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“It is a common observation that whenever there is imbalance of a commodity in a medium, nature tends to distribute it until a balance or equality is achieved . This tendency is often called as driving force which a mechanism behind naturally occurring transport phenomenon”
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No reaction to generate heat/mass No radiation No viscous dissipation Low mass-transfer rate Constant physical properties
transfer can be defined as energy transfer essentially due to temperature difference. It can take place due to 3 distinct modes 1) Heat conduction 2) Convection 3) Radiation
transfer can be defined as molecular diffusion due to concentration difference It can take place due to 2 modes 1) Diffusion Mass Transfer 2) Convective Mass Transfer. Mass transfer occurs only in mixtures
this mass is transferred by random molecular motion in quiescent or laminar flowing fluids. Mechanism of molecular Diffusion and conduction Heat Transfer are analogous. Fick’s Law is used for diffusion mass transfer similar to Fourier Law for heat conduction.
transfer by convection occurs in cases where the bulk velocity is appreciable or when both the species in a binary mixture are moving with significant velocities. Free: The buoyancy force causing circulation in free convection mass transfer difference in density of the vapor mixtures of varying compositions. Ex Evaporation of alcohol. Forced: Evaporation of water under fan from clothes.
mass transfer is similar to convective heat transfer.
Number: Inertial force viscous force At low velocities, viscous force dominate and flow is laminar. At high velocities inertia force dominates and flow is turbulent, Velocity in the given field will be similar in pattern , magnitude and turbulence pattern when Re is same.
number: It is a convenient measure of heat transfer coefficient.
Number: It is indicative of the relative ability of the fluid to diffuse momentum and internal energy by molecular momentum. Pr = kinematic viscosity thermal diffusivity
Buoyant force× inertia force (viscous force)2 Free convection is suppressed at small values of Gr, begins at critical value of Gr and becomes more effective at Gr increases.
Number: It is the ratio of heat transfer coefficient to flow of heat per unit temperature rise.
is only used for forced convection data.
Number: It is ratio of heat flow rate by convection to flow rate by conduction under a unit temperature gradient and thickness l.
profiles will be similar when lewis number is 1.