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Lamotte, History of Indian Buddhism

Lamotte, History of Indian Buddhism

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Lamotte, History of Indian Buddhism
Lamotte, History of Indian Buddhism

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PUBLICATIONS DE L'INSTITUT ORIENTALISTE DE LOUV AIN

36
ETIENNE

LAMOTTE

HISTORY
OF

INDIAN BUDDHISM
FROM THE ORIGINS TO THE SAKA ERA

translated from the French by
Sara WEBB-8oIN

under the supervision of Jean OAN1lNNE

UN IVERS ITt CATHOtiQUE DE LOUVA IN

INSTJTUT ORIENTALISTE
LOUVAIN·LA·NEUVE

1988

Scientific Supervision Jean O .... NTINNE Contributors Jean-Marie VERPOORTEN Philippe C .... ES Edith GERS .... V-WOOD Collaborators Sophic J .... CQUES Carmen LoRENZO Claire GRUSLIN Original French Edition Histoire du Bouddhisme lndien, des origines !'ere Saka. Bibliotheque du Museon. Louvain. 1958 ; Reprint 1967; 2nd Reprint P.I .O.L. - Louvain-Ia-Neuve. 1976.

a

PEETERS PRESS
LOUVAJN·PARIS

10 Insli tul Orientalisle de rU ni versilc Catholique de Louva in CoJlCgc tr.sme,

Place BI.ise Pasc:al, I
S.1J48 Louv.in·Ja·Neuve
(Cl Peeltn Press Louv.in· Pnh
OrtkrJ sllollfd Ix HfIl to : Peelers Press, P.O.B. 4 1. s.JOOO Louv.in

D. 1988/060211
ISSN (I(l76- 126S

ISBN 9O-683 1-loo.X

FOREWORD
It is unanimously agreed that Professor Etienne Lamotte's mastery of Buddhist Scriptures is displayed on every page of his impressive Hisloire du Bouddhisme lndien. Hence, it is not surprising that as soon as this epoch-making book was published, it quickly became so famous and renowned that introducing such a masterpiece seems to be pointless. His friends, colleagues and disciples, have spoken at length about the scholar and his work, and in much better terms than I would ever be able to do. Therefore, my task being easier, I feel that the best way of paying tribute to Professor E. Lamotte's .memory is to depict briefly the attitude that we have deliberately adopted, from the very moment we undertook the responsability of revising the English translation of one of the finest pieces of SCholarship among his huge scientific production. From the start , all the contributors were deeply convinced that their primary task was to preserve the essence of the original and try to render the flavour of Professor E. Lamotte's vivid and brilliant style, even if this sometimes meant clashing with the new trends that characterize present day Buddhist scholarship. From the beginning, the dilemma proved to be very crucial indeed, namely when we were confronted with the problem of translating accurately the Buddhist technical terms: it soon became obvious that the main difficulty was due to the majority of the basic terms being given different meanings throughout the book, in order to fit the context within which they were used. I was one of the happy few who had the privilege of knowing Professor E. lamotte, and I believe the only likely explanation is the assumption that the Histoire du Bouddhisme lndien is entirely the product of the phenomenal memory with which the famous scholar was endowed. To quote briefly even a few examples would be beyond the scope of this foreword, and would be bound to degenerate into a barren debate between specialists. The fonn of the index of technical terms illustrates clearly the kind of preoccupations we

VI

FOREWORD

had to cope with, and, at the same time, exemplifies the compromise we have finally decided to adopt. The broad outline of the project was initiated by Professor Suzanne Van Riet of the Universite catholique de Louvain, director of the Publications de l'Institut Orientaliste de Louvain (P.1.0.L.) in July 1985, and, for the main part, was carried out and achieved by Mrs Sarah Webb-Dein, whose English translations of Professor E. Lamotte's other works enjoy a very high reputation. Thanks to her outstanding ability as a translator, she produced, in a relatively short time, a high-standard, fluent English translation, very close to the French original. We are all glad to have the opportunity to express openly our deepest gratitude for her painstaking efforts, which have greatly contributed to the successful completion of the whole enterprise. In the course of the revision process, Mrs S. Webb-Boin constantly made many valuable suggestions that considerably facilitated the task of the revision team, while enabling us to concentrate on a close scrutiny of particularly controversial doctrinal matters. It is plain to everyone that Buddhist scholarship is becoming more and more prolific: new archaeological remains come to light, new inscriptions are discovered, texts in Buddhist Sanskrit or Prakrits, unearthed from ruined sti'ipas, are deciphered and published. All those elements open up new prospects to a deeper knowledge of certain aspects of Indian Buddhism, and contribute to a better approach to the history of Buddhist doctrine. Those factors have been taken into account for compiling a bibliographical supplement which lists the titles of the leading works and essential articles which can shed new light on specific topics. Far from being exhaustive, we have deliberately preferred to be selective by focusing on carefuUy selected fields of interest, such as : the personality and the religious policy of king Asoka, the newly discovered Asokan inscriptions, the irritating, unsolved problem of the origin of Mahayana. We decided not to mention the numerous Japanese works dealing with those subjects, bearing in mind that these publications, irrespective of their intrinsic value, are accessible only to a limited number of Buddhist scholars capable of mastering the Japanese language. The index has been thoroughly revised, completed and, in

FOREWORD

VII

some respects, improved . The transcriptions of the Chinese tenns have been converted into the Wade·Giles system of transcription, which is more familiar to English·speaking readers and still widely used., though considerably rivalled by the pinyin system. As already mentioned, the Sanskrit technical tenns have been extracted from the (general) index, and have been regrouped into a separate index; according to the order of the devanagarf alpha· bet. It should be pointed out that for some important tenns, the English renderings of the different meanings used by Professor E. Lamotte are followed, in brackets, by one or several English equivalents which we feel are better suited to the commonly accepted norms of contemporary Buddhist terminology. The table of contents has been amended accordingly . Concern· ing geographical maps, the locations of all important sites have been carefully checked against those on bigger scale maps; while some new localities, where important new discoveries have taken place, have been added . Finally, as the French edition is the "root·text" to be consulted whenever doubts arise, reference has been made throughout to the pagination of this edition.

•••
Needless to say a project of such amplitude could never have been successfully carried out without close co·operation between Mrs S. Webb-Boin and the members of the revision team who, in addition to their respective specialist contributions in their own spheres of responsability, gave me their full support at a high level. by making invaluable suggestions. All of us feel greatly indebted to Professor S. Van Riet for having provided the financial support at top level, with funds supplied by the P.I.O.L., and for having found adequate solu· tions to intricate and apparently insolvable administrative pro· blems to everybody's satisfaction. My warmest thanks go to my friend and collaborator Jean· Marie Verpoorten (Ph.D.) for having efficiently prepared, co·ordi· nated and put the finishing touches to the multiple activities of the revision team, composed of Miss Sophie Jacques, Miss Cannen

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . .
V

TA.BlE OF CONTENTS LIST OF PLATES, ORA WINGS AND MAPS PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . .

XI XIX
XXI

CHAPTER ONE

INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA
I. -

HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL DATA Vedic Antecedents, I. - The Sixteen Grcal Countries of the Siuh Century, 7. The Routes, 9. - The Republican Stales, ]0. - The Four Kinadoms. 10.

1

II. - THE DATE AND LIFE Of ruE BUDDHA SAKYAMUNI . The Dale of the Buddha, I) . - The life of SUyamuni, IS.
III. - THE EARLY BUDDHIST DOCTRINE . . .
. .

Il

23

The Dhanna and the Buddha, 23. - The DiscouDC: II Viri.,asi. 26. - The Tl'\llh of Suffering. 27. - The Truth of the Origin of Suffering. n. - The TMh of NirviQ.l. 40. - The Truth of the Path, 42. - Buddhist Mora· lism. 47. - The Middle Way and the Intentional Teaching, 49.

IV. - TH E BUDDHIST COMMUNITY .

53 53

I. - The Monastic Order
The Fourfold Commullily, n - The Dulies of a Monk, 54. - Disciplinary Acu. 55. - Leaving the World and Ordination, 55. - Equipment Ind Life: of tnc: Monks, 58. - The: Ideal of the Monk, 60. - The Absence of In Authority, 62.

2. - The Lay Fellowship .
The Importa nce of tnc Laity. 65. - Institution of the Fe:lIoW$hip, 66. - Th' Ideal and VirtlK:$ of the lIity, 67. - The: Instruction of the lIity, 74. Respective Rig/liS of the Religio us and the lIity. 79. CHAPTER TWO

65

THE MAGADHAN PERIOD
General Features of the Period, 85. I. HISTORICAL FACTS

. . . . . . . .

.

. .

.

. . .

81

XI!

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. - Magadha, from 546 to 324 S.c. .
Masadhan Dynasties, n . nine Nandas. 96.

87

The Haryailkas. 91. - The Siiunliga.s. 94. - The

2. -

Uuariipatha

100

Pukkusiti. Kin, orOandhira, 100. - Nonh-West India under lhe Athacmenids, 101. - The Indian States under Darius III Codam. n, lOS . - Alexander the Great in India, 109. - India under the Diadocl!i. Ill.

3. -

Ceylon from 486 to 250 R.C. .

11 8

SinhaleK Chronicles. 118. - Ancient Populations, 120. - The lint five Kinp of Ceylon, 123. - The Buddha's Visits 10 Ceylon, 121,

II . -

BUDD HIST LEGENDS AND TRADITIONS .

124 124

1. - The Councils of Rajagrha and Vaisafi .
Oltes, 124. - NUT'llion or Events. 125. Tradilion. 128. - Conclusions, 140. An Asseumenl of the Conciliar

2. - The Formation of the Canon of Writings

140
141

1st - The Seven Oassifications of the Writings
The: Testimony of BuddhagbO$a, 141. - The Sinak Flavour, \·42. - Ohanna and Vinl)'I, 142. - Inilial Wordl, etc.• 14], - The Five Collections. 143. - The Nine Consti tuent Pans, 143. - The Twelve Constituent Parts, 145. - The Relatiolllhip between the Angas and the Tripi!akl, 147. - The 84.000 Dhann.askandhu, 148.

2nd - The Tripi!aka .
a. Generalities : The relative Antiquity of the Tripi~ka, 149 . - Contents and Arrangement of the Tripi!aka, I SO. b. The Sijtflpi~ka : The lint Four Pili NikiylS, 152. - The Four A.pmas, I S3. - The Ousi6cation of the Apmas, I S4. - ComparUon bel"....ecn the Nikiyas and "'pmas, ISS. - The Pili Khuddakanikiya, 1S6. - Sanskrit !r4udralr.a, 1S9. - The Chanted Verses. 161. - The Canonicity of tnc Siitras, 163. t . The Vinayapi~ka : The Basn of the Vinaya, 165. - The Structure of the Vinaya, 166. - An Anal)'Ji5 of the si,; VinayaJ, 167. - Ancient Traditions concerning tnc Vina)'lls. 171. - Hypotheses on the FOmultion of the VinaylS, 176. d. The Abhidhamulpi~ka : Tradittons concerning the Compilation of the Abhidhannapi!aka, 180. - Schools without an Abhidhanna, 1&1. - An Analysis of the prcsoerved Abhidllarmas. 181. - Conclusions, 191 .

149

3. - The Disappearance 1st Dates

or the Good

Law

191 192

or the Disappearance

Year 500, 192. - Year 1,000, 194. - Year 1,500. 195. - Year 2,000, 195. Year 2,500, 195. - Year 3,000, 196. - Year 5,000 and 10,000, 196. - Year 11,500 or 12,000, 197.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

XlIl

2nd -

Circumstances of the Disappearance

198 202

4. The Succession o f Masters
The: Vinaya Chie:fs, 203. - The Abhidhamma MUle:rs, 205. - The Masters of the: Law. 206. CHAPTER THREE

THE MAURYAN PERIOD
Genenll Features of the: Period, 213.

I. - HISTORICAL FACTS

216
• •

1. - The Mauryan Empire
lsI - The Succession of Kings 2nd - Candragupta

216

216 218

Origin. 2]S. - Youth. 2[S. - Seizure of the ThroM. 2]9. - Conquest of India, 220. - The War with $elc:ocus ]. 220. - Foreign Embassies, 220. Death of candragupta, 221.

3rd 4th -

Bindusara ASoka

222 223

I . The EdiCH : Publication of the Edicts, 224. - The Extent of the Empire:, 225. - Noteworthy Dates of the Reign. 226. - The Dharma of Aioka, 227. ASoka's Buddhist lrucriptions, Hoi. b. The Aiokivldina, 23S. - The Girt of Earth and Birth of ASoka, 239. - The Avadina of Kin, Aioka, 243. - Avadana of Aiob's younger Brother. 244. - Avadina of KUlla]a , 246. - Avadana of the half Amalah. 248. Avadina of the Reward given by Aioka, 248. c. The SintLa]ese Ch ronicle on Aioka, 249. d. A Comparison betwccn the Edicts and the Buddhist Sources, 253. c. Aioka and Kaimir, 255. f. Aioka and Nepal, 256. , . Aioka and Kholan. 257.

5lh 2. -

The last Mauryas
Oiodolus I, Kina: of Bactria, 262. -

259
260

The Greek Kingdom of Bactria

BaClril from 325 10 250 B.C., 260. OiodolUl II, 263.

3. II. -

Ceylon from 250 to 200 B.C.
Uniya, 271. BUDDHIST LEGENDS AND TRADITIONS

266

Dcv.nirppiyatissa, 266. -

271

XIV

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. 2. -

The Third Buddhist Council in Pi!aliputra
An Assessment of lhe TTldil;on. 273.

272
274 274 275

Description of the Tradition, 272. -

The Heresy of Mahadeva . 1st - The Terms of the five Theses 2nd - Mahiideva, the Author of the five Theses

I. The Explanations by Vaswnilra, 215. - 2. The Account in the Vibha#. 217. - 3. The MahAyiinis! Authors inspired by the Vibhii~i . 278. - 4. The Sa~maliya Tradition, 281. _ S. Information supplied to Bhav)'. by his Teachers, 282.

3td - Persistence of the Heresy under Mahideva II 41h - The Mahadevas of the Pa:li Sources 5th - The Uncertainties of the Tradition

282

284
285

3. - The MahasaI!lghika Schism
Schism in the Year I the Nirvi~a. 286. - Schism in the Year ]00 after the Nirv.li~, 287. - Schism in the Year \J7 a.fter the Nirvil)-a, 288. - Scltism in the Yein 100 o r ] 16 after the Nil"Yi~, 288. Schism in the Year 160 after the Nirvi~l , 288. - Schism in the Year 216 after the Nirvil.'la, 288.

286

.net

4. -

Conclusions

290
292 292

TIl . - THE GROWTH OF BUDDHISM IN INDIA .

I. -

The Sinhalese Chronicle

The Data in the Chronicle, 292. - An Asscs.smenl of !he Trtdilion : I. The Initiative of Mogpliputtatissl., 295. - 2. The Lands covered by the Missi on, 299. - 3. 'The Missionaries. 302. - 4. The Themes nf the Missionary Teaching, 305. - S. The Number of Recruits and Convenions, .,.. - 6. Mamnda in Avanti, 309. - 1. Conclusions, 310.

2. -

Archaeology

310

The Stiipa, Caitya and Vihira, 310. - ArchaC'Olo~J ExpJon.lion : I. The lands of the Middle Ganges, 31 S. - 2. KauSimbi. 322. - 3. Avanti and the West Coast, 324. - 4. Mathuni, 330. - S. North-West India, 332. - 6. Centn.! India or the Brahmanic MadhyadeSa, 331. - 1. The Eastern Coast and Andhn.deia, 340.
CHAPTER FOUR

THE PERIOD OF THE SUNGAS AND Y AVANAS
General Features of !he Pttiod, 351 .
I . - HISTORICAL FACTS

353

TABLE OF CONTENTS

xv
353

I. - The Sungas and Kal)vas
The S"o;:ession of Princes, 35l - Pu, yamitra, 3S4. - The Suocesson of P'ulyamilra, 357. - FeU<btorles of the Sungas, 357. - The KaI)VIS, 359.

2. - Ceylon from 200 to 20 B.C. .
The Suooeuion of Kings, 360. - The Period of the Five: Kings, 360. - The Cola Elira, 361 . - Du!!hagimal).i Abbaya, 361. - The Period of the Ten Kings, ineluding Vlnagamll);, 364.

360

3. -

Bactrians and Indo-Greeks
~trius,

371

I. The Gra:1r. KinJdo m of Bactril. 371 : End of the Reign of Euthydmtus, 372. -

372.

2. The Eastern Greck Kingdom , 377 : I. ApoJlodo tusl, 377. - 2. Menlnda, 377. - 3. Stralo I and his S·l(:(:t"Sson, 379. 3. The Western Gra:k Kingdom, 381 : I. Eucntides.. 38 1. - 2. Heliocles, 383.3. LysilS, 384. - 4. Antialcidas. 384. - 5. Archebius, 386.
II. -

BUDDHISM UNDER THE SUNOAS

386

I. -

The Persecution by
Vi~l)uite

Pu~yamitra


• •

386 392 398
4{)I

2. - The

Danger

3. - The Great Viharas of the Sunga period
4. - The Ancient Central Indian School of Sculpture
Principal Centres, 401. - The Ancient Sculptures. 404. - The hlJcriptions, 41 I. - The Donon al Bhirhut and Sina, 413.
III. -

HELLENISM AND BUDD HISM IN THE SUNOA PERIOD

415 415

I. - The Influence or Buddhism on the Greeks
The Ora:ks" Faithfulness to thei r AlK%$tral Gods, 415. Menander, 419. The Conveni on of

2. - The Greek Influence on Buddhism .
The Material rather than Religiouslnfluencc, 426. - The ancient Prlyer, 430. The Image: of the Buddha, 43S. - The Commu nication of the Lqends, 441 .
C HAPTER FIVE

426

THE PERIOD OF THE SAKA·PAHLA VAS
General Features of the Period, 443. I. HISTORICAL FAcrs

446 446

I. -

The Saka-Pahlavas .

The Scylhian World, 446. - The Yiich chih and the SakIS in Central Asia. 449.

XVI

TABLE OF CONTENTS
- The Invasion o f Puthia by the SakIS, <451 . - The Conquest of India by the Salus Ind Pahlavu, 4B. - MIIICS, 453. - SlI<'XT1son of Maucs. 456. - Vononcs, -457. - Spllirises. " S8. - Aza I, 458. - Aziliscs.nd Aza 11, 460. - Gondophares. 461 . - Gondopharcs.nd Saini Thom.u. -46S. - The

KinS of Taxila and Apolloniu$ or Ty,na, 469. -

Pacem, 472.

2. - T he First Sit3vihanas .
Slavihan. Andhrajjlirl, 474. The fint three Silavihanas. 477. porary Eclipse of Silavihana Po wer, 479.

474
T=·

3. - The Cedis of Kalinga 4. - Ceylon from 20 R.C. to 7S A.D.
The Sua::euion of Kings, 483. - MahicU!i Mahilissa. 44. - Cannip Mahin',., 484. - "null, 484. - KU!lka9"ltilSa. 485. - Bhili·

481 483

Ubb.y'. 485. - Mlhidi!hika Mahiniga, 486.
II. THE $AKA·PAHLAVAS AND BUDDHISM

Chan.clerista of tbe

s.w. 486. -

486
Salt.,. 4&8. The

Alrocil)es or the

Hellenization of the SakIS. 489, - The Sakas and Buddhism. 490. hlll_vu, 492. - New Fonns of DiS$oelJlinlling the Word , 494.

Th<

III. - mE BEGINNING OF ROCK-CUT ARCHITECTURE .
The Ajivikl C ....es o f Bihar, 500. - The J.ina es of Orissa, 500. - Rock-cut Buddhist Esllblishments, SOL - Bhiji, 504. - Kondine, 506. - p;. IIlkhori. 506. - The first Caves.t Aja{l!i, 506. - Junnar, SOl . - "",. st, 508. - Nisilr:, Kirli. 512. - Kinhcri . 514.

499

ea . .

m .-

CUAPTER SIX

THE BUDDHIST SECTS
I. - ORIG IN AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE SECTS . .
Origin and Nature of the Sotts, 517. - Geogr1lphical Distribution of the Sccu, 523. - The Fili.tion of the Sects., 528 : I. - Lists with two Subdivisions. 529 : I. Ust by the StbavirU, 529; 2. Ust by VlsumitJll, 529; ) . list in the SiriputJllpariPfCChi, H2; 4. Pili list, 512 ; 5. List in the Mai\jusriparipra;hi, 5l4 ; 6. List I of Bhavya, 5l4 ; 7. The Sarpmauya List, 5)5. 2. - Lim with thm: Subdivisions, 5)5 : I. Mahlsil!lshikl List, 5)6; 2. List II of Bhavya, 5)6. ) . - Lists with fi ... e Subdivisions, 5)6 : I. The fi"'e Schools, 5)6; 2. list by sm')"I, 5)7. 4. _ Lists with fout Subdivisions, 518 : I. Disappc:lJllnot of the Dhanna,uptakas, 5) 8 ; 2. The fourfold Census by Hsilan !.sans. 5)9; ) . The fourfold Cmsus by I thing, 544 ; 4. The Sarvistividin list by Vinitadcva, 545 ; 5. The List in the two f>ro;:his, S46. S. - Apotrypha\ TJlIditions, S46. • . - Conclusions. 547.

517

TABLE OF CONTENTS II. - THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE SEers

XVII

549 549

1. The Fonnation of the Buddhist Languages .
• . Tl1Iditions concernina the Usc of Lanl'l'P, 549 : The Lanl'l'ac of the Buddha, 549. - The Adoption of 10CII1 Dialects by tile BuddhislI, 552. TheavidiD Conceptions reprdinlthe uDauaac of the Tipi~ka, 556. b. The Buddhist unl'l'P, 5sa : Traces of Buddhist TutJ in Mipdhi. 5S9. Pili, 562. - North-Western Prikrit, 568. - The Buddhist LaDI'I'P at the End of the Pre-Chrislian Ea, 572. - Miud SalUkrit, 57• . - Buddhist Sanskrit. sa3 : I. The Early Mahiyirwutal, 586; 2. The Sanskrit Canon, 587; 3. Eltra-canonical Literature in Sanskrit, 590.

2. - Progress in the Abhidhant)a .
C1assifiClition of Dharmas, 59-4. - The Nature of the Dharma, 600. The N.ture of CalU&lity, 604. - Aoitman and the Series, 605. - Th< AIll!lS~!U and Nirvi~ . 609. - Mir..., 611 : The Path 0( the Accumula· tion of Merits, 613. - The Path of Practice, 6 13; The Path of Vision, 6 14; The Path of Medi.. tion. 6 16; The Path of the Aia ik.., 617.

593

3. - Concessions to the Aspirations of the Laity
Tbe Inftucnce or the Lay Sphere. 620. - Sarvistividin and Mahililflghika Buddho1ogy, 622. - Thc Nature and Career of the Bodhisaltva. 625. The siuh Destiny, 629. - Value of the Gin.nd Legitimacy of the Worship.

620

'30.
CH .-\PTER SEVEN

THE BUDDHIST RELIGION
I. - THE STAGES TRAVERSED BY THE GOOD LAW . . The Accion ofSikyamuni, 639. - The Mapdhan hriod. 640. - Aioka. 641 . The Conversion of Ceylon, 641. - The Convenion of the Subcontinent.

639

",.

II. - THE DEIFIED BUDD HA .

644

The God. Superior 10 the Gods, 644. - The Successive SlIFS of the Learnd of the Buddha, 648 : I. Bioaraphical Frapnenll incorporated in the SUIClS, 648 ; 2. Bi08raphieal fr.aments incorpor.ted in the VinaylS. 652 : 3. Autonomous but incomplete "Livu", 653 : 4. Cornpkte LivC$ of the Buddha, 655: 5. The Sinhalese Compilations. 660. Causes of the Developmmt of the Leacnd, 662 : I. The Justification of Dellil, 662 : 2. The Inftuence of the Holy Sites, 665 : 1. The Incidence of ReliJious ImaserY, 665: 4. 8orrowinp from outside Sourocs. 667 : 5. The dilllnt Journeys of the Buddha, 679: 6. The Lineaae of the Sikyu., 611. - Th< Bodhisattva of the Former Lives, 612.
III. SECONDARY fORMS Of THE RELIGION

685

The Gods of the Triple Work!., 615. - The Gods in Popular Devotion. 617. The Buddhist Holy Ones, 690.

XVIII

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Maitreya the Buddhist Messiah, 699 : I. Ajita and Maitreya, Disciples of Sivari, 699; 2. Maitreya rea:ivcs tnc Prediction. 701 ; 3. Ajita, the Future Cakravartin and Maitreya. the Future Buddha, 702 ; 4. Maitreya called Ajita, 70S. ADDENDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Edicts of ASoka and tnc Bilinguallnscriplion of Kandahir. 711 . ABBREVIATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SUPPLEMENT . INDEX INDEX OF TECHNICAL TERMS . . SOURCES OF THE PLATES AND FIGURES MAPS AND PLATES

711

719 724 745 795 871
873

LIST OF PlA TFS, ORA WINGS AND MAPS Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plale Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate I. - Mathuri Buddha. Gupta style. II. - Sinei. Eastern gateway. ASoka's pilgrimage to the Sodhi Ut:e. III. - Ceylon . Anuridhapura. Thuparama Digaba. IV. - Ceylon. Mahintale. Ambasthala Digaba. V. - Similh. Deer Parle. Damekh SHips. VI. - Sirnith. lion Capital. VII. - Sinci. Great Stupa. View from the east. VIII. - Siiicl. Great Stupa . View from the soulh-east. IX . - Ceylon. Anuridhapur8. Mirisave!iya Digaba. X. - Ceylon. Anuridhapura. Ruvanveli Digaba . XI . - Ceylon. Anuridhapura. Abhayagiri Oigaba. X1J. - Railing of the Sttipa of Bhirhut. XliI. - Bodh·Gayi. Carved railing. Supports 4 to 7. XIV. - Siiki. Great Stupa. Northern gateway. XV. - Amarivali. Conception and birth of the Buddha. XVI. - Amal""dvati. The Great Departure. XVII. - Bhirhut. Yak~. Yak~iQi. XVIII . - Siiki. Greal Stupa . Yak~il).i on the Eastern gate. XIX . - Bhirhut. Rurujataka. XX. - Sind. Great Ships. Sa44antajitaka . XXI. Siiici. Great Sttipa. Eastern gateway. The Great Departure. XXII. - Amarivati. Sibijitaka. XXIII . - Coin of King Menander. XXIV. - Bhiji. Caitya n.12. XXV. - AjaQ!i. Interior of vihira n. 12. XXVI. - Bcdsi. Interior of the Caitya. XXVII . - Niisilc. Front of Caitya n. 18. XXVIII. - Nisik . Vihira n. ) of Gautamiputra. XXIX. - Karli. Front of the Caitya. XXX. - Kalli. Interior of the Caitya .


Figure, Figure, figure, Figure, figure, figure. Figure, p. 312. - Saiki, Sliipa 1. p. 504. - Bhiji, Caitya 12. p. 505. Bhiji, Vihira. p. 508. Bcdsi, caves. p. 510. Nisik. Vihara 8. p. 511. Nasik, Vihira 15. p. 513. Caitya of Karli. Cross·section and plan .

xx
Map Map Map Map Map

LIST OF MAPS

I. - Ganges basin . 2. - Ancient India. 3. - Iran and India. 4. - KapiSa and Gandhara. S. - Plan of Anuridhapura (Ceylon).

PREFACE
v Every year, the number of publications devoted to the life of
Sakyamuni and to Buddhist philosophy increases but, in contrast, histories of Buddhism are rare and show signs of being outdated.· The Introduction d I'hislOire du bouddJrisme indien by Eugene Bumanf dates from 1845, the Geschiedenis van hel Buddhisme in Jndii by J .A. Kern goes back to 1882-84, while the manuals of Indian studies such as L'lnde classique by L. ReDall and J. FiJliozat (1947-53), the histories of reJigions such as Die Religionen Jndiens by H. von Glasenapp (1943) and the histories of philosophy such as Die Philosophie der Inder by H. von Glasenapp (1949) and the Geschichte der indischen Philosophie by E. FrauwaiJner (1953-56) contain, it is true, excellent historical summaries but inevitably limited to generalities. Since the time of Burnouf and Kern, the .discovery of new Indian manuscripts, the analysis of Chinese and Tibetan sources, epigraphical findings and archaeological discoveries have increa· sed the infonnation available and the time has come to re·write the history of Buddhism from these new data. In reponse to a kind invitation by Alfred Foucher, a few days before his death, the author has attempted here to retrace the history of the first centuries of Buddhism from the very beginning (sixth century B.C.) to the start of the Saka era (end of the first century A.D.). The period concerned practically embraces the history of early, or to use the traditional expression, Sthavirian

Vl

Buddhism.
Whatever al·Biriini may have said, India had her historians. Without speaking of the genealogies (vmrUDvafi) compiled by the royal houses, the chronicles such as the Dipa· and MahiivatrtSa. the Riijalaratigir,li. the GosrngavyiikarQJ)a. the MaiijuSrimulakalpa. even the Aiokiivadana. demonstrate clearly enough the existence of an historical or pseudohistorical literature. Nevertheless, the Buddhist sources tend, in general, to move on an abstract level of ideas and, if they explain the doctrine of Sakyamuni and the great scholars in detail, if they give a detailed description of the

to extract it from the world of ideas where it deliberately confined itself in order to bring it back to earth. and the settlement of Aryan colonizers in the island of Ceylon. still today. North-West India. As its name indicates..) was marked by the constant growth of the kingdom of Magadha under the dynasties of the Haryankas. Sisunagas and Nandas. Nevertheless. During this . by means of a constant recourse to inscriptions. During the sixth century B. they are almost completely devoid of historical or chronological indications. the systematic analysis of the chronicles and the correct arrangement of the geographical infonnation supplied by Chinese pilgrims and which are largely confinued by archaeological discoveries. However. too many dates remain approximate and purely conjectural if they are not confirmed by the writings of Greek and Latin historians or Chinese annalists. constitute the most widespread of universal religions? Our first concern was to replace Buddhism within the historical framework it lacked. It is vu hoped that we have succeeded. Ja~lakas. Scythians. It was in the area of the Middle GaDges. KusaJ.ld the disciples of the S. conquered by Alexander the Great.C. would they. Serindians and the Chinese.lQikas. Aviruddhakas and other obscure sects only the names of which are known to us today? If accidents of history had not brought the Buddhists into contact with the Greeks. The first five chapters begin with a description of Indian history in which Buddhist facts are enclosed. the Magadban period (546-324 B. at Jea!iit to a certain degree. However.las. this history was dominated by the Republican States and the smaller kingdoms which made up the sixteen "Great Countries" of northern India. The philosophio perennu willingly disregards time and space. Magat. Parthians.cikyamuni preached his four noble Truths and founded a religious order of mendicant monks who were supported materially by a lay community. that the Buddha S.!Qasavakas. TedaJ.XXII PREFACE ( VII) functioning of the order of bhiksus and bhik~unis.. the relationship between political and spiritual history is very close.C. how w01l.cikya have ever been distinguished from the Mut. especially iD Magadha. Without the favours of an Asoka. became the theatre of battles between the Diadochi.!Qikas.

( VllJ > PREFACE XXIII troubled period.D. while making some progress. the schism of the Mahasal1lghikas split the Buddhist monks into two rival parties. was to continue for many centuries. The council of Pa!aliputra was marked by dissensions between the monks. The period of the Sungas and Yavanas (187-30 B. and the devout.C.li set up an increasing number of religious foundations and the latter favoured the writing down of the canonical texts.C. the archaeological discoveries enable us to follow this progress step by step. Even more than the texts. in the North-West. who succeeded the Greeks in the north-west and soon seized the western coast. the kings Dunhagamal. . The Sakas and Pablavas (100 B. the monks were able to lay the foundations of their canonical writings and to organize themselves under the direction of their disciplinary leaders and Dharma masters. The Sunga period also witnessed the inception and efflorescence of the early school of sculpture in central India. Supported by these new maslers and with the goodwill of the first kings of the Dekkhan. relied on Buddhism to assert their authority. Bodh-Gaya and Sanci. Buddhism was undergoing a difficult birth. Mahadeva's heresy widened the gap and. Completely dominated by the great figure of the Emperor VIII ASoka.). Nevertheless. finally. Buddhist propaganda had to IX simplify its methods and adapt its teachings somewhat. especially Menander. and several Scythian satraps set themselves up as benefactors of the Community. then. the main centres of which were Bharhut. In the Ganges Basin. which was inaugurated during the Scythian era in the western Ghats.) constituted a critical period during which Buddhism. monotheistic movement which was inaugurated by the Vi~r:tuite sects counterbalanced the influence of the Good Law. had to face many difficulties. In Ceylon. King Pu~yamitra and his successors adopted an openly hostile attitude towards the monks. certain Indo-Greek kings. the disciples of Sakyamuni got into the habit of carving their temples and dwellings out of bare rock.-75 A. This rockcarved architecture.li and Va~!agamal.) saw the expansion of Buddhism throughout India as a whole and its implantation in the island of Ceylon. In contrast. the Mauryan period (324-187 B. In order to reach those simple souls.C. also ended by showing favour to Buddhism.

an hagiography. To disregard it would be to offer the reader a caricature of Buddhism and still not attain historical truth. their geographical distribution defined. and the various contradictory lists compiled from age to age by the earty authors subjected to a comparative study. a legend in which the inftuence of the popular and lay sphere on 'the evolution of religious ideas can be assessed. an attempt has been made to adhere as closely as possible to the sources by referring to them. We do not claim that we have found the solution to aU the problems posed. Buddhist Sanskrit. Throughout this work. from the philosophico. finally. The origin and doctrinal position of these schools needed to be clarified. Nevertheless.mystical message that it had been at the outset. Buddhism. These sects contributed greatly to the philosophical elaboration of the truths that were taught by Sakyamuni and led to noteworthy progress in the Abhidhanna. the chapter devoted to the sects deals with the formation of the Buddhist languages: early Magadhi. the marvellous is ubiquitous. one of which is devoted to the sects and the other to the Buddhist religion. Therefore. Prakrit of tbe North-West. i. the fact that there is much that is legendary and contradictory about them cannot be hidden. with a deified Buddha. Pali. It contains a detailed account of the legend of the Buddha. their main work was to have popularized the Word of the ~uddha by transposing it into as many languages as was necessary to ensure its greatest propagation. The Buddhist tradition is steeped in the marvellous. However.XXIV PREFACE ( lX-X) The chronological account of the first six centuries of Buddhism is followed by two chapters. hybrid Sanskrit and. The study of this evolution forms the subject of chapter 7. We have accepted it as such without attempting to eliminate it in the name of western rationalism. and a cult deeply interwoven with a messianic expectation. became transformed into a true religion. as it were. It is not enough to discard the legend in order to X . but we hope we have provided the data. a mythology. At the beginning of the new era. on every line. Belittled by some schools and exaggerated by others.e. Sthavirian Buddhism or the Hinayana consists in the main of eighteen sects the nature and fonnation of which pose some critical problems. philosophical speculation.

for example. 254). but we have been careful to classify them chronologically in order to draw out the lines of a revealing evolution of the mentality and intentions of the early authors. 132-139). it would be bordering on farce . at least ingenious when it is a matter of a point of detail which could be dealt with in a few pages.( X-XI) PREFACE xxv XI discern the reality of the facts. With regard to the problem of foreign influences exerted on Buddhism.000 after the Buddha's Nirvii~a (pp. and adopts a different chronological computation. comparing the sources and checking the texts against iconographical documents is often enough to disperse the most obvious fictions and to present the tradition in the most favourable light. By leaving the marvellous the place it has always occupied in the sources. The Brahmanical. if not justified. 192-198). if in the course of time it conquered . adopted as a working method and applied throughout a whole book. There are no less than six different dates proposed for the schism of the Mahlisarpghikas (pp. which voluntarily opened itself to aU beings. More delicate is the attitude to be adopted with regard to the contradictions with which the texts teem. can legitimately claim the title of a universal religion. We have not been afraid here to emphasize viewpoints or pointout contradictions. the tradition concerning the first two Buddhist councils was exploited in the course of time for very different purposes (pp. If Buddhism. we will see how. We could reconcile and attempt to hannonize the sources. such as Upagupta and Moggaliputtatissa (p. Completely opposed versions of one and the same fact circulated. However. Such a method is. and it would be enough to disregard such and such a textual variation. Thanks to this method. we believe we have given a more faithful image of the mentality of the Buddha's disciples. inside Buddhism. And it is this mentality which is the true objcct of our re"search and not a fleeting and elusive historical certainty. we have been very cautious. the Sinhalese chronicle often deviates from the written or oral traditions which prevailed on the Indian continent. 286-289) and the disappearance o( the Good Law is foreseen at a date which varies between the year 500 and the year 12. Jaina and Buddhist sources rarely agree and. Moreover. to say that a particular passage is interpolated or to identify people with different names.

The MusCe Guimet supplied. and its Keeper. Monsieur Louis Renou. MM . akoowledge the debt we owe to our late teachers. member of the Institut and professor at the College de France. Our thanks also go to the Royal Academy of Arts. it was an Indian phenomenon. The truth. director of studies at the Ecole des Haules Etudes. of which they held the copyrights. us with the plates with which this work is illustrated. it nevertheless remains a fact that. in particular. kindly placed her personal photographs at our disposal. However. said Fustel de Coulanges is "to have no other masters over Greece than the Greeks. The Fondation Universitaire [de Belgique] and its distinguished. Louis de La Vallee Poussin. Monsieur Jean Willems. advice and encouragement. Sylvian U:vi and Alfred. the India Office Library and the firm of John Murray who kindly authori· zed us to reproduce certain photographs. Mademoiselle Jeaninne Auboyer. to ex~end their support to us by grantin" this work a generous subsidy. and once again. their Indian nationality was in no way to prevent the propagandists from becoming Greeks with the Yavanas. and suggested some indispensable corrections and valuable improvements to us. We would like here to thank all these colleagues and friends and. We have not lacked. Foucher. pen in hand. over Rome than the Romans". director. to be interpreted as such. the most efficient assistance has come from France.XXVI PREFACE ( XI·XII ) XII the major part of the Asiatic continent. and Monsieur Paul Oemieville. for the first centuries of its history. member of the Institut and professor at the Sorbonne. at the same time. g . Mademoiselle Marcelle Lalou. have continued. read the proofs. carefully checked the section concerning the Buddhist languages. Scythians with the Sakas and Taoists with the Chinese.

- . this civilization seems to have been imported. Sarna. have brought to light. in contrast to the smrti human "Tradition".C. possibly by several centuries. invaded North·West India in successive waves. which VEDIC ANTECEDENT'S. that the Indo-Europeans. Its two principal centres. The first three. the Veda includes four classes of literary compositions: I. The Aryan language first served as a literary expression for the Vedas. it was about the thirteenth century B.. The Mantra "Sacred fonnula" . and its disappearance preceded the ocx:upation of India by the Aryans. distributed into four satrrhi1a "col~ lections" : JP<. the Indus basin had seen the seat of an important urban civilization which was eneolithic in nature. among other monuments. HISTORICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL DATA When. and which constitute the sruti "Revelation" . Scw.C . sacred tellts compiled roughly from the fifteenth to sixth centuries B. AfIC~t IMia. a language which was closely connected to that of the Medes and Persians who remained on the Iranian plateau.fU. 2 In the strict meaning of the word. It collapsed under the blow of cataclysms. 19S04. some inscribed seals covered with pictographic writing.(1 ·2) CHAPTER ONE INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA I. . Harappa (in the Punjab) and Mohen jo-Daro (in the Sindh). or more precisely the Aryans representing the eastern ·branch of the Indo-Iranians. EINwgrDphy of Wicsbaden. YajuJ:r and Atharva Smrtllita. In the second half of the third millenium. the man who was one day to become the Buddha Sakyamuni was born. They spoke Vedic Sanskrit. the interpretation of which still remains uncertain bUl which enables us to establish synochro~ nisms between the Indus civilization and the Sumero-Akkadian Ancient World of Mesopotamia. Od)tf conotptions can be found in R. Despite some religious features which are Indian in appearance. in the sixth century before the Christian era. India had a long past behind her. According to traditional opinion I . traces of which have been uncovered by excavations· .

. The latter mark. ritual. 3 and 4. 2. etymology. The Yajul:t contains versified fonnulas also taken from the JPc.. which fixes the form of the Sanskrit language at the end of the Vedig age (fourth century B. and fonnulas in prose which should be recited by the sacrificer. Rudra the storm. the Vedas supply us with very imperfect information on the early Vedic age. Indra. in the course of time. U~ the Dawn. These complementary sciences led. but they also contain cosmological myths. the most notable of which from the linguistic point of view is the grammar in eight books (A~!iidhyayi) by Pi~ini. However. etc. 3 Because they are documents of a purely religious nature. alongside songs and incantations for use by magicians.lo "Interpretations of the Brahman" are treatises concerned with prayers and sacrifical ceremonies. to the compiling of manuals. for the most part.2 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 2· ] ) constitute the tray. The Saman is a book of melodies taken from the ~ . vidya "Threefold knowledge".). They are six in number : phonetics.C. The Brdhmo1. It includes. atmospheric deities of a somewhat hazy nature. at least the intensification of philosophical speculation in which participate not only the priests but also and especially the laity of the royal and warrior classes. metrics and astronomy. were from the very beginning considered as canonical texts. Their main purpose is to interpret the cult practices. The ArtllJyaka "Forest books" and the Upani$ad "Connee· tions or Correlations" appear to be a prolongation of the Briihma1)a of which they often call themselves the appendices.C. one fact can be deduced : the slow progression of the Aryans from the Indus basin to the borders of Bengal during the teD centuries of the Vedic age (fifteenth to sixth cent. The Alhanaveda is a collection of texts on magic which was nOI considered as canonical until much later. as constituted by the texts listed up to here is completed by the smrti or humaD tradition which is responsible for the compilation of the VedtiJiga "Auxiliary treatise of the Veda" . part of its material is ancient. The SaJ'!Ihi1ii have preserved the memory of the settlement of the . The Vedic sru. old legends and verses celebrating the exploits ofkings who were famous in the priestly tradition. Agni the Fire. grammar. some hymns of great mental elevation.). Varul)a. B. The ~ is a collection of verses composed in honour of the gods of the Vedic pantheon. Nevertheless. if not the beginning. Surya the Sun. and it would be equally futile to attempt to reconstruct the political and religious history of the Aryans on the basis of the Indian epics of the Mahiibhdrata and the RiimiiyOlJO.

the son of Manu. who were black or dark-skinned. on the banks of the Paru~r:ti (present-day Riivi). (present-day Rohi lkhand) became the major centre of the brahmanical culture. their cousins. Emerging from the passes of Kabul and Kandahar. Nicak~us who. had to engage in fierce baules with the non· Aryan tribes of the Dasa or Dasyu. In the &veda there is a reference to the "War of the len kings". the five pa~c:tavas . The last SllI!'hila show that. whose romantic and martial adventures are celebrated in the . and Kuruk~tra. Continuing their move eastwards. among which were the Piirus. The Kurus occupied the northern part of Doab. This ended in victory for Sudas. the capital of which was Hastinapura or Asandivant. at the beginning of the last millenium. transferred his capital to Kausambi on the lower course of the Yamuna. The main towns in Kosala were Ayodhya (which has sometimes been identified with Siketa) and Srivasti. between two lines of Bharata descendants: on the one hand.C. The wars had not ceased for all that and the subject of the Mahabhmala is precisely the epic battle which broke out. brought the Bharatas into conflict with a confederation of ten Aryan tribes. after the destruction of Hastinapura when the • Ganges overflowed. the BrahmOlJo and PIUOI)O : Parik~it. a people who refused to support the Vedic cult and who stole the Aryans' cattle. the Bhaeala king. the founder of the dynasty of the same name . in order to hold their ground . the hundred Kauravas command· ed by Duryodhana. towards the beginning of the ninth century B.(><> VEDIC ANTECEDENTS 3 Aryas in the land of the Seven Rivers. the Aryans had proceeded eastward and occupied the western part of the Ganges basin . and whose strongholds had to be reduced . who killed Puntkutsa. Janame· jaya. who celebrated the horse sacrifice and bore arms as far as Tak~sila. the Brahmavarta. Its princes belonged to the solar dynasty of the Vedic hero Ik~vaku. which. Some of the Kuru kings are mentioned in the Alharvaveda. on the other. had as his son and successor the epic hero Rama. King Daiaratha. They also had to fight against the Pal)i.. There was internal warfare as well as c:\temal battles. who ruled over Ayodhyii. Kasi (region ofVara~asi) and Videha (Southem Bihar) all in the region of the middle Ganges. the PUru leader. they took possession of the Higher and Middle Indus and. A confederation of Bharatas and Purus established the kingdom of the Kurus on the banks of the Sarasvati. They allied themselves with the Panccilas who were settled in Southern Doab around Kampila or Kampilya. the Aryans also founded the king· dams of Kosala (Oudh).

present-day Tirhut. it was only at the time of the Buddha that it was organized into a kingdom. with the assistance of the brahmins. King Mithava crossed the river and. the wife of Rama. Before that. As for Magadha. 5 However. in the oldest version of the legend. made the conquered territory submit to Fire. Rama was the king of Viral)3si. Kasi was at first the winner. the king of Kassla. the capital of which was Varal)3si or Benares. lanaka. the BrhadQrlllJyaka. in the biography of the Buddha. The Satapatha-briihrnQl)Q (IX. is presented in the Upan4ad as the patron of the metaphysicians Yajnavalkya and ~vetaketu. followed by the king Miithava the Videgha. would coincide chronologically with the origins of Buddhism. but simply crossed by bands of renegade Aryans named l'ralya who did not follow the Vedic rites. departed from Sarasvati towards the east. along the foot-hills of the Himalayas. king of Videha. If this identification is correct.4 INDIA A. the Upani~dic speculation.addrlllJyaka (II. Henceforward. crossed all the rivers. The capital of the kingdom of Videha was Mithila. towards the end of the Vedic age. that barren land with its marshy soil became extremely fertile. Nevertheless. Fire. present-day Besarh in the district of Muzaffarpur. capital Vaisali. conquered and annexed the land of Kisi once and for all. Videha reached its peak under King lanaka who gave his name to the town of lanakpur in the district of Darbhanga. king of Magadha. Vedic literature almost exclusively reftects the Aryan progression to the north of the Ganges.C. as it appears in one of its earliest documents. However. It has been replaced by the confederation of the Vdis whose most important tribe was the Licchavis. no further mention is made of the kingdom of Videha. The BrJ. The epic makes him the father of Sita. who played an important part in the life of Sakyamuni. which led to the glorious reign of King Brahmadatta whose great deeds are celebrated in the Buddhist Jjjtaka.T THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA <+5) RdnuiytllJo. I) makes him a contemporary of AjataSatru of Kasi who has been compared to AjitaSalrU. I. The situation was reversed when Karpsa. but then stopped before the Sadanira (Gandak?) because "Fire had never burnt beyond there". 4) preserves the memory of the Aryan conquest of the region of Northern Bihar. whose name lives on in the locality of Sitimarhi. and the foundation of the kingdom of Videha in roughly the eighth-seventh centuries B. it played only a secondary part in Gangetic India : it was not completely aryanized. the Aryan expansion had . an area in Southern Bihir. Kosala was continually at war with the rival kingdom of Kasi.

to give. "the Lord assigned the teaching and study of the Veda. besides Aryans who had regressed. raised to the level of a cosmic power. On the banks of the Yamuna. When the Aryans settled in the Ganges basin. to raise cattle. to protect the people. on the other. to assimilate the popular religions. finally. there is no doubt about the Aryan cltpansion towards the south. Following the course of the Chambal upstream. but were not unaffected by the cultural influence of the alien invaders. the giving and receiving of gifts . further to the east. the vai. a profusion of regional cults the roots of which were steeped in animism and magic. the iUdra. to serve the other three classes". the Vatsas occupied the region of Kausambi. Vedism became Brahmanism. the religion was transfonned . says Manu I. the tribe of the Yidavas had colonized the land of the Slirasenas around Mathura . sacrifice and study. According to the epic tradition. Although the historical role of K~l)a does not correspond in any way to reality. From among the mass of major and . The dharma is that set of nonns which direct the Aryan's religious and social conduct. a collection of religious and social concepts which were defined and directed by the bnihmins who constituted a priestly body. It only indirectly affected the Siidras.( >6> VEDIC ANTECEDENTS 5 considerably extended beyond the southern bank of the holy river. It applies with certain variations. a wholly ritualistic religion in which sacrifice. give. the mass of natives who were reduced to the rank of slaves and servants. The Dharma directly concerned the Aryan groups. is supposed to have gone to Kalhiawar and founded a new capital in Dviraka. a branch of the Yadavas. and cultivate the ground . trade. lend money. 88 sq. On the one hand. finally. overshadowed the divinities to which it was offered . the perfonning of sacrifices for oneself and for others. to the different classes oflndian society: "To the brahmins". It was the task of the brahmins to make a synthesis between the ancient Vedic tradition of which they were the upholders.iya (cultivators). IlS effect was to drive the Dravidians into Southern Deccan where they retained their language. The work of the brahmins was threefold : to define the law (dharma) or Indian status which was applicable to the different classes of society. the lower class into which were relegated.). and the "primitive" ideas of the native inhabitants. sacrifice. study. a tributary of the Ganges. to whom it granted similar religious privileges and assigned separate occupations. the Aryans had settled in Avanti and reached Nannada . under the leadership of Ko~a. This task was far from easy. the 6 l4a/riya (warriors) he ordered. to establish the main features of religious beliefs.

the descents of the god upon the earth. This introduced the indigenous culls into the Vedic tradition and granted them official investiture. He is surrounded by a rich legend which retraces his Ql'Qliiro . a desincamate being seeking a womb in the world of animals. or as a procreator symbolized by the phallic emblem of the IUigo. The Upanilad . that is. but which all lead to the same results : areess to immortality. cannot be unparadoxically considered as some form of yoga. Siva is even more complex in that his many manifestations make him appear sometimes under the aspect of the "destroyer" or Death. does not contain even a suspicion of animistic belief in universal transmigration (smruiira) . The Vedic sacrifice. which is found in the BriihmlllJa. The animist believes in reincarnations. and his intervention in human affairs at different periods. be interrupted. which is aimed at maintaining cosmic order. of "restorer" or divine ascetic. The Indian sage. seeks to free himself of it. 7 austerities.. union with God. However. Nevertheless.6 INDIA AT mE TIME OF mE BUDDHA ( 6-7) minor deities there stand out the great figures of Vi~l:tu and Siva to whom their worshippers paid mystical and impassioned homage. They incorporated them into tbeir traditional concepts and expressed them in the ideology-nomenclature which was peculiar to the BriihmOlJO. a mentality completely imbued with animism and magic. the sacred word elevated to the rank of creator. effort. in the gandharva. solemnly expressed vows. technique of asceticism applied to the most varied goals. actions which are morally good or bad. etc. normally. he aims for deliverance which will enable him to reach an unconditioned way of being transcending the human condition. but resolutely. spirits or gods in order to continue an existence which cannot. These ideas or rather these tendencies are practically alien to the Vedic tradition. the "preserver" of the universe and master of human destiny. who identifies life with suffering. the local cults represent only one aspect of the primitive mentality of the local inhabitants. Without being pessimistic. the winning of knowledge. The doctrine of re-death (punarnt{lyu) of non-deified men. The result of this was an extension of the religious horizon which is the very nature of Hinduism. the brahmins' prolonged contact with the local inhabitants made them accept and sanction views and practices which had originally been alien to them . Vi~r:tu is a benevolent deity. The greatest step made by the brahmins was to identify these popular divinities with the (neutral) "supreme principle" of the Veda : Brahman. This deliverance is to be found in yoga. disinterested activity. mankind. He also believes in the efficiency of acts which condition that existence: rituals.

On Buddhist geography in general. the isolation of the individual (pudgaJa) or union with a personal form of the divinity. Historical GtOf'aplly of An(~nt IN/ill. p. 213. by S. IV. 1954. p. T I. 21k. . T 1545. Calcutta. MAJ\.C. London. 1924. AilJultara. Dk KosmDffl1plrk de! ItUkr. 912c. 124. Ch'U!J-l-lan. pp. pp. particularly in the east. This explains why the preoccupations of early Buddhism are relatively remote from the speculations originated by the Hinduized brahmins. and still not completely brahmanized. 5. II.THE GREAT COUNTRIES 7 which are to be considered as the culminating point of the Veda point out the essential doctrines of Hindu Brahmanism : the belief in transmigration due to acts. the legitimacy and efficacity of the practices of yoga in order to achieve that goal. T sa. p. p. Yu p'o i to IhCchil ching. London. 1927. cb. new cd. the ancient Indian yoga.o po 10 m. The Buddhist. the lands which were to be the cradle of Buddhism escaped it for the most part. 1932 .lisb in W. Pln. !let. p. that the "brahmanism from which Buddhism sprang is not the brahmanism of the Brahm~ and the Upan~atf'. 1920. Gtog. by populations of autochthonous origin. N . 256.t. T 246. . ch. Jaina and epic sources record the existence at the time of sixteen Great Countries ($otjaja mahOjanapada) which were subjected to the Aryan element but inhabited. 2. Calcutta. 1nd4l1U desaibtd in torly TUb of Buddltism and Jilinism. 40. KW'EL. finally. Below is a list of them with an indication of the modem districts which these countries covered and an enumeration of the main towns : BuddhistliSIJ of the Great Counuies Ire found in Dip. ch.N. 844g . l . ch. 8lla. with the individual soul (iirman). p. but represents. ch. T 9. Bonn.( 7-8) VEDIC ANTECEDENTS .the Aryan domain in India extended from the Punjab to Bengal and overflowed into part of the Deccan. the doctrine of non-duality (advaita) which identifies the brahman. 2.ibhirata. the immediate assumption of consciousness. AN:~nt Gtograplry of Ind4I . 34. as did L de La Vallee Poussin. developed during the seventh-sixth centuries in the region of the Middle Ganges. VIII. GtorroplrictJl DictjOllQ1"Y . 225-6. 648b. 252. DEY.Mlh.i ching. p. 1941 . Chung I Ian. 21. p. Being situated more to the east. T 245. even better than the latter. p. B.opIry of torly Buddltism. CtmNINGHAM. Mahivutu. 45. 200.IMDAIt. I. a compromise between two civilizations. Jm Mien dUDg.C. 260. 772b.29. It can be said. 8 THE SIXTEEN GREAT CoUNTRTES OF TIlE slXm CENTURY 1. 40.I. T 26. the neutral and unknowable absolute. the aspiration for deliverance (moqa) conceived sometimes as absorption into the brahman. This movement of ideas. 34b. 3-4 .Jlina. P'"i p'o W . Paris. 55.14-16. p.In the sixth century B. L\w. .

Kasmir and Kafiristin the Liccha vis Mithili (Janakpur) o r the Videhas Papi (Padaraona) KuSinagari (Kasia) Suklimali Sahajiti Tripuri KauSimbi (Kosam) Indraprastha (Delhi) Hastinipura N. The Middle Country. the last two countries have been replaced by the land of the Sibis. Paiiciila Allahibad D. the Buddhists distinguished between two k..yini (Ujjain) Mih i~ati Tak~sila In some of the lists. KiSi 4. Avanti ) 5. was border- . which roughly corresponds to the ancient Aryavarta.8 (Bairi!) Mathuri (Muttra) Polana (Sodban) Ujj. Kuru 10.inds of territories : the Middle Region (madhyadda) where the Buddhist discipline was rigorously applied • . between Jhelum and Chenab. Gandhara 16.Ii S. capital Sivapura (Skorbot). Vatsa 9. ASmaka 14.Ii G orakhpur Bundclkhand . Anga Modem districts Towns Bengal Southern Bihar Campi (Bhagalpur) Bhaddiya Assapura 2. Malia 7. Siirasena 13. Ccc. Vdi Bana ras{V iriJ:lasi Oudh or Girivraja (Rajgir) Pi~liputra (Palna) Virinasi (Banaras) Srivasli (Sihe~h·Mihe!h) Rija~ha Siketa (Ayodhyi) Northern Bihar VaiSiIi (Besarh) of 6. Ahicchatra (Rimnagar) S.8 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 8·9> Janapada I . Among all these countries. Mauya 12.and the Frontier Regions (pratyantajanopada) which benefited from some indulgences.W . Kamboja Jaipur Mathuri Nizam Milwi and Nimir D. and Dasima in Bundelkhand. ofThinesar. Kimpilya (Kampil) ViriJ. of Peshawar and Rawalpi~<. Magadba 3. Delhi and Meerut Rohilkhand Central Doib II. 8. Kosala 5.

25. and noble persons. p. II. ch. willingly chose it as their cradle" . p. finally . It then continued through Mathura in the land of Siirasena.S. Vara~asi.W. J . 190. Gilgit Man. from there. Rajagrha and KauSimbi'. T 6. It connected S3. tho 2. Shib sung Iii. p. tr. I Oigha. III . I. A central track. pp. • . III. Kanyakubja. and to the north by the USiragirP. Sahajati and. T I. T 1435. existed only as a rough track. I. Campi. measured 300 leagues in length. the Yamuna and Ganges. p. pan IV. Ill. 10 THE ROUTES. crossing the two great cities of Avanti. 1952. p. its inhabitants were virtuous. Udumbara.. 21. Siketa. It included seven principal towns : Sravasti. tb . according to the ancient estimates. Ch'anga han. MPS. II . 1903. WAWSCHMIDT. T 1428. reached. to the west by the villages of the Sthul)opasthiil)aka brahmins.THE ROUTES 9 td to the east by Pu~"ravardhana (North Bengal) and the town of Kacailgala. tho 2. 304 . of which Pliny the Elder was later to give a description based on precise in fonnation supplied by Megasthenes. NAWG. 11 S--16. p. 299-300. Kausambi on the Yamuna. 147 . Srivasti and Setavya in Kosala. Starting out from Tak~sila. 103. 10534.( 9-10) THE GREAT COUNTRIES . 2 1b. tb . tho 3. Ohttmmapllda Comm. 146. . p. 197. 250 in width and 900 in perimetre. Divya. Aggalapura. From there. led northwards and. via Gonaddha. p. p. 181t. including the Buddhas. 185b. th. Varir. E. • See T. cr. 17) . WALDSCHMIDT. the capital of Magadha. 2.. 8460. it described an immense curve around the region of the middle Ganges. T.. leaving Pratighana (present-day Paithan. it continued eastwards as far as the mouths of the Ganges. p. T 1447. The imperial highway of the Maurya period. 169(". p. the chief town of Gandhara. in the ancient period travellers preferred to use a more difficult but also more direct route which connected Veraiija with Vara~asi : it seems that it passed through Soreyya. p. Vinaya. However. II . p. • Sumanpla. on the upper Godiivanl. p. RHYs DAVIDS. KauSimbi in the Ia~d ofVatsa. E. 39. p. Kapilavastu among the Sakya. S8qlkasya.We possess only fragmentary information about the road networks connecting the urban centres of India in the sixth century6. Szii rm Iii.aasi in the land of Kasi and finaJly reached Rajagrha. IJuddhisl IlIdia. For tnc limits or the Buddhilt Madbyadcia. Virlaya. p. p. VidiSi and Vanasavhya. 248. T 7. VaisaIi. I. III . Prayaga at the confluence of the Yamuna and Ganges 1 . p. it passed through Veraiija and then followed the banks of the great rivers. 200c. which included fourteen mahiijanapada out of sixteen. Yu pu p'i Ito sbih. Z lIr ~'~O!/Jc~Ulmtk. to the south by the River Saravati.keta. London. litah. Mahi~mati and Ujjayini. The Middle Region.

the routt traversed Niidiki and Kutigriimaka where it reached the Ganges. and rdemx:es if! RAYCHAtJOHUaI. etc. This last was crossed in Piita1ignimaka at the place where later the great city of Pii!a1iputra was to be built. the Mallas of Papa and Kusinagari. 190. A wise administration had made it a happy and prosperous state. were preparing to face each other before being united by the most powerful among them. p. unable to win them with anns. C. Kosala and Magadha 10.. and the latter drew his inspiration from it in the organization of his order. 81.J44friya TriMs 0/ A~inrl /N/jo. OHOSHAl. part of the population which inhabited the sixteen regions was organized into republics (g~a) : they had no monarchs and the II . mention should also be made of the small republics of the Sakyas of Kapilavastu. 1924. the capital of the confederated Vtiis.At the same period. Rijagrha was five leagues from the Ganges. affairs of state were settled by a council of elders and popular assemblies 9 . built on the ruins of the ancient kingdom of Videha. 199· 209. "T'N CtMSII/M/IOII O/IM Lktlulrls 0/ lIaiJ4/r. . the Krauc. Its king Cal)c. )14-40.kutta.tyas of Rimagrima. LAw. Ujjayini. I . and terminated in Vaisafi. the Mauryas of Pipphalivana. .At the end of the seventh century of the ancient era. 1011 -18 . Alongside the Vtiis. II. Dip. he gave his daughter Suttanipita. vv. c. who was violent by nature. consisted of a confederacy of eight clans the principal ones of which were the Licchavis and the Videhas.10 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 10-11 ) Pipi and Kusinagari in the land of Malia. PooIUI. the capitals being Ujjayini and Mahi~mati. and was reached most often by passing through Niilandi. Avanti was subdivided into Northern and Southern Avanti. N. 10 Detail. THE FOUR KINGDOMS. It also fulfilled the conditions of progress defined by the Buddha. pp. The republic of the Vtiis. Continuing southward. had designs on the neighbouring kingdoms of KauSambi and Asmaka . which never ceased growing to the detriment of the neighbouring republics. four great kingdoms.ta Pradyota. the capital of Avanti. These were the kingdoms of Avanti . communicated overland with the great ports of the western coast : Bharukac:cha (Broach) and Siirpiraka (Sopiira). TriMs ill A~it1I/ 1Mia. XX. • For deLlils ICe B. present-day Bargaon' . the Shargas of Mount SUqlSUmara. THE REPUBLI CAN STATES. S . Pol/llcal His/oty. pp. IHQ. U. 1944. Vatsa.

seized the throne of Kosala . the crown prince of Magadha. his daughter Kosaladevi married Bimbisira of Magadha. supported by the general DirghaUriyal)a. he was defeated and taken prisoner. He also had as wives Magandiyi. The first queen of Prasenajit was Mallika. Further to the north was situated the territory of Vatsa over which ruled Udayana. AjitaSatru. and V~bhak~triyi bore him two children. His supremacy eItended over the neigh· bouring territory of the Bhargas where his son. p•. to die of grief. His sympathies for Buddhism were vel)' mitigated : 12 he received Ananda coldly and nearly had the Arhat Pil)(!ola Bhciradvija devoured by red ants. who obtained from Sakyamuni a reluation in the disciplinal)' rules for the region of Avanti. V~bhak~triyi. taking advantage of one of his absences. daughter of Prince MahaRiman and a slave.asi in the south and. the wife of the victim and sister of Prasenajit.a. Among his subjects were two disciples of the Buddha. had eIpanded to the district of Viri!).lhaka. Kosala. Padmivati of Magadha and Arar:tyaki of Bengal. in order to accede to the throne .lhaka and Vajri. a contcmpotal)' and friend of the Buddha. Virii<.a Ko~ikaf'l). the daughter of a garland maker and a pious Buddhist. jealous of their nobility. whose hand had been refused by the Buddha. Prasenajit frequently visited the Buddha and the canonical teIts have preserved the tenor of the many conversations he had with the Master. Sodhi . the son of Parantapa. instead of an authentic princess. AjitaSatru declared war on him but. However. he returned his states to him and also gave him the hand of his daughter Vajri. but as soon as AjitaSatru had agreed to his terms. this. For a long time Bimbisira was unaware of the fraud.tSeOajil demanded his abdication. was governor. the adopted daughter of the banker Ghosaka. sister of Prasenajit. Viswadatti or Visavadatta of Avanti. However. Mahi Kityiyana and ~ro!). he also took to wife a Magadhian princess. He was noted for his conquests and practised a policy of matrimonial alliances by successively marrying. a Sakya girl of miIed blood. was Prasenajit. In reprisal Prasenajit retook a small village in the Magadhan district of Viril)asi which had formed part of his sister's dowry. but the Sakyas. had his father Bimbisara killed. his son Virii<. sent him. nearly always under romantic circumstances. the daughter of a Kuru brihmin. Maha Kosala. and Samivati. the Nepalese teral which was occupied by the Sikyas. caused Kosaladevi.( 1I · 12) THE FOUR KINGOOMS II Visuladatti to the king of KauSimb'i and concluded an alliance with Aimalea. ancr some victorious campaigns. The friendship he felt for the Buddha led him to ask for a Sakya girl in marriage. The son and successor of the eponymous king. to the north. which corresponds to the present-day province of Oudh.

he considered himself to be dishonoured . but forewent a punitive expedition against Kosafa. Hardly had he mounted the throne than he advanced on the republic of the ~akyas . later legends claim that those who escaped founded towns and kingdoms in the Himalayas. a sudden swelling of the waters submerged him and a large part of his army. At the time of the Buddha. it was ruled over by the house of the Haryankas. Back from his expedition. Like his neighbour and brother-i~ ­ law. He carried out a policy of matrimonial alliances and contracted unions with the ruling families of the Madras. His marriage to Kosaladevi ensured him of the possession of part of the district of VarilJasi. he died under the walls of the town . Since he was the fruit of that Il misalliance. he had to remain outside and. and Bimbisara reigned over RajagrhaGirivraja from 546 to 494. overcome by exhaustion and anxiety. during the night. since the gates were closed. Viriic. in 537 when he embraced the life of a religious wanderer. Three times the Buddha succeeded in making him turn back. the new king.thaka set up camp in the dried-up bed of the river Aciravati: however.. had sworn to talte vengeance on the ~akyas who had deceived his father by causing him to marry the daughter of a slave instead of an authentic princess. that of Magadha. or again in NorthWest India . and the texts have preserved the memory of the two meetings he had with the Master. In the sixth century A. Bimbisira maintained relations of close friendship with the Buddha. Prascnajit went to Magadha to ask the aid and support of his nephew and son-in-law AjataSatru. and in 531. he was overthrown by his son AjitaSatru and thrown into prison. was destined to supplant all its neighbours. Prasenajit of Kosala. the monk Vimok~prajna or Vimok~na claimed to be a descendant of a Sakyaputra who had been saved from the massacre. . He reached Riijagrha at nightfall . in Kosala and VaisaIi.D . As soon as he heard of the revolt. shortly after the Enlightenment of the Buddha. After 52 years of rule.12 INDIA ATTIiE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 12-ll) by surprise. The fourth Gangetic kingdom. AjiitaSatru held a splendid funeral for him. but in the end the spirit of vengeance prevailed . on the bank of the Ganges. the Sakyas offered the invader only a symbolic resistance and were massacred until practically the last man. Viru<:lhaka. Since they were prevented by their upisaka vows from shedding blood. and he annexed Anga (Bengal) to his crown after having defeated King Brahmadatta. where he died of starvation.

but only five masters of the Vinaya. ASoka's consecration. Piili version of the Sanumlapiisadika.. I. ScNoul'T. 19S3. his decease. has still not been established with certainty II. Mahawu~fSa. For astronomical calculations. p. this calculation calls for some reservations. 37.According to unanimous tradition. during the interval of 278 years between the accession of Bimbisara (in 60 before the Nirval)a) and the consecration of Asoka (in 218 after)..l. p. . Two chronologies are auested in the ancient documents : the long chronology which places the Nirviil)a 218 years before the consecration of Aroka (c. p.25-6).1. 19-20.. V. The short chronology. pp. see P. represented by nearly all the Sanskrit and Chinese sources.. 679c 13). 14 Nowadays. I' On m. 27-62. is dated the year 118 after the Nirvi~a by the Chinese version of the Samantapiisddiled (f 1462. 3. 280). 4. 486 B. 1. p. Aileit'll' lru/ioll ChrOltoiO Calcutta. However.Nt17~ LiftraflUt. VI..C. instead of being located in the year 236 after the Ni~al)a.. In the second place. First of all.. II. .25). B. 2.C. lY. the same tradition.26-7. 41 . counts thirteen sovereigns .THE DATE AND LIFE OF THE BUDDHA SAKYAMUNI THE DAn OF THE BUDDHA.1a. occurred about the years 268-267 B. JA. I. XXXII.C. 55-9). A. 1956. 124-8-. ManavOf!1Sa. 44. Thus. I. La do't ihl Nj~ . this date is rejected by the great majority of western and Indian historians. is sometimes placed in 118 (Dipav~a. situates the accession of ASoka in the year 100 of the the date of the Nirv41. which is adopted by the Sinhalese tradition.i.which is to be expected -..C. TIuli1and . therefore locates the consecration of Asoka in 218 after the Nirviil)a (Dfpav~a . see tbe bibliography in WtN"TU. VII.C.(lJ-J4 ) DATE OF S.KYAMUNI 13 II.ml! In fM BIIddJJa·J Li/t. the lJuddhists of Sri Lanka. DaftJ a/1M principal E. that is.. 1947 .).).. instead of being located 218 years after the Nirval)a. the Buddha lived for eighty years. i. the Sinhalese chronicles and commentaries are not absolutely faithful to their own calculations. UAU. and sometimes in 218 after the NirviJ:la (Allhasalini. IHQ. but the date of his Nirva~a . and the short chronology which locates the same event 100 years before the consecration (c. p. an event which. ch. The long chronology. and the council ofPii~aliputra 18 years later. in the year 236 after the Nirviil)a (Dipava'!fSQ . Burma and Kampuchea place: the Nirviil)a in 543 B. However. V. and more recently. because the year of the Nirviil)a is closely linked to that of the consecration of Asoka. The council of Pi!aliputra. 368 B. .1. !>p. 21. 24-5. for reasons that will be explained in chapter 3. .e. V. which is too few. I.

INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA (1 4-\ 5) However it also counts twelve sovereigns and five patriarchs between Bimbisira and Asoka. Moggaliputta Tissa. 180 9. 353. 13. or even 160 years (Chinese editions of the Sung. etc. 220) opt for 418. p.vya. 2. 3. IS The modem histonan can opt for either the long chronology or the short. CC F. 2. LondOIl. p. 144c 13). 15a 15). 10. Tso p'. p. T 2043. . Sol). 36). Hsum yii ching (T 202. MaifjuirikaJpa .a : 100 years and more (T 2031. OJ . His successors.u. AwuJiinaialaka. T 2042. Li yul gy. ch. 20a 16). ch. p. which is mentioned only in the Sanskrit sources. and the editors of Inde c/assique (I. p. 9. I. 903b) proves that the Chinese were not able to attribute an exact date to the Nirviina. CaQ4avaiii. 10.. ch. Upadesa (f 1509. Leidcn.. p. it is appropriate to mention yet other calculations: The recensions of the Treatise on the Sects by Vasumitra locates the consecration of A~ka in the era of the Nirviil). ch. w. 99c 6.aka. I. 4. ch. marked a new dot each year. p. p. 116 yea" (f 2032. p. 6. 442h 19). 23.' Man . in the reign of the Great . 262b) claims that when Upiili. "T1tow. However. 368.C. II. H. he marked a dot in the manuscript. Yin.woNT. p. It is adopted in the HislOry and Culture of the Indian People (II. 3.• III. 2.a in 486 B. Mahadeva's heresy. p. while the Cambridge History of India (I. p. (Gilg. Siggava. p. should be placed in the year 100 of the Nirvii~a. ch. 200. Compilation by SOJ?'lgharak~a (T 194. During a visit 10 Canton about 489. Mii/asarv. p. 97-8. 539 b ~2. U On the Dotted Rcoord. 1320 29) . ch. p. This is the date which will be followed here as a working hypothesis. p. ch. that is. 10 rgyus. S03b (1) . p. T 2033. 132-43. p. sec P. yu chi (f 2081. 1956. Yuan and Ming). ch. EGGD. p. yii ching (T 205. ch.ghabhadra inscribed the 915lh dot on the manuscript. 3. The Khotanese chronicle. T 99. Many of the sources locate Asoka and his chaplain Upagupta in the year 100 of the Nirvi"a : Aiokiil'odano (D. 309c 7). V. I. If only for the record. p. 11) prefers 483 B. collated the Vinaya after the decease of the Buddha. 1. ch. places the reign of ASoka in 234 after the Nirvii~a 12 . T 1448. pp. Hence. Sarp. Chung ching (T 208. 70a 8. ch.14 Nirva~a. 129b 29). TiMtan U'~. The evidence supplied by Hsuan-tsang somewhere around 635 in his Hs. ch. the tradition of the "dotted record"lJ referred to for the first time by Tao-hslian in his Ta t 'ang nei tren lu (T 2149. which locales the Nirviil). 1620 6. p. Diisaka. TM ChrorwIog)' of tilt Rtip of Ajoko Morlya. interpreted according to the short chronology. pp.ASoka . ch. 1935.ar)' TUb. L. but should take the dual calculation into account according to whether he is using a Sinhalese or a Sanskrit source. p. KilfpClJ't6maJ:ufttiJcii (T 201.C. 41c 27). 541 c 21). 368c 19.

The proper name of the future Buddha was Siddhirtha and his family name Gautama. Buchot. Paris. Pari. us grtlllds ptnuurs dt I'IIIM. we can recommend W. IC..II ~nsi~ dt GotllmD . Paris.. it took the Indian Buddhists nearly ten centuries to compose a complete biography of their Master and to represent it in full on their monuments. I.. S97. 1M lIistorira/ IiDla Wf' ~IS Oft Iht P~rJO" and 1M Doct. HlJlOi'~ du bowddlrismt daJU fiNk. BACOT. pp.U. . Easl and West. 1884. fA Par. London.1. II. 455. He belonged to the sub-Himalayan clan of the ~kyas. FOUCHEIt.. like many young people of his time. 1948. Lt JJouddha. Did tltt IIwJdJul di-r of raling pork? MCB. Uf~ of Buddha. KnN . The revelation of the great mysteries of old age.AUWALLNER. WALD5CtUUOT. Di-r OIx'/. WAU:Y . Fu. VII. . pp.. LD iigmdt du Buddha. H . . FU. LAMOTTE. Paris. On 1Ix: historical value of the traditions. Still Wtrdtl! .II ~i-r du &JuddiuJ d'opriJ ks ltxltS tl _ _ Ills dt /'irult. I. Reduced to its main events. The various interpretations given tQ it by our religionist schools have obscured a problem already complicated enough in itself. VON GlASl:SAPP. E. the life of Sakyamuni can be presented as follows. Ic. H. Uf~ of lh~ 1Juddha. RuN. B. BIIddII4. 1947 . Paris.J2. H. l. He was born about the year 566 in the LumbinI park near Kapilavastu. 12-46. ]4]. 1. It remains nonetheless a fact that Buddhism could not be explained if it were not based on a personality powerful enough to give it the necessary impetus and to have marked it with its essential features which will persist throughout all history. 1949. 1950. WoonNlTZ. IIwddha 'J WI M~aJ. His father was the k~triya Suddhodana and his mother was Maya.To write about the life of Sakyamuni is a desperately difficuh task 14.. 1947-48.f~rwrg 'H»'II fAlxlUtrult dtJ BudJIta. II. GOlli ngcn.. 1957. I. M .u:. . RHR. E.uiM G~mtiNk. 1. t90l. Zurich. 1915. 1949). 19]2. a clan of uncenain origin but which had to a cenain degree been subjected to brahmanical influence: hence the tenn Sakyamuni " the Sage of the Sakya clan" by which the Buddha is known even in the West. As will be seen in a later chapter. GOlant(l BuddM. ROCOlJLl. H{WoIEa. E.LIOZAT.yamuni. XV. THOM. The legend thus elaborated was transplanted throughout the whole of the Far East where it underwent constant alterations in order to make it correspond to the expectations of the new believers. London. 1944 48. Mamml of Indiatr Buddhism. pp.iItt of/Itt BwddIJa.nirvOlJa ~lltJ FlDliraill~j du BwddJw. E . A.J. lrult dtwlqw.. Huet. FJ..Aol'lD. see R. TIfOMAS.( 16-17) 16 THE LIFE Of LIFE OF SAKYAMUNI 15 17 SAKYAMUNI. Safwtn'zu. an undefined abode but which is .. he resolved to win the Immortal. 463-92. Coow. 134. PuYLlISKI. 1896. 1950. 69. Ulft'alwrt .RASWAMY and I. pp. /. J09. A. · . WMG. /.. 191 8· 20. Strubourg. Zurich. lA. 37·71 . uiM Lthr~ . disease and death inspired him with disgust for the world and.f101: t. K. 1948. pp. he contracted a marriage when he was about sixteen years old (550) and had a son whose name was Rihuia. London.5-4 . 8wdJJtu : Gts(hic"'~ WIld Ltg~IIM. pp. 1948 (II.. . the chief town of the Nepalese teraL He spent his youth in comfort and pleasure. A. A. 19]1 . p. I·).O . pp. LMng 'TlIouthlJ of Gotamo lltt BuddJuJ. Amonglne maoy works devoted to the biography or Silt..

In the evening. but to the mystery of death and rebirth and the elimination of rebirth in the world of appearances. he found himself exactly as before. he decided to apply himself to the "strenuous effort" (mahiipiuJana) and retreated to Uruvilvii where five mendicants. he devoted himself to the most severe austerities. He regathered his strength by accepting food offered to him by a young girl. etc.a knowledge which is also called the "divine eye" and. Sakyamuni was close to triumph. came and joined him. the knowledge of the death and birth of beings . he devoted himself to ecstatic practices and entered into possession of the supradivine and mystical spheres of the attainments (samapaltl). During the watches of the night.) which made him a Buddha (531 B. he reached Rajagrba. However.C.).r reJigiosQ . and then bathed in the Nairafijana. He directed his thoughts. he reached the Tree of Enlightenment.. he attained supreme and perfect Enlightenment (bod}. finally . During that memorable night. the capital of Magadha. these efforts were fruitless. A!aca Kalama and Udraka Rimaputra..16 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 17· \ 8) situated beyond suffering and death . Ajfiiita Kaul)c. located in Bodh-Gaya. at the age of 29. he won the threefold knowledge : the 18 recollection of his previous existences. not to the supradivine and unconscious spheres which his masters had taught him. In the year 537. the Paficavargik. He therefore renounced such penances. he lert the town of Kapilavastu and took up the life of a religious wanderer. he crossed the river AROma and. and sat at its foot in order to meditate .tinya. for those mortifications did not even enable him to obtain supernormal powers.s. on seeing which his companions deserted him in order to go to the Deer Park (Mrgadava) near Varal)asi. doubting the efficacity of this method since. However. • Making his way southward. on withdrawing from the ecstasy.. stopping his breathing and undergoing fasts so prolonged that they endangered his life. Continuing on his way. There he made acquaintance of King 8imbisira and promised to visit him immediately after his Enlightenment.. This conviction included the discovery of the mechanism of dependent origination (pratityasamutpada) : Sakyamuni mentally examined in direct and reverse order the twelve causes (niddna) which condition that . at a place known as SupratiHha. the certainty of having destroyed in himself the desires which are the basis of successive rebirths in the world of becoming.. after a brief stop in Anupiya. under their direction. he joined the Yoga masters. For six years (536-532). aficu. Now alone.

etc. expounding the Law. the other in the Suprati~!hacaitya shortly after the Enlightenment. a small locality situated on the banks of the Nairanjana. was an ancient city the origins of which went far back into the distant past. Mahanaman and Asvajit. The discourse at Varil):asi inaugurated the public ministry which the Buddha carried out for forty-five years (531-486). not far from Bodh-Gaya. Situated five leagues from the Ganges. the chief town in the country of Kasi and located on the banks of the Ganges between the rivers Barna and Asi.-day market-town of Sarnith six kilometres to the north of the town itself. fonnerly Girivraja. S. fifty other young people. the three Kisyapa brothers and their thousand disciples. Bhadrika. Immediately after having o rdained them. finally . at the time of the Buddha. Varal):asi or Banaras. the Ja!ilas. it was protected by five mountains and watered by the rivers Tapodi and Sarpini. Rajagrha. was. Va~pa.akyamuni was on the best of tenns with King Bimbisara with whom he had two famous meetings : one on the PilJ. and he thus acquired the certainty of living his last existence. The Buddhists soon had at their disposal in Rijagrha eighteen vast . he preached the discourse on Turning the Wheel of the Dharma in which are explained the four noble Truths. a pleasure garden situated in the present. He generally stayed in the Deer Park (mrgadliva).( 18-19) LIFE OF SAKYAMUNI 17 origination. were converted and swelled the ranks of the small community. Subahu. He travelled throughout the region of the Middle Ganges in all directions. the capital of Magadha and one of the seven most important towns in India. the Buddha sent them out on missions to ttach his doctrine everywhere. VaSas and his four friend s Vimala. making conversions and recruiting those inclined into the religious order of mendicants (bhilqu) which he had created in addition to the many orders which already existed. which was soon followed by a homily on the Characteristics of the Nor-self."avaparvata immediately after the Great Departure. five sons of noble families. wearing topknots and. Having continued his meditations in Bodh-Gaya for four or seven weeks. devo19 tees of the Vedic sacrifices. AJlvikas. Piifl):ajit and Gavampati. before the five companions who had witnessed his austerities. the Nirgranthas. The Buddha set the Wheel of the Law in motion and preached several important discourses there. until that time. In Uruvilva. the Buddha went to the Deer Park in Varil):asi. It was in Varal):asi that the Buddha made his first conversions and recruited his first disciples: the Group of Five (paricavargika) consisting of Ajnata Kaul):"inya. which was also known as the ~~ivadana or ~~ipatana .

a girt from Bimbisira.18 INDIA AT THE TIME OF TIlE BUDDHA ( 19-20) monasteries. Devadatta provoked a schism in the community and. who was abandoned by one and all. who 20 had entered the order. as a mark of particular benevolence. Sakyamuni was the victim of a plot hatched against him by his cousin and rival Devadatta.Juvana. In the course of the many visits which he paid to Rijagrf)a. underwent the punishment for offences. but the hired assassins he had commissioned became converted . the Tathagata has told the cause . the Buddha also had the opportunity to convert Queen K~ma. supported by the crown prince AjitaSatru. on the slopes of the SarpaSul). Devadatta. The intervention of tbe disciples Siriputra and Maudgalyiyana brought the misled monks back into the fold. The Master conferred the ordination on him and. After the decease of the Buddha. Kisyapa "the foremost of those who observe the austere discipline" assumed a leading role in the order. but never went near his wife and soon left her to renounce the world. formed a separate congregation. Upati~ya and Kotila. Towards the end of Bimbisira's reign. having met them in Riijagrha. the proud wife of Bimbisira. in the Vaibhiiravana. On meeting the Buddha in the Ver:mvana. attempted to supplant the Master at the head of the community. who had supported him. · Another important person who was converted in Rajag~ha was the brahmin Pippali. he spontaneously prostrated himself before him and received religious teaching from him . and finally.~ikapriigbhiira . summarized the whole of the doctrine of ~ikyamuni in one famous stanza : "or all Dhannas which have arisen from a cause. pupils of the heretical master Safijaya. and he has also revealed its cessation. AjataSatru. he. on the Grdhrakii!3parvata. better known by the name of Mahikisyapa . in the caves of the Saptapan:taguhii and the IndraSailaguhii. the main ones of which were erected in Ihe Vct. Upati~ya and Kotila were converted and rapidly attained holiness. When his manoeuvres failed . recognized the error of his ways as soon as he ascended . the great monk". The Buddha raised them to the rank of principal disciples with the names of Siiriputra "the foremost of the wise" and Maudgalyayana "the foremost of those who possess the supernormal powers". He had been married in his youth to a certain Bhadra Kapilini. were introduced to the faith by the disciple Asvajit who. and Devadatta. the rock which he had thrown from the top of a mountain only gave the Buddha an insignificant wound. and the maddened elephant which he sent in pursuit of the Master prostrated itself before the latter. exchanged cloaks with him. Two young men. he tried to kill the Buddha. having won 500 Vtii monks from VaiSiIi to his cause. she took up the religious life and attained holiness.

It was upon the intercession of Ananda that Sakyamuni accepted women into his community: the first nuns (MiIefW:Ii) were Mahiiprajiipati Gautami. During his first visit. Nanda the handsome.· The Buddha frequently visited his native land. Devadatta and Ananda. A group of young noblemen. became converted to the Dharma. the court physician. Kapilavastu at the foot of the Himalayas. Ananda gave the Buddha his best attention.had only just left the town to return to Rajagrha when the Sakyas became converted en masse. Aniruddha. noting his slightest words" in his infallible memory : he was the foremost of "those who have heard and remembered much". Ananda on the other hand. was a model monk : through his docility and zeal. often stopped in VaiSili. led by the barber Upali. and sometimes in the forest of the Mahavana. it was in Srivasti. Other occasions also brought the Buddha back to his native town : he 2[ had to settle a quarrel which broke out between the Sakyas and the Krau"yas over a question of irrigation. and her ladiesin-waiting. the capital of Kosala. that the Buddha . Mahiiniiman. as we have just seen. However. who had a high regard for the Licchavis. Two stopping-places were at his disposal : the Mahavana where the Belvedere Hall (ku. the Buddha's intercession only succeeded in delaying the catastrophe for a few days : his family clan was almost completely exterminated and the few survivors had to leave the country. and little Rahula himself was roceived as a novice by Sariputra. and sought admittance into the community.iigiiraJiiJ6) stood on the banks of the Monkey Pool (marka!ahradatira) and the monastery in the Amrapalivana which had been built for him by a courtesan from the town. they were subjected to particularly strict monastic rules. When Viru"haka seized the throne of Kosala and resolved to have vengeance on the Sakyas for having formerly offended his father. the capital of the Vdi confederation.u). he became the favourite disciple of the Master who made him his personal assistant (upuslhiiycJc. his half-brother. in the country of Malia. Devadatta. The Buddha. the Buddha's aunt. He had saved the inhabitants from the plague and was always given a warm welcome there. was to betray his vows and tried to kill the Buddha. The Buddha . he asked forgiveness of the Buddha and this was granted. sometimes residing in the Nyagrodharama. Among them were several cousins of the Buddha. his father Suddhodana and his fonner wife.( 20-21 ) LIFE OF SAKYAMUNI 19 the throne of Magadha : on the advice of nvaka. the mother of Rahula. caught up with the Buddha in Anupiya. For twenty-five years. abandoned his betrothed and took up the religious life. to help his father in his last moments and to inflict a punishment on his father-in-law Supra buddha who had insulted him .

the Buddha returned to Srivasti. the feet of which rested in 22 S8f!\kisya. Legend has it that on that occasion he emphasized his triumph by various prodigies: the twin wonders with jets of water and rays of light. among whom was the rich banker Ghosita. events themselves belied these slanders. having gone to t~ heaven of the TriiyastrirpSa gods. and even to have assassinated the nun Sundari. Cinca ·ma~avika. the MrgiramitrJ)risida which had been built in the PUrvarima by the pious ViSikhi. the daughter-in-law of Mrgara but his " mother" in the Buddhadharma. after which. or again a walk in the sky. Mashrin GoSiliputra. a Cakravanin king. In Kausambi. However. the proposal was rejected but the girl. Kakuda Kityiyana. In Sravasti. the Buddha had at least four establishments at his disposal : the Ghosillirima. the Buddha came down again accompanied by Brahmi and Indra on three precious ladders. his detract· ors did not give up and successively accused him of having had illicit relations with a heretical woman. in the village of Kalmi~damya. attempted to avenge the affront by . Ajita KeSakambala. finally. the Buddha bad to face the hostility of six heretical masters whom a literary contrivance always presents together : Piiral)a Kisyapa. The lown contained at least three monasteries : the Jetavana which bad been laid out thanks to the generosity of the rich banker Anathapil)"ada . In the forests near the town. who later became one of the wives of King Udayana. the miraculous growth of an enormous mango· tree. the founder and reformer of the powerful Jaina order which nowadays still numbers several million adherents in India . Kukku~rima . Nirgrantha Jniili· pulra and Saiijayin Vairaniputra. He owed the first three to the generosity of some eminent citizens. the Rajakarama which had been erected through the good offices of Prasenajit. in the country of Vatsa. he tamed and appeased the cannibalistic Yak~ who devoured young chi!· deen in the Alavi forest. the multiplication of imaginary Buddhas. Mas· karin Gosaliputra was the leader of the Ajivikas. a sect that had a considerable influence for a long time . Near KauSimbi. the Buddha carried out some memorable conversions : he welcomed into his order the brigand Angulimila who had held to ransom and mutilated travellers in the woods of Jilini. present-day Sankissa· Vasantapura. the Buddha made the acquaintance of a brahmin who offered him the hand of his daughter Migandiki . materialists or sceptics. Welcomed by a splendid company in which could be noted the nun UtpalavafJ)i disguised as. Piviri· kambavana and Badarikirima.20 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA (2 1-22) spent most of his lime. the others were detenninists. Nirgrantha Jiiitiputra was none other than Mahivira. The Buddha triumphed over all these: opponents in a public debate in the presence of Prasenajit.

his native land . he consented to some relaxation in the Buddhist discipline in favour of the small communities in Avanti. who himself had been converted by the Master in Srivasti. Still further to the west.as. Pi~401a Bhiradvija.KYAMUNJ 21 persecuting the pious 5amivati.iparintak. she appealed to the Buddha. The relations between Udayana. The Buddha declined an invitation from King Ca~4a Pradyota who asked him to go to Avanti. the king of KauSimbi. the daughter of Anathapi~4ada . Mahikityiyana and Sro~a Ko!ikaI1)a. his son Bodhi. who was a heretic. he tried to have another missionary. but was represented by two eminent disciples.( 22-23) LIFE OF SA. famine having broken out. At the request of these last. who governed the land of the Bhargas. The Master. but the brahmin Agnidatta who had invited him for the rainy season did not receive him and. the Master. in the country of ~urasena. reserved a splendid reception for the Buddha. accompanied by 500 disciples. where he founded a small community and built a sandalwood monastery which became famous. While the Buddha was staying in KauSimbi. " horse com". in SUl'!lsumiragiri. but that city which was later to become one of the strongholds of Buddhism did not leave a good impression on him . unable to restore hannony. However. a schism o<x:urred among his monks over a minor detail of discipline . that the Buddha met the mother and father of Nakula with whom he acknowledged kinship. The furthest east the Buddha reached seems to have been the country of Anga (Bengal) where Sumagadha. a town situated on the great route from Mathuri to Taksasili. far from consenting to do so. lived . Her father-in -law. and the Buddha were somewhat distant : the king gave a suspicious greeting to the disciple Ananda who had been sent to his court and whom he considered his wives had given too wann a welcome. went to Bengal and carried out conversions there. tried to make her pay homage to the naked ascetics but. according to the Chi nese versions. The Buddha once went to Mathura. withdrew for some time to the Pirileyyaka forest where he lived in the company of wild animals. devoured by red ants.ing's wives. The new disciple returned to Surparaka. it is doubtful whether the Buddha ever visited the western coast inhabited by the SrOl. another of the k. It was also in the land of the Bhargas. he made his way as far as Verafiji (in Sanskrit Vairanti). Later sources which attribute to Sakyamuni voyages to distant lands . Nevertheless. the Buddha and his disciples were compelled to eat barley or. 23 Whatever the later legend may say. the region was converted to Buddhism by the merchant PUf1)a.

The last days and decease of the Buddha are narrated in detail by the MahilpariniTVQ1JasUtrQ of which we possess several relatively concordant versions. he passed through Bhoganagaraka and reached Papa in Malia country . at the moment when the latter was contemplating a campaign against the Vdi confederacy . he set out in the direction of the Ganges : in Ve~uy~~iki (in PiJi. the Buddha explained the conditions necessary for the prosperity of states and monastic orders. After having bathed in the River Hira~yavatl (KakuuhS). the Buddha predicted the building and future grandeur of Pa~aliputra and. it was only with great difficulty that he reached the approaches of Ku. The following day. When the retreat was at an end. despite his weakness. then addressed his last exhortations to the monks. with his head pointing towards the north . a village which the Magadhans were fortifying bc:cause of the campaign against the Vdis . When he was in Rajagrha. 24 Teaching as he went. a minister of AjataSatTU. . in the presence of the minister.22 INDIA AT THE TIME QFTHE BUDDHA ( 23-24) North·West India. when invited to a mea] by the smith C unda. still found the strength to convert the Malia Putkasa and put on the golden tunic with which the latter had presented him. Kasmir. he received the homages of Siriputra and recommended discipline to his monks. the Master passed through the villages of Ku!igramaka and Nadika and reached VaiSili. after having gone in direct and reverse order through all the meditational stages. He thus reached the banks of the Ganges in Pa~ligrama . • Notwithstanding. There he lay down. he crossed the river with great solemnity. Ambalanhiki). he set out again and. he ate a "tasty dish of pork" which caused him to have bloody diarrhoea . During the third watch of the night.should be considered as apocryphal. and then went on to Ve~ugramalc:a in o rder to spend the rainy season there. he once again preached the four noble truths .sinagara. He was 80 years of age. he was again overcome by weakness. he entered Nirva~a "like a flame which goes out through lack of fuel ". where he was received by the courtesan Amrapali. and converted the heretic Suhha· dra. The Buddha had his death·bed prepared in the Sala Grove in Upavar· tana. in Nilandi. It was there that he first had an auack of illness and predicted his corning death. the Master wished to proceed to Kusinagara. After casting a last glance at VaiSifi. the Buddha received a visit from Va~kiira . in the outlying part of the town. comforted Ananda who was overcome with grief. He made his final arrangements. where he conversed for a long time with the Mallas who had come out to welcome him. Lake Anavatapta and the island of Ceylon . after a flattering reception from the population.

tbnt IIIIIi ~"Tl dts 8JuJdJuJ. Berlin.. the relics were collected by the Mallas of Kusinagara. prepa· red for war. in the OHARMA AND THE . and the tenth was erected over the ashes of the pyre. There were therefore ten stiipas: eight contained relics. and many ortl"lc older worb . . MW Ldu.till retain their value : H. Each of them returned home and erected a stiipa over the precious remains which they had obtained . arrived in Kusinagara. Mill ~" . LoDdon.u. who had arrived too late. Finally.N. Dil fottf trOUnt kliJioIInt . HARDY. as well as King AjitaSatru. LcipZia. W. Hisroirl dM bowJdIJisml bu f'1n«. Otr Buddltismus. The word of the Buddha is good at the beginning.J . PI!am. 19)) . the neighbouring countries.wlDs. or Drol)a. /JwIdJuI . W. After the cremation. the Sakyas of Kapilavastu. demanded their share and. E.tt PoussIN. I. 1882-4 (If. (A(ord. and the Mallas of Kusina· gara learned of the decease of the Buddha. London 1182): H. Paris. "There ate a pul many studies on the: Dharma or the Buddha. Pan. Hon. Paris. the ninth was raised over the urn. the king of Magadha.ludvipa and the Mallas of Papa. Berlin. The Mallas went in a crowd to the Sila Grove. lIis Ordttr. " Opittiqtu III I'lIis. Kant . 1928 .JopIty ill IttdiIJ aIIII CAylOf!. the Mauryas of Pipphalivana.. YON Gt.mn4 flDCh IJ/Ilrlfl ptlJi. they gave themselves over to violent manifestations of grief. Hurlcm. the Bulakas of Calakalpi. E. MW ~ittdr. who had initiated the distribution. 192' . . BlaH. H. . and the body was transported to the Maku!abandhana·Caitya where it lay exposed for seven days. OL. 1946.. the brahmins of Vi~z:.THE EARLY BUDDHIST DOCTRINE THE BUDDHA . Otr Buddili. ~ Hisloq of &rl*IJI Lol'Idoa. Dtt Rlli.o. who had not been present at the decease of the Buddha.ovl dt 10 dor_t/qw . THow. his Uf~..( 24-25) THE DHARMA AND TIlE BUDDHA 23 When AjitaSatru.." . However. &denBadea. King AjitaSatru of Magadha. 17IoIIr"'. /. kept for himself the urn which had enclosed the relics. the Krauc. 1923. OIl LA V. 1C.sml itt 1Nii/. /hMJdIJisl PItilo.ASDI . 19(1). BouddItlmtl. HIIET. The brahmin 25 Dhiimrasagotra.B. ~ ~ itt IrtdiIrt IINi im F~ Oltnt . The adversaries eventually came to an agreement and the relics were shared out between eight states: the Mallas of Kusinagara.oDIKaG. Dil W~isMjt du /JwddJwI. received the ashes from the pyre. when the Mallas refused.Wttnt I~. AIddIIo. Ll. Slutlpn. T.uirisme. ~ dormt It 10 pltllOlopltil '" bou. H. Berlin. 1930. before being placed in a coffin and set down on the funeral-pyre. the Licchavis of Vaisiri.. 1936. 1949 .tyas of Rimagrima.What Buddhists mean by Law or dha. Stullprt 19". Glsd~is I'IJII /wI lhMJdIti. 1890. /hMJdIJism . A. L. his DoclfW.. 1906: R. 1881 (If. 1926. 10m D.l+'trknt . he paid his last respects to the Master's remains and he alone was able to set fire to the pyre. Mahikisyapa.ma is the truth discovered by the Buddhas during their Enlightenment and preached by them or their disciples during their public ministry 1 s.. LcipZia. Dw PIIilOSlJPhil dttr Ittdn. · III.

JcM TUlt. 24 . 268. PkZYLlJUJ. complete and pure 16 . 135 : Anauttan. Dit Philasophk ~s BlMidJ!ismWJ.. Folipo. Polish Bulletin or Or.nANO-8ocANot. 419: Lanki . Fasc. J. 41 .. FILUI)ZAT.. pp. PlriS. U 1HNddJI~. I. O'inllllini. p. Vinaya.IndUcMn Phifosophk.'&EJ. pp.. 121 : Chun... 102.rohimly_is. tlt~nt6w n. MtJjJhfManfJr.td &oks 0/ I~ BuddJristl . Bolo!fl&. ' On Buddhis· mus·.s 0 I~ Pilli Tu.24 INDIA AT THE nME OF THE BUDDHA (26) 26 middle and at the end.'Iy and traMialed inlo English in iarce ool1ections : Sacud Boc«. tb. 299·111: 1. p. 119 : Slrpyutta. (Chris. certain luthon postulate tht! uistrnce or I " primitivc" or " precanonicll" Buddhism which they attempt to I"CICOMtruct : S. 1896. p. 19)] ..iontll Mr &dt). 111In. FILUOZAT. pp. XII .iotI .c BwddhiMn . 19)4. 121 ·12 : Za. Zurich. . . Divya. CoNU. I. 1953: H. &ultihisti. II . Mus .. 8-11 : / A.hrOWKh I~ AWtl. KEITH. 180. 19S4. 62 . DUsseldorf. Soc." II. WAl. The sky will fall down with the moon and stars. 272 . homogenous. 1915. Soc. IHQ.C. TrtJIU/aliCII SI. 19S6: £. /".. III. S4t.. 1951 . ch.oblt!m 0 P. Suttanipita.. Sanskrit. RENou. PlriS. B. What place does the Buddha occupy in relation to the Law which he discovered and preached and what are the main points of his teaching? Paris. Ttxlt dt. 645b 18. Bibl. 1926: L Su. T 1509. 1942 . 511-66: E. ill"'t BwldJIismWJ. p. 1935 : E..'QYDUX rtlatifs (JJlX tli~ntJ CIIItU)'f7U. etc. pp. From the night of the Enlightenment until the night of the Nirvi1)8. 1. ]·20: C. I. 352. / Good Intholop!s ortM Budd hut tCKb ais-o exist : 1. Rt!6m ~J Bwddha . WL'ou'NJlZ. GO/amtl Budd/rQ. p. o. i/J bMnct und tN""lopmtn.. tira. p. 1949. p. III. ch. L. FUUWALLI'IU. 78. 841b.. p. pp. p. Uptoddl. BwddhiJrrl.rruylsicicj budd)'V'fit! iN/yJsicjm ~Aryln Ekmenb in Indian Buddhism]. Prutl1UNlic:ol BwJdJ. II. 1. 142·3.ism. Slll. 1949 . in : Cl. 19)4. the oceans will dry up. pp. 34.s o/ IIw Uut..D5C1DUDT. P. pp.. BI. pp. pp. T 26. BEJ. • Nearly III the Buddhist writings in Pili !lavc been edited by the PlJli Tu. •• Aplltt from lhe canonical wrilings which!lavc come: down 10 .. G . in Pili. 1953. Bulldin Inlt!mational de I'Acadnnic Polonaise des Sciences et des LcuteS.()CH. pp.YEa . BuddJliMn in TrtJIUlo.'t. clC. BuddJliMn". CoNU. Cambridrc. Ow£t. UIId dk Ihi.adtt/nl. ltivunakl. H .roCtJllonical Buddhism. 1922: M . 1-1. but the great sages do not speak falsely " . tNr P/ad :ur &itwthtWlf. Mljjhima. RtoAWEY. 1. pp. 5740: T 190.l:N.. 15. " DiIha.1.uJ. pp.bur. etc...rord.ribll. IhIi.ilya "'us MO )lt!nJ DiKOIUs "'. 55-65: Ntw COtI.iofts.1w P. vrtti.. 1951 . VII.. 147· 272: E. p. E. Dighl. perfect as to the: meaning and the letter. Munich. 19304. I. London. A. 1956. pp. 5cHA. I. all that the Buddha declared and taught is true and not false 1 1 . Munich. .O. ionnI dn.. Tibelan Ind Chinese vcniOM. p. U 26 CtJllOIt bouddItiqw Fili i.nm:. and conConns to what is beneficial and truthful" . THoMAS.J1 TU/J . 1911. £tuly Buddhisl ScriplwrtJ. 539: PalljiU .. p. ci(JJJiqw. TuCCI.. 1. Freiber. BEFEO.o .. Gtsehichtt! dn.· . 429·566 : tN. Dt. 1929: H. MS . Oxford. the ground will rise up to the heavens together with the mountains and forests. VON GLASENA""..ehj. v . ]916. Modi6cd text in Madh. . Berlin. FUUWALl. lIT. Anlllltara. WAQ. Gt!donJctll _ lJwddha. The good word of the Buddhas has four features : it is wellspoken.. p... £. I. 59(. 11~ .NDl. . INIitru. ch. I.&M. Tilbineen. 248-64 .. Dlllscldorf. iJwddhi. 366. I. Studies. 1951. 242 . agreeable and pleasant.. T 110. iNfUc~n Philasoplt.

. p. pure of any stain. th. Among the disciples whom he advised only some were to attain the supreme goal. The Buddha did not keep jealously to himself the truth which he had discovered. Upadeb. has triumphed over the world and remains in it without being stained by it"lo . but "it was not he who created the Law of twelve causes.. The vanquisher of 27 enemies. T 1509.iE Poussu. the Buddha honoured the Law he had discovered. is ruled by a strict law which the Buddha was the first to recognize. independent of any findings of which it could be the object. U TM a han. 6. p. 298a. His teaching was public and not secret 21. Sik~mucc:aYI . 293. 10.. p. The dependent origination of all the phenomena of exis~ence.the origin of things and their cessation . p. He was the best of all lights 21. p. 7Sa. the essential nature of things pertaining to things (dharmiil. 14 . II. 851M:. 198. p. could have made him a god. he is appeased and in Nirvil)a : he is the Victorious On•. freed from desires. pp. u Mljjbima. and neither did another create it"2 •. 32. p. II Saql)'\ltta. I I Sarp)'\ltta.liifrt dharmatd)· remains stable" 25 . born and grown up in the world. 2U. It functions independently of the presence or absence of the Buddhas : "Whether or not the Holy Ones appear in the world. I . I. Mldh. Paniiki. III. 15. He did not claim to be a god. NirvilJa. ch. a demon or even a man : "Just as a lotus.remained external to him. KoUvyikhyi.J. pp. Dailbhiimikl. SiJistambasutra. Nevertheless. p. p. vl"ti. Sa~yutta . born in the water and grown up in the water rises above the water without being stained by it.. 40.(26-27) THE DHARMA AND THE BUDDHA 25 The Buddha voluntarily stood aside before the Law which he discovered and preached. p. The Buddha could do nothing about it : he was merely "He who shows the Way"ll . so the Buddha. I. II. th. He taught his disciples where Nirvil)a is to be found . He guided beings to deliverance by means of the appropriate indications. p. ~~Isriki. a heavenly spirit (gandharva). p. " Aliguttara. 38·9. p. p.47. but a seer. and showed them the path which led to it. LA VAL. 286. Angullara. no-one is like him. the Buddha has acquired knowledge . 12. Furthennore. MlIlttara. p. p. 73. if they had not been eliminated. 65. Lankivllirl. as well as their gradual elimination. 25. 274. 518. He destroyed within himself all the impurities which. p. he has no Master . cd. Visuddhimaw. p. PIIDClvi~iati. he alone is an accomplished seer . it did not depend on him as to whether or not the traveller followed his indications. I. 111 . T 99. 140. 2.. 588 . The truth discovered by the Buddha .

the thint for impermanence. in order to honour. THE DISCOURS£ AT VW~ASI. Not having discovered anyone superior to himself.RJ. 1M Word of tM BuddIta. see NYA"'Am. respect and serve it"26 . the thint for existence. separation from what one likes is suffering. "be your island and your refuge. c::h. 331-3. I t 1be Pili version can be rouod in Vinaya. old·age is suffering. is tbe noble truth of the cessation of suffering: the extinction of that thint by means of tbe complete annihilation of desire. Sakyamuni told them. 249-64. the Buddha proposed to them a middle way which would lead to Enlightenment and Nirval)a. the Sanskrit.. by being delivered from it. tbe five kinds of objects of attachment (upOdOnaskandho) are suffering. T 99. by renouncing it. 1956. Colombo. pp. · It . "This. death is suffering. For an explanation of it. in brief. when he was meditating under the goatherd's Banyan-tree some weeks aftcr his Enlightenment. he escaped from every onc's sight and could do no more for his disciples. 100. 133-40. Tsa a h. 321c. the articks by W. 1950 . 10. is the noble truth of the origin of suffering: it is tbe tbirst which leads from rebirth to rebirth. I. Salflrutta. II. the latter were not abandoned entirely : they wert still to have a refuge.h. 0 monks. when the Buddha. Tim. . c::h.The essence of the Buddhist Doctrine is contained in the Discourse of Varat:Jasi. sought throughout the world to discover a monk or brahmin whom he could revere and serve. which finds iu pleasure: here and there : the thint for pleasure. accompanied by pleasure and covetousness. entered stillness like a flame blown out by a breath of wind. RAHuu and olhcn in THQ. not obtaining one's wish is suffering.. by banishing desire. seek no other refuge"l'. 13k n Di. p. After having advised his listeners to avoid the two extremes which consist of a life of pleasure and a life of mortification. I. p. FlUIdowImtw of Buddlrism. "This. However. 211 Finally.okA.a. XXXII.an. 0 monks. by leaving it no place. having shed the psycho-physical aggregates of existence and eliminated all individual foeling. also called the "Discourse setting in motion the Wheel of the Law". 1949.26 THE DISCOURSE AT VA. 44. III. union with what one dislikes is suffering. (Dharmacmuoprovorlanasiitro) in which the Buddha revealed the four noble Truths (aryosatya) to those who were to be his first disciples 2f. p. 10. "This. is the noble truth of suffering : birth is suffering. he resolved "to commit himself to the Law which he had himself discovered. for the Law was to be their refuge : "Let the Law". pp. 19S2. disease is suffering. pp. in Mlhivutu. Colombo.~AST ( 27-28) Sikyamuni. BuddlrlJt DirtiOllaTy. Colombo. p. 0 monks. UpadeSa.

all things are selftess {aniitmaka)"lO . 131. p. with regard to corporeality [and other phenomena] everything that has ever been. "But is what is impennancnt suffering or joy T' "Suffering.. Saf!'lyutta. 29 The meaning and import of these four truths should be ex:plained briefly. Trad. whether bodily or mental. These three characteristics are interdependent : "What do you think. T p. .214.DDolBUG . I am that. THE TRUTH OF SUFFERING. . 67·8. Lord". right will. de l'a1Iemand d'. Sa . they are tainted by suffelling which results from their instability. are transitory . distant or near. be it strong or weak.These fonnations. I am not it. monks. the causal law of nature. low or high. 286. being transitory. whatever is impennanent. U BouddJuJ. right effort. which are continually appearing and disappearing. "Consequently. right speech.pm \a 2' Od. it is not my self: this is what should be seen in truth by whomever possesses true knowledge"lI. JQ doc"iM. with eight branches.( 28-29 ) INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA 27 "This.lkha). that is. all that is not-mine. whatever the fonn taken by this last. can one.The truth of suffering raises the question of universality of suffering. is the noble truth of the path which leads to the cessation of suffering : it is the noble path. the orderly fudng of things prevails: all fonnations are impennanent (anitya). in all the psychophysical phenomena of ex:istence. wbich is caUed right faith. 10 Angutlara. 0 monks. which can affect us. when one considers it. It is inherent in all "fonnations" (smrukara).. full of suffering. or pertain to a self: "Whether there is an appearance of a Tathagata (or Buddha). Ul c _ l t . Lord".k. subject to change. pp. PIIr A. Suffering does not resu1t only from painful feelings. I. all fonnalions are suffering (dul. )1 Vinaya.-Two questions arise: what eucdy are the psycho-physical phenomena? Why are they selftess?-" o u After OI. 0 monks. being suffering. that is my seln" "One cannot. III. they assert themselves beyond any control of the endurer and do not constitute a self. Pari" 1894. will be or is. right livelihood. Lord". FooCHD. pp. is corporeality [or other psycho-physical phenomena]: pennanent or impennanent?" "Impennanent. right action. say : That is mine. be it inside us or in the world outside. right mindfulness and right concentration" 19. whether there is no appearance of a Tathagata. "So therefore. . 14.

body and mind l l . The five aggregates (skandha) are : I. also see III. consciousness (vijiiiina) : consciousness of the eye. and it is the same for the other four aggregates : "Matter is like a ball of foam. so equally.and matter derived (upadayanipa) from the four great elements. tastes. . 5. 146-2. 2. it appears as empty.. p. 4. ear. Just as wherever parts of the chariot get together. feeling (\'edanti): feelings resulting from contact with the eye. consciousness is like a mirage. the eighteen elements (dholu). 2. it is impossible to separate one from the other and to show their difference. odours. nose. pp. tangibles and mental objects. lIl. This is merely an accumulation of changing 31 fonnations (sa'!1Skiira) : there is no being here. tongue. pp. The transitory and impersonal nature of the five aggregates is revealed under scrutiny. the twelve bases (ayatana) of consciousness. fire and wind . since what one feels. tangibles and mental images. and what one perceives. longue. volition (scvrukiira): volitions concerning colours. JII. one perceives. sounds.61 . Let us suppose that the Ganges carries along a mass of foam and that a man with keen eyesight perceives it. feeling is like a bubble of water. perception and consciousness are associated and not dissociated. 3. vrtli. ~7 . volition is like the trunk of a banana tree and consciousness is like a phantom"J . corporeality (nipo): the four great clements (mahiibhiila) . When she was questioned about the origin and destiny of a being (sattva) . perception (saJ!1jiiQ) : perceptions of colours. tastes. perception. insubstantial. 59. 293. if one examines corporeality in all its aspects. the word "chariot'" is used. and without any true essence. one knows" l3 . He will find that that ball of foam is empty. ear. Equally. pp. the nun Vajira replied: "What do you mean by saying ' being' ? Your doctrine is false . p. The five aggregates are inseparable. observes it and examines it closely. Ma. 47. wherever U H H Sarpyuua. sounds. Sarpyuna.28 TIlE NOBLE TRUTHS ( 29-31 ) The early tCllts provide three classes of phenomena : 1. 3. the five aggregates (skandha). insubstantial and without any true essence. nose. water. I. body and mind. feeling and volitions : "Any feeling.ijhima. The texts show that the passage from one existence to another and the development of consciousness cannot be explained independently of corporeality. 41. This ramous stanza is quoted ill Madh. odours.earth.. 30 I.

. the Buddha explained that the five aggregates are not the Self since if corporeality. p. II. Sec Ot. 1l5.(3 1·32) INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA 29 there are the five aggregates. Can one also say that. feeling. tongue Uihwi). I) . comparison is not reason . sound (Jabda). p. However.a . with regard to corporeality. they could be subject to disease. a monkey gambolling in a forest or a wood. 0 disciples. pp. at least thought belongs to us individually? The Buddha would immediately reply : " It would be even better. 29). such is common opinion. even if corporeality eludes us. II. . Everything that is born is just suffering. there is the being. 94-5. p. Nevertheless. In other words. etc.ya) and the object of thought (dharma ). nothing else arises but suffering. thought or consciousness. so. they could be controlled and directed. odour (gandha). rather than take the mind. I. II. I. is called the mind. U Dilha. TItis tablc cxplains their relationship : n $aJpyuua. ear (Jrotra). but such is not the casc. The six internal (ddhyiilmika) bases are those of the eye (ca/q"w). 0 disciples. the body fonned of the four elements seems to last one or two years .. But that which. no other thing than suffering ceases to be"u . The six external (baJlya) bases are the visi. be not my body S016. nose (ghrDIJa). 66-8..oI!NlEao-FOUCHD (quoted above n. if psycho-physical phenomena were the self or pertained to the Self. 0 disciples.. 12 2. and one should be able to say. p. volition and consciousness were the Self. J. suffering what remains and what disappears. Just as. who has not learned of the Doctrine. in the teaching on the Not·self which followed the Discourse at Vara~asi. The second classification of phenomena concerns the twelve bases (ayotana) of consciousness It . 0 disciples. if a child of our times. 263. thought or consciousness arises and disappears in an endless changing of day and nigbt"l1. etc. what is called the mind. Vinaya. one might say. 302. pp. taste (rasa). perception. or it seems to last a hundred years or more. body (kaya) and mind (monas).ble (riipa). arises and disappears in an endless changing of day and night. 0 disciples.: Be my body so. were to take as the Self this body fonned of the four elements. grasps a branch then lets it go and grasps another one. And why is that so? It is because. n Satpyutta. III . I. Sarpyuua. the touchable (spr~.

there arise together (sahajiJta) feeling (miantI). spr~~avya 12. the organ (indriya) as a substrate (dSraya) and the object (~4aya) as JJ a seized-object (iJlambana). cak~us 2. n . is of a mental order: it is a collective term designating all forms of consciousness. gandha iyatana 1. mental consciousness (mtJllo~ijrliina) arises. Depending on the previous one. real or imaginary. the conjunction of the three is contact (sparJa). III..30 THE NOBLE TRlITHS (l2·11) Adhyitmika Bahya iyatana 7. Base 6. can be of a physical or mental order.i 5.. give rise to consciousness (~ijiiQna) .lI. while the manas grasps. JJ. sTotra 3. the third classification. rasa II. but the mtJIIQS is their resort and experiences the object-domain of them all"]9. ghri~a 4.. Sabda 9. the nUlIuuiyalana. explains the workings of the consciousness 40 • In fact. the dharmayotOlUl . . the objects of the other five senses and those senses themselves. as well as its own object. p. present or future. p. perception (smrrjif5) and volition (cetanjj)"·' . p. in eighteen elements (dJuitu). jib . This is expressed by the formula : " Because of the eye and the visible. the ear only sound. riipa 8. J. Sarpyuua. kiya 6. because of the mind (manas) and the object of thought (dharma) . dharma Bases I to 5 and 7 to 11 are physical : bases 1 to 5 are organs (indriya) made of subUe matter (riipaprasddo) derived from the four great elements (upddiJyorijpa). The eye peroe:ives onJy the visible. manas 10. bases 7 to II are objects (vqaya) made of rough matter. their own domain and do not experience the object-domain of their neighbour. It designates every object of thought. Base 12. 'Sarpyuua. II. 218. V. 140. This is expressed in the fonnula : "The five organs each have their own object. whether past. p.. IV. visual consciousness (caJqur~iftiiino) arises . • . . •• Saqtyuua.

dharma 13. in order to attribute a substrate to it. nISO II. srotra ghril)a jihva kaya manas 7... which was a factor in the previous classification.. cak~urvijnana srotravijiiina ghril)avijnana jihvavijiiana kiyavijiiana manovijiiina Dhitus 1 to 5 and 7 to 1I are physical . dhatus 6 and 13 to 18 are mental .. mental consciousnes (dhitu 18). 14 If all the psycho-physical phenomena of existence are stamped by impermanence and marked by suffering.. it ensues that all existences in which they occur share the same defects. 14. . this occurs throughout the five destinies (paiicagatl) and the threefold world (/raidhiiluka). gandha 10. or the round of rebirths. Smruara . 6. i. any of the six conscicusnesses which have just passed (yad anantariilittJJ'!T .e. p. viparif. 15. the manodhiitu (No...n ~ Sal:!lyutta. eye. I. 70.. du/Jkha . p. U Mliihima. pp. dhitu 12 can be physical or mental. the twelve ayatana.lI. the sixth consciousness.. cak~us Objects Consciousnesses 2... 32·3"V"'-' . Consequently. The five destinies'" are those of the hells (naraka). has its origin in eternity : "It is impossible to find any beginning from which beings steeped in ignorance: and bound by the thirst for existence wander aimlessly from rebirth to rebirth .. 3. 6) is formed by one of the six consciousnesses. 18. 4.. animals (tirya- _- . Sabda 9. impersonal and changing" (anitya. 7l. painful. the term monas or manodhiilu (dhitu 6) is given to what is used as substrate as a "contiguous and immediate antecedent" (samananlarapralyaya). rup' 8.Uimadharma)41 . 179. and the eighteen dJratu an: "impermanent... Just like the five skandha.( 33-34) INDIA AT THE TIME OF TIlE BUDDHA 31 The eighteen dhitus should therefore be set out in the following way : Organs I. I. This isw SarvistividiD interpretation. spra~~avya 12. vl)nanam )" . has no such substrate.. p... ' . etc (dhitus I to 5) as their substrate (iiJraya). According to Buddhist tradition. S. Unlike the monaiiyalana. While the first five consciousnesses (dhitus 13 to 17) have the five material organs. andtmaka. 16. 17. KoS.

is the distribution of the gati and dJriitll : JS 1. Aprami~asubha 3. in the spheres of the four attainments (samapatt. Calurmahirijakiyika TriyastrirpSa Yima TUfita Nirmil). 4. Aprami~bha 3. 2. Kimadhitu Naraka Tiryagyoni Preta Mamq:ya 1. Here. Brahmakiyika 2. 100-3. S. animals. pop. Kimadeva [)revaloka 1st Dbyina 2nd Dhyina { { I. world of desire. men (monu. Abhisvara I. The first three are qualified as unhappy (durga/i. 3. III . 111. world of formlessness. 6. Brahmapurobita 3. or of the five senses.jijyatana) also called the Summit of E:tistence (bhaviigra). 4. Parittibha 2. which includes the destinies of the hells.) These spheres consist of: 1. the sphere of unlimited consciousness (}lijrUituinantyiiyatana). the sphere of nothingness (iikiJrtcanyiiyatana). which includes heavenly beings who have been reborn. p. Rupadhitu 3rd Dhyina ! Brahmaloka •• Mljjhima. the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception (flai}las~j"'iiniis~j. 63. . 2.arati Paranirmitava$avartin S. ghosts.. 2.). ghosts (preta).32 THE NOBLE TRUTHS ( 34-35) gyom). Paritta!ubha 2. The threefold world 40 includes : I. 2. see Maljhiml. 3. world of subtle matter. in the shape of a "mental series". U For the enumeration or the JOdi. 4.yya) and gods (devo) . according to the Sanskrit list. Mahibrahma 1. which includes heavenly beings who have been reborn into the world of Brahma and who are distributed throughout the spheres of the four ecstasies (dhydna) . The Riipadhitu. The Kimadhitu. I. 3. The Ariipyadhitu. ~ubhakruna II. 3. the sphere of unlimited space (iiJciifiinantyayatana). men and some of the gods : the six classes of the gods of the world of desire 47 . apiiya) and the last two as happy (suga.

Sa'!lyutla. Two p'-rticu1arly noteworthy WC$lem interpretation. V. in the human destiny. THE TRUTH OF lHE ORIGIN Of SUfFERJNG"'. for all that.$ tkmu cmun... p. B. AkiSinantya ) II. Arupya dbatu I I. the two balance. there have Hawed.Jt u" . Law Comm. 1916. 281·92 .The subject of the second noble truth is the origin of suffering (dui)khasamudaya). Naivasa'!1jiiinisa'!1jiii In the first three destinies there is more suffering than joy. in the divine destinies joy prevails over suffering. P\u:lyaprasava 3. Also sec 8 . Ghent. It amounts to the fact that birth Uanman) is caused by action (karman) and that action itself is conditioned by passion (klesa) . LAw. painful and impersonal though they may be. all existences are basically painful since they are transitory. Avrha S. pp. arc : P. La V. 29). pp. 16]·10. de LA V"u1:E PoussIN. 180. M. 1930. Vijilininantya Ill. JRAS. . Geneva.o.u. • .ains that of L. 8. functions in direct order. whatever the blisses they may entail. pp. 1909 . the most lucid description mn. Aki'!1 can ya IV./... p. there have been shed by you more tears than there is water in the four oceans"4'. existences are only an infinitesimal point in the long night of suffering: "While. Sudariana 8. Paris. Transitory. and joys which are doomed to disappear are sufferings. you wandered aimlessly from birth to birth. Sec OWENBHG-FOUCHEIl (quoted above n. and in the second. ••• . 514-89. Sudrb 7. FonmoalitHu of 1M Pralilyasatnlllpdda. A. . T1Ilor~. ~ Bonn. II. the phenomena of existence do not. in the first case. Akanistha Catuririipya Brabmaloka Ill. 220. Vitiated by impermanence.. Brhatphala 4.( 3S-36) INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA )) 4th Dbyina 1. and you groaned and you wept because you had a share in what you hated 36 and you did not have a share in what you liked. ProlilyasOlfllltpOdD <u a Basic CQrlapt of lJJuIdhisl ThollS}lI . Volume.C. Poona. In our opi nion. 1949. arise by chance : their appearance and disappearance are ruled by the fixed law of dependent origination (pratltyasamutpiida) which . O LnAM. on this long voyage. Anabhraka 2. However. ed. FouCHD.t du &wiJdJw. 1946. The most searchinJ Indian treatise is the PralilYiUtJlfWrpMoMl/ra of UlftlligluJ . La fOmll/lt bowddhiqw tkJ doliU C _ J. in reverse order. 19)1. Atapa 6.

