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SPiCE

School of Process instrumentation & Control Education


From Indias leading Process Control Enterprise

Yokogawa

GRADUATE TRAINING PROGRAM


PROCESS MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL APPLICATION

INTRODUCTION TO YOKOGAWA PCI PRODUCTS FIELDBUS ENGINEERING

YIL TRAINING CENTER

PROCESS MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL APPLICATION


OBJECTIVE DURATION : This course enables participants to learn the terminologies of Instrumentation, measurement techniques and concepts of control system. : 6 Days

COURSE CURRICULUM :

DAY 1 2 3 4 5 6

CONTENT
INTRODUCTION & BASICS OF MEASUREMENT CALIBRATION & CONVERSION TABLES LEVEL MEASUREMENT FLOW MEASUREMENT PRESSURE MEASUREMENT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FEEDBACK ,FEED FORWARD AND CASCADE CONTROL TUNING OF CONTROLLER

INTRODUCTION TO YOKOGAWA PCI PRODUCTS


OBJECTIVE : This course enables the participant to understand the latest sensor technology for industrial measurement including the recent advances in process instrumentation. : 5 Days

DURATION

COURSE CURRICULUM :

DAY

CONTENT
INTRODUCTION TO FIELD INSTRUMENTS

EVOLUTION OF PCI PRODUCTS (YOKOGAWA) TRANSMITTERS - EJA , EJX , YTA FLOW METERS VORTEX

ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS MAGNETIC FLOW METERS MASS FLOW METERS

3 4 5

RECORDERS / DAQWORKS CONTROLLERS (YS170 / UT SERIES) CONTROLLERS - US1000

FIELDBUS ENGINEERING
OBJECTIVE DURATION : This course is designed to provide participants an overall understanding of Fieldbus Technology and the Asset Management tool. : 4 Days

COURSE CURRICULUM :

DAY
1 OFFLINE ENGINEERING ONLINE ENGINEERING 2 DEVICE REGISTRATION

CONTENT
INTRODUCTION TO FIELD BUS CONCEPT

OPERATION OF FF SHADOW BLOCKS

3 4

PRM INSTALLATION PRM FEATURES & OPERATION

PROCESS MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL APPLICATION

o INTRODUCTION o CALIBRATION TECHNIQUE o LEVEL MEASUREMENT o FLOW MEASUREMENT o PRESSURE MEASUREMENT o TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT o CONTROL LOOPS AND TUNING o ALARM ANNUNCIATORS

INTRODUCTION TO INSTRUMENTATION
AUTOMATION: You are well aware that the different Industrial sectors like Information technology, Telecom, Automobiles, Textiles all play a major role in our life. Likewise, Automation is another important core sector, which is virtually controlling our life. Today, automation solutions are required right from agriculture to space technology and Plant Automation has become absolute necessity for the manufacturing / process industries to survive in todays global market. Automation is simply the delegation of human control function to process equipments for increasing productivity, Quality, Cost reduction, Plant equipment safety A CONTROL SYSTEM, which takes cares the various operations involved in a process, in an automated way with minimal human intervention, is generally known as AUTOMATION. CONTROL SYSTEM: A Control system is a combination of various devices that are integrated as a system used to sense, measure, indicate and control the process variables, which in turn controls the process to achieve the desired results. PROCESS CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION As part of a control system various measurements and controls are generally involved in a process, to achieve the desired process conditions. PROCESS CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION

MEASUREMENT When we want to quantify something, Measurement is required. Examples: At what SPEED the train is going?. What is the TEMPERATURE in the furnace? What is the PRESSURE exerted by the System? What is the WEIGHT of the parcel? What is the water LEVEL in the tank? How much water is FLOW ing through the pipe?

CONTROL

Now, these parameters like Pressure, Tempeature, Flow, Level which are measured are called PROCESS VARIABLES

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PROCESS VARIABLES: The most commonly used measurements (Process variables) are: Pressure Temperature Flow Level Speed Weight Humidity Density Vibration Conductivity Ph Current Voltage Power Torque Position

MEASUREMENT

INDICATION What is INDICATION? When the measured value is presented in a readable form, we call that the value of the parameter is INDICATED. As the value changes the indication changes and the earlier readings are lost.

RECORDING What is RECORDING? When the measured value is RECORDED in a readable form, we call that the value of the parameter is RECORDED. As the value changes since the earlier readings are recorded we can refer the previous readings.

MEASUREMENTS: Measurements are made available either in Local OR in Remote


LOCAL

Examples:

PI 18

When it is required to know the Pressure in the pipeline or level in the tank, one has to go to that place of installation (local) to know the values. These types of measurement are known as LOCAL MEASUREMENT.

LI 24 24

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REMOTE: The Parameter to be measured is sensed in the field area and the signal is transmitted to a remote place. (Central Control Room) for readable & control purpose and this type of measurement is known as REMOTE MEASUREMENT. Sitting in Control room, one can know the values. Fig 1 & 2 represents Remote measurement. Examples: FIELD AREA CONTROL ROOM

PS H

FIG. 1
Receiver
FT 13
FIC 13

Transmitter Primary (sensing) element


FE 13

FIG. 2

Two types of Signals: DIGITAL & ANALOG DIGITAL: ANALOG: The output represents anyone of the two states, that is 0 or 1, ON/OFF, OPEN / CLOSE (FIG. 1) The output is continuous, representing 0 to 100% value of the Measurement (FIG. 2).

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The Plant Instrumentation can be divided as FIELD IINSTRUMENTATION and Control room INSTRUMENTATIION. PLANT INSTRUMENTATION

FIELD

CONTROL ROOM DCS PLC SCADA Industrial PCs Marshalling Racks UPS Control Panel

INSTRUMENTS
Sensors Pressure Instruments Temperature Instruments Flow Instruments Level Instruments Speed Instruments Density Instruments Weight Instruments Analytical Instruments Control Valves Actuators

OTHER ITEMS
Local Panels Junction Boxes Cable trays Cable duct Cables Impulse Lines SS / Copper tubes

BASICS ON MEASUREMENT
UNITS:
The measurements made to quantify any thing has to be expressed in UNITS. Example: The The The The The The The SPEED of the train : kilometers per hour. TEMPERATURE in the furnace: Deg. C PRESSURE : psi WEIGHT of the parcel: kgs. LEVEL in the tank: meters AREA of the plot: Sq. Feet FLOW of water in the pipeline: lts/hr.(LPH)

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INDICATION / READING: Examples : Measurements are generally expressed in Percentage (%) Example: The pressure in a chamber is between 0 and 200 psi. psi 0% 10 % 20 % 0 20 40

100%

200 TRANSMITTER

PNEUMATIC Output 3 to 15 psi 0.2 to 1 kg/cm2 XR Output 3 psi 6 psi 9 psi 12 psi 15 psi % 0 25 50 75 100
L PH

ELECTRONIC Output 4 to 20 mA XR Output 4 mA 8mA 12 mA 16 mA 20 mA % 0 25 50 75 100 Kg/cm2 0 100 200 300 400

0 50 100 150 200

LINEAR AND SQUARE ROOT SCALES: Recorder charts for Pressure, Temperature, Level, Specific Gravity, etc. generally have a linear scale whereas flow charts have a square root scale. This is because the rate of flow is proportional to the sq. Root of the differential head. Whereas linear charts have a uniform calibration, Sq.root charts have a sq. root calibration as shown in the figure below. It will be noted that 50% of the flow is actually marked on 25% of the linear chart, 70% of the flow near the 50% of linear scale and 90% of the flow very near 80% of the linear scale.

LINEAR SCALE

10

02

SQ. ROOT SCALE

10 Page 5 of 11

Consequently flow scales are cramped at the bottom (near zero) and expanded near maximum. Accuracy of flow meter reading against such a scale can be had only above 25% of the linear scale. LINEAR AND SQUARE ROOT CALIBRATION TABLE: TRANSMITTER OUTPUT mA psi Kg/ cm2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 READING LINEAR SCALE SQUARE ROOT SCALE 0% 50% 70.71% 86.60% 100% MEASURED VALUE FLOW (m3 / Hr.)

4 8 12 16 20

3 6 9 12 15

0% 25% 50% 75% 100%

0 100 200 300 400

BASIC DELINITIONS

ELEVATED ZERO: A range where the zero value of the measured signal is greater than the lower range value. Zero lies between LRV and URV Range: (-) 25 to 100

(-)25 LRV
SUPPRESSED ZERO:

100 URV

A range where the zero value of the measured signal is less than the lower range value. Zero does not appear in the scale. Page 6 of 11

Example: 20 to 100

20
Typical Ranges Name Range Lower Range Value

100
Upper range Value +100 +100 Span

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE USE OF RANGE AND SPAN TERMINOLOGY:

0 20

+100 +100

Suppressed Zero Range

0 to 100 0 20 to 100 20

100 80

-25

+100 Elevated Zero -25 to Range +100 0

-25

+100

125

-100

Elevated Zero -100 to 0 -100 Range

100

ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE USE OF TERMS MEASURED VARIABLE & MEASURED SIGNAL: TYPICAL RANGES THERMOCOUPLE 0 2000 F TYPE K T/C -0.68 +44.91mV TYPE OF RANGE RANGE Measured 0 to Variable 2000F Measured -0.68 to Signal +44.91mV LOWER RANGE VALUE 0 F -0.68mV UPPER RANGE VALUE 2000 F SPAN

2000 F

+44.91mV 45.59mV 10,000Ib/h 100in H2O 500 rpm 5V 10,000 Ib/h 100in H2O 500 rpm 5V

FLOWMETER 0 10,000Ib/h 0 100in H2O

Measured 0 to 0 Ib/h Variable 10,000Ib/h Measured 0 to 100 0in H2O Signal in H2O Measured 0 to Variable rpm Measured 0 Signal 500 0 rpm 0V

TACHOMETER 0 500 rpm 0 5V

to 5V

is defined as the closeness with which the reading approaches an ACCURACY accepted standard value or true value. Accuracy is often quoted as a percentage of the full scale value. Ex : accuracy : +/- 1 % fsd ERROR - The algebraic difference between the indicated and the true value of the measured signal.

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ERROR = Indicated (measured) value True value. LAG : When the quantity being measured changes, a certain time might have elapsed before the measuring instrument responds to the change. It is said to show LAG.

DEAD SPACE / THRESHOLD: When the quantity being measured is gradually increased from zero, a certain minimum level might have reached before the instrument responds and gives a detectable reading. This is called the threshold. It is just a dead space that happens to occur when the Instrument is used from a zero value. For example, a pressure gauge might not respond until the pressure has risen to some value. This may be due to friction and other factors of the gauge. . REPEATABILITY: The repeatability of an instrument is its ability to display the same reading for repeated applications of the same value of the quantity being measured. OR The closeness of agreement among a number of consecutive measurements of the output for the same value of the input under the same operating approaching from the same direction, for full range traverses. SENSITIVITY: The ratio of a change in output magnitude to the change of input which causes it after the steady state has been reached. RESOLUTION : The least interval between two adjacent discrete details, which can be distinguished one from the other.

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BASIS ON CONTROL
MANUAL PERCEPTION & CONTROL

MANUAL FEEDBACK CONTROL WITH SENSOR & INDICATOR

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SKETCH FOR AUTOMATIC CLOSED LOOP FEEDBACK CONTROL

MEASUREMENTS & CONTROLS:

A control loop can broadly be divided into four functional categories: to sense or detect the variable to be measured transforms the detected ( sensed )signal to an interpretable stage where it can either be read or used for further control applications . to compare the measured signal with the desired conditions and perform the necessary. Carries out the corrections required so that the variable is controlled within the specified limits.

1 2

Primary Element

Secondary Element Manipulating Element gPrimary Final Control

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CONTROLLER: What is Control? The Process of achieving the actual measurement at a predetermined DESIRED VALUE is known as the CONTROL of that variable. Example: The flow of water through a pipe line has to be controlled at a particular flow, say - 40 litres / hr; We know that we want to control the flow at a specific value. (SET POINT) We have to know how much water is flowing. So, we have to measure the flow (MEASUREMENT). The difference is known as Error. Based on the error, a suitable OUTPUT from the controller goes to the valve to regulate in such a way to get the desired flow.

CONTROLLER BLOCK DIAGRAM: SET POINT OUTPUT

FEED FORWARD CONTROL & FEEDBACK CONTROL Feed forward control involves making an estimate of the quantity of action necessary to accomplish a desired objective. Its basis is in prediction. There is NO feedback. Eg : Washing Machine In Feedback control, measurement (MV) of the variable to be controlled is compared with a reference point (SP). If the difference or error exits between the actual measurement and the set point, the automatic controller takes the necessary action by sending the Increased / decreased output (O/P) to the final control element to achieve the desired control.

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CALIBRATION PROCEDURES FOR CONTROL & INSTRUMENTATION


CALIBRATION Calibration refers to the process of determining the relation between the output (or response) of a measuring instrument and the value of the input quantity or attribute, a measurement standard. Calibration is often regarded as the process of adjusting the output or indication on a measurement instrument to agree with value of the applied standard, within a specified accuracy GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR CALIBRATION Before calibrating the instrument, o Check for any Physical Damage to the Instrument o Check whether the Instrument is working or not in the following manner For Digital Instruments, switch on the power. For Analog Instruments, see the pointer deflection. o Clean the switch contacts, Potentiometers, if any, by cleaning agent. o Give at least half an hour warm-up time for all Power-On Instruments and for Regulated Power Supply before starting Calibration. o For Analog Instruments ensure Mechanical zero before starting the Calibration. o Parallax error is to be avoided. o Instruments used, as masters for Calibration must be calibrated from Govt. approved Laboratory. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
TEMPERATURE RELATIVE HUMIDITY

For Mechanical Instruments For Electrical Instruments CALIBRATION POINTS o o o o

20 +/- 2.5C 25 +/- 2.5C

35 to 65 % 35 to 65 %

Calibration area should be adequately free from dust, shocks and vibrations

The instruments should be Calibrated for all ranges. Ranges which cannot be Calibrated or for which accuracy of the instrument is not as per requirement must be indicated on the instrument itself as well in records. For Analog Instruments, Calibration of an Instrument should be performed at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the range being calibrated, Readings should be recorded at same point while increasing and decreasing. For Digital Instruments, Calibration should be performed at 25%, 50%, 75%, 90% of the range being calibrated.

TABLE FOR SELECTION OF MASTER (REFERENCE STANDARD) FOR CALIBRATION BASED ON ACCURACY DESIRED
DESIRED % ACCURACY OF THE INSTRUMENT RANGE TO BE CALIBRATED MIN. RECOMMENDED ACCURACY OF REFERENCE STANDARD

0.05% 0.01% 0.1% 0.02% 0.2% 0.04% 0.5% 0.1% 1.0% 0.2% 2.5% 0.3% Accuracy of Master Instrument required for Calibrating Mechanical Instruments is recommended to be 10 times higher than the accuracy desired Accuracy. Page 1 of 9

TRACEABLITY CHAIN
NPL NPL National Physical Laboratory DGSTQC Directorate General of Standardization, Testing and Quality Certification

DGSTQC

GOVT. APPROVED

INDUSTRY /USER

TECHNICAL INFORMATION 1. DESCRIPTION OF THE MEASUREMENT PROCESS Standards used along with traceability information. Brief Description of measurement method (could include measurement scheme, measurement time frame etc.) State the number of measurement made. Explain how the data were analyzed to obtain measured values Include an explanation of equations, algorithms or formula used. Definition of acronyms used in report. 2. REPORTING MEASUREMENT RESULTS Report the measured values for the measurement. Where item is found to be out of tolerance, both the incoming and outgoing data should be reported. Measurement uncertainties Influence quantities - Quantities which are not the subject of measurement but which influences the measured values Example 1.Frequency of AC Voltage 2. Temperature & Resistance 3. Temperature & length

3. TEST CONDITIONS LABORATORY ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Temperature Humidity Pressure ABNORMAL CONDITIONS Stability Erratic readings Excessive wear Noticeable physical change Repairs performed on the calibrated item

4. PRESENTING THE DATA Units of measurement should be stated along with associated measured values Units of Uncertainty Uncertainty stated in the same units as the measured value 0.1% * 1000 PPM USE % 0.01% * 100 PPM USE% 0.001% * 10 PPM USE PPM 0.0001% * 1 PPM USE PPM Tables Graphs

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5. TRACEABILITY CONTENTS OF CERTIFICATE OF CALIBRATION 1. Calibration Organization. 2. Certificate Title 3. Item Identification 4. Requester 5. Calibration Due 6. Due Date 7. Certificate Number 8. Signature 6. MAINTAINING RECORDS FOR THE EQUIPMENTS Make Type Serial Number or other ID Measurement Capability Calibration Certificates Date of Calibration Calibration Results After and, if necessary, before Recalibration Date Identification of Calibration Procedure Limits of permissible error Source of Calibration Traceability Environmental conditions during Calibration Uncertainties Details of servicing, Adjustment, repairs or modifications Any limitations in use Persons performing Calibration Persons responsible for ensuring correctness Unique ID of Calibration Report / certificate Retain Records

7. NON CONFORMING MEASURING Suffered Damage. Mishandled or Overloaded. Shows Malfunction. Calibration Overdue. Such Equipment shall not returned to service until reasons for nonconformity have been eliminated and again calibrated Calibration Level Intervals of Calibration

8. SEALING FOR INTEGRITY Access to Adjustable Devices on Measuring Equipment whose setting affects the performance shall be sealed to prevent tampering by unauthorized personnel. Sub-Contracting or use of outside products and services Storage and Handling

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9. CALIBRATION LAB EVALUATION MAJOR POINTS Adequate Records Adequate Recall system Proper Cal. Intervals Proper Labeling Proper Procedures Traceability Adequacy of Standards Cal. Quantity Adequate Environmental Control 10. LABELLING Label shall include Date or Usage time due for Recal ID of the Person who performed the cal ID of the Agency Visibility Cal labels 11. CERTIFICATE OF CALIBRATION Identifies the item being Calibrated and the specification used for Calibration, includes a Traceability statement, and certifies that the calibration was performed. CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR PRESSURE INSTRUMENTS LIKE PRESSURE & DP TRANSMITTERS, PRESSURE GAUGES, TRANSMITTERS, ETC. VISUAL INSPECTION For any type of Physical Damage LEAK TEST Apply full-scale pressure and check the leakage if any in the external lines and fittings. EXERCISE MOVEMENT Three pressure cycles should be applied to the uuc to exercise the movement DATA RECORDING Appropriate pressure will be applied to the UUC and readings will be recorded. Calibrate by starting at zero and continue applying appropriate pressure increments to full range and back to zero. CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR RTD/ T/ C Read the temp. Range and select the set temp. at 10%, 50% & 90% of FS. Adjust the temp. Control in the oil bath at the temp. Corresponding to 10% of FS Allow the oil bath to stabilize for 30 minutes. Dip the RTD Thermocouple into the oil bath and connect it to the multimeter. Record the corresponding temp. The measured value as indicated value and set temp. In the oil bath as true value. Repeat the steps no.2 to no.5 for other set temp. LEVEL

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CALIBRATION PROCEDURE FOR TEMP. INDICATORS & TRANSDUCERS Feed 0 mV to the UUC (IUC) and observe the display. Find out the corresponding mV from IPTS chart for the observed temperature (RT) Select the temperature at 10%, 50% and 90% of FS and take the corresponding mV. Subtract the mV as taken in step 2 from the mV taken from step 3 Feed the mV (obtained from step 4) and observe the temp. In the indicator. Record the display in the temp. Indicator as indicated value and the selected temperature as the true value. UUC IUC IPTS UNIT UNDER CALIBRATION INSTRUMENT UNDER CALIBRATION INTERNATIONAL PRACTICAL TEMP. SCALE.

NOTE:

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CALIBRATION
CONVERSION : (GENERAL ENGG. UNITS)

Refer and use the conversion table Examples: 1) Convert 1000 mm into inches Ans: 1000 x 0.03937 = 39.37 inches 2) Convert 500 litres into gallons (UK) Ans: 500 x 0.22009 = 110.045 gallons (UK) 3) Convert 75 pounds into kilograms Ans: 75 x .4536 = 34.02 kgs 4) Convert 150 kgs into lbs Ans: 150 x 2.20462 = 330.693 lbs 5) Convert 175 Cubicfeet into Cubic mtrs. Ans: 175 x 0.02832 = 4.956 Cubic mtrs. 6) Convert 150 Cubic inches into Cubic centimeters Ans: 150 x 16.3871 = 2458.065 Cubic cm 7) Convert 45 Kg/cm2 into psi Ans: 45 x 14.22 = 639.9 psi 8)Convert 220 inches of water column into mmHg Ans: 220 x 1.867 = 410.74 mmHg 9) Convert 175 m3/Hr into l/Hr. Ans: 175 x 1000 = 175000l/Hr. 10) Convert 120 l/Hr. into m3/min. Ans: 120 x 16.67 x 10 - 6 = 0.0020004 m3/min

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PROBLEM 1 :

Arrange the following in order from Highest to the lowest FLOW: a) 10 gpm b) 10 l/min c) 10 l/Hr d) 10 Cfh e) 10 Cfm f) 10 m3 / min g) 10 m3 / Hr.
PROBLEM 2 :

Arrange the following in order from lowest to the highest PRESSURE: a) 2 Kg/cm2 b) 2 Bar c) 14.7 psig d) 500 mmHg e) 1000 in H2O f) 2000 mmH20 g) 300 in Hg ANSWERS: PROBLEM 1 : ( ANSWER ) f , e , g , a , b , d , c

Arrange the following in order from Highest to the lowest FLOW: a) 10 gpm b) 10 l/min c) 10 l/Hr d) 10 Cfh e) 10 Cfm f) 10 m3 / min g) 10 m3 / Hr 10 gpm 10 x 0.264 = 2.64 gpm 10 x 0.0044 = 0.044 gpm 10 x 0.1247 = 1.247 gpm 10 x 7.481 = 74.81 gpm 10 x 264.2 = 2642 gpm 10 x 4.403 = 44.03 gpm

PROBLEM 2 : ( ANSWER ) f , d , c , a , b , e , g Arrange the following in order from lowest to the highest PRESSURE: a) 2 Kg/cm2 2 kg / cm2 b) 2 Bar 2 x 1.02 = 2.04 kg/cm2 c) 14.7 psig 14.7 x 0.07031 = 1.033 kg/cm2 d) 500 mmHg 500 x 1.36 x 10-3 = 0.68 kg/cm2 e) 1000 in H2O 1000 x 2.538 x 10-3 = 2.538 kg/cm2 f) 2000 mmH20 2 x 0.0999 = 0.1998 kg/cm2 g) 300 in Hg 300 x 25.39998 x 1.36 x 10-3 = 10.363 kg/cm2

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Refer and use the conversion table:

Temperature conversion Fahrenheit AND Centigrade


C = ( F 32 ) x 5/9 F = ( C x 9/5 ) + 32 Examples: Convert 176 deg F into deg C C = ( 149 32 ) x 5/9 = 117x 5/9 = 65 Convert 46 deg C into deg F F = ( 46 x 9/5 ) +32 = ( 9.2 x 9 ) + 32 = 82.8 + 32 = 114.8

Refer and use the conversion table: PAGE 5 OF 33 F 338 * C 640.4 170.44

Temperature Conversion

( Thermocouple )

T / C - TYPE K ( Ni Cr / Ni Al ) ( Chromel Alumel ) Consider the room temp as 32 0 C Use the table For 320C . 1.285 mV Assume you are measuring the temp. of the bath and the indicator shows 100 0 C. But when you measure directly the mV across the T / C head, you will get 2.810 mV Use the table For 1000 C. 4.095 2.810 + 1.285 4.095

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TEMPERATURE CONVERSION ( THERMOCOUPLE ) T / C - TYPE K ( Ni Cr / Ni Al ) ( Chromel Alumel )


0

Consider the room temp as 32

Assume you are measuring the temp. of the bath and the indicator shows 150 0 C. But when you measure directly the mV across the T / C head, How much it will show ? Ans : 6.137 1.285 4.852 TEMPERATURE CONVERSION ( R T D ) Pt 100 .. The Resistance is 100 OHMS for 0 Use the table Find out the resistance value for 65 Ans : 125.15 or 125.16 Find out the temperature if the resistance value is 112.735 Ans : 33
0 0 0

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LEVEL MEASUREMENT
INDUSTRIAL LEVEL MEASUREMENT
The Vast amount of water used by industry, let alone all the solvents, chemicals, and other liquids that are necessary for material processing, make the measurement of liquid level essential to modern manufacturing. There are two ways of measuring level: directly by using the varying level of the liquid as a means of obtaining the measurement; and indirectly, by using a variable, which change with the liquid level, to actuate the measuring mechanism.
INDUSTRIAL LEVEL MEASUREMENTS

MEASUREMENT METHODS

DIRECT METHOD

INDIRECT METHOD

VISUAL LEVEL SENSOR

FLOAT TYPE LEVEL SENSOR

BUOYANT FORCE LEVEL MEASUREMENT

HEAD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

ELECTRICAL LEVEL MEASUREMENT

DIP STICK SIGHT GLASS GAUGE GLASS

DISPLACEMENT TYPE LEVEL SENSOR

1. GUAGE PRESSURE MEASUREMENT 2. AIR BUBBLE PURGE SYSTEM 3. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

1. CAPACITANCE 2. CONDUCTIVITY 3. SONIC/ ULTRASONIC 4. RADAR

DIRECT LIQUID LEVEL MEASUREMENT

FIG -1 A bob weight and measuring tape provide measurement The most simple and direct method of measuring liquid level

Dip stick level

BOB AND TAPE The simplest of the direct devices for liquid level measurement is the bob and tape (fig.1). All you need is a bob (or weight) suspended from a tape marked in feet and inches. The bob is lowered to the bottom of the vessel containing the liquid, and the level is determined by noting the point on the tape reached by the liquid. The actual reading is made after the tape is removed from the vessel. Obviously this method isnt suited to continuous measurement.

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HIGH PRESSURE GAUGE GLASS (REFLEX GLASS)


SIGHT GLASS Another direct means of liquid level measurement is the sight glass (Fig 2). This consists of a graduated glass Tube mounted on the side of the vessel. As the level of the liquid in the vessel changes, so does the level of the liquid in the glass tube. Measurement is a simple matter of reading the position of liquid level on the scale of the sight glass tube.

FIG -2 As the level of the liquid in the vessel rises or falls, so does the level of the liquid in the sight glass.
GROOVES

REFLUX GLASS

FLOATS There are many kinds of float-operated mechanisms for continuous direct liquid level measurement. The Primary device is a float that by reason of its buoyancy will follow the changing level of the liquid, and a mechanism that will transfer the float action to a pointer (Fig 3). The float most familiar to you is the hollow metal sphere; but cylinder-shaped ceramic floats and disc-shaped floats of synthetic materials are also used. The float is usually attached to a cable, which around a pulley or drum to which the indicating pointer is attached. The movement of the float is thus transferred to the pointer, which indicates the liquid level on an appropriate scale.

FIG -3 The buoyancy of the float permits it to be immersed in the liquid, and its movement is transmitted to the indicator as it follows the changing liquid level.

In another kind of float-operated instrument, the float is attached to a shaft, which transfers the motion of the float to an indicator (Fig. 4). This type doesnt permit a wide range of level measurement, but it does have mechanical advantages that make it excellent for control and transmitter application.

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FIG -4 When the level of the liquid is low, the ball float will be at position A. As the tank fills, the flow rises with the level of the liquid to position B and its movement rotates the shaft which operates the pointer.

FIG- 5 Float cable weight level indicator arrangement

Another variation uses the float to move a magnet (Fig. 6). As this magnet moves, it attracts a following magnet connected to the indicator, thus providing a reading of liquid level measurement.
FIG 6 The doughnut-shaped float with magnets in it rises and falls with the level of liquid. The follower magnet, suspended by cable in the guide tube, rises and falls to maintain a corresponding position with the float, and thus moves the cable to the indicator.

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FIG- 7 Magnetic float devices The magnetic float sensor may be used to determine the level of single material in the vessel or to determine the position of an interface between two materials of different densities. For example oil will float on top of water. If oil and water were both in this vessel the float could be constructed so that it would sink in oil and float on the water.

FIG 8 Magnetic type float Devices

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The displacer (Fig. 9) is similar in action to the buoyant float described above, with the exception that its movement is more restricted. With changes in liquid level, more or less of the displacer is covered by the liquid. The more the displacer is submerged, the greater is the force created by the displacer because of its buoyancy. This force transferred through a twisting or bending shaft to a pneumatic or Electronic system. For every new liquid level position, there is a new force on the shaft, causing it to assume a new position. The pneumatic or Electronic system is so arranged that for each new shaft position there is a new signal or indication. The displacer float has the advantage of being more sensitive to small level changes than the buoyant float and less subject to mechanical friction.

FIG 9 In The lower drawing the displacer, which weighs 5 lbs., weighs only 2 lbs. When the water level is at 7 inches, the changes in weight are converted into Torque (See upper illustration). Which operates the pneumatic system to provide readings on the indicator. (Mason- Neilan Div of Worthington Corp.)

FIG- 10 Displacement Level Sensor

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UNDERSTANDING OF BUOYANCY AND DISPLACER FOR INDIRECT LEVEL MEASUREMENT


DISPLACEMENT DEVICES The displacement type level devices are commonly used for continuous level measurement. It works on the buoyancy principle of Archimedes, which states that a body immersed in a liquid will be buoyed up a force equal to the weight of the liquid displaced. The displacer body has a cylindrical shape. As a result for each equal increment of submersion depth, an equal increment of buoyancy change will result. This gives a linear, proportional relationship, which is desirable. The effects of buoyancy are illustrated in the fig 11. Although the vessels shown are open in the atmosphere the principle desired applies to the closed tank as well. The displacer is suspended from a scale that indicates its weight at various depths of immersion. In the first figure 11 A the displacer is completely out of the liquid and the scale supports its full weight. As the scale indicates, it weighs 10 kg when suspended in air. When the level of the tank has risen to immerse about half the displacer, the weight of the displacer is approximately 6 kg. The displacers loss in weight is equal to the weight of the volume of the liquid displaced. As the water increases to fully immerse the displacer. The weight of the displacer decreases, the displacer now weighs approximately 2 kg. So, when the water level changes from 0 to 100%, the weight of the displacer also changes proportionally. BOUYANCY EFFECT ON THE DISPLACER Two important points to be considered here are: 1. When the liquid level is lowered to completely uncover the displacer, the displacer can no longer measure level. Any changes in level below the lower end of the displacer will not be measured. 2. The same is true when the liquid level rises to the top of the displacer. Then, any changes in liquid level above the top of the displacer will not be detected. The main difference between a displacer and the float operated device are: The displacer movement is very little compared to the float which rises or falls as per the level. Therefore the displacer loses weight and the float gains in height as the level rises in the tank. The displacer can also be used for interface level measurement whereas float can only be used for measuring the level of liquids. When the displacer is attached to a torque tube by linkage the equivalent torque variations due to the buoyancy effect on the displacer operates a pneumatic or Electronic Transducer / Transmitter. This is the normal transmission of level in closed process vessels, distillation columns, intermediate storage tanks etc.

FIG- 11

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 6 of 24

INDIRECT LIQUID LEVEL MEASUREMENT

There are several types of indirect level measuring devices that are operated by Pressure. Any rise in the level causes an increase of pressure, which can be measure by the gauge. The gauge scale is marked in units of level measurement (feet or inches).
FIG- 12 B Liquid naturally increases. This

FIG- 12 A As the tank fills, the pressure of the

Hydrostatic level measurement in Increase of pressure can be read on the Gauge in feet and inches of level.

an open tank

FIG- 12 C Closed tank level measurement

FIG- 12 D The pressure of air in the air trap is Expressed on the scale in units of level

If the nature of the liquid prevents its being allowed to enter the pressure gauge, a transmitting fluid (such as air, which is the cheapest and handiest) must be used between the liquid and the gauge. The air trap and the diaphragm box provide a means of accomplishing this. The air trap consists of a box, which is lowered into the liquid (Fig.12 D). As the liquid rises, the pressure on the air trapped in the box increases. This air pressure is piped through tubing to the pressure gauge, which has a scale on which the level can be read.The diaphragm box (Fig 13), like the air trap, transmits air pressure to a gauge, but in this case the air is trapped inside it by a flexible diaphragm covering the bottom of then box. As the level of the liquid rises, the pressure on the diaphragm increases. This pressure acts on the air in the closed system and is piped to the pressure gauge where a reading can be taken.
FIG- 13: Deflection of the flexible diaphragm by compression, as the liquid level rises, causes the gauge to respond.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 7 of 24

AIR BUBBLER SYSTEM

FIG- 14 Air Bubbler System of Level Measurement

The Air bubbler system is a system of indirect level measurement especially suitable for liquids that are corrosive, viscous, or contain suspended solids. BUBBLER TYPE LEVEL MEASUREMENT

FIG- 15 The air pressure to the bubbler pipe is minutely in excess of the liquid pressure in the vessel, so that the air pressure indicated is a measure of the level in the tank

The pressure caused by the liquid column is used in the bubbler method of level measurement (Fig.15). A pipe is installed vertically in the vessel with its open end at the zero level. The other end of the pipe is connected to a regulated air supply and to a pressure gauge. To make a level measurement the air supply is adjusted so that the pressure is slightly higher than the pressure due to the height of the liquid. This is accomplished by regulating the air pressure until bubbles can be seen slowly leaving the open end of the pipe. The gauge then measures the air pressure needed to overcome the pressure of the liquid. The gauge is calibrated in feet or inches of level. The methods described above can only be used when the vessel containing the liquid is open to the atmosphere. When the liquid is in a pressure vessel, the liquid column pressure cant be used unless the vessel pressure is balanced out. This is done through the use of differential pressure meters (Fig. 16). Connections are made to the vessel at top and bottom, and to the two column of the differential pressure meter. The top connection is made to the low made to the low pressure column of the meter, and the bottom connection to the high pressure column. In this way the pressure in the vessel is balanced out, since it is fed both column of the meter. The difference in pressure detected by the meter will be due then only to the changing level of the liquid.
FIG- 16 When the liquid is in a closed vessel, level can be measured using a differential pressure manometer.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 8 of 24

Liquid level can be measured using radioactivity or ultrasonic. For continuous level measurement by radioactivity, one or more radioactive source are placed on one side of a vessel with a pick-up on other side (Fig. 17). As the level of the liquid changes, it absorbs more or less of the radioactive energy received by the pick-up, which is a special electronic amplifier designed to produce enough electrical meter. The meter scale is marked in level units-inches or feet.

FIG- 17 Radioactive system Measurement

of

Level

The ultrasonic method operates on the sonar principle (Fig. 18). Sound waves are sent to the surface of the liquid and are reflected back to the receiving unit. Changes in level are accurately measured by detecting the time it takes for the waves to travel to the surface and back to the receiver. The longer the time required the further away is the liquid surface, providing a measurement of how much the level has changed. These systems have been described very simply here. Actually they are highly complicated in both design and installation. These systems have been described very simply here. Actually they are highly complicated in both design and installation.

FIG- 18 Sound waves reflected back from the surface of the liquid to the receiving unit can provide an accurate measurement of liquid level.

Another method of determining the level of liquid materials is to weigh the entire vessel, since the weight changes as the level of the material varies. The vessel may be weighed on mechanical scale (Fig.19); or it may be weighed electrically using load cells (Fig.20). Load Cells are Specially constructed mechanical units containing strain gauges, which provide a measurable electrical output proportional to the stress applied by the weight of the vessel on the load Cells. As the pressure on the cell due to the weight of the vessel changes, the electrical resistance of the strain gauge changes. The strain gauge is connected into a bridge circuit containing an electrical meter graduated in unit of level measurement. It should be noted that the weighing method is accurate only if the density and particle size of the substance being weighed are uniform and the moisture content remains constant. The change in weight must be due entirely to the change in level.

FIG- 19 Scale on which the vessel and its Liquid content weighed mechanically

FIG- 20 Vessel weighed electrically using load cells

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 9 of 24

LEVEL MEASUREMENT BY D.P. TRANSMITTERS

To determine the level of a liquid in an open tank, connect the high side of the Transmitter to a tap at the bottom of the tank. Vent the low side of the transmitter to the atmosphere. The pressure represents the height of the liquid in the tank multiplied by the specific gravity of the liquid; therefore, the output of the transmitter will be proportional to the liquid level above the transmitter. If the tank is located above the transmitter, the zero must be readjusted to elevate the range. To determine the liquid level in a closed tank, steps must be taken to compensate for tank pressure generated above the top of the liquid and the top of the tank. This is accomplished by placing a tap at the top of the tank and connecting it to the low side of the transmitter. When this has been done, the differential pressure measured by the Transmitter is proportional to the height of the liquid in the tank multiplied by the specific gravity of the liquid. If the liquid has a vapor that could condense in the piping connected to the top of the tank, the piping should be filled with the measured liquid. This will exert a head pressure on the low side of the transmitter and must be zeroed out. D.P. Transmitter with process connection for clean liquids

FIG- 21 DP Transmitters

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THREE APPLICATIONS OF LIQUID LEVEL MEASUREMENT WITH DP TRANSMITTER


APPLICATION 1 LIQUID LEVEL IN OPEN TANK
SPAN = H1x G1, in inches w.g. if H1 is in inches G1= specific gravity of the process liquid Lower Range Value = (H2 x G1), in inches w.g. if H2 is in inches Upper Range Value = Lower Range Value + Span

FIG -22 APPLICATION 2 LIQUID LEVEL IN CLOSED TANK WITHOUT CONDENSABLE VAPOURS
SPAN = H1x G1, in inches w.g. if H1 is in inches G1= specific gravity of the process liquid Lower Range Value = (H2 x G1), in inches w.g. if H2 is in inches Upper Range Value = Lower Range Value + Span

FIG -23 APPLICATION 3 LIQUID LEVEL IN CLOSED TANK WITH CONDENSABLE VAPOURS

SPAN = H1x G1, in inches w.g. if H1 is in inches Lower Range Value = (H2 x G1) (H4 x Gw), in inches w.g. if H2 & H4 is in inches Upper Range Value = Lower Range Value + Span G1= specific gravity of the process liquid Gw= specific gravity of liquid in wet leg

FIG -24

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 11 of 24

ZERO SUPPRESSION/ ZERO ELEVATION TECHNIQUES FOR D.P. TYPE LEVEL MEASUREMENTS
1. ZERO SUPPRESSION Adjusting the Zero Output Signal to produce to desired measurement. Usually used in Level Measurement to Counteract the Zero Elevation caused by a Wet leg. 2. ZERO ELEVATION Adjusting the Zero Output Signal to raise the Zero to a higher starting point. Usually used in Level Measurement for starting measurement above the Vessel Connection Point.

CALIBRATION POINTS TO BE NOTED FOR LEVEL MEASUREMENT


A- VENTED / OPEN TANK B- PRESSURISED CLOSE TANK

CALIBRATION POINTS TO BE NOTED FOR LEVEL MEASUREMENT WITH DIAPHRAGM & REMOTE SEAL TYPE TRANSMITTER
A- VENTED / OPEN TANK B- VENTED / OPEN TANK

CALIBRATION POINTS TO BE NOTED FOR LEVEL MEASUREMENT WITH DIAPHRAGM & REMOTE SEAL TYPE TRANSMITTER
A- VENTED / OPEN TANK B- VENTED / OPEN TANK

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 12 of 24

CALIBRATION POINTS TO BE NOTED FOR LEVEL MEASUREMENT WITH DIAPHRAGM & REMOTE SEAL TYPE TRANSMITTER
A- PRESSURISED CLOSE TANK B- PRESSURISED CLOSE TANK

FIG- 31

FIG- 32

CALIBRATION POINTS TO BE NOTED FOR LEVEL MEASUREMENT WITH DIAPHRAGM & REMOTE SEAL TYPE TRANSMITTER

FIG- 33

ELECTRICAL / ELECTRONIC METHODS OF LEVEL MEASUREMENT


A) CONTINUOUS LEVEL MEASUREMENT With continuous measurement the level is detected and converted into an Electronic / Pneumatic Signal. Continuous measurements can be carried for all liquid and solids. Capacitance, hydrostatic, pulse-echo (Ultrasonic Type), pulse-radar and electromechanical principles as well as pressure measuring sensors can be used. B) LEVEL DETECTION FOR LEVEL SWITCHING & OVERFILL PROTECTION. Level can be detected at fixed points and converted into switched outputs Level detection can be done for all liquids and solids. This type of level switches work on capacitance, microwave, radioactive, vibration and conductive principles. The switched output can either be used for stopping and starting filling systems (Conveyor belts, pumps, pneumatic conveyors) or for overfill protection. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 13 of 24

SUMMARY OF BASIC ELECTRICAL / ELECTRONIC / LEVEL MEASURING PRINCIPLES 1) Capacitance Type Level Measurement. 2) Pulse-Echo or Ultrasonic Type Measurement 3) Antenna or Radar Type Level Measurement. 4) Microwave Type Detection. 5) Electro-mechanical Type Level Detection. 6) Vibration Level Switch. 7) Conductive Level Switch. 1. CAPACITANCE TYPE LEVEL MEASUREMENT # MEASURING PRINCIPLE The metal vessel wall & the measuring electrode forms a capacitor. The product acts as the dielectric and changes the capacitance as the level changes. An oscillator in the housing of the electrode converts the capacitance value into a level proportional DC current or a switched output .This universal measuring principle is used for continuous level Measurement and solids- even under arduous conditions.

A FIG- 34

# APPLICATIONS OF CAPACITANCE LEVEL MEASUREMENT 1. Capacitance type level measurement can be used for continuous level measurement or Hi Lo level switching for all products including solids. 2. One of the unique capabilities is to indicate the interface between two immiscible liquids, each having a different dielectric const. Oil/water interface is a common application. # LIMITATIONS 1. Calibration may be time consuming. 2. Affected by change in dielectric constant and temperature of the material and thus requires temperature compensation. 3. Conductive residue coating will affect performance. 2. PULSE-ECHO OR ULTRASONIC TYPE MEASUREMENT # MEASURING PRINCIPLE Sonic and ultrasonic sensors consist of a transmitter that converts electrical energy into acoustical energy and a receiver that converts acoustical energy into electrical energy. The transmitted and return time of sonic pulse is relayed electronically and converted to level indication. These devices are non-contacting, reliable and accurate, no moving parts, unaffected by changes in density, conductivity and composition. # LIMITATIONS 1. Cannot be used for foam as the signal may be absorbed by foam. 2. Will not work in vacuum. 3. Various factors like instrument accuracy, vapor concentration, pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and pressure of other gases/vapors may affect the performance --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 14 of 24

FIG- 35 C ULTRASONIC LEVEL MEASUREMENT IN OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASURING APPLICATIONS

3. ANTENNA / GUIDED WAVE RADAR TYPE LEVEL MEASUREMENT


# TECHNOLOGY/ MEASURING PRINCIPLE Guided Wave Radar is based upon the technology of TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry). TDR utilizes pulses of electromagnetic energy, which are transmitted down a probe. When a pulse reaches a liquid surface that has a higher dielectric than air/vapor in which it is traveling, the pulse is reflected. An Ultra high-speed timing circuit precisely measures the transit time and provides an accurate measure of the liquid level. The measurement requires complete mapping of the inner surfaces of the vessel in empty conditions. The information is stored in the memory and reflections form protrusions, shafts, agitators etc. are compensated. Thus true level is measured. This technology is fairly new and costly. # APPLICATIONS This measuring principle provides non-contact continuous level measurement for liquids, solids and slurries with high pressures and temperatures, vacuum, dust, vapour and aggressive and toxic products

A B

DIELECTRIC ANTENNA

FIG- 36

HORN ANTENNA

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 15 of 24

4. MICROWAVE SWITCHING

TYPE

NON-CONTACT

LEVEL

DETECTION

LEVEL

# MEASURING PRINCIPLE The operation of the microwave barrier is similar to a light filter. A transmitter emits microwaves with a frequency of 5.8 GHz to a receiver. If product is between transmitter and receiver, the microwaves are absorbed and a damped signal is received. The receiver signals this by a switching command. The detection principle functions with all liquids and solids, which reflect or absorb microwaves.

FIG- 37 A

# APPLICATIONS Non-Contact type level switching/detection in products like oil, coal, stones and foodstuffs. 5A. ELECTRO-MECHANICAL TYPE LEVEL DETECTION/ LEVEL SWITCHING # MEASURING PRINCIPLE The electromechanical measuring principle is ideal for many applications with its rugged construction. A weight is wound off electro-mechanically on a cable. When the weight touches the measured product, the weight is rewound to the initial position. The measured cable length is a measure of the level. # USER ADVANTAGES 1. Vessel heights up to 40 m 2. Accuracy better than 0.1% 3. Adapts to product types by choice of sensing weights. 4. Full operation even with dust formation. 5. Complete separation between cable pulley and control mechanism. 6. Easy installation.

FIG- 38

# APPLICATIONS It is suitable for level measurement of fine and coarse solids as well as liquids, but also for the measurement of solids in water. Main applications are in large vessels where solutions with other techniques are expensive or physically not possible. # TYPICAL PRODUCTS Ore, coal, stones, sinter, plastic powder, lime, cement, raw flour, cereals, sludge and sewage water. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 16 of 24

5B. MAGNETIC TILT LEVEL SWITCH # WORKING PRINCIPLE Float mounted at one end of rigid rod moves with change in level. Magnetic capsule at other end of rod moves accordingly within fixed limits. Hermitically sealed switch contacts across the stainless steel case change accordingly.
FIG- 39 Nomenclature 1. Float Assy. 2. Magnet Assy. 3. Mounting flange. 4. Housing 5. Switch Assy. 6. Terminal Assy. 7. Cable Gland 8. Cover.

# APPLICATIONS HI-LO Level signals for Alarm Annunciation, Safety Interlock circuits, Automatic Pump Control, Solenoid Valve control, Prevention of tank overflows, Pump safeguard against dry running 5C. ROTATING PADDLE LEVEL SWITCH # WORKING PRINCIPLE Operation centers around a low torque, slow speed synchronous motor. Absence of dry materials allows the motor to turn the paddle. Presence of dry material tends to stall the paddle and the motor. The resultant torque actuates a snap-action switch (es) which in turn controls audible and visual signals and/or starts and stops machinery such as conveyers, elevators, feeders, etc. Mounts on top or side of bin.

FIG- 40 Rotating paddle level switch

# APPLICATIONS

1. Eliminates bin overflow, empty bins, clogged conveyors, choked elevators and resultant damage and waste. 2. For Chemical, food, mining, plastics, ceramics and other industries.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 17 of 24

5D. TILT TYPE LEVEL SWITCH


# WORKING PRINCIPLE Tilt switches are either of mercury or micro-switch type, mounted so as to hang from the top of the storage bin. When the tilt switch hangs freely, there is no contact between the tilt switch and control relay. As soon as the level reaches the tilt switch, the vertical angle changes, causing the contact to close. This creates a closed circuit with the control relay, which activates a solenoid valve, an alarm relay, or a motor control start/stop command.

FIG- 41 Tilt Type switches level

6A. VIBRATION TYPE LEVEL SWITCHES


# MEASURING PRINCIPLE Vibration probes for solids operate with piezoelectrically generated vibration which is damped when the rod is covered by the product. The integral electronics detects this damping and triggers a switching command.

FIG- 42 Vibrating different versions. probes in mounting

# APPLICATIONS Powders and granules above a density of 0, 03 g / cm can be detected, e.g. styropore, cement, cereals, flour, plastic Granules etc.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 18 of 24

6B. TUNING FORK LEVEL DETECTION / LEVEL SWITCHING


# MEASURING PRINCIPLE The tuning fork is energized by a piezoelectric element and vibrates at its resonant frequency of approx. 380 Hz. A second piezoelectric element detects this frequency which is than passed to the integral electronics. If the fork is covered by the product, the frequency changes, and a switching command is triggered.

FIG- 43 Installation options

7. CONDUCTIVITY TYPE LEVEL SWITCHES


# MEASURING PRINCIPLE When the electrode is covered by a conductive product, a measuring circuit is closed and a switching signal is triggered. The metallic vessel itself is the reference electrode. In plastic vessels a version with integral reference electrode is used. The position of the switch point is simply determined by the electrode length. Rod and multiple rod electrodes as well as cable and multiple cable electrodes are available.

FIG- 44 Working Principle & Multiple rod electrode for Min./Max. Control

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A BRIEF COMPARISON OF VARIOUS LEVEL SENSORS

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 20 of 24

GLOSSARY OF TERMS TO BE UNDERSTOOD FOR INDUSTRIAL LEVEL MEASUREMENT


ACCURACY The closeness of an Indication of reading of a measurement device to the actual value of the quantity being measured usually expressed as percent of full scale output or reading. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE The barometric reading of pressure exerted by the atmosphere. At sea level 14.7 lb per sq. in. or 29.92 in. of mercury. BUBBLE TUBE A length of pipe or tubing placed in a vessel at a specified depth. To transport a gas injected into a liquid to measure level from a hydrostatic Head. BUOYANCY The tendency of the fluid to lift any object submerged in the body of the fluid; the amount of force applied to the body equals the product of fluid density and volume of fluid displaced. DENSITY 1. The mass of a unit volume of a liquid at a specified temperature. Units shall be stated as kg / m. 2. A physical property of materials measured as mass per unit volume. DIELECTRIC CONSTANT A material characteristic expressed as the capacitance between two plates when the intervening space is filled with a given insulating material divided by the capacitance of the same plate arrangement when the space is filled with air or evacuated. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE TYPE LEVEL METER/ TRANSMITTER Any of several devices designed to measure the head of the liquid in a tank above some minimum level and produce an indication proportional to this value; alternately, the head below some maximum level can be measured and similarly displayed. DISPLACER TYPE LIQUID LEVEL DETECTOR A device for determining a liquid level by means of force measurements on cylindrical element partly submerged in the liquid in a vessel; as the level in the vessel rises and falls, the displacement (buoyant) force on the cylinder varies and is measured by the lever system, torque tube or other force measurement device. FLOAT Any component having positive buoyancy for example, a Hollow watertight body that rests on the surface of the liquid, partly or completely supported by buoyant forces. FLOAT CHAMBER A vessel in which a float regulates the liquid level. FOAMING Any of various methods of introducing air or gas into a liquid or solid material to produce foam. The continuous formation of bubbles which have sufficiently high surface tension to remain as bubbles beyond the disengaging surface.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 21 of 24

GAUGE GLASS A glass or plastic tubes for measuring liquid level in a tank or pressure vessel, usually by direct sight; it is usually connected directly to the vessel through suitable fitting and shut off valve. GAUGE PRESSURE 1. Pressure measured relative to ambient pressure. 2. The difference between the local absolute pressure of the system and the atmospheric pressure at the place of measurement. 3. Static pressure is indicated on a gauge. HYDROSTATIC HEAD The pressure created by a height of a liquid above a given point. MAGNETIC FLOAT GAUGE Any of several designs of liquid level indicator that use a magnetic float to position a pointer. PURGE 1. Increasing the sample flow above normal for the purpose of replacing current sample-line fluid or removing deposited or trapped materials. 2. To cause a liquid or gas to flow from an independent source into the impulse pipe. TORQUE A rotary force, such as that applied by a rotating shaft at any point on its axis of rotation. WET LEG The liquid-filled low-pressure side of the impulse line in a differential pressure level measuring system. ZERO ELEVATION Adjusting the zero output signals to raise the zero to a higher starting point. Usually used in level measurement for starting measurement above the vessel connection point. ZERO SUPPRESSION Adjusting the zero output signals to produce the desired Measurement. Usually used in level measurement to counteract the zero elevation caused by a wet leg.

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CALCULATION PROCEEDURES
A) OPEN VESSEL BOTTOM MOUNTED TRANSMITTER & CLOSED TANK DRY LEG METHOD
20

ZERO SUPPRESSION

Y HP

LT LP
4 90 540 WC

X- VERTICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN THE MINIMUM & MAXIMUM MEASURABLE LEVEL

= 500 mmH2O = 100 mmH2O = 0.9

Y- VERTICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN TRANSMITTER DATUM LINE & MINIMUM MEASURABLE LEVEL SG - SPECIFIC GRAVIY OF THE FLUID H MAXIMUM HEAD PRESSURE TO BE MEASURED IN mmH2O E HEAD PRESSURE PRODUCED BY Y EXPRESSED IN mmH2O RANGE = E TO E+H H = X x SG = 500 x 0.9 E = Y x SG = 100 x 0.9 = 450 mmH2O = 90 mmH2O

RANGE = E TO E+H = 90 TO (90 + 450) = 90 TO 540 mmH2O NOTE IN CLOSED TANK DRY LEG METHOD, IF THE GAS ABOVE THE LIQUID DOES NOT CONDENSE & THE PIPING FOR THE LOW SIDE OF THE TRANSMITTER WILL REMAIN EMPTY. CALCULATIONS FOR DETERMINING THE RANGE WILL BE THE SAME AS SHOWN FOR OPEN VESSEL BOTTOM MOUNTED TRANSMITTER. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 23 of 24

CALCULATION PROCEEDURES
B) CLOSED TANK WET LEG METHOD
20 ZERO ELEVATION

X Z Y HP LT LP
- 610 WC 90 -110 4

X- VERTICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN THE MINIMUM & MAXIMUM MEASURABLE LEVEL Y- VERTICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN TRANSMITTER DATUM LINE & MINIMUM MEASURABLE LEVEL Z- VERTICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN TOP OF LIQUID IN WETLEG & TRANSMITTER DATUM LINE SG1 - SPECIFIC GRAVIY OF THE FLUID SG2 - SPECIFIC GRAVIY OF THE FLUID IN THE WET LEG H MAXIMUM HEAD PRESSURE TO BE MEASURED IN mmH2O E HEAD PRESSURE PRODUCED BY Y EXPRESSED IN mmH2O S HEAD PRESSURE PRODUCED BY Z EXPRESSED IN mmH2O RANGE = (E-S) TO (H+ (E-S)) H = X x SG1 E = Y x SG1 = = 500 x 1 50 x 1 600 x 1.1 = 500 mmH2O = 50 mmH2O = 660 mmH2O

= 500 mmH2O

= 50 mmH2O

= 600 mmH2O = 1.0 = 1.1

S = Z x SG21 =

RANGE = (E-S) TO (H+ (E-S)) = [(50-660) TO 500 + (50-660)] = [(-610) TO 500 + (-610)] = -610 TO -110 mmH2O

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Page 24 of 24

FLOW MEASUREMENT
FLOW MEASURMENT BASICS

Flow is another very important process variable that has to be measured and controlled. To understand the basic principles of flow measurement one should be familiar with the relationship between fluid flow and Pressure, Temperature, Viscosity, Density The two basic properties - DENSITY & VISCOSITY play an important role in flow measurement. Density applies to fluids in static phase. Viscosity applies to fluids in motion.
DENSITY: In simple terms, Density is a measure of closeness of molecules in a substance.

Density is defined as Mass per unit Volume. d=m/v where d = density, m = mass, v = volume
SPECIFIC GRAVITY

d=lbs/ft3

Another term commonly used to express density of fluid is SPECIFIC GRAVITY (SG) SG of a liquid=density of liquid / density of water at standard conditions. SG of a gas = density of gas / density of air at standard conditions.
VISCOSITY

Viscosity is the property that determines how freely fluids flow. The viscosity of a fluid refers to its physical resistance to flow. Fluids have various degrees of viscosity. Such variations results from internal friction between particles of the substance. A substance with a higher viscosity has a resistance to flow. For example, two substances with different viscosities are oil and water. Water pours freely while oil pours more slowly. Molasses is more viscous than water, and water much more viscous than gas. Viscosity contributes to laminar or turbulent flow characteristics. Laminar flow is highly effected by viscosity than turbulent flow. Viscosity reduces with the increase of temperature. For example, when molasses is heated its viscosity will decrease. There are several viscosity units, the most widely used being the centipoise. The Viscosity of water at 68F is 1.0 centipoise. The viscosity of kerosene at 68F is 2.0 centipoises. Viscosity () can be expressed as : -1 -1
= lb . ft .s

Also one should know and be able to define the following general flow measurement terms :Laminar flow Incompressible flow Mass flow Static pressure Working pressure Turbulent flow Transitional flow Compressible flow Steady flow Unsteady flow Pulsating flow Dynamic pressure Stagnation pressure Differential pressure Pressure loss

Page 1 of 43

VARIOUS FLOW MEASUREMENT TERMS


LAMINAR FLOW :

Laminar flow is a flow characterized by the tendency of the fluid to remain in thin parallel layers. Laminar flow occurs when the average velocity is slow. The layers are fast moving in the center and become slower on the outer edges of the stream. In laminar flow fluid particles move along in parallel paths. The laminar flow appears as several streams of liquid flowing smoothly alongside each other.
TURBULENT FLOW

Turbulent flow is a flow characterized by random motions of the fluid particles in the transverse as well as axial directions. Turbulent flow occurs when the average velocity is fast. The layers disappear and the velocity is more uniform across the stream.
TRANSITIONAL FLOW

Transitional flow is the flow between laminar and turbulent. Transitional flow exhibits the characteristic of both laminar and turbulent patterns. In some cases transitional flow will oscillate between laminar and turbulent flow.
Incompressible flow is fluid flow under conditions of constant density. Compressible flow is fluid flow under conditions that cause significant changes in density. Mass flow is the amount of fluid, measured in mass units, that passes a given location per unit time. Steady flow is a flow in which the flow rate in a measuring section does not vary significantly with time. Unsteady flow is a flow in which the flow rate fluctuates randomly with time and for which the mean value is not constant. Pulsating flow is a flow rate characterized by irregular or repeating variations. Static pressure is the pressure of a fluid that is independent of its kinetic energy. Stagnation pressure is a theoretical pressure that could be developed if a flowing fluid could be brought to rest without loss of energy.

Page 2 of 43

Dynamic pressure is the increase in pressure above the static pressure that results from complete transformation of the kinetic energy of the fluid into potential energy. Working pressure is the maximum allowable operating pressure for an internally pressurized vessel, tank, or piping system. Differential pressure with respect to flow, is the pressure drop across a restriction Pressure loss is the decrease in pressure of a fluid as it passes through a restriction

FLUID FLOW RELATIONSHIPS


One should know the physical laws that apply to the flow of fluids and their measurement. 1. Pressure across a particular point (such as an orifice) causes a flow through the point ; the higher the pressure drop, the higher the flow. 2. Temperature can affect flow ; higher temperatures decrease viscosity. 3. Viscosity affects flow; a more viscous fluid flows less easily 4. Density affects flow. The Flow decreases as the density increases. 5. Friction affects flow ; more friction reduces flow. 6. Specific gravity affects flow in the same way as density. 7. Flow and flow rate refer to the volume of fluid that passes a given point in a pipe per unit time, as defined by the following equations : Q = AV Where : Q = flow rate A = cross-sectional area of pipe V = average fluid velocity The principle of the continuity of flow is expressed by the equation: Q= Q= A1, V1, A1V1 = A2V2 = A3V3 where flow rate A2, A3 = cross-sectional areas of pipe at different locations 1,2,3 V2, V3 = average fluid velocity at locations 1,2,3

VELOCITY

The Velocity of a flowing fluid is its speed in the direction of flow. It is an important factor in flow metering because it determines the behavior of the fluid. When the average velocity is slow, the flow is said to be laminar. This means that the fluid flows in layers with the fastest moving layers toward the center and the slowest moving layers on the outer edges of the stream. As the velocity increases, the flow becomes turbulent, with layers disappearing and the velocity across the stream being more uniform. In this discussion, the flow is assumed to be turbulent and the term velocity refers to the average velocity of a particular cross section of the stream. Rate of flow (Cubic ft. per sec) Velocity = ----------------------------------------------- = V = ft / sec Area of pipe (Sq. feet)

Page 3 of 43

BERNOULLI'S THEOREM
Bernoulli's theorem relates the velocity of a fluid at a point and the pressure of the fluid at that point. It is just the application of work-energy theorem. According to work energy theorem, the work done by a force acting on a system is equal to the change in kinetic energy of the system. Consider the streamlined flow of a.liquid through a pipe as shown in the figure. As the liquid flows through the pipe, depending upon the position of the liquid, there are three types of energy possessed by the liquid during its flow.
KINETIC ENERGY

Let m be the mass of liquid that-flows through the pipe with a velocity v. Kinetic energy of the liquid = 1/2 mv 2 Kinetic energy per unit mass of the liquid= 1/2V2
POTENTIAL ENERGY

If h is the height from the ground, then the potential energy is given by mgh. Potential energy per unit mass = gh
PRESSURE ENERGY

If p is the pressure exerted on the liquid of cross sectional area a, then the force acting on the liquid surface is given by F = pa (pressure = force / area)

Under the influence of this force, the liquid is driven through a small displacement x. The work done is given by w = Fx = p.a.x w = pV ( volume V = a x ) this work done is stored as the pressure energy. pressure energy = pV = p m/ ( density p = mass / volume ) pressure energy per unit mass = p/

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The three types of energy possessed by the liquid at two different points in the pipe are as follows: at A : potential energy per unit mass = gh1 kinetic energy per unit mass = 1/2V12 pressure energy per unit mass = p1/ Total energy at A = p1/ + gh1 + 1/2V12 at B : potential energy per unit mass = gh2 kinetic energy per unit mass = 1/2V22 pressure energy per unit mass = p2/ Total energy at B = p2/ + gh2 + 1/2V22 Bernoulli's theorem states that the sum of the energies possessed by a flowing liquid at any point is constant provided the flow of liquid is steady. Total energy at A = total energy at B p1/ + gh1 + 1/2V12 = p2/ + gh2 + 1/2V22 (ie) p/ + gh + 1/2 V2 = constant This is known as Bernoullis equation. From the above, it is understood that when a fluid is in motion, the pressure within the fluid varies with the velocity of the fluid if the flow is streamlined. The pressure within a fast moving fluid is lower than that in a similar fluid moving slowly. This is known as Bernoullis principle.

REYNOLDS NUMBER
In flow metering, the nature of flow can be described by a number-the Reynolds Number, which is the average velocity x density x internal diameter of pipe divided by viscosity. In equation form, this is expressed as vD R = -------- Where, v = velocity D = inside diameter of pipe = fluid density = viscosity The Reynolds Number has no dimensions of its own. From the Reynolds Number, it can be determined whether the flow is laminar or turbulent. Reynolds Number < 2000, the flow is laminar Reynolds Number > 4000, the flow is turbulent. Between these two values, the nature of the flow is unpredictable. In most Industrial applications, the flow is turbulent. Although measurement can be made without consideration of the Reynolds Number, greater accuracy is possible when a correction based upon it is made.

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METHODS OF FLOW MEASUREMENT


Many different methods are used to measure flow in a wide variety of industrial applications. These can be divided into three broad categories as follows: 1. Inferential type flow meters 2. Quantity flow meters 3. Mass flow meters
INFERENTIAL FLOW MEASUREMENTS

In the inferential type of flow measuring methods, the flow rate is inferred from a characteristic effect of a related phenomenon The following are the inferential type of flow measuring methods 1. Variable head or differential flow meters 2. Variable area meters 3. Magnetic flow meters 4. Turbine meters 5. Target meters 6. Thermal flow meters 7. Vortex flow meters, 8. Ultrasonic flow meters VARIABLE HEAD OR DIFFERENTIAL FLOW METERS This is one of the oldest and most widely used methods of industrial flow measurements. The variable head flow meters operate on the principle that when a restriction (or) obstruction in the line / pipe of a flowing fluid is made ,it produces a differential pressure across the restriction element which is proportional to the flow rate. The proportionality is not a linear one but has a square root relationship because the flow rate is proportional to the square root of the differential pressure. It is simply expressed as Qh Q=Kh where h = diff .pr (or ) P h = HP LP K =constant DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE METERS A differential flow meter basically consists of two parts : Primary Elements and Secondary Elements. The parts of the meter used to restrict the fluid flow in the pipe line in order to produce a differential pressure are known as primary elements They are : Orifice Plate Dall tubes Elbow Taps Venturi Tube Pitot tubes Weir Flow nozzles Annubar tubes Flume

Secondary elements are those which measure the differential pressure produced by the primary elements and convert them to signals. Various secondary elements are: Manometer, Bellow/ Diaphragm Meter/ Transmitters (Mechanical/ Electrical/ Electronic/ Pneumatic).

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PRIMARY ELEMENTS
Orifice Plate : The simplest and the most common pipeline restriction used in DP method of flow measurement is the Orifice Plate, which is a thin, circular metal plate with a hole in it. It is held in the pipeline between two flanges called orifice flanges . It is the easiest to install and to replace. Concentric Orifice Plate : It is most widely used. It is usually made of stainless steel and its thickness varies from 3.175 to 12.70mm (1/8 to 1 /2 inch.) depending on pipe line size and flow velocity. It has a circular hole (orifice) in the middle, and is installed in the pipe line with the hole concentric to the pipe. Eccentric Orifice Plate : It is similar to the concentric plate except for the offset. It is useful for measuring fluids containing solids, oils containing water and wet steam. The eccentric orifice plate is used where liquid fluid contains a relatively high percentage of dissolved gases. Segmental Orifice Plate : This orifice plate is used for the same type of services as the eccentric orifice plate. It has a hole which is a segment of a circle. Quadrant Edge Orifice Plate : This type of orifice plate is used for flows such as heavy crudes, syrups and slurries, and viscous flows. It is constructed in such a way that the edge is rounded to form a quarter-circle. Depending on the application, it is often necessary to drill a small drain hole usually called a weep hole. This hole is located at the bottom when gases are measured to allow the condensate to pass in order to prevent its building up at the orifice plate. When the fluid is a liquid, this hole is located at the top so that gases can pass and gas pockets cannot build up.
MAXIMUM FORCE IN THE ORIFICE PLATE INSTALLATION IS AT A. MINIMUM PRESSURE IS AT B. BECAUSE OF LOSS OF PRESSURE , ACROSS THE PLATE, DOWNSTREAM PRESSURE RISES ONLY AS HIGH AS POINT

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Figure gives a cross-section of a typical orifice plate installation showing the variation in pressure that occurs across the plate. Notice that the main flow stream takes the shape of the venturi tube with the narrowest path slightly downstream from the plate. This point is called the vena contracta. At this point, the pressure is at its minimum. From this point on, the fluid again begins to fill the pipe and the pressure rises. The pressure, however, does not recover completely. There is a loss of pressure across the plate. The principal consideration in selecting an orifice plate is the ratio of its opening (d) to the internal diameter of the pipe (D). This is often called the beta ratio. If the d/D ratio is too small, the loss of pressure becomes too great. If he ratio is too great the loss of pressure becomes too small to detect and too unstable. Ratios from 0.2 to 0.6 generally provide best accuracy. Several procedures have been developed for calculating the correct size of an orifice to make it suitable for measuring a particular rate of flow. The fundamental equation for all these procedures are based as Q=EA0 2gh where, Q = flow rate (volume per unit of time) E = Efficiency factor Ao = Area of orifice in square feet g = acceleration due to gravity 32 feet/sec/sec h = differential pressure across orifice in feet The efficiency factor E is required since the actual flow through an orifice is not the same as the calculated flow. Values of E have been determined by tests and are found in tables. It is different for each combination of d/D radio and Reynolds Number. The letters K or C are used to express this factor in some other equations. It may be called as flow coefficient. This factor or coefficient has no units since it is a ratio of the actual to the theoretical. As stated above, values of E are found in table or on graphs. Example : for Reynolds No. of 10,000 ratio of .6 The value of E is .678 The orifice plate, flow nozzle, and venturi tube operate on the same principle, and the same equation is used for the three. In addition to the difference in flow coefficient (E), there are other factors for each that determine which element should be used.
GIVEN REYNOLDS NO. OF 10,000 AND SELECTION0.6, THE GRAPH PLATES OF ORIFICE INDICATES RATIO OF THE VALUE OF E AS .678

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Precision Standard Orifices are used where accounting or plant efficiency tests are involved as per B.S. 1042 Code for Flow Measurement. Concentric sharp edged orifice plates should be used for, all normal applications. Eccentric or segmental orifice plates should be used for liquids containing solids. Beveled or rounded-edge orifice plates should be used for viscous fluids. Plate material for industrial fluids normally should be stainless steel or such superior material as demanded by the process conditions. Note : Orifice plates are not generally recommended for applications where :1.Wide variations in Flow-rate occurs. 2.Tolerance less than 3% is required. 3.Highly viscous fluids and slurries are to be measured 4.Piping layouts do not permit adequate straight lengths to be used. 5.System allowable pressure drop is very small. There must be a long continuous run of straight pipe leading up to any of these primary elements. Considerable information is available concerning the length of straight pipe required between such devices as elbows and valves and the primary elements. When insufficient straight pipe is not possible, the disturbances can be reduced or eliminated by the installation of straightening vanes.
LENGTHS OF STRAIGHT PIPE REQUIREMENT

When the beta ratio=0.6, upstream distance A must be at least 13 pipe diameters after the elbow, tee or cross. After globe or a regulating valve upstream distance A must be at least 31 pipe diameters. In both cases downstream distance B is 5 pipe diameters. Straight run requirements become less as Beta ratio decreases. For example, when the beta ratio is 0.4, the distance A becomes 9D after elbows and 19D after valves. (not drawn to scale.)

STRAIGHTENING VANES ARE INSTALLED ABOVE THE ORIFICE TO REDUCE TURBULENCE AND MAKE ACCURATE MEASUREMENT POSSIBLE (ROBERTSON MFG. CO.)

TURBULENT FLOW OCCURS WHEN THE AVERAGE VELOCITY IS FAST. THE LAYERS DISAPPEAR AND THE VELOCITY IS MORE UNIFORM ACROSS THE STREAM.

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Advantages of Orifice Plates (i) low cost (ii) can be used in a wide range of pipe sizes (3.175 to 1828.8 mm.) (iii) can be used with differential pressure devices (iv) well-known and predictable characteristics (v) available in many materials Disadvantages and Limitations of Orifice Plates (i) cause relatively high permanent pressure loss, (ii) tend to clog, thus reducing use in slurry services (iii) have a square root characteristics (iv) accuracy dependant on care during installation (v) changing characteristics because of erosion, corrosion and scaling. VENTURI TUBE Another pipeline restriction for flow metering is the venturi tube, which is a specially shaped length of pipe resembling two funnels joined at their smaller openings. The venturi tube is used for large pipelines. It is more accurate than the orifice plate, but considerably more expensive, and more difficult to install. The Venturi tube is the most expensive but it is the most accurate primary element. High beta ratios (above 0.75) can be used with good results. The pressure recovery of the venturi tube is excellent, which means that there is little pressure drop through it. Functionally, the venturi tube is good since it does not obstruct abrasive sediment; in fact, because of its shape it resists wear effectively. A Venturi tube is used where permanent pressure loss is of prime importance, and where maximum accuracy is desired in the measurement of high viscous fluids. The pressure taps are located one-quarter to one-half pipe diameter up-stream of the inlet cone and at the middle of the throat section. The venturi tube can be used to handle a fluid which is handled by an orifice plate and fluids that contain some solids, because these venturi tubes contain no sharp corners and do not project into the fluid stream. It can be also used to handle slurries and dirty liquids. Advantages (i) causes low permanent pressure loss (ii) widely used for high flow rates (iii) available in very large pipe sizes (iv) has well known characteristics (v) more accurate over wide flow ranges than orifice plates or nozzles (vi) can be used at low and high beta ratios Disadvantages (i) high cost, (ii) generally not useful below 76.2 mm pipe size (iii) more difficult to inspect due to its construction (iv) limitation of a lower Reynolds number of 150,000, (Some data is however available down to a Reynolds number of 50,000 in some sizes)

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FLOW NOZZLE : compromise between the orifice plate and the Venturi tube is the flow nozzle, which resembles the entering half of the venturi tube .The flow nozzle is almost as accurate as the Venturi tube, and is not so expensive to buy or as difficult to install.

The flow nozzle is simpler and cheaper than the venturi tube. It is slightly less accurate and does not provide as good pressure recovery. The flow nozzle can be used with higher beta ratios (above .75), but is not quite so wear resistant as the venturi. Advantages (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Disadvantages (i) (ii) permanent pressure loss lower than that for an orifice plate available in numerous materials for fluids containing solids that settle widely accepted for high-pressure and temperature steam flow cost is higher than orifice plate & limited to moderate pipe sizes requires more maintenance (it is necessary to remove a section of pipe to inspect or install it).

TAPPING POINTS
To obtain the pressures upstream and downstream of the primary elements requires taps on both sides of the restriction. The location of these pressure taps varies with the orifice Plate. The following methods of tappings are generally used. FLANGE TAPS, CORNER TAPS, PIPE TAPS and VENA CONTRACTA TAPS
FLANGE TAPPINGS CORNER TAPPINGS

Flange taps are located on the flanges that hold the orifice plate in position
FLANGE TAPPING

The tapping holes are in the corners of the flange. The tappings will be in 45o angle to the flow direction. This type of tapping is used for pipe lines with diameter less than 2.

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PIPE TAPS

Pipe taps are located at fixed distances upstream and down-stream of the orifice plate - the upstream pipe tap is located 2 1/2 pipe diameters from the plate & the downstream pipe tap 8 pipe diameters, from the orifice plate. NOTE : Pipe tap is also called as FULL FLOW TAPS
VENA CONTRACTA TAPS ( D & D / 2 TAPS )

At Vena contracta point, the velocity will be max. and the pressure will be min. The distance of vena contracta taps on the downstream side must be calculated from application data. On the upstream side it is located at one pipe diameter from the plate (1 D). Approx. the downstream point (Vena Contracta) is at a distance of 1/2 D. Hence it is also known as D & D/2 taps. The pressure taps used with the Venturi tube are located at the points of maximum and minimum pipe diameter. The pressure taps used with the flow nozzle are located at distances upstream and downstream of the nozzle as designated by the manufacturer. This location is critical and the manufacturers recommendations must be followed. Any of the differential pressure instruments can be used for rate of flow measurement with these primary flow elements. Since the desired measurement is rate of flow and not differential pressure, a conversion from differential pressure to rate of flow must be made.
FIVE WAY VALVE MANIFOLD

T1, T2 1A 1B 2A 2B 3 4A 4B 5A 5B 6

TAPPING POINTS PRIMARY ISOLATION VALVE (HP) PRIMARY ISOLATION VALVE (LP) SECONDARY ISOLATION VALVE (HP) SECONDARY ISOLATION VALVE (LP) EQUALISING VALVE ISOLATION VALVE TO TX (HP) ISOLATION VALVE TO TX (LP) DRAIN VALVE (HP) DRAIN VALVE (LP) TRANSMITTER

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DALL TUBES (LO-LOSS FLOW TUBE A MODIFIED FORM OF VENTURI TUBE) The Dall Tube is a modified form of venturi tube, a cross-section of which is shown. It consists of two truncated cones, each with a relatively large cone angle. The throat is formed by a circumferential slot located between the two smaller diameters of the truncated cones. The differential pressure produced by a dall tube is much higher (about double) than that of venturi tube or nozzle having the same upstream and throat diameters with the same net head loss. Advantages i.low head loss ii.short lying length iii.available in numerous materials of construction iv.no upper line-size limit Disadvantages I.pressure difference is sensitive to up-stream disturbances II.more straight pipe required in the approach pipe length III.not considered for measuring flow of hot feed water
OVERALL PRESSURE LOSS THROUGH OVERALL PRESSURE LOSS THROUGH VARIOUS PRIMARY ELEMENTS VARIOUS PRIMARY ELEMENTS
100 PRESSURE LOSS IN % OF ACTUAL DIFFERENTIAL 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10
VENTURI TUBE WITH 15 % RECOVERY CONE (SHORT) HERCHEL TYPE VENTURI TUBE WITH LONG CONE LOW LOSS FLOW TUBE (DALL TUBE) FLOW NOZZLE ORIFICE

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

BETA RATIO =d/D

PITOT TUBE
Another Primary flow element used to produce a differential pressure is the pitot tube. In its simplest form, the pitot tube consists of a tube with a small opening at the measuring end. This small hole faces the flowing fluid (Fig). When the fluid contacts the pitot tube, the fluid velocity is zero and the pressure is at a maximum. This small hole, or impact opening as it is called, provides the higher pressure for differential pressure measurement. While the pitot tube provides the higher pressure for differential pressure measurement, an ordinary pressure tap provides the lower pressure reading.
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The Pitot tube is an economical device for providing a differential pressure reading
P IT O T T U B E A S S E M B L Y IM P A C T P R E S S U R E

HO LES FO R S T A T IC P R E S S U R E

S T A T IC P R E S S U R E C O M P R E S S IO N R IN G A N D G L A N D F O R L IN E C E N T E R IN G

The pitot tube actually measures the velocity of fluid flow and not rate of flow. However, the flow rate can be determined from the velocity using the is formula : Q = KAV1 Where, Q = flow rate (cubic ft. per Sec.) A = Area of flow cross section in feet. V1 = Velocity of flowing fluid (ft.per.sec) K = flow coefficient of pitot tube (normally about 8) There is no standardization of pitot tubes as there is for orifice plates, venturi tubes and flow nozzles. Each pitot tube must be calibrated for each installation. Pitot tubes may be used where the flowing fluid is not enclosed in a pipe or duct. For instance, a pitot tube may be used to measure the flow of river water, or it may be suspended from an airplane to measure the air flow. Any of the differential pressure type instruments previously described may be used with the pitot tube. Advantages : i. no process loss ii. economical to install iii. some types can be easily removed from the pipe line Disadvantages i. Have poor accuracy ii. unsuitability for dirty or sticky fluids iii. sensitivity to upstream disturbances

ANNUBAR
The Annubar is a Multiple-Ported Pitot tube that Spans the Pipe. Pressure Ports are located at mathematically defined positions based on Published axis symmetric Pipeline velocity profile. These are claimed to average the differential, thereby eliminating the need to locate average velocity point as is necessary for pitot tubes.

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Ease of installation, low cost, very low permanent pressure loss, and insertability into existing piping make these devices convenient for ducts and large line size measurements.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

Delta Tubes are averaging pitots designed to produce a differential pressure output having a classical square root relationship with flow rate. The multiported Delta Tube's strategically located sensing ports continually sample the impact and static pressures produced by the Delta Tube's obstruction of the flow stream profile. Within the probe, the impact and static pressures sensed by the upstream and downstream ports are continually averaged in separate plenum chamber. Secondary instruments like Switzer Differential Pressure Indicator/ Switches (or Differential Pressure Transmitter) can be used for switching monitoring or for direct measurement of the differential pressure generated by the Delta Tube.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Annubar : Advantages i. It is available for a wide range of pipe sizes ii. It is simple and economical to install iii. It provides negligible pressure drop iv. It can be placed in service under pressure v. It can be rotated while in service, for cleaning action vi. It provides long-term measurement stability. Disadvantages i. unsuitability for operating dirty or sticky fluids ii. limited operating data

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ELBOW TAPS

The flow measurement using elbow taps as a primary element, depends on a measurement of the differential pressure between the two points (the inside and outside curves of the elbow) developed by centrifugal force, as the direction of fluid flow is changed in a pipe line elbow. The taps are located at opposite ends of diameter in the plan of the elbow, and the diameter which passes through the tap is at either 45 or 22.5 from the inlet face of the elbow as shown. Elbow taps are rarely used. Its accuracy is poor, varying from 5 to 10%. Advantages i. Easy to add to existing installation where elbows exists ii. Comparitively low cost. iii. No additional pressure loss iv. No obstructions in the line v. Good repeatability Disadvantages i.Poor accuracy ii.Differential pressure developed is relatively small
WEIRS, FLUMES AND OPEN NOZZLES

The Primary element used for measuring rate of flow in open channels are weirs, flumes and open nozzles. A weir is a flat bulkhead with a specially shaped notch along its upper edge. It is placed across the open fluid stream, forcing the fluid to rise up to the notch as the flow rate increases. The Weir Forces The Fluid Up the Notch as Flow Rate increases Advantages: (i) Low cost (ii) Can be constructed on location where being used (iii) Not easily damaged Disadvantages: (i) Applicable only to open channel measurements (ii) Field calibration required (iii) Poor accuracy (generally not over 2 to 3%)

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FLUMES :

The flume is a formed structure that is placed in the open fluid stream, forcing the fluid to rise within it as the flow rate increases. It is considered more practical than weirs because its loss of head is about 1/4th that of a weir. Advantages (i) Handles greater flow than weir (ii) Can be constructed on location (iii) Easy to construct as all its sections are plane surface (iv) Dimensions not easily altered to causing incorrect measurements Disadvantages (i) More expensive than weir (ii) Requires calibration on location (iii) accuracy not over 2 to 3%
OPEN NOZZLE

The open nozzle is shaped so that the level of the fluid in the nozzle rises uniformly as the flow rate increases. The measurement of flow rate using these primary elements is accomplished by a float actuated device located in a well adjoining the channel. The level in the well changes with each new rate of flow, due to the restriction caused by the primary element.

IN THE OPEN NOZZLE, THE LEVEL OF FLUID RISES UNIFORMLY AS FLOW RATE INCREASES. (PENN MALER CO.)

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ULTRASONIC LEVEL MEASUREMENT IN OPEN CHANNEL FLOW MEASURING APPLICATIONS

LINEAR & SQUARE ROOT SCALES


Recorder charts for pressure, Temperature, Level, Specific Gravity, etc., generally have a linear scale whereas flow charts have a square root scale. This is because the rate of flow is proportional to the sq. Root of the differential head. Whereas linear charts have a uniform calibration, sq. root charts have a sq. root calibration as shown in the figure. It will be noted that 50% of the flow is actually marked on 25% of the liner chart, 70% of the flow near the 50% of linear scale and 90% of the flow very near 80 % of the linear scale. Consequently flow scale are cramped at the bottom (near zero) and expanded near maximum. Accuracy of flowmeter readings against such a scale can be had only above 25% of the liner scale.
LINEAR SCALE

10

0 2 3

8
SQ. ROOT SCALE

10

LINEAR / SQUARE ROOT CALIBRATION


INPUT ma 4 8 12 16 20 psi 3 6 9 12 15 Kg/cm2 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 LINEAR SCALE 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% OUTPUT SQUARE ROOT SCALE 0% 50% 70.71% 86.60% 100%

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VARIABLE AREA FLOW METERS In the differential head flow meters, the flow restriction is of fixed size and the pressure differential across it changes with the flow rate, whereas in the Variable Area flow meters the differential pressure is made constant and the size of the restriction varies. Therefore the flow rate is a function of the area of the opening through which the flow is passing. Basically there are two types of variable area flow meters Rotameters and Cylinder & Piston type flow meters.
ROTAMETERS GLASS TUBE ROTAMETERS METAL TUBE ROTAMETERS BYE PASS ROTAMETERS PURGE ROTAMETERS

GLASS TUBE ROTAMETER : It works on the principle of variable area. The float moves freely up and down in the tapered borosilicate glass tube with fluid flow from bottom to top. The float takes up a position where the buoyancy forces and the float weight are balanced in proportion to flow rate. The vertical position of the float as indicated by scale is a measure of the instantaneous flow rate. Rotameter is always mounted vertically in the pipe line. The inlet of the rotameter is at bottom and outlet at top. The same fundamental equation used for the orifice meter also applies to the variable area meter. Q = A2gh

In the working eqn. for the rotameter, the diff.pressure is replaced by a factor which causes it to remain constant. This factor involves the volume of the float and the area of the float as well as the density of the float and the density of the fluid .
The area of the float must be applicable to the taper of the tube; the actual metering area occurs at the bottom of the float as shown in fig. Thus, the working equation becomes:

Using this eqn., the rate of flow thro the rotameter can be calculated for any position of the float. Page 20 of 43

The rotameter is subject to error due to changes in the density or the viscosity of the flowing fluid. To overcome small changes in fluid density, the float should be of material twice as dense as the flowing fluid. To overcome the effect of small changes in the viscosity of the flowing fluid, the float shape should be made so that it as insensitive to these changes as possible. The float of the rotameter adjusts the size of the area by rising and falling in the tapered tube. Depending on the rate of flow, the float takes a position in the tube that increases or decreases the size of the area, and thus keeps the differential pressure constant. In the valve-type meter, a specially shaped plug or piston moves to a new position to keep the differential pressure constant for each rate of flow.
METAL TUBE ROTAMETER

The float moves freely up and down in the tapered measuring tube with fluid flow from bottom to top. The float takes up a position where the buoyancy forces and the float weight are balanced in proportion to flow rate. The vertical position of the float is a measure of the instantaneous flow rate. The scales can be calibrated in mass or volume flow units. The coupling magnet fitted into float, transmits float position from the measuring tube to the follow up magnet which is attached to the indicating assembly in the indicator box. Thus the pointer moves with the position of the float.

METAL TUBE ROTAMETER TRANSMITTER

This metal tube Rotameter can be extended as a Transmitter and this works on the principle of R to I converter using special servo Potentiometer. Linearisation is achieved by electronics circuitry

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BYE PASS ROTAMETER

Bye Pass Rotameters are suitable for flow rate measurements in 2 NB or higher size pipelines. The complete assembly consists of carrier rings, bye pass line and a Rotameter as indicator. This is basically a inline Rotameter either glass tube or metal tube placed in a bye pass piping. The only difference is the range orifice placed in Rotameter at the inlet. This range orifice is designed in such a way that the differential pressure through the bye pass piping is equivalent to differential pressure across the mainline orifice.

PURGE ROTAMETER

Purge Rotameters are used in applications where small flows of liquids and gases (Transparent), such as in purge applications for level measurement has to be measured and controlled. Rotometers are working under variable area principle. Float is free to travel up or down within a tappered Borosilicate glass. When it travels up the area is increased. When the fluids flows through the Rotameter the float raises to the point of dynamic balance which is the true indication of flow. The differential pressure Regulator is an Automatic Flow controller which controls the flow set by the needle valve even while the inlet or outlet pressure change. This automatic flow control is very essential for the purging applications, otherwise the set flow widely vary with changes in inlet and outlet pressure.

