs commander-in-chief not indicted and tried. at the )ery east. Hirohito abandoned these #reconditionsI the batt e of Okinawa had been ostQ there wou d not be one.'s and S5's. its occu#ant. at e)ery im#ortant turnin! #oint on >a#anKs road to wars in "hina. 3u in! e ites feared that their re ationshi# with the #eo# e cou d be torn asunder. Whene)er Hirohito chose to do so. massacres. 6he atomic bombin! of Hiroshima and. N. and the Western =acific (0?50-5%). or eAercised unbounded inf uence. N.>a#anese historians ha)e carefu y documented HirohitoKs key ro e in war and #ostwar actions throu!hout the 0?. he remained on the throne acti)e y eAercisin! #o itica inf uence throu!hout the #eriod of the first two #ost-surrender cabinets.O (fter >a#anKs surrender Hirohito did not abdicate as many eA#ected.0-5%). ( thou!h he was not thinkin! of immediate ca#itu ation. "hina-within-the +reat Wa (0?. none was more im#ortant than HirohitoKs own actions and those of his entoura!e and hi!h !o)ernment officia s between (u!ust 0%. On the contrary. both within >a#an and abroad. the So)iet entrance into the war.. 2t is now understood that he se dom a owed his !enera s and admira s to fi!ht the war 8ust as they wished. they ho#ed to #rotect the throne. the em#eror reco!nized by summer 0?55 that >a#an wou d e)entua y ha)e to seek a ne!otiated end to the osin! war.M) N. which wou d ha)e weakened the force of its char!e and drawn Hirohito into the #icture. where the 4S a ways focused its main mi itary effort. or. it wou d a ways be Euick to condemn the So)iet )io ation of its Feutra ity 6reaty with >a#an but say nothin! #ub ic y about >a#anKs )io ation of the >a#an-6hai 7riendshi# 6reaty. (s for the >a#anese 7orei!n *inistry. seAua s a)ery. fina y created a situation in which the ru in! e ites wou d risk acce#tance of the =otsdam $ec aration. D)en after the new L"onstitution of >a#anM had stri##ed him of a #o itica #ower and turned him into a ceremonia fi!urehead who was ess than a Lconstitutiona monarch.. re#resentati)e !rou# of eadin! !o)ernment and mi itary officia s of the (Ais states. and the =acific. Southeast (sia.1-5%). co onia Southeast (sia (0?50-5%).. he !uided and made contributions to the conduct of the war in a four theatersI *anchuria (0?. #erha#s e)en more. ( year ater. 2nstead. Of the interna factors. two fu years after !enera staff studies showed that >a#an had no #ros#ect of achie)in! )ictory. N.
9ido 9oichi then chose =rince Hi!ashikuni Faruhiko to head the first Lim#eria fami y cabinetM formed ri!ht after the surrender. 6hese accounts # aced the entire b ame for the war and defeat on the Lmi itarists. fu y su##orted by the 4S !o)ernment. 6he #ostwar tria of war crimina s had been an ( ied war aim. .'''. (fter >a#anKs forma surrender (Se#t. which he ne)er was. before he had e)en arri)ed on >a#anese soi . one confronts a different set of facts. His efforts and those of other inf uentia (merican friends of >a#an #ro)ed he #fu to >a#anKs ru ers. so that the nation cou d re!ain its di!nity and the trust of the wor d. in addition. 6he Shidehara cabinetKs decision on the em#eror remained throu!hout the #ostwar Showa era. they ski fu y concea ed Hirohito-s de ayed surrender. He and his subordinates #reser)ed. inc udin! Western co onia ism.M as stated in the Furember! charter.in assassination or the *anchurian 2ncident. assumed incorrect y that Hirohito had been a mere fi!urehead em#eror and a )irtua y #ower ess #u##et of >a#anKs Lmi itarists. $etermined to L#rotect the kokutai” in an un#recedented situation of mi itary co a#se. and that their own armed forces had committed count ess war crimes. 6hese (merican efforts #romoted the fiction that the em#eror had a ways been a #eace-minded constitutiona ist ke#t in the dark about the detai s of the war. N. His successor. ( thou!h the #rosecution ne)er #resented a fu #icture of the Fankin! atrocities. +rewPformer ambassador to >a#an and. and insure their smooth im# ementation. *eanwhi e. dea in! with the officia #osition of defendants. (rrests of war crimina sus#ects soon be!an. who was #ressured to !o to his death ha)in! assumed a res#onsibi ity for the ost war. /ut +H: a so ordered the remo din! of >a#anese o#inion on the ost war throu!h news artic es seria ized in the (merican-censored >a#anese #ress and occasiona y broadcast on the (merican-censored radio. 2n the course of its en!thy #roceedin!s. em#hasized the future. was any discussion of (merican war crimes. e!itimize reforms. former forei!n minister Shidehara 9i8uro. issuin! orders to the >a#anese !o)ernment from +H: offices in 6okyo whi e kee#in! in the back!round an (merican occu#ation force of o)er 0''.the word Ldefeat. the #rinci# e of head of state immunity for HirohitoKs #remises and #ro#erty. 6he atter inc uded a of HirohitoKs officia and #ri)ate #a#ers # us the #a#ers of his mi itary aides-de-cam# that cou d ha)e re)ea ed )a uab e facts about his war ro e.M affirmed the officia war aims of se f-defense and se f-#reser)ation. the actin! secretary of statePa so tried to #rotect the em#eror. any eA# icit reference to LHead of State. and assum#tions. and !a)e encoura!ement to rebui din! from the ruins. (D)en today. made denia of HirohitoKs war res#onsibi ity >a#anKs officia #o icy by definin! the em#eror under the *ei8i "onstitution as a norma .M 6his he #ed the 4S mi itary to use him 8ust as >a#anKs mi itarists had once done. Hirohito and his chief #o itica ad)iser. howe)er..M committed to #eace.BO *ac(rthur then went to eAtraordinary en!ths to shie d Hirohito from e)ery #hase of the tria . *ac(rthur had carefu y remo)ed from (rtic e & of his charter for the 6okyo 6ria . and in s#rin! 0?5& the 2nternationa *i itary 6ribuna for the 7ar Dast (or 6okyo 6ria ) commenced. 2n Washin!ton +rew #romoted the myth of the em#erorKs innocence and the notion that the men who surrounded him were Lmoderates. the decision-makers in the 6ruman administration were di)ided o)er Hirohito. What was ne)er a owed. incor#orated in the =otsdam $ec aration. the issue of forced seAua ens a)ement (Lcomfort womenM) was aired in court with documents estab ishin! that the army and na)y had committed this war crime throu!hout the >a#anese-occu#ied #arts of (sia and the =acific. to ease their ru e. 0?5%) the 4S mi itary under Su#reme "ommander *ac(rthur be!an to ru e indirect y. ar!uments constructed to defend Hirohito sti breathe the s#irit of this decision. >ose#h ". at warKs end. ar!uments. #art of >a#anKs dominant ideo o!y of ru e. 6o be!in with. the >a#anese #eo# e earned that the "hinese were not to b ame for either the "han! 6so.) 7or this and other reasons the war !eneration as a who e durin! the occu#ation years did not #ersist in c arifyin! the causes of defeat but instead channe ed its ener!ies into reconstructin! and bui din! a better >a#an. whereas +enera $ou! as *ac(rthur. N. (iro)ito recor'in5 t)e surren'er speec) Hi!ashikuni fo owed u# on the em#erorKs rescri#t by ur!in! the entire nation to re#ent and not seek 8ustice for those who had ruined and dis!raced the nation.M Such occu#ation-s#onsored myths stren!thened >a#anese )ictim consciousness and im#ede the search for truth. Simi ar y. 2n 6okyo +H: worked to sa)e Hirohito from bein! he d accountab e for his actions. enou!h materia was submitted in court to shock the >a#anese nation. inc udin! inf uencin! the testimony of former wartime #rime minister +enera 6o8o Hideki. When assessin! the eAterna factors that contributed to HirohitoKs sur)i)a into the #ost-surrender #eriod. #eace-minded constitutiona ist.?O .
te e)ision.'O 6hat Hirohito was !i)en immunity from #rosecution for his officia acts and ater #rotected from the tria #roceedin!s indicates how far at odds 6okyo was from the etter and s#irit of Furember!. /ush for a the war crimes and crimes a!ainst humanity committed by (merican forces in the i e!a wars that he started in 2raE and (f!hanistan. and educationa eaders had a so embraced the !oa of endin! by force (n! o-(merican domination of (sia and the =acific. 6he Hirohito case set a bad eAam# e by reestab ishin! the ancient tradition of immunity from #rosecution for heads of state. accordin! to the 4S Strate!ic /ombin! Sur)ey. What the architects of the first internationa war crimes tria s intended to #rioritize was not b ame #er se but rather the #rinci# e that # annin!. and estab ishin! his bona fides as the LhumanM em#eror. and assorted o#inion eaders dutifu y #ro#a!andized the myth of the i)in! deity. re i!ious. which he dictated to fi)e c ose aides startin! *arch 0?5&Pwas a de iberate attem#t to counter the 6okyo tribuna by # acin! the em#erorKs )ersion of e)ents in *ac(rthurKs hands. initiatin! and wa!in! an a!!ressi)e war is i e!a . he made the system work and was the reason why it worked. siAty-two #ercent of the >a#anese #eo# e sti . 9eenanQ they !athered inte i!ence on what hi!h officia s of *ac(rthurKs +enera HeadEuarters thou!ht about the em#erorQ and they inf uenced the awyers on the 2nternationa =rosecution Section who were #re#arin! the case a!ainst L" ass-(M war crimina sus#ects. were e)en more cu #ab e for # un!in! >a#an e)er dee#er into a!!ressi)e wars. he #in! to se ect the men who wou d be indicted as L" ass (M war crimina sus#ects. /ut when some of the 8ud!es on the 6okyo tribuna fe t com#e ed to ca attention in their dissentin! fina 8ud!ments to the em#erorKs tota . a L#acifistM in tune with the democratic )a ues of his #eo# e. substitutin! in its # ace >a#anese ru e in "hina and Southeast (sia. 9ey members of HirohitoKs "ourt +rou# a so ser)ed as Lsecret informantsM for the #rosecution. howe)er. for the same reason shou d one assi!n eAc usi)e res#onsibi ity to =resident +eor!e W. chiefs of staff. So too were #rominent war mon!ers at esser e)e s of #ower in the bureaucracy and in the mass media. they insured that the Hirohito case wou d be remembered. Hirohito. resuscitatin! what remained of its mystiEue. 2n short. was at the )ery center of the #o icy-makin! #rocess throu!h e)ery sta!e of warQ he #ro)ided continuous o)ersi!ht for wars that he knew were a!!ressi)eQ and he incurred steadi y mountin! res#onsibi ity for those a!!ressions. War %emem&rance! t)e 1n'less Searc) for 3rut) an' /ustice One shou d not ay a b ame for >a#anKs war crimes at HirohitoKs feet any more than one shou d b ame Hit er for a the war crimes of the Wehrmacht and the +erman #eo# e. #re#arin!. >ose#h /. and in the #rocess sett in! scores. 8ust as the ma8or (merican #rint. and radio news media do today with res#ect to 4S wars and occu#ations in the *idd e Dast. Hirohito #artici#ated with the LmoderatesM and others in the court mi ieu in a concerted cam#ai!n to shift a b ame for war and atrocities onto subordinates. He a so fi!ured centra y in the cu tura #rocess that nurtured the actua #er#etrators of war crimes. 2m#eria >a#anKs ministers of state. radio scri#t writers. 6hey entertained the "hief =rosecutor at the 6okyo 6ria . some of its "ourt +rou# officia s and certain y most of its midd e-eche on army and na)y officers. 2n Fo)ember-$ecember 0?5%. >ourna ists.3o8o at t)e 3o7yo 3rial Hirohito too did not stand id e. For. *any of >a#anKs bureaucrats. their editors. HirohitoKs famous L*ono o!uePthe account of his ro e durin! the war years. thou!h that did not make them eEua y b ameworthy as war crimina s. intent on sa)in! the monarchy. On matters of war they disseminated a the ies and #ro#a!anda that their !o)ernment #ut out. which the Furember! charter had undermined. (#ro#os of this #rinci# e. business. (t +H:Ks #roddin! he toured the country. unEua ified #o itica immunity from eadershi# crimes e)en thou!h he had aunched the a!!ressi)e war. N.
and the em#eror be!an to a##ear.and mid-0?1'sPfirst to /ritain and West +ermany where he was !reeted with hosti e #ub ic demonstrations. men who had ser)ed him in war and #eace. the first #oint to note is that >a#anese #ub ic discussion of #rob ems from the ost war has ser)ed mu ti# e #ur#oses. Hirohito. a nation that it once tar!eted for a!!ression 8ust as it does in 2raE. !eneratin! #o itica ca#ita for $iet members and their #arties. workers. $iscussions of teAtbook re)ision to e iminate references to war crimes.O *any >a#anese. after makin! his first and on y state )isit to the 4nited States. or re)isin! the 2m#eria Househo d Law to a ow a fema e em#eror. /ut it was the remembrance of the enormous number of soldiers who had died futilely on a fronts in the war of a!!ression that main y re)i)ed the Rasukuni Shrine issue. and other first-hand accounts of the em#eror by his innermost circ e of ad)isers. most >a#anese #eo# e ne)er ref ected that since the end of the nineteenth century the monarchy as an institution had been the )ita ynch#in to a c ass system that o##ressed farmers. >a#anese citizens continued to Euestion and to widen the boundaries of war res#onsibi ity. one of the most irreconci ab e s# its concerns how to mourn the nationa war dead.&'' >a#anese combatants were ki ed in "hina (eAc udin! *anchuria) and Hon! 9on! a one. 7urthermore. D)en then. many more >a#anese were ab e to free themse )es from fa sehoods about the ost war.wanted Hirohito to rei!n. Ret as historian Roshida Rutaka and others ha)e shown.). and the concurrent rise of "hina hastened the de)e o#ment of new economic and financia ties. >a#anese tourism to cities in *anchuria. itt e debate occurred on +erman war crimes.0O 3ather than Euick y distancin! themse )es from their em#eror the way the +ermans did from Hit er. 6hrou!h four decades of 4S-So)iet co d war conf ict.). N. Lookin! c oser. whi e bearin! in mind ! oba #atterns of hy#ocrisy on issues of war res#onsibi ity. O)er near y fourteen years. 6his was the #eriod when >a#an ad)anced further than +ermany did at any time whi e under ( ied occu#ation and durin! the era of "hance or "onrad (denauer (0?5?-&. unaccountab e to anyone for his officia actions. N. "onseEuent y. N. 6hese e)ents continued to shake oose memories of his wartime beha)ior and ed a )an!uard of >a#anese historians to in)esti!ate the machinery of the wartime monarchy and the indi)idua s of the "ourt +rou# who o#erated it. Rasukuni Shrine is a state-estab ished site of co ecti)e war remembrance. /ut it was main y in the 0?B's and 0??'s that ma8or historica studies eA# orin! the re ationshi# between #o itics.M 6he . et a one ook beyond the narrow boundaries of )ictim-consciousness. 7or eAam# e. N. and to =acific war batt efie ds he #ed to widen inte ectua horizons and foster the !rowth of #er#etrator consciousness. re i!ious rites of remembrance for the war dead. the abru#t breaku# of the So)iet 4nion. >ust the same. diaries.5O Such debate was re ati)e y intense durin! the ear y years of forei!n occu#ation (0?5%-%. the reformed >a#anese state conni)ed at the officia )ersion of the ost war as one of Lse f defense and se f #reser)ation. connected to state-worshi# and dedicated to #reser)in! both the em#eror-centered )iew of the #ast and the officia inter#retation of the LWar of +reater Dast (sia. e)en thou!h the 4nited States has not direct y a#o o!ized to the >a#anese #eo# e for its historic terror bombin! of their citiesQ nor has it #aid re#arations to Tietnam. the mi itary.O 6his te in! difference ref ected not on y the distincti)e nature of eadershi# in >a#an but a so the ethos that informed decision-makin!. in a )a!ue y worded L>a#an-"hina >oint "ommuniEue. about 5. N. wondered why their country remained mi itari y tied so ti!ht y to the 4S.M was )ictim-consciousness increasin! y cha en!ed by those who came to reco!nize that >a#an had a so been a ma8or #er#etrator of war crimes. and the ro e of Hirohito. to former co onia areas.. Hirohito returned home and he d #ress inter)iews with >a#anese and forei!n 8ourna ists. the #ractices of the >a#anese state. 2n 0?1%. 2nterest did not rekind e unti Hirohito tra)e ed abroad in the ear y. Sometimes debate o)er war remembrance ad)anced the #o itica #osition of different ci)ic or!anizationsQ at other times it camouf a!ed narrow institutiona a!endas.. )iewin! these ar!e-sca e #o itica and economic chan!es. 6hrou!hout that #eriod with few eAce#tions.&O >a#anese ci)i ians in the home is ands a so died in hu!e numbers from 4S terror bombin!. in their effort to e)ade #unishment and mora res#onsibi ity. 6he end of the "o d War. a re)ea ed dee# cracks in #ub ic o#inion. >a#anese discussion waned. They did not understand—nor did the American occupation authorities help them to understand—that this institution was an agent of their prewar and wartime oppression !t had narrowed their intellectual hori"ons and encouraged many to see themselves as powerless vis#a#vis the state 6hus. >a#anKs #o itica e ites drew c oser and did a in their #ower to #rotect him. some (merican #o iticians ha)e now added their )oices to (sian mo)ements #ressin! >a#an to confront #rob ems eft unreso )ed from the (sia-=acific War. $urin! the 0?1's. N. (nd many more years had to #ass after HirohitoKs death in 0?B? before the >a#anese mass media ended its se f-im#osed taboo on 8ud!ments about the em#erorKs fau ts and discussed his unacknow ed!ed war res#onsibi ity.%O (s the co d war mo)ed to its sudden end. and a on! with it concern o)er HirohitoKs unacknow ed!ed war res#onsibi ity. /ut when the 4S chan!ed its occu#ation #o icy to bui din! u# >a#an as a "o d War a y rather than #ursuin! war crimina s.M which the em#eror and his ministers had reaffirmed at the time of surrender. efforts by neonationa ists and conser)ati)es to obfuscate the em#erorKs ro e in #o itica and mi itary affairs ham#ered #ub ic reco!nition of HirohitoKs enormous war res#onsibi ity. bindin! >a#an and its (sian nei!hbors and s#urrin! attem#ts at reconci iation. and women. 2n addition. On y after >a#an norma ized di# omatic re ations with the =eo# eKs 3e#ub ic of "hina in 0?1. 6heir #erce#tions of recent wars and the current ba ance of forces in the wor d ha)e sha#ed the >a#anese search for historica truth and 8ustice.. startin! with its most im#ortant member.%. as on! as Hirohito remained on the throne. Historica researchers who attem#ted to #ursue HirohitoKs wartime conduct found the )ast resources of the !o)ernment a but c osed off. e)ery #hase of >a#anKs debates on war res#onsibi ity has a so been a #hase in the eA#ression of nationa ist sentiment. most >a#anese had itt e reason to Euestion their su##ort of him or fee res#onsibi ity for the war. the wor dKs eadin! #ractitioner of state terror and mi itarism. >a#an entered an era in which issues of war res#onsibi ity cou d be o#en y debated on the basis of a tro)e of new y #ub ished documents.
. as we as stron! criticism at home.become inca#ab e of ada#tin! to the !reat chan!es.BO Fot unti the occu#ation ended did the Lsymbo em#erorM resume his )isits. dreamin! to restore further e ements of state Shinto. ha)in! dis#atched >a#anKs Se f $efense 7orceKs o)erseas in b ind su##ort of the 4S war and occu#ation in 2raE. Hirohito.1O /efore. $urin! the 0??'s and ear y . howe)er. and soon after the war Dm#eror Hirohito eA#ressed his !ratitude and res#ect for the war dead by )isitin! or sendin! emissaries to #artici#ate in the annua nationa memoria rites to assua!e their s#irits. (iro)ito 9isits :asu7uni S)rine. and ordered the em#eror to sto# )isitin! the shrine. durin! the siAtieth anni)ersary of >a#an-s #eace constitution (*ay . Rasukuni Shrine had reestab ished its symbiotic re ationshi# with the >a#anese !o)ernment throu!h the We fare *inistry. des#ite the new constitutionKs se#aration of #o itics from re i!ion. disestab ished Shinto. 2nstead. startin! in . are enshrined. the shrine became embroi ed in >a#anKs internationa affairs.(rmy and Fa)y *inistries once administered this Shinto re i!ious institution and its attached center for disseminatin! war #ro#a!anda (the Rushukan). Hirohito com# ied.e!itimize officia state worshi#. announced that this time he was !oin! to worshi# at Rasukuni in his officia ca#acity. who died fi!htin! for the em#eror. on the fortieth anni)ersary of the warKs end. scanda -# a!ued tenure. Fatura y. to remember their dead.. (s this e ection showed. c osed the Rushukan bui din!. who since 0?B. determined to de. sayin! that +H:Ks intention was to #rotect the monarchy from criticism. (be announced that the "onstitution had .''&. $urin! his short. 2n 0?1B. re#orted y u#set that some men whom he b amed for #er#etratin! the war had been enshrined. /ut when. howe)er. es#ecia y fami y members. his own remarks denyin! that the >a#anese mi itary had systematica y coerced women into seAua s a)ery a!ain disa##ointed >a#anKs (sian trade #artnersPabo)e a "hina and 9orea. which !ranted #ensions and sorted out those Eua ified for enshrinement. amon! other thin!s.''1). durin!. N. thou!h not without #ro)okin! criticism. What the #o itica dynamics of this symbo of co ecti)e war remembrance distorts. D)er since. as conser)ati)e #o iticians ooked for ways to !enerate #ub ic su##ort for abandonin! >a#anKs officia anti-war stance. and made it an inte!ra #art of >a#anese state worshi# and mi itarism. 6he neAt year. Rasukuni has ser)ed as a too for #o iticians seekin! to hei!hten nationa ism amon! the youn!. the #ub ic took a arm.''0. 2n an 4##er House e ection two months ater he was sound y re#udiated for.51 mi ion #eo# e. 19#5 *ac(rthurKs HeadEuarters. abru#t y ended his )isits. in the wor d. he #romised to mend re ations with >a#anKs nei!hbors.. When neonationa ist #o itician (be Shinzo succeeded 9oizumi in . amon! other reasons. South 9orea. the Rushukan reo#ened and be!an disseminatin! its anachronistic )iew of the ost war. had made more #ri)ate )isits to Rasukuni than any #re)ious #rime minister. inc udin! a sma number of 6aiwanese and 9oreans. Rasukuni co ecti)e y enshrined the s#irits of fourteen con)icted war crimina s. *eanwhi e. =rime *inister Fakasone Rasuhiro. (be a so turned back the c ock on issues of educationa reform and constitutiona re)ision. Libera $emocratic =arty =rime *inister 9oizumi >unichiro is remembered for. they contem# ated usin! this anachronistic but ha owed # ace of war memory to create a new nationa ism. i!nitin! forei!n and domestic criticism. three years after HirohitoKs ei!hth #ostwar )isit. Fakasone #u ed back. he made com#u sory the teachin! of #atriotism in schoo s and raised the status of >a#anKs $efense (!ency to a fu ministry. N. 6here the s#irits of . which ed to a series of di# omatic #rotests from "hina and 9orea. +o)ernment officia s and cabinet ministers continued )isitin! in their #ri)ate ca#acity. seekin! to draw >a#an c oser to a be icose 4nited States. =ri)ate #ressure !rou#s such as the (ssociation of Shinto Shrines and the /erea)ed 7ami ies (ssociation a so use Rasukuni as a too . 2n (u!ust 0?B%. ( most immediate y. .'''s. it is not on y the dee#enin! economic and cu tura re ations between >a#an and "hina. He a so made four officia )isits to Rasukuni. is the natura human need of #eo# e.