The essence of action is in the mind.istence. ill-will (l'yiipada).5. others even later. animal realm and realm of gosts) : I. and action is not truly action unless it is stlJ!fcetaniya. the intentional actions 10 Oigha.Contact is the origin of actions. 8. 6. 269.5) : "What is action?. "What is the origin of actions? . 7. All this has been well summarized in the Ariguttara (III. covetousness (abhidhyQ).ual misconduct (kamamithyiiciira). in the world of men and in the world of the gods. speech or mind. . with reflection and willingly." The fruit of maturation is. In a word. 111. an organism which makes that feeling possible. p. reflected. an agreeable or painful feeling and. This is different from its cause because since the latter is always a morally qualified action. good or bad. akuSaJa). consciously. speech and mind. in the future existence or in the course of successive births" . in the second place. finally.I assert that action is volition.I say that the maturation of action is of three kinds : action matures in the present ex. and when it is performed sturlcin1ya. in the nex. false views (mithytid[f{l). whether good or bad (kuiala. since it is by willing that one perfonns an action with the body. 2. theft (adattiilMna). 4. Action does not always incur immediate maturation : there are actions 37 which incur maturation in this life. There arc ten varieties of actions called "Wrong ways of action" (akuiala karmapatha)SO which mature: in the three unhappy destinies (hells. 41. among animals. 9. willed". "What is the maturation of action? .34 THE NOBLE TRlfTHS ( 36-)7) Action is a volition (cetanii). harsh speech (panqyal'ada). "What is the variety of actions?. . in the first place. p. So therefore. murder (prW)iitipiita). This action necessarily yields a fruit of maturation (vipakaphala). frivolous talk (srvrWhinnapraliipa). or more precisely any birth Uanman) with the feelings it entails is fruit of maturation . that is. 10. among ghosts. false speech (mr~iil'iida). . "conscious. the ten "Good ways of action" (kwala karmap(4tha) mature in the happy destinies (the realms of mankind and of the gods). any existence. the fruit of maturation is always indeterminate (avyakrla) from the moral point of view and consequently does not yield any further maturation. slander (paiSunyal'iida). sex. others immediately after death. All the happy or unhappy destinies which constitute the fruit of action will disappear when that fruit is exhausted . 3.There are actions which mature in feeling in the hells. they constitute only one step on the path of painful rebirth. which is manifested in good or bad actions of body.tn contrast.t rebirth and.

here desire is taken in its wider sense. deeds are the race to which they are related. pp. . 263. III.Ull. 3.Q). or your kinsmen and blood relatives. and even more pernicious to entertain in oneself an impossible ideal of eternal survival or utter annihilation. man ponders his own downfall . in his mind. nor in the middle or the sea. blinded by delusion. Action which matures in suffering draws its virulent efficacity rrom the passion (kleio) which inspires it. p. It is you alone who have done those bad actions : you atone must experience the rruit"!). deeds are the womb that bears them. According to this concept. that of others and both together . nowhere on earth will you find a place where you can escape the rruit or your bad actions" 52 . or your sister. 181. p. 203 . even more poetically : "Delighted by craving. 156-7. or your rather. or your rriends and advisers. "Neither in the kingdom or the air. 10. nor ir you hide in a mountain cave. 2. III . That is why the second noble truth asserts that suffering . $1. deeds are their inheritance. a desire associated with the belier in the lasting duration of existence . Mljjhima. p. or your brother. hatred and delusion" ss. or by gods. 186. an inheritance which no one can renounce: "Deeds are the welrare or beings.Q) : a desire which is roused and takes root when conrronted with agreeable objects and pleasant ideas. desire. and. dominated and perturbed.the rruit or action . the thirst ror pleasures (kiimot[~. 127.6 Anjuttara. p. I. However. he experiences suffering and sorrow" u . and there are three kinds : I.-. a desire associated with the belief that everything ends when death comes 54 . p. deeds are their resort" 51 . Angultara. or by brahmins. I. batred (dye~a) and delusion (moho) . It is tbe profound cause of action : "0 monks. or by ascetics.originates in thirst (t[~. II Ailgullll'll . that is. it is pernicious to delight in sense-objects.-. We should now examine the complex mechanism which indissolubly II OJ IJ U t-hjjhima. tbere are three causes (nidiina) from which actions originate : greed. I. . Desire taints the action of the threefold poison of craving (raga). maddened by hatred. Villari. the thirst for non-existence (yib/wYotW)Q). Buddhism constitutes the outright condemnation of personalism and materialism. the thirst ror existence (bhoyotm. 38 They are strictly personal and incommunicable : "Those bad actions which are yours were not done by your mother. III. Dhammapada.(37-38) INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA 35 which detennine the destiny or beings constitute their welrare and inheritance.

36 TIlE NOBLE TRUTHS (38-40) links desire to action and action to painful rebinh.0 Slmyutta. 2nd Swrukdrapratyayturf vijiidnam "Conditioned by the karmic formations is consciousness".ara. 2&. contrary to some western explanations. pp. (6) unbelief. 65. speech and mind : intentional actions. (8) not fJlXluenting the holy ones U . morally good or bad. sloth and torpor. 63. ill-will. After death. which in tum are nurtured by (2) misdeeds of body. t . . III. MI. that is. lst Avidyapratyayill) sOJ!1SkiiriilJ. has nothing cosmic or metaphysical. n. u A. that is not. pp. 40 actions of body. and in reverse : "This not being. 1-4. doubt or scepticism. Sltpyutt&. pp. from the arising of this. that arises" . igno· rance of the origin and disappearance of the skandho~o. on the cessation of this. (7) not listening to the Dharma. pp. The beginning of the causal chain.. namely. and this conditioning is expressed by the fonnula : "This being. p.rkandha}~I. p. . "Conditioned by ignorance are the karmic fonnations". (4) a lack of precise awareness of disagreeable feelings. the fourfold error (viparyasa) which consists of taking for eternal what is transitory. V.. there appears in the mother's womb 01 ViDIYl. for pure what is impure.. etc . for pleasant what is unpleasant. Ignorance consists of ignorance of the four noble truths Sll . 162. p. pride. because of actions. f l A.ngutt. n .. One thing is certain : ignorance is a psychological state and. the system of dependent origination demonstrates that the appearance and disappearance of such phenomena.iihima. 4. covetousness. . Sltpyutta. I. 52. ~tpyutta. 116. III. It is the condition of the karmic formations (smrukdra). II. .ilguttan. p. far from being len to chance. are ruled by a strict detenninism. n. that ceases"u . This origination fonns a chain of twelve links (dvOdaSiiriga) each of which conditions the next. speech and mind . (5) superficial reflection (ayoniSo manasikiira). 171. Ill. While the theory of the Not·self reduces all the phenomena of existence to entities which are transitory. for a Self what has no "stir' (the five . ignorance is nevertheless not without causes : it has as its nutriment (1) the five hindrances (njvara~). painful and insubstantial. This is the system of 39 dependent origination (pracilyasamutpadap' discovered by the Buddha and given by him as the corner stone of his doctrine. which spring from (3) non-restraint of the senses.

disagreeable or neutral feeling.II. this feeling will cause an awakening of passion. 67. Sth $atjdyalanapralyayalJ sparJalJ "Conditioned by the six bases is contact" ... Mentality should be understood as the three mental skandha excluding vijnana : feeling (vedanO). perception (SturfjiiQ) and volitions (satr!skiira). proceeds the living psycho-physical complex consisting of the five skandha. The conjunction of the three (. nose.. 72. II. the mind and the object of thought. SarpyultI. 41 6th SparJapralyaya vedtutii "Conditioned by contact is feeling". body and mind. . internal bases of consciousness. 6) . were to go away. The norma) functioning of the five skandha requires a sensorial and mental organism. pp. as such. feeling is always the fruit of action. U Dipa. object and consciousness there resuJts agreeable. . the embryo would not be born"" . These are the six internal (iidhyiilmiJca) bases of consciousness : eye. 3rd Vijnanapratyayturf ntimariipam "Conditioned by consciousness is mentalit y-corporeality" .. 86.riJcasOJ?'U'ipilta) is contact" 04. p. By corporeality is meant fonn : the four great elements and derived fonn. after having entered the mother's womb. feeling which is inevitably accompanied by perception (sarrljnO) and volition (ulanO). there respectively arise visual consciousness . which can perceive and grasp the six external (bdhya) bases of consciousness: material objects (v4aya) and objects of thought (dharma) . . From the mental consciousness that has entered the mother's womb. the morally undefined result of good or bad actions performed in the previous life.( 40-41 ) INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA 37 the consciousness aggregate (six groups of consciousnesses) which is inseparable from the other four aggregates. This is a consciousness which is a fruit of maturation (vipakaphala) and. mental consciousness. The existence of the six bases gives rise to sensorial and mental impression : the making of contact between the six organs and their respective objects. IV. . From the contact between the organ. However. This complex is also a fruit of maturation. ear. The texts say : "Due to the eye and the visible . It is the explanation of the new existence since "if consciousness. p. Like the four previous links. tongue. . 4th NiimariipapratyayOJ?1 ~atjdyalanam "Conditioned by mentalitycorporeality are the six bases of consciousness" . indeterminate from the moral point of view (avyakrta) .

a fruit of maturation.which will detennine a process of rebirth (utpollibhavo) : a new existence. Birth leads to all the miseries of life : old-age-and-death. the appearance of the skondha. The causal chain. The feeling experienced by one organ or another immediately arouses an impassioned reaction for one object or another : colour. 9th UpadOnapratyayo bhavaJ:! "Conditioned by grasping is [action which gives rise to) re-ex. p.good or bad intentional actions . Exasperated grasping (upddano) causes a process of activity (karmabhova) . literally "existence" should hert be taken to mean punorbhavajanakCU!l karma "action which gives rise to rt-existencc" . l .. 10th Bhavapratyoya jdti!) "Conditioned by the action which gives rise to re~xistence is birth". since Buddhism is essentially a denial of the individual or person. . 42 In that definition.38 THE NOBLE TRUTHS ( 4142) 7th VedandprQtyaya tr-1~d "Conditioned by feeling is thirst" . the descent. As we have just seen. 3. tJ . taste. (4) blind belief in personalist ideas (iilmQl'(jdopadiina)u .or Ariipyadhitu.larnentation. therefore includes twelve links the nature and function of which are : Satpyulta. but also "sorrow. the word being (sativa) should not be taken literally. 8th Tr~1)Qpratyayam updtJanam "Conditioned by thirst is grasping". II. the functioning of which has just been described. Sal:!'\yutta. in the realms of the Kima-. (2) grasping false views (dU!yupiidana). the acquiring of the organs"oo. Riipa. 11th Jdtipratyoyturl jaramortllJ. p. the process of activity culminates in a new birth : "the coming into the world. 8havo. Grasping is exasperated desire.istence". the realization of such-andsuch beings (satt~a) in one category (nikdya) of beings or another. grief and despair. suffering.O'" "Conditioned by birth is old-ageand-death". Birth is merely the appearance of new skandha : the skondha of a new existence. tangibility or object of thought. II. excess or passion which is expressed by (I) sensual grasping (kiimopddana). (3) blind belief in the efficacity of vows and rites (Jilavratopadana). odour. sound.

and a process of birth (1JIpollibhava). links J and 2 represent the past existence. upadana 10.tiyatana 6. t"1)8 9. 68. while meditating on the truth he bad just discovered under the tree of Enlightenment. it is both cause and fruit . links 3 to 10 represent the present existence and links 11 and 12. In other words. The system of dependent origination has often been misunderstood and. III. 59-61 . two links (2 and 10) are action (/corman). misinterpreted . Present Existence ~c. birth is due to passions and actions . . and seven links (3 to 7 and II to 12) are fruit of maturation ('I'jpQkopha/a) or birth Uanmon) . jiramaraJ.e. avidyi 2. sparSa 7. passions and actions are due to birth. Le. what is even more serious. he reflected as foUows : "I have t' On all these points. 8 and 9) are passion (Ie/em). vedani vipikaphala utpattibhava 8. links I to 2.0 ) INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA 39 Past Existence l. It is triple because three links (I. _ Koia. The Buddha had foreseen this since. sarpskira · · · · kleS! karman karmabhava 3. the future existence. pp.. bhava Future Existence II. 8 to 10.la } · · kleS! karman vipikaphala kannabhava } utpattibhava This table shows that the twelve-linked Pratityasamutpida is both double and triple 67 : It is double because it involves a process of activity (Iulrmobhavo) . nimariipa S. vijnina 4. birth is due to passions and actions.( 42. This shows that the \circle of existence (bhavocokro) has no beginning . 43 The table drawn up here refers to an artificially divided group of three existences in the infinite succession of existences integrated into a beginningless Sarpsira . jiti 12. links 3 to 7 and II to 12. i.

.. 08£u. the phenomena of existence are governed by a strict detenninism. [932. the cessation of desire. Paris. For humanity which bustles about in the whirlwind of this world. sorrow and lamentation. I . Vinaya.l. 1930.. 2 Dcc:. I. 436. cr. .. 1947. which is difficult to perceive difficuh to understand.D! Pooss!N. 1927 . . I 1932. STCHD. and if action in tum gives rise to existence. S. this doctrine of causality. which only the wise: can grasp . a. the extinction of craving.1.. Leningrad. in other words. I . If desire arouses action. It alone enables one to grasp how. (b) of suffering or of existence. NirvdJ)a aM PorinirvWJt!. THE TRUTH OF NIRVA~A 11 . The Way 10 NindlJa. WAllEN. 211 ·57.40 THE NOBLE TR UTHS ( 43-44) discovered this profound truth. p. 189. II.. Halle. the truth of the cessation of suffering (duMhanirodha). 1917 . Through the cessation of birth. 1. de LA VAu.The law of causality. Mea. VON GLASENAPP. old·age·and-death. NirvaT)a is the subject of the third noble truth. Mt:B. U Vinaya. 1-2. u . BEFEO.fd . it is enough to eliminate desire in order to neutralize action. Just as difficult to grasp is the entry into stillness of all formations. UttJltrblichkti/ wnd ErfOsultg in litn indiuhefl /tIligiOMfI. V. grief and despair cease : such is the cessation of the whole realm of suffering a . Maijhima. Nirval)a 12.1NJo d'aprts fa Yib/!6.ekIen. appeasing. the chain of causes and effects"". LAw. Nir~ according 10 fM Tibot/an Iradillon. C. It nevertheless remains true that this theory constitutes the comer stone of the Buddhist doctrine : "Whoever understands it understands the Dhanna and whoever understands the Dhanna understands it"69.. V. there is no agent. transcending all thought. I. Bulletin. At. India Antiqua. p."itrt "oft JIIr It Nirv~a.uLLD. and action thus neutralized would no longer mature in new existenCes. 329. abstruse. the chain of causes and effects is a difficult thing for humanity to grasp. " Vinaya. l. 127 . 1929 . 1938. E. B. pp. p. THOMAS. p. 25 . NinlNJo. p.~. 294: H . Siudia Calbolica. U"t dt. 11. Asptcts of Nirv~ IC.. 1925. us Mux Nj". L. the end. the detachment from earthly things. It chtmin du Ni. pp. 4--5 . how "suffering exists. '0 Visuddhimagga.IlATSKY. NirvlNJo d 'aJHts Aryadna. p. but activity is a fact" 10. in the absence of any substantial entity. sublime. 44 . NirvaT)a is twofold in aspect: it is the cessation (a) of desire. Mwflo tl Narada. it will be a difficult matter for the mind to embrace. Mel. de Belgique. Cambridge. pp. Nirvana in this world is no different from holiness (arhattva) . but no one is afflicted. Th. suffering. IHQ. pp. 1937. p. Linossicr. Tht COItCtpliOit of 8wddJ1isl NirvlVJo. ed. 1924. Documtnu d 'AbhilDlarma. I. p. Rvnarques sur k Nir~. 19(). p. 327 .. E.

"the body of the holy one continues to exist even though the thirst which produces a new existence has been cut off. In fact . perceptions. IV. NirvaJ:la. This absolute is asserted by several texts which say : " There is an unborn. The Nirval). 46. in order to enter the debate with a full knowledge of the facts . "cqnditionoo" (smrukrta). to speak of him. it is said. created. '" Koia. " Diaha. 21-4. I. b. but the destruction of desire still leaves intact all the elements of existence called skandha.a. When considered from that point of view. ltivuttalr. Saf!1yulta. which is beyond becoming. 37. 31 sq. 3. unconditioned . NirvaJ:la is cessation (nirodha). The holy one in possession of NirvaJ:la has destroyed desire and dispelled any cause of rebirth. there are no words . v. the destruction of hatred. p. p. there is an issue for what is born. . subject to dependent origination. 80. gods and men will no longer see him"n. 45 In the world of becoming. feelings. But. 251 ·2. No one can measure him . calm (Santa). This is what is called NirvaJ:la " without residual conditioning" (nirupadhUefa). As long as his body lasts. that is what is called Nirval). XXVI. the destruction of delusion . 1074. advocating in tum and according to their personal tendencies. so long will gods and men see him. if there was not an unborn. excellent (prtv. for NirvaQa·Existence or NirvaJ:la·Annihiiation. p. there is no longer a new existence. there would be issue for what is born.· However.lila) and escape or salvation (ni~ar~p·.(44-4S ) INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA 4\ "The destruction of desire. all the elements of existence. so the holy one released from the nilnw-riipa (physical and mental aggregates of existence) enters into appeasement thus disappears from all sight. Udinavarga. .a·in-this-world of a person who wins deliverance while alive is called NirvaJ:la "with residual conditioning" (sopadhU~fa). escapes the causal chain: it is "unconditioned" (asmrukrta). what the mind might conceive vanishes and all ways of speaking vanish 10. unarisen. conditioned"n . " Udina. are both causes and caused: they are. Afther the death of someone who has obtained Nirvana in this world or of a holy one. '" SUltanipill. p. corporeality. VIII.. cd. when his body is broken and his life gone away. uncreated.a and holiness"14. Just as a f)ame disturbed by a blast of wind grows dim and disappears from sight. but as there is an unborn. volitions and consciousnesses. VII. arisen. Buddhist schools and historians of religions have endlessly discussed the true nature of NirvaJ:la. 1IfCDt. pp.

a probationer or sjk~amalJa is bound by six laws (~a4dhar. In preference. harsh talk. Although it is an indispensable condition for spiritual progress. Visuddhinwgga. There is no agent. 10. slander. 436. theft. when fasting. but no one is afflicted. Nirvi'Q. In such conditions. As will be seen further on. in regard to becoming. THE TlUl'llf OF THE PATH. the bhik~us and bhik~ur:tis are kept subject to the articles of their Discipline. 46 falsehood . ill-will.a is not. the lay Buddhist conforms to the fivefold morality (paiicaSlla) and. 5. pp.. morality is only the first step. 8. 3.asi" consists of three elements : morality. What is the use of avoiding misdeeds if the heart and mind react to every appeal of passion ? The second element of the Path will therefore be aimed at purifying thOUght. 9.a is. ed. It is basically the same as the absence of distraction (alliJqepa) and mental quietude (Jamatha)."a) and the novice of both sexes by ten rules (da. 51. the four attainments (samii. sexual misconduct. It is aimed at avoiding anything which could cause another person harm . covetousness. 81. to the eightfold morality (~!an­ gailla). 7. but whoever has entered Nirva".faiik~apada). p. I.la in no way implies the existence of someone who has entered Nirvana : Suffering exists. 10 Digha. it is practised during the nine successive mental abodes (navOnupiinavmiira) which consist of the four ecstasies (dhyiina) of the world of subtle form. . false views. Concentration (samiidhO· is the fixing of the mind on one point. but n<rOot treads it 19 . suffering and activity are explained as having no subject or agent. Morality (Sila) consists of conscious and intentional abstention from all misdeeds of body and speech and also sometimes . p. The observance of morality increases in value when it is the result of a vow or commitment : it is then called the moral restraint (stlJ!TlIaraiila). The noble eightfold Path defined in the Discourse of Viriil). but activity is a fact.42 mE NOBLE TRUTHS ( 45-46) one must first be convinced of the impersOnality and the emptiness of all fonns of existence of which not one is a Self or pertains to a Self. Obligations vary with the states of life. II. 6. concentration and wisdom 10. ltivuulh. 84. murder. frivolous talk. That Quotation leads us to the fourth noble truth the subject of which is the Path which leads to the cessation of suffering (dul)khanirodhagamani pratipad). Nirvit.but not always .of mind : I. II. WAll£III. approximately 250 for the monk and 500 for the nun. if. 4. in regard to the absolute. The Path exists. 2.

pp. 156. discarding any notion of resistance and regarding any notion of plurality. strictly speaking. pp. III. pp. see M.!. five of which are mundane and one of which is supramundane : the magic powers. II Vinaya. pp. 182. he enters the attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling (sOl!tjifQvedayilanirodhasamiipam) . EUADE. U Y OCa. pp. 242 . 216. his passions are destroyed by knowledge and he has won what.nUcha) in his body. the sphere of nothingness (tikj. PaAcavirpiati. II. Sarpyuua. Paris. 21 . . mindful and fully aware .47 ) INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA 43 pam) of the formless world and the attainment of the cessation of perception and felling (stvrfjiiavedayitonirodha)'I . l. when he has reached that stage. . ensures mental deliverance" .iritwU. 22 1. 174-9.For a rational explanation or this Yoga technique. Oigha. free of reasoning and discursive thought. he experiences happiness (. . 210.!. p.jnantisa. BEFEO. AilJUttara. . 4 . and purified in renouncement and mindfulness. divine bearing. through the previous discar47 ding of joy and sorrow. the divine eye which is extremely far-reaching:. 281 . Sur la trIirnoirt rkJ uu/mus ". 165.Finally. LI BowJdJuJ tIltS U tI IfbitijM . regret and doubt). I I Dip. p.By destroying happiness and suffering. II. the destruction of the impurities which. tee P. I. the penetration of the thoughts of other people:. 167. [. 11 7.!. contingently completed by insight (vipalyanO). going beyond all that.faJca). 129 . p. 172 . 159 . . 283·98. the recollection of previous existences and. pp. he enters the third ecstasy which is defined by the holy ones as being equanimity. pp. 163. he dwells in the fourth ecstasy which is free of suffering and happiness. born of detachment and which is joy and happiness. p. finally .By discarding reasoning and discursive thought. inward peace. endowed with reasoning (vitarka) and discursive thOUght (vicara). is termed Nirvana-in-this-world 81 • • The practice of concentration.By renouncing joy (pritl) . III. . 73. from this life onwards. 37. 1954. mindfulness. l_noJili tl Ubtrli. Having gone beyond the sphere of unlimited space. .. I. By rejecting the five sense-objects and dispelling the five hindrances to meditation (covetousness.On lhis subject. fixing of the mind on one point.conydyalona) and the sphere of neitherperception-nor-non-perception (naivasa. D£wttvtLU. DE LA V.Having gone beyond any notion of matter. and which is joy and happiness. 40. 1931. U. Diaha. he cries : "Infinite is space" and enters the sphere of unlimited space (akiifiinontyayatona). ill-will.tE PoussIN. 335-42. born of concentration. Majjhima. . l. the ascetic enters the first ecstasy. 1921. I. 410. he enters1he second ecstasy. IV. he dwells in equanimity (upek. Muteon .jnayOlana) . XXVII. p.alilavistara. he sUOClCSsively enters the sphere of unlimited consciousness (vijiiiiniinolllydyalona). f"ilutlara. dwelling in happiness. 89. pp.290. . p. endows the ascetic with six higher spiritual powers (0bhijflo1. 53. sloth and torpor.( 04().

which are characteri· zed by suffering and do not concern us at all? To tum away from them by making a lucid judgement is ipso faC to eliminate desire.insight (~/pa. Villaya. neutraJize IO action and escape painful existence. These phenomena succeeding each other in series according to an invariable mechanism last only for a moment . m I I OiSha. The observance of morality and the systematic purification of the mind art: not enough in themselves to ensurt: repose. SignlcssDesS (animitta) and Wishlessness (aprlU)ihila) which exhaust the examina- tion of the Buddhist truths in all their aspects· 4 • FinaUy.44 THE NOBLE TRlITHS <47-48 ) The practice of the nine successive mental abodes is far from exhausting the list of mental practices invented or adopted by Buddhism. II. notably the physical and mental phenomena of e"istence (malter. they do not constitute a Self and do not depend on a Selr. volitions and consciousnesses) are transitory (ani/ya). the Brahmavihiira. four mental exercises. III. 93. Jr a wise man attempts to enlighten him. IV.fyantf)· produces the four fruits of the Path and attains Nirvil)a. are particularly 48 recommended even though. It is indeed clear and precise insight. they are somewhat incidental . feelings . notions. How is it possible to be attached to those fteeting entities. compassion (ka~a). we should also point out the thrc:c: concentrations which have as their object Emptiness (.fUnyatii). If he allows himself to be . altruistic joy (muditii) and perfect equanimity (uptks6). p. p. 360 . 224. as such. and embracing the whole world in those infinite feelings IS . painful (duJ)kha) and devoid of a Self or substantial reality (anatman)" . I. p. Wisdom as it was conceived by Sikyamuni is not a gnosis. wisdom (prajif6) or . 196 . some intuition of vague and imprecise content which might satisfy superficial minds. IJI. NirvilJa to which the ascetic aspires. they are devoid of all autonomy. SarpyulLt. they are painful . p.. 220: Divya. III . It is by mistake that we consider them as me or mine. Len to his own forces . p. Not everyone who wishes attains wisdom. joys are suffering and the Self is illusory. . p.faIJa) of things : "All dhannas. . which have been known to and practised by Indian yogins at all time. AfI". the ordinary man finds it difficult to accept that pleasures are vain. calming. In order not to be too incomplete. he can turn away from the light . the object of which consists of the three general characte· risties (stimanyalalc. doomed to disappear.ltari. they consist of projecting in all directions a mind entirely filled with benevolence (mailri) . in the economy of the Path. The intervention of a third element will lead to that end .

5. W4LOSCHMIDT. of a purely intellectual nature. 12k . p. seeks to understand and relies on the teaching of the Master"" .. 372. 230 : Maiihima. from behind and from the side. Oiglul. the old woman turned her back to him. ch. 219. lifted her head when she should have lowered it. 356. " Sik~muccaya. but I do not know.. p. 133. Anguttal1ll. covered her face with her hands. minor marks and luminous rays. MPS. gives ear. n Upadcia. lI. is very far from that direct insight which constitutes true wisdom and which is necessary for salvation. his adherence. Of 91 cosmic periods. he must say : "That I accept through faith" or again "The Buddha knows. His word is truthful. Lalitavistara. p. perfect with regard to the meaning and the letter. IV. 394. finally . Nevertheless.rivasti. The teaching is a precious gift. only three had a Buddha. If he is unable to verify the truth of the teaching. 117. He approached her from the front. but each time. from above and from below. Siikyamuni and Ananda met a wretched old woman at the entrance to s. The Buddha. Moved by pity. The Buddha therefore distinguished betwem three and even four kinds of wisdom depending on whether they originate from a teaching (srula). she will have a thought of joy and find deliverance" . 430. has discovered and taught the noble truths. 105. Ananda suggested to the Master that he approach and deliver her : "May the Buddha approach her". . 82.221 .. Digha. The appearance of Buddhas in this world is as rare as the blossoming of the Udumbara tree.. p. in response to Ananda's request. or ficus glomerata. 253.. Sukhivativyiiha. Even so. l. I. pp.. 9. reflection (cint6) or contemplation (bhdvan6)86 . p.( 4&-50) INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA 45 49 SO convinced. One day. 39. lowered her head when she should have lifted it and.apu~an"""k. . p. The good disciple " listens to it carefully. he attempted to appear before her. not all men are able to see and hear them.. f2 : Saddhann. III . and the Master concluded: "What else can I do? Everything is useless : there are those people who do not fulfil the requiste conditions for deliverance and who are unable to see the Buddha"90. The Buddha replied : "That woman does not fulfil the requisite conditions for deliverance". "when she sees the Buddha with his marks. which bears fruits but which has no visible flower" . being omniscient and the "instructor of gods and men".a . p. when the Buddhas appear in the world and preach the doctrine. p. It was collected and memorized by the auditors (sravaka) who repeated it "just as they had heard it". III. T 1509. pp. he said . Privileged people to whom it is given to hear the word of the Buddha and who give him their adhesion do not . She did not even perceive the presence of the Buddha.

the power of wisdom. can solemnly affinn : "I have understood the noble truths. M. it is wisdom. The latter enables onc to grasp the meaning by means of the letter and to interpret the letter through the meaning. 72. you yourselves seen. p. I. Digha. 3. "There is a right but impure view. etc. pp. "What you assert. )S. Faith is not enough to ensure them tcue wisdom upon which final deliverance depends. 177.. joined 10 the Path and following the noble Path. 277.46 l'HE NOBLE TRUTHS ( »51 ) SI find deliverance for all that. 4. 265 . v . p. 16S.jjhima. pp. M. It goes straight to the thing. the only one finally to be of value. "And now". destroyed rebirth . independent of any external adjunct. I. he sometimes asked his monks. a purely intellectual conviction is still not true wisdom. Sakyamuni considered personal conviction alone to be of value. SaJ:llyutta. 14. a constituent element of enlightenment which consists of the elucidation of the doctrine. . done what had to be done. 2. They are four in number. I. each consisting of the acquisition. Ailguttara. Direct wisdom. This provokes a particular and personal reaction with regard to a teaching which is purely external. This last is wisdom resulting from contemplation. it is found in the mind which is noble. then enjoyment. Early scholasticism fixed the stages of the Buddhist Path. the three essential elements of which we have just studied. we say this or that"" . I. p. 139 . will you say : We honour the Master and. pp. henceforth.jjhima. purified. M. through respect for the Master. Dip. is it not what you yourselves have recognized."We will not do that. a right view which fonns part of the Path"9l . 227. of the fruits of the religious life : Srotaapatti. It is this direct.jjhima. Nevertheless. the faculty.. disregarding the letter. " that you know and think thus. III. It is a direct and autonomous grasping of the Buddhist truth. p. SliJ:llyutta. you yourselves grasped"" "That is exactly so. raised to the level of holy one or Arhat. does not always move on the same plane. IS). p. 84. Anigimin and Arhat· tva 94 • • . As a free thinker. of solely meritorious value and bearing fruit solely in this world . " there is a right view which is noble. . I. lived the pure life. Lord". Sakrdigiimin. supramundane wisdom which gives rise to holiness and by means of which the ascetic. U . there will be no further births for me"91 . 203. Vin. Wisdom which originates from the teaching must be completed by wisdom which arises from reflection. III. it can be of lower or higher nature. Conversely. Lord"91 . supramundane and linked to the Path . 2S . 140. it is the right view of wordlings who see the truth but keep away from the path laid out by the Buddha". I. p. pure..

Mljjhima.). In contrast to the wordling. Angulara. he becomes a "nonreturner" (anagamin). Through the destruction of all impurities (iisravak~aya). 9.· BUDDHlST MORALISM .. craving for formless existence (aruparaga).The Buddhist Law as conceived by Sakyamuni pertains to morality and ethics rather than philosophy and metaphysics. . p. animal realm and realm of ghosts). p. pride (mana). trust in the value of vows and rites (Silavralapardmada). •• Di&ha. he will appear in the world of the gods and from there he will attain Nirvil. It does not seek to solve the enigmas which arise in the human mind. 8. v . which is free from impurities and which he himself has understood and realized . 465 sq.( S\-S2) INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA 47 The wordling (p[thagjana) who has not entered the Path is bound by ten fetters (saJ?fyojana)9J which chain him to the round of rebirths: I. p. after having returned once more to this world. In one word. 92. sensual desire (kamaraga). craving for existence consisting of subtle fonn (riipariiga). and is no longer subject to rebirth in the lower destinies (bells. he becomes a "once returner" (sakrdiigamin). 7. accession to the truth is no easy matter : it requires a long sequence of efforts in order to rectify conduct. he becomes a holy one or Arhat and possesses a twofold knowledge : that his impurities are destroyed and that they will not arise again (iisravaJqaya and anutpadajnana). belief in individuality (satkayadw. he already S2 obtains in this life mental deliverance. 3. 6. 4. 2. Through the destruction of fetters I to 3 and the lessening of craving. he "enters the stream" (srotaapanna) . I. The first five fetters which tie a man to the world of desire are termed lower (avarabhagiya). restlessness (auddhatya) and 10. purify the mind and attain wisdom . 5. without coming back here. ill-will (vyiipada).ta. ~ire and hatred. the noble disciple (arya) enters and progresses along the Path by means of the successive elimination of these ten fetters 'l6 • Through the destruction of fetters I to 3. ignorance (avidy6) . : are the world and the self eternal or . doubt (vicikitsQ). 17 . Through the destruction of fetters I to 5. he will attain the end of suffering. while the last five which tie him to the world of subtle fonn and the formless world are higher (iirdhvabhagiya). he is sure to be delivered and will obtain supreme knowledge. Man lacks time to tackle the great metaphysical problems the solution of which already preoccupied the Indians of the sixth century D. IT. As we have been able to ascertain. but is merely intended to make man cross the ocean of suffering.C. . deliverance through knowledge.

and because it would not lead to peace and Enlightenment. p. IS. "26. 286. IV. T 2S. Lord".48 BUDDHIST MORALISM ( 52-53) transitory. 17Oa. 60. pp. The Buddha received him with gentle irony : " At the time you entered my order. Miiuitkyiputta. whether it is limited o r finite . 39 1. It is not because he does not know the solution. "1". 418.. whether the vital principle is identical to the body or separate rrom it. pp. I.. a vaisya or a siidra'! Or were he to say : I do not want my wound to be dressed until I know the name or the man who struck me and to what ramily he belongs. "26 sq.iihima. n eliiD M4Iuilky4fuUD in Ma. pp. 2S1. did I say to you : Come. J wish to teach you whether the world is or is not eternal. Ill. V. 187-8 . and what the weapon that struck me is like? . I. MaJunkyapuua. p. what has not been revealed by me shall remain unrevealed. Salpyulll. whether he is tall or short or or medium height. "A man". The Buddha then concluded : "I have not explained those great problems because knowledge or such things does not lead to progress in the way or holiness. I. the cessation or suffering and the Path which leads to the cessation or suffering. T 94.How would that end? The man would die or his wound". p. dangerous to good understanding and likely to perturb minds. lI04u. his rriends and relations immediately summoned a skilrul physician. "was struck by a poisoned arrow. On another occasion. iS7. and be my disciple. p. What would happen ir the sick man were to say : I do not want my wound to be dressed until I know or the man S) who struck me. Tim.iihima. p. while staying in the Sirpbpa Grove in KauSim· n Diaha. ch. ch. That is why. The Buddha has classed all these questions among the indetcnninate points (allylikrtavastu) concerning which he would nol give an opinion. whether he is a nobleman or a brahmin. came to the master and demanded an explanation . but because he considers any discussion regarding them to be useless for deliverance. A well-known passage in the Majjhima° l records that Venerable Miiunkyiputta who was bothered by the metaphysical enigma. the origin or suffering. whether the Perfect One survives or does not survive after death'!" "You did not say that to me. What leads to peace and Enlightenment is what the Buddha taught his rollowers : the truth or suffering. finite or infinite'? Does the holy one still exist after death or does he disappear with it? Is the vital principle identical to the body o r different from it? !'1. and what has been revealed by me is revealed" . continued the Buddha. Ma. 21) sq. 9 176. . pp.

V. lIT. 187-8. good and bad actions do not incur maturation the If Saqlyulla. 897 . everything is false . What is aca:pted in the world is also aca:pted by me. THE MIDDLE WAY AND THE fNlENTlONAL TEACHING. 101 SUllanipila. neither did he fight against any system: Whatever opinions are current in the world". 0 monks.It is not enough to brush aside philosophy in order to remove its dangers. The scholar Nagarjuna. v. moreover. Madb. . Nevertheless. On such problems. Subdued minds are subject to metaphysical vertigo and. 54 How could he who is not drawn to what he sees or hears become submissive?" 101. p. very numerous are all the leaves of all the trees in the grove". both false and true : such is the teaching of the Buddha" I 0 ). The man who aspires after non-existence willingly believes that everything ends at death . there is no gift. but especially the thirst for existence (bhavatr$'!Q) and the thirst for non-existence (vibhavot!"$'!Q) . However. in their despair. "Equally. Sakyamuni refused to join issue with his adversaries. 4)7. no oblation . . it is the world which quarrels with me. I. For his part. concluded : "Everything is true. He did not give his allegiance to one school. the Master took some si~Sapa leaves in his hands and said to the monks: "What do you think? Are these few leaves more numerous or are all the leaves of all the trees in the grove more numerous?" "Few are the leaves the Lord holds in his hand. p. Bodh. all the rest is false" I 0 0. pp. I have taught you the four truths. everything is both true and false. )70. Discussions of a metaphysical nature are. 1 have not acted like those teachers who are close-fisted and keep their secrets to themselves: for I have taught you what was useful to you. pp. very little have I taught. v!1ti. )68. "the wise man does not agree with them since he is independent. !OJ Saqlyulla. he said. Ifl Madh. thinkers have the unpleasant habit of adopting definitive positions and go about repeating : "This alone is true. 138. p. 43-9. as we have seen. cr. much have I learned . what is rejected by the world is also rejected by me"IOl . '" Di&ha. tum to extreme solutions which are prejudicial to their welfare. bhiimi. The latter. p. but I did not teach you what was not useful to you""''''. no sacrifice.(53-54) INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA 49 bi. he claims to be a nihilist and falls into the false view of non-existence (vibhavadWI) : "Here below. and such intransigence provokes endless arguments. summarizing the doctrine of the Master. independance presupposes tolerance : "It is not I who quarrel with the world. ferments of discord. vrtli. lies in the eradication of desire in all its forms : the thirst for pleasures (kiima1r$'!a).

perceptions.01 The belief in I Stlf is not a defiled view (klina drill) which . p. the Blessed One teaches a middle position" 100.000 Mljjh ima . or again the belief in the extremes (antogriihodrf!l) of etcmalism (Sii.which the personalist considers as a person (pudg%). On the other hand.body. III. do not belong to me. In contrast.. but in a different way. I am not that. be induced to avoid bad Klions punishable in hell . will necessarily be a prey to all desires. the Buddha rejected both the false view of existence (bho)'odm') and the false view of non-existence (vibhavodr*).fvoto) and nihilism (uccheda) : "To say that everything exists is an extreme. ' Ot Sarytyulll. However. there is no mother or father. However. II. the Buddha adapted his instructions to the mental dispositions of his listeners and. he can but cherish his Self. even more certainly. 71. the personalist view is precluded. the doctrine of the middle as conceived by ~kyamuni cannot be taught without caution to unprepared minds. although some nf his teachings should be taken as having a precise and defined meaning (nlliirtha) .50 THE MIDDLE WAY AND THE INTENTIONAL TEACHING ( S4-SS) future world does not exist. the personalist will also be a slave to desire lOS . therefore. being a denier of moral law. for he who believes in the pmnanmct of the soul will . rejecting both extremes. nowhere can there be found any enlightened monk or brahmin who has truly understood the present or future world and who can explain them to others"lo4. in conlfaSt. reproduce themselves indefinitely according to the immutable laws of dependent origination (protllyasamulpiida) which governs their appearance and disappearance . therefore.. p. that man cannot escape the love of pleasure or the hatred of others and. that is not my Self. that belitr is incompatible with the Buddhist spiritUlilire which consists of tbe eradicatio n o r desin:. a living being (11'110) . Such a man. ould lead directly to offence. physical and mental phenomena (skandho) . as long as he believes in a Self.. in the erroneous belief in an etemal and pennanent Self. conditioned by action and passion. the man who aspires after existence willingly believes that the soul survives the body. . rather than a teacher of philosophy. As a healer of universal suffering. . Like the nihilist.. the materialist nihilistic point of view is to be rejected. However. 17. he calls himself a personalist and falls into the false view of existence (bhavodrf!'). those same phenomena.. volitions and consciousnesses . others only have provisional value and need . or be preoccupied with his past and his future. On the one hand. feelings. 55 Wishing to eliminate desire. to say nothing exists is another extreme .

. but the mechanism of which is strictly ruled by the play of causes and conditions (hetupratyaya) .. pp.intervenes. 13. Saddha. The gpod word should germinate in the minds of the listeners and lead them to comprehension of the truths. 43. 233. V. having believed in the existence of the Self. p. p. feels.. when Vatsagotra who. vrtti. although the Buddha. ~ya . feels . 1546-9 . . 174 . 56. the Buddha did not disdain the use of skilful means. 7G4 . bhiimi. During a tournament of magic organized by a rich merchant in Rijagrha. The biographies of him. 273. preaching and Nirvil)a .ikyamuni reprimanded him sharply : . However. Siilrila'!1li:il"ll. in principle he did not resort to wonders and miracles to establish the cogency of his doctrines.tpraliJDrt1lJQMfa . KoSavyikhyi . J. in which the stake was a cup of carved wood. in order to reform minds. Mlhivyulpalti. 110 Supyutta. Satp. 503 . 34. Nos. cr. IV. habhti!ya) of. p. od.kisya. Having thus corrected such hasty and peremptory opinions. p. the disciple Pil). 9. 400. On the distinction betWCCII " rftUlM and ~yi1rtM siilras. seeking to cure rather than instruct them 107 . desires or grasps" l09 . 108. Although. 29.40Ja Bhiradvija rose into the air and made three circuits of the tOWD . COI\l. ch. p. p. Bodh. \ . 246.e.rmpul)4an1:. bhiimi. p.a. p. Dipilvaf!lSll. In order to interpret certain texts. Bodh. Upildd. like his fellows. an origination in which no eternal or spiritual principle God or soul . IX.were the setting for extraordinary events.the Buddha 10 1 .• • pp. 32 . Preaching alone had to suffice. II. 125. to take into account the intentional teaching (sQJTfd. 256.. since Sakyamuni orten placed himself in the point of view of beings to be converted. 125a. To Philguna.. T 1509. he had no intention of establishing thaumaturgy as a means of propaganda. ~. and the holy towns of ~rivasti. Madh. 138.( 55-56) INDIA AT THE TIME Of THE BUDDHA 51 to be interpreted (neyartha). the Master taught the dependent origination of phenomena. The Master addressed himself to the minds and had no intention of striking the imaginations by means of the marvellous. who believed in the existence of the soul and the person and who asked which is the being that 56 touches. Kos. 199. it is necessary. it is true. Nevertheless. the Buddha refused to answer in the negative " in order not to confirm the doctrine of monks and brihmins who believed in annihilation" I 10. 70. Mljjhiml. desires and grasps. p. attribute several miracles to him : prodigies which marked his birth. • 10. no longer did so and asked if it was indeed true that the Self did not exist. Vaiiili and Rijagrha . see lhe CQftU. perfonned miracles. p. Vljraoc:hcdiki.to mention only the oldest . along with scholasticism. Enlightenment. 34. the Buddha replied : " A stupid question! I deny that there is a being that touches. Saqlyulta..

III. Such behaviour does not result in attracting non-believers to the 57 faith nor does it confinn believers in their belief. 42. for some people. According to the Vinayas of the MahasaI'flghilcas and Miilasarvastivadins. for example. ch. III. p. p. 100-1 . We have described here the doctrine of Salcyamuni according to the evidence of the canonical writings. in the writings of the great scholars of both the Mahayana and Hinayina. The persistance of the doctrinal kernel across the centuries is all the more remarkable as the era of the Buddhist revelation never came to a close. for a wretched wooden cup. 58. Y. 163-5. are drowned in the mass of others in which the non-existence of the Atman is fonnally affinned. Nigirjuna and Asanga. the Bhiiraharasiitra" l in which it is said that the bearer of the burden of existence is such-andsuch a venerable one. IX. continued to explain the doctrine of the Notself and the intricacies of dependent origination. Saf!lyulta. I I. III Diglll. such-and-such a family. The noble truths preached by Salcyamuni were to resist the ravages of time and progress in scholastics. T )425. If. 33&1 21. to these two essential sources other Vinayas add I II YinaYI. pp. for others it is prolonged in time and space.52 THE MIDDLE WAY AND THE INTENTIONAL TEACHING ( S6-57) "That is not the thing to do. the Dhanna or Buddhist Law is what was uttered by the Buddha and his disciples 114. pp.. p. 77 lb 22.- m SaIflyultl. with such-and-such a name. 77 . Such as. II. 130. or an pericope from the Digha and the Sa~yutla I I I in which one is advised to take oneself as an island and refuge. p. . 25. it ended at the time of Sakyamuni and his immediate disciples. these seemingly aberrant passages. 112. ch. T 1442.matiyas quoted them as their authority in order to introduce doctrinal deviations into Buddhism and go so far as to posit an inexpressible Pudgala which would be neither the same as the skandha nor different from them.II. Henceforth. modified and interpreted but always categorical. etc. Kob. 26. 13. lIT. 13. as well as Buddhaghosa. the monks will no longer display their magic powers to the laity" I I I . However. which should be interpreted in the light of the Buddha's intentional teaching. so you displayed your magic powers to the laity for a wretched wooden cup. 154. p. TlltvlN. They are again to be found. One could point out in these early sources this or that passage which seems to deviate from the traditional positions of Buddhism. such-an-such a clan. p. How could you..f!lphl. pp. Bharadvaja. display your extraordinary magic power before the laity? Just as a courtesan agrees to exhibit herself for a vulgar coin. p. 256. Certain Buddhist schools such as those of the Vatslputriyas and the S8Ip.

C. Ja~ilakas. . 276. 154. pp. R. ch. Bloch. Villa)'Q tl droit lafc. HiJtolrt . 2. KnN. The scope of the Dhanna thus grew in extent. II. was riddled with religious of every stamp. · '" List in Alisultara. London. others. ch. 274-323. p.. p.Not only was Scikyamuni the discoverer of a doctrine of deliverance. pp. BEFEO. Uf~ ill 1M BuddJWl M0fU2Sltfy muml tM 6th CtflllITY B. Magal. S97--60S.• JBORS. B. p. T 1428. followers of Maskarin Gosaliputra. 2. 1941 . brahmins. SII -16. J. the names of which are hardly known to us : MUI. ch. parivrajabs and brahmaeirins. p. m 5ikPsimuccaya. II. AJlvi h and Jlina environment : A .AT. J~ophllJ .. Jndt CIIDJ~ . XXXVII.likas. Dc::scription of tbe: para-Brihmanic. M . p. II!I. Early BuddJriJt MONIchiJm . H. pp. . !ICe H .as. Some of them were constituted into true orders which played their part in religious history : the Ajivikas. 7}OWI . 411(). M. 71b 1-2.lc. m On the functioninll or the Buddhist Sarpgha. India of the sixth century B. There were quite large congregations. EArly Monaslic 8uddhiJm . for if the king ASoka still proclaimed that " everything that was spoken by the blessed Lord Buddha is well-spoken"'u. I/llk CIQJSiqw . II. constituted the Sarpgha. 19SI . 19S3. UpadeSa. cb. 38 1_ 44S. m On the state: of beliefs Ind speculations attbe: time of Buddhism. J. . DE VALLi:E PoossIN. p. Calcutta. Tredal. reversing the tenns of the proposition. RENou.661 . Dun. 416-77. Paris. IS . N. a sect founded or refonned by the Mahavira Nirgrantha Jiiatiputra. 11-86. 9. DUTr. II . pp. pp. 1954. p. I.( S7-S8) THE FOURFOLD COMMUNITY S3 SII further revelations disclosed by sages. II . II. 111 Pili Vinayl. Paiijiki. IV. etc.L. 1937. pp. L 'Hindolllsmt.o. FILLI07. Upadeb. pp. IV. S. pp. he was also the founder of a religious order '18 and an assembly of lay persons which.-\SHAW. JNIk ClaJs~ . 373419 . BmuJdJta . ended by admitting that "everything that was well-spoken was spoken by the Buddha" I 1. Tim. pp. RtliljOllJ of A/lcinrl JniliD.l~asravakas.D£NBD. 66b : " Good a nd truthful wonb III come: from the Buddha". going about alone or in groups : sramaQas. pp. DevadhanniJc. 131 -54. gods or even apparitional beings II 5.C. StNCH. IS. in the widest sense of the word. Sarvistivi din Vin .THE BUDDHIST COMMUNITY I. !ICe l. DhlT1TUlSUpla Vin. LINCAT. p. the Nirgranthas or Jainas. 1924. pp. 639a 16. 431-2 . For a de:tcripti on of Brihmanic and Hindu environment : l. the last of the Three Jewels (ratna) in which Buddhists take their refuge. Aviruddhakas. XL. . MammJ. III. 66b. - THE MONASTIC ORDER THE FOURFOLD COMMUNITY. FJ LUQZAT.l<:iikas.• T 143S. long disputed with the Sakyaputriyas or Buddhists for the favour of the princes and the sympathies of the population120. I.. 277·342. Londo n. O!.

60 W. on the other..lruk Cltusiqw.. UI Yinaya. RENOU. iIIX D. This includes approximately 250 articles HislOryaNi DoclriMJ O/I~ AJ1. pp.IHQ. Sakyamuni intended his disciple to leave the world. B. 4. 266-75. 259-86.a du S4rYQJtlriJdilt. and attain deliverance and Nirvana. see S. Leipzig. 1955. pp.PP.Ch. on the onc hand. DlITT. the monk and the layman represent divergent tendencies which. of the O. He called upon him to lead a life of renunciation and personal sanctification from which all altruistic preoccupation is practically excluded. Jha ReJ. dancing. A. fennented liquor. B~hoJD '! Comm . London.fD Sli/fa 0/ lilt! MllIWiJI!!ghika. IHQ. murder. N. has conditioned the whole history of Indian Buddhism. without coming into direct opposition. 162-74.· . L. 4. pp. a meal after midday. It should be noted that the prohibition of impurity requires complete chastity on the part of the monk .. 1926. 1953. 1951. 1913. GLA5EN-. XXIX. I. The religious are distinguishable from the Jay followers through their robes. . laymen (upasaka) and laywomen (upiisika).. The discipline to which the monk voluntarily commits himself is motivated by ten rules (daSoJik$apada)' which prohibit : I. 8)-4. JOWll. nuns (bhikfulJi). were to be asserted with increasing explicitness ..r Sancf. 1M Pr4r/molr. not to say rivalry. THE DUllES OF A MONK. IJrwlutud:r M! Bh~. 8. Y. JA.'Pr4/imI:IA:fa. perfumes and unguents. MtsHaI. 19)5 . KalWtavl/a'tJI!i. IN. pp. L. 10. 9.iJw. " ' On the Pili Pilimotthll. 7. 466-557 . 609-64 . II... UvJ. H. discipline. Berlin 1925.By founding a community of the religious. Anguttara. CCII'rlp(UaliYf! Slwdy 0/ flit! Priil~ . music and entertainments. VII.. 3.w. pp. the ideal of renunciation and personal holiness and. the existence could be posited of two distinct and often opposed Buddhisms : that of the religious and that of the laity whose intervention.. . BodhI!GtlWl P'iil~ SUlfa. Obsf!fWlliOftJ . active virtues and altruistic preoccupations. garlands. ' All possible and imaginable violations of these ten rules are detailed in 60 the ruling of the Pratimok~ 122 . 211. p"otOW. 6. p"otOW and R.. luxurious bedding. D~ u"'r" Jain4s. At the risk of being misunderstood. U Prd'~/. Berlin. Insl. etc. theft". tread the eightfold Path wearing the yellow robe of the monk. FINOT.Jliv4diN. Pr4/~/'Il(ofthe Miiluarvislividins). 2. WI\l. The fonnation of the Mahayana at the heart of the community sanctioned the triumph of the humanity of the upasalc:a over the rigorism of the bhik~u . E.. impurity. S. 2. MASULL.54 59 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA <59-(0) The Saqtgha or Buddhist community consists of four assemblies (par4ad) : mendicant monks (bhiktu) .DSOUfWT. SoruIRlNO. London 1956. 363-77 . lX. Although both sons of the Sakya. p. falsehood.\NDJEE. I. 1931 . ideal and religious prerogatives.. the use of gold and silverlU .. SilItinikrtan.On the inlerptetation or the lerml p4rdjika. 3. W. JainiJlmu.

2.. Rules for settling legal questions (adhikarlJJ)aSamatha). p. V· lnay. which vary between 75 and 106 articles.n of objects unduly obtained (nail)sargika). Violations entailing the rejectio. n List of the Dhiitiilps ill Villa)". Festschrift WiDlemitz. He was not compelled to observe them all at the same time. JA.\S. THClM. which are 90 or 92 in number. which are 7 in number. I '. 19)). 19) . 4. pp.( 60-61 ) THE DlITlES OF A MONK 55 .The order is open to all those who dispose freely of their person and who are not subject to any deleterious impediment : a crime or contagious disease. pp. Violations requiring penance (piitayanika or pliyantika). etc. temporary expulsion (praviisaniya) . 1912. Violations entailing temporary expulsion from the community (stvr'ghiivaSe~a) which are 13 in number. 1ft!' . E. 8. As if the ruling thus sanctioned was not severe enough. . DISCIPLINARY ACTS. 3. l. 131 .. which arc 4 in number. the monk could also agree to even stricter ascetic practices which are known by the name of dhiitiiilga I 2l and which can be as many as twelve or thirteen : to use rags collected in the dust as clothing. Violations entailing definitive expulsion (piiriijika) which are 4 in number : sexual intercourse.J. reconciliation (pratistur/harlJJ)iya). theft. 7. Abhisamayilob. S. a chapter of a larger or smaller number of monks inflicted punishments on the guilty which varied according to the gravity of the offence and the nature of the circumstances : a reproach (Jarjaniya). definitive expulsion (naJana) ... murder. unjustified claims to supernormal powers. . 77)-4. V. to sleep in the open air at night. In order to reinforce the prescriptions of the ruling. which are 30 in number. The obligations assumed by the monk are not SlIT kmpe P'~CDIIOIIlqw du lxnMJdhis11V. 161 ·6. .. - 61 LEAVING THE WORLD ANO ORDINATION. and which are 2 in number. Through a procedural act determined in advance. pp. Pr~PdJi It".eipziS. Faults to be confessed (pratidesaniya). No distinctions of caste are made. placing under guidance (niSraya)..classified in eight sections : I. Undetermined offences (aniya/a) to be judged according to the circumstances.the exact number varies depending on the schools . p.. suspension (ulk~eJXl1:liya).. Rules of training (Jaik~a). although Sakyamuni preferred to recruit his monks among the "noble young people who give up the household life for that of a mendicant"IH. the community had recourse to a series of means of coercion." in I~ Pdlimokk/uJ . . 50) sq. 6.

to receive ordination. Once he has put on the yellow robe and shaved off his beard and hair.. The applicant. BSOS.. The celebrant makes sure he is free from any impediments and enquires details of his name. XIII. BlriJq wuununlJ. .a .W..10 Vinaya. 1M Tump$huq KiJrmarlJcanli.a On the ordination rituals o r Kannavicanil. and he will not become a regular member of the Community. 1917-20. A candidate cannot be admitted to the Pravrajya before the age of eight. which cannot be conferred before the age of twenty. to receive ordination. he posteates himself before the upadhyaya and proclaims three times that he takes his refuge in the Buddha. with so-and-so as preceptor.7. After that purely unilateral act. as the pupil of the venerable so-and-so. desires. H . BAILEY. He who is of the . a preceptor (upadhyaya) and a teacher (acarya) whose co-resident (sordhavihdrin) and pupil (anttviisin) respecti· vely he will become.The celebrant requests the chapter : "May the community hear me : So--and-so. may it confer ordination on him: such is the motion".\ V. here present. he is not forbidden to leave the monastic state and return to lay life 12 J. XXV. IHQ.. H . . Entry into the order is achieved by means of two separate ceremonies which were often confused in the early period : leaving the world (pravrajy6) and ordination (llpasampadal '16 . pp.1EE. 1949.The celebrant continues : "May the community hear me : So-and-so.· First. The ordination (upasampadal is fixed down to the smallest detail by the ritual of the Kannavacanas. p. equipped with an alms-bowl and three robes. e M. 123 . the iiciirya teaches him the ten rules (daSaJUqdpada) which were described above and which are the basis of the monastic life. the Law and the Community. It in fact consists of a motion Uiiaptl) followed by three propositions (karma~'dcan4) concerning the admission of the motion by the chapter. the candidate is still only a novice (iriimWJera). 19-30 . . the motion. RtooINO and L. until after his ordination. desires. and is conferred by a chapter of a minimum of ten monks (daJavarga) . BII~Wumav<kaNi. a bhik~u . A. KormavlJcaNi.56 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 61-62) binding for all his life. The community confers ordination on so-aDd-so. III. pp. I. 1950. . 19$6.un PouwN. as the pupil of the venerable so-and-so. After he has left the world. Then follows the ordination proper : it 62 is a jnapticalurthakarman. d . requests ordination three times. age and upddhydya. He acquires two patrons. BSQAS. here present. BAND. 2]. Then follow the three propositions. kyam. If that pleases the community. DE 1. Berlin. Hbm. an ecclesiastic act in which the motion is fourfold .

Vinaya. before being accepted for ordination. that is why it remains silent : it is thus that I hear it"121 . 95.2. the ceremonies of ordination. and he is told of the four great prohibitions (akarlllJiya) the violation of which would in itself exclude him from the community : sexual misconduct.IQ) must observe six rules (la4dharma) which correspond to the first six Jjk. pp. Her rules consist in principle of 500 articles. falsehood.. However. murder and false or self-interested usurpation of the spiritual perfections. Eight severe canonical provisions (gurudharma) place the nun in complete dependence on the monks : she cannot go into retreat in a place where there is no monk. supplied with an alms· bowl and the fivefold robe. pp. may he remain silent.4). the ordination is accepted and the celebrant declares : "So-and·so has received ordination from the community with so-and·so as preceptor. the day and the hour of his ordination are noted . girls aged under twenty and women with more than twelve years of married life are subjected to a probationary stage which lasts for two years. The community is of this opinion. but in practice their number varies between 290 and 355. After the third proposition. twice those of the bhik~us. The career of the nun is closely modelled on that of the bhik~u . the future nun. on . . pp. E. IV.. After which.ldpadaJ of the srimaT)era : to abstain from murder.. WALDSOOODT. At the time of her ordination. 56. fermented liquors and meals outside the right time 12 • . 271 . and receives ordination from this twofold assembly. )19·2) . the ending of the retreat and penance are repeated before the community of monks I 29. 22. but she herself can never instruct a monk nor admonish him. if the chapler remains silent. This proposition is repeated three times. II' 'li BhikMfpl"61~. The discipline to which the bhik~ul)i is subjected is much stricter than that of the monks. impurity. in order to determine the new monk's rank. theft. theft.( 62-6) LEAVING THE WORLD AND ORDINATION 57 6) opinion that ordination should be conferred . Brvcllsliicb _s Vinaya. first before: the chapter of nuns and then before the chapter of monks. presents herself. every fortnight she must go to the community of monks and receive instruction there. pp. with her preceptress (upddhydyiJeQ) and her instructress (dcdril)i). He is informed of the four rules of monastic austerity (msraya) which he should observe in his outward life. Vinaya. During that period the female probationer (JiJqamiiJ. may he speak". 1)8. II. He who is of the contrary opinion. I.

pp. The bhik~u renounces all possessions.-. Vinaya. In silence and with lowered eyes. I. set Vinaya. that of Hesh or fish is only permitted if the monk has not seen. II. The monk's equipment also includes an alms-bowl (patra). GMe. he 64 withdraws in solitude and eats his food : bread. shelter and medicines. In principle. between midday and the morning of the following day.). I. p. When the UO III m IU IH UJ Vinaya. a belt. finding shelter under a tree. pp. Reproiol tile mallerorfood. honey and sugar are reserved for the sick and can be taken as medicine Ill .faya) in colour. a vihdra housed only a single monk. the bhik~ur:ti also wears a belt (scvrtkoJqilc6) and a skirt (kusiiJaka)'ll. entails a penance. then simultaneously. The viMra could be grouped in greater or lesser numbers and couJd shelter some tens of monks. Kus. IV .The Buddhist Sal1lgha is a mendicant order.· . oil. He expects Jay generosity to provide the supplies necessary for his subsistence : clothing. others. A meal eaten at the wrong time. a sltainer (parisrov". Towards midday. either as the house of a monk or the temple of a deity. p. Vinaya. but the use of fans is allowed. The monk is permitted to wear clothing given by the laity or made of rags which be has collected . usually balls of rice. a staff (khakkhara) and a tooth-pick (dantakonha). As to lodging (. The bhik~u has at his disposal three: robes (tricivara) : an undergarment (anlaravasaka). set up their residence (vihDra) near a village or a town : a hut of leaves (par. 238. the monks had no fixed residence : some lived in the open air in mountains and forests. These clothes are yellow or reddish (kd. p. 272. Shoes are considered a luxury. . 81.58 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 6J.a). in addition to those three robes. 199. his meal time.. a tower (prasada). a razor (vas.64) EQUIPMENT AND LIFE OF THE MONKS. the only one of the day. butter. Vinaya. an outer garment (ullordranga) and a cloak: (s~g· hii!I)1l0. The use of spirituous drinks is strictly forbidden. heard or suspected that the animal was killed on his behalflll . food. a needle (siie f). p. that is. he goes from house to house: and places in his bowl the food which is held out to him. 94. more numerous. rice with water to drink.fayandsana). cannot practise any lucrative career nor receive gold or silver. MlIIfIMJI. it was used in tum. The monk lives on the food which he begs daily on his morning almsround. 70-4. 289. I.!aSd/Q). Monks are permitted to accept invitations and have their meal in the homes of the laity I H . a mansion (harmya) or a cave (guh6) I l s.

p.du BotuJdJr4. its cellarer and its own gardener. it was called a "convent" or "monastery" (sCU!'ghdrdma) and could be built of stone. voting tickets (.eras I J ' . almsbowls. FouCHD.'o/. MQllwaJ. The Buddhists borrowed this custom from heretical sects. there to pass the hot hours of the day in meditation or semi-somnolence. Once he had returned to the monastery. the Buddhist monk.. a little before midday. Each monastery of any importance had its own officer. he washed his feet and. 1915.. since the buildings put at the disposal of the community by kings and wealthy merchants needed to be administered all the year round. Once that was over. p. He rose very early and devoted himself to meditation . carrying his wooden bowl in his hands. 106. ]21-] . pp.. he settled on the threshold of his cell and gave instruction to his spiritual sons. I n cr. I. ate his only meal of the day.. he withdrew in seclusion.S. Vu. Sunset signalled the hour for the public audience. 1J7. 246. as well as visiting monks. Twice a fortnight . I. then again received his disciples and engaged in an edifying conversation with them which continued well into the first watch of the night.. but was not forced to do so. pOfalha) : a day of fasting and of particularly strict respect of the observances. pp. were obliged to assemble and together celebrate the uposalha (Ski . p. the monks who resided in the same parish (siina1Il9. Monastic life must have been organized early on. wardrobe. a master of novices was responsible for the srimal). 83 . he could continue his peregrinations. see Vinaya. like the adherents of other non-Brahmanical sects. Ea. llIking its inspiration from BuddhaghO$l.. p. JA. Dun.ty MOMJ/lc Buddllism.fa/iika)· etc. at the time of the full and new moon. other monks superintended the storerooms. 194-223. on the 8th and the 14th (or I Sth). Qw/qutJ lil'tI blillfl(JtiqwS .\NNf. The daily life of the monk was regulated in every detail III .tha (June-July) to the full moon of the month of Kirttika (October-November). be dressed to go out. on 00 the demarcation or a parish. Every alternate celebration of the U6 Vinay • • I.( 64-65) EQUIPMENT AND LIFE OF THE MONKS 59 65 complex took on importance. open to all comers. often to the foot of a tree. Nightfall brought calm to the hennitage once again. pOfadha. At the appropriate time. !Itt Kn. to which flocked sympathizers as well as the merely curious. 117 For detaib. . During the three or four months of the rainy season (varf a). bricks or wood. he would go to the nearest village to beg for his food. After which. water supplies. ltvland CHAv. S. generally from the full moon of the month of A~c. was compelled to go into retreat (varfopaniiyik6) and to remain in a set place lJ6 • Once the retreat was over. The monk took his bath .

VinaYI. THE IDEAL OF l l { I MONK.0 The ceremonies or the uposatha are described in Vinaya. Anyone who was guilty and 66 kept quiet would be perpetrating a voluntary falsehood and would violate his solemn commitments '. that is why they remain silent. 405.. The senior monk chanted an opening Connula and invited his brethren to acknowledge their faults : "Whoever has committed an offence may he confess it . This was the occasion for offering gifts to the monks. He then proceeded to enumerate the 250 articles of the Pratimok~. The Buddha put him on guard against the wiles and guiles of woman. The kings who accepted Buddhism. However.The rule which imprisons the monk in a network of detailed prescriptions tends to make him a complete renouncer : gentle and inoffensive. he questioned the monks and asked them three times if they wert pure of such faults. he can only touch it in order to return it to its owner. may he remain silent". Since he is unable to practise any lucrative profession. 159. continent and perfectly trained. they varied according to the regions. . the laity distributed raw cotton cloth (ko!hina) to the members of the community: the monks immediately made garments out of it which they dyed yellow or reddish. poor and humble. 102-4. he proclained : "Pure of those faults are the Venerable Ones. . Har~ and the sovereigns of Central Asia. I. a festivity celebrated by all the communities was that of the Praviira~ii. He cannot take the life of any living being. if he happens to find a jewel or some precious object. I n Soe In example or the Paiicava~ in Divyl. . at the end of the rainy season and the conclusion of the retreat'·'. and refuses to use water in which there might be the tiniest creature. After each group of faults. pp. p. . He cannot accept any gold or silver from them and. thus have I heard it".60 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 6S-66) uposatha concluded in a public confession between the monks. inviting them to a meal and organizing processions. If everyone remained silent. sometimes summoned the community to an assembly called the quinquennial (paiicayar~a) and spent on acts of Iiberalit y 141 the state revenue which had accumulated over a period of five years.0. the monks look their places on low seats which had been reserved for them in the assembly area. such as ASoka.. In torchlight. whoever is free of offences.. he depends on the generosity of the laity for his food and clothing. Some festivities broke the monotony of the days. p. I. After the ceremony.

1936. "Then. However. Each preserves his own personality and aims towards the supreme goal according to the method of his choice. . MCB. addressing the monks. The Buddha washed him with his own hands. with a charitable heart. making him benevolent towards his brothers and devoted to the unfortunate. and truth like falsehood" . The monk cannot accept food or clothing from a nun who is not related to him . . take extreme care. . adopt a correct. 0 Ananda" .. 141. the obligations imposed on the monk. he said : "0 mendicant monks. Ill. changed his bedding and placed him on the bed. to take her by the hand. p. He should. or even exchange more than five or six sentences with her. p. II. in the mass of disciplinary prescriptions. devote himself to the ascetic and ecstatic disciplines of Yoga I . Nirvil)a). Then. the responsabilities with which he is entrusted. his colleagues took no further care of him. lying in his own urine and excrement. o Ananda"tu . _ cr. When Ananda asked him how one should behave towards a woman. to walk in her company. Nevertheless. It is possible that the exclusive search for personal holiness is not always conducive to endowing the monk. here and there an article with a truly human resonance can be discerned . II. apply himself to the discernment of things (dhaTmDpTallicaya) or. DE LA V"ub: i"oussIN. It is in this spirit that the Pritimok~ forbids the monk to be alone 67 with a woman.. Master. intelligence"14! . pp. Since he was no longer of any use. 1119·222. the Buddha replied: "You should keep out of her sight. to tease her. And yet. what should we do then?" "00 not speak to her... Few also are those who see profound reality by penetrating it through prajiiii. are men who spend their time in bodily touching the Immortal Element (Le. He can. o Ananda". V. in all circumstances. The monks who experiment ecstasy (dhyiiyin) and those who are attached to study should respect each other : "Few. if we should see her. like Musila. Once when Sikyamuni was going the rounds of the monastery. are never so heavy or absorbing that they deprive him of the faculty of thought and tum him into a mere machine. humble and vigilant attitude... IU Sarpyulta. L. 101 Aillllltara. if we speak to her?" . you no longer have a father or IU Dip. 355. "And yet. to share her roof. indeed. Musila n N6ruda : It Cltcr!iPr cit N/n6I!a. p. he found a monk who was suffering from an internal disorder. like Nirada.( 66-67) THE IDEAL OF THE MONK 61 that being "whose intelligence can be held by two fingers and for whom falsehood is like the truth. 1t5.

28. T 160.62 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 67-68) mother who can take care of you . who strive towards deliverance. p. S916. ch. tonnented by old-age-and-death. perceiving the instahility or my body which is a nest or murder and disease. 367. T 1509. th. who strive towards deliverance" 141. the monk leaves to the laity the practice or the active virtues.n 1llenpthi . pp. ch. Ohammapada Comm . with an intuition of the instability of all existence? When will that be my fate? When is it. who else will? Whoever wishes to take care of me should take caft of the siekt'l"o . It is not by any means through love for his brothers that the bhik$u finds his joy and happiness. p. 2. T 2087. not calling anything my property and free of desires. and that adherence to the doctrine showd be exclusively based on personal reasoning. In . 68 For whoever wishes to eliminate desire down to its root. since it was to affect the whole history of Buddhism. It is there that it is good ror me. 20». THE ABSENCE OF AN AtInfORrTY. . 301 ·2. but rather in the observance of vows and rules. p. aJone. p. wise one. 766b . T 1504. rree rrom rear. 1062 sq. on what one has oneselr acknowledged. •• This episode. 128· 30. cb. T 1435.Such were the holy ones whom the Buddha had trained when he entered repose. 119('. -40. GU 101M . which alone lead him to holiness in this world and. 283h. ch. p. T 2127. who aspire to true benefits.. ch. will I dwell alone in the rorest? When will that be my share? The lovely places. He believed that man cannot constitute a reruge ror man. 899b . p. that he left them without a master or hierarchy. to the cessation of suffering. T 1425. p. 3060. 139c. 29). T 1421. when. that in my clothing made of rags. . 4. It is up to each to work for his own sanctification without attending or paying attention to his neighbour. whithout companions. 98k . meditation and the penetration of the Buddhist truths : "So when will I live in a mountain cave. I. which are just advantageous enough to ensure wealth and long lire during ruture rebirths. v. ch. 9S . 89b. 41 . 6. 28. III. 319-322 . brotherly charity itself is not without danger. th. the rriend or meditation. We should add. Ch. 3. 142b. 20. the monk. . if you do not take care of each other yourselves. p. ch. Personally. &616. Not without some disdain. th. T 1421 . beyond this world. cho 3. in study. my yellow robe. pp. T 2122. p. p. pp. pan 2.lt T 125. he confines himselr to the passive virtues or renunciation and imperturbability. which is one or the mosl ramous. ch. I will joyfully live on the mountain? So when is it that. p. appears in many 50UfQCI : Vinaya.• I. annihilating craving and hatred and delusion. 8. that no human authority can be userully exerted over minds. p. T I"SI . It is there that it is good for me. p. the mountains and rocks fill me with ease. 17. p. seen and grasped . to the end or saqlsira and to Nirvii~a . Sec OWDlIlUG-FouCHU (quoted above n. 45». T 211.

and they went from village to village preaching the respect due to great age. Devadatta. In the Buddhist monasteries. Some monks. to the delightful meditation of the Law and entrust the congregation to my keeping.. The Buddha refused to entertain their views and. lived in anarchy.~ r~/igWuR du ItJUan dans I~s ItJCltJ bouddhiqwJ.ANO"T"n. others pleaded their knowledge of the writings and their talent as preacher.ariputra and Maudgalyayana. when one relies on reasoning and not on tbe authority of a man. MUJion . pp. independent of others. bhiimi. Seeing him old and aged. ~. says a Buddhist text. when faced with rationally examined truths 141. "attend calmly. . . They cast back their memories to see which among them was the oldest. still less did he intend to give the whole community a spiritual leader. Some quoted as their authority the caste to which they had belonged before entering the order. who are of no account and so contemptible" I 50. he said. in order to curb the ambitions of those childish men. p. particular duties were entrusted to the monks who were capable of fulfilling them.257 . his cousin Devadatta offered to replace him at the head of the Sa~gha : "Lord". S. 1946. 641 ·53. pp.. The other two animals immediat~ly decided to show deference. 108. The elephant placed the monkey on its head.. If the Buddha refused to establish a functional hierarchy in the monasteries. Even less to you. II. UX. one does not stray from the meaning of reality because one is autonomous. 188. respect and veneration to him and to canfonn to his advice. i. the best water and the best food. The Master invited his monks to confonn to the pious conduct of those animals and not to make claims among themselves except that in the case of respect for seniority. narrated the apologue of the Tittirabrahmacarya to them 14' : Three animals inhabiting a fig-tree on the slopes of the Himalaya.( 69-70) ABSENCE OF AN AUTHORITY 63 69 fact. The only precedence allowed was that of seniority calculated from the date of ordination. a pheasant.D cotUhlj.akyamuni rejected this self· 70 interested offer: "I would not even entrust the congregation to S.. the monkey took the pheasant on its shoulder. but this did not confer on them any authority over their brothers. I will care for it". l. yet others believed they had rights because of their supernormal powers or because of their advance along the spiritual paths. did indeed make claims and asserted their rights to the best seat. gentle Ananda expressed the hope 14' Bodh. 100 ViN-Y'. and it was the pheasant. a monkey and an elephant. it is true. Shortly before his Master's decease.

claimed to have recorded the words and prescriptions of the Buddha. the community was a flock without a shepherd : no legitimate authority presided over the destinies of the order. 111 . the only way of exerting an effective influence over the order was to annex them and monopolize their teaching.64 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 1(1.. his work of codification was not accepted by all the brethren and some continued to preserve the I" Dip. after the latter's decease.. The Law and discipline being the only inheritance 71 left by the Buddha to his disciples. Things should not be seen in this way : The Law which I expounded and the discipline which I established for you will be your master after I am gone"\u. as will be seen further on. after the Buddha's decease. he said to ARanda. "that this thought occurs to you : The word of the Master will no longer be heard. 100. we no longer have a Master. After my decease. certain schools did indeed draw up lists of patriarchs who legitimately transmited the Law they claimed to guard. Len alone by their Master. In fact . we are not without a refuge: we have the Law as a refuge"lu ..71 > that the Blessed One would not leave this world before giving his instructions to the community and having designated a successor. 0 Ananda ? Never having wished to direct it or subject it to my teachings. the disciples had to continue the work already begun by themselves and devote to the doctrine alone all the attention they had paid to the Budd~a . may each OrYOll be your own island. I am reaching my end. on his death-bed. I have no such instructions for it. 1504. The Buddha answered him in substance : What does the community expect of me. IJJ Mljjhima. after the decease of the Master. Attempts of this kind were made : the main and most successful one was that of MahikiSyapa who. have no other refuge. By acting in that way you will set yourselves on the swnmit of the Immortal' 5 1. IJJ DiP. However. p. Ananda had grasped the wish of the Buddha for. your own refuge . Subsequently. p. . Nevertheless. II. II. Sakyamuni. still found the strength to sum up his thought : "It may happen". he explained to the Brahmin Gopaka : "No monk has been especially designated by the Venerable Gautama or chosen by the congregation and named by the elders and monks to be our refuge after the disappearance of the Buddha and the authority to which we could henceforth resort . this is an apocryphal tradition which the community as a whole never accepted. Nonetheless. 9. p..

nobody thought of forcing himself upon the congregation as a spiritual leader. Hence. sec H. Indeed no one had forgotten that the Master had categorically refused to endow the Saqlgha with an authority and. while Jainism is still alive there. during the long history of Buddhism. Studies in Indian History and Culture. Nevertheless.The order of monks occupies the first place in the Buddhist writings.cct. the lay frequently associated much more closely with the monks than was the case among the Buddhists : the weakness of the links between bhik~ u and upisaka is one of the reasons which contributed to the final disappearance of Buddhism in India.( 7]·72) lliE LAY fELLOWSHIP 65 Law in their memories. On the contrary : since he was devoted to a very pure ideal 72 of renunciation. 419-42S . 207-38. played at least important a part in its history 154 . ]927. pp. LAw.ujidJkJ laic! 011 UpdJalca. lI. OwESB£RG. . S8·60. grhapall) clothed in the white robe (ovoaatovasana) of the layman. EArly 8udtJ11ism IJIId LDity. the wisdom of the monks as well as their tolerance prevented rivalries from taking on a bitter nature and ending in religious warfare. de BtlJiquc. upasaJca and upiUikii. but as they themselves had heard and obtained it from the lips of the Blessed One. Disputes never went further than an academic stage. a number of separate schools or sects were created. Kasyapa and people like him had no spiritual weapon at their disposal to bring the recalcitrant ones round to their views. such as that of the Jainas. Early MOIIOSlic 8wJdhisIPI. attempts at reconciliation were resorted to. N . Ac. It was not that they benefited from any special solicitude on the part of the Buddha.THE LAY FELLOWSHIP THE ]MPORTANCE OF THE LAITY. pp. pp. In the course of time. Bulle1in. If these failed. No matter what their particular adherence may have been. ] S-34 . 27S-313. N .. Bouddlw. not as Kasyapa and his cohorts had recorded it. at the heart of early Buddhism. the dispersion of the Saqlgha across vast spaces merely accentuated the fragmentation of the Community. L. pp. l. Dun. It has rightly been remarked that in other religious orders. ]92S. . LU On this sub. LD Morak bouddAiqw. DE LA YALLlE PIx/ssIN. the bhik~us continued to associate with each other and to offer each other the greatest hospitality. but the pious lay fellowship. the brethren separated and each party held to its own position. . the Blessed One reserved his favours for those who gave up family life in order to embrace the condition of a religious mendicant and he felt only moderate esteem for those who remained in the world and led the life of a householder (grhin . When disputes arose among the brethren over points of doctrine or discipline. Paris. 2.

p.. Buddhacarita. the merchants built. p. According to tradition. T 1421. 393. passed nearby. p. p. Udina Comm. the monk responds to the generosity shown him by consenting benevolently to give religious instruction . making use of a wooden bowl made Qut of the four bowls which had been brought to him by The four World Guardians. 4. XlV. T 1421 .~i. alms.. S. like their colleagues in the nonBrahmanical sects. chi chin&. the "gift of the Law" (dJtarnwdtina) compensates for the "material gin" (am4addna) . The Buddha had his reasons for accepting the allegiance of Trap~ and Bhallika. I. ch. 80 . seats. when two merchants. causing the alms which are sown in it to fructify an hundredfold.a. consider us henceforth as upisakas who. ch. By definition the monk is a mendicant (bhilqu) : he cannot possess anything and the practice of a lucrative activity is forbidden to him .. in India. u. whatever his beliefs and practices. 303 . )4 . "They render you great services. we take refuge in the Buddha and in the Dhanna. Vin. 80111 . 781c. . Oivyidina. could not survive without the willing assistance of 73 the Indian population . He must live on the charity of the laity which. ch. ch. p. Mu1asarv. IS. Hsi)'li chi. lOS: Fo pin Min. 125oJ. I. ch. 381 5q. Stones will appear of which you can make use"IH . I. The merchants complied and offered Sakyamuni some cakes of rice and honey. A deity informed them that Sikyamuni had just become a Buddha and suggested that they went to pay their homage to him. p. is an eJl:celient "field of merit" (pwJyaJqelra).. Once the meal was over. the brahmins !lnd householders who give you clothing. p. I. 111 . litab. p. the merchants prostrated themselves at the Buddha's feet and said to him : "Lord. 32.. p. 873. the pra'l'rajila. I . have taken refuge". the food which was presented to him. it preceded the establishment of the SaIpgha in time. ~kyamuni had just attained Enlightenment at Bodb·Gaya. Mahivaslu. Trap~ and Bhallika. The Buddhist religious. p. 26. 0 bhik~u. unti l their life's end. T 1450.. For an Indian. Manonthapun.The institution of the fellowship of the upisaka is due to a chance occurrence. two reliquaries which are reputed to be the first two stiipasuo . saying to them : "Make a stiipa over this hair and these: nails. Lalitavistan. the sranuu:rabriihmtllJa. beds and remedies. 10341.66 INDIA AT THE TIME OF mE BUDDHA ( 72-73) INSTtTUnON OF 1lIE FELLOWSHIP. was never refused him. 3l . You also render them great services when you leach them the Good Law and the • Vina}. Mahiiisah Vin. Angultan. On the other hand. p. indeed. T 190. UI . p. Dhannaguptab Vin. T 2087.11. )82. Having returned to Bactria. at some distance from the capital. The Master acquiesced and gave the merchants some relics of hair and nails. The Buddha took. p.

f~angikamorga) the essential elements of which are morality (si1a). . the knower. the supreme one who tames and guides those who are not tamed.. He works actively at his personal sanctification and his own deliverance. generosity (lyoga). IV. The creed of the updsaJca therefore consists of four points : "Possessed of unfaltering faith in the Buddha will I be : he. p. it is an inward disposition by virtue of which " the mind is calmed. morality (Si1a). the learned one. . The virtues are demanded not only of the bhik~u in particular but of the "noble disciple" (o. joy arises and mental defilements vanish""'. In n.(73-74> THE IDEAL AND VIRTUES OF THE LAITY 67 pure life (b. he who knows the worlds. which causes one to cross the transmigration and puts and end to suffering. Sarp)'\llta. IV. householders and those who live the homeless life can cause the prospering of the Good Law. p. the fonner. Thus. III . I.AApnan.)'a ll. for a good rebirth in the world 'Of the gods or that of mankind. III. . is the holy one. 2SO. since they receive clothing and the rest. mental concentration (samOdh . The monk aims at Nirva~a and.Possesed of unfaltering faith in the Law will I '" ltivuuaka..an: the five virtues oflhe noble dilciple. They are five in number : faith (Sraddha1. his Law and his Community. p. The faith (sraddha1 required from the laity is not a more or less forced mental adherence to a group of given truths. cultivates the noble eightfold Path (o. notably in the discourse on 74 the three kinds of uposatha I JI. and are described in several sutras. Its object consists of the Three Jewels : the Buddha. The way which leads to this is not the noble eightfold Path which leads to Nirva~a.ahmaca'ya) . through your mutual help. wearing the yellow robe. whithout having to worry about his neighbour. I. p. 99. THE IDEAL AND VIRTUES OF THE LAITY. in order to attain it. it is possible to practise the religious life. however. Anl\lltan. learning (sruta) and wisdom (praftia1.· I.The ideal pursued by the upisaka is inferior to that of the bhjk ~u .. 2 10. The latter men are sheltered from need. . 465. p. p. delight in the world of the gods who are possessed of the pleasures" I Jl.)'a srovaka) in general. the path which leads to the happy destinies. whether reliJious or lay : Mljjhima. but the practice of the virtues which enabled the deities (ckva tQ) to leave this world below in order to go and be reborn in their respective heavens. having practised the Law in this world. and also the high value of the discipline imposed on the laity.I . the Blessed One.) and wisdom (prajnQ) . 210.. p. the blessed one. the Blessed Lord Buddha. The upasaka. 201. By relying on each olher. the preceptor of gods and mankind. the supreme Buddha. aspires for the heavens.

worthy of alms. Sarpyutll. Art Irko--botuJdIIilfw. . in accordance with right conduct lives the Community of the Blessed One. Sultanipitll. lei . 249. DiJha.. are practically valueless 161 . 42· ] . II. . caste or choice and to worship them in the appropriate way. It is a thing that is completely obvious .68 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA <74-1S) be : well proclaimed by the Blessed One is the Law. certain rites originating in pure superstition. FOUCHD. The advent of Buddhism did not lead to the "twilight of the gods". v.. the deities of his own region. By means of one of those compromises of which India supplies so many examples. 29). etc.FOUCHEa (quolcd above D. ritual baths. which generate contemplation". Yak~. p.41 . p. each person is allowed to venerate. p. I. it says to itself 'Come and see'.. p. were to remain faithful to the divinities of their class : Kuvera. Itl Villlya. the four pairs. To this admiration for the Three: Jewels shouJd be added the highest esteem for the obligations incumbent on the laity : " Obligations which are undamaged and intact. ])9. 229 . Brahma.Possessed of unfaltering faith in the Community will I be : in accordance: with good conduct lives the Community of the Blessed One. in accordance with fair conduct lives the Community of the Blessed One. but peaceful offerings which do not involve cruelty are to be recommended. Householders. He admitted that "revered and honoured by man. . it leads to welfare in their heart of hearts it is recognized by the wise. . the divinities in tum revere and honour him"lel . worthy of being saluted with joined hands. worthy of offerings. What Itt Samyulla. Sec OL. UdiDa. whieh do not dull the desire for future life nor the belief in the efficacity of rituals. etc. II. IV. v. 89. .1 For dellil" lICe A. 76 . worthy of respect. praised by the wise. Hariti. Sikyamuni did not combat the deities of pagan Hinduism. Adherence to the Buddhist faith in no way compels the adept to reject his ancestral beliefs or repudiate the religious practices customarily 75 performed in his circle. IU ADJUIIlr&. p. T p. Therefore we will see. the goddess of fecundity . the benefactors of the Community. 7-210. Mara. He refused to condemn the practices of paganism as a whole : bloody sacrifices which led to the death of living beings are to be deprecated. Vajrapal)i. The higher castes were always to call upon the great Vedic and Brahmanic gods : lndra. free from any blemish or defilement. some excellent Buddhists continuing their adoration of spirits. the eight classes of believers such is the Community of the Blessed One. Females and Fairies. pp. the best field of merit in the world" 160. in the course of history. 88. it docs not need time . 304. II. in accordance with true conduct lives the Community of the Blessed One . Dhammapada.G.OfJ<olaD. liberat· ing. in addition to the Three Jewels. pp. the tutelary Couple. the deity of wealth. Nagas and Supaf1)as. etc.

p. IV. the observance of natural laws or the avoidance of offence. Sumangala. The second virtue of the upasaka is morality (fila) . p. p. pp. Anguttara. by a solemn act of faith in the Buddha. p. the upasaka also commits himself to observe certain rules of morality. p. the supreme achievement of sacrifice is the taking up of the religious life 10 • • Just as the Buddha condemns a monk's exclusive attachment to vows and rites (illavra(apariimaria). IV. This was the main cause of the absorption of Buddhism into the ambient Hinduism. since "the bad deeds that man has committed bear their fruit : they attach themselves to the feet of the foolish"loo. p. It remains nonetheless true that the upisaka. II. 56. If l Koia . p. however. If ' Anguttara. Koiavyikhyi. 71. III. I. V. 113-14. p. 157. whose religious instruc76 tion leaves much to be desired. n.31-2. and rites can do nothing in such a case. the Law and the Community.. v. 1)5. Ohammapada. will rarely break away from the popular circle into which his roots are plunged and establish a kind of compromise between the Buddhist Dharma and the superstitions of paganism. or else : . the Buddha replied : "Mahaniman. 145-7. 3. Safllyutta. I. Oigha.(7S-76) IDEAL AND VIRTUES Of THE LAITY 69 is most important is to put each thing in its place : alms given to pious monks are superior to worship to the devas. the taking of refuge in the Three Jewels is superior to alms-giving . pp. most often the fivefold morality. I. Obviously. 395. IV. When asked how one becomes an upasaka. Ninth Rock Edict. 189.gha" 101 . I. p. or because one also observes the five rules (panca iikofopada)". 2. the Dharma and the Sarp. so he also forbids the lay person plain superstition (ko(uha/amanga/a) 10 5 . 376. we can see that the candidate takes his refuge in the Three Jewels and asks that in future he be considered as an upisaka who has taken refuge 101.a. This caused the scholar Haribhadra to say : "One is an upisaka because one has taken the threefold refuge. Soon. 85. Oigh. n. besides taking refuge. Digha. 220 . . funerary rites cannot guarantee heaven for an assassin. In the oldest texts. BLOCK. p. II. it seems that one became an upasaka merely by taking refuge in· the Three Jewels. 2. Safllyutta. . 234. ]80. 11 3. Hence. there are two kinds of upisaka according to the two readings in the Vinaya : "May the master consider me as an upasaka who has taken the threefold refuge". Originally. p. Ifl Vioaya. one becomes an upasaka by the mere fact of taking refuge in the Buddha. ]1.

yo dltMayafll. p.70 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 76-77 ) "May the master consider me as an upisaka who has taken the threefold refuge and the five rules" 169 . XXIV. P . ". The five rules of the lay person correspond to the first five of the tcn rules of morality of the religious : to abstain from taking life (priil)iitipOlO). RAHuu. the paripiir']. . It should be noted that the third rule forbidding sexual misconduct is to be understood in a different way depending on whether it applies to the religious or to the layman.akiirin . The fast was traditionally fixed on six specific days a month (the 8111 .!dilga. 211 · 12 . 16Oa-c which refers to the COlllr/kwuaju. m WATT'DS. false 71 speech (mr#iviida). T 1509. two or three. theft. the pradefakarin. the eightfold morality (a. p. p. 13. 647b . I. 2 . 15Se. C'KAVAImES. ed. dancing and entertainments.rah6c copmak~ tatlwpdsibtl dviJlul bM~ . ch. while the latter only renounces sexual misconduct particularly adultery. ITJ Aitguttara. 142·5.. 302. p.A. p.(}aka. Popular in origin. pp. 13. The upisalc. Sarpyulta. V. 64-9. 14110. Kob. p.u. the use of fermented drinks (suramaireya)l'o . pp. " ' MaIwJNinta. flowers and perfumes. pp. IV. p.fJl/tO of the AnguUara. 377.llJpariplli/am wp4JDJctJlrt /I'I6m 4c4. He then committed himself to remain for a day and a night under the discipline of fasting (upaviisa). 15'~. 1956. IV. n. Upadcia. I. PO Aitgultara. ch. . theft (adalliidana).' trWuQl. In imitation of the heretics. Nos. 1924.ii/a) or even the ten rules (daia s. singing. Vib~. It also happened that certain laymen considered the third rule as an obligation to complete chastity and they abstained from any relation with their own wives: they were called samucchhinnariiga. 124. 395. DOl1tVllU. 23"'. four. WOOIM. This consisted of eating only one meal a day before noon and of observing eight complementary precepts forbidding murder.y 0/ Bwddhism in C~yl(Jfl. sexual misconduct (kamamilhyiiciira). 30"') 113. T 1545. I.. the usc of intoxicants. 26.qdpada). Complete chastity is expected of the former.hyi. ch. It sometimes happened that upisakas made a choice among these five rules: the ekatkiakarin observed one. see the Upadri •. BEFEO.a could also take the eightfold morality In. it went far back into the past and was observed by the great majority of Indian orders before being adopted by the Buddhistst74. The lay person has the free choice: of committing himself to observe the five rules of morality (pancaJila) or only one of them.~npjila) is observed on p6Y" (uposatha) days.llJIllIftONit pailcaJi4=14pad<vnri. On tbe oriJin of this.. Con/f'J. five m . falsehood. 331 : rrjJQrQl. I. p. 1609· 13. 220 . and a cosmogoniao1 sutra. 77. 265. cr. the "{lNiI (a. the Buddha I•• Abhisamaya . incontinence. Colombo. Hut". MahiV)'\lt~lti. 29'b. on (ou r days a month. p. the yadbhiiyaskarin. fatM /rijQT~attJlrt paiktJS~phf/am wpiJJDktJlrt I1'1I1I7I QC6ryo dMrayrm It I PiIW)I't dridh4pdrh4l. p. luxurious furnishing. p. Nowadays in Sri Lanka.n1tr" quoted in KoiIIvyilr. w. T 1509.

a monk. This will endure until his death provided he does not lose it through bodily and vocal actions contrary to its nature. Despite its solemnity. ". p. 21 . p. pp. Nevertheless. T 1439. UI . the rule which maintains that "an offence confessed becomes slighter" is valid about for him as well as for the religious. the bhik~u is expected to confess his violations of the Pritimok~ ruling and to accept the penalty imposed upon him. T 1439. to observe a particular discipline until the end of his life (yiivaiJTvam). The Community does not participate. I. pp. the reading of texts and preaching I ' s. 255-6. p. They remained celibate and added to the obligations of fasting the rule not to touch either gold or silver. If questioned about fault the guilty one must avow it : to deny it would be violating the fourth rule of morality wruch forbids falsehood I l l . ed. Vinaya. it is a question of a "morality of commitment" (samddilnaiila) which confers on him a "restraint'· (!aI!Ivara) and creates within him the quality ofupisaka. 13 . T 1509. Visuddllimagp. WAJJ. p. 82. I. p. IV. Shih sung chieh mo. I. Taking the five rules (Shih sung Iii.tha.. Kob. p. 101·2 .<77·78) IDEAL AND VIRTUES OF THE LAIn' 71 ordered his monks to devote those same days to the joint recitation of the rules. they 78 observed the ten rules of the novice and the monk : they were therefore called upisakas "observing the ten rules" (dJJjafilqiipadika)116. p. As with the religious. there were upisakas who lived in the world as if they were not doing so. In practice. pp. 251 . or even another upisaka. No obligation of this type is incwnbent on the upisaka. Atiguttara. Ta chih IU lun. Yet another point distinguishes the layman from the monk. ch . The morality of the lay person does not consist in the sole fact of avoiding offence. 496b). The Licchavi Va4c. in the presence of the Buddha. IV. 159c). 211·12.. and Taking the eightfold morality (Atigultara. 157). but in the fonnal decision to avoid it. p. .DI. p. 13. p. The Buddha "removed rus Villara. II. Shih sung chieh mo . during the celebration of the uposatha. 56 . 85. having falsely accused the bruk~u Dabba Mallaputta of having seduced his wife. Finally. 149c. The disciplinary texts have fixed the ceremonial of Taking Refuge (Digha. SaJ!1yutla. 113 . T 1435. Each fortnight . IV. 2)5 sq. 4960. p .. I. SumailpJa. ch. it simply consists of a unilateral act through which the candidate commits himself. acknowledged his offence as an offence and vowed not to repeat it.. I. unlike the ordination (upasampadD) of the bhik~u and bhik~u~i which takes place in the presence of the chapter and which the community sanctions by means of the legal procedure of the jnapticaturthllJcarman.

. furnishing it. A son of the Sikya. depriving them of lodgings. The texts have compiled a list of meritorious material deeds (PUIJ)'QkriyoV(U(u) which are recommended to the laity. Rising above purely self-interested preoccupations. p. The faith and moraJity demanded of the lay person are eclipsed by the third virtue. the circumstances of the gesture. 261Q . 124-7. 2. 21. causing them hann. He is merely reproached for offences or losses he might have caused the Community. whether he aspires for heavenly joys or sighs after human happiness"ln. BLOCH.hyi. tending the sick. . 777b. building a monastery o n it. 427e . 7. a hln. pp. Its value varies depending on the importance of the thing given.l Vin. pp. assisting strangers and travellers. 3. insu1ting them. 7. ch. . p.. 4. tho 35. I. p. No. Chu te fu fien chin" T 683. They are seven in number : I. the monks "tum the alms-bow'" upside down (patlll1?1 nikkujjantl). allocating revenue to it. 3. an Arhat in particular. Only eight faults are taken into account : preventing monks from obtaining alms. is "I Vinaya. giving alms. 170. Through such pious works. " ' Chun. the Buddhists congratulate sovereigns who carry out great works of public utility : providing water supplies in the desert.VinaYI. but also and in particular the moral 80 quality of the beneficiary.II MlhlsiTflJ. II. which is in some way his justification : generosity (/yoga) : "It is good continually to distribute rice-gruel for whomever desires joy... that is. merit increases day and night and one is certain to be reborn always among gods and mankind Ill. 353. causing dissension among them. 94. cb. . 125. he is granted pardon. II. T 26. if not. p. Tsm. 2. pp. 5. p. slandering the Buddha. planting trees to provide fruit and coolness. confesses it and commits himself not to do it again" I. i I han. compare the second Roclr.hi1r. T 1425. p. 6. 4. However. refuse to accept any gift from him : a punishment to which no Indian remains insensible I" . in cold weather or at times of famine. giving land to the congregation. as far as we know. the donor's intention. Edict and the seventh Pillar Edict. giving the congregation food and sweetmeats I I I . Ir the upisaka acknowledges his fault and promises to mend his ways. 741e: MalwkwldtuiilftJ in Koiavyilr. T 125.. .. Theoreticians have elaborated a whole ethics of giving.72 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 78-80) offence" (atyaYIlI?1 pratig~h~all) and congratulated him : "He is a gain for the Law who acknowledges his offence. 110 VinaYI.. the Law o r the Community. there is no 79 example of an upisaka being questioned about his general faults. providing bridges and ferries.

81 > IDEAL AND VIRTUES OF THE LAITY 73 the best field of merit. attach great importance to the last thought. 111. First. . Nevertheless. do you believe that) will go to another house after your death? You know as well as ) do that for sixteen years we have practised chastity at home. <40&·10. II' II. pp. III.S. like Indians in general. a good seed bears little fruit or none at alP" . · AilJUttara. Thus. they should be reassured and consoled : "You possess intelligent faith in the Buddha.4. In imitation of the bhik~u who. "the Blessed One does not approve of such a death . see Ma. absence of doubt. which are particular forms of I' •. it is not forbidden to be charitable to the non-Buddhist religious. I am possessed of penetration. Or. more than ever. However. so do not be attached to them. she said to him. the gift of the Law. 2j. 111 ~}1Itta. On lhis hierarchy of PfII!y~trQ. Buddhists. sense-pleasures and even the blisses of the lower and higher paradises . to see the monks? After your death. confidence. V. dispenses the best of all gifts. pp. the supreme recipient of alms. Do you fear that after you are gone I will not be able to feed our children?) am a skilled spinner of cotton and it will not be difficult for me to ensure the running of the household . the lay person is expected to inspire good thoughts in those who are in pain or suffering. the joys of the paradises including the Brahmi heaven are transitory and linked to the idea of the Self. " You must leave 11 your family. absence of scepticism and perfect serenity" The Buddha taught his cousin the upisaka Mahiniman the way to prepare the faithful for death. so reject all concern regarding them. His help will go especially to the sick and dying.( 8(). the " thought (at the time) of dying" (marDIJacitta) . With regard to the religion.. 29S-8. in poor soil. the Law and the Community and the moral rules dear to the holy ones". I will no longer observe the rules of Buddhist morality perfectly. through his preaching. we see the mother of Nakula comforting her dying husband and inspiring him with feelings of joy and peace : "00 not die anxious in mind". Or that I will have no further desire to see the Bhagavat.ijhima. since that is what will determine the "thought (at the time) of conception" (upopacitta) and consequently the new existence of the deceased. I will desire to see them . to criminals or even to animals. raise your thoughts higher : apply them to the destruction of the Self'll) . it should not be forgouen that. that) will lose inward calmness of mind . The upisaka cannot disregard the spiritual welfare of his brothers. Then he is requested to renounce his parents. Do not think that. pp. human pleasures are fteeting. after your death. wife and sons. Worship (piij6) and devotion (bhaktlj·.

p. When Ananda asked him what should be done with regard to his mortal remains. the wisdom (prajfiii) required of the laity nevertheless relates to the most important aspects of the Buddhist truths : an at least theoretical knowledge of the rise and fall of things (udilyallhagamini paflifii) and the noble penetration (ariya nibbedhikii) concerning the complete destruction of suffering (sammadukkhakhaya) 1'1 .. caityas and places of pilgrimage II'.. A householder. 156. morality and generosity are indeed the cardinal virtues of the Buddhist laity is evident from the .u. Please attend only to your own salvation. . involved in the troubles of his time. IV. There exist. finally. difficult to understand. IV. brahmins and.5.1. p. A. the Buddha replied : "00 not concern yourself.t. m Koia. to the Satpgha 189. Indeed. Diaha.. when listening to his words. and the sects were to debate the respective value of gifts presented to the Buddha. 1. cannot be expected to grasp " the profound truth. wise men who have faith in the Tathagata and who will pay suitable homage to the remains of the Tathagata" 116. . p. among the nobles. 82 While not emphatic over details. Ananda. the question gives rise to controversy. to stiipas and caityas and. He will acquire this learning from well educated monks and by following carefully the sermons.74 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 81 -82) giving. THE fNSTRUcnON OF ll{E LAITY. listened attentively and not absent mindedly I ' 0. with the honours to be paid to the mortal remains of the Tathagata. p. which is difficult to perceive. A monk can aspire to be a great scholar (bahuJruta). The texts do not especially emphasize the other two virtues required of the lay person : learning (sru/a) and wisdom (prajiiii) . IV. . . among householders. II. . Ailguttara. there is no reason why it should not be fruitful when no one receives itl ts. 4--5. the Buddha accepted in advance all the gifts presented to stiipas.. Nevertheless. 269 . if a gift engenders merit when someone receives it. but a lay person will never be more than a petty scholar. a Sruta. p. We can cite the example of the house· holder named Ugga who. at the time of his Parinirvana. 21\. . abstruse and which only the wise can grasp". Funhennore. 8.That faith. 211 . are especially incumbent on the laity. IV. when serving a monk. 2. sublime. ' " Koia . Ananda.The objection that worship is deprived of all merit under the pretext that there is no one to receive it is untenable. • to AilaulLlra. p. uS UCI~I bouddI!~s. served him perfectly and.uLo.

T 16 and 17. wife and children. Chung a han. T 99. The pious layman will also abstain from any immoral action. While not condemning those superstitious practices outright.410. T 26. a passion for gambling.( 82·8]) INSTRUcnON OF THE LAITY 75 disciplinary code which the Buddha composed for the benefit of householders and which is known by the name of the Siitgilloviidasullanta In. He will combat inwardly bad tendencies which are the bases of misconduct : craving. knowledge. Soma. in Digha. thert. teachers.ddiJ. 180-93 . III. On the advice of his father and in accordance with the Vedic prescriptions of the Satapatha BriihmaJ:!a and the GrhyasUtra. 353a. p. who are content with the blisses of this world and the heavens of the other world. It seems that from the outset Sakyamuni and the great disciples refrained from revealing the whole of the Buddhist law to the upisakas. The teaching imparted to the laity was in keeping with that ideal. Sakyamuni enjoined him to revere and respect his immediate entourage and the persons who. 638. clI. batred. The observance of natural virtues. the uphakas. he will watch over his material interests in such a way as to keep intact his means of providing for the needs of his family. p. finally. Indra.a. the young Singila revered the cardinal points and the deities appointed to guard them: Agni. visits to fairs. friends and the noble community of the religious. p. T I. Natural law itself defines the duties which man owes those various categories of persons. he will be reborn into a happy but not final destiny. but "to victory (vl}'aya) and success (iiraddha) in this world and in the other" : after his death. Vi~". most especially the virtue of almsB3 giving will lead the lay person. The bhik~us who aspired to tranquillity. th. delusion and fear. Ch' ang a han. t ho 33. In Siii. sexual misconduct and falsehood . 48. TAl a han. Finally and above all. not to the destruction of suffering and to Nirvi". in the present life. servants and craftsman and. 70. II . the company of bad friends and. Varu".u and Brhaspati. Enlightenment and Nirvi". He win carefully avoid any corruption or imprudence which might threaten his fortune and lead him to ruin: intoxication. religious leaders and brahmins.nlltllllla. friends and companions. . particularly murder. finally. will be taught the rudiments of faith and the principles of natural law or of lay morality. served to orientate the activity of every wellborn man: parents. nocturnal excursions. idleness. pp.a.a will be instructed in the noble truths in three articles and twelve parts.

The reticent attitude taken by the Buddha cannot be explained by a wish to reserve the truth ror a privileged rew. but only to the religious". are lost. I also teach my Law and the religious lire to members or heretical ascetic sects. pp. At the end of the sennan. which constitute a bad field. and why? If they understand at least one word. he learned rrom experience that not all men are capable or grasping the minutest subtleties or the Law and that to teach it indiscriminately to all classes or society was not worthwhile. their protection and their reruge in me. Nevertheless. Aniithapil)c. He had no pretensions to esoterism ror he was not like those heretical masters who practise the iiciiryam~!i . On the contrary. through not having heard the Law.lada then asked that complete teaching of the Law be imparted to the laity too. and this is the first time that I have heard this religious discourse (dhammi katha)".jjhima. to the upisakas and upiisikiis who are a mediocre field : they all have their island. the Master compared the religious to an uncracked and non-porous pitcher. Similarly. expounded on disgust for sense-o. 'u Sarpyulta. the lay person to an uncracked but porous pitcher . If) M. the rich banker Anathapi~c. and the heretic to a cracked and porous pitcher' . Likewise. Sariputra replied : "That is because such expositions are not explained to the laity. to those dressed in white.is. called the wise Sariputra to him and the latter. The Master explained himselr on this point. close their fists and reruse to teach . their resting· place. I teach my Law and the perfoct religious lire to the bhik$us and bhik$ul). IV.. Ill. arter having sown in the good field. . that will be or great use to them" .. he sows in the mediocre one. One day Asibandhakaputta asked him the reason why the Buddha. mediocre and bad fields .tada. The Master replied : "There are good. and who could become full (aiirliitiiro) understanders or the LaW"l~l . Making use or another comparison. p. for "there arc sons of good family who. he mayor may not sow in the bad field .bjocts. onc of the greatest benefactors of the church. in order to comfort him. 114-17. The rarmer who wishes to sow. who has pity on all beings. since that field at least provides nourishment ror animals.. the banker broke into tears and remarked : "I have revered the Master for a long time. teaches the Law to the best or his 84 ability only to some and not to others. he opened to all the doors to immortality. who constitute a good field . sows in the good field. 261. When he was ill..76 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 83-84) or at least it was only to the bhik~us that they expounded it "to the best of their ability" (sakkaccam).

. animals. JA.. that "everything that has arising as its law also has perishing as its law"''' . its cessation and the path to its cessation. IS. Religious propaganda at the time of ASoka was not focused on the noble truths. LA Row de {Q V~ 6 A}Dt)r6. 228 . pp. M• . 192 . In vain would one look in ASoka's inscriptions for the profound ideas and basic theories of Buddhism : they neither mention the four noble truths. were representations of the six destinies of the beings of this world : the hell-born. J.. the gradual teaching was never imposed on all upisakas indiscriminately and in fact affected only a minority of the laity. for the use of the laity eager to learn all the truths of the faith. p. 18. 313· 31. II . liberated. 156. vanity and defilement of desires . I.". a complete and progressive summary was instituted and received the name of gradual teaching (anupiirvikallui). Udina. 101 . •• Oi¥)'ivadina. craving.dual lcach. p.. 308 . Then followed the teaching of the Law proper (dharmadeJanQ) which is the culminating point for the Buddhas : suffering. as it appears from teveral 5QUrce$ : Vinaya. It began with three discourses concerned respectively with giving. the third mellowed. pp. its origin. 277. I. 8116. but on the general principles of natural law. 14. p. 110. II. it led the listener to the very centre ofthe doctrine. The whole was enveloped in the claws of a grimacing demon which is " impermanence" (anityat6). p.represented by a dove.ijhima. At the centre of the wheel. Vin . 1920. nor the doctrine of dependent origination. nor even the supernormal attributes of the Buddha. Oigha. V~ du /louddIIQ. the second revealed the harm. All round were the twelve nidana shown by symbols. 102. IU lUi wu fully fixed. II. 379. hatred and cJclusion were depicted . '96 • A monk who was specially appointed to this task was entrusted with explaining to the faithful this vivid representation of the holy doctrine. Within the wheel. Muluarv. pp.( 14-85) INSTRUCTION OF THE LAITY 77 I~ However. L. ch. pretas. 300. namely. Two stanzas were inscribed below : "Start now. I. . p.A. p. They merely describe the L It could be: said t!\al the . 145. make an effort. placed at the entrances to monasteries. I. apply yourselves to the Law of the Buddha . Milinda. Sumanpla. lAmaIsm. a snake and a pig . pp. All the same. Divya.inl (tlllllpllnikQth4) wu 10 lbe la ity w!\al Iht: •• DllarmocakrQprQwutDlllUiitrQ was to the rdiJious.• T 1442. 41 . p. . FOIJC)ID. mankind. p. 354 . divided into six sections. 49.. PUYLUSl:I . WADOEU. asuras and gods. p.the driving power of the round of rebirths. pp. exalted and appeased the mind of the listener. the monks painted images of the "wheel of rebirths" (sturJSiiramtllJf!ola) in the entrance-halls of the monasteries. p.. 616-17. nor the eightfold Path. When required and in order to illustrate their lessons. morality and heaven : the first emphasized the advantages of renunciation.

n. 68·80. with little dogmatic scope. redeems. patience and vigour. give orders to servants. They had to bring up a family. If the monk who strives for holiness (arhattva) conforms to the Buddhas's law (dharmiinuciirin).. alms. Saqlyulta. but suitable for terrifying the minds and striking the imagination : descriptions of the pangs of death and the torments of the hells. pp. The principal aim of these missions was nOI to lear the Indian population away from its an~tral beliefs and superstitious practices. composure and meditation. •• See the titles of the sennans preached by the missionaries of Mogplipunatissa : Dpv. pp. Cb. even closer to Sikyamuni who. stories of ghosts..78 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( SS. pp. to his relics and to his spiritual sons the worship which is due to them. Secular life made it. Householders who adhered to Buddhism did not forswear their fonner convictions as such. . lAJcJ:Juu. the meagre satisfactions which he legitimately allows his senses and heart. Ill.86) precepts of universal morality as they had already been fannulated for the use of the laity in the canonical writings : LakkhaJ. Gahopoti'IQUaI in M. The layman who makes sacrifices for his family. As long as they had taken refuge in the Three Jewels and generously presented the congregation with clothing. 208·3S. succours his fellows. . seats. pp.asut/CUltQ in Digh. erects temples. IV.ta and Singdloviida of the Digha and the various GaluJpativagga of the Majjhima. I. he is nonetheless a socially unproductive being. sought less to instruct their listeners in the truths of the faith than to attract their adherence by means of homilies. The Buddhist missionaries themselves. in the course of his fonner lives. 180-93 . poverty. SillgtJIoYdda.. a sublime egoist. carried charity to its perfection (piiramil6)'! Is it legitimate to reserve for the monk alone the .iihim •• I. through his generosity. edifying tales and fables 19' . the former were equivalent to the latter. pp. 339-413. Admirable as the monk devoted to working at his personal sanctification may be. 86 but to secure for the congregation of the Sons of the Sikya a growing number of dedicated sympathizers (prasiidita) and generous donors (diinapall) . they considered they had completely fulfilled their duties. builds monasteries and renders to the Buddha. if not impossible. Cb.. chastity. in their opinion. 66-7. Satllyutta and Anguttara 191. when setting out on the spiritual conquest of India. 142· 72 . They gained in active virtues what they lost in passive ones and. pp. VIII . Few sought to penetrate the mysteries of a doctrine fonnulated by monks for other monks. Ill.. is not the layman.. ibKi. through his pity and devotion (bhalw). AflJUttara. at least very difficult to practise the virtues required of a monk : mortification. XII : Samantapisidiki. Mhv. manage and enlarge their fortunes . beds and medicines.

the crucial point is to know whether the upisaka can accede to Arhatship. I am not categorical (tkmruavada) : in a lay person as in the religious. superstition. 467. he will attain the end of suffering. and only to promise the layman a good rebirth in the world of the gods and of mankind? This quesbon arose early on for the theoreticians of Buddhism. pp. That holiness is the same for all appears from various scriptural passages : "The layman as well as the monk. 244. doubt.By rneans of the severing of the five gross fetters (false view of the Self. By means of the severing of the three fetters and the lessening of craving. '" make distinctions (vihhajyavdda).min. I blame bad conduct"lol . II . covetousness and ill-will). he is an anigi. Conversely. sakrdigimin and anigamin : "By rneans of the severing of the three feuers (false view of the self. 49(). Nirva!)a. the fourth and last fruit of the religious life.1. Sarp)'Uua. is not subject to rebirth in the lower destinies. 11 50 the congregation of Gautama. • \1) . is sure of deliverance and destined to win supreme enlightenment. hatred and delusion. The monks ~nted to reserve for themselves at least a part of the fruits of the religious life (irtlmaJ:ryapha/a). close or distant. 134. he said to Todeyaputta.' 'RE:s:PEcnvE RIGHTS LATTY. if he is of good conduct (samyaJcpratipam). born spontaneously (into the world of the gods) and there attaining Nirvi1)l : he is not destined to come back from that world"loo. pp. However. but it is difficult to attain by those who remain in the world. Two things showd be remembered : holiness is the same for everyone. It was furthermore accepted without controversy that the layman living at home can reap the first three fruits of the religious life and acoede to the state of srolaapanna. I t! Majjhima. 197.(1U7) RESPECTIVE RJGHTS OF THE RELIGIOUS AND THE LAITY 79 risht to definitive deliverance. particularly that of holiness (arhauva) and Nirvi!)a. . · - I" Majjhima. Le . I" Maiibima. the upisaka is a sakrdagimin : after having returned once to this world. . It was acc::c:pted from the beginning that the attainment of Nirvi!)a constitutes the ideal. doubt and superstition). slopes. slants and proceeds towards the ocean. slants and proceeds towards Nirva!)a'·l u . of all Buddhists indiscriminately : "Just as the river Ganges slopes. the laity fought to ensure themselves rights equal to those of the religious. p. I. p. OF nIE RELIGIOUS AND 1l{E .• possessed of the eight branches of the Path. I. the upasaka is a srotaapanna. V. The Buddha refused to adopt a definite position : "Regarding that matter". the laity as well as the religious.

80 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA <87·88) precisely because of that good conduct. p. leaving son and wife. p. "he would not remain at home and eat as he pleases"2o. 63 . pp. Sarpyutta. "there is no difference in the matter of deliverance (vimukll) between an upasaka and a bhik~u whose mind is freed from impurities" lOJ . • 09 M. were he so. says the Suttanipdlo. as we know. May he wander alone like a rhinoceros"lo9. M 'JJ ma. wander alone like a rhinoceros..ta) without ever having taken up the religious life a • . it is a fish·hook .jjhima. little enjoyment. the 88 Immortal (am!. By the very fact that he remains in the world. in it. Furthermore.. The StvrJyutto admits that respect for worthy people. 410. . correct reflection and conformity with the precepts of the Law qualities which are within reach of the laity as well as the religious suffice: to ensure the winning of the four fruits of the Path. pp.01 . . M. polished like a conch. I. '" . Trapu~ and Bhallika at their head. ··hi . I wish to have my hair and beard shaved off. V. the disciple of the Buddha proves that he is not free from corruption since. ifiiyOI11 dhammatrt kusa1arrr)" J01.. law and good (arodhako hot. who attained the End (ninhd). the destruction of the impurities and the attainment of Nirva~a depend solely on the practice of the bronma'lljhij· ro which. . V. SaIJlYIIlta. . 1 p. there is little happiness. passing from the home to the homeless life"lo. A CUriOllS sutta in the Majjhima seems to make comprehension of the Doble truths. put on the yellow robe and leave the family. in its absolute purity. p. 197. 111. wealth and harvest. 41()"'11. hearing the Good Law. DiJha. II. life outside is liberty. It is not easy for whoever remains at home to observe the brihma life in its absolute fullness. it should not be concluded from this that there was no need to take up the religious life. p. May he say to himself : Family life is a bond. 36-9.ijhima. father and mother.. 60 "I. however. Sarpyulta. are not of Buddhist invention 206 . p.. I. . Sultanipil. much pain. The Anguttara knows of some twenty lay people.unu.. should renounce the world : "May he. friends and objects of desire. V. JOI 'U u. Y... 451. If. Aii. including Arhatshipl05 . achieves great succ:ess as 10 method. 19. The wise man. Now then. The householder who has heard the Law and has faith in the Tathagata should say to himself : "Household life is a hindrance and the path of passions . a few upisakas placed in particularly favourable condi· tions reached holiness and deliverance.

47·&6. The Mahayanists substituted for the old ideal of personal holiness followed . Bahusrutiyas. • ibid. Sarvistivadins. 267. let us admit it. Vatsiputriyas. Mahasilflghikas and PiirvaSailas 211 . the laity passed to the offensive by claiming that the Arhat. They were disputed by the Theravadins. a certain Mahadeva put forward five heterodox propositions which were the origin of the Maha~ghika schism : There are Arhats. In order 10 attain this goal. 819b . the Mahayanist commits himself to the bodhisauva path : for three. he said. The northern school of the Uttaripathakas asserted without any restriction or reservation that there was holiness (arha llva) for the laity : one could become a holy one while remaining bound to lay condition and by retaining lay characteristics 11l • This proposition was disputed by the Theravadins of Ceylon. . 9S6b). T 1544. aner death. saved by others and for whom the Path oc:c:urs because of speech. The emergence of the Mahayana established the triumph of lay aspirations· . DiJba. by entry into Nirval)a. p. who are led astray by others. PiirvaSailas. More than a hundred years aner the Parinirval)a. was subject to regressing from holiness. ch. These theses aimed directly against the holiness of the religious were immediately adopted by the Mahisif!lghikas. III Kathivauhu. p. Cetiyas and Haimavatas. p. subject to ignorance. &tl'$. Sarvistivadins.( U ·89) RESPEcrJVE RIGHTS OF mE RELIGIOUS AND THE LAITY 81 Indeed. 19 Such a moderate and. p. 291. 10. Salflmatiyas. 163-95). Their aspirations were supported by certain schools. I.Au. This thesis was adopted by five known schools : the Saf!lmatiyas. pp. wise attitude adopted by the Buddha and the early writings regarding the problem of the condition of life could not entirely satisfy the laity who wanted equal rights with the religious. of whom the religious wanted to retain the monopoly. 7. seven or thirty-three countless !If I. I II BAAl. a new ideal wholly imbued with altruism : the thought of Enlightenment (bodJridtta) associated with the wish for supreme and perfect Enlightenment (anuttarasamyaks~bodhl) and having as its object the welfare and happiness of all creatures. Not content with asserting their equality. and that of the Sarvistivadins in the Jiillnaprasthiina (T 1543. pp. IU 10. th. the religious life offers immense advantages to those who aspire after salvation : full details are given in the Sdmaiiiiaphalasulla ll o . exposed to doubt. Vitsiputriyas and Mahisasakas 21l • The rejoinder of the Tberavadins can be found in the KathDvallhu (I.

[tisiivadya) is not only free of offence. capital offences (murder. N. The Bodhisattvabhiimi submits that the bodhisattva who.iJof/WU al /tJdrW~p6~ UJMUdQcQrll/i ~lIikaf eQ bIuIwlIi btJJru ~yam prrmiyatt. If we are to believe the Upadesa. 16. t h. 91 The theoreticians of the Mahayana ended by denying any importance to morality (sita) as such and to restraint (sQI!Ivara) in life which is basically morality of commitment (samiiddlJaiita) . but of ensuring. vigour. through skilful means. ManjuSri. while in the Hinayana. "The bodhisattva should fulfi~ the perfection of morality by basing himself on the non-existence of sin and good action (Jnapiiramilii paripiirayilavyii iipatty-aniipatty-anadhyiipattitiim upiidiiya)Z J 6. Thus. Upadc:Sa. the first sixteen. Unlike the old sutras of the Tripi~ka compiled mainly for the edification of the bhik~us. etc. Maitreya. . Success in the bodhisattva career is not linked to the condition of life. T t509. ecstasy and wisdom. ed. It is no longer a question for him of destroying his own passions. morality.4J}Y11I't Qpi yod bodh. but also wins great merit 114 . p. wcre laymen. NagarII .is less the strict observance of the rules than this altruistic intention in applying them. perpetrates a transgression against nature (prak. beginning with Bhadrapila. to be more exact.. establishes himself in Nirvas:ta " as if he does not dwell there" (aprat~!hita njrva~) in order to continue his liberating activity. p. lila. etc) entail excommunication whatever the motive. DuTr. bbUmi. only the other four..s-6 : cuti eQ kil!lci/ !II pt'CIk~/isQ. the Vaipulyasiilra of the Mahayana are addressed to "sons and daughters of good family" (kulaputra and kulaputrfyQ). patience. were monks zlJ . in the Mahayana they do not entail it if they have been committed for the benefit of others. he passes through the stages (bhuml) of a long career during which he practises in an ever morc lucid and benefactory manner the six or len perfections (paramilO) required of his state: giving. In the field of religious discipline.10. So it is voluntarily that the bodhisattva delays his entry into Nirvis:ta or.whether he lives at home {g[hastha) or has left the world (pravrajila) . What is of importance for the bodhisattva . 1. by means of the practice of the perfections. among those twenty-two bodhisattvas.. 18. Bodh. the distinction between the monk and the lay person tends to disappear. 7. m Plik:avitpiatilihasriki. The sulras of the Mahayana often begin by enumerating particularly venerable great bodhisattvas : the list generally exceeds twenty. pp. the happiness of all beings. The bodhisattva career is open to all : as much to the laity and even more so to the religious. for such a purification would have the disadvantage of his attaining Nirvas:ta prematurely.82 INDIA AT TIlE TIME OF THE BUDDHA ( 90-91 ) 90 periods. theft.