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MAGNETIC FLOWMETERS Magnetic Flowmeter is based upon Faraday's law of induction which states that the voltage induced across any conductor as it moves at right angles thru a magnetic field is proportional to the velocity of that conductor. This principle finds common application in direct and alternating current generators. The basic operating principle is illustrated graphically in Figure . Consider magnetic field, "B", being generated in a plane which is perpendicular to the axis of the meter pipe. Further, consider a disc of the metered fluid as a conductor; the transverse length, "D", being equal to the meter pipe diameter. As the velocity, "V", of the fluid disc is directed along the axis of the meter pipe, a voltage, "Es", will be induced within this fluid which is mutually perpendicular to the direction of the fluid velocity and the flux linkages of the magnetic field; i.e., in the axial direction of the meter electrodes.

SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF MAGNETIC FLOW METER

This electrode voltage is the summation of all incremental voltages developed within each fluid particle that passes under the influence of the magnetic field. This may be expressed mathematically as (Equation #1) E = 1 . BDV C where: E = induced electrode voltage B = magnetic field strength (magnetic flux density) D = pipe diameter C = dimensionless constant Thus, the metered fluid constitutes a continuous series of conductive fluid discs moving thru a magnetic field. The more rapid the rate of fluid flow, the greater the instantaneous value of signal voltage as monitored at the meter electrodes.

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The magnetic flowmeter is a volumetric flow rate measuring instrument. This can be shown by substituting the physical equivalent of fluid velocity into equation#1, proceeding as follows :
Q = VA Q = 4Q V= A D2 We know E = 1 . BDV C E=1 C

. BD .B

4Q D2 Q D

E=41 C

and solving for Q Q= CD .E


4 B
CUTAWAY VIEW OF THE MAGNETIC FLOWMETER

Since C and D are constant, Equation # 2


Q=

K E
B

Where Q = volumetric flow rate A = Cross-sectional area, K = dimensional constant V = fluid velocity Therefore, volumetric flow rate is directly proportional to the induced signal voltage. ADVANTAGES 1. No moving components 2. Can handle slurries and greasy materials 3. Can handle corrosive fluids 4. totally obstructionless & hence no pressure loss 5. Available in several construction materials 6. Available in large pipe sizes and capacities 7. Capable of handling extremely low flows (with minimum size, less than 3.175 mm inside diameter) and very high volume flow rate (with sizes as large as 3.04 meter offered) 8. Can be used as bi-directional meter 9. Measurements unaffected by viscosity, density, temperature and pressure 10. Linear analog output DISADVANTAGES 1. Relatively expensive 2. Works only with fluids which are adequate electrical conductors 3. Relatively heavy, especially in larger sizes 4. Must be full at all times 5. Must be explosion proof when installed in hazardous electrical areas

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TURBINE FLOWMETER
BASIC PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Turbine Flowmeter is an electromechanical, volumetric flow measurement instrument. The flow causes the bladed rotor to turn at an angular velocity directly proportional to the velocity of the liquid measured. Because the cross sectional area of the meter is fixed, the angular velocity of the rotor is directly proportional to volume flowrate. As the blades on the rotor pass beneath a magnetic pickup coil, an AC signal is generated. Each AC pulse is equivalent to a discrete volume of fluid. Since AC frequency is directly proportional to the angular velocity of the rotor, the frequency is directly proportional to flowrate. The AC wave form generated is sinusoidal in nature and is readily transmitted to local or remote electronic instrumentation. A full line of electronic analog and digital instruments are available for indicating, totalizing, recording and controlling flowrate and total throughput
OPERATING PRINCIPLES

A Turbine meter consists of a multibladed rotor suspended in the fluid stream on a free running bearing (See Fig.). The axis of rotation of the rotor is perpendicular to the flow direction and the rotor blades sweep out virtually to the full bore of the meter. The fluid impinging on the rotor blades causes the rotor to revolve. Within the linear flow range of the meter, the angular speed of rotation is directly proportional to the volumetric flow rate. The speed of rotation is monitored by an electromagnetic pickup coil, which is fitted to the outside of the meter housing. Two types of pickup coil are primary used: reluctance and inductance. Both operate on the principle of a magnetic field moving through a coil. In the reluctance pickup coil system, the permanent magnet is the coil. The field produced is concentrated to a small point by the cone (see fig.). The turbine rotor blades are made of a paramagnetic material, i.e, a material that is attracted by a magnet. As a blade approaches the cone point, its magnetix properties deflect the magnetic filed. This deflection causes a voltage to be generated in the coil. As the blade passes under the cone point, the voltage decays, only to be built back up in the opposite polarity as the departing blade deflects the magnetic field in the opposite direction. Thus, each blade produces a separate and distinct voltage pulse as it passes the cone Since each blade sweeps a discrete volume of fluid.

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With the inductance pickup coil system (See Fig), the permanent magnet is embedded in the rotor. As the magnet rotates past the pick the pickup coil position, it generates a voltage pulse for every complete revolution of the rotor. The typical operating temperature ranges for standard pickup coils is 58 to +300F (-50 to 150C).Specially modified pickup coil are available, however, to cover operation at temperatures ranging from -328 to +840F (-200 to + 450C). if the meter is located in a hazardous area, the pickup coil can be mounted in a flameproof or explosionproof conduit box, or alternatively an intrinsically safe pickup coil can be used in conjunction with zener barrier to provide an inherently safe system.
TURBINE METERS FOR LIQUIDS
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES

Turbine meters are available for liquid and gases, very low flow rates and as insertion designs. The liquid turbine meter is one of the most accurate meters available for low-to mediumviscosity products Liquid Turbine Meters cover a diverse variety of liquid measurement needs. The following are examples of liquids which can be metered over a wide range of conditions: Ammonia (liquid) Butane (liquid) Cryogenics Crude Oil Fuels and Fuel Oils Liquid Natural Gas Liquid Petroleum Gas Motor Oils Naphtha Solvents Tetra Ethyl Lead Waters (all types)

The following are examples of industries which can be served: Aerospace Power Plants Fossil Fuel Atomic Power Petroleum Products Air Conditioning Pipeline & Heating Steel Production Chemical Textiles Dock Loading Transport & Truck Loading Facilities Ocean Tanker, Ship & Barge Oil Production Loading and Unloading Oil Refining

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TURBINE METERS FOR GASES

Gas turbine meters cover a wide range of gas measurement needs. Examples of gases which can be metered over a wide range of conditions : Oxygen Nitrogen Argon Natural gas Carbon dioxide Carbon monoxide Hydrogen Butane Examples of Industries served : Natural Gas production Gas transmission Steel production
TYPICAL PERFORMANCE CURVES FOR GAS METERS

Turbine meters offer good flow range capability (10:1) and are suitable for virtually unlimited pressure and extremes of high and low Temperature. They are easy to install and have a small size and weight relative to the pipeline diameter. The meter has a very fast response and can be made hygienic. The principal limitations are incompatibility with high viscosity liquids, possible damage due to over speeding during a liquid/gas phase, and the necessity for secondary readout equipment. Filtration is also recommended. Turbine meters are widely for high accuracy product sale, blending, test rig duty and general measurement. TARGET (OR IMPACT) METERS In this system, deflection of a plate supported in the fluid flow is measured and an electronic or pneumatic analog output provided. The target meter is more expensive than a comparable orifice installation but since there are no tappings to block up, the target meter is more suited to fluid with suspended solids or sticky types of liquid. There are no moving parts.

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The target meter measures flow by measuring the force on a target (or disc), centred in the pipe at right angles to the direction of fluid flow. The fluid flow develops a force on the target which is proportional to the square of the flow. A target meter consists of a target (or disc) which is mounted on a force bar (or beam) passing through a flexible seal, and is positioned in the centre of and perpendicular to the flowing stream, as shown in Fig. The device may be installed directly in the flow line, thus eliminating the need for pressure-tap connections. The flowing fluid while passing through the pipe, develops a force on the target which is proportional to velocity head (the square of the flow). The force bar transmits this force to a force transducer (either electronic or pneumatic) to measure the force which is proportional to the square of the flow. The relationship between the flow rate and force is expressed by the equation. Q = KF where, Q = flow rate, K = a known coefficient, F = force The target meters are available in sizes from 12.5 to 203mm pipe diameter, and an accuracy of about +/- % with proper calibration. The targets (or discs) are available with diameters of 0.6 to 0.8 times pipe diameter. Advantages 1. useful for difficult measurements such as slurries, polymer-bearing and sediment-bearing materials; corrosive mixtures etc 2. good accuracy when calibrated for specific streams 3. repeatability is good 4. good for relatively high temperatures and pressures Disadvantages 1. in-line mounting required 2. a limited calibration data 3. no-flow conditions must exist for zeroing the scale

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THERMAL FLOW METERS :

In a thermal flow meter, flow rate is measured either by monitoring the cooling action of the flow on a heated element placed in the flow or by the transfer of heat energy between two points along the flow path. Hot wire anemometers and calorimetric flow meters are the two common types of thermal flow meters and both types can be used to measure mass flow rate making both types especially suitable for gas applications.
HOT WIRE ANEMOMETERS:

Hot wire anemometers have probes inserted into the process flow. These probes are usually connected in a typical bridge circuit. One of two probes is heated to a specific temperature. The second probe measures the temperature of the fluid. As the flow increases, it causes a heat loss in the heated probe. Consequently, more current is required to maintain the probe at the correct temperature. The increase in current flow can be measured and used to calculate mass flow rate. Proper operation requires that thermal conductivity (the ability of the heat to be conducted from the probe to the fluid) and heat capacity (the quantity of heat that a given mass requires to raise its temperature a specified amount) be assumed to be constant.
CALORIMETRIC FLOW METERS :

Calorimetric flow meters work on the principle of heat transfer by the flow of fluid. Typically, calorimetric flow meters are situated along the direction of the flow. A heating element is placed in the flow. A sensor is positioned to measure the temperature upstream of the device; a second measuring device reads the temperature of the flow downstream from the heater. The rate of flow is determined by the difference in the two temperatures. With a constant power input, this difference in temperature is a linear function of the mass flow and the heat capacity. The flow meter can then be calibrated to indicate directly in mass flow units Applications of thermal flow meters are limited to use with fluids that have known heat capacities. Usually, these are clean gases or clean mixtures of pure gases of known composition where heat capacity is known and is constant during flow meter operating. Liquid applications are less common because liquids generally contain more impurities than gases. Thermal flow meter designs can measure fluid flow at temperatures as high as 450 Celsius, although most have a temperature rating between 100 and 150 degrees Celsius. The pressure rating of the flange or connection normally limits pressure ratings. Conductive surfaces of a thermal flow meter can become contaminated and should be routinely cleaned to maintain the performance levels. These devices are generally not applied to abrasive fluid services.

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VORTEX FLOWMETERS Three types of vortex flowmeters are commercially available.

swirlmeter SWIRLMETER

vortex shedding meter

fluidic meter

The swirlmeter operates on the principle of vortex precession. It is a digital volumetric device which has no moving parts. It gives an output in the form of pulses whose frequency is proportional to fluid flow rate. Figure shows the construction of a swirlmeter. It consists of a fixed set of swirl blades, usually made of stainless steel, which introduce a spinning or swirling motion to the fluid at the inlet. At the downstream of the swirl blades there is a venturi-like contraction and expansion of the flow passage. A temperature sensor (e.g. thermistor) is placed at the downstream of the blades which is heated by a constant electric current. At the exit of the meter-deswirl blades are fixed to straighten out the flow leaving the meter, as shown in Figure. Its purpose is to isolate the meter from downstream piping effects. As the fluid passes through the fixed set of swirl blades at the inlet, a swirling (or spinning} motion is imparted to it. In the area where expansion occurs, the swirling flow precesses or oscillates at a frequency proportional to fluid flow rate. This precession of the fluid causes variations in temperature and resistance of the thermistor (sensor). The amount of heat extracted from the thermistor by passing fluid is dependent upon the fluid velocity. Consequently, each high velocity vortex passed the thermistor, changes the resistance and, since a constant current is applied, the resistance changes is converted into voltage pulses which are amplified, filtered and transformed into constant amplitude high level pulses of square waveform. The frequency of the pulses are measured by an electronic counter which gives the flow rate of fluid. The swirlmeter has an accuracy of 0.75% within its linear operating range of 1%. Its repeatability is 0.25% and rangeability is 100:1. It is currently available in meter sizes from 25.4 to 152.4 mm. It is primarily used in gaseous applications, where a very much lower density results in a significantly lower pressure loss.

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VORTEX SHEDDING FLOWMETERS

Vortex Flowmeters operate on the Karman vortex shedding street principle to measure the volumetric flowrate of gases, vapours/steam. The vortex flowmeter is used for measuring the flow velocity average in pipelines. The measuring principle is based on the development of a Karman vortex shedding street in the wake of a body built into the pipeline.The periodic shedding of eddies occurs first from one side and then from the other side of a bluff body (vortex-shedding body) installed perpendicular to the pipe axis ("Karman vortex street"). The frequency f of the vortex shedding is proportiional to the flow velocity v The non-dimensional Strouhal number s describes the relationship between vortex shedding frequency f width b of the body, and mean flow velocity v f = S.v b

The operation of the vortex shedding flowmeter is based on a phenomenon known as vortex shedding which occurs when a gas or liquid flows around a non-stream lined (or blunt) object known as sluff body. When a fluid flows past an obstacle, boundary layers of slow moving fluid are formed along the outer surfaces of the obstacle and the flow is unable to follow contours of the
Vortex shedding from a bluff body causes velocity and pressure adjacent to the body to change Page 31 of 43

obstacle on its downstream side. Thus the flow layers are separated from the surface of the object, and a low pressure area is formed behind the object which causes the separated layers to get detached from the main stream of the fluid and roll them selves into eddies or vortices in the low pressure area, as shown in Figure. Each eddy on vortex first grows and gets detached or shed from alternate sides of the object. The frequency at which the vortices are formed is directly proportional to the fluid velocity. The flexural vibration of the vortex-shedding body is picked up in the primary head via sensors and analysed in the signal converter. As a vortex is shed from one side of the sluff body the fluid velocity on that side increases and the pressure decreases, and at the same time the velocity on the opposite side decreases pressure increases, thus causing a net pressure change across the sluff body. As the next vortex is shed from the opposite side of the sluff body, the entire effect is reversed. Therefore, the velocity and pressure distribution in the fluid around the sluff body change at the same frequency as the vortex shedding frequency. The changes in pressure of velocity is sensed by a flow-sensitive detector which can be either a heated thermistor element or a spherical magnetic shuttle. The vortex shedding flowmeters are available in the sizes from 50.8 to 152.4 mm. Its linearity is within 1/2% and rangeability is 100 : 1. This meter has also no moving parts. Advantages / Special Features : 1. has an excellent rangeability 2. handles a wide variety of chemicals, including slurries, liquids with entrained particles, and viscous materials 3. has no moving parts 4. relatively immune to density, temperature, pressure and viscosity variations within the linear range 5. very low pressure drop 6. has good response speed 7. wetted parts of stainless steel 1.4571/316L and titanium 8. high measuring accuracy 9. meter sizes DN 25 to 200(1" to 8") 10. compact Unit with maintenance free 11. Good rangeability 12. for measurement of gases and vapours/steam 13. two-wire connection, output 4 to 20 mA 14. hazardous-duty version EEx ib IIC T6..T3 15. high temperature version with special seals. Disadvantages 1. high cost. 2. not available over 200 mm size 3. upper temperature limit is 204C 4. In-line mounting required

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ULTRASONIC FLOW METERS In ultrasonic flowmeters, the measurement of flow rate is determined by the variation in parameters of ultrasonic oscillations. There are two types of ultrasonic flowmeters currently in use : (i) Transit time flowmeters (ii) doppler flowmeter Transit Time flowmeters: A sound wave propogated in the direction of flow through the medium requires a shorter transit time from one point to another than a sound wave propogated in the opposite direction. It uses 2 ultrasonic sensors which are clamped on the pipe at opposite sides under an angle with the pipe axis. Both sensors are able to transmit and receive ultrasonic waves. These devices measure flow by measuring the time taken for ultrasonic wave to transverse a pipe section, both with and against the flow of liquid within the pipe. An ultrasonic beam is projected right across the pipe at an acute angle, first with the flow and then in opposition to the flow direction. The difference in transit time is proportional to flow rate. It consists of two transducers, A and B, inserted into a pipe line, and working both as transmitter and receiver, as shown in Fig. The ultrasonic waves are transmitted from transducer A to transducer B and vice versa. An electronic oscillator is connected to supply ultrasonic waves alternately to A or B which is working as transmitter through a changeover switch, when the detector is connected simultaneously to B or A which is working as receiver. The detector measures the transit time from upstream to downstream transducers and vice versa. If the mediums measured mean flow velocity is now electronically multiplied by the cross section of the pipeline, the result is the flow-rate per unit of time. The same applies to A(A )and B(B ) From point A to point B, the ultrasonic waves move with the velocity. vAB = c0 + vm .cos and in the opposite direction, from point B to point A, with velocity vBA = c0 - vm .cos

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The following applies to the different transit times : from point A to point B,

tAB =

L -----------------------c0 + vm .cos L -----------------------c0 - vm .cos

and from point B to point A

tBA =

A Transmitter and Receiver B Transmitter and Receiver L distance between the ultrasonic waves vm - mean flow velocity of the liquid tAB (vAB) transit ime of the sound waves from point A to point B (propogation velocity) tBA (vBA) transit ime of the sound waves from point A to point B (propogation velocity) C0 velocity of sound in the liquid calibration constant GK calibration constant - angle between pipe axis and measurement line

The mean flow velocity vm of the medium is calculated from the last two equations :

vm In = GK . tAB - tBA tAB . tBA

tAB and tBA are measured continually Since, this type of flowmeter relies upon an ultrasonic signal traversing across the pipe, the liquid must be relatively free of solids and air bubbles. It requires a relatively clean fluid. There is no obstruction to flow and hence no pressure loss. It is ideally suited to very corrosive liquid. The approach pipe work conditions are fairly critical. This type of meter is gaining limited acceptance in the water and chemical industries. DOPPLER FLOWMETERS : In Doppler principle, a transmitting transducer sends a continuous signal into the liquid. Particles, gas / air bubbles or disturbances in the liquid reflect part of this signal. The reflected signal is sensed by the receiving transducer and the difference between the transmitted and received frequency is calculated. This frequency is directly proportional to the liquid velocity. Doppler ultrasonic flowmeters measure liquids with particle size > 100 microns.

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The velocity of the fluid is given by the equation: =fK V= f Ct 2 f0 COS Where, f = difference between transmitted and received frequency Ct = velocity of sound in the transducer f0 = frequency of transmission = Angle of transmitter and receiver crystal with respect to the pipe axis. K = constant Advantages of Ultrasonic Flowmeters : (i) does not impose additional resistance to the flow or disturb the flow pattern as the transducers are inserted in the wall of pipe. (ii) velocity/output relationship is linear (iii) no moving parts (iv) Repeatability is in the order of 0.01% QUANTITY FLOW METERS Quantity flow meters are used for the measurement of small percentage of industrial flow rate. These meters operate by passing te fluid to be measured through the meter in separate and distinct increments of alternately feeling and emptying containers of known fixed capacity. The number of times te container is filled and emptied gives the quantity of flow. QUANTITY FLOW METERS

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METERS

METERING PUMPS

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT METERS

These are essentially flow quantity meters. They are most widely used for the applications where the highest degree of accuracy and good repeatability are required. These devices work on the principle that as the liquid flows through the meter, it separates the flow of liquid into separate known volumetric increments which are counted and totalled. The sum of the increments gives the measurement of the total volume of liquid passed through the meter. It may be divided into five catogories namely Nutating disc type, Oscillating piston type, rotating vane type, reciprocating piston type, lobed impeller type.
METERING PUMPS

A metering pump is a positive displacement pump which is used to provide a predictable and accurate rate of process fluid flow. In many cases it becomes the final control element of an instrument control loop. Any positive displacement pump may be used as a metering pump due to its volumetric mode of fluid transfer. In practice, however, only those pumps which have very little internal or external leakage, are used for metering purposes. Metering pumps may be classified by their basic mode of operation as

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1. Reciprocating piston pumps

MASS FLOW METER

2. Peristaltic pumps

3. Diaphragm pumps.

True mass flow meters measure the mass rate of flow directly as compared to volumetric flow rate. QM = QV x , where QM= Mass flow rate, QV = Volume flow rate, =fluid density CORIOLIS METERS The working principle of this type of instrument is Newton's second law of motion - F=ma. Each sensor consists of one or two tubes enclosed in a sensor housing. The flow tube is driven by an electromagnetic coil located at the center of the bend in the tube. The fluid being measured flows through the sensor tube which is vibrated at its natural frequency by an electromagnetic device with an amplitude of less than 1mm and frequency of about 80 Hz. As the fluid moves through the vibrating tube it is forced to take on the tube's vertical momentum. During half of the vibration cycle when the tube is moving upward, fluid flowing into the meter pushes downward against the tube resisting this upward force. Conversely fluid flowing out of the meter, having been forced upward, now resists having its vertical momentum decreased and pushes upward against the tube. This combination of resistive forces causes the flow sensor tube to twist, This is called "Coriolis Effect". During the second half of the vibration cycle when the tube moves downwards, the resultant twist will be in the opposite direction, the amount that the sensor tube twists is directly proportional to the mass flow rate of the fluid flowing through it. Electromagnetic sensors are located on each side of the flow tube to measure the respective velocity of the vibrating tube at these two points. Any time difference between these two velocity signals is caused by the twisting of the tube. The sensors send this information to the meter's electronic unit where it is processed and converted to an output signal directly proportional to the mass flow rate. In meters with double flow tubes, the two tubes vibrate twist 180"out of phase, and their combined twist determines the mass flow rate.

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CORIOLIS PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

MASS FLOW METERS

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A Coriolis flowmeter consists of two primary components: the flow tube assembly, which is typically called the sensor, and an electronics assembly. The sensor is commonly interfaced to the electronics with a cable that permits the electronics to be located remotely from the sensor. The function of the sensor is to react to the Coriolis forces produced by the fluid flowing through the oscillating tubes. The electronics provides the energy to oscillate the flow tubes, processes the signals from the flow detectors mounted on the flow tubes, and produces outputs which represent the mass flow rate of the fluid.

APPLICATIONS Coriolis flow meters are currently being used in many industrial area that require flow measurement : chemical, petroleum, petrochemical, food and beverage, pulp and paper, and pharmaceutical. Due to the versatility of these flowmeters they are being used for process control, batching, inventory, precision filling of containers, and custody transfer.

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FLOW SWITCHES

Flow switches are used for visual and/or electrical checking of liquid flow in industry.

Indicator G : Standard for all flow switches. Scale marks are from 1 to 10 to permit visual checking of the flow rate. The switching point can be changed as and when required even under flowing conditions. Indicator A : Flow switches are available with indicator also. The dial is marked in flow units (e.g. l/h, m3/h) to provide more accurate flow readings. The switching points are factory marked on the dial. With this indicator it is possible to adjust the switching points under non-flowing conditions. Measuring system C has a hinged measuring disc moving freely in the axis of the conical tube. At flowing conditions, the system adjusts so that the force acting on the disc is in equilibrium with the spring force. Each flow rate thus corresponds to a particular position of the measuring disc. A built-in magnet transmits the disc position to the indicator and simultaneously actuates the limit switches.

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Paddle type flow switches can be used wherever a simple, economic yet reliable monitoring instrument is required for controlling flow rates in pipes. The device operates as follows : The flowing medium presses against the paddle of the paddle of the flow switch. The paddle is fitted to one end of a balance arm which is in direct contact with a pre-stressed leaf spring. At the other end of the balance arm is a permanent magnet. This magnet actuates a reed contact located within a moveable housing outside the media. The reed contact switches on or off depending on the position of the permanent magnet and the switch housing. The status of the switch may then be used to electrically control the fluid flow. The movable reed switch on the PSR/PS allows the contacts to be set either normally open (N/O) or normally closed (N/C). APPLICATIONS : Cooling circuits in steel industries and process industries as varied as fertilizer, chemical, paper etc. Flow switches are used in following applications : In Air Conditioning System : 1. Safety control and automatic signal device in a chilled water system. 2. Safety control and automatic signal device in a condenser cooling water system. 3. To start cooling water tower fan when flow occurs in condenser cooling system 4. Used as sequence starters and safety controls in condenser, evaporator, and compressor motor starter circuits. In Hot Water Space Heating System: 1. Used to actuate stand-by pump in event primary pump fails 2. Safety control to reduce the possibility of thermal shock in hot water boilers 3. Safety control to prevent freeze-up of a unit ventilator hot water coil. In Hot Water Supply System: 1. Actuating and safety control on instantaneous hot water heating units. 2. Actuate a booster water heater whenever a draw of water occurs 3. Tankless heater system to actuate circulator pump when a draw of water occurs In pump system: 1. Safety control to prevent pump operation if well water level is too low 2. Actuate a booster pump in a system where water supply pressure is inadequate 3. To maintain pump operation while flow occurs in a by-pass line

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In water cooled equipment : used as a safety control to prevent damage if flow fails in the supply line to water cooled equipment. In blending or additive System: used as an actuating control in a pipeline blending system. In Liquid Transfer System : Control the operation of liquid transfer from one location to another In fire sprinkler system : used as a Safety control to actuate alarm or signals, and to start or stop mechanical equipment when fire occurs In water treatment system : used to actuate an additive device or electrical element in a water treatment system. In liquid processing, Reclaiming or disposal system : used to sound alarm, actuate signal or stop equipment should essential liquid flow fail. In Duct Type Heating System: used as a safety shut off switch should air flow fail in duct heating system. In Exhaust Ventilating system: used as a safety control to sound alarm, actuate signal, or stop process if air flow fails in exhaust system. In Air supply System: 1. Used to sound alarm, actuate signal or stop equipment should necessary air flow fail in supply system 2. Used to control operation of air cleaner, humidifier or other air treatment equipment
HOT WATER SPACE HEATING SYSTEM

In the system shown above, the primary pump and the stand-by pump are installed in parallel in a simple return and supply system. The flow switch is installed in a discharge line of the primary pump and connected electrically to the starter of the stand-by pump

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During normal operation the flow in the primary pump discharge line keeps the electrical contact in the flow switch open, and the stand-by pump remains stopped. Should the primary pump fail, the lack of flow in the discharge line would cause the contact in the flow switch to close, and the stand-by pump would immediately start. If another flow switch is placed in the stand-by pump discharge line, then either pump could be used as a primary pump and the other as a stand-by. In this system, failure of either pump used as a primary pump would cause the stand-by pump to function. It also may be desirable to use the flow switch in a central control system to actuate a signal whenever there is either flow or no-flow in the pump discharge line

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SELECTION GUIDE FOR FLOW SENSORS

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PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
INTRODUCTION The Measurement and Control of Pressure is very important in almost all chemical and Petrochemical Industries, Power Plants and other Industries. Many of the Processes in these Industries use liquids, gases, steam, etc which requires highly accurate measurement and control of pressure for Trouble Free and Safety Operation. PRESSURE Pressure is defined as Force Applied Per Unit Area. Mathematically, pressure is expressed as; P = F/A Where P Pressure, F Force, A Area

TYPES OF PRESSURE 1. Gauge Pressure - Pressure above atmospheric pressure. Hence, the Zero of the Gauge Pressure scale depends on the Atmospheric Pressure at that location. 2. Absolute Pressure Pressure above the absolute Zero. 3. Atmospheric Pressure or Barometric Pressure 4. Vacuum - Pressure less than atmospheric Pressure. 5. Differential Pressure UNITS OF PRESSURE A unit often used for expressing high pressures is atmospheres, abbreviated atm. A micron, abbreviatedm, is 0.001 mm of Hg column absolute pressure at 32F. A pound per square inch, abbreviated psig for gauge pressures and psia for absolute pressures, is the common. Common units of pressure Pascal (N/m2), Bar, kgf/cm2, psi (lb.f/in2), Torr (mm Hg) and mm H20 MEASUREMENT OF LOW PRESSURES Pressures, which are less than 1 psi, are normally considered as low pressure and low pressures are usually calibrated in inches of water.(1 Psi = 27.7 inches of H20)
.

PRESSURE CONVERSION TABLE A pressure conversion table is used for conversion of pressure from one unit to other.
MULTIPLY BY k Pascal Bar kgf/cm2 psi (lb.f/in2) Torr (mm Hg) mm H20 Table - 1 k Pascal Bar kgf/cm2 psi (lb.f/in2) 0.145 14.5 14.22 1 0.01933 0.001422 Torr (mm Hg) 7.501 750.1 735.6 51.71 1 0.0735 mm H20

1 100 98.07 6.895 0.1333 9.807 x 10-4

0.01 1 0.9807 0.06895 0.001333 98.07 x 10-6

0.0102 1.02 1 0.07031 0.001359 0.0001

102 10200 10000 703 13.59 1

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VACUUM MEASUREMENT
Vacuum Measurement is the measurement of Pressures below Atmospheric Pressure. The Vacuum Scale is normally graduated in inches of mercury (Inch of Hg) or inches of water (Inch of H20). Mechanical Transducers made of deformation elements like Bourdon Tube, bellows and diaphragms are used to measure Vacuum just as they are used to measure pressure.

TOTAL OR ABSOLUTE PRESSURE

GAUGE PRESSURE (psig) ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AT SEA LEVEL VACUUM ABSOLUTE REFERENCE

FIG - 1 Note: Atmospheric Pressure at sea level is also called Barometric Pressure. Standard Atmospheric Pressure at sea level = 760 mm Hg = 29.91 in Hg = 14.697 psig.

PRESSURE SCALE
30
POSITIVE GAUGE PRESSURE

20 15 10
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE AT SEA LEVEL

ABSOLUTE PRESSURE SCALE

25

5
VACUMM PRESSURE SCALE

NEGATIVE GAUGE PRESSURE

5 10 15

X 10

20 25 30
ABSOLUTE REFERENCE

FIG - 2

Note: At X the pressure can be expressed as 10 of Mercury Absolute, or as 20 of Mercury Vacuum, or as -20 of Mercury Gauge.
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TO MAXIMUM

BALLOON

10,000 ft. ELEVATION 9.7 PSI

MOUNTAIN

5000 ft. ELEVATION 12.2 PSI

SEA LEVEL 14.7 PSI FIG - 3

Note: Variation of atmospheric pressure at different elevations from sea level SOME OF THE INSTRUMENTS USED TO MEASURE ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE ARE 1. SIMPLE MERCURY BAROMETER
N A M E O F TH E IN S TR U M E N T S W H IC H A R E U S E D T O M E A S U R E ATM O SPH ERIC PR ESSU R E A R E: * S IM P LE M E R C U R Y B AR O M ETER * A N E R O ID B A R O M ETER

VACUUM

SCALE HERE IS 30"HIGH

30" 25" 20" 15" 10" 5"

M E R C U RY A TM O S P H ER IC P R E S SU R E

S IM P L E B A R O M E TE R FO R M E A S U R IN G A TM O SPH E R IC PR ESSU R E

FIG - 4

Simple Barometer for measuring atmospheric pressure


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2. ANEROID BAROMETER

FIG - 5

Aneroid Barometer Aneroid means Using No Fluid

2.04 INCHES OF MERCURY (Hg)

WEIGHT

1 LB

EARTH

FIG 6

The one pound weight, the 2.04 of mercury and 27.7 of water all exert a pressure of one pound per square inch.

27.7 INCHES OF WATER (H 2 COLUMN O)

Page 4 of 35

ADDITIONAL NOTES ON PRESSURE PRINCIPLES


Pressure is simply the force per unit area that a fluid exerts on its surroundings. If it is a gas, then the pressure of the gas is the force per unit area that the gas exerts on the walls of the container that holds it. If the fluid is a liquid, then the pressure is the force per unit area that the liquid exerts on the container in which it is contained. Obviously, the pressure of a gas will be uniform on all the walls that must enclose the gas completely. In a liquid, the pressure will vary, being greatest on the bottom of the vessel and zero on the top surface, which need not be enclosed. Static Pressure The statements made in the previous paragraph are explicitly true for a fluid that is not moving in space, that is not being pumped through pipes or flowing through a channel. The pressure in case where no motion is occurring is referred to as static pressure. Dynamic Pressure If a fluid is in motion, the pressure that it exerts on its surrounding depends on the motion. Thus, if we measure the pressure of water in a hose with the nozzle closed, we may find a pressure of, say, 40 1b per square inch (note : force per unit area). If the nozzle is opened, the pressure in the hose will drop to a different value, say, 30 1b per square inch. For this reason, a thorough description of pressure must note the circumstances under which it is measured. Pressure can depend on flow, compressibility of the fluid, external forces, and numerous other factors. Gauge Pressure In many cases, the absolute pressure is not the quantity of major interest in describing the pressure. The atmosphere of gas that surrounds the earth exerts a pressure, because of its weight, at the surface of the earth of approximately 14.7 psi, which defines the atmosphere unit. If a closed vessel at the earths surface contained a gas at an absolute pressure of 14.7 psi, then there would be no net pressure on the walls of the container because the atmospheric gas exerts the same pressure from the outside. In cases like this, it is more appropriate to describe pressure in a relative sense-that is, compared to atmospheric pressure. This is called gauge pressure and is given by Pg = Pabs Patm Where Pg = gauge pressure Pabs = absolute pressure Patm = atmospheric pressure In the English system of units, the abbreviation psig is used to represent the gauge pressure. Head Pressure For liquids, the expression head pressure, or pressure head, is often used to describe by the weight of the liquid above the point at which the pressure is being described. This pressure depends only on the height of the liquid above that point and the liquid density (mass per unit volume). In terms of an equation, if a liquid is contained in a tank, the pressure at the bottom of the tank is given by P = gh where; P = pressure in Pa = density in Kg/m g = acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/s) h = depth in liquid in m
Page 5 of 35

METHODS OF PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS 1. By Means Of Mechanical Pressure Sensors/ Elements/Transducers 2. By Means Of Electrical/ Electronic/ Pressure Sensors/Elements/ Transducers

SIMPLE U-TUBE MANOMETER


PRESSURE PRESSURE

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

4 3 2

15 10 5

1 0 1 2 3 4

0 5 10 15

MERCURY AS LIQUID

WATER AS LIQUID THE SAME INLET PRESSURE IS NOW EXPRESSED AS 27.16 INCHES OF WC

DIFFERENCE IN HEIGHT OF MERCURY COLUMNS

FIG 7

Simple U - Tube Manometers with pressure Simulation MEASUREMENT OF DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE Measurement of Differential Pressure (D.P.) is one of the Important Factors for accurate. Measurement of Flow rate and level. Hence, precise measurement of D.P. is of Prime importance in industrial processes. In Differential Pressure Measurement the difference between two working pressures is indicated
HP LP

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE

DP = HP - LP

FIG 8

Measurement of Differential pressure


Page 6 of 35

BELL TYPE DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE GAUGE The Bell Type Differential Pressure Meter is shown in Figure 9. With this device differential pressures from about 1 to 15 in. of water may be measured. The Bell mater is therefore normally employed for lower differential pressure in gases. The motion of the bell is taken from the housing by various mechanical and electrical methods. The bell is arranged to close the opening at the top or bottom of the housing so that protection is afforded against over range and reversal of pressures.

PRESSURE INLET PRESSURE TIGHT SHAFT

BELL

PRESSURE INLET

FIG- 9 Bell type differential pressure element

5 4 3

PRESSURE

2 1 0 -1

FIG 10

Single Limb Well Type Manometer


Page 7 of 35

VERTICAL COLUMN

ANGL E COLU MN

FIG 11

Inclined Tube Manometer

IN IO N + SE C T O R = Q U A D R A N T A SSE M B L Y

SC A L E

P IV O T P IN IO N

M OVEM ENT SE C T O R

C O N N E C T IN G L IN K
T R A V E L IN G ANGLE

SO C K E T

P R O C E SS P R E SSU R E

FIG 12

Dial type indicating Pressure Gauge using C- Type Bourdon tube

Page 8 of 35

FIG 13

Elastic deformation elements for pressure sensing CHEMICAL PRESSURE GAUGES LIQUID SEALED TYPE: The chemical seal gauge (sometimes called diaphragm Gauge with separator) is used to indicate the Pressure of corrosive liquid or gases which are Incompatible with bourdon tube material. This Instrument also finds use in applications when the process fluid contains solids or is highly viscous. The chemical pressure gauges consists essentially two parts 1. Pressure gauge 2. Liquid sealed unit The sealed unit is provided with Teflon diaphragm or any other material compatible with the corrosive Fluid to be measured and gasket to segregate the Corrosive fluid from the liquid under seal. For remote indication sealed unit with copper capillary or stainless steel capillary extension protected with PVC covering is available as an optional feature.
PRESSURE GUAGE PORTION

M E A S U R IN G IN S T R U M E N T PR O C ESS PRESSU RE

C A P IL L A R Y T U B IN G

L IQ U ID S E A L E D U N IT

TO PRO CESS C A PSULE

FIG 14

Chemical Seal Gauge or Diaphragm Gauge. Process fluid pressure acting on the primary fluid within the capsule, forces the secondary fluid up the tubing. This forces the coil to expand or unwind.
Page 9 of 35

PARTIAL LIST OF FILLING FLUIDS NORMALLY USED IN SEAL TYPE AND REMOTE SEAL TYPE PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS S.No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Table 2 FILLING FLUID TOLUENE DOW CORNING SILICON (DC -200) KEROSENE MERCURY 70% GLYCERIN WITH 30% WATER DOW CORNING SILICON 96.5% GLYCERIN TEMP. RANG -40 to + 200F -30 to + 300F -30 to + 350F -30 to + 700F -30 to + 300F +40 to +70 to 600F 450F

P R E S S U R E G A U G E P O R T IO N

C A P IL L A R Y E X T E N S IO N

L IQ U ID S E A L E D U N IT

FIG 15

Chemical Seal Gauge with Capillary extension SELECTION GUIDE FOR MECHANICAL PRESSURE SENSORS/ ELEMENTS/ TRANSDUCERS MINIMUM RANGE DIAPHRAGM BELLOWS CAPSULE C TYPE BOURDON TUBE SPIRAL TYPE BOURDON TUBE HELICAL TYPE BOURDON TYPE
Table- 3 Page 10 of 35

MAXIMUM RANGE 0 0 0 0 0 0 to to to to to to 400 psi 800 psi 50 psi 100,00 psi 4000 psi 10,000 psi

0 0 0 0 0 0

to to to to to to

2 H2O 5 H2O 1 H2O 12 psi 15 psi 50 psi

ELECTRICAL/ELECTRONIC PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS/ELEMENTS Any of the Mechanical Elastic deformation elements may be joined to an electrical element to form a pressure transducer. These transducers may produce a change of resistance, inductance, or capacitance. IT is essential that for each unit change of pressure there is a unit change of electrical characteristic. RESISTANCE TYPE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER Resistance Type devices used in pressure transducers are: 1. Strain Gauges 2. Moving Contacts Strain Gauge is simply a fine wire in the form of a grid. When the grid is distorted, the resistance of the wire changes. L R = K ---A Where, K = a constant for the particular kind of wire L = length of wire A = cross sectional area. As the Strain gauge is distorted by the elastic deformation element, its length is increased and its cross-sectional area is reduced. Both of these changes increase the resistance. Because little distortion is required to change the resistance of a strain gauge through its total range, this type of transducer can be used to detect very small movements and, therefore, very small pressure changes. Fig: A Strain Gauge consists of a wire grid bonded to an impregnated paper or ceramic packing.

GRID WIRE LEAD WIRES

CERAMIC OR IMPREGNATED PAPER


FIG- 16 Resistance Type Pressure Transducer

The resistance variation of this strain gauges due to the pressure increase is measured by means of wheat stone

Page 11 of 35

TEMPERATURE COMPENSATOR RESISTOR


R1 R2

R4

OUTPUT E + AE
R3

EXCITATION POWER SUPPLY

+ -

TERMINAL RESISTANCE ADJUSTMENT

CALIBRATION RESISTOR

FIG- 17 Wheat stone circuit for strain gauges

The Moving Contact Type of Resistance Transducer is most often used with a Bellows because of the force required.

PRESSURE

BELLOW S

S L ID E R

R E S IS T A N C E ELEM ENT S P R IN G

L E A D W IR E S

FIG- 18 Moving contact type of Resistance Transducer is not as Sensitive to small pressure change as the strain gauge.

Page 12 of 35

INDUCTANCE TYPE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER Inductance type pressure Transducers consist of three parts: a Coil, a Movable magnet core, and the elastic deformation element. The element is attached to the core. As the pressure varies, the element causes the core to move within the coil. This type inductance unit used for pressure measurement employs a mutual inductance unit, or differential transformer. In this type, three coils are wound on a single tube. The center coil is connected to an ac source. Voltage is induced in the two outside coil. When the movable core is centered, the induced voltages in each of the outside coils are equal. Moving the core unbalances these voltages, and the difference between them can be measured
FORCE SECONDARY COIL-2
O U T P U T

MOVABLE
R E M O CORE L E V A B C O R E
A -C IN P U T

SECONDARY COIL-1

O U T P U T

FIG- 19 When the movable core is moved off center different voltages result in the two outside Coils, which can be measured as an indication of pressure change.

CAPACITIVE TYPE PRESSURE TRANSDUCER Capacitance Type Pressure Transducers consist of two conductive plates and a dielectric. As the pressure increases, the plate moves, changing the capacitance.
LP

O UTPUT

H IG H FR EQ UENCY O SCILLATOR

HP C APAC ITAN CE PLATES

FIG- 20 Capacitive Type Pressure Transducer Page 13 of 35

PRIMARY COIL

PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCER As pressure is applied to crystals of certain materials a difference in voltage across particular points of their structure occurs.

PR ESSU R E

CR YSTAL

S P R IN G

L E A D W IR E S

A M P L IF I E R

FIG- 21 Piezoelectric Crystals used in combination with bellows as Pressure Transducer

MEASUREMENT OF HIGH VACUUMS AND ULTRA HIGH VACUUMS


Measurement of high vacuums and Ultra high vacuums are very important in the processing of foods, chemicals, drugs and pharmaceuticals. CLASSIFICATION OF HIGH VACUUM SENSORS 1. IONISATION TYPE
1.1. HOT CATHODE IONISATION VACUUM MEASUREMENT 10-3 to 10-11 of mmHg 1.2. COLD CATHODE IONISATION VACUUM MEASUREMENT 10-1 to 10-7 of mmHg SENSORS SENSORS RANGE RANGE OF OF

2. THERMAL
2.1. RESISTANCE WIRE VACUUM SENSORS (PIRANI VACUUM GAUGE) 2.2. THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM SENSORS 2.3. THERMOPILE VACUUM SENSORS

3. MECHANICAL
3.1. McLEOD VACUUM GAUGE Page 14 of 35

1.1 HOT CATHODE IONISATION VACUUM SENSORS RANGE OF MEASUREMENT 10-3 to 10-11 of mmHg
PO SIT IV E IO N C O L L E C T O R IO N CURRENT DETECTOR IN D IC A T IN G M ETER
-

IO N S
+ + + + +

TO VACUUM SY ST E M

ELECTRONS G R ID
-

HOT CATHODE M E T E R FO R ELECTRON CURRENT

+ + +

FIG- 22 Schematics for hot cathode ionization vacuum gauge

Working Principle: Electrons emitted from the hot cathode filament acquire kinetic energy while passing through the grid of the vacuum and collide with the gas molecules from the vacuum system and produce positive ions. These ions are attracted by the collector plate thus forming an ion current. The amount of this ion current flow is directly proportional to the vacuum pressure in the vacuum system and indicated in an Ion Current Detector.
1.2 COLD CATHODE IONISATION VACUUM MEASUREMENT 10-1 to 10-7 of mmHg SENSORS RANGE OF

The cold cathode vacuum gauges are also called as Philips gauges after the name of first manufacturer. The basic difference between the working principle of the Hot Cathode Gauge and Cold Cathode Gauge is that, in the hot filament design the electrons are produced by the hot cathode. Whereas in the cold cathode design the electrons are with drawn from the cathode surface by creating high potential field.
2.1 RESISTANCE WIRE VACUUM DETECTOR (PIRANI VACUUM GAUGE)
COMPENSATING CELL OUTPUT VOLTAGE

VOLTAGE SUPPLY

PROCESS PRESSURE MEASURING CELL

FIG- 23 Resistance wire (Pirani) vacuum detector

The resistance wire or Pirani vacuum detector is based on the principle that heat loss from a resistance wire filament carrying constant current is proportional to the vacuum gas pressure surrounding the filament provided the
Page 15 of 35

process temperature is constant. A second resistance wire which is enclosed in a reference vacuum cell is used to compensate for process temperature variations.
2.2 SINGLE THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM SENSORS

HEATER TH ERM OCOUPLE

O N E P IE C E D E T E C T IO N M ETAL YUBE

D .C P O T E N T IO M E T E R READOUT

1 1 0 V , 5 0 H z , A .C .

FIG- 24 Single Thermocouple Vacuum Gauge

As shown in the figure 24, the Single Thermocouple detector consists of a wire heated by the passage of constant AC or DC current. A thermocouple is placed in the center of the heated element and measures the temperature of the heated element. As the vacuum in the detection tube varies the temperature of the heater filament also varies and is measured in terms of vacuum.
2.3 THERMOPILE VACUUM SENSORS
P R O C E S S C O N N E C T IO N TO V AC U UM SY STEM

A H EATED HERM OCOUPLE

UNHEATED CO M PENSATO R THERM OCOUPLE H EATED THERM OCOUPLE

O N E P IE C E D E T E C T IO N M ETAL YUBE

D .C READOUT

1 1 0 V , 5 0 H z , A .C .

FIG- 25 Multiple Thermocouple (Thermopile) vacuum gauge Page 16 of 35

By using Thermopiles i.e. several thermocouples connected in series, the sensitivity of the vacuum gauge can be increased. As seen from the figure25 the thermocouples A & C are heated by low voltage alternating current thus combining the heater and the temperature sensing functions. A change in process vacuum pressure results in a change of thermopile temperature. A 3rd unheated thermocouple B is included in the circuit to compensate for operating process temperature variations. 3.1 McLEOD VACUUM GAUGE
M E R C U R Y R E S E R V O IR

C H E M IC A L TRAP FO R C O N DEN SABLE VAPO UR

100 500 1000 2000 3000 4000

5000 6000

C A P IL L A R Y A N D P L A T T IN U M W IR E

FIG- 26 MCLEOD GAUGE

The McLeod Gauge elements are shown schematically in Figure. This type of gauge is generally used as a primary standard for the measurement of high vacuums. It has the advantages that it is simple to use and that its calibration is the same for nearly for all non- condensable gases. The gauge is filled with the gas and by periodically rotating the assembly by means of the some electric motor. When the gauge is returned to the vertical position, the trapped gas is compressed to a smaller volume by the action of the mercury. At this pressure, the height of the mercury column in the capillary tube is directly related to the vacuum. The capillary tube contains a fine platinum wire, the total resistance of which depends on the height of the mercury around it. The resistance of the platinum wire is than measured by a resistance thermometer type instrument. With this gauge vapour traps are usually necessary to eliminate condensable vapor from the vacuum system. A few gases which deviate from the ideal gas law at low pressure require special calibration in the McLeod gauge.
10 10 10 10 10 2 1 0
hot wire gages
bellows gages
hot filament ion gages

-1 -2 -3 -4

FIG- 27 Pressure Gauge Spectrum

10 10

P R E S S U R E IN m m O F M E R C U R Y

Page 17 of 35

HINTS FOR SELECTION INSTRUMENTS 1. FOR LONGER LIFE

AND

USE

OF

PRESSURE

GAUGES

To ensure longer life and accuracy, gauges should be loaded only upto of the total range with constant load. In case of alternating load, it should be loaded only upto 2/3 of the total range. Only Vacuum gauges can be loaded to the full scale range. For Compound gauges the highest effective range in both directions for constant load and for alternating load should be of the total range respectively 2. TEMPERATURE PROTECTION A) Gauges shall not be exposed to excessive heat or cold. They should not be mounted on hot boiler casings or hot machine parts and should be placed at some distance from boilers or other sources of heat. When exposed to frost bourdon tubes which contain water are liable to burst. . B.) Gauges should be connected to the tapping point by means of a piping which is sufficiently long to keep the gauge and bourdon tube cold. If the gauge cannot be grasped by hand without discomfort, it is working at a too high temperature. Working fluids at a temperature exceeding 100 Degree C should not be allowed to enter the bourdon tube. . C.) It is essential that steam should be prevented from entering the bourdon tube. This is effected by interposing a siphon in which the steam condenses between the gauge and the tapping point. The Syphon should be filled with water before the gauge is put into service. 3. POSITION OF THE GAUGE Normal gauges should be installed with the face of the dial in a vertical position while in other positions the weight of the working parts may influence the reading. 4. RAPIDLY FLUCTUATING PRESSURE, SHOCK PRESSURE AND VIBRATION Gauges cannot be expected to have a normal life if they are used without protection in any of the following conditions a.) Pressure changing in valve very quickly or fluctuating rapidly b.) Pressure applied or released very quickly so as to produce shock or heating. c.) Pressure oscillating with high frequency, producing a destructive pressure ripple. d.) Mechanical vibration transmitted to the gauge through either mounting piping or

e.) If a machine on which the gauge would normally be mounted vibrates, it is preferable to mount the gauge with adequately flexible piping on a wall or stanchion nearby
Page 18 of 35

MATERIAL SELECTION GUIDE FOR PRESSURE GAUGES An Industrial Pressure Gauge selection is based on a number of factors. Though important are the requirements of accuracy , caste style and other features of any gauge, the most important information is choice of materials for bourdon tube, Diaphragm, movement and bezels depending upon the media. The details given below should help you in appropriate material selection for most common fluids encountered in various industries. However, this legend is only to be used as a guide, the final choice should take into accounting all other process parameters, for which you are the best judge.

MATERIAL
APPLICATION BRONZE STEEL #316 STAIN LESS MONEL STEEL DIAPHRAGM SEALSTEEL

ACETONE ACETIC ACID ACETIC ANHYDRIDE ACETYLENE ACROLEIN AIR ALCOHOLS ALKALI CLEANERS ALUM CHLORIDE ALUM HYDROXIDE ALUM SULFATE AMMONIA AMMONIUM CHLORIDE AMMONIUM NITRATE AMMONIUM SULFATE ANILINE ARGON BEER BAUXITE & WATER BENZIDINE BEZENE

Page 19 of 35

BENZOIC ACID BENZOL BLACK LIQUOR BORIC ACID BRINES BROMIDE BROMINE BUTANE BUTYL ALCOHOL BUTYRIC ACID CALCIUM CHLORIDE CALCIUM HYDROXIDE CARBOLIC ACID CARBON DIOXIDE CARBON MONOXIDE CARBON TET CARBONATED WATER CAUSTIC SODA CAUSTIC PHOSPATE CEMENT SLURRY CHLORINE DIOXIDE CHLORINE DRY CHLORINE MOIST CHLOROFORM DRY CHROMIC ACID CIDER CITRIC ACID COFFEE CORN OIL CRUDE OIL ( SWEET )

DETERGENTS ETHANOL ETHYL ACETATE ETHYLENE OXIDE FATTY ACIDS FERRIC CHLORIDE FERRIC SULFATE FERROUS CHLORIDE FERROUS SULFATE FLUORINE FORMALDEHYDE FORMIC ACID FREONS FURFURAL GASOLINE GLYCERINE HYDRO BROMIC ACID HYDROCHLORIC ACID HYDRO FLUORIC ACID HYDRO FLUOSILIC ACID HYDROGEN HYDROGEN PEROXIDE HYDROGEN SULPHATE ( SULPHURIC ACID) HYDROGEN SULPITE ( SULPHUROUS ACID )

Page 20 of 35

HYDROXY ACETIC ACID KEROSENE LACQUERS LACTIC ACID LINSEED OIL LIME WATER MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE MERCURIC CHLORIDE MERCURY METHYLENE CHLORIDE MILK NAPHTHA NAPHTHALENE NICKEL CHLORIDE NITRIC ACID NITROGEN OLEIC ACID OLEUM OXALIC ACID OXYGEN PALMITIC ACID PER CHLORIC ACID PHOSPHORIC ACID PHOTOGRAPHIC BLEACH PICRIC ACID PROPANE QUININE ROCHELLE SALT SEA WATER SILICATE SOLUTION SILVER NITRATE SOAPS SODIUM CARBONATE SODIUM CHLORIDE SODIUM CHROMATE SODIUM CYANIDE SODIUM PHOSPHATE SODIUM SULPHIDE SOUR OILS STEAM STEARIC ACID SULFUR CHLORIDE SULFUR DIOXIDE SULFUR TRI OXIDE SUFURIC ACID SULFUROUS ACID TALL OIL TANIC ACID TARTARIC ACID TIN CHLORIDE TOLUENE TRITIUM GAS TURPENTINE VARNISH WATER WHISKY ZINC CHLORIDE ZINC SUPHATE HYDROGEN SULPHIDE

Page 21 of 35

PARTIAL LIST OF MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION FOR WETTED PARTS IN INSTRUMENTATION (TO BE SELECTED IN ACCORDANCE TO THE PROCESS MEDIUM) COPPER BRASS PHOSPHOR BRONZE CARBON STEEL 304 STAINLESS STEEL 316 STAINLESS STEEL ALUMINIUM LEAD MONEL NICKEL INCONEL HASTELLOY ZIRCONIUM TANTALUM SILVER PLATINUM TITANIUM MOLYBDENUM

Note: Materials like Teflon, Nitrile Rubber, Neoprene Rubber etc., is Used for lining and coating purposes.

Page 22 of 35

PRESSURE GAUGE DATA SHEET

PRESSURE GAUGE DATA SHEET


CUSTOMER PROJECT SERIAL NO. QUANTITY PROCESS DETAILS SERVICE PRESSURE MAX NOR MIN MAX NOR MIN TEMPERATUREC TAG NO. GENERAL DIAL SIZE MODEL NO. DIAL RANGE MARKINGS GAUGE TYPE ACCURACY BOURDON-SOCKET BOURDON TYPE BOURDON MATERIAL SOCKET MATERIAL BOURDON SOCKET BUILT-IN PULSATION/SURGE CHECK PULSATION/SURGE/CHECK MATERIAL MOVEMENT MOVEMENT MATERIAL HAIRSPRING GUARD DIAL / POINTER POINTER MATERIAL POINTER COLOUR ZERO ADJUSTMENT DIAL MATERIAL DIAL BACKGROUND/MARKING WINDOW MATERIAL CASE/RING RING TYPE RING MATERIAL CASE TYPE CASE MATERIAL MOUNTING OTHERS CONNECTION TYPE PROTECTION CLASS GAUGE COLOUR ENQUIRY NO. QUOTE PAGE

STANDARD LIQUID FILLED REMOTE DIAPHARAGM SEAL +- 1% +/- 25% +-0.5% +- 0.01% C HELICAL 316SS PHOSPHER BRONZE 403SS MONEL 316SS BRASS 403SS MONEL TIG WELDED SILVER BRAZED YES NO 316SS BRASS St.St. YES ANODIZED AI. BLACK YES ALUMINIUM WHITE/BLACK HI-TEMP ACRYLIC BAYONET NO

NO

Lo COPPER AL SAFETY SOLID FRONT Lo COPPER AL STEM FLUSH PANELM SURFACE BOTTOM CENTRE BACK LO BACK WEATHER PROOF BLACK Page 23 of 35

FLAPPER-NOZZLE PRINCIPLE (BAFFLE) The design of pneumatic transmitters, controllers, and all other pneumatic instruments is based on the Flapper Nuzzle principle. A Baffle-Nozzle amplifier is the primary detector in almost all pneumatic transmitters and controllers. Its function is to convert mechanical motion to a pneumatic signal. Fig. Shows a baffle-0nozzle actuated by pressure in an input bellows. Because the baffle is often mounted on a pivoting element, this instrument is also called a flapper-nozzle amplifier. In principle, the operation of a baffle-nozzle is quite simple. The output increases from a minimum value to supply pressure as decreasing nozzle clearance blocks the flow of air.

SUPPLY RESTRICTIO N 0.012 in (0.3m m ) DIA

(BAFFLE)
NO ZZLE 0.032 in (0.8m m ) DIA NO ZZLE CLEARANCE

AIR SUPPLY 20 PSIG (138 K Pa)

BAFFLE FLAPPER

IN PUT PRESSU RE PI

O UTPUT PRESSURE Po

FIG- 28 Flapper Nozzle Principle

PNEUMATIC TRANSMISSION Pneumatic Transmission is a telemetering method in which analog information is transmitted as Air Pressure. In a Typical Pneumatic Transmission System, a pneumatic Transmitter located in the field converts a process measurement, such as a level or temp, to a proportional Pneumatic Pressure. The Pressure signal is transmitted to a pneumatic Indicator, Recorder, or Controller, usually located in the Control Room. In the Case of a Pneumatic Control Loop, the controller, responding to the transmitted measurement signal, sends a return signal to the field to position a final control element, such as a pneumatically operated valve. See Fig.1.

Page 24 of 35

PLANT INSTRUM ENT AIR SU PPLY 100 PSI (700 kPa) FILTER R EG ULA TO R A /S

FIELD SCALE 0-100

TEM PERA TURE TRANSM ITTER 0.100 3.15 PSI (20.100 kPa)

A /S

20 PSI (140 kPa)

1/4 in O R 3/8 in Cu TUBE TRANSM ISSIO N LINES

RECO RDER

ALARM (PRESS. SW ITC H )


FILTER REG ULATO R

A/S 20 PSI
A /S

(140 kPa)

VALVE PO SITIO NER or VO LU M E BO O STER C ON TRO L VALVE

3-15 psig (20.100 kPa) CO NTRO LLER

A/S AIR SUPPLY FIG- 29 Typical Pneumatic Transmission System

PNEUMATIC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM Pneumatic Transmission systems, USING 1/4 or 3/8 (~ 6.4 or 9.5-mm) plastic or metal tubing, with Transmission distances up to 1000ft. (~ 305m), are widely employed in the Process Industries. Transmission lags on closed-loop automatic control. Generally, Pneumatic or Electrical Instruments can provide the same functions with equal accuracy. Because of the delay in Pneumatic transmission, electrical system may be preferred for installations with long transmission distances. However, pneumatic instruments offer certain other advantages, again, of particular interest in the process Industries. ADVANTAGES OF PNEUMATIC TRANSMISSION 1. Pneumatic Instruments are inherently explosion-proof. Electrical Instruments must meet stringent safety specifications for use in hazardous areas. 2. Pneumatic Systems provide Protection against power failure. With Compressed Air storage or turbine-driven compressors, a pneumatic system can maintain process control even during an electric power failure. 3. Pneumatic Systems are directly operated with Air-Operated Valves. AirOperated valves are by far the most common final control elements in the process Industries. Electrical Control Systems require an electric-to-pneumatic transducer for pneumatic valve operation. PNEUMATIC SIGNAL RANGES 0% 3 0.2 0.2 0.2 to to to to 100% 15 Psig 1.0 kg/cm2 1.0 bar 100K Pa 20.68 19.61 19.99 19.99 to to to to 103.42 98.04 99.97 99.97 N/ m2 N/ m2 N/ m2 N/ m2
Page 25 of 35

AIR SUPPLY REQUIREMENTS AIR QUALITY To ensure accurate and reliable operation of pneumatic instruments, a clean, dry, regulated air supply must be provided, solid or liquid contaminants in compressed air can log the small passages that are a part of all pneumatic instruments, causing loss of accuracy or even complete failure. Moisture in the air, condensing and freezing, can cause the same problems. Corrosive contaminants and oil in compressed air can damage metal and plastic instrument components, resulting in unreliable operation and excessive maintenance costs. For these reasons, considerable care is given to the design and maintenance of instrument air supply systems. In most plants, separate air supply systems, including compressors, filters, and moisture revoval equipment, are used for instrument air. AIR SUPPLY PRESSURE The Instrument air Supply Pressure must be regulated maintain accurate operation with a typical pneumatic transmitter, a change of 5 Psi (33 kPa) in supply pressure will change the Transmitter output by about 1%, causing a measurement uncertainty. As shown in Fig.1, a separate filter regulator is used for each field instrument. This provides on final stage of filtering and moisture removal, as well as a stable instrument supply pressure. In a control panel, a single high-capacity regulator & filter set is used to supply all instruments through an air supply header. A second regulator and filter set is usually provided for standby service.

MOTION BALANCE AND FORCE BALANCE DESIGNS USING BELLOWS AND DIAPHRAGMS
A) MOTION BALANCE ABSOLUTE PRESSURE SENSORS When absolute pressure is to be sensed with bellows elements, it normally involves two bellows, one for measuring and the other for compensating. The compensating element is fully evacuated and sealed, while the sensing element is connected to the process being measured. The figure illustrates the beam balance version of this design, and the other figure shows the opposed bellows design. In either arrangement, an increase in process pressure causes the measuring bellows to extend, which results in an increase of readout through the motion balance mechanism. .

FIG- 30 (Motion balance absolute pressure sensors)

Beam balance bellows sensor

Page 26 of 35

FIG- 31

Opposite bellows Detector

(Motion balance absolute pressure sensors)

B)

FORCE BALANCE ABSOLUTE PRESSURE SENSORS

The force balance detector shown in fig is available as a pneumatic or electronic transmitter, but not as direct indicator because there is no motion to drive a pointer. For local indication, an output gauge can be installed. The pressure being sensed is applied to the inside of the bellows within the capsule. The space on the outside of the bellows is evacuated, thus providing a zero absolute pressure reference. The process pressure exerts a force on the capsule that is applied to the lower end of the force bar. Due to the force balance nature of the unit, the force bar is constantly balance; therefore, the sensing bellows do not move as long as the pressure detected is within the range of the instrument. If the range of the capsule is exceeded, the bellows extend to the right where they are supported by the capsule backup plate.
T o E le c tr o n ic o r P n e u m a t ic T r a n s d u c e r /T r a n s m itte r

FORCE BAR

FULC R UM & SEAL

EVACUATED SPA CE PR O CESS C O N N E C T IO N

BELLOW S

FIG- 32

Force Balance Absolute Pressure Sensors


Page 27 of 35

C)

MOTION BALANCE SENSORS WITH ATMOSPHERIC REFERENCE

When Bellows are used as the pressure sensing element it is desirable to add a spring for ranging and accurate characterization. Without the calibration, spring temperature effects and work hardening of the bellows would contribute to loss of accuracy. The following figures illustrate designs using single bellows elements. In both designs, the inside of the bellows ids open to Atmosphere, which represents the pressure reference, and the outside is exposed to the process pressure. The difference in the two designs involve only the location of the calibration springs and the method applied in transmitting bellows motion to the readout pointer. The spring loaded metal bellows are compressed by the process pressure forcing the lower end of the bellows upward against the opposing force of the spring. Thos vertical movement is transmitted through suitable linkage or a torque tube assembly to the pointer. These units can also act as differential pressure detectors if the inside of the bellows is connected to a process pressure instead of being left open to the Atmosphere. Dual bellows elements are also available as differential pressure sensors.

P o in te r

S c a le

C A L IB R A T E D S P R IN G

BELLOW S

PRO CESS PRESSURE

FIG- 33

Bellows Sensor with Calibration Spring

BELLOWS
STOP

CALIBRATED SPRING

SCALE

PROCESS CONNECTION

TORQUE TUBE

FIG-34

Bellows Detector with Calibration Spring

Page 28 of 35

D) FORCE BALANCE PRESSURE SENSORS WITH ATMOSPHERIC REFERENCE The following figures illustrates two of the bellows element gauge pressure sensors. When relatively low pressures need to be measured, the process pressure is introduced into the inside of the bellows, while for higher pressure the outside surface of the bellows is exposed to the process pressure. The force of the process pressure is applied to the lower end of the force bar. Due to the force balance nature of the unit, the force bar is constantly balance; therefore, the sensing bellows do not move as long as the pressure detected is within the range of the instrument. These units are available as transmitters only, because they do not have enough motion to drive a local pointer.

FIG- 35

Force Balance Low Gauge Pressure Sensor

FIG- 36

Force Balance Gauge Pressure Detector


Page 29 of 35

ACTUATING SIGNAL (INPUT) LINK B

SPRING

ADJUSTABLE LINKAGE NOZZLE

FEEDBACK (OUTPUT)

AIR SUPPLY RELAY PNEUMATIC OUTPUT

FIG- 37 Motion Balance Schematic

PNEUMATIC OUTPUT MEASUREMENT SIGNAL FEEDBACK (OUTPUT)

AIR SUPPLY RELAY

NOZZLE

ADJUSTABLE

SPRING

SET SIGNAL

FIG- 38 Force Balance Schematic

Page 30 of 35

NOZZLE R A N G E D E PR E SSO R A IR SU PPL Y RANGE ELEVATOR RANGE ROD F U L C R U M & SP A N RANGE W HEEL FO R C E B A R O U T PU T Z E R O A D JU ST M E N T

L .P

H .P

FIG- 39 Force Balance DP Cell with adjustment shown

DEAD WEIGHT PISTON GAUGES


As illustrated in Figure these are piston gauge in which the test pressure is balanced against a known weight that is applied to a known piston area. The test pressure is applied by the secondary piston. The principal purpose of these freepiston gauges is a primary standard to calibrate other pressure sensors. Piston gauges, or dead weight tester, are normally provided with a number of interchangeable piston assemblies and NBS certified weight. They can be used to calibrate at pressure levels as low as 5 PSIG or as high as 100,000 PSIG.

DEAD W E IG H T GAUGE U N D ER TEST P R IM A R Y P IS T O N C Y L IN D E R

SCREW

S E C O N D A R Y P IS T O N

D E A D W E IG H T P IS T O N T E S T
FIG- 40

Dead Weight Piston Test


Page 31 of 35

APPLICATIONS INSTRUMENTS

OF

DIFFERENTIAL

PRESSURE

GAUGES/

1) FLOW RATE Flow rate can be measured with Differential Pressure Gauges (DPG) / Instruments if DPG instrument is installed across a sharp edged orifice plate in a pipeline, the gauge can indicate flow rate with the help of data on pressure drop verses flow rate. DPG instrument with 2 SPST switches can be used for high and low flow indications. The pressure tapping has to be at proper location in the line to avoid clogging due to moisture, dust etc. The location of the orifice also has to be as recommended by the orifice manufacturer.

DPG

Lo

Hi

PIPE

ORIFICE

2) AIR FILTER & COLLECTOR / BAG FILTER MONITORING


DPG Lo EXH AUST B A G F IL T E R BLOW ER DPG Hi Hi

Lo H EATER M A T E R IA L H O T A IR F L O W

In pharmaceutical, food & chemical processes, small batches of compounds are to be dried. Dryers specially made for this purpose use hot dry air. Air is sucked from the room through filters and blown over heater coils. The blower forces this hot air through the compound to be dried. Part of the compound gets carried along with the air while being removed by an exhaust blower. A collector / bag filter is used to collect it. DPG instruments are used for pre filter as well as collector filter to monitor clogging. DPG instrument with switch can start cleaning cycle of collector filter at preset differential pressure. 3) STRAINER / FILTER MONITORING DPG instruments are used to monitor pressure drop across strainer used in line with positive displacement flow meters. Petroleum oil companies & chemical plants etc. use positive displacement flow meters to measure volume. Contaminated fluids can damage these expensive and critical flow meters. These meters need filtered fluids for proper functioning, so trainers are used. Positive displacement flow meter manufacturers specify maximum pressure drop across the meter including strainer increases than specified, the pumping energy cost increases.
DPG Hi Lo

POSITIVE

FILTER

DISPLACEM T EN FLOW ETER M

Page 32 of 35

DPG Hi Lo

D P G W IT H S W IT C H

Hi

Lo

F IL T E R E L E M E N T F IL T E R C A T R ID G E

S E L F C L E A N IN G F IL T E R

4) COLLECTOR / BAG MONITORING


AIR FLOW

SUCTION

DPG DUST

Hi BAG FILTERS

Lo

ST LADEN AIR

EXHAUST BLOWER

Bag / collector filters are used in material handling equipment in many industries. DPG instruments are used to measure pressure drop across these filters, which get chocked during use. The operating range of these filters is typically between 50 to 150 mm of water. Initially the filter has a drop around 50 mm (approx.) of water across them. During operation, the differential pressure across collector filter increases. Filter cleaning process is then started till the differential pressure falls to an acceptable level. In such applications, instrument with a switch is very useful to initiate the cleaning cycle. 5) BLOWER PERFORMANCE Air flow through blower needs to be monitored depending on the down steam conditions and requirement of air. In order to have a energy efficient air handling system. DPG instrument can monitor differential pressure across the blower or the static pressure at the outlet of blower and give indications of low / high flow at preset pressure limits. This is useful foe monitoring blower performance or controlling air flow.

BLOW ER DPG Lo Hi

Page 33 of 35

DPG

6) PUMP PERFORMANCE Diaphragm type DPG instruments can be used to monitor pump performance. Addition of switch is very useful to monitor pumps installed at remote locations. The malfunctioning of a pump / blockage in a pipeline will lead to increase / decrease in differential pressure. This change in differential pressure can be used to warn the operator for high / low settings.

Hi

Lo

PUMP

7) LEVEL MEASUREMENT DPG instruments can be used as Lo liquid level indicators. With high pressure port connected to a tapping at the bottom of tank and low port kept open to atmosphere. DPG instruments calibrated in units like Hi mm, inches of water etc. can be used to measure liquid level as a function of head which is specified by the user. If the tanks LIQUID TANK are closed / pressurised, the low pressure port can be connected to the top of the tank. Regardless of the tank pressure, liquid inside will give similar head as in open tank and the instrument will indicate level. To measure the correct level in open tanks, the instrument should be mounted at the bottom level of the tank. 8) CONDITION MONITORING OF HEATING / COOLING SYSTEM DPG instruments can be used across heat exchangers to measure pressure difference in transformer oil cooling system. Here heat exchanger uses a high pressure on one side to ensure direction of leakage and avoid mixing of water with oil. This is essential for safety of transformer. In transformer oil cooling system, where oil is at a higher temperature is passed through heat exchanger with water as cooling medium. Instruments with switch in such application, provides a signal for alarm at a preset value of pressure difference. Other than above, DPG is also used to measure differential pressure across heat exchanger where pr. drop increases due to scaling.
DPG Hi Lo

DPG

HEAT EXCHANGER

Page 34 of 35

CLASSIFICATION OF PRESSURE MEASURING INSTRUMENTS


1) LIQUID COLUMN ELEMENTS o o o o U TUBE MANOMETER WELL MANOMETER INCLINED MANOMETER LIQUID BAROMETER

2) ELASTIC ELEMENTS o o BOURDON TUBES DIAPHRAGM

o
o

METALLIC CAPSULE BELLOW

3) PRESSURE TRANDUCER o o o o o o o PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCER CAPACITANCE TRANSDUCER STRAIN GAUGES TRANSDUCER POTENTIOMETRIC TRANSDUCER ROSEMOUNT WIRE TRANSDUCER MAGNETIC (INDUCTIVE TRANSDUCER) & MAGNETIC (RELUCTIVE TRANSDUCER) MAGNETIC TRANSDUCER

4) HIGH VACCUM MEASUREMENT o o o o THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY GAUGE PIRANI GAUGE IONISATION ( HOT CATHODE ) IONISATION ( COLD CATHODE )

5) HIGH PRESSURE SENSORS (GREATER THAN 1400 bars) o o o o o o OPTICAL - 4338 bars DEAD WEIGHT PISTON GAUGE TYPICAL 5 psig to 100000 psig (ie. 6896 Bars) PIEZOELECTRIC, MAGNETIC & HELICAL BOURDON TRANSDUCERS (UPTO 6896 Bars ) BULK MODULES, STRAIN GAUGES. MANAGING CELLS UPTO 13.793 Bars CAPACITANCE, POTENTIOMETRIC, INDUCTIVE & RELUCTIVE TRANSDUCERS UPTO 10000Psig STRAIN GAUGES EVEN GREATER THAN 100000 Psig

Page 35 of 35

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS
PRINCIPLES OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
1. BASIC THERMODYNAMICS CONCEPTS Basic general, together. Thermodynamics is essential in Temperature measurement. In increased temperature and increased molecular activity go Higher temperature can cause: Metals to expand, Liquids to expand Solids to melt, and Electrical properties (resistance) to change.

2. PRINCIPLES OF TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT This involves two concepts; one is that a change in temperature causes a change in physical dimensions of a material. The second is that a change in temperature causes a change in electrical properties, such as resistance or voltage. 3. TEMPERATURE SENSORS These are the actual elements that sense the temperature change, such as a bimetal or liquid-filled system. 4. TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCERS These include the temperature sensor as well as the auxiliary equipment needed to produce a usable output. 5. TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTERS These are devices that produce a scaled output (3-15 psi or mA) for a certain range of temperature input. 6. TEMPERATURE SCALES Celsius/Fahrenheit/Kelvin/Rankine are simply different scales of the same thing temperature.
B O IL IN G P O IN T

4-20

-H 2O

212

100

3 7 3 .1 5
F R E E Z IN G P O IN T

6 7 1 .6 9

-H 2O

32

2 7 3 .1 5

4 9 1 .6 9

ABSO LUTE ZERO

FIG -1 Temperature Scales


0

4 5 9 .6 9

2 7 3 .1 6

F a h r e n h e it

c e lc iu s

k e lv in

R a n k in e

Page 1 of 41

HEAT AND TEMPERATURE :


Heat is a form of energy. When heat is applied to a substance, the activity of the molecules of that substance is increased. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit is called British Thermal Unit (BTU). The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of any substance one degree Fahrenheit is called the Thermal capacity of that substance. The ratio of the Thermal capacity of a substance to the thermal capacity of water is called Specific heat of that substance. Specific heat of some solids and liquids are given in the table below. Specific heat has no unit of measurement, but is the same numerically as the thermal capacity.
MATERIAL ALCOHOL COPPER GLASS MERCURY PLATINUM Table-1 Table of Specific Heats SPECIFIC HEAT 0.59 0.093 0.14 0.033 0.032

The amount of Heat (Q) required to raise the Temperature of a mass (M) of a substance having a thermal capacity of C from Temperature T1 to T2 is expressed: BTU lbs Deg F Q = M x C (T2-T1) Temperature measurements determine the amount of heat possessed by a body at a particular instant. Temperature scales provide a means to express this in numbers All solids expand when heat is applied to them. When a metal rod is heated uniformly along its entire length, each unit of its length gets longer. This increase in length per unit of length per degree of temperature rise is termed the Coefficient of Linear expansion. The Co-efficient has different values for different materials. A table of typical coefficients of linear expansion () is shown. From the table it can be learnt that each inch of a copper strip becomes 1.000009 inches long when heated one degree Fahrenheit.
MATERIAL / F / F

ALCOHOL WATER MERCURY GLASS COPPER PLATINUM INVAR


Table-2 Table of Co-efficients

0.00061 0.000115 0.0001 0.000005 0.000009 0.000005 0.0000008 0.000015 0.000039 0.000016 0.0000027

Page 2 of 41

LT2 = LT1[1+a(T2-T1)] The expansion of a solid due to heat affects not only its length, but also its dimension. The thermal expansion of the volume of substance can be expressed. VT2 = VT1[1+b(T2-T1)]

is the Coefficient of Volumetric expansion and is approximately equal to 3. Liquids also expand, when heated according to the same equation. Coefficients of volumetric expansion of various materials are also listed in the table.
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT - MECHANICAL MERCURY- IN - GLASS THERMOMETERS From the Table 2 it can be seen that the volumetric expansion of mercury is over six times greater than that of glass. The Mercury-in-glass Thermometer depends on this inequality for its operation. Such a thermometer consists of a glass tube of very fine bore joined to a reservoir at the bottom and sealed at the top. A measured quantity of mercury is enclosed.

10 0

1 00

1 00

8 6 4 2 0

0 0 0 0 0
12 10

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
12 10

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

8 6 4 2 0

8 6 4 2 0

S T R A IG H T TYPE

ANGLE TYPE
(A N G L E 9 0)

ANG LE TYPE
(A N G L E 4 5)

When the thermometer is heated, the mercury expands much more than the glass and therefore is forced to rise up the tubing. For each particular temperature, the mercury rises to a certain point. Using a regulated bath, which can establish and maintain temperatures very closely, reference marks can be made on the thermometer. The spaces between these marks are evenly divided. The more reference marks, the more accurately can the thermometer be read. Some Mercury-in-glass thermometers are calibrated for immersion and others for partial immersion. For accurate readings, the thermometer should be immersed as recommended by the manufacturer. The most common type of mercury-in-glass thermometer used for process measurements is the Industrial thermometer. In this type, the glass tube is unmarked; the graduations are engraved on metals. Both the tube and scales are enclosed in a metal case. The lower portion of the glass tube extends out of the bottom of the case, into a metal bulb chamber with an external pipe thread permitting it to be screwed into pipeline. The industrial thermometer is available in vertical, horizontal, or oblique angle types. For better thermal conductivity between the metal bulb chamber and the glass thermometer, the chamber contains a liquid with excellent heat transfer characteristics. To prevent damage to the thermometer, and to permit replacement without draining the process pipeline, the chamber may be screwed
Page 3 of 41

into a secondary chamber called a Separable socket. This however slows down the response of the thermometer to temperature changes. THERMAL TIME CONSTANTS Thermal time constants are involved in temperature measurement because it takes time for heat to transfer from one point to another.
INSULATION

PROTECTING TUBE OR SHEATH THERMOWELL

FILLING FLUID

SENSOR

FIG -3 Heat transfer in Temperature Measurement

FR 6 3 .2 % o f F R

FIG -4 Time Constant in Temperature Measurement

Page 4 of 41

FIG. 5 Response of Thermometer well in moving liquid PROTECTION TUBE A tube like assembly in which the thermocouple/ RTD/ filled-in system bulb is installed in order to protect the element from the harsh environments. THERMOWELL A threaded or flanged closed end tube which is mounted directly to the process or vessel designed to protect the thermocouple/ RTD/ Filled-in system bulb from the process surroundings

BIMETAL THERMOMETERS With the development of alloys whose coefficients of thermal expansion can be controlled, the bimetal thermometer has become a most dependable temperature-measuring device. One of these is a nickel alloy named invar, which hardly expands at all when heated. Another nickel alloy is available which expands considerably when heated. Welded together and rolled to the desired thickness, these alloys provide the bimetallic material used in the modern thermometer. Alloys of widely differing rates of thermal expansion are used for short temperature ranges those of less differing expansion for longer ranges.

Page 5 of 41

The term used to describe the thermal activity of a bimetal is flexivity. The actual movement of bimetal strip is proportional to its flexivity. With one end fixed, a straight bimetal strip deflects in proportion to its temperature, to the square of its length, and inversely with its thickness. The angular deflection of a pointer attached to a helical bimetal is determined by the same factors. The modern bimetal thermometer employs a multiple helix arrangement, or coils within coils. This construction permits the use of long bimetallic element in a small space. One end of the bimetal is usually fixed to the bottom of the stem and the other end to shaft to which the pointer is attached. Bimetal thermometers are available with slender stems for laboratory use and thicker stems for industrial use (see fig 6a & 6b). Special thermometers with alarm contacts and with secondary pointers for indicating maximum or minimum temperatures are also available.

FIG 6b

FIG 6a

Bimetal Thermometers are made for precision laboratory work as well as for a variety of industrial purposes.

PRESSURE SPRING THERMOMETERS There are four classes of pressure spring thermometers, as listed by The Instrument Society of America standards: CLASS 1. LIQUID-FILLED (EXCEPT MERCURY) CLASS 2. VAPOUR PRESSURE CLASS 3. GAS - FILLED CLASS 4. MERCURY-FILLED CLASS 1 & 4: LIQUID-FILLED AND MERCURY-FILLED THERMOMETERS Both types operate on the principle of Thermal expansion, just as the Mercury-in-glass thermometer does. When the bulb is immersed in a heated substance, the liquid expands causing the pressure spring to unwind (fig 7). The indicating, recording or controlling mechanisms are attached to the pressure spring. It should be noted that the liquid or mercury is put into the system under pressure and completely fills it.
Page 6 of 41

The volume of liquid in the bulb determines the measuring range of the system. The wider the range, the greater the required volume. The bulb expands with temperature, but since this expansion is small compared to the expansion of the liquid, the effect is negligible. If the coefficients of volumetric expansion of the metal and the liquid vary similarly, the overall effect is to reduce the net expansion for a given range. Slight variations in the coefficients can be accommodated in the calibration of the thermometer.

F IL L IN G T U B E BOURDON TUBE

W ELD C A P IL L A R Y

M ERCURY

BULB

HEAT

FIG 7 In a totally filled system, pressure develops when the bulb is heated since the fluid has no room for expansion

COMPENSATED THERMOMETER SYSTEMS

The object of the thermometer is to detect changes of temperature at the bulb. There is, however, the possibility of error caused by variation of temperature along the tubing or at the pressure spring itself. The bulb of the liquid filled system is designed to contain most of the liquid. In long systems, however, the volume of the tubing may be great enough to allow temperature changes along the tubing. Several methods have been devised to eliminate such errors. Systems employing these modifications are termed compensated systems. Fully compensated systems (fig 8) employ a second pressure spring and tubing. This tubing is not connected to the bulb but instead is terminated at that point. By means of linkage, the motion of the compensating pressure spring is made equal and opposite to the motion of the primary pressure spring. If temperature along the primary tubing varies, causing expansion of the primary spring, the expansion of the compensating spring due to the variation acts to cancel out the resulting motion of the indicating mechanism. The only motion remaining is caused by expansion of the fluid in the bulb.

Page 7 of 41

M C R SPA E ER U Y C
COM PENSATINGSPIRAL

COM PENSATING TUBING

M EASURINGSPIRAL DEAD END

SO W E LID IR

M EASURING TUBING

C PILLA YTU A R BE

FIG-8 The tubing of the second pressure spring (Compensating spiral) in series with the first does not enter the bulb
MEASURING SPIRAL BIMETALLIC STRIP

FIG-9 Self-compensating capillary tubing encloses a solid wire, expansion and contraction of which compensates for changes of temperature along the tubing.

FIG-10 Compensating bimetallic strip overcomes error caused by temperature change of the pressure spring

Another method of compensation involves the use of a special type of tubing containing a solid wire (fig 9). As the tubing expands due to temperature variations, the wire expands so that the effective volume of the system remains constant. Variations in the temperature surrounding the pressure spring require correction. The thermometer must be compensated to nullify these variations which will affect correct readings of process temperature. This can be accomplished by including a bimetal strip (fig 10) in the mechanism joining the pressure spring to the indicator. This bimetal acts to move the indicator in a direction opposite to that caused by the expansion of the pressure spring, but only enough to eliminate the small amount of movement due to temperature changes at the spring. Another method employs a secondary pressure spring without tubing (fig 11). This secondary spring is part of the primary system, but the linkage connecting them is arranged so that the movement of the secondary spring cancels out the movement of the primary spring caused by changes of temperature at the springs.

Page 8 of 41

FIG-11

COMPENSATING SPIRAL

COMPENSATING TUBING

MEASURING SPIRAL

MEASURING TUBING

Secondary spring, identical with and linked to the primary spring, is used to cancel out any movement of the primary due to temperature change at the spring, which is not related to process temperature.

CLASS 3 - GAS - FILLED PRESSURE SPRING THERMOMETERS This type depends upon the increase in pressure of a confined gas (constant volume) due to temperature increase. The relationship between temperature and pressure in this kind of system follows Charles law and may be expressed: T1 P1 --= --T2 P2

WHERE, T1 = INITIAL TEMPERATURE P1 = INITIAL PRESSURE

T2 P2

= INCREASED TEMPERATURE = INCREASED PRESSURE.

The system is filled under high pressure. The increase in pressure for each degree of temperature rise is therefore greater than if the filling pressure were low. Nitrogen is the gas most often used for such systems, because it is chemically inert and possesses a favorable coefficient of thermal expansion. Except for the size of the bulb, the gas-filled system is identical to the liquid filled types. The gas-filled bulb must be larger and its volume must be considerably greater than that of the rest of the system. Special bulbs consisting of a length of small diameter tubing may be used to measure the average temperature along the bulb; these may be as much as 200 feet long. Gas-filled systems are subject to the same errors as liquid-filled systems, and the same methods may be used to compensate for them.
Page 9 of 41

CLASS 2 VAPOUR PRESSURE THERMOMETERS Unlike the liquid and gas-filled systems which depend upon volumetric expansion for their operation, vapour -pressure thermometers depend upon the Vapour pressure of liquid which only partially fills the system. In this type of system the liquid can expand, but as it is heated its Vapour pressure increases (fig 12). Water in a pressure cooker behaves in the same manner as the water is heated and changes to steam (water Vapour), the pressure builds up. Vapour pressure does not increase according to linear proportion (a unit increase in pressure for each unit of temperature rise). At lower temperatures, the Vapour pressure increase for each unit of temperature change is small; at higher temperatures the vapour pressure change is much greater. Fig.13 shows some typical vapour Pressure Vs Temperature curves which illustrate this non-uniform characteristic. Another characteristic of the partially-filled vapour pressure thermometer is the shift of the vapour and the liquid when the temperature of the sensitive bulb changes from a value lower than the temperature of the pressure spring to a value higher. When the temperature of the bulb is lower, the liquid remains in the bulb and vapour occupies the tubing and spring (fig.14).