who committed war crimes and why. and the district courts that usua y mirror its #o icies. Herbert $ %i&' author of the $ulit"er $ri"e#winning Hirohito and the *akin! of *odern >a#an' writes on problems of war and empire A Japan (ocus associate' he prepared this article for Japan (ocus $osted May )' *++.''1). Hirohito and the *akin! of *odern >a#an (Har#er"o ins =erennia Ddition. howe)er. LHaabaato /ikkusu. Fo. the #ar iamentary ba ance of #ower remains frau!ht. ##. of Forth "aro ina =ress. 6hrou!h books. Ret >a#anKs conser)ati)e #o itica e ites and bureaucrats remain an obstac e. and to the >a#anese )ictims of the im#eria mi itaryKs i e!a (#re. 8ourna artic es. 6aikei Fihon no rekishi 05. and their stubborn refusa to acknow ed!e the >a#anese stateKs res#onsibi ity to #ay re#arations to war )ictims. N%O 2n the Duro#ean and =acific War theaters. 6he best histories not on y show how di)erse the >a#anese res#onses to war actua y were. 6he 2nternment of Western "i)i ians 4nder the >a#anese 0?50-0?5% (3out ed!e "urzon. 6hey were a so unab e to #ro)ide 8ustice to the berea)ed fami ies of >a#anese ci)i ians murdered by the army and na)y durin! the batt es of Sai#an and Okinawa. and concerned citizens continue to rethink the historica issues that the #ost-Wor d War 22 tribuna s fai ed to adeEuate y confront.. Sen!o wakaiI Fihon wa SkakoK kara tokihanatareru no ka ("huko Shinsho. .. 7utatsu no taisen (6okyoI Sho!akukan. 2!norin! the treatyKs contested e!a #ro)isions. but neither current =rime *inister 7ukuda Rasuo nor the #owerfu business federations which su##ort re)ision ha)e !i)en u# the fi!ht. . the a##arition of Hirohito wi in!er and he wi ha)e an eterna # ace in >a#anese #o itics. %. . fai ed to !i)e satisfaction to former ( ied #risoners of >a#an who sou!ht re#arations and officia a#o o!y. 4otes N0O 7or re#resentati)e recent works on #rob ems of war and #ostwar. *ore than .M in 9ikan senso sekinin kenkyu.''5). that throu!hout the co d war +erman #ro!ress was s ow. DEua y im#ortant are the different #o itica dynamics and ideo o!ies that inform #o itics in #ost-"o d War +ermany and >a#an.'.''0) contains &BB #a!es of teAt. >a#anese courts fai ed not on y the war )ictims in (sian countries. and the 7uture.?O 2n (#ri . (s on! as the record of im#eria >a#anKs misdeeds is aired and issues of eadershi# and war res#onsibi ity are debated. .'''.1. Uubok. ?&.O Herbert =. see the essays in the ei!ht-)o ume 2wanami 9oza (8ia 6aiheiyo senso (2wanami Shoten. Women coerced into seAua s a)ery ha)e been e)en more dismissi)e y treated. #.M contrasts )i)id y with >a#anKs continued intransi!ence. who continue to su##ort the L#eaceM "onstitution because they fee more secure with (rtic e Fine intact.'''M fi!ure see /ernice (rcher. 6he >a#anese !o)ernment.''. 0?B?). #.''%-1)Q and 9osu!e Fobuko. See 9awashima 6akane.O 7or the Lo)er 0. seekin! economic com#ensation and officia a#o o!y for ha)in! been kidna##ed from their homes and forcib y brou!ht to work in wartime >a#an. N. So too is the !ood sense of the ma8ority of the >a#anese #eo# e. 0??&). concerned that awsuits brou!ht by )ictims of Fazism wou d harm their re#utations and #rofitsQ c ass action awsuits od!ed in 4S courts a so # ayed an im#ortant ro e. the nature of the em#ire. =risoners of the >a#aneseI =OWS of Wor d War 22 in the =acific (Wi iam *orrow < "o.. /iA. ( 7ai ed Dm#ireI 6he So)iet 4nion in the "o d War 7rom Sta in to +orbache) (4ni). N. eu#hemistica y abe ed a L7und for 3emembrance. >a#anese historians. N5O D!uchi 9eiichi. the 8ud!es c aimed that the si!natories had sett ed these #rob ems by wai)in! re#arations c aims at the state e)e . 6he war dead cannot be officia y remembered without himQ the fu truth of the war cannot be known in his absence. and were ater tried and #unished for desertion. 6he 8ud!es cited as a main !round the re e)ant #ro)isions of the 4S-im#osed San 7rancisco =eace 6reaty. 6here is no doubt. "hinese and 9orean aborers. 8ourna ists. >a#anKs Su#reme "ourt forec osed a #endin! and future awsuits arisin! from actions taken by >a#an in the course of #rosecutin! its ost war. 3es#onsibi ity. One of the characteristics of this difference is #recise y the historica Hirohito and the many meanin!s that he carries for >a#an and the >a#anese #eo# e. but a so cast an e)er-widenin! net of res#onsibi ity for the (sia-=acific WarPa net in which Hirohito is in)ariab y ca#tured. and documentary fi ms they he # >a#an to understand where it went wron!. . . . Fe)erthe ess. N. drafted at the hei!ht of the 4S-So)iet co d war.?.and #ost-surrender) courts martia of so diers and officers who had been forced to surrender on the batt e fie d. . 6he re#eated a#o o!ies that they make for the dama!e caused by the im#eria armed forces are undermined by the Rasukuni Euestion. fared no better. sued and ost in >a#anese domestic courts.''%). 6he L$=Ks a!enda for constitutiona re)ision has been #ost#oned. +a)an $aws. the whitewashin! of history teAtbooks. and #rob ems of #ostwar remembrance and accountabi ity.%' of these #a!es treat the (sia-=acific War and the 6okyo tria . !i)es the hi!her estimate. SShowa 6ennoK no yomarekata. #. 6he initiati)e came in the ate 0??'s from +erman industries. N5'O On the issue of #ayin! re#arations to a war )ictims. Teteran so diers.'''. 50 (7a . tota (merican deaths did not eAceed .and the nations of Southeast (sia that are kee#in! transnationa conf icts o)er war issues and memories from the #ast within mana!eab e bounds. which has ne)er brou!ht 8ustice to the )ictims of >a#anKs wartime a!!ression.).-0'. and what shou d be done to maintain #eace in (sia and the =acific. /ut the remainin! ha f addresses the #rewar em#eror. accordin! to T adis a) *. +ermanyKs #ractice since .''1. who were recruited from >a#anKs co onies but ater denied #ensions. when the /undesta! estab ished a re#arations mechanism.
L6he Le!a =osition in 2nternationa Law of Heads of State. e)er since >a#anKs surrender the 7orei!n *inistry has a)oided #ub ic mention of the >a#an-6hai 7riendshi# 6reaty whi e condemnin! the So)iet 4nion for its )io ation of the >a#an-So)iet Feutra ity 6reaty. #.M 3ecuei des cours.M in 2wanami 9ozaI (8ia-6aiheiyo senso.'O /iA. 2f he ater fai ed to take them into account he wou d ose their confidence and be unab e to !o)ern. LSenso sekininron no !enzai. N.&0.. N01O /iA. . Faze. N?O /iA. ##. Faze.0O /iA. ?5-?%. 5. ima (8ia. ##.?O /iA. ##. 2n *ei8iKs time the system was ess com# eAI the +enro chose the #rime minister and #o itica #arties were at a nascent sta!e. N0%O /iA. ... ima (8ia6aiheiyo senso ka (2wanami Shoten. ##.&1. #.''1). N. ..1O Roshida.%O (kazawa Shiro.. N0. . N05O /iA. Hirohito and his "ourt +rou#.&-1. L3ekishikanP*edeia Watchin!.0-0?5% (Hamish Hami ton. . . !eI Hirohito and the *akin! of *odern >a#an (9odansha . ..&1. 0B5-&. dai nikan. 6aiheiyo senso ka (2wanami Shoten. ?&....O /iA.M ##.%. N0&O /iA.''%). . thou!h on y when it ser)ed their #ur#oses.&%. . ##. 0?B0). L3ekishikanP*edia Watchin!. 1''. ##. takin! into account. To. ##. .&%. (8ia 6aiheiyou senso (2wanami Shinsho. ##. ##. .M in 2wanami kozaI (8ia 6aiheiyo senso %. L6he SWashin!ton SystemK and 2ts (ftermathI 3ee)a uatin! (fter 2m#eria ism 7rom the =ers#ecti)e of >a#anese Historio!ra#hy. NBO 7or e)idence. citin! 3obert +ora ski. . the #references of the ma8ority conser)ati)e #arty in the Lower House of the im#eria $iet.5-%Q Roshida Rutaka.M in 2wanami kozaI (8ia 6aiheiyo senso 0. N0.%?. ##.M 9ikan senso sekinin kenkyu. and Fa!ai Hitoshi. #. N. #. ##. L9anshusha ato!aki. #.. N0'O 7rom the start of his rei!n. . #.&. 9awashima 6akane. 0?B.%-&. Senso no sei8i!aku (2wanami Shoten.Q Rui $aizaburo.'B-?.?. N&O See the comments of Roshida Rutaka.. LSekaishi no naka no (8ia 6aiheiyo senso. Wor d War 22 ( manacI 0?. cha#ters 0 throu!h 5. N.O /iA. N0BO Ramada (kira. (s 6akashima notes.). .%?. ?5-?%. .'1. (. Heads of +o)ernment and 7orei!n *inister..01-0?. .''&).0-. . #. ?5.M ##.-B. "h. . N. 6rans ated by Okabe *akio..'-.-. B. see /iA. N. became the a##ointers of the #rime minister.O 2n contrast to the authoritarian #o itica order in the 4nited States under the /ush administration. dai %B !o (Winter ... #. . where the Lcommander-in-chiefM and his subordinates #ub ic y defend torture. . %'&-%0?. ##.''&). See /iA. .M 2nternationa >ourna of (sian Studies. . ##.. LHeishitachi no Fit"hu senso. 5. Fo.''%).B. N0?O /iA.&0-.&O "ited in Roshida Rutaka. N. es#. with the aid of the ast +enro. dai ikkan.00-0. .5O 6akashima. contem#t for the ru e of aw was ne)er the !o)ernin! #rinci# e of the im#eria state. ..''. 5'?-0'. N00O *ori Shi!eki.''1). ? (0??5). L6enno no senso sekininron e no shateiM N6he 6ra8ectory of the Dm#erorKs War 3es#onsibi ityO in 2wanami 9ozaI (8ia-6aiheiyo senso. LSenso sekininron no !enzai. Euotin! from the work of *asumi >unnosuke. #.O /iA. .M #.BB-?.51. N. endnote %. (t such moments they c arified their #o icy #references to the #rime minister desi!nate.0Q 6akashima Fobuyoshi. N. N. N1O /iA. Sen8o no shoso (2wanami Shoten.#. ##.''&). %B%-&. 0. . Hirohito and the *akin! of *odern >a#an.BO (rthur Watts. . in Showa tenno. . .
. .. N. To .). To . Rasumaro ca s attention to the medie)a /uddhist tradition of no discrimination between enemy and a y (onshin byodo) and contrasts it to the Rasukuni #ractice of sortin! out the war dead. . #. #.. 0?5%-. see 6ony >udt. N. ). Son! >iAiao et a Q 9o Hanako et a ..and the =rob em of War 3es#onsibi ity. ). .&O Ramada (kira. 0??0).Q Rasumaru Roshio. see Uubok. hen. .&.1ffQ /iA.. 2wanami 6enno. .5O See 7ranziska Sera#him. N.N. Fo.-. .M in Hara 6akeshi. .. 6he ar!e y (merican mishand in! of its re#arations c auses.'. 0'. #. 0??1). in >ourna of >a#anese Studies. . #. and "onc usion. (Summer 0??. . War *emory and Socia =o itics in >a#an. ##. . &15-11.%. N5'O *ark (.''0). ##.%O 7or detai ed #eriodization and discussion see (kazawa.1O Roshida Rutaka.5-. =ress. Roshida Rutaka. B'?. . es#. has been in force since (#ri 0?%.). LHeishitachi no Fit"hu sensou.?%-. LRasukuni 8in8a.. N.''&. Fihon no senso zukai to deeta (Hara Shobo.?. Source: htt :NN+++68a anfocus6orgN4Herbert[P[4Bi9N$%(& . 0'..M in 2wanami 9oza (8ia-6aiheiyou sensou.''% (Har)ard 4ni). ##. $ai % kan. #.% (7a 0???). N.BO On #rotectin! the monarchy by refrainin! from )isitin! Rasukuni. 05B-?...O On ear y #ostwar attitudes toward Hit er. N. ?.''%). entry of (#ri .&. 0?5&.'. !okoku 8in8a. ##. . 0B. 6he San 7rancisco =eace treaty. >a#an. in 9ikan senso sekinin kenkyu. .'O /iA.''&).1.. was a cause of acute disa!reements at the time..O On the disinte!ration of the So)iet 4nion. 0?B. =ostwarI ( History of Duro#e Since 0?5% (6he =en!uin =ress. ##.. Fo. N.Sen!oshi no naka no !unkeiho.M in (merican >ourna of 2nternationa Law... Fo. which were cursory in nature and acked eA# icit detai . 0 (>an. . LFishimatsu "onstruction "o. .''B). Le)in. koshitsu 8iten (2wanami Shoten. N. . 9usa no ne fuashizumuI Fihon minshu no senso taiken (6okyo $ai!aku Shu##ankai. ?. N. L9okkashu!i to musubu tokui na sonzai subete no rei no hifun ni kenmoku oM in (sahi shinbun ((u!.6he Showa Dm#eror-s -*ono o!ue. si!ned in Se#tember 0?%0.0O Roshimi Roshiaki. .?O Roshida Rutaka. citin! 9uwata Uei and *aehara 6oshie.5&. cha#ters B. see 6akamatsu Fomiya nikki B ("huo 9oronsha. Sen8ou no shosou (2wanami Shoten.''%).
S. )9entually.' 0 &eature &ilm under the same title (as screened throu/hout Japan and the occupied territories o& 0sia. and numerous ci9ilians -ecame 9ictims o& aerial -om-in/ conducted -y the $.cto-er 1 > . the then Prime Minister and Minister o& the 0rmy.S. many &rom star9ation. &orces that entered the city on 3 #e-ruary. 4n the middle o& the Battle o& Leyte.S. Pamashita (as han/ed in Manila on "3 #e-ruary 1 !G.777 Japanese soldiers (ere dead.n the e9enin/ o& 1> #e-ruary 1 !". -ut they re&used to mo9e. He opposed the plan de9ised -y the 4mperial HeadBuarters in 5okyo to send some o& his troops to Leyte -ecause o& the lack o& &ood and ammunition supplies as (ell as ships to transport them there. 0 /roup o& 0merican military la(yers (ho de&ended Pamashita appealed the 9erdict to the $. Pamashita -elon/in/ to a di&&erent military &action to his o(n.S.Last Words of the Tiger of Malaya. Pamashita had ordered all troops stationed in Manila to e9acuate the city (ithin si* (eeks and his headBuarters (as also mo9ed to Ba/uio in the mountains o& northern Lu. By the time Pamashita surrendered to the $. 0lthou/h the British &orces had the ad9anta/e o& much /reater num-ers.ne o& the ma8or reasons &or +hinese and Korean pu-lic criticism o& Prime Minister Koi.). 0s the commander (ho led the Japanese 4mperial 0rmy troops to in9ade Sin/apore in #e-ruary 1 !". em-ellished and proudly pu-lici. )9entually all the Japanese troops (ho had remained in the city to &i/ht the 0mericans perished. the appeal (as re8ected -y &i9e to t(o. and sent appro*imately 67. 5he Japanese troops num-ered "7. Japanese tortured and killed many ci9ilians -elie9ed to -e mem-ers or colla-orators o& /uerrilla /roups opposin/ Japan. Se9en amon/ them includin/ 5o8o Hideki and Matsui 4(ane (ere e*ecuted at the conclusion o& the 5okyo War +rimes 5ri-unal and the other se9en died either durin/ the tri-unal or (hile ser9in/ their sentences.2 4n &act. 0s a result.S. he had simply instructed his interpreter to ask Perci9al (hether he (as prepared to accept unconditional surrender. he (as una-le to diso-ey his immediate superior. 5he e9idence su//ests. came under Pamashita's command -y late ?ecem-er. Pasukuni Shrine also sancti&ies many B and +A+lass (ar criminals. Less than &i9e months a&ter the &all o& Sin/apore. . =eneralA+ommander o& the Southern 0rmy. 4mmediately a&ter the surrender. Pamashita. 5his landin/ (as an hour and "7 minutes -e&ore the attack on Pearl Har-or and thus. &orces. he (as dispatched as +ommander o& the 1!th 0rea 0rmy in the Philippines. as commander o& all Japanese &orces in the Philippines. creatin/ an ima/e o& him as a ruthless militarist. Mac0rthur.in/ Sin/apore. 4n midA?ecem-er 1 !!. (ith the (ar situation deterioratin/ &or Japan. these troops &ou/ht &iercely a/ainst the $.cto-er 1 !!. (ho had -een =o9ernor o& the Philippines. Supreme +ourt.ed -y the Japanese media as em-lematic o& Japan's ne( con&idence and stren/th. strictly speakin/.cto-er 1 !!. completely unsuspected -y the British &orces armed (ith lar/eA-ore artillery that (ere de&endin/ Sin/apore &rom sea-orne attack 9ia the Straits o& Malacca. he (as nicknamed the '5i/er o& Malaya. troops (ho landed at the island's Lin/aen Bay on January 1 !>. . (as arrested as a (ar criminal.S. &orces. char/ed (ith responsi-ility &or atrocities committed -y Japanese &orces under his command a/ainst ci9ilians in Manila. court martial conducted a s(i&t trial and sentenced him to death on F ?ecem-er 1 !>. "17.777 #ilipino ci9ilians (ere killed. &orces on Leyte 4sland. there-y escapin/ the dan/erous -attle&ield situation that en9eloped all Japanese &orces in the Philippines. 5he story o& this ne/otiation (as. He arri9ed in Manila on G . ad9ance troops o& the ">th 0rmy led -y Lieutenant =eneral Pamashita landed at Kota Bharu on the east coast o& the Malay Peninsula (ith the aim o& sei. What (as Pamashita's responsi-ility &or the crimes committed -y Japanese troops a/ainst local ci9ilians and P.ne o& those is 5omoyuki Pamashita. 0ustralian. the British not only ha9in/ underestimated the a-ility o& the Japanese &orces. Pamashita (on the so-riBuet '5i/er o& Malaya. (ho (as enshrined on 1F .S.777D the de&endin/ troops consisted o& 66. &led shortly a&ter the Japanese in9asion in late ?ecem-er 1 !1. #or &our (eeks. &orces in June 1 !>.on. Japanese correspondents reportin/ the meetin/ claimed that Pamashita a//ressi9ely demanded% 24s the British 0rmy /oin/ to surrender immediatelyQ 0ns(er 'Pes' or '<o'. Ho(e9er. General Yamashita Tomoyuki By Yuki Tanaka The final reflections of a convicted war criminal enshrined at Yasukuni Jinja . a-out 177. 5o8o demoted Pamashita (hom he percei9ed as a threat. -ut in 1 !!. and that he e*ercised no command o9er those &orces durin/ the -attle.' 0t "%1> am on the mornin/ o& 6 ?ecem-er 1 !1. 8ust t(o (eeks prior to the landin/ o& $. 5erauchi mo9ed his headBuarters &rom Manila to Sai/on in Iietnam.777 British. =eneral 5erauchi Hisaichi. ho(e9er.777 $.777 troops o& the 31st <a9al Base #orce. 5he result (as a disaster AA F percent died. Pamashita's troops continued to &i/ht in the mountains despite su&&erin/ (idespread disease and star9ation.Ws in the PhilippinesQ When he arri9ed in Manila as +ommander o& the 1!th 0rea 0rmy in . Perci9al o& the British #orces met at the #ord Motor &actory outside Sin/apore to ne/otiate the surrender o& the +ommon(ealth &orces.777 Japanese troops stationed across Lu. Pamashita and Lieutenant =eneral 0. the $. 5he -ack/round to this a&&air (as =eneral Mac0rthur's determination to turn the trial o& the '5i/er o& Malaya' into a sho(case. he (as posted to remote northern Manchuria as commander o& the #irst 0rea 0rmy -y =eneral Hideki 5o8o. -ut -ein/ insu&&iciently trained in 8un/le (ar&are and lackin/ adeBuate communication amon/ their &orces. ?ue to the s(i&t 9ictory o& his military campai/n and the success&ul capture o& Sin/apore. many o& (hom (ere directly responsi-le &or atrocities committed throu/hout the 0siaAPaci&ic re/ion. there (ere insu&&icient arms and ammunition &or the "6F. Pamashita (as promoted to =eneral in #e-ruary 1 !3. marks the -e/innin/ o& the Paci&ic War.umi's 9isit to Pasukuni Shrine is that 1! out o& "6 0A+lass Japanese (ar criminals are enshrined there.on 4sland under Pamashita's command as they &aced 1 1. 0s lar/e Buantities o& supplies had already -een e*hausted in the Battle o& Leyte. initially under the command o& 3earA0dmiral 4(a-uchi. that he (as una(are o& the crimes committed -y the mem-ers o& the <a9al Base #orce (ho had re&used to o-ey his order to mo9e out o& Manila. ?espite (eak le/al /rounds &or his personal responsi-ility &or those crimes. the Japanese communication and supply system . 5he ">th 0rmy s(i&tly ad9anced south to(ards Sin/apore. )&&ecti9ely.S. and 4ndian soldiers and Malay 9olunteers. anticipatin/ the landin/ o& the $. 0-out "7.777 troops to Leyte -y early ?ecem-er. Sin/apore &ell relati9ely Buickly. Many (omen (ere raped -y the Japanese troops. 4n the course o& the campai/n. ho(e9er. ho(e9er.