6. 2S6c-2S9c. one gets the impression that for the bodhisattva this religious vocation is purely platonic and that it is not necessarily followed up. 7. 27a-29b . th o49.tJn/llt. "is not a false view. p. U1 Ibid. T 220. in his life as a religious. 409c-4J9c.!kriimatl talltdg"ta. 11. pp. 4J5b 12. he does not trangress against morality.Uilya) . T 1509. the choice of a condition of life destined to protect morality has no more than a minimal importance . th . 82b-8&-.'2 U. Upadcia. T 1509. Chinese uanslations. if sin does not exist. th o4. The bodhisattva who is in the first stage should practise the preparation for the ten stages (diJiabhilmiparikarma)· . with the eye of wisdom.. Upadc:ia. pp.4#)'tlWlJI'aJOT 1li~ld. the candidate merely meditates on the dangers and disadvantages of secular life and the advantages of the religious life. 214-2S. JU Ibid. shaves his head and wears the ka~ya"211 . Even though. This is evident from the Bhilmislltrlbhiira. for various reasons. without anyone being able to prevent him" 220 . T 223.saM pra""jDli tID cdsy" kajd d llIIltuii:yu bhD""ti. In such conditions.6 : r at sarWlj6t~y a~yawrktrrw 'Mini.fcJ. 16k. However. p. does not exist either" 211 . pp. 49-50. This higher vision is not an incentive to wrongdoing.. t h. The superiority of the religious life which is extolled so much in the Hinayana is a prejudice from which the bodhisattva should free himself. pp. Indeed. p. pp. no PailcavitpSati. its opposite. 41S pp. SaI. m Pai\tavifPbtis. good action . text) : rei bodI!/sa/f'aJya prawajilajanlrwfJI budrJhak. 220. T 222. when he reaches the fifth stage. pp. T 221. on 92 reading the commentary. th . that sin does not exist. one sees. th . 1454-73 . he always leaves home. he attaches even more importance to entering the Door to deliverance named Emptiness (Siinyatavimokfamukha). 196b199a. . p. without changing his mind.i~riki .5i~riki. However.IaJyciM~ nilk'lJmt1IJDtd """J4twltd /c.ftlfcfd ~lfatr' ~. 14. the bodhisattva shuns the company of the laity (grhisOJ!lStava) : " Passing from Buddha-field to Buddha-field. immorality (dauJ. he leaves home and enters the religion of the Tathagata. particularly the constant leaving of the world (abhi1q1J01!l na4kramya) : "In all his existences. quite the opposite! It is the door to deliverance. an important section of the Prajniiparamitii which has often been translated into Chinese and is commented upon at length in the Upadefa l19 . Ghou. 218. ed. To quote Nagarjuna again : "The bodhisattva who knows the true significance of all Dhannas (sarvadharmabhutanayapratislltrlvedin) does not perceive morality (jila) and even less so. th .12· 13 (corrected. If one examines carefully the nature of things and one practises concentration on emptiness (SiinyatiisamiidJIl). 1.( 91-92 )· RESPECTIVE RIGHTS OF THE RELIGIOUS AND THE LAlIT 83 juna justifies this concept : To speak of the non-existence of sin and good action". he explains.

. because the specific nature of the Saf'!lgha is unconditioned (asmrukrta) and invisible (adf. From the higher point of view which is that of the Mahayana.1) : Satrt. every contradiction disappears. fully realizing the twofold emptiness of beings and trungs.lwMiJrQJ'a.84 INDIA AT THE TIME OF THE BUDDHA (92) Finally.ltatWrIiltQ. From this higher point of view.11 · 12 (oonectcd 1e:. there is no longer any difference between the religious and the laity for the very good reason that they are both nonexistent. in the seventh stage. UI Ibid" p. the bodhisauva.!{a)2 22. 11.J~f'Qtft5d fIlimOlfdc elf. eliminates twenty prejudices among which figures attachment to false views concerning the Commu· nity (saJ!tghaniJrayadrf{yabJrinivda).drllydbltitli~Jo lID IcdT/lf' ytUJ SllI!'I. 222.

and its capital Tak~sila .l4a and KalaSoka. if this fact is true.( 93-94) 9J CHAPTER TWO THE MAGADHAN PERIOD GENERAL fEATURES OF THE PERIOD. Haihaya on the Narmada and of Asmaka on the Upper Godavari in the centre and south-west. the seat of an ancient university. and three more centuries were required for the Good Law to be implanted in the region. Uttaripatha. a lightning raid by Alexander (327-324). the princes had the interests of the state at hean and built up piecemeal an extensive kingdom which included the territories of the Vrjis and Kosala in the north. that the north-west returned to the mother-country and again entered the orbit of the Indian empire. According to a late and probably apocryphal tradition. Udayin. In the meantime. Bengal and Kaliilga in the east. Sisunagas (414-346) and the Nine Nadas (346-324). MUJ:. However. the island of Ceylon was occupied by an Aryan colony. the territories of the Avanti (Malwa). the north-west was drawn into a rapid succession of events : 94 the Achaemenid conquest and occupation (559-336) .The term Magadhan can be applied to the period which extended from 546 to 324 D.C. Towards the end of the sixth century. some of them showed sympathy for the Duddhist Order and favoured its development: Dimbisara. after the failure of Seleucus' campaign against Candragupta. . the royal example was not followed by the mass of the population. Despite the palace dramas which regularly bathed the throne in blood. formed . Religious history cannot overlook two regions which had not yet been touched by Buddhist propaganda at the Magadhan period. which originated in Uta (Gulf of Cambay). and superimposed itself on the primitive population of the . its king Pukkusati had known the Buddha in the sixth century and been converted. however. The religious zeal of the princes was not as great as was their political consciousness. KuruPaiicala and the Mathura region in the west. at an early date. AjataSatru (after his accession to the throne). and which is characterized by the constant growth of the kingdom of Magadha under the successive dynasties orthe Haryarikas (546-414). an influential centre of Indian culture. a region in the north-west. It was only in 305. and quarrels among the Diadochi (325-305). but which were later to he<:ome two imponant holy lands : Uttarapatha and the island of Ceylon.

These pessimistic forecasts concerning the vanishing of the Dharma and the circumstances which might accompany it are lacking in coherence. but their compilation required many centuries and was still not completed in the fifth century of the Christian era. that of VaiSili. without always succeeding. Its first $Ucx:esses wert far from spectacular and hardly surpassed those of the rival orders of the Nirgranthas. Anuradhapura. while enriching it 9S with more or less authentic new compositions. condemned the laxist tendencies which had permeated some of the parishes. gave it a capital. in the course of history. Ajivikas. anachronisms and contradictions. the Buddhist Community. These Siqthala. Ja~i1a· kas. During the Magadhan period. It was on this basis that the canonical writings were elaborated. settled down slowly but surely. to institute it by exploiting the common doctrinal fund. as they were called. they were exploited to very different ends. Tradition attributes this undertaking to two Buddhist coun· cils which followed each other at a century's interval : the Council of Rijagrha. The first concern orlhe nascent community was to codify the teaching of the Buddha and to give the Order a well-defined doctrine and discipline. A history of Buddhism should also take into account the predictions which circulated very early on in the Community regarding the future disappearance of the Good Law. the rcx:ords devoted to these councils are riddled with improbabilities.ta supplied the original community with a law (dharma) and a set of rules (priitimolqa) which were more or less definitive : a sacred trust which constituted the common heritage of the schools which were to develop later. and prepared it to receive the message of Sakyamuni which the missionary Mahinda was to bring to it. only to be rediscovered and expounded again by the Buddhas of the future. Nevertheless. 11 remains nonetheless a fact that the work done by the early disciples (sthavira) during the two centuries which followed the Nirvas. This work was not carried out systematically. However. were governed from 486 to 250 by five successive kings who organized the island. which was held in 386 or 376. they .Iikas. compiled the Dharma and Vinaya. but with much classifying and reclassifying of the texts.86 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 94-95) Ve44as. of which the main centre was still the region of the Middle Ganges. for it was accc:pted by the disciples of Sakyamuni that after a greater or lesser period the Buddha's Doctrine would finally deteriorate and disappear. TedaJ)<. Aviruddhakas or Devadhinnikas. Each sect claimed to possess its own code of writings and attempted. which convened the very year of the Buddha's decease (486).

India .:ontinent. London. J. 1lENou.. Olford. ALLAN and others. I. 3rd cd. who were supposed to have received and transmitted the sacred trust of the doctrine. Cambridge. MAJuwou.e His/ory of Indian Ptoplt. I. 1941. 2nd cd. ScylMJ el YW-/(:M.a until that of ASoka. Each community. Olford . J. 1946. but did not however compel recognition from all the sa:lS of the l. DyNIJt~s tl lIiJtoirt de /'lNie depuis KanqluJ jusqu 'auJt inwuimu mundnlillWS . 191-4 . 5th cd. 2nd 1 . L 'lndt Clanique. L. WALDSCJDODT. Cambridge.Minlt India. - HISTORICAL FACTS I. Paris. E. A.. 1950. -4th cd. 1952 . L 'Indt. Tht His/()I'Y IIIId Clillurt 01 INJian People : I. RAwul'i3ON. Paris. had its own masters. preceptors (upiidhyiiya) and instructors (iiciirya) who were entrusted with conferring ordination on young recruits and guiding them along the paths of religious perfection. by the Sarvistividins and MUlasarvistivadins from the north-west. P.( 95 ) MAGADHAN DYNASTIES 87 arose In the minds of believers and. Ji.vrophflS tl Indo-Iran~fIS. 1938 . TIw £or/y H islory of 11'IdU!. 1941-53. about the second century A. 1923. AMiml IrtdiD .. FROM S46 to 32-4 8 . It was widely distributed. N. MAGADHAN DYNAS11F. fINk jwqw wrs 300 (JY. Paris. 1934 . RAnDN. FOIJCHD. Grea. 2 vol. but they make no mention of "Masters of the Law" (dharmiiciirya). Paris.MAGADHA.. deserve to be recorded and analyzed. . 1937. V.ce. This list was to be compiled later. 1923. 1M Age 01 Imperial Unily. Paris. Cakutta. $akyamuni had refused to designate a successor to preside over the destinies of the order he had founded . RAP!O~ and others. Cambridge.G . R. London. fA dyi/il(Jlion lit fiNk Anliqw. 1922 (with a rich bibliography). 1950. 1. FII.-C. s . 192-4 . and olben.C. Indeed. 1950.ie. (J Silorl CuJllITai Hillory. AfWrf'l hiJloriqw. 1M Oxford Hillory of 1ttd4J.D. 1952.tvI.. MaJuivtllflSa For a description of historical facu. Paris.D . 1933. Benares... or compiled. L 'lndt Anlique tl/(J CM/iJaliOft iNJ~1IIIt. J . The monks of Ceylon have preserved. L 'AJW OrinlltJW des origwJ au XV. GeJchichlt des indiJCMn AlltrllUflJ (Bruckmanns Weltgeschichte). Paris. TIw Ctlmlwidgt Shorler Hislory vI India . fA V~i/k ROIIlt lit I'lllde de &clrtsd T(Jxi/(J. SWITH. II..SnJ and others. RDIou.(JUX ItmpJ des MawytU tl deJ lkubvru.tz PoussIN. III and V). Paris. L ·/Ilde CirUiJatr. 1M Cambridge His/ory of India . 1M Vet/ig Agt.S I . however. R. a list ofthe "Vinaya Chiefs" (villilyapiimokkha) and "Masters of scholastics" (obhidhammaciiriya) who succeeded one another in Magadha from the time of the Nirval).. 1947. E. A. among which may be mentioned : E.C. the reader can refer to the general and compendious histone. I. particularly in Kasmir and China. Munich. because of that. Agt of 1M Nandtu IJIId Mawyas. H.IItdo£.h. G-. 1935. 2nd ed. MASSON-Otrun and olben. Sinhalese sources dating from the fourth and fifth centuries A. Olford. Paris. A ClNICu. DE LA VAU. Adrl1lfced Hillory 01 India . SA. L. L. 1930. 2 vol. : DipavtllflSa (Ch. Buddhists never acknowledged the authority of a single infallible leader.1JOZAT and others.OIJSSET and others.

II . Bombay. limited to given periods. Munda 6. TlIYIDA. 1937-38.t.. K. I. Bombay.. Kiliisoka 9. MOCHIZUIU SHtN1C6. p. M . 4. 2 YO!.. al50 sec H.5. London. Men tion must also be made of two large Japanese encydoptedias : 00 . AItANU"' . Nagoya.). BwJtII!(I$ und MaJf(hir(l$ NirwilJo IDId ~ poIitiJchr EnI .C..G) 546494 I. 60 before . 147-84. Tokyo. 1917.. Othtr works. it is thought that fou r royal houses and thirteen sovereigns succeeded ont another on the throne of Magadha. 19S4. London. To"tmO. will be r"t"ftrnd to in the rollowing pages. Nine Nandas IV.C.). R. London. Ten sons of 8 III. For the Magadhan period which is the subject or the present chapter. Bimbisara Ajitasattu Udayabhadda Anuruddha " 32 16 . 1930.C. London. 2. JACOBI. Tokyo. HinlAl CMiistl/iOil from 1M tariwsl timts up 10 Iltt ts/ob/uAlMnl of 1M Maw)"a fmpirt.. A. Candaguua 12.ickllUlK MagodJuu 111 jtntr bit...24 after 24-40 40-48 48-72 12·90 90-1 18 494-462 462. CHATrUJEE.140 1~ 1 62 368·346 346-324 162. pp.ALASEKnA. 71u! MagildJuu ill Anciclf India . 73) and its Chinese recension (T 1462. Era (B.8 before 8 before . JBORS. Sovereigns Yom of rule Era of the Nirvit:l8 Anc.. 2..ry inronnation : G . 5. BASH . 10. 1953. Two dic1ionanes of proper names constitute an imponanl souroe or historical or Ie&end. SPA W..88 TIfE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 96-97 ) 96 (Ch.MauryOlI H UIOf)' of BiMr. I.~ Clauicaf Agt. ~ WOIUk-r lilal 101(1$ INikl . 3. Awka before consecration after consecration 37 214-218 218-255 97 However. BuJcky6 Daijirtn (Great Encycloptedia of Buddhism).. During the period. 19S4. IV and V) and Samantapdsadikii (I.. TM P. MOO«. 1931. p. SU5uniiga 8.186 \86-214 28 4 324-300 300-272 )72·268 268·2)1 IJ. II. ... LAw. . London 1942 . 0 . BWcJcyo Daijiltn (Great Dictionary of Buddhism). Dictionary of PMi Pr0p'r N_s. C. 8 24 438-4 14 7. 1952. 557-68. pp. 1936 . Bindusira 18 28 22 22 24 414-396 396-368 118... 1931. ch. III . 316 years between Bimbisara's accession and the death of ASoka (546-230 B. lNi6-Bukkyd Koyimttulti Jilt" (Dictionary or Proper Names in Indian Buddhism). 72·3) count 218 years between the Buddha's decease and the consecration of ASoKa (486-268 B. in the genealogy of the Samantapasodj/Co (I. Nigadisaka II. MagadJuJ Archiltc/llrt aNi CwllU't. the eighth sovereign ed . 1946: S. B.r... 681b 2). P. XXXVIII.EkJl. pp.. "'. n..C.

a. Also cr. I. . among the sovereigns of Magadha. Its fifth sovereign Kikavaf1). This is the MaiijuSrimiilakalpa (vv. 6. Thus Buddhaghosa. 99c. T 2042. Susima This genealogy contains errors and omissions : it classifies Prasenajit. we can. This is notably the case for The ugend of Aioka (Divya. 265-7 in the notC$. p. Buddhist sources in Sanskrit which as we have seen claim that ASoka reigned in the year 100 of the Nirvi~a. DoIltvllU.. Anuruddha and Nigadisa . 3. Ajitaiatru 3. and on page 687a 24 of the Chinese_ Since Kalasoka appean only in the Sinhalese sources. 153). I. 132b) : " 1. p. 1620. i. Another Sanskrit source. in that work the order of succession of the fint six sovereigns is as follows: Bimbisara. MahimUl~lC. Udaya. Although the Sinhalese tradition was adopted by Burmese Buddhists. p. TP. son of Susuniga". Demieville. pp. 2.(97-98) MAGADHAN DYNASTIES 89 Kilisoka is merely given as "Asoka. as did P. the Maurya. from 368 to 268 B. king or Kosala.in is known to the PurdIJa by the name of Kikavaf1). ASoka the Black" beside the great ASoka. he appean under the name of Kilisoka only on pages 33 and 72 of the Pili text. p.e. T 2043. it was not so firmly established as has generally been believed. 10. Ajitaialru Udayibhadra Munda Kikavan:tin Sahilin 7. a different option in J. supplies a series of badly classified facts and chronological indications which are quite different from the Sinhalese chronicles. ch. Ajitasauu. Tulakucin MahimalJ. . 413-39) : I. S. have doubts about his existence 1 . 369. who subscribed to it in his Samantapiisddikd . 8imbisara 2. 9. Udiyin (reigned 20 years) . FllUOZAT : us rkwx AWica ~I I~s COItCilu bouddJriqlln JA. 353-79. 1948. discarded it in the Sumangalaviliisinl (I . 23. Bimbisira 2. nevertheless count twelve sovereigns within the short space of a century. which is an epithet meaning "crow-coloured" and one might wonder whether the Sinhalese chroniclers were not referring to him by placing a KiliSoka ..C. Bindusira 12. !)p. 8. ch. Indeed.Qala Prasenajil Nanda 11 . Cf. ch. P.la. A I"opru du conci/~ tk VQjj4ff. which also places ASoka in the year 100 of the Nirvil)a. p. XL. 191 -S. 4. T 99. and does not mention the Maurya Candragupta. 321-6.

XX . Candragupta (24) 13. Bindusara (reigned until he was 70 yean old). which confinns the Kahiivali of Bhadrrivara JI . Bindusira (25) 14. . Therefore.• IX. Merutunga. pp. in 468 D. • 10 . Nandivardhana (42) 10. . I..C. numbers 8. Ind. from the cnd of the eleventh century A. and Kii~ika . p. Udiyin (33) 9. Ed.D. fourteen sovereigns mounted the throne of Magadha. 1. number 7 represents the Nanda dynasty (346-324 B. Candragupta 6. Neither the Jaina nor brahmanical tradition confirm the Buddhist sources.) if ViSoka and Siirasena are respectively identified with Kilasoka and his eldest son Bhadrasena of the Pili sources . JAC08l. that of Ajiitaiatru. VIII. 5iirasena (reigned 17 years) 7.• ibill. 22 4 Po. Bimbisira (28) 6.aparvan l • the Jaina historian Hemacandra. ASoka Srel)ika is the forename of Dimbisira. JACOBI (Bib!. According to the PurOtJQ (P. The same author dates the accession of Candragupta in the year ISS after the death of Mahavira 4 which occurred. lists only seven sovereigns : I. Candragupta 9. 9 and 4 represent the first three Mauryas. Bindusiira 7.).. Nine Nandas 2. ViSoka (succeeded the last·named and ruled for 76 yean) 6. whether Pili or Sanskrit..90 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 98-99) 4. DarSaka (25) ) Ed.C.2. Aiolca Mukhya (acceded to the throne: 100 years after the Buddha.e. However.jj~!op(man.). . 99 In his Parii4.). ASoka (36) ~ . 24---5. J4atraujas (40) 8. Sisunaga (40 years) 2. Kikavama (36) 3. Mahipadma and his R !'iOns (100) 5. Srenika 4. in 253 R. 7. Nanda (lived for 67 years) 8. but over a period of 5 J7 years. i. it is believed. another Jaina author. 22 sq. 14 sq. 28).C.. This source mixes all the given facts : the first three sovereigns belong to the house of the Haryankas (546-414 B. 231 sq. to the house of the Sisunagas (414-346 B. Ku~ika 3. Mahinandin (43) II. AjitaSatru (25) 12. according to this datum. Candragupta would have mounted the throne of Ma· gadba in 313 D. in his Vicirasrel)i. 3. K~adhannan (20) 4. situates the accession sixty years later. numbers 5 and 6. 21.C. G. lived for 100 years and ruled for 87 years) 5. 1 sq. VI. 297 sq ..C. Udiyin 5.: VIII.C. 339.

His Kosalan wife brought him as dowry a village in the district of Viri1)asi which produced a revenue of one hundred thousand pieces of money.)' in his youth patronised Devadatta. E. 1938. He defeated King Brahmadatta and annexed Anga (Bengal) to his crown. AjitaSatru showed himself sympathetic towards Buddhism. Queen Kosaladevl'''s death followed soon afterwards. 566. Battle was first engaged against Kosala. we will follow here the Sinhalese chronology. built the monastery of Gayasi~ for him and took part in his plots against the Buddha's life. I~ hchtJ Frtj~j. . B. the crown princes regularly put their fathers to death : an uncontrollable but well established tradition. . From then on. 2. He came to the throne when aged 15 and had his residence in Rijagrha-Girivraja where he founded a new town. After initial successes. he sought out the Blessed One and apologized to him : the Master expounded the Siimaiiifaphalasutta to him and pardoned him . It achieved the unity of the Gangetic empire. AjitaSatru was beaten and taken prisoner but his uncle Prasenajit. 493-462 B. KiilJika Ajiitaiatru (during the period covering 8 years before to 24 years after the Nirvi1)a. Kokka. Jail.). 546494 B. His son AjitaSatru threw him into prison where he died of starvation . Later.(99-100) THE HARYANKAS 91 Since it is impossible to reach a decision about these contradictory attestations. seized with remorse. however. 2). whom he instructed in the doctrine of the Buddha.C. king of Kosala. but tarnished its reputation by numerous crimes : in order to accede to power more quickly. the schismatic cousin of the Buddha. MIoTSUMOTO. gave him the hand of his daughter Vajri in marriage and acknowledged his possession of the village in the district of KiSi which had served as a THE HARYANKAS (546-414 . but with distinct reservations concerning the existence of a KiliSoka and the 218 years which supposedly separated the Nirvi1)a from the consecration of ASoka. 100 I. He contracted marriages with the ruling families of the Madras. Kosala and VaiSifi.) was the contemporary of the Buddha and of Mahivira.C. freed him.According to the Buddhacarita (XI. SrefJika Bimbisiira (60-8 before the Nirvi1)a. as the earlier one had constantly been destroyed by fire. Kosala and the Vdis leagued together against him. the first kings of Magadha belonged to the illustrious Haryanka family. As a result of the odious murder of his own father Bimbisira.C. He was on friendly tenns with King Pukkusiti of Taxila. 0" II NturlltiYr III Killg AjOllJJlJlfU ill No.

AjiitaSatru arranged a fine funeral for his uncle. continued for many years. on the right bank or the river. However. Va~kira and Sunidha. His ~espair was extreme . Two months later.uio. 252 . Sumllipla. had. The king rainted. King Ce~ka of Vaisali called to arms the eighteen Gal)arijas of Kisi and Kosala together with the Licchavis and Mallas. king of Vaisafi. 72 sq. p.. Diglll. On pretext or protecting the king rrom the ratal effects or a bad dream. II. 516. Not without difficulty. . The very year of the Buddha's decease. during the Buddhist council held in Rijagrha."ha where he had them enclosed in a stone stiipa. II. • VinlYI . in tears he recalled the virtues of the Buddha and visited the places which the Buddha had ' sanctified by his presence.lha1ca who had just ascended the throne of Kosala. and the Vdi territory was attached to AjitaSatru's possessions. but died of exhaustion before he was able to reach him. II. The war waged by AjataSatru against the Vrji confederation.thaka. dissension was sown among his troops by the minister Va~kira who. Appmdill. or a dispute which had arisen between the Licchavis and AjataSatru over the joint exploitation of a diamond mine on the banks of the Ganges'. sec E. 87. rorti(ied the village or Pi~aligrima which was later to become the capital or the kingdom under the name or Pi~liputra9. Udina. His ministers had to take the greatest precautions when informing him or the Blessed Onfs decease. the king realized the extent or the misrortune 10 . p. which included in particular the Licchavis of Vaisali and tbe MaUas of Kusinagara and Pava. they placed him in a tank " filled with the rour sweetnesses". 7. like a new Coriolanus. u!Nr=n<k drJ B. AjitaSatru's ministers.. to restore to AjataSalru a 101 necklet which had once: belonged to Bimbisara. he obtained a portion of the Buddha's r~lics rrom the Mallas of KuSina· gara. From the time of his conversion the king increased his marks or attachment to the Buddha and his disciples.. repeated before. Prasenajit sought refuge with AjataSatru. p.. • UvUap--d. had pretended to pass to the enemy. WALDSCHMIDT.. The pretext for it was either the refu~1 of Cc!ah. he gave his royal support to the Elders and ensured their subsistence . Va~kira warned the Buddha orthe aggressive intentions orhis king. 10 On Ihi l epilOdc. Finally. pp. p. then told him the sad news. I. Vaisali was taleen by means of the catapults and heavy chariots of the Magadhans.92 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 100-101 ) pretext for the war. 228 . In order to resist the attack or his neighbour from the south. but did not disturb his cousin Virii«. and took them back to his capital RijalP. Dethroned by his son Viriic. p. and had to be plunged into a rurther two tanks and the announcement .

Anuruddha and MWJt!a (40-48 after the Nirva.C.4j6 UU.) : this city was to remain the capital of the Magadhan empire for many centuries. When she died. in tum succumbed at the hands of his son Udayin or Udayabhadra : forseeing this tum of events.) exercised a vice-royahy in Campa before acceding to the throne which he occupied for sixteen years. Udayin was at war with the kingdom of Avanti which.ta .C. but he visited the Kukku!apida where 102 the fonner had entered Nirvi~a and erected a stiipa over the portion of the relics left by the second. at the confluence of the Sona.imbi : the hostilities which began under his father AjitaSatru did not end until some fifty years later with the triumph of Sisuniga over the king of Avanti. 3. Anuruddha assassinated his father Udayin and in tum fell at the hands of his son Mur:lI.a . Uddy in or Udayabhadra (24-40 after the Nirva~a . NiigadliraJca (48-82 after Ihe Nirva~a .C. which took place during his reign.C. . known by the name of Sisuniiga. the Thera Nirada. was a further cause of sorrow for Ajitaiatru. went to Pa!aliputra to comfort Mu~<:la . the pauicide. )24 : Tasydpj SIIIt) . he had attempted in vain to make his son take up the religious life. had been enlarged by the addition of the territory of KauS.).( 101·102) THEHARYANKAS 93 The death of the first two masters of the Law. rebelled against him and replaced him by 11 capable minister. at the time. Despite his keen desire to do so. 438-414 B. he was unable to be present at their last moments. 462-446 B. " Mmk...). abbot of the Kukku~rama. in the fourth year of his reign (458 B.C. Although the house of the Haryarikas was favourable to their religion.) killed his father and ruled for twenty-four years. 6. ). In 462 AjataSatru. The Jaina sources agree with the PurdlJa in attributing to him the founding of the town of Pi!aliputra or Kusumapura on the right bank of the Ganges. It seems that Mahakasyapa died shortly after the council of Rajagrha (486 B. 446-438 B.C. at the request of the treasurer Piyaka . That pious encounter confinned the king in his Buddhist faith . 4-5. who grew weary of his behaviour. His subjects. Mahakisyapa and Ananda.. the Buddhists were severely censorious of that race of patricides.Gktffitul) I bluJriU'Qli tiMId kliprrlf!' ~I~ ell wdJ'lIl~ I lad rllIl P'Q'fQC"""r' Slblll likhQpa)·.isltUMi.. the king's grief was so acute that. v.6kIr)'ilI! 1'. The Buddhists claim that Udiyin had acx::epted the doctrine of the Buddha and had it written down II : the tradition is difficult to verify but should not be discarded a priOri. The latter's wife was Bhadri."yllli . and Ananda the year which preceded the death of the king (463 B.

l SI.). to the north. . The same text emphasizes that AjiitaSatru.5. a WATJn. The laity will lose their faith . as well as various episodes in the war of the relics in which that king played the leading part '2. king of Magadha. of SOAd.n d support. 236-48).5. The land will be invaded by Devas and Tirthilcas. The master of the Law also knew of the old tradition which attributed the founding of New Rijagrha sometimes to Bimbisira and sometimes to AjataSatru's . p. I. also ruled over Anga. II . 162. 321-2). "the masters of the world will kill each other from father to son. the pilgrim Fa-hsien recorded the traditions according to which AjataSatru had. The ancient school of sculpture in the second century B.tasi region and. The episodes which affected the beginnings of Buddhism in its relationship with the kings of Magadha very soon attracted the attention of artists. In the fifth and seventh centuries A. pp. men will take pleasure in killing living beings and they will lead a loose life" (vv. will kill and spy on one another. he is reported to have said. the Viirar.C. 211· 19. for the sole purpose of having better access to the Buddha '4. the memory of the ancient kings of Magadha was still young in India. l SI!. - According to the evidence of the MOIl. L WATfDt. .D . To the west of the VeIJuvana. II.. Ll l£oo[. II. sent a drunken elephant against the Buddha. tbe bhik~us will be engrossed in business affairs and the people. 76. pp. The same themes were also exploited by the artists of Gandhara and Amarivati. pp. in the Ya~!ivana and on the Grdhrakii18parvata. Ill. victims of greed.94 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 102· 104) The MaiijuSrimiUakalpa mentions the visit paid by AjiitaSatru to the 101 Buddha in order to obtain pardon a. p. built a new city in Rijagrha and assembled half of Ananda's relics on the banks of the Ganges I l . 146. he saw the stiipa which the latter had erected over his share of the Buddha's relics u .C. 104 THE 11 SlSUNAGAS (414-346 B. 148. Two centuries later. in his youth. Hsuao tsang mentions no less than two roadways constructed by Bimbisira in the area of Rijagrha. as far as VaiSiIi (vv. II WATTERS. 109. During his journey to the holy places. but this is only in order to recall the Buddha's prophecies regarding the difficult beginnings of his religion : "After my decease". produced a great many representations of the encounters between Bimbisira and the Buddha. and the population will place: its faith in the briihmins . 82. and gives details of the vicissitudes of the war of the relics. the due apology and conversion of AjitaSatm.

and the other. between the Kikavaf1)in of the Puril)as and of the 'legend of ASoka' and the Kilisoka of the Pili chronicles I'. however tempting. of an ASoka of the Sisuniga family. .). 41). 417).T. p. and one of his ten sons with the Surasena of the same source (v. such as The ugend of Asoka and the MaiijuSrimufakaipa.. which mentions a council which took place in Pi~aliputra in the year 236 of the Nirvi. II is not beyond the bounds of poSliibility that the Sinhalese chroniclers enti rely invented a Sisuniga. taking their inspiration from the Pur6l. was.al HiJtory a India.P. 1934. . • JA.( 104-IOS) THE SISUN. that the 'ugend of Asoka ' in Sanskrit replaces it with three sovereigns whose family is not named (Kikavaf1)in. p. the son of a Licchavi raja and a courtesan. This chronological uncertainty in no way authorizes a comparison. Jayaswal 11 suggests identifying KiliSoka with the ViSoka of the Maiijuirimulakalpa (v. of Sinhalese origin. 155). I. / II J.GAS 95 lOS Sinhalese chronicles. of continental origin. had no need of such subterfuge. ]4.)a. it will also be noted that the Puril)as place the Sisunigas before the Haryankas and. U S dna AJoka . Such chroniclers would therefore have duplicated the ASoka Maurya by assuming the existence. They called him "Black ASoka" (KiliSoka). Lahore. which give Aroka the Maurya as ruling in the year 100 of the Nirvil)a and know nothing whatever about the council of Pi!aliputra. whom a popular uprising placed on the throne of Magadha. However. according to the Tibetan historian Tiranitha (p. Kilasoka and the Ten Sons of KiliSoka. The latter give KiliSoka as the patron of the second Buddhist council which was held in VaiSiili in the year 100 or 110 of the Nirvil)a. under ASoka the Maurya. 136 years before his time.J. Buddhist sources in Sanskrit. the Dunnese tradition has it that. according to the MahQymruatikii (p.. Siiunaga (72-90 after the Nirvi')a. but. according to which a Buddhist council was held in VaiSiiIi in the year 100 of the Nirvi. that the Maifjwrimulakalpa situates Visoka and Siirasena after ASoka the Maurya. 414-396 B.)a . Sahilin and Tulakucin). FILUOV. 1948. 413). those meetings took place under the protection of a king of Licchavi origin called Nandin. he transferred " iMfWr.tas in which the name Kakavaf1)a designates the son of Sisuniga. in memory of his mother.C. p. 194. K. The Purd1Ja (P.Sisuniga. 21) inform us that he settled his son in Vinil)asi and made Girivraja (Rijagrha) his capital.. finally . It will be noted that the Jaina historians make no mention of this dynasty. this dynasty included among its ranks Sisuniga. KiliSoka. in order to harmonize two traditions from different sources : one.

It was there that a laxist movement broke out among the Vtiis.tNk tk GmMiama. Ubhaka.). 413). Jilika. P. 3. Sanjaya. in the words of the Har!acarila (p. l46. 98) gives their names : Bhaddasena. 411) knows ofa Surasena who has been compared to Bhaddasena : he had stupas erected as far as the shores of the Ocean and ruled for seventeen years.C. p. he transferred his patronage to the orthodox monks. The PurdrJa (P. Mangura. the Sisuniga dynasty was overthrown by a brigand who 106 usurped the throne and established the house of the Nine Nandas which remained in power for twenty-two years.They reigned jointly for twenty-two years and the MahabodhivtlJ'!Isa (p. At first the king supported them but. met with a violent death : a dagger was plunged into his throat when he was not far from his city. transferred his capital from Rijagrba to Pi!aliputTa. . Nandivaddhana and Paiicamaka.. 368-346 B. Sisunaga " destroyed all the prestige" of the Pradyotas of Avanti and thus annexed Malwa to his crown. . These "wild" identifications do not help to solve the problem.C. 396-368 B.According to the Sinhalese sources. Paris. p. The Mafljuirlmulakalpa (v. 98) I.96 THE MAGAOHAN PERIOD (lOS-J06) his residence to Vaisali and that from then o n Rajagrha lost ist rank of capital which it was never to regain 19. The Mahabodhivcurua (p. 2. . . 199).iitaiatru . Korabya. according to Taranatha. Sabbaiijaha. The latter reigned for thirty·six years and.) and the Vljis were declared to be in the wrong. Vito Ot/ U. when his sister Nanda intervened. Kti/dfoko (90-1 18 after the Nirvil)a . 1818. but made VaiSili one of his residences. tbe son of Sisunaga. a council took place with his consent at the Vilikirima in Vaisali in the year 100 of the Nirvana (386 B. but the latter succeeded ASoka the Maurya and died of a fever after having venerated the Buddha's relics for seventy-six years.C. 22) also note among the Saisumigas a Nandivardhana who succeeded Udiyi n and reigned for forty years.KiliSoka. monks from Vaisali. this council was held during the reign of a King Nandin of Licchavi origin. Some hi storians have identified Kilasoka with Kiikavama o r Kika· van:tin in the PurdrJa and the ugend of Aioka. Pursuing the policy of absorption inaugurated by Bimbisara and Aj.). KoraT)<:JavaQQa. It should be remembered that. The len som of KalQjoka (118-140 after the NirviT)a.C. KiliSoka has also been compared to ViSoka who is mentioned in the MafljuJrimulaka/pa (v. who took great liberties with the monastic discipli ne. THE NINE NANDAS (346-324 B. BIGAI'lDET.).

Mahipadma-Nanda was the son of Mahinandin . He lived surrounded by proud and demanding brahmins to whom he was lavish with his gifts. Maithila of the •• B. Asmaka of the upper Godavari. according to which those stlipas contained the five treasures of King Nanda (T 2087. Hd /hiXumpM blKripliOll of WrQ~/a. Kuru of Thinesar. from the Tanasuliya highway to his capitapo. Uggasena-Nanda. XIV. While visiting the five stupas erected by ASoka over the remains of the Buddha's relics in Pitaliputra. The PuriiIJa (P. . but had usurped the kingship by magical means. which had been inaugurated 300 years earlier by King Nanda. put about by disciples of little faith. Kevana-Nanda and Ohana-Nanda . he died of a disease at the age of sixty-seven. however. Oasasiddhaka-Nanda. 9Ilb). The information supplied here can be completed by Indian and foreign sources. have a large anny and enjoy great power. . and of a slidri . Towards the end of his reign.. ch . he had twenty-four viharas constructed and richly endowed the precious relics of the Buddha. He had been prime minister.lugati-Nan­ da. The Maiijuirimillaka/pa (vv. M. p.( 106-107) THE NINE NANDAS 97 gives their names . Haihaya of the Nannadii. 422-8) knows of only one Nanda whom it gives as succeeding Siirasena : this King Nanda was to reign in Pu$papura (Pa!aliputra). Pa~ini. 25-6) assign to the Nine Nandas a duration of 100 107 years : 88 years to Mahipadma-Nanda. and Vararuei. IHQ. Nanda aliena led the sympathy of his ministers but. noble k~triyas from the surrounding area : Aik~vaku of Kasala. He was known as the Chief of the Peasants (nicomukhya) probably because of his low birth. Among his friends and counsellors were two grammarians of brahmin origin but favourable to Buddhism . KiSc:ya ofVarii~asi. SUUA. Kalinga of Orissa. 76. and his throne was seized . The Kharivela inscription at Hathigumphi tells us that in the fifth year of his reign King Kharavela of Kalinga extended a canal. 12 years to his eight sons the eldest of whom was Sukalpa.luka-Nanda. known for a treatise on melrics (Srutabodha) and a Prakrit grammar (PriikrtuprukiiJ"fJ) . Pa~c. Govisa~aka-Nanda. on the entreaties of a "spiritual friend" he did not refuse the Buddhists his favours . founder of the dynasty.. the latter was killed by Candagutta with the help of Ca~akka. Pal:u. Raghapila-Nanda. 19)8. the author 8f the Aniidhyiiyi. 8. Bhiitapila-Nanda. Pancila of Doib. p. He exterminated all his neighbours. a rare privilege for a Magadhan king. Hsuan tsang learned of a fanciful rumo~r. the last representative of the Sisuniga dynasty.

dating from later (thirteenth century). 231-2). and not to Candramis as is most often claimed. he appropriated the sovereignty. a territory including the southern part or Maharashtra and the portions adjoining the states or Hyderabad and Mysore l l . his name Xandrames-Aggrammes would go back to a Sanskrit original of Augrasainya "Son of Ugrasena". 339). the son or Ugrasena-Nanda according to the MaJujbodhi~wrua. whose daily earnings barely prevented him rrom dying or hunger. the son of Ajita!atru. She gained ror him the rriendship or the prince who W8$ ruling at that time and was the last representative or the Sisuniiga house .C. His empire c:w. a prince who is disliked and scorned by his II RAVCHAUOHUkl.. VIII. Siira. pretexting a regency. Actually the Nandas got no rurther south than the valleys of the KrHlii and the Tungabhadri.tended as rar as the oceans. i. which are quite similar to those given by the Jaina and lOS Buddhist traditions: "Aggrammes (Ohana-Nanda Augrasainya) who ruled. and occupied the throne of Magadha from 468 to 313 B. which they held for a century. p. named by the c1aiSical historians as Xandrames or Aggrammes. Nanda.98 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 107· 108) district of Muzatrarpur. Quintus Curtius (IX. This is the OhanaNanda or the Sinhalese: sources..e. 2.• VI. the Nine Nandas directly succeeded Udiyin.. had seduced the queen by his channing external appearance. or Mahipadma-Nanda according to the Pura1Jil. was none other than the last Nanda. When Alexander the Great reached the Hyphasis (8eis) in 326 B. Political Hist. to use the eastern tenn. the king of the Indians or. According to the Jaina sources. he treacherously killed the prince and then. he had a son who is the one now reigning (Ohana-Nanda). a sudra) . a duration of ISS years. after he had assassinated the king's children.C. they were ovenhrown by Cil)akya on behalf of Candragupta (Paruiuaparvan. was the son of a barber and a courtesan (ibid. Mahapadma-Nanda's victory brought sudras of low caste to the throne. attribute to the Nandas the possession or Kuntala. not only lacked nobility.sena of the Yamuna and Mathuri.ya) was to uproot them all and they were replaced by the Mauryas. 6-7) supplies racts about this Ohana-Nanda and his father. but was of a lowly condition (i. the founder of the dynasty. after that time. . ror his rather (Mahiipadma-Nanda). the usurper. Some inscriptions of Mysore.. Vithotra on the borders of Milwa. 23S.. the king of the Gangaridae ("Inhabitants orthe Ganges") and the Prasioi (rrom Pracya "Easteners").e. a barber. rr the comparison is correct. The brahmin Kau!ilya (alias Ci1)a1c.

w. V. T. these particulars were given to Alexander by Phegeus. LXII).~dors of the Seleucids at the Maurya court.( 108· 109) THE NINE NANDAS 99 compatriots. Pliny the Elder (VI. what the Macedonian conqueror did learn regarding the Hyphasis was of little importance : "00 the other side of the Hyphasis. However. in accordance with Indian custom.000 9.000 According to the same historians.(8) 60. ad ulteriorem ripam) of the Ganges. and the latter ask nothing of them that is not appropriate. king of Persia (559-530). u. an Indian prince who ruled over a territory downstream from Kangra on the Hyphasis.. 2)..000 Elephants 4. incorrect. I) who made use of better sources than the above-mentioned historians. These native inhabitants possess a number of elephants much superior to that of other Indians. was indeed composed of four different types of troops (caturarigabaJa) : Diodorus Pliny Quintus Curtius Plutarch Infantry 200. based BAADOH.000 200. 2~. knew nothing whatever of a meeting between Alexander and Phegeus. Alexander's historians. The Nandas are known to history for their fabulous wealth : in the work which he devoted to Cyrus the Elder.mbrid. Tr. The infonnation which Phegeus is supposed to have supplied is.u. as it situates the kingdom of the Gangaridae and Prasioi on the other bank (upav. 2.W. 2. Diodorus of Sicily (XVII. and who remembered his father's condition rather than this awn'· ll .000 3.000 ' . the meeting between Alexander and Phegeus is merely a myth and the point of departure for the legend according to which Alexander is supposed to have gone as far as the Ganges l ) .. 68). but that anny. 1948. AkxQlSdu 1M G'ttJI.000 20. 25. 3-4) and Plutarch (Life of Alex.000 Cavalry 20. the men good tillers. the land is 109 fertile. on . the .000 .000 Chariots 2. u cr. Arrian (Anabasis of Alexander. wisely administered from the interior: most of them are governed by aristocrats. these elephants are large in size and valorous". pp. disagree over the number of anned forces at the disposal of the king of the Gangaridae and Prasioi.H. II. 93. The more detailed information recorded by the other historians and which they attribute to Phegeus is probably taken from the reports supplied later by the ambas. Quintus Curtius (IX.(8) 30.e.000 200.000 . valiant warriors. moreover.000 80.

Ind. w~o needed money to raise: a new anny. 25).100 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 109. from the sixth to the third century B. they were represented by a small colony of Greeks who claimed to have been taken to India by Dionysus and settled in Nysa somewhere in Bajaur. the Jdtakas (VI. 103. masters and slaves : a master could become a slave and vice versa. there were only two castes. KING OF GANDHARA 1< Sec N. as well as in the other frontier-regions. Furthennore.110) Athenian Xenophon (430-35S). 5. According to an old Buddhist suUa in the Majjhima (II. 149) among the Yonas and 110 Kambojas. aSva " horse"). \951.• Uttarapatha lived through an eventful history which caused it to pass from the hands of the Indian king Puk~usati to the power of the Achaemenid Persians. p. Further north. . the Kambojas covered the south-western part of Kasmir and Kafiristan : the MaJuibhdrata (VII.. reports that Cyrus. 130). PuKKUSATI. 1-2. to be more exact.. and it was this well-established reputation which possibly earned the horse-breeders of Bajaur and Swat the epithet of Aspasioi (from Old Pers. 2. Anab . VI. 9). already attributed great opulence to the Indian rajas. .C. Kambojas and Yanas to whom Asoh was later to refer in his fifth and sixth rock edicts (BLOCH. 4. capital Tak~ila . (sixth century B. pp.). V. 8880). the North-West l4 • It was inhabited by the Gandharas. aspa) and Assakenoi (from Skt. This seems to indicate that the Greece of the fourth century B. 5) in fact associates thern with the city of Rajapura. Dun. p. of Alexander the Great and. III. situated in Punch by Hsuan tsang (T 2087. V.C. UTTARAPATHA In the sixth century B. 2. Kamboja is regularly mentioned as the "homeland of horses"(aivanam ayatanam). p. embracing to the west the present-day district of Peshawar. capital ~karavati. ch. 2-3 . and to the east the district of RawalpiQ4-i.C . Ancient Gandhara extended along both banks of the Indus. asked the king of India for funds through the intermediary of a ChaJdaean embassy (Cyropaedia . the fifteenth and sixteenlh Great Regions which were not part of the MadhyadeSa constituted the Region of the North (Uttanlpatha) or. However that may be. Locknow. finally of the Diadochi. lH\It'/opmvll oJ Buddhisnf ill Ullar PrOlksl! .C. the capital of Gandhara was Tak~ila .. a mountainous region of Yaghistan (Arrian. 208) attributed wild and detestable customs to the Kambojas. As for the Yonas of the sixth century.In the sixth century before the Christian era. I. 3.

IHQ. and communicated with him by means of caravaneers. il was a privileged bartering place: for ideas as well as merchandise . Those plates. He engaged the old king in conversation and preached the DMtu'IIibhailgasutta for his benefit l6 . When the king of Gandhara had acquainted himself with them. 2)7 . V. were sent in procession to Pukkusati. 111. from Magadha. NORm-WEST INDIA UNDER mE A CHAEMENIDS (559-336 B. T 26.C. he renounced the world.a. p. the Buddha who was then residing in Srivasti agreed to go and meet him . One day Pukkusati sent Bimbisara eight precious gannents enclosed in lacquered caskets. the Sakyas who had escaped Viru~haka's massacre. "2. these traditions must be considered apocryphal...C. Aclwerrwffilllr Rvk ill 'ffdia. II . In return the king of Magadha decidet1lu initiate his friend in the Buddhist doctrine : he had a description of the Three Jewels and some characteristic texts of the Law engraved on gold plates. Located on the great road connecting Bactria to the Indian peninsula. U!a . Indeed. 2"". tb. the founding of the kingdoms of U<.liyiina. 25. 691:i. Other traditions.( 110-111 ) ACHAEMENID OOMINATION 101 This town.C. U~dd. attribute to Sakyamuni a long journey in Uttaripatha and ascribe to his contemporaries. Comm.l<. Achaemenid Persia had seized Uttaripatha from the rest of the Indian world and drawn it into its own orbit. king of Magadha. he took his courses and devoted himself to study. 11 'Q . cut off his hair and beard and wore the yellow robe of the monk . The student was quartered with a master who forced him to do domestic work during the day . It often happened that. or to learn medicine. which we will study further on.. magic and rituals. in the sixth ce:ntury B. Kuruk~tra and the land of the Sibis. he went to Rajagrha where he expected to find him .)ll . H Maijbima. at that lime occupied the site of Bhir Mound . 7. T 1509. The admission fees were high and. He was on friendly tenns with Bimbisara. once: his instruction was completed.J . Desirous of meeting the Master. also see R. As the seat of the first Indian university. sambi and even Bimyin. - Maijhim.. the pupil married one of his master's daughters.. 11 Besilks &eDcnl works. which was to be moved twice: in the course of history. pp. th. p. p. there flocked to its walls. Chung a ban. MAruWOAlt. placed in III precious caskets. the king of Tak~si1a was Pukkusati. generally were as much as a thousand pieces of gold. in the evening. Himatala. Like the history of the Gandharan king Pukkusati. whose history we learn from a late and partly apocryphal tradition15 . At the lime of the Buddha. many young people wishing to study the three Vedas and the eighteen sciences.

The region was inhabited by the Indian peoples of the A~~kas and Asvakas. After they had completed that voyage. 19<49. at least part of Uttarapatha fell into the hands of the Achaemenids and was included in the complex of the eastern satrapies of the Persian empire. for already in the year 519 "he wanted to know where the river Indus flowed into the sea.trrI.C. ~ AcluJtmtllidJ and 11IIiiIl. XXVI. in the thirtieth month. Cyrus (559-530 B. the nineteenth of which was Gadara or Gandhira (KENT.102 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 111 -112) From the beginning of the reign of Cyrus. . TM .tllid [/Idjo. pp. 11·26 . IHO. the Astakenoi and Assakcnoi of the Greek historians. tus. pp..C. they sailed downstream towards the dawn and the rising sun (actually southwards) until they reached the sea (the Indian Ocean). 1-3). XV. 92). 5.. i. Nevertheless. Anab. This victory over the Indians. then.e. Arrian. 2. Fartigll NOlictJ of Atiultfflttlid [ttdia . xXV. among others Scylax of Caryanda. in order to make a voyage to Libya. twenty·three provinces.. pp. IHO. pp. Darius (522-486 B. "surrendered to the Persians. IS}-6S .o\DHY. known as ParaUparaesana by the Persians. I. 111).. IV.) held. which was to appear among the possessions of his successor. Cyrus had little trouble in seizing the kingdom of Gandhara. JHO. and brought Cyrus tributes from their land. Ot. Those men left Caspatyrus or Kaspapyrus (KiSyapapura. he therefore sent by boat some men whom he trusted to bring him back the truth.TTOP.a. I. they reached that very place: from which the king of Egypt had sent out the Phoenicians. 100-17. 24. p. TM Ruft o/IM Affhtmtllw ilIl/IIJi. 1950. He soon undertook to enlarge his Indian domain. 1949. 5. . which Cyrus commanded" (Arrian. which occurred before 515. XV. near present-day Multjn on the Indus) and the land of Paktyike (Pathin).. 1950. S.ribal Immigrafions ill Ac/w. 112 Having thus become master of the Trans·Hindiikush. XXVI. IHO. Begram.. gave Darius xxv. xXV.. he conquered KapiSa and destroyed the capital Kipisi. through the favours of Ahuramazda but also doubtless by paternal heritage.. 44)1' . but the difficulties of the road soon forced him to beat a retreat after having lost the major part of his army : it was with only seven soldiers that he regained his own states (Strabo. 1949.. 11 Tt. Paropanisadae or Paropamisadae by the Greeks. Darius subdued the Indians and made use of that sea" {Heroda.. pp. navigating westwards. VI. According to the inscription of Bahistan (ea 520-518).) attempted to invade the Indian territory. 26)·74 . 3). Ind. I. who. on the confluence of the Ghorband and the Panjshir in Kohistan. (rom Legrand. 1S4-204.. according to Pliny the Elder (VI. y .

alone poured into the treasury three hundred and sixty talents of . Makran). perhaps to be compared with the modem Afridis. three hundred talents. 137. finally. an unknown people. ch . 151). By comparing the list of the Achaemenid satrapies supplied by these inscriptions with the enumeration of the Nomoi or fiscal circumscriptions which are to be found in Herodotus (JII.. the modern province of Kandahar. 43-7) and who are the Kassapiya or Kassapapuriya of the lower Punjab in the region of Multan . Aria (Haraiva).:ording 10 A. the Sakai Amurgioi (Saka Haumavarga) of Seistan mentioned by Herodotus at book VII . two hundred and fifty talents. Susa E and M (KENT. The 7th. 9(4). coincided with Makran (Maka) and included the Parikanioi of Gcdrosia (Baluchistan) and the Asiatic Aethopes along the coast. Khorasmia (Uvarazmi) and Sogdiana (Suguda). three hundred and sixty talents. Naq~-i-Rustam A. consisted of the Sakai. Indeed. formed Drangiana (Zraka) and included the Sarangoi (Zaraka) and Thamanaioi of Drangiana. I'/Nit . The 14th province. 136. The 17th. the Gandaroi (Gadira) of the present-day districts of Peshiwar and Rawalpil). . included Bactria (Baxtri~). that of the Indoi of the Sindh (Hindu). \95-9.( 112·113) ACHAEMENID DOMINATION 103 possession of the province of Sindh on the lower Indus. the province of Hidu! was henceforth to appear. the Kaspioi also called Kasperaoi by Ptolemy (VII.IBCR. or more precisely. we obtain the following picture with regard to the oriental satrapies and the tribute they turned over to the treasurylO : The 16th province. p. pp.«. • /'tmpi~t acMminidt. the 20th province. 145) and of his successor Xerxes at Persepolis H (KENT. and doubtless also Margiana (Margu) as far as the Aigloi. four hundred talents. us JaI~ap~S O~~'Ila1ts A. The 15th. comprised Parthia (parthava). the Arachotoi of Arachosia (Harauvati~). extended from the sources of the river Kabul to the Beas. 1938. and included KapiSa and Gandhara with the populations of the Sattagudai (fhatagu~) of the Ghazni region. 24. one hundred and seventy talents.. 336-S2 . the Utioi (Yutija) of Carmania and the Mukoi (Maka) of the coastal region to the east of the straits of Onnuz (Moghistan. six hundred talents. the Dadikai of Dardistan and the Aparutai. All this i5 ao:. The 12th. 141 . alongside Gadara. pp. V~iIIt Routt. the III Sargartioi (ASagarta) of the Iranian desert. FouOfEJ. in the list of the Achaemenid satrapies on the inscriptions of Darius at Persepolis E. although they are not named.li. Finally. pp.

The great Persian army which was mobilized by Xerxes against continental Greece and gave battle at Thermopylae (480) and Plataeae (479) contained contingents raised from the oriental satrapies. 102. And among those lands. I crushed that land and brought it back under control. Towards the end of the fifth century..4. In the inscription at Perscpolis H. we find among the latter the Indians of the Sindh. the Ionian cities of Asia Minor and the Greeks which culminated in the disaster of Marathon. which in reality represented 4. there was a place where false gods (daeva) were previously venerated. the Paktyikoi of Pathin. finally. engaged in unknown territory. 1. Ahuramazda brought me aid . and commanded by the Iranian Phamazathres .C. Arrian. the sworn enemies of Mazdeism. was confronted with a revolt of a satrapy. and which we have every reason to consider of Indian origin. present-day Dardistin. under Ihe command of Ariomardus. who resided for seventeen years (from 415 to 397 S . Wherever demons were venerated before. 44). equipped like the Bactrians with Median head-gear. Indian gold.lracted from the sand by ants (MM. Herod. led ill-fated campaigns against the Scythians. On his accession to the throne his successor. the Gandharoi and Dadikai from Gandhira and Dardistin.C. equipped in the same way as the preceding ones and commanded by Artayntes.) at the Persian court as . II . p. 151). 52. where devos. through the favour of Ahuramazda. who cites Megasthenes and Nearchus. V.. cane bows and short spears. according to Sirabo (XV. Xerxes 114 declares : "When I became king. particularly Indians. 86). The Indians and Kaspioi also supplied contingents of cavalry armed like foot-soldiers : they led saddle-horses and chariots harnessed to horses and wild asses. did not come from the Sindh region but.880 paid by the other Nomoi. Xerxes (485-465 B.104 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 1ll· 114) powdered gold "a tribute comparable to that of all the other provinces combined". According to HerodotuS (VII.540 or 9. from the land of the Dards. Ctesias of Cnidos. Anab. Darius. and commanded by Artyphius. 64-67. were revered. the Kaspioi from Lower Punjab dressed in skins. 4. 3). there was among the lands over which I ruled one that was in revolt.). Later. I destroyed that sanctuary of demons and made this proclamation : "Demons shall no longer be venerated". Nevertheless.800 silver talents compared with the 9. Eventually. clothed in vegetable wool. armed with cane bows and iron-pointed arrows made of reeds. called pipilika because it was e:w. III. armed with cane bows and swords. through his favour. I respectfully venerated Ahuramazda and Arta" (KENT.

Barsaentes. pp. LVII-LXVIII) and Arrian (Allah. the Paiijkora (Gauo. Assakenoi and Hupasioi. Asvaka in Sanskrit (from aspa and aiva "horse"). those in the east. LAw.YCHAUOHlo". lIS (336-330 B. Hu/ . at the time. in practice if not in theory. II.. Sec R .C). . The information supplied by the historians of Alexander shows that. Gtl)fra- phy. completed by Strabo (XV). were to be found: (1-3) The territory of the Aspasioi. 1947. however it is significant that the latter were not commanded by satraps of their own nationality. They were great horse-breeders.(114-11 S) THE INDIAN STATES UNDER DARIUS 105 physician to Darius II and Artuerxes Mnemon lO .C). l'lruk. Plutarch (Vita Alex. XXI. Some of these fables are to be found in ancient Indian books. and Ctesias did not invent them but accepted them uncritically. Soastos or Souastos).. an Indian dialecl. in THE TNOIAN STATF. 8. the Indian provinces of the North-West were practically autonomous. •• Poli/icol HiJtOl'). Here according to Diodorus of Sicily (XVII). . to The work has been recapitula ted by Photiw in his Summaries. IV-VI). in the first quarter of the fourth century B.o. the satrap of Arachosia. Hippasioi. Quintus Curtius (VlIt-IX). the satrap of Bactria . and the Swat (Suvastu. III. This fact is clarified by Arrian (Anab.. Persia's grip on the oriental satrapies relaxed.. Vito Art/U. India still remained a land unknown to the Mediterranean world.' but by the governors of neighbouring districts. published a collection of fables about India and Persia 31 which prove that. in Greek Aspasioi..C. those in the west spoke an Iranian dialect and. and were called Aspaka in Iranian. 32. Ha. " R.S UNDER DARIUS III COOOMAN 10 lL Diod. Pm~. The armies of the last Darius. Gouraios). 244-59. . the country of the Gouraioi and the kingdom of the AssakenoL They were highlanders who formed a single tribe but. is the record of those Indian states H : J. Kophes or Kophen) and the southern upper valleys watered by the Kunar (Khoes). also contained Indian contingents . Le. completed by 8 . led the Arachotoi and the Indians known as Highlanders".C.. Plut. 3-4) who declares : "Aid was brought to Darius by all the Indians neighbouring on the Bactrians as well as the Bactrians themselves and the Sogdians : aU of them were led by Bessus.. Under the last Achaemenids.'av. 8nmcls. Ctlsiiu. On the river of Kabul (Kubha. 4 . which fought at Arbela or Gaugamela against Alexander the Great (331 B. and the Indian provinces recovered their independence.

The autonomous kingdoms and states of the Upper Punjab separated by the rivers Indus (Sindhu. 1. 110) notes in the same region some Asvayana (variant of a gal)3. Bias (Vipas or Vipasa. IV.106 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 1IS-116) Strabo (XV. The capital of the Assakenoi was called Massaga (MaSaUvati1) by the Greeks. Anab. Asvakiyana. 5). Anab. LlX) compare that kingdom with Egypt both with regard to the extent of the territory.i or Iravati. Sutlej (Sutudri. It was governed by the hipparchus Astes whose name is connected with the toponym Hasht-nagar which designated eight cities bordering the Swat in the district of Peshawar. King Assakenos.. 27). and his son Omphis (Ambhi) gave him gold crowns and 80 talents of silver coin (Quintus C urtius. VIII.. S). Pil)ini (IV.. Indos). 28) and Plutarch (Vila Alex. 3.D. Chenab (Asikni or Candrabhaga.. Strabo (XV. assisted by an aristocracy of 300 members. Ind.000 cavalrymen. in the present-day districts of Hazara on the one hand. as well as to their neighbours the Kambojas.000 infantrymen and 30 elephants (Arrian. the son of a certain Cleophes. I.anny of 20. or also natives whom. (S) Peucelaotis (Pu~karavati. the kingdoms of . (6) The kingdom of Taxila (Tak~sita·Bhir Mound) between the Indus and the lhelum. Ravi (Paru~lJ. II . p. 17. the old capital of western Gandhara before the founding of Peshawar in the second century A. and Punch and Nowshera on the other. 3. 116 (4) The Greek (1) colony of Nysa. It was governed by President Akoupbis. 25. he had settled with the Gr«ks" (Arrian. Those of them who lived on the banles of the Gauri were given the name of Gouraioi. Hyphasis). I. The Taxiles presented the conquering Macedonian with 200 silver talents.000 sheep and 30 elephants (Arrian. the abundance of pasture-land and the wisdom of its princes. 149) records some Yona (Gr«ks) in Uuarapatha and attributes to them. at their request. and coins bearing the legend Va~svaka (eCAI. somewhere in Swat near Kohi· Mor. Hydaspes). 4-S). Asmayana). XV. We have seen earlier that a sutta from the Majjhima (II. p. lhelum (Vitasta. I. I. Acesines). they are descendants of the invaders who followed Dionysus (to India) : either Greeks who had been disabled in the wars which Dionysus led against the Indians.000 head of cattle 10. IS). and brother of Eryx and Aphikes. V. (7-8) Further to the north. the princes of which supported Alexander. 12. Hydraotes). "Those Nusaioi are not of Indian race. possessed an . 30. a social organisation which is completely alien to India. 264) can be attributed to them. present-day Charsadda). Zaradros or Hesydrus).

300 chariots and 85 elephants according to Quintus Curti us (VIII. 15. 93. between the Chenab and the Ravi). p. Konow. between the Rivi and the Seas. Ka~ha means "hard".000 cavalry. 13. 16) by that of Kratha. of 30. (14-15) The kingdoms of Sopeithes or Sophytes and of Phegelas or Phegeus situated. The Kathaoi. AlUlb. of 50. and the latter . Ill.000 infantry. (11) Between the Chenab and the Ravi. The states of the Middle Punjab. The former.. unless their name Arana merely means "those who have no king" (SkI. contained. 159. (9) Between the Jhelum and the Chenab.. 44). on the confluences of five rivers compnslOg : (16-17) The Sibai or Sibi and the Agalassoi. the kingdom of Porus the Elder. (10) A neighbour of Porus. Some coins of a king Saubhuti have been found in Taxila with the head of a prince on the obverse and the image of a cock on the reverse. As for Phegelas.000 to over 10. VII. 87. 1. 1.000 chariots and 130 elephants according to Diodorus of Sicily (XVII. 4. at the junction of the Jhelum and the Chenib. V. . 30).if he is not a fictitious person -.( 116-111) ntE INDIAN STATES UNDER DARIUS \07 11 7 Arsaces (the Urasarajya of the kharonhiinscriptions. Ar~1raka) . in the words of Strabo (XV. 4). the Brhat ~hitii (XIV.000 cavalry.90) included a great number of villages and 37 cities from 5. 1.000 infantry. were perhaps the Adrja mentioned in the Mahiibhiirata (Vn. 5) among the tribes of the North-West. (12-13) On the eastern bank of the Ravi.29).. and to the Mahiibhiirata (VIII. which corresponded to the modern districts of Guzri~ and Shahpur. 20. which occupied the eastern part of the Gandaris mentioned by Strabo (XV. the a utonomous peoples of the Adraislai and the Kathaoi. 27) and the Mahiibhiirata (II. 27. under the name of Siva or Sibi. their capital Sibipura is mentioned on a Shorkot inscription (EI. with an army of 30. 1. 4. 3. whose capital was named Pimprama. are well-known to the Vedas and Buddhist and Brihmanicalliterature. 1921. IV. XVI.14-16). In Sanskrit. the former somewhere 10 the east of the Jhelum.4). the kingdom of Porus the Younger. approximately 300 cities. but still between the Jhelum and the Chenab. 6). are known to Pa!)ini (II. he possibly belonged to that royal race of k~triyas mentioned by [he name: of Bhagala in the Ga!)apathii. He vigorously resisted Alexander. the autonomous state of the Glausai or Glauganikai (Glaucukayaoa of pa!)ini. The kingdom. 300 chariots and 200 elephants according to Arrian (AttOO . The Adraistai.000 inhabitants (Arrian. 2). 20) by the name of Kantha. a descendant of the Puru or Paurava of the &-Veda. 89) and Abisares (Atisara of the Mbh . whose stronghold was SangaJa (which has nothing in common with Sakala or Sialkot. 85.000 infantry.

Sambastai. II) and the Malava of Indian history. 74). The Abastanoi are the Amba~~ha mentioned in the Aitareya BrilhmtJJJ. I. 52. (28) Patalene on the Indus delta the capital of which Patlala. 61). II. 52. 96. were not dissimilar to those of the Dorians of Sparta and Crete. I). Pat:lini (IV. 2. (20-22) On the Lower Cheniib and between the confluence of that river with the Ravi and their junction with the Indus respectively. 6. 91 . 15).000 cavalry and 900 chariots. (25) The kingdom of Musicanus (M~ika7 Mau~ikara7). the richest of the region. Quintus Curtius (IX. the Biirhaspatya ArthaSiistra (p.. XVII. Sabagrae). 20. Diodorus of Sicily (XVII. 15). of 90. 10. The capital Sindimana has not been identified with certainty. 15 . 102. 72. 10. VII. the capital of which has been identified with Alor in the district of Sukkur. represented the K~udraka of the MaJrabhQrala (II . VII. according to Diodorus (XVlI.Q (VIII. 98. 47). 21). MM . 6. 34). I. VIII . 37. 44. 4. 12). to the south of the conftuence 118 of the Jhelum and Chenib. (27) The principality of Sambus (Sambhu or Samba). IX. 70. 363).000 infantry and 3. The Agalassoi possessed an army of 40. IV. the population was characterized by special customs which. named Preasti by Quintus Curtius (IX. (18-19) The Sudrakai and the Malloi. II). to the south of the conftuences of the rivers of the Punjab. called Tauala by Diodorus (XVIII. They fonned a democracy and possessed. I. the Sodrai (Sogdoi) and the MasianoL The Sodrai are most probably the Slidra of the epic. 38 . 9.108 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 117· 118) p. the Ossadioi have been compared to the Vasiti of the MalIabhiirata (VlI. 3). 104. 2). an anny of 60.000 infantry.000 cavalry and 500 war chariots. The Xathroi are identified with the impure class of the K~tri referred to by the Laws of Manu (X. 21). I).000 cavalry (Diod . the Abastanoi (var. the Xathroi and the Ossadioi. The province of Sindh on the Lower Indus consisted of a whole series of states and principalities : (23·24) On the two banks of the Indus. Although strictly subjected to the inftuence of the brahmins. a mountainous region near the kingdom of Musicanus.. 16). 8. recall the Pro~!ha of the Mahiibhiuata (VI. p.000 infantry. Saharcae. a people closely associated with the Abhira of Sarasvati (Pataiijali. 20. according to Strabo (XVn .000 infantry. the Mahiibhdrata (II. occupied the present-day site of . and the Jiilai<as (IV. 1) attributes to them an army of 80.000 cavalry and 100 chariots. (26) The monarchy ofOxycanus or Porticanus whose subjects.

king of Tak~sila. between the Swat and the Indus.. R. 142-3. 177-2 17. HEFEO. W. Lcipxig. D~ b. passed thro ugh Bamyan and reached Alexandria-under·the-Caucasus which he had founded.-. 1947.. l. a temporary encampment to be found between the villages of Mandriwar and Chahir·bagh. 119 At the beginning of the fourth century. I).2). the Indian kingdoms and republics escaped the control of the Achaemenid suzerain. where he concentrated his troops in Nicaea. ALEXAh"DER rN INDIA (327·324 B. 1947. There he received a visit from Ambhi. Alexander continued his progression eastwards and. pp.( 118-120) ALEXANDER IN INDIA 109 Brahmanabad..-s I"~icft of ltulia . 1940. where he founded . 1. Memorial S. who renewed the homage which his father had paid earlier to 120 the Macedonian conqueror. FII. Pari" 1937. pp. A/~XOllMf I~ Gual . 147-62.C. on the southern slope. R.Q rr-risld Sludy. Alexander crossed the Indus on a bridge of boats u Other tlu. He set out from Bactria. FICK:. Akxandrt el k bouddllu-. and accepted the submission of Peucelaotis. to be more precise. KJUIll. 193).Having vanquished Darius III Codoman in the battles of Issus (334) and Gaugamela (331). Akxandre el/'lNk. Hal ~ . . XLIV. GLOTZ.s rks GfaJHtl.. AftxQMU el Altxandrie danJ k' donImt. 0" Altxatldt. Ind.)" . Alexander himself subdued the highland tribes of the Aspasioi and Assakenoi and seized Massaga.S. N.. He ordered Hephaestion and Perdiccas. pp. the ancient Gandharan capital. at Parvan in Kohistan of Kabul .UOZAT.1I indWu . in 330. II. Tar. IHQ. 139--6&. lim. Alexander the Great. ALTltDM. the capital of the latter. Alexandria·under-the-Caucasus. pp.Ann. 1947-50. W~/I­ '~Jdidlt AsWu im "wdiJchm ui/alln'. 4. Sms. Having devoted two years to the pacification of Bactria and Sogdiana... Uvi. XVI. etc. see also W. Once he had captured Aornus. S38-59. ca mbridge. Pari" 1938 : pp. and provided a contingent of 700 cavalry as well as ample supplies. London. subject to the authority of a Council of Elders. reached the southern slopes of the Hindiikush. 41 ). moNk tI1I/iqw. node 10 I~ l"dJu. crossed in len days the Afghan massif. I. Like ancient Sparta. it was governed by two kings. 19-48 : G . to descend the Kabul valley in order to seize Peucelaotis or Pu~kanivati. T . IX.uIoTn. he launched another attack on the Assakenoi and advanced as far as the Indus. " the region which extends eastward from the Indus" (Arrian. In the spring of 326.n general works. in 327 he undertook the conquest of India or. F. He laid siege to the fortress (dvQr~a) of Aornus located above Una. A. lui-Aug. t. IINl das bbe Afexlllllk. pp. I. The rivalries which set them against each other made them an easy prey for the conquering Macedonian. Three further stages led him to Lampaka (Lag· hman).. AftxQ'w. L'in(onnation hiSIOtique. 1929 : S. A ltxtl1ldr~ ~I f'lwlltnualictl m. with the main part of the Macedonian fon:::es. .

and routed the Indian army after a furious battle. After a raid against the Glausai or Glauganikai.110 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 120-12I ) constructed by his lieutenants in Udubha~4a (Ohind.000 men. on either side of the Hydaspes. came to pay him homage but shortly after rose against him : he was immediately seized and crucified . submitted to Alexander. after heavy fighting. The Macedonian army crossed the Hydraotes and the Acesines again and hailed on the Hyphasis where a fleet was equipped. the Indian king Porus was waiting for him at the head of a powerful army. like the rest of his empire. Alexandria in Makarena or of the Oritae. Alexander crossed the river by surprise. Prophthasia in Scistin. when his soldiers mutinied and forced him to retreat. Alexander crossed the Acesines and the Hydraotes and. eight were situated in the oriental provinces of the ancient Achaemenid empire : Alexandria of Margiana (Merv). Alexander sent part of his troops back to Susiana under the command of the general Craterus : the latter reached his goal by the road via Kandahar and Seistan. at the head of some 10. the order was given for the final departure : Alexander. the king of Alor. He entered Tak~sili peacefully where Ambhi joined him with a contingent of 5. followed the coast of the Oritae and 121 Makran towards the Persian Gulf. Musicanus. In September 325. either at Jalilpur or. In January 325. A year later Alexander died and his Indian possessions. firmly delennined to prevent him from passing. Alexander came to Pattala in the Indus delta. having subdued the Malloi and other tribes of the Middle Punjab. the towns of Nicaea on the west bank and Bucephala on the east bank. overcame the Sibi and Agalassoi.. Porus was given the command of the territories situated between the Hydaspes and the Hyphasis. On the opposite bank of the Hydaspes.4). However. He was ready to cross the Hyphasis and encounter the forces of the Gangaridae and Prasioi. and concentrated his forces at the confluence of the Actsines and Hydraotes. more probably at Jhelum. At Shikarpur. conquered the fortified town of Sangala. leading a flotilla of a thousand units. Alexander then descended the Hydaspes to its confluence with the Acesines. the western and eastern arms of which he explored succesively. Alexander. The latter celebrated his victory by founding. Nearchus. and the surrender of Abhisira and Porus the Younger. Continuing southwards. U. The three annies linked up in Susiana in the spring or 324. who was injured in the fighting. of Aria (Herat). Alexandria of Arachosia (Ghazni) also . sail~ down the Indus with his army and fleet. Among the twenty-odd Alexandrias founded by the Macedonian during his conquest of the Asiatic world. travelled through Gedrosia along the Makran coast. Porus.000 men. were soon dismembered.

BDVE. first remained under the command of two native princes Satibarzanes and Arsaces and then passed. 1926.W. " JI For a list o f Alexander's satraps. 5. T . of the general Philippus : powerfully fortified . was sucx::essively directed by Menon (330-325) and Sibyrtius (325-317) : the latter. Nicaca and AlexandriaBucephala on the Jhelum in the domains of King Porus. a host and friend of the historian Megasthenes. the father of Roxane. see H. Parapamisus. The Indian possessions of Alexander included three satrapies and two Indian kingdoms which were nominally independent : I. then. after they revolted into the hands of Stasanor of Soloi who kept it. the satrapy of the Upper Indus Details in W. II. . 455. Alexandria-Bactra. passed successively into the hands of the Persian Artabazus (329). 276. Munich. where Alexander had founded his Alexandria-under122 the Caucasus. Bactria-Sogdiana. . Das A/extllUkrujch GrwuJ/agt. Aria. augmented by Margiana. until after 323. then the Sogdian Oxyartes. also known as Alexandria of Scythia. The oriental satrapies on the Iranian border were four or six in number : I. A/uiJ7Ukr 1M GrtQl . and possibly also . assisted by the Macedonian episcopos Tlepolemus. Situated to the west of the river. the Macedonian AmynlaS. remained in the hands of the indigenous dynasts. with the addition of Drangiana. 2. On the territory of native Indian-speakers. 3.two Alexandrias on the Indus l4 • Alexander maintained for his own profit the old provinces of the Achaemenid empire and generally entrusted their govemment to local inhabitants. Arachosia. there were Alexandria-under-theCaucasus (Parvin amidst the Paropamisadae).for it is doubtful whether they existed . the Persians Proexes and Tyriespes.( 121 -122) ALEXANDER IN INDIA 111 called npO~ ntpaa~ or tni Ma(J(Jarita~. was administered by Amminapes. capital Herat.N. Alexander's wife. for a long time this satrapy sheltered important Graeco-Macedonian garrisons whose insubordination caused serious difficulties to Alexander and his successors. before it was handed over to its old governor Phrataphemes. p. after the assassination of the latter by his soldiers (325). 4. Parthia-Hyrcania. Alexandrialomousa on the Chenib. added to it the Oritae territory and Gedrosia. 14 aul p'osopogr. p. whose loyalty to Alexander never failed. capital Zadracarta. Alexandria in Sogdiana on the Oxus (Termez) and Alexandria-Eschate on the Jaxartes (Khodjend). or the region of Ghazni. assisted and supervised by Macedonian strategoi and episcopoil5.

. who was then in Cannania. Oxycanus and Sambus. assisted by a Thracian garrison. 4). as well as other regions situated more to the east. After the assassination of Nicanor by the Assakenoi in 326. in the presence of his hetairoi and indigenous ambassadors. who governed the region jointly with the king ofTaxila.. established Porus as king of all the Indian territories he had conquered : seven nations and more than two thousand cities (Id. the states of Porus the Younger between the Acesines and the Hydraotes (ld .• VI.. and to Oxyartes. The satrapy of the Middle Indus. its government was entrusted to the Macedonian Nicanor who retained it for two years. 20. who were also in charge of the surveillance of the coastal region. In 327. Philippu.GADHAN PERIOD ( 122. the Macedonian Eudemus was appointed as commander of the Macedonian garrison. 3. the principalities of Musicanus. Philippus annexed the district of the Upper Indus to his satrapy. ibid. included the indigenous kingdoms of the Taxiles Ambhi. 2. Alexander.). 2. fell at the hands of his Greek mercena· ries. 4). It was entrusted to Philippus. wrote entrusting the guar· dianship of the territory to the Indian Taxiles until a new satrap was nominated... t23 Outside this organization. The kingdom of Abisares. of Spitaces as well as the territory of the Malloi and the Oxydrachai at the confluence of the Acesines and the Indus.123) consisted of Peucelaotis (Kabul vallcy). 19. the land of the Assakenoi as well as many principalities. Kophaius o r Cophaells of the region of Kabul.. the son of Machatas. Alexander.. Alexander kept two independent kingdoms to the east of the Hydaspes : those of Porus and Abisares. Before leaving India.sigupta) who was in charge of the district of the Assakcnoi .. V. Akouphis of Nysa. Its command was entrusted to Peithon. However. AMb.. covered the district of Sindh and included the ancient kingdom of the Sodrai. Ora (Udegram) and on the Aamus (PiT- sa. Aleunder returned to Porus his fonner possessions to which he soon added the territory of the Glausai or Glauganikai between the Hydaspc:s and the Acesines (Arrian. However. the son of Agenor. which was organized in 325. V. The satrapy of the Lower Indus. Small indigenous states subsisted under faithful leaders : Sangaius (Sanjaya) of ~kara­ vali. 21. The first was created in 326 after the victory of the Hydaspes. I). ibid. Assagctes (Asvajit) and Sissikottos (Ss. one king of which was named Moeres. located in Punch and the region of . V.112 THE M . as well as PataJene. 3. which was also created in 327. strong Macedonian garrisons wert established at Bazira (Bir-Kat).

5. . Oxyartes (the father of Roxane).. Anab. Peithon had no trouble in Quelling the rebels but. however. 1-9). Perdiccas maintained the status quo in the oriental border-lands.. 3-11. 6. V. he tried to spare them in the secret hope of enrolling them in his own troops. N.C. the Greek settlers in Bactria. . In Asia. INDIA UNDER mE DIADOCHI (323-305 B. blood flowed and war almost broke out. then by the Aenean Philo.. in Africa. Perdiccas ordered the satrap of Media. 20. who had already rebelled in 325. In Europe. Cappadocia. However. V. North-West India was involved in battles which opposed the Diadochi against each other. 19SI.. The latter thwarted the plans of their general by suddenly massacring all the mutineers. hUlilU(i(IftJ dts SJltllCilks. Instigated first by Athenodorus. So(iDI DlId «Mamie HUlory of tilt HtlklliJtie 124 W«/d. For details. to repress the uprising. 2nd cd . The other generals received provinces to govern. Phrataphemes retained Parthia-Hyrcania. The authoritarian attitude taken by Perdiccas in all circumstances alienated some of his colleagues. Antipater obtained Macedonia and Greece. W. the Paropamisadae. W. London. XVII. . Sibyrtius Arachosia-Gedrosia. 1·10. was maintained by Alell8nder after the wholly platonic submission of its king (Arrian. Cambridge. to recognize as kings Arrhidaeus. pp. Media. 8. 1938. Eumenes. that it was able to free itself from Macedonian authority (Quintus Curtius. XVIII. V. 3. and Philippus Bactria-Sogdiana. they insisted on returning to their mother-country across the Asiatic continent. received. a bastard of Philip of Macedonia. and Lysimachus. 7. Antipater and . son o f Lagus.. E. I. 3 YOI. Antigonus Monophthalmus received Phrygia ... Finally.. 3). T. 99. Diod. ICC M . General Perdiccas. Peithon. In fact. contrary to the instructions he had received.4).After the death of Alexander which took place on June 13th 323. XVIlt. N. The two Indians. Paris. together with the title of chiliarch..C. ROSTOVT7. TM Grttb in &clrio and /ndiD. Ptolemy. Taxiles and Porus. the regency of the kingdom.( 123-124) INDIA UNDER THE DlAIXX:HI 113 Nowshera.. to whom the Macedonian conqueror had bequeathed his ring. 1941 .. started fresh agitations.Eff. 29. and Alexander Aigos. Stasanor of Soloi Aria-Drangiana. from the day of his death. remained in possession of the kingdoms which Alell8nder had given them (Diod . It is said that as Alexander lay dying he had declared : "My generals will give me a bloody funeral" . particularly Antigonus. During the distribution of the satrapies which took place in 323. IX. The Greek element was therefore forced to remain in Bactria. 7.. an infant son of Alexander. and Peithon.)l6. and it was only in the middle of the third century 8. acquired Egypt... 8UtU. Thracia. The Macedonian generals agreed. .

who had received from Alexander the ~trapy of the Lower m Indus. having forced him to retreat. Cassander. besieged him in the fortress of Nora. the commander of the hipparchy of hetairai. Stasandrus of Cyprus received Aria and Drangiana (Diod. the domain of Peithon. but without being able to capture him personally. only intensified the struggle between the Diadochi. the son of Agenor. was reduced to the " region" of India. Eumenes was practically the only one to remain loyal to him .. He allied himself with Antigonus of Phrygia. Antipaler of Phrygia received full powers and proceeded with a second distribution of the satrapies : the partition at Triparadisus (321). which occurred in 319. less than six years after the Macedonian conquest. Seleucus received Babylonia. links which were maiDtained by a Macedonian garrison under the command of Eudemus. victorious in Asia. the Indian kingdoms had only very slight links with the occupying authorities. Pcrdiccas was assassinated in his tent by two rebellious officers : Peithon of Media and Scleucus. Relinquishing part of his authority. Cappadocia which had belonged to Eumenes passed to Nicanor. In contrast. Antipater entrusted Antigonus of Phrygia with the command of the royal anny and ordered him to continue the fight against Eumenes and the remaining partisans of Perdiccas. 3. 2. XVIII.. Therefore. 6). 39. while Peithon regained Northern Media. The death of Antipater. Eumenes. the satrap of Media. Polyperchon was supported in Asia by Eumenes who concentrated troops in Susiana . A series of events led the satraps of the higher regions to embrace Eumenes' cause. usurping the function of .114 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( \24-125) Ptolemy. The situation remained unchanged in the territories of Indian tongue and civilization : Oxyanes continued. Ptolemy of Egypt and Lysimachus of Thrace. As for the Indian kingdoms of the Indus and Hydaspe5. Polyperchon. With the agreement of Antigonus and Ptolemy. they remained respectively in the hands of Taxiles and Porus "because it was impossible to oust them" (Diod. declared war against the new regent. 39). Peilhon.. who considered himself wronged. as his successor. XVIII . in the Paropamisadae. was not able to prevent the dissidents from joining up at Triparadisus in Syria on the upper Oronles. The dying Antipater had withheld power from his son Cassander and had chosen an old soldier. According to the measures taken by Antipater. and also won over to his cause Peithon of Media and Seleucus of Babylon. Some changes took place in the eastern Iranian borderlands : Parthia fell to Philippus who abandoned Bactria-Sogdiana to Stasanor of Soloi . Antigonus met Eumenes in Cappadocia in the plain of Orkynia and. During a campaign in Egypt. adjacent to the Paropamisadae".

4).000 cavalry. he finally yielded to the entreaties of the Macedonians who demanded a pitiless punishment and Eumenes was strangled in his prison (Diad. commanded the 126 Macedonian garrison on the Middle Indus. . who was implicated in an attempted military uprising. in order to join up with the forces of Antigonus. He also put to death Eudemus. was summoned before a court martial. but who. since 324. According to Diodorus of Sicily.000 infantry.C.Sibyrtius (Arachosia) : 1. 44).rapy of the Lower Indus. and replaced him by his own brother Eudamus. 4. condemned and executed. 56. The only one who did not embrace: Eumenes' cause was Peithon. had Philippus. 700 cavalry.). thus he arrived with a contingent of 3. the governors of the higher regions formed a league against him and responded to the call made by Eumenes for assistance:. who was held to secrecy. it seems.500 in· fantry and 1. he sought a method of saving him.( 12S· I26) INDIA UNDER THE DIAIXX:HI 115 a plenipotentiary strategos.Androbazus. Peithon of Media. As for the strategos Eudemus who. and the Indian emperor Candragupta immediately added them to his crown (317 B. XIX. who had led the elephants from India . he was betrayed by his own argyraspides and delivered to the enemy. the Indian kingdoms of the Punjab returned to the mother country. Nevertheless. XIX. the satrap of Parthia executed. Antigonus seized Antigencs. XIX.700 infantry.. 14). the son of Agenor.500 infantry. 116 cavalry.Tlepolemus (Carmania) : 1. the rival of Eumenes (Diod . Freed from the foreign troops which had occupied them. 500 cavalry and 120 elephants (Diod.000 infantry.. Determined to be sole master in Asia.. . at the time of the partition of Triparadisus. As for Eumencs. lieutenant ofOxyartes (Paropamisadae) : 1. They succeeded in assembling approximately 18. who since 324 held command of the sat. . in 317 and 316 in Paraecene and Gabiene. Antigonus also rid himself of the friends who until then had supported his cause. had him enclosed in a casket and burnt alive. the leader of the argyraspides who had betrayed his own lord. 400 cavalry.200 infantry. he killed King Porus. the murderer of Porus. After two indecisive battles. He too lert his territory but. Now that he was master of Eumenes' person and of his whole anny. whose states extended along the east bank of the Jhelum. and seized the Indian elephants which had distinguished themselves at the battle of the Hydaspes .600 cavalry and 120 elephants to join the army of Eumenes in Susiana (317). Fearing a similar fate. these are the contingenlS supplied by the various satraps : Stasandrus (Aria-Drangiana-Bactria) : 1. held only a strip of territory neighbouring on the Paropamisadae to govern. The support of the higher satrapies was not able to ensure victory for Eumenes. his satrapy was given .

. Cassander of Macedonia and Greece fonned a coalition and sent Antigonus an ultimatum which he repulsed with disdain. 5. Without waiting any longer. It will be noticed that. The successes which Antigonus achieved in Persia. there is no further question of either the two Indian kingdoms or the satrapies on the Indus. In fact. the {ather of 127 Roxane. Babylonia passed into the hands of Peithon. 46). Reconciled with Sibynius. XIX. It was only in Aria that he was able to make new nominations : that of Evitus. i. and which were soon to be followed by the conquest of Northern Syria (315 B.C. to flight and killed Euagrus. He retained Oxyartes. and Peithon. Anligonus undertook the partition of the higher satrapies (316 B. In order to restore the Indo-Iranian possessions of Aleunder for his own profit. The first part of the programme was achieved in 311. April 311. 90-2). while . the satrap of Persia. was accused of extortion and forced to flee to Egypt where he took refuge with Ptolemy. Nicanor. escorted by 800 infantry and 200 cavalry.. These spectacular successes mark the start of the Seleucid era which began in Babylonia on 1st Nisan 311-310.C..127) to the Median Orontopates and to the strategos Hippostratus (Diod.e. the satrap of Babylon . the military administrator of the higher satrapies. he confirmed him in his satrapy of Arachosia . broke loose from the authority of Antigonus. In the spring of 312. Ptolemy and Seleucus won a decisive victory at Gaza over the armies of Antigonus which were commanded by Demetrius.). XIX. For the third time since the death of Alexander. Seleucus had to reconquer the upper regions of Eastern Iran and wrest Punjab and Sindh from Chandragupta. XIX. Seleucus treated all those who had surrendered with kindness and. Demetrius was routed and Peithon was left among the dead . having become master of a great anny. put Nicanor.116 THE MAGADHA N PERIOD ( 126. having reverted to the Indian empire of Candragupta. Seleucus. Seleucus. son of Antigonus. He kept Carmania for TIepolemus and Bactria for Stasanor "since it was not easy to expel those men from their provinces". 4. at this last partition. satrap of Babylon. Ptolemy of Egypt. who had earlier betn the satrap of the Lower Indus (Diod. easily seized Susiana and Media (OiOO. those territories. brought the other Diadochi out in league against him . On the instigation of Seleucus. He then stormed the fortress of Babylon. at the head of the Paropamisadae "since much time and a strong army would have been needed to oust him". XIX. pushed eastwards and entered Babylonia where the population received him joyfuUy. in a night battle.). the son of Agenor. son of Agenor. 48).. Lysimachus of Thrace. soon followed by Evagoras (DiOO. 56).

since Bouche-Leclerq. pp. LV). until he had concluded a treaty of friendship (cplAia) and a matrimonial alliance (xiioot. LV). 9). confirmed by Plutarch (Vita Alex. 2. He seized Media and other higher satrapies and with his own hand killed their military 128 administrator. peoples whom Alexander had already conquered. E.. Strabo (XV. Nicanor (Appian. 78) it would appear that Seleucus returned to his rival all or part of the Paropamisadae. the king of the Indians located around that river. 1938. in the period which followed Alexander. lA . A" r. that this covenant authorized mixed marriages between the Hellenes and the Bactrians and guaranteed the social position of the Graceo-Macedonians who had remained in the Indian territories recovered by Candra· gupta J ' . warned Antigonus by letter of the successes gained by Seleucus.w. LXII). Sogdiana.) with him" (Appian.Ecu:a.1. alarmed about the higher satrapies.C.. p. 50S . 1. Seleucus organized an expedition into open Indian territory : "Having crossed the Indus. Tapurians. son of Agenor. says Appian. XV. scnt his son [)e. Seleucus was to fail in the second part of his programme : the reconquest of the Punjab and Sindh which. metrius to Babylonia. Armenia... 29-30. 10. FOUCHER. This short· lived raid did not deter Seleucus from his projects (Diod. " ruled over Mesopotamia. 24 . Bactrians. but only for a short time. had been part of the Alexandrian possessions. From two passages by the geographer Eratosthenes (third century B. Parthians.Q. and the Indian empire of Candragupta : "Seleucus". 9) and supported by Pliny the Elder (VI. Bouad-I. The Indus again became. for ten years from 327 to 317. XIX. Hisl. LV). Arachosia and Gedrosia together with ~. Arachosia. I. held by Seleucus. SyriacQ. BIKDMAN.lc(}o fJquddJIu. II . before it returned to the mother country after the departure of the strategos Eudemus and the satrap Peithon. 2. states that "Seleucus Nicator ceded (the contested territories] to Sandracottus as a guarantee of a matrimonial covenant (bn"ya~ia) and in exchange for 500 elephants". 0. Cappadocia of the Seleucid. 450 . Bent on reconquering them. Candragupta had immediately added those territories to his crown. the Persians.) quoted by Strabo (XV. MJ SiIt"UriMJ. Hyrcania and all the neighbouring peoples as far as the Indus. with the result that the major part of Asia.. about 305-304. he waged war on Andrakottos (Candragupta). was bordered by that river" (Syriaca. to create a diversion . 1(0).( 127-128 ) INDIA UNDER THE DIADOC:HI 117 in flight . A. Syriaca.• p. the frontier between Iran . B"ZIN-Fouo«u. It is generally believed. and Antigonus. p. .

and Ir. MEHDIS. MALAUqnU.. he joined up with the separatist generals who were in league against Antigonus. from Vijaya to SirivikkamarijasTha (486 B. Foucher. the MoJravOl!Uo. G. P. he conquered Asia Minor with the victory of Curopedium gained over Lysimachus (281). pg. The Samantapasiidikii. B. I. . gave him access to the sea across Syria and Cilicia.. and most of the districts of the North ~West rallied to Buddhism.Mik6 (Nidini) 11. In the meantime. 1928.. H. from Bimbisara to ASoka (546-230 B. 1-24. As for Seleucus. IV. 11)47. see M. Hut. at least theoretically. Fouomt. Un.C.C. London.. 1934 (addendum by G . succeeded one another to the throne of Magadha. cd. pp.The sources in Pali which were compiled in Ceylon in the course of time constitute a source of prime impOrtance for the history of Buddhism 19. He entered Europe and was about to ascend the throne of Macedonia when he was assassinated in 280 by Ptolemy Keraunos.G. London. of Cc-ylon Review. wilk rrNt~ rk 1'/". For Sinhalese outpul in senera1.C. 1\l Pali Ut.D. the DipavQmSo (22 Chapters) and the MoJraVOl!U0 (37 Chapters) cover the period from the beginnings of Buddhism to the reign of Mahiisena (486 B. WII'lTD. The DipavOl!Uo was compiled at the end of the fourtb century by one or more anonymous authors . Finally. The victory at Ipsus in 301. 77w Pali CllrOtliclu ofC~yIOll . J9 cr. a commentary on the Pili Vinaya and written by the master Buddhaghosa in the fifth century. Written in Pili verse. pp. the new frontier followed roughly the 62nd degree longitude east of Paris J • • 129 The new demarcation line was. pp. 0. London. Hut . religious propaganda was able to proceed unmolested. by W.C.. On \he value oftbese chronicles.s:a-'a- .). 1879.CEYLON FROM 486 TO 250 8 . where the elephants supplied by Candragupta performed wonders..C. of the thirteen sovereigns who. llId. Lll . p .-349 A. .). 210-26. II. 208. slightly later in date.C. of ClY/OII . 3. once his eastern frontier was laid down.o£t. ruled in Ceylon . Lit . 517-96. MEHDI5. t~ CItrOtlk k J of C~)'I()If . SINHALESE CHRONICLES. 1946. 77w DipaWIIrUQ. They contain a complete list.118 THE MAGAOHAN PERIOD ( 128· 129) some districts of Aria.SITZ. P41i Ut .D . 1954.C. Calcutta.). to remain unchanged for the major part of the Maurya era and was only violated about the year 200. According to A. A . P.18IS A. 77w MaMrQI!U4lr. LAw. and of the 186 kings who. during the eastward thrust of King Euthydemus of Sattria. with indica· tions of dates. see G. 1950). Ot. is sometimes attributed to the monk Mahiinaman. Colombo. GEJOU. . . Matara. GooAHEWA.'llD.

The Dii!havaf!lSa by Dhammakitti (thirteenth century) is a verse adaptation of a Sinhalese chronicle which tells of the transportation of onc of the Buddha's teeth from Kalinga to Ceylon. written in the thirteenth century by the Thera Dhammakitti. was composed and added to the 1877 edition of the Cii!avaJ?Ua by H. Chapters 80·90. Hence the MahabodJJivaJ?Ua by Upatissa (eleventh century) is the Pili translation of a Sinhalese work describing the arrival of the Bodhi Tree in Ceylon. Sumangala and Batuwantu· dawa. 162nd k. compi· led between 1000 and 1250. provides some additional details on early events.ing (11861350). to the MahavaJ?Ua. a section written in the eighteenth century by the Thera Tibboturave Sumangala. the 137th king (ca. 138th king. and ending with that of Bhuvanekabihu IV. During the Middle Ages. the PoriiIJatthakatha. Monastery archives and semi-legendary writings concerning famous relics were added. beginning with the reign of Vijayabihu II. Chapters 38·79. chapters added at the end of the fourteenth century by an anonymous author. covering the accession of Parakkamabahu V. 161st k.). Chapter 101. thus completing the data of the chronicles on specific points. further chapters were added. 2. The three works have a common source in the old glosses in Sinhalese. 362-1186). ca. 3. at least four times. Chapters 91-100. and this additional supplement was called the CiifavUl!fsa : I.(129-1lI ) CEYLON FROM 486 TO 250 B. 4.C. It was during the reign of Rajadhirajasiha that the Capitulation of Colombo took place (15 February 1796) and the island passed from the hands of the Olanda (Dutch) to those of the Ingisiri (English).ing. 119 contains an introduction giving a summary of ecclesiastical history from its origins up to the reign of Devanarppiyatissa. relating the last two reigns. A VaJ?Uauhappakiisini or commentary upon the MahdvUl!fsa. Composed at the end of the fourteenth century or the . stretching from the reign of Sirimeghaval)l)a. up to the death of Kittisirajasaha. the 59th king. 1350-1782. to that of Parakkamabihu I. The ThiipavaJ?Ua by Vicissara (thirteenth century) is a poem describing in particular the erection of the Mahi Thiipa in Anuradhapura thanks to the intervention of King DUHhagamal)i. preserved until then in the Mahavihara monastery in Anuridhapura : they consisted of notes of a philological and exegetical nature. The Hatthavanagallavihiirav~a is the history of a monastery renowned for the charity of King Sirisanghabodhi who gave a poor man his own head upon which a rival III had set a price.C. but also contained some historical infonnation. sixth king of Ceylon 130 (250-210 B.

1943. All the Sinhalese literature baSC5 its calculations on the era of the Nirva~a . 4n-S28 . . Timrapa~i. LAndon . pp. 0/ Cry/on... B. Kiiflit_" ill Mrr Brdilmf' !fUCluijtm C~ylotU. . G . a certain number of whom had not yet got beyond the primitive stage of humanity.. Even more important are the Sinhalese inscriptions in which appear. would place the fonner event in 486 S. 1946 : H . this is contradicted by another Sinhalese tradition. Vol.unn. New Hillory of Indian People. P. ill ~yIOl1.. Buddhistic Studies. J. 1931. GEIOD.. W.. The Ve44a. AnIU . 41-S2 ... This. W. pp. IHQ. MtJQfI'~J Willttrniu . Such a discordance makes the traditional chronology precarious and it needs to be continually rectified with the aid of synchronisms. HUI . 132 was designated by the Greeks and Romans by the name of Taprobane... Buddltism in Cry/on. which is even older and counts 218 years between the Nirval)3 and the consecration of ASoka in 268 R. pp... present ancient facts in a forced light and on many points only express the viewpoint of the monks of the Mahavihiira . Calcutta. PAUD. it is advisable to compare the data of the chronicles with certain family archives such as the Rajdvaliya. ANCIENT POPULATIONS.:al Survey of Ceylon in Epi!rlJPlrio uilani(IJ. 37 1-5..C . . Tht/irJt Ar)'QII Colonization 0/ Cry/on. n . 0 .. W. IX. pp. GEIGER. 7tb ed. 4 ' u. MENDIS. the Arya and the Dravi4a. They nevertheless contain a number of authentic recollections which can sometimes be verified 4 ' . 0/ B... pp. or more simply Sir'flhala. N . Finally. C01ItrmpcNaMity 0/ t~ KinKS in India QIUl Ciy/Olf. which was fixed as from the twelfth century in 543 or 544 D. 35-71 . Leipzil. 742-50. 1909. ""jl" IJ NOlt on l~ CluonolOl)'. Coo~NOTON... the names of a large number of lUngs in their most common form40 .W..The island of Ceylon. known in India by the name Lanka. 1947 . See W. the veracity of the chronicles has been much debated : they proliferate in miracles. Calcutta. i1I CAy/Oft...c..l4a. They lived on the flesh of wild animals which they killed These ilUCTiptions WttC publWled by tbe Arcbaeolop. with regard to the duration of the Sinhalese reigns. HUI. were short-bodied hunters. VI. SI LV. However. 2nd ed.. wavy-haired and long-faced .J20 TIfE MAGADHAN PERIOD (1) 1-132) beginning of the fifteenth. .ada. A Jlro" HUI . JRAS..C. Ceylon Journal of Science. Ancinrt C~ylon... Hill. 711 -27. 0/ B. Furthennore. London. pp. 1921.. W. pp. 4 1 For tM history ofCeyion : H. Sir'flhaladvipa. assemble all kinds of legends. 0/ CryJOI1 . S. as we have seen.w. MaMy41IiJIrt i1I Cry/on . Colombo. OU)QY. 251-64 . W Luly HUloryO/ B. the Nikayasa'!lgraha supplied later details on the composition of the canonical texts and the history of the Buddhist sects. V1UN . M. Ur Cty/on. TItt rar/y Hilt. R. the Piijiiva/iya or the Rdjaratndkara.. SHIIHtOULLAH. A Jlt«l HUI. 166-81 ... Its population resulted from a mixture of different races and peoples of which the main ones were the Vt<. 1947. Mi. E. 1947.. XIII.A. 113·21. Blandarkar Vol .C .. 1940. 1931. Buddhistic Studies. 0/ C~Jlon . 1956..C.. Ch. pp. 0/ Cty/on..

( 132-133) SINHALESE POPULATIONS 121 I)) with arrows. Sihabiihu killed it.. Helu or Elu. and Sihasivali.~a (district of Cambay) where he founded the town of Sihapura and took as queen his own sister Sihasivali who gave him thirty-two sons.t"a were assimilated by an Aryan-speaking population which settled in Ceylon in the fifth century D. the Sinhalese chronicles mention the Simhala (lions). he fled to Bengal with his mother and sister. but refused the throne of Vanga which he was olTered. Taraccha (hyenas).. some stone altars erected in caves in the district of Datticaloa and at Nuvaragam Palata. Sihabihu. These terms show that these were totemic clans who took: their names from animals from which they were supposed to descend and whom they worshipped. In Li. The fact seems to be confirmed by an old legend concerning the arrival of the Siqlhala in Ceylon.t"a : tools made of shell and quartz. The exiles settled for some time in the ports of the western . Mhl' . They were a pastoral and agricultural people. At least a part of these Vec. and which is narrated at length in the chronicles (Dpl'. which they implanted in the island. He went to U. 932c) : A princess from Vanga (Bengal). organized into tribes and governed by kings under the control of a popular assembly (sami/i or sabha) with the help of spiritual leaders (purohila) and village chiefs (grtimaJ:ri). earlier known as Li. Moriyas (peacocks) and Kulinga (shrikes). When Sihabahu was sixteen years old.fa. They were closely bound to their family community and clan life_They apparently belonged to the same race as the pre-Dravidians of southern India such as the Irulas and Kurumbers. since the Sinhalese dialect.C. Since the lion's head had a price set on it. Lambakan:'a (hares or goats). Satins of Sumatra and Australian Aborigenes_ Among the ancient tribes of Ceylon. Vijaya and his seven hundred companions. p. IX. the Siqlhala. and were related to the Toalas of Celebes. the Aryas who occupied Ceylon originated in northern India. gave birth to twin babies. whose hands and feet were lion's paws. were so delinquent in their behaviour that King Sihabihu was compelled to banish them. the dolmen of Padiyagampola. In all probability. has clear affinities with the idioms of the Gulf of Cambay.fa. ch. VI-VIII) and the echoes of which reached Hsuan tsang (T 2087. having married a lion. the eldest of whom was Vijaya and the second Sumitta. Balibhojaka (crows). dwelt in stone caves and for a long time were ignorant of the use of cotton and wool. II . It is perhaps to this ancient stratum of the population that should be attributed the traces of palaeolithic and neolithic civilization discovered near the present habitat of the Vec.

. lOS . Vijaya repulsed the yakkhir:ti Kuvcl)i and wedded a daughter of King Pa~lC. they always succeeded in assimilating him by imposing their language and civilization on him . sometimes. As soon as they arrived. All these tales seem to be a distant echo of the struggle between the native Ve4l..134) side of the Indus. noticing 134 that these women were demons. The Yakkhi. five hundred merchants ran aground in Ceylon.. Upatissa.la most vigorously and. One day. the YakkhiQis who had rescued them devoured their previous husbands. in S. 191()"34 : IV. He raised five of his companions. lI. with the help of a divine horse which brought them back to their own country. who seized upon sailors who ran aground on the coast between the rivers KalyaQi and Nagadipa. XVIU. they devoured them as soon as more shipwrecked men reached the island. succeeded in escaping from them with two hundred and fifty companions. and the laner established on the island five colonies which bear their names. Uruvela and Vijita. Cilfq ~fS conftS tf apolopts txtrai/S tiM Tripi/aka cllilfois . E ."i Kuve~i became infat uated with Vijaya and the latter. weapons in hand . lilah. Sena and Guttika (Dpl' . Paris. 11). 214. At the time of mounting the throne.1a and the Aryan settlers. Anuradha. vol.lu of Madhura in the extreme south of India. the Yakkhinis transformed themselves into women who seduced and married them..Ia and the Aryas. XXI. p. then in Bhirukaocha (Broach). the Dravil. with her help. Mhl'. the same night. killed the Yakkhas of Lailkapura and Sirisavatthu and founded the city of Tambapal)l)i. . demoncsscs. other re(et=Ce$ in WATTD!l. when they were unable to repulse: the invader. 47. After the V~l.la from the continent added their own contribution to the peopling of the island where they set foot sometimes as peaceful immigrants and.) under the leadership of two Damila horsedealers.iirpiraka (Sopara to the north of Bombay) at first. p. The first invasion of which the chronic:les have preserved a recollection took place in the year 306 after the NirviQa (180 B. CKAVAl'tolES. Another legend which is often narrated in Buddhist works·u records that in Ceylon the town of Sirisavatthu was inhabited by YakkhiQis. The protection of the god Uppalav8QQ8 enabled them to triumph over attacks by Yakkha (demons) who wanted to e~pc:1 them from the island .II .. The Siqthala always resisted the Dravil.122 THE M"'GADHAN PERIOD ( 13]. However. It was from there that they arrived in Timrapall)! (Ceylon) which they reached on the vcry day of the Buddha's birth. p. 127 sq. •1 . Ujjena.C. to the Tank of ministers. The leader of the merchants..

7-11) establish the list of the first five kings of Ceylon as follows: THE F1RST FIVE ICINGS OF CEYWN Sovereigns Vijaya Intem:gnum 2. Mahodara and Cii!odara. Sakyamuni.) "'gn 38 I Nirvana 1-38 38-39 39-69 69·89 89-106 106-176 176-236 486-448 448-447 447-4 17 417-397 397·380 380-310 3 10-250 30 20 17 70 60 Vijaya was a contemporary of AjataSatru.) : the Buddha went to the Mahanaga garden and stood in the air over an assembly of serpents. .The Buddhist legend compiled by the chronicles (Dp"ll . who ruled for sixty years.C. at the invitation of Mal)iakkhila of Kalyal)i. Length of Era of the Ancient Era (B. Pal)4uvisudeva was the youngest son of Sumitta. the eldest son of Pal)c. the 16th year of his reign corresponding to the 24th of the king of Magadha. His son Mu!aUS siva.C.The Sinhalese chronicles of the Dipa. was deposed by his nephew Pal)c. Mhl'. and ruled in Upatissagama. Finally. after reigning for twenty years. Abhaya. PaQ4ukibhaya.(Ch. Ch. THE BUDDHA'S VISITS TO CEYLON.( 134-135) TIlE BUDDHA'S VISITS TO CEYLON J23 (486-250 B.. 1) claims that during his earthly lifetime Sakyamuni visited the island of Ceylon three times. 9-1 I) and the MahiJVlu!'sa (Ch. ruled for seventy years in Anuradhapura which he made his capital and where he established hennitages for the benefit the Nirgranthas.iuvasudeva. reconciled them and accepted as a gift the throne which had been the cause of the dispute. the Buddha appeared to them in the company of the god Samiddhi-Sumana. AJlvikas and brahmins. who were quarrelling over the possession of a precious throne. was a contemporary of the first three Mauryas. went to the island accompanied by five . three years later (523). Panduvasudeva 3. it was he who laid out the famous grove of the Mahamegbavana where his son was to welcome the first Buddhist missionaries. he persuaded them to leave the island and go as a group to occupy the land of Giridipa. Mutasiva I. 1-2.iukiibhaya and reduced to the role of city guardian (nagaraguttika) . The second visit occurred five years later (526) : an argument had broken out between two Naga chiefs. who overthrew Abhaya and killed his nine brothers. The first visit took place the very year of the Enlightenment (531 B.C. Vijaya's brother. Abhaya Interregnum 4. he married Bhaddakaccani by whom he had two sons and a daughter. Ch . . Having struck terror into them. .). Pa~4ukabhaya S.

LT DATES. Kasmir.C. p. 1946.urpiraka).124 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( DS-I36) hundred monks. .~h4. as well as Hslian-tsang (T 2087. dilCuWon OD 1M eumtials IXIDtinucs : E. pp. Since then IWO works have appeared which. the Miilasarwuti.tE PoussIN. U C(ItI( iit tit RAjo. This legend. ZDMG. 179·85. laid the foundations of their canonical writings. two Sanskrit sources which follow the short chronology. evaluated the chances of their Master's Doctrine enduring and chose their leaders. etc. must have been elaborated at a time when regions which had only embraced the Buddhist faith belatedly attempted to consider themselves holy lands by claiming that the Buddhas had trodden their soil. ERE. The traditions concerning these events are far from concordant and the majority did not assume any shape until times much later than the narrated facts. I. Pl. stayed on Mount Sumanakii~ where he left his footprint. IV.sed so much ink to ftow as thaI or 1M Buddhist lXIuncils.ha in the year one of the Nirvil)a. ten years aner the consecration of ASoka the Maurya u .. D~ lNddhis'~ KOrtziit . so dear to the Sinhalese. according to the long chronology in 486 B.All the sources are in agreement in placing the council of Rijav. the Saniislivooin Yinaya (T 1451. C~iJs.lSXI. the western coast (S. 4l few historical problems hive cau.C.LNU. An ucdlent description and an early bibliosraphy can be round in L. /IIlk Ckwiqw. ror I synoptic study or tM sources. HOWC¥CT.. situate the council in 258 D. It was there that he revealed to his audience that already before him. 136 II ... the Buddhas Kakusandha. Ko~agamana and Kassapa.T . had been to the island. baited in Dighavipi and visited the Mahamcghavana where he consecrated various spots by his very presence. 1926 : M.ddin Yinaya (T 1435. p. 49l-9. The council of VaiSiri is located between the year 100 and 110 of the Nirval)a : the Sinhalese sources which adopt the long chronology therefore place it in the year 386 B.THE COUNCILS OF RA. 1952.C. Louvain.. that is. corresponding to the tenth year of the reign of KiliSoKa. ftLUOUr.. Erwdtt sur k (OIICiit tit VaildJr.. II. HOflNGB.. - BUDDHIST LEGENDS AND TRADITIONS During the two centuries of the Magadhan period. CII.C. working alone or in conciliatory assemblies. Paris.ZVU. the Buddhists. We shall inspect them in tum. Ire and will remain ltUIajslerial : J . 240-61 .i.JAG~HA AND VAIS. . pp. DE VALL. 411c 3). . That is how a journey was attributed to the Buddha to North-West India. J. and according to the short chronology in 368 D. his three predecessors. fuuwAl. p. pp. 450a 2g). Dunna. 909b 14).

to which person and with regard to what subject the Master had expounded the siitras contained in the five canonical Nikiyas. Ananda. pp. an Ajivika told him of Ihe decease of the Buddha. pp. DDntvll. The assembly therefore went to the capital of Magadha and devoted the first month of the season to preparatory work.us.Among the numerous accounts devoted to the first two councils. without any preliminary introduction. who is addressing the bhilq. to whom and concerning what. but because. before dying. informs them that.. and presents the events in a reasonable external guise. In order to ensure that indiscipline would not infiltrate the order. However. Paris. it has been authenticated by the learned body of Sinhalese intellectuals. who were wiser. the Buddha had promulgated the instructions for drawing up the rules for bhik~us and bhik~u~is . reached Arhatsrup. 239·96. was best acquainted with the Buddha's teaching. Kisyapa proposed that the monks perfonn a joint recitation of the Law (dharma) and discipline (}'inaya). the account of the council of Rajagrha begins abruptly. 284-308). had not asked him to specify what he meant by those precepts. while he was travelling from Pivi 10 Kusinagara in the company of 500 monks. also convoked Ananda who. 1955. XL. resigned themselves to the inevitable. the Buddha had authorilCd the community to abolish the minor and least important precepts (k~udTafluk~udraka $ik~apada). now free of all restraint. A propos du t Ofltiir M Jltill4IT. Kiisyapa questioned Upali on the Vinaya and made him state where. he proposed that the bhik ~us. undergoing sudden enlightenment. He chose 499 Arhats but. Since the assembly was unable to reach an agreement concerning their signiA. which had occurred seven days previously. In this Vinaya.. to give there a joint recitation of the Dharmavinaya.u. Not because it is superior in value to that of the others. Among his companions. .· 1lJe pruenl description is 10 a IIIJC PIn inspired by lhe remarkab~ crilique by P. After a joint deliberation. Ananda. we will summarize here that of the Pali Vinaya (II. The session then opened . The very morning of the conclave. should live as they liked.£.uu. at their request. but that he. Kisyapa.l. some grieved while others. 8. . It was then Ananda's tum to infonn his colleagues in what place. the monk Subhaddha (Skt. TP.<1l6-1l7) THE COUNCILS OF RAJAG~HA AND VAISALI 125 1)1 NARRATION OF EVENTS. Subhadra) openly rejoiced at the loss of the Buddha who exasperated the monks with his observations. Ananda then told his colleagues that. it was decided that the SOO bhik ~us should go to Rijagrha for the rainy season. us pr""~1 tOfttiitl ~I. although he was not an Arhat.

In conclusion. (using) mats with fringes (adasakturt nisldanam). the Vajjiputtaka (SkI.lllgiri with SOO monks.1)1)Q). B. he had put his foot on his raincloak. 3. The PiJi Vinoya passes in silence over the episode of Gavampati which is narrated by several other sources : before the assembly was convened. however. tAl /NorIinS cONikl. ••• One hundred years after the Buddha's Nirvir. on learning of the decease of the Buddha and considering the world henceforth devoid of interest. KiSyapa proposed that all the precepts promulgated by the Buddha should be retained without distinction. the assembly instructed Ananda to go to Kausambi in order to notify the bhik~u Channa of the disciplinary punishment meted out to him by the Buddha. who was travelling in Dak~il. 6.3. The motion was accepted. Even though he felt perfectly innocent. the venerable Puri1J. Note : words in $quare brackets added by Ir. the lauer. approbation (anumall) (of an act when the assembly is incomplete). arrived in Rijagrha. U For deWb. had declined the invitation and entered Nirvina. Ananda confessed those faults out of regard for the community. 8. he 1)8 had allowed his body to be defiled by women's tears. [going to] another village (giimantara) [after eating once]. tee A . he expressed reservations and claimed that he had memorized the Law as he had heard and received it from the very lips of the Blessed One.e. [handling] gold and silver UdtariiparajataY·4 . 4. The elders at the council then addressed ARanda with a series of reproaches : he had neglected to question the Buddha about the minor and least important precepts. pp. he bad pleaded for the entry of women into the order.ua. [partaking of] sour milk (amalhila). 10. 6&-71 . eating when the sun's shadow has passed two fingers' breadth beyond noon]. Meanwhile.la. two fingers (dvanguJa) [i. the young PUn:'Ia had gone to the Siri~ Palace to invite the Arhat Gavampati to participate in the sessions. .u. S. 7. 9. [the holding of uposalha separately by monlcs] dwelling in the same district (dvdsa). he had not asked him to prolong his stay in this world and. Vdiputraka) bhik~us of VaiSiIi promulgated ten practices as being licit : I. [storing] salt in a horn (singilo1)a). (drinking) new palm-wine Ua/og. When he learnt that the Law and Discipline had been recited by Kasyapa and the 500 Arhats. 2. piitum). tinally.126 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD <m · Il!) ficance. [following a teacher's) rule of conduct (dc.

Those sent out to meet him missed him suc:cessively in Soreyya. and Simkasya).idha). arrived in Vaisali and noted that on the uposatha day the bhik~us of the area were placing a bowl in the middle of the assembly and were asking the laity to put gold and silver coins in it ror the needs of the community. claiming that the monks could receive neither silver nor gold. Saqtbhoga) who lived on Mount Ahoganga (on the upper Ganges) and won him over to his point of view as well as 60 bhik~us from Pa!heyya and 80 bhik~us from Avanti and the Deccan who had come to Ahoganga for the event. The laity were convinced and looked upon the monks of Vaisali as bad religious. The complainants decided to rally to their cause the venerable Revata of Soreyya (a locality between Veranji. the venerable Vasa (Skt. son or Kikal)4aka. requesting them to undertake his defence and to maintain the good discipline which was threatened by the practices of the Vajjiputtakas. who was living in solitude. but the latter. east of Mathuri. VaSas. while apologizing to the laity for insulting them by his reproaches. did not wait for anyone to come and consult him. S. namely that a bhik~u cannot accept gold or silver under any pretext whatever. after having had them explained to him at length. in this case the upasakas of Vaisali. Thereupon. Vasa formally advised the laity against offering any more money.iJflkasya. Avanti and the Deccan. Sal)visika.anavisa. Revata formally condemned them and promised Vasa his support. the Vaiiiputtakas then laid the act of suspension (ukkhepanjyakamma) on Vasa for having instructed without warrant. S. was warned by a deity or the bad behaviour of the bhik~us from the east. the venerable SiIJ:1a (Skt. S. VaSoda). However. Vasa questioned him on the lawfulness of the ten points and. the Vaiiiputtakas of VaiSiJi sent a delegation to Revala in Sahajili. Vasa did so but. Considering themselves offended. Disturbed by the tum events were taking. Vasa went in person to the venerable Sambhiita Sil)avisin (Skt. However. he maintained and reaffirmed his point of view. Vasa escaped rrom them and took reruge in KauUmbi. From there he sent messages to the bhik~us of Pa!heyya (Western India).( 118· 139) THE COUNCILS OF RAJAGI:lHA AND VAISALJ 127 At that moment. Furthermore. At the same time. finally catching up with him in Sahajiti. Kanyakubja.liyakamma) which consisted of begging the pardon of insulted persons. Udumbara and AUalapura. the Vajjiputtakas imposed on him the act or reconci139 liation (patisiirllJ. little desirous of intervening. which Revata . Sonavisin. the Vaisalians who had reached Rcvata tried to win him over with gifts.

soon followed by Sambhiita Sa~ava­ sin. as it threatened to go on for ever. but we also find figures such as 1. 42~-3) . Before the latter.000 (T 5). we also find other localities : Kusinagara (T 5). the Sal'!1gha went to Vaisall to settle the question . the Sabaloka (T 384). a less compromising location. but also to compare the various narrations which have been handed down to us and to classify them . who had been corrupted. Mount Grdhrakii~. . it is necessary. This person's remarks are indeed narrated in the canonical versions of the Mahiiparinirvii1Jasiitra (Digha. while a certain Ajita was entrusted with the seating arrangements. Magadha. MPS. The bhik~ us. It. At the suggestion of Revata.who saw in the decease of the Buddha the emancipation of the community. In private. Besides Rajagrha. p. who explained to him the points under dispute. 162. there 'are doubts about the precise spot: the Vel)uvana.000 (T 1509) and 3. the ancient Magadhan capi· tal. it was left to an arbitrating jury (ubbiUlikiiya) consisting of four western monks : Sabbakamin. The interrogation was then taken up in public. Sarvakiima) who already 140 lived thert was visited by Revata. Vasa and Sumana. and of four eastern monks : Revata. pp. . Kubjita). Sabbakamin semi-officially acknowledged the wrongs of the monks from Vaisali. Viisabhagamika. all the while upholding his condemnation despite the intervention of his disciple Uttara.128 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 139-141 ) refused. Revata explained the ten points under dispute to Sabbakamin who totally rejected them. WALDSCHMIDT. who numbered 700. Sambhiita Sir:tavisin. 5aU:ta.called Upananda in some sources . namely the unseemly refiection of the monk Subhadra . However. the Sanskrit narrative 141 merely says that Kasyapa was the only one to hear them. The date of the first council is universally fixed in the year one of the Nirval)a. but there are divergences as to the place of the sessions and the number of participants. AN ASSJ:SSMENT Of THE CONCILIAR TRADITION. Finally. the Kf?3triya cave or again the SaptapaI1la cave. each time referring to an article of the pratimok~ . The venerable Sabbakamin (Skt. If the council is located in Rajagrha. Khujjasobhita (Ski.In order to judge the value of this tradition . then went to the Valikarama in Vaisali. It is generally admitted that the elders of the council were 500 in number. the Sa'!lgha assembled and the debate was opened. to the north of the town of Saf!lkasya (T 2026) or. but there is no question as 10 the reaction his remarks may have provoked . not only to examine the account itself. There is some disproportion belween the scriplural work carried Oul at the sessions and the pretext advanced by KiSyapa for their conve· ning.