S P R IN G

VAPOR

T U B IN G

BULB

L IQ U ID

FIG - 12 In a partially filled system the liquid expands when the bulb is heated and the vapour pressure increases

Page 10 of 41

100 A 80 VAPOR PRESSURE LB.PER SQ.IN.ABSOLUTE B 60 40 A -E T H Y L C H L O R ID E 20 120 100 C 80 A 60 40 20 -2 0 20 60 100 140 180 220 TEM PERATURE B D E 160 200 240 280 320 360 B -E T H Y L E T H E R C -C H L O R O F O R M D -M E T H Y L A L C O H O L E -D IS T IL L E D W A T E R C D E

FIG - 13 The unit vapours pressure increases logarithmically with the temperature

SP R IN G
SPRING

L IQ U ID
VAPOR TUBING

T U B IN G

BULB
BULB

VAPOR

LIQUID

L IQ U ID

FIG-14 In the vapour pressure thermometer the liquid remains in the bulb when the bulb temperature is lower than the rest of the system. vapour occupies tubing and spacing

FIG-15 When the bulb temperature is higher than the rest of the system, the vapour stays in the bulb. The liquid occupies tubing and spacing

When the bulb temperature is higher than that of the rest of the system, the liquid and vapour changes takes place, with the bulb now containing the vapour and the pressure spring the liquid (fig 15). Therefore, with the simple partially-filled vapour pressure thermometer, the temperature of the bulb should always remain lower than or higher than the temperature of the remainder of the system.

Page 11 of 41

Manufacturers have developed a method of filling the vapour pressure thermometer that overcomes this limitation. This is the dual-filled system in which two different liquid, a vapourizing and a non- vapourizing type are used (fig 16). The temperature sensitive fluid which vapourizes is called the actuating liquid. The vapour pressure acts on a second liquid which does not vapourize. This second liquid is called the transmitting liquid, since it transmits the vapour pressure of the first liquid to the pressure spring much as any hydraulic fluid does. In this dual-filled system. There is no transfer of vapour and liquid; the actuating liquid and its vapour remain in the bulb at all times. Location of bulb: The difference in height between the bulb and the pressure spring may also introduce errors, especially in the partially filled vapour pressure system. Since this system is not filled under pressure as are the totally filled systems, any column of fluid could create a pressure sufficient to cause an error in the reading. It is important, therefore, to inform the manufacturer about the height of the bulb if it is to be located above the pressure spring, and to maintain that dimension when installing the thermometer (fig 17). Because totally filled systems are filled under high pressure, the pressure due to the height of the bulb has little effect and little or no error is involved. Response to change in temperature: The next important consideration in the study of pressure spring thermometers is their response to change in temperature. The installation, of course, influences the speed of response. It should be noted however, that the gas-filled system has the fastest response, the vapour-pressure system the next fastest, and the liquid-filled has the slowest (fig 18).

SPRING

PRESSURE SPRING

TUBING

HEIGHT OF BULB ABOVE PRESSURE SPRING

VAPOR ACTUATING LIQUID TRANSMITTING LIQUID

FIG - 16 In the dual filled system there is no transfer of liquid and vapour as there is in the partially filled system

FIG - 17 When the bulb located above the pressure spring of a partially filled vapour pressure system, the column might create sufficient pressure to cause an error in the reading

Page 12 of 41

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 -1 -2

A C

A -G A S B -V A P O R C -L I Q U I D M E R C U R Y

TEMPERATURE

-3

-4

-5

-6

T IM E IN M IN .

FIG - 18 Relative response of Gas, Vapour and Mercury Thermometers

0.04

0.06

0.08

FIG - 19 The response of pressure spring thermometers is faster in moving liquid than in moving air

FIG - 20 Specially designed Finned Bulb for measuring air or gas temperature

The response of all three is faster in moving air or gas; and the faster the liquid moves the faster will be the response (fig 19). A faster response will be obtained if more bulb area is exposed to the fluid. Manufacturers have designed many special bulbs to improve the response, especially for measuring air or gas temperatures (fig 20). For liquid temperature measurement, the bulb should be large enough to provide sufficient area to sense temperature changes, but not so large that its mass slows its response. For every application there is a best selection. A complete description of the operating conditions will permit the manufacturer to supply this. In conclusion, the characteristics of the types of tube systems are shown in the table 3.
Page 13 of 41

0.02

30.0 40.0

10.0

20.0

1.0

0.1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

5.0

RESPONSE IN MINUTES 3.0 2.0 1.0 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 A 0.1 0.05 0

A-WATER B-AIR

CLASS CLASS 1 CLASS 2 CLASS 3 CLASS 4

FILLING FLIUD

LOW LIMIT

HIGH LIMIT 600F 600F 1000F 1000F

SHORTEST SPAN 25 F 40 F 100 F 40 F

LONGEST SPAN 300F 300F 1000F 1000F

LIQUIDS & OTHER -300F THAN MERCURY VAPOUR GAS MERCURY -300F -450F -48F

Table 3 Table of Characteristics of Classes of Tube Systems

PHOTOGRAPHS OF FILLED-IN SYSTEM TEMPERATURE SWITCHES / TRANSMITTERS/ TEMPERATURE GAUGES

TEMPERATURE SWITCHES

CAPILLARY TYPE

RIGID STEM TYPE

TEMPERATURE SWITCH

TEMPERATURE GAUGES

Page 14 of 41

TRANSMITTERS

TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT - ELECTRICAL o THERMOCOUPLES

A device that converts one form of energy into another is called a transducer. A thermocouple is a transducer, which converts thermal energy into electrical energy. It is a simple device consisting of two dissimilar wires joined at their ends. When an end of each wire is connected to a measuring instrument (as in fig. 23), the thermocouple becomes an accurate and sensitive temperature measuring device. Three phenomena govern the behaviour of a thermocouple, the Seebeck, Peltier and Thompson effects. o THE SEEBECK EFFECT

The joined ends of a thermocouple form a junction called the hot junction or measuring junction. The other two ends of the wire, which are connected to a measuring instrument, form the cold junction or reference junction. Simply stated, the voltage produced by heating, the measuring junction varies with the difference in temperature between the measuring junction and the reference junction. The Seebeck effect describes the result of heating one junction of a circuit formed of two dissimilar metal conductors. In such a circuit, electric current flows as long as the two junctions are at different temperatures. (See fig. 21 A)

A+

T 1<T2

T1

em f = E

T2

FIG 21 A If A and B are dissimilar metals, current will flow through the junctions which are at temperatures T1 and T2, provided T1 and T2 are different temperatures FIG 21 B The arrows show the direction of current. Heat is lost at the hot Junction (T2) since the direction of the current is the same as that produced by the Seebeck effect Page 15 of 41

BA +
T 1+ T T T2-T T 2+

B -

THE PELTIER EFFECT

When a current flows across the junction of two dissimilar metal conductors, it has been noticed that heat is either liberated or absorbed, depending upon the direction of current flow (See fig.21 B). If the current flow is in the same direction as the current produced by the Seebeck effect, heat is liberated at the hot junction and absorbed at the cold junction. o THE REVERSIBLE HEAT EFFECT

The Thompson effect concerns the reversible heat effects resulting from the passage of an electric current through a conductor in which there is a temperature gradient. The temperature of a current-carrying copper wire may vary along its length. Heat is liberated at any point where the current at that point flows in the same direction as the heat. (See fig. 22.) With an iron wire however, heat is absorbed at any point where the current at that point flows in the same direction as the heat. Thus, in a copper wire, the current tends to reduce the difference in temperature, whereas in the iron wire the current tends to increase the difference.
FIG 22
T1 P2 T2 T1 P1

(A )
T T2

T 1-

T 1+

P2

P1

(B )
T 1+ T T2 T 1T

P2

P1

(C )

The Thompson (Reversible Heat) effect. (A) A bar of metal is heated at its midpoint to a temperature of T2. (B) A current from an external source is passed through it. Points P1 and P2 which were at equal temperature T1 (lower than T2) when no current flowing have their temperature changed to T1+T and T1-t respectively when the current flows in the direction shown. (C) When the current flow is reversed, the temperature reverses also. The case above corresponds to the behaviour of

In a circuit made up of iron and copper wire with the cold junction at 30f the emf increases as the temperature of the hot junction increases. But as the temperature approaches a maximum, the rate of increase is reduced until finally it reaches zero. Once past the maximum temperature, the emf decreases, meaning that the polarity of the wires is reversed and the voltage which produces the Seebeck current is the sum of the Peltier emf at the junctions and the two Thompson emf along the dissimilar wires. This is true basis of thermoelectric thermometry. THE LAW OF INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURES This law states the sum of the voltages generated by two thermocouples (See fig.23), one with its reference junction at 32 f and its measuring junction at a higher temperature (A f), and the other thermocouple with its reference Junction at A f and its measuring junction a still higher temperature (B f) is equal to the voltage generated by one thermocouple with its reference junction at 32 f and its Measuring junction at B f. Because of this law, it is Possible to establish a reference temperature of a fixed Value. By using
Page 16 of 41

a temperature sensitive resistor in the Measuring circuit that automatically eliminates the Voltage change due to temperature change at the Reference junction, the voltage in the circuit remains Constant at the fixed value. Therefore, the only Voltage change in the circuit is the result of a change in the temperature of the measuring junction.

A F V1

3 2 F

B F V2

FIG - 23 The law of Intermediate Temperature permits the establishment of a reference temperature of fixed value

B F V 3=V 1+V 2

3 2 F

THE LAW OF INTERMEDIATE METALS This law states that the use of a third metal in a thermocouple circuit does not affect the voltage as long as the junction of the third metal with the thermocouple metal are at the same temperature (See fig.24). This law makes it possible to use extension wires of a metal different from the thermocouple materials. This is actually common practice in industry. For instance, because of the high cost of platinum the extension lead wires used with Platinum/Platinum-10% Rhodium Thermocouples may both be copper or one copper and the other an alloy. With Chromel-Alumel thermocouples, the extension lead wires may be copper constantan or iron and an alloy. Of all the material used for thermocouples, platinum is no doubt the most important. The Platinum/Platinum-10% Rhodium thermocouple is the primary standard for temperatures between 630.5 c and 1063 c.

IRON (METAL1) IRON (METAL1)

COPPER (METAL3) COPPER (METAL3)

FIG 24

"J"
CONSTANTAN CONSTANTAN (METAL2) (METAL2)

The law of intermediate metals states that the THIRD METAL temperatures of the THIRD METAL EXTENSION WIRES EXTENSION WIRES three metals at junction J must be the same

COPPER (METAL3) COPPER (METAL3)

Page 17 of 41

NOTES ON THERMOCOUPLE LEAD WIRE OR COMPENSATING CABLES The Thermocouple measuring junction is usually located some distance from the instrument with which it is used, sometimes several hundred feet. Since the thermocouple is connected to the instrument by wire, we have two problems: (1) the location of the reference junction, and (2) the errors introduced by the Leadwires connecting wires.
IRON

FIG 25

CONSTANTAN

Leadwires

Temperatures in a Thermocouple Circuit

Variations in temperature of the reference junction cause a change in thermal emf, since the thermal emf depends on the temperature difference of the measuring and reference junctions. If a temperature is to be measured within one degree, the referencejunction temperature should be constant within one degree (unless reference-junction compensation is employed). The reference junction may be located, for example, adjacent to the thermocouple or may be placed near or in the measuring instrument. Ordinarily temperature variations of some magnitude are expected adjacent to the thermocouple because the thermocouple may be installed in a furnace and heat exchanger. Temperature variations at the measuring instrument are normally more constant, especially when the instrument is installed in a temperature-controlled or air-conditioned room. Therefore, the reference junction is located near and generally inside the measuring instrument.
Further, the introduction of connecting wire into the thermocouple circuit has no effect so long as the ends of the wire are at the same temperature. However, the temperature adjacent to the thermocouple may be several hundred degrees while the temperature at the instrument difference (Th Ta), shown in fig. 25, may be several hundred degrees. Therefore it is necessary to use connecting wires or lead wires that will avoid error. THERMOELECTRIC TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT There are two methods of selecting lead wires: (1) the thermocouple wires themselves may be extended to the instrument and (2) the lead wires may be made of thermocouple metals having the same thermoelectric properties as the thermocouple with which they are used. The first method involves theoretically no error and, indicated in table 4, is used for copper-constantan and iron-constantan thermocouples, and sometimes for Chromel Alumel thermocouples. THERMOCOUPLES AND LEAD WIRES
THERMOCOUPLE LEAD WIRE

+
COPPER IRON CHROMEL CHROMEL CHROMEL PLATINUMRHODIUM Table 4

CONSTANTAN CONSTANTAN ALUMEL ALUMEL ALUMEL PLATINUM

+
COPPER IRON CHROMEL IRON COPPER COPPER

CONSTANTAN CONSTANTAN ALUMEL COPPER- NICKEL ALLOY CONSTANTAN (TO 125 ONLY) COPPER- NICKEL

Page 18 of 41

Thermocouples & Lead Wire


The cost of long lengths of chromel alumel wire is high, and the cost of platinum wire in moderate lengths is prohibitive. With chromel-alumel and platinum thermocouples less expensive lead wire is used, as indicated in table 4. Iron and a copper-nickel-alloy lead wire, which have a temperature- emf characteristic very close to that of chromel - alumel are widely used. Copper and Constantan lead wire may be used for Chromel- Alumel thermocouples only where high accuracy is not required, since the temperatureemf characteristics of these pairs do not quite match beyond 125F. For platinum thermocouples, lead wires are made of copper and a copper- nickel alloy, then temperature-emf characteristic of which is the same as for the platinum thermocouple. The error involved in using lead wire of different material depends on how well the temperature-emf characteristic of the lead wire matches that of the thermocouple. Suppose that, with a Chromel- Alumel thermocouple used in the range 1000 to 2000F, the thermocouple head temperature is 250F and the temperature at the reference junction is 32F. If the lead wires are copper and Constantan, the error caused is the difference between the emf of the different materials at 250 and 32F. This is 5.28 4.97 or 0.31 millivolt. At 1400F this represents an error of 13.3F, or 0.95 percent, which is not an allowable error for most industrial applications. For greater accuracy it becomes necessary to use the iron-and coppernickel-alloy lead wires. Naturally it is important that the polarity of lead wires and thermocouple be observed during installation; otherwise, a large error may result. Lead wires may be solid, or may be stranded for flexibility. Various kinds of insulation may be obtained, such as enamel, cotton covering, asbestos, glass, polyvinyl covering or lead sheath over an insulating cover. The useful range of this thermocouple actually is from 0 C to 1500 C. The behaviour of other thermocouple materials is determined by using them with platinum as the second material. When selecting a pair of materials for use as a thermocouple, the greater the thermoelectric difference between them the better the result. Fig.26 illustrates the characteristics of the common thermocouple materials when compared with platinum.
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
X 100C

30 ds/dt in microvolts per C


COPPER CHROM EL IR O N Pt 90 R h 10

20 10 0 -1 0 -2 0 -3 0 -4 0

ALUM EL

C O N STA N TA N

-5 0
T H E R M O E L E C T R IC P O W E R V s P L A T IN U M

FIG- 26 Page 19 of 41

The electrical characteristics of various metals when used with platinum as a dissimilar metal in thermocouple are compared. Notice that the copper, Iron, Chromel and Platinum -10% Rhodium are positive with respect to platinum, white alumel and constantan are negative. From this, the reason for the selection of iron constantan, copper constantan, Chromel Alumel, and Platinum / Platinum -10% Rhodium becomes apparent.

In addition to the common combinations seen in fig. 26, others have found application in temperature measurement. Chromel-constantan, for example, is an excellent combination for temperatures up to 2000 F. Nickel/Nickel-molybdenum is some times used in place of chromel-alumel. Tungsten Rhenium is used for temperatures up to 4200 F. Other combinations for special application are chromel-white gold, molybdenumtungsten, tungsten-tridium and tridium / iridium rhodium.

THERMOCOUPLE
COPPER CONSTANTAN(T)

GAUGE
14 20 24 28 8 14 20 24 28 8 14 20 24 28 24 8 14 20 18 20 24 28

MAX. OPERATING TEMP. F


700 600 500 400 1400 1000 900 700 700 2500 2000 1800 1600 1600 3000 1800 1200 1000 4200 1800 1600 1600

IRON CONSTANTAN(J)

CHROMEL ALUMEL (K)

PT- 10% RHODIUM PLATINUM (S) CHROMEL CONSTANTAN TUNGSTEN 5% RHENIUM TUNGSTEN 26% RHENIUM

Table 5 Table of Maximum Temperatures for Thermocouples

The size of the wire and the protection of the thermocouple are also important. The wire size affects both the sensitivity and the maximum operating temperature of the thermocouple. Thermocouple wire sizes range from fine (40 AWG) to heavy (8 AWG). While a 20 gauge wire requires only two minutes to reach 80% of its final temperature reading, an 8 gauge wire requires nearly nine minutes. The table at the top is a summary of the maximum temperature for various thermocouples.

Page 20 of 41

In most cases, thermocouples cannot be used without protection from the environment in which they are used. The environment may be a reducing atmosphere (where oxygen content is low and hydrogen and carbon monoxide are present) or an oxidizing atmosphere (where oxygen and water vapour are present). For example, iron corrodes in an oxidizing atmosphere and chromel becomes contaminated in a reducing atmosphere. Platinum / platinum-rhodium thermocouples always require protection The device used for thermocouples are called Thermocouple wells and Protecting tubes. They may be made of metal such as iron, steel, nickel or incone; silica compounds such as corundum or carbofrax or metal ceramic compounds such as chromium oxide and aluminum oxide. Sometimes a thermocouple must be enclosed in a primary metal protector as well as a secondary silica protector. The table at the bottom of the page lists some of the more common protecting tube materials. The selection of the complete thermocouple assembly should be carefully made, and manufacturers have made available a considerable amount of data to aid in this. TYPE WROUGHT IRON CAST IRON 304 SS NICKEL INCONEL CORUNDUM CARBOFRAX RECOMMENDED MAX. TEMP. (F) 1200 1500 1800 2000 2200 3000 3000 COMMENTS
FOR GENERAL USE EXCEPT CORROSIVE ATMOSPHERE FOR ACID & ALKALINE SOLUTIONS FOR CORROSIVE ATMOSPHERES & SOLUTIONS FOR SPECIAL CHEMICAL APPLICATIONS SUBSTITUTE FOR NICKEL WHEN SULPHUR PRESENT FOR STEEL INDUSTRY WHERE THERMAL SHOCK MAY BE HIGH FOR APPLICATIONS WITH HIGH THERMAL & MECHANICAL SHOCK FOR BRASS & BRONZE FOUNDRIES HIGH THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

CHRONIUM & 3000 ALUMINIUM OXIDE


Table 6

Table of Protecting Tube Materials


MINERAL INSULATED THERMOCOUPLES: (MI Thermocouples) Mineral Insulated Thermocouples can be used under very stringent field conditions, for example for temperature measurement in Nuclear Energy Plants, Reactor or Compressor vessels in the Chemical industry, Heat Treatment Furnaces, Gas Turbines, Power Stations, Boiler flue gases, Skin surface, Super Heaters and for many varied applications. These Thermocouples are flexible, can be measured in small dimensions and have a quick response time.

Page 21 of 41

MINERAL INSULATED (MI) THERMOCOUPLES

The outer sheath, the thermocouple wires, and the insulation material form an inseparable unit, the Thermocouple wires being insulated from each other and from the sheath with high purity mineral oxide. The standard sheath material is either of stainless steel or heat resistant alloy Inconel 600. Other sheath material available on request. Depending upon the thermocouple type and sheath material, these Thermocouples can be used for temperatures of over 1000oc depending upon duration and operating conditions. Lengths of 40 meters and more can be made. Immersion Length The portion of the thermocouple / RTD, which is subject to the temperature which is being measured. Dual Element Two thermocouple/ RTD/ Filled-in system bulb elements housed within one protection tube. Grounded Junction The internal conductors of this thermocouple are welded directly to the surrounding sheath material, forming a completely sealed integral junction.

Ungrounded Junction Although the internal thermocouple conductors are welded together they are electrically insulated from the external sheath material and are not connected to the sheath in any way. Ungrounded junction thermocouples are ideal for use in conductive solutions or wherever circuit isolation is required. Ungrounded junctions are required where measuring Instrumentation does not provide channel to channel isolation. Exposed Junction The thermocouple junction or measuring point is exposed without any protection assembly or tube. Exposed junction thermocouples due to their design, offer the user the fastest response time.

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Measuring Junction or Hot Junction The junction in a thermocouple, which actually measures the temperature of the object. Often referred to as the Hot Junction. DIGITAL TEMPERATURE INDICATORS

SALIENT FEATURES TO BE NOTED


Three Temperature ranges from - 50C to 700C for thermocouple inputs. Four temperature ranges from -200C to 800C for RTD inputs. LED display; optional LCD display for outdoor installation. Single set point with Relay output as an option. Ease of adjustment upon removal of front lens. Overflow indication for Sensor Break.

THERMOPILE ARRANGEMENT

Fe

Cu

Fe Cu

Cu

ALUMINIUM BLOCK

Fe

MULTICORE CABLE

INSULATED TERMINALS OIL BATH


HEATER
THERMOSTAT

HEATER SUPPLY

FIG 27

Page 23 of 41

RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS ( RTD )


CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF PLATINUM INDUSTRIAL RESISTANCE THERMOMETER ASSEMBLY

INCONEL O R STAINLESS STEEL SHEATH

HIGH-PURITY CERAM IC INSULATO R EXTENSIO N LEAD W IRES

CERAM IC-ENCAPSULATED RESISTANCE ELEM ENT

INTERNAL LEAD W IRES HIG H PURITY CERAM IC PACKING PO W DER

HIG H-TEM PERATURE HERM ETIC SEAL

FIG - 28 Platinum industrial resistance thermometer assembly

When precise temperature measurement by electrical means is desired, the resistance thermometer is used in a bridge circuit. The thermometer itself is furnished in the form of a bulb, which consists of a fine wire wrapped around an insulator and enclosed in metal. The most common shape for a resistance thermometer resembles a bimetal thermometer bulb (fig.29).

FIG 29 High Speed Resistance Thermometer Bulb

Platinum wire is the best material for a resistance thermometer since it is useful over a wide range of temperatures (-400 F to 1200 F). Nickel is frequently used because of its lower cost and also because over its useful range (-250 F to +600 F), its resistance per degree of temperature change is greater than that of platinum. Copper is generally restricted to temperature below that of nickel. Its full useful range is -328 F to +250 F. The important considerations in the selection of resistance thermometer wire are: 1. PURITY 2. UNIFORMITY 3. STABILITY 4. HIGH RESISTANCE CHANGE PER DEGREE TEMPERATURE CHANGE. 5. GOOD CONTAMINATION RESISTANCE.
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Resistance thermometer of the same material should be interchangeable without requiring recalibration of the instrument being used. For this reason, they are manufactured to have a fixed resistance at a certain temperature. Platinum resistance thermometers generally have a resistance of 25 ohms at 32 F. Nickel thermometers generally have a resistance of 100 ohms at 77 F. Copper thermometers generally have a resistance of 10 ohms at 77 F. Since temperature measurement by resistance thermometers is actually a resistance measurement, the Wheatstone bridge is used, with variations. The bridge may be DC or AC, although for this discussion we shall deal with the DC type in its simplest form.

MILLIVOLTMETER

Rb
BATTERY

The simplest form of resistance thermometer uses the indicating millivoltmeter. The Wheatstone bridge circuit is used with this type of meter (fig PLATINUM 30). BULB As the temperature resistance of the bulb Rt raises, its resistance raises. Because of this, the bridge is unbalanced. The unbalance is detected by the millivoltmeter, causing it to deflect to a point that will restore FIG - 30 balance to the circuit. When calibration the Platinum industrial resistance circuit, a precision resistor is substituted for the thermometer assembly temperature bulb, and the battery voltage is adjusted by varying Rb until the meter reads the correct temperature for this resistance. For instance (fig 31), if a platinum bulb is to be used, a precision resistor of 25 ohms would require that the meter reading be 32 F.

MILLIVOLTMETER

Rb
BATTERY

32

25
OHMS

FIG - 31 Wheatstone bridge circuit with 25 ohm resistor in place of the platinum bulb.

The resistance bulb has three leads (fig.32). This is necessary so that the same amount of lead wire is used in both branches of the bridge, this arrangement is generally preferred because the lead length may be lengthened or shortened without affecting the meter reading (fig.33).

Page 25 of 41

Rx Rb
R t1
BATTERY

Ry
MILLIVOLTM ETER

Rz
R t2

RESISTANCE Rt1EQUALS Rt2

PLATINUM BULB

FIG 32 The Resistance bulb has three leads, so that the same amount of lead wire is used in both branches of the bridge

FIG 33 Lead length does not affect meter readings, Rt1 is added to the Rx bridge arm, while Rt2 is added to Rz bridge arm, so that lead length has no imbalance effect

THERMISTOR In recent years, Thermistors have found increasing use in temperature measurement. These are very small, solid, semi-conductors made of various metal oxides. They are available in several shapes such as rods, discs, beads, washers, and flakes. The electrical resistance of a Thermistors decreases with an increase in temperature. For temperature measurement, they are used in bridge circuits, like the resistance thermometer. Because of their very small size the bridge current must be kept low.

FIG . 34

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PYROMETERS: A Pyrometer, or radiation thermometer, is a non-contact instrument that detects an objects surface temperature by measuring the temperature of the electromagnetic radiation (infrared or visible) emitted from the object.
RADIATION PYROMETERS Radiation Pyrometers are used for measuring temperatures upto 10,000F (See fig 35). They are also used for measuring higher temperature of moving objects, or when the use of other sensitive devices is impractical.
INDICATOR THERMOCOUPLE

LENS

FIG 35 In radiation pyrometry the radiant heat or energy from the hot substance is translated into emf by the Thermocouple and indicated in degrees of temperature.

HOT SUBSTANCE

MATERIAL BRASS COPPER (CALORIZED) CAST IRON IRON MONEL NICKEL STEEL WROUGHT IRON STAINLESS STEEL

100C 0.6

200C 0.61 0.95 0.74 0.43 0.37 0.79 0.94 0.62

500C 0.59 0.6 0.84 0.43 0.79 0.94 0.73

Table 7 Emission Factors of Oxidized Metals

The operation of the radiation thermometer involves measuring thermal energy which is radiated by a body when that body is heated. The Stefan Boltamann Law governing this principle is stated by the formula: W = KT4 This principle states that the total radiation (W) per unit is per second from a Black body or surface is proportional to its absolute (Kelvin) temperature raised to the fourth power. The Stefan Boltamann constant factor (K) varies with the substance being measured.

Page 27 of 41

The tendency to radiate thermal energy is called emissivity. All Substances have different emission factors and the factor may range from 0 to 1. The emissivity of copper, for example ie. 0.6 . A body or surface which emits all thermal energy that it absorbs (but which reflects home) is called a black body. The emissivity of a black body is 1, the maximum possible emissivity. The emissivity factor is included in the Stefan Boltamann constant factor K. The table lists the emissivity of various materials. It is used to measure the temperature of a hot ingot of iron in the open, radiation pyrometer readings will be low since iron is a poorer emitter than a black body. When readings are taken while the iron is still in the furnace, the walls and iron, the iron can be said to be emitting as much thermal energy as it is absorbing. Thus it approximates the characteristics of a black body, and the reading of its temperature will be accurate. In an industrial radiation pyrometer, the temperature sensitive element is either a single thermocouple or several connected thermocouples (a thermopile). Whichever is used, they save as the input to the some meters or circuits as if they were receiving their thermal energy directly rather than from a radiation unit. Finally, it should be remembered that in temperature measurement, primary or sensing element must be carefully selected and properly installed to provide the best sensitivity and response. More than any other measurement, temperature is subject to the details of installation.

TEMPERATURE SENSORS: A COMPARISON Thermocouple RTD Thermistor I.C.Sensor

Advantages: Self Powered Simple Rugged Inexpensive Wide variety of physical forms Wide Temperature range Disadvantages: Non-linear Low voltage Reference required Least stable Least Sensitive

Advantages: Most stable Most accurate More linear than Thermocouple Disadvantages: Expensive Slow Current source required Small resistance change Four-wire measurement

Advantages: High output Fast Two-wire Ohms measurement Disadvantages: Non-linear Limited temperature range Fragile Current

Advantages: Most linear Highest output Inexpensive Disadvantages: T<250C Power supply required Slow Self-heating Limited Configurations

Page 28 of 41

AD590-TWO-TERMINAL IC TEMPERATURE TRANSDUCER o FEATURES Linear Current Output: 1 A/oK Wide Temperature Range: 55oC to +150oC Probe Compatible Ceramic Sensor Package Two Terminal Device: Voltage In/Current Out Laser Trimmed to 0.5oC Calibration Accuracy (AD590M) Excellent Linearity: 0.3oC Over Full Range (AD590M) Wide Power Supply Range: +4 V to +30 V Sensor Isolation from Case Low Cost

AD590 DESCRIPTION The AD590 is a two-terminal integrated circuit temperature transducer that produces an output current proportional to absolute temperature. For supply voltages between +4 V and +30 V the device acts as a high impedance, constant current regulator passing 1A/oK. Laser trimming of the chips thinfilm resistors is used to calibrate the device to 298.2 A output at 298.2oK (+25oC). o The AD590 should be used in any temperature sensing application below +150oC in which conventional electrical temperature sensors are currently employed. The inherent low cost of a monolithic integrated circuit combined with the elimination of support circuitry makes the AD590 an attractive alternative for many temperature measurement situations. Linearization circuitry, precision voltage amplifiers, resistance measuring circuitry and cold junction compensation are not needed in applying the AD590.In addition to temperature measurement, applications include temperature compensation or correction of discrete components, biasing proportional to absolute temperature, flow rate measurement, level detection of fluids and anemometry. The AD590 is available in chip form making, it suitable for hybrid circuits and fast temperature measurements in protected environments. THE LM335 TEMPERATURE SENSOR The LM335 temperature sensor is an easy to use, cost-effective sensor with decent accuracy (around +/- 3 degrees C calibrated). The sensor is essentially a zener diode whose reverse breakdown voltage is proportional to absolute temperature. Since the sensor is a zener diode, a bias current must be established in order to use the device. The spec sheet states that the diode should be biased between 400 uA and 5 mA; we'll bias it at 2 mA. It is important to note that selfheating can be a significant factor, which is why I'm not choosing a higher bias current. The bias circuit is as follows:

Page 29 of 41

The temperature sensor's voltage output is related to absolute temperature by the following equation: Vout = VoutT0 * T / T0, where T0 is the known reference temperature where VoutT0 was measured. The nominal VoutT0 is equal to T0 * 10 mV/K. So, at 25 C, VoutT0 is nominally 298 K * 10 mV/K = 2.98 V (to be really accurate, we would need a reference temperature and a voltmeter, but nominal values are OK for our purposes). Thus, the voltage dropped between +5 and the diode is 5V - 2.98V = 2.02V. In order to get 2 mA bias current, we need a 1 K resistor for R1. A pinout of the sensor is provided below:

Note that the adj pin is unconnected. The adj pin is used to trim the diode to be more accurate.

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POLARITY OF THERMOCOUPLES & EXTENSION LEAD WIRES (COMPENSATING CABLES) AS USED IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES

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PHOTO GALLERY TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTERS

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PHOTO GALLERY: THERMOCOUPLE / RTD ASSEMBLIES

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SAMPLE FOR ORDERING INFORMATION

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NON CONTACT THERMOMETER

Measure surface temperatures instantly and accurate without contact. The MiniTemp uses infrared technology ready to go whenever you need it. Simply point and shoot for quick and easy temperature measurements. Display reads in either Celsius or Fahrenheit Package includes: 9V Battery, Instruction Guide Available Accessory: Pouch and Wrist Strap Kit

APPLICATIONS

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INTRODUCTION Control of the processes in the plant is an essential part of the plant operation. There must be enough water in the boilers to act as a heat sink for the reactor but there must not be water flowing out the top of the boilers towards the turbine. The level of the boiler must be kept within a certain range. The heat transport pressure is another critical parameter that must be controlled. If it is too high the system will burst, if it is too low the water will boil. Either condition impairs the ability of the heat transport system to cool the fuel. In this section we will look at the very basics of control. We will examine the fundamental control building blocks of proportional, integral and differential and their application to some simple systems. 1.1 BASIC CONTROL PRINCIPLES Consider a typical process control system. For a particular example let us look at an open tank, which supplies a process, say, a pump, at its output. The tank will require a supply to maintain its level (and therefore the pumps positive suction head) at a fixed predetermined point. This predetermined level is referred to as the setpoint (SP) and it is also the controlled quantity of the system. Clearly whilst the inflow and outflow are in mass balance, the level will remain constant. Any difference in the relative flows will cause the level to vary. How can we effectively control this system to a constant level? We must first identify our variables. Obviously there could be a number of variables in any system, the two in which we are most interested are: The controlled variable - in our example this will be level. The manipulated variable the inflow or outflow from the system. If we look more closely at our sample system (Figure 1), assuming the level is at the setpoint, the inflow to the system and outflow are balanced. Obviously no control action is required whilst this status quo exists. Control action is only necessary when a difference or error exists between the setpoint and the measured level. Depending on whether this error is a positive or negative quantity, the appropriate control correction will be made in an attempt to restore the process to the setpoint. Henceforth, the error will always take the form of: Error = Setpoint Measured Quantity OR e = SP -M

The control action will be either to vary the inflow or outflow from the system in order to keep the level at the setpoint. Let us consider the general format for achieving these objectives. As can be seen from Figure 2, the process can be represented by a closed loop. The system output (level) is monitored by a process sensor and the measurement signal is fedback to a comparator at the input of the system. The second input to the comparator is the setpoint signal; the comparators output being the difference or error signal. The amplifier, a present just a black box, will provide the appropriate correction to maintain the process at its setpoint despite disturbances that may occur. It can be seen that if the system were being operated in manual control the feedback path would not be present. The operator would provide this feedback and apply the necessary correction to the system whilst observing the effect on the controlled variable. This is termed open loop operation.
Disturbances

Figure 2 Feedback Control Block Diagram

1.1.1 Feedback Control This concept justifies the use of the word negative in three ways: The negative aspect of feeding the measured signal backwards from the output to the input of the system. (Actual definition of negative feedback control). The control correction must be negative in that a correction rather than a compounding of error must occur. The fact that an error must occur before a correction can take place, i.e., retrospective or negative control action. In the next section we will study in more detail the methods used to effect the necessary control corrections. 1.1.2 Feedforward Control If we wish to control our process without an error first occurring, we must base our control on correction of the disturbances, which will eventually, cause a process error. This is termed feedforward control. Feedforward control is rarely if ever used on its own but is used in conjunction with feedback control to improve the response of control to process disturbances. 1.1.3 Summary Controlled Variable output quantity of system (Level, Temperature, etc.). Manipulated Variable means of maintaining controlled variable at the setpoint. Error signal equals the difference between the setpoint and the measurement.. Setpoint desired process level. (SP) Measurement actual process level. (M) Closed Loop automatic control. Open Loop manual control. Feedback control is error correction following a disturbance. Feedforward control is control of disturbances, which could cause a process error.

1.2 ON/OFF CONTROL Figure 1 Typical On/Off Control Scheme Let us consider our level control system in a little more practical detail. The valve in the inflow line to the system is an electrically operated solenoid valve. (Remember an electrically operated solenoid valve has only two operating positions fully open or fully closed.) Assume that under initial conditions with a demand on the system the level will start to fall and V1 will have to be opened to provide an inflow. This can easily be achieved by mounting a differential pressure switch, P1 at the bottom of the tank to operate when the level falls to L1. When the level is at L1 the liquid will be height h1 above switch. The pressure at the switch will be P1 = gh1. the mass density of the liquid g the acceleration due to gravity h1 the height of the liquid The resulting switch closure can energize the solenoid valve V1 causing an inflow to the tank. Assuming the valve is correctly sized, this will cause a rise in the level back towards the setpoint. In order to arrest the rise in level the built in differential feature of the switch can be employed to de-energize the solenoid valve when level L2 is reached. This system will achieve a mean level in the tank about the desired setpoint. This method is known as ON/OFF control. Clearly it is impossible to maintain the system at the setpoint since there must be a difference in the operating levels L1 and L2 as the valve can only be energized or de-energized. It is often counter productive to try to reduce the differential between L1 and L2 to too small a value as this will result Notein excessive cycling, and hence wear, of the valve. Usual practice is to control with a deadband about the setpoint as shown in Figure 4.

SP time L1

Periodic Time

Figure 4 Typical On/Off Response

The sinusoidal cycling is typical of on/off control. on/off control can be used to advantage on a sluggish system, i.e., where the periodic time is large. Typical uses in CANDU units are electric heater controls in de-aerator tanks and PHTS bleed condenser and pressurizer. If fine control is required a simple on/off control system is inadequate. We will discuss a method for achieving a finer control in the next section. 1.2.1 Summary On/off control - control signal is either 0% or 100% Control at setpoint not achievable, a deadband must be incorporated. Useful for large, sluggish systems particularly those incorporating electric heaters.

1.1 BASIC PROPORTIONAL CONTROL

In our example of on/off control it was seen that an all or nothing control correction was applied as the result of an error signal occurring. Clearly it would be to our advantage if the control signal were proportional to the magnitude of error. This is the basis of proportional control and is the most frequently encountered control mode. How can this control be achieved? Referring to Figure 5 it can be seen that we can modify our system to use a pneumatically operated control valve and a level transmitter with a 20 100 kPa pneumatic output.

If the outflow (Qo) increases then the level in the tank will fall. The pressure sensed by the level transmitter, which is representative of the level in the tank, will also fall causing a decrease in the output signal from the level transmitter. This output signal is fed to the (air to close) control valve (valve fully open with 20 kPa signal, fully closed with 100 kPa signal). A falling level will therefore cause the valve to progressively open and hence raise the level in the tank. The system as shown is somewhat impractical as the initial setpoint conditions will need to be set by some manual method and then ensuring that steady state conditions are achieved with the valve at, say 50% opening and a level transmitter output of 60 kPa (50% range). This simple system does illustrate however a major disadvantage with proportional control. Notice that the control signal (valve opening) can only change when the level signal is changing. Thus if a disturbance occurs, say an increase in demand, the level will drop and the output from the level transmitter will also fall. This will cause the air to close valve to open more, hence increasing the inflow. After a period of time the inflow will have increased such that a now mass balance is established between inflow and outflow. But where is the level at this time? Certainly not at the setpoint. In the example given it will stabilize at some steady state level below the setpoint. This steady state deviation is known as offset and is inherent in all proportional control systems. Despite this obvious disadvantage, (we cannot return the process to the setpoint after a disturbance with proportional control) this mode of control will form the basis for all our control strategies. In the next section we will discuss a more practical control scheme using proportional control and also ways of lessening the problem of offset.

Example 1 A tank has inflow and outflow equal to 50% of maximum and its level is at the setpoint, say 50%. A step change in outflow occurs to 60% (+10%). Outflow now exceeds inflow so the level will fall. The output from the level transmitter will also fall and, for our system, will match the fall in level say 1% change in signal for a 1% change in level. The LT signal will open the A/C valve more, by 1% in fact. The inflow is now 51%, still less than the outflow. The level will continue to fall until inflow equals outflow, i.e., (60%). This can only happen when the LT signal has changed by 10%) and this change reflects a drop in level on 10%: i.e., 10% offset. To restore the process to the setpoint requires a further increase of inflow. This increase can only be achieved by a further decrease in signal to the valve (i.e., as decrease in LT output corresponding to a further decrease in level). With the conditions as stated in the example there is no way in which a 50% level can be achieved with a 60% outflow. A 50% level with a 60% outflow requires a 60% inflow. Our systems can only provide a 60% inflow from a 40% level signal. Example 2 An alternative method of illustrating proportional control is by means of a simple float system (Figure 6). Assume the inflow and outflow are equal and the level is at the setpoint. If an increase in outflow occurs the level in the tank must fall. The float will also fall as the level falls. This drop in float position will cause the valve on the inflow to open more thus increasing the inflow. Eventually the fall in level will result in a valve opening, which will restore the mass balance between the inflow and the outflow. Note an increased inflow can only be achieved as a result of a lower level in the tank. The level is no longer at the setpoint an offset has been generated.

1.1.1

Summary

Proportional control provides a control signal, proportional to the magnitude and direction of the error signal. After a disturbance, proportional control will provide only a new mass balance situation. A change in control signal requires a change in error signal, therefore offset will occur. Proportional control stabilizes an error; it does not remove it. 1.4 Proportional Control 1.4.1 Terminology M = Measurement Signal SP = Setpoint e = Error e = SP M Note: If M>SP then e is negative If M<SP then e is positive m = Controller Signal Output in O/P = final initial k = Gain when controller uses e = SP -M THEN K is negative for Direct Acting (usually 50% of output span) m = ke + b Direct Action Mm Reverse Action Mm K is positive for Reverse Acting b = bias

PB = Proportional Band Small (narrow) PB = High Gain Large (wide) PB = Low Gain

1.4.2 Practical Proportional Control A more practical proportional control scheme can be achieved by inserting a controller between the level transmitter and the control valve. This will eliminate the setting up problems mentioned in the previous module (i.e., it will have a setpoint control) and also introduce other advantages, which will be discussed in this section. In a practical system one of the primary considerations is the failure mode of the valve. In our example of an open tank with a valve on the inflow it would be reasonable to assume that the valve should close in the event of an air supply failure to prevent the tank overflowing, i.e., an air to open valve. A/O 20 - 100 kPa SP

To achieve the necessary control action on, say, a falling tank level it is necessary to convert the decreasing output of the level transmitter to an increasing input signal to the control valve. The level controller will perform this function and is termed an indirect or reverse acting () controller. It can be seen that if the valve action had been chosen air to close, then this reversal would not have been required and a direct () acting controller could have been used. Normally controllers are capable of performing either control action, direct or reverse, by a simple switching process. The controller will also accept our desired setpoint input and perform the comparison between setpoint and measurement to calculate the errors magnitude and direction. Up to now we have only assumed proportionality constant or one, i.e., the control signal equals the input error. Is this always the best ratio? Consider the following graphs of input, output and level with respect to time: instead of control signal = error signal, control signal = error signal x gain constant (k). Clearly for any given error signal the control signal Note will be increased in magnitude, the inflow will be increased, and a new mass balance will be achieved in a shorter time as shown in Figure 9. (If we refer back to our simple ballcock system in section 1.1, it can be seen that the gain could be varied by adjusting the position of the valve-operating link on the float arm.) The offset is much reduced. In instrumentation this adjustment of controller gain is referred to as proportional band (PB).

Proportional band is defined as that input signal span change, in percent, which will cause a hundred percent change in output signal. For example if an input signal span change of 100% is required to give an output change of 100% the system is said to have a proportional band of 100%. If the system was now adjusted such that the 100% change in output was achieved with only a 50% change in input signal span then the proportional band is now said to be 50%. There is a clear relationship between proportional band and gain. Gain can be defined as the ratio between change in output and change in input. Gain=output /input By inspection it can be seen that a PB of 100% is the same as a gain of one since change of input equals change in output. PB is the reciprocal of gain, expressed as a percentage. The general relationship is: % gain = 100/ PB Small values of PB (high gain) are usually referred to as narrow proportional band whilst low gain is termed wide proportional band. Note there is no magic figure to define narrow or wide proportional band, relative values only are applicable, for example, 15% PB is wider than 10% PB, 150% PB is narrower than 200% PB.

Figure 11 Decay Response Curve

With reference to Figure 10, consider a high gain system (say gain = 50, PB = 2%). Under steady state conditions with the process at the setpoint the inflow will have a constant value. This is usually taken to be a control signal of 50% for a proportional controller with the process at the setpoint. In other words we have a 50% control capability. With our high gain system it can be seen that the maximum control signal will be achieved with an error of =1% (control signal = gain x error). This control signal will cause the valve to go fully open, the level will rise and the process will cross the setpoint. The error signal will now change sign and when the error again exceeds 1% the resultant control signal will now cause the valve to fully close hence completely stopping the inflow. This process will be repeated continuously we have reverted to an on/off control situation with all the disadvantages previously mentioned. Obviously there must be some optimum setting of PB which is a trade off between the highly stable but sluggish low gain system with large offset, and the fast acting, unstable on/off system with mean offset equal to zero. The accepted optimum setting is one that causes the process to decay in a decay method as shown in both Figures 10and 11. The quarter decay curves show that the process returns to a steady state condition after three cycles of damped oscillation. This optimization will be discussed more fully in the section on controller tuning. Recall the output of a proportional controller is equal to: m = ke where m = control signal %100 k = controller gain = PB e = error signal = (SP M) Clearly if the error is zero the control signal will be zero, this is an undesirable situation. Therefore for proportional control a constant term or bias must be added to provide a steady state control signal when the error is zero. For the purposes of this course we will assume the steady state output of a proportional controller when at the setpoint to be 50%. The equation Notefor proportional control becomes: m = ke + b where b = bias (=50% added to output signal)

Calculation of Offset Example: An air to open valve on the inflow controls level in a tank. When the process is at the setpoint the valve opening is 50%. An increase in outflow results in the valve opening increasing to a new steady state value of 70%. What is the resulting offset if the controller PB is: a) 50% b) 25%

This additional control signal is known as Reset action, it resets the process to the setpoint. Reset action is always used in conjunction with Noteproportional action. Mathematically, reset action is the integration of the error signal to zero hence the alternative nomenclature Integral action. The combination of proportional plus reset action is usually referred to as PI control. The response of PI control is best considered in open loop form, i.e., the loop is opened just before the final control element so that the control

It can be seen that proportional action will be equal to ke where k is the gain of the controller. Reset action will cause a ramping of the output signal to provide the necessary extra control action. After time, say t, the reset action has repeated the original proportional response; this is the repeat time, the unit chosen for defining reset action. It can be seen that increased reset action would increase the slope of the reset ramp. Note that proportional action occurs first followed by reset action. Reset action is defined as either reset rate in repeats per minute (RPM) or reset time in minutes per repeat (MPR).

We have already mentioned that the optimum setting for proportional control is one, which produces a decay curve. What is the optimum setting for reset action? We will discuss this more fully in the module on controller tuning. For now, let us just consider a very slow reset rate and a very fast reset rate. A very slow reset rate will ramp the control signal up very slowly. Eventually the process will be returned to the setpoint. The control will be very sluggish and if the system is subjected to frequent disturbances the process may not ever be fully restored to the setpoint! If a very fast reset rate is used, the control signal will increase very quickly. If we are controlling, say, a large volume tank, the level response of the tank may lag behind the response of the controller. The control signal will go to its limiting value (0 or 100%) and the limiting control signal will eventually cause the process to cross the setpoint. The error signal will now change its sign, and reset action will also reverse direction and quickly ramp to the other extreme.

This process will continue indefinitely, the control valve cycling, with eresulting wear and tear, from one extreme to the other. The actual process level will cycle about the setpoint. This cycling is known as reset windup and will occur if the process is subject to a sustained error and a too fast reset rate. The reset rate must be decreased (reset time increased). The mathematical expression for P + I control becomes:

Proportional control i.e., (proper sign of gain) inputs a 180 lag into the system (the correction must be opposite to the error). Reset action introduces a further lag. This fact must be taken into account when tuning the controller. (It follows proportional action). The total lag must be increased and is now closer to 160. (160 lag means the feedback signal is now in phase with the input and adding to it the system is now unstable.) Reset action causes the loop to be less stable 1.5.1 Summary Reset action removes offset. Its units are Repeats per Minute (RPM) or Minutes per Repeat (MPR) If reset action is faster than the process can respond, Reset Windup can occur. Reset Action makes a control loop less stable. Do not subject process loops with reset control to sustained errors the control signal will be ramped to the extreme value reset windup will occur.

1.6 RATE OR DERIVATIVE ACTION Consider a control system subjected to a disturbance, which causes the error to increase in a ramped manner. Proportional control would respond to this ramped error with a similarly ramped output signal whose slope is proportional to the controller gain. We could reduce the final deviation from the setpoint, i.e., the offset, and the recovery time, if we can provide some extra control signal related to the rate of change of the error signal. This is termed rate or derivative action and is usually incorporated with proportional control. Rate action is an anticipatory control, which provides a large initial control signal to limit the final deviation. The typical open loop response is shown in Figure 15. It can be seen that the derivative action gives a large, immediate, control signal, which will limit the deviation. Proportional action is then superimposed upon this step. When the error stops changing derivative action ceases. Note that the displayed step response unobtainable in practice because the normal response approximates and exponential rise and decay. The rate response gives an immediate control signal, which will be equal to what the proportional response would be after some time, say, T minutes. Derivative units are given in minutes. These are the minutes advance of proportional action. Derivative action is a leading control and, therefore, tends to reduce the overall lag in the system the system is somewhat more stable.

Mathematically proportional plus derivative (PD) control is expressed as:

m = controller signal k = controller gain TD = derivative time e = error b = bias signal The use of derivative control is limited. At first glance, derivative control looks attractive. It should help reduce the time required to stabilize an error. However, it will not remove offset. The control signal from derivative action ceases when the error stops changing, which will not necessarily be at the setpoint. Its use, in practice, is also limited to slow acting processes. If used on a fast acting process, such as flow, control signals due to derivative action will often drive the control valve to extremes following quite small but steep (Large de/dt)changes in input. Consider a simple flow control system, consisting of an orifice plate with flow transmitter and square root extractor plus direct acting controller and air to close valve (refer to Figure 16). This system is subjected to a small, but fast, process disturbance. How will this control scheme perform under proportional and derivative control modes?

Fig 16

To answer this question, let us consider the PD response to a fast change in process signal in an open loop system (Figure 17).

The upper portion of Figure 17 shows a positive process excursion, AB, from the zero error condition, followed by an equal negative excursion, BC, which returns the error to zero. Note that the rate of change, i.e., the slope of the process change, from B to C is twice the rate of change of the process, from A to B. Mathematically: The proportional control action from B to C will be equal but opposite to the proportional control action from A to B. The rate or derivative control action from B to C will be double that from A to B. The resulting open loop control signal pattern is shown in the lower portion of Figure 17. The controller gain and derivative settings remain constant.Very shortly after time (t0) the control signal increases abruptly to a value determined by the rate of change of the error (e), the derivative or rate time setting, and the controller gain. Proportional action ramps the control signal up, until time (t1), to a value determined by the error (e) and the controller gain setting. This includes the direction of the error and controller action. At time (t1) the rate of change of the process error, de/dt, momentarily becomes zero, so the original change in the control signal due to the rate action drops out. Then, the process error change direction becomes negative, and the derivative control action now produces an abrupt negative control signal, double the original derivative control signal. The proportional control action then ramps the control signal down until time (t2). At time (t2) the rate of change of the process error becomes zero, so the derivative control signal again drops out leaving the control signal at its original bias (zero) error value. Note that this final bias, (zero) error value of the control signal and, hence, the control valve position at the end of this excursion, is determined solely by the proportional. The valve has been stroked rapidly and repeated by the derivative action subjecting it to unnecessary wear, with no improvement in control.

The response of the closed loop shown in Figure 16 would be somewhat different because the resulting valve action would continuously alter the error signal. However, the valve would still be subjected to rapid and repeated stroking unnecessarily. Thus, it can be seen from the above discussion that the use of derivative action on fast acting processes such as flow is not advisable. Let us look at the control of a sluggish (generally a physically large) system. As an example, consider a large tank with a variable outflow and a control valve on the inflow. A large volume change will, therefore, be necessary before any appreciable change in level occurs. Consider a large change in the outflow. After some delay (due to the sluggishness of the system) the controller will respond. If we have only proportional mode on the controller the delays will mean that the controller is always chasing the error initiated by the outflow disturbance. The response to proportional control is shown in Figure 18. Note that the process has not fully stabilized after a considerable period of time. The addition of derivative action, however, causes an anticipatory response. The control signal increases more rapidly and the process is returned to a steady state in a much shorter time. Note also that: The system is more stable (less cycling) with PD control. Offset still exists.

Figure 18 Large System Under Proportional and Proportional Plus Derivative Control

1.6.1 Summary Derivative or rate action is anticipatory and will usually reduce, but not eliminate, offset. Its units are minutes (advance of proportional action). It tends to reduce lag in a control loop. Its use is generally limited to slow acting processes 1.7 MULTIPLE CONTROL MODES We have already discussed some of the possible combinations of control modes. These are: Proportional only, Proportional plus reset (integral) P + I, Proportional plus derivative (rate) P + D. It is also possible to use a combination of all three-control modes, Proportional plus Integral plus Derivative (P + I + D). At a glance proportional only does not appear very attractive we will get an offset as the result of a disturbance and invariably we wish to control to a fixed setpoint. An application of proportional only control in a CANDU system is in the liquid zone level control system. The reason that straight proportional control can be used here is that the controlled variable is not level but neutron flux. The manipulated variable is the water level; therefore offset is not important as the level is manipulated to provide the required neutron flux. In general it can be said that the vast majority of control systems (probably greater than 90%) will incorporate proportional plus integral modes. (We usually want to control to a fixed setpoint.) Flow control systems will invariably have P + I control. Derivative control will generally be limited to large sluggish systems with long inherent control time delays, (for example, that shown in Figure 18.). A good general example is the heat exchanger. The thermal interchange process is often slow and the temperature sensor is usually installed in a thermal well, which further slows the control signal response. Frequently heat exchanger temperature controllers will incorporate threemode control (P + I + D).

NOTES ON ALARM ANNUNCIATORS

PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION

Annunciators are normally used to call Attention to abnormal process conditions. An Annunciator provides a means whereby a number of potential Alarm Points in a Process Plant can be displayed in a centralized location. Annunciators usually include individual illuminated visual displays that are labeled to identify the particular monitored variable that is abnormal and audible devices. Annunciators may also call attention to the return to normal of the process conditions. The individual alarm points are operated from a common power supply and share a number of annunciators system components, including an audible signal generator (horn), a flasher and acknowledge and test pushbuttons. In normal operation the Annunciator system and individual alarm points are quiescent. The field device contact is an alarm switch that monitors a particular process variable and is actuated when the variable exceeds preset limits. In electrical annunciator systems it is normally a switch contact that closes (makes) or opens (breaks) the electrical circuit to the logic module and thereby initiates the alarm condition. In the alert stage the annunciator turns on the visual indicator for the particular alarm point and the audible signal and the flasher for the system.

FIG - Integral Logic Annunciator Arrangement

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The visual indicator is usually a back lighted nameplate engraved with an inscription to identify the variable and the abnormal condition, but it can also be a bulls-eye light with a nameplate. The audible signal can be a horn, a buzzer, or a bell. The flasher is common to all individual alarm points and interrupts the circuit to the visual indicator as that point goes into the alert condition. This causes the light to continue to flash intermittently until either the abnormal condition returns to normal or it is acknowledged by the operator. The horn acknowledgment pushbutton is provided with a momentary contact; when it is operated, it changes the logic module circuit to silence the audible signal, stop the flasher and turn the visual indicator on steady. When the abnormal condition is corrected, the field device contact returns to normal and the visual indicator is automatically turned off. The lamp test pushbutton with its momentary contact tests for burned-out lamps in the visual indicators. When activated, the pushbutton closes a common circuit (bus) to each visual indicator in the annunciator system, turning on those lamps that are not already on as a result of an abnormal operating conditions.

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OPERATING SEQUENCES The operation of an individual alarm points in the normal, alert, acknowledged; and return-to-normal stages is the annunciator sequence. A wide variety of sequences can be developed from commercially available logic components; many special sequences have been designed to suit the requirements of particular process applications. The five most commonly used annunciator sequences are shown in table 1 identified by the code designation of the Instrument Society of America (ISA). (For additional details on less frequently used sequences, see the ISA recommended practice RP-18.1.) FLASHING SEQUENCE ISA Sequence 1B, also referred to as flashing sequence A, is the one most frequently used. The alert condition of an alarm point results in a flashing visual indication and an audible signal. The visual indication turns off automatically when the monitored process variable returns to normal. DIM SEQUENCE ISA Sequence 1D (often referred to as a dim sequence) is identical to Sequence 1B except that ordinarily the visual indicator is dim rather than off. A dimmer unit, common to the system, is required. Because all visual indicators are always turned on for dim (normal), flashing (alert), or steady (acknowledged) the feature for detecting lamp failure is unnecessary. RING BACK SEQUENCE ISA Sequence 2A (Commonly referred to as a ring back sequence) differs from Sequence 1B in that following acknowledgment the return-to-normal condition produces a dim flashing and an audible signal. An additional momentary contact reset pushbutton is required for this sequence. Pushing the reset button after the monitored variable has returned to normal turns off the dim flashing light and silences the audible signal. This sequence is applied when the operator must know if normal operating conditions have been restored. MANUAL RESET SEQUENCE ISA Sequence 2C is like Sequence IB except that the system must be reset manually after operation has returned to normal in order to turn off the visual indicator. This sequence is also referred to as a manual reset sequence and, like Sequence 2A, requires an additional momentary contact reset pushbutton. Sequence 2C is used when it is desirable to keep the visual indicator on (after the horn has been silenced by the acknowledgment pushbutton) even though the field device contact has returned to normal. FIRST OUT SEQUENCE ISA sequence 4A, also known as the first out sequence, is designed to identify the first of a number of interrelated variables that have exceeded normal operating limits. The first alarm causes flashing, and all subsequent points in the group turn on the steady light only. This sequence monitor interrelated variables. The Visual indication is turned off automatically when conditions return to normal after acknowledgment

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MOST COMMONLY USED ANNUNCIATOR SEQUENCES


ISA Code for the Sequence IB FLASHING SEQUENCE Annunciator Condition Process Variable Condition ( Field device Contact ) Normal Abnormal Abnormal Normal Normal Normal Abnormal Abnormal Normal Visual Indicator Audible Signal Use Frequency

Normal Alert Acknowledged Normal again Test Normal Alert Acknowledged Normal again

Off Flashing On Off On Dim Flashing On Dim

Off On Off Off Off Off On Off Off

55%

ID DIM SEQUENCE

1%

2A RING BACK SEQUENCE

Normal Alert Acknowledged Return to Normal Reset Test Normal Alert Acknowledged Return to Normal Reset Test Normal Alert Initial Subsequent Acknowledged Initial Subsequent Normal Again Test

Normal Abnormal Abnormal Normal Normal Normal Normal Abnormal Abnormal Normal Normal Normal Normal Abnormal Abnormal Normal Normal

Off Flashing On Dim Flashing Off On Off Flashing On On Off On Off Flashing On On On Off On

Off On Off On Off Off Off On Off Off Off Off Off On Off Off Off Off Off

4%

2C MANUAL RESET SEQUENCE

5%

4A FIRST OUT SEQUENCE

28%

All Others

7%

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INTRODUCTION TO YOKOGAWA PCI PRODUCTS

o TRANSMITTERS o FLOWMETERS o RECORDERS o CONTROLLERS- UT SERIES o CONTROLLERS- US 1000S

TRANSMITTERS

EJX
INTRODUCTION: Pressure usually transuded to force by allowing it to act on a known area.
P= F A

In various units of a plant, Very high or Very low pressure both may cause partial or complete failure in operation.

Classification of Pressure

Absolute Pressure Measured above total vacuum or zero absolute. Zero absolute represents total lack of pressure. Atmospheric Pressure The pressure exerted by the earth's atmosphere. Atmospheric pressure at sea level is 14.696 Pisa. The value of atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude. Barometric Pressure Same as atmospheric pressure.

Differential Pressure The difference is magnitude between some pressure value and some reference pressure.

In a sense, absolute pressure could be considered as a differential pressure with total vacuum or zero absolute as the reference. Gauge Pressure The pressure above atmospheric is called Gauge Pressure. Represents positive difference between measured pressure and existing atmospheric pressure. Yokogawa's Pressure family 1] EJX110A, EJX130A, EJX310A, EJX430A, EJX440ADifferential Pressure and Pressure Transmitter 2] EJX210A - Flange Mounted Differential Pressure Transmitter 3] EJX510A, EJX530A Absolute Pressure and Gauge Pressure Transmitter 4] EJX118A, EJX438A Diaphragm Sealed Differential Pressure and Pressure Transmitter 5] EJX910A Multivariable Transmitter 1] EJX110A, EJX130A, EJX310A, EJX430A and EJX440A: Differential Pressure and Pressure Transmitters 1.1] HANDLING CAUTIONS EJX Series transmitters are thoroughly tested at the factory before shipment. When taking delivery of an instrument, visually check them to make sure that no damage occurred during shipment. Also check that all transmitter mounting hardware shown in figure below. If the transmitter is ordered without the mounting bracket and the process connector, the transmitter mounting hardware will not be included. After checking the transmitter, carefully repack it in its box and keep it there until you are ready to install it. Storage The following precautions must be observed when storing the instrument, especially for a long period. (a) Select a storage area which meets the following conditions: It is not exposed to rain or subject to water seepage/leaks. Vibration and shock are kept to a minimum. It has an ambient temperature and relative humidity within the following ranges. Ambient temperature: 40 to 85C without integral indicator 30 to 80C with integral indicator Relative humidity: 0% to 100% R.H. Preferred temperature and humidity: Approx. 25C and 65% R.H.

(b) When storing the transmitter, repack it carefully in the packaging that it was originally shipped with. (c) If the transmitter has been used, thoroughly clean the chambers inside the cover flanges, so that there is no process fluid remaining inside. Before placing it in storage, also make sure that the pressure detector is securely connected to the transmitter section. SELECTING THE INSTALLATION LOCATION The transmitter is designed to withstand severe environmental conditions. However, to ensure that it will provide years of stable and accurate performance, take the following precautions when selecting the installation location. (a) Ambient Temperature Avoid locations subject to wide temperature variations or a significant temperature gradient. If the location is exposed to radiant heat from plant equipment, provide adequate thermal insulation and/or ventilation. (b) Ambient Atmosphere Do not install the transmitter in a corrosive atmosphere. If this cannot be avoided, there must be adequate ventilation as well as measures to prevent the leaking of rain water and the presence of standing water in the conduits. (c) Shock and Vibration Although the transmitter is designed to be relatively resistant to shock and vibration, an installation site should be selected where this is kept to a minimum. (d) Installation of Explosion-protected Transmitters An explosion-protected transmitters is certified for installation in a hazardous area containing specific gas types. Pressure Connection Never loosen the process connector bolts when an instrument is installed in a process. The device is under pressure, and a loss of seal can result in a sudden and uncontrolled release of process fluid. When draining toxic process fluids that have condensed inside the pressure detector, take appropriate steps to prevent the contact of such fluids with the skin or eyes and the inhalation of vapors from these fluids.

CAUTION 1. The temperature and pressure of fluid should be maintained at levels that are consistent with normal operating conditions. 2. The ambient temperature should be maintained at a level that is consistent with normal operating conditions. 3. Please take care to prevent water hammer and the like from inducing excessive pressures in pipes and valves. If phenomena are likely, install a safety valve or take some other appropriate measure to prevent pressure from exceeding PS. 4. Take appropriate measures at the device or system level to protect transmitters if they are to be operated near an external heat source.

COMPONENT NAMES

INSTALLATION 1. With differential pressure transmitters, the distance between the impulse piping connection ports is usually 54 mm as shown below. By changing the orientation of the process connector, the dimension can be changed to 51 mm or 57 mm.

2. The transmitter can be mounted on a nominal 50 mm (2-inch) pipe using the mounting bracket supplied, as shown in figure below. The transmitter can be mounted on either a horizontal or a vertical pipe.

3. When mounting the bracket on the transmitter, tighten the (four) bolts that hold the transmitter with a torque of approximately 39 Nm {4kgfm}. Changing the Process Connection The transmitter is shipped with the process connection specified at the time of ordering. To change the process connection, the drain (vent) plug must be repositioned. To reposition a drain (vent) plug, use a wrench to slowly and gently unscrew it. Then, remove and remount it on the opposite side. Wrap sealing tape around the drain (vent) plug threads (*1 in the figure below), and apply a lubricant to the threads of the drain (vent) screw(s) (*2 below). To tighten the drain (vent) plugs, apply a torque of 34 to 39 Nm {3.5 to 4kgfm}.

Swapping the High/Low pressure Side Connection This section is applicable only for EJX110A and EJX130A differential transmitters, and not applicable for gauge or absolute pressure transmitters. Rotating Pressure-detector Section 180 This procedure can be applied only to a transmitter with a vertical impulse piping type. The procedure below can be used to turn the pressure detector assembly 180. Perform this operation in a maintenance shop with the necessary tools laid out and ready for use, and then install the transmitter in the field after making the change. 1) Use an Allen wrench (JIS B4648, nominal 2.5 mm) to remove the two setscrews at the joint between the pressure-detector section and transmitter section. 2) Leaving the transmitter section in position, rotate the pressure-detector section 180. 3) Tighten the two setscrews to fix the pressure detector section and transmitter section together (at a torque of 1.5 Nm).

Using the Communicator This method is applicable only to the Model EJX110A and EJX130A. With a communicator, you can change which process connection is used as the high-pressure side without mechanically rotating the pressure-detector section 180. To change, call parameter D15: H/L SWAP for BRAIN Communication or H/L swap for HART Communication and select REVERSE (right side: low pressure; left side: high pressure) or select NORMAL to change back to normal (right side: high pressure; left side: low pressure).

INSTALLING IMPULSE PIPING

The impulse piping that connects the process outputs to the transmitter must convey the process pressure accurately. If, for example, gas collects in a liquid filled impulse line, or the drain for a gas-filled impulse line becomes plugged, it will not convey the pressure accurately. Since this will cause errors in the measurement output, select the proper piping method for the process fluid (gas, liquid, or steam). Pay careful attention to the following points when routing the impulse piping and connecting the impulse piping to a transmitter. CONNECTING IMPULSE PIPING TO A TRANSMITTER 1. Check the High and Low Pressure Connections on the Transmitter Symbols H and L have been placed on the capsule assembly to indicate high and low pressure side. With differential pressure transmitters, connect the high-pressure side impulse line to the H side, and the low-pressure side impulse line to the L side. With gauge/absolute pressure transmitters, connect the impulse line to the H side

2. Tightening the Process Connector Mounting Bolts After connecting an impulse line, tighten the process connector mounting bolts uniformly. 3.Connecting the Transmitter and 3-Valve Manifold (for differential pressure transmitters) A 3-valve manifold consists of two stop valves to block process pressure and an equalizing valve to equalize the pressures on the high and low pressure sides of the transmitter. Such a manifold makes it easier to disconnect the transmitter from the impulse piping, and is convenient when adjusting the transmitter zero point. There are two 3-valve manifold types: the pipe mounting type and the direct-mounting type; care should be taken with respect to the following points when connecting the manifold to the transmitter.

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PIPE-MOUNTING TYPE 3-VALVE MANIFOLD 1) Screw nipples into the connection ports on the transmitter side of the 3-valve manifold, and into the impulse piping connecting ports on the process connectors. (To maintain proper sealing, wind sealing tape around the nipple threads.) 2) Mount the 3-valve manifold on the 50 mm (2-inch) pipe by fastening a U-bolt to its mounting bracket. Tighten the U-bolt nuts only lightly at this time. 3) Install the pipe assemblies between the 3-valve manifold and the process connectors and lightly tighten the ball head lock nuts. (The ball-shaped ends of the pipes must be handled carefully, since they will not seal properly if the ball surface is scratched or otherwise damaged.) 4) Now tighten the nuts and bolts securely in the following sequence: Process connector bolts -- Transmitter-end ball head lock nuts-- 3-valve manifold ball head lock nuts-- 3-valve manifold mounting bracket U-bolt nuts

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DIRECT-MOUNTING VALVE MANIFOLD

TYPE

3-

Mount the 3-valve manifold on the transmitter. (When mounting, use the two gaskets and the four bolts provided with the 3-valve manifold. Tighten the bolts evenly.) Mount the process connectors and gaskets on the top of the 3-valve manifold (the side on which the impulse piping will be connected).

PROCESS PRESSURE TAP ANGLES If condensate, gas, sediment or other extraneous material in the process piping gets into the impulse piping, pressure measurement errors may result. To prevent such problems, the process pressure taps must be angled as shown in figure below according to the kind of fluid being measured.

If the process fluid is a gas, the taps must be vertical or within 45 degrees either side of vertical. If the process fluid is a liquid, the taps must be horizontal or below horizontal, but not more than 45 degrees below horizontal. If the process fluid is steam or other condensing vapor, the taps must be horizontal or above horizontal, but not more than 45 above horizontal.

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IMPULSE PIPING CONNECTION EXAMPLES

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OPERATION Preparation for Starting Operation This section describes the operation procedure for the EJX110A as shown in figure below (vertical impulse piping type, high-pressure connection: right side) when measuring the liquid flow rate.

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EJX430A and EJX310A as shown in figure below when measuring pressure.

Check that the process pressure tap valves drain valves, and 3-valve manifold stop valves on both the low pressure and high-pressure sides are closed, and that the 3-valve manifold equalizing valve is opened. The procedure mentioned below is to be followed to introduce process pressure into the impulse piping and transmitter. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS Open the low pressure and high pressure tap valves to fill the impulse piping with process liquid. Slowly open the high-pressure stop valve to fill the transmitter pressure-detector section with process liquid. Close the high-pressure stop valve. Gradually open the lowpressure stop valve and completely fill the transmitter pressure-detector section with process liquid. Close the low-pressure stop valve. Gradually open the high-pressure stop valve. At this time, equal pressure is applied to the low and high-pressure sides of the transmitter. Check that there are no liquid leaks in the impulse piping, 3-valve manifold, transmitter, or other components.

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GAUGE/ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS

Open the tap valve (main valve) to fill the impulse piping with process fluid. Gradually open the stop valve to introduce process fluid into the transmitter pressuredetector section. Confirm that there is no pressure leak in the impulse piping, transmitter, or other components.

ADJUSTING ZERO POINT FOR DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS Before adjusting zero point, make sure that the screw is located inside the cover. Use a slotted Equalize the transmitter, and then turn the counterclockwise to decrease the output. The resolution of 0.01% of the setting range. STARTING OPERATION After completing the zero point adjustment, follow the procedures below to start operation. Steps 1) and 2) are specific to the differential pressure transmitters. 1) Close the equalizing valve. 2) Gradually open the low-pressure stop valve. This places the transmitter in an operational condition. 3) Confirm the operating status. If the output signal exhibits wide fluctuations (hunting) due to periodic variation in the process pressure, use the communicator to dampen the transmitter output signal. Confirm the hunting using a receiving instrument or the integral indicator, and set the optimum damping time constant. 4) After confirming the operating status, perform the following. SHUTTING DOWN THE TRANSMITTER Shut down the transmitter as follows. 1) Turn off the power. 2) Close the low-pressure stop valve. 3) Open the equalizing valve. 4) Close the high-pressure stop valve. 5) Close the high pressure and low pressure tap valves. equalizing valve is open. The zero-adjustment screwdriver to turn the zero-adjustment screw. screw clockwise to increase the output or zero point adjustment can be made with a

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DRAINING CONDENSATE Gradually open the drain screw or drain plug and drain the transmitter pressure-detector section as shown in fig below. When all accumulated liquid is completely removed, close the drain screw or drain plug. Tighten the drain screw to a torque of 10 Nm, and the drain plug to a torque of 34 to 39 Nm.

VENTING GAS Gradually open the vent screw to vent gas from the transmitter pressure-detector section as shown in figure below 2) When the transmitter is completely vented, close the vent screw. 3) Tighten the vent screw to a torque of 10 Nm.

MAINTENANCE Since the accumulated process fluid may be toxic or otherwise harmful, take appropriate care to avoid contact with the body or inhalation of vapors when draining condensate or venting gas from the transmitter pressure-detector section and even after dismounting the instrument from the process line for maintenance. Disassembly and Reassembly Always turn OFF power and shut off and release pressures before disassembly.

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REPLACING THE INTEGRAL INDICATOR 1) Remove the cover. While supporting the integral indicator with one hand, loosen its two mounting screws. 2) Dismount the LCD board assembly from the CPU assembly. When doing this, carefully pull the LCD board assembly straightforward so as not to damage the connector pins between it and the CPU assembly. Attaching the Integral Indicator 1) Align both the LCD board assembly and CPU assembly connectors and engage them. 2) Insert and tighten the two mounting screws. 3) Replace the cover.

Replacing the CPU Board Assembly 1) Remove the cover and remove the indicator. 2) Turn the zero-adjustment screw to the position (where the screw head slot is horizontal) as shown in figure below 3) Disconnect the output terminal cable (cable with brown connector at the end). When doing this, lightly press the side of the CPU assembly connector and pull the cable connector to disengage. 4) Use a socket driver (width across flats, 5.5mm) to loosen the two bosses. 5) Carefully pull the CPU assembly straightforward to remove it. 6) Disconnect the flat cable (cable with white connector at the end) that connects the CPU assembly and the capsule.

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Mounting the CPU Assembly 1) Connect the flat cable (with white connector) between the CPU assembly and the capsule. 2) Connect the output terminal cable (with brown connector). 3) Align and engage the zero-adjustment screw pin with the groove on the bracket on the CPU assembly. Then insert the CPU board assembly straight onto the post in the amplifier case. 4) Tighten the two bosses. 5) Replace the cover.

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Cleaning and Replacing the Capsule Assembly 1) Remove the two setscrews that connect the transmitter section and pressure-detector section. 2) Remove the hexagon-head screw and the stopper. 3) Separate the transmitter section and pressure detector section. 4) Remove the nuts from the four flange bolts. 5) While supporting the capsule assembly with one hand, remove the cover flange. 6) Remove the capsule assembly. 7) Clean the capsule assembly or replace with a new one.

Troubleshooting If any abnormality appears in the measured values, use the troubleshooting flow chart below to isolate and remedy the problem. Since some problems have complex causes, these flow charts may not identify all.

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BASIC FLOW AND SELF-DIAGNOSTICS

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22

23

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EJX510A & EJX530A Absolute Pressure & Gauge Pressure Transmitters INSTALLING IMPULSE PIPING Figure shown below shows some examples of typical impulse piping connections. Before connecting the transmitter to the process, study the transmitter installation location, the process piping layout, and the characteristics of the process fluid (corrosiveness, toxicity, flammability, etc.), in order to make appropriate changes and additions to the connection configurations. If the impulse line is long, bracing or supports should be provided to prevent vibration. The impulse piping material used must be compatible with the process pressure, temperature, and other conditions. A variety of process pressure tap valves (main valves) are available according to the type of connection (flanged, screwed, welded), construction (globe, gate, or ball valve), temperature and pressure. Select the type of valve most appropriate for the application.

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OPERATION Following procedure has to follow to introduce process pressure into the impulse piping and transmitter. 1) Open the tap valve (main valve) to fill the impulse piping with process fluid. 2) Gradually open the stop valve to introduce process fluid into the transmitter pressure-detector section. 3) Confirm that there is no pressure leak in the impulse piping, transmitter, or other components.

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EJX118A and EJX438A Diaphragm Sealed Differential Pressure and Pressure Transmitters COMPONENT NAMES

INSTALLATION Mounting the Diaphragm Seals Mount the diaphragm seals using the flanges as shown in figure below.

The figure below shows how to mount the diaphragm seals on a tank. The mating flange, gasket, bolts and nuts are to be procured by the user.

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28

The transmitter should be installed at least 600 mm below the high pressure (HP) process connection to ensure a positive head pressure of fill fluid. Pay special attention to vacuum applications. If it can not be installed at least 600 mm below the HP process connection, use the equation below:

Mounting the Flushing Connection Ring The flushing connection ring is mounted to the pressure detector section as shown in figure below

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(1) Mount the ring holder on the ring and loosely tighten the mounting screws. (2) Place the spiral gasket in the ring groove. With the ring correctly aligned and flush with the face of the pressure detector, securely tighten each ring holders mounting screws. (3) Position the ring so that the drain/vent plugs are aligned straight up and down. Mounting to Process Flange Tighten the bolts to completely close the gap between the ring and the pressure detector section. The mating flange, gasket, stud bolts and nuts are to procured by the user

30

OPERATION Preparation for Starting Operation This following point describes the operation procedure for the EJX118A when measuring liquid level in a closed tank and EJX438A when measuring pressure in a tank.

31

(a) Confirm that there is no leak in the connecting part of each diaphragm seal mounting flange. (b) Turn ON power and connect the communicator .Open the terminal box cover and connect the communicator to the SUPPLY + and terminals. (c) Using the communicator, confirm that the transmitter is operating properly. Check parameter values or change the setpoints as necessary. If the transmitter is equipped with an integral indicator, its indication can be used to confirm that the transmitter is operating properly. Troubleshooting Basic Troubleshooting

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33

EJX910A- Multivariable Transmitters


EJX910A Features Multi Sensing Function The EJX910A multivariable transmitter has a Multi Sensing function that enables a single transmitter to measure differential pressure, static pressure, and external temperature. Mass flow measurement instruments can calculate and output the flow value using these three measured variables. The EJXMVTool mass flow configuration software is used to configure mass flow calculation. Simultaneous Analog Output and Pulse Output (HART protocol type) The EJX910A has one analog output for the output of single measured variables. With digital communications, all of these variables can be output simultaneously. In addition to analog output, pulse output is provided as a standard function of the EJX910A. It can perform both types of output simultaneously. Pulse output is used for total flow, flow rate, and alarm status.

Block Diagram of EJX910A System (HART protocol type) Flow Calculation There are two flow calculation modes: auto compensation mode and basic mode. The EJXMVTool mass flow configuration software is required to configure auto compensation mode. Auto Compensation Mode Configuration of the fluid physical properties and the EJX910A primary device can be performed from an EJXMVTool dialog window. In auto compensation mode, all flow factors for flow calculation are dynamically compensated to an optimum value with a high level of accuracy. The flow factors that are automatically compensated are discharge coefficient, diameter of primary device, upstream internal pipe diameter, gas expansion factor, density, and viscosity.

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Auto Compensation Mode Block Diagram

Configuration Procedure for Auto Compensation Mode The EJXMVTool is required to configure auto compensation mode. Following steps shows the procedures for HART protocol type. Before starting the configuration procedure, have on hand all data on the fluid and the primary devices. (1) Have ready a power supply, a personal computer, a HART modem, and the FSA210 mass flow configuration software. (2) Install the mass flow configuration software on the personal computer.

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(3) Connect the EJX910A to the power supply. (4) Connect the HART modem to the personal computer and connect its clips to the supply terminals on the EJX910A. (5) Perform flow configuration. (6) Execute flow simulation using the HART HHT orthe FSA210 to confirm the configured flow Parameters. When executing the simulation, it is necessary toconnect the RTD or mock resistance (about 100 Ohms) to the transmitter. Input the differential pressure, static pressure, and temperature values and confirm that the desired flow is obtained. (7) Remove the HART modem from the EJX910A. (8) Turn off the power supply. Basic Mode In basic mode, flow operation and density compensation are performed conventionally, with the flow factors being input manually. The flow rate is calculated using the constant flow factor. Density compensation by phase Gas: Compensation as ideal gas by temperature and pressure. Liquid: Compensation by temperature. Selection of the operational expression according to the fluid type and unit category, is done according to the table shown below Table: Flow Operational Expression for Basic Mode

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Type: Symbols

37

Flow Unit Category (Mass Flow Unit (HART protocol type))

Normal Standard Volume Flow Unit (HART protocol type)

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Volume Flow Unit (HART protocol type)

Configuration Procedure for Basic Mode Either a communicator or the mass flow configuration software is required to carry out configuration in basic mode. Calculation of the basic mode parameters is necessary to perform configuration. Following shows the procedures for HART protocol type. (1) Have ready a power supply, a personal computer, a HART modem and the FSA210 mass flow configuration software. (2) Install the flow configuration software on the personal computer. This is not necessary if only the HART communicators used for configuration. (3) Connect the EJX910A to the power supply. (4) Connect the HART communicator or the HART modem to the EJX910. (5) Perform flow configuration.

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(6) Execute flow simulation with the HART HHT or the FSA210 software to confirm the configured flow parameters. When executing the simulation, it is necessary to connect the RTD or mock resistance (about 100 Ohms) to the transmitter. Input the differential pressure, static pressure, and temperature values and confirm that the desired flow has been obtained. (7) Remove the HART communicator or the HART modem from the EJX910A. (8) Turn off the power supply.

COMPONENT NAMES

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WIRING RTD Cable Connection Connection of the RTD cable is always required to measure external temperature. The procedures are mentioned below to connect and disconnect a cable when a cable gland or a conduit is used. 1 Connecting Shielded Cable with Cable Gland (External temperature input code:-1, -2, -3, and -4) RTD connection components: EJX910A, two cable glands, and RTD cable. Two cable glands are attached.

Components for the cable gland The cable gland assembly consists of an entry, seal, running coupler, and backnut. Make sure that the seal is attached inside the entry and that the thread size of the cable gland is the same as that for the RTD electrical connection.

41

Procedure (1) Disassemble the cable gland: loosen the running coupler to separate the backnut from the entry. (2) Remove the protection cap over the transmitter electrical connection and install the entry on the electrical connection. Note that a nonhardening sealant should be applied to the threads for a 1/2 NPT connection and a gasket should be used for an M20 connection.

(3) Pass the RTD cable through the running coupler and backnut assembly.

(4) Remove the cap from the connecting port. Then insert the RTD cable and firmly plug its connector into the connecting port in the transmitter's terminal box.

42

(5) Align the running coupler on the entry.

(6) Turn the running coupler until the seal in the entry comes into contact with the RTD cable.

(7) Rotate the running coupler another half turn to securely tighten the seal on the RTD cable.

2 Connecting Shielded Cable for Conduit Use (External temperature input code: -B, -C, and -D) RTD connection components: EJX910A and RTD cable

43

Procedure (1) Remove the protection cap protecting the RTD electrical connection and insert the RTD cable.

(2) Remove the cap protecting the connecting port. Then insert the RTD cable and firmly plug the connector into the connecting port in the transmitter's terminal box. (3) Insert the cable through the conduit and attach it to the RTD electrical connection.

3 Removing Shielded Cable with Cable Gland (External temperature input code: -1, -2, -3, and -4) (1) By pulling out the string attached to the connector, slowly unplug the connector from the transmitter's connecting port. (2) Remove the running coupler and backnut assembly by turning the running coupler. (3) Pull the RTD cable out through the entry, running coupler, and backnut assembly. (4) Remove the entry from the RTD electrical connection. 4 Removing Shielded Cable for Conduit (External temperature input code: -B, -C, -D)

44

(1) By pulling out the string attached to the connector, slowly unplug the connector from the transmitter's connecting port. (2) Remove the conduit from the RTD electrical connection. (3) Pull the RTD cable out through the RTD electrical connection. 5 Cable Connection RTD Terminal Box Side EJX910A multivariable transmitter RTD I/F is for 3- wire Type RTD, Pt100. The following connection is to be followed when wiring an RTD of the 2- or 4-wire type.

The Method of Wiring for the RTD Side RTD Terminal

OPERATION Multivariable Transmitters 1) Open the low pressure and high pressure tap valves to fill the impulse piping with process liquid. 2) Slowly open the high pressure stop valve to fill the transmitter pressure-detector section with process liquid. 3) Close the high pressure stop valve. 4) Gradually open the low pressure stop valve and completely fill the transmitter pressuredetector section with process liquid. 5) Close the low pressure stop valve. 6) Gradually open the high pressure stop valve. At this time, equal pressure is applied to the low and high pressure sides of the transmitter. 7) Check that there are no liquid leaks in the impulse piping, 3-valve manifold, transmitter, or other components

45

MAINTENANCE Disassembly and Reassembly Always turn OFF power and shut off and release pressures before disassembly. Use proper tools for all operations. Removing the Integral Indicator 1) Remove the cover. 2) While supporting the integral indicator with one hand, loosen its two mounting screws. 3) Dismount the LCD board assembly from the CPU assembly. When doing this, carefully pull the LCD board assembly straight forward so as not to damage the connector pins between it and the CPU assembly. Attaching the Integral Indicator 1) Align both the LCD board assembly and CPU assembly connectors and engage them. 2) Insert and tighten the two mounting screws. 3) Replace the cover.

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Troubleshooting If any abnormality appears in the measured values, use the troubleshooting flow chart below to isolate and remedy the problem. Basic Troubleshooting First determine whether the process variable is actually abnormal or a problem exists in the measurement system. If the problem is in the measurement system, isolate the problem and decide what corrective action to take. This transmitter is equipped with a self-diagnostic function which will be useful in troubleshooting, and the transmitter equipped with an integral indicator will show an alarm code as a result of self-diagnosis.

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50

51

FLOW METERS

o VORTEX FLOWMETERS o MAGNETIC FLOWMETER o MASS FLOW METER o VARIABLE AREA FLOWMETER

VORTEX FLOW METER


PRINCPLE OF MEASUREMENT When a vortex shedder is placed in a flowing fluid, it generates a Karman vortex street, with alternating whirl vortices on the downstream side of the shedder as shown in Figure below

Assuming that the frequency of vortex generated by a shedder is f, the flow velocity is v, and the vortex shedder width is d, the following equation is obtained.

This equation also applies to YEWFLO installed in a pipeline.

Q: Volumetric flow rate D: Inside diameter of YEWFLO St: Strouhal number From equations (1) and (2), the volumetric flow rate is given by,

Strouhal number (St) is a dimensionless number which is a function of the shape and size of the vortex shedder. Therefore, by selecting an appropriate shape, the Strouhal number can be kept constant over a wide range of Reynolds numbers.

Relationship between Strouhal Number and Reynolds Number

Thus, once the Strouhal number is known, the flow rate can be obtained by measuring the vortex shedding frequency. Equation (3) also shows that the flow rate can be measured independently of the fluid pressure, temperature, density and viscosity. However, compensations for temperature and pressure are necessary when measuring volumetric flow and mass flow rate in the reference (standard) state. METHOD OF DETECTING VORTEXSHEDDING FREQUENCY The vortex shedder of YEWFLO has a trapezoidal cross section which provides excellent linearity of the vortex-shedding frequency and generates a stable and strong street pattern. Figure shows the vortex flow-pattern forming behind a trapezoidal vortex shedder.

To transmit the vortex-shedding frequency, YEWFLO uses piezoelectric elements to detect the stress generated by the alternating lift on the whole vortex shedder when vortices are generated.