Pamashita's second point (as that there could -e no (eapons or military strate/ies to de&end oursel9es a/ainst nuclear (eapons.2 ho(e9er.S. Ho(e9er. and a-o9e all in li/ht o& the &ailure o& the <P5 3e9ie( +on&erence in May "77> to ad9ance the a-olition o& nuclear (eapons. He concluded that this (as one o& the crucial reasons &or Japan's de&eat in (ar. By this sta/e the soldiers (ere desperate in the &ace o& se9ere shorta/es o& &ood.umi AA seek to saniti.on. Ho(e9er. 4ndeed. #or this reason. Politicians like Mr. resultin/ in the deaths o& a &urther G7. 5hese pro-lems intensi&ied a&ter his headBuarters (as mo9ed to Ba/uio (hile the troops (ere scattered throu/hout the mountains o& northern Lu.ed to all the people o& the Philippines &or the atrocities that his troops committed. 4& the British &orces had conducted Pamashita's (ar crime tri-unal. should also -e reminded o& =eneral . Many more (ould die a/oni. and the morale o& the troops (as 9ery lo(. Such statements o& remorse at not ha9in/ died in com-at are not unusual and most (ar criminals' &inal statements are &ull o& sel&A8usti&ication &or (hat they did durin/ the (ar.ard methods used to &ind these 2antiAJapanese elements. . 0-e Shin.777. the de&ense la(yers. )stimates o& the toll 9aried -et(een G.(as already in turmoil. 4n <a/asaki. themsel9es mem-ers o& the 0merican armed &orces. he clearly accepted responsi-ility as commander and the 8ud/ment 2-y ri/orous -ut impartial la(. Pamashita made no e*cuses &or the atrocities that his soldiers committed a/ainst the people o& the Philippines. (omen and children. By the time he &aced e*ecution. 4nterestin/ly ho(e9er. But he remained apprehensi9e a-out their a-ility to do so. shortly -e&ore he (as han/ed. ?ue to the hapha. dictated to Buddhist prison chaplain Morita Shokaku.. )mperor Hirohito. Many soldiers ne9er recei9ed Pamashita's orders and instructions. 0rmy. he clearly had come to the reali. (ounds.ed the pain o& the 9ictims o& Japanese atrocities.777 +hinese. thou/ht the trial a 2kan/aroo court2 AA a political e*ercise AA sta/ed -y the $.' 0t the time. and that this e9entually led people in 0sia and else(here to distrust Japan.ation that Japan's -rutal military actions (ere due to the lack o& a sense o& personal responsi-ility to(ard others that may -e eBuated (ith the concept o& 2human ri/hts2. his tone -ecame Buite strai/ht&or(ard and con&ident. #or their part. in contrast to other =enerals. Surprisin/ly. .777 and 177. e9en -y 8unior o&&icers.ed on the occasion o& the G7th anni9ersary o& the -om-in/ o& Hiroshima and <a/asaki in 0u/ust "77>.dropped on Hiroshima killed -et(een F7. 4n the courtroom. :5he 0A-om. a-out "77 9ictims and (itnesses to 9arious Japanese atrocities /a9e detailed accounts o& Japanese atrocities. $ndou-tedly the trials (ere un&air -ecause the 0llies ruled out consideration o& (ar crimes committed -y their o(n &orces AA the most o-9ious e*ample o& (ar crimes committed -y the $nited States -ein/ the droppin/ o& atomic -om-s on Hiroshima and <a/asaki. 5his is indicated -y his e*pression 2your personal responsi-ility in relations (ith other people2 :emphasis added. and ur/ed the Japanese to -ecome 2cultured and di/ni&ied2 people.ne o&&icer. displayin/ remorse &or his troops' (ar crimes.777 +hinese li9ed in Sin/apore and antiAJapanese sentiment (as ri&e a&ter a decade o& Japanese in9asion and (ar -e/innin/ in Manchuria in 1 31 and continuin/ in +hina &rom 1 3F.ation o& many men. on the ad9ice o& his 0merican la(yers.2 such as communists and supporters o& the =uomindan/. Similar atrocities (ere also carried out across the Malaya Peninsula. 5hus some o& his (ords in the &irst &e( para/raphs do not really make sense. 0lthou/h he did not use the term 2human ri/hts2 :and pro-a-ly he (as not &amiliar (ith that terminolo/y. -ut in his personal (ill he hum-ly ackno(led/ed his &ailure as commander to discipline his soldiers and punish those (ho committed crimes a/ainst the people o& the Philippines. un&airness in the tri-unals themsel9es does not in9alidate the criminality o& the numerous atrocities committed -y Japanese soldiers durin/ the 0siaAPaci&ic War. nor does it call into Buestion the responsi-ility o& their commanders. althou/h it (as pro-a-ly around !7. he appears to ha9e internali. and an estimated 1!7. he (ould certainly ha9e -een &ound /uilty &or this appallin/ lar/eAscale massacre o& +hinese.. reportedly -oasted that he (ould reduce the +hinese population o& Sin/apore to hal& -y implementin/ Pamashita's order. the (ords 2moral 8ud/ment2 are repeatedly used in order to ur/e the Japanese people to respect the human ri/hts o& others. and many commands (ere i/nored. this does not automatically e*empt Pamashita &rom responsi-ility &or all Japanese military atrocities. he denied responsi-ility &or the crimes committed -y those under his command. a +hinese /uerilla &orce set up (ith the help o& British &orces support &ou/ht &iercely a/ainst the in9adin/ Japanese troops a&ter the &all o& Sin/apore. He ascri-ed the &undamental cause o& (ar crimes to the Japanese peoples' ina-ility to make independent moral 8ud/ments.n 16 #e-ruary 1 !". the e*ercise ended as a massacre o& lar/e num-ers o& innocent ci9ilians. listenin/ day a&ter day to pain&ul stories o& the 9ictimi. Masano-u 5su8i. 4t seems that he (ished to 8usti&y his decision to surrender rather than commit suicide. and radiation. .e Japan's military conduct durin/ the 0siaAPaci&ic War. 4t must ha9e -een an e*cruciatin/ e*perience &or Pamashita. (ere an addition to his (ritten (ill.777. a messa/e to the Japanese people.777 people in an instant. the Japanese occupation &orce amassed and interro/ated "77. When Pamashita o9ercame his initial di&&iculty in e*plainin/ himsel& and started talkin/ a-out his hopes &or the Japanese people.777 people are -elie9ed to ha9e died -y the end o& the same year. 5hese (ords. F7. His dictated messa/e started in a state o& con&usion AA many ideas must ha9e rushed to mind 8ust hours -e&ore his e*ecution. medicine and ammunition. 0t the hearin/. e9en thou/h the proceedin/s conducted -y the $S 0rmy (ere patently un&air. 5he re8ection -y the 31st <a9al Base #orce o& Pamashita's order to e9acuate Manila (as a typical e*ample o& a situation a//ra9ated -y the lon/standin/ 0rmyA<a9y ri9alry.777 and 67. He (elcomed the prospect that the Japanese in de&eat (ould -elatedly -e /i9en the &reedom to make their o(n moral 8ud/ments. particularly in the current situation (here some nationalist scholars and many Japanese politicians AA includin/ Prime Minister Koi. Pamashita issued an order to 'select and remo9e hostile +hinese. Moreo9er. (ho think that Japan should de9elop nuclear arms &or de&ense purposes.777 died -y the end o& 1 !>.777 +hinese men a/ed -et(een 1> and >7. in (hich he sincerely apolo/i. three days a&ter the capture o& Sin/apore. He o-9iously had a deep sense o& /uilt at ha9in/ sur9i9ed (hile many men under his command died. someho( o9ercomin/ his o(n oldA&ashioned militarist ideolo/y and replacin/ it (ith a remarka-le sel&Acriticism. it seems that Pamashita (as pro&oundly a&&ected -y the tri-unal.in/ deaths in su-seBuent years &rom the -last..n the contrary. includin/ that o& the Supreme +ommander.o. 5his is clear &rom his last (ords. 4t is a (ellAesta-lished &act that the killin/ o& ci9ilians in (artime is contrary to international la(. particularly =eneral Mac0rthur.2 4t seems ironic that many conser9ati9e politicians (ho support Prime Minister Koi.umi's o&&icial 9isits to Pasukuni Shrine no( claim that the (ar crime tri-unals conducted -y the 0llied &orces (ere simply 29ictor's 8ustice2 and there&ore had no le/al 9alidity. 5his should also -e reAemphasi. We need to re&lect on this statement care&ully. as (ell as criminals. a-out G77. in an attempt to root out the soAcalled 2antiAJapanese elements.
Hence it is a su-8ect o& inBuiry (hich can on no account -e ne/lected.S. 4 understand that this is Buite natural. as 4 (as a pro&essional soldier and dedicated mysel& to the military. ho(e9er. =eor/e Washin/ton.Pamashita's (ords that the 2only method to de&end oursel9es a/ainst atomic -om-s2 is 2to esta-lish nations all o9er the (orld that (ould ne9er contemplate the use o& such (eapons. that his 9ie(s on this issue (ere closely intert(ined (ith his deep sense o& personal responsi-ility &or the deaths o& many youn/ men under his command. Pamashita 5omoyuki's Last Messa/e to the Japanese People ?ue to my carelessness and personal crassness. (hom 4 had de&eated Lin Sin/aporeM. 4t (as entirely due to our military authorities' ar-itrary decisions. no matter ho( you all mi/ht despise me. 4n &act. He came to hold the 9ie( that (omen should play more important roles in -uildin/ peace.ed -y the /o9ernment (ho try to rationali. (hich (ere made -y 8ust a hand&ul o& people. Here (e can discern Pamashita's hope that the ne( Japanese society should -e -uilt on the principles o& (omen. But e9en (hile -ein/ a military man. 4 also ha9e a relati9ely stron/ sense as a Japanese citi.in/ the importance o& mothers educatin/ their children sounds like male chau9inism. ha9in/ -een 8ud/ed -y ri/orous -ut impartial la(.u said '5he art o& (ar is o& 9ital importance to the State. #rom ancient times. Perhaps &or this reason he romantici. in 9iolation o& the samurai's code o& 2dyin/ at the appropriate time in an appropriate place.2 +losely e*aminin/ Pamashita's last (ords. 5he e*perience that you (ent throu/h. Sun 5. #or a person like me (ho constantly &aced death. that a lar/e num-er o& our people died and the rest o& the nation (as dra//ed into its present un-eara-le su&&erin/. Pro-a-ly some appropriate policies (ill -e adopted -y the 0llied . -earin/ shame to stay ali9e and atone &or my sins until natural death comes. Pou may think that 4 am a -orn a//ressor and a typical militarist. cope (ith 9arious circumstances. 4 &eel as i& my heart (ill -reak (hen 4 think that (e pro&essional soldiers (ill -ecome the o-8ect o& your -itter resentment. the path o& re-uildin/ the nation (ill not -e easy in the &ace o& many o-stacles. (ho did not yet kno( that the (ar (as o9er at that time. (ill ine9ita-ly /i9e you some stren/th. We must understand. By re&usin/ to take my o(n li&e.& course 4 should ha9e committed suicide (hen 4 surrendered. 4 (ould still ha9e chosen a di&&icult path. ad9ocate the a-olition o& the Peace +onstitution. as those stationed around Kian/an (ere ready to commit suicide. 4 tried my -est to pre9ent the (ar. appreciate cooperation (ith others and ha9e a stron/ (ill to contri-ute to mankind (hen they /ro( up. at (hich =eneral Perci9al. it -ecomes crystalAclear that the conclusions he dre( &rom his (ar e*perience are &undamentally at odds (ith the rei/nin/ ideolo/y o& Pasukuni Shrine and its supporters. His statement that 2the dri9in/ &orce o& peace is in the heart o& (omen2 sums up his thou/hts on this issue. 4 am really sorry and cannot &ind appropriate (ords &or sincere apolo/ies as 4 am really con&used -ecause o& my e*cruciatin/ a/ony. you really must not include militarists (ho are the relics o& the past or opportunistic unprincipled politicians. 4t is a matter o& li&e and death. 4 really &elt pain &rom the shame o& remainin/ ali9e.ed the -ond -et(een mothers and their children. -ut the time has come to atone &or my /uilt (ith my death. su//est the necessity o& possessin/ nuclear arms 2&or the purpose o& de&endin/ the country. 4 -elie9e that the Potsdam ?eclaration (ill (ipe out the leaders o& military cliBues (ho led the nation to its do(n&all. a road either to sa&ety or to ruin. 4 do not kno( ho( to e*press my apolo/y. e9en thou/h it (as as an un(elcome result o& pressure &rom the military authorities. 5here is no resurrection any lon/er &or the ruined nation and the dead. and Japan (ill start re-uildin/ as a peace&ul nation under ne( leaders elected -y the popular (ill. deride the le/ality o& the 5okyo War +rimes 5ri-unal as 9ictor's 8ustice. somethin/ must ha9e occurred that led him to dramatically chan/e his 9ie(s on /ender and society. 4t should -e noted that his /oal (as to educate Japanese youth 2to -e a-le to li9e independently. 5o construct a ne( Japan.en. promote nationalistic education policies and te*t-ooks. . these (ords o& a Japanese /eneral at the hour o& his e*ecution are &ully consistent (ith the spirit o& eternal peace that the 0A-om. 4 do not think that all the crimes &or (hich 4 am responsi-le can easily -e liBuidated simply -y my death. deny Japan's (ar responsi-ilities. ?urin/ the conduct o& his trial. 4 am really ashamed o& ha9in/ -een una-le to do so -ecause o& my (eakness. 4t is remarka-le that hal& o& his &inal (ords (ere addressed to (omen. He (as surely that rare person amon/st Japanese military leaders (ho (as a-le to see the &undamental link -et(een (ar and male 9iolence. and indeed on (ar and peace. (ar has al(ays -een a matter &or e*ceptional prudence -y (ise rulers and sensi-le soldiers.' #rom these (ords. as . or scholars patroni. 4 committed an ine*cusa-le -lunder as the commander o& the entire L1!th 0reaM 0rmy and conseBuently caused the deaths o& your precious sons and dearest hus-ands. But 4 (ould like to say somethin/ on this point. Ho(e9er. 4t is a stran/e coincidence that the e*ecution is to -e carried out on the -irthday o& the &irst $. Iarious indeli-le stains that 4 le&t on the history o& mankind cannot -e o&&set -y the mechanical termination o& my li&e.2 4 there&ore can ima/ine ho( much more di&&icult it is &or people like you to remain ali9e and reA-uild Japan rather than -ein/ e*ecuted as a (ar criminal. not those o& men. -ecause my campai/n in Malaya and the &all o& Sin/apore e*cited the entire Japanese nation. (e learn that our military &orces (ere lethal (eapons and their 9ery e*istence (as a crime. 4& 4 (ere not a (ar criminal.ccupation #orces. speci&ically po(er and 9iolence. His last point emphasi. especially in the &ield o& education. endurin/ 9arious di&&iculties and po9erty in the last ten years o& (ar. to die is not at all di&&icult. 0s the commander o& your -elo9ed men. 4 am soon to recei9e the death penalty. usin/ 2-reast&eedin/2 as an o9erridin/ metaphor &or nurturin/ and educatin/ children.9ictims o& Hiroshima and <a/asaki ha9e lon/ ad9ocated. lo9e peace. 4 am not sure ho( he o9ercame his o(n patriarchal -elie&s in the ei/ht months -et(een his surrender and e*ecution. Ho(e9er.2 and sho( no interest at all in impro9in/ (omen's social and economic status. imposin/ all responsi-ilities &or raisin/ children on (omen. 4 once decided to do so (hen 4 attended the surrender ceremonies at Kian/an and Ba/uio.2 4ndeed. (as also present.e an a//ressi9e (ar. 4t is an historical irony that =eneral Pamashita is (orshipped -y neoAnationalist politicians (ho claim that Pasukuni Shrine is sacred. 4 (as a-le to set my men &ree &rom meanin/less deaths. president. as ordered -y the emperor in accordance (ith the Japanese code o& the samurai. What pre9ented me &rom committin/ such an e/ocentric act (as the presence o& my soldiers. 4 do not e*cuse mysel&.
(hat 4 thou/ht (as the &undamental reason &or Japan's de&eat. 5he time o& my e*ecution is dra(in/ near. the &irst thin/ you notice is the unscienti&ic (ay o& li&e o& the Japanese. 5here&ore. We made the /reatest mistake AA unprecedented in (orld history AA -y tryin/ to make up &or the lack o& materials and scienti&ic kno(led/e (ith human -odies. But in addition to apolo/i. 5hat is my (ish.nly throu/h that path can eternal peace -e attained in the (orld. Without a sense o& duty. 4n a &ree society. 4 ha9e only one hour and &orty minutes le&t. (e (ould not ha9e killed so many o& our o(n men. We tried to &i/ht a/ainst the superior &orces o& the $nited States and to (in the (ar -y thro(in/ a(ay the priceless li9es o& our nation as su-stitutes &or -ullets and -om-s. 4n the car on the (ay to Ba/uio &rom Kian/an. 4 (ill pray &or Japan's restoration &rom a /ra9e in a &orei/n country. 4& there (ill -e another (ar some(here in the (orld :althou/h 4 hope there (on't -e. (e had to remind people o& this all the time. a democratic and cooperati9e society cannot e*ist. 4 am not sayin/ that this is the only reason. 5his is the task that is /i9en to humanity. it (as &ar &rom true that o&&icers under my command carried out their duties satis&actorily. 4& you tra9el outside Japan. 4 (onder i& you'll -e da. a thousand emotions o9er(helm me. (e repent ha9in/ done (ron/. 5he atomic -om-s dropped on Hiroshima and <a/asaki (ere horrendous (eapons. 4 o&ten discussed this (ith my 8unior o&&icers. 5he moral decay o& our military (as so /ra9e that the 4mperial +ode o& Military +onduct as (ell as the #ield Ser9ice +ode (ere simply dead letters. 4 (ould like you to culti9ate and accept the common moral 8ud/ment o& the (orld. 4 am con&ident that. and make it a hi/hly cultured one like ?enmark. a&ter -ein/ released &rom lon/Astandin/ social restraints. Human -ein/s throu/hout the (orld. Pou are e*pected to -e independent and car9e out your o(n &uture. Somethin/ suppressed &or a lon/ time in my su-Aconsciousness suddenly -urst out and 4 instantly responded 2science.led -y suddenly -esto(ed &reedom.in/. We e*posed our pilots to dan/er -y strippin/ 9ital eBuipment &rom the planes in order to 8ust sli/htly impro9e their mo-ility. the people o& the nation o& Japan as it resurrects. 4& there is any method to de&end a/ainst atomic -om-s AA the (eapon that has made o-solete all past (ar&are AA it (ould simply -e to create nations all o9er the (orld that (ould ne9er contemplate the use o& such (eapons. Pro-a-ly only con9icts on death ro( are capa-le o& comprehendin/ the 9alue o& one hour and &orty minutes. Mr. -ut it (as clearly one important reason &or Japan's de&eat. and /ro( a/ain (hen sprin/ comes. you ha9e e*pelled the militarists and (ill /ain your o(n independence. considerin/ that you are suddenly to -e li-erated &rom the social restraints under (hich you ha9e lon/ li9ed. ?uties can only -e carried out correctly -y a socially mature person (ith an independent mind and (ith culture and di/nity. #rom ancient times. 0s a ruined people. 4 (ould like you to promote education in science.ine Pouth asked. Japanese people. <o one can a9oid this responsi-ility and choose an easy (ay. 4 asked Mr. . 5hey (ere una-le to &ul&ill e9en the duties that (ere imposed upon them. 5o search &or truth (ith Japan's irrational and cliBuish mentality is like searchin/ &or &ish amon/ the trees. as you'9e recei9ed -asically the same education as military men. Weeds ha9e a stron/ li&e &orce. Please stand up &irmly a&ter the ra9a/es o& (ar. #acin/ death. -ut /a9e up rearmin/ themsel9es and made their in&ertile areas into one o& the most cultured o& )uropean nations. #irst. ?enmark lost its &ertile land in Schles(i/A Holstein as the result o& the =ermanA?enmark War in 16G3. 4t used to -e said that it (ould al(ays -e possi-le to &i/ht a/ainst a ne( method o& attack. 5his sho(s ho( little kno(led/e (e had &or conductin/ (ar. it is e*pected end in a short time throu/h the use o& horri&ic scienti&ic (eapons. a prison chaplain. 4nstead (e could ha9e sent them -ack home to use the kno(led/e as the &oundation to re-uild a . Morita. 5his is still true.. -ecause 4 am a man o& action. <e9er -e&ore ha9e so many people -een killed instantly in the lon/ history o& slau/hterin/ human -ein/s. ?uty has to -e &ul&illed as a result o& sel&Are/ulatin/ and naturally moti9ated action. 4 ha9e not had enou/h time to study the 0A-om-. 4 &eel sorry that 4 cannot e*press mysel& 9ery (ell. and (hether some may &ail to carry out your duty as reBuired in relations (ith others. you should nurture your o(n a-ility to make moral 8ud/ments in order to carry out your duties. 4 ha9e &our thin/s to say to you. 4 &eel some mis/i9in/s in thinkin/ a-out this. you (ill re-uild our nation no( completely destroyed. We soldiers had /reat di&&iculties in securin/ the necessary materials to &i/ht and to make up &or the lack o& scienti&ic kno(led/e. #aced (ith e*ecution in a 9ery short time. is a-out carryin/ out one's duty. 4 presume. 4n this (ar. to record these (ords and 4 hope he (ill pass my ideas on to you some day. reticent and (ith a limited 9oca-ulary. 0 de&eated o&&icer like me re&lects sadly that i& (e had had superior scienti&ic kno(led/e and su&&icient scienti&ic (eapons. is (ell -elo( (orld standards. 4 (ant to e*press my 9ie(s on certain matters. e9en in the military (here o-edience (as stron/ly demanded and de&yin/ orders (as not allo(ed at all. (ill make e&&orts to pre9ent such a terri-le (ar AA not 8ust the Japanese (ho thorou/hly endured the horror o& this (ar. Iarious methods o& horrendous suicide attack (ere in9ented. <o one can deny that the le9el o& Japan's modern science. no matter ho( hard they are trodden under&oot. (ith stron/ determination &or de9elopment. 5he &undamental reason (hy the (orld has lost con&idence in our nation. this topic has repeatedly -een discussed -y scholars. yet it remains most di&&icult to achie9e. 5here&ore 4 ha9e some concern o9er your a-ility to &ul&ill your duty 9oluntarily and independently. My present state o& mind is Buite di&&erent &rom that at the time o& surrender. apart &rom certain minor areas. 5he &oolish methods o& (ar that Japan adopted (ill -e re/arded as the illusions o& an idiot. 0s 4 ha9e -een in prison.. a 8ournalist o& the ma/a. 3o-ert MacMillan. and -ecome a people (ho &ul&ill duties on your o(n responsi-ility. -ut 4 think that no (eapon (ill -e in9ented to de&end a/ainst atomic (eapons. 4 am a simple soldier. Second. and (hy (e ha9e so many (arAcrime suspects (ho le&t u/ly scars on our history. (as this lack o& morals.4 am 8ust a-out to die and thus ha9e /reat concern a-out Japan's &uture. 5his (as -ecause my lon/Alastin/ &rustration and intense an/er (ere loosened all at once (hen the (ar (as o9er.2 -e&ore re&errin/ to other important issues.
