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ORIENTAL DEPARTMENT OF THE RUSSIAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY
INSTITUTE OF THE HISTORY OF MATERIAL CULTURE
OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES
SANKT-PETERSBURG BRANCH OF THE INSTITUTE OF ORIENTAL STUDIES
OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

MEMOIRS
OF THE ORIENTAL DEPARTMENT
OF THE RUSSIAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY

The Edition was founded by Academician Viktor R. Rosen in 1886

New Series
Volume II (XXVII)

St. Petersburg
2006
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E d i t o r - i n - C h i e f o f t h e V o l u m e:
Valery P. Nikonorov
E d i t o r i a l B o a r d:
Oleg F. Akimushkin, Anatoly A. Ivanov, Aliy I. Kolesnikov,
Sergey G. Klyashtorny, Vadim M. Masson (President of the Oriental Department
of the Russian Archaeological Society), Irina F. Popova, Igor’ V. P’iankov



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1 <hafh`gh:ffbZggZoh^bekygZ\h_gghckem`[_b]hjZa^h[hevrbckjhd>Thomp-
son 1947: 12; Austin 1979: 18—19].
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398 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

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4 Ba gZb[he__ \Z`guo jZ[hl g_h[oh^bfh gZa\Zlv ke_^mxsb_ >Klotz 1916; Brok
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:ffbZg hl^_evgh \u^_ey_l hljy^u ly`_ehc dhggbpu beb dZlZnjZdlZ-
jb_\ cataphractarii) (XVII. 8. 3—7; XIX. 7. 4; XXV. 1. 12; 3. 4; XXIX. 1.
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kflZd`_>Emdhgbg[Shahbazi 1987a: 496; 1987b@Kfh^
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gbp_©g_k_lkem`[m\kybo i_jkh\ — < > agZlvª desudat nobilitas om-
nis et splendor) ;;,, :ffbZgg_mlhqgy_lhdZdhcdhggbp_b^_l
j_qv —hly`_ehcbebe_]dhcgh\jy^ebfh`ghij_^iheZ]ZlvqlhagZlv
i_jkh\kem`beZ\e_]dhcdZ\Ze_jbb>>vydhgh\Nicolle 1996: 10].
Djhf_dZlZnjZdlZjb_\:ffbZgFZjp_eebg]h\hjbl ohlybagZqbl_ev-
ghj_`_ he_]dhcdhggbp_b]jZxs_cihhlghr_gbxdi_j\hcy\gh\lhjh
kl_i_ggmx\kihfh]Zl_evgmxjhev (XXIII. 3. 4; XXIV. 3. 1; 4. 7; 7. 7) kflZd-
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11. 9, 12—13; XXIV. 2. 8, 15; 3. 14; 4. 16; XXV. 1. 13, 17—b^j  kj
>Ib]me_\kdZy b ^j   Nicolle 1996: 21]) 7 dhlhju_ dZd hlf_qZ_l
:ffbZgij_djZkgh\eZ^_xlk\hbfbkdmkkl\hfkkZfh]h^_lkl\Z cuius ar-
tis fiducia ab incunabulis ipsis gens praevaluit maxima) ( ;;9    kj
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gbdh\ ;,;;X. 11. 9; XXIV. 2. 15)ZlZd`_dhi_csbdh\ ;;9 13).
5 Ih k\h_fm khpbZevghfm khklZ\m i_jkb^kdZy agZlv [ueZ ^hklZlhqgh jZaghjh^-
ghc — kx^Z \oh^beb dZd ij_^klZ\bl_eb \ukr_c ZjbklhdjZlbb \ lhf qbke_ b qe_gu
pZjkdh]h jh^Z  lZd b fgh]hqbke_ggu_ kj_^gb_ b f_edb_ a_fe_\eZ^_evpu — ZaZlu
kf>>vydhgh\—NjZc@ 
6 Ihfg_gbx>GbdheeZ\h\j_fy[hygZb[he__\Z`gmxjhevb]jZeZe_]dZydhg-
gbpZ \ lh \j_fy dZd dZlZnjZdlZjbb ebrv kdh\u\Zeb ^_ckl\by \jZ`_kdhc i_ohlu
[Nicolle 1996: 20].
7 IjZdlbq_kdb\k_iha^g_jbfkdb_bjZgg_\baZglbckdb_Z\lhjuibkZ\rb_h\h_g-
guokh[ulbyogZ\hklhqguo]jZgbpZoJbfkdhc ZaZl_fb<baZglbckdhc bfi_jbb]h
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(Herodian. VI. 5. 4, 9—10; Proc. Bell. I. 18. 32—34; Agath. III. 22)).
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400 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

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klZjZeZkvijb[ebablvkydhkgh\Zgbxkl_gkp_evxjZajmrblvboª quibu-
sdam vehentibus scalas, aliis conponentibus machinas, plerisque obiectu
vinearum pluteorumque tectis, iter ad fundamenta parietum quaerentibus sub-
vertenda) OO 
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gZ]jZ`^Z_fZgb`Zeh\Zgv_fgbdZdbfb-eb[hih^ZqdZfbª pedites enim in
speciem mirmillonum contecti iussa faciunt ut colones. Sequiturque semper
haec turba tamquam addicta perenni servitio nec stipendiis aliquando fulta
nec donis) (XXIII.    :ffbZg ih^q_jdb\Z_l qlh bf_ggh i_ohlZ \u-
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(Lact. DMP. VIII   Koh`mx bgnhjfZpbx khh[sZ_l b Ijhdhibc D_kZ
jbckdbc©<kybo i_jkh\ — < > i_ohlZ —g_qlhbgh_dZdlheiZg_
kqZklguodj_klvygdhlhju_b^mlk\hckdhflhevdh^eylh]hqlh[uih^
dZiu\Zlv kl_gu kgbfZlv ^hki_ob k m[bluo b ijbkem`b\Zlv \hbgZf \
^jm]bokemqZyoIhwlhfmmgbog_lgbdZdh]hhjm`bydhlhjufhgbfh]eb
[uijbqbgblv\j_^g_ijbyl_exZk\hbh]jhfgu_sbluhgb\uklZ\eyxl
\i_j_^ lhevdh ^ey lh]h qlh[u kZfbf h[hjhgylvky hl g_ijbyl_evkdbo
klj_e b dhibcª Proc. Bell. I. 14. 25—  Gm`gh h^gZdh aZf_lblv qlh
k\_^_gby khh[sZ_fu_ :ffbZghf EZdlZgpb_f b Ijhdhib_f h i_jkb^-
kdhci_ohl_oZjZdl_jbamxlkhklhygb_wlh]hjh^Z\hckd^hj_nhjfOhk-
jh\Z, — \agZqbl_evghcf_j_ij_h[jZab\rbo\kxkZkZgb^kdmx
Zjfbx\lhfqbke_bi_r__\hckdh>Ib]me_\kdZyb^j>vydh-
gh\—312; Yarshater 1983: 154].

\k_`_lZdmx\hafh`ghklvbkdexqZlvg_evayl_f[he__qlhkZfZ\lhj]h\hjyhi_ohl_
i_jkh\ hlf_qZ_l __ \_kvfZ gbadb_ [h_\u_ dZq_kl\Z ;;,,,  ) Z wlh gbdZd g_ \y
`_lkyk_]h\hkobs_gb_fi_jkb^kdbfbklj_edZfbWlhaZf_qZgb_fh`_lhlghkblvkyb
d^jm]bfdZl_]hjbyfi_jkb^kdhci_ohluhibkZgguf:ffbZghfFZjp_eebghf
< : >fbljb_\:jfbyb\h_ggh_^_eh\kZkZgb^kdhfBjZg_… 401

Ihke_^gbc jh^ \hckd h gZebqbb dhlhjh]h m i_jkh\ g_ jZa ]h\hjbl


:ffbZgFZjp_eebg —wlhhljy^u[h_\uokehgh\@b\hlgh_ihkeh\Zf
bklhjbdZ mijZ\eyehkv \hkk_^Z\rbf gZ g_f \hbghf ;,;    ^_j`Z\-
rbf\jmdZogh`k^ebgghcjmdhylvxg_h[oh^bfuc^eyg_cljZebaZpbb
`b\hlgh]h\a[_kb\r_]hkyhlihemq_gguo\h\j_fy[hyjZg ;;9 
:ffbZg ibr_l qlh \ kemqZ_ _keb k jZatyjb\rbfky `b\hlguf kijZ-
\blvky[uehm`_g_\hafh`ghmijZ\eyxsbcbfq_eh\_dkbevgufm^Zjhf
jZkk_dZekehgmiha\hghqgbd\f_kl__]hkh_^bg_gbykq_j_ihf ;;9
 <lh`_\j_fygZkdZevgu_j_ev_nu\LZd-b;mklZg_^Zxlg_kdhevdh
bgmxdZjlbgmg_`_eblZqlhhibkZgZ:ffbZghfFZjp_eebghfGZbah-
[jZ`_gbyo kf>EmdhgbgNicolle 1996: 28—@ q_ldh\b^gh
qlhgZdZ`^hf`b\hlghfjZaf_sZ_lkyg_h^bgZ^\Zq_eh\_dZbwlhijb
lhfqlh\^ZgghfkemqZ_bah[jZ`_gZebrvkp_gZhohlu<h\j_fy[hygZ
kehg_ l_f [he__ ^he`gu [ueb gZoh^blvky ^\Z \hbgZ — mijZ\eyxsbc
`b\hlgufbihjZ`Zxsbcijhlb\gbdZklj_eZfbeb[hbguff_lZl_evguf
hjm`b_fLjm^ghkdZaZlvhij_^_e_gghkh\_jrbeebbklhjbd \hevghbeb
g_\hevgh  hrb[dm beb `_ hg ^_ckl\bl_evgh gZ[ex^Ze [h_\uo kehgh\
mijZ\ey_fuo h^gbf \h`Zluf Ykgh ebrv qlh g_h^ghdjZlgu_ mihfbgZ-
gby :ffbZghf wlh]h jh^Z \hckd iha\heyxl ]h\hjblv h _]h \Z`ghklb \
i_jkb^kdhc Zjfbb Hl^_evgh]h \gbfZgby aZkem`b\Z_l aZf_qZgb_ :f-
fbZgZFZjp_eebgZhlhfqlh\h\j_fyhkZ^uRZimjhfII:fb^ukehgu
bkihevah\Zebkv k_]_klZgpZfb ;,;    l _ \uoh^pZfb ba \hklhqghc
qZklbBjZgZjZkiheh`_gghc\[ebabBg^bbBg^byba^j_\e_y\eyeZkvih-
klZ\sbdhf [h_\uo kehgh\ \ ]hkm^Zjkl\Z Kj_^g_]h <hklhdZ >hklZlhqgh
\kihfgblv ih`Zemc gZb[he__ ba\_klguc \ wlhf hlghr_gbb kemqZc dh-
]^Zkehgh\[uehihemq_ghK_e_\dhfGbdZlhjhfhlQZg^jZ]miluFZ-
mjvy(Strabo;9 Hq_\b^ghqlhb\kZkZgb^kdbcBjZg[h_\u_keh
guihiZ^ZebbaBg^bb gZjZgg_fwlZi_\hafh`gh —q_j_aDmrZgkdh_
pZjkl\h  >Nicolle 1996: 24] 9 Z ihlhfm g_ kemqZcgh bo bkihevah\Zgb_
bf_ggh\hbgZfbbaK_]_klZgZ
;h_\u_ kehgu g_kfhljy gZ h]jhfguc ih kmlb fgh]h\_dh\hc hiul
[hjv[u k gbfb gZdhie_gguc jbfkdhc Zjfb_c ijhba\h^beb gZ jbfeyg
hr_ehfeyxs__ \i_qZle_gb_ 10 :ffbZg ijh\_^rbc gZ \h_gghc kem`[_
fgh]b_]h^u^Z`_kimkly^_kylbe_lbyg_fh`_lkihdhcghibkZlvhkehgZo\
Zjfbb RZimjZ ,, ©KljZrguc bo \b^ b m`Zkguc oh[hl \gmrZeb _^\Z
ij_h^hebfucm`Zkª ;;9 ©«fhjsbgbklu_qm^h\bsZij_^klZ\
eyebkh[hcm`Zkgh_aj_ebs_gZ\h^ys__g_hibkm_fuckljZoª ;,;
 bo©j_\bm`Zkguc\b^y\eyxlkykZfufkljZrgufqlhfh`_lk_[_
ij_^klZ\blvq_eh\_dª ;,; ©«kehgudZdi_j_f_sZxsb_ky]hju
9 Hlf_q_ggh_:ffbZghfgZebqb_[h_\uokehgh\bf_gghm\hbgh\baijbe_]Zxs_-
]hdBg^bbK_]_klZgZih^l\_j`^Z_lwlmfukevHlhfqlhi_jkuihemqZxlkehgh\ba
Bg^bb]h\hjblkyb\kh\j_f_gghf:ffbZgm©IheghfhibkZgbb\k_e_gghcbgZjh^h\ª
(Exp. 18).
10 <k\yabkwlbfkebrdhfdZl_]hjbqguf\u]ey^blfg_gb_hlhfqlh[h_\u_keh
guebrv©i_j\hgZqZevgh«y\eyebkv]jhagufhjm`b_fbijhba\h^bebagZqbl_evgu_
himklhr_gby\jy^Zo\jZ`_kdhci_ohluªgh\kdhj_kgbfbgZmqbebkv[hjhlvkybbo
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IV \ g whljy^u[h_\uokehgh\y\eyebkv\Z`ghcm^Zjghckbehc\Zjfbbi_jkh\
402 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