The features of the piezoelectric element method are as follows: (1) The piezoelectric element sensor can be built into the vortex shedder to avoid direct contact with the process fluid. (2) Because the method detects stress, the vortex shedder does not need to be displaced far, so the meter construction remains stable and rigid. (3) Because the piezoelectric element is very sensitive, a wide range of flow rates, from low to high velocity, can be measured. (4) Wide range of operating temperature and pressure

Principle of Frequency Detection

When the fluid flows directly into the shedder bar pictured in above figure , vortices are generated from the vortex shedder. The shedder is subjected to alternating lift representing the same frequency as that of vortex-shedding. This alternating lift produces stress changes in the vortex shedder. The frequency of these stress changes, the vortex-shedding frequency, is detected by piezoelectric elements hermetically sealed in the vortex shedder. The intensity of the alternating lift is proportional to the square of the flow velocity and the density of the fluid. The peak value of lift FL is given by,

PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

Dual piezoelectric elements fixed on the upper part of the vortex shedder efficiently detect the signal stress caused by the vortex street while eliminating the effects of noise such as pipeline vibration.

As expressed by the arrows in above figure, stress caused by pipeline vibration can be divided into three components of force: lift, drag, and vertical force. The alignment of the dual piezoelectric elements as shown above figure is set so as not to sense the vibration in the directions of the drag and vertical force. The vibration in the direction of lift, however, is sensed as part of the vortex signal since they appear in the same direction. While in a digital YEWFLO, an effective combination of the proven dual-sensor alignment and spectral signal processing (SSP) technology eliminates noise caused by pipeline vibration or the like even in this vertical direction.

SPECTRAL SIGNAL PROCESSING (SSP) The converter circuitry incorporating the SSP technology is shown in the figure below. The SSP, a state-of-the-art technology, effectively rejects the effects of pipeline vibration.

MAGNETIC FLOW METER


Principle Magnetic Flowmeter is measured conductive liquid with these features. Especially, magnetic flowmeter is strong against corrosive fluid and slurry fluid. The principle employs Faradays law of electromagnetic induction. When the magnetic field applies and a conductive liquid flows in the flow tube, an EMF which is proportional to the flow velocity is generated. EMF is generated in perpendicular direction to the magnetic field and flow according to Fleming's rule. Magnetic flowmeter detects the generated EMF with electrodes attached flow tube wall. E=D*V*B E : electromotive force (V) D : inner diameter of flow tube (m) V : average flow velocity (m/s) B : magnetic flux density (T/m2)

Converter

Coils

Flow velocity

Electrode

1] The magnitude of the induced voltage E is directly proportional to the velocity of the conductor V, conductor width D,and the strength of the magnetic field B. 2] Magnetic field coils placed on opposite sides of the pipe generate a magnetic field. As the conductive process liquid moves through the field with average velocity V, electrodes sense the induced voltage. 3] The width of the conductor is represented by the distance between electrodes. 4] An insulating liner prevents the signal from shorting to the pipe wall. 5] The only variable in this application of Faraday's law is the velocity of the conductive liquid V because field strength is controlled constant and electrode spacing is fixed.

CORIOLIS MASS FLOW METER - ROTAMASS


The Coriolis meter uses an obstruction less U-shaped tube as a sensor and applies Newton's Second Law of Motion to determine flow rate. Inside the sensor housing, the sensor tube vibrates at its natural frequency. The sensor tube is driven by an electromagnetic drive coil located at the center of the bend in the tube and vibrates similar to that of a tuning fork.

The fluid flows into the sensor tube and is forced to take on the vertical momentum of the vibrating tube. When the tube is moving upward during half of its vibration cycle the fluid flowing into the sensor resists being forced upward by pushing down on the tube.

The fluid flowing out of the sensor has an upward momentum from the motion of the tube. As it travels around the tube bend, the fluid resists changes in its vertical motion by pushing up on the tube. The difference in forces causes the sensor tube to twist. When the tube is moving downward during the second half of its vibration cycle, it twists in the opposite direction. This twisting characteristic is called the Coriolis Effect.

According to Newton's Second Law of Motion, the amount of sensor tube twist is directly proportional to the mass flow rate of the fluid flowing through the tube. Electromagnetic velocity detectors located on each side of the flow tube measure the velocity of the vibrating tube. Mass flow is determined by measuring the time difference exhibited by the velocity detector signals. During zero flow conditions; no tube twist occurs, resulting in no time difference between the two velocity signals. With flow, a twist occurs with a resulting time difference between the two velocity signals. This time difference is directly proportional to mass flow.

FLOW SENSOR CONTRUCTION

The Coriolis mass flow meter measures the mass flow independent of the properties of the flowing medium. In addition the density and the temperature of the fluid is measured. The detector tubes are excited by an electro-magnetic driver at a resonant frequency. When the fluid passes through the tubes the effect of the Coriolis forces deflects the tubes minutely. The interaction in the tubes between the natural resonant frequency and the minute deflection due to the Coriolis effect is detected as a small phase difference by two electromagnetic sensors. This small phase difference is a direct measure of the mass flow through the detector. The resonance frequency of the tubes is a measure of the density of the fluid in the meter.

No Flow : Parallel Vibration

Mass Flow : Coriolis Twist

FLOW EQUATION

Ac 1 M = Sk Ae f V
M Ac Ae Sk Sk(20C) fv Skt = = = = = = = = Mass flow rate Amplitude of coriolis oscillation Amplitude of excitation oscillation Sensor constant (calibration constant) Sk(20C) (1+Skt x (T-20C)) temperature correction Sensor constant at 20C Excitation frequency temperature correction coefficient (material constant)

Density Equation:

= KD

f (20 C) l f (20 C) v

With density fl(20) fv(20) KD fv(20) = = = = exciting frequency of the empty tubes at 20C exciting frequency of the filled tubes at 20C density calibration constant fv / (1+FKT (T of the actual frequency temperature correction on material and size 20 C)) temperature correction

FKT

coefficient,

depending

VARIABLE AREA METERS ROTA METER

1] Rotameters (also known as variable-area flow meters) are typically made from a tapered glass tube that is positioned vertically in the fluid flow 2] A float that is the same size as the base of the glass tube rides upward in relation to the amount of flow. 3] Because the tube is larger in diameter at the top of the glass than at the bottom, the float resides at the point where the differential pressure between the upper and lower surfaces balance the weigh if the float. 4] In most Rotameter applications, the flow rate is read directly from a scale inscribed on the glass; in some cases, an automatic sensing device is used to sense the level of the float and transmit a flow signal. 5] These "transmitting Rotameter" are often made from stainless steel or other materials for various fluid applications and higher pressures.

They measure a wider band of flow (10 to 1) than an orifice plate with an accuracy of 2 percent, and a maximum operating pressure of 300 psig when constructed of glass. Rota meters are commonly used for purge flows and levels.

Users Manual

Model DX102/DX104/DX106/DX112

DAQSTATION DX100

1 A 1

1 E 0

Yokogawa Electric Corporation

IM 04L01A01-01E 5th Edition

CUT ALONG THIS LINE

Setting Items in the Setting Mode (Enclosed in parentheses are references.)

Soft key

Title

Item

#6

File (8.9)

Header string to be written to file Name of directory to which data are to be saved Range of data to be saved during manual save Daylight savings time (10.14) Daylight savings time switch time

Quick Reference

Model DX102/DX104/DX106/DX112

DAQSTATION DX100

#7

Save/Load, Clear data

#7 - #1

Save settings

Save setup data to the external storage medium (9.1)

#7 - #2

Load settings

Load setup data from the external storage medium (9.1)

#7 - #3

Save data

Store measured data using key operation (9.2)

Use this quick reference together with the users manual IM 04L01A01-01E.

#7 - #4

Load display data

Load the display data on the external storage medium (9.3)

#7 - #5

Load event data

Load the event data on the external storage medium (9.4)

Operation Screens Trend/Digital/Bar graph/Information (Alarm Summary/Message Summary/Memory Summary)/Historical Trend Switching Operation Screens

#7 - #5

File list

List the files on the external storage medium (9.5)

#7 - #6

Delete

Delete files on the external storage medium (9.5)

#7 - #7
ENTER

Format
DISP/

Format the external storage medium (9.5)

FOLD ALONG THIS LINE

#7 - #8

Clear data

Clear the measure/computed data in the internal memory (9.7)

#8

Time set (3.7)

Enter the current time

Press the DISP/ENTER key to display the screen menu or the operation screen. Press the up, down, right, or left arrow key to select the operation screen.

#9

Math range (11.4)

Math alarm (11.5)

Computing equations, display span, and unit for computation channels Alarm type for the computation channel Alarm value for the computation channel Output relay On/Off for the computation channel Output relay number for the computation channel

Sampling Interval and Sampling length for Display Data and Event Data When Acquiring the display data only from four measurement channels (The sampling length for the display data when acquiring both the display data and the event data is approximately 3/4 of the values in the table below.)
Display Update Rate 15 s 1 min 5 min 20 min 30 min 1 h
Sampling Interval (s)

4h 0.5 2
Sampling length (approx.) 10 h 41 h

10 h 10 40 60 120 480 1200 8 days 34 days 52 days 104 days 416 days 1041 days

#10

Constant (11.6)

Constants (K01 to K12)

#11

Tag (7.1) TLOG (11.7) Rolling average (11.10)

Tag names of the computation channels Timer number used in TLOG, sum unit Turn On/Off the rolling average Sampling interval and the number of samples for the rolling average

#12

Batch set (10.12)

When Acquiring the event data only from four measurement channels (The sampling length for the event data when acquiring both the display data and the event data is approximately 1/4 of the values in the table below.)
Sampling Interval (s)

Application name, Supervisor name, Manager name, Batch number, Lot number, Auto increment, Display information

125 ms 500 ms 1 s
Sampling length (approx.) 4.2 h

5s 16 h

30 s 33 h 6 days 41 days

120 s

600 s 166 days 833 days

IM 04L01A01-01E 5th Edition

Yokogawa Electric Corporation

Run Mode Operation Mode: Setting Mode: Basic Setting Mode: Entered when the power is turned ON. Entered by pressing the MENU key. Entered by pressing the FUNC key for three seconds while the menu screen for the setting mode is displayed.
#1
[End] soft key + DISP/ENTER key Operation mode setting mode Basic setting mode
FUNC key for 3 seconds
MENU key

Setting Items in the Setting Mode (Enclosed in parentheses are references.)


Soft key Title Range (5.1 to 5.7) Alarm (6.2)

Item

Input type, span, scale, etc. Alarm type Alarm value Output relay On/Off Output relay number #2 Tag (7.1) Filter (5.8) Moving average (5.8) Alarm delay time (6.3) #3 Trend/Save interval USER key (10.2) #4 Message (7.5) #5 #5 - #1 Display Group set/Trip line

Power ON

Operation screens
MENU or ESC key Soft keys
MENU or ESC key Soft keys

Menu screen Menu screen

Tag name Filter time constant/Off (DX102/DX104) Number of samples for the moving average/Off (DX106/DX112)

ESC key

Trend display update rate (7.3) Auto save interval (8.8) Assign an action to the USER key

Message string

Setting screens

Setting screens

Returning to the operation mode: from the setting mode: Display the menu screen and press the MENU key or the ESC key. from the basic setting mode: Display the menu screen and press the [End] soft key to display a confirmation window. Select [Yes] and press the DISP/ ENTER key to return to the operation mode.
FUNC

Group name (7.6) Assign channels to groups (7.6) Trip line position, display color (7.7) #5 - #2 #5 - #3 Color (7.8) Zone (7.9) Graph (7.10)

Measurement channel display color

Partial (7.11)

Zone upper and lower limits Number of scale divisions for the trend and bar graph Bar graph base position Specify the scale display position for trends. Turn On/Off partial expanded display Position and boundary for the partial expanded display #5 - #4 View (7.13)

key function

LCD (7.14)

NOTE To avoid injury, death of personnel or damage to the instrument, the operator must refer to the explanation in the Users Manual or Service Manual.

Display direction (trend, bar graph) Background color (white or black) Trend line width Trip line width Grid for the trend display Interval for switching group displays (Scroll time) Scale digit LCD brightness Turn On/Off the LCD backlight saver Transition time for the LCD backlight saver and conditions that restore the backlight

The #5 - #4 and #5 - #4 soft keys are for Color, Zone, Graph, and Partial settings for computation channels.

IM 04L01A01-01E

Foreword
Thank you for purchasing the YOKOGAWA DAQSTATION DX100. This Users Manual contains useful information about the functions, installation, wiring, operating procedures, and troubleshooting of the DX100. To ensure correct use, please read this manual thoroughly before operation. Keep this manual in a safe place for quick reference in the event a question arises. In addition, a quick reference is provided on the previous page. This reference briefly explains operations that are used frequently. Separate this reference from the manual for use. The following four manuals, including this one, are provided as manuals for the DX100.
Manual Name DX100 Users Manual Manual No. IM 04L01A01-01E Description This manual. Explains all functions and procedures of the DX100 excluding the communication functions. Included in the accompanying CD-ROM. Explains the communication functions of the Ethernet/serial interface. Explains the communication functions of the FOUNDATION Fieldbus interface. For models with /CF1. Included in the accompanying CD-ROM. Describes the functions and operating procedures of DAQSTANDARD Software that comes with the package.

DX100/DX200 Communication Interface Users Manual Fieldbus Communication Interface Users Manual

IM 04L02A01-17E

IM 04L02A01-18E

DAQSTANDARD Software IM 04L02A01-61E

Notes
This manual describes the DX100 style number S4. For functions that have been added or changed on the DX100 style number S4, see appendix 3. The contents of this manual are subject to change without prior notice as a result of continuing improvements to the DX100s performance and functions. Every effort has been made in the preparation of this manual to ensure the accuracy of its contents. However, should you have any questions or find any errors, please contact your nearest YOKOGAWA dealer. Copying or reproducing all or any part of the contents of this manual without YOKOGAWAs permission is strictly prohibited. The TCP/IP software used in this product and the documentation for that TCP/IP software are based in part on BSD Networking Software,Release 1 licensed from The Regents of the University of California.

Trademarks
Microsoft, MS-DOS, Windows, and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. Zip is either a registered trademark or a trademark of Iomega Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. FOUNDATION of FOUNDATION Fieldbus is a trademark of Fieldbus Foundation. Adobe and Acrobat are trademarks of Adobe Systems incorporated. Company and product names that are used in this manual are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.

Revisions
First edition: Second edition: Third edition: Fourth edition: Fifth edition: October 1999 February 2000 June 2000 February 2001 November 2003

Disk No. RE20 5th Edition: November 2003 (YK) All Rights Reserved, Copyright 1999 Yokogawa Electric Corporation IM 04L01A01-01E

Safety Precautions
The DX100 conforms to IEC safety class I (provided with terminal for protective grounding), Installation Category II, and EN61326-1 (EMC standard), class A (use in a commercial, industrial, or business environment). This product is a measurement category II (CAT II) instrument.
* Mesurement category II (CAT II) Applies to measuring circuits connected to low voltage installation, and electrical instruments supplied with power from fixed equipment such as electric switchboards.

The following general safety precautions must be observed during all phases of operation. If the DX100 is used in a manner not specified in this manual, the protection provided by the DX100 may be impaired. YOKOGAWA Electric Corporation assumes no liability for the customers failure to comply with these requirements. Please use this instrument as a mesurement category II (CAT II) instrument. The following symbols are used on the DX100. Handle with care. To avoid injury, death of personnel or damage to the instrument, the operator must refer to the explanation in the Users Manual or Service Manual. High temperature: To avoid injury caused by hot surface, do not touch the heat sink. Functional ground terminal. Do not use this terminal as a protective ground terminal. Protective ground terminal.

AC ON (power) OFF (power)

ii

IM 04L01A01-01E

Safety Precautions Make sure to comply with the following safety precautions. Failure to comply may result in injury or death (electric shock hazard).

WARNING
Power Supply Before connecting the power cord, ensure that the power supply voltage matches the voltage rating for the instrument, and for desktop types, that it is within the maximum rated voltage for the power cord itself. Power Cord and Plug (Desktop Type) To prevent an electric shock or fire, be sure to use the power cord supplied by YOKOGAWA. The main power plug must be plugged into an outlet with a protective grounding terminal. Do not invalidate protection by using an extension cord without protective grounding. Protective Grounding Make sure to connect the protective grounding to prevent electric shock before turning ON the power. Necessity of Protective Grounding Never cut off the internal or external protective grounding wire or disconnect the wiring of the protective grounding terminal. Doing so poses a potential shock hazard. Defect of Protective Grounding Do not operate the instrument when the protective grounding or the fuse might be defective. Also, make sure to check them before operation. Fuse To prevent fire, only use a fuse that has a rating (voltage, current, and type) that is specified by the instrument. When replacing a fuse, turn OFF the power switch and unplug the power cord. Never short the fuse holder. Do Not Operate in Explosive Atmosphere Do not operate the instrument in the presence of flammable liquids or vapors. Operation of any electrical instrument in such an environment constitutes a safety hazard. Do Not Remove Covers Some areas inside the instrument have high voltages. Do not remove the cover if the power supply is connected. The cover should be removed by YOKOGAWAs qualified personnel only. External Connection Connect the protective grounding before connecting to the item under measurement or control unit. Damage to the protection Using the instrument in a manner not specified in this manual can damage the instruments protection.

IM 04L01A01-01E

iii

Checking the Contents of the Package


Unpack the box and check the contents before operating the DX100. If some of the contents are not correct or missing or if there is physical damage, contact the dealer from which you purchased them.

DX100 Main Unit


There is a name plate on the back side of the key panel cover. Open the cover and check that the model name and suffix code given on the name plate match those on the order.
Panel mount type
MODEL STYLE SUFFIX SUPPLY FREQUENCY NO
Made in Japan

Desktop type

MODEL STYLE SUFFIX


MODEL SUFFIX NO
STYLE

SUPPLY FREQUENCY NO
Made in Japan

MODEL
Model code DX102 DX104 DX106 DX112 External storage medium Language Options Suffix code Optional code Description DAQSTATION DX100 (2 ch) DAQSTATION DX100 (4 ch) DAQSTATION DX100 (6 ch) DAQSTATION DX100 (12 ch) Floppy disk Zip disk ATA flash memory card English, deg.F/DST (DAQSTANDARD Software included) Alarm output relay (2 relays)/remote control*1 Alarm output relay (4 relays)/remote control*1 Alarm output relay (6 relays)*1 Batch function RS-232 interface*5 RS-422-A/485 interface*5 Fieldbus Communication Interface*5*6 FAIL/memory end output relay*2 Clamped input terminal Desktop type*3 Computation function (report function included) Cu10, Cu25 RTD input/3 terminal isolated RTD 3 terminal isolated RTD*4 24 VDC/AC power supply Remote control 24 VDC Power supply for transmitter(2 loops)*7 24 VDC Power supply for transmitter(4 loops)*8

1 2 3 2 /AR1 /AR2 /A3 /BT1 /C2 /C3 /CF1 /F1 /H2 /H5[ ] /M1 /N1 /N2 /P1 /R1 /TPS2 /TPS4

*1 /AR1, /AR2, and /A3 cannot be specified simultaneously *2 If /F1 is specified, /A3 cannot be specified. *3 /H5: Can only be specified when /P1 is simultaneously specified, /H5D: UL, CSA cable, /H5F: VDE cable, /H5R: SAA cable, /H5J: BS cable *4 /N2 can only be specified on DX106, and DX112 models *5 /C2, /C3, and /CF1 cannot be specified simultaneously. *6 If /CF1 is specified, make sure to specify /M1. *7 If /TPS2 is specified,/TPS4, /A2, /A3 and /F1 cannot be specified. *8 If /TPS4 is specified, /TPS2, /A1, /A2, /A3 and /F1 cannot be specified.

iv

IM 04L01A01-01E

Checking the Contents of the Package NO. (Serial No.) When contacting the dealer from which you purchased the DX100, please quote the serial No.

Standard Accessories
The following standard accessories are supplied with the DX100. Make sure that all items are present and undamaged.

/H5D

/H5F

/H5J

/H5R

/H5H

9. One of these power cord types is supplied according to the instruments suffix code

10

Number Part Name 1 Fuse

Part Number/Model Qty A1347EF A1352EF 1 1 5 B9900CW IM 04L01A01-01E IM 04L02A01-18E 2 1 1

Notes 250 V 1 A, time lag (except for /P1 model) 250 V 4 A, time lag (for /P1 model) M4 For panel mounting (except for /H5[ ] model) This manual Fieldbus Communication Interface. Provided only when /CF1 is specified for the optional code. CD-ROM containing the PDF files of this manual, the DX100/DX200 Communication Interface. Included only when the suffix software code for language is -2. For Windows 95/98, Windows NT4.0, Windows Me, Windows 2000. Provided on a CD-ROM. Zip disk, included only when the medium suffix code for external storage medium is -2. ATA flash memory card (32MB CF card + adapter, capacity and model of the CF card may vary) included only when the suffix code for the external storage medium is -3.

2 3 4 5

Terminal screw Mounting bracket Users Manual Users Manual

Electronic Manual B9968MZ

Application (DAQSTANDARD Software)

DXA100-02

External storage

A1053MP

B9968NL

IM 04L01A01-01E

Checking the Contents of the Package


Number Part Name 9 Power cord Part Number/Model Qty A1006WD 1 Notes Provided only when /H5D is specified for the optional code. Maximum rated power voltage: 125 V Provided only when /H5F is specified for the optional code. Maximum rated power voltage: 250 V Provided only when /H5R is specified for the optional code. Maximum rated power voltage: 250 V Provided only when /H5J is specified for the optional code. Maximum rated power voltage: 250 V Provided only when /H5H is specified for the power supply code. (complies with the CCC) Maximum rated power voltage: 250 V Provided only when /CF1 is specified for the optional code.

A1009WD

A1024WD

A1023WD

A1064WD

10

Clamp filter

A1179MN

Optional Accessories (Sold Separately)


The following optional accessories are available for purchase separately. If you make an order, make sure that all items are present and undamaged. For information about ordering accessories, contact the dealer from which you purchased the DX100.
Number 1 2 3 Part Name 3.5" floppy disk Zip disk Part Number/Model 7059 00 A1053MP Qty 10 1 1 Notes 2HD 100 MB 32MB card (capacity and model of the CF card may vary, please be careful when ordering) 250 0.1% 100 0.1% 10 0.1% 250 0.1% 100 0.1% 10 0.1% 250 V 1 A time lag (except for /P1 model) 250 V 4 A, time lag (for /P1 model)

ATA flash memory card B9968NL (CF card + adapter)

Shunt resistor (for the screw terminal) Shunt resistor (for the clamped input terminal) Fuse

4159 20 4159 21 4159 22 4389 20 4389 21 4389 22 A1347EF A1352EF

1 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 2

Mounting bracket

B9900CW

Software (Sold Separately)


The following software application is available:
Name DAQEXPLORER Model DXA200-02 Required O/S Windows 98, Windows NT4.0, Windows Me, Windows 2000, Windows XP Notes Provided on a CD-ROM.

vi

IM 04L01A01-01E

How to Use this Manual


Structure of the Manual
This user's manual consists of the following sections: For information about the communication functions, the fieldbus function, and the DAQ standard software, see the respective manuals (IM 04L02A01-17E, IM 04L02A01-18E, and IM 04L02A01-61E).
Chapter 1 2 3 Title and Contents Overview of Functions Describes the functions of the DX100. Before Using the DX100 Describes the installation and wiring procedures. Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations Describes the names of each part of the DX100, how to use the storage medium drive, run mode, and common key operations. Switching Operation Screens Describes how to use the operation screen such as the trend display and digital display. Describes the operations that can be performed using the arrow keys and the DISP/ENTER key on the front panel. Input Channel Settings Describes how to set input specifications such as the range, filter, moving average, scan interval, integration time of the A/D converter, burnout, and reference junction compensation. Acknowledging and Setting Alarms Describes how to acknowledge alarms and how to set alarms. Setting and Operating the Display Describes how to set the display specification of the operation screen, how to display messages, and other display-related operations. Data acquisition and Saving to External Storage Medium Describes how to acquire the measured/computed data and how to save the data to the external storage medium. Managing Files and Initializing Data Describes how to save and load the setup data, manage files on the external storage medium, save the data residing in the internal memory to the external storage medium using key operations, initialize the internal memory, and other operations. Other Functions Describes how to set and operate key lock, key login/logout, user key, and other functions. Computation/Report Function (Option) Describes how to use the optional computation (report) function. Troubleshooting Describes the error messages and the troubleshooting measures of the DX100. Maintenance Describes fuse replacement and other information. Specifications Describes the specifications of the DX100. Describes the initial values of the setting mode and basic setting mode, file formats of ASCII files.

6 7

10

11 12 13 14 Appendix Index

Note
This manual covers information regarding DX100s that have a suffix code for language -2 (English).
IM 04L01A01-01E

vii

How to Use this Manual

Conventions Used in this Manual


Unit K ....... Denotes 1024. Example: 768 KB (File capacity) k ........ Denotes 1000. M ....... Denotes 1024K. Example: 1.44 MB (Storage capacity of floppy disks) B ....... Bytes. Example: 1.44 MB (Storage capacity of floppy disks) Symbols The following symbols are used in this manual. Affixed to the instrument. Indicates danger to personnel or instrument and the operator must refer to the Users Manual. The symbol is used in the Users Manual to indicate the reference.

WARNING

Describes precautions that should be observed to prevent injury or death to the user. Describes precautions that should be observed to prevent minor or moderate injury, or damage to the instrument. Provides important information for the proper operation of the instrument.

CAUTION
Note

Notation regarding procedures On pages that describe the operating procedures in Chapter 3 through 11, the following symbols are used to distinguish the procedures from their explanations. [ ] ............ Represents contents that are displayed on the screen. Example: [Volt] ....... Indicates a reference item. Example: 1.3 Display Function

#1

to

#12

...... Denotes the soft key that is used to make a selection on the setting and basic setting menus.

Procedure

Follow the steps indicated with numbers. The procedures are given with the premise that the user is carrying out the steps for the first time. Depending on the operation, not all steps need to be taken. This section describes the setting parameters and the limitations regarding the procedures. It does not give a detailed explanation of the function. For detail on the function, see chapter 1.

Explanation

viii

IM 04L01A01-01E

Contents
Foreword ......................................................................................................................................... i Safety Precautions .......................................................................................................................... ii Checking the Contents of the Package .......................................................................................... iv How to Use this Manual ................................................................................................................ vii

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Chapter 1 Overview of Functions


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Overview of the DX100 .................................................................................................... 1-1 Functions of the Input Section ......................................................................................... 1-2 Display Function .............................................................................................................. 1-5 Storage Function ............................................................................................................ 1-15 Alarm Function ............................................................................................................... 1-17 Computation Function and Report Function (/M1 Option) ................................................................................................................... 1-20 Batch Function (/BT1 Option) ........................................................................................ 1-22 Other Functions ............................................................................................................. 1-24

Chapter 2 Before Using the DX100


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Precautions on the Use of the DX100 .............................................................................. 2-1 Installing the DX100 ......................................................................................................... 2-3 Input Signal Wiring ........................................................................................................... 2-5 Alarm Output Wiring (/AR1, /AR2, /A3 Option) ................................................................ 2-9 FAIL/Memory End Wiring (/F1 Option) ........................................................................... 2-11 Remote Control Wiring (/R1 Option) .............................................................................. 2-13 24 VDC Transmitter Power Supply Wiring (/TPS2, /TPS4, Option) ............................... 2-15 Power Supply Wiring ...................................................................................................... 2-17

8 9 10 11 12 13 14
App Index

Chapter 3 Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Names of Parts and Functions ......................................................................................... 3-1 Turning ON/OFF the Power Switch .................................................................................. 3-4 Inserting/Removing the External Storage Medium .......................................................... 3-5 Run Mode ........................................................................................................................ 3-7 Configuring the Functions (Setting Mode and Basic Setting Mode) .............................. 3-10 Common Key Operations ............................................................................................... 3-19 Setting the Date and Time ............................................................................................. 3-23

Chapter 4 Switching Operation Screens


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Operation Screens ........................................................................................................... 4-1 Explanation of the Status Display Section ....................................................................... 4-2 Using the Trend, Digital, and Bar Graph Screens ............................................................ 4-5 Using the Overview Screen ........................................................................................... 4-11 Using the Information Screen (Alarm Summary, Message Summary, and Memory Summary) ........................................................................................................ 4-13 Using the Historical Trend .............................................................................................. 4-18

IM 04L01A01-01E

ix

Contents

Chapter 5 Measurement Channel Settings


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Voltage Input Setting ........................................................................................................ 5-1 Thermocouple (TC)/Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Setting ............................ 5-3 Digital Input (DI) Setting ................................................................................................... 5-5 Difference Computation (Delta) Setting. .......................................................................... 5-7 Scaling Setting ................................................................................................................. 5-9 Square Root Computation Setting ................................................................................. 5-11 Skip Setting .................................................................................................................... 5-13 Input Filter and Moving Average Setting ........................................................................ 5-14 Setting the A/D Integration Time, Scan Interval, Burnout, and Reference Junction Compensation (Basic Setting Mode) ............................................................................. 5-15

Chapter 6 Acknowledging and Setting Alarms


6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Releasing the Alarm Indication and Output Relay (Option) ............................................. 6-1 Alarm Setting ................................................................................................................... 6-5 Setting the Alarm Delay Period ........................................................................................ 6-8 Setting the Auxiliary Alarm Function (Basic Setting Mode) ............................................ 6-10

Chapter 7 Setting and Operating the Display


7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14 Setting Tag Names ........................................................................................................... 7-1 Selecting Tag Display or Channel Number Display (Basic Setting Mode) ....................... 7-2 Setting the Display Update Rate (Trend) ......................................................................... 7-3 Using Message Strings (Trend) ....................................................................................... 7-4 Setting the Message String (Trend) ................................................................................. 7-7 Setting Groups ................................................................................................................. 7-8 Setting the Trip Line (Trend) .......................................................................................... 7-10 Setting the Channel Display Colors (Trend, Bar Graph) ................................................ 7-12 Using Zone Displays (Trend) ......................................................................................... 7-13 Setting the Scale Division, Bar Graph Base Position (Bar Graph), and Scale Position (Trend) .................................................................................................... 7-15 Using Partial Expanded Display (Trend) ........................................................................ 7-20 Setting Whether or Not to Use the Partial Expanded Display (Basic Setting Mode) ..... 7-22 Setting the Display Direction, Background Color, Waveform Line Width, Trip Line Width, Grid, Scroll Time, and Scale digit ......................................................... 7-23 Setting the Brightness of the Screen and the Backlight Saver Function ........................ 7-25

Chapter 8 Data Acquisition and Saving to External Storage Medium


8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 x Data Types to be Acquired and Saved ............................................................................. 8-1 Function to Acquire Display Data and Event Data ........................................................... 8-3 Function to Acquire Other Data ........................................................................................ 8-9 Function that Saves the Data in the Internal Memory to the External Storage Medium 8-10 Acquiring Display Data ................................................................................................... 8-12 Acquiring Event Data ..................................................................................................... 8-13 Saving the Data in the Internal Memory to the External Storage Medium ..................... 8-15 Setting the Auto Save Interval for the Display Data ....................................................... 8-18 Setting the File Header, Directory Name, and the Saved Data during Manual Save ..... 8-20 Setting the Channels to Display the Trend and Acquire the Data (Basic Setting Mode) ...................................................................................................... 8-22 Setting the Method of the Display/Event Data Acquisition (Basic Setting Mode) ........... 8-23 Specifying the Date/Time When Data Is To Be Saved to the External Storage Medium (Basic Setting Mode) ...................................................................................................... 8-26 Storing Measured/Computed Data at Arbitrary Times (Manual Sampling) .................... 8-28
IM 04L01A01-01E

Contents

Chapter 9 Managing Files and Initializing Data


9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 Saving/loading setup data ................................................................................................ 9-1 Saving data in the internal memory to the external storage medium using key operation ................................................................................................................... 9-5 Viewing Display Data in the External Storage Medium .................................................... 9-6 Viewing Event Data in the External Storage Medium ...................................................... 9-7 Managing files/Displaying free space on the external storage medium ........................... 9-8 Saving the Screen Image ............................................................................................... 9-13 Clearing Data from the Internal Memory ........................................................................ 9-14 Initializing Setup Data .................................................................................................... 9-15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
App Index

Chapter 10 Other Functions


10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 USER Key ...................................................................................................................... 10-1 Assigning an Action to the USER Key ........................................................................... 10-2 Using Key Lock .............................................................................................................. 10-3 Setting the Key Lock Function (Basic Setting Mode) ..................................................... 10-4 Using the Key Login/Logout Function ............................................................................ 10-6 Setting the Key Login/Logout Functions (Basic Setting Mode) ...................................... 10-8 Displaying the Log Screen/System Screen .................................................................. 10-10 Setting the Memory Alarm Time (/F1 Option Provides an Relay Output Alarm, Basic Setting Mode) ............................. 10-12 Setting the Remote Control Functions (/R1 Option, Basic Setting Mode) ................... 10-13 Setting the Displayed Language (Basic Setting Mode) ................................................ 10-16 Checking or Changing Batch/Lot Numbers and Entering or Changing Comments (/BT1 Option) ............................................................................................................... 10-17 Setting the Batch Information (/BT1 Option) ................................................................ 10-19 Setting Whether or Not to Use the Batch Function (/BT1 Option, Basic Setting Mode) .............................................................................. 10-21 Using the Daylight Savings Time Adjustment Function ................................................ 10-22 Setting the Temperature Unit (Basic Setting Mode) ..................................................... 10-24 Setting the Time Zone (Basic Setting Mode) ............................................................... 10-25

Chapter 11 Computation/Report Function (Option)


11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 Overview of the Computation Function .......................................................................... 11-1 Explanation of Computing Equations ............................................................................. 11-4 Using the Computation Function .................................................................................... 11-8 Setting Computation Channels .................................................................................... 11-10 Setting the Alarm .......................................................................................................... 11-12 Setting Constants ......................................................................................................... 11-14 TLOG Computation ...................................................................................................... 11-15 Setting the Timer Number and Sum Scale for TLOG Computation ............................. 11-17 Setting the Timer (Basic Setting Mode) ....................................................................... 11-18 Using the Rolling Average ............................................................................................ 11-20 Overview of the Report Function ................................................................................. 11-22 Using the Report Function ........................................................................................... 11-25 Setting the Report Function (Basic Setting Mode) ....................................................... 11-26

Chapter 12 Troubleshooting
12.1 12.2 A List of Messages ......................................................................................................... 12-1 Troubleshooting Flow Chart ........................................................................................... 12-9

IM 04L01A01-01E

xi

Contents

Chapter 13 Maintenance
13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 Periodic Maintenance .................................................................................................... 13-1 Replacing the Fuse ........................................................................................................ 13-2 Calibration ...................................................................................................................... 13-3 Recommended Replacement Periods for Worn Parts ................................................... 13-5

Chapter 14 Specifications
14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 Input Specifications ........................................................................................................ 14-1 Display Specifications .................................................................................................... 14-3 Data Storage Specifications ........................................................................................... 14-5 Alarm Function Specifications ........................................................................................ 14-8 Specifications of Communication Functions .................................................................. 14-9 Specifications of Optional Functions ............................................................................ 14-10 General Specifications ................................................................................................. 14-14 Dimensional Drawings ................................................................................................. 14-19

Appendix
Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Parameters and Initial Settings ......................................................................... App-1 Data Formats of ASCII Files .............................................................................. App-9 The Relationship between Style Numbers and Functions .............................. App-14

Index

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Chapter 1 Overview of Functions

1.1

Overview of the DX100


Unlike conventional recorders that record data on charts, the DX100 displays the measured data acquired in the internal memory to a LCD in the form of waveforms, numerical values, and bar graphs. The measured data can also be saved to external storage media such as floppy disks, Zip disks, and ATA flash memory cards.
DX100 External storage media Floppy disk

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Overview of Functions

Zip disk

ATA flash memory card

The data that have been saved to an external storage medium can be displayed on a PC using the standard software that comes with the package. The data can also be loaded into the DX100 to be displayed. By using the Ethernet interface that comes standard with the DX100, the data can be transferred to a server on a network (client function). The data stored on the DX100s external storage medium can also be read from a PC on the network (server function).
DX100 DX100

Measured data

Server

Primary

Secondary

PC

Data on the external storage medium

DX100

DX100

This manual does not cover the communication functions using the Ethernet network or serial interface. See the DX100/DX200 Communication Interface Users Manual (IM 04L02A01-17E).

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1.2

Functions of the Input Section

Number of Measurement Channels/Scan Interval


The number of measurement channels and scan intervals for different models are listed in the table below. For the procedure related to setting the scan interval, see section 5.9.
Model DX102 DX104 DX106 DX112 Number of Measurement Channels 2 channels 4 channels 6 channels 12 channels Scan interval 125 ms or 250 ms 125 ms or 250 ms 1 s or 2 s 1 s or 2 s

Input Type and Computation


You can select the input type of a measurement channel from DC voltage, thermocouple, resistance temperature detector (RTD), and digital input (contact signal or voltage signal). You can also perform computation on the measured data such as the difference, square root, and scaling. The input type and computation are configured as an input mode on the DX100. For the procedure related to setting the different modes, see sections 5.1 to 5.7.
Input Mode DC voltage Thermocouple Resistance temperature detector Digital input Notation*1 Volt TC RTD Description Measures a DC voltage in the range 20 mV to 50 V. Measures the temperature corresponding to the appropriate range for R, S, B, K, E, J, T, N, W, L, and U. Measures the temperature corresponding to the appropriate range for Pt100, JPt100, Cu10*2, and CU25*2. Displays the contact input or voltage input signals by correlating them to 0% or 100% of the display range. Contact input: Closed contact is 1. Open contact is 0. Voltage input: Less than 2.4 V is 0. Greater than or equal to 2.4 V is 1. When the input type*3 is set to DC voltage, thermocouple, RTD, or digital input, the value obtained by subtracting the measured value of another channel (this channel is called a reference channel) from the input signal of the channel set to compute the difference is displayed as the measured value of that channel. When the input type*3 is set to DC voltage, the square root of the input signal of the channel set to compute the square root is displayed as the measured value of that channel. The computed result can be scaled to a value in the appropriate unit and displayed. When the input type*3 is set to DC voltage, thermocouple, RTD, or digital input, the input signal can be converted to a value in the appropriate unit desired and displayed. Channels that are not measured. They are not displayed.

DI

Difference

Delta

Square root

Sqrt

Scaling

Scale

Skip

Skip

*1 Notation used by the DX100 to represent the input modes. It is used when setting the measurement channels. *2 This is optional. *3 This item defines the type of signals that can be connected to the input terminal when the input mode is set to Difference, Square root, or Scaling. The description of the input types, DC voltage, Thermocouple, Resistive temperature detector, and digital input, are the same as the descriptions given for the input modes, DC voltage, Thermocouple, Resistive temperature detector, and digital input, respectively.

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1.2 Functions of the Input Section If the signal to be measured is a DC current, a shunt resistor is attached to the input terminal to convert the current signal to a voltage signal. The input mode is set to DC voltage in this case. For the various types of shunt resistors and the procedure related to setting the current input, see section 5.1.

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Overview of Functions

Input Range and Measurable Range


You can select the Input range that is appropriate for the input signal for DC voltage, Thermocouple, RTD, and digital input. (For example, R, S, B, K, E, J, T, N, W, L, and U are available input ranges for Thermocouple.) For each Input range, a measurable range is defined (for example, the measurable range for /R of Thermocouple is 0.0 C to 1760 C). For details, see section 14.1.

Burnout
When measuring temperature using a thermocouple and the thermocouple burns out, you can specify the measurement result to be set to positive over range*1 or negative over range.*2 Burnout can be set on each measurement channel. The initial setting is set so that burnout is not indicated. For the setting procedure, see section 5.9. *1 Positive over range is a condition in which the input signal is over the upper limit of the measurable range. The measured value is indicated as + . *2 Negative over range is a condition in which the input signal is below the lower limit of the measurable range. The measured value is indicated as .

Reference junction compensation (RJC)


When measuring the temperature using a thermocouple, the reference junction compensation can be used. You can select whether to use the reference junction compensation provided by the DX100 or external reference junction compensation. If you are using external reference junction compensation, you will also set the reference voltage. The initial setting is set so that the reference junction compensation provided by the DX100 is used. For the setting procedure, see section 5.9.

Filter and Moving Average


The filter and moving average are used to suppress the effects of noise that is riding on the signal. Filtering is provided on the DX102 and DX104. Moving average is provided on the DX106, and DX112. The filter or moving average can be set on each channel. For the setting procedure, see section 5.8. Filter Function (DX102 and DX104) Suppresses the effects of noise above the frequency determined by the specified time constant. The time constant can be set to 2 s, 5 s, or 10 s. The filter is initially turned OFF.
Effects of using filter(Output response fot a step input) Input

63.2% of the output value

Output response curve (when using the filter)

2, 5, 10 s (time constant, the time it takes to reach 63.2% of the output value)

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1.2 Functions of the Input Section Moving Average (DX106, and DX112) The input signal of the measurement channel is set to the averaged value of the m most current data points (the number of moving-averaged data points) acquired at the scan interval. The number of moving-averaged data points can be set in the range 2 to 16. The moving average is initially turned OFF. The figure below shows an example indicating the operation of the buffer for the moving average computation when the number of moving averaged data points is set to 5.
Buffer data at the nth sampling Buffer data at the n+1th sampling New data 15.0mV 10.0mV 5.0mV 0.0mV 5.0mV Deleted Moving average value 0.0mV 5.0mV Deleted 8.0mV Buffer data at the n+2th sampling New data 10.0mV 15.0mV 10.0mV 5.0mV 0.0mV

1 2 3 4 5

10.0mV 5.0mV 0.0mV 5.0mV 10.0mV

Integration Time of the A/D Converter


The DX100 uses an A/D converter to convert the sampled analog signal to a digital signal. By setting the integration time to match the time period corresponding to one cycle of the power supply or an integer multiple of one cycle, the power supply frequency noise can be effectively eliminated. The integration time of the A/D converter is selected according to the model from the table below. If Auto is selected, the DX100 will automatically detect the power supply frequency and select 16.7 ms or 20 ms. Because 100 ms is an integer multiple of 16.7 ms and 20 ms, this setting can be used to eliminate the power frequency noise for either frequency, 50 Hz or 60 Hz. 100 ms is available on the DX106, and DX112. However, when the integration time is 100 ms, the scan interval is fixed to 2 s. For the setting procedure, see section 5.9.
Model DX102/DX104 Integration Time of the A/D Converter Select 16.7 ms (60 Hz), 20 ms (50 Hz), or auto (Automatically switches between 16.7 ms and 20 ms. Fixed to 20 ms on /P1 models that use the 24 VDC power supply.) Select 16.7 ms (60 Hz), 20 ms (50 Hz), 100 ms, or auto (Automatically switches between 16.7 ms and 20 ms. Fixed to 20 ms on /P1 models that use the 24 VDC power supply.)

DX106/DX112

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1.3

Display Function
5.5 TFT Color LCD and the Screen Configuration The DX100 has a 5.5 TFT color LCD (240-by-320 dot resolution). The screen consists of the status display section and the data display section.
Status display section

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Overview of Functions

Common Items Related to the Display

Data display section

Status Display Section Displays the displayed screen name, date and time or batch name (batch name is for / BT1 option only), internal memory/external storage medium usage condition, alarm condition, key lock, user name (key login function), and computation condition (option). For details, see section 4.2. Data Display Section Displays the operation screen such as the trend display, digital display, and bar graph display of the measured and computed data as well as alarm, message, and file information. Displays the setup screen for the setting and basic setting modes when the DX100 is being configured. For details related to the setting and basic setting modes, see section 3.5. Group Display The data displayed on the trend, digital, and bar graph displays are the data of measurement or computation channels that are assigned to the group. Up to 6 channels can be assigned to a single group. For the procedure used to assign channels to groups, see section 7.6, Setting Groups. Up to four groups can be registered. The groups are common to the trend, digital, and bar graph displays. On the trend, digital, and bar graph displays, the displayed groups can be automatically switched at 5 s, 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, or 1 min intervals. Channel Number of Tag Display The channels can be displayed as channel number or tags. The setting applies to all channels. For the procedure related to the selecting the channel display or tag display, see section 7.2. For the procedure related to setting the tags, see section 7.1.

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1.3 Display Function

Trend Screen
Displays the waveform of the measured and computed data. The direction of the waveform display can be set to horizontal or vertical. For details related to the display method, see section 4.3. Trend Display (Vertical)

Scale Display update rate(Time/div) Message Trip line Tag/Channel no. Measured/computed value Unit Alarm mark Numerical display section

Trend Display (Vertical, All channels)

Waveform for all channels that are registered to display the trend Data from selected group

Trend Display (Horizontal, Type 1)

Trend Display (Horizontal, Type 2)

Updating the Waveform and Updating the Numerical Display One division along the time axis consists of 30 dots on the LCD. The displayed waveform is updated at an interval corresponding to one dot. This interval is determined by the time period corresponding to one division (referred to as the display update rate). The relationship between the display update rate and the speed of movement of waveforms is as follows:
Display Update Rate (/div) 15 s* 30 s* 1 min 2 min 5 min 10 min 20 min 30 min 1 h 2 h 4 h 10 h 297 119 59 30 20 10 5 2.5 1.0

Speed of movement 2376 1188 594 of waveform (approximate value, mm/h) * for DX102 and DX104 only

Note
The speed of movement of the trend display along the time axis is derived from the following equation given the dot pitch of the LCD (0.33 mm): The speed of movement of the trend display along the time axis = 30 (dots) x 0.33 (mm) x 60 (min)/display update rate (min)

Measured/computed values are updated every second. However, when the scan interval on the DX106/DX112 is 2 s, the display update rate is also 2 s. 1-6
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1.3 Display Function Displayed Data The data displayed on the screen are a maximum and minimum values of the data that are sampled at the scan interval, within the time period corresponding to one dot.
Displayed data of the waveform (when the display update rate is set to one minute)

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Overview of Functions

} 2 s (1 dot)

Maximum value 1 division (30 dots) =1 min. Minimum value When the display update rate is set to one minute, the time period corresponding to one dot (the sampling interval of displayed data) is 2 s.

The time period corresponding to one dot is called the sampling interval of displayed data. The sampling interval of displayed data is determined by the display update rate. The relationship between the display update rate and the sampling interval of displayed data is as follows:
Display Update Rate (/div) Sampling interval of displayed data (s) * 15 s* 30 s* 1 min 2 min 5 min 10 min 20 min 30 min 1 h 2 h 4 h 10 h 0.5 1 2 4 10 20 40 60 120 240 480 1200

for DX102 and DX104 only

For the procedure related to setting the display update rate, see section 7.3. Displayed Information The following Information can be displayed.
Information All channel display Description Waveforms of all the channels that were set to display the trend are displayed on one trend screen. Sections 4.3 and 8.10 Messages specified by the user can be displayed at arbitrary points in time. For example, by displaying a message when a certain operation is carried out, the point at which the operation is carried out can be seen visually. Displayed messages are stored. Sections 7.4 and 7.5 The waveform can be displayed vertically or horizontally. The vertical display is in the same direction as the chart recorder and is convenient when the DX100 is used with the chart recorder. Section 7.13 The displayed color of waveforms can be specified for each channel. The color also applies to the bar graph display. Section 7.8 You can select from three types: 1, 2, or 3 dots. The specified thickness of waveform lines applies to all channels. Section 7.13 Displays a line to indicate a particular value of interest (trip line) for each group. You can select the thickness of the displayed line from three types: 1, 2, or 3 dots. Up to four trip lines can be displayed on a single group. Sections 7.7 and 7.13

Message display

Display direction of waveforms

Displayed color of waveforms

Thickness of waveform lines

Trip line display

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1.3 Display Function


Scale display A scale appropriate for the measured item can be displayed for each channel. The number of divisions of the display scale created by the main scale marks can be set to a value in the range 4 to 12 div (also applies to the bar graph display). Medium and small scale marks are displayed in between the main scale marks. You can select whether or not to display the scale for each channel and the display position. Section 7.10 The numerical display section can be turned ON or OFF. If the numerical display section is turned OFF, the display shows only the waveform and the scale. See section 4.3. The waveform of each channel is displayed in its display range (zone). The waveforms are easier to view, because they do not overlap. See the explanation of the zone display below. Section 7.9 You can expand the important section of the display range. See the explanation of the partial expanded display below. Sections 7.11 and 7.12

Turn ON/OFF the numerical display section Zone display

Partial expanded display

Explanation Regarding the Zone Display The display range of the waveform is called a zone. Zones can be set for each channel. The waveforms can be set in different zones, so that they are easier to view. In the example shown in the figure below, channel 1 is displayed in the zone 0 to 30%, channel 2 in the zone 30 to 60%, and channel 3 in the zone 60 to 100%.
Normal display Zone display Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3
0% 0% 100% 30% 60% 100%

CH1

CH2

CH3

Explanation Regarding the Partial Expanded Display By compressing a section of the display scale of the waveform, the remaining section of the display is expanded. You specify a value on the display scale (boundary value) to be moved to another position on the display scale (boundary value displacement position). In the example shown in the figure below, 0 V (boundary value) is moved to the 30% position of the display scale (boundary value displacement position). The section below the boundary (accounts for 30% of the entire display) represents 6 V to 0 V and the section above the boundary (accounts for 70% of the entire display) represents 0 V to 6 V.
Normal Display
0 % of full display span 50 100 0

Partial Expanded Dispaly


Compressed portion 30 Expanded portion 100

6V

0 Measured value

6V

6V

0 Measured value

6V

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1.3 Display Function

Digital Screen
The measured/computed data are displayed using numerical values in large size. See section 4.3.
Tag/Channel no.

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Overview of Functions

Measured/computed value Unit

Alarm mark

Updating of the Numerical Display Measured/computed values are updated every second. However, when the scan interval on the DX106/DX112 is 2 s, the display update rate is also 2 s.

Bar graph Screen


The measured/computed data are displayed using bar graphs. See section 4.3. Bar Graph Display (Vertical)
Tag/Channel no. Alarm mark Upper limit of span Alarm point mark Bar graph Lower limit of span Unit

Measured/computed value

Updating of the Bar Graph and the Numerical Display Measured/computed values are updated every second. However, when the scan interval on the DX106/DX112 is 2 s, the display update rate is also 2 s. Displayed Information The following Information can be displayed.
Information Display direction Base position Description The bar graphs can be displayed horizontally or vertically. Section 7.13 When the bar graph is displayed horizontally, the starting point of the bar (base position) can be set to the minimum edge of the measurement scale or to the center position. Section 7.10 The displayed color of the channels are common with the trend display. Section 7.8 The number of divisions of the scale can be set to a value in the range 4 to 12. Section 7.10 (common with the trend display)

Displayed color Scale display

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1.3 Display Function

Overview Screen
A list of measured/computed values and alarm conditions of all measurement/ computation channels is displayed. You can move the cursor to select a channel and display the trend or bar graph of the group containing the selected channel. For the procedure used to display the overview, see section 4.4.

Tag/Channel no. Cursor

Alarm type Measured/ computed value

The area corresponding to a channel on which an alarm is occurring is displayed in red. The area corresponding to a channel on which an alarm is not occurring is displayed in green.

Updating of the Numerical Display Measured/computed values are updated every second. However, when the scan interval on the DX106/DX112 is 2 s, the display update rate is also 2 s.

Alarm Summary
A list of the most recent alarms can be displayed. By scrolling the screen using arrow keys, up to 120 incidents can be displayed. By selecting an alarm from the list using arrow keys, the historical trend of the display data or event data containing the alarm can be recalled. For a description on the historical trend display, see Historical Trend in this section. For the operating procedure, see section 4.5.
Number of the alarm information displayed at the last line of the screen Number of the alarm information in the internal memory Tag/Channel no. Alarm No. (1, 2, 3, 4) /Type (H, L, h, l, R, r, T, t) Date & Time (when the alarm occurred) Date & Time (when the alarm released)

Cursor

Mark (see section 6.1)

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1.3 Display Function

Message Summary
The messages that were entered in the trend display and the times when they were entered (message information) are displayed in a list. By scrolling the screen using arrow keys, up to 100 incidents can be displayed. By selecting a message from the list using arrow keys, the historical trend of the display data or event data containing the message can be recalled. For a description on the historical trend display, see Historical Trend in this section. For the operating procedure, see section 4.5.
Number of the message displayed at the last line of the screen Number of the messages in the internal memory Message Date and time the message was entered User name (when using key login function)

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Overview of Functions

Cursor

Memory Summary
The information pertaining to the display data file and event data file in the internal memory is displayed. Display data correspond to the data on the trend display. Event data are data acquired to the internal memory according to the specified sampling interval and data collection period. The data are separate from the display data. In addition, the number of manual sampled data, TLOG data (option), and report data (option) residing in the internal memory are displayed. For models that have the alarm output relays (option), the ON/OFF state of the relays are also listed. For details related to the data residing in the internal memory, see section 1.4. By selecting the display data file or event data file using the arrow keys, the historical trend display can be recalled. For a description on the historical trend display, see Historical Trend in this section. For the operating procedure, see section 4.5.
Number of data sets in the internal memory/The maximum number of data sets the internal memory can hold Date and time the newest data were acquired Status of alarm output relays Red: Activated Green: Released Selection of the file type to be displayed, display data files or event data files

Date and time the data File status acquisition ended* Number of data in the file Date and time the data acquisition started

Cursor

For models with the batch function (/BT1 option), a batch number and lot number can be displayed in place of the date and time when the data acquisition ended. For the setting procedure, see section 10.12.

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1.3 Display Function

Report Data (/M1 option)


Report data residing in the internal memory can be displayed. The report function is used to write the average, minimum, maximum, and sum at specified intervals for the specified channels. Reports can be made hourly, daily, weekly, or monthly. For details related to the report data, see section 1.6. For the operating procedure, see section 4.5.
The index number of the report data currently displayed The number of report data sets in the internal memory Report type

Date and time the report started Date and time the report was created

Status of data (see section 11.11)

Historical Trend
The display data and event data of the measured/computed data stored in the internal memory or external storage medium are displayed as a historical trend. For details related to the display data, see Trend Display in this section. For details related to the event data, see section 1.4. Alarms and scales are not displayed on the historical trend display. Methods Used to Display the Historical Trend The following four methods are available in displaying the historical trend of the display data or event data in the internal memory: Display from the alarm summary. For the operating procedure, see section 4.5. Display from the message summary. For the operating procedure, see section 4.5. Display from the memory summary. For the operating procedure, see section 4.5. Recall from the screen menu. For the operating procedure, see section 4.6. For methods used to display the historical trend of display data or event data in the external storage medium, see section 9.3 and 9.4. Information Displayed on the Historical Trend The displayed information shown below is common to the historical trend of display data and event data.
Time axis Zoom factor of the time axis Icons for switching screens Display reference position

Tag/Channel no. Unit Measured/computed value (maximum and minimum value at the display reference position) Measured/computed value (maximum and minimum value over the entire display range)

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1.3 Display Function The waveform can be scrolled along the time axis using the cursor keys. The time axis can be expanded or reduced. The entire data of the file that is being displayed on the historical trend can be displayed at the top section of the screen (right section if the trend display is vertical). You can specify the position to be displayed on the historical trend display using a cursor. The specified position becomes the display reference position.

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Overview of Functions

Display reference position Cursor All data display

The memory information of the file being displayed on the historical trend can be displayed. For models with the batch function (/BT1 option), information such as the batch number and lot number are also displayed.
File name and data type Serial number of the instrument that sampled the data Start/stop time and user name (user name is displayed only when the key login function is used)

Half Screen Display (Only when displaying the historical trend of the display data) Displays the historical trend of the display data on the lower half of the screen (left half if the trend display is horizontal) and the current display data on the upper half of the screen (right half if the trend display is horizontal). For the operating procedure, see section 4.6.

Current trend

Historical trend (display data only)

Current trend information

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1.3 Display Function

Setting Screen
The various functions of the DX100 are configured using the setting mode or the basic setting mode. Setting Mode Screen This screen is used to set the input range, filter/moving average, alarm, group, channel display color, etc. For details, see section 3.5. Setting screen example for the setting mode

Cursor (blue)

Parameter selections (selected using the soft keys)

Basic Setting Mode Screen This screen is used to configure the basic specifications of the various functions such as burnout, reference junction compensation, A/D integration time, and the method used to acquire data to the internal memory. For details, see section 3.5. Setting screen example for the basic setting mode

Cursor (blue)

Parameter selections (selected using the soft keys)

Setting the Display Conditions of the LCD


The following display conditions of the LCD can be configured.
Screen Attribute Background color of the operation screen LCD brightness Backlight saver Settings You can select white or black for the background color of the screen. The initial setting is white. For the setting procedure, see section 7.13. The brightness of the LCD can be set between eight levels. The initial setting is 4. For the setting procedure, see section 7.14. The lifetime of the LCD backlight can be extended by automatically dimming the light when there is no key operation for a certain amount of time. The screen returns to the original brightness with a key operation or an alarm occurrence. The initial setting is set so that the backlight saver is disabled. For the setting procedure, see section 7.14.

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Storage Function
Display Data and Event Data The measured/computed data are first acquired to the DX100s internal memory as two types of data, display data and event data. Then, the data are saved to the external storage medium automatically or when the external storage medium is inserted into the drive. You can select whether to save the measured/computed data as display data, event data, or as both. The capacity of the internal memory for acquiring display data and event data is 1.2 MB. When the measured/computed data are saved as both display data and event data, 0.9 MB is used to save display data and 0.3 MB is used to save event data.
DX100

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Overview of Functions

Acquiring Data to the Internal Memory

1 2 3 4

ENTER

DISP/

Internal memory Display data only 1.2MB Event data only 1.2MB Display data and event data 0.9MB 0.3MB

Display data

Event data Display data Event data

Display data are used to display waveforms on the DX100s screen. Display data consists of maximum and minimum values of the measured or computed data sampled at the scan interval within the time period corresponding to one dot on the time axis on the screen. Display data can be likened to the conventional recording on the chart sheet and are useful for long-term observations. Event data are instantaneous values of the measured/computed data at specified sampling intervals of the event data. By setting the sampling interval equal to the scan interval, all measured or computed data sampled at the scan interval can be saved. In addition, the event data generated when an event occurs (an alarm, for example) can also be saved. This is useful when you wish to observe the measured/computed data in detail. For detail, see sections 8.1 and 8.2.
The time period corresponding to one dot on the screen Display data Maximum value Minimum value

Measurement data

Event data Scan interval Sampling inteval for event data

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1.4 Storage Function Manual Sampled Data Every time a given key operation is carried out, all measured/computed data (instantaneous values) at that point are acquired to the internal memory. However, this excludes measurement channels that are skipped and computation channels that are turned OFF. For the action of acquiring data and the operating procedure, see sections 8.1, 8.3, and 8.12. TLOG Data (Only on models with the optional computation function (/M1) All measured/computed data (instantaneous values) can be acquired to the internal memory at predetermined intervals. However, this excludes measurement channels that are skipped and computation channels that are turned OFF. For the action of acquiring data, see sections 8.1 and 8.3. Report Data (Only on models with the optional computation function (/M1) The average, maximum, minimum, and sum can be computed for the specified channels at predetermined intervals and the result can be acquired to the internal memory. You can select one hour (hourly report), one day (daily report), one hour/one day (hourly and daily reports) one day/one week (daily and weekly reports), or one day/one month (daily and monthly reports) for the interval. For the action of acquiring data, see sections 8.1 and 8.3.

Saving Data to the External Storage Media


External Storage Media Various data can be saved to the following storage media: 3.5 floppy disk (1.44 MB, 2HD) Zip disk (100 MB) ATA flash memory card (4 MB to 440 MB): The size varies depending on the memory card that you are using. Save Method There are two methods of saving data to the external storage medium. One method is to insert the storage medium to the drive when data is to be saved (referred to as manual save). The other method saves data automatically at certain time intervals to a storage medium that has been inserted into the drive beforehand (referred to as auto save). Other Types of Data That Can Be Stored In addition to the types of data described in Acquiring Data to the Internal Memory, the following types of data can be stored on the external storage medium. Setting data The DX100 setting data, such as the setting of the functions of the input section as described in section 1.2, can also be stored to an external storage medium to the specified file name. The stored data can also be loaded and used by the DX100. Image data of the display screen The image data of the display screen can be stored to the external storage medium. The image data can be pasted to documents created on a PC.

Saving Data via Ethernet


The display data, event data, and report data, as described in Acquiring Data to the Internal Memory, can be automatically transferred to an FTP server via Ethernet for storage. Conversely, the DX100 can operate as an FTP server. The DX100 can be accessed from a PC and the data in the external storage medium can be retrieved for storage. For these functions, see the DX100/DX200 Communication Interface Users Manual (IM 04L02A01-17E). 1-16
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1.5

Alarm Function
This function generates an alarm when the measured/computed data meets a certain condition. When an alarm occurs, information notifying the alarm occurrence is displayed on the screen. In addition, a signal can be output from the relay output terminals on the rear panel of the DX100 (only on models with the optional alarm output relay function (/AR1, /AR2, or /A3)). Alarm Indication The alarm conditions are displayed as alarm icons in the status display section and through the trend, digital, bar graph, overview and other screens. The detailed information about the alarms is displayed in the alarm summary. There are two methods in displaying alarms. One method is to clear the alarm display when the cause of the alarm is no longer met (non-hold display). The other method is to display the alarm until the alarm is confirmed (hold display). Alarm Indication Example (Overview display and alarm summary display)

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Tag/Channel no. Cursor

Alarm type Measured/ computed value

The area corresponding to a channel on which an alarm is occurring is displayed in red. The area corresponding to a channel on which an alarm is not occurring is displayed in green.

Number of the alarm information displayed at the last line of the screen Number of the alarm information in the internal memory Tag/Channel no. Alarm No. (1, 2, 3, 4) /Type (H, L, h, l, R, r, T, t) Date & Time (when the alarm occurred) Date & Time (when the alarm released)

Cursor

Mark (see section 6.1)

Number of Alarms You can set up to four alarms for each channel. Alarm Conditions The following eight conditions are available: Upper limit alarm (H) An alarm occurs when the measured value exceeds the alarm value. Lower limit alarm (L) An alarm occurs when the measured value falls below the alarm value.

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1.5 Alarm Function


Upper limit alarm Alarm occurrence Lower limit alarm Measured alarm value /computed data

Alarm release

Alarm release alarm value Measured/computed data Alarm occurrence

Delay upper limit alarm (T) An alarm occurs when the measured value remains above the alarm value for the specified time period (delay period). Delay lower limit alarm (t) An alarm occurs when the measured value remains below the alarm value for the specified time period (delay period).
Delay upper limit alarm example (T is the specified delay period)

X1

Measured/computed data X2 T1 T

X3

X4 Alarm value

Alarm occurrence

Alarm release

Alarm does not occur at T1, because the time period is shorter than the specified delay period (T). The input exceeds the alarm value at X2, but the alarm occurs at X3 at which the specified delay period elapses (the time when the alarm occurs is the time at X3). The input falls below the alarm value at X4 and the alarm is released. Difference upper limit alarm (h)*1 An alarm occurs when the difference between the measured values of two channels becomes greater than or equal to the alarm value. Difference lower limit alarm (l)*1 An alarm occurs when the difference between the measured values of two channels becomes smaller than or equal to the alarm value.
*1 Can be specified only on difference computation channels.

Upper limit on rate-of-change alarm (R)*2 The amount of change of the measured values over a certain time interval is checked. An alarm occurs when the amount of increase becomes greater than or equal to the specified value. Lower limit on rate-of-change alarm (r)*2 The amount of change of the measured values over a certain time interval is checked. An alarm occurs when the amount of decrease becomes greater than or equal to the specified value.
*2 Can be specified only on measurement channels.

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1.5 Alarm Function


Upper limit on rate-of-change alarm
R alarm Measured T2 value Variation |T2-T1| Measured T1 value T2 Variation |T2-T1|

Lower limit on rate-of-change alarm

1
Overview of Functions

T1

r alarm t1 Interval t2-t1 t2 Time t1 Interval t2-t1 t2 Time

The interval is defined by the following equation and is set in terms of the number of measured data points. Interval = scan interval number of measurements Alarm Hysteresis This applies to upper (H) and lower (L) limit alarms on measurement channels. A width (hysteresis) can be specified on the value used to set or release the alarm. This prevents the alarm from being set or released repetitively when the measured value is fluctuating around the alarm value. The hysteresis is fixed to 0.5% of the display span (display scale if the range is set to [Scale]). The initial setting is [ON].
Upper Limit Alarm (H) Alarm occurrence 1V Hysteresis (approx. 0.5%) Alarm set point

Measured value

Alarm release

Lower Limidt Alarm (L) Measured value 1V Alarm release

Hysteresis (approx. 0.5%)

Alarm occurrence

Alarm set point

Alarm Output Relay If you are using a model with the optional alarm output relay (/AR1, /AR2, or /A3), a contact signal can be generated according to the alarm conditions. For the procedure related to setting the alarm output relay, see section 6.2, Alarm Setting. The following functions can be specified on the alarm output relay. For details, see section 6.4. When multiple alarms are set to one alarm output relay, notify the succeeding alarms after the first alarm that causes the relay operation (reflash alarm function). When multiple alarms are set to one alarm output relay, operate the relay when all specified alarms are active (AND function) Energize or de-energize the alarm output relay when the alarm occurs (energize/deenergize function of the output relay). When the alarm changes from the ON state to the OFF state (return to normal condition), turn OFF the output relay with an alarm ACK operation (output relay hold function).
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1.6

Computation Function and Report Function (/M1 Option)


Computing equations are assigned to channels that are dedicated to performing computations. Displaying computation channels and acquiring computed data can be carried out in the same manner as in the measurement channels. The computation is performed every scan interval. For detail, see sections 11.1 and 11.2.

Computation chan and nels


Model DX102 DX104 DX106 DX112 Channel Channels 31 to 34 (4 channels) Channels 31 to 34 (4 channels) Channels 31 to 42 (12 channels) Channels 31 to 42 (12 channels)

Types of Computations
The following types of computations can be performed.
Type Four arithmetical operations SQR ABS LOG EXP Relational computation Logical computation Description Addition (+), subtraction (), multiplication (), and division (/) Computes the square root. Determines the absolute value. Determines the common logarithm. Determines the exponent. Determines <, , >, , =, of two elements and outputs 0 or 1. Determines the AND (logical product), OR (logical sum), XOR (exclusive logical sum) of two elements, NOT (negation) of an element and outputs 0 or 1.

Statistical computation (TLOG) Determines the average (AVE), maximum (MAX), minimum (MIN), sum (SUM), and maximum - minimum (P-P) at specified time intervals for the specified channels. You can specify the interval. For detail, see section 11.7. Rolling average Determines the moving average of the computed result at scan intervals for the channel for which the equation is specified. The sampling interval and the number of samples are specified for each channel. The maximum sampling interval is 1 hour, the maximum number of samples is 64. The initial setting is set so that the rolling average is disabled.

The following elements can be used in the computing equations.


Element Measured data Computed data Constants (K01 to K12) Communication input data (C01 to C12) Condition of the remote control terminals (D01 to D08) Description Values measured on the measurement channels. Values computed on the computation channels. Set by the computation function. Set by the communication function. DX100/DX200 Communication Interface Users Manual Use ON/OFF (1 or 0) of the remote input signal.

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1.8 Computation Function and Report Function (/M1 Option)

Report Function
The report function is one of the functions provided by the optional computation function (/M1). This function computes the average, maximum, minimum, and sum for the specified channels at specified intervals and writes the result to the internal memory. You can select the report type from hourly reports only, daily reports only, hourly and daily reports, daily and monthly reports, and weekly and monthly reports. The reports are created every hour on the hour for hourly reports, at the specified hour on the hour for daily reports (once a day), at the specified hour on the hour on the specified day for weekly reports (once a week), and at the specified hour on the hour on the specified date for monthly reports (once a week). For example, in the case of daily reports, the average, maximum, minimum, and sum over a day for the specified channels are computed at the specified time (on the hour), and the results are acquired to the internal memory. This constitutes one report data set. The report data residing in the memory can be displayed on the DX100s LCD (see section 1.3, Display Function). In addition, the report data residing in the internal memory can be saved to an external storage medium (section 1.4, Storage Function). Because the report data are saved to the external storage medium in ASCII format, spreadsheet applications can be used to view the data (see appendix 2, Data Format of ASCII Files). For details related to the report function, see section 11.11.
Item Report type Description Select from hourly reports only, daily reports only, hourly and daily reports, daily and weekly reports, and daily and monthly reports. Up to 12 channels Average, maximum, minimum, and sum Up to 40 ASCII format

1
Overview of Functions

Number of channels per report Computed data Number of reports that can be acquired to the internal memory Data format

For a display example of report data, see section 1.3.

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1.7

Batch Function (/BT1 Option)


Batch function is used to include information such as batch numbers and lot numbers along with the data acquired to the internal memory. By including information such as batch numbers, lot numbers, and supervisor names along with the measured/computed data, you will be able to manage the stored data. By using the key login function in combination with this function, the operators that are allowed to store data on the DX100 can be restricted and identified.

Adding Batch Information to the Measured/Computed Data (Display Data and Event Data)
The following information can be added to the display data and event data acquired to the internal memory. For the setting procedure, see section 10.12. The operator can change the batch number, lot number, and comment for each lot. In addition, the lot number can be automatically increased by one when one lot is complete. Serial number of the DX100 (the number written on the name plate of the DX100). Application name (up to 16 characters). Supervisor name (up to 16 characters). Manager name (up to 16 characters). Batch name Batch number (up to 16 characters). Lot number (0 to 9999). Start information. Start date and time and user name* (up to 16 characters).
* Only when the key login function is used.

Stop information. Stop date and time and user name* (up to 16 characters).
* Only when the key login function is used.

Comment information. Comment (up to 32 characters x 3 lines). The date and time when comment was written. User name* of the user who wrote comment (up to 16 characters).
* Only when the key login function is used.

Identifying Operators (Users) by using the Key Login Function


By using the key login function, the users that can log into the DX100 can be restricted and identified. When the batch function is activated, the security is enhanced in the following manner as compared with the standard key login function. For the operating procedure of the key login function, see section 10.5. For the setting procedure, see section 10.6. User names that are already registered cannot be specified. The combinations of user IDs and passwords that are identical to those that have been registered by any user in the past cannot be specified.

Changing the Messages


When the optional batch function is installed, messages 1 through 3 can be changed in the operation mode. For the procedure related to changing the messages, see section 7.4.

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1.7 Batch Function (/BT1 Option)

Display
The following items are displayed: The batch number/lot number and date/time are alternately displayed in the status display section. See section 4.1. When the STOP key is pressed, batch information is displayed in the stop confirmation screen. See sections 8.5 and 8.6.

1
Overview of Functions

Confirming the Stored Data


The display data and the event data in the internal memory or the external storage medium, can be displayed on the historical trend display. When the historical trend of the display data or event data in the internal memory or in the external storage medium is displayed, batch information can be shown in the memory information display. See section 4.6. The batch number and lot number for each file can be displayed in place of the date and time of the file creation on the memory summary screen and on the screen used to select the display data and event data to be loaded from the external storage medium. See sections 4.5, 9.3, and 9.4.

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1.8

Other Functions
One of the following actions can be assigned to the USER key. Alarm ACK is initially assigned. For the setting and operating procedure, see section 10.2, and 10.1, respectively. Action That Can Be Assigned
Name of Action None Trigger Action None Provides a key trigger for starting acquiring the event data. (when [Key Trigger] is set as a trigger to start acquiring event data) Section 8.11 Release alarm indication and relay output (when alarm display and alarm output relay action is set to hold. Section 6.4) Starts/stops computation. (when the computation function (/M1) is equipped) Section 11.3 Clears computed results. (when the computation function (/M1) is equipped and the computation is suspended) Section 11.3 Stores instantaneous values of all channels to the internal memory. Section 8.13 Displays messages and stores them to the internal memory. Section 7.4 Saves the screen image data to the external medium. Section 9.6

USER key

AlarmACK

Math Mathrst

M.sample Message 1 to Message 8 Snapshot

Key Lock
Key lock is a function that locks key operations, removal of the Zip disk, and the saving of data to the external storage medium during manual save mode. A password needs to be entered to release the key lock. For the setting and operating procedure, see section 10.4, and 10.3, respectively. Items and Behaviors of the Key Lock (Can be set individually)
Item Behavior during Key Lock START key Disabled STOP key Disabled MENU key Disabled USER key Disabled DISP/ENTER key Switching operation screens is disabled. [Alarm ACK] soft key Disabled Math (Computation) [Math START] soft key*1 Disabled (option) [Math STOP] soft key*1 Disabled (option) Disabled (option) [Math reset] soft key*1 Write memory [Message] soft key*2 Disabled [Manual sample] soft key*2 Disabled [Trigger] soft key*2 Disabled [Save Display] soft key*2 Disabled Disabled [Save Event] soft key*2 [E-Mail START] soft key*2 Disabled [E-Mail STOP] soft key*2 Disabled Disabled [E-Mail test] soft key*2 Media (External storage medium) During manual save Prevent saving when an external storage medium is inserted. Prevent Zip disk removal. During auto save Prevent Zip disk removal. *1 Set together by [Math] parameter. *2 Set together by [Write memory] parameter.

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1.8 Other Functions

Key Login/Logout
This function allows only certain users to access the DX100. The users are distinguished by their name, user IDs, and passwords. You can select whether or not to use User IDs. In addition, you can set whether or not to allow operations in the basic setting mode for each user. Up to 7 users can be registered. For the key login function with Batch function (/BT1 option), see section 1.7. For the setting and operating procedure, see section 10.6, and 10.5, respectively.

1
Overview of Functions

Log Display
A list of phenomena that occurred can be displayed in the order of occurrence for the following items: Error messages (50 most recent messages) A log of key login and logout (50 most recent logins) A log of communication commands (200 most recent commands) A log of file transfers using the FTP client function (50 most recent transfers) A log of e-mail transmissions (the 50 most recent transmissions) A log of Web operations (the 50 most recent operations) For details related to the display format, see section 10.7. Error Log Example Displays the date and time of the error occurrence, error code number, and the message.
The number of the log displayed at the last line of the screen / total number of logs Date and time of occurrence Error code Error message

System Screen
The total number of inputs on the DX100, the capacity of the internal memory, the communication functions, the external storage drive, the options, the MAC address, and the firmware version number can be displayed. For the operating procedure, see section 10.7.
Number of measurement channels* Number of computation channels Internal memory capacity Optional functions Communication function External storage medium drive Optional functions MAC address Firmware version number

When the cramped input terminal is equipped (/H2 option), C is indicated as ANALOG: 12(C) in this example.

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1.8 Other Functions

Displayed Language
The displayed language can be set to English, Japanese, German, or French. For the setting procedure, see section 10.10.

FAIL/Memory End Output (/F1 option)


Operation at System Failure This function activates the relay output when the CPU fails. The relay is de-energized on CPU failure. The relay is de-energized if the CPU fails. This relay action cannot be reversed to energized on failure and thus this relay is de-energized also upon power-off (including a power failure). Relay Behavior (De-energized on failure)

NO

C Normal

NC

NO

C Failure

NC

NO

C Power-off

NC

NO, C, and NC denote normally-opened, common, and normally closed, respectively.

Operation at Memory End This function activates the relay output when the remaining space (time) in the internal memory or the external storage medium becomes small. The relay is energized if the memory end is detected. The relay action cannot be reversed to de-energized on memory end. When the relay is energized, save the data in the internal memory to the external storage medium during manual save, or use another external storage medium during auto save. The memory end detection operates as follows. When using auto save When using auto save and the storage medium is inserted, the relay is energized when the remaining space on the storage medium falls to 10%. At this point, the icon of the external storage medium on the status display section on the screen turns to red from green. See section 4.2. When using manual save When the type of data to be acquired is display data only or display data and event data When the remaining time for storing the display data in the internal memory falls to the specified time, the relay is energized. When the type of data to be acquired is event data only In the [Free] mode, the relay is energized when the remaining time for storing the event data in the internal memory falls to the specified time. In the [Trigger] or [Rotate] mode, the relay is not energized (There is no memory end output).

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1.8 Other Functions Relay behavior (energized on memory end)

1
Overview of Functions

NO

C Normal

NC

NO

NC

NO

C Power-off

NC

Memory end

NO, C, and NC denote normally-opened, common, and normally closed, respectively.

For the setting procedure, see section 10.8.

Remote Control Function (/R1 option)


When a contact or open collector signal is applied to the remote control terminal, a predetermined action is carried out. Arbitrary actions can be assigned to the eight remote control terminals. The available actions are listed below. For the setting procedure, see section 10.9.
Name of Action None Start/Stop Trigger Remote Signal Action Edge Trigger No operation. Start/stop acquiring data to the internal memory. Sections 8.4 and 8.5 Trigger to start acquiring event data to the internal memory (valid only when event data are specified to be acquired to the internal memory and the trigger used to start the acquisition is set to external trigger Section 8.11) Release alarm display/relay output (valid only when the operation of the alarm display or output relay is set to hold Section 6.4). Adjust the internal clock to the nearest hour. Start/stop computation (only for models with the computation option (/M1). Reset the computed value of the computation channel (reset to 0, only on models with the computation option (/M1) while the computation is stopped). Write the instantaneous values of all channels to the internal memory once. Load and activate the setup data file that had been created and stored in the external storage medium. Display messages 1 to 8 on the trend display and write them to the internal memory. Save the screen image data to the storage medium.

Alarm ACK

Trigger

Time adj Computation (Math)

Trigger Edge

Computation (Math) reset Trigger

Manual sample Load setup data 1 to 3 Messages 1 to 8 Snapshot

Trigger Trigger Trigger Trigger

Remote Signal (Edge and trigger) The above actions are carried out on the rising or falling edge of the remote signal (edge) or the ON signal lasting at least 250 ms (trigger).
Rising/Falling edge Rising Falling Trigger

250 ms or more

For contact inputs, the remote signal rises when the contact switches from open to close and falls when the contact switches from close to open. For open collector signals, the remote signal rises when the collector signal (voltage level of the remote terminal) goes from high to low and falls when the collector signal goes low to high.

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1.8 Other Functions

Daylight Savings Time


When the specified time is reached at which the daylight savings time adjustment is to be enabled, the DX100 automatically sets the clock ahead by one hour. (Example: If the time is set to 9 oclock on June 1, the time is set ahead to 10 oclock June 1.) When the specified time is reached at which the daylight savings time adjustment is to be disabled, the DX100 automatically sets the clock back by one hour. (Example: If the time is set to 9 oclock on December 1, the time is set back to 8 oclock December 1.) For the setting procedure, see section 10.14.

Temperature Unit
The temperature unit can be set to Celsius (C) or Fahrenheit (F). This applies to all channels. For the setting procedure, see section 10.15.

24 VDC Power Supply for Transmitter (/TPS2, /TPS4 option)


Provides 24 VDC power to transmitters.

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Chapter 2 Before Using the DX100

2.1

Precautions on the Use of the DX100


Read the following precautions before using the DX100 and the external storage medium (floppy disk, Zip disk, ATA flash memory card).

2
Before Using the DX100

Handling Precautions
Use care when cleaning the DX100, especially any plastic parts. When cleaning, wipe with a dry, soft cloth. Do not use chemicals such as benzene or thinner, since these may cause discoloring and deformation. Keep electrically charged objects away from the DX100 as this may cause malfunction. Do not apply volatile chemicals to the LCD monitor or panel keys. Do not allow rubber and vinyl products to remain in contact with the DX100 for long periods of time. This may damage the DX100. Do not apply shock to the DX100. When not in use, make sure to turn OFF the power switch. If there are any symptoms of trouble such as strange odors or smoke coming from the DX100, immediately turn OFF the power and unplug the power cord. Then, contact your nearest YOKOGAWA dealer.

CAUTION
Dont put any weight on the DX100 while it is in reclined position with its front feet up, as it may damage the feet.

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2.1 Precautions on the Use of the DX100

Handling precautions of external storage media


Take special care in handling external storage media as they are delicate products. For general precautions, see the instruction manual that came with the external storage medium. Floppy disks and Zip disks may not operate properly under high or low temperature environment. If you are using the DX100 in a low-temperature environment (less than 10C), let the DX100 warm-up for at least 30 minutes beforehand. If you are using them in a high-temperature environment (greater than 40C), we recommend the external storage medium be inserted into the drive when saving the data and be removed after the data have been saved (manual save, see section 8.4.) Remove the external storage medium from the drive when turning ON/OFF the DX100. Do not remove the external storage medium while the access lamp is lit. Doing so can destroy the data on the medium. If you are using a commercially available compact flash card on DX100s in the ATA flash memory card drive, be careful of static electricity. The DX100 may not operate properly if you touch the compact flash card that is inserted into the DX100 when your body is charged with static electricity. Handling the CF Card and Adapter Insert the CF card into the adapter as shown in the figure below. The card should remain in the adapter when removing it from the card slot on the DX100.

Insert the card until these edges are nearly flush.

Adaptor Do not force the CF card when inserting it into the adapter. If the card does not seem to fit, make sure you are inserting it right-side up. CF card

CAUTION
Dont expose the floppy disk drive or Zip drive to vibration or shocks, as it may damage the drives.

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2.2

Installing the DX100


2
Before Using the DX100
Install the DX100 in a location that meets the following conditions. See also the normal operating conditions described in section 14.7, General Specifications. Instrument panel The DX100 is designed for panel mounting. Well-ventilated location To prevent overheating, install the DX100 in a well-ventilated location. For the panel mount type, see Panel Cutout in section 14.8, Dimensional Drawings. For the desktop type, a space of 50 mm or more from the right, left and top surface of the DX100 is recommended. Minimum mechanical vibrations Choose an installation location with the minimum mechanical vibration. Horizontal Install the DX100 horizontally (However, the DX100 can be inclined up to 30 degrees backwards for panel mounting).

Installation location

Note
Condensation may occur if the DX100 is moved to another place where both the ambient temperature and humidity are higher, or if the temperature changes rapidly. In addition, measurement errors will result when using thermocouples. In this case, let the DX100 adjust to the new environment for at least one hour before using the DX100. The lifetime of the LCD may be shortened if the DX100 is used in a high-temperature environment over a long period of time. When installing the DX100 in a high-temperature environment (greater than 40C), we recommend the backlight brightness of the LCD be set to a low setting. For setting the LCD brightness, see section 7.14.

Do not install the DX100 in the following places: In direct sunlight or near heat sources Install the DX100 in a place with small temperature fluctuations near room temperature (23C). Placing the DX100 in direct sunlight or near heat sources can cause adverse effects on the internal circuitry. Where an excessive amount of soot, steam, moisture, dust, or corrosive gases are present Soot, steam, moisture, dust, and corrosive gases will adversely affect the DX100. Avoid such locations. Near strong magnetic field sources Do not bring magnets or instruments that produce electromagnetic fields close to the DX100. Operating the DX100 in strong magnetic fields can cause errors in the measurements. Bad angle for viewing the screen Because the DX100 uses a 5.5 TFT color LCD, it is difficult to view the display from an extreme angle. Please install the DX100 so that the monitor can be viewed from the front.

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2.2 Installing the DX100

Installation Procedure (Panel Mount Type)


The DX100 should be mounted on a steel panel of thickness 2 mm to 26 mm. 1. Insert the DX100 from the front side of the panel. 2. As shown in the figure below, mount the DX100 to the panel using the mounting brackets that came with the package. Use two brackets to support the top and bottom or the left and right sides of the case. (Remove the seal that is covering the holes for the mounting brackets beforehand.) The proper torque for tightening the mounting screws is 0.8 to 1.2 Nm.

CAUTION
Tightening the screws too much can deform the case or damage the bracket.

Panel Mounting

For panel cutout and external dimensions, see section 14.8, External Dimensions

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2.3

Input Signal Wiring


2
CAUTION
If a strong tension is applied to the cable wired to the DX100, the terminals of the DX100 and/or the cable can be damaged. In order to prevent tension from being applied directly on the terminals, fasten all wiring cables to the rear of the mounting panel. To prevent fire, use signal wires having a temperature rating of 70C or more.

Before Using the DX100

Precautions to be taken while wiring


Take the following precautions when wring the input signal cables. It is recommended that crimp-on lugs (designed for 4 mm screws) with insulation sleeves be used on the lead wire ends. However, this does not apply to the optional clamped terminals (optional code /H2).

Crimp-on lug

Take measures to prevent noise from entering the measurement circuit. Move the measurement circuit away from the power cable (power circuit) and ground cable. It is desirable that the item being measured does not generate noise. However, if this is unavoidable, isolate the measurement circuit from the item. Also, ground the item being measured. Shielded wires should be used to minimize noise caused by electrostatic induction. Connect the shield to the ground terminal of the DX100 as necessary (make sure you are not grounding at two points). To minimize noise caused by electromagnetic induction, twist the measurement circuit wires at short, equal intervals. Make sure to earth ground the protective ground terminal through minimum resistance (less than 100 ). When using internal reference junction compensation on the thermocouple input, take measures to stabilize the temperature at the input terminal. Always use the input terminal cover. Do not use thick wires which may cause large heat dissipation (cross sectional area 0.5 mm2 or less recommended). Make sure that the ambient temperature remains reasonably stable. Large temperature fluctuations can occur if a nearby fan turns ON or OFF. Connecting the input wires in parallel with other devices can cause signal degradation, affecting all connected devices. If you need to make a parallel connection, then Turn the burnout function OFF. (See section 5.9) Ground the instruments to the same point. Do not turn ON or OFF another instrument during operation. This can have adverse effects on the other instruments. RTDs cannot be wired in parallel. 2-5

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2.3 Input Signal Wiring

WARNING
To prevent electric shock, ensure the main power supply is turned OFF.

CAUTION
Do not apply input signals that exceed the following values. This can damage the DX100. Maximum input voltage Voltage range of 2 VDC or less or thermocouples: 10 VDC Voltage range between 6 and 50 VDC: 60 VDC Maximum common mode noise voltage 250 VACrms (50/60Hz) The DX100 is an INSTALLATION CATEGORY II product.