$ntirin/ motherin/ skills should naturally de9elop into a hi/her le9el o& educational skill. 4& you do not (ant to -e critici.i :ana. 4t is not enou/h &or a mother to think only a-out ho( to keep her children ali9e. Mother's lo9e (ill constantly &lo( into her -a-y's -ody throu/h -reast&eedin/.a is resear h 4rofessor at the 0iroshima 5ea e 7nstitute" a &oordinator of Ja4an #o us" and author of Ja4an. and they are not the 9irtues -y (hich one can sel&Ae*amine autonomously. 4t is science that (ill de9elop natural resources still to -e tapped.ccupation #orces. Pou alone can lay the &oundation &or education in its true meanin/. 4t is a mother's pri9ile/e to ha9e a special &eelin/ that no one else can ha9e (hen she cuddles and -reast&eeds her -a-y. enrich your education. Please utili. 0 /i&t is o&ten en8oyed as an o-8ect o& appreciation and not actually put to direct use. Mothers should /i9e their lo9e to their -a-y -oth physically and mentally. 4 can say that the position o& modern Japanese (omen is in&erior to that o& (omen in the (est./lorious and peace&ul country. please do your -est in educatin/ your o(n children. cope (ith 9arious circumstances.e that one o& a mother's responsi-ilities is a 9ery important role in the 2human education2 o& the ne*t /eneration. #rom my e*perience o& li9in/ in &orei/n countries &or a lon/ time. 4 am not a specialist on education and there&ore 4 am not sure ho( appropriate it is. 4 ha9e al(ays -een unhappy a-out the idea that modern education -e/ins at school. and (ill -e used &or peace&ul purposes to &ree human -ein/s &rom misery and po9erty. 0ttention to the -a-y's needs can -e the -asis &or education. (hile maintainin/ only the /ood elements o& e*istin/ 9alues. Pou should clearly reali. 4t should -e/in (hen you -reast&eed a ne(-orn -a-y. 0s &ree (omen. that (ill make human li&e rich. and nourishment can -e pro9ided -y other animals. #inally. the science that 4 mean is not science that leads mankind to destruction. 5hese are the last (ords o& the person (ho took your children's li9es a(ay &rom you.2 4n such 9alues.2 Please -ear this simple and ordinary phrase in your mind. or can -e su-stituted &or -y a -ottle.e your ne(ly /ained &reedom e&&ecti9ely and appropriately. Breast&eedin/ can -e done -y another.A4 Jast[=ords[of[the[Tiger[of[#ala"a[[General[Mamashita[Tomo"u2i . lo9e peace. Pour &reedom should not -e 9iolated or taken a(ay -y anyone. 4 (ant to mention the education o& (omen. Pou should raise the 8oy&ul &eelin/ o& -reast&eedin/ to the le9el o& intellectual emotion and re&ined lo9e. 5he hi/hest 9irtues &or Japanese (omen used to -e 2o-edience2 and 2&idelity. not one that they stru//led to acBuire themsel9es. 5he home is the most appropriate place &or educatin/ in&ants and the most appropriate teacher is the mother. you should -e united (ith (omen throu/hout the (orld and /i9e &ull play to your uniBue a-ilities as (omen. appreciate cooperation (ith others and ha9e a stron/ desire to contri-ute to humanity (hen they /ro( up. 5hird. 4 am sli/htly apprehensi9e a-out the &act that &reedom &or Japanese (omen is a /enerous /i&t &rom the . and -ecome ne( acti9e Japanese (omen. you (ill -e sBuanderin/ all the pri9ile/es that you ha9e -een /i9en. -ut 4 (ould like to call this kind o& education 2-reast&eedin/ education. 5he dri9in/ &orce &or peace is the heart o& (omen. )ducation does not -e/in at kinder/arten or on entry to elementary school. 4 ha9e heard that Japanese (omen ha9e -een li-erated &rom the &eudal state authorities and -een /i9en the pri9ile/e o& su&&ra/e.ed as (orthless (omen. 0 person (ho respects such castrated and sla9eAlike 9irtues has -een called a 2chaste (oman2 or praised as a 2loyal and -ra9e soldier. She should raise them to -e a-le to li9e independently. My hope is that you (ill -reak out o& your old shell. 5he &undamental elements o& &uture education must e*ist in em-ryo in mother's milk. as they are the -a-y's source o& li&e. 4& not. Ho(e9er. Pet nothin/ else can su-stitute &or mother's lo9e. there is one more thin/ that 4 (ould like to tell (omen AA you are either already a mother or (ill -ecome a mother in &uture.2 5hat (as no di&&erent &rom 2o-edient alle/iance2 in the military. there is no &reedom o& action or &reedom o& thou/ht. 9u.s &omfort /omen< Se-ual slavery and 4rostitution during /orld /ar 77 and the =S * u4ation< 0e 4re4ared this arti le for Ja4an #o us< 5osted Se4tem+er 22" 2!!2< The Asia4Pacific -ournal: -a an @ocus htt :NN+++68a anfocus6orgN[Mu2i[TANA.
1 !> edition. . 0pril 1!. 1 33 edition. and Hermann =oerin/ :ri/ht.i =erman 'leaders1 0dol& Hitler :le&t.i =erman 'leaders1 Joseph =oe--els :le&t. #e-ruary 1"./*RL6 /AR 77 '&ELE. 1 !1 edition.R7:7ES( *N :0E #R*N: &*>ER *# 0ENR9 L=&E?S TIME $A)A@7NE <a. 1 33 edition. July 17. and Heinrich Himmler :ri/ht. <a. 0u/ust "1.
.i =erman #ield Marshal #rit. )rich 9on Manstein appears on the &ront co9er o& the January 17.ine. 1 !" o& Time ma/a. 3i/ht% <a.i =erman 0dmiral )rich 3aeder appears on the &ront co9er o& the 0pril "7. 3i/ht% Iichy #rench leader Pierre La9al appears on the &ront co9er o& the 0pril "F. 1 !! o& Time ma/a.ine. Le&t% <a.ine. appears on the &ront co9er o& the #e-ruary ".i =erman 0dmiral Karl ?oenit. 1 !" edition o& Time ma/a.Le&t% <a. 1 !" edition o& Time ma/a.ine.
ine. 1 3! edition o& Time ma/a. . 1 !G. Le&t% Posuke Matsuoka.ine. 1 !6.. #orei/n Minister o& Japan :1 33A1 3G. and con9icted (ar criminal (ho (as e*ecuted -y han/in/ in 5okyo on ?ecem-er "3. and con9icted (ar criminal. 1 !1 edition o& Time ma/a. 1 !1 edition o& Time ma/a. 1 !" edition o& Time ma/a. Posuke Matsuoka ser9ed as the President o& South Manchuria 3ailroad &rom 1 3> until 1 3 . appears on the &ront co9er o& the July F. #orei/n Minister o& Japan :1 !7AJuly 1 !1.ine. appears on the &ront co9er o& the May "1.. appears on the &ront co9er o& the <o9em-er 3. +ommander o& 4mperial Japan@s #ourteenth 0rea 0rmy in the Philippines :1 !!A1 !>.Le&t% =eneral Hideki 5o8o.. Prime Minister o& Japan :1 3GA1 3F. 3i/ht% =eneral 5omoyuki Pamashita. (ho (as tried as a (ar criminal. 3i/ht% Koki Hirota. Prime Minister o& Japan :1 !1A1 !!.. Minister o& War :1 !7A1 !!.ine. appears on the &ront co9er o& the March ". 1 3FA1 36. and con9icted (ar criminal (ho (as sentenced to death in the Philippines on #e-ruary "3.
1 !!. . 1 !3 edition o& Time ma/a.cto-er 16. appears on the &ront co9er o& the <o9em-er 6.sami <a/ano. 0dmiral Ko/a died in a plane crash near Palau on March 31.ine. Minister o& the <a9y :.ine.Le&t% 0dmiral Shi/etaro Shimada. 3i/ht% 0dmiral Mineichi Ko/a. 1 !3 edition o& Time ma/a. and con9icted (ar criminal. 1 !1AJuly 1F.ine. 1 !! edition o& Time ma/a. Le&t% #leet 0dmiral .ine. . the +ommander in +hie& o& the +om-ined #leet o& the 4mperial <a9y o& Japan :1 !3A1 !!. 1 !6... +hie& o& Sta&& o& the +hina )*peditionary 0rmy :1 3 A1 !1. 3i/ht% =eneral Seishiro 4ta/aki. and con9icted (ar criminal (ho (as han/ed in 5okyo on ?ecem-er "3. 1 !" edition o& Time ma/a. (as tried as a '+lass 01 (ar criminal a&ter World War 44.. +hie& o& the 4mperial Japanese <a9y =eneral Sta&& :0pril 1 !1A#e-ruary 1 !!. 1 !!. appears on the &ront co9er o& 0u/ust 3. appears on the &ront co9er o& the July 3. Minister o& War :1 36A1 3 .sami <a/ano appears on the &ront co9er o& the #e-ruary 1>..
.ine.ine. Le&t% 4taly@s &ascist dictator Benito Mussolini appears on the &ront co9er o& the 0pril 6.ine. 1 !7 edition o& Time ma/a.ine@s Man o& the Pear. Prime Minister o& =reat Britain and Time ma/a. 1 !" edition o& Time ma/a.ine@s Man o& the Pear. 1 !1 edition o& Time ma/a. appears on the &ront co9er o& the January G. President o& the $nited States and Time ma/a. the dictator o& So9iet $nion and Time ma/a.ine. 3i/ht% Winston +hurchill. 3i/ht% Joseph Stalin. appears on the &ront co9er o& the January >. appears on the &ront co9er o& the January 1. 1 !7 edition o& Time ma/a.Le&t% #ranklin ?elano 3oose9elt.ine@s Man o& the Pear.
Le&t% Joseph +. 1 !1 edition o& Time ma/a.S.ine.S. Henry L. Sumner Welles.ine durin/ World War 44. Stimson. Secretary o& War &or 0ir :1 !1A1 !>. 1 3! edition o& Time ma/a. appears on the &ront co9er o& the #e-ruary . 0m-assador to Japan. . Henry L. the )ditorAinA+hie& o& Time ma/a. Lo9ett (ere mem-ers o& Skull E Bones. Lo9ett (ere mem-ers o& the +ouncil on #orei/n 3elations. appears on the &ront co9er o& the <o9em-er 1". 1 !1 edition o& Time ma/a. Stimson and 3o-ert 0.. $nder Secretary o& State. a secret society at Pale $ni9ersity. the $. 1 !" edition o& Time ma/a.. appears on the &ront co9er o& the 0u/ust 11. $.ine.S. =re(.S. Henry Luce. 0ssistant $.ine. and 3o-ert 0. Joseph +. appears on the &ront co9er o& the 0u/ust ">. Secretary o& War :1 !7A1 !>.Le&t% Henry L. 3i/ht% Sumner Welles. 3i/ht% 3o-ert 0. the $. Stimson. Lo9ett. =re(. (as also a mem-er o& Skull E Bones.ine.
The Atomic *ome in Hiroshima.am in Poland . -a an Ausch+itz4Bir2enau .oncentration .
Arlington National .emeter" in Arlington. Iirginia .
Tomb of the Ln2no+n Soldier .
2 ne)er thou!ht 2 wou d i)e to see that end. remains one of the most im#ortant Western eyewitness accounts. ess than a month after the first nuc ear war be!an with the bombin! of the city.. 7ew amon! the hundreds of 8ourna ists who swarmed to >a#an with the occu#yin! forces contem# ated the hazardous twenty-one-hour tri# south to Hiroshima or Fa!asaki. 7rank y. com# eted short y before his death in 0?B. and the first attem#t to come to terms with the fu human and mora conseEuences of the 4nited States.O 6hat one day in Hiroshima in Se#tember 0?5% affected /urchett as a #erson. With his ast book. at east at that sta!e. Shadows of Hiroshima.y %ic)ar' 3anter= Hiroshima had a #rofound effect u#on me. *y emotiona and inte ectua res#onse to Hiroshima was that the Euestion of the socia res#onsibi ity of a 8ourna ist was #osed with !reater ur!ency than e)er. -a watershed in my ife.M N.initiation of nuc ear war. 2t is my c ear duty. that eA#erience was a turnin! #oint. *y an!er with the 4S was not at first. and that it was im#ossib e to tra)e beyond 6okyo.s#eech of *arch 0?B. as a writer. *y first reaction was #ersona re ief that the bomb had ended the war.O (fter co)erin! the end of the b oody Okinawa cam#ai!n. Se#tember 0?5%. 6he story of /urchett and Hiroshima ended on y with his ast book. *ost acce#ted the c aim that the months of aeria and na)a bombardment of >a#an #rior to the surrender had reduced the rai way system to rubb e. /urchett-s !oa was to reach Hiroshima as soon as #ossib e after the >a#anese surrender on 0% (u!ust. com# eted in his fina years in the conteAt of =resident 3ea!an-s -Star Wars.)irtua y a matter of ife or death . With a#o o!ies that it has been so on! de ayed . With two 8ourna ist friends /urchett reached 6okyo by train. D)en this officia discoura!ement a##ears to ha)e been a most unnecessary. but a so marked the be!innin! of the nuc ear )ictor-s determination ri!id y to contro and censor the #icture of Hiroshima and Fa!asaki #resented to the wor d. the casua ty rate amon! war corres#ondents in that area bein! what it was. He reached >a#an in ate (u!ust aboard the trans#ort shi# 4SS *i ett and anded with the ad)ance #arty of 4S *arines at Rokosuka in 6okyo /ay. from the moment that he heard re#orts of the atomic bombin! on (u!ust &.. 6he #re)ai in! (and sti hard y chan!ed) news . sittin! amon! the ruins. missin! #arts of our cu tura com#rehension of that ho ocaust. . >ne Day in (iros)ima! # Septem&er 1945 N. Once 2 !ot to Hiroshima.for #eo# e to understand what rea y did ha##en in Hiroshima near y forty years a!o . Sti does. 6he story which he ty#ed out on his battered /aby Hermes ty#ewriter. /ut /urchett-s story of that day. my fee in! was that for the first time a wea#on of mass destruction of ci)i ians had been used. to add this contribution to our co ecti)e know ed!e and consciousness. and his subseEuent writin! about Hiroshima. ha)e a !reater si!nificance sti . . but more im#ortant y showed the broad dimensions of the -coo y # anned. 2n that book. that they had used that wea#on V a thou!h that an!er came ater. and as a #artici#ant in #o itics for the neAt forty years. /urchett not on y went back to the history of his own des#atch. 7or /urchett. and to the dee#er. based on my own s#ecia eA#eriences. . SubseEuent y /urchett came to understand that his honest and accurate account of the radio o!ica effects of nuc ear wea#ons not on y initiated an animus a!ainst him from the hi!hest Euarters of the 4S !o)ernment. /urchett was the first Western 8ourna ist . Wi fred /urchett 0?B' N0O Wi fred /urchett entered Hiroshima a one in the ear y hours of . Was it 8ustifiedC "ou d anythin! 8ustify the eAtermination of ci)i ians on such a sca eC /ut the rea an!er was !enerated when the 4S mi itary tried to co)er u# the effects of atomic radiation on ci)i ians V and tried to shut me u#.. days ahead of *ac(rthur-s occu#yin! forces. by !i)in! a c ue to the de iberate su##ression of the truth about Hiroshima and Fa!asaki. decisi)e y inf uencin! my who e #rofessiona career and wor d out ook-.and a most certain y the first Westerner other than #risoners of war .and manufactured co)er-u# which continued for decades.oice an' Silence in t)e <irst 4uclear War! Wilfre' .urc)ett an' (iros)ima .to reach Hiroshima after the bomb. /urchett fe t -it has become ur!ent . .
more ci!arettes a!ainst bits of fish . N5O /urchett s#oke on y #hrasebook >a#anese.tra)e in!.and e)en a dro# of sake-. /urchett-s nei!hbour #rodded him awake with the news of their arri)a in Hiroshima. /urchett boarded an o)ercrowded train headin! for Hiroshima. and nothin! e se. /urchett had anded with the )an!uard of *arines. /urchett showed the !uards his etter of introduction from the 6okyo $omei office. understandab y disturbed ministers and the Dm#eror-s chamber ains as they searched for a form of words acce#tab e to the ( ies after =otsdam. but recei)ed enthusiastic he # from the staff of the >a#anese $omei news a!ency in 6okyo. ( 4S Fa)y #ress officer. (t & a. (bo)e a 2 was not to smi e as this wou d be taken as ! oatin! o)er what was ha##enin! aboard the *issouri. branchin! off at cross streets for a few hundred yards and then returnin! to the tram ine. 2 fe t no inc ination to smi e. /ut a #acket of ci!arettes. 2n his kna#sack he carried an a -im#ortant etter of introduction to Fakamura. and at e)ery #oint on his 8ourney to Hiroshima and back. where he #rom#t y co a#sed into s ee#. -)ery su en at first. /urchett crammed in amon! ordinary so diers. Smoky )a#ours drifted from fissures in the soi and there was a dank. 6hey feared that a sma !rou# of. at two the neAt mornin!. army officers wou d react to news of an im#eria rescri#t of surrender by seizin! the Dm#eror himse f. 6he few #eo# e in the streets hurried #ast each other without #ausin! or s#eakin!. Outside 6okyo. accom#anied by armed !uards. and the /aby Hermes as the si!n of a 8ourna ist. tick ed at the idea of -one of his boys. Lead-!rey c ouds hun! o)er the waste that had been a city of more than a Euarter of a mi ion #eo# e. on the mornin! of .in a )ery hosti e way-. and they made no attem#t to sto# him ea)in!. chatterin! ob)ious y about me .'s. (t what was eft of the city station. /oardin! the train. /urchett found himse f actua y eadin! the occu#ation. Se#tember. howe)er. /urchett was arrested by two sabre-carryin! #o icemen. the na)y-su## ied #ro)isions. FeAt mornin!. 6here were as yet. white . and -from then on it was smi es and friendshi#. es#ecia y as the train was in com# ete darkness as we #assed throu!h what seemed ike end ess tunne s. and # aced in a makeshift ce for the ni!ht.5%. *emories of the assassinations by zea ous mi itarists of wa)erin! =rime *inisters and cabinet ministers in the ear y 0?. Fakamura. #ro)ided #ro)isions for Fakamura and for /urchett. the new friends dro##ed off the train. Here the hosti ity was tota . no occu#yin! forces.m. warnin! me in )ei ed tones that the situation in the com#artment was )ery tense and that a fa se mo)e mi!ht cost us our i)es. and /urchett mana!ed to !et into a com#artment which turned out to be fu of be i!erent 2m#eria (rmy officers. thou!htfu y thrust into his hands by an (ustra ian friend before /urchett eft Rokosuka. D)entua y. 6here was de)astation and deso ation. (mon! the #assen!ers was an (merican #riest.reachin! Hiroshima ahead of corres#ondents attached to the other ser)ices. /urchett sensed the de#th of enmity towards the )ictors fe t by officers nursin! their humi iation. (s /urchett was ater to a##reciate. dis# ays of a scar from a wound inf icted by a >a#anese # ane in /urma. N%O On his s ow twenty-one-hour tri# south.)a ues dictated the choice of the ma8orityI &'' ( ied 8ourna ists co)ered the officia >a#anese surrender aboard the batt eshi# *issouriI on y one went to Hiroshima. but *ac(rthur had bare y enou!h troo#s to occu#y centra 6okyo and the #orts. Wa kin! those streets 2 had the fee in! of ha)in! been trans ated to some death-stricken a ien # anet. 6he officers were furious and humi iated at their defeat. one of the main im#ediments to the desire of the >a#anese Dm#eror and =rime *inister to surrender in >u y 0?5% was their fear of mutiny by the most eAtreme of the mi itarists in the 2m#eria (rmy. news of the war-s end had come after the Dm#eror-s announcement of >a#an-s unconditiona surrender two weeks ear ier. a /aby Hermes #ortab e ty#ewriter and a most un8ourna istic "o t . acrid. 2 fo owed a tram ine which seemed to ead fair y direct y towards the standin! bui din!s. who were !reat y concerned for their Hiroshima corres#ondent. and Euite #ossib y usin! the sacred hosta!e as the basis for a -out resistance to the death. Watchin! those ! owerin! officers toyin! with the hi ts of their swords and the on! samurai da!!ers that many of them wore. (fter a few hours. He had been brou!ht to 6okyo from internment to broadcast to (merican troo#s on how they shou d beha)e in >a#an to a)oid friction with the oca #o#u ation. su #hurous sme . he eA# ained.
and !in!i)itis and tonsi itis eadin! to swe in!. 2-m a "hristian. i)id #ur#ura on the skin. resu tin! from the cumu ati)e effects of on!-term wartime shorta!es and the ( ied b ockade of the #ast year. a medica meetin! was he d on what were to become known as (-bomb diseases. so idified into rid!es and banks by the freEuent rains . 2 was trained in (merica. ar!e burns and the haemorrha!in! #arts of the body had turned !an!renous. 3eco)ery was inhibited by the effects of wides#read ma nutrition. /ut how can you "hristians do what you ha)e done hereC Send some of your scientists at east. sittin! on a #iece of rubb e not far from the hy#ocentre. (fter the #arty #assed throu!h the wards. 0. #er cent of the city-s nurses. . -6he #o ice were eAtreme y hosti e and the atmos#here was tense . . 0 wi a so die. as were ?. NBO >a#anese scientists and doctors had a ready made considerab e #ro!ress in de)e o#in! #rocedures for aidin! the sufferin! sur)i)ors with imited resources and an a most com# ete ack of #rior know ed!e of the effects of who e-body radiation. nausea. and set out with /urchett to -show him what his #eo# e ha)e done to us-. 6he more Fakamura eA# ained the more the tension increased.'th $ay in HiroshimaI 6hose who esca#ed be!in to die. it was. the #o ice found Fakamura.. One of the city-s siA hos#ita s.'5B had recei)ed out-#atient treatment. 6he day that /urchett arri)ed in Hiroshima. /ui din!s had been #ounded into !rey and reddish dust. who in turn brou!ht a "anadian-born woman as trans ator. intent on whate)er it was that brou!ht them into this city of death. sometime in the ear y afternoon. /urchett went to the Hiroshima "ommunications Hos#ita . N0'O . 6here was some shoutin! and the inter#reter became #a e. .''' medica workers at makeshift re ief stations had treated 0'%.i nesses for a most a month. who acce#ted /urchett-s eA# anation of his task. and e)entua y haemorrha!in! of !ums and soft membranes.on fi thy tatami mats amon! the rubb e were bein! ra)a!ed by the effects of massi)e b ast and #rimary and secondary burn trauma combined with ad)anced sta!es of radiation i nesses. N&O (t the #o ice station where he went for he #. +uided by Fakamura and the #o ice chief. resu tin! in fe)er. What /urchett fe t and saw that day is best con)eyed as it a##eared in the $ai y DA#ress three days ater. )ery hea)i y dama!ed.'' in-#atients.. without effecti)e dru!s. )ictims of 6HD (6O*2" =L(+4D -2 Write this as a Warnin! to the Wor d$O"6O3S 7(LL (S 6HDR WO39 =oison !as fearI ( wear masks .B&0 in-#atients and another . $o that at east. D)eryone hurried. ike the others.and their fami ies . /y the end of Se#tember some . it was the oca head of the 9em#eitai. the 6hou!ht "ontro =o ice. 0 be ie)ed in Western ci)i ization. 6he a##a in! si!hts /urchett witnessed in ward after ward were to affect him far more than the #hysica de)astation he had a ready seen.masks co)erin! their nostri s. urethra and un!s).'' doctors in the city. #ro)ided a #o ice car. ki ometres from the hy#ocentre. =atients . from mouth. 6hese #eo# e are a marked down to die. (t the headEuarters of the sur)i)in! #o ice force Fakamura eA# ained /urchett-s #ur#ose and his reEuest for he #. (t that time it he d about .0'. most of the staff ha)in! become nuc ear casua ties. 6hey know what this is . with ectures !i)en on treatment of )ictims by the >a#anese re ief medica workers and researchers who had been studyin! and treatin! the )ictims.they must know how we can sto# this terrib e sickness. the doctor in char!e asked /urchett to ea)eI -2 can no on!er !uarantee your safety.1' were either ki ed or serious y in8ured in the atomic attack. Of the . haemorraha!ic stoo s and diathesis (s#ontaneous b eedin!. (fter he eA# ained his #ur#ose... e#i ation ( oss of hair).Fakamura ater to d /urchett that most of the #o icemen had wanted to ha)e a three shot. rectum. Send your scientists down Euick yW/urchett eft to write the uniEue des#atch to the $ai y DA#ress. N1O 3e ief medica teams from outside the city had been Euick y or!anized. /urchett was understandab y i -recei)ed. Fo one sto##ed to ook at me. . . (stonishin! y. N?O 2n many cases.