]jhabeb]b[_evxijb[eb`Z\rbfkygZ\h^ykljZoª ;;,9 KijZ\_^


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fh`ghij_^iheh`blvqlh[)evrmxqZklvi_jkb^kdhcZjfbbkhklZ\eyeb
kh[kl\_gghi_jkuOhlygZijyfmxh[wlhfbklhjbdg_]h\hjbl^eyg_]h
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ghc dhgklZlZpbb Km^y ih lhfm qlh :ffbZg ihklhyggh gZau\Z_l \k_
\jZ`_kdh_\hckdhi_jkb^kdbfbebijhklhi_jkZfb ;9,;9,,,
11, 12; XIX. 2.bl ^ wlhij_^iheh`_gb_fh`gh
kqblZlv\iheg_h[hkgh\ZggufBgl_j_kghqlhbgh]^Z OO;;,
 ;;9   b ^j  :ffbZg gZau\Z_l ijhlb\gbdZ g_ i_jkZfb Z iZjny-
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GZijbf_j=_jh^hlgZau\Z_li_jkh\fb^ygZfb Herod. VII. 139, 210, 211
b^j lZd`_gZau\Z_lboIjhdhibcD_kZjbckdbc Proc. Bell. I. 1. 17; 2. 5;
3. 12; II. 6.  b ^j  Iebgbc gZau\Z_l i_jkh\ iZjnygZfb Plin. NH. VI.
  dZd Kbg_abc Dbj_gkdbc Synes. DR.   ?\ljhibc Eutrop. X. 8, 15,
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@ >jm]h_h[tykg_gb_fh`_lkhklhylv\hkh[_gghklyoij_^klZ\-
e_gby:ffbZgZh[bklhjbbI_jkbbIh\k_c\b^bfhklbhgg_agZehi_-
j_oh^_\eZklb\BjZg_dKZkZgb^Zf 11b^eyg_]h:jrZdb^u\k__s_y\
eyxlky ijZ\ys_c ^bgZklb_c 12 Fh`gh lZd`_ ij_^iheh`blv qlh \ ^Zg-
ghf kemqZ_ k\h_ \ebygb_ gZ :ffbZgZ FZjp_eebgZ hdZaZeZ b^msZy
\hafh`ghhl:jjbZgZiha^g_ZglbqgZybklhjbq_kdZyljZ^bpby\dhlhjhc
:jrZdb^h\kqblZebg_iZjnygkdhcZi_jkb^kdhc^bgZklb_cZiZjnyg —
i_jkZfb>Dhr_e_gdh@
QlhdZkZ_lkyjZkij_^_e_gbyi_jkh\ihjh^Zf\hckdlha^_kvhkgh\u-
\ZykvgZ^Zgguo:ffbZgZFZjp_eebgZljm^ghkdZaZlvqlh-eb[hhij_^_-

11 Wlhl nZdl [ue ba\_kl_g m`_ >bhgm DZkkbx Cass. LXXX. 3. 4) b =_jh^bZgm
(Herodian. VI. 2. 7; 3. 5)Y>jbc\_jkh^gZdhiheZ]Z_lqlh:ffbZg\hafh`ghagZeh
kf_g_\BjZg_ijZ\ys_c^bgZklbbghkhagZl_evghhimklbewlmbgnhjfZpbxihkdhev
dm_]hkemrZl_ebg_\b^_ebgbdZdhcjZagbpuf_`^mI_jkb_cih^\eZklvx:jrZdb^h\
bI_jkb_cih^\eZklvxKZkZgb^h\>Drijvers 1999: 195].
12 >hims_gguc:ffbZghfZgZojhgbaf\hafh`ghh[mkeh\e_gg_djblbq_kdbfbk
ihevah\Zgb_fbfdZdh]h-lhklZjh]hbklhqgbdZkha^Zggh]h_s_\]h^ukms_kl\h\Zgby
IZjnygkdh]h pZjkl\Z >Gardthausen 1873: 509; Chaumont@kfh^gZdh>Brok
1975: 47—56; Drijvers 1999: 195].
< : >fbljb_\:jfbyb\h_ggh_^_eh\kZkZgb^kdhfBjZg_… 403

e_ggh_<b^bfhhkgh\gZybofZkkZkem`beZ\khklZ\_i_ohlu ;;,,,
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ghc \hcgu RZimjhf ,, [ue aZdexq_g fbjguc ^h]h\hj ;9,,    j_-
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lZd`_]_eZgu gelani) 14bg_db_aZ]Z^hqgu__\k_gu euseni),dhlhjuobk
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13 Ijh[e_fZ ijhbkoh`^_gby b wlgbq_kdhc bklhjbb obhgblh\ ^hkboihjy\ey_lky
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 =mfbe_\  =Znmjh\ Ebl\bgkdbc  —420; Ghirshman 1948; Toma-
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:f[Zjpmfyg@Ke_^m_laZf_lblvqlh\jZ[hl_: G ;_jgrlZfZ — h^ghfba
gZb[he__h[klhyl_evguohl_q_kl\_gguobkke_^h\Zgbcihk\ys_gguobklhjbb]mggh\ —
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404 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

kmlkl\bb \ Zjfbb RZimjZ ih^ :fb^hc dmrZg hkgh\Zgh gZ lhf qlh \
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^bpbx\ij_^_euDmrZgkdh]hpZjkl\Zfh`ghihf_klblvebrv\ij_^_eukZfh]hdhgpZ
60—70-o ]]IV \ª>EmdhgbgZ@H^gZdh^Zggu_ijb\h^bfu_:ffbZghfykgh
ihdZau\Zxlqlh\hcguKZkZgb^h\ijhlb\dmrZgijhbkoh^bebm`_\-_ ]]IV \
17 G < Ib]me_\kdZy \ukdZaZeZ h[hkgh\Zggh_ fg_gb_ kh]eZkgh dhlhjhfm j_qv \
^ZgghfkemqZ_b^_lh[ZjZ[kdhfie_f_gb=ZkkZgb^h\>Ib]me_\kdZy@KflZd-
`_>Ib]me_\kdZy—36].
< : >fbljb_\:jfbyb\h_ggh_^_eh\kZkZgb^kdhfBjZg_… 405

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bah[jZ`_gbyoi_jkb^kdbo\hbgh\ZlZd`_kZfboKZkZgb^h\ 19wlhlnZdl
[_amkeh\gh ih^l\_j`^Z_l bgnhjfZpbx :ffbZgZ b ]h\hjbl h \Z`ghklb
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h[s_ckeh`ghklb ijyfhbebdhk\_ggh g_[he__iylbjZa((XIX. 5. 1; XX.
6. 6; XX. 11. 9; XXIV. 2.  \hafh`gh ;;9 )DZdhlf_qZ_l:ffb
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6.  ;;,9    <k_]h ljb`^u ;,;   ;;9      :ffbZg
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jhevkb]gZeZdgZqZemrlmjfZ:fb^u >h\hevghj_^dhb\kdhevavbklh
jbd mihfbgZ_l h lhf qlh i_jkb^kdb_ \hbgu [ueb \hhjm`_gu f_qZfb
18 EbrvijbhkZ^_:fb^u ^Ze_dhg_kZfhcfhsghcjbfkdhcdj_ihklb\F_khih-
lZfbb  RZimj II ihl_jye hdheh  luk \hbgh\ ;IX. 9. 9  Ihl_jb i_jkh\ \h \j_fy
hkZ^ lZdbo djmiguo ]hjh^h\ dZd gZijbf_j Gbkb[bk ^he`gu [ueb khklZ\eylv gZ
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19 Kf gZij bah[jZ`_gby RZimjZ II >>vydhgh\   JZd  @ <ZjZ-
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[Nicolle 1996: 15, 23, 63, 65 etc.].
406 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

(XVIII. 8. 12; XIX. 8. 4; XX. 7. 14—15, 22; 11. 22; XXIV. 6.  <b^bfh
aZhkljylv\gbfZgb_gZwlhfnZdl_Z\lhj©>_ygbcªkqblZebaebrgbfih
kdhevdm^eyg_]hdZdijhn_kkbhgZevgh]h\h_ggh]hhg[uekZfhhq_\b^_g
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ghc d ^_ckl\byf \ [eb`g_f [hx GZebqb_ m kZkZgb^kdbo \hbgh\ f_q_c
ih^l\_j`^Z_lkybZjo_heh]bq_kdbfb^ZggufbGZc^_ggu_\h\j_fyjZk-
dhihd f_qb bf_xl ih^qZk ^hklZlhqgh \gmrbl_evgu_ jZaf_ju ^h —
85 kfZ_klvwda_fieyju^ebghcb^hfdhlhjufb\hafh`ghihevah
\Zebkvdhggu_\hbgu >Nicolle 1996: 68] 20.
LZdbfh[jZahfbak\_^_gbc:ffbZgZFZjp_eebgZke_^m_lqlhi_jku
hl^Z\Zebij_^ihql_gb_hjm`bxiha\heyxs_fmihjZ`Zlv\jZ]ZgZ^Zev-
g_c^bklZgpbb \i_j\mxhq_j_^vemdm gh\g_h[oh^bfhcf_j_bkihev-
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jZ`_gb_\lZdlbd_^_ckl\bci_jkb^kdbo\hckdhq_fihc^_lj_qvgb`_
QlhdZkZ_lkyaZsblgh]hkgZjy`_gbylhhghkm^yihij_^hklZ\e_gghc
:ffbZghfbgnhjfZpbb[ueh^hklZlhqghkh\_jr_ggufbwnn_dlb\guf
Djhf_sblh\kie_l_gguobaehagydZ ;;,9 bebljhklgbdZ ;;,9
 bihdjuluokujhcdh`_c ;;,9 kx^Zke_^m_lhlg_klb
©k\_jdZxsb_ re_fu b dj_idb_ iZgpbjbª ^_eZ\rb_ i_jkh\ ih keh\Zf
kZfh]h :ffbZgZ FZjp_eebgZ ijZdlbq_kdb g_mya\bfufb ^ey \jZ`_kdbo
klj_e ;;9 Bklhjbd\_kvfZih^jh[ghhibku\Z_li_jkb^kdb_^hki_-
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^\b`_gbyfl_eZª ;;9 :ffbZgkjZ\gb\Z_li_jkb^kdbc^hki_ok
i_jv_\uf ihdjh\hf ilbp hlf_qZy _]h e_]dhklv b ijhqghklv ;;,9 
  Hkh[_ggh `_ bgl_j_kgh ijb\h^bfh_ :ffbZghf hibkZgb_ aZsblghc
fZkdb m i_jkb^kdbo \hbgh\ ©Ijbdjulb_ ebpZ lZd ohjhrh ijbe_]Zeh d
]heh\_ qlh ihiZ^Z\rb_klj_eufh]eb\hgablvkylhevdhlZf]^_q_j_a
fZe_gvdb_ hl\_jklby gZoh^b\rb_ky ijhlb\ ]eZa fh`gh [ueh \b^_lv
beb ]^_ q_j_a gha^jb k ljm^hf \uoh^bl ^uoZgb_ª ;;9    LZdhc
^hki_oghkbebdZd\kZ^gbdb ;,; lZdbi_rb_\hbgu ;;,9
;;9 HibkZgb_i_jkb^kdh]haZsblgh]hkgZjy`_gby:ffbZ
ghf\p_ehfkh\iZ^Z_lkl_fqlh^Z_l_]hkh\j_f_ggbdEb[Zgbc Liban.
Or. XVIII ZlZd`_^Zggu_Zjo_heh]bq_kdbobkke_^h\Zgbc>Pope
1939: 2558; Nicolle 1996: 15, 30—@ LZdbf h[jZahf ly`_eh\hhjm`_g-
guc i_jkb^kdbc \hbg [ue ijbdjul `_e_agufb ^hki_oZfb k^_eZggufb
ihbg^b\b^mZevghfmaZdZamijZdlbq_kdbkgh]^h]heh\uijbq_fhgg_
[uekl_kg_g\k\hbo^\b`_gbyoqlh[uehhq_gv\Z`gh\[hx