Therefore. There can be discerned in every vinaya a series of prescriptions. if canonical texts were recited at the first council. p. Przyluski believed he recognized in him a deity of drought and wind. an old explanatory commentary and a subsequent elaboration based on the prescriptions and commentary . T 99. 663b . 157) and the GopakamoggaJ/iina (M III. 679a) was composed during the reign of MUI.la . the place of the Agamas in the Siitrapi18kas. 147.la dynasty. Ananda makes the SOOth at the council of Rajagfha just as Niigasena does at the monastery of Vattaniya (BEFEO . the Assaliiyana in its many recensions (M It. p. although it is indelicate to remonstrate with an Arhat . show considerable discrepancies with regard to the distribution of the siitras in the Agamas. XXTV. but Ihe existing canonical collections contain texts which refer to dates later than the decease of the Buddha and the meetings of the council . T 27. 83.) were pronounced after the Parinirval. p. T 125. 1420). and Vasumitra. 876b) mentions the Yona-Kamboja of the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom and the Yiieh<hih of the K~l. It would be absurd to . It is true that the episode is not always located in the same place in the na rrative and that the number of reproaches varies : two. the extent of the Vinaya and the presence or absence of an Abhidhanna.JAG ~H A AND VAISALT 129 The episode of the invitation extended to Gavampati appears o nly in the siitras and has been eliminated from most of the Vinayas. the Niirada (A III. p. 2). 89. presented by the texts as a cloven-hoofed ruminant. Furthennore. 3. p. It is a fact that the canons of the various schools. the SOOth at the council of Kani~ka (T 2087. p. is a mythical person. p. 20. 36. All the narrations attribute to the elders of the council generally speaking the compilation of the canonical writings. 24. they were certainly not identical to those we possess now. such as they have come down to us or been described in the accounts of the first council. ch. The reproaches addressed to Ananda by Kasyapa or the elders of the council come from the same concern for purification. T 26. 886c).l9a. This Gavimpati. p. 7. ch. T 71. p. ch. p. the grandson of AjataSatru . 57. Kubjita was 10 be the 700th in certain accounts of the council of VaiSiili (T 1435. 653. n. si milarly. and J. this is a hackneyed theme in ecclesiastical history . The last-minute arrival of Ananda to make up the total number of the assembly is doubtless connected with notions of expiatory tests . ch. p. ch. the Gho!amukha (M n.( 141-142) THE COUNCILS OF RA. and each school claims that it was its own 142 canon which was compiled by the elders of the council. the sources disagree over the extent of the canonical texts recited at Rajagrha. p. five . 1451 ). 37. Several sutras given as canonical such as the Madhllrii (M II. six or seven.

for whom and with regard to what the Master promulgated the rules and delivered his speeches. were not published till the year 236 after the Nirval)a. We are told that the compilers devoted themselves to methodical work and obtained precisions from Upali and Ananda as to where. 287). 6&) relates that. it is to be doubted whether certain schools ever possessed the canon which they claim was compiled at Rajagrha. In the account of the council. the sutras did not necessarily have a nidana . In its concision. such-and-such a country. the Brahmajiifasutta. I). 14) ch. before entering Nirvii~a. we see that they rarely date back to a common tradition. this is an apocryphal order which the early versions of the ParinirvtlnasiUra do not takc. Furthennore. the Buddha had ordered that the precious basket of the Law begin with the fonnula "Ev~ mayii srutam eJuumin samaye : The Buddha was residing in suchand-such a region. p. 14. In other words. in a period when the schools had not yet been fanned . 264b I) in the meeting-pavilion of Chill Ii 10 (Kareri) near the Jetavana in Srivasti.130 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 142. A late recension of the MahiiparinirviiJ:rasiitra reproduced in the Ta chih tu fun (T 1509. 88b 13) locates this sutra in the Chu fin (Vet}.into consideration. the Pili edition . p. the chronicle had no interest in relating a fact demonstrating a partial failure in the sessions at Riijagrha. each article of the Vinaya and each sutra was presumed to have been given an introduction (n. In Ceylon during the fifth century A. if we compare each of those nidana. claiming that among the Buddhas of the past. As will be seen in the next section. p.143) claim that all those canons were fixed at the very beginnings of Buddhism. to take just one example. p. This infonnation is correct if we refer to the Piili version of the Bra}lfnajiifasuua (Digha. However. siitras all began in that way. such as the Kathilvatthu. if at all. p. in their original composition.uvana). Unfortunately. was supposed to have been delivered between Rijagrha and Niilandii in the royal pa· vilion of Ambalaghikii. there was still some discussion over the classification and euet composition of the Pili Tipi~ka .D. ch. according to the Pili Vinaya narration (II. Thus. and it was admitted that certain canonical writings.dana) detennining the circumstances of place. there is an episode which seems to plead in favour of the veracity of the chronicle : that of Purii~a who refuses to adopt the decisions by the council to retain the Law just as he himself had heard it from the lips of the Buddha. 2. It is likely that. those canons were not fixed until quite late. person and subject. and the Fan wang (T 21. but it is false if we look at the Chinese versions of the same sutra : the Chang a han (f I. they added one when their authenticity was questioned and proof was needed. such-and·such a grove". Obviously. I.

pp.JAG~HA AND VAIS.200. The elders were 700 in number. The council had no chairman. 51) and at the time of these events had been ordained for 110 to 130 years. ••• Less numerous. although just as contradictory.a fell in with the decisions of the council. IV. doing the cooking there. one source merely gives the Vihira of Kusumapuri (sic). Vasa's appeal to the distant communities of pa!heyya.kisya. in the monastery of the Vilikirama.i. The council supposedly took place in the year 100. in other respects very concise. 30-1).OOO! The narrative abounds in peculiarities and im:oherenr. This list. There is disagreement over the date.ies. What is most curious is the list of ten points summarizing the practices in force among the Vdiputrakas. were it not for a passage in the Dipav~a (V. are the accounts of the council of Vaisari. Each expert who was consulted about it seemed to understand nothing of it and had to have it explained in detail. 110. Sike~. KiliiSoka or ASoka the Maurya. except for some harmless points : storing food in the house. which would have been easily comprehensible to the . Aggalapura. some to Sambhiita ~T)avasin . some to Revata. it is difficult to see how it could be divided impartially into two groups : four bhik~us from the East (Pacinaka) and four from the West (Pi~heyyaka).U 131 might lead to the belief that Punll). Mathuri. The absence of reaction from the Vdiputrakas of Vai5Ari after their condemnation is astonishing. The silence of the Pili edition over these minor practices is all the more curious in that some of them are discussed in the Pili Vinaya (I. the place and the number of participants. Kanyakubja. Sahajati. was not written in pure Pili. The jury of eight members charged with making decisions was chosen from among monks coming mostly from central India. The elders of the council apparently all knew the Buddha (Dpv . to say the least . or again some to Sarvikimin and Kubjita. 210 or 220 after the Nirvil)a.. the localities of Ahoganga. etc. Sirp. Avanti and the Deccan is an unusual procedure of which there is no other example in ecclesiastical history. it might be believed they submitted in silence. Soreyya. The sessions were held in Vaisali. in the reigns of a Nandin. the sources attributing pre-eminence. in the monastery of Kusumapura or again in the Kjj~agaraSila of the Marka~hradatira. 210-15) . or even 1.. without stating the town.( 143-144) TIlE COUNCILS OF RA. Revata's flight from the messengers sent to look for him corresponds less to a fit of bad temper than the dissimulation of the 144 performing of a rite.

who were of a laxist tendency."" am~ iangw prtcQllQltiqw du b.). for clI. the monks of VaiSiIi drank . alcoholic liquid.ja/DUka is the only valid one u . Ltv•. but in an eastern tongue using the voicing of unvoiced occlusives in inter-vocalic position. 5. 5. it is fonnulated in a somewhat special way : "Under no condition is it permissible to beg for gold. in which. discarded the first nine points as being negligible 'and modified the tenth in confonnity with their ruling. Vin. pp. In the choice of their interpretations. Vin. they took the trouble to find in their rules. which has not yet become majja. 51 and 89 and. Uvi calls the pre-canonicallanguage of Buddhism. then shaking the mixture and using it as a drink (Chinese version of the Miilas. 3. if it had been transposed into Pii. IA. drinking a sura.).1 p. fermented drinks declaring that this was lawful on the grouqds of sickness (Tibetan 145 version of the Miilas. 8. Vin. 1912. Thus.. jalauka). Thus. ObHrY(lIWru. drinking shih lu-chia Ualoga). 3. which forbade an individual monk to handle gold and silver or to keep any in reserve. the Pacittiyas 38. the Nissaggiya 18. a leech is worded. the various Vinayas were not guided by mere fantasy . the Middle Indian equivalent of the Skt. jafogipilllmf which constitutes the seventh point is explained in six different ways: I. but as ja/oga. . which had already been codified. This last interpretation which sees in the hapaxjalogi. or. Dantvlu. . finally.). the Mahavagga. 6. 3.. and IX. OJ s. This explains why the ten points received interpretations which varied according to the sources. 4. In short. silver or money". 35.). 273. Further. an intoxicating drink (Pali Vin.ii . drinking shih lu Ualo) (Dharmagup. •• P.132 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 144-14S) western regions. 0. Vin. 508-10. The Ma/riisdrrlghika Vinaya passes in silence over the first nine points and mentions and condemns only the tenth : the practice of handling gold and silver.£. A study of the other Vinayas would doubtless lead to the same conclusion. passages dealing with the points and enabling them to be condemned. sucking like leeches (Skt. the Pacittiyas 35. poverty causes us to drink alcohol (Sarv.). it was worded in what S. " local indigence" : when we happen to be somewhere. a fermented alcoholic liquid which is not yet mature (Mahis. the ten Vaisalian practices are collated or at least are colla table with. "curing sickness" : mixing alcohol with water. Vin. 2. 37. in the Pali Vitulya . but authorized gifts of cash to be added to the unassignable assets of the community·l6.). that transposition was not thorough-going and left extant some dialC(:tai peculiarities alien to Pili and the western dialects. not as j alauka as in Sanskrit Ua/oka in Pali ?).3mple. It is likely that the Mabasirpghihs.II.

finally. which is purported to have been translated between 148 and 170 A. P'u sa ch 'u t 'a. ch . the latter by an unknown hand between 317 and 420. 4b-7a). we may mention the Kas). lang (T 384. 756b) place alongside the council of Rajagrha the council of the Vimnlasvabhava where several Bodhisattvas. 146 by the Parthian An Shih ho . These accounts have certain characteristic features . The account of the two councils is to be found in all the Vinayas which have come down to us. 2. finally. The Sarviistivildin Vinaya (T 1435). to the exclusion of the second. chronicles. They have in common the intention to present the canonical writings on which they base their authority as ancient and authentic . which do not fonn a part of the canonical collection of the Agamas or Nikiyas . The account of the first council also appears in full or in part in the Vaipulyasutras and ~tras of the Mahayana : Fin p~h kung Ie fun 1507) translated by an unknown hand between 25 and 220. or seem to. ch . 67a-70a) translated by KumaraJiva between 402 and 405.. but it appears in them as an appendix or later addition . 15. the second council. 1-40) by an unknown translator between 317 and 420. in tum by the sutras. They are deeply tinged with the marvellous and nearly all of them narrate the invitation to Gavampati. To chjh tu fun (T 1509. 190c 28-19Ia) the former translated by Po Fa-tsu between 290 and 306. 5. Finally. ch . It has been exploited. \. pp. 175a 25-c 21. Among these "detached (muktaka) sutras of the Hinayanist canonical tradition. 2. they ignore. 2. p . l73c. 'The Narrative 0/ the compilation o/ the Tripi/aka QIId the Tsa I$ang' (T 2026. it seems incidental and. It should however be noted that certain sources such as the Ta chih tu fun (f 1509. undeniably mythical in nature .apasa'!lgftisiitra (f 2027. according to the various sources. p . ch . 146) THE COUNCILS OF RAJAGJ:lUA AND VAiUlT III It is important to specify the place occupied in Buddhist literature by the tradition concerning the councils . p . p. Nevertheless. pp . The account of the first council. assisted by Ananda. 100. 7. avadanas. vinayas. T 6. p.asUtra (T 5. appears in numerous sutras albeit later sutras of both the Mahayana and the Hinayana. 1058) translated by Chu Fo nien between 384 and 417..nirviitJ. ch . are purported to have compiled the writings of the Mahayana . by the memoirs of Chinese pilgrims and by the commentaries upon canonical works . the To pei ching (T 380. in its first edition translated by rr . ch . pp. 971b) translated by NarendrayaSas in the second half of the fifth century. is presented in various aspects and with particular intentions. pp . two aberrant Par.. D . ch . a . 2.( 10.

pp. 1954. WALDSCHMIDT.la of the Buddha.134 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 146-147) KumaraJlva in 404. ODtItvIUL 0. all the Vinayas. 966c-97I c). 190b-194b). the account of the councils occupies chUan 60-61. pp. It is followed by - . pp.Immediately the Nirvir. two leaves of a Sanskrit manuscript in Brihmi script containing a fragment of the narrative of the first council as it appears in Vimaliksa's postscript . the account of the two councils. and is probably based on a Sanskrit document which VimaIik~. Leipzig. makes only a brief allusion to it in its 10th adhyaya entitled KuiaJiidhyiJya (ch. 817· 28. 54. It thus practically completes the Theravadin disciplinary collection. which were contrary to the nature of the Law and the nature of bodily attitudes. the text continues with minor prescriptions concerning the use of seals. seven hundred bhilc~U$ assembled in the same place in order to annul those ten points: that is wtLat is called the compilation of the Vinaya by the Seven-hundred"'. contrary to the . since the section of the Pariviira which at present concludes the collection is the work of a fifth century monk named Dipa. 447a456b. ch. have been found in Murtuq. b. which were not contained in either the Siitras or in the Vinaya. acquired in Central Asia and took to C hina. 414a). In the Mahiidsaka Vinaya. five hundred bhik~us assembled in the same place in order to compik all the Sutras.. pp. 250. .1 p. among other appendices. Festschrift Weller. ch. in the postscript to the Sarvdstiviidin Vin. added after 409 by Vimalak~ to the complete translation made by Kumarajiva in 404.ncr 141 teaching of the Buddha. pp. medecines. p. concludes the Skandhaka section (T 1428. contrary to the Vinaya. 30. all the Abhidbannas : that is what is called the compilation of the Vinaya by the Five-hundred. The compilation of the Vinaya by the Seven-hundred . In the Dharnwguptaka Vinaya. preceded by a narration of the Buddha's funeral ceremony. After a series of prescriptions concerning the distribution of vegetables and the use of beds and utensils made of precious metal. d . After this brief mention. 7 P. In this postscript. it passes abruptly to the following mention : The compilation of the Vinaya by the Five-hundred. . Zuni ersten buddhistischen Konzil in Rajagr:ha.One hundred and ten years after the Nirval)a of the Buddha. when there appeared the ten points of VaiSiIi which were contrary to the Law. the rough narrative of the two councils begins abruptly after a description of the Khandakas (II. 284-308). c. In fact . 56. These leaves have been published by E. the rough version of the two councils comes at the end (T 1421. and other unimportant matters. In the Pili Vinaya. A detailed account of the two councils appears. after a description of the Skandhakas. . .

pp.'ha and the ten laxist practices of the Vdiputrakas of VaiSiIi are interpreted and explained in such a way that it is easy to find an article condemning them in the Vinayas that were already settled. form part of a Kt!udrakfuJhyiiya "minor IU chapter" incorporated right in the middle of the Skandhaka section (T 1425. their canon to those of their neighbours. Saf!Tyuktavarga and Vinayaikottara . which can be viewed as the equivalent of the Pili Pariviira. f. 32. Whether rightly or wrongJy. In the Haimavata Vinayamiitrkii. Sarvastivadins. at least tacitly. g. As far as the history of the councils is concerned. A Daiabhiimika which is incorporated into this compilation contains an extremely aberrant account of the first council (Mahiivastu . the Mahiivastu is given as part of the Vinayapi~ka of the Lokottaravadins from the Madhyadeia. and yet each of them is given as original and authentic. It follows a short narration of the decease and funeral ceremony of the Buddha. ch. a link between the tradition of the councils and the Buddhist discipline was created quite artifically. the Vinayas which have just been listed are characterized by some particular features. They. 34. ch. This is why the seven or eight points over which Pural)a had refused to agree in Rajap. Another concern of the Vinayas is to adapt the tradition of the councils to their own disciplinary regulations. 33. so that the history of the councils seems to concern the Vinaya rather than the Dhanna and regulations rather than doctrines. . a branch of the Mahasif!lghikas. As for the J4udralcavastu of the Miilasarvds.LJ 135 two appendices. It is quite clear that the Tripi~ka of the Theravadins.( 147· 148) TIfE COUNCILS OF RAJAG~HA AND VAISA. translated between 385 and 431 and set out on a different plan to that of the other Vinayas. which includes an account of the two councils. 68·76). not an original recitation valid for the community as a whole. pp. ch. take pleasure in specifying them and oppose. it follows a short account of the Buddha's funeral ceremony. 4901>-4920 . 493. to the exclusion of the second. the accounts of the two councils. Mahisasakas. e. preceded by a report of the Buddha's funeral ceremony and separated by a long list of patriarchs. but by canonical writings they mean.·<). but the particular writings compiled by each of their scholars.iviidin Vinaya. SI8a-S19c 13). p. we would prefer to classify it among the chronicles rather than among the Vinayas. First of all. they continue to use the tradition of the councils as proof of the authenticity and antiquity of the canonical writings. Haimavatas and Dhannaguptakas differed in the length and layout of the subjects. t. pp. the account of the councils occupies the end of the third scroll and the beginning of the fourth (T 1463. In the Mahiisiilrtghika Vinaya. Thus.

pp. Sil). They give full details of the first council (T 2042. the northern chronology. furthennore their pre-Mahayanist tendencies predisposed them to accept wonders without too much evidence. counts only one century between the Nirv<i. Madhyantika. the compilers of the Vinayas. ch. but completed in the fifth century. As rationalist theoreticians. this was because they were addressed to a wider public. in Sanskrit. had offered a perfumed bath to MahikiSyapa: and the elders of the first council. by reconsidering the councils in their own way. T 2043. Ananda. a hundred years earlier. The Mahasiqlghikas alone did not consider it necessary to rationalize the account and they retain the traditional roles played by the gods and by Gaviimpati. the council of VaiSiIi in the year 100 of the Nirval).a took place while ASoka was ruling. The Asokiivadiina appears in the form of a double recension : the first.l. according to that calculation. T 2043. 191-206) establishing a connection between the identity of the bhik~u Sundara.a and ASoka's accession and. The compiler's intention is to emphasize the continuity of the Buddhist tradition.J. more easily moved by the marvellous than by textual exactitude. This precaution clearly distinguished them from the compilers of the siitras whose concern for edification prevailed over that of verisimilitude. and that of a fanner who. No. It is fitting to compare these two Avadiina with the MUiasarvdslivadin . The Avadiinmaraka. Somewhat different preoccupations surfaced in 'the accounts of the councils incorporated in the Avadiina and the 'MUlasarviistiviidin Vinaya . lila 121140 25. translated about the year 300 by An Fa ch'in. which was translated by Chih ch'ien between 223 and 253.avisa. contains a SDI!"giti (It. We should add that ISO portions of this chronicle are again found. T 2042. translated by S3l!lghavara in 512.136 149 THE MAGADHAN PERlOO ( 149-150) Finally. the decease of the Buddha and the construction of the eight stiipas. 1500 13-152c 1). too siupid : the intervention of devas. pp. pp. finally. In fact. pp. Upagupta and Dhitika. the invitation to the ox· god Gaviimpati. 348-64. 6. 3-4. a contemporary of ASoka. ch. they expurgated the narrative of anything which might appear too marvellous and. the second. in the Divyiivadiina. Chapters VI and Vtl of the Asokihadana constitute a chronicle relating in order tbe journey made by the Buddha and Ananda to Mathura. 100. but do not mention the second. were more preoccupied by technical details than by the poetry of the narrative. etc. it must be said. Upagupta is given as a contemporary and spiritual adviser of ASoka the Maurya. the council of Rajagrha and. on which this Avadina is based. 3. the transmission of the Baskets of the Dhanna to the first five or six patriarchs : Kasyapa.

narrates the same events in a haphazard order. 34 and 61. A Parinir}lti1. the second council in the year 100 of the Nirvana (pp. the Tibetan version ends its description with the following statements : "The council (of the 700 Arhat) took place 110 years after the NirviiQa. Upagupta.ii narrates in order the first council (pp. its chapter V to the succession of Vinaya Masters. According to a well-ordered plan. 30-3). his decc:ase. the history of ASoka the Maurya and the council of Pii18liputra (vv. ch. pp. 275-6. The D'ipa}lOf!lSQ whlch is slightly earlier than the preceding two chronicles. Similarly.JAGJ:lHA AND VAISA. V. which is the most recent of all and was not translated into Chinese: by I-chlng until 710.• IV.sters who were regularly responsible for it. p. 382b 29402c 4). the reign of Asoka and the third council in the year 236 of the Nirvil). 411 c 4-414b 11). pages 18. 228-82).LJ 137 Vinaya. 40. 33-7). both sources assert that the canonical writings as they lSI appear in the present Sinhalese canon were compiled at the first council and repeated at the second as well as the third . It is appropriate to compare the Sinhalese chronicles and commen· laries of the fourth-fifth centuries with the data assembled by the Chinese: during approximately the same period. Mad· hyiintika. 35·39. 1-30).( ISO-lSI ) THE COUNCILS OF R. funeral. See for the MahiivaJ?Ua . 40. The account of the first council (ch. 63. The account of the second council (ch.a (pp. 1-15) and two of . finally. and for the Samantapiisadikii. 408c 13411c 2). the MahimJf!lSa devotes its chapters III and IV respectively to the councils of Riijagrha and VaiSiili. the S<Jmantapiisadik. pp. 39-40. 3. 2. pp. SiQaviisa.asiilra relating the Buddha's last peregrina· tion. Ananda. The dominant preoccupation of these sources is no longer to establish the great antiquity of the canonical writings but to emphasize the legitimacy of the transmission of the Law by the mu. V. The transmission of the Law through the beneficence of the first eight patriarchs : Mahiikasyapa. 402c 4408c 12). The soction of the /4udraka}lostu which has come down to us in a Chinese: and a Tibetan ver1ion in fact concludes with an ecclesiatical chronicle devoted to the first century of Buddhism : I. 4. 4. III. This marks a development over the previous sources in which these: details did not as yet appear. the war and distribution of the relics (T 1451. The succession of the five or eight patriarchs creates a continuous link between the recitations of the Law over the period of a century. 40. With a concern for parallelism. 37-61). Dhitika. In it we find two accounts of the fir1t council (Dp}l . the succession of Vinaya Masters (pp.i. Kiila and Sudariana (ch. it was held in the monastery of Kusumapura in VaiSifi. and the generous donor to the monks was the pious ASoka". 1.26. IV.

V. Those Mahasaqlgitikas. p. one of the first five bhik~us. V. whether unordained or Arhat.. However. where the first council was held (T 2085. 1931 -32. It became 152 doctrinal 116 years later. the compilation of the writings afier the decease of the Buddha was carried out simultaneously by two assemblies : that of the inner assembly consisting of 500 Arhats and directed by Mahakasyapa. During his visits to Bihar. p. visited the Saptapal1)a cave. the DFpavmrzsa introduces a new element of prime imponance into the historical tradition. P.. the cave where Kiisyapa and the thousand (sic) Arhats had held a cOuncil the very year of the decease: of the Buddha and compiled a canon which received the name of Sthaviranikiiya (Collection of the Elder) because the Sthavira Kiisyapa had presided over it. (Dpv . who had not been admitted into Kasyapa's council.S69) and confirmed by his Chinese pupil Chi tsang (549·623)41. Some twenty Ii to the west of that spot. as they were called.000 members of the Great Assembly (mahtisof!lghika) under the authority of Ba~pa. The council of VaisaIT in the year 100 was supposedly followed by a Great Council (mahas~gj'tI) of the Vajjiputtakas of VaiSirr : those rebellious monks threw the ancient canonical writings into confusion. I. 30-8). myriads of the religious.. Hsuan tsang saw near Rajagrha. The oral tradition collected in India by the Chinese pilgrims confinns these facts up to a certain point. 8620). Hsiian tsang saw one of Asoka's stiipas marking the place where. however. Fa hsien. near Rajagrha. 47-53 . added recent texts and discarded old ones (Dpv. 3954). he makes no mention of a schism . p. DEwItvILU. 19. It will be noted that both scholars seemed to be wholly unaware of the council of VaiSili. initiated a new exegesis. the same year. either in 637 or 642. L 'origw ikJ J«ln bouddhlqun MCB. modified the order of the collections. . when the MahasaI!lghikas adopted the fivefold heresy of Mahadeva which had been 'condemned by the Sthaviras. and that of the outer assembly composed of 10. five or six Ii to the south-west of the Ve')uvana..138 ruE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 151 -152) the second (IV. . who travelled from 399 to 412. 863a) and in VaiSiIi saw a stiipa comme· morating the place where the 700 Arhats had re-examined and collated the disciplinary texts (ibid. V. 5. 16-29). Although each of these two assemblies was held in a separate place they were still not divided over feelings and views : their split was still only nominal . cr. provoked a schism which was the point of departure for the fragmentation of the community into eighteen rival sects. According to the Indian Paramartha (5()(). compiled a canon of their own which received the name of Mahtisii/rlghikanikiiya .

Chi tsang and Hsiian tsang. a new compilation according to Hsiian tsang (T 2087. art remarkable for certain features they have in common. to the council of VaiSiIi : it is no longer just a question. As it had not been possible to impose the decisions taken at the councils on all the members of the community. IV. there is a concern to link the counci ls with the reigns of the Magadhan princes. 110 years after the Buddha's decease. gave his patronage to the orthodox monks (Mhv. two classes or supplementary texts : the SOI!1yukta (Mixture) and the DMr~j"(mnemonical formulas) (T 2087. the Sutras. Among those Arhat.( m-m) mE COUNCILS OF RAJA. all the sources recorded in the present paragraph establish a direct link between the Buddhist councils and the formation of the sects. .).. 1. on the intervention of his sister Nandi. which pass in silence over the council of VaiSiIi or merely mention it incidentally. AND YAISALI 139 IS] (Collection or the Great Assembly) . 7. Another more important point is the extent of the literary activity attributed. 63-4). ch. 909b). The Sinhalese chronicles and commentaries on the one hand . as in the Pili Vinaya (II. those at VaiSiIi under the aegis of KalaSoka : the latter is purported to have supported the laxist monks of VaiSiIi at first but. SaI'[lbhoga of Mathura. 44). The Master of the Law also saw. even considers it was a result of the third . Fu chi su mi /0(1) ofPa~aliputra : as fa nner disciples of Ananda. the latter is thought to have immediately split into various schools. Hsuan tsang noted the names of YaSOOa of Knsala. they wert all versed in the Tripitaka (T 2087. . Vinaya and Abhidharma. The sessions at Rajag~ha were thought to have been held under the protection of King Ajitaiatru. this canon in five sections larger than the preceding one. 922b-923a). A later source. both compiled at about the same period. contained. 37. a large stupa marking the spot where. the Nik. 700 eminent sages had condemned the laxist practices of the monks of VaisaIi and then proceeded with a second compi lation of the writings. fourteen or fifteen Ii to the southeast ofVaiSiIi. More especially in the Si nhalese sources. p. 909b 14). the memoirs of the Chinese pilgrims on the other.iiyasOl!1grtJha . but all agree in celebrating the generosity of Ajitaiatru in respect of the elders of the first council. Detai ls are missing in the Chinese sources. p. of a recitation of the discipline (vinaya~gj. Shila ofVaiSiIi. The MahasaI'[lghika schism is thought to have been a direct consequence of the first council according to Paramirtha. pp. but of a complete re-edition of the Law a dhammasOl!1gaha in the words of the MaMvarrua (IV. ch. ch_ 9. 307). p.G~HA. Revata of Kanyikubja. Finally. of the second according to the Di"pavarrua.

2. However.Vtpii~ JCpti'nwv. •ApJ. The little that has been said about them is enough to demonstrate that it would be imprudent to commit oneself for or against the historicity of the councils. A tacit agreement is better than a clearly stated one.which is quite another malter .it was incorporated into Avadanas in order to establish the continuity of the Buddhist tradition through its many depositaries. Furthennore. it rests with the historian of literature to describe its details or. attempted to codify the word of the Buddha in both the field of doctrine and in the field of discipline and that they succeeded in elaborating a coherent dhanna and pratimok~ .Many other considerations could be advanced concerning this tradition of the councils. a linguistic one and a literary one. The tradition of the councils is only indirectly connected with the mainstream of the canonical writings : it appears only in later siitras which are not included in the early collections. which were accepted as a whole by the early community and which constituted the common heritage of the Buddhist sects which were subsequently to develop. it was exploited in the course of time for the most diverse purposes : it was used as proof of the antiquity and authenticity of the canonical texts. according to the traditional expression. finally. 154 It is nonetheless a fact that the very existence of the council has never been questioned and. persons who took part in them. Contrary to the assertions of the orthodox tradition. since • these religious texts have come down to us in various Indian languages . In itself. the various narratives which have come down to us disagree over almost every point : date and place of the councils.THE FORMATION OF TIiE CANON OF WRITINGS The canon of Buddhist writings or.140 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( IS]. We would say. it was employed in the explanation of the birth of the schisms and the fonnation of the schools. When compared with one another.lovi'l aqKlvllc) IpO. one or more groups of specialists. as Heraclitus says on this point. the constitution of a canon similar to the present Sinhalese Tripi!aka is the result of many centuries of labour . at least. to indicate its progress. and afterwards of the canons of the various schools .IS4 ) CoNCLUSIONS. the activity which was carried out at them. whithout being over-hasty that in the first century after the Nirval)a. . whether assembled in council or not. the Tripi!-3ka poses a twofold problem. it is steeped in the marvellous and exploits myths and literary themes which are no more than commonplaces. the account abounds in improbabilities and anachronisms. it is merely as an appendix that it appears in the Vinayas of the various schools after undergoing the necessary modifications. .

D£Nau. Sanskrit and TIbetan by J.lt NKGWG. angavasena navavidhOl!l .i/t . Lc-ipzi&. V. J9&-9 (Bibliographie): J. 12~lO : DIt: Obt. Mia Major.tkJ.tranofliqllt du bmu/dlrisnw.. Gaoo. 1928 : H. the Sumangalaviliisini. 1929. 141 -6.. NKGWG. 105-29. KIrrH. was the subject of seven different classifications. PJ. B.40uiil.OII ". Paris. 1923.J. 1911 . we will merely sketch an outline of the literary fonnation of the canon upon which recent research has thrown some light·' . They are listed in the Samantapasiidikii.NrT'Z. O!. Ano/yJt rlts Ca l"lpCI. pp. Calcu tta. V. IX. L. lA . Prikrit. C LAw. I. 560-7. 15. Asia Majot. d~ Ra~­ tttr:dlrfwrl MI Sa/rllflln<l/anla. pp. Ann. Uitra/lITt . Potsdam. 335-54 : Vtrlfticht". 1415. fangw ". WIN'TU. 155-2 18.G. V. 1933. pp. pp. pp. the reader can oon5Ult H. A. 121·P . 333-66.( 154· 155) ClASSIFTC.. lis Sllin/tJ terillUtJ du boudJJrismt.OI . . nikD}'avasena paiicavidhaJ!1. 1946: lIJ {j"t'alll'tJ dt f'lNk. Ltvt. I .EII'opMu . London.Ilw dts lultJ bouddJriqllts. Hirth Anni . 120-9: II Dotnw tl to Plril~1t dN /JowJdJIisJrtt. 1916: M . . "'ON Gt. R£Nou. 1933. His/rN)' of INi"". Sii/. _ pp.. Pdli U/tra/IIT UIId Spraclw.According to the testimony of the philosopher and commentator Buddhaghosa. Obtdit/tflllfl dts 61ltrttt INddhlsliJclwrl ~1rr1/1/1lIftS. Obt.a . II . 16. Asia Major.il U/t'OlllTt. II COtItW 1M MJ4Iriul.. 194441. 1912. Paris. 1921. 401-7 . 495-514: SlIT fa rki/ll/. QU. as it was presented in Ceylon in the fifth century A. 1928. 149-82. DASGUPTA. 1926. pp. (bford . Ibid" pp.. 1908-9. 1912.lltftTIIIIg . 1951: S. For the canonical writings in SaMkrit... d:u B. G 6ltingen.. 1928.. Paris. lIbtttst. p. dttt AN. Volume I( of L 'I .. BrwlulWckt buddJI. dhammovina}'avasena duvidhoJrt . pp. pp. Dit liltfOIIl'ttt INiltftS. BuddJrisliKite Stud/ttt . pp. DDcltvILU. An analysis or the canonical writings in Pili can be found in W.D. Str&sboul'J. 1915. 18 : Evant etarrt sabbam pi BuddhavacanaJ!1 rasavasena ekavidhaJ!1. pp. Vol" 1922. pp. 1933. taIhii pi{akavasena. du Music Ouimet. His/rN)' 0/ P41i Ultralllrt . besides the special studies which we will indicate in the <:oune of the dacription. liltlralll.NITZ. F./lxN dtJ Pdlik4Iul101110. ZOMG. dhmnmakkhandavasena caluriisilisahassavidhan Ii vedilabbatr!. Obt. pp.. lIJ.195 1.u Buddha . On a more general level.ASENAI'P. 1898. pp. B. 1930.The seven classifications of the Writings THE TESTlMONY OF BUDDHAGHOSA . . Festschrift Schubrin. pp..1932.. '" 1st . Calculla. E.zYLUW . pp. L.. A HisirNY of SwuJcrit Ult. pp.. 1-174.im. pp. XXXI. WALDSCHWlOT.N. S. d. tllmbur&. Hislor).the linguist in his tum is confronted with the problem posed by these various recensions. 1947. !ICC also Wll'OU. . Paris. and the Atthasiilini. U. In. FILUOZAT.. . DE LA VAutE PoussIN.t SilnSk.aJunajd~tra . In the present section. hybrid Sanskrit and Buddhist Sanskrit . pp. "It should be known that the Word of the Buddha is single in flavour . 41 7-68: Siw/itn :IIT Gtsditlrlt IMS bwJdisliscitttt X . On the formation of the Buddhist writings. Asia Major. p. a/ SwuJc. WEUU. 231 -9.atll't . 31l-694 . pa{homamajjhimopacchimovasena tividhaJrr. nON OF THE WRmNGS 141 . p. Pili.the remnants of one or several compilations in Migadhi. in Chinese by P . the Word of the Buddha. 195-))2: 381-440. Obt. Mia Major. lA . dQJJiqut oontains a general study or Buddhist $(Iurea in Pili. ZIO'ti Aw/l4m:1IT Aflilldisdtttt CIrrOttOlor~ wtd U/n'alllTrtulritJ. 104-<M): ZIIT F'OKt ""dl 1M' £elriMiI tits Pdli /(o/t(}fIJ.

is of real interest and corresponds to a true division of the writings. 56. fivefold by reason of the collections (nikiiya). and lIinaya. so this doctrine and discipline have a single flavour. IV. intennediate and final (words of the Buddha). of 84. T 26. . but only when they preach the noble eightfold Path (aryo ~!iUigikamargo)so . also threefold by reason of the Baskets (pi!aka). 58. ~ms b. 158. the words dharma and lIinaya together designate the teaching of the Buddha as a whole. with all their words. p. We will devote a special description to it and say only a word or two here about the other six classifications which are of little more than theoreti· cal "alue and consist rather of a mental view. such as "Js it raining?". 156 THE SfNOlE FAVOUR. pp. "to preach the doctrine (dharma) or assign a ruling (silqiipoda) to the monks" (Vinaya. DHARMA AND vtNA Y A. in a wider sense. For the Sarvistiviidins. When they are used as a compound. . 8. threefold by reason"of the initial. pp. However. whcn they are expressed separately or joined with the particle ca. 203 . 37.000 kinds because of the articles of the Law {dharmaskandha)". 239. dharma means the doctrine. Anguttara. the religious order and community life.EAU. say some religious. the Tathagatas set in motion the Wheel of the law and that even the blandest of words. A. 10 cr.. the Tathiigatas do not always set the Wheel of the Law in motion whenever they speak. the discipline or rules imposed on members of the community: "We wish" . p. UdQna.IS6) twofold by reason of the doctrine (dharma) and discipline (vinaya). Madhyama. "How are you?". BU. This is a canonical doctrine fonnulated in stereotyped tenns in the Siitras and the Vinaya (Vinaya . The Mahisarpghikas took this proposal literally and affinned that. or these seven classifications. ninefold by reason of the constituent parts. have a profound meaning intended to set beings on the way to deliverance.The word of the Buddha is single in flavo ur (rasavaJena ekavidhom) in that everything spoken by the Buddha has the aim and effect of leading his listeners to deliverance. that of the three Baskets. 59. The word of the Buddha is twofold by reason of the doctrine and discipline (dharmallinayallaiefla dllillidham) . Ekottara. " Just as the ocean has a single flavour. p. the Buddhist religion in general and. p. only one.142 THE MAGAQHAN PERIOD (ISS. the theoretical teaching. T 125. 753b I) : SeyyathO pi mahdsamuddo ekoroso IOlJaroso el'am eva kho ayOl!1 dhammovinayo ekaroso vimuttiraso. ch. 145. II. 476c II . finally . the flavour of salt. I. p. the flavour of deliverance". ch.

it is unifonn. pp. its letter is good.and Khuddakaniktiya . I. Stvrt}'Uua. 23 . I. pp. Here again. ETC. : ' So dhammtJl'!l deseli iidikalyiil)tJI'!I majjhtka/YiiIJtJI'!I pariyosimaica/yiilJa'rl siillha'rl savyailjana1!f ktvalaparipu!J!JtJI'!I parisuddJuvr! brahmacariytJl'!l paktimi. 89. 242. This does not mean."The Word of the Buddha is fivefo ld by reason of the five Collections (nikiiya)" . Majjhima . 79. 315. 135. StJI'!Iyutta. complete and pure.262 . The Word of the Buddha is twofold in that it includes a dogmatic aspect and a disciplinary aspect. It is therefore by no means a reference to the five Nikiyas of the Pili Suttapi~aka. p. 105. beginning with the Khuddakapii!ha and the Dlrammapada. 26) the upression PaiicaniUya designates the Digha. 285-7). the e:ltpression Pancanikiiya denotes the teaching of the Buddha as a whole.. pp. . "He (the Buddha) preaches a Law which is good in the beginning. pp. 285. III. in brief all the rest of the Buddha's word with the e:ltcq>tion of the four above-mentioned Nikiyas". The word of the Buddha is threefold by reason of the initial.208.The word of the Buddha is ninefold by reason of the nine constituent parts (angavaSena navavidham). SumangaJa. INmAL WORDS. IV. III. 867) the epithet pancanektiyika is applied to certain monks. and 1S7 Ananda the dhanna (Vin . - TKE FIVE COLLECTIONS. the fourteen subdivisions of the KhuddakaniluIya in the strictest sense. II. its meaning is good. Ill.). but merely that they were versed in the canonical doctrine as a whole. According to the very words of this assertion. but of an overall consideration that claims that the holy word is good at all times. as was so long believed. p. llivuuaica. 179. 6. 147. I. 180. p. the Brahma-conduct is revealed in if' . pp. 62. there is no question of a real division of the scriptural te:ltts. It p. etc. that those monks knew the five Collections of the Suttapi!8ka. . 267... According to the e:ltplanation given by Buddhaghosa (Samanla . 299. Anguttara. I. TKE NINE CONSTTnJENT PARTS.( lS6-m ) CLASSIFICATION OF THE WRITINGS 143 210.. 27. Digha. According to the account in the Pili Cul/aMgga . This . p. p. I. in the middle and at the end. but the latter includes "the totality of the Vinayapi~ka. but to the totality of the canonical writings. p. 11 3 sq . In the Siiki and Bhirhut inscriptions (LOnERS. Majjhima-. p. Anguttara. p. I. etc. The proposal contains an implicit reference to a wide-spread scriptural stock phrase : Vinaya . the first compilation of the Law which took place in Rijagrha after the decease of the Buddha consisted of a (stJl'!lgfll) recitation by the community of the dhanna and vinaya : Upili recited the vinaya. pp. II. intennediate and final words (pralhamamadhyamapaScimavaiena IrMdham). Atthasiilini. 35. Abhidhammapi~ka.

. udiina 6. One and the same text can be classified in several of the styles at the same time depending on which of its characteristics is under consideration . p. p. vaida/ya "suppression" and vaitu/ya " incomparable" 51 . £d. Vedalla . 23 . Przyluski compares vedalla to the Skt. abbhwtadhomma 9. but the Indians 159 themselves gave as correspondents to vedal/a.All the Suttas recording marvellous and extraordinary feats. vaitaffya. gdlhii 7. Geyya. Ratana. geyya 3.N. p . p. Veyy iikarOlJa. the Mangala . and all the other discourses of the Buddha which bear the name of Sutta.The Dhal7ll7lapada. but the Pali commentaries define them in the following way (SumaJigala. p . . sutttl 2. . II .All Suttas in the form of questions which provoke joy and satisfaction. the division into Angas is frequently recorded . 28. Sarikhiirabhiijaniya (Majjhima . the Khandhaka. Samanra. . but lists Ihe literary styles represented in the canonical writings. itivuuaka Modem authors argue over the euct meaning of these terms. and vaitii/ika "bard"!!l . Allhasjjlini.The twofold Vinayavibhatiga . etc. .Atiguttara Comm. ApalJ1)aka. for example Cii!avedalla (Majjhima .The 500 Jataka . p. Niilaka and Tuvataka sutta of the Suttanipiita . Sakkapaliha (Dfgha . p. jritalca 8. III. . vedlllla 5. Giitha. Jataka . Suttas without verses and all the discourses of the Buddha not included in the other eight Angas. 78. p. . 46). .All Suttas with verses. J.The 112 Suttas (of the 4th section of the Khuddakanikaya) which begin with the formula : VuttOl!1 hetOJ!f Bhagavata. p. While the Tripi!3-ka as a corpus of writings is never mentioned in the oldest canonical texts. Sammiidinhi (Majjhintll.144 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( IS8-1 S9) ISS classification does not correspond to any real division of the canon. p. 263). for example Ariguttara. Abbhutadhamma.The Abhitihammapi!aka. p. contained in section 10 of the Khuddakanikay a. 99). the Thera. the Pariviira. U Abhidharmasamucalyl. vaipu/ya "extent". 132. vtyyakQr~ 4. 299). 292). the name ofa metre. p . I. 26 . Itt. /tivuuaJea.and Therfgathil and the sections of the Suttanipata which do not bear the title of Sutta. It p. 3 of the Khuddakanikaya) . Udilna . . 344. III . . PuoIU. 15). " U COll£i1~ tk M jag!M . .Eighty-two Suttanta embellished with verses expressing intellectual joy (section No. the Niddesa. II. 5) : Sullo. MahiipWIJ~a (Majjhima . These nine Angas arc : J. I. .. I. MaMvedalla (Majjhima .

nilra 2. 2. p. the Mahas8rpghikas retained the division into nine Ari. pp. such as an aberrant version of the SlU!1gitisiitra (T 12. upadda 6. ch. udana nidiimJ ityuJua jdtaka 9. ch . which enables them to posit a Word of the Buddha (buddhavacQIUI) or an Account of the Law (dlwrmapravacana) in twelve constituent partS (dviida. 9. p. Majjhima .( U9-I60) CLASSIFICATION OF THE WRITINGS 14l The division into nine Ari. . nitra 2. g~ya 9. I . 6. gotha 3. and upadesa. itivruaka 4. p. I. 87. p. instructions.fa. p. udiina and vedal/a) to replace them by three new ones (nidlina. 160 avadQna. p. 361 . p. 69b) and even the SaddharmapUl)tjJJrika (ed. ch. adbhuta 7. M01. 133. and upodesa) : I . the Sanskrit Itiv~ltaka (T 765. by the Theravadins of Ceylon who mention It In both their canonical and post-canonical writings : Vinaya. 45. the three new constituents refer to canonical texts pertaining as much to the Hinayana . 7. niddna THE ~LVE CONSTTTUENT PARTS. 7.itinga) : I. p.gas. This fact does not tally with the statement in the Dipavamsa (V. but this last text deviates from the Pili tradition by eliminating three early Ailgas (veyyaJcartll.The greatest majority of Sanskrit texts add three further Ari. 103. aupatn}'a 8. S. To judge from their Vinaya (T 1425. KERN. II. adbhuladharma II. 6840. the DaJavihiiravjbh~ii by Nagarjuna (T 1521. 177. 227b). III. ch.LEIl. p. p. 445b) : Visuddhimagga of Buddhaghosa (ed. introduction indicating the subordinate circumstances of the discourses . 4. this is not a Mahayanist list since. I . 7. 66la). vyiiJcariUJD 4. according to the most authoritative commentaries. ch . I. 9. Milmda. T 764. ch. 373). p. aupamya . III. 178.gas to the nine of the Pali tradition : nidalla. pp. The division into nine Angas can also be found in some Mahayanist sutras and sastras such as the DharmtulU!1graha (ed. Vimutlimagga of Upatissa (T 1648. 5.gas is adopted : I . 62. Arigutlara. 3.avadalla. rightly or wrongly. by a few rare canonical or paracanonical texts translated from Sanskrit into Chinese. 7c). p. tales of exploits. 344. I . Ch. 227b). 36). vaipulya 10. ch . p. jii/aka S. 697c) and the DharmtulU!1gitisiilra (T 761. It is true that the Maltdsiimghika Villaya claims. gqa 3. Warren. 7. ch. upackJa Contrary to what is generally believed. which accuses the Mahasamghikas of having composed new sutras and vinayas to incorporate them in the ancient collections. to be one of the oldest. avadOna 12. gd/hd S. 6120). p. T 262.

Thus. Ekottara (T 125. (T 1421 . I. p. Dirghiigama (T I. an utterance (ukli) was the outcome of various circumstances (nidmJa). ch. the Sturtdhinirmocana (T 676. p. I. phrases (pada) and meanings (artha) .) remarks: "The Vaipulyas explain at length the meaning of the various profound dhannas (gambhiradharma) contained in the sii(ras. p. p. p. etc. 48. when the Buddha had expounded a siltta in brief. Madhyama (T 26. because of the extent of the subject dealt with". then. 21. 402. p. p.). pp. 74b). I).In the sUlras. 12. the great disciples would gather in one place and. ch. 4. p. I. ch. Id. 3. The majority of the Mahiyinasiitras such as the ParicavUrtiati (cd . p. Vibhi4ii (f 1545. p. 6350. . ch.146 THE MAGAOHAN PERIOD ( 160-161 ) as the Mahayana. SturtyuJc. ch. 9c. Vaibhi~ikas. ch. 220b). 33. etc. I . p. we may point out: I. 66(0) defines them : Nidana . . the Manavadana (in the DirgJriigamo. T 220. ch. Ie). 274). that the Bhagavat convened the assembly of bhik~us and promulgated a rule (silqiipada). ch.c. 46. p. . ch. 794b . T 222. ch. I. p. 657a . ch. Dharmaguptaka Yin. ch. p. 1267-78) . This is how the Vibha~ (T 1545.This is the teaching of defined and considered instructions and great words contained in the sUtras. 18. 8I3a).This is an account of the manifold and various adventures (avadana) narrated in the SUlCas. 38.ta (f 99. . 41. WALDSCHMIDT. 398c). 126. 569b). Upadeja. SatyasiddhiSQstra (f 1646. T I. 709b. p. they would interpret the Buddha's word. p. by means of all kinds of syllables (ak!ara) . in the Vinaya it is explained that it is as a result of an offence committed by Sudhana. The treatises of the great Hipayanist schools. ch. 386. ch . All the Agamas. Durr. no matter which school transmitted them: the Sanskrit MahiiparinirviiIJasUtra (cd. I. Kola (VI. All the Chinese Vinayas with the exception of that of the Mahasaqlghikas : Mahiidsaka Yin. etc . even the theoreticans of the Hinayana did not exclude all the Mahayanist texts from the list of twelve Angas. Brahmajiilaslitra. ch. 126. Leben161 sende iks Buddha. Similarly.. p. p. T 223. 421a. p. 698a). and Venerable Parsva also included the Prajriii (of the Mahayana) among the Vaipulyas. ch. ch . ch . 728e. 31. I. 194. Among the sources which accept the dviidaiiiilgabuddhavaeana as opposed to the nawingabuddhasasana of the Pali. 244c). ch. 45. 16c. . lSOc . MiiJasarl'Qsliviidin Yin. AvadOna. he would retire to the monastery . 764b) . 217) . while he was resting. 3. Nonetheless. ch. Sarvistiviidins. the DirghdvadOna. Sautrintikas : Mahiivyutpatti (Nos. p. 54. ch. 3. 659c sq . the AvataJ!lSaka . for example. p.. 30(k). p. ch. p.. such as those described in the ArthavargfyiilJi mtriiIJi. p. 2. (T 1428. p. (T 1451 . The Vfbhti54 (I.

T 1606 ch. Adbh. Abhidharmasamllccaya (ed. all the Pili sources. 6. Jdtaka . this is what seems to be meant by a passage in the Vinayamatrka (T 1463. p. YAMAGUCHI. 693b). 15. 12. ch. ch . 3. 3. WOGrHARA. At least. 25. p. The Upadd a of Nagarjuna (T 1509.( 161 -162) CLASSIFICATION OF THE WRITINGS 147 (T 278.To the minds of Buddhists. 3. T 375. II. jatako and avadana.hti. 81. However. 162 identifying them. not with the Tripi!aka as a whole but with part of it : The J4udrakapiraka or Basket of Minor Texts. 306 sq. while all the Sanskrit sources of the Hinayina and most of the siitras and Sistras of the Mahayana favour the dvadaJlingabllddhavacana. p. p. UpadLJa. p. ch. 743b). has drawn up a concordance table betwccn its Tripi~ka. and the twelve constituents of the writings. 7530. 623b). 419a. The great treatises of the Yogic. udtino. 451b . of the Bodhisattvas : 10. 29) . . p. p. G~)'a. 9. p. sUlra.tadharma. Gti. ch . II. p. the Mahis. S ulra . S. 12.. PRADKAN. ch . p. p. 2. p. THE RELATIONSHIP B. Nidima . p.). It is to be noted that the Mahayinist MahaparilJirva1)asiitra (T 374-5) counts nine Aligas when it is referring to the Srivakas (T 374. thus enlarged. p. ANCiAS AND THE TRIPITAKA.. 4780).ira school which includes a Bodhisattva Basket in the ancient Tripi ~aka. Yogacaryabhiimi (T 1579. 8180). 8. 7. Anga and Tripi!aka are synonymous expressions in so far as they include the whole of the canonical writings. 4. of the Srivakas of the Bodhisattvas the Srivakas { of the Bodhisattvas of l l 6. According to the Abhidhormasamllccaya (ed . . ch . are more closely comparable to certains works incorporated in the Tripi~aka and which bear the same title. the correspondence wo uld work out as follows : Siitrapi!-8 ka Vinayapi!aka Abbidharmapi!aka ! { or the Srivakas : I. ch. p.ETWa:N nu:. 383c. 6. To sum up. 78 . Some theoreticians have a more limited conception of the Angas. Ud6no .ira school : Abhisamayalamkdralolea (ed. Yaipuiya. T 1605. 773a). Avadana. Madhy iinlavibhaJiga (ed. ltiVrllaiD. twelve when it is referring to the Bodhisattvas (T 374. 6. 33. The Yogic. T 375. ch. PRAOHAN. ch.if1lghikas and a few sutras and Sistras of the Mahayana consider the navmigabuddhasasano as authoritative. IS. ch. 5. 4. p. itivruaka. 85. p. five Angas. Yyakar~. ch . T 1605. 2(9). ch . 78 . 6800 . 6860).

245) that for these authors the expressions Tripi!-aka. dve sahassdni . 25. 7 sq.000 kinds by reason of the articles of the Law (dharmaskandhavaiena calurai'tisahasravidhom).000 DHARMASKANDKAS. This means that the word of the Buddha is enormous in extent with respect to the numerous articles or items it contains. 74. with some variants over the number of dharmas. the Abhidharmakosa of Vasubandhu (I.000 from the lips of the bhik~u (Sariputra).. p.. 744c I).. the Bhadraicalpikasiitra 425. ch. NANllO.. In round figures it contains 84. ch. ch.000 dharmas in the presence of the Blessed One . in the same way that the stiipas erected by ASoka were 84 or 80. "I have learned 82. in the MahasiiJrlghika Vinoyo (T 1425. 491c). and a canonical quotation from the Vibha. it was the size of the Abhidharma Treatise rr rr rr . hikkhulO h caturtisfli sahtuSQni ye 'me dhammii pavattino. However. According to some of them. but this reference is wrong. ch . p. II. the MahiikaruJ)iipwJiJarika 380. 32. ch.:ujarika (ed. 9530). II). 2. The Theragiithii commentary states that this stanza is taken from the Gopakomoggalldnasutta (Majjhima . 52-3) discuss the extent of the dharmaskandha and mention various opinions on the subject.000 in number.to gOJ!lti. 222c.000 dharmaskandha are also mentioned in the Siitras and Sastras of the Mahayana.000 dharmas from the lips of the Buddha and 2. I. 155) of which the text is as follows : 16) SthavirWuvuJasyoivlJJ!l~idhti smrti~ .000 dhannas are present in my mind" . I can cite only a single reference.). the stanza in question can be found. 84.' yadQ bhagavato 'ntikiid witir dharmasklUl- dhasahasriil)y utigrhitiini . therefore. p.. ch. p.000) of them. WOGIHAJtA. p. The 84. . I.000 (variant 80. stanza 1024 of the Theragolhii in which Ananda declares : Dwisititrl buddJw. p. the articles or dharmaskandha in question are only rarely mentioned in the old canonical writings. 254. It can be seen from certain passages of the Upadesa 1509. p. 46--7) and its commentary. ch. pp. 385c) and the Avaddnaiataica (II.. 6. p. rr "There is this mention of Ananda the Elder : When I learned 80. Nonetheless. p. p. Dvadasanga and Caturasitidharmaskandhasa· hasra are equivalents and 'serve to designate the Buddhist teaching in its entirety. pp.148 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 162· 163 ) THE ·84.. - The word of the Buddha is of 84. However. 44c) and the Abhidharmasomuccaya 1606.ii (T 1545. the Vylikhyii (ed. such as the Saddharmopw. 22.

pp. 2nd The Tripi~ka "The Word of the Buddha is threefold by reason of the Baskets" (pi!akava.The classification of the writings into three Baskets merely sanctions the existence of three different specialities within the religious community the objects of which were respectively the doctrine. Buddhaghosa is of the latter opinion. II. ch.000 dharmaskandha which existed in the past. and still others in catechetics or summaries which are the core of scholasticism (matrkadhara): Vin . .fena trividham). p. p. of the 84. others in the discipline (vina}'adhara). 9. pp. for whom the skandha serve as an antidote for manifold passions which are deeply rooted in ignorance. a. but. above the Kosa and its Vyakhya believe that each skandha was preached in order to cure a particular category of devotees. According to others.000 different passions. meditators (dhyayin) and folklorists (tiraicakathika) . 127. discipline and scholasticism. This is also the opinion of Harivarman in his SatyasiddhiSiistra (T 1646.337. Generalities THE RnA TIVE ANTIQUITY OF THE 1lI.339. The Tripi!aka contains the Siitrapi!aka .000 stanzas.lPlTAU. which contains 6. SwnaiIga/avilasini. Basket of the Discipline which contains the disciplinary rules in force in the order. 119. 55. 299.. the Vinayapi~ka. . only one has been preserved. The canonical writings inform us that. 314a). 24. 8. there were bhik~us versed in the siitras (riltradhara or srmantika). all the others have perished . 75-6. I. alongside the religious who were famed as instructors (dharmakathika) . Basket of "technical reflections on the Law" which constitutes a thorough study and systematization of the teachings of the Siitras. At the places mentioned. Indeed. very early on the monks specialized in one of these three disciplines.( 16]-164) CLASSIFICATION OF THE WRlTINGS 149 known by the name of Dhormaskandha (T 1531). p. Atthasalini. there are as many dharmaskandha as there are subjects dealt with in the writings. 29 . finally. 164 Basket of the Text or Texts which systematically groups the teaching of the siitras. There is no reason to dwell on these speculative considerations and we can pass directly to the classification of the texts into three Baskets (tripi!aka) which was by far the most important and which corresponds to a real division of the canonical writings. 26-1). pp. for beings can be the victims of 80. the Abhidharmapi~ka. which counts one skandha for each anUJandhika or topic (Samantapiisadika.

352. II. AriguuQro. agama) of the Siitrapi~aka . 352. The Pili canon and the Narrative of Nandimitra (T 2030 p. we find the epithet Perakin "versed in a (1) Pi~ka" . 125. p.REN. . pp. Kanheri (989) mentions a Traipirikopodhyoya "Master of three baskets". bhanaka or bhanaka) as at Bhirhut (LODERS. new ones appear which bear witness to the existence of one or even of three baskets of texts. 1095).. 14b). This concerns Trepi!aka monk ~ or Trepirika nuns in Sirnith (925. in the earliest texts.. pp. 804. Ill. D/gha. a work which was translated into C hinese at the beginnin8 of the seventh century. 2. Amarivati (1286) and Siiici (654). 738. tipe/aka (MilindD.C. Avadatulialaka.RANGEMENT OF TIiE TRlPITAKA. I. Sravasti (918) and Mathura (38). sutatikini. At 165 Bhirhut (856). tipi!akadhara (Visudtihimagga. CoNTENTS AND AR. p. p.361 sq. I. ~udraka) into the Tripi~aka gave rise to some wavering in the arrangement of the three Baskets. IV. p . mtatikini) as at Bhirhut (797) and Sinci (319. 261. 773. II . 54). of "Memorizers of the Vinaya" (vinayadhara. III . 833). pp. tripi!ika (Divya . sutatika. Majjhimo . alongside these traditional tenns. SkI. and there is no question of the "three baskets" (tripi!aka) . 5.ISO mE MAGAOHAN PERIOD (1 64-165) 300 . The Pili Tripi~ka is subdivided in the following way : I. 505 . pp. 179. 117. Skt. II . v. 162. vinayaka) as at Bodh-Giyi (949). Finally. 334). 927). Saiki (602) and Kirli (1094. 16. makes the minor texts the fifth and last cOllection (Pali nikaya. Nonetheless. I. 50. 90).. 55). 4. 147 sq .. pp. p. Suttapi!3ka 3. 926. the three disciplines are still independent and follow their own traditions separately. 169 sq . pp. WAR. These terms were to appear for the first time on Brahmi inscriptions the oldest of which date back to the second century D. V.The difficulty of inserting the minor texts (Pili khuddDka. Vinayapi!3h J. of "Knowers of the Sutr3s" (sulQJ!Jtika . p. Abhidhammapi!3ka Dfghonikaya Majjhimanikaya Sa!rtyuttanikaya Aliguttaranikdya Klrudd4kanikaya . 789. ed . No reference is made to the Three Baskets either in the Pali or the Sanskrit literature. 221. 140-3 . except in the post<anonical texts : pi!akattaya (Suttanipata Comm. tripi!a (Divya.naYOl!1dhara and possibly. These inscriptions continue to use the old vocabulary : it is always a matter of Reciters (bhdtJaka. 328). However. p. They are not as yet qualified as "baskclS" (pi!aka). 635) . 349. I.

p. the powerful sect of the Sarvistividins which contributed SO much to the preservation of the writings. the Haimavatas (f 1463. 2. Ekottariigama 5. 17. 191a 29) and the Dharmaguptakas (T 1428. p. Siitrapi!aka 5. The Chinese preface to the translation of the Dfrghdgama (f I. Ekottara and StJI!1yukta. la) briefly describes a Sutrapi!aka in four Agamas : £konara . 175c 3. 1. Dirghdgamo 2. Finally. Certain schools. 4. also speaks of a Sutrapi~ka in four Agamas : Ekottara . Dfrghogama Modhyamogama EJcot/orogamo Sotr'yWclogamo I.Jllsiilra . 8200) probably referring to a Dharmaguptaka sect. ch. p. p. while also inserting the minor texts into the Sutrapi!aka. since the MaJuiparinirwJI. p. p. Siitrapi~aka 3. never had more than a Sutrapi!ak:a ' in four Agamas. J4wdrokagama II . 3. 54. . states that the Arhats of the fiirst council received four Agamas from the lips of Ananda : Madhyama . ch. 19Ia). The existence of a Sutrapi~aka in four Agamas only is authenticated by the early canonical texts. This was the case for the MahastiJrlghikas (f 1425. in two of its recensions (T 5. Madhyama. Madhyama . ch . 2. 4. SiurfyWctagamo 4. ch .22. Modhj'amagama I. /4udrokopiroko II . ch . some schools only recogniud a Sutrapi!aka in four Agamas and exluded the minor texts from their Tripi!aka. 491 c 22).a. Vinayapi!Aka III. T 6. the "Quartet of Agama" (agamacatul!ayam) aa:ording to the expression in the Divyiivadana (p. Abhidhannapi!aka 3. 818a 27). ch. the 166 MahiSasakas (f 1421 . ch. Abhidhannapi!alr. Their canon is therefore presented as follows: I .( 165-166) mE TRIPITAKA ) 5) The canon of the Narrative follows a parallel order : I. A passage in the Vinayamiitrkii (f 1463. In contrast to a Suttapi~aka in five Nikiyas and the Siitrapi!aka in four Agamas completed by a K~udrakapi~ka. 30. p. declined to give them t~e title of agama but attributed to them that of pi!aka. Dfrgha and StJI!1yukta. 2. 968b 26). 4. p. 2. Sa1rJyukla and Dirgha. Dirgha. 32. Vinayapi!aka III.

The Mah. ch. K~udrakapi!aka . 3c 21-23). 1. 407b 27 sq . 2) and the C hinese recension of the SamantapOsadika always refers to A-han (agoma) wherever the Pali recension resorts to the word nikayo (T 1462. Abhidhannapi!aka IV. 4120 8-9).1). p. 85. 154b 22). ch. 32b)and the YogacaryabhiUni(T 1579. edt Wogihara . In fact . is well-known to all Buddhists and. we will begin by dealing with tbe first four and keep a separate place for the Minor Texts. I. This is brought out by various works ofSarvistivadin origin such as the Asokasutra (T 2043. p. 29. I. 33. p. The first four nikayas of the . 22. Sutrapi~aka in four Agamas 111 . Since the five collections do not provide exactly the same guarantees of authenticity. ch. the Upadesa (T 1509. I. t 520 7). p.32). p. Tib. and the Mahdvyutpatti (Nos. THE FrRST FOUR PALl NIKAKAYAS. 11. I. the Fen pieh kung te fun (T 1507. p. nayavib~ii (T 1440. p. 4. although the tenn agamo is again occasionally used by Buddhaghosa (Sumailgola. ch. ch . 1. Tsa a chi rno in T 1558. This is what is shown by various Mahayanist works such as the Narrathe of the Compilation of the Tripi!aka and the Krudrakapi!aka. The Slitrapi!aka. whether Hinayana or Mahayana. Lui! phran chegs. it consists of four or five collections called agamo in the Sanskrit tradition. pp.(T 2026. the Abhidharmavj. p. 143c 24-25 . The Slitrapi~aka . its authority is recognized by all schools. 6. 39. as distinct from the traditional Tripi!aka . 249 . IX. ch . sometimes 161 by the title of K~udraka (cf. 1421-24). p. ch.152 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 166-167) p. ele. 772JJ.c). p. derived their canonical writings from the Sarvastivadins. they frequently cite them . p. Vinayapi~ka II. S03c·504a). sometimes even by that of 14udrakiigamo (KoSa. with the exception of a few slitras. 675b). 49. where the canon is analyzed as follows : : I. the Mu/asarvaslivddin Vinoya (T 1451. nikaya in the Pali tradition. As we have just seen.iyanists who.. p. Chi n. p. Shao jen a han in T 1559. although the Sarvastivadins excluded the minor texts from their Tripi~aka . Kosovyiikhyii. make a special Pi!aka of these K~udrakas. 306a 7. ch. they nevertheless possessed a certain number of them and did not hesilate 10 resort to them as if they were canonical or paracanonical authorities.). However. which includes the most important part of tbe Dhanna discovered and expounded by Sakyamuni. b. ch. 33. ch.

THE FOUR AGAMAS. 214. 2. Mojjhimanikiiya "Collection of middle-length suttas" : 152 suttas. HOEL"L£. 236. . S.551 suttas distributed into eleven groups (nipata). Angullaranikiiya "Colloction of sunas dealing with enumerations classified in ascending order" : 9.. "middle-length" or "short" siitras of which manuscript 0 24 from QOCo seems to have constituted a colloction. I. MrmWKripl kmaW of B.162 suttas divi· ded into six sections (vogga). their original text is not known to US in its integrality. I. p. 219. the collocation of the fragments collocted by the German expeditions to Turfan enabled E. More recently. Waldschmidt and his team to reconstruct the original integral text of several important siitras : "long" siitras such as the MahiiparinirviilJa. 131. SOJ!Iyuttanikiiya "Collection of grouped suttas" : 1. and Ihc impomnt collection in R. The MahiivOJ!lSa (33. Buddhist monks specialized in the study of a particular nikiya . SumairgaJa. l. 4. H. 1916. ) .D. II. The texts mention Reciters of the Digha (dighabhiilJaJca) and Reciters of the Majjhima (majjhimabhiU)aJca).iin4fika . themselves subdivided into 56 assemblages (sOJ!Iyutta).i. 161 3. Levi. II . pp. Often one and the same subjoct is dealt with in the various collections in nearly identical terms. Pischel. Liiders. p. . pp. Visuddhimagga. u . Unfortunately. I. Hoemle. 15. 29. The Buddhist Dhanna is the main subjoct of the nikiyas. U't'1alwrt' f_d in Twrus'QIf. They are mostly siitras which form part of the Agamas colloctions. w' Word. the Mahlivadiina and the . R. L. in tum subdivided into sections (vagga) . The sands of Central Asia and the caves at Tun·huang in Kansu have yielded a considerable number of manuscripts or fragments of manuscripts which date from between the sixth and eleventh centuries A. but some suttas also deal with discipline or compile inventories in the style of the mitikis of the Abhidhamma.The Pili nikiyas have their correspondents in the Agamas in Sanskrit or Middle Indian. 12) speaks of a thera "versed in the four nikiyas" (caturnikiiyathera).( 167· 168) Suttapi!a~a TIlE SOTRAPITAKA 153 are no more than a number of collections based on the length of the suUas of which they are composed or on their method of c1assificalion : 1. de La Vallee Poussin. U'tfllfIlTt . There even exist u See lbe bibliogra phy in WIt-rTUNITZ. Dighanikiiyo "Collection of long suttas" : 34 suttas distributed into three sections (vagga) . for example in )iitaka. and a given sutta can appear in the form of a long (mahii) or short (cii!a) recension . etc. 59 . The first discoveries were made public in no particular order by various scholars : R.

those of T 1 and T 125 in Middle Indian. T 100). 298-118 . a. 1953-6. . translated between 397 and 398 by Gautama SaJ!lghadeva. T 125). Finally. 110 None of these translations is based on Pali originals. 569-79. d . Abhidharmasamuccaya.abhadra between 436 and 443 : 1. • " See AUNUMA CH1ZEN. translated by Gu".rNtra. • ZDMG.urra"". translated by Gautama Sarpghadeva and Sarpgharak. 1951 . Sarigilisiilra. Tattvasof!1graha. Nagoya. NAWG. LAlitavistara. E. Berlin.ti" 1939. 1-20. pp. Complete SaJ?Tyuktiigama (Tsa a han. pp. Zwr S'~O{iktJf1!D-l. pp. Das MaM'ladDnasiilra. 1956. 1957. 45-51 . pp. PanjikiJ.. Nik6yas. 1952 . T 99). pp. there is the Chinese Tripi~aka which contains a complete translation of the four Agamas carried out between the second half of the fourth century and the beginning of the fifth by monks of Kasmirian origin or connection 51.~Qsamuccaya. etc. BSOAS. Hamburg.The literary sources which mention the compilation of the Agamas do not always classify them in . HOfFlf.qPruk. 1955. CVII. alongside the numerous Buddhistic . lJruclulikkt bwddJliJlisCMr Slilfas aw lkm u"lfalasUlliscM Sa. IdtnliJi:~ rung twr Hanthchri/I Ni~}w(/a aw dtll Tur/anfrmdnJ . [)as Upo. 2 Vols. Ekottariigama (Tseng i a han. 1939. 129-52. Festschrift Schubrina. T 26). Leip.362 sl1tras.\NN.amas and Pal. on . pp. NA we. authors of philosophical and religious treatises. c. 19S7. T 1). Partial SOI!Iyuktiigama (Pieh j Tsa a han. 1955. Ein Frag_III MI Smrr)'llklGgaIIUI aw lItil Tur/QIt-Fundtn . e. H. Dcu Callqpar4alstilfa.Ira.. S.-l. ComptVali'f'P CalaJOfW of ClliMu .sutras which were the subjects of separate translations. ZII pinigt" Bilinglll!n aus dnrt Tur/tJIf-Funtkil.~ between 397 and 398 : 222 sl1tras. CV. translated by an unknown writer in approximately the year 400 and based on an original from the Kasyapiya school: 364 sl1tras. b. THE CLASSJFICATION OF THE AGAMAS. by Buddhist writers. Slilra Z5 oftM N~fllkla . but rather on Sanskrit. lOMG. Berlin.u MS Cal~par4a lsiilra . Vas MaJWpurlltjr¥~asiilra . using a recension established in NorthWest India or Serindia and containing numerous Mahayana additions. The original of T 26 seems to have been in Sanskrit. NA WO. Particularly rich in canonical quotations are the Mohiivastu. Abhidharmakosavyakhyii.. Berlin. Mahdyanasutrillaf!lkara.- llrilkturOll. translated by BuddhayaSas between 412 and 413 : 30 siitras. Madhyamiigama (Chung a han. 1950-1 : Vt rgltichtNk Ana/. even Prakrit recensions. with or without references. Dit Ein/till"'g tk.154 169 fragments of a THE MAGAOHAN PERIOD CalU!paT~atsutra ( 169-170) which has no correspondent in the Pili nikayas'· : 2. 1957. 372-401 . NAWG. DirghilgantIJ (Ch'ang a han. 1952. \929. BrJI(luliickp dts A{and{ika. WALD:5OfMIDT. 3 Vol5. Large extracts from original slitras are quoted. 27-44 . pp. Leipzig.

3. 69c. 54. ch. 986b) . T 1509. Madhyama . p. Vinayamatrka (T 1463. they always place it firth. 772c). but.Madhy ama . p. 19Ia). p. I. 818a). 320) . ch . 4. ch. ch. This is also the order of the Pili canon. 5. Dfrgha . The Agamas include a larger number of siitras than the Nikayas and arrange them differently. ch . ch. 194) situates the A!antitiyasullanta in Riijagaha on the Gijjhaku!apabbata. 503e). p.Dirgha .Ekottara : Mahisirpghika Vinaya (T 1425. Chinese preface to the Dirgha (T 1. in order to omit nothing we provide a list of the various classifications as follows: I. 4. p. wherever the Nikayas speak of the Kiitagarisili " Belvedere Hall" of the Mahivana near Vesili. 191a). ch. Ekottara . The nidiina which serve to introduce them do not always agree over their setting. (T 1451 . As they were closed much later. (T 1421 . p.Ekollara . while the Agamas (ed. 33 .Madhyama . ch. I). In this respect. the contents of the respective codes are not exactly the same. 161-70) contains long extracts from the ASokii)'adiina.SllI!fyukta : UpadeSa (T 1509. we can compare . Dirgha . depending on whether it appears in the Nikiyas or the Agamas. 820a). 407b-c). 217a. ch. CoMPARISOS BETWEEN TIlE NllcAYAS AND AGAMAS. p. Hoffmann. 2. Sa'!"lyukta . 39. 32. ch .Madhyama . 49Ie) . pp. 9. p. p. hence the Stlf!"Iyukta (T 99. Narrative of the Compilation of the Tripi!aka (T 2026. p. they make room for works of comparatively rro:nt date . p. Similarly.Ekottara . 2.( 170-171 ) THE SOTRAPITAKA 155 the same order.Satrlyukta . Thus the Dighanikiiya (III. 6.Madhyama .Dirgha . 4.Madhyama . p . 85.Ekoltara : Miilasarvistividin Yin. 1260) locate the A!anii!ikasiitra in the Jetavana of Srivasti. 1 11 One and the same sutra is presented in a different form .SllI!fyukta : Parinirvil)asiitra (T 6. p.A comparison between the Pili Nikayas and the Sanskrit Agamas enables us to note outstanding differences between the two compilations.Satrly ukta . I. Mahisasaka Vin. the corresponding Sanskrit texIS invariably give the Ku!ligiraSili on the bank of the Monkey Pool (marka!ahradatira). Narrative of Nandimitra (T 2030. 23. ch. We do not know whether any importance should be attached to this detail. T 1245. p. 3a 26) . 30.SOI!1yukta : Dhannaguptaka Yin. p.Dirgha . 14b). Yogacaryabhiimi (T 1579. H. p. Ekouara . ch . Haimavata Vinayamitrki (T 1463. Fen pieh kung Ie lun (T IS07. 306c 23). p. ch . p. In the first place. 2. . (T 1428. p.Dirgha : Vinayavibhi~i (T 1440. When the same sources mention the compilation of a J4udrakiigama or a J4udrakapiraka . 33. ch.

It would be easy to point out many divergences in detail of the same type. XJnu. p. 10. contains fifteen books which are listed in 172 the Samantapasiidika (p.The KhuddDkanikaya. 4. Preserved and transmitted by the schools. others deleted. verses of the Law. with the exception of the Mahayanist interpolations in the Ekottara. 230. the SumDligaJavi/tisini' (p. Jdloka . Of even greater importance are the differences in structure ~hich contrast the Sanskrit recension of a given sulfa with its Pilli version. Any attempt to reconstruct a "pre-canonica'" Buddhism deviating from the consensus betw«n the agamas and nikayas can only end in subjective hypotheses. stanzas of the Elder Brothers.156 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 171-112) the Pili Smr!yu"a. 7. 3. Nidiksa . UdaM . or again . I. However. or through intentional modifications based on the written compilations. ch . 3500). with the Sanskrit SOJ'!Iyukta 99. short readings. 12. and E.and Mahiivadtinasulra. 17) and the Auhasiilini' (p. However. the variations in question affect hardly anything save the method of expression or the arrangement of the subjects. 18) in the following order : I. the: Pali S0trly uuo . which are easily discernible.. It is sufficient here to refer the reader to the works by F. PeIQvatlh".is the best. 48. rr THE PAU KHuDOAKANTKAYA.ldolca"o!M. IfOUP of texts. 290c). and yet others re-located. vocal utterances. The doctrinal basis common to the agamas and nikiyas is remarkably unifonn. p. I. stanzas of the Elder Sisters. 9. 8. 2. the question remains as to whether the divergences which contrast the Pili tradition with that of the Sanskrit can be explained solely through variations in the oral transmission of the texts. TluragalM. collection of fanner births (of the Buddha]. p. 40. the sutras do not however constitute scholastic documents. 29. 5. the agreement between the agamas and nikayas over a doctrinal point . 18). ch . but are the common heritage of all the sects. if not the only proof of the authenticity of the latter. stories about the divine palaces. Vimanavallhll . stories about the "departed".and SOf!lgftisuttanla. PQ!isamhIrUMnwgga . fifth and last collection of the Suttapi!aka. p. SlltlanipalQ. texts beginning with the words : "Thus it was said". Thus. detailed explanation. the path of comprehension. The number of pericopes is not the same : some arc added. Waldschmidt on the MahiiparinirviilJa. 6.such as that of Anatman . 1MrfgalM. ilivutlaJca. · . . Dh0mmapad4. II. with the Sanskrit SOJ'!Iyukto (T 99. Weller on the LakkhofJo.

49) and the Angullara (I. BAPAT. p. Cari)'iipi!tJJca. is mentioned in the Vinaya (I. Mahiivastu. Furthermore.D. the Artha~·argiya. 134. for example in the Mahii}'astu (II. 8-9. a Sanskrit ltyuktam was the subject of a Chinese translation by Hsuan tsang : The Pin shih ching (T 765). 1072. the fifteen Khuddaka approach it to a certain degree. the fourth section of the Suttanipdta .). Bodhisattvabhiimi. p. Some extracts from the Udana have passed into the S~yuktiigama (f 99. P. 17) While not exactly overlapping the division of the Word of the Buddha into twelve constituents. p . Prajniipiiramitopadesa. 7. III. Sanlinikelen. • It is frequently quoted in Sanskrit texts. 196) and the Udiina (p. Fragments of the Sanskrit original were discovered in Central Asia and used by Dr. A second reason argues in favour of the authenticity of the KhuddaJca : most of them have correspondents in Sanskrit or Pra. 45 . Ihe Baskel of conduct. the Karmavibhanga (pp. pp. etc. 1330). 209). . the Piiriiyana. 91 . 46. the Prakrit Dhammapada of the Dutreuil de Rhins and Petrovsky manuscript. 1320. 63). taken from them by the S~yuk tiigama . II. p. or to be more exact. 48. 156. 212. the AuhtUcavagga.). more than half are known and used on the continental mainland . p. etc. I. 4. for two reasons : The first is that some of them are used as sources by the first four nikiyas of the Su ttapi~aka : the Dhammapadani are quoted in the Siuryulla (I. 59). It would take too long to list here all the quotations. and t I. Abhidharmakoia. The antiquity of a certain number of Khuddaka cannot be doubted. the fourth section of the Suuaniplita . Khuddaka Nos. the Auhakavagga. Of the 61 sunas which fonn part of the collection in the Suttaniplita. IV. The Dhammapoda corresponds to the Sanskrit Udiinavarga of the Pelliot Mission. 10 and 13 corresponding respectively to the constituent parts Nos. P. tales of exploits. by the Scythian Chih ch'ien between the years 223 and 253 A. Vjbh~ii. 339 and 401. Bapat in his reconstruction of the ArthapadtuUtra 50 . Divyiidiina. p. Ihe lineage of Ihe Buddhas. 133.V. BudtihavatrUD. a Tibetan version and four Chinese recensions . 19SI. the fifth section of the SUllaniplita.( 172-173 > THE SOTRAPITAKA 157 13_ ApadOna. 5. finally. IS. 8. 14. 290 sq. pp.krit : The Ratanasulla of the Khuddnkapd!ha is again found in the Mahiivastu (I.434 sq. 76). pp. III. mira Nos. p. The ltivullaka. A~/hapatJo Surra. is cited in the S~yulla (II. was translated into Chinese from a Sanskrit original.V. 3.

Louvain. 174 In fact . The fifteen traditional books are indeed listed in the Samanlapdsadika (p. 26. M . P~ta 8. as the Sin halese tradition claims. I. Furthennorc. 17) and Auhasalini(p. 23.fo (IV. A1IDWJtap'".. 73-74) has its correspondent in hybrid Sanskrit in the Mahavaslu (11. Nidde. Cariyiipi!aka The canonicity of several of these sections had always come under discussion. III. U COIIgri$ du lac .25) speak of a Khuddakanikaya "in fifteen sections" (paiicadasabheda) . pp. Sumairgalaviliisini(p. but this concordancy does not necessarily result from a dependence on a common source : it can also be explained by simple borrowing : the Sinhalese may have translated or adapted Sanskrit originals into Pili and. Dhammapadil 2. Jiitaka II. p. 9. Nipdta 6. at the time of the council of Rijagtha. the mainland Indians may have made use of Pili originals. in Ceylon in the fifth century A . Gifgil Matt .ha from the collection and lists the fourteen remaining sections in an unusual order: I. conversely. Apadiina 3. 250 sq. 298). 18).3) mentions a KhudtJakanikaya " in fourteen sections" (cudda· sappabheda). TherigiitM 10. A whole page of the Mulasarvasli~'Qdin Vinoya n corresponds to Ihe c:ltpioilS of So~ako~i"isa in the Pili ApadOna (p. the Chinese recension of the Samantapdsa· dika (T 1462. 18). Udano 4. Th.. 21 sq. ParisambhidJi 13.D. the Auhasalini (p. p. HOf1NGD. The concordance between the Pili Khuddaka on the onc hand and the texts in Sanskrit on the other. the Buddhavan1. Dun. pleads in favour of the authenticity of the Minor Texts. 181-2. The Di"pavOJ?Ua (V. this in no way implies that the compilation of the Khudd4kanikaya in which they appear was accomplished from the very outset of Buddhism. 81. part 1.158 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD (173·114) A section of the Vimdnovatthu (No. 191 sq. Finally.. pp. Itivuttaka 5. 1.. 1. there was still discussion over the exact number of sections in the Khuddakanikaya. p. but while the Samanta· pdsadika (po 27. p. ch.). 6760 7·10) excludes the Khlltidakapa. However.). in the year one of the NirviT)a. Vimana 7. if a certain number of Pili Khuddaka arc included among the oldest specimens of the canonical literature. cr. the Niddesa and " N . 1954.) has its parallel in hybrid Sanskrit in the Mahdvaslu (I. p. I.. 1.23) and the SumailgalalJildsini (p. 208. BuJdJlavatrUa 14.1a 12. 37) claims that after the council of Vaisali the Mahisil11ghikas rejecled the Pa{isambhida.

the Khuddalwptirha .so that now their KJlluldakanikaya contains nineteen books 00 . . the second which tends to identify the KpJdrakapiraka with the Word of the Buddha in twelve constituent parts (d.·adaiangabuddhamcana). Pe!akopadesan and Ne ujpakarlJl)a . Finally. In Ceylon. p. after having rejected the Khuddoicapti!ha. What was the content of the J4udrakapjraka7 It was and always remained the most ftuctuating. p. . noting how few fonnal 5Uttas were included in the Khuddaka . Sumalipla. with the title of l4udrokagama or l4udrakapi!aka. the school of the Dighabhil)akas excluded three sections from the Khuddakanikaya . in connection with the existences of the Bodhisattva in the course of II II M Sumanpla. GothQ abound in them : in them is the topic of the twelve causes (nidJina) and the respective manifold bases (ayatana) : that is what is called Tsa lSang (l4udrakagama) . l1 .and attached the other twelve to the Abhidhammapiraka. p. 566.As we saw above. 159. Conversely. the Majjhimabhil)akas. Taking advantage of the disorder in the collection. 4-S. and sometimes they fonn a fourth Pi!8ka distinct from the Tripi~ka . the minor Sanskrit texts do not occupy an unvarying place in the canon of writings : sometimes they constitute. 3c). Devas. the Sinhalese commentator Sudinna rejected the majority of the seclions under the pretext that "there is no Word of the Buddha which does not take the fonn of a 5utta" (asuuanomaka~ Buddha~'acanatr/ noma n 'auhon. TM P6Ii Ut~atll'~ af Burma. These are some definitions : In the Narrative of the compilation of the Tripiraka and the J4udrakapi!aka (T 2026. at the time of Buddhaghosa (fifth century). It gives some explanations. we read : the accounts (of the l4udrapi!aka) each differ in thought and action : that is why they are called Tsa Isang. p. Manof'lthapiital)i. I.m) THE SOTRAPITAKA 159 part of the Jaraka . the Bunnese Buddhists added four paracanonical texts to it . When required to define it. the Arhats. 800£. added the remainder to the Surtapiraka". Cariyap. M. t909. In them the Buddha. the accounts of the first council can hardly conceal their confusion and hesitate between two solutions: the first which consislS of attributing to the collection a few special texts which were not collated in the Agamas. III. SANSKRIT K~UDRAKA.H. Brahmi and the TIrthikas explain the causes of their Fonner births (piirvajannum) : that is why they are called Tsa tsang.the Mililldapaiiha .( 1704. . Suttasatr/gaha. the m fifth collection of the Sutrapi!aka. pp. even more so than that of the Pili Khuddakanikaya .!aka and ApadiilUJ . London. IS.

For the Vinayamiitrka (T 1463. Po 10 y~n : ParaYQ}JQ (abbreviation for Pin shih) : Itiv!lIaJca Good Yin yuan : NidOno Fang t~"g : VaipuJ)'a W~. Shing clrklr : Sthaviragiithii There we can disregard. the DharmaguptaJca Vinaya (T 1428. 32b) : "The Tso Isang is not the word of a single man : it is the Word of the Buddha. the Kfudrakapi!aka. p. all those holy texts connected with the Tsa 1S000g are named l4udrakap. or the word of the disciples. the Tsa lSang would be a collection of twelve holy texts : I. Ising j'JI : AdbhulatiJllumD P'i)"U : Avadana p~" 11 . S. According to this source. gatha uttered by the gods andjiitaka constitute the main part of the ~draka­ pir aka . correspond to as many "Constituents" of the writings. 968b) proposes a l4udraJcapiraka in twelve sections the first seven of which. the holy texts Nos I to 7 . corresponds on the whole to the twelve-fold Word of the Buddha : "The Word of the Buddha such as the Fa eM (Dharmapado). 3. if our interpretation is correct. I. from the Sutra to the Upadesa . the I4ll1iraka dealt mainly with the former births (jiilaka) and the causes (nidiina) which explain them. p. ch. 3. Tsa IIDn : 5aJ!tcodivuJ 12. Here again. Yup 'ot'iSM : Upadda 8. A somewhat similar explanation is provided by the Fen pieh kung Ii lUll (T 1507. 54. ch . ch.160 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 11S-176) 176 three countless periods (asatrJlchyeyakolpa). Chu i : Arlhavarga 9. sutra gathered from the lips of the Buddha o r his discipline. as being mere filling. nidiina and jiitaka form part of the twelve constituents of Ihe wrilings. and the account abounds in stanzas (gtithQ). 7. For the author of this obscure text. Shuo i (Arrhavarga) or Po 10 yen (PdrdYQIJa). Its letter and meaning are manifold and more abundant than in the Tripi!3ka : that is why it is called Tsa tsang" .!aka". Shing (abbreviation for Pin shing) : ldlaJca 2. It also deals with conditions of former existences and the places of birth of the Bodhisattva in the course of three countless periods. the places of birth and working factors : that is why it is called San ISDng (amend to Tso tsang)". even though it includes certain special texts irrelevant to the Agamas. Fa chu : Dharmapodo 10. p. Il is a fact that gatha. 6. 4. Taking its inspiration from the same divisional principle. and the last five are concerned with autonomous compositions . 818a). or eulogistic stanzas (giilh4) by the Devas.

The canonical sources which narrate these episodes draw up lists. 15.a Ko!ikaf1la (Pili Vin . who was present at those recitations. they do not develop the profound or supernormal meaning. eh. 84Sc 24). Five titles in the Chinac venian of the MiiJa. moreover. Udana (p. Three titles in tbe partial SaJrlyuk.. - er I. Slhaviragdlhd 3. Munigdlhd 5. in fact .slivQdin Vin . 209). of those recitations in which the great disciples indulged : we nearly always find in them the Dharmapadn. 144b 17) and the Dharmaguplaka Vin . The Buddha was not responsible for composing them and.gOlhd 4. excellent. (T 1448. associated with the doctrine of emptiness.hrragolhiJ 4. p. . and which makes the meaning clearly understandable". the Arlhavargfyiini siilrdni (in Pili : A!!hakavaggikam) in the Pili Vin . 480c) : I. PiirdJ'CUJO 2. 34-5). Piira)'Qr)a and the SthaviragathO which the passage in the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya quoted above gave as integral parts of the l4udrakapitaka. texts Nos. eh. neither muffled nor gulped. (I. p. p. is a summary of these lists : TKE CHANTED VERSES.~i siilr~. ch. unlike the traditional sutras. I.dgamo (T 100. well articulated . for the most part they were chanted at night by the great disciples such as SroT). Uddna 2. ch.. (T 1421. A single title. (T 1425. (T 1435. 177 p. Two titles in the SanOsliviidin Vin . p. These are clearly ancient compositions of considerable poetic value. ArlhQvarg. Artha\'arga. 2. p. eh. 59). Salyadma 3. Here. those of the Chanted Verses which do seem.. ch. 4160 3). 196). However. That is why the collators of the canonical collection relegated them among the texts known as " minor" . I. 196). lIb 6) : I . PdrdJ'CUJO 3. 8 to 12 (Artha"arga . 21. 39. However. which use stanzas as a means of expression.sarvQ. 181b 24-5) : I. PiirayOlJll QIId SthaviragathQ) deserve our attention because they refer to Buddhist writings of a special kind. p. 1428. SoiJo. p. MahWlsaka Vin. Mahdsdfr!ghika Vin. Dharmapadogd. Dharmapada. 3. to have formed the original core of the minor texts. 0 monk! You have a fine voice. 25. pp. Maha.( 17~177 ) THE SOTRAPITAKA J6 J which attempt a comparison with certain constituents of the writings. The Buddha. varying in length. p.1uJ 2. Aniruddha (5atrJyulta. congratulated the authors : "Excellent . or a group of Elders (Divyavadana . 23.

PariiYaJJA 3.$IJlJif{atha correspond • respectively to the Thera. 36« 10): 1. 49. 34-5) : I . . Udiina 2. ch. Sthaviragiithd 5. . Arlhavargiy~i 7. SIhavirigiillui 8. who succeeded in compiling a KiluddiJkanikiiya . Six or seven titles in the Divyiivadmw (pp. part 4. Finally.ragiitha S. the Sthaviragothil and Sthaviri. Pi ell 'ill nl so shuo chkh : B~jgiithfj 6.jjY01JQ 3. 1. Satyadwa 4. 188. voice of the Immortal" which is the subject of the Subhflsitasutta of the Suuanipala (III. 3). even though in principle acknowledging the authority of the minor texts. SaiiagiithO 5. although not yet identified. The ArlhavargiytiJ.sarwistivddin Vin. ArthavargfyiiJ. 20. Munigiithii 6. hesitated over their number and length. Po 10 )'m no : pa.or Bhik. p. p. UdiirJa 2. the mainland Buddhists merely drew up lists of the f4udraka without ever being able to ronn a .178) 5.8) : 178 1. (Gilgi! ManwcripU .The Ptirily(U)Q is chapter V of the Suttanipdta. The MunigiJthil are probably the Munigathii of the ASokan edict at 8habra (BLOCH.!i are the sixteen sulla of the A!!kavagga of the Suttanipala (IV).and Therigilthfi of the Pili collection. III. Sluvtg ISO 50 sllua chiI'll: Sthav.The Sai/agiitM are the equivalent of the Selasulla of the SultaniptitQ (Ill. possibly refers to the eulogy of the "Truth. Sthaviragdthii 7.162 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD (117. p.aYll1)Q 3.ti 6. Mou nl chiI'll : Munigiithii All these works have their correspondents in the Pili Khuddaka : The Dharmapadogiilhii or Udana[vargaJ correspond to the Dhammapada. Cllien chin Ii : Satyad':f!o 4. 7). Sal/agiithii 6. Sotyadma 4. Pii. YII (0 no : Udana 2. We therefore see how the Sanskrit-based schools. Shih /11 chieb : SaiiagathO 7. The Satya{lua (variant: Satyo(j1:io). 12). 154) and the Munisutta of the Suttanipiita (1. Eight titles also in the Complete Sa/rlyuktiigamo (T 99. MlUligiithd 7. Unlike the Sinhalese Theravadins. I p 'in : Ar.!i siitrilJ. Eight titles in the Sanskrit original of the Miila.havargiyd/:ti 8.

639a 16). it must be accepted that not all these assertions are false : for example. 46. p.The Buddhist teaching (slisana) is both theoretical (paryaptl) and practical (pratipotll) in nature. p. 77. but also by the auditors (iravaka). 650. properly speaking. OEwItvILU. but this definition should not be taken in its restricted sense.000 Abhidhannasastras were lost" (ch . 79b) . p. C8. and many siitras disappeared (bahu/imi siitra'. p. 79b).. (rv.( 178-180) THE SOTRAPITAKA 163 definitive collection.bly the 19)6. p. p. p. P.Mahlisamghika Vin. little remains . 9. entered Nirliil)a. the twenty-eight anuiaya (ch . ch. ch.5e for the S. without a doubt and above all. THE CANONICITY Of ll{E SfrTRAS. p. II .) as well as a whole series of texts recorded by Bu-ston (II. It goes without saying that the ancient revelation has not come down 10 us in its entirety.000 Avadanas and Siitras. 180 On the other ha nd. The Dharma. 1428. the thirty-seven bodhipiilqika (ch. is the Word of the Buddha (buddhavacana). (T 1425. . JA . it states that "originally Ihe Ekottarigama enumerated the dhannas from I to 100. The auditor (iravaka) gathers the word either directly from the lips of the master. Among them. or else by grasping it by means of intentional knowledge (pra. 16. there eltisted longer recensions than those which have come down to 0$61 . . (T 1435. SarvQsliviidin Vin . When ~I)avasa . whatever the accounts of the first council may say. 13. Dharmagupla Vin. ch . Identical remarks are found in the Abhidharmakoia (II. Pali Vin. ch. n. 16. pp. 77 lb 22). Vin. Even allowing for some eltaggeration. ch . alongside the authentic siitras which are duly 179 er II This was nOl.rpdhinirmocanasiitra : d . The word of the Buddha is transmitted from generation to generation through the channel of the auditors. 245. 26. the Vibhi4a notes those which listed the six hetu (T 1545. wise recluses (~~l). 4860). There was a " loss of the original recitation" (miilasatrtgitibhrmrtfa). While the Vinaya is only a convention (satrtv~1l1 adopted as a line of conduct. a disciple of Ananda. much is lost. Mii/asarv . That is why no Chinese translation of a complete l4udrakapi!aka has come down to us. gods (de"a) and apparitional beings (upapaduka) . 236). it now stops at 10 and . (T 1442.the Dharma is what was uttered by the Buddha.!idhijiiiina) . p. To judge from the eltplanations supplied by all the Vinayas one after the other . 3360 21). IS) . 71b I) . 169-71). 96. p.. p . it is certain that with regard to some siitras of the Mahayana. from 1 to 10.lY antarhitam) . 10. the Dharma as propounded in the Sulra represents the absolute truth (paramiirlhasalya).

supramundane. I. which are profound. Sectes..the Buddha. This nature of things is the doctrine of dependent origination which was discovered and thaught by the Buddha. p. . 123. muceaya. the Ariguuara (II. p. Bodh . 32·8) and. (T 1451 . 238. ch. p. p. 431.18. 30). 252) and several other Mahayanist treatises refer to them (Silqii. 267. Sutras of the first category will disappear" (Sa'!fyutta.. Waldschmidt. promulgated by the disciples. 92ge). which are poetic.25) : When a monk. 182e. The word of the Buddha is " whatever reaches us as such through the succession of masters and disciples. Vin. appears in the Vinaya and does not contradict the nature of things (dharmatQ)". Thus. 167 . It pp. T I. false Vinayas were pla~d in the Vinayas. wants to have a given text accepted as the Word of the Buddha. ch. SiitriilllJ!lkiira. T 99.e year Ilq of the Nirviil)3. a particular SaI!lgha. and which teach emptiness. in th. T 7. p. 389b). p. a certain Mahadeva wanted to incorporate the siitras of the Mahayana in the three Baskets (DEMTEVlLLE. 47. exoteric. "false Siitras were placed in the Siitras. T 6. Bodhicaryiivatiirapafijikii. ch. Many sects have formed which alter the meaning and the letter at their whim". 185. p. 345b). ch. p. I7c. 72-3. V. p. the Abhidharmakosa (IX. p. 3. p. The Abhidharmakosa (III. Already. will be believed . 4. I. p. They are found in various recensions of the Mahiiparinirviina· sUtra (Digha . at the council of Pa~aliputra . alier the council of Vaisaii. 1. The multiplication of apocryphal texts led the early theoreticians of the Dharma to fonnulate criteria of authenticity which were generally accepted. 40) in tum remarks : "What can we do about it'? The Master has entered Nirva~a. it should not be approved or rejected without due eumination. But the Sutras composed by poets. II . the Miilasarv.. bhiimi. p. 11. ch. separate (muktaka) and apocryphal (adhytiropita) texts circulated. 37. false Abhidharmas were incorporated in the Abhidharma". Ariguttara. 167a. p.164 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 180-181 ) classified in the collections. p. will not be listened to with faith . "After the Nirva~a of the Buddha". under Asoka. 63. 1. I. p. 6S2b). Sanskrit MahiiparinirvdIJa. on the basis of one of the four great authorities (mahiipadesa) . says the Vjbh~ii (T 1545. ch. ch. 19Sc). T 5. The Buddha had foreseen this change in the doctrine when he announced: "The Sutras promulgated by the Tathigala.. T 125. the Good Law no longer has a leader. no-one will lend an ear. nor recognize them as true . the Mahwqlgitikas falsified the authentic texts (DipavaJ?Uo. artistic in syllables and phonemes. p. 181 whatever is found in the Siitra. p . p. ed. 108. profound in meaning. 20. a group of Elders or an especially knowledgeable Elder -. ch.

fUpriitimokfo of the Sarvistividins (cd. They refer to admission into the o rder. 1926).. 3. finally. could not have been elaborated before the second century A.. Bhik. PralimoJqo of the Mahw'!lghikas (ed.tividins (cd. BANElUEE. Mahasal!lghikas (T 1425). lA . 465· 547). The Pratimok~ is a list of offences against the prescriptions of the order with an indication of the punishment be meted out to those who commit them . BhikflU)rpratjmok~ of the Mulasarvi!.. FINOT. PAcHOw-R. Inst. the Vinayapi~aka is less uniform than the Basket of Siitras.. MlSHkA. 1953.C. the patriarchs who succeeded each other from the beginning until the reign of ASoka and beyond and. we possess those of the Sarvistivadins (T 1435). BhilqlU)ipratimo/qa of the Sarvistividins (cd . R. The Pratimok~ is twofold : that of the bhik~us consists of eight categories of offences and that of the bhik~ul. The Vinayapi~aka In the state in which it has reached us. Du/vQ. Dharma~ guptas (T 1428). Joum . Alongside the Pali Vinaya. even while exploiting a common basis. 363-77). · THE OASES Of nlE VINA YA.. Leipzig. L. corresponding 10 T 1454. such as that concerning the stiipa of Kani~ka. of Ihe G. The Kannavacanas are decisions concerning the functioning of com· munity life. Their compilation was not closed until quite a late period since they refer not only to events which were contemporary with the Buddha. Each Buddhist school insisted on drawing up its own PraLimok~ . the various Vinayas in our possession deal with the matter more freely and diverge from each other so much that they constitute scholastic documents and claim as much. Bruchstucke des . pp. A. corresponding 10 T 1436. 162-74. it rests on the twofold basis of the Prati· mok~ and the Karmavacanas. 2. I·XIII). but also the council of Vaisali in the year 100 or 110 of the Nirvana. In other words. in the sense that. 266-75 . XXIX. but only very small differences can be noted between the various lists. vols III and IV). IHQ . WALOSCHIoIIDT. E . IX. Besides the numerous Tibetan and Chinese translations.( 181 -182) TIlE V1NAYAPITAKA 165 c. 2.The mo nastic discipline consists of a certain number of offences to be avoided and acts or ceremonies to be performed . Mihisasakas (T 1421) and Miilasarvastivadins (T 1442·51 . 4). predictions some of which .D. pp. 182 J. Jha Res. 1913. 5. Bhilckhu and BhikkhUIJip{i!imokkha of the Theravidins (Pili Vin . corresponding to T 1437. 4. we possess the original text of the following lists: I.1is only seven. ordination ceremo- . .

going into retreat and the most varied details of monastic life. the same as the preceding ones with the exception of the Aniyatas. RIDDING. 1949. if any. Pii!Uksaniya). AdhiJcarillJl1lamatha.}"u] Karmaviicanii of the Sarvistividins (ed. NilJ.C. 8.sargilca or Nail}sargiJca PiilayanliJca (P. M. FRANKfURTER. mo~a arranged in eight categories : I . which is planned systematically. praviirOlJii. explains the prescription word by word (padabhiljaniya) and concludes with other anecdotes justifying any exceptions to the rule. PiilayanliJca (p.· THE STRUCTVRE OF TIlE VrNAYA. HARTEL. faults entailing temporary exclusion from the Community. faults entailing penancc. p. II . XXV. These sections are twenty in number: U U Bibliography in WINlnNtTZ. SDl!'ghiivaJe~a (p. S. Piicittiya). Berlin. n. Sailghddisesa). 4. BSOS. The number of articles varies accordinl 10 the schools. SPIEGEL. 3. faults entailing renunciation of an object which has been obtained unduly. H. 2. C . faults entailing expulsion. Nissaggiya Piicittiya). etc. 1917-20. I. 2.166 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 182-183) nies. undetermined faults . Aniyala. 1956).AUSON 61 . &kltiya). concluding with appendices. DAS and G..imok~a.F. DICKSON. some twenty Skandhaka (Pili. SaiJqa (P. a Bhik~ikarma­ vaconii of the Sarvastivadins (ed. 6. p. Lit~atuu. PiiriijiJca or iipatti. The Skandhaka "sections" or Vastu "points" regulate the details of the monastic life on the basis of acts and ceremonies prescribed in the Kannavacanas which were mentioned above.The Vinaya is usually comprised of three parts: the twofold Sutravibhanga (bhilqu and bhik~W)lvibhaitga).. The Bhi/qw)ivibhailga comments upon the 311 articles 6l of the Bhik183 !UlJipriitimolqa arranged in seven categories. fonnulates the prescription by indicating the penalty its violation entails. 5.c. J. 2:5. begins with a history explaining the promulgation of the article. pp. . matters to be recommended. . The Bhikplvibltaiiga comments on the 227 articles of the BhiJcfUpriiti. The commentary. The S!1travibluJirga is a detailed explanation of the articles of lite Pra. means of settlin8 disputcs. Alongside the various Pili Kammavacanas published long since by F. I. I. PratjdeJanTya (p. 19-30). O. confession. BAYNES. faults to be confessed. BANERJEE. 7. we now possess a Bhikfukarmaviikya of the Miilasarvastivadins (ed. 123) and some (Bhik. Cl. H. Khandaka) or Vastll. IHQ. A.

the monks' retreat during the rainy season. the use of sandals and other objcctJ made of leather. 20. Korhillo . 17. AN AN"L YStS OF THE SIX VtN" Y. the festivily at the end of Ihe retreat. his birth and life until his Enlightenment and. the Vinaya is an inexhaustible 184 mine of curious and precise information on Indian life in general and that of the Buddhist monks in particular. 9. PtilJ4ulohilaJca . or provide further information about certain events concerning ecclesiastical history. clothing. 3. 10. 18. procedure for settling disputes. the council of Rijagrhn. Despite its extremely technical nature. 4. Karma. Carma . disciplinary measures taken in the community. Sturtg1wbh~da. six separate Vinayas were elaborated over the centuries a brief analysis of which should be given : I.(183-1&4) THE VINAYAPITAKA 167 I. Thousands of separate anee· dotes can be found in it which relate to the circumstances in which this or that monk's misconduct led the Buddha to lay down a specific precept or formulate a particular order. We find . The biography is in three parts : the antecedents and genea· logy of the Buddha. schism. avara . sometimes in the Appendices and sometimes in the Skandhakas. Po~adJuulhiipana . 12. the first patriarchs and. conditions of validity in the ecclesiastic procedure. Vor~ti. medicines. the distribution of monastic garments. PravaraIJd . Acara. quarrels among the monks as was the case at Kauiimbi. The appendices added to certain Vinayas draw up summaries of the material dealt with in the Vibhariga and Skandhoka. The presence of such digressions poses a literary problem to which we will return further on. PiiriwiJika . conduct required of the nuns. Pravrajyd. the beginning of his public ministry until the conversion of ~riputra and Maudgalyayana. the council of Vaisali.According to the plan described above. 13. SmruJlho . Po¥Jdh4. coherent accounts which constitute a partial biography of Sakyamuni and the beginnings of an ecclesiastical chronicle. 1I . ordinary procedure against light offences. . However. 8.-\5. 1S. SaYaMsana . finally. minor recommendalions. 14. 16. residence and furniture . Pw:iga/a . exclusion of a monk from the confessional ceremony. A work belonging to the Sinhalese Theravadins. 5. J4udraka. 6. Koiiimba . BhiJc. Bhoi!ajya . 19. behaviour of the monks in various circumstances. monthly confessional ceremonies. finally.pDJi. 3. The chronicle deals with the Buddha's funeral. rule of conduct during' the period of probation and minipya. admission into the order. 7. 2. there is more. it . Pali Vinaya.

Vimalik~ added a postface 10 it. FragrttmU "" 64. . This section contains three separate parts : a. pp. pp.a or Appendix in 16 sections and 19 chapters (vol.v. This preface. 185 2. It is the work of a Sinha~ monk "the extremely learned Dipa who had investigated the methods followed by the ancient masters" (V. Vi/lQya at! Sa. 148·302). KUNO. 226). this Vinaya. EJcottoradJwrma : adhyaya S (pp. 284-93) and Vesati (II. Ma}uivibbhailga or BhikJ:hu'Iihhair. 346-7S). Kwaladhyiiya and Preface to the Vinaya . I. Pari loQ. Bhik.Better known by the name of the "Vinaya in ten recitations" (Daitidhyiiya). Cullen'agga (last twelve Khandhakas). FILUOZAT and H. after 409. d . KhondhaJea 22 in number (vols I-II of the PTS edition). An introduction devoted to part of the biograpby of the Bud· dha.Ubho)'otovinaya a'nd ScurryukPdrajikadharma. p. from the Enlightenment to the conversion of Sariputta (I. - (cor. by VimaJiksa . 302-46). ). pp.adi". After 409. I. insened impromptu and containing the accoun! of the councils of Rijagaha (II.). adhyayas 4 10 6 (pp. III . c. 1938. of which we posse£s only a few original fragments 6 \ was translated in 404 by Kumarajiva in collaboration wilh Pul)yalrita and Dharmaruci. V of the PTS cd. 283). II. p.ivibhtuiga : adhyaya 7 (pp. 445-70). In the fonn of questions and answers it recapitulates the contents of the previous parts. adhyiya 9 (pp. 21- . 41(45). 379409). p. 44-300. It was added later. .ltta~ihhaJiga pp. c. 1-147). Vina)'a) adhydya. It consists of three partS : (vo1s III-IV of the PTS edition). SkandlraJeas .f~fo : beginnins of adhyaya 10 (pp. end of adhyiya 10 (pp. 1-44). The descriplion of twenty Kbandhakas (I. The work is in four parts : 1. Upd/ipariprcchd. BhikkUl}Mhhmiga. 2. JA. A conclusion.fU~ihhariga : adhyayas 1 to 3 (T 1435. Sl. II . 2. 294-308). IV. 1.uti. JII. Appendices : a. pp. b..168 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 184-185) circulated on the island of Ceylon but never seems to have been used on the mainland . b. II. BhiJqw. MaJu1vagga (first ten Khandhakas). Villaya of the Sarviisrivtidins (f 1435). •• J. or rather this postface was not part of the complete translation of the Vinaya made in 404405 at Ch'ang-an by Kumirajiva and his assistants.ga. . Bh~ ta.Smrrghava.

4. by Vimalik~ who probably based it on Sanskrit documents obtained in Central Asia. BhiJcfUvibJuviga (pp. The caves of Bamyin have yielded a short OJ References to the soun::a in P. Conclusion : the Buddha's funeral (p. a . This post face 186 contains four sections : 1·2. 59·61) to the 58 scrolls of the original text. 779a 5·b 10): birth of the Buddha and his life up to the Enlightenment (pp. After various incidents. with the help first of Fu-jo-to-lo and then of Dhannaruci. Vinaya of the Dharmaguplas (T 1428). Antecedents (nidana)05 . after 409. Vimalak~ went to the region of An·hui where he continued to teach the Vinaya. 568·713). the council of VaiSiIT (pp. It consists of four parts : I. Sa/rlyuJcta~arga (pp. studied at Kuca and attended lectures by the Kasmirian master Vimalak~ who taught him the Sarvistivadin Vinaya. . 4140). He revised the Chi nese: version by KumaraJlva. ViMyaiJcottara (po. 719·971). Bh~WJ. Introduction : life of the Buddha : Antecedents and genealogy (p. 3. 56. Xl. 9660 150e 11). D£w1tvtLLE. TP. the council of Rijagrha (pp. . III SkandJwJco (pp. Therefore. the begjnnings of the ministry up to the conversion of ~riputra (pp. where he worked until his death. 971. changed the title of the 10th recitation ("Recitation on the Vinaya" instead of "Recitation of the good") and added three new scrolls (ch .This was translated at Ch'ang an in 408413 by Buddhayaias who recited the text by heart and rendered it into Chinese: with the aid of the interpreter Hui pien . a Chinese: expedition brought him to Liang chou in 385 and from there he reached Ch'ang·an in 402. IV. the first translation. which occurred in 409. 799·966).( 185-186) THE VINAY. In 406. 3. Vinaya of the MahasQtrlghikas (T 1425). The twenty SkandJuJko (pp. b. The account was added. 966c II ·96&: 17). Between the years 404 and 405. 7glc 11·199b 24).971(2).96&: 11. p. he made a Chinese: translation of the Sarvastivadin Vinaya. although given as complete. did not contain Ihe detailed account of the two councils to which it made only a brief allusion (ch.Ij~ibhanga (pp. 2. 719b 1{)·781c II). Miscellanea (J'DI!'Iyuk ta) on the Vinaya . 714-78). pp."PITAKA 169 KumaraJiva (3. an account of the first two councils. 990-1014).90) . c. II .This was translated at Nanking in 416 by Buddhabhadra and Fa hsien from an original found by the latter in Pi!atiputra. .50409). was ordained at the age of six (536). 4. Two appendices : 1. 242·SO. his master Vimalak~ joined him in Ch'ang·an. After Kumirajiva's death.

4-8. 4930 2S-c 11). SkandJraJca (pp. Vinaya of the Mahiicisakas (T 1421).187) fragment. which was finished at quite a late date. 101-94). V. 490b 21492c 17). III. . Priitimo/qasiitra and Vinayavibluuiga of the Bhik~ul:1is IV. Vinayavastu (i. the succession of patriarchs (pp. )02c-)Hk 10). BhikfUlJivibhmiga (pp. . Introduction devoted to the life of the Buddha : antecedents and genealogy (p. published by S. 489c 26-490b 21). The complete fonn of this voluminous Vinaya. 1950). 110-90). ellists only in a Tibetan translation (a section of the Dulva. Dun (Gi/gil Manuscripts. but in the Skandhaka section it includes under the title of Krudrakiidhyiiya the beginning of an ecclesiastical chronicle recounting the funeral of the 187 Buddha (pp. 77-101). 5. A mediocre and incomplete translation of it was made by I ching at Lo-yang and Ch'ang-an between the years 700 and 712 (T 1442-51).avastu.170 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 186. Conclusion limited to an account of the councils of Rijagrha (pp. The work is divided as follows: I. The Vinaya is divided in the following way : I. It is very close to the Pili canon and consists of three parts: I. 514-48). 412-514). c. LEVI in JA. Parts 1-4. PriitimoA:~asiitra and Vinayavibhmiga of tbe Bhik~us. IU. Skandhaka (pp. pp. however. the council of Rajagrha (pp.This was translated at Nanking between 423 and 424 by BuddhaJlva and his team from a manuscript discovered in Ceylon by Fa hsien . 227412). biography from birth to Enlightenment (pp. IOtb 20-102c 21) . 1932. Vinaya of the Mii/asarvastiviidi/1J. including the Uptiliparip(cdlii. Vol.e. 492c 17-4930 19) and the council of VaiSili (p. 11 . beginnings of the public ministry until the conversion of Sariputf3 (pp. I-XIII) carried Oul in the ninth century by a team of translators. 1-77). VinayakfUdrak. Srinagar. Vinayottaragrantha . & . Bhikfuvibhailga (T 1425.ibhtviga (pp. published in four instalments through the enlightened intercession of N . H. 192a 26-194b 20). IJ . lOla IO-b 20) . Bhik!U!Jr. III . b. The Skandhalcas themselves (pp. Bltik!UvibJrailga (f 1421 . I90b 13-192a 25) and VaiSiti (pp.. 111. 6. Skandhakas). The work does not contain a coherent biography of the Buddha. before then the Di~yii~adana had already reproduced lengthy passages from it. The sensational discovery at Gilgit in 1931 yielded a considerable part of the Sanskrit original. pp. pp.

1. II. the ubhatovinaya : this is the opinion of the Cul/avagga (P.8). 2. seems to be the most satisfactory at first sight. Skantihaka and o ne or two Addenda : this is the opinion of the great Sinhalese commentators (Samantapiisiidikii . la 8 . 1884). BhikfUvibhailga. as did W. 408o-b). 1415). pp. the period extending from the reign of Suddhodana until the ministry of the Buddha . T 1428. but the socond can base its arguments on an old Buddhist preconception according to which the texts. 54. p.The ancient traditions concerning the composition of the Vinayas are manifold. The first hypothesis. contains a complete and coherent biography of the Buddha Sakyamuni in which one can distinguish. 30. p. 191a 13-14) and one recension of the Mahiiparinirvii1)osUtra (T 5. it was only an embryonic Vinaya limited to a description of the precepts relative to the bhik~u s and bhik~ul)is or. ch. p. ch. p. the period when the various Vinayas were constituted . Sthaviras (or Sarvastivadins?) and the Vitsiputriyas. namely the SmrrghabhedavDStu (T 1450). although plentiful at the outset. according to the traditional expression. (T 1421. five long chapters : the history of the world from its renewal until the reign of Suddhodana. At least three schools claim they possess the original Vinaya. ch. continued by the /4UdrakavDStu (T 1451). I. the life of the Buddha. ch . . The 17th Vastu of the lauer. 2. called the Vina)'a of Kdiyapa or af Upali. preface. that of an embryonic Vinaya develo ping over the ages. The others believed that Upali had recited the complete Vinaya of the school to which they belonged and which consisted of at least four parts. 40. . the beginnings of AjataSatru's reign until the decease of the Buddha . the Buddha's father. For some. finally . p. 175c 8-9). compiled at the first council : the Mahisal"!lghikas. 287 . p. the Buddhi st school which is reputed to have preserved this original text and. gradually dwindled away. ROCKHILL (Life of III the Buddha. 3. They concern three separate problems : the length of the Vinaya compiled by Upali at the council of Rajagrha. the Dhannaguptas (T I. .( 187-10) THE VINAYAPITAKA 171 In fact the l4udrakavDStu (IVth part) appears as an immediate continuation of the Vinayal'DStu (lst part). the Mahiiasaka Yin . incoherent and contradictory. 8180 16-20) and the Millasarvastivadins (T 1451. 968b lOll). the Haimavatas (T 1463. the beginnings of his ministry until the reign of AjataSatru . The accounts of the first council differ in opinion over the length of the Vinaya recited by Upali . ANCIENT TRAomONS CONCERNING THE VrNAVAS. Vin. ch. p. London. BhikfUIJivibhailga . the history of the Buddhist church during the 110 years which follo wed the Buddha's decease.

. but they were all Sthaviras (ShQIIg ISO. [the monks or both groups) should not live together. ch. the lex. translated by an unknown hand between 317 and 420. going back to the past.). The same event is narrated in the Sarvasti· vadin sources. 3. as well as by Paramirtha (DanEVlLLf. developing and increasing what KiSyapa had codified and which is called 'The Vinaya or the Great Assembly' (To chung 114 : Mahisi~ghavinaya). elders) : hence they were called T 'o pi 10 (Sthaviras)".ghikas into conflict with the Sthaviras. while: those who took the: white: slips were a mere hundred or so..t. This is what is emerging from a MahasaI'flghika work. p. He collected rrom outside some material which had been neglected (until then]. the Chinese translation ' is $0 obscure that it allows for the most diverse interpretations.ya (T 1545. the white slips. A tradition which must be of Magadhan ongm identifies the original Vinaya with that of the: Mahasal'!lghikas·. they were called Mahisil'!1ghikas (Mo ho sin. The king brought the two schools together and set about taking a vote: with black and white slips or wood (JolaJc4). "AI that moment. proclaiming that those who approved or the old Vinaya could take: tbe: black slips.Ju who was avid ror glory and prone to disputing. He thus rormed a separate party which quarrelled with (the Great Assembly]. Unfortunately. The Icing considered that (the: doctrines or tbe two schools] both (represented) the word or the Buddba and that since their prererenocs were not the same. pp. there was an old bhilr.172 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 188· 189) a . it does seem that Fa hsien who discovered the manuscript of the MoJub~ghjJcQ Vinayo in Pataliputra considered as identical to the earlier Vinaya. from the evidence: of other parallel texts which we will quote. ch . and those who ravoured the new Vinaya. & Clf!S. those: who studied the new [Vinaya) rormed the: minority. and this fact is confinned by the MohdvoJ?1So (IV. 99. and makes the Vinaya of the Sthaviras (or rather of the Sarvistivadins) and aberrant 189 Vinaya. p. He copied and arranged our Vinaya. This text represents the Mahisirpghika version of the first Buddhist schism which. After having narrated at length the persecution by the Sunga Pu~yamitra. The latter accept Ihat King Aioka first ravoured the Mahasiqtghikas. the Soriputrapariprccha (f 1465. Since those: who studied the old [Vinaya) were in the majority. Then there were some bhik~us who asked tne king to pass judgement. with the aim or deceiving beginnen. Then those who took the blaek slips were more than ten thousand. speaks of events which took place under a king whom it does not name but who. can be nonc other than ASoka the Maurya. SIOe-SI2a). 9OOb). pp. p. 886b). ch '!) ror that reason. 32 sq. such as the VihM. brought the Mahisirp. at the time of ASoka. 36-9) and HSUan tsang (T 2087. but add that he then repented and finally did the Sthaviras justice. In the postface of the Chinese translation of this . However.

known for their laxist conduct. . 4. Aner the Nirval)a of Kisyapa. 2. They all told him 'According to the Law. b. 3. five schools were founded : I . Then those five (sic) schools all got confused and disputes broke out. p. as a result. 548b) he confirms and completes the evidence or the Siiriputrapariprcchd. 210 4). . MahiSisakas. These first schools each differed over the meaning (artha) and their theses (soma. who knew of the postrace by Fa hsien. the slips of wood of the Vitsiputriyas were very great in number. the homeland of the Vdiputraka or Vatsiputriya monks. acting as a great master..us in Pa~liputra who wanted to settle a question but had no Vinaya masler nor Vinaya text and thus could not deal with tbe matter. Sarvatas who claim that everything exists. Dharmaguptakas. for example in the Nidina of the Victory over Mira. and the Tripi~ka bhi k~us were dispersed. i. So they sent a man to the Jetavanavihira to copy the Vinaya text. there was a good king who invited all the Sramal)a5 to return to the country where he gave them hospitality.en place. King Aioka wondered how he could judge the true from the raise. However. according to the Law of the Buddha. the name (or that school] was changed to that or Mah~ghika. did not rail to remark that the text of the original Vinaya claimed by the Mahwl"!lghikas came from the letavanavihira. ).e.. 40. The king said : ' Ir that is so. Without giving the matter proper consideration "$eng yu came to the conclusion that the Mahis3l"!lghikas borrowed their Vinaya from the latter and that.fa) . those who toole the slips of wood of the original assembly (cll'ii pin chung). p. Once the bad king was dead. Then it was the venerable Upagupta whom the Bhavagat had defined as a Buddha without marks (njr/alqtu)abuddJlO). were very great in number. At tbe time.000 articles. the venerables Ananda.000 articles. aner him. Now this vihira was in fact located in VaiSiIi. and since that assembly was in the majorilY. the Mahasamghika came from the Vitsiputriya school.e. Madhyintika and Sal)8visa SIJCCe$sively had possession of the Pi!aka with its 80. the judgment should be passed. KiSyapiyas. each claiming that its own meaning was lrue. ch . Because of that great number.191 ) THE VINA YAPITAKA 173 190 Vinaya (T 142. it was called Mahisirpgbika (Mo ho sing ch '. ch . Once the votc had tak.000 articles. the School of the Great Assembly". the majority must be followed '. there were five hundred bhik. "Formerly in central India a wicked king reigned ror a certain time.5. there will have to be a vote with slips or wood (la/iika) to see where the majority lies'. i. After the Nirvil)a or the Buddha. The learned SCng yu.( 19()..). (lhe scbool of} the Great Assembly".5. preserved the Pi!aka in 80. He also had in his possession the Pi~ka with 80. and he asked the Saf!lgha bow. In his Ch 'u san !Sang chi chi (T 214. Mahikiiyapa compiled the Vinayapi~ka and. All the Sramal)as Red in the four directions. he modifies the last lines of Fa hsien's postscript to that effect : 191 "Once the vote (instigated by ASaka] had taken place.

a contemporary of ASoka. the latter was called the " Vinaya in 80 recitations". This Vinaya in ten recitations was known by the name of "Vinaya from the land of Kasmir". c. 2. the ancient Vinaya which he preserved was also given the name of "Vinaya in 80 sections from the land of Mathuri". Upd/iporiprccna· . The text contained Avadanas and Jatakas. resided in Malhurn. preserving only the most important parts. sections 8 to IO were reserved for Appendices : Eleollora . Finally. The Vinaya from the: land of Mathuri which. At the council of Rijarha presided over by Kisyapa. Sections I to 3 included the 250 precepts of the Bhik~us. 756<) : "The abridged (sic) aa::ount of the: Vinaya is in 80 sections and the Vinaya lexts arc of two kinds : I. The: Vinaya from the: land of . ch. Upagupta deleted the accounts of the Avadanas and latakas and. 100. that Vibhii#i. However. We will continue with the evidence upon which t~ese notes of literary history are based : Kumarajiva in his translation of the UpatkJa (T 1509. after 409. can be summarized in the following three points. Sanavisa and Upagupta . also written in Kasmir. consist of 80 sections. the Skandhakas . Although the sources are lacking in precision in this respect.carefully preserved it in trust. The first five patriarchs . since Upagupta. section 1 described the precepts of the Bhiksunis. with its Avadinas and Jitakas. Vimaliik~ enriched the translation with a postface. 192 must doubtless be identified with the: voluminous Miilasarvdtiviidin Vinaya (T 1442-5 1) which we: have analyzc:d above. su(:h an affiliation is contrary to tradition and to all the known lists . Kumirajiva translated it into Chinese at Ch'ang an in 404-405 with the title of Shih sung /U (T 1435) and later. not to be confused with the earlier Vinaya which also consisted of 80 sections. J4udrokafarga and Ku1aJadharnuJ . since: his contemporaries had weak faculties and coul~ not memorize such a voluminous text. p. Upili recited the Vinayapi~aka. as it was fonnulated in the finh and sixth centuries by Kumarajiva (344 4(9) and the Chinese scholars seng yu (444-518) and Hui chao (497-554). As he made 80 attempts at reciting that Vinaya. the Vinaya in ten recitations from KaSmir was commented upon by a "Vibh~ in 80 sections". Madhyantika. Ananda. compiled a Vinaya reduced to ten sections and entitled : " Vinay~ in ten recitations" (Daiddhydya) .Kisyapa. The Kaimirian tradition of Sarvistividin and M iilasarvistividin origin. in other words. seng yu must therefore bear the entire responsibility for it. sections 4 to 6 dealt with the seven or eight dharmas or. However.174 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 191 ·192) However.

copy and recite the twelve categories of the teaching of the Tathagata. but that they will interpret them in the wrong way. a Mahayanist work translated into Chinese between 414 and 421. certain disciples will receive. there is a Vibha~ in 80 sections which comments upon it". ch. Sing yu. after listing those six schools. ibidem (T 1509. Then there were Kiisyapa. Hoi chiao (T 2059. Indeed . p. the bhiJqw)i~ilIaya . ch. 159). 22. Sarvastivadins. p. 3. 3. ch . Kao seng chuan. ch. ch. retain. as witnessed by HSUan tsang.(T 2059. the seven dJwrma and the eight dharma . 3. Hui chiao. Kasyapiyas. the Upaliparjprc' eM. 2. UpaguPta reduced it to 10 recitations" .( 192·193) THE VINAYAPITAKA 175 Kaimir which has excluded the Jiitakas and Avadiinas : the latter has simply retained the essential parts and consists of only 10 sections. However. they establish an artificial link between those Vinayas and the five schools given by them as the leaders in the affiliation of the sects. II . Idem. the £kollara . Fa yun remarks : . 20a 24) : " In the past. p. will not impede the unity of the dhormadhiitu and the Great Nirva~a of the Buddha". p. Sa~aviisa and Upagupta : those five Arhats preserved the Vinaya in tum" . were still being taught in U44iyana in the sixth century A. ch. They will be called Ohannaguptas. 4. the Pi~aka consisted of 80 recitations. ch. SCng yu (T 2145. 2()"'1).ka". the k!UdraJcal'arga and the kujala ~arga : those 80 ~arga (sic!) form the VinayapiJ. 69c) : "The explanations concerning the 250 precepts in three ~arga . concludes : "Those five (sic) schools. 11130) use this prophecy as justification for giving the leaders of those five schools as Vinaya masters and disciples of Upagupta. pp. Ch 'u san Isang chi chi (T 2145. p. The Buddha. J 1. Vatsiputriyas and Mahssal!lghikas. In it the Buddha says in substance that after his Nirva~a . The Chinese scholars of the fifth century are unanimous in dating from the ASokan or post-ASokan era the fragmentation of the original Vinaya into a series of separate Vinayas which. Madhyinlika. Ananda. p . Mahiikiisyapa held the Baskets of the Law. p. 403a) and Fa yun (T 2131 . but since later generations had weak faculties (mrd~ilIdriya) and could not learn it. (T 2087. Furthennore. He transmitted them to Ananda and so on down to the fifth master Upagupta: Originally. 193 They all base their claims on a prophecy of the Mahasor!lnipiitasutro (T 397.a.D. although they differ from one another. 882b). 3. 403a) : "Upiili made 80 attempts to recite the Vinaya : hence the title of ' Vi nay a in 80 recitations'. ch. MahiSiisakas.

and took its inspiration from the model of the Vedic collections. AC("OIUIIt of (M llIIddh. did nol divide up the Icaching.l 'J anJ tw jim COtlIIf:U llC("cmJillf to tM YiIIIl)'llkpJrlMll . an author.first part inserted into the Suttapi~aka with the title or MahaparinibbdlJasutta. pp. However. they divided the single great Vinayapi!aka of the Tathigata and founded five schools : Dharmaguptas. his funeral and the distribution or his relics. was added to the Vinayapi!aka at the end or the Kbandakas 66 . namely the account of the councils. Limiting his research to the Pali sources. lA. IHQ. Vitsipumyas and MahisiJ!lghikas". the second. but nowhere is there a mention of the councilor Vaisali. FINOT. Louis FinOI nOled the artificiality of the link which connects the account of the two councils with the preceding twenty Khandhakas and proposed the hypotheses that this account formed the second part of a chronicle the fint part of which was devoted to the narration of the Buddha's last journey. 1932. Kasyapiyas. p. Conse· quently. VIII. T 5 and 6 give full accounts of the councilor Rijagrha.. The latter is connected only with the Vinay8 tradition.atla. IS8 . pop. HyPOTHESES ON THE FORMATION OF THE VlNAYAS. Ananda. 1904 However. not without literary pretensions. JHQ. Frauwallner in a work entitled The Earliest Vinaya and the Beginnings of Buddhist Literature. some malevolent disciples will divide up my Vjnayapi~ka and establish five schools'.isyapa. NI'~ 78 1 ~ . T 7 devotes one line to the councilor Rijagrha. Finot's theories are taken up and amplified on much sounder bases by E. 0suM1UD. While the Buddhist Dharma had already been codified into a Sutrapi~ka and the tworold Pritimok~ commented upon in the rorm of a Vibhanga.176 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD "The Buddha said : 'Five hundred years after my Nirvi~a . Among the Chinese: recensions or the MahiiparinirvQlJilSUtra . K. See the repJy by E. Vasuki (1) and Upagupla : those five masters.a. MaMparin~ ~ nil/a t( Cwlla. the Buddhist sources we have at our disposal are not in ravour or the existence or such a chronicle. T I remains utterly silent over the councils. Upagupta had five disciples who each held their own particular views. It is believed that this ancient chronicle was then divided into two and the .a. . undertook to write a work on the religious life or the Buddhist monks and published a Skandhaka to this effect. Madhyintika. 1956. who penetrated the Way with rull powers. MahiSisakas. Rome. shortly berore or after the council of Vaisali. This Old Skandhaka was writlen about the year 100 or 110 after the Nirvil). 1932. Nevertheless. Tutts hlstOt"iqws daru It c_ pili. his Parinirvil). 241-6. 1932. Sarva!as. It began with an •• L..