Wiring Procedure
1. 2. 3. Turn OFF the DX100 and remove the input terminal cover. Connect the input signal wires to the input terminals. Replace the input terminal cover and fasten it with screws.

Note
For clamped input terminals, the following wires are recomended. Cross sectional area of the conductor or conductors Single conductor: 0.14 mm2 to 1.5 mm2 Stranded conductors: 0.14 mm2 to 1.0 mm2 Stripped cable length: approximately 5 mm Input signal wires of diameter less than or equal to 0.3 mm may not be secured firmly for clamped input terminals. Fold over the conducting section of the wire, for example, to make sure that the wire is securely connected to the clamped input terminal.

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2.3 Input Signal Wiring DX102/DX114 Input Terminal Position

2
Before Using the DX100

Input terminal

Terminal Arrangement DX102/DX104


Standard Input Terminals
CH4 CH2 CH1 CH3 /b +/A -/B CH 4 CH 2

Clamped Input Terminals (/H2)


CH 3 CH 1 /b +/A -/B

DX106
Standard Input Terminals
CH4 CH6 CH2 CH5 CH1 CH3 /b +/A -/B CH 6 CH 4 CH 2

Clamped Input Terminals (/H2)


CH 5 CH 3 CH 1 /b +/A -/B

DX112
Standard Input Terminals
CH12 CH4 CH10 CH8 CH6 CH2 CH11 CH9 CH5 CH1 CH7 CH3 /b +/A -/B CH 12 CH 10 CH 8 CH 6 CH 4 CH 2

Clamped Input Terminals (/H2)


CH 11 CH 9 CH 7 CH 5 CH 3 CH 1 /b +/A -/B

Note
RTD input terminals A and B are isolated on each channel. Terminal b is shorted internally across all channels. However, for options /N1 (Cu10, Cu25 RTD input, 3 terminal isolated RTD) and /N2 (3 terminal isolated RTD), input b is isolated for each channel.

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2-7

2.3 Input Signal Wiring Wiring Diagram


DC Voltage and DI Input Thermocouple Input Extension leadwire + +

+ DC voltage input

Resistance Temperature Detector Input b A B A B b

DC Current Input

+ DC current input Shunt resistor NOTE: For a 4 to 20 mA input, use a shunt resistor of 250 0.1%.

Leadwire resistance: 10 max./wire The resistance of the three wires should be approximately equal.

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2.4

Alarm Output Wiring (/AR1, /AR2, /A3 Option)


2
WARNING
To prevent electric shock, ensure the main power supply is turned OFF. If a voltage of more than 30 VAC or 60 VDC is to be applied to the alarm output terminal, use ring-tongue crimp-on lugs with insulation sleeves on all terminals to prevent the wires from slipping out when the screws become loose. Furthermore, use double-insulated wires (dielectric strength of 2300 VAC or more) for the signal wires on which a voltage of more than 30 VAC or 60 VDC is to be applied. For all other wires, use basic insulated wires (dielectric strength of 1350 VAC). To prevent electric shock, attach the terminal cover after wiring and make sure not to touch the terminals.

Before Using the DX100

CAUTION
To prevent fire, use signal wires having a temperature rating of 70C or more.

Wiring Procedure
1. 2. Turn OFF the DX100 and remove the cover for the option terminal. Connect the alarm output cables to the terminal. The terminal arrangement will be one of the figures shown on the next page depending on the alarm output relay option (number of outputs). Replace the terminal cover and fasten it with screws.

3.

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2-9

2.4 Alarm Output Wiring (/AR1, /AR2, /A3 Option) Alarm Terminal Position Enclosed in parentheses are the relay numbers assigned to each option terminal.

Option terminal (I01 to I06)

Terminal Arrangement (Only the position of the alarm output terminals is indicated.) When the relay is not energized, NC is closed and NO is open. C is the common terminal. /AR1, /AR1/F1
02 Option Terminal 01 NC C NO

/AR2, /AR2/F1
02 Option Terminal 04 03 01 NC C NO

/A3, /A3/R1
06 Option Terminal 04 03 05 02 01 NC C NO

Contact Specifications
Item Output type Output capacity Dielectric strength Specification Relay transfer contact (energize/de-energize switchable) 250 VAC (50/60 Hz), 3 A 250 VDC, 0.1 A (resistive load) 1500 VAC (50/60 Hz) for one minute between output terminals and the ground terminal

For details related to the switching of energized/de-energized state of the alarm relays, see section 6.4.

2-10

IM 04L01A01-01E

2.5

FAIL/Memory End Wiring (/F1 Option)


2
W WARNING
To prevent electric shock, ensure the main power supply is turned OFF. If a voltage of more than 30 VAC or 60 VDC is to be applied to the FAIL/Memory End output terminal, use ring-tongue crimp-on lugs with insulation sleeves on all terminals to prevent the wires from slipping out when the screws become loose. Furthermore, use double-insulated wires (dielectric strength of 2300 VAC or more) for the signal wires on which a voltage of more than 30 VAC or 60 VDC is to be applied. For all other wires, use basic insulated wires (dielectric strength of 1350 VAC). To prevent electric shock, attach the terminal cover after wiring and make sure not to touch the terminals.

Before Using the DX100

CAUTION
To prevent fire, use signal wires having a temperature rating of 70C or more.

Wiring Procedure
1. 2. Turn OFF the DX100 and remove the cover for the option terminal. Connect the FAIL/Memory End output cables to the terminal. The terminal arrangement for the FAIL/Memory End output option is as follows. Terminal Position

Option terminal

Terminal Arrangement (Only the position of the FAIL/Memory End output terminals is indicated.) When the relay is not energized, NC is closed and NO is open. C is the common terminal.
FAIL NC C NO Memory End

Option Terminal

3.

Replace the terminal cover and fasten it with screws.


FAIL output is a de-energize relay (de-energized on failure), and the memory end output is an energize relay (enrgized on memory end).

Note

IM 04L01A01-01E

2-11

2.5 FAIL/Memory End Wiring (/F1 Option)

Contact Specifications
Item Output type Output capacity Dielectric strength Specification Relay transfer contact 250 VAC (50/60 Hz), 3 A 250 VDC, 0.1 A (resistive load) 1500 VAC (50/60 Hz) for one minute between output terminals and the ground terminal

For details related to the FAIL/Memory End output, see section 1.8.

2-12

IM 04L01A01-01E

2.6

Remote Control Wiring (/R1 Option)


2
WARNING
To prevent electric shock, ensure the main power supply is turned OFF.

Before Using the DX100

CAUTION
To prevent fire, use signal wires having a temperature rating of 70C or more.

Wiring Procedure
1. 2. Turn OFF the DX100 and remove the cover for the option terminal. Connect the remote control signal cables to the terminal. The terminal arrangement for the remote control option is as follows. Terminal Position

Option terminal

Terminal Arrangement (Only the position of the remote control terminals is indicated.) C is a common terminal for terminals 1 through 8.
6 3 C 4 1 7 8 5 2

Option Terminal

3.

Replace the terminal cover and fasten it with screws.

Note
Use shielded wires for the remote control wires to reduce the effects of noise. Connect the shield to the ground terminal of the DX100.

IM 04L01A01-01E

2-13

2.6 Remote Control Wiring (/R1 Option)

Input Specifications
Item Input signal Input conditions Specification Voltage-free (dry) contact, open-collector (TTL or transistor) ON voltage: Less than or equal to 0.5 V (30 mA DC) Leakage current in the OFF state: No more than 0.25 mA Signal duration: 250 ms minimum Photocoupler isolation (one side common) Internal isolated power source (5 V 5%) 500 VDC for one minute between input terminals and the ground terminal

Input type Dielectric strength

For details related to the control and input types, see section 10.9.

2-14

IM 04L01A01-01E

2.7

24 VDC Transmitter Power Supply Wiring (/ TPS2, /TPS4, Option)


2
WARNING
To prevent electric shock, ensure the main power supply is turned OFF.

Before Using the DX100

CAUTION
Never short-circuit the power supply terminals or apply an external voltage, otherwise damage to the DX100 may result. Do not use current that exceeds the maximum output current (25 mADC). This may cause damage to the DX100. To prevent fire, use signal wires having a temperature rating of 70C or more.

Wiring diagram
Arrange the wires as shown below.
DX100 Current 24 VDC power supply terminal +

Transmitter

+ Input terminal Shunt resistor : 250 ohms

Wiring Procedure
1. 2. Turn OFF the DX100 and remove the cover for the option terminal. Connect the 24 VDC power supply wires to the terminal. The terminal arrangement for the 24 VDC power supply option is as follows. Terminal Position

Option terminal

IM 04L01A01-01E

2-15

2.7 24 VDC Transmitter Power Supply Wiring (/TPS2, /TPS4, Option) /TPS2
Option Terminal +

/TPS4
Option Terminal +

Note
Use shielded wires to reduce the effects of noise. Connect the shield to the ground terminal of the DX100.

2-16

IM 04L01A01-01E

2.8

Power Supply Wiring


2
Before Using the DX100
Precautions to be taken when wiring the power supply To prevent electric shock and damage to the DX100, observe the following warnings.

For the Panel Mount Type

WARNING
To prevent electrishock, ensure the main power supply is turned OFF. To prevent the possibility of fire, use 600 V PVC insulated wire (AWG18) or an equivalent wire for power wiring. Make sure to earth ground the protective earth terminal through a grounding resistance less than 100 before turning ON the power. Use crimp-on lugs (designed for 4 mm screws) for power and ground wiring termination. (See section 2.3, Input Signal Wiring) To prevent electric shock, make sure to attach the transparent terminal cover. Make sure to provide a power switch (double-pole type) on the power supply line in order to separate the DX100 from the main power supply. Put an indication on this switch as the breaker on the power supply line for the DX100. Switch Specification Rated power current: 1 A or more (except for /P1 model), 3 A or more (for /P1 model) Rated rush current: 60 A or more (except for /P1 model), 70 A or more (for /P1 model) Use a switch complied with IEC 60947-1, 3. Connect a fuse (between 2 A and 15 A) to the power line. The power switch and fuse used on the power supply line should be CSA approved (for the use in North America) or VDE approved (for the use in Europe). Do not add a switch or fuse to the ground line.

Use a power supply that meets the following conditions:


Item except for /P1 model for /P1 model 24 VDC/AC 21.6 to 26.4 VDC/AC 50/60 Hz (for AC) 50/60 Hz2% (for AC) 30 VA (for DC), 45VA (for AC) Rated power supply 100 to 240 VAC Allowable power supply voltage range 90 to 132 or 180 to 264 VAC Rated power supply frequency 50/60 Hz Allowable power supply frequency range 50/60 Hz2% Maximum power consumption 45 VA (100 V), 62 VA (240 V)

Note
Do not use a supply voltage in the range 132 to 180 VAC, as this may have adverse effects on the measurement accuracy (applies to all models except the ones with the /P1 option).

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2-17

2.8 Power Supply Wiring Wiring Procedure 1. Turn OFF the DX100 and remove the transparent power terminal cover. 2. Connect the power supply wires and the protective ground wire to the power terminals.
except for /P1 model for /P1 model

L N

Protective ground wire Pwer supply wires

3.

Replace the power terminal cover, and fasten it with screws.

For the Desktop Type


Except for /P1 model Precautions to be taken when wiring the power supply To prevent electric shock and damage to the DX100, observe the following warnings.

WARNING
Before connecting the power cord, ensure that the power supply voltage matches the voltage rating for the instrument, and that it is within the maximum rated voltage for the power cord itself. Confirm that the power is turned OFF before connecting the power cord. To prevent electric shock and the possibility of fire, use only the power cord that is supplied by YOKOGAWA. Always use protective earth terminal to prevent electric shock. Connect the power cord to a three-pole power outlet that has a protective earth terminal. Never use an extension cord that does not have protective earth terminal, otherwise the protection function will be compromised.

Use a power supply that meets the following conditions:


Item conditions Rated power supply 100 to 240 VAC Allowable power supply voltage range 90 to 132 or 180 to 264 VAC Rated power supply frequency 50/60 Hz Allowable power supply frequency range 50/60 Hz2% Maximum power consumption 45 VA (100 V), 62 VA (240 V)

Note
Do not use a supply voltage in the range 132 to 180 VAC, as this may have adverse effects on the measurement accuracy (applies to all models except the ones with the /P1 option).

2-18

IM 04L01A01-01E

2.8 Power Supply Wiring Connection Procedure 1. Check that the DX100 is turned OFF. 2. Connect the power cord (supplied with the DX100) to the power connector on the rear panel of the DX100.

2
Before Using the DX100

3.

Ensure that the power supply voltage is within the maximum rated voltage for the power cord, then plug the other end of the power cord into an outlet that meets the requirements. Use only a 3-prong AC outlet with a protective ground terminal.

For Models With the /P1 Option (24 VDC/AC power supply model) The wiring procedure of the power supply is the same as that for the panel mount type.

IM 04L01A01-01E

2-19

Chapter 3 Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations

3.1

Names of Parts and Functions

Front Panel

3
Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations
1

Front cover knob 5

1 2 3 4

12
DISP/
ENTER

3 6
START STOP USER FUNC ESC MENU

DISP/
ENTER

key panel cover knob

10

11

1.

LCD screen Displays various operation screens such as the trend display and the setup screen to configure the DX100. Label A label used to distinguish the channels. The user can write on this label and use it as a reference. Operation key Left, right, up, and down arrow keys and the DISP/ENTER key. The keys are used to switch the operation screen in the operation mode. In the setup screens, the keys are used to select parameters and to confirm the new settings.

2.

3.

4.

Key panel cover Open this cover to access the keys besides the arrow keys and the DISP/ENTER key. Open the cover by pulling the tab on the upper left corner of the cover toward you.

5.

Front cover Open the front cover when turning ON/OFF the DX100 or inserting or removing the external storage medium such as the floppy disk. Open the cover by pushing down on the tab located at the center of the top edge of the cover and pulling it forward. Keep the cover closed at all times except when accessing the power switch and the external storage medium.

IM 04L01A01-01E

3-1

3.1 Names of Parts and Functions

Note
For DX100s which are side-by-side mounted vertically, when a front panel is opened the down arrow key may interfere the upper front panel.

6.

START key Used to start the data acquisition to the internal memory and display the waveform on the trend display. Also starts computation and the report function when the computation function (/M1) is equipped. 7. STOP key Used to stop the data acquisition to the internal memory. It also stops the updating of the waveform on the trend display. If the model has the optional computation function (/M1), the report is stopped. For computation, you can select whether or not to stop the operation when the STOP key is pressed. 8. ESC key Used to cancel an operation. Also used to return to the operation mode from the setting mode. 9. MENU key Used to enter the setting mode. Also used to return to the operation mode from the setting mode. 10. USER key Executes the action assigned to this key. 11. FUNC key Used to execute various functions in the operation mode. For the functions that you can execute, see section 3.4. Also, used to enter the basic setting mode from the setting mode. 12. Soft keys When the FUNC key is pressed, the functions are assigned to the soft keys and displayed at the bottom of the screen. During the setting/basic setting modes, the parameters are assigned to the soft keys and displayed at the bottom of the screen.
with floppy disk drive with Zip drive with ATA flash memory card drive

13

16

14

15

14

15

14

15

13. Power switch 14. Storage medium drive Floppy disk drive, Zip drive, or ATA flash memory card drive depending on the specification. 15. Eject button (Access lamp for Zip drive) Used when ejecting the storage medium. Also is the access lamp for the Zip drive. The access lamp is lit while the Zip disk is being accessed. 16. Access lamp for the floppy disk drive The access lamp is lit while the floppy disk is being accessed. 3-2
IM 04L01A01-01E

3.1 Names of Parts and Functions

Rear Panel
2 3 (RS-232) 1(Note1) 1(Note2)

L N

3
Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations
5 6 3 (RS-422-A/485) (Fieldbus)

Note1 Panel mount type models Desktop type models with /P1 Note2 Desktop type models without /P1

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

Power terminals and a protective ground terminal Connect the power cord and the protective ground cord. Ethernet port Connect the Ethernet cable (10Base-T). Serial interface port (/C2, /C3 option) or fieldbus interface port (/CF1 option) RS-232 port or RS-422-A/485 port or FOUNDATION Fieldbus port depending on the specification. Connect the interface cable. Input terminals Connect the input signal cable of the item being measured. Option terminals (/AR1, /AR2, /A3, /F1, /R1, /TPS2, /TPS4 option) Connect optional input/output signal cables. Functional ground terminal
See the DX100/DX200 Communication Interface Users Manual (IM 04L02A01-17E) to use Ethernet port and the serial interface port.

Note

Desktop Type
1. 2. Carrying handle Four feet and two folding front feet
1

2
IM 04L01A01-01E

3-3

3.2

Turning ON/OFF the Power Switch


This section describes the procedures to turn ON/OFF the power switch.

Procedure Turning ON the power 1. Check the following points before turning ON the power switch. The power cord/wires are connected correctly to the DX100. The DX100 is connected to the correct power supply (see section 2.7). The proper fuse is set (see section 13.4).

CAUTION
If the input wires are connected in parallel with another instrument, avoid turning ON/OFF the DX100 or the other instrument when either one is in operation. This may affect the reading.

2. 3. 4.

Open the front cover by pressing down on the knob that is located in the center of the upper section of the cover and pulling forward. Turn the power switch ON. Close the cover. After performing a self-diagnosis for a few seconds, a screen in the operation mode appears.

Turning OFF the power 1. Check that the external storage medium is not being accessed and turn OFF the power switch.

Note
If nothing is displayed when the power switch is turned ON, turn OFF the power switch and check the points listed in step 1. After checking the points, turn ON the power switch again. If the unit still does not work, it is probably malfunctioning. Contact your nearest YOKOGAWA dealer for repairs. If an error message is displayed on the screen, take measures according to the description in chapter 12, Troubleshooting. Turn ON the power switch, let the DX100 warm up for at least 30 minutes, and then start the measurements.

3-4

IM 04L01A01-01E

3.3

Inserting/Removing the External Storage Medium


This section describes the procedures to insert and remove the external storage medium. Three types of media can be used depending on the specification. Model DX1 -1: Floppy disk Model DX1 -2: Zip disk Model DX1 -3: ATA flash memory card For the handling procedure of the storage medium, see section 2.1.

3
Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations

Procedure Inserting the storage medium 1. Open the front cover by pressing down on the knob that is located in the center of the upper section of the cover and pulling forward. Insert the medium into the drive until a click is heard. 2. When the power switch is turned ON, closing the front cover causes the DX100 to detect the existence of an external storage medium in the drive. If the storage medium is detected, an external storage medium icon is displayed in the status display section of the screen
Floppy disk Zip disk ATA flash memory card

Note
Keep the front cover closed during operation except when accessing the power switch and the external storage medium. This will protect the storage medium and the drive from foreign particles such as dust.

Removing the storage medium Floppy disks and ATA flash memory cards can be removed from the drive regardless of whether the DX100 is turned ON or OFF. Zip disks cannot be removed when the DX100 is turned OFF. 1. If the DX100 is turned ON, check that the storage medium is not being accessed.

Note
The access lamp is lit while the storage medium is being accessed. A message Data are being saved to the medium. is displayed while measured/computed data are being saved to the medium.

IM 04L01A01-01E

3-5

3.3 Inserting/Removing the External Storage Medium 2. Open the front cover by pressing down on the knob that is located in the center of the upper section of the cover and pulling forward. Push the eject button to remove the storage medium. Close the front cover. If the DX100 is turned ON, the external storage medium icon in the status display section disappears.
Floppy disk Zip disk ATA flash memory card

3.

Note
If the key lock function for the storage medium is engaged, the Zip disk cannot be ejected even if the eject button is pressed. Release the key lock before attempting to eject the Zip disk. See section 10.4.

Procedure when the Zip disk cannot be ejected If the Zip disk cannot be removed by performing the steps given in the Removing the storage medium section, carry out the following steps to remove it. 1. Open the front cover by pressing down on the knob that is located in the center of the upper section of the cover and pulling forward. 2. Insert a pin of approx. 1 mm in diameter into the eject button hole and press slowly. This will cause the Zip disk to be ejected.

Zip disk eject hole Eject button

Insert a pin.

Explanation Formatting external storage media Format the external storage medium before use. The external storage medium is formatted to the following types using the DX100. Format type Floppy disk: Zip disk: ATA flash memory card:

2 HD, 1.44 MB FDISK 1 partition (hard disk format) FDISK 1 partition (hard disk format)

External storage media formatted on other devices can be used as long as the format type is the same as those indicated above.

3-6

IM 04L01A01-01E

3.4

Run Mode
There are three run modes on the DX100: operation, setting, and basic setting. This section describes the functions and relationships of the three modes.

Mode Types
Power ON Operation mode

3
Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations

[END] soft key - DISP/ENTER

Operation screens

MENU

MENU or ESC

Setting mode
Pressing FUNC for 3 seconds

Basic setting mode

Menu screen

Menu screen

Soft key

MENU or ESC

Soft key

ESC

Setting screens

Setting screens

Mode Type Operation mode

Description This mode is used for daily operation. This mode is entered when the power is turned ON. This mode is used to configure the DX100 operation such as input range and alarms. This mode is entered by pressing the MENU key in the operation mode. Measured data cannot be displayed in this mode. Operations such as measurements, alarm detection, and data acquisition are continued.

Possible Operations Monitoring operation Data acquisition Setting the operation Operation related to the file on the external storage medium

Setting mode

Basic setting mode (Setup mode)

This mode is used to configure the Basic settings of the functions basic environment of the DX100 such Operation related to the file on as the input format and the data the external storage medium storage format. This mode is entered by pressing the FUNC key for three seconds at the setting mode menu. This mode cannot be entered while data acquisition or computation is in progress. Operations such as measurements, alarm detection, and data acquisition are stopped.

IM 04L01A01-01E

3-7

3.4 Run Mode

Functions and Operations in the Operation Mode


Operation screen Displays various operation screens such as trend, digital, bar graph, alarm summary, message summary, memory summary, historical trend, and report display (option). Screens are switched by the arrow keys and the DISP/ENTER key. See chapter 4. Operations using the FUNC key Pressing the FUNC key displays a menu that is assigned to the soft keys at the bottom of the screen. The menu varies depending on the setup information and options. Press the [Next] soft key to display the soft key menu in the next line. The function is executed by pressing the soft key. Press the FUNC or ESC key to erase the menu without executing the assigned function.

FUNC key menu


Menu Batch Alarm ACK Ref. section 10.11 6.1, 6.4 Description Displays the batch screen (for models with /BT1). Release alarm indication and relay output (when alarm display and alarm output relay action is set to hold.) Displays messages and stores them to the internal memory. Stores instantaneous values of all channels to the internal memory. Enables or disables key lock. (when key lock is in use) Logout (when being logged in while key login is in use) Starts acquiring event data (when [Key Trigger] is set as a trigger to start acquiring event data) Starts/stops computation. (when the computation function (/M1) is equipped) Clears computed results. (when the computation function (/M1) is equipped and the computation is suspended) Clears the computation dropout display. (when the computation function (/M1) is equipped and the computation dropout occurs) Saves the screen image data to the external medium. Displays log screens or the system information screen. Executes FTP test. Stores the display data or event data to the external storage medium. (only when the display data or event data (free mode) are being acquired to the internal memory). Starts/stops E-mail transmission. Executes E-mail test. Displays the Modbus status screen. Displays the fieldbus status screen.

Message Manual sample Key lock Logout Trigger Math START/STOP Math reset

7.4 8.12 10.3 10.5 8.6, 8.11 11.3 11.3

Math ACK

11.3

Snapshot Log FTP test*1 Save Display/Save Event

9.6 10.7

8.7

E-Mail START/STOP*1 E-Mail test*1 Modbus master*1 Fieldbus*2

*1 See the DX100/DX200 Communication Interface Users Manual (IM 04L02A01-17E). *2 See the Fieldbus Communication Interface Users Manual (IM 04L02A01-18E).

3-8

IM 04L01A01-01E

3.4 Run Mode Other key operations START/STOP Starts/stops acquiring measured/computed data. For the operating procedure, see sections 8.5 and 8.6. The waveform on the trend display also starts/stops. When the computation function (/M1) is equipped, computation and the report function also start/stop. For the operating procedure, see sections 11.3 and 11.12. USER Executes the assigned function. See section 10.1.

3
Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations

Functions of the Setting and Basic Setting Modes


Configure functions using the arrow keys, the DISP/ENTER key, the soft keys, and the character/number input keys. See 3.5 Configuring the functions and chapters 5 through 11 for detail. Also see section 9.1 to save the setup data.

IM 04L01A01-01E

3-9

3.5

Configuring the Functions (Setting Mode and Basic Setting Mode)


Basic Setting Mode The basic setting mode is used to change the basic configuration of various functions. The basic setting mode cannot be entered while data acquisition or computation is in progress or the storage medium is being accessed. Setting Mode The setting mode is used to change the functions for each channel and the display specifications. All items except the ones listed below can be changed while data acquisition or computation is in operation. Items that cannot be changed are grayed and the cursor cannot be moved on them. Items that cannot be changed while data acquisition is in progress Input range Display update rate for the trend display Auto save interval Computing equation Constants for computation Items that cannot be changed while computation is in progress. Range setting Computing equation Constants for computation TLOG timer number and sum scale

Setting Mode and Basic Setting Mode

3-10

IM 04L01A01-01E

3.5 Configuring the Functions (Setting Mode and Basic Setting Mode)

Configuration Details
The configuration details of the setting mode and the basic setting mode are shown below. Enclosed in parentheses are reference sections. Settings related to the input
Item Scan interval (5.9) Input specifications (5.1 to 5.7) Input type Measurement range Upper and lower limit of span Reference channel for differential computation Upper and lower limits of scale Unit Burn out Off/Up/Down Switch between [Internal] and [External] Compensation voltage when set to [External] Filter time constant/Off (DX102/ Integration time of the A/D DX104) (5.8) converter (5.9) Number of samples for the moving average/Off (DX106/DX112) (5.8) Setting Mode Basic Setting Mode Scan interval

3
Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations

Burnout (5.9) Reference junction compensation (5.9)

Noise elimination

Settings related to the alarm


Item Alarm Setting Mode Alarm type (6.2) Alarm value (6.2) Output relay On/Off (6.2) Output relay number (6.2) Alarm delay time (6.3) Basic Setting Mode Display hold/non-hold (6.4) The time interval for the rate-ofchange alarm (for measurement channels only) (6.4) Hysteresis (for measurement channels only) (6.4) Reflash alarm AND operation Relay energize/de-energize Relay hold/non-hold

Alarm output relay operation (option) (6.4)

Settings related to the display


Item Display group Setting Mode Group name (7.6) Channel assignment (7.6) Group display switching interval (7.13) Tag name (7.1) Switch between tag display and channel number display (7.2) Measurement channels to display the trend (applies also to measurement channels that data are to be acquired) (8.10) Use/not use the partial expanded display (7.12) Basic Setting Mode

Tag/Channel display Trend

Display rate (7.3) Message (7.5) Trip line position, display color (7.7) Trip line width (7.13) Channel display color (7.8) (applies also to bar graphs) Display direction (vertical/horizontal) (7.13) Trend line width (7.13) Grid (7.13) Scale value digits (7.13) Number of scale divisions (7.10) (applies also to bar graphs) Scale position (7.10) Zone upper and lower limits (7.9) Partial expanded display (7.11)

IM 04L01A01-01E

3-11

3.5 Configuring the Functions (Setting Mode and Basic Setting Mode)
Bar graph Channel display color (applies also to trends) (7.8) Bar graph direction (vertical/horizontal) (7.13) Number of scale divisions (applies also to trends) (7.10) Bar graph base position (7.10) Background color (white or black) (7.13) Brightness (7.14) Backlight saver specifications (7.14)

LCD

Settings related to data storage


Item Data acquisition (8.11) Setting Mode Basic Setting Mode Types of data to be acquired Event data Sampling interval Mode (Free/Trigger/ Rotate) Number of blocks (number of memory divisions) Data length (file size) Pretrigger position Type of trigger to use Measurement channels that data are to be acquired (applies also to measurement channels for which to display the trend) Computation channels (option) that data are to be acquired (applies also to computation channels for which to display the trend) Name of the directory to which data are to be saved (8.9) File header string (8.9) Range of data to be saved during manual save (8.9) Auto save interval (during auto save) (8.8) Save method to the storage media, auto save or manual save (8.11) Memory timeup(8.12)

Channel selections for data acquisition (8.10)

Storage media

Memory end alarm

Minimum remaining amount of internal memory at which to generate the alarm (10.8) Timer mode (absolute time/ relative time) (11.9) Interval time (11.9) Reference time for the absolute timer (11.9) Turn On/Off data storage to the internal memory (11.9)

TLOG data

Settings related only to the computation channels (configured on a screen dedicated to computation channels, option)
Item Computation specifications (11.4) Constants (11.6) Alarm Setting Mode Computing equation Upper and lower limit of span Unit Constants (K01 to K12) Alarm type (11.5) Alarm value (11.5) Output relay On/Off (11.5) Output relay number (11.5) Alarm delay time (6.3) Basic Setting Mode

Tag/Channel display

Tag name (7.1)


IM 04L01A01-01E

3-12

3.5 Configuring the Functions (Setting Mode and Basic Setting Mode)
Trend Channel display color (7.8) Number of scale divisions (7.10) Scale position (7.10) Zone display (7.9) Partial expansion display (7.11) Computation channels to display the trend (applies also to computation channels that data are to be acquired) (8.10)

Bar graph

Channel display color (Applies also to trends) (7.8) Number of scale divisions (7.10) Bar graph base position (7.10) Timer number to use, sum scale (11.8) Timer mode (absolute time/ relative time) (11.9) Interval time (11.9) Reference time for the absolute timer (11.9) Turn On/Off reset at each interval (11.9) Turn On/Off data storage to the internal memory (11.9) On/Off Sampling interval Number of samples

3
Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations

TLOG computation

Rolling average (11.10)

Other settings
Item Time User key Key lock (10.4) Setting Mode Date/time(3.7) Action assignment (10.2) Use/Not use key lock Password Keys to lock, enable/disable the key lock Use/Not use key login Auto logout On/Off Use/Not use user ID User name User ID Password Allow/Prohibit basic setting mode Basic Setting Mode

Key login (10.6)

Remote control (option) (10.9) Report (option) (11.13)

Action assignment on remote terminals Report types Date/Time of creation Report channel assignments Sum scale Select the display language Date/Time to switch Temperature unit Time difference from GMT

Display language (10.10) Daylight savings time (10.14) Temperature (10.15) Time zone (10.16) Batch (option)

Application name (10.12) Use/Not use batch function Supervisor name (10.12) (10.13) Manager name (10.12) Batch number (10.12) Lot number (10.12) Auto increment of batch number (10.12) Switching batch name/time indication on memory summary (10.12)

IM 04L01A01-01E

3-13

3.5 Configuring the Functions (Setting Mode and Basic Setting Mode)

File management and data clearing


Operations related to the internal memory
Item Setting Mode Basic Setting Mode Initialize settings (basic setting mode/setting mode) and clear measured/ computed data in the internal memory (9.8) Initialization of Clear measured/computed data in the settings/data clearing internal memory (9.7)

Management of files on the external storage media


Item File management Setting Mode Basic Setting Mode Save setup data (9.1) Load setup data (9.1) Delete files (9.5) Format external storage media (9.5) Save setup data (9.1) Load setup data (9.1) Save measured data with key operation (9.2) Load/display display data (9.3) Load/display event data (9.4) List files (9.5) Delete files (9.5) Format external storage media (9.5)

The menu screen and items of the setting mode


The menu screen and items of the setting mode are as follows. Enclosed in parentheses are reference sections. [Math set1], [Math set2], [Math set3] are displayed when the computational function (/M1) is equipped. [Batch set] is displayed when the batch function (/BT1) is equipped.

To [Display] menu on the next page

To [Save/Load, Clear data] menu on the next page

3-14

IM 04L01A01-01E

3.5 Configuring the Functions (Setting Mode and Basic Setting Mode) [Display] menu

3
Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations

[Save/Load, Clear data] menu

Soft key #1

Settings in the setting mode Title Item Range (5.1 to 5.7) Input type Measurement range Upper and lower limits of span Reference channel for difference computation Upper and lower limits of scale Unit Alarm type Alarm value Output relay On/Off Output relay number Tag name Filter time constant/Off (DX102/DX104) Number of samples for the moving average/Off (DX106/DX112) Trend display rate (7.3) Auto save interval (8.8) Assign an action to the USER key Message string Group name (7.6) Assign channels to groups (7.6) Trip line position, display color (7.7) Measurement channel display color Zone upper and lower limits Number of scale divisions for the trend and bar graph Bar graph base position Specify the scale display position for trends. Turn On/Off partial expanded display Position and boundary for the partial expanded display Trend display direction Bar graph display direction Background color (white or black) Trend line width Trip line width Grid for the trend display Group display switching interval (Scroll time) Scale digit

Alarm (6.2)

#2

Tag (7.1) Filter (5.8) Moving average (5.8) Alarm delay time (6.3)

#3

Trend/Save interval USER key (10.2)

#4 #5 #5 - #1

Message (7.5) Display Group set/Trip line

#5 - #2 #5 - #3

Color (7.8) Zone (7.9) Graph (7.10)

Partial (7.11)

#5 - #4

View (7.13)

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3-15

3.5 Configuring the Functions (Setting Mode and Basic Setting Mode)
Soft key #5 - #4 Settings in the setting mode Title Item LCD (7.14) LCD brightness Turn On/Off the LCD backlight saver Transition time for the LCD backlight saver and conditions that restore the backlight Computation channel display color Zone upper and lower limits for the computation channels Number of scale divisions for the trend and bar graph displays for the computation channels Bar graph base positions for the computation channels Specify the scale display position for trends for the computation channels. Turn On/Off partial expanded display for the computation channels Position and boundary for the partial expanded display for the computation channels

#5 - #5 #5 - #6

Math (Color) (7.8) Zone (7.9) Graph (7.10)

Partial (7.11)

#6

File (8.9)

Header string to be written to file Name of directory to which data are to be saved Range of data to be saved during manual save Daylight savings time (10.14) Summer/winter time On/Off Save setup data to the external storage medium (9.1) Load setup data from the external storage medium (9.1) Store measured data using key operation (9.2) Load/Display the display data on the external storage medium (9.3) Load/Display the event data on the external storage medium (9.4) List the files on the external storage medium (9.5) Delete files on the external storage medium (9.5) Format the external storage medium (9.5) Clear the measure/computed data in the internal memory (9.7) Date/time Computing equations, display span, and unit for computation channels Alarm type for the computation channels Alarm value for the computation channels Output relay On/Off for the computation channels Output relay number for the computation channels Constants (K01 to K12) Tag names of the computation channels Timer number used in TLOG, sum scale Turn On/Off the rolling average Sampling interval and the number of samples for the rolling average Application name Supervisor name Manager name Batch number Lot number Auto increment of batch number Switching batch name/time indication on memory summary

#7 #7 - #1 #7 - #2 #7 - #3 #7 - #4 #7 - #5 #7 - #6 #7 - #7 #7 - #8 #7 - #9 #8 #9

Save/Load, Clear data Save settings Load settings Save data Load display data Load event data File list Delete Format Clear data Time set (3.7) Math range (11.4) Math alarm (11.5)

#10 #11

Constant (11.6) Tag (7.1) TLOG (11.8) Rolling average (11.10)

Alarm delay time (6.3) #11 Batch set (10.12)

3-16

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3.5 Configuring the Functions (Setting Mode and Basic Setting Mode)

The menu screen and items of the basic setting mode


The menu screen and items of the basic setting mode are as follows. Enclosed in parentheses are reference sections.

3
Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations

To [Save/Load, Initialize] menu below


[Save/Load, Initialize] menu

See the DX100/DX200 communication Interface User's Manual.


Soft key #1 Settings in the basic setting mode Title Item Alarm (6.4) Reflash alarm AND operation of alarm output relays Energize/de-energize alarm output relays Hold/non-hold alarm output relays Hold/non-hold alarm displays Rate-of-change alarm interval Turn On/Off the alarm hysteresis Integration time of the A/D converter Scan interval Burn out Off/Up/Down Reference junction compensation (select internal/ external, compensation voltage when using external) Temperature unit Save method to the external storage medium Type of data to be acquired Event data Sampling interval Mode (Free/Trigger/Rotate) Number of blocks (number of memory divisions) Data length (file size) Pretrigger position Type of trigger to use Measurement channels to acquire data/display the trend Computation channels to acquire data/display the trend Date and time to save data

#2

A/D (5.9)

Temperature (10.15) #3 Memory (8.11)

#4

Memory & trend (8.10)

Memory timeup (8.12)

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3-17

3.5 Configuring the Functions (Setting Mode and Basic Setting Mode)
Soft key #5 Settings in the basic setting mode Title Item Aux Switch between tag display and channel display (7.2) Minimum remaining amount of internal memory at which to generate the alarm (10.8) Set the displayed language (10.10) Use/Not use partial expanded display (7.12) Use/Not use batch function (for models with /BT1) (10.13) Time difference from GMT Use/Not use key lock Password Keys to lock, enable/disable the key lock Use/Not use key login Auto logout On/Off Use/Not use user ID User name User ID Password Allow/Prohibit basic setting mode Save setup data to the external storage medium (9.1) Load setup data from the external storage medium (9.1) Delete files on the external storage medium (9.5) Format the external storage medium (9.5) Initialize the setup data in the internal memory and clear measured/computed data (9.8) Action assignment on remote terminals Report types Date/Time of creation Report channel assignments Sum scale Timer mode (absolute time/relative time) Interval Reference time for the absolute timer Turn On/Off reset at each interval Turn On/Off data storage

Time zone(10.16) #6 Key lock (10.4)

#7

Key login (10.6)

#8 #8 - #1 #8 - #2 #8 - #3 #8 - #4 #8 - #5 #9 #9 - #1 #9 - #2

Save/Load, Initialize Save settings Load settings Delete Format Initialize Option Remote (10.9) Report (11.13)

#9 - #3

Timer (TLOG) (11.9)

#10 #10 - #1 #10 - #2 #10 - #3 #10 - #4 #10 - #5 #10 - #6 #11 #11 - #1 #11 - #2 #11 - #3 #11 - #4 #11 - #5 #11 - #6 End *

Communications Ethernet (IP_Address)* Ethernet (DNS)* FTP transfer file* FTP connection* Control (login, timeout)* Serial/Memory out* Web, E-Mail Web* Basic E-Mail settings* Alarm E-Mail settings* Scheduled E-Mail settings* System E-Mail settings* Report E-Mail settings* End (3.6) Terminate operations in the basic setting mode

See the DX100/DX200 Communication Interface Users Manual (IM 04L02A01-17E).

3-18

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3.6

Common Key Operations


This section describes common key operations that are used often.
Soft keys Arrow keys

3
Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations
DISP/
ENTER START STOP USER FUNC ESC MENU

DISP/ENTER key

Key operations in the basic setting mode


Procedure Entering the basic setting mode 1. Press the MENU key to enter the setting mode. 2. Hold the FUNC key down for three seconds to enter the basic setting mode. 3. Press the soft key to enter individual setting screens.

Note
Basic setting mode cannot be entered while data acquisition or computation is in progress or the storage medium is being accessed. Stop data acquisition and computation first before entering the basic setting mode. Changing and storing the data acquiring method in the basic setting mode ([#3 Memory] and [#4 Memory and trend]) clears the measured/computed data in the internal memory. Make sure to save the data to the external storage medium before entering the basic setting mode.

Common key operations in the basic setting mode are described.

Cursor position (bule)

Setting selections (selected using the soft keys)

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3-19

3.6 Common Key Operations Selecting the parameter 1. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The available selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen above the soft keys. 2. Select the parameter with the soft key. The box containing the parameter that was changed turns yellow. The cursor moves to the next parameter. To cancel the settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] and press the DISP/ENTER key. Confirming the settings 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key confirms the new settings. The parameter boxes return to a white color. The cursor moves to the first parameter on the page. Returning to the menu screen of the basic setting mode 1. Press the ESC key to return to the menu screen of the basic setting mode. Exiting the basic setting mode Carry out the following steps when the basic setting menu is displayed. 1. Press the [END] soft key. A confirmation window with a message [Do you want to store and make the new settings take effect?] appears. 2. Selecting [Yes] with the arrow key and pressing the DISP/ENTER key saves the new settings and returns to the operation mode. If you do not wish to save the new settings, select [No] with the arrow key and press the DISP/ENTER key to return to the operation mode. Selecting [Cancel] with the arrow key and pressing the DISP/ENTER key cancels the operation to exit the basic setting mode and returns to the basic setting mode menu. In this case, the setting changes made up to that point are held.

Key operations in the setting mode


Procedure Entering the setting mode 1. Press the MENU key to enter the setting mode. 2. Press the soft key to enter individual setting screens.

Cursor position (bule)

Setting selections (selected using the soft keys)

3-20

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3.6 Common Key Operations Selecting the parameter 1. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The available selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen above the soft keys. 2. Select the parameter with the soft key. The box containing the parameter that was changed turns yellow. The cursor moves to the next parameter. To cancel the settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] and press the DISP/ENTER key. Confirming the settings 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key confirms the new settings. The parameter boxes return to a white color. The cursor moves to the first parameter on the page. Returning to the menu screen of the setting mode 1. Press the Menu or ESC key to return to the menu screen of the setting mode. Exiting the setting mode 1. Press the MENU or the ESC key to save the settings and return to the operation mode.

3
Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations

Entering Numbers
The operation to enter numbers is used such as when setting the date, time, or the display span of the input range.
Window for entering numbers

Select numbers

Procedure When the window used to enter the numbers appears, enter the value according to the following key operations. Left and right arrow keys: Selects the input position Up and down arrow keys: Enters the number

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3-21

3.6 Common Key Operations

Entering characters
Used to set tag names, set message strings, set or enter passwords.
Window for entering characters

Select character

Insert/overwrite

Selected character type

Procedure When the window used to enter the string appears, enter the characters according to the following key operations. Left and right arrow keys: Selects the input position Up and down arrow key: Enters the character [A/a/1] soft key: Selects upper-case alphabet (A), lower-case alphabet (a), or numbers (1). The character type is switched in the following order each time the [A/a/1] soft key is pressed. The selected character type is displayed to the right down of the input window. Upper-case alphabet (A) lower-case alphabet (a) numbers (1) [DEL] soft key: Deletes the character at the cursor position. [BS] soft key: Deletes the character to the left of the cursor position. [INS] soft key: Selects insert or overwrite Insert and overwrite modes switch each time the [INS] soft key is pressed. The selected mode is displayed to the right down of the window.

Copying/clearing character strings


When entering a character string in the basic setting mode or the setting mode, you can copy and paste a preexisting string. You can also clear a selected string. The soft keys used to perform these operations appear only when these operations are appropriate. Procedure Copying a character strings To copy a character string to another box, follow the procedures below. 1. Move the cursor to the copy source string and press the [Copy] soft key. The [Paste] soft key appears. 2. Move the cursor to the copy destination box and press the [Paste] soft key. The character string is copied.

Clearing the character string 1. To clear the character string, press the [Clear] soft key.

3-22

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3.7

Setting the Date and Time


Set the date and time. The set date and time can be specified whether it belong to the summer time or the winter time. The summer time and the winter time are defined by the daylight savings time adjustment function. For detail, see section 10.14, Using the Daylight Savings Time Adjustment Function.

3
Names of Parts/Run Mode/Common Operations

Procedure Press
MENU

Press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the window for the date and time setting, press the soft key

#8

1.

2.

YY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS Enter the date and time. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays the number input keypad. Enter the date and time and press the [DISP/ENTER] key. For the procedures related to entering numbers, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key closes the window without setting the [DST] box. To cancel the setting and close the window, press the ESC key. DST (Daylight savings time adjustment function) [Summer] or [Winter] is displayed in the [DST] box corresponding to the date and time indicated in the [YY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS] box when the window is opened. Operate as follows to set [Summer] or [Winter] for the date and time entered. Pressing the right arrow key shifts the cursor to the [DST] box. Select [Summer] or [Winter] by the soft key and press the DISP/ENTER key. The window closes. To cancel the setting and close the window, press the ESC key before pressing the DISP/ENTER key.

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3-23

Chapter 4 Switching Operation Screens

4.1

Operation Screens
This chapter describes the screen (operation screen) used to display the measured/ computed data.
Status display section

4
Data display section

Switching Operation Screens

Sub menu Screen menu Displayed by pressing the DISP/ENTER key

The screen consists of the status display section and the data display section. The operation screen includes trend, digital, bar graph, alarm summary, message summary, memory summary, report (option), and historical trend. The arrow keys and the DISP/ENTER key are used to switch the screen. Screen menu: Displayed when the DISP/ENTER key is pressed. Sub menu: Displayed when the right arrow key is pressed while the screen menu is displayed. The following operations are possible. For trend, digital, and bar graph screens, the displayed group can be automatically switched. Recalling the historical trend at the time the alarm selected in the Alarm Summary occurred or the message selected in the Message Summary is written. Also displaying the historical trend selected in the Memory Summary. Switching to the trend or bar graph screen that contains the channel data pointed on the overview screen.

1 2 3 4

DISP/
ENTER

Four arrow keys

DISP/ENTER key

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4-1

4.2

Explanation of the Status Display Section


The following information is displayed in the status display section during the operation mode and the setting mode. (The information is not displayed in the basic setting mode. [Setup Mode] is displayed instead).
5-1

1 2 3

10 9 11

6 6-1([Free] ode)

6-2([Trigger] or [Rotate] mode) 4 A B C D E F G

1. User name The user name is displayed when a user is logged in using the key login function. 2. Group name or screen name The name of the group or screen that is displayed in the data display section. [All] is displayed only during all channel display (see section 4.3). 3. Current date and time The current date and time are displayed. On models with the optional /BT1 batch function, the date and time and batch number and lot number are alternately displayed every 5 s when Use batch function (see section 10.13) is being set. 4. ON/OFF state of the measured/computed data acquisition. A and B are displayed alternately: Data acquisition in progress or waiting for the event data trigger. C: Data acquisition is suspended.

Note
For event data that starts acquiring data upon receiving a trigger, the indicator indicates that the data acquisition is in progress even when it is in the trigger wait state. The trigger wait state can be identified using the bar graph described in item 6.

4-2

IM 04L01A01-01E

4.2 Explanation of the Status Display Section 5. The usage condition of the display data storage area in the internal memory This is displayed when display data acquisition is enabled. Bar graph Displays the used space of the display data storage area. Time period The remaining time for acquiring the display data. When the remaining time is less than one hour, the time is displayed in units of minutes.
Remaining time Greater than or equal to 100 days Greater than or equal to 100 hours, less than 100 days Unit % days Note Percentage of the remaining area with respect to the display data storage area unit less than one day is rounded off. unit less than one hour is rounded off. unit less than one minute is rounded off.

4
Switching Operation Screens

Greater than or equal to 60 minutes, hours less than 100 hours Less than 60 minutes minutes

n/16 The maximum number of display data files that can be written to the internal memory is 16 (see section 8.2). 16 represents this value. n represents the number of files in the internal memory.

Note
The display data are overwritten for the following cases. Be aware of these cases, because data that are overwritten are lost. When the display data storage area in the internal memory becomes full. In such case, [Overwrite] is displayed in the status display section. When the number of files that remains to be saved to the external medium exceeds 16.

6. The usage condition of the event data storage area in the internal memory This is displayed when event data acquisition is enabled. When the trigger mode is set to [Free] (see section 8.2) Bar graph Displays the used space of the event data storage area. Time period The remaining time for acquiring the event data. When the remaining time is less than one hour, the time is displayed in units of minutes. For the detail of the displayed unit, see Time period in item 5 above. n/16 The maximum number of event data files that can be written to the internal memory is 16 (see section 8.2). 16 represents this value. n represents the number of files in the internal memory.

Note
The event data are overwritten for the following cases. Be aware of these cases, because data that are overwritten are lost. When the event data storage area in the internal memory becomes full. In such case, [Overwrite] is displayed in the status display section. When the number of files that remains to be saved to the external medium exceeds 16.

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4-3

4.2 Explanation of the Status Display Section When the trigger mode is set to [Trigger] or [Rotate] (see section 8.2) Bar graph Displays the used space with respect to the specified memory length (data length, see section 8.11). When pretrigger is specified and the START key is pressed causing the DX100 to enter the trigger wait state, data of size equal to the pretrigger amount are acquired to the internal memory. The bar is displayed in orange. After acquiring data of size equal to the pretrigger, the length of the bar stays fixed. However, the relevant data are updated until the trigger is activated. When the trigger is activated, the bar turns green. Data are acquired to the internal memory after the pretrigger data. During the [Trigger] mode, [Full] is displayed when data acquisition to all blocks is complete. When [Full] is displayed, event data are no longer acquired even if the trigger condition is met. In this case, save the data in the internal memory to the external storage medium. Block display When the event data storage area is divided into multiple blocks, the usage condition of the blocks are displayed. White block: No data Green block: Block containing data that were acquired to the internal memory after starting the current acquisition of event data. Gray block: Block containing data that were acquired before the current start operation. 7. The external storage medium condition D: The front cover is open. No display: No storage medium inserted. E and F displayed in order: Accessing the storage medium. F: Storage medium is idle (no access) G: The used space of the storage medium is indicated by the green level indicator in the icon. The colored section indicating the level turns red when the amount of free space on the storage medium falls below 10%.

Note
When the front cover is closed, the DX100 checks whether or not an external storage medium is inserted in the drive. Keep the front cover closed during operation in order to prevent adverse effects caused by foreign particles such as dust entering the DX100.

8. Computation icon (Option) Computation icon not displayed: No computation option or computation is suspended White computation icon: Computation in progress Yellow computation icon: Computation data dropout occurred

Note
Computation data dropout occurs when the computation is not completed within the scan interval. The computation icon returns to the green icon by pressing FUNC [MathACK] soft key (see section 11.3). If a computation dropout occurs, make the scan interval longer (see section 5.9) or reduce the number of computation channels that are turned On (see section 11.4).

9. Key lock icon Key icon: Key lock ON No display: Key lock OFF 10. E-mail transmission function icon Displayed when the e-mail transmission function is started. 11. Alarm icon Displayed when any one of the alarms is occurring. For details, see section 6.1. 4-4
IM 04L01A01-01E

4.3

Using the Trend, Digital, and Bar Graph Screens


TREND, DIGITAL, BAR GRAPH
(Screen menu) (Sub menu)
(Operation screens) (Screen menu) (Sub menu)

Operation Flow Diagram

TREND

DISP

DISP

DISP

DIGITAL BAR GRAPH

Changing groups Group channels All channels Scale ON/OFF Numerical display ON/OFF Auto scroll ON/OFF
DISP

4
Switching Operation Screens

Changing groups Auto scroll ON/OFF

Changing groups
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4

Switching screens
TREND DIGITAL BAR GRAPH

: Screen menu,

: Sub menu,

DISP

: DISP/ENTER key,

: Arrow keys

Procedure Displaying the screen 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. 2. Select [Trend], [Digital], or [Bar Graph] using the up and down arrow keys. 3. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key.

4. 5.

Select the group using the up and down arrow keys. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen. To close the menu without switching the screen, press the ESC key.

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4-5

4.3 Using the Trend, Digital, and Bar Graph Screens Displaying or clearing the scale on the trend screen This operation is carried out on the Trend screen. 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. ([Trend] is selected.) 2. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. 3. Select [SCALE ON]* or [SCALE OFF].*
* The one that is selectable is displayed in the sub menu.

4.

Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the scale. To close the menu without displaying/clearing the scale, press the ESC key.

Showing the all channel display/returning to the group display On the group display, the channels that are assigned to the group are displayed (see section 7.6). On the all channel display, the waveform of all channels that are set to display the trend (see section 8.10) are displayed over the current group display. See Explanation. 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. ([Trend] is selected.) 2. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. 3. Select [ALL CHANNEL]* or [GROUP CHANNEL] using the up and down arrow keys.
* The one that is selectable is displayed in the sub menu.

4.

Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen. To close the menu without switching the screen, press the ESC key.

4-6

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4.3 Using the Trend, Digital, and Bar Graph Screens Displaying or clearing the numerical display section on the trend screen This operation is carried out on the Trend screen. 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. ([Trend] is selected.) 2. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. 3. Select [DIGITAL ON]* or [DIGITAL OFF]* using the up and down keys.
* The one that is selectable is displayed in the sub menu.

4
Switching Operation Screens

4.

Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays/clears the numerical display section. To close the menu without displaying/clearing the numerical section, press the ESC key.

Changing the group on the display screen The following three methods are available. If all channel display is selected, waveforms for all channels that are registered to display the trend (see section 8.10) are displayed even when the group is changed. Changing the group on the display screen from the screen menu 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. 2. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. 3. Select the group using the up and down arrow keys. 4. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the selected group. To close the menu without switching the screen, press the ESC key. Changing the group on the display screen using the arrow keys 1. The displayed group changes in the order Group 1, Group 2, Group 3, Group 4, Group 1, and so on by pressing the right arrow key on the trend, digital, and bar graph screens. 2. By pressing the left arrow key, the displayed group changes in the reverse order. Automatically switch the displayed groups/stop the automatic switching The displayed group on the trend, digital, and bar graph screens can be automatically switched at the specified interval. In each screen, the displayed group rotates from group 1 to group 4. You can select 5 s, 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, or 1 min for the switch interval. For the procedure related to setting the switch interval, see section 7.13. 1. On the trend, digital, and bar graph screens, press the DISP/ENTER key to display the screen menu. 2. Press the right arrow key to display the sub menu. To close the sub menu that you opened, press the left arrow.

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4-7

4.3 Using the Trend, Digital, and Bar Graph Screens 3. To enable automatic switching, select [AUTO SCROLL ON]* using the up and down arrow keys. To disable automatic switching, select [AUTO SCROLL OFF]* using the up and down arrow keys.
* The one that is selectable is displayed in the sub menu.

4.

Press the DISP/ENTER key to enable or disable the automatic switching of the displayed groups.

Switching the trend, digital, and bar graph screens The following two methods are available: Switch between trend, digital, and bar graph from the screen menu The operating procedure is the same as Displaying the screen on page 4-5. Switching the trend, digital, and bar graph screens using the arrow keys 1. The displayed screen changes in the order trend, digital, bar graph, trend, and so on by pressing the down arrow key on the trend, digital, and bar graph screens. 2. By pressing the up arrow key, the displayed screen changes in the reverse order.

Starting the waveform display of the trend screen/stopping the waveform update The operation procedure used to start the waveform display of the trend screen and the procedure used to stop the waveform update are the same as the operation used to start/stop the data acquisition to the internal memory. When the data are being acquired to the internal memory, the waveform is displayed. When it is stopped, the waveform is not updated. For the operating procedure, see sections 8.4 and 8.6.

4-8

IM 04L01A01-01E

4.3 Using the Trend, Digital, and Bar Graph Screens Explanation About group display and all channel display The group display of trend, digital, and bar graph and the all channel display of the trend are displayed in the following fashion (see table below). They depend on whether channels are assigned to the groups and whether the channels are set to display the trend and store the data.
Assigned to Trend Display/Data Numerical Display*3 Storage Specification*2 Bar Graph Groups*1 Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No Display Display Don't display Don't display Trend's Waveform Display Group All Channels Display Don't display Don't display Don't display Display Don't display Display Don't display Data Acquisition to the Internal Memory Yes No Yes No

4
Switching Operation Screens

*1 Whether or not the channel is assigned to a group. *2 Whether or not the channel is set to display the trend and store the data. *3 Numerical display refers to the numerical display of trend, digital, and bar graph screens.

The numerical display of trend, digital, and bar graph screens and the bar graph display are updated at all times when they are displayed. It is not affected by whether or not the waveform of the trend screen is shown. The waveform of the trend screen is updated at the display update rate. For the procedure related to setting the display update rate, see section 7.3, Setting the Display Update Rate (Trend). For the procedure related to setting the channel to display the trend and to store the data, see section 8.10. For the procedure used to assign channels to groups, see section 7.6.

Alarm indication Alarms are checked at all times and displayed on the relevant displays regardless of whether or not the waveform of the trend screen is shown. Alarms are displayed using alarm type symbols. For details related to the alarms, see section 6.2.
Name Upper limit alarm Lower limit alarm Difference upper limit alarm Difference lower limit alarm Upper limit on rate-of-change alarm Lower limit on rate-of-change alarm Delay upper limit alarm Delay lower limit alarm Symbol H L h l R r T t

The display direction of the trend and the bar graph For the setting procedure of the display direction of the trend and the bar graph, see section 7.13.

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4-9

4.3 Using the Trend, Digital, and Bar Graph Screens Trend (Vertical Display)

Scale Display update rate(Time/div) Message Trip line Tag/Channel no. Measured/computed value Unit Alarm mark

Trend (Vertical Display, All Channel Display)

Waveform of all channels that are registered to display the trend Data of selected group

Digital

Tag/Channel no.

Measured/computed value Unit

Alarm mark

Bar Graph (Vertical Display)

Tag/Channel no. Alarm mark Upper limit of span Alarm point mark Bar graph Lower limit of span Unit

Measured/computed value

4-10

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4.4

Using the Overview Screen

Operation Flow Diagram


(Screen menu) (Overview screen) (Screen menu)
DISP

(Sub menu)
DISP

DISP DISP

To TREND To BAR GRAPH

Channel selection

4
Switching Operation Screens

Cursor ON/OFF

: Screen menu,

: Sub menu,

DISP

: DISP/ENTER key,

: Arrow keys

Procedure Displaying the screen. 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. 2. Select [Trend], [Digital], or [Bar Graph] using the up and down arrow keys. Select [Overview] using the up and down arrow keys. 3. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen. To close the menu without switching the screen, press the ESC key. Displaying or clearing the cursor 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. 2. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. 3. Select [CURSOR ON]* or [CURSOR OFF].*
* The one that is selectable is displayed in the sub menu.

4.

Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays or clears the cursor. To close the menu without displaying/clearing the cursor, press the ESC key.

Switching to the trend or bar graph screen of the channel selected with the cursor 1. Move the cursor to select the channel using the arrow key. 2. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. 3. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. 4. Select [JUMP TO TREND] or [JUMP TO BAR] using up and down arrow keys.

5.

Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen. To close the menu without displaying the screen, press the ESC key.

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4-11

4.4 Using the Overview Screen Explanation Overview Screen

Tag/Channel no. Cursor

Alarm type Measured/ computed value

The area corresponding to a channel on which an alarm is occurring is displayed in red. The area corresponding to a channel on which an alarm is not occurring is displayed in green.

4-12

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4.5

Using the Information Screen (Alarm Summary, Message Summary, and Memory Summary)
(INFORMATION)
DISP

Operation Flow Diagram


(Screen rmenu) (Sub menu) (Screen menu) (Sub menu)

DISP

DISP

Information selection MEMORY SUMMARY


DISP DISP

To HISTORICAL TREND

4
Switching Operation Screens

To Report data When displaying Report data

: Screen menu,

: Sub menu,

DISP

: DISP/ENTER key,

: Arrow keys

Procedure Displaying the alarm summary, message summary, or memory summary 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. 2. Select [INFORMATION] using the up and down arrow keys. 3. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. 4. Select [ALARM SUMMARY], [MESSAGE SUMMARY], or [MEMORY SUMMARY] using the up and down arrow keys.

5.

Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen. To close the menu without displaying the screen, press the ESC key.

Recalling the historical trend at the time the alarm occurred This operation is carried out on the Alarm Summary screen. 1. Select the alarm of which to display the trend using the up and down arrow keys.
Selected alarm

2. 3. 4.

Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. Select [JUMP TO HISTORY] using the up and down arrow keys.

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4-13

4.5 Using the Information Screen (Alarm Summary, Message Summary, and Memory Summary) 5. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the historical trend. The displayed data type is as follows: When configured to acquire only the display data to the internal memory: Display data When configured to acquire only the event data to the internal memory: Event data When configured to acquire the display data and the event data to the internal memory: Data type selected in the memory summary To close the menu without switching the screen, press the ESC key.

Recalling the historical trend at the time the message was written This operation is carried out on the Message Summary screen. 1. Select the message of which to display the trend using the up and down arrow keys.
Selected message

2. 3. 4.

Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. Select [JUMP TO HISTORY] using the up and down arrow keys.

5.

Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the historical trend. The displayed data type is as follows: When configured to acquire only the display data to the internal memory: Display data When configured to acquire only the event data to the internal memory: Event data When configured to acquire the display data and the event data to the internal memory: Data type selected in the memory summary To close the menu without switching the screen, press the ESC key.

Selecting the type of file (display data or event data) to display in the Memory Summary This operation is carried out on the Memory Summary screen. 1. Select display data or event data using the left and right arrow keys. The selected file type is indicated by a green circle to the left of [DISPLAY DATA] or [EVENT DATA]. Information about the selected file is displayed.

4-14

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4.5 Using the Information Screen (Alarm Summary, Message Summary, and Memory Summary) Opening the display/event data file from Memory Summary (recalling the historical trend). 1. Select the file using the up and down arrow keys.

Selected file

2. 3.

Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key.

4
Switching Operation Screens

4. 5.

Select [JUMP TO HISTORY] using the up and down arrow keys. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the historical trend. To close the menu without switching the screen, press the ESC key.

Displaying the report data (option) This operation is carried out on the Message Summary screen. For detail of the report data, see section 11.11. 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. 2. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. 3. Select [REPORT DATA] using the up and down arrow keys.

4.

Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the report data. To close the menu without displaying the report data, press the ESC key.

Changing the report data to be displayed The index number of the report data currently displayed/the number of report data sets in the internal memory is displayed in the [Index] column of the report data display. The most recent report data set is the one with the largest report data index number. When the report data are being displayed, the arrow keys can be pressed to switch the report being displayed. The operation when the four arrow keys are pressed are as follows: Up arrow key: Displays next report data. Down arrow key: Displays the previous report data. Right arrow key: Displays the report data that is 10 data sets after the report data being displayed. However, if there are less than 10 data sets, the most recent report data (with the maximum report data index number) are displayed. Left arrow key: Displays the report data that is 10 data sets before the report data being displayed. However, if there are less than 10 data sets, the oldest report data (report data index number 1) are displayed.

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4-15

4.5 Using the Information Screen (Alarm Summary, Message Summary, and Memory Summary) Explanation Alarm Summary
Number of the alarm information displayed at the bottom of the screen Number of the alarm information in the internal memory Tag/Channel no. Alarm No. (1,2,3,4)/Type (H,L,h,l,R,r,T,t) Date & Time (Alarm activated). Date & Time (Alarm released).

Cursor

Mark (see section 6.1)

Message Summary
Number of the message displayed at the bottom of the screen Number of the messages in the internal memory Message Date and time the message was written

Cursor

The date and time when the message was entered and the user name (when using key login function) are displayed. Memory Summary
Number of data sets in the internal memory/The maximum number of data sets the internal memory can hold Date and time the last data were acquired Status of alarm output relays Red: Activated Green: Released Selection of the file type to be displayed, display data files or event data files

Cursor

Date and time the data File status acquisition ended* Number of data in the file Date and time the data acquisition started
* On models with the optional /BT1 batch function, the batch number and lot number for each file can be displayed in place of the date and time the data acquisition ended.

4-16

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4.5 Using the Information Screen (Alarm Summary, Message Summary, and Memory Summary) Report Data (/M1 option)
The index number of the report data currently displayed The number of report data sets in the internal memory Report type

Date and time the report started Date and time the report was created

4
Switching Operation Screens
Status of data (see section 11.11)

Note
When new report data are created while displaying the report data, the screen is not updated. The most recent report data can be displayed by carrying out the following operations. Press the DISP/ENTER key and display the report data again from the menu, or Press the right arrow key.

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4-17

4.6

Using the Historical Trend


(HISTORICAL TREND) Moving the cursor

Operation Flow Diagram

(Screen menu)
DISP DISP DISP

(Screen menu)

(Sub menu)
DISP

Memory information Changing groups Group channels All channels Expanding/reducing the time axis

ALARM SUMMARY MESSAGE SUMMARY MEMORY SUMMARY Load display data Load event data

: Screen menu,

: Sub menu,

DISP

: DISP/ENTER key,

: Arrow keys

Procedure There are 6 methods in displaying the historical trend screen. From the alarm summary. See section 4.5. From the message summary. See section 4.5. From the memory summary. See section 4.5. From [Load display data]. See section 9.3. From [Load event data]. See section 9.4. Recall from the screen menu. Described in this section. Displaying the historical trend screen (from the screen menu) Of the data being sampled, the display data existing before the execution of this operation are displayed as a historical trend. 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER displays the screen menu. 2. Select [TREND HISTORY] using the up and down arrow keys. 3. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen. To close the menu without switching the screen, press the ESC key.

Note
Even if the display data are not configured to be acquired to the internal memory (see section 8.11), the display data existing before the execution of this operation are displayed as a historical trend.

Showing the all channel display/returning to the group display On the group display, the channels that are assigned to the group are displayed (see section 7.6.) On the all channel display, the waveform of all channels that are set to display the trend (see section 8.10) are displayed over the current group display. See the explanation in section 4.3. This operation is carried out on the Historical Trend screen. 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. ([TREND HISTORY] is selected.) 4-18
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4.6 Using the Historical Trend 2. 3. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. Select [ALL CHANNEL] or [GROUP CHANNEL] using the up and down arrow keys.

4
4. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen. To close the menu without switching the screen, press the ESC key.

Switching Operation Screens

Changing the group on the display screen If all channel display is selected, waveforms for all channels that are registered to display the trend (see section 8.10) are displayed even when the group is changed. 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. ([TREND HISTORY] is selected.) 2. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. 3. Select the group using the up and down arrow keys. 4. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the selected group. To close the menu without switching the screen, press the ESC key. Expanding/ reducing the time axis The time axis can be expanded or reduced with respect to the display reference position. Display data: The time axis can be expanded to twice the trend display. It can also be reduced down to minimum 1/60th of the trend display. Event data: The time axis can be reduced down to minimum 1/60th. The factor by which the display can be expanded or reduced at one time by carrying out the procedures below varies depending on the display update rate for the display data, and the sampling interval for the event data being displayed. To expand or reduce the display further, repeat the procedures below 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. ([TREND HISTORY] is selected.) 2. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. 3. Select [ZOOM +] or [ZOOM ] using the up and down arrow keys.

4.

Pressing the DISP/ENTER key expands or reduces the time axis. To close the menu without switching the screen, press the ESC key.

Scrolling the waveform Pressing the up or down arrow key (vertical display) or the left or right arrow key (horizontal display) while displaying the historical trend scrolls the waveform along the time axis.

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4-19

4.6 Using the Historical Trend Specifying the displayed position with the cursor The cursor position on the all data display locates the display reference position. Enclosed in parentheses are for the horizontal trend display. 1. Pressing the right (up) arrow key displays the all data display in the right (upper) section of the screen.

Display reference position Cursor All data display Date and time of the cursor position

2. 3.

Move the cursor to select the displayed position using the up and down (left and right) arrow keys. Pressing the left (down) arrow key switches to the historical trend screen with shifted waveforms.

Display the current trend data and the historical trend data Displays the current display data on the upper (right) half of the screen and the historical trend on the lower (left) half of the screen. 1. Pressing the left (down) arrow key displays the current trend and the historical trend. To return to the previous screen, press the up arrow key. Displaying the memory information 1. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the screen menu. ([TREND HISTORY] is selected.) 2. Pressing the right arrow key displays the sub menu. To close the sub menu, press the left arrow key. 3. Select [INFORMATION ON] using the up and down arrow keys.

4.

Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays the window with the memory information. For models with the batch function (/BT1), batch number and lot number information of the display/event data (displayed as a historical trend) is also displayed.

5. 4-20

To clear the window, press the DISP/ENTER key or one of the arrow keys.
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4.6 Using the Historical Trend Explanation Background color of the historical trend The background color of the historical trend is either black or white, opposite of the background color displayed for the current trend. Historical Trend
Time axis Expanding/Reducing rate Icons for switching screens Display reference position

4
Switching Operation Screens

Tag/Channel no. Unit Maximum and minimum values at the display reference position
*

Maximum and minimum values* among the data displayed

All digits may not be displayed because of the limitation of the display area.

Historical Trend (Displaying the current trend and the historical trend).

Current trend

Historical trend

Data from the current trend

Note
It is possible that not all of the digits of the maximum and minimum values of the computation channel data will be displayed.

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4-21

Chapter 5 Measurement Channel Settings

5.1

Voltage Input Setting


To measure the DC voltage input or the DC current input using an external shunt resistor, follow the procedures below to set the voltage input. The range cannot be changed while data acquisition or computation is in progress.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

5
Measurement Channel Settings

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#1

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. 2. 3. 4. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. Mode Set the mode to [Volt]. Range Set the input range. Upper and lower limits of span Set the upper and lower limits of the display span. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a numerical value. Enter a value in the allowed range and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21.

Note
Span lower limit and span upper limit cannot be set to the same value.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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5-1

5.1 Voltage Input Setting Explanation Measurable range The following table shows the mode, range, and measurable range.
Mode Volt Range 20 mV 60 mV 200 mV 2V 6V 20 V 50 V Measurable Range 20.00 to 20.00 mV 60.00 to 60.00 mV 200.0 to 200.0 mV 2.000 to 2.000 V 6.000 to 6.000 V 20.00 to 20.00 V 50.00 to 50.00 V

DC current input An external shunt resistor is connected to the input terminal to convert a current signal to a voltage signal. The shunt resistors in the following table can be provided. A 250 shunt resistor, for example, is used to convert a 4 to 20 mA to a 1 to 5 V.
Name Shunt resistors (for screw terminals) Shunt resistors (for clamped terminals) Model Code 4159 20 4159 21 4159 22 4389 20 4389 21 4389 22 Specification 250 0.1% 100 0.1% 10 0.1% 250 0.1% 100 0.1% 10 0.1%

5-2

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5.2

Thermocouple (TC)/Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Setting


To measure TC and RTD signals, follow the procedures below to set the input range. The range cannot be changed while data acquisition or computation is in progress.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

5
Measurement Channel Settings

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#1

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. 2. 3. 4. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. Mode Set the mode to [TC] (thermocouple) or [RTD] (resistance temperature detector. Range Set the type of thermocouple or RTD. Upper and lower limits of span Set the upper and lower limits of the display span. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a numerical value. Enter a value in the allowed range and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21.

Note
Span lower limit and span upper limit cannot be set to the same value.

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5-3

5.2 Thermocouple (TC)/Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Setting Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Measurable range The following table shows the mode, range, and measurable range.
Mode TC Range R S B K E J T N W L U Pt100 JPt100 CU1 CU2 CU3 CU4 CU5 CU6 CU25 Measurable Range (C) 0.0 to 1760.0C 0.0 to 1760.0C 0.0 to 1820.0C 200.0 to 1370.0C 200.0 to 800.0C 200.0 to 1100.0C 200.0 to 400.0C 0.0 to 1300.0C 0.0 to 2315.0C 200.0 to 900.0C 200.0 to 400.0C 200.0 to 600.0C 200.0 to 550.0C 200.0 to 300.0C 200.0 to 300.0C 200.0 to 300.0C 200.0 to 300.0C 200.0 to 300.0C 200.0 to 300.0C 200.0 to 300.0C Measurable Range (F) 32 to 3200F 32 to 3200F 32 to 3308F 328 to 2498F 328.0 to 1472.0F 328.0 to 2012.0F 328.0 to 752.0F 32 to 2372F 32 to 4199F 328.0 to 1652.0F 328.0 to 752.0F 328.0 to 1112.0F 328.0 to 1022.0F 328.0 to 572.0F 328.0 to 572.0F 328.0 to 572.0F 328.0 to 572.0F 328.0 to 572.0F 328.0 to 572.0F 328.0 to 572.0F Note IEC584, DIN IEC584, JIS C1602-1995 IEC584, DIN IEC584, JIS C1602-1995 IEC584, DIN IEC584, JIS C1602-1995 IEC584, DIN IEC584, JIS C1602-1995 IEC584, DIN IEC584, JIS C1602-1995 IEC584, DIN IEC584, JIS C1602-1995 IEC584, DIN IEC584, JIS C1602-1995 IEC584, DIN IEC584, JIS C1602-1995 W-5% Re/W-26% Re (Hoskins Mfg.Co.), ASTM E988 Fe-CuNi, DIN 43710 Cu-CuNi, DIN 43710 JIS C1604-1989, JIS C1606-1997, IEC751-1995, DIN IEC751-1996 JIS C1604-1989, JIS C1606-1989 CU10 GE1 (Cuid based on a particular manufacturer) CU10 L&N (Cuid based on a particular manufacturer) CU10 WEED (Cuid based on a particular manufacturer) CU10 BAILAY (Cuid based on a particular manufacturer) CU10 = 0.00392 at 20C CU10 = 0.00393 at 20C CU25 = 0.00425 at 0C

RTD

Cu1 to 6, and Cu25 are options.

For the setting procedure of the reference junction compensation and the burnout for the thermocouple input, see section 5.9.

5-4

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5.3

Digital Input (DI) Setting


To measure the digital input, follow the procedures below to set the input range. The range cannot be changed while data acquisition or computation is in progress.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

5
Measurement Channel Settings

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#1

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. 2. 3. 4. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. Mode Set the mode to [DI]. Range Select [Level] or [Cont] (Contact). Upper and lower limits of span Set the upper and lower limits of the display span. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a numerical value. Enter 0 or 1 and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21.

Note
Span lower limit and span upper limit cannot be set to the same value.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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5-5

5.3 Digital Input (DI) Setting Explanation Measurable range The following table shows the mode, range, and measurable range.
Mode DI Range Level Contact Measurable Range 0: Less than 2.4 V 1: Greater than or equal to 2.4 V 0: Opened 1: Closed

5-6

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5.4

Difference Computation (Delta) Setting.


To measure the difference between the inputs of two channels, follow the procedures below to set the input range. The difference computation channel displays the computed result of (the measured value of the difference computation channel) - (the measured value of the reference channel). Select the input type for the difference computation channel from DC voltage, thermocouple, RTD, and digital input. The range cannot be changed while data acquisition or computation is in progress.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

5
Measurement Channel Settings

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#1

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. 2. 3. 4. First channel and last channel Set the channels that will measure the difference. Mode Set the mode to [Delta]. Type Select the input type from [Volt], [TC], [RTD], and [DI]. Range If the type is [Volt] enter the input range. If it is [TC] or [RTD] enter the type of TC or RTD. If it is [DI] enter [Level] or [Cont]. Upper and lower limits of span Set the upper and lower limits of the display span. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a numerical value. Enter a value in the allowed range and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21.
For TC or RTD input, the display span cannot exceed the difference between the maximum and the minimum of the input range. Example: For TC type L, the measurable range is 200.0 to 900.0C. The allowed range of display span: 1100.0 to 1100.0C. For DC voltage input, the display span cannot exceed the measurable range. The upper limit and the lower limit cannot be set to the same value.

5.

Note


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5-7

5.4 Difference Computation (Delta) Setting. 6. Ref. CH Set the reference channel (see Explanation).

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Measurable range The following table shows the mode, type, range, and measurable range.
Mode Delta Type Range Volt 20 mV 60 mV 200 mV 2V 6V 20 V 50 V R S B K E J T N W L U Pt100 JPt100 CU1 to 6 (CU10) CU25 Level Contact Measurable Range 20.00 to 20.00 mV 60.00 to 60.00 mV 200.0 to 200.0 mV 2.000 to 2.000 V 6.000 to 6.000 V 20.00 to 20.00 V 50.00 to 50.00 V 1760.0 to 1760.0C 1760.0 to 1760.0C 1820.0 to 1820.0C 1570.0 to 1570.0C 1000.0 to 1000.0C 1300.0 to 1300.0C 600.0 to 600.0C 1300.0 to 1300.0C 2315.0 to 2315.0C 1100.0 to 1100.0C 600.0 to 600.0C 800.0 to 800.0C 750.0 to 750.0C 500.0 to 500.0C (option) 500.0 to 500.0C (option) 1 to 1 1 to 1 3168 to 3168F 3168 to 3168F 3276 to 3276F 2826 to 2826F 1800.0 to 1800.0F 2340.0 to 2340.0F 1080.0 to 1080.0F 2340 to 2340F 4167 to 4167F 1980.0 to 1980.0F 1080.0 to 1080.0F 1440.0 to 1440.0F 1350.0 to 1350.0F 900.0 to 900.0F 900.0 to 900.0F

Delta

TC

Delta

RTD

Delta

DI

The relationship with the reference channel Even if the input type or the measurement range of the difference computation channel and the reference channel is not the same, the difference computation is performed according to the following rules. When the decimal position between the reference channel and the difference computation channel is different, the measured value of the reference channel is adjusted to the decimal position of the measured value of the difference computation channel to make the computation. Example: When the measured value of the difference computation channel is 10.00 and the measured value of the reference channel is 100.0, the computation result becomes 10.00 100.0 = 90.00. When the units for the reference channel and the difference computation channel are different, the measured value is not adjusted. Example: When the measured value of the difference computation channel is 10.00 V and the measured value of the reference channel is 5.00 mV, the computation result becomes 10.00 V 5.00 mV = 5.00 V. When the reference channel is set to [Scale] or [Sqrt], the computation uses the scaled values. 5-8
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5.5

Scaling Setting
For DC voltage, thermocouple, RTD and digital input, the measured values can be scaled to a value in the appropriate unit and displayed. Set the upper and lower limits of the display span, the upper and lower limits after scaling, and the unit. The range cannot be changed while data acquisition or computation is in progress.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

5
Measurement Channel Settings

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#1

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. Mode Set the mode to [Scale]. Type Select the input type from [Volt], [TC], [RTD], and [DI]. Range Select the input range using the soft keys according to the input type. Upper and lower limits of span Set the upper and lower limits of the display span. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a numerical value. Enter a value in the allowed range and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21.

Note
Span lower limit and span upper limit cannot be set to the same value.

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5-9

5.5 Scaling Setting 6. Upper and lower limits of scale Set the upper and lower limits of the scale. Enter a value in the allowed range using the same method as step 5. Allowed range: 30000 to 30000 Decimal position The decimal can be set in the following positions: . . . . The decimal position is determined by the scale lower limit setting.

Note
Scale lower limit and scale upper limit cannot be set to the same value. The DX100 converts the measured data within a value span derived by removing the decimal from the scaling upper and lower limits. In other words, conversion is performed by using a span of 10 if the scale setting is 5 to 5, and 100 if the scale setting is 5.0 to 5.0. The resolution of the value derived by using a span of 10 is coarser than the value derived using a span of 100. Because the display becomes rough, set this value so that it is greater than 100.

7.

Unit Set the unit. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a character string. Enter the unit (up to 6 alphanumeric characters) and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Measurable Range See sections listed below.
Mode Scale Type Volt TC RTD DI Range/Measurable Range See section 5.1, Voltage Input Setting. See section 5.2, Thermocouple (TC)/Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Setting. See section 5.2, Thermocouple (TC)/Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) Setting. See section 5.3, Digital Input (DI) Setting.

5-10

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5.6

Square Root Computation Setting


Computes the square root of the DC voltage input. The result can be scaled to a value in the appropriate unit and displayed. Set the upper and lower limits of the display span, the upper and lower limits after scaling, and the unit. The range cannot be changed while data acquisition or computation is in progress.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

5
Measurement Channel Settings

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1 4

#1

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. 2. 3. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. Mode Set the mode to [Sqrt]. Range Select the input range from [20 mV], [60 mV], [200 mV], [2 V], [6 V], [20 V], and [50 V]. Upper and lower limits of span Set the upper and lower limits of the display span. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a numerical value. Enter a value in the allowed range and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21.

4.

Note
Span lower limit and span upper limit cannot be set to the same value.

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5-11

5.6 Square Root Computation Setting 5. Upper and lower limits of scale Set the upper and lower limits of the scale. Enter a value in the allowed range using the same method as step 4. Allowed range: 30000 to 30000 Decimal position The decimal can be set in the following positions: . . . . The decimal position is determined by the scale lower limit setting.

Note
Scale lower limit and scale upper limit cannot be set to the same value. The DX100 converts the measured data within a value span derived by removing the decimal from the scaling upper and lower limits. In other words, conversion is performed by using a span of 10 if the scale setting is 5 to 5, and 100 if the scale setting is 5.0 to 5.0. The resolution of the value derived by using a span of 10 is coarser than the value derived using a span of 100. Because the display becomes rough, set this value so that it is greater than 100.

6.

Unit Set the unit. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a character string. Enter the unit (up to 6 alphanumeric characters) and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [YES] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation For the range and measurable range, see section 5.1, Voltage Input Setting. Computing equation The DX100 uses the following square-root computation: Using the following definitions: Vmin: Lower limit of span Vmax: Upper limit of span Fmin: Lower limit of scale Fmax: Upper limit of scale Vx: Input voltage Fx: Scaling value
Fx = (F max Fmin ) Vx Vmin min V max V + F min

When the value inside the square root is negative, when Fmin < Fmax: , or when Fmin > Fmax: + is displayed.

5-12

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5.7

Skip Setting
These channels will not be measured or displayed. The range cannot be changed while data acquisition or computation is in progress.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

5
Measurement Channel Settings

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#1

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. 2. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. Mode Set the mode to [Skip].

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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5-13

5.8

Input Filter and Moving Average Setting


Set the input filter (for DX102/DX104, low pass filters) or the moving average of the input (for DX106/DX112).

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#2

.
1

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. (For the channels set here, [Tag] and [Alarm Delay Time] are also simultaneously set.)

Input Filter Setting (for DX102/DX104) 2. Filter Select [Off] or set the time constant of the filter. Moving Average Setting (for DX106/DX112) 3. Moving Average - Count Select [Off] or set the number of data points for the moving average.

Note
Regardless of this setting, filter and moving average operations are not performed for the digital inputs (DI).

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation The following table shows the values.
Filter/Moving Average Filter Value Off 2s 5s 10 s Off 2 to 16 Description Do not use the filter Filter time constant 2 s Filter time constant 5 s Filter time constant 10 s Do not use moving average. Number of data samples for the moving average
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Moving Average

5-14

5.9

Setting the A/D Integration Time, Scan Interval, Burnout, and Reference Junction Compensation (Basic Setting Mode)
Set the integration time of the A/D converter, scan interval, thermocouple input burnout, and reference junction compensation (RJC).

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

5
Measurement Channel Settings

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1 2 3 4 5 6

#2

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. Setting the integration time of the A/D converter 1. Integrate Select from [Auto], [50 Hz], [60 Hz], and [100 ms] using soft keys. DX102/DX104: Auto/50 Hz/60 Hz DX106/DX112: Auto/50 Hz/60 Hz/100 ms [Auto]: automatically switches 20/16.7 ms (fixed to 20 ms on DC power supply models) [50 Hz]: fixed to 20 ms [60 Hz]: fixed to 16.7 ms [100 ms]: fixed to 100 ms (the scan interval is 2 s) Setting the scan interval 2. Scan interval Input signals are scanned at every scan interval. For the models with computation function (/M1) , the computation carried out at every scan interval. DX102/DX104: 125 ms/250 ms DX106/DX112: 1 s/2 s (when the A/D integration time is 100 ms, 2 s only) Setting the thermocouple input burnout and setting the reference junction compensation This setting is void for all input settings other than the TC. 3. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels.

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5-15

5.9 Setting the A/D Integration Time, Scan Interval, Burnout, and Reference Junction Compensation (Basic Setting Mode) 4. Burnout Select from [Off], [Up], and [Down]. [Off]: Disable the burnout function. [Up]: When the thermocouple burns out, the measured result is set to positive over range + . [Down]: When the thermocouple burns out, the measured result is set to negative over range . RJC Set [External] or [Internal]. [External]: Use the external RJC. [Internal]: Use the RJC of the DX100. Volt (V) If [External] is selected, set the reference junction compensation voltage to add to the input. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the voltage. Enter a value (20000 V to 20000 V, initial value is 0 V) and press the DISP/ ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21.

5.

6.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation The integration time of the A/D converter The DX100 uses an A/D converter to convert the input signal to a digital signal. The A/D converter operates at an integral time of 16.7 ms (60 Hz), 20 ms (50 Hz), or 100 ms. By setting the integration time to match the frequency of the power supply being used, power supply frequency noise can be minimized. Burnout of Thermocouple Input When the alarm is set to detect positive or negative over range, the occurrence of burnout of thermocouple can be displayed as an alarm. Turn the burnout function OFF when connecting the input wires in parallel with other devices. Reference Junction Compensation of Thermocouple Input When using the reference junction compensation of the DX100, see Precautions to be taken while wiring in section 2.3, Input Signal Wiring. When using the external reference junction compensation, set an appropriate reference junction compensation voltage. As in the example in the following figure, if the reference junction temperature for the external reference junction compensation is T0 C, set the thermoelectromotive force of the 0 C reference for T0 C as the reference junction compensation voltage.
An example of External reference junction compensation DX100 External reference junction compensation (Maintain the junction between the thermocouple and the copper wire at T0 C) Copper wire Thermocouple

1 2 3 4

5-16

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Chapter 6 Acknowledging and Setting Alarms

6.1

Releasing the Alarm Indication and Output Relay (Option)


This section describes the procedures to release the alarm indication and the output relay when the behavior of the indicator or the output relay is set to [hold]. The indicator or output relay condition varies depending on the timing at which the alarm release operation is carried out.

Procedure Operation using the FUNC key This operation is carried out in the operation mode. 1. Press the FUNC key to display the soft key menu. 2. To release the alarm indication and the output relay, press the [Alarm ACK] soft key.

