Technical Information
In many industries, nickel-base alloys represent an important segment of structural materials. Critical components made of these alloys are relied upon to function satisfactorily in corrosive services. The demand for safe, reliable and cost-effective performance requires that these nickel-base alloys provide the anticipated corrosion resistance. Corrosion-resistant high alloy castings are often the subject of major concern because failures of cast components have led to significant downtime costs 1 and operating problems. Nickel-base alloy castings are no exception. Premature failures of castings have been encountered in chemical processing, pulp and paper, hazardous waste treatment, metal finishing and flue gas desulfurization services. It is generally accepted that poor quality castings is one main cause of premature failure. To assure quality castings, specifications are an important factor. However, ASTM and ASME specifications that cover castings are not always adequate. 2 Additional specifications must be supplemented in order to avoid lower than expected corrosion resistance.

Premature failure of CW 12 MW (Ni-16Cr-16Mo-4W) Casting

It is recognized that cast components made of the same alloy designation do not always provide similar performance, due to “compositional” segregation. As such, upto-date technical information on properties and characteristics of specific alloys might be helpful to end-users and component suppliers in their endeavor to procure quality castings.

1. “Performance and Reliability of Corrosion-Resistant Alloy Castings”, Materials Technology Institute, Manuals No. 5 & 6, 1981. 2. “A Reliable Base for High-Nickel Equipment”, J.L. Gossett, Chemical Engineering, p. 145, May 1989.


© 1992, by Haynes International, Inc.

These precipitates at grain boundaries (and their corresponding depleted zones) represent an easy path for accelerated intergranular corrosive attack. About 50% of premature service failure can be related to intergranular corrosion 1 .20 Cr . only foundries licensed by Haynes (with approved quality control programs) have the right to produce and market HASTELLOY castings. However. precipitation of both carbides and intermetallics.e. improperly heat treated * Cast HASTELLOY alloys are not produced by Haynes International. Since then. Contact Haynes for the names of such licensees. HASTELLOY Family Alloy Alloy Alloy Alloy Alloy Alloy Alloy A B C D F G X Nominal Chemical Composition (Wt %) Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni 20 30 16 10 20 20 22 Mo .2 Cu Cr . which specializes in wrought products. Inc.4 Si .6 Mo . Castings of high alloys are often prone to sensitization: i.9 Mo . Castings of alloys within some of the HASTELLOY chemistry designations may be produced by various foundries."HASTELLOY" FAMILIES The first HASTELLOY alloys were introduced more than sixty years ago.20 Fe Mo Cr . Accelerated Intergranular corrosion of high carbon/high silicon alloy C casting (CW 12 MW)..20 Cr .2 Cu Fe HASTELLOY alloys have been the subject of continuing research and development.6 Mo . However. aimed at improving their corrosion resistance and mechanical properties.16 Mo . 2 . which in turn is often caused by compositional effects and inappropriate casting techniques or heat treatments.18 W Fe Fe .. the key to successful use of HASTELLOY castings is microstructural quality. several families of HASTELLOY alloys have been used (cast* and/or wrought) in a wide range of corrosive services. like other alloys.