Hence. p.. he adapted all that material to his own artistic genius and. binh. the beginning of his public ministry up to the conversion of the two great disciples ~riputra and Maudgalyiyana. .( 194-195) THE VINAYAPITAKA 177 19S account of the first part of the life of the Buddha : his race. Sdkyamunibuddhacarita . As for the conclusion of the Old Skandhaka . This was the case for the Niddnakatha of the Pili Jitaka. the Kasyapiyas. it was also the case for the various biographies of "sectarian" origin which a colophon of the Fo pin Ming chi ching (T 190. cit. Frauwallner. etc. It must therefore be the basis of the various incomplete biographies of the Buddha which most often conclude with the conversion of Sariputra and Maudgalyiyana. p. 154). later. p. Nevertheless. with regard to the biography of the Buddha which fonned the theme of this work. the ac::count of the Buddha's decease was linked up with the Siitrapi!aka. it exerted considerable influence on the later Buddhist literary output. according to Frauwallner (op. Mahalalitavistara. Vinayapi!akamiila". "Thus he created a work which looks imposing. finally. and which is practically unique in his time. his Enlightenment and. ch . and "in its earliest form recognizable to us". Accidents in the oral tradition cruelly abused this Old Skandhaka to such an extent as to break up its original arrangement and render its design unrecognizable. the Sarvastividins. However. the succession of patriarchs and. the council of Vaisafi.a conclusion narrating the decease of the Buddha and the account of the two councils .. the author borrowed from compositions which were already in existence everything that could be of use to him : stories and legends taken from the commentaries upon the Pritimok~ . the confessional ceremony. 60. The author then passed on to a description of the rules of monastic life. to the Vinaya. the Mahisasakas. and still according to E. the first great literary work of Buddhism" (FRAUWALLNER. belonged. admission into the order. 146). he deviated considerably from the early authentic tradition. He concluded with an account of the decease of the Buddha and the beginning of an ecclesiastical chronicle covering the great events of the first century : the council of Rijagrha. the biographical portion with which the work began is thought to have become independent and to have been elaborated upon afterwards by the various schools. if we imagine it in its original shape.. In order to carry out this work. 932a 16-21) reconciles in these (enns : "What is this siitra (T 190) called? The Mahisil'!'ghika masters call it Mahilvastu . youth and vocation. but the recension . Buddhajdtakanidima. finally. the Dhannaguptakas. siitras or fragments of them from the original tradition. op. attempting to alleviate the dryness of the material by the insertion of anecdotes and legends.. cit.

in the passage studied above. but his conclusions cannot be accepted unreservedly. Vin . of which we have just given a short summary. 37) . KumaraJlva speaks of a " Vinaya in 80 sections from the land of Mathuri" he has in mind. it did not originate from an old Buddhist community established in Mathura from the first century of Buddhism . and we do not soc how a . They are much more elaborate than the biogra· phical fragments inserted into the Vinayas and. it was not only from those Skandhakas that the biographers of the Buddha could derive their documentation. Vin . Finally. do not all conclude with the conversion of Sariputra.D.178 TIlE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 19S.but from an immense compendium of discipline which was closed very much later and was probably compiled in KaSmir in order to complete the SaTviistiviidin Vinaya. The Siitrapi~ka contained quantities of biographical and much more detailed Siitras. in the Sarvdsti'llddin Vinaya .196) of the MaJJiiparinindIJ. but only appears in a postface appended in China in the 196 fifth century A. fragmentary account with which the Pali "handakas open. to quote only one example. which devotes two Skan· dhakas to a full and coherent biography of the Buddha. It is doubtful whether the initial biography of the Buddha which served as an introduction to the Vinayas was the starting point and model of the separate Lives of the Buddha which were published later. Furthermore..as E. The latter. When. there is no trace of the initial biography of the Buddha. as we will soc further on.namely the Sarwil. but the ancient Vinaya of Upali which was finally preserved by Upagupta in Mathura. In the two Vinayas. The structure of the Old Skandhaka is only just recognizable in the Vinaya of the Dharmaguptakas and Mahiidkas and the Pili Vinaya. not the MU[asOTV.aiutra still retains the particular stamp which the author of the Old Skandhaka claimed to have impressed on it . the account of the two councils did not fonn part of the original edition.widin and Mal!mibrlghika VilUJya . Frauwallner claims (p. ••• The admirable work by Professor FrauwaUner. marks considerable progress in our knowledge of the Buddhist sources. which the indigenous traditions examined above present as being the closest to the ancient Vinaya of Upili . there is no common measure between the enonnous Nidana· kalhii of the Jataka and the shon. As for the Mu[asQfII . It would be difficult for the author of the Old Skandhaka to be the first compiler of the chronicle of the councils..

it is normal that the various known Vinayas should reveal the close link which connected them .1..£.and we are thinking particularly of the Pali .. d. the series of offences forbidden to the monks and nuns. It proceeds by means of enumerations and summaries. The hypothesis of an Old Skandhaka distinct from the ancient Vinaya 197 of Upali of which the whole tradition speaks therefore seems to us to complicate a problem that is already sufficiently so.this fact can be explained by a parallel development. as P. By sketching above the history of the tradition of the councils through the literature of the Sutras. The addition of facts which concerned the Buddhist discipline only indirectly continued to multiply incessantly and finally culminated. this outcome was long in gestation in the Vinayas which had previously been closed. questions and answers. DEwltvll. in the Mulaso". the great Sinhalese commentaries. travel memoirs and. However. Avadanas. finally. the Vi nayapi~ka appears as a development and explanation of the two monastic codes which were drawn up at the very beginning of the Buddhist community : the Vibhanga comments upon the Pratimo~. it remains evident. Vin . Demieville has already noted. that. It is only in the . p. ecclesiastical chronicles.. 2S4.• in a complete biography of the Buddha and the beginnings of ecclesiastical history.(196-197 ) THE ABHIDHARMAPITAKA 179 contemporary of the events could have accumulated such a quantity of anachronisms. Though the account of the councils is momentarily linked with the Vinaya tradition. the Skandhakas develop the Kannavacanas regulating the details of monastic life. Vinayas. TP. we have attempted to show how that tradition was exploited throughout the ages to the most diverse purposes. improbabilities and myths. This commentary is enlarged by fragments relating to the life of the Buddha as well as accounts concerning the early history of the community. Mahisaka and Dhannagupta Vinayas . P. The Buddhist communities did not live in complete isolation but were interested in the work carried out by their neighboUrs. . its compilers were not the same as those of the Vinayas to which that account is appended 6 ' . It is therefore not surprising that they worked with the same methods and foll owed practically the same plan . If remarkable similarities can be: discerned in the outlines of the latter . The Abhidharmapi!Bka The Abhidhannapi!aka appears to be a tho roughly detailed systematisation of the teachings contained in the Siitras. A prOptJl dN COMilt at VlliJ6tr. In our opinion. If nothing is more like one Buddhist vihara than another Buddhist vihira. XL.

3. p. summary : Miilasarvdstiviidin Vin. in 5 sections . i. . XVII. T 6. it must be accepted that. Abh. 109-10). 14b 8). See I. Kasyopasarrgj"ti (T 2027. III. they do not mean to designate any scriptural code. 2. (II. 922e 2S) also attributes the compilation of the Abhidhannapi!aka to Kasyapa. p. the various Buddhist schools used an identical Sjjtrapi~aka and several similar Vinayapi!akas. pp.o Vil'l . 32. Abh. the first two Pi!akas : Pdli Vil'l . 287) . the canonical texts merely speak of a summary (miitrkD) . 1941 .198) chronicles and commentaries that the word is given as the title of a third Pi!aka. p .ISO THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 197. ch. However.Sasaf!\codap. 472)01 . Prayoga and Sthana : Dhormagup. ch. 4. Ha. . Asarpcodanaviveka. 8180 28-29). 30. Other sources attribute to Kasyapa the compilation of a Matrka. - . Notwithstanding. they are not in agreement over the number of books of which it is compiled. 1910). HSUan tsang (T 2087.. il'l 5 sections . p. ThL ug~nd of A.ND.rdvaddna (f 2030. p. p. 6. ch. B. ch . pp. Abh. 19to-b). if they had an Abhidhannapi~ka at their disposal. p. 54. in <I sections . without the intervention of literary developments or the presentation of indivi· duals. 267 . ch. ch. in <I sections and 5 recitations : Chinese preface to the translation of the Dfrgha (f I. ~!prasnaka. Prasthina : Nandimi.aviveka.KA. Majjhima . they had put it together themselves. TRAomONS CONCERNING THE COMPILATION OF THE ABHIDHARMA. IS14 IS). ch. ApraSnaka. in other words. Saf!lyoga and Sthana : Haima~'ala Vinayamdtrka (f 1463. c. p . on the whole. p . (T 1428.foka (f 2042. p. Certain sources assert that the Elders of the council did no more than compile the Ohanna and Vinaya. It p. Sarpyoga. Sarpgraha. 408b 2-11).e. 40. 17Se.Saprasnaka. b. the Doctrine pure and simple. T 2043. the great majority of the sources state that an Abhidharmapi!aka was compiled at Rijagrha and that it was recited by Ananda . (T 142S. When understood in this sense. Mahlidsaka Vin . tl3e 3-4. but simply the "Special Dharma". 9. p . abhidharma is onen coupled wilh the word abhivinaya (D'gha. (T 14SI . ch. Mahaparil'lirvdIJasiitra (f 5. AMidJltJm/'IUI Ab/!MIlaYIJ. 291 -310. By abhidharma. ch . Abh. MohdsdJ!'ghiko Vin . p . 2. 198 If it can be said that. p .PI- The accounts of the first council do not agree about the extent of scriptural activity undertaken at Rajagrha : a . IHQ. There is only a vague link as to similarity between the many Abhidhannas which have come down to us. Saf!lyoga. 968b 25-26). TA. p . (T 1421. 49Ic-492o). ch .Sarpgraha. 70) .

Colombo. Kisyapiya. GIIUN IhrOllflllM AblJidJuJmmD· pilDkQ. tlIJi. Besides the PTS editill ns I nd transillions. description of personalities. The Sinhalese Theravidins possess a n Abhidhammapi~aka in seven books' o (pakara1)a) which. Kompnu/ivm lin Dittp'tll . the Abhidhanna is not the Word of the Master. WATTDS. I. etc. Among the 657 works which Hsuan tsang brought back from India there were numerous sastras of Sthavi ra. 18) quoted in the following order : I. Hamburl. Conversely. Dharmaguplaka and Sarvistividin origin 69 • AN ANALYSIS Of TIlE PRESERVED ABHI1)HARMAS. Ihe Mah. 17 . in 7 sections . 492. Dhiltukathii . Allhasalini. 21. DhamntQSQligani. BAUA V. Nevertheless. A IIhasalini. 334c 21. p. 475. AM. in the fifth century. 295a 26. 7. . the Chinese recension of the Somantopilsadika (T 1462 • . II). 2. p. Similarly. p. I . 37) rejected the six (sic!) sections of the Abhidhanna. Colombo. 4. "tJdvc. POl{luino. 1938. 6. : Pili commentaries (Sumangala. Hence.DhommasangfJJ)i. Koth4vallhu . 501<24. Mahisirpghika. 442b 4. 5JJd). p. which will be examined further on. • S. VighaJiga. in 7 books (one body and 6 feel) : the Sarvastividin tradition. twinned probk:ms.( 198·199) THE ABHIDHARMAPITAKA 181 AM. Abo sa: NVAlfAPONUA.if!1ghikas frequently refer to the Abhidhanna or the Matrki (T 1425. the most important are those of the Theravidins and Sarvastividins. p.19SO. J. Sec III lnalysis of the ItVal books in NYANATlLO«. mentioned by the Dipavatr'sa (V. the schools which in principle rejected the Abhidhanna. classification of things. points of controversy. p. causal relations. 18 . divisions. - J40c I . 1949. Yamaka. Paris. Ihe Mahasaf!1gitikas. Ablrjt!JvJmmD SlIu/iu . DItommosotI. .is. SCHOOLS wrrn01JT AN ABHJORARMA. Saf!1matiya. 4420 28 . All the same.A.Amo ng the Abhidhannas which have come down to us. p. Samanla . the Sautnintikas art so called because for them the nonn consists of the sutras to the exclusion of the Abhidhanna treatises (rt siltrapriimillJikii na tu saurapriimii1)ikdiJ : Kosavyiikhya. Buddhaghosa and his school (SuHulilgala . discussion on the elements. ) . 13 . 199 For certain schools. reccnttranslations have I ppeared by A. 19S I : NYASAPOIoolUo. 3. 3 . 17 .. p. It I. DllammtuairftllJi. Samal1lapilsadika. in fact had equivalent sastras at thir disposal.UM Qlllfolh . Puggalapaiiifattj. in their Vinaya. 18). p .

the Dighabhal)akllS ascribe it to the Khuddakanikiya. Furthermore the Allhasalinf(p. 37). Yamaka . According to another division of the Canon . 31) asserts that the Abhidhamma was "grasped" (adhigala) at the foot of the Bodhi tree. records that after the council of Vaisali. I. I. again by a precious triple ladder. The famous wonder of S8. p. 4. 21). it seems that the orthodox people considered the Dhiitukathii as apocryphal (SaJ?1yutto Comm . and "collated" (vieila) by him. Sikyamuni devoted four or seven weeks to meditation.riputra. the Theras inserted certain episodes into the legend of the Buddha for the sole purpose of establishing the authenticity and antiquity of their Abhidhamma. p. p. In fact. and in the Atlhasalinf. p. p. Somanla.• II.). as well as the other texts of the Khuddaka . during the fourth week which he passed in the" Ratanaghara. The Abhidhamma which Sikyamuni discovered and collated was later propounded by him in the TrayastritrlSa heaven and acquired by the disciple Sa. 23 . 78). Auhasalini. This detail is also confinned by the Jalaiea Commenlary (I. 5. KalhiivQUhu. near the Bodhimal)Qa. who had been reborn in that paradise. IS). Still during Buddhaghosa's time. 200 The Sinhalese chronicle preserves the traces of an Abhidhammapi~aka in six books only : a manuscript of the Dipavmrua (y. by the omniscient Buddha. I to 3 as above.tas of the Abhayagiri and Jetavana whether or not they acx::epted the Abhidhamma in six books. The orthodox monks formed a special pi~ka. the fifth collection of the Suttapi~ka (Sumangala. among other texts. p.182 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 199·201 ) ch. Panhima. at the time of the full moon of Visakha. 7. Puggalapaiiiioli. the orthodox monks asked the Vita~c.qakasya is well-known to the hallowed legend and profusely represented on iconographical documents : Sakyamuni ascended to the Trayastrif!lSa heaven where he taught the Good Law to his mother Maya. 26 . 6. p. the word of the Buddha comprised five collections altogether and the last included the whole of the Vinaya and Abhidhamma (Sumangala. the third . I. the abhidhamma-chappakarOlJam . Until the fifth century certain Sinhalese schools hesitated over the place they should give the Abhidhamma books. conversely. then at the end of three months he came down to earth. 3. 201. 6760) adopts a different order . p. the schismatic MahisaJT1gilikas rejected. The Sinhalese Abhidhammikas tried to imbue this legendary episode with the value of a literary event : it was not the Law in general 201 but the Seven Books of the Abhidhamma which the Buddha expounded . in the company of the gods Brahma and Indra. changing his residence each time. All the Lives of the Buddha agree that after his enlightenment.

278). Once the instruction was over. the Kathavatthu is the word of the Buddha. during his rest. Consequently.tas. 222-3.. This Sinhalese modification of the legend is again found . 3-6) has preserved the record. The latter. was "revealed" or "diffused" by Moggaliputta Tissa at the council of Pa!3liputra. it is only the word of the disciples and should be rejected . By acting in that way. not on his own authority. in the fifth<:entury commentaries: AtthasiiJini. Jiitaka Commentary. The promulgation of the seven books of the Abhidhamma by the Buddha himself is in apparent contradiction with another Sinhalese tradition according to which the KatMvatthuppakar01J'l. Therefore Tissa delineated the treatise. VII . they do not always merely classify systematically the psycho-physical phenomena which the sutras have already described. IV. pp. was promulgated by Moggaliputla Tissa 218 years (sic) after the Parinirviil)a of the Buddha. the Pa!!hana which examines the twenty-four "connections" (pratyaya) between phenomena marks an undoubted progress in Buddhist scholasticism. the fifth or last of the Seven Books. each evening he went to Lake Anavatapta where he bathed then. Mhv. let us replace the Kathiivatthu by either the MahQdhammahadaya or the MahiidJuitukatlul To which the Theraviidins replied : The Kathiivatthu is indeed the word of the Buddha. In substance.( 201 ·202) TIlE ABHIDHARMAPIT AKA 183 to his mother. When he was teaching the Seven Books and came to the Kathiivauhu . said the Vita~c. Since the Kathiivatthu. the 'Seven Books of the Abhidhamma by no means present that canonical nature which tradition claims in their favour. he communicated the contents of the discourse he had propounded to the great disciple Sariputra. 202 but they also attempt to specify the relationships which unite them. 265. he foresaw that 218 (corr. 236) years after his death Moggaliputta Tissa would develop that treatise at the Council of Pii!3liputra and give it a length comparable to that of the Dighanikiiya by collating five hundred orthodox sutras and five hundred heterodox sutras. III. p. By their fonn. 16. 56-8. In this respect. transmitted it to his five ' hundred disciples who had remained on earth. 41 . having thus learned the Abhidhamma. In their present form. V. Dhamrnapada Commentary. p. the Abhidhammas are very like those summarizing sutras some specimens of which already figured in the . if it is absolutely necessary to retain seven books in the Abhidhammapi!3ka .. This contradiction did not fail to draw the attention of the Sinhalese Vita~9avadins who were engaged in a controversy with the orthodox Theravadins and of which the AtthasiUini (pp. with some variants. but it accordance with the list of contents already established by the Master. in the year 236 after the Nirva~a (Dpv . he merely established its summary (matikwrt !hapes!).

rectifications. feet (pOdo) of which are : 1.. pp. 191.. Paris. lSI of the MaJihima and the majority of the suttas in the Angultora. VijifanDko}'o . such as the appendix oflhe A. 9) the title in the following way : "The treatise called JifiinaprosllWlo is like a body (soriro) the sill. For their own part.. VI. pp. ICe P. The Vibhmiga appears to be the continuation and partial repetition of the DhammasailgOlJi. bttrDdvctiDfr. 1939. Mel. DE LA V. 127.. 1937. However. pp.. pp. pp. Paris. Mus... ProjiiapriJdsrro . DharnuulcQlldha. 466.. ltudu Asiotiqws.wrt III' kl Six Vo. II. Donurtt/llS d'Ab#rid!tartnD. u. XVII. 1932. I. Mhv .n. 559-60) which only appeared in Ceylon during the reign of Voharikatissa in the s«ond half of the third century A. On lhe Pnjiiaptiiistra. TAIAltustJ.. pp.i. with six 203 feet" . IHQ. Prolcortu.rH du TrmfU rt du PaultaJil dIIIu ~ "~)"II. 120-S . n. 49) cites the seven books In J.6yaIJO cirt datu JMItapr'(lJilliinD . p. ."·98. 3. 41). v. 140. 19S5 . which refers to it on p. J. l>Dnu1InIlI d'AbhidhDrtnD. Santiniketan. JPTS..topQda. pp. The treatise with its appendages (Illtucora ) is the Abhidhanna". 7· 187. 167. I. DlWluJcdy o..pp.. 6S· 12S. L. XXII. p. pp. 4... but which we have every reason to suppose must have been quite. 549-56. explains (p. others resulted from the Vetullaviida heresy (Ibid.. 2. 19O5.. XXX. 1. The Koiavyiikhyfi. XXIXXLII . xvm. Certain sections of the DhammasaitgfUJi are only commentaries on previous sections. reclassifications and explanations which give it the character of an unfinished work still in the process of elaboration.2.. .184 THE MAGAOHAN PERIOD ( 202·203 ) earlier collections : Smrrgitisuua of the Dfgha. 1931 . LA I"". BEFEO. (Dp v. the Abhidhamma abounds in repetitions. 6-10. MeB. 6. 3904S. 1925. . Such work.4J.. Hence the KOIMvouhu 's object is to state and refute the heretical theses defended by twenty-six different schools and. pp.uhaJcalhakm:u!a or Atthuddhilra which is devoted (0 an explanation of section III . required many hands and extended over a period of time which it is impossible to specify.tr: J'Ous:suo. suttas No. 148. 1lS. TM two N~hIS O«tNdillf 101M "ihMI4. . Paris •. the Sarvistivadins possessed an Abhidhanna in seven . I. The Tibetan historian Bu-ston (I. 1-6. 1' 28. 2. fttr(UlSlDtrd firto &uuirillrDm ClliJwH 01 HiwJIt-tJl11I~ by SAI-ITl BKlUIJ SAsnJ. I. 1932. XXXVI . 163-204). 67146. long. incessantly repeated and never concluding. 137. 323-7 . such as the five theses of Mahiideva (KOIMVOllhu. 43. Paris. II. We ~ to lhe admirable aaivily or lhe Viivabhirali I rec:onJIntClion or the Sarukril tell or tbe oripnal book : JilaNJpr(IJtluJttaJ4istro. pp. La C OfttrD.D.76. 5. books" curiously entitled $at!p6diihhidhoTfM "Abh. AbhidhormalcDJa. 011 tM Ablrid!tamuJ Litrr"tvrr D/thr $tJryQstiwlditu. Sarrtgiriparydya. 1930. if some of them had already been fonnulated at the time of Moka. Unossier.

the Sarvistivadins and Sautrantikas renounced the pious fiction which assumed that the Buddha was the author of their Abhidharma. T 1538) in eight rr rr cr. 24. tlieso attributions are often contradicted by the Chinese translations : i: 2. in various places and for different people. 1546. p. inserted at the end of the 24th scroll of the Chinese translation of the Jiiiinaprcuthiina by Saqtghadeva and Dbannapriya (T 1543.T 1541 and 1542. etc. 2. ch. considered those seven books as discourses uttered by the Master himself at different times..Subsequently. ProjiflJpli$IiJlro by Maudgalyiyana .000.tpada given above : "The Anagrantho ("" JiitinoprtlJlluJna) is merely the body (Jorira). the Viblul¢ rrequently quotes the Anograntho : T 1545. compiled 1543.T 1539 by Devak~a . the third Pida (Praftiapliidslra. 1544). .aa . I. attributing each of them to a particular author.000 syllables in aU". In the Chinese translations some information is found on the history of these texts which we reproduce here in chronological order : a. 700) carried oul in 404-405. confirms the explanation of the term ~ac. 4b 3. and who wanted to uplain the words or the Buddha. p. even while considering them as authorized interpreters of the word of the Master. b. a 'century aner the decease of the Buddha). according to 8u-ston (I.D. ch . in ract. DhdnJcii)'a by Piin. we read the following explanations. 1547J or them ror men in ages to come who would not be able to undcntand rully the A1{agranlho (and.T 1538. Sotrtgftiparyii)'Q by Mabika~~hila _ T 1S36 by Sariputra. 4. YijtJdk4yo by Devaiarman .0J6stra by Kityiyaniputra.T 1540 by Vuumitra. However. 6. 5. A colophon dated 379 A. DIwrnuuJc. whose names they give. Apart from the Vaibh~ikas of Kasmir who. The 6nt chapter (entitled Stv!1yuklagranlha] the JifdMpr41th4nD deals with the Jaukikiigradharnw . With a sincerity which could be found nowhere else. 887a). who wu wise. ProkDTQJJopddD by Vasumitra .Some people say : In the Sa4pidibhidharma. pp. JiWnapriislluuw by Kityiyana _ T 1543 Abhidhorrru4rograntho by Kityayana _ T 1544 AbhidhDrnwjtJ4llDprastMn. p. . 3. there are also six feel (pdda) of 1. they acknowledged that the books in question had been compiled at various dates by different authors. a brahmin monk named Kityiyana. his disciples made some Vibhifis 1545. had sharp raculties and could recite in rull the Three Baskets. 49-50). 7. the internal and external texU.J . ch . which are interesting but difficult to interpret : " (After the development or the sects which occurred.(103-204 ) THE A8H1DHARMAPITAKA 185 another order. In a note by KumiiraJlva added to the translation of the Upadda 204 (T lS09.lJIIdJw by Sariputra _ T 1S31 by Maudgalyiyana.

60.. Paramirtha writes : " In the five hundred years ancr the Nirvil)a of the Buddha. 204-5). The Vib~a (1545. when Kityiyaniputra took up the homeless life.. Convenely the SarYutivadin school. Secles. 449c 21).idhannal are the work of the UpadeSiciryas". According to the Vinaya of this school (T 1435..as the Theravadins claim .but simply in Sriivasti that the Buddha initiated the Abhidhanna teaching with an unpretentious discourse on the "Five Fears" etc. explained and expounded the Abhidhanna by means of various theoretal accounts. T 1541.. professed that there was nothing superior to the Abhidharma . 205 The information collected until now enables us to discern the basic attitude of the Sarvastivadins towards the Abhidharma. In his commentary on the Trearise of Vaswnirra (cr. p. there was an Arhat named Kityiyaniputra who had taken up the homeless life in the sect of the Sarvistividins. 2.. Paramartha returns to the same Katyayaniputra. a kingdom situated lu the north-west of India. he went to Kaimir. the Arya- . when he was in this world. in different places. The Upadesa (T 1509. 69c) is of the same opinion . he compiled the Abhidhanna of the Sarvistividin school and composed the A~!agrantha" .aprojifopu) : this is the third pan of the Lu (an ching (1) in Sill parts : it is the work of Maudgalyiyana. p. There. . p . it was not in the Trayastrif!lSa heaven . c. eh. two separate schools were formed : that of the Sihaviras and that of the SarYistividins . Indian by origin.tpida.The other five Pidas [from the ~~pidibh. the firs' Pid. IPrakDr~. in the company of five hundred Arhats and five hundred Bodhisattvas. the other four are the work of the Arhats of Kaimir. .186 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 204-205) chapters is named Fin pkh shih ell 'u fin (Lok. the details of which have been preserved in the Angut!ara (III. p. pp. The Sthavira school propagated the sutras only . 53-4). The Sarvastivadin Katyiyaniputra should not be confused with Katyiyana the Elder. DEMtEvlLLE. Either after the NirY8~a or when the Bhagaval was still in this world. pp. It was from the time of Kityiyaniputra that it greatly esteemed the Abhidhanna". eh. d .In the ~I.. I) reconciles the basic tenets and the tradition by stating that the Buddha was the author of the }iiQnapraslhiina and Katyiyaniputr8 edited it : "The Bhagavat.. to whom we will return shortly. I. 189a). ch. 1542) consists of eight chapters : four are the work or the Bodhisattva Vasumitra. but this time dating him at the beginning of the three hundred years after the Nirvana : "At the beginning of the three hundred years. In his Life of Vasubandhu (T 2049.

that Arya. Then. 4. e. . by means of knowledge born of aspiration (prtll)idhijilima). Hslian tsang records some geographical details concerning the place where some of these books were composed : the Vijfiananakiiya was published by DevaSarman in ViSoka near Srivasti (T 2087. 21e) according to which the Venerable one composed his Jiiiinoprasthano when he was residing " in the East" : the . Thus. p. compiled and assembled (those accounts]. Whether the Buddha uttered [the Abhidharma). he inserted summarizing stanzas. 898c). In approximately 650. finally . after the disappearance of the Bhagavat. composed that Treatise in order that the Good Law would remain in the world for a long time". compiled and composed the JiianaprasfMna with the aid of prtll)idhijilOna. but without citing his references : "Siriputra compiled the Porydyapiidaidsfro (T 1536). The Abhidharma was originally the word of the Buddha. but it is also a compilation by the Arya Kityiyaruputra. when and by whom the Jfiiinapraslhdno and its six "feet".At the beginning or the three bundred years. ch. ch . the PrakoratJ4pdda. Sb). whether he knew the Abhidharma through tradition or whether he discovered it by means of prtll)itihijiiOna. were: .( 20S. This is what Hslian tsang and his disciples undertook to find out. Therefore. Kityayaniputra compiled the Jliiinapra. ch. by Vasumitra at a stiipa in Pu~karivati (Ibid. at the end or the three hundred years. 1544)". . 5. p. 1542) and he also compiled the Dhatukdyapiidajdstro (T 1540)..2Q6 ) THE ABHIDHARMAPITAKA 187 disciples.Ui. p. 5.sthiitta. I. One might wonder where.. Therefore..mentioned treatises were composed when the Buddha was still in this world.stra (T 1543. the Jnanaprasthiina was compiled three hundred years after the Nirvat). P'u kuang. a Sarvistivadin monastery in the district of Onabhukti in the Nonh-West (Ibid.skandhapQdajdsua (T 1537): Mahikityiyana compiled the ProjiloptipadaSdstra (f 1538) : those three above-. p. he established the doors of a book (viikyadv6ra) . ch. for all the Buddhas want the bhik~us to bear in mind (the AbhidharmaJ. 8810) . Vasumitra compiled the PraJuutll)(lpiidawtra (T 1541 . p. and arranged them into sections. ch. or whether the disciple uttered it.In the fint century whicb followed tbe Buddha's Nirvir)a. Kityiyanipulra also. Deva~ma compiled the Vijildnakdyopada.Jd206 sua (T 1539). Mahimaudgalyiyana compiled the Dharma.a by Katyayana at the Tamasavanavi· hira. that docs not violate the rule (dharmofti). This is in contradiction with the Vib~ii (T 1545. he made various chapters to which he gave the name of Sk.. Among those theoretical accounts of the Bhagavat. supplies some interesting facts. 2. in his Commentary upon the Koso (T 1821 .andhaka . 889c). even while acknowledging the "inspired" nature of the Abhidharma treatises. literary criticism keeps an open mind. compiled.

188 THE MAGAOHAN PERIOD ( 206-207) proof of which is that. it was used. . The other four books are more technical and strongly influenced by the particular views of the Sarvistividin school . and it is understandable that the exegesis should attribute them to contemporaries of the Buddha : Siriputra. Itivuttaka. but also from the NettipakarOl)a. of which there are several specimens in the ·Agamas. However. it is an adherent of differentiation with regard to the existence of the three time-periods . we also possess other Abhidharma treatises which seem to have enjoyed canonical authority. Ariguttara. Maffhima . 30. Udiino. it refutes the doctrine of a certain Mu lien (perhaps the Moggaliputta Tissa of the Pili chronicle. The VijiJiinakiiya by DevaSannan is a polemical work somewhat resembling the Kathiivauhu. In its present fonn it is not especially old since it contains numerous quotations not only from the Vinaya and Suuapi~ka (Digha .and Therigiithii. The text is obscure and presents insurmountable difficulties. Jiitaka).iinaprasthiina displays considerable progress in the method of systematization: it is this last work that the Arhats of Kasmir applied themselves to comment upon in their Vibhdiii. the Dharmaskandha is a collection of Sulcas promulgated at the Jetavana in Sravasti and rapidly commented upon by quotations from other sUlcas. Thera. In the two books attributed to him. it contests the belief in a 207 Pudgala. Dhammapado. 114 sq.ists in a complete state in the Tibetan version.ro of Pili scholastidsm. No. In brief. ch . the Pali Text Society published the complete text of a Pe{akopadesa "Teaching on the Pi~ka(s)" in eight chapters. the first three books are still very close to the summarizing Siitras. Mahikityiyana. Nevertheless.) and the Li shih a p 'i (an Jun (T 1644) which also has the characteristics of a Sutca. the Prajiioptiiiistra. 918c). Sultanipiita. Unlike the lauer. A scrutiny of the Seven Books leads to identical conclusions : The Satpgitiparyaya is a somewhat aberrant recension of the Satpgilisuttanta in the Dfgha. the J. I. p. Stl1!1yutta. Finally. like the Kathdvarrhu and using the same arguments. Alongside the great Abbhidhannas of the Theravidins and Sarvistividins. closely resembles the cosmological Sulra in the Dirghiigama T I. in that treatise (T 1544. Ka~!hila or PU~a . 3. p. he quotes the five rivers which are known in the East . Maudgalyiyana. Vasumitra represents the point of view of ~he "Old Abhidharmikas" of the Sarvistivadin school : his DJuituJciiya deals with the same questions as the DhiitukathiJpakarOl. In 1949.. of which T 1538 is only a partial translation but which ex. who championed the Vibhajyavida at the council of Pi!aliputra) and it asserts the existence of the past and the future.

( 207-208) TIlE ABHIDHARMAPfTAKA 189 seemingly as a canonical authority. Certain accounts of the first council were not ignorant of the part played by Mahikityiyana with respect to the Abhidhanna : the Narrative of the Compilalion of the Tripi[aka (T 2026. in their commentary upon the Treatise of the Sects by Vasumitra (DEMltvILU. and this attribution is confinned by the Gandhavmrua (p. that is conventional truth (SDI!f. the missionary from Avanti. Mahikityiyana had composed a iist"' in order to explain the Apma-sutras of the Buddha. pp. it is in use in Southern India". b. KumiraJiva speaks in tum of the brahmin Kityiyana. p.. Sectes. they fonned a separate school known as that of the Prajdaptivadins". "Box-collectioo" in the Ch'in language. saying : 'This was uttered by the Buddba as a nominaJ concept (prajflapll). I. There is no reason why we should not see in this text a distant echo of the Abhidhannic work carried out in Ujjayini by the Buddha's great disciple Mahikityiyana. who was a contemporary of the Buddha and had no connection with the Sarvistividin Kityiyaniputra of the third century after the Nirvil)a. The work itself claims to be written by the Thera Mahikac:c:ayana when living at the Jambuvana. Paramirtha and. 114). Concerning the latter he notes : " Mahikityiyana. c. attribute a dual role to Mahikityiyanil : that of a sastra author and initiator of a Buddhist subsect : " At the time wben the Buddha was in this world. that is tbe real teaching of the Buddba . tbat is causality'. Ouring tbe two hundred yean that followed the Nirval)a. 3c 12) and the Fin pieh kung te fWl (T IS07. the following evidence can be assembled : a. Up 10 tbis day. 49-50). the author of the 208 Anagranlha (p. 700 I(). Regarding this Kityayana. In a note added to his translation of the Upatki a (T 1509). 12). by Buddhaghosa in his Atthasiifini (p. explained the words of the Buddha and compiled a Pi Ii (Pe~ka). WARREN. then of MahiUtyiyana (p. . reached Magadba country and en~red the Mahbirpgbika school. ch. this is absolute truth (paramdrr/tasatya). 59) and the Bunncse Buddhists who incorporated the Pe[akopatksa in their Khuddakanikiya .!"ttuJtya) . 165) and Visuddhimagga (ed . p. there wue tbose who accepted his teachings with faith . his pupil Chi tsang. 700 20-3). where he drew up distinctions concerning the holy teaching of the Tripitaka. 32a 19) know that Kityiyana selccted the gist of the word of the Master and presented his work to the Buddha who approved it and adorned it with the title of Supreme Doctrine (Abhidhanna). when the Buddha was alive. Within 1be Mahisirpghika school. be emerged from Lake Anavatapta. p.

rabhidharma to which KumiraJiva and Pararniirtha refer is indeed the T 1548 which we " The conncdion between Siriputra aDd the Abhldharma bls been studied by Dr. MU!OON. DEFEO. Rahula. four more schools emerged from the Viitsipulriya school: the Dhannottariyas. XLVI. the Vilsiputriya monks recited that work: until today. 70a). 187-8). which consists of five . MIOOT in hit wo rk on Uff BrtUlddisciplt du 1JtuJdIw : SmipuirQ. pp. The work is divided into four parts: Saprasnaka. XLIV. pp. Paramartha. S.wtJJ. K. transmitted the Abhidhanna to the Arhat Vatsyaputra. Kumarajiva. Samrpjtiya and ~~4as or ~~~iiga­ tikas.ioll' Ittempted to determine from which sect this Abhidhanna originates : lhe Andbakl or Hlimavlta 5Cd (RtcMrchel JJU' I'A bltidhanno lit S. LXIII. 3. o r finally .alistes. p. 69·95). 11M Prlil JljhinJ~ rI lnus AbhidJuumapi. p. 10). in his commentary upon the Treatise of Varumitra (DEMlMLLE. provides further infonnation : "Siriputra had explained the Buddha's Abhidhanna in nine parts. the MlhbiJrlghikl school (UI $«Itl b. titles which recall the first four chapters of the Haimavata Abhidharma (T 1463. pp. that is what is called the Abhidbarma of the Features of the Law (dharmalalqalJObhi· dJuumo). Ohannaguptaka 5Cd (UI ori. 8hadrayi-:tiyas. after thm: hundred yean. Sal!lyukta-Saf!lgraha and Nidina. pp. 1922) has shown that lhc Sdri/Nlrdbhidharmtt describes doctrines whicb Ire very close 10 those of the Pili Ahbi· dhamma (particularly tbe JlibMttta and the PwualapaifAolI. Actcs du XIX' Cooates des Orimt.stras in order to complete Siiriputra's Abhidhanna wherever it was inadequate". 1954. in his translation of the Upadeja (T 1509. Sectes. Dissatisfied with Soiriputra's Abhidhanna which they found incomplete. since neither the Theravadins nor the Sarvastivadins consider Mahikatyayana the Elder as authoritative at all. BAAEAtJ has on several ooca. LX·LXII) and T. says: "When the Buddha was in this world. 57-8). 2. 1951. It might be wondered whether in the Siiripu. Sariputra's disciple. 1950. Independent researcb by both L. The Saripulrabhidhormaiiistra (T 1548)'2 was translated into Chinese between 401 and 415 by Dhannagupta and DhannaY3ias. due 10 doctrinal affinities. DE LA VALW PoussiN (Introduction to the Kola. 1955.A (RtCMrCMJ lVr f'AbllUilllUmG .190 THE MAGAOHAN PERIOD (208·209) One thing appears to be certain: the present Abhidharmic tradition is independent.) Ind supports tbe theses wtUeb the Jlib~ and !be KoJa a ttribute 10 the VibhajYlvidillJ. that is what is called tbe SiiripufrdbMdharmo" .aka. ~riputra made the Abhidhanna in order 10 explain tbe words of the Buddha. and the latter's disciples formed the Vitsiputriya school. they each composed S3. p. . Tokyo. DEFEO. A. 818a 289). Later.. 4OS-54.. 209 Aprasnaka..ws d. Then. p. 4. A. ch. the latter being Kasmirian. ch.

p. insofar as they had an Abhidhanna. in fact. T 1649) claim as authoritative . whoever the authors of the Abhidhanna may have been. CoNCLUSIONS. Finally. Maudgalyayana and Mahakau~!hi la . claimed that its Abhidhamma originated from revelations disclosed by the Buddha to Siriputra while teaching in the Triyastrif!1Sa heaven. result from the KaSmirian elucubrations of the fourth century (KumiraJiva. Paramartha) should not be overestimated. which was examined earlier. However. The Prajfiaptividins. Despite their supposed canonicity. particularly the Vibhanga. It is the same for the Vitsiputriya-SaJ1lmatiyas who claim the existence of a Siiriputriibhidharma in 9 sections. They therefore have every right to present their Abhidhanna as the Word of the Buddha. they reveal themselves as strictly faithful interpreters of the "Meaning of the Sutras" : at the most they limited themselves to completing it on certains points of detail without in the least compromising the doctrinal integrity of Sikyamuni's message. ) 5. The latter. the Sarvistividins appeal to the authority of three immediate disciples of the Buddha : Sariputra. .it shows itself to be a detennined adept of Anatman (T ) 548. in part. The tradition examined here and which. 626< 2-4). The Law which was discovered and expounded by the Buddha is immutable: "Whether or not the Tathigatas appear in the world. The Sinhalese Theravidins claim they can go back to Sariputra alone through a long lineage of obscure Abhidhannakas who are listed in the Atthasiilini (p. but do not hide the fact that their great master was the famous Kityayaniputra or'the third century after the Nirval)a.( 209-210) ruE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE GOOD LAW ) 9) possess. the Abhidhannas are the works of schools and it is only through contrivance that they are connected with the Buddha and disciples contemporary with him. Furthennore. no work in the Sanskrit Abhidhanna comes closer to the Pili Abhidhamma. consider as authoritative a Pe!akopadesa compiled in Avanti by Mahikityiyana. consists of four parts and not nine and. ch. 32). far from adopting the thesis of the existence of an indescribable Pudgala a thesis which the Vatsiputriya-SaJ1lmatiya sects (cr. - 210 3. the .The Disappearance of the Good Law· The section devoted to the canonical writings has its indispensible complement in a notice relative to the data and circumstances of the disappearance of the Good Law (saddharmavipralopa). T 1548 cites Sariputra as its authority just as the Sinhalese tradition. In fact.

102-8.a{!hiliJcQJ'{t Ananda brahmacariyQJ'{t abha~issa . all elevations in downfall. Dates of the Disappearance The disappearance of the Good Law is fixed at the most various dates. but the ingenuity of the ancient exegetists attempted to reconcile them by differentiating between three kinds of Law : the Good Law proper (saddharma. life ends in death" (Djvya. I. but. the whole of the pratiriipako and the whole of the paicimo". such as the Mahiiyiiniibhisamaya (T 673.500th anniversary of the Buddha have not yet been silenced. p. the earth with its mountains and forests will rise up into the skies. as far as possible. the oceans will dry up. However. . to define. This differentiation. Predictions concerning the disappearance of the Good Law wert formulated from the earliest times and repeated throughout the centuries. Therefore it is not without reason that the Buddhist chronicles devote entire chapters to the question (cf. 268. cheng la).192 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 210-211 ) nature of the Dharma. the subsistence of the Dharma remains stable" (S~yu tla. Yato ca kho AfUlIIda mOtl/gamo tathiigatappa- . 2S. the counterfeit Law (pratiriipakadharma . is wellknown to the siitras of the Mahayana. vassasahasstvrf saddhammo ti(!h~ya. II.. 65lc 12-13) : "The Tathagata appears and descends from the Tu~ita heaven in order to support the whole of the saddharma.The early canonical doctrine is contained in two texts which are often quoted : a. They have exerted a decisive influence on the history of Buddhism. it also relates to conventionality (Sa!!IYfll) and as such is subject to the universal principle of decline : "All accumulations culminate in destruction. mo fa) . hsiang la) and the final Law (paicimadhorma . 27. pp. the Law does not exist only in the absolute (paramiirtha) . ch . etc. which was particularly exploited by the Chinese authors. 2. It is also well known that "the sky will fall with the moon and stars. 272). pp. 171-80). p. but the great Sages say nothing false" (D. 100. unions end in separation.). p. With regard to this threefold Dhanna. practised and professed by mankind. 211 The echoes which were recently awakened by the celebration of the 2."yo. 486). Studied. c. Bu-ston. The present notes do not claim to exhaust a particularly complicated subject. Sau Ananda ndlahhwa mOll/gamo talhtigalappa~~diu tIIwmma~inay~ agii- rllSmO /JIIagiiriy~ pabbajjQJ'{t. II. the periods covered by an eminently fluid tradition. these are the various dates of disappearance proposed by the sources : Year 500.

6-8 .s. b. Gu!~avj. 419b 25-6) : No talla KlIDapo . 121. ch. T 99. Dharmaguplaka Yin . 278) . ch. .000 years . the SaTflgha. giving (dana) . Chung pin eh 'j ehing (T 196. the Ohanna. 224 (d. However. 818e 4) specifies that during thai period.(211 -212) THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE GOOD LAW 193 udite dnammaviMye agQr41mO anagtiriYaI!f pabbaji to . 3. Sivrryulto . p. but since Ihey were admitted into it. Asubhalc. (T 1421 . this holy religion would have lasted for a long time. women had not been admitted into the Order. 22&. would have lasted for 1. p. That is what is meant by Pratinipaka.56) . it is accepted that. ch.iili Yin. in his S~YIlItQ COmfPU'nlary (II. ch. 607b 9).sapa . 1860 14). The same text explains that the counterfeit of the Good Law can be attributed to a lack of respect in the community towards the Master. 28. Sec also the Upatksa (T 1509. 201). and scriptural information (paryiipu) by proposing a series of texts as antitheses to the authentic compilation. Anando braltmacori}'aJ?1 cira{!lIitikaJ?1 bJwIlWoti. p. ch. No. 32. p . (T 1428. p. na dan. the Dharma does not entirely disappear. p. 212 MahiiiiJaka Yin . Yalo ca kho Ka.dJuJnuruusa Q1Ilor~ hOli yallQ no saddhanunapa(irUpakClJ!l folet uppojjali. Which in substance means : If. The Mdtrkii of the Haimavatas (T 1463. but that there will subsist a counterfeit of the Saddharma . erudition (bahufrllta) and. specifics that this counterfeit affects both the effIcacity (adhigama) of the Good law by vitiating insight and k. II . 2. 6. observance of the pre· ceplS (siladhara). p. p. Dhalukalhd. p. is dominated in tum by deliverance (vUnokfa). No.sad. Nd1)al'allhukalM. for example. ch. the Law. 2. 6naUy. century to century. p. That is the calculation as represented by the 'last majority of the canonical and post-canonical sources : siitf3s. ch. if the Saddharma perishes after SOO years. GaulamisUlra (T 60.ur as long as a counterfeit of the Good Law has not appeared in the world . T 100. 857c 29). p. p. ch. Ananda. paik ' evo dan. mental practice and concentration. Anguttara (IV. 48.adambaka.a(hQ. (II . 680 16). this holy religion will not last long : the Saddharma will last for SOO years. I S9b 8). p. 906.saddhQft1J7f4po(irwpoIcClJ!l fokt uppajjati Olha saddJuunmauQ anlara~ hoti. It is when the counterfeit of the Good Law appears in the world that the Good Law will disappear". concentration (sama4J/I). 923c 9). Araml7IllIJalcathd. VijjQk. Buddhaghosa. 29. 2.nowledge (vipaiyaniijniina) of the truths. P. "The disappearance of the Good Law will not ou. vinayas and lives of the Buddha : Madhytunagama (T 26. Anonda lItUSQSOIOni saddJwmmo (luwali.

39. 183. p.a (T 1509. there is only a solidity of tbe pu::oepts (1IIa). p. It is also the opinion of Nagarjuna in his MadhyamakaiiJstra (T 1564. pp.194 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 212-213) naya. KiilyapasOl!1gitisiitra (T 2027. p. 88. T 2042. 9180) shows there is nothing 213 mysterious about it. Arter having quoted the canonical text which attributes to the Saddharma a duration of 500 years. p. a short Mahayanist Mahaparinirviil)a (T 390. ch . p. why did the Buddha speak of (500 years)? The Buddha spoke in this way with the hidden implication (JmruJluiya) of the solidity of deliverance (vinwlqa) {ensured for the first 500 years). ch. Alava/cagajjita and Vetu/Japi!aka. The Kosa (VIII. It is obviously on this basis that a great many sources attribute to the Law a duration of 1. Year 1. . That means that. during the next 500 years. if be bad not authorized women to take up the homeless life. p. p. That is no reason to compare this simple mathematical calculation with Western dreams of the millennium .• (T 1451. It is explained that this figure refers to the adhigama [practice of the Good Law ensuring deliverance].IapratiirabdiJi (T 1493. 25. then the duration of the Saddhanna would have been reduced to 500 years.By attributing to the Pratiriipaka the same duration as the Saddharma. 21a 25) and the Kormavara'. ch. Now. The Vibh~ii (T 1545. p. Vin . AngufjmdJapi!aka~ RaUhapiilagajjilo. p. l 77b 23.000 years". 1112-3) strives to specify the predominant characteristic of each of the ten . I b 29) and his Up"". ch. the solidity of deliverance would have extended over 1. if he had authorized women to take up the homeless life without making them observe the eight gurudharma.Other masters say : The Buddha speaks {of 500 years] while taking into account the non-observance of the eight strict rules (gwrudharma) [by the nuns]. but that the agama [instructing of the Law) lasts for longer" .000 years. the duration of the Saddhanna reverts to 1.000. 405a 7). 2a 16). 68lb 6). 6a 7). if the Saddbarma in fact lasts for more than 1. The BhadrakalpikasUtra (T 425. elc. Which means that. ch. But now tbat the Buddha has imposed on tbern the practice of the eight gurudharma. G"ufhavessantara. 10940 17) specify that the Saddhanna and the Pratiriipaka each last for 500 years. the disappearance of the Good Law can be established in the year 1.000 years: Siitra of the Narrative of the Compilation of the Tripi!ik. I.000. MiiJasarv. 220) remarks more briefly : "The Saddhanna lasts for 1. p . 3. . p.000 years. but no longer a solidity of deliverance. Finally. ugend of Asoka (T 99. VOlJlJopi!aka. 126b 26). 6. ch .a (T 2026. erudition (jruta). it asks the following question: "However. ch.000 years after the NirvaQa.. All that is to be blamed upon having autborized women to take up the homeless life.

right conduct (samyakcarita). . p. 10. The Saddhanna lasts for 500 years and the Pratiriipaka for 1. 55. . the bhik~us Maudgalyayana and Pu~panetra . noting in its passage some famous scholar and some important event : in the first century.h for gain and honours (/iibhasatkiira) 8. according to the KalWJiipun~rikasiitra. 103.500 years". ch. tranquillity (Jamatha) . 5. 7. lSa 18). in the seventh. Year 2. 1013b-c).000.000 years and the Pratiriipaka for 500. restlessness (auddhatya) .178). the seaf'(. renunciation (vairiigya) . p. ch. the bhi~su S1Jananda . p. disappearance of the external signs (JiJiga) of adherence to the doctrine. the death in KauSimbi of the last Arhat and the last TripiJaka master. p.). 9. a text pertaining to the Mahayana (T 157. The date of the last two disappearances is not specified. the teaching of the Law (dharmatksan6). 13Q-4) points out three ways in which the Law disappears : disappearance of the acquisition of the degrees of holiness (adhigama) which occurs 500 years after the NirvalJ-a. in the fourth. The Saddhanna lasts for 1.500. but his pupil Chi tsang (549·623). This is also the opinion of Paramartha (500-569 A. 4. 5. Gomukha . ch. but because he authorized women to take up the homeless life. 7. ch. I. The Milindopaiiha (pp.( 213-214) THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE GOOD LAW 195 214 centuries constituting the duration of the Law : I. the 96 kinds of heretics destroy the Law of the Buddha. but the Saddhanna comes to an end. 56. Year 1.500. a. but we may suppose that they are also spaced at an interval of 500 years. 379c 5 and 9) and the Mahiimtiyiisiitra (T 383. the duration of the Saddhanna was reduced drastically by 500 years and in fact numbers only 1. 2. the year 2. the noble doctrine (iiryadharma). idle discoursing (prapanca) . disappearance of the observance of the precepts (pa!ipattl) and. which would result in fixing the complete disappearance of the doctrine in 1. 2700 3-4). T 158. the meaning of the Law (dharmiirtha).D. finally. Ratnadeva. b. .Certain sources refuse to concede that the Saddharma and Pratiriipaka have an identical duration. Nigirjuna . . from whom we have this infonnation (T 1824. according to the MahiisOJ'!lnipalasiitra (T 397. five patriarchs from Kisyapa 10 Upagupta. ch. p.000.According to 8u-ston (II. 6. in the fifth . in the third. in the eighth. but they are overwhelmed by Asvagh~. 211b 26-9. and the reign of ASoka : in the second.500. The latter text makes a survey of the fifteen centuries of the Law's duration. perverse quarrels (vjviido). observes that it is rather a generally admitted date' : "The Law of the Buddha was originally due to last for 2.000 years.000 would be the date fixed by the CandrogarbhasUtro for the destruction of the Law. 3. 2. Year 2. pp. in the sixth.A passage in the Mahds(ll!Jnipiitasiitra (T 397. ch.

p. a predominance of the acquisition of holiness (adhigama) . p.icimiiyiitr/ paiicaSolymr saddharmavipralope vurtomtlne : " When the Tathagata has entered complete Nirva~a. in the second. they will 21 5 be strong in meditation (samdd/Ji . erudition (jruta). the text of the Samanta. Buddhaghosa and his school fixed the disappearance of the Law in the year 5. Year 5. The Samanlapiisiidikii explains that during the first millennium Buddhists can have access to analytical knowledge of the truths (pralisatrvid) which brings about Buddhahood and to the four fruits of the religious life. dhyono) . I. 30). finally. when the Good Law is in ruins". 6.fruIO) . 37c 29). pp. in the third. there is access only to the four fruits. 27) and Samantapiisiidikii (I.In Ceylon. aniigiimin .D . 5. in the fifth. in the fifth . 1291) or the Chinese one (T 1462. in the fifth . 363a·b) maintains that the Good Law disappears after S periods of 5 centuries : in the first the J:>hiqus and others will be strong in deliberation (i. 796c) : .196 THE MAGAOHAN PERIOD ( 214-215) p. to two. ch. Chi tsang (T 1824. p. Year 3. foolishness (moha) : which makes 3. in Scriptures (. quarrels (villiida).). 282 (cr. . 38). in quarrels and reproaches. since it is then that the 5 ka. ch . in the first period of SOO years. concentration (sanuidh. the state of Arhat. in the second. 234a) explains : "It is well known (prasiddha) that the teaching of the Bhagavat lasts 5 times 500 years. Allhasiilini(p. during the final period of 500 years.000. in the fourth . namely. 180 23-6) introduces an interesting variant : "The Ta chi ching distinguishes between six successive predominances (siirat5) [in the history of the Good Law) : I.000 years in all" . and the white Law will become invisible. Sumailgalaviliisini(I . 4.. The Tibetan commentary upon the Vajracchedikii (Mdo . that is why the text explains : during the final period of 500 years. During the second millennium.e. fol . In cenain siitras of the Mahayana such as the Vajracchedikii (ed. T 262. in the firth century A. p. p.000. 30-1) and the SaddharmapulJtjarika. in the fourth .000.. to the fruit of srotaiipanno alone. That is the figure adopted by the Pili chronicles and commentaries such as the MahavQJ!lSa (III. will acquire satyiibhisamaya) . we find the stereotyped fannula : Tathdgatosya porinirvftasya paScime kale samaye pa. 18. stiipas and vihiras . ch. CoNZE. sakrdiigiimin and srotanpanna. to three.Referring to the passage from the Mahiismrmipiita quoted above. . in decreasing order of value. p. in the sixth. in the third. 2. However.aya develop". p. in the foundation of monasteries . varies depending on whether it is the Pili recension (VI. in the third. XVI. 5. 25). J . in the fourth. at the end of time in the final period.

IS. Repeated over the ages by various Sinhalese works such as the Anagatal'mrua.000 years the law of the Buddha will disappear en· tirely? No. has disappeared.(2 16-211) 216 THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE GOOD LAW 197 Pili recension The tell of the Vinaya speaks of a thousand years in relation to those who have destroyed the impurities thanks to analytical knowledge (PO. religious signs (nimitta) and. one becomes an Arhat having destroyed Ihirst (trp'"ilq aya). A further thousand years in relation to anogdmin. After those 10. tbere are only people who shave their headJ and wear the religious kcltdya robe.From the sixth century onwards. knowledge of the holy texts (pariyaw). not entirely.000. In tbe following millennium. one will no longer acoede 10 the Path. the external signs (of adh. one becomes an muigdmill. 81) describes the gradual impoverishment of the Doctrine in five successive millennia which in tum entails the disappearance of the degrees of holiness (adhigama). e. 786c 4-6). one becomes a Sl'otiiapanna.000 years. of the hsitulg fa (pratiriipaka) and finally of the mo fa (paicimadJuuma). etc. vid)'5) lof the Buddhas and Arhats). Another thousand years in relation to saJcddiigamill.samhhido). COED£S. . No. 771) were of the opinion that the disappearance of the Law occurs in " Three Degrees" (san chieh) : disappearance of the ching fa (saddJuuma). Nevertheless... . but one no longer possesses the triple knowledge. the observance of the precepts (pa!ipatll). Hence.paJSaka). the Saddhamma as a comprehension of the truths (pa!indha) will last for 5. It is the same for the Dhanna as knowledge of tbe boly te~ts (pariyalt/). Huai kan (613-681) and Liang p 'i (717.'t. there are a further five millennia. During that millennium'l one obtains the triple knowledge (fray. Another commentary Buddhaghosa. in the four· teenth century this prophetic vision inspired K ing Lut'ai of Siam to compose an inscription to commemorate lhe installation of a relic at Sukhodaya as well as the planting of a bodhil'[/qa sapling7l .. practise as one may. pa!ivt dJw necessarily exists. 217 Year 11 . otosmc. of the relics (dhillU) .000 years... Since without pariyaui there is no pa!indha .500 or 12. In the following millennium. 1956. Saddhamoratniikara. but in the last five. Chinese recension Is it Irue that after 1.. during the [first) five millennia. the Saddhanna lasts for 500 years. . the texts and literature disappear . In the following millennium. the ManorathapiirlUJi (I. one becomes a saler:diigdmill .. u 2JO& Atlllil'efMl. Finally. one acoedes to the Path . cr. /JowIdIIo. the majority of the C hinese annalists such as Hui ssu (515-511). 1-16. even when pariyall. p. Then follows a thousand years in relation to those: who have destroyed the impurities as being dryvisioned (nJckhov.. another thousand yean in relation to sotdpanM .. Hence. Aftawards. Saratthasaiigaha.: to the doctrine] (lingo) will continue: for a long time more. p. but if there is pariy atti. In the following millennium. G.. finally . Chi tsang (549-623). For Hui ssu (T 1933. p.

tbe other two will not. Pampered by the pious laity. residence in Kausambi was never favourable to the destinies of the order.000 : in all 11. he will overcome the five Indias.000 years.000. The two irreligious kinp will be born amoni fom. Havins formed an alliance. p. to an inscription engraved on a Jelavanavihira in a foreign land. and the PaScima for 10. However. and the Buddha himself was unable to restore hannony. ch.000 years in all.nd humane. <.000 : 12. Mi Ii chi : Dasyumleccha) : lhey will be stupid and will hate and despise the Law of the Buddha. compassionate . the last representative of the Good Law in the conventional sense (smrrvr tisaddharma). and the PaScima for 10. The 218 most sober and best conceived version is found in the Yib~ti (f 1545. I. who refer.000. 7.198 THE MAGAOHAN PERIOD ( 217-218) the Pratiriipaka for 1. three kings will appear in Jambudvipa : one or them will be religious. Both will meet their death during a quarrel marking the celebration of a fin~1 uposatha ceremony. ch. p. The prediction concerning the disappearance of the Law is narrated in numerous texts. a schism had split the heart of the community. 2. external and internal. Thus the Good Law will disappear from the world and a new Buddha will have to be awahed to restart it.. the last representative of the Good Law in the absolute sense (paramarthascuJdharma). However. . 3. 9180 18-b 21) : "How will the Saddharma of the Tatbagata perish? When the Saddharma of the Tathigata is on the point of perishing. p. 1be religious kins will be born in the eastern region : majestic. A coalition of foreign kings will set India ablaze and cause bloodshed and will cruelly persecute the Buddttist religion : the monks will be massacred. For Chi tsaRg (T 1824. virtuous. the king of KauSimbi will triumph over the foreign kings and will make his kingdom the last refuge for the Buddha's disciples." slaves (Ta lui.500 years. Huai kan (T 1960. 183. S20e 10). the Saddhanna lasts for 1. and a single Tripi!8ka master. following two orders of events. the two kinp will come rrom the west and. Circumstances of the Disappearencc: A persisting tradition maintains that the Good Law disappears at the end of time. among other documents. 48c 7-8) and Liang p'i (T 1709. but with notable variants. He will welcome numerous Buddhist monks to his court and offer them the greatest hospitality. the Pratiriipaka for 1. monasteries destroyed and holy texts burnt. Already at the time of Sakyamuni . It will be the same at the end of time. ch. ISb 2-5).lnly a single Arhat will remain in their ranks. the monks will give themselves over to idleness and will no longer observe the rules of their order. ch. p.

you will lack nothing'. medicines and other commodities .la. lay disciples. confided the Law to two classes of disciples : I. the Saddhanna will be on the point of disappearing. at the time of his NirviJ. have not been generous to the rc:iigious or that we have len them in need. Others will say : 'When Sakyamuni was a Bodhisattva. during tbe night. During the day. However. in the town of Kauiimbi. 219 On that day. Neither scholar (bahuirula) nor regular practitioner (JiladJJara) will escape them. ruin stvr'glWriima and massacre the communities of bhik~us. he will say. the laity (grhastha) . Subsequently. There upon all bhik ~us in lambud· vipa will assemble in the kingdom of KauSambi. they will raise their anns to the sky and cry : 'The Buddha. they will prolong tbeir sleep. under the Buddhas of the past. monks. As soon as they learn that the Law is about to disappear. Fortunately. they will gather in order to discuss worldly matters (loIeadharmo). They will cause the greatest suffering to the faithful adherents of Buddhism. 'I invite you all'. 2. They will lack diligence in reciting the holy texts and will not seek solitude in order to meditate and reflect. will raise an anny and give battle to them. all those bhik~us will have taken up tbe homeless life in order to acquire advantages and ensure their subsistence. have not been of good conduct (samyaJccarita) that the Saddhanna will perish'. It cannot be said that the Law will perisb today because we. they will no longer follow the practices. will simultaneously construct five bundred somgluJramo. we have offered sustenance in abundance to the monks. the king will put al their disposal the manifold offerings (nanal'idilapijjD) of the quinquennial assembly (pailcal'arfa) . The troops of the good king. Everywhere they go. the Saddhanna perished either through lack of provisions. we have granted large amounts of necessities (pari!kdra) and offerings (PiijQ)'. in the whole of lambudvipa there will be only two (true] practitioners of the Law (dharmociirin) : the first will be an Arhat named Su la to (Surata). led by the king. we will do our duty ail together'. from the beginning to the end. Others will say : 'In accordance with the rules of bospitality. will finall y capture the two bad kings. Botb of them will be put to death. Since they will all neglect the true teaching of the Buddha. tbe second will be a Tripi~ka master named She shih chio (Si~yaka) or again Pan chu : he will be the head of tbe Sarpgha. tired and lazy. the world still contains countless fields of merit (pw:ryaJcfetra). from the appearance of the Saddhanna until its disappearance. five hundred pious bousebolders (g~hapatl). They will bum the holy texts and nothing will remain of them. will enter India and reach the eastern region. U ntil then. food. 'to assemble in my kingdom . each day. At the start of that day.<218·219) THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE GOOD LAw 199 pillaging as they go. learning that the Dasyumleccha are ravaging India and have reached the eastern region. tbe religious (pra~rajita). or as a result of . Othen will make the foll owing remark : 'As long as the Law of the Buddha has not disappeared. It is only because you. they will destroy stupas. the good king will send messengers to all the regions summoning all the Sikyaputriya sramal)as . At that time. he noticed that. 1 will give you plenty of Clothing. tbey will become excited and give confused cries. but if it disappean. Thus. Then the king of the eastern region. the world will contain only a limited number of fields of merit. for us the Law of the Buddha has not yet disappeared. They will be devoid of reasoning (I'itarka ) and reflection (upanidhyiina). bedding. sometimes retreating and sometimes advancing.

this prophecy was re-e<lited and enriched by new details which tended to put it in harmony with contemporary events. A loud voice will be heard in the air: •As from today. retained his affection for him and killed the Tripi!8ka master in a fit of anger. supplies abound and establishments prosper'. That is why. However. prostrating himself before the Tripi!aka master. to recite the Priitimoqa in public.yaka. the Arhat Surala will rise from his scat. the king. Law in the absolute sense (paramijrthasaddharma) wilI disappear. The Tripitaka master will accept. as the uposatha is being celebrated in the monastery. the great recluse. contests our master and does not accept 220 his teachingsr After that. has disappeared' ''. throw his cloak over one shoulder and. they will beat the Arhat Surata to death and from that time the Good. Why so? Because in the past the Buddha. It is therefore at that moment that the twofold Saddhanna of the paramijrtha and the sOI!f'l'!ti will vanish from the world. the Saddhanna of the Sakya. Si~yaka will answer : ' rfthere isla monk) in the assembly who i~Hapahle of oMerving all the preoc:pts in the Pratimok~ . According to others. the sky and the earth will grow dark. In the course or history. the Devas. with his hands joined. the great earth will quake and a shower of meteors will bum all the regions and sub-regions. Reviling the Arhat. they will say : 'Who is that bhik~u who. the disciples of the Tripi!aka master will become extremely angry. Immediately. Nagas and Yak~ who revere that Arhat will become extremely angry and in their tum will kill the Tripitaka master Si~yaka. In return for which.us when the Buddha was alive . The god Mara and his retinue will feel great joy. the Law will have disappeared for seven days without anyone knowing so. and its sound will be most awesome. I do nOI wish my law to perish for such reasons. Law in the conventional sense (SOI!f~!lisaddharnIQ) will disappear. a great white veil will unfurl. liked to cover the fawts of others and never revealed secrets kept by others. From that time the Good. learning that the Arhat had been put to death without being blameworthy. in front of the assembly. arter seven days. will say : ' I would like the Elder (sihovira) to recite: the Tripi!d:a in fuW. The Arhat will respond: 'I myself am capable of observing the fine details (prdntakorl) of the ruling (Jilqapada) observed by the bhilq. the Tibetan and Chinese translations have distorted the original proper names to such a degree that they are hardly recognizable. although the Law perishes today.200 THE MAGAOHAN PERIOD ( 219-220) famine . While the Arhat is speaking in that way. but will want to recite il in brier. but the: world will still not know tlulL the: Saddhllrma hItS already disappeared. many bhik. when he was a Bodhisattva. After seven days and seven nights have passed. if that is what you call being capable of observing [the Pritimok~l completely. the drum of the gods will begin to beat. the Tripi!aka master S:i. . Then the lcarmadDna will invite the head of the assembly. It was then that he expressed the following aspiration (prWJidhiillQ) : When I am a Buddha. Unrortunately. then 1 beg you to recite [the Tripifakaj in full'. That very nighl. However. In the air. let him invite me to recite it in full!' . each time the Buddhist order relt itselr to be threatened.us will be assembled. Others will say that it was the Arhat's disciples who killed the Tripi!aka master in revenge. In the air.

The Asokilvadmu:l (T 2042. 2028. 177. Another tkvoputro inhabits a fief in the nonhem region . This passage could be referring to the troubled history of the last two centuries B. 126c). in the MadhyadcSa of the South. In about the year 90.). ravage the lands. is scarcely more explicit : " In future generations three tkvaputro will emerge and ravage the continent : The first . Because of them. The prose translation of a sutra of the same title (T. 2. 6. the Yav~mas of Demetrius set out to conquer Gandhira. 25. between 180 and 169. p . 8c 24). Another tk'l'oputro is called CII '~n chill. 3. the Saddhanna will decline". When the Law of the Buddha is on the point of disappearing. penetrated central India and reached Pi~liputra . a few years later. three cruel kings will appear : the first named Shih chin (Saka). 221 p.C. lib 12). the Greek armies.: in approximately 189. 4. as in the Vibhiqil. the third named Po 10 joo (Pahlava).( 220-221 ) THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE GOOD LAW 201 I. the second named Y~n "'" no (yaYana). those three d~~oputro will leave their fiefs. the Pahlava Gondophares. he of the An lui (Parthian Arsacid empire) sited in the middle. destroy the Law of the Buddha". devotes a chapter to the destruction of the Law : " In times to come. The verse translation of the Preaiclion to Killyilyana (T 2029. he of Po 10 (Pahlava) situated to the rear. p. overthrew the ~ka Azes II and fixed his capital in Tuila. ch. at the beginning of the Christian era. They will persecute the people. carried out under the Sung between 420 and 479. p. records an invasion. but by three : "There were three bad kings : (he) of the To cll 'in (Roman empire) located to the fore. The text adds that those three kings came respectively from the South. lives far away. but four foreign kings which are mentioned in a fragment of the legend of ASoka incorporated into the $turJyuictilgama (T 99. Finally. translated into Chinese in 436 and 44) : . the North and the West and that each of them wu at the head of a hundred thousand vassals. ch. the Punjab and the Indus Valley. the last chapters of which were only translated under the Chin at the beginning of the fifth century. It is not three. carried out under -the Western Chin (265-316). under the leadership of the generals Apollodotus and Menander. the invasion by the ~kas of Maues overthrew the last Greek kings of Tuila. kill the inhabitants and destroy stopas and sO/f1gluirdmo" . called y~" loi no (Vavana?). not by two foreign kings. who had become Suren of eastern Iran.

It might be wondered whether Sskuna is a combination of Sska and Hu~a . incorrect for Tukhira.). west and cast" . a novice becomes the co-resident (sardhal'iha· rin) of his preceptor (upadhyaya) and the companion (anltl'asin) of his teacher (acarya) . If this hypothesis is correct. without a master or hierarchy. ch.as between 558 and 593.D. 4. a king of the west Po J'sU (Parasika or Persia) and a king of the north Shan i Shih chia (the Saka "Good Thought" ). The Chinese text presents a king of the south Po 10 Ii .). reference is made to three foreign kings whose coming precedes the disappearance: of the Good Law. and it was that Law alone which he left as a heritage for his devotees. 56. he should consider the former as his father and the latter as his mother in religion . Mdo XXXII. The succession of Masters We saw earlier the conditions and spirit in which the Buddha left his disciples. at the moment of his ordination. the old prophecy would have been intentionally rejuvenated in order to indicate the famous raid carried OUI in 4SS A. the brief summary of the sources which has just been made reveals the inl1uence exerted o n the historical perspectives of the Buddhists by the ancient prophecy concerning the disappearance of the Good Law. p. 5. pp. by the Hunnish hordes against the Indian empire of Skandagupta (4S5-467 A. The mention of a king Tu~ra. 377b) and the Tibetan one (Kanjur . The Tibetan version speaks of three kings who were of neither Indian no r Chinese origin : Yavana. However it may be. They will rule respectively in the south. north. "The word of the Buddha".D. The Candragarbhasurro belongs to those later chapters of the 222 MahOsmrmipdta which were translated by Narendrayas.D. Indeed. constitutes a reference to later events : the conquest of North-West India by the Ku~~as Kujiila and Virna Kadphises (c.202 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 22 1-222) "There will be the king Shih chia (~ka). who were: of Tukhirian or Yueh-chih origin. Pahlika and Sakuna. 50-60 A. 216b 6-220b 4). The Buddha himself withdrew behind the Law which he discovered and propounded. it . without them he would have no access to the doctrine and the discipline. each one of them having to be his own light and his own refuge. the king Yeb p'an lUI (yavana). In both the Chinese version (T 397. the king Po 10 p 'o (Pahlava) and the king Tou silo 10 (Tu~ra). Nevertheless.

the Elders performed this task conscientiously. according to it. succeeded one another from the time of the Buddha's decease until the ASoka's reign . p. 95-153) and the Samantapasadika (pp. It was widely diffused. We have little information about the succession of Masters in the early times. Each school. and it was never m:ognized in Ceylon.D . appears in the Vinaya and does not contradict the 22) Dharmati. around the second century A. The Pariviira (Vina)'a . a list of five Dharmaciryas was compiled on the mainland by the Sarvistividins and Mulasarvaslividins of the North-West. through the succession of masters and pupils.the Community of the Four Regions was without a universal.(222·22) THE SUCCESSION OF MASTERS 203 is said. and their pupils retained a grateful memory of them . but did not draw up a list of them until a relatively late date. but that the various limited sarpghas scattered throughout India were never deprived of spiritual heads who exercised authority over larger or smaller groups of devotees. 677b) drew up a list of the first six Vinayapimokk. the MahDvllJ?Ua (y. without. a barber and native of Kapilavastu. However.r11!' bwidJwJWJCQIfD' _ ftIC CQ . . I. pp. took up the religious life at the same lime as the great Sakya princes and was ordained by the THE VINAYA CKIEfS. or nature of things ' ·". "is what reaches us traditionally as the word of the Buddha. which was standardized in the founh or fifth century. V. T 1462. 2-3). The Sinhalese tradition. It should be remembered that these sources follow the long chronology which counts 218 years between the decease of the Buddha and the consecration of ASoka.ilulyr ~jyutr dNJrmQ/6trt Ul ItQ . 27-46 . p. and to initiate them into the various disciplines of the Buddhist Doctrine.JYDPWaf!1fHVQy4mn4ydyd.. 32-3 .tWIrQ/. the Dipa~'aJ?Ua (IV. has transmitted to us a list of Vinaya Chiefs (vinayapdmokkha) and Abhidharma Masters (abhidhamnuicariya) who. each sect had its own . V . ~t'r '. The lack of uniformity which characterizes the Buddhist tradition in relation to the succession of Masters shows that the Sarpgha taken as a whole . In no way claiming any infallibility. being accepted by all the mainland sects. Upili. whether Sutra. I. 43t : YrId pndi. Matrki or Abhidharma . however. No reference is made to the Masters of the Law (dhanniiciirya) who supposedly monopolized the Buddhist doctrine as a whole. Irld buddIlI2WGt:"""'r' lIiIIyQI. 89-96). particularly in KaSmir and China. Vinaya.11_)'(1' . that is to say what is found in the Sutra. unanimously accepted leader. .has with precise indications of their date of birth. the year of their ordination and the length of time they were in authority . Pa~ji k i. The role of the seniors is to teach and guide the juniors. ch .

studied the Tripi!. Sol). He was Vinaya chief for thirty years. for 68 years. Accompanied by his friend Cal)c. II. Kalasoka and his ten sons.). and was in authority during the reigns of Ajiitasattu and Udayabhadda.tavajji.C.C. from the year 30 to 80 after the Nirva')a (456-406 B. he became Vinaya Chief and remained in authority.avasin (in the Sanskrit sources.C. he studied the Vedas. In his youth. It was in that capacity that Kisyapa entrusted him with compiling the Basket of the Discipline at the council of Rajagrha. He was Vinaya chief for 52 years. from 80 to 124 after the Nirval). 2.) and.). he paid a visit to Sol). 298.). On the death of Siggava. Nagadasaka and Susunaga . He received his ordination in the year 164 after the Nirval). during the reigns of Susunaga. 303). Siggava. Sol)avasin) who played a part in the council of VaiSiIi in the year 10 of the reign of Kalisoka (Vin . Moggaliputtatissa was the son of the brahmin Moggali from pa!8liputra. from the year one to the year 30 after the NirviQ3 (486456 B. in 60 after the Nirval).C.C.a (362-310 B.C.asi).C.a (262 B.C. but was soon converted to Buddhism under the influence ofSiggava and Cal). He can perhaps be identified with Sambhiita Sal).C.).uvana in RajaS!ha.aka was the son of a caravaneer from Kasi (Varal).).ta.). having made the acquaintance of Dasaka at the Vel).C.>.204 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 22)· 224) Buddha in the year 44 before the Nirvi~a (530 B. Anuruddha and MUI).C.).C. He was born in 45 after the Nirval)a (441 B. He suca:eded Disaka as Vinaya Chief and remained in authority for 44 years.8liputra. the son of a minister from Pa!aliputra. 3. He met Upali in the Valikarama and was ordained by him in the year 16 after the Nirva!)3 (470 B.a (406-362 B.a (426 B.).st place among the 224 Vinayadharas.) into a brahmin family of Vaisali.a (404 B.C..8lca at the Kukku!irama and entered the order with five hundred companions in the year 100 after the Nirval)a (386 B. with some interruptions.).c. He succeeded Vpili on the latter's death and was Vinaya Chief for 50 years. in the reigns of Udayabhadda.C. at the age of fifteen . 5. 4.tavajji. from 176 to 244 after the Nirvana (310-242 B. in the reigns of the Ten Sons of Kaiasoka. the Nine Nandas and Candagutta.). he was unable to prevent the heretics from rushing into his .8ka and attained Arhatship.avasika. whose son Mahinda he ordained in 224 after the Nirval). he specialized in the study of the discipline and won the (oremo.c. was born in 82 after the Nirval). he was converted and entered the Order.a (322 B.). Dasaka was born in the year 4 after the Nirviil)3 (482 B. Sal). Sanavasa. from 124 to 176 after the Nirval). pp. He became an Arhat and was in charge of a thousand bhik~us. He had great influence upon the emperor Aioka. As abbot of the Aiokarama in Pa!.

THE ABHlOHAMMA.C. he is scarcely mentioned except in the Fen pieh kung Ie llUl (T 1507.C. 6. 32). -In the Atthasalini(p. p. He was quick to convert the island to the Buddhist religion and perfonned the duties of Vinaya chief there for 48 years. that of Pa!aliputra. 10. from 236 to 284 after the Nirvana (250-202 B. Apart from the Chinese version of the Samamapdsadika. is practically unknown to the Sanskrit sources. he was a brother and not a son of ASoka. Mahendra in Sanskrit. He resided at the ASokirirna monastery in Pa!aliputra until the council in the year 236 after the Nirvir:ta (250 B. p. 8. died at the age of80 and was cremated at the Mahavjhara of Anuridhapura. the son of ASoKa and Vedisa-Mahadevi.(224-225) THE SUCCESSION OF MASTERS 205 monastery in full force and.C.C. He took up the religious life at the age of twenty and. He lived in the reigns of Devinaf!lpiyatissa and Uttiya. I.) after having entrusted the direction of the monastery to Mahinda. which he carried out in Pi!aliputra until his death in the year 244 after the Nirva~a (242 B. p. 37b) which makes him a disciple of Ananda. composed a /(athavatthuppakarQ1)a then sent Buddhist missionaries to every region of India and to Ceylon . 2. Mahinda. he went to Ceylon with some companions. Moggaliputtatissa is known to the Sanskrit sources by the name of Upagupta.STERS. Recalled by Asoka.C. Buddhaghosa enumerated the masters who transmitted the Abhidhamma from the . from 229 to 236 after the Nirvana (257-250 B.C. 531a 25).). faced with the troubles which the intruders instigated. Moggali225 puttatissa withdrew to the retreat on the Ahogangapabbata near Mathura and remained encloistered there for seven years.). ch. MA. Mahinda.). but the biographical information supplied by these sources diverges considerably from the Sinhalese tradition. As for himself.). 9120. was ordained at the hands of Moggaliputtatissa. ch .C. he again took up his duties as Vinaya chief.C. resigned his duties in 228 after the Nirva~a (258 B. Then on the orders of Moggaliputtatissa and after a brief stay at the monasteries of Ujjayini and Vidisa in Avanti. Moggaliputtatissa is possibly also the Mu lien (Maudgalyiyana) whose Vibhajyavadin theories concerning the problem of time arc: refuted by the Vijiianakaya of the Sarvistivadins (T 1539.). 9320). he convened and presided over the third Buddhist council. Moggaliputtatissa enabled the Vibhaijavidin point of view to triumph.). ch. During the sessions which were held in the year 236 after the Nirva~a (250 B. For Hslian tsang (T 2087. p. ch.). Mahadeva and Majjhantika . in 224 after the Nirva~a (262 B. when his father was acting as viceroy. was bom in Avanti in the year 204 after the Nirva~a (282 B.

his decease and funeral. Then follows an account of the Buddha's funeral and the first Buddhist council. Ill. Piyadassin . in a few words. T 2043. 149b 162c 10) and in extracts in the Di}lyo}ladana (pp. 2. is reproduced in full in the Asokavadana (T 2042. is a summary of this chronicle : Having arrived in Mathura. PJ. pp. Visudatta.aka}lastu (T 1451. this list seems to have no historical value. Salcra and. 493-568. ch. 25. lA. xvii . Mogga/ipuUQ. 3-7. T 1448. Kasyapa. after his peregrination in the North-West. the first council and the Nirval). then in Ceylon. p. Stage by stage. Once this is concluded.27·364. Siggavu . Bhaiyyavastu (Gi/git Manuscripts. Ddsaka. Here.a of the first five masters of the Law. Inhiya. Bhaddaji. the Buddha reaches Kusinagara. garbed in hemp.ZYLUSIU . 2·3.10). sends his companion away and goes to AjalaSatru's A FrtnCh translation or most or tbese SOUIlleS aweaN in J. pp. the MiilasarllOstj}ljjdjn Vinaya . Having paid his final respects to the holy places. for it generally begins with an account of the Buddha's journey to the North-West. pp. pp. ch. ch . SaJ!Iyuktogama (T 99. 1. Unnaturally overloaded in comparison with the previous one. enters Rajagfha. Kasyapa. He transmits the Law to Ananda and advises him to bequeath it later to a young man who has just been born 227 in Rajagrha. as So~aka for the olhers. 4lc 18-42b 26) and ~ud. Kosiyaputta. It is there that he enters NirvaQa after having entrusted the Law to Kiisyapa. Dhammiya. THE MASTERS OF THE LAW.206 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD <226-227) 226 beginning until the conversion of Ceylon : on the mainland first : Siriputta. and whose name is 5al)avasa. He then goes to KaSmir and announces its future conversion through the activity of the missionary Madhyantika. lilb 28·12lb I . accompanied by Ananda. It will be noted that the names printed in italics already appeared on the list of Vinayapamokkhas enumerated above. 9. an account which contains a prophecy concerning the stiipa of Kal). 37b 16-27)15. Piyajali. 348. .A Sanskrit chronicle which describes the Buddha's journey to North-West India and Mathura. 19t4. ch. U Nor(/. OwJf tM /'111M. ch. Bhaddamima and Sambala. they are totally unknown to ecclesiastical history. PiyapiJa. 1. Sandeha. finally. 11 . and Revata. l17b 12-19) and the Fen pieh kung ti lun (T 1507. 408c-4llb 18). pp. noting that he has fulfilled his mission. 40. ch. decides to enter Nirval)a. 6-9. pp. Mahinda . with the c)(ception of Bhaddaji and the companions of Mahinda. the Buddha predicts the birth of Upagupta and the construction of the Na!abha!a monastery on Mount UrumuQ4a . Uttiya. p. Sobhita. This chronicle is not very old.islca in Puru~pura . the four Devarajas. part I.

He learns the Law in its entirety and attains ArhalShip. he does not wish to wake him. decides that the time has come to enter Nirval)a. Ananda transmits the Law to their leader Madhyantika and . he climbs alone to the summit of Mount Kukku~apada where he sits down cross-legged. with the assistance of the diinapati Na!a and Bha~ . In order to prevent the king of Magadha and the inhabitants of VaiSiIi from disputing over his relics. Ananda has Ajiitaiatru warned of his forthcoming death . The mountain partly opens and KiSyapa's skeleton appears before them. Ananda causes him to enter the order. The king would have liked to cremate it. Meanwhile. according to a variant. Ananda's remonstrances are insolently repulsed and the noble disciple. and the new devotee makes a vow to wear the hempen robe in which he was born until his death. In a boat. nirodhasamapaui. at an equal distance between VaiSiIi and Rijagrha . he goes out to mid-stream. At their request Ananda confers ordination on them and they immediately attain Arhatship. Dhammapada. 6). Uddnavarga . Young SiiQaviisa returns safe and sound. five hundred I. The mountain closes up again and AjataSatru and Ananda go away. However. while the Magadhans and VaiSiIians. on being treated as a decrepit old man. Sakra places flowers on the great disciple's body and the mountain closes over him . but Ananda infonns him that Kisyapa's body must remain intact until the coming of Maitreya.(221-228) THE SUCCESSION OF MASTERS 207 palace to warn the king of his forthcoming Nirval)a. 11 3. may remain intact until the coming of the future Buddha Maitreya to whom Kasyapa has to hand over the robe of his predecessor Sakyamuni. The king makes Ananda promise to attend his Nirvil)a. He also announces the forthcoming birth in Mathura of a certain Upagupta who is destined to work like a Buddha. 228 in order to assert their rights. joins Ananda in the VeQuvana and goes with him to Mount Kukku~apada . XXIV. to erect a stupa and a monastery on Mount UrumuQ4a in the land of Mathuri. He makes the wish that his body. a dispute breaks out between Ananda and a bhik~u from the Vel)uvana who insisted on reciting a Buddhist stanza inaccurately (cr. AjiitaSatru. enriched by a long sea voyage. since the king is sleeping. robed in the pOrrriukiila of the Blessed One. station troops on both banks. the earth quakes. who has finally awakened . No.t~is led by Madhyintika arrive from the Snowy Mountains and gather ro und Ananda on a golden isle which has miraculously emerged in the middle of the Ganges. He entrusts the Law to Sal)avasa and orders him. Forewarned by an earthquake. Then Kasyapa enters Nirviil)a or. he decides to enter Nirvil)a in the middle of the Ganges. He celebrates a paifcavar$a for the benefit of the Community.

Gupta keeps his two eldest. by noting the bad ones with black pebbles and the good ones with white pebbles. he had presented a gannent to a Pratyekabuddha who was dressed in hemp and wished to be clothed like him when he became a monk . who is to take up the homeless life. he manifests the eighteen transfonnations and enters Nirvil}a. in accordance with Ananda's orders. Sil}avasa teaches him to purify his thoughts. But he begins as a perfume-merchant. Ananda manifests the eighteen transfonnations and cnters the concentration of the Speed-or-the Wind. Madhyintika. the Na!. Half-way there. the dragon-king Sigara. he divides his body into four (variant. at the monastery of P'i-to.208 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 228-229) entrusts him with the mission of establishing the Law in the kingdom of Kasmir. Two young men from Mathuri. as the price of his victory. provide the money necessary to build a monastery. Asvagupta and Dhanagupta. Madhyintika then undertakes to colonize KaSmir. Na!-8 and Bha!a. His body is cremated with sandalwood (candana) and a stiipa is erected over his remains. Having reached the land of Mathuri. . acquires Mount Urumul}4a. he corrects the views of two Mahallaka monks and explains to them why he has the name of Sil}avisa "Hempen-c)othed" : during a previous existence. A contest of magic takes place between the two adversaries. In Mathurii. Once this work is done. For his part. 37b). accompanied by his five hundred Arhats. Sil}avisa comes into conflict with two dragons but easily quells them and. and obtains from him a promise that one of his 229 sons would take up the religions. Stiipas are immediately erected over his remains. goes to Kasmir where his arrival provokes the anger of a great dragon-king. where monks can devote themselves at leisure to dhydna. 2. Once these arrangements are seuled. p.shan Ii (Mahinda) to Sif!lhaladvipa (Ceylon) in order to make conversions there. Sil}avisa. life. it is the third. However. Upagupta.abhaliya. with him to help in his business. King AjitaSatru of Magadha and the Lia::havis of Vaisafi. takes the three refuges and presents Kasmir to the Buddhist community on condition that five hundred Arhats live there forever . According to the Fin pieh kung Ie fun (T 1507. ch. who is vanquished. The dragon. two) parts which he allots respectively to Sakra Oevendra.. founds towns and villages there and introduces the cultivation of saffron (kwikuma) with seeds from Mount Gandhamidana . This mental asceticism enables Upagupta to resist the advances of the lovely courtesan Visavadatti and even to convert her when misfortune befalls her. makes his way towards the land of Mathuri. on it. Sal}avasa brings about the conversion of the householder Gupta. he also sends the disciple Mo .

~1]. isa. guessing his thoughts. as foretold. forgetful of his promise. and Upagupta would have liked to enlighten them by appealing to his IIpiidhyaya ~t:.la . Upagupta feeds two young tigers whose mother has just died . He propounds to the crowds in Mathuri and teaches them summaries intended for the laity : the anupurviJeolhii and dharmadeJanii. he explains that he prostrated himself. Once the incident is over.§ra agrees on condition that Upagupta does not prostrate himself before the apparition. Proud of his success. throws himself at his feet.avisa leaves the kingdom of Mathura and goes to KaSmir.. He confesses his past faults and commits himself ne'Yer to molest the bhik~us again.er.. arri . The latter.. but in return asks him to show him the body of the Buddha to which M.(229-230) THE SUCCESSION OF MASTERS 209 Upagupta finally obtains permission from his father to enter the religious life_ He is ordained by ~l). but before the Buddha whose form the demon had taken.. undertakes to work like a Buddha. and eighteen thousand young men take up the religious life and attain Arhatship : they art each counted by throwing a slip of wood (iQliiJeQ) into one of the monastery cells. Upagupta returns to his teaching and Mira himself invites the Mathurans to go and hear him. Howe'Yer. However. he comes to visit Upagupta. but the Master of the Law. in sou230 them India.a'Yasa at the Na~abha!a monastery.avisa. Upagupta agrees to free the demon from his troublesome burden.. Howe. He then shows the Buddha's body with his wonderful marks and Upagupta. The two cubs will be reborn into the family of a brahmin in Mathura. Mara is unable to detach them and has to apologize.. hundreds of thousands of conversions are made. there to practise dhydna in peace. a young man who was an adulterer and matricide has taken up the religious life because he was unable to obtain his lover's hand. Sa~a . Mira disturbs his audience with a shower of precious objects and the appearance of heavenly maidens. refuses to . ~navasa then transmits the Law to . listen to his discourses and attain Arhatship. speak to him. In order to punish the Malign One. take up the religious life and become two famous disciples of Upagupta. both endowed with supernormal powers. Upagupta's disciples reproach their master for what they believe to be impoliteness. to the indignation of the disciples.. He studies the Tripi!ak.. attains Arhatship and.isa is able to prove to them that he possesses infinitely more samiidhi and knowledge than Upagupta. Remaining where he was.a and instructs a great many pupils. Delighted at his disciple's success. not before Mira. Upagupta ties corpses of snakes. The monks feel great respect for ~1]. dogs and men round his neck . When Mira reproaches him for this.es from Kasmir and sits authoritatively on the throne reserved for Upagupta. who knows of his past.

858a) and Hsuan tsang (T 2087.li (Dhammapada Comm . is awaiting the coming of Maitreya in order to hand over to him the robe with which he was entrusted.1. n. 99b. 8620) and HSUan tsang (T 2087. Vibhdsd (T 1545. pp. Besides the texts which have been cited above. ch.. 884b) and attributed by the latter to the Arhat Madhyan- . 425c .210 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 230-231 ) Upagupta. as will be seen in the next chapter. its Mahinda is not the disciple of Ananda. ch. It is a well-known fact that Kasyapa. p. finally. p. The Nirva~a of Ananda in the middle of the Ganges is also auested by the same pilgrims Fa hsien (T 2085. 2. we may also mention the Ekorrariigama (T 231 125. The old master then rises into space. 919b-c) obtained and recorded the legend when they visited Mount Gurupada o r Kukku!apada. 909c. either in Nirva~a or in niro<ihasamaparri. 433b) . 120) and Upadesa (T 1509. 9. On the other hand. p. the apostle of Kasmir. 3. Also in the fifth and seventh centuries. ch. 99-1(0) . 422b. We can but conclude from the silence of the Pali sources that the legend of the five Masters was not part of the original early tradition. 863c) and HSUan tsang (T 2087. the lattcr is completely unaware of Kiisyapa's Nirviil)3 and situates that of Ananda on the river Rohil. Majjbantika). p. 78b-79b). p . 789a). 44. 3. who visited the stupas built by King AjataSatru and the Licchavis of VaiSiili over their respective part of Ananda's bodily relics. advising him to entrust it in tum to a young Mathuran. it was firmly established on the Indian mainland. 20. MailreyavyakarOlJa in its various recensions (T 453. its Vinayapamokkha SOl)aka has nothing in common with Sa~avasa. T 454. perfonns the eighteen transformations and enters Nirva~a . but the son of Asoka and disciple of Moggaliputta. The colossal statue of Maitreya which stood on the slopes of the Darel was admired by Fa hsien (T 2085. modern Kurkihar. ch . Dhitika. twenty miles to the north-east of Bodh-Gaya. the Chinese pilgrims Fa hsien (T 2085. the portrait it draws of Moggalipuua has only a faint resemblance to that of UpaguPla. p. As a trustee of the Law. as is proved by texts and monuments. p. ch. in the depths of Mount Kukku!apada. ch. but a contemporary of Asoka and associate of Moggaliputtatissa . p. p. ch . clothed in the Buddha's robe and hidden. p. Koia (VII. 698b). " The legend of the five Masters of the Law which we have just summarized has no counterpart in the Sinhalese tradition . p. T 1456. 922b). Mahiimnyiisiitra (T 383. 1013b). p. ch. it makes Madhyantika (Pilli. 135. not the disciple of Ananda. pp. be will latcr become the spiritual adviser of ASoka. ch . p. 9. p. p. but was elaborated after the conversion of Ceylon. Upagupta erects a stiipa over hi s remains.

p. The first . attributes the conversion of the kingdom to the Arhat Madhyintika who was said to have occupied the region with his five hundred disciples in the year 50 after the Nirval)a (T 2087. 3. is already well-known to the Vibh~ii 232 (T 1545. 99. pp. it is again found in a series of works from both the Mahayana and Hinayana. 13. curiously enough. pp. 135. 9540 28) praises the apostolic work carried out by Upagupta and his disciples on Mount Urumul)c. the oldest of which cannot go further back than the second century A. the conversion of Kasmir could not date back further than the time of Asoka the Maurya. the KalpaniimQl){Iilikii (T 201 . pp. p. 65a 8) which records that after his Nirval)a a large number of Avadanas. pp. ch. 66) according to which Kasmira·Gandhira was won over by Majjhantika immediately after the council of PilBliputra in the year 236 after the Nirval)a (250 B.<231-232) THE SUCCESSION OF MASTERS 211 tika who is thought to have gone three times to the T~ita heaven to contemplate the features of his holy model. 3. ch. Samanta. and for reasons which will be explained further on.ta. XII. Sectes. 304c sq . As for the history of Upagupta such as it has been narrated above. MaJui'll~a . 8860 19·b 10). ch. 10.) under Asoka the Great. Sil)avasa. 307c-309b) and the Vibh~a (T 1545. DanEVlLLE. Miilasar'llasliviidin Vinaya and A. 37). p. p. In any case. which merely reproduces a slight variation of the Vib~ii (T 1545. VIII. The second. 9. 510eSIZe). ch. The Hsien y ii ching (T 202. 16.) reproduce it in full. In a monastery two or three ' /i distant from Bimyan. With regard to the conver· sion of Kasmir.fokavadana. Ananda's disciple. p. ch. 3. 2. p. ch. ch. This second tradition is also adopted by Paramirtha in his commentary upon the Treatise of Vasumitra (cf. p. the Mahiikarunii· pu'){iarika (T 380. but. ch. which agrees with the Sanskrit chronicle incorporated into the Di'llyiivadana . 3. ch. 886b 11·23). Hsuan tsang (T 2087. it is quite close to the Sinhalese chronicle (DIpa'll~a. ch. 4. claims that Kasmir was converted in the year 100 after the Nirvil)a by five hundred orthodox Arhats. ch . adversaries of the heretic Mahadeva and who had been forced to nee from Magadha by the declared hostility of Asoka (T 2087. p.D. p. 442b-443c) and the Chinese compilation of the Fu fa tsang yin yUan chuan (T 2058. I. 691c-698a) relate the contentions between the Master of the Law and Mara . it makes him the upiidhyiiya of a certain Jivaka. 873b--c) also saw the hempen robe of Sal)avasa : its abnormal dimensions diminished from year to year and it is supposed to vanish with the disappearance of the Good Law. T 1546.. the Upadeia . unlike the rest of the tradition which gives him as the teacher of Upagupta. Sutras and Abhidharmas disappeared . 79b II . Hsuan tsang records a twofold tradition .C.

256b) records the ordination of the young Sundaea by Upagupta. 129b-c) retains the memory of an unrecorded episode : the lesson in politeness given to Upagupta by a 120-year-old bhik~u"i who had known the Buddha in her youth.212 THE MAGADHAN PERIOD ( 232) (f 1509. 13. p. 9. p.r~g"ika Vinaya (f 1425. p. the memory of the master was still alive in the region of Mathura and in the Sindh when Hsuan tsang visited those areas at the beginning of the seventh century {T 1087. these masters do not appear at all in the list of 27 masters compiled in the Mahii. 10. 41lb-c). p. p. 6&). 890b-c . The memory of the five Masters of the Law was so vivid on the mainland that they were placed at the top of the list of patriarchs when the enumeration of the latter was undertaken. T 1451. 7. semi-MahayanislS (T 618. ch. 4. p. 442b. ch. 493a). ch . II. • . p. ch. 10. Nevertheless. 152e. The AvadOnaiotaka. ch. ch. pp. ch. th. 202-4 (cf. p. p. 40. T 200. 9(00). II. T 2043. p. We will return later to these Sarvastivadin lists (T 202. 32. ch. 301a) and Chinese (T 2145. Finatly. p. 937b). but also to those of the Mahasiqlghikas (f 1465.

Thc Buddhist legend has somewhat distorted the true countenance of ASoka. It is true.C. as we sec it in his edicts. he was converted to Buddhism and undertook to raise the spiritual and moral level of his subjects by endowing them with a Dharma which appears as the model of an administration based on tolerance and shrewd understanding. It tried to take over the emperor. Bactria remained outside the great movement of Indian civilization. already established by the Buddha for the use of lay adherents . was published in the fonn of edicts distributed throughout the empire. the great patron of the community. the founding of monasteries. the official defender of the Good Law. that the royal favours exerted a decisive inftuence on the erection of Buddhist monuments. it falls short of the fundamental theorems of the profound doctrine discovered by the Master and instilled by him in the religious. After having been drawn for some time into the orbit of the lieutenants of Alexander and the Seleucids (325·250). It should not be confused with the Good Law expounded by Sakyamuni. The great figure of Candragupta is eclipsed by that of his grandson ASoka (272-236). .The Indian empire reached its zenith during the dynasty of the Mauryas which remained in power for 137 years (324-187 B. Royal officials entrusted with propagating the Asokan Dharma paved the way for Buddhist missionaries who profited from the favourable circumstances to intensify their activity. the most notable personality in Indian history. the recruiting of members of the Order and the expansion of the Good Law throughout the whole of India.(233-234) 2Jl CHAPTER THREE THE MAURYAN PERIOD GENERAL FEAnJRfS OF ntE PERIOD· . in fact. for it merely defines the principles of natural morality. presenting him as the model upisaka. The military exploits of Candragupta (324300) averted the Selc:ucid threat in the west and achieved the unity of the empire. After the bloody conquest of Kaliilga. by governors of provinces. 234 Beyond the Hindukush. propagated by the emperor in person. she was able to take advantage of the Parthian revolt to declare herself as . The ASokan Dharma. itinerant officials and ambassadors abroad.). the political genius of the minister ca~akya established order and cohesion within its frontiers.

as upholders of strict observance and. The Sinhalese chronicle refers to a third Buddhist council convened in the year 250 at Pa!aliputra in order to expel from the Saifigha a crowd of heretics who had entered it surreptitiously. but who intended to bridge the gap which separated the upasak. Through the fluctuations and inconsistencies of the tradition. It is doubtless somewhat of an exaggeration to claim that the conversion of the island took only a week.. Euthydemus of Magnesia (225-190). URyAN PERIOD (234-235) independent. one can get a glimpse of the difficulties which the Buddhist Saifigha came up against in the first two centuries of its existence. they were supported by the laity who were regarded as subordinate members of the community. Their successor. On the other hand . finnly established their power. The discontent smouldered for quite a long period. It burst into . even if it meant completing it with works of their own composition. made Bactria a powerful state which soon became a threat to the Indian empire. claimed a certain amount of spiritual privileges. who had still not attained holiness. having successfully resisted the ventures of Antiochus III the Great. exchanged embassies with the court at pa. Some monks prefer2)5 red to keep the teaching just as they themselves had heard it from the lips of the Buddha. They set themselves up as authorized guardians of the teaching.214 THE M . They welcomed ASoka's messengers. Diodotus I and II (250-225). in Ceylon the kings Devanaf!1piyatissa (250-210) and Uttiya (210-200) submitted unreservedly to the demands and desires of the Mauryas.a from the monk . The successes achieved in the Mauryan period by the Buddha's religion did not fail to provoke serious difficulties within the order. Others would have liked a less strict discipline. a closed group of Arhats inspired by Mahikasyapa undertook to recite jointly the Word of the Buddha and to codify the discipline of the order. Yet others. considered that the privileges claimed by the Arhats were exaggerated. This initiative did not receive universal approval. but it is certain that Ceylon very quickly became one of the strongholds of Buddhism.!aliputra and gave the Buddhist missionaries an enthusiastic reception. by means of a skilful interplay of intrigues. as Arhats. with the minor precepts being abolished. Both the northern and southern sources know of the existence of a schism which decided a large number of monks to separate from the main body of the Elders (sthavira) in order to fonn a sect of the dissident majority (maJuisa~ghika)·. From the time of the Buddha's decease... The Sanskrit and Chinese sources mention the untoward action of a certain Mahadeva whose heretical proposals set the Buddhist communities against each other.

The objectors.funerary and commemorative monuments of an archaic type with hemispherical domes . Uiiayini and Mathura. and by giving that memorable event a precise date : 250 B. and step by step Sakyamuni's messages reached all the regions of India and Ceylon. Archaeological discoveries enable us to follow the steps of this progress. possibly even a few years earlier. the Good Law gained ground rapidly. have enumerated what they called "ASokan stupas" .(235·236) GENERAL FEATURES OF THE PERIOD 215 flames when a heretic put forward five proposals which were directly prejudicial to the honour of the Arhats. The northern sources provide a more accurate idea of the Buddhist propaganda. a schism occurred . The major event of the Mauryan period was the spreading of the Buddha's religion throughout the whole of India. These were best achieved in the reign of the great ASoka. and mark the trail of the triumphant progress of the Good Law. . emphasis should be given to the intrinsic power of expansion of the Good Law a power which. should not be underestimated. only needed favourable political circumstances. Even though Magadha remained the main axis of the movement. reaching its culminating point in the Mauryan period. reached its culmination in the reign of ASoka. the chronicle distorts the facts by ascribing the general conversion of India to the action of a handful of missionaries sent out by Moggaliputtatissa. KauSambi. Archaeological discoveries and cross-references to the northern sources often guarantee the accuracy of the details it supplies. who were the greater number.which go back to the period of the Mauryas. since it is doubtful whether the king had played an active part in that event. When these proposals were condemned. or at least the Sungas. in order to show itself. However. He was supported by several of the religious communities. Hsiian tsang who visited India at the beginning of the seventh century. While not ignoring the role played by private initiative in the propagation of the faith . Undoubtedly the state of the ruins does not always allow of a decision as to whether a monument does indeed date back to the ancient era or whether it belongs to a later period. 236 From then on. The Sinhalese chronicle narrates those conversions and ordinalions which constitute the digvijoya of the Good Law. separated from the main body of the Elders (slhavira) and formed a dissident branch of the majority (mahdsiifrlghika).C. However. the Chinese pilgrims and particularly. The schism. the action of the secondary centres. which had been long in preparation. It was inaugurated by the Buddha and his immediate disciples and continued with varying success during the first two centuries of the Nirvana.

towards the end of his life.C. his actual reign . As a working hypothesis. we have at our disposal data supplied by the PurolJa (P. from 324 to 187 D. In order to establish the dates of the various reigns. I.as conscqatc:d on his aocession to ttle throne. TH0M4S). we posit here that ASoka assumed power in 214 after the Nirval)a (272 B.. here is the order of succession of the Mauryan emperors who followed the kings of Magadha : There is no perfect agreement Oyer the date of tbe assumption of power.QS merely say that he ruled for 36 years . The chronicles locate the assumption of power by Asoka in 214 after the Nirval)a (272 B. 1622 . BAsaof).ciden.. Le. . therefore.). may well have ended some years before his death . attribute to him a further 37 years of ex..C. 30).W. in 268 B. l. 264-260-227 or 226 (FIl. was consecrated in 218 after the Nirval)a (268 B. XX. 273-269-232 (VINCENT SMITlt..UOZAT). he s ugeslS 233 as the date of his death. therefore if he assumed power in 272 B.C. It sho uld be noted that the JaueT dale the events. ruled effectively from 214 to 250 after the Nirval)a (272-236 D. if they were counted in completed years. if we abide by the chronological system adopted here. after that event.vUMO. 1956. T~ Chronology O/IM big" 0/ AsokQ MrNiya . Having said this.216 THE MAURYAN PERIOD <236-237) I.C. Sp . which would make a total of 41 .The succession of kings According to the PurOlJa (P..C. Here are some dates propo$Cd for these three eyents : 274-270-237 or 236 (F.C). V.. as has sometimes been claimed .. pp.C. in 255 after the Nirval). not in completed years.C. but from the year of inception : this is what appears from a passage in the Mahiivarrrsa (XX. and not of 37 (17 + 11 + 3 + 2+4). has taken the problem up apin in detail : he reaches the 'conclusion that A!oka . 269·264-227 (GElClU).. the dynasty of the Mauryas lasted for 137 years. from 218 to 255 after the Nirval)a (268-231 B. V. ASoka sank into his second childhood and fell under the guardianship of his 231 grandson Sampadin .L.).). his consecration in 218 after the Nirval)a (268 B.Cp . EGGUWONT.a (231 B.. I . that is.. from 272 to 236 B. conso:. M.C. p. p.:ration and death of ASoka.. - HISTORICAL FACTS THE MAURYAN EMPIRE 151 . The Purii1J. ) and.. 1-6) which assigns an interval of 37 years to events which occurred in the years 18+ 12+ 4 + 3 + 4.istence. 268-264-1 (H uu'Zsat).H. 1-6. The Buddhist and Puranic traditions are not irreconcilable. 274-270-232 (AuAs). 27·30) and the Sinhalese chronicles (Dpv . 100-1. since the northern Buddhists claim that. P.. Mhv . 41).C) and died several years later.

Bindusira 13. V~sena ~yavarman ~yamitra However. reigns 8 yean 10. Brhadratha. and not the Maurya. reigns 8 years -2.7. Ddon•. ~yamitra I. reigns 1 yean 9. according to most of the Brahmanica! sources. ~Iiiuk. Several of these princes must therefore have reigned simultaneously in various parts of the empire. VigatiSolca and Virasena. Brbalpati 4. son of 8. 6. reigns 13 yean 8. instead of the forty-nine calculated above. T 99. son of 3. son of 4. Kunila Sampradin Brbaspali Vn-asena ~yuuma( na) ~yamitra L XuQiIa 2. $On of 7. 3.a. Sampradin 3. 218 214-250 25S 324-300 300-272 272 268 272-236 2lI 14. reigns 9 yean .C. p. Oevadharman or Devavannan or Somavannan. According to the Tibetan historian Tiiranitha (p. 238 The names marked with an asterisk are passed over in silence by some of the Puril}ic recensions. reigns 1 years. 3. DaSaratha. Vfl8Stna 5. reigns 8 years . son of I. Brhaspati 4. son of 5. ASoka 24 years 28 years acoesslOn consecration rules 36 years death 49 years 162-186 186-214 21.(2)1·238) Sovereigns THE SUCCESSION OF KINGS 217 Anc. Candragupta 12. p. reigns 8 years 6. 181b. Last Mauryas 250-299 236-187 With regard to these last Mauryas.) Length of reign Era of the Nirv. 11 . 2. The total of the reigns comes to seventy-five years. Indrapilila 4. Samprati 3. Kunila 2. p. 4. Satadhanvan or SaSadhannan. 2. 48 sq . 27-30) give the following list : L Kul)ila or SuyaSas. the sources disagree seriously : I . T 2043. 6. 5. son of 6. reigns 7 years 5. ch. Samprati or Sangata. P~yamitra pertained 10 the Sunga dynasty.). 433 .. The recensions of the Asokiivadana (Divya . 5. Era (B. 5. The PuriUJo (P. 25.3. Bandhupilita. . ASoka's suoccssors were KUl)i!a. pp. 149a-b) refer to only six sovereigns : Di~yQ T 99 T 2043 I . ch. ~yadhannan 6.

was admitted to the sharing out of the Buddha's relics and received the coals which had been used to cremate him (Dfgha . It is not impossible INIt C. 46679. pp. whose husband had just been murdered by a neighbouring king (Mahiivaf!lsa Comm . the centre of which was the Pipphalavana on 239 the borders of the Nepalese Terai. BHATTASAU. ABORI.L BItAAGAvA. ASoka had. pp. 4. pp. 166). poinu 01. YOUTH. A . in approximately the year 206. 159). I94S. K.K . by his second wife Kaluvaki. 2nd Candragupta ORIGIN. SA.""KAA.. LAW Volume. 14S-6. took refuge in the Himalayas. ~ aeneral wo rks. 6. I. Calcutta.. as well as a large indemnity (Polybius. 15). IHQ.S. 21J. II. pp.lWobktflS of InJiDn CIvOffO/OfY.• 1932. O. GHOSH. Other sources attribute a less noble origin to him. OtAT"TUJEE. married a Greek a nd thallhis misalliance eamed him and his SIM7TUNI lhc hostililY of lbe brihmil15. pp. Candragupta was therefore born in exile and was brought up . DEI.. MtnU}'1l CII. Was C. Sandracottus was of obscure birth . K. informa· tio n can be akancd (rom P. 19)2. named lalauka. 34. XII. VIII. a son named TIvala.. CDNlrQ8VP1Q MtnU)'Q. pp. 301 ·61.. . /Qw-bom? IHQ . II and IV) consider him as a descendant of the Nanda family and a humble village girl named Mum. According to the classical historian Justin (XV.. According to the Edict of the Queen (BLOCH. S . 181). IHQ. - A classical and probably apocryphal tradition claims that . The Rajatarmigini(l. p. who probably belonged to the family of the Mauryas. an Indian king named Sophagasenus (= Subhagasena).11 a hilheno uDremaTked verse in the BIIIl~qyopw~ : C~applas lalal! ptJktJt ptAlTastJdllfpGl~'-' 1Vl6lrl nJWbtuy4 1(llhod-odJIy4 y4-fI!'! bavddIuJI(ltpor~ . The origin of the Mauryu is a complicated q~tion . 11-12). JRAS. ~ So-coll~d City COfUlCiJ of Ptl!oIipulf(l. Ap . 108-52) has a son of ASoka.218 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 238-2]9) 4.onoJ01Y Il1Id CtJIUW(l~ P. p.• VIII. Its subjects were related to the Sakyas and. XI . S. was healeR in the Kabul valley by the Seleucid Antiochus III the Great and had to surrender a considerable number o f elephants to the viclor. 5. n. Luckno w. 1930. B. 1935..obI~tfIS.Candragupta belonged to the k~triya clan of the Mauryas 1 . H. the former queen of the Mauryas.88 . p. after the massacre of the latter by Viriidhaka. VI. N. 211 ·8). the Jaina tradition (Pariii!!aparvan .by his mother. Finally. C. 229) as well as the Brihmanical (MudriiriiJc!asa . 1936 (impor· tant (or J translation O(50Un:es) . . S90-610. reign in KaSmir.C. MA. This small republic. EIlrly Uf~ of CllIIdroppl(l MUMfya. XI.O .t Casl~ of CDNlrlllwpla M(IUI'}'tI.

Candragupta and Parvataka agreed to share Ohanananda's states after the victory. also called Vi~l)ugupta or Kau~ilya .. Aft OJ IItt NOIIdtu aM Maurytu. LXII). He assembled troops. eliminated all the other claimants leaving Candragupta in sole power. H. The battle which set Candragupta against Ohanananda's annies commanded by Bhaddasila was particularly murderous. pp. R. 292). It concluded in complete victory for Candragupta and his domination over the whole territory of Jambudvipa.. len Magadba with his young protege Candragupta and established a confederation Qf which the main leader. he was condemned to death and sought his safety in the swiftness of his legs" (Justin.While retreating.ijicD'ion 0/ PtuvottUt. Idt". According to the MahiivllJ!1So Commentary (p. ]941 . . ) II is indeed A/rxaMrum in JUJliD 's ~ll bUI weslern criticism mak es the conC'Clton Aluandrum _ Nandruffi _ Nanda. 240 SElZURE OF THE mRONE (324 B.• p. he became the leader of a band of brigands. 50S. XVII. 4. p. alongside Candragupta. the intrigues of the young Indian did not achieve the result he hoped since.). however. having been offended in his brahmanic pride. Candragupta fell under the influence of cal)akya. kill Dhanananda and mount the throne of Magadha. Cal)akya.. . on meeting Candragupta and considering him to be more capable. 16). Cttu. Parvatakumara .).o. a king from the North-West. by ruse or by force. 181 sq . Political Hut .C.YCHAUDHU . • On Ihis subject. then incited Candragupta to rebel. "having offended king Alexander} by his effrontery. 192).o IUId Ponu. this Cal)akya was a brahmin and native of Tak~sila . Having taken refuge in the jungle. he abducted the king's son.of serving his purpose than the young prince. 172-9. 4. 144. JRAS. was Parvataka. once the latter was gained. XV. 26S .PEN'T1D. he had Parvatakumara put to death and transferred all his plans to Candragupta.. he had been insulted there. who has sometimes been identified with the Porus of the Greek historians· . In order to avenge himself. Having gone one day to Dhanananda's palace in Pa~aliputra. since the king of that country [Ohana-Nanda1 was generally hated and despised for his wickedness and the lowness of his birth (Plutarch. induced the Indians of the North-West to rebel and prepared to wage war on the Macedonian satraps (ld. see J. However. p. however. 16-19). According to the dramatist ViSikhadatta of the ninth century. IHQ. cf.. Indian scholars righlly protest IIpiMlthis alleration . Vita Alex. a real "corpse-dance" (Mm"dapoiiho.<239-240) CANDRAGUPTA 219 Androcottus often met Alexander in his early youth and later assened that Alexander very nearly became ruler of India. XV. Ca~akya. S~.C. p.

Arachosia. He began by liberating the North-West from the Macedonian yoke. . wagcx1 war on Candragupta but ended by concluding a treaty of friendship and a matrimonial alliance with him. Candragupta proceeded with the conquest of Avanti and Suri~!ra. 965). . The inscription of Rudradiman. In 321. since those regions no longer appear in the list of colonies which Antigonus distributed among his 241 lieutenants after his victory over Eumenes (316). THE WAR WITH SFLEUCUS J (305-304 B.220 THE M"URYAN PERIOD ( 240-241 ) CONQUEST OF INDIA . involved in the battles between the Diadochi. claim that at that early date the Mauryas had entered KOilkan .J. POlilital Hisl . from the evidence of Appian.C.000 men. abandoned their (errilones. the satrapy of the Lower Indus entrusted to Peithon was reduced to the region neigbouring the Paropamisadae. having crossed the Indus. recalls that the famous SudarSana lake. the two governors. by the troops of Euthydemus of Magnesia and his son Demetrius. The new demarcation line remained unchanged until the beginning of the socond century B. the Seleucids and • Raychaudhllri. a provincial governor of the Maurya king Candragupta. 10. in Girinagara. . on the Junigarh rock in Kithiiwir (LUOERS. qllotinl ttimselr Rk:e.. Some infonnation supplied by the geographer Eratosthenes and supported by Strabo seems to indicate that the North-West frontier was moved back towards the west until it included all or part of the Paropamisadae. With the Punjab liberated. 269-1{). overran and subdued the whole of India" (Vita Alex . Para1). Gedrosia and even some districts of Aria. it was crossed. crossed the district of Kongu (Coirnbatore) and finally reached Podiyii Hill (Malaya). - Once peace was concluded.ort and Coor.. the only Indian states located to the east of the Indus which acknowledged the foreign suzerainty were the Indian kingdoms of Taxiles and Forus.~a.We saw above how. Some Tamil authors.C. Strabo and Plutarch. was protected by the sage Candragupta. Mamulanar. under the supervision of Eudemus. in approximately the year 200 B. The Indus marked the frontier between India and the Seleucid empire. FOREIGN EMBASSIES. in Mysore. . Candragupta immediately added them 10 his crown.C. LXII). "an abode of usages of eminent K~a­ triyas"! . Similarly later inscriptions assert that Nagarkha1). Androcottus "at the head of an anny of 600. pp...ar. from t~ /flScripliCHI. etc.).According to Plutarch. p. was originally dug by the vai~ya Pu~yagupta. In the years 317 and 316. Seleucus I. M')'. at the partition of Triparadisus.