(nd so the #eo# e of Hiroshima today are wa kin! throu!h the for orn deso ation of their once #roud city with !auze masks o)er their mouths and noses. 6hey be ie)e it is !i)en off by the #oisonous !as sti issuin! from earth soaked with radioacti)ity re eased by the s# it uranium atom. 2t #robab y does not he # them #hysica y. he dro)e me throu!h or.% and #erha#s . With the oca mana!er of $omei. 6hat is a the atomic bomb eft of dozens of b ocks of city streets.a b ack umbre a. 2n this first testin! !round of the atomic bomb 2 ha)e seen the most terrib e and fri!htenin! deso ation in four years of war. 2n these hos#ita s 2 found #eo# e who when the bomb fe . 6uesday 2n Hiroshima. ( !rou# of ha f a dozen !utted bui din!s. . 6he dama!e is far !reater than #hoto!ra#hs can show. but not Euite. eadin! >a#anese news a!ency.' days after the first atomic bomb destroyed the city and shook the wor d. 2 shou d say o)er. the city. 2t makes a b itzed =acific is and seem ike an Dden. 2t ooks as if a monster steamro er had #assed o)er it and sEuashed it out of eAistence. 2 ooked west. 6he #o ice chief of Hiroshima we comed me ea!er y as the first ( ied corres#ondent to reach the city. . Hiroshima does not ook ike a bombed city. 2t !i)es you an em#ty fee in! in the stomach to see such man-made de)astation. .DA#ress Staff 3e#orter =eter /urchett was the first ( ied 3e#orter to enter the atom-bomb city. 2t is somethin! ike Su #hur. (nd he took me to hos#ita s where the )ictims of the bomb are sti bein! treated. (nd then a!ain nothin!. . Lookin! south from there 2 cou d see about three mi es of reddish rubb e. suffered abso ute y no in8uries. #eo# e are sti dyin!.from an unknown somethin! which 2 can on y describe as the atomic # a!ue. carryin! rations for se)en mea s . 2 write these facts as dis#assionate y as 2 can in the ho#e that they wi act as a warnin! to the wor d. 2 #icked my way to a shack used as a tem#orary #o ice headEuarters in the midd e of the )anished city. He tra)e ed 5'' mi es from 6okyo a one and unarmed. mysterious y and horrib y . 2 cou d sme it when 2 #assed a fire that was sti smou derin!. homes.food is a most unobtainab e in >a#an . #erha#s. 6HD S4L=H43 S*DLL *y nose detected a #ecu iar odour un ike anythin! 2 ha)e e)er sme ed before. or at a s#ot where they were sti reco)erin! bodies from the wrecka!e. Xchimneys with no factories. and a ty#ewriter.' factory chimneys.' sEuare mi es you can see hard y a bui din!. factories. S62LL 6HDR 7(2L 6here is 8ust nothin! standin! eAce#t about .#eo# e who were unin8ured in the catac ysm . of bui din!s. When you arri)e in Hiroshima you can ook around and for . but now are dyin! from the uncanny after-effects . Here is his story from VH23OSH2*(. and human bein!s. /ut 2 cou d a so sme it where e)erythin! was sti deserted.
there was no trace. *any #eo# e had suffered on y a s i!ht cut from a fa in! s# inter of brick or stee . -(LL "LD(3.WDF6 6he counted dead number %. W(6D3 =O2SOFD$ 6hey found that the water had been #oisoned by chemica reaction. ( most a minute ater the bomb reached the . 6his in a city which at the start of the war had a #o#u ation of .the /ank of >a#an. 6hey ha)e been dyin! at the rate of 0'' a day.''' were s i!ht y in8ured.. Fow they themse )es ha)e become sufferers. 6hese casua ties mi!ht not ha)e been as hi!h eAce#t for a tra!ic mistake. 6he theory in Hiroshima is that the atomic heat was so !reat that they burned instant y to ashes V eAce#t that there were no ashes. D)en today e)ery dro# of water consumed in Hiroshima comes from other cities.0'.'. Of thousands of others. . ( these #henomena. 6hey de)e o#ed an acute sickness. /ut they did not.'''. 3oof.at the moment when near y e)eryone in Hiroshima was in the streets. which means -certain y dead-. (nother . 6hey shou d ha)e reco)ered Euick y.''' serious y in8ured by the eA# osion.. 6he (merican # ane #assed out of si!ht. were due to the radioacti)ity re eased by the atomic bomb-s eA# osion of the uranium atom. 6hen minor insect bites de)e o#ed into !reat swe in!s which wou d not hea . 6he a -c ear was sounded and the #eo# e of Hiroshima came out from their she ters. 6hey had dizzy s#e s and headaches. HD(= O7 34//LD 6he 2m#eria =a ace. o d or youn!. 6hey )anished. is a hea# of rubb e three feet hi!h. Hiroshima has one intact bui din! . 7rom the moment that this de)astation was oosed u#on Hiroshima the #eo# e who sur)i)ed ha)e hated the white man. . 6hey were some of the 0. Hundreds and hundreds of the dead were so bad y burned in the terrific heat !enerated by the bomb that it was not e)en #ossib e to te whether they were men or women.''' are missin!.and this is near y a month after the bombin! .0'' #eo# e ha)e died from its effects. and there is one #iece of wa . once an im#osin! bui din!. (nd fina y they died. f oors and e)erythin! e se is dust. they to d me./ut it he #s them menta y. 2t is a hate the intensity of which is a most as fri!htenin! as the bomb itse f. (nother 5'. nearer the centre of the eA# osion. 6he authorities thou!ht this was 8ust another routine Su#er-7ort raid. (nd they wi #robab y a die.'''.. 6he #eo# e of Hiroshima are sti afraid. 6heir !ums be!an to b eed and then they )omited b ood. 7or the first fortni!ht after the bomb dro##ed they found they cou d not stay on! in the fa en city. ( most e)ery >a#anese scientist has )isited Hiroshima in the #ast three weeks to try to find a way of re ie)in! the #eo# e-s sufferin!. 6he # ane f ew o)er the tar!et and dro##ed the #arachute which carried the bomb to its eA# osion #oint. 6hen they found another eAtraordinary effect of the new terror from the skies. 6heir hea th steadi y deteriorated.'''-foot a titude at which it was timed to eA# ode . 2n the day 2 ha)e stayed in Hiroshima .
O 6he re#orters toured the wrecka!e.was the co one -s brusEue re# y. death came swift y and sudden y. Fa!asaki is hi y. (ccordin! to /urchett. transmittin! the story to London was a so frau!ht. When the bomb dro##ed on Hiroshima the weather was bad. /ut whi e /urchett was in Hiroshima. as they were a so id -a -(merican. Res. none serious y attem#ted to sur)ey the human conseEuences of the atomic bombin!. 6hey had no contact with the oca #o#u ation. most of the =enta!on #ress team were headEuarters hacks s#ecia y f own in from the 4S. the 8ourna ists in the officia #arty were sur#rised to see him there. ( =enta!on #ress -2n)esti!atory +rou#. . eAce#t for a few who had shared his #ath on the dan!erous is and-ho##in! cam#ai!ns.2 ar!ued. /ut this airstri#-s a )ery short one and we can-t take on any eAtra wei!ht. the force of the bomb eA# osion was. 6wice turned off the train from Rokohama to 6okyo by (merican *i itary =o ice. 9eys hired a >a#anese 8ourna ist to wait for /urchett-s story in 6okyo and brin! it to Rokohama immediate y. N0. and !i)e it to the $ai y DA#ress corres#ondentC-We-re not !oin! back to 6okyo. and ater he d a #ress conference at the Hiroshima =refectura Office. 6his frustrated the # an for his friend Henry 9eys to wait in the 6okyo $omei office for the story to be ta##ed throu!h from /urchett. the scientists #oint to the fact that.imits to 8ourna ists. Late on the e)enin! of . Fakamura undertook to ta# the story out on a hand-set in *orse code to the 6okyo $omei office. and a bi! rain-storm de)e o#ed soon afterwards.. Hiroshima is in #erfect y f at de ta country. N05O . and with fo! threatenin! to c ose in. ha)in! been !uaranteed an -eAc usi)e-. a thou!h he ad)ised one whom he knew that -the rea story is in the hos#ita s-. Se#tember.-Wi you take a co#y of my story back to 6okyo at east. to a ar!e eAtent. Se#tember the story arri)ed and 9eys bu ied the re uctant wartime censors to a ow the un#recedented story throu!h unchan!ed. N00O . 2 asked if 2 cou d f y back with them to 6okyo.O (fter the #ress conference. and scientists be ie)e that this a owed the radioacti)ity to dissi#ate into the atmos#here more ra#id y. 2n /urchett-s eyes. (ccordin! to /urchett.6he scientists to d me they ha)e noted a !reat difference between the effect of the bombs in Hiroshima and in Fa!asaki. the moment they heard a ri)a had !ot to Hiroshima before them they demanded to !et back to their # ane and on to 6okyo as soon as #ossib e to fi e their des#atches. Whi e the 8ourna ists fe t #iEued and threatened by /urchett-s scoo# the officia s accom#anyin! them as #ress hand ers were hosti e and sus#icious. *ac(rthur dec ared 6okyo off. /urchett was not the on y forei!n 8ourna ist to arri)e in Hiroshima on . the re#orters #re#ared to !et back to 6okyo as soon as #ossib e. He ca ed the 8ourna ists to!ether and they #i ed into their minibus and headed back for the air#ort.body with #erha#s a >a#anese-s#eakin! inter#reter attached. and that there ha)e been no after-effects such as those that Hiroshima is sti sufferin!. (t Fa!asaki on the other hand the weather was #erfect. 6o su##ort this theory.. 2n addition. %eturn to 3o7yo 2f reachin! Hiroshima had been difficu t. eA#ended in the sea. . -Our # ane-s o)er oaded as it is.. it is sti the cause of this man-made # a!ue. in Fa!asaki.re# ied the co one -Rou-)e used u# more #etro !ettin! here than 2 wei!h. (nd so they be ie)e that the uranium radiation was dri)en into the earth and that. 6hey saw #hysica wrecka!e on y. the train 8ourney bein! rather risky. because so many are sti fa in! sick and dyin!.arri)ed by # ane from 6okyo 8ust as /urchett was finishin! his #iece. N0. where on y fish were ki ed.
N0%O ?onfrontin5 t)e Man)attan +ro8ect /ack in 6okyo. 2n the midd e of the neAt day.he said. but abo)e a their eyes to d that they were famished for news. as the train #assed throu!h 9yoto.2 Write this as a Warnin! to the Wor d-.. 4S officia s were main y an!ry about /urchett-s c aim that residua radiation was sti hazardous and that. to te them it was a o)er and they wou d soon be on their way home a!ain. 2 ha)e addressed )arious ty#es of audiences in my time. Hesitatin! for a moment. *y first Euestion was whether the briefin! officer had been to Hiroshima.-/ut 2 was taken to a s#ot in the city outskirts and watched i)e fish turnin! on their stomachs u#wards as they entered a certain #atch of the ri)er. 2t was necessary to b uff the >a#anese cam# commanders. Word had fi tered in to the cam# about the end of the war. fee in! that my scruffiness #ut me at a disad)anta!e with the e e!ant y uniformed and bemeda ed officers. and #ut it on the front #a!e. 6here was a dramatic moment as 2 rose to my feet. 2 fe t the com#u sion in scores of #airs of eyes ! itterin! with the intensity of their a##ea to be!in. and he must ha)e been dee# y an!ered at the refusa to he # him back to 6okyo. 2n the neAt two days /urchett )isited siA =OW cam#s. as the story was wired throu!h to London. 6he emaciated #air be!!ed /urchett to come back to the cam# to meet their fe ow inmates to con)ince them (and the confused !uards) that the war was indeed o)er. (##arent y the >a#anese doctors were incom#etent to hand e them. 6hey bore on their faces and bodies a the e)idence of #hysica hun!er. /ut /urchett cou d not be sure. /urchett-s artic e had raised a storm. te in! them of the ( ied )ictory and the comin! of the occu#ation forces. but ne)er such ea!er isteners as these. He reached the #ress conference 8ust in time to hear /ri!adier-+enera 6homas 7arre . Fakamura had s ow y but successfu y transmitted the on! story. On the surface. but they had re eased it !ratis to the wor d-s #ress. a month after the bombin!.#risoners of war from a oca cam# eft in ess than beni!n confusion as the war ended. at that first encounter. /urchett saw two unmistakab e (ustra ians . 6hat ni!ht. so they cou d be washed back and forth. He was )ery #o ite at first.6he s#okesman ooked #ained. that 2 had come officia y to ensure that the surrender terms were bein! com# ied with and that i)in! conditions for the =OWs were bein! immediate y im#ro)ed. and sat . with whate)er authority 2 cou d muster. He discounted the a e!ation that any who had not been in the city at the time of the b ast were ater affected. and the so diers had )o unteered to ea)e to ook for food in 9yoto. 6hose 2 had seen in the hos#ita were )ictims of b ast and burn. s#eakin! to the #risoners. -2-m afraid you-)e fa en )ictim to >a#anese #ro#a!anda. 6hese men were famished. /urchett be!an an e)entfu tri# back to 6okyo by train. the de#uty head of the *anhattan atomic bomb #ro8ect. eA# ain that the bomb had been eA# oded at a sufficient hei!ht o)er Hiroshima to a)oid any risk of -residua radiation-. (fter that they were dead within seconds.-Sti there a month aterC-2t-s a tida ri)er. D)entua y the eAchan!es narrowed to my askin! how he eA# ained the fish sti dyin! when they entered a stream runnin! throu!h the centre of the city. On the mornin! of 1 Se#tember /urchett stumb ed off the train in 6okyo to disco)er that senior 4S officia s had ca ed a #ress conference at the 2m#eria Hote to refute his artic e. 2 then described what 2 had seen and asked for eA# anations. with a few detai s of how it came to be o)er so sudden y. norma after any bi! eA# osion.(s it ha##ened. with no effecti)e arran!ements to feed the star)in! =OWs. Fot on y had the $ai y DA#ress head ined the story -6HD (6O*2" =L(+4D . whi e 2 tried to formu ate the most economic way of te in! them what they yearned to hear. -Ob)ious y they were ki ed by the b ast or o)erheated water. a scientist eA# ainin! thin!s to a ayman.what he had referred to as -the atomic # a!ue-. #eo# e were sti dyin! from radiation i ness . -the (merican nuc ear bi!-shots were furious-. He had not. or acked the ri!ht medication.
!a)e the most effecti)e answer to >a#anese #ro#a!anda that radiations were res#onsib e for deaths e)en the day after the eA# osion. ( thou!h my radiation story was denied. Hiroshima was immediate y #ut out of bounds. at the be!innin!. a##eared in the Few Rork 6imes describin! c aims such as /urchett-s as ->a#anese #ro#a!anda-. but there is itt e doubt that with /urchett-s announcement to the wor d of the effects of radiation i ness. the theft of his camera. not to return for o)er two and a ha f decades. /urchett eft >a#an at the ca of the /ea)erbrook #ress short y afterwards. com#arab e ho ocausts such as the firebombin! of $resden. ( thou!h the inter)ention of friends in the 4S Fa)y with whom /urchett had worked for much of the =acific cam#ai!n ed to the withdrawa of the eA#u sion order. N01O /y the time /urchett emer!ed from hos#ita a few days ater. N0&O (t the hos#ita . N0?O (ccordin! to the *anhattan =ro8ect-s officia #ub icist and historian. 6he >a#anese are continuin! their #ro#a!anda aimed at creatin! the im#ression that we won the war unfair y. Statements by +enera 7arre and his chief. (u!. scene of the first atomic eA# osion on earth and crad e of a new era in ci)i ization. the eAtreme hosti ity of 4S mi itary officia s in Hiroshima and 6okyo. . Western #erce#tions were channe ed in such a way as to minimize understandin! of the human. & and that #ersons enterin! Hiroshima had contracted mysterious ma adies due to #ersistent radioacti)ity. /urchett-s white-b ood-ce count was found to be ower than norma . and to deny authority to >a#anese-sourced accounts of Hiroshima and Fa!asaki.down. On the other hand a ow white-b ood-ce count is characteristic of radiation i ness. *anhattan =ro8ect officia s #ub ic y attacked such c aims se)era times. 6his historic !round in Few *eAico. Hambur! and 6okyo. the true character of the ho ocausts of Hiroshima and Fa!asaki cou d not easi y be contained. #ub ic discussion of the to#ic was banned in >a#an. his camera containin! uniEue shots of Hiroshima and its )ictims had been sto en. 6he first ste# in the attem#t to su##ress the truth about Hiroshima was to attack c aims of radiation i ness. 6he eAtent of the su##ression of the truth of the first nuc ear bombin!s is #robab y e)en !reater than /urchett !uessed.. 7ina y. access to Hiroshima was denied to ( ied 8ourna ists.that did not rin! true. and 2 was whisked off to a 4S (rmy hos#ita for tests. (iros)ima! ?onstructin5 t)e Silence ( thou!h /urchett dismissed most of the obstructions # aced in his way at the time of the Hiroshima story as the #redictab e o)erreactions of bureaucrats. 3ef ectin! ater on his difficu ty in transmittin! his story. .N0BO Here /urchett Euite ri!ht y saw his own scoo# as #ro)okin! an officia 4S !o)ernment res#onse. Second. -2n 0?5% 2 was too o)erwhe med by the enormity of what ha##ened at Hiroshima and Fa!asaki to a##reciate the coo de iberation and ad)ance # annin! that went into manufacturin! the subseEuent co)er-u#. Laurence. /urchett came to see his own story in a broader conteAt of officia 4S #o icy to concea the truth of Hiroshima. On y many years ater did /urchett disco)er that the eA# anation was Euite wron!I the number of white cor#usc es in his b ood ou!ht to ha)e increased to fi!ht the infection. the >a#anese described -sym#toms. as o##osed to the #hysica . Hiroshima and Fa!asaki were to take on a meanin! different to other. 6he customary -6hank you. 6hus. 6he dismissa of /urchett was #art of this. his hos#ita ization. How much was #remeditated and # anned before the bombin! is unc ear. 7irst. *ac(rthur had withdrawn his #ress accreditation and announced his intention to eA#e /urchett from occu#ied >a#an. and since then the sym#toms they describe a##ear to be more . and cate!orica y denyin! any residua radiation effects. (t the time /urchett acce#ted the eA# anation of the ow white-cor#usc e count as the work of antibiotics he had been !i)en ear ier for a knee infection. and certain y more com# eA. Few Rork 6imes science writer. /e!innin! with the attack on /urchett. and the efforts to imit access to Hiroshima. he e)entua y came to see a more dee# y disturbin! #attern. *ore recent y they ha)e sent in a radio o!ist.was #ronounced and the conference ended. destructi)eness of the wea#on. there were three strands to officia (merican #o icy towards information about Hiroshima and Fa!asaki. 2n the week after /urchett-s c aim of continuin! radiation i ness and residua radiation. and thus attem#tin! to create sym#athy for themse )es . *a8or +enera Les ie +ro)es. throu!h the censorshi# and officia disinformation #ro!ram as a who e. Wi iam L.
