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R.Senthil Kumar, Department of Textile Technology, I.I.T Delhi
In today’s global market, cotton plays a major role in the world economy. Global competition in the production and consumption of cotton fiber combined with technological advancements in yarn manufacturing has accelerated efforts to enhance cotton fiber quality. Fibre properties influence both productivity and quality in the spinning process. Cotton stickiness caused by excess sugars on the lint, either from the plant itself or from insects, is a very serious problem for the textile industry-for cotton growers, cotton ginners, and spinners. It affects the processing efficiency as well as the quality of the product. This paper briefly encompasses the causes, effect in different departments, economics, determination techniques and remedies of cotton stickiness.
The contaminants are mainly sugar deposits produced either by the cotton plant itself (physiological sugars) or by feeding insects (entomological sugars), with the latter being the most common source of stickiness. The main honeydew-producing insects that infest cotton plants are cotton whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) and the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii (Glover).
It was reported that glucose and fructose contained in the honeydew are synthesized from sucrose by the insect. whitefly honeydew contamination is indicated. The honeydew attaches itself to the leaves and the fibers of opened bolls.1 Cotton Aphid Fly Fig. A high percentage of melezitose along with a low percentage of trehalulose reveals the presence of aphid honeydew.Fig. When both melezitose and trehalulose are present and trehalulose is dominant. The other sugars are generally found on both non-contaminated and honeydewcontaminated cottons. Causes for Stickiness: . The presence of these sugars on the lint reveals that the contamination is coming.2 White Whiteflies and aphids are both sap-sucking insects that feed by inserting their long and slim stylets into the leaf tissues. at least partially. from insect honeydew. The sap is digested and the excreta discharged as honeydew droplets.
the relative humidity in the manufacturing environment may affect the moisture-dependent properties of the sugars present. Financial losses due to frequent replacement of blades/saws are in addition Effect of Stickiness on Spinning: Stickiness will cause lint to stick to card clothing and draft rollers in subsequent processes. . which affects the temperature-dependent properties of the sugars present. If one or more of the sugars melt. stickiness results.The two main causes of sugars or honey dew becoming sticky are heat and moisture • During yarn formation the cotton fibers are exposed to friction forces that elevate the temperature of some mechanical parts. Stickiness reduces roller gin production by 10 to 15 pounds of lint per hour. • Obviously moisture will cause sugars to change from a crystalline state (non-sticky) to an amorphous state (sticky). Effect of Stickiness in Different processes: Effect of Stickiness on Ginning: Sticky Cotton tends to clog/choke the ginning machines. In particular.
3 Sticky deposits on the draw frame creel Fig.Fig. .4 Sticky deposits on the draw frame drafting zone Sticky fibres even if they pass through the spinning back process will create extra centrifugal forces during ballooning causing the yarn to break.
sugar starts building up in shuttle. No matter how we look at stickiness it will reduce efficiency and production to a considerable extent during spinning. Cotton price is reduced for stickiness by the market at a rate proportional to the perception of risk.5 Sticky deposits on the ring spinning frame In the OE frames stickiness will clog the turbine. therefore. excessive wear and increased maintenance of machinery may occur even with slightly sticky cotton. in weft. Sticky cotton can reduce cotton gin output (in bales/hr) by up to 25%. This is time consuming and expensive Economics of Stickiness: • To growers .Fig. Low humidity will dry the sugars and they will cease to be sticky. humidity is allowed to rise. • To ginners . • At the textile mill . Frequent cleaning of wefts passage would. gripper or air jet and weaving efficiency drops to a level where it becomes uneconomic to continue weaving. Effect of Stickiness on Weaving: Stickiness has minimal effect on warp as it is usually sized and the sugar present gets either dissolved in the hot size mix or is covered by it. stickiness means reduced profitability. However. .stickiness means higher costs for insect control and reduced cotton marketability.stickiness means reduced processing efficiency. sugars will become sticky again.stickiness may mean special handling and processing requirements. If however. lower yarn quality. be required. For everyone concerned.
quantity.6‘Sticky’ cotton is a complex. each with differing efficiency and precision.Stickiness Detection and Measurement: ‘Stickiness’ is the physical process of contaminated lint adhering to equipment Fig. Stickiness is therefore difficult to measure. lint and processing equipment The degree of stickiness depends on chemical identity. These measurements may be correlated with sticking of contaminated lint to moving machine parts. Nonetheless. 3-component interaction among source (insect or plant sugars). Some of the measurement methods given below: • • Reducing sugar method High performance liquid chromatography . methods for measuring sugars on fiber have been and are being developed. the ambient conditions during processing— especially humidity —and the machinery itself. The physical and chemical attributes of the lint and sugars that are correlated with stickiness have been measured in many ways. and distribution of the sugars.
A lubricant in fog form may be introduced at the end of the hopper conveyor. Conclusion: . In Ginning: If stickiness is a problem while ginning. carefully sampling pest populations. The risk of having excessive plant sugars can be minimized by harvesting mature seed cotton. stickiness may be managed by blending bales and by reducing humidity during carding. and card crush rolls may be sprayed sparingly with a lubricant to minimize sticking. These honeydew-producing insects may be managed by avoiding conditions leading to outbreaks. At the textile mill: At the textile mill. and using effective insecticides when populations reach predetermined thresholds. the ginning rate of honeydew contaminated cotton can be increased by increasing the heat of the drying towers to reduce humidity.• • • • Minicard method Sticky cotton thermo detector High speed stickiness detector Fiber contamination tester Solutions to Eradicate Stickiness: During Cultivation: The most efficient way now to prevent stickiness is by managing sugar sources in the field.
three-component interaction that involves the source sugars. 2001.I. Processing Sticky Cotton: Effect of Stickiness on Yarn Quality by ERIC F. Mail i.Cooperative Extension IPM Series No.d : sen29iit@yahoo. Zanskar Hostel. 13. The complexity of this interaction indicates the need for an integrated solution that includes prevention.sources and solutions -. Department of Textile Technology. References: 1. HEQUET. Stickiness caused by honeydew contamination has been reported to cause residue build-up on textile machinery. (M. WA-29. in-field mitigation. Address for communication: R. University of Arizona. 2. July 4-7.in . The Journal of Cotton Science 6:77-90 (2002).Senthil Kumar. Cotton stickiness – A marketing and processing problem by MIAN IFTKHAR AFZAL in Proceedings of the seminar.Senthil Kumar. 3.Tech). Sticky cotton . France.T Delhi. which may cause subsequent irregularities or yarn breakage. AND DEAN ETHRIDGE in Textile Res. and processing adjustments. 402–410 (2005) DOI: 10. Indian Institute of Technology. NOUREDDINE ABIDI1. I. Hauz-khas. and processing equipment. New delhi-110016. Processing Sticky Cotton: Implication of Trehalulose in Residue Build-up by Eric Hequet and Noureddine Abidi. harvested seed cotton.co. 75(5). J.1177/0040514505053953 Author profile R. 4.Stickiness is a complex. Lille. New delhi-110016.