along with advances in melting techniques. The pitting resistance of the C-Family castings is successfully enhanced.C-FAMILY OF HASTELLOY ALLOYS The C-Family of alloys are the most commonly used HASTELLOY products in corrosive services. Cast and Solution Annealed HASTELLOY C-Family of Alloys (1X) 24-hour exposure. This has resulted in enhanced thermal stability (reduced sensitization due to precipitation of carbides and intermetallic phases) and improved mechanical properties. Lower carbon and silicon levels have been adopted.02* . Four generations of C-Family alloys have been developed since the introduction of the original HASTELLOY alloy C in 1932. HASTELLOY Development Cast Alloy Date Description C C-276 C-4 C-22™ * Maximum 1932 1967 1975 1985 C C C-4C C-22 Grade Designation CW 12 MW CW 12 MW CW 2 M CX 2 MW Composition (Wt%) Mo W C Si 16 16 16 13 4 4 3 .12* . as well as modifications of chromium and molybdenum/tungsten contents. the C-Family chemistries have been refined. The continuing enhancement in resistance to corrosion is demonstrated by the trend toward lower corrosion rates with the C-4C and C-22 chemistries.02* 1 . Cast & Annealed Corrosion Rates (mils per year) ASTM ASTM 10% HCl 10% HNO 3 G-28A G-28B Boiling Boiling 1832 2149 27 860 233 691 808 469 117 C/C-276 (CW 12MW) 1057 C-4C (CW 2M) 195 C-22 (CX 2MW) 71 The improvement is even more evident when evaluating the resistance to localized corrosion.0* 1 .12* .8* .0* .8* Cr 16 16 16 22 With better understanding of the alloys physical metallurgy. weldability and resistance to various forms of corrosion. based on the adoption of C-22 chemistry. Tests conducted on C-family castings allow comparison of their relative resistance to aqueous corrosion. Boiling 10% FeCl 3 C/C-276 (CW 12MW) C-4C (CW 2M) C-22 (CX 2MW) 3 .

When expressed in terms of corrosion rates. and reducing the chances of mechanical failure in service.67% Si (Bad) 4 . pouring. enhancing ease of weld repair.67 0.87 10% HCl Boiling 614 1.In addition to improved corrosion resistance. quality is highly influenced by metallurgical factors (composition.03 0. casting techniques (melting.% 0.51 0. weld repair. Cast & Typical Tensile Properties Yield Ultimate Elongation Annealed (ksi) (ksi) 88 80 81 (%) 20 50 60 C-276 (CW 12MW) 47 C-4C (CW 2M) 38 C-22 (CX 2MW) 41 QUALITY ISSUES Like other alloy castings. should be held well below the specification maximum. cleanliness) and post cast treatments (hot/cold forming. silicon and carbon are critical. the aforementioned improvements in HASTELLOY C-family are often “unrealized” in poor quality castings. Silicon.779 ASTM G-28A 41 119 149 211 Casting of Ni-22Cr-13Mo-3W-3Fe (CX 2 MW) 0. for better resistance to corrosion (despite some adversity to casting characteristics. Castings of Ni-22Cr-13Mo-3W-3Fe Corrosion Rates (mils per year) Silicon Wt. for example.292 3. such as fluidity). Microstructural quality is a key to attain optimum corrosion resistance.421 2.03% Si (Good) 0. In a compositional sense. heating/cooling). machining). the C-22 alloy is much more ductile than its predecessors.

To avoid the presence of non-metallic inclusions. the flow rate during the filling of the mold should be within specific ranges. but annealing temperatures of less than 2150°F (1177°C) can be detrimental to some of the HASTELLOY Cfamily castings. A variety of wrought welding consumables is available for various HASTELLOY C-family castings. Non-Metallic Inclusions 5 . and special de-oxidant additions should be made. the pouring temperature is critical. Long annealing times at lower temperatures may give satisfactory results. Casting of Ni-22Cr-13Mo-3W-3Fe (CX 2 MW) As-Cast Under Anneal Proper Anneal If weld repair of castings is necessary. If at all possible. Since these alloys have a strong tendency to form oxide films.For optimum corrosion and mechanical properties. a protective gas cover or slag over the molten metal is necessary. and water quenching is essential. For investment castings of C-22 alloy (CX 2 MW). solution annealing should be performed at appropriate temperatures. an upper interpass temperature should not be exceeded. castings should receive a post-weld anneal.