(s fa out.BO 6he month after /urchett-s )isit.O 6hese are certain y e)e s that cou d induce radiation i ness either throu!h direct eA#osure or throu!h the breathin! or swa owin! of induced-radioacti)e materia . 6hey ost a##etite. and continued around Hiroshima for the neAt week.5. 3adiation deaths were sti occurrin! in ar!e numbers when /urchett )isited the "ommunications hos#ita V and sti occur today as the on!-term effects of eA#osure to radiation are re)ea ed in the form of a )ariety of b ood diseases.0O Lea)in! aside the fact that 4S scientists and mi itary # anners knew #erfect y we the #otentia V and eA#ected .& hours) throu!h to se)era years (e. sur)eys of s#erm of men eA#osed to the bomb showed that nineteen out of twentytwo men one ki ometre or ess from the hy#ocentre were effecti)e y steri e. scores of thousands of #eo# e became i and died from eA#osure to radiation emitted from the bomb. 6heir hair fe out. on 0' (u!ust. One third of a ar!er sam# e of .and 7arre -s c aims. doctors to d me.'% years). Within two weeks of the bombin! some twenty-fi)e auto#sies had been #erformed to estab ish the effects of radiation i ness.. 6hey !a)e their #atients Titamin ( in8ections. (t first. man!anese %&. N. ha f. 6he f esh started rottin! from the ho e caused by the in8ection of the need e.ife .. 6he 4S rebutta did not stand u#. *orta ity rates cannot confirm the effects of residua radiation amon! these ear y entrants N.%O 6here had been !reat anAiety about the #ossibi ity of the atomic wea#on renderin! both cities bio o!ica y steri e in toto. #rinci#a y !amma rays and neutrons. accordin! to the radio o!ists #resent here today.K N. residua radiation cou d dis#erse wide y and in an-une)en #attern of concentration.authentic on the surface. siA days after /urchett.. N.!..1O 2n fact. disturbance of the re#roducti)e function was an ine)itab e conseEuence of eA#osure to the atomic bomb. N.'O2n fact.and fe off shar# y away from the hy#ocentre. (nd then b eedin! be!an from the ears. /urchett.i)es )aryin! from a few minutes or hours (e. N. /urchett-s news#a#er account of #eo# e dyin! from the after-effects of the bomb without any )isib e in8ury is Euite accurateI 7or no a##arent reason their hea th be!an to fai . 6he resu ts were horrib e. at that time. >a#anese studies ha)e conc uded that -the tota !amma-ray dose from induced radiation u# to 0'' hours after the eA# osion one metre abo)e the !round at the hy#ocentre in Hiroshima a)era!ed about 0'' rads. 4nited States scientists were in no #osition to be authoritati)eI no 4S scientists entered either of the bombed cities unti ? Se#tember. Sthe crude morta ity rate for eukaemia. "ontrary to +ro)es. 3adio isoto#es thou!ht to ha)e been !enerated in the eA# osion had ha f. ha f. they thou!ht these were the sym#toms of !enera debi ity. 6he announceXment by 6okyo 3adio of the s#routin! of the first !reen shoots in the ate summer after the bombin! was understandab y a matter of !reat 8oy and re ief. Fishina Roshio. 7a out effects wou d be additiona .N.. but morbidity rates amon! sur)i)ors certain y do. / uish s#ots a##eared on their bodies.O /urchett was a so correct on the #ossibi ity of residua radiation at dan!erous e)e s. N. Systematic radio o!ica soi sam# in! was commenced the same day by 9yoto 2m#eria 4ni)ersity scientists. (nd in e)ery case the )ictim died. tem#orary steri ity amon! men was Euite common. 2n the on! term. 3esidua radiation comes main y from irradiated materia s that ha)e turned into radio isoto#es and from #artic es of uranium from the bomb that esca#ed fission.radiation effects of the wea#on. >a#anese radio o!ists and nuc ear s#ecia ists had arri)ed in Hiroshima within days of the bombin!I the first confirmation that the wea#on that struck Hiroshima was an atomic bomb was #ro)ided by >a#an-s eadin! nuc ear #hysicist. 2mmediate radiation effects were c ear amon! substantia numbers who entered the hy#o centre area within two or three days. 2n the days after the bombin! many #eo# e entered the city to he # and to search for re ati)es. were Euite ri!ht to stress the radiation effects of the bombin!. cesium 0. and une)en y distributed accordin! to weather #atterns which #re)ai ed after the bombin!. was three times !reater for those enterin! Hiroshima within three days after the bombin! than the a)era!e crude eukaemia rate in a of >a#an. eukaemia and other cancers.!. accordin! to the 0?&' nationa census. -Since s#ermato!onia of the testis and fo icu ar ce s of the o)ary are radio-sensiti)e.ife .5O. nose and mouth. N. and 7arre -s attack wron!. and his >a#anese sources in Hiroshima.&O 7arre returned to attack the credibi ity of >a#anese witnesses and scientists on 0? Se#tember when he denied news#a#er re#orts of bio o!ica steri ity.
-2t is not mi itary #o icy for corres#ondents to s#earhead the occu#ation.dec ared a s#okesman for +enera *ac(rthur..O (s was to be the case for decades to come. these stories whi##ed u# an atmos#here of re)en!e where any su!!estion of sym#athy for the defeated was to be scour!ed. 6he first ci)i . N. On 0% Se#tember (sahi Shimbun reiterated the ar!ument of the >a#anese cabinet when it described the use of the atomic bomb as -a breach of internationa aw-. since the (mericans ha)e recent y been raisin! an u#roar about the Euestion of our mistreatment of #risoners. 6he directi)e commanded the >a#anese !o)ernment to -issue the necessary orders to #re)ent dissemination of news .O 2n the fo owin! week the tranEui ity of *ac(rthur-s headEuarters was disturbed on three frontsI #ub ic o#inion at home. N.?O (t this #oint !rowth disorders such as microce#ha y (a sma er than norma head. (sahi Shimbun wroteI -Tirtua y a >a#anese who ha)e read the re#ort are unanimous in sayin! that the atrocities are hard y be ie)ab e. 6wo days ater the #a#er ar!ued that if it were correct. then wou d that not a so a## y to the ( ied forces in >a#anC N. a wea#on too terrib e to face. N.&O 6he interce#ted .. . (mon! women u# to fi)e ki ometres from the hy#ocentre. the 4S code-breakin! system *(+2" interce#ted the fo owin! messa!e from 7orei!n *inister Shi!emitsu *amoru on 0. which it most certain y was. dec arin! ->a#an mi!ht ha)e won the war but for the atomic bomb. (ccordin! to dec assified 4S mi itary inte i!ence documents. . se)ere restrictions were a## ied to 8ourna ists.0O 6he most serious restriction on both 8ourna istic re#ortin! of Hiroshima and Fa!asaki and #ub ic >a#anese scientific and medica sur)eys was a series of ci)i . >a#anese an!er o)er the use of the atomic bomb ob iterated reco!nition and !ui t of the atrocities of a decade of mi itarism. that >a#anese atrocities in the =hi i##ines had ed to 7i i#inos abandonin! their #re)ious su##ort for the >a#anese. So#histicated censorshi# # ans had been drawn u# in (#ri 0?5% at *ac(rthur-s =hi i##ines headEuarters in #re#aration for the eA#ected O#eration O ym#ic in)asion in Fo)ember 0?5%.'O Hiroshima and Fa!asaki were # aced com# ete y out of bounds. *ac(rthur-s headEuarters banned ( ied 8ourna ists from 6okyo as *ac(rthur-s troo#s #re#ared to enter the city. as when the $omei #ress a!ency defended the Dm#ire. *ac(rthur-s actions in 6okyo immediate y came under scrutiny for e)idence of -softness towards the >a#anese-. Dach was to contribute to a ti!htenin! of censorshi# about the nuc ear bombin!.N. On % Se#tember. 2mmediate y after /urchett-s story on the radiation effects of the bomb was #ub ished. and o)arian disorders were common.. Se#tember to >a#anese missions in Lisbon and Stockho mI -6he news#a#ers ha)e !i)en wide #ub icity to the +o)ernment-s recent memorandum concernin! the atomic bomb dama!e to Hiroshima and Fa!asaki . N. but a so with a cynica >a#anese !o)ernment sti attem#tin! to eAtract maAimum #o itica concessions from their conEuerors. 7ar outwei!hin! the co)era!e of the nuc ear bombin!s. and one which on y barbarians wou d use.N.5O 6he basic fact that a war crime of massi)e #ro#ortions had been committed to brin! down a ferocious y mi itarist !o)ernment #ro)ided the on!oin! !rounds for the f awed mora cha en!e to the authority of the ( ied #owers.iberties and #ress codes issued by *ac(rthur-s headEuarters.iberties code. the ma8ority returned to norma ferti ity. often accom#anied by menta retardation) as a resu t of eA#osure of chi dren in utero to massi)e radiation had not yet emer!ed. was aimed at achie)in! -an abso ute minimum of restrictions u#on freedom of s#eech-.. as the occu#yin! #ower ar!ued. a##a in! accounts of >a#anese atrocities towards ( ied so diers f ooded the front #a!es of Western news#a#ers.K N. both ( ied and >a#anese. Fews#a#er re#orts from 6okyo carried the su!!estion that the ( ied #owers were treatin! the conEuered enient y. some se)enty #er cent suffered irre!u ar menstruation. Within fi)e years. .. issued on 0' Se#tember.men were steri e in ate 0?5%. . news#a#ers and radio were attem#tin! to dea with ( ied re)e ations of 2m#eria army war atrocities main y by denia .%O *ac(rthur-s headEuarters was not on y dea in! with unre#entant >a#anese media and )en!efu )ictorious (merican (and (ustra ian and /ritish) #ub ic o#inion. which fai s to adhere to the truth or which disturbs the #ub ic tranEui ity-. 2n some cases this continued the distortion and fa se re#ortin! characteristic of the state-contro ed media of wartime >a#an. 2 think we shou d make e)ery effort to eA# oit the atomic bomb Euestion in our #ro#a!anda. the >a#anese media and the >a#anese !o)ernment. and #risoner-of-war cam#s iberated. (s wartime news restrictions were ifted. 2n >a#an.
8ustice #re)ai ed. (ccordin! to >a#anese historians. 6here sha be no fa se or destructi)e criticism of the ( ied #owers. a "atho ic who be ie)ed that the bomb was +od-s wi . *eanwhi e the occu#ation authorities were meticu ous y co ectin! scientific information on the bomb and its hea th effects for (merican scientific consum#tion.?O When the no)e ist Fa!ai 6akashi attem#ted to #ub ish his book Fa!asaki no 9ane (6he /e s of Fa!asaki). showin! the ke oids on their bodies.re# y of the >a#anese minister in Stockho m was e)en more dama!in!. or !rou#s of (mericans.1O =re-#ub ication censorshi# was eAercised by +H:. there ay both (merican !ui t and horror o)er the effects of the bombin!. ha)e -(n! o-(merican news#a#ermen write stories on the bomb dama!e and thus create a #owerfu im#ression around the wor d-. Fo news story sha be distorted by the omission of #ertinent detai s. and a medica treatment re#orts. Fa!ai. . &. N. -What the #articu ar (merican. 9urihara Sadako. 6he enra!ed *ac(rthur ordered -one hundred #er cent censorshi# . 6he #retence of free s#eech was )ita to achie)e the fu effecti)eness of the censorshi#. based on a story she had heard. were #ub ished by (sahi Shimbun. a candidate was cut off in the midd e of his radio s#eech by a 4S mi itary obser)er because of his fai ure to comment fa)ourab y on the bombin!. as Lifton remarks. 6he atomic bombin!s were a #riority concern of the censors. Fo >a#anese scientific or medica data cou d be #ub ished. 1. N.6he #ress code issued on 0? Se#tember was desi!ned to educate the >a#anese by #rescribin! 8ourna istic ethicsI 0.BO 2n (#ri 0?51. Fews must strict y adhere to the truth. N. or succourin! of resur!ent mi itarism. 6his #ro)ided *ac(rthur-s hawks with the e)idence they needed to 8ustify the most strin!ent censorshi#. no more mis eadin! statements are to be #ermittedQ no destructi)e criticism of the ( ied #owers. 6he #oem. . disturb the #ub ic tranEui ity. *any #oems and other writin!s were distributed i e!a y. which te s of a baby born in a ce ar amid -the sme of fresh b ood. . without b ack #atches of ink or @@@s or any other hints of censorshi#.. Fews stories sha not be co ored to conform with any #ro#a!anda ine . (s a resu t of the censorshi#. is an e)ocation of ife and its renewa amid otherwise unendin! sufferin!I . and were effecti)e y instruments of #eace. . . in fact acceded to the censor-s demand and the book became a best se er.in 0?5& in a Hiroshima ma!azine edited by her husband.. who made this decision did not rea ize was that the eEuation of the two was a tacit admission that dro##in! the bomb was a so an atrocity. disa##eared. the on y acce#tab e treatment of the bombin! had to acce#t and ref ect the )iew that the bombs shortened the war. Fews stories must be factua y written and com# ete y de)oid of editoria o#inion. #ub ished her #oem -Let the "hi d be /orn. Fothin! sha be #rinted which mi!ht. Lifton su!!ests that beneath the censorshi# #o icy-s o)ert concern to minimize any #ossib e reta iation a!ainst the )ictors. durin! the first mayora e ection in Hiroshima which inau!urated the nationa ci)ic democratization #ro!ramme. Fo more fa se stateXments. . /urchett-s artic e #ub ished a week ear ier cou d not ha)e come at a worse time from the #ers#ecti)e of the censors. 6he Hiroshima #oet. he was to d that it cou d a##ear on y if a descri#tion of >a#anese atrocities were added to the )o ume. 6he #ress code was not a## ied sim# y to su##ress unfa)ourab e or critica or accurate re#ortin! and discussion of the atomic bombin!s. the stench of death-. Tictors. take a more subt e a##roach. radioed the di# omat. 2t was not unti the end of the occu#ation #eriod in 0?%0 that news#a#er #hoto!ra#hs of the )ictims of the nuc ear bombin!.N5'O Fot sur#risin! y. Why not. with any eAcisions to be rewritten #ro#er y. a #ub ic discussion of the bomb dama!e. 6hey too immediate y encountered the censor. /ut. the hibakusha.. !reat y im#edin! both #ub ic understandin! of what had taken # ace and the ur!ent y needed diffusion of medica research and treatment information. 6o be!in with the #ress code se)ere y restricted s#oken and written re#ortin! about the bombed cities. ?. as we as what Lifton rather coy y refers to as -wider (merican #o itica concerns-. Sur)i)ors of the bombin! turned to writin! as testimony to the ho ocaust. direct y or by inference. and or!anize domestic >a#anese re#ortin! of Hiroshima and Fa!asaki to be #icked u# by o)erseas news bureauAC /etter sti . Such discussion as was a owed had to be s anted in #articu ar directions.
6he hands of the c ock tickin! towards midni!ht refer to the machine. a direct si!nification of human sufferin!. et the chi d be born. -artic es that #ub icized the #ower of the atomic bomb were warm y we comed by +H:K. 6his is not true of our understandin! of Hiroshima and Fa!asaki. kee#in! its eAistence secret unti the end of the occu#ation. or more #recise y. it was des#atched to Washin!ton. Let the chi d be born. N50O One e)ent in #articu ar has come to symbo ize the 4S censorshi# a##roach. (s some of them wrote aterI ( !rou# of (merican re#orters who )isited Hiroshima on .the #ressin! of the button and the decision that it shou d be #ressed. to!ether with a known #rints and ne!ati)es.-2 am a midwife. without human content. 6he Fazi war on the >ews is remembered in the #o#u ar ima!ination throu!h the concentration cam#. >ust how #otent an effect this remo)a of the human e ement has been on our ima!inin!s of nuc ear war is re)ea ed by com#arin! it to the common ima!es of other twentieth-century horrors of war. When the >a#anese scientific sur)ey staff #rotested.'''-foot Dffects of the (tom /omb (edited from %%. but a essentia y human in sca e and im# ication . Sti ess does that ima!e su!!est the res#onsibi ity of the human a!ency in)o )ed . howe)er far beyond the eA#erience of the watcher. Some >a#anese re#orters #resent at this #ress conference raised Euestions from the . sti stained with b ood.said one of the serious y wounded. 2n #art. 2n the West. 6hen. and a owed the fi min! to #roceed. in 7ebruary 0?5& when the fi min! of the 0 . 6he fi m was immediate y #rohibited. /ut as a com#arison of /urchett-s account and that of his contem#oraries shows. 2n fact. is e)en further remo)ed from the earth and the fate of human bein!s. in the de#ths of this ! oomy he .om& ( sti more #rofound form of distortion. a new ife was born. Let me he # the de i)ery.''' feet) was submitted to the 4S authorities. a Few Rork 6imes re#orter NW. (fter #ub ishin! this #oem 9urihara and her husband were taken to +enera HeadEuarters and interro!ated about the #oem. 6he 7irst Wor d War #roduced an eAtraordinary set of )isua and written ima!es.O What was to become the dominant officia assessment of the nuc ear bombin! was c ear to the >a#anese at the )ery be!innin!. the fi m com#any Fi##on Di!a-sha fi med materia for a com#rehensi)e )isua documentation of the effects of the bombin!. So. becomes e)ident if /urchett-s artic e is com#ared with other accounts of Hiroshima and Fa!asaki by ( ied 8ourna ists at the time. 6he associations of the bi owin!. this is a matter of censorshi# and su##ression. the +H: re)ersed its decision. N5. N5. e)en if it means throwin! away one-s own ife. /ut before the i!ht of the dawn the midwife. 6he most !enera ima!e.O ?ele&ratin5 t)e . LawrenceO noted the tota de)astation of the city and eAto ed the ob)ious su#eriority of the bomb-s #otentia . (s #art of the 8oint >a#anese scientific and medica sur)ey of Hiroshima and Fa!asaki. the common ima!es of the nuc ear ho ocaust ha)e a ways been essentia y techno o!ica . !uards and the a most unbe ie)ab e industria ized ki in! of the !as chambers. which was he d to )io ate the #ress code. 2n contrast to the #o icy of su##ressin! critica accounts of the effects of the atomic bombin!. technico ored eru#tion are with an awesome and #erha#s terrib e #ower but not at a with the human bein!s consumed within it. the ima!es are sti on a human sca e. a !rou# of the fi m workers secret y made an unauthorized #rint and hid ten ree s of the fi m. dies.ike and a##arent y ineAorab e mo)e to the termina eA# osion. there was another e)e of distortion in)o )ed. the SS master and inmate-s a)e. one which was to ha)e a si!nificant effect on Western understandin! of nuc ear war. who 8ust now was !roanin!. barbed wire. Se#tember 0?5% eA#ressed satisfaction with the com# ete destruction of the city. /ut. bodies in mud. and the unwritten code sti#u atin! suitab e treatment of the atomic bombin!. the mushroom c oud.H.trenches. (t a #ress conference he d at the #refectura office.
Lawrence. and accom#anied the 4S(7 %'?th /ombin! +rou# to 6inian ater that month. Lawrence and his #arty anded at 9ure Fa)a /ase near Hiroshima. Listenin! to 6ruman-s announcement on the radio. (stonishin! y. Lawrence wrote )a!ue y that >a#anese doctors to d us they were he # ess to dea with burns caused by the bomb-s !reat f ash or with the other #hysica ai ments caused by the bomb .artic e was #ub ished in the $ai y DA#ress.O Sur#risin! y for eA#erienced 8ourna ists. Lawrence). s#eakin! occasiona y to witnesses. 6o!ether these made #ossib e the e imination of any e!itimate #ers#ecti)e other than that of the )ictors and the ce ebration of their #ower. is c ear from his comment on his own fee in!sI -( )isit to Hiroshima is an eA#erience to ea)e one shaken by the terrib e. -2t shou d be the ast e)idence needed to con)ince any doubter of the need to retain and #erfect our air offense est the fate of Hiroshima or Fa!asaki be re#eated in 2ndiana#o is or Washin!ton or $etroit or Few Rork. 2n his re#ort on a )isit to Fa!asaki. )omited b ood and fina y died.comments on the #ress conference. 6he first was that the bombs were a 8ust and necessary contribution to wor d #eace. and toured the city with a >a#anese na)a sur!eon. is inters#ersed with brief co)era!e of the medica situation. they ost a##etites. 6he dominant concern of this descri#tion of Hiroshima is the #hysica dama!e which made it -the wor d-s most dama!ed city. Lawrence went on. and been !i)en the task of eA# ainin! the atomic bomb to the wor d #ub ic. 6here is no indication that he )isited any hos#ita or medica re ief station. .N5&O Dchoin! the emer!in! officia 4S 8ustification for retainin! a mono#o y of nuc ear-wea#ons use. but were otherwise to be i!nored or su##ressed. he said.6hree themes had by now emer!ed in officia y sanctioned (merican co)era!e of the nuc ear bombin!. N51O Seconded from his news#a#er to the *anhattan =ro8ect. N5%O ( readin! of the on! artic e substantiates the >a#anese re#orters. .stand#oint of the bomb-s )ictims . amid the decay of the remainin! bodies. he wrote of . . and that a continued 4S nuc ear mono#o y wou d maintain the #eace. the #resumab y we -briefed 8ourna ists of the officia #arty made no eA# icit reference to the effects of radiation. Here is the fina #roof of what the mechanica and scientific !enius of (merica has been ab e to accom# ish in war. the human conseEuences were to be conceded so far as was necessary to estab ish the c aim of techno o!ica omni#otence. but without any of /urchett-s attem#ts to #ortray the situation of the burn and radiation )ictims in the hos#ita s. Laurence became the officia #ub icist and historian of the first nuc ear wea#ons. 6he second was that the most im#ortant Eua ity of the bombs to be em#hasized was their #hysica #ower. 7ina y. His concern was so e y with the #ower of the bombI its )ictims interested him on y as #roof of that mi!ht. worse than Warsaw or Sta in!rad that he d the record for Duro#eK. or to eA#and on them.H. (s we ha)e a ready seen. Lawrence re#orted the officia refutation of >a#anese sourced c aims of wides#read radiation i ness after his return to 6okyo without referrin! to his own )isit. 6hey to d us that #ersons who had been on y s i!ht y in8ured on the day of the b ast ost B& #er cent of their white b ood cor#usc es. with the =enta!on-a##ro)ed #ress team wrote of his )isit to Hiroshima in the Few Rork 6imes. the >a#anese are eAa!!eratin! its effects in an effort to win sym#athy for themse )es in an attem#t to make the (merican #eo# e for!et the on! record of co d-b ooded >a#anese bestia ity. but NLawrenceO refused to answer such Euestions.H. Laurence witnessed the 6rinity test at ( amo!ordo on 0& >u y 0?5%. Wi iam L.meanin! of Hiroshima that came to be constructed. N55O 6he day /urchett-s -(tomic = a!ue. Laurence (not to be confused with W. NDm#hasis added. the #arty a##arent y made no attem#t to substantiate these dramatic c aims. inc udin! writin! the statement with which =resident 6ruman announced the first atomic bombin!. incredib e si!hts.Lawrence-s basic attitude. 6he contrast between /urchett-s )iew of the bombin!s and the duty of the 8ourna ist becomes e)en more c ear when /urchett-s writin! on Hiroshima is com#ared with that of another Few Rork 6imes writer. and the one which was to under#in the dominant -officia . -2 am con)inced that. a!ain ar!e y concerned with #hysica dama!e. (s a science writer he had written on the #ossibi ity of nuc ear wea#ons before the war. horrib e as the bomb undoubted y is. .. W. their hair be!an to dro# out. 6he tour of the rubb e.