6
Acknowledging and Setting Alarms
Operation using the USER key This is an operation carried out when [Alarm ACK] is assigned to the USER key. 1. To release the alarm indication and the output relay, press the USER key. Explanation The indications and output relays generated by all alarms are released. The release operation is void if the behavior of the indicator or the output relay is set to [non-hold]. The release operation can be executed via remote control (option) or via communications. Alarm indication The alarm condition can be confirmed with the alarm icon in the status display section and the alarm indication on the operation screen such as the trend display. The indicator pattern varies depending on the hold/non-hold setting. The alarm icon in the status display section
Alarm icon

Indicator Hold/Non-hold Non-hold Hold

Alarm Activated Released Activated Released

Alarm Indication Red icon No icon displayed Blinking red icon (Stops blinking with alarm ACK) Blinking green icon (icon disappears with alarm ACK)

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6-1

6.1 Releasing the Alarm Indication and Output Relay (Option)


Non -hold Activated Alarm Released
Blinking red icon Blinking green icon

Hold Activated Released Red icon

Red icon

Blinking red icon

Indication No icon

No icon Alarm ACK Alarm ACK

Alarm indication in the trend display

Alarm type

Measured value Alarm mark

Indicator Hold/Non-Hold Non-hold

Alarm Activated Released

Alarm Indication Alarm mark, alarm type, measured values: All red Alarm mark: Green color Alarm type: Not displayed Measured value: Blue color Alarm mark: Blinks in red (Stops blinking with alarm ACK) Alarm type, measured value: Displayed in red Alarm mark: Blinks in green (Stops blinking with alarm ACK) Alarm type: Not displayed Measured value: Blue

Hold

Activated

Released

Alarm indication in the digital display

Measured value

Alarm mark

Indicator Hold/Non-Hold Non-hold

Alarm Activated Released

Alarm Indication Alarm mark, measured values: All red Alarm mark: Green Measured value: Blue Alarm mark: Blinks in red (Stops blinking with alarm ACK) Measured value: Red Alarm mark: Blinks in green (Stops blinking with alarm ACK) Measured value: Blue

Hold

Activated

Released

6-2

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6.1 Releasing the Alarm Indication and Output Relay (Option) Alarm indication in the bar graph display
Alarm mark

Alarm point mark

Measured value
Indicator Hold/Non-Hold Non-hold Alarm Activated Released Alarm Indication Alarm mark, alarm point mark, and measured values: All red Alarm mark: Green Alarm point mark: Green Measured value: Blue Alarm mark: Blinks in red (Stops blinking with alarm ACK) Alarm point, measured values: Red Alarm mark: Blinks in green (Stops blinking with alarm ACK) Alarm point mark: Green Measured value: Blue

Hold

Activated

6
Acknowledging and Setting Alarms

Released

Alarm indication in the overview display

Alarm type Tag/Channel no. Channel data display area Measured value

Indicator Hold/Non-Hold Non-hold

Alarm Activated

Alarm Indication Channel display area: Red Channel (tag), alarm type, and measured values: All white Channel display area: Green Channel (tag) and measured value: Black Alarm type: Not displayed Channel display area: Red Channel (tag): Blinks in white (Stops blinking with alarm ACK) Alarm type and measured value: White Channel display area: Green Channel (tag): Blinks in black (Stops blinking with alarm ACK) Alarm type: Not displayed Measured value: Black

Released

Hold

Activated

Released

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6-3

6.1 Releasing the Alarm Indication and Output Relay (Option) Alarm Summary Display

Mark

Alarm Information

Indicator Hold/Non-Hold Non-hold

Alarm Activated Released

Alarm Indication Displays alarm information Mark: Red Mark: Green Displays alarm information Mark: Blinks in red (Stops blinking with alarm ACK) Mark: Blinks in green (Stops blinking with alarm ACK)

Hold

Activated

Released

Alarm output relay (option)


Relay Hold/Non-Hold Non-hold Hold Alarm Activated Released Activated Released Alarm Indication Active Idle Active (temporarily suspend with alarm ACK) Idle with alarm ACK

Non-hold Activated Alarm Released Activated Alarm output relay Released

Hold Alarm ACK

Alarm ACK

or

or

Note
When the basic setting mode is entered, the activated/released condition of the previous alarm output relay is held. (Alarm detection is not carried out in the basic setting mode, and you cannot release the alarm output relay.)

6-4

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6.2

Alarm Setting
This section describes the procedures related to setting the alarm specification on each channel. The auxiliary alarm function are set in the basic setting mode. (See section 6.4)

Note
Set the measurement range before setting the alarm. All of the alarm settings of a channel are canceled in the following cases: When the input type is changed (Volt, TC, etc.). When the input range is changed. When the upper and lower limits of the span or scale are changed on channels that are set to scaling or square root computation (including changes in the decimal point position). If the range setting is set to [Skip], alarm setting is not possible. (The alarm setting boxes are grayed in this case.)

6
Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. Once new settings are confirmed, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Acknowledging and Setting Alarms

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#1

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. (For the channels set here, [Range] is also simultaneously set.) On/Off When the alarm is turned on, [Type], [Value], and [Relay On/Off] are displayed. Type Set the alarm type. For the alarm types, see Explanation. 6-5

2. 3.

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6.2 Alarm Setting

Note
If you select delay alarm (T or t) for the alarm type, you must set the alarm delay period. See section 6.3.

4.

5.*

6.*

Value Enter the value at which the alarm is activated. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a numerical value. Enter a value in the allowed range and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21. Relay On/Off Set whether or not to activate the output relay (On/Off). When turned ON, the output relay number box appears. Number Set the output relay number. For the correspondence between the output relay number and the output relay position, see section 2.4, Alarm Output Wiring (/AR1, /AR2, /A3 Option).
* When the alarm output relay option is not installed, these settings are void.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Alarm type The following eight types of alarm type are available.
Name Upper limit alarm Symbol H Description An alarm occurs when the measured value becomes greater than or equal to the alarm value. An alarm occurs when the measured value becomes smaller than or equal to below the alarm value. An alarm occurs when the difference between the measured values of two channels becomes greater than or equal to the alarm value. An alarm occurs when the difference between the measured values of two channels becomes smaller than or equal to the alarm value. The amount of change of the measured values over a certain time interval is checked. An alarm occurs when the amount of increase becomes greater than or equal to the specified value (see section 6.4). The time interval is specified using a number of measurements.

Lower limit alarm

Difference upper limit alarm*1

Difference lower limit alarm*1

Upper limit on rate-of-change alarm*2

6-6

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6.2 Alarm Setting


Lower limit on rate-of-change alarm*2 r The amount of change of the measured values over a certain time interval is checked. An alarm occurs when the amount of decrease becomes greater than or equal to the specified value (see section 6.4). The time interval is specified using a number of measurements. An alarm occurs when the measured value remains above or equal to the alarm value for the specified time period (delay period, see section 6.3, Setting the Alarm Delay Period.). An alarm occurs when the measured value remains below or equal to the alarm value for the specified time period (delay period, see section 6.3, Setting the Alarm Delay Period.).

Delay upper limit alarm

Delay lower limit alarm

*1 *2

Can be specified only on difference computation channels. Can be specified only on measurement channels.

6
Acknowledging and Setting Alarms

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6-7

6.3

Setting the Alarm Delay Period


Set the alarm delay period for delay upper/lower limit alarm.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. Once new settings are confirmed, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Setting on a measurement channel To display the setting screen press the soft key Setting on a computation channel (option) Twice press the soft key

#2

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#11

.
1

2 2

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. (For the channels set here, [Tag], [Moving Average] or [Filter] for measurement channels, and [Tag], [TLOG] or [Rolling Average] for computation channels are also simultaneously set.) Alarm delay period Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the alarm delay period. Enter an integer value in the range 1 to 3600 s and press the DISP/ ENTER key. Procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21. If the scan interval is 2 s and you set an odd value for the alarm delay period, it will operate at the specified period + 1 s. Example: If the alarm delay period is set to 5 s, it will operate at 6 s.

2.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. 6-8
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6.3 Setting the Auxiliary Alarm Function (Basic Setting Mode) Explanation Operation of the delay upper/lower limit alarm For the operation of the delay upper/lower limit alarm, see section 1.5. This section will describe special cases of its operation. When delay alarm is set on a computation channel and the computation is stopped If the computation is stopped in a condition in which the computed value is exceeding the alarm setting, the alarm is turned ON after the specified period (delay period) elapses.
Computation stopped

Alarm value Computed value T Alarm turns ON

6
Acknowledging and Setting Alarms

Delay alarm when a power failure occurs Alarm detection is reset upon a power failure. It restarts the operation after the power recovers.
Measured/computed data

Alarm value T Alarm : Off On T Off On Off T On Power failure occurence/recovery Off

Power failure occurence/recovery

Operation when the alarm setting is changed If a new delay alarm is set The alarm detection starts at that time. It is unaffected by the conditions existing before the alarm is set. If the alarm setting of a preexisting delay alarm is changed If an alarm is not occurring at the time of the change, alarm detection starts at the new setting. If an alarm is occurring at the time of the change and the alarm type is set to delay upper limit alarm, the alarm continues as long as the input is above or equal to the new setting. If the input is below the new setting, the alarm turns OFF. If the alarm type is set to delay lower limit alarm, the alarm continues as long as the input is below or equal to the new setting. If the input is above the new setting, the alarm turns OFF.

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6-9

6.4

Setting the Auxiliary Alarm Function (Basic Setting Mode)


These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. Once new settings are confirmed, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

Procedure

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

#1

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. Setting reflash 1.* Reflash Select [On] or [Off]. [On]: Use reflash function [Off]: Not use reflash function Setting the AND/OR logic of output relays 2.* Relay - AND Select the relays that are to use the AND logic. Set the last relay that is to use the AND logic. The relays beyond this relay will use the OR logic. Select from [None], [I01] (I01 only), [I01 - I02] (I01 and I02), ... , and [I01 - I06] (I01 to I06). The setting is valid for relays specified by options. Setting the output relay operation (energize/de-energize) 3.* Relay - Action Select energize or de-energize using the soft key. Setting the output relay operation (hold/non-hold) 4.* Relay - Behavior Select hold or non-hold using the soft key.
* When the alarm output relay option is not installed, these settings are void.

Setting the alarm indication operation (hold/non-hold) 5. Indicator Select hold or non-hold using the soft key.

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6.4 Setting the Auxiliary Alarm Function (Basic Setting Mode) Setting the interval for the rate-of-change alarm 6. Rate of change - Increase, Rate of change - Decrease The time interval is specified using a number of sampling times (number of measurements, see section 1.5). Select the limit from 1 to 15 using the soft key. Setting the alarm hysteresis 7. Hysteresis Select [On] or [Off] using the soft key. [On]: The hysteresis is 0.5% of the display span or scale. [Off]: No hysteresis Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

6
Explanation

Acknowledging and Setting Alarms

Alarm output relay (option) A contact signal is generated when an alarm occurs. The number of output relays is 2 to 6 points (depends on the specification). Reflash When multiple alarms are set to one alarm output relay, this function notifies the succeeding alarms after the first alarm that causes the relay operation. When a succeeding alarm occurs, the output relay temporarily turns OFF. The reflash alarm function is set only to output relays I01, I02, and I03. The initial setting is [Off] (Not use Reflash).
(assuming I01 is assigned) Channel 1 (assuming I01 is assigned) Alarm status Channel 2 (assuming I01 is assigned) Channel 3

Alarm relay status (reflash = on)

Output relay (option) Approx. 500 ms

(I01 output)

Approx. 500 ms (I01 output)

Alarm relay status (reflash = off)

Output relay (option)

Note
If the reflash alarm is specified, relays I01 to I03 are used as reflash relays regardless of the number of alarm output relays. Therefore, relays I01 to I03 operate as OR logic (see AND/ OR of alarm output relays) and non-hold (see Hold/Non-hold operation of the alarm output relay) regardless of the settings made in AND/OR of alarm output relays and Hold/Nonhold operation of the alarm output relay.

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6-11

6.4 Setting the Auxiliary Alarm Function (Basic Setting Mode) AND/OR of alarm output relays When sharing an alarm output relay among multiple alarms, you can select from the following conditions that cause the alarm output relay to be activated. AND: Activated when all alarms are being generated simultaneously. OR: Activated when at least one of the alarms is being generated. Specify the alarm output relay to operate under the AND condition as in [I01 (first relay) to Ixx (where xx is the relay number)]. The initial setting is set to [None].
Channel 1 Alarm status Channel 2

AND Alarm relay status OR

Note
If the reflash alarm is turned ON, I01 to I03 operates as reflash alarms. They are fixed to OR logic operation. Specifying AND produces no effect.

Energize/De-energize operation of the alarm output relay You can select whether to energize or de-energize the alarm output relay when the alarm occurs. By selecting de-energize, the alarm output relay will operate in the same manner as when the alarm occurs when the power supply is disrupted. Energize or deenergize applies to all alarm output relays. The initial setting is set to [energize].

Energize

NO

NC

NO

NC

NO

NC

De-energize

NO

NC

NO

C Alarm off

NC

NO

C Alarm on

NC

Power failure

NO = Normally opened ; C = common ; and NC = normally closed

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6.4 Setting the Auxiliary Alarm Function (Basic Setting Mode) Hold/Non-hold operation of the alarm output relay When the alarm changes from the activated state to the released state, you can select to Turn OFF the output relay in sync with the alarm release (non-hold), or Hold the output relay ON till an alarm acknowledge operation is executed (hold) This applies to all alarm output relays. The initial setting is set to [Nonhold]. When set to non-hold
Alarm on Alarm off * Shows the status of the normally-opened (NO) contact of the relay. The status is the reverse for the normally-closed contact.

Relay output

on*

Relay output off*

When set to hold


Alarm on

6
Acknowledging and Setting Alarms

Alarm off Alarm ACK Relay output on* Relay output off*

Note
If the reflash alarm is turned ON, I01 to I03 are set to non-hold. Specifying hold produces no effect.

Hold/Non-hold of the alarm indicator When the alarm changes from the activated state to the released state, you can select to Release the alarm indicator in sync with the alarm release (non-hold), or Hold the alarm indicator till an alarm acknowledge operation is executed (hold) The initial setting is [Nonhold]. For details regarding the alarm indicator, see section 6.1.

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6-13

Chapter 7 Setting and Operating the Display

7.1

Setting Tag Names


Tag names can be displayed in place of channel numbers on the operation screen (trend screen, digital screen, etc.). The basic setting mode is used to select whether tag names or channel numbers are displayed (see section 7.2). Tag names are saved to the file along with the data.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Setting on a measurement channel To display the setting screen press the soft key Setting on a computation channel (option) Twice press the soft key

7
Setting and Operating the Display

#2

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#11

.
1

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. (For the measurement channels set here, [Moving Average] or [Filter], and [Alarm Delay Time] are also simultaneously set. For the computation channels, [TLOG], [Rolling Average], and [Alarm Delay Time] are also simultaneously set.) Tag Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the tag name. Enter the tag name (up to 16 alphanumeric characters) and press the DISP/ ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22.

2.

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Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. 7-1

7.2

Selecting Tag Display or Channel Number Display (Basic Setting Mode)


Select whether tag names or channel numbers are to be displayed on the operation screen (trend screen, digital screen, etc.). The initial setting is channel number display. Tag names are set in the setting mode.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#5

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Tag/Channel Select [Tag] or [Channel]. [Tag]: Display tag names. [Channel]: Display channel numbers.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

Note
If a channel is set to display the tag, but the tag name is not entered, the channel will display the channel number.

7-2

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7.3

Setting the Display Update Rate (Trend)


The time period corresponding to 1 division on the time axis on the trend display is specified. The time axis on the trend display is determined by the display update rate. The sampling interval of the display data is also determined by the display update rate. The display update rate cannot be changed while data sampling is in progress.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#3

7
Setting and Operating the Display

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Time/div (Display update rate) Select the display update rate from 15 s*, 30 s*, 1 min, 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 20 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h, and 10 h.
* for DX102 and DX104 only

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

Note
When [Auto save] is set for saving data to the external storage medium, the [Auto save interval] box is displayed under [Time/div]. [Auto save interval] is the interval at which the display data residing in the internal memory are saved to the external storage medium. The selectable values for [Auto save interval] vary depending on the [Time/div] setting. For the setting procedure, see section 8.8.

Explanation The display data sampling interval and the speed of movement of waveforms along the time axis The following table shows the display rate, display data sampling interval, and the speed of movement of waveforms along the time axis
Display update rate (/DIV) Display data sampling interval (s) 15 s* 30 s* 1 min 2 min 5 min 10 min 20 min 30 min 1 h 2 h 4 h 10 h 0.5 1 2 4 297 10 119 20 59 40 30 60 20 120 240 480 1200 10 5 2.5 1.0

Speed of movement 2376 1188 594 of waveforms (Estimated value, mm/h) *


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for DX102 and DX104 only

7-3

7.4

Using Message Strings (Trend)


Arbitrary character strings can be registered. They can be displayed on the trend display and stored along with the display/event data. Number of messages: 8 Number of characters: Up to 16 alphanumeric characters A list of messages can be displayed on the message summary screen. See section 4.5. For models with the batch function (/BT1 option), messages 1, 2, and 3 can be altered from the operation screen to be used.

Note
When data acquisition to the internal memory is stopped, messages cannot be displayed or written.

For Models without the Batch Function (/BT1 Option)


Procedure Displaying a message on the trend screen/Writing a message to the internal memory Operation using the FUNC key This operation is carried out in the operation mode. 1. Press the FUNC key to display the soft keys. 2. Press the [Message] soft key. Eight soft keys for the messages and a window containing a list of messages are displayed.

3.

Press the soft key corresponding to the message you wish to display. A message mark, time, and the message are displayed on the trend screen.

Operation using the USER key This is an operation carried out when one of [Message1] to [Message8] is assigned to the USER key. 1. Press the USER key, to display a message on the trend display and write a message to the internal memory.

7-4

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7.4 Using Message Strings (Trend)

For Models with the Batch Function (/BT1 Option)


Procedure Displaying a message on the trend screen/Writing a message to the internal memory/Changing message strings Operation using the FUNC key This operation is carried out in the operation mode. 1. Press the FUNC key to display the soft keys. 2. Press the [Message] soft key. [Write] and [Set] soft keys are displayed.

7
Displaying a message on the trend screen/Writing a message to the internal memory 3. Press the [Write] soft key. Eight soft keys for the messages and a window containing a list of messages are displayed. 4. Press the soft key corresponding to the message you wish to display. A message mark, time, and the message are displayed on the trend display. Changing message strings 3. Press the [Set] soft key. The [Message1] to [Message3] soft keys and a window containing a list of messages are displayed. 4. Press the soft key of the message to be changed. A window to enter a message string appears.

Setting and Operating the Display

5.

6.

Enter the message string (up to 16 alphanumeric characters) and press the DISP/ENTER key. The window used to enter the message string disappears. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Character on page 3-22. Press the FUNC key or the ESC key to erase the window.

Operation using the USER key The operating procedure is the same as for models without the batch function (/BT1 option)

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7-5

7.4 Using Message Strings (Trend) Explanation Example of Message Display

Message mark Time

Message

Displayed colors of the message The message colors on the trend screen are shown below. They cannot be changed.
Message Number 1 Displayed Color 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Red Green Blue Blue violet Brown Orange Yellow-green Light blue

7-6

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7.5

Setting the Message String (Trend)


These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Procedure

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#4

7
Setting and Operating the Display

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Characters Move the cursor to the desired message number. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the message string. Enter the message string (up to 16 alphanumeric characters) and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Character on page 3-22.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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7-7

7.6

Setting Groups
Trend, digital, and bar graph screens are displayed in groups. Channels can be assigned to each group and the group name can be registered. Number of groups: 4 Number of channels: Up to 6 channels/group As for setting the channels to display the trend, see section 8.10.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Press the soft key Press the soft key

Next 1/3
#5

. .

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1 2 3

#1

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. 2. Group number Select the group number (1 to 4). Group name Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the group name. Enter the group name (up to 16 alphanumeric characters) and press the DISP/ ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22. CH set Assign measurement/computation channels to groups. Enter the channel number according to the following rules using the same method as step 2. Enter the channel number using two digits. Separate each channel with a period. Consecutive channels can be specified using a hyphen. Example: To set CH1, CH3, CH5 to CH8 to a particular group, 01.03.0508 is entered.

3.

7-8

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7.6 Setting Groups

Note
The channels are displayed in the order they are specified on the trend, digital, bar graph screens. One channel can be assigned to multiple groups. A channel cannot be assigned twice in the same group.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Initial settings of the groups Group Name Group 1: GROUP 1 Group 2: GROUP 2 Group 3: GROUP 3 Group 4: GROUP 4 The initial value varies depending on the number of installed channels.

7
Setting and Operating the Display
DX104 01.02.03.04 01.02.03.04 01.02.03.04 01.02.03.04 DX106 01.02.03.04.05.06 01.02.03.04.05.06 01.02.03.04.05.06 01.02.03.04.05.06 DX112 01.02.03.04.05.06 07.08.09.10.11.12 01.02.03.04.05.06 07.08.09.10.11.12

Group Number DX102 1 2 3 4 01.02 01.02 01.02 01.02

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7-9

7.7

Setting the Trip Line (Trend)


A line to indicate a particular value of interest (trip line) can be displayed on the trend display. The maximum number of trip lines that can be displayed in one group is four. The position of the trip line is specified as a percentage of the display span. You can specify the thickness of the trip lines. See section 7.13.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Press the soft key Press the soft key

Next 1/3 #5

. .

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#1

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. 2. Group number Select the group number (1 to 4). On/Off Move the cursor to the desired trip line and press the [On] soft key. [On]: Use the trip line. The [Position] and [Color] boxes appear. [Off]: Not use the trip line. Position (display position) Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the display position. Enter a numerical value (1 to 100) and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21. Color Select the color of the trip line from 16 colors.
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3.

4.

7-10

7.7 Setting the Trip Line (Trend) Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Initial colors of the trip lines Trip line No.1: Red Trip line No.2: Green Trip line No.3: Blue Trip line No.4: Yellow Available colors for the trip line Red, green, blue, blue violet, brown, orange, yellow-green, light blue, violet, gray, limes, cyan, dark blue, yellow, silver, and purple

7
Setting and Operating the Display

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7-11

7.8

Setting the Channel Display Colors (Trend, Bar Graph)


These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Procedure

Press the soft key Press the soft key

Next 1/3

. .

#5

Setting on a measurement channel To display the setting screen press the soft key Setting on a computation channel (option) To display the setting screen press the soft key

#2

#5

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Channel display color Move the cursor to the desired channel and set the channel display color (select from 16 colors).

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Initial Settings of Channel Display Color Channel 1: Red, Channel 2: Green, Channel 3: Blue, Channel 4: Blue violet, Channel 5: Brown, Channel 6: Orange, Channel 7: Yellow-green, Channel 8: Light blue, Channel 9: violet, Channel 10: Gray, Channel 11: Lime, Channel 12: Cyan Available colors for the channels Red, green, blue, blue violet, brown, orange, yellow-green, light blue, violet, gray, limes, cyan, dark blue, yellow, silver, and purple 7-12
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7.9

Using Zone Displays (Trend)


By using zones, the waveforms of each channel can be displayed in their own zones. Because the waveforms do not overlap, they are easier to view.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Press the soft key Press the soft key

Next 1/3 #5

. .

7
Setting and Operating the Display

Setting on a measurement channel To display the setting screen press the soft key Setting on a computation channel (option) To display the setting screen press the soft key
2 1

#3

#6

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. (For the channels set here, [Graph] and [Partial] are also simultaneously set.) Zone upper limit and lower limit The waveform is displayed between the [Upper] and [Lower] limits. The [Upper] and [Lower] limits are set as percentages of the display span. [Lower]: 0 to 95% [Upper]: 5 to 100% Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a numerical value. Enter a value and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21.

2.

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7-13

7.9 Using Zone Displays (Trend)

Note
[Lower] must be a smaller value than [Upper]. The width of the zone (upper limit lower limit) must be greater than or equal to 5%.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

7-14

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7.10 Setting the Scale Division, Bar Graph Base Position (Bar Graph), and Scale Position (Trend)
The scale used on trend and bar graphs can be set. When the bar graph is displayed horizontally, the base position of the bar graph can be set on each channel by selecting either [Normal] or [Center]. [Normal]:The left edge or the right edge of the display span depending on which value is smaller. [Center]: Position at 50% of the display span For the procedures to set the vertical or horizontal display, see section 7.13. The scale display position for each channel can be specified on the trend screen. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

7
Setting and Operating the Display

Press the soft key Press the soft key

Next 1/3

. .

#5

Setting on a measurement channel To display the setting screen press the soft key Setting on a computation channel (option) To display the setting screen press the soft key
1

#3

#6

2 3 4

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. (For the channels set here, [Zone] and [Partial] are also simultaneously set.)

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7-15

7.10 Setting the Scale Division, Bar Graph Base Position (Bar Graph), and Scale Position (Trend) Setting the number of divisions for the scale 2. Division This is the number of scale divisions. The scale is equally divided and scale marks are displayed at the divided position. Select the number of divisions from [4] to [12] and [C10]. [C10]: The scale is equally divided into 10 sections by main scale marks, and scale values are indicated at 0, 30, 50, 70, and 100% positions. For bar graph display: Only the main scale marks are displayed. For trend display: See Explanation. Setting the bar graphs base position 3. Bar graph (base position of the bar graph) Select normal or center.

Note
When the bar graph is displayed vertically (see section 7.13), the base position is fixed to [Normal] (the bottom of the bar graph is the base position).

Setting the scale position on the trend screen 4. Scale position The [Scale position] is used to set the scale display position for each channel when the scale display is turned [On] (see section 4.3) on the trend screen. Select the position from [1] to [6]. Select [Off] for channels without scale.

Note
The scale for the channels that are assigned to the group in the trend screen are displayed. The larger the number of scales to be displayed, less amount of area there is to display the waveform.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

7-16

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7.10 Setting the Scale Division, Bar Graph Base Position (Bar Graph), and Scale Position (Trend) Explanation

Scale Specifications
Scale display position On the trend screen, the scale for the channels that are assigned to groups can be displayed in 6 different positions (see the figure below). During trend vertical display (see page 7-19 for horizontal display) The scale display position is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 from the top.
4 scale division sample 5 scale division sample 6 scale division sample 7 scale division sample 8 scale division sample 9 scale division sample

10 scale division sample 11 scale division sample 12 scale division sample C10 scale division sample

7
Setting and Operating the Display

The scale is divided into 4 to 12 sections as shown in the figure above. If the scales for two or more channels are specified to the same position, the scale for the channel that was assigned first to the group is displayed. Example 1: When the channels were assigned to a group in the following order: [03.02.01.05], and the scale display positions for channels 3, 2, 1, and 5 are all set to [1] The scale for channel 3 is displayed at position 1. Vacant positions in between scale assigned positions are void. The scales are displayed close together from the display position 1. Example 2: When the channels were assigned to a group in the following order: [01.02.03.05], and the scale display position for channels 1, 2, 3, and 5 are set to positions 1, 3, 5, and 6, respectively The scales for the channels are actually displayed at positions 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. If the scale display position is set to [Off], the scale is not displayed. During trend horizontal display The scale display position is 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 from the left.

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7-17

7.10 Setting the Scale Division, Bar Graph Base Position (Bar Graph), and Scale Position (Trend) Scale marks The scale can be divided into 4 to 12 sections using the main scale marks. When the scale is divided into 4 or 5 section, the area between the main scale marks is divided further into 10 sections using small and medium marks. When the scale is divided into 6 to 12 sections, the area between the main scale marks is divided further into 5 sections using small marks. However, small marks are not displayed for the following cases: When the measurement/computation range resolution is smaller than the total number of sections created by small marks. When zone display is used When partial expanded display is used Scale values The scale values are displayed at all main scale marks when the scale is divided into 4 to 7 (4 to 6 for trend vertical display) sections using the main scale marks. When the scale is divided into 8 to 12 (7 to 12 for trend vertical display) sections, the scale values are displayed at every other main scale mark. In addition, the upper or lower limit of the scale is displayed at the end of the scale. Rule 1 Up to 3 digits excluding the minus sign can be displayed for the scale values. Rule 2 If the integer section of either value at the end of the scale is less than or equal to one digit, the value is displayed as . or 0. . Example 1: If the scale is set to 0.05 to 0.5, the scale display for the upper and lower limits is 0.0 to 0.5. Example 2: If the scale is set to 0.005 to 0.05, the scale display for the upper and lower limits are 0.0 to 0.0. Rule 3 If the integer section of either value at the end of the scale is two digits or three digits, the value is displayed with the decimal fraction is discarded. Example 3: If the scale is set to 0.1 to 100.0, the scale display for the upper and lower limits is 0 to 100. Rule 4 If the integer section of either value at the end of the scale is greater than or equal to four digits, a three-digit mantissa and exponent are displayed (10 or 102, for example). Example 4: If the scale is set to 10 to 2000, the scale display for the upper and lower limits are 0 to 200 10. The number of digits of the scale values can be increased by one digit within Rule 1. For the procedure, see section 7.13. Consider the case when the scale marks are between 49.0 and 51.0 using [C10] division. Normally the decimals of the scale values are truncated according to Rule 3. However, if the number of digits is increased by one, the values are displayed as follows:

7-18

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7.10 Setting the Scale Division, Bar Graph Base Position (Bar Graph), and Scale Position (Trend) Unit The unit is displayed near the center of the scale. When the partial expanded display is used, the position will be shifted. When the trend is displayed horizontally, the number of characters that can be displayed is up to 3. If the [Scale digit] is set to [Fine], up to 4 characters can be displayed.

Bar base position

Bar base position: normal

Bar base position: center The base position is at the center (50%) of the display span.

7
Setting and Operating the Display

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7-19

7.11 Using Partial Expanded Display (Trend)


By compressing a section of the display scale of the measured/computed data, the remaining section of the display is expanded. For detail, see section 1.3. To use the partial expanded display, first, set the partial expanded display to [Use] in the basic setting mode. This will display a partial expanded display setting box in the setting mode (see section 7.12). Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Press the soft key Press the soft key

Next 1/3

. .

#5

Setting on a measurement channel To display the setting screen press the soft key Setting on a computation channel (option) To display the setting screen press the soft key
1

#3 #6

2 3 4

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. (For the channels set here, [Zone] and [Graph] are also simultaneously set.) On/Off When [On] is selected, the [Expand] and [Boundary] boxes are displayed. [On]: Use the partial expanded display. [Off]: Not use the partial expanded display. Expand (Boundary displacement position) Set the position to which a particular value (the boundary, see step 4) in the display span is to be moved as a percentage of the display span. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a numerical value. Enter the position and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21. The range for the position: 1 to 99
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2.

3.

7-20

7.11 Using Partial Expanded Display (Trend)

4.

Boundary This is a value within the display span. By moving the value within the display span to another position (see step 3), the area on either side of the boundary is expanded or compressed. Enter the boundary using the same method as step 3. The range for the boundary: The minimum value of the span +1 digit to the maximum value of the span 1 digit (when the range is not set to scaling) The minimum value of the scale +1 digit to the maximum value of the scale 1 digit (when the range is set to scaling).

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

Note
The partial expanded display is turned OFF for all channels if the partial expanded display setting (use/not use) in the basic setting mode is changed and stored. When the range setting of the channel is set to [Skip] or when the span width is less than or equal to 1 digit, the partial expanded display cannot be specified. (The box is grayed in this case.)

7
Setting and Operating the Display

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7-21

7.12 Setting Whether or Not to Use the Partial Expanded Display (Basic Setting Mode)
Set whether or not to use the partial expanded display. The initial setting is [Not] (disabled). The display specifications of the partial expanded display are set in the setting mode. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#5

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Partial Select [Use] or [Not]. [Use]: Partial expanded display can be set in the setting mode. [Not]: Partial expanded display cannot be set.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

7-22

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7.13 Setting the Display Direction, Background Color, Waveform Line Width, Trip Line Width, Grid, Scroll Time, and Scale digit
The display direction of the trend and bar graph can be set to horizontal or vertical. The background color used in the trend, digital, bar graph, and information screens can be set to white or black (common to all screens). The line width of the waveform can be selected as 1, 2, or 3 dots. The line width of the trip line can be selected as 1, 2, or 3 dots. The grid lines can be displayed on the trends waveform display area by dividing the display span into 4 to 12 sections. The interval at which the displayed group is automatically switched on the trend, digital, and bar graph screens can be specified. The displayed group rotates from group 1 to group 4. You can increase the number of digits of the scale values by one digit on the trend display. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

7
Setting and Operating the Display

Press the soft key Press the soft key

Next 1/3
#5

. .

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. Set the display direction of the trend 1. Direction - Trend Select [Horizontal], [Vertical], or [Horizon 2]. Set the display direction of the bar graph 2. Direction - Bar graph Select [Horizontal] or [Vertical].
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7-23

7.13 Setting the Display Direction, Background Color, Waveform Line Width, Trip Line Width, Grid, Scroll Time, and Scale digit Set the background color 3. Background Select white or black.

Note
The background color of the historical trend is opposite that of the trend display.

Setting the line width of the waveform 4. Trend line Select the width of the waveform line as [1], [2], or [3] dots. Setting the width of the trip line 5. Trip line Select the width of the trip line as [1], [2], or [3] dots. Setting the number of grids on the waveform display area 6. Grid Select the number of grids from [4] to [12], or [Auto]. [Auto]: Display the same number of grids as the number of scale divisions of the first assigned channel of the group. Setting the interval at which the displayed group is automatically switched 7. Scroll time Select the interval from [5 s], [10 s], [20 s], [30 s], and [1 min]. Setting the number of displayed digits of the scale value 8. Scale digit [Normal]: See the explanation given in Scale values in section 7.10. [Fine]: The number of displayed digits of the scale value is increased by one. See the explanation given in Scale values in section 7.10. Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Grid on the waveform display area

Grid(The number of grid is 10 in this example)

7-24

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7.14 Setting the Brightness of the Screen and the Backlight Saver Function
There are eight screen brightness settings which can be selected (1 to 8). The lifetime of the LCD backlight can be extended by automatically dimming the light when there has been no key operation for a certain amount of time. The screen will return to the original brightness with a key operation or an alarm occurrence. The screen saver is initially disabled. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

7
Next 1/3
#5
. .

Press the soft key Press the soft key

Setting and Operating the Display

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#4

1 2 3 4

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. Setting the brightness of the screen 1. Brightness Select from 1 to 8. A higher number corresponds to a brighter screen setting. Setting the backlight saver 2. Saver When [On] is selected, [Saver time] and [Restore] boxes are displayed. 3. Saver time Select the time from 1 min, 2 min, 5 min, 10 min, 30 min, and 1 hour. If the specified time elapses without any key operation, the LCD backlight is automatically dimmed. 4. Restore Select [Key] or [Key + Alm] (Key + Alarm). [Key]: The screen will return to the original brightness with a key operation. [Key + Alm]: The screen will return to the original brightness with a key operation or an alarm occurrence. Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.
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Chapter 8 Data Acquisition and Saving to External Storage Medium

8.1

Data Types to be Acquired and Saved


Data type The types and the contents of the data that are acquired are as follows. Beside those data listed below, the setup data (see section 9.1) and the screen image data (see section 9.6) can be saved to the external storage medium.
Type Display data Content Event data Waveform data that are used to display trends on the LCD screen. The maximum and minimum values from measured/computed data within the sampling intervals are held. A header string can be written into the display data file (a character string that is common to all data files). Alarm and message information is held. Data format: Binary format The instantaneous values of the measured/computed data are acquired at the specified sampling interval. There is a mode in which the data acquisition is started when a trigger occurs or another mode in which the data acquisition is started when the START key is pressed. The header string can be written into the event data file (a character string that is common to all data files). Alarm and message information is held. Data format: Binary format Every time a key that executes manual sampling is pressed, measured/computed data (instantaneous values) of all channels at that point are acquired. Up to 50 samples of data can be stored in the internal memory. The header string can be written into the manual sampled data file (a character string that is common to all data files). Data format: ASCII format Data are added to the internal memory at the end of every interval period. Up to 400 data sets can be stored in the internal memory. The header string can be written into the TLOG data file (a character string that is common to all data files). Data format: Binary format Consists of hourly, daily, weekly, and monthly reports. Data are computed at intervals depending on the report type (one hour for hourly report, one day for daily report, etc). Data are added to the internal memory at the end of every interval period. Up to 40 reports can be stored in the internal memory. Each report file can contain up to 12 measured/computed channels of report data. The header string can be written into the report data file (a character string that is common to all data files). Data format: ASCII format

Data Types and File Names

Manual sampled data

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TLOG data (option) Report data (option)

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8.1 Data Types to be Acquired and Saved File name File names are automatically assigned (month/day/hour/minute of the first sampled data + sequence number. extension) for display data, event data, manual sampled data, TLOG data (option), and report data (option). Display data file: Mddhhmma.DDS Event data file: Mddhhmma.DEV Manual sampled data file: Mddhhmma.DMN TLOG data file: Mddhhmma.DTG Hourly report data file: Mddhhmma.DHR Daily report data file: Mddhhmma.DDR Weekly report data file: Mddhhmma.DWR Monthly report data file: Mddhhmma.DMR where, M: month (1 to 9, X (10), Y (11), Z (12)), dd: date, hh: hour, mm: minute, a: sequence number

Note
The sequence number of the file name is normally set to 0. However, if the display data acquisition is started, stopped, and restarted within one minute, for example, then the file name of the two files will have sequence numbers 0 and 1 for the first and second files, respectively (The two files will have the same Mddhhmm (month/day/hour/minute) section).

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8.2

Function to Acquire Display Data and Event Data


The display and event data are acquired by specifying the channels, sampling interval, file size, and other information.

Specifying the data to be acquired


Display data and event data Specify the type of data to be acquired depending on the application. Several examples are shown below. Please use them as references. Example 1: Continuously record the waveform data as in the conventional charttype recorders. Select display data only. Example 2: Continuously record the waveform data and when an alarm occurs, record detailed data around the alarm incident. Select display data and event data. For the event data, select Trigger or Rotate for the mode. Specify the trigger used to start the event data acquisition and the time period during which to acquire the data (event data file size). Example 3: Continuously record detailed data. Select even data only. Select Free for the mode. Example 4: Recording is not necessary under normal circumstances. Only record detailed data around the alarm incident. Select event data only. Select Trigger or Rotate for the mode. Specify the trigger used to start the event data acquisition and the time period during which to acquire the data.

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Data Acquisition and Saving to External Storage Medium

Data type
Select display data only, display data and event data, or event data only.

Channels to be stored
Select the channels to be acquired from measurement and computation channels.

Data acquisition
Display data This operation is performed when the type of data acquired is set to display data only, or display data and event data. Data acquisition starts when the START key is pressed and stops when the STOP key is pressed. The display data are overwritten when the display data storage area in the internal memory becomes full, or the number of files* exceeds 16.
* The number of display data files During manual save, a file is created for each data write operation (a set of start and stop operations). During auto save, a file is created every auto save interval and at every specified date/time.

Note
The display data in the internal memory can be confirmed with the memory summary. Section 4.5 When a power disruption occurs the file is closed.

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8.2 Function to Acquire Display Data and Event Data Event data This operation is performed when the type of data acquired is set to event data only, or display data and event data. There are three modes in data acquisition, [Free], [Trigger], and [Rotate]. [Free] mode can be set when acquiring the event data only.
Mode Free Description Data acquisition is started by pressing the START key. The operation is stopped by pressing the STOP key. When the storage area of the internal memory becomes full, or the number of files* in the internal memory exceeds 16, it is overwritten. * The number of display data files During manual save, a file is created for each data write operation (start and stop operations). During auto save, a file is created every specified interval (data length, see section 8.11) and at every specified date/time. When the internal memory is not divided into blocks: One event data file is created in the internal memory. Press the START key to enter the trigger wait state. After the trigger is activated, data are acquired for the specified time (data length, see section 8.11) and the operation is stopped. At this point, the acquisition does not start even if the trigger is activated.
Data acquisition Trigger wait Trigger activated Stop

Trigger

When the internal memory is divided into blocks: An event data file each in the block is created. Press the START key to enter the trigger wait state. After the trigger is activated, data are acquired for the specified time (data length, see section 8.11) and the operation is stopped. When the trigger is activated again, data are acquired and stored to the next block. When all blocks are full, no more acquisition takes place.
First block Data acquisition Trigger wait Trigger activated Trigger wait Trigger activated Second block Data acquisition Trigger wait Trigger activated Stop Last block Data acquisition

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8.2 Function to Acquire Display Data and Event Data


Mode Rotate Description When the internal memory is not divided into blocks: One event data file is created in the internal memory. Press the START key to enter the trigger wait state. After the trigger is activated, data are acquired for the specified time (data length, see section 8.11) and the operation is stopped. Data are overwritten when the trigger is activated again. Every time the trigger is activated during the trigger wait state, data are overwritten. Press the STOP key to terminate data acquisition.
Data acquisition Trigger wait Trigger activated

When the internal memory is divided into blocks: An event data file each in the blocks is created. Press the START key to enter the trigger wait state. After the trigger is activated, data are acquired for the specified time (data length, see section 8.11) and the operation is stopped. When the trigger is activated again, data are acquired and stored to the next block. When all blocks are full and the trigger is activated, data are overwritten to the first block. Every time the trigger is activated during the trigger wait state, data are overwritten to the next block. Press the STOP key to terminate data acquisition.
First block Data acquisition Trigger wait Trigger activated Trigger wait Trigger activated Second block Data acquisition Trigger wait Trigger activated Last block Data acquisition

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Data Acquisition and Saving to External Storage Medium

Note
The event data in the internal memory can be confirmed with the memory summary. Section 4.5 When a power failure occurs, the event data file in the internal memory is closed as one file.

Pretrigger for the event data


Pretrigger is applied to the event data with [Trigger] or [Rotate] modes. You can have event data before the trigger point be stored. It is specified in terms of a percentage of the data length (0, 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, 100%). If 0% is selected, all data are after the trigger point. The initial setting is 0%.

Trigger type for the event data


When [Trigger] or [Rotate] is selected, the trigger type is selected by turning each type of trigger ON/OFF. The triggers operate in an OR fashion: the trigger is activated when any of the conditions that are turned ON are satisfied.
Type Key trigger Description The trigger condition is satisfied when the FUNC - [Trigger] soft key or the USER key (only when the trigger function is assigned to the USER key) is pressed. The trigger condition is satisfied when the external contact specified by Remote Control function is turned ON. See section 10.9. The trigger condition is satisfied when any of the alarms occur.

External trigger Alarm trigger

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8.2 Function to Acquire Display Data and Event Data

Number of data points that can be acquired and sampling length (the maximum auto save interval for display data, the maximum data length for event data)
This section describes the number of data points of the display data/event data that can be acquired and the sampling length. Use the information when determining the amount of time it takes for the internal memory to become full or when deciding the channels to be acquired or the sampling interval. The possible range of menus of the auto save interval of display data and the data length of event data is displayed in the soft keys based on the information described here. Data format The display data have minimum and maximum values for each sampling interval. Event data consists of instantaneous values. The number of data bytes per channel is shown in the following table.
Data Type Display data Event data Measurement Channel 4 bytes/channel 2 bytes/channel Computation Channel 8 bytes/channel 4 bytes/channel

Example Data format when the data of measurement channels 1 to 4 and a computation channel 31 are acquired. Display data
1st scan CH1 CH1 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH3 CH4 CH4 min max min max min max min max 2nd scan CH1 CH1 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH3 CH4 CH4 min max min max min max min max to nth scan CH1 CH1 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH3 CH4 CH4 min max min max min max min max 2 bytes (binary data) CH31 min CH31 max CH31 min CH31 min CH31 max CH31 max

Event data
1st scan CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 2nd scan CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4 to nth scan CH1 CH2 CH3 CH4

CH31

CH31

CH31

2 bytes (binary data)

Internal memory capacity The capacity of the internal memory that is used for data storage is 1.2 MB. The internal memory is allocated depending on the acquired data as follows.
Data being acquired Display data only Display data and event data Event data only Internal Memory Capacity 1.2 MB Display data: 0.9 MB Event data: 0.3 MB 1.2 MB
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8.2 Function to Acquire Display Data and Event Data Maximum number of data points per channel that can be acquired The following table shows the maximum number of data points per channel that can be acquired.
Data being acquired Display data only Maximum number of data points per channel 1,200,000 bytes/(number of measurement channels 4 + number of computation channels 8) Except, the maximum number of data points is 100,000 Display data 900,000 bytes/(number of measurement channels 4 + number of computation channels 8) Except, the maximum number of data points is 75,000 Event data 300,000 bytes/(number of measurement channels 2 + number of computation channels 4) Except, the maximum number of data points is 30,000

Display data and event data

Event data only

1,200,000 bytes/(number of measurement channels 2 + number of computation channels 4) Except, the maximum number of data points is 120,000

Sampling length The sampling length can be derived from the following equation. Sampling length = the maximum number of data points per channel sampling interval Calculation example Display data only Measurement channel: 2, computation channel: none
Data Display data Maximum number of data points and sampling length Maximum number of data points = 1,200,000/(2 CH 4 bytes + 0 8 bytes) = 150,000. However, since 100,000 data points is the limit, Maximum number of data points = 100,000 When the display update rate is 30 min/div (60 s sampling interval) Sampling length = 100,000 data points 60 s = 6,000,000 s (approx. 69 days)

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Data Acquisition and Saving to External Storage Medium

Measurement channel: 12, computation channel: 6


Data Display data Maximum number of data points and sampling length Maximum number of data points = 1,200,000/(12 CH 4 bytes + 6 8 bytes) = 12,500 When the display update rate is 30 min/div (60 s sampling interval) Sampling length = 12,500 data points 60 s = 750,000 s (approx. 8 days)

Event data only Measurement channel: 2, computation channel: None


Data Display data Maximum number of data points and sampling length Maximum number of data points = 1,200,000/(2 CH 2 bytes + 0 4 bytes) = 300,000 However, since 120,000 data points is the limit, Maximum number of data points = 120,000 When the event data sampling interval is 1 s Sampling length = 120,000 data points 1 s = 120,000 s (approx. 33 hours)

Measurement channel: 12, computation channel: 6


Data Event data Maximum number of data points and sampling length Maximum number of data points = 1,200,000/(12 CH 2 bytes + 6 4 bytes) = 25,000 When the event data sampling interval is 1 s Sampling length = 25,000 data points 1 s = 25,000 s (approx. 7 hours)

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8.2 Function to Acquire Display Data and Event Data Display data and event data Measurement channel: 2, computation channel: none
Data Display data Maximum number of data points and sampling length Maximum number of data points = 900,000/(2 CH 4 bytes + 0 8 bytes) = 112,500 However, since 75,000 data points is the limit, Maximum number of data points = 75,000 When the display update rate is 30 min/div (60 s sampling interval) Sampling length = 75,000 data points 60 s = 4,500,000 s (approx. 52 days) Maximum number of data points = 300,000/(2 CH 2 bytes + 0 4 bytes) = 75,000 However, since 30,000 data points is the limit, Maximum number of data points = 30,000 data points When the event data sampling interval is 1 s Sampling length = 30,000 data points 1 s = 30,000 s (approx. 8 hours)

Event data

Measurement channel: 12, computation channel: 6


Data Display data Maximum number of data points and sampling length Maximum number of data points = 900,000/(12 CH 4 bytes + 6 8 bytes) = 9,375 When the display update rate is 30 min/div (60 s sampling interval) Sampling length = 9,375 data points 60 s = 562,500 s (approx. 6.5 days) Maximum number of data points = 300,000/(12 CH 2 bytes + 6 4 bytes) = 6,250 When the event data sampling interval is 1 s Sampling length = 6,250 data points 1 s = 6,250 s (approx. 1.7 hours)

Event data

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8.3

Function to Acquire Other Data


When the manual sample key is pressed, the instantaneous values of all channels (excluding the measurement channels that are set to [Skip] and the computation channels that are turned Off) are acquired. Up to 50 data sets can be stored in the internal memory. When this number is exceeded, data are overwritten from the oldest data.

Manual sampled data

Note
The number of manual sampled data in the internal memory can be confirmed with the memory summary. Section 4.5

TLOG data (option)


TLOG data are acquired at each time interval set by timers. Up to 400 data sets can be stored in the internal memory. When this number is exceeded, data are overwritten from the oldest data.

Note
Up to 16 TLOG files (number of start and stop) can be stored to the internal memory. When the number of files in the internal memory exceeds 16, TLOG data are overwritten even if the number of data sets is less than 400. The number of TLOG data sets in the internal memory can be confirmed with the memory summary. Section 4.5

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Data Acquisition and Saving to External Storage Medium

Report data (option)


Report data are acquired at each time interval (one hour for hourly report, one day for daily report, etc). Up to 40 data sets can be stored in the internal memory. When this number is exceeded, data are overwritten from the oldest data. For hourly only, this constitutes 40 minutes of report data. For daily+monthly, this constitutes 39 daily reports and one monthly report or 38 daily reports and two monthly reports.

Note
The number of report data sets in the internal memory can be confirmed with the memory summary. Section 4.5

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8.4

Function that Saves the Data in the Internal Memory to the External Storage Medium
There are two methods in which the data are saved to the external storage medium, manual save and auto save.

Manual Save
The external storage medium is inserted into the drive only when storing the data residing in the internal memory. When saving the data residing in the internal memory to the external storage medium, insert the storage medium into the drive and close the front cover. The storage medium in the drive is detected, and you can save the data residing in the internal memory to the storage medium. When the save operation is finished, remove the storage medium from the drive. Repeat the same procedure the next time the data is to be saved. You can specify whether to save the entire data in the memory or only the data that have not been saved to the storage medium beforehand.

Auto Save
The external storage medium is placed in the drive at all times. Data saving to the external storage medium is done automatically. Displayed data The display data in the internal memory is saved to the external storage medium at the specified interval (auto save interval, see section 8.8) or the specified date and time (see section 8.12).
The down arrows ( ) in the example below indicate the times at which the display data or event data (only during "free" mode) in the internal memory is closed as a single file. Example 1 Auto save interval: 1 day Date and time to save data: Not specified 7/19 13:10 7/20 13:10 7/21 13:10 7/22 13:10

Start Example 2 Auto save interval: 1 day Date and time to save data: 0:00 everyday 7/19 13:10 7/20 0:00 7/21 0:00 7/22 0:00

Start Example 3 Auto save interval: 12 hours Date and time to save data: 0:00 everyday 7/19 13:10 7/20 0:00 12:00 7/21 0:00 12:00 7/22 0:00 12:00

Start Example 4 Auto save interval: 2 days Date and time to save data: 0:00 everyday 7/19 13:10 7/20 0:00 7/21 0:00 7/22 0:00

Start

Event data During the free mode The event data in the internal memory is saved to the external storage medium at the specified interval (data length, see section 8.11) or the specified date and time (see section 8.12). 8-10
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8.4 Function that Saves the Data in the Internal Memory to the External Storage Medium During trigger or rotate mode After acquiring the data to the internal memory over the specified period (data length, see section 8.11), the event data in the internal memory are saved to the external storage medium. The following figure shows the operation when the acquisition area in the internal memory is divided using the trigger mode.
Data save to the external storage medium First block Data acquisition Trigger wait Trigger activated Trigger wait Trigger activated Second block Data acquisition Trigger wait Trigger activated Stop Last block Data acquisition

Manual sampled data The first time manual sample is executed, a manual sampled data file is created on the external storage medium. The data are appended to this file for each successive manual sample operation.

Note
When auto save is selected and there is no medium in the drive at the time when manual sample is ececuted, all unsaved data are saved the first time when manual sample is ececuted, after the storage medium is reinserted into the drive.

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TLOG data The first time TLOG data is acquired, a TLOG data file is created on the external storage medium. The data are appended to this file at each time interval. When the number of TLOG data sets exceeds 400, a new file is created.

Note
When auto save is selected and there is no medium in the drive at the time when data are supposed to be saved, all unsaved data are saved the first time when the interval time expires after the storage medium is reinserted into the drive.

Report data The first time report computation is executed, a report data file is created on the external storage medium. A file is created for each type of report such as hourly, daily, weekly, and monthly reports. The data are appended to this file at each time interval.

Note
When auto save is selected and there is no medium in the drive at the time when data are supposed to be saved, all unsaved data are saved the first time when the report data is created after the storage medium is reinserted into the drive.

Dividing report files The report files are divided at the following times. When data acquisition is stopped. For hourly reports When the 0:00 report is created every day. When the number of data sets in the file reaches 25. For daily reports When the report for the first day of the month is created every month When the number of data sets in the file reaches 32.
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8.5

Acquiring Display Data


This operation is performed when the type of data acquired is set to [Display] or [E + D]. For setting the data acquisition method, see sections 8.10 and 8.11.

Procedure Start data acquisition To begin data acquisition, press the START key. The icon in the status display section will change accordingly.
Icon

Stop data acquisition 1. Press the STOP key. A confirmation window opens.

On models with the computation option, the confirmation window displays the following choices: [Mem + Math] (terminate acquisition and all computations), [Memory] (terminate acquisition), and [Cancel]. For models with the batch function (/BT1 option) that has the batch function enabled (see section 10.13), the batch information is also displayed.

2.

Select [Yes] ([Mem + Math] or [Memory] for models with the computation function) using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key to stop the data acquisition. The icon in the status display section changes to a stop icon.

Note
When the memory area becomes full or the number of files exceeds 16, existing data will be overwritten starting with the oldest data. When a power disruption occurs the file is closed. When the power resumes, data are written to a new file. The START/STOP operation also starts/stops the report function. When the computation is stopped, it is started with the START key.

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8.6

Acquiring Event Data


This operation is performed when the type of data acquired is set to [Event] or [E + D]. For setting the data acquisition method, see sections 8.10 and 8.11.

Procedure

During [Free] mode


Start data acquisition To begin data acquisition, press the START key. The icon in the status display section will change accordingly.
Icon

Stop data acquisition 1. Press the STOP key. A confirmation window opens.

On models with the computation option, the confirmation window displays the following choices: [Mem + Math] (terminate acquisition and all computations), [Memory] (terminate acquisition), and [Cancel]. For models with the batch function (/BT1 option) that has the batch function enabled (see section 10.13), the batch information is also displayed.

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2.

Select [Yes] ([Mem + Math] or [Memory] for models with the computation function) using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key to stop the data acquisition. The icon in the status display section changes to a stop icon.
When the memory area becomes full or the number of files exceeds 16, existing data will be overwritten starting with the oldest data. When a power disruption occurs the file is closed. When the power resumes, data are written to a new file. The START/STOP operation also starts/stops the report function. When the computation is stopped, it is started with the START key.

Note

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8.6 Acquiring Event Data

During [Trigger] mode or [Rotate] mode


Start data acquisition 1. Press the START key to enter the trigger wait state. The icon in the status display section will change accordingly. A bar indicating the pretrigger data in the status display section is displayed in orange. 2. When the trigger occurs, data acquisition starts. Providing the key trigger that starts the data acquisition to the internal memory This operation is carried out in the trigger wait state. For all other cases, this operation produces no effect. For details related to triggers other than the key trigger, see section sections 8.2 or 8.11. Operation using the FUNC key 1. Press the FUNC key to display the soft key menu. 2. Press the [Trigger] soft key to start the data acquisition of the event data to the internal memory. Operation using the USER key This is an operation carried out only when the key trigger function is assigned to the USER key 1. Press the USER key to start the data acquisition of the event data to the internal memory. Stop data acquisition Data acquisition stops upon reaching the specified time (data length, see section 8.11). In the status display section, the block to which data were stored turns green. See section 4.2.

Note
During the [Trigger] mode, [Full] is displayed when data acquisition to all blocks is complete. When [Full] is displayed, event data are no longer acquired even if the trigger condition is met.

Terminate data acquisition with a key operation (in sync with the termination of the display data acquisition when acquiring the display data and the event data) 1. Press the STOP key. A confirmation window opens. On models with the computation option, the confirmation window displays the following choices: [Mem + Math] (terminate acquisition and all computations), [Memory] (terminate acquisition), and [Cancel]. For models with the batch function (/BT1 option) that has the batch function enabled (see section 10.13), the batch information is also displayed. 2. Select [Yes] ([Mem + Math] or [Memory] for models with the computation function) using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key to stop the data acquisition. The icon in the status display section changes to a stop icon.

Note
One file is created for one set of start and stop operations. The maximum number of files that can be stored in the internal memory is the specified number of blocks. When a power disruption occurs the file is closed. When the power resumes, data are written to a new file. The START/STOP operation also starts/stops the report function. When the computation is stopped, it is started with the START key.

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8.7

Saving the Data in the Internal Memory to the External Storage Medium
This operation saves the data in the internal memory to the external storage medium. Here, data refers to display data, event data, manual sampled data, TLOG data (option), and report data (option).

When using manual save


Procedure The operation to save data in the internal memory to the external storage medium can be carried out when the storage medium is inserted into the drive. 1. Insert the storage medium into the drive and close the front cover. A window with a confirming message, [Do you want to save measured data?] appears. 2. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER Key to save data. Select [No] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key not to save data.

Note
You can select whether to save all the data residing in the internal memory or only the data that have not been saved to the storage medium. See section 8.10. If saving to the storage medium is prevented with the key lock function and the key lock is enabled, data cannot be saved when the medium is inserted into the drive. Turn OFF the key lock before inserting the medium. It is possible that the data in the internal memory are overwritten before the data are stored to the external storage medium due to limitations such as the capacity of the internal memory. Refer to sections 8.2 and 8.3 and save the data to the external storage medium before they are overwritten. For the memory usage display of the internal memory, see section 4.2, Using the Status Display Section. When the front cover is closed, the DX checks whether or not an external storage medium is inserted in the drive. Do not remove the storage medium while it is being accessed.

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3.

When the data save operation is finished, remove the storage medium from the drive.

When the external storage medium does not have enough space Change the external storage medium to save the remaining data. 1. The message [Exchange media to continue the saving operation] will be displayed. Change the external storage medium and close the front cover. The message [Do you want to continue to save measured data?] will be displayed. 2. Selecting [Yes] and pressing the DISP/ENTER key saves the remaining data to the external storage medium. Selecting [No] and pressing the DISP/ENTER key does not save the remaining data.

Note
The data saving operation is interrupted in five minutes after the message [Exchange media to continue......] was displayed. The message [Memory save to media was interrupted] will be displayed in this case. The remaining data can be saved to the external storage medium by another manual save operation.

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8.7 Saving the Data in the Internal Memory to the External Storage Medium Explanation Name of the directory to which to save the data For the setting procedure of the directory to which to save the data, see section 8.9. Each time the storage medium is inserted into the drive and the data are saved, the sequence number of the directory name increments by one. Example: When the specified directory name is DATA0, the first set of data are saved to DATA0.000 and the second set of data are saved to DATA0.001. When the directory name is changed, the sequence number is reset to zero. When the data are divided and saved over multiple external storage media due to lack of space on the storage medium, the same directory name is used. If the specified directory already exists in the external storage medium, an error message is displayed and the operation terminates (data are not saved).

When using auto save


Data are automatically stored by leaving the external storage medium inserted in the drive. For the data storage operation, see section 8.4. Procedure

Note
Do not remove the external storage medium while it is being accessed. For the memory usage display of the internal memory, see section 4.2. To check the free space on the storage medium, see section 9.5. For the name of the directory in which the data are saved, see section 8.9.

When the external storage medium does not have enough space 1. The message [Not enough free space on media] appears. Change the external storage medium. The unsaved data are saved to the external storage medium at the time for the next auto save execution.

Note
Be aware that data in the internal memory will be overwritten if there is not enough free space on the external storage medium or if the storage medium is not inserted in the drive in the following cases: When the number of display data files exceeds 16. A file is created for each auto save interval (see section 8.8). When the event data are acquired to the internal memory in the free run mode and the number of files exceeds 16. A file is created at specified acquisition periods (data length, see section 8.11).

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8.7 Saving the Data in the Internal Memory to the External Storage Medium Saving the data to the external storage medium using key operation during auto save mode This operation applies when the data acquisition of the display data, or the data acquisition of event data in the free mode is in progress and the data storage to the storage medium is set to auto save. The display data or event data can be saved to the external storage medium at arbitrary times. The data acquisition to the internal memory continues even if this operation is carried out. 1. Press the FUNC key to display the soft key menu shown below. [Save Display]: When the type*1 of data acquired to the internal memory is display data or display data and event data. [Save Event]: When the type*1 of data acquired to the internal memory is event data and the free mode*1*2 is set.
*1 For the setting procedure, see section 8.11. *2 The soft key is not displayed in the trigger or rotate mode.

2.

Press the soft key to save the data in the internal memory to the external storage medium.

[Save Display]: The display data file is closed and saved to the external storage medium. [Save Event]: The event data file is closed and saved to the external storage medium. Explanation Saving the data using key operation during auto save mode The data are acquired to the internal memory for the specified period from the point at which the data were previously saved to the external storage medium using key operation. Then, the data in the internal memory are saved to the storage medium. This operation is repeated. The following figure shows an example in which data are saved to the external storage medium at one-hour intervals.
Execute data saving to the external storage medium using key operation. 10:00 Save to external storage medium 11:00 11:20 12:0012:20 13:20 Time

8
Data Acquisition and Saving to External Storage Medium

Saving the data to the storage medium using key operation


All data in the internal memory are saved to the external storage medium. This cannot be executed while data acquisition or computation is in progress. For the operating procedure, see section 9.2.

Note
See section 9.7 or 9.8 to clear data in the internal memory.

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8.8

Setting the Auto Save Interval for the Display Data


When the method to save the data residing in the memory to the external storage medium is [auto save], you set the auto save interval. The auto save interval is used in saving the display data. The display data residing in the internal memory is automatically saved to the external storage medium as a single file at each auto save interval.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed). The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#3

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Auto save interval Displayed when [auto save] is selected. See section 8.8. Select from the choices shown on the soft keys.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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8.8 Setting the Auto Save Interval for the Display Data Explanation Choices for the auto save interval The maximum auto save interval varies depending on the display update rate (sampling interval is determined from the display update rate), the data type (display data only/ display data and event data), and the number of measurement and computation channels to be stored (see section 8.10). The available choices for the auto save interval are displayed on the soft key. See the table below.
Display update rate (/DIV) Sampling interval (s) Auto save interval (choices) 15 s* 0.5 10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 30 s* 1 10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 1 min 2 10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 2 min 4 10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 min 10 10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day 10 min 20 min 30 min 1 h 20 10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day 14 day 40 60 120 2h 240 4h 480 10 h 1200

1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day 14 day 31 day

1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day 14 day 31 day

1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day 14 day 31 day

2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day 14 day 31 day

4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day 14 day 31 day

8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day 14 day 31 day

8
Data Acquisition and Saving to External Storage Medium

for DX102 and DX104 only

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8.9

Setting the File Header, Directory Name, and the Saved Data during Manual Save
File header Up to 32 alphanumeric characters can be used to write a header comment to the display data, event data, manual sampled data, TLOG data (option) and report data (option). Directory name When saving data to the external storage medium, you can specify the name of the directory to which the files are to be saved. All data other than the setup data (display data, event data, manual sampled data, TLOG data (option), report data (option), and screen image data) are saved to this directory. Setup data are saved to the root directory. During auto save, data is saved to the directory specified here. During manual save, data is saved to the directories with names consisting of the character string specified here followed by a sequence number (see section 8.7). When saving the data residing in the internal memory to the external storage medium through key operation, data is saved to the directories with names consisting of the character string specified here followed by A + sequence number (see section 9.2). Saved data during manual save When using manual save, you can select whether to save all the data residing in the internal memory or only the data that have not previously been saved to the storage medium.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#6

1 2 3

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Header Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a string. Enter the header (up to 32 alphanumeric characters) and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22. Directory name Enter the directory name (up to 8 alphanumeric characters) using the same method as step 1.

2.

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8.9 Setting the File Header, Directory Name, and the Saved Data during Manual Save

Note
The following character combinations can not be used as directory names: AUX, CON, PRN, NUL, CLOCK. All spaces, or spaces at the top or in the middle of character strings are also not allowed for directory names.

3.

Save data Displayed when [Manual Save] is selected. Select [Unsave] or [All]. The initial setting is [All] [Unsave]: Saves only the data that have not been saved when the medium is inserted into the drive. [All]: Save all the data residing in the memory when the medium is inserted into the drive.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

8
Data Acquisition and Saving to External Storage Medium

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8.10 Setting the Channels to Display the Trend and Acquire the Data (Basic Setting Mode)
Specify the channel for which the display or event data are to be acquired to the internal memory. The waveforms of the specified channels can be displayed on the trend display. The waveforms for the channels that are turned OFF are not displayed, but numerical values, bar graphs and alarms are displayed. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Press

FUNC

for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#4

1 2 3

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Meas CH/Math CH* To set the measurement channels, select [Meas CH]. To set the computation channels, select [Math CH].
* [Math CH] appears only on models with the computation option (/M1).

2. 3.

First channel and last channel Select the desired channel numbers. On/Off [On]: Display the trend/acquire data [Off]: Do not display the trend/do not acquire data The initial setting is [On] for all channels.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation The number of measurement and computation channels available in the different models
Model DX102 DX104 DX106 DX112 Measurement Channel 2 channels (1 to 2) 4 channels (1 to 4) 6 channels (1 to 6) 12 channels (1 to 12) Computation channel 4 channels (31 to 34) 4 channels (31 to 34) 12 channels (31 to 42) 12 channels (31 to 42)
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8.11 Setting the Method of the Display/Event Data Acquisition (Basic Setting Mode)
Set the method of the display/event data acquisition. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

#3

8
Data Acquisition and Saving to External Storage Medium

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. Data save to the external storage medium 1. Save Set save method to the external storage medium. Select [Auto] or [Manual]. [Auto]: auto save [Manual]: manual save

Note
If [Manual] (manual save) is selected in step 1, set whether to save all the data in the internal memory or only the data that have not been saved. See section 8.9.

Data acquisition Acquiring only the display data 2. Data Select [Display].

Note
If [Auto] (auto save) is selected in step 1 and [Display] is selected in step 2, set the auto save interval for the display data. See section 8.8.

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8.11 Setting the Method of the Display/Event Data Acquisition (Basic Setting Mode) Acquiring only the event data 2. Data Select [Event]. Boxes used to set the method for event data acquisition are displayed. 3. Event - Sample rate This is the sampling interval for the event data. You cannot specify a sampling interval that is faster than the scan interval. DX102, DX104: 125 ms, 250 ms, 500 ms, 1 s, 2 s, 5 s, 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, 120 s, 300 s, and 600 s DX106, DX112: 1 s, 2 s, 5 s, 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, 120 s, 300 s, and 600 s 4. Event - Mode Select from [Free], [Trigger], or [Rotate]. If [Free] is selected, item 6 is displayed. If [Trigger] or [Rotate] is selected, items 5, 6, 7, and 8 are displayed. 5. Event - Block The event data storage area in the internal memory is divided by the specified number. Select [1], [2], [4], [8], or [16]. (Select [1], [2], or [4] when acquiring display and event data) 6. Event - Data length The size of the event data file is expressed as a length of time over which data are acquired. The data length that can be specified varies depending on the sampling interval ([sample rate] in item 3), number of blocks, and the number of measurement and computation channels that are acquired. 7. Event - Pre-Trigger This is the range of data to be acquired before the trigger point. It is specified as a percentage of the data length (0, 5, 25, 50, 75, 95, and 100%). If 0% is selected, all data after the trigger point are acquired. 8. Event - Trigger [Key]: When using key operation to activate the trigger, turn this parameter On. [External]: When using remote control function (option) to activate the trigger, turn this parameter On. [Alarm]: When using alarms as triggers, turn this parameter On.

Note
If the [Alarm] parameter is turned On, trigger is activated if any one of the alarms occurs. If [Alarm] parameter is turned On and the alarm was already activated when the START key is pressed, trigger is also activated. OR logic applies to the [Key], [External], and [Alarm] parameters. If any one of the conditions that are turned On is met, the trigger is activated.

Acquiring display data and event data 2. Data type Select [E+D].

Note
If [Auto] (auto save) is selected in step 1 and [E + D] is selected in step 2, set the auto save interval for the display data. See section 8.8.

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8.11 Setting the Method of the Display/Event Data Acquisition (Basic Setting Mode) Boxes used to set the method for event data acquisition are displayed. The procedures used to set each parameter are the same as those described for Acquiring only the event data. In step 4, [Free] is not selectable. Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Choices for the data length The maximum value of the data length varies depending on the sampling interval. It is also dependent on the type of data to be acquired (display data and event data or event data only) and the number of measurement and computation channels to be acquired (see section 8.10). The available choices for the data length are displayed on the soft key menu. See the table below.
Sample rate (s) Data length (choices) 0.125* 0.25* 3 min 5 min 10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 3h 3 min 5 min 10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 0.5* 3 min 5 min 10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 3 min 5 min 10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 3 min 5 min 10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 5 10 30 60 120 300 600

10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day

10 min 20 min 30 min 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day

8
1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day 14 day 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day 14 day 31 day 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day 14 day 31 day 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day 14 day 31 day 1h 2h 3h 4h 6h 8h 12 h 1 day 2 day 3 day 5 day 7 day 10 day 14 day 31 day

Data Acquisition and Saving to External Storage Medium

for DX102 and DX104 only

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8.12 Specifying the Date/Time When Data Is To Be Saved to the External Storage Medium (Basic Setting Mode)
When the method used to save the data in the internal memory to the external storage medium is set to auto save, the display data or event data (only during Free mode) in the internal memory is closed as a single file and automatically saved to the external storage medium. This operation repeats when the auto save interval or the specified date or time is reached. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1 2 3

#4

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Timeup type If a setting other than [Off] is specified, [Date] or [Day of the week] and [Time(hour)] are displayed. [Off]: Disable this function. [Hour]: Saves the data in the internal memory to the external storage medium every hour on the hour. [Day]: Saves the data in the internal memory to the external storage medium every day at the hour on the hour specified by [Time(hour)]. [Week]: Saves the data in the internal memory to the external storage medium at the day specified by [Day of the week] at the hour on the hour specified by [Time(hour)]. [Month]: Saves the data in the internal memory to the external storage medium at the date specified by [Date] at the hour on the hour specified by [Time(hour)].

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8.12 Specifying the Date/Time When Data Is To Be Saved to the External Storage Medium (Basic Setting Mode) 2. Date or Day of the week When [Timeup type] is set to [Hour], [Day], or [Month], [Date] is displayed. However, the [Date] setting is valid only when [Timeup type] is set to [Month]. It is invalid otherwise. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the value. Enter the date (1-28)* and press DISP/ENTER. Procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21.
* You cannot specify 29, 30, or 31.

When [Timeup type] is set to [Week], [Day of the week] is displayed. Enter the day of the week using the soft key. 3. Time(hour) Time when data is to be saved. This is invalid when [Timeup type] is set to [Hour]. Enter the hour (00-23) using the same method as step 2.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

8
Explanation

Data Acquisition and Saving to External Storage Medium

When power failure occurs during auto save mode Acquired data are saved to the storage medium at power restoration. When the power restores, the data saving operation restores.
Example: Timeup type is set to [Hour].
15:20 Power failure 13:10 14:00 15:00 15:41 Power restoration 16:00 17:00 Time

Start

Save to the storage medium

When the data are saved to the storage medium using key operation during auto save mode ( see Explanation in section 8.7) The data saving operations are not affected by this key operation.
Example: Timeup type is set to [Hour].
15:25 Data saving using key operation 13:10 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 Time

Start

Save to the storage medium

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8.13 Storing Measured/Computed Data at Arbitrary Times (Manual Sampling)


The instantaneous values of all measurement and computation channels (excluding the measurement channels that are set to [Skip] and the computation channels that are turned Off) can be stored to the internal memory with a key operation. Computation channels are options. For the data format of the manual sampled data, see appendix 2, Data Formats of ASCII Files. Procedure Operation using the FUNC key This operation is carried out in the operation mode. 1. Press the FUNC key to display the soft key menu. 2. Press the [Manual sample] soft key. The instantaneous values of all channels (excluding the measurement channels that are set to [Skip] and the computation channels that are turned Off) are stored to the internal memory.

Operation using the USER key This is an operation carried out only when the manual sampling is assigned to the USER key. 1. Press the USER key. The instantaneous values of all channels (excluding the measurement channels that are set to [Skip] and the computation channels that are turned Off) are stored to the internal memory.

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Chapter 9 Managing Files and Initializing Data

9.1

Saving/loading setup data


You can save the setup data to or load setup data from the external storage medium. The operation can be carried out in both the setting mode and the basic setting mode. A setup data file has 25 KB in size (maximum).

Saving setup data (in the setting mode)


Saves the setup data (set in both the setting mode and the basic setting mode) to the external storage medium. The function is the same as that in the basic setting mode. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate position. Press
MENU

Press the soft key Press Press

Next 1/3

#7

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu screen. soft key to display the [Save settings] screen.

#1

File list

9
Managing Files and Initializing Data

1.

Enter the name of the setup data file to be saved. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a string. Enter the string (up to 8 alphanumeric characters) and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22. To cancel the operation and return to the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu, press the ESC key.

Note
The extension PNL will automatically be added to the file name. The following character combinations cannot be used as file names. AUX, CON, PRN, NUL, CLOCK All spaces are not allowed for file names. Spaces at the top or in the middle of a character string are not allowed.

2.

Press the DISP/ENTER key to save the data. The saved file appears in the file list. If a file with the same name as you entered exists on the external storage medium, a message will appear to confirm overwriting. Select [Yes] or [No] and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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9-1

9.1 Saving/loading setup data

Loading setup data (in the setting mode)


Loads the setup data set in the setting mode only, from a setup file in the external storage medium and make the settings effective. Setting items that are inconsistent with the content of the basic setting mode of the DX100 will not be acquired. Returns to the operation mode when loading is completed. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate position. Press
MENU

Press the soft key Press Press

Next 1/3

#7 #2

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu screen. soft key to display the [Load settings] screen.

File list

1.

2.

A list of setup files in the storage medium appears. Select the file to be loaded (The extension of setup files is PNL). To cancel the operation and return to the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu, press the ESC key. Press the DISP/ENTER key to load the file. After loading, the screen returns to the operation mode. The loaded setup data are made effective.

Note
If the loaded data does not take effect, refer to the error log. For the procedure related to displaying the error log, see section 10.7.

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9.1 Saving/loading setup data

Saving setup data (in the basic setting mode)


Saves the setup data (set in both the setting mode and the basic setting mode) to the external storage medium. The created file has the same parameters as the file created in the setting mode. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate position. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Press the soft key Press Press

Next 1/3

#8 #1

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Initialize] menu screen. soft key to display the [Save settings] screen.

File list

9
Managing Files and Initializing Data

1.

Enter the name of the setup data file to be saved. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a string. Enter the string (up to 8 alphanumeric characters) and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22. To cancel the operation and return to the [Save/Load, Initialize] menu, press the ESC key.

Note
The extension PNL will automatically be added to the file name. The following character combinations cannot be used as file names. AUX, CON, PRN, NUL, CLOCK All spaces are not allowed for file names. Spaces at the top or in the middle of a character string are not allowed.

2.

Press the DISP/ENTER key to save the data. The saved file appears in the file list. If a file with the same name as you entered exists on the external storage medium, a message will appear to confirm overwriting. Select [Yes] or [No] and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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9.1 Saving/loading setup data

Loading setup data (in the basic setting mode)


Loads the setup data (set in both the setting mode and the basic Setting mode) from a setup file in the external storage medium and make the settings effective. Returns to the operation mode when loading is completed. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate position. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Press the soft key Press Press

Next 1/3

#8 #2

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Initialize] menu screen. soft key to display the [Load settings] screen.

File list

1.

2.

A list of setup files in the storage medium appears. Select the file to be loaded (The extension of setup files is PNL). To cancel the operation and return to the [Save/Load, Initialize] menu, press the ESC key. Press the DISP/ENTER key to load the file. After loading, the screen returns to the operation mode. The loaded setup data take effect.

Note
If the loaded data does not take effect, refer to the error log. For the procedure related to displaying the error log, see section 10.7.

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9.2

Saving data in the internal memory to the external storage medium using key operation
The following data in the internal storage memory are saved to the external storage medium using key operation. Display data/Event data/Manual sampled data/TLOG data (option)/Report data (option)

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Press
MENU

Press the soft key Press Press

Next 1/3

#7
#3

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu screen. [Save data] soft key to save the data in the internal memory to

the external storage medium.

Note
The data in the internal memory cannot be saved to the external storage medium while data acquisition or computation is in progress.

Explanation Name of the directory to which to save the data The name of the directory to which to save the data is the specified name. Axx, where xx is the sequence number. Each time carrying out the key operation and the data are saved, the sequence number of the directory name increments by one. Example: When the specified directory name is DATA0, the first set of data are saved to DATA0.A00 and the second set of data are saved to DATA0.A01.

9
Managing Files and Initializing Data

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9-5

9.3

Viewing Display Data in the External Storage Medium


Loads the display data saved in the external storage medium and displays the waveform on the historical trend screen. This operation can be carried out when the acquisition of display data is set ([Display] or [E+D] in section 8.11). See section 4.6, for the use of the historical trend.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate position. Press
MENU

Press the soft key Press Press

Next 1/3

#7

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu screen. soft key to display the [Load display data] screen.

#4

File list

For models with the batch function (/BT1 option), press the [Time] soft key when displaying the date and time of file creation and the [Batch] soft key when displaying the batch number and lot number.

1.

2.

3.

The directories in the external storage medium are displayed in the [Directory name] column. Press the up or down arrow key to select the directory containing the display data to be loaded. A list of files in the selected directory is displayed in the right column. Root directory is denoted by [/]. Press the right arrow key to move the cursor on to the file list. Press the up or down arrow key to select the display data file to be loaded. To move back to the [Directory name] column, press the left arrow key. Press the DISP/ENTER key to display the waveform on the historical trend screen. To return to the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu screen without displaying the historical trend, press the ESC key.

9-6

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9.4

Viewing Event Data in the External Storage Medium


Loads the event data saved in the external storage medium and displays the waveform on the historical trend screen. This operation can be carried out when the acquisition of event data is set ([Event] or [E+D] in section 8.11). See section 4.6, for the use of the historical trend.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate position. Press
MENU

Press the soft key Press

Next 1/3

#7

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu screen.

Press the soft key Press

Next 1/3

#5

soft key to display the [Load event data] screen.

File list

9
Managing Files and Initializing Data

For models with the batch function (/BT1 option), press the [Time] soft key when displaying the date and time of file creation and the [Batch] soft key when displaying the batch number and lot number.

1.

2.

3.

The directories in the external storage medium are displayed in the [Directory name] column. Press the up or down arrow key to select the directory containing the event data to be loaded. A list of files in the selected directory is displayed in the right column. Root directory is denoted by [/]. Press the right arrow key to move the cursor on to the file list. Press the up or down arrow key to select the event data file to be loaded. To move back to the [Directory name] column, press the left arrow key. Press the DISP/ENTER key to display the waveform on the historical trend screen. To return to the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu screen without displaying the historical trend, press the ESC key.

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9.5

Managing files/Displaying free space on the external storage medium


Displays a list of files and the amount of free space on the external storage medium (in the setting mode only). Deletes files and directories on the external storage medium. Formats the external storage medium.

Display the list of files and the free space on the external storage medium (in the setting mode)
A list of files on the external storage medium can be displayed. In addition, the amount of free space is also displayed. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate position. Press
MENU

Press the soft key Press

Next 1/3

#7

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu screen.

Press the soft key Press

Next 1/3

#6

soft key to display the [File list] screen.

File list

1.

2.

3. 4.

The directories in the external storage medium are displayed. Using the arrow keys select the directory. Files in the directory are listed to the right. [/] is the root directory. Pressing the right arrow key moves the cursor to the file list. The list can be scrolled using the arrow keys. To move back to the [Directory name] column, press the left arrow key. Free space Displays the amount of free space on the external storage medium. Press the ESC key to return to the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu screen.

9-8

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9.5 Managing files/Displaying free space on the external storage medium

Deleting files and directories on the external storage medium (in the setting mode)
Deletes files and directories on the external storage medium. The function is the same as that in the basic setting mode. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate position. Press
MENU

Press the soft key Press

Next 1/3

#7

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu screen.

Press the soft key Press

Next 1/3

#7

soft key to display the [Delete] screen.

File list

9
Managing Files and Initializing Data
Deleting a file in a directory 1. Of the directories listed in the [Directory name] column, select the directory in which the file you wish to delete exists using the up and down arrow keys. The [File name] column displays a list of files in the selected directory. [/] is the root directory. 2. Pressing the right arrow key moves the cursor onto the [File name] column. Use the up and down arrow keys to select the file to be deleted. 3. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays a confirmation dialog box. 4. Use the arrow keys to select [Yes] and press the DISP/ENTER key to delete the selected file. The file is cleared from the file list. To cancel the delete operation, select [No] and press the DISP/ENTER key.

Note
If the ESC key is pressed in the middle of the operation, the screen returns to the [Save/Load, Clear Data] menu.

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9-9

9.5 Managing files/Displaying free space on the external storage medium Deleting all the files in the directory 1. Of the directories listed in the [Directory name] column, select the directory in which the files you wish to delete exist using the up and down arrow keys. The [File name] column displays a list of files in the selected directory. [/] is the root directory. 2. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays a confirmation dialog box. 3. Use the arrow keys to select [Yes] and press the DISP/ENTER key to delete all the files in the directory. All files are cleared from the file list. To cancel the delete operation, select [No] and press the DISP/ENTER key.

Note
If the ESC key is pressed in the middle of the operation, the screen returns to the [Save/Load, Clear Data] menu.

Deleting a directory A directory can be deleted if there are no files in the directory. To delete a directory that has files, delete all the files in the directory first. 1. Of the directories listed in the [Directory name] column, select the directory you wish to delete using the up and down arrow keys. Check that no files are displayed in the [File name] column. [/] is the root directory. The root directory cannot be deleted. 2. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays a confirmation dialog box. 3. Use the arrow keys to select [Yes] and press the DISP/ENTER key to delete the directory. The directory name is cleared from the [Directory name] column. To cancel the delete operation, select [No] and press the DISP/ENTER key.

Note
If the ESC key is pressed in the middle of the operation, the screen returns to the [Save/Load, Clear Data] menu.

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9.5 Managing files/Displaying free space on the external storage medium

Formatting the external storage medium (in the setting mode)


Formats the external storage medium. The function is the same as the formatting the external storage medium in the basic setting mode. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate position. Press
MENU

Press the soft key Press

Next 1/3

#7

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu screen.

Press the soft key Press

Next 1/3

#8

soft key to display the [Format] screen.

1.

To change the volume name after formatting, enter the new volume name. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a string. Enter the string (up to 11 alphanumeric characters) and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22.
The following character combinations cannot be used as volume names. AUX, CON, PRN, NUL, CLOCK All spaces are not allowed for volume names. Spaces at the top or in the middle of a character string are not allowed. When using storage media formatted by the instrument on a Windows 2000 PC, you must change the volume label.

9
Managing Files and Initializing Data

Note

2.

3.

Select [Quick] or [Normal] to set in the [Type] box. To cancel the operation and return to the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu, press the ESC key. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays a confirmation window. Use the arrow keys to select [Yes] and press the DISP/ENTER key to format the medium.

Explanation Type [Quick]: Performs only a logical format. [Normal]:Performs both a physical format and a logical format. Format type Floppy disk: 2HD, 1.44 MB Zip disk: FDISK 1 partition (hard disk format) ATA flash memory card: FDISK 1 partition (hard disk format) Format time
Type of storage media Floppy disk Zip disk ATA flash memory card
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Quick Approx. 6 s Approx. 3 s Approx. 3 s Approx. 5 s

Normal Approx. 1 min. 30 s Approx. 10 min. Approx. 1 min. 30 s Approx. 6 min.

Note

20MB 160MB

9-11

9.5 Managing files/Displaying free space on the external storage medium

Deleting files and directories on the external storage medium (in the basic setting mode)
Deletes files and directories on the external storage medium. The function is the same as that in the setting mode. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate position. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Press the soft key Press Press

Next 1/3

#8 #3

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Initialize] menu screen. soft key to display the [Delete] screen.

File list

Deleting files and directories can be executed in the same procedure as that in the setting mode. See page 9-9.

Formatting the external storage medium (in the basic setting mode)
Formats the external storage medium. The function is the same as that in the setting mode. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate position. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Press the soft key Press Press

Next 1/3

#8 #4

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Initialize] menu screen. soft key to display the [Format] screen.

Formatting the external storage medium can be executed in the same procedure as that in the setting mode. See page 9-11. 9-12
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9.6

Saving the Screen Image


The screen image that is displayed is saved to the external storage medium using the FUNC key or USER key* operation. The data size of the screen image is approximately 12 KB/screen.
* Only when [Snapshot] is assigned to the USER key. See sections 10.2.

Procedure FUNC key operation This operation is carried out in the operation mode. The images of soft keys or messages are not saved. 1. Confirm the storage medium is in the drive. 2. Press the FUNC key to display the soft key menu. 3. Press the [Snapshot] soft key. The screen image is saved to the external storage medium.

USER key operation This applies only when [Snapshot] is assigned to the USER key. This key operates in all run modes (operation, setting, and basic setting modes). The exact screen image that is displayed when the USER key is pressed is saved. However, error messages are not saved. 1. Confirm the storage medium is in the drive. 2. Press the USER key. The screen image is saved to the external storage medium. Explanation File format Screen image data is in PNG format. File name File names are automatically assigned (Month, date, hour, and minute when the screen image data were stored + sequence number) to screen image data files. Mddhhmma. PNG where, M: month (1 to 9, X (10), Y (11), Z (12)), dd: date, hh: hour, mm: minute, a: sequence number

9
Managing Files and Initializing Data

Note
The sequence number of the file name is normally set to 0. However, if the screen image data is saved twice within a minute, for example, then the file name of the two files will have sequence numbers 0 and 1 for the first and second files, respectively. (The two files will have the same Mddhhmm (month/day/hour/minute) section.)

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9-13

9.7

Clearing Data from the Internal Memory


Clears display data, event data, manual sampled data, TLOG data (option), and report data (option) from the internal memory.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate position. Press
MENU

Press the soft key Press

Next 1/3

#7

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Clear data] menu screen.

Twice press the soft key Press

Next 1/3

#9

[Clear data] soft key to display a confirmation window.