1945. Candragupta's minister". Arrian.. 58). II. Klm!affya-SlluJ~n.. On the other hand. that code of universal law which describes in detail all the competences of the political. as a general thesis. . the customs at the imperial court and the composition of the anny. and is far superior to that of his predecessors. pp. Anab . Hecataeus of Miletus. Although his critical sense was somewhat mediocre Megasthenes was nevertheless a keen observer and left us good descriptions of the town of Pa!aliputra. the second with Bindusara surnamed Amitraghata. KONOW.)."Megasthenes who was \iving with Sibyrtius. " that. first Megasthenes to Sandracottus. Dionysius was sent by Ptolemy PhiJadelphus (28S247). DEATH OF CANDRAGUPTA (300 B. and Megasthenes comes right after him" (Strabo. Seleucus I Nicator (312-280) and Antiochus I Soter (28()"'261). 1927-34. Oslo. judicial and executive administration of the Indian state . even if it is true that.the Indians" (Arrian. S. I. V. FHG. then Deimachus to Allitrochades. 1. the king of . the first with Candragupta. STVI • On lhi. see S. qucslion. considers him as a serious historian and places him on the same level as the geographer Eratosthenes (Arrian. . . 9)."Greek writers who had stayed at the Indian courts (Megasthenes and Dionysius sent by Philadelphus for this purpose) have described the strength of those peoples" (Pliny.• Bonn. I).9). such as Scylax of Caryanda. Herodotus of Halicamassus and Ctesias of Cnidos. all the authors who wrote about India lied most of the time. and they left memoirs of their travels" 242 (Strabo.LO£Il. ibid. he says. Megasthenes and Deimachus of the Plataeans in tum published Indike works of which only fragments remain. II. notable for the former (MOLLER.C. either to Bindusira or to Aioka. capital of the new Indian empire: Megasthenes and Deimachus of the Plataeans represent· ed the Seleucids.• V. Anab. satrap of Arachosia. 397-439). The info nnation he supplies is the clearest of what the ancient world knew about India. Deimachus surpasses them all in that respect. SkI. Both authors are severely criticized by Strabo: "We will point out". Kmualya Slwdks. 440-1). Debate still continues over the question of knowing whether this is indeed the work of Ca ~akya . 6. This is what appears from the evidence of the ancient historians: "There were sent as embassies to Palimbothra. It deserves to be compared with the Kall!iliya ArthaSastra. II . 2). son of the former. insignificant for the latter (10. asserts that he called several times on Sandracottus. VI.CANDRAGUPT A 221 Lagidae sent ambassadors to the courl at Pa~aliputra. - Being closely controlled by 3 vol .. the royal palace. pp. who cites Megasthenes profusely in his Indike .

I. that the latter had no sympathy for Buddhism. the son of Candragupta and Durdhara. we note the names of 295. Amitraghata "slayer of foes" in the Mahiib~yo . III.. refer to the renowned couple. it says. 87. pp.. Sp . VI. PJalms 0/ fill Brttlrrtn. Bindusara was. 101 . and retired 243 with the holy Bhadrabihu to a monastery at Sravar:-a-Belgola. V. but. a very wealthy sovereign. abdicated in favour of his son SiJ11hasena. These continued for three reigns. OLUPEWT1D. ch . 454-6). pp. One thing seems certain : namely. which date back to about the year 900. willingly pass over him in silence. V 18 sq. RA.. the Sinhalese chronicles (Dpv . 2. 415 sq. • a . both Sanskrit and pali. p.. such as the Divyiivodana. JRAS. The Theragiithii Commentary claims that . I. 3. Some inscriptions from Mysore. but successful in all his undertakings. claims that towards the end of his life the emperor embraced the religion of the Tirtharpkaras. Bhadrabahu and Candragupta '.VCKAUDHUkl. J. pp. London. Janapadakalyar. 15 . Subhadrangi. Candragupta was doubtless a faithful observer of brihmanical customs. ch. Sumana in Pali. .d - Bindusara The life of the second Maurya appears to be a web of legends.ai. They are found in the A. 44) and the MahiivOJ"!'So comnrentory (pp. Tradition attributes to him some hundred sons. according to the Jaina texts. There he is said to have fasted to death in the Jaina fashion. he had the father of the Buddhist Thera Tekicchakari thrown into prison'. 23. Mhv .. 187-9. represented by the PariJinaporvan (VIII . As for his prime minister Car. 132b II-133c 2).222 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 242-241) the minister who had made his fortune.. 132·:5. POIiI~lllllut . or Dhamma. Amitraglr4lll .). of whom his eldest and favourite was named Susima in Sanskrit. p. pp. T 2042. .• p. RHYs D. ch . he was fearful in anger. Amitrochates or Allitrochades (cf. His chief wife.wlJ)s. and gave him two sons. 36973. on the instigation of Cal). 1620 17· 163b 17. bad advisers led him to kill many people. The MaiijuJrimiilokolpo (vv. 324). However.akya. 99c 20-100c 27 . Known to the Greeks as Amitrochades. 38 sq. 1937. T 99. 43940) devotes only a few lines to him : he was. in Mysorc· . was the daughter of a brahmin from Campala.sokiivodiina (Divyo. ASoka and Vitasoka (Tissa in Pili). T 2043. a first cousin of the latter. 1928. faithful to his promises and religious. • C. a late Jaina tradi· tion. So it is not without reason that the majority of the Buddhist sources. by Pataiijali)'. Among Bindusara's five hundred ministers. 208.aakya (vv. pp.

Bindusira merely subdued the revolts brought about by the cruelty of his governors in various parts of his states. 1920 .( 243-245 ) 8JNDUSA. 39).000 adherents of the brahmanical sects (Sp. immediately after his father 's death. IV. Once his position was assured. 3rd at. V. p. 4th . his neighbours. .. the soothsayer Pingala VatsaJlva or Pilingavatsa... 15. I~ 8uddJ1iJI ~rOf IIf India. KOnil A. 244 Taranatha (pp. and the prime minister Radhagup[a. Ed. 370). Pingalavatsa. H. occupied Pa~liputra where.l sliJdies on Aioka :. 88-9) presents Bindusira and his minister Ca~akya as tireless conquerors. Oxford .ASOKA 223 the old chancellor Ca~akya. 44). in return for money. . BHAND. Ai okll . and we also know through Hegesander (FHG . the beloved of the gods. AiokD.DY. or Parivrajakas... the Indian king.RA . king of Magadha"'o . KAJ. he held all the other claimants at bay. of amiable expression.Asoka The greatest political and spiritual figure of ancient India was ASoka Devanaf!lpriya Priyadariin Raja Magadhe : "ASoka. . We have already seen that he received at his court Deimachus of the Plataeans.• 1932. 371-2). two uprisings broke out successively.. by removing the bad governors and by setting up a feudal regime. exercised his talent. S"UTlf.YI. Bindusira patronised the brahmins and ensured the daily maintenance of 60. p. as soothsayer at the court (Dil'ya. p. With regard to internal politics. Furthermore. at Tak~sila in the Punjab and at KhaSa in the South-west of KasmTr : Asoka.0 245 . Passed over in silence Genera. Bindusara chose as his successor Susima. wrote to Antiochus asking him to send him. figs and a sophist. except VitaSoka (or Tissa). at least one of whom. succeeded in quelling them by treating the rebels with gentleness. and exterminated the harem and the ministers. 3rd ed. legend has it that he killed all his brothers. Bindusara was on excellent terms with the Seleucids.A. Mhv. R . he did not lack interest in religious wanderers. V. commissioned by his father. Antiochus replied that he was sending him the figs and wine. they purportedly exterminated the kings and nobility of approximately sixteen cities and subjugated all the territories between the eastern and western seas. In fact. his eldest son but his plans were thwarted by ASoka who. but that the Greeks were not in the habit of selling sophists". VI. the ambassador of Seleucus I Nicator. According to the Divyiivadiina (pp. however. 421) that he corresponded with Antiochus I Soter : "The figs were so sought after by all men that even Amitrochates. D . with the help of the minister Radhagupta.foka. The Pali sources add that ASoka also held a viceroyalty in Avantir~!ra (Dpv . wine.

191 1 : B. V. lA..y. he is known as much from contemporary documents . 2043) . Madras. bUI with In Inli· Buddhisl btu) . 256 B. pp. R. the edicts can be classed in six groups : (I) Year 1} or the consecration (230 aFter the NirvaQa. Calcutta. a.T. pp. MJ 116 mati d'AJalca. 2()IU. A/YANGAk. passing from history to legend. IO· ~l .C. Ch . . .N£JI. 161b-17Oc) . 1 92~. pp. 348-434) and the SllJ!Iyuktiigama (T 99. L '/Nk /JK}C tf'mps du Mawyas . without auempting to make them consonant. 1956. AJeo\:D 0IId lIiJ MwiDlt. pp. not to mention the innumerable allusions in the Buddhist SUlras and sastras.224 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 245-246) by the Graeco-Roman historians. There are considerable divergences between these sources .Sevel1l1 articles in &rJdhiJtk SludWJ. K . AJeo\:G. 1949. London. F. JORM.C. VII. Jaina texts and brihmanical1iterature.).R.••• . 80-8 . According to the probable or attested date or their publication.w.Ji.Iomvy. 225-47.. pp. Xl. MaiDZ. DE LA VAu. MahowJT!lsa .. Calcutta. pp. 1M ~rlderw:f' (If iU'cJtMoI(!fy.iplWtu of AilMa (Corpus Inscriplionum Indiarum. . G . ~ AlIlMnlkity Df 'M Ajok"" Ulmds. 1949. Biblw"iJphk bowldhu.7. ~L£. XIII. IA.the edicts which he had engraved on rocks and pillars . B. di'riJwJ M. I. pp. IV. LAw.as from later legends the most imponant of which are Buddhist in origin : Aiokiivadiina (T 2042. PiyGdo. ch.R. 2 vol.) . pp. 547-58 . VI. 1M A.. XI . Madras. 1920. 1948. 1912.86.tWtt. FILUOZAT.and the Sinhalese chronicles (DipavaJ?UQ . 1949. BLOCH. Ch. Baroda. 711 sq. UJ ilucriptiOllJ.that are known at the present time are thirty-three in number II . !lJ iruc. 1950..N.. in particular 5« : L. 1957. I). )(uN. 35 sq.S.The inscriptions engraved by ASoka . ~ Ituc. AJoA:il I~}CI and . 1·9. p. Bern. BKAI'<1)AAKAk.) : the 1rd ed.. I. ~ Ml1IIfyQII PoIi. 101 · 19 . the official language or the imperial chancellery or PaJ. BSQAS. 1950. HULTZ5CH. XX : Saman tapiuiidikil . 211 2." For the inlerpretation of obscure passages. A.. MCJOU1JtE. D. The language is Magadhi. ~ And~n' Indiun KinKJ. we will analyze them in tum.edicts on rock (R. 23. LA LOlJ. I I Editions oflhe edicts. and in Gujarat (Girnir) by the dialect or the South-West. 1924 . Abo see lhe adMl1da below. in8uenced in 246 the Punjab (Mansehri and Shihbazgarhi) by northern Prikrit. B. BwJJJoism tJNJ AJoKQ. 1928. MCJOU1JtE. DIKSHITAA. JA. E. V. d~x 0. AJokG KaiM. £dim of AJeo\:o "'itll &.) and edicts on pillar (P. 186-219 . in order to bring out the accretions collected by the laner. Olford. Paris.liJll TranJu. V. I .iptiOf/J d'AJeo\:a.tE POllSSU". L'hrit"". AJeo\:Q's k fi.Also JCIC the &rticlc:s collated by M. WOOI. pp. except in the North-West where Kharo~!hi (Mansehra and Shahbazgarhi) or Aramaic script are used (Laghman). R. Nos. us tk. SEN.ioft.*JIIs. 101 . XXI-XXIII. pp._ic Itucripliol! of AWkofOWtd in LompQko.. W. 451 . III. Not.C. MUJlTllnd A. Paris. R.as d'AJoko.C. H £NNlNG.reproduced in extracts in the Divyiivadana (pp.8liputra.. 612·lS. The script is a variety or Brihmi. 2 (scholuly lIudies. IIIId Mwi(!ll(Jr. UJf~JIM'#J dJI DiIDmmlI cMz Ai04:o...: E. PuBUCATION OF The Edicts THE EDICTS.

THE EXTENT OF THE EMPIRE. Siddiipura and Jatinga RimeSvara (Mysore). Mansehri (Hazara).li.C.. Sahasrim (Bihar) and Riipnith (Jubbulpore District. 249 B. also known a. 241 (5 a) Towards (Ire end of the reign : the smaller pillar edicts found in saiici and Sirnath. Jauga<:la (Ganjam). found in different places : 8airi~ (Jaipur).) : third cave at Barabar.a. in Magadha.. the Inscription of Ca lcutta-Bairi~. The versions of Mysore and Yerragu<.ta. (5) Year 20 (238 after the Nirvir:aa. (6) Year. Palkigur:a<:lu and Oavimath (Hyderabad). . (I a) Year 19 (237 after the Nirva!). 2SS B.fiya-Nanrlangarh and Rampurva (northern Bihar).) : the seven pillar edicts. comemmorating the gift to the AJivikas of the Nigrodha and Mount Khalatika caves. Andhra Pradesh) in the south.Topri. particularly developed at Yerra· gu~i.C. KaisT (Dehra Dun).) : pillar inscriptions at Rummundei and NigaIi sagar or NigJiva (Nepal).) : the rock inscriptions known as Minor. and Yerragu<:li (Kurnool). Maski .C. ShihbazgarhT (Peshawir). (2) Year Jj (231 after the Nirva!). 254 B. (4) Year 14 (232 after the Nirvar:aa. both closely connected.. Among the provinces immediately governed by the king himself or his . II to 13. one entitled The Edict of lhe Queen and the other. Madhya Pradesh) in the north. also contain an addition.a. The seventh and most important appears.t 16 and 17 (244-245 after the Nirvii!). The pillars at Delhi-Mira~~. 248 B.C. Allahiib8d·Kosam (formerly KauSimbi) contain only the first six edicts. the Edict of J(awdmbi.) : the fourteen rock edicts found in seven versions of lesser or greater completeness at Gimir (Kiithiawar). directed against the Sal!lghabheda. 242·241 B.C. addressed to the Buddhist SaJrlgha. where they replace rock edicts No.<246-241) 225 first two inscriptions of Barabar. Maharashtra) and at Laghmin (Kabul Valley).The distribution of the edicts and their contents gives us an approximate idea of the limits of the empire and its administrative divisions. only on the pillar at Delhi. with the others. (4 a) Year 14 : the two separate edicts of Ka~nga found at Dhauli and Jauga. Dhauli (Puri). (3) Y~ar 13 : the single edict of Bhibra. without taking into account the fragments o n the eighth rock edict found at Sopara (Thana District. Laufiyi-Araraj. YeTragu~i (K urnool District. but Kosam includes two further short inscriptions. which reproduce the Edict of /(Ouicimbi forbidding the schism . Lau.a.

C. he set out for Enlightenment (uydya smrtlJodhim). al} upasaka l2 . pp.C. p. l. inaugurating a lour of the Dharma (dharmayiit ra) with audiences. the king decided to substitute the reign of the Dharma for that of violence (R.226 THE MAURY AN PERIOD (241-248) direct officials (mahiimiilra). Keralaputra (Malabar) and Tamrapal'Qi (Ceylon). several times that number perished. there remained the Dravidian states in the extreme south of the peninsula : Cola (TrichinopJy and Tanjore). . and constituted 'iljavi~ayQ . 98-9). THE REIGN. . as well as the believers and devout citizens. Ten years after his consecration. but for a year was not very zealous (Minor Edicts. He became a faithful layman.000 persons were deported. this initiative did much to extend the practice o f the Dharma (BlOCH. that is.w. pp. to be sought in Nizam. 125-9). 95-97).C.000 were killed .). Year 10 (228 after the Nirval)a. 149). the list of which appears in the: edicts. 123-4. . Dak~ir:la or southern region . administered Kalinga. an upisaia. capital Tak~asila. brahmins and sramal). p. Year 8 (226 after the Nirva!)a.A year and a half after taking his upasaka vows. . BLOCH. 146). Avanti. p. instructions and distributions of gold to the religious and the old (BLOCH. This catastrophe severely affected all the inhabitants. 2411 p.C. Years 12 (230 after the NirvaJ:1a. Did Aioka ~COIM a BhikJcJru?. as viceroys. 258 B.). This Question is disclUSed by B. 256 B.During the conquest of Kalinga.as. Satyaputra (Mangalore). The frontier regions.pp. Uttarapatha. Smitten with remorse. capital Ujjayini. 145). the king's zeal became extreme (BLOCH. BLOCH. finally. 150. a conquest of ASoka . but linked with it through bonds of assured friendship . the king ordered the edict of the Dharma to be engraved on rock NOTEWORTHY DAns OF U Aloia was I Buddhist layman. capital TosaIT. IC. XIII.The edicts contain indications of some important events of the reign dating from the time of the consecration. 112)-: 256 nights were spent on tour (BLOCH. capital Suvan::aagiri. 100. mention must be made of Magadha and the central districts such as Kausambi. an area in the northern Punjab.the king ordered his district officers (yukta) to set out on circuit every five years with a special edict on the teaching of the Dharma (BLOCH. but never a monk. . were under the domination of feudal minor kings. In order to prolong its effect. Making use of reproductions of edifying picturC9. Outside the empire. I. Par:l~ya (Madura).). Kumaras or royal princes.J. 260 B. pp.

He became an upisaka.tiyoga (Antiochus II Theos of Syria. . and Alikasudara (Alexander of Epirus.C.tekin (Antigonus II Gonatas of Macedonia.T.a. Gandharans. 161. see J . THE DHARMA OF ASoKA. Maga (Magas of Cyrene. 165. the Buddha's birthplace (BLOCH.Gift of the third cave of Baribar to the Ajivikas (BLOCH. after a peregrination which lasted for two hundred and fifty-six nights. and paid further homage to the stupa of Konakamuni (BLOCH.). . p.). . Satyaputra which has not been definitely identified. 261-246) and.C.Publication. Ristikas and Pitenikas (BLOCH. 255 B.). p. p. 249 Year 26 (244 after the Nirviif. Among the foreign sovereigns who received his message. Tamrapan:ti or Ceylon were mentioned as borderland Indian kingdoms. 158). The Colas of Coromandel. . during a pilgrimage to the Sodhi tree. It was no doubt also in the year 12 or 13 of the consecration that ASoka considered himself as having won the victory of the Dhanna. pp. p. A year and a half later. which were followed.Publication of the first six pillar edicts (BLOCH. 249 B. .la. Year U (232 after the Nirva~a. p. he promulgated the fourteen rock edicts (ca 254 B. Keralaputra in Malabar and finally. 219. 168). FI1.C. Year 13 (231 after the Nirva~a.C.C. 158). p. rourteen or fifteen years later (ea 242· 241 B. but for a year his zeal was far from ardent.). p.A. Arp. . Year 20 (238 after the Nirvii~a. he visited the community of monks and.). Year 27 (245 after the Nirva~a. four kings : Turamaya (Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt.The remorse which ASoka felt after the bloody conquest of Kalinga led him to embrace the Buddhist reljgion. Kambojas. 163. more distant than Antiochus.a. 130. at Delhi· Topr.UOZ-o. 172). 242 B.Asoka created overseers of the Dharma (dharmanwhamatra) to supervise the sects and favour those faithful to the Dharma among the Yonas. by the seven pillar edicts which aimed at substituting the victory of the Dharma for the reign of coercion and violence. 241 B. he donated the Banyan and Mount Khalatika caves to the Ajivikas (BLOCH.C. 157). 272_256)IJ .C.) . both in foreign kingdoms and in his own empire (BLOCH. p. I J On the UK to be made ofthc$e synchronisms for the dale of Aiolc.roka doubled the size of the stupa of the Buddha Konakamuni at Nigalisiigar (BLOCH. 276239). p. see also p.roka visited the Lumbini garden. 156). 285-247). I. 254 B. of the seventh pillar edict (BLOCH. Year /9 (237 after the Nirva~a . the Pa~­ Qyas in the south of the peninsula. 156). deceased in 258).C. INk Class~. 248 B.). he quotes the Greek king Arp.( 243-24\1 ) 227 (dharmalipll Notwithstanding. 103).). .A. 93).

p. For Asoka. I' 10. no mention is made of the four noble truths. . neither the name nor concept of Nirva~a is encountered. lSI. it teaches "proper conduct according to the ancient rule"J5 . this advice to the laity merely promotes the general rules of moral life. 10 SlJIrIyulla. such is the essence of Asoka's Dhanna. lA. which as sovereign he intended to render triumphant "in order to discharge his debt to creatures" . according to the recognized expression.118 11-IE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 249-250) ASoka himself established a clear distinction between his personal Dharma. III. all men were his children. Dfglla. as well as the Advjce 10 Upiisakas dispersed throughout the canonical writings. I S4. Indians or foreigners. . IV. His Dharma is superim· posed on various beliefs without any claim to absorb them : acceptable to all . the descrip-tions of lay morality scattered throughout the ancient anthologies of universal wisdom. Therefore. but in the Dhannasastras. under the aegis of the Buddha. Dhammapada. the lay and the religious. a rule which kings in the past had already tried to promote u .. " Majjllima . III.. Satryutta 1D and AlJ. l ] Arigulfara. or the eightfold path. he designated in his edict at 8h3bra by the name of Saddharma "Good Law" I . 168.. The Dharma is only an expression. . 142·79 . pp. pp. . of the great principles of natural law .asut· lanta I 7. Asoka might have believed he was failing in his duties as an impanial sovereign by favouring a particular religion to the detriment of others. or the doctrine of dependent origination. pp. it is also compulsory for all. SiilgiiJoviida II and the various Gahapativagga in the Majjhima 19. pp.8uUarall . 180-93. pp. As we: have seen in the first chapter. To avoid sin. LakkholJ. 208· 35. p. BLOCH. and he worked for their welfare and happiness in order to ensure them bliss in Ihis world but especially 14 J. and the Buddhist Law expounded by the Buddha and which. It 10. ilU(ripfioru d 'AJoka. Drgha . p. Therefore it would be fruitless to seek in his edicts the profound ideas and fundamental theories of Buddhism.. its parallels are not to be found in the Buddhist sutras devoted to the exaltation of the religious life. )39-413. practise virtue and perform the duties of 250 human solidarity. II. in its most universal fonn. SUllaITjpdla . 68· 80. or the Buddha's supernatural qualities. I.

the brahmins. overseers (mahiimtitra) in Kalinga. Nirgranthas.. instruclion in the Dharma and questions on the Dharma to the people of the provinccs"l5 . 171. He expected his family. and local governors (pradeiika) who. 11 10 . pp. in the gardens.. 94-S. 132. pp. p. the wretched and prisoners JO. sons. informants must acquaint me with public affairs .. Je 10. overseers of the Dharma (dharmanuihamtitra). p..inlllaico. the elderly. pp. in the women's apartments. 1 03-4.. I()6. " 10. 121 . 170-1. l l . to follow his example l ' . with resting-places. charged with the care of the religious. pp. AJlvikas. the sowing of medicinal herbs.. p. p. 112. wells and tanks u . ASok:a concerned himself personally with public affairs and displayed extreme zeal in doing SO : "At every moment . Such undertakings were what the Buddhists liked to attribute to good rulers and of which the MaifjuiriBLOCH. on the farmlands. In order to achieve his ideal. I I 10 . grandsons and the other princes. 132. entrusted with winning the affection of the people 2 ' . 103. 100. . p. upkeep of the highways. The main thing is 10 work and to bring affairs to a successful conclusion"l • . '. JI H l< It aiD. 102. 109. 131. He was assisted in his task by officials "appointed for the welfare and happiness of the people" : envoys (dUta) who carried his message throughout the empire and among the foreign kingdomsl1 .. u 10. shady trees and mango groves . Happiness in this world and beyond is the reward promised to upasakas by the Itivullaka : " Whoever desires joy. 10 ... 112. pp.B. may he aspire to heavenly joys or may he yearn for human happiness" lJ . anywhere. The king's zeal also found expression in the carrying out of a large number of public works : the planting of banyans. in a vehicle. and who were eventually to be concerned separately with the various sects : the Buddhist Salllgha. srama~as and the aged. whether I am at table. district officers (yukla). n 10.. liB. Not' content with being kept informed. 167. 96. sons of his queens.( 2)>-2SI ) 229 2S1 in the heavens of the other world H . etc. set out on tour with his special edict 21. in my room. he organized Dharma tours (dharmaytitrti) with audiences and the distribution of gold to the brahmins. 1M. pp. 137. BLOCH. 164. every five years. inspectors (rtijuka) .

. 143. p. II. p. pp. T 1425. Y. 49 . etc. ctc. theft. 109. demerit. BLOCH.. p. is easily committed. 149. 420. 92· 3. falsehood and the usc of fermented drinks. •• la . 540. 133. BLOCH. 118· 19. Dlgha. He emphasized respect for life to such a degree that he limited. Asoka unceasingly counselled obeH u II J. ASoka was less demanding and only condemned taking life or violence exerted on creatures 40 and he recommended loyalty and truthfulness 41 . ASoka asserted. BLOCH. 172. 252 Sin. 163 . delights to give details in its execrable Sans- krit lJ . and which was immortalized on roclc H . 171. We saw earlier how the old Ma"as~ghika ViIJoya l4 promises an increase in merits and good rebirths to prin~ who provide watering places in the desert. ch.. sexual misconduct. 99. 4. for cnmple. 172. then definitively forbade the slaughtering of animals for culinary use 41 . 162. Mahivastu.230 TIfE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 2SI-2S2 ) millaka/po. 1&3 . such a lapidary fonnula can be compared with a Buddhist stanza which has become a classic: "Avoiding all sin. Y. p. pp. 61. 10. Udana . The misdeeds which the fivefold morality proscribes for the upisaka are taking life. Ohanunapada. purifying the mind : such is the teaching of the Buddha" l l . to combat a wrong inclina· tion. Such merits in no way equal the value of the teaching of the Dharma which Asolca disseminated up to the confines of the inhabited world. build bridges. heard or suspected that the animal had been killed in order to serve as food for the religious. pp. In the field of domestic virtues. Ohammapada. p. S4S. 162. is difficult for everyone. 97. but what is beneficial and good is very difficult to accomplish"19. He showed himself to be even more strict than the monks of the Hinayana who allowed the use of meat and fish on condition that it had not been seen. 165-6. pp. What was this Dharma? Basically it amounts to : "The absence of the cause of sin and the abundance of good actions"J'. doing good. III. other Buddhist texts list the seven meritorious material deeds (PU1Jyakriyovaslu) which are recommended to the laity... 40 Mmk . 162. His reasoning agrees with that of the Dhammapada and the Udana : "Easily performed are wrong actions and whatever hanns the self. but especially so for the members of upper classes l8 . J' II . pp. 2616. ISO. .. plant tr«s. 685-6. 169. vv. H la. 162. 102. 648·9.

p. If charity is worthy. in any case. 182-3. pp. the old and the weak as well as to slaves and servants. III .. brother. generosity towards brahmins and sramal). friends and cOmpanions are the north . . since the result wished for is not always acquired. Majjhima. BLOCH. BLOCH. BLOCH. 116. Digha. relation and even the mere neighbour should come and say : "That is good. I. 6 . father. That is a truth to which the Buddhist texts return unceasingly : "There are two kinds of gifts". III. 120. p. 26S.indness to the poor. " there is no gift or assistance which is equivalent to the gift of the Dharma. irreproachable courtesy towards one's friends. son. pp. preach : "This is one's duty. pp. associate. oJ . teachers are the south . 126.as and brahmins are the zenith""" . .. parent. . 17. 113..<2S2-2S3> 231 dience to one's father and mother. so the Buddha warned the laity against vices which could lead to the loss of their fortune . sons and wife are the west. I. marriages.' U . ID. Dighii. says the Ariguttara "a material gift and a gift of the Law. such ceremonies are of little use..... Angultata. 150. teacher or friend. births or a journey. 98-9. companions and family . 91. p. " BLOCH. 2S3 Such are the meritorious actions which constitute the true Ceremonies of the Dharma (dharmamangafa). pp. By virtue of that principle.as u _ The Buddha gave exactly the same advice to the young householder Singalaka : "How does the noble disciple protect the six regions of space? These six regions are composed as follows : father and mother are the east . only the ceremony of the Dharma enables one to obtain the happiness sought in this world and. 96. liS. k. 116. pp. obedience to one's teachers. Just as Asoka extolled in his subjects "the minimum of spending and the minimum of assets" "s . . 188-9. the true disciple of the Buddha does not consider festivities and ceremonies (kotUhafamangala) organized in such circumstances to be essential"' . 439. Similarly. one's good. 97 . sramal). slaves and servants are the nadir . this is how to reach the heavens" sl . creates endless merit in the other world''' . on each occasion. and which art quite different from the various ceremonies which people hold on the occasion of illness. acquaintances.. 119. p. the assistance of the Dharma""!'. 111. Ill. every associate. but the foremost of those two gifts is the gift of the Law" so . Angultara. . companion should. Even if they have to be perfonned.. p.

10. since. . he asked that the pious layman. 1)8 . docility. • 0 10.. callousness. ) 71. p. " Saqlyuua. vigilance. V.232 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 2B·2S4) that is duty" S2 . suffering or struck by some cruel disorder. BLOCH. p. 1 10. when he is sick. circumspection and vigour to the greatest degree 61 . anger. in accordance with Indian and Buddhist beliefs. 165. truthfulness and purity 6l . . Il 10. cruelty. mastery over the senses. I . do not be u 10.'a) the practice of which ensures happiness in this world arid in the next : security. 12Q. the quality to which the emperor attached the greatest importance was exertion (pariikrama) or fortitude (utstiha).In order that relations could have the opportunity to administer such a fraternal admonition. devotion to the Law.1 10. the Buddha exhorted his cousin Mahaniman to lead a holy life "because the tree falls to the side on which it is leaning" S4. I .. These lists of faults and virtues are very similar to those found in the Buddhist writings. a condition of spiritual progress. the mother of Nakula prepared her husband to die contentedly. indeed. 111. However. irritability. idleness and lassitude' " and to obviate those "accesses to faults" which consist of ill-will. pity. Ailguuara. p.· . p. 295·8 . his officials to combat inwardly jealousy. He listed the "virtues of the Law" (dharmagu'. was aware of the importance of the last thought or.. p. as well as the virtues recommended by him. equanimity and gentleness" . 16l. ASoka allowed those condemned to death an interval of three days so that their intimates could intercede for them or so that they could prepare themselves for death by means of alms-giving and fasting 53 . pp. as Ilad already been perceived by the Buddhist texts : "Be alert. He invited his subjects and. pride and envy 51 . by endeavouring to inspire him with feelings of joy and peace so . In order to perfonn this duty.. the "thought (at the time) of death" (maralJacitla) . 408. 163. 14 SaqlyutU. hastiness. as the Buddhists put it. p. p. pity and truthfulness 60 .. p. obstinacy. obedience. p. Many are the vices condemned by ASolca. particularly in the Abhidhanna..• p. that thought dctcnnines one's future destiny_ Hence. most especially. 129. V. . 10. 150.. .. . The king. be "comforted by another pious layman with the aid of the 254 four comforting teachings"JJ . 162. charity.

lJ. . ~ BLOCH. his dearest wish was ihat the sects which he supported and honoured would progress in the essence (SiiTQl'!ddJII) . . he made a gift of caves to the Ajivikas 09 . but also the evil which one has committed 04 . 163. the foolishness of teachers who considered they alone possessed the truth and treated their adversaries as fools and ignoramuses : " J do not call truth what the foolish confront each other with. A. Villaya . 168. .lha who had acknowledged his fault and vowed not to repeat it. 08 .. . " the one who. v. p. other sects should even be honoured every time the opportunity arose ' I . mental purity. A. and.. I I 10. 11 10 . pp. that is why they treat their opponents as fools"12 . pp. Twice. pp. Nirgranthas.. I I 10. 156. p.. etc. From this brief survey it ensues that the Dhanna extolled by ASoka is clearly different from the Buddhist Saddhanna. 121-2. p. 6. " 5 llltampita. and protected all the sects impartially . that restraint of speech which causes one to refrain from honouring one's own sect or from irrelevantly denigrating those of others . acknowledging his fault . went to them in person 01 . 110. they make their own view the truth . p.roka was an unbiased sovereign. 110. 170-1. While not interfering with their particular doctrines and disciplines. Among those beneficial practices. confesses and promises not to repeat it represents a gain for the Law"05 . 168. it merely sets out in 63 Dharnmapada. 124-7 . 6' 10. he named overseers of the Dhanna in order to watch over the particular interests of each sect : Buddhist Sarpgha.. Ajivikas.• pp. It is a Buddhist belief that an offence confessed is lightened. indeed. v. From the external point of view.( 254-255) 2)) 2H heedless! Observe the Law of beneficial practices : whoever observes that is happy in this world and the next"61 .11. Brihma~as. he allowed them to reside where they wished° o. namely. Being a convinced Buddhist. he demanded of his religious a dignified life in keeping with their social' condition : mastery over the senses. at an interval of seven years. The Buddha also had condemned religious intolerance. 82. in order to pay homage to them. BLOCH. and the Buddha "removed his offence" from the Licchavi VaJ. II. explained the Master. acknowledgement and steadfastness in faith 1 0. 1 0 to .roka recommended the examination of one's conscience: not to consider only the good one has done.

166 . which in all likelihood was promulgated in the year 13 of his reign.il by the Upadeia. 413 . 'The Imm in this vcetina arc commented upon in det. Divy. pp. Nevertheless. p. p. gene· rally speaking. I. p. assuming the role of spiritual adviser. Arilutt. 168. 429). 103 . Q/p4b6d/IQ1iJI!! parip!« lIlIly aJpiJtatikal~ )'fJlr6trt ftlJllulIlIDno'iJI!! ba/lJtrI swk/ttniMral6Jri ca parip!«lIlIli (M. the king of Magadha " greets the Community and hopes it has little affliction (appdbddhalla) and is well at ease (phllsuvihij· faua)". P. III . etc. 437. Then follows a profession of respect (gaurava) and faith (prasiida) in the Three Jewels. p. His Buddhist inscriptions are three in number : the Bhiibrii edict. Avadllllbtab. it does not teach ex professo the four noble truths or the system of dependent origination which constitute the basis of the Word of the Buddha . III. Milinda. 10. Saddb.rJ. 90. 14. I. p. His envoys. but to chide his subjects and edify his neighbours. (4). the traditional Buddhist formula of greeting 73 . Majjhima. ' J . 156 . in an abbreviated form .itcavil!lSati . the rescript at Kausambi and the inscription in Rummindei. 161). the Buddha. p. This is. and not a sectarian propagandist. as a devout Buddhist. by promulgating the edict of the Dharma all over India. there follows the assertion that "all that the Blessed Lord Buddha spoke was well spoken" : an appeal to the omniscient Buddha. It was never his intention to found a Buddhist State.tdvastu. 92. . his Law and his Community. In the Bhiibrii edict. I. 254 . Asoka recommends to the religious and the laity the reading and study of the seven Sermons on the Law (dhtur'mapa/iyiiya). p. Finally. the first of the four " great authorities" (mahiipadeia) which are formulated in the Dlgha (II. p.234 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (2jS-2S6) traditional Indian fonnulas the principles of natural law which the Buddhists had already tried to inculcate in their lay followers . pp. address the Sarpgha which owed him so much. II. the list of which is as follows : In Pili. ]25 : II. in conformity with the taking of the vows by the laity. ASoKA's BUDDHIST INSClumONS. After that.Having confined himself. overseers were in no way Buddhist missio naries. ASolca was a pious and zealous ruler. pp. 123). I.atmapu*n1ta. SiltriiJOf!llciira (ed . ch. LEvi. inspectors. I.. 72. p. In Sanskrit. 4). but officials preoccupied with the present and future happiness of those under their administration. 204 . p. pp. p. ap~ appiJlariktur' laJrW!f1uWvrr ba1tur' plwuwviMrtur' pucrllali (Digila. p. to the role of head of state. they 256 prepared peo ple's minds to receive the Buddhist message and opened the way for religious propagandists. 65. T 1509. Ill. Atiguttara (II . ASoka thought he could.

c. I I. better still.( 256. and which were uttered by the: Buddha on various occasions.Some Mllnigotha formed part of the " Cha nted Recitations" which. g. the Ariguttara (I. . 84b). as we: saw earlie:r. They are also mentioned. Kosa . although less systematically. the four noble lineages (cortaro ariya-v~Q) from which true monks arc born : "to be satisfied with clothing. the SUllanipilta Commentary informs us that the Munisulla is an artificial collection of verses with no logical link betwc:c:n them. 118 and 326). 100-10. b. in a great number of other texts. . 29). is all-knowing and differs from the: layman as does a peacock from a swan. the Sciripullosulla of the SUllaniptila (IV. d. he has ove:rcome: obstacles. The: Atiguttara (JII.ti~ "The Que:stions of Upatissa". Munigiilha "Stanzas of the: Sage. p. are: closely connected with the "Minor Texts" (lqudraJca). Vinaya-Jamukka.There: are several groups of five future dangers (panea anagata-bhayiinl) which constitute: as many temptations for monks living in solitude. 56).It can be supposed that this is an eulogy of the Pritimok~ as it is found in the Angllrtara (I. 207-21).Mention is made of the: three: silences (lilJi moneyyiinl) of body. ch. The Suttaniptita contains a Munisutla (I.te "Praise of the Discipline". p. 95575) is a dialogue in which the Buddha explains to Sariputra the dangers to which a monk is exposed. to delight in Nirva~a and the path to Nirva~a" (Arigullara. verse: 211 is quoted in the Mallcil'a.2S7) ASOKA. v. VI. 235 a. . speech and mind in the Digha (III. the Sil uanipilla (III. e. etc. pp. However. 206-20) lists a series of them.tlil (III.tlu (III. p. It seems they existed independently : hence. in which the sage is de:fined as a solitary being. 220). II. 6. pp. 698 sq. verse: 221 in the Upadda by Nagirjuna (f 1509. Aliya-l'a. 123). dwelling in meditation and far removed from the desires of his time. or. .) devotes a long eulogy to the perfect way of the sage (moneyyturT IIttamturT pado~) . p. vv. pp. 291) and the Arigurtara (Y. verse 213 in the Mahava. 146). pp. but brings to mind the ten rules of living practised by the holy ones (dosa ariya-l'OsO) which arc mentioned in the Digha (JII. MoneYosUlle "Discourse: on Silence" . p. .t(1)i "the Genealogy of the Noble Ones". Laghulol'iitk mwiiviitfaJrJ adhigicya bhagal'atii bllddhena bhiisile " The Discourse: concerning falsehood addressed to Rihula by the . 273) and the Ilivuuaka (p. Anagala-bhayiini "Future Dangers" . . 110. food and lodging. vv. 98-100).Among the: enormous number of siitras in which the Buddha and Sariputra (alias Upati~ya) appear. p. 3. 269. Upalissapa. On the other hand. pp. 27. f.The interpre- 2S7 tation of this is uncertain.

126-3).CK. 414-20). ch. QIU lcnpS MaurytU. . if not bring round. By recommending the study of these texts to the religious and laity. 3.. the Chinese Dharmapada 2S8 (T 211.• . XX. pp. T 212. if it is necessary. II. Indeed it does seem that the favours granted by the king had the unexpected effect of attracting into the order undesirable recruits whose greed and recalcitrant attitudes threatened the tranquillity of the state. pp.. Mmt. DE LA V"u. overcome their temptations.b: PoUSSlN. . Since then . CaIcuUa. delight in solitude.236 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 257·258) Blessed Lord Buddha". 606-9. of a Buddhist canon in the same fonn and with more: or less the same titles as those which are known to us now". ViltDyQJamIlkllSt in Aiok. pp. on the contrary. Certain people claim to see in it "a historical document which proves decisively the existence. 599c-6OOa ..a ·$ Bhdb. pp. enclose themselves in wise silence and avoid the traps laid at their feet. and agreement over the proposed identifications is far from unanimous '· . p.C. L '/. However. 3. /JuJdJIisl TulS QJ rtcommtNkd by Aiok. 1930. his advice was not devoid of all political ulterior motives.. in which the condemnation of falsehood is indeed the most categorical . S8le). p.UV. BHATT. JDlC . p. 1580)..A reference to the AmbaJanhikQ Rohulovadasulla in the Mojjhimo (I . pp. ch. the Maltii-Riihuloviidasulla incorporated into the Majjhima (I .ii Ediel.. We can merely remark that the Bhabra edict proves. This is why ASoka was led to check those who wanted to enter the Order and take measures against any schismatics. The significance of the edict for the history of the writings has in turn been overrated and undervalued. It is true that modern exegeticists have striven to find the seven "Discourses of the Law". 13.J 1943. UltralUrt . . pp. ASoka hoped to ensure that the Good Law would last for a long time. and the discussion of the idmtificatio ns in L. consider the Bhabra enumeration to be incompatible with the existence of a well defined canon : "There are many reasons to doubt whether Buddhism possessed a canon alreadY 'at that time". See the bibliograpby on this subject in WIN'IUNITZ. He invited the bhik~us to confonn to their discipline.a. in the third century B.. .A. which has its correspondents in the Madhyamagama (T 26. ch. 6680) and the Upadesa (T 1509. 7. II . in the canonical writings. 420-6) and which has its correspondent in the Ekottariigama (T 125. the Sal1lgha to a correct understanding of his state duties. 436a-437b). be content with their lot. because he hoped to keep. Others. This siitra is different from another Exhortation to Rihula.. mentioned by the Bhabra edict. S. V. ch. ch.

gh instead of h (LiGHula instead of RaHula). he insisted on the unity which should prevail between members of the order. After having formulated certain restrictions concerning eotry into the order. II. It is neither Pili nor Sans· krit.. also see Ch. 204). Ob~~yation..'s14. 2. which presupposes the existence of the Pili canon in its present fonn . lnao-Ewoplt'PIJ . ft is probably in this language.( 2. Furthennore. possessed of all the . First of all.C. the separation over a point of doctrine or discipline by a group of at least nine bhik~us. a stur/ghabheda is not a schism but. to be precise in 236 after the Nirval)a (250 B. 49S.S9-260) 2. quite different from those supplied by the texts. p..LtI. DE LA VA. 200-6 . A century later. according to the Sinhalese chronicles. 1912.59 237 260 the early existence of holy texts. the Bharhut sculptures were to provide yet other titles. 11 s. de La yallee Poussin H. belonging to the same creed and dwelling in /anpt p'lcantHt~ du b . VI rurther on. Sinci and Sirnith towardli the: end of the: reign.L. ltvl.). One can only note their paucity in relation to those seventeen discourses which. pp. but the data supplied by the edict does not allow for any pronouncement concerning their extent. pp. that the first Buddhist texts were recited. cyo instead of the Sanskrit lyo and Pili ceo (adhigiCYA instead of adhikrTYA or adhigiCCA).religious privileges. lA. Levi. However. is only one of the many anachronisms attributable to the authors of the Dipa· and Mahdvt1J!lSa . the language in which these titles are drafted is not that of any universally attested canonical language. but presents those texts in a fonn which is not the same as that of the canons which have come down to us. PoumN . protocanonical by L. it is phonetically a much more evolved Magadhi than the diplomatic Magadhi of the eastern group in which Asoka drafted his edicts. according to the canonical definition (Vinaya. In the edict of Kausambi published simultaneously in Kosam.J sru _ . finally. This Buddhist Magadhi pronounced I and not r (Lighula instead of Rihula). there is nothing to prove that the titles given by ASoka are traditional titles. as we shall see further on. L. but Magadhi. ASoka directly addressed the: Sarpgha of bhik~us and bhik~uJ):is. Properly speaking. called pre. Moggalitissaputta's envoys were to propound during their spectacular missions some years later. Secondly. this collection of discourses. its nominative singular of topics in -Q was in -e and not -0.-canonical by S.. condemned "disunion in the Community" (smrrghabheda) and compelled whoever might have provoked it to return to the white robe of the layman and to live away from the religious dwelling. g instead of k (adhiGicya instead of adhiKrtya).

Asoka had already referred to his pilgrimage to the place of the Saf!1bodhi (BLOCH. 4. In his rock edicts. 146) and his pious tours (p. adds the Miilasarvaslil'iidin Vinoya (Gilg. even if his preferences led him to favour the Sa111gha of bhik~us and to take special measures to ensure the duration and harmony of the order. IV. conscientious ruler. 211. p. 217). p. 118. the king went in person to the Lumbinivana. KauSimbi and saiki The king's intention was to reduce dissidents to lay status. 23 . he freed the inhabitants of the village from tax and he "set them at 1/8 th" (BWCH. there he buih a high wall of stone and erected a pillar . he was a convinced Buddhist. Ill. however. the increase in number of the religious added to the causes of friction and threatened the cohesion of the most populated parishes : pa. were intended to immortalize two such ventures. However. p. III. to the stupa of the former Buddha Konikamuni. he doubled it in size and embellished it in various ways. discovered at Rummindei and Nigili Sigar (Nigliva). II.!aliputra. he retained enough insight to protect all the sects impartially./ Man . During the Buddha's own lifetime. pp. · 3. He went twice to Nigili Sigar. ceremonies of confesion etc.. 124. p. his orders were not followed.The ASoicivadioa In the paragraph concerning the Mi Sters of the Law. preoccupied with the present and future happiness of 261 his subjects and neighbours. 157). 112).. Angullara. 248). p. p. Personally. It is not at all surprising. . 210 . I. more preoccupied with the construction of stupas and endowment of the Satflgha than with internal order and state finances. apart. by forcing them to return to the white robe (avadatavasana) of househo lders (Digha . the followers of Devadatta and the monks of Kausambi had provoked such disruptions. It is a question. The ASoka of the inscriptions shows himself to have been a zealous. I. his visits to the Community (p. 491. that the Buddhist texts present him in a somewhat far-fetched light and make him out to be a sectarian. however. The community split up into various schools. 384. and the opposition between rival sects culminated in the formation of schisms. It is probable that in the time of Asoka.238 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 260-261 ) the same parish (sima) . Ill. the chapters of l . p. I. the most important of which was that of the Mahisarraghikas. Two inscriptions of a private nature. Majjhima . b. of a formal secession following a public declaration Uiiaptikarman) and a vote (Saldkiigrahw:ra). the dissidents performed the religious acts. p. p. the Buddha's birthplace . after that. 73. Twenty years after his consecration. finally. Varana~i. 149).

THE GIn. as it appears in this work and directly related sources. pp. T 99. l. Jaya and Vijaya. pp. young Jaya will be the holy king ASoka. one hundred years after his Nirval)a. Paris. On the advice of Radhagupta. are playing in the road and amusing themselves with making houses and granaries out of earth. but the main object of the work is the Exploits of ASoka which will be summarized here. the seer Pingalavatsa asserted that he would succeed his father. the ministers made him mount the throne of Magadha. on the dealh of Bindusira. Susima. At the time of his birth. Asoka named Radhagupta as his prime minister. The various episodes which are narrated concerning the king are no doubt of different date and origin . was widely disseminated on the Indian continent and inspired men of letters and sculptors. His entry into the town is marked by several wonders.000 stupas. who will reign in Pa~liputra over the whole of India and will build 84. attested on Ihe monuments at Sanci. the Buddha enters Rajagrha in order to beg for his food . while attempting to enter the town ..1Ilk ~ I"t "'fN.C. 99o-I02b . 23.Of EARm AND BrRTH OF ASoKA 364-82). In fact the Mauryan king Bindusira had two sons. Arriving from the Kalandakavana. since Susima claimed his right 10 Ihe crown. I. cr. with the name of Ridhagupta . ASoka and VitaSoka by a brahmin girl from Campila . The Buddha predicts to Ananda that. ch .taroka). ch. Vijaya will be his minister. are quite early in date and were already circulating in the second century B. his hands joined. However. On seeing the Buddha. He accomplished that mission so skillfully that.· . 1923. Now in power. T 2043.. pp. Jaya respectfully offers him a handful of earth . In his youth . fell into a cleverly hidden brazier and perished in it. 161b-165b. to the detriment of the crown prince Susima.ISIt I. Aroka shut himself up in Pi~liputra and set guards before the doors.( 261 -262) 239 the Asoko'lodano 1 0 devoted to Upagupta and his four predecessors were the subject of a brief analysis. some of them. We will attempt to establish that the chronicle of Asoka. however. I.ng AJoka. (T 2042.. PJ.ZYU. Di'l)'o. These executions earned him the name of " ASoka the Cruel" (Ca~c. pp. Vijaya. the first was to fulfil the 262 Buddha's prediction. Aroka was sent by Bindusira to Taka~sili and KhaSa to quell the revolts which had been provoked by the governors' extortions. Two little boys. 131b-J35b. approves his companion's action. ch . J.iJ 1I. He picked a quarrel with his counsellors and his women folk and had five hundred ministers and five hundred concubines put to death . he built a prison modelled on the Buddhist .

p. 19)1 . 37. the future ASoka and Riidhagupta. TIle aUlhors have a choice between ro ur cdipses or the sun visible in Vi rini¥ al the. p. TM CItrOlloiOlY . abbot of the Kukku~riima.ooD.000 precious caskets. The Yalc~s who were under his orders were dispersed all over lambudvipa and built 84.SCY. Aroka decided to erect a large number of monuments commemorat· ing the glory of the Buddha and so withdrew the relics deposited by AjataSatru and his contemporaries in the first seven stupas. 171). p. 122 sq. E. p. 36b).tit" 0/ Aio. 256) and of the Andhra region (NagarjunikolJt:Ja . who guarded the stupa at Riimagrama. L. The episodes concerning ASoka's Hell are narrated in the Fin pieh " Certain authors set in VaSu' pturc an aUusion 10 an e<:lipse or the 5un : R. pp. and all the stupas were completed at the same time. H.i:lI . 517 . 1930. K . SlO£J. 102. 100. He had the executioner Girika burned alive and the prison razed .uw. and the massacres he perpetrated among the members of his family at the time he assumed power are known to the Sinhalese tradition. grandsons and great grandsons" of the king. 3. the tonnent did not affoct him ..lime or Aioka : 24 Man:h 275. P. Uttt Ir:lip~ "" J<JkiJ lIIl 'tmpS ti'AJob . The struggles ASoka had to sustain in order to accede to the throne. fig. 19 November 232. but as he had attained Arhatship. lu. P. 11. p. reference is often made in the edicts to the " sons.000 stupas in which the caslcets were placed . The holy monk Samudra entered it inadvertently and was tortured by Girika.wo!on'.. lA. pp. 4 May 249. beloved of the gods (BLOCH. 1912..u. Seized with remorse. 1470). A" U«I dolt ill lilt . ASoka came to sec this wonder for himself. I. NOlt sw IIItC' Idip~ tit J(J ftll "" Ittrrps d·Aio. 295-7. gave the signal to start work by hiding the sun with his hand n . The gift of earth by laya and Vijaya.i:lI. When he was in possession of all the relics available. refused to give up their share to him. 1!5 June 242. it is represented on bas-reliefs of Gandhiira (Art greco-bouddhique. O . Their construction earned ASolca the title of 26) " King of the right Law". with the order to put to death all those who entered it .. lBORS. the dragon-Icing Sigara and his companions. FAZY. ASoka embrac:c:d Buddhism and took the upwka vows.. XVII. ch . 25S. 368c) and mentioned briefly in the Upotkso (T lS09. 1)s-6 . ASoka divided them among 84. pI. Nevertheless. pp.24() ruE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 262-26l) hells and entrusted the guardianship of it to the cruel Girika. is narrated in detail in the Hsien yu ching (T 202. . The Sthavira Yaw. 400. 12. and the holy one reproached him for his cruelty and revealed the Buddha's prediction according to which ASoka was to become a holy king of the Law.• p. However. ch .

f!I) of superhuman beauty. He will be violent. From then on. opposed his claim. ch. on meeting a friend of the good in the person of a disciplined. p. considering that he could not match that. it consisted of a small fortified town of more than a thousand inhabitants. When he came to divest the eighth.000 stiipas which he had just had erected. the Nagas. after having paid bomage to the ancient stiipa. that of Ramagrama. who were the guardians of the monument. 863b-c) and Hsuan tsang (T 2087. silver. erected stone pillars (jildYQ. 8. and.. ch. At his command the Yak~s. •. p. had with joined hands placed some specks of earth in the alms-bowl of the Victorious One Sakyasi'!lha. 286b). and several thousand pilasters (slambha) were built in order to honour the Caityas and mark the presence of the bodily relics . Formerly that prince. The legend of the stupa of Ramagrama. ch. he will become a successful prince. Aioka. known by the name of ASoka. but. and showed him the riches £hey had accumulat· cd as homage. p. 861b) and Hsuan tsang (T 2087. Asoka removed the important relics contained in the first seven stiipas which had been built after the decease of the Buddha. 353-79) says in substance : "One hundred years after the Parinirvil). The Maiijuifimii· lakalpa (vv.( 263·264) 241 kung Ie fun (T 1507. 0 Protector of the Earth. p.. 902b-c) consists of two episodes. compassionate and clement. 911). ch. calm and disinterested bhik~u. {The lattcr had said to him) : "Excercise your 264 kingship. he piously removed from the reliquary the relics which are to be found there.. Then. attribute the simultaneous construction of 84. a protector of the earth. he divided the relics into hundreds of portions and. there will be in Kusumapura a prince. without knowing [the Buddha] and as a game. p. in the Vel).uvana at his capital Rija. 6. T 201. called upon the Yak~s to adorn the whole of Jambudvipa with stiipas and transform the earth into a reliquary..a. cruel and pitiless at first. In order to endow the 84. in a single moment. 39a-c). 3. copper and the most diverse ornaments. and the ruins of the prison were visited by Fa hsien (T 2085. and because of merits he had acquired previously through the "gift of earth". in half a night.000 stiipas to Asoka. he was known by the name of Dharmasoka 'ASoka the Pious. . went in an instant to the places where the reliquaries had been erected and made them many offerings.. Then the prince rapidly enlered his chariot and having loaded it with gold. Nigrodha in the Sinhalese chronicle) or following the example of one of his women (KalpanamlU)4i/ikii . 5. collected on the spot by Fa hsien (T 2085. Tradition has it that he embraced the religion under the influence of a monk (Samudra in the Aiokiivadana. ASoka attributes his conversion to Buddhism to the remorse he felt after the Kaliriga massacres. took him to their palace. All the sources without distinction. capable of distinguishing the Dharma from the Adharma. p. save the edicts. over Jambudvipa and its forests' .

a companion of Mahinda. narrated by the same pilgrims. pI. XXXI. According to the Annals of the Li-yuJ. 61.242 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 264-26S) forewent emptying the stiipa and left it in the charge of the Niigas. p. This first episode is represented on the southern door at Saiki (Safiel. with human figures sunnounted by a cobra's hood.. 5a. 3. They were placed in the Maha Thlipa in Anuridhapura which had been built by DevanaIf'piya. I. 18 sq. 381 . ACcording to the Sanskrit sources. Sa~yutta. 2) and on several bas-reliefs in the region of Andhra (Amaral/ati". pI. 8. ch. 2). pp. follows the previous one. 12. 80) prefer to call it the ASokirama. 399. 430) continued to use the old name KukkU!-3rama for the new monastery. as the preceding seven had been. 349. where onc can see the Naga-serpents. 165a 16-11) states that the 265 king of the Nagas led Asoka to the Serpents' palace:. The Sinhalese legend (Mahiivwrua . 423). The monastery of the Kukku!arama. p. pp. The second episode. but that Asoka "demanded the sarira in order to pay homage to them. pI. the stupa of Ramagriima continued to be honoured by a troop of Niga-elephanls who came to pay homage to it. was familiar to the Chinese pilgrims. there is a variation of the legend according to which the Ramagrama stupa was exploited by ASoka. ch. VII. 944b). Mahliva1!Ua. p. referred to by the Aioktivadtina had been built by the king in Pi!aliputra. in particular Hsuan tsang who also refers to him as the abbot of the Kukku!-irima (T 2087.. the abbot of the monastery was the Sthavira YaSas (Divya. unknown to the Pali sources. a contemporary of ASoka. 46. 15. ch. 385. p . 3. p. Encroached upon by the nearby jungle. T 201. II . 3). V. 2740) : this person. While the Sanskrit sources (Divya. 912c 2). Revue des Arts Asiotiques. probably a former minister who had been won over to Buddhism by Asoka himself (KalpaniimtUJ4ilik~. 406.) claims that the relics from the Ramagrima stupa were delivered by Mahikila the dragon-king to the disciple So~uttara . 2 . who transported them to Ceylon. V. 2 and II. p. p. pl. then notes the presence: of the "Great Arhat" at the Samajiii monastery in Khotan (Ibid. The scene is represented on the eastern door at saiki where onc can see a long procession of elephants approaching the monument (Stiflei. the Pili sources (DipavllI!'Isa. The S~yuklagama (T 99. on the site of the old Kukku!arama "Cock's Park" already mentioned in the canonical texts (Yin . calmly but finnly opposing the king's archaeological venture. V. Majjhima. 166. However. 381. 404. he emigrated to . 8. ch. p. 300. V. I. 342). Arigutlara. 23. 171. and the Nagas gave them to him". fig. pp.

At her command. pp. Jealous of that preference. a third of whom were Arhats and a number of the laity. Kapilavastu whence he made the Great Departure. F . I. Upagupta offers to show him all those places. in order to celebrate the happy event.Lumbin'i. foreseeing his wishes.as'i where he preached his first sermon.000 stiipas. who had known the Buddha when he was still in this .c.000 Arhats on Mount UrumuI:l~a. London. one hundred years after himself. One place remained v~nt : that of the Arhat Pil). who has already built 84. the missionary from Kausambi. the wicked queen Ti~yarak~ita attempted to make the tree die. However. gathered in Pi13liputra. and finally. Varil). THE AVADANA OF XING MOXA (T 2042. T~tQII Utt r"ry TuIS. 2-3. .c.W . ASoka erected a stiipa in all those places. ASoka paid most homage to the shipa of the Sodhi tree. Bodh-Gaya where he attained supreme and perfect Enlightenment.. After which. he went to pay his respects to the reliquaries of the Buddha's great disciples: Sariputra (in the Jetavana of Sravasti). The 8odhivrk~ revived and. Asoka sets out to meet them and 266 prostrates himself before the master of the Law. KuSinagara where he entered Nirvil)a. Kasyapa.. The venerable monk strokes his head an invites him to help him protect the Buddhist Law. 100-5. pp. Maudgalyayana.asi-and Kusinagara . Srivasti where he performed the Great Wonder. . ch . pp. ASoka summoned all the followers of the Buddha to a Pancavar~ assembly. the king's sorrow was so bitter that Ti~yarak~itii herself restored the tree by having it watered with a thousand pitchers of milk . Bodh-Gaya.The Venerable YaSas informs Asoka that during a journey to Kasm'ir. The two pilgrims visit in tum the Lumbin'ivana where the Buddha was born. wishes to erect some more in the regions through which the Buddha had travelled in the past. Varal).U. ch.lila Mitanga ties a bewitched thread to the 8odhivrk~ and attempted to kill it with incantations. THOW. The monk is at present with 18.· Asoka. Vakkula and Ananda. Saqtkasya where he descended from the heavens accompanied by gods. Three hundred thousand monks. pp. and became the spiritual adviser to King Kustana 1'. pp. 384405). ch. at the Na~abha!ika monastery. 16Sb 170e. I02b-I06a: T 2043. 13Sb-141b: T 99. Gandhara and Mathuri the Buddha had predicted the birth.and the mythical regions. the Cal). 1-2.(265-266) ASOU 243 Khotan with seven thousand adherents. near Mathura. Divya . Of the stiipas commemorating the four great wonders . of the sage Upagupta who would do Buddha deeds. 19)5. Awka docides to go and visit him but. Upagupta and his disciples go by raft to patalipulra. 23-24. including those from Kasm'ir.lola Bharadvaja.

T 2043.ASoka's younger brother . While he was taking his bath. and fainting with grief before the withering BOOhi tree (Sanci. 2042. The two sculptures. ASoka resorted to a stratagem .· The oral tradition collected by Fa hsien (T 2085. ASoka. 911c) has. b2). ch. strong in his faith . near the temple enclosing the Footprints. He told Asolca of the important events in the life of the Buddha which he had witnessed. the king. J06a107c. 419-29). In order to bring him round to the Good Law. 267 The audiences and distributions of gold to the brihmins and sramalJas. in connivance with him. and the master of the Law narrates Ti~yarak~ita's unsuccessful attempt regarding it (T 2087. 862b) and Hsiian tsang (T 2087. pp. The ceremony of the Paficava~ took place : ASoka presented to the Satpgha his gold. the two pilgrims noted a thirty-foot high stone pillar bearing an inscription : . then imperiously demanded food . was still in existence. 8. it is nevertheless known to the Sinhalese tradition and represented on carved monuments dating from the second century B. the pilgrimage to Lumbini and to the Bodhi arc so many historical facts attested by the edicts. especially pitchers of perfumed water with which to sprinkle it (Sanci. represent the Bodhivrk~ surrounded by a protective colonnade erected around it by the piety of the king. ch. p.Vitasoka in T 2043 and the Divya. pI. 18. He descended from Mount Gandhamadana with thousands of Arhats..C.244 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 266-267) world··. preserved the memory of the Pancava~s which ASoka celebrated ': in Pa~aliputra. on the eastern door. . and the pious tours which continued for 256 nights. 14. On the southern door of the stiipa at Sanci. ch. Sudatta in T 2042 . there is a figure in royal dress. ch. p. When Hsuan tsang visited Bodh-Gaya. ten feet in height. 8. 3. then mounted it himself and sprink led the tree from thousands of precious pitchers filled with per· fumed liquid .vya. p.had faith in heretical doctrines and mocked the Buddha's disciples whom he reproached for their easy life. he had an enclosure built round the four sides of the Bodhi tree. As for Ti~yarak~ita's attempt on the BOOhivrk~. his son KUlJila and even his own body. ll. pp. 3). pi 40. 141b-144a. that stone wall. D. invited VitaSoka to try on AVADANA Of A~KA 's YOUNGER BROTHER (T . 2. His body was like that of an old man. even if it docs not have a similar guarantee. pp. 9ISb-c). like those at Bh3rhut (pI. his women. the queens and their retinue are going to the Bodhi tree with offerings of all kinds. his ministers. three times gave Jambudvipa as an offering to the Buddhist Satpgha and three times bought it back with his own riches". supported by two queens. finally he distributed food and clothing to the religious. the ministers.

who was staying in the dwelling of a Jaina. but the name of the brother in question varies . I remained sleepless for whole nights". the Jainas of Pul).lalas to be put to death . Vilaiioita. after which he would be executed .as had been confused with the heretics and been put to death with them. Tormented by the fever of death. ~aving learned that many Buddhist sramal). mounting the throne. he agreed to let VitaSoka rule for seven days. seeing his 268 brother seated on his throne.a whatever. he left the world and withdrew to Videha where he attained Arhatship. was deeply saddened. having recognized it. Ai. embracing his brother. The Arhat Hew as far as the frontier-regions of Pul). was also taken to be a Jaina and was beheaded. His head was brought before the king and the latter. Pali. in order to give him a chance to repent. but Asoka sent a physician to him who tended him and restored him to health. even while they abstain from the arduous practices imposed on the brahmins. put on the crown. In a single day. treated him as a usurper and handed him over to cal:u. it was his turn to confirm them in their faith . VitaSoka was brought before his brother. the king became angry and speedily dispatched his Yak~s to punish them. the king. he promulgated an edict forbidding the execution of any sramal). VitaSoka followed their advice and. with his brother's permission. After the seventh day.000 Nirgranthas were put to death. Sanskrit and Chinese. 18. On learning of this news. There he fell ill. by performing various wonders. VitaSoka enjoyed all the royal prerogatives but each morning the cal)4alas counted the days which remained to him and reminded him of his coming death .oka. I wanted to bring you to have faith in the Buddha's Law and to explain to you how his disciples. said to him : "I shall not have you put to death. He then returned to Pataliputra and visited King Aiioka and his minister Radhagupta. However. tum away from the sense-objects which they consider as nothing but vanity" . Meanwhile. VitaSoka then went to the Kukku!irama monastery where he received religious instruction from the Sthavira VaSas.4avardhana had drawn some images of the Buddha and represented him as prostrating himself before the Nirgrantha Mahavira .(261·268> 245 the royal crown the hazards of sucocssion might perhaps lead him to assume. The stratagem to which Aiioka had recourse in order 10 convert his half-brother is well-known to tbe whole Buddhist tradition. The king came out of his bathing room and. After that.4avardhana. Asoka asked him for his impressions of those days of reigning and VitaSoka replied : "All the pleasures of the senses with which I was gratified were vitiated by the prospect of my coming end.

To this end. ASoka fell ill. IOSa-llOb . ch.000 stupas. T 2043. 862a-b) and Hsiian tsang (T 2087. and Ku~ila was given the mission of quelling it. 6. 9120). V. was the only one who could tend and cure him. after the name of a bird known for the splendour of its gaze. ch. However. had performed the wonders at Pa~liputrat he withdrew to a deserted gorge on the GrhTflkii~aparvata. pp. one of his wives. 405-19). In the meantime. The prince's arrival was enough to restore order. having become an Arhat. 1000). The infant's eyes were so lovely that he was called Ku~ala. became enamoured of him and made improper proposals to him. ch. Divya. p . p. ch. 39c). he invited the lesser gods to a festival and advised them each to bring a stone by way of a seat. ch. Ti~yarak~ita . the Divya (p. instructed him in the Buddhist religion. 154 sq. ch. 8. ASoka authorized her to rule in his stead for seven days. p. pp. · . only the Sanskrit sources claim that he was confused with the Nirgranthas of Pu~<:Iavardhana and beheaded by Yaksas. 4)9 sq. 3. He grew up and took as wife the princess Kancanamala. Sudatta or Sugatra in the Aiokiivadana (T 2042. pp. Tissa-kumara in the Sinhalese chronicle (MaMvturtJa. According to Fa hsien (T 2085. however.The very night when ASoka erected his 84. and KUl)ala's piety was beyond all praise. p. With regard to the death of the latter. ch. the Chu yao ching (T 212. As a reward for her services. in Pa. and he remained in Tak~sili as governor. Aroka.!Bliputra. Mahendra in Hsiian tsang (T 2087. 4. 2110) . 3. He repulsed her indignantly and she sought an occasion to avenge herself. 641a) and the Fen pieh kung te lun (T 1507. The Sthavira YaSas. According to the Sinhalese chronicle (Ma/uivwrua . gave birth to a son. AVADANA OF Klf?:IAU (T 2042.). V. p. ch.246 THE MAURYAN PERJOO ( 268·270) according to the sources: Vitasoka in the Aiokil. 8. abbot of the Kukku~a­ rima. 269 p. ch.) and the Upadeia (T 1509. he mere~ escaped being executed with his colleagues of the ASokarama when ASoka wanted to punish those monks for not celebra· ting the uposatha with the heretics who had entered the order surrepti· tiously . the gods were requested to pile up the stones in such a manner as to build an "empty house". p. 3. This doubtless explains the title of Ekavihiriya "Solitary dweller" which is applied to Tissa by the Pili tradition. persuaded him to return to the capital by promising to have a cave constructed for him.rulra (T 2043. When the festivity was over. Ti~yarak~ita. 2. the chief queen. a rebellion had broken out in Tak~sili. 14tb). when ASoka's brother. p. 270 Meanwhile. 20. The wicked Ti~yarak~ita. 144a-147c. 241). He was also named Dhannavivardhana "Increase of the Law". 9120). Padmavati.

p. the emperor's son. With banishment imposed on him. In many respects the story of KU. Taking shelter in a shed. had had his eyes gouged out through the fault of his stepmother. the blind used to go there to pray. . Furthennore. playing the vina to earn his living. I. pI. such as the adventures of Phaedra and Hippolytus and especially the Byzantine story of the love-affair between Fausta. he embraced his son wannly and asked him who had gouged out his eyes. Furthennore. and the same punishment was inflicted on the inhabitants of Tak~ila . far from bearing a grudge against his stepmother. the legend is most solidly established on the mainland. On the north side of a hill situated to the south-east of Tak~sili. it is said.I}ala bears so striking a resemblance to other tales. he blessed her inwardly for the opportunity she gave him to practise patience. translated in the fourth century by Dhannanandin.. Prince KU1)ala. Everyone objected to such a barbarOllS order. and KU. and a version in verse is the subject of Taisho No. 2045. that it is difficult not to establish a connection between the Indian slory and the Byzantine tale. KUl)iila wandered from town to town.l}ila's intercession was unable to avert the royal wrath : Ti~yarak~iti was tortured and burned alive. 4. at the gate of his father's palace. 3. erected. ch. Hsuan tsang (T 2087. translated in the third century by K 'ang seng kuei. When he had recovered. Finally. 86-8). Asoka sent for him and. 256h). he fainted . 8850) saw a hundred-foot high stupa. KUl)ala considered his misfortune merely as just punishment for some past fault and refused to say who was guilty. ch. by ASoka on the spot where his son. and Crispus. and KUl). The hill noted by Hsiian tsang is thai of Hathial. The edict was scnt to Tak~ila : it ordered the inhabitants to gouge out KUl)ala's eyes and banish him. p. He ended up in Pi!aliputra. According to certain sources. ch. 10. KUl)ila is also mentioned in the AvoddnaJOlakO (II. and many recovered their sight.(270-211 ) 241 immediately drafted an edict and profited from the king's sleep to seal it with the mark of the sovereign's teeth. KUl)ala regained his sight because of his merit. recognizing his son in that wretched beggar.ila's stiipa stood on the eastern fortifications of Tak~sila·Sirkap : 27\ the site has been described by Sir John Marshall in his monumental work on Taxilo (Vol. 48). p. pp. III. 200-1) and its Chinese version (T 200. Nevertheless. The queen denounced herself. 17c). and his story is narrated in full by Taranitha (p. a prose version of the legend of KUl). the Pili tradition passes in complete silence over the avadana of KUl)ala. 348 sq.ala was incorporated in the Liu lU chi ching (T 152. he played the vina at day-break. p. the wife of Constantine the Great. KUl)ala himself had his eyes gouged out by a cal)4ala and. Moved by his 'voice.

l4itikli (T 201 .1asamuccaya (T 194. 283a-284c). more precisely. ch . Feeling his end was near. 8. ch . a panegyric of his queens and ministers. This last episode. a prediction concerning Asoka. ch.. T 99. 144c. 1091b1098a). 1. We can add that some of these stories . the Amalakastiipa intended to commemorate the episode. Finally. took advantage of his grandfather's illness to make otT with all he possessed. ch . pp. pp. the fruit was taken to Yaw. T 2043. which is unknown to the Sinhalese tradition.such as the tale of the Bhik~u with Perfumed Breath . and in the Mahiimeghasillra (T 387. 12. Avadtinaialaka. After the death of the king.· . pp. ch. he found parallels for them in the SUlriilatrlktira or. ch. Tsa pao lSang ching (T 203) and other similar collections.Under this misleading Litle. his queens. his ministers and the preachers he welcomed to his palace. near the Kukku~­ rama. However. Divya. IJOb-Illb. 147c-149b. 42934). 144). AVADANA OF THE REWARD GIVEr-I BY AiioKA . of gold 10 the Sarpgha. p. Hsiian tsang (T 2081. On the advice of his minister Riidhagupta. banished by Asoka for having blinded his son. the king was given half a myrobalan (iimalaka) . AVANANA Of TIiE HALF AMALAKA (T 2042. the abbot of the monaslery and the latter had it grated and put into the monks' soup so that they could all share in the offering. p. ch. KUl)ala's !\On and Aroka's grandson. They are summarized by J. ch . 912b) saw. pp. 180a-182a. . Radhagupta and his colleagues bought Jambudvipa back from the community for four ko!i of gold and restored it to the their Sampadin. realized towards the end of his life that he had still only given ninety-six . pp. II. AvadDnakalpalalii. the KalpanlinuJl}4ilikii (T 201). 4. 186-91). 5. Asoka made his will and entrusted it to his minister Riidhagupta : he left to the SalTlgha the whole of Jambudvipa. Nothing remained to ASoka but a golden dish and a silver dish which he immediately sent to the monks at the Kukkutarama. 5. who had always dreamed of distributing up to a hundred ko!.248 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 271 -272) the Khotanese chronicle claims that functionaries from Taksasila. On his orders. bordered by the four oceans. 25. in order not to be too incomplete. 9430). Sampadin. was exploited by Kumiiraliita in his Kalpaniima1. Finally. p.ASoka.are again found in the Upadesa (T 1509. . PRZYLUSKI in his Ugende de I'Empereur Aioka (pp. pp. who was named heir presumptive. pp. 3. he prepared to complete his liberality. we would point out in the SOI!fgharak.14Sb). settled in Kholan where they came into conflict with Chinese colonists {T 2087. Tsa p 'i yii ching (T 204). pp. 128b-13Ia) records a dozen 272 unconnected little stories concerning Awka. the Aioktivadtina (T 2042. ch. 2. ch.

In 214 after the Nirvir:ta (272 B.C. Asoka was the son ofBindusira and the aggamahesi Dhamma. 8-11). .). the daughter of a merchant. possibly completed by the Samantapasiidika (Sp. A~ka's stepbrother was called Tissa. p. continued to favour the sixty-two false doctrines and the .( 272·213) 249 c. from 203 to 214 after the Nirvar:ta (283-272 B. before donning the religious robe.. Before reaching U. p.· Bindusira had sixteen queens who gave him a hundred and one sons . XIII. VI. Both children were to enter the order. Mh . sparing only Tissa.).i)c:ni. then. two years later.• pp. ASoka was viceroy in Avanti . but also the appellation of Car:t4isoka.) (Dpv.). Devi. born in 204 after the Nirvar:ta (282 B. He killed his hundred brothers. whom he later wedded. the son of ASoka . by whom she had a son. the spiritual adviser to the family at that time was the AJlvika Janasana. He made himself master of the town and mounted the throne. the date of the death of Bindusira. the Sanskrit sources call him Vitasoka or Sudatta.• V. V. He entrusted his step-brother Tissa with the viceroyalty (Dpv . VI. . ASoka's nephew. 85).C. Sp . 41 · 2).). 267-265 B. Mhv .). It was not until he had ruled for four years that in 218 after the Nirvir:ta (268 B. Sumana.. he stopped in Vedisi (present-day Bhi1sa in the district of Gwalior) where he made the acquaintance of a certain Devi. have the advantage over the Aiokavadiina of presenting the events systematically classified and carefully dated. following his father's example. the capital of the kingdom.During the first three years of his reign ASoka. to ~ghamitta. However.. ASoka left Ujjeni and reached PiJ3liputta.The Sinhalese chronicle on Aioka The Sinhalese chronicle of the Dipa (Dpv. His first wife.C.C. Saf!1ghamitta was given in 273 marriage to Aggibrahmi. pp.) and the MahdvlIJ?Ua (Mhv.. I. That massacre eam"ed him undisputed sovereignty over the whole of Jambudvipa. Mhv .). Ouring his youth. and Hsuan tsang confuses him with Mahendra. the crown prince was named Sumana (the Susima of the Sanskrit sources).. 21·2. born from the same mother as himself. 21-33. 125.. 20..C. did not follow him to Pitaliputta so he took as queen AsaIpdhimitta who was a devout Buddhist (Mhv.. Mbv. V.C.• VI.). p.. a native of Moriyavat!lss (MT. 98·9. the Mohavwrua Commentary (MT) and the MahiibodhivlIJ?Ua (Mbv. . 98). 41). Mb . Asoka the Cruel (Dp •. Sp . 20-1. born in 206 after the Nirvar:ta (280 B. Yt"arJ I to 3 of tht" consecration (219-221 after the N . She gave birth in Ujjeni first to Mahinda. 189. 3940.) ASoka received the royal consecration (abh4eka) with great pomp.

and the whole palace was converted after him. etc. from a window in his palace. that there were 84.000 brahmins. 154-72. 264 B. VI. but with the warning that. Furthermore.000 articles of the Law. This Nigrodha was the king's own nephew. a monastery which took the name of Asokarama.. he perceived the young Sramal)3 Nigrodha who was on his alms-seeking round. with the help of the Naga-king Mahakala.).. the Vinaya chief. Asoka's brother and viceroy. Tissa then understood how the Buddhists. the husband of Saf!lghamitti. . V.250 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (213· 274) ninety-six heretical sects (piisQ1)4a) : Brahmins. VI. The Arhat MahavaruQ3 had discovered signs of his destiny on the child and had induced him to entcr the Buddhist Order. 41-72. the king erected a life-size statue of the Buddha and paid much homage to it (Mhv . Asoka himself founded . profoundly impressed. the greed of all these Tiuhiyas disappointed him (Dpv. had taken refuge in a caQ~ala village where she gave birth to a son who was given the name: of Nigrodha. He was still only seven years old when Asoka saw him from his window and summoned to his palace.• V. not thoughtlessly devote themselves to joy. The construction of the viharas required three years of work (Dpv .C.. 113)... Mhv . Nigal)~has .. Sp . could. who was also named Sumana. Mhv .. followed his ellample (Mhv .. Acelakas.. Nigrodha recited the Appamadavagga from the Dhammapada to him and the king. Mhv . The same year Tissakumara. . was converted to Buddhism : he took his refuge in the Thr~ Jewels.. pp. V. 34-6). once the seven days were over. 43).. the son of his brother Sumana. V. ASoka stopped his support of the heretics and transferred his favours to Nigrodha and the members of the Saf!lgha (Dpv . Year 4 (222 after the N . Previously he had asked the king why the Buddhist monks were so lacking in joy and gaiety and 'ASoka's only answer was to place him on his throne for a w~k .. Y. on the site of t~e Kukkupirama in Pa!aliputta. 54-6). took up the religious life (Mhv . From then on. he would be put to death. Sp . aware of the frailty of things human. and he gave hospitality to 60. The prince requested admission to the Asokirima and there received ordination at the hands of Mahadhammarakkhita. pp. ASoka's nephew and son-in-law. Aggibrahma. At a cost of 96 ko{is of gold viharas were constructed in 84. p. 171). ASoka decided to build an equal number of Buddhist ·monuments. 46-8). 87-94.000 towns of the empire. the very day of his ordination. 99. VI. V. the wife of the latter. 79. 24-30 . It was then that. When ASoka had Sumana put to death so that he could assume power. Nigrodha attained Arhatship. 34-56. Sp ..Having learnt from Moggali274 puttatissa. However.

100.C. p. finally.000 were spent on offerings of incense and flowers at the Buddhist shrines.000 pieces of cash : 100.000 were reserved for Nigrodha.C.The death of the Theras Tissa and Sumitta. and Majjhantika uttered the ritual words of the kammavQcQ.000 were used for the buying of medicaments. 32-3 .. V. from pure greed. the pabbajji ordination was conferred upon him by the Thera Mahadeva. Moggaliputta. who until then had only been a PaccayadiJyaJca "Donor of requisites". 260 B. p. Year 10 (228 after the N. During his absence. the unruliness of the heretics continued to . The upajjhaya of Mahinda was Moggaliputtatissa. 24-6. Sp . . ..met his death while he was devoting him. . However. after having entrusted the leadership of the bhiJckhus to his pupil Mahinda.. 52). placed at the disposal of the public at the four gates of the town (Sp . They taught their own doctrines as being those of the Buddha (Mhv . VII. they were respectively twenty and eighteen years old. pp. he was versed in the three knowledges. 51-2).selfto meditation in the Caitkama of the Asokavihara. At that time. 258 B. 100.).. 204-1 I .. 52). 228-30). pp. . It was the same for his sisler Salflghamitti whose uppajhiyi was the bhikkhu~i Dhammapali and whose icariyi was Ayupali (Dpv . 100. His daily revenue amounted to 500. 262 B. The king then made arrangements for a plentif)1\ supply of medicines to be given to the Community. Sumitta. 231-3). preachers. 196-7 .C. the six supernormal powers and the four analytical doctrines.000 were distributed to the Saf!lgha and. he withdrew for seven years to Mount Ahoganga on the upper Ganges (Mhv . VII. . as there was not enough time to get him the ghee which could have saved him. 100. Once the ceremony was over. V. Sp.). In brief. they were ordained by Mahivaruna and won Arhatship.The two children Asoka had by Devi took up the religious life simultaneously.. decided to go into retreat and. alarmed by the growing success of the heresy.. had completed his cycle of studies under the direction of Moggaliputtatissa : he knew the Basket of the Suttas by hean. just as it had been compiled at the first two councils .• V. 27-30). Sp.. he immediately attained Arhatship. Sons of the kinnan Kunti... Tissa died of a poisonous insect-bite. Both attained Nirvit)a (Dpv . donned the yellow robe of the Buddhist monk and mingled with the bhikkhus. he was a past master of the writings (Dpv. Mhv. 275 Mhv . was promoted to the title of SiisanadiJyadiJ "Benefactor of the religion'·' to which he had just given his children (Mhv . V.Its continually increasing revenue attracted into the Order a great number of heretics who.). Mahinda. SO-I). VII. who had been ordained for four years. Year 8 (226 after the N.( 214-275) 251 Year 6 (224 after the N .. ASoka.000 were given to. 212-27. V.

who was still in retreat on the Ahogaitga. Mhv . ASoka convened the third Buddhist council at the Asokarama in pa!aliputta. 53). Mh. Sp_ p. the minister interrupted the execution and submitted the matter to the king. V.252 mE MAURYAN PERIOD (275-276) increase : Par:u.It was in the year 236 after the Nirval)a that. to celebrate a joint uposatha.).C. but the theras obstinately refused tojoin the heretics. He consulted the bhikkhus. in the words of the MaJuivmrua (V.C. Year 26 (244 after the N. The latter. ASoka welcomed him on his arrival and extended his right hand to him to help him disembark . This council and the missions which followed it will later be the subject of a detailed exposition. However. A minister was despatched to the monastery to ~ that this order was carried out. presented himself for the fatal blow. 14. JaJilas. 251 B. mounted the throne of Anuridhapura (Dpv. Year 17 (235 after the N. 40). Devanarppiyatissa.. Niga~!has . In 236 after the Nirval)a (250 B. the sixth of his lineage. 60. Year 18 (236 after the N. Acelilcas and AJlvikas. 242 B. 534 . 56-60). were destroying the doctrine of the Buddha. Mhv.larangas. the king's step-brother.). since the bhikkhus refused to take part in them (Dpv. . 37. . 44).. and the Thera · ceded only to the entreaties of the third and went to Pa~aliputta by raft.).000 members in all. deploring the fact that his orders had been so misinterpreted. 250 B. 34-8. Three embassies were sent to him. 234-64. sent teams of missionaries to the various regions of India as well as to Ceylon . was seized with remorse and wondered whether it was 276 himself. XVII. XI. He was referred to the Thera Moggaliputta. and in connection with that he recited the Tittirajiilaka (Dpv .. .. showing more zeal than en. XI. but opinions were divided . VII.C. who had presided over it. l when the monk Tissa. 280). this council took place in the 17th and not 18th year of the reign. . However.).ightenment. The uposatha and pavaraQi ceremonies were being celebrated by incomplete assemblies. 44-9. The minister.• V. The council continued for nine months. scattered throughout all the viharas... VII . after which Moggaliputtatissa.The death of Moggaliputta- . or his minister who was responsible for the massacre. . 234-5 . Sp" pp. according to the Dipavmrua (VII.In order to put an end to this schism. undertook to behead them one by onc. ASoka called · upon all the monks of the Asokirama.C. 78 .. Moggaliputta was received in the Rativa4~hana garden where he caused an earthquake and appeased the king's remorse over the massacre of the monks : "There is no guilt without wrong intent". The start of his reign was marked by important events which were to result in the conversion to Buddhism of the island of Ceylon. .

in the Buddhist sources Aioka appears as the official protector of the Sal'!lgha. he seized the throne by violent means and. XX.. but to his meetin" with a young g monk. 2).. in which he merely defined the great principles of natural Law. The A joka~addna ell:plains the emperor's attitude by the Jataka of the gift of earth and a prediction made by the Buddha Sakyamuni.C. 107.) and had acted as Vinaya Chief since 176 after the Nirvi~a (310 B. Having become an upisaka..C.C. XX. Lumbini and the Kaunakamuni stopa . escaped his wrath.. he had to quell the rebellions at Tak~la and Khw. % . pilgrimages to Bodh-Gayi. 231 B. Year J4 (252 after the N . 69. Vitaioka or Tissa.). Having been converted to Buddhism after the conquest of Kalinga. 95. 234 B. concubines and ministers. 4-5).Aioka raised the treacherous Tissarakkha to the rank of queen (Mh~ . he propagated a Dhanna. XX. Year 37 (255 after the N .Jealous of the attention which ASoka was paying to the Bodhi tree. . 236 B.C. According to the edicts.( 276-277) 253 tissa who had been ordained in the year 164 after the Nirvir:ta (322 B. The construction of a prison modelled On the Buddhist hells is patent proof of his cruelty. Year J2 (250 after the N.. 102.C. Only his step-brother. Year 29 (247 after the N .. 81. during the early years of his reign he favoured brihmins and heretics. and favoured all the sects equally until the end of his life.). V. . or to govern Avanti .)..). he proved his piety by increased zeal for the Dhanna. On the death of his father. the emperor showed himself to be a supporter of the Sal1lgha. he was an impartial sovereign. In contrast. - A Comparison between the Edicts and the Buddhist sources· All the sources concerning ASoka agree that the emperor was an ell:ccptionally generous sovereign and a convinced Buddhist. 239 B. the emperor's youth hardly predisposed him to piety : as viceroy. . once in power.). put to death his brothers.. XX. When he interfered in the affairs of the Sal'!lgha it was only in order to recommend the reading of certain tell:ts and to reduce the instigators of a schism to lay status. 217 d. . er. quite different from the Good Law.. who was related to him . a devout believer (Mh~ . Dp • .The death of Queen Asal'!ldhimitta. On the other hand. pious tours. However. 3).The death of Aioka (Mhl' . Samudra or Nigrodha. The Buddhists do not attribute ASoka's conversion to the remorse he felt after the massacre of Kalitiga. 6). as generous as he was intolerant .C. . the proud Tissarakkha attempted to destroy the Bodhivrk~ with poisonous thorns (Mhl'.

the taking up of the religious life by members of his family . the missionary at Takfilsila. finally.. while also recording the story of this step-brother.ili Tissa.Mogalipuna. but the Pali chronicle says he was the Vinaya chief.. but then withdrew for seven yean to the Ahoganga. " On upa.trdt . u. or else he was beheaded by the minister entrusted with restoring hannony among the recalcitrant bhikkhus of the ASokarama . According to this source. the Icing's own son. the AjoktivadJina attaches great impor· lance to the visits paid to the holy places by Awka under the guidance of the Venerable Upagupta. The most famous vihara was that in Pitaliputra. Concerning those in the king's entourage who were ordained. 2711 Moggaliputtatissa... VitaSoka. Proc. and had no connection with the Aiokirama. I « L. finally. the AJoko'l'addno mentions only his step-brother. UpagupltJ .~has of Pu""avardhana and executed by Yak~. and who in the end met the emperor in Pi~aliputra by using a raft. also called ASokiirima after the name of its founder. Idtfllily tJ/ UpappftJ .000 stiipas. as well as the celebration of several Pancava~s . as did Upagupta..1t P'WSI tJ/ . A. It is to them that it attributes the convenion of the island of Ceylon. Conversely. Upagupta was based at the Na~bha~ monastery on Mount Urumur:lC. duplicated by as many vihiras. lite / OfUth BwidhiJt PtJlri. the chronicle is wholly unaware of the story of Ku"ala.upta. The Asokiivadtina declares that its abbot was the Venerable YaSas. AS8. p. pilgrimages to the holy places and.. respectively the son and daughter of ASoka . .. several features of his story link him with the Moggaliputtatissa of the Pili sources. to descend the river Ganges 19.titJot4I.ruc:1t tJNI H. 1899. to whom the AJokowuwna devotes a long chapter. attaches much more importance to the religious calling of Mahinda and Saqtghamitti. but the Aioko'l'odana alone records the unfortunate end of Aioka who was reduced by Sampadin to a bare living and had nothing to offer the Saqtgha but half a myrobalan. However. The Buddhist sources concur in recounting the stratagem to which the king resorted in order to convert him.254 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 217· 278) The new convert's ual was manifested in three ways : the construct· ion of Buddhist monuments. JASB... willt MorltJIipufltJ TUStJ . his taking up of the religious life and. in P. PuYLUSIU. a hill near Mathuri. his experience with the royal officials : he is thought to have been confused with the Nirgra. that same Moggaliputta who presided over the fortunes of the Kukku!irima. The Sinhalese chronicle. WADDEU. J .la in Mathuri. In confonnity with the edicts. soon to be assisted by Mahinda. 112. 80th traditions know of the treacherous Tisyaraksita's attempt on the Bodhi tree. The AiokQvadtina concurs with the Pili chronicle in attributing to ASoka the erection of 84. the Kukkutirima. 1897.

29. 37.(278·279) A50KA 255 According to the Sinhalese chronicle. of Kasmirian origin.51). 264. The Sinhalese tradition is more systematic and provides exact dates. However. e.. he is not unaware that ·A. 26. the Sthaviras and Mahisirp. 104-7). other Sanskrit sources. the titles of the suttas and jitakas uttered by the monks and missionaries whom it presents (cf. but is only valid for Ceylon : it was unknown to or neglected by writers on the mainland .could not have been undertaken before the fifth century A. )4. VIll. record that. V. 31 . unknown elsewhere" However. presuppose the complete and final codification of the Pili canon in its present fonn . Still according to Kalhal)a (I.soka intervened in the internal affairs of the Sarp. its collators may well have made use of earlier documencs. no trace of these have been found . the year 11 or 18 of the reign was marked by two events of extreme importance : the council of PiJ. 39. It does indeed"seem that the Sinhalese records concerning ASoka were revised and brought up to date at a later period when the Pili canon was definitively settled. A. 5 "I. His Buddhist convictions did not prevent him in the least from . 102-3). The AsokihadQna abounds in racy anecdotes and childish stories.41. 8800) had also recorded the existence in Kasmir orfoue Asokan stiipas. It is difficult to decide on the respective value of the two Buddhist traditions.gha. which are.. 68. The Asoktivaddna and related sources do not mention them at all.as we have seen earlier . at the time of Buddhaghosa. 43.• VI. compiled the Kasmirian chronicle of the RiijataraitgitJi links ASoka to the ancient royal lineage and gives as his great-grandfather a certain Sakuni. However. Both try to satisfy the reader's taste for the wondrous and the sensational. but it should be noted that Hsiian tsang (T 2081.ghikas.D. Furthennore. the foundation of Srinagari on the site of the present-day village of Pindre!han could be traced back to Asoka. 56.. XII. VII. 3. Mh .soka was a devout adherent of the Buddha's doctrine and even attributes to him the founding of a large number of stiipas and vihiras in the region of ~u~kaletra and Vitastrata (Riijat .aliputra and the sending out of Buddhist missionaries by Moggali· 279 putta . . in the year 16 of his reign. each containing a bushel of relics. however based on the evidence of the whole continental tradition and which were expressed in literature and art. 278 . and such a codification . I. Dpl'.smir KalhaQa who. So far. 52. ch. in the twelfth century. p.ASoka and Ka. and that this intervention resulted in splitting the community into rival groups.

336.1 in NtPU}. Asoka was probably accompanied by his daughter Cirumati. one in the centre and four on the periphery of the new city. If there is any historical truth in this tradition. I. 27) states that the rebeUious movement extended to the hill-people of Nepal : the young prince easily mastered them and instituted taxes and tributes. and that ASoka went there in person to pay homage to the birthplace of the Buddha and the stupa of Kaunakamuni. p. The edicts of Rummindei and NigaJi sagar prove that Nepal fonned part of the imperial states.un. Agt ofl~ Ntmdtu. CambrU/xe HU'fNy.. 223. The Nepalese tradition adds that the pilgrimage made by Asoka went as far as Nepal. p. N. pp. two miles to the south-east of Kathmandu.nowledJC on the subject. The histoiian Taranatha (p. Ltv •. Vol. 16] sq. II. in memory of whom he built the K~tyasrama Vihara (Rajat . that the king founded the town of Patan. 281 The first still exists today : it is a stupa of an archaic type. he adopted a more friendly attitude thanks to the intervention of a Buddhist enchantress. Jalauka. how in his youth the emperor had had to quell an uprising in KhaSa . undertook vast conquests. - ASoka and Nepal 'o We have already seen. Paris. JaJauka is presented as a popular hero: he repulsed the Mlecchas. 22] . and built five caityas. f. However. see G . u Ni puJ. In the Kasmirian chronicle. 67. On this journey. We have merely reproduced bere Ihe inro rmation supplied by S. 108-52).. pp. the god granted him a son. who was destined to fight the Mlecchas who threatened the frontiers of the kingdom. TucCI. pp..256 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 280-281 ) 280 showing his respect for Sivaism : he replaced the old enclosure of the Vijayesvara shrine at Vijabron by a stone wall and enriched the sanctuary with two new temples which received the name of Asokesvara.. However. who was to marry a Nepalese k~triya named Devapila. he made a pilgrimage to the holy Mount Haramuku!8 where he gained the favour of Siva BhuleSa . it seems to be submerged under a spate of anachronisms. I. tbe two scientific expcdilio ns led by G. 1956. after opposing Buddhism. 501 ·2. he became the official protector of the sanctuaries of Siva Vijayrivara and NandiSa . Having been instructed in the Sivaite religion by the holy Avadhuta. U ''''0 . TuCCI will shon]y add 10 OUf Ir. The young couple settled in Nepal. where they founded the town of Deopatan . 1905-08. s. the " destroyer of Buddhist theoreticians". from the evidence of the Aiokavadiina. Rome. PrtlimiNlry &porl on sC~nlific Expedilk:m. In tbe interim. III.. introduced new colonies into Kasmir and for the first time organized a complete system of administration . 24.

On the hislory or Khotan. would be much more uplic:abk irlhey were or Khotancsc o ripn and IaICT trtlnsrerrcd 10 NqJaI. carrying out the orders of the cruel Ti~yarak~iti . S. BSOAS.'ItJUS lhal certain kgend.J. 333·9. B~Ol1OH. IHQ. Klwllll! Stwlws. which extended between the two colonies Chinese and Indian -. 12. pp. KONOW . having no mother. nOles Ihe kinship or the Buddhist trtldilions concernicg lhe origins or Khotan and NepIII. XXXII. located in Western Nepal. pp. 1937. the leader of the Taxilians was vanquished and forced to nee. he went to the temple of the god Vaisraval)a and asked him for a son.. and established his capital there.D. however. II $C. 1948.( 2111 · 282) 257 towards the end of her life.tNb 0/ Kilo/an atld Ntpal. 1935. P. attribute to ASoka or his sons the founding of the kingdom of Khotan in Central Asia. . r"diall O JllOt ill Ct"uaJ Asia.dom 0/ KltoIQII .links ASoka with the famous shrine of the primordial Buddha Svayambhunatha. 2510) records these events in a somewhat different way : it is KUJ:lala himself. JBORS. compiled about . 9· 20. Hence the name of Kustana (stana " breast") given to the child. p. u.. A"tin" KlwIQII. 1914. STDN. 11 ·36. ASoka's son. g. pp. CArord. pp. emlral AslDl~ hO Pulus O/ IM MawyQII Empirt. 2112 . It is unlikely.ry racts. The two colonies came to blows . 389-402. who was also in exile. A male child emerged from the god's brow and. 1946. who was banished and withdrew to Khotan where he set up his capital. p. More recently. 1939. Tradition still . was fed from a breast which issued miraculously from the ground near the temple. 400. TIbt /QII Liftrluy Tuu . U TrtlnsblCd and eommenled upon by F. but he was captured and finally beheaded. JRAS. XII . London. p. The Lif~ of Hsiian (Sang (f 2053. BAOCHl.lall. At the same period. The exiles crossed the Snow Mountains and settled in a desert which covered the western part of Khotan. The most reasonable version of the legend is recorded by Hsuan tsang in his Hsi yU chi (f 2087. Since he had no descendants. p.C.ASoka and Khotan' l Some sources which go no further back than the seventh century A. ch. 943a-b) : ASoka banished from his empire the officials of Tak~ila who. had blinded his son Ku~ala .W.. S. no l euily explicable ir or Ntpakx origin.a". SEnt. ch. . Cirumati retired to a vihara which she had built to the north of the city and which still bears her name : the Vihara of Chabahil. IHQ. 2J3 sq. TIlt KiIt. 1907. A. occupied the eastern part of Khotan. a Chinese prince.C. XIII. I. that the Mauryan empire extended beyond India itself. 1M Mouryas. H. THOMAS. The Chinese prince occupied the central portion of the kingdom.. The Buddhist prophocy in the Goirrigavydkara'. XV.

with ten thousand Chinese 283 colonists.). Some documents in Prakrit of the Nonh-West and in Khar~lhi script.). A breast which appeared miraculously from the ground fed the child who took the name of " Breast of the Earth . If there is the slightest elemeqt of truth in the Khotanese legend. His adoptive father named him king of Khotan.Breast of the Mother" (Sa-Jas-nu-ma-nu).. Asoka. pp.. a pc:riphrase which serves to translate Kustana. ibid. throughout the territory. fearing he might be dethroned by that son.258 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 282-283) the seventh century. the Indians settled in Kon-Sed to the west of the rivers.). who was converted to Buddhism by his "spiritual friend" the Arhat YaSas.. but the child was fed from a breast which came out of the ground.136. also went to Khotan with seven thousand men. Hjait-so established Chinese and Indian towns and villages. . mainly at Niya and Endere. The Indian king DhannaSoka. At that time. tells how a king of China had asked Vaisrav8r:t8 for a son and the god brought him an Indian boy who was none other than Asoka's son.C. and his name was Kustana. 89. He went to occupy his territory with the Lord Chancellor Hjan-So (YaSas) and several Chinese army units.) and the death of ASoka in 239-40 after the Nirval)a (247-46 B. The Chinese were soon joined by a numerous Indian tribe coming from the western region .C. have been discovered in the southern pan of the Tarim Basin. his native country.to the third century B. the birth of Kustana in 215-6 after the Nirvil)a (271-72 B. a Chinese king (Shih huang ti?) who had as yet only 999 sons. Once he had grown up. There he came up against Kustana and the Chinese. the oldest of which date back . an agreement was reached: the Chinese occupied Skarn-Sed to the east of the rivers. the adopted son quarrelled with his brothers and father and returned to Khotan. abandoned him on the spot.C. 01 10. and the king welcomed him among his own.C. After some frictions which were appeased by the god Vaisraval)a. who had become insufferable at the Indian coun.C. An agreement was reached between the two colonies over the communal use of water and. gave binh to a male child. Yas-lS. fenilized by an apparition of the god Vaisravar:ta. The Tibetan chronicle of the Li-yu/ J3 supplies date and details: it locates Asoka's accession in 184 after the Nirval)a (302 B. asked Vaisravar:ta for a thousandth one. It was there that his wife. went one day to Khotan . Asoka's minister. it concerns the establishment of an early Indian colony in Khotan. the centre of the country was exploited jointly by both colonies. his accession in 234-5 after the Nirvil)a (252-51 B. The god gave Kustana to him.

Samasena. fell into a decline on the death of the latter. politically organized by C3. Gopiki and Val. reference has already been made to Sampadin or Sampati. which was strictly enforced after the conquest of Kaliriga. KU$8nasena. He opposed the foolish expenditure of his ageing grandfather and held him in thrall before inheriting the throne when it was bought back from the Saf!lgha by . and spoke a dialect linguistically related to Pnikrit of the North-West (Tuila). It is probable that several of them ruled simultaneously over different provinces of the empire. in Tak~sila. the traditional supporters of the throne. There are too many of them for the space of 49 years assigned to their reigns.The last Mauryas The Indian empire. These documents prove that one or several Indian colonies came and settled in Khotan during the last centuries R. the Mauryan empire began to disintegrate and then collapsed under the very weight of its size. 216-218). Its final disintegration was· the result of Greek invasions and a military revolt. conquered after a hard-fought struggle by Candragupta. the greed of local governors and autonomist movements instigated by their exactions.C. the DaSaratha of the Puranic list left three short dedicatory inscriptions (LOnERS. grandson of ASoka and son of KUl)ala. The doctrine of Ahif!lSa or Non-Violence. possibly even Khotan. They arc to be found on the Nagarjuni Hill near the Banibar caves which ASoka presented to the same sect. 954-6) which commemorate the gift of the Vahiyaka. 5th . had perhaps avoided bloody wars. UpaJiva . The last Mauryas are known from the Pural)ic and Buddhist lists 284 reproduced above (pp. Sitaka. but it also contributed to the weakening of military power in the empire and deprived the central authorities of an indispensable instrument of domination. such as Arigacha. By favouring the sects in general and Buddhism in particular.l)akya. The legend woven around KUl)ala situates him in North-West India. communication difficulties. and the persons who signed them have Indian names .or they are adapted from Indian. In the AiokiilladQna.iathiU caves to the Venerable AJivikas "by the beloved of the gods (deIlDntlJ!lpiya) Da~latha".such as Bhima. etc. palace intrigues. Barigusena. Nandasena. In reality. the pious emperor possibly alienated the sympathy of the brahmins. and spiritually unified by ASoka. a victim of the centrifugal forces which brought pressure on it. Although he is unknown to the Buddhist and Jaina sources.<283-284) THE LAST MAURYAS 259 They deal with affairs of public administration and private life.

arter a long war which the latter waged against Euthydemus or Magnesia. RA. wicked and pugnacious.C. 34. That king. in appro· ximately the year 206. Subhagasena) who. was killed during a military parade by his commander·in-chier ~yamitra. after his conversion to lainism under the influence of Suhastin.260 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 284-285) ASoka's ministers. .ruE GREEK KINGDOM OF BACTRlA 325 TO 250 B. his successor according to the PurfilJa. 2. As will be seen rurther on. how· ever. Salisuka.. . is mentioned in the Yogapurii1)a of the Gargi Sturthi(Q (vv. being himself irreligious . after having supplied his troops with wheat. TUN.u lu in /kutriD (lIId IndiD. Should the V~sena or the Buddhist list or the Virasena or Taranatha be identified with the Sophagasenus (Skt. . he ruled in pa.uka ror a triumph or the Law which would have made him an emulator or his great ancestor. S. a Dhavala in Rajputana.C." . renewed his rriendship with 285 King Sophagasenus. the king or Bactria ? According to Polybius (XI. was to make way ror Antiochus III the Great. however. cr. p. W. 11-12). the last or the line.. onwards. The rail orthe empire did not completely extinguish the lineage : there was still a PU""avarnlan in Magadba..un. 353 . Agt oftlw NONku . The Jaina sources (Po!oliputrakaJpa by Jinaprabhasuri) also refer to him as ASoka's immediate successor .!3liputra and. is reproaching Salii. will oppress his kingdom : he based his authority on the Dhanna. once the hostilities were over.. 89-93) : " In pleasant ~papura (Pa!aliputra).ta~ka until the eleventh century I • . N. he returned with his anny. the son of his deeds. Antiochus "having crossed the Caucasus (Hindukush) and having entered Indian territory. 248. The te)(t is corrupt and the passage obscure but. p. Political History. the Greek military colonists who had been settled in Bactria by BACTRtA FROM . TIw G.. see particularly. so that in all he had one hundred and fifty and.YCIlAUDH'tI1U. He received elephants rrom him. Salisiika will reign. he left behind Androsthenes or Cyzicus to bring back the treasure which ~d been granted to bim by the king" . "he established vihiras for the (Jaina) Srama~as as far away as non-Aryan countries". the author. a Govindaraja in Khandesh and the memory or the Mauryas endured in Kan:. And that madman will establish the supposed Victory of the Law". . some Mauryan princes in Korikan. " Besides general works. if we have understood it correctly. from the viewpoint or his brahmanic orthodoxy. W. Brhadratha. the Buddhist sources are wrong in identirying the latter as a member or the Maurya ramily.From the year 32S D..

14. pp. rebelled. 286.. obeying the orders of Perdiccas. 3. One of his compatriots.( 285-286) THE GREEK KINGOOM Of 8ACTRIA 261 Alexander. f .000 infantry and 800 cavalry from the Macedonian army. fell to the Seleucids. The latter. However after the indecisive battles waged in Paraecene and Gabiene. and put the contingent in charge of General Peithon. p. Nevertheless. 39. satrap of Aria and Drangiana. I). Eumenes was delivered to Antigonus by his argyraspides and strangled in his prison (316). 1-9). XIX. However. At the partition of Triparadisus in 321. Athenodorus. In order to subdue them. the Greek element did not disappear from Bactria. 7. the satrapy passed. together with Sogdiana. the higher satrapies revolved in the 2nd cd . Cambridge. with his colleagues from the higher satrapies.000 cavalry (Diodorus. I. the Bactrian contingent consisted of 1.500 infantry and 1. the rebellious movement spread . frustrated in his wishes. massacred the vanquished talring them unawares. However. Paris. wer~ pitiless and. 99. but the majority of the colonists wert still in the higher satrapies when Alexander's empire was shared out by Perdiccas in 323. They occupied the citadel of Bactra and their leader. 1950. the satrap of Media. Iran. fOUOlEA . 48.7). 1-4). 5-6). XVII. 6). less through greed for power than a desire to bring back to Greece those who acknowledged his authority.. The mercenaries chose the Aenean Philo as their general and built up an army of 20. 7. The latter easily defeated the rebels. ALTlmW. the satraps then disbanded and each of them thought nothing but his own safety. they separated from the Macedonians and. XIX. During the final partition of Alexander's empire. a partition which confirmed Philippus as satrap of Bactria (Diodorus. XVIII. XVIIl. even assumed the title of king. Stasanor of Soloi returned to Baclria.000 infantry286 men and 3. could only take his Macedonians back to Perdiccas (Diodorus.LA "~ilh R()Illt tit I'INk. A. IX. Perdiccas withdrew 3. Biton. who was jealous of him. the rebels would not acknowledge Biton as king and were about to slay him (Quintus Curlius. · . but his soldiers. He would have liked to spare them.000 cavalrymen who had all taken part in warfare and were noted for their bravery. Peithon. From then on. 3). I.000 in number. his possession of which was officially confinned by Antigonus (Diodorus.idit AJitru. 194). 71 · 128. Wtllltsd. 1947. 3. had him assaninated during a feast by the Bactrian Boxus. strove to return to their native land (Diodorus. XVIII . Halle. as we know. embraced the cause of Eumenes in his battle against Antigonus : including troops supplied by Stasandrus. into the hands of Stasanor of Soloi (Diodorus. He returned to his country.

The satrap of Bactria and Margiana at the time was Diodotus. any more than he had troubled Diodotus I. Arsaces I ruled for two years (2~248) . some of whose coins have been found. together with the external wars. 9. 284b). retook from the Egypt of the Ptolemies. The same fact is recorded by Zosimus (I. 2). appointed satrap by Antiochus II Theos. in tum. Syncc:Uius has them descend from the Achaemenid Artaxerxes n. XI. engaged in the West during the second Syrian war (260-255) and allied with Macedonia. as the sons of Phriapita and grandsons of Arsaces (Parthica.Taking advantage of the troubles which had broken out in the trans--Taurian region 287 subsequent to the lack of attention which the kings of Syria and Media. followed by a band of Dahae nomads. the leaders to whom those possessions had been entrusted roused Bactria and the whole adjacent region" (Strabo. They were to break away. His second marriage (252) to Berenice. "The Scythian Arsaces. 4. "under the consulate of L. 2). defected and assumed the title of king" (Justin.C. who lived along the Ochus (Heri-rud).). Antiochus II did not dispute his conquest. although "some authors claim that he was a native of Bactria and that it was because he was not able to hold out against the increased power of Diodotus that he Oed to Parthia and incited it to revolt" (Strabo. Justin states that. Parthia was governed by a certain Andragoras. XLI. fr o I).23S B. Manlius Vulso and M. 18). king of the Persians (Syncell. at the time of the revolt. XI. Arsaces and Tiridates.C. . enabled Baetna and Parthia to proclaim their independanc:e. 5). designated by Justin by the name ofTheodotus : "Theodotus. KING OF SA-CTRIA (ea 2. 3). Attilus Regulus". so 'the two brothers instigated a plot and killed him. XI. at least in part. It is generally believed that Arsaces was a Scythian. at the time. and the repudiation of his wife and cousin laodice involved the empire in a difficult problem of succc:ssion which. attacked and seized Parthia" (Strabo. . 9. 9. XLI. in the reigns of Seleucus I Nicator (312· 280) and Antiochus J Soter (280-261). According to these two authors. the governor of a thousand towns in Bactria. DloooTUs I.262 THE MAUR YAN PERIOD ( 286-287) orbit of the court of Antioch. This prince. this governor made an indecent attack on Tiridates' person. could give to that remote part of their states. p. the coast of Asia Minor and fortified towns in Coele-Syria. in the reign of Antiochus II Theas (261-247). called Dahae Parni. was governed by the Macedonian Pherecles or Agathocles. Arrian gives the Arsacids. too busy elsewhere. 4. the daughter of Ptolemy II. Andragoras was killed. and Arsaces became ruler of the nation (Justin . 6-7). Parthia.5(). This defection took place in 250 B.

Seleucus II. Now that he was the uncontested ruler of Bactria. In Syria. 4. he withdrew to the land of the Apasiacae (of the Massagetae race on the Middle Oxus)" (Strabo. 4. made peace and allied himself with that prince's son also named Diodotus (II). he took refuge with the Scythians. a standing Zeus. XLI. He spent his life on 2U campaigns. 2). . However. In the meantime.The Diodotus lineage was overthrown by a certain Euthydemus of Magnesia. 9).:10TOT : the obverse represented the profile of the prince as a young man. throwing a thunderbolt. the wife he repudiated. considered disputing his conquest. and reigned from 248 to 214.The Bactro-Syrian coalition had made Arsaces It Tiridates fear-stricken : following the example given in the past by Bessus and Spitamenes. the reverse. king of Bactria" (Justin. Diodotus I died and was replaced by his son Diodotus II. DIOOOTUS II (ca 235-225 B.). Thus it was that Tiridates "freed from anxiety by the death of Diodotus (I). Diodotus I.). 8). The latter immediately broke off the alliances and. Xl. Diodotus II struck staters of gold and tetradracbms of copper with the legend BAIIAEnI . he came to blows with Seteueus who came to punish the rebels and he was the victor" (Justin. left two children : $eleueus II Callinicus and Antiochus Heirax. During the third Syrian war (246-241). Tiridates.( 287-288) mE GREEK KINGOOM OF BAcrRIA 263 Tiridates succeeded his brother under the name of Arsaces II. a date which has been established by a Babylonian tablet which gives both dates. 8).C . . XI.C. the king of Bactria and marched against Tiridates. embraced the Parthians' cause. Antiochus II Theos. the latter " raised a great army because he feared Seleucus and Diodotus. parting definitively from the court of Antioch. ElJTHYDEMUS OF MAGNESIA (ca 225-190 B. promoted to the title of King and Great King in Parthia. his compatriots: "Fleeing from $eleucus II Callinicus. Faced with this danger. Whether or not he acted at the . poisoned by Laodice. who later boasted to the Seleucids that he had put to death the descendants of the rebels (Polybius. He allied himself with another rebel. shortly afterwards. 8. $eleueus II ruled from 247 to 226. Antiochus Heirax. $eleucid and Parthian . 34. his kingdom was invaded as far as the Tigris by Ptolemy III and he had only just repulsed this invasion when he had to engage his own brother. had seized Hyrcania without any opposition and so was ruler of two kingdoms. The Parthian era begins on April 14th 247. before hostilities began.:1I0. XLI. It was only in 236 that the legitimate sovereign. in implacable warfare which cut off his states in Asia Minor to the north of the Taurus (before 236).

The Bactrian king wished for peace and only asked to retain his title. According to Polybius (X . no longer the Diodotus Zeus. from 212 to 204. He was more fortunate in Upper Asia where. the son of Seleucus II who had died in 226. Euthydemus. as much because of his good looks as the majesty of his address. This peril was skilfully exploited for Antiochus by Teleas. Fear-sticken. who had bef:n sent to him to conclude peace : " Having received him with favour. he undertook an anned circuit comparable to the Anabasis of Alexander. and granted his father Euthydemus the title of king. he then dealt with Arsaces III Artaban. 49). succeeded his elder brother Scleucus II Soter in 223. son of Euthydemus. Sophene. Antiochus III entered the district of Tapuria (Tapuri on the Upper Atrek) which was defended by Euthydemus. XXIX. and put to Right the ten thousand Bactrian cavalrymen who were responsible for its defence. His attempt to reconquer Ptolemaic Syria and Palestine failed at the Egyptian victory of Raphia which ended the fourth Syrian war (219-216) . and immediately took steps to restore his kingdom. and struck coins representing on the reverse. had killed the descendants of the rebel Diodotus.264 THE MAURYAN PERIOD <28&·289) instigation of the Antioch court. who pointed out the dangers which a fratricide battle between the Seleucids and the Greek king of Bactria would hold for the cause of Hellenism. The latter. The plea of Teleas was heard . sitting on a rock and holding a club in his right hand. crossed the river Arius (Heri-cUd) by surprise. Euthydemus withdrew with his anny to the town of Zariaspa in Bactria where Antiochus came and besieged him (Polybius. and judging the young man to be worthy of ruling. 6A. A refusal would benefit only the nomad Scythians. king of the Parthians (214-196). finally he proceeded to attack Bactria (208). Antiochus agreed to deal with Demetrius. Hostilities continued for two years (208-206). and it was wrong of Antiochus to try and dethrone him. Having settled the other points with a written agreement and conctuded a swo~ alliance. 5). the dynasty of which submitted. Only too happy to end the war which was dragging on. he ruled in Baclna with the name of BAIIAEOI EY9TdHMOT. Antiochus promised him the hand of one of his daughters. he traversed Southern Annenia. XI . far from defecting. while Scythian hordes were a dangerous threat to the northern frontiers of the kingdom. he struck camp aner having copiously revictualled his anny and taking with him . With one hundred thousand infantry and twenty thousand cavalry. kinsman of Euthydemus. but Htracles. 289 Euthydemus came up against a powerful opponent in the person of Antiochus 111 the Great.1-5). 34. who were ready to invade the country (Polybius.

Instead of returning to his country by the direct route. going from youth to old age.( 29(). Drangiana and Carmania. says Strabo. he returned to Syria across Arachosia. not without imposing on the Indian king a heavy war tax. " there was hardly any difference. the Tapurian males wore black and had long hair. made Bactria the most powerful state of eastern Iran. It is believed that he died about the year 190. Magnesia under Sipylos and Corycus. and the variety of the monograms indicates the existence: of many mints.291 ) THE GREEK KINGOOM OF BACTRIA 265 290 all the elephants which had belonged to Euthydemus" (Polybius. where they were 291 devoured by birds of prey. and the Sogdians and Baclrians on the other with regard to their way of life and all their manners and customs" (Strabo. the Caspians left septuagenarians to die of hunger and exposed their bodies in the desert. Homeland of Zoroastrianism. Bactria remained faithful to the cult of Fire and Anaitis. According to Onesicritus. whatever the . with her crown of rays. and to the south-east to the detriment of the Indians. the Bactrians who reached old-age or who fell sick were thrown alive to "entomber-dogs" . crossed the HindCikush and entered Indian territory. The places where the coins were found suggest an extensive domain. Euthydemus seems to have asserted his authority over Arachosia and the regions located to the west of the Indus. as we have seen. Antiochus. His coinage is wide-spread. the shameful peace of Apamea (ISS). goddess of the Oxus. 9-10). and making the most of the weakness of the last representative of the Mauryas in the North-West. Demetrius was able to take advantage of the circumstances to carve out an Indian empire for himself. It was only after the K~1)a period that she was to become accessible to Buddhist propaganda. XI. and the bravest had the right to marry the woman of their choice . bear witness to a long reign. Finally. 3). The weakening of the Seleucid empire by the defeats at Thermopylae. XI. at the expense of the Arsacids. II. Bactria had remained Iranian in its beliefs and way of life : " Formerly". Bactria was to remain faithful to her ancestral customs and force all her conquerors to become Iranized to a considerable degree. Euthydemus and his son Demetrius extended their kingdom towards the north-west. the collapse of the Mauryan empire after the assassination of Daiaratha (ca IS7). Greek through its dynasts. For a long time. 34. between the Nomads on the one hand. He renewed with the Maurya Subhagasena the treaty which had bet:n concluded fonnerly between Seleucus I and the emperor Candragupta. and the variations of his effigy. Strengthened by the alliance: concluded with the Seleucid. who. appears on the coins of Demetrius. soon followed by the death of Antiochus III (IS7).

embraced the Good Law in the reign of Devanarppiyatissa. Here. His envoys who.. Ceylon on the contrary. we should remember. XII. He sent the embassy back to Ceylon with the material needed for a second coronation. Oevinaf!lpiyatis. 14 sq .C.).CEYLON FROM 2~ TO 200 B. XIII-XX). Ulliya . he sent a pressing invitation to DevinafTIpiyatissa to embrace the Buddha's religion : "I have taken.· While Aioka and the last Mauryas occupied the throne: of Magadha. ASoka. (236-276 after the Nirvil)a. Ancient Era (B. graciously received· the gifts which were made to him. Five or six. The king decided to send part of 292 them to the emperor Asoka.. 93. Mu~asi . the king's nephew. years later.) that ASoka boasted in his edicts (BLOCH. An embassy. two kings reigned in Ceylon whose nam~ and dates arc: supplied to us by the chronicles : Sovereign Length of reign 6. 10 Era of the Nirv. in particular. under the protection of the kings.C. were not Buddhist propagandists. .mrapan. 7. pp. it was in about the twelrth or thirteenth year of his reign (256-255 B. XVII. . Ta. led by Mahirigha. At the same time. is narrated in detail in the chronicles of the Dipa (XI. with whom he was on friendly tenns.sa 7.210 276-286 210-200 The: event of greatest importance was the introduction of Buddhism into Ceylon and the establishment of communities of bhik~us and bhik~ul)is which..!3-liputra. . 130) that he had made the Law victorious in foreign lands. was entrusted with conveying them to Pa. jfthe tradition can be believed..The history of his reign.5().C. who had just initiated the third Buddhist council.C.266 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 291 -292) efforts made by the missionaries may have been up till then. in the kingdoms of South India and. As we saw earlier. 92) and the MahdvQtrtSa (XI.a died and the throne passed to his second son neva. The day of his first coronation was marked by the miraculous appearance: of wonderful treasures. we will merely record its main facts. who gave them a wann welcome. no doubt arrived on the island towards the end of the reign of the fifth sovereign Mu~asiva. .. DEVAN~PIYAnssA . wefe able to develop freely. which lasted for forty years.) 236-276 2. 25().naqlplya.li or Ceylon .21O B. a contemporary of ASoka.

XV. The missionaries organized a series of sermons which brought the number of converts to 8. he fixed with Mahinda the boundaries of the parish (sima1 where the uposatha ceremonies and other acts of the Saf!lgha were to take place (Dp • . XV. a quantity of precious relics. the Law and the Community.C. followed his example. The bhikkhus withdrew to Mount Missaka and spent the rainy season there. it is your tum. During the mission.). Mahinda. situated to the south of Anuradhapura.c. Mu~siva 's daughter and Devinarppiya's step-sister.. 9-23). 180-94). who had come to Ceylon with Mahinda. expressed the desire to take up the religious life with some . XVI. and prepared to receive the Buddhist message. Immediately. XIV. Mh •. On the return of the embassy. which lasted for seven days.. at the full moon in the month of Jenha in the year 236 after . Devanaf!1piyatissa was solemnly crowned a second time. the Icing offered the Mahameghavana to the Saf!1gha by pouring into Mahinda's hand the contents of a water pitcher. at Mahinda's instigation Devinarppiyatissa sent the simal)era Sumana. The following day.( 292·293) CEYLON FROM 2SO TO 200 B. all these relics were placed provisionally in the Cetiyapabbata (Mhv . Arinha among them.500. as well as from the god Sakka. the head of the mission. 21·5. the Nirva~a (May. the king. saw landing at his side seven Buddhist missionaries who had Rown through the air to convert the island of Ceylon. numbering five hundred persons.. Princess Anuli. The monks' retreat ended at the full moon of the month of Kattika (October). Shortly after. I have proclaimed myself to be a lay disciple in the religion of the Sons of the Sakya. 14-15. On the twenty-seventh day after the arrival of the missionaries fiftyfive young Sinhalese. 24-5). embraced Buddhism. 267 my refuge". who was engaged in a hunting party 011 Mount Missaka (Mihintale. One they reached Ceylon.. Sumana acquired from his grandfather. It was there that the Icing built the 293 Cetiyapabbata vihara for them (Mhv . expounded a sutta to him and the king. in order to ensure definitively the "establishment of the religion of the Victorious One" Uinasiisanapaliuhdna). in particular the right clavicle (dakkh ifJakkhaka) and the alms-howl (palla) ofSikyamuni. he took Mahinda and his companions to his capital and settled them in the Nandana and Mahameghavana parks. His retinue. Then. donned the religious robe and received ordination. ASoka's grandson. as a sign of an everlasting donation (Mhv . he wrote to the king. eight miles north of the capital). Finally. "in the Buddha. XVII. who wished for nothing else than to be converted.. 0 best of men. to appease your mind through faith and take your refuge in those three supreme Jewels". 250 s. to Pi!aliputra. 12-1 7).