20 Hf_qZokZkZgb^kdhcwihobkflZd`_>Overlaet 1989: 741—756; Masia 2000: 1—


289].
< : >fbljb_\:jfbyb\h_ggh_^_eh\kZkZgb^kdhfBjZg_… 407

Ba^Zgguo:ffbZgZFZjp_eebgZke_^m_lqlhaZsbs_g[ueg_lhevdh
\kZ^gbdghb_]hehrZ^v —^eyg__^_eZekyki_pbZevgucdh`Zguc^hki_o
(operimenta scortea) ;;,9    Ih^h[guc lbi kgZjy`_gby dZ\Ze_jbb
y\eyeky ljZ^bpbhgguf ^ey BjZgZ b ba\_kl_g ih fgh]bf ibkvf_gguf
bah[jZabl_evgufb\_s_kl\_ggufbklhqgbdZfhlghkysbfkydZddkZkZ
gb^kdhclZdbd[he__jZgg_ciZjnygkdhcwiho_ kf>Gbdhghjh\
32—33; Nicolle   @  >ey jbfeyg gbdh]^Z g_ bf_\rbo k\h_c
kbevghcdhggbpu[hjv[ZkiZjnygkdbfbZaZl_fi_jkb^kdbfbdZlZnjZd-
lZjbyfb[ueZ^hklZlhqghkeh`ghcaZ^Zq_c>Lheklh\Z—213, 227].
<hijhk h ijhbkoh`^_gbb ih^h[gh]h lbiZ ly`_euo ^hki_oh\ aZsb-
sZ\rbob\kZ^gbdZbehrZ^vij_^klZ\ey_lkh[hchl^_evgmxijh[e_fm
QZklv bkke_^h\Zl_e_c ijb^_j`b\Zxlky fg_gby h lhf qlh ly`_eh\hhjm-
`_ggZydZ\Ze_jby[ueZkha^ZgZ`bl_eyfbhk_^euoa_fe_^_evq_kdbojZc-
hgh\ Kj_^g_c :abb k p_evx aZsblu hl gZiZ^_gbc khk_^_c-dhq_\gbdh\
>Lheklh\Z—[—141; Nicolle 1996: 9] 21?klvlhqdZ
aj_gby qlh lZdh_ kgZjy`_gb_ \i_j\u_ klZeb bkihevah\Zlv dhq_\gbdb
Kj_^g_]h<hklhdZ>Laufer=hj_ebd@kflZd`_>Lhe
klh\[>vydhgh\@Kh]eZkghlj_lv_fmfg_gbxjh^bgm
ly`_ehcdhggbpuke_^m_lbkdZlv\K_\_jghfIjbq_jghfhjv_bgZK_\_j
ghfDZ\dZa_>Q_jg_gdh] 22?klvlZd`_ij_^iheh`_gb_qlhly`_eZy
dZ\Ze_jby ihy\beZkv gZ l_jjblhjbb ;Zdljbb b IZjnbb >Im]Zq_gdh\Z
1966: 43].
Hkh[hke_^m_lhlf_lblvk\_^_gby:ffbZgZFZjp_eebgZh[hjm^byob
ijbkihkh[e_gbyo ijbf_gy_fuo i_jkZfb \h \j_fy hkZ^u eb[h h[hjhgu
]hjh^h\ 23BahkZ^guofZrbg:ffbZgqZs_\k_]hgZau\Z_l[Zeebklm(g_
f_g__iylbjZa ;,;;; )badhlhjhcf_lZebkvg_
lhevdhdZfgbbbfih^h[gu_f_lZl_evgu_kgZjy^ughb]hjrdbkaZ`b-
]Zl_evghckf_kvx OO Ke_^m_llZd`_hlf_lblvqlhijbaZsbl_b
hkZ^_dj_ihkl_c[ZeebkluaZqZklmxbkihevah\Zebkvi_jkZfb^eyihjZ`_-
gby\jZ`_kdbo\hbgh\ ;,;  kf>Crump@ H^
gZ`^u kZf bfi_jZlhj XebZg qmlv g_ ih]b[ hl \uklj_eZ ba dZdh]h-lh
hkZ^gh]hhjm^by tormentum murale) ;;,9 dhlhjuf\_jhylgh[u

21 ;ebadmx ihabpbx aZgbfZxl lZd`_ ; : Ebl\bgkdbc b B < Ivygdh\ ih fg_-


gbx dhlhjuo dhgkdbc ^hki_o ihiZe \ BjZg DblZc b \hafh`gh Bg^bx bf_ggh ba
Kj_^g_c:abb>Ebl\bgkdbcIvygdh\@K I Lheklh\^h\h^blwlml_hjbx^h
djZcghklbhrb[hqgh hkh[_ggh\k\_l_^Zgguo:ffbZgZFZjp_eebgZ ml\_j`^Zyqlh
\_kv dhfie_dk \hhjm`_gby bah[jZ`_gguo gZ jy^_ kj_^g_ZabZlkdbo gZoh^hd ly`_eh
\hhjm`_gguo \kZ^gbdh\ ©gbq_]h h[s_]h g_bf__lk\hhjm`_gb_fkZkZgb^kdh]hBjZ
gZª>Lheklh\Z@Kj>=hj_ebd@
22 <hijhkmhijhbkoh`^_gbbbkgZjy`_gbbly`_eh\hhjm`_gghcdZ\Ze_jbbihk\y-
s_gh ^hklZlhqgh fgh]h bkke_^h\Zgbc Ba jZ[hl ihke_^gbo e_l kf >Nikonorov 1998;
Coulston 1986; Michalak 1987; Allan 1987; Herrmann 1989; Gall 1990; Mielczarek 1993;
1998].
23 OZjZdl_jbklbd_hkZ^guohjm^bc:ffbZgihk\ysZ_lhl^_evgucwdkdmjk ;XIII.
4. 2— h^gZdh _]h ^hklh\_jghklvy\ey_lkykihjghc kfgZij>Hengst 1999: 29—
@ =hjZa^h[hevr_ihe_aghcbgnhjfZpbbh[hkZ^guohjm^byobbobkihevah\Zgbb
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kjZ`_gbcf_`^mjbfkdhcbi_jkb^kdhcZjfbyfb
408 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

eZbf_ggh[ZeebklZHgZfh]eZjZaf_sZlvkydZdgZdj_ihklghckl_g_lZd
b gZ \_jog_c iehsZ^d_ hkZ^ghc [Zrgb qlh ^Z\Zeh \hafh`ghklv ihjZ
`Zlv ijhlb\gbdZ gZ kl_gZo [he__ wnn_dlb\gh gZijZ\eyy kgZjy^u k\_jom
\gba ;,; 2) [Crump 1975: 104—105].
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dj_ihklb[ueblZjZgubf_\rb_jZagu_jZaf_ju OO >eyaZsblu
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lb\gbdhfkhkl_gba]hlh\e_ggucba^_j_\ZlZjZgdZdijZ\beh[ueijb-
djul fhdjufb rdmjZfb OO    >hklZlhqgh rbjhdh ijbf_gyebkv
i_jkZfbbhkZ^gu_[Zrgb helepolis) ;,; \lhfqbke_bk
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g_lmihfbgZgbch[hdh\Zgguo`_e_ahf]_e_iheZob\©DjZldhfbaeh`_gbb
\h_ggh]h ^_eZª NeZ\by <_]_pby J_gZlZ Veget. ERM) — h^ghf ba \Z`g_c
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<Z`gmx jhev ijb hkZ^_ \jZ`_kdbo ]hjh^h\ b]jZeb lZd`_ hkZ^gu_
bebrlmjfh\u_sblu plutei),kem`b\rb_ijbdjulb_fb^msbfgZrlmjf
i_jkb^kdbf\hbgZf ;,;;; bdZdibr_l:ffbZg©rlmjfh-
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rlmjfh\u_e_klgbpu scalae) (XIX. 5. 6; XX. 6. 3; 7. 6).
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:ffbZggZau\Z_ldbebdbckdbfb cilicia) ;;;;,9 I_jku
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OO    Djhf_ lh]h \h \j_fy h[hjhgu i_jku rbjhdh bkihevah\Zeb
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p_eebghfi_jkb^kdZyZjfbygb\q_fg_mklmiZeZZjfbbjbfeygZihg_-
dhlhjufiZjZf_ljZf\hafh`ghbij_\hkoh^beZ__ 25.

24 Ba^Zgguo:ffbZgZke_^m_lqlh]_e_iheu\hh[s_j_^dhbkihevah\Zebkvjbfkdhc
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25 Hkgh\u\Zykv gZ ^Zgguo :ffbZgZ FZjp_eebgZ = DjZfi kijZ\_^eb\h gZ gZr
\a]ey^hlf_qZ_lqlh\,9 \i_jkudZdbjbfeyg_©kbevghaZ\bk_ebhlZjk_gZeZhjm
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lbq_kdh]hi_jbh^h\ªBgl_j_kgh\k\yabkwlbf\kihfgblvwibah^\dhlhjhf:ffbZg
jZkkdZau\Z_lhkf_jl_evghfjZg_gbbbfi_jZlhjZXebZgZDZaZehkv[ugZb[he__ijh
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qlh]h\hjblhagZqbl_evghfkoh^kl\_ _kebg_h[b^_glbqghklb l_ogbdbbkiheg_gby
ij_^f_lh\\hhjm`_gbymi_jkh\bjbfeyg
< : >fbljb_\:jfbyb\h_ggh_^_eh\kZkZgb^kdhfBjZg_… 409

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LZdlbdm i_jkh\ [he__ p_e_khh[jZagh jZkkfZljb\Zlv \ ^\mo Zki_dlZo
\_^_gb_[hygZhldjulhcf_klghklbb^_ckl\byi_jkh\ijbhkZ^_eb[hh[h-
jhg_dj_ihkl_c 26.
< ^_ckl\byo gZ hldjulhf ijhkljZgkl\_ i_jku hq_gv qZklh bkihevah-
\Zeb nZdlhj \g_aZighklb qlh g_j_^dh ijbghkbeh bf mki_o ;,9  
XVI. 9. 1; XVIII. 8. 3; XXIII. 3. 4—5; XXIV. 3. 1; 4. 7; XXV. 1. 5; 3. 2—3;
 Djhf_lh]h:ffbZgg_jZa]h\hjblhaZkZ^ZomkljZb\Z\rbokyi_j-
kZfbgZimlbke_^h\Zgbyjbfkdbo\hckd ;9,,,;;,9
;;9 Hkh[_gghyjdhbkdmkkl\hi_jkh\mkljZb\ZlvaZkZ^uijh-
y\behkv\h^ghfbawibah^h\dh]^Zghqvxg_^Ze_dhhl:fb^uq_j_aLb]j
i_j_ijZ\behkvihkeh\Zf:ffbZgZ^hlukyq  i_jkh\\lhfqbke_
[hevrh_ dhebq_kl\h \kZ^gbdh\ ijb wlhf jbfeyg_ mobljbebkv g_ aZf_-
lblvi_j_ijZ\ulZdh]hh]jhfgh]hqbkeZ\hbgh\aZqlh`_klhdhihieZlb-
ebkv ;9,,,—5).
GZebqb_ \ i_jkb^kdhc Zjfbb fgh]hqbke_gghc b [h_kihkh[ghc dhg-
gbpu^_eZeh__^_ckl\by^hklZlhqghklj_fbl_evgufbbiha\heyehgZgh-
kblv khdjmrbl_evgu_ m^Zju lZf b lh]^Z ]^_ b dh]^Z wlh [ueh g_h[oh-
^bfh :ffbZg qZklh ]h\hjbl h dexq_\hc jheb i_jkb^kdhc dhggbpu \
[hxZlZd`_\p_ehfh__ij_\hkoh^kl\_gZ^dZ\Ze_jb_cjbfeyg ;9,,,
;;,,,;;,9;;9;;,; Dhg-
gu_ hljy^u i_jkh\ k\h[h^gh i_j_f_sZebkv \ \b^m jbfeyg m^_j`b\Zy
\u]h^gmx ^ey k_[y ^bklZgpbx b g_ \klmiZy [_a g_h[oh^bfhklb \ [eb`-
gbc [hc \ dhlhjhf rZgku bo b jbfeyg klZgh\bebkv [u ijbf_jgh jZ\-
gufb ;;,9;;9) 27:ffbZghlf_qZ_lqlhi_jkb^kdb_
\kZ^gbdbij_djZkgh\eZ^_ebemdhf ;;9 FZg_\ju\g_ihkj_^kl-
\_gghc[ebahklbhljbfkdhcZjfbb ;;,9 \g_aZigu_gZiZ^_gbyb
klhev`_\g_aZigu_hloh^ui_jkh\ ;;9 \\h^bebjbfeyg\aZ[em-
`^_gb_hlghkbl_evghqbke_gghklbkZkZgb^kdh]h\hckdZbieZgh\i_jkb^-
kdh]hdhfZg^h\ZgbybafZlu\Zebbobg_iha\heyeb[ukljhb[_kij_iyl-
kl\_ggh ijh^\b]Zlvky \ gm`ghf gZijZ\e_gbb kf >Crump 1975: 90]).
Bf_ggh ^_ckl\by i_jkb^kdbo dZlZnjZdlZjb_\ j_rbeb km^v[m [hy ijb-
\_^r_]hd]b[_ebbfi_jZlhjZXebZgZ ;;9 L_`_dZlZnjZdlZjbb
g_h`b^Zgguf m^Zjhf k lueZ jZkk_yeb b ihqlb iheghklvx mgbqlh`beb
hljy^ MjkbpbgZ ebrb\ l_f kZfuf ]Zjgbahg :fb^u lZd g_h[oh^bfh]h
_fmhiulgh]h\h_gZqZevgbdZ ;9,,,—10).
I_j_^gZqZehf[hyi_jkudZdijZ\behm`_ba^Ze_dZimkdZeb\ijh-
lb\gbdZlmqmklj_e ;;,9;;9 b:ffbZgdZd
26 LZdhcih^oh^dbamq_gbx©>_ygbcªklhqdbaj_gbykh^_j`Zsboky\gbok\_^_
gbc h \h_gghc lZdlbd_ y\ey_lky ljZ^bpbhgguf b a^_kv fu ke_^m_f aZ = DjZfihf
[Crump 1975: 140—@bGHklbghf>Austin 1979: 69—113].
27 H[ wnn_dlb\guo kihkh[Zo [hjv[u jbfkdbo e_]bhg_jh\ k dZlZnjZdlZjbyfb ib
r_l Eb[Zgbc Liban. Or. XVIII   Wlh aZklZ\ey_l mkhfgblvky \ ml\_j`^_gbb
K I Lheklh\Zhlhfqlh\hc^y\g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh_khijbdhkgh\_gb_kdZlZnjZdlZjb-
yfb jbfkdZy i_ohlZ ©hdZau\Z_lky \ g_\u]h^ghf iheh`_gbb gZldgm\rbkv gZ hkljby
^ebgguo ibd b gZ [jhgbjh\Zggu_ ]jm^b dhg_cª b \ blh]_ ijhb]ju\Z_l kjZ`_gb_
>Lheklh\a: 227].
410 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