Selecting [Yes] and pressing the DISP/ENTER key clears the data from the internal memory.

9-14

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9.8

Initializing Setup Data


Initializes the setup data in the internal memory. Also Clears display data, event data, manual sampled data, TLOG data (option), report data (option), and logs from the internal memory. The DX100 returns to the operation mode . For the initial settings of the setup data, see Appendix 1.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Press the soft key Press Press

Next 1/3

#8 #5

soft key to display the [Save/Load, Initialize] menu screen. soft key to display the [Initialize] screen.

9
Managing Files and Initializing Data

1.

2.

Select the type of initialization to set in the [Type] box. To cancel the operation and return to the [Save/Load, Initialize] menu, press the ESC key. [Clear 1]: Initializes the settings in the basic setting mode, settings in the setting mode and clears the internal memory. [Clear 2]: Initializes the settings in the setting mode and clears the internal memory. [Clear 3]: Clears the internal memory. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key displays a confirmation window. Pressing the DISP/ENTER key initializes the settings and returns to the operation mode.

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9-15

Chapter 10 Other Functions

10.1 USER Key


An action can be assigned to the user key. For details of actions, see section 10.2. Alarm Ack (see chapter 6) is assigned as the initial value.

DISP/
ENTER START STOP USER FUNC ESC MENU

USER key

Executing the action that has been assigned


Procedure For the operating procedure, see sections listed below.
Assigned action (soft key) None Trigger AlarmACK Math Math rst M.sample Message1 to Message8 Snapshot Reference section 8.6 6.1 11.3 11.3 8.13 7.4 9.6

10
Other Functions

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10-1

10.2 Assigning an Action to the USER Key


Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#3

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Action Selecting the action to be assigned.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Actions that can be assigned.
Soft Key None Trigger Ref. section 8.6 Action No operation Provides a key trigger for starting acquiring the event data. (when [Key Trigger] is set as a trigger to start acquiring event data, see section 8.11.) Release alarm indication and relay output (when alarm display and alarm output relay action is set to hold, section 6.4.) Starts/stops computation. (when the computation function (/M1) is equipped) Clears computed results. (when the computation function (/M1) is equipped and the computation is suspended) Stores instantaneous values of all channels to theinternal memory. Displays messages and stores them to the internal memory. Save the screen image data to the storage medium.

AlarmACK

6.1

Math Math rst M.sample Message 1 to 8 Snapshot *

11.3 11.3 8.13 7.4 9.6

Snapshot works in all modes. Other actions work in the operation mode or the setting mode.

10-2

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10.3 Using Key Lock


Key lock is a function used to prevent key operations, Zip disk removal, and saving data to the external storage medium in the manual save mode. To release a key lock, you must enter a password. The key lock ON/OFF condition is retained even if the power is turned OFF. Thus, the next time the power is turned ON, the preexisting state is restored. Key lock is set in the basic setting mode. Procedure Enabling key lock This operation is carried out in the operation mode. 1. Press the FUNC key to display the soft key menu. 2. Press the [Keylock] soft key. The key lock function is enabled.

Note
If a locked key is pressed when the key lock function is engaged, a message This key is locked. is displayed. A key lock icon appears in the status display section when the key lock is enabled. See section 4.2.

Releasing the key lock This operation is carried out in the operation mode. 1. Press the FUNC key to display the soft key menu. 2. Press the [Keylock] soft key. A window appears for you to enter the password.

10
Other Functions

3.

Enter the password and press the DISP/ENTER key. (The password is set in the basic setting mode. See section 10.4.) For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22. The key lock is released.

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10-3

10.4 Setting the Key Lock Function (Basic Setting Mode)


Select whether or not to enable the key lock on the individual keys and the external storage medium. The initial setting is [Free] (disabled) on all parameters. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1 2

#6

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Use/Not Select [Use] or [Not]. If [Use] is selected, various parameters are displayed. [Use]: Use key lock. [Not]: Do not use key lock. Password Set the password used to release the key lock in the operation mode. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a string. Enter the string (up to 6 alphanumeric characters) and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22. For each parameter, select whether or not to enable the key lock. [Free]: Disable [Lock]: Enable

2.

3.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. 10-4
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10.4 Setting the Key Lock Function (Basic Setting Mode) Explanation Key locked parameter and the behavior during key lock (can be set individually)
Parameter Behavior during key lock [START] key Disabled [STOP] key Disabled [MENU] key Disabled [USER] key Disabled [DISP/ENTER] key Disabled to change operation screens [Alarm ACK] soft key Disabled Math (Computation) [Math START] soft key*1 Disabled Disabled [Math STOP] soft key*1 [Math reset] soft key*1 Disabled Write memory [Message] soft key*2 Disabled [Manual sample] soft key*2 Disabled [Trigger] soft key*2 Disabled Disabled [Save Display] soft key*2 [Save Event] soft key*2 Disabled [E-Mail START] soft key*2*3 Disabled [E-Mail STOP] soft key*2*3 Disabled [E-Mail test] soft key*2 Disabled Media (External storage medium) During manual save Prevent saving when an external storage medium is inserted, Prevent Zip disk removal. During auto save Prevent Zip disk removal. *1 Set together by [Math] parameter. *2 Set together by [Write memory] parameter. *3 Can be set when the e-mail transmission function is engaged.

10
Other Functions

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10-5

10.5 Using the Key Login/Logout Function


This function allows only certain users to access the DX100. The users are distinguished by their user IDs and passwords. You can select whether or not to use User IDs. In addition, you can set whether or not to allow operations in the basic setting mode for each user. When logged out, only the login operation can be accessed. Enabling/Disabling the key login/logout and using/not using the user ID are set in the basic setting mode. See the next section. When logged in, the user name is displayed in the status display section. See section 4.2. The records of key login/logout can be viewed on the log screen. See section 10.7.

Note
When the power is turned OFF and turned ON again, the DX100 starts in the logged out condition.

Procedure Logging in 1. Press the FUNC key. Soft keys and a list of user names are displayed. 2. Select the user using the soft key.

3.

When using the user ID, a window appears for you to enter the user ID. Enter the user ID and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22.

4.

A window appears for you to enter the password. Enter the password and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22.

10-6

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10.5 Using the Key Login/Logout Function The user name is displayed in the status display section.
User name

Logging out 1. Press the FUNC key. The [Logout] soft key is displayed. 2. Press the [Logout] soft key. The user name shown in the status display section disappears.

Auto logout This function is available in the operation mode. If there is no key operation for ten minutes, the user is automatically logged out. The auto logout function can be activated in the basic setting mode. Explanation Power up operation
Power ON

Log out status Logout operation or Auto logout Login operation FUNC key Password User ID

10
Operation mode

Other Functions

When the basic setting mode is terminated When the basic setting mode is terminated and the mode returns to the operation mode, the DX100 is in the logged out condition. Saving the user name The user name is stored to the display and event data files at the following points: when the display or event data acquisition starts and ends and when a message is written.

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10-7

10.6 Setting the Key Login/Logout Functions (Basic Setting Mode)


Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

#7

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Use/Not Select [Use] or [Not]. If [Use] is selected, items 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 are displayed. [Use]: Use key login. [Not]: Do not use key login. Auto logout Select [On] or [Off]. [On]: Use the auto logout. [Off]: Do not use the auto logout. User ID Use/Not [Use]: Use the user ID. [Not]: Do not use the user ID. If [Use] is selected, item 7 (User ID) appears.
For models with the batch function, The key login function of all users (1 to 7, item 4) turns [Off] (item 5), when [User ID] is changed to [Use] from [Not].

2.

3.

Note

4. 5.

Number This is the user registration number (1 to 7). Select the user number to be set. On/Off Set whether or not to enable the key login function for the selected user. [On]: Enable the key login function for the selected user. [Off]: Disable the key login function for the selected user.

10-8

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10.6 Setting the Key Login/Logout Functions (Basic Setting Mode) 6. User name Enter the user name (up to 16 alphanumeric characters). Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a string. Enter the string and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22.

Note
For models with the batch function (/BT1 option), duplicate user names cannot be registered. See "Confirming operation" below. quit cannot be used as the user name. All spaces are also not allowed for the user name.

7.

8.

User ID Enter the user ID (up to 4 alphanumeric characters) using the same method as step 6. Password Enter the password (up to 6 alphanumeric characters) using the same method as step 6.

Note
For models with the batch function (/BT1 option), the combinations of user IDs and passwords that are identical to those that have been registered by any user in the past cannot be specified. See Confirming operation below.

9.

Enter setup Select whether or not to allow the login user to enter the basic setting mode. [Enable]: The user can enter the basic setting mode. [Disable]: The user can not enter the basic setting mode.

10
Other Functions

Note
The [Enter Setup] of all users cannot be set to [Disabled]. If specified, the user with the lowest registration number with the fifth parameter turned [On] is automatically set to [Enabled] (The setting is changed when the setup data is stored and the basic setting mode is terminated.).

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. For models without the batch function (/BT1 option) If the user name already exists, a confirmation message This user name is already registered, is displayed. At this point the user name is registered. If necessary, change the user name to be registered. For models with the batch function (/BT1 option), If the user name already exists, an error message This user name is already registered, is displayed. The user name entry box stays yellow, and the user name is not registered. Change the user name to be registered. If the combination of the user ID and passwor that are identical to those that have been registered by any user in the past, an error message Duplicate used combination of user ID and password, is displayed. Change the combination of the user ID and password to be registered. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.
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10-9

10.7 Displaying the Log Screen/System Screen


The following list is displayed on the log screen. Error messages (the newest 50) A record of key login/logout (the newest 50) A record of communication commands (the newest 200) A record of file transfers made using the FTP client function (the newest 50) A record of web operation (the newest 50) A record of e-mail transmission (the newest 50) If the number exceeds the limit, entries are deleted starting with the oldest one. The number of input points, capacity of the internal memory, options, MAC address, and the firmware version number of the DX100 can be displayed on the screen for confirmation. Procedure Display the log screen/system screen 1. Press the FUNC key to display the soft key menu. 2. Press the [Log] soft key. The types of logs that can be displayed and the system screen are assigned to the soft keys and displayed.

3.

4.

Press a soft key to display the log. [Error] soft key: Displays a log of error messages. [Key login] soft key: Displays a log of key login/logout. [Commu] soft key: Displays a log of communication commands that have been executed. [FTP] soft key: Displays a log of file transfers made using the FTP client function. [Web] soft key: Displays a log of operations on the Web screen. [E-Mail] soft key: Displays a log of e-mail transmission. [System] soft key: Displays a system screen. Use the up and down keys to scroll through the log.

Returning to the operation screen To return to the operation screen from the log screen or the system screen, press the DISP/ENTER key to display the screen menu, select the desired screen using the up and down arrow keys, and then press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Error message log
The number of the log displayed at the last line of the screen / total number of logs Date and time of occurrence Error code Error message

10-10

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10.7 Displaying the Log Screen/System Screen Key login/logout log


The number of the log displayed at the last line of the screen / total number of logs

User name User No. Date/time Login/logout

Communication command log


The number of the log displayed at the last line of the screen / total number of logs Ethernet interface Green: Good connection Gray: No connection Message I/O symbol (>: input, <: output) A number used to identify the user that is connected Date and time when the access occurred

FTP log
The number of the log displayed at the last line of the screen / total number of logs

File name FTP server (P: primary, S: secondary) Error code Date and time when the file transfer was made

10
Other Functions

Web operation log


The number of the log displayed at the last line of the screen / total number of logs

Date/time

Operation Type Error code (see chapter 12)

E-mail log
The number of the log displayed at the last line of the screen / total number of logs

Recipient address Recipient No. Error code (see chapter 12) Date/time Mail type

System screen See section 1.8.


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10-11

10.8 Setting the Memory Alarm Time (/F1 Option Provides an Relay Output Alarm, Basic Setting Mode)
When the remaining time for storing the display or event data in the internal memory falls to the specified time (Memory alarm) during manual save, an alarm is generated via email or the relay contact output (/F1 option). For details related to the relay output action, see section 1.8. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#5

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Memory alarm This is the minimum storage time of the internal memory at which the relay should be activated. Select a value from [1 h], [2 h], [5 h], [10 h], [20 h], [50 h], [100 h] and [off]. [Off]: Memory alarm function is disabled (the function does not operate in either manual save or auto save (see section 1.8)).

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

10-12

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10.9 Setting the Remote Control Functions (/R1 Option, Basic Setting Mode)
Various actions can be assigned to the eight remote control terminals. The assigned action can then be executed by applying a remote input signal to the corresponding terminal. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Twice press the soft key Press the soft key

Next 1/3
#9
.

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#1

10
Other Functions

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Action Assign actions to Remote numbers 1 to 8. For the functions that can be assigned, see the explanation.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Actions that can be assigned Enclosed in parentheses are soft key expressions. None: [None] No action is assigned.

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10-13

10.9 Setting the Remote Control Functions (/R1 Option, Basic Setting Mode) Starts/stops data acquisition: [StartStop] Remote input: Rising/start, falling/stop Start Starts/stops the acquisition of the display data and the event data, and the report (option). Stop Stops the acquisition of the display data and the event data, and the report (option). If the data acquisition is in progress, applying a rising signal produces no effect. If the data acquisition is stopped, applying a falling signal produces no effect. External trigger for event data acquisition: [Trigger] Remote input: Trigger, 250 ms or more This becomes the external trigger that starts the acquisition of the event data to the internal memory. This is valid only when acquiring the event data to the internal memory using the trigger or rotate mode, the acquisition start trigger is set to external trigger, and the DX100 is in the trigger wait state (see section 8.2). For all other cases, applying the remote signal produces no effect. Releasing the alarm indication and output relay: [AlarmACK] Remote input: Trigger, 250 ms or more Releases the alarm indication and relay output (option). This is the same function as when the [AlarmACK] soft key is pressed. Adjusting the internal clock: [Time adj] Remote input: Trigger, 250 ms or more Adjusts the internal clock of the DX100 to the nearest hour depending on the time when the remote signal is applied.
Time of signal input 00 min. 00 s to 01 min. 59 s 02 min. 00 s to 57 min. 59 s 58 min. 00 s to 59 min. 59 s New time Adjusts the internal clock down to the nearest hour. Example: 10 hr. 01 min. 50 s becomes 10 hr. 00 min. 00 s. Time is unchanged. Adjusts the internal clock down to the nearest hour. Example: 10 hr. 59 min. 50 s becomes 11 hr. 00 min. 00 s.

Starts/stops computation (option): [Math] Remote input: Rising/start, falling/stop Starts/stops the computation. This is valid only on models with the computation function (/M1 option). If the computation is started, applying a rising signal produces no effect. If the computation is stopped, applying a falling signal produces no effect. Clears computed results (option): [Math rst] Remote input: Trigger, 250 ms or more Resets the data on all computation channels. This is valid only on models with the computation function (/M1 option) and while the computation is stopped. For all other cases, applying the remote signal produces no effect. Manual sampling: [M.sample] Remote input: Trigger, 250 ms or more The instantaneous values of all measurement and computation channels (excluding the measurement channels that are set to [Skip] and the computation channels that are turned Off) can be stored to the internal memory.

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10.9 Setting the Remote Control Functions (/R1 Option, Basic Setting Mode) Loads the setup data: [Pnl1 load] [Pnl2 load] [ Pnl3 load] Remote input: Trigger, 250 ms or more The setup data of the file LOAD 1.PNL, LOAD 2.PNL, or LOAD 3.PNL that is saved in the external storage medium are loaded for use. The file, LOAD 1.PNL, LOAD 2.PNL, or LOAD 3.PNL must be created and saved to the external storage medium beforehand. Writing messages: [Message1] to [Message8] Remote input: Trigger, 250 ms or more Displays a message at the position corresponding to the time when the signal was applied on the trend screen. The displayed message is also written to the internal memory. When the data acquisition to the internal memory is stopped, messages cannot be displayed or written. Applying a remote signal produces no effect. Snapshot: [Snapshot] Remote input signal: Trigger, 250 ms or more Saves the current screen image data to the external storage medium. The snapshot function operates in all modes (operation mode, setting mode, and basic setting mode). Error messages, even if they are displayed, are not saved. Remote input signal The above operations are carried out on the rising or falling edge of the remote signal (edge) or the ON signal lasting at least 250 ms (trigger).
Rising/Falling edge Rising Falling Trigger

250 ms or more

10
Other Functions

For contact inputs, the remote signal rises when the contact switches from open to closed and falls when the contact switches from closed to open. For open collector signals, the remote signal rises when the collector signal (voltage level of the remote terminal) goes from high to low and falls when the collector signal goes low to high.

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10.10 Setting the Displayed Language (Basic Setting Mode)


Select the language that is used on the screen. The initial setting is English. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#5

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Aux - Language Select the language.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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10.11 Checking or Changing Batch/Lot Numbers and Entering or Changing Comments (/BT1 Option)
The batch number and lot number can be checked or changed on the batch screen. You can also enter comments. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the operation mode. Opening the batch screen 1. Press the FUNC key to display the soft key menu. 2. Press the [Batch] soft key to display the batch screen.
3 4

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. Change the batch number (up to 16 characters) Cannot be changed while data are being acquired to the internal memory. 3. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the batch number box. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the batch number. The current batch number is displayed. Change it and press the DISP/ENTER key. The batch number is confirmed and the screen returns to the batch screen. Procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22. Changing the lot number (up to 4 numerical digits) Cannot be changed while data are being acquired to the internal memory. 4. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the lot number box. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the lot number. The current lot number is displayed. Change the number and press the DISP/ ENTER key. The lot number is confirmed and the screen returns to the batch screen. Procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21.

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Other Functions

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10.11 Checking or Changing Batch/Lot Numbers and Entering or Changing Comments (/BT1 Option) Entering comments (up to 32 characters x 3 lines) The comment, the name of the user that entered the comment (only when the key login function is enabled), and the date and time when the comment was entered are written to the internal memory along with the measured/computed data. The comment is cleared when the data acquisition to the internal memory is stopped. 5. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor to the first line in the comment box. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the comment. Enter the comment and press the DISP/ENTER key. The comment is confirmed and the screen returns to the batch screen. Enter comments in the second and third lines in the similar fashion. Procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22. The date and time at which the DISP/ENTER key is pressed after entering the last comment is written to the internal memory as the date and time when the comment was entered.

Note
You can enter the comment once while data acquisition is in progress. However, if you had entered a comment before you started data acquisition, you cannot reenter the comment while data acquisition is in progress. Comments are not saved to the setup file.

Clearing the batch screen Press the DISP/ENTER key or the ESC key to close the batch screen.

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10.12 Setting the Batch Information (/BT1 Option)


You can set the following items that are attached to the data acquired in the internal memory. Application name Supervisor name Manager name Batch number Lot number In addition you can set whether or not to use the following functions: Automatically increment the lot number at the end of the batch. Display the batch number and lot number for each file in place of the date and time the data acquisition ended, on the memory summary screen. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate position. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Twice press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#9

For models with the computation function, the soft key positions change. Operate as follows: To display the setting screen press the soft key

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Other Functions

#12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Application name Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the application name. Enter the application name (up to 16 characters), and press the DISP/ ENTER key. Procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22. Supervisor name Enter the supervisor name (up to 16 characters) using the same method as step 1.

2.

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10.12 Setting the Batch Information (/BT1 Option) 3. Manager name Enter the manager name (up to 16 characters) using the same method as step 1. Batch number Enter the batch number (up to 16 characters) using the same method as step 1. Lot number Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the lot number. Enter the lot number (0-9999), and press the DISP/ENTER key. Procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21. Auto increment (Automatic increment of the lot number) Set whether or not to automatically increment the lot number (to the next lot number) when the data acquisition to the internal memory is complete. [On]: Automatically increment the lot number when the data acquisition is complete. [Off]: Do not change the lot number.
The lot number after 9999 is 0.

4. 5.

6.

Note

7.

Disp information (Displayed information of the stored data) Set whether to display the batch number and lot number or the date and time of file creation on the memory summary, display data load, and event data load screens. [Batch]: Display the batch number and lot number. [Time]: Display the date and time of file creation.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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10.13 Setting Whether or Not to Use the Batch Function (/BT1 Option, Basic Setting Mode)
This setting is possible on models with the batch function. It is set in the basic setting mode. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#5

10
The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Batch [Use]: Use the batch function. [Not]: Do not use the batch function.

Other Functions

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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10.14 Using the Daylight Savings Time Adjustment Function


When the specified time is reached at which the daylight savings time adjustment is to be enabled (the time set at [Summer]), the DX100 automatically sets the clock ahead by one hour. (Example: If the time is set to 9 oclock on June 1, the time is set ahead to 10 oclock June 1.) When the specified time is reached at which the daylight savings time adjustment is to be disabled (the time set at [Winter]), the DX100 automatically sets the clock back by one hour. (Example: If the time is set to 9 oclock on December 1, the time is set back to 8 oclock December 1.) The daylight savings time adjustment function is set using year, month, day, and time. Set the time for every year. The year is specified using the lower two digits. 00 to 79 represent year 2000 to 2079. 80 to 99 represent 1980 to 1999. Procedure Setting the time at which the daylight savings time adjustment is to be enabled/ disabled These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed.) The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#6

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. On/Off Select whether or not to use the daylight savings time adjustment function. If [On] is selected, a box used to enter the year, month, and day appears. If this parameter is set to [On] and the summer/winter time is set, this parameter turns [Off] automatically when the set time is elapsed. 2. Summer/Winter Set the time at which the daylight savings time adjustment is to be enabled/disabled. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the year, month, day, and time. Enter the values and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21.

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10.14 Using the Daylight Savings Time Adjustment Function Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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Other Functions

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10.15 Setting the Temperature Unit (Basic Setting Mode)


Select the temperature unit from C or F. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#2

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Temperature Unit Select [C] or [F]. [C]: Celsius [F]: Fahrenheit Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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10.16 Setting the Time Zone (Basic Setting Mode)


Set the time difference from GMT (Greenwich mean time). Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white.
MENU

Press Press

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Press the soft ykey

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#5

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. GMT Pressing the [Input] soft key or one of the character/number input keys displays a window used to enter the time difference. Enter the value (-1200 to 1200 (upper two digits: hours, lower two digits: minutes)) and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21. Example: If the local time leads 9 hours to GMT, set 900.

10
Other Functions

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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Chapter 11 Computation/Report Function (Option)

11.1 Overview of the Computation Function


Equations can be written to computation channels by using the measured data or computed data as variables. The result of the computation can be displayed or stored. Computation is performed every scan interval. In addition, a moving average (rolling average) can be calculated on the computed result, and the moving average value can be used as the computed data for that channel. For report functions, see sections 11.11 to 11.13.

Computation channels
Model DX102 DX104 DX106 DX112 Channels Channel 31 to 34 (4 channels) Channel 31 to 34 (4 channels) Channel 31 to 42 (12 channels) Channel 31 to 42 (12 channels)

Types of computations
In the table below, y represents the computed result. X and n generally represent the measured data and a constant. For details, see Data that can be used in equations.
Type Four arithmetical operations Description Addition (+), subtraction (), multiplication (), and division (/) Determines the power. y = Xn SQR ABS LOG EXP Relational computation Logical computation Determines the square root. Determines the absolute value. Determines the common logarithm. y = log10x Determines the exponent. y = ex Determines <, , >, , =, of two elements and outputs 0 or 1. Determines the AND (logical product), OR (logical sum), XOR (exclusive logical sum) of two elements, NOT (negation) of an element and outputs 0 or 1. Determines the sum, maximum, minimum, average, and maximum minimum (PP) values at specified time intervals over the time interval. There are three timers used to set the time interval. For detail, see section 11.7.

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Computation/Report Function (Option)

Statistical computation (TLOG)

Data that can be used in equations


For TLOG computation, only measured and computed data can be used. For all other computations, all types of data can be used. Measured data The data are specified using channel numbers in computing equations. If scaling is in effect, the scaled values are used in the computation. Computed data The data are specified using channel numbers in computing equations. Constants (K01 to K12) The values assigned to K01 to K12 can be used as constants. Enter the values as K01 to K12 in the equations. Range of constants (Maximum number of significant digits is 5): 9.9999E + 29 to 1.0000E 30, 0, 1.0000E 30 to 9.9999E + 29

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11.1 Overview of the Computation Function Communication input data (C01 to C12) Data that have been specified through the communication interface can be used. Enter the data as C01 to C12 in the equations. For the procedure used to set the data, see the DX100/DX200 Communication Interface Users Manual (IM 04L02A01-17E). Range of numerical values (Maximum number of significant digits is 5): 9.9999E + 29 to 1.0000E 30, 0, 1.0000E 30 to 9.9999E + 29 Conditions of the remote control terminals (D01 to D08) The conditions of the remote input signal can be assigned to 1 and 0, and used in the equations. Enter the data as D01 to D08 (the number following the letter D is the remote terminal number) in the equations. The correlation between the conditions of the remote input signal and the value 1 and 0 are shown below.
Type of the remote input signal Contact Open collector Status 1 or 0

close open Voltage level is Lo at the remote terminal Voltage level is Hi at the remote terminal

1 0 1 0

Unit handling
The unit corresponding to the measured/computed data in the equation is not compensated. In computations, measured and computed data are handled as values without units. For example, if the measured data from channel 01 is 20 mV and the measured data from channel 02 is 20 V, the computed result of 01 + 02 is 40.

Order of precedence of the operators


The order of precedence of the operators in the equation is as follows. The operators are placed in order from the highest precedence.
Type Functions Power Logical negation Multiplication and division Addition and subtraction Greater than/less than Equal/not equal Logical AND Logical OR, exclusive OR Operator (higher precedence) ABS( ), SQR( ), LOG( ), EXP( ), TLOG.MAX( ), TLOG.MIN(), TLOG.P-P( ), TLOG.SUM( ), TLOG.AVE( ) NOT ,/ +, .GT., .LT., .GE., .LE. .EQ., .NE. AND OR, XOR (lower precedence)

Displaying the computed result


The computed data of computation channels can be displayed in each operation screen. Displaying the waveform and bar graph The data are displayed in the range defined by the upper and lower limits of the span. For the settings related to displaying the computed result, see sections below. Set computation channels: See section 11.4. Assign channels to groups: See section 7.6. Display tags: See sections 7.1 and 7.2. Set the channel display color: See section 7.8. Use zone display: See section 7.9. Set the number of scale divisions: See section 7.10. 11-2
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11.1 Overview of the Computation Function Set the base position of the bar graph: See section 7.10. Specify the scale display position: See section 7.10. Use partial expanded display: See sections 7.11 and 7.12. Numerical display The range of displayed values of computed data is from 9999999 to 99999999 excluding the decimal point. The decimal point position corresponds to the position of the decimal point of the upper and lower limit span of the computation channel. However, special displays are used for cases given in the table below.
Data Condition The computed result exceeds 99999999. The computed result is below 9999999. The value exceeds 3.4E + 38, or is below 3.4E + 38 in the middle of computation. Computation positive over display range overflow Display + + + or

negative over display range

An error is detected. error When the following computation is specified, a computation error occurs. X/0 SQR (X) LOG (X) When a skipped channel No. is entered in the equation. The number of stacks (see section 11.2) in the equation exceeds 17. error

Rolling average
The moving average of the computed result of the equation specified for the computation channel is determined, and the result is displayed as computed data for that channel. The sampling interval and the number of samples can be specified for each channel. The maximum sampling interval is 1 hour; the maximum number of samples is 64. The initial setting is [OFF] (do not perform moving average). For the setting procedure, see section 11.10.

Alarm
You can set up to 4 alarms on each computation channel. The alarm types are upper limit alarm (H), lower limit alarm (L), delay upper limit alarm (T), and delay lower limit alarm (t). The hysteresis is fixed to 0. For the procedures to set the alarms, see section 11.5. For the alarm indication, see sections 4.2 and 6.1.

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Computation/Report Function (Option)

Acquiring the computed data


Display data and event data The computed data from the computation channels can be acquired as the display data and event data in the same manner as for the measurement channels. See chapter 8. Manual sampled data The instantaneous values of all computation channels (excluding the computation channels that are turned Off) can be stored to the internal memory with the manual sampling operation. For the operating procedure, see section 8.12. TLOG data The TLOG data are acquired every interval. For the setting procedure, see section 11.9.

Setting computation channels


The computation channel specifications are set in the setting mode. For detail, see sections 11.4 through 11.6. The timer used in the TLOG computation is set in the basic setting mode. For detail, see section 11.9. 11-3

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11.2 Explanation of Computing Equations


This section describes the meaning of the computation equation and how to write them.

Four arithmetical computations


The types of data that can be used in equations are measured data, computed data, constants (K01 to K12), communication interface data (C01 to C12), and the remote control terminal conditions (D01 to D08). EXAMPLE: Addition (+): 01+02 Computes the measured value of channel 1 plus the measured value of channel 2 Subtraction (): 01-02 Computes the measured value of channel 1 minus the measured value of channel 2 Multiplication ( ): 01 K03 Computes the measured value of channel 1 multiplied by constant K03 Division (/): 01/K02 Computes the measured value of channel 1 divided by constant K02

Note
When you set an expression as e.g. 31 + 01 on channel 31, the summation of channel number 1 will be displayed in channel 31.

Power, SQR, ABS, LOG, EXP Computations


The types of data that can be used in equations are measured data, computed data, constants (K01 to K12), communication interface data (C01 to C12), and the remote control terminal conditions (D01 to D08). You can nest a computing element inside the parentheses of another computing element. EXAMPLE: Power ( ): 01 02 Raises measured value of channel 1 to the power of measured value of channel 2 Square root (SQR): SQR (01) Returns the square root of the measured value of channel 1 Absolute value (ABS): ABS (01) Returns the absolute value of the measured value of channel 1 Logarithm (LOG): LOG (01) Returns the common logarithm of the measured value of channel 1 Exponent (EXP): EXP (01) Raises e to the power of the measured value of channel 1

Note
The natural logarithm is not directly provided, but can be obtained by using the following: logex = log10x/log10e as logbx = logax/logab Therefore, to calculate the natural logarithm of the value of channel 01, set K01 = 1. Then the expression will become: LOG (01)/LOG (EXP(K01))

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11.2 Explanation of Computing Equations

Relational Computation
The types of data that can be used in equations are measured data, computed data, constants (K01 to K12), communication interface data (C01 to C12), and the remote control terminal conditions (D01 to D08). You can specify a computing equation that performs relational computation on a computing element (Example: 01.LT.ABS(02)). EXAMPLE: 02.LT.03 The computed result will be 1 if the measured value of channel 2 is less than the measured value in channel 3, otherwise the value will be 0. 02.GT.03 The computed result will be 1 if the measured value of channel 2 is greater than the measured value in channel 3, otherwise the value will be 0. 02.EQ.03 The computed result will be 1 if the measured value of channel 2 is equal to the measured value in channel 3, otherwise the value will be 0. 02.NE.03 The computed result will be 1 if the measured value of channel 2 is not equal to the measured value in channel 3, otherwise the value will be 0. 02.GE.03 The computed result will be 1 if the measured value of channel 2 is greater than or equal to the measured value in channel 3, otherwise the value will be 0. 02.LE.03 The computed result will be 1 if the measured value of channel 2 is less than or equal to the measured value in channel 3, otherwise the value will be 0.

Logical Computation
The computation is performed using e1 and e2 which are identified as either zero or non zero. The types of data that can be used in equations are measured data, computed data, constants (K01 to K12), communication interface data (C01 to C12), and the remote control terminal conditions (D01 to D08). You can specify a computing equation that performs logical computation on a computing element. AND Logical product Syntax:e1ANDe2 Condition: If both e1 and e2 are non 0, the operation results in 1, otherwise in 0. Status: e1 = 0, e2 = 0 e1ANDe2 = 0 e1 0, e2 = 0 e1ANDe2 = 0 e1 = 0, e2 0 e1ANDe2 = 0 e1 0, e2 0 e1ANDe2 = 1

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Computation/Report Function (Option)

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11.2 Explanation of Computing Equations OR Logical sum Syntax:e1ORe2 Condition: If both e1 and e2 are 0, the operation results in 0, otherwise in 1. Status: e1 = 0, e2 = 0 e1ORe2 = 0 e1 0, e2 = 0 e1ORe2 = 1 e1 = 0, e2 0 e1ORe2 = 1 e1 0, e2 0 e1ORe2 = 1 XOR Mutually exclusive logical sum Syntax:e1XORe2 Condition: If e1 and e2 have different values, the operation results in 1, otherwise in 0. Status: e1 = 0, e2 = 0 e1XORe2 = 0 e1 0, e2 = 0 e1XORe2 = 1 e1 = 0, e2 0 e1XORe2 = 1 e1 0, e2 0 e1XORe2 = 0 NOT Logical negation Syntax:NOTe1 Condition: Reverses the value of data e1 Status: e1 = 0 NOTe1 = 1 e1 0 NOTe1 = 0 EXAMPLE: 01-02OR03.GT.04 Determines the OR of the computed results of 01-02 and 03.GT.04.

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11.2 Explanation of Computing Equations

TLOG Computation (MAX, MIN, AVE, SUM, MAXMIN)


Only measured data and computed data can be used in the TLOG computation. In the explanation below, e1 is used to represent a measurement or computation channel. You cannot specify an equation that contains a computing element inside e1. In addition, only one TLOG computation can be specified in a single computing equation. TLOG.MAX ( ) Syntax: TLOG.MAX (e1) Result: Computes the maximum value of channel e1 TLOG.MIN ( ) Syntax: Result: TLOG.AVE ( ) Syntax: Result:

TLOG.MIN (e1) Computes the minimum value of channel e1

TLOG.AVE (e1) Computes the average value of channel e1

TLOG.SUM ( ) Syntax: TLOG.SUM (e1) Result: Computes the summation of channel e1 TLOG.P-P ( ) Syntax: Result:

TLOG.P-P (e1) Computes the maximum value minimum value of channel e1

An example of computing equations TLOG.MAX(01)+K01 SQR(02) Examples of computing equations that are not allowed TLOG.AVE(01)+TLOG.AVE(02) Reason: TLOG appears twice in one equation. TLOG.AVE(ABS(01)) Reason: A computing element is used inside the parentheses.

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Computation/Report Function (Option)

Rules for writing an equation (common items)


Follow the rules below in writing the computing equations. Use up to 40 characters to write equations. The precedence of computing terms can be specified using parentheses. Specify the channels in the equation using channel numbers. (Example: Channel 1 is 01 or 1) You can use 01 or 1, for example, to specify one-digit numbers for channels, constants, communication input data, and conditions of the remote control terminals in equations. Example: 01, 1, K01, K1, C01, C1, D01, D1 The data value for the channel used in the equation, and for all channels greater in number than that channel, are substituted with data from the previous scan. Do not use more than 16 stacks (channel, K01 to K12, C01 to C12, D01 to D08) in one equation. Otherwise, a computation error may occur. The computed result is set to positive overflow (displayed as + ) in this case. Example: The number of stacks in the equation 01+K01 (03+04 K02) is five.

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11.3 Using the Computation Function


Operations related to the computation function are as follows: Start/stop computation. This operation can be carried out with the START/STOP key, the FUNC key, or the USER key (when [Math] is assigned). Reset computation data. This operation can be carried out with the FUNC key, or the USER key (when [Math rst] is assigned). Release the computation data dropout display. This operation is carried out with the FUNC key.

Start/stop computation
Procedure Operation using the START/STOP key Starting the computation (also starts the data acquisition to the internal memory) 1. Press the START key to start the computation. At this point, the data acquisition to the internal memory is also started. When the computation is started, a computation icon is displayed in the status display section. For details related to the status display section, see section 4.2. Stopping the computation (also stops the data acquisition to the internal memory) 1. Press the STOP key. A confirmation window is displayed. For models with the batch function (/BT1 option), the batch information is also displayed. 2. Use the arrow keys to select [Mem + Math] and press DISP/ENTER to stop the computation. At this point, the data acquisition to the internal memory is also stopped. The computation icon in the status display section also disappears. Operation using the FUNC key 1. Press the FUNC key to display the soft key menu. When the computation is suspended the [Math START] soft key is displayed. If the computation is in progress the [Math STOP] soft key is displayed. Starting the computation 2. Press the [Math START] key to start the computation. When the computation is started, a computation icon is displayed in the status display section. For details related to the status display section, see section 4.2.

Stopping the computation 2. Press the [Math STOP] key to stop the computation. The computation icon in the status display section disappears.

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11.3 Using the Computation Function Operation using the USER key The operation is for when the start/stop function of computation is assigned to the USER key. Starting the computation 1. Press the USER key to start the computation. When the computation is started, a computation icon is displayed in the status display section. For details related to the status display section, see section 4.2. Stopping the computation 1. Press the USER key to stop the computation. The computation icon in the status display section disappears.

Note
When the computation is stopped, the computed data of the computation channel is held at the value that existed immediately before. If data are being written to the internal memory, the value held is written.

Resetting the computation


This is executable only when the computation is suspended. Data from all computation channels are cleared. Procedure Operation using the FUNC key 1. Pressing the FUNC key displays the soft key menu. The [Math RESET] soft key is displayed only when the computation is suspended. 2. Pressing the [Math RESET] soft key clears the data from all computation channels.

Operation using the USER key The operation is for when the reset function of computation is assigned to the USER key. 1. Press the USER key to reset the computation data of all computation channels.

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Computation/Report Function (Option)

Clearing the computation dropout display


When a computation data dropout occurs during computation, the computation icon displayed in the status display section turns yellow. The computation icon will return to a white color once the computation data dropout has been acknowledged.
Computation icon

Procedure 1. Pressing the FUNC key displays the soft key menu. The [Math ACK] soft key is displayed only when a computation data dropout occurs. Pressing the [Math ACK] soft key causes the yellow computation icon in the status display section to return to a white color.

2.

Explanation Computation data dropout occurs when the computation is not completed within the scan interval. When this occurs frequently, lower the CPU load by reducing the number of computation channels or making the scan interval longer. When computation data are acquired to the internal memory, the data immediately before a computation drop out are substituted for the computation data at the time of the dropout. 11-9

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11.4 Setting Computation Channels


This section describes the procedures to set equations to computation channels. The equation is set in the setting mode. Equations cannot be set while data acquisition or computation is in progress. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed). The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Twice press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#9

2 3 5 4

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. 2. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. Math On/Off If [On] is selected a box for the equation will appear. When not using computation, select [Off]. Calculation expression Enter the equation (up to 40 characters). Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter an equation. Enter the equation using the following key operations and press the DISP/ENTER key. For writing equations, see Rules for writing an equation (common items) in section 11.2.

3.

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11.4 Setting Computation Channels Left and right arrow key: Select the input position. Up and down arrow key: Select the input character. Use the [M1/M2] soft key to switch the function of the window between number input and computing element input. [M1/M2] soft key: Each time the [M1/M2] soft key is pressed the function of the window switches between number input and computing element input. The selected function is displayed to the bottom of the window. [M1]: Number is selected. [M2]: Computing element is selected. [Del] soft key: Delete the character at the cursor position. [Bs] soft key: Delete the character before the cursor position. [Ins] soft key: Switch between insert and overwrite. Each time the [Ins] soft key is pressed insert and overwrite switches. The selected function is displayed to the bottom of the window. [Over]: Overwrites the cursor position. [Ins]: Inserts at the cursor position.

Note
When using TLOG computation, timers must be set in the basic setting mode and the number of the timer and the sum unit (only for TLOG.SUM) must be set in the setting mode.

4.

Upper and lower limits of span Set the upper and lower limits of the display span. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a numerical value. Enter a value in the allowed range given below and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21. Allowed range: 9999999 to 99999999 The decimal can be set in the following positions: . . . .
The upper and lower limits of span cannot be set to the same value.

Note

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Computation/Report Function (Option)

5.

Unit Set the unit Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a character string. Enter the unit (up to 6 alphanumeric characters) and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering character strings, see Entering Characters on page 3-22.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

Note
When computation is turned On/Off or when equations and span settings are changed, the alarm setting for that channel is turned OFF.

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11-11

11.5 Setting the Alarm


You can set up to 4 alarms on each computation channel. The alarm types are upper limit alarm (H), lower limit alarm (L), delay upper limit alarm (T), and delay lower limit alarm (t). The hysteresis is fixed to 0.

Note
When [Math On/Off] is turn ON, an entry box used to enter the equation is displayed and the alarm setting boxes are activated (white color). Set the alarm after setting the equation. When computation is turned On/Off or when equations and span settings are changed, the alarm setting for that channel is turned OFF.

Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed). The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Twice press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#9

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. (For the channels set here, the [Math] is also simultaneously set.) On/Off Turn the alarm On (enabled). Items 3, 4 and 5 are displayed. [On]: Use alarm [Off]: Do not use alarm

2.

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11.5 Setting the Alarm 3. Type Set the alarm type. [H]: Upper limit alarm [L]: Lower limit alarm [T]: Delay upper limit alarm [t]: Delay lower limit alarm
If you select delay alarm (T or t) for the alarm type, you must set the alarm delay period. See section 6.3.

Note

4.

5.*

6.*

Value Set the value at which the alarm is activated. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a numerical value. Enter a value and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21. Rly (Relay) Set whether or not to activate the relay output. If [On] is selected, output relay [Number] is displayed. Number Set the output relay number. For the correspondence between the output relay number and the output relay position, see section 2.4.
* If the alarm output relay option (/AR1, /AR2, or /A3) is not installed, this setting is void.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Alarm type Four types of alarms are available.
Name Upper limit alarm Lower limit alarm Delay upper limit alarm Symbol H L T Description An alarm occurs when the measured value becomes greater than or equal to the alarm value. An alarm occurs when the measured value becomes smaller than or equal to the alarm value. An alarm occurs when the measured value remains above or equal to the alarm value for the specified time period (delay period, see section 6.3, "Setting the Alarm Delay Period."). An alarm occurs when the measured value remains below or equal to the alarm value for the specified time period (delay period, see section 6.3, "Setting the Alarm Delay Period.").

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Computation/Report Function (Option)

Delay lower limit alarm

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11-13

11.6 Setting Constants


Total of 12 constants (K01 to K12) can be defined. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed). The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Twice press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#10

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Constant Select the constant you wish to set using the arrow keys. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter a numerical value. Enter a value in the allowed range and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21. [E], [+]: Used when setting numbers with exponents. Example: 5.0E+12

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation The number of significant digits is 5 excluding the decimal. When using exponents to set values, use 5 or less digits for the mantissa and two digits for the exponent. The allowed range is as follows. 9.9999E + 29 to 1.0000E 30, 0, 1.0000E 30 to 9.9999E + 29

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11.7 TLOG Computation


Determines the sum, maximum, minimum, average, and maximum minimum (PP) values of the specified channel at specified time intervals. The interval is set by timers. The example shown in the following figure indicates the case in which the average value of channel 1 over each interval, TLOG.AVE(01), is determined.
Equation : TLOG.AVG(01) Average value Average value

Scan interval

Interval set by a timer Time

Sampling

TLOG computation cannot be performed when the corresponding measurement channel is set to [Skip] or the corresponding computation channel is turned Off.

Timer Mode and Action


Timer mode There are two timer modes: absolute mode and relative mode. Absolute mode Timer expires at times determined from the reference time and the interval. The reference time is specified by the hour (00 to 23). Example 1: Reference time: 14:00 Interval: 12 h The expiration time is set to 2:00 (2:00 AM) and 14:00 (2:00 PM). Example 2: Reference time: 00:00 Interval: 10 min The expiration time is set to 0:00, 0:10, 0:20, ..., 23:40, and 23:50. For example, if the computation is started at 9:36, the time expiration will occur at 09:40, 09:50, 10:00, and so on. Relative mode The timer is started when the computation is started. The timer is repeated at each interval. The timer is suspended while the power is lost. Example: Interval: 00:15 The timer expires every 15 minutes after the computation is started. Setting timers Timers are set in the basic setting mode. For detail, see section 11.9. Setting the timer No. for TLOG computation The number of the timer used by the channel computing the TLOG is selected from 1, 2, and 3 in the setting mode. For the setting procedure, see section 11.8.

11
Computation/Report Function (Option)

About the sum scale of the TLOG.SUM


In the sum computation (TLOG.SUM) of time series, data are summed over the scan interval. However, for flow values that have units /s, /min, or /h, a simple summation results in the actual value not matching the computed result, because the scan interval and the unit of the input values are different. In these cases, the unit of the data measured over the scan interval is converted to match the unit of the input values and the computation is performed.

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11-15

11.7 TLOG Computation For example, if the scan interval is 2 s, and the input value is 100 m3/min, a simple summation would add 100 every 2 s resulting in 3000 after one minute. However, if the computing unit is set to /min, then 2 s/60 s is multiplied every scan interval before the value is added giving a result that has a m3/min unit. The following equations are applied. The scan interval unit is in seconds. Off (measured value) /s (measured value) x scan interval /min (measured value) x scan interval/60 /h (measured value) x scan interval/3600 For the setting procedure, see section 11.8.

About [Reset]
Whether or not to reset the computed result at every timeout is selectable. The figure below shows the action of TLOG.SUM computation. Example: Result of the TLOG.SUM computation
Interval Reset = On 1 Reset 2 Reset 3 Reset

Reset = Off

In case of TLOG.MAX computation, for example, the maximum value is derived for every interval when Reset is On, and the maximum value from the start of computation is derived when Reset is Off.

If power is lost while the TLOG computation was in progress


The TLOG computation is resumed when the power is restored. The operation varies depending on whether power is restored before or after the scheduled time to create the TLOG data.
Time of Recovery After the time to create the TLOG data TLOG Computation Operation TLOG data are created immediately when power is restored. The measured/computed data up to the time of the power disruption are used. At the next scheduled TLOG computation time, data will be used from the point in time after the power was restored. After power is restored, TLOG data are created at the normally scheduled time to perform the TLOG computation. All measured/ computed data excluding the power disruption period are used.

Before the time to create the TLOG data

How the measured/computed data are handled when there is an abnormality in the data
Type of Abnormal Data Positive over* Negative over* Error * Report Data AVE not used not used not used MAX/MIN/P-P used used not used SUM not used not used not used

over range for measurement channels or computation overflow for computation channels

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11.8 Setting the Timer Number and Sum Scale for TLOG Computation
Set the number of the timer used by the channel computing the TLOG. Also, set the [sum scale] that is used when determining the sum in TLOG.SUM. These are set in the setting mode. The timer specifications are set in the basic setting mode. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed). The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Twice press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#11

2 3

11
Computation/Report Function (Option)
The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. First-CH and Last-CH Select the desired channels. (For the channels set here, the [Tag], [Rolling average], and [Alarm Delay Time] are also simultaneously set.) Timer No. This is the timer specified in the basic setting mode. Select 1, 2, or 3. Sum scale When the channel is computing TLOG.SUM, select [Off], [/s], [/min], or [/h]. The initial setting is [Off]. You do not have to set this for channels that are not computing TLOG.SUM (leave it [Off]).

2. 3.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key.

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11-17

11.9 Setting the Timer (Basic Setting Mode)


Up to three timers can be specified. The timers specified here are used to determine the interval for the TLOG computation. In addition, all the data of measurement and computation channels can be stored at the interval determined by the timers. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Twice press the soft key Press the soft key

Next 1/3 #9
.

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#3

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 6 7 8 9

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Number Select the desired timer number.

Setting the relative timer 2. Mode Select [Relative]. [Interval], [Reset], and [Action] are displayed. 3. Interval Set the time to the next timeout. Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the time. Enter the time (00:01 to 24:00) and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21. 4. Reset [On]: Reset the TLOG value when the timer expires. [Off]: Do not reset the TLOG value when the timer expires. 5. Action [DataSave]: Store the instantaneous values of all measurement/computation channels to the internal memory when the time expires. [Off]: Do not store the measured/computed data. 11-18
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11.9 Setting the Timer (Basic Setting Mode) Setting the absolute timer 2. Mode Select [Absolute]. [Interval], [Reset], [Ref. time], and [Action] are displayed. 6. Interval Set the time to the next timeout from 19 choices below. 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 4 min, 5 min, 6 min, 10 min, 12 min, 15 min, 20 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 4 h, 6 h, 8 h, 12 h, 24 h. 7. Ref. time Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the time. Enter the time on the hour (00 to 23) and press the DISP/ENTER key. For the procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21. 8. Reset [On]: Reset the TLOG value when the timer expires. [Off]: Do not reset the TLOG value when the timer expires. 9. Action [DataSave]: Store the instantaneous values of all measurement/computation channels to the internal memory when the time expires. [Off]: Do not store the measured/computed data. Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Acquiring the data of all channels to the internal memory at each interval (setting at the [Action] box) If [Data Save] is specified in the [Action] box, the instantaneous values of not only the channels set to compute the TLOG computation, but also those of every channel can be acquired to the internal memory at the specified interval (whether or not any channel is set to compute the TLOG computation has no relevance). When saving to the external storage medium, the data are saved to the TLOG data file (DTG extension). For details related to the data acquisition of data to the internal memory and the saving to the external storage medium, see the explanation on the TLOG data in chapter 8.

11
Computation/Report Function (Option)

Note
TLOG data are stored to the internal memory at the interval determined by the timer when the timer is specified.

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11-19

11.10 Using the Rolling Average


A rolling average can be specified as the moving average on the computed results of each computation channel. Set the sampling interval and the number of samples. The maximum sampling interval is 1 hour, the maximum number of samples is 64. The rolling average can be used to suppress fluctuations in the computed results. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. (The parameters that cannot be changed are grayed). The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press
MENU

Twice press the soft key

Next 1/3

To display the setting screen press the soft key


1

#11

2 3 4

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. First channel and last channel Select the desired channels. (For the channels set here, the [Tag], [TLOG], and [Alarm Delay Time] are also simultaneously set.) On/Off [On]: Use rolling average [Off]: Do not use rolling average If [On] is selected, [Interval] and [Number of samples] are displayed. Interval Select the interval from the selections below. However, when the scan interval is set to 2 s, even if the sampling interval is set to 1 s, 3 s, 5 s, or 15 s, the sampling will be performed at 2 s, 4 s, 6 s, or 16 s. 1 s, 2 s, 3 s, 4 s, 5 s, 6 s, 10 s, 12 s, 15 s, 20 s, 30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min, 4 min, 5 min, 6 min, 10 min, 12 min, 15 min, 20 min, 30 min, 1 h Number of samples This is the number of data points used to compute the rolling average. Set an integer value between 1 and 64.

2.

3.

4.

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11.10 Using the Rolling Average Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation While the number of samples acquired is less than the specified number of samples, the average of acquired data is computed. The computation error data are not included in the rolling average computation. If the computed data exceeds the upper or lower limit, the data is clipped at the upper or lower limit, and the moving average is computed. The upper and lower limit is 100000000 excluding the decimal point. The decimal point position is the same as that of the specified value for the span lower limit.

11
Computation/Report Function (Option)

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11-21

11.11 Overview of the Report Function


This function is used to create hourly, daily, weekly, and monthly reports. The report data can be displayed on the screen. The report data are saved to the external storage medium in ASCII format. For data formats, see appendix 2, Data Formats of ASCII Files.

Types of reports and specifications


Types of reports Hourly report On every hour on the hour, the average, maximum, minimum, and sum values of the specified channels are determined from an hour of data up to the current hour and stored to the internal memory. Daily report At the specified time everyday, the average, maximum, minimum, and sum values of the specified channels are determined from a day of data up to the specified time and stored to the internal memory. Weekly report At the specified time of the specified day every week, the average, maximum, minimum, and sum values of the specified channels are determined from a week of data up to the specified time and stored to the internal memory. Monthly report At the specified time of the specified date every month, the average, maximum, minimum, and sum values of the specified channels are determined from a month of data up to the specified time and stored to the internal memory. Report data display See section 4.5. Combinations of reports that can be created The reports created by the DX100 can be set to hourly only, daily only, hourly and daily, daily and weekly, or daily and monthly. Number of measurement and computation channels that can be assigned to the report Up to 12 channels can be assigned to one report. The report data are not created for channels that are set to [Skip] or those that have the computation turned [Off].

About the sum scale


In the sum computation, data are summed over the scan interval. However, for flow values that have units /s, /min, /h, or /day a simple summation results in the actual value not matching the computed result, because the scan interval and the unit of the input values are different. In these cases, the unit of the data measured over the scan interval is converted to match the unit of the input values and the computation is performed.

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11.11 Overview of the Report Function For example, if the scan interval is 2 s, and the input value is 100 m3/min, a simple summation would add 100 every 2 s resulting in 3000 after one minute. However, if the sum unit is set to /min, then 2 s/60 s is multiplied every scan interval before the value is added giving a result that has a m3/min unit. The following equations are applied. The scan interval unit is in seconds. Off (measured value) /s (measured value) x scan interval /min (measured value) x scan interval/60 /h (measured value) x scan interval/3600 /day (measured value) x scan interval/86400 For the setting procedure, see section 11.13.

If power is lost while the report function is in progress


If a power disruption occurred while the report function was in progress, the report function will resume after the power is restored. The exact operation will vary depending on whether the power is restored before or after the scheduled time to create a report.
Time of Recovery Report Operation After the time to create the Report data are created immediately after power is restored. The report measured/computed data up to the time of the power disruption are used. For the next scheduled report, data after the power recovery are used. Before the time to create the report After power is restored, report data are created at the time of the next normally scheduled report. All measured/computed data excluding the power disruption period are used.

How the measured/computed data are handled when there is an abnormality in the data
Type of Abnormal Data Positive over* Negative over* Error * Report Data Average value not used not used not used Maximum/Minimum value used used not used Sum value not used not used not used

11
Computation/Report Function (Option)

over range for measurement channels or computation overflow for computation channels

Displaying the report


Report data display The reports can be displayed from the [Information] - [Memory Summary] menu in the operation mode. See section 4.5. Status display If the data of a measurement or a computation channel enter any of the conditions listed below within the relevant time period (one hour for hourly reports and one day for daily reports, for example), status is output to the report. For the displayed position, see the report data output example in section 4.5.
Power Failure/Time Change Power failure Time change Status P C

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11-23

11.11 Overview of the Report Function


Data Condition Common to measurement and computation channels Measurement error or computation error Status E

For measurement channels Positive (+) over range O Negative () over range O Over range occurs when the input type is voltage and the input exceeds 5% of the measurable range. For example, consider the case when the measurement range is 2 V and the measurable range is from 2.000 to 2.000 V. If the input signal exceeds 2.200 V, + over range occurs. If the input signal falls below 2.200 V, over range occurs. Over range occurs when the input type is TC (thermocouple) or RTD (resistance temperature detector) and the input exceeds approximately 10C of the measurable range. For example, consider the case when the measurement range is R and the measurable range is from 0.0 to 1760.0C. If the input signal exceeds approximately 1770.0C, + over range occurs. If the input signal falls below approximately 10.0C, over range occurs. For computation channels Positive (+) computation overflow (when the value exceeds 3.4E + 38) O Negative () computation overflow (when the value falls below 3.4E + 38) O

Numerical display The range of displayed values of report data is from 9999999 to 99999999 excluding the decimal point. The decimal point position corresponds to the position of the decimal point of the upper and lower limit span of the computation channel. However, special displays are used for cases given in the table below. Measurement channel
Item AVE (Average value) MAX, MIN (Maximum value, minimum value) SUM (Sum value) Data Condition of Measurement Channels When all data are measurement errors or over range When all data are measurement errors Positive (+) over range Negative () over range When all data are measurement errors or over range When the sum value exceeds 3.4E + 38 When the sum value is below 3.4E + 38 Displayed value (Blank) (Blank) 99999 99999 (Blank) 9.999999E + 99 9.999999E + 99

Computation channel
Item AVE (Average value) MAX, MIN (Maximum value, minimum value) Data Condition of Computation Channels When all data are computation errors or over range When all data are computation errors When the maximum value exceeds 99999999 When the minimum value is below 9999999 Displayed value (Blank) (Blank) 999999999 99999999

The decimal position that was specified when the span for the equation was specified is reflected in the maximum and minimum values. For example, if the span setting of the equation is 200.0, then 99999999 is output when the value exceeds 99999999.9 and 99999999 is output when the value is below 999999.9. SUM (Sum value) When all data are computation errors or computation overflow When the sum value exceeds 3.4E + 38 When the sum value is below 3.4E + 38 (Blank) 9.999999E + 99 9.999999E + 99

Storing to the internal memory and Saving to the external storage medium
Report data are stored to the internal memory at the end of each time interval. The maximum number of report data files (data set for each interval) that can be stored in the internal memory is 40. For detail, see chapter 8. 11-24
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11.12 Using the Report Function


Starting/Stopping the report function
The report start/stop is in sync with the data acquisition start/stop. Procedure Starting the report (also starts the data acquisition to the internal memory) 1. Press the START key. The icon that indicates the data acquisition to the internal memory turns to a start icon and the computation icon appears. For details related to the status display section, see section 4.2. The report function starts. When the time to create the report arrives, the report data are stored to the internal memory. Stopping the report (also stops the data acquisition to the internal memory) 1. Press the STOP key. A confirmation window opens. For models with the batch function (/BT1 option), the batch information is also displayed. 2. Use the arrow keys to select [Mem + Math] (stop the data acquisition to the internal memory and computation) or [Mem] (stop the data acquisition), and press the DISP/ENTER key. The icon that indicates the data acquisition to the internal memory turns to a stop icon. The report stops.

Note
When the report function is stopped, the report file on the external storage medium is closed. When the report function is started again, the data is saved to a new file.

Clearing the report data in the internal memory


These procedures are carried out in the setting mode. The report data are cleared along with the display data, for example. For the procedures, see section 9.7.

11
Computation/Report Function (Option)

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11.13 Setting the Report Function (Basic Setting Mode)


Set the report type, report channels, the time and date to create the report. The report function is set in the basic setting mode. Procedure These procedures are carried out in the basic setting mode. Use the arrow keys to move the cursor (blue) to the appropriate parameter. The possible selections are displayed at the bottom of the screen. Select using the soft keys. The parameter boxes that are changed are displayed in yellow. By confirming the new settings, they change back to white. Press Press
MENU

. for 3 seconds. The menu screen for the basic setting mode appears.

FUNC

Twice press the soft key Press the soft key

Next 1/3 #9
.

To display the setting screen press the soft key

#2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

The numbers in front of the operating procedure shown below correspond to the numbers in the above figure. 1. Report set [Hour]: Creates hourly reports. [Day]: Creates daily reports. [Hour +Day]: Creates hourly and daily reports. [Day+Week]: Creates daily and weekly reports. [Day+Month]: Creates daily and monthly reports. Date/Day of the week This is the date or day of the week on which the report is created. If the [Report set] is set to [Day+Month], [Date] is displayed. If [Day+Week] is specified, [Day] is displayed. If [Hour], [Day], or [Hour+Day] is specified, [Date] is displayed. However, this setting is void. Date (for monthly reports) Pressing the [Input] soft key displays a window used to enter the date. Enter the date (01-28)* and press the DISP/ENTER key. Procedures related to entering numerical values, see Entering Numbers on page 3-21.
* You cannot specify 29, 30 or 31.

2.

Day (for weekly reports) Enter the day of the week using the soft key.

11-26

IM 04L01A01-01E

11.13 Setting the Report Function (Basic Setting Mode) 3. Time (hour) Set the time to create daily, weekly, and monthly reports with the time on the hour (00 to 23). Enter the time using the same method as step 2. This setting is void for hourly reports. Report CH This is the report channel to which the measurement/computation channel is assigned. Select from R01 to R12. The reports are output in order according to this number. On/Off [On]: Use the report channel. [Off]: Do not use the report channel. The report data number and the data are not displayed. Channel Set the measurement or computation channel to assign to the report channel. All measurement and computation channels can be specified. However, the reports are not created for channels that are set to [Skip] or those that have the computation turned [Off]. Sum scale (sum unit) Select [Off], [/s], [/min], [/h], or [/day]. See section 11.11.

4.

5.

6.

7.

Confirming operation To confirm the new settings, press the DISP/ENTER key. To cancel the new settings, press the ESC key. A window appears for you to confirm the cancellation. Select [Yes] using the arrow keys and press the DISP/ENTER key. Explanation Date/Day of the week This is the date for monthly reports or the day of the week for weekly reports. The report is created at the specified time on the specified date or day of the week. Time This is the time at which daily, weekly, and monthly reports are created. Hourly reports are created every hour on the hour.

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Chapter 12 Troubleshooting

12.1 A List of Messages


Occasionally, error codes and messages appear on the screen while using the DX100. The entire list of messages is given below. Error codes and messages related to communications are also listed here. The messages are displayed in the language that you have chosen. For the procedures regarding language selection, see section 10.10.

Errors Related to Parameter Settings Setting Errors


Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 21 22 23 30 31 35 36 37 40 41 42 43 45 46 61 62 63 64 70 71 81 83 85 86 87 88 89 Message System error. Incorrect date or time setting. A disabled channel is selected. Incorrect function parameter. The input numerical value exceeds the set range. Incorrect input character string. Too many characters. Incorrect input mode. Incorrect input range code. Cannot set an alarm for a skipped channel. The upper and lower span limits are equal. The upper and lower scale limits are equal. The partial boundary value exceeds the range of the span. Partial expansion display is set ON for a SKIPPED channel. The upper and lower limits of the display band are equal. The lower limit of the display band is greater than the upper limit. The display band is narrower than 4% of the entire display. Incorrect group set character string. There is no specified input channel. Exceeded the number of channels which can be set. A channel number cannot repeat in a group. There is no character string saved in the clipboard. The character string saved in the clipboard is too long. There is no channel specified by the MATH expression. MATH expression grammar is incorrect. MATH expression sequence is incorrect. MATH upper and lower span values are equal. The range of the MATH constant is exceeded. Set range of the MATH constant is exceeded. All space or quit string cannot be specified. Duplicate used combination of user ID and password. The login password is incorrect. The key-lock release password is incorrect. This key is locked. This function is locked. Press [FUNC] key to login. Explanation/Countermeasures/Ref. section Contact your nearest YOKOGAWA dealer. See section 3.7. See Communication Interface Users Manual. See Communication Interface Users Manual. Enter a proper value. Enter a proper character string. Enter specified number of characters. See Communication Interface Users Manual. See Communication Interface Users Manual. See Communication Interface Users Manual. See sections 5.1 to 5.7. See sections 5.5 and 5.6. See section 7.11. See Communication Interface Users Manual. See section 7.9. See section 7.9. See section 7.9. See section 7.6. See Communication Interface Users Manual. See Communication Interface Users Manual. See section 7.6. Copy a character string to the clipboard. Paste a character string with the specified number of characters. See section 11.4. See section 11.2. See section 11.2. See section 11.4. See section 11.4. See section 11.6. See section 10.6. See section 10.6 (when /BT1 is equipped). See section 10.5. See section 10.3. See section 10.3. See section 10.3. See section 10.5.

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Troubleshooting

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12-1

12.1 A List of Messages


Code 90 91 92 93 94 100 101 102 103 104 Message No permission to enter to the SETUP mode. Password is incorrect. Press [ESC] key to change to the operation mode. String including space or all space cannot be specified. More than one address cannot be specified. IP address doesnt belong to class A, B, or C. The result of the masked IP address is all 0s or 1s. SUBNET mask is incorrect. The net part of default gateway is not equal to that of IP address. FTP client failed because the memory mode is manual. Explanation/Countermeasures/Ref. section See sections 10.5 and 10.6. See sections 10.3 and 10.5. Press the ESC key. Spaces are not allowed in the Web user name and password. Multiple addresses cannot be specified. Only a single sender is allowed. See Communication Interface Users Manual. See Communication Interface Users Manual. See Communication Interface Users Manual. See Communication Interface Users Manual. See Communication Interface Users Manual.

Execution Errors
Code 150 151 152 153 155 160 Message This action is not possible because sampling is in progress. This action is not possible during sampling or calculating. This action is not possible because saving is in progress. This action is not possible because formatting is in progress. The message is not written while sampling is stopped. Cannot load the specified data. Change the memory setting. Explanation/Countermeasures/Ref. section See sections 8.5 and 8.6. See sections 8.5, 8.6, and 11.3. Wait till the saving ends. Wait till the formatting ends. See sections 8.5 and 8.6. See sections 4.5, 9.3, and 9.4.

Operation Errors Errors related to external storage medium


Code 200 201 202 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 230 231 Message Operation aborted because an error was found in media. Not enough free space on media. Media is read-only. Media has not been inserted. Media is damaged or not formatted. Format error. The file is read-only. There is no file or directory. Exceeded the allowable number of files. The file or directory name is incorrect. Unknown file type. Directory exists. Delete the directory or change directory name. Invalid file or directory operation. The file is already in use. Try again later. There is no setting file. Abnormal setting exists in file. Explanation/Countermeasures/Ref. section See Communication Interface Users Manual. Use another storage medium. Release the write protection. Insert a storage medium into the drive. Use another storage medium or carry out formatting. Try formatting again or use another storage medium. Access to other files or make the file write-enable. See Communication Interface Users Manual. Delete files or change storage medium. See sections 8.9 and 9.1. Access to other files. See section 8.9. Cannot handle files and directories in the 2nd and deeper layers. Wait till file is free. Access to other files. Access to other files.

12-2

IM 04L01A01-01E

12.1 A List of Messages

Errors related to historical trend


Code 232 233 234 Message There is no available data. The specified historical data do not exist. The specified channel is not assigned to the display group. Explanation/Countermeasures/Ref. section This message may appear when recalling historical trend. Access to other files. This message may appear when recalling historical trend. See section 4.5. This message may appear when switching to trend or bar graph from overview. See sections 4.4 and 7.6.

Errors related to e-mail and Web server


Code 260 261 Message IP address is not set or ethernet function is not available. SMTP server is not found. Explanation/Countermeasures/Ref. section The IP address is not specified. Check the IP address. Occurs when the SMTP server is specified by name. Check the DNS setting. Check the SMTP server name. The host name of the DX is not correct. Check the host name. The port number for SMTP server is not correct. Check the port number. Check the senders address. Check the recipients address. May occur if a network failure (cable problems, duplicate addresses, network device failure, and so on) occurs in the middle of the e-mail transmission. Check the cable connection. Check to see that the SMTP server is connected to the network. If the SMTP server name is specified using an IP address, check to see that the IP address is correct. Contact your nearest YOKOGAWA dealer. May occur if a network failure (cable problems, duplicate addresses, network device failure, and so on) occurs in the middle of the e-mail transmission. The setup screen cannot be output to the Web. This message is displayed on the Web screen.

262

Cannot initiate E-mail transmission.

263 264 265

Senders address rejected by the server. Some recipients addresses are invalid. SMTP protocol error.

266 267

Ethernet cable is not connected. Could not connect to SMTP server.

268 269

E-mail transmission request failed. E-mail transfer error.

275 276

The current image cannot be output to the Web.

12
Troubleshooting

Image data currently being created. Unable to perform key operation. Try again a little later. This message is displayed on the Web screen. Could not output screen to Web. Failed to create the image. This message is displayed on the Web screen.

277

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12.1 A List of Messages

Errors related to FTP client


For information regarding the FTP client function of the DX100, see the DX100/DX200 Communication Interface Users Manual (IM 04L02A01-17E).
Code 280 Message IP address is not set or FTP function is not available. Further details are provided by the character string that appears after error code 280. Character String and Details HOSTADDR The DXs IP address has not been specified. Check the IP address.*1 DORMANT Internal processing error.*2 LINK Data link is disconnected. Check the cable connection. 281 FTP mail box operation error. Further details are provided by the character string that appears after error code 281. Character String and Details MAIL Internal processing error.*2 STATUS Internal processing error.*2 TIMEOUT Internal processing error.*2 PRIORITY Internal processing error.*2 NVRAM Internal processing error.*2 282 FTP control connection error. Further details are provided by the character string that appears after error code 282. Character String and Details HOSTNAME Failed the DNS lookup (search the IP address corresponding to the host name). Check the DNS setting and the destination host name. TCPIP Internal processing error.*2 UNREACH Failed to connect to a control connection server. Check the address setting and that the server is running. OOBINLINE Internal processing error.*2 NAME Internal processing error.*2 CTRL The control connection does not exist. Check that the server does not drop the connection and that it responds within the proper time period. IAC Failed to respond in the TELNET sequence. Check that the server does not drop the connection and that it responds within the proper time period. ECHO Failed to transmit data on the control connection. Check that the server does not drop the connection and that it responds within the proper time period. REPLY Failed to receive data on the control connection. Check that the server does not drop the connection and that it responds within the proper time period. SERVER The server is not in a condition to provide the service. Check that the server is in a condition in which service can be provided.

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12.1 A List of Messages


Code 283 Message FTP command was not accepted. Further details are provided by the character string that appears after error code 283. Character String and Details USER Failed user name verification. Check the user name setting. PASS Failed password verification Check the password setting. ACCT Failed account verification. Check the account setting. TYPE Failed to change the transfer type. Check that the server supports the binary transfer mode. CWD Failed to change the directory. Check the initial path setting. PORT Failed to set the transfer connection. Check that the security function is disabled. PASV Failed to set the transfer connection. Check that the server supports PASV commands. SCAN Failed to read the transfer connection settings. Check that proper response to the PASV command is received from the server. 284 FTP transfer setting error. Further details are provided by the character string that appears after error code 284. Character String and Details MODE Internal processing error.*2 LOCAL Internal processing error.*2 REMOTE The destination file name is not correct. Check that you have the authority to create or overwrite files. ABORT File transfer abort was requested by the server. Check the server for the reason for the abort request.

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Troubleshooting

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12.1 A List of Messages


Code 285 Message FTP data connection error. Further details are provided by the character string that appears after error code 285. Character String and Details SOCKET Failed to create a socket for the transfer connection.*3 BIND Failed the transfer connection command.*3 CONNECT Failed the transfer connection.*3 LISTEN Failed the transfer connection reception.*3 ACCEPT Failed to accept the transfer connection.*3 SOCKNAME Internal processing error.*2 RECV Failed to receive data over the transfer connection.*3 SEND Failed to send data over the transfer connection.*3 286 FTP file transfer error. *1 See the DX100/DX200 Communication Interface Users Manual (IM 04L02A01-17E). *2 Contact your nearest YOKOGAWA dealer. *3 These errors may occur if the network experiences trouble during the data transmission (bad cable connection, duplicate addresses, network equipment failure).

Note
The FTP client function on the DX100 has a timer function that drops the connection if there is no data transfer for two minutes. If the server does not respond within this time period, the transfer fails. The FTP client function on the DX100 overwrites files with the same file names on the server without any warnings, unless the server rejects the request. For information regarding the FTP client function of the DX100, see the DX100/DX200 Communication Interface Users Manual (IM 04L02A01-17E).

Communication Errors
For information regarding the communication function of the DX100, see the DX100/ DX200 Communication Interface Users Manual (IM 04L02A01-17E).

Errors during Setting and Basic Setting Modes, Output Communication Command Execution, and Setup Data Loading
Code 300 301 302 303 350 351 352 353 354 Message Command is too long. Too many number of commands delimited with ;. This command has not been defined. Data request command can not be enumerated with sub-delimiter. Command is not permitted to the current user level. This command cannot be specified in the current mode. The option is not installed. This command cannot be specified in the current setting. This command is not available during sampling or calculating.

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12.1 A List of Messages

Memory Access Errors during Setting and Basic Setting Modes and Output Communication Command Execution
An English error message is returned via the communication interface. It is not displayed on the screen.
Code 360 361 362 363 Message Output interface must be chosen from Ethernet or RS by using XO command. The memory data is not saved for the communication output. There are no data to send NEXT or RESEND. All data have already been transferred.

Maintenance and Test Communication Command Errors


An English error message is returned via the communication interface. It is not displayed on the screen.
Code 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 Message Command error. Delimiter error. Parameter error. No permission. No such connection. Use quit to close this connection. Failed to disconnect. No TCP control block.

Other Communication Errors


An English error message is returned via the communication interface. It is not displayed on the screen.
Code 400 401 402 403 404 410 411 420 421 422 Message Input username. Input password. Select username from admin or user. Login incorrect, try again! No more login at the specified level is acceptable. Login successful. (The special user level) Login successful. (The general user level) Connection has been lost. The number of simultaneous connection has been exceeded. Communication has timed-out.

12
Troubleshooting

Note
For information regarding the communication function of the DX100, see the DX100/DX200 Communication Interface Users Manual (IM 04L02A01-17E).

IM 04L01A01-01E

12-7

12.1 A List of Messages

Status Messages
Code 500 501 503 504 505 506 507 510 511 512 520 521 551 Message Execution is complete. Please wait a moment... Data are being saved to media... File is being loaded from media... Formatting... Memory save to media was interrupted. Exchange media to continue the saving operation. Range cannot be changed during sampling or calculating. MATH expression cannot be changed during sampling or calculating. Because memory save is manual mode, FTP is not available. Connecting to the line... The data file is being transferred. FTP test is being executed...

Cautions
Code 600 601 610 611 Message Measured data and Settings have been initialized. Measured data have been initialized. This username is already registered. There is no user who can enter to the SETUP mode. Ref. section See section 10.6. See section 10.6.

System Errors
Servicing is required when a system error occurs. Contact your nearest YOKOGAWA dealer for repairs.
Code 901 902 910 911 912 913 914 921 922 923 924 930 940 Message ROM failure. RAM failure. A/D memory failure for all input channels. Channel 1 A/D memory failure. Channel 2 A/D memory failure. Channel 3 A/D memory failure. Channel 4 A/D memory failure. Channel 1 A/D calibration value error. Channel 2 A/D calibration value error. Channel 3 A/D calibration value error. Channel 4 A/D calibration value error. Memory acquisition failure. The Ethernet module is down.

12-8

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12.2 Troubleshooting Flow Chart


Nothing is displayed.

Is the power switch on? Does the switch work properly?

NO

Turn on the power properly (See section 3.2).

YES

Is the power supply connected properly?

NO

Connect properly (See section 2.7).

YES

Is the power supplied properly?

NO

Supply the power at the specified voltage and frequency. (See section 14.7)

YES

Is the fuse blown?

NO

Contact your nearest Sales & Service Center.

YES

Replace the fuse (See section 13.2). YES

12
Does the fuse stay intact when the power is turned on again? YES

Troubleshooting

NO

Contact your nearest Sales & Service Center.

Contact your nearest Sales & Service Center.

IM 04L01A01-01E

12-9

12.2 Troubleshooting Flow Chart


The reading error is large. The digital indication or trend trace (waveform) is unstable. The trend trace (waveform) stays at 0 or 100%.

Does the input meet the specifications (signal source resistance, etc.)?

NO

Change the input to meet the specifications (See section 14.1).

YES

Are the span and range settings correct?

NO

Adjust the span and range (See sections 5.1 to 5.7).

YES
Separate the input wiring from the noise source. Ground the recorder properly. Ground the measuring object properly. Insulate the TC from the measured object. Use shielded cable for input. Correct the A/D integration frequency (See section 5.9). Use the input filter (See section 5.8).

Is the input free of noise?

NO

YES

Is the environmental temperature kept constant (for temperature measurement)?

NO

Use the cover for the input terminal. Protect the input terminal from wind or fans. Keep the room temperature constant around the input terminal.

YES

Is the input wiring correct?

NO

Wire correctly (See section 2.3). Fix the terminal block properly. Fasten the terminal screws. Insulate the RTD from ground. If burnt, replace the TC.

YES

Is the input wiring parallel with other equipment?

YES

NO

Stop the TC burnout upscale/downscale function of other equipment. Ground the recorder and other equipment at the same grounding pole. Disconnect parallel wiring. (Use a double-element TC, for instance.)

Is the RJC setting correct (for TC input)?

NO

Set correctly (See section 5.9).

YES

Contact your nearest Sales & Service Center.

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IM 04L01A01-01E

12.2 Troubleshooting Flow Chart


Display and other functions do not work properly.

Is the input free of noise?

NO

YES

Separate the input and communication wiring from the noise source. Ground the recorder properly. Use shielded cables for input and communication wiring. Insert an isolation transformer into the power line. Insert a power line filter into the power line. If an inductive load is connected to an alarm contact output, use a surge suppresser on that line.

Contact your nearest Sales & Service Center.

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Troubleshooting

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Chapter 13 Maintenance

13.1 Periodic Maintenance


Check the operation periodically to keep the DX100 in good working order. Perform the following checks and replace worn parts as needed. Is the display and storage functioning properly? In the event of problems, see section 12.2. Has the brightness of the LCD backlight deteriorated? If replacement is necessary, see section 13.4 Recommended Replacement Periods for Worn Parts.

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Maintenance

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13-1

13.2 Replacing the Fuse


Replace the fuse every two years for preventive maintenance.

WARNING
For safety reasons, make sure to turn OFF the power switch and disconnect the DX100 from the main power supply before replacing the fuse. To prevent the possibility of fire, use only the specified fuse purchased from YOKOGAWA. Never short circuit the fuse holder to bypass the use of a fuse. To avoid the possibility of electric shock, open the front panel only when replacing the fuse. Do not touch the rear side of the front panel when replacing the fuse, because it can become hot. Make sure not to damage the cable while replacing the fuse.

For fuse rating, see section 13.4 Recommended Replacement Periods for Worn Parts. Follow the procedures below to replace the fuse. 1. Turn OFF the power switch. 2. Disconnect the DX100 from the main power supply. 3. Open the cover and remove the two screws. 4. Pull the front panel slightly toward you and lift it. 5. While pressing the fuse carrier located to the right of the power switch, turn it counterclockwise approximately 45 degrees. The carrier and the fuse will slide out. 6. Replace with a new fuse, insert the carrier in the fuse holder, and turn it clockwise while pressing the carrier to fix it in place. 7. Lift the front panel slightly, and attach it to the top and then the bottom of the rubber packing. Secure the front panel with screws.

Note
For DX100s which are side-by-side mounted vertically, a front panel always interfere the upper one when it is opened so that front panels except the top one cant be opened directly. First open the top front panel and then the lower one by one. For the same reason, when closing front panels, first close the bottom front panel and then the upper one by one.

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13.3 Calibration
To maintain the measurement accuracy, we recommend the DX100 be calibrated once a year. Calibration service is also provided by YOKOGAWA dealers. For details, contact your nearest YOKOGAWA dealer.

Required Instruments
For calibrating the DX100, calibration instruments with the following resolution are necessary. Recommended Instruments DC voltage standard: YOKOGAWA Model 2552 or equivalent Main specifications Accuracy of output in the range 20 mV to 20 V: 0.005% Decade resistance box: Yokogawa M&C Model 2793-01 or equivalent Main specifications Accuracy of output in the range 0.1 to 500 : (0.01%+2 m) Resolution: 0.001 (To purchase these instruments, contact the supplier of the DX100 .)

Calibration procedure
1. Connect the DX100 and the calibration instruments as shown in the following figure, and allow the instruments to warm-up adequately ( warm-up time for the DX100 is at least 30 minutes). Check that the ambient temperature and humidity are within the normal operating conditions (See chapter 14). Apply input signals corresponding to 0, 50, and 100% of the specified input range and calculate the errors from the readings. If the error is not within the accuracy specifications, contact your nearest YOKOGAWA dealer.

2. 3.

Note
For TC input, the temperature of the input terminals must be measured and a voltage corresponding to the temperature at the reference junction must be added.

DC Voltage Measurement (Example for the DX112)

13
Maintenance

+ Input terminals DC voltage standard


+ -

IM 04L01A01-01E

13-3

13.3 Calibration Temperature Measurement Using the RTD (Example for the DX112)

The resistance of three lead wires must be equal.


/b +/A

-/B

Input terminals

Decade resistance box (Model 2793-01 from Yokogawa M&C)

Temperature Measurement Using the TC (Example for the DX112)


Copper wires Thermocouple wires or TC extension wires

+
-

DC voltage standard

Copper wires

Thermocouple wires

0 C standard temperature device

Input terminals

Reference Junction Compensation for the Thermocouple Input As the measurement terminal of the DX100 is generally at room temperature, the actual output of the thermocouple is different from the values given on the thermoelectromotive force table based on 0C. The DX100 measures the temperature of the terminal and makes adjustments by calculation. Therefore, when the measurement terminals are shorted (equivalent to 0C at the detector tip), the temperature at the measurement terminal is displayed. When calibrating the DX100, this compensation voltage (thermoelectromotive force of 0 C reference corresponding to the input terminal temperature) must be subtracted from the output of the standard generator before application. As shown in the figure, by using the 0 C standard temperature device to compensate the reference junction at 0 C, you can input the thermoelectromotive force of 0 C reference from the DC voltage standard and make the calibration.

13-4

IM 04L01A01-01E

13.4 Recommended Replacement Periods for Worn Parts


To maintain the reliability of the DX100 and to use it in good working order for a long time, we recommend periodic replacement of worn parts as preventive maintenance. The recommended replacement periods for worn parts are shown in the following table. The replacement periods apply when the DX100 is operated under standard operating conditions. Please consider the actual operating conditions when determining the actual replacement periods for your DX100. The replacement of the worn parts except the fuse must be conducted by a qualified YOKOGAWA personnel. Contact your nearest YOKOGAWA dealer to have the LCD replaced.

Item Fuse

Replacement Part Name Period 2 years 2 years FUSE FUSE Back light module Lithium battery

Part Number A1347EF A1352EF

Specifications 250 V, 1 A, time lag

Quantity Used 1 1 1 1 for front panel,

(except for /P1 model)


250 V, 4 A, time lag

(for /P1 model)


LCD Battery 5 years 10 years

Rubber 5 years 1 each strip Floppy disk drive Zip drive PWB assembly * 5 years 5 years 5 years 5 years 5 years

Dust and water proof rubber strip for front cover

1 1 Power Assy* Sub Power Assy* AD Assy* 1 1 Up to models

Replacement Period at the Upper Limit of the Normal Operating Temperature (50C) The replacement period varies depending on the temperature in which the instrument is operated, and the instruments specifications. If the instrument is used in a 30C environment, it may be operational for 10 years or more.

Note
The recommended replacement period for the back light module is the period when the brightness falls to half. The speed of degradation of the brightness varies depending on the operating conditions and the judgement is subjective. These factors should be considered when determining the actual replacement period.