His request was granted. on the eastern coast. Today the monument is still an object of fervent veneration by millions of Buddhists. II . was sent to Ceylon with ten other bhikkhul].gha by Devanarppiya and laid out under the orders of Mahinda. thirty-two saplings were distributed throughout the island (Mh'l' . where the last-named lived. It was in the Thuparama Digaba that the relic of the Buddha's right clavicle. ASoka's own daughter. in the village of Tivakka Brahma~a in the north. and was given the name of Hattha!haka-vihara or Bhikkhunupassaya. took to sea on the first day of the month of Maggasira (November). accompanied by Magadhan nobles. present-day Tamluk). 65-71). 62-4). A third embassy.• XVII. The most important of them are to be found within precincts of the Mahavihara or Great Monastery. they landed in Ceylon. under the leadership of the bhikkhu Maharinha. at the port of Iambukola.is. Later. and in a place known as Candanagama which has not been identified. in Kajaragama in the south. XV. AriHha asked the emperor of India not only for some ten nuns. but also for the southern branch of the tree of Enlightenment (mahobodhidakkhil.• XIX. Sarpghamitta and the bhikkhu~is conferred ordination on Princess Anula and her companions.lasiikha).. not onJy from Ceylon but also from other countries which . 61. Saplings were planted in Anuradhapura and the surrounding area.268 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (293·294) companions. 'and the nun 5aJ!lghamitta. Tradition attributes to Devanarppiyatissa the founding of some twen294 ty Buddhist monuments some of which still exist today . was transformed and enlarged. 86).. was therefore sent to Asoka's coun. was placed (Mh'l' . that any hope of discovering their original form is lost. The holy women. A monastery adjoined it and was given the name of Thuparama (Mhv . XVlll-XIX). After a rapid but stormy crossing. 50).• I. they carried with them the branch of the holy tree. 80 . it thus became necessary to acquire a chapter of Buddhist nuns so they could be ordained authenlically. The Thupa "par excellence" was erected by the king near the walls to the south of Anuradhapura. The Upasildi-vihara. in Iambukolapanana. The planting of the holy branch was performed with great ceremony. XVII. Sarpghamitta set up her quarters there (Mh'l' . including the Mahameghavana which was presented to the S8Ip.. 64. but they underwent so many transformations in the course of time. The place was visited by the Buddha Sakyamuni and his three predecessors (Dp'l' . ASoka himself escorted them through the Vindhyas to the port of Timalitti (Tamralipti. where the king awaited them in the midst of a throng of people who had come from all parts of the island. Mh'l' . brought back from Patatiputra by the srama~era Sumana.

This digaba is probably the first stiipa to be built in Ceylon. However. However. 57). is a good example of this type of construction .. XVI.. was. 102-3). It was there that the relics given to the srima"era Sumana by ASoka and the god ~kra wert temporarily stored. Soon. tradition has it that DevinaT!lpiya planned its construction and. 43) : this consisted of a wooden roof protecting the trunk of the holy tree . were erected on the island during the Buddha's life-time.( 294-295) CEYLON FROM 2SO TO 200 B. The Mahithiipa which at present stands to the south of the ThiipiDigaba was built by Dunhagima"i (104-80 B. Bas-reliefs discovered at Bhirbut.C.while the branches developed in the open air. At present. XXVllI.. it is a small-sized stiipa. XIX.C. XXXVI. the shrine discovered at Nillakgama in the disctrict of Kurunegala. On Mount Missaka. It has undergone so many transfonnations that it is impossible to decide what the original was like.. or house for 295 the holy tree (CiilavlU!Ua. 12-17). to the south-east of the Thupirima Oigaba (Mhv. the first to build a true Bodhighara. Very early on. at the four cardinal points. it seems. the base of which has a diameter of 12 metres. Dhitusena. XV. stood pillars (rambha) each supporting a Wheel of the Law (Mhv . who ruled from 460 to 478 A.D. 269 adhere to the Theravida. 173). in the province of Uva. as was done at Bodh-Gayi. the tree was surrounded by a pavilion to protoct it. the king also built for the first monks in Ceylon a monastery which was named the Cetiyavihira (Mhv .) in circumstances which we will narrate further on .C. the holy tree at the Mahivihira was surrounded by a stone palisade (siltivedikQ) . companions brought from Gayi was planted by the king withing the precincts of the Mahivihira. the right clavicle: rima . marked with a pillar the spot where the monument was to be eroctcd (Mhv. to the north of the tree there was a gateway (ror~) and. and that of Girihal)4u on the north-eastem coast. and which dates back to the end of the eighth century or the beginning of the ninth. The present "Bodhi-tree shrine" at Anuridhapura has been altered so much in the course of the last few years that it gives only a very imperfect idea of the old Bodhigharas. It is surrounded by a row of stone columns sunnounted by delicately sculpted capitals which must at one time have supported a wooden superstructure. in the reign of GOfhakibhaya (299-312 A. Amarivati and other sites on the sub-continent give an idea of these constructions which were in use in India from the second century B. In any case. onwards.. however. on Mahinda's indications.).D . although tradition claims that the Mahiyangal)a Oigaba.always very short in the case of ficus religioso . The branch of the Bodhi tree which Sal"!lghamitti and her.

.blishments attributed to Devanllf!lpiyatissa can be found in the MaMy~a (XX. However. was disturbed by an attack of giant monsters which the then controlled by magic. Just as astonishing. without denying the relations ASoka the Great established with distant TimrapaC'Qi. a lambukolavihara was built by him in Nigadipa. namely the conversion of the island through the combined efforts of the Buddhist missionaries and the Sinhalese kings 296 who occupied the throne during the Maurya period. on the spot where the Bodhi tree had been disembarked. subdivisions. it is doubtful whether he was on such friendly terms with the Sinhalese: kings that he could issue tbem with a veritable spiritual ultimatum by inviting them to adhere to Buddhism. in other respects.and Vimdnavallhu as the Jalaka and basic SUlra. but there: wert some in other places on the island. but the latter voyage. taking the form of a Garu<. by crossing over the sea. Saf!1ghamitta and her nuns. as was later the case: with the relic of the tooth . nonnal though it may appear. occurred in the first year of a reign which was to continue for forty years. what we said earlier shows that at this period the Buddhist canon was still in tbe process of formation. titles and sub-tiUes. We cannot help thinking that these chronicles gave a tendentious prc:sc:ntation of facts which. The continual comings-and-goings between Anuradhapura and PiJaliputra for the sole purpose of acquiring reUcs and nuns at the very least lacks any verisimilitude.270 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 295-296) of the Buddha was enshrined in the Thiipirima Digaba (Mhv . The account abounds in marvellous deeds : Marunda and his companions land in Ceylon after flying through the air. particularly the conversion of the whole island to Buddhism and the various religious constructions of King Tissa. and even miraculous. There is complete silence regarding the other years. contain part of the historical truth. and as yet did not constitute a body of scriptures fully settled in their composition.• XX. was the conversion of such an extensive island in the space of one week : there is no attempt to hide the fact that.• XVII. Thus. A complete list of esta. The chronicles claim that all the events narrated here. SO). while Sikyamuni's pdtradhiitu or alms-bowl was preserved in the royal palace (Mlly. the propagandists emphasized the teaching with the help of their supernormal powers. and became the national "palladium" of the Sinhalese. Finally. 13).ta. 11-26) : most of them are located in Anuradhapura. The relics which Sumana acquired did not come only from Magadhan rc:sc:rves but also and especially from lndra's heaven. in order to achieve this result. The canonical texts which they recited during that mission and of which the chronicles supply the exact titles are taken as much from the Pela.

p. The royal favours auracted into the order many unworthy recruits whose mentality and conduct had to be corrected.200 B.Devina1!lPiyatissa died childless. is known today by the name of Ambasthala and held in great veneration : its architectural fonn ..BUDDHIST LEGENDS AND TRADITIONS There is a dark side to every picture.. At the same time. Maharigha had proceeded to make a complete recitation of the Vinaya at the Thiipirama. p. King Uttiya ga. he was joined in death by his sister. ch. The dissension between the monks finally culminated in a schism which split the Community into two rival clans. and five of the six missionaries who had come with him from Magadha : Ighiya. from 250 to 202 B.a's time were not without inconveniences for the SaJTIgha itself.C. died at the age of 80. Sambala.000 bhikkus (Samantapdsiidileii. XVII. and the site of the pyre was given the name of lsibhiimanga~a "Place of the Sage". The following year (285 after the Nirva!)a.C. which was harmful to the very quality of the religious ideal. particularly the Cetiyapabbata. the pillars surrounding it and its small size (9 metres in diameter) link it closely with t~e first stiipa founded on the island by DevinaJTIpiyatissa. 684b-c). formulated as theoretical proposals.C. the Thupirima Digaba mentioned above. T 1462.ve them splendid funerals. After his death. Uttiya. the nun Salpghamitti. 32. who had succeeded Mahinda as Vinaya chief in Ceylon. . the body of the holy one was cremated near the Mahithiipa. Some of his remains were deposited in a cetiya which was specially built for them.. sima~era Sumana and Bha1). 2. bordered on heresy.( 296-297) BUDDHIST LEGENDS AND TRADmONS 271 UTnYA (276-286 after the Nirvi~a. After lying in state for a week in the Mahivihira. 297 The chronicle devotes a long chapter to the Niboona of the " Thera" (Mahinda) and his sister (Dpv . 201 B. and the successes achieved by the Good Law in Asok. In the year 8 of Uttiya's reign (284 after the Nirvi~a.). the missionary to Ceylon.). founded on that occasion by Uttiya on the summit of Mount Missaka or Mihintale. in the presence of Mahinda and 68.C. the teaching of the Tipi!aka was continued by a long series of masters the list of whom is found in the Samantapiisiidilea (pp. He had been ordained for 60 years and acted as Vinaya chief in Ceylon for 48 years. The Cetiyagiri stlipa. II . the death also occurred of Mah8riHha. 102 sq. Devanarppiyatissa's nephew. a veritable democratization. Soon. The increase in vocations provoked a levelling down. XX.).). and four of his brothers succeeded him in tum on the throne. Mahinda.. . the rest were distributed to various vihiras. Mhv. 62-3.). 202 B. 94 sq. . sq.4uka. the new tendencies. 21().

who had just brushed up his knowledge. ASoka thought he was to blame for the massacre and his remorse was appeased only by the coming of Moggaliputtatissa. p.272 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 297-298> In the present section.. Sds(llUlvQIr'Sa. V. I. On the seventh day the king went to the ASokirirna Ilnd gathered the whole assembly of bhik~us around him . and Buddhaghosa. 684u-b).. p. 24-5. I. in his Atthasiilini (p. partial etemalism (eka tyaiiihata). VII. 55-9) locates the same event in 118 after the NirvalJa. three events which occurred around the time of ASoka's reign . 4). Le. also cf. In trying to induct the monks to ctlebrate a communal uposatha. p. one of ASoka's ministers did not hesitate to behead the recalcitrant ones and only stopped the butchery when confronted with the Venerable Tissa. However. o nc passage. comes down in favour of the year 218 after the NirvalJa. scepticism (amarii)lik$t!pa). which we would like to think of as corrupt. in the 17th or 18th year of ASoka's reign (Mhv . (Dpv . The date of the council is generally given as the year 236 after the Nirvil)3. V. In confonnity with his decision which he promulgated in the KauSimbi edict. The master put an end to his doubts and taught him the Dhanna for seven days. etc. Seated with Moggalipunatissa behind a curtain. 8. The king then summoned the other bhik~us and asked them which DESCRIPTION OF THE TRADITION. 60-1) and ilS Chinese recension (T 1462. immediately realized that the supporters of these theories were not authentic bhik~us but quite simply heretics. the king's own brother. in the Dipa)llJT!Ua (I. he questioned each of the monks of the various tendencies in tum on the teaching of the Blessed One. - THE THIRD BUDDHIST COUNCIL IN PATAl. 2. 267-82). For seven years already.IPUTRA The council of Pii~a1iputra is mentioned o nly in the Sinhalese sources. th.000 in number. We saw earlier the unfortunate events which marked the year 236. 9). of which the main ones are the Dipavamsa (VII . 44-59). 37. The heretics were 60.C. the Samon298 IDpdsiidikii (pp. the Mahtivmrua (y. 34-43. 44. They attributed to the latter the sixty-two heretical theories which are described and condemned in the BrahamajiiJasuttanto : radical etemalism (idiyota)liida). we will deal with the circumstances which caused the so-called "Council of Pi!8liputra". discord prevailed among the monks of the ASokarama. 250 D. the supposed heresy of Mahadeva and finally the schism of the Mahisi~ghikas. - . 280). ASoka. NiktiyajlU!1graila . he reclothed them in the white robe of the laity and expelled them from the community.

These Vibhajyavidins. which merely says that he refuted the heretical views (p. Kern found nothing in the account of the council but a mass of impossibilities and an accumula· tion of dogmatic fables". pp. limited to a particular school : that of the Sinhalese Theravidins. H. Koia. According to the Pili sources. 240-(11 . which lasted for nine months.000. among them the KiSyapiyas and MahiSisakas. After which. lines 11·12). pp. FMlIWALIJ'IU. . They answered him that it was the doctrine of the Vibhajyaviida or of Distinguishing. were opposed to the Sarvistividins . 61. namely. 11G-12. T1tt CllrONoIOfY . professed to support all religions impartially and named overseers of the Dharma to watch over their particwar interests. and proposed that they undertake a new compilation of the true Law (saddhannasfU!1graha). AN ASSESSMENT OF THE TRADITION.. P.000 according 299 to the Pili recension of the same text (p. and of Yabs Kikal)~akaputra (Sonaka in the Chinese version) at the council of VaisaIi. The fact that the Pili sources are alone in mentioning the council of Pi~liputra indicates that it was a local tradition. By making the Buddha a Vibhajyavidin. ·. 1952. 684b 9). The Thera Moggaliputtatissa selected from among them 1. CII. 6.. he returned to the town. MQltlUli. an action which has borne fruit (cf. and the non-existence of the future and part of the past. Dk BwlrJJrulistlt. We will merely remark that ASoka's direct intervention in the purging of the Sarpgha is not appropriate to a sovereign who. 111 · 19. We . an action that has not borne fruit. considered to be Vibhajyavidin because they assert the existence of the present and part of the past.trl KONlilt . namely. Having been assured by the Thera Tissa that this was the case. Kern. the Thera Tissa and his colleagues proceeded with the third compilation of the Dhanna and Vinaya in the course of the sessions. the account commits an anachronism and attributes to the Master the special views of certain Buddhist schools. p. in his edicts. ZDMG.150 ~rer the reader 10 E. The orthodox monks were 60. pp. 52). following the example of MahilciSyapa at the council of Rijagrha.000 bhik· ~us who were versed in the Tripi~lca. SO) and the Chinese version of the Samantapiisddikd (p. 684b 10). ASoka happily concluded that the assembly was purified (iuddha) and proposed that it celebrate the uposatha : after which. in the middle of the council he produced the Pili Katluillauhuppakarlll!a in order to refute the heretical doctrines but this important detail is deliberately omitted from the Chinese recension of the Samantapasadikd .( 298· 299) THE COUNCIL OF PATALJPUTRA 273 doctrine the Buddha had professed.000 in number according to the DipalltJl!lSo (VII. V. EGGUWONT.

2. at least in the fonn known to u. possibly even apocryphal.· We saw above how the Kilthavatthu could not have been promulgated by Tissa. that is a state of mind which is fitting for all Buddhist thinkers in general and it could not have served ASoka in establishing the orthodoxy of the ASokarama monks and separating non-believers from the truly faithful. A. pp. They are described in both the Piili Abhidhamma and the Sarviistiviidin Abhidharma (Kathdvauhu . accompanied by erotic dreams. 64· 5. 956b) . L. the tradition concerning the council of Pii~liputra is closely connected. p.. 1· 5. Arhats can be led astray by others. We will see further on the suspect. but undefiled ignorance (akl4. &r:ln bouddIIu.274 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 299-300) who asserted the existence of the three time-periods. Seetes. 163-203 . which we will try to specify. However. 10. a condemnation of the Andhaka sect which. 819b . .ws. Arhats are still subject to ignorance. . 7. p. five propositions prejudicial to the dignity and prerogatives of the Arhat were debated in the communities. p. DE L4 V4LtiE PoussIN. ]9]0. ch. ch..the followmg way : I. Bhavya and Vinitadeva". they are repeated and discussed in the Vjb~d (T 1545. the first link of the chain of dependent origination. Jndnaprasthiina . nature of these supposed missions. 30-40). attributable to deities taking on female forms. we should remember. Finally. 190). in the minds of its compilers. e4kf. It is true that the Buddha proclaimed himself to be a Vibhajyavadin in the Ariguttara (V. that is. with the sending out of Buddhist missionaries by Moggalipuuatissa. n. T~ Fj~ POUt IS of MahiidtWl atId JRAS. It contains. SlOe). have seminal emissions during their sleep. pp. at the time of this council. the five theses (paneavastu) were formulated in .a ajriiina). 2). 99.4 U. t~ KalhiiWluhw. by virtue 11 cr. 2. at present. the Kosa (I. 1st . p. p. praised the 300 praiseworthy. T 1544. thus establishing necessary discriminations and avoiding unilateral positions". T 1543. not defiled ignorance (avidyd).THE HERESY OF MAHAn EVA •• At an early period. the Glosses of Paramdrtha and the Treatise on the Sects by Chi tsang (DEMIEVlLLE. ch. 4\3-23 . had slilllQ be converted.The terms of the five theses According to the explanations provided by Vasumitra. pp. pp. meaning by that "that he blamed the blameworthy. a residue of their former passions.

Vasumitra was a Sarvastivi· din scholar who lived four hundred years after the Nirvi~a and who came a century after Katyayaniputra. The work was translated into Chinese by Kumirajiva (1) between 385 and 413 (T 2032). These prQpositions are aimed at nothing less than dislodging the Arhat from the privileged position which had been acknowledged as his from the beginning. the path to take. THE EXPLANATIONS BY VASUlo«T1lA . the author of the five theses The sources do not agree over the date when the heresy appeared. if heresy it was. It is even i8id that Siriputra and Maudgalyiyana did not realize tbey had attained Arhatship until the Buddha made a solemn c. 3-4. We should analyze them in chronological order and summarize in tum the explanations by Vasumitra. by Paramirtha between 557 and 569 (T 2033) and by Hsiian tsang in 662 (T 2031). the path to follow. finally . even of the laity seeking to extract equal spiritual rights from the religious (the professionals of the Path). I. of laxity in relation to rigorism. We must now find the author of it. nor over its authors. 302 he wrote a work on the Buddhist sects entitled Samayabhedoparacana· calera. the Satpmatiya tradition and. was lo ng· lived and worked within the community like a noxious fennent : it led to the opposition and separation of the Buddhist schools. etc. suffering". they can have doubts concerning the names and clans of certain people. If Arhats are subject to (undefiled) ignorance. the data supplied by the Mahiyanist authors. nor over the precise consequences. woods and grasses. the infonna· tion given to Bhavya by his teachers. etc. and can be infonned by others on the matter. exclaims : "0. Entry into the Buddhist Path (marga) can be accompanied by a vocal utterance (vaclbhedD) . S. The heresy. the names of trees. . The holy one (arya) who has entered the stream (srotadpanna) and is possessed of the first dhydna . the names of trees. These two propositions are the consequence of the preceding one. as a syllabus of claims by worldlings (prlhagana) in relation to the holy ones (iirya and arha/).( 301 ·302) 301 THE HERESY OF MAHAoEVA 275 of which they do not or may not know the names and clans of men and women. the account of the Vibhiird . it was commented upon in Chinese by .1eclaration. in their anodyne fonn . the author of the Jnmwprosl1uina. and that cry can be considered as an artifice meant to cause the appearance of the Path. They appear. Arhats are still subject to doubt (kiitiJqa) and can be infonned by others. 2nd Mahideva.

Mdo XC. For the riverside dwellers in the Ganges Basin and the Yamuna. p.. were the leaders and instigators of the dispute and the schism which followed it. 20a 15-25. They discussed five theses (pwlcavaslu) which bad been presented by heretics. the other as Sthavira" . we are inclined to think that those two names are ethnical . by Vasumitra by the vague name of " Frontier regions" (Pratyantika). according to the PuriirJa. although they were not the cause of the disputes and did not possess any irresistible might. Waj pen "" Pricya . the region of the Nannada."in . Finally. We know nothing at all about the first two assemblies. ror the first time since the Buddha. Pracyas or Pratyantikas and. .Naga. a tributary of the Maharagra to which Paramartha's version refers. T 2031 . For Vasumitra and his first translators. a detail taken from the Vib~d. one known as the Mahisirpghika. they pursued and upheld the heresy. the fourth were called Ta Ie . finally. the Nagas. the great Saf!lgha was divided into schools and diversified the Law.). but who observed the precepts and whose knowledge was vast. there was a town named patalipulr3.BahuSruta. two schools came into being. 1Sa 914. whose name evokes irresistible might and invincible obstinacy. 3) and translated into Tibetan in the ninth century by Dhannakara (Tanjur. Hsflan tsang is the only one to specify that those five theses were authored by Mahadeva. the bahu. Thus. 303 Personally. the heresy could have arisen among the Nagas whose original habitat was. At that time King ASoka ruled over Jambudvipa. p. maintaining order in the universe. The work opens with an allusion to the five theses (T 2032. the heretics are still anonymous. 11). Pratyantika). Of the translators.Pratyaya (var. : more than one hundred years) after the Parinirvi~ of the Buddha. p.276 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 302-303) K'uei chi in 662 (TKS. Lung chio . the Bahusrutas. it could have spread to neighbouring areas designated. There were then the bhiksus : the first were named Ning "" Niga (var. from there. . the second were called Yin yUan . the Pratyantikas were supporters of the heresy.. the third were called To .Sthavira .srutas included worldlings (Pr/hagjana) who were still occupied with training (saiJqa) . " One hundred and sixteen years (var. To kuo .c. T 2033. Pie" pi . At LXXXIII. those of the Nagas. Mahi~~ra). In those days. According to the commentary by K'uei chi (I. 15a 15-23) . It becomes apparent from a comparison betw~n the versions that the Paiicavastu was opposed by the Sthaviras and adopted by three assemblies.

which at the time of ASoka was headed by the famous patriarch Upagupta. the son was handsome and his mother became enamoured of him and had relations with him secretly. They reproached their master for his impoliteness 10 the stranger and. taking with him his host of disciples ". whose far from edifying story it tells and whom it tries to vilify in every way (T 1545. ashamed at having been discovered. 510<-5120) : 304 " Mabideva was the son of a merchant from Mathuri. the Sarvastiviidin community in Mathur!. However. the monk had already exer· cised a harmful effect over Upagupta's disciples who were still only worldlings (Prthagjana). by the Kumi· rian Arhats.( 303-304) mE HERESY OF MAHADEVA 277 Maharastra was located in South India. T 2043.iokdvaddna is astonishingly similar to the account in the Vibhiifo. Before taking up the religious life. 99. pp. . then he seized his goods. pp. 5hortly before his return. pp. 2. having acquired many goods. In fact. ch. that monk had fornicated with a woman from another family .This great work on the Sarvisti· vadin Abhidhanna. His father set out for abroad. ch. he then tried to obtain the hand of his mistress but was repulsed. At the age of twenty. he Red and hid with his mottier in the Pi~liputra . persuaded her son to poison him. the leader of a school of Arhats. learned by heart the lext of the Tripi!-3-ka and gathered a crowd of disciples around himself. He went to Mathura to debate with Upagupta. THE ACCOUNT IN THE VlB~ . he killed her. When his mother reproached him for his conduct. fearing that he would hear of the affair.D. was agitated over a visit by a monk whose name is passed over in silence. ch. according to the Aiokavati4na (T 2042. 9. devotes a long chapter to the heresy of the five theses. knowing the crimes of which he was guilty. the mother. Upagupta had to appeal to his master ~I)avasa. 366-9. he did not give up his passion. 5. when he did realize.tndt d ·Ajoka. 1620 I-e 8). but who came from south India. .. 120c 1l·121b I . It attributes their invention to a certain Mahadeva. For more than six years. However in tbe end. So he left the world. leaving him at home. Mahadeva procured some poison and killed his father . refused to speak to him. the son did not realize that his mistress was his own mother. The father returned from abroad. and continued to live with his mother. could but condemn. J. This anecdote recorded in the A. later. hZYLIJ~I . compiled in the second century A. The rejected monk returned to his native land. LD u. in order to appease the critic. p. It would be tempting to see in this monk an upholder of the heresy of the five theses which the holy patriarch Upagupta. but the latter.

and dog's excrement had to be used as fuel . etc. and had five hundred monasteries built there to house the holy ones. Then he killed his own mother. Having thus committed three tinantOfj'Q sins. but the Vibhi#ii. Faced with the opposition they incurred. Mahadeva told him that. and he slew them too for fear that they might betray bim. . finds him a name and attributes a whole story to him. a century later. It was enthusiastically adopted by the Sarvistividins and accepted as valid by the Mahayanist 3. . He went 10 the Kukku~rima monastery where he heard a monk reciting a sianza about the atonement of faults through good conduct.. the king sent a messenser to bring them back to his capital. The Sthaviras then wanted to leave the monastery. THE MAH. rose into the air and reached Ka. Mahideva formulated each of the above-mentioned five heretical theses in tum. That is how the monks at the Kukku~rama separated into two schools : that of the Sthaviras and that of the Mahisimghikas. the legend died hard. but when tbe cremation ofms body was being carried out. the king ordered them to be embarked on rotten ships which were to be cast into the current of the Ganges.smir where they dispersed up hill and down dale. be gave up the family life. he was overcome with distress and profound remorse. At the critical moment. There: he met some Arhat monks . the instigator of the five theses remained anonymous. Once implanted by the Viblui. the five hundred Arhats. the king asked Mahideva for advice in order to settle the quarrel. for example : Piseon-grove (kapotiiriimo). - . The kinS then separated each of the two parties and. making use of their supernormal powers. The king then donated the entire kingdom of Ka.$ii. the Yib/uiiii adds 'It is reported that those establishments are still flourishing'. in an attempt to erase those sins. he declared it to be in the right and condemned its adversaries. he would thus know who was an Arhat and who was a wordlins. it is the majority which prevails in controversies. his body was then consumed.278 ruE MAURYAN PERIOD <304-305) region. the king of Pi!aliputra (whose name is nOI given) invited him to his palace and showered him with offerings. thai monk ordained him and conferred the pra~rajya on him . According to Vasumitra. Learning this news. the fire persistently went out. having discovered tbat she was beina unfaithful to him with others. When he returned to the monastery. Mahiideva died surrounded by general veneration. according to the Vinaya.smir to the Sarragha. since that of Mahadeva was the more numerous. Mahadc:va listened 10 and studied the Tripi~ka and acquired many followers .\vANlST AU1lfORS INSPIRED BY THE VlB~ . but a strong wind suddenly arose and dispersed the heresiarch's ashes". but they refused his invitation . Warned of their intention. charges him with all the unatonable crimes and invents an unfortunate end for him. It is to be noted that the great Mahavibh~ii (T 1S4S) alone devoted an account to Mahadeva and that nothing similar is to be found in the Vib~a by Buddhavannan (T 1546). on learning Ihis. It treats him resolutely as an adversary.whom he had formerly revered in his own country. The king of PiJaliputra then lOS transferred his favours to Mahideva and his disciples who remained with him. those: monasteries were given the names of the various fonns the holy ones had assumed in order to escape from Pa181iputra.

l8.iil!1ghikas. Paramartha (500-569 A. Having committed three ciMntarya sins. the Master of the Law Hsiian tsang once again summarized the account from the Vib~a. realizing her mistake. or at least attenuate the faults of Mahadeva. he was the wn of a merchant from Mathuri. they reassumed their normal forms. a. b. pp. be took all the sutras of the Mahayana and explained them as he incorporated them in the Tripi~ka . Sectes. ASoka sent for the Arhats of Ka!mir and the latter.( 30S-306) THE HERESY OF MAHADEVA 279 scholars. frightened the community with supemonnaltransformations . according to Paramartha. resorted to a majority vote in order to settle the ditre~ . Once they reached their destinations. they strove to wipe out his memory. DEMItVlLLE..Ul . extended . he summarized tbem in a stanza. no hc. and his pupil Chi tsang (549-623) in his San lun hsUim (T 1852) reproduce the account from the Vibhdto. Mahideva. It will be noted that Paramartha quickly passes over Mahadeva's faults. of the KauSika family appeared.) in his Commentary on Vasumitro (summarized in T 2300). However. it is only after that that the schism. ch. he left the world in Pi!ilaputra by conferring ordination on himself. In the sixth century. He was received at ASoka's palace and had relatiolU in secret with the queen. The Arbaa 306 took flight and went to the land of Kaimir. 886b 11-22) . since the: latte:r did not hide: Lhdr sympathy for the: Mah. left in the minority. others into birds. "One hundred yean after the NirviJ:.D. the queen used her inftuence to have them thrown into the Ganges in damaged boats. In the seventh century. but more faithfully than did Paramartha.Ierodox opinions emerged within the Sal"!lgha. while introducing a few modifications of which this is the main pan (cf. attributes to the he:retic a scriptural activity not mentioned by the Vib/ri4o and posits a third council with a new compilation of the Tripi~a . p. It WIU then that divergences of opinion arose: among them and they formed two separate schools : that of the Mab~ghikas and that of the Stbaviras". Meanwhile the Queen.is. 3. After the year 116. 33-40) : "Until 116 after the NirvaJ. the king of Magadha. OissclUion broke out in the monastery and King ASoka. yielding to his invitation. The passage is found in the Hsi yU chi (T 2087. which he recited after the reading of the iila during the uposatha ceremony. proved to be definitive. the Arhats assembled in council (the third since the beginning) and once again recited the Canon of writings. Mahadeva's supporters were the most numerous. After the death of Mabideva. of whom they considered themselves to be distant successors. some transformed themselves into Hoater pigeons. repented and was converted. ASoka. on his own authority. The Arhal5. Since Mahadeva had inserted some apocryphal texts into the Tripi~ka. retumed to Pa~li­ putra. Once back in the monastery. On his own initiative be invented some sulras in which was fonnulated the fivefold heresy . seeks to excuse Asoka by blaming the: queen. who had instigated the Mahasaqtghika schism.

states that the persecuted Arhats remained in Kasmir and refused to return to pa~liputra .!a. Hslian tsang (T 2087. and a subtle investigator of the Niimo. . toole place in Pa~liputra after the return of the Arbats. with the oral traditions he bad obtained on the spot and which he records "in bulle". and tbe other of worldlings (Prthagjana)". in agreement with the Vjbh~d. These are indeed the Sthaviras and MahasaQ1ghileas. the five Skandha. The king immediately regretted their departure and went to them in person in order to invite them to return to his capital . this would gainsay the whole tradition according to which the heretic was the instigator of the Mahisiqlghilea schism . 500 Arhats and SOO wordlings (Pr. where he relates his visit to the Kukku!arama in Pa~liputra . areal Hsiian tsang. there was a certain Mahadeva. However. It seems that the great Hsllan tsang did not attempt to conciliate the infonnation which he had also got from his readings.IIagjana) whom the king patronized impartially. seeing which the king built SOO salTlghirimas for them and presented KaSmir 10 the Sarpgha". Hsuan tsang makes no mention of the five theses which are generally attributed to him. in other words. This is obviously one and the same event but split into two for chronological reasons. '8 man of knowledge and greal talent. ch. convened in that monastery a 5aIJ1gha of a thousand members "consisting of two communities. 8. 886a 19-b II). ch. in the year 50 after the NirviQa. there can be no question of a third Buddhist council which. 912b) 307 notes that Aioka.sonings. When edition broke Out. In such conditions.Upa preoccupied the Sarvistividins much more than the MahisiQ1ghikas. His account of the settling in Kasmir of the five bundred Arhats who were thrown into the Ganges by ASolea follows immediately upon the account of the conversion of KaSmir. he praises his lenowledge and talent and defines him as "a subtle investigator of the Ndma-Rupa". he revered the Triratna and loved all creatures. p. who set down in a treatisc his' personal views and herelK:a1 rea. the question of NOma-R. In his capital there were.307 ) his power over the whole world .Riipo ' (sic). but that does not mtan they held a council and proceeded to malee a new recitation of the Tripi!alea. Mahideva was not a Sarviistividin scholar. The latter Hew off to Ka!mir where they settled up hill and down dale.280 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( J06. Even while taxing Mahadeva with heresy. among tbe Buddhist religious. in particular of the VibhO. by Madhyintika and his five hundred Arha. in another passage.ts (T 2087. 3. This they refused to do. ASoka took the part of Mahideva and tbe Worldlings and attempted to drown the Arhat! in the Ganges. to the mind of the Chinese master. one of holy ones (arya). Nevertheless. Included in tbe ranks of tbe religious worldlings. p. after his conversion to Buddhism. We might wonder whether. according to Paramartha.

The BIIW Annals.. Calcutta.This is mentioned for the first time 308 in the sixth cen.NU.ncr . OBEJlMlLLER. Ib). p. " This is only a summary of In obscure pusaac with corrections proposed by t . then repeated with some modifications in the fourteenth century by Bu ston (lr. Already a commentary on the Eleollara. Revata. 19. the review of tbe doctrine by VitJipulri. Later. IV. In the year 63 afier this scission was completed. There is no longer a question here of Mahideva. 96) Ind Tlranilhl (p.. 1949. That is why he was imputed with the three dnanrarya sins.w. From then on the Community split into two sects : tbe Stbaviru and the Mabi. in tbe year 200 afier the Nirvil). 28). p. UWAl. 8AB£\u. Mira the Wicked assumed the form of a bbilqu named Bbadra and manifested various wonden and. I.s6.200 the N. . p. Mahityip. etc. p.t his virtue. attempts to rehabilitate Mahideva. in the seventeenth by Tiiranitha (Ir. gra. in A. and. by representing him as the victim of slander : "Great was his reputation. p. with the help of the five theses. the doctrine was reviewed by the Sthavir1l Vi15iputra 19" . 4. the author of the Tarkojvdla (Mdo XIX. ROERICH.. ch. 52) : "One hundred and thirty-seven years after the Parinirv~ of the Buddba.. No..).sif!lghikas. 7).. . 162b 6-1630 3. pp. cf. those five theses were adopted by the Sthaviru Nip (Nipsena) and Siramati. Mahiloma. Although yOUDa.1E Poumw (ERE. 96). p.. They In: confirmed by Bu Iton (II.B. That is not the only text which is favourable to Mahadeva. to which wert: added tbe five theses".D. assembled in PiJaliputr1l. endowed with the four brahmaviharo" and qualified him as to shih or great bodhisattva (T 1501. setmiD&iy. Another opinion. pp. ch.. lA . finally. 32c 8-10).l. had spoken of "a holy king Mabideva. THE SA~MATfYA TRADITION. (Kbftzik.. II . under tbe kinas Nanda and Mahipadma.MahikiSyapa. he was respected by kinas and noMes and revered by monks.. I. I. . translated into Chinese between 25 and 220 A. p. Ill. Mdo XC. N... 173. D 4) and Idopted by F. DE V. K ' uei chi (632-682 A.D. he had experienced the Fruit. in the fifteenth by ilion nu dpal (G. 5cHIEFNER. tbat is. caused a great dissension in tbe Community. a disciple of HSliaD tsang. 61) wbo locate in 137+63 . when a number of very conspicuous Elden . p. 12). in his commentary on the Yogacaryabhiimi by Asanga (T 1829. 246.( 307· 308) THE HERESY OF MAHAOEVA 281 c. but of a false monk named Bhadra whose heretical views were adopted by two Sthaviras. the Fin pkh kung Ie lun. Uttara.tury by Bhavya or Bhivaviveka.

a calculation which is very close to the Sinhalese chronology which places Asoka's consecration in 218 after the Niryal)a and the reign of the Nandas from the year 140 to 162 after the Nirval)a (346-324 B. Mahisiirpghikas and Sthaviras". no. However. but to the fact that the Arhats "were reading the Word of the Buddha in four different languages : Sanskrit. continued to teach the five theses and incited further splits within the Maha· s8. as we have seen. particularly Bu ston (II. the initiator of the five theses and instigator of the schism. or with the long one which has him rule from 218 to 255 after the Nirval)a. according to the short chronology). p. attribu· tes the origin of the schism. Personally he abided by the opinion held by the lineage of his teachers (mtJdguruparamparQ) and mentioned by himself at the beginning of his Tarkajviilii : 5. Pa!3liputra). a Mahisif!lghika scholar who lived 200 years after the Nirval)a.c. 96) who.). 160 after the Nirval)a. the date proposed : "160 years after the Nirval)a. the Sanskrit sources record the existence of a Mahadeva II. but under his predecessor Mahapadma of the Nanda dynasty. not to the appearance of the five heretical theses.It was as a matter of form that Bhavya recorded the Sarrunatiya tradition above.282 TIlE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 308-309) Naga and saramati. in 137 after the Nirval)3 according to the long chronology. makes no mention of Mahideva I. while King Dhanna·ASoka was ruling in Kusumapura (". in the reign of ASoka" does not tally with any known calculation or with the short chronology which locates Asoka in 100 after the Nirval)a. INFORMATION SUPPLIED TO BHAVYA BY HIS TEACHERS.f!lghika schools. The schism occurred. This Mahadeva 11 was well known to Vasumitra who. a great schism suddenly occurred in the community in consequence of severa) controvenial points. The. ApabhrarpSa and PaiSicika" . After that. the name of the former recalls those Nagas already noted by Vasumitra. Prakrit. the Sa~gha split into two schools. in this connection. Yet the same date. These are some references : . it should be noted that alongside Mahadeva I. longer under ASoka (in the year 100 after the Nirval)a. 3rd Persistence of the heresy under Mahadeva II In order to complete our documentation. . Sarpmatiya follows. as we see. is also mentioned by other authors. 309 "One hundred and sixty yean after the Parinirviil)a of the Buddha.

g. left the world and resided at the CaitYaSaila . the throe hundred most . following discussions. in the Mahisirpgbika sect. two hundred years later. Sec/es . which led to discussions and a division into throe sects : CaityaAailas. kamed. AparaSailas and UttaraSailas. Vasumitra in his three translations: T 2032.lE. all the heretics took up the religious life. When two hundred years had passed. three further sects were founded : Caityikas. placed himself at their head. Mahideva. Siiripulraparip!"cchii (T 1465. pp. he received full ordination .ghikas. Kuitkulika. according to the Tibetan venion. p. Having left the world in the Mahisirpgbika sect. he resided at CaityaAaila.3) : " When two hundred yean had passed. he again explained the fi'fC theses. 20b 2-4 T 2031 .1. the Vyavahira. the school of the Uttaruailas (and. SQ. he lived alone on Mount Saila and tausht the five theses to the Mahisirp. Mahideva. there was a heretic named Mahideva who left the world in the Mahisalflahika school. lIO Two hundred years baving passed.) and Chi tsang (549-623 A.D. After three bundred yean. Lokottara. who had ordained himself. these five schools will be joined 'by THE SCHOOL OF MAHADEVA. Aparawlas and Uttaraiailas. p. 180 17-20 T 2033. 900c 6-12). there was a heretic who had left the world and abandoned wrongness and retumcd to righteousness. two hundred yean after my Nirvi~. received now pupils and ordained them into his personal SIlql. in order to profit from his generosity. that of the Caitikas and that of the Uttara!ailas". a heretic (tfrthiJea). tbe school of the Aparaiailas).hika school. ISh 1-4 Then. Thereafter (a new1 split into the two schools tchool ortbe CaityaSailas. With tbe community of that sect.) on the Treatise on lhe Sects by Vasumitra (DEMIEvn. The king sorted out those " parasitical" (suyosaf!t)'dsilca) monu and permitted only some of them. a Mahis3JT1ghika work translated anonymously between 317 and 420 A. p. : " In the Mabasiql.D. p. and be was ALSO named Mahideva. an upisaka-king from the land of Magadha propagated the Law of the Buddha widely and.&ha. 3. (baJwJf14la) and \'i&orous ()'iryaWlt) . as an outcome of disputes.( 309-)10) THE HERESY OF MAHAoEVA 283 . 2. Paramirtha (500-569 A.D. Babuirutaka and Prajiiaptividin schools will emerge.

51). XVIIl.The Mahidevas of the Pili sources The Sinhalese school finnly disavowed the five theses which it explains and refutes in the Kathiivatlhll. Aparaseliyas and others. II.A5ttnA. differences of opinion arose. 25. Then. pp. M. Among the numerous Mahidevas known to the Pili tradition Professor Malalasekera pointed out no less than nine'O ..000 persons and conferred ordination on 40.A1. DktionMy 0/ P41i Pro~r N~J .u. Two of them were contemporaries of ASoka : a Mahideva who was ASoka's minister and arranged for the branch of the 8odhivrk~ to be sent to Ceylon (Mahiivmrua . he went to preach the Good Law in Mahisamal)4ala where he converted 40. Mahiivmrua. P.a. 20) . after the council of Pi!8liputra in 236 afier the Nirvil). originating in Southern India among the Nigas of MahiniHra. ASoka's son (Dipovmrua. SamantapiUddikd.000 to G. then. . an arbitrary splining of Mahideva I into two persons? Should we reject the historicity of both 311 Mahidevas and only see in them a confabulation intended to illustrate the progress of a heresy which.284 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 310-1lI > intelligent ones. finally triumphed in several communities. 4lh . who was nOI tolerated by them. K'uei chi (I . 4. a Mahideva Thera who played an important part both as a religious teacher and a Buddhist missionary. particularly the Caitikas and Sailas in the Andhra region? We leave it to the reader to decide on these questions. among those mountain-dwellers themselves. but provides no infonnation about their author.e. 10000ted by all the sources in the mountainous regions (in Andhra country1. W . SOS-6.none appears to be a heretic. went and settled apart in the mountains wlth his adherents. VII. ••• Should we sec in this Mahideva II. tinally causing the Mahisirpghika schism and. spread from saqagha to sarpgha. 1-5 (pp. The commentary merely states that the heretical propositions in question were taught by the Pubbaseliyas. V. 430-450) reproduces the above and adds the name of the king : Hao rwn wang "Cloud-loving". 206 . p. Mahideva. II. he conferred the pabbajji ordination on Mahinda. after many transfonnations. to live in Mapdha. 163·203). and so the two schools called CaitYaSaila and Uttaraiaila were formed" . In fact.

or again the translation of the scriptures into four different languages. sometimes he repaired to the mountainous regions of the Andhra area where he continued to teach his theses to the Piirva-.u. it is difficult to see how the Sinhalese chronicle could have given him as the disciple and confidant of the very orthodox Moggaliputtatissa. 116 or 160 in the reign of ASoka.and Aparaseliya sects had their headquarters : Mahideva would have been the founder of these schools which were branches of the Mahisirpghika trunk and upheld the five theses. pp. 3. afier a short stay. Moreover Mahisamal. 4. The last is sometimes presented as a criminal guilty of three anantary a. but is either Mysore or. 2.and UttaraSailas. if the Mahideva in question had been a heretic. returned to Pilaliputra where they caused a new council to be convened. talented and an unjustifiably slandered man.~ata. the consequences of the schism : the Sthaviran Arhats took refuge in KaSmir. the date of the schism : in 137 after the Nirvil). the instigator of the schism. or again. sometimes as a Sarvistividin. Certain authors have suggested that this Mahisamal). more probably. Mahi$mat or land of the Mahi~kas. Mahfivmrua. the Scuta scholar.Oil-liZ) THE HERESY OF MAHAOEVA 285 young people (Dipavmrua. sometimes as an erudite. VIII. a "subtle investigator of the Nama-RUpo" . the insertion of Mahiyanist sutras in the Tripilaka. in 100.lala is not the Andhra country.S. 5th The uncertainties in the tradition The examination of the documentation concerning the five theses has emphasized the hesitations and contradictions regarding : I. 63. . certain sources make Mahideva. finally. Samantapdsiidikil. who was a declared Vibhajyavidin. a different person from Mahideva. XII. 66). sometimes he remained in Pilaliputra until his death. and then settled there definitively. liZ associated by the Pur1i1Jo with the Maharinras and whose capital was Mihi$mati on the Nannadi. 3 and 29. the causes of the schism : the controversies provoked by the appearance of the five theses. the instigator or instigators of the schism : the Nagas of southern India supported by their neighbours the Pratyantikas and BahuSrutas : a monk whose name was Bhadanta or who was known by that name. As to the instigator of the schism (Mahideva). Apara. finally. may have been the Andhra country and the region of Dhinyakalaka where the Pubba. Mahideva. and could have classified him as one of the great propagators of the True Law. However. and.a in the reign of the Nandas . However.

wltv!u. Mahikisyapa and his five hundred Arhats. assembled in that place. while the long chronology adopted by the Sinhalese sources places that same consecration in 218 after the Nirvana. two months after the decease of the Buddha.C. 9230 2-10). p. Schism in the year J after the NirviilJo (short chron. that the controversies provoked by Mahideva transformed the scission into a doctrinal schism which resu1ted in the formation of two separate schools : that of the Sthaviras and that of the Mahisirylghilcas. who made up the Sthavira school. adopting the various dates proposed as a method of classification. in the reign of Asoka. 28 sq. twenty Ii to the west of the cave where Mahikasyapa and his thousand (sic) Arhats had held the first council in the year I after the Nirval)a.E. Some monks in training (. since they were ten thousand in number. however. Hsiian tsang visited an ASokan stupa erected on the spot where the Mahasif!lghika canon had been compiled. According to these: authors. a century before Hsiian tsang. according to HSUan tsang (T 2087. we must compile a Dhannapitaka". gathered outside the disciplinary limit (si"nui) with the intention of compiling the Tripi!alca too. In order to dispaly our gratitude to the Buddha.. 368 B. numbering more than several hundred thousands. THE MAHASA¥GHIKA SCHISM The early sources do not agree over the exact date of this event nor over the causes which provoked it. K~udraka. Chi tsang and Paramartha (D . They said to one another : "While the Tathagata was alive. we are cast aside like strangers.and Dhiral)i-pi!aka : they were called the Collection of the Mahis3. We should recall that the short chronology used by the Sanskrit sources locates the acoession of ASok:a one hundred years after the NirvaQ8. now that he is deceased. who had not been admitted to this task. had already proposed quite a close version of this event. Therefore.faik~a) and some fully trained (aja. . Sutes.286 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (312-313) 1. we all had one and the same master . Thus. Abhidhanna-. . At the risk of being repetitive. p. 313 l. it is useful to group here all the indications which have reached us.). they took the name of Mahas3.f!lghikas because word lings and holy ones had formed the assembly which drafted them. who had not participated in Kasyapa's council. 9. on the Grdhralciita at Rijagrha.).k~a). had compiled the Tripi~ka . it was only 116 years later. the year I after the Nirval)a was marked by a purely nominal scission between Kasyapa's Sthaviras and ~pa's Mahasiqlghikas. Vinaya-. A number of monks. their leader was the Arhat Ba~pa and. wordlings (Prthagjana) and holy ones (6rya) united and composed five Pitakas : Sutra-. ch.f!lghika .In the neighbourhood of Rijagrba.

in imitation of them.500 Arhats around him . maintained their false doctrines and organized an opposition council. Schism in the year J()() after the Nir~dIJa (long chron . With the exception of the date. p. It is difficult to see how the condemnation of the laxist practices . or by rejecting whole sections of the canon (Pari~ara . Those Mahiisaf!lgitikas were the first schismatics and. rather than with the council of Pataliputra in ASoka's time. according to the same tradition (Dp~ . does he claim that it went back to the very origins of Buddhism? It is unlikely that the unity of the 5arpgha was broken from the time of the decease of the Blessed One and that two canons of texts were compiled simultaneously. and by compiling new texts. posits only a nominal scission between the Sthaviras and Mahisiif!lghikas at the beginning.000 Arhats is. the gender of words. the one which was held in Pi~aliputra during the reign of ASoka . claims that KiSyapa assembled only . They were guilty of falsifying the writings. 30-9).000 Arhats".A SCHISM 287 )[4 The version of the events as recorded here by Hsiian tsang calls for some reservation. 50 why. the master of the Law knew perfectly well that Vasumitra dated the Mahisif!lghika schism at "One hundred yeaTS or more". 275 . 61). in his Hsi yii chi. 2. They went so far as to change the original terms. The same concern can be seen in Paramiirtha who. The malevolent Vajjiputtaka monks. the rules of style and figures of rhetoric. The council of the 1. VII. That assembly was known to history by the name of Grand Council (mahas~gill) and the participants were called Mahiisamgitikas. after being expelled by the Theras of the council of VaiSiiIi in the year 100 after the Nirva~a in the reign of Kalasoka. Mh~. 58. As an adept of the Mahayana. V.. Nevertheless. with all due respect. with few rare exceptions. either by causing upheaval in established texts. From his translation of the Treatise on the Sects (T 2031). or by making omissions and interpolations.).. Sp. The Mahasiiqtghika council is supposed to have counteracted a council held in Riijagrha by KiSyapa "surrounded by 1. with more credibility. Hsuan tsang no doubt believed that the Great Vehicle had its remote origins in the Mahasiirpghika school and wanted to date the formation of that school far back in the past. this new version of the schism consisting of an opposition council and a modification of the canonical writings is quite close to the preceding one. Parisambhidhii. countless heretics appeared. the whole Buddhist tradition. However. Abhidhamma in six sections. according to the Dipa~wrua (V. we wonder whether Hsiian tsang did not confuse matters by linking the schism with the council of Rijagrha in the year I after the Nirvi~a.. 386 B. Njddesa and parts of the Jiitaka) .( 313-314) THE MAHASA~GHIK.C. It also contains improbabilities..

C . as will be: seen. about which the early sources concerning the council of Vaisali are completely silent. that the five heretical theses.This tradition is identical to the preceding one. However. 215-16). Schism in Ihe year J60 after lhe NirviiJ)a (short ehron .• 208 B. caused a doctrinal scission between the Sthaviras and the Mahasamghikas. later (?). . 6. The teaching of the five theses begun by the monk (Bhadanta) and taken up again. originating in the Nagas of southern India or preached by a certain Mahideva. 252 B. but still during the reign of ASoka. This new tradition is distinguishable fro m those that preceded and those that followed in that it does not link the schism to one of the three great Buddhist councils . Schism in the year 236 afler lhe NirviiJ)a (long ehron .M .) according to the Nikayasatrlgrana (tr.In the year 131 after the Nirva~a. S. the Vibha. 281). the DipavtlJ!lSQ is the only one to mention the Mahiisaqlgiti and the Mahisarpgitikas. Colombo. Schism in the year /37 after the NirviiIJo (long ehron.• 250 B. according to Vasumitra.C . to be more uact. Vaiiifi and Pa!8liputra .ili could have led to a revolt by the majority and a complete revision of the canon. . 116 after Ihe NirviiJ)a (sho rt ehron . Schism in Ihe year J()() or. p.). . ASoka had been dead for twenty-three years. The Dipavat'flSQ is less a consistent chronicle than a dossier of badly classified documents in which a large number of doublets appear.). p. We saw above the vacillations of this tradition. 4. ilion nu dpal and Taranatha (references above. KiliSoka or ASoka. replaced by a completely different document in the NikiiyasturJgraha.. according to the Sarpmatiya tradition recorded by Bhavya. The part concerning the Mahiisafflgilikas was eliminated from the chronicle by the compilers of the Mahiiyat'flSo and the SamantapiUtidikii and. an assembly was held in Pa!8liputra in which numerous Sthaviras participated. by the Sthaviras Naga (Nagasena) and Siramati (Manoratha) caused a schism in the assembly between the Sthaviras and the Mahasarpghikas. 349 B. there is more:.C. 283).nor to a glorious reign in the history of Buddhism. at this date. 315 However. C. 1908. . Bu ston. the reign of AjataSatru.288 TIlE MAURYAN PERIOD (3 14-) 15) which prevailed in Vais.It was during the reign of ASoka the Maurya. pp. or the Sinhalese chronicles. the only difference being that the schism is fixed in 160 after the Nirva~a .. during the reign of Nanda and Mahapadma.a and related sources (references above. in the year 100 or 116 after the Nirva~a. FERNANDO. 3.C.Rajagrha.) according to Bhavya and others (references above.

a few ycars later. they went to the members of seventeen brotherhoods. in the tenns of which the heretics condemned by ASoka and Moggaliputtatissa in 236 after the Nirvil)a (250 B. amalgamated with the heretics. Siddhatthika. assembled in Nilandi. There. in 2SS after the Nirvil)a (231 B. the heretics (tirrhiko) who had been expelled from the order and were receiving no further aid. Later.). hearing and reading the Tripitaka. However. without admitting that they were Tirthikas. which was written towards the end of the fourteenth century by the Sarpgharija Dharmakirti. . migrated abroad (in particular. etc. Andhaka and Anyamahisil"flghika".irpghikas. they disarranged and destroyed it. Vetulya. Henceforward.is replaced here 1?y a quite different tradition. withdrew and. We will merely note that it is surprisingly close to the version of the facts presented by Vasumitra.C. they thought the matter over and said : "We will establish a rift between the doctrine and discipline of the Sakya's monks in order to make it difficult for people to understand the religion. the account in the Dipavmrua according to which the Mahisil"flghikas fanned themselves into a separate school after the council ofVaiSiIT in the year 100 after the Nirvir. Rijagiriya. and took up the religious life [with theml. dwelling in six different places. that will not be possible. Paramirtha and Hslian tsang. if we are not acquainted with the subtleties of the religion.irpghikas. the schism 316 occurred immediately after the council of Pitaliputra presided over by Moggaliputtatissa in the year 236 after the Nirvil)a : "After that council. Therefore.m .J. they went to the town of KauSimbi and used every means to initiate a separate doctrine and discipline. They presented themselves anew but. Mahis. the very year of Aioka's death. 9). so we must become monks again ~y any means whatever'. Vijiriya. fonned themselves into nine fraternities : Hemavata. After the ycar 2SS of the Nirvil)a of the Buddha. Pubbaseliya.¥GHIKA SCHISM 289 According to this work. which had been dismissed by that [Theriya NiUyal. Aparaseliya.C. - THE MAHAs. foaming with rage. to the Andhra region) and fanned nine separate fraternities.) joined the Mahisil"flghika communities and enlarged their ranks .an account which had already been eliminated from the: Pili chronicle by the compilers of the MaJravmrua and Samanrapdsddikd .(3\5·3\6) p. unable to'gain admittance from the Theriya Nikiya (school of the Sthaviras).. near Rijagrha . those: Mahis. they split into six divisions and. We do not know the value of this tradition which is narrated in such a late work as the Nikdyoswrtgraha.

However. Panicularly in the domain of the Vinaya. gathered in council at Rajay'ha and immediately began a joint recitation of the doctrinal discourses and disciplinary rules. Nevertheless. even if the Pratimolqa articles were finn!y established. some doubts remained with regard to the minor and unimportant precepts.CONCLUSIONS ( 317·]18) The Buddhisl traditions concerning the councils. with the utmost urgency. whose spiritual level was inferior. The work achieved its aim.the name of PuraT).8 or Upananda is cited . the heresies and the schism are so vacillating and contradictory that they cannot be considerod as objective accounts of any historical value. . There most probably was a collusion between those monks. all of them claiming to be Arhats. and the pious laity (uplisaJca) who were denied any possibility of direct ac:cess to Nirva~a by the early '" . the Sarpgha had no master available to institute a legitimate elaboration of what had already been disclosed. Certain monks . the faithful disciple of the Master but who. the Salcya's disciples were faced with an immense task : their Master left them no written testament. In order to be able to join his colleagues. we believe fairly rapidly. they constitute a precious psychological documentation in that they exactly interpret the mind and propensities of the Buddhist community from the outset. With regard to the precc:pts. the Arhats in Kasyapa's circle were not able to win the approval of all their colleagues. unlike Kasyapa. It was only with some hesitation that they opened their ranks to Ananda. did not belong to the brahmin caste and had still not acquired the supreme fruit of the religious life. at last constituted. After the decease of the Buddha. The assembly. Opposition was particularly strong among the religious who had still not attained holiness and remained at the level of students (Jailqa) or wordlings 111 (Prlhagjana) . official commentators (mlitrkiidhara) and professional preachers (dharmalcalhaka) .290 THE MAURYAN PERIOD 4. hy the fonnation of an oral canon of the Buddhist teaching which had been memorized in the Magadhan language by specialized bhi~sus. among them there were memorizers of the sutta (siirradhara) and of the vinaya (lIilUlyatihara). and it was important to establish his teaching. Despite all their competence.preferred to retain the teaching just as they had heard it from ttle lips of the Master. set themselves up as scholars and critics. it displayed uncompromising strictness. Mahakasyapa and his immediate disciples. On their own authority. as much from the doctrinal as the disciplinary point of view. Ananda also had to win Arhatship.

Once it had been launched. The first controversies concerned discipline. a latent hostility. caused by jealousy. but the Arhats decided to maintain them down to the very last one. but historical details are lacking. the Vtiiputrakas. were in the majority. The intransigence of the Arhats deserved to be taught a lesson. an attempt was made to attack them directly through their honour and privileges. They rearranged the order of the texts. it is doubtful whether the kings directly intervened in the doctrinal conftict.SA. though lacking in holiness. it was then that the five heretical theses appeared. as we know . eliminated some works questioning their authenticity or value. asserting that the Arhat is always subject to a certain fonn of physical impurity. and finally culminated in schism. it gradually spread to all the Buddhist communities where it was keenly discussed. Whatever the sources may say. ASoka. Many of them. and no doubt some religious migrated. were consummate scholars (bahwruta). who were directly threatened. particularly the possibility for the monks to accept gifts of moncy. they were condemned. The supporters of the heresy. attempted to include in the Vinaya the laxist practices to which they were accustomed. and that of the Mahasa~ghikas who were won over to the five theses. to ignorance and doubt.~GHIKA SCHISM 291 doctrine. This caused everincreasing conflict. During the first two centuries of Buddhism. They were no longer satisfied with the early canon of the writings and undertook to revise it. Later. Without further ado. The Arhats. open to the aspirations of the laity and strongly tinged with democracy. 319 but mainly they inserted into the old collections new compositions. in which their particular views were set out. that he can be helped spiritually by others and that there are other means of salvation than the slow and painful practice of the eightfold Path. A few sa~ghas split into two groups: adversaries and supporters of the heresy. some monks from VaiSiIi. but the information provided by the sources on its author or authors are merely fables invented after the event. This heresy was perhaps first formulated in southern India. smouldered between the Arhats on the one hand.(318-319) THE MAHA. Certain religious proposed abolishing the minor and unimportant precepts on pretext that the Buddha had not defined them clearly. and the worldly religious and the laity on the other. who were upheld by the laity and included in their ranks the mass of worldlings and Saik~s. opposed it with savage resistance. All these dissensions inevitably culminated in the schism which brought about the scission of the original Sa~gha into two main branches: that of the Sthaviras who remained faithful to the old ideal of holiness.

On this subject. but which complete and verify each other : the Sinhalese chronicle and old and modem archaeology. not mentioned so far. some early evidence. 63-9). pp. I. did not prevent the survival of brahmanical institutions and Hindu practices. differing in origin and value. the Chinese SamantopasiidiJcQ (Shan chien Jzi. but everything leads to the belief that it had been prepared over a long period and only came to a head in ASoka's era. 113-15). root in the whole of India. the MahQ. Ill .vtlJ?1So (XII.D. 320 With regard to this rapid growth of Buddhism. the Pili Samantapasadika (I. if it is a question of a gloss. ch. there was no opposition to the Law. Because of their differences. and the Law was recited for the first time.) : " When the Buddha was in this world. we possess two sources of infonnation. can be put forward : that of Nigiirjuna or. there were distinct sects (nikaya). 684-6) and the Mahabodhivmrua (pp. ch. at a time when the royal favours had attracted into the order a number of self· interested recruits. it was still as when the Buddha was alive. T 1462.292 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (3 19-320 ) from his edicts. One hundred years later. each having a name and each of which was subsequently to evolve" (T 1509. protected all sects impartially and tried to bring harmony among them rather than set them against one another. pp. threatening to reduce all the agitators to lay Slatus. he contended with the dissension as such. in the month of Kattika (October) in . When he had disappeared. 1-13). however. . details of which can be found in the Dipavmrua (VIII. p.The Sinhalese chronicle abounds in precise and dated infonnation on what it calls the Conversion of Various Regions (Nanadesapastida). as well as Ceylon. extending well beyond the Gangetic plain which had been its birthplace. 700). The date of the schism has not been precisely established. 2. TIlE SINHALESE CHRONICLE THE DATA IN THE CHRONICLE. After the council of Pi!aliputra. his translator KumaraJlva (405 A. King ASoka convened a great assembly of the quinquinnial (pancovorfopariFati) and the Great Masters of the Law debated. gradually reached neighbouring lands and took. possibly even pure tirthikas. 2. This peaceful conquest. I-55). since the efforts made by the propagandists were aimed less at eliminating established institutions and popular beliefs than at adapting them to Sakyamuni's message. THE GROWTH OF BUDDHISM IN INDIA It was during the Mauryan period that Buddhism.

had recited the kammovoco during the ordination of Mahinda.000 (var. ~ghamitti's son. 5.000 (var. However.000) ordinations to his credit. So~a and Uttara went to Suval)~abhUmi .000 (var. the Thera Moggaliputtatissa.adaJcossapa JiilaJca. was despatched to MahiraHha . he vanquished the Naga-king Aravi!a and converted him to Buddhism. 1. Sahadeva and Miilakadeva (var. Sambala and Bhaddasila. the Theras I~~iya.000 conversions and 5.000) persons were won to Buddhism and 10. before un- . ASoka's own son.000) persons and gave 2. After hav321 ing preached the MaJrana.(00) took up the monastic life.000) took up the religious life. 60. and he also took with him his nephew. and 80 ko!i of beings became slrotaapannas. rising into the air.000 ordinations.Iaka. 30. and 500 vihiras were founded.000 (3. 3. There.000 (var.000 (var.tala where he preached the DevadUlasutta. he had four companions to assist him. Mahadhammarakkhita.000 conversions and 13.000 persons and conferred 40. Mahirakkhita travelled to Yonakaloka and there he recited the KalaJca. Alakadeva). 6. recited the Anamalagga Stur/yutla. 37.000 recruits.( 12(). and each kingdom yielded 100. Mahinda. as one may recall. went to Kasmira-Gandhirn.(00) ordinations. I. 7. set out to win over Mahi~mal)c.C. the novice Sumana.amasulla.000 monastic recruits. 2. 8. where the preaching of the B.ijhantika preached the ASlvisopanuirutta before a large gathering of people. Dundubhissara (the reading Durabissara is ineoreet). 170. 1. who had also taken part in the ordination of Mahinda by conferring on him the pobbajjii.). in anticipation of the future and with the aim of propagating the religion in neighbouring lands. Mahideva. was given the mission of converting Lanka . Majjhima reached the high Himavat mountains with four companions : Kassapagoua.ahmajaJasuua led to 60.000 ordinations. sent missionaries to nine separate regions. 137.000 persons were converted. with his supernatural powers. he had 84. Ma. The Arhat Majjhantika who. Yonaka-Dhammarakkhita was sent to Aparantaka. He recited the Dhammacakkappovallanasulla. 9. converted 40. UUiya. converted 80.121 ) THE GROWTH OF BUDDHISM IN INDIA 293 the year 236 after the Nirvi~a (250 B. Asoka's half-brother. Rakkhita made for the land of Vanavisa and. while the Yak~ Pa~<.000 persons and conferred 100. Each of the five missionaries converted a kingdom. 4. of which a good thousand were women. known to have conferred ordination on Tissa. 7. where he preached the AggikkhtmdopamOsutta and converted 37. his wife Hiriti and their five hundred sons bocame srolaipannas.

. organized a mission lasting seven days which was preached either in the Elephants' Stable (Hatthisili). Fifth day.The ceremonious presentation to the missionaries of the Mahimeghavana which was destined later to become the Tissirima or Mahivihara. However.tuka rose miraculously into the air. 500 persons. On the uposatha day of the month of Jenha. Queen Devi. or in the Park of Delights (Nandanavana) to the south of the town . fixing of the boundaries of the future Mahivihira . Mahinda immediately called the sovereign and recited the Ciilahalthipadopamdsutta 'to him. where he made the acquaintance of his cousin Bhanduka.294 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (3 21 -)22) dertaking the voyage. . The following is a list of the discourses and the results they incurred : First day.8. Vimdnovallhll and SaccasturTYlltta: and all acquired the srotaipanna fruit. present-day 8tnlsa in Gwalior. in the spring of the year 236 after the Nirval). the religious centre of the island. he then went to visit his mother. They landed on the peak of Mount Missaka. the four theTas. Led in triumph to Anuridhapura. and who became an upasalca and joined Mahinda. he understood that he would do beUer to wait until Prince Devinarppiyatissa mounted the throne of Ceylo n. his native land. addressing the devas. Vedisagiri) monastery.Teaching of the Asivisiipamd and a thousand conversions. Third day . Then the missionary. he lodged for a month in the Cetiyagiri (var.Teaching of the Anamatagga and a thousand conversions.Teaching of the Devatiiitasullanta and a thousand conversions. present-day Mihintale. the sramaQa Sumana and the upi. the missionaries were 322 received and lodged in the palace: by Queen Anuli and her five hundred attendants. accompanied by the other members of the mission. the time had now come for Mahinda to accomplish his mission. teaching of the Aggikkhandopamdsullanta and a thousand conversions. For six months. who lived in Vedisa. The missionaries. took the three refuges. teaching of the BdlapOlJ4itasuttanta and a thousand conversions among the women . In the meanwhile. the capital. Fourth day. the son of one of his mother's sisters. where King Devanaqtpiyatissa was busy hunting. preached the Samacillasulla to them . the king and his retinue. . .Teaching of the KlwiJaniyasuttanta and a thousand conversions. . They recited the Petavotthll. he resolved to go to Avanti. he stayed in Ujjeni (Ujjayini) at the Dakkhil)agiri monastery. without allowing themselves to be pampered by the fine fare and solicitous care. . Second day. and in a few instants reached Ceylon .saka BhaQc.

201). . In the month of Kattika (October). After remaining for twenty-six days in the Mahameghavana. and his SS brothers followed them into the retreat and received ordination .0 22-323 ) THE BUDDHIST MISSIONS 295 Sixth day. which was to lead to the conversion .500 (Mh. The number of bhikkhus rose to 30. Sellenth day . Teaching of the GomayapilJf!lSUua and a thousand converSions. on the 13th of the month of Asa. The tree. The initiative of M oggaliputtatissa. 61). They spent the three months of the va~ in the Cetiyapabbata monastery which had been built for them by the king. XVII.meghavana . These requests were granted. was planted by the king in the Mah8. with eleven of her co-sisters. the precious clavicle was soon transported to the Thiipirama enclosure. . so the king sent his nephew Arinha to ASoka with the task of obtaining a chapter of nuns and a branch of the Bodhi tree.Teaching of the Dhammacakkappollauanasutta and a thousand conversions. embarked at Tamalitti (Tamluk) and. he returned from his voyage with a quantity of relics.!ha (lune). The 8. I.. the sramar. thenceforth the island had 62 monks. The wonders which marked the celebrations led to further callings.The chronicle emphasizes the fact that the missionary movement. AriHha. as well as to Indra's palace . among them that of Mattabhaya. particularly the right clavicle of the m Buddha. XV. and then withdrew to Mount Missaka where they spent the rainy season. landed at the port of lambukola in Ceylon. brought the number of converts to 8. the king's brother.000 (Mhll . .ta Sumana was sent to ASoka in Pa!aliputra. together with the five hundred persons in the king's retinue who had welcomed the missionaries on Mount Missaka. after a rapid but stonny crossing. The king's nephew. after which the new nuns took up their quarters in the monasteries of the Upasika and Hattha!hakaviharas.. the six missionaries preached the Mahappomddasuttanta to the king. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE TRADITION. carrying the Bodhi tree.000 conversions carried out during the retreat. Queen Anula and her five hundred lady attendants expressed a desire to take up the religious life. at the gates of the town . Saqtghamitta conferred ordination on Anula and her attendants . transported in great pomp to Anuradhapura. which were stored in the Cetiyapabbata. The nun Saqtghamitta. However.The facts related by the chronicle are so important that the text must be subjected to a thorough examination . .

000 37.000 5.tiya Sambala Bhaddasila Sumana Bha!)4uka Sennons preached Pili Cbronicle number of of converu ordinations I Shan chi~n Iii number of of converu ordinations I il! AsivisUpamd D~wuMta Anamatagga AggiJcJcluurdJJopoma MahtinmadJJcassapo KAlakdriimD 80.000 1.056 435.500 59.Regjons indoctrinated Kasmira Gandhira Mahisama!)dala Vanavisa Aparantaka Mahiranha Yonalealob Missionaries Majjhantika Mahideva Rakkhita Yonaka Dharnmarakkhita Mahidbammarakkhita Mahirakkhita Majjhima Kassapagotta MIi.000 170.000 13.056 ~ ~ .000 40.500 207.000 5. 137.000 84.i ' .000 1.000 40.000 2.000 84.000 2.000 60.500 56 ' .000 1.000 (var.000 100.000 60.000 60.000 30.000 " laid.000 40.000 37.500 56 ~ ~ 539.mi 1 " - m 0 Bralun4jd/a 60.000 80.000 3.000 73.!adeva (AJabdeva) Sahadeva Dund ubhissara So!)a Uttara Mahinda Inhiya U.000 40.000 10.000) :i! m > " c: Hinav" I Dlwmmacappal'Q//QnQ fabulous number fabulous number fabulous number fabulous number " > '" Z ~ Suva!)l)abhli.

regions as remote as Avanti or Sro.a . cf. within India as without.• I. the master of Mahinda apostle of Ceylon. but if they do not hear the Law expounded. Immediately after the discourse at Viri. PUt1)a. was a religion of propaganda. arc not blinded by passion. It is no less certain that such propaganda was pursued from the beginning. are freed from them. they will be won over to the Law. explain the practice of the religious life in the fullness of its purity.. This order was carried out and. ch.(323-32'> THE BUDDHIST MISSIONS 297 32j of the whole of India. for the happiness of gods and mankind. 16.asi and the conversion of the first disciples. we believe that Buddhism. I am freed from all the human and divine bonds and you. they are lost. 130a). pp. the Buddha himself sent his monks to expound the Good Law to whomsoever wished to hear it : "0 monks. T 1428. 7920 . Go fonh.. a missionary movement. nor even generally admitted by all the Sinhalese religious. There exist beings who. and walk for the welfare of many. Let not two of you go by the same path. also. for the welfare. it shows its partiality by attributing the merit to Moggaliputtatissa and his delegates alone. p. during the very lifetime of the Buddha. for the happiness of many. ch. beneficent at the end . ch. out of compassion for the world. For the mainlanders. However. for the profit. if not converted. 20-1 . Thcre can be no doubt that Buddhism. using active propaganda from the outset. the conversion of India was the result of a long and patient teaching process initiated by the Buddha and continued during the early centuries by the Masters of the Law and their imme- . and win over the major part of India to the religion. teach it in its spirit and its letter. p. beneficent in the middle. a. J shall go to Uruvilvi.. was launched on the initiative of the Vibhajyavadin Moggaliputtatissa. The chronicle simplifies and misrepresents the facts by situating the general conversion of India in the year 236 after the Nirvil).iparanta were. p. 108a. was able to take advantage of the propitious circumstances created by the conversion of Asoka and the emperor's favour. 6. etc. Expound the Law which is beneficent in the beginning. at least evangelized by apostles the memory of whom was preserved by history : Mahakatyayana. 415. by nature. For our part. in order to teach the Law" (Pilli Viii .. 32. T 1450. we strongly doubt that the considerable expansion it achieved during the Mauryan period could have been the result of a concerted plan of missions and in particular that the initiative for the move is to be attributed to Moggaliputtatissa alone. like other religious movements of the time. p. Ill. Mahiivastu . As for myself. the town of the army chief. This tendentious version was never accepted on the mainland. T 1421.

298 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (32S-J26) diate disciples. on one and the same page of his Memoirs .500 Kasmirian viharas first to Madhyantika and his disciples. and the region was converted. b.labhumi. In Sif"!lhaJadvipa (Ceylon). pp. and monasteries were built there which are still inhabited. the date of the introduction of Buddhism to Bunna.aliputra by ASok:a. and a pavilion with a frieze made of sandalwood was constructed. the Sinhalese religious who were settled in the Andhra region had already attempted to accredit a legend which attributed the conversion of the whole of India to Sinhalese Sramal)as. The main point is that the conversion of India required long centuries. but which makes no mention of . beginning with Avanti. It is immediately obvious that the fable concerning Moggaliputta's missions could not have been compiled before the fifth century. we saw the role played in Kasmir first by Madhyantika. and it was not completed until the Mauryan era.urparaka. In the paragraph we devoted to them.lola Bharadvaja. finally . p. ch. he also built a monastery there which is still inhabited . The same sources attribute to Mahendra "Ananda's disciple" (sic) the conversion ofSilTlhaladvipa " (Ceylon). five hundred Jay persons were converted by the Arya PUma. in the town of S. In Suval"t:. achieved understanding through the Arya Mahendra. the Arya Gavampati converted the population over a distance of one hundred yojana. etc. in the year 50 after the NirvaJ:la. converted the region where he planted saffron which he had gathered from Lake Anavatapta and which the population still eats today. Il is therefore quite correct for the roll of honour of the missionaries drawn up by the Mahiikarmovibhanga (ed. by the 500 Sthavirian Arhats expelled from PaJ. and a throng of people was converted" .la (T 2087. having subdued five hundred dragons in Kasmir. As it is said in the Adhyardhaiataka. LEVI. Before that date. The inhabitants of PUrvavideha (the Eastern World) were converted by the Arya Pil)c. some Rak~sas. 61-4) to place contemporaries of Sakyamuni and contemporaries of Asoka side by side : "Mahakasyapa converted the population of !he West. . for it began during the very lifetime of the Buddha. then by Sal)avasa and. 3. then and immediately 326 afterwards to the Sthavirian Arhats from Pa!aliputra in the year 100 after the Nirvat:. 886a-b). Vibhi~al)a. attributed the founding of . This account knows nothing whatever about Moggaliputta's missionary activity. and the ~hronology of their respective ministries is so iII-established that Hsiian tsang can be excused for having. Doubtless not all the details of the great deeds of these religious are clear. the Blessed One made his way there through the air with five hundred bhik~us . and make the Mathura region the centre of activities of the great Upagupta. The Arya Madhyandina.

22). 2. Vain attempts were made to identify this area with the land of Andhra. Kasmira-Gandhira .a (Ceylon) who converted Kasmira.D. intensified in the Mauryan age and led. represents the ancient Achaemenid satrapy of Gadara. Avaraf!lta. records the erection of an absidal temple (caityagrha) and a shrine (caitya) by the upasika Bodhisiri for the benefit "of the masters and fraternities of Tambaparp. Gandhara. XX.baparplJ. Taken in its broadest sense. The tendentious nature of the chronicle in no way prevents it from supplying interesting and occasionally. but that the missionary movement was the deed of all the communities then existing and no saf!lgha in particular can claim exclusive merit for it. Gaf!ldhira. to the virtual conversion of the whole of India. begun at the time of the Buddha. but also the Eastern Punjab.( 326-327) THE BUDDHIST MISSIONS 299 327 Moggaliputta. The province. However. precise. of Rawalpindi). their capital was Mahi~mati on the Narmada. It needed all the naivety of an over-pious woman to take them at their word. if this last tradition compelled recognition in Ceylon. in the reign of ASoka. The same cannot be said for Kasmir which. The lands covtrtd by 1M misj. In other words. 17 miles N. in which Mahadeva's heresy flourished ror a long time in the ~i1a communities. Vaf!lga.tala. capital Tak~sili (20 miles N. una-CHata. The Pili chronicle itself did not dare to confirm such a fable and preferred to transpose to Moggaliputta.E. It should be remembered that the evangelization.on.ta.idipa" (EI. The region was completely Buddhist by the Mauryan period. 2. it was always ignored or dismissed on the mainland.lJ.W. An inscription from Nagarjuniko~c. the expansion of the Good Law was ruled by geographical conditions: it was propagated from region to region. p. included not only the district of Pu~karavati (present-day Prang and Charsadda. Palura and Tarp. 1929. dating from the year 14 of the reign of the Ik~vaku Mi!hariputa Siri-Virapurisadata (ca 240-260 A. Tosali. Mahi~mati is known to the . did not truly become a Buddhist land until the KU~l)a era .They were rune in number : 1. it is assumed that the Sinhalese converted the whole of India as well as themselves. The Mahi~kas are mentioned by the PurdIJa among the people in the South. of Peshawar). information on the conversion of India. Damila. Vanavisi. the inhabitants of which were known to Strabo and Ptolemy by the names of Gandaritoi and Gandarai. ceded to Candragupta by Seleucus I in 305. Mahisamal)<. Furthermore.). the honour of having initiated the missions. with the exception of the extreme south . ASoka's spiritual adviser and teacher of the great Sinhalese missionary Mahinda. . aner the Mahiri~ ~ras .

1026c 7). IS. 6). II. was the dwelling-place of the Vana328 vasikas or Vanavasins to the east of Konkan. however. 8.83) by the name of Banabasi. M.abhiimi was evan· " Cltryu CMrJfNI~JOJ of Pomponius MeJa (III . p.abhiimi is a maritime country which. p. 3. (Srivijaya). SltWllJlJahhimri of Jitaka. 2.C. SQI?1yulla. Aiyaopt Comm. 61 . at the time of the Buddha. 7. Himavanta refen in a general manner to the whole Himalayan reSion. has nothing to do with Kan:tasuvaIl)a located by Hsiian tsang (T 2087. p. an inscription dating from the Ca~ukula-Satakan:ti dynasty has been found there (LODEIlS. Mahari~!ra is the Maratha region on the Upper Godavari. Vol. V. Ptolemy (VII . 1. 120 S and 11 ) who idtnliflC! it with the Malayan kingdom of Sh. or North Kanara. SO. 63). p. ch. 1186). If we are to believe Buddhist sources (Majjhima . The town of Vanavisi. the Tungabhadra and the Varada. TM Sw~i 0IId Sw~yipa. 928a) in North·West India. . situated on the left bank of the Varadi.. v. Chilf I. IS). Swyor1JOhhimri. p. p. Vanavisa. in the wider sense. p. P~ripllU of 1M & ylhr_ ¥O (S6. 10. p. II..vuMD. the sage Piir1). RANGKACMAJ. p. 1. t ho 2. 70). 268 . Kutch.·Ii-f~Jh.C. Josephus (Ani. present-day Sopara . designates the whole western coast. 80). IV. Pliny tbe: Elder (VI . SS. Sindh. 6. It was known as the Chryse Chersonesos to the ancient geographers and identified with the ancient man area. 1l6b 17) and of I ching (T 2066. p. SUtlanipolo. Western Rajputina. or Chin ( hOll of the Mii illlflaO'islivj· din Vin. between the Ghit. 235 . III.. VI. 65. 34. 11 ( S-7. ch.. was known to Ptolemy (VII. Sunaparantas) and founded a monastery made of sandalwood in Surparaka.). and occupied by Graceo-lranian settlers called "barba· rians" in the MahiibMrala (XII. the Suppara of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (§S2) and of Ptolemy (VII . had already brought the Good Word to the Sro~aparantakas (Pali. and more particularly the town of Thaton in lower Bunna 91 . of the Upadda (T 1509. a synonym of PaSciddeSa. Divya. despite the suggestion made by Fleet. p. Aparintaka in a restricted sense is northern Koithn. Jud" VIII.YA.JOO THE MA URYAN PERIOD 0 27-328) canonical sources (Digha . Suvar1). (T 1444. 6.. Dacca. Gujarit and the coastal area of the lower Narmada. 4. I. p. As a close neighbour of Ujjayini. 462· 48'. 45 sq. th.a. 5. it no doubt benefited quite early on from the propagandist movement initiated by Mahaklityayana in Avanti . 4). See R. IV. its capital being SUrpiraka. 13) and "the godless" by the Purii1)a. Aparinta. toll ) as the chief town of Southern Avanti. Yavanaloka designates the territories of eastern Gedrosia and Arachosia which were ceded by Seleucus to Candragupta in approxima· tely 305 B. According to the Buddhist sources. SuvarJ). 1937 .

thirteen years after the consecration (231 after the Nirvi~a. some. p. p. However. Pllris. p. 37. it is not impossible that the missionary movement intensified in tbe Maurya period. no The Ona-Cilitas are cited by the Buddhist sources (MilindIJ. the MaMbhdrala (II. 9. had encountered the Buddhist message before that date. pp. 250 B. this is apocryphal infonnation which can hardly date back further than the fifth century A. 22) . IS) knows them by the names of Ol)a and Kirita. 103)..C. p. on the ancient site of Prome. (see p. 327.. or by So~a and UUara at the time of ASoka (Pili 329 chronicle). 331) immediately after the Saka-Yavanas. 1929. duplicated the activity of the imperial functionaries. the Dharmabhi~akas. 9. in the Himilayan part of the river. IS).).C. the edicts (l . XX. it is even probable that the preachers of the Saddhanna were quite close on the heels of the imperial envoys sent to various regions in India to promulgate the Dhanna of ASoka. According to the fifth rock edict (BLOCH. pp. The nine regions enumerated by the chronicle were therefore not all evangelized at the time of ASoka. 19. 2.D . The official propaganda opened the way for the religious propaganda and. five years later. 26. as the Buddhist missionaries were called. 93. since there is no trace at all of any Indian incursions into Bunna before the fragments of the Pili canon found at Mom and Maungun. others.(329-330) lliE BUDDHIST MISSIONS 301 gelized either by Gavimpati during the Buddha's lifetime (MahQJcarmavibhanga. R~~rikas.. Comts. the Karmavibluuiga (pp. they are the Kirridai of the Periplus (§62) and the Tiladai or Piladai of Ptolemy (VII. In order to get an idea of the extent of the political and religious activity launched at the time of Priyadariin.. and we know from the second and twelfth rock edicts (BLOCH. 2SS B. we can compare the regional lists supplied by the Pili chronicle. the overseers of the Dharma of Aioka introduced it among the Yavanas. 302). They are located roughly on the Upper Indus. 62). to be precise in the year 18 of the consecration (236 aflt. not until much later. Kambojans. . G. However.'.{ the Nirvi~a . and which date from around SOO A. lIZ . Gandhirans.). 1948. Lanlci or Ceylon.c. Tosafi from whence the . 61-4) and the Nigarjunikol)4a inscription (El. V.). Pite~ikas and other Aparintas. such as Suvan:tabhumi. 130) that the pious message reached as far as the Timrapa~iyas . Of the four sources. Lu t'o/l hiNJoNUlI d·lru:JodiN rl r ""/o. NigirjunikoJ:l4a is the only one to mention the conversion of Eastern India : Vanga or Bengal. sucb as Avanti and Aparintaka.D .

ch. The missionaries. p. Aparinta 8. ch. Cola.Of the twenty-odd missionaries cited by the Pili chronicle. Ananda solemnly entrusted the Law to Madhyantika with the mission to propagate it in KaSmir : Asqkalladiina (T 2042. 4. Gandhira 1. II. the oppidum of Dandaguda for Pliny (VI. eh. Region of Siirpiraka 5. Jiilaka. U:vJ.. if the reading is correct. 235. . 62 . 3. lI . Vanavisa 5. p. Lanka S. p. . This town. VII. t925. KaSmira 2. p. 3. Si~haladvipa 9. 2. ch. 116b ~Iudes Asialiqucs. 77). after his decease. Maijhantika and Mahinda. 954c 13-1 7) and the Hsi yu chi (T 2087. 46 sq. Vanavisi 6. Palura (1) separate Dhauli edicts come (BLOCH. p. p. the second by that of Mahendra. u S. I.ia I. Himavanla 9. 8860 21).JJI ) Edicts Kanna vibhailga 2. finally.. p. Gandhira 3. 40 . Yavana 3. the first by the name of Madhyantika or Madhyandina. Kerala 8. R~~rika 6. 1. Kamboja 7. Dami!a ('?) 11 . Aparinta 4. ISSe 20. II. 136) and which is the Dosarene of the Greek geographers (Periplus. ch. MahavaJtu . 116b 3-4. the Arhat Madhyantika would settle in Kasmir and propagate Buddhism there.4. Suvamabhiimi I. 4. mandala 3. the capital of Kalinga (DIgha . T 2043.iya. Palura. p. Kasmira Nigirjunikol)!. 361). (Gilgit Manuscripts.1). the MulaJarvas. I. 7. JA. There existed a prediction by the Buddha according to which. Vailga 4. It is mentioned in the Ai okovadiina (T 2042. lt NilkkNl t l /a arMlkalM. 367 . Ta. 18 and 85). 9. have found a place: 111 in the Buddhist tradition on the mainland. only two. VII.ls-Cilata 7. p. Pt I. VII. . p. dvipa 6. PloJJmh. lIJ . Yavanaloka 8. 17 . Pir:lC. 1. Timrapat1)i. Mahi~. which he obtained in the middle of the Ganges. 40c 18-22). Avanti 4.302 Chronicle mE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 3JO. 16. 17 sq. T 1448. At the time of his NirvalJa.prapan:tiya 10. Ptolemy. p. called Padoura by Ptolemy (VII. Suvamabhiimi 2. the MahtikarulJopW)tjarika (T 380. must be identified with Dantapura. ch . p. TosaIi 10. Aparintaka 7. CiJ. Yavana (?) 3. 1925. t. Kasmira 2. NOltJ lruikfIMJ.vadin Yin . Gandhira I. xvii. III. p. 72)91 .

p. The king was present on the bank. 1914.51. said to King Ajiita. ch. T 2043. Ananda perfonned the eighteen transformations. 116b l2·c 22 . who had also come to welcome him. ch. and Madhyintika granted them investiture and he himself laid down the boundaries of the towns and villages. (T 1451. ch. Hsi yu chi (T 2087. the first was called Mo shan . 2. Ka.()) I· ))2) THE BUDDHIST MISSIONS 303 . p. 40. p. BOa 20-29). The deeds which are narrated in full by the . 3. . ch.satru : 'Ananda's appearance is extraordinary. and the inhabitants of Vaisali. Vibh~ii (T 1545. resisted all the attacks. produced fire and bul')1cd his own body . pp. on condition that the land be always occupied by five hundred Arhats. 410<-). at the bead of his five hundred disciples. This same tradition is narrated in the Fen pieh kung tt lun (T lS07. However. (T 14. perceiving tbe brilliance of his appearance. T 2043. 'j (Madhyiintika) and tbe sccond Mo shin .5.are. JA . p.satru and the inhabitants of VaiSiIi) could pay homage to him". those which the Piili chro nicle attributed to Majjhantika . 4110 5-b 18).smir was in the posses· sion of the great dragon Hulii!3 (compare the Aravi!a of the Pili sources) which gave savage battle to the missionary. he entered a boat in order to cross it and reaehed mid·stream. u NordDum dt> fIn«. J7b 16-27) with the difference tbat Mahendra already comes into the story : " When Ananda wu on tbe point of entering Nirvi~a. A brahmacirin who had learned the art of calculation from Ananda. p. 'j (Mahendra). As his intention was to go to both countries (at one and Ihe same time). ch. 40. p .ingdom of Shih 'zu chu (SiI'!'lhaladvipa. MU/QJarviUtiviidin Yin . Then he said 10 Mahendra : 'Go to tbe k. ch. 49) -568. 886a-b) . seated cross· legged in concentration on benevolence.. the dragon acknowledged the right of the Buddha's disciples to Kasmir. is he not about to enter Nirviil)a?' Immediately.56a 7-b 19). 7. After making that testament. Once tamed. 4. Ceylon) and inlrodllCt the Law of the Buddha'. Madhyantika went to Kasmir to bring peace to the land. ))2 Sanskrit sources'· .5c 24). apart from a few details. Ananda. the dragon's weapons could do nothing against Madhyintika who. 7. he divided his bodily relics in halves so that each of the two families [those of Ajita. Most or Ihcse sources have been translated inlo French by J. The monks accompanied him to Mount Gandhami. p. PItZYLUUI. the king sent messengers to fetch Ananda.Aiokiivadiina (f 2042. he first displayed a luminous augury.5. He then made his disciples approach. ch. 1. MU/QJ(JrviUtjviidin Yin. p. These arrived from every region. However. had sent five hundred young people to meet him. Faithful to the orders he bad received. Ananda made UK of his supemonnal power to cause the boat to SlOp in midstream. make it your task to spread it abroad'. Ananda said to Madhyintika : 'Go to the kingdom of Chi pin (Kasmir) and establish the Law of the Buddha : that country does not yet know of it. 44. ch. 1. bad reached midway along the banks of the Ganget:.

the apostle of Ceylon. 79). in the Mahakdrmavibhmiga (p. ch. the ruins of an old monastery "constructed by Mahendra" as well as a stiipa of .13). which contained the relics of the great disciples Siriputa and Mahimogalina (LOnERS. while not questioning the supernormal powers of the missio-nary. Siilki inscription. 665 and 666 . which was in direct communication with the island. He widely proclaimed the Saddharma. the younger brother of Awka. p.c. but does not deny him the glory of having converted Ceylon : "One hundred years after the Nirvi~a of the Buddha. for their names appear on inscribed reliquaries which were stored in the stupas of the State of Bhopal.) and.. 13 and 14). It could be that the monastery was one of Mahendra's halting. walking through the air. as ASoka's brother by Hsiian tsang. he simply embarked at the port of Potalaka. ch. Hsiian tsang seems to propose a more nonnal means of lacomo· 111 tion. Alongside Stupa 3 at SiiiCl. erected at the end or the second or beginning of the first century B. the subcontinent also knew other missionaries mentioned in the Pili chronicle. The saJe AJUlya had hi. when he notes in Malakul<'. The Chinese master attributes to him the adventures which the other sources assign to the "younger brother't of ASoka (f 2087. 8. . ch. MA11JMo DAJl 9o . The other missionary known to the Sanskrit and Chinese sources is Mahendra. 9320). from Avanti to Mount Missaka in Ceylon. acquired the six ahhijnii and eight lIimolqa and. XI. a region somewhere to the south of Kiiici 9 '. and that. Abo known by the name or Malayapuvata.. the Tamil PodiFi or Podipi. imported the roots to Kasmir where they planted them and made them fructify . he is cited. . to get to Ceylon. finally. 9120). edited by MAJUMDAA in Vol.which only the roundations remained (T 2087. in caskets made of . with the agreement of the dragons on the mountain. Mahendra. apparently as a contemporary of the Buddha. I of MOII_fllS 0/ Sdikhf. However. Doubtless there is in this passage an allusion to the legend in the terms of which Mahinda went. other monuments preserved. and spread the doctrine which had been bequeathed to him" (T 2087.C. bermiliJe on the peak of the MaLayakuta (Bhiipvata Purll}l. 63). through the air. places on his way south. ardently sought the fruits or holiness. p. renounced sense·pleasures. as the disciple of ARanda and a subject of AjataSatru in the Fen pieh kung Ie fun (I. 10. 9340 10. Apart from Madhyintika and Mahendra. the 8enilo of Ptolemy. As we have already seen.304 THE MAURYAN PERJOO ()32-331) dana where they received saffron roots and. II. p. went to that kingdom (Ceylon).

propounded in Ceylon. the reader will already have recognized the Kassapagotta. spoken in Vanavasa and Ceylon.Iiniputa.fIlf/an/a (I. two generations later than the above three.Iiniputa. Prosopopoeia of the god Yama's three messengers : old age. The scholars. LODERS. on. Dudubhisara and Majhima. Sapurisa Vachiputa (or Vachiya Suvijayita) Gotiputa-atevasin . which has no beginnin8. Sapurisa Mogaliputa Gotiputa-atevasin . Extracts from the Majjhimanikiiya : (2 ) CiilahatthipadopanuisllttantQ (I. In the first three holy ones. No. inscriptions Nos. (6) Anama/Qgga (lI. 8.adiitQSIJllanlQ (Ill. Eilltracts from the ~yuttanikiiyQ : (5) Appam4da (1 . 2. 81). Nos.sira. Third ge~ration. pp. 6) who seems to have been the last of the viniyakas : 7. Sapurisa Kisapagota Kotiputa sava-Hemavataacariya. Mogaliputa. pp. Length of Sarp. has only his name in common with the Mogaliputlati'ssa of the chronicle. the precious relics of a whole succession of masters (acdryapar"'rlpar5) who were famed in the Haimavata school : Stupa 2 at Saiici. Second generation.~jUla. preached in Ceylon. 293) which claim they converted the Himavanta. 178-87). the master [or masters]" (MAJUMDAR. disease and death . the fifth holy one. 175-84). disciple of the Buddha.))4 ) mE BUDDHIST MISSIONS 305 J)4 stone. 6. C:iIlpounded in Suvan:tabhumi. 2. . 178:93). p. Description and refutation of the siillty-two heretical views. : 4. pp. Other monks also mentioned in the inscriptions should be placed before Vichiya (No. Dudubhisara. Conversely. . . 2 to 12 of MAJUMDAR. spoken in Ceylon. represent at least three generations of masters : First generation : I . 156 to 160 of LODERS. Sapurisa Mahavinaya . Sapurisa Apagira . III. 1-46). Vivid description of the infernal tonnents. 654). p. II . whose memory has been thus preserved. 9. The life to be led by the true: monk. taught in Ceylon. Kiisapagota. pp.iiya : (I) B. : 5. inscriptions Nos.(3 ]). Dundubhissara and Maijhima of the Piili chronicles (above. 655 to 665 of LOnERS.According to the chronicle.Stupa 2 at Sonan.Stupa 2 at Andher. Sapurisa Koc. seventeen discourses were preached during the great Indian mission. 163-77). The themes of the missionary teaching. 3. All of them form part of the Suttapi!3ka of the Pili Tipi~aka : I. Eulogy of religious zeal. Sapurisa Majhima Koc. 86. Those three generations grouped together " all the masters (l'inayaica) . (3) &ilapalJtjitanmanta pp. including the ara (arhat) Kisapagota and the ara Vichi Suvijayita. No. (4) IN. 680 to 683 of LOnERS. Sapurisa Gotiputa Kikanavaphabhiisana Ko4iiiagota Hemavata Dudubhisaradiyida. soapstone or crystal. Extract from the DighaniJc. . 4. inscriptions Nos.

306 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (334-335) (7) KhajjanfyasutuJllta (III. pp. V. comparable to cow-dung. In order to reach NirviiT. preached in Ceylon. pp. we believe that the . at least with regard to the Khuddhanikaya. pp. p. The king had been threatened with the pangs of hell if he did not mend his ways. was not standardized and given its final fonn until the fifth century A. the organs and objo. It is evident from this list that the seventeen discourses were chosen from the Five Nikiyas of the Tipi~ka . Consequently the infonnation provided by the chronicle contains anachronisms. preached in Ceylon. (9) As. ( 15) Petavatthu (Book VII). The exactness of the references supplied by the chronicle. sub-divisions and titles ex. preached in Yavanaloh.. I. pp. Technical explanation of the four noble truths illustrated by admirable comparisons. propounded in Ceylon. pp. propounded in Kasmira-Ghandhira and Ceylon. 128-35). (13) Aggikkhandopamdsuttanta (IV. Nevertheless. 420. taught in Ceylon . 112-5). king of Mithilii.perience. V. propounded in Aparint8 and Ceylon. 335 (10) Saccaslll!lyutta (V. Contemplating the past. It is better to be enveloped in consuming fire than live a dissolute life when wearing the monk's robe. (8) GomayapilJtfisllttQnlO (III. Edifying stories which enabled the devas to attain the heavenly abodes.visopamiisuttanlo (IV. The paragraph which we devoted to the fonnation of the canon showed that this was not so and that the Pili canon. the disciple becomes aware that he is always a prey 10 his body. both lead to the belief that the Pili canon with its divisions. VI. ( 16) iii/aka (Book X) of NarruUJ Ktusapa (VI. the aggregates of 8n8chment. Instability of human things and existence. Brilliant prosopopoeia demonstrating the baltic that mankind must wage continually against his enemies : the great elements. 81-104). taught in Ceylon . 143-7).isted in its present fonn in the third century S . Appeasing the senses and mind frees the body. 10.D.l8 he must reject the view of existence.. volitions and consciousnesses. but without being subject to it. etc). 414-78). feelings. Stories of various beings who were reborn in the world of ghosts after a series of misdeeds.c. 24-6). Discourse of Viri~a si on the four noble truths.ase with which the extracts can be identified. (17) Dhammocakkappavattanasutlanta. pp.. . Extracts from the Ariguttaranikaya: (II) Samacitta (I. Conversion of Arigati. p. speech and thought.:lS of the senses. the . pp. 219-55). preached in Ceylon. impassioned desire. 61-9). through the joint efforts of his daughter Ruji and the Rodhi~ttva Nirada. He repudiates the skandiuJ and frees himself from them in order 10 achieve full and consciow release. Varia (Vinaya . SllI!Iyuua. (12) KO/akiJrUnuullttDrlta (II. The omniscient Buddha penetrates the whole field of ex. IV.pounded in Ceylon. uttered in Ceylon. perceptions. ex. Extram from the Kiluddakanikliya : (14) Vimmunatthu (Book IV). pp. present and future.

condemned from all eternity to old age. they finally taught the four noble truths. The discourses listed by the chronicle struck all the sensory key-points in tum. the indisputed epitome of all experiences (Discourse No. he takes his refuge (i arw:ra). I). after having systematically refuted the objections (No. The new mission initiated by the propagandists therefore aimed Jess at making new recruils than at making a mass conversion of Ihe peoples in distant provinces. to use the technical expression. 336 The goals which those missionaries pursued differed radically from the aim that Sikyamuni set himself during his public ministry. is prompted by dispositions of goodwill with regard to the Buddha . which means appealing to the elite more willingly than to common people. Not all the throngs were prepared to receive Sakyamuni's message in its entirety. a slave to iu own body and senses. Then they celebrated the joy and peace which a virtuous and zealous man enjoys. II. 10 and 17). blinded by precarious satisfactions. in them without being compelled to repudiate his earlier beliefs or to bum the gods he worshipPed· In order to gain the sympathy of the masses. threatened by hell. The missionaries began by commiserating over the wretchedness of humanity. It was. as we saw earlier. the third century missionaries exploited the eternal themes of popular preaching. and the missionaries had to adapt their instructing to the capacities and wishes of their listeners. disturbed by incessant attacks from the enemy of its salvation (Discourses Nos. suitable for striking the imagination and provoking a psychological shock. the so-called conversions corresponded only remotely to the western world's idea : the convert or.0 36-337) TIlE BUDDHIST MISSIONS 307 chronicle gives an exact idea of the aim pursued by Buddhist propaganda in the Maurya period. strove above all to win new recruits "among the noble young people who give up the household life in order to embrace the wandering life" : an aristocratic concept of the mission. only . 15). the mainstay of the Buddhist doctrine (Nos. In the time of ASoka. What is more. the prasadita " the appeased one". They extolled of the omniscience of the Buddha.. 3-4. not all of whom were above reproach. however. The authorities were forced to remove many tirthikas masquerading in the yellow robe of the bhik~us. The latter. the Sarpgha overflowed with recruits. which partly contained Hellenized subjects who were prone to the wondrous. his Law and his Community . 12) and. 14. 6-9). disease and death. and invited him to model himself on holy kings or the devas of the heavenly spheres (Discourses Nos. and of the means used to achieve it. The ))1 Kiilakiiriimasuttanta which extols the omniscience of the Buddha was particularly appropriate for Yavanaloka. and to reduce to lay status the black sheep who threatened the unity of the Sarpgha. 5.

allowed his personal convictions to speak and. even 73 conversions. the aim of the third century missionaries was to convert the masses rather than ensure: new recruits for the order. as given in the MahdvlU!lSa and Samantapdsddikd. the number of monastic recruits was practically negligible .5 to I according to the first count. but the sources vary considerably over the subject. even though it instituted priesthoods of limited duration to minister in certain cults. They were in no way comparable to the rich repository of discourses which were: at the disposal of the missionaries. one recruit in 17. but those pious readings. 296). ASoic. We will leave the responsibility for the figures to the early authors who recorded them. He protected all sects impartially. 056 ordinations. 435.500 conversions against 207. being valid for all men indiscriminately. This is because Hellenistic polytheism. in order to ensure that the Good Law would last for a long time.308 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (ll7· ))I) the Sinhalese and the spirits of the Himiilaya who were taught the four noble truths in the very fonn that the Buddha had uttered them. The number of recruits and conversions. It is important to make a careful distinction between the missionary movement of the third century and the ASokan Dhanna which was spread at the $arne time· . the emperor. ensured all of happiness in this world and bliss in the next. but was different from it. According to the table drawn up above (p. by no means represented the whole of the Buddhist doctrine. That means that the number of conversions would have exceeded that of ordinations. i.e. The chronicle gives the respective figures of the recruits and converts. in the Bhibrii edict. recommended the study of certain Buddhist texts to the religious and laity . 5. but it is perhaps interesting to note that in Yavanalolca.500 conversions against 59. Whatever may have been said. . It is true that. The ASolcan Dharma simply prepared the way for the Buddhist Saddharma. without favouring one to the detriment of the others. the Hellenized Iranian regions of Eastern Gedrosia and Arachosia. and which constituted a complete initiation into the doctrine. 7 to I according to the second . As head of state. the missionaries stroye to convert India to their own beliefs and to implant the Good Law wherever they passed : they preached the Word of the Buddha in its entirety. he wanted to spread throughout his empire and among neighbouring kingdoms the practice of natural virtues which.a was not directly involved in Buddhist propaganda . Their activity was superimposed on the work already carried out by ASolca and his officials.As we have seen. there were 539. In contrast. included neither priests nor religious in the . in the propor338 tion of 2.056 ordinations according to the Shan chien Iii. edifying though they may have been. addressing the Sarpgha directly.

However. Even though it retains traces of Magadhisms. to renounce the language or Pi!aliputra. of a religious ideal. during or aner ASoka's reign. a site famous for its stiipas and Buddhist monuments. it is closer to western tongues. Avanti) base their argument on the fact that the language in Ujjayini. particularly the Girnir fonn of the ASokan language. but it is doubtful whether a stiipa could have been erected before that date since. known for his Buddhist sympathies. where he lived for twelve years. we are told. the Indo-Greek king Menander. in order to adopt the Ujjayini dialect and memorize. Mahinda stayed for seven months in Avanti. Pili is in fact 339 a composite language wltich has affinities with a large number of local dialccts. which was his "classical" tongue. led just as surely to holiness as did the religious status. Writers who seek the origin of Pili in western India (Gujarat. The religious status seemed madness to them. Pili is none other than the Migadhi language used by the Buddha on his preaching tours in Eastern India.(338·339) TIlE BUDDHIST MISSIONS 309 proper sense of the word. the capital of Avanti. Mohinda in Avanti. The presence of Buddhism in Avanti is much earlier than the reign of ASoka. took them to be sophists.The chronicle claims that. could forego all the joys of life and devote themselves to renunciation and penitence. six months at the Oakkhil}igiri monastery in Ujjeni and one month at the Cetiyagiri monastery in Vedisa . The interest of this question is not only archaeological. We do not know whether the name Cetiyagiri refers to a Buddhist building (sanctuary or stiipa) erected. according to the tradition. and it took them a long time to discover the motivation and joys of the sramal}a. when correctly observed. "sHipa-worship was virtually started by ASoka". This is so true that Alexander and his companions. This argument is not of much value : if the tradition is to be believed. before setting out for Ceylon. in a new form . the Greeks were astounded to learn that men. . Mahinda received his religious training at the ASokarima monastery in Pitaliputra. was stilt asking Nigasena the reasons for taking up the religious life : he remained persuaded that lay morality. near the present-day town of BhUsa. during his brief stay in Avanti. in this instance Digambara Jains. Vedisa (present-day Besnagar) was situated in the State of Bhopil. Mahinda is said to have introduced the Pili canon to Ceylon and. the texts which he had . Long aner Asoka. the Cetiyagiri where Mahinda stayed was included in the precincts ofSaiici. According to archaeologists. Being totally unaware of monastic institutions. 6. before. was the mother tongue of Mahinda and that the apostle stayed there before his departure for Ceylon. on meeting some Indian religious for the first time. It is difficult to see any reasons which could have caused him.

Oxford. London . A. P . FOUCliD. However. 1951 : Sir lOftN MAASKALL. private initiative played its part in the missionary movement. we ean but refer the reader to a rew general works . Cambridge.As it extended throughout the empire. M . Paris.310 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 339-340) painfully learned by heart. Paris. 1949. 19S3 : R. Paris.. Such circumstances were provided by the creation of the Mauryan empire and the conversion of the great emperor ASoka. 1910 : A. Monu~nlS of S4i1chf. 1M Arl of IMiQ and Pak lslon . Paris . SIoItTH. R. the secondary centres.. . E. I (2 Y oL). of Indilln and Indo~silln Arl. 1930: S . 3 vol. that the Buddhist community was most numerous and the best protected by the secular arm. In reality the origins of Pili remain shrouded in darkness. in fact . HiJlory of Finc Art in lMiQ and CeylOfl . AUBOYEII . 7. BROWN. The Buddhist propaganda. 2nd ed . 3 vol. 1950. Other more specialized works will be mentioned in the notes which follow. Magadha remained the main centre of activity : it was there. P . 19 17 . COWJAZ. Sir UtOH AsHToN. CeylOfl and Jtlvtl . B. With all obstacles lifted. but the efforts of individuals fade before the intrinsic expansionary power of the Good Law which required nothing more than politically favourable circumstances to manifest itself. C. London. and by Avanti over Ceylon. ARC HAEOlOGY THE STOPA. the spiritual activity exerted by Mathura over Kasmir and the North-West. 1950. 1905-22·5 1: &ginnings of BuddlliJl Arl. HiJI .The Sinhalese chronicle simplifies the facts to an extreme degree by attributing the general conversion of India to the activity of a handful of missionaries sent out by Moggaliputtatissa and by giving that memorable event the exact date of 236 after the Nirvar:ta . 3 yol. GROUSSE'T. the erection of many " Sintt it is impouibk: to go into minute detail over the racts. Sir 10HN MAUHA LL and A . 1940 .. FOOCHU. BuddhiJI Arl in IndiQ. P... . the Good Law became somewhat like an oil slick. though not in detail. 1. I . CAITYA AND VlHARAII7 . 2nd ed. 1933 . ROWLAND. V.rlco-bouddh~ du GrmdJuj. 1929. London.K . T~ Arl ad Archilccturc of lMiQ ./es tk I'INk.. gradually approaching all the regions of the sub-continent and extending as far as Ceylon . 1949. FuOUSSON . Ttuilu . Ollrord. CArl . 1927. BllddJlu t and Hilldu. A. 2 voL. Archaeology provides ample traces of this triumphal march. G . Kausambi. Needless to say. CooMAu!wAIoIY .ris. Fi~ 1'housaItd Ycors of Pakistall. BACHHOfU. Paris. Indiml Architecturc. 2nd ed. the Good Law. KUIolIU5CK. L 'lNit. J . Bombay. initiated from the outset. London. . Conclusions. continued with varying success for the first two centuries of the Nirval)a and reached its peak during the ASokan epoch. Emly Inmon SaJlplure.nd til. WHFFlfJ . Arts tf St). During all that time. Ujjayini and Mathura. L 'lntk el "Ori~1 dcw~ . Cakunl>. promoted wherever it went. kutla. L. 1936.u.. London.. VOGEL. HiJtory of IMiall and Lutcrtf Archilecturc. 19SI . 1937. Indion Sculplure. 340 2. should not be underestimated. One can deduce.

the origins of which go back to pre-Buddhist times. pp. Set A. sacred texts. !is. The stiipa of the ancient type" which is a characteristic of the Mauryan and Sunga period is a solid hemispherical dome (~4a) constructed of brick or stone. I.. and al Chakpat. characterized by the hemispherical shape of the dome. The stupa. nail clippings./alqiIJiipolha)· which is reached by one or several stairways (sopdna). It usually contains a precious casket in which are preserved the bodily relics of the Buddha or of his disciples (bones. from the centre of which rises the stiipa. or again.).( J. It is generally erected on a site made famous by a wonderous or an unusual event which had occurred during the last life or the previous existences of the Master and his disciples. The stiipa is generally surrounded at a certain distance by a balustrade (vedikti) made of wood or stone: it consists of a series of upright posts (slambha). The balustrade is breached at the four cardinal points by a tall gateway (.). CAITYA AND VIHARA 311 Buddhist memorials : funerary monuments (SIUpo). etc. .40-)42 ) STOPA.or~a) consisting of two vertical jamb-posts topped with a capital and supporting three architraves of horizontal lintels separated into three partitions by dies or square panels placed in the prolongation of the jamb-posts. staff. occupies the place and plays the part of a sbrine.. 51. is both a monumental reliquary and a commemorative monument. FouCHEJ. pp. cells (llihiira) and monasteries (stvrlghiiriinw) . etc. a cenfury later. to a certain degree. whose memory was to be perpetuated. by means of tenons and mortises. 4S·98. resting on a circular terrace (medhi) :WI serving as a processional circular path (prar.r~iSa).!1) supporting a series of parasols (ehauriillafi). 59. 56. objects which had been for their personal use (clothing. :W2 The original plan of the sHipa. by a coating of stone. is best recognized in the Great Stiipa at Sifici (BhopiJ State) which was built of brick at the time of A. It is divided into a central nave and two laleral aisles by a double row of . The cailyagrha is a sanctuary where the stiipa. Art grktrbouddhiqw. at the top by a coping (u." . It thus helps to situate in space and. in time the Buddhist legend which crystallized around it. joined at the base by a plinth (alambana).Representations oCtile atiipas al Minikyila.soka but overlaid. into which are inserted. The stiipa is sunnounted by a square pavilion (harmikti) on which was fixed a pole (Ya. It is also to be found in the small stiipa at Chakpat (Swat Valley) and the great stupa at Manikyala in the Punjab. sanctuaries (eailyagrha). hair. In its developed form. the caityagrha is a rectangular hall with an apse at one end. two or three horizontal crosspieces (siicl). p. which then acquires the name of caitya or digaba (reliquary). alms-bowl.

The entrance which faces the sti. However.. Stiipa I. Such sanctuaries date back to Sliki. Sonant etc. apart from a few exceptions. very remote times. and the foundations of ruined caityagrhas discovered at Sino. but the term can also . the sanctuaries which still exist at present were cut into the rock at a later date and modelled on the ancient wooden constructions. The main nave is covered by a semi<ircular vault.ipa is pierced by an enormous horseshoeshaped opening.ade and is intended to supply the building with air and light. Samith. personal appartment ofa single mo nk". and the side aisles with a section of vault. In the early literature. viwa always or nearly always designated "the dwelling. which dominates the whole fac.312 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 342) pillars which join up behind the stupa . probably belong to the ASokan era.

!. 1942-47 .• 19JO. so rar appeared. GH05H. Olford. CaJculta. by J . those of Baribar and Nciprjuni which belonged to the Ajivikas. pp. STEIN. 2J vol. R.D.zsfauil/ts tk Ha#a . VOOEL. - The archaeological exploration 100 •• Reprdin8 vihiru and 5&fJlghirimas.ault tk I'INk.zJ Qllliquilb bouddII~s rk 8amiydn. In Ihe AIIIIJIaI/Wpons there is a record of research tarried 0111 in the Nonh·Wcst of India.. 2 yol . 4-28. it is best to consult the Mtmoin of 1M Arcl!DeologicoJ Sun~y of Ct ylon. ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION. and even... 1946. 1M Wonrkr 11101 ww" India.~s Ii /J4miydn.. 1950. J. 16th ed. Burma 0IId CtylOlf. BMHAM. HACI. 1939.. London. India. 1942 . MAUH. C. J. the admirable discoveries of !he: Delegalion archColopqut fra~se ctI Af". L. The Annual /Wporu are al flrnent conlinuin& with the periodical Ancitnl India . 1928 . 1887 . . LA V~i/It . A large number of these caves still exist today. II yol . Built along the same lines as private houses. Paris. If they were joined together. The elccllmt Aruiquilits of Ind/Q by L.it:aI Surwy of IndiD . DEvoID.( 342·343) ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION 313 be applied to the abode of a deity. B. R. when the nature of the ground was suitable. 187 1· 87.. HOI/wilts r«h. A. BAJJaTI. O . MtrflQirJ of 1M ArdlD~olOficai SurYey of India .O!I. they generally appeared as a square construction made up of four rows of cells arranged along the four walls and opening onto an inner hall. Ht pl!loJiftJ. PaJculQII . J. hwoJing Indio's PW"/. 99· 20L '00 On Ancient Indl.ll . de SaclrtJ Ii Taxild . tbe building was made entirely of stone or brick. Every Buddhist monastery of any importance necessarily contained a stiipa or a caitya. The work ca rried out by the Slirvey has appeared in Arclwtoalogica1 Surwy 0/ Indio.D and I . The vihara is therefore both cell and temple. and lbe archacologi<:al SlUMLIries published annually in lbe CtJ'lon . Later. SwrTH. pp. 1957. 1936. carved into the rock. C. Fifly YtaTS of 1M ArclwtooiogicaJ Surwy of India . the oldest..atioD in Murrays HQlldbooic. !. G HaSKMAN. 29· 51. S. SPOOr. CiramiqW tk Baclrts. 1954. pp.EA · VES and A. convents or monasteries 99 . !. is now replaced by A. brier Pili precise infonn. Con lrwuliOllJ d filwlt de f tul thl GOIIdJuira : Bibliograplrit llIIDIyliqut tl criliqlllt des ouvrOlts fNbIjjJ de 1921 Ii 1949. GooAJ. 1933. T.. 1946-55. 1949.. new imptriaJ u ritJ. and the SptciaJ Jubillt Humbn of the journal Andtnl IndiD . 1913. 1874-1939. CAAL. H"CUN and J. HACON. H"CUN and J. D. A .trcMs tuchiol". these monasteries were generally built of wood on a stylobate of 30 stone or brick . J.tckrcMS archiaiagiqws tf hUlOriqws sur Its Kouchmu.aniltan haye bem the subjecl of a series of"Mbnoires" : A. J . London.zs ChJonil~s. Calculta and Simla. H. HAa. London. Colombo. SholOrDk . 1939. A. from 191 9. Cak\llta.. FOUCHEll.H . London. 1953 .tcMrcMJ tuclliologiquts au col rk Khair·~II. vihiras became sOJ?1ghtirama. IX. Ardllul". 1M Ltgacy of llIdia. IndiDl1 ArcJuuology from JantS 10 MtusJtaJl (1784-1 902). 53 yol. Rov.UlL. R. 2 yoL. date back to the time ASoka or his successor DaSaratha. JAADlN. Bulltlin of 1M Arcl!Deologicaf Surwy of Indiu. &gram. GAQATI. BARTltOUx.lN".P. see 10. MruNIt. wilh a general index by V. 1948."ER. 1. between 1902 and 1921. the superstructure of which might be supported by pillars.U1. The work tarried OIIt by the Archaeological Survey of India is brilliantly summarized in Sir JOHN CtrtotING. · For Ceylon. since 1924. h cMrcMS tuchlologiqwl Ii Blgram. ANfIlal kpom. In the ancient period. J. 1937. From 1922. wil/.

.D. in particular carefully distinguishes between buildings of the older type and those that are more recent He designates the early slijpas by the generic name of . not because they were all constructed by the pious emperor.OU . . extremely conve· nient lists of inscriptions : Vol. since the ancient constructions were frequently altered or replaced by new ones.i. as well as in the AMuaI Bibliography of Indian ArdllJtolOfY published by the Kern Institute in Lriden l ince 1926. l.II (part I) : S.. XIX If : D. EpigraphiIJ Indica published. enables us to ronn an 344 idea of the expansion of the Good Law on the Indian subcontinent However. . A series of journals is specialized in the publication of inscriptions : Epigr<lphia IIId~u.. HSUan tsang. ul.Hokan stiipa. BwNDAltKAJ. Rangoon. 1947. Soulh IlIdiml bu~ripli<ms.III : J. A LUt 0/ lrucriplions /rom Soullttr" IlIdiafrom about A . fLlET. since 1904. V and VIII : F. Calcutta. X : H. VII and VIII :F. KONOW. the Corpt<S InscriptiOltumltulicaTWlt progreues with desperate 510wncss : I : E. enables them to be linked to the Mauryan period or al least to that of the Sungas which immediately followed it. 200. as an appendix \0 some of iu volumes.Vol.IV . EpigrophiQ ClUNllicu . s. particularly Fa hsien (399-413). we will attempt a sketch of Buddhist India in the ancient era.D . Colombo. Madras. TM SiWpa in Ctyloft.. Sung Yun (518522) and Hst1an tsang (629-645) enables us to remedy this deficiency to some extenl. During his travels in India. Founded in 1874. #00. Calcutta. the Chinese master noted more than a hundred of them. ... J(){). R. Inscriptions of AJo. since 1924. characterized by the solid hemispherical dome. The description of tbe holy places supplied by the Chinese pilgrims. 19S5. V.Vol. By basing ourselves on this account..D. MIAASHl.I:a. since 1916. KIELJfOAN. BKA!oIDAltItAlt in preparation). Among the Mt"'oirs. · .CMdi £Ta. Epigruphia ZtylOllicu.nce 1886. since 1890 . Oxford.. he records its special intended purpose and the particular reasons that determined its erection. but because their archaic style. we point ou t No. . P"lZVLUKt and M. several of which were already in 34$ ruins : in each case. successively examining the lands of the Middle Ganges already evangelized by JO llrNlI of Sc:i~~f!.. R.. A Ust oJ11tt Inscriptions of Nortlttnt India in ' BrO/uni and iu ~rivatil't Scripu from abowt A . The innumerable articles on Indian antiquities which have apPearrd in Orientalist journals have been cla5$ific:d and enumera!cd in the Bihliogrophk bouddiriqwc:dited in Paris since 1928 by J. V : S. F. . The date of the first foundation is most often beyond the perspicacity of the research-workers. Oo\. V.aal. dating the monuments is a lask bristling with difficulties.Vol. lOoEu. 1888 (new edition by O.mund. Oxford. A LUI of Br4llmi Inscriptions from 1M Eorfwst T~J to aboul A . hucriptions of tltt Early Gupta Kings OIld tlrtir SWCctMOr$.. which is often confirmed by archaeological discoveries. A LiJI of 1M Inscripli(JIIJ of NOr/Mr" India from about A . 192$. Ep'8ruphia Bimttufica.ncc 1907 . Cakuna.314 THE MAURYAN PERJOD ( )43-345) of these monuments. 400. KlIaroUhi Inscriptions. lince 1892 . PU"O"' VTU.D. KlELHORN. Calcutta. which is still going on today. 1929. Bangalorc. . HULTZ5CH.N .. Inscriptions of IItt Kalac/ru. £pig raphiIJ indo-mosltmicu . .

the eastern coast where its first successes were on a somewhat modest scale I 0 I. had granted the villagers a reduction in taxation. 306-38. 93. /M Bir/h-p/oct of Buddlul. I. on that occasion. On the outskirts _ Kapilavastu. an ASokan stupa marked the spot where two dragons bathed the newborn Buddha with wann and cold water. the districts of Avanti and the western coast which the historical Buddha did not visit.III the aocoUllt of the B. 1. two legends were conflUeCl : one aa:ordin8 to which the B.n. sec S. IOJ B. C. F.. . pp. the region of Kausambi which also plays a direct part in the history of the origin of Buddhism. which still stands in situ today. jealously guarded by Nigas (elephants according to the Sind tradition. I. finally. was the authentic cradle of Buddhism and remained its supreme holy land from the outset until the disappearance of the Good Law around the twelfth century. indicating that the emperor had made a pilgrimage io Sakyamuni's birthplace and. For a brief description.( 34S· 346 ) ARCHAEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION 315 Sakyamuni and his disciples. It was the birthplace of Sikyamuni l O1 and his great disciples and witness to their deeds. SENciUPTA. but which soon took up the religion . IHQ. lhuJdhism in /N C/IWit(l/ Agt /U ftl't(litd by Afc~OfY. was born in Kapilavaslu and lhe other which places ' the birth in the Lumbinivana . Magadha.. Kosala. An Asokan pillar could be seen there. the area of Mathuri. J46 . central India and the brahmanic Madhyadeia where the propaganda of the Sakya's sons had no effect . the base of the early masters of the Law. Vtii and Malia peoples. in the Lumbinivana. the region of Ramagrama had been the setting for several episodes of the Great Departure.. '5 birtb by Aivagh~ in Buddhacarila. 1940. ZDMG. Further to the east. lay on the ground . enclosed some venerable relics of the Buddha. 19S6. present-day of Rununindei. THE LANDS OF THE MIDDLE GANGES. Sdwvpialt WIld HOIIdIUIIg im /JuddJractUi/(I. topped by a horse's head. the lower part. pp.umbinf. which was the homeland of the Sakya. but later they ceded some of them to Mahinda: . JBHU. so it had no need to seek for further glory. cr. serpent-spirits according to that of Amarivati). Seven of the eight main wonders accepted by the tradition were staged in the region of th'e Middle Ganges. WEU.This region.0. the pillar was brok~n in the middle and the upper part. Its old stupa. . v. BHATUCILUYA. 179-210. pp. XXXII. 1939. 71-8. At the time of Hsuan tsang. the North-West of India which was promoted in the Mauryan period to the rank of the second holy land of Buddhism . carries the edict of Rummindei. The Nigas refused to give them to Asoka when the latter wanted to take possession of them.