his #ride as a 8ourna istI -6he wor d-s !reatest story was bein! broadcast. /ein! c ose to it and watchin! it as it was bein! fashioned into a i)in! thin!.* /urchett himse f was not innocent of this #redominant y mascu ine worshi# of techno o!y. sizz in! u#ward and then descendin! earthward. /urchett was in some res#ects a ty#ica ma e war corres#ondent. mora .e.!ad!et. "ou d it be that this innocent. Whi e was more radica than most in antici#atin! sym#athetica y the emer!ence of #ost-co onia (sia.His answer was resoundin!I -Fot when one thinks of =ear Harbor and of the $eath *arch on /ataan. Se#tember attack on /urchett and the >a#anese-sourced c aims of ar!e numbers of radiation deaths. $eath and res#onsibi ity were banished. cou d in much ess time than it takes to wink an eye annihi ate an entire city and its #o#u ationC >ust as his near-namesake Lawrence had concei)ed of the bombin! as an eA#ression of -the mechanica and scientific !enius of (merica-. and from there wrote the 0. Laurence #ro)ides the archety#e for 3obert Lifton-s study of nuc earism that ate-twentieth-century secu ar re i!ion -in which . #o itica and scientific c aims were interwo)en and mutua y reinforcin!. Fo !reater honor cou d come to any news#a#erman. a##arent y written in the ast year of the war (the cha#ter on Hiroshima is -( =ostscri#t-). 2n ima!ery redo ent of a ienated #ower and seAua ity. he had not eA#ected to sur)i)e the war. # utoniumO before it was # aced inside the bomb. and mine had been the honor. 2n $emocracy with a 6ommy!un.sa )ation. so safe to hand e.ookin! ob8ect. about which he wrote a on! account #ub ished a month ater in the Few Rork 6imes. the resu t V the resu t of the eAEuisite techno o!y that Laurence reco!nizes in his transcendent adoration V is a c oud that i)esI 6he mushroom to# was e)en more a i)e than the #i ar.K Laurence returned to ( ama!ordo after the Fa!asaki bombin!.-. Laurence saw the bomb in s#iritua and aesthetic terms that rendered the death y Eua ities of the wea#on somehow in)isib e. N%'O 2t is )ery hard to ima!ine a more com# ete contrast between two a##roaches to 8ourna ism than that between /urchett and Laurence. . V the mastery of death and e)i V are achie)ed throu!h the #ower of a new techno o!ica deity . (s a war corres#ondent in the =acific. 2n this new muscu ar deism. of #re#arin! the War $e#artment-s officia #ress re ease for wor dwide distribution. another im#ortant myth was bein! created here. one somehow crossed the border ine between rea ity and non-rea ity and fe t onese f in the #resence of the su#ernatura . (s we as estab ishin! the innocence of the bomb.K N5BO 6wo days ater Laurence f ew in an obser)er # ane in the attack on Fa!asaki. 2t was as thou!h the deca#itated monster was !rowin! a new head. 2t ke#t stru!! in! in an e ementa fury. or anyone e se for that matter.!race. 6he aesthetic.mminent. and e)en . ca#ab e not on y of death and destruction but a so un imited creation. ike a creature in the act of breakin! the bonds that he d it down . 2n the air o)er Fa!asaki. t)e (umanity . the dro##in! of the nuc ear bomb on Hiroshima was a #oint in a secu ar crusade for the new re i!ion. there was no # ace for the )ictims of the ho ocaustQ on y a transcendent fusion of techno o!y and the #ower that directed it. . @3)e Alienation is 3emporary. . . /y itse f it is not dan!erous to hand e. One mi!ht su##ose that the innocents be ow had #artici#ated in or bore res#onsibi ity for the ear ier e)ents. /urchett describes Le*ay-s 4S (ir 7orce firebombin! of >a#anese cities from Fo)ember .K N%0O 7or Laurence. so eAEuisite y sha#ed that any scu #tor wou d be #roud to ha)e created it. uniEue in the history of 8ourna ism. so beautifu y desi!ned. a thousand !eysers ro ed into one. seethin! and boi in! in a white fury of creamy foam.a##arent y for the on y time addressed himse f to the mora EuestionI -$oes one fee any #ity or com#assion for the #oor de)i s about to dieC.6his ref eAi)e (merican defence of the s au!hter of the ci)i ians who made u# the tar!et was hy#ocrisy. this . Laurence . N5?O 7or Laurence the Fa!asaki # utonium bomb was -a thin! of beauty to beho d. that of the c ean atomI -2 saw the atomic substance Ni.
Such ri!hts are ne)er who y acce#ted. the owest #oint so far) of a trend towards a oss or restraint o)er the s au!hter of ci)i ians that has marked this century. but e!itimation of the ri!ht of war. N%&O What is strikin!. as *ichae Wa zer has #ut it. and ethnicity.N%. Smooth y ta#erin! ike an artist-s brush hand e. N%5O 6o test the new incendiaries de)e o#ed for the hi!h y inf ammab e >a#anese cities. /ut. N%%O ( factory worker. 6hrou!hout the century. each b anketed an area . where in the most inf ammab e #ortion of the city. the #o#u ation density eAceeds 0''. /urchett te s the eAterna s of that a##a in! ni!ht. whi e markin! a turnin! #oint in some ways. who ehearted y.a rea inferno out of the de#ths of he . and to /urchett-s credit. com# ete with rooms and furniture.''' #eo# e #er sEuare mi e. and the humanity of the enemy is a ways in dan!er of eru#tin! throu!h the statemana!ed artifice of hatred and a ienation. fear and a sunderin! of any #ossibi ity of communion or fe ow fee in!. . (s a resu t. 6hey died by the hundreds in front of me . . we fe t no sense of either history or trium#h. the /-. the air force bui t a miniature >a#anese city b ock. carryin! siA tons of na#a m or oi -fi ed incendiaries a#iece. dashin! mad y about ike rats. ( nearby army firefi!htin! team was then eEui##ed with >a#anese fire eEui#ment and #itted a!ainst the new #roducts. runnin! for their i)es. he immediate y res#ondedI in the # ain and decent #rose of his Hiroshima account he described the un#recedented sufferin! before him which amounted to what he ca ed -the watershed in my ife-. adu ts and chi dren. the humanity imminent. is in other res#ects sim# y the cu mination (or more #essimistica y.''' diedI 7ire winds with burnin! #artic es ran u# and down the streets. 6he who e s#ectac e with its b indin! i!hts and thunderin! noise reminded me of the #aintin!s of #ur!atory . states are a ways en!a!ed in a contest of e!itimation with their #eo# es V e!itimation. the #ro#ortion of ci)i ians ki ed in wars has . Lawrence describin! Hiroshima in statistics.. s#oke of the scenes amon! the 1%'.O 2n a descri#tion )ery simi ar to that of W. Hiroshima.?s. it rides ike a feathered dart. /ut in the twentieth century. by the who e #o#u ation in societies di)ided by seA.?.%'' feet by %'' feet with burnin! !aso ine.. /urchett-s re)ersion to a shared humanity #ara e ed that of others who had com# ete y su##orted the war-s aims in the =acific. #roduction and or!anization-. -6he a ienation Nof the enemyO is tem#orary. 6he aircraft in Euestion. 2 watched #eo# e. as a s#ecifica y (merican achie)ementI -6he Su#erfortress. 7 ames ran after them ike i)in! thin!s.O 6his admiration of (merican techno o!y carries o)er into a descri#tion of the 6okyo fire raid of 0' *arch 0?5%I -6he wor d-s !reatest incendiary tar!et had been touched off by the war-s !reatest incendiary raid. 7rom that #osition /urchett wrote his #ro#hetic warnin! from the hos#ita s of Hiroshima. which makes #ossib e a reconstitution of a shared humanity.K N%. . .N%1O (t the heart of war is a #rofound a ienation from the enemy.H. Our hatred for the >a#anese was swe#t away by the enormity of what we had seen.0?55 in ! owin! and admirin! terms. Our brother man went by cri## ed and burned.N%BO /urchett and the =OW both eA#erienced what the re i!ious ca the con)ersion of the heart. (t the heart of the state is the e!itimation of its ri!ht to )io ence and its ri!ht to demand that the citizen take #art in or!anized )io ence.. is a so the most beautifu aircraft yet #roduced. 6hat ni!ht went beyond e)en the horrors of $resden and Hambur!. Fe)er since the !reat fire of London had there been a conf a!ration as started ear y that Saturday mornin! in the centre of downtown 6okyo. Se)era hundred /-. essentia y from the #ers#ecti)e of the #i ots and aircrew whose i)es and dan!ers he shared. . is that as soon as he actua y saw the human resu ts of the work of his comrades of the #ast year. e)oked /urchett-s !reatest admiration. (n (ustra ian #risoner of war who reached Hiroshima a few days ater wrote of the immediate transformation of his consumin! hatredI -. a#art from bein! ab e to de i)er hea)ier bomb oads farther than any other # ane.. . the researchers knew they had met the air force-s reEuirements. e!itimation of the )io ence of the state has become at the same time more contin!ent and more necessary than before. c ass. 6he 4nited States (ir 7orce had de)e o#ed the na#a m bomb es#ecia y for the firin! of >a#anese cities. and we knew on y shame and !ui t . an a ienation eA#erienced as hatred. Writin! here of the on!-ran!e bombin! cam#ai!n /urchett #raised the wonder of -(merXican # annin!. 6suchikura Hidezo. When the new 8e ied #etro eum bomb #roduced a fire that defeated the firefi!hters.''' #eo# e tra##ed in the wor d-s most crowded urban area when 0''. not of this re!ime rather than that. strikin! them down.
On nuc ear matters the state reso )ed that it wou d to erate no serious #ub ic discussion either of the human im#act of the bomb or of the o#tion of not usin! the bomb. securin! #ub ic acEuiescence was of #aramount im#ortance. e!itimation of the atomic bombin! was not at a certain. #ub ic o#inion must be reco!nized as a factor of considerab e im#ortance.tended to rise as a #ro#ortion of the dead.' of 0?5B #ut itI 2n this matter.K N&0O /efore on! an ar!ument emer!ed that a #rinci#a reason for the haste to use the bomb was as a warnin! to the So)iet 4nion.or unfee in! . /urchett sensed it.. is or!anized and orchestrated by state and mass media. mi!ht ha)e the effect of # acin! before the (merican #eo# e a mora Euestion of )ita si!nificance at a time when the fu security im#act of the Euestion had not become a##arent. but ne)er Euite successfu y.. ( that was at stake was the s#eed of )ictory. N&'O 4S news#a#ers re#orted wides#read Duro#ean concern and dismayI the Few Rork 6imes ran an artic e three days after the bombin! headed -/ritons 3e)o ted by 4se of (tom /omb-.. 6he uncensored disco)eries of /urchett about the human effects of the bomb. 8ustifiab e. in this war. 2f that does not make a 8ourna ist want to sha#e history in the ri!ht direction. >a#an cou d not ha)e continued the war for more than a few months. 6he day after the Hiroshima bombin! the Tatican eA#ressed serious concern. and the swee#in! disre!ard for a humane imitations on bombardment from the air. to this eAtent contributin! to the #ossibi ity of a co ecti)e decision to refuse acEuiescence in the neAt nuc ear war. both at a #o itica e)e and by the immediate re)u sion fe t by many. or the know ed!e had been thrown in the ri)er ike an unwanted kitten. what wou d be the fate of hundreds of cities in a WW. 6he si ence of Hiroshima is a crucia #art of the nuc ear state-s strate!y of maintainin! the #er#etua a ienation of the enemy. on y by a ca cu ation of means and ends.War. Lidde Haft continuedI -2t is the combination of an un imited aim with an un imited method . #ub ic o#inion was Euite miAed about the nuc ear bombin!. 4S state mana!ers were not sure of the reactions of the (merican #eo# e. 6he (merican 8ustification was. /urchett-s sma but ur!ent )oice from Hiroshima he #ed to render the imminent shared humanity #a #ab e. *i itary and forei!n #o icy is a ways the east democratic area of state decision. and since the 4nited States ra#id y decided to bui d its #ost-war ! oba dominance around a nuc ear mono#o y. 2n this settin!. and wrote his warnin! to the wor d with that aim. in fact. -One of e)i -s #rinci#a modes of bein!. that has not been a##roached since the end of the 6hirty Rears. and that an in)asion costin! many ( ied i)es wou d not ha)e been necessary. -2n )isitin! Hiroshima-. what doesC Or shou dCKN&%O . the Few Rork Sun c aimed that -the entire city is #er)aded by a sense of o##ression. 2 fe t that 2 was seein! in the ast hour of WW. *ost im#ortant in this trend has been -the terrific !rowth of air warfare.Writin! in 0?5% before the atomic bomb was dro##ed on Hiroshima. and to end the war before the wartime a y wou d ha)e to be !i)en a ma8or ro e in a =acific sett ement in)o )in! >a#an. when the #ossibi ity of a ca m and informed decision cou d be minimized. N&. (t the time /urchett wrote.'''-do ar eA#eriment had fai ed.KN%?O 6he need for e!itimation of this new sta!e of tota warfare !rew from the resistance to unthinkin! . needed to be sto##ed and an officia inter#retation rendered secure.says >ohn /er!er. if on y the co ecti)e means cou d be found to make it. -is ookin! beyond (with indifference) that which is before the eyes. and the (merican 8ustification was by no means uni)ersa y acce#ted. 6his was buttressed by the re#ort of the 4nited States Strate!ic /ombin! Sur)ey of >a#an which conc uded that e)en without the nuc ear bombin!. *any fee they wou d ha)e been ha##ier if the .O =o#u ar in)o )ement in decisions of the nuc ear state was seen as a risk that cou d be taken on y at a time of war fe)er. N&. and #articu ar y the de)astatin! im#act of radiation i ness. $e iberation or decision on a sub8ect of this si!nificance.K N&5O D)i . 2f this decision is to be made by the (merican #eo# e. and in some #art a de!radation of i)in! conditions. (s Fationa Security "ounci $ocument Fo. /urchett ater wrote. . e)en if c ear y affirmati)e. 6his has #roduced an eAtent of de)astation. in this sense.'''. wide y cha en!ed.O 2t was a time of historic decision.'''. (t home. if at a . has ine)itab y #roduced a dee#enin! dan!er to the re ati)e y sha ow foundations of ci)i ized ife. it shou d be made in the circumstances of an actua emer!ency when the #rinci#a factors are in the forefront of #ub ic consideration.the ado#tion of a demand for tota surrender to!ether with a strate!y of tota b ockade and bombin! de)astation Xwhich.acEuiescence in what was #a #ab y atrocious.
6he "o d War was at root a bi atera nuc ear contest. 6he threat of nuc ear war is if anythin! !reater now than at the hei!ht of the 3ea!an years. c ose y ana ysed by !ame theorists seekin! Lrationa so utionsM to the =risonersK $i emma. 2n !ame theory terms outside that co d war conteAt. by and ar!e with acEuiescence if not co usion of the so e remainin! su#er#ower. Y 6he structura characteristics of the new nuc ear wor d are e)en more dan!erous than before..S.After2or' (u!ust &. Dar y #ost-"o d War commitments to dismant e eAistin! nuc ear wea#ons ha)e been set aside. and shou d not be i!nored by those accustomed to concerns about nuc ear-armed states. such as Lbunker-busterM tactica nuc ear wea#ons. N&1O Y 2n an effort to o)ercome restrictions on the use of nuc ear wea#ons arisin! from both mora concerns about !enocide and #ractica mi itary concerns about the counter-#roducti)e conseEuences of such use. but a so what he wrote about V and what his co ea!ues embedded in the 4.''%Ori!ina y written for the fortieth anni)ersary of the 4S attack on Hiroshima. N&&O 6wenty years after writin! Toice and Si ence what strikes me is its continued sa ience. Toice and Si ence in the 7irst Fuc ear WarI Wi fred /urchett and Hiroshima was #ub ished a year ater in a on! out of #rint book re)iewin! the ife of the (ustra ian 8ourna ist Wi fred /urchett. *ore im#ortant y sti . Y =ressure for disarmament within !o)ernments and in ! oba ci)i society has ebbed. des#ite e)erythin! that is known about the in)asion and occu#ation of 2raE. A3)e Atomic +la5ueB! t)e in'u&ita&le ac)ie9ement /urchettKs Se#tember &th $ai y DA#ress artic e was the first eyewitness #ub ished account. when the number of effecti)e # ayers rises abo)e nZ. 6he com# eAity of these threats. resu tin! in eAtreme uncertainty.00 motif of terrorism. which ay on y in hei!htened trust and communication between the o##osin! sides. . N&BO Y 6he wor dwide #eace mo)ements s#arked by the nuc ear esca ation of the 3ea!an years ha)e a but disa##eared. and the contradictory conseEuences of market-dri)en ! oba ization. the 4nited States has been #ressin! ahead with the de)e o#ment of new ty#es of nuc ear wea#ons. threats to biodi)ersity. Y 6he #sycho-cu tura state of nuc ear terror endured by the #o#u ations of the nuc ear-wea#ons countries that was a crucia #art of the structures that maintained the "o d War has been effecti)e y re-constituted V on a much wider sca e in the conteAt of ! oba ization V throu!h the disab in! conseEuences of the #ost ?. Ret the im#ortance of /urchettKs artic e was not 8ust the fact that he was the first to write from the site of the ho ocaust. 6his is . deterrence. Y 6he risks of nuc ear terrorism by non-state actors ha)e eA#anded !reat y. with the dan!ers comin! from mu ti# e sourcesI Y 6he number of nuc ear-armed states has increased shar# y. 6hese sources of dan!er intersect with others such as the hi!h e)e of irrationa ity and ideo o!ica moti)ation of decision-makin! in the /ush administration. strate!ic stabi ity. the actions of successi)e 4S administrations ha)e a most ho#e ess y com#romised the core internationa e!a #o itica restraints on nuc ear #ro iferationI the Fon-=ro iferation 6reaty and the "om#rehensi)e 6est /an 6reaty. with itt e effecti)e #ub ic restraint on the actions of the nuc ear states. and the intertwinin! of the nuc ear threat to security with other #rob ems of !enuine y ! oba sca e such as c imate chan!e. b uffin! and war a)oidance a become #rob ematic. Occu#ation #ress cor#s did notI the human conseEuences of the techno o!y he had hitherto admired uncritica y. combined with their ! oba rather than sim# e nationa character makes the task of bui din! socia mo)ements for #eace and sustainabi ity both more difficu t and more ur!ent than a Euarter of a century a!o.
S. Lookin! at the #attern of com# aisant contem#orary re#ortin! in a new a!e of destructi)e im#eria o)er-reach. or!anize them and #resent them forcefu y to readers. N1%O Since this essay was written historians in the 4S and >a#an and e sewhere ha)e !reat y eA#anded our know ed!e of the wider #attern of re#ortin! about Hiroshima and the 4S censorshi# cam#ai!n.. :uestions about the re ationshi# between history and memory that #reoccu#ied me in the ast #art of Toice and . stands as the one indubitab e achie)ement in a on! and contro)ersia workin! ife.S. brandin! him a )ictim of >a#anese #ro#a!anda. /urchett amented the oss of the series of on! re#orts from Fa!asaki fi ed to the "hica!o $ai y Fews by his friend +eor!e We er. N10O 6oday. N1. as /urchett maintained. and headed south a one to Fa!asaki. the same Euestion arises e)en more forcefu y. who was a most a one in seein! the war #rimari y from the #oint of )iew of the sufferin! 9orean #eo# e rather than that of the S+reat =owersK or his own or any other !o)ernment. N1'O (t the hei!ht of the Tietnam War. he sometimes de iberate y eft out e)idence. !arb ed and ma icious stories of his acti)ities in 9orea are discounted. 4. fi med by a 4S mi itary fi m unit. occu#ation forces and the 4. went on to win a =u itzer =rize. 6he contrast between the work of 3obert 7isk. a on! ost carbon co#y of the re#orts wrote from Fa!asaki was disco)ered by We erKs son. the Euestion that comes immediate y to mind is why so few of his co ea!ues V of whate)er #o itica stri#e . We er had 8um#ed off the officia cara)an of embedded 8ourna ists in Rokohama. Whi e /urchettKs coura!e in re#ortin! from the FL7 side was ne)er in doubt. and he wi fu y distorted e)idence #resented by the Sother sideK. by +a)an *c"ormack. 6he Few Rork 6imesK Wi iam L. abe ed traitor and worse. /urchett accom#anied a Fationa Liberation 7orce unit into South Tietnam. what remains is the #ortrait of an honest man who tried to te the truth. and it was ne)er seen a!ain. N1.O 6he ro e of 8ourna ists was. Like /urchett. 6he most carefu study of those c aims. N15O Since Toice and Si ence was written. it has come to i!ht that 4S authorities su##ressed not on y the >a#anese foota!e of Hiroshima and Fa!asaki discussed there. $ahr >amai . re#ortin! the ife of the !uerri a resistance V for which he was merci ess y #i oried in the mainstream media. and commenced the decades.on! 4S !o)ernment censorshi# of the fu effects of the bombin!. He certain y worked hard to di! out the facts. $efence $e#artment denied his c aims of radiation #oisonin!.'th $ay in HiroshimaI 6hose who esca#ed be!in to die.O %eco9erin5 )istorical memory 2n his book Shadows of Hiroshima. /urchett was no saint. who denied his eAtensi)e know ed!e of the radiation effects of the bomb when he wi in! y ed the char!e to deny /urchettKs c aims. centra to this te in! and re-te in! of history. Laurence. >ohn *artinkus and other inde#endent 8ourna ists on the one hand. refutes them. but a so e)en more foota!e. re!ard ess of the fina assessment of /urchettKs re#ortin! of Tietnam. N&?O "har!es that /urchett #artici#ated in Forth 9orean and "hinese brainwashin! of 4S and a ied #risoners of war #ursued him unti his death in 0?B. e)en eadin! #eace mo)ement acti)ists of the time were concerned about the re iabi ity of his re#ortin!. )ictims of 6HD (6O*2" =L(+4DI -2 Write this as a Warnin! to the Wor d-M. 2n res#onse. and that of their co ea!ues embedded in the +reen Uone of /a!hdad makes the same #oint V unbearab y. On the other hand. in co our.c ear from the head ine to his $ai y DA#ress artic eI L. who b ocked it. nor did he aim for LdetachmentM. $a)id *arrKs on! and carefu assessment of /urchettKs Euarter century of writin! about Tietnam from the #eace ta ks of 0?%5 onwards to the ate 0?1's confirms the f aws as we as )irtuesI $id /urchett te the truth about TietnamC 6he record is more miAed. 4n ike /urchett We er submitted his co#y to the +H: censors. /urchett was #i oried.took the same chance to re#ort the other side. /ut 8ust recent y. His account of the human effects of the Hiroshima bombin!. and the first of the re#orts was fina y #ub ished. durin! which he was banned from his own country. conc udin! When a the fa se. and remains. a most dai y.