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13-5

Chapter 14 Specifications

14.1 Input Specifications


Number of Inputs: DX102: two channels DX104: four channels DX106: six channels DX112: twelve channels DX102, DX104: 125 ms or 250 ms DX106, DX112: 1 s or 2 s (2 s when an A/D integration time is set to 100 ms) Volt (DC voltage), TC (thermocouple), RTD (resistance temperature detector), DI (digital input), DC current (with external shunt resistor attached)
Measuring range 20.00 to 20.00 mV 60.00 to 60.00 mV 200.0 to 200.0 mV 2.000 to 2.000 V 6.000 to 6.000 V 20.00 to 20.00 V 50.00 to 50.00 V 32 to 3200F 0.0 to 1760C 32 to 3200F 0.0 to 1760C 32 to 3308F 0.0 to 1820C 200.0 to 1370C 328 to 2498F 200.0 to 800C 328.0 to 1472.0F 200.0 to 1100C 328.0 to 2012.0F 200.0 to 400C 328.0 to 752.0F 32 to 2372F 0.0 to 1300C 32 to 4199F 0.0 to 2315C 200.0 to 900C 328.0 to 1652.0F 200.0 to 400C 328.0 to 752.0F 200.0 to 600C 328.0 to 1112.0F 200.0 to 550C 328.0 to 1022.0F OFF: less than 2.4 V ON: more than 2.4 V Contact ON/OFF

Scan Interval:

Inputs:

Input type

Volt

TC

RTD*5

DI *1 *2 *3 *4

Range 20 mV 60 mV 200 mV 2V 6V 20 V 50 V R*1 S*1 B*1 K*1 E*1 J*1 T*1 N*1 W*2 L*3 U*3 Pt100*4 JPt100*4 DCV input (TTL) Contact input

R, S, B, K, E, J, T, N: IEC584-1 (1995), DIN IEC584, JIS C1602-1995 W: W-5% Rd/W-26% Rd (Hoskins Mfg. Co.), ASTM E988 L: Fe-CuNi, DIN43710, U: Cu-CuNi, DIN43710 Pt100: JIS C1604-1997, IEC751-1995, DIN IEC751-1996 JPt100: JIS C1604-1989, JIS C1606-1989 *5 Measuring current: i = 1 mA

Selectable from 20 ms (50 Hz), 16.7 ms (60 Hz), 100 ms (50/ 60 Hz for DX106/112), or AUTO (automatic selection from 20 ms and 16.7 ms by detection of power supply frequency) Thermocouple Burnout: Burnout upscale/downscale function can be switched ON/OFF (for each channel). Burnout upscale/downscale selectable Filter: DX102, DX104: Signal damping On/off selectable for each channel Time constant: selectable from 2, 5, and 10 seconds DX106, DX112: Moving average On/off selectable for each channel Number of samples to be averaged is selectable from 2 to 16

A/D Integration Time:

14
Specifications

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14-1

14.1 Input Specifications Computation: Differential computation: Between any two channels Available for Volt, TC, RTD, and DI ranges. Linear scaling: Available for Volt, TC, RTD, and DI ranges. Scaling limits: 30000 to 30000 Decimal point: user selectable Engineering unit: user definable, up to 6 characters Square root: Square root computation and linear scaling Available for Volt range. Scaling limits: 30000 to 30000 Decimal point: user selectable Engineering unit: user definable, up to 6 characters

14-2

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14.2 Display Specifications


Display unit: Channel display color: 5.5-inch TFT color LCD (VGA, 240 320 dot resolution) Trend/Bar graph: Selectable from 16 colors (Red, Green, Blue, Blue violet, Brown, Orange, Yellow green, Lightblue, Violet, Gray, Lime, Cyan, Darkblue, Yellow, Light Gray, Purple) Initial settings of channel display color: Channel 1: Red, Channel 2: Green, Channel 3: Blue, Channel 4: Blue violet, Channel 5: Brown, Channel 6: Orange, Channel 7: Yellow-green, Channel 8: Light blue, Channel 9: violet, Channel 10: Gray, Channel 11: Lime 12: Cyan Background: White or black selectable Direction: vertical or horizontal selectable Number of indication channels: 6 channels per screen (maximum) Number of group screens: 4 All channels indication: 24 channels (maximum, including computation channels) Line width: 1, 2, and 3 dots selectable Display update rate: Waveform: (One division has 30 dots.) DX102, DX104: 15 s, 30 s, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 min., 1, 2, 4, 10 hours/div selectable DX106, DX112: 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 min., 1, 2, 4, 10 hours/div selectable Numerical value: 1 s (2 s when the scan interval is 2 s.) Contents: Waveform, Numerical value (numerical display section can be turned ON/OFF), scale (scale display can be turned ON/OFF), grid lines (number of divisions selectable from 4 to 12), hours : minutes on time axis, trip lines (line widths are selectable from 1, 2 and 3 dots), messages (up to eight different messages of up to 16 characters for each), alarm indication Zone display and partial expanded display are available. Direction: Vertical or horizontal selectable Number of indication channels: 6 channels per screen (maximum) Number of group screens: 4 Scales: 4 to 12 divisions selectable Base position of bar: Left, right or center (only for horizontal display) Display update rate: 1 s (2 s when the scan interval is 2 s) Contents: Bar graph, numerical value, unit, scale, alarm indication 14-3

Trend screen:

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Specifications

Bar graph screen:

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14.2 Display Specifications Number of indication channels: 6 channels per screen (maximum) Number of group screens: 4 Display update rate: 1 s (2 s when the scan interval is 2 s) Contents: Numerical value, unit, alarm indication Automatic display switching: The displayed group can be automatically changed on the trend, digital, and bar graph screens. The display switching interval is selectable from 5 s, 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, and 1 min. Overview screen: Number of indication channels: Measured values and alarm status of all channels Information screen: Alarm summary: Displays the list of alarms. Capable to switch to historical trend screen by cursor pointing. Message summary: Display the list of messages and time. Capable to switch to historical trend screen by cursor pointing. Memory summary: Display the file list in internal memory. Capable to switch to historical trend screen by cursor pointing. Tags: Number of characters: 16 characters maximum Historical trend screen: Display the retrieved data from internal or external memory. Display format: Whole screen display or divided into 2 areas (only when displaying the historical trend of the display data) Time axis operation: Can be expanded, reduced, and scrolled Memory information: The following information of the retrieved data are displayed: File name, serial number of the DX which is used to acquire data, starting and ending time of data acquisition, user name (when using key login function), and batch information (models with /BT1) Log display: Display the logs of error messages, key login/logout, communication interface commands, and file transfers via FTP. System screen: Display the number of input points, capacity of the internal memory, options, MAC address, and firmware version number. Backlight saver function: The LCD backlight automatically dims if no key is pressed for a certain preset time (can be set from 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 60 minutes). Display language: Selectable from English, German, French, and Japanese. Temperature unit: C or F selectable Digital screen:

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14.3 Data Storage Specifications


External storage medium: Selectable from: 1) 3.5-inch floppy disk (2HD, 1.44 MB) 2) PCMCIA ATA flash memory card (4 to 440 MB), or CF card (32 to 512 MB, adapter required) 3) Zip disk (100 MB) Saving method: Manual or automatic selectable Manual saving: Data saving by inserting external storage medium Automatic saving: Display data: Periodic saving (10 min to 31 days) to external storage medium Event data: In case of trigger free...Periodic saving (3 min to 31 days) to external storage medium In case of using trigger...Save the data when data acquisition is finished Sampling Interval: Display data: Linked with the waveform display update rate Event data: Linked with the specified sampling interval Sampling Interval for Event Data: A sampling interval that is faster than the scan interval cannot be specified. DX102, DX104: Selectable from 125, 250, 500 ms, and 1, 2, 5, 10, 30, 60, 120 s, 300 s, 600 s DX106, DX112: Selectable from 1, 2, 5, 10, 30, 60, 120, 300, and 600 s File types: The following two file types can be created. Event data file (stores instantaneous values acquired periodically at a specified sampling interval) Display data file (stores the maximum and minimum values for each sampling interval from among measured data acquired at scan intervals) Files can be created in the following combinations. Event data file (only for trigger mode) + display data file Display data file only Event data file only Data format: Binary Data size per channel: Display data: Measurement data...4 bytes/datum, computation data...8 bytes/datum Event data: Measurement data...2 bytes/datum, computation data...4 bytes/datum Modes for event data: Event data only: Selectable from Free, Trigger or Rotate Display data + Event data: Selectable from Trigger or Rotate Sampling length: The sampling length (the maximum data length) can be derived from the following equation. Sampling length = the maximum number of data points per channel sampling interval Maximum number of data points per channel: calculated from internal memory capacity, types of data, data size, and number of measurement or computation channels data to be stored 14-5

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14.3 Data Storage Specifications Internal memory capacity


Data type Display data only Display data and event data Event data only Capacity of internal memory 1.2 MB Display data: 0.9 MB Event data: 0.3 MB 1.2 MB

Maximum number of data points per channel that can be stored


Data type Display data only Maximum number of data points per channel 1,200,000 bytes/(number of measurement channels 4 + number of computation channels 8) Except, the maximum number of data points is 100,000 Display data 900,000 bytes/(number of measurement channels 4 + number of computation channels 8) Except, the maximum number of data points is 75,000 Event data 300,000 bytes/(number of measurement channels 2 + number of computation channels 4) Except, the maximum number of data points is 30,000

Display data and event data

Event data only

1,200,000 bytes/(number of measurement channels 2 + number of computation channels 4) Except, the maximum number of data points is 120,000

This logic is explained in more detail below: 1) When acquiring display data only If we assume that the number of measuring channels is 20, the number of computing channels is 10, and the display rate is 30 min/div (60 sec sampling interval), then: Number of data per channel = 1,200,000 bytes/(20 4 bytes + 10 8 bytes) = 7,500 data*
* Maximum number of data points is 100,000.

Sampling length per file = 7,500 60 sec = 450,000 sec = approx. 5 days 2) When acquiring event data only If we assume that the number of measuring channels is 20, the number of computing channels is 10, and the sampling interval is 1 sec, then: Number of data per channel = 1,200,000 bytes/(20 2 bytes + 10 4 bytes) = 15,000 data*
* Maximum number of data points is 100,000.

Sampling length = 15,000 1 sec = 15,000 sec = approx. 4 hours 3) When acquiring both display data and event data The sampling length is calculated by defining the capacity for display data as 900,000 bytes and the capacity for event data as 300,000 bytes. The method of calculation is the same as shown above. Except, the maximum number of data points is 75,000 for display data and 30,000 for event data.

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14.3 Data Storage Specifications Example of sampling length:


In case measurement ch = 4 ch, mathematical ch = 0 ch Display data file only Display rate 1 min (min/div) Sampling interval 2s (s) Sampling length Event data file only Sampling interval Sampling length 125 ms 500 ms 4.2 h 16 h 1s 33 h 5s 6 days 41 h 5 min 10 s 20 min 40 s 30 min 60 s 60 min 120 s (approx.) 240 min 480 s

8 days 34 days 52 days 104 days 416 days (approx.) 30 s 120 s 41 days 166 days (approx.) 20 min 40 s 30 min 60 s 60 min 120 s 240 min 480 s

Display data file + Event data file Display data file Display rate (min/div) Sampling interval (s) Sampling length Event data file Sampling interval Sampling length 125 ms 500 ms 1 s 1h 4.2 h 8.3 h 5s 41 h 30 s 10 days 1 min 2s 31 h 5 min 10 s

6 days 26 days 39 days 78 days 312 days (approx.) 120 s 41 days

In case measurement ch = 6 ch, mathematical ch = 0 ch Display data file only Display rate (min/div) Sampling interval (s) Sampling length Event data file only Sampling interval Sampling length 1s 27 h 1 min 2s 27 h 5 min 10 s 20 min 40 s 30 min 60 s 60 min 120 s (approx.) 240 min 480 s

5 days 23 days 34 days 69 days 277 days (approx.) 5s 10 s 30 s 60 s 120 s 5 days 11 days 34 days 69 days 138 days (approx.) 20 min 40 s 30 min 60 s 60 min 120 s 240 min 480 s

Display data file + Event data file Display data file Display rate (min/div) Sampling interval (s) Sampling length Event data file Sampling interval Sampling length 1s 6.9 h 5s 34 h 10 s 2 days 30 s 60 s 8 days 17 days 1 min 2s 20 h 5 min 10 s

4 days 17 days 26 days 52 days 208 days (approx.) 120 s 34 days

Manual sampled data: Trigger:

Key operation, communication command, or remote input signals (/R1 option) Data format: ASCII Max. number of data sets internal memory can hold: 50 TLOG data (/M1 option): Trigger: Timeout of the timer Data format: Binary Max. number of data sets or files internal memory can hold: 400 data sets or 16 files (number of START/STOP operations) Report data (/M1 option): Types: Hourly, daily, hourly + daily, daily + monthly and daily + weekly Data format: ASCII Max. number of report data internal memory can hold: 40 Screen image data: Trigger: Key operation, communication command, or remote input signals (/R1 option) Data format: png format Output: External storage medium or communication interface
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14.4 Alarm Function Specifications


Number of alarms: Alarm types: Up to four alarms for each channel Upper and lower limits, delay upper and lower limits, difference upper and lower limits, and upper limit and lower on rate-of-change Alarm delay time: Selectable from 1 s to 3600 s for each channel Interval time of rate-of-change alarms: The scan interval times 1 to 15, common to all channels. Display: The alarm status (type) is displayed in the numerical value display area upon occurrence of an alarm. A common alarm indication is also displayed in the status display section. The alarm indication behavior: non-hold or hold-type can be selectable for common to all channels. Hysteresis: On (0.5% of display span)/off selectable (applied to upper and lower limits alarms, common to all measurement channels) Relay outputs (option): Number of points: 2, 4, 6 points Relay action: Energized/de-energized, hold/non-hold, AND/ OR, reflash actions selectable. The alarm relay condition is held even in the basic setting mode. Alarm information: The date and time of alarm occurrences/recoveries, alarm types, etc. Up to 120 latest alarms are stored in the internal memory. Displayed on the alarm summary screen.

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14.5 Specifications of Communication Functions


Connection: Protocols: FTP client functions: FTP server functions: Ethernet (10BASE-T) TCP/IP Automatic file transport from the DX100 (FTP client protocol) File transport on request by host computer (FTP server protocol) Directory operation, file output, and file delete on the external storage medium Files can be transported: Display data file, event data file and report data file Real time monitor function: Monitor the measured/computed data on the DX100. YOKOGAWA private protocol is used. E-mail transmission function: E-mail is automatically transmitted at the following times. Alarm activation/release, recovery from a power failure, memory end detection, occurrence of error related to the external storage medium and FTP client, at the specified time, and report creation. Destination: Specify two groups of destinations. Web server function: Displays the DX100 screen on the Internet Explorer browser. Browser: Microsoft Internet Explorer 4.0 to 5.5 Monitor screen: Screen for monitoring Operator screen: Switch the screen from the browser. Modify and write messages. Set access control (user name and password) on each screen.

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14.6 Specifications of Optional Functions


Alarm Output Relays (/AR1, /AR2, /A3):
An alarm signal is output from the rear panel as a relay contact signal. /AR1 and /AR2 includes remote control functions (/R1) Relay contact rating: 250 VAC (50/60 Hz)/3 A, 250 VDC/0.1 A (for resistance load) Terminal configuration: SPDT (NO-C-NC). Energized-at-alarm/de-energized-at-alarm, AND/OR, hold/non-hold, and reflash actions are selectable.

Batch Function (/BT1):


Information added to the measured/computed data: Serial number of the DX100, Application name, Supervisor name, Manager name, Batch number, Lot number, Comment information Displaying information: Displays the application name, supervisor name, manager name, batch name, and comment when data acquisition to the internal memory is stopped. Identifying operators (users) by using the key login function: User names that are already registered cannot be specified. the combinations of user IDs and passwords that are identical to those that have been registered by any user in the past cannot be specified. Messages: Messages 1 through 3 can be changed in the operation mode. Confirming the stored data: Batch information can be shown on the memory information display.

Serial Communication Interface (/C2, /C3):


This interface allows the host computer to control and make settings for the DX100 as well as receive data from the DX100. Connection: EIA RS-232 (/C2) or RS-422-A/485 (/C3) Protocols: YOKOGAWA private protocol, Modbus protocol Synchronization method: Start-stop asynchronous transmission Connection method (RS-422-A/485): 4-wire half-duplex multi-drop connection (1 : N where N = 1 to 31) Transmission speed: 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200 or 38400 bps Data length: 7 or 8 bits Stop bit: 1 bit Parity: Odd, even, or none Communication distance (RS-422-A/485): Up to 1200 m Communication mode: ASCII for input/output for control and setting ASCII or binary for output of measured data Modbus: Mode: RTU SLAVE, RTU MASTER Data type: SLAVE: Data read and data write by the master device MASTER: Data raed from the slave device (Computation function /M1 is necessary) Wiring: 4 wires (for RS-422-A/485)

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14.6 Specifications of Optional Functions

Fieldbus Communication Interface (/CF1)


Bidirectional digital communication with field devices and DCSs connected in a multidrop fashion according to the FOUNDATION Fieldbus standard specified by the Fieldbus Foundation. Interface: FOUNDATION Fieldbus H1 (transmission speed: 31.25 kb/s) Physical layer type: 113 (standard-power signaling, bus powered, non I.S.) External power supply: supply voltage: 9 to 32 VDC Supply current: 16.5 mA (maximum) Connection: M4 screws (2 terminals) Dielectric strength: Withstand voltage 500 V rms (50/60 Hz, for one minute) between communication terminal and ground terminal Functional specification: Function block: 8 AI function blocks (transmit measured/computed data to other instruments, one channel each) 1 MAI function block (transmit measured/computed data to other instruments, up to 8 channels) 1 MAO function block (receive measured data and other data from other instruments and record or display the data, up to 8 channels) Link master function Others: Computation function /M1 is necessary

FAIL/Memory End Output (/F1):


The relay contact output on the rear panel informs of the occurrence of a system error. Another relay contact output informs of the time until end of the internal memory space (selectable from 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 or 100 hours) before the data is overwritten, or of the time when the remaining space on the external storage medium reaches to 10% of whole capacity. Relay: De-energized on system error Energized on memory end Contact specification: 250 VDC/0.1 A (resistive load), 250 VAC (50/60 Hz)/3 A

Clamped Input Terminal (/H2):


Clamped input terminal is used for input terminal.

Desktop Type (/H5[ ]):


Provides carrying handle. Power cord is provided when /H5D, /H5F/, H5R, or /H5J is specified. /H5: Screw type power terminal (can only be specified when /P1 is simultaneously specified ).

Computation Functions (/M1):


Can perform computation, display the computed data assigned to channels in trends and numerical values, and store computed data. Channels assignable to computed data: DX102, DX104: Up to 4 channels DX106, DX112: Up to 12 channels Operation: General arithmetic operations: Four arithmetic operations, square root, absolute, common logarithm, exponential, power, relational operations (<, , >, , =, ), logical operations (AND, OR, NOT, XOR) Statistical operations: Average, maximum, minimum summation, and maximum - minimum Special operations: Rolling average (moving average on computed results) Constant: Available (Up to 12 constants)
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14.6 Specifications of Optional Functions Digital input data via communication: Digital data via communication can be used in calculation expression (Up to 12 data) Remote input status: Remote input status (0/1) can be used in calculation expression (Up to 8 inputs) Report functions: Report type: Hourly, daily, hourly + daily, daily + monthly, and daily + weekly Operation: Average, maximum, minimum and summation Data format: ASCII TLOG data: Saves all measured/computed data at the specified interval.

Cu10, Cu25 RTD Input /3 terminal isolated RTD Input (/N1):


This option allows Cu10 and Cu25 inputs to be added to the standard input types. A,B,b terminals are of isolated input type for DX106 and DX112.
Input type Cu10 (GE) Cu10 (L&N) RTD Cu10 (WEED) (measurement Cu10 (BAILEY) current : i = 1.25 mA) Cu10 : = 0.00392 at 20C Cu10 : = 0.00393 at 20C Cu25 : = 0.00425 at 0C Measuring range

200 to 300C

Measuring accuracy (Measuring accuracy for other inputs are the same as standard):
Input type Cu10 (GE) Cu10 (L&N) Cu10 (WEED) Cu10 (BAILEY) Cu10 : = 0.00392 at 20C Cu10 : = 0.00393 at 20C Cu25 : = 0.00425 at 0C Pt100 Jpt100 Accuracy guaranteed range 70 to 170C 75 to 150C 200 to 260C 200 to 300C (0.3% of rdg + 0.8C) Measuring range (0.3% of rdg + 0.6C) Measuring accuracy

(0.4% of rdg + 1.0C)

3 terminal Isolated RTD Input (/N2):


A, B, b terminals are of isolated input type.
* Can be specified only for DX106 and DX112. A,B,b terminals of DX102 and DX104 are isolated as standard.

24 VDC/AC Power Supply (/P1):


Powered by 24 VDC or 24 VAC. For related specifications, see Power Supply, Normal Operating Conditions, Effects of Operating Conditions, and Other Specifications in section 14.7. Rated power supply: 24 VDC/AC Allowable power supply voltage range: 21.6 to 26.4 VDC/AC Dielectric strength: Power supply to ground terminal: 500 VAC (50/60 Hz), 1 minute Rated power supply frequency: 50/60 Hz (for AC) Allowable power supply frequency range: 50/60 Hz2% (for AC) Rated power consumption: 30 VA (for DC), 45 VA (for AC)

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14.6 Specifications of Optional Functions Power consumption:


Supply voltage Backlight saving mode 24 VDC 17 VA 24 VAC(50/60Hz) 28 VA Normal 19 VA 32 VA Max. 30 VA 45 VA

Effects on measured value: With variation within 21.6 to 26.4 V (50/60 Hz): 1 digit or less With variation of 2 Hz from rated power supply frequency (at 24 VAC): (0.1% of rdg + 1 digit) or less

Remote Control (/R1):


This option allows the following functions to be controlled remotely by a contact or an open collector input (up to eight inputs): Alarm acknowledgment (trigger, 250 ms or longer) Start/stop of data acquisition (rising and falling edge) Trigger for event data acquisition (trigger, 250 ms or longer) Time adjustment (adjusting the internal clock to the nearest hour upon remote signal, trigger, 250 ms or longer)
Time of signal input Processing

Cut off reading of less than one minute. hh:00:00 to hh:01:59 e.g. 10:00:50 is corrected as 10:00:00 Round up reading of less than one minute. hh:58:00 to hh:59:59 e.g. 10:59:50 is corrected as 11:00:00 hh:02:00 to hh:57:59 No process is to be performed.

Start/stop of computation (rising and falling edge, /M1 option) Reset of computation data (trigger, 250 ms or longer, /M1 option) Manual sampling (trigger, 250 ms or longer) Writing messages (up to 8 different messages can be set, trigger, 250 ms or longer) Load of setting parameters (up to 3 setup data files can be set, trigger, 250 ms or longer) Snapshot (saves the current screen image data to the external storage medium)

24 VDC Power Supply for Transmitter (/TPS2 or /TPS4)


Number of loops: Output voltage: Rated output current: Maximum output current: 2(/TPS2) or 4(/TPS4) 22.8 to 25.2 VDC (under rated output current) 4 to 20 mADC 25 mADC (overcurrent protection operation current: approximately 68 mADC.) Allowable cable resistance: RL (17.8 - minimum operation voltage of transmitter)/0.02 A Where 17.8 V = 22.8 V 5.0 V 22.8 V : Minimum output voltage 5V : Maximum voltage across the load resistor (250 ) Maximum length of cable: 2 km (when using CEV cable) Insulation resistance: 20 M or more (500 VDC) between output terminal and ground terminal Withstand voltage: 500 VAC (50/60 Hz, I = 10 mA) for one minute between output terminal and ground terminal 500 VAC (50/60 Hz, I = 10 mA) for one minute between output terminals 14-13

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14.7 General Specifications


Construction
Mounting: Flush panel mounting (on a vertical plane) Mounting may be inclined backward up to 30 degrees from a horizontal plane. Allowable Panel Thickness: 2 to 26 mm Material: Case: drawn steel Bezel: polycarbonate Case Color: Case: Grayish blue green (Munsell 2.0B 5.0/1.7 or equivalent) Bezel: Charcoal grey light (Munsell 10B 3.6/0.3 or equivalent) Front Panel: Water and dust-proof (based on IEC529-IP65, and NEMA No.250 TYPE4 (except External Icing Test), except for side-by-side mounting) Dimensions: 144(W) 144(H) 218(D) mm Weight: DX102: approx. 2.9 kg DX104: approx. 3.0 kg DX106: approx. 3.0 kg DX112: approx. 3.0 kg

Standard Performance
Measuring Accuracy: The following specifications apply to operation of the DX100 under standard operation conditions: Temperature: 23 2C Humidity: 55% 10% RH Power supply voltage: 90 to 132 or 180 to 250 VAC Power supply frequency: 50/60 Hz 1% Warm-up time: At least 30 minutes. Other ambient conditions such as vibration should not adversely affect the operation of the DX100.
Input Range Measurement accuracy (digital display) 20 mV 60 mV 200 mV (0.1% of rdg + 2 digits) 2V 6V 20 V (0.1% of rdg + 3 digits) 50 V (0.15% of rdg + 1C) R However, R, S : 3.7C at 0 to 100C, S 1.5C at 100 to 300C B: 2C at 400 to 600C B (Accuracy at less than 400C is not guaranteed.) K E J T N W L U Pt100 JPt100 (0.15% of rdg + 0.7C) However, (0.15% of rdg + 1C) at 200 to 100C (0.15% of rdg + 0.5C) (0.15% of rdg + 0.5C) However, (0.15% of rdg + 0.7C) at 200 to 100C (0.15% of rdg + 0.7C) (0.15% of rdg + 1C) (0.15% of rdg + 0.5C) However, (0.15% of rdg + 0.7C) at 200 to 100C (0.15% of rdg + 0.3C) Max. resolution of digital display 10 V 10 V 100 V 1 mV 1 mV 10 mV 10 mV

DC voltage

TC (Excluding the reference junction compensation accuracy)

0.1C

RTD

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14.7 General Specifications Measuring accuracy in case of scaling (digits): Accuracy during scaling (digits) = measuring accuracy (digits) multiplier + 2 digits (rounded up) where the multiplier = scaling span (digits)/measuring span (digits). Example: Assuming that range: 6V measuring span: 1.000 to 5.000 V scaling span: 0.000 to 2.000 Then, Measuring accuracy = (0.1% 5 V + 2 digits) = (0.005 V [5 digits] + 2) = (7 digits) Multiplier = 2000 digits (0.000 to 2.000)/4000 digits (1.000 to 5.000 V) = 0.5 Accuracy during scaling = 7 digits 0.5 + 2 = 6 digits (rounded up) Reference junction compensation: Internal/External selectable for each channel Reference junction compensation accuracy (above 0C): Types R, S, B, W: 1C Types K, J, E, T, N, L, U: 0.5C Maximum allowable input voltage: 10 V DC (continuous) for ranges of 2 V or less and TC ranges 60 V DC (continuous) for 6 VDC, 20 VDC, and 50 VDC ranges Input resistance: Approximately 10 M or more for ranges of 2 V DC or less and TC Approximately 1 M for 6 VDC, 20 VDC, and 50 VDC ranges Input source resistance: Volt, TC: 2 k or less RTD: 10 or less per wire (The resistance of all three wires must be equal). Input bias current: 10 nA or less Maximum common mode noise voltage: 250 Vrms AC (50/60 Hz) Maximum noise voltage between channels: 250 Vrms AC (50/60 Hz) Interference between channels: 120 dB (when the input source resistance is 500 and the inputs to other channels are 60 V) Common mode rejection ratio: 120 dB (50/60 Hz 0.1%, 500 imbalance, between the minus terminal and ground) Normal mode rejection ratio: 40 dB (50/60 Hz 0.1%)

Power Supply
Rated power supply: 100 to 240 VAC (automatic switching, except for /P1 model) 24 VDC/AC (for /P1 model) Allowable power supply voltage range: 90 to 132 or 180 to 264 VAC (except for /P1 model) 21.6 to 26.4 VDC/AC (for /P1 model) Rated power supply frequency: 50/60 Hz (automatic switching, for AC) Rated Power consumption: 62 VA (except for /P1 model) 30 VA (for /P1 model, DC), 45 VA (for /P1 model, AC)

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14.7 General Specifications Power consumption: Except for /P1 model


Supply voltage Backlight saving mode 100 VAC 30 VA 240 VAC 42 VA Normal 32 VA 47 VA Max. 45 VA 62 VA

For /P1 model


Supply voltage Backlight saving mode 24 VDC 17 VA 24 VAC(50/60Hz) 28 VA Normal 19 VA 32 VA Max. 30 VA 45 VA

Normal Operating Conditions


90 to 132 or 180 to 250 VAC (except for /P1 model) 21.6 to 26.4 VDC/AC (for /P1 model) Power supply frequency: 50 Hz 2%, 60 Hz 2% Ambient temperature: 0 to 50C (when using FDD or Zip drive: 5 to 40C) Ambient humidity: 20% to 80% RH (at 5 to 40C) Vibration: 10 to 60 Hz, 0.2 m/s2 or less Shock: Not acceptable Magnetic field: 400 A/m or less (DC and 50/60 Hz) Noise: Normal mode (50/60 Hz): Volt: The peak value including the signal must be less than 1.2 times the measuring range. TC: The peak value including the signal must be less than 1.2 times the measuring thermal electromotive force. RTD: 50 mV or less Common mode noise (50/60 Hz): 250 Vrms AC or less for all ranges Maximum noise voltage between channels (50/60 Hz): 250 Vrms AC or less Mounting position: Can be inclined up to 30 deg backward. Mounting at an angle away from the perpendicular is not acceptable. Warm-up time: At least 30 minutes after power on Altitude: 2000 m or less above sea level Power supply voltage:

Effects of Operating Conditions


Ambient temperature: With temperature variation of 10C: (0.1% of rdg + 1 digit) or less for Volt and TC ranges Excluding the error of reference junction compensation (0.1% of rdg + 2 digit) or less for RTD ranges Except for /P1 model With variation within 90 to 132 V and 180 to 250 VAC (50/60 Hz): 1 digit or less With variation of 2 Hz from rated power frequency (at 100 VAC): (0.1% of rdg + 1 digit) or less For /P1 model With variation within 21.6 to 26.4 VDC/AC: 1 digit or less With variation of 2 Hz from rated power frequency (at 24 VAC): (0.1% of rdg + 1 digit) or less AC (50/60 Hz) and DC 400 A/m fields: (0.1% of rdg + 10 digits) or less

Power supply:

Magnetic field:

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14.7 General Specifications Input source resistance: Volt range With variation of +1 k: Ranges of 2 V or less: within 10 V Ranges of 6 V or greater: 0.1% of rdg or less TC range With variation of +1 k: Within 10 V (100 V when the burnout upscale/ downscale function is switched on) RTD range (Pt100) With variation of 10 per wire (resistance of all three wires must be equal): (0.1% of rdg + 1 digit) or less With maximum difference of 40 mohms between wires: approximately 0.1C

Transport and Storage Conditions


The following specifies the environmental conditions required during transportation from shipment to the start of service and during storage as well as during transportation and storage if the DX100 is temporarily taken out of service. No malfunction will occur under these conditions with serious damage, which is impossible to repair; however, calibration may be necessary to recover normal operation performance. Ambient temperature: 25C to 60C Humidity: 5% to 95% RH (No condensation is allowed). Vibration: 10 to 60 Hz, 4.9 m/s2 maximum Shock: 392 m/s2 maximum (while being packed)

Other Specifications
Clock: With calendar function (year of grace) The time can be adjusted by a remote contact (with the remote control option). Summer and wintertime can be set. 100 ppm, excluding a delay (of 1 second, maximum) caused each time the power is turned on. A built-in lithium battery backs up the setup parameters (battery life: approximately ten years at room temperature). ON/OFF and password can be set. Power on with log out mode and all key operations are not permitted. User name, User ID and password are required to enter the operation mode. Each terminal to ground terminal: 20 M or greater (at 500 VDC)

Daylight saving: Accuracy of clock: Memory backup: Key lock function: Key login function:

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Insulation resistance:

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14-17

14.7 General Specifications Dielectric strength: Power supply to ground terminal: 1500 VAC (50/60 Hz), 1 minute (except for /P1 model) Power supply to ground terminal: 500 VAC (50/60 Hz), 1 minute (for /P1 model) Contact output terminal to ground terminal: 1500 VAC (50/60 Hz), 1 minute Measuring input terminal to ground terminal: 1500 VAC (50/60 Hz), 1 minute Between measuring input terminals: 1000 VAC (50/60 Hz), 1 minute (except for b-terminal of RTD input of DX106 and DX112) Between remote control terminal to ground terminal: 500 VDC, 1 minute

Safety and EMC Standards


CSA: UL: CE: Certified by CSA22.2 No. 1010.1, Installation category (Overvoltage category) II*1, Pollution degree 2*2 Certified by UL61010B-B (CSA NRTL/C) EMC: Complies with EN61326-1 Complies with EN61000-3-2 Complies with EN61000-3-3 Low voltage: Complies with EN61010-1, Measurement category II*3
*1 Installation category (Overvoltage category) describes a number which defines a transient overvoltage condition. It implies the regulation for impulse withstand voltage. II applies to electrical equipment which is supplied from the fixed installation like distribution board. *2 Pollution degree describes the degree to which a solid, liquid, or gas which deteriorates dielectric strength or surface resistivity is adhering. 2 applies to normal indoor atmosphere. Normally, only non-conductive pollution occurs. *3 Applies to measuring circuits connected to low voltage installation, and electrical instruments supplied with power from fixed equipment such as electric switchboards.

14-18

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14.8 Dimensional Drawings


136.5 0 (5.37)
+0.4

Unit : mm (approx. inch)

23.4 (0.92)

218 (8.58) 165.5 (6.52)


PANEL THICKNESS 2 TO 26

9.3 (0.37) 136.5+0.4 0


7.5

(Min. SPACE FOR MOUNTING)

144 (5.67) 151.5 (5.96)

(0.30)

(5.37)
(DIMENSIONS AFTER MOUNTING)

144 (5.67) 151.5 (5.96)

Note
When mounting to a panel, use two brackets, one each of the top and bottom of the DX100, or on the left and right sides. The dimensional tolerance is 3% unless otherwise specified. (However, the tolerance for dimensions less than 10 mm is 0.3 mm).

14
Specifications

IM 04L01A01-01E

14-19

14.8 Dimentional Drawings

Panel Cutout
Single-Unit Mounting 137 +2 0 (5.39)
137 +2 0 (5.39)

Side-by-Side Mounting (horizontally)

Side-by-Side Mounting (vertically ,max. 3units) 137 +2 0 (5.39)

137 +2 0 (5.39)

175Min (6.89)

Units 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 n

+2 0

(mm) 175Min (6.89)

282 426 570 714 858 1002 1146 1290 1434 (144xn)-6

14-20

IM 04L01A01-01E

+2 0

14.8 Dimentional Drawings

Desktop type
138.8

218 144 23.4 165.5

38.1

144

Note
The dimensional tolerance is 3% unless otherwise specified. (However, the tolerance for dimensions less than 10 mm is 0.3 mm).

15.7

15

142.8

40

14
Specifications

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14-21

Appendix

Appendix 1
Setting mode

Parameters and Initial Settings


Initial settings are thick-framed.

Parameters Range Volt TC

Menu 20 mV 6V R E W RTD Scale Volt TC PT 20 mV 6V R E W RTD DI Unit Delta Volt TC 20 mV 6V R E W RTD DI Ref. CH DI Sqrt Unit Skip Level 20 mV 6V Cont 60 mV 20 V 200 mV 50 V 2V PT Level 60 mV 20 V S J L JPT Cont 200 mV 50 V B T U K N 2V PT Level 60 mV 20 V S J L JPT 60 mV 20 V S J L JPT Cont 200 mV 50 V B T U 2V K N 200 mV 50 V B T U K N 2V

Notes Other parameters: Upper/lower limits of span

Other parameters: Upper/lower limits of span

Other parameters: Upper/lower limits of span Upper/lower limits of scale

Character string Other parameters: Upper/lower limits of span

Up to model types
Other parameters: Upper/lower limits of span

Other parameters: Upper/lower limits of span Upper/lower limits of scale

Character string On H R Off L r Off Up to model types


Character string, Initial setting is all space

Alarm

On/Off Type Value Relay On/Off Number

h T

l t Numerical value

On I01 to I06 Off 5 9 13

Tag

Tag 2 6 10 14 2s 10 s 30 s 10 min 2h 1h 1 min 20 min 4h 2 min 30 min 10 h 3 7 11 15 5s 4 8 12 16 10 s

Moving average Count

DX106/DX112

Filter Alarm delay time Trend/Save interval Time/div

Off 1 s to 3600 s 15 s 5 min 1h Auto save interval

DX102/DX104 Numerical value 15 s and 30 s are for DX102 and DX104 only

App
Appendix

10 min to 31 days

Up to other parameters set


Character string, Initial setting is all space Character string, Initial setting is all space Character string, Initial setting is [DATA 0]

Message File

Characters No.1 to No.8 Header Directory name Save data Unsave On On All Off Off

Daylight saving time

Summer Winter

IM 04L01A01-01E

App-1

Appendix 1 Parameters and Initial Settings


Parameters User key Action Menu None Math rst Message 3 Message 7 Group set Group number Group name CH set Trip line On/Off Position Color Red Brown Violet Darkblue Color CH1 to CH12 Red Brown Violet Darkblue Zone Graph Lower Upper Division 0 to 95 5 to 100 4 8 12 Bar graph Scale position Partial On/Off Expand Boundary View Direction Background Trend line Trip line Grid Trend Horizontal White 1 1 Auto 7 11 Scroll Scale digit LCD Brightness Backlight saver On/Off 5s 1 min Normal 1 5 On 30 min Restore Math color CH31 to CH60 Key Red Brown Violet Darkblue Math Zone Math partial Lower Upper On/Off Expand Boundary 0 to 95 5 to 100 On 1 to 99 Off Numerical value
Saver time 1 min

Notes Trigger M. sample Message 4 Message 8 2 GROUP 2 Off Numerical value Green Orange Gray Yellow Green Orange Gray Yellow Blue Y. green Lime Lightgray Blue Y. green Lime Lightgray B. violet Lightblue Cyan Purple B. violet Lightblue Cyan Purple Numerical value 5 9 C10 Center 2 6 Off Numerical value Vertical Vertical Black 2 2 4 8 12 10 s Fine 2 6 Off 2 min 1h Key + Alm Green Orange Gray Yellow Blue Y. green Lime Lightgray B. violet Lightblue Cyan Purple Numerical value See section 14.2 for initial settings. 5 min 10 min 3 7 4 8 20 s 30 s 3 3 5 9 6 10 Horizon 2 3 Off 4 6 10 7 11 See section 14.2 for initial settings. Initial values are No.1: Red, No.2: Green, No.3: Blue, No.4: Yellow Alarm ACK Messsage 1 Message 5 Snapshot 3 GROUP 3 4 GROUP 4 Fixed Character string See section 7.6 for initial settings. Math Message 2 Message 6

1 GROUP 1 On

Normal 1 5 On 1 to 99

Bar graph Horizontal

App-2

IM 04L01A01-01E

Appendix 1 Parameters and Initial Settings


Parameters Math Graph Division Menu 4 8 12 Bar graph Scale position Save/Load, Clear data Save settings Load settings Save data Load display data Load event data File list Delete Format Clear data Time set Math set YY/MM/DD HH: MM: SS DST Math range On/Off
Calculation expression

Notes 5 9 C10 Center 2 6 3 Off 4 6 10 7 11

Normal 1 5

Numerical value Summer On Winter Off Equation for computation Numerical value Character string On H Off L Off Up to model types Numerical value, Initial setting is [1]
Character string, Initial setting is all space

Span Lower Span Upper Unit Math alarm On/Off Type Value
Relay On/Off On

t Numerical value

Number Constant Tag TLOG Rolling average K01 to K12 Tag Timer No. Sum scale
On/Off

I01 to I06

1 Off On 1s 5s 15 s 2 min 6 min 20 min

2 /s Off 2s 6s 20 s 3 min 10 min 30 min

3 /min 3s 10 s 30 s 4 min 12 min 1h Numerical value Numerical value


Character string, Initial setting is all space Character string, Initial setting is all space Character string, Initial setting is all space Character string, Initial setting is all space

/h 4s 12 s 1 min 5 min 15 min

Interval

1 to 64 Number of samples Alarm delay time Batch set Application name Supervisor name Manager name Batch number Lot number Auto increment Disp information 0 to 9999 On Batch 0 Off Time 1 s to 3600 s 10 s

Numerical value

App
Appendix

IM 04L01A01-01E

App-3

Appendix 1 Parameters and Initial Settings

Basic setting mode


Initial settings are thick-framed.
Parameters Alarm Reflash Relay Action Behavior Indicator AND Menu On None I01 - I04 Energize Hold Hold Off I01 I01 - I05 De-energ Nonhold Nonhold 2 6 10 14 Off 50 Hz 250 ms 2s Up External Numerical value C Auto Display Sample rate 125 ms 2s 60 s Mode Block Free 1 16
Data length 3 min to 31 days

Notes I01 - I02 I01 - I06 I01 - I03 Up to model types

Rate of change Increase 1 Decrease 5 9 13 Hysterisis A/D Integrate Scan interval Burnout set RJC Volt (V) Temperature unit Memory Save Data Event On Auto 125 ms 1s Off Internal

3 7 11 15 60 Hz

4 8 12

100 ms

Initial setting is 50 Hz for models with /P1. 100 ms is for DX106 and DX112 only DX102/DX104 DX106/DX112

Down

F Manual E+D 250 ms 5s 120 s Trigger 2 Event 500 ms 10 s 300 s Rotate 4 8 1, 2, and 4 when [Data] is set to [E + D] Up to other parameters set 25 100 50 1s 30 s 600 s 125 ms, 250 ms, and 500 ms are for DX102 and DX104 only

Pre-trigger 0

5 95 Off Off Off Math CH

75 Trigger Key Alarm Memory and trend Meas CH/Math CH First-CH Last-CH On/Off Memory timeup Timeup type Date Day of the week Time (hour) AUX Tag/Channel Memory alarm Language Partial Batch Time zone Tag 1h 20 h English Use Use SUN THU On Off Month On On Meas CH
External On

Up to model types Off Hour Day Week Numerical value MON FRI Channel 2h 50 h Japanese Not Not for models with /BT1 Numerical value 5h 100 h German French 10 h TUE SAT Numerical value WED

Time difference from GMT 0

App-4

IM 04L01A01-01E

Appendix 1 Parameters and Initial Settings


Parameters Keylock Use/Not password START STOP MENU USER DISP/ENTER Alarm ACK Math Write memory Media Key login Use/Not Auto logout User ID Use/Not Number On/Off User name User ID Password Enter setup Save/Load, Initialize Save settings Load settings Delete Format Initialize Option Remote Action NO.1 to NO.8 None Time adj Pnl 1 load Message 2 Message 6 Option Timer (TLOG) Number Mode Interval 1 Off
(Absolute) 1 min

Menu Use Free Free Free Free Free Free Free Free Free Use On Use 1 5 On 1 to 7 Enable Disable Not

Notes Character string Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Lock Not Off Not 2 6 Off Character string 3 7 4

User 1 to User 7

Start Stop Math Start Stop Pnl 2 load Message 3 Message 7 2 Relative 2 min 6 min 20 min 3h 12 h

Trigger Math rst Pnl 3 load Message 4 Message 8 3 Absolute 3 min 10 min 30 min 4h 24 h

Alatm ACK M. sample Message 1 Message 5 Snapshot Initial setting Timer 1: Absolute Timer 2, 3: Off

4 min 12 min 1h 6h

5 min 15 min 2h 8h (Relative) Ref. time Reset Action Option Report Report set Date Date of the week Time (hour) SUN THU On Off Off Day + Week

Numerical value
Numerical value, Initial setting is [0:00]

Off Datasave Hour Day + Month Numerical value MON FRI TUE SAT Numerical value WEN Day Hour + Day

App
Appendix

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App-5

Appendix 1 Parameters and Initial Settings


Parameters Option Report Report CH Menu R01 R05 R09 On/Off Channel Sum scale Communication IP-address Ethernet Subnet mask Default gateway DNS On/Off Server search order Primary Secondary Host name Domain name Domain suffix search order Primary Secondary Communication Baud rate Serial Data length Parity RS-232 RS-422A Address /485 1200 19200 7 Even Handshaking Off : Off 1 5 9 13 17 21 25 29 Protocol Memory out FTP transfer file FTP connection FTP server name Port number Login name Password Account PASV mode Initial pass Ethernet login Use/Not Level On/Off User name Password Application time out Keep alive On Time 1 to 120 min On Off Off Numerical value Use Admin User 4 On Not User 1 User 5 Off Character string User 2 User 6 User 3 On Off Character string 21 Disp & Event data Report Normal Ethernet On On Primary 2400 38400 8 Odd XON : XON 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 Modbus Serial Off Off Secondary Character string Numerical value Character string None XON : RS 3 7 11 15 19 23 27 31 Modbus - M CS : RS 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 4800 9600 Character string Character string Numerical value On Off Off /day Numerical value /s /min /h On R02 R06 R10 Off Up to model types R03 R07 R11 R04 R08 R12 Notes

App-6

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Appendix 1 Parameters and Initial Settings


Parameters Web Use/Not Page type On/Off Command Access control User name Password Basic E-Mail settings SMTP server name Port number Recipient 1 Recipient 2 Sender Alarm E-Mail settings Recipient 1 Recipient 2 Alarm 1 Alarm 2 Alarm 3 Alarm 4 Include INST Include source URL Subject Header 1 Header 2 Scheduled E-Mail settings Recipient 1 Interval Ref. time Recipient 2 Interval Ref. time Include INST Include source URL Subject Header 1 Header 2 System E-Mail Recipient 1 settings Recipient 2 Include source URL Subject Header 1 Header 2 Report E-Mail settings Recipient 1 Recipient 2 Include source URL Subject Header 1 Header 2 On On On Off Off Off <DX> Report_data Charactor string On On On Off Off Off <DX> System_warning Charactor string On 1 6 00:00 On 1 6 00:00 On On Off Off <DX> Periodic_data Charactor string Off 2 8 3 12 4 24 Numerical value Off 2 8 3 12 4 24 Numerical value On On On On On On On On Off Off Off Off Off Off Off Off <DX> Alarm_summary Charactor string 25 Charactor string Numerical value Charactor string Menu Use Operator On On On Not Monitor Off Off Off Charactor string for operator page only Notes

App
Appendix

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App-7

Appendix 1 Parameters and Initial Settings


Parameters Communication Read cycle Modbus master Basic settings Timeout Retrials Communication On/Off Modbus master First/Last command settings Address Registers Type INT16 UINT32_B UINT16 UINT32_L INT32_B FLOAT_B INT32_L FLOAT_L Menu 125 ms 2s 125 ms 2s Off 4 On C01 C05 C09 250 ms 5s 250 ms 5s 1 5 Off C02 C06 C10 C03 C07 C11 C04 C08 C12 Numerical value 10 20 500 ms 10 s 500 ms 10 s 1s 1 min 1s Notes

App-8

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Appendix 2

Data Formats of ASCII Files


This section describes the data format of the ASCII file. The DX100 creates two types of ASCII files, the manual sampled data file and the report file.

Data format of the manual sampled data file


The manual sampled data are output in ASCII format using values and strings that are separated by commas. The channel/tag, unit, and manual sampled values are not output for channels in which the input range is set to [Skip] or for which the computation is turned OFF. Example The following example is for channels 1, 2, 3, 4, and 31. MANUAL SAMPLE DATA Model Serial No.:, XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX File Header : , AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA CH/TAG, 1 CH01 , CH02 , CH03 , CH04 UNIT, V , V , V , V , mV 2000/01/01 01:08:43, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, -0.014, 12.00 2000/01/01 01:08:48, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, -0.014, 12.00 2000/01/01 01:09:15, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, -0.014, 12.00 CH/TAG, 1 CH01 , CH02 , CH03 , CH04 UNIT, V , V , V , V , V 2000/01/01 01:15:30, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, -0.014, 12.00 2000/01/01 01:18:12, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, -0.014, 12.00

, CH31

, CH31

Data size Size of the header section The following equation can be used to derive the size of the header section. Title + carriage return line feed + serial number + carriage return line feed + file header + carriage return line feed + channel/tag (8 + 19 number of channels that are output) + carriage return line feed + unit (6 + 9 number of channels that are output) + carriage return line feed The size of the title is fixed to 20 bytes. The size of the serial number is fixed to 38 bytes. The size of the file header is fixed to 49 bytes. The size of the carriage return line feed is fixed to 2 bytes. Calculation example Manual sampled data for 12 channels 20 + 2 + 38 + 2 + 49 + 2 + (8 + 19 12) + 2 + (6 + 9 12) + 2 = 467 bytes Size of the data section of one data set The following equation can be used to derive the size of data section of one data set. Date and time of manual sampling + measured value (8 number of measurement channel) + computed value (10 number of computation channels) + carriage return line feed The size of the date and time of creation is fixed to 19 bytes. The size of the carriage return line feed is fixed to 2 bytes. Calculation example Manual sampled data for 12 measurement channels 19 + (8 12) + (10 0) + 2 = 117 bytes

App
Appendix

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App-9

Appendix 2 Data Formats of ASCII Files Number of data sets and file size The file size of 50 data sets* for 12 measurement channels is calculated as follows. Size of the header section + 50 size of the data section of one data set = 5900 bytes
* 50 data sets is the maximum numbiof manual sampled data sets that can be written in the internal memory. If there are more than 50 data sets, they are overwritten starting with the oldest data set.

Note
Positive (+)/negative () over range in measurement channels Over range occurs when the input type is voltage and the input exceeds 5% of the measurable range. For example, consider the case when the measurement range is 2 V and the measurable range is from 2.000 to 2.000 V. If the input signal exceeds 2.200 V, + over range occurs. If the input signal falls below 2.200 V, over range occurs. Over range occurs when the input type is TC (thermocouple) or RTD (resistance temperature detector) and the input exceeds approximately 10C of the measurable range. For example, consider the case when the measurement range is R and the measurable range is from 0.0 to 1760.0C. If the input signal exceeds approximately 1770.0C, + over range occurs. If the input signal falls below approximately 10.0C, over range occurs. Positive (+)/negative () computation overflow in computation channels Positive (+) computation overflow occurs when the value exceeds 3.4E + 38. Negative () computation overflow occurs when the value falls below 3.4E + 38. Output value when detected erroneous data, measurement over range data, or computation overflow data Channels Measurement channels Data measurement error positive (+) over range negative () over range Output value Blank 99999 99999

Computation channels

computation error 999999999 positive (+) computation overflow 999999999 negative () computation overflow 99999999

CH/TAG and UNIT lines In the following cases, both the CH/TAG line and the UNIT line are rewritten after a carriage return line feed and followed by manual sampled data. When the measurement channel is switched from some setting other than [Skip] to [Skip]. When the measurement channel is switched from [Skip] to some other setting. When the computation channels are turned On or turned Off. When the unit is changed. Four lines from the bottom of the file example shows the output when the unit for channel 31 is changed from mV to V.

App-10

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Appendix 2 Data Formats of ASCII Files

Data format of the report file


The hourly, daily, weekly, and monthly reports are output in ASCII format using values and strings that are separated by commas. The channel/tag, unit, average value, maximum value, minimum value, and sum value are not output for channels in which the input range is set to [Skip] or for which the computation is turned OFF. Example The following example is the daily report for four channels. DAILY REPORT, START TIME, 2000/01/31 20:00 Model Serial No.:, XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX File Header:, AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA CH/TAG, CH01 , CH02 , CH03 , CH04 UNIT, V , V , V , V 2000/01/01 00:00, C, C, C, C AVE, 0.00, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30 MAX, 0.00, 1.00, 2.00, 3.00 MIN, 0.00, -1.00, -2.00, -3.00 SUM, 0.000000E-01, 1.000000E+04, 2.000000E+04, 3.000000E+04 Status Various events that occur while creating the report data are saved as status data and output in the report. The positions of the various statuses in the report are fixed. E: Error (an error is detected) O: Over (an over range/computation overflow is detected) P: Power failure (a power disruption has occurred) C: Change (the time has been changed) Data size Size of the header section The following equation can be used to derive the size of the header section. Title + carriage return line feed + serial number + carriage return line feed + file header + carriage return line feed + channel/tag (8 + 19 number of channels that are output) + carriage return line feed + unit (6 + 9 number of channels that are output) + carriage return line feed The size of the title varies depending on the report type as follows. For hourly reports (HOURLY): 45 bytes For daily reports (DAILY): 44 bytes For weekly reports (WEEKLY): 45 bytes For monthly reports (MONTHLY): 46 bytes The size of the serial number is fixed to 38 bytes. The size of the file header is fixed to 49 bytes. The size of the carriage return line feed is fixed to 2 bytes. Calculation example Monthly data for 12 channels 46 + 2 + 38 + 2 + 49 + 2 + (8 + 19 12) + 2 + (6 + 9 12) + 2 = 493 bytes

App
Appendix

IM 04L01A01-01E

App-11

Appendix 2 Data Formats of ASCII Files Size of the data section of one report data set The following equation can be used to derive the size of data section of one report data. Carriage return line feed + date and time of creation + status (11 number of channels that are output) + carriage return line feed + average value (5 + 14 number of channels that are output) + carriage return line feed + maximum value (5 + 14 number of channels that are output) + carriage return line feed + minimum value (5 + 14 number of channels that are output) + carriage return line feed + sum value (5 + 14 number of channels that are output) + carriage return line feed The size of the date and time of creation is fixed to 16 bytes. The size of the carriage return line feed is fixed to 2 bytes. Calculation example Monthly data for 12 channels 2 + 16 + (11 12) + 2 + (5 + 14 12) + 2 + (5 + 14 12) + 2 + (5 + 14 12) + 2 + (5 + 14 12) + 2 = 852 bytes Number of report data sets and file size The file size varies depending on the number of report data sets as follows. One report data set of monthly reports Size of the header section + size of the data section of one report data set = 3055 bytes 40 report data sets* of monthly reports Size of the header section + 40 size of the data section of one report data set = 83317 bytes
* 40 report data sets is the maximum number of report data sets that can be written in the internal memory. If there are more than 40 data sets, they are cleared starting with the oldest data set.

Note
When the measurement and computation channel data enter the condition described in the following table, status E and O are output in the report. Data Condition Common to measurement and computation channels Measurement error or computation error Status E

For measurement channels Positive (+) over range O Negative () over range O Over range occurs when the input type is voltage and the input exceeds 5% of the measurable range. For example, consider the case when the measurement range is 2 V and the measurable range is from 2.000 to 2.000 V. If the input signal exceeds 2.200 V, + over range occurs. If the input signal falls below 2.200 V, over range occurs. Over range occurs when the input type is TC (thermocouple) or RTD (resistance temperature detector) and the input exceeds approximately 10C of the measurable range. For example, consider the case when the measurement range is R and the measurable range is from 0.0 to 1760.0C. If the input signal exceeds approximately 1770.0C, + over range occurs. If the input signal falls below approximately 10.0C, over range occurs. For computation channels Positive (+) computation overflow (when the value exceeds 3.4E + 38) Negative () computation overflow (when the value falls below 3.4E + 38) O O

App-12

IM 04L01A01-01E

Appendix 2 Data Formats of ASCII Files


Measurement/computation errors are discarded when MAX and MIN are determined. Measurement/computation errors, over range, and computation overflow are discarded when determining AVE and SUM. The report output values of AVE, MAX, MIN and SUM vary depending on the data condition of the measurement and computation channels as shown in the table below. Item Data Condition of Measurement Channels Report Output Value

AVE When all data are measurement errors or over range (Blank) (Average value) MAX, MIN When all data are measurement errors (Maximum value, Positive (+) over range minimum value) Negative () over range SUM (Sum value) When all data are measurement errors or over range When the sum value exceeds 3.4E + 38 When the sum value is below 3.4E + 38 (Blank) 99999 99999 (Blank) 9.999999E + 99 9.999999E + 99

Item

Data Condition of Computation Channels

Report Output Value (Blank) (Blank) 999999999 99999999

AVE When all data are computation errors or over range (Average value) MAX, MIN When all data are computation errors (Maximum value, When the maximum value exceeds 99999999 minimum value) When the minimum value is below 9999999

The decimal position that was specified when the span for the equation was specified is reflected in the maximum and minimum values. For example, if the span setting of the equation is 200.0, then 99999999 is output when the value exceeds 99999999.9 and 99999999 is output when the value is below 999999.9. SUM (Sum value) When all data are computation errors or computation overflow When the sum value exceeds 3.4E + 38 When the sum value is below 3.4E + 38 (Blank) 9.999999E + 99 9.999999E + 99

App
Appendix

IM 04L01A01-01E

App-13

Appendix 3

The Relationship between Style Numbers and Functions


The following table shows the relationship between the style numbers and the functions that have been added or changed.

Functions that have been added on style number S2


Batch function (/BT1 option) Cramped input terminal (/H2 option) Desk top type with screw type power terminal (/H5 option) Cu10 and Cu25 RTD input/three-wire isolated RTD input (/N1 option) 24 V DC/AC power supply (/P1 option) Delay upper/lower limit alarm function Automatic switching function of displayed groups Memory information on historical trend display Historical trend display of event data Function used to store the data to the external storage medium using key operation during auto save mode German and French as displayed language System screen Conformity to Water and Dust-Proof Specification NEMA NO.250 TYPE4 Certified by UL3111-1 (CSA NRTL/C)

Function s that has been added on style number S4


24 VDC power supply for transmitter (/TPS2 or /TPS4) Fieldbus communication interface (/CF1) Web server function E-mail transmission function Modbus master function Communication command for key operation Communication output of alarm summary and message summary 50 VDC input range Combination of houry and daily report Alarm output relay condition is held in the basic setting mode Horizontal display type 2 for trend screen [C10] scale division and [FINE] scale digit [AUTO] grid Memory timeout function Display update rate 15 s, 30 s, and 10h Event data sampling interval 300 s and 600 s Memory end alarm [OFF] German and French for all screens Snapshot as remote control function Improved display format for a group with three channels

App-14

IM 04L01A01-01E

Index
A
absolute mode ................................................................. 11-15 absolute value .................................................................... 11-1 access lamp ......................................................................... 3-2 accessories (sold separately) ................................................. vi accessories (standard) ............................................................ v adjusting the internal clock (remote control) .................... 10-14 alarm (computation) ........................................................... 11-3 Alarm ACK ........................................................................... 6-1 alarm function .................................................................... 1-17 alarm hysteresis ................................................................. 1-19 alarm icon ..................................................................... 4-4, 6-1 alarm mark .................................................................... 6-2, 6-3 alarm output relay .............................................................. 1-19 alarm point mark .................................................................. 6-3 alarm summary .................................................................. 1-10 alarm trigger ......................................................................... 8-5 all channel display ......................................................... 1-7, 4-9 AND/OR ............................................................................. 6-12 application name ................................................................ 1-22 arithmetical operations ....................................................... 11-1 ASCII file .......................................................................... App-9 ATA flash memory card ....................................................... 3-5 auto logout ......................................................................... 10-7 auto save .................................................................. 1-16, 8-10 auto save interval ............................................................... 8-19 automatic increment of the lot number ............................. 10-20 automatic switching of displayed group ............................. 7-23 common logarithm ............................................................. 11-1 communication input data .................................................. 11-2 computation channels ........................................................ 11-1 computation dropout display .............................................. 11-9 computation function ................................................. 1-20, 11-1 computation icon .................................................................. 4-4 computation operators ................................................................................... 11-4 + ................................................................................... 11-4 .EQ. ............................................................................. 11-5 .GT. .............................................................................. 11-5 .LE. .............................................................................. 11-5 .LT. .............................................................................. 11-5 .NE. .............................................................................. 11-5 / .................................................................................... 11-4 ABS ............................................................................. 11-4 AND ............................................................................. 11-5 EXP ............................................................................. 11-4 LOG ............................................................................. 11-4 NOT ............................................................................. 11-6 OR ............................................................................... 11-6 SQR ............................................................................. 11-4 TLOG.AVE ................................................................... 11-7 TLOG.MAX .................................................................. 11-7 TLOG.MIN ................................................................... 11-7 TLOG.P-P .................................................................... 11-7 TLOG.SUM .................................................................. 11-7 XOR ............................................................................. 11-6 ..................................................................................... 11-4 ..................................................................................... 11-4 conditions of the remote control terminals ......................... 11-2 constants ............................................................................ 11-1 contact specifications (alarm) ............................................ 2-10 contact specifications (FAIL/memory end) ......................... 2-12 copying a character strings ................................................ 3-22 cursor (historical trend) ...................................................... 1-13 cursor (overview) ............................................................... 1-10

B
background color ............................................................... 1-14 backlight saver ................................................................... 1-14 bar graph screen .................................................................. 1-9 base position ............................................................... 1-9, 7-19 basic setting mode ...................................................... 3-7, 3-10 batch function ..................................................................... 1-22 batch information ............................................................... 1-22 batch name ........................................................................ 1-22 batch number ..................................................................... 1-22 batch screen .................................................................... 10-17 block ............................................................................ 8-4, 8-24 brightness .......................................................................... 1-14 burnout ................................................................................. 1-3

D
daily report ....................................................................... 11-22 data acquisition (display data) ............................................. 8-3 data acquisition (event data) ................................................ 8-4 data acquisition (manual sampled data) .............................. 8-9 data acquisition (report data) ............................................... 8-9 data acquisition (TLOG data) ............................................... 8-9 data display section ............................................................. 1-5 data formats of ASCII files ............................................... App-9 data length ......................................................... 8-4, 8-24, 8-25 data used in computation ................................................... 11-1 date and time ..................................................................... 3-23 date and time (entering comment) ................................... 10-18 daylight savings time .......................................................... 1-28 DC current ............................................................................ 1-3 DC voltage ........................................................................... 1-2 DDR ..................................................................................... 8-2 DDS ..................................................................................... 8-2 delay lower limit alarm ....................................................... 1-18 delay upper limit alarm ....................................................... 1-18 deleting directories .................................................... 9-10, 9-12 deleting files ................................................................ 9-9, 9-12 Delta ..................................................................................... 1-2 DEV ...................................................................................... 8-2 DHR ..................................................................................... 8-2

C
calibration ........................................................................... 13-3 capacity (internal memory) ................................................... 8-6 carrying handle .................................................................... 3-3 cautions (messages) .......................................................... 12-8 Celsius ............................................................................. 10-24 channel assignment (group) ................................................ 7-8 channel display area ............................................................ 6-3 channel display color ......................................................... 7-12 channel number display ....................................................... 1-5 channels to acquire the data .............................................. 8-22 channels to display the trend ............................................. 8-22 clearing computed results (remote control) ...................... 10-14 clearing data ...................................................................... 9-14 clearing the character string ............................................... 3-22 combinations of user IDs and passwords .......................... 1-22 comment ............................................................................ 1-22
IM 04L01A01-01E

Index
Index

Index-1

Index
DI ......................................................................................... 1-2 difference ............................................................................. 1-2 difference lower limit alarm ................................................ 1-18 difference upper limit alarm ................................................ 1-18 digital input ........................................................................... 1-2 digital screen ........................................................................ 1-9 digits of the scale values .................................................... 7-18 dimensional drawings ...................................................... 14-19 directory name ................................................................... 8-20 directory name (manual save) ........................................... 8-16 directory name (saving data using key operation) ............... 9-5 display conditions of the LCD ............................................ 1-14 display data ................................................................. 1-15, 8-1 display direction (bar graph) ................................................ 1-9 display direction (trend) ........................................................ 1-7 display reference position .................................................. 1-13 display update rate ............................................................... 1-6 displayed color (bar graph) .................................................. 1-9 displayed color (message) ................................................... 7-6 displayed color (trend) ......................................................... 1-7 displayed color (trip line) .................................................... 7-11 displayed data of the waveform ........................................... 1-7 displayed data type (historical trend) ................................. 4-14 displayed information ....................................................... 10-20 displayed language ............................................................ 1-26 dividing report files ............................................................. 8-11 DMN ..................................................................................... 8-2 DMR ..................................................................................... 8-2 DTG ..................................................................................... 8-2 DWR .................................................................................... 8-2 FTP test ............................................................................... 3-8 FUNC key ..................................................................... 3-2, 3-8 functional ground terminal ........................................................ ii

G
grid ..................................................................................... 7-24 group display ................................................................. 1-5, 4-9

H
H .......................................................................................... 6-6 h ........................................................................................... 6-6 half screen display ............................................................. 1-13 historical trend .................................................................... 1-12 hold/non-hold (alarm indication) ......................................... 6-13 hold/non-hold (alarm output relay) ..................................... 6-13 hourly report ..................................................................... 11-22

I
Initial settings (basic setting mode) .................................. App-4 Initial settings (setting mode) ........................................... App-1 initializing ........................................................................... 9-15 input specifications (remote control) .................................. 2-14 input terminals ...................................................................... 3-3 input type ............................................................................. 1-2 installation ............................................................................ 2-3 integration time .................................................................... 1-4 internal memory ................................................................. 1-15 interval (rate-of-change alarm) ........................................... 1-19

E
e-mail transmission function icon ......................................... 4-4 eject button .......................................................................... 3-2 energize/de-energize (alarm output relay) ......................... 6-12 entering characters ............................................................ 3-22 entering numbers ............................................................... 3-21 error messages .................................................................. 12-1 ESC key ............................................................................... 3-2 Ethernet port ........................................................................ 3-3 event data ................................................................... 1-15, 8-1 expanding the time axis ..................................................... 4-19 exponent ............................................................................ 11-1 extension .............................................................................. 8-2 external storage medium (handling) .................................... 2-2 external storage medium condition ...................................... 4-4 external trigger ..................................................................... 8-5 external trigger for event data (remote control) ................ 10-14

K
key ....................................................................................... 3-2 key lock .............................................................................. 1-24 key lock icon ........................................................................ 4-4 key login function (with batch function) .............................. 1-22 key login/logout .................................................................. 1-25 key operations (basic setting mode) .................................. 3-19 key operations (setting mode) ............................................ 3-20 key panel cover .................................................................... 3-1 key trigger ............................................................................ 8-5

L
L ........................................................................................... 6-6 l ............................................................................................ 6-6 label ..................................................................................... 3-1 LCD ...................................................................................... 1-5 list of files ............................................................................. 9-8 load the setup data (remote control) ................................ 10-15 loading setup data (basic setting mode) .............................. 9-4 loading setup data (setting mode) ........................................ 9-2 log (communication command) ........................................ 10-11 log (e-mail) ....................................................................... 10-11 log (error message) .......................................................... 10-10 log (FTP) .......................................................................... 10-11 log (key login/logout) ........................................................ 10-11 log (web operation) .......................................................... 10-11 log display .......................................................................... 1-25 logical computation ............................................................ 11-1 logical format ...................................................................... 9-11 lot number .......................................................................... 1-22 lower limit alarm ................................................................. 1-17 lower limit on rate-of-change alarm .................................... 1-18

F
Fahrenheit ........................................................................ 10-24 FAIL/memory end output ................................................... 1-26 FDISK ................................................................................ 9-11 file format ........................................................................... 9-13 file header .......................................................................... 8-20 file name ....................................................... 8-2, 9-1, 9-3, 9-13 filter ...................................................................................... 1-3 floppy disk ............................................................................ 3-5 foot ....................................................................................... 3-3 format time ......................................................................... 9-11 format type ......................................................................... 9-11 formatting .................................................................. 9-11, 9-12 free ....................................................................................... 8-4 free space ............................................................................ 9-8 front cover ............................................................................ 3-1 front panel ............................................................................ 3-1

Index-2

IM 04L01A01-01E

Index

M
MAC address ..................................................................... 1-25 maintenance ...................................................................... 13-1 manager name ................................................................... 1-22 manual sampled data .................................................. 1-16, 8-1 manual sampled data file (data format) ........................... App-9 manual sampling (remote control) ................................... 10-14 manual save .............................................................. 1-16, 8-10 mark ..................................................................................... 6-4 maximum number of data points per channel ...................... 8-7 measurable range (DC volt) ................................................. 5-2 measurable range (DI) ......................................................... 5-6 measurable range (difference computation) ........................ 5-8 measurable range (RTD) ..................................................... 5-4 measurable range (TC) ........................................................ 5-4 measurement channels ........................................................ 1-2 memory information ........................................................... 4-20 memory summary .............................................................. 1-11 memory timeup .................................................................. 8-26 MENU key ............................................................................ 3-2 message .............................................................................. 1-7 message string ..................................................................... 7-7 message summary ............................................................. 1-11 mode .................................................................................. 8-24 model ...................................................................................... iv monthly report .................................................................. 11-22 moving average ................................................................... 1-3

Q
quick ................................................................................... 9-11

R
R .......................................................................................... 6-6 r ............................................................................................ 6-7 range (computation channel) ........................................... 11-11 range (scaling) ................................................................... 5-10 rear panel ............................................................................. 3-3 reducing the time axis ........................................................ 4-19 reference channel ................................................................ 5-8 reference junction compensation ......................................... 1-3 reflash ................................................................................ 6-11 relational computation ........................................................ 11-1 relative mode ................................................................... 11-15 releasing the alarm .............................................................. 6-1 releasing the alarm (remote control) ................................ 10-14 remote control function ...................................................... 1-27 remote signal ..................................................................... 1-27 removing zip disk ................................................................. 3-6 replacement periods for worn parts ................................... 13-5 replacing the fuse ............................................................... 13-2 report data ................................................................... 1-16, 8-1 report data display ............................................................. 1-12 report date ........................................................................ 11-27 report day of the week ..................................................... 11-27 report file (data format) .................................................. App-11 report function ......................................................... 1-21, 11-22 report time ........................................................................ 11-27 reset (TLOG) .................................................................... 11-16 resistance temperature detector .......................................... 1-2 rising/falling edge ............................................................... 1-27 RJC ...................................................................................... 1-3 rolling average ................................................................... 11-3 rotate .................................................................................... 8-5 RTD ...................................................................................... 1-2 rules for writing an equation (common items) .................... 11-7 run mode .............................................................................. 3-7

N
normal (formatting) ............................................................. 9-11 number of alarms ............................................................... 1-17 number of data bytes per channel ....................................... 8-6 number of display data files ................................................. 8-3 numerical display (report) ................................................ 11-24 numerical display section ..................................................... 1-8

O
operation mode .................................................................... 3-7 operation screen .................................................................. 4-1 option terminals .................................................................... 3-3 order of precedence of the operators ................................. 11-2 over display range (computation) ....................................... 11-3 over range (measurement) ....................................... 1-3, 11-24 overflow .............................................................................. 11-3 overview screen ................................................................. 1-10

S
sample rate ........................................................................ 8-24 sampling interval (display data) ........................................... 1-7 sampling interval (event data) ............................................ 8-24 sampling length .................................................................... 8-7 saved data (manual save) .................................................. 8-20 saving data to the external storage media ......................... 1-16 saving data using key operation .......................................... 9-5 saving data via Ethernet .................................................... 1-16 saving setup data (basic setting mode) ............................... 9-3 saving setup data (setting mode) ......................................... 9-1 saving the data using key operation (auto save) ............... 8-17 scale (bar graph) .................................................................. 1-9 scale (trend) ......................................................................... 1-8 scale display position ......................................................... 7-17 scale marks ........................................................................ 7-18 scale specifications ............................................................ 7-17 scale values ....................................................................... 7-18 scaling .................................................................................. 1-2 scan interval ......................................................................... 1-2 screen menu ........................................................................ 4-1 sequence number ....................................... 8-2, 8-16, 9-5, 9-13 serial interface port .............................................................. 3-3 serial number ................................................................. v, 1-22 setting items (basic setting mode) ..................................... 3-17 setting items (setting mode) ............................................... 3-14

P
panel cutout ..................................................................... 14-20 partial expanded display ...................................................... 1-8 password (key lock) ........................................................... 10-4 password (key login) .......................................................... 10-9 periodic maintenance ......................................................... 13-1 physical format ................................................................... 9-11 PNG ................................................................................... 9-13 PNL ...................................................................................... 9-1 power (computation) .......................................................... 11-1 power supply ............................................................. 2-17, 2-18 power supply for transmitter ............................................... 1-28 power switch ........................................................................ 3-2 power terminals .................................................................... 3-3 pretrigger .............................................................................. 8-5 protective ground terminal ................................................... 3-3

Index
Index

IM 04L01A01-01E

Index-3

Index
setting mode ............................................................... 3-7, 3-10 setting screen ..................................................................... 1-14 settings (alarm) .................................................................. 3-11 settings (computation) ........................................................ 3-12 settings (data storage) ....................................................... 3-12 settings (display) ................................................................ 3-11 settings (input) ................................................................... 3-11 setup mode .......................................................................... 3-7 shunt resistor ....................................................................... 5-2 skip ....................................................................................... 1-2 snapshot ............................................................................ 9-13 soft key [+] ............................................................................... 11-14 [A/a/1] .......................................................................... 3-22 [BS] .............................................................................. 3-22 [Clear] .......................................................................... 3-22 [Copy] .......................................................................... 3-22 [DEL] ............................................................................ 3-22 [E+D] ............................................................................ 8-24 [E] .............................................................................. 11-14 [INS] ............................................................................. 3-22 [Paste] ......................................................................... 3-22 soft keys ............................................................................... 3-2 software .................................................................................. vi specifications 24 VDC power supply for transmitter ......................... 14-13 24 VDC/AC power supply .......................................... 14-12 3 terminal isolated RTD input .................................... 14-12 alarm ............................................................................ 14-8 alarm output relays .................................................... 14-10 batch function ............................................................ 14-10 clamped input terminal .............................................. 14-11 communication (Ethernet) ........................................... 14-9 computation functions ................................................ 14-11 Cu10, Cu25 RTD input .............................................. 14-12 data storage ................................................................. 14-5 desktop type .............................................................. 14-11 dimentional drawings ................................................. 14-19 display ......................................................................... 14-3 FAIL/memory end output ........................................... 14-11 fieldbus communication interface .............................. 14-11 general ....................................................................... 14-14 input ............................................................................. 14-1 normal operating conditions ...................................... 14-16 power supply ............................................................. 14-15 remote control ............................................................ 14-13 serial communication interface .................................. 14-10 standard operation conditions ................................... 14-14 speed of movement of waveform ......................................... 1-6 Sqrt ...................................................................................... 1-2 square root .................................................................. 1-2, 11-1 square-root computation .................................................... 5-12 stacks ................................................................................. 11-7 START key ........................................................................... 3-2 start/stop computation (remote control) ........................... 10-14 start/stop data acquisition (remote control) ...................... 10-14 statistical computation ........................................................ 11-1 status (report) ................................................................... 11-23 status display section .................................................... 1-5, 4-2 status messages ................................................................ 12-8 STOP key ............................................................................. 3-2 storage function ................................................................. 1-15 storage medium drive .......................................................... 3-2 style number ............................................................... i, App-14 sub menu ............................................................................. 4-1 sum scale (report) ............................................................ 11-22 sum scale (TLOG) ............................................................ 11-15 summer/winter ................................................................. 10-22 supervisor name ................................................................ 1-22 system errors ..................................................................... 12-8 system screen .................................................................... 1-25

T
T ........................................................................................... 6-7 t ............................................................................................ 6-7 tag display ............................................................................ 1-5 TC ........................................................................................ 1-2 temperature unit ................................................................. 1-28 thermocouple ....................................................................... 1-2 time zone ......................................................................... 10-25 timer ................................................................................. 11-15 timeup ................................................................................ 8-26 TLOG computation ........................................................... 11-15 TLOG data .................................................................. 1-16, 8-1 trend screen ......................................................................... 1-6 trigger ................................................................................... 8-4 trigger (remote signal) ........................................................ 1-27 trip line ................................................................................. 1-7 troubleshooting .................................................................. 12-9

U
unit (computation) ............................................................ 11-11 unit (scale) ......................................................................... 7-19 unit (scaling) ....................................................................... 5-10 unit (square-root computation) ........................................... 5-12 unit handling ....................................................................... 11-2 updating (bar graph) ............................................................ 1-9 updating (digital) .................................................................. 1-9 updating (overview) ............................................................ 1-10 updating (trend) .................................................................... 1-6 upper limit alarm ................................................................ 1-17 upper limit on rate-of-change alarm ................................... 1-18 usage condition (internal memory) ....................................... 4-3 user ID ............................................................................... 10-9 USER key ................................................................... 1-24, 3-2 user name .......................................................................... 10-9

V
version number .................................................................. 1-25 viewing display data ............................................................. 9-6 viewing event data ............................................................... 9-7 volume name ..................................................................... 9-11

W
waveform lines ..................................................................... 1-7 weekly report .................................................................... 11-22 wiring (alarm output) ............................................................ 2-9 wiring (FAIL/memory end) .................................................. 2-11 wiring (input signal) .............................................................. 2-5 wiring (power supply) ......................................................... 2-17 wiring (remote control) ....................................................... 2-13 wiring (transmittor power supply) ....................................... 2-15 writing messages (remote control) ................................... 10-15

Z
zip disk ................................................................................. 3-5 zone display ......................................................................... 1-8

Index-4

IM 04L01A01-01E

Users Manual

Models UT350/UT320 Digital Indicating Controllers Users Manual


IM 05D01D02-41E

IM 05D01D02-41E
4th Edition

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Introduction
Thank you for purchasing the UT350/UT320 digital indicating controller.

I How to Use the Manuals


Purpose Setup Basic operation Title 1. Installation 2. Initial Settings Description Describes the tasks (installation, wiring, and others) required to make the controller ready for operations.

Describes examples of setting PV input types, control output types, and alarm types. Making settings described herein allows you to carry out basic control. Operating procedures 3. Operations Describes key operation sequences. and troubleshooting 4.1 Troubleshooting For operation control through external contact inputs, see 1.5 Terminal Wiring Diagrams. Brief operation Contains the parameter map used as a guideline for setting 5. Parameters and setpoint recording parameters and lists of parameters for recording User Settings.

I Regarding This Users Manual


(1) This manual should be provided to the end user. Keep an extra copy or copies of the manual in a safe place. (2) Read this manual carefully to gain a thorough understanding of how to operate this product before starting operation. (3) This manual describes the functions of this product. Yokogawa Electric Corporation (hereinafter simply referred to as Yokogawa) does not guarantee the application of these functions for any particular purpose. (4) Under absolutely no circumstances may the contents of this manual, in part or in whole, be transcribed or copied without permission. (5) The contents of this manual are subject to change without prior notice. (6) Every effort has been made to ensure that the details of this manual are accurate. However, should any errors be found or important information be omitted, please contact your nearest Yokogawa representative or our sales office.

Media No. IM 05D01D02-41E (CD) 4th Edition : May 2006 (YK) All Rights Reserved Copyright 2000, Yokogawa Electric Corporation

IM 05D01D02-41E

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ii

I Safety Precautions
The following symbol is indicated on the controller to ensure safe use.

CAUTION

This symbol on the controller indicates that the operator must refer to an explanation in the users manual in order to avoid the risk of injury or death of personnel or damage to the instrument. The manual describes how the operator should exercise special care to avoid electric shock or other dangers that may result in injury or loss of life.

The following symbols are used in the hardcopy users manuals and in the users manual supplied on the CD-ROM.

NOTE
Indicates that operating the hardware or software in a particular manner may damage it or result in a system failure.

IMPORTANT
Draws attention to information that is essential for understanding the operation and/or features of the controller.

I Force Majeure
(1) Yokogawa assumes no liability to any party for any loss or damage, direct or indirect, caused by the use or any unpredictable defect of the product. (2) No portion of the software supplied by Yokogawa may be transferred, exchanged, leased or sublet for use by any third party without the prior permission of Yokogawa. (3) Be sure to use the spare parts approved by Yokogawa when replacing parts or consumables. (4) Use this software with one specified computer only. You must purchase another copy of the software for use on each additional computer. (5) Copying this software for purposes other than backup is strictly prohibited. (6) Store the floppy disk(s) (original medium or media) containing this software in a secure place.

IM 05D01D02-41E

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iii

I Regarding Protection, Safety, and Prohibition Against Unauthorized Modification


(1) In order to protect the product and the system controlled by it against damage and ensure its safe use, make certain that all of the instructions and precautions relating to safety contained in this document are strictly adhered to. Yokogawa does not guarantee safety if products are not handled according to these instructions. (2) Modification of the product is strictly prohibited. (3) Reverse engineering such as the disassembly or decompilation of software is strictly prohibited.

IM 05D01D02-41E

4th Edition: May 31, 2006-00

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Models UT350/UT320 Digital Indicating Controllers Users Manual


IM 05D01D02-41E 4th Edition

CONTENTS
Introduction........................................................................................................... i 1. Installation .............................................................................................. 1-1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Model and Suffix Codes .................................................................................. 1-1 How to Install ................................................................................................... 1-2 How to Connect Wires .................................................................................... 1-5 Hardware Specifications ................................................................................ 1-7 Terminal Wiring Diagrams ............................................................................ 1-13

2.

Initial Settings ......................................................................................... 2-1


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Names and Functions of Front Panel Parts ................................................... 2-2 Setting PV Input Type (Setting First at Power-on) ......................................... 2-3 Changing PV Input Type ................................................................................. 2-6 Setting Control Output Type ........................................................................... 2-8 Changing Alarm Type ..................................................................................... 2-9 Description of Multiple Setpoints and PID ................................................... 2-12

3.

Operations .............................................................................................. 3-1


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Monitoring-purpose Operating Displays Available during Operation ......... 3-1 Setting Target Setpoint (SP) ........................................................................... 3-3 Performing/Canceling Auto-tuning ................................................................ 3-4 Setting PID Manually ....................................................................................... 3-5 Setting Alarm Setpoints .................................................................................. 3-6 Selecting Target Setpoint Numbers (SP.NO) ................................................. 3-7 Switching between Run and Stop .................................................................. 3-8 Switching between AUTO and MAN ............................................................... 3-9 Manipulating Control Output in Manual Operation ..................................... 3-10

4.

Troubleshooting and Maintenance ........................................................ 4-1


4.1 4.2 Troubleshooting .............................................................................................. 4-1 Maintenance .................................................................................................... 4-5 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 Cleaning ........................................................................................... 4-5 Replacing Brackets ........................................................................... 4-5 Attaching Terminal Cover .................................................................. 4-6 Replacing Parts with a Limited Service Life ....................................... 4-7 Replacing Control Output Relays ...................................................... 4-8

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Parameters .............................................................................................. 5-1
5.1 5.2 Parameter Map ................................................................................................ 5-1 Lists of Parameters ......................................................................................... 5-4

5.

6.

Function Block Diagram and Descriptions............................................ 6-1

Revision Information ............................................................................................ i

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<1. Installation>

1-1

1.

Installation
This chapter describes installation, wiring, and other tasks required to make the controller ready for operation.

1.1

Model and Suffix Codes


Before using the controller, check that the model and suffix codes match your order.
Model UT350 UT320 Type -0 -2 -3 0 1 2 Suffix Code Description Digital indicating controller (provided with retransmission output and 15 V DC loop power supply as standard) Standard type Heating/cooling type Standard type (with 24 V DC loop power supply) None With communication, heater burnout alarm With heater burnout alarm

Optional functions

Check that the following items are provided: Digital indicating controller (of ordered model) ...................... 1 Brackets (mounting hardware) ............................................. 1 pair Unit label.............................................................................. 1 Users Manuals .................................................................... 3 (A2 size) Users Manual (Reference) (CD-ROM version) .................... 1

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<1. Installation>

1-2

1.2

How to Install
NOTE
To install the controller, select a location where: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. no one may accidentally touch the terminals, mechanical vibrations are minimal, corrosive gas is minimal, temperature can be maintained at about 23 C and the fluctuation is minimal, no direct radiant heat is present, no magnetic disturbances are caused, no wind blows against the terminal board (reference junction compensation element), no water is splashed, no flammable materials are around,
150mm

150mm

150mm 150mm

Never place the controller directly on flammable items or equipment. If the controller has to be installed close to flammable items or equipment, be sure to provide shielding panels all around the controller, at least 150 mm away from every side; the panels should be made of either 1.43 mm-thick metal-plated steel plates or 1.6 mmthick uncoated steel plates.

NOTE
Never touch the opening at the bottom of the case. It is to be used in the factory at shipping.

G Installation Position
Install the controller at an angle within 30 from horizontal with the front panel facing upward. Do not install it facing downward. The position of right and left sides should be horizontal.

Front panel of controller

Must not exceed 30

30

Rear of controller

IM 05D01D02-41E

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1-3

I External Dimensions and Panel Cutout Dimensions


UT350
96 11 100 Large bracket Unit: mm

91.8

Small bracket 1 to 10 mm (Panel thickness)

General installation
117 min.

Side-by-side close installation


[(N-1) 96+92]
+0.8 0

(53)

145 min.

92

+0.8 0

92

+0.8 0

"N" stands for the number of controllers to be installed. However, the measured value applies if N 5.

92

+0.8 0

(25)

UT320
48 11 100 Small bracket

112

96

Unit: mm

91.8

Small bracket 1 to 10 mm (Panel thickness)

General installation
70 min.

Side-by-side close installation


[(N-1) 48+45]
+0.6 0

(53)

145 min. "N" stands for the number of controllers to be installed. However, the measured value applies if N 5.

92

+0.8 0

45

+0.6 0

(25)

92

+0.8 0

112

96

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<1. Installation>

1-4

I How to Install

Turn off the power to the controller before installing it on the panel because there is a possibility of electric shock.

CAUTION
After opening the mounting hole on the panel, follow the procedures below to install the controller: 1. 2. Insert the controller into the opening from the front of the panel so that the terminal board on the rear is at the far side. Set the brackets in place on the top and bottom of the controller as shown in the figure below, then tighten the screws of the brackets. Take care not to overtighten them.
Large bracket Panel
(top mounting hardware)

Direction to insert the controller


Insert the controller into the opening at the front of the panel.

Terminal board

Insert a screwdriver into the brackets to tighten the screws.


Recommended tightening torque :0.4N m

Small bracket
(bottom mounting hardware)

IM 05D01D02-41E

4th Edition: May 31, 2006-00

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<1. Installation>

1-5

1.3

How to Connect Wires


1) Before carrying out wiring, turn off the power to the controller and check that the cables to be connected are not alive with a tester or the like because there is a possibility of electric shock. For the protection and safe use of the controller, be sure to place a circuit breaker (conforms with IEC60947, 5A, 100V or 220V AC) near the controller where the breaker can easily be operated. In addition, be sure to indicated that it is the instrument to cut the power supply of the controller. Wiring must be carried out by personnel who have basic electrical knowledge and practical experience.

CAUTION

2)

3)

NOTE
1) Provide power from a single-phase instrument power supply. If there is a lot of noise in the power line, insert an insulating transformer into the primary side of the line and use a line filter (recommended part: ZAC2205-00U from TDK) on the secondary side. As a countermeasures against noise, do not place the primary and secondary power cables close to each other. For thermocouple input, use shielded compensating lead wires for wiring. For RTD input, use shielded wires that have low conductor resistance and cause no significant differences in resistance between the three wires. The cables to be used for wiring, terminal specifications, and recommended parts are as shown below. Control output relays may be replaced. However, because they have a life of 100,000 times that of the resistance load, use auxiliary relays to turn on/off a load. The use of inductance (L) loads such as auxiliary relays, motors and solenoid valves causes malfunction or relay failure; always insert a CR filter for use with alternating current or a diode for use with direct current, as a spark-removal surge suppression circuit, into the line in parallel with the load. When there is possibility of being struck by external lightening surge, use the arrester to protect the instrument.

2)

3) 4)

5)

I For DC Relay Wiring


UT350/UT320 External DC power supply

I For AC Relay Wiring


UT350/UT320 External AC power supply

R
UTs contact Diode (Mount it directly to the relay coil terminal (socket).)

R
UTs contact

Relay (Use one with a relay coil rating less than the UTs contact rating.)

Relay (Use one with a relay coil rating less than the UTs contact rating.)

CR filter (Mount it directly to the relay coil terminal (socket).)

IM 05D01D02-41E

4th Edition: May 31, 2006-00

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G Cable Specifications and Recommended Cables


Purpose Thermocouple RTD Other signals Name and Manufacturer Shielded compensating lead wires, JIS C 1610, (See Yokogawa Electric's GS 6B1U1-E.) Shielded wires XPower supply, grounding, relay contact outputs 600 V PVC insulated wires, JIS C 3307, 0.9 to 2.0 mm2

Shielded wires (three conductors), UL2482 (Hitachi Cable)

G Recommended Terminal Lugs


Applicable wire size 0.3 to 1.65 mm
2

Tightening torque 0.8 Nm or less

3.7mm
7 mm or less 7 mm or less

3.7mm

or

G Terminal Covers (Optional parts)


Target Model For UT350 For UT320 Part Number T9115YD T9115YE 1 1 Sales Unit

1. Before attaching the terminal cover, bend the side with the groove inward as shown in Fig. A. Be careful not to bend it backwards. This not only marks it harder to attach the cover but will also weaken its hold. 2. Fit the holes on the top and bottom of the terminal cover the projections on the brackets (Fig. B) and lock in place. The figure right shows the attachment of a terminal cover to UT controller.

Fold the cover in the direction of the arrow. Figure A

Fit the cover hold over the protrusion on the mounting bracket.

Figure B

IM 05D01D02-41E

4th Edition: May 31, 2006-00

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1.4

Hardware Specifications
PV Input Signals
Number of inputs: 1 (terminals
11 - 12 - 13 )

Input type: Universal input system. The input type can be selected with the software. Sampling period: 250 ms Burnout detection: Functions at TC, RTD, standard signal (0.4 to 2 V or 1 to 5 V) Upscale, downscale, and off can be specified. For standard signal, burnout is determi