Vit till BOIlddhD . seems to dominate the whole construction.Uw. who visited it in 635 A. Coo/r.316 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( J46. In its present form. Later. pp. M. to the east of the bodhivfk~ .K. Paris.) in fact show the holy tree and the diamond seat closely enclosed by a solid wall surmounted by a wooden gallery.enment. foucher. Finally. In the eleventh year.C. in the open air. the assault by Mara.. and at each of the four comers a similar tower of lesser size. VI. the temple was rebuilt several times. 1935 ..an attempt which occurred in the thirty-fourth year of the reign . K . 939-944). and had an enclosure buill surrounding the tree on all four sides. the encounter with the grass-culter. by Bunnese Buddhists.the second century according to A. Hsuan tsang. 1931. Gay6 attd BwIdM·Gayd. ASoka went there on pilgrimage several times. 175-8. p. In a later era . goes back to 1884. the Mahabodhi temple consists of a platform 8 metres in height supporting a 54 metre high truncated pyramid at the centre. supplies a fairly detailed description of it (T 2087. and the weeks devoted to meditation. The bas-reliefs at Bhiirhut and sand (second and first centuries B. watered by the Nairaiijana. The last restoration to date. sisters-in-law of the kings Indragnimitra and Brahmamilra of the Sunga dynasty (LOOERS. Lo sculpllUt dt &dh-Gayd. pp. traces of which were still visible in Hsuan tsang's time. the night of Bodhi.)... A.D.. commemorating the gifts made to the Rijaprisadacaitya by Kurarpgi and Nagadeva. 10 . Coomaraswamy. ch. The towers are sunnounted by a tall pinnacle in the form of a myrobalan (dina/aka) which originally represented a small stupa.. the emperor erected round the original sanctuary an external enclosure made of stone or brick.urY. retained the memory of the great wonders which accompanied the winning of Enlightenment: the ascent of Mount Pnigbodhi. 915c sq.ofhis consecration. The sides of the pyramid have superimposed 8 . the tree-top. Old i1uddJUJt SII'~s at Bod/!-Gayii. but also transformated. he made a vow to sprinkle the bodhivrk~ with perfumed water contained in four thousand precious pitchers. he climbed on to the wall in order to perform the ceremony..C. after the impious Ti~yarak~ita's attack on the holy tree . the installation of the place of Enlight.IAR. part of the palisade which surrounds it dates back to the second century B. Cakulta. 19J().347) The region of Gaya lOl .uu. J\Soka also built a small caitya on the exact spot where the great Mahibodhi temple stands today . B. Sacked and pillaged by Muslims in the last years of the twelfth century. IHQ. 1·31 . the fifth or sixth 347 century according to the majority of archaeologists . . the small Asokan caitya was replaced by a large temple. 8. for inscriptions can still be read on the oldest pillars. carried out through the good offices of the Government.

( 347. also called the Alighting place of the Recluses (~ipatana). 1937. they can be divided into four groups depending on whether they belong to the Mauryan period. . were offered. }48) THE LANDS Of THE MIDDLE GANGES 317 rows of niches which originally sheltered Buddhist images. Calcuua. a common ornament in Indian temples. however. those of Sudama and Lomas Rishi.D. in the Baribar Hills. from west to east. The oldest of them occupy the southern part of the site. the faf?de of the Lomas Rishi faithfully reproduces in rock the architectural forms of the ancient wooden structures. are the artificial caves which were presented to the AJivikas by a lija Piyadassi who is considered to be ASoka. to the twelf\h century A. and situated in the district of Samith. four projections intended for chapels and a portico gave the monument the appearance of a Greek cross . Delhi.· The structure has undergone many transfonnations in the course of time.the Law in motion and preached the noble truths to the companions who practised the austerities with him and who were also his first five disciples. The faf?de is breached by an opening for the admission of air and light. in the Deer Park (Mrgadiva).R. to the south of a monumental wall which. marks the spot where the personal cell of the Buddha stood in the past. 8 . Vahiyaki and Vadathiki. The entry· porch. S m. • 0-0 . the grandson of ASoka (LOoERS. the most famous.C. 5th cd.mith 10" have 343 brought to light a number of Buddhist ruins which cover a little more than fifteen centuries. in the Nigarjuni Hills. At the time of Hsuan tsang. is to the east. it was 200 feet high and was surmounted by a myrobalan (timalaka) made of gold. The excavations at Si. MAJUMDoU. from the third century B. of more recent date than the rest of the monument. by Da~latha Devanarppiya. It was in Viri~a si (Banaras). other caves known as Gopiki. finally. 40 in height . Slightly further to the east. The temple of the "Original Perfumed Cell" (Miilagandhaku!l'·' known today by the name of Main Shrine. the K~r::aa period. SAHNl.. a. later ages.. six}kilometres to the north of the town. 954-956). Twenty·five kilometres to the north of Gayi. separates the holy place into two equal parts. also to the AJivikas. the Gupta period or. consist of a rectangular hall communicating by a narrow corridor with a circular room. the right of the Buddhists to practice their own worship is officially recognized. The temple today possesses a monastery belonging to Sivaite Hindu religious (s/l1!VIyasin) who settled there at the end of the sixteenth century. Guidr 10 Buddhisl lUmoilu at S4rn4/Ir .lI . that the Buddha set the Wheel ot . A Guidt 10 sarna. 1933. D. excavations have unearthed an 18 metre square terrace.

horse. Sankissa and SiiiiCll. Tokyo. in the fifth and sixth centuries. SHAJ. a zebu and a horse. the pillar at Siirniith was polished like jade and shone with a dazzling light. Rampurva. Nipli Siigar).1a. It was at one time a monolith made of sandstone extracted from the Chunar quarries and was about ) S m. To the west of the Main Shrine. pp. 1937. N. The capital which crowned this pillar in the past and which is rightly considered as a masterpiece of Indian art now adorns the Museum of samith . J. 1936.rur fArI b. G . breached by doors at the four . elephant. T~ SoIM Wh«1 al Sdmtilh. see A. Allahiibad-Kosam. 1928 . it was overlaid with a coating of bricks. there still stands the lower part of the pillar at Sarnath erected by ASoka on the exact spot where the Buddha preached his first sennon 105. In the words of Hsuan tsang. engraved at very wide intervals : the edict of Simath promulgated by Asoka against the schismatics. an epigraph from the K~J.MA. it was surrounded. po. 481 ·98. II. This doubtless concerns the present-day ruins of the Dharmarajika stupa. V.318 TIlE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 348· 349) b. pp. ck SQNilh. 40-1. a certain number of which were surmounted by one or several animals : lion. Melanges Linossier. Symbology of I~ AJoka Pillor. Th~ Lion Copilal of I~ Pilla. ASoka built it of long flat bricks with a diameter of 13 m. 16G-3. Comts. it bore various designs which could provide presages. the ruins of which still rise 100 feet above the ground". t'uMJ . pp.ZYLUSKJ. This monument occupies the foremost place among many Hi~s erected by ASoka : pillars bearing edicts (Delhi-Toprii. pp. a short votive offering in Gupta characters. AJoiea 01 sa"tDlh .Of On the significance of this pillar. Hsuan tsang also mentions.la period dated the 14th year of King Asvagho~ and. B. in very deep relief.uuwOAa. FooCHD. I. uninscribed pillars (Rampurva. PJ. Lauriya-Nandagarh. lISOA. c. sunnounted by an entablature with a frieze on which are sculpted . a zebu and a lion . Ie.an elephant. 45-$1 . ~ Jymbol~ du pU~. by a processional circular path (pradalqilJ4patha) bordered on the outside by a solid wall. Garu<. rk I"ImIt .each separated by as many Wheels of the law . 2·6. It consists of a reversed bell-shaped lotus. NOI~ "" f~ Pillar al SdmDlh . •• . PazYLlIS1l. four animals . It bears three inscriptions. M. finally. Laurlya-Araraj. pp. Delhi-Mira~h. but the structure underwent many enlargements afterwards : in the K~l)a period. lISOA. of smaller size than the previous ones . BasarhBakhira and Kosam). 50 at the base. built by ASoka. which together carried an enormous Wheel of the law which has disappeared today. high. IV. to the south-west of the Main Shrine. zebu. B. Sdm4lh . II . pillars with a dedicatory inscription (Rummindei. the top of the capital is occupied by four lions or rather four foreparts of lions standing back 349 to back. a horse. "an old stupa. J..

MI-S3. Although it is true that the area has really been hallowed by the presenu:: of Sakyamuni. commemorating wonders or conversions. Vara'Q. at Papa or Piiva (Padrauna) and at Kusiniira or I" t . Archaeologists believe they now possess the pavilion or harmiku which crowned the Dhannarajikastupa in Mauryan times. contained niches and were decorated with arabesques and geometrical designs. the dynastic name of the kings of Viiri'Q. UX. UWOTTE. in diameter and 43 m. So that is how the story of the Tittira or Pheasant. the finish and care or workmanship betray its ancient ongm.asi.• reproducing the rormula or the Buddhist creed has been discovered in the roundations. according to the experts. Oertel discovered it practically intact in the subroundation or the south chapel or the Main Shrine. and rour stairways or sill steps each gave access to the stupa. a great number of which date back to the reign of Brahmadatta. the legend also located several episode!! of his fonner lives there. The balustrade is devoid or any sculpture but. and to the top by a coping (&L. . when Kumaradevi. in the seventh century. Nigrodharnigaand Sasajatakas.!'~i. However. it was doubtless added to the building at a later date. sometimes presented as an apologue and sometimes as a jataka. which are badly damaged.. Mutton. appears in the six Vinayas which have come down to us IOO • To judge from the Pali 1iitaka commentary.asi played a part or prime importance in the fonnation or the Buddhist legends. M.D . In Malia country.~ duJaiJqn dDns Iu It:CltJ bouJdhiqueJ. the last enlargement dates rrom the twelrth century.sQ). It is a monolithic balustrade with rour sides. queen or Kanauj. d. 1946.asi. it was in the North-West of India that most of the Bodhisattva's achievements in his fonner lives were to be located. the pilgrims also noted several Asokan stupas and pillars. each one consisting or rOUt uprights (slambha) joined by three cross-pieces (sUel) and fixed to the base by a plinth (iilumbana). the present-day structure 350 has the rorm or an octagonal tower 28 m. the original core also dates back to an ancient period. pp..ta) .( 349-3SO) THE LANDS OF THE MIDDLE GANGES 319 cardinal points . the sides. especially the ~4dhanta. particularly in the district or Yuddhapati situated immediately to the east. However. In the neighbourhood or Vara'Q. high . erected in the northern part or the site a monastery which was given the name or Dhannacakrajinavihara. A panel inscribed in characters dating rrom the sixth and seventh centuries A. Tittira-. The south-east or the site is occupied by the Dhamek Stupa or stupa or the "Consideration or the Law" (dharmelf. whieh are among the most renowned in the collection. this circular path was filled in. lA roIlduil~ r~Ii.

on the other hand. and that each of them erected a stiipa over the share that fell to them. The Parinirva~acaitya has yielded seals made of unfired clay most of which represent the Wheel between two aotelopes.e. the ruins of the stiipa built by the Sakyas over their part of the relics . recall how the intoxicated Niga.s 0/8udtDto. 513 sq. Vaisali (Basarh in the district of Muzaffar. it. MONUI~'WS ill Alfcwnt lNiUl . In January 1898. pp. Mr Peppe discovered in the Nepalese village of Pipriiwi. 931)1 00. Carlyle . a . 'Dt J. SWIm. 1906-1. ASokan stilpas and pillars marked the sites of the last meal at CU1)4a's house. Uttar Pradesh). 49. made by Dinna" (FLFEf.D. together with his sisters. . their sons and wives (LOnERS.~fjc. JCBRAS. to the east of Gorakhpur). In Rijagrha. 1950. and also a copper urn sealed by an inscribed plate (text of the pratftyasamutpiida in Skt). excavations have brought to light a soapstone pitcher. the latter buried under the Ramabar mound. lying with his head to the north. specifying that it had been placed in the Parinirvil)acaitya. VOGEL. an ASokan Shipa and an inscribed pillar. p.) and a " pious gift by Mahivihirasvimin Hari351 bala. the Parinirval)acaitya erected near the grOve of Salas where the Buddha deceased. •• W. particularly Rajagrha (Riijgir in the district of Palna. the Parinirval)3 and the Distribution of the Relics. 272)101. Three secondary wonders also had as their setting the region of the Middle Ganges. and bear the seal of the "Mahiparinirvil)acaitya"IO. ~(Jis 0/8. 7h PipToIJ_ SlilpG. Bihar) and Snivasti (sahe~h · Mahe~h in the districts of Gonda and Bahraich.A . 56 km . 21· J 5. sunnounted by an elephant. Niligiri or Dhanapila.C. PEPI't and V. The image was discovered and restored by A. have not yet been brought to light . The great slilpas of the Parinirval). in Bihar). has been catalogued : the DivyOddna (p. It is known that after the decease of the Buddha his relics were divided among eight States. 1198. JRAS. . and it housed a statue of the Tathagata in Nirval)3. 394) attributes the founding of this cailya to Asoka. including the Sakyas of Kapilavastu. NHlfaillillg . p.3 and the Distribution of the Relics. the lid of which bears a circular inscription in preASokan Brahmi script which said : "This placing of the relics of the Blessed Lord Buddha (of the race) of the Sikyas is [the pious deed) of Sukiti and his brothers. it was still intact when Fa hsien and Hslian tsang visited. six miles north of Birdpur. it is a monolithic statue dating from the Gupta era (fifth century A. P. a statement which removes all doubt regarding the site of the monument commemorating the fourth Great Wonder.320 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( lS41-3SI ) Kusinagari (Kasia. 'D' . ARA«:hSufV. p.

R. 1938. pp. pp.(351-352) THE LANDS OF THE MIDDLE GANGES 321 'sent by Devadatta to attack the Buddha.1 F()lJCHU. after his victory over the six heretic masters. 1935. Magadha and Koilkana " •.ra/ Mlraclr 0/ ~r4Y(JSli. In Srivasti II J. ~ .. . LAw. 281-5. is represented by Sihe!h. tbe capital with five hilb. pp. the hennitage which the Buddha had received from the banker Anithapi~«. I In Palna. . it was on that spot that the Master had debated with the heretics. Silu In Mjgir aJSocilllrd "'ith /1uddJuJ and his DuciplrJ Buddha Jayanli bsue of JBRS. R4jag!NJ ill Anellnl Ulrralilu. ltknlijication 0 / _ old sitrs ill Mjd&!M. M. VariOUIi explorations carried out al Rijgir have e:xpoxd the hiJh rampan.. The Jetavana. .1 Tht ideolification of Srivuti with the twin villages of Sihe!h-Mihe!h dates back 10 Cunningham. as well as two fortresses. VII. 1939 .Iada. Calculta.the scuions of the first c:ouncil werc held. Sakyamum 'performed the twin wonders of water and fire and multiplied imaginary Buddhas as far as the Akanj~J. in the life of the Buddha. XV. Sec B. 184-20J . An ancient stupa also stood by the well which supplied the Tathigata with water. narrated in detail by the Sanskrit sources. 19S6. only two siles havc been 5)'5lcmalicaUy clCIvatcd : Kumrihir and Bulandibi&h. pp. at the Markatahradatira. Sind and Gandhira I l l . among other curiosities. 1924-. sixty feet high and containing a statue of the seated Buddha.. The Chinese master also notes. GHOSH. N. 289·93. ~"h(JSli in Indian Ulrra/llu . 191 3-. M . 81 sq. in The 8eginninl5 of B. Sol. p. Delhi. which is sometimes located in Srivasti. Art.Map of Vaiiili in S. 1951. '" On the identiJicalion ofVaiii!i· Basirb. these appear on sculptures and paintings at Bhirhut. p. 11 i5 believed that idenlification has been made of the Grdhrakiitaparvata " Vulture-Peak Mountain". and $rivasti proper by Mihc:!h. 1917. GtK:I5H. given 10 the B. p. similar constructions commemorated the digging of the pool by monkeys and the offering of honey to the Buddha. by Anithapi~da. the latter episode. this prodigy. pp. and of lhe Saptapa'11iguhi.ha heaven. • fortified lown. . 1949. FOOCHU. a relreal dear 10 Mahikuyapa.C. had been subdued by the Master's benevolence. is also noted in the Pili sources which nevertheless neglect its most characteristic features.ibt:s of Ane~t India. Ancient India. pp. LAw. 1903-04. appears on bas-reliefs at Bhirhut. 25 miks in circwnferencc. however. c. LAw. J52 h. Simith. which surround~ thc town. the cave w . ~ S. D. Delhi. Pan. 1M G.c. Delhi. 98 sq. 11 < A. present-day Patna I I ' . of the PipphaJivana. Aja"-li. A GIlUk 10 Rdjrir.. Vk'du /JouddJID . two ASokan pillars flanking the eastern door of the Jetavana. Pi~liputra. Kuutslfl and A. 6S-80 . ARAn:hSurv. Mjgir 1950. The excavations have brouJht to light a "pillared hall" of the Mauryan "0 . the importance of which the Buddha We saw above the part played by Rijal!:h. 67).H. the pillars were sUfmounted by a sculpted wheel and an ox respectively..vuMDAa.. 66-78 (with a detailed plan of the town and its hiUs.C. JASS.14. Gandhira.aocordinJ 10 certain sources . Sonw IqDtriya T. In Vaisili' II. Hsiian tsang mentions a caitya.c. A. Vit du 8oudd1ta.i. and had knelt at his feet 110. 136--58.

Among the territories which were Buddhist from the outset must be classed Kaus. Several ancient monuments were to be found there : a Dhannarajikastupa enclosing a bushel of miraculous relics. LXIV. GHOSH. CKA\lDIflJ. a cave fitted out by Awka for the use of his brother Mahendra and. The monks of Kausambi were considered violent and quarrelsome. the exact site of which has rc:cently been established by an inscription I I ' . Delhi. 19B. had become the capital of Magadha as early as the reign of Udayin. and the centre of the Mauryan empire. Kukku!iriima. B.rocyavihira "Monaslcfy oftM sick". the villages of Kalapinaka and Kolika possessed stiipas commemorating the birth and decease of the two great disciples. ".322 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( lSl·lS4) lH predicted. Pavarikambavana.cavations. an inscribed pillar commemorating the gift of Jambudvipa to the Buddhist community. PdrtJIiputr" . :WO-SI. KAUSAMBf. to which the Seleucids and Lagids sent their ambassadors.iu ImptNltIIIU ill IN HUIOl'y of BuddIIism. as is evident from a tel'Tll (lOll' seal discovered ill silu. IX. 1956. 2. IHQ. AtIahlbid. LAw.. This resulted in a schism which the Buddha attempted in vain to appease. ioductin.. When he saw his efforts at conciliation were repulsed with haughtiness. which was destined to become a great university centre in the Gupta period. Photograph of the site in Ancient India. a quarrel provoked by some futile motive brought dogmatists (dhml7li1dhara) and moralists (vinayadhara) into conflict. 1935. he withdrew to the nearby forest of 3S4 Parileyyaka where he found the company of solitary elephants preferable to that of feuding monks. in the district of Allahabad. XXXII. Already during the Buddha's lifetime. Sakya.ambi. On recent c. Emly HUIOl'y of Kmddmbf. IX. the ASokirima erected by the emperor on the site of the Kulcku~irama. 19S3. pl. staying in tum at the aramas placed at his disposal by rich notables of the town : Siqlsapivana. LXV. who saw the inscription. KmdDmbf in AII(kllt LiltfDllII"t. period and various monastic establishments. B. pp. the Vatsa capital. pl. ". N . it was in direct contact with Mathura and Ujjayini to the west and Pii~aliputra to the east.!st hillOry. a small shelter protecting the stone on which the Buddha had left his footprints. Badarikinima and especially the Ghositarama. . . were no doubt the: dupes of their ciceTones who could already no longer read the ASokan characters. finally.an A. Siriputra and Maudgalyayana. On the part played by the town in Buddb.. see Ancientlnc:lia.. muni paid lo ng and frequent visits to it. An important centre of communications. Uttar Pradesh 1l6 . but who did not want to stop short and admit their ignorance. See N . In the neighbourhood of Nalanda. C. Fa hsien and HSUan tsang. 1939. present-day Kosam on the Yamuna.

Pi1J. forbade him to enter Nirva-r:ta before the end of time. of Sarvastivadin origin. However. they built statues to him and regularly invited him to share the meal at the 3SS monastery : his place was reserved at the table and an empty seat and a bowl were set out for him I 19 . 'U . While waiting for his deliverance. the king of the Vatsas. ltv. From the end of the fifth century. The story of this person is unique in Buddhism. III. where he continued to teach the Law and make conversions. one day a notable of IUjagrha organized a tournament of magic. p. pp. continuing his walk in the air: went round the town three times. later Sixteen Arhats.lola retired to Apara Godiniya or to Mount Gandhamadana. Pi-r:tc. at the sovereign's request. Dh. 204-75. he suspended a bowl made of sandalwood and specified that whoever could remove it would become its owner..{354-3SS } KA USAMBT 323 Mention has already been made of Udayana.lola was unable to resist the offer. On aU these IeJends. but he was put on a diet· by the Buddha. Pir:tc. he described the beauty or the Tathagata whose disciple he had been. presented it to him. grasped the wooden bowl and. UI Nizt ArltD" prDftr:'~1 tit 10 Loi. as they called him . The Chinese communities adopted this "Holy Monk". 110 .c. The son of Udayana's chaplain. making use of his supernatural powers. He welcomed invitations with good grace it is thus that he appeared to ASoka. see S.lola Bharadvija devoured by red ants. JA.lola severely for having used his supernormal powen in public without any worthwhile motive III. II. but they are so well attested by the Vinay. This Buddhist equivalent of the Wandering Jew would quite naturally have his place: in the group of the Four.lora entered the order with the secret hope of assuaging his gluttony. he rose into the air.mmapac.. in the form of an old man with white hair and eyebrows so long that they hung over his brow and hid his eyes. The Buddha censured Pir:tc. 201 sq. having filled it with exquisite nutriment. The notable then took the bowl from the venerable one's hands and. He did Dot look very favourably on the sympathy with which his women surrounded Ananda. more famous for his amorous adventures than his Buddhist piety. p. He even attempted to have the Arhat Pil:u. from the top of a long perch. Some late sources. There has been some speculation as to whether the legends concerning KauSimbi are not later inventions. to the extent of removing their own garments in order to make a gift to the holy disciple. assert that the Buddha. in order to punish the Arhat's frivolity and gJuttony. and finally overcame his pangs of hunger and attained Arhatship..b Cornm. ". who are supposed to protect the Law until the coming of Maitreya. 1916.

BIl1SllZ0. was the seat of one of the four great monarchies and was ruled by the violent Cal).At the time of the Buddha. III. .lada. It was at them that he directed his edict of Kosam. which date back to an ancient tradition.just as fanciful . 337) form separate chapters. See above . The Miilasarvastivadins oppose this legend with another.· Although the community momentarily flourished to such a degree as to occupy some ten monasteries. 320) and the Kosombakkhandas (Vin. 1S6 3. will disintegrate and the Lamp of the Law will go out I l l . III p."a Pradyota. The area contained only a small number of believers. The two main towns were Uijayini in the north and Mahi~­ mati in the south. On the other hand. or again to Bimbisara. both masters will meet their death in this conflict. deprived of its leaders. Nimar and the regions neighbouring on Madhya Pradesh. 210. . 19&. At the beginning. ASoka had a two-hundred foot high stiipa erected in KauSambi on the site of the Gho~ilirama but. just as the Buddha. the community. what should be rejected as apocryphal is the fable in the terms of which the first image of the Buddha was supposedly made in Kausambi on the orders of Udayana. as it threatened with expulsion any monk or nun who provoked a schism in the Community. t. whom the Buddha had entrusted with the supervision of Maha Katyayana. A prophecy makes them responsible in advance for the future disappearance of the Good Law : internal quarrels will set the disciple of the last scholar.200. AVANTI AND THE WEST COAST. Si~yaka. the La Hooo. furthennore. when it consisted of only 300 members.324 THE MA U RYAN PERIOD (lS~3S6> Siitras and Vinayas of various schools that it would appear that this is not so. . The slackness of the Kausambians was a scandalous subject to the other religious. an. in conflict with the followers of Surata. the Kosambiya SuUas (Majjhima . pp. p. the last trustee of the monastic discipline. the territory of which corresponded roughly to modern Malwa. constitute a separate cycle in Buddhist literature : in the canonical collections. he came up against the intransigence of the local monks. The rescript was engraved on the pillar of Kosam which is at present to be found in Allahabad .irill. These legends. Avanti. it was practically impossible to assemble the ten monks required to perfonn valid ordinations . the king of Magadha 110. it was in full decline by the time the Chinese pilgrims arrived. It p. which attributes that same initiative to the banker Anathapil)<. and reproduced in Sravasti at the request of Prasenajit.

In any case. pp. Samanta. u. and it was there that he met and married the pious Devi who gave him two children. the author of the Jiiiillapraslhiina. the Good Law progressed notably.. annexed Avanti to his crown. which certain writers see as having originated precisely in Avanti.. Mahinda went to Avanti to greet his mother. ASoka was a viceroy in Avanti. with regard to the first two. their canonicity is recognized only by Bunnese Buddhists. . however.a or KacciiyanagandJraU1 . some exegetical works under the name of Mahikaccayana were in circulation : Pe!akopadesa and NettippakarOlJ. It seems that Mahikityiyana had composed a Pi Ie (Pi!aka) during the Buddha's lifetime in order to explain the Agamas of his Master. W. VI. Sisuniga. in the fifth century.ghamitta. Before his departure for the great island. who lived in the third century after the Nirval). He stayed for six months in the Dakkhil).8 was therefore sent to the Buddha in order to obtain certain derogations to the discipline and the Buddha. I. not to be confused with Mahikatyayaniputra. KacciiyanavyiikarOlJ. U1 In racl. and from then on. 35 . p. As he passed through Uiiayini.<Jay Bhilsa.(3S6-1S7) AVANT) AND THE WEST COAST 325 monastic rules laid down by the Blessed One appeared impractical in several respects. DipavaJ!Ul. and for one month in the Cetiyagiri at Vedisa (SkI. in 386 or 376 B. VidiSa). 8 sq. 14. d . lbe aUlhor or Ihis pmmar has lIolhin. Mahivarpsa. pali Lilf'rg/wr wnd Sprac"". pp.C. the future missionaries to Ceylon 114. present. and the 357 work was still in use in southern India 116. XII. pp. 6-9..igiri monastery. If that school has really existed. xm. Ill . Hslian tsang mentioned some ten 1U 1U 1H IIJ Vinaya.ii. Avanti was probably the centre of an exegetical and grammatical school which claimed to date back to Mahi Kity. to bathe regularly and to make use of hide coverings Ill. 188. 70-1Sec above. Vinaya. GOOD. according to tradition. 88 Arhats represented the province at the sessions in Vaisali. 299. Mahivarpsa.a . at the conftuenoe of the DeS and the Betwi us.C. it certainly inftuenced the literary fonnation of Pili. recognized the validity of an ordination conferred by a restricted chapter of five monks. as well as some grammatical ones. 189. who reigned in Magadha from 414 to 396 B.yana. Srol). Mahinda and Sarp. 1:5: XII. and authorized the religious in Avanti to wear thick shoes. aknowledging his reasons. at the time of Buddhaghosa. 25. In his youth. 194-8. p. the Buddha's great disciple.a. ill common wilh alba Malli KaociYlna or even wilh Ihe aUlhor or lhe Pe~ka and lbe Nelli . II.a Ko!ikarl).

Pyini. They fall naturally into four classes : stupas. 1939. ken in 1918 by M. 1944. D. 1be complex of the "Bhilsa Topes"':9 is situated in a mountainous region partly occupied by the village of Siiici. and near the town.. The c:tClvalions linden.C. 3 vol. UjjoylitT lit AlICklllllldw. The holy site contained within its walls some fifty Buddhist monuments.. Oepanmenl. uo J.326 TIiE MAURYAN PERIOD monasteries. Kakanadabo~a by the epigraphs of the Gupta period (10 . XII. Vidisa is now known by the name of Besnagar. All. A GuiM 10 &MM. Five important sites have been explored in the neighbourhood or Kak.. is perhaps that "Sanctuary Mountain" (Cetiyagiri) or "Mount Vedisa" (Vedisagiri). from the seventh century. 15. pp. the body of stupa 3. Delhi. 1919. 40 date from the Mauryan period. 3.• 842).. This was the native town of the missionaries to Ceylon. 404).dt . VI. Fouc HD. excluding the balustrade .ihmi in.D. 394.C. . • n A ..• 833. Siilci IlO• cal)ed Kaka~va . of IIIdimt A. on On U. d .scriJ> tions (MAJUWDAR.. pillar No. the ASoir:an pillar and the apsidal temple of construction No. The original (brick) core of the Great Stupa I . the body of stupa 2 and its sculpted balustrade (ca 125-100 B. p.. in Bhopal State. London. but with which modem archaeology was nonetheless acquainted at the beginning of the nineteenth century. finally. Calculla. stupas 4 and 6. i. MAASHALL Ind A. Mahinda and SaI'!lghamitta .i. XIV..• 6-9. at the time of ASoka. 396. The famous traveller says nothing about the extremely numerous Buddhist monuments with which the region was covered between the third century B. commemorative pillars (/DO. Glrde have brollahtto lisht an Aiokln stupa. temples (cailya) and monasteries (s~ghariima) . 18. LAw. and the eleventh century A.. where in ancient times the famous city of Vidisa. the most rccc:nt ones being from the eleventh century A . 834) and. 1M /lhTba TO/NJ.lior Al'(h.35 . it possessed a vihara at which Mahinda and his companions stayed for thirty days before their departure for Ceylon . built or quarry·nones witb a dressinl of bricks.u:taya by the old Br. the oldest of which possibly date back to the Mauryan period. 1936. 1rd ed. I.C. mentioned by the lSI Sinhalese chronicle (Dpv. a stupa on the sile where Asoka had built a " heU" .). sec D. 70-1). finally. a prison appointed on the model of the Buddhist hells. 1179. tbe lOp or whicb contained perfOnlled coins Ind pottery (flpnerlts . 14. CU . near Rhi1~ . Nll'olGHAM. the capital of eastern Malwi. Samanla.Dating from the Sunga period are the stone overlay and the great balustrade at ground level (unsculpted) of stupa I. I7b. 8ib1. MAIlSHALL. the majority in ruins In .. was to be found . 7. of the capital : l. Tk MOfI_IIU of Sdiklli. 25.e.D . Mhv . Gw. Bo~a-Sriparvata (10 .

. 70 from north to south . 70 high. or Great Stiipa of safici. and resting on a circular terrace (medhJ) 4 m. the sculptures of which constitute the most characteristic achievements of early Buddhist art. and support three rows of cross-pieces (Stie. and caryatids link the external side of the capitals to the first architrave. 346).C.OO)AR.). with a diameter of 32 m. 80 in height. date from " era of the Satavihana sovereigns the (60-17 B. 15 apart. At the beginning of the Andhra period. is worth a brief description. 404) characterized by a similar type of script and identical forms of expression. 4 metres in height. 68 square jamb-posts. I m. The northern. at the four cardinal points of the large balustrade. supporting three lintels or architraves which are slightly in· curved and project at the sides. of paving stones enclosed at its widest circumference by a stone balustrade (vedikO) . 402). Stupa I. Around the terrace there was a circular path (prtwaJqilJDpatha). are joined at the top by a coping (zq~i:. 68 high. the chief of the artisans of the Raja Siri Sitakani" (MAJt.C. the disciple of Ayacu4a (MAJUMDAR. from the south side.fa). not counting the mystical symbols which crown their tops. stand four monumental gateways ( /or~). the circular terrace was surrounded by a small balustrade which 359 was reached.c. 39. under the first Sitavihanas (end of the ancient era). These four gateways are more or less contemporary with each other. approximately 10 metre high. the son of V~ithi. The jamb-posts are surmounted by two great capitals. The median lintel of the southern gateway and the southern jamb-post of the western gateway were presented by one and the same person. Both the fronts and the backs of the gateways are covered with bas-relief sculptures. The southern gateway was a " gift from Anaq'ICia. the southern jamb-post of the eastern gateway and the northern jamb-post of the western gateway were both offered by one . who apparently ruled from 27 to 17 B. similarly. Balamitra. LOoERS. its uprights (slambha). 396. 398.During the Sunga period (between 187 and 75 B. this large balustrade measures 43 m. 60 across from east to west. 389. It was crowned by a rectangular pavilion (harmikO) in the centre of which was driven the parasol shaft (chattravali). eastern and western gateways have imprecatory inscriptions (MAJUMDAR. by two stairways meeting at the top. 44 m. Each gateway consists of two 0 m. They are 2 m. surmounted by a parasol (cha ttra) of stone. Slightly oblong in shape. Furthermore. the dome was given a stone overlay which brought it up to its present size : 12 m. 25 high.). 50 high and I m.( lS8-)59) AVANTI AND THE WEST COAST 327 The four gateways (/or~) of stupa I and the single gateway of stupa 3. 20.). 70 wide. 3 m. It originally consisted of a solid hemispherical dome (~4a) made of brick. 0 m.

60 long and 64 m. 665. 678). contained. 20 wide. the balustrade of which remains intact but without a torana. 4 and 6. an entablature S(. 12 m. 4.east of sand. which are smaller in size.14 m. each occupied the centre of a large square terrace. 14. 6 miles south·west of Siiici. 15 metres in diameter and has a single loralJa. Stiipa 3 is 7 metres high.. Mount Satdhara. and stiipa 2. mostly from the Gupta period.. in crystal boxes and soapstone caskets. on the western 360 side of the mountain. The others. 18 m. were erected on the great terrace of Sand. and with four foreparts of lions back to back but which. in Brahmi script. the bones of Haimavata holy ones: Majjhima. did not support a Wheel of the Law. contained eight stupas. Today it is broken : only the stump remains in situ. contained two empty caskets inscribed with the names of Sariputra and Maha-Maudgalyayana (LfmERS. particularly Majjhima and Kassapagotta who were known to the Sinhalese chronicle (MAJUMDAR. to the west of Sinci. The stiipas of Bhojpur. 50 high. 30 in diameter. Stupa 2 also contained. 666). The third contained reliquaries. 397. 403). the capital. 152-153). the edict condemning the schism. 655). Numerous pillars. The first. 156-160). have yielded some terra-cotta urns inscribed with lhe names of unknown holy ones. four soapstone reliquaries with bones which belonged to some Haimavata holy ones. 3: LfmERS. but without any inscriptions. was the site of seven stiipas. the sculptures of which repeat the subjeclS already handled by the Great Stupa I. 656. date from the SUllga period. consists of an inverted bell-shaped lotus. Kassapagotta and Dundubhissara (HIDERS. 50 in height . on the upper reaches of the Betwa 7 miles south. The other four had already been "exploited" by vandals. on the River BeS. were thirty·three in number. the gateway of stiipa 3. 4.la and a native of Kurara (MAJUMOAK. two of which were large . it contained two stone reliquaries enclosing the bones of Sariputra and Maudgalyayana (MAJUMDAR. 2.328 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (359·360) Niigapiya. such as Upahitaka in stiipa 7 (LOoERS. Stiipa 2. in a stone casket.ulpted with honeysuckle and pairs of geese. 3. 13 . The second. The site of Sonari. occupied the centre of a levelled terrace 75 m. of gigantic size . LfmERS.30 metres in diameter and 22 m. . 40 and 8 metres in diameter respectively. a banker from Achiivac.has not yielded any reliquaries. That of ASoka. With its more decadent style. appears to be the most recent in date. stood near the southern gateway and bore. preserved in the museum.. The largest of them. much smaller. on the main terrace. unlike the pillar at sarnith. Stiipas 3.

2-4. western Rijputana. and the master went there travelling through the air with five hundred disciples. xxv. FOlICHEA. Coins. 19S3. 19S3. and which included Sindh.UA. II.NIU. V. Ihe inhabitants of the port of ~urparaka. t949 .a invited the Buddha to ii. 50 in diameter. tllMN sur /'ieonograpll~ b. he stayed in tum at the monasteries of Ambahanhapabbata. IHQ . with sandalwood provided by his brother built a circular pavili~ n . S!.tJd.. which was explored in the years 1936-39. pp. finally settling in the Makulakarima. III. a group of three small. E. capital Mihi~mat1. pl. well-preserved stiipas has supplied relics and boxes or urns made of soapstone inscribed with the names of Haimavatas holy ones. Gujarit and the regions neighbouring the lower Narmadi. Mahirija Sayajirao Univ. TAr "rcl!oroiogicai MqurfIU of COIlr'" ltulia. Southern Avanti. 5 miles south-east of Bhojpur. Dillya. ivory objects and glass-ware have also been found indicating that the site belongs to the second century B. II. pp.C. . which continued to be famous in Buddhist iconography I l l. once he had returned to Siirpiraka. South-Western Journal of Anthropology. 680-684). designated by the generic term of Aparinta. Vin . has revealed the existence of eleven brick stiipas. pp. where he met the Buddha who converted him and preached the PWP'J0lltidasuUQ (Majjhimo.. Samuddagiri and Matulagiri. PUrl)a resolved to win his compatriots to the religion and. T 1448. were acquainted with the Good Law " even while the Buddha was alive. Ik I'IrtIk . some of which are identical to those found on the inscriptions at Bhirhut.. H. I . 1900. 24-55 . went with a caravan to ~rivasti. 374-9). repealed later in Ceylon (Majjhimo Comm. p.. 7c-17a. and stayed there for a night.. lJl . in ~ro~iparintaka. 62. At Andher. 267-70) for him. Kutch. 99 sq . )43 "I. IX. pp. No. three miles south of Kasrawad (district of Nimad in Hollcar State).(360-361 ) AVANT! AND THE WEST COAST 329 5. According to. ExCQYGt/olu in I~ NfJI'1PUJda vaJlr}" loum. D. IU 0 . Xmmallibhanga. the Sanskrit tradition (Miilasarll .1"C Ol'f1liolU 01 X4ua . The wealthy merchant PUma. pp. p. 85-92. the largest of which was 10 m. the Candanamal. the site called Itoordi "Brick Mountain". p. DISKALLU. One day PUl1). UL On recenl u cavalions. Inscribed fragments of pottery bear names of places and persons. 63-4). On a mountainous massif situated in the neighbourhood of 161 Mihi~mati. particularly Maiihima and Kassapagotta (LOoERS. pp. of Baroda. Paris. pp..a Prasada. also had its Buddhist monuments lJ I . a native of the town. Close ties linked the Buddhists of Avanti with their co-religionists of the western coast. ch. 6. Smrryutlo Com. I . m Particularly an eleventh ocotury N~lcst miniatllre : A. There he gathered around him a large number of disciples of both sexes and. 1-18.8.

a sandalwood statue of Maitreya sculpted by his hands.urpiraka in particular.ar:tapura . the Thera Rakkhita was sent to Vanavisa.. and stayed for some time at the Gundavana monastery where he was visited by King Avantiputra and bdihmin scholars who came to discuss the privileges of their caste with him (Majjhima . 329). the western coast in general. III. 256 .' His disciple Mahikatyayana did not feel the same repugnance. Thirty Mathuran bhik~us supported the rigorist . This S:rol). 4. 111. However. the viciousness of the animals. or IDdiaD Arch. in Gujarit (S~lra and Li~a) . and its Comm. had been 362 subjected to Buddhist propaganda .. 19)9. p.which can doubtless be identified with Vanavasa . I. had benefited from a rapid visit by the Buddha: the Master did not prolong his stay there. p.ako!ivisa of the Pili sources : a native of Campa. In Sopara (the modern name for Surparak:a).. five stupas of the primitive type erected in honour of the Buddhas of the past. p. 179-85). Bibl.. a number of ASokan stupas built to commemorate an alleged visit by the Buddha to those regions.JJO THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 16I ·J62 > At the request of the Nigas. when visiting Konk. he was fabulously wealthy and his body was as brilliant as gold : he was invited by Bimbisira to Rijagrha. the thickness of the dust. Further ancient monuments are also noted by HSUan tsang on the eastern coast and neighbouring regions : in Mahari~~ra. At the same time. where he met the Buddha... it remains nonetheless a fact that at the Mauryan period. near Valabhi. XIV. as well as a stupa containing relics enclosed in caskelS made of stone. Even if this legend is probably apocryphal. in Northern Kanara. 2. discovered there traces of an earlier missinn : a stupa erected over the remains of S:ro~avirpSatiko~i. On this stiipl. was converted and attained Arhatship (Vin .. a basalt fragment has been discovered on which can be read a small section of ASoka's eighth edict. and S. n>Cumincd in 19)9 by Mr. p. finally. see An.The S:urasena capital and an important communications centre on the Yamuna. it is believed that Yonaka Dhammarakkhita was sent on a mission to Aparinta.. II. pp. present-day Muttra. when he returned he left his footprint on the bank of the river Narmada. After the council of pa~aliputra . . an ASokan stupa marking the spot where the Arhat had perfonned wonders and made conversions. Hsuan tsang. MATHUIlA . silver and gold 1l4. . 84). the savagery of the Yak~ and the obstacles to begging (Anguttara. Mathuri. since it was made unpleasant by the unevenness of the ground. MvwlJ.avirJ1Satiko~i is none other than the Sol).

p. Suvarl)aprastha and.fokiivadiina agrees with the Mwlasarviistiviidin Vinaya in making Mathuri the base of the fourth and fifth masters of the Law. p. Ayodhyi.avisa and Upagupta 141. ch. The MulasarviistivOdin Vinoya (Gilgit Man . The Master supposedly predicted the erection. 140 Above. L~' Above. 206. Vairambha.. Maudgalyiyana. 5alabali. T 2087.210. tH COtICih. VOGn.. ASoka erected three stupas in Mathuri to commemorate the Buddhas of the past and preserve the ashes of various great disciples : Sariputra. III. 1930. however. guided him in his pilgrimages and showed him the sites where stupas were to be constructed. not even their site 119. so.. some distance from the town "". It was he. Krauiica. Silibala. p. Pili Vin. By means of these legends.ivati. Nothing of them has been discovered. 208. 3-68) attributes a fictitious journey in northern India to the Buddha. Ananda and Revata Ill. II. p. the KaSmirians hoped to demonLU M_bjii . Mathuri. and not Moggaliputtatissa. Paris. SikeIa. pp..• that the town became one of the Buddhist strongholds. whose apostolic zeal extended to courtesans (VisavadaUi).D . M. and who vanquished Mira in a tournament of magic and 364 made so many conversions that a system of slips of wood had to be instituted in order to count them. It was probably then that the city was given an edifying history by the Sarvistividins of KaSmir. Mallrwd . It was also after a seven-year retreat spent in the solitude of the Ahoganga that Moggaliputtatissa returned to Pi!aliputra to give his support to ASoka and preside over the third council"1. I. Otali.. in the second century A... Ll1 Mahivamsa. ka Vin. Vad6fl. Piin:mmaitrayareiputra. finally. Mal). Kumiravardhana. in Kasmir. 89Gb 6.. 13I 363 cause in the dispute at VaisaIiIlJ : their leader Sambhuta Si1). one hundred years after his Nirvil)a. La 3cuJplllU. pp.P. and the birth of Upagupta inlo the family of a perfume merchant from Mathuri 140. . HOt1NGD. a journey which is supposed to have halted at the known or unknown towns of Adirijya. but it was only in the Ku~rea period. The A.avisin dwelt on Mount Ahoganga. a mystic movement the main centre of which was. 233. Princes who were sympathetic to Buddhism ruled in Mathuri under the Sungas and during the SIlka occupation. They lived there. cf.I. Upali. V.(363-364) MATHUR. Angadika. LH Hsi yU chi. 18. surrounded by thousands of Arhats whom they trained in dhyina practice. 298. A whole legend has been woven around Upagupta. ~a1). 4. J . of the Na!abha!iyavihira on Mount Urumul:lI~a . who made himself the spiritual adviser to ASoka. . p.

but the disciples of the lauer. Crude and naive. NORTH-WEST INDIA. versed in the Vedas. another at Miinsehrii in the . It was to be under the influence of the Indian empire of the Mauryas from 306 to approximately 189. in a language the prestige of which was universally recognized. The great emperor established his Dharma there. rurthermore. of which they knew and translated five recensions. along with North-West India and KaSmir. that may be. one at Shahbazgarhi in the district of Peshawar.332 TIlE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 364-365) strate the great antiquity of their Dhyana school.and Divyavadiina which we should link with the Mathurii schools as M. However.The important borderland. the origins of which go no further back than the end of the second century A. Mathurii seems to have taken the initiative in resorting to Sanskrit for composing Buddhist texts. these texts have those stylistic habits or repetition and co-ordination which we find in Piili. in the Kharo~!hi alphabet. Mathuri. the Kasmirians were also masters of the Vinaya. were engraved on rock. a date at which it again fell under the domination of a foreign sovereign. are in Sanskrit which is generally grammatical but with a separate vocabulary. divided the single Great Vinayapi~ka into five adventitious Vinayas. The Asoka. was one of the fou. However. the language of the Avadiinas is much inferior to the Buddhist kiivya practised in the North-West or India by poets such as Miitrce!a. they claimed that the original text had still been extant in Mathuri at the time of UpaguPla. in the terms or the convention concluded between Seleucus I and Candragupta.J . There were a great many learned brahmins.r provinces administered by viceroys or royal princes : ASoka and his son KUl)ala had in turn been in charge of the government. two recensions of fourteen enactments. Przyluski did. after having been subjected to the Achaemenid yoke ror two and a half centuries (559-336) and the Macedonian occupation for three decades (336-306). Uttariipatha. some terms or which are in Prikrit or based on Priikrit . . Kumiiraliita and especially Asvagho~. at a time when central India was beginning to use mixed Sanskrit in epigraphy. as they called it. The Mauryas watch365 ed over that region with jealous concern. As we saw earlier. in order to have their pat:ticular views triumph. fully aware of its importance. the seat of which was Tak~sila . was one of the strongholds of the Sarvastivadin school which is reputed to have introduced the use of Sanskrit into the Buddhist tradition. in the area. rallied to the mother-country in 306. However. and it was a matter or importance to be able to debate with them on an equal footing .D. 5. the Indo-Greek king Demetrius.

three in Tak~sili (st. It was very easy for the pilgrims to distinguish those old stiipas. several tens at Jigw. st . with solid hemispherical domes.I<. the majority of which were 200 feet high : one at Satadru on the Sutlej. of the Gift of Eyes . one in the Andar-ib Valley 141 . The most conclusive is the great number of "ASokan stupas" noted in the region by Hsuan tsang. Uttaripatha was still struggling under the Macedonian satraps who were drawn up against each other : such a time was iII-<:hosen for religious pacification. a pinnacle of parasols. one in KapiSa (st.J66) NORTH-WEST INOlA 333 district of Hazara. of Maitreya's Treasure. the "Gift of the Head" is the present-day Bhallar Stupa oa:upying the western point of Mount Sarda. st.. of the Gift of Flesh and st. a fragment of an edict.. TTUS.· Buddhist missionaries closely followed the imperial functionaries. of the Teaching of the Buddhas of the past. and the Sanskrit sources agree with the Pili chronicle in attributing the conversion of Kasmira-Gandhira to the Arhat Madhyintilca (Majjhantika in Pili) and his companions. For detail" ICC W.Iiyana (st. one in the Timasavana. for the former sources. st.=. two in Taklca on the Chenab .. . of the Gift of the Head and st.. Majjhantika was a contemporary of ASoka and disciple of Moggaliputtatissa. of Pilusir). Several of the ancient stupas recorded by Hsiian tsang have been identified : the ruins of"Maitreya's Treasure" are to be found on the ridge dominating Baoti Pi!). of Ekasplga). 18(). three in the district of Nagarahira (st.286. one in Kulilta on the upper Beas. Madhyintika was one of Ananda's disciples and was probably active in the year 50 after the Nirvi~a. of the Offering of Hair. a drum. st. stiipas commemorating two of Visvantara's exploits. pp. in Aramaic script. . four in Kasmir. has recently been discovered at Lampika in the district of Laghmin . with a few advances in the direction of the western and eastern coasts. However. of Diparylkara's Prediction. I. a dome and. .( 16S. since before that date. the North-West could not have been converted prior to the Maurya period. furthermore. and the giant stiipa of Gunda Chismeh). whereas for the latter. finally. which was much more complex and generally consisted of a square base. In fact. of Rohitaka) . Buddhist propaganda was confined to the region of the Middle Ganges and Avanti.la in the 166 Arghandib Valley and the Middle Helmand. five in Gandhira (st. also. two at Sirylhapura in the Salt Range. of Ku~ala). the "Ku!)ila Memorial" is located on the northern slope of the Hathial which overlooks the site of Sirkap . two in U<. There is no lack of indications to prove the implantation of Buddhism in the North-West at the time of the Mauryas. from the more recent stupas in Gandhiran style.

At Shah-ko~ . In Marigalapura (Manglaor).. and Syama. Dharmarata had transcribed a text of the Law using his skin as parchment. King Sibi had redeemed a pigeon which was being pursued by a falcon by cutting off from his own body a weight of flesh equivalent to that of the pigeon. Visvantara had given to an insatiable brahmin his white elephant. I. • Another indication of Buddhist penetration is the localization on the land of the North·West. NOI~J tw III GiapGpllk tlIICimM dM GtlItdJIba. E:u rait du BEFEO. Id Rderenocs in A. kingdom . FouCHD. and its own stiipa to commemorate it. III. the rli Ekairnga. of the borders of the Swat and the Buner). Indra. Gangetic India had been the: setting for the last existence of the Buddha. FOUCHD. transformed into a serpent. 407-21 . who wished to give alms when he had no money. had saved the population from famine and pestilence. In Va~pura (Shahbizgarhi).t 6. while an industrious serpent made water spring from a rock. had been struck by a poisoned arrow. the characteristic features of the Aiokan stiipa are also recognizable at present in the ruins of Minikyala in the Punjab. J'kllft ROf/I~ rk I"/W. the tope of Shiihpur to the east of Shih·Qbert and the tope of Chakpat near the fort of Chakdarra in the Swat vall ey a4 . each locality soon had its own legend. . In Pu~karavati (Shah-Qheri and Charsadda). 49 pp. 268 101(. p. A. p. the North-West claimed that his former lives had taken place on its soil.~bowddhiqw .SHAu. In the Mahiivana (Sunigram). In the Masurasal!lghariima (Gumbatai. Furthermore. n.hc No nh. U44iyana and the Western Punjab. At the monastery of Sarpau~dhi in the S3niraja valley (Adinzai). K~ntivadin had submitted to the blows of King Kali without a word of complaint. of a number of legends taken from the former Jives of the Tathiigata IU . I. Sibi had made the gift of his eyes to a beggar. King MaitnoaJa had fed five Yak~s IU Sir JOHN MAJ. sec A. Sikyamuni had received the prediction from the Buddha Dipal!lkara.. '7(l . pl. A" 6mD-~.WC:SI . I. IU On tbe aa:limalUalion and Iocalisado n or the Ie&mds in t. while he was gathering fruits for his blind parents. King Sarvada. At Rohitaka. gave himself up to his enemy for gold . pp. a young brahmin had thrown himself from the top of a tree in order to learn a verse of the Law. wife and children. and had spread out his hair under the Tathagata's feet.334 THE MAURYAN PERIOD <366-)67) and the entire Haro Valley 143 . II. . Each lown. particularly in Gandhara. 1902. caparison. In Girarai. had been seduced by a courtesan and had carried her to the town on his 367 shoulders.l48 . p. Taxll(l . On Mount Hi-Io or Hidda (Ham. with a map or tbe sites. In Nagarahira (Jelilibad). near Tursak in Buner). 67. one of his bones as a reed and his blood as ink .

It is because there is a time for everything. particularly generosity•. \947-50. at Adirajya and BhadriSva. but profitable to the places of pilgrimage . It continued in force under the Indo-Greek occupation.somewhat puerile.to inevitable human weaknesses. initiated.. in a human. the Gift of Flesh at Girarai.as in the case of Eka. such as those of the Gift of the Body on the peak of Banj. On the Upper Indus.ct that the Asokan stupas. Bactria and Sogdiana. In fact. Gandhara was the only one to play the game . it was considered that the litakas no longer sufficed to confer an adequate guarantee of authenticity on the new holy land and a story was made up of a journey by the Buddha to the North-West. . one of the episodes 'u Itinerary or this journey in BEFEO. the Gift of the Head at Tak~sili. of Visvantara at Shibizgarhi. Alongside Varal)asi which also claimed as its own latakas (the Six-Tusked White Elephant. Furthennore. the Gift of Eyes at Chirsadda. the Deer and the Hare). in the KU~l)a period. in the company of the Yak~ Vajrapa~i. I S2-B.• were built from the Mauryan period onwards proves that the annexing of the legends began with the introduction of the Good Law into the borderlands of the North-West. Indeed. patience. not without falling prey . This was a new means of propaganda.( 367·368) NORTH·WEST INDIA 335 with his own blood. new stupas were erected to commemorate its principal events'·'. the source of inspiration had dried up and the flood of ancient legends never reached those remote regions : . The fa. Missionary zeal had therefore delved into the rich repertory of the litakas in which the Bodhisattva. Prince Mahasattva had given his body to a hungry tigress. etc. on the site of the two Alexandrian founda· tions on the lhelum. Nicaea and Bucephala. and great pleasure was to be had following the stages of the journey on a map. and that of the pious legends had passed" (tr. in view of the Buddhist successes in the K~l)a period. animal or divine fonn of existence. had practised the great perfections of his state. when the latter once again advanced and reached the southern slopes of the Afghan massif (KapiS3) and beyond the Hindukush. But this infatuation did not last for long. from Foucher). but was practi368 cally over by the Christian era. the Partridge. the mythical king Mahasaf!lmata had been given the royal consecration and then a marvellous horse.srnga . In Tak~sila. vigour and wisdom. King Candraprabha had cut off his own head in order to present it to the brahmin Raudrik~ .of the acclimatization of the legends. pp. at that time the Scythian invasion slowed down the expansion of the Good Law and. we believe.

the Yak~ Pa~~alca and his wife Hariti. eighty-four thousand serpents. U~~iyana and also doubtless Jagu~a (which has not yet been explored systematically) were truly influenced by Buddhism in the Mauryan period. do not allow anger to dominate you . The Buddhists. This was not the case for KapiSa (Kohistan in Kabul) where Hsiian tsang records only a single Asokan stiipa. who occupied the pools and defended the mountain passes. pp. but in a subordinate place. The infonnation supplied by the Chinese pilgrims and archaeological discoveries show that only the districts of the Western Punjab. admitted the serpent in their own religious system. Gentleness triumphed over force : the Naga-king and his peers took refuge in the Three Jewels and abided by the fivefold morality . To return to the ancient period. Yak~s and Kumbhal)<.luites . see above. we also note that the Sanskrit sources agree with the Pali in recording the struggles the missionaries 14' had to sustain against "the king of the Nagas (Aravi!a. as moreover do the Sivaites and Vi~l. caused floods and famines . nOf even for Kasmir 14 ' We are conc:aned here with Madhyintika and his companions. We should note in conclusion that the Good Law did not enjoy the same success in all districts of the North-West without distinction. 208.takas" (Mhv. 303. XII . 22). do no further harm to the harvests. and the knives. 293. In its picturesque form. axes and weapons that were cast at him turned into kumuda flowers which spread out in the space above his body. the building of which is thought to have been predicted by the Buddha. already attested in the Vedas and the origins of which can be traced back to the remote ages of Mohen-joDaro. breathed smoke and fire. The missionary withdrew into the meditation on benevolence. the mother of five hundred demons. the first fruit of the religious life. the legend summarizes the entire history of the western missions : in order to ensure the triumph of the Good Law. dragons and demi-gods hurled thunder and lightning. in the third millennium D.336 THE MAURYAN PERIOD <368· 369) of this journey is concerned with Kani~ka 's great caitya in Peshawar. the missionaries first had to combat popular superstition which found its most common expression in the worship of Nagas and serpents.C. numerous Gandharvas. Gandhara. 304. It was less a matter of substituting a new cult for an ancient one than of raising the latter to the level of the Buddhist message. . 20). attained the srotaapattiphala. . 207. The 369 missionary addressed them with a homily which was at the same time a solemn reconciliation : "Henceforth. In the missionary's presence. cherish all beings and let mankind live in peace" (Mhll" XII. or HulU~a).

( 369-370) CENTRAL INDIA OR THE BRAHMANIC MADHYAOESA 337 where no trace has been discovered of the A50kan foundations of the S~kaletra or the Vitastrita mentioned by the travellers as well as Kalhar:aa . . historians have noted the spiritual and cultural abyss which separated the br. BflNb l r()m AltialtatfO. B.. were settled in the districts of Bareilly. IV. I. clans such as the PuI}<.). it can well be believed that Kapib and KaSmir did not become true Buddhist fiefs until the K~r:'Ia period. POll"' 01 AllkdWllro. the Pancalas. not to Kani~ka and even less so to ASoka. £XtorotilJlu 01 HtuliltiJpufO QN/ ollw. PaIk4Uu aNIlMiT Ci1piIlJJ Allkdtafto.D. the PuJindas and ~varas of the Vindhya forests. Budiiin and Farrukhabiid in Uttar Pradesh where their chief towns were Kampilya and Ahicchatra I . and Vidarbha in the Wardhi valley. LAw. DfICSHtT. Ancient India. or indigenous. from the evidence of Hsiian tsang who attributes most of the Buddhist foundations beyond the Hindiikush. 37·59.D. in the light of numerous indications which we will be examining further on.. it was from there that brahmanical civilization radiated to the external provin· ces : Kosala and the land of Kasi watered by the Sarayu and the Varar:'lavati. 1952. or even the Kidirites (390-460 A. 1948. see B. occupied the length of territory located between the Sarasvati and the Dr~dvati.• Ancient Kings" (eMu wang). That a few Buddhists may have ventured there in the ancient era. among other indications. where important excavations a~ still takin. 104-7'9. GItOSH and K. in tum became a holy land of Buddhism. CENTRAL INDtA OR THE BRAHMANIC MADHYADW. Videha irrigated by the Gandak. This is what appears.Jras of North Bengal. separated from the Indus basin by the high barrier of the Hindiikush. DellU. Tfw T"rQroI/(IJ 01 Alti«hGtro. . Ancient India. such as the Angas of eastern Bihar and the Magadhans of southern Bihar. VIII. It was even later that Bactria.Since Vedic times. For a long time.41 . pp. M. Ancient India. 31'0 6. also of Vedic origin being descendants of the Krivis. the later K~r:'Ias (c. . LAt. and the Andhras in the Godavari valley. due to the active propaganda conducted by Kani~ka . Ancitntlndia. as well as the districts of Delhi and Meerut : their capital was Asandivat. the "finn middle country" (dhruva nuuihyamii dis'}. PAl>o1GUHI. V. plaa:.C. the centre of the Aryan world. . 5-151.). but one swallow does not make a summer and.ihmanic Madhyadeb from the On Ahicchatra. A.d.G.. 31-63.C.. that is. 19~55. Beyond the sphere of influence lived tribes of mixed origin. but more modestly and recently to . 1946.S. AGJlAWALA. pp. nobody would attempt to deny.Also ICC B. extended from the Sarasvati to Gangetic Daab. £Xploroli()IIJ in 1M UpfNr Gizri. 231 · 390 A. pp. descendants of the Vedic tribes of the PUrus and Bharatas. Two peoples of noble blood dominated Aryavarta : the Kurus. 1942 . X and XI. pp.

As for the Buddhist missionaries and propagandists of the Mauryan period. pp.. Even if Sakyamuni travelled through Doah several times..n Uttar Pradesh.YAVANSH1. ch. Srughna. Thus. 8 . trustees of the Vedic revelation. it is always the same monotonous and disappointed fonnula that came from Hsuan tsang's pen : "An Asokan stupa on the spot where the Buddha had propounded his excellent doctrine for such and such a time. 4. pp. it WIS nOI possible for Buddhism to " disappear" from a region where it never had much of a grip. Vit du Bouddha. ASoka did indeed attempt to introduce his Dharma there. devoted to the raising of canle and cultivation of wheat. they did not even try to locate the great exploits of the Bodhisattva during his fonner existences in those unprofitable regions. a small stiipa containing relics of the Buddha's hair or nails"lJo. was led astray by its leaders and made to believe in false religions. paragons of bnihmanic civilization. exclusively concerned with the cullivation of rice. it i5 thought that traces of Aiokan monumenu have been discovered in Vilwl)a. . but his efforts were powerless 10 change the population's mind . . on the other.. It may be objected that.JJ8 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (370-371) ancient cradle of Buddhism situated further to the east On the one hand. pn:$Cnt-day Bilsad in tile: disctrict of Etah .las who remained pa rtly faithful to the customs of the original clan. to one side..ever. ExP/CNotion at Bifsad. p. at the time of Hsuan . XXX. Ahicchatra. '" Ho. but merely noted here and there the places which Sakyamuni had honoured with his presence and where earlier Buddhas had appeared . the Aryans. I. a stupa where four Buddhas of the past had sat or walked. cr.10 Some of the ran: stupas an: possibly ancient. Kapitha (Sarpkasya). Ayodhya and Ayamukha. 1955. more concerned with the great problems of life than with ritual and sacrifice. A. the P'i 10 shan 110 of H5Uan tsang. and confinned vegeta· nans. Nothing could better emphasize the failure of the religious propaganda among a population which "Arter the ?ecease of the Buddha. Kanyakubja. GoviSana. and where Buddhism disappeared" (T 2087. faithful to its Devas and which punctually carried out ancestral sacrifices in which animals were immolated and the Soma flowed .. The message of 371 the Buddha had no hold on a population which was fiercely attached to its books and traditions. the MUI)c. Fouc llu. With regard to the large towns of the brahmanic MadhyadeSa. 56-65. superficially influenced by Brahmanism. finally.. as is witnessed by the Kalsi rock edict and the pillar edicts of Topra and Mira~h. 98Ia)lJl. he never stayed there long : his fixed residences were never to be found further west than an ideal line joining Sravasti and Kausambi. 5. proud of its brahmins.'. JBBRAS. SUJ. 123-4. Vilasal)a.

Nii· giirjunikoQ<. M""uWIM. AvadilUlutaka. Ajat:l!a. IOJ . UpadcSa. Kanyakubja contained more than 100 monasteries and over 10. Loriyan-Tangai in Gandhara..4" J rko-bouddlLiqw. as evidenced by Fa hsien. p. Once he had descended. 1 uu chin. 401 . Brahma used the one to the right and Indra thai [0 the left. II. Sarnath. T 198. p. Po yiian ching. 5. still had only two Hinayanist monasteries (T 2085. 893c 14) : this was a relatively late success of the Good Law. Sariputra and the nun Utpalava~a who.. 51. and although the event is not mentioned in the Pali canon. ch. Divya. 86(0). nowadays Sankissa in the district of Etah in Uttar Pradesh. T lS07. 539. 247.. p. In ti. . he crealed a triple stairway of precious materials. 28. pI. 18Se . which was (he setting for one of the four secondary wonders. lk. and this homage paid to the body of the Law (dharmakaya) of the Buddhas surpassed every other greeling addressed to his physical body (janmakaya).. 312 An exception should. ch. ch..rha and merely fixed his mind on the instability of human lhings. 9. t h. as it is called. 707(' IS sq. T 694. 1.lmms. the three stairways sank into the ground and only seven sleps remained visible. Tsa a ban. pI. he remained in his cave on the outskirts of Rajag. at the foot of the Udumbara. he used the central one. that the Buddha descended from the Trayastrirp. p. 94-5.. 265 . To do this. the venerable Subhiiti. was widely exploited by art and literature : il appears on monuments at Bharhut. p.( 371-372) CENTRAL INDIA OR THE BRAHMANIC MADHYAOESA 339 tsang. GJl. Hinayanisl or Mahayanist. The wonder of the "Descent of the Gods" (deraratara). 23.. caused artificially by the religious policy of Ha~vardhana (606-647 A. and Hinayana (T 2087. T ZOO. adherents of the Mahayana.D. among whom could be recognized Udayana. Sinci. whether canonical or posl-<:anonical. 34 ('. Tsen.000 religious. however. The Buddha was welcomed on his arrival by a counlless throng of the laily and religious. Tsao hsiao. pI. VOOEL. It was on the outskirts of the town. Fen pith kunsle lun. I. Sculp/lITt dt MalhllTa. T 99. N6garjLmik~~. Kannavibhilliga. pJ. the BhQrhUI . Malhura. p. lid. 37('. kuns ti ching. GIlW /0 SlUnd/h. 2. 137" . l69r.. p. was the first to greet the Buddha. ch. 11. whom the Mahayanists claim as one of theirs.Sa heaven where he had been preaching the Law to his mOlher. ch. l.!a I S2 . pl. makes numerous allusions to it lH . pI. p. i a han. pp.Everything leads to the belief that the situation was no more favourable in the ancient period. p. p. 3. . be made for the town of Sarp. two centuries earlier the lown. Sanskrit literature.. 159-60.ta and Ajal). ch. TIm.kasya.ST. t h. p.JI.). T 125. pp. 54. in order to force her way through the crowd more easily. J I.oNGHUII. 192c.. 17. However. MOIIlImlIrtU of Saikhi. someone who was absent. to be precise in the Apajjura enclosure. the king of Kausambi. had disguised herself as a cakravartin king.

had a large hole dug at its base but. p. Beyond were the Frontier-Lands (protyofllajanapada) where the monastic discipline was no longer observed in full strictness.. pl. many srama~as. However. "It was enough". which explains the Chinese pilgrims' mistake. 859c) and Hsuan tsang (T 2087... 125-6).4ravardhana who had images representing the Buddha prostrated before the lina.. according to an old Brahmi inscription published in £1. SuUanipDIQ Comm. along with their compatriots. II. On the eastern coast and its hinterland. An obviou. pp. 893b). responsibility must be laid on those artificial irrigation ramps which lean at an angle of thirty-degrccs above the plain and which are common in the Sankissa region. suffered murder. XXI. if such a persecution occurred. wishing to unearth the )1) stairway. was prevented from continuing with the project. 427) claims that in a single day.s anachroni$m. p. 2n.un. but the column has vanished and been replaced by brick masonry 1" . p. y~ dll /JouJdJuJ. It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that.1. that lion was in reality an elephant with a mutilated trunk and tail. Foucher {tr.. Buddhism encountered formidable adversaries. was marked by the localites of Pu~4ravardhana (Mahasthan in the district o f Bogra. he set up a stone pillar twenty cubits high. .. The Chinese pilgrims Fa hsien (T 2085. ND ANDHRADESA. but among the Jainas. ". ch. )14 7. indeed of India herself.The eastern limit of the Buddhist MadhyadeSa. 83) and Kacangala 60 miles further east. S. no longer among the brahmins. on the middle flight. p. Asoka had come into conflict with these TIrthikas : at the time of the conquest of Kalinga.000 Nirgranthas from PUl). IV. he erected a six foot high statue of the standing Buddha I 54_Behind the vihira. ASoka had his Nagas and Yak~s beheaded 18. p. HI. . The king felt his faith and veneration increasing and therefore had a vihara built above the stairway and. sunnounted by a lion. THE EASTERN COAST . " to cover one of them with three contiguous rows o f stone steps in order to recreate the triple holy stairway attributed to ASoka"uo. the disciples of Mahavira who were usually known by the name of Nirgranthas. the proclamation of the Dharma which ensured freedom to all " . at least at the beginning of his reign. 570). However. p . death or captivity (BLOCH.J40 TIlE MAURYAN PERIOD on-)74) Sinhalese tradition mentions it in its commentaries (Dhammapada Comm. on encountering water underground. Agt of 1M NQlldtu QIId Maufya3. 4. The capital to which it belonged is still standing in place. said A.I. 226. p. infonn us that ASoka. and the AiokQwuiQna (Divya . If we attempt to explain the origin of this wonder. .J A !!load pholograph or this mutilated animal can be found in N.

. D. Calcutta. R. and.tra· nagara to some ~c.uu. according to Hsuan tsang's evidence (T 2087.tvargikas who are possibly the "six bad monks" mentioned in the Vinaya u . the Brahmi inscription at Ma· hiisthan is concerned with the gins made by the inhabitants or Pul)c. in accordance with Devadatta's orders (Vinaya. Another obstacle to the Buddhist propaganda consisted or the ho· mage paid to [)evas. tl7 sq . Ant . ASoka's grandson.• LXII. 83. the Iainas excavated many caves in the mountains. 171).. 2. Cola country and Dravic.C.bhaya (380-310 B. it is believed. During migrations which were caused. the king or Kalinga (ca 28-16 B. finally . p. to the north or Anuradhapura . they poured into the land or Mathura. II. 19 in Khal)c. there were in Karl)asuvarl)a three Buddhist monasteries in which.c. B. 10. llu . the Nirgranthas even possessed a monastery in Ceylon. : 44 in Udayagiri. the monks were rorbidden the use or lacteous products. and the Jainas.()74-)7S) THE EASTERN COAST AND ANDHRADESA 34 1 sects soon brought a return or religious peace. B.. in the district or Puri.. the oldest or which date back to the second century S.. Ind. p. n. 92~a). p. ' I I EI. It even seems that some schismatic Buddhist sects met with some success in eastern Bengal . IHQ. Samprati. /mporlQllI FrQgtMnuul hucr iplion FOIIIfl! QI MaMsIIWJit . B. ch. whose temples were particularly numerous o n the eastern coast. p. Ka· Iinga. Kharavela . by ramine. pp. under the protection or superintendents responsible ror supervising them (BLOCH. but was expropriated and demolished by VaHagama~i (32·20 B.ted by B. that "Tittharama" had been built by King Pal)c. either by ASoka in his 37S plans ror conquest or the Dhanna. XXXIII. is said to have embraced their raith under the inHuence or the master Suhastin . 42. . Sl· 66.) (Mh ...ta) and as rar as the extreme south or the " . p. . and massively occupied the eastern coast where Hsuan tsang records the presence or Digambara Nirgranthas in Pu~c. at the end or the ancient era.).travardhana . TM QUI Brdhmf InscripliM af Mah4sIIlDlt .e inscriptions rrom those caves h..uLU..C. Rescripts or the Dhanna were promulgated in Kalinga (Dhauli and Jaugac.ta and. BKAND. 197).tagiri and 3 in Nila 1$ 1. This was not a matter or a late development or the sect. Samata~.tuk3. Old BriJiunf ltucriplUNu i/lIM Uda)'Qgir i and Kluv)4agir. or by the Buddhist missionaries on their teaching tours. 79). in Orissa. 19)4.. Kongoda. M. t929. Malakfi!a .nd transl.ve been published .C. had taken up their religion and the inscription which records his worthy deeds begins with a homage " to all the Arahantas and all the Siddhas" . Dhanyaka!aka.). The coastal region was by no means neglected. were able to develop rreely in the empire. XXI . Caws. in Avanti .

one in Kalinga.a inscription repairs this omission by congratulating the Sinhalese monks for having converted Vanga (Bengal). one in Dak~i. enable us to see that. In this respect. the Satyaputra (of unccrlain identification) and Keralaputra kings of Malabar as far as Taprobane (BLOCH. for example. Ycrragut. one in Malakii~a . but the Nigirjunik01:u. they observe good faith and loyalty.i. p. one in Timralipti. "a few" in Kat1)asuvat1)a. one in the land of the Colas. Brahmagiri and latinga-Ramdvara.Iyas as far as Taprobana (BLOCH. of uncertain identification. . The people are rough and detennined. Some twenty stupas over a distance of 1. ten in Orissa. from 250 to SO approximately. The regions of the east coast. in Orissa and Dak~i~akosala in the seventh century A. 130).ikas of the district of Paithana on the upper Godavari. Passing rapidly through Kalinga at the beginning of the seventh century. are not mentioned in the list of territories won over by Moggalipuuatissa's missionaries. at the 376 end of the Mauryan period and during the Sunga age. Sec above. Pilkigu~<:tu. the PiT)<. one in the Drivi4a area .ikosala . the joint activity of the Beloved of the Gods and the missionaries did not meet with the same success as in Avanti. and their example was followed beyond the frontiers by the Colas and PaT)<.342 THE MAURYAN PERIOD ( 375·376) empire : Maski . however. the Andhras and Pa rindas (or Pulindas). Dami!a and Tiimrapat1)idvi'pa (Ceylon) I'~ . The information we have at our disposal does..) . 136 sq. aid for men and beasts reached the Colas of Coromandel. However. 299.l. there is a striking contrast between the enormous quantity of bhik~us recorded. Submerged by Hinduism and Jainism. the eastern coast was late in rallying to the message of the Sakya. 93).Iyas in the South-East. Givima!h. one in Andhra country . on imperial territory. The climate is wann. and the few specimens of "ASokan stiipas" recorded by Hsiian tsang : one in Pu~Qrava rd h a na . two regions constituted the centres of Buddhist culture : Kalinga and above all AndhradeSa. TosaIi and Palura (Kalinga). p.500 km ! It was certainly not in the ancient period that the eastern coast appreciably swelled the ranks of Buddhism. the Pitel). Mathuri and the North·West. one in Samat a ~a . i.D. in Tosali and Samipi. p. with the possible exception of the enigmatic Mahi~ma~~la. and are clear and precise in their speech.e. ". conformed to the pious recommendations of the Beloved of the Gods.l. separate edicts reminded the fun ctionaries of their duties and enjoined them to win the affection of those they administered (BlOCH. Hsuan tsang makes the following remarks : " The country produces wild elephants which are esteemed by neighbouring regions. p.

a whole complex of Buddhist constructions was discovered and explored. the third consists of four elements : a tall support. crowning everything. a vertical rod representing a pole. there was a stone stupa. XXVIII. EJ. wide in diameter. IU . however. the main feature of which was the 01J4a or Der. between 1943 and 1947. 929a).. the majority of the population belongs to other religions. ch . which fit so precisely that the whole constitutes a plain hemisphere.. Near the southern wall of the city (probably Kalingapatam..D. The first reliquary reproduces the original stupa of the ancient type. a tall circular stupa of the type known as mahacaity o and other smaller temples and stupas. two of which were adorned with a statue of the Buddha in a seated position. finally. the development of the site dates much further back into the past.kudeyika. a cubical pavilion which evokes the shape of a balustrade and. 1)3·1. 10. In fact . endowed by the descendants of the R~~ra ­ piilaka Harp. N.. it included. On the summit of a mountain.oIACHANDUH. there was an ASokan stupa beside which was to be found the place which served as a seat and practice-spot for four Buddhas of the past. such as those al Bhci. when the human life lasted for countless years" (T 2087. they differ a little from central India. where a Pratyekabuddha had deceased at the beginning of the present Kalpa. one hundred feet high. to the north of the country. . Finally. The first is two pieces. An ilUt::riMd POI 0IId Ol~' Buddhal RpltUlUu ill SdJiJulI. the majority of them being Nirgranthas. There are more than ten Buddhist monasteries and five hundred religious 'studying the system of the Mahayana-Sthavira school'. It is believed that the site described here by the Chinese master has been identified 160. which dominates the river VaqtSadhara and the Bay of Bengal. There are more than a hundred temples of the Oevas. One of those Buddhacaityas has yielded a piece of pottery inscribed in Brahmi characters of the second century A. 1949. The three reliquaries are shaped like a stiipa. The foundations of the Mahacaitya concealed stone caskets containing three crystal reliquaries each enclosing one or several gold flowers (suvor1)opu. R. There are few Buddhists.ypa) .rhut and Sanci. and the adherents of the different sects are very numerous. a support and a cover.(3 76-377) THE EASTERN COAST AND ANDHRADESA 343 )77 in their language and customs. the capital). The second is also two pieces : a circular support holding up a bell-shape of a smaller diameter which in tum is surmounted by a small square pavilion with a central knob.ils and phologaphic reproductions in T . in particular. a hemispherical bell of lesser diameter.W!dlrl. p. On the summit and sides of Mount salihu~"im . pp. stipulating that the pottery in question belonged to the KaHaharima (or Kanahiira arama). a large apsidal caitya .

ti Madras Go~r_nt Musnmr.. pp. 68-15... 346-. pp. FoucHEJ. 13 miles west of Masulipatam. a new edition inscriptions). V. Amard't'Uli SoUptlUtS iIIlltt tbe Amltriv.. Jagga yyapc~a o r Betavolu. Soulh INlitJ1l Buddhist Anlu.4manhoti iIIUI JrlI'o)'Y~!o . from Amariv. 1941 . 1938. Deihl. dome (~4a). the third m OTC delicately fashioned. !jSS. AWANlAN. 1881. MttdrfJ.. 102S-1326. l1J~/O A.344 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (317 ) hemispherical dome.. A. the second is a model of a stlipa of a morc recent type. A.. SASnI. Gwwu District .S. 1-4. 1945. London. Tht Buddhist A. Voon. us Kwptllnl d ·Amard't'Uti.Qr~. or . pp. For Gha~!UiIi. 1329· 1339. 30 miles north-west of Amaravati. DILSHln. 111 · BS . but its history is one of the most complicated. 1942 . and occupied by a population of Dravidian race and Telugu language. 6 miles north of Repalle. 1~2 · 1204 . Y AlDANt .) . begun in the ancient era in the fonn of an " ASokan stiipa". the Andhra country can claim the title of Buddhist fief. starting from Masulipatam and following the Kistna upstream : BhaHiprolu. LosGKUUT. StVALUlAWVJ. Bu. see J. those of Nigirjuniko* Ire pu· blilhed in vob. A. Cakuttl. XXII. Madras.}eril lIucriptiotu ofGh4I)[aidJiJ .C.. Titt Buddhist Stiipw of . Madras. earlier known as Dhinyaka~aka. Na.. 1929.. R. £1. with its harmikii in the fonn of a balustrade (vedik5) and its parasol pole (chattray~!').T1. LAw Volume. NagarjunikOl:u:. AndhradeSa is the name given today to the northern part o f Madras State which is enclosed between the Lower Godivari and the Lower Kistna. 1M lUst turd Growlli of Buddhism in AndJlra. BhalliPfolu Ind lawyyape!a Ire recorded in tbe Liidvl Lilt.drjuna}"NJdo /9J8.D. The land abounds in monumental stiipas.ti. Gudivada. RAA .pa ntlU Goli ViI/Dlt . R. 20 miles north-west of Masulipatam . at the confluence of the Gollaru and the Kistna 161 . IB94 . 1941-43. 1942 (contaim. is an exact reproduction of the Mahacaityas in Andhra country such as could be admired at Amaravati. REA. P. 1.. with a terrace (medh.I PrtsiMnq. underwent various transformations in the course of time which finally brought it close 10 the" Andhra typc" of the Mahiicaitya.IIiqNitiits of Na. near Dharanikota. SU. Goli.] . G . which o n examination proved to be ancient Buddhist foundations . Delhi. Allahibid. The reliquaries which were hidden in turn in the foundations evoked the successive alterations undergone by the mo nument . we will mention.oESS. Mad~. Jaggayyape~a or Nagarjunikol)4a. IHQ.• BuJdirisl ScuJpflUtS from a St.lIil~S. C . On these lites. XXXI. The inscriptiom. 16 miles west of Macherla . N. Amarivati. pp. 19'3. The region abounds in hillocks called dibba. XX Ind XXI of the EpifraphUJ INI~o . pavilion (harmikQ) and parasol (cha ma). wrongly called . Buddhist RtmQUu ill Andhra iIIUI AMhra Hislrwy . pp.. T. K . B. uca't'Ulioru at Kondopur : A" ANlltra TO"'n . H. BiUJdhism ill Am/Jlfadda. 10 . It is therefore highly probable that the stii pa of SilihuI)4im. Gha1)~aSila. V. XXVII. Nos. To cite o nly the main ones. R.1a. Even more than Kalinga. see J. RAMACHASOUN. ABORT. P. 9· 24. Pr.

. We therefore have nonason to describe them at present. p. . from the name of the · Andhra or 5ataviihana sovereigns who were then ruling the region. U/t 0/ NaBtlrpma. For the Puriif)a. he spent the last part of his life in AndhradeSa. RAA. The thirteenth Asokan edict considers them as neighbours of the Bhojas who inhabited the northern Deccan including Vidarbha or Bc:rar. London. 'f l or xxx. known as Siitavahana" (T 1674. The Ai(areya BrOhmOlJil (VII.JaM /jOII b:wi bas been publi5hed by S. 19.10. Pliny (VI. some bibliographical infoTmalion can be round in lhe Trajli rk {Q Gramk VtrfU rk $agts#.D.C. 1. Since !hen a translation lhe DfJ'II b. WESUL. KDoqJca tl $Qla~. 9l-S. 92. The Greek and Latin writers of the first centuries. the king of South India. 75Ia-b.consider the Andarae as a powerful nation possessing a great number of lesser townships. built a great many sanctuaries and temples. they call the cities of Konkan by the name of "Towns of the Andres Peiratai·· . pp.K. /rom I~ C"WK Edition 0/ J. 67) and Ptolemy (VII. but the completion of which dates back no earlier than the second and third centuries A. particularly in Amaravati. in the Western Vindhyas and the Aravalli chain or on the river Narmj\da.from I~ Tibtlan. constructed an enclosure A . on the Sriparvata near Obanyakataka : "He provided for the monks. lA. Pulindas and Miitibas. p. p. which are among the loveliest jewels of Indian and Buddhist art. pp. 107. us saJptwr~s d ·AlPIarQl'tllf.(378-379) THE EASTERN COAST AND ANDHRADESA 345 378 Mahacaityas. but nevertheless remark that several of these Mahacaityas replaced older stiipas and that. 27) and three Chinese versions (T 1672-4) of the Friendly Letter (Suh~lIekhu) he addressed "to his former diinapati named Jantak. 18) which associates them with the dasyu or non-Aryan tribes of the Pur:a4ras. Fouc HD. Nag6rjuM 's " FrwndJy Episll# " ". 1936. It is unfortunate that the original homeland of the Andhras cannot be precisely determined. n On Ihe lives or Nigirjuna. 2. X-XIV. BU. nu. S. T 2125. thirty towns fortified with walls and 319 towers and supplying its king with 100.000 elephants. Louvain. pp. According to the Tibetan historians. it is believed..a.84) . IHQ. 4. V. 1954. between the years 200 to 100 B. 1944. pp. P. 1886.L. JPTS. seems to locate them to the south of Aryavarta. Uvi. TIw SwJu:lltkha Ir. j-32. i. 1892 .I. . of Andhra pirates. lt4 See H. Savaras..e.000 infantry. and we still possess a Tibetan translation (Mdo 94. Nagarjuna Ul was in contact with the Andhra kings. 161 . the Oeccanese dynasty of the Satavahanas was of Andhra origin (andhrajiitiya) or subject to the Andhras (andlrrabh~tya). 227c)164.who must have obtained their information from Megasthenes . S.000 cavalry and 1. the constructors of the Mahacaitya re-used sculptures of an aniconic type which originally came from the ornamentation of an ancient stiipa built.rsjlrK. ch.

p. According to the PiiriiyOIJo (Sullanipiito . p. the C hinese master distinguishes between three regions : a. p. 8avari. 900 Ii to the south of the foregoing. pp. When Nigarjuna's head was cut off by Prince ~ktimiin. a mountain o f NagarjunikOl)4a in Andhra country where. The memories of the scholar Bhavaviveka and the bodhisattva Dhannapala remained attached to the region. a region characterized by the monastery and stupa of the Arhat Acara. XX. These details were necessary to show the uncertainties with which the localization of the legends is confronted. and it was there that he allowed himself to be beheaded by the king's son . and no more than a thousand Mahasaqlghikas were living there. son of King Antiviihana o r Udayanabhadhra. II. 22). 93Oc-93Io). II. 1929. at the time of the Ik ~vi kus. 1. 1. who also records those traditions. 72. 127.346 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (J79-J80) like a string of diamonds at the Vajrasana (in BOOh·Gayil. If. the exact time when this region was reached by Buddhist propaganda remains to be discovered. to judge from Hslian tsang. that Nagarjuna was in contact with a Satavahana king who provided a convent for him in the rock of Mount Brahmaragiri. 976-1148). we understand by AndhradeSa the Telugu-speaking land situated between the Godavari and the Kistna.000 Ii (sic) to the south of the previous one . here most of the Buddhist monasteries were deserted. he was dwelling on the Sriparvata (Bu-ston. the topography appears to be very much more complicated. It was in this region. "Sy him the sanctuary of Dpal Idan J. digging into the rock. had made large halls with wide corridors communicating with the the steep mountainsides" (T 2087. and to put the reader on his guard against hasty simplifications. 125)". Bodhisiri erected an apsidal temple (EI. an ASokan stupa. 380 b. 10. the PUrva and AparaSaila monasteries were "built for the Buddha by an early king of the country who had laid out a communication track alongside the river and who. However. Dak~i1)a Kosala (Vidarbha or Berar). p. It was on the heights to the east and west of the capital that.lbras [Sri Dhinyakataka] was surrounded by a wall and. and to which the memory of the Buddhist logician Dionaga remained attached. Sum pa. one of the earliest Buddhist texts used as a source by the canonical sutras. Dhanyaka!aka. Dpag bsam /jon bzati). 71). vv. a . within that wall. as a hypothesis. ch. marked by an o ld monastery and an Asokan stupa. p. Andhra. 108 temples were constructed" (Taranatha. and erected a building for the sanctuary of Opal I:fbras spuns [Sri DhanyakatakaJ" (8u-ston. c. Taranalha.800 Ii north-west of Kalioga.

pp. Ibid. Ayiraharp..la .. So who does know the meaning? asked Bavari. Nevenheless. and it was to that town that the Buddha came personally to convert him. The latter returned to Andhara country to . named Assaka and A!aka. settled either in the land of Ailguttara to the north of Rijagrha (information supplied by Chi tsang and Paramartha). including Ajita and Tissametteyya.(l8(}. EI. XX. who were in tum to split into several subschools. Piilgiya became an Arhat and Bavan. The disciples therefore set out nonhwards and. At the end of his recital. 432b-433c) which repeats the same story with the addition of a few variants. Arya (mabii}saIpgha) : Nigiiljuniko~c. 12. the Hsien yii ching (T 202. Ayirahagha ( . no longer a hermit from AndhradeSa. had placed a hermitage at his disposal. NagarjunikolJ~a) where Prakrit inscriptions from the second and third centuries record their presence. XX. tell his uncle of the Buddha's answers.e. i. ended by finding the Buddha in Vaisali. Alluru. 20. Bavan was reassured by a deity who told him that the wicked brahmin did not even know the meaning of the words "head" and "explosion of the head". GhaIJJaSila . We saw above how. the Andhra country learned of the Buddhist message from the very lips of Sakyamuni. but Davan was too poor to be able to give him such a sum . 62 . . and his interlocutors attained Arhatship with the exception 381 of Piilgiya. Whereupon. However. 17. in Ihe reign of Asoka according to the short chronology. Babu5utiya ( _ Bahusrutiya). the Buddha appeared before them in all his glory and preached the Law to them. In the terms of this very ancient legend. Those schismatics. 1929. XXI. about the years 100 or 116 after the NirvalJa. the adht:rents of Mahiideva's five theses broke away from the original Sarpgha and set themselves up as a separate school which took the name of Mahasarpghika. The Master replied to all the Questions he was asked. One day a brahmin came and asked him for five hundred gold pieces. had retired to Dak~i~apatha on the banks of the Godavari where the Andhaka kings. p.gha. the brahmin cursed him and told him his head would explode into seven pieces. p. makes Bavan.• EI. 24. pp.. or in Kausambi (according to the Nikiiyasarrgraha). after a long journey all the stages of which were carefully noted. an anigamin.. but Quite simply a chaplain (purohita) from Pa~liputra. ch. The deity informed him that a Buddha had appeared in the world and was to be found in Sravasti Bavan decided to send him his sixteen disciples. Bavan s nephew. we have good reason to believe that certain subschools of the Mahiisarpghikas settled in Andhra country (Amaravati-DhanyakaJaka.381 ) THE EASTERN COAST AND ANDHRAOESA 347 brahmin ascetic from Sravasti.

278. Indeed. 21. a Mahayanist work translated into Chinese between the years 4 J4 and 421 . XXIV.Pi. in South India. on South Indian Epigraphy . The wife of thai king will give birth 10 a daughter named Growth (Tsing chong. Sr. Caitikas and Sailas. there will be a river called Black ( H~j an . 1-31). Sidhata (. Jaf. 102. Under the names of Mahasaf!lghikas. they continued to teach the five heretical theses of Mahadeva. The name of the Sitavihana PuJomi. lOoEllS.. It was to the glorification of their pious wives that a prophecy seems to be devoted in the MahOmegho. and in the third century under the minor family of the Ik~vikus.D. Nos. 382 The majority or these sects made their appearance in the second century afier the NirvaJ. Mahavanasala ( _ ~ila. Celika of Rijagiri. in Tibetan Dpal ~pMI.AparaSaila) : Gha~~aSiili. AnnlUll hpor. the Kalhiivallhu.a.e .. the Prikrit form of Andhra). Aparamahivinascliya ( . Aparaseliya. under the great Satavahanas. 1223. Cctikaya (. 1942. Nos. p. We would also point out that Andhra Buddhism underwent a period of artistic efflorescence in the second century A.. 17. 1263. pp. 33. 259. As for the Ik~vakus of the third century. However. EI.'rddJu). p.348 THE MAURYAN PERIOD (38 \ · 382) Cetika. Nigirjunikol)4a. 298. designates them as a group by the name of "Andhaka Theses". 1101a). at that time. p. LODEu. IoIUltTI. No. i. SIVAIlAM . LOOEllS. 1230. pp. 1244 . 1130 . 19. XXIV. (Sc)liya. Cetiyavarpdaka. EI. SIVAltAMANulln. XXVII. appears on the monuments at Amarivati (LOnERS. in the century foll owing Asoka. XX. modem Kistna) and. Rijagirinivisika (a Rijagiriya) : Amarivali. which is good proof that those sects had their centre in Andhra country.. Siddhatthika) : Amarivati. in the valleys of the Godavari and Kistna . 1248). in that town. Celikiya. 1270.e. 1250. 1929. present-day Dharanikot) .e.aila) : Al1uru. and it was probably in his reign that the famous Mahicaitya was completed (EI. No. No. 6. Bahusrutiyas.iikiya. LODns. the si te of Nigirjuniko~4a owes practically everything to them (EI. Visi~~hiputra PuJumivi (ca 130-159 A. Puvascliya (_ Plirvas. which lists up to 72 of them. as well as many other tenets disputed by the Theravidins. 1248. Dhinya(kata~aJ. 1923. p. pp. EI. 1281 . on the south bank of that river. there will be a small kingdom called Lightless (Wu ming oAndha . Mahavanasaliya. Amarivati. XX.Caitika or Caityika) : Nisik. a town named Ripe Grain (Shu leu. the Andhra kingdom was reduced to a minimum : "Seven hundred years after my NirvalJ.. K~l)a. in that kingdom. 1250. 256-60).D. 24. LODEltS.la. MahiSaila) : Amarivati. 1938. she will be so . i. 97 . No.). in Skt. Madras. p. Cetiavadaka. 1272. Dharanikota. No.sUtra (T 381. there will be a king named EvenVehicle (Satavahana). 4 . p. I.• according to the short chronology. AmaravQtf SculplllrrJ . ch.

At the beginning of the seventh century. The master of the Law also refers to a huge monastery to the south of the town. I •• )8) .( 382· )8) THE EASTERN COAST AND ANDHRADESA 349 beautirul that everyone wiUlove her . BwJdJrUI MQlfUlll 0/ PsycfrolOKiaIl E'llics. Another Buddhist centre situated in southern India was Kaiki. The statements of the great Chinese master cannot be vrrified. if such a mission did in fact exist. 19 16. XXV III . the Senas and Guttikas.C. 10. However. other Sthavirian missionaries may easily have established themselves at the same time in Coromandel. Kand was a fairl y fl ourishing Buddhist centre. p. p. within its walls. In such conditions. According to HSllan tsang (T 2087. 93Oc). 148. and their armies included only two Buddhists. respectively.• London. on the river Palar. and 47 B. on the heights overlooking the town. bad conduct and like beasts" (MahiiYOf!1So . XXV. ch . 43 miles south·west of Madras.a'lI' II1II1 Spradw . It was there thai the Poril)acariyas compiled the Si nhalese: commentaries of the Andha-Allhakothd and also possibly the Sonkhepo-AllhakallJijl6s. 17. it is questionable whether it was indeed during the ASokan age that so many stupas and monasteries were built in the Tamil land. ch. her goodwill will be inexhaustible". the Buddha visited it frequently . a large number of monasteries were in ruins. It remains nonetheless a fact that at one stage in its history. it was not as wannly welcomed by the Drivi4as and Colas as it was in Ceylon . 110). 192). Buddhism was already in full decline there . SIra. the Cola Elara and the seven Dami!as who successfull y attempted a landing in Ceylon. 2 nd cd . the rest being "of wrong views. In fact. However.sbourj. she will observe the religious prescriptions. 93Ic). and King ASoka erected stupas there in various places where the Buddha had taught and admitted members into his order. one hundred feet high . p. W. used by Buddhaghosa (5th c. Pd/i Li'~. the capital of the Drivi4as or Colas. he also discovered the famous Purva and AparaSaila monasteries (T 2087. G£1ClER. and the area was no longer the ideal place of retreat to which Arhats and non-Arhats Hocked from all sides in order 10 spend the rainy season and win holiness. were all non-believers. If Mahinda and his companions founded a flourishing Buddhist Community in Ceylon at the time of ASoka. used as a meeting-place for the most eminent people of the land . 10. p. HSllan tsang listed twenty monasteries in Dhanyaka~aka inhabited by at least a thousand Mahas3qlghikas. in 180. erected on the spot where the Buddha had one day confounded the heretics and converted a great number of persons. RHYs DAVID$. there was an ASokan stupa.) See C. present-day Conjeevaram.

92. ch. Tz 'u en chuon. T 20S3. cr. ch. ARanda. 29 . the most ramous. also came from the mainland (Gandhavmrua. GandhavatrtSD. Of the four Dhammapalas known to the tradition. 931 c). a place near Kiiki (Sdsanavmrua . p. 11 2. T. 66). was a native of Uragapura (Ureiyur). p. 241 c 26-29). 10. 33. Samanlapiuiidikii. Hsi yU chi. considered as a contemporary of Buddhaghosa (SiisanaVQf!lSD . It was quilt naturally in Coromandel that the monks from Ceylon took refuge when economic or political circumstances caused 384 them to leave their island (ManorothapiirUl)I. the author of a Miila!ika o n the Abhidhamma. • . the Tamil coast was to provide oUlSlanding exegetists for the school of the Pili language. it was in Kinei that the legend o r the Buddhist goddess Mal)imekhali look shape. 4. MahQvturUa . p. on the Kaveri (colophon of the Vinoyavinicchoya). T 2087. 741). capital of the Colas. p. p.350 THE MAURYAN PERIOD O U -384) and cited by him as authoritative sources (cr. Buddhadatta. Finally. p. IV. author or a part-commentary o n the Khudddalcanikdya entitled Paramatthadipani. In the fifth century. as we will see in the next volume. p. XXXVI. was a native or Padaratittha. 66). p.

80) and Vanagimal). the Brazen Palace (Lohapasada) and especially the Mahathupa (Ruvanveli Dagaba). he relied on the brahmin clan to remain in power and. Of brahmin birth. attempted to revive the old Vedic customs. However. the Buddhists nevertheless found sympathy and support among some Suriga vassals who had settled in the Ganges basin.C. but its legitimacy was immediately contested. had to overcome numerous problems. the Sirphala kings of Ceylon had to defend their island against repeated assaults by Dravidian invaders.OSS-)86) '" CHAPTER FOUR THE PERIOD OF THE SUNGAS AND YA VANAS The Mauryan period and especially the glorious reign of ASoka marked the goklen age of Buddhism. he appeared as a usurper and persecutor. the Indian general Pu. and Pu.imal). the Good Law did not suffer from these ceaseless wars. Kaus. particularly at Bharhut.i (47. After he had assassinated King Brhadratha.5--30 B. During the same period.yamitra alienated the disciples of the Sakya and the supporters of the Mauryan legitimacy. Rejected by the authorities in power. on their advice. even while making progrcss. Among the eighteen princes who succeeded one another in Anuradhapura between the years 200 and 20 B.). This whole policy ran counter to Buddhist interests.. he constructed famous monuments which are still the glory of Ceylon today : the Maricavani Thiipa (Mirisave!i Dagaba). we note the names of Du~!hag. These originated for the most part from the political and social instability incurred by the weak and decentralized kingdoms of the Sungas (c. but the last two centuries of the ancient era constituted a time of crisis during which the Good Law.yamitra established a kingdom on the ruins of the Mauryan empire. The reign of Vanagamal).i was marked by GENERAL fEATURES OF TIlE PERJOD.C. 187·75 B.C. the consecration of which gave rise to ceremonies of unprecedented sumptuousness.i appears as a national hero and a Buddhist holy one : after liberating the territory from the grasp of )86 the Dami!as.. Dunhagimal). - .) and the Kal)vas (7. 32-20).i (1()4. Ahicchatra and Mathura.ambi. the protagonist of a powerful theist movement which developed around the cult of the Hindu god Vi'l)u. The last Sungas and the Kal)vas seem to have favoured the Bhagavata sect. To many of his subjects.

this school of sculpture provides precious details . Pu~yamitra subjected the bhik~us to cruel persecution.352 THE PERIOD OF THE SUr'olOAS AND THE YAVANAS (386-387) two important events in religious history : the written compilation of the Pali canonical texts and the: founding of the: thiipa and vihira of Abhayagiri . Viharas which dated back to the beginning and saifigharamas founded in the Mauryan period were joined by new establishments about which some infonnation is available from a list of Sinhalese origin. The theist propaganda which began during the Sunga period in Vi~. at least in the beginning. Bodh-Gaya. 317 3. open to new ideas and tendencies. Weakened by incessant warfare.. the: Bactrians seized practically the entire Ganges basin . Soon the: monks of that monastery separated from the Theras at the Mahavihara in order to set up a rival school. the risks of which do not seem to have been fully appreciated. Even if internal dissensions prevented them from maintaining their advanced positions. The Buddhist Saifigha suffered the consequences of all these events. Throughout his territory. and that this state of mind induced in them a series of reactions which history must take into account. Even though. to the hordes of ~ka invaders at the e:nd of the ancient era.) and the eastern Greek kingdom ( 167-30 B. Quite apart from its artistic value. destroyed stiipas and set fire to monasteries. the most important political event was the active part played on Indian territory by foreign invaders : the Yavanas or Greeks who came from Bactria. he assassinated the religious.uite circles led the Good Law into further grave danger. However. between the years 205 and 167. The obstacles which the Good Law encountered by no means interrupted the missionary movement .C.). The Sunga age also witnessed the birth and efflorescence of the ancient Central Indian school of sculpture which had its main centres at Bharhut.C. Sind and Amaravati (first style). but continued to advance without allowing itself to be stopped by the troubles : I. Sakyamuni's message was able to maintain its doctrinal integrity. they were to succumb. one after the other. According to a well-established tradition. 2. An examination of the sources does not enable us to conclude that the persecution was general. EuthydeMUS of Magnesia and Demetrius. unrest fomented by Hindu influences arose in some of the Buddhist sects and facilitated the advent of the Mahayana. Under the leadership of their kings. for nearly a century and a half they remained in the region of NorthWest India where they established two rival kingdoms : the western Greek kingdom ( 169-90 B. 4. but it is certain that the Buddhists believed themselves to be pursued and hunted.

but the requirements of policy induced some of them to become interested in Indian beliefs. 38. . . however. and even rely on them in order to assert their authority. we have to appraise the historical encounter between Buddhism and Hellenism. they showed themselves refractory to foreign propaganda. Furthermore. unlike their Indian co-religionists. strategoi or meridarchs who turned to Buddhism. Finally. the Buddhist legend was enriched by contact with the universal folklore which was nourished by the Mediterranean world and the Near East . The Buddhists favoured this conciliation. this concerned only a few individuals. Some inscriptions carved by petty monarchs. despite the controversy over the subject. thus demonstrating the universal nature of their religion . but it was not until the beginning of the Christian era that it was applied generally.(l81· )U ) THE SUNGAS AND THE KA~VAS 353 on the religious beliefs and ideals of the lay circles which ensured its success. . Generally speaking. the Mauryas were replaced by a new dynasty which was weak from the outset and had to share power with numerous feudatories. led to the dissolution of the Indian empire.THE SUNGAS AND KAr:NAS THE SUCCESSION OF PRINCES. . and rivalled in power and splendour with what remained of the Gangetic empire. they had not fully understood the mechanism of the maturation of actions.HISTORICAL FAcrs 1. However. at Sakala in the Eastern Punjab. it remains likely that the idea of giving a human fonn to the Buddha in his last existence germinated in the mind of a Greek artist. Finally. and the attitude taken by the disciples of Sikyamuni when confronted by foreign peoples. the Greeks remained faithful to the gods of their traditional pantheon. in MadhyadeSa. As for the Indians in general and the Buddhists in particular. important . Foreign barbarians crossed the North-West frontiers and established powerful kingdoms in Gandhara in the Kabul valley. The southern provinces attained independence. The Indo-Greek king Menander is supposed to have been converted to Buddhism and recent discoveries plead in favour of this tradition . I.The fall of the Mauryas in about 187 B. show that the piety of these was not free from self-interest and that. and in other places.C. and Hellenism had no effect on their innennost mentality. The Greek inOuencc on Buddhism did not extend further than the fie ld of artistic invention which was.

KARMARKAR. 3.1sokovadiituJ (T 2042. ) and included ten sovereigns: I . the Sunga kingdom lasted for 112 years (ea 187-75 B. 2043. TM Na/ure of ~.C.tJMilr(J SwigO 'J Rult. p. Maiijuirimillakalpa (vv. 198-9).) I. III. Gho~ 8. 83). .C. 5. SH. atcording to Kilidisa (Miifavika. p.\II. [)c:vabhiiti reigned 10 years The Sungas were succeeded by the Kal.MA.S. ch . XXV. 1950. p. Bhaga (Bhigavata) reigned 12 years 10. 433) are mistaken in making ~ya­ mitra the last of the Mauryas. Vasudeva 3. IHO. say the PuriilJll (P. pp. k.) and were four in number : I. p.fO (P. p. Af!otihyoyi. The Buddhist sources (Divya . The general 's treachery is stigmatized by Biil)a (HaTfacarita . 117).aa 4. pp. 1925. p. M. 117 . p. 629-32. reigned 36 years Agnimitra reigned 8 years Vasujy~!ha (SujyC!!!ha) reigned 7 years Vasumitra (Sumilra) reigned 10 years Bhadraka (Odruka) reigned 2 (or 7) years 6. that he overthrew Brhadratha and wielded kingship for thirty·six years. 2 14-2 15.. · .). GHOSH. Sariplilrapariprcchii (T I46S. Pulindaka 7. XV. 111-12). . some lines in the Pllrat. I. - reigned 10 (or 4) years The founder of the Sur'lga dynasty is known from some notes by grammarians (Pal)ini. pp.354 THE PERIOD OF THE SUNGAS AND THE JAVANAS <388-389) According to the PuriiIJa (P. PARAD.. Pu~yamitra 2. the Sungas belonged to the brahmin clan of Bharadvaja and. D. 149a sq. 125. 123).. 4. 2. Caslt oj lilt Swiga... Bbiimimittra reigned 14 (or 24) yean Pu~YAMIT1tA (187-ISI B. 1939. Mahijb~ya. Vajramitra reigned 3 years reigned J years reigned 7 (or 9) years 9. Poona. pp. 91 sq. pp. I. Pu~yamitra was of the Baimbika family (kula) . Maluivibhdfa (T I54S. a Sanskrit inscrip389 tion from Ayodhya (EI .C. this is all scattered infonnation which by no means constitutes a consistent history. 81). 31-3).C. a short remark by Bal)3 in his Harfucarita (ed. Ilia sq. pp. IHQ. 9-11. 9OOa-b). I. the last of the Mauryas. He was commander-in-chief (sendni) of Brhadratha. J. Nirayar. Divyavadiina. XX. p. Bombay. 530-7) and Taraniitha (p. 31-3).lVayanas or Sungabhrtyas who ruled for 45 years (75-30 B. J. pp. IHQ.vtlJolD"~. SUSarman reigned 12 yean reigned 9 (or 5) years 2. 198. ch. 2. 433). 1929. 1949. III . and it was in that capacity. 31-3) and quite a large number of Buddhist sources: . p. 1946. ~yomi"(J tIIId /l u Empirt. According to Piil)ini (IV. pp. Ill. Pataiijali. R. 655b-c). certain passages in the Maiavikagnimilra by Kalidasa (ed. IV.C. T. 54 sq. However.

We will return later to this expedition. . 95. the crown prince Agnimitra. Seleucus ( Nicator and Antiochus III the Great. ~yamitra had to face a more serious danger originating from the North-West frontiers. The minor war of Vidarbha has all the ingredients of a tragioCQmedy. in Eastern Malwa. who had rallied to the usurper. slew his master the Maurya Brhadratha. the governor of Berar. a certain Virasena. vanquished Yajnasena's armies and freed Madhavasena from prison . the river Varadi (present-day Wardha) marking the fronti er between the two governors who seem to have recognized the suzerainty of Pu~ya­ mitra and his son (Maloyjko. and plunged into the heart of the Indian empire. He immediately undertook to have his relative liberated. to the north-west as far as 18. Patanjali gives an example with the phrases : Arw:uui Yoyano SQ}wam : ATUIJ4d Yayano Madhyamikdm (MaJuib~ya . deserted and founded the independent kingdom of Vidarbha (Maloyjko . a despicable general. Yajnasena's cousin. established his personal court at Vidisa. The brother-in-law of this minister. Virasena was a skillful tactician. Yajnasena had him arrested by a frontier-guard and thrown into prison. p. His son.(389-390) PU$YAMTTRA 355 )90 9) : "Nner having assembled the whole army on pretext of showing him the forces of the empire. War broke out. While explaining the tense of a verb which is required to specify whether it is a recent action which one could have witnessed. Madhavasena. a man who was feeble of purpose". the commander of a fortress on the banks of the Mandakini (Narmada).tic sources as a basis. pp. using the Greek and Purir. we will simply note that it was confirmed by a contemporary of P~yamitra. Yajnasena. Pu~pamitra (sic). In the meantime. Renewing the attempts of Alexander the Great. undertook to go to Avanti with his wife and sister in order to join Agnimitra. Agnimitra put at the head of his army his wife's brother. Aner which. 2.landhara and Sakala (Punjab). 9-10. but Yajnasena answered that Agnimitra himself should first free the old Mauryan minister. the grammarian Patanjali. the kingdom of Vidarbha was divided between the two cousins Yajnasena and Madhavasena. Pu~yamitra ruled in Pa!aliputra with the title of general. Here. III). near Chitor)" . and imprisoned the former "Mauryan Minister" (MauTYosociyo) who represented the Mauryan legitimacy in Avanti . Demetrius the king of Bactria and his lieutenants seized the Punjab and the Sindh.104). invaded Vidarbha. 111. His possessions extended to the south as far as the Narmada. which means : "(In my time) the Greek besieged Saketa (Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh) and Madhyamika (Nagari in the former Rajputana. 10). presentoday Besnagar. Agnimitra immediately demanded the release of Madhavasena. However.

A ~uilga inscription. Vasumitra. the enemy advance. which passes some 150 km from Madhyamiki. a tributary of the Chambal. 123).). His rule seems to have marked the beginning of a brihmanical reaction Pu~yamitra .356 THE PERIOD OF THE SUNGAS AND THE YAVANAS (390-)91 ) However. the commander·in<hief Pu~yamitra af· fectionately embraces his son.. ~yamitra announced this success to Agnimitra in a letter. In fact. etc. by Dhana(-deva. the Indus or. the grandson of Pu~yamilra and son of Agnimitra. has the brahmins of his time utter the solemn declaration : /ha PU. Vasumitra. 111·12) : "Greetings! From the ritual. and say he met with an ignominious death . There was a brisk engagement between the two armies. the KiJi Sindhu. son of Kausiki. surrounded by the guard of the king who claims the title of universal sovereign (caJcravar· lin). which had been neglected by the pro-Buddhist Mauryas. which reached the walls of Pitaliputra. or successor) of the Senipati Pu~yamitra who twice celebrated the Asvamedha" . therefore reinstated esteem for the old Vedic ritual. Come without delay and in peace of mind with my daughters-in·law in order 10 attend the sacrifice". was broken by dissensions between the Greeks. returned to me the excellent horse which they had attempted to take from him. and the anny of Demetrius was compelled to withdrdw to the Punjab.ya (III. more likely. while it was on the southern bank of the Sindhu. the powerful archer. the text of which is reproduced by the Miilavikiignimilra (pp. -bhuti. then I freed the animal with the order to bring 39 t it back at the end of a year. Afier having vanquished the enemy. ambushed a troop of Yavanas on the southern bank of the Sindhu. which incidentally is the first known Sanskrit inscription. Therefore Patanjali. I entrusted Vasumitra and a hundred (Indian) princes with the guardianship of the horse (destined for the sacrifice).ground.. and in particular perfonned that horse sacrifice (aivamedha) which requires no less than a year to complete. Before being immolated the horse roams freely for a year in the direction of the four cardinal points. Le. ruler of Kosala. the Venerable Agnimitra residing in VidiSi. attributes to the sovereign a dual aivQJ'tU!dha in celebration o f his victories : "This altar was erected in honour of Phalgudeva. During this retreat. the father of the Dharmaraja . 2. some local successes were achieved by the Indians. that horse was attacked by a troop of Yavanas. I am now about to proceed with the sacrifice of the horse which my grandson brought back to me. the sixth (son. • As will be seen further on. "Here we perform sacrifices for Pu~yamitra" . the Buddhist sources consider ~yamitra as a persecutor of Buddhism.. and informs him of this news : Ready to carry out the sacrifice of the Rajasuya. in his Mahiibhii.fyamitrturJ yiijayiimaJ.

p. An.The adventures of Agnimitra. His son Vasumitra or Sumitra. finally turned to the Bhagavata religion. Ind. Andhraka.. . . An inscription at Pabhosa (LOnERS. his taste for the theatre was his downfall: " A great lover of dramatic plays. Devabhiiti. 669). The Sungas created an advisory council (sabho1 or assembly of ministers (manJrapari$ad) in which the brahmins were in the majority. The inscriptions enable us to reconstruct the lineage of the petty monarchs of Bharhut : FEUDATORIES Of THE Gagi Visadeva . 392 The fifth Sunga appears in the PuriiIJa under the most various names : Bhadraka. 904) is dated the year 10 of a certain Udaka with whom this prince may possibly be identified. after having attempted a revival of brahmanism.la-pillar was erected .la-pillar found at Vidisa (LOnERS. Surv. entitled MiiJavikiignimilra . Bhaga or Bhagavata. the last Sunga. p. a second Garuc. its vassals as a general rule remained faithful to Buddhism. THE SUCCf.Whereas the royal house. 199). Sir John Marshall also compares him 10 the king Kasipulra Bhagabhadra. Goti Agaraju .(391-392) fEUDATORJES OF THE SUNGAS 357 which was to reach full development five centuries later under Samudragupta and his successors. was assassinated by the daughter of a slave who had approached him disg~ised as the queen (Har~acarila . the viceroy of Vidisa. Rep . The same sources assign him a reign of two or seven years of rule. Ardraka or Ordruka. On the instigation of his minister Vasudeva.C. Vichi Dhanabhiiti "" Nigarakhili I I Vadhapala These princes erected the famous stupa at Bharhut in central India and decorated it with sculptures : . \... finally Antaka. the fourth Sunga. it is dated the twelfth year of the maharaja Bhagavata (Arch . 190 sq. again in Vidisa. Under the ninth Sunga. p. he was assailed by Mitradeva amidst his actors and was beheaded with one blow of a scimitar" (Haqaearila.SSORS OF PU~YAM1TkA SlJ!:'IGAS. (ca 151-75 B. 198). mentioned on the famous Garuc.). however. 1913-14.). distinguished himself in his youth by the victory of the river Sindhu mentioned above .

2). by order of DhanabhUti Vachiputra.) of the palisade was a " gift from Nagarakhita. a king of Mathura (Gomita?) A~4hasena. a gateway (to. son of the rajan Dhanabhiiti" (LOnERS. rajan of Ahicchatra V8f!lgapila I I Tevani rajan Bhagavata ~c. wife of the rajan [DhanabhiiJti" (LOoERS. 125). The memory of the pious family also remains attached to Buddhist establishments in Mathura. 115)_ Another element is the "gift from Prince: Vidhapala. a tree surrounded by a balustrade (CHI. 869. pI. According to the Pabhosa inscriptions (LOnERS. . [son] of DhanabhUti Vatsiputra. BARUA. V.lhasena _ Vaihidari I Gopili I Bahasatimitra YaSimati m. BUUA. (LOOERS. 904-5) and inscribed bricks discovered at Ganeshra near Mathura.358 THE PERIOD OF THE SUNGAS AND THE YAVANAS ( 392-393) "In the reign of the Sugas (Sungas). the fifth Sunga. In the year 10 of the reign of Udaka . his genealogy may be established as follows : Sonakiyana. p. the maternal uncle of King Bahasamitra. 2. the son of Agaraju Gotiputra and grandson of the rajan Visadeva Gagiputra". had caves dug I in favour of the Buddhist sect of the Kasyapiyas at Prabhosa. in association with his parents and the four orders (pari~Q). on the reverse. an inscription commemorates " the dedication of a balustrade (vedikii) and gateways (lora~a) at the Ratnagrha by [VadhapaJla.there ruled in Kausambi a King Bahasatimitra (Brhaspatimitra or Brhatsvatimitra) who gave evidence of his Buddhist faith by minting coins bearing an Indian ox before a caitya on the obverse and. son of . DUUA. 882. particularly the " Precious House". 1)_ 393 A cross-piece (sue. son of Gopili Vaihidari and the maternal uncle of the rajan Bahasatimitra. 687. 103).who should perhaps be identified with Odruka.~a) was built and sculptures (siliikaJrlmanta) carved. 538. near Kausambi : "Excavation of a cave (lena) by A~4hasena. in homage to all the Buddhas" (LOnERS.

the petty monarch of Bharhut. most of which end in mitra. XX. 5. husband of Yasamata. 3. the territory will pass to the Andhras" (P. which consisted of no less than a dozen sovereigns.). .la (Rohilkhand). a dynasty ruled in Ahicchatra. Vi~~umitra . the sister-in-law of King Brahmamitra" (Bodh-Gaya. their immediate family certainly included Buddhist sympathizers : thus an architrave and several pillars of the palisade of the "Royal Temple" (rojapriistidacaitya) built by Asoka at Bodh-Gaya are "gifts from Kural!lgi. son of Val!lgapala.. 34-5). capital of Paiici. Bhadragho~. appears in high relief. his son SUSannan. Bhiimimitra. Rudragupta. CCAI . 91 of the palisade at Bodh-Gaya on which Indra. Dhruva (Siva). for the KaSSapiya Arahal!ltas" (LODERS. THE KA1'. is a " gift from Nagadeva. Indramitra . on account of his youth. Phalgunimitra. are known through coins in the British Museum and the Museum of Lucknow (ALLAN. son of Teva~i (Traivan. daughter of Bahasatimitra the king of KauSambi : Balabhiiti. Some copper coins. his son Bhiimitra. . He was possibly related to Dhanabhiiti . Already before the accession of the SUllgas. Siiryamitra. Jayagupta. son of &>nakayana (Saunakayana). 9(4). they wen:: worshippers of Agni .Ji). Some half-hearted attempts have been made to correlate this Brahmamitra with his homonym. Jayamitra. p.lhasena. preserve the names of a dozen of the Sunga vassals who settled in Mathuri : Gomita (II). They will be righteous. pp. . Vi ~~u or Siirya. lO years. Bhiimi. in the fonn of Santi. Those four Ka~vas will remain in power for 45 years. p. That Ka~vayana will reign for 9 years . rajan of Ahicchatra" (LODERS. 1929.lVAS (75-30 B. 4. and this minister will become king of the Suilgas. 58)."A minister named Vasudeva will overthrow the dissolute king nevabhumi. After they have gone. Their names. Neighbouring princes will submit to them. the Bhadramitra of the Mathura coins. Brahmamitra. They are mentioned as kings subservient to the Sungas (iurigabhrlya) and descendants of the Ka~vas (k~yayana). However. To judge from the deities or symbols which appear on the reverse of their coins. his son Narayal)a. p. Lak~mi.C. 12 years."Excavation of a cave by A~c. 14 years. Visvapala and Brhaspatimitra. the sister-in-law of Il!ldagimitra (lndragnimitra). with the goddess Lak~mi on the obverse and three mountend elephants on the reverse. The Ayodhya inscription mentioned above (EI . 905).(39)-)94 ) THE KA~AS 359 )94 GopaIi. Dhruvamitra. son of Vaihidan and the rajan Bhagavata. the daughter of Jiva. cxvi-cxx) : Agnimitra. Post No. to the Royal Temple" (LODERS. etc. 8hanumitra. 57) refers to a Ruler of Kosala who was the sixth (son or successor?) of the commander-in-chief Pu~yamitra . 939-44).

the Sinhalese chronicle designates the princes who ruled in Ceylon during the troubled era which. by the Andhra king Simuka and his allies who.C. and both would have been definitively destroyed by the Andhras around 30 B.C. who were a prey to internal struggles. XXI-XXXIII). the tenth Sunga. the new dynasty could have allowed some descendants of the Sungas to continue alongside it.8 to 12 inclusive). 38). tile last survivor of the Magadhan missionaries who had come to Ceylon under the leadership of Mahinda. the history of these kings is not known elsewhere but.).C. must have been Vi~l)uites just like the last Sungas. 14). 361). rallying first to bdhmanism and then to the bhagavata religion did not maintain the close and friendly relations established by the pious Asoka in the past with the kings of Ceylon. This passage seems to imply that the Andhras overthrew the Sungas and Kal)vas simultaneously. who were convinced Buddhists. p.The Sungas and Kal)vas. The first constructed the Nagarangar::aavihara for the Thera Bhaddasala. destroy whatever remains of the Sungas (Swigiinii'!1 eaiva yae ehe~am) and seize that territory" (P.C.· THE SUCCESSION OF KINGS. reign of Dunhagamal)i (No. say the PuriilJa. reign of the Ten Kings (Nos. Mahasiva and Sflratissa each reigned for ten years (200-180 B. "will attack the Kal':lVayanas and SuSannan. was assassinated by the first Kal)va. These according to the Dipa (Ch. 13). are the divisions of the period and the sequence of reigns: I. IS to 24) (see p. but these legitimate princes had three times to yield the throne to Dami!a invaders who came from the Indian sub-continent. and some historians have deduced from this that the 45 years of rule assigned to the Kal)vas were included in the 112 years attributed to the Sungas. .Under this title. reign of E!ara (No. 2.C. Vasudeva and Narayal)a. 18 sovereigns succeeded one another to the throne of Ceylon between the years 286 and 466 after the Nirval)a (200-20 B. . THE PERIOD OF THE RYE KINGS (286-338 after the Nirval)a. However.) : the majority of them belonged to the ancient Vijaya lineage. XVIII-XX) and the Mahiivamsa (Ch. to judge from their names. . 3. the PuriiJ}a categorically assert that Devabhuti.. the period of the Five Kings (reigns No.). 4. 200-148 B. two of them.CEYLON FROM 200 10 2Q H. According to the evidence of the chronicles. was marked by the fall of the great Mauryan empire and the accession of the Sungas to the throne.360 THE PERIOD OF THE SUN-GAS AND THE VAVANAS (394-395 ) 395 Summarized in this way by the PuriiJ}a. . They were overthrown in approximately 30 B. on the Indian subcontinent.C. Notwithstanding. 2. Succeeding their brother Uttiya.

he remained in power for 44 years. Their rule was just and continued for 22 years (180-158 B. Mitta and Dighajantu. eXlempore generals. THE co~ E~ru (332·382 after the Nirval)a. Tbiilathana 17.C.424 424 424-433 4]].. Khalla~niga 22 10 44 306-328 328-338 338-382 382-406 180-158 158-148 148-104 24 18 I month 104-80 ~2 4{)6. is said to have founded five hundred viharas on the island. Suratissa 10. the dispossessed Sinhalese princes had taken refuge in the southern province of Roha!)a. one of the nine sons of MU!asiva and brother of Devanal!lPiyatissa. Supported by two skillful generals.C. Lanjatissa 18. GuUika 12. Elara 14. Ceylon fell for the first time into the hands of Damila (Tamil) hordes who had come from the sub-continent under the guidance of two horse-dealers.C. while not sharing his subjects'