[uehaZf_q_gh\ur_\hh[s_hlf_qZ_l\ukhdbcmjh\_gvih^]hlh\dbi_j-
kb^kdboklj_edh\ ;9 Mqblu\Zyg_h[uqZcgmxkdhjhklj_evghklv
^j_\gbo emqgbdh\ >Gbdhghjh\  @ fh`gh k m\_j_gghklvx ]h\h-
jblvh\_kvfZ\ukhdhcwnn_dlb\ghklb^_ckl\bci_jkb^kdboklj_edh\\h
\j_fy[hy
<ke_^aZklj_edZfb\[hc\klmiZebhklZevgu_i_ohlbgpu ;9 
;h_\u_ kehgu fh]eb ke_^h\Zlv dZd ihaZ^b [h_\uo ihjy^dh\ i_ohlu
;;,9;;9 lZdbi_j_^gbfb ;;9 \uihegyy
dZd fh`gh aZdexqblv bkoh^y ba ^Zgguo :ffbZgZ FZjp_eebgZ kdhj__
mkljZrZxsmx g_`_eb ^_ckl\bl_evgh [h_\mx nmgdpbx ;,;   
;;,9;;9  kf>Nicolle@ AZhkgh\ghcfZkkhc
i_jkb^kdbo \hckd \h \j_fy [hy gZoh^beky j_a_j\ ba ©fZgbime i_ohlbg-
p_\ª manipuli peditum) (XXIV. 6. 8).
<h \j_fy ijh^\b`_gby \jZ`_kdbo \hckd i_jku qZs_ \k_]h gZghkbeb
m^ZjuklueZ ;9,,,—;;,9;;9 bgh]^Zklj_fykvd
iheghfmjZa]jhfm\jZ]Zh^gh\j_f_gghkwlbfhkms_kl\eyehkvgZiZ^_gb_
gZZ\Zg]Zj^kbeijhlb\gbdZ ;;9 Hlj_aZ\lZdbfh[jZahf\jZ`_-
kdhc Zjfbb imlb \hafh`gh]h hloh^Z i_jku aZl_f gZghkbeb khdjmrb-
l_evgucm^ZjkbeZfbly`_ehcdZ\Ze_jbbijbih^^_j`d_[h_\uokehgh\\
p_glj\jZ`_kdboihjy^dh\ZlZdmyijhlb\gbdZ©dhivyfbb\kydbfbf_lZ-
l_evgufbkgZjy^Zfbª ;;9  kf>Crump@ >h[b\rbkvi_-
j_\_kZ gZ h^ghf ba neZg]h\ i_jku iulZebkv _]h hijhdbgmlv b aZc^y \
luehdjm`blv\jZ`_kdh_\hckdh ;;9 DZdjZa\h\j_fylZdh]h[hy
bih]b[bfi_jZlhjXebZgHlklmigbd
LZd`_:ffbZgFZjp_eebghlf_qZ_lmf_gb_i_jkh\bkihevah\Zlvhkh-
[_gghklbf_klghklbbij_h^he_\Zlv_kl_kl\_ggu_ij_]jZ^uLZdgZijbf_j
\h \j_fy [hy k hljy^hf MjkbpbgZ ke_^h\Z\rbf \ KZfhkZlm jbfkdb_
\hbgu[uebhll_kg_gui_jkZfbdh[ju\bklhfm[_j_]mLb]jZbk[jhr_gu
\j_dm ;9,,, ihke_]b[_ebXebZgZjbfeyg_g_hkfhljbl_evghjZa
[b\ eZ]_jv \ ^hebg_ hdjm`_gghc e_kbklufb ohefZfb [ueb ZlZdh\Zgu
i_jkZfbh[jmrb\rbfbkygZgbokkhk_^gbokdehgh\ ;;9— ^h
`^Z\rbkvihdZjbfeyg_gZqgmli_j_ijZ\mq_j_ah^bgbajmdZ\h\?\njZ
lZ i_jku \g_aZigh h[klj_eyeb bo ba emdh\ ;;,9    gZ imlb Zjfbb
XebZgZ i_jkZfb aZlhieyebkv agZqbl_evgu_ l_jjblhjbb ;;,9  —
 kj Liban. Or. XVIII.  bih^`b]ZebkvkmoZykl_ivboe_[gu_ihey
;;,9 qlhk_jv_aghaZf_^eyehijh^\b`_gb_jbfeyg<lh`_\j_fy
\ihoh^_ ]dh]^Z\k_i_jkb^kdh_\hckdh[ueh\ugm`^_ghi_j_ijZ\
eylvky q_j_a :gaZ[m ih gZ\h^ghfm fhklm i_j_ijZ\Z ^ebeZkv p_euo ljb
^gy b ijhreZ [_a \kydbo hkeh`g_gbc ;9,,,— Ihke_wlh]hi_j
kb^kdZyZjfby\klj_lb\gZimlbjZaeb\rbcky?\njZlkh\_jrbeZh[oh^
ba[_`Z\ hiZkgh]h i_j_oh^Z ih imklugghc f_klghklb b g_h[oh^bfhklb
i_j_ijZ\eylvky q_j_a fgh]h\h^gmx j_dm ;9,,,  —  :ffbZg kZf
[m^mqb ijhn_kkbhgZevguf \hbghf b ij_djZkgh ihgbfZy qlh ih^h[gu_
mki_ob^hklb]ZxlkyaZkq_lihklhygguomijZ`g_gbcbih^^_j`Zgby`_
kldhc^bkpbiebguhq_gv\ukhdhhp_gb\Z_l[h_\mxih^]hlh\dmb\umqdm
i_jkh\ ;9,,,;;,,, 
< : >fbljb_\:jfbyb\h_ggh_^_eh\kZkZgb^kdhfBjZg_… 411

;he__ h[klhyl_evgh :ffbZg FZjp_eebg hk\_sZ_l lZdlbdm ^_ckl\bc


i_jkb^kdhc Zjfbb ijb h[hjhg_ b hkZ^_ ]hjh^h\ Km^y ih ^Zgguf :f-
fbZgZ qZs_ \k_]h klhedgh\_gby jbfeyg b i_jkh\ ijhbkoh^beb dZd jZa
ih^kl_gZfbdj_ihkl_cZg_\ihe_ kf>Crump 1975: 89, 97, 101]) 28<ha-
fh`ghjbfeyg_ij_^ihqblZebg_bkiulu\Zlvkm^v[mbg_\klmiZlv\[hc
gZhldjulhcf_klghklbb[hdZdwlhke_^m_lbak\_^_gbc:ffbZgZi_jku
\wlhfkemqZ_bf_ebjy^ij_bfms_kl\hq_fm`_]h\hjbehkv\ur_bdZd
ijZ\beh m^ZqZ [ueZ gZ bo klhjhg_ Djhf_ lh]h gZebqb_ \ mj[Zgbabjh-
\ZgghcF_khihlZfbbfgh]hqbke_gguo[hevrbobfZeuo]hjh^h\-dj_ih-
kl_ch[t_dlb\ghaZklZ\eyehh[_\hxxsb_klhjhgugZijZ\eylvk\hbmkb-
eby\i_j\mxhq_j_^vgZmklZgh\e_gb_ bebkhojZg_gb_ gZ^gbfbk\h_]h
dhgljhey \ lZdhc kblmZpbb kjZ`_gby gZ hldjulhc f_klghklb ijbh[j_-
lZeb\lhjhkl_i_ggh_agZq_gb_
<©>_ygbyoªfh`gh\klj_lblv^h\hevghfgh]hwibah^h\k\yaZgguok
hkZ^hci_jkZfbjbfkdbodj_ihkl_cbeb`_gZijhlb\kh[hjhghck\hbo
mdj_ie_gguo imgdlh\ hl jbfeyg GZb[he__ ih^jh[guf y\ey_lky hibkZ-
gb_ hkZ^u i_jkb^kdhc Zjfb_c \h ]eZ\_ k RZimjhf ,, :fb^u \  ]
(XIX. 1— Djhf_lh]h\_kvfZ^_lZevgh:ffbZghfhk\_s_gulZdb_kh-
[ulbydZdhkZ^Zi_jkZfbdj_ihkl_cKbg]ZjZ ;;— b;_aZ[^Z ;;
7. 2—  h[hjhgZ hl jbfeyg lhc `_ ;_aZ[^u ;;  —  \k_ wlh
ijhbkoh^beh \  ]  b IbjbkZ[hju ;;,9  —22) (363 ]  KjZ-
`_gbyf aZ ^jm]b_ mdj_ie_ggu_ imgdlu :ffbZg m^_ebe ]hjZa^h f_gvr_
\gbfZgbyohlyb\bohibkZgbyokh^_j`blkyjy^\Z`guo^eygZkk\_^_-
gbcKe_^m_lhlf_lblvqlhihqlb\h\k_omdZaZgguo\ur_kh[ulbyo aZ
bkdexq_gb_fh[hjhguhli_jkh\Kbg]Zjub;_aZ[^u Z\lhj©>_ygbcªih
\k_c\b^bfhklbmqZkl\h\Zeebqghqlh]h\hjbl\ihevam\ukhdhckl_i_gb
^hklh\_jghklbijb\_^_gguobfk\_^_gbc
Ij_`^_ q_f ijbklmiblv g_ihkj_^kl\_ggh d hkZ^_ dj_ihklb i_jku
\gbfZl_evghbamqZeb__nhjlbnbdZpbhggu_khhjm`_gbyhkh[_gghklbbo
mkljhckl\ZiulZebkvhlukdZlvgZb[he__mya\bfu_f_klZ ;; Ih-
ke_wlh]hh[yaZl_evghke_^h\Zehij_^eh`_gb_h^h[jh\hevghck^Zq_Z^-
j_kh\Zggh_ aZsblgbdZf dj_ihklb \h \k_o q_luj_o kemqZyo hkZ^u i_j-
kZfbdj_ihkl_c :fb^u;_aZ[^uKbg]Zjub<bjlu hibkZgguo:ffbZ-
ghfi_jkukgZqZeZiulZebkvkdehgblv]Zjgbahgdk^Zq_[_a[hy ;,;
 ;;        kf >:[^meeh_\  —252; Crump 1975:
101@  < kemqZ_ hldZaZ \hckdm ^Z\Zebkv h^bg-^\Z ^gy gZ hl^uo b ih^]h
lh\dmdhkZ^_ ;,;;; \wlh`_\j_fyi_jkZfbhimklh
rZebkvhdj_klghklb \b^bfhkp_evxij_^hl\jZlblv\hafh`gh_kgZ[`_
gb_hkZ`^_gguoijh^h\hevkl\b_fkhklhjhguf_klguo`bl_e_c  ;,;
 Z\jZ`_kdZydj_ihklvhdjm`ZeZkvg_kdhevdbfbebgbyfbhkZ^guosb
lh\ ih^ :fb^hc gZijbf_j lZdbo ebgbc [ueh iylv  ;,;    \Zeh\
OO nZrbgguoaZ]jZ`^_gbc ;,; 
Ihke_\k_owlboijb]hlh\e_gbcgZqbgZeZkvnZaZZdlb\guo^_ckl\bck
i_jkb^kdhcklhjhgu<hckdhi_jkh\ijbhkZ^_g_ijbyl_evkdhcdj_ihklb
28 WlZl_g^_gpby[ueZoZjZdl_jgZb^eyjbfkdh-i_jkb^kdbo\hcg\ihke_^mxsb_
klhe_lby>Dhe_kgbdh\@
412 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