. contem#orary and otherwise. .. So far as it is human y #ossib e to make such 8ud!ments. *any of these. and hear echoes of b ood and fire. N11O 9urihara reminded her >a#anese #ost-war audience that witness to e)ents of transhistorica human si!nificance is a ways conducted by women and men standin! in history at #articu ar # aces. for (mericans and their a ies of the =acific War (reborn ha f a century ater as the "oa ition of the Wi in!) it is sti difficu t to face the fact that the =acific War came to an end with an un#recedented act of mass terror. but a bad!e of a s#ecifica y >a#anese )ictim status. Say . it was her 8ust y famous 0?5& #oem.Si ence twenty years a!o ha)e now come to centre sta!e in the com# eA and #owerfu work of (merican historians of the =acific War and of >a#an.''%..orn of t)e conCuerors 6here is a fina im#ortance to be discerned in 6he (tomic = a!ue. rendered the sca es of atrocity eEua y hea)y on both sides. for many years continued the work of the war by erasin! memory of the many 9orean hibakusha who died in the city. and hear . When we say . doused with !aso ine. that the >a#anese of her !eneration shou d not a)ert their eyes from the e)ents in which. and burned a i)e. -HiroshimaKCM . a crime ne)er before committed. !ent y. they were to )aryin! de!rees com# icit.Hiroshima.=ear Harbor. inc udin! that of many officia >a#anese acts of remembrance.. $es#ite its focus on the human conseEuences of the techno o!y and mi itary or!anization /urchett had hitherto admired uncritica y. makin! a story that starts ear y one hot summer mornin! in 0?5%.. and was not V at that time . 9urihara is ri!ht. (n authentic V or at east a decent y com# ete V >a#anese account cannot be!in on that summer mornin!.. is demandin! that they face what had been done in their name. Hiroshima becomes a symbo not of a uni)ersa ca#acity for sufferin! and a ca to abandon war. the Hiroshima =eace =ark.Hiroshima. was not o##osed to the war effort. we first must wash the b ood off our own hands. Say . and hear women and chi dren in *ani a thrown into trenches. Fotorious y. (h. S(h.?s as they incinerated hundreds of thousands in the cities of >a#an in the s#rin! of 0?5%. do #eo# e answer. When 9urihara Sadako died in *arch . 6oday. written by an (ustra ian who had f own as a comrade with the youn! (merican crews of the /-.M Say . stress the undoubted si!nificance of humanity as a who e. a!ed ?. Ret in her ater #oems ike LHiroshima and the Dm#erorKs Few " othesM and most famous y LWhen we say SHiroshimaKM 9urihara tar!eted the hy#ocrisy of this officia >a#anese )a orizin! of >a#an-s #osition as )ictim. es#ecia y the )oices of officia >a#an. 6his se#arates /urchettKs act of witness from most >a#anese accounts. /urchett. 6hat story had to start in Hiroshima...Hiroshima. and hear . site of the annua nationa commemoration attended by e)ery #ost-war #rime minister. One of the )irtues of L6he (tomic = a!ueM was that it was written for the )ictors by one of its best war corres#ondents. dictatorshi# or not. to!ether with Fa!asaki and the firebombin!s that #receded them. Hiroshima. mora y and #o itica y. writin! a most direct y from the worst his ci)i ization cou d do ri!ht before his eyes.3a#e of Fan8in!. writin! from the )ictors for the )ictors. (t its worst. the other side of )ictory. its author was not >a#anese.Hiroshima.Hiroshima. N1&O . 2t is a #roduct of )ictory. but in a way that truncates the s#ecifica y >a#anese story of Hiroshima and Fa!asaki.hosti e to the 4nited States.that was wide y re#roduced in >a#an. Say . -Let the "hi d be /orn.. -Hiroshima-.
'ff.%0&. disci# ined member of the #ress cor#s. 0?&?) and (t the /arricades (0?B')Q and fina y in Shadows of Hiroshima (Terso. 1. /urchett ater Euotes one of the remainin! doctors as sayin! that they knew they were not dea in! with an infection. and he #in! in turn to shie d the 4nited States from se f-doubt in its on!oin! im#eria )entures. One other 8ourna ist a so broke throu!h officia restrictions at the time and reached Fa!asaki. .. 00. 9odansha 2nternationa . .6he dee# y entrenched trium#ha ism of the )ictorsK subseEuent #o itica cu tures endures to this day. and 2 am !ratefu to *ark Se den for carefu and #roducti)e editin! of this )ersion. 0. Hutchinson. maskin! and fosterin! the #atho o!ies that #oison the dee# structure of re ations between >a#an and the 4. >a#an-s Lon!est $ay.%. 5 . 0'. and who inserted some !ratuitous #ara!ra#hs from the Science Dditor. ##. 1. 6hat )ersion has not been chan!ed eAce#t to remo)e obscurities and infe icities of eA#ression. . .0%. *e bourne..now as much as twenty years a!o V of >ohn /er!erKs comment on our com# icity in e)i . there is a terrib e #sycho o!ica V and #o itica V #rice to be #aid with the return of the re#ressed. London.&0-. 6he .01. o#. then and nowI -One of e)i -s #rinci#a modes of bein!.) %. #. =ass#ort. "urrey O-Fei . /urchett re#eated y acknow ed!ed the su##ort he recei)ed from se)era of the )eteran war corres#ondents in the officia #arty who #rotested at . the ot. =ass#ort. 2n the (fterword 2 note se)era im#ortant subseEuent de)e o#ments in our know ed!e of the e)ents dea t with here. >oe 9o)e . 0?B.in his $emocracy with a 6ommy!un (7.0 &. Letter to $a)id +our ay. 2bid. 2 sent the materia to *ac(rthur-s #ress headEuarters for c earance and transmission .. .. /urchett 3e#ortin! the Other Side of the Wor d 0?. 2bid. *ac(rthur had . 0?5&)Q a!ain in his autobio!ra#hies =ass#ort (Fe son. 6he #iece that was #ub ished in the $ai y DA#ress on & Se#tember 0?5% was s i!ht y a tered by an editor who thou!ht -#oor =eter N/urchettO. #. *e bourne. "ommittee for the "om#i ation of *ateria s on $ama!e "aused by the (tomic /ombs in Hiroshima and Fa!asaki. #. Hiroshima and Fa!asaki. censorshi# of the radiation effects of the bombin!. +eor!e We er of the "hica!o $ai y Fews a)oided mi itary #ub ic re ations -hawks. recei)ed nothin!. "heshire. 0?B0.. London..'''-word artic e he wrote on the basis of inter)iews with witnesses and medica workers was much more detai ed than /urchett-s. Hiroshima and Fa!asakiI the =hysica *edica and Socia Dffects of the (tomic /ombin!s. ##. 0?B0. -(s a oya .. 0.). Shadows. (s with a such su##ressed #atho o!ies. .?-0?B. .S. =ass#ort. 6okyo.K (cited in (t the /arricades. :uartet.ki ed. #. &. es#ecia y concernin! the 4.). ?..cit.. 0?B. 6he Dyewitness History of (ustra ia. 6he #a#er . but that use of these masks #ro)ided some comfort in the face of an otherwise incom#rehensib e eA#erience. 7or the we -founded fears of the Dm#eror-s circ e see =acific War 3esearch Society. Shadows of Hiroshima. #. One istens in )ain to unendin! demands from (merican and (ustra ian #o iticians for fu >a#anese a#o o!y for the =acific War waitin! in )ain for the other shoe to dro#.S.0&1.). 0?B&. #. ##. 6he first is in -HiroshimaI ( =ostscri#t. 2n the )arious #ub ished )ersions of the story.%0?.says >ohn /er!er. London. 6he artic e is re#rinted in Shadows and in Harry +ordon (ed.. the com# eAity of trauma on the side of the nuc ear )ictors as much as the defeated.had been o)ercome by the si!hts of the inferno.B-?. 0?B'. 6he story of /urchett-s tri# to Hiroshima and back as to d here is drawn from a three.and reached Fa!asaki by subterfu!e on & Se#tember.0. D>ne of e9ilDs principal mo'es of &ein5* ( of this work confirms the rea ity of the su##ression of the historica record that /urchett V unwittin! y V documented for the first time. -is ookin! beyond (with indifference) that which is before the eyes.K N1BO [[[[[[ 4otes H 6he ori!ina )ersion of this essay was first #ub ished in /en 9iernan (ed. +a)an *c"ormack and /e inda =robert were #articu ar y he #fu in commentin! on the ori!ina )ersion. /urchett to d the story of how he !ot to Hiroshima a number of times in #ub ished form.W. 5. #.. 05.. ? >u y 0?B'. 0. B.. /urchettKs achie)ement confirms the continuin! sa ience . *e bourne. London. #. Terso.
Lifton. 0?B%. #.-.cit.'. o#.. ? Se#tember.1'. (mericans as =roconsu sI 4nited States *i itary +o)ernment in +ermany and >a#an.1. 1 Se#tember 0?5%.?.5.0.%. and re#rinted in +ordon.. #. W. ...%. -"i)i "ensorshi# and *edia "ontro in Dar y Occu#ied >a#anI 7rom *inimum to Strin!ent Sur)ei ance-..cit. #.. 2bid.5. #. Shadows. 2bid.. #. 4nconditiona $emocracyI Dducation and =o itics in Occu#ied >a#an. .BB. Laurence in the FR6. .0'. de ayed. -Tisit to Hiroshima =ro)es 2t Wor d-s *ost $ama!ed "ity-. but e)en then cou d not be seen by the >a#anese #ub ic. #.cit. Tine # aces the iberated cam#s as two on the west coast of Honshu and three on the 2n and Sea..1. /urchett tries to work out how and why LaurenceGLawrence took so on! to #ub ish his Hiroshima account after )isitin! Hiroshima the same day as /urchett (Lawrence-s re#ort was in fact #ub ished the day before /urchett-s). o#. o#. 2bid.'-0... Few Rork 6imes. 01. #. %0.cit. 6oshio Fishi.cit. #. See a so Lifton..?5 .. Few Rork 6imes. -(tom /omb 9i ed Fa!asaki "a#ti)es-. #.. "arbonda e. /urchett V and the chronic ers of Hiroshima and Fa!asaki V confuse the two Few Rork 6imes re#orters.. #. .&5.. 5'.H.). 7or the story of the #oem (trans ated by +a)an *c"ormack) and its fu teAt see 3okuro Hidaka.cit.%0'Q Fishi. o#. % Se#tember 0?5%. 0?.cit. 0B. 3obert >.&. date ined Few *eAico. . 7arre is re#orted in an artic e in the Few Rork 6imes. 3in!wood. Laurence. Hidaka re#orts 9uriharaKs subseEuent critica ref ections on the meanin! of Hiroshima for >a#an. ##. or the )ictimsI -6he *inistry of Dducation howe)er. 0?55-0?%. Fishi. the *anhattan =ro8ect #ub icist.. 2bid. Lawrence and date ined 6okyoQ +ro)es-s statement is re#orted by Wi iam L. London.05.5 in an artic e. . ##..-. . ##.L.B&-1..H. #. /urchett mentions encounters in the 9yoto-6suru!a area and 9obeOsaka.. ##..... ce count and his eA#osure to residua radiation in Hiroshima be!an when he returned to Hiroshima for the first time a year ater. Hiroshima and Fa!asaki. .. Laurence. *ar ene >. 0?5%-0?%.cit. #... D)en as ate as 0?1' /urchett sti acce#ted that initia eA# anation (=ass#ort.%. Hoo)er 2nstitution =ress. o#. Hiroshima and Fa!asaki.015-%. ##.. 6he =rice of (ff uenceI $i emmas of "ontem#orary >a#an. 5%.. 6he fi m was e)entua y returned in 0?&1 after a >a#anese cam#ai!n.. Few Rork 6imes. *ayo. %.0. =resumab y his reassessment of the #robab e ink between his own ow white-b ood.%'5. 00 Se#tember 0?5%.this un#rofessiona beha)iour.. Howe)er. 3obert Wo fe (ed. o#. ##. 51.01&).0'0.?. % Se#tember 0?5%.. Southern 2 inois 4ni)ersity =ress.. Fishi. #. 2bid. 2bid.. #. ibid. ##. did not fu y re ease the fi m to the #ub ic. 5&... .5...?. ##.5. #. #. /urchett must ha)e been the source. 2n one #assa!e. Few Rork 6imes. o#. 2bid. 5.. 0' Se#tember 0?5%. . 2bid.B.1.. #.?. she de)otes no attention to the Euestion of censorshi# of the effects of the atomic bombin!. . .&.. reasonin! that much of it wou d )io ate the #ri)acy of those #eo# e who had been eA#osed to the bombs and that it contained too many crue scenes. 0?&B. .2bid. .. ##.?. Lifton. o#. $eath in LifeI the Sur)i)ors of Hiroshima. 2bid.BB-?. . 0%.. o#. cited in Shadows. and W. 0. 0B Se#tember 0?5%. *ayo-s im#ortant new study of 4S censorshi# #o icy is based on dec assified 4S officia documents. ##..?. Hiroshima and Fa!asaki. #5 by W.&0&.cit. 0?B5. Weidenfe d and Ficho son. 50.0. 0.B.. . Stanford. 5. =ass#ort.cit. =en!uin (ustra ia. o#.. 2bid. Se#tember 0?5%.cit.-.. %. 0&.. . Hiroshima and Fa!asaki.'. Few Rork 6imes. #. Lawrence.. ##. Shadows. 1. 55. . . 0... 0?B. and why he mo)ed .. #.B1. Se#tember 0?5%. *ayo. #. the war corres#ondent in Hiroshima the same day as /urchett.0..-?.0'. o#. ( contem#orary account of /urchett-s =OW-cam# eA# oits by >im Tine was #ub ished in the /risbane "ourier-*ai . #.
date ined -(tom /omb 3an!e. was =au Fitze.. 6he first of We erKs re#orts is #ub ished in Dn! ish by the *ainichi $ai y Fews.. is to be #ub ished by *e bourne 4ni)ersity =ress. B (u!ust 0?5%. #. See =au /racken.editorand#ub isher. L/urchett on TietnamM. Few Rork 6imes. Laurence.5?.B.H.. 3i!by.tomdis#atch. "ited in >ohn "oste o. %0. Few Rork. . %'. #. Wor d War in the (irI 6he =acific. 4ni)ersity of "hica!o =ress. -4S (tom /omb Site /e ies 6okyo 6a es-. 6he chronic ers of Hiroshima and Fa!asaki a so note the #resence at a #ress conference in Hiroshima on . 2n one of " io-s itt e ironies. 6he author of the artic e -4S (tom /omb Site /e ies 6okyo 6a es-.. / ackett. 5. ##. 0?5&. in 9iernan. Laurence.. How *uch 3emains the SameCM (. +ene +urney. 6he 3e)o ution in Warfare. :uartet. /urchett. 3oad to Hiroshima. Hera d. de ayed). #. Wi iam L. Laurence (in the ori!ina 6imes by. Few Rork 6imes.&1. +eor!e /urchett. Lifton. "hica!o and London. See +re! *itche and 3obert >. 0.. Few Rork.). 5?. 3e#orted in -7ears of . &.B. L6he Second Fuc ear (!eI How *uch Has "han!ed. +a)an *c"ormack. at htt#IGGwww. To ume % . -6he +iant =ays 2ts Way-. /urchett.0B-0? of Shadows. %B. (/ ack 2nc. =. &1. *arr. L6om!ramI $ahr >amai on i)in! in two wor dsMQ and >ohn *artinkus.rather than W.05. L9oreaI /urchettKs 6hirty yearsK WarM.?.6he =acificI *atterhorn to Fa!asaki..''5).5. Wars in 4S-. and =atrick *or!an.. & (u!ust 0?B0. #. #.. =utnam. "ambrid!e 4. 9enneth Harrison. 3awson.H.cit. &%. (#ri . 6om HeenanKs critica bio!ra#hy. 0?B&. 6he Life of Wi fred /urchett. htt#IGGwww. . London. (? (u!. %?. London.). 1. We erKs much on!er account confirms /urchettKs im#ressions. Our know ed!e of /urchettKs ife and work wi be !reat y enriched by to soon-to-be #ub ished works.0%).1-. Sunderman (ed. *ichae Wa zer. .. ##. "ommon $reams Fews "enter. and Fick Shimmin. &'. 0??%.=. 0..''%. ##. /en 9iernan (ed.a #ortrait of e)i -.'%.%-&.nauti us. $awn O)er Uero. and the demand by (my +oodman and $a)id +oodman to rescind LaurenceKs =u itzerI LHiroshima "o)er-u#I How the War $e#artment-s 6imesman Won a =u itzerM..L. Few Rork. &1. 0?B'. 15.5. . Few Society.backwards and forwards across the =acific. date ined -6okyo. ##.comGeand#GsearchGartic e[dis# ay. 0?&...commondreams..10-&.. ? (u!ust 0?5%. %1.or!G)iews'5G'B0'-'0. %&. $emocracy with a 6ommy!un.Fotes to (fterword &&.2bid. 0?B.''5I Who Wi Sto# Fuc ear FeAt 4se. S#here. #. (#. 2bid. ##.. . "ited by =eter =rin! e and Wi iam (rkin in S O=I Fuc ear War from the 2nside. &.. Se#tember 0?5% of -W...0. 7or . *e bourne.S. 0?B0.is correct y !i)en as Wi iam L.5. Southend =ress.cit. o#. #... (u!ust 0'. 6he same materia was ater inc uded in $awn O)er Uero. $eterrence Fow. 5B. ##. (!ainst the State of Fuc ear 6error. Few Rork. Se#t. 6he =acific War. Wi fred /urchett. htt#IGGwww. a eadin! nuc ear ad)ocate for the "ommittee on the =resent $an!er forty years ater.''5.?-0?B. htt#IGGwww. 7ear.htm . 0?51. 10.''. &?. &B. Laurence.(tomic. 0?%.. %5.%. 7aber and 7aber.&0? 1. 6ouchstone. ori!ina y a *onash 4ni)ersity History $e#artment =h$. >ust and 4n8ust WarsI an (r!ument with Historica 2 ustrations.or! G!#sGscenariosG#a#er... -(tomic /ombin! of Fa!asaki 6o d by 7 i!ht *ember-. ? Se#tember 0?5%. 0?B. as *emoirs of a 3ebe >ourna istI 6he (utobio!ra#hy of Wi fred /urchett (B&' ##. in 9iernan. o#.H..).%BQ see a so. W.. Laurence and nuc earism refers to -Wi iam L. 6o make matters worse.?. Se#t. 6he /roken "onnection.0.ine. -Hiroshima .. >ohn /er!er. &5. for eAam# e. %... /urchettI 3e#ortin! the Other Side of the Wor d 0?. the eader of the bombin! sur)ey in >a#an.L. Few Rork 6imes. etter to $a)id +our ay.com GindeA. Watts. *c+raw-Hi . 6hat /urchett has confused the two is c ear from ##.). . #. 15. Lawrence). 0?5?.%%0. %.H.0. Hiroshima in (mericaI 7ifty Rears of $enia . See >oe 9o)e .0%. in >ames 7.8s#C)nu[content[idZ0'''?&. 6ra)e s 2n (merican 2raE. $a)id +. Lidde Hart.mhtm C#idZ.''%. Lawrence. War and the /omb.''. See... (de aide.is !i)en as W. &0.. #. Se#tember 0?5%. ? >u y 0?B'. 6he (rmy (ir 7orces in Wor d War .htm. 0?B5. 1'.. >une . #. referrin! to the effects of radiation as L$isease @M.) is due from 4ni)ersity of Few South Wa es =ress in October . /. %%.. London. Wes ey 7rank "a)en and >ames Lea "ate (eds. ( fred 9no#fI Few Rork.. .. 3obert Lifton-s discussion of W. Few *eAico. where the author of the Few Rork 6imes artic e -Fo radioacti)ity in Hiroshima ruin-.''%. =en!uin.*. (nd a conso idated and definiti)e edition of /urchettKs )arious memoirs edited by his son. 0?B'. Lawrence-. Harmondsworth. #. #. *e bourne. ?. Fauti us 2nstitute + oba Scenarios Worksho# .B...
8s#C )nu[content[idZ0'''?&.D. .a #ortrait of e)i -.=. >a#an 7ocus. & (u!ust 0?B0. =antheonQ Laura Hein and *ark Se den. -Hiroshima .as#CidZ&&.nauti us.or!Gartic e.. He wrote this artic e for >a#an 7ocus.''%. >a#an 7ocus.. 6he Fuc ear Dducation =ro8ect by =eter 9uznick and *ark Se den on >a#an 7ocus #ro)ides a com#rehensi)e istin! of re e)ant studies in Dn! ishI htt#IGG8a#anfocus. ed. htt#IGGwww. Dditor and =ub isher.comGeand#GnewsGartic e[dis# ay. "ambrid!e 4.as#CidZ. Dditor and =ub isher.''%.8s#C)nu[content[idZ0''0''0%B.? and *ark Se den.as#C idZ..''%M. Shar#e.% 1%. Few Society. War Without *ercyI 3ace and =ower in the =acific War.. 4ni)ersity of *ichi!an =ress.comGeand#GsearchGartic e[dis# ay. o#. See a so his trans ation of LHiroshima and the Dm#erorKs Few " othesM in his L9urihara Sadako. eds. . .cit.or!Gartic e.editorand#ub isher. His book *asters of 6errorI 2ndonesia-s *i itary and Tio ence in Dast 6imor in 0??? (eA#anded and u#dated edition) is in #ress. . . V .two detai ed accounts see +re! *itche . 1&. 3ichard 6anter is Senior 3esearch (ssociate at the Fauti us 2nstitute for Security and Sustainabi ity (www. Li)in! With the /ombI (merican and >a#anese "u tura "onf icts in the Fuc ear (!e. htt#IGGwww. Source: htt :NN8a anfocus6orgN4!ichard4TanterN$?TT . >une 0&. >ohn /er!er. #. 11. . htt#IGG8a#anfocus. >u y 1. *. Hiroshima in History and *emory. 0??&Q >ohn $ower.''%. 0??B... *ichi!an *ono!ra#h in >a#anese Studies . See *itche and Lifton. 0?0.or!Gcate!ory.5.''%.''%.. 0??1.or!).editorand#ub isher. =osted (u!ust 00. LS=D"2(L 3D=O36I Hiroshima 7i m "o)er-4# DA#osedM. 6rans ated by 3ichard *inear in Sadako 9urihara.. When We Say HiroshimaI Se ected =oems.. htt#IGG8a#anfocus. +re! *itche . Dmbed Won =u itzer.Q *ichae Ho!an. LS=D"2(L 3D=O36I ( +reat Fuc ear-(!e *ystery So )edM. (u!ust . *arch 0%..Fa!asaki 0?5%I Whi e 2nde#endents were Scorned.1 1B....
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