Kokomo. (Tel. Undesirable performance and unexpected. Casting of Ni-16Cr-16Mo (CW 2 M) 0.01% C (Bulk) 0. Procurement of quality castings should be made in accordance with well defined specifications along with additional information (e.. Theodore Klemp III. Paul Crook (Tel. AOD refined. premature failures can be attributed to microstructural variations due to metallurgical factors. q High quality. Technical information concerning casting procedures is provided by Mr. Muskegon. casting techniques and post-cast treatments.g. 6 . Existing specifications on HASTELLOY castings are broad and do not assure an adequate control of microstructural variations.11% C (Surface) CLOSURE Performance and reliability of HASTELLOY castings are quality dependent. Michigan. q Questions relating to the physical metallurgy.. remelt bar of HASTELLOY C-Family (CX 2 MW. Indiana.: 616-755-1681). properties and performance of HASTELLOY alloys should be directed to either Dr. Inc. and deleterious near-surface precipitation..Care should be taken to avoid the contamination of surfaces prior to solution annealing. Contamination with organic compounds leads to carbon diffusion. Bill Silence (317-456-6201) at Haynes International. CW 2 M and CW 12 MW) is available from Cannon-Muskegon Corp.: 317-456-6241) or Mr. audited practices and corrosion test acceptance) developed by foundries well experienced in HASTELLOY products.

Connecticut 06095 430 Hayden Station Road Tel: 860-688-7771 800-426-1963 FAX: 860-688-5550 England Haynes International. D-205™. Coils. Billet.5V Standard Forms: Bar. 230®.STANDARD PRODUCTS By Brand or Alloy Designation: HASTELLOY ® ® Family of Corrosion-Resistant Alloys B-2. 188. Inc. X-750.O. C-276. B-3 . Sheet. For More Information Contact: Kokomo. G-30®.O. However. Box 9013 Tel: 765-456-6012 800-354-0806 FAX: 765-456-6905 Windsor. HR-160®.haynesintl. 150. Louisiana 71001-9701 3786 Second Street Tel: 318-263-9571 800-648-8823 FAX: 318-263-8088 www.R. 556™. California 92806 Stadium Plaza 1520 South Sinclair Street Tel: 714-978-1775 800-531-0285 FAX: 714-978-1743 The Northwood Industrial Park 12241 FM 529 Tel: 713-937-7597 800-231-4548 FAX: 713-937-4596 Switzerland Nickel Contor AG Hohlstrasse 534 CH-8048 Zurich Tel: 41-1-434-7080 FAX: 41-1-431-8787 France Haynes International.S. 8 20127 Milano Tel: 39-2-2614-1331 FAX: 39-2-282-8273 Houston. Inc. C-4. 75. and X HAYNES ® Family of Heat-Resistant Alloys 25. S. Fittings. nor do we represent that its use would not infringe upon private rights. Any suggestions as to uses and applications for specific alloys are opinions only and Haynes International. P.R. 214™. Welding Wire and Coated Electrodes Properties Data: The data and information in this publication are based on work conducted principally by Haynes International. G-50® and N HASTELLOY Family of Heat-Resistant Alloys S. refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet supplied by Haynes International. Ltd. R-41. Flanges. 242™. Inc.L. MULTIMET® and WASPALOY Corrosion-Wear Resistant Alloy ULTIMET® Wear-Resistant Alloy 6B HAYNES Titanium Alloy Tubular Ti-3Al-2. W. we do not make any warranty or assume any legal liability or responsibility for its accuracy.com For Referral to Authorized Distributors in your area Fax: 1-765-456-6079 Printed in U. G-3. HR-120®. C-2000® . 091099 . Texas 77041 Anaheim. Pipe Fittings. For specific concentrations of elements present in a particular product and a discussion of the potential health effects thereof. 230-W™. C-22® . Seamless or Welded Pipe & Tubing.L. makes no warranty of results to be obtained in any particular situation. 625.A. Plate. Box 10 Parkhouse Street Openshaw Manchester. Viale Brianza. Park Avenue P. Indiana 46904-9013 1020 W. and are believed to be reliable. completeness or usefulness. S.A. Strip. 718. M11 2ER Tel: 44-161-230-7777 FAX: 44-161-223-2412 Italy Haynes International. and occasionally supplemented by information from the open literature. 263. Boite Postale 9535 95061 CERGY PONTOISE Cedex Tel: 33-1-34-48-3100 FAX: 33-1-30-37-8022 Arcadia.

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