fh]eh ^_eblvky gZ g_kdhevdh qZkl_c ih wlgbq_kdhfm ijbgpbim dZ`^uc


bahljy^h\\wlhfkemqZ_ihemqZek\hcmqZklhd^ey\_^_gbyhkZ^guo^_c-
kl\bc LZd [ueh gZijbf_j ih^ :fb^hc ]^_ ©\hklhqgZy qZklv ^hklZ-
eZkvobhgblZfx`gZykl_gZ[ueZhl\_^_gZ« l_dklbkihjq_g — <. >.),
k_\_jgmxaZgyebZe[ZguZijhlb\aZiZ^guo\hjhlihklZ\e_gu[uebk_-
]_klZgpukZfu_ojZ[ju_ba\k_o\hbguª ;,; <wlhfhlju\d_:f-
fbZgg_mihfbgZ_lhkZfboi_jkZo<hafh`ghwlhk\yaZghkl_fqlhijb
hkZ^_]hjh^h\i_jkuklj_fbebkvihkueZlvgZrlmjfkl_g l _ gZkZfmx
hiZkgmx b djh\hijheblgmx hi_jZpbx  ih^jZa^_e_gby khxagbdh\ eb[h
ihdhj_gguogZjh^h\ij_^ihqblZyih`bgZlvieh^uih[_^uhieZq_ggu_
qm`hcdjh\vx
LZdbf h[jZahf ]hjh^ hdZau\Zeky \ iheghc [ehdZ^_ ;,;    
;;    b k wlh]h fhf_glZ hkZ`^_ggu_ fh]ebgZ^_ylvkylhevdhgZkZ-
fbo k_[y b gZ m^Zqm ;,;    < k\yab k wlbf \iheg_ ihgylgu bkihe-
g_ggu_ hlqZygbykeh\Z:ffbZgZ©<b^yi_j_^kh[hcg_kf_lgh_dhebq_-
kl\h ex^_c« h[jZs_gguo ijhlb\ gZk fu hklZ\beb \kydmxgZ^_`^mgZ
kiZk_gb_b^mfZeblhevdhhkeZ\ghckf_jlbdhlhjZy[ueZm`_^ey\k_o
gZk `_eZgghcª ;,;    Ih kb]gZem \h_gZqZevgbdZ (lZdbf kb]gZehf
fh] [ulv [jhkhd hdjh\Z\e_ggh]h dhivy \ klhjhgm \jZ`_kdhc dj_ihklb
dZdwlh[uehih^:fb^hc ;,; bebih^gylb_djZkgh]hagZf_gb 29,
dZdih^Kbg]Zjhc ;; )khe^Zlu[jhkZebkvgZrlmjfIh^ijbdju-
lb_fg_ij_ju\gh]hmjZ]Zggh]hh[klj_eZmdj_ie_gbc ;,;;;
 rlmjfmxsb_reb\ZlZdm©H^gbkhe^Zlug_kebe_klgbpu^jm]b_
]hlh\beb hkZ^gu_ hjm^by Z ]eZ\gZy fZkkZ ih^ ijbdjulb_f nZrbg b
rlmjfh\uosblh\klZjZeZkvijb[ebablvkydkl_gZfqlh[uih\j_^blvbo
hkgh\Zgb_ª ;; DZd\b^ghbaijb\_^_ggh]hhlju\dZkj_^bi_jkh\
kms_kl\h\Zeh q_ldh_ jZa^_e_gb_ nmgdpbc \h \j_fy hkZ^u g_ijbyl_ev-
kdhcdj_ihklbZbo^_ckl\by[ueb^hklZlhqgh]jZfhlghkieZgbjh\Zgub
hj]Zgbah\Zgu
IZjZee_evgh k wlbf ijh^he`Zeb khhjm`Zlvky \Zeu \ha\h^bebkv
hkZ^gu_[Zrgbkhdh\Zgghc`_e_ahfnjhglZevghcih\_joghklvxgZdh-
lhjuo jZaf_sZehkv ih h^ghc [Zeebkl_ ^ey ihjZ`_gby gZoh^ysboky gZ
kl_gZoaZsblgbdh\dj_ihklb<k_wlhijhbkoh^behgZnhg_gbgZfb]g_
ij_djZsZ\r_]hky h[klj_eZ ijhlb\gbdZ ba ijZs_c emdh\ hkZ^guo hjm-
^bc ;,;      HkZ`^_ggu_ hl\_qZeb l_f `_ klZjZykv g_ ih^imk-
lblv i_jkh\ [ebadh d kl_gZf b g_ iha\heblv bf ijbf_gblv hkZ^gu_ fZ-
rbgu ;,;;; Ihwlhcijbqbg_i_jkZfijboh^behkvijh^\b-
]Zlvky \ gZijZ\e_gbb kl_g ih^ aZsblhc \bg_c ;,;    Rlmjf
gZqZ\rbkv gZ jZkk\_l_ ^ebeky ^h gZklmie_gby l_fghlu ;,;    b
lZdijh^he`Zehkvg_kdhevdh^g_c OO Zlhbg_^_evdZd\kemqZ_k
:fb^hc ;,; 
<blh]__kebhkZ^ZreZmki_rghkihfhsvxlZjZgZ\kl_g_^_eZeky
ijhehf ;,;   ;;  —    \ dhlhjuc mklj_feyebkv i_jkb^-
kdb_ \hbgu b gZklmiZe ljZ]bq_kdbc nbgZe — j_agy gZ mebpZo \aylh]h

29 HagZf_gZo\BjZg_\lhfqbke_b\kZkZgb^kdmxwihomkf>Melikian-Shirvani
1988].
< : >fbljb_\:jfbyb\h_ggh_^_eh\kZkZgb^kdhfBjZg_… 413

ijbklmihf]hjh^ZHibkZgb_wlh]haj_ebsZ:ffbZghf\dhff_glZjbbg_
gm`^Z_lky©I_jkuba[b\ZebdZdkdhlbgm\k_o\hhjm`_gguob[_ahjm`-
guo [_a jZaebqby iheZª ;,;    ©«yjhklgh jm[beb \jZ]b \k_o dlh
ihiZ^Zeky bf gZ\klj_qm j_aZeb feZ^_gp_\ \uju\Zy bo ba jmd fZl_j_c
gbdlhg_hkhagZ\Zeqlhhg^_eZeKj_^bwlbom`Zkh\lhevdh`Z`^Z]jZ
[_`Zfh]eZm^_j`Zlvhlm[bckl\Zª ;; <i_j\hcpblZl_:ffbZg
hibku\Z_lkm^v[m:fb^u\h\lhjhc —;_aZ[^uH^gZdh`bl_e_c\aylhc
Kbg]Zju i_jku \ hkgh\ghf hklZ\beb \ `b\uo m\_ay bo \ihke_^kl\bb \
]em[bggu_ h[eZklb I_jkbb ;;    ijh^he`Zy l_f kZfuf ba^j_\e_
kms_kl\h\Z\rmx gZ <hklhd_ ljZ^bpbx i_j_k_e_gby `bl_e_c aZo\Zq_g-
guo kljZg h[uqgmxb^eyKZkZgb^h\>Ib]me_\kdZy
>vydhgh\;Zjlhev^ZNjZc308;
Herzfeld 1935: 84; Lieu 1986: 475—@Gm`ghhlf_lblvqlhi_jku[ueb
\_jguk\h_fmkeh\m —`bl_eyf^h[jh\hevghk^Z\rbokyjbfkdbodj_ih
kl_cJ_fZgb;maZgi_jkudZdbh[_sZebij_^hklZ\bebk\h[h^mZgZoh
^b\rbfky lZf ojbklbZgkdbf fhgZobgyf RZimj ,, ©ij_^hklZ\be [_k
ij_iylkl\_gghhlijZ\eylvk\hcdmevlª ;9,,, <lh`_\j_fyaZ
mihjgh_ khijhlb\e_gb_ ijhlb\gbdZf i_jkh\ ijboh^behkv `_klhdh jZk
ieZqb\ZlvkyLZdihke_\aylby:fb^uZdlb\guohj]ZgbaZlhjh\h[hjhgu
dhfblZ b ljb[mgh\  i_jku jZkiyeb gZ dj_klZo \k_ jbfkdb_ ih^^Zggu_
[uebi_j_[blu©[_ajZaebqby\ukrbobgbarboª ;,; @_klhdhklv
i_jkh\ [ueZ \_jhylgh h[mkeh\e_gZ bo agZqbl_evgufb ihl_jyfb ihg_
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?keb\ayluci_jkZfb]hjh^bf_e\Z`gh_kljZl_]bq_kdh_iheh`_gb_lh\
wlhfkemqZ_a^_kvhklZ\eyekyi_jkb^kdbc]ZjgbahgZih\j_`^_ggu_nhj
lbnbdZpbhggu_khhjm`_gbyj_fhglbjh\Zebkvbmdj_ieyebkv OO 16).
LZdbfh[jZahfijb\aylbb\jZ`_kdbo]hjh^h\i_jkb^kdZyZjfbymki_r-
gh ijbf_gyeZ kZfu_ jZaghh[jZagu_ kihkh[u \_^_gby hkZ^u b rbjhdbc
gZ[hjhkZ^guohjm^bcijbkihkh[e_gbcbkhhjm`_gbc 30.
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h[hjhgm i_jkZfb lj_o dj_ihkl_c ;_aZ[^u OO  —  IbjbkZ[hju
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^u [ueZ mki_rghc b jbfeyg_ \h ]eZ\_ k DhgklZgpb_f ,, [ueb \ugm`-
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ljm^Zo b hiZkghklyoª Z ihlhfm jbfeygZf ijbrehkv ]hlh\blvky d hkZ^_
(XX. 11. 7).
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klbiZjnyg[jZlv]hjh^Zy\ey_lkykihjguf kf>Gbdhghjh\@).
414 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

ijbklmiZ^eyaZsbluhl\jZ`_kdbof_lZl_evguokgZjy^h\bklj_ei_jku
bkihevah\Zeb©dbebdbckdb_aZ\_kuª cilicia) OO (\^jm]hff_kl_
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kh\u\Zyjmdbf_lZeb\gbadZfgbbklj_euª OO Ijbijb[eb`_-
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jbfeyg_ [ueb \ugm`^_gu ijbf_gblv h]jhfguc lZjZg \h \j_fy mklZ-
gh\dbdhlhjh]hkh[_boklhjhgg_kebkvlmqbdZfg_cbklj_ei_jkuiulZ-
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ebkvih^Z\blvkhijhlb\e_gb_i_jkh\ ;;— Hkh[_ggh:ffbZg
hlf_qZ_l jhev i_jkb^kdbo klj_edh\ f_ldh ihjZ`Z\rbo gZklmiZ\rbo
jbfeyg OO    Z lZd`_ iulZ\rboky k ihfhsvx aZ`b]Zl_evguo
klj_eih^`_qvhkZ^gu_hjm^byjbfeygk^_eZggu_ba^_j_\Z OO 
DZdb\hldjulhf[hx\h\j_fyh[hjhgui_jkuqZklhbkihevah\Zebg_-
klZg^Zjlgu_oh^ujZagh]hjh^Z\h_ggu_obljhklbgZijbf_j©`_e_aguc
eh[ª[hevrh]hlZjZgZhgbihcfZebk_lvxg_^Z\Zyl_fkZfufjbfkdbf
khe^ZlZf\hafh`ghklbjZkdZqb\Zlv_]hb[blvihkl_g_ OO Wlh
^hihegyehkv ihlhdZfb jZkieZ\e_gghc kfheu eZ\bghc dZfg_c b klj_e
h[jmrb\Z\rbokygZ]heh\ujbfeyg OO 
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ahd \ jZkiheh`_gb_ jbfeyg I_j\Zy ba gbo g_ ijbg_keZ i_jkZf hsmlb-
fuo j_amevlZlh\ b hgb [ueb \ugm`^_gu hlhclb h[jZlgh \ ]hjh^ OO
11. 16— <h\j_fy\lhjhc\ueZadbih^]hlh\e_gghc[he__lsZl_evgh
i_jku bkihevah\Zeb aZ`b]Zl_evgu_ kgZjy^u ij_^klZ\ey\rb_ kh[hc `_-
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^jm]b_e_]dh\hkieZf_gyxsb_ky\_s_kl\Zª OO <blh]_\k_hkZ^-
gu_hjm^byijhlb\gbdZ[uebmgbqlh`_gudjhf_[hevrh]hlZjZgZ©dh
lhjuc k \_ebqZcrbf gZijy`_gb_f \k_o kbe _e_-_e_ hllZsbeb \ kbevgh
h[]hj_ehf \b^_ª OO    Dh]^Z ihke_ wlh]h jbfeyg_ ij_^ijbgyeb
h[klj_e ]hjh^Z ba [Zeebkl mklZgh\e_gguo gZ \ukhdbo gZkuiguo \ZeZo
i_jkukh\_jrbebgh\mxmki_rgmx\ueZadmmgbqlh`b\kihfhsvxh]gy
^_j_\yggh_hkgh\Zgb_\ZeZgZdhlhjhfgZoh^bebkv\jZ`_kdb_[Zeebklu
OO  —  b l_f kZfuf hdhgqZl_evgh jZkkljhb\ ieZgu jbfeyg
L_f \j_f_g_f gZklmiZeZ hk_gv k __ ]jhaZfb ^h`^yfb b [_a^hjh`v_f
OO IhgbfZyqlh\[eb`Zcr__\j_fy\aylv;_aZ[^mg_m^Zklky
DhgklZgpbc,,^ZeijbdZahkgylbbhkZ^u
<h \j_fy aZsblu IbjbkZ[hju i_jku bkihevah\Zeb dZd m`_ mihfb-
gZ\rb_ky\ur_ijbkihkh[e_gbylZdbjy^gh\uo<qZklghklbhgbijb-
dju\Zebkv©sblZfbkie_l_ggufbbadj_idh]hehagydZªihdjulufbku-
jufbdh`Zfb ;;,9 dhlhju_bkihevah\Zebkvi_jkZfbb\[hxgZ
hldjulhc f_klghklb ;;,9    R_^rb_ gZ ijbklmi jbfeyg_ hkuiZ-
ebkv klj_eZfb b dZfgyfb \ gbo f_lZebkv h]jhfgu_ dZfgb nZd_eu b
fZee_heu ;;,9 Ihke_jZajmr_gbyh^ghcbam]eh\uo[Zr_gaZ-
sblgbdb IbjbkZ[hju i_j_[jZebkv \ pblZ^_ev ba ZknZevlZ b h[h``_g-
gh]h dbjibqZ ij_^klZ\ey\rmx kh[hc ©ihkljhcdm g_ bf_xsmx k_[_
< : >fbljb_\:jfbyb\h_ggh_^_eh\kZkZgb^kdhfBjZg_… 415

jZ\ghcihijhqghklbª ;;,9 A^_kvi_jkZfb[uebijbf_g_guem


dbg_h[uqghcdhgkljmdpbbhgbbf_ebg_h[uqgh[hevrb_jZaf_jub\u
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hibkZgb_ ;;,9  GhihkljhcdZjbfeygZfbhkZ^ghc[Zrgb\ugm-
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19—  < blh]_ \k_ ^\_ k iheh\bghc lukyqb aZsblgbdh\ IbjbkZ[hju
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k^ZgZ XebZgm ;;,9  —  LZdbf h[jZahf g_kdhevdh lukyq i_j
kh\ hdZaZebkv kihkh[gufb ^hklZlhqgh ^he]h hdheh g_^_eb  hdZau\Zlv
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q_lghcdZiblmeypbb
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Dh]^Z jbfeyg_ ihke_ ^he]bo hkgh\Zl_evguo ijb]hlh\e_gbc ihreb gZ
ijbklmi i_jku \klj_lbeb bo klj_ev[hc ba emdh\ b ijZs_c aZklZ\b\ \
blh]_\hbgh\XebZgZhlhclbgZaZ^b\gh\vijbklmiblvdh[klj_em]hjh^Z
bakdhjibhgh\b[Zeebkl ;;,9 >he]h_\j_fyi_j_\_kZg_^h[b\Z-
eZkv gb h^gZ ba klhjhg gh \k_ `_ dj_ihklv [ueZ \aylZ jbfeygZfb km-
f_\rbfbijhjulvih^a_fgucoh^ih^dj_ihklghckl_ghcblZdbfh[jZ-
ahfg_h`b^Zggh^eyi_jkh\ijhgbdrbfb\gmljvdj_ihklguokl_g ;;,9
4. 21— <blh]_]ZjgbahgFZchaZfZevob[ueihqlbiheghklvxmgbqlh-
`_g ;;,9—26).

KljZl_]byi_jkh\
< kljZl_]bq_kdhf hlghr_gbb i_jkb^kdh_ \hckdh lZd`_ gb \ q_f g_
mklmiZehZjfbbjbfeygGZebqb_fgh]hqbke_gghcdhggbpuohjhrh\hh-
jm`_gghc b ij_djZkgh ih^]hlh\e_gghc dZd ijZ\beh h[_ki_qb\Zeh i_j-
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nZdlqlhjZa]jhfblvi_jkb^kdmxZjfbxkfh]eblhevdhZjZ[u\k_j_^bg_
VII \ hibjZ\rb_ky gZ ^_ckl\by k\h_c [he__ fgh]hqbke_gghc b klj_fb-
l_evghc e_]dhc dhggbpu Djhf_ lh]h mki_rgh_ \eZ^_gb_ bkdmkkl\hf
hkZ^u ]hjh^h\ iha\heyeh i_jkZf [jZlv ^hklZlhqgh fhsgu_ \jZ`_kdb_
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gufb^Z`_^eyhq_gv[hevrboZjfbcª ;;,,,6. 83); kj.: (Liban. Or. XI.
177). Hlf_qZ_lbklhjbdbhkh[mxjhevdhggbpu\\h_gguoieZgZoi_jkh\
kf >Nicolle @ ZlZd`_gbadmx[h_kihkh[ghklvi_jkb^kdhci_
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416 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

j_oh^blv hl \hhjm`_gghc [hjv[u d j_r_gbx dhgnebdlh\ ^biehfZlbq_-


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< : >fbljb_\:jfbyb\h_ggh_^_eh\kZkZgb^kdhfBjZg_… 417

Jbfkdh]h ]hkm^Zjkl\Z >=_evfhevl   G_lmrbe  —306;


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i_jkZfb gZ \h_gguo kh\_lZo ;9,,,        ijhoh^b\rbo dZd
khh[sZ_l:ffbZg\\b^_ibjh\ ;9,,,) 35Ijbgylbxih^h[guoj_-
r_gbcij_^r_kl\h\ZeZk_jv_agZyjZ[hlZjZa\_^qbdh\LZd:ffbZgFZj
p_eebg g_h^ghdjZlgh ]h\hjbl h i_jkb^kdbo eZamlqbdZo kj >Rawlinson
@ hi_j_[_`qbdZokjbfkdhcklhjhgu gZb[he__yjdbfijbf_
jhf y\ey_lky agZlguc jbfeygbg :glhgbg [u\rbc ijhl_dlhj ;9,,, 
1—3, 6—b^j ku]jZ\rbch^gmbadexq_\uojhe_c\ljZ]bq_kdhc^ey
33 :ffbZgh[tykgy_lwlhlijbdZaDhgklZgpbyklj_fe_gb_fmf_gvrblvkbeuXeb-
ZgZ \ dhlhjhf bfi_jZlhj gZqZe \b^_lv hiZkgh]h dhgdmj_glZ ;X. 4. 1—  H^gZdh
^_ckl\bl_evghc ijbqbghc hlau\Z \hbgkdh]h dhglbg]_glZ ba ?\jhiu [ueZ \k_ `_ g_
h[oh^bfhklvmdj_ie_gby\hklhqghc]jZgbpubfi_jbbKflZd`_>Buck 1990: 115].
34 Ih f_ldhfm \ujZ`_gbx N N A_ebgkdh]h ©ijb DhgklZgpbb i_jkb^kdbc pZjv
fh][_agZdZaZggh]emfblvkygZ^jbfkdhcfhsvxª>A_ebgkdbc@
35 <hafh`ghwlhaZf_qZgb_:ffbZgZghkblg_kZfhklhyl_evgucoZjZdl_jZijh
^bdlh\Zghbkihevah\Zgb_fbf[he__jZggbobklhqgbdh\<qZklghklbhq_gvihoh`__
hibkZgb_\h_gguokh\_lh\mi_jkh\^Z_lKljZ[hg Strabo. XV. 3. 20).
418 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

JbfZdZfiZgbb ] bh[hlebqghihklZ\e_gghcjZa\_^u\Zl_evghc^_y
l_evghklbmi_jkh\\p_ehf ;9,,, 5. 7; XIX. 5. 5; XXV. 7. 1) 36;he__lh
]h^ey\\_^_gbyijhlb\gbdZ\aZ[em`^_gb_i_jkudZdfh`ghaZdexqblv
ba keh\ :ffbZgZ ijb[_]Zeb d jZkijhkljZg_gbx ^_abgnhjfZpbb ;;,
13. 4; XXIV. 7. 5) 37<hh[s_`_ih^]hlh\dZdhq_j_^ghcdZfiZgbb[ueZ
^h\hevgh^ebl_evghcbaZgbfZeZ\kxabfmb\b^bfhi_jbh^uf_`k_ah
gvy ;9,,, <Z`gmxjhev\ih^]hlh\d_bijbgylbb\h_gguoj_r_
gbcb]jZebjZaebqgu_j_eb]bhagu_h[jy^u]Z^Zgby`_jl\hijbghr_gby
bl i ;_ah[s_gbykih^a_fgufb^moZfb consilia tartareis manibus),[_a
[_k_^k©ij_^kdZaZl_eyfbª praesciones) h[m^ms_f ;9,,, [_a[eZ
]hijbylguog_[_kguoagZf_gbc ;;, RZimj,,g_gZqbgZe\hcg
lhevdhihke_©aZdeZgby`_jl\_gguo`b\hlguokp_evxhij_^_e_gby[m
^ms_]h oh^Z \h_gguo ^_ckl\bcª ihkj_^b fhklZ q_j_a j_dm i_jkb^kdb_
\hckdZi_j_oh^yl]jZgbpmjbfkdbo\eZ^_gbc ;9,,,) 38Ba-aZih]j_
[Zevgh]h h[jy^Z b ljZmjghc p_j_fhgbb ijhbahr_^rbo ihke_ ]b[_eb
obhgblkdh]hpZj_\bqZ[h_\u_^_ckl\byih^:fb^hcij_djZlbebkvgZp_
euo^_kylv^g_c ;,; 
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ghc —k\h_ci_jkZfg_m^Zehkv[u_]hbkihevah\ZlvghdZd[uehkdZaZ-
gh \ur_ ^Z`_ :ffbZg ebqgh \h_\Z\rbc k i_jkZfb hlf_qZ_l \ukhdbc
mjh\_gv i_jkb^kdhc jZa\_^db Z lZd`_ mf_gb_ i_jkh\ ojZgblv \h_ggu_
lZcgu ;;,    ke_^h\Zl_evgh ^_ckl\by i_jkh\ ihqlb \k_]^Z [ueb
g_h`b^Zggufb^eyjbfeygb:ffbZgg_hklZ\bewlhlnZdl[_a\gbfZgby
;9,   ;;,,,   ;;,9  G_ihkj_^kl\_gghi_j_^\lhj`_gb_f
gZ \jZ`_kdmx l_jjblhjbx i_jkb^kdZy Zjfby khkj_^hlhqb\ZeZ k\hb hk
gh\gu_kbeugZh^ghfgZijZ\e_gbb ;;, qlh_kl_kl\_ggh^_eZeh
fZehwnn_dlb\gufbh[hjhgbl_evgu_^_ckl\byjbfeyg\kbemhlkmlkl\by
mgbobgnhjfZpbbhf_kl_b\j_f_gb\jZ`_kdh]hgZr_kl\bybkhhl\_lkl-
\_ggh jZkiue_gby bf_xsboky kbe Hlf_qZ_l :ffbZg b \h_ggmx obl-
jhklvi_jkh\ ;,9—;;,9 bokdehgghklvdh[oh^guffZ-
g_\jZf ;,9;9,,, klj_fbl_evghfmgZklmie_gbx^Z`_p_ghc
hklZ\e_gby\k\h_fluem\jZ`_kdbodj_ihkl_c ;9,,,;,;) 39K
p_evx aZ\h_\Zgby ^h\_jby kj_^b f_klguo `bl_e_c b aZsblgbdh\ jbfkdbo
dj_ihkl_ci_jkusZ^beb^h[jh\hevghk^Z\rb_ky]ZjgbahguZlZd`_^m
36 WEbiheZ]Z_lqlhfgh]hp_gghcbgnhjfZpbbi_jkuihemqZebhlk\hboihkeh\
gZoh^b\rbokygZjbfkdhcl_jjblhjbb>Lee 1986: 457—@gh:ffbZgh[wlhfgbq_
]hg_khh[sZ_l
37 <hafh`gh ^hklZ\e_ggZy XebZgm i_jkb^kdbfb i_j_[_`qbdZfb^_abgnhjfZpby
klZeZ h^ghc ba hkgh\guo ijbqbg ijh\ZeZ _]h i_jkb^kdhc wdki_^bpbb kf >Austin
1979: 98—100]).
38 Ih ih\h^m ijb\h^bfh]h :ffbZghf hibkZgby `_jl\hijbghr_gby kms_kl\mxl
[hevrb_khfg_gbyihkdhevdmahjhZkljbafaZij_sZ_lijbghkblv\`_jl\m`b\u_km
s_kl\Z>Thompson 1947: 8; Austin 1979: 24—@HklZ_lkyij_^iheh`blvqlhhibkZg-
gh_ :ffbZghf `_jl\hijbghr_gb_ [ueh kh\_jr_gh g_ i_jkZfb Z ij_^klZ\bl_eyfb
dZdh]h-lh^jm]h]hwlghkZmqZkl\h\Z\rbfb\ihoh^_RZimjZII.
39 = DjZfi h[tykgy_l wlhl nZdl klj_fe_gb_f ba[_`Zlv ex^kdbo ihl_jv b khojZ
gblv\hckdh^ey[he__\Z`guoaZ^Zq>Crump 1975: 101].
< : >fbljb_\:jfbyb\h_ggh_^_eh\kZkZgb^kdhfBjZg_… 419

oh\_gkl\h b hklZ\eyeb bo \ `b\uo ;9,,,    wlbf `_ h[tykgy_lky


klj_fe_gb_i_jkh\g_jZahjylvaZ\h_\Zggmxl_jjblhjbx ;9,,, 
< qbke_ \h_gguo f_jhijbylbc i_jkh\ bf_\rbo kljZl_]bq_kdh_ agZ-
q_gb_ke_^m_lhlf_lblvboihklhyggh_klj_fe_gb_hlhj\ZlvhlJbfZ_]h
\hklhqguo khxagbdh\ b ij_`^_ \k_]h — :jfygkdh_ pZjkl\h 40 Hkh[Zy
jhev:jf_gbb\h\g_rg_iheblbq_kdboieZgZoi_jkh\[ueZh[mkeh\e_gZ
\i_j\mxhq_j_^v__g_h[uqZcgh\u]h^gufkljZl_]bq_kdbfiheh`_gb_f
klZ\b\rbfih^dhgljhevohaybgZwlhckljZguagZqbl_evgmxqZklv;eb`-
g_]h<hklhdZ>FZgZg^yg—@ kflZd`_>Olbrycht 1998: 138—
141@  WlZ aZ^ZqZ j_rZeZkv ohly b g_ \k_]^Z mki_rgh dZd ihkj_^kl\hf
gZg_k_gby ih gbf fhsguo \h_gguo m^Zjh\ ;;9,,  —  lZd b
^biehfZlbq_kdbfbf_lh^Zfb ;;;;9,—10, 14— Bgh-
]^Zjbfeyg_kZfbijh\hpbjh\Zebk\hbo[u\rbokhxagbdh\gZlhqlh[u
bkdZlv ^jm`[u k i_jkZfb LZd [ueh gZijbf_j \ kemqZ_ k kZjZpbgZfb
i_j_r_^rbfb gZ klhjhgm RZimjZ ihlhfm qlh XebZg hldZaZeky \uieZ
lblvijbqblZ\r__kybf`Zeh\Zgv_ ;;9 
<Z`gmxjhev\kljZl_]bq_kdboieZgZoi_jkh\b]jZehlZd`_klj_fe_-
gb_ b mf_gb_ ijb\e_qv gZ k\hx klhjhgm \hckdZ [u\rboijhlb\gbdh\k
dhlhjufbaZdexqZebkv\u]h^gu_^eyKZkZgb^h\fbjgu_^h]h\hjuLZd
gZ klhjhg_ i_jkh\ kjZ`Zebkv bo g_^Z\gb_ \jZ]b — obhgblu Z lZd`_
\hafh`gh ]_eZgu b dmrZgu ;9,,,   ;,;  —8; 2. 3; XVI. 9. 4;
;9,,    Kha^Zlv ih^h[gmx Zglbi_jkb^kdmx dhZebpbx Jbf hdZaZeky
g_\khklhygbb
JZkkfZljb\Zy\hijhkhkljZl_]bbi_jkh\g_evayg_kdZaZlv_s_h[h^-
ghfhij_^_ey\r_f__nZdlhj_ —hijbjh^gh-debfZlbq_kdbomkeh\byo\
jZchg_F_`^mj_qvy:ffbZghlf_qZ_lqlhkhk_gb^h\_kgu[h_\u_^_c-
kl\by f_`^m Jbfhf b kZkZgb^kdbf BjZghf g_ \_ebkv ih h^ghc ijb-
qbg_ —ba-aZg_ijhoh^bfhc]jyabihy\ey\r_cky\F_khihlZfbbhk_gvx
\ i_jbh^ ^h`^_c \ j_amevlZl_ jZafhdZgby gZoh^ys_cky a^_kv ih\kx^m
]ebgu OO 
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dZdaZiZ^guolZdb\hklhqguoijhlb\gbdh\Ihq_fm`_\lZdhfkemqZ_
hgb\hlebqb_hl]hjZa^hf_g__hj]Zgbah\Zgguobbkdmr_gguo\kljZl_
]bq_kdhf bkdmkkl\_ ]_jfZgp_\ g_ kfh]eb ^h[blvky ihegh]h b [_ah-
]h\hjhqgh]hmki_oZ\\h_gghc[hjv[_kJbfhf"Hl\_lg_h[oh^bfhbkdZlv
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]hjZa^h f_g__ ijhly`_gguf b i_j_[jhkdZ kbe \ kemqZ_ i_jkb^kdh]h
\lhj`_gby h[t_dlb\gh lj_[h\ZeZ f_gvr_]h \j_f_gb q_f gZ k_\_j_ <h-
\lhjuo \hafh`guo iml_c ijh^\b`_gby i_jkb^kdhc Zjfbb \ F_khihlZ-
fbb[uehg_lZdfgh]h kf>Blockly@ b\ijbgpbi_jbfkdh_
dhfZg^h\Zgb_ fh]eh ij_^iheZ]Zlv \ dZdbo f_klZo i_jku fh]ml i_j_clb
]jZgbpmbfi_jbbbkha^Z\Zlv\hiZkguojZchgZojm[_`bh[hjhgukp_
40 D I IZldZgh\\hh[s_ml\_j`^Z_lqlh©hkeZ[e_gb_:jf_gbbk^_eZehkv^eygbo
KZkZgb^h\ — < > iheblbq_kdhcg_h[oh^bfhklvxZdlhfkZfhkhojZg_gbyª>IZldZ
gh\@= E Dmj[Zlh\iheZ]Z_lqlhh^ghcba\Z`guoijbqbgZdlb\ghcZglbZj
fygkdhc iheblbdb kZkZgb^kdh]h BjZgZ [ueh klj_fe_gb_ d aZo\Zlm gZoh^b\rboky \
AZdZ\dZav_f_klhjh`^_gbc`_e_aghcjm^u>Dmj[Zlh\—94].
420 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

evxaZ^_j`Zlvijh^\b`_gb_\hckdijhlb\gbdZ^hih^oh^Zhkgh\guokbe
<-lj_lvbo]hjh^Zjbfkdh]h<hklhdZ[ueb]hjZa^h[he__fgh]hex^gufb
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>DjufkdbcCrump@Dlhfm`_mijZ\e_gb_bdhgljhev
\lhfqbke_b\\h_gghckn_j_ \mj[Zgbabjh\ZgghcqZklbbfi_jbbdZ
dhcy\eyebkv__\hklhqgu_ijh\bgpbb[ueb]hjZa^h[he__wnn_dlb\gu
q_f\fZehgZk_e_gguoijb]jZgbqguoijh\bgpbyo\?\jhi_<-q_l\_jluo
gZ\hklhd_jbfeyg_klhedgmebkvkjZa\blufpb\bebah\Zgguf]hkm^Zjkl
\hfbf_\rbf^hklZlhqghklZ[bevgu_]jZgbpuq_ldb_byjdh\ujZ`_g
gu_ ]_hiheblbq_kdb_ mklZgh\db b ^hdljbgu h[mkeh\e_ggu_ fgh]h\_dh
\ufbljZ^bpbyfb kj>DZj__\B\Zgh\Ib]me_\kdZy
1971: 4; Crump@ Wlh^_eZeh\g_rgxxiheblbdmKZkZgb^h\^ey
jbfeyg\p_ehfij_^kdZam_fhcbiha\heyehkieZgbjh\Zlvbih^]hlh\blv
hl\_lgu_rZ]bGZJ_cg_`_b>mgZ_kblmZpby[ueZkh\_jr_ghbghc
LZdbfh[jZahfbaeh`_gguc\ur_fZl_jbZeiha\hey_l]h\hjblvh\u-
khdhf mjh\g_ jZa\blby m i_jkh\ \h_ggh]h ^_eZ ijZdlbq_kdb \h \k_o _]h
Zki_dlZoOhlyLFhffa_g\k\h_\j_fyibkZeqlhijbKZkZgb^ZoZjfby
i_jkh\ ©g_ ijbh[j_eZ \umqdbª >Fhffa_g  @ nZdlu ijb\_^_g-
gu_:ffbZghf]h\hjylh[h[jZlghfKjZ\gb\Zy\h_ggh_^_ehmjbfeyg\
IV \ ihfbfh©>_ygbcª^hklZlhqghih^jh[ghhk\_s_ggh_\m`_mihfb-
gZ\r_fky©DjZldhfbaeh`_gbb\h_ggh]h^_eZªNeZ\by<_]_pbyJ_gZlZb
\p_ehfjy^_^jm]boiha^g_Zglbqguokhqbg_gbc k^Zggufbh^_ckl\byo
i_jkb^kdh]h \hckdZ kh^_j`Zsbfbky \ ijhba\_^_gbb :ffbZgZ FZjp_e-
ebgZke_^m_lijbagZlvqlh\\h_gghfhlghr_gbbi_jkug_lhevdhg_
mklmiZebk\h_fm]eZ\ghfmaZiZ^ghfmijhlb\gbdmghih^qZkbij_\hkoh-
^beb_]h kf>Ib]me_\kdZya: 47; Austin 1979: 142, 149]) 41.

Ebl_jZlmjZ
Ba^Zgbyljm^h\]j_q_kdbobeZlbgkdboZ\lhjh\
Agath. — Agathiae Mirinaei Historiarum libri qunque cum versione latina. Accedunt
Agathiae epigrammata / Rec. B. G. Nieburrus. Bonnae, 1828.
Amm. Marc. — Ammiani Marcellini Rerum gestarum libri qui supersunt / Ed. W. Sey-
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Cass. — Cassii Dionis Cocceiani Historiarum Romanorum quae supersunt. Vol. 1—3.
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Eutrop. — Eutropii Breviarium historiae Romanae / Ed. F. Ruehl. Lipsiae, 1887.
Exp. — Expositio totius mundi et gentium / Introduction, texte critique, traduction,
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Herodian — Herodiani Ab excessu divi Marci libri VIII / Ed. K. Stavenhagen. Lipsiae;
Berolini, 1922.
41 >Z`_=DjZfiihke_^h\Zl_evghhlklZb\Zxsbcfukevhij_\hkoh^kl\_jbfkdhc
ZjfbbgZ^k\hbfbijhlb\gbdZfb\ugm`^_gijbagZlvqlhi_jkuihdjZcg_cf_j_g_
mklmiZeb jbfeygZf b y\eyebkv bo ©gZbemqrbf h[jZahf hj]Zgbah\Zgguf \jZ]hfª
[Crump  @ ©\ukhdhhj]Zgbah\Zgguf b ohjhrh wdbibjh\Zgguf ijhlb\gbdhfª
[Crump 1975: 98].
< : >fbljb_\:jfbyb\h_ggh_^_eh\kZkZgb^kdhfBjZg_… 421

Lact. DMP — Lactantii De mortibus persecutorum / Ed. J. L. Creed. Oxford, 1984.


Liban. — Libanii Opera. Vol. 1—12 / Rec. K. Foerster. Lipsiae, 1903—1923.
Oros. — Pauli Orosii Historiarum libri VII / Ed. C. Zangemeister. Lipsiae, 1889.
Plin. NH — Plinii Secundi Naturalis historiae libri XXXVII. Vol. 1—5 / Ed. C. May-
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Proc. Bell. — Procopii De bellis libri I—VIII // Procopii Caesariensis Opera omnia.
Vol. I—II / Rec. J. Haury. Lipsiae, 1905.
Strabo — Strabonis Geographica. Vol. 1—3 / Ed. A. Meineke. Lipsiae, 1904—1909.
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Bkke_^h\Zgby
:[^meeh_\  :[^meeh_\ > : <hklhqgu_ l_jfbgu k\yaZggu_ k \h_gguf
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_ggh_^_eh\bklhjbq_kdhcbkhpbZevghci_jki_dlb\_FZl_jbZeuF_`^mgZjh^
ghcdhgn_j_gpbb—k_gly[jy 1998 ]KI[ K 251—252.
:eZ_\  Bklhjby <hklhdZ L  <hklhd \ kj_^gb_ \_dZ  Ih^ j_^ E ;
:eZ_\Zb^jF
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GK L   KI[ K 35—72.
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Khqbg_gby<l L 6. F K—206.
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g_gby<l L 6. F K—300.
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Khqbg_gby<l L 7. F K—334.
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fhjv_bkljZguihih[_j_`vyfIh^j_^ = =_evfhevlZKI[
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=hj_ebd=hj_ebd F <AZsblgh_\hhjm`_gb_i_jkh\bfb^ygZo_f_gb^
kdh]h\j_f_gb <>B‹ K 90—105.
=hj_ebd=hj_ebd F <KZdkdbc^hki_o P_gljZevgZy:abyGh\u_iZ
fylgbdbibkvf_gghklbbbkdmkkl\ZFK 110—133.
=mfbe_\  =mfbe_\ E G WnlZeblu b bo khk_^b \ ,9 \  <>B ‹ 1.
K 129—140.
>_ev[jxd>_ev[jxd=Bklhjby\h_ggh]hbkdmkkl\Z\jZfdZoiheblbq_
kdhcbklhjbbI_jkg_f L =_jfZgpuKI[
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bklhqgbdihbklhjbb\aZbfhhlghr_gbcJbfkdhcbfi_jbbbkZkZgb^kdh]hBjZgZ\
422 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

IV \ gw;/9klm^_gq_kdZygZmqgZydhgn_j_gpbyihblh]ZfjZ[hluKGHI=IB
\mq_[ghf]h^mIkdh\ K 3—4.
>fbljb_\  >fbljb_\ < : XebZg Hlklmigbd q_eh\_d b bfi_jZlhj //
F_lZfhjnhaubklhjbb:evfZgZo<ui<_gZIkdh\ K 246—258.
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A_ebgkdbcA_ebgkdbc N NJbfkdZybfi_jbyKI[
B\Zgh\ 1952: B\Zgh\ F KHq_jdbklhjbbBjZgZF
=Znmjh\Ebl\bgkdbcBklhjbylZ^`bdkdh]hgZjh^ZLK^j_\g_crbo
\j_f_g^h9 \ gwIh^j_^ ; ==Znmjh\Zb ; :Ebl\bgkdh]hF
Kheh\v_\  Kheh\v_\ < K Kj_^gyy :aby \ IV—V \\ g w  Bklhjby lZ-
^`bdkdh]hgZjh^Z L >j_\g_crZyb^j_\gyybklhjby>mrZg[_ K 468—491.
DZj__\DZj__\ B BFhgZjobb>j_\g_]h<hklhdZb]j_dh-jbfkdh]hfb
jZKI[
Dhe_kgbdh\Dhe_kgbdh\ : BBjZg\gZqZe_9,, \ bklhqgbdb\gmlj_g
gyyb\g_rgyyiheblbdZ\hijhkuZ^fbgbkljZlb\gh]h^_e_gby IK<ui (85).
Dhr_e_gdh  Dhr_e_gdh = : =_g_Zeh]by i_j\uo :jrZdb^h\ _s_ jZa h
gbkbckdhfhkljZd_‹  BklhjbybdmevlmjZgZjh^h\Kj_^g_c:abb ^j_\
ghklvbKj_^g_\_dh\v_ Ih^j_^ ; ==Znmjh\Zb ;. :Ebl\bgkdh]h F K—37.
DjufkdbcDjufkdbc : ?BklhjbyKZkZgb^h\baZ\h_\Zgb_BjZgZZjZ
[Zfb K mdZaZgb_f ]eZ\guo fhf_glh\ ebl_jZlmjghc bklhjbb ojbklbZg-kbjbyg b
iheblbq_kdhcbklhjbb\ZkkZevguoBjZgmZjZ[h\bkijbeh`_gb_fhl^_eZhIZj
nygkdhfpZjkl\_b:jrZdb^ZoF
Dmj[Zlh\  Dmj[Zlh\ = E Eb[Zgbc h[ BjZg_  :glbqgZy ^j_\ghklv b
Kj_^gb_\_dZK[K\_j^eh\kdK 88—95.
E_\bgZE_\bgZ E FD_jZfbdZgb`g_cbkj_^g_cKuj^Zjvb\,lukyq_
e_lbb^h g wLO:WW L Ih^j_^ K ILheklh\Zb ; B<Zcg[_j]ZF
Ebl\bgkdbc Ivygdh\ Ebl\bgkdbc ; :, Ivygdh\ B < <h_ggh_ ^_eh m
gZjh^h\Kj_^g_c:abb\9,—IV \\^h g w<>B‹ K 36—52.
Emdhgbg Z Emdhgbg < = AZ\h_\Zgby KZkZgb^h\ gZ <hklhd_ b ijh[e_fZ
dmrZgkdhcZ[khexlghcojhgheh]bb <>B‹ K 20—44.
Emdhgbg [ Emdhgbg < = DmevlmjZ kZkZgb^kdh]h BjZgZ BjZg \ ,,,—
V \\Hq_jdbihbklhjbbdmevlmjuF
EmdhgbgEmdhgbg < =Bkdmkkl\h>j_\g_]hBjZgZF
FZgZg^ygFZgZg^yg Y :Hlhj]h\e_b]hjh^Zo:jf_gbb\k\yabkfb
jh\hclhj]h\e_c^j_\gbo\j_f_g 9 \^h g w—XV \ gw ?j_\Zg
FZg^_evrlZf  FZg^_evrlZf : : D \hijhkm h db^ZjblZo  DKBW
<uiK 66—72.
FZrdbgFZrdbg G :Bklhjby>j_\g_]hJbfZF
Fhffa_gFhffa_gLBklhjbyJbfZ L I_jkg_fJhklh\-gZ->hgm
G_jZabdEZibjh\-Kdh[ehG_jZabd??EZibjh\-Kdh[eh F KJZkdhi
db;ZjZd-lZfZ-\ ] FOW<ui F K—95.
G_jhgh\Z  G_jhgh\Z < > HljZ`_gb_ djbabkZ Jbfkdhc bfi_jbb \ ©Bk
lhjbbª:ffbZgZFZjp_eebgZ MAI=M L <ui Bklhjby K 71—101.
G_lmrbeG_lmrbe B <H[ahjjbfkdhcbklhjbbOZjvdh\
Gbdhghjh\  Gbdhghjh\ < I JZa\blb_ dhgkdh]h aZsblgh]h kgZjy`_gby
Zglbqghcwihob DKB:<uiK 30—35.
Gbdhghjh\Gbdhghjh\ <. I<hhjm`_gb_b\h_ggh_^_eh\IZjnbb:\
lhj_n^bk«dZg^bklgZmdE
Gbdhghjh\  Gbdhghjh\ < I <h_ggh_ ^_eh _\jhi_ckdbo ]mggh\ \ k\_l_
^Zgguo ]j_dh-eZlbgkdhc ibkvf_gghc ljZ^bpbb  A<HJ:H GK L    KI[
K 223—323.
< : >fbljb_\:jfbyb\h_ggh_^_eh\kZkZgb^kdhfBjZg_… 423

IZldZgh\IZldZgh\ D IHiulbklhjbb^bgZklbbKZkZgb^h\ihk\_^_-
gbyfkhh[sZ_fufZjfygkdbfbibkZl_eyfbKI[
Ib]me_\kdZy Z Ib]me_\kdZy G < H[hjhgZ ]hjh^h\ F_khihlZfbb \
VI \ MAE=M K_jbybklhjbq_kdbogZmd ‹ <uiK 46—80.
Ib]me_\kdZy [ Ib]me_\kdZy G < Kbjbckdb_ bklhqgbdb ih bklhjbb gZ
jh^h\KKKJ FE
Ib]me_\kdZy  Ib]me_\kdZy G < Ijh[e_fu jZkiZ^Z jZ[h\eZ^_evq_kdh]h
h[s_kl\Z b nhjfbjh\Zgby n_h^Zevguo hlghr_gbc gZ ;eb`g_f <hklhd_  <B
‹ K 50—62.
Ib]me_\kdZy Ib]me_\kdZy G < =hjh^Z BjZgZ \ jZgg_f Kj_^g_\_dh\v_
FE
Ib]me_\kdZy  Ib]me_\kdZy G < AZjh`^_gb_ n_h^Zevguo hlghr_gbc gZ
;eb`g_f<hklhd_ MAB< L K 5—30.
Ib]me_\kdZyb^jIb]me_\kdZy G <b^jBklhjbyBjZgZk^j_\g_crbo
\j_f_g^hdhgpZ;9,,, \E
Ib]me_\kdZyIb]me_\kdZy G <:jZ[um]jZgbp<baZglbb\,9 \ IK
<uiK 45—65.
Ib]me_\kdZy  Ib]me_\kdZy G < Dbg^blu b EZofb^u \ 9 \ b gZqZe_
VI \ IK<ui  K 80—104.
Ib]me_\kdZy  Ib]me_\kdZy G < :jZ[u m ]jZgbp <baZglbb b BjZgZ \
IV—VI \\ FE
Ib]me_\kdZyIb]me_\kdZy G <<baZglbyb<hklhd IK<uiK 3—16.
Im]Zq_gdh\Z  Im]Zq_gdh\Z = : H iZgpbjghf \hhjm`_gbb iZjnygkdh]h
b[Zdljbckdh]h\hbgkl\Z <>B‹ K 27—43.
JZabgJZabg ? :.Bklhjby\h_ggh]hbkdmkkl\Z L <h_ggh_bkdmkkl\h
jZ[h\eZ^_evq_kdh]hi_jbh^Z\hcguF
JZd  JZd B < Fbnu >j_\g_]h b jZgg_kj_^g_\_dh\h]h BjZgZ ahjhZkl
jbaf KI[F
JZihihjl  JZihihjl X : Ba bklhjbb j_eb]bb >j_\g_]h Ohj_afZ //
LO:WW L 6F
Kheh^moh  Kheh^moh X : Iheblbq_kdh_ iheh`_gb_ BjZdZ \ ,,,—
V \\ g w  JZ[hqZy ojhgbdZ BgklblmlZ \hklhdh\_^_gby aZ i_j\h_ ihem]h^b_
1944 ]LZrd_glK 30—32.
KlZ\bkdbc<Zcg[_j]KlZ\bkdbc;Y,<Zcg[_j] ; BKZkZgb^u\IjZ
\h[_j_`ghc;Zdljbb LhoZjbklZg_ \,9—V \\ <>B‹ K 185—190.
Lheklh\ Z Lheklh\ K I >j_\gbc Ohj_af Hiulbklhjbdh-Zjo_heh]bq_-
kdh]hbkke_^h\ZgbyF
Lheklh\ [ Lheklh\ K I Ih ke_^Zf ^j_\g_ohj_afbckdhc pb\bebaZpbb
FE
Lheklh\  Lheklh\ K I Blh]b jZ[hl Ohj_afkdhc Zjo_heh]h-wlgh]jZnb-
q_kdhcwdki_^bpbb:GKKKJ\ ] <>B‹ K 192—206.
Lheklh\  Lheklh\ K I JZ[hlZ O:WW \ —1956 ]]  FOW <ui 1.
F K—38.
Lheklh\b^jBklhjbyMa[_dkdhcKKJ L DgIh^j_^. K ILhe
klh\Z J GGZ[b_\Z Y ==meyfh\Z < :RbrdbgZLZrd_gl
Lheklh\ <Zcg[_j] Dhc-Djue]Zg-DZeZ —iZfylgbddmevlmju>j_\g_]h
Ohj_afZ ,9 \ ^h g w—IV \ g w  LO:WW L   Ih^ j_^ K I Lheklh\Z b
; B <Zcg[_j]ZF
Lj_\_j Lj_\_j D < DmrZgu obhgblu wnlZeblu ih Zjfygkdbf bklhq
gbdZf,9—VII \\ K: L K 131—147.
Ljhnbfh\ZLjhnbfh\Z L :. >j_\g__gZk_e_gb_Ohj_afZih^ZggufiZ
e_hZgljhiheh]bb FOW<uiF
424 A<HJ:HGKLII (XXVII)

Ljhnbfh\Z  Ljhnbfh\Z L : IjbZjZevkdb_ kZdb djZgbheh]bq_kdbc


hq_jd FOW<uiIhe_\u_bkke_^h\ZgbyOhj_afkdhcwdki_^bpbb\—
1961 ]] L  H[sbc hlq_l IZfylgbdb i_j\h[ulgh]h b Zglbqgh]h \j_f_gb F
K 221—247.
N_^hjh\Z N_^hjh\Z ? E ;mglu q_jgb \ ©>_ygbyoª :ffbZgZ FZjp_e
ebgZ Ebqghklv —b^_y —l_dkl\dmevlmj_Kj_^g_\_dh\vyb<hajh`^_gbyB\Z
gh\hK 7—23.
NjZcNjZc J GGZke_^b_BjZgZI_jkZg]eF
Ohefh]hjh\  Ohefh]hjh\ < B JbfkdZy kljZl_]by ,9 \ g w m :ffbZgZ
FZjp_eebgZ <>B‹ K 87—97.
Q_jg_gdhQ_jg_gdh ? <H\j_f_gbbf_kl_ihy\e_gbyly`_ehcdhggb
pu\kl_iyo?\jZabb Ijh[e_fukdbnkdhcZjo_heh]bb F. K